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Gift of 

Prof. John H. Thomas 








/. / 




.J. 7 






ZTfifrti ^mtvltm IBtiltim, CTatrrfuUs ^O^fseH, 

aoyiTMStya xcmckocs AnniTioNAL articles relatitb to the botamv. mincralogt. 







Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year one thouaano 
eight hundred and forty-three, by 

Charles Anthon. ^ 

io the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District 
of New York. 





Ciifs QZ^orft in Snscrfiirli, 



C. A 

A^ C^Uld, 

P R E F A C 


Tw merits of the present work are so fully set forth in the prcfncc of the liontlon 
■liiui as lu render nay additional remarks on this subject almost unnecessary. The 
I Iws here a guide lo an accurate knowledge of Greek and Koman Antiquities. 
which the meager compilaiions of Poller and Adams must sink into utier in- 
lace ; aud he is put in posHession of a vast body of information in a most 
Uitg department of study, which it might otherwise have cost him the Inboiit 
AfribAe life to accumulate. AH the most recent and valuable discoveries of ilie 
scholars are here placed within his reach, and there is nothing to prevent 
^ccttlatioDs becoming as familiar to him as household words. The Avork i%iit 
jS German one in an Knglii^h garb, and will be found to contain all that I'muest 
•aracy of detail for which the scholars of Germany have so long and justly 
reirbraied. li is equally inicnded, also, for the general reader, and as a work 
papttbr reference will be found to be invaluable, not only from its accuracy o( 
~ \ but from ihc wide field over which it ranges. In a word, the present vol. 
>plic8 \vh-«t has long been felt as a great desidenitum in English literature. 
ler to reader the work, however, if possible, still more useful, the Amciiean edi- 
ladded a large number of articles relative to the Botany, Mineralogy, and Zoolo- 
le aiicieul*^, topics interesting and curious in themselves, and which, it is con- 
fetti naturully within the scope of such a work as the present one. The contri- 
by the Atuerican editor are distinguished from those of the English writers by 
■"' '^-''Tijik prefixed. In preparing them, the editor has availed himself of vari- 
■ nft>rmaiion, but more particularly of thrce,'which it affords him grent 
.'■ jijvution here. The first is the Collection of Scientidc ond ofticr Terms, by 
id t'rjeud, Francis Adams. Esq., of Scotland, and which hns appeared as an Ap- 
lo liie Greek Lexicon of Professor Dunbar. It embraces the opinions, not only 
jBocicat naturalists, but of the most celebrated, also, among the moderns, and haa 
the American editor the most numerous, as well ns the richest materials for 
The second source whence information has been obtained on various 
"d with the natural history of the ancients is the noble edition of Cn- 
Kingdom, by Griflith and others, in 16 volumes, 8vo, a work full of 
»caciiiug, and rcplele with iulcresling observations on the naturalists of an 
ir.d tI'.r opinions entertained by them. On the subject of Ancient Mineralogy, 
tiowledges himself deeply indebted to the excellent work published 
J by Dr. Moore, at thni time Professor of Ancient Languages in Co- 
\ now President of that institution ; and he takes the greater pleasure 
■'li'jntions to the labours of this distinguished scholnr, since it aO'ords 
riunity of congratulating his Almo Mntcr on having her highest 
one »o well qualified to advance her best interests, and to gain for her 
iiem nnd approbation of all who wish her well. 

iT«ri3« the general appearance of the work, some changes of form have been 
•mikh may here be enumerated. In the English edition, the articles relatiug 
(ici have their heading in Greek characters. This, although no 
, to the student or professed scholar, is a serious impediment in 
•rn! reader, nnd might mar the popularity of the work. To guard 
It, great cure has been taken to change all the headings of iho 
■•;pl such ttB relate to le^al matters) to Roman characters, while, 
It order to saiisfy the scliolar, the Greek title is written immedi- 
iiim. Should uuy words, by this arrangement, be thrown out of 
ier. thc'tr p)aces can be discovered in an instant by the GcuctvA 
'/Ae ro/umc. In the English editfon, ngiiin, the rcfexettcc* ^U^ 
, _^ ^- ' '^ the body of the article, a plan calculuied to deiCT the cci\ctft\ 
^^ »rtw:4 *f h^^, ,3 oije of very doubtful propriety, since it mws \\vc ti^i 


pearancc of an English sentence, and destroys, in some degree, its connnuiiy. llii 
is remedied in the American ediiion by throwing all the authorities into foot-notoi 
ai the bottom of the page, an arrangement so natural, and, withal, so convenient, thaj 
it is surprising it should not ha\'e been adopted by the English editor. 

Another blemieh in the English edition is the plan of appending to each article ihi 
initials of the writer's nome, which, to say the least of it, giv?s a very awkward am 
clumsy appearance to the page. In the American ediiion a diflercnt arrangement ii 
adopted. A full reference is given at the end of the volume to the difTcrcut articles 
furnished by the different contributors, and tlicsc are so clossi^cd that it can be as* 
certoined at a glance what portions have been supplied by each. This, indeed, gives 
the American a decided advantage over the English edition. 

We have remarked above, that the present work is intended to supersede the com- 
pilations of Potter and Adatns. In order to facilitate this most desirable change, an 
index Kaisonn6 has been appended to the volume, in which the whole subject ofj 
Greek and Koman Antiquities is classified under appropriate heads, so that, by meani 
of this index, the present work, though having the form of a Dictionary, may bf 
made, with the utmost ease, to answer all the purposes of a College text-book. IVi 
conscientious and honest inslructer, therefore, can hesitate for an instant bctweei 
the work which is here presented to him and the ordinary text-books of the day* 
In the preparation of the indexes, and, indeed, in the arrangement of the entin 
w<Jrk, the editor has to acknowledge the valuable aid of his friend, Mr. Henry Drislefj 
Bub-rector of the Grammar-school of Columbia College, to whose accuracy and faith- 
ful care the previous volumes of the Classical Series are so largely indebted. 

Before concluding the present preface, it may be proper to remark, that in 
review of Mure's lour in Greece, which appeared in the London Quarterly foi 
June, 1842, mention is made of an ancient bridge, discovered by that IravelleE] 
in Laconin, which the reviewer thinks disproves an assertion made in the present 
work relative to the arch, namely, that the Romans were vndoubted/t/ the first peo- 
ple who applied (he arch to the construction of bridges. The bridge discovcrei 
by Mr. Mure, over a tributary of the Eurotas, was regarded by him as a work of the! 
remotest antiquity, probably of the heroic age itself; and he even goes so faf] 
as to suppose that either Homer himself or Telemachns may have crossed ihii 
■bridge in travelling into I^aconia ! The visionary nature of such speculations must 
present itself to every mind j and we have preferred, therefore, wailing for fariher 
information on this subject, and allowing the article in the Dictionary to remain tm- 
altered. Mr. Mure's Homeric bridge may be found at last to be as modern a struc- 
ture as Fourmont's temple of the goddess Oga or Onga, near Amycla;, supposed to 
have been built about 1500 B.C., but which Lord Aberdeen proved to be a modein 
Greek chapel ! 

Columbia College, Felmai-' 13, i»ia. 



The study of Greek and Roman Antiquities has, in common with nil other philo 

' ;al studies, made great progret<s in Europe within the last fifty years. The 

^Mrlicr writers on the subject, whose works are contained in the collcciions of Gro- 

kTius and Grccvius, display little historical criticism, and give no comprehensive 

rOr living idea of the public and private life of the ancients. They were con- 

1, for the most part, with merely collecting facts, and arranging them in some 

tematic form, and seemed not to hare felt the want of anything more : they wrote 

m\ antiquity as if itic people had never existed : they did not attempt to reali/e 

10 ibelr own minds, or to represent to those of others, the living spirit of Greek and 

tumn civilization. But, by the labours of modern scholars, life has been breathed 

the study: men arc no longer satisfied with isolated facts on separate deport- 

Its of tlie subject, but endeavour to form some conception of antiq^uity as an 

krranic wbole, and to trace the relation of one part to another. 

Tkere is scarcely a single subject included under the general name of Greek and 
Comtn Aatiquilies which has not received elucidation from the writings of the 
modem scholars of Germany. The history and political relations of the nations of 
■ndquity have been placed in an entirely different light since the publication of Nie- 
kahr s Uomnn History, which gave a new impulse to the study, and has been suc- 
jpeeded by the works of Bockh, K. O, Miiller, Wachsmuih, K. F. Hermann, and other 
uished scholars. The study of the Roman law, which has been unaccountably 
led in this country, has been prosecuted with extraordinary success by the 
tt jurists of Germany, among whom Savigny stands pre-eminent, and claims our 
^roundest admiration. The subject of Attic law, though in a scientific point of 
rw one of much less interest and importance than the Roman law, but without a 
ipetent knowledge of which it is impossible to understand the Greek orators, has 
tko received much elucidation from the writings of Meier, SchHmann, Bunsen, Plat- 
r, Hudtwalckcr, and others. Nor has the private life of the ancients been negleci- 
The discovery of Herculancum and Pompeii has supplied us with important 
iformation on the subject, which has also been discussed with ability by several 
»derD writers, among whom W. A. Becker, of Leipzig, deserves to be particularly 
tntioned. The study of ancient art likewise, to which our scholars have paid littK 
tteotioQ, has been diligently cultivated in Germany from the time of Winckelmanr 
td L#e«$ing, who founded the modern school of criticism iu art, to which we are 
idebted for so many valuable works. 
While, however, so much has been done in every department of the subject, no 
tt«fnpt has hitherto been made, either in Germany or in this country, to make the 
ialt4 of modern researches available for the purposes of instruction, by giving 
lem in a single work, adapted for the use of students. At present, correct infor- 
Miiofi on many matters of antiquity can only be obtained by consulting u larg^c 
lumber of conly works, which few students can have access to. It was therefore 
lOugbttSiat a work on Greek and Roman Antiquities, which should be founded or 
careful examination of the original sources, with such aids as could be derived 
the best modern writers, and which should bring up the subject, so to speak, 
tbe prescat state of philological learning, would form a useful acquisition to all 
tnoat engaged in the study of antiquity. 

It WB9 supposed that this work might fall into tho hands of two different classes 
reader*, and it was therefore considered proper to provide for the probable wants 
Bsch, a« far as was possible. It has been intended not only for schools, but also 
thm ooc of students at universities, and of other p^^rsons, who may wish to obtain 
M'c information on the subject than an elementary wot\c can su^^X^ 
numerous references have been ^ivcn^ not only to the class\ca\ mwVox^, 
lUe best moiJera writers, which will point out the sources o( \utoT«M\\\ot\ 
hjt^t, anJenabh the reader to exiead his inqjiries farther W \\e \\*vs\\c» 


Al ihc same time, it mtist be observed, thai it hns been impossible to give nl the eni 

o( each article the whole of l4ic literature which belongs to it. Such n li^it of world 

as a full nccotint of the literature would require wcuiM have swelled the work mucl] 

beyond the limits of a single volume, and it has therefore only been possible to refei 

to the principal modern authorities. This has been more particularly the cate witlj 

such articles as treat o\' the Roman constitution and law, on which the modern wrj| 

ters are almost innumerable. I 

A work like tlic present niiorhc have been arranged either in a systematic or ai 

alphabetical form. Each plan has its advantages and disadvantages, but many red 

LftODs induced the editor to adopt the latter. Besides the obvious advantage of u 

"•Iphabetical arrangement in a work of reference like the present, it enabled the edj 

tor to avail himself of the assistance of several scholars who had made certain dd 

partmenta of antiquiiy their particular study. Jt is quite impossible that a woil 

which comprehends all the subjects included under Greek and Roman Antiquitid 

can be written satisfactorily by any one individual. As it was therefore absoluteH 

necessary to divide the labour, no other nrrnngemrnt olfcred so many facilities fcl 

the piirpoiie as that which has been adopted; in addition to which, the form of I 

Dictionary hns the additional advantage of enabling the w^riier to give a complell 

■ account of a subject under one head, which cannot so well be done in o systcmatfl 

^wyrk. An example will illut:trate what is meant. A history of the patrician aal 

Kplebeinn orders at Rome can only be gained from a systematic worl: by puttiiM 

Ito^etlier the Klateinents contained in many diHerent parts of the work, while in I 

Dictionary a connected view of their history is given, from the earliest to the lateJ 

times, under the respective words. The eume remark will apply to numerous othd 

subjects. I 

The initials of each writer's name are given ot the end of the articles he has wrw 

ten, and a list of the names of the contributors is prefixed to the work. It may bj 

proper to state, that the etiitor is not answerable for every opinion or statemed 

contained in the work : he has endeavoured to obtain the best assistance that bj 

could; but he 1ms not thought it proper or necessary to exercise more than a gen 

cral superintendence, as each writer has attached his name to the articles hg hd 

written, and is therefore responsible for them. It may also not be unnecessary d 

remark, in order to guard against any misconception, that each writer is only rd 

Bpon«iible for his own articles, and for no other parts of the work. 4 

Some subjects have been included in the present work which have not UBuall 

been treated of in works on Greek and Roman Antiquities. These subjects had 

been inserted on account of the important influence which they exercised upon tn 

public und private life of the ancients. Thus, coDsideruble space has been given u 

the articles on Painting and Statuary, and also to those on the diflbrcnt dcpartmeiMl 

of the Drama. There may seem to be some inconsistency and apparent capricioui 

ness in the admission and rejection of subjects, but it is very difficult to dctcrmid 

at what point to stop in a work of this kind. A Dictionary of Greek and RomaBJ 

Antiquities, if understood in its most extensive signitication, would comprehend n 

K account of everything relating to antiquity. In its narrower sense, however, thi 

r term is contincd to ua account of the public and private life of the Greeks and Rd 

mans, and it is convenient to adhere to this signilication of the word, however arbj 

trary it may be. For this reason, several articles have been inserted in the wod 

which some persons may regard as out of place, and others have been omitted whiol 

have sometimes been improperly included in writings on Greek and Roman Antiqal 

ties. Neither the names of persons and divinities, nor those of places, have bed 

inserted in the present work, as the former will he treated of in the " Uiciionary d 

Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology," and the latter in the "Dictionary d 

Greek and Roman Geography.'* 1 

The subjects of the woodcuts have been chosen by the writers of the articles whid 

they illustrate, and the drawings have been made under their superintendence. Mam 

of these have been taken from origitinls in the British Museum, and others from tn 

different works which contain representations of works of ancient art, as the Musd 

Borbonico, Museo Capitolino, Millings Peintures de Vases Antiques, Tischbein's ad 

D*Hancarville*5 engravings from Sir William Hamilton's Vases, and other simitfl 

works. Hitherto little use has been made in this country of existing works of id 

for the purputie uf iJluatratiiig antiquity. In many cases, however, the rcpresontatiaj 

of an object gives a far better idea of the purposes for wVvcVv "\l -wu* wxcudc^l, ad 

^^f PRCKACE. u 

Hbe wMj in which it was used, than any cxplunalion in words only can convey. Bc- 
Wdef nliich, some ncqiinintnnre with ihe remains of ancient art is almost csBential 
Hd a proj>cr perception of the spirit of antiquity, and would lend lo refine nnd elevuie 
^hr iBBte^ and lead to a just npprccintiun of works of art in general. 

C-onsideraMe care has been mken in drawing up the list of articles, but it is fenred 
wSkhX there tiiny still be a few omissions. Some subjects, however, which do not 
Bccur in the alplinbeiicnl list, nrc treated of in other nriicles; and it wilt bo found, 
^Kteference to the Indtfx, that many subjects are not omitted which appear to be so, 
^^B reader 'will occasionally hnd some words referred for explanation to otlier arli- 
^^^Kirhich nre not treated of under the articles to which the references are made. 
^^Hin&tantes, however, occur but rarely, and are rectified by the index, where the 
Koper references arc i^ivcn. They have only arisen from the circumstance of its 
^■Eiag been found advisable, in the course of the work, to treat of them under ditfer- 
^^^Kttds from those which were originally intended. Some inconsistency may ulso 
HHiverTed in the use of Greek, Latin, and English words for tlic names of the arti- 
Bes. The Latin language has generally been adopted for the purpose, and the «ub- 
HCts connected with Greek antiquity have been inserted under their Greek names, 
Hbere DO corresponding' words existed in Latin. In some coses, however, it has, for 
^■rious reasons, been found more convenient to insert subjects under their English. 
^■meSy but this has only been done to a limited oxtent. Any little ditficulty ivbtchj 
Hmy arise from this circumstance is also remedied by the imlex, where the subjcc^M 
phrt given under their Greek, Latin, and English titles, together with the page wliere« 

ibey arc treated of. The words have been arranged according to the order of the 

Itftters in the Latin alphabet. 
1!/. George Long, who has contributed to this work the articles relating to Romtiii 
■jiiitr, hn- sent the editor the following remarks, which he wishes lo make respecting 
^^Bfetlcles he has written, and which are accordingly subjoined in his own word^ : 
^^^Vhe nriter of the nniclcs marked with the letters G. L. considers some npnlnay 
^pcessary in respect of what he bas contributed to this work. Fie has never had the 
Hinuilage of attending a cour>-e <>f lectures on Roman Law. nnd ho has written these 
Bdcjcs in the midst of numerous engagements, which left little time for other la- 
■Dar. The want of proper materials, also, was often felt, nnd it would hove been 
Kficient to prevent the nTiier from venturing on such an undertaking, if he had not 
mktti able to avail himself of the library of his friend, Mr. William Wright, of Lin- 
B^lii'* Inn. These circumstances will, perhaps, be some excuse for the errors and 
^bperfeetions which wnll be nppart'nt enough to those who are competent judges., 
B U oo)y those who have formed nn adequate conception of the extent and variety 4 
H tbe maUer of law in general, und of the Koman Law in particular, who can csti- 
P^e the liifficiiliy of writing on such a subject in England, nnd they will allow to 
WB Vk'ho has attempted it a just measure of indulgence. The writer claims such in* 
ijalgtince from those living writers of whose labours he has availed himself, if nny 
Hf Uieae articles should ever fall in their way. It will be npparent that these articles 
BTe been written maiuly with the view of illustrating the classical writers ; und that 
B con»ideration of the persons for whose use they are intended, and the present state \ 
l^^nowledgo of the Roman Law in this country, have been sufficient reasons for ihe 
^^biou of many important matters which would have been useless to most readers, 
^Hporaetimes unintelligible. 

H^BPinSfb few modern wrilers have been used, compared with the whole number 
B^ "'"^t have been used, they are not absolutely (c\\\ and many of them, to Eng- 
l* re new. Many of them, also, are the hest, and among the best of the kind. 

Hrji' • > •- '\\\' of writing tliese articles was increased by the want o( books in the 
Hbiifli>.j I • ygej for, though we have many wrilers on various departments of the 
tVomao Law, of whom two or three have been referred to, they have been seldom 
Jiwd, and with very little protit." 

Bji «rnnM ho improper to close these remarks without stating the obTigationB this 
^HB r to Mr. Long. It wis chiefly through his advice and encouragement 

^^B t r wns induced to undertake it, and during its progress he has always 

^^B his counsel whenever it was needed. It is, thercCoTe, vi^ n\uc\\ « 

^^t' ii is of pleasure to make this public acknowledj^mcnX lo V\tia. 





'iflACULUS (dtaKioHo^), a OiminuUvo of Ad- 
is phBcipaUy applied, when used at all, to the 
or sqtures of a tesselated pavement. {VU. 

~;US iuSai) denoted generally and prima- 

tnbiei of any inaierial. Hence wc 

spplied in the foUoving special stgninca- 

t la ardtitcctnfe it denoted the flat square stone 
«6kk <«Bstimtcd (he Ugliest member oi a colamn, 
',flMe^ immctiialely under the architrave, lis 
be traced tacic to the very infancy of ar- 
As the trunk of the tree, which sup- 
roof of the early log-hul, required to be 
a flat square stone, and to have a stone 
szmilar form fixed on its summit to pre- 
fmsn decar, so the stone column in after 
made witn a square ba5>e, and wax cover- 
as Abacas. The annexed figure is drawn 
that in ihe British Mubeum, which wn.s taken 
ike Panheoon at Athens, and is a perfect spe- 
of ihe capital of a Doric colamn. 

tht mare ornamented oniers of archilectuic, 

as the Coriiil2uan, tlie sides of the abacus were 

ftttd a rose or some other decoration 

fjAnxd in the middle of each side ; 

lW ikOM Abacus was gircn to the stone thus 

asMl enriched, as well as in its original 

II 1^ dnMBBtiTe AiACOLcs (ufia/;ioKOf) denoted 

aole of Hiaith, glasi, or any other substance used 

far fluking onuuaental pavements. 

PItaf, in tm areount of glass, says,* " It is ani6- 

' ai in maVinj: the small tiles, which 

c?Jl abaculi.^' Moschion says tliai 

it ihip built by Archimedes for Hiern, 

SlyTitaue, contained a pavement made of 

of wUias colottrs and materials.* 

A>Acrs wa» also employed in architeclurc 

lOiB a panel, coiTer, or -square compartmonl in 

ijt rr-ilini? of a chamber, As panels are 


intended for variety and ornament, ihey were en- 
riched with painting,* Pliny, in describing the 
progress of lumrv with respect to the decorauon ol 
apartments, says that the Romans were now no long- 
er satisfied with panels,' and were beginning evea 
to paint upon marble. * 

IV. Abaccb farther denoted a wooden Iray, i. r, 
a square board surrounded by a raised border. This 
may have been the article intended by Cato, when, 
in his enumeration of the things necessary in fur- 
nishing a farm {olivetum), he mentions " one aba- 

Such a tray would be useful for various purpo- 
ses.* It might very well be used for making bread 
and confectionary; and hence the name of abacup 
iu6a^, a.6aKiov) was given to the fiuxTpa, i. e., th« 
board or tray for Icneading dou^h.* 

V. A tray of llje same description, covered n'tl' 
sand or du/t, was used by mathematicians fordrav- 
iiig diagrams.' 

VI. It is evident that this contrivance would bf 
no less serviceable to the arithmetician: and to Uii* 
application of it Persius alludes, when tx itusure* 
the man who ridiculed "the numbers on the abacai 
nn.l ihe partitions in iLs divided dust."' In tliis in- 
stance the poet seems to have sup^K'sed perpendicu- 
lar lines or channels to have been drawn in the sand 
upon the board-, and the instnmieut might thus, In 
the simplest and easiest m^ner, be adapted ^i 
arithmetical computation. 

It appears that the same purpose was answered 
by having a .similar tray i^iiJi perpendicular wood- 
en divisiotis, the space on tlie right hand being ii>- 
tended for tmits, the next space for lens, the next for 
hundreds, and so on. Thus was constructed "the 
abacus on which ihcv calculate,"* i, c, reckon by 
the use of stones.* The figure following is design- 
ed to represent the probable form and appeal ancc of 
such an abacus. 

The reader will observe, that stwie after stone 
might be put into the right-hand partition until they 
amounted to 10, whun it would be necessary to lake 
them all out as represented in the ligTiie, and in- 
stead of them lo put one stone into the next parti- 
LioD. The stones in this division might in like man- 
ner amoimt to 10, thus representing 10x10=100. 
when it would be necessary to take out the 10, ana of them to put one stone into the third par- 
liiiou, and so on. On tliis principle, tlie stones In 
the abacus, as delineated in the figuie, would be 
equivalent lo 350,310. 


I. (PIm., H. N,, miii., SB: x«t.. IS.)— J. {" Nnn t>tu-vBt 

jtun alHid :" II. N.. xxrr., 1.)— 3. (D« Re Riwt., 10.) — «. ( Vij, 

Crtlin., Fntgta., l^cl. Rtiakol, p. S7.— Pollux, vi., 9) ; i., l(ft,— 

IWkltnr, Anofl. Grwt-.. i., 37.)— 5. (Heiych., %. y. MaKTpa — 

■ •«.•,«» -^ ^ . / Schtil.inTfceur., iT.,fll.>-6. (Eu«lilb.lllO<\.,t.»W,n.\^VI,\ 

"•• »»/>-»,("• W-. »»«■, 67.h-3. ^7, r'Ai)oconamfraf.etMcioinpoWiMm*lM" Pm%.,%^., 

/ W, p. t41H.}-9. (f i>^«i, oaCT) 

EuMkVU inOd.Vt. 



Iliseridciii ihai tii. -; .urthod might Se em- 
ployed in adding, sulara-JLii.:,', or multiplying weigliU 
and measures, aod stuns ^>r rncney. Thus ihe sioncs, 
as armnged in ihe lig"rc, might stand for 3 stasia, 5 
vUftra^ 9 falAomSj 3 aU/Ux, aiid I foot. The abacus, 
nnwpvrr,'i'an never lie much lL'4e<l by us at the pre,v 
finl day, owing tu our various divisiuns ol' weights 
and measures, dtc. We should need, one abacus for 
dollars, cents, &.c.; another for avoirdupois weight; 
a third for trov weight, and so on. In Chinn, how- 
ever, where the whole system is decimal, ihiit is, 
where every measure, weight, &c., is the tenth pan 
of the next greater one, tlus insirumcnt, callod 
^^ptinpnnt is very much used, and with astonishiuK 
rapidity. It is said that, while one man reads over 
rapidly a number of sums of money, another can 
add them so as to give Uic total as soon as the first 
has done reading^. 

That the spaces of the abacus actually denoted 
diferent values, may be inferred from the 'following 
oomparisun in Polybius:^ "AIL men are subject to 
be elevated and again depressed by the most deet- 
tag events; bnt Ibis is particularly the case with 
those who frequent the palaces of kings. They are 
lilcc the stones upon abaci," which, according to the 
pleasure of the calculator/ are at one time the vjUue 
of a small copper coin,* and iramrdialely afterward 
are worth a talent of gold.' Thus courtiers at the 
monarch's nod may suddenly become either happy 
or miserable." 

VII. By another vari;iiion the AcACi'B was adapt- 
ed for playing with dice or counters. The GrccKs 
had a tradition ascribint^ this contrivance to Palame- 
des; hence thev called it *'lhe ahacii'^ nf Palame- 
de*."* It prohablv bofe a considerable re?^;nibl;ince 
to the modem baclc^^ammon-lxinrd, dice' being 
thrown for the moves, and the " men"* placed ac- 
cording to the numbers thrown on the successive 
lines or spaces of the board. 

VIU. The lenn Adaccs was also applied to a 
Wad of cupboard, sidelioanl, or cnhinet, the eJCACt 
fyrm of which can only be inferred frum the inci- 
dental mention of it bv ancient writers. It appears 
that it had partitions for holding cup^ aud all kinds 
of valuable and ornamental utensils: 

" Sec per muUipli/xs ahacn sfleiultnie awtrtms 
ArgctUi niffri porAda d/fotHam"* 

This pa^a^ must eWdcnlly have referred to a piece 
of furniture with numernus cells, and of a compli- 
cated construction. If we suppose it to have Iwen 
a square frame with shelves or partitions, in some 
degree corresponding to Uie divisions wliich have 
been described under the last two heads, we shall 
see that the term mij^ht easily be transferred from 
nil its other applic^ttions to the sense now under 

We are informed that Uixxiries of this dcscrimion 
were first introduced at Home from Asia Minor 

JUnvr : Ea»Uth. in OJ., U, 107. p. 1298.)— T. (•i6o,.)— 8. 
wnm>/.}—9. (Sidoa. ApoU., Car im., ', 8.i 

after the vicioiies of Cn. Maidius VuLso, A. 

In the above pnssnge of SiJoniu?, the prin( 
use of the abfictis now descrilied i> indicated by 
word /jr^itt, referring to the vesscS of siU'er wl 
it contamed, and being probably designed, like 
word "plate/' to include similar anicles made 
gold and other precious substances.' 

The term abacus must, however, have been 
plicable to cupboards of a simple and unador 
ap|>earance. Juvenal says of the tridiniiun 
drinking- vessels of a poor man, 

" Irdtu eral Codro ProciUa wtikw, vrceoli sex 
OmatHctUum abad, necwm ei panmius infra 

The abacus was,. in (act, part of the furniture 
triclinium, and was intended to contain tiie ves: 
usually acquired at meals. 

IX. Lastly, a part of the theatre was c: 
a6(iKic, " the abaci.'' It seeins to have been on; 
neaj* the stage; farther than this its position a 
be at present determined. We may, however, ii 
that the general idea, characteristic of abaci in 
cry otJier sense, viz., tliat of a square tablet, was , 
plicable in this case also. 

ABALIENA'TIO. (VU MixciPiuii; M*i 


ABDICATIO. t^''"^- Maoistbitcs, Apocei 


•ABIES, the " Pir," a genus of trees of the 
niferous tribe, well known for the valtuble 
which is pixiduced by many of the species. Th£< 
igin of tlie Latin name is uiiknou-n ; that of the 
lish appellation is the Saxon /uM-wiw/u, " fir-wt 
The A/A/'s J*uxa, or "Silver Fir," is Hie kind st'. 
by VinjU pukherrima (" most beautiful"), and ric^ 
merits the name. Antiquarians have lost 
selves in vain attempts to reconcile the declaral 
of Ct£sar (5, 12), that he found in Britain all 
trees of Gaul except the ttccch and abies, with 
well-known fact that fir-wood is abundant in 
ancient Kn^^Mish mos>eR, ajid has been met with 
beneath the foundaiiuns of Rumou roadb. 
Ctesar meant was, no doubt, that he did not 
with the silver Jif in Britain; of the pine he says; 
thing, and thereC>rc it is to be presumed that' 
found il. — ^The common t/.tin? of the lireckj 
have I)ccn either the Pintts aUea or the Pinvs 
tnMlis (Toumcfort). There is some dilHcuU] 
distinguishing the male and female 5[>ecies of 
phrasius. Stackhouse holds the former to be 
Pinus abies, or common " Fir-tree," and the li 
the Pintispuat, or "Vcllow-leaved Fir."* 

♦AB'IGA, the herb "grmrni-pine,'* called also " 
John\f irort." The Latin name is derived from 
plant's having been used to produce abortion.' 
Abiga is the same with the Chaiuffipitys {Xafii 
Txx) of the Greeks. Tlic three species of the la{ 
dcscritied by Dioscorides have been the subjc( " 
much divereity of opinion. The 1st would scei 
have been the Ajha Chamapitys; the M the 
nv? (according to Baubin and yprcngcl); while' 
2d, according to tlie latter, is either llie l^cui 
sttpimim or wimtanum.* These plants, rich in 
senlial oil, are tonic and aromatic. All that 
find in Dioscorides nnd in Pliny (who copies hi 
which does not refer tu these properties, is mei 
hypiitht^tical. and does not merit rt^fni.'flion.' 

ABLKC'TI. {Viil. E\TR\nHmsA«ii.) 

ABLEGMINA (iTroleyum) were Oie parts ofj 
victim which were offered to the gods in sacrif 
The word is derived from uUrgrrv, in imilailoi', 

1. (Liv.. ixii*., «.— Plin., H, N., xxiis.. 8,>-9. (Vid. 
TuM^ T., fli.— Vfirro, dc LtfiR. Ivu., it., S3, p. 4B9, ri\. Sp«u' 
ireL)— 3. (Sul., iii., I87.>— 4- (Afl*m«, Ap|>flml , ■ r. AiirTj.)— 5. 
{"Qurvl tUitrnt partui." VH. Plin.. II. N., xxit.. 0.1— Q. (A^' 
HBiit. Ajiprod., ». V. xdHoirirvfr]— 7 (DtOHuniL, iii.. 174 — Ms; 
la Plm., 1. c.) 



rmXtjfty, whtr^h is ue^! In a simHar 
*n»r5« paru wrrc uImj called Parruia, 

K* l-A. a i> prol»ably 

^•rtr< tk.r. Willi wliH'h 

is luiafU, ki {lui uliu^itribcf, iiieDlical in 
The foim aad maimer of wearing 
HMjr be «ern In rhe fi^tirvs aiuivxet), 
[■IB tuia jrom Lhe b3.<-ivlicl!s on Uic iri- 
mttA. of Srptimius Scvcnis at Korne. 

«iwdw»s (a nst T'rf-'r*' thp .\u7ii>(:in age; 
is a jio**: ■ N'oniiis M.ircel- 

of liw sttti . Nonius Mar- 

lfepa**a-- ■-' -I"-- Micnt 

by solujcrs (: op- 

1^ ifi^a. Til i,u ii 

e^wciallr Ui ..IJiti-h, Ucc^use 

vfaiefc wa* ttsf I It jn the limo of 

' irpiication, 

*t^ Mi.-UlV'ls 

fc**- ' '!■: nf M*ar. 

ftjtt eivji/* TruiD many p.i^sagrs in ajUMf^nt 
ifae AboUa u'a^ hv no mcau5 contijifd 

pCRon who heard nnri- 
... .... i,,r 1..,., [Q aileoO 

-Inalc in a 
of a car- 

' et culU a 

■ "f a 
tniujtted (jy a philoft- 

I Eh 


lO nuajarit pattti. 

It meant a 

r cloak 10 

lily of the 

>;ns mahris 

(FW. Pai^ 


' 1 menlion? nM- 

•he kincdomof 
.1 .. . . — .j^jj 

: ■: .,. ... .. -■,. a 

vlar pirce of vooUen clotb, a 

n. . 

of a fish men- 

A'-'<^onling to 
— ■ ■ - "■ -imtj. 

Vftrtfiy III Uif O/H.Tua (2'4n««)." 


ABROGATJO. nvrf. L«.) 
•AIIROTONUM iaipoTovov), a plant, (J whicti 
tu-o siwcies are {iescribvd by Diosctnides,* lie male\ the female. The foniaer of tliese. by tbc al- 
inuht jtrvneriil agreement of rhe comuici..alors and 
twtanical auUioritics. is referred to the Arlnmsia 
Ai/fotonum^ L., or 8ciutheniwood. About the otlier 
species theie is great diversity of opinicm. Fuch- 
sius makes it the Arf/^wnVj Ptrnftca t Dodousus, tbt 
A. arUtrfxcns ; and Mallliioiu.s, Uic Sanlolina Ounn- 
arirp'iruvius, or common Ln vender Cotloa. Adams 
decides in favonr of the last. Galen recocrnises the 
two v(>ecies described bj' Dioscoridcs; but Nicander, 
Paulii.H ^gineia, and most of the oUier writers on 
the Materia Medica, notice oulyone species, which 
no doubt was ihe A. ahrotonum.* 

*ADS[N THIUM {ayl'tvOiov), a plant, of whirh 
DioMorides describes ihrec i,f.ecies. The first of 
lhe«e is preitj' generally acUnowlcJged to be the 
Artemisia aifSiniAittm. or common wormwuijd; bui 
Sprengel hesiuies whether be should not also com- 
prehend tlie A. Pontira under if, which latter, indeed, 
Bauhin held to be the tiue Rumaa wnrmwfxxl. The 
second species U the Arlntasia nuirilijna. The third 
is held !>y Sprcngel to be the j4. ptdmnia^L., which, 
it appeoHj, is indigenous in Santongc. The A. mn- 
f^nua. L., boin^ confined to Tartary and the DOtt^ 
ern paru of Pei^ia, it is not likely iLat the ancienl ^ 
were acquainted with it.* 
ABSKLUTIO. (Hi/. Jtroicn™.) 
•AGACALIS orACALL']S(cl«aAu>jV. a<aAA/f)^i 
a plant ; according to Sprengel, the TuinarU Or> 
mttifi.i, railed Taimnx ariintluta by Vahl.* 

'AC,\ ClA (uica*m). a plant, which, accordinc" to 
Sprenpt^l. and moit o\' the authorities, is ijic Ac^uia 
Vtra, AV'ilid. ; but, according to Dterbaeh, it is \ht 
Acaria f^'iureaL Hill remarks, that the Ireewhick' 
piuducev tlie succvs acacitt is the f;ame a? thai 
whi'.h viclds the ^m arable. The acauia g».'ts the 
English name of ihe EgA-jHian thorn.* 

ACAI'NA (aKatva), a measure of length, equiva- 
lent to ten Greek fecL 

*ACALE'PHE (dKa/j;^i7, or irvirf*/), I, a kind of 
shelllish, belonging to the genus Vrtira ("Sea-oei- 
dc"), of which there arc several species. Linmeos 
places lhe Urttai among ZoojtAyUt^ but it belongs 
more properly to the class JVfoUtisen. Sjinengcl de- 
cides that the Vrttca manna of the ancients is l2i« 
Attinia scttiiis.* Coray ^ve« its French name as 
OriAt de mrr. PeJinani siays, the aneieiiu divided 
their ftvittijf into two classes, those whieh adhere to 
rocks (the Actuun of Linnirtis), and those thai waii* 
der through lhe element- The laiter are called by 
late writen> Vrtica: saluta *, by I,innft*u?, Mnlusa ; by 
the common i)eople, " Sea jellies," or " Sea blub- 
bers."'— H. A species of plant, the "neillc." Df- 
o«coride$ describes two species, which Sprengel 
huUl^ to be the Urtica Jwtca ("great nettle") and 
the I', iirau (" liiile nettle",)* 

•ACAN THA (uKavOo), Uie Tliom. Eight spe 
cies are descril-ed by Theoptirastus, none ol which 
are satiyfact* rily oetermined by Stackhoose and 
Schneider. There is ^reat diversity of opinion 
rpspeciiiie the two &f>eeies described bv Dioseori- 
des.* Spn^ncel. upon ihe whole, inclines lo lh« 
opinion of Sibihoru. that the uKQ^'6a Xrvicn i» the 
Cirxtum Ararna, Cand. ; and the unavda ^Apafim^ 
(he Ont'pi"'tfnm Arabiniw. BotanifrV^ ev<n vet fijid 
iLTeai diili'.'ultv in distin^iishin^the difTereni'spccin 
and i;rntT3 nf Thorns and Thistles, and lli'' nonien- 
clature of this tribe of plants \s very unsettled. '• 
♦ACANTHIAS GAL'EOS {UavOia: ya;>-<iif). a 

]. (Mkl. Mnl., lii., Ifl.)— 3. (Ailiuua. Afnwod.. «. T,)— 3< 
lAd«iT», AfpcnH., •. V. ili|f)tf.) — i {AiUnn, Apiwnil., %. * 
(ic4A.\i'c.) — A. fAdnnu. Append.. «. v. oK-'i'l)—^. {CarnmftA 
m Dt-i-cvjn^.)— 7. |Aniti>t„H. A., i» , ).— Aduas Af'?*!^''*'^ 

aMXMaf.}-^ Cl>iu»cor . iv., 73.— AduiH, A|>pend., t t.>— • 

(w.. ttJ—iO Mdookf. Apj«(Ml.,« f.) 




»pecies of fish, the Syrw/wj A-titttAias, L., or Sp'i?uix 
A''4inthuis of later autnurities ; in English, the *'Pi- 
k«n\ Dog" or " Hoiuiri Fish." It is ciJininon on the 
sbures of England and in the Medileminean. Pen- 
nant also snys that it swarms on the Scottish coast. 
Il weighs almoin tX) lbs. This is the species of stmrk 
often taken between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.^ 

*ACA.VTHIS {uKnvBi^\ so called by Ariulotle. 
13 probably the same plant as the nKokavdli of Ar- 
istophanes, and the uKav&vXKi^ of Hesychius. It 
U the Acanthis of Pliny and Virgil. Gcsner, with 
great probability, refers it to the '* Siskin," namely, 
tuc Prin^Ua spimis, L., or Catduelis spintis, Cuvier. 
Professor Rennie says it is called "Aberdevine" 
near London.' 

•ACANTJUJS {uKtjvBof), I. the name by which 
the broad ratfled leaf tised in the enrichment of the 
Corinthian capital is known. It is thus called be- 
cause of its general resemblance to the leaves of a 
species of the Acanthus plant. (17// Coll-mna.) 

U. Under this naine have l>cen described by ancient 
authors at legist three totally riilffrcnt plants. First, 
a prickly tree, with smooth evergreen leaves, and 
small, round, saffron- coloured berries, freqnently al- 
luded to by Virgil ■ tliis is conk-clured to have been 
(be HoUu. Secondly, a prickly Egyptian tree, dc- 
scinbed by Thcophrasiiis as having pods like those 
of a bean: it is probable that this was the Acncia 
AraJfka. Thirdly, an herb mentioned by Dioscori- 
des, with broad prickly leaves, which perish at the 
approach of winter, and again sprout lonh with the 
return of spring. To tliis latter plant the name is 
now af pliol. The word in all cases allnde,s to the 
prickly nature of the leaves or stems. It is lliis l.-ust 
»|>ecies which is usually supported to have given 
nse to the notion of the Corinthian capital. But it 
appears from the investigation of Dr. Sibihorp, that 
It la nowhere to be found, either in the Greek isl- 
ands, or in any part of the Peloponnesus ; and that 
the plant whieh Dloscorides must have meant was 
Uic AcatUhiu *pino.fu*, still called uKovda, whifh is 
^und, as he descrllws it, on ihc bonlers of cultiva- 
ted grounds or of ganlens, and is frequent in ixjcky 
moist siiuaiions.' 

•ACANTHYIJ/IS {i'lKavdvn't^). As has been 
stated under Acanthis, the axov&vXXi^ of Hesychi- 
iLs is pmhably ihe ** Siskin ;" but tlmi of Aris- 
totle is ccnninly diflerent, being ihe Piats varius 
according to Camus.* 

ACAPNA LIG'NA (a priv,, and iraTvrVl. called 
also c/xt/t. were logs of wo*k1 dried with great care 
in order to prevent smoke. Piinv says that wood 
soaked with the lees of oil {nnmoi) btimod without 

Ampiion wwi, which was considered the best land 
of honey, was obtained without driving out the bees 
frt)tn their hives by smoke, which was the usuaj 
method of procuring it.* 

ACATION {(iKUTiov, a diminutive of iiKaror, a 
small vessel),' a small vessel or boat, which appears 
to have Ireen the sauu- ns the Rnmim srjipfia t since 
Bnetonius,* in relating the escape of cfa»sar from 
Alcxandrea, says lliat Ue jumped into a sc/ipk/t, 
which Pluurch^in niirrating the same events, calls 
»n &Kdriov. Thucydides* speaks of uKiinm' lutpTfpt- 
«w, which in explained by the scholiast, TDiotdfuov 
hiarfpuBtv tptrjory{itvox% iv w (^a(r^of ruv iXmrv6v- 
Tuv ctKurria^ iperrct. 

The uKuTia wore also sails, which, airconling to 
file description of Xenophon, were adapted for fast 
[Miting. They are opposed by him to the uijtWa 

I. (Afhm«, Ai'itrnil., a. t.>— 1 (Adanis, Append., t. r. Jvvr- 
fte.)— 3. (ThcophfMt., H. P., iii., 4. %n\q—DtoteoT., iji., IJU } 
— <. (Ah«oC,H. A., Tiii., 5.)-a. (H. N..xv..8.— Martwl, «ill„ 
l3.)-0. (Plin B. N., li^ 15.— Colam., n.. 83.1-7, ('Rr r-Tc 

S9trnru-}-oiat tUtJniim : Hnrad., rii., 180; onnpAre PinJnr, 
rth., xi.. Ml Nrm.v.. 5.)— 8. <Jul.. fl4.)-9. (i?., OT.)— 10. 
M.. Ifr/f. r,, S, t ST.SchaeiiJfT, lo Ioo.| 

ACCE]S'SI. I. The Accknsos was a put 
officer who attended on several of the Komnn 

fistrates. He anciently preceded the consul, 
ad not the fasces, which custom, afler being U 
disused, was re.«:tcircd by Julius CiL'sar in bis 
consulship,^ It was inc duty of the accensi 
summon the p*!oplc to the assemblies, and th< 
who bad lawsuits to court ; and also, by commi 
of the consul and pnetor, to proclnirn the 
when it was the thira hour, the sixth hour, and 
ninth hour.' Accensi also attended on the govej 
ors of provinces,* and were commonly frcedi 
of the magistrate on whom they aitcntlt-d. Vj 
ilescribes the word from aa.v:iuiv^ l>ecatis*" iliey 
moned the people ; other writers suppose ii to' coi 
from accetusar. 

11. The Accensi were also a class of soldiers 
lire Roman armv. Tt apT->ears that after the 
DumbtT of the legion had been comT)l(.'ied, s^Ji 
supernumerary soldiers were enlisicu, who mii 
be always ready to supply any vacancies in 
legion. Thc«! soldiers, who were calls*! aJgrrij 
or a>1scriptit\i {because, says Fe^tu^, xupplrtufis 
onibH.% miscrihebantur), were tLsiialty imaccustoi 
to militar)' senice, and were assigned to diflei 
centnritms to be instructed in their duties, 
they had been formed into a regular corps, they 
lained die name of tuxensi^ and were reckt 
among the light-armed troop.s.* In later tin 
they were ab«) caJlctl itiprrHumernni* They w« 
placed in battle in the rear of the army, behind 
triaril.* They had properly no mil"itar>' Amy 
perform, since they did uut march in tn)ups agoii 
the enemv. They were, according to the cunsusj 
Servius TuUius, taken from the fiiflh class o^l 

ACCEPTILA'TIO is defmed to be a release 
mutual iuierrugation between debtor and credi*. 
by which each party is exonerated from the sai 
contract. In otner words, acceptilatio is the foi 
of words by which a creditor releases his debl 
from a debt or obligation, and acknowledges he 
received that which in fact he has not rcceiF< 
Thi.-! release of debt by acceptilatio <i]>plies only 
such debts as have been contracted by siipnljit 
conlbnnably to a rule of Roman law, vKai only 
tracts made by words can be put nn end to 
words. But the astuteness of the Roman lawyel 
found a mode of comnlying with the rule, ani 
the same time extending the acceptilntio to 
kinds and lo anv munber of coniracw. This v, 
the invention of Gnllns Aquiliiis, who devised; 
flirmula lor reducing all and every kind of contra< 
ro ihe slipiUaiio. This being done, the acceptilal 
would immediately apply, inasmuch as ilie mall 
was by such formula brought within the genci 
ndo of law above mentionc<l. The acceptilal 
must be absolute and not conditional. A part of 
debt or obligation might be released as well as 
whole, provided the thing was in its nature capab] 
of division. A pupiljus could not release a debt 
accenlilatio, wiinout the consent of his tut<ir, but 
cotdd be released from a dpbi. The phrase 
which a creditor is said to release hus debtor by 
ceptilatio is, dcbitori accfptum, or ac/rjtto facere 
/cm; or ar/>:pturfi habrre. When anything wHk 
was done on the behalf of or for the state, such asi 
building, far insmnce, was approved by ti»e coraj 
tent authorities, it was said, in accrpUnn fori 

'ACCESSIO i? a legal term, by which is 03 
pressed ihe produce or increase of anything, aiH 
at the same time, the notion of such produce or \\ 


I. (S.iflt., Jul., ao.-Lir.. 111'.. 33.)— S. (Varro. Jw Ung. h* 
».,!>— PI111-. rit., 00.)— 3. (Cic. m) Fr»tr., j.. I. \ A.)~ 
(WnIfli.mTarit., Airnc.c. tO.>— 9. (Veir^>t., ii., lO.i— fl. (L)»] 
\ia.. 8, 10.)— 7. (Liv., i., 43.— Nt«bulu-,"Rom. iriil., 1 , w. 44| 
a,tmn.I.)— «. (Diif., 46. lit. 4; 48, til. II, >. 7.— Gaiu*. ii 



iMijMiitf g i2h! DToperty of him to whom lUe 
ttlgtedff bdoQgs The mle uf law was t;j(pn.'i>!se4l 
" su> oedit pnncipali} Eiamples ol acces- 
lUiiiaJ ontier ihe beads of Allutio, Con- 

I' ilR. ( ri//. Acipen'bkk.) 

(*'iJ. HIERaX.) 
'' ' ras the public expression uf 
itaUoD, pleasure ordispleas- 
_ _ ;ons, Uu inaziy CHrcaaions, 
apfiear to tiave been ceriain forms uf accla- 
•» Always lued by the Romans; hs, for instance, 
h- ilfiM-n, Uinnenae, or Talassio (ex- 
by Livj*); at triumphs, lo triumphs, la tri' 
S al ifae ctuiclusiun oC plays the last actur 
afled out Plaudits to Uic sp^ciaiors ; orators were 
■uUj pnisod by »ucfa e-Xpirs^ioDS as Bene ei pra- 
Arc» Bc^ ft /cstirr^ Ntm potest m^ltuj, &c.' Other 
ftB Uiw.< 6 of ooia-'i^urno are gii^'cn by Ferrarius, in 
Ito P9 V€ttrum AoeiaimatitmiimM el PUuisu ; in Gns- 
nn. TViaiir. Ann. An^., vol. vi. 

'I* ■RITA the name of coucbes wbich were 
f the Roman emperors, instead of 
: r fwclinins ujHm at raetils. The 
.■::i,iii-i.. .: . v..!'' .-.oiler and higher, 
iVDppi ! - I ' '. I : I ' 1 lower in prupor- 
in tiit. LiK.Iiiiiitii). Tlic clothes and pillows 
OTft tiiem were call«*d aecuMtaJia* 
ACCrSA TIO. ( Vid. Crimen, Judicium.) 

R, ( yU. SpllKNDAMWtrs.) 

L'RA (lUAjvuric, Xifiovurpif), the ineeii«e- 
in s^icrificcs. 

,' cnuiueraiin^ the principal articles ne- 

1& a solemn sacriiice to Juno, meiition.s 

a box full of fiankinceDse/ * In 

JBaeas worships " witb com and witii 

6oiu the full Bcerra." 

• f^ure f*» ct plena st/ppUx vpneraivr acenay'^ 

rzpbuxks the last word as meaning area 

f, eflkufneratin^ the principal works of Par- 
of EpheruLs, says tlial he painted Sacmiotrvt 
pmen eum aanra. d crnvna* Tlit? picture, 
V tepfe*cni«l apn>.npTP[i;irinjrio <;icrific<!, 
boT standing; beside niro. and boMin? the 
-boi' and a wreath of flowers. Thh was, 
rdoOln, a rery common and favuurilc sulijeci for 
t^4m erery Idnd. It frequently occurs in lias- 
*9«pir5entinz sacrifices, and eieciitefl on 
friescs, aad other ancient inoninnents. It 
Ikrr? tliii» on the Columnn Trajana at 
I ODce on tlte Aich of Cuiistnnliue. 
»exed figure is taken from a bas-relief in 
of the Capitol. 


fW a^vm was also, according to Feslus, a 
pUc«d belbre ibe dead, on which por- 
Mnked. Acrrra ara, qua ante mnrtuum 
4riMal| M jrud odara inrcTuidMvUvT. There was 
■iBBff Twelve Tables which restricted the 
at fvDEwrab.' 


_S. (i.V.,de Onif., 

. litJ. in Ju».,3at, v., 

rt fti-'m liirji fiir- 

.f liu.. JJ. X, xxxr., 96, i i.)-!/. 

ACETAB'ULITM <o^f. 6fii«a^v, ifif&i^wv;, 

Among the various ways in which the Greeks, 
and Romans made use of vinegar {aceium) in their . 
cookery and at their meals, it appears thai it was 
customary to have upon the table a cup coniaining^ 
vinegar, into which the guests might dip their bread,, 
leiluce, fish, or other viands, before eating liitm. 
Of this fact we have no direct assurance ; bm it is 
implied in one of the Greek name^i of this uieusil, 
viz., }>^6a6ov, from 6tvr, aeid^ and /Junru, to dip or 
immerse. It also suits the various secondary appli* 
caduns of these terms, both in Latin and in Greek. 
whicli the vessel to have been wide and 
open above. In fact^ the acetabidum must have 
been in form and size very like a modem teacup. 
It probably differed from the rpvC^iov, a vessel to 
wluch it was in other respects analogous, in being 
of smaller capacity and duneasiuns. 

These vinegar-cups were commonly of earthen- 
ware,' but sometimes of silver, bronze, or gold.* 

The accompanying figure is taken from Panofka's 
Work on the names and forms of Greek vaaes. lie 
suies that on the painted vase, belon^ng to a col- 
leciion al Naples, from which he took inis figure, 
the name uivfta^ is traced underneath it. Tlii^ 
may llierefore be regarded as an authentic spfcitnen 
of the geuerai form of an antique vinegar-cup 

From proper vinegar-cups, the Latin and Greetf ' 
terms under consideration were transferred to all 
cups resembWnp; tlicm in size and form, to whatever 
use they miyht be applied. 

As the vinegar-cup wa.s always small, and prob- 
ably varied little in size, it came to be used as % 
measure. Thu.s we reati of an acetabulum of honey 
or of ?aU, which is agreeublr lo our jiraciice ul" 
measuring by teacups, wiiie-gla&ses, or lable-siJouns; 
Wo are informed that, as a mc^isure, the o^iSa^ov, 
or arfi4ihulvm, was a cyaihus and a half, or the 
fourth part of a won'-Ai;, or Arminu.* 

The use of these cups by jugfflers is distinctly 
mentioned. They put stones or other objects imder 
certain cups, and then by sleight of hand al^stracted 
them without beinR observed, so that the siwctauirs, 
to their great amusement and surprise, tuund tha 
stone:; under different cups from ihase which they 
expected. Those jjersons, who were called in Latin 
(irrtabuiani, t) they played with acctubuia^ 
wero in Gret-k called ^^1}^y::aiKTai^ because they 
played with stones U'v^ol) ; and under this name 
the .-^me descnplion of performers is mentioned by 
Sextos Empiricus. 

In the EpJStlesofAlciphron,* a countryman who 
hnd broui^ht to the city an ass laden witi\ fi^, and 
had Ijcen taken to the theatre, desoriI)es his speech- 
less astonishment at the followini? sneciacle; "A 
man came iiit'> the midst of ns and set duttii a 
three-leaged table frpiVodo). He placed upon it 
three cups, and under these he concealed some 

I. (cTptf^ca fur/M : Schul. Anitop\t. — icn r<i u\«ila^ov uU% 

ir«. ri., p. S>0.^--i. iBOckh, GcwtchVOt &c., p. %&.>-4. Vuk 



while rounii pebbles, such as we find on the 
ol" rapid bruots. lie uloiie lime put one uf 
under each cup ; and Uieu, I kuuw out huu*, 
showed (hem all under one cup. At anuUier time 
he nuide iheiu disappear aliogeiher fruui under the 
cup5, and showed liioni in his mouth, 'i'hcn hav- 
xug swallaved them, and having cauMul those wbp 
stood near to advan<-e, he took one stone out of a 
peR>uu*s nose, ai)ochf.T out of his ear, aud a third 
cmt of Ids head. At last he caiL*i(>d them all to dis- 
appear cuLirelv-^' in this passage Alciphrou calh 
the cups fiiKfHti irapfn}>idac~ It may be observed, 
that TTopoV'/f w iis rqtuvalenl to 6H'Ca<^ov when used 
in its wider nccepiation, and denoie<l a basin or cap 
Set on the table ijy the side of tlie otlier disht'S, to 
hold cither viacgar, pickles {tu:£Uiria\ sauce, or 
anything el^^e which wax taken to give a rt^lish to 
the substantial nandK. The word ( ptij-ppsis) was 
adopted into the Latin languaj^e, ait^ is found in 
Juvenal, MarliaJ, and other writers of the same 

•ACE'TUM C^foO. vinv^ar. The kitids most in 
repute among the ancients were the ^Egyptian and 
Cnidian.* Pliny gives a full account or the uiedi- 
pal properties c»f vinegar. Amoni; other applica- 
tions, it was employed when !eeclies had been in- 
rttoduced into the stomach, or adhered to the larvnx. 
ig salt and water would, however, have beeii 
etHcacious in making these loosen their hold, 
and in facilitating the vomiting of ihem Ibrih. Vine- 
jrar was also given in long-standing coughs, just 
as modem practitioners give oiymels in chronic 

•ACIIAINES {axaiv^c)^ the Daguet or young 

ACH'ANE (ajtivij). A Persian mpasure equiva- 
lent to 45 Attie liiAifivai. According to Hesychius, 
there wa^ aUo a Boeotian ux<ivQ equivalent to one 

Attic fiiAluifK* 

♦ACHATES (ux«^f). 3" agate, a precious 
stone or gem. The agate is a semi-pellucid siotic 
of the flint class. Thcophrasuis describes it as a 
^autifU] and rare E>tuue tjom the river Achates in 
Sicily (now the DriUo, in the Vtil di Ntito)^ which 
sold at a high price; but Pliny telLs us that in his 
time it was, though once liighly valued, no longer 
ill esteem, it b<uua: then found in many places, of 
large size, and divei^ificd appearance. Tha an- 
cients distinguished agates into many species, to 
each of which they gave a name imnoning Its dif- 
ference from the common agate, whether it were 
In colour, fi'-riire, or texture. Thus tliey called ihe 
t^X^HiTinarkiitt^, which was sprinkled with spots cxt 
jasper, or hlood-red chalcedony, aud was the variety 
now called dotted agate. The white they termed 
X>cu<wcW*-7? the plain yellowish or wai-colourcd, 
Ccffuhat^s, which was a variety little valued Ibe- 
rause of its abundance. Those" which approached 
to or partook of the nature of ofher stones, they dis- 
tinguished by names compounded of their own ge- 
Derical name, and that of the stone they resembled or 
partO'ik of, thus, that snecies which seemed allied 
[■Jo the Ja.*=pers they called JaspachaUi (tlic iRsjicr- 
Rgatc r\i mctAfrw mineralogist); that which par- 
took of the nnlore of the Camelian, Sanfadiaics ; luid 
those which had the re.*;ombtancc of trees and shrub.-i 
on them, they called for that reason Dcndrachaf^n.. 
This last is what we call at the present denantic 
iftgale, described in the Orphic poem under the name 
of u;faTT7f Atv^fn'm^. The Corallachalet was so cinlled 
from some resemblance ilial it bore to coral. Plinv 
describes it as sprinkled like the sapphire with 
spots of gold. Dr. Moore think*, that m this latter 
case the ancients confuunded witli agate the yellow 

1. (AihvaiBUS. a,p. OT.—Jar.. SaUX)ii.,8S.— Mmrt.,xut., 143.) 
— S. (Plin . H. N.. xxiij., «:.— F6o, in loc..— 3. (Arwrtot.. H. A., 
li.. A.— Snlmu., Eirrc. Plia., p. 222.}~4. (Srhiil. in ArtattTpU., 

AcJkMra., /f*S, trha laatra the DUtboritjr of Amlalle. — Wunn, de 

yVufci, *f., jx JJ3.J 


fiuor spar, containing, as it sometimes does, di( 
naled particles ol iion pyrites. The agate was %. 
culled in Greek airrjjurjjf.* 

*ACHERL)'i:s (u^tcM^of). t^e wild pe^ f 
also a kind of iliuru uf wtueh hedges wij «ia( 
tipruigcl suggests that it is ilie Cra/tfa-* Ararat 

•ACHEKiriS (.i^rpu/f), the whit« po'Jar-t* 

•ACH'KTAS (ujtcrac), accordir^, to Hcs] 
ins, the male Curm/a; but this i; .learly either] 
mistake or an eiTor of ilie text. % - there can be 
doubt that it is merely an e>.lii.t applied to 
larger species t»f Cicada, a**.* signifviug "voc: 
( !(//. Cicada.) 

•ACHILLE'OS VAxi^ri'K). a plant, fablod 
have been discovcird bv A.hilles, antl with whi< 
he cured tiie wouaii of iVleji'ius,' The comroeni 
tors on Pliny make it liie 6Wrn/fj hradfa. U 
dilficnli, however, to decide the question from 
text of the Roman writer merely. On recurring' 
that of Dioscurides, we may, perhaps, conclude 
follows; the Achilleos with the goldcu flower is 
ArAfJlm t<mtent/tsn sm Abrotant/o/ia ; the kind with 
punjle duwer is the A. tafliacctiJoUa ; ;ind the 
wila while flowers, the A. noMis scu magna.'' 

AC'IKS, (V7*/.Ahmy,) 




ACI'NACES {a/(tvu/iTii), a poniard. 

This word, as well as the weapon which it 
notes, is Persian. Herodotus says," that wJ 
Xerxes was preparing lo cross the Hellespont wl 
liis army, he threw into it, together with some ol' 
things, "A Persian swottl, which they call an 
naces." As the root ati, denoting sharpness, 
edge or a point, is conimun to the Pei^ian, togcti 
with tlic di-eek and Latin, and ilic ren of the Ii 
Kuropean languages, we nicy a.scril e lo liiis w( 
the same general origin with anutf, uKUKf'h 
fida, and many oilier Greek and Latin words al 
lo these in signification. Horace* calls the wea 
Mcfivs ariruutis, intending by llic mention of 
Medes to allude (o Uie wars of Augustus and 
Romans against Parthia. 

Acinaces is U-sually translated a cimetfr, a fa 
f} saJirt, and is supp<.ised to have been curved ; 
tJiis a:^>umption is misupported by any cvideui 
li appears that the acinaces was short and filrai( ' 
Julius Pollux describes it thus:** "A Persian dt 
ger fastened to the thigh." Jo^ephus, ginng an 
comil of the assassins who infested Judaea befc 
the destruction of .leriisalem by liie Roniiuis, sa] 
" They used daggers, in size resembling the Pci 
acinaces; Imt curved, and like those which the .. 
mans ca\i sictc, and fhjm which robber? and murdi 
ei-s are calleii sirarii.'*" The ciuralu re of (he dags 
here described was probably intended to allow the 
to fit closer to the IxMiy, and thus lo be conceali 
with greater ease under tlie gannenls. Thus 
see that the Persian acinaces differed from the 
man sica in this, thai the Ibrmer was straight, 
latter curved. 

Another peculiarity of tlie acinaces was, that 
was m;ule lo be worn on the right side of the bodi 
whereas the Greeks and Komaris usually had th( 
swords suspended on the leA side. Heuco Valerii 
Flaccus speaks of Myraces, a Panhian, as 
FJi^nis manicU, inju'f^nis ori-nact tfartro.^' Tiie si 
hrt i.s illiLstrnted by the account given by Ammiani 
Marcellinus of tlie death of Cambyses, king of Per^ 
sia, which wils occa.sioncd by an accidental wound 
from his own acinaces: " 5f*/wiW pi'^'iVwir, t/umt ap- 

I. (ThcophrMT., lin I.npia., W.— Hill, in Inc.— Plin., II. N., 
xxjTj].. M.— Orph.. Liih., v„ 350. — Stilin., Polvhist., c. «i.— 
Mnoni'i Anc. MmrnUn^, p. 178.)— 3. (Soph., UJd. Col., IMS.) 
—3. CAdatM, Apprml., i. ir.l— 4. (Sjireai:., i., a».)— 5. (AduiA, 
A[ipci>d., «. r.l— 0. (Plm., H. N.. nr., 5.)— 7. (F^e In TUn., \. 
O— ti. (rii.. M.)— U. (OJ. 1. xxvii.. 3.}— 10. (nfp<n«AyJ.^/«)<9v 
r^ mp'f vptunt^rntti*n'.)—ti. (Ji«0ph., Ant. Jud^ xst 7, «^0 
—13. (Arson., ri., 701.) 



l/» gatabat^ aubita m rnina nudaffl, 
The Lntiu bistoriiin here ^vespt(gi/f 

' ■'- ^ -' rm. 

M%m brm of i* ' the meihod of 

il(il;!5 iHitstrr'/ / iuamit:i- by Lu-u 

dMaa» of ancient inunutnetit^s. In Uic tirst place, 
ti tW li«s-relie& wlnrb a<l<>m ^hf^ niins of Pvr^cpo- 
lii^ A« adiuees i^ ind is coin- 

mmiy mspoDdod lover over 

flKu, bat aomcu..... .... i.jdy. The 

la l2w aiuiejccd wcxxlcut are selected from 
of the rains of Perscpolis, publiiihcd by 
Bzisrv, Chardjn, ^iebuhr, and Poner. 

acioaces was frequently worn by the 
. a^litv.' ft vrn" nUo often ffivcn to iudi- 
^bvdkekiii i < asuinarK ufbouour.' 

tnedflfiui lu anoy at tlie haille 

♦ ii.i.ii.i goUlcii poniards on 

' Thai of Miifilunius, the 

i<n^ kepi as a uophy in tho 

Aihrtiii Panheiius, on the acropolis uf 


■ ; '.1 bv the Casjiii.* It 

«waA oh" 

^hip.nmoniitbe Scvlh- 

^iii r 

.. ri;iiiiji;5 of Europe.* 


It monumeaU^ consists 


lira*, two of which are 


The annexed woodcut is 

Omoi frocn 1 

; the two, and tlearU* shows 

IkBMnbCKhs fjdi 

<ji uie acLuacea. 


•ACTTEVSKR ('XzKtTTjtttoi). the StiirKeon 
JU^^trr S^iriift L. Liulovicns Nonniui holds, that 
wmg of Ausoniuj is Ihe stnr^n, but this 
to fvrj qoesMonable. The l?^* and Oie 


■!.*29.— Charitno, n., 4.)- 
.3, 6 87.)— I. {IIrm.1., U. 
m lil.i—0. (fhfid.. riu., 

!' !m, ii^ I. — Ammiaa., nxi^ 

ui, jV. A., rui.fSS.) 

j-oAfof 'Pdrfiof^ were x-arietics of this fis** It n 
also called bincKo^ by I>uno m Athciifleus.* 

ACLIS, a kind ofdaru 

Virg'tl uttn)>utes ihi^ weapon to the Osci, one Ol 
tlic aucicni uaiionti ol Italy: 

*' Terttes wtU adides iJlis 
TVte, $tU hffc InUo mos rsi aptare Jiagriio.'" 
From this account it appears that the peculiarity 
of the aclis consisted in having a leaihcrn ihonf 
atl.'iched to il; and the design of this contrivance 
probably was, that, after it had been thrown to a 
diMancc, it might be drawn back again. 

The aclis was certainly not a Uoman weapon. 
It is always represented as U5cd by forwpi nation^ 
and distiuEpjiishinp chem from Greeks and Uomaos.* 

ACXA. AC NUA. (TrW. Actus.) 

•AKOIPN MKPTrPKySiuKOTiVfiapmpnv). By the 
Athenian law, a witness eould properly t'nlv give cvU 
dcnceofwhai he had seenhimscif, not ofwhai hchnd 
heard rrtnnDihei?>;' but when an individual had heard 
anything relating to the matter in dispute from a per- 
son who wa.s dead, an exception was made to Lha 
law, and what he had heard from the deceased per- 
son might be elven in evidence, which was caJk'4 
uKoifv fiaprrpdv ' It wiiiilt! appear, however, from 
a passtig-e in Is^us, liiat a witness might give evi- 
dence res()ecting what he had not seen, but that this 
evidence was consideretl of lighter value.' 

•AC'ONE (uKWTf), the whetstone or Novaculttt 
(Kirman), the same as the vhtil sUite ufjameson, and 
consiMing principally of silei and aliun. Theo- 
phrastus informs us that the Armenian whet^tonea 
were in most repute in bis time. The Cvprian 
were also much sought after. Pliny conibimdi 
these with diamonds.* 

•ACOMTUM {aKuviTQv), a plant, of which Dioa- 
corides CMiumeratcs two apuci^'i', tho napdaXiayx^^^ 
and the 7.vk(>kt6vov. The latter of these is corv- 
sidered by Dodonaius, "WoodviUe, Spreugel, axi4 
mo5t of the authorities, to be the Aamilum NapeU'us^' 
or Wolf's-bane. Respecting the former sj>ecie(j 
there is greater diver>iiy of opinion ; however, 
Sprengel is inclined, upon Ihe whule, to ai^rce with 
Dodona>us and Sibthorp in referring it to the Daronu 
rum. jmriinliancJus, or Lcopnrtl's-bane. It woukj 
seem to bo the Kufifjapop uf Hippocrates, and lite 
(TKo/j-tof of Theophrastus." 

».\C0NT1AS {oKovTiaf), the name of a serpent. 
Then* can be no doubt that this is the Jaaiius of Lu- 
con.^* £lian is the only anlhar who confounds it 
with the Chrrsyilrvs. Aelias calls it Can-AhUs, froi 
the resemblaaice which its spots bear to the seeds o| 
millet {KcyxP^)- ^' '« called cafezatc and altaaraU 
in ihc Latin translation of Avicenna. According to isabont three palms long, and the thickncsst 
of a man's little linger j iis colour ihatof ashes, with 
black spots. Spren^l tliinks it may hare lieen %^ 
variety of the OAubirr Bcrus, or Viper." 

•AC'ORUS (uJcoiKjf ), a plant, which moat of thM 
commentators hold to be tlie Act^rus Calamus. ap\ 
STeet Flag. Sprengel, however, in his onootaUoiui* 
on Dioscorides, prefers the Psemlacmmm}* 

ACdUI'SlTlO is used to express tlieacqiutition 
of ownership, or properly generally. The several 
modes of acuuiring property among the Roman v 
and the incidents of property when ac4juired, are 
treated of under the various heads of I.v Jlrc Ce»- 
flin, Mascipatio, Usucapio, Accessio, flitc., and see 


•ACRATOPnORUM, a small vessel for hold- 

1. (Athen., rii., 
730.)— I. (Sil. Il*J., 

— 111., C. Lcuctl., II 

SrhOuLKtin, Ai'jmu 

4 0. •e.i-. p. 445, ■.>,!.)— 7. (Ufl listed. VUrtuclrtu., v- \W.\— ft 
iM.l'.. >x.,lH.— A.^\*nw, K\^\*iuJ.,» 

p. 305.)— a. (Tii., ji. aw.)— s. (j;n., »»., 

li., M9.— Val. FiBf., /nrauaul.. VI., W.)— ». 
, p. IiaO.)— 0. (D«iii'Witk.,r. S'npb.. p. 1I3«, 
1007.— IJ., n. Eiibiil,. |>. i:i(MI.— Mr* rr bihI 
Vi\<c., p. 009.— Peliiiw. AH.', w.,"!. 

... . fAdirnn, Anfrmi-.f, v., -„ 
.. r.)-W. (Ptvin»l, ,x., 731 
, / Dtmeond.~-.f:i}Hii, S. X.. 
/ ;, 28.— Uioacurid., i., 2.} 

730, fell.)— \\. iSpT^nn., 0*mm*iRi. «v 
nil., la.)— \5. lT^«v'bi»»^t "l^ V . 




ft wine-cup. Tlic name is derived from 
iKfiiTov, "iiDiiiiiitMl wine,'' anil ^//>(j, " lo bear" 
Pollox ineuiiur.s il '\i\ hi> accuiml uf aiicivnt drink- 
ing VL'^seLs, and ricscnbra it as resting, noi on a flat 
tKitloni, but on small astnit^ols. {Vid. TALts.)* 

ACKOA'MA {uKfu'}t^ia) signified amon^' ihc Uo- 
muM n concert of players on different niu<(ical in- 
?lruincnts, nnd also an interlude, c.illed emhoiia by 
Cicciu ' which wn» performed during tlit- cxhihi* 
tion o( the public ^mcs. The w*>rd is alwt Xjv- 
({uenlly used for ih*" ar:toff and miisi'^iflns, who were 
oflou employed al prirare entertainments;* and il is 
S(nlll:litn^•^ f-mployfd in the ^ome sense as ana^r**''^'^) 
who wcfc iLsu.illy f<lnve?t, whose duly it was to niaa 
or repent nassa^s from books during ao enietiaiii- 
ment, and also nt other times * 

•ACRf>A'SI.S {oKpoiKJie) I A literary disooarse 
or lecture. The term (iiwlf of Greek origin) is ap- 
plied liy the Latin nTilers to a discoun>e or dispuia- 
tion, liy siinii' inMnii'^ler or professor of an an, to a 
iiumcixMis audience. The currespundin\; Lntin icnn 
i.-* AiL-lUto} II. It also signifies n place or roem 
where litciurv men meet, a lecture-room or school." 

ACRO'LITTIO! (dff/KiX/tfoi), ftlatues, of which iho 
nlrcmities (head, feet, and hands} were only of 
>)tone. and the remaining part of the body of bronze 
orgilde<l wood.' 

♦ACKOPOD'ICM {iiKpoTodiav), the base or ped- 
estal of a statue, so callctl from its supporting the 
extremities or soles of the feet <u«/>0{-, iroiJf). 

ACHOSTO LION {Ufwariaiov,) the extremity of 
iho aroXo^. The tnolo^ projected from the head 
of the prow, and its extremity (dn/wtrroAior), which 
was frequently made in the shape of an animal or a 
helmet, &e,, appears tu have !«eenM<mi-'linies covered 
Willi braa», anu to have AiTved afi an ififtoXTt against 
the enemy's vessels.' 

•ACROST'ICHIS, an acrostic, a number of 
rerses so contrived, that the first Ictten of each 
being read in the order in which they Mand, T^hnll 
Ibrm some name or other word. Tlie woni .*'igni- 
tien literally the begiiuiinji; of a line ur verse 
(aroof, aTix(K) "Aftciinlinff lo some aui^ioritioa, a 
wriiLT namotl Porphyrius Optniianus, who flourish- 
cil in the fiiorth century, has the credit of having 
been the inventor of the acrostic. It is very nruha- 
blv, however, of eariier date. Easehios, the m>*hop 
uj'CuesaiTca, who died in A.D. 310, Rives, in hUi Lilc 
of Conslanilni', a copy of Creek verses, which he 
a.ts«rts were the composition of the Erythraean Sibyl, 
(he initial leltcrs of which made up the wo^d^ 
imOTS XPiSTOS OKOT TlOl lUTHP, that is. 
J:'iiLi Christ, tJu Stm of <AW, tie Savumr. These 
verses, which arc a description of llie coming of the 
day of judgment, have t>ccn translated into Latin 
heiamctcrs, so a^ to preserve the acrosiic in that 
huiKuaRe. ill the xvupN JKSUS OTIHlSTLfS UKI 
FILIUS SEKVATOR. The translation, however, 
wants one of the peculiar qualities of the original ; 
for it will Imj ojjservcd that thy initial Icilers of the 
five Greek words, l>cing joined together, form ihe 
word IXOTE. that is, ihr fuh, which St Augustine, 
who ' ' in his r/ork cnlitlr*] />: ('iri- 

Ink J lol'c uiid':TSt'>iKl a^a mysiical 

epith^ .- ^ ., who lived in this aby.*-!? of mor- 
tality %vilhont cniiiraeiiD^sin, in like manncrasa fish 
exists in iM'* mitlst of the sea witliout ncquirini^ any 
tlav' i>m the salt water. This may iberc- 
fon 1 acrostic within an acnistic."' 

At i\' • 1 i. kUIM {QKpuH/iMov) stjtnifie^ the ox- 
Iremiiy of anvthinsr. I. It is uvwl ni Arehitcoitire 
to desi^ate tiie statues or other omnmenlM placed 

1, fJWti*^ Ti^ 16,— M., t, ao.j— «. (Pru Srii^ V. M.>— 3. 
tCI*.,» V«rT., IT., « —M.. pm Arrh., t».— 8.WI.. IK^r., 74— M/i- 
laub., Silt., u, 4.)- ' ' ' ^tt., i., Itt.— III., ad Fan*., v., 0. 

-Pbn,. Kp., I.. I' I'l,, ly.— Ncp,. Kn, M.)— .V 

fVilnjv.. 10, :i - f^raiiiin , p. 8.)—/-. (Civ, »«J 

Alt, i«-., 17.)— 7. ..171'.. II,. 8,) — *. tyaXt/iintc onJAat. 
jS^A.. Pi-n^ 4J4^t—f. fUaJlmum, tie SihylUf Ihurrlsl., p. ISS, 

on the summit of a pediment AccordI!&|f1 
writers, ilic word only means the pediraenl' 
the ornaments arc placed.* II. It signified 
uHfioorQ>uov or a^>^atnov of a ship, which were 
ally taken fmra a conquered vessel as a 
vicion'.' III. It was also applied lo ihe excr 
tics or a statue, wines, feet, hands, Ac." 

ACROTHINION (iApotf/i-iCr), gcnrrallfi 
the plural, means properly the lop of the \\i 
ffi^. und iatbcncc anplled lothotH! pans ofl 
oi the earth, and of the booty taken in 
were offered to the gods. In tlie Phccnlsiic 
ides, the choiui call themselves dopo; lU/y 

ACTA DIUR'NA (proceedings of the 
a kind of gazette pubtisned daily at Rome 
amhonlv of the goveniment. it contained 
count nf the proceedings of the public 
of the law courts, of the punishment of oirendetf,l 
a list of births, marriages, deaths, Hic. The 
ccedings of the public assemblies and the la^ 
were obtained by means of reporters 
The proceedings of the senate (acta scnal 
not published till the time of Julius Ctcsaf,*^ 
this ctLStom was prohibited by Augustus.* 
count of the proceedings of the senate was 
served, thoi^jh not nahliahed, and soma' 
seems lo have been cliosen by the eraperorl 
pile the account.' The acta rlinma were 
acta populi^ ada piUdica^ acta •urbamo^ and 
tlie simple name oi ada. These a/ia werol 
ly consulted and appealed to by later 

ACTA SENATUS. f m Acta Dn 

ACTI.\ Ctlirr/a) was a leslival celebrat 
three years at Actium in, with 
horse-racing, and sea-fights, in honour of 
There was a celebrated temple of Apollo al J 
which is mcniioned by Thuqydides'^ and 
After the defeat of Antony off Actium, Au|^ 
largod tlic temple, and instituted games to 
bratcd every five years in commemoration 

•ACTE ((lAr^). Dioscoridca de»ci 
species of Elder, which are undoubtedly ,^^ 
tnuXtiS mfrra anil e^ihis, nainciv, the cummc 
Iho dwarf elder. The u«rg of Theophrastua 
former of the^e,*" 

ACTIO is deftned by Cclsus'* to be the! 
pursuing by judicial means what is a mail'/ 

"With respect to its subicct-maltcr. tlio 
divided into two great divisions, the m 
arfifi, and tin- r'fi rrm artio. The in n 
was against a person who was bountf to 
lilfhy contract or delict; tJie in mn adio af 
those cases where a man claimed a corporeal 
{citrmralis res) as his property, or claimed ft 
as, for instance, the use and enjoyment of, 
the rij^ht to a n»ad over a nierc of Kroimd; 
The in rem adiowus called rinduatiot ll 
stmoTn actio was called cmtAiriiit, In^'ause 
thi* plainiitr^ave the defendant notice to a] 
a given day for the purpose of choosing a , 

The old actions of tne Roman law we'i 
irj,"5 ariurtifTi, or l^ffitim/r, eitlier because ih( 
expressly pn'vided lor by the laws of the 
Tables, or l^icaiiie they were strictir adapted w] 
wordsof lite laws, and therefore could not be vai 
In like manner, the old writs in this country 
talned the matter or claim of the plaintifl'es 
according to the Icgnl form.** 

I. {VitniT., in , 3,— M 
— »»r<«I..iH.,M.}— 3.(1). 

BW.)— 4. (Suelim,,J-iI . ': 
ul.. Ann*] , ».,4.>— «. (Ui 


L" Clrrr, Juumnux chrx If* K«mun>, p. 108. to^q.) — 0. (J 
llyr., M.W-j \— m, h.'JO>— M. /rt. , p. Mfl V— 19. (! 

Oft;,- ■ "■ ■ •-■ ■!■' ..... |. 

IV . 


EMIti r'S'jLT jiiriB, 'jijii. i':'*ii>: "'i j'nm.iii t'tijii 

Utvlwr sumx.'* Bncuio, 1. KVt.\ 



Tim kn modes of proceeding by legal action, 115 
'described UyGaiu^,^ were SAgttAMENTO, 

.fTDffJi* P.ijtTn.*TinNEM, PkR CONOICTION'EM, 

rio!<EM, Per PicNoftis captioncm. 
liu of aciion gradually fell inio div 
^ :e of ihe cict&sive Diccty required, 
^')ueat on the sligbit'st error in 
irhich there is a nouible example 
pnu faf Gams hinueU^* in the case of a I'laiuiill' 
•W OOHiplaiBed of hisrutes(rt£(:3) being cut down, 
4Mi vak icld that his acu'oa was bad, inaitmuoh as 
haioete CO have used the (cnn trees (arlforcs), and 
; bccaase the law of the Twelve Tables, 
SaTc him the action tor daina^'e to Lb vines, 
only the general expression "trees" (or- 
Ipo^ Tbe Lex ^Initia and two Leges Julia} 
^hdAhad the old Ugiturnt adioms, cxccj)t in the 
^M e^4«iKw«iR inffctiim {ViU. Damnum imfcctum), 
mA ta uuctrrs which fell under the cognizance of 
CenCiunTJri. {Vul. Centcmviri.) 
litiie old Roman constitution, ibe knowled^ of 
'llkw was mo5l close!)' cuuiiectcd with the losti- 
awl cetemonial of religion, and was acconl- 
Sn tfae hands of the patricians alone, whose 
itMclr clients were obliged to ai>k in all tlieir 
~ diaxues. Appius Claudius Ca:cus, perhaps 
^ Uir «-'.-li.--^i writers on law, drew up tlic 
ior :ii, prf bebly for his own ase 

t ot . V : the Viauuscript was stolen 

JTCPflsI br hL> sorilie Cp. Flavins, who made it 
jnUk; MtMi thus, accon^Jn^ to the story, the ple- 
MUDi Htwh* acquairJ-Ml with those legal fontis 
Ulh«rto hod bctrD the exclusive property of 

the old legal actions being abolished, it be- 

practice to pro>ecate suits according to 

"'. J Pjrms, or formulae, as they were 

.1 t»e Aplained after we have no- 

1A ^.vi>ions or actions, as Uiey are made 

lltomaii writers 

dlTl*imi of artitma in the Roman law is 
»• I and some of the divisions 

■.\\Kt as emanating from the 
Ml ian.s than from any other 

B' 'n, though complicated, may 

*ii:_ ^ I, or, at It'ast, rendeKnl more 

U we ctmsider that an action is a claim 
made by uoe person a^in^l imoiher, 
in order to he a valid legal claim {ndw 
1), U mu5t be founded on a leijal ripht. The 
I divLsioQ of anion? must therefore have a ref- 
w or analciey to the main division of rif^hts ; 
tn eTcrr vAr^trm of law the fonn of ilie action 
! of the legal right. Now the 
IS in the Roman law is into 
L«i iiLnuHiiMu iir ownership, which are rights 
tbt vfaole world, and into rights arising 
ninrl. ar.J nuaM Cuntracr, and delict- The 
/' :'laiuant, who claims a 

I ^n who may dispute 
^ aal '-ijc .' tion is to comnol 

SPK, Bd^MTv V the particular 

«ki>t«'f— .. . i- i--.. ;-- .iction the plaintili 
jRVperiy in or to a thing, or his 
10 « Wneftt from a thing {vrvUutcs). T\\ns 
«r/ ■ ■< called on account of ihc 

iion, bal the term is a lech- 
I aaixa.' au aciijn which is in no 

'tffnn4^' 'N and tliL'iTfore has no de- 

xu- ;- the other necessary' party 

; tnii every individual who disputes 
b«i«vfi>ei, by ^'i''h not of dispiiling, a jKirty 
Mck ikriuiiL 'i' rrffi does not ns- 

ibr rwmplainnr.r (mm the nalun* 

Aa »ctUm nut cotii|-. ......;... - light cannot be 

hf tt, foe Lt is a right against all the 

l^^-4. tcfr.. a» aw^ f., 4t.~id., pn I 

world; but ihc aciion determines that the dcrenS 
has or has not a claim whicli i^ valid {igaiu!:t ihf 
^lainUtI''d cJaJui. The adut in personam itnj'lies a 
determinate person or persons again&l whom llie 
action lies, ihe right of the plalnlif being founded 
on the acL^ of tlie defcDdant or defendants; it is 
therefore in respect of something which has been 
agre*si 10 be done, or in respect of some injury lor 
which the plaiullll claims compensation. The ttiJut 
»iLr/a of Jusiinian'i Icgif-laiion' was so called fi-om 
its being supposed to partake of the nature of the 
actio in rem and the actio in prrsanavK fetich was 
the aciion among co-heirs as to the division of the in- 
heritance, and the action fnt the purpose of sellling 
bouiidari*^-* which were confused. 

Rights, and the uiLKles of enforcing them, may 
al^o be viewed with reference to the sources IVom 
which ihcy flow. Thus the rights of Roman citi- 
zens flowed in part from the sovereign power, in 
part from those to whom power was delegated. 
That body of law which was founded on, and 
flowed Itom, the edicts of the pi*2elors and curule 
axlilcs, was called jus honorarium, as opposed to the 
jusdTiU\ in its narrower sense, which comprehend- 
ed the Uges^ plcbisciia, senalus amsvUa, Sec. The jus 
fi'itorariuiti introduced new rights and modified ci- 
isting rights ; it also provided remedies suitable to 
such new rights and modifications of old rights, and 
this was efleclcd by the actions which the pranora 
and icdiles allowed. On this jurisdiction of the 
pnrlnrs and a*diles i.s fotmded (he distinction of ac- 
tions into tiriks and AantrraTutj or, as they are some 
limes csWisi, pra/oria, from the greater importance 
of the prjetors jurisdiction. 

There were several other divisions of action?, all 
of which had reference to the forms of procedure. 

A division of actions was sometimes made witli 
reference to the object which the plaintiff had in 
view. If the object was to obtain a thing, the ac- 
tion was cid\ed patscvtfmn. If the object waj to 
obtain dacdages (pana) for an injuiy, as in the case 
of a thing stolen, the action was jktnaiisi U'T the 
thing iti»elf could be claimed Itoth by Uie riiu/iaiiio 
and ihc aytufici Iff. If the object was'io obtain both 
the thing and damngcv, il was probably sometime*-^ 
called a/:4io mix4a^ a term which had, however, an- 
other signification also, as already obifCrved. The 
division of adumfs into tlirccUe or rvigares, and nti- 
Irs, must be imced hiftorically to the tidionrs Jirtxtiti 
or fictions, by which the rights of action were en-' 
laiged and extended. The origin of this division 
was in the power a?ismned by the pnctor to granl 
an action in si>ecial cases where no action could 
legally !« brought, and in wliich an aciion, if 
brougut, would have been xnanis or tnviUis. After 
the decline of the pnrlor's power, the adi^mts vtHea 
were still exieuded by the contrivances of ihc jttri$ 
p-v*icnUs and the rescripts of the emperors. When- 
ever an actio ntiiis was granted, it was framed 00 
some analogy to a legally rccognisci) right of action. 
Thus, in the examples given by Gains,' ho who ob- 
tained the bonorum posscssio bv the pnctor's edict, 
succeeded to the deceased by Ine pnctorian, and not 
the civil law : he had, therefore, no direct action 
(e/irfirlaadia) in respect of the rights of tlic deceased, 
and could only bring his action on the fiction of his 
being what he was not, namely, kcrex. 

Actions were also divided into artfinaria and cx- 
(r/ionlituii-ifg. The (miinaria were those which were 
prosecuted in the u^ual way, first IcTir^ the pnptor, 
injure, and then before the judex, inpifiido. When 
the whole matter was seillcd before or by the prtPtnr 
in a sinnmar)' way, llic name r:rfTnoriHimna was 
appticahle In such artion. (17//. Intkiidict.) 

The foundation of tlie division of actions into 
artioHns itriciijuns, hontt piciy aj\d.nTWtr«ri«^ \s iiq\ 
quite deal. In the adiuna iimii jurij/W avv^iMl 

I. (U 



Ktsi ihe fonnnia or the pretor cxprcsswl in precise 
and slrici lomis Uic inniicr hul-mitiod m \hc nulcx, 
whuhc auihuniy was thus contmcd wilhin limilA. 
in the aUioTus ttorutJUlei, or cxfitUhona,^ more laii- 
mde was pven, ciihor by the fomiuia of the pnetor, 
ur was implied in ihc kind of action, such as the 
action cr onpto, vcTuJif^i, lacatPy6cc.,nnd the special 
eircuin&tanccs of the case were lo be taken into 
consideration by the judex. The ariioKes arbitraria 
were so called from the judex in such case being 
called an arbiter, probably, as Festus says, because 
Ihe whole mutter in disriute was subniilte4l to lus 
jud^^mcnl; and he coula decide according lo the 
juitice and equity of the case, withoni being fel- 
Icred by the pra?tors formula, li should be otaerved, 
'sii, that the judex properly could only condemn in 

sum ol' money ; but tlie arliiler might declare that 
any particular act should be done by cither of the 
parlies, which was called his artUriuiH, and was 
followed bv the iondrmiuitw if it was not obeyed. 

The division of actions into pt-rprtva and t/injto- 
raln had reference lo llie time within which an 
aoUon might be brought, after tlic right of action 
had accrued. OriifinaJly those actions which were 
given b* a ^*r, srnnfus rmtsvltum, or an imperial 
coostilutiun. mif^bl l>e brought n-ilhuut any hmila- 
(ion a-s to lime; but tlui&e which were granted by 
the pra?tor's authority were generally limited to 
the year of his office' A time o( Umiintion was. 
however, ftxed fur all actions by Uie late imperial 

The division of actions into ndiftws in pis and in 
facUtvv is properly no division of actions, but has 
merely rel'erence lo the nalnre of the formula. In 
the foimula in factum, cfnuffta, the praetor misht 
direct ihc judex barely to mquire a» to the fact 
which was the onlv matter in issue ; and on llndinp 
the fart, lo make the pn?pcr (fnulrmnntw : as in llie 
rasf of a frecdman biin^nf; an action against bis 

t>;ilrunus. In tlie funnulu in juts the fiict was not in 
<<ue, but the legal consequences of the fact were 
subiniilcd lo the discretion of the judex. The 
funnula m fudum coramence<l ivith the iccbnical 
expression, iS* parct, &c., " If ii should appear," &c.; 
the formula in jus coinmenecd. Qium/ A. ^., &c., 
*' Whereas A. A. did so and so."" 

The actions which had for their object the pun- 
ishment of erimtLs were c^sidercd public, n.s op- 
posed to those aciioni by wddch s*jnie particular 
p''r--<in claimed a ri«ht or compensation, and which 
were ihercfure called fntvola. The fonuer weie 
properly called jiuitn'a yiJJtra ; and the latter, as 
contrasted with them, wtre called jvdida pncnta. 
(I'lV. JcDiniM.) 

The artious called noxaUs were when a JUius 
famtiiax (a ^on iu tlie jxiwer of liis fallier), or a 
i!lave, committed a thett, or did any injury* to an- 
other. In either case the fnther or owner might 
give np the wronp-doer to the person injured, or he mu-tt pay competent d;iniri;;es. These ac- 
lions, it apfieap;. take their name eitlier from Uic 
injur,' cnmniiltcil, or twcause tiic wri:'nt:-<l<)er was 
liable lo Ir. eivcn np to punishment (n/?7i^) to the 
person injured. Somi- of ttie.^e Aciion» were of legal 
origin, ns that of theft, wliich was given by the 
Twelve Tables; that of damnum iniuntc, which 
was given by the Aquilia Lex ; and that of injuri- 
arvm rt vi bannrum rijpfontin, wluch was plvch by 
the edict, and thiTT'for*,' was of pra-torian oripiil 
This instance will wjrvc to j^how that the Romnn 
dinsion and classification of actions varied accord- 
ing as ihe Roman writers contemplated the sources 
of ri^n'hl^ ofariion, or the remedies and the modes 
of obtnining ibem. 

An action wa.s commenced by the plaintifl* .snm- 
muiiing the detieadam lo appear before thepnetoror 
other magistrate who had juriMlidio: thi.s procw* 
tras caDed in }us vactUiv / and, acconling to the 

/ rCVc, To^, irj-A (Gajiu, it., «, AT.) 

laws of the Twelve Tables was in el 
ging of the defendant iKJl^Drcilic pntior 
to go quietly. This nule proceeding 
in lalvr times, and in many case* there c( 
in jus vocaHo at all, and in 'other eases it 
.sary to obtain the praetor's permission \xi 
of B penalty. It was also esiablishcJ that 
could not be dragged Irom his u«n hoi 
man kej)i his house to avoid, as we 
iK-ing sen-ed with a writ, he ran the ria 
of sequestration {tictor in b&tut mUUl 
object of tliese rules was to make the di 
pear before the compeieiit juri'^dieiion j 
of entering an ap[»rnmn<:e |i>r tbc dciriK 
not seem to have su;rgeMed iiself lo tJio 
lawyers.' If the defendant would not go 
the plaintiff called on any by^timder to 
(rtn/*y<in)tbai he had iK-endn 
the ear of the wilnes*!, and ■ 
into court,* The parties ti\\^U\ 
on their way to the court, or the defe 
be bailed by a vindex.* The vindex 
confounded with the vades. This scltJ< 
disputes on the way was called tronjactio 
anil serves lo explain a pri.'^sagc in St. 

When before the pr.rlor, tJie pariics^ 
JMfCumrrc. The plaintitf ih.'M nrnv,.! f.i 
and il'ihe pra-ior allowed It ( 
declared what action he ini' 
Ihc defendant, which was . , [; 
This might be done in writiti/ "i ' i: MyJ 
plainiiff taking Ihe driendnnt lu Un* oilAt 
tng him which O'.'lion he intended lo 
the Jtfnnula. eompiebended, or were 
comprehend, every |K)Ssiblc lorm of 
could be reuuired by a plaintiff, it was 
that he could find among all the formuhr 
which wn.« adapted to hi? rase, and he wu 
ingly suppiiHcd to lie without excuse if h« 
tjike pains lo soleet Ihe pro(ier formula.' If 1 
the wrong one, or if be riaimod mon* than '' 
he lost his cause;' bui ihc jinPlor 
him leave to amrnd his claim or it 
f.^.. ,.,,,!,. ,1... r,:i tract Iwiwcen the pr 

"-.and the plainltfTclJ 
II I' lo«.t hi? arlion: thus: 

might U>, tiial l)ie defendant undertookj 
plaintiff a quantity of dyesiuti or a 
plaintiff claimed Tynan puri>lc or 
slave, his nclion wris bad; thercfun^ 
according lo Ihe terms of the cunlracl 
claim of ihe iikimtiit to be. It will be obetfl 
as the formula? were so numerous and eomi 
5ive, the plainiijf had only to scJcct the 
which he suppoved lo be snilahle to his 
woijld require no farther variation ibj 
tion of the names i»f the pnrticji and 
claimed, or the iubjecl-mattcr o\' the 
amount of damages, *c., as the case 
When the pnetor had granted an actiivj, 
litf required the defendant to give seci 
appearance before the prtDtor (m .?(/reJJ 
nameti, commonly the day but one afw 
rofntioj nnlcss the matter in dispute 
once. The defendant, on finding a sui 
vaiti% dare* rtu/itnatiivm prirmHirre or 
suretv, Tf7,i. was said sptrnttcre ; the plaiotif 
sntisficd with the surety, was said 
let hiin go on his sureucs, or to have 
him. AVhen tb*- .cMidnnl promiMd 
jvrr on tbe da/ n»ri»-1, without Riving 
litis was called fa/ttmenium pvmm, lu 
rempftalmei {vid. Jenrx) were name*), whO|| 

I. (Dif . «, lit. 4.)-- 9. nrT. S'-nii f.. IT., ?5. 

tuB, Corcul., T, ?.}- " ' ,1 

«.— U i> not t'My t, « 

whtflh bmli plvfl M.i .'1 

iiTTt B««,,, <". ft.) — T. V" '"«•*•% '^I'-li*' " Citt.,d»1 



81 lAe defendant roakiiig default, condemned him in 
iht Mmwi mxfocy named in the vadimanium. 
l( Uk d«t<sndajai appeared on the day appointed, 
«» Skill wmitmaniiun sislerc ; if he did not ap- 
Ut v*a saiii uttiimimiuia lUscmixu:, and the 
g^Te to the pUiniid' tiie bortonim possasit)} 
on the aay appointed, were bummoucd 
>), when the plaijitid' made his claiio 
vhieh was very briefly expressed, and 
be ooftsidend as currc^ponding to oiir declara- 

defendant might either deny the plaintiff's 
or he ou^t reply to ii by a plea, exccptio. 
•teiplr denied the plaiDtltT's claim, the 
at iasue. and a judex mi^hl be demanded. 
of the €T^-eptie> also were contained in the 
•» edict, or, upon hearin:^ the lacu, the pncior 
' the plea to ihc case. The exo^tio was the 
It's defence, and was often merely an eqtii- 
aaswcr or plea to the plointiti's legal demand. 
plalotiir might claim a tiling upon his contract 
die deCsidaDt, and the defendant might not de- 
pm coaEiact, bat might put in a plea of fraud 
t\ or that he had been constrained to 
'h a;sTt:cc3cnt. The ejKcplio was in effect 
• lived the plaintiff 's demand, 

it was « V a negative clause : thus, if 

iuuiiia a^:>ertthat the plaintiff frauda- 
j4Miww<rt 2 soQx of money which he had not 
Ibe deCendant, the rxryptm would run thus : 
n&af diiio male Auli A^erii Jaduiti sit ncque 
iffli Th* rrrtf'io pruceedeu from the de- 
it v I d in iliis. form, in order to be 
Hir ! the Cannula, and to render 
I-;" litf condition. 
/''■»<■ or diialoria. Per- 
cx'- i > omplcte and perpetual 
to the i»iaauiid"'a demiuiJ, such as an exeep- 
of 4«rfiM ww/aj or "of rts ii'^li-a/a. Dilatory ex- 

a? ■' ' iru[x>rta, merely calcu- 

b> delay l'i ^ demand; as, for in- 

by showu:,-; debt or dnty claimed 

yvt due. Uaius considers the exceplio 
and rd rtsiJua* as belonging to this 
1/ a plaintiff prosecuted his action aOer a 
exception, he lost altrtgether his right of 
There might be dilatory exceptions, alsj, 
llie peraoo of the plaintiff, of which class is the 
«3V^i/.7ria, by which the defeniiant objects 
; laiutiff is not entitled to .»:ue by a 
■ le co^tor whom he hnrJ namt-d 
aoi quniiiiL-^i to act as a ctnrnitor. If the ex- 
^ns allowed, the plainlitf could either sue 
or n.\toe a [>ro(,>er c^jguitor, as the case 
\x. ! int neglected to take advan- 

ol a f '^rp/ifl, the proctor might af- 

~ p; 11 to avail hiuuiclfof 

vfaedMr same in the case of a 

'a-. " ■. ,.. .[ion.' 

pUiAtiff migbt reply to the defendant's rr/xjh- 
Cjr tte di^fmdant, by piuiiug in his plea, became 
actor. (' ' The defpndant's plea might 

ipod, ar. u: ansu'er to tJie plainiitr'i* 

", Mwl v'-i m-' jlninliff might allege soxae- 
rtil ■inild be an answer to the plea. Tbns, 
Ijiven by CJaius,* if the auctioneer 
lydaimed the Price of a thing sold by 
itm. ike dd2^nd(Ult mi?ht pat in a plea, which, 
ilksejleilitt r wonldl>eof this .shape: 

I ^emmm tmy , xi ei ra quam cmrrii 

mii and t' in form a good plea. 

If Ifar coodi - were that the article 

Met be h'i' ' purchaser before the 

w Mid, the Aigvutanus might put in a rc- 
\a IvU shape: Nisi ^ttAidum. est nt aliter 
na trmdtrHur ifuam h prr/ivm emptor soiuent. 

If the defendant answered the rcyiicalio, his ansiitT 
was called dypliaUifj and the j>aniuii might go 
to the IriplioUui and i/v/u.'rup'joUio, mid. evou fa^efj] 
if the matters in question wore such that they cotil< 
not otherwise be brought to an issue. 

It remains to speak of the prasfriptio., so called 
from being written at the hend or beginning of tbei 
fonuula, and which was adapted for the protectioaj 
of the plaintiff in certain cases.* For instance, if I 
the dcfcDdant was Ujuud Ut moicc to the plaintiff ft! 
certain lixed payment yearly or monthly, the plain-- 
tiff had a guoil cause of acdon for all the sums of 
money already due; but, in order to avoid making' 
hi.s demand for the futnre payments not 3'ct due, ii 
was necesifary to use a pnescriplion of the follow- 
ing form : Ea res aga/ur ntjus m dicshut. 

A person might maintain or defend an action by 
his cogmtffr or prwvraUn; or, as we should say, by 
his attorney. The plaintiil* and defendant used a 
certain form of words in appointing a cognitor, and 
it would appear that the api>ointment was made in 
the presence of both parlies. The cognttnr needcii 
not to l)c pre^enl, and his appnintmenl was com- 
plete when by his acts he had signified his assent.* 
No form of words was necessary for appointing a 
procuTtttor^ and he might be appointed without tlie 
knowledge of the opposite party. 

In many cases both plaintiff and defendant might 
be required to give Mcurity {saiififnrf); for instance^! 
in the case of an actio in rrm, the defendant wltOj 
was in possession was required to give security, in 
onler thai, if he lost his cause and did not restn 
the thing, nor pay its ei-tirnated value, the plaintiff] 
might have an action against him or his sureties,. 
When the adio in rem was prosecuted by llie /(/rmvia 
pctU^tria, that sUpuluiio was made wliicn was ealle;! 
jtuHratnm solvi. As to its prosecution by the spnasio, 
see SpoNaio and CcNTUHvmi. If the plaintiff sued 
in his own name, he gave no security; nor was any 
securilv required if a cognitor sued for him, eithei 
from the cognitor or the plaintiff himself, for the 
cognitor actually represented the plaintiff, and wa»J 
personally liable. But if a procurator acted forj 
hira, he was obliffed to give security that the plain- 
tiiT would adopt nis acts; for the plamiiff was notj 
prevented from bringing another aclinn wJien a pr*v 
curator acted for him. Tutors and curators gener- 
ally gave security, like procurators. In Uic case of 
an'adia in pcrsonavi, the same rules applied to the 
plaintiff as in the ea^o in rtm. If the delendant ap- 
peared bv a cognitor, the defendant had to give se- 
curity; if by a procurator, the procurator had to 

When the cause was brought to an issue, a judex 
or judices might be demanded of the pnctor who 
named or apjxnnted a judex, and delivered to him 
the formula which contained his instructions. The 
judices were said dari or addici. So far the pro- 
ceedings were said to be injure: the prosecution ol 
the actio before the judex requires a separate di.«i. 

The following is an example of a formula taken 
from Gains:* Jiuiex esln. Si parct Aulum A^ertum 
apud NumeriuM Negidium mfnsam firf:mirnm depa-- 
nuifse ramque doto maSo yummt Se^viii Awh Agen9 
reddiiam non esse {puinli ea res erit tantam pfcuiUaM 
judex NuvicriuM Negidium Avlo Ageria candemnalo • 
n Tum pard, ai/snivHo. 

The nature of the formula, however, will be bet- 
ter xmderstood from the following analysis of it by 
Gains : It consisted of four parts, the devumstTati»t 
iattjUio, tufjudicaiio, rtmdntntatio. The drmtmstra/io 
is that part of the formula which explains what the 
subject-matter of the action is. For instance, if the 
."flibject-matter be a slave sold, the denumstratin would 
nm thus : Qvod Auius Ageritis Nu-merio Nrgidio Jurm- 

MB. I^te.M, won— Clc, »mP. QuincUc>c. (I.;/ /. fGuiu,tv., ISO, w<iq.— CK.,d« Onl.,^.tTI.>-^. V^Vc-, 
f,m»-S- C<Um«. ir, )t3.}-4. fir., m.) J Q. RoKto, c. 1-nof., S«ntt. 1., t., W.l-S. ^W .Kl.\ 



jicn vndidit. Tb< intmtio cooUins tfo daim or 
demand of the pUiniitf': Sipard kff mu tem ez jmn 
ilmntimwi Auii Aseni <nr. The tdj^mHatU h Uut 
pan of ifac formau which gires tbe judex unhontj 
lo adjndicstc the thine vhich is the snlgect of dis- 
pute lo one cr other of tbe litigant puties. If the 
action be among partners for diridmg that vhich 
bcloQgs lo them ali, the adjodication woold mn 
thtu: (jtiumhun tfd^iftiaari MvrM JH^ex TytiBoijmdi- 
taio. The amtltmnaUp is wt part of the Ibnnala 
which gives the jodex amhority no ooodemn the de- 
li'ndant in a sum of moacy, or to acquit him: for 
eiample, Judez Nvmermm StgvUitm AmU Agtria 
hjlertiitm rniHa condevtna: n wm jun^t daaht. 
Somesiines the int^ntw alone was reqoisite, as in 
the fonnalie called praju^iaaia ^which aome mod- 
em writers make a class of actions), in which the 
tn.'itirr for inquiry was, whether a certain person 
vm^i a freedman, what was the ainoiuii of a c/'O, and 
aiher similar qoesiions, when a lact soleljr was the 
thing to be ascertained. 

Whenerer the formula contained tbe cm^cihim/u^ 
it was framed with the view to prcuniaTT damages; 
and, accordini^y, even when the plaintia claimed a 
particular thin<^, the judex did not adj\idge tbe de- 
fendant io ^Hve the thing, as was the ancient prac- 
tice at Rome, but condemned him in a sum of moo- 
ey equivalent to the value of the thing. The for- 
mula might either name a ^ed sum, or leave the 
estimation of the raloe of Qie thing to ibe judeXf 
who in all cases, however, was buund lo name a 
definite sum in the condemnation. 

The formula then contained tbe pleadings, or the 
stntemcnts and couxitrr-stalcments, of the plaintiff 
and liie defendant; fur the t«/ni/u>, aswe bare seen, 
was the pLiimifi's declaration; and if this was met 
by a plea, it was necessary that this also should be 
inserted in the formula. The formula also con- 
tained tlie directions lor the juilex, and gttve him 
the ixiwer to acL The resemblance between the 
English and Roman pntcedurc is pointed out in a 
note in Starkie's Law of Eridrmce,^ 

I'he following are the principal actions which we 
read of iu the Ruroan writers, and which are briefly 
described under their several beads: Actio — Aqtut 
pluvia arcctuia ; Boturmm ri raptantm j Certt ct lH' 
cerfi 1 Commadati; Comnuni dividutuio; Cen/essorint 
Damm injuria tiatt ; LkjrxU pgi tffufi ,- Dfpcnsi ; Oe- 
pnsUi ; De deh male ; Kmti d vmditi ; Kxerdtana ; 
AH ExMHtendum ,* Familia crcisaaula; Fidudaria; 
f\ni%ivi tfgitHtitfnin : Purti; Ufpotkecahn ; Injun- 
annn : lustitorta; Jn/haiti; Quodynasuf Lc^ A<iui- 
tits ; Laciili d anulueii ; .Maiulnti rnutui ,- Sfgaliva ; 
S-'Zfliiarum gatomvf ; !\'cjiUis ; De pavpcrie ; Ik pr- 
cttli'o ; Pi^naratida or Pi^noratitin ; Pvllidana ; 
Quftnii minm-is; Italionilnis tiistraJun/IU; Dtrtvejitoi 
Redhibit/tria ; JJci ttjtiria or Di^is ; RalittUoria and 
Jirsassoha ; Rtdtliitna ; ScTviana ; Pro socio ; l^tint- 
twia i TSdrlee. 

ACTOR signified generally a plaintiff. In a 
civ^il or private action, the plaintiff was often called 
pctitors in a public action {tomm. publico) he was 
called acauaiw.* The defendant was called mis^ 
both in private and pnMic causes : this term, how- 
ever, according lo Cicero,* might signify either 
party, as indeed wc might conclude from tne word 
Itself. In a private action the defendant was oflen 
called adventtrius, but cither party uii^hi be called 
advenarita with respect to tne otlier. Oritpnallr, 
no person who was not sui juria could maintain an 
action ; nJijiusfftmiJi/jji, therefore, and a slave, could 
nni maintain an action; but in course of time cer- 
tain actions were allowed to n. JUins familias in the 
absence of his parent or his procurator, and also in 
case the parent was incompetent to act from mad- 
ness or other like cause.* Wards brnujjht their ac- 
tions by their guardian or tutor; and in case they 

^ 7. fi., p. 4.}~-S. (CUt. adlAtt., i., ]*.>-3. (Db Ormf., ii., 43.) 

* fiV- *7, tit 10,3.17.) 

, viabeil to lung an action against their Itttot, 
pisAar aaned a mor for the"pQTpo>$e.' Peregi 
oc aliots, CfigiBalty brought their action thro 
their jMOaias; but allenraid in their own na 
far a Ktkia of taw, that iher were Roman citiz 
A Roman citizen night abo generaUy bring hia 
tioe by means of a cogniror or procurator. ( 
Actio.) A ««iscnii<fls, or corporate body, suafl 
was son by dieir adir or .ifiirfiiiu.* 1 

Actor has also tbe sense of an agent or ma4 
of another^s btwmrqi mcrally. The ad^rr pu6i 
was an officer who hnd tbe supeiintendence or, 
of slaves and propertr belongmg to the state.* 

ACTOR. <K£/, Hjvtrio.) 

ACTCA'EU. sboit-hand writers, who 
the speeches in the senate and the publ 
In the debate in the Roman senate np(« the 
roeni of those who had been concemed in tne ( 
smxacv of Catiline, we And tbe fo:st mentJoo 
sDort&aod writers, who were em{4oyed b/ Cit 
to lake down the speech of Caio. 

The AcrriRii Mitrnf, under the Roman cm 
ora, were officers whose dutr it was to kee]i the 
counts of the army, to sec tnat the contractorsj 
pUed the soldiers with provisions according toa 
ment, Ac." ^ 

ACTUS, a Roman measore of length. "2 
tvoaAalKr, tn fito foivs mfftmhir cum ttralro, una 
vfim jtat^. Oic ertt cxx peihim ; dvpHcat^sfut 
bmgilndinemmgenimfadAti"* This actus is ca 
by Columella aeitis fuuhatms; be says,^ ** A 
MoAnJmsiaidiqaeSmtiHrfaiUmscxj. UiKdvpfi^ 
jacUjugrnam^ Hateo^fuod eraijvndum^jugtriM 
ugarptmt ; xd Awie adiun gmincue Ba&ca fV 
acmuBn (or aenoin) voomU, Vano* says, ** A 
^uadraius ^ «C lotes erf pedes cxx, et bmgvM Mit 
is modus amna Latins oppeB/ttur." The adus ^ 
rains was therefore equal to half a jngenmi, or 14, 
sqtiaie Roman feeL The adus mintmus or 
was 190 feet long and four broad, and 
equal to 480 square Roman feet. 

ACTUS, (lid. SEBViTXTEa.) 

ACUS, dim. ACICULA fjSeUtm, ^eXwif. 
a needle, a pin. 

We may translate actis n nfrdjf, when we 
it to have had at one end a hole or eye** To 
passage of thread : and a pin, when, instead c 
hole, wc suppose it to have bad a knob, a sn 
globe, or any other ccdarged or oniamental lermJ 

The annexed figures of needles and pins, chi 
taken fr^:tm oriipnals in bronze, varv in length fi 
on inch and a hall' to about eight inches. 





Pins were made not only of metal, but at^ 

wood, l»one, and ivory. Their principal use wfli 
as-Qist in fastcninj? the garmeots, and more parti 
larlv in dressing ilie hair. The mode of plait 
the nair, and then fastening it with a pin or nce« 

1. (Caitii, i., IM.)~3. (Dir. 3, tit. 4.1— 3. ■ Tartt.. Ann,, 
Mi iii.CT.— Lip*., Escun. »i] Tont., Ann., ii.. 30.) — 1. (S> 
Jul.. fi5.— Seamen, Ep. 33.)— 5. (Ammion., n., 5. — Cod. 
lit. 37, i. 5, U; Hi« tji. 41>.)-«. (I'Ui.., II, N., xTiii., 1.) 
(r.. !.>—«. <D« Rfl Ru»t.. i., I».!— t. C<:ulum, v., I.— Vi 
De Ung. La*., W., 4.\— 10. (r(»venti«t r^luXfaJ 

■ 1 fismrc of a female head, 
ip whii-li wa:s (LHind at Apt, 

f^ic Oi<hinn has been ri>iiurincd to oar own tunes 
Htttf frfikJiIxr^ of Italy. MaitiaJ alludes to it in ibe 
Irikwtfi^ crt^ram. in which he supposes ihe hair to 
Bift^toa with pexfumes and decorated with rib- 

* 7>WM IM •w«/ub vialtnl bom/f^na criiKS, 

TW aca^ was employed as an insimmrnt of tor- 
tttr. tkrii^ Inserted under ibc nails. 

Htaatf vas enjoined upon chiMren by telling 
BkSB [l«i ii vas wronsf even to steal a pin. 

n name given by the an- 
lu »cYt.raJ Miices and amon^ the 

ynlMMr to A. Psollus describes 

■■I •^*MA' ft^ ■">».''>.'> . iftoiiii' ' ' ''./Cot'- 

onAT^iy*, '* lU* colour rcseiii and 

fi l." — "It is p^ol»nWc,"o^^ 1 . Iluic, 

1 speaking of the ^-m cnllrd a/f- 
*■, amc^nE" oth*;r thint;?, the dia- 
[ 'aiii. ('mm \)ii: f;iMes he relates of 
' ^^ T "I ti._'ii.-t value, not only 
I tiiiiii;!*, and for a long 

• to viT)' I'f w of ihern/ 
. i> evidently conftrtind- 
.[i >«_-;i'r;d widely diflerpnt miner- 
;i iheir hanlness,or Uieir, in ^ome 
; ■.' ' r- ' !'T nniurc, the Greeka 
int.' Thus steol waa 
. :'i those grains of na- 
■ hich, when ine pan^uc coniainine them 
^i in ptjwder fn n mortir, resiFted the pes- 
I lied bv it, were called 
'■"rt Pullux meant by 
. . iioicest p^ild, which he 
iio, liy>, by 'the branch or 
I -m its dcn-sitF, vcf)' hard and 
>:^iedadttmAis.** tt was, no doubt, 
fiat was spoken of in the authors 
r'tonn I'unr drew, when he wrote that adnmas 
mA to pmatkicsi that it accompanies eold; 
t MBBft Kk Of (Mr (iitw iiiTC lAit in gold ; that it 
t^rgta i&ui ' secil, nor unlike to it 

ir. Of il lift mentions, that de- 

MM occtm- not in gtild, Itut bear- 

v>tAl. may have been 
thmi^.i ^-.-1. ijffe it is probable that 
those from whom he copies, mi5iook fine 
qoirtz for ilinmonds. or. rather, call 
mi^awini. The description given is 

" " ' ^ " ^t. xir.Ef'lir. 

].. WKi.)— I. 

1—1' joaiiuuM., Sirm'i, 
-A /m, PPJ— ft {j(/,tHro8 



precisely that of a cr>'stal of quartz, in which tba 
prism has eniirulv disappcartil, leading a double 
Mix-^ided jtyramitf U{K>n a cummun base.* 1'he 
manner in which Dionysius Poricgetcs character- 
izes advmas may lead us lu suswct that he also 
i;poke of crystals of quanz; for liie diamoiui in iti 
impolished slate, as known to the ancients, would 
baldly have been styled ' all resplendent^" end 
allerwani 'brilliunt." The locality, too, in the 
former case, being Scythia. The variety of luUmuA 
which Pliny calls suieritrx, was magneiic iron ore;* 
and the Cyprian was pnibiiUy emerj', or some simi- substance iLscd in engraving gems.'" 

•ADAIt'KES (d(^opjo7f). Malthiolus admits hit 
ignorance of what this substance is, and Matthias 
Paber was in error when lie ruferrttl it to the Lapii* 
Spimgdfs* From the description of it given hy 
Dioscoridcs and Paulus jEgineta, it was evidently' 
nothing but the efflorescence M'hich gathers about 
reeds in certain isaU lakes.' 

ADDIC'TL (>V//, Nkxi.) 


ADDIX, ADUIXIS (<5W/;, uM^fif). a Greek meas 
ure, according to Hesychiua equal to four ^wwAcf. 

ADEIA (Wfia). When any one in Athens, who 
had not the full privileges of an Athenian citizen, 
such as a foreigner, a slave, &c., wished to ncctise' 
a person of any olfenee against the people, he waa 
obliged to otiiaiu fin>i iM.-riui:>sion to do »o, which 
permission waa called uMia* An Athenian citizen 
who had incurrtHl an^la {tid. Atimia) was* also 
obliged to obtain u6eia before he could lay an infur 
raattofi against any one.' 

ADEMP'TIO. (Vid. LjigatumJ 

ADGNA'ITO. {Vid. Hehes; Tebtamentcm.) 

ADGNA'TI. {Vid. CooNATr.) 

•AiyiANTON, a plant. There can be no doubt 
that it is the Atlinnlvm Capil/ns, or " Mai den- hair,*" 
Both Nicander and TheophraMus say uf it, that it' 
derives its name fwm the circnmstaiice of its nat 
bemg wet by rain {u, nr^., and diaivu, "to wet"). 
ApuTeias metttions CaUitrirhoiif Ptitytricktrn, and A^ 
fUnon as s^Tionyroes of il.'» 

'AAIK['A£ rr^of riiv d^fiov yfiQfijt and atrar^fftui 
Tov 6f)fiov ypa^, were actions brought in the Athe- 
nian conrLs against persons who wcrw considered to 
have misled Uie people, the courts of justice, or the 
iicnate of Five Hundicd, by misrcprescniations or 
false nromises, into acts ofinjustice, or into measures 
injurious to the interests of Athens. If an individual 
was found guilty, he was punished with death. The 
law relating to these ofll*nces is preserved by Demos- 

ADIT'IO HEREDITATIS. (V**/.Uersdiwb.) 


ADLEC'TI were those persons who were ad- 
mitted to the privlleeies and nonours of the pnetor- 
shiri, qii;p?;rorsliip,tpdilc*;hip, and other public offices, 
witnout having any duties to perform.'* In inscrip- 
tions we constantly find, adUdus irUrr friimnaf, inftrr 
qittxsloftSj inlcT protons, Ac. The name al!«> was 
applied, arconling to Fcstus, to those senators who 
were chosen fK>m the eqnlies on account of the 
small numK-r of senators; bnt it appears more proli- 
able that the adlccii were the same as the con* 
script!, Livy savs, Comcriftos in nffcvm scrM/«m 
appetUilHint Moi}^ 

ADLEC'TOR, a collector of taxes in the proT- 
incc-t in the time of the Koman emperors.'* 

). (Dm., H. N..KXzviJ., 15.)— 3, («aii^i^i'ra;I>ian.Penf9., 
^\^.)~y\f.t%(i,,.i\(te\'ra : IJ. iti., 1 1 1V.>'4. <Sa)mu., Eicrcit . Fliu., 
p. 773, nHi^Jiunipiim, Mim-Pil., i., 41.) — 3. (SalmM., EnTcit 
Plin., p. 771.— MK>r*>'» Ancirnl MiDPtnlorif, p. M3, *<wi.)— 4, 
(I>ti»c«r., r.. 137.— Paul. .Ejiin., tii.— Muogpii, Uil'l- Scnp 
Mrd.l— 7. {AdMiMi. Apti'ii'l., ■.».>— 8. fPlul.. Pcncl., r. 3H 
». (Deinwth., r. Tiin-xr., 12, p. 715.— nat.. Vh«c.. C.*.^— \< 
(TJit'-p/inwf., ir P.. vii., U — Nhmiid,. TlirT., M*.>— \A. 
Leptin.,c.3i, (>. «((7,-rj. ib., c. W. p. 4».— W., c.Tvmo\\i..» 
/»«._i>;narch.,c.pliil.«.,c. l.jj o^.)— l^- (CbV'"^'^»^^^«5«» 
c6.}~iS (u, I.J— ». (tod. 1^*1., xu., m. -^i., ». tt.^ 



ADMISSION 4. 'LES were chamberlains at the 
uupcrial conn, who iutroduced |>er5*oiis to the prcs- 
ence of ihe emperor.' They were divided into 
fijur classes ; the chief ulficcr of each class was 
called jTftrmiwj admissumn-vi ;* and \)\(i pruximi were 
under the uuigi^cr admSssumumJ* The admissioa- 
aJes were qs-uaily freediuen.* 

Friends apiwar lo have been railed amid admis- 
sioHU prit/tte, sccMtuItt, ur tcrlitz. Accurding to 
some wrilers, they were so called in consequence 
of the order in whicli they were admitted; accord- 
log to others, the tUrium was divided into 
dilercnt pans, sepaxaicd Irom one anotJier by hang- 
ings, into which persons were ailuiittcd accur^ing 
to the difierent decrees onavour in which they were 

ADO'NIA {a&uvia), a festival colpbratod in hon- 
our of Aphrodite and Adonis in most of the Grecian 
cities.' It tasted two days, and was celebrated by 
women exclusively. On the first day tiiey brou^hL 
into the streets slaiuts of Adonis, which were laid 
out as corll^e^; arid lliey observed all the rites ciis- 
tomnrr at funcral.s, beating themselves and uttering 
lameu'taiions.^ The second day was spent in mer- 
rinicni and feasting, because Adonis was allowed 
to return to life, and spend half of the year wiUi 

*ADO'NIS (ii(Jov(f, or iiCmoiToO, the Flying-fish, 
or EiDcxtus vohtans, L.* 

ADOPTION (GREEK). AdopUon was called 
by the Athoniana derroirjaif, or sunietimes simply 
Koirititf or iSf'ctf. The adoptive father was said 
rotiiff^ai, cwKouiijOai. or somelimes noifiv; and 
the father or mother (for a motlier nOer the denth 
of her hu.sband could consent to aer son Ireiug 
adopted) was said eKmutlv : the son was said tfcroi- 
tiaOat, with reference to the famdy which ho left ; 
and eloTroiilatiat with reference to the family into 
which he was received. The son, when adopted, 
was called iroii/rof, rlaTOt^jirof, or i^trof, in opposi- 
tion to the legitimate son bom of the body of tlie 
latlier, who was called yvifciof. 

A man might adopt a son either in his lifetime or 
by his testament^ provided he had no male oilspring 
and was of souna mind. He might also, by lesta- 
Jient, name a person to take his property, in case 
his son or sons should die under age.** If he had 
male ofTspring, he could not dispose of his property. 
This rule of law was closely connected wim tlie 
rule as lo adoption j for if he could have adopted n 
son when he had male children, such sou would 
have shared his projK'rty with the rest of his male 
rhildreu, and to that oiient the father woold have 
exercised a power of disposition which the law de- 
nied him. 

Only Athenian citizens could be adopted ; but fe- 
males' could be adopted (by testament at least) as 
well as males." The adopted child was transferred 
from his own family and demus into those of the 
adoptive father; he inherited his properly, and main- 
tained the sacra of his adoptive fattier. It was not 
necessary for him to take his new father's name, 
but he was registered as his son. The adopted son 
might rclnm to his former family, in case he left a 
child to represent the familj' of fiis aduptive father: 
unless he so returned, he lost all ri;;ht which he 
might have had on his father's side if he had nul 
been adopted; but he retained all rights which he 
might have on his mother's side, for the act of ado^>- 
*ion had no effect so far as concerned the mother of 

I. (tiunpid., S«tft., r. 4. — " Offirjom a*!!!!!**!*™!!." SoM., 

Vetii., c. H.)—%. (Ammlin.. xm., ".)— 3. (Ammlsii., iy., S.— 

V(m., A'lrv]., c. 11.1—4. (Cod. Thpwl., ri., tii. 9, i. Ifl ; tit. Q, 

« 4; lii. 35, ■. 3.)— 5. (Son., d* Brnrf., vj., S3, «»«q,— Clom,, i., 

lO.>—6. fAnrtoph., Pax. 412.— Schol. in loc.)— 7. (Plutarch, 

Atf., c W. — AV., e. lS.)—f>. (Ftr n fufler »*y;ouiit, cdosult An- 

t/um'M CJAMiraJ Dictimutrr, m. t.}~9. (JEU^a^ ix., 30.— Plin., 

n. A-:. M-. Jff.j^W. (Dei«imth.,nni Iri^drpv ftv^., 13.)-11. 

/iwrnam "/^n» 'Ayrtov KAlfflOB.} 

the adoptcil person ; she siiU continued hit; 
aller Ute act of adoption. 

The next of kin of an Athenian citizen were^ 
titled to his property if he made no (U>po«tion 
by will, or made no valid adoption during his 
lime; they wers, therefore, interested in prevent 
fraudulent adoptions. The whole community 
aUo interested in preventing the introduction 
their body of a person who was not an Ath( 
citizen. To protect tl»e rights of the next of 
against unjust claims by persons who alleged ihi 
selves to be adopted sons, it was required that 
father should enter his son, whether bom of 
body or adopted, in the register of his phi 
{^parpiKi^v ypafifiarehy) at a certain time, the " 
gelia,^ with the privity of his kinsmen and phrai 
{yfvvf/Tat, ^puTope^). Subsequently to this, it 
Mecessar>' to enter him in tlie register of the adoj 
father's demus iXfi^apxtKov ypafuiareiov), wilU 
which registration it appears llial he did not 
the full nghts of cilizensliip as a member uf bia 

If ^he adoption was by testament, rcgistral 
was also required^ which we may presume that 
person himself mi^ht procure to be done if be 
of age, or if not, bis guardian or next friend, 
dispute arose as to the property of the decei 
{O^pov diaiiKOGia) between the son adopted 
testament antl ihe next of kin, there could prop* 
be no registration of the adopted son tmlil the 
tamecit was established. If a mnn died cbildl 
and intestate, his next of kin, acciniiing to 
Athenian rules of succession,' look his propertjrj 
the right of blood (uyxtcTeia Kara yh/vi). 
regi.siration might in this also be rcquJi 
there was no adoption pitiperly so called, as sc 
modem writers suppose ; K)r ine next of kin d< 
sarily belonged to tnc family of the intestate. 

The rules as lo adoption amoug the Athent 
are not quite free from diificully, and it is not 
lo avoid all error in stating them. The gej 
doctrines may be mainly deduced from Uie oralij 
of Isseus, and those of Demosthenes against Ml 
laius and I^ochares, 

ADOPTION (ROMAN). The Roman n 
lion of parent ana cliild arose either from a lai 
marriage or from adoption. Afhji/io was tlie 
eral name which comprehended tlie two spe< 
adoptw and oiiTogaiut ; and as tlie adopted pel 
passed from his own familia into thai oi the pei 
adopting, atlitptU) caused a capitis tiimiimtin, and 
lowest of the tliree kinds. Adurti'^'u, in its siiet 
sense, was the ceremony by which a person 
was in the power of Ids parent (in potaUiie 
tium)^ whether a child or grandchild, male or] 
male, was transferred to the riower of ilie jiei 
adopting him. It was efToctea imder the aoi" 
of a magistrate {mtis-istraltLi), the pnrtor, for 
stance, at Rome, or a governor (pmsr.%) in 
provinces. The person to he adopted was emi 
paled {rid, Mlscipatio) by his natural father ' 
the competent aulliority.'and surrendcreil lo 
aduptive fatlier by the legal form called m 

When a person was sui juris, i. c, not in 
power of liis parenl, the ceremony of adoption 
called rt*/roffrt/w. Originally it could only be ef 
ed at Rome, and only by a vote of the poj 
{pomli attcUyrUiiW) in iHe comitia ruriala {Jcgt 
fl/tfj; the reason of this beiue that the caput] 
status of a Roman citizen could not, according 
the laws of the I'welve Tables, be aireetcd except 
by a vote of the populus in the comitia curiata. 
Clodins, the enemy of Cicero, was adrognted into ■ 
plebeian family in onler to qualify himself to be 
elected a Iribunus plebis.* Females could not be 

I. (Ixvus, rtpl roC 'AroXAo^wfr. KAfJoav, 3, 9,]— 9. fDi'tnctl^n 
ir(A( Acwx-. *^- 6->— *• lK.Oe\l.,'«.,c.W.-aw\.,Ktt^..c.M.W 
4. tCic.«iMX.»U.,1.— \A.,\i»oT)Mft-^ 



fcf like adrogario. Under the emperors it 
cJw prsctiee tn effpcx thn adrogatio by en 
ir^' - JfiiUf rx r€i:rnptv 

jnanu); ^ l become esiatv 

MM tr. I in ., ..t) it appears, of 

D^ii '-ver, from a passa^ 

i» r*t-ii i(t a successor wilhooi 

iy uf liie aJiu^juUo. By a rescript of 
lKujM!iur Antoninus Piu<i, cuMros-^cd to the pob- 
who weie imtier aye (im/nj/MTo), or 
Si), could, with cerL'iin restrictioD.i be 
by ttie aiii\>gaLio, If a fatbt^r wlio bad 
in his power C4Mi8enied lo be adopted by 
ir pei50ti, both himself and tii& cJiildreti \k- 
JB the power of the adoptive father. All ihe 
of ihe adopted sc'ti became at once tiie 
of ihe adoptive laUier.* A person could 
\y be adoph>d by the adiogatio titi he had 
(mi a sansfacioo' case (jfufo, botiOt muM) to 
PO«iEitiros, vho had the right of insisting on 
ppslimiuarT cundilions. This power ct the 
was pnibaWy fbimdf^d on their rght to 
the due observance of the sacra ul each 
ti would, accordiimly, have been a good 
of pefusiijg their consent lo an adrogatio, 
person lo be adopted was the only male of 
.'-►old in swch case be lost. 
iilopuve father also had no 
ible ho[>es of any ; and, as 
ic«3 uf this coudiliou, that hc should be 
ihc person to be aduptcd- 
could not adopt a person, for even her 
wen not in her power. 
all adoption was enected by the imperial 

of atloption was to create the le^al re- 

of Citiirr ^lui •^"fi, jnsi as if the adometl son 

bom Kt III'- ^'If^A of the adoptive lather in 

marnage. The adopted child was entitled 

ftajnc and sacra privaia cf tho adoprin^ 

and i' 'fill Uie presenation of the 

pnvat, , the laws of the Twelve 

wcit i»'tual, was frequently one 

eamma fur a childlcfts pcr^n adopting a son. 

of if»l*''!t.irv, Ihr adopted child int^bt be the 

a-! ' ':' T. He became the brother 

If*' daa{!;hler, and therefore 

nui... -J-. . U he did not Ijecomc the 

ftdopttre iaihcr's wife, for adoption only 

ad'^pted -"on the jura a^ationis.* 

■a bv icstamoni"* seems to 

■ uj n of the term ; for, though uiiuiii by testament name a hercs, 

{■apofte the condition of the heres taking; the 

of ihe lestator or testatrix, this so-called 

coatd not produce the eflccls of a proper 

It rntjld eive to the person so said to l»c 

the I. fertyoi the testator or tes- 

tmt ! '■•A person on passing 

OCve gi- iicr, and taking the name 

t>ew t' ally retained the name of 

" addition to it of the icr- 

Thu^ C. Octnniis, nfierwani the 

Anmstns, npon l«ein£; adopted by the tcs- 

/«f hr ■ •'■ ■ '■ T, .resumed the name 

JU uiii^; but he caused 

fit>r. 'v the curia;.' 

oaKvrjiai^ was paid to the gods 

innfir: Ths individoal stretched 

die statue of the god whom he 

kissed his hand and waved 

ce we have in Apuleius, 

aAite suppliariit niiUvm tempium frc- 

'r-A in P)^. I, tit. 
, 15.)— 3, (Gnt.ip, 
'■(iia», i.. 97-107, — 

quaitavits si Jtinttm aiiquoii praUrmif vtfas 4dM 
adorawh gralt/i mnnvm lalrra advunrfc.^ 'J'hc 
adomiio ditTered from iho (fratio or prayers, suppli- 
cations, wltich were olli-rvd willi the hands t- xlend 
cd and the nalms mined upward.* Tht- ailuratioa 
paid lo the Koman emperors was borrowed frum the 
eastern mode of adorauon, and consiilcd m prui.tJHp 
tion on the ground, and kissing the leet and knees 
of the emperor.^ 

ADROGA'TIO. f TiW. AnoiTioN.^ 
ADaCHIPTl'VI. ( I'ui. AcjENsi.) 
ADSTIPULA'TiO. {VU. Sticlxatio.) 
ADULTKRitlM properly signifies, in the Ro- 
man law, Uie oiTcnce couinutlcd by a man tiavHng 
sexual iniercutuse with another man's wife. Stu< 
prum (called by the Greeks 9%ju} signifies the like 
olfencc with a widow or virgin. It was tl^c con- 
dition of the female which determined the legal 
character of the oflencc; there was, therefore, no 
adultery unless the lemale was married. 

In the lime of Augusms a lex was enacted (prob- 
ably about B.C. 17), entitled Lfx Jvha Ue atliUUriis 
coercendis, the first chapter of which repealed .some 
prior cnactmrnta on the same subject, with the pro- 
vi!>ioos of which prior enactments we are, however, 
unacquainted. In this law tlic icmis adulterium 
and siupnim are xistd indill'erenily ; but, slricdv 
speaking, these two terms ditTered as above stoica. 
The chief provisions of tliis law may be collected 
from the Digest and from Paulus.' 

It seems not unlikely that tht enaclmenLS repeal- 
ed by Ute Julian law contained si>ecial penal pro- 
visions against adultery; and it is also not im- 
probable Lliat, by ilie old law or custom, if the 
adulterer was caught in the fact, he was at the 
mercy of the injured husband, and tlmt the husband 
might punish with death his adulterous wife.* It 
seems, also, that originally the act of adultery 
might be prosecuted by any person, as being a pul>- 
lic oflpnce; but under the emperors the right of 
pnjsccutioa was limited to llie hiistvind, fatlier, 
woiher, patmu.*^, and avunculus of the ndultcrcss. 

By the Julian law, if a husbaiid kept his wife 
after an act of adultery was known lo him, and let 
the adulterer off, he wa.s guilty of the offence of 
lenocinium. The husband or father in whose power 
the aiiulieress wa5, had sixty rt.\vs allowed for com- 
meucing proceedings against tiie wife, aflei which 
time any other ncreon might prosecute.' A woman 
convicted of adultery was mulcted in half of her 
dos and the third part of her property (bcnut), and 
banished {rekgala) lo some miserable island, such 
as Seriphos, for instance. The adulterer was 
mulcted in half his properlyj and hani-shed in like 
majiiier. This law did not mftict the punislunent 
of death on either party; and in those instances 
under the empemrs in which death was inflicted, it 
must be considered as an extraordinary punishment, 
and beyond the piovisious of the Julian law.' But, 
by a constimiion of Constantine" (if it is genuine), 
the offence in the adulterer was made capital. By 
the legislation of Justinian,' the low of Constantine 
was probably only confirmed ; but the adulteress 
was put into a convent, after t>eing first whipped. 
If her husband did not take her out in two years, 
she was conijwlled to assume the habit, and to spend 
the rest of her life in the convent. 

The Julian law pennitied tlic father (both adop- 
tive and natural) to kill the adulterer and adulter- 
ess in certain eases, as to which there were several 
nice distinctions established by the law. If the 

>\ {Ltc., Bnt: 5tf.)-r-T.j,&l 
- -^Bff. Jul, &3.—Tib., jNoiMtt. no. 

1. (Apnl.. Apoloc., p. 4I»,— Plin., It. N., xiriij.. 5.)— 3. (vn- 
rt49imT<t \tfiii)w . JEte)!., Prom V.. 100*.— Ltiemt. v., IIIW.— 
Ilfjr-. Curm., ul.. 53, l.>— 3. (On this wliolr »ul»j<'rt, cijiiiuK 
Broai-nus, d<t AilunitiDDihtta. Amst-, I"J3.)-^, (■***. tit- S — 
BciMctit. Rncrpt., n., lit. 26. rd. SchuUm|[.l— &■ V\>wn\. HlX., 
M.-5urt., Tih., 35.)— e. (Tatnt., Ann., U..W.1— 1. (.Tfc-A'. . 
M; lu., a<.— Lipi., ExcTiT*, uITuiIm X^R »'"•» tt-"" 



&lber killed only one of tne p»rties, he brought 
hiia-^ell' wiihiji ihe penalties of the Cornelian law 
De Sicariis. The hasbniid might kill persons oC a 
certain class, described in the law, vhom he caught 
in the aci ol' adultery with his wife ; bTii he could 
not kilt his wife. Tnc husband, by the fifth chap- 
ter of the Julian law, could detain for twenty hours 
the adulterer whom he had caught in the fticl, for 
the purpose of calling in witnesses tn prove Uic 
adnliery. If the wife wis div(irced for adultery, 
the huM>and was entitled to retain part of the dos> 
Horace' is supposed lo allude to ilus Julian law. 

Amont^ the Athenians, If a man caught another 
raiin in the act of criminal intercourse (fioixda) 
wil\ his wife, he might Will him with impunity; 
and the law was also the same with respect to a 
concubiDe {waAhu(^) He mit^ht also inflict other 
punishment on the oifender. It appears that among 
the Athenians also there wa^ no adultery, unless a 
married woman was concerned.' But it was no 
adultery for a man to have connexion with a mar- 
ried woman wlio prostituted herself, or who was 
engaged in selling anything in rhe agora.* Tlie 
Roman law appears to have been pretty nearly the 
same.* The husband miisht. if he pleased, take a 
turn of monpy from Ihe adulteri'ir by way of com- 
pensation, ana detain him till he fuund sureties for 
the payment. If the allied adulterer had been un- 
jusilv detained, he might bring an action against 
the nusband; and if he rained his cau^e, he and 
his sureties were released. If he failed, the law 
required the sureties to deliver up the adulterer to 
the husband before the court, to do what he pleased 
with him, except that he was not to use a knife or 

The husband might also prosecute the adulterer 
in the action calloil fiotxe/a^ yp''^- If the act of 
adultery was proved, the husb;uid could no luritrer 
cohabit Willi his wife imder pain of losing his priv- 
ileges of a citizen (artftia). The adulteress was 
excluded even fW)[n those temples which foreign 
women and slaves were allowed to enter; and if 
'he was seen there, anv one miifht ti-eat her as he 

E leased, provided he did not kill her or mnliUile 

ADVERSA'RT.A, note-l)Ook, memorandum-book, 
posttng-book, in which the Romans entered memo- 
randa of any importance, especially of money re- 
ceived and expended, which were aftenrard tran- 
scribed, usually every month, inlf» a kind of le^r. 
{^Tftbula JHSfa:^ Md,^ ajxtrpti ft ervcnsi.) Cicero de- 
scribes tfie difference between tne adversaria and 
tahulx in his Oratio pro Rox. Cmti., e. 3: Qui/i exi, 
gumi tifgUfretiter scribamvs adversaria ? qtiiH esl, quotl 
diligniter conjidamus talmlas? qua. de cattsa ? Quia 
htrc suiU pirnstnin, i/l/t mnt tttmur; hac ddeiUur 
ftalifjt, iUa SiTvanhir sancU, &c. 

ADU'N.^TOI ((idi'i-arm), wcro persons siinported 
by the Athenian stnip, who, on account of infirmity 
or Ixjdily defecUi, were unably to obtaiJi a livelihood. 
The sum which they rect^ived fnira the state ap- 
pears to have varied at ditTerent times. In the time 
of Lysios' and Ari.stotlc,' one obolus a dny whs 
;given; but it appears to hare been afterwanl in- 
creased to two oboli. The bounty was rcslricte^l to 
■persons whose property was nmlcr Uiree mina*; and 
the examination oi those who were entitled to it lie- 
lonijeti to the senate of the Five Hundred."* Pisis- 
tratus is said to have been the first to intnxluce a 
law for tlm maintcnnncc of those persons who had 
been mutilated in war.** 

1. (tlliiian, Fr., Ti., 12.)— S. (, *. 51.) — 3. (I,y«iai, 
hsffl TCii "EnrtToffWioin ^»ui>.> — I. fDrtiirwtli., ir/irii Niu/paf, 
t. 18.)— 5. (Piinliu, Sent. Rrcept., ti.. tit. 96.)— <l. (Demusth., 
Kurd Nr.»/fl., tfl.) — 7. (DnmtMth.. r>)r>) NuJ^m c. 29. — ..f^hin., 
fcirJ T»»n»/n-i « 3fl.>— 8. (Ivh ToTr 'S-h-i4-nv, c ir., p. TIB.}— 

#/■> — J). tPluu, Snlno., r. 31. — Lyou. hfiif rw 'Atvfiirtv, » 
^wrtrA wnltru f.u tut uidirt(Jaai, iu nrier to prura '^*' ^" ^•- 

ADVOCA'Tirs seems oritrinally to have : .ri 
fied any person who gave anuihfr his ni)*- in ai* 
fair or business, as a wimess, for instance;' or 
the purpose of aiding and prutecting him in tat 
possession of a piece of property." It was also 
to express a person who in anV way gave his adi 
and aid to another in the management of a cat 
but the word did not signify the orator or patrol 
who made the speech,' in the lime of Cicero. Uj 
dcr the emperors, it sdgnifieil a person who in 
way assisted in the conduct of a cause,* and 
sometimes equivalent to orator.* The advocat 
fee was then called honorarium. {Viti. Oiui 
Patoonus, Cincia Lex.) 

The adrocatns is denned by ITlnian' to be ^ 
persim who aids another iu the conuuct of a soil 

The advocatus fisci was an important officer 
TaMishod by Hadrianus.' It was his bu.^iness 
look alter the interests of the fiscus or the impel 
treasury, and, among other tilings, to maintain 
title io'bona fjjtiwa* 

ADYTUM. (Virf. Temple.) 


JEBUTIA LEX. (Kk/. Actio.) 

jEDES. (rid.HovsF.; Temple.) 

/EDI'LES. The name of these functionaries i 
said to be derived from ilicir having the care of I 
temple (ttdrs) of Ceres. The ttdiles were origini 
two in numlfcr: they were elected fr\>m the plcl 
and the institution of the office dates from tJic sai 
time as that of liie tribimi plelus, B.C. 49 J. Th< 
duties at first seem lo have Iveon merely minisi 
rial; ihey were the assistants of the tribunes 
such matters as the tribunes intnisted lo 
among which are enumerated the hearing of i 
of smaller importance. At an earlv p'.'riul al 
their institntion (B.C. 4-10), we find them npixjinl 
the keepers of the seuatus cunsulta, which the cc 
suls had hitherto arbitrarily suppressed or oltei 
They were also the keeper* of ihc plehisriia. Oi 
er mnciioQS were gradually intiusted tc them, 
it is not always easy to distinguish their duticf fr 
some of those which bohmg to the censors. Hit 
had the general superintendence of building? , ' 
sacred an<l private: imder this power lliey piovi( 
for the suppftrt and repair of temples, curim, d 
and look care that private buildings which were 
a ruinous stale were repaired by the owners or 
ed down. The superintendence over the supply 
distribution of water at Rome was, al an early 
riofl.a matter of public administration. Accordi 
to Froniinus, this was the duty of the censors; 
when there were no censors, it was within the pi 
ince of the tediles. The care uf each parti< 
source or supply was farmed tn imdcrtakers (j 
fianptmrsY and all that ihey did was subject lo_' 
Eipproliation of the ceni>ors or the tcdiles." 
care of the streets and pavements, vriih Ihe ch 
sing .ind draining of the city, belonged to die icdiU 
and, of course, the rare of the cloaca!. Thev 
the nlTice t>f distributing corn among the pfcl 
hut this distrihuiion of com at Rome not 
confounded with theduty of purchasing or procai 
it from foreign parts, which was performed by 
consuls, qua-stors, and pnetors, and sometimes 
an exir.nnniinarv magisirale, as the pra?fecius 
nniiip. The ffdiles had to sec that the ptiblic Ini 
were not impro[*erly used, and that the pastai 
ground* nf the state were not trespassed on; ai 
they had power to punish by fine any imlawfiil 
in this respect. Thcyhad'a general supcrintei 

«ntitlri1 tit lx> anpT«irtr>l I<t ihft ftUtf.— Prt)t..Lcir. Atl., vili. 
S, f. 5.— Itorkh, Vqhlic Econ. of AUieiu, i., p. 323-W, tranil^ 

J. (Varm, li* Br Rii»t.. ii., c. 5 )— II. (Cic. pro C*cin., c. 
— .1. iCic, .1p Omt.. ii., 71.)— 4. (Vit. W. lit. 13, i. 1 )-5. f 
r-itv Ann., j-.ti.)-*. .Diy. SO, Ui. 13.)— 7. (Spair., Viu Hi 
c. 80.)-«. (Pif. 99, til. 4, •. S.)— fl. (Ut ii.,M.)— 10. 
Vtjusduct. Run., lit), ii.) 



ni selling, and, as a consc- 1 often incurred a pnnligious expense, viih the rit« 
u of Uie murkeis, of things of pltfasinf^ the peonlp and secnrinjj iheir voics in 

•■re tiju- . 
•enr«DC« tji 

s slaves, and of weights and 
[art of their duty is derived 
(the xJilw are mentiuued by 
IS {uyupavufwi). It Was their hu> 
t no new deities or religious riles 
'■y, to look after the ob- 
I .'uies, and the celebra- 
.. .._<. r^_- o_rtd fe^Hiivais. The gen- 
nce of pjlice comprehended the 
n^ onicr, rcg-ani to dcceney, and 
iftspc«.uuti '^f tiic baths and bouses of eni'ertain- 
,uf'i of prosUruies, whi>,il appears, 
rsiaterrd Uv the sdiles. The ccdijcs had va- 
OKCcrs tinier Uiem, as prscones, scribse, and 

<>lic*a , 
re^i f- 

He £D]Lrfl CrHULEs, who were also two in 
, irejt originally chosen only from the pa- 
, oltervazU alieniat».'Iy from'the patricians 
the plebd, and at List inililfercndy fwm both.' 
c^,.^ ... ,.,.".i.> -iiir-i was institiitcii B.C. 305, 
a . on the occasion of the pie- 

: to con-icnt to celehnite the 
okLsiuu ]^ji tne ^pace of four da)*^ instead of 
ap>ir} which a senatus coosultuin was pass- 
by which two (ediles weni to l« chosen from 
|«trici>'tiks. From this lime four a-dili'-Sj iwn 
oiikI two cumle, were annually elected.' 
etirc honoure of ihc Kdiles curules were, 
eiiml)«, from whence their litle is derived, 
ii<y in speaking in the 
' The lediles curales 
,-.- . ... > ., .., . i (he riphl of promulga- 
* Ifitt lh>' nilcs (^ororrised in their edicta 
Oie tMiiiJance of all the avliles. The 
'lie .T'lilc^ wen? founded on their 
.'iuteuJenLS of the markuts, and of 
ana scum? in general. Arcordinply, their 
ad mainly, or perhaps solely, reference to 
•» t.iiyins and selling, and contratrts for 
l*hey were the foundation of ihe 
f, among which are iucludnd the 
^('ill and ijimntt minaris.* A i»n*«t part 
i*;<»u^ of the wdileV edict relate lo the 
selling uf slaves. The persons both of 
and ctmde tediles were sacitisancii.' 
5 ihjT, ifter the appointment of the cunile 
"US formerly exercised by the pie- 
exercised, with some few excep- 
' ' ^ indiiTercntly. Within five 
! or eiitt-^rinij on (JlTice, ih'jy 
. . . .aine by lot, or by agreement 
■s, what parts of the city each 
r his superintendence; and each 
able ali'H- tiaJ the care of looking after the paving 
rleaBfliiiK of the streets, and other mailers, it 
•""' ••*"■>''» same loral character wiih- 
'■f duties of the office seem 
iy them joinily. 
■ of the public festivals and 
I farther distinction between 
Many of the-^ festivals, 
' and Ceres, were superin- 
. . .^dilcs indiflcrently; but the 
■ re under the sunerimendcnce of 
-, who had an allownnre of mon- 
'■: rtnd the iines levied on the 
•'•pm to have been approprin- 
liL*r public purposes.' The 
! mngni or llomani, of the 
In: n;presentations. and the 
II, tielongc*! especially to the cunile 
4ntf| U W9M fin snob oi:casion9 il a( they 

la It 

Ike tv) « 

M.. «.>-J. (Cic. S V*.if.,*.. II.) 
21, lit. 1, D» .CdiHcio tdjrU:— 
. ftlj-r fCie., 9 Kerr., r., y,-~ 

future cleciious. 'Idis exiravagani expenditure ol 
' the rcdiles arose after ihe close of the second Pnoic 
war, and increased with ilie opp«jrtuniiies which 
mdiviilual^ had of enricliing tljcm.selves after the 
RoHian anus were carried into Greece, Africa, and 
Spain. Kvcn the prodigality of tlic cmi>emrs hanl- 
Iv sur|)asiied that of individual curule xdilcA under 
the Republic; .such as C. J. CiEsar iho dicialor, P. 
C Lentulus Spinther, and, above all, M. iEnulius 
Seauru«, whose expenditure was not limited tu bare 
show, but comprehended objects of public utility, 
as the reimrarion of walls, dockyards, pons, and 
aqueducfi.' An instance is me'niioncd hy Won 
Ca»fsius' of the ludi Megalesti Iteing suporinlended 
by ihe plebeian mdiles; but il was done pursuaiit to 
a senaius coiisullum.aiid thus ilie particular excep- 
tion confirms the general rule. 

In B.C. 45, J. C»sar caused two cunilc xdilei: 
and iimr plebeian icdilcs to be elected ; and ihcncft*^ 
forward, at least so long as the ollice oi a?>dile was 
of anv imp^Jrtauce, six tediles were annuallv elect- 
ed, 'i'he two new plebeian a'dilen were called Ce- 
reales, and their dutv vrdu to look uAer ihc supply 
of com. Though ifteir office may not have been 
of any great ijuiwrtance after the insUtntiou of a 
pncfectiis annonm by Augustus, there is no dnubti 
that it existed for several ceniuries, and at least as 
late as the time of Gordian. 

The wdilcs l>clonged to the class of the minores 
magistraius. The plebeian tediles were originally, 
chosen at the comiiia centuriala, but alleru-aid 
ibe coniitia tribuui,' in which comitia ibe ciunle 
lEdilcs alM were chosen. It appears that, until the 
lex annalts was passed, a Itonian citizen might be 
a candidate for any office after completing his 
twenty-seventh year. This lex imnalis, which was 
passed at the instance of tlie tribune L. V. Tappu-. 
Ins, liC. IMO, fixed Ihe age at which each oincttj 
might be enjoyed.* The passage of Livy does not 
mention what were the ages fixed by tliis law ; but 
it is collected, from various passages i>f Ruman 
writers, that ihe age fixed for the [p<lileship was 
lhirty->ix. This, at least, was the age at which :. 
loan could be a candidate for the cunilc ivdilcship, 
and it dties not appear that there was a di^ereut 
nUe for the plebeian mdilcship. 

The cediles existed imrier the emperors: but their 
powers were gradually diminished, and liieir ibnc- 
tions exercised by new officers created by the em- 
perofN. AIVt the battle uf Actium, Augustus ap- 
pointed a pracfectus iirbis, who exercised the gen- 
eral police, which had formerly Ijcen one of the du- 
lies of the aediles. Augustus also took from the 
ffdib^s, or exercised himself, the office of superin- 
lendirig the religious rites, and tlie banishing fjiom 
the cily ofall Ibieign ceremonials; he alsti assumed 
the auperintendence of the temples, and tlius mai 
be said to liave deslrovcd the atdileship hy dep 
ring it of its old and original fimctions. I'his will 
serve lo exnlain the curious fact mentioned by Dion 
Cassius,* that no one was willing to hold so coa- 
templible an oflice, and Augustus was tnerefure re- 
duced to the necessity of compelling persons to take 
il : persons were accordingly chosen by lot, out of 
those who had sen-ed the office of quEcsior and 
tribune; and this was done more ihan once. The 
last recorded instance of the splendours of the 
ffdileship is the administration of Agrippa, who 
voluiueered to take the office, and repaired all the 
public buildings and all tJie roads at his own ex- 
pense, without drawing anything from tJie treasu- 
ry." The icdileship had, however, lost its tnif 
character before this time. Agrippa bad al.ead^ 

). (Cic. 

S. (xiiii., ■ 

Off., il.. 17.-Plm.. U, 
fl.)-3, (Dioii. Hal., V 

N., TTHU. 
I.. W) : IX.. 


tim., 15.) 

AS.— U^., u. 



amc of the masK-r, or \>y his tc.nament It prp5Cri- 
bed certain foiiualities to be ol>>crved in the case ol 
maniUiussion when the owner of the slave {ihmintui) 
was under tweniy; ihe effeci of which was, that 
tiioueh a person oY Uic age cf fourteen could nuike 
a will, he could not by wiU give a slave his trec- 
dca ' 

jKNRATO RES (a^^atarcs*) were those who 
blew upun vliid instruiuents in (iie Human aruiy; 
namely, l)ie Lvccinalnns^ comicines, and tnbidna? 
iEueatorcs were aUo emjjloyed in the public 
ranics> A eoUegium icn^atorum is meniioncd in 
jfiOLlP'VL.'E (ai'tXov ttvAqi) were, according 
Ihe description of Vitnivias,* hollow vessels, 
lade of brass, which were tised in explaining the 
Ac , of the winds. These vessels, which 
« very small orifice, were filled with water aiid 
' on ihe fire, by which, of course, steam was 

jE'uUITAS. ( Vid. Jis.) 

jERA, a point of time from which sahseqticnl or 
preceding years inav be counted. The Greeks had 
no common nera till a comparatively late pericwl. 
The AthfiiiaJis reckoned their years by ihe name 
of the chief arehon of each year, whence he was 
called u/nwr (ViJiiyiof ; the I^ceda^moiiians byono 
of tlie cphors ; and the Arrives by the chief priest- 
ess of Juno, who held her office for life.' The fol- 
luwinje icras were adopted in later times: I. The 
icra of the Troj.^n war, H.C. 1184, which was first 
made use uf by Eratoi-iheues. 2. The Olympiac 
a?ra, wliich bcsjan B.C. 77fi, and was first made use 
of by Tim;eusof Sicily, and was adopted by Polyb- 
ius,Dio<Iorus, Dionysiusof Halicamfi5siis,nnd Pau- 
tanias. {Vui. Oi.tmpiad.) 3. The Philippic or Alci- 
ondrian trm. which bc;?nn B.C. 3'23. 'I, The gcra 
of the fefUrucidcn, which l»cgan in the autumn of 
B.C. '*l'i. 5. The ceras of Ajiiioch, of which there 
ware three, but the one in most common use began 
in November, B.C. 49. 

The Romans reckoned their years from the 
fonniation ftf the city (riA urhr condiUi) in the time 
uf Ani^'>tus and 5ub^equenlly, but in earlier times 
the ytiiv^ were reckoned by the names of the ct>n- 
siils. We also find traces of an eera from the 
banishment of the kings, and of another from the 
taking of the city by the Gauls. The date of the 
foundfition of Rome is crivon dilTerently by different 
author*. That which is most cttrnmonly followed 
is the one given by Vnrro. which corresponds to 
B.C. 753/' It mii«l be ob.'icrved that 753 A.U.C. is 
the firit year belbre, and T54 A.U.C. the first year 
after ihc'C'hrisiiftn rem. To find out the year B.C. 
correvpondinEf to the year A.U.C, subtract the year 
A.U.C. from 754; thus, 605 A.U.C.=H9 B.C.' To 
find opt the year A.D. correspondinp to the year 
A.U.C, subtract 753 from ilie year A.U.C; ihus, 
707 A.U.C.^UA.D. 

iERA'RH, those citizens of Rome who did not 
enjoy the pcifect franchise; i. t., those who cor- 
rrspojided to the Iwtrks and Atimi ut Athens. The 
namr- is a rcgiilnr adjective Ibimed from rf"3 (bronze), 
and its application to this particular class is due to 
the cironmstancc that, as the icrarii were protected 
bv the state without beinff bound to military ser- 
vice, they naturally had to pay the tus -tntiitafe, 
which was thus orii?inallv a charsre on Ibem, in the 
saraewayasthesum!* forlcniehts' horees were levied 
on the estates of rich widows and orphans.* (V'lrf. 
X.% HoRncABiL-M.) The persons wno constituted 
this cla.^s were either the inhabilanis of other towns 
which had a relation of isopoliiy with Rome (rlie 

in^/i/iful or clients and the descendants of fre< 
men. Ihe deccmnr5enn.>lied in the tril>es uU wi 
were ccrarians at that time:^ and when the trili 
comprised the whole nation, tlie denudation of] 
citizen to the rank of an aerarian (which was caiJ< 
iciurium factrc !* referrt aUqurm in arartiis ;* or 
taintiat C^trUum refcrri jubcre*) might l>c practise 
in the case of a patrician as well as of a plebci 
Hence terarius c;uuc to be used as a tenn of 
proach. Thus Cicero, speaking of the corTUj 
judices who tried Clodius, says," MaculMi senaior* 
niuti equity, triirtini non tarn arati, ^pmm, vt appdUa 
tt/r, ttrarii. He is alluding to the Anreliai) lai 
which settled Uial the judicca shouJd be ^elecl 
from the senators, the knights, and the trihuni si 
rii. These trUfuni ararii, who cunsiituted an ord< 
in ilie later days of ilie republic, and were, in 
I the representatives of the most rc5|>cctable plel 
nns, were originally heads of tril)es, who acted 
general ins^wctors and collectors of the ^rs mil 
for the payment of the troops.' In the same waj 
the publicani, or farmers of the laJtes, constituted 
numerous of the equestrian order, 

j?!;RA'RlUM,thepublictrea.simatRome. Afl 
the hauislunenl of tlio king*, Uie leniple of Sat 
was used as the place far keeping tlic public ire 
urc, and it continued to Ikt so till the later time-S 
the empire.' Besides the public money, the slan 
nrds ot the legions were kept in the marinm ;* all decrees of ilie senate were entered there, 
books kept for the purpose." 

The oerarium was divided into two parts 
comjHon. ireasnrj', in which were deposiieu the re, 
lar taxes, and which were made use of to meet 
OKlinary expenses of the stale ; and the 
treasury {arnnutH stitidum, sandritis^"), which 
never iouchetl except in cases of cxiremo pe 
The twenlieth part ol the value nf ev-iy sbvc wi 
was enfranchised,'* and some part of the idunder 
conquered nations, were deposited in tlie sac 
treasury. " Augustus establislied a scftarate irei 
iirj* under the name of arrarium inilitart, to provi 
for the pay and support of the army, and he ira 
sed several new taxes for (hat purpose." 

The ararium, Ihe public treasur)', mnst be dis: 
guLshed from tlie fisrus, llie treasujy of the empe 
ors.'* {Viif. Fisccfl.) 

The charge of the treasury was originally I 
tmsicdlo the qu.TStors and their assisiaJits, 
tribuni rorarii ; but in B.C. -Ill, when no c|iiwsto 
were elected, it was tran.'jferred to the cediles, 
whose care it appears to ha%'e been till B.C. 
when Augustus gave it to the prietors, or those w 
had been prrptors." Claiuliiis rc.siorwl it to 
quaestors;'* but Nero made a fresh change, 
committed it to those who had been pnrtors, 
whom he called vrafeUi ttraniy In tho time 
Vespasian, the cnarge of the treasury appeare 
have been again in the hands of the praotors;" 
in the lime of Trajan, if not before, it was 
ininisteil to the prefects, who to have 
iheir office for two years." 

•.^CIIU GO (i*if\ Verdigris. "Among the ai 
cients, a£ it still is, verdigris was a common 
pigment; and Dia«'corides'* and Pliny" specify se 
enil varieties of native irnico, or iof, classing wii 
ir, in this case, what we mav suppose to have 
green caritonalc, instead of acetate of copper ; a 

I. (Gii'iB. lib.).— Ulp.. Ptiff., liU I.— Diif. as, tiL S, •. B7.60. 
— Ticil., Ann.,*T.,M.)— S. (Aramiaii.,xiiT..4.)— 3.(Sucl..JuL, 
W.>— 4. (Sen., E[\.)M.)— 3. (Or*Ui, 40M.— Cml«r. Ml, No. 1.) 
_«. fi., 6.>— 7. (Thacy.) . ii., «.— Pmibmi., iii., ti, k 9.)— «. 
iViobohr, llir.. R.-ni., rul. i., b. SW-SW, iranil.)— 9. (Nicbnhr, 
ffiar. Horn., ;., p, 4tfS.} 


I. (Mrliuhr. Hirt. Hfnn., ii-.f! 317.)— 3. (A"I. GrII., ir., H. 
3. (Cic, pro aucnl,, «.)— i. (Aul. Cell., iti., 13.)~5. (J 
Attic., i.. IP.>— 6. (Dion. Hftl-. iv^ 14.)— 7. (Pint., I'Mpl,. 12. 
IMin., Pkncf ., 9t, ««j.;— «. (Liv., lii., fi9 ; iv.. W ; Wi.. 23.)- 
(ric.ilf T.pp.. iii., 4.- T»c.. Ann., in., 51 ; nil.. SO.)— 10. fl,i»- 
MTii., 10— Flor., IV., 9.— Oas,, Drll. Ciy.. i.. H.>— 11. (Lir^ 
vii., 10 ; iTvii.. 10.)— IS. (L'irar..rh»ni..tij., 155.)— 13. (Siiei 
OrUT., 49.— Dkid, Iv., 54, 25. 32.)— H. (Si.ti., do Btn.. rj.. 
— Plin., Pan., 30, 43.— S'lfl., OctftT,, ini.— Toe, Aun., li.. 47i 
ft., a.)— 15. (SnM., Oniir., 3(1.|— Ifl. (Sue!.. CUad., 14.- 
Hion. bt., 94.)— 17. (T«.-.. Ann.. \uu, 29.)— Ifl (Tiw,, ITiai 
!».. M— 19. (Plin., Pan., 91,92.— LipK.. E«rur». wl Taf., Ann ! 
iui.,M.)— to. (I>K*cor., T., gi.)-8I. {^'m.. U. N.,xu[ii.,% 



' the cQlorescence upon stones Trhich 
copper,' and what was 'scraped Crom 
oil' ■ ^ ' .>r was melle-d.' Vari- 

i'jris are described by 
ncophnscL , , and Pliny, which agree 

jl riuic^Lplc, and some ot Uiem even a^ tu their de- 
UtU ▼i'n i?ie processes now employed. Among 
tet;)- rations of ii, that which was made 

«ilk '- -' of in>n (^'itrttmcntum vitanum} 

AA. .^ »'. ivAiu from Pliny, the one best calcula- 
tti K» deeeire; and the oicde of detecting it, sug- 
IMulbr hijn. de?;erves notice. It was to rub the 
WUBtrr- oil papvius Steeped with the gall- 

KOyyi' lAU'lv ilit^ffon turned hlact/" 

£V<' ■' - vjgraiils. whu obtained 

Af» » ■ and brp^ng.* Thev 

«w«c_ .„ ... .,.,.r(u, (IVd.AOURTAI.) 

Pnua.'i explains (znufarc by ara vnditpie cofhgrre. 
JES (taAxAfX '•* cuinposittuu of nieiulu, in which 
*r l^ the predoininanl ingredient, lis etymolo^' 
; kiLOvn. The Italians and Krcnch ollen use 
vonia route and otiffne, and airoin, to iroii&laie 
6« void les; but, like the liln^^lish lenn ifrass, 
■yd b also cmplo^'cd in a general way to express 
ft« suDc composiDou, all are incorrect, and are 
fakaUteid to mislead. Bnus, to con£ne ouiselres 
l^oor own language, is a combination ofcoj^ter and 
£«e, vliile ajf the specimens of ancient objects 
fuKii of the m&tenal called ics, are fuund upon 
naitfsU to contain no zinc: but, with \'ery limited 
ttttp tion s, to be composed entirely of ot^^kt and 
h^ To this miilure the term hrmizt is now ciela- 
■ifrlr anplitd by artists and fuunders ; and it is de- 
■fflfclt utat, l'.«uig now generally received, it shonld 
jln^ be UMd, in onler to prevent niisapprthen- 
dB% aihJ to distinguish at once l>eiwecn the two 
ceoipastuuns. The word bronze is of Italian or- 
aod «.»f comparativelv modem date, and de- 
in All proliahility jnfm tJie bnpwn coloiu 
») which the ani.sts of the txinod u*ihc revival 
IS call'-i * ■ ' fi"' A r(.s, and those who lliltowal 
nre ' '. works; various fine speci- 

iWJarii 'MS of the fiHtfiK-cf n/fl a.^c are 

preserve*! m tiic Museum of Florence and in 
'«oDections: and vhen the surface uf ihe cast 

bee?: ■ ' * V accident or by expo-^ure to 

wuher -wn tint ori^'inally miparied 

Llfaea is a ^ when it was fir:t produced. 

Batunil cviuur uf bruuze, wh'.n fir^t east, is a 
brown; the different lints which are seen 
vork5 of ' "flhii ciar.^ Licini: almoj-t aJ- 

■aj« gircn i iuear>.s : that which modem 

p^-'-' .:...!:h is noT usually seen on 

mely, a bright bluish preen, may, 
irred ratura.1 to it, as it is simply 
tion, from exposure to the innu- 
"'hcre. Sometimes the opcmu'ons 
■f dOBv .swu ■nv^tuicr sre anticipated by the skilful 
anHcatka c*f an ncid over the surface of the metal. 
iffBAnett hrcazei of antiquity are remarkable for 
4e coloor <if this peUina^ as it is called by imti- 

TT** OBpformeDt of ws (frrmtzr) was ver>' general 
■Mta^ the Kxirif^ts ; money, rases, and utensils of 
•il aorta, vhctber *■■' .'. ni-^-^tic or saeriflcial pur- 
pans; caancoc^ ire and defensive, fur- 

stove, tiUmfor I' N musical insiniments, 

M^ teilaal, crery ubjcui lo uhieh it could be ap. 
|6el« Winr BiAde '>f It 1'hc proportions in which 

■i tmatpameax pn" — ~l seem to have 

tan nidi flMd» lariti&s and ex- 

ofttediti iize were marked 

r» nwnr/*, a* the ms Corinthiacum, its 
^n .^^n'-ticura, ibs Hepatizon, and 
il must be confessed, we 
- yond the title*, except tlial 

17 (TV- jiri«i, rt^ ,1.0 .r. IOT-— Viinir., rii.. /?.— .Vwn?!f j 
K.B>«reV«7, p. M.M»;.>— 1 iG«iL, xti., J ; it., S.-^ea I 

wc collect Irom some of the ivrilers of antiqtiitjr, 
that, with the view of producing eHin:(s of colour or 
variety of texture, the arti-^us sometimes mixed 
^'mali prop'jnions of golJj silver, lead, and eveo 
iruu, in the composition ol their bj-onze. 

No ancient works in brass, pruperlv so called, 
have vet been discovered, though it has beeu aP^ 
firmed that zinc was foxuid in an analy$-is made of ^ 
an antique sword ;* bni it appearoi in'so extremelv < 
imall a quantity, that it haruly deserved nuiice; if 
it was indeed j>re^eni, it may railier be aiiribuLt^ 
to some accident of nature than to design. I-'ot 
fartlier particulars on ilie coniposiiion of bronze, 
and the practice of tlie ancients in dilTcrcut pro- 
cesses ol metal-witrkinE:, the reader is refcrred to 
the article on bronze. 

MS (money, nummi a^nei or arii). Since the 
most ancient coins in Rome nnd the old Italiaik 
states were made of aes, this name was given to 
money in general, so that Ulplau says, l-lUam aurt- 
os nttmmos as iHamtis.^ For the same reason we 
liave CCS ahenum, meaning debt, and tira in the 
plural, pay to the soldiers.* The Komans had no 
other coinage cxcejn broiizc or copper (rf.<) till 
A.U.C. 485 (B.C. SfcO), fiv-e years befoie the fir^t 
Punic war, when fcilver was first coined ; gold was 
not coined till sixty-two years after silver.* For 
this reaccn Arffem'inns, in the ItaJian mythology, 
was made tiic son ot iEsculnnus.* 

The earliest copwr coins were cast, not struck. 
In the collection of coins at the British Mu:H;iua 
there are fjiir a.ies joined together, as iliey were 
taken from the aciIJ, in -yiiich many weie cast at 
un^.e. Ifl most ases the edge shows where they 
were severed from each other. The fin-i coinajje 
ofws is iiTCil.y atrrinuied to S*rviiis Tulliiis, who 
is Mid :o have r-:amred the money w;:'\ the iiiiaga 
of cattle (pcciu), wnence ii was cabled jKivniti* 
AtCcording to 5ume- accounts, it was coined irom" 
the commencement of the city;' and according to 
ethers, the first coinage was atiritmied to Janu.^ or 
Saturn.* We know' that the old luilian tiatca 
ix)ssessed a bronze or copper coinage from the 
earliest times. 

The first coinage was the as (ind. As), which orig- 
inally was a pound weight ; but a«, in course of lime, 
the weight of the ns was reduced not only in Rome, '] 
but jn the other Italian states, and this reduction 
in weight was not uniform in the different states, it 
became usual in all bargains to pay the accord- 
ing to their weight, and not according lo their uomi- 
unl v;i]ue. The as prare* was not, as has l>cen .sup- 
posed by some, ihe old heavy coins as distinguished 
from Uie lighter modem; but, as Kiebuhr'* has re- 
marked, it signified any nnmher of copper coins 
reckoned according to the old style, by weight. 
There was, therefore, no occasion for the state to 
suppress the circulation of the old copper coins, 
since in all bargains the ases were not reckoned by 
tale, but by weight. The weight thus stipplied a 
common measure for the national money, and for 
that of the different stales of Italy; and, according- 
ly, a hmidred pounds, whether of the old or mtKlera 
money, were nf the same value. The name nf (rs 
grave was also ai>plied to the uncoined metaJ.'' 

Under the Roman empire, the right of coining 
silver and gold belonged only to the emperors; but 
the copper coinage was left to the sranam, which 
was miner the jurisdiction of the senate. 

Bronze or copper (.vo^^f) was very little uevd 

I. (Manj;nz, Mfm. dv llnstitul.y— 9. <T>i|f. SO. tit. 10. t. 150. 
— rumpirf Udr., Eii.aiJPift..345.— Id..Ep.l,rii.,aa.)— 3. (Liv., 
v., 1.— riin.. H. N.,«MiT., 1.)—*. (PLm.,n. N., xixui-, IS.) — 
3. ('• Q«ia \tt\u% ««•» iwCTiniK in «tn eMit ci»ii'il, ii*! ftnu'oUi:' 
AiiBuM.. ilr Civ. Dm. i»., SI.)— 6. (i'lin.. II. N., iiiiU,, VI ; 
iviii., 3.— YsfTO, tlo Re Tlii«t.,M., 1.— tW\d, Vfta\.,i.,9SS\.>— *. 
fPJjD., jr. N"., ifxif., I.)— e. lMftrnAj..Snmn\,.S.,T.>— 0.*^\-w,^ 
iv., 41, m; r., S; mti.. W.-Si-n. wi llMv., Vi.>— \ft. i.'Rwm. 
Wi^f.,!., p.'I.Vi.i— II. (Srr\ia».mViTB.,JEn.,\i.,«ft.— ''Vt»»»» 
«'j rutin, metaUam iuTectum :" UvAur., xvi., \%, W.") 



by the Greeks for money in early dmis. Silrer was 
originally ihe ujiiverfal currency, and copner ap- 
pears to have Iwen sfWom coined till aAer Lhe 
lime uf Alejcaiuler the Great. At Alliens a copper 
coinage was issiifd as early as B.C. 40G, in liie 
archijiiship of Caliias;* but it was soon arter\('ard 
called in, and the silver cnrrency restored.* It is 
Iiot improbable, however, that tlie copper coin call- 
ftd;):aM-orf was in circulation in Athens sldl earlier. 
The smallest silver coin ut Athens was the quarter 
obol, and the ^a>«<}t"c was the half of Ihat, or the 
righth of an obol. 'J'he copper coina;^e issued in 
the archonship of Galllas probably consisted of 
Jailer pieces of money, and not merely of Ihe ;i'a>.- 
•tiOf, which appears to have been ubcd previously 
on accovml of the difficulty of coining silver in such 
minute pieces. The xo^o»T in later limes was di- 
ride«l into h-pfa, of which, according to Suidas {x. t. 
YdXavTQv and '06o}.vc), it contained seven. There 
ii*as another copper coin ciiireut in Greece, callw! 
tvfi6o/.ov, of vi-hich the value is not known. Pollux' 
tiso mentions ko'/J.vCo^ us a copper coin of an early 
ige; but, as Mr. Hiisscy has remarked, ihis may 
have been a common name for small money; since 
to/J.vOn^ aignificd generally '* changing moneyt" and 
KoT^Avfnartff "a money-changer." In later limes, 
the obol was coinetl of copper as well as silver. As 
^arlv as B.C. 165, wc Una talents paid in copper by 
Ptolemy Epiphanejt.* 

.ES CIKt^UMFORA'NCUM, money borrowed 
Vora Uie Roman bankers {argcHtarii), who had 
ihops in porticos round the lurum.' 

jKS EUUES'TKE, the sum of money given bv 
rhe Roman state for tlic purchase of the laiiphi's 
jorse (ra ]>ecutiia^ que eguus emen^fus cra-t.*) Tliis 
nun, according? to Livv, amounted to 10 000 ase.s. 

the sum of money paid yearly for the keep of a 
knight's h.irse; in other words, a knight's pay.* 
This sum, which amoimled to 2000 ases for each 
ban*, wa.s charged u]X)n the rich -widows and or- 
phans, on the principle tliat, in a military state, the 
women and children onphi lo contribute hugely for 
those who fuu"ht in behalf of them and the com- 
raonwealth.' I'he knights had a right to distrain 
(or this money, if it was not paid, in the same man- 
ner as tliey had the right lo Jislrain for the as cpifs- 
irc^ and the <-oIdiers for the as -miUtare}* It has been 
remarked by NiebuJir," ihat a knight's monthly nay, 
if his yearly pension of 2000 ases be divid'ea by 
twelve, docs not come to anything like an even sum ; 
but tluit, if we have recourse to a year of ten montiis, 
which was iL<;ed in all calculations of payments at 
Home in very remote times, a knisht's monthly pay 
will Iw 000 nscs, which wa.^ just double the pay of a 
foot soldier. 

^S MILTTA'RE. {Vid. ^EnAnii.) 

^S MANUA'RllTM was the money won in 
playing with dice, inanilnts rolUdupt. Mtinus was 
the throw in the game. All who threw ccrlaiD 
number* were obliged to put dowTi a piece of mon- 
ey; and whoever threw the Venus (the hii;he*:t 
ihrow) won Ihe whole sum, which was called the 
€ts manutirivw}* 


•^SC'ITLUS, a species of tree commonly rank- 
rd in the family of oak:«. Martvn" is inclined to 
make it the same with what is called, in some parts 
of England, the bay-oak, and corresponds to the 

!. (Schol. in Amtoph.. Run., 737.)— 5. (, EUxIcww.. 
eil^-W8.)-4. (111., 0.1—4. t EVtyl>., xuu.. 9. 3.— UuiMy. Anrlent 
WeiirhU •nd Munfy, p. 115.— BOcUi, l*uf>l. Econ. of Alluiis, 
ml ii., p. 3&4.— Id., liitwr t?«wichl«, MUnriBiM, Ac, p. Mt, 
W2,Ag)— 4. (Cic. od All. ii., ].)— 6. (fiiuu*, iv., ST.)— 7. (i., 
4.1.) — 9, ("E» pwonia, r« aua hordnum rqun tmt n>inp&raQ- 
Awm;" GmiBB, IT.. ST.)— 9. /Ljt.. i., <3.— Cir.. dc Rep., li., JO ) 
10. (Giiu», ir.. ST.— I^nto Bp. OWL, »ii., 10.— Niobtilir. ITi.t, 
Rum. I., MO, Hfll.J— II. lKi»l. Rnra.. Ii.. 4M.)— IJ. (Coll.. 
rrii., 13.— Suet , Ootar., 73.)— 13. (iQ Virg., C«tirf.. li., J4.) 

I f^ufroiS lalifolia mas, (pta brevi paUtMlo es£, as 
! scribed by Bauhin. Fee, however,' condemns 
' opinion, on the ground that Virgil, in tlic pa! 
on which Manyn is commenting, places the £i 
' and Qurrctu in opposition to ench other, as litMJ 
j kinds of la'es. Manyn ilicruforc is wrung, acc< 
X ing to this writer, in making the .-Exulus ideul 
with the Cluercus Itilijolia of Haulun, since this 
is only a variety of, and very little distinct from, I 
Qiirrfus arfxtr. If it were certain that the ^jtWwj 
Virgil was the same with that of Pliny,' tliere 
be no difilt'Uliy wh;itever in dcternmjmg il.s 
cal char.ictcr ; fur the ascuivs of Pliny is well kii( 
being the *^tif of Theophrasiiis,*'or our 
.^Escultis. Pliny's ^igiis is our beech, and DOti 
oak ; and the description which he gives of 
tree shows tliis very clearly. On tlie other ill 
Tbeophrastus ranks his pnyo^ among oaks. 
thus places his asnilus l«twecn the ywmij, 
roOur, the Htj; and the jwAer. Everything 
agrees-, and, besides, the etymology of ttscuius ft 
esea ("food"), lUie that of ^i^jof from ^yu (' 
eat"), is not unreasonable. But the etsailtts of PI 
does not correspond to the ascvlus of Virgil. "T 
former is one oi the smallest kinds of oak, whci 
the laiter is described by the poet as " maxima," 
in figurative langtiage as touching the skies witfaj 
lop, imd reaching to Tartarus with its roots. PI 
ton, considers the tzscuhcs as rare in Italy, whoi 
Horace sneaks of wide groves of HiO ' €tsmlttsi 
Datinia. This ]ioei, iherelorc, like Virgil, takes '' 
term trsmius in a diHerenl sense from the natural 
In Older to n lievc the queslion from the cmbarrB^s^'^ 
ment in which it is (!.»ih left, Rome botanists hav^, 
imagined thai Virgil means the chcsumt, a hold 
not ^frv reas*)nalilc idea. 

.^STIMA'TIO LITIS. (Vid, Jwzx.) 
• AftTITES (aerlTTjc), the Eagle-stone. It is 
sanieScith the rj rCn' Tturcrv of Thcophrastiis, or 
Prolific stone, of which the ancients give such 
derful accounts, making il famous for assistingfj 
delivery, pr<'-\, abortions, and di.scovei' 
tliieres ! Pliny* says of it, " I^si aut^m lapis 
pra.gyutns inln: .- quum muiluis, alio vthil in 
tonante ;" and Dioscorides' remarke, dcrtrvc 
lif irqHn' fyicvfiuv }^it)<nf vrmpxt-fv. Sir John 
says, that custom has given the name of Aelitos] 
every stone having a luosc nuciens in it. Clea^ 
land observes, that the ancients gave il the name < 
Ea/^fc-Ktonr (flfTdf, "an caglfi"). from an opii 
that tliis bird transports them to its nest to faciUl 
Ihc laying of its eggs. It is an argillaceous ox^ 
of iron.' 

*A'ETOS (urrof). T. The Eagle. ( Vid. .\qm\ 
II. A siiecics of Ray fwh, called l<y Pliny A{ 
and now kno^m as* the liaja Aqinln, L. Ot 
enumerates it among the inviparoos fi*;he.<i.' 

Fl'Nll'AS. Aftines are the cognati of husl 
and wife; and the relationship called affinitas 
only l>c Ihc result of a lawful marringe. There 
no degrees of afliniias corresponding to ihow 
cognalin, though there arc terms to express Ihe 
ous kinds of ailinilas. The father oi a hnshandl 
the sorer of the hnsliand's wife, and Ihe father < 
wife is the socer of Uie wife's husband ; the Xi 
socms expresses the same affinity with resperc 
the husband's and wife's motheiii.' A son's wiftj 
nunis or dauphtcr-in-law to the son's parents] 
wife's hiLsband i5 gcncr or son-in-law to the vti 
Thus the avus, avia; paler, mater; of the 

I. <Florrd«Virst>,p.Il.|-5. (H. N..xri,e, fi ; 70.4 ; 
rrii..34, S.)— 3. (H. P.. liL.O.)— t (H. N- i„ 4. t ; x«.. 44,1 
iivii., ao, 1.}— A. (DinMor., v.. 160.)— fl. (ThtKiphnut.. «| 
\%d.,c, 11.}— 7. fAdarna. Apotod.. i. t.>~C <Adai&», Aj 



—' - -^ ^* • "ly thesocernwg- 

— soccr, fk>cnis— 
i.'i reipcct lo Ihcm 
I ami geuer. lu like mannt^r, [he 
e*ior< of lliL* husltaii'J respecUvek' 
i,.>ines u'iih respect lo ihc sons 
Vdfe^ '- u iih R'sfL^ct to ihrm pronurus 

ad auj ». J. .' ■ :- 11 and daughter ol' n husband or 
vits Uma of a pnor marring are called privignus 
■nI priri^a with respect to ihcir stepi'ather ur 
MiyBifjOkeri and, vritb respect to 6ucb children, Ihc 
MCpfalbrr aod stepmother are severally called 
iStnco? -^ ' - T^rca. The husband's brother l»e- 
MBlc^ respect U> tho wile, and his sister 

heaomt ^ :(►• (irwk >u>.wi)- Marriage waa 
■atftviui azDou;;; pcrsuns nbo had become 5Uch 
aAnft as abo^-r Tii^niionet). A person who had mis- 
taibed such > nntnutii> cs (o lose both his 

im/Utm ar< lust ahn rI\ his a/Tincs.* 

Ci * f ' ■ ii7.'/Mxaf},iUo LipfiiimAhes, 

, Lour, fc'aoh, at least, is the 

L.ilurs on Mcsiii", ol Cflsins, 

.Miiiiliiu(u:», Lamarck and Sprengel. Avi- 

Abu' I Fadli dcscritjc sercral species, or, 

iperlv, varieties of it.* 

UOr rPA^H (u)afiiov j/M^q). ( yid. Mak- 

;Usb T*nifXtiutod 01 Spunk, a fungous 

which grows ou the intnk of the oak 

eretts. Dia'v««riiic!», Paulus ^gincia, and 

■■'■■ 'y ' /v, make mr-ntiun of a 

tiich may te decided 

'/'-vflrmj. " Dr. Chiisli- 

ilimui ihs aiictcat blaletncnts of its poisonous 

^G *, " 1 slave whi)sehBsiness il was 

WtikT <■'>■ The word is also nscd 

a u. .: : u'l burden, and is sometimes 

lo a Blare who had lo perform the lowest 

Ers ((l)aff(Tfi''f). a specifis of doc de- 

ipiaii* It rnay be coujeciiircd to nave 

'TV ■ '' '-T ur the Beagle. Pennant is 

lyaOarftyQl). Tg ijnie of war 

tipaxia had a boiiy-gnarti of tliree hun- 

»blcr.t of the Spartan youths tiirrrd'f). of 

Ivc cldrst retired every year, and were 

for one year, under the name of ityaffoeft- 

ini»ioa» to foreign states.' It ha^ bec-n 

uned by some writer* that the uifl^^uf/jpi did 

"in that rank merely by scnioiiiy, bni were 

from llic irrfi'c by the ephors without refer- 

laMy of young m(!n in 

(I their eishtccnih year 

...i...„. . An iiyO.j} eonsifilcd 

iot the inu^t noble citizens, who were 

the jurLsdiciion of the father of the 

bad been the means of collc«|ing the 

U waa Uie duty of this person, callml uj-fAu 

the military and gyumastic ex- 

hs (who were callrd ujc^affroO. 

to the chase, and to punish ihcm 

llcnl. He was accountable, however, 

tiMt tfMi. wbicli supported the lijr'/ai at the pul)* 

All the mcinbDrB of an uye}.^ were 

la marrr at the tMiine lime* In Sparta the 

y.tu, u»un]ly called ^oi-at, at 

r er. \ year. 

Al I ' - :. uiu uTt.*), the name of a cho»cn 


•. 4.}— X (Uiuaoor., i., 91. — Adnra*. Ap> 

ir.. iu.. I. — Aitami. ApKni).. s. t.)~4. 

' ' Mil,, fl. — llor,. Sonn. 

: . 473.)— fl. [BniiBli 

T.^« Us eiu^ 1. *.}— tf. (Ki^'..^v^ «/' Stnb,, M^ 400, 4Sg, 

•»i J 

body of troops in the Macedonian 'array, which nsm 
ally consisted of horsemen. *J'he ngeina S'-'cni.s to 
liave varied in nuiiilK.-r; sometimes ii consisted of 
l&O men, at oilier times of 300, and in later tiroes il 
coniaincd as many as lOOO or 'JIXK) meu.^ 

•AGE'RAT0\ (dyripaToi'), a jilrint. which Matthi 
oins and Adams make to have been ihc AchUie^ 
ageratvm. DodoniEiis and Spreugel, however, ar« 
undecided about it. It would appear to bo the £«- 
pfUfrriitm of liie tnmslator of Mesue.* 

AFEUPllOr AIKH {ayeLj/j-yfov AiKTi), an BC 
lion which might Iw brought in the Athenian courti 
by a landlord against the farmer who had injured 
his land by n^lect, or an improper mode of culu- 
AGER AUCIFI-NIUS. (IIJ. Agriweksobes.) 
ACJElt hlMITA'TUS. (IW. AoniMr.vaoHEs.) 
AGER PUBLICUS. (fV. Agraria: Leges.) 
ACER UELIGIO'SUS. (K/rf. Agraruk Leoes.) 
AGER SACER. (FiV. AoRARr*: LtcEs.} 
AGER SANCTl.fS (r^/icvof). Tifttio^ onginfilly 
signified a piece of gromiil, appropnated for the sup- 
port of some pnrticular chief or hero* In the Ho- 
meric limes, the king^ of the Greek states seem to 
have been priiuinally supponed by the produce of 
these demesnes. J he word was afterward applied to 
laud dedicated to a divinity. In Attica, there appears 
to have been a considerable quantity of such sacred 
lands (refiivri), which were let out by the atate lo 
farm; and the income arising from them was ar>- 
pri*priated to the support ol the temples and the 
maintenance of public worship.* 

According to lJioDy>iu!',' land was set apart al 
Rome as caily as the time of Romulus for the sup- 
port of the temple*. The property belonging to the 
temples increased consideraltly m later times, es- 
pecially under the emp<'n>rs7 

Lauds dedicated lo the gcKls were also called 
Agri cottiecrati. Houses, also, were consecrated ; as, 
for instance, Cicero's, by ClotUus. By the prov isious 
of the Lex Pupiria,no land or houses could be dedi- 
rnted to the gwls without the consent of the plcbs.* 
The lime when this law wa-t passed is uncertain; 
hut it was prttlably brought Ibnvard about B.C. 305, 
if Livy* alludes lo the iame law. 
AGER VECTIGA'LIS. (Tu/. Acrarije LKcr«.) 
AGE-TOKIA (apiTopla). (Vid. CARNEIA) 
.\GGER (fu'/'a). from atl and gtro, was used in 
general for a heap or mouiid of any kind. It was 
more particularly npniied to a mouiid, usually com- 
posed of earth, which was raised round a besieged 
town, and was gradually increased in breadth and 
height till it equalled oroveitoppcd the wiilU." Al 
the siege of Avaricum, Cesar raiseJ in t.'5 days an 
agger 330 feet broml and 80 feel high." The agger 
was sometimes made nolonlyot earth, but of wood, 
hurdles, &c.; whence we read of the agger being 
set on fire." The agger was also apjuied to the 
earthen wall surrounding a Roman encampment, 
cftrnposcd of the earth dug from the ditch (/"«")i 
wlucb was u.sually 9 feet broad and 7 feet deep; Init. 
if any attack was apprehended, the depth was in^ 
created to Vi feet, and the breadth to 13 leet. Sharp 
stakes, &e., were usually fixed unon the agger, 
which was then called vallum. When both words 
arc used (as in Ccftsar, ni'j^croc ivzWwwi**), the agger' 
means the moimd of eartn, and the vallum the sharp 
stakes, &c., which were Uxed upon the agger. 
AGITATORES. ( I'lrf. CiRci a.) 

1. (Diod. Sir.. XIX.. 37, S8.— Lli-., xxxtiI., 40 ; slii., ftl. W.— 
Curt., iv., 13.)--9. (Diotcor.. ir., M.— A<l»jmi, Apiwi«l.,«. t,)— 
a. (lUUer, An»ali»t. Or., 336.— Motar, AH. I»n««u«, p. 4S9.)— 
4. (K.ini.. n.. VI., IM ; ix., 578 . mi., 313.)— ft. (Xen.. Vectir-, 
ir.. 19.— DiOnnirt up. Htrpocral., *. v. 'A»i! tdivtuitdriav — Piilil. Eooii.of Aih<'nt. vol. il., p. lO.iran*!.)— 6. (.U,/. .^ 
—7. (YtJ. Siipt., O^f., 31.— Tac., Xftu., rt.,W.^— %. VCic..,\n* 
Dnm., c. i% tr^.l— 9. (ir., 4fl.l-W. ^^.W., ■?., I.N— W. l.VW\V, S4.)— 12. (Liv., luii-OA.— C«r«., ^cU. U^l^V* ^v;.^^. 

-'J., fleJI. Ci»., li., U, •«i.>-l3 (.UoU. U»iV_, ^vv^ia.^ 


AGMEN {iigmen proprit difitur, cum exereUuM iter 
/licit t ad a^(n*Uj, id «/, cr H*io vv.otv^'), ihe marching 
vfUcr of iDC Hoinan anay. Acconiing to Polybius," 
Uie notuoA armies commoaly marcheil ia hi-i time in 
the I'uUowiDg inAtmcr : ** In iho van are u£iuUly |)la- 
Cftl tlie extraordinaries {ii^ikturm, cztraordmam); 
and AtWr ihcsv ihc rit,'ht Yring of the allies, which 
h foUowtd by the baggage of both these b<xiies. 
Next 10 Ibe^ marches the fii^t of the Raman le- 
TJons, with its baggage also behind it. I'he ^tpeond 
legiuu follou's, having behind it, likewise, boUi. its 
own bag:gage and the baggage of the allies, who are 
in the rear; for the rear of all the march is closed 
Hnih tlic lol\ wing of tlie allies. The cavalry 
marches suinetixnea in the rear of the respective 
Uxlies to which it b<'Iong<i, and sometimes uu the 
flanks of the lieasis that arc loaded with the bag- 
gage, Ifeepiiiff them togetlier in due ordt-r, and cov- 
ering them i'rom idsuIl When any attack is ex- 
pected lo l)e made uixjn the rear, the extraordina- 
rics of the allies, instead of leading the van, are 
posted in ihi; rear; in all the other parts the dispo- 
sition renmitis the same. Of Uie two legions, and 
the two witig:^ of the allies, those that arc on one 
day luit-tnost in the march, on the fuUuwim* day are 
pldcei iKihind; tJiat, by litua changing itieir rank 
all'-'nintfly, all the troops may obtain the same ad- 
vantage in their itun oL arriving fii^i at water and 
al forage. There is aLso another disposition which 
is used when any immi'dintc danger iltreaiens, and 
the march is made thrmi^'h on ojwn coimtr)'. At 
such times, the hasiali, tlie princijHJS, and llie'marii 
are ranged iu three parallel lines, each behind the 
other, with the baggage of the ha$tati in the front. 
Behind the hastaii is placed the baggage of the 
pric .'ipes, who arc followed likewise by that of the 
lria:ii; so that the baggage of the several bodies 
is placed in alternate onler. The march being 
thus disposed, tiie troops, as soon as any attack is 
made, turning either to the left or to the' right, ad- 
vance forward from the baggage towards that side 
Dpoii which the enemy appears; and thus, in a ino- 
Int-nl of lime, and by one singi'^ movement, the 
whole army is fonned at once in order of battle, 
exrcpt only that the hastnli arc perhaps obliged to 
raakt: an evolution; and the beasis of burden, also, 
with all those that attend upon the bnggngc, being 
now thrown into the rear of all the troops, arc cov- 
ered by them from danger." — (Hampton's transla- 
tion.) An neciinnt of the marchiuLr i»rder of a Ho- 
mau army is also given by C'EPsar,' Joscphus,* and 

The form of the army on march diflered, how- 
ever, according to ci re nms lances, and the nainre of 
the ground. An apnen pUafum was an army in 
clofiC array, quod stnr jummtis inc-^dit^ s'li intrr x 
tfcrisum est, qno farilivs prr tnofuuint Uica trnnsmitia- 
tur* The tic^nm qvaiiratum was the army arranged 
in the form of a square, with the bag^ge in the 

The form of the Grecian army on march in the 
lime of Xenophon is des*cril»ed in the Aniii»t!ci.y* 
It appears that, during a march in the daytime, ei- 
ther Ihe cavalry or the heavy-armed, or the lar- 
geieers, marcliea in Ihe van, according to the na- 
ture of the ifround ; but that in the nighttime t!ie 
slowest troops .'ilwavs marched first, by which plan 
the armv was less "likely lo be separated, and the 
■oldiers had fewer opportimilies of leaving ihe ranks 
without discoverv. 

AGNA'TI. f I'lVA CooNATi.) 

AGNOMEN. (ri<i. Cognomen.) 

•AGNUS (ayvof). All are agreed, aa Schneider 


1. (Imlar., ix., S.)— ». (ri.. 40.)— 3. (BrO. flfttt., il., 17, 10 1— 
4. (Ihill. Jit.!,. Ui., e, 4 S.>~a. <in., 6.)— «. (Srrr. in Virr.. 
jEb, hi., lei.— Ciimiwrf' Vinr. -«n« ".. «50 ; t.. S».)-^. 
rlj»., mi,, 57 . xxiii., M.— Uirt., Bti:. Call., mi., 8.— Tlib»U^ 
**^ /., JOI.~Tar., Ann., t.. iJJ -6. (ti,., S. « J7, »w|.) 



remarks, that this is the Vitix aguus caUus, i^ 
Chastc-trec. Galen makes it lo be the same as 
>.i>)of. The latter occurs in the Odyssey 
mcr,' and also in the Iliad,' and may there 
anv flexible twig." 

a Roman festival, instituted by Numa Pom 
in honuur of Janas,* and celebrated on the * 
Januan'. the ^h of Mav, and the lOih of Dec 
bcr. The moniing of ificse iestiv:U.s, or, al 
the morning of the lOlh of December, was c 
cred a mcs ncfastus. The etymology of iliis nai 
was difiereotly eiplaiuL-d by the nncicnts ■ so: 
derived it from Asmtius, a suinamt; of Janus; soi 
from the word af^onr, because the attendant, wh( 
duty it was to sacrilice the victim, coulJ not di 
till be had asked ihc rex sacrificulus, Airofu?_ 
others from ngoi^ia^ because the victims ' ~ 
merly called by that name.' The Circus 
built by the t^mpcror Alexander, is supi 
some writers to have been erected on 
where the victims were sacrificed during 

AFQNES ur'/iQToJ jcai rtutjTol. All causes 
llic Aibenian cuurt:^ were distinguishe<l into ty 
classca : u-yCii'e^ uTifirjToi, Muitg not to be OMteascd^ 
which the fine or oilier jjenaliy was determined 
the laws; and ujejit^ Ti/irfrot, antt» to be oMMtsai 
in which the penaJly had lo be fixed by the jodi_ 
When Ihe jud^ had given their votes in favi 
of the plaintiff', they next had to dciermine, 
dcd that the suit was an ayuv Tifiiirof, w hat fine 
pubisbmenl was to be iuHicted on the defend] 
[■raOtiv fl ujroriaai)* The plamiilf generally mi 
tioned in the pleadings tlie punishment wliich 
considered the defendant deserved {rtfiuaOaL); 
the defendant was allowed to make a counter- 
seasment {ui-TirifiuaOui^ or viTOTifiaaOai)^ and to 
gue before the judges why the assessment of 
plaintiff onght to !« changed or mitigated.* 
certain causes, which were determined by the 
any of the judges was allowed to propose an 
tional assessment {irpocTtft^fta) ; the amount 
which, how«ver. ajipeare lo have been usually 
by the laws. Thus, in certnin caws ut il 
additional penalty was fiieil ai five days' 
nights' imprisonracnL Deniosihencs'° quotes 
law : ^(t)ta(fat A' tv r^ Kodvuun^ tov rroda 
^fifpac nai vvKTO^ taaf, iuv iz^toGTi^trg if ifh 
TTpooTtfiaaOai Ai rav ffov?6fi€voi\ 6Tav irtpi 
fiTiftaro^ jf. In this passage we perceive the 
enee between the active rrpiKmu^v, which is 
of the assessment of the Ifcli-ra (the court), 
the middle trpoirrififuj^ai, which means the aaf 
ment proposed by one of Ihe judges, (n the sam« 
manner, Tifi^v is used of the assessmtnt made by 
Ihe court, and Tiftuadat of that proposed by the 

According to .some writers, the penalty was fixed 
in aUprivate causes by the laws, villi the excep- 
tional the aUiaz iiKi}\" and if not idiM)IuteIy, it 
was fixeil in proportion lo the iijjun* which the de- 
fendant had received. the aciion Ibr injn- 
ry iii'/.ittT)^ ^iKij), if the injury had been done unm- 
fntlonally, the .single, and if intcntionallv, the dou. 
bic assessiDcnl was to be made.'* But, on the other 
hanH, all penalties which had not the chamrtcrof 
comi^nsalion were fixed absolutelv; as, for ia- 
slance, in the caae of libelloua words (xatcifpipiaX 
at 600 drachmas ;'• and in the action for oon-ap- 




I. (IK., 43T.)— a. («.. ]03.)— J, (lljoww.. It., 134.— TJito 
phnut., 1.. 3.)— 4. fO»hl, Fast., v., .ai.>-4. (Fcst.. ». ».)-« 
(Mu^rob., Salunu. i., H.)— T. (Oml, Fait, i.. 3iy-333.— F»»l , 
». T.)— 8. (Plat., A|»l. Sf)cr.. c. S5.— DeiiKNilh. in Mul.. i>. 3*J3 » 
— 0. (Pl«l.. Apol. Swr.. I. aS.J— 10. (in Tinii^cr., j.. T33.)~II 
(Dfminth. in Mill,, y. 52'J ; in Timucr^ n. 730 ; tii Anfti-eit., t„ 
p. 7W; III TJienrnl., 1339. 13« ; in P/^.r., 1347. >— 12. tUu^ 
poenu^ 1. T.— Ulpinn, in DrmoMti., Mid., p. «3.>— 13. (D*. 
owMh. tr Mill. p. 538 >— 14. (ttucr. id Loch., |i, 378.) 




'm witneja (JutTro^iapruftiov 6iKn)j at lUOO 

AOOAUTH'ETAI (ajufcoflffrai) were persona, in 
ike Ckcciui $unes. u ho dt'cuicd disputes end ad- 
ihc prJrcs to tlic nciore. Uriginnlly, ihc 
rho ui<^iulcd the coulest and ufTored ihe 
!h^ n-}'*jrotl£TiK, and ihia continued to be 
lir games which were institiiled 
'fis^ '.' persons. But in the great ppb- 

ii> the Isihmiaji, Pythian, &c., the 
ipm9$irm$ were cither the rfprt-:*f.'ntal)vc3 ol' dil- 
•Utrs, as llie Amphictyons at the Pythian 
Of vcre chusrii iroiu the j^cople iu wJiuse 
the ^mes viTc celchrated. During the 
tinier of the Crtician repuldics, the 
wrrr Uw; dyL*i>oOtrni in the Olympic gumes, 
Qati&thL-«r*<' It. r\:n Isthmidii gaiue.s, the Am- 
in II ''.inus, and the Corinthi- 

j&j^%*e- iliitiints ot Cleonx in the 

punc-^ The ayuviM)iTai were also cnllod 
o^wpupx*"' ^yt-zvoSUat, uO)^odiTat, (>q^ 
**^0! or oaMawofiot [from the staff they carried 
w «A cmUcni of authority i, i^patei^, iipa^evrai. 

AOtjRA ^(ijopd) properly meAna an assembly of 
af ftdfurv, ajid U nMially empUiyed by Uomer for 
|«tieral a!i*<*n»bly of the people. The iiyopa 
\o have been considered an essential pan in 
rooftftitution of the early Grecian states, since t)^ 
And tmcivilizcd condition of the Cyclopes 
rtrrixed by ihcir wanting such an'asscm- 
f* Tbe d^opd, iliough u^tuilly convuked by the 
^r instAoce, by TeleinachtLs in the ab- 
of bis father,' appears to have been also 
Dtted al times by some distinguished chjcf- 
M, for example, by Achilles before Troy.* 
^aqp occUDied the most important seat iu these 
aiui near him sat the nobles, while the 
9mX r>T '^'uD'l in a circle around Uiem. The 
f the people in these assemblies 
' ject of raueh dispute. Plainer, 
- cf^ntly Niizsch, in his com- 
. maintain thai the people 
: and vole ; while Heeren* 
W ■■ thai the nobles were the only 

>«H mcasttre?, deliberated, and 
Miii I'- '1>* were only prr-sent to hear 

-5 their feeling as a body; 
i...^.iithen lie noticed by a prince 
a c. lion." The latter view of the 

Ictf. nned by the fact, thai in no pas- 

ia ti.e Odyvrfy is any one of the people repre- 
BA takinsT pan in the disciission; while, in 
lli * ' ' > inflicts personal chastisement 
'\ r presuming lo attack the nobles 

\tbtt: ■- - J he people appear to have been 

caUed toceiher to hear what had been already 
n^Kia m the council of the nobles, which is 
^MT/ii* aaid douxof,' and sometimes even 

xh' ^•M—'-T,^, the nmpor name for the 

c! was tKKXTjaia, and avinng 

ir. !|p term uyopa was confined 

->emldies of the phyla and derai.*' 

jiiiat name uyomi continued lo be 

Itj Ckc po|tatar assemblies till a late pe- 

■-"- /, UTj early tmnsforrrd from the 
ihe place in M'hich iho assembly 
v«f br ■ i,s It caine lobe u-^ti for llic inar- 

Im-fUcc, mh^n Kwids of all descriptions were 
,pHtjfiit «nd Anld Th^ «»xpreiuion uyrtfxi n)k^6ovaa^ 


::y>-r (Od., ii.. lis.)— s. 

■ (PuJit. Auiiq., 4 flfi.)-IS. 

: f-8. (11^ JuM; ti., 113; 

-f',>— 10. (11.. IK.. 11. 33.- 

II. tJRf€h..c. Ctr»..c. iff, 

'.*•«.. p. TT.—BOekh, Corp. 

..^aU.^r SJO.) 

" full market," was used to signify the time fium 
momitii^ to noon, that is, from about nine to twelve 

AUURANO.MI (uyopav6/iQi) were pubhc func- 
tionaries in most of the Grecian states, div 
tias corresponded in many respects to of the 
Roman eedtlcs. At Athens their number was ten, 
five lor the city and five for the Pircos, and not 
twenty, as Meier erroneously slates, misled by a 
false reading iu ilarpoc ration.' They were eho.'^en by 
lot.' Under the Homan empire, the aguranomi were 
called /owffrtjr* They corresponded in the prov- 
inces to the cvratotrs civitutU or rajntliUa* 

The principal dniy of the oeoranomi was, as 
their name imports, to inspet'l the marKet, and to 
see that all ttie laws rcspeoling its ir^ilation were 
properly ol'scr\ed. They had the in^pcctiun of all 
things which were sold in the market, witli the ex- 
ception of com, wliich was subject to the jurisdiction 
of the aiTo^v?.aKec* They regulated the price and 
qnautiiy of all things which were brought into the 
market, and punistied all persons convicted of 
cheating, especially by false weighw and measures. 
They had, m general, the ix>wer of punishing all 
infraction of the laws and regulations relating lo 
the market, by inflicting a fine ui>on th« citizens, 
and personal chasti=emcnt upon foreigners and 
slaves, for which paqmse they usually carried a 
whip.* They had the care of all the temples and 
fonnlatns in the market-place,' and received the 
lax {^iviKov which foreigners and aliens 
we»e obliged to pay for Uie privilege of exposing 
their gooos for sale in the market. The public 
prostitnlcs were also subject lo their regulations.^ 

AGRA'NIA i^ypai-ia), a festival celebrated at 
Ai^os, in mcmorv of one of the daughters of 
ProEtus, who had f>een afflicted with madness. 

ArPA*'10T rPA^H{aypai^ovypa<^^). Tlie namea 
of all persons al Alliens who owed any sum of 
money lo the stale (oi tu rfij/iow/^ in^rlXovTrc} were 
rc|fJ5lered by the praetores (ttouktopf^) upon lableia 
kept for that purpose in the '1 r*raplc of Minerva, on 
the Acropolis;' and hence the expression of being " 
regiatered on the Acmpolis {f-yytypoft^iva^ hf 'A«po- 
jfrtX^O alwavs means indebted to the state.* If 
the name of an individual was improperly cra.sed, 
he wjis subject to the action for non-iegislration 
{ayftapiov yfta^rj), whtoh was under the juriwiiction 
of ilie ihesmothetir; but if an individual was not 
registered, he could only be proceeded against by 
IvAtt^ir, and was not liable lo the aypafimi ypa^^.^* 
Hcsychius, whoi^e nccotmt has been followed by 
Hem^lcrhuys and WesseUng, ajjpcars to have been 
mistaken in Baying that the uypa^iov ypa^^ cotild 
be instituted against debtors who had not been re> 


ATP A*Or META'AAOT I'PA*H {uypa^ovfieru?.- 
}.ov ypa^i/) was an aclion brought before the llu'S- 
molhette at Athcn.s, against an individual who 
worked a mine without liaving previouMy rcgi.sitr- 
ed il. The state required that all mines should be 
registered, beeaa-ie the iweniy-foiu-th part of their 
produce was payable to the public treasury.*' 

AGUA'UIiE'LtlGLlS. "It is not exactly tnie 
that the agrarian law of Cassius was the earliest 
that was so called : every law by which the com- 
rnuuwealth di^po^ed of Us public land bore that 

I. (IVmoflh., c. Timwr., c 39. p. 733.— AritUiph., A'-hnni., 
flftO.J- 3. (Sohdl. in Ari»li>i.h.. A.rh™rn,. AM; iyaeMvi,->t^f. tJ^ 
itiv ^oiiarui Ka^at-ficy: MAllcr, jf)jiueUra, fh l«(.) — M. (OJ. 
i., tiL M, t. 3.) — 1. (Lyniu, Kari ruy 2:irwir., c. 1. p 7:1:1.}— &. 
(Sr-tiol. in Ahttoph.. Arliani., MS.)— fl. (Plato, LrRT(-, vi., I0.| 
—7. (JiiBlin, iii., 5.— Mcirr. Atl. Pn«-*w, p. 8l*-W.— Prtjtui, 
Vn(. Alt., T., b1. 3, •. 11, p. 403.}— 6. (Demccltt. in An«\<]f ., \ , 
c IJ, p. 791.— IIari«ocr. ot Saul., %vXt »|ti«^tyy(Mi^*,.\— ^' (^^ 
mmtii. in TSrocr. c. 13, p. 1337.)— ^0. (DcmiftlXi. vr TVcoci., 

/r 1.1, ;>. I.13S.;-J1. (Moier, Alt. Pr(*i>w, p. 'ISV'lW.^AIRcV^v, 
/•uW. iZcm. of AthpM, ti.. p. Uft-12a, lTun».^.^— \a. I.WVcVK 

Pubi iicao. of Athens, ii., p.478.— M«wr, A.W. Vt«««, v- ^5A*^ 



aumcj as, for instance, ihat by which ihc domain 
jftiic kiogs was parcelled oui among the coounoa- 
aliy, and those by which colonies were planted. 
Even in the narrower sense of a law whereby the 
Etaie exercised its ownership in removing the old 
.possessors from a pan of its domain, and making 
^'over its right of property therein, sucb a Law exist- 
ed among tliose of Ser\ias TuUius."^ 

The history of the euactineuU) called agrarian 
laws, either in the larger and more correct sense 
or iu liie narrower sense of the term, as explained 
in this extract, woald be om of place here. The 
particular objects of each agrarian law must be as- 
certained from its provisions. But all these nii- 
Doeixms ^acauents nad reference to the public land ; 
and a great majority of them wera pas:>ed for the 

Surpose of settling Roman colonies in conquered 
islricls, and assigning to the veteran soldicR, wlio 
formed a large part of such colonists, their shares 
in such lands. The true meaning of all or any of 
tlie&e enactments can onlv t:e understood when we 
have lormeri a correct nouon of property in land, its 
recognised bv Roman law. It is not necessary, in 
oriler lo obtain this correct notion, to ascend to the 
origiu of tlie Roman slate, though, if a complete 
history of Rome could t)c writwn, our conception 
of the real character of prv^pcrty in land, as recog- 
nised by Roman law, would be more enlarged and 
more precise. But the system of Roman law. as it 
existed under the emperors, contained boia the 
(eimsand the notions wnich belonged to those early 
ages, of which they are the most iaithful tii.stori^al 

monuments. In an inquir>- of the present kinij, we 

my Doint in the uisi 
which is definite, and we may ascend from known 

may begin at any point in the ui!?torical scries 

and intelligible notions which lielong to a later age, 
towards their hisiorital origin, though we may 
never be able to reach it. 

Gaius,*who probably wrote imder the Antonines, 
made two chief diiTsions of Roman land ; that 
which was divmi ^uris, and that which was humam 
JHtis. Land which wa^ dirini juris was either 
sac^ or rdigiosvs} Lahd which was sacer was 
consecrated to the Dii Superi ; land which was 
religiosiis belonged lo the Dii Manes. Land was 
made sacer bv a lex or scnaius consuhum ; and, as 
the context sliows, such land was land which be- 
longed to the state (populus Romanus). An in- 
dividual could make a portion of his own land 
religlosus by (he interment in it of one of his 
fan^y : but it was the Iwller opinion that lanii in 
(he provinces could not thus be made religiosusj 
and the reason given is this, that the ownership or 

eertv in provincial lajids is either in the state 
. lion.') or in the Ctnsar, and that indi\idtials 
only tne possession and enjoyment of it {pos- 

no et iisiis frudus). Provincial lands were either 
' $tipentiiaritt or trifruinria : the stipendiaria vrevf. in 
those provinces which were considered to liclongto 
the Roman state ; the trihntaria were in those prov- 
inces w^htch were considered as the property of llie 
C^psar. Land which was humani jnris was divi- 
ded into public and private : the former belonged to 
the state, the latter to individoals. 

It would seem lo follow, from the legal form ob- 
Krvcd in making land sacer, that il therety ceased 
to be pnblicus ; for if it still continncd pnblicus, it 
bad not changed its essential quality. Niebuhr* 
has stated that "all Roman land wa.s cither the 
property of the state (common land, domain) or 
private property — aul jntAUn/s aut privatus ,-" and 
lie adds (bat " (be landed property of the state was 
either consecrated lo the gods {mr^). or allotted to 
men tJ reap its fruits (pro/unux, hvmmn jurijiy 
Viebuhr then refers to the view of Gaii^, wnn 
makes ifie latter the primasy division ; but he relies 

/ fj^wh., n,»n. IT,ft., to!, iu, p. 12:), rmn»/.) -5, (i,..^,»c^i\.) 
tJiLT'*^ /Voct/nn^ da Rr, AgnnM, xiu.;— «. f Appcndui, 


on the authority of Frontinus, supported jy LxTj 
as evidence of the correctness of his own divisic 
It is obvious, however, on comparing two pi 
gcs in Frontinus {De Re Agrarm^ xi., xiii,), 
Niebuhr has mistaken the meaning of the wrili 
who clearly intends it tu be inferred llial the saci 
land was not public land. Besides, if the mt 
of Frontinus was what Niebuhr has supposed it 
be, hi!> authority is not equal to that of Gaius on 
matter which specially belongs lo the provmce 
the jurist, and is ibreign to tliat of the agrimei 
The passage of Livj*, also, ccrtainlv does not 
Niebuhr's assertion. The furmof uedilion iu 
raov be easily explained. 

'I'hongh iJic origin of that kind of property call 
public land must be referred to the carbest ages 
the Roman »tate, it appear? from Gaius that uni 
the emperors there was still land within the " 
of the Rmnire, the ownership of which was not 
the individuals who pttssesscd and enjoyed it, but 
the populus Rfimann^ or the CVsar. ' Tins pns 
sion and ernoymont are distinguishetl by him f 
ownership (ilominium). The termp(j.wc*fw frcqu( 
occurs in Uiose jurists from whom the Digest 
compiled ; but iu these writers, as they are knoi 
tn us, it applies only to private laud, and the a( 
pubHcus IS hardlv, if at all, ever noticed by thi 
Now this term Passessio, as used in the Dii 
irfeans the occupation oi prital* land by one w) 
has no kind of right to it ; and lliis possessio 
protected by the pnetor's interdict, even when 
was without bona JUa or justa causa : but the lei 
Possessio in the Roman historians — Livy, for ' 
stance — signiQes the occnpaiion and enjoyment 
puhtie land ; and the true notion of this, the origtl 
possessio, contains ilie whole solution of the qi 
lioD of the agrarian laws. For this solution we 
mainly indebted lo Niebuhr and Savigny. 

Thi.s latter kind of possessio, that which has 
vnte land for iti object, is demonstrated by Savi^, 
(ihe terra hnie used can hardly be said lo be 
strong) to have arisen from the first kind of 
sessio: and thus it might readily be supposed 
the Romnn doctrine of possessio, ns applied to 
occupation of private land, would throw i>ome li( 
on the naiirrc of that original possessio outof wl 
it grew. In the imperial period, public land 
almost ceased to exist in the Italian pcntnsula| 
the subject of possession in private lands ban 
come a well-iuidersluod branch of Roman Ia} 
The remarks in the tlirce following paragraphs 
from Savigny's valuable work, JMs Bechl da 

1. There were two kinds of land in the Rom] 
state, ager fntUicnx and ager privatus t in the lail 
alone private property existed, Bui, confonnal 
!o the old constitution, the gi-eaier part of the a(^ 
pnblicus was given over lo individual cilizens 
occupy and enjoy; vet the state had the right of J 
snming ilie pos&es.sion at pleasure. Now- we 
no Djipnlion of any legal form for the pr^jieciion 
the occupier, or possessor as he was called, of su< 
public land against any other individual, tliough 
cannot be doubled that such a form actuallv cii 
ed. But if we assume that tlie interdict uhi'ch pi 
tecled the possession of an individual in private 
land was the form which protected the posfcssoi 
of the public land, two prol»!ems are solved at 
same time : an historical origin is discovered 
posses>;ion in private land, and a legal form for 
protection of possession in public land. 

An hj-pothesis, which so clearly cormecls inl 
one consistent whole facts otlierwise incapable " 
such connexion, must Iw considered rather 
evolTing a latent fact, by placing other known fori 
in their inie relative position, than as involving any 
independent ass\imipv\oT*. "B^kV iiwTC is VvfAotxtai 
evidence in 8U^«pon ot xVeViy^o^iesa^ 

1. t^\tt.,M.>— a ^,i.,»1-*. >.Wh<AA.tV*VlV^ 


agraria: leges. 

% TiK words f0tMSiOt poftasor^ and jtoxsidcre arc 
^ ibrMciBieal lenns usM by writers ul very dtncrcnt 

^ aZdcioibUe luuls ; that is, ihc nution of a right to 
B^ ocaipf ozhI CBJor puliUc laiid was in the early ages 
^ 01 fe Jtepublic distinguished from iJie right of prun- 
■ ov in tL Nothing vas so natural as to apply 
!■ ika aocfion, vhea once fixed, to the possession oV 
f* |>dme buajd sts distinct from the ovnci^hip ; and, 
p iCQffiiteg^y, the same lechuical terms were applied 
b- wAepoaaessunof prirue land. Various applica- 
of the word passessio, vilh rercreiR-e lu pri- 
tsad, appear in the Rotnon law, in the bonoium 
io ul the pri»(orian heres and others. But 
tm^'i' ->io, as applied to agcr 

hfc" irter in other respect?, 

IB U**- .,..,.. J an actual exclusive 

|» the en^opn^ni ot a ttiing, without the strict 
~ " ftn intarian ) ownership. 

" posscssio, which originally signified 
posse&sor, was in time ui»ed to sig- 
t of the righL Thus a^cr signified 
laad, \*icwed m au object oi'Utiiiitaiiaii 
lAffs^vATW, a piece of land, in which a man 
1 lan or beneficial interest, as, for 
:id Dot tnnbfenvd by maiicipatio, 
w ti::u ti'm its nature, could not be the sub- 
lea of i^uiritariau owner>hip, as provincial lauds 
(fen old tLgci publirits. Posse^sio accordingly 
ms$ a^r iinpUes propriettis ox ownership. 
onaiion of the terms a^r and posscssio ut 
of the irapcrtal times, quoted by Sa- 
lts value fur the purpose of the present 
that account the les«i. The ager 
the old notions attached to it, as 
hanlly occur in the r'xlant Roman 
I oui lh« name possessio, as applied to pri- 
lawl, and the lesral notions attached to it, are 
occurrence. The form of the interdict 
it appears in the Dii^est, is this: 
(Han -'■■'-'* '"^^Mdetirt. -Vim fieri Fcto. But the 
IBD^ vic inlerdii.'t was: Uli nunc pussi- 

lito I ii . n, 'iic. (FcstiLs in Possasia); the 

iwA KumLux lui wliich sedes was afterward subsii- 
■bA, apipear* to indicate an original connexion 
I nau a t toe interdict and the af^r publicus. 
We kBOir notbtttg of the origin of the Roman 
Ibim}, except that it was acuuired by con- 
hen so acquired it belonged to the 
the pj^pulus, OS the name publicus 
\Vc may snppo^e that in ttie 
e Roman state, the conquered 
riy of the populus, mitftil be 
rs of thai Dody, In any u-ay 
'■rmine. Butit is not quite 
w Ubes« ctiiiquered lands were origijially 
The foUnwin? passage from Appian' 
Io pre a probable account of the matter, 
vlneh is not inconsistent with such facts 
irtker-wiv.- Icim« u : " The Romans," he says, 
vhen likT. ' nny part of Italy, seized a 

aCtl> ■' either built cities in thcra, 

ftoouQ 1 -lile in thecitic; which 

9^ftaA$ tsMed. ^ were considrrcd as 

OVfteaiyUBaa. . l., l.iud thus acquired from 

Sir Io tne, they either divided the cultivated part 
mmif IJm colonists, or sold it, or let it to farm. 
A»to ike lud which had fallen out of cultivation 
tecOHe«|Oeon of wur, aui which, indeed, was the 
Imw pan, having no time to allot it, thcv R»ve 
|M|0 oatiOC diat any rme who chose micht in the 
' ottivaxo this land, on pavmmt of pari 
ace, namely, a tenth of the prod- 
Und, and a fifth of the produce of 




mais. The rich occupied the greater part of 
undivided laud, and at length, loeling conhdt 
that ihey should never be depnved of it, and getting^ 
hold of such portions a:* bordered on their shares, 
and al:so of (lie smaller jiurtions iu the possession 
of tlie poor, some by purchase and others by fttrce,' 
they Iteeame llie cultivators of extensive disirictv' 
instead of mere farms. And, in order that iheii 
cultivators and shepherds nughi be free from mili- 
tary service, they employed slaves instead of frcfr' 
iiK'ii ; and they Uerived great profit from their' 
increase, which was favoured by tlie immunity of 
the slaves from military service. In this way th« 
^'reai became very rich, and slaves were nuuieroua 
aJl through the country. But this system rcdiiccd' 
the numbers of the Italians, who were ground down 
by poverty, taxes, and miliury service; and when- 
ever they had respite from'thcse evils, they had'l 
nothing to do, the hmd being occupied by the richj^ 
who employed slaves instead of freemen 
This passage though it apj*ears to contain much 
historical iruin, leaves the ditnculty as to the origvj 
nal mode of occupation misettJed ; fur wv caa 
scarcely suppose that there were not some rulea 

ftre«cribed its to the occupation of this undivided 
and more precise tlian sueu a permission or in\ita- 
tion for a ^neral scramble. It must, indeed, have 
happened occasionally, particularly iu the later 
times of the Republic, tlmi public land was occunie<Irj 
or iquatiid on (to use a North American phrase), by ] 
soldicre or oUier adventurers. 

But, whatever was the mode in which these 
lands were occupied, the possessor, when once in J 
possession, was, as we have seen, protected by thf 
pnetor's interdict. The patron who permitted hfal^ 
client to occupy any pari of his possessions as toj-l 
ant at will {pri^arw), could eject him at pleasuri- 
by tlie itUcrdichim d^^rtcjtrio; for the client did i-Jk 
obtain a pussession Dy such permission of his pa- 
tron. The patron would, of coarse, have the same 
remedy agamsl a trespa.sser. But any individual, 
however humble, who had a possession, was also 
protected in it against the aggression of the rich; 
and it was " one of the grievances bitterly com- 
plained of by the Gracchi, and all the pa* i6 of 
tlieir a^, that while a soldier was sen'ing iigainM 
the enemy, his powerful neighbour, who coveted 
his small estate, ejected his wile and children."— 
(Nieb.) The state could not only grant the occu- 
pation or possession of iLs public land, but could 
sell it, anu thus convert public into private land. 
A remarkable passage in Orasius' shows that ptib- 
lie lauds, which had been given to certain religious 
corporations to possess, were sold in order to 
money for tlic exigencies of the stale. The srUini( 
of that land which was jwsscssed, and the circnni- 
stance of the possession having been a p-aiU or 
public act, are uoth contained in this passage. 

The puitlic lands whirh were occupied by pos- 
sessors were somcliines called, with reference Ig 
such posscssioDjMxu^Amt; and, with respect to the 
state, c&nctjsi. Public land which became private 
by sale was called qutrsiorius; that which is often 
sftoken of as assigned {assiirntjt4ifi) was marked mil 
and divided (UmitaUis) among all the plebeians in 
equal lots, and given to ibem in absolute ownership, 
or it was assigned to the persons who were sent out 
a.s a colony. Whether the land so granted to the 
colony should bcconie Roman or not, depended on 
the nature of the colonv. The name ager publicus 
was given to public lauds which were acquired 
even alter the plebs had beeome one of the estates iti 
the Roman CoustiluLion, IhougH ihe ivMue puXiVvcuv, 
in its original .sense, could no \cinget be svncvX-^ av- 

riaeynrJA A rare u'.is aJso fixed pUc ahie to such public lands. U sbowVWte o\vseT\- 
2Sr^'^r/r^^,7'LX'-^^^^ '^^' ^««^ ^^ eslabUshtuem ol i\ve v\e^. vV. 

possession of public laud was Ihc pecinXvaT ^tvVv 

i^ff-^w. JA ji fis. t-?. (Bt>a r:tr., /., r.> 

1. (Sari^y, p. 170, rr**.1 




sge <4 the pniriciiins, aa before the estublishmeni 
ol till* plebs it soyius lo have beeu the only way in 
whici public lands were enjoyed by ihe poptjfus : 
llie a iMyiimcnt, that is, Ihe grant by the state of the 
owrn rship of public land in iiKcd shares', was the 
privilege ol' the plebs. In the early ages, when tJie 
popi ills was the state, it docs not appear that there 
w.i* .my assi^imcnt of public Iiintls ainoiii,' tlu-in, 
ihu i^'h "u may l.-e assmocd tliat public l;inds wuulJ 
occju-ionallv be sold; the mode of enjoyment of 
pulMC laiia was that of possessio, subject, as al- 
ready observed, to an annual payment to the state. 
It may l*e conjectured that llus ancient JH)'*.se^i^io, 
which we cannot consider as heiving it» ori^'in in 
auytliing else than the consent of the state, was a 
gocNl tJiIe tu the use of the land so lon^ as ilie un- 
DUqI payments were made. At any rate, ilte plebs 
had no claim upon such ancient jiosscsbions. But 
with the introduction of the plcbs n5 n separate es- 
tale, and the cuustaait acouisition of new lands by 
conouesl, it would seem ifial the plebs had as »foo<i 
a title to a share of the newly-conqui-rcd lands, as 
the tutricfaiis to the exclusive enjovraeni of those 
UiQila which hod been acquired by conquest liefore 
the plebs had iKcomc an estate. The determina- 
tion of what part of newly-conquered lanils (arable 
and viucyurds) should n-main public, ajid what part 
siioiUd Ke assigned to the plebs, which, Niebuhr 
•ays, " it need scarcely be observed, was done after 
ihc compleliou of every conquest," ought to kave 
been an eO'ectual way of settling all uispuics be- 
tween the patricians and plebs as to the po>sessious 
of the former; for such an appronriaiiim, if it were 
actually made, uould have no other meaning' than 
that the patricians were to have as good title lo pos- 
sess their share as the plebs lo the ownership of 
tlicir assijsmed portions. The plebs, at least, could 
nt'ver fairly cl.-iini an assi^imcnl of public land, 
appropriated to remain such, at the time when they 
receiveil iht: share of the conquered lands to which , 
lliey were entitled. But the fact is, that we have 
DO evidence at all as to sucli division between Linds 
appropriated to ivmain public and lands assii;ni<^d 
in ownership, as Niebuhr as.sumcs. All that we 
know IS, that the patricians jtoxvs^U large trncu of 
public land, tuid that the nlcbs from time to time 
claimed and enforced a division of part of thera. 
In such a condition of a^airs, many dilficult ques- 
tions ini^ht arise; and it is quite as possible to con- 
ceive that the claim* of the plel»s might in some 
cn.'ieH be as unjust and ill-lounde^ ns the conduct 
of the patricians was alleged lo be rapacious in ex- 
lending their possessions. It is also easy to con- 
ceive that, in Uie course of lime, owing to sales of 
possessions, familv settlements, and other causes, 
ooundarieji had often liccnme so confused that the 
equitable adjustmi'iil of ri^'hts under an ag^rarian 
law was impossible; and this is adilliculty which 
Appiaii^ particularly mentions. 

Pasture-lands, it appears, were not the subject of 
awignment. and wcrv probably possessed by the pa- 
tnciuni ami tlie plebs uidi/ferenlly. 

The properly of the Roman people consisted of 
many ihioi^s t^esiJes land. The conquest of a ter- 
ril'>ry, unless special terms were i;ranied to the con- 
quered, seems to have implied tJie acquisition by the 
Roman Aiate of the conquered lerrilor)* and all that it 
Cvfiitained. Thus not only would land l»e acquired, 
which was available fur com, vineyanis, and pas- 
lure, but mines, roads, rivers, harlKJurs, and, as a 
consequence, tolls and duties. If a Roman colony 
waA sent out lo oc<Mipy a conqucreil territory or 
(own, a part of the contpiervd lands was a.*>M'^)ed 
to the colonists in complete ownership. {Vitl. Co- 
i.nMU.) The remainder, it appears, was left or rc- 
«!ored to tlic inhabitants. iSot thai we arc to un- 
der^tanfl that they had the pro|)Crty in Ibc land as 


I li., io, IB.) 

they had before; bul it appears that tbey w( 
ject to a tax, the province of which bcluij^ed! 
Roman people. Nlebulkr seems to stippitvj ifiS 
Roman state mi^ht at anv time rrsuinr such 
stoa'd lands; and, no doubi, tiie right of resumptl 
was involved in the tenure by which these far 
were held; but it may be doubted if the rcstimpl 
of such Umds was ever resorted to except in- 
urdin.'iry cases, and except as lo conquer* " 
which were the public lands of ibe ccnquct) 
Private persons, who were permitted to retain 
lands supjec: to the payment of a tax, were not 
I>ossessors to whom the af^rarian laws applied. 
many cases, \^t\^q tracts of land were absolut 
seized, Ihcir owners having peri'^hed in battlA 
been driven away, and extensive disirieis, either 
cultivated at nil or verj* imjicifcctly cultivated, 
caine the prop'rtv of tiie statu. Suchlands 
imoccupted coubl become the subject of 
and the [K)SNessor would in all cases, and (n wl 
ever manner Im ubtaineil the land, he IralOe tol 
payment ly the state, as aKive mentioned in the 
tract from Appian. Thi» posscsisio was a rcaj 
terest, for it was the subject of sale : it was Die 
{jutus) of the land; but it was not the af^*r or pi 
erty. The posscsaio alriclly could not pass by 
testament of the possessor, iit lea»t nut by the ini 
eipatio.* It is not easy, liicreforc, to imagine 
mode by which ihe possession of the hcres was _ 
tecied, unless there was a legal form, such as Sai 
nv has assumed to exist for the general protee 
of possessioncs in the public lands. 

The nosscssor of puldic land never acquired 
ownennip by virtue of his possession ; it was 
subject to usucapion. The ownership of i>e ll 
which belonged to the state could only be acqqj 
by tlic grant of the ownership, or by purchaae 
the slate. The stale could at any time, accoi 
to strict rightj sell that land which was only 
sessed, or assign it lo another than the posses! 
The possession was, in fact, with respect lo 
slate, a precarinni; an*l wc may suppose that 
lands st> held woiud at first receive few permai 
improvcmenti. In course <if time, and parti 
when the possessors had been uiuli.sturU-d (c 
year^, possession would appear, in an c(_ 
point oi view, lo have become cqnivnlrnt to 0*1 
ship; and the hardship of removing the posse? 
by an agrarian law would appear (he greater, 
the Mate had long acquiesced in their use and 
palion of the public land. 

In order to form a correct judgment of .some 
those enactments which are most frequently ci| 
as agrarian laws, it must be bonie in mind that 
possessors of piimtc lands owed a yearly tenth.] 
iilth, as the might Iw, lo the state, IndeeuJ 
is clear, from several passages,' ihai, under the 

ftublic at, the receipt of anvthing by the 
rom the oeciipier of land was a legal proof that 
land waa public; ond conversely, public li 
ways owed this annual payment. These 
payments were, it seems, often withheld by 
scssors, and thus the stale was deprived of 
for the expenses of war. 

The object of the agrarian law of 8p. Cassfl 
supposed by Niebuhr lo have Iwwn " that the 
lion of the poptilus in the public lands should ' 
apart; that tne n,'st should be divided 
pleh4>ians: thai the tithe should acain be 1e 
applied to [)aying the anny." The agraiil 
Licinius Stolb limited eacli Individual's 
of pulilic land to r*00 iugera, and imj 
other restrictions; but llie possessor had no 
title lo the 5(M) jugi-r-i whirn the law left him 
he formerly hnri to what the law Kjok fi 
The -surplus land, arrording to the prori 
the law, was to lie divided among tne pU 


Xy jhMiiiB law not eficcUtig its ohjeci, T. S. 
CfiinW irriiwd the iD**3'!nrr for limiting !h? \vy^- 
««■■ oC MfeUc 1ju>j 
■a* U am powoT- 

tWy^.-e jttiM by Ajn*t..-^, u,-. ,,,.; ...i- 

Ov UT^r^; bui lie atMs Uiai GiQ'.xtius pru- 

:|| of lua )>.<ii5^ )i IP- 1 1 i; i5 tnif, 

'Afiya «ue», Ifau ihfr l-L ■ iius lbrl>ade 

frusa iiiiirlij.^in^ u^ . ___ i^iiids which 

>W • ::>e iilebeians by his agrarian 

iiicasiire vas ns unjust as it 

I'Ue Ixuds which the Roman pco- 

aomniicd u liu! ttnlian pcniuj^ula by coii- 

'■*" !'>■ the laws 

- in the civil 

■ < d cotiLiim- 

iLiiJib: imi these lands 

.inrt the numtfroiis co|- 

'.- a> T'lritiiit; 

.. ludi pi'j'.-i.- -. ^. -;....-: 

i under the rmpcrors, 

!:.ilian land were dispo- 

I (US and his sue- 

.s iu ^^aIonium to 

'■ ■' -s are mcn- 

ue may in- 

iitury ol' our 

iriil Icli 111 ihc pcninsu- 

\hf public lands called 

'.: I'lLTis &s had 

' I'the saioe 

. ,;.. 'jicd. Domi- 

ihc reinainder of 

I 'Qst^'ssors. The 

t ily J'umished the 

iliriij the veterans 


Iu I 
ta wbofti 
(•ee the li- 

ke sabsequeni 


or i;i 



.|> was itUll ill the !^t.tie, 

r had only the posp^s- 

,:ilSt the Ro: 

, I lie lanii \. 

lime, acci;!',.:.r, ; 

it is easilv conceived 

r;-? trnuld daily acquire 

N'all with as jxis- 

variuua ngrnrion 

■ •' This 

1^ and 

'ed on 

the Kuuian junspru- 

-- Th(« same wrileT 

r the " arvti 

. -lion to the 

not. This 

ntator A^- 

i','ctiirc5 ihc 

:,,i,-;, !!■■■ i'^!-. n.ii 

iliiii;^ wiiich 

h land from 

1, ft recogni- 

uj Roman law. 

iiiion wilh resppni 

a imi- 

rAl.liihe/l in 

' land wa*. 

i> h'l iium this IST 

'•.B^df fte AsTarim.)~3. (rul 



and a provincial town could only acquiic (be like 
ffcedum by receiving ihe privdegc ejepressed by the 
term jUS Italicum. 'I'he complete :^ululioa ol' the 
qiie&ijun here under discas.iion could only be et- 
U:cti-i\ by asi'ertainiiig the uii^n and r«al nature of 
this pruvinciiU lajid-tax ; and as it may be dillieult, 
ilnot im[io.s.-ible, to ascertain such facts, we ujusi 
endeavour to give a piobable solution. Now il ia 
consistent with Roman notions thai ail conquered 
lajid should be considered n^ the property ol" the 
Roman stale; and it is certain that such laiut, 
thousjh assijtpied lo individuals, did nut by that cir- 
cumstance alone become inve^itcd with nil the 
characters of Ruuian land which was private juTrp- 
ertv. It had not the privilege of the jU5 Iiabcum, 
ana, consequently, could not be the object of Cluii i- 
larian ownership, wilh its incidents o: v i ; 
ic. All land in the pntvinces, includi i 
of die libera civitates, and the ager pu ^ ■^>- 
criy so called, could only become an object ul 
Quiritarioi) ownership by having conferred upon it 
the priviles-e of luilic land, by which il was also 
n-'leased from tiie paymfnl of the tajc. It is clear 
that there might l»e aiid was ager privatus, or Pri- 
vate property, in provincial land ; but this land nad 
not the p[inlege» of Italic land, unless such priv- 
ilege was expressly given to it, and. 
paid a lax. As the notions of landed propcny in 
all cotuthes seem lo supjxise a complete ownership 
rcsiiUug in some person, and as tlic jnovincia] lantl- 
owner, whose lands had not the nrivile^- of the jus 
Italicum^ had not titat kind of ownership whicb, 
according to the uotiouB uf Roman law, was com- 
plete ownership, it is dithcult to conceive that the 
ultimate ownership of provincial lands (with the 
exception of ihose of the liberie civitates) couiJ 
re5.ide anj'-whcre else than in ihe p< nulus Romanu^, 
and, after the establishment of the imperial pewter, 
in the popiilus Ronianus or the Coesar. This ques- 
tion is, Ito^ever, one of some didicullA^, and well 
deWATS farther examination. It mayW doubled, 
however, if Gaius means to .viy thai there could 
be no duiriiarion owTiership of ])rivate land in ihe 
provinces; at least this would nut be ihe case io 
Those disirieis lo which tlie jus Italicum was ex- 
' ' T ■ :isc of the Recentoric lands, which 
• iobuhr,' way be explained. The 
-, - ;, n of was land in Sicily. One ob- 
ject of ibe measure of RuUus was lo cjtact certain 
extraonlinary pa)Tnenls (vedigal) from the public 
lands, that is, from the possessors of them \ tut he 
excepted the Recentoric lands from the operation 
of his measure. If tiiis is i)rivate land, Cificro 
argues, the exception is unnecessar)*. Tne argu- 
ment, of course, assumes that there was or might 
be private land in Sicily; that is, there was or 
mi^t be land which would not be affected by this 
part of the measure of Rullus. Now il. u 
of public and private land in this pa5 
proves, what can easily be proved Wi. -- . i : 
mdividuals in Ihe provinces owned land as individ- 
uals did in lialy ; and such land might with prt*- 
prioiy be call.?d jmratus, as contrasted with thai 
called pithfirvs in the provinces: iu fact, il would 
not be easy lo have foiwd another name for it Bui 
we know I'hnl ager privalns m the provinces, nnless 
it had received the jus Italicum, was not ilie same 
thing as ager privatus in Italy, though both were 
private property. Such a passage, then, leads lo 
no necessary conclusion ihat the liltlroate owner- 
ship or dominion of this pm'ate land was not in the 
Roman people. It may be as well here to rcmarK 
farther, that anv conclusions as to Roman law, de- 
rivedsolely from the oralions of Cicero, arc to W 
received with canlion ; first, liecause on sevenu 
Ijccasions (in the Pro Carina for instance) he stale* 
at to be law which was not, for the purpose t4 

i (Ckj^*- ndll..i..4.) 


m&fntAining his argameni ; and, secondly, because i 
it was a sijbjt'ci ou which his knowledge was prob- ' 
ablv noi vt'iy cjacl. 

ll only reiiiains briplly to notice the conditioa of 
the public land wilh respect to the I'ruclus, ot Tccii- 
gal, which belonged to the slate. This, as already 
observed, wa» generally a tenth, and hrncc the ager 
puhlicus was sometimes called dccurnanus; it wa£ 
also someiiiaci called ager vectit^ali*!. The tithes 
were generally farmed by the publicani, who paid 
their rent mostly in money, bat soincumes in grain. 
The letting was managed by the censor;:, and the 
lease was for five years. The fonn, however, of 
leading the lentiis wa.s that of a sale, mandpatw. lu 
courve of time, the word hKoiio was nppliea to those 
leases. The phrase used by the Kornan writers 
was or\i^mB\\v frurPvs locatio, which was the proper 
expresstun ; &ut we find the phrase ag^rvm fructuium 
tacnrt also used in the sajiie sense, ^an expression 
which might appear somewhat ainbi^uus ; and 
even agruja Imare, which niighl ini^an the leasing 
of the public lands, and not oi the tenltis due from 
the possessors of thern. U is, however, made clear 
by Niebuhr, that in some instances, at least, the 
phrase agrutn. locare does mean the leasing of the 
icntlis ; wheUier this was always the meaning of 
tlicphrase, it is not possible to alfirm. 

Though the term ager vcciigalis originally ei- 

fircssed the public land, of which the tithe was 
eased, it aAerward came to sij^ifv lands wtiich 
were leased by the state or by dirferenl corpora- 
tions. This latter description would comprenend 
even the ager publicus ; but this kind of public 
property was gradually reduced to a small amount; 
ana we find the term ager vectigali^, in the later 

f'criod, applied to the lands ofto\ra5 which were so 
ijased that tlie lessee, or those who derived tlieir 
lithe from liim, could not be ejected so Ion? as ihcy 
paid the vectigaL This is the ai^er vcciifjalis of 
the Digest/ on the model of which wjis formed the 
emphvleusis, or ager emphj^euticariu*.. ( Vui. Eii- 
pHY^rF.cais.) The rights of the lessee of the ager 
rccligalis were different from those of a possessor 
of the old ager publicu.s, thoui;h the ager veclit^alis 
was derived from, and was onlv a new form of, the 
ager publicus. Though he had only a jus in re, and 
thou^ he is distinguished from the owner (tlominus), 
yet he was considered as having the possession of 
the land. He hwl, also, a right of action against 
the town, if he was ejected fmrn his land, provided 
he had always paid his veciigal." 

AGR.Ml'f.lA {aypavXia) was a festival celebra- 
ted by the Athenians in honour of Agraulos, the 
daughter of Cecrops. We possess no particulars 
respecting the time or mode of its celebration ; but 
it wa*, perhaps, connected wilh the solemn oath, 
which ail Atlienians, when they arrived at man- 
hood (f^i^t). where obliged to take in the temple 
of Agraulos, that they would fight for their coun- 
tfy, and always observe its laws.* 

Agraulos was also honoured with a festival in 
Cyprus, in the month Aphrodisius, at which human 
vi'clini? were offcrtvi.* 

AG'RETAI (nyptrai), the name of nine maidens, 
who were chosen every year, in the Island of Cos, 
as priestesses of Athena (Minerva). 

AGRI.\'NIA (tiypiavta) was, according to He- 
sychius, a festival celebrated at Argos, in memory 
nf a deceased person, and was, probably, the same 
as the festival called Aan.iNu. The Agriania was 
also celebrated at Thebes, with solemn sports. 

AGRIMENSO'RE.S, or " land-surveyors," a col- 

t. (vi., UL9.V— %. (Niplinhr, RoRi.niil.— SaTi^r, dssRochl 
Ja« BenUM, &th »\. — Cicero, c. RuU. ; anti tbn olher aathon- 
ttna alnadf rafvnvd to in Uis omm of Ihn irticl*.) — 3. (Lr* 
rory., e, Leocr., c^ IS, p. 18B.— Oemorth.. iln l<«<irnt., r. M, m. 
«S8.— Plat.. Alcib., e. 15.— Stolwu*. S«nn., ili., HI.— Sch4- 
wtmu/it tff Comit. ^r)Nfn.,p.3)l.— WMhamuth, Hi^Ueo. Aitortli., 
/, L, p. iS9.)~4. (PurphjT.f d» Abftio- »b jUijb., i., S.J 

lege established imder the Roman emperors. LI 
the jurii':onsults, tbej had regular schouls, 
were paid handsome salaries by tlic state. Th< 
business was to measure unassigned lands for the 
state, and ordinary lands for the proprietors, zmd to 
fix and tnoininin boundaries. Their writings on 
the sutyecl of their art were very numerous ; aod 
wo have still scientific treatises on the bw of 
boundaries, such as those by Frnntinos and Hvlm- 
nus. They were sometimes rested with judicial 
|K>wer, and were calird spectabiUs and ciarissivii in 
ilie time of Theodoslus and Valentlnian. As par- 
tiiioncrs of land, the agrimensores were the success- 
ors of the augurs, and the mode of their linitatia 
was derived from the old augurial method of form- 
ing the trtnphnn. The word tr/rjiium, like the Gre«lc 
re/ici'or, fiitnply mcnna a division ; its application to 
signify ilie vault of the heavens was dne to th** t?.ri 
that the directions were always ascertained ai . :d- 
ing to the true cardinal points. At the inanguraiiOQ 
of a king* or con.sul," the augur looked towanis ibo 
east, and the person to Iw inaugurated towards the 
Aouth. Now, in a case like this, the perscm to fat 
inaugurated was considered the chiel, nnd Tht* di- 
rection in which he looked was the main dip 
Thus we fmd that in the ease of land-snrvt v 
augur looked to the south :' for the gods wcil- .>uji- 
posed to be in the north, and the augur was con- 
sidered as looking in the same manner in which 
tlie gods looked upon the earth.* Hence the maia 
line in land-suiTcying was drawn from north 10 
south, and was called cnrdo, as corresp'Jnding to 
thr axis of the world; the line which cut it wai 
termed di^nnarms, because it made the fij^uie of a 
cross, like the nunienil X. These two lines wcit 
produced to the extremity of the ground which waa 
to be laid out, and parallel to these were drawn 
other lines, arconling to the size of the quadrangle 
required. The limiLs of ihijse divisions were indi- 
cated by halks, called limiUs, whifh were left ai 
high roads, the ground for them being deducted 
from the land to^^jc divided. As eveiy Rixih was 
wider than the others, the square bordering upon 
this would lose pro tenia. The opposition of «« 
and i'tifs in this rectangular division nf property 
has not been sufficiently attended to by scholars. 
It appears thai, if the line from north to south was 
called limey, that from east to west would l»e named 
ptfl, and vice ixrsa. Virgil was, as is well known, 
very accurate in hfs use of words, and we may en- 
tirely depend on inferences drawTi from his lan- 
guage. First, he uses ami's in its stricter sense m 
a term of land-surveying: 
" Ante Jiroem nuBi aubigdmnt arra enlmi^ 
Nh sigyuxrt <fuidem, avt partiri timiU campttm 
Fas er/i/:'* 
Again, in speaking of planting Vines in reguLai 
rows, he says : 

" Omnls in. vngurm 
Arbarilfus posit is secto via Hmiie quadrH ;"• 
i. €.j " let cverj* rwi be exactly perpendicular to the 
Htucs which it cuts." He says quadrrt, for the term 
via inight be used in speaking of a line which cm 
another obliquely, as it is used in the descripiioB 
of the ecliptic, in Viigil : 

" Via Sfiia ptr anibits, 
OUifptvs qua se siffnarum vcrtcret ordo"'^ 
These passages are snffieient to prove that *u 
and limes are u.<ed in opposition to one another 
The following authorities will show that via meaii: 
the principal or high road; and limrs^ a narrowei 
cross road, where roads are spoken of. In the firs 
place, the Twelve TaMes laid down that the ru 
should he eight feel wide when straight, but twclvi 

1. (Lir.j i., 19.)— 3. (Dioor"-. i'-. 5.)— 3. (Vnro. »p- Tnu 
tin., p. 913.)— 4. (Femu.t. V. Siaixirv.)— 5, [OeoTg., >., 19B I 
«. (Goorg.,u.,r8.i-7. (Gftorg., 1., a».l 





lA dK mnkiog i anditiscipn-'sslydisiingiiished 
fesas from uic x/<r of iwu ibel wide, ami the 
nf fbar ttet wide. BiMUJCully, in Livy' we 
"mira tarn {ptrriatn) exl/wpu Ud<£ sunt- via, d 
" &£., " ta Um%U," 6cc. -, and in ihe samu 
■llai;* ** iroMfftcrni Jeniii/wji in rmut LatinaiH est 
^gtmu-^ and Tacitus' says, ^*per limiiem. via 
punmimr /tMUnatiirm fvnsectnkdi vidt/res." WJien 
hmwwM not dirided* it was ciiUcd arajimust ur 

I th'- ■-•' "- •■■' ' .' ' -M-tl lo Uiis cJais. 

naj'. .aluable aitidt's 

1^1-. '1 ill liie Appcn- 

Jioitutn i/utt/ry, vul. ii, 
\, the herti Agrimony^ CftUed also 

' "ill itu having been dun 

I-,," /. ^ I'eslival which was 

dhfcflilfiil &t Orx:hoine:niis, in BcEoiia, in lionour or 
Itoiysus. euriunied 'AyptCiviQi. It uppeara frum 
CiVircIt* tbat this Jestiral was solenuizc^d only by 
aikd priests uf Diuays-us. It cQiL!)i:«Led uf a 
. which ihp women far a lung lime 
:: I>iun}>us, aud at last called out 
,:. -._. :;;at he had uicaped to the Muses, 
i cuacealed himscU' with them. AHer this 
pfvMred a reposi; and having cDJovcd it, 
" tncmsctves with solving nJillcs. This fts- 
ttH VBS reznarkable for a reutiue which prjvcs its 
pKaniiquit}'. Stiine riri^iiis, who Wi^re desccnd- 
<A,iiam uia Minyans, and who probably used to 
tmmtAo aronnd the temple on the occasion, fled, 
-ad rcre fuUnwud by the priest ara^ed with a it word, 
«ra3 allowed lo kill the on(i whom he fiist 
This sacrifice of a human being, though 
ly i: must have lormcd a regular jart of Uie 
«iecaiJt to bare been avoidLd in later limc^. 
mce, however, occurred in the days of 
But, as the priest who had killed the 
was afterward attacked by disease, and 
arrenJ extraordinary aecidenis occurred lo the 
UtttfAos, ihv priesit and his family were deprived 
<tf Ikrir ulficial power. 7'he feskival is said lo have 
tem ^nred fruai the daughters of Minyas, who, 
^ha bATitj; iot a longtime rc^isicd the Bacchant- 
fcirf, wer»f a( Icnjflh seized by an invincible 
leol evtins; human flesh. They ihcrcfore ca^t 
oa cbeii i-'fwo i-hiUln-n, arid a:^ Hippasus, .son 
Lraeippe. Iiecame the destined victim, they 
KiUW 9Jm\ Me him, whence the women belon^in^ to 
race were at the time of Plutarch Mill calletl 
^Maroyera {6?,ttat or aloXaiai), and Ihc men 

IQp... . , .. .>T ^^ypta^{.^Xtiv). a plant, the 
lb ' tnlUtvx sAavuv), OUT ^'lloQSi- 


A6T' itoi) are described by Aria- 

Mk &" e, whose duties correspond- 

oi ta ma^ ic^^Mxis lo thofe of the astynomi iii the 
dry.' Thejr appear to have perfoniied nearly Uie 
aaam^iMirmmm inebyUm (v^upoi). .^^i)^totle does 
&.-■( iafam ns in vbat state (hey existed; but, from 
0»finmail incntion of them bv Plato, it api>eanv 
p n b rtife ^ • v^fd lo Attica.** 

*AGSU)&; 'ic)> a plant. Schneider and 

fwwLTk. !)i,-il nearly all the commentators 

Idhrring it to ihc TiUicttm rcpt^s, L., or 

r... 1. kr.iise, however, is content with 

mar;. Tr/f of Theophraslus as the 

i ; !■ scription of the oypcwnf h 

%iiKix by I)io»oorideA, would aciem to 

tha l^maana palustm, or "Grass of Par- 

ATPOT'EPAE OrSiA {uypoTtoai dvaia%zfe9\i 
val celebrated every yeai at AlLens in honour ol 
Artemis, sumamed Agroifrra (frnni d}/xx, chase). 
It (vas solcianizcd, according to Plutarch,^ on iha 
sixth of the moiiLh of Boedromioa, aiid con^i^^ted lO 
a sacrilice of 600 floats, which continued to be utier- 
ed in the time of Xcuophon.' Its origin is thu.'^ ro- 
laled: When the PerMans invaded Attic;i, Callim- 
achus ihe polcuiarcb, or, according to otlicni, Mii- 
tiades, made a vow lo sacrltice to Arieiui.s Agrote- 
ra as many goals as there should be enemies bluio 
at Marathon. But when liie number of enemies 
•Jain was &o great that au equal number uf goats 
could nol l>e lounJ at once, ilie AlJicnians decreed 
that &00 bhonld be sacriiiced every year. Thi-f is 
the slatemcnl made by Xcnophon ; but other ancient 
uulhori) give dih'ereni versions. jElian, whose ac- 
count, however, seems least probable, stales' ihctima 
of liie festival lo have been the sixth ufThargelioa, 
and the number of goats yearly sacrificed 300. The 
.scltoliaston Ariiitophanes* relates that the Athenians, 
before the battle, promised lo sacrifice to Aitemis 
one ox lor every enemy slain; but when the num- 
iHir of oxen could nol be prociu-cd, they substituted 
an equal nuinlier of goats. 

AGRUF'iXlS {uypvjTvi^), a nocturnal festival celo< 
brated at Arl>ela, in Sicily, in honour of Dionysus.* 

AGUR'MOS (aji'f^o^j. [Vid. Elbusima.) 

AGUR'TAl i^dy-LftToi), mendicant priests, who 
were accustomed to travel Uirough the diHcreni 
towns of Greece, soliciting alnw for the gods whom 
thiry served. These priests carried, citlier on their 
fjioulders or on bca.^t5 of burden, images of iheir 
rc'spcctjve deities. They appear to have been of 
Onenial origin, and were chiedy comieclcd with the 
worship of I^is,* Upis, and Ajrge,' and especially 
of ihe great mother of ilie gods ; whence they were 
called lijjrpayvpTat. They were, generally speaking, 
persons of the lowest and most abandoned character. 
riiey undertook to inflict some grievous Nxlily in- 
jury on the enemy of any individual who paid them 
Ibr such services, and also promised, for a small 
sum of money, to obtain forgiveness fiom the guds 
whom they served for any sins which either the in- 
dividual himself or his ancestors had commitled.* 
Thus CEdipus calls Tiresia.s, 

66?,uv uyvpriiv.* 

These mendicant priests came into Italy, but at 
what time is uncertain, togellier with the worship 
of ihe gods whom they served.'* 

The name of uyvprai was also applied lo those 
individuals who prcteJided to tell ^oplc's fortimes 
by means of lots. This was done m various ways. 
The lots frequently consisted of single verses taken 
from well-known poems, which were thrown into an 
urn, whence ihey were drawn either by the persons < 
who wished to learn Iheir fortunes or by boj's. It 
was also usual lo write the verses on a tablet," and 
those who consulted them found out the verses 
which foretold their desLiuics by throwing dice, 

AlAKEI'A (AiuKtia), a festival of the .f^ginetana 
in honour of /Eacos, the details of which arc not 
knowTJ. The victor in the g.-3nc.s which were sol- 
emnized on the occasion, consecrated his chaplei 
in the rangnificeni temple of vEacus." 

AIANTEI'A (MuvTtm), a frsltval solemnized is 
Salamis in honour of Ajajc, of which no particulars 
are known." 

•AIGEIROS (atyttpo^), without doubt the Popu- 
lus nigrti, or Black Poplar.'* 

■• chdAi Fit*. 

tuai.. U »-- a. (|L«., ill., aa.)— 4. (Dint- I. (Dit Malufn. Hurorf., ».)— 2. (Xmnph., Aniili.. iii., % 4 

f. i^s fgr.«t. Rum.. lOa.)— 19.)— 3. (V. n., ii., 15.)— 4. (E*imt., Ofifl.)— ^S. tt'id- Hetyrh., 

-i-rn, p. Ififl, tTffi.) •■ T.)— r-.JSMid., iul* ' Kytlfitt-)—' ■ (l[eroa.,\*., W.>— %. ;V.\vVt» 

P., ti., U.— I>n»^ kpQ ttJ TiDurr l,rx. Flat., lub nvdivjvoai' Mwft Iitoyw^ at^— ^ 

', Ujrr.. ri.. P.— y^Sriu/i., (Eli. Trr. 337.)— 10. (Clr.,Uel.PKB..u.,\ft.— Wt'inAutlL 

• n.rfr, »<» mk^h aavfnt pamMer* in t{ur.,Sf<rm..i . ii..9.)— II. (ayv^riKd^nCvuV <^ •\Y\>pnK)iaAv\0 

/ 14. (Dtmnor., t., IM.— ThaupUrut.. H V.. u. B ■. u., ^ «Mt.^ 



4A4Mr»(. «tich an- 
. or Bine Ticmoose.' 

H^ .*)■•■ dHHW 41VVR4KT tH OOl 

aa< •« ^ ah* Amm ite^HL or 

iMft MtvCtt ikiH OfiBtoo, and hoMs 
<bIM CHm* iQ l-Yench, which 


kX, of 

1. The 
r: L.« the Great 

vftich would 
^mus, U, or 


whu-h there 

Robert Slc- 

>rs c<Hiten(i 

Alb tfrtnV of the 


U4 Mhlk tt iMJii ' DodoABQS, Sibihorp, 

in referriug it (u 

•Hn^M mt^" TfcwiPJliMtns fiirthi^r onplics 

«S»w ft Mite vC Otk, vbicb Suckbouse 

T^^f t, buckwhoal- Spren> 

teanwd ADin»>llara believed 

U »! Iv '^^ ifc«^'**i .(«<ifMVto«,or Hc«t-harrow; he 

^IMMmII^ hawtav**, ih ite hcom Virion of his " Hei 

*A ..v <i. u.«.H^* j||<fi{M> tC ft speci« o{ Eryn- 

'-v.»wvwr, »» «erely conjectaral.' 
; ^USt etj«<li.l<y). the Gual-sacker, a 
W4 *«< iW MUM C^pMW%mL h applies more cs- 
»>iU 'iy«PJ<< calM Fern-owl in England, 
' »|iws the scientific Daine 

fV JElian describes it as 

hitTrcrn the E^le and the 

Vvhiw* 0»iMt *PcU«« that il is ihc same as the 

t^ IM V^tlvr mx^ ut' rtiiiy : and Schiiei- 

'^ that tt nvhaMr was the VuUur pcrcnop- 

' ritW (KU Uvrs 1* 

V •*^^*<tl' a '**'^ ^''^ ^^^ rapacious 
*-«^ hy Arisioilc.* Il is rendered 
'<ut ranuoC loo satisfactorily deter- 

•I V 

*ff). an notion brought 
1 tiio Forty {oi rtrrapa- 
lilt who imd stnick a 
, on who had been thus 
: iv'i wiv^ against the 
■ , which was 
. which was 


.'n^L'd in an 
1. .-i , i-u- tu have been 
w, to pn' ftn individual 
ihau uue mode of ob- 

irr K» piow two fticts in IrinKins 

irat. That the 

tlie iniention 

^- .'Aa.V which, however, was 

\ n ihc intention, unless 

ten he only struck tlie 

^^. iftcr 'prvinnjj ihal 

J^ K ■ tho juil!;:!.'.'. ihal 

^Mll>lft.Y-^ M«tti' lY to prove 

Sm ^%i*Wlaut Ml'u ">>t. Dn'\ ^^^ 

MM«ir(vtf Mtivia uliii-h had l>crn pven 

te ^ V^« *' V^^ QiliKwv. or merely 

k «ltit aJuw. ih* »«(n of mtmcy to be paid by 
^ i|rlW>fiti> «^ I. .■.-■•.'<; wa.H not nxed by the 
llWlTvMlW ( -vetl the amonnt ac- 

♦i^Jlifti K» Jw ' 1 he ihouRhl he had re- 


i.Umi.Apprml, .•.*>— 5. (Dim- 
II* ■^ . Ifl— Ailwirf, Apf^nd., 

■,.«u n. p., It-. B.- 

V , „i., W.)— 5. fN. A., 

(II. A- li., «.)— e. 

•■'v. A»<lrot,. c. fl, p. 

ceired, and the judges detennLned od the jil5tice Ol 
the claim.* 

AIKX.ON {uIkXov, aWXov^ or lUKvm', oIni'oiO,* fit 
said by Folenio' to be a Doric word ; its derivatives. 
inuiOxi and fitcaiKKiQi, were used only by the Do 
rians. Modem writers differ grcaily respeciir.;^' Iii 
meaning; but, from an examination of the pa>N3;.'es 
in which ii occurs, it appears to be used in two :^ej)- 
scs : I. A meal m general. Thus Alcman uses tTvya* 
U^ttti for ffup^MTi'io.* II. The chief dish or courso 
in a meal. Tlie dessert or afler-course was called 
tTTuiO^v.* The (S/xAov among the Spartans wu 
composed of the contributions which every one who 
came to the public banquets {^ei6iria) was bound to 
brinj^, and consisted chielly of pork and black I r .:!:. 
or blood-broth {^Oa^ C<-*fiofs ciftdria)., with th< v 'li- 
tion of cheese and figs; sometimes, but rarely, ^1" v 
received contributions offish, hares, and jnnin 
The IrruiK/Mv, or dessert, which varied the [1 in- 
ness of the meal, consisted of voluntary gills m ihc 
Mblc. The richer citizens sent maize bread, !■_ \vt», 
hares, Iambs, and other di-nhes, cooked in a superior 
manner, a part of a sacrifice, or the fniiis .-( ibe 
season, while others contributed tlie proceed* >.'l the 
chase. It was the custom, when one of these prrs- 
ents was helpe<l round, to name tlie person who 
sent it.' Sometimes they procured a good dcs^tri 
by imposinff penalties on each other, or by i^iviriir 
the place of honour at the table to him wh< < i 
tributed the b«t dish.' The rontribmioir 
eaten as they were sent; or, if their flavour v .: l 
approved, they were made up afresh into a sa\-oury 
mess called a ftarriTj. Boys were allowed an i-uiK- 
Xor consiaiing of Iwrley meal kneaded with oil, 
and linked in laurel leaves.* 

AiriNH'TCN KOP-TH {Mytvnruv iopr^), a fe*. 
tiralof Uie jEeincians in honour of Poseidon, i\ hich 
lasted sixteen days, during which time evcr>' lanuly 
took its meals quietly and alone, no slave being aU 
lowed to wait, and no stranger invited to partake tt^ 
them. From the circumstance of each family bei 
closely confined to il*;clf, those who solomnizcd tl 
festival were called fiovM^'tyot. Plutarch* trace* 
origin to the Trojan war, and says that, as many 
the i£ginetans had lost iheir lives, partly in the sic 
of Troy and panlv on their return home, those 
reachell their native island were received indeed 
Joy by their kinsmen ; but, in onler to avoid hurti 
the fcelinj^ of those familici; who had to lament 
loss of their friends, they thought it proper neill 
to show their joy nor to offer any sacri6?es in 
lie. Every farriily, therefore, entertained private 
their frienas who had returned, and acted ihemscli 
as attendants, thonj^h not without rejoicings. 

•AITHUIA (althia), tUc Mer/nu of the Latii 
the modem Cormorant. As there arc several 
cics of this i^-nus, it is difficult to say, in general,] 
which of them the ancient name is most applical " 
The PfUca nns covin is a common species." 

•AIX (nif). I. (ViJ. Tbaoos.) — TI. The nai 
of a bird t'rielly noticed by Aristotle.'* flclon cc 
jectures that it was the Lap\ring, namely, the 
ikUus Crisintvf}* 

•AIT.OU'ROS {alXovp<K\ the Felxa CaiHs, or 
Cat. .Some apply the name Kumjc to the DomesI 
Cal.^* (Viii. FEt.19.) 

•AIMAT1TH2 (aii/^r/r»7f). the weU-known 
called Bloodstone. (Vid, Hematites.) 

1. (D^nitmh., ikW-Conon. — Iiwimttrf, adT. Loftil.— M*iier, 
PrwwM, p. W7. — BAck-h, PuliUc Econ. of Aiht-T)*, Tfil.ii.. p. ti 
trairtl.)— 2. (EastBlh, la 11., xviii., N5.)— 3. (Allirniroi, \,. U 
c.)~i. (Athcdiru*. p. 140, c— ?^ff aim Epichirmus nnj Alri 
tu Atbenff-UB, p. 139, 4, ami p. HO, c.)— 5. (Polpmo m Aihf 
p, Hfl. f.)— fl. (Polrirn m Athrn., j>. IW, c.) — 7. (AtHpii., p. M 
/.)— 1». {MODpf. l)«n«rv», m., i- 7; iv., ni., 3.— Waclnmt 
HeWfn. All^nhum., II., ii., p. S4.)— 0. (Qucsi. Cnc.. 44 
10. (Ariitnt.. H. A., v., a— J:)iaii, N. A.. iv., 5.>— 1!. (H. 
«iii.. a.)— IS. [AdbnuL. Appeiul., t. y.>— 13. (Aristtit., H. k^ 
2. — Saiil., B. ». rrfrnjc et •fm>ytv<J(.— Toyp in Said., 1. c — j 
ti&a, Appood., t. T. aiXaufH-l 



M are said to be very simi- 
vLit; ij..Eiu'jrrbus as> iltf&cribal by ibe 

•jLQLI <aVa). a plaul. llie same with the LotUm 
L-t or DanieL It may be confidently 

•ll|(0^POT2(o^ppoxf), (-oif, or 'Of), a Bpc- 1 Thcodoriis of Colophon, which perwnn U£?dto sing 
of£iexpcxl^ The celehrate^t Paul Hcnnnnn i while swinging Ihcmsolvos (rv raVf oifijfKi'f). It is 
that he had Tuuud in Alrica a ser- thercloro probable that the Allienian maidens, in 
n of which was inimediJiiL-ly follow- remembrance of Erigone and the other Albcnian 
gcs liorn all llic pore* of ihc body, i women who had hung themwlves, Nwiing them- 
hv concluded to be ihe same as the ; selves during this festival, at the same time singing 
r*f anti<inity. It shoiUd also be re- ' the atovc-mentioned song of Theodorus.' 

pnxluced by the poison of | ALABASTKU, the name nsually given by art- 
ists and antiquaries to that variety of marble which 
mincralogiftls call gypsum, Alalioster is sometimes 
described aa of two kinds; but this is an error, as 
one of the substances so called is a CQrbtnvUf of 
lime, and ihercfore not alaha.Mer in the common 
lt» be Uie "in/Wtx WiKwi" of Virgil; aiid I accepiatiori of the term; while the other, the real 
Ibe ." ' vripiure wq3 first auggest- 1 alaba f lime. Alabas- 

ni ti which haa Iwen espoused, I tcr (^^', n-nnspareiit, and 

_»ckji<-'>' .. i^ M-itt, by Ucnry Stephens, and 'isusua;., •.'. ^ ^ ^ _,,..., .1 .. hito— and g^ifcn- 

; C&mpbcU m Aberdeen, ajw oUier Biblical ish colour, (hough sometimes strong brow n tints and 
t». It farther deserve* to be raeniion- spots appear in it. When the varieties of colour 
translators of the works of the Arabian occur in the same stone, and are disposed iu bands 
•utitors render the aipa of the Greeks by or honzonial strata, it is often called onyx alabas- 

I ter; and when dtspenicd irre^ilnrlv, as if in cloiid<, 

TMXETES {oltixnivyTri^X an individual who it is in like manner distingiiislieil as ngnti- alab.ts- 

McncYimes invested with tiolimited power in ler. These varieties in the colour nrc alluded to 

Gfr«k states. His power, according to Aris- hv Pliny: ** Oituhre iitteraiiuto vahts cttltrnffus."* 

janwok in «>me deijree of the nature both of 1 Though much softer than other marbles, and on 

ad iTrannical authoritv, since he was ap- that accoimi ill adapted for sculpture on a large 

legally, *ud did not usiirp the gtivemment, ( scale, it is capable ol' bein^' worked lo a ver^' fine 

m Ihe same time, was not bound by any laws ; surface, and of receiving a jHilish. 

kaoblic administration.^ Hence Thcophras- 1 Alabaster has l>een sup|»(.>5*d to derive its name 

on* the office nitatnic aiptrtf. It was not originally from Alabasiron^ a town of Eg\*pi, where 

V. nor was it held for life; but it only con- 1 there was a mannlac-tory of vessels made of a stone 

for A certain time, or till some object was which was found in the neighbouring mountains. 

d. Thus wc rea.1 that the inhabitants PHny* speaks of alabastrilc?. using that term for ihr 

appomted Piitacns alovuvifrv^, in order ] various kinds oC this marble, as well ns onyx, prob- 

c iJic return of Alcaus and the other ex- ^^^Y fro"* '*'<^ texture being somewhat ditfereut from 

that of the Greek, Sicilian, and Italian mnrbles, 
which he was more accustomed to see, and which 
were commonly used by sculjrtors, and fpani which 
he thus desiivd lo disiinguifh it. He observes that 
it was chiefly procured iu bis time from Alabas- 
tron and Dama-scus,* 

Alabaster, both in its (bnn of carbonate of lime 

and gypsum (for, from the confusion that exists in 

the description of some monuments of antiquity, it 

becomes necessary lo advert to both varieties under 

it he had given I ^^^* denomination), was employed verv cxtonsivfly 

r, »niided by a V ^^ ancients. It was much used by the Egyp- 

' ^- lians for different sorts of vases, rilicvi, ornaments, 

covers of sarcophagi, canopies, and sculpture in 

general; bitt, from the abwnce of any remains of 

EMU m tw s.irne m.inner, nung ncrseii. s^ilpturc in that materinl, it mav be assumed that 
o many Athenian women ac- alahastcr (g>psum) was little, if ever, used by the 

artists of ancient Greece and Italy for statues, ri- 
lievi, or biLsts. Vessels or pots used for containine 
perfumes, or, rather, ointments, were often called 
by the ancients at*ib*ts!ra or nluhaslri. It appears, 
from the accoimt of Pliny, that these pots were 
usually made of the onyx alabaster, which was 
considen*d to be belter adapted than nnv other 
stone for the presenration 01 perfumer' Martial 
says fwww redolnU eilabasfra.* and Horace appears 
Tn allude to the same vessels in his invitation lo 
Virgil.' The lenn seems to have been employed 
to denote Tcsscls appropriated to these uses, even 
when they were not made of the material from 
which it is supposed they originally received their 
name. Theocritus thus speal^ of golden alabo-stra 
(.tpvtffi' aXa^aarpa*). ThcM veswls were of a ta- 
pering shape, and very often had a long narrow 
neck, whicn was sealed; so that when Mary, the 
sister of Lazarus, is said b>- St. Mark' to break the 
aliibasier-box of ointment lor the purpose of anoint- 
ing our Saviour, it appear^! probab,'*? that she only 
broke the extremity of iJie neck, A'hlcVi was \S\\\s 

/. (Vii. iftiam Allien., x\y., p, filP.)— 4. (X\. V., raVt., \\, 

nwt.AMrTo.1.. «.,^.>-&/-S. (if ff., till.. 3; xxxTi.. ia.)-«. (li., mu., ^.W". ■ iCwn 

/m,xw., ..)-8. (|jy|.,xF., U4.>— 9. (ii^.,»-> 


E>iony^tas compares it with the dictatorship 
In &UU1C states, such as Cyme and Chaf- 
Ihe title home by tlie regular magis- 

** ' '..V»rt).a festival at Ath- 
itidbainiueis, whence 
. . . 'f The cinnmon ac- 
ts as follows: Icarius was killed 
«m ht» ^'vn wine, and who, 
'•• oi lhi"> bever- 

AoK, discovered the corpse of her father, 
■^ bad sought a long time in vain; and, 
u> the gods that all Athenian maidens 
rv»h in iIr' s.ime tn.inner, hung herself. 
*> many Athenian women ac- 

Inmi; , apparently without any 

' vhat< . . , .i... when the oracle was con- 
mptfinmg it, tJic answer was, that Icarius 
ttA Criguoe in'ft >-• propjtinfM bv a festival.' 
iteeoiio^ (< ' >' the festi- 

'waa ck- daughter 

' £gsiOM* auti - "ini? to Ath- 

■a Id krtactite cb riTamsl Orestes 

Mmv Aellrprtpur was acquitted, 

hoaff ^ (he Maine as the daughter 

•f loir fh the same consequences. Ac- 

writoff £1 H«yi/iiu«, the festival wiis celebrated 
• aa<l»mrtnoffatKin of the lyrant Tcmnlcns^ but no 
fVUDS if jtnf^ed. Kustathius' calls the maiden 
lAu banfT h«wlf Acora. But, as the festival is 
ifan raHril 'AAjStc fnppan'ntfy from the wander- 
^ oT Erlfvene, tti* iflcarius'), the legend 

■Well w fim IT* "IS to be the most en- 

tubeSet r^in'i- i;»-raions a song made by 

5T1 — *i'iia.t. Ai'i-ii.l 

. fl. T.l-«. iThwK 

•th., xiii., S5.— Ad- 
-4. tA|<uil Dumvt. 
Itftlh-.. r , 'Xh-^. 
. p, •JOfi.-irermMttn, Poi. 



rtOSM. 'ine aiabttiiron mcnlioocd by the Kvango- 
lisis was, nccorLling lu Eoipliaui'js, a incason.*, which 
ciitit : ' t;^, or oue k'jtvAji ;10 47 cubic inub- 

CS, ■ I. 

.\'. i ICi'TfclS. (TlW. AwOiSTEB.) 

ALAIA (uAoia) ia the name ol' the gnniea which 
were annually celebrated ut the lejtinU of Minerva, 
surounit^d Alea, near Tc^a^ in llit* noiybt>uurhui)d 
of ibf raa^nilic^'Mt temple ol Ihe siinic gvwldcss.' 

ALA Kli uere the ti-oups ol' the allif* iu the Ro- 
miui army, and were so called because they were 
u:«uaily stationed in the winjp (Aiu*). 'i'he olarii 
consisted both o( horse and loot soldiers, and were 
conunaudcd by prxlecti,in the same in:inucr as ibc 

ICjpOUS were cor- ' ' ' - ■- '■■r'- ' T' : ■ : !rv 

ol (he aliifs w h 

ihcm iVom Uic c i . . : ■ -: . . . ■ '- 

iM/nt*); and tlic iiiiaDUy was cailud atkortts aiariA* 
lu distinguish iliem ftum the eohorUs Irj^itrnariet. 

♦Al.AU'DA {Kopv^t^t KOfivdaXo^. an<l Kopviuv), 
ihc Lutk. Aristotle desciilM-'S two species ol tlii-i 
bird, the one of which ia evidently the Aluu^a cris- 
fa/fl, L.,or Ca'iled Lark; tlicotht-r ihc Af attain mm- 
furstris, or Field Lark. Tla* I'onaer is the Gulrnta 
of riiJi>', and is clearly the s|iecica alluded to by 
Aristnnhanes in his Aves.' 

ALuUM xs, deAned (o lie atnblet of any material 
on which the pnclur's ediclt, and Ihe luk-s r<:luting 
ti) actions and interdicts, were wrilloo. The tablet 
was nut up in a public place, In onler tliat all the 
worlu might liave notice ut its contents. Accord- 
ing to suuic authoiilioj, the album was so called, 
because it was cither a white material or a mat'.-- 
rial whitened, and, of courst!, the writin;; wtnild be 
n dllTercnt colour. Acconlin;; to other authorilies, 
it wai! so called because the writiu;^ was in white 
letters. If any person wilfully alteicd or erased 
{(4frrupiC) onyluing in the album, be was liable to 
uii action aVii ctrnupti, and In a heavy penalty.' 

Probably the wor\l allmm orivinylly mecint any 
tablet containing anythinifola public ualuie. Thus, 
Cicero infoniis us that the Annales Maximi were 
wnlten on the album by the pontifex maximus.' 
Cut. however this may Ik:, it Wiis, iu ci.>ui>e of time, 
HSfd to signify a list of any public hotly; thus we 
find tlic expression aJdum KiuUvritim, uwid by Tacl- 
in.t,* to express the list of s':nalors, ami corrospoafl- 
inu to the wonl U-uoftttu usml bv Oion CflMius.** 
The phrase nlMtm tltcurwnum ni^uifics the li»t of 
dvcunoneft whO;*e nanie:4 were entered on the al- 
bum of a inunicinlum, in the order prciciibcd by 
Ihe lex municipalii, so far as the provisions of the 
lex extended.'* 

while cap worn by the flainen dialia at Rome.'* Ac- 
coixlinL* 10 Festus (*. v.), it was made of the skin 
of a ^^■ltiIe victim sacrificed to Jupii*!r, and had nn 
olive iwigr inserted in the top. Its supposed form, 
as derived fnim coins, and from a l»;i?i-n:^lief on a 
Roman leniple, is that of a cap fitted closely to the 
head, and tied undcr*lhc chin." (Vid. Apex.) 

ALCATJ10r.\ {t'OKfiOoia) is the name of gamc« 
celebmicd at Megnm, in commemnraiiun of the 
iiero AleathoUA, son of Pelup*., who had killed a 
lion which hod destroyed Luippu!>, son of Kin;; 
Mega reus.** 

•AI.'CE or AI.CES" (in Greek 'XXxri), the name 
of an de5cril>cd bv Ca*f*ar and other ancient 
writers and the same with the modeni £W or Mmn 
Ikcr. "It was the opinion of BulTon, that the Euro- 

I. (Piai.. Tili., 47. A X)—1. (I.iT., X., 43; nxi., 31. 
B»n. GtU., I., AI.-i:inrlaK. kp. Orll,. xvi.. 4.)-^. (C«a., BcU 
Otll. f'l »0.~Sn<Yt„ Orur.. SH.— Piin., Ep.,x., !(».>—«. <Ltr., 
BXT.. i; «!.. 40.)-4. (rw« , BpU. Civ., i.. 73. M ; 11., 18.)— 
B. (Aruljit.. II. A., ix., Itf.— Arirtoph.. Ar., 472.1—7. (DiU. 3, tit. 
I, %. 70 )-«. iltn Oml.. U.. ia.)-9. (Ann.. t».. W.)-10. (It., 
|.>_1J. (Diff r,U, lU. 3.)— 12. (Vami, ap. Orll., x.. lA.)— IS. 
fCka^mi, iMiiM. fl.nii.Siij^niiUM, ilit fium. tlfua.. A,— Hop*, Co** 
tiim^m, ft.. S0G.)~14. iPtuJ.. hthm.. »uj.,I4fl,— !•■»«.,,* 


peui Elk WAS not known to the Greek*, nor U 
appear to liavc bewi noticed bv Arisiolje. Tl 
was, however, tbo 'A^l/ri/ of I'ausaniaa, the 
of Cassar and Pliny, the Elch of the Celts, audj 
Allg or Elg of iJie' northern Europeans, there 
be Uttla doubt. Pausanloft describes ii as 
"between a slag and a camel;'" and thou^hj 
accounts of Caesar" and Pliny* are mingled wil 
Me, imd the. former stales that bis A/cf.* ar« 
iilfT fifrntJtus" (which mi^ht arise from the acc< 
of iho.>c who bad seen tl c animal at ihc 
wlicn the horns had exfoliated), the gcneriU< 
scri]>tion and the localities given by hoih aii 
most conclusive as to the animal meant to b« 
ignated. The '" inbnim s»prrivs pra-cranrk,*' **' 
upjior lip," of Pliny is vcr>' cxpn'ssive, and 
traurdinary development of this pari mi^'ht 
call to a casual observer the gnnernl truiis 
head of a camel. Whether it was the ixir^ 
{hijT}}fUiphus) oi Aristotle, is a qncstinn which 
admit uf much di&cus«iiun. {Vui. IIiim''iiuj 
The movements of the Elk are rather heavy, 
the shoulders being higher than the croup, it 
never gallop, but shulUlc^ or ambles uloi 
joint-s cracking at every Mpp, with a sonnd he 
bome distance. Increasing its speed, the hindj 
straddle to avoid trvading on iu fore hex' 
tosses the hciul ami Mhoulacr^ like a horses 
br^ak from a trot to a g;illop. It docs not 
sicps without clTort over a falkn itt-e, a ga(«7 
spill feuce, During its pmj^ress, it hohis the 
up, so as to lay the hunjs borizoiiially back, 
attitude prevents its seeing ihe ground distJDt 
and, a.<( the weight is carried vriy high upon tb( 
vated k*^^ it is said sometimes to trip by 
ing on its lore lieels, or iiiher>vi.»ic, and occa*l< 
to give itself a heai'y fall. Ii is jindiatily 
this occurrence that the Elk was lK;lic\x4, 
ancients to have fiequent attacks of cpil 
to be obliged to Mnell its hoof liefuic it cc 
cr; hence the Teutonic name of Kln%d 
blu"),aiid the a'putalion espttcially uftlic 
as a (tpccific the div^" 

• \f/(*EA {a>.Kta or li^ffaio), most pro! 
M'tlt-a aJrra, or Vervain Mallow.* 
•ALCE'DO. (Vid. HxLcvoM.) 
•AI.CIBIAPTUM (;\?^Kt6iuAtav), a apodl 
Anchu^a. {Vid. Anchusa.) 
•ALCYONE. (VtU. Halcvon.) 
A LEA, gaming, or pln>'ing at a game of 
of any kind. Ilcnce aUn, «' . 
^mbler. Plaviitg with Uili,oi 
ly understood, l>ecausc this was ., .,.; ;J. i.;- 
mon game of chance among the Itomans. 

Gnmiug wa.s forbidden by the Roman lawi^] 
during the times of the Republic and underi" 
fK-'mrs.* Ilcncc Horace, alluding to the 
of efl'eminate and lironiious manners, 
boys of rank, instead of riding and bimQ 
showed Iheir skill in plaving with the hoojl^ 
at ^amea uf chano*, although they wei« 
(wtUa iegilu* aUn*). Gan>in!> wa^ also condl 
by public opinion. " Iu ' " sai 

'* omnes aleatores, 0mnl^ .;«f 

puJirifpu! vrrsanivr.'*'' '1 .^ .md of this description t)elonged to the 
the »dil(*s,* 

Games of chance were, however, tolerated 
month of Dcccra)>er at the Saturnalia, wM<] 
a period of general relaxation;' and 
Greeks, as well nt the Romans, old menl 
lowed to ama«c iliemselvi^s in this mann< 
The following line of PubHus Syms sh< 

I. Ut., Ul.J-S. (BMI. 0«ll., ri., aC.>-J. (H. N.. filj^j 
4. (DioKw., |H.,1M.)— S. (CK>.,Plillr|<,»— ('i«t.9,fl 
~«. (C«nn.ill., S4.t— 7. On CaL. it^ 10.)-4. tlkLLrUftl,H 
-*. iMtrtna, w.,\*.-<i»Uwvs »wi.,li.l-l«. (Ef-* 



i ^aattn made a regular stiuly of their 

' m netioTf tanic wr/uitrr.*' 
■vUo wrote ueati»«s oa the 

•lAis." mtris sir^rfjt, yv*ui oUc hditMr^ arU$." 

' of gamin;^ 

mem used in 

J.', "the die is 

imracdialrly before 

ft is often used for 


' tunes, among 
.11 the Emimror 

pB tru Sbntm ^t>fu* misit*** Tbe Emperors Au- 

to Tfcp :■ 

K (dA/xTupK the Cock. (Fit/. Gil- 

V ( u?.Mr/iro«aiTf(*a ), a 
f! by the Greeks. Thelet- 
•\ in a circle; a ^ram 
M each letter; and a 
1 If the occasion, was 
^'^quired imbrmarion 
\1 ii'T those letter* off 

!is of com. To ob- 
L'Toins nf com upon 
■ ■ process. 


., . -.■;j.ay/a), a 

■ryear in one 

!>, in general. 

in: Greeks and 

in particular, 

-j^.l;il;u'- J nv uiv : "f llie StalC, iS 

\ ftir llie accotJiJi: of it.* unirif' ^ivrn by 

Uyj *l«siirJ and imprybaL-lf to desen'e 

n Themisiodcs marched 

I the Persians, he saw 

' ;■. nnd took the 

. -, and remind- 

flf aoBressin: 
Kieetfli i^ 


^Oiil. *di'i L]ic uar, 

: which had rrored 

am.ual festival in the the- 

-;»en by the Latin 

.hich, living in the 

Mr:iK-iiiK'<\ 10 bc tiirownupon ilic banks 

_^^vca or xhe xbores of the sea. Such, in the case 

r^ ill** r".-,nf.-r--T. fl - Potamo^ton.5, 

•^alt water, the 

. .ly the h^rus.^ 

mi Apptiud la ibe ac;i-aljpe by Theo* 

A kind of jn^in rp- 
.^aJl.^d zea-' |[. A 
' I'f tins grain, and 
Plinv suites his opin- 
io of Pompcy 
'■what similar 
7 Alica was 
r Verona and 
[II Ec:)*pt. The 
;t l'ft>m fcj^'pt was 
(•y fir»l bnti.Mng the 
' !he hn*«lc*,ftnd 
ine to break it 


-Iff. (Pitt 


into smaller pieces. The different qualities of abca 
miide by each of these processes wrn'- cailed re- 
Bpectivelj granditiima or ajikarana (ufaipefta), se- 
cundaria, and Tutnima. In onler to m&ke the alica 
while and tender, it was mixed with cbalk from the 
hills Itelwcen Jsaples and Puieoli.' It was used «s 
a medicine, for which purpose it was either soaked 
in water mixed with honey (mead, a^va mulsa). or 
boiled down into a broth, or into porridge. Pliny 
gives a full account ol the mude of preparing and 
administering it, and of the diseases in which it was^ 

A spurious kind of alica vas made from the infe' 
rior sj«ll (-(*«) of Alrica, the eare of which were 
brooder and blacker, and the straw shorter, than in 
the Italian plant. Pliny mentions also another spu- 
rious kind of alien, which was made from wheal.* 
Another sort of alica was made from tiie juice uf 
the plantain.* 

Al/iMA, or AA'iMOi: TPO*H {uXifta, or fi>./iOf 
rpopfi), (from a, negative, and A//joc, "Aun^rr"), a 
refreshment used by Epimcnides, Pythagoras, and 
other philus^ophcrs. Plato states, in his Dialogue on 
Ijm's, iliitt the aAt/Jd ot' P^pimcnides wa.1 cofii|>oseil 
uf mallows and asphodel. Suidns explains it as a 
plant which grew near the sea ^probably the sca- 
loek), which was the chief ingredient in the <>ri^/ia- 
Kfiv ^rrtfjeviihov, and was thought to pruiuote long 
life. Hcfiyehius iiilerprctjj cd<Wf/./>f by A/.t/i'if. 
Pliny slates that some ^aid that alimon was cailed 
asphodelos by Hesiod, which he thinks an error; 
but that the name aimu'n was applied liy some to a 
den.« white shrub, without tliums, the leaves of 
which resembled those of the olire, but were softer, 
and were used for food ; and by others tn n (.othert 
which ^-w by the sea, "whence," says Pliny, "its 
name," conlonndingo^.i^of, from a and >r^i>f, with 
it>.i/tor from 5 /f* The name appears gen orally to 
signify a medicinal preparation of eqoiil weights of 
several herbs, pounded and made into a paste with 
honey. A similar preparation fiir quencninE; thirst 
{uJn^«C rpoO'J) was used by P>th.'igoras. 

the Roman republic, tlie iKK»R'r ciiizeui. were assist- 
ed by public distribnlinns of com, oil, nnd money, 
which were called amgiaria. These distributions 
were not made at siaied periods, nor lo any btii 
grown-np inhabitants of Home. The Eriip*fror >'er- 
va was trie first who extended them to children, and 
Trajan appointed them to be made evriy mouth, 
lx)th to orphans and lo the children of poor parents. 
These children were called i«mrtjnwil/*rflyifnm/<2ni\ 
and alM>(from the emperor) 7ntrrt'f>u«//ir^tte Ufyiuni; 
and the officers who admiaisteixMi the iusiKaUoD 
were called qutestora pecunitr aiimcntarier^ ^fkoiUim 
alimeiUerum, jvocuratores alimeniffruTii, or praffctt 

The frapments of an interesiiug record of an bt 
stitntion of this k*ind by Trajan hare Iteen found ai 
Velleia, near Placentia, from which we Icam the 
sums which were tlius distribuLt'd. The money 
was raised in this case by lending out a &um on 
interest at five per cent., from the trcasurj* of the 
town, on the security of lands and houses. A simi- 
lar institution was ioiinJed by the younger Pliny ac 
Comura.* Trajan's benevolent plans were carriei 
on upon a larger scale by Hadri;in and tlie Anto- 
nincs. Under Commodus and Pertinax the distri- 
bution ceased. In tlie reign of Alexander Severns, 
we a?ain meet with alimcntarii pucri and puellffi, 
who were called Mammaani, in honour of the em- 
peror's mother. We learn, from a decree of Ha- 
drian,' that boys enjoyed the benefits of this instU 
tntioQ up to their eighteenth, and c^ris up lo their 

1. (Plin., n. N.. xrui., 11, W.)— «. tU N.. rfii, 44, 85, 

M,CI,f.6, «Ti..7,I9; imri.. 17, (TJ.)— 5. 01. N.. TtiiU W. 

»,;—*. fMiD., //>'., xrri.. 8. SS.)-5 {P\in.. U.^., xii\.,^ 

SS.)—6. (Plin^ rpHt., ni., 16; I.. 8; ojtA \^o bacnvttott t* 

OTf-th, /Jrs.;— 7. (UIp., la Dip. 3i,in.l,».\40 



'omtwmife year; tuid, from an inscription/ tlitt"a 
twy (ijur yuan and bvvcu luonih-^ old received niue 
tinted the onlinury moiiildy ilialnhulion *>I rcim.'' 

ALIJ^T.i'i (okrirrrai), among the Gnoks, \\viv 
pcrsortK who anomied tlio Ujdii^% nl the aihlvtor 
(>re[>aralury tu their entering tJie pula^tni. The 
chief otgect of this auointini;; was tu cluse the pores 
»1 the body, in order tu pa-vent niiich per>)MniUon, 
and lh« weakrcas conirqncni tliKtrun. Tm etitci 
this obj*ct, the uil was not simply ^ptetul fivei the 
suilace of the lody, but al*io weJl nibt'Cil into the 
skm* The oil was mixed with fine Aincan sand, 
several jars full of which were found in the Itaths 
uf 'I'ilii}*, and one of ihev: is now in the British 
Mu^etun, Thia prc|niratory aiiihuImii; w»a railed tj 
TrapofrKrt'armfii} rpt^i^ 'ilii'* utldtla wrts »^n\ 
niiutnled afU'r the "-ontesi, in urier to re»l»inj the 
lone uf the straiueil niuvcles : tht.i nnointin^ was 
called fj uTToOeiiaireui. He ttien bathed, nnU had 
IliC Ji*>t, sweat, and oil scrapt«l oU his U>ily, by 
meanii uf an in&truinent similar to ihe strigil of the 
ItotiiQnv, arid railed trrkr-^yi^. and aUrnvard ^vrrTfia. 
The aliplx I'Xfk lulvnnl^ge vi (In- knowledge they 
necessarily nrquircd of the slate of the muscles of 
llic athletae, and their general stren|j;ih or weakness 
uf iHKly, tu ajdrisc tliem as to ifacir oxerci^s and 
mode of life. They were Ihii^ a kind of medical 
tridtiers, iorpaX«!rr<u.* Someluu<.ti tln-y eveti wi- 
jK'itnterided their eJtcrcises, a*i in the caAe of Mile- 

Among the Romans. Ihealiptx were blares, who 
scrubbed and anoinlcu their ma&icnt in tlie batlts. 
They, tiw, like the (Jreek uAtiirrat. upprar to have 
attended t • ' ■' -n ■ - ■ r mtitjn and mode of 
life* Ti. ''irfi. Theyuffd 

in their oj" 'j»er called iiriKil, 

lowclt (Uni-n*), a erui^c uf otl {jiiiUus)^ wliiolt wa» 
luiiialiy of hom, n txHile (rid. Ampcli.a), snd a 
traal) vu^el called Icniuuln. {Vut. Uatus.) 

The nparlmeni m the tirrek |ialirstra wiierc the 
anomtin^ was )x?rfnnned was called aXttnT^piot* , 
that In the Honi;m hath^ wax ralliil uTtctunrittm. 

•ALIS'MA, oji aquatic herb, sunjmscd tu be the 
Mme with Ihe Water IManiain. Tliny si^aks of it 
wan antidote iigiiin:st certain venomous ereQlurifS, 
and aWj against the hilc ot i ' ' ' ' -.^. Kor this 
he is ijiit su much to Im I : even some 

modem practiiioners have i !<->l it as nnti- 

hrdrophobte. Spren^^l make^ the Aiisma uf which 
X*liny si^ak*! Ih*? A. Pammsifoltv-m; this species, 
hou i;iid in Ciivree. Sdiihorp 

is II iii; ii the if. plunUif!a,^ 

•At.;,. I '-i ,.--., ,, liarlie.. 'I'liern neeiiis 

tio reaaun to douht that the fTKitp<Hhv of Theoplirati- 
lus ajiil DiaicoridcA is the Allium nntivum, nianuivd 
<iarlie, although Stackhousc jirefere Uie A. starip' 
ittrpfOMtm. R. Stephi-ns suirgests (hat the wild Gar- 
lie fthuuld he calU-d in^ftofSKo^xn^oy, and not h^ioano- 
ftijAtJv. Phny Jnrurni.H us that gsirUc. Vktm nnicU iBod 
nmoni;r llic llntioa ruMics a^ a medicine.* Galen 
also apeak^i of it as such.' Amonp the Athenians 
it was a great fuvuurilc as an article of food, and 
Keems lo have hrcn sold at the same shops with 
b/rad and wine,''* FiRhtijici-coeks were also fed 
njK>n !l, to mnke them more pugnacious." Great 
pnjphylaciic virlties were [orniorly ascribed to this 
plant, and, among other active propenie^, thai, fn 
particular, of neutralising the venom of serpents.'* 

a. (Anrvl. Vict., E|»il. xii., 4— Capi- 
M. Aur-t M.-lil., Pert.. «.— Sjwt., 
Al»«-. 57.— r. A. U'nir, " Vihi pitw;r 

*' '"■ ' ■'" ' ^aiMlBlP. 

:ui., I, 
:c.}— 0. 

(nin.. II. ^ ' PUn.. I.e. 

■"4jn»ii|ftil, II It. II., I., 171. — -\ , •■ V- f^fittvv- 

tr.^rj—ft. iil A., Jj*.. 0.>— 9. t,*..i„ ■.,.... id., JRJ — 10. 

^iu.h*n, m Anmtffph., Afhara., i>0 (174).}— H. (AfUtapb., 

JTv: 4\fX} -IS. (.■Ewjl. .V(uw, •# riteJ hj Pe».J 


1. il 

-', •— 

. «!(>.► 


- -Id 


, S«v 


r.. i:i. 



• '■ 

1 lii 

. 1.. J 




-7. (n 

Vet»ifip3, indicd, were its chara:teris| 
it need excite no huqjribc to find it adoicdl 
one hand, oIonK with the other speciL*.s of fli" 
the pt-i'ple ulMi:}'pr, and l';iiiisli<;d oti the ot" 
the lalde.s uf the di-lieale at jtomr. I ioraec 
it as iit food only for rea]jen> ,' it was. howc 
groat favourite al*o with the Roinitii v4»I<»i«T* andi 
ors." The inhahiiants of il 
Europe?, who often ex|ierii : 

the difj'fvhr- >■ uf Uti. ..". 

much hi: I I >ri, un thiv . -i] 

of mure 


Allium c^jtimui ihc largest in sixc uf Uic 
5[>ecie!t of thitr plant.' 

ALLU'VIO. '■ Thai." say'.Gaiu%* "ai 
he added to our land by hI1u\ in, winch a 
to our land ("^'^) &o gradually tiiai we cai 
male Ivow much is added in each moment of' 
or, OS il is commonly expressed, it !•* (hot wj 
added so f^raduallv as to escape ' ' ii. 

if a river (al once) takes aw'sy ;< ^ir 

and brinp il lo mine, thiit pan .....iik»: 

properly.'' 'I'licre is the J<ame delinilion by 
m hift lies Cutisliantt,* willi this addititm: **', 
part thus suddenly taken away yhould adhere 
considerable time to my land, and (he trees 

par' ■ I '■' ' -'-r-. •' ' '■ -■ '"Il 

ih:if 1^1 

Ti.r , ^ , a, 

Homan jurists lo be by the jux grntiuin, 
Roman sense of that term. 

Accardini; lo a const ilution of I ^' 
Antotitiiu!> Piu>, ihere was no ju^ nib' 
eaAe ai agri limitali.* Cxrtutnltivu' ...;.^i, 
alluvio in thi^, that the whole of the land 
tion is surixAinded by vaier, and suhji 
action, Cicero' enumerates the ivrn nltw 
and cirrumlurtanum an matters included undtf j 
he;i:' '" - 

I as suited by Bract 

fmm ilie Uigrsi,' And is in several p.i 
uf the wonts of Gaius, as cited in ttu- i 

•AI/NUS («>vff|m"). the Alder. I li- wot 
this tree, which is llgh'cr tlian tliat of many 

was first employed, accordinR t" "'■'■ r '*>, 

purjK)Scs of navlKaiion." It w 
itmon^j the Humans fur wjif.r ; d 

rankcil amon^j tin- best m-ii . lu 

ihcxe, and forumler-^oun'i . iieri 

alder is an inhabitant of ^^t.lrIlf|' M.d rD< 
all ICuropc, the north of Afrira and A*;ia, 
America. Virt;il is not conii'^ieiit m rlh hi 
n::,')irds the iininc of this tree. lrihi^t*iJtth 
ill' makes the jiiFtei's of Phaifihon lo 
I'hanKcd into alders; Imt In the -Kneid'* 
the jvjplar, as Ovid does." The species 
most common in Qrccee is the Alnns 

•AL'OE, the Aloe, or Alocvlrcc. JTeither 
nocrales nor Tlieopbrasws notices this plADft^ 
Dio>corides, on the other hand. dr?>cril>cs two ' 
of it." He fiays it is mo ' ' ' ■ ' ~- ' 
l)ul that the jdant ^row* iii 
parts of Asia. The siurv _ 
that Aristotle rccorami-n dfd tiic abw to Alt 
as one of the most valuable product-* of 
appears unwortbv of belief, and yet it prol 
the Socolorinc aloe with which the anei< 
most familiar. Fee thinks thai the Afri< 
was unknown to the Greeks and Uomons, but' 

1. (Epod. Hi., <.)—«. <Pl«ut., p(w»., »„ 9. M.— / 
Artuun., I. r )— 3 (Tlt^'ii.hnirt., M P.. »tt . 4 — I>iir 

ibl.j— L (n - ' -:>. (fAr. 40. t.' ' 

tit. I.i. Ifi .' .i..3<i.J— 8. 

7.>— 10. (i :: v., i.. 4; ii 

M.)— II. il-if. I- .Ml', li* Vhyik. p. ■i»,i— Ii UHD . ti 

icT\..4rw\a, tvTOv-w. vs.%w.>-^v OArt .u.,Ha»i 



iiare at the present day 0'aiM3 Inci- 

"*) was one ol' tiie kimls cinjiloycd 

Aloes, though still much iiiied id nictii- 

, en pnMritMsd in very lew ol" the cases nien- 

^ihPUor' Acconl'iLV' to AitisUc, however, 

ttldiiUaitti of India siill usu litem nith great 

o airprtinn*. M rfir pyes. (Maiis CifUius* 

' f lie Arabic a/^«r*. Pliiiy 

• called aloe, which is 

IT M\u. . uf Jiid«a, aiid which 

itm^kftA :: itbaliuing bodies.* 

~ ~''A iii> ■ t Attic festival, but cpIc- 

j'ra.ijuUy at Eku^is, in honour of Denieier 

Dioor-o?. Hx inventors of the plough and pro- 

4^ ihc Inijts cf the canh. It took place 

fMt after the han'cst waa over, and only 

w» olTcTcd on this occasion, partly as a 

ickiiowlcdgizienl for the bencuLs the hus- 

lud received, and partly that the next 

1 lUgTii b* plentiful. Vv c learn from Demos- 

Uul It uras unlawful to oH'er any bloody 

QB Ums dar of this festival, .ind that the 

lloae had t)ie jirivilc^e to oIT/t the tVuils. 

tru also called tfaXtvta/ ur <n>) Kofna- 

JOT rPA*H (i^tm'vr 7pc^), an action 

it£' jtit bewe the logistae {^oyta- 

>i all ambassadors who ne^- 

> uwir accountjs when tlieir term of 


*ET"(AS a species offish, called by Pliny 
'}ta marina*), and the same, proba- 
-U'jrX of motlem naturalists/ The 


k rM4.»7rT/^, "a fox." 
I a &iMTies of vine pro- 
. icsemUing the tall of a 

j}^ijHnavfior\ a plant, which 

V be Ibe Sttff^ntm rulindri- 

■ the PhlcuM. crinitum^ Ft, 

hnn' 1 ai s-tail grass. Its spike i3 de- 

fcf Theophra5iU5 ns being " soH, downy, 

Mil! T Vr th.; tails of foxes."" This agrees 

ke of the AUtpernruf, L., or Foxtail 

imc comej Irom OAumjf, " a fox," 

_ ^^ ... 1 . .1. ..vhich Spreiigel, in 
^ as the StcUaria 
int. in his notes to 
fap e.ipres'scs huo^eIf doubtfully con- 
lU ScKneider is undecided whether the 
'■f Tlkeophrasiua be the same as thai of Di- 

A rahion (1) name, according 
-iiit. (Vul. SrMpnrroN.) 
(Virf. STyrTEBiA.) 
ifTTOT), an herb, supposed to be the 
hich pfLKlu'.-ed Tiirbit. Sprcnsel 
V- ii as the GUTinUitin alyprim}^ 
- r-n-), a plant. The u7.vaoov of 
'in'^ta is the Mana/hvm altfs- 
.'s Mad wort. That of 
■ nt plant, and catinot be 
r-L- .niiu'><l. Spren^I hesitates 
le irflEX it. vith Drrilona?us. to the Panetia 
or, «tUi Colnrana, to the Veronua arrmsis, 
L^ onr Speedwell." 

»!.)— 3. (H. N„ ixTii 
. C-) — 3. (c. Scmr, 



.1., f. f.) 
. II. P., 

ALUTA. (ri</. Calcecb.) 

ALU TAI iuXiirai), persuns whose businesB I 
was to keep order in iJie public tjauics. They re- 
ceived their orders from an u'AvTup\ri^, who waa 
himself under the dux-ciion of the agunoihcix-, oi 
hellanodlcGe. They arc only found at Olympia; in 
other places, the same office was discharged by tlie 

•ALPHESTES (rfA^ijffnJf). a species of fiah, the 
same with the Cyncdvs of Pliny. It is ihe Labrut 
qftiTitua^ I>., in Fri*ncli OinuUe. ArmrdiJig to Uon- 
dolel, it is altout a liml lun^, and itts ilesh is easy of 
digestion. In the Uict. oj Sat. Jitft.^ the Alphe^t is 
described as bcin^ a small fish, having a piuple 
back and bcllv, wiih yellow sides.' 

a slave or frccdman, whose office it was to write 
letters and other things under hi.<) ma.'^ier'silirection. 
The amanuetisis mu-^t rot be confoujuied with an- 
other sort of slaves, also called aJ innnum *-rt'i, who 
were always kept ready to be employed in any 

•AMAK'ACUS iufio-paKO^). a plant. Diosrorides 
and the scholiast on Nicamler' state thctthe Amara- 
cua in the same as the Samp^uchus (lu/jt/'i'^or); 
and yet Galen and Paulus .(^-Igineia treat of them 
separately. Matlhiolus seems to Uiink it highly 

ftrubablc tJiat it is the common Mnrjm-am, but the 
ale commentators are much at variance abuui it. 
Thus Sprcniuel. in the Drst edition of his R. H. H., 
marks it as the Onganum ma^jtrranoiiffx, tut in the 
second, according to Sclmeider, he is disposed to re- 
fer the auufiaKoc ,^Awpftf of Hieophra.stua to the 
SimKitUhvi O'mmtis. Stackhouse prefers the On- 
gannni ^p/jftimum, and Dicrhach the Tcu^mtim 
Manitit, of JMostich. Upon reference to the Cuni- 
menlary of Matthiolus on the fiupnv of Dirtscondes,* 
it will be seen that this la^t opinion had been for- 
merly entertained, and it wontd appear lo be a very 
plauMhlo one.' 

•AMARANTIITS (ufuipavrn^), the Amaranth, 
or Never-fading, as its name indicates. Irnm «, priv.. 
and ftapaivv, " to tciihtr." Accordiiiir lo Pliny.* the 
amaranth appears in the mouth of August, and 
lasts until autumn. That of Alexandrea was the 
most esteemed. What (he same w riler, however, 
slates, tliat the flowers of the amaratiih bloom an'?w 
on bein^ phmged into water, is not very exact. As 
the llcH'LTS are of a very dry kind, ihey have not 
much humidity to lose, and therefore may l)e pre- 
sen-'ed merely for a long time. The description 
which Pliny gives of his A-maranthhs, which is also 
that of Thcophrastus, points at once lo the Olosia 
imtiiii?, a i»lant originally fnjm A.sia, hut cultivated 
in Italy a h.rng time licfofe Pliny's dav- Baiihin l>e- 
lieves "that this plant is lo be found iii Theophra.stus' 
under the name of dXu^, which Thcmlore Gara 
translates hyftamma. The u^upavrn^ of Diosenrides* 
i.s another plant, probably the GmrphfiUum S/arhas 
of Linna;us. The ancients, far less advanced than 
the modems in the art of maniifacturing stuffs, were 
unable, a.s Pliny iiifomis us, to imitate the softness 
of the amaranth. The modems, however, have 
.■niccecded in this, and have cveu sunmssed, in the 
fabrication of their velvet, the beauiiml downy sur- 
face of this flower. The common name of tlie 
plant, therefore, pfrxv-rf lours, given to it when the art 
of fabricating stufls was yet in its infancy, suits no 
hiDger, and the Italian appellation, ^trr ffi wUutc 
(*' velvcr-flower"), is much more applicable.' 

AM.MlUNTHrA or AMARU'SIA (u/io^aV^/a or 
li^/ii'ffm), a festival of Artemis Amarynlhta, or Am- 
ar)"sia, celebrated, as it seems, originally at Ama- , 11. :■*.. Tif. -t.—lcm- 1 Boii, Uv 
'f»»., ISIJ — IS. i.iilmmt, Xp-j 3m*. Aftf 
~Atf»m$, Apptuki., M. T.J I jr.J— Htt ( 

I. (Atlaiirt, Appptirl., •. t.>— 1. (Suet., 3n\.y 1\; OclM., (TT 
Ncr.. M. Tit.. J; Ynp., 3.— Cic, Ho Orat., m.,W,^ab.— V\» 

" *'^mi,JOe.)-a. (Ther., 503.)— 4. Uii., *!.>—!». IKjV 

(Fee, ta Phn., 1. c.) 



n-ntbus, in Euba^a, with extrnordinanr splendour; 
but il waft alrvo solemnized :n several pltcos iw Am* 
ra,5«cha» Avlu. • i ' V Mhoninns held afw- 
ilvnl, as Pausnin irol the same i.:"<i- 

(icM, in no wa> : i i '?» Uiat in KnlMia.* 

The fratival in Kuhwa wu distinguished Sm its 
splendid proor««ions; and Birabo himself seems (a 
luive seen, in the trmplt.* of Artemis Amar}'Dthia, a 
column on wKich was rfccnled the splendour wiih 
which (be iCretrians at ono time celebrated ibis fes- 
tival. The in»cripiion stated that the procession 
was formed ot three thousand heavy-anned men, 
six hundred h(tr>eineu, and ^ixty chariots.* 
AMUAIiVA LIA. {Vid. AnvjLcs KiiiTaEa.) 


AM'UITUS, which literally signifies '*a ^in^ 
about," cannot, perhaps, be more nearly expressed 
()tau bv our word cttnraMin^. AOer the plcbs tiad 
(urmed a distinct cla^s at Rome, and when the 
whole boily of the riiizen^ hail become vi*r)' i^t-aily 
increased, we frequenlly n'od, in the Human writers, 
oV the great efl'orts which it was necessary for can- 
didates to make in order to secure the voles of tlie 
citizens. At Rome, as in every community into 
which the ulcmcnl of popidar election enters, solioi- 
laiion of v ■ r • I opt^a or secret iatluencc and 
bril)cry, u ^hu meaiis by which a candi- 

date secu; i'>n to the otlices of stale, 

VVhBlf!ver may iw the authority of the piece rn- 

to lie paid,' and Wi'ruprrj to dislribati 
oflence of nmbiniii was a matter which 
thr ■■: 'i iiMica, and if' ■ ■■ ■nt 

w- One of 1 ih< 

e.*ir,i I, the Lex -.'Ki Ma 

was specially directed agauiAt iargUfvnti 
Cornelia Fuivia (B.C. 15J») fMiniKhed 
with exile. The Lex A- " ■ ' nU 
imposed a line on the ofi'eti i vii 

from the senate and all j u. ,. 
Tullin (B.C. 63), pawed in the l 
in addition to tlie penally of ttic A ' 
ten years' exiimm on the olJendvr ; a 
other ihiiiHX, fnii>adc a person to exhibit 
sliows {gtaiiuUitrts dare) within auy Iv 
which he mtba b eandidaie, unless he « 
to do so, on A fixed dav, by a testator's ^ 
years ofiervard. the Lex Au&Ua was 
which, aniou^ other things, it wn3 provi 
a canaidaie pivnu.sed (;•/ ') n 

tribe, and did not pay il, I U 

iC he did pay ih" ""-i '■" ' .. : i^n 

each tribe (am ■ rces OS 

lived. This fii.. -.1 the v 

Ciccrrj, who said th;il Cl'tiiu:. '-i ■ '■ ■ 
anticipation, for he p^ullli^ed, Imi - i 
Lex LieiniiJ (B COW) wa^hpecijilly uuvk 
the olfenec of ji^xljtlititun, or the uhuleij 
of a tribe bv giUs and treating;' and a 
passwl (B.C. W) when Pompey was & 

eotu I <^«lirie on trials for am 

Lli<- lis faih-d in completely 4 

in« :..:.,.. J -I. Thrt v.hichnolawcoul 
fid lonf^ an the old pii|iular fonn*^ retti] 
their yristine viKour, wits accomplished b 
rial iiiurfwlion. Julius Cnwar, when die 
inaivd halt (he eajidiiL-iti's for nuMic offi 
ihe candidates for the cotisulsnip, and t 

ftleasurc to the triU'« bv a civil ciicidur 
us chose ihc other half.* The I^x Julia 
was passed in ilip time of Au;^situs; but 

of ambitus, b 
in ' 


titlwl "(i. Ciceronis de Petitione Cousolaius ad M. \ had f<>r its oltject the establiilunent of 

Tiilliiim Fmtn'm," it seems to present a pretty fair 

picture uf those arts and means by which a caiuli- 

datc might lawfully endeavour to secure the votes 

of the eb't'lorn, ami al-fo some intimation of ttn)S<* 

means which were not lawful, and which it was the 

object of various enacimenls to n'press. As the 

terms whieh relate lo the caiivai^ing for public 

places ofleo occur in the Roman writers, ii may U' 

convcofent to mention the principal ojiiong them 


A candidate was called pflitar, and his opponent, 
Willi reference to him, romptiitnr. A candidate 
{camtUatus) was so called from his appearing in the 
public places, such as the fora and Caiitpu-s Mar- 
tius, before his fcllow-citizcns, in a whitened to^a. 
On such occasions, the candidate was attended by 
his friends (tUfivrUtres), or followed by the poorer 
cili/ens (frctftfnrr%), who could in no other manner 
fellow their iro(>d-will or give ihcir asRi-Hlance.' The 
won! tiMuhiitns expressed botli the ronti/iual pre** 
ence of tlic candidate At Rome, and hi^ 
ffolicitalions. The canditiali*, in gi»ing his romub 
or takinff his walk, was accompajiicd by a -Hmncn- 
(htUir, who ^'ttvc him the names of such pprsnns as 
he HiiKht nieetj ihe candidate was thu-> ' ' > 

adilressthcm by ihcirname, an indircc 
which could nut fail to be generally prnui, ...^ : ..jf 
electors. The candidate accompanied his address 
with a shake of the hand {prensaiia). The term 
Ami^iuto« comprehended generally any kind of treat- 
ing, aa shows, frasts. A^. Candidates sometimes 

■ ' proper si 
ul all eh-i 
' to the ."- I 
;rius, briuil 

nse, Koon d: 

T* anu inunieipin, 
iiiffc; f'lns Cu'cro 
■vns when he was 

left Rome, and vliltc' 

tu which tlic citizens 1 

proposed lo visit the ' : 

a candidate for the con.sulainp.* 

That ambitus, which was the object of several 
pmal enactmenls, taken as a gieneric tcnn, comoro 
bended Ihe two species, .tmbitus and lari*ttwn/\ (\>y\- 
brry). UhernliMs and lienignihn are opi>o^cd by 
Cicero, as thin^ allowable, to ambitus and lar^itw, 
as things illegal.' Money was paid for voles; ami 
in order to ensure secrecy and secure tlie elector, 
persons called interpreUs were employed to make 
Ihe bargain, Kqn-fstrrs lo hold the money tUl 11 was 

/- fPMut.. I., JI. a. 3.) — fl, (Hi'rjTh., i. r. 'Kiinpvcitt } — S. 

nr-, J. p «W, rtrf. T»>icbn.}~4. (Cnmpmr*^ Schnl. la Pind., 01. 

WW., mh ao.)~S. (Ctr., pro Mtirmn,, c M >— «. ICtr., hd\ Atl.. 

~ ds"'* ^ ^""' "'• *^ — *^""i"^ (« MttWiB.. c. W.) 

comltia were translerred from the cam 

Wliile the choice of candidates was ' 
in ihc hands nf the senate, brilwry and 
still inflnenced the clectionK, though ih 
ambitus was, ilricily speaking, no longer 
But in a short time, the appointment to pt 
was entirely in the power of the emperoi 
magistrales of Rome, as well as the po] 
merely the shaJow of Uial which had o form. A Roman juri.*;! of th 

Seriod (Mixlestinus), in speaking of the 
c Ambitu, observes, "This law is now 
the city, because the crenTion ol magistr 
business of the piinceps, and does not dej 
pleasure of ihc poputus; but if any one 
cipium should offend against this law in t 
for & saccnlotium or mapistralus, he is 
according to a senattis consultum, wit 
subjected lo a penalty of 100 aurci.**' 

The (rials for ambitus were nurae 
of the Republic, The oration of Ciceio! 
of L. Mun-na, who was chanjcil with an 
that in defence of Cn. Planrjiw, vho wa 
uiih that o/fence specially calUnl sotlaiUiu] 

AMHAOIEliS rPA*n {tlf,r) 
action bfouiihi in the Athcniqii i . 
dividual who had procured the aNirnt-n 

ne \s 

I. (Cic., pm CInoM., »>— «. (Hr , m1 An , *.. M 
in Vatln., IS )— 4. (Ctr.. bl Au., 1., Id.) — 9. fC 



nf a jwiion (ii^iO.i^OtnAior). The loss 

L}~M:is oD ttus suhject has deprived 

(if ibc AUictiiaiis uti this crime. 

haw«x'tr, to have Itcen looked 


s, this crime (partus abaciio^ or 

$eetus tu huve bci^u urigiually uti- 

w*. Clccio ri'lates ihut, wlitit he 

innau who bad procuretl the abor- 

iTing vms puuisbcd with death;' 

appear to have been in ;iCconi:iJn:e 

law. Under ihc emperors, a wom- 

procnred tlie abortion o( her o^vn 

with exile;* and those whou:nvc 

caused the abortitm were eon- 

ie» if of low rank, or were l>an- 

and, vilh the loss of part of their 

ley were in resptcuible circumstance^*.' 

lA {^mftnonia). feetivalfi observed in 

tt<»aT '.if Dionysus, which seem to have 

name frtm the luxuries of the table, 

uigciicc of iltiukiiiR, AccorJiiig lo 

lod,* thcie feMivals wcic Mjlemnizcd 

I.»'nT.iti tluiiD^'tbe vinlat^c. 

■■■y 1. Tbe fiKjd of ibe godd, 
■ m eternal youth and im- 
vod »■— A Ltoiiiijhl to Jupiter by piircuns.* 
txsed by the -cxh for Jinoimin-^'th'-ir hotly 
we read of the ainbruMal lucks 
ai,iwra0 • H- A plant, the same 

A or AMBCRBIA'LE, a sacri- 

rforraed at [tume for the purtficu* 

1 1): I. inner as the ambar- 

I'lcation of the coun- 

V. ,|,r,,„.,) t),e whole 

iL-d when 

I . i:e of the 

liigic^a. i>r ulhcr ciri;uiiLstance$."* 

that tne amburbium and ambar- 

e, but their diflcrencc is eiprcssly 

i" and Vopiscu* {amimrinum cck- 

' I {Qfit/iw dinj), an action mon- 
-, wh)eh appears to have been 
I for the 
! we have 

it I.. ,4._ ..,..' .1. .....,..*n Ihein, 

probable that some cxisled. (,Vid. 

M, a leathern ihong, either applied 
lite sandal lo the frxn, or lied to the 
in throw in '.^ it. 

re frequrntly called 

that amcuiun is com- 

Iter of the two slgnilica- 

dMiis Undi prumhui^ 
tttiajtaJum ditigt tn'n^.''^* 

It io&tnned how the amentum added to 

Xhrowixx^ the lance ; perhaps il was bv 

catkin, and hence a greater degrce of 

dUectncsj in it5 flitrht^ as in me ca^e 

fiocn a rifle-grrn. This .opposition 

et»rr*s:fms rtLnlivc to the inisertion 

■DC r tlie frequent C5e of 

f**, ' twi«i, in connexion 

^' < ' " ■ Tt've-citeJ pnssasre 

■; ': :■ "- 1 'M-'.ving: Ammtnfm 

>10.>-t. (Pro Ctutol. 

t, II »- 



" fnsfrt/ ftTiiento rfi^iw, ntc plura Itcuiitt 
2njut€nem lufMt Jckh/uh;. * 
Id the annexe^! figure, tnken from Sir W. Hajiiil 
ton's ICtruscan Vases,' the amentum scem& to be 
attached to the spear Qt the centre of graTity, a 
Utile al)ovc the middle. 

•AMETHVSTUS (aiddvaTov or -of), the Aiw^ 
thyst, a precious !5tone of a purple or violet coloui 
in dilferunt degrves of deepness. In malcni min- 
eralogy, cha name has been applied lo two prcciuus 
stones of essentially diOerent natures: 1. the Ori- 
ental amethyst, which is a rare varieiy of ndajnau- 
tine spar or cormidmn; and, 2. the Occidental or 
common amelhyst,' The ancients, on the uther 
hand, reckoned five species, diflering in degrees of 
colour. Their Indian amethyst, 40 which Plinv 
assigns the itr^i rank amonE parple or violel-coU 
oured gems, appears to have been our Oriental spt> 
cics, which is nothing more than a violet-colotired 
sapphire. '* Those amethysts, again, which Pliny 
describes as eosilr engrared (sealpturis faiil/s). may 
have been tbe violet-colom^ fluor sjiaf, now called 
false amethyst ; and the variety of quartz w hich is 
now commonly styled amethyst, is well described 
by the Roman writer as that fU\h kind, which ap. 
proachcs crystal, the purple vanishin^c and fading 
mto white. Some miueralo^sts think that the 
amethyst of the ancients was what we call ^aniel; 
but there seems liiiJc in its description resembling 
the garnet, except that one kind of it approached the 
hyacinth in colonr, as Pliny and Epiphanius olw 
ser\'e ; that 15, had a very strong shade of red ; and 
so, sometime-s, has our amethyst. We see our amc 
thy^t, indeed, plainly indicated in one of the reusoos 
assicnwi by Pliny for its name, tliat it docs not 
ruaeli the colour of wine (u, priv , and fiUh, " wi«'*), 
but first fadei into violet He afterward supcesti 
another, which is the more common derivation, 
saying that the Mam falsely asserted that these 
Qenis were prcservahvc aj^ainst intoxication (d, 
priv., and /ie^rw. *' to intoncate"). Tlieopliraatnt 
twice mentions the amethj'st (ofuffvaTOv^hat not in 
such a way as to determine it; classing it in one 
place with crystal, as diaphanous, ana aficrwatA 
obBcrring thai it is wine-coloured.* 

/. (Ori^, Met.. rii.,3?I.)— 2. (iii., pi. ».>— 1- tVt« Vii y\\a. 
jcTrtf.. ».>—«. (Moont's Anc. Mincnd., p. IW.— b« \a%\ 4 
Gcinei., j., 9.) 



. \ 

> li^-iJS- 

. ■ . .«> vai'-U 
.^ : Lte -leuii 

J ....I'.. :■ 111 «ix. " to- 

-. ...... 12 -jl" Ovi'l 

• . '. .' :■ :-.L>:Ms 

...... -;..:.:. ma;.'- 

'. ; ^;i> '•■.■rrueii 

... i.'.'i.';;.=-a;ien. 

. - . . t u.i-^were,wbai 

. cH^'^uMtL bj bis 

. . -. .., Bi:i L^UicDame 

V ..». - .:^llie*UkNl,si?IliA'- 
^•. .:. -oittr iiad vhite- 
::c itmiw. T% here 
.\* ii minv counines, 
^ 1 1.. irii^Itf for Lhai 
, .. .... cuiiv i£ iras, spun 

.... i..> :i uioJom times 

. •■.: ;; .» j'aivr, cloves, 
-. ;.... iia:;v'ouu'r iliinffs. 

. * .1 i^' :: Tor the wicks 

. ...■•. ,::vso.ltot't-'«'"'^ 

^- ■'uiiir.i; OH of the 

' .. . :.. .t.!a,\'r \oj:a OfiuTiov, 

. t- •».. ••• oil oV the inner 

*. : vVr*«^u<"hCL' of thi 
■" ......^ .-=cfcjani1 in*' fw-s, 

. .' »f7*^iiaEitm of the dre^s 
» . ,xx ••: \ hf outer and the 

, ;, _; rrw/Jti* ifuptrfitttti, 

/ '., -V iu^ pKiiiws. cQveretJ 

^ . . i" -.' same author sp-ya 

.. . . ; :--i u^ linen t'tifM/wi 

\ , t '. - ■. -vtr iiuicr ami outer 

■ :» »'\'':v'v''a1 by ttu6n'vyva0at, 
.;: ' • '. ;■.. '.".tM" : and indu- 

■ .v.\\\ Ty,i;f\i>.'»>'i'. an OHler 
4 ^Mtti . an.l ;iiM'«n, an »nner 
t ^. .. Wht'u EHiorates was 
.»•. . V■v'i^^ior«s brovii^bt lum 
v' ..- ■■■'::.icuu-tit,eafh being of 
.■ /t -v. r» i^rJ'-^r that ho miglii 
V ,t •.i'v.'j: the hiiHkK*k : ^^(ou 

.: ^vV m*\»s«rc of length, equal 
' - x\ o: s:\iv T..iW (feet) ; that 
t ..■'.s'hAi Kaijslirh. It was used 

■>x- %x'^<; aiM\mling lo Spretigel, 

,\ ., r, M-mhiolusand Dodonj^ 

-^ .'f it. srtm to paiat la the 

»Vv*..*>/-i-wi'rJ, It must not le 

; ^iK-rtir..»..lM^-^m.I^^.. 
•. » ■■ ,010. in Cat., ii., iO.)—><. 
K \\.«.M,.. IY..9.— Id..l>!»t.,iii..2. 
4"", o>nu*Arnl with Anol. RhwI., 
si-^'. •.!>» .*:iwn. V. IL. iv.. 5.)— 
, \ U., 1., 10.)— H- l^*-'^ "•^ 

::.,£l:uniet:,Low*:ver,w:-i: :h.< jlaiiE called Uisht 
wrtU in iJouiUiid, wti-ih. is '^e J^gopodium f 

•AMMODTTES v"---^'-"::)- a epeciea of 
pent, which Aeiitis iie:-'n:<:« a£ hclug a cubi 
length, and of a san: vith black £] 
Maitiii>.>lus, in his comnion*.ar>- cq BiciScondesi, 
tennines it to have been a spcci«^ of viper. It 
mc&t probably ihtii, only u tineiv of ihe Z^tf 
Coiul^r ammi^^^t^t. This is :;:e serpent knowt 
The naiQC of liie Homed Tip*r of lllyricum; 
^eDom is aciire. In the Latin iranslaijon of j 
Ct;iiEia i( is called Aaiindutis and Oihuims, wl 
are cormpiioiis uf AmmocyUs and Oi'uitT.' 

•AMMU.M'ACL'M («^onGv.i .. Gum Ammor 
Even at the pre&enl day it is not well ascertai 
wJiat specie* of FtfulA it is which produces 
gurij, I>io»cond£!8 givea it the name of u^aoi'/ 
llie ^ftfioviUKitv -^ifiia^a waft the finest kind o 
and was so caJled became ui}cd as a i*erfum> 
saercd ritca.' ^I'hc uAj- A^^Grfasff or &i^..lniBi 
af, was a PeNtil viU, procuR'd from the distria 
Africa adjoining the it-mple of Jupiter AmmcuL 
he re fu re was tgtally d i fferent from the Sai Amwm 
of the modems, wEich is Hydrochlnrui AmwuwtA 

♦AMPELrnS(u^TrfAirtf )T}),aUEtiimino««Ei 
found ne*ir Sticuda in Syria. It was blade, 
TPi^mHcd small pine charcoal \ Ri^d when nib 
to powder would dis&GJve in a little oil potired a 
; it. lis name wa^ derived from t^ being* u^ 
anoint ths vine itfiittXoz\ and preserve it from 
attack of worms.* 

•AM PELtyPRASUM (uuir*Xojr/paffma the AUi 
Ampeloprasuin,orDog-leek, called in Fit iiehPi* 
<di cAu*n.* 

•AM'PEL03, (TV//. ViTii.) 

^AMO-MUM- ( Fid. AMQIf OX, page ^) 

A.\IPHIARA'1A (il/i^mpuia). gamts celebratft 
honour of the uneient hero Amnhiaraus, in 
neighbourhood of Oropus, -where ne had a tem 
with a celebraitKi oracle.' 

AMPHJCTYONS. nsiiiutions called J 
phictyonic appear to have ctKi^tcd in Gret-cc ft 
time immemoriali. Of their nnture and object 
toiy ^Ives us only a pencr;! idea but ice n 
safely believe them to have been associationa 
ori^alJy neighbouring ribes, fonned lor th le 
lation of miituiil intercourse and the pp^itction 
common lemple or sanctuary at which tlie r&i 
sentatjv&^ of the diffetTent members met, hoih 
transact Imsiness, and trate ml gious riles i 
^mes. This identity of rcli^'ion, coupled w 
near neighbotirhood, and that* ttio, in apes of rem 
amiquity-f implies, fn all pmbability, a certain deg 
of affinity, which might of itself pkuluce unions 
confedL'r:s'"ies anions tribes so situated, remand 
each oihcr as mcmlH^R of the same ^eat fam 
rhey would Jhns pTPSen'e among thctnselve?, l 
transmit to tbejr ctiildren, a ?;pirit of nationality { 
brotherhood; nor could any bctte means be 
vised than the bond ofa omraon reltcious woi^l 
to cOTlnleract the hostile inierirsrs which, sooner 
later sprini^ up in all lareie societies. The cau 
and motives from which we mi'dit eJtpect snch 
siitiitionstn arise eaisted in cverr npi|rhbourho< 
and, accorditiply, we find many Atnnirict3*onies 
variotLS degrees of importance, though our inforc 
lion respecting tbcm is very deficient. 

Thas w^e leara from Stral-o that there was \ 
of some celebrity who?e place of meeting: wa 
sancluaryorPoseidon at Calaurin, an ancient ! 
tlement of the lonians in the Sanmic Gulf. T 

]. (Dioflcor-, lii., f3. — CBltEL,da Simp'l.i i.—Atfjunt, Appi: 
■. ^,1—3, (Ai!o/n*, ApppaJ.. », t.)— ^. lUKtilii.iliis m l>\tff. 
iii.,fiT Taul. ^jrin,, Tii.t 3.— Nfulham inOcnivin., xiii.. 
—4. A'tatn*. Arprm!, p. t, — 3. Dstiicor.. v., IS"*. — Sfm 
Anp. Miiirml.. j'- 73.)— fi. (I>ii»!iri>r., it.. 178.1—7. (Scho 
Piii.i.. Olymp. vit.. 154.)— S. (Miillf-r. Duiians, b. ii.. c. 10, 
— Strft!>o,'\m , 6.) 



irBbcn were Epidaurus, HemuEum, 
faasB ID Lrticonia, JH^au, Athens, aiid 
,Of«ftomciius,' whose remoteucsi imm 
Ices il dilHcult (o conceive what could 
[Ik motives for forming ihe confedera- 
ls as religiijos cau^cb seem pro- 
Uct Utnt Tm:2en, though bo near lu 
though Poseidon wa^ il« tiUclary* 
not a member. In ai\er Uine^, Atfps aud 
ibe place of Natiptia and Prasi.-c aud 
JBiwnif:* were the sole object of the 
aJBOdobon. There also seems lo 
in Ai^lis,' dUtiaci from that of 
(be Dlftoe of congress being the Hfmiov, 
FoTUero. Delos,' too, was the centre of 
jctjroojr — the rehjj'iuUd metropolis, or 
v( Uie ui'izhbouriii^ Cyi-lade^, where 
enibassieA (i>ewpoi) met to celebrate 
titles in houour of the Dorian Apol- 
iily without any reference to political 

the system coa&ncd to the mothcr-coun- 
tfic fi?deral uuioas of the Dorians, loniam, 
jhaos hving on the west coast of Asia 
am (0 bare been Arapliiccyonic iu ^int, 
taodi&eii by exigences of ^maiion. rheir 
consisied in keeping periodical festi- 
of ilic acknowledged gods of thdr 
tions. Thus the Dorians* held a 
Irai, and cdebratcJ religious games at 
uniting with the worship of ilieir national 
litat of liic more ancient and PclasRic 
The Ionian^ met for similar puri)osc3, 
the ileiic^nian Poseidon at Mycale ; 
LSsemMy being called the Panionium, 
iTaJ Paniofiia. (Poseidon was the 
fans, as Apollo of the Duriaus.') The 
ol the -Eoliana assembled at Grvncum, 
of Apollo. That these conlbtferacits 
mcTcl/ for offensive and defen.sive purpo- 
rned from their c-xi*.leucc allcr the 
ihcse colonics by Croeso-s ; and we 
icarcassos was excluded from the 
merely because one of its citizens 
the usual offering to Apollo of the 
' " Triopic contests. A cou- 
s- uilar, but more political 

> Lycia:* it was called the 
wfiXcuL," and was composed of twenty- 
tides these and others, there was one Ani- 
of greater celebrity ttuin the rest, and 
listing' in its duration. This was, by 
t : the Amphicr}*onic Lcagxic : 

if action, its acknnwleoged 
its diM:iiar^ of them, we shall obtain 
VOtkAS of such bodies in gi.neral. 
.^,*f,.T^.-^ fnira the other associations 
mectintr, the sanctuaries of 
re the temple of Demeter, 
near Thcrmopyl''^,' where 
i!nn, and tliat of ApoUu at 
utdpii in spring. The con- 
•ny with the latter uoi only 
-■ ity, but also to its pcima- 
Iff9|iect to' its early history, Stralxi' 
in his daj^ it was impossible to 
We know, however, ihat it was 
eoiBposcd of twelve trihn (not cities or 
be obwrveti), each of which iribes 
independent cities or t^talcs. 
.fv'^^Mnt**,* a mnst comprtenl au- 
'.''Vcn of these tribes were 
i.s, B*EoUans(not Thebans 

,reL i,. p. rS.)— r tSlnlw. 1. e )-3. 
^ lUm^nrimuaM.)— 4. Olenxl.f.. 
tl^ c. 10, K. A.— StfrnlK), viii., 7 )— ft. 
r. inmd,, vUm 900.)— B. (iz., SO.}— (D« 

only), Dorians, lonians, Perrhiebians, Magnete*, 
Locriana, Uiueans or CEnianians, Phihioisor Ach»* 
ans of Phihia, Alalians, and Pliuc'-'uis; other listi 
leave us iu doubt whether the rcmoiuiut; trtlie were 
the Dolopes or Delphians : bul, as ihe Delphiaus 
could hardly be called a distinct tribe, their nobles 
appearing to have been Dorians, it sccirs pn^bablc 
lilat the Dulopes were originally raeiibers, aud 
alterward supplanted by Uie Uelpliiaus.' The pre- 
ponderance ol Thessaliaji iiiltes iiroves llie ontiquilv 
of ilie inslimtioD ; aud the fact ot the Dorians stand' 
ing on an equality with such tribes as the Maliaus, 
shows that U must tiave existed before the Drrian 
conquest, which originated several s/ai^s more jow- 
erl'ul, and, tlierefure, moiti likely to have sent 'heir 
respective deputies, than the tribes mentioned. 

We also learn from jEschines lliat each of Iftcse 
tribes had two votes in congress, and that deputies 
from such towns as (Dorium and') Cyliniuni had 
equal power with tlic Laecdiemouians, and that 
Krclria and Pricne, Ionian colonics, were on a par 
with Athens {lavti'nt^i Toi^ 'AO^vaiotO- It seems, 
therefore, lo follow, cither that each Ampliictyouic 
tribe hail a cycle,^ accordiDg to which its componeni 
slates retume*! deputies, or that (he vote of the tribe 
was deiennined by a majority of voles of the differ- 
ent states of that iriU*. I'he latter supposition 
might explain the fact of their being a larger and 
sunuUcr assembly — a fiov?^ and UxXifaia — at some 
of the congresses; and it is couJimted by the dr- 
cuiAsiancc that there was an annual election of 
depmies at Athens, unless this city usurped ftmc- 
tions not properly its own. 

The council itself was composed of two classes 
of representatives, one called pylagorsB, the other 
hieromnemoncs. Of the lonner, three were annually 
elected at Athens to act with one hiemmnemon ap- 
pointed by lot.* That his office was hii'ldy honour- 
able we may infer from the oath of the llelinsts,* in 
which he is ineu'ioiied with the nine archons. On 
one ot-ra<i..'ri we find that the president of the coun- 
cil was a hieromnemon, and that he was chosen 
genera] of the Amphictyonic forces, lo act against 
the Araphissians.* Hence it has l^en conjeeluret. 
Ihat the hieroninemonos, also rallerl 'lepoypofi^aril^^ 
were superior in rank lo the pylagorse.' iEschines 
also contrasts the two in such a way as to warran: 
the inference tliat tlie former ofGce was the more 
pennancnt of the two. Thus he says,* "When 
Diognetus was hieromnemon, yc chose me and two 
others pylagonc." He then contrasts " tlic hiero- 
mnemon of the Athenians with thcpylagone fur the 
time being." Aguin, we find inscription!)* contain- 
ing survey's by the hie romncm ones, as if they formec. 
an executive; and thai the council concluded their 
proceedings on one occasion'* by resolving that there 
should be an extraordinary meeting previously to 
the next regular assembly, to which tlie hieromne- 
moncs should come \n'th'a decree lo suit the enicr- 
Erency, just as if they had been a standing committee. 
Thf'ir name implies a more immediate conneiion 
with the temple, but whether they voted or not U 
onlv a matter of ronjecinro ; probably they did not. 
The fnK/.Tjain. or general assembly, included not only 
the classes mentioned, but also those who had joined 
in Ihe sacrifices, and were consulting the god. It 
was convened on extraordinary occasions by the 
chairman of the councd fO rdc yi'w/inc rTriV^^/Cuv )*' 

Of the duties of this latter body, no'hing will give 
us a clearer view than the oatlis taken and tlie de- 

1. (TitiuBTin, n. 30.1—3 (Tru-n; i> a ihm\A nlnmt tb« troi'mR. 
YtJ. Thncy.l., iii., OS— S(;»bo. ii., 4.1-J. (SlmM. |j.. r. S.>- 
i. (Antwph., Nub, O07.)— ^ (DftntMlh., r. TiiiMirr., 170, B«k- 
k#-r.)— fl. {-Ew:h.,de F. L.)— 7. (Titmnnu, it. 4.)— 8. (C Clr«., 
115. Itvkker. The K-hohut <m An»tnfh., Nnb., nys, Ihiit tha 
liicromnfmoQ wu rlected for life. Tltts ii tti^ ofinioD r-f Til- 
inian : Uebf r den BuimI dnr Ampliictraonn. Sec ScU'imann, Oo 
tli(» A w<'ml>lir«, ftc, p. 270, Irnn*!.)— 9. (Il«Wh, (rwrpa* ItuKin^., 
No. 1711.<iuot«dliy Multcr.)— 10. (JGkUui., c. Cl**.,\lV^\ 
ker.; -J I. (.^ichiiiei, c. Ct«B.. IM.) 

ejws made. The oath wa* a.s follows:' "They 
would dcitroy no city of the An»[.'hiciyons, nor cui 
off their sireauisin waroi peace; and it" any should 
io so, ihey would march against him and destroy 
his cities i and should any pillage the property of 
iliu ^'od, or be pnvy to oi plan anylhmg agaitisl 
ahat was in Ills tcmplo (at Delphi^, they would take 
vi*nK'cancc on him with hand, and loot, and voice, ajtd 
all iheir inighl." There are two decrees given by 
Ucmosthcnes, both commencing thus;* '* When 
s'leinagonu wa^ priest, at the spring meeting, it was 
n-sulved by the pylagonc und their assessors, and 
ihe ncncral body ol the Araphlctyons," &c. The res- 
.>iution in the second case was, that as tlie Amnhis- 
•tianN continued to cultiva.le the sacred district, Philip 
ul Maccdon should tie rt-qiiested lo hflp Apollo aod 
lliu Amphiclyuns, and was ihcrehy conNliiutcd abso- 
lute genera! *ot the Amphlrtyons. He accepted the 
ullice, and tooa reduced the offending city lu sub- 
|cclion. From ilie o.iih and the decrees, we see that 
the main du.*y of the deputies was the preservation 
of llie rights and dignity of the temple at Delphi. 
We know, too, thai aJler it was burned down (B.C. 
51^1}, ihey contracted with the Alcmaxtnidce for the 
n'building;' and Athenieus (B.C. lOOJ informs as,* 
tliai in oiJner matters connected with the worship of 
tlic Delphian god, lliey condescended to the rcgiila- 
lion of the minulrii trifles. History, moreover, 
leaches tliat, if the council produced any palpable 
effects, it was fiom their interest in Delphi; and 
though it kept up a standing record of what ought 
to have been the international law of Greece, it 
Bomciimes acquiesced in, and at other limes was a 
party to, the most iniquitous nnd cruel acts. Of 
Ihb the case of Crissa is an instance. This town 
lay on the Gulf of Corinth, near Delphi, and was 
much frequented by pilgrims from the WesL* The 
Crisszans were changed by the Delphfans with tm- 
due exactions from ihese strangers. The council 
declared war against them, as guilty of a wrong 
og-ainst the i^xL The war lasted ten years, till, at 
the suggestion of Solon, the waters of Uie Pleisius 
were turned off, then poisoned, and turned again 
into the city. The besieged drank ibeir fill, and 
Cri^isa was soon rared to the ground ; and thus, if 
were an Auiphictyonic city, was a solemn oath 
ubly violated. Its territory — tlie rich Cirrha«an 
)lnin — was consecialed to the go*l, and curses im- 
precated upon whomsoever should till or dwell in iL 
*rhus ended llie First Sacred War (B.C. &85), in 
which (he Atheniac?^ were the insinimenis of Del- 
phi.'in Vl!ngl^^nce.• The Second, or Phocion "War 
(B.C. 350), was the most iinj>ortant in which llie 
Amphictyons were concerned ;* nnd In this the 
Thebans availed themselves of the sanction of the 
cotmcil to take ven^ance on their enemies, the 
Phocians, To do this, however, it was necessary 
10 call in Philip of Maccdon, who readily proclaim- 
ed himself the champion of Apollo, as it opened a 
pathway to his own ambition. The Phocians were 
snlxincd (B.C. 346), and the council decreed that al! 
their cities, except AIkp, should be razed, and ihe in- 
habitants dispersed in villngrs not containing more 
Uian fil^y ijihabitauls. Their two votes werv jjiven 
to Philip, who thereby gained a pretext for inter- 
fering with the affairs of fireeee, nnd al'^o obtained 
the recognition of Lis subjects as Hellenes. To the 
causes of the Third Sacred War, allusion has been 
made in the decrees quoted by Demoslhenev. The 
Araphifsians tilled the devoted Cirrhisan plain, and 
behaved, as Straho' says, worse than the Crisj-ap.tns 
of old (^((^K ^cav irrpi roix f/voiif). Thfir anl>- 
mlssion to Philip was immediately followed by the 

I. (.rt;M:h..<)flr.I. .lsri-9.(I>cuiMlb.,(lvCor.,190, B«klier.) 
»-%. (llomd^ u . '■ '■ . 179, 'O rwv 'A^t^rrnitvwv v6in*t 

KtXif<t^v C-'w;i - -<>r- Tbik tevtui Ut rcfsr tu l)w 

U«liUia uoly.)- ' '.-. t'tca, ISA, fi^cm th^ whol^ hi*- 

*ra}/er, D>jhAa:)~ti. (P^ut., j.. t7, •. 4.»— 7. (Tllillw»ll, Elil. 
0^C/rmr€e, mi. t^ p. St 1-373.)— I*, (ii,. 3 i 

battle of Chsronea (B.C. 338^, and the cxtil 
ol tlic independence of Greece. In the I'uUl 
year a congress of the Amphictyouic stalo 
Held, in which war was declared as if by i 
Greece against Persia, and Philip elected 
mander-in-chicf. On this occasion the Amphif 
aasumed the character of national roprcjien 
as of old,* when they set a price \\\- ' ■■! 

Kphialtcs for his treason to Ga'eci: >p 

We have sulhcicntly shown that ih .: _i 

themselves did not observe the oaths they looll 
that they did not much alleviate the horrors ol 
or enforce what Uiey had sworn to du, is prov 
many instances. 1 hu.s, fur instance, Myceni 
destroyed by Argos (B.C. 535), Tiicspioc and P 
by Thebes, and Thebes herself swept from thi 
of the eartli by Alexander ((« /itff/;f rr/f 'E3 
livi^pmiijft;).* Indeed, we may infer from Tb 
ides,* that a few ycore liefore tlie Pelnji^nf 
war, the conneil was a passive spec. q 

culls ti IcfHt^ nv/'.efiiif, when the LacciJ q 

an expedition U) Delphi, and put th'. i-. ...j-.v .^i 
hands of the Delphianis, the Athenians, nllet 
departure, rcsturing It to the Phocians; und ) 
council is nut mentioned as interlering. It w 
be profitable lo pursue Its histor}' farther; il 
only U' n'markrii, that Augiwtus wished hi 
city, Meopoli.s (A.D. 3l), to Im enrolled amoi 
mombcr.s ; and that Pausanias, in the second Of 
ol'our era, mcnliuns it as still existing, but dw 
of all power and inlluence. In fact, even II 
ihenes* spoke of it as the shadow m i 

AAer these remarks, we mav coii 

of some interest; and, first, the re.., _ 

word Amphictyon. W c are told* that The 
thought it derived from the najnc of Am 
prince of Thessaly, and the supixwcd a 
institution. Others, as Anaximcnes ot 
connected it with Iho word u/itptKr' 
hours. Very few, if any, modem 
that the latter view is correct; and t^ 
with HcUen, Dorus, Ion, Xuthu% T 
sa the daughter o{ Pelasgus, and ■ 
liistorieal, but mythic personages — ilic icy 
tives, or poetic jiersonificatitm-s, of their 
foundation^ or offspring. As for Ani' ' "• 
loo mnrvclluus a roinridenne that I 
be significant of tlie insiituliun it-^' 
was the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, it la 
to guess of whom his comicil consisted 
that he also appears in Athenian hi' : 
little is said of hiui; and tin* (•(*", 

there, though kingly, is fur fruin hi.-i ! *. 

though Ilcroilotus' nnd Thucydidcs'" tiad the 
ttmiiv, they yet make no mention of him. Wi 
conrluiic, thcrcfare, that the word should bc n 
amphictiony, from ufi^tiTiovtc, <>r thueo that 
around some particular local itvv" 

The next que^dion is one of greater diffiicti 
is this: Where did the as-sociation originate 
its meetings firiit held at Delphi or at Therrno 
There seems lo ns a greater arooimi of evMi 
favour of the latter. Inproof of thi 
the preponderance of TTicssalian 

neighbonrhctod of the Maliac pay, an 

live insignificance of maivy of them; the a 
birthplace and residence of the mythic Am; 
the names Pylagone and Pylaia, Besides, wfr| 
that The.ssaly was the theatre and oriirin of 
of ihe rnoNt itnpurtant events of e"-'" ''^ 
tniT. whereas it was onlv in later 
the Dorian conquest of Peloponnc- 

1. (IlnYMliKDi, Tii,, 114, iprnkn or th" ATrrphirtr'Tfr* 

on.— Sre MatiH. tiotei.)— 7- i 

873.)— H. (Phil. Mui., vol. a., \>. 3iy.: — y. 'i , 3n,> — ii^, 
— 11. mtnk VknAftT, Nnni., C, 41, <v i^ikr»4^p n 
\ T^vntfihu Vid. lObcUh* Ui \tt.t 

Hellenic Apollo with 

, as celebrated hy ihe 

Som»essaly. Equally doubtful is tlie 
pecdD^ the taflucncc of Acrisjn5, kin^ 
hnd hov far it is true that he first into order, and deiermined 
oomiecicd viih the institution.' 

K vessel, often tncotioned by Homer. 
L the subject of various coDJectures; 
US to indicate well enough what it 
KiiVrr?:^^ ia found separately as well 
ositioR, and is evidt'nily a diminutive 
I tbe root signifying a kifUtnr^ which we 
> Greek tvftSfi, and the dialectic form 
in, CUM ; GermaOt /tu/r, laibtl ; French, 
tuxd English, evp! it means, therefore, 
Jet or cup. •A/j^wvirrAAof, therefore, 
i the analogy of <i^fi'(TTo;/or, a^^ruf, &e., 
k has a At rr</>.ov at both sides ur both 
Vto^ ufi^i€vrTt'JiJ.ov is a dnnkin^^-vcssel, 
at both ends. That thii> was the Ibrm 
shown by a passage in Aristotle,* 
bing the cells of bees as having 
dcd by a floor " like the u/i^iicv- 


'- ' •;'iiov ^fitip), a family festival of 

• h the newly-lx>m child was 

itnllv and recuived its name. 

' for this solemnity ; but 

■jQ afler the birth of the 

vm that most children died 

'.ly, and the .solemnity wa-S, 

lm .«,.., .Icfcrrcd till after that period, 

light be, at leaat, some probability of the 

bing alive. But, according to Suida-S 

I was hfld on the fifth day, when iho 

\ bad lent their a>.si.-ttaace at the birth 

(r band*:, Thi.5 purificalion, however, 

^e rfil sj^lfiiiiiiiy. The friends and 

' '.I.-- ra*' nts were invited to the festival 

liirh was held in the cvcninflr, 

u.- . p"arcd with presents, among 

1 ihi; i.iiHlfrish and the marine 

wa.s dc<-or;ttetl on the ontside 

truth.* According to Pollux,* the J/tdto/M^a also 
inclnded the oath which the judges took, that tlity 
would decide according to the laws; or. in case 
lliere was no express law on the subject in dispute, 
that tliey would decide according to ihe principles 
of justice. 

AMPHIPPOI. (riV. DfCiirLTonEs.) 

AM'I'HlPTMN'Ot NH'ES (cl/iOiflr^t/HW vjjer). also 
called AinPUPOI. f«hi|is in which iho poop and the 
prow were so much aliiie as to be applicable tu the 
same uf^e. A ship of this construction might be 
considered as having either two poops or two prows. 
It is supposed to have been convenient in circiuiw 
stances where the head of the ship coujd not lie 
turned about wiili suihcicnt celerity.* 

•'NA(u/i9<<j6aaa), sometimea called 
the Double-headed Serpent. Buifon sa^'^ of it, tlmt 
it can move along with cither the head or the tail 
foremost, whence it had been thought to have two 
heads. Avicenna says, that it is of equal thickni^^s 
from head to tail, ana that from this appearance it 
had been supposed lo have two heads. Schneider 
states, that jLinnaetis' describes a serpent which 
agrees very well with the ancient accoimts of the 
amHhisbtEna ; its tail is obtuse, and as thick as iis 
botfy, and it moves along either forward or back- 
ward;* but, according to Dr. Trail, it is an Amer- 
ican species. The amphisbirna was prohaMy a 
variety of tlie An^is frasniij, L., or Bhnd Wi)rm. 
The Abenlrcn. strprai o'f Pennant, of which oicutiDn 
is made in Lixmaeus's corr\s|)yndeDce with Dr. 
David Skene of Aberdeen, is a variety of the An^vit 
/ragii4s. Linnieus denies that the amphisbncna is 
venomous, but many authors, even of modem timait, 
are nfn cuntrarv opinion.* 

AMPHlTHliA'TRUM was a place for the 
exhibition of publii!! shows of combatants and wild 
beasts, entirely sunrjimded by seats for the speeia- 
lors; whereas, in tho^e for drnmaiic perform a net!,"., 
tlie seats were arranged in a seniiciicle facing the 
*>tnge. It is, therefore, fregtiently described as a 
double theatre, consisting of two snch semicircles, 
or halves, joined together, the spaces allotted to 
their orchestras becoming the inner enclosure or 
area, tenncd the arena. I'he form, however, of i 
ancient amphitheatres was not a circle, but invi 

ahltr mn »tHiig> »lth/iF"**» '^^ Hmlav fhrm 



built A wooden theatre in the Campus Martins, for 
Lbc purpose of eibibitiiig htrnts of wild beasts,' 
" wliich was called ampliilheatre because it was 
surrounded by scats without a scene."" MoA of 
the early amphitheatres were merelv lemporar)', 
and inadc of wood; suth as the one built by Nero 
at i<ome,' and thai erected by Atilius at i-'ideiue 
during the reign of Tiberius, wnich gave way while 
the gaiocs wea* being peiiurmed, and killed or i£i< 
jured 50,000 persons.* 

Tlie first sUjue amphitheatre was built by Siarili- 
ns Taunis, at the desire of Augustus.' Tfiis build- 
ing, which stood in the Campua Martins near the 
circus called Agunale, was destroyed by fire in the 
reign of Nero ;• and it has, therefore, been supposed 
that only the extenial walls were of stone, antl that 
ths seats and other parts of llie interior were of lim- 
ber. A second amphitlicalre was commenced by 
Calicriila; but by far the most celebrated of all was 
the Flavian amphitlicatre, afterward called the 
ColibiEum, which was begun by Vespasion, and 
finished by his son Titus, who dedicated it A.D. 80, 
on which occasion, according to Kutropius, DOOO, 
and according to Dion, OOOtJ, beasts were de-siroyetl.' 

This immense ediQce, which is even yet couipar- 
atlvcly entire, was capable of containing aooui 
87,000 spectators, and originally stood nearly in the 
centre of the city, on the spot previously OLcupied 
by the lake or large pond attached to Nero's pal- 
ace,* and at no very great distance from the Bailis 
of Tiins. It covers altogether about five acres of 
gixtund; and tlie transvei^ or longer tliamtfler of 
the external ellipse, is 615 feet, and the conjugate, 
or shorter one, 510 ; while those of the interior 
ellipse, or arena, are 281 and 176 feet respeciivelv. 
Where it is perfect, the extehor is 160 feet high, 
and consists of four orders, vix., Doric, Ionic, and 
Corinthian, in attached three-quarter colnmns (that 
is, columns one fourth of whose circumference. ap- 
pears to be buried in the wall behind iheriiY and an 
up|K!r onler of Corinthian pilasters. With the ex- 
ception of the last, each of these tiers consists of 
eighty columns, and as many arches between them, 
forming open galleries throughout ihe whole cir- 
ctunfcrcnce of the building ; but the fourth has 
windows instead of large arches, and those arc 
placed only in the alternate inter-columns, conse- 
quently, are only forty in number; and this upper 
portion of the elevation has, both on that account 
and owing to the comparative smallnesj of the 
apertures themselves, an expression of "roater 
solidily than that below. The arches formed open 
external galleries, with others behind them; besides 
which, there were several other galleries and passa- 
ges, extending benctith the seals for the specta- 
tors, and, together with staircases, affording access 
to the latter. At present, Uie seat? do not rise 
higher than tlie level of the third order of (he exte- 
rior, or about half its entire height ; therefore, the 
upper part of the edifice appears to have contributed 
very little, if at all, to its actual capacity for ac- 
commodating sjieclators. StiO, thougn it has never 
been explained, except by conjecturing that there 
were upper tiers of seats and galleries (although no 
tmains of ihera now exist), wc must suppose thai 
Acre existed some very sumcient reason for incur- 
ring such enormous expense, and such protif^al 
vaste of material and labour beyond whst ntility 
seems to have demanded. This excess of height, 
so much greater than was necessary, was pcihrips, 
in some measure, with the view that, when the 
Imililing was covered in with a temporary roofinc;^ 
or awning {velarivm), as a defence against the sun 
or rain, it should seem well projiortioned as to 

1. (Sfarpiv KvyirftnK^r.y-Z. (Pton., TliiL, 44.)— S. <S«irt., 
Ner.. c. It.— T»cil., Ann., tm., 31.)— 4. (Taril., Ann., ir.. «3.— 
9«ct.. TiK, e. 40.>— i. (3ii»t.. Octwv., c. 29.— Bicm., li., S3.y- 
t. (Di.iB., liii.. IS.)— 7. (Suet., Vr»|>., 9.— M., Til., 7.— Eb- 
trop^ >"., «.— Dim., IxTi^ ».>— 6. (S^ct., Ner., 31. J 

height; and also, perhaps, in order to allow tl 
who worked the ropes and other mechanisnx^ 
which tlie velarium was unrein or drawn 
agam, lo perform those oticnitions wiliiout in< 

' modti>g the spectators on the highest seats. 

' 'Willi regard lo the velarium itself, nothing at' 
conclusive and satisfaciorj' can now be gaihei 

j and it has occasioned considerable dispute 
the learned, how any lemjwrury covering could] 
extended over the whole of the luilding. S< 

I have imagined that ihe velarium tMended 

I over pan of tiie building; but, independent of ot 
objections, it is dithcult to conceive how such 
extensive surface could have been supjjorted a1 
the ejctcni of its inner edge or circumierenct ' 
only thing which aflbrtls any evidence as lo 
mode in which the velarium was fixed, is a 
of projecting brackets, or corbels, in the uppei 
story of the exterior, containing holes or so( 
to receive the ends of poles passing through hC 
in the projection of the cornice, and lo whieli 
from the velarium were fixed ; but (he whole of! 
upper part of the interior is now so dij-maniledj 
lo rcmier it impossible lo decide with certainll 
what manner the velarium was fixed. The vel 
um appears usually to have been made of 
bnl more cosily materials were sometimes emplo] 
"When the weather did not ncrmii the rclariui 
be spread, the Ftornans used broad-brimmed hat 
caps, or a ^o^t of parasol, which was called «i 
ia, from umbra, shade.* 

Many olhcr amphitheatres might he enumei 
such as those of Verona, Nismes, Catania, P< 
peii, &o. ; but, as they are all nearly sirailarj 
fonn, it is only necessary to deseribc certain 
liculars, so as to afford a tolerably correct id< 
the respective parts of each. 

The interior of the amphitheatre was diyided; 
three parts, the flrcna, pofiium^ and grains. 
clear open space in the centre of ihe'amphithf 
wiLS called tne arena, because it was covere:' 
sand or sawdust, to prevent the gladiators .'i 
slipping, and lo absorb the blood. The size ci 
arena was not always the same in proportion loi 
size of the amphitheatre, but its average pi 
tion was one third of ilie shorter diameter oi 

It is not quite clear whether the arena waSi 
more than the solid ground, or whether it had' 
actual flooring of any kind. The laller opinic 
adapted by some writers, who suppose that t 
must have been a sonlerrain, or vaults, at intei 
at least, if not throughout, beneath the areni 
.sometimes the animals suddenly issued appi 
from beneath the grrtmd ; and machinery of 
cnt kinds was raised np from below, and aftei 
disappeared in the same manner. That there 
have been some subsimction beneath the arci 
some amphilheatrcs at least, is evident, becj 
the whole arena was, upon particular occi 
filled with water, and converted into a naumac 
where vessels engaged in mirnic sea-fights, ori 
crocodiles and other amphibious animab 
made to attack each olhcr. Nero is said to 
frenuently entertained the Romans with spect 
and diversions of this kind, which took place ii 
dialely after the cu5loraar>' game-t, and were a( 
succeeded by them ; consequently, there must " 
been not only an abundant supply of water, but 
chnnical apparatus capable of jtouring it in 
draining il off again very exnediliously-. 

'I'he arena was surrouiided bv a wall.distingi ^ 
ed by the name of ftodivm^ aliTiough such appella- 
ivon, perhaps, rather belongs to merely the upper 
pan of it, forming the parapet or balcony before tlw 
first or lowermost scats, nearest lo the arena. Thj 
laller, therefore, was no more than an open oral 

1. (Pino., bx., 7.— Maitial, xir., f7, ».) 




a wall about ciglitccn feet high, meas- 

groiind to the top of the parajn.'!; a 

rreJ iiecessarj', in onlyr to n-iider ibe 

ccily secure Vrom the attiieks of the 

There were fuur pnncipal entrances 

ihc iirena. iwo at the ends uf each axis 

Of it, to which as maov passages led di- 

ejKtetiorof the buildiug; besides sec- 

ktervcuing between them, and coramu- 

ibe coriidon beaeath the scats on ttie 

or enclosure of the arena is supposed 

been faced with marble more or less sump- 

which, ihtriv appears to have been, 

^insCADCCj at least, a sort of network alfix- 

top of the podium, consisliog of rajling, 

b", open treliis-work of metal. From the 

made of this network by ancient writers, 

can now be ^tbcred re-'^pectiug ii ttian 

le uf Nero, such neiting, or whatever 

ticeu, was adorned with gilding and 

i5tance thai favours the idea of its 

tti metal-work, with bosses and oma- 

jottier matcjial. As a farther defence. 

led funpL, sometimes surrotrnded the 

po^inm was also applied to the terrace, 
itself, immcdiatelr above the lower cnclcv- 
rhich was DO wider than to be capable of 
two, or, at the most, three ranges of muva- 
or chairs. This, as being by lar the best 
(ibr distinctly viewing the sports in (he are- 
more commodiously accessible than the 
», was the place set apart for senators 
>n5 of di»tmcLioD,$uch as the ambos- 
i^ parts ;* and it was here, also, that 
sif ui^ed to sit, in an elevated place 
or cuSiculiim;* and Likewise the 
■" ' -'i'' garner, on a place eleva- (rdUoris trxbunal). The 
1 r lo have had a place alloi- 
iik tbc pu*lium.* 
itb£ podium were the j*Ta4/iur,or5eatsof the 
i, which were divided into m/pawntf, 
^ first meenianum, consisting of four- 
lone or marble seat^, was appropria- 
itrian order. The seats anpropriatcd 
and equites were covered with cush- 
wWrh were first u^cd in the titne of 
»cn. after an intrr%*al or space, termed 
' forming a continued landing-place 
lI «itaircaiic3 in ii, succeeded the sec- 
II, where were the JcaLs called ^wjni/a- 
class of spectators, or thep^;?r./w. 
tlie .second preciuction, bounded by 
iwall, above wnich was the third mm- 
there were only wooden benches for 
common people.* The next and last 
•^, that in the highest part of the 
\\rt\ of n colonnade or gallery, where 
witness the spectacles of 
parts of which were also 
j'uii^Li. At tlic very summit was 
for the men who had to attend 
and to expand or witlidraw the 
-^ occasion. Each mannia- 
! from the other bv the pne- 
Urrccied at intervals by spaces 
reen the seats, called scaliZ ox 
frtioo between two such passa- 
arwnnu, because this space gradu- 
like a wedge, from the podium to the 
hofliliug," The entrances to the seats 

' •* "■ — f,, Octar.. «.— Jar., Sat. 

-Plm., P.\i>)!j,, ai.)— t. 

. 44.)— fl. (J'i».. Snl. 111., 
..u>t., 4.>-$. {Suet.. 

,«t>-W. (6o«'l.,Ortt».,«. 


from the outer porticoes were called tvmttoria, bfr 
cause, says i\Iacrobiu.s,' Jlomints gUmuraitm ingrp' 
dicnta in scifilia se Jviutunt. 

The sicunLion of the dens wherein the animals 
were kept is nut vcrj' clear. It has been supposai 
i thai they were in undergrotuid vaults, near tu.if noi 
immediately bcnfalh, the arena; yet, admitting such 
I to have been the case, ii becomes more difficult than 
ever to undersiaijd how the arena could have been 
inundated at pleasure with water; nor was any pos- 
itive information obtained from the excavations 
made several years ago in the arena of the Colisie- 
um. Prubably many of the animals were kept in 
dens and cacus uitniii the space immciliately be- 
neath the podium (marked d m the cut), in the in- 
tcr^'als between the entrances and passages leadii^g 
into the arena, and so far a very convenient sit^j<i- 
tion for ihem, as tliey could have been brought im- 
mediately into the place of combat. 

There were in the amphitheatn-s concealed tuljcs, 
from which scented liqujds were scattered over the 
audience, which sometimes issued from statues jila^ 
ced in dUTerentparts of the building.' 

Viiruvius affords tis no information whatever as 
to amphitheatres ; and, as other ancient writers have 
uiemioned them only incidentally and briedy,many 
particulars belonging to them arc now involved in 

The annexed woodcut, representing a section, not 
of an entire amphillieatre, but merely of the exterior 
wall, and the seats included between that and the 
arena, will serve to convey an idea of the arrange- 
ment of such structures in general. It is that of the 
CoUsicum, and is given upon the authority of Hirt; 
but it is in some respects conjectiyal, particularly 
in the upper part, since no traces of the upper gal- 
lery are now remaining. The extreme minuteness 
of the scale renders it impossible to point out more 
than the leading form and general disposition of the 
interior; therefore, as regards the profile of the ex- 
terior, merely the heights of the cornices of the dif- 
ferent orders are shown, with the figures 1, *2, 3, 4 
placed againKl them respectively. 


A, The arena. 

p, The wall or podium enclosing it. 

P, The podium itself, on which wem chairs oi 

scats for the senatons, &c. 
M', the first msniannm, or slope of benches, for tb« 

equestrian order. 
M", The second manlanum. 
M'", The third micnianum, elevated considerably 

above the preceding one, and appropriated to the 

W, The colonnade, or gallery, which contained 

seats (or women. 
Z, The narrow gallery round the summit of the ia- 

] (8«tuni., -/i., 4.)— 5. iLuMD, Um^CJ^^ 


tenor, for the aiicndanls wbo woiked the vela* 

yf% p'. The pnecinccioncfl., or landings, ai the top 
of the first a;id srcuad imeaiftnum, in the pave- 
ment of which were i^tcd apertures, at inter- 
val5, lu admit Ughl tuio U»e vomiloria beneath 

V V V V. Vomiloria. 

Q Q G, The liiree external galleries through the 
circumfercuce of the building, open to the arcades 
of the first three orders of ihc exterior. 


g f, Inner gaUcry. 

Owing to the smn: 
and arransement uf 
cd, as such parts coiiI 

" cut, the situntion 
' •., arc not exprt'sa- 
i<i<> i-<; lendered iutclligi- 
lurreaaed scale, and then 

ble except upun a greailj 

not in a single seciion, uur wiihoat plana at various 

levels o{ Uie building. 

For an account of the gnmc3of the amphitheatre, 
aee GtAi : 
A M F' 1 1 I S. ( Vid. HEasDiTAa.) 

AMl'lJl . .,.'jS. {VuL Akcora.) 
AM'PHUAA (in Greek ufi^p€H, or In tJie fiill 
forni. aa we find it in Homer, d^^t«op«pc*)» a vcsael 
used for holding wine, oil, honey, «c. 

The following cut represents amuhorx fVom the 
Townlev and Elgin colloctions in tiie British Mu- 
seum, They an; of various forms and aizetj ; in 
general they arc tall and narrow, with a small 
neck, and a handle on each side of the neck 
(whence the name, from ufi^i, oh hoih titUa, and 
^ipu^ to carry,] and terminating nt the bottom in a 
point, which waa let into a stand or stuck in the* 
ground, so that the vessel stood upright : several 
nmphoriE have bnai found in this po9iiion in the 
tcliara nt Pompeii. Amphone were commonly 
made of earthenware; Homer mentions amphorcb 
01 giild and sionr. and Uie Fgrptinns had them of 
bras": ginxfl veswls cf lliis i'onn have l«cen found 
at Pompi'H. The name of the maker or of the 

place where they H"ere iiiHtle w;is Miii)etinir»- sCinirv 
ed upon them ; thia is the ri\si: with ttto in the Kl- 
gin collection. Nuh. 'SM aJid 'AH. Tim most com- 
mon use of ine arnphora, both among the Greeks 
and Romans, was for keeiilng \nne. The cork was 
covered with pitch or gynram, and (among the Ro- 
mans) a label (piWuium) was attached to the am- 
phora, irscribed with the names of the consuls under 
whom it was filleil. The following cut represents 
the mode of fdliug the ampliora from a wme-cart, 
and is taken from a painting on the wall of a house 
at Pompdt 

<V, s., §64, SPC-AdML la A^. Rbod. 

The amrihora was also used for Wm 
ey.and nuillen gold. A remarknt>l'_- .! 
at Salona in IU25, proves thai ninhl 
as ooflins. Thev were divided in nal 
tion of the length, in order to receive 
and the two halves were put togettj 
buried in the ground ; they were fijui 

There is in the British Museum 
vessel resembling an amphora, and c 
fine African sand wluch was mixed 
with which the athlctae rubbed ihcl 
was found, with sevcntv others, in the 
[n^, in the year 1 712. The amphora 
coins urCliiu.s, and on some silver coi 

The Greek Lftpopti-^ and the Ror 
wero aUio names of fixed measures 
petf, which waa also called furojir^c a 
equal lo Z Roman uma}=8 gollona 7 
pcrial measure. The Roman ampi 
thirds of the &ft^ei^, and waa equi 
8 congiJ=& gallooa 7 677 pints ; it^ 
was exactly a Roman cuLic foot, 
phom was kept in the Capitol, a 
Jupiter. The size of a ship was cslj 
phnrrr, and the prtkiucc nf a vineya] 
ed sometimes by ihc nuiulx?r of ampt 
and sometimes bv the cn/tuj of iweal 

AMPnO'TlHES. {r»V ProM.*' 


AMPUL'LA (i^Via-doc. 

The Romans took a buu,. ..; ,. 
bath for anointing the txidy allcr 
also used bottles for holding wine or 
meaU, and occosionnlly for other ptU 
bottles were made citlier of glass 
rarely of more valiiabli!i matcrialK. 

The denier In boCUea was callctJ 
pan of his business was to cover ih^ 
{anium). A bottle so covered was 

As bottles were round And ftwollcfl 
Horace mctaphurically dcscrilie^ e 
language by me same name : 

" Projidt ampuUas et usquipeifaH 
"An tragita Jrtarit ft ampuUai 

Bottles of both gla■^s nnJ canb 
served in great qnahtiiics in our coli 
qttities, and their forms are very raii 
ways narrow-moutbed, and grneral] 
approtichtng lo globular. 

(Jrmiaie), a frontal. 

This was a broad band or plaie 
ladies of rank wore above the fore 

1. (SulntiaclicPi AIi«rthm.,p. 07.)— 4. ( 

1 tE^»dPu.,*I.^-^. (,tpu«i.\^w.,vM 



Heucc ii 13 aiiribated to the female 
3 wears a Irrjnial of guld ;' and 
itf is applied by Homer. Ht> 
Hndar to the Aluses, the Houi?, and the 
''Vomtbe expre&eion mi' xiai'ti^irt'tta i^rjCav 
I of Ptodai, we may infer that tlus or- 
some times made of blue ateel [icCavoi) 
psld ; and ihc scholiast on the above-ci- 
1^ of Euripides asserts ijiai ii was £omc- 
''' ' with precious stones. 

fff a hme was called hy the same 
I wts oeca&iouaJlr made of similar rich 
Uenc*, in the Iliad, the horses which 
chanots of Juno and of Mars are called 
''-('!aH dpscribes the bridle with a 
I I axiftrrvKa ;^-aXii'tJv), which was 

__„ , iiuu to curb tiie winged horse Peg- 
woodcut exhibits the fronul on the 
taken from one of Sir William 
!*• TB3es. in contrast with the corrc^pond- 
leot a» shown on the heads of (wo fe- 
she same coUectioo. 

were also wore l>y elephants.* Hcsjehi- 
tiie men to bare worn froutals in Lydia. 
10 have been worn by the Jews and 
of the East.' 
KTTUM (fTfptairrov, Ttepiofifia, ^v7mkttj- 

otA in Arabic {Hnmalct) means t/iai which 
It was probably brought by Arabian 
togvther with the articles to which it 
, when they were imported into Europe 
>L It first occurs in the Natural His- 

olec was any object — a stone, a plant, au 
prodoccion, or a piece of writing— which 
" from the neck, or tied to any part of 
§n ibe purpose of counteracting poison, 
pervennng disease, warding ott" the evil 
wtfEuen in childbirth, ur obviating calam- 
aecfLrinc: advantages of any kind. 
I ifae riuues of amulets was almost univer- 
anrifnt worhi, so thai the whole art of 
eoftn&tcd in a very considerable degree 
oes for their application ; and in propor- 
qoatilltr of amulets preserved in our col- 
'ntiqaiti«5r is the frequent mention of 
1 treatises on natural history, on the 
of nscdlHce, and on the virtues of plants 
Some of ihr nTnnlets in our museums 
tJfy rough. } fragments of such 

smZker, ;;- Mn, and ja.sper; otli- 

TKm^U iiii^ Li;-: >>>^jit; of beetles, quadru- 
tagm, and other members of the body. 
T^ tiO doubt iliat the selection of stones, 
rings or Strang together In neck- 
i4e with reference to their repu- 
I* aniuiets. 

(^ OT-470— .drhyl., Sorpl., 434.— Thworit.. i., 
Arn««. £<inp.. Vtmc, 461. t— 9. (Olymp., 
^ 4L»f. tixm^ 40J— &. It. T. Atw/v Hiittf.)'-^. 

The ibllowijig passages may ext nplify iLc use ol 
amulets in ancient times. Plinj-^ says, il»al any 
ulaiit gathered from llie bank ol a brook or rivei 
iwforc sunrise, provided that no one sees the person 
who gathers it, is eonsidea-d as a itmedy fo; tertian 
ague when lied {a^laUigata) to the led ann, the pa- 
tient not knowmg what it is; also, that a person 
may be imme<iiatcly cured of "he headache oy (lie 
application of any plant which has crown on the 
head of a statue, provided it bo folded in the sitred 
of a garment and ^ed to the part ailected with a 
red string. <^. Seifnus Sammonicns, in lus poem 
on the art of healing, descrilios the following charm, 
which was lung celebrated as of the highest rcput« 
fur the cure of various diseases : Wnle abracadnhra 
on a slip of imrchment, and repeat the woitj on oth- 
er slips, witn the omission of the last lelier of each 
preceding .slip, tmiil the initial A alone remains. 
The line so written will assiunc the form of an 
eciuilateral triangle. Tie them togeilier, and sus- 
i>end theJH from the neck of the patient by means oi 
linen thrcail. 

According to the scholiast on Juvenal,' athletes 
tLscd amulets to ensure victory (niaUria phylaHrria)^ 
and wore them suspended from llie neck; and we 
learn from Dioscoricics' that the efficacy of these 
applications extended beyond the classes of living 
creatures, since seleniie was not only worn by wom- 
en, but was al-io tied to trees, Ibr the purpose of ma- 
king them fruitful. 

Consistently with these opinions, an acquaintance 
with the use of amulets was considered as one of 
the chief qualificniions of nurses. If, for example, 
an atlcmpt was made to poLson a child, if it was iu 
danger of destmction from the evil eye, or exposed 
to any other calamity, it was the duly of the nurse 
to pniiect it by the use of such amulets as were 
.suited to the circumstance's.* 

From things himg or lied to the body, the teriL 
amulet was extended to charms of other kinds, 
Pliny' having observed that Llic cyclamen was cul- 
tivated in houses as a protection against noison, 
adds the remark, .dmiUWum vocnvt, Tlie following 
epigram byLucUUus contains n joke against an un- 
fortimate physician, one of whose patients, having 
seen him in a dream, "awoke no more, even though 
he wore an amulet." 

'Efyioyrvj/ tuv iarpov iiuv ^lo^avToc tv f'trrcMf 
0^< tT* avriyifSf}, kqi irtpl€tftfta ^fpuv. 

•.VMVG'DALUS (o^tyJnAv). the Almond-tree, 
or Amy^fialus ofmm-unis. The Alraond-trec is a na- 
tive of Barbary, whence it bad not been transferred 
into Italy down to the time of Calo. It has, how- 
ever, been so long ctilti vatcd all over tlie south of Eu- 
rope, and the temperate parts of Asia, as to have 
become, as it were, naturalized in the whole of the 
Old World from Madrid to Canton. For some re- 
marks on the Amygdaltts Persica, or Peach, vid. 

«AMi2'M0N (uuufiov), A plant, and perfume, with 
reganl to which both commentators and botanical 
writers are very much divided in opinion, Scaliger 
and Cordtis make it the Rose of Jericho {Jiosa Hie- 
ri^Auntuaof Bauhin; Anasialira MUricKuniiai of Iad- 
n»Tis; Bunias Syriaca o{ Qirtficr); Gesner takes it 
for the Pepper of the gardens (the Solanvm. iMUci/frvn 
of ToiuneUtrt V, Casalpinus is in favour of the Pijwr 
Cuieba; and Plukcnet and Sprengel, with others, of 
the Ct«tij vitifiriw'a. The most probable opinion is 
that advanced by F*c, who makes the plant in qties- 
tion the same with our Amomum. rtuxmMum. The 
Romans obtained their amomum from Syria, and it 
came into Ihc Inner counlrj- by the overland trade 
from India.' It is said to nave been used by the 
Eastern nations for embalming; and from this word 

I. (H. N., rji»., 19.)— S- (111., «P.>— 3. (Lib. t.)— 4. (Horn., 
Hymn. in Ccr., 257.— Orph., Liih.,239.>— 3. ^?Uft.,Ta.^.,Ta.i, 
».)-*. (DiOKor., i., 176.}— 7. tFco,FVi« AfcN'ugvU.vAt.^ 

have derived, thongh by no means correcUy, 
the term uwmmji. The taslc of the grains of anio- 
mum is represented by ('hnrras && lan, fraCTaiH, 
rcry arnnulic, nnd a>iTiainiiig a good while m itie 
mouth.' The name amomum is supposed \o come 
fruQi the Arabic khamama^ Ihe ajicicut Arabians 
having been the firsi who made ihis aromatic known 
lo !ho Greck:s. The root of the Arabic lerni has 
rcierenee to the warm taite peculiar to spices. The 
caniamums, ^ains of Paradise, and mcllaseiia pep- 
per of the shops, a class of hig^yarvinalic pungent 
seeds, arc produci:d by dilfcrcnt species uf aflmmtfiw, 
a3 botanists now employ the term.* 

ANA'BOLEIJS [iiiaCnXrv^). Aft the Creeks wem 
Qnacquaialed willi the use of stirrups, they were ac- 
customed 10 mount upm lionwbacfc by nieans of a 
8l3ve, who was termed uvato'/.ev^ (I'rom iivaOaJK- 
Auv*). Tliifl name was also given, according to 
some writers, lo a pe^ or pin fastened on the S(jcar, 
which might sen'e as a resting-place to the foot in 
motmting the horse.* 

ANAKALUPTE'RIA. (T7//. Mibriace.) 

ANAKKIA or ANAKKI'ON ^avuKtia or iivu- 
uitav), a festival of the Dio&curi, or 'AioArec as 
they were called, at Athens. Athenwus^ mentions 
a temple of the Dioscuri, chilled 'Kvuktuov^ at Ath- 
ens ; he al"iO informs us* that the Athenians, prob- 
ably on the occasion of this fc;<iival, U5ed to prepare 
for these heroes in the Prytancum a meal consist- 
ing of chee^, a barley-cake, ripe fig^, olives, and 
garlic, in remembrance of the ancient mode of liv- 
ing. Thcic heroes, however, received the most 
distinguished honours in the Dorian and Achaean 
states, where it may be supposed thni every town 
celebrated a fes^iival'in their nononr, though not un- 
der the name of ^XvuKtia. Pausamas' mentions a 
festival held al Amphissa, called thai of the uvaKruv 
wcd6t./v ; but adtU that it was disputed whether 
they were the Dioscuri, the Cureles, or the Cabin. 
(See DioscuRiA.) 

ANAKEl'MENA. (IV/. Dokaria.) 

AM.^KLKTE'KLV (ucaA^^n/^wa) was the name 
uf a solemnity at which a young prince was pro- 
claimed king, and at the same time asccniled the 
throne. The name was chiefly applied to the ac- 
cession of the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt.' The 
prince went to Memphis, and was there aui^med by 
the priests with the sacred diadem, and led into the 
Temple of Phtha, wiiere he vowed never to make 
any mnovations either in the order of the vear or 
of Hxc festivals. He then carried to some tlisiajir_e 
the yoke of Apis, in order to be reminded of the 
sufferings of man. Rejoicings and sacrifices con- 
cluded the solemnity.* 

ANAKOM'IDE(uv(wo/i(rf^) When an individual 
bad died in a foreign coimtry. it was not unusual 
for his fellow-citizens or relatives lo remove his 
ashes or body to his own country, which was called 
avoKomd^. Thus the dead body of 'J'hc&eus was 
removed from Scyros lo Athens, and ihai of Aris- 
tomenes from Uhucles to Messenia. 

AN.\ 'CRISIS {uvtjKfHon:), the pleadings prepara- 
tory to a trial at Athens, ihc object of which was to 
deiermine, generally, if the action would lie (fftru- 
(ovai 6i Kai el 5?m^ e'laayeiv jtP'?)-** TliG magis- 
trates were said ivoKpiveiv r^v dUrri; or rtuT (iv- 
ridUov;, and the parties dvoKpiveoOai. The pro- 
cess consisted in the production of prtwfs, of which 
there were five kinds: 1. the laws; 2. written doc- 
uments, llie production of which, by Ihe opposite 
party, might bo compelled by a Mkti €if ift^avuv 
Karafrractvi 3. lestimonieti of witnesses present 
( fia()U>plai)y or affidavits of absent witnesses (/«t- 

I. (R«Y«1 ri»«nnM-wit., p. tW.l— 3. (PAc, I. c.)— 3. (Xen., D* 
Re &i.. n.. H.— W.. Hipp., i., 17.— Appun., Pun., IOC.)—*. 
(Xen., Ue lU Efl., ni., 1.)— 5. (W.. p. ?».)-«. (i*-. p. 197.)— 
7. (1., .18, 3,>— S. (PuIvIj.. Rrl..].. k\ui., 3fl ; xTvut., 10.)— 9. 
(T»iod. Sic, Fr»f • hb. ill.)— 10. tUMrpomt., ». r.) 


japTi'piat) ; 4. depositions of slave* extorted b; 
rack; 5. the oath of the parlies' All these p: 
were cummJltcd to wriiing, and placed in a bo 
cured by a seal (^viroc*) till they were produci 
the trial. The name ui-axpiffi^ is given tu the ( 
ings, eon.siilcried expressly as a wriilcn docunic 
Uapus.' If the evidence produced at the axi< 
was so clear and con\'incing that there 
remain any doubt, the magistrate could 
(jucstiun without sending tnc cause lo be t 
lore the dicasls : this was called Aiofiaprvpia. 
this case, the only remedy for the person 
whom the decision was given, was to bring 
tion of perjury against the witnesses i^f/cvio^ 
(}uv fiUrj) These pleadings, like our own, 
liable to vexatious delays on the part of tlM 
gants except in the case of actions concerning 
chandisc, benefit societies, raiiics, and dowries, v 
were necessarily tried within a month from the 
mencemcnt of the suit, and were thcrcforv 
Ififttjvoi dUai. The word avuKpiai^ is soroe 
used of a trial in general C/iiyfT fie tiyKptmv 
The archons were the proper officers Air the 
Kpiat^: ihey are represented by Minerva, 
Eumcnn}fSo{ iEschylus, where there is a 
sketch of the process in the law courts 
ANTiGRAPUr., Antomosia.) For an accoimt o: 
avuKpiai^. that is, the examination which each 
ehon undrnvent previously to entering on 
see the articU: Archon. 
ANADIK'IA. (IV. Appellatio.) 
•ANAOALL'IS (dvayoPJi/f), a i»lanl. of 
Dioseorides and Galen describe two species 
male and the female, as distinguished by their 
erTi, the former having a red flower, and, the I 
blue. These are evidently the Anagallu 
and Candra, the Scarlet arid Blue PimpemeU 
ANAGNOS'TICR. (IVrf. Acroama.) 
ANATUTH^ AI'KH [nvayuyfit: d(«?). If 
dividual sold a slave who had some secret 
— such, for instance, as epilepsy — without in( 
the purchaser of the circums'tance, it was 
power of llie latter to bring an action against 
\-endor within a ccrtaui time, which was fuced 
the laws. In onler to do this, he had to 
{itvuyiti') to tlic proper authoriiics the nature 
disease, whence the action was called 
J/xij. Plato supplies ua with some mfor 
this action; but it is uncertain whether hi 
apply to the action which was brought in th 
man courts, or to an imaginary form of p: 

ANAGO'GIA {iivayCtyia), a festival celcbra 
Eryx, in Sicily, in honour of Aphrodite. Tl 
habitants of the place believed thai, during this 
tival, the goddess went over into Africa, and lb; 
the pineons of the town and its neighbourhood 
wise departed and accompanied her.' Nine 
afterward, during the so-called K^Tayuyia (rem 
one pigeon having returned and entered the tern] 
the rest followed. This was the signal for ge 
rejoicing and feasting. The whole district _ 
said at this time to smell of butter, which the in- 
habitants believed to be a sign tliai Aphrodite bad 

•ANAGTRIS (ovaTvptf), a ahrub. which NicaD> 
der** calls " the acrid Onogyris." It is the Amtgf- 
risfffida, L., or Felid Bean-trefoil. HaMouin sajpa 
its French name is Bois puanl. According to La- 
mark, it is a small shrub, having the r»ort ofa CytJ- 
sxis, and rising to the height of five or seven feet.*'* 

1. (Ariftot., RhBi.,1., jr., 5.)- 1. (Schol. In An<ito|ib., Ve«TV« 
14M.)— 3. (!>• Aninrrh. Ilt-md., p. 79, 11.)— 4. (.r.«-hyl^ 
Eunieti.. BSi.) — 5. (Muller, EatnfDt^en, ♦ 70.1- B. 'T_hc«»r_iit., 
ii., aW.r— Ailum^ Apix-ml., a. t.J— 7. (Pinto, X^t;^^ it.. 9, p 
0IS._Aft in Plat, I. c— M^Tfir. Ati. PmcP««, p. 3i3S.)— B 
(.£]i«ii. V. H., t., 14.— Ath*n»ua, ix., p. SM.)— ^. (lth«-a»«c 
XX., p. S94.)-10. (Thenec, 71.)— 11. (IHowar, ii* , IW " ■ 
uv, Appood., 1. T.) 



A^AHftBUStS. (I'u/. Apaturu.) 

•aSmS lrr>ffffa or v^ttq), ilie guriua Duck. The 

>amsi have been well ncqiiitiQicd w'lxh many 

cf DucU; but, t'rum ihc brief notices they 

of ibem, we have now great difficulty 

:ia9 '*hu9C. L. Th4 ^oand^ is described 

r' as iK'tng hke (lie f^aa, but a little 

p« , it may therefore be wpposed a mere va- 

oftibe ^*is ifwd5, or Wiki Duck. 2. The 

of Varro is relera-d by Turner to the 

of duck called Teal in England, namely. 

crtcctL. h. 3. The 7nfvc^aV>. which is enu- 

br Aristotle' amon? the smaller species of 

r^ probably a duclc, as Gesner suggests. 

ihepefore be referred to the Anas P^n^hps, 

^'Widgsaa. (In modem works on Natural 

It is iDcorrecily written PttuUmeA 4. The 

of Aristutle and .llJian, and }ipivth^ of 

Aiihongh ranked with ducks by Aristotle and 

»T, was proV>ably the /l*srr Brvnlo, or Brent 

6. The x'/*''^'^^^* ^^ Aristotle' and of 

\*\s h^l* ''^ '■• ''i" Anas Bcrniculti, or Beroiclc 

hr K -iderand IVnimnl, however, 

the : ;irt, or Khclldrake. 6. The 

I 'I was a particular species, 

lod lo the Bemicle, but dis- 

jevi uv bii^iiu T |duma^,and by small spurs 

lT?fi:MATA. (KiV. DoNAnu.) 

iy MtrS. (ri^.LvTCnESTONMo.VEY.) 

r ri*A*H [uiaifiaxiitv ypn^n) was 
: ot the tnerarch who had kept 
Tt while the reyl of the Ucct was en- 
' • personal nature of iJie offence, 
,' Qi, it is obrious lliat this action 
l>een dirccte*! against the actual 
.J ol the ship, whether he was the sole 
appoititfd to ibe olUcc, or the active partner 
t^ tR.*rli«p9 many ffvvreXcJr, or the mere con- 
(d fn/T*yununevo^). In a cause of this kind, 
ftrnii'-'i «^..!i;,* ^.' i he natural and oiHcial judges, 
ribed by law for this olfence 
a .by which the criminal and 

desccjidario wcra deprived of their political 
but, as we learn from Andocides, were 
to retain possession of their property." 
A-V.VXA<;OREI'A i'Xvniaydfma), a day of rec- 
WbUoa fcr all the youths at Lampsacus, which 
luak pUoe once every year, in compliance, it was 
■id, with A wi«h PTprp«wd by Anaxagoras, who, 
llkvbvinr' ' '^^Ti?, spent here the re- 

■■totfer ul ritiue<l to be observed 

(vniniVt. . .. ^.^ .. - Lagrtius.' 
•i?iAX L'KIS a 5p?ci'fS of Dock; the Ruitux 

'tt]:.: to Sprengel." 
'AN -a), ihe herb Alkanet. Four 

■^crilwd bv Dioscoriiles* and 
tV \m rcg.inl (o the first, Sprcngcl hcsi- 
the Af%rkHsa tinrttma and Ltthos^wr- 
the second is the EcAium Ilaii- 
eam. ^Utnhorp: ihc ihlnl, or Akibiades, the KrAium 
4</«*«i aiul the ftmrth, or Lvnrjms, the LitJ\ospcr- 
mmmfr^Hamtm. This is a plausible account of 
thm •mwv* of Dio»coride«». but is not Udaltendcd 
wiKb iUBodlks. Thaf -' 'rt^-^ -t.rnslus" seems in- 
_ Iftfce the A^ ui. The AnrhiKi 

fmt/A^s not '•■ ' described by any 

sacred shield canied bv the Salii. 

i*!ainn:h,'" Diony^ius of Halicar- 

,'• it was made of bronze, and 

, hot with the Jwo sides receding 

irtlll aii evvo curvature, and so as to make 

il broader at the ends ilian In the raiddle. Its 3hapi 
is exhibited in the following woodcut. 

The original ancde was found, according lo Im- 
ditiun,' in (he palace of Numa; imd, a£ no human 
hand had brought il there, it was concluded that il 
had been sent from heaven, and was ar. ifTT7.Qv 6io- 
TTtrer. At the same lime, the hamepicpH dcelarctl 
that the Roman state would eniluic so long as ihia 
»,hieUi n-mained in Home. To secure its pn-serva^' 
liou in tlie city, Numa ordered elc^'cn other shieldj,, 
ejcacily like it, to be made by the armorer Mamn-l 
rius VeCurius; and twelve priests of Mais tiradivTii( 
were appointed imder the denomination of Sail!,] 
whose oilice it was to presence the twelve ancilia.^ 
They were kept in the temple of that divinity on ihe^ 
Palatine Muunt, and were taken from it only oncw 
a year, on the calends of March. The feast of lh«- 
gdd was then observed during several days, when 
the Salii carried their shields about llie city, singing 
songs in praise of Mars, Numa, and Nlamurins 
Velurius, and at the same time performing a dance, 
which probablv, in some degree, resembled our mor- 
ris-dances, and in which thev struck the shields with 
rods, so as to keen lime with their voices and with 
the movements oMheir dance. The accompanving 
figure shows one of these rods, as represented on 
the tomb of a Poniif-x Snliuv, or chief of the Salii." 
Its form, as here exiiibiie'l.bolh illustrates the man- 
ner of u.*;ing il, and shows the rcnson why dilTerenl 
authors call it by difierent names, as ^^fi/M'diov, 
^■^YX1% Otif^M* vtrga. 

L .5.1— 3. iH. A..*-iii., S.>— 
•rn,]., %. T.>— 6. (Ue Mj-tt., 
AM., M7.)— 7. (Anwim., c. 

■a.)~w. (DfSiiupi., v.>- 
App«o'l., ». T.j— 13. {Vir. 
[.loiuf. V'ctur.) 

Besides these ditfercnt names of the rod, which 
was held in the right hand, we oltscrve a similar 
(1 iscrcpnncc as to the mode of holding the sliictd. 
V'irgili describing the allire of Picus, a mytliical 
king of Laiiura, sa\*s he held the ancile in his left 
hand ijirimfpic anaU gcrdfut*'). Oilier authors rep- 
resent the Salii as bearing ilie oneilia on their necks 
or on tlieir shoulders.* These accounts may be rec- 
onciled on the supposition advanced in tlie article 
j^Gia, that the shield wa.s suspended Iiv a lenlhem 
band {hnirn^) proceeding from the right shoulder, 
and passing round the neck. That tlic weight of 
the ancile was considerable, and that the use of il 
in the sacred dance required no small exertion, is 
apparent from Juvenal's expression, "suitavU cly- 
peis ancilibus,"* 

Besides the Salii, who were men of patrician fam- 
ilies, and were probably instructed to perform their 
public dances m a graceful as well as animated 
manner, there were servants who executed inferior 
offices. An ancient gem in Uie Florentine eabinel. 
from which the preceding cut has been copied, rep- 
resents two of them carrying six ancilia on their 
shoulilers, suspended from a nole; and the repre- 
sentation agrees exactly with the statement of Dio 
nysius of Halicarnansua, treAraf vmiptrai ^prjifii' 
vac u:rd kovovuv KOftlCnvat 


1. (Dlunjr*., 1. c— Plur., I. c— KlonM, i., a.— Scir. in JRu., 
viii,, fiM.)— 2. (Onilcr. Itwer., p. ctTcUi* . «otr S.J— 3. lA^a., 
■nt., 197.)— «. fSlnt.. SyW., II.. lyj.— Lucid, i., OtW ; ix . HftO.— 
Llctaut., Da FUi. Hel., t.,31.}— 5 (Jut., li., lU.)— 4i. (u,, 19A.I 



Dnrini; ihc fesiival, and so long as ihe Salii con- 
tiooi^d 10 c;irry' llic niicilia. no ci]ic<iitign couUI be 
onilcriak''!). ll veaa ihoiigbl ominous to »)leumizc 
iauin;<L.'e^ ai iliut time, ur ui engage ia any under- 
taking ul urrju imi)ortuaoe.* 

When war vus declared, ihc uncilia were pur- 
pusL'lv shaken in their sacred depositor)'.' But it is 
alleged lliai, towards the close ol the Cimbhc war, 
Lliey raiikd ul' their own accord.' 

AN'COUA {u)kvm), an anchor. 

The antJwr used ny ihe ancicnLs was, for ihfi raoal 
part, tnaile of ittm, aiid \\a lunn, as may be Aecn from 
the annexed figurv, Citken Irom a coin, resembled 
that of the iDixleni anrhor. The shape ol the two 
CZtrcmiuesiltu.-sLrntciithe uiteonwmiiia'idenU Unaci 
of Vir;?il.* Indeed, the Greek and Latin onmes 
themselves express llus c»«enlial jirojicrty oi' tlie 
anchor, being allied Ui tuyxvM^, ^yxuvt anguhu, um- 
rui. 6cc. 

The :inehor, as here Tepresentcd and as common- 
ly used, wiifl enlled Ltdift*. t^tJtX^, uu^6o?.or, or ufi- 
^tTTO}iiK, hrciiUHC It liad two teetti or tlukus. Some- 
tintes it had one only, and then had tlu; epithcL irc- 
poffT'iftof The following oxpre^asions werii used for 
the three principa. processes in managing the an- 
chor : 

Aneoram totnen, &yicvpav x*^^*** ^^ loose tho an- 

Anc-oram jaccre^ ^uA^utit', hivrruv, to cast anchor. 

Anroram tolltTt^ alpetv, avaipcZa0Wt uvaairuatht^ 
to weich anchor. 

Hence alurtv by itSClT meant to tei tail, ityxvpav 
belne undersrood. 

The qualities of a good anchor were iu>t t/t slip, or 
lose it.H hiitd, and not to ArnUr, i. e., to be Aa^a'Ai^ re 
Ktu QiCautv.* 

Tne following A^ire, taken from a marble at 
Rome, shows the cable (funis) passing through a 
hole in the prow (ocvJitf). 

We mar suppose the anchor lo be lyinif on the 
deck, in the place indicated by (he tuni at the ca- 
ble; and if the vcmoI bo approachini* the port, the 
•tep* taken will tie as Virgil dcscril>cs: 
" OfrtvT/ifTi/ ptlnL'o prnrtis; turn di^fe /ttutci 
Anofrn fuiu/aiiiU n/ives, et titora atrva 
PraUxuiU puppci.'** 

" Atuwa iff fritrn jari/vr^ slant I i lore aijy ts"^ 

i. (0«.), pMi., III., W3.)— 9- (»«rT. in Mn.^ *.«„ (HiJ ; riii., 
M./—J. fjul n^*r»^Hrn*, D» Pnidlir — U*.. Eptl, A8.)— 4. (Mu, 

am, fft^ 077: wL, tOt.i 

The prow being turned towani« t 
(p'//ii,'fA and the sicni towanls the Ii>nd 
extremity is tixcd upon the ^buiv {sJai 
that ilie collected smpa^ with their aplnst/ia^ 
it, as it were, with a frince or border {prd 
The prow remains in the deeper water, and 
fore Uie anchor is thrown oui to attach it 
ground (^furuiarc). 

When a ship was driving before tlic wiad,i| 
danger of fonndering upon shoals, its cuurMj 
be clieckcd by castuig anchor rrt»m the sternJ 
wa<i dune when Paul u as shipu rcrj^rd at M 
Fimranchoni weredri'ppfd on thai - ' 

nxus* mentions a slop wha-h h.> i 

chors. The largest and Mrungcit 
hope" of tho 8liip, was called itpti : and, as 
only u*ed in the cxlreniily of dciiger, the 
^^xturatn oncoram solvere" waa applied la 
sons similarly circumstanrcd. 

To indicate the place where the iinehor 
bundle of cork Honied over it. cm the ^urfht-e 
water," being^ ntiached, probably^to tlie ring ' 
in the preceding figure, is seen lixed to the J 
of the .^hank; and wc may conjecture that tl 
tied In that rintr wa^i also used m di 
out of tJie Riuund previously to w-: 

In the heroic Uinos of Greece, ii 
chors were not ycl invented: Int 
ft't'oi (gUrpcr*), were useil in thrir 
l.'iier times, hag<i of sand, and b:: 
stones, were used in eafies of ne^ 
ing to Pliny," the anchor wn^ fir^l 
[talanitis, and afterward iiiipTdved by Anuch 

•ANDKAPHAX VS (rii'dp**«a<iic" or urj 
an herb, llic same with our AtripUz fwri> 
cording to Sprcngcl,, and D 
who agree in this with tlie earlier eomm 
All the ancient authorities, from Diosco 
Macer, give it the character of an cxcell 
herb. It is still wlcivaied in some garde 
culinary herb; ivi English name is fjrmh* 

•ANDllACH NE, Purslane, or ParUdi 

PPA4f'lI (nvtSjia'Tro^iafiov or ui'd/>a:riM^m'i^ I 
was an action brought before the court t>( iho 
(oJ tvAttaX ogainat all persons who carried a 
fn>m their masters, or reduced free men to 
I r The (Train mari.ins mention on 

I on llus subject, which has d< 

ANAPArioAQN AIKH {avApQz;,itjv ^. 
the peculiar title of the dia^iKatria when a 
in staves was the suiiject of contending 
The cause bckingcd to the cIobs of iiitat rtp 
and Wfi-s one of the private suit** tlial cam 
ihi* jurisdiction of the thcsmotheix. It is ra 
txi have l>een the subject of a lost speech of 
chut,* and is clearly referred to in one still 
of Demosthene-s.'* 

ANDREI'A. (Via'. Stmitm.) 

•ANDRO DAMAS, one of PHnr's varte 
hffmatile. ( VfJ. AIMaTITHS.) Ir - - ' i 
colour, of remarkable weii?hi and Ji 
traded silver, copper, and iron, 
of its fabulous properties, it appears to ha 
masrnetic oxide of iron. "^ 

ANDIIOOEOMA {'Kvf'^f^oytu\ia\ a feati 
games, held every year in the t'cramieusal 
in honour of the hero Androgrus, vm of 
who had overcome ai his adversaries In the 

I, (AcU, Xfii., OT.) — a. {Allirnwiii*, »., I"' 

ia.-riin.. n. N.. »«,, g.)— 4. (Sr.? 11, 1. , -^ 

u., 137 ; !»., 4ffe.— Ajpnllun. Hh^Hl.. »., lar: '. 

(Pi'wyir., ii, 145.— Tli<v'i*r»*l., 11. P.. i., Jd.— A*Uu 
|>rjHl., «. V.}— 7. (Thfliiftlirui., 11. f^ 1., lA; lu.. C A« 
or., n . IW.)— ft. (n«kUr, AnMxM. Or., l. U8.» — 
LTOeUAe.)-lO. Kt. Ay^«bn U> «tt, L T.t-U (Ma«« 





>fl<ihc PanaihcT,:> ' ^^= afterward IdUcd 

fm^ctJEgms.^ ! • Uesycimi5, ihe 

bore the nzm ^ycs> (die possessor 

Ere Iibd^), ftnd under ihis title games were 
in hia tioncuTt 6 irr' Hiipuyvif u-yCiv. 
>R0LEf3iA or ANDROLKl^S'ION (av- 
V*«Lff«A or iueJipaXfr^iov)^ tho nght of reprisals, a 
recogDiied by the iutcniatiouiil law of ihe 
Uuu, when a citizen of one suite had killcU 
of another, and the coimirymen of the Ibr- 
arr vtMid out surrender him to the relatives of the 
Voecu«kl« il shuold be lawful to mizc upon three, 
WkA HOC mote, of the couainrmcu of the olfeader, 
md^oep ihexD as bostag^^ lill ^lisfaction was af> 
teM, ov 'Jte hooticide given up.* The irivrarchs 
9aA ike comnuioders of ihc ships of war were i)ic 
'~ ~» uitrast2d with this oihce. The property 
Ibe hosca^s had with them at the time of 
oontiscatedf onder the nanie of a^>.a or 

•ANDROS.CMOX (avSpoaataov), a species of 
JohnVvort, but not the Hypericum ankros<einum 
M Bulero tx :iL»nists. Such, at leaM, is the opinion 
flC SibUuirv. who refers it to the H. ciiiatum^ Lam. 
Anhcfts aaii Matlhiolus gire it the French name 

|^*.ANDHOS'ACES {uvAfMoaMt^). Sprpngcl justly 
this the "crui exegetaruml" In his 
of Botany he inclines to the oninion of Go- 
tbat il is the Mtukfpora arxtaLuUtm, a zoo- 
\\ a DBOst improbable cunjectorc. But. in his 
of Dioacoridcs, he prefers the plant named 
Andromate^ Breslol. I'hc dv6p6oaK(^ occurs 
IblW Mii.H;> \f. il, M of Dioscorides, Galen, Ori- 
k^a.'. ^nnela.' 

•-V- ■ .'vit), the Anrmone or Wind- 

Dux^coadc^ilcscribes three species: the first, 
he calls //jiupof. or cultivated, is, aeconlitkg to 
Ibc Aittmome cori/naria i tlie bucond kind, 
aypia, or wdd, is the A. tidiata; the 
fcind« vita dark leaves, is (he A. ntnufntsa, or 
AjDemone. The caliivaied kind was very 
>1e in the coloor of its flowers, these being 
blue, Tiolelf purple, or white, whereas the 
_«fld kimd us merely a flower of piir^ile hue. This 
to expiaia the discrepance in the poL^iic 
reipecting the ori^ of the ancinuue. Ac- 
to oiM accoimt,* it sprang from the tears 
by Vcfttu for the loss of Adonis when &lain 
Wabe Tiki boar; according to anuUicr,^ from itie 
bioiKi of Ailoois himself. The tefcrence may be, in 
iIk cmt case, to the white flower of the nin'd-iose; 
ia dK ocbcr, to that of purple hue. The anemone 
bjft ttfl Wktne from the Greek term avefto^. " wind." 
XlMt cause of this name's having l^een given is dif- 
Pliny* sap thai the flower was so 
, bscvttSe it never opens except when the wind 
15 Heycbios,* becansc its leaves are quickly 
•oattcsed by' the viud. The best explanation, how- 
ta the foUoving : the blossoms of the anemone 
distisct calyx, and are succeeded bv a 
^^^_flf gl»in». each lerminated by a long, silliy, 
fMibnn- tat. As the species generally grow on 
^MOi ybbH. or ia hi^ exposed simations, their 
moikttf (BBS produce a singular shining appear- 
mnsm whim vanned by the breeze, and hence, no 
citf Bttne of the flower has originated, for it 
iikfaily. " Wind-flower f and this is Uie 
aetnkUy bestowed upon it br the Eng- 
'•^'h--^- '-Mind the anemone on Mount Par- 

luviffiav), the herb AnLse or Ddl. 
k the &vi/fiav of Diuscoridcs and Tbtv 

L. <1>*4. Ae, iv-jM. Bl.]— A. tK*rpnmt., a. v.— DeniMh., 
*.aJW»ttlC.p>.M7.tM.}— 3. (V*J. IVni'MtK., irrj>] rvB £rr^. 
^ Tv*«P4Fl^f*^ **■*■ '• S.f— ^- (Di.twfir., iii.. IBJ.— AdaiM, 
Mmmmd., «. ft >— d- CA4U**. Alil>«iu)., i. r.l— 4. (Biun, Id., u 

«>-r .o*«, mi^ Xt^ TM, •*«.)-«. (H. N., ai, ».)-•. («. 

' b»i ill ( 

ophrastos the Atvelhum gravtoten* t bol, accordiogio 
Stackliouse, the avi^tiov of TheophruatU8 is the A.j 
fufrtctLSTj or GrLrdeu Dill.* 

ANQOTHE'KE (iyyo^yxv)- (ViJ. Incitkoa ) 

•ANGUILI/A ilYXt'^vi), tJ»e Murana aui^UiMt^ 
L., or Eel. (KiW. Concer and Murjcna.) Vol- 
umes have been written respecting the mode of 
reproduction on the part of etfs. Aristotle believed 
that tJiey sprang Irum the mud ; Pliny, from frag- 
ments which they sejmrated fiom their bodies by 
rubbing them against the rocks ; oiliers of the an- 
cient writers supposed that they came Ixom the 
carcasses of animals. The truth lit, that eels couple 
aJlcr Ihfl manner of serpents : that they form egg% 
which, for the most part, disclose in Uieir belly ; and 
that in this case they are vidpaious, aller the mat^ 
ner of vipers. 

*ANtiUlS {Cfit)f the Snake. (Viit. Aaris, Dba- 
co, &e.) 

ANGUSTICLA'VII. (Firf. Clavus.) 

♦ANI'SUM {avtaov) tlie i*\my\ncUa am»on^ or 
Anise. It is described by Theophrastus^ Dioscori 
des, Galeo, and the other writers on the Materia 

ANNA'LES(», *,, annalcs libri, ycar-hooks) were 
records of the events of each year, which were kept 
by the chief pontiff {fonlifex maximus) at Rome, 
Irom the commencement of the stale to the time of 
the chief jpon lid" Publius Mucins Scaivola (consul 
in 621 A.U.C^ 133 B.C.V They were written on a 
white board (aUfum), which the cbief poniilT u>ed 
to put in some conspicuous place in his house, that 
the peoide might have ihe uppoitunity of ruadiug 
them. They were called aJituU^!^ maximi, or annal'S 
pmUtfictim fnaximimim i* and the commmiarii wnliji' 
CUM mentioned by Livy' are in all prubability tne 
same. These documents appear to have been vei 
meager, recording chiefly eclipses, prodigies, 
the stale of the markets ;* but they were tlie otdf 
historical recurds which ttie Uomans pos:>essed be* 
fore the time of Fabius Pictor.^ The greater part 
of those written before the burning of Kome by the 
Gauls, perished on that occasion ; but some fra^ 
mcnts seem to have escaped destruction-* This 
circumstance is a chief cauie of the imcertainty of 
the early history of Rome.' 

In process of'time, individuals undertook to write 
portions of the Roman history, in imitation of the 
pontifical annals.* The first of these was Uuintus 
Faliius Fictor, who lived dtuing the second Puni^J 
War, and wrote the history of Rome from its found*] 
ation down to his own time.' Couteraiwrary with 
him wns Lucius Cinciiis Altmonins, whose annals 
embraced the same period.'* Dionysius states lliat 
both Fabius and Cincius wrote in Greek; but it 
would seem that Fabius wrote in Latin also." 
Marcius Porcius Cato, consiU in 550 A.U.C., and; 
ailerwartl censor, wrote an hi.^^toriral work in 
seven books, which was called " Origines."" Au- 
lus Posiumius Albinus. consul in tiOQ A.U.C., wrote 
annals of the Roman history in Greek." Lucius 
Calpumius Piso Frugi, consul in O'Jl A.U.C, and 
afterward censor, wrote annals." Quinlus Valeri- 
us Antias (about 672 A.U.C.) is frequenilv cited by 
Livy, and contemporary with him was Cain< Li- 
cioius Macer." Tlie Roman nnnaliitts were Laciu< 
Cassius Heinina (A.U.C. 006), Uuintos Fabiue 

1. (DinaniT., jti., fiO. — Tlipophrut., If. P.. %ii., I.— AdBM%. 
Append., f. V.)— ». (Cic, de Onu., ii.. 12.— Id., dt LittRi i- *•) 
—3. (ri., i.)—4. (Cato in Aul. C«U., ii., 2».>— 5. tCjc, ill 
tvnq., i., 9.>— 6. (U»., i., 0.— Cic, dn Rep., i., 10.)— 7. (Nie- 
buLr, ToU i., p. 213.1—6. (Cic, d« Or»l„ ii^ ia.>— fl. <Cir., M 
tf/m., i.. 2.— PolTb., i.. H : ill., 8, 0.— Dionyi., i., ; vii-, 71 .— 
Lir., I., 44: ii., 40.)— 10. (tHonj-*,, i., fl.74.— Lit, Tii., S ; ixL, , 
38,)— II. (Cir.,.loarat^ ii., 19— Aul. Of 11., i . !5.)-ia. fCiiWf 
de OnU., ii., IS.— U« l^g^., i., 8.— Lit., jmu,, 40.— Cora, 
Nep., Cato, r. 3.)— 13. (C«U., il., 8.— Cic. Unil.. c. St.— Ma* 
en*., 8»t. Pp am., i. ; ii., 10.— Plutarrh, CM. Slnj-.e. 19.)- 14, 
(Cic, do Op I., ii., IS.— Ep. ftd Dir.. ii., 29.— Vkto. d* I ae. 
Lat., ir., 42.— Diunr*-* ii i «S ; \r., 7.)— la. (Clc, d« Kn 'f Z, 

1.— Ut. 





Maximus Scnilianns (012), Caius Fannius (Gl6), 
C'aius iSt'injirunius Tiidimims (6'25), Lucius Cu?lins 
Anlipater {ii'M), Cains tScimironius Ast-Uio (G*JO), 
and, abouL the end oi' the same ccittury, Publius 
Uutilius Rutiis, l.ncius Conudius ^isenna, and 
CluiutiU} C]atuliu:> Q,uadnKar)us. Farther iiiloruia- 
tion concemins: llirse wriiers will be found in Clin- 
lon's yasti HLlU-nui, vul. Hi. 

The prc::ise diflerence between the terms annaks 
and hiitorin is still a matter of discussion. Cicero 
lays thai the Urst historical wriiers among the Ho- 
mans composed their works in imitation of the 
annaia ma.vimi, and merely wrote memorials of the 
times, of men, of places, and of events, wit-hout 
any ornament; and, provided that their meanixifr 
was intcUi^blc, thought the only excellence of 
style was brevity;' but that, in history, ornament is 
studied in the mode of narration, iTescriptions of 
countries and battles are often introduced, speeches 
and harangues are reporleil, and a flowing style is 
aimed nt* I-!;lsewhcre he mentions history as one 
of the highest kinds of oratory, and as one whicli 
was as yet either unknown to, or ueglecled by, his 
counirjTncn.* Aulus Gellius* saj's that the differ- 
ence between annals and history i^', that tltc furmcr 
obser\'e the order of years, narrating under ench 
year all the events that happened during that year. 
Serrius* savs that history (utio lov Imopriv) relates 
to events wliieh have happened duriiJg the writer's 
life, so iliat he has, or might hare, seen them ; but 
annals to those things which have taken pUc« in 
former timi;5. The true distinction seems lo be that 
which regaids the annalist as adhering lo the suc- 
cession of (u«<r, while the historian r(?gards more 
the succession of nxnts t and, moreover, that the 
former relates bare facts in a simple, straightfor- 
w;ml style, while the latter arranges liis materials 
with the an of an orator, and traces the causes and 
resists of the events which he records. (See a 

rper by Niebnhr in the Rheimschfs Museum, ti., 
. p. 383, translated by Mr. Thtriwall in thfsPkilob- 
giail Museum, vol. ii., p. G61.) 

ANNO'NA (from, annus, like pcvuma from po~ 
vmm) is ased, I. for the produce of the year in 
com, fruit, wine, &c., and nence, 2. for provisions 
in general, especially for the com which, in the 
latter years of the Republic, was collected in the 
Btorebooses of the state, and sold to the poor at a 
cheap rate in times of scarcity ; and which, imder 
the emperors, was distributed'to the people gratui- 
tously, or given as pay and rewards. 3. For the 
price' of provisions. 4. For a soldier's allowance 
of provisions for a certain time. Ii is used also in 
the plural for yearlv or monthly distributions of pay 
in com, &c.* Similar distributions in money were 
called annona araria.'' In the plural it also signi- 
fies provisions given as the wages of labour,* 

Annona was anciently worshipped as the goddess 
who prospered the year*s increase. She was repre- 
sented on an altar in the Capitol, with the inscrip- 
tion "AnnoniE Sjinna; J£lius ViUilio," Ac.,* as a 
female witli the right ann and shoulder bare, and 
the rest of the body clothed, holiiiug ears of corn in 
her right hand, and the cornucopia in her left. 

ANNA'LIS LEX. (!'«/. iKoitES, p. 25.) 

AN'NULI. (Kid. Rings.) 

ANXUS. (H^. Year.) 

•AN'O'NIS (ufwvif), a plant. Stephens saya its 
popular name is Itt-sta bcx-is, i. r., Resl-liarniw. 
Modern botanists have accordinslv given the name 
of AwmLi aniiqiwrum. to the Rrst-ftarroie of Knglish 
herbalists.^* The popular name is derived from the 
'.ircamsiance of this plant's slopping the plough, or 
harrow, in its, by its stnngy roots. 

I. (D»Onil.,ii., 15,>— 9. (Onrtw.,<>— 3. (neUsp-.i-.S J 
—4. (v., IS.)— 5. (in X.n., i.,373.>— fl. (Coil. Jutl., i., X\\. ^»: 
B., tit. 10; xi., tit. 94.1— T. (Cod. Theodoi., rii., tit. 4, s. 34, 
IS. W.)— e. rSslmu. la Lsmptid., Alex. Sev., r. 41.)— 9. (Gm- 
|>r, p. 8, Q. 10.)— (0. (Diotcor., iii., 17.— Adamt, Append., i.t.) 


ANaurSITIO, In criminal trials at Rome, 
accuser was obliged, after the day fur the trial (d 
tlfdio) had been fixed, to repeat his charge Ihi 
tiuies ag;iiD5t the accused, with the intervention 
a dny between each.* The atiqrttsiiin wa.s iJint 
of the charge in which the punishment was 
fied. The accuser could, during this repetition 
tlie charge, cither mitigate* or increase the pt ' 
ment.' After the charge had been repeated 
limes, the proper bill of accusation {rogaiw) 
then first iutroaucetl. (Iw/. Judicium,) Under 
emperors, the term anmiisitio lost its original met 
iiig, and was eniployeu to indicate an accusation 
guneral / in which ^cnse it also occurs even in 
times of the Republic.' 

ANSA, the handle of anything, more particul; 
uf a cup or drinking-vesscl; abo, the naiidle of] 
rudder, called bv us the tiller.' kunius speaks 
the ansa or handle of a spear: '* £i)2Stis ansafis 
cvrrtiiit. ttn^iiquc Uiis."' ** AnstUas miUuni e 

The ansa must have been diflerent from 
amentum of a spear. Perhaps it was a rest for 
hand, Ijxcd to tne middle of the shaft, to assist 
llirowing it. On tliis supposition, the A/ufn 
of Ennius was the same with the utauyKv'Kov 
6ofiv ayKvy.Tffov of Greek authors.' kuripides 
the same weapons simply ilysvXnf." 

Xenophon, speaking of liie large arrows of 
Carducni, says that his soldiers used them as 
(«Koi>noif), hy fixing the ayKvli} upon them (li-ayn 
ylwi'Tfi)." Plutarch" relates Ihal Alexander 
Great, obscning one of his soldiers to be aitaci 

the uyKVAf} to bis dart ^rii ukuvTiov (vnyKvXuvfizvf: 

obliged him to leave the ranks, for preparing 
arms at a moment when he oughl to ha 'c had tb< 
ready for use. These authorities show that 
uyKv?.rj was something fastennl lo the dart, al 
the middle of the shaft, before the engagement 
mcnced. That it was crooked, or curved, may 
concluded from the term ilielf ; and, if so, it w( 
agree with the Latin ansa, a kamilf, though not 
amentum, which was a leather tliong fastened 
the same part of the lance. ( Vui. Amentcm.) 

»AN.S1::R (x'/v), the Goose. Aristotle briefly 
scribes two species, the Great and the Small gre| 
rious goose.'* Tlic latter, no doubl, is the Bi 
Goose, or Anas Bcmiaxla. The other cannot be 
israciorily determined; but it is not imlikely thai] 
was the Anas avscr. Dr. Trail, however, is Incl 
rather to think that it was the Atias JEgypliaeA^ 
Sacred Goose of F^'pl.'* 

ANT.i-K (ropfiffrtie^cf). square pillars {quadrtt 
tuvimF, Nonius). Thev were commonly joined 
the side walls of a building, being placed on 
side of the door, so as to tiSMsi in forming the 
tico. These terms are sehlom found except 
the jilnraJ, because the purpose served hy 
retiHired thai, in general, two should be er 
corresponding to each other, and supporting the < 
trcmities of the same roof. Their position, foi 
and tise will be l^est understood from the followii 
wockIouI, in which A A are the aniae. 

Vitruvius*' describes the temple in amis (voof 
irapaffTaai) to l>e one of the simplest kind. It 
as he say?, in front, antte attached to the Wi 
which enclosed the cella; and in the middle, 
iween the anto?, two columns supporting the 
irave. According to him," the anlffi ought to bei 
the same thickness as the columns. The 
spacer {tnlercoiutnnia) into which the front of 

1. (Cic, pro, r>oin., e. 17.)— 2. [Lir.,ii., AS.)— 1. iUr . 
a.)— 4. (Tucit., Ann., iii.. 19.)— 5, (Ut., •*., 50 ; viii., 3i.) 
(Vitrnt., 1., 8.) — 7. (Ap. Marroft., Saturn., vi.. I.}— 6. (i 
Noniam.) — 9. (AtbriiKaB, xi. — Enrip.. Dioa.. 114S. — Andra 
1133.— Sch»l. tn loc.— Mffnuder, p. 310, rd. .Mvlueke.— Q«| 
1., 83,— Fp«u», ■. T. Mefwictlium.)— 10, (OfBrt., U7T.J— | 
(Anab.,tT..3, «3fl.)— 12. (Apopfalh.)— 13. (AhkM^ , U. A^ 
6.)— 14. (Aduuf.Apiynd., B. r.)~li). (ui., l.>— IB dr., 4.; 



dirided by the two columns, were 
:apied bv marble balustrades, or by 
OT ' ' or gairs. The rains 

; I' dt^scription of Vimi- 
...:A Asia Minor; and wc 
as a spcciraeii a restoration of the 
iple of Artemis Propylaea at Eleusis, 
tab « plan of the pronaas*: 

B B» th£ etUa or va5f ; O, Ou altar. 

inscription rvspccHn^ the temple of 

teolt, coni.-iius the fullGwin^ direction 

to one ol the walls: Kx. eo. riRtcre. 

ad. MAsr. vonsuM, frojicito, loncas. 

p. I. 

)li!mTi5 is attacked hv Orestes in 

ihe temple at Delphi, he seizes the 

^ iided by means of nails or 

lac (Topairriiiof «/)eyuatrra*). 

[U. .. .., .. Ukc altar, snd addresses the 

is own defence. In two other passages, 

the term by metonymy, to denote 

105 of a temple* or the vestijiule of a 

each case iJie jiortico, or space en- 

llie nntfc * 

came the adjective parnsiiTtu-vs, aud 

niraJlatica employed as the term for a 

may l-e considered as the section of 

If attached lo the wall of a building. 

a ceiling were laid tipon three kinds 

vir, colninos, antB, ana porastaticx or 

<<uor\ a variety of the Aeu 

FLsh, This would appear 

U whoMr name a poet in Athenwus 

it wa5 inadmissible into heroic 

iJilBTTt^tyNES were slaves who were 
lij ?t N'fort; i>,err master?, in order to 
f' irvjugh the croud.' They 

. . WW tiaminomfo; and if this 
iriit t'» '-i'-ar the way, they wseil their 
mil fftr that pnipofie. Pliny relates 
of an individual who was roughly 

r, lOrw 1-r (I[.h. ill Taiir, lUfl.)— S. 

i Rnnknl. p. IC — 

ilanijw^rtcrooch. — 

■ injT,, ri,, 7, 1.)— 3. 

. i- lir. IIT. .'1. SchaPidiT.— Plin., 

bandied hy a Roman knight, because hi» «lave lud 

})resumed to loach the latter in order to make way 
or hLs master.* The teiTn aiUfnmhtthnrs was also 
given to the clieals, who were accusiomed lo walk 
before their patroni when ihc latter appeared ia 

SOREtS, Were horse-soldiers, who were accustom- 
ed to precede an army on march in order to chooflt 
a suitable place for the camp, and to make the oe- 
cessary nroviMons for the army. They do not ap- 
pear to have been merely scouts, like the rnruM* 
/vr«.' This name was also fcHven to the teacberft 
of the Romnn law.* 

A.NTECCENA. (I'm/. Cckna.) 

ANTEFIXA, lerraM'ottaP, which exhibited vari- 
ous ornamental designs and were used in architec- 
lure to cover the fneze ( jflpA^rw^) of theenlablniure. 

These terrQ-cottas ^o not appear to have l»eeu 
us«l among the Greeks, but were prohahly Etrurian 
in their origin, nnd were thence taken for" the deco- 
ration of Roman buildings. Festiis describes ihem 
in the following terms: Anlrfixa. qua rr opcrrfguiiao 
Uctis tuijiiptntiir sub siillicu/w. 

The name ««/ty!j-(i is evidently derived from the 
circumstance that they were Aj:*;*/ tefore the buildr 
ings which they adorned; ana the maimer of fixing 
ihem, at least in many c;ise.t, appears from the re- 
mains of them still eiisling^. At Scroiano, supposed 
to he the nncicnt Veii, they were found fa-stencd to 
the frieze with leaden nails. At Vellctri, furm'jily 
a ciiy of the *''dsci, they vcrc discovered {s^e XV 
follmcing irmflcvt) with boles for the nails to pass 
throusb. They were formed in monlds. and then 
baked by fire, so that the number of them mighl 1^ 
increased to any exlent; and copies of the same de- 
sign were no donbt frequently repeated on the same 
frieze, or the groal variety and esqujisite heauiy 
of the workmanship, the reader may l<'>*t form an 
idea by insprolinp the colleclion of iheni in ilie Brit- 
ish Musciun, or bj' studying the cngm^Tn^^ and de- 
scription of that collection published by Dr. Tayloi 

The two imperiect antefixa here represented are 
amoni? ihos»* ffjiind at Velleiri, and described by 
Carloiii (/^w«/;, 17h5). 

The first of them must have funned nan of Uia 
ujtfjcr Ijordcr of till! fnrze, or, rather, of iLc cornice. 
It contains a panther's head, desi^ied to scire as a 
sjwui for the rain-water to pass through in descend- 
ii>g fj-om tlie roof. Simjlarantcfijta,but with comic 
masks instead of auiinals* heads, adorned the Tem- 
ple of Isis at Pompeii.' 

The second of the above specimens reprcr-enls 
two men who have a dispute, and who come licfore 
the sceptre-bearinif kings or judges to have their 
cause decided. The style of tiiis bas-relief indi- 
cates its high antiquity, and, at tlie same time, 

t. (Mulinl, 


; I., 74.J 

I. (Ep. iii., 14, Biib fin.)- 
— 1 (Ifirt., Bell. Afr., IS, who ^pcnloi n( BpccflUnire* cl »nl*- 
ccmnm eqail*"*.— Suet., VilcM., 17.— €«•.. B. C. v.. 47.}—! 
(C«l. I. tiu IT, t. S, ft 9, n )— 5. (Pumiwii, Lcod., laafl,»oL i, 


pToref thM the Volsci hm! attatnrd lo con?ti«lMaMo 
t;iMr in llicir ar-^lntccturc. Their anlrfiita are n;- 
II. ■ ■ ■ iL' painlctl: thi.- j^und of ihal hen- 

1' , ihc hair of ihe six men is black 

u. ...^.., . . .. .l.jh P'd; iheirBarments while, vel- 
kiw, ana ixM: the '-luiirs are white. The two hiilos 
may be observed by which iJiis slab was fuced upon 

Caio the Censor complained thai the Romans of 
his time hrp.Tin lo despise oniamcnis of this descrip- 
tion, and |u prL'fcr the tuarble fiic/es of Athens ami 
Coiinlh.' The rising la.'=to which Onto deplored 
may accyiim for Ihe Mincrior beauty of the aiitefiia 
prv&cn*ed in the Britisn Museum, wliich were dis- 
covered at Rome. A specimen of them is hero 
^vcn. It ivprfscnls Minerra 8"i»crintenfjing the 




con*tniction of the ship Argo. The man with the 
hammer and chisel is Argus, who built the ve.^^el 
or.dcr her (tireoiifii. Tia* pildt Tiphys is assisted 
by her in .itiarhmg the .soil to the yard. The bor- 
ders at the top and bottom at« in the Givclc style. 
lad are extremely elej^imt. Another ."ipccimen of 
the antefiT.i is given under Ihe anicle Asm. 

ANTENNA [nrpala, KipaO* the yard of n ahlp. 

The ships of the ancients had a sinpte mast In the 
middle, and a square sail, in raise and Mipport wliich 
a tranvcrie pole or yam was eiteiidrd acra-^s the 
mast not far from the ton. In winter the yard was 
let down, and lodged In the vt^scl or tAkon on khorc. 
" Kfff'frit hihcmns tfrmiM.i antcnnn priKtUtix."* 

When, therefore, the time for Icnvin:; the port nr- 
rix'ed, it was necessary lo elevate Uu? yard, to which 
the sail was previously attached. For ihis purpose 
a wooden hoop waf made to «lidc up and down the 
ma'd, ns we sec it represented in an antique lamp, 
made In the fijrm of a ship.' To ibc two extremi- 
ties of the 3*Hrd (comua. iiKpoHt^iat) ropes were at- 
tached, which pa.*ised over the lop of the mast ; nnd 
by means of the.»'e n>peit, and the pulleys (Jntehlnc) 
connected with them, ihe yard and sail, guided by 
the hoop, were hoisted to a fcnfncienl height. The 
sail was then unAirled, and allowed to fall to the 
deck of the %'e':sel.* 

Cmsar informs as* that, in order lo dcximy the 
fleet of Ihe Veneti, his soldiers made use of sharp 
«ckles fastened lo long poles. With these they cut 
ihe ropes {fuws) by which the yard of each ship 
was sn.sfieuded fnim ihe mu>t. The conseoucnce 
wa*!, thni Ihe yani, with ihe sail upon it, iinmcnalcly 
fell, and the ship liecame unrnanaijcable. These 
ropes appear to have t>ccn railed m tJreck Ktpovxoi, 
whence in Lalin jntmrni centcAi.* 

Besides the ropes already mentioned, two others 

I, (Li»., JniT., 4.)-«. (OfW.Trtat., ni-, iT^O.)— 3. (Oarto- 
jX Latent., ih.. SL—Ctmrnm j»iil., Ilrtp. OflM.. i«., \i.)—\. 
iru rtMK. i . 3lf.~Ou.f, MH.. n., 477 1-5. IB. O- iii., 14.) 
-# iLutmt,.. nu^ i77.^YMl. Ftmoc^ I.. 460.} 

hong from the horns of ihc antenna, the ti«ei 
was to turn it round as the wind veered, sc 
keep the sail opposite to the wind. This op 
is technically described by Virgil in the frj( 
Line: ** CorHua ifiatantm pbxfrtimtit tttttfnim 
And more poetically where he uses brn^ia 
lenma, and. adds, " Una ttfi/ua. lan/ucrU Cottu 

When a storm arose, or when the pert % 
toined, it was usunJ to lower (be autcnna («tel 
iLddiXtnOiii, Vi^ifvat), and lo rrcf llto sail: " 
ja-mifiuium tlfmiitile cornwi, rtcior Ctamai, H m 
tatum tttOiudite lY/um.*" 

Also before an engagement the anteaoavi 
ered to the middle ot ihe mast iAsUmnis cd « 
malum dcfui.'ais*) We may owerve that tJ 
last-cited authors use anUniuK in the plural 
yanl of a single ship, probub'y because this 
Kidered it as con&iiiLiug of two aims united 

Fp)m nmnerous representations of ships 
lique coins, intaglios, lamps, and bas-reUe 
here select two gems, Mb of which show the 
nnicnna, bm wiih tlie sail reefed in the one, 
(he other expanded and swollen with the win 

The former njirc-setiis Ulysses tied to (h« 
in tiiJer to elfcci itih esea|»e from the 8irt 
shows the lAtntna at the extremities of the yal 
the two cffurAi jwoceeding from thrr ' *' ' 
Ihe mast. Besides these paninil:: 
represents also the rojws used loi : ,, L 

tcaua so as to t '« the wind. 

ANTEPAC.vIiuN'TA, doorposts, the JAml 
door. I 

The inscrip'ion quoted in the article Asrrj 

(?'!>■= ^!-" - ■' ■"■■" to make jaii''" ••' --'^ 

ntise, mentiM 

Viiruviiis* gives niinute im^irucuons respcctll 
form and proporiionti of th*- ■ ; i -nta i 
doors of temples; and these <■■ xtH 

corpc%poml with the exampiu^ ; i ^mOI 

remains of Grecian archiiecturc.' Xho 


lenn for a Hnorposi is posiis. 

ANT \ XI appear to have l*en i 

of Iff ! for the defence of Ihe «U 

(sigiUi', i, . , .■ which thev were slatiuncd.*, 

ANTKSTA III. (IW. 'Amn, p. IH.) 

• ANTHEM IS (lii'flt/i/f), a species of plant 


• ANTHEMUM(ivff«//w. -or. or -tov), Bap«^ 

plant, about which some uncertainty prevail** 
ams is in favour of its being the genus Maid 
or Wild Chamomile. Sjfirengel, huwc\'cr, re« 
several species of this plant noticed by Thed 
lus to the ArUJkemii Ottia. 8tackhou^c also | 
unsatisfactory in his views on thi'S subject.* 
•ANTHEU'ldlSfui^rpiwof^. a plant, Spt 

in tlie first edition of his \\. H H 

AyUhrrtms Grarvs with it, but in 
A^phtuUhf Jistitlomi. Thiebaull tu 
OmitJiogaiiim /*yrmair«m,and S(ackJiou.>c Uiej 

I. {.flSn., 111.. MO.)— S. (JRn.,9,'*1'3 •. .m 
zi.. 4H3.)— 4. (Ilirt., !)«* Bell. Al< • 
iiT.)— C, (IV., 6,)— 7. \Vut. Ilirt, l; 
rtiwa iJer Altro, ifi.)— *. (Lir^iv, j: 



In a «'onl, all b mere cnnjectnre viih 
to iU ibe description of il bj Theopbra>ius 

r\ {' AvHra^'tpia), a flowcr-festi- 

fl'raicd in SicUy in lionour of 

frainl Persephone, in comraemomtion of the 

oi Persephone lo her mother in the beginning 

it consbtcd in gathering flo-wers and 

j^axlandSf because Peniephonc liad been car- 

Piiiiip H-hile engaged in this occupation.* 

H> ai Hipponium the women cele- 

lal in nonotir of Demeter, which 

\tily ciJlud onihesphona, since it was de- 

bicjly. The women themselves gather- 

rers for the garlands which they wore on 

:c«sioQ, aiiil it would have been a disirrace lo 

die tk}w^rs for that purpose. Anihespboria 

also solemnized in honour of other deities, 

\)j in hon'Hir of Juno, surnamed 'AvAeia, at 

tw"' '■■n.'*, cnrr\in;f basket!* filled with 

"cev'ion, while a tune colled 

,ft.^. ,....,. 4 on the flute. Aphrodite, too. 

lipped at C'nossus, under ttio name 'At^ 

h35; Ihr-rrfore bcpn romparod with Flora, 

's the anlhe.'iphoria have been 

tbc ' ;ival of the A?r7/rr/w:Tn. 

ic--- i I. i\L\. (Vtd. DjoNVaiA.) 

"■;STE RION. {VU. CAi.F.snxn, Grttck.) 

'J AS (dv^'iof), a ipectes offish, the same 

dw Ijoirms anthias, L., or Sftraitus antkias of 

mer U^ Fri?nrh name is Barhirr. The an- 

de- 'ral species of this fi?h, one of 

t*. ; 'If.' (^uvifr desrrib**s this as 

t, of a fine ruby red, cliangintr lo 

KVIver, with vellow bands on the chrek.' 

lUS, a bird, which, accordini; to Pliny, 

iflowers, and imitated the neighing of a 

•Ion would have it to be the Embcrizza 

^: BimtiDg, called in l-Ingland the 

i iiid in l*ranrc IJntnu/. This 

: i^omt^whai duubtful, since Aris- 

v^ the Allium as frequenting rivers, 

VcIIow Hammer delights in trees.* 

[RAX {uvHfMi), ihc Carbuncle. ( Vid. 

ION, a species of carbuncle, 

to Tbeophrastus, in the island of 

linn'* thinks that Thcophro-slus^* 

ick marble of that island, 

'• to an extinguished coal, 

iai< {from ui-tt,iaS, ^' a coaV), 

ri iiaiue fn>ni one Imniing. 

•^ . , ihiii of this mnrble were 

■ntioned by Theophrastns; and 

: rrt«: him in stating that ihcy 


vl, the Honiet, or Vetpa 

Urd tn'0frjytov by Suidas. 

(fli a species of plant. 

~]tor Alpiniis, that the tiiM 

':y is the t' Cretica; and 

,• «M~nnd it the Ajura Int. Lin- 

'i tins uniniun in re- 

ng it iJie nante of 

. <. .. 1 .-.../.»> 

lu« lA. ' {%'ui, Htpouobia.^ 

(lUTi^ctTi^), in its btcral and gen- 

u"?." was, in the Uineuagff 

irly applied to pprcecil- 

ir V, ai.-ii is said 10 have originated P. I, .4; »iii.,IS. — A'liiffn, ATtiKiniJ.,».T.| 

1. (ti-. p. ««.)—<. {VMn., ii., 

rAUiriivu*, iii., 19. — Ariitrit., 

"1. N- A., I., 4 : Till., W; mi., 

\pp«!oJ.,f-».J— 8. (Plin., 

'>. — Adanii, Apnond., a. 

-II. (Lith., c. 6M-li 

M«Mni,li.;»,J-ll. (UkMor., iU., l-O.-Atlanu. 

with Solon." By tin's, a citizen nominatnd to pe^ 
form a leiiurgia, such as a tricrarrhy or choregia, or 
10 rank among the projMJrty-lajc payers in a class 
disnnjporlioned to his meau8, was empowered to 
call upon any qualified person not so ihaiged lo 
take the ofl'ice in his stead, or submit to a complete 
exchange of property; the charge in question, of 
coursT, attaching to tiic fimt party, if ihe eichaiige 
were finally etlected.' For these proceedings the 
courts were opened at a stated time every year by 
the niagi.strates that had officlul cognisance of the 
particular subject^ such as ihe strategi in cases of 
Irierarchy and ratmg lo the property-liuies, and the 
archon in those of choregia; and to the tribunal o{ 
such an officer it was the first step of the challenger 
to ."inmmon his opponent.* It may be nrei-umed 
that \\*' then furroally repeated his propcsaf, and thai 
the otherparty stated his objectiou.s, which, if obvi- 
ou.sly samcient in law, might perhaps authorize the 
magistrate to dismi'>s tlie case; if otherwise, ihe 
legal resistance, and preparations Jl^r bringing the 
cause before the dicasts, would naturally begin here. 
In the latter case, or if tlic exchange were ncccpicd, 
the law directed the challenger to repair lo the 
hoQses and lands of his antagonist, and secure him* 
.self, as all the claims and liabilities of the estate 
were to be transferred, from fraudulent encimibran- 
ces of Ihe real proi>erty, by observing what mortgage 
placards (*pm). if any, were fixed upon it, and 
against clandestine removal of the other efiects, by 
scaling up the chambers that contained them, and, 
if he please*!, by puuing bailiffs in the mansion.* 
His opponent was at the same time informed that 
he was at liberty to deal in like manner witli tlie es- 
tate of the challenger, and received notice to attend 
the proper tribnna) on a fixed liav to take the usual 
oath. The entries here described seem, in contetn- 
plation of laM', lo have been a complete efii^ctaation 
of the exchange,' and it does nut appear that pri- 
marily there was any legal necessity for a farther 
ratification by the dicasts ; but, in practice, this must 
always have been required by the confiJci of inters 
csts between the parties. The ne^tt proceeding was 
the oath, which was taken by both parties, and pur- 
ported that th^y would faithfully discover all their 
propeny, except shares held in the silver mines at 
Laurion; for these were not rated to leiiurgiip or 
properly taxes, nor, consequently, liable to the ex- 
change. In pursuance of ibis agreement, the law 
enjoined that ihey should exchange correct accounts 
of their rcsjieetive assets (urro^iaft^) within three 
rlays ; bill, in practice, the time mi^ht be extended by 
tlie consent of the challenger. Al'icr this, if the mat- 
ter were slill un compromised, it would assume the 
shape :md follow the cour» of an ordinary lawsuit 
{Viti. Dikf), under ihe condnct of ihe magistrate 
within whose jurisdiction il had ariginally come. 
The verdict of ihe dicnsts, when adverse to the 
challenged, seems merely to have rendered impera- 
;ive the first demand of nis antagonist, viz^ that he 
should .submit to the exchange, or undertake the 
chanE^e inqneslion; and as the alternative was open 
10 the former, and a comprorm'sc might be acceded 
[o by the latter at any stage of the proceedings, we 
may infer that the exchange was rarely, if ever, 
fmally accomplished.* The irksomeness, however, 
of the sequestration, during which the litigant was 
pre eluded from the use of his own property, and dis- 
abled frtjiu bringing actions fur embczzltiment and 
the like against otliers (for bis prospective reim- 
bursement was reckoned a part ot the sequestrated 
estate*), would invariably cause a speedy — perhaps, 


1. cDcmuith. m PK«niwt., init.)— 3. (B«ckh, Pub. Ecwn. of 
Alheni, »«I, ii., y. 3M.)— 1 (IVinCHth. in Phrnipp , p. 1040.— 
Mrirr, ALU PruceM, p. 471 ; tfio^KaXtiefkii rtta th ii»ri'^iKriv 
I.vaiks, \fai^ nS 'AdvWrou, p. 745.)^. (Ltrmmth. in Pba 
ni'pp., p. t040, tMi.)— A. (D<>fnn«th. in Mid., p. MO; ia Pha- 
nipp., p. 1041,^.>— 4. (DArkli, Ec-.«t.nrAthri.», Tnl. II., p S70 1 
—7. (f>cmo*tli. in Aphob., ti , p. 841 , in Mid., p. MO.) 



^tdsreikscs. a fair -tiajuMincnt of the Vurdens in- 
jidcnl to llic cHmiilion oj a wt-nlthy Atlif'iiia»- 

ANTUaiAHIh {avr,ytjfm) orifiinaliy sigiiifw:d 
Jic writing niil in by the defendant, in a\l caiisos, 
A'tiL'tlitrr (MitiiiL- or piivalc, in answer to tlic iudict- 
aicni or bill ol the prosecutor. From lliis signilica- 
liun it wns applied, by au cn'iy iriuiiitiou, to llic sub- 
JWiicc as well as the ionu of llif reply, IxJih of which 
art! aUo indicated by aiTwuoaia. whieh moans pn- 
nuh.y "the oath cori\>bumting the statement ot tlic 
Bccit5t:d. Harpocralion has remarked that anli- 
graphc niighl denote, as aiilomosia doa in its more 
txii'iided application, the bill wid affidavit of either 
paily; and this remark seems to l>e ]u^ti^led by a 
passage of Plato.* Schouiann, liowever, main- 
tains' ihal antigraphe was unly used in this sigui- 
flcation in the case of persons who liiid claim to an 
iinawi-^nctl inheritance. Here neither the first nor 
any uiher claimant could appear in the charact«»rof 
aproAoeulor; that is, no ditc} or lyK>.']fda could \nj 
strictly said u» bedirciucd by one competitor ojfainsi 
another, when all came loiVurd voluntnrily ta the 
tribunal to defend their several litles. This circum- 
iitance Schiimann ha^ (iviegcsted as a reason why 
lli« docuinents of each clairo*m were denoted by 
the term in iiueslion. 

Perhaps ilie word "nlea," thongh by no means a 
coincident term, may be allowed to be a tolerably 
proximate lendcringof anlli^raphe. Of pleas there 
can !« only two kinds, the dilolur>', and ihtise to the 
action. The former, in Attic law, comprehends all 
*nch allegations at, by a^^wrting the ineompclency 
of the court, the disability of the plainlifT, or privi- 
lej^ of the defendant and the like, would liavc a 
tendency to show that ibe cause in its present stale 
could not be hrtiught into cnurt (pi/ r/ad^-wj fuov 
thai rfjy /Uiiv) . thf latter, cvcrytliinjj that could 
be a<tduced by way of denial, excuse, ju.slificalion, 
and defence penenillT f- •■ - ■ i •• •< -i..-- .-i.- time, 
h :;pt in mind, ih.-it th- ! plead- 

l ^**»*i5ai Athens vi ( ic hold- 

iL| 'iift anacriiiis, at wiuch lk»tU piiiLici* piwiuc4»d 
^ nllcKatltms, with the cviden'.e (o tiuUtaniialc 
ihcm; and that the object of ihi^ part ot ihw pro- 
eeedings was. under the directions and with the as- 
sistance of the maijisiraie, to prvnaiv and enucleate 
the question for the dicasts. Tlic following is an 
insiancc of the simplest form of indictment and 
pica: •* A|x>llodtirus, the son of Pasion of AchamiD, 
against Stcj>lianus, son of Menccles of Achnmrc, for 
perjury. The penalty rated, a talent. Stephanm 
noie ThIsc witness against me when he ?ave in evi- 
dence the matters in the tablets. Sienhanus, son 
of Menccles of Achnmip, I witnessed tnily when 
I gave in evidence the (liinRs in the tablet."' The 
pleadings rai^hi Im? altered during the anncrisis; 
out, 'Mice cuu>i((Ded in the c«'hi(in«, they, as well as 
all the other accomnanyiug documents, were pro- 
lecied by the official seal from any eluin^ by the 
Jli2nnt^. On the day of trial, and in the presence 
of the dicasts, the ccKinu'* was opened, and the plea 
was then lead bv the clerk of the court, tofi:elher 
with its antaj^onist bill. Whether it was prescn'cd 
aflerward as a public record, which we know (o 
liavo been the caac with rcfipret to the ypa^n in 
forae causes* we are not informed. 

From what has been already stated, it will have 
hecn observTd that queMions requiring n previous 
ilceision would freqiiciilly arise upon the allega- 
tions of the plea, and tliai the plea to the anion in 
paiticulnr would oHen contain matter that would 
tend essentially to alter, and, in some cases, to rc- 
veise the relative jHisiiions of the parties. In the 
fir^t case, a trial bctbrc the dicnsts would be granted 
by the magistrate whenever he was loath to incur 
the responsibility of decision ; in the second, a cross- 

action nn'shl be instituted, and carricl on fcpai 
ly, lliuugti ]iorhap8 !>imuIuneou.Hly with the ori^ 
suit- CaM;.\,alsu, would Mtmciianjs occur, in w] 
the defendant, frum considering the iiidiclment 
AJi tuiwanrauiablc aggression, or, perhaps, one ' 
repelled by atuiclc, would Iw tempted to retail 
npon some delinquency of his cjiponent, utterlvl 
connected with Uie cause in hand, and to ihla] 
would be, in mosit cases, able to resort. Anj 
stance of each kind will I* briefly given by cl 
the curninnn rrapaypa^ as a caust* arising ai 
dilatory plea ; a cmsa-action fur a»sauU ;ai«| 
upon a primary action for the same ;* and a 
ftaata, or "judicial examination of the life or 
als" of an orator upon an impeachment for mi 
duct in an ombassy (TraflaTrfifoCtia).* All caui»ti 
thl} secondary nature (and there wa5 hardly oni 
any kind cognizable by the Attic courts that 
not occnsionally rank amou^ tlicm) wen^, 
viewed in their relation with ihe primary act 
comprclicndcd by the cnlarijrd .•'iiinilicalu-'n of j 
grnpnc; cr, in other words, this icmi, iiicxp 
of Junn or substjmco, is indicative of a nepcilt 
rclaliative quality, that mi^hi be incidrni 
great variety of causes. The distinction, " 
thai is implied by aniicraphe was not mcr 
and unsubstantial; for we are tobl, in oMi 
vent fVivolou.s suits on the one hand, and 
sion upctn the other, the loser in a paraj 
cross-action u{>un a private suit, was coi 
hy a R|)Ocial Law to pay the iru6e>.la (vid. Ei 
i.ia), nilable u|K>n the valuation of the main 
if be failed m obtain the votc.v of one fifthi 
iho jury, and certain court fees (rpvToi-ein) not 
(i^inally incident to ilic soil. That there wait a 
ilar provision in public causes wc may 
from annb>p>', lliough wc have no authority to d< 
mine the matter.' 

ANTIGRAPHEIS {uvnyp(t^ri() were 
clerks at Athens, of whom there were two 
The first belonged to the fiovAij -. hm duly 
ffive an account to the people of all the moneys] 
to the state. ('Oc KaU" iKtltjrttv itpvraviia^ m 
yiCrra tuq irpnaudm'^ r^ (Jiy/Ufi*) '" ^bfl 
vEsohines, the uvTiyfWt^tv^ n/f iJiitrXi,^ wai 
nu-j^TOf ;' bill in later times lie was chosen 
The second liclcmgrd lo tlie people, and his 
wn^ to cheek the accounts of the public oC 
such as the treasurers of the sacred moneys, 
war taxes, dec. (Acrrol Ai //ooi» uirij/w^flf. 

ANTINOEI'A ('Avnvoeia), annual fc»livataj 

?tiinqurnnial games, which the Roman 
ladrinn instituted in honour of his fnvonrile 
noun, aHcrhc waj» drowned in the Nile, or, aceo» 
to others, had sarriRced himself for bi.« sovi 
in a fit of religiou*; fanaticism. The fesiivaU 
celebrated in Bithynia and at Maniinca, in 
places he wns worshipjted as a pxl.* 

•ANTIP'ATFIE^!, the wrt of Coral called! 
tifiithes faviirxiJtu-eiim^ Pall.' 

AXTlPHKH NA. (Vid. Dos.) 
ANTiaiTATUI. {Vid. LiPn»ini.) 
•ANTIRItH INON {fifW/i^im- or uvrij 
plant, which Sprengel makes the same 
Antirrkimim Ofemiium. Uanbniin calls 
French name of yifii/ITc ih rrav.or Cnlf's 
Stephens and Mattfiiolus bv inai of M"urvn 
Its ordinary name in English Is Snar>i:rof;*'n}* 

ANT'LIA (oiT^/a), any machine for rawing] 
tei ; a pump. 

/. tApohfr. Socr.. p. f7, r.)—t- (Alt. Prr»c««i, p. 4«5.>— 3. 
(XhmmlM. iti St9ph.,i., tU$.)~4. (I>i<v. Lurt., hi., c. S.t.lV.) 

1. (Drmofth. lo Ev. it MneuV, p. 1139.)— 4. fJ 
Tlmnn-li.)— S, (M»i*r, Ait. Prnwct. p. 6M.>— •. U 
ClM.. r. ll.p. rs,t-5. (JUeli., |.c.)-fl. (P..l!(i»," 
^ f it.)— T. (lUrpocnii., •- ».)—«* (All Smrtium 
14.— Dl'Tti., Ixix, 10— I'lio*., vn.B, H)— 0. tl'it 
— Adui*, Aitpriid., ■. r.)— 10. (TWplintf: .11. P. 
mcof.,n.,\S\.—A,duii»t Append.,*. ▼.) 



txtA fijoip! shows a machin? which is 
Ihc river Eis'wch, in the TjtoI, iho an- 
VK As the carrent puis the wheel in ino- 
lios, Ikt jars en iis margin slk snccessi\-cly iin- 
aapiad ami filled wita unler Wheu ihuy reach 
lie lop, ihc centrifujpil force, conjuiued wilh iheir 
•fiUfiie DQsidon . <ipriHs ihe water sideways into a 
tKnBL^ dom V ' ■ • >uveved to a distance, and 

(kasy used i 'thus, by the hictssanr 

of '^ • I iiacll', a portion o( it 15 t-vcrv 

r devaiion nearly equal to the ili- 

L* mcDiicms a machine construcicd on 
iprll-tijilc: ** Vt JltviosvcTUirt mtt/s afifne havsfm 
The line is quoted by Nonius Morcel- 
wbo obsen'es that the Jam or tints of 5uch 
^nt€ntm toiti) are propeily called "havstm 
" " ' " i-rr-^k they are called uvrXia. 

dtnaelm: water was at rest, as in a 

•ra we ihp currcnl was too slow 

Id I in motion, it was $0 

* ; V animal force, and 

orcriit ' "iiiinonly employed for 

machine? arc descnbed hy 
In . . that whtch has been al- 

eipLained, and which, as he observes, was 
•fiperii^rfin r/tinUura^ ipStHSjCti minis impuisu. 
6re w ■ r\'mpantiTn', a tread-wheel, 

ttims: 2. a wher! resem- 
llui la ;;.. ,-..,. ^mg figure, but having, in- 
of potft, wooden boxes or buckeL^ (nuxfioli 
k'),«o arraogui as to fonn steps for those who 
Ae wheel: 3. the chain-pomp: A. the oKhka, 
%Al<clufiied«i*5 screw ; and, 5. the cUsilica macAtfuj, 

mentions the ease of a man of cqnes- 
coDdetnned to the antJia. Tlie uatnre 
sf the pmiilHaent mny lie conceiv^ed from the words 
aTAnKinJI^anL' He knew a jwr^n who dreamed 
te be VSRiMtaBiIv walking, though his tKxIy did 
■• Bianr; urf another who dreamed tliat water 
^mlknrtBffhm his feet. It was ihc lot of each to 
W iwrnAmntd to the anttia (cJc uvtMov xaradtKaa- 
9hm), md thia to fulfil his dream. 
l>iife«a«Whand, the antlia with which Martial* 
bU pt7\]eb was prul>ably the pole and 
as^renally employed in Italy, Greece, and 
TW pole Is curved, as shown in the an- 
f ; far«Auac it is the stem of a fir, or some 
tree. The backcu being attached to 

.T., X., r. 4-7. — Driebpnr, 
«-W.)— 1, (Tibet., SI.) 

ihe top of tlic tree, Iwndis it by its weight, and Ibi 
thickness ol the ulher cjcircmily server as a counter 
poise. The great antiquity of this method of raising 
water is proved by represeolations of it in Egyptian 
paiJi tings.' 

AN'1'*.)M0S'IA {avTufioaia), a part of the ut-uxpi 
atf, or preliminary pleadings in an Athenian lawsuit. 
The tenri was used of an ua th taken by both parties ; 
by ihc plaiatilf, thai his complaint was well-founded, 
and that he wa.i aciuared by no improper motives; 
and by the defendant, that his defence was true. It 
was also called ^iLifmnin. The oaili mijj^ht contain 
either the direct alfirmalive or negative, iJi which 
case it was called fv(h-^tKia ; or amount to a demur- 
rer or vapaypfj^^. The uvrufioata of the two par- 
lies correspond lo our bills or declarations on the 
one bide, and lo the replies, replications, or rejoin- 
ders on the other. ( I'W. Anticirapme.) 

ANTYX (utn>f), (probably allied elymologically 
to .^MPYX) («/ixi'f ]. the rini or border of anything, 
esnecialiy of a shield or chariot. 

The rim of the large round shield of the nncicnt 
Greeks was tliiuuer tlian tlie part which it enclo;;ed. 
Thas the ornamental horderof the shield of Achilles, 
fabricated by Vulc.m, was only tlireefold, the shield 
itself being sevenfold." In anotherpart of the Iliad,* 
Achilles sends his spear against .£neas, and •trikes 
his shield avn-y' vrro TT^K/rriv, i. * , "on the outer- 
most border," where (it is added) the bronze was 
thinnest, and the thinnest part of the ox-hide was 
stretched over it. In consequence of the great sire 
of this round shield, ihe extreme border (uvrvf 
sT//an7*) touched the neck of the wearer above, and 
the lower j>art of his legs below. In tlie woodcut, 
in the article Acn-erizjk, we see the uvn^ on one 
side of Minerva's shield. 

On the other hand, the Acruf of a chariot must 
have been thicker than the body to which it was at- 
tached, and to which it gave both form and strcngih. 
For ihe same reason, it was oi^en made double, as 
in the diariot of Juno {^otai 6^ jrepldpouot uvrvytf 
tht*). In early times, it consisted of the twigs or 
tiexible stem of a tree (Upr^TiKei*), which were polisli- 
ed and shajjed f'.)r the puiTwse. Afterward, a .'splen- 
did rim of metal fonnwl tne summit of the chariot, 
especially wlien it belonged ;o a person of wealth 
and rank. 

In front of the chariot, the uvrv^ was often raised 
above the bciy, into the form of a cur;'ature, which 
served tlit purp^tse of a hook to hang the reins 
upon when the charioteer had occasion to leave hi." 
vehicle' Hence Euripides says of Hippoi)-ta3, 
who had just ascended his chariot, Muprrrcc oix^P^^^ 

On Emiscan and Greek vases, we often see the 
chariot painlpd with this appendage *o the rim much 
elevated. The accompanyuig wuodcui jiliows it in 
a simpler form, and as it appears in the Antepixa, 
engraved in the work of Carloni, which has been 
already quoted. 

By Synecdoche, fixrvf is sometimes used for a 
diariot, the part being put for the Mhole.' It is 

I. <Wilki(i«m. Manopri anri Cuit. of Anc. EjjnK., 11., 1-|,>— 
2. (II.. iviii.. 4790-3. (11.. ars.)--!. (11.. v... 11^ )-5. (II,, w 

:a9.>-o. {II., xn., ».)-7. ai., »., ms, 32a.>-«. (iiia.)— » 

(CVllim., lljrtna. lu lli«a., 14U.) 


bI9c u^uil fTit'tAphorically, as when ii is applied l^y 
Miischus' to ihe horns of the new moon, and by 
Kuriindfs' tfi the fmnii? ot a lyrp. 

Likewise iht! orbits of ihe biin and pla/jeis, wldcli 
were conceived to he circular, were colled avrvye^ 
ovpavioi. 11m orbit of Mare is so denoniitmled in 
ibc HoincriL' Hymn In Mars;* and the zodiac, in 
QU epigram of Synt-bius, descripuve of an aatrulabe/ 
Alhiilinp^ to this use of the tcnu, a (.'clcbratcd philos- 
opher, barUii^ been appointed Prefect of Rome by 
the Emperor Julian, and having ilius become en- 
lilled to ride in a chariot with a silver rim, laments 
that be was obliged to relinquish an ethereal for a 
silver tivrt-f 

APACiKLOI (aTruye^ot), the name of those youths 
among the Cretans who bud nut reached Uteii 
eighiecnili year, and therefore did not belong lo any 
liytAjj- C*'"/ Aoblk) Ab these youths usually 
livttl in their father's house, they wrre called ffKOTior* 

APAGU'OE {firayuyj?), a aumniary proueas, al- 
lowed in cerlnin cas^s by the Athenian law. The 
term dt-Miulcs not merelv the act of flppn-heodinj; a 
culprit caught in ipsofacto^ but also the written in- 
t^ruinuon delivered to the mai^i.sirate, ui^ne his 
apprehension.' We must can'fnlly diMinguish l>e- 
Iween ihe otia^o!!>:, ;!: , and the epkti:;csis. 

The mJ^nzu was an i ii'.jain<t those whu 

ti3uk Jpon them^rlvis ■*... ■ .;. < , or exercised some 
rinthl, for which they were by law disqualified; or 
those whose i;uili won manifest, so thai the 
mcntonly, and not ihr fact, was lo be detcnuincd. 
Pollux shys that the tndrixis was adopted wlien 
the accnscd wtis al'srnt. Ihe apa/^ot^f when he was 
present. DemosthenpifS disliuKuishes expressly be- 
tween the nui^ixis atiil the tnuma^r.* When the cum- 
plainaut tuuk th>3 accused to the maj{i-*trate, the 
process was called apaf^ogc; when he letl the majris- 
Lrate to the offender, ii was called ephtiivsts; in the 
former case, the omplainont ran llie risk of forfrit- 
inff HXH) drachma it his cliarifc was ill-foimdcd." 
The cn^es in which the arxjitogc was »io*t generallv 
allowed were ihosse of ihel\,"murder, iU-usnf?e of 
parents, &c. The punishment in iliesc cases was 
pcncrolly fixed bv law; and if llic accused con- 
fessed, or was proved piilty, the ma^iMrate could 
execnic the sentence at once, without ap[»oalinp to 
any of the juiy-courts; olher^visc it was uecc^sarv 
that the case should be referred to a higher tribunal." 
The mn^slrates who presided orer the np"f:ogf 
were generally the Eleven {oi irfirKQ^^) ; mim»'timc8 
the rhief nrrhnn," or the thesmolhclrr.'* Tbe mn=-t 
iropurtani passajje with ic^rd to the ojMn:o»r}* is 
nniortunaiely corrupt and uninlcllipblc." The com- 

I. (ii^fW.)— a. |TTi|>tii>I.. nS3.>— S. fl. P.>— <, (nnmrk, Aiit., 

li., 440.1— 8. (Thom«liin.nni»clt,. Anll»oI.,ii.,4M.)— 0. (Srhftl. 
In Eaiip.. Alcrm.. H)M.»— 7. (SukIu : 'Awyuiy/J iiijiwun ly- 

-~H. rr. TiiDwrr., p. 745, M,(— 9, fl>cmattt)„ c, Anrfroi.. p. (KM. 
10, ' t'.pniiv'^i , Kvivitvruf Ticitiin; unn'it Vv xi>/'»u ''' i *Wt'- 

^ui-iH.)— 10. (.G»ch c. Timan-It., c. 3).— Dbiiii>«i)i.. tin Fola. 

£<V"'-, 4St, 7.>— II. fl)«mt«lh.. c. Timnrr.. 730.— I.pi- "'». 

Ag^ml.e fi3j—tS. (.fC^rl. ,r, Tiin'fl..,r m.)— 13. M>omnMh„ 

fi-'i"^*"'' **'• '''-'< W,i-.».. r. Ajp»r»l., « 64, 86.)— 11. 


plainant was said Aituyciv ryjv hrrayij^ 
Hulos, when they allowed H, irofwd^ 

•APAUI'NE ((iTopiVv). a apeci 
same with ilic J^ppa uf the Kounl 
called C/eover>, CUvm, or Otnxir-ff^ 
in the finit edition of his It. 11. H.,lii 
Arrliuvi I^tpfut^ or BunlocU; a tni^ 
silently corrects in hi.-i edition of Di^ 
<'or(]ii)g to (.Jalen, it is tiie tpiAioTiav ^ 
i){ Ilippoeratca* ' 

•.\J*'ATK {UVU71}), the name of a1 
in Theophrastus.* Great diversity { 
vail;*, however, with respect to the ]l| 
»ome making it airtirr^, and others ii^ 
refers it to tlie LcimMtm. 'I'unuuicunu 
but .Slackhou.ic he^italc.s Iwiween ^ 
and the liumttum or Umrhreril* 

AllA'ni IKUS rot' At}(iOv ypa^n. 

APATU'RIA {anarmpta) waa 
which thf Aihenians had in cornni^ 
Greeks o! ihe Ionian name,* with thf 
tliose of Colophon -t ' i -i. - -•■! l^ 
in the ntntiih of V md tl 

days. The ongin •-; i^ 

following inatuier: AU.«ui tbe year] 
Athenians were carr^'ing on a vri 
Horotians, concerning' the district i 
accunlinpr to others, respecting th* 
lEuoe. The IJtrotian Xaulliius or 
lengcd Thvma-tes, kinp of Attica, lO' 
and when he refu^ed, Melnnthiis, a B 
of the house of the NelitU, o|!cred ! 
for ThvmnMes, on rontUtion that, I 
should be the suceu>vor lo Thyraa 
was acceptcil ; and when Xanthius I 
W'Kan the cngaf^cment, there apPeai^ 
ihiuB a man in the ^payij, the attin % 
fiont MfbnihiH ii>tiitndw| Jiim aitv 

V ■ ■ : J ' ' • , • it 

n 1 

AU... .' u 

lime the Athenians ccl<^braicd twQ 
Apaluria, and that of Dionysus 1U| 
was lirlic'ved in have heen uic mnnd 
behind Xanthiu.'<. This is the ^to^y 
scholiast on Ari.stfiphnnfs* This irna 
riM> 10 a fulM* nymolniry of the ri 
which wa.s fonnorly considered to 
ittraTdv, tu decrtve. All modem ci 
agree that the name is composfti 
irn-n'fpia, which is p«3rtectly eonsis' 
Xenophon' «ays of the festival : 'Ev 
o7 re nar^ptc xni ol m'yyFVfTf^ ^ri'eivi 
Acrording" to this derivatinn, it is^ 
which the phratrire met, lo discuss 1 
own affairs. But, as every citizen } 
oi a pliralria, the eTtenrfed 4 
nation, whoa-- ■ ' ' ' Ii 

er 'oiiaccoiitir a 

takes in the Ic^^ ,. . , , :...^ l;.l ^.i^ 
Apnlurin, conceives that it arose 1 
stance that families Iwlcmein^ to 
tribe of Ihe .figicorcs had betti 
the citizens. 

The fir^t day of the festival, wh 
on the eleventh of the month of 
railed Aoftma or tWiftreia :" on whi 
went in ihe cvenini? to the phratriu: 
of some wealthy memtter of his 
there enjoyed the supper prepared 


I. fVnrtTti tn V'rr , (U 

iA»^>-9 i 


Ttu . 1'- '-'^" 1— "* ' ''■■! ■ II .. I . "< , j ^ 

p. 5(W.)— W. (V\kv\7VV.\U,\\r1>t\..<H fc.'.U»..l 




(olvirtTTOi) were not idle on this oe- 
T ** ^een fVom Fhotius.* 

! i on this day to Zeus, sur- 

► Aihona, and sompiimfs to 
^ 1 his was a state sacrifice, 

:; part. The day wx"? chiefly 
> Ute guds, and lo it mtisl, pern.ips, be con- 
II Hftrporration* mentions, from the Atthis 
thh\ ^ ' 'i.iDS at the apatiiria used to 
eotl. ■; torches on the aluir of 

Oi, ai c andnn^in honour of him. 

m Plalo»^ in oppoMtion lo all other authori- 
» tlie tirst day of the Apatiiria 'Avd^^m^, 
»eootid dopma, which is, perhaps, nothing 
% 9k slip of his pen. 

f '' ' 'v. raued (rtnyMuTtf (KO»"poc)t chll- 

1 voar, in the families of the phra- 

_ .e not yet rvgisiL-red, were taken 

. in their absence, by their reprc- 

:, before the as-senibW members 

For c\'er>' child, a sheep or goat 

The victim was called /inuv, and 

cpd it fitiayij}6^, ^iayi^ytlv. It is 

'-tim tt;i5 not allowed to be below,* 

_ to Pollux,* above a certain weight. 

any one thongbt be had reason to oppose 

lion of (he child into the plLratria. he stated 

fUk J, at the same lime, lea away the victim 

altnr.* If the members of the phratria 

. J.:. . r;,.f - T . fi,(. reception of the child lo 

xas removed; when no ob- 

V lather, or he who supplied 

waa obtitrou lo establish by oath that the 

the offspring of free-born parents and 

f Athens.^ Afler the yictim was sacri- 

phratores ^v^ their votes, which they 

ihf .-.liar of Jupiter Phratriiis. When 

> ' a;^aiDSt the reception, the cause 
t . 'le one of the courts of Alliens; 
be cLiiini of the child were found unobiec- 
fits name, as well as that of the fatiier, 
y. — i ;., ,1... ^:.,^.r.:^ r,f (jjp phratria, ana 

I the exclusion of the 
'■ed.' Tlu'Ji followed 
lion ul wine aii.i of the victim, of which 
X received his share; and poems were 
elder bovs, and a prize was given to 
itied himself the best on the occa- 
^ A',v .-!m5, illegiiimaie children, on 
' Athenian citizens were to 
children adopted by citi- 
i citizens, were introduced; 
■nuld only be received into 
. ul prerinnslv lieen adopted 
children, when bom by a 
>^n, had a leintimate claim 
f. ratria of their firandfather, 

} In later Times, however, 

\- ■ ■' niiod into a phratria 

I linished. 

a foarih day to this 

-iMa;" but tliisiano 

I. for l^iMa signifies 

.ibi>eqiient to any festival.'* 

(Vtti. LiCEnTi.) 

AVIS. {V:.l. ArtmiCTrn.) 
emp worn by the flnmines ana salii at 
• of it was very ancient, being 
die primitive institutions of Numa. 

^ft.r.A4»ris.>— >■ (».r. A«».ir*tt.)— 3. (Tim., p- 81,*.) 

■aai^wi'l., I'l..-' , • T. A1n\r».)— 5. (tit., StL)— «. 

lUt-'i*. lift itm-J. Ctron., 

: 1315.)— 9. fntinf.«ili., c. 

. i». SI. fi.>— !0. (Plfttnrr. 

il(t*>ch., ». T, *AT>iri>t!tM<i. — Simpliciiu 

1' 117, «.>— 13. |Tt4(. RuhnVcu,ml.TiRi., 

" nine aiKQiOt ab hoc ujnccs^ eapUasqtie rcpt,ittsy^ 
The essentia, part of the apcj, lo which alone the 
name properly belonged, wcs a pointed piece o( 
olive-wood, the base of which was surroimded witk 
a lock of wool. This was worn on the top of the 
head, aud was held there eitlier by filleL»i only, or, 
as was more conimonly the case, by the aid of a 
cap, which fitted llic head, and was also fasuned 
by means of two strings or bands (^aiiwtiia hru*) 
Tlie^c bands had, it appears, a kmd of knot 01 
button, cnlled vfferu/ir or offcndimhtm* 

The tliuniiies were forbidden by law to go into 
public, or even into the open air, without the apei.* 
yulpicius was deprivcrl of the nriesthood only le- 
canse the apex fell from his nead while he wa; 

Dionysius of Halicamassus describes the cap aa 
being of a conical form.* On ancient monmuonts 
we see it round as well as conical. From its vari- 
ous forms, OS shown on bas-rclieti and on coins of 
the Roman emperors, who, as priest*:, were entitled 
to wear it, we have selected six for the aimexed 
woodeut. The middle figure is from a bas-relief 
showing one of the s&Iii wiUi the rod iu his rigb' 
hand. (Firf. Ancile.] 

From apex was formed the epithet apicatvs, ap- 
plied to the flamcn dialis by Ovid.' 

•APH'ACK (ipuKf/), a kind of pub© or vetch. 
Fuchsius and Matthiolns refer it to tlie Viria kbi- 
um; Dnlecharnp to the Vicia anpisti/oiia ; Doao- 
naous and Starkhoiise to the Laiifrus aphace^ To 
this last Spren«fl refers it in the first e*iition of his 
R. H. H., out in his edition of Dioscorides he he.^j. 
tates as to whether it was the VuAa BUMynica^ the 
V. IvUa, or the V. hybrUfa.* 

•APIIAK'CE /d^ti/JKi^), a plant mentioned by 
Thconhrastn?/ which Slackhouse suffpests may t« 
the Rkam mis alaUmvs^ or Evergreen Pnvet. Spren- 
gel, however, is in favour of llie Pkil^rea anpisti- 
fdia.. Schneider reraarlrs, that some of the chnr- 
aetens ^ven by Theophrastus are wanting in llie 

A*'ET01 H'MEPAl {h^l ^epat) were the 
days, usually fostivals, on which the {1ov}jj did nol 
meet at Athens." 

•APH1.\ ((Ji^f'a). a plant mentioned by Thco 
phrasttis, but of which nothing can be made satis- 
factorily, in con.seqiienrc <tf the short notice given 
by him. Stackhousc suspects that it may he a false 
reading for upia. In another placo he sucsesis 
that it may be the CaUha paluflris^ or Marsh Mai"i- 

I. (Lnriliu*, Bal, IT. — C^ini>«re Virjril. vKn., riil.. OM.!— 9. 
(SfiT. ID ViTf., 1 c.(— 3. (FiTitun. «. \. OffeadiMt.)— «. (.ScaJi- 
irrr iH Ffit., ■. «■- Apiculum.)— 5. (VaJ. Max., i-, 1.)—*. (Ant. 
Rom.ii.)— 7. <Fa*t.. iti., 350.)— fl. (DtMcor.. ii., 177.— Tbe*- 
tihrnat.. n. P., Tiii-.A.— Adana, Append., •. t.I— 9. (II. P.,u 
6; n;.. 3. &a)— 10. (AJunt. Anpnid., i. T )--ll. fPoUix, *nii 
{13.— DemMth.t r. Timurr., c 7, p. 708.— Xcn., Rej». AtWn. 
iii., % H — An>lo[ih., Tliiitinoph., '9, 80.)— 13. (Tbcophnut., B. 
F., ni., 6.— Aduiis, Appf ad., i. v.) 


APHLASTON. (»'«/. Ai-i.ustrkO 

A*0PM'H1 aiKH t«^'v7"/C 'I'*'?) was ihc action 
brooghl ugainst a banker or inonGy-lendur {rpa-t- 
Cin?r> lo recyvtr funds ndvaiued fur the pnrp<mc of 
being employed as Ivnnking capital. Though s«eh 
moneys were also wtylt'd irapaKaTuOffiitu, or doptis. 
ilC9, to distinguish them from ihu private cupiuu oi' 
the tiuukor (I'lVa ti^op/ir/), ihcrc is an i'?»9cnUal dif- 
rercnc*.' bolwefn the actions u^pfti}^ and r-a/tnAara- 
OQKri(, da Lhc Utter imi^licil tli^it the def^-ndanl liud 
refused 10 return a deposito imnistctl to him, noi 
Q{H>n iho condiUoii of nis paying a stated tutciv!>t 
for Us use, as in the former case, uut merely that it 
mlj^ht He saie in his keeping till the affairs of the 

fdointllT should cnnhle him lo resume its posst'ssiun 
ti sccnnly.' The lormer action wjls vt tlio class 
irpo; uvut and came under thu juritidicUun of the 
theMnoihelae. The speech of Demosthenes in lie- 
half of Phormlo waa made in a napaypa^^ iinmniH 
an action of (his kind. 

APHllACTL'S (u^ooJCTrtf vatif), called also narit 
aprrla, a ship which iiiid no deck, hiit was merely 
covcnjd with planks in the front and hinder part, as 
U representoi in tho following cut, laken Imni a 
coin of Corcyra. 

Tlia aliipfl wliich had decks were cnlM jcani- 
SuuTOi, and tccltr or »lral,r.* At thfi tinin of llic 
Trojwu war, iJie Greek uhljis luid no tlccks,' but 
were only covered over in the prow und stcni. 
which covering Koni'Tr callti the Ufiia rqiic Ttn 
Ulynsf^, when preparing for comhat with tjcyll.i, 
Miyv, Ei; Upia vrjit^ t^tvav llff6ft^.* Lven in (ho 
liine of the Persian war, the Athenian ships ap- 
penr M have been built in the lamc maimer, since 
Thurydides expressly »av» thai "thcw ships were 
not v'ci cniirely decked."' 

AF'HKODIS'IA i'A^nodiaia) were feslivaU cclc- 
bmtcd in honour of Aphrodite in a i^ai numl>cr of 
towns in Greece, but particularly in the inland of 
Cyprus. Her most ancient temple wa.s at Paphos, 
which was built by Ai^rias or Cinynis, in whose 
family the priestly di^iity was hcrcdiiarv.* No 
bloody sacriticcs were allowed to bo offered to her, 
hut only pure fire, flowers, and incense ;^ and, 
therefore, when Tociiu>* speaks of victims, we 
must either suppose, with Lmcsii, that ihcy were 
killi-d merely that the priests miifht inspect their 
intestines, or for the purpose of affording a feast lo 
the i)crsons present at tne festival. At all events 
howvcr, the altar of the goddess was not allowed 
to bo polluted with the biwd of the victims, which 
were iiiosUy he-guais. Mysteries were also cele- 
brated at Paphos in honour of Aphroilile ; and 
IhOAC who were initiated oirercd to t>ie goddess a 
piece of money, and received in return a measure 
of&altanda phallus. In the mysteries thcmsclvr^ 

I. (IIk&UL, Aninuul*. in SMm., 183.>— 9. (Cofn|>«rr Ci, ,. 
AW.,»^ II, t«,ia; ^i,«— l,rt., iiil.M,— irirt., Dull Al«., 
11, II.— C»S., D«U. Clr., j., Sa.— " Al<iii« cciiitaiBruit. ul rjM.nt 
«b |«tii t«loniro niiTiir.'« I'jM." h.. i. I'.iivd . i.. liii. '. li.. 3. 
iOvfi ri tXoii] war ' ■ 

*yJ.. h,i4.— Vid.S. .■■.-... ■, I . 


Ihoy nvi'ived i: < ■ iv r^ "^^X"? /'"M'*9 

second or new i been bmli, accfji^ri;: i| 

iradtlioii, utini ...-. ....j.ut war, by the ArcnU 
Agapdior; and, acconlirijf to t?iml»o,' men m 
women ftum otltrr towns of ilic island asMmbledl 
iV\<w l^anhos, and went in solemn procev^ign I 
Old Paphos, a dislanec of »Uty stadia: and th 
name of the priest of Aphro<lite, u;f/ruji,' saxnal 
have urifonaied in hi^ heading this prociir-jiM 
AphrodiU! wa.% worship^tcd in towns of Cypm 
and in otiier parts ol Greece, such as CylMfl 
Snarta, Thebes, tlis, &.c.\ and though no XphS 
dbia are mcntioneil in tltci>e placcb, uc I' 
reason to doubt their cxiiicnce: wc find li 
prrssly mentioned at Corinth and A' ■ 
they were chiefly celebrated by llic u. 
titiucs." Another great feslivai of A^ 
Ailoiil*. In Septus, is menlioDed by Mu-*i-ua.* 

•APIASTKLLUM, the herb Cnv-foot. 04 
K'uiji, of YcUiW Crtiic. It is (he same \', 
B'llrafAtum and Apium rustkuht.* Thi.ssai 
i** itl-10 applied sometimes to th'- ft,,.,„ii i 
bcr^na-s, however, tltinks that i 
Aptust'lium is corrupted fiuui '/, 
IfLsi is enumerated by Dioscuridui^umuiigilicuaine 
of the Urionv* 

•APIA.sTKR, the Bee-eater, a species \t{ 


•APION (ufffovj, the I*yru» comtHuniSi or '*«■ 

APIASTRUM. {Vid. MKLiBnopniT.!.™.] 

(I'lV/. Mrnnpjt.) 

tree' {Vid. Prnui.) 

•aFIOS ('iJTioc), a Bpcei^-s of Spurge, the £« 
phfrrfnn apias* 

•APIS dif'/.htta or -('rra), lhc Drr "Tlir nnlurt 
hl«>l'>ry of the common hive-bee (Apis mf/it^A)i 
60 remarkable, that it need not eicite surprise ill 
lhc ancients were but imi'CrfeclIy actjuaiutcii vii 
iL Among the earliest oi Oic observers of ihc be 
rnay I>c cntunerate<l Aristotle' and Virgil,"' 
Anstomachus of Soli in Cilicia, and Pbili 
Tha*ian. Anstomachus, wc arc lold by 
attended solely to bees for fifty-eifjht ycojsj 
Phili^cii-i, it is said, spent liic whole of liis 
i-Mting their habit?*," Both 
11 the l)cc. Ari^tolle notic 

■-..,.. . .,- .. . ..L-.^Jdes the hotiey! ' ■■' •■ 

a manner thai they cannot be 
mined." The l)ce plays aik inij' 
tlkc rulif^ious s>-mbols of antiquity, and 
poAfs, aocordinc to some inquirers, a re 
more ilion accidental iK'iwccn its Latin o 
that of the Kg}'ptian Api.%.^* 

♦AP'IUM (ffMaov), u wGllknown plant. 
phrastUB speaks of several aorta : Ihc oihvc» 
pov, which is generally thought lo bo our r 
Parslty; the ImrooiXnw^ which set-mi lo b© 
ia now called jif($andrrs: the iXiioai>ji'ov, 
Celery or SmaVae^t ; and the lituoai^ai/t; or Ml 
ain-parslev. Virgil is generally thought by 
lo mean tlie first sort il,.ii I..;.!.' urtncipallj 
vatcd in gardens. r, ' ' 

means the SinnIJtij;f, \. i, i] 

ri\TiIets, and hence tJ. m .,.i .; ui ilio 
da ajsio riptr," and "; ' _'.i.-'trrfnt 
also makes the Apium oi \'nji! thf .tnrnr 
Apium grayeolena, I,., or i'/'i-'-^'-' i nr (^lii 
is that variciv of the A. firuv.l'n^ whu^h is, 
UuUe by Miller. The wild species han 
acrid tflslf, and is unfit lo rni. — Aceoidli 

: Cel 

1 fi.r. f. 5i-1 ,^.1 Tikiirhnil*.)— ^ ir,.,„-\ . . 
■ '^9; xir.. p. C' 
' , c. 8.)- *«. ' 

- . - . ' iT^ror.. j., 107.) , 


The French term aihe comes from acheSj 
i.'.n;'n:)^'\ signifying "a brook." 

--01'), an ornament of wooden 
itcd the hij^'hcst part of ihc 

r the aplustre is shown in the rep- 

iiicient vessels in the aiticles A^- 

SNA. The forms there exhibited 

'.dcBce in ihe general appearance 

n the aplu«trc which terminated 

■ uKpfMTo'kifjv witich advanced to- 

ngfroOT the prow. {Vid. Acnos- 

]unction of ue aplustre with the 

was based, we commonly observe 

rnbling a circular shield : this was 

or ac-TTLdioKi}. It is seen on Ihe 

; lu'iriii here represented. 

of the Arpouaulic expcditii>n, a 

which peixhos on the aplustre of 

uid deliver* oracular counsel.* Af- 

extniinities of iliis appcmiage to the 

i^iifil hv the collision of the Symple- 

1 the vessel narraiwly escapes 

■ i those islands,' 

ui ihe ships related by Homer,' as 

poops lan-iwanl, and nearest to the 

tax^ a finu huM of one by i;s ap- 

incites his followers to brin^ fire 

After the battle of Marathon, 

arc mentioned by Herodo- 

iriguished bravery of Cynae- 

ptwt jCschylus, who, having 

if a Persian ship, ti.nd his hand 

^ j. In these cases we must sup- 

iplostre to bare been directed, not towarus 
of the ressel, but in (Jie opposite direc* 

rose immediately behind the guber- 

tbe rodder aad guided the ship, and 

degree to protect him from the 

The figure introduced in the arti- 

th<n«^ thai a pole, spear, or standard 

9rv3>f> vi^B Fomf'ttimcs erected beside the 

■'T pennon {Tatvla) was 

\\\ lo di-slini.'uii.h and 

. ;u shew the direction of 

-: of a ship, sculptured on the 

'? a lantern siLspendcd from 

ver tlie deck below the 

when we nead in Vir- 

t% iw «>" -<c impMuer* canmaSy* we 

tlhe garlands, dedicated to the domes- 


tic or marine divinities, and regarded as STmbols ot 
a prosperous voyage, to be attached to the aplo*. 
tria; and to these and similar dccuralious, express- 
ive of joy and hope, Gregory Nazianxea appean 
lo alltide in the phrase uvtha rrpiwrj^t* and Apollo 
nius Hhodius' in the exprcsHiou utp'/.aaroto xOfiVfiCa. 

It is evident tbat the aplustre, lurmed oJL compar- 
atively thin boards, and presenting a broad surlacr 
to the slcy, would be very apt to be shaken by violent 
and contrary winds. Hence Rutilius. dcscril-iMi? a 
favourable gale, says; "In«nicussa vchil trauquititis 
aplu^riajhXvs; Mdlia kcuto v<ia rutlcnU trevmnt." 

In consequence of its conspicuous [vjsition and 
beautiful form, the aplustre was often taken as the 
emblem of maritime affairs. It was carried oS as 
a trophy by the conqueror in a naval cu^^a^ment, 
Juvcnnl' mentions it among the decorations uf s 
[riuirphal arch. 

Neptune, as represented on cems and medals 
sometimes holds ine aplustre in his right hand; and 

ma.. ». IW* }~^ (krwiUnAor., i.. 9, t9.~AH- 

,lL,«W^V»LrW^, 1%.)— 3. (n^xr^:iO.)— I. (VI., 

in the celebrated Apotheusift of Homer, now in ilic 
British Museum, tne female who personates the 
Odj'stey exhibits the same e»:\blem m reference rn 
the voyages of Ulysses. 
APOB'ATE (nTTo Pd-nj^). ( Vid. DsiuLTORKt ) 
APOKER'YXIS {AroKTipv^i^) implif* the method 
by which a father could at Athens dissolve the legal 
coimexion between himself and his son. Accord- 
ing to the author of the declamation on the subject 
{'XiTOK^ovTroan'oc), which has generally l>ccn at- 
tributetl to Lucian, substantial reasons were re- 
quired to ensure the ratification of such extraordi- 
nary severity. Those sujrgeMed in the treatise re- 
ferred to are, deficiency m filial attention, riotous 
living, and profligacy gtincraliy. A subsequent act 
of pardon might amiul this solemn rejection; Mn 
if it were not so avoided, the son was denied bv his 
father while alive, and disinherited fiflerw-aru. It 
docs not, however, appear that his privileges as to 
his tribe or the state underwent any alteration. 
The court of the archon must have been that in 
which causes of this kind were brought forward, 
and the rejection wotild !« completed and declared 
by the voice of the herald. It is probable that an 
adoptive fiiiher also rnijjht resort to this remedy 
against the ingraiiiud'.* of a son.* 

APOCHEIROT'O.N'EIN (uTo^fiporovriv). {Vid. 


•APfiCYNON (dTiSwvov). a spMice of plant, 
which Maithiolus informs us he long despaired of 
discovering; hut that, at last, he was presented with 
a specimen of a plant which he was satisfied was 
ir. He refers to the Ci/nancAvs eredm, L. Dodo- 
nipns confounds it with the Periploca^ lo which, as 
Miller remarks, it bears a striking resemblance. 
Stephens describes it as being frequent in Burguu- 
dv, having an ivy leaf, wliitc flower, and fioiit like 
a bean.* 

1. (Cam. Im *.)— S, {I. c.)-3. (x., !».)— I. (IVniortli. 
Sp'j.I., I0».— Pfftil., Li-jf. All., S3J.t— a. (DioKjr^ i»., »l 
Adams, Appeiul., s. T } 




APODECT.E (oro^icToi) were pMbli« officers 
Rt AtheOB, whu wcro mtrwiluocd by UVcisUwnes u\ 
llie place of th« aiicwnt colacreift; {Ku?.wifiiTnt). 
Tht'v were teu In numtK^r, one for ear.h tribe, and 
Ifieir duly was to collcot all ihe ordinary taxes, and 
distribute theia to ihe si'pftratc brauehcs ul tlie ad- 
mmiNlralion which were cutilJed tu ihejn. They 
hjul the power to decide cau&es connected with llie 
BubjccL'% under their muiia|;eint'iU; though, il' tlic 
matters iu disjjute weie vi' iiuportAnce, they were 
obllKcd to bilDg iheiu lot dcci&iuu inU) the oniiiiary 

APOG'UAPHE uTwypa^) la, literaUy. a " ]iat or 
rejfl^trr;" but, in the language of the Attic courts, 
i\m wnna <tfroy/Hi0riv and ayroypa^ra&ai had thrue 
»C[Xiiftle nptdicaiions : 1. 'Airoy/M^^ was used in 
r^iurencc to on accusation in jmUic maiters, more 
particularly when there were several dc&ndants; 

ill'' •' .,'....;.,., .i.,. I. ill of indictment, and enu- 

m ■■•■ -uild in this case be tprm- 

cii ; . 'It little, if at all, fruiu tJic 

ordiuaiy ^Miiplie.* 2. It implied the mniaog of a 
aolemn pnjtest or af^erlion r»ef<>re a raagistratc, to 
Uie intent t]»at it miphl be presen'cd by him till it 
was required tu be given in eviJcnc^!.' 3. It was a 
specification of pwperty, said to belong to the state, 
but actually in the pojscMion of a private person; 
which specification was made with a view to tiie 
confi^vcation of such property to the state,* 

The last case only ivquircs n more extended iU 
Itwiration, There would be two occasions upon 
which It would occur; first, when a person held 
public property without purchase, as an Intrrider; 
and, secondly.'whcn the iAubstance t>r an iudividnal 
was habic to confiscation iu eoiisenucncu of a iudi- 
< ial award, as in the ease of a declniie»l state debt- 
or. If no opposiljoa were ortrrcd, the urroypaOv 
would attain ius object, under the care of the roa- 
glsiratc to who&e office it was brought; olherwUe 
a public action arose, whicli is also designated by 
tlie sime title. 

In a cause of the first Itijid, wldch Is &aid in 
tofue cases to have also iKirno tho tiame iruOn' 
i\ti ra xpijuara Hoi i:oaa rnvra 1*17, the ctajinant 
agiiinsi the state had merely to prove his title to the 
property; and with this we lutui cla&s the case of a 
penton that irapORiicd tlie u:Tuypa<^^, whereby the 
substance of another was or was |)rDposcd to be, 
coiUiscaied, on the grtmnu that he had a loan by 
wny of mort:;age or otlier rccoKniii^ed securitv upon 
a jwrtion of it ; or that the part in question t^id not 
iu any way ItelonK to the slate debtor, or person so 
mulctrd. This kind of op|i08ition to the arroypa^^ 
is iUu;»traied iu the speech of Demosthenes a^^ainst 
Nicostraius, in which we learn thai Apollodorus 
had instituted an uTruypfi^]? a{r<iint>t Arcthusiii^, for 
non-pa\nncnt of a penalty Incurred in a former ac- 
tion. Cpoo this, Nicoitratus attacks the descrintion 
of xhr prnp*>ny, and maintains tliat three slaves 
w< vet down in it as belonging to Are- 

th' 'V were, in fact, his ovni. 

Iu ti.< -., itJ case, the defence could, of eonrsc, 
only proceed upon ilie allepcd illegality of the fur- 
mer penalty: and of this we have an instance In 
the speech of Lysias for the soldier. There Poly- 
miLs had liecii ocodemncd by the generals to pay a 
fine for a breach of dii^cipllne; and, as he did hot 
pay it witldn the appointed lime, an uroypa^n to 
the amouut of tlie fine was directed ai^ainst him, 
which be opposes, on the groond that tno fine was 
dlegal. Tlie djtoypo^^ might be inatitutod by an 
Athenian cliieen; but if there were no private pros- 
pcutor, it liecaine the duty of the demarchi to pro- 
ceed with il ol&rinllv. Somelimes, however, extra- 

/. fphihtw, r^nfun , Tiii.. 97. — Elyionltiff. M«f — Itarr^wmf.— 

^„,. ., I. I _. 5^ 4.^DrmiMlh., r- Timacr., p- T50, 7M.— 

;^' f7S.)-S. (AtuU^., l>f Mrit., 13— A»tiph., 

*^ ' '■ (Demmtb. in Piuuupv., lOW.)— 4. Ctyv 


ordinary commissioners, as the avyXoytl^ and 
Toi, wore api>uinlod for the purpose. The si 
MiluliMi OgauiHt llie a-u-jpa^^ti Indonged to 
risdiction of the Eleven, und, liir a wfiile, 
of the Syndici.* Tlie farther conduct o 
causes would, uf course, in a giexit me.isure, 
upon the claimant being or nut being iu 
ol the proscrjl'ed jirojierty. In the liiM 
u-Toypu^tM, in the ^econd the elaiinunt. wi 
})ear in the character of a jdaintiff. In a ctu 
that of Nicosirattis alwve cited, the cluiniant 
be obliged to de[,K)5ite a certain sum, ■■ ' ■ ' ' 
felled ii he lost his cause {-napcKn- \ 

he would probably be obliged to p , .H 

court fees iirpvTavtla'y upon the souie *^ti^it^>9 
A private citizen, who pmsecnied nn inoiTS 
by means of u-nnypai^'i!, forfeiled a thn Ij 

il he failed to obtain llif votes oi < i* 

dicasls, and reimbursed the defendaj 
upon acquittal, in the funncr case, loo, 

fTobably incur a modified alirnia, f. f., a : 
rom bnnging such actions for the future. 

AnOAKl'+EOi; AI'KH (a-olU/yrL^f Cmn) 
laws of Athens permilled either the tiusband 
wife lo call fur and eifect a separaiiou. If 
giualed with tlie wife, idie was said lo lea 
husband's house (dn-oXfiVriv) ; if olhervrise, 
dmmisAcd from it (dwotr^fn-ffftfao 'Hie di 
of the wife wems lo have required litde,if an 
mality ; but, ns in one instance we find that 

band called in witnesses lo attest i^ 

that their presence upon such an o' ■ 
tomarv, il not ncccssarj'.* If, hoi^' , lU 

wife that first moved in the matter, there wenf 
procewlings j>r'»«Ttlw*i by a law of Si>lon: l 
caio of a viriij .i like Hipparvle, dri 

the insuUini' | i' hrr husband Al 

to Bp]>car btlw.-. ... ..,^,:uiii sitting in his co< 

there rxdatc her wrong^s and dictate their en 
must have been trymc in the cxtif*nir No 
was penniited to speak for her up**; 
for. until the separation was compb 
w.n ! - ' - ' -'■ ', and her hu 

11. 1 iheilivor- • 

Ol , I : , ,- .. ;._son(.'d lo til'- 

with whom she would have remained i( 
never quitted her maiden state; am! il ih^n 
he* duty to receive or recover li 
all the proj>erty that she had I 

knowlcdgiAl dowry upon tin ii 

this, both panics were siilislicil, i. 
compleioantl final; if otherwise, an 
V'ewf or dTToTrr/iV'ft.f W'ould be institul* d, as 
might be, by the party opposed to the 
In thiM ihe wile wouhl ajiiK-ar by ! 
live, as abfrt'c meniiuned ; but of u 
trial and it-^ results we have no inl-i 
APOLLO'KIA ("ATO/Auyia) is lb' 
pitiatorr festival solemnized at Si 
of Apollo and Artemis, of which i' 
tho following account; A^h^IIu afi< 
the dcslmction of t' '^- ' ' ' 
rified at Siryon {.1 
by a phanu'cn (wl;> ; 

ill the town was coiled fo/H>c>, they pre 
Carmanos in Crete. Upon thi«, the inhnWl 
Siryon were attacked by n pc i 
onlercd them to appease the 
and the Fame number of girls v ■ 
the river Sytbas, and bathe in its v 
carry the statues of tlie two dcilic 
pie of Peilho, and thence back to ■ 
Similar riles, says Pausanias, still 
ohserrwl ; for, at Ihe festival of Ajxji 
10 the river Sylhas, and carry llie two dei 

V iTlpii w< wvt^Uws 4*wY»tt4*< AwyM**"*-- ^l" 



of Pciibo, aud ihcuce back to that of 

jh frsiivals under the name of ApoUonia. 
ir of AjK»IIo, arr incnliimed in ao ollit-r 
LiU it i.s i]iH iniprubable ihuc they existed 
ftUDc Qiimc in ot}\0T towns of (in?ece. 
lA (n'TiHtooia) denuled thu affidavit of 
ii^cd the alle^'alioDS upon 
yruunded hu> petiliun for 
-. ..:■ .urd. (ri(/. HvPOMOsiU.) If 
Uf>Qii, it would lead tu a dcci*.ion of 
■of dflay hy-the cotirt before which the 
15 pttrforred.' 
!£Mi^EflS 4iIKH. (Vii. AnOAEIfEQS 

HAXSIS or APGPH'ASIS {tirrd^avmc or 

) was used in several significations in the 

I- It si^iiieii the prticlamalion of 

1 which the uiajuriiy of the jmlj^s came 

eoti of a trial. This proclamaiion appears 

been mode by mean^ of a herald." 11. It 

•! ' ' V n which ihc trial look 

' I to inillcate the ac- 

I ... - which was obliged to 

I wben an uvTidomi was demanded. (Kxi. 

r '(To<>opu'), wliich properly mcins 

' 'of any kind, was iis-ed at Ath- 

i- profit which accnjed to majiiers 

t * It tlius sitriiificd the sum which 

^ i: masters when they lalxmred on 

ru u.:i .-■liiit, and the sum which masters rc- 
pben thcv let otil their slaves on hire, cither 
|r nv other kind of labour, and also 

I was paid by tlie state for the use 

L ' served in the fleet.* The term 

was also applied to the money which was 
the allicii states to Sparta, for the purpose 
lag on th* war against the Persians. When 
Inquired the supremacy, these moneys were 

^HORKTA {airndi'ipTjTa) wero presents, 
'err ^ven to fricnas at the end of an en^er- 
t to take home with ihera. These presejiu 
r» havi* hr^n n-iiuillv sriven on festival davs. 
! ' ' - " :!ia.« 

( uTTo^pudec ^fiipai ) 
I i... >.„,.>■ tiays, on-u-hfch nopnJ>- 

'iv important afl'aiib of any kind, 
u I Athens. Such were the lasuhrc* 
t <rr>' moulli,' and the twentv-fifdi 
) Tbargeljon, on which ilie plyuie- 
f I." 

) >'£S (u:ro^t^i6e^\ a species of sea- 

1 Aristotle, belon^iuf? to the ^-niis 
r to Roudolet and Gesner. Lin- 
\' '.^.r aporrhisiA^ 

KiU/lA (oTr>^^i7ra), literally "things for- 
ha» two peculiar but widclv ditferenl ac- 

1 1 of which, 

ly, is eiven 

it dftiotrs certain eoiiiumc- 

^pplication of which both 

■" protected by special 

"vof. ror/wAoiflf, and 

... i.- ;»■ reckoned ; and oilier 

rif. though not forbidden nomtnalim 

t ■•»)—•. fOirtruF ri( t|i}*^vc Utiucijpvrrwci 

■*"!, V* Imn^Tt . f. 90.) — S. tUeuxnih., e. 

11'" ■' -1., p. aiO.)— ♦. {inn^ApA 

, c. ft. 




M. ^S&UM, AU. VXKKXM^, )l. I>j 

•- W. p. lO.-Xfn., 

' iK. S5.— Oc(«f ., 75. 

-8, (Plul., AlciK. 

- -" I .L „ ,Fm, !>• Cumit. Ath., 

•. *.)— Ill, J'lib, Ecun. uf AUierw, 

bv the law, aecm to have been equaJly aciionabte.* 
The i>enalty for u*iing these wuids was a fine of r»Ofl 
drachma?,' recoverable in nn action fur.ibusivelaiv- 
giiage. (17//. Kakkgokias.) It is surmi.-ed that 
this fine was incurred by Midias in two actionj on 
the i")ccaRion mentioned by Demosthenes.' 

AnO£TA2'10r AIKH (affwrrafffot- dMj?). This it 
the only private suit whi' h came, as far as wc knc Wj, 
under ihe exelubive juriNdiction of the p*>len.arch.* 
It could Iw brought against none but a free(!iiian 
(•irre.^.n'ft'c/wf), anu tlw only prosecutor p^mntled to 
npncar was the citizen to whom he had bven in- 
debted for his liberty, imless tliis |>rivilege was 
transmitted to the sons of such former master. The 
Icnonr of the accusation was, that there had been a 
default in duty to the prosecutor; but what .iitcn. 
liitns might be claimed fruru the freedman, we are 
not informed. It is said, however, that the great- 
est delict of iKis kind was tlie selection of a patron 
(TpoffTdr^f) other than the former master. If con- 
victed, the deteudam was publicly sold ; but if ac- 
quitted, the unprospcrous connexion ceased forever, 
and the freedman was at liberty to select auv citizen 
for his patron. The patron eouhl also >ummaril^ 

fiimish tlie alwvc-mentioned delinquencies of his 
reedman by private incarceration without any le- 
gal award.* 

APOST'OLEISCiln-offroXfi-f) wcrc ten public offi- 
cers at Athens, whose duty was to see that the ships 
were nroperly equipped and provided by those who 
wcrc Dound to discharge tlie trierarchy. They had 
the power, in certain cases, of imprii;onin£f ihe'lrier- 
archs who neglected to furnish the shii>s properly;* 
and they appear to have constituted a board m con- 
junction with thtj inspectors of the docks {oi rC/v 
i'fupi(-v tTtfieAi}Tai) fur the proscoiilion of all mal- 
rers relating to the equipment of the ships."" 

APOTHE'C.\ {a-:Tij(fr/Kj}) Was a place in the upper 
part of the house, in which the Romans frequently 
placed the earthen amphoi-rc in which their wines 
were depositeii. This place, which was qin'te dif- 
ferent from the alia vinnrla. was above tlie fumtj* 
rium, since it was tlionght iliat tlie passage of the 
smoke ihrouj^h the room tended greatly to increase 
the flavour of the wine.' 

APOTHEO'SIS (oToflfuo-if), the enrolment of a 
mortal amons ihe gods. The mvtholcfO" of Greece 
contains numerous instances of the deification of 
mortals, but in the republican limes of CSreecc we 
find few examples of such deificatiuu. The inhab- 
itants of Arnpnipolis, however, oflerwl ."Sacrifices to 
Bra-^idas after his death;' and the pwple of Egeste 
built a A/Tfwm to Philippus, and also nffcrcd sacri- 
fices to him on account of his jwrsonul lieuuty.'" In 
the Greek kingdoms, which arose in the Kas't on the 
dismemberment of the empire of Alexander, it does 
not appear to have been uncommon for the success- 
or to the throne to have offered divine honours to 
the former sftvereign. Such an apoihcosis of Ptol- 
emv, kins: of Ee^'pl, is described by Theocritus in 
his'nth Idyl." ' 

The term anotheosis, among the Romarw, prop- 
erly signified the elevation of a deceased emperor 
to (iivinc honours. This practice, which was com- 
mon upon the death of almost all the emiierors, ap- 
pears to have arisen from the opinion, which was 
generally entertained amonfj the Romans, that the 
souls or manes of tlieir ancestors became deities; 
and, as it was common for children to worship the 
manes of their fathers, so it was natural fur dirine 

1. (LviioB, c. Thtwimn.. i., 353 ; ii., S77.— Viil. H^rmlil., Ani* 
mmJ. Ill Salmni.., o. 13.)— 3. (I^jlt. ia Loch., 3WJ.)— 3. (in MiiU, 
MO, M3.— ViJ. ctiam IladlwalrVfr, J« l>iirtct., p. IM).)— 4. 
(Ari«lol., Do Ath. Rep.. qiuKnl by ]I»r|>.irnii.)— 3. (Prtii., 
LcjTir. Attic, p. 3AI.)— A. (Dftrnmili^prn Car., p. 2M.)— 7. (De- 
Bimih., c. Eoorp.. p. IU7.— Mcirr. Att. IVoccm, y. IIS.)— fl. 
(Culutn., i« 6, 4 aO.— Ilor., Lnnn. tii., % II i Sat. n., fl. 7.— 
Hoindorff ill ItK,)— S. iThnrvd.. ▼.. ll.>— tO. UleroJ., r., 48.)- 
U. (CoMabua la Sast., iuL, 88.) 




honoors to be publicly paJd to a deceased emperor, 

who was rej^ariicd as the parent of his counlry. 

This ajutlieuid-s of an emperor was usually calkd 

tfatio; and tl»e omporur who received the hon- 

of an apoUieoi^is was usually said in drorum nv- 

um referri, ur roruccrari, llomulus is said to have 

limiited lu Uiviue hunoun lujder the name of 


None of the olher Roman kings appcni^ to have 
received this honour; and also in uie republican 
times we read of no instance of an apotheosis. Ju- 
lius Ccc»ar was deided ai'tvr bis dcuth, and gnnic^ 
were inslituied to his honour ty AuguMus.' The 
rceremonics ol^^e^vcd on the uccasiun of an apotlie- 
Mis have been minutely described by Heroiiian' 
in the followuig passage: " It is the custom of tlir 
Romans to deify those of their emperors who die 
Lving successors, and this rite they call apolhei>- 
On liii^ occasion a f^emblance of maumint', 
imWned with fctival and religious obsen*anccs, 
\i.Hilile throughoi:t the city. The body of tlie 
ad they honour after human fashion, with a splen- 
id funeral ; and, making a wajien image in all re- 
^<|i]>ccL<i resembling him, they expose it to view in tlic 
restibule of llie pulace, on a loftv ivory couch of 
great size, spR'ad wi'ih cloth of gold. The figure is 
made pallid, like a sick man. During most of the 
day senalon sit round the bed on tlie IcA side, clo- ; 
ihed in black, and noble women on tlic right, clo 
ihcd in plain white gajmcntfj like mouniers, wear- 
ing no gold or necklaces. These ceremonies con- 
tinue for seven days; and the physicians severally 
approach the couch, and, looking on the sick mmi, 
say that he grows worse and worse. And when 
ihev have made believe that he is dead, the noblest 
of the equestrian and chosen youths of the senato- 
rial onlers take up the couch, and Ix-ar it along the 
Via ISacra, and expose it in Ihe old forum. Plnt- 
ibrm**,like steiw.are built upon each side, on one of 
►which stands a chorus of noble youths, and on the 
'opposite a chorus of women of high rank, who sing 
hymns and songs of nraise to ihe deceasefl, modu- 
lated in a solemn and mournful strain. Aneruani 
Ihev bear the couch through the city to the Campus 
Manias, in the broadest part of which a s«]uare oile 
Is con?>tnicted entirely of lo"s of timber of the lar- 
pcrt size, in the shape of a chamber, filled wiiL fag- 
uls, and OQ the outside adorned with hangings in- 
leruovcn with gold, and Ivor}* images, and pictures. 
Vi>o,i this a similar but smaller chamber is built, 
with open doors and windows, and above it a ihinl 
and fimrth, still diminishing to the tap, so that one 
might compare i; to the ligbLbouses which are call- 
ed Phiri. In the second story they place a bed, 
and collect all sorts of aromatics and, and 
every sort of fragrant fruit, or her^ or juice ; for all 
cities, and nations, and persons of eminence emu- 
late each other in contributing these last eifls in 
honour nf the empcrtir. And when a vast heap of 
aiomaties Is collected, there is a proresisiun of horse- 
men and of chariots around the pile, with tlie dri- 
vers clothed in robes of office, and wearing mask^ 
made to resemble the most distiiigidsbed Human 
generals and emperors. When all tliis is done, the 
othere set fire to it on every side, which easily 
catches hold of the (hgots and aromatics; and from 
the highest and smallest story, as from a pinnacle, 
an eagle is let loose, to mount into the sky as the fire 
ascends, which is lielieved by the Romans to carry 
the soul of the emperor from earth to heaven, anil 
fr^im that lime ho is wor'hfppetl with the othergods," 
In ronfonnily with this nrcount, it is common to 
ncc on meilals struck in honour of an anoiheoMS an 
al ar with fire on ii, and an eagle, the bird of Jupi- 
ter, taking flight into the air. The numberof med- 
als of this df.icripUon is very nuraeroiui. We can, 

from these medals alone, trace the names of sixiT 
iudindiinh who received the honours of an apr>Lb«k. 
o»i!«, from the time uf Julius Cssar to that orCon. 
stantinc the GrcaL On most of ihera the word 
CoNiucBATio occur?, and on strnie Greek coin« the 
word A^IF.PQCIX. The follnwins woodcut is ta 

the I 

ken !u'i:i .1: ' hich is su]) 

tbe aj'wil.i.'^i-- ui L.iioianicus.' Ih lii- 
holds the cornucopia, and Victory is placiiig 
pel crown uptm him. 

A very similar representation to the at., 
found on the triumphal arch of Titus, en whi ' 
tus is represented as being carried up 10 the i^cj 
on an eagle. 

Many other monuments have come dovn r* ni 
which represent an apotheosis. Of these the : 
celebrated is the bas-relief in the Townley g;. ! p 
in the Museum, which represents the ny- tr.-"- 
osis of Homer. It is clearly of Roman worki- Jf 
ship, and is supposed to have been executed iri iht 
time of the Emj^teror Claudius. An intercsiiiu' -^^ 
cotmt of the various explanations which harcbeco 
proposed of this bas-relief is given in the 
QaUrrVy iHibliiihed by the Society for the 
of Usfful Knowledge, vol. ii., p. 110, 4u*. 

There is a beautiful representation of the 
osiiof Augustus on an onyx-stone in the royal 
scum at Paris. 

The wives, and other female relatives of 
perors, sometimes receiycd the honour of an a 
osis. Th^ was the case with Li via Angosta, 
Poppiea the wife of Nero, and with Faustua 
wife of Antoninus.* 

For ianher information on this snWect, 
Mencken, OispHUiiio rfe Cfmsecraiwne, Ac.; 
Schccpflin, l\acintus <le Apotkfusi, &c., Argeni., 1 

APPAUITO'KKS.ihc general name for the . 
lie servants of the magistrates at Rome, namely 


TORES, of whom an account is given in separate 
tides. They were called apparitorcs because 
were at hand to execute ihc commands of the 
gi.stratea.* Their service or attendance was cj 
ajffjarituK* The sen'ants of the milirarv trib 
wore also called apnaritores. We read (hat 
EmiTcror Sevenis foronde the military triboacs 
retain the apparitores, whom they were accu 
to hare.* 

Under ihe emperors, the apparitores were 1 
into numerous classes, and enjoyed peculiar p 
leges, of which an accotutt is given in Just,, Cad 

tit. m-m. 

APPELLATIO (GREEK), {l^tnir or tWaiut, 
Owing 10 the constitution of the Athenian iribun 
each of wliich was generally appn.>priated lo 

1. <Plat.. R««..«r.«.-t.i» ■ *•. W— C»c.. Pr lUp., li., 10.) 
I. (8Mt.,J'il.,ft'.>-J li».,S.) 


1. (Mmilfaiimn, Ant. Kxpl. SnppI,, Tol.T.,p.|97 —1 
Cliud., II.— Dirtn., li., 5.— T»c.. Ann . xn., SI -C»r 
Antmi. Pliilu«., M.J- - — - ^"* 

Urn. Pliilu«., M.J— 3. f'Qood lu ftri«<trrlMint «• I'rv^lo c 
oliK-qHruni." Scrr. in Vim,. -^B-. xii., KM — CV- m»< 
..t 53 --Lit.. I.. S.>— 4. <Cir., ..1 Ynm., U)*«S*. ftd 

Fr., t., I, ^ 4.)— 3. (L»mpnJ., S«t., c. 51* 



r Cijgiuzancc, aJiJ, therefore, 
Mi as huniuij*'[iL*o\is with, or 
>' 'here was liulc opporlu- 
in^pn;: !.'perly so called. It is 

otecxycd, -I li g<eacral a caas< was 

mUj »nd im»\*cably »leoiiieil by ihe vcrdici of ihe 
iasU tA«j| <n/TvTtXtji), There were, however, 
mc cxe«p(toQS, in which appeals and new trials 
lichK b« resorted to. 

A BJ-w iTisl in onnoJ ihe previous award might 

le loser couhl prove ihat it was not 

. iigvnce tliat Juclj^aent had gone by 

iiiCbi, or liiui the dica^is had been deceived by 

be witnesses. (Compar*- KPHMOI AlKH. KA- 

[OTF^V-'-v .,,,j tElUOMAPTVPiiiN' AIKAI ) 

IftJ ;-ciLsiou of Uie thirty tyrants, a spe- 

&: : all the judgmenu ttuit had been 

iiswrpatioa.^ The peculiar title of 

oned causes was uvdStKoi dixat, 

applied to all causes of wliich the 

> -13 Dy any means again submitted 

''. a court. 

':i a verdict of the heliasis was al- 

. one of the nartics was a citizen of 

I ween whicn and Athens an agree- 

:o the metfiod of settling disputes 

aals of the rc&pcctive cotmiries 

'uv). U fitieh a foreigntT lost ins 

. -, he was pemiiilcd tu appeal to the 

:rt in another slate, which {lKx?.ijroi 

^, Scboniann, and Hudtwalokcr eup- 

tixve been the native counlr>' of the lili- 

Plainer, on the other hand, arguiog from tlie 

''the regulation, viz., to protfcl both par- 

panioJiiy of each ullier's fel]ow-ciU- 

[ that some disinterested state would 

elected for this purpose. The techni- 

iployed upon thiii oceastun are U-Ka- 

fat, and ij lim/.rrrou the last used as a 

prubal'Iy by the later wriii-rs only, fur 

us,, us well as the other cjsea of ap- 

Iccsd by PoUai* in the following wonls: 

wti.ti one transfers u cause from tli& 

-TjTaO, DT archons, or men of the 

/.), lo the dicaats, or from the 8en- 

, Vic as^mbly of the people, or from ihe as- 

loa euurt (diHaar^inou), or from ihe^dicasts 

Iribanal ; and the cau<ie was the'n lenn- 

Those suits were also called (kkXj/toi 

le deposite slaked in appeals, which we 

r:m;ja6^iXtuv, is by Aristotle styled rcapaGo- 

~ie Aftfieals fmni the diaitetie are generally 

Vy Demosthenes;* and Hndlwalckcrsup- 

tiey were allowable in all cases except 

{Kt Moa 6Uif was resorted to. ( V'id. 

fasy to determine upon what occasions 
fnan the archons could be preferred; for, 
fte tiise of Solon, their power of deciding 
' ite^Mkented into the mere presidency of 
0><p»>«4i 6t€ocr^plov\ and the conduct of 
cmmination of causes {inuKftifrif;). U 
m mnajked,* that upon the plaintilT's 
tfnKatd in this previous examination as 
te tmuiht before a court, he would most 
AaWjr pmeoH against the archon in tlie assem- 
' wf fhe poofAt for denial of justice, or would 
JKiai Ifa^ cxpintion of his year of office, and at- 
!Z tMin whoa be came to render the accomit of 
^<i»fcKt m \btt magistracy {evOvvat*). An ap- 
r«t«r. from the archons, as well as from 
I, wvt very possible, when they im- 
•f Ibeir own authority, and without 
Tikm oi » coarl*. and it ini^'ht also take 

._ Tl^*-fr-, 7m, B_|y.>_a. (H»rp-jcr.— Ilu.ltw., 

— f.i )_ji, (c. Aphob.. MS.— c. 
1 ; — S. (I*li«t[ipr, Proc and 

place when the king archon had by iJi sole rolce 
inadc an award of dues and privilegt^s {ytfto) con- 
testeil by two priesthoods or sacerdouil races. ^ 

The appeal from the deraota: would cccui when 
a person, hiiht-rto Ueeuied one of the:: mt'mbers. 
had been declared by them lo be an intruder, ana 
no gcnnine citizen II the af^eal weic made, the 
domouc appeared by their advocate ao jilaintid*, and 
the result was the resiilulion of the franchise, or 
thence fonft'ard the slavcr\' of liie defendant. 

It will have been observed, (hat in llic last three 
cases, the appeal was rande from lew, or single, or 
local judges lo the hcliasts, who were consiiiered 
the re]iresenlatives of the people or coiuitry. "With 
respect to tlie proceedings, no new documents scein 
to have been added to the contents of the ecliinus 
upon on appeal; but the anachsis would be con- 
fined merely to an examination, as far as was ne* 
cessar}', to those documenis which had Ijcen already 
put in by the litigants. 

There is some obscurity respecting the two next 
kinds of anneal that arc noticed by Pollux. It is 
conjectured by Schiimann' that (he appeal from the 
senate to the people refers to cases which the for- 
mer were, for various reasons, disinclined to decide, 
and by Platoer,' that it occurred when the senate 
was accused of having exceeded its powers. 

Upon the appeal from the assembly to court, there 
is also a difference of opinion l>etwecn tlie Iwu last- 
mentioned critics, Schumann* maintaining that tlie 
words of Pollux are to be applied to a voluntary 
reference of a cause by the assembly lo the dicasis, 
and Plainer sujrirosting tlie possible ca-se of one that 
incurred a pnejudicium ol the assembly against 
him (rrpoM.^, KttTaxftpoToiia), calling upon a court 
{tUKooT^piov) lo give him the opportunity of vindica- 
ting hiraself from a charge tlii.t Ids antagonist de- 
clined to follow up. Plainer also siij)poses the case 
of a magisirate summarily deposed by the assem- 
hly, and demanding to prove his innocence before 
llie heliiisw. 

APPELL.'V'TIO (ROMAN). This word, and 
the corresponding verb nfjvUurc, are used in the 
early Roman writers to express the application of 
an indindual to a magistrate, and particularly to a 
tribune, in onler to protect himself irom some wrong 
inflicted, or threatened lo be inflicted. It is dislin- 
guished from provocatio, which in the early writers 
is tised to signify an appeal to the pojiuhis in a 
matter affecting life. It would seem that the provo- 
catio was an ancient right of the Roman citizens. 
The siir\'ivino' Horaliui. who murdered his sister, 
appealed from the duumviri to ibc ponulus.* The 
decemviri took away the provocatio; but it was re- 
stored by a lex cousularis provocatione, and it was 
at ibe same time enacted that in future no magis- 
trate should be made from whom theic should be 
no appeal. On this Livv' remarks, that Ihe plebes 
wor^e now protected by tlic putvocatio and the trilm- 
niaum aunhum; this latter term has reference to 
the anpellalio, properly so called. Apnius* applied 
{appdlatfit) to Ine tribunes ; and when lliis produced 
no effect, and he was arrested by a viator, he ap- 
pealed (prnvocarit). Ciceru' appears to allude tc 
the re-establishment of the provocatio, which ia 
mentioned by Livy." The complete phrase to ex- 
press the provocatio is provofare ad }H)puliim; and 
the phrase which expresses Ihe appellatio is appei" 
l/ire «'/, &c. It appears that a person might appei- 
larr ft-om one magistrate to another of equal rank; 
and, of course, from an inferior to a superior ma- 
gistrate, and from one tribune to another. 

When the supreme power became vested in llie 
emperors, the terms provocatio and appellotio losi 
their original signification. In the Digest," provo- 

I. (Lbi. HhM.grO. 10.)— S. (AU Procrw. T7I.>— S. (i., 497. 
— i. (Aft. Pror<<.M, m.)— 5. (Mr., i., SC,)— ". (ui., 55.)— 7 
[Lir., ui , M.)— «. (Db Onil., ii., ifl.)— ». (iu.. 55.)— 10. (1* 
tit. 1, D9 AppvUttUcaibui.) 


And apiifllutio arc used inrtiKcriminat^ly, lo 
__,_JM wh'it wy call an apiwal in civil mfttUrn; 
bui ptovocaiio st'oms so (Ur lo havi! rciaiiica its ori- 
f(lnal meaning as lo I* ilie nnlv lonn uhciI lor an 
appeal in mailers. 'VUc cmi>eror centred 
in hiin.sclf hoth ilic power of Uic (wpulus nnd the 
\''5(o of ibc (nL)unP4; but the npp*;ul to hiin wax 
PRipcrly in I' ' ^ it. iNpifllntio among the 

Koman juri- : ifies an ajipHciiiiun lor re- 

dress trom ifi'- . -- ! u 1 1 an infcriur lu a superior, 
on llie f^iuid ol wrong decision, or utlicr suUlcicnl 
(i;ruund. Acconiing to Ulpian,' appeals were com- 
mon amonjf the liomans, "on account of the inju*- 
lice or igni>ran'2e of those who had to decide ( yi*rft- 

£""'"' "i 'h fiomclimes an appcril -'•■•- - '-rintT 

c-'- ii is not a neccssarj* c.u :liat 

l»'- I he lost gives also ih-. .11." 

This remark mast be taken in connejtiufj mill the 
Itoman system of procedure, by whir h such iriaiters 
were nfurrcd 10 a judex for lit ' after the 

f (lending had brought the ini me to an 

Hsut. From the emperor hi;.. . .c wa5, of 

course, no appeal; and, hy a constitution of iladri- 
au, there waa no appeal Irom the senate to the em- 
pCTur. The emperor, in appointing a judex, mi^'ht 
exclude all appeal, and malcc the dcciMou of the 
judex final. The appeal, or libeUus a^fptilntarittii, 
showed who was ihr apjwltanl, ognm^^t whom (he 
appeal wat, and what was the Judgment appealed 

At>pellat{o also roeaoA to mmmnn a party tiHbn; 
a judex, or to call npon him 10 perl'' ^'ling 

ihat hr ha** imderUiken to dn." 'I ; ,,ho 

was «unmoinyl {oppcthlut) hy hi.^ .;..:., and 
Olievcd thi' summons, was siiid Vr^wn/Zf rr. 

APPUCATIO'NIS JlfS. {Viii BANiemnesiT.) 
APPITLRIA I.KX. (Ki//. M.oK«TA«.) 
APrtlLIS. {Viil. fUi.RNnAii, UoMAM.) 
AnPOlTAE'lOr rPA<MI(d?r/wor(imoti ypa^\ nn 
action brought against those mctiTcj, or resident 
aliens, who had iioglecte<l to proviil*! ihcmsclrcs 
with H patron {irpoararrf^), or exerciiod the rights 
of fuil citixena, or did not pay Iho firTfifmov. n lax 
of twelve drachm:e exacted fmin n 
Penon.i convipii-d under ihi< indi' : 

the prctlcetion of the stale, and wore n..,.. ., 

•APUS (uirotifl, a special of bird, called 1 
K<'*l>e?.?.n^.* It in thought to have been Iho t^ini 
with the Swift, or ffirun/fn apus, L. Peimant. how- 
ever, contends that ibe Cvp?^II"s of Ari^lotle and 
Pliny was tli<- ' v Prlrrl} 

AatTiE !' aiiificial 

channel or w..: . . , : .. .1 ,1 ly of wa- 

ter is hroii!^ht (rom n contidcrnble distance upon 
ftn inclined plane raised on archc9, and carried 
across valleys and uneven cotmtry, an<l occasion- 
ally under cromid, where hills or n>eks interrcne. 

As nearlvall the ancient a/]Wflf<luers ntfW remain- 
ing are of Itomnn conMnictiiin, it ha** U'en eenemlly 
Imai'incd that works of this descripiinn wen* enlipe- 
ly unknown to the Greeks, Thi«, however, is an 
error, ninnc some are mentione*! by Pau!>anias and 
olhT^, thou^'li too brif'fly lo enable ns in judge <^f 
their pr'.rtieular ron'-tnioiinn; wheOier ihov t-oii^i^I- 
ed chiefly of subterrancoiL<^ channels Iwred through 
hills, or, if not, by what means they were carried 
across valleys, since the use of the arch, which (s 
said to have Iwen unknowm to the Greeks, wa-< in- 
dispensable for ?uch a purpose. Probably ihrrsc 
which hare bcrn recorrlcd — ?nfh ns that built by 
Pi^isiratns at Athens, that at Megara, and the cele- 
brated one of Polyrrate'^ at Samo-^* — were rather 
condails than ranifes of building like the Roman 
onen. Of the latter, few were eon'itrtieied in the 
time-i of the Republic. We are informed by Fron- 

I. (Pur- 49. itr. I.i— 9 frin, wi An., 1., 8.)— a. (Phm., p. 
/;X /^<n— ffffUi/, ^(tMv/<rf. Or., p. 901, •191. 44^1.1— 4. (An»- 
a*. « A., U 91 f^i. (Dntfh Z<tologT, p. 351.)— fl. (lUrua., 



linus that It wa^ not imlil nl- " ' 
were ereci'xl, the mhabiiunt- 
up to lliat time wilb water Iiim.. m,. , 
king use of eiMems and springs. The lirvi 
duct was l»cgun by Appius Clandius tiic 
and was named, alter him, the Ai/tm Appta.^ 
aquacduct the wnier was conveyed from the dii 
oi between seven and eight miles d- 
most eniirely under ground, Mnr- 
pasMis, its entire extent, the water u-i . 
onlv U* passus before it reached the Pmiti Ci 
and tiicu wa.s only partly carried on atclK 
mains of this work no longer exist. 

Fony years nMcrward (B.C. 273) a second 
duct wa5 l»egim by M- C'uhus IJet!'-'^ 
the water was brought from the riv. 
above Tibur (now Tivob), niakir 
43,000 paasus, of which only 7<i3 were iitwvif | 
and upon arches. This wa.s the on<* nA* 
known by the name of Anio Vt/ws '. 
lingui-ih it from another nqua'duct 1 
>auie river, and ilii^- im,. .■;illed .^i .. 
the Anio Vetuji * remams mar 

traced, both in tli' • "1 ff Tirol! ; 

the vicinity of ih'j 
It was construct'-': 

the waier-eonrse wu> uncti wim .1 mti. 

In B.C. I'tO, ilic ccnaon M. Alniilius Lcpi 
M. FUccus S'obilior nrojtoMod Ihat another 
duct should be built; but the t.elwme wan del 
in conH'qurnre of IJrinitl'- CrOisn- 
it \*c cariied throtigh lii> Innd.s.* A 
supply of wait.T U:ing found indisj" 
larlv a^ that tiimished by the Ati> 
such bad (ptalUy as 10 be almost m 
the senate commis.-^iuned Uuintus ^> 
pra'tor, who liad supprinlt^nded ili< 
two aqiimiii'- :'-. ' W built, lo Hi. 
which MH-^ r him, tli<- 

This was ' m Sublacj*. 

along an exicnt of iJl.TlO pajssus; viz., C^ 
der LT(iund, imd 7113 abov? eT<i?Tn<f. ami r 
: and was of sn* 'i 
ilied from it lo ll ■ 

1 "' ' or the an !■ ■ : , 

'iibcr are yi .standing. Ol thi 
I the Afta 'S\pula (B.C. 1S7), 
Atiuii JiUin (B.C. Sr*}, which arc next in 
dale, remains are 5till existing; and in the 
of the city, thew two nqnwiUiet* r - ' 
were all united in one line of sn 
three separate water-eourscs, one ^ 
the lowermost of which formed the chunnel 
Aqua Marria, and the npnennost that of the 
Julia, and they di^ehargvd themselvea into 01 
er\'oir in eominon. The Aqua Jnlia -was i 
by M. Agripna during hi? irdileship, who, h 
repairing both the Anio Vetus and the Aqua 
cia, supplied the city with seven hundred 
(I/icuj), one hundred and fifty springs or foUl 
and one hitndred and thirty rr-vrrcvirs. 

Besides repairing and enlarging the Aqu 
ria, anti, bv tuniing a new stream into it, iner 
it*! supply to double what it fiirmerly had be* 
pusias bnili the aqurwluct called 'Abtii-tifM, 
limes called Avtnisio after its f.nind»»r. Tbi 
fimi-shed hy it was bn>«ghi f\ 
siclinii*:, and was of such b.Mil - 
ly fit for drinking; on whirl: 
supposed that Aiigusius inlri 
ing his nanmachia. which ret. 
could fK" spared from the oih- 
being 1900 feet in Icntrlh an 1 
was in the reign, too, of ihisenip- r"i miu .\i 
pa built the aqtiardnct called the Affim T7 



said tc hare otA&iited becaase the spring 
letl it was firsl poiutcil out by a giil to 
who wpie in search of water. Pliiiy, 
r, gives a different origin to the naine.^ lib 
li^O& passtis, ol which 1U,8U5 were ud- 
i{ mod, lor some pan of its extent above 
'lcrnrate'1 with coliunos and statues. 
I 'iri", liavini^ itccn re- 

b; 1 not coiiipltiielv un- 

jfci.-.w..w,.^ v.. »,..,. V , ..j(W,aii(i it stiJl bears 
o( A^ua Vcrgme. A few years later, a 
amBrdud was puilt by Augustus, for the 
) of st^plying the A qua Alarcia in limes of 

gigantic works of ihc Einperor Claudius, 
'Aqoft Claudia and AniuNovus, doubled the 
\y ol Wiiter; and alUiough none of the 
laces rivalled the Marcia m ihc rastness 
of it" constructions, they were of con- 
1} ' xteot. Th« Claudia had been 

l>-. iu the y<^ar A.D. 38, but was 

-.,^.,,. ... j ^Yas, allhuugh less 
laferinr to the Mar- 
itbt' '-'r. Tlie other was, 

McelciT^iiirtl loi ihc (jWiUiy oftJie water iisclf, 
le the quantity which it conveyed to 
that respect the raost copious of 
all ^\ liioh, it was by far llic f^Ttrndesi 

_wi .,. ciural elfecl, inasmuch as it pre- 

aboiit the extent of six miles before it 
city, a continuous range of exccetUnKly 
r-MpKtaiT', ine arches bein* in some places ItJE) 
\'h^i. It was much more elevated than any of 
IT a4|U3?duct^, and in one part of its course 
cimc^i over the C'lamlia. Ncru allerwartl 
dtiioiis to ihj5 vast work, hy contimiing it 
" loojit CfleliuSj where was a temple erected 

TVayana^ which was the work of the 

whose Dome it Ixiars, and was completed 

111, was not so much an entirely new and dis- 

IMduct as a branch of the Anio No\iis 

I ftom Subtaqueutn, where it wns supplied^ 

^ofporerwaterthan thatof the Anio. li-mk 

at thU emperor, and vi hi^i piedecessor 

thAt !>■' ■■ - ■ ''•ndenre of all the aqux- 

ras hel ■ Julius FnmiTJius, wiiose 

De A-^- tias supplied us with the 

ibflbraiatiuu now to be obtained relative lu 

fkistory and coastructfoo. 

ladilldoQ to the aqnaedacts which have been al- 

mmrtonrd, there were others of later date: 

AnLrnio Twi^ A.D. 212; ihfl AltTun^Iri rut, 

|{ and the Jovia, A.D. 300; but these wem 

r& of comparatively little note, nor have 

ticuUr account of them. 

jificcnce di>playc<l by the Romans in 

ic worics of tins class was by no means 

to tbe capital ; for aqueducts niore or less 

were constructed by them in various 

WTIT ft'coote parts of the empire — at Nico- 

i, Smyrna, AJeiandrea, Syracuse, 

(liie Pont du Gard), Lyun.s, Evora, 

Mid 8^^%na. Titat at Evorn, which was 

bfQfltaUis SertoriiLs, is blUl in good pre^erva- 

iad at fes lermiuation in the city has a very 

ir. two 5toriei!, the lower one of 

hxA lot' -. Merida In Spain, the 

Em"''' : -mans, who estaolished a 

ixi : 'i _"!istu.«, has amoner its 

: two aquDprincLs, of 
, - are standing, with 
. ; wliile of the other there are 
11 part of the orii;inal construc- 
Itins modem. Bat that of Segovia, 
M S^ittiish wnlcrs have claimed an 
Tiw to Uie swav of the Itomaiis in 
nf Ar roosi perfect and ma^ificent 

I. lIL N , Dxt, S3l) 

woiks of the kind anywhere itnnaining. It is cd- 
lirely of stone, and of great solidity, the j»ien. hcing 
eight feel wide and eleven in depth; and where U 
tr^iverstrs a pari of the city, the litighl is upu aid U 
a hiuidied leet, and it has two tiers of aicbes, the 
lowermoat of which arc excecriingly lofty. 

AHer ihii hit>toncal notice of t>oine of die princip 
pal aquiBducLs both at Home and in the provinces, 
we now proceed to give some general account o> 
their construction. Uoforc tlie mouth or opening 
into the aquieduct was, whe;x' requisite, a laige ba- 
sin (pisciiui iiwoM), in which the water wa.s collects 
ed, in order that it might lirst dcposite its impuri- 
ties; and similar reservoirs were formed at ijiter- 
vaJs along its course. The specus, or w aier-channcl, 
was formed either of stone or brick coated with ce- 
ment, and was arched over at t*p, iu older to ex- 
clude the stm, on which accoimt there were aiiet- 
tures or vent-holes at certain distances j or where 
two or more such channels were carried one abuve 
the other, the vent-lioles of tlie lower ones wi-re 
formed in tiieir sides. The water, however, besides 
ilowing through the specus, passed also ihrongb 
pipes either of lead or burned earth (lerra-cottal, 
wnich latter were used not only on account of tJicir 
greater chcapnes*;, but as less prejudicial lo the 
freshness and salubrity of the water. As lar as was 
practicable, aqureduets were carried in adiiect line; 
yet they frequently made considerable turoi: end 
windings in their course, cillicr to avoid boring 
through hills, where tliat would have been attended 
with too much expense, or else to avoid, not only 
very deep valley?, but soft and marshy grouiid. 

In ever}' aquaeduct, the castella or reservoirs weni 
very important parts of the ctmstmction; and be- 
sides the principal ones — that at iL** muuih and tliat 
at its termination — tliere were usually intermediate 
ones at certain distances along its course, both in 
order that the water might deposite in them any re- 
maining sediment, and that the whole might Iw 
more easily superintended and kept in n-pair, a de- 
fect between any two such points being readily de- 
tected. Besides which, these castella were seivice- 
able, inasmuch as they furnished water for the irri- 
gation of fields and gardens, &c The principal 
casiellam or rejtervoir was that in which the squos 
duct terminated, ajid whence the water was con- 
veyed by different branches and pipes to various 
parts of the city. This far exceeded any of the oth- 
era, not in magnitude alone^ but in solidity of con- 
struction and grandcnr of architecture. "The re- 
mains of a work of this kind still exist in wbat are 
calted the \iwe SaI^,on the Esquiline Hill at Rome; 
while the Piscina AJuu/hJc, near Cuma, is still more 
interesting and remarkable, being a stupendous con- 
struction about 200 feel in length by KIO in breadth, 
whose vaulted roof rests upon forty-eight immense 
pillars, disposed in four rows, so as to fonn five 
aisles within the edifice, and sixty arches. 

Besides the principal casteltum belonging to each 
aqua»luci (excepting the Alsieiina, wIkmsc water 
was convcj-ed at once to the baths), there were a 
number of smaller ones — altogether, it has been 
computed, St7 — in the different regions of tl»e city, 
as reservoirs for their respective ueighbouthoods. 

The declivity of an aqnccduct {UbramaUum a^ai 
was at least the fonrth of an inch in every 100 feet,* 
or, according to Vitruvius,' half a foot. 

Durinff the times of the nepubUc, the censors and 
lEdiles had tbe superintendence of the aquxducts; 
but under the emperors particular officers were ap- 
pointed for that purjwse, under the title ol' mrtifores, 
or jtrtsfcdi aquarum. These officers were first cre- 
ated by Augustus,* and were invested with consid- 
erable authority. They were attended outside the 
city liy two lict'or^, three public s-lavcs, a sectetary, 
and other attendants. 

In the lime of Ner\*a and Trajan, shout seven 
1. (Phn., H. N.> miTrSl.>— •. <»Ui., T.)— ». (Suet. Aof., Wj 




%f^T^ archilcci; and others were constanllv cm- 
j» jveii.iinJertheonltr^oriher.uralorpsnijimruin, in 
udenduig lo ihc aqu.x'<luclN. The oificen* \v\\o liaU 
*harge of these works were, 1. The ptUui, whose 
Uuiy it was to altLTui to the sqiue,lucLs in iheir 
rouree to the city. 3. The aiMdiarii, who had the 
saperintendence ot'all the castcUa both wiUiin and 
villiotit Uie city, 3. The circuitofes, so called bc- 
caa^e ihcy had lo go from post to post, to examine 
imo the siaie of the works, and also to keep watch 
over ihe labourers cmploved npon them. 4. The 
tilicariiy or paviouw. o. The tccttires, or plasterers. 
All ihese officers npp^ar to have beeu included un- 
der the general term of arjuarii.' 

AQXIIE. DUCTUS. (Tu/. Servitutes.) 
Banishment.) • 
AaU.E HAUSTUS. (Vid. Servitutes.) 
WAier was called aqua ptuvia which fell from the 
clouds, and the prevention of injury to land from 
such water was tne obiect of this action. The ac- 
tion aqua pluvia was allowed between the owners of 
adjoining land, and might be maintained either bv 
the owner of the higher land against the owner oX 
the lower land, in case the latter, by auyihinj^ done 
to his land, prevented the water from flowing natu- 
rally from the higher to llie lower land, or by xhe 
owner of ilie lower land against tlie owner of the 
higher laud, in case the latter did anything to his 
land bv which the water flowed ttom it into tne low- 
er lan^ in a diflercttt way from what it naturally 
would. In (lie absence of any special custom or 
law to the contrary*, the lower laud was snbjcjt to 
receive the water which flowed naturally from the 
upper land ; and this role of law was thus "expreswd ; 
oyua inferior attperiari serrit. The fertilizing ma- 
terials carried uown lo the lower land were con- 
sidered as an ample compcnsalion for any damage 
which it mijifht sustain from the water. Many dilli- 
cuU quc>iiions occurred in the application lo practice 
of the general rules of law as to aqua jiluria; and, 
. among others, this question : What thmgs done by 
Ihe owners of the Und were tol>e considered flsprc- 
I'eniing or alterinff tht.' natural flow of the waters T 
The conclusion of Ulpian is, that acts done to the 
land for the purposes of cultivation were not to be 
considered as acts interfering with die nntural flow 
of the waters. Water which increased from the 
(ailing of rain, or In consequence of rain changed 
its colour, was considered within the definition of 
aqua pluvin; for it was not necessary that the wnter 
in question should be only rain-water, it was J^tilli- 
cient if there was any rain-waler in it. Thus, when 
water naturally flowed from a pond or marhh, and a 
person did something; to exclude such water from 
coming on his land, if such marsh received any in- 
crease from rain-water, and so injured the land of 
a neighbour, the person would be compelled by this 
action lo remove the obstacle which he had created 
to the free passage of the water. 

This action was allowed for the special protection 
of land (iifftv): if the water injured a town or a 
building, tne case then belon^d to flumina and 
stilLicidia. The action was only allowed to prevent 
damage, and, therefore, a person conld not have this 
remeify against his neighbour, who did anything to 
Ms own» land by which he slopped the water which 
would otherwise flow to his neighbour's land, and lye 
profitable lo it. The title in the Digest contains 
many curioiis cases, and the whole is well worth 

ACXCATin were slaves who carried water for ba- 
thing, &c., into the female nparlments ' The aquaiii 
were also public ofl^cers who attended to the aquee- 
dticts. (rid. Advm Doctts.) 

•AdUILA. I. A Roman mditan' standard. (■ 
Siona MiLiTiRu.) U. The Eagle. The ancient 
naturalists have desciit>ed several species. '^ "-'■' 
tic divided the Fnlromda into 'Arrot (Engh r 
«rf (Hawks), and 'iKrivot ^Kites), with rnan; 
visions. M. Vigors is of opinion, that the iliv, 
'iipa^ (Hierax) of Arietutle comprises all the 
conidcc of Vigors which belong to Ihe stirpes or 
familic-s of ll.nris, Palams^ and BMzzonis. PI 
separates the group into A'ptila (Eagles) and 
pUrcSj a general tenn comprising, as used by 
the rest of the FaUonida. The subdivisions of 1 
Aristotle and Pliny do not difler much I'rom 
of some of the modem zoologists. — We will 
proceed to particulars. 1. T^e finp^vo^, called 
rrXtiyyoc or vriTTo^vur by Aristotle,* would aj 
to be that species of PaUo which bears the 
lish names of Jiuld Buzzard and Osyreff, 
the pyUco HaiiofivSj L., or Pandian Haiiothu^ 
vigny.' It would Bccm to Iw the r-rpuvtif of Hoi 
2. llic TripKvoirrcfiQt;, s?vd by Aristotle to 
the Vulture, was mo»« probably that species] 
VuU'ure which gets the name of Vuitunne KcfAe. 
French name, according to Bclon, \% Boudrie. 
Is called also ypvirattro^ and bprtK^Xapyoc by 
totle. 3. The itXinuTo^ of Aristotle would aj 
to be the Osprey.* This bird is the"Nisu5'*of ' 
gil and Ovid. Naturalists have recenlU' adt 
the opinion lliat the 0>prey is the sarnc as the 
eagle, lis scientific name is Pnixdion HtUii 
Savigny. 4. The }tt7.avaieTo^ of Aristotle, 
also layu^i'ivn^ Uy him, is referred by Hardouin^ 
the small Black ICaglc, which the late auihorilies 
Omilhology hold to be only a vfirielv I'f iJie Gol 
Eagle, or A'ptila Chnjfaitns. It is deserving ofj 
mark, however, that the learned Gesncr seems 
posed lo refer the ftr'kavairm^ lo ll»e Erne, or 
AlhtcUla of late ortiitliologists. 5. The ^vv^j 
AristoUe is undoubtedly the Ossifraea of Plinv, I 
Ihe ^V/f of Dioscorides'* It is the Fako 0sxtfr6^ 
}.. 6. i'lio TTvyapyo^ m supposed by Hardoum If 
the eagle called Juin Ic liUtnc. Turner suggests 
i|niay have l^cen the Erne, and Elliot the lUng- 
An point to the same bird, namelv, the HalittcU 
bidu<i, Savigny; for the Ring-tail i5 now held 
merely a variety of the Erne. The tenn m-; 
si^ifi'es "White-tailed." 7. The species c* 
jTfJffiof by Aristotle is confidently referred by 
douin to the Golden Eagle, which, as Bnflb&j 
marks, is the noblest and largest of the genus. 
the Aqntla Chrysaleos, Vigors.' 

AaUILLIA LEX. (TV. Da«.kc.m.) 

AR.A (,^"/^'f- -Sirt'ipim'), an altar. 

Am wa.s a general lenn denoting any struci 
elcvativi nixive the ground, and used lo receive ' 
it offerings made lo Ihc gods. AUarf, probably 
tracteil from alta ara, was properly restricted 
ihe larger, higher, and more expensive struct 
Hence Menalcas," proposing to erect four i 
viz., two to Daphnis, and two, which were 
high aJlars, lo Apollo, says, " Eitq^iaUuvrarast 
duna libi, DfipkrU; dfl/u, ttltarin, Phttbo.''^ 
in his commentary on the passage, obs) 
altarta were erected only in honour of the sni 
divinities, whereas anr were consecrated not 
to them, hut also to the inferior, lo heroes, 
deraigf>tls. On the other hand, sacrifices were 
cd to the infernal gods, not upon altars, but in 
ties (wro/rfjf, scrohiatli, /Joflpot, XuKtcni) dug inj 
ground.* Agreeably lo this distinclitm, we nnd 
in some cases an nliare was erected upon an i 
even several high altars upon one of inferior 

I. (Cic, lul Fam., <tii.. «.—€«!. xu.. tit. 47 or 4S, •- I0.>— ». 
{Thff. 59, lit. S.— Cic. pro Moivd., e. 10.— T&pic, r. 9.~Bot- 
Ihiiu, Cgmtnonl. la Cic. Top., iT.,o. «.)— 5. (Jot., rj., 332.) 

I. (U. A., ix., 33.)— S. (Willmi«!ihy'« Ornithology, 
art. 9.1—3. (TL, xxii'., SIC.)— 4. (Ocmier. Jc Avibi 
Nnl. Hirt., Ttil. ii., p. 4.)— 5. (in Plin., H. N., x., 1. 
».>—". [Adiuni. Append., ■ » —6. (ViTj., Edof^ i 
(Fc4tufl, •. V. Altftno-J 




A\«i^ y6c andenis alniost every religions 
cjbB fc<xo^i.^eziieU by sacrifice, it was oUeii 
ID |»ioride altars on the spur of the oc- 
tsioOt nd ihey vere then con^lmcteil ol' earth, 
sis or EUmes^ coUccied on the ^{>o(. 'i'hiia, 
^^aH wmMidu tamgt^% ((spiiii oroj."' Also, when 
Embs cod Tanius are preparing to fi<:hi in single 
SBbat, wi&hiDg to bis i themselves by a soletnn 
lAa UkCf ered m^as gr&yttneas.* Availing liirnseli' 
fAi« . r...ti^^ T* !^mcn adruiily warded off the 
fcti of ijeiciilc^i*, wln^e rage he 

li t > u^iho tlrsi breaeh in the walls 

flluu^, uiii iiiu:» appearing; to surpass his com- 
■km la glory. Pursued b/ Hercules, who had 
Inady Atii '^rd, ana -kseing his danger, he 

Mram c ..'.: scattered siunes; and when 

Btfcnics, uii ^ up, asked what he was about, 

HiDswefcii ibai be was preparing an altar to 
(bul^ Ko>.>i*/«t)f, and thus saved his life.* 
l[Vhei the occasion was not sudden, and e^jiccially 
■6r altjxs wpie requirtil to l«e of a considerable 
■■tbeXTcrebailt wilhire^dar cuun>es infinaMJury 
pkicic*t>rk. as is clefirly shown in seJcmJ exani- 
■■9D t}»e rolnuui of Trajan at Uome. 8ee the 
Bind figure in the woodciu annexed. 


\\<- fir t dt-nation from thi$ absohue simpim , 
eun&isli-d in the addilion of a base (,i3o&*;, 
and iif a corresponding projection at the 
btter (fV^o^if* ^uuQv iax'^fia*) being in- 
to buld the fire ana the objects oflTered in 
TTicje two part5 are so coaunon as to be 
if- :; of the form of an :i liar, nn^ 

' figures inserted undeniealh. 
■ the gods swore, when they 
■i^uinsi the Titans, became a 
■1 of four stars, two on tlie 

■it a movable pan or brazier 
•A..-, ...... MUC9 used to hold Uie fire.' 

'Ahm vere cither square or round. The latter 
•hich tnis the less common of the two, is 
" ' in the following figures : 

{\ hand is from a pnintin? at Her- 

altar is represented as dedicated 

' "' Tie spot on Mount Vesuvius. 

im r.f a serpf'ni,'' and is par- 

1 fir-cones which have been 

to itmt cm the altar The right-hand figure 

"" , lii.. II8.)-3. (Apnl- 
1 , Tit., 13.)— (- (Eti- 
i»r., W. — Compare 
, , xj .«iiii . -ittv; ati'l Ciruiu's iniulaticm, 
«^ il.}— (Uftron.. Spinu, 71.)— 7. (Vir^-, 

represents on altar, which was found, with three 
oiuers, at Ajitium.* 1( bears the inscripiion ar* 
VENTORTM. Ou it js sculpturcd the rusiium of a 
ship, and beneath this is a (igiire emblematic ol the 
wind. He fioals in free space, blows a shril, and 
veara a chinrnys, which is upUfied by the breeze. 
In the second altar the iaxofitc ie distinguished by 
beine hollow. Indeed altars, such as Uiat on the 
left hand, were rather designed for sacriJiccs of 
fruits, or other gifts which were oflcrcd wilhoU 
fire, and tli»:*y were therefore colled uTrvpoi. 

When the altars were prepared for sacrifice, they 
were commonly decorated M'iih garlands or festoons. 
The leaves, (lowers, ond fniita of which these were 
composed were of ceilain kinds, which were con- 
sidered as consecrated to such uses, and were called 

ThcocritDs' enumerates t)ic three following, vix., 
the oak, the ivy, and tlie asphodel, as having been 
used on a particular occasion for this purpose* 

The aJtar represented in the next woodcut shows 
the manner in which the festoon of verhenre was 
suspended. Other ancient sculptures prove that 
fillets were also used, partly because ihey were 
themselves ornamental, and partly for the purpose 
of attaching the festoons to the altar. Hence wc 
read in Virgil, 

" Effcr aquam, tt moBi cinge httc altana nUa^ 
Verbenasque aHoU piiigu^, et wasatlti turn,"* 

Altars erected to the manes were decked with daik 
blue fUlcts and branches of cypress.* Many altars 
which are still preserved have fillets, fc>|oons, and 
garlands sculptured upon the marble, beiny designed 
to imitate the recent and real decorations. 

Besides ihe imitation of these ornaments, the art 
of the sculptor was al'JO exercised in representing 
on the sides of altars the implements ol sacrifice, 
the animals which were olfereti, or which were re- 
garded as sacred to the respective deities, and the 
various attributes and cuiblcms of those deities. 
We see, for example., on altars dedicated to Jupiter, 
the eagle and the thunderbolt; to Apollo, the stag, 
the raven, the laurel, (he lyre or cithara; to Bac- 
chus, the panther, the tliyrsus, the ivy, SileniLS, 
bacchanals ; to Vcnw.s. the dove, t)ic myrtle ; to 
Hercules, ihe poplar, the club, the labours of Her- 
cules J to Svlvamis, the hog, the lamb, the cypress. 
Strabo says' that the principal altar of the 'i'cmple 
of Diana at Ephcsus was almost covered with the 
works of Prajciiele-s, Some of the altars which 
still remain are wrought with admirable taste and 
elegance. We give, as a specimen of the elaborate 
style, the outline of an Etruscan altar, in contrast 
with the unadorned altnr in our first woodcut. 

Besides symjiolical and deconilive sculptures in 
hns-rclicf, ancient altars frequently present inscrip- 
tions, mentioning the gods to whom, and the wor- 
shippers by whom, they were erected and dedicaied 
For example, an altar in Montfaucon,* decoratei* 
with an eagle which grasps ihe thimderbolt, ana 
with a club, encircled with a fillet, at each of iha 
four comers. Ijcars the following inscriplioo, in- 
cluded ftithin a wreath of leaves: 







We select this example, becaus. J iUast?aies ihi 
fact that the same altar was often erected in honoui 

I. (Mootfiinroii. Ant. "EvpU ii-, pi. SI.)— 3. (Hm., Tnnn. i»^ 
II.)— 3. (xj[vi.,3,4.>— 4. (V'iW. rtmm T*"!*!!!,, Andr., IT.. 4.5.— 
DonatUM in loc.— " Corwiat« •ra," Propert-, i^i., H'.— " Next* 
omatB iwpiiliui »T»," Vinr., Oaori., !▼., ST6.)— 5. (Ertiig. 
Till., 64, M.)-6. (jEd^ iii., 64)— 7. (ii»., ^ !■.)-«. (Aii» 
E»i>I., li.. pi. M.) .^ 




mSnluu boe diviaity. h "fa:, however, neccs- 
saf>' tliu( such (iivmitits bli jV-jI t.ivc ioiurlhiiig m 
cominuri, '■■ "' ' ''■■■ ■ ■•■■ht he properly a»>oeiaied; 
aud dcii\' .liun to one another were 

CdUcfi // M t avfiCufioi, AfioCL^iOt,* ox 

KonKtHufitm* At Ui)iii|>iu lUfte were six altant, 
each sacred to two ilivUiitics, so aa to make twelve 
guds in nil.' 

On the other hand, we find that it wns not lui- 
usual lo erect iwu (ir more altars to the smme 
divinity, on Uio same 5pui and on the same ucca- 
sion. We have already produced an example ol" 
thii from Vir^'ii's lUlb eclu^e ; and the verv »ainc 
expression i^ in part repeated hv him in the Jkneid: 
"*.'«■ quaUuoT arns — M'-pluno}'* In Theocritus,' 
three bacchantes, having collected vcrbenm, as we 
have before stated, erect iwelve altai?, viz., three to 
£>cmelc and nine to Dion^'sits. But the raost re- 
markable inxtojices of thia kind occurred when 
hecatombs were sacrificed; for it was tlicn nccesr- 
iuiry that t)ic numtHT of altars should correspond 
lo the muliilude uf the viciiin-s. A ceremony of 
ihiB description, recorded by Julius Capitolmus, 
Menu to have been designea in imitaiioa of the 
practice of the heroic aces. He says that, when 
'he head of the tyrant Maxirain was brought to 
Rome, BalUnus, to the funeral joy, built 
in one [tlace ilK) nltars of turf {'inis rripititiaj), on 
which werc slain 100 hogs and 10«) sheep. But a 
more dlsiinei exhibition of the scene in given in 
the Iliad,* when the Greeks a5&embk^l at Auljfc 
present a heiMtomb. A l>eauiifut pl:ih ru 

Decide a clear fountain; the rhieif le 

priests are ossembleU under its wi . j . .. :wij» 
brani-hcx ; the spot is encircled with aliar*! {'ift'^ 
irepi Kpfivnv), and the viotima are slain aton^ the 

Vitruviu&* directs that altars, though differing in 

elevalir.7i - ■ ■'-■^ mnk of the divinitiei In 

vhom fi should nlwa^ be Inwer 

than th'- ) betbrr which thov were 

placed. * 'I the :ipi)|icntion of this rule wr li.nvu 
An esnmph* in a metialHon on the nreh of Ooii^tnn- 
tine at Rome. See the aimcxcd woodcut. 

We aeehere Apollo with some of his attributes, 
fix., the stag, tlie tripod, the cithara, and plectrum. 

The altar is about 1. ' ' li as the pe 
the statue, placed : in front of it, 

adorned wiili a wk..... .. ;>rt.>ena'. The 

islands m an uAoo^, or grove uf iaurel. One 
sacriheens, probably the Emperor Trajan, 
to be laJcing an oath, which ne exprc.*>»es 
up his n^bt hand and touching tlie aJtar 
spear. I'his sculpture al'^n .shows the o] 
of the tripods, winch wen; frvi|Uiiiily us« 
of altars, and which are explained lindcr 
cle Trii'o*. 

Wc have already had occasion lo adrcrt, 
oral instances, to the practice of building atl 
the open air wherever the occasion lui^ht 
as on the side of a mountain, on the sho| 
sea, or in a sacred grove. But tliu^c all 
were intended to be permanent, und mI 
consequently, consirtict"*! with a greater 
of lalKjur and of f-kill, belonged to tem| ' 
they werecrecled eiiiicrlieiorc I'l ' 
in Uic woodcut iu the nriiL-lo A 
excmplirieti in the reniiiitis of [.!;,. . : I' 
or within the cella of the temple, and prin( 
before the M.ituc of tlio divinity lo wlioin^ 
dedicated. The alters in the area U'forv 
{jiu^tH TTpvviioi^) were altars of hurnVot 
which animal aacnfieea {ricittnie, ffpfiyitt,^ 
were prvsenied; only incense was buMierl, or 
and bliMMilcss saenficca (oh'/ii«/i«ra, Ova] oflfet 
the altars within (he building. 

Altnts were also placed before the doors ofj 
houses. In the Ait^'na of Tennce,' a w< 
asked to laUe ibe verl«nce fn^m nn alinr so sit 
in onlcr In l;iy a child iinon lln-ni l»f(ure the dc 
the houSe. A lari^e aiiar (o 7.c\is ihe 
stood in Uie uptui coun before the door of P| 
palyre in llirim.* Hither, acconling lo the 
Priam, Hccuha, and tU-ir dausihicrs tied w\ 
cifiidcl was taken; and hfnc« ihey were dl 
with impious violence by Nroptolemus, the 
Achilles, and some of them p«l to deiilh. 
were places of t 'fupe. The supplicants 
^ered as pi fl }.; lbemselve.s under the 
Wtbe deities to whom the altars werccc 
and violence i ■ the unfortntiate, even to 
erimiiiaN, in such cirrumst.inces was 
violence towards the lieilies tbernselve*, 
As in the instance already ^irtidncctl, io 
gods conspired against the fiuins, mc~ 
were accusiomeil to make solenm trcniit 
enaniR, by takin:: oaths a1 altars. Thus 
resent^ Ihr km^v eulirini' into n Icapiie 
altar of JupiuT, by imniolatin;,' a st>w, 
hold the natcras for libnlion in their h( 
story of Haruiit^ars oath at the altar, 
is well known. 

Another pmetire, o^cn alluded to, wai 
touehln- -I'-r-- 'n the net of prayer.* 
also W' ■■ .1 III the iillnrs; and, 

the ob\ I M, that reliirit'Us acts w( 

nnivent;illy jucompnniod by sacrifice as 
tial part of them, all enca?emenli which 
madr mnri' bindt;i:: by sacred ■ ' ' riti< 
oflen fDruied bolween ilie parii 

•AR^VB'ICA. called also A-. . 
ir/T. prmma. It is spoken of by Diost 
Galen, and wn* pr^baMv a fine white 

•AUACn - '.'r-jyc^tlu'Spidrr,* 

Ar»ineii,h. > -s a re mentioned ■ 

lie,* but so l«ii" in I II.. I r- ' ' ■ ---ri 

ascertained. Diosccrit'p [« 

the names of fiA«cof and > - roi 

according lo Sprengel, is the Aranea rriiariatt 

I. rTTtiKry-k.tH., i9.)-t. (.««hvl., Sappl., J29.)— 3. (Scbo- 
/i»»t in Pintl.. Oljmp.,^., W./ — I. (^Ca,. v , AW.l^^. [I. c.) 
—4. f/u, MA-Jir?.}—.!. (Cittupmn Nunu, niii., I, ** Mnn »l- 


I. (G^Ifi|«ii»iui, 181V. V ■'. " '■ - t. 

8«ppl., 407 t-5. fl. <■)—♦. (^ 

Exr^ur* . wM'ii-.)— ^ (^n.,\i. ■,'.:. 

c«t, md Mn., 111., JOI.)— i», ..i."., 1 nrm lii . iuii« 
(OiMTflt., 1., \W.— Win.. W. H mT'v.. *\.\-*. OL 



Sprengd is farther of 
:nur has noticeil ihe Ara/uia 
: .M.' 
1 specips of Pea, the 

iW, , : and Sprenp^l, with 

mtpAtearpms. iyiAclshoase pro[>oses to 
fn m Ihe lest of Theophrasiua." 

>f). a pl;int, winch Sprengol, in 

* R. H. H., m.irks tii the Lathy- 

' ' ■ ' ' ' inclines lo the 


ttr ' , . J ■ 'il Vetch.* 

,'5KA. (Kid. Ar*cune.) 

A {api'i-niQ). two sacrtfiec oflert-d every 
ia honour of Aratns the trroni ?enernJ 
, who, after his death, wa" hoiiunrvd 
ns a h'.'PT, in conseqiit-nce of the 
!<?.' Thp full account of Ihc two 
.'ved in Pliiiaroh's Life of Ara- 
II)^ sop he, offer lo Aratus two 
r, the one on the day on which 
' \rn fmm tyranny, whit'h is 
Daisius, the sam*? which 
-Sterion; and this sacrifice 
'Pur^tn, I'iie other they celebrate in the 
which th**? bciievc that he was bom. On 
i '' us olfcreil (he sacrifices; 
1 Aratus, wcnrinp a white 
III the centre, sonES being 
nclors of Ihe stnge. The 
i/i^of) led his hoys and 
'H, prx)hal)iy lo the hcronm of 
\\\f senatnW adorned with ^ar* 
■IIS why wished 
iiians still oh- 
j ^.~ , 1 .1.1, . !i.mnity, but the 
ivcbcen abolished by 'lime and 

'Tpnt'), a plonirh. 
.r tri have haa, from the earliest 
■'■ - r- 'im of their ploudis. 
" have always two 
, the otlier ml^ht fa| 
uw; ami they were to l<e of two kintW; 
klVM rn^^nyvov, tKK'flUfle in it the plough- 
'•ra) waa o^ the same piece of 
Mire-beam iiXv^n, dent, dentale) 
^^in;/w, i(TTofi«>e»'f. teiHo): and the other 
i. e., coinpaetn). because in il the 
itiuned pans, which were, moreover, 
ditTtfrent kinds of timber, were ad- 
snotber. and tautened together by 

'< a plough of the former 

u > J JHs: tree with two branches 

Inink in opposite directions, so 

tlric^Thc injnk was made to serve 

v.\o branches stood tipwani 

! the other penetrated the 

>metime5 with bronze 

f a share. This forn» 

liirurc of the annexed 

medal. The next fii^re 

i .'d in M\'sia, as described 

Ly a Jate rravpller in that coimtry. 

It is a little more complicalea 

>i ■"■' --"'■h as it consists of rwo 



1 . 






I' '', a handle (il^fr^.i?, 

i«^m«^rt'i ^?er piece at one side 

rve*- thai each portion of 

-illed byiLt ancient Greek 

luMs. ili?M It yeems' suited only lo the 

where he observed it; ihal il is 

». (Tl.«>p»ir»rt., II. P.. i^ fl.— 
pSw.t . II. p ,i. 6.)— I {V»m.j 

.. ' I'l.. TI. {!.)>, AlterOinn., 

• Scbnl. iD 
• Schol. 

held by ooe hand only ; that the form of the shara 
({■wtf) varies ; and that iho plough is frequently 
used without any share. " It is drawn by two oxen, 
yoked from the pole, and f;ruided by n lnn« rc«i or 
thin stick (sarpipoc), wliicli has a spuil or .'tcraper 
at the end for cleaning the share. " See the lowctl 
ligTire in the woodcut. 

Another recent traveller in Greece pives the foV 
lowing account of the plough which he saw in ihal 
country, a description anproa hing still nearer to 
the tniKThv upQTpov of Homer and Hesiod. '• It is 
composed," says he, "of two curved pieces of wood, 
one longer than the other. The long piece forms 
the pole, and one end of it being joined lo the oilier 
piece about a foot from the Miom, divides it into a 
share, which is cased with iron, and a handle. The 
share is, iMrsidcs, attached to the pole by a short 
crossbar of wood. Two oxen, with no other harr 
ness than yokes, are joined to the pole, and driven 
by the ploughman, who holds the han<l!c in his left 
hand, and the poad in his right."' A beantidtl view 
of the plain of Klis, reprevmincr this plou;?h in uac, 
is ^ven by Mr. 8. iiianhope in his Otynjnft* 

The yoke and pole used anciently in plouphinif 
did not differ from those emjdoyetl for draught in 
general. ConBcqncnlly, they do not here require 
anv farther description. ( Vut. Juocm.) 

To the bottom of the polf, in ihc compncred 

{tlough, was attached the plou^ktail, Mhidi, accord* 
ng to Hesiod, might l»e made of any piece of a tree 
(especially the irpii-of. i. c, the ilex, or holm-oak), 
the natural curvature of which fitted it to this nse. 
But in the lime and country of Vir^l, pains were 
taken to force a Iree into that form which was nios* 
exactly adapted to the purpose. 

" Coniinuo in sOris magna riJUxn r!tmaJur 
In burim, rf curvi fnntutm accipii nhnm aratriy* 

The upper end of the buns being held by the 
ploughman, the lower part, below its junction with 
the pole, was tised to hold the sh/trr-^mm, wliieh was 
either sheathetl with metn], or driven bare into iJie 
ground, according to circiunstances. 

To these three continuous and most essential 
parts, the two following are added in the description 
of theplough by ViiT^l: 

1. The MrtA-itwrcA'c or mpufd-boardxj rising on each 
side, bending outwardly in such a manner as to 
throw on either hand the soi) which had l»een pre- 
viotj<{1y loosened and raised by the share, and ad- 
justed to the shar&-b«am, which was made double 
for the purpose of receiving them: "Binas flurrjt, 
dnpltci apiantur ffmUtlin jorso." According to 
Palladius,* it was desirable to ha^'e ploughs both 
with earlli-boards (auritn) and without tht-m (ji'm- 

2. The han/fl£, which i.s seen in Mr. FelUws*s 
woodcut, and likewise in the following representa- 
tion of an ancient Italian plough. Virgil considers 

1. (llnlilioDMt, Jnamfj thmiiirh AllMuiia, Jkc vnt I., n. 140J 
—9. (p. 4S.}— 3. (GeoTff.. i., 100, 170.}-^. (i^ U.) 


iBTpan as used to turn lh(; iilough at lUc cna of 
iiic iurruw: " Stivaqw, iput cuf>u\ * trrgo U^Tqxitai 
ifflflj." ScrviDs, however, in his note uii ihis Uuc, 
ciplains stira to mean "the handle by which the 
j'luiiifh 15 directed." It is prubahlu Qiat, b» tlie 
ilrntaiia, i. e., Uic two stiare -beams, which Vii-gil 
suppfjtdvs, wtTo in ihu Tunn uf the Uret'k Ifftler A, 
which he describes by dujflui tiorm, the buris was 
(ustcneil to llie IcU shiue-bcani, and the Aiiva lu the 
right; so thaCt i^^it^o^ (^1 i^*^ !<iiiu>]e plough of the 
Greeks, ihat described by the Mantuoii poet, and 
used, no doubt, in his country (see the ibllowing 
woodcut), was more like the modern Lajicasliirc 
i»k"n;:li, which is commonly held K'hind with K'lb 
iutndpi, SonvHiines, howt'ver, the bliva (f^rr/.;/) 
was used aluue and instead of the tail, as in the plough above rci)rc-'»etitcd. To a plough 
bci eonsinicied, the laDguage of Columella waa ci*- 
jK'ciaUy ariplicable; "Amtur ifiraptCM rettui tit'ititi- 
'Mf ;"* and the expressiuris of Ovid, " SUvaque wi- 
%txus ayaU>r,"* and " Jtfff yremcns itivam 4aign4i 
mtaniu suito."^ in place of "sAiyi," Ovid alsouMS 
the less aiipropriuic tenn " capviw :"* " Ipse vuirm 
titpnium prvn-^i tnthkratMA nratri.^' When the plough 
wa5 lickl cither by the stiva alone, or by ihc buris 
atone, a piece of wood (irtanicuta*) woa fixed ncross 
ttie summit, and on this the labourer pa'ssed with 
both hnnds. Bi'sides guidinsc ibe plough in a 
stnn;ifht line, his duty was to force the idiare lu a 
stillicifnt d*fplh into Ihn soil. Virgil alludes bo Uiis 
in the pbittuo " Drprr$pi twtUro,"^ 

Tlu) criissbur, whieh is seen in Mr. Frlluws'* 
drawing, mid mentinncd in Wir J. C. H"bhousrS 
description, and which parses from tJie pole to the 
Khare for ihc pur[X)$e of giving additional strength, 
WAS called crruOi^. in LalMi/u/cfum. 

The coulter (ntifa*f was used hy the RomanR a?< 
it is with U5. It wai uiscried into the pule so a^ to 
depend vertically ht'lure the v', -- •■ — .1 - ... i, 
ibe roots wliicli ciunL' in il:^ « 
lor the more otimpleic luo&eui> . 
till soil by the »haa'. 

About the time of Pliny, two small wheels (,fi*ta, 
roiuUe) were added to the plough in Rhtetia; tind 
Servius" men(ion<( the use of th«'m in the country 
of Vifgil. The annojcrd woodcut shows the foiiii 
of a wheel-plough, as rpprescnied on a plerc of en- 
graved ia.s])cr, of Roman wnrkmanship. It also 
shows (listmctly the coulter, the {^hare-beam, the 
plough-mil, antf tlie handle or sliva.^* The plough 
currr-ipomls in nil essential particulars with that 
now used al»oul Mantua iind Venice, urwhi'^h Mar- 
\yn has given an engraving in hi^ edition of Virgil's 


The Greeks and Romans naoallr plotighed their 
!and three times for each crop. The fir>t nlnitgh- 
tag was called projictndtre^ or novare (vroi}5wj(, vru- 
(ffftfa/) ; Ihft second, pjfrittfferr, or tUrare ; and the 
Ihird, lirare, or tcrtiare.** The field which under- 

I. (Hm., Op. 01 DiM,4C7.J-«. (i.. 9.)— S. (Mm., »iii., «A) 

—4. (FmI.. iv., aS3.)— ». (Bpin. da Homo, i., 8, 81 ,1— fl. (Vnr. 

to. Dr iAnjr- L« , IT )— 7. <nf«>rg., i„ <» >-fl (Plin.. II. N., 

xw/it., 4S.i~0. (t.f.)~tO. (fUtlnm. Rtv. U'.*nL. t., y\. W, Ni». 

AA-//. fAmt, p„w., S9r~6y,tl. M»(., tii . Ilfl— Varra, Ik 

Me RuBi.. ,90 -tvlaju., De iU ttutu, n., 4.1 



vent the " proscissio" wait called 
vale (fe<>i:), and in this process the coulf 
ployed, the tresh snr£uce vw' 
with numberless roots, m- hie h rrqnired (* t>e 
bctbre the soil could l>o turned up by ihtl 
The term *' ollringerc," from ob and Jrangt 
applied to the second ploughing, because t] 
parallel clods already luraeil up were brolH 
cut across, by druuing the plough tlin^ugh ^ 
rigiii angles lu in former direction' 1'1| 
which underu-cnt this process was called agi 
tug—^iwoAo^.* After the second ploughing, tl 
er ca-Hl his seed. Al.w the clods were oUcti,i 
not always, broken still further by a wooden I 
or by harwwing (*vv«^«'). The R'-'- • *■' ■' 
then, for the first time, attached t)i 
his Khnre {labuUi adiuixa*). The ■ 
jtistment was to divide llic levt! ; 1 ■ 
"agcr iUrahij^' into ridges. Thi ■ \^ n 
porcit, and also i*ra:, whence came lii'- yciti 
to make ridges, and also ddtrarc to decline t 
straight line.' The earth-bttards, by throw 
earth 10 each side in the manner already eij 
both covered the newly-scattered seed, and 
beiweon the ridKCs furrows (ar^axrf, »v(ci) ; 
rying olfthc water. In Ihis state the field wj 
vd *rQt* and rpln-oAof, The use of this laj 
by Homer and licsiod proves that the tripU \ 
ing was pract.sed as early as their age. 

When the ancicnU ploughed three times 
WOA) done in the spring, samroer, and auln 
s.ime year. Bnt^ in onler to obtain a still 
crop, both the Urecks and tlie Itoinaus p: 
four times, the proscissio being pcrformedJl 
latter part of llie preceding year, so that 
one crop and another two wliolc ycnrs infe 
A field so managed was called rrr 

When the ploughman had fmi^: 
hour, he turned the inslrumm' ■ 
oxen went home drtigging h 
fhe Mtrfncp of thpgn)und — a ' . . .. 
the following lines ; 

^ *' ViJerr fessoa ramavm ttifvmiN bovei 
Collii traKcnifS lei njfu itiu !"■ 

The Greeks and Romans commonly 
oxen In ploughing'; but they als ' ' ' 
light soils.' The act of yokmg (• 
an as-i, which was ctji- ■■ '- ' •' I 

of Moses.'* is made tli. 
pari.son bv Plauius.*' 1 i 

madness m order to avoid gi-'ing on the 'i'rqj 
l>edJtion, ploughed with an ox and a hoiso 

A line has been already nuoicd from Oridi 
which mentions the U'se of the plnn.ii 1 v i;] 
for marking the site of Rome. ( 'r 
while bull and a white row wet < : 1 

",i/An jufnim nmo cum bavrTarra tulu."^' ,\ 
this ceremony at the foundation of cities 1 
nies, the plough was drawn over the wall 
they were ctinrjuered by the Romans.'* 

AUlllTKR (IV.'JiPCX.) 


•ARH'UTtrM {fufiruKv^v or tvfiopov), || 
of ihc Wild Slrawl>crT>'-(ree, or 4r*i*i«i. j 
very much the appramnce of our ^irftwbq 
erpt that it Is larATi and has not '' ■ 
outside of the pulp, like that fruii 
gwwi picntirully in Italy, and th-- 
posed tnat the early mcc of mer 
and Ihc fruit of this tree Ijcfoie 1 
^ I." (PliHTn N.,VtiIi..«,)— 3. 7i ; ~ 

or. »».— Ff^iui, ■. ». Oirnnit.)— a 
(Plin., I. r,l— i. (f>>l.. I. €.)—«. ( ! 
III.. 5.— Virg., GortTir., I., <7-4ll.' 
(IIw,. Ef»«t , 11.. M.)— e. (V«rr.s !'■ 
N., nil.. W.— r..|.. vii„ I,)-10, i[>. 
lU % ftt-V».l— l«. (llT(t<n., FdD.. «yi — 13. n .^.i« 
.«n.,»..1%V-Cw..Wvrt.,i\.,MCl.1-\\. vU«,C>i^i^1 
iPropart., Ui.,l,i\.') 




com. The berria of the arbiue, 

baixlly ratable: when laUcn ia Uh> 

leSj ilivy are said lo be nurcoiic i and 

n5 ihat the tenn uneJa was lainiliaily 

Ijruii of liiis tree, bt'cau^e it was uu- 

iix' tiiaji one [unus^ "one," ami ctfo, 

I'he :>aaie whler* dcscribci the fruit 

and unwholesome, and yei, in ihe 

»ica, an agnfeaMu wuie is .-i,tid to be 

it The lerm uttttio was also given 

■If^ aud thi& is ivlaiiicd in the Lin- 

ture, Ar^itus unedo. The jKCuliar 

^iciibed to the fruit of the arhute-lree 

sereFELl othrr jtlaulb of the; sauie uider. 

quail liei are said lo be o^triuKcnt 

. The IjeduM jifdvstre ivuders L/etT 

used m the maiiul'acLurc of that bcv- 

pffiUicutti and iiutj:imu/n^ KuU 

wkL some oihc^rs, arc well knou-n to 

The honej' which poisoned some 

dirf* in the rcueat of the ten thousand 

HU5, was gatiwred by btcs ttom the 

Azalea pontim. The sbuois of A.n- 

Ufotia poison goats in ?«tpal.' {Vid. 

'US it/fiapo^), the Aiimte or ^VUd 
-irtre, Ar^tia uwAo, L. \i& fruit \s call- 
in crtuiutt^^ in Cirrek Avjtapov and ^i fiat icv- 
m Kogbsh the wild &trawberr)\ from the 
U bears to that weU-known berry. 
;u.) Viigil, in^ypeakingof theAcbute- 
ilhe «pithit korfiiiti* about the meaning of 
r3i3iurs are not agret?d.' The best 
howcvrr, i^ that which rcfci-s the tenn in 
tc the i^g^ness of llie baric, which is the 
I which Servius also seems to uke it,* Fee, 
maioDg the epithet apply lothc rough, 
of the wbutt*. Id fact, ihe leaves, 
tif --•*-■'* 1 very strong antrin^nt, and 
[: ■' in medicine. — There does 

lIk c of tlic Pragaria v^iCA, or 

rry, in the (jrcek cla&sics. It \a d«- 
\ and had been previously xnea- 

irnf), a cheat or coffer, is used ir. 
IS, of which the principal arc, 
rkich the Komans were acciis- 

money; and the phrase rxarca 

meaning oi paying in rtady money. 

presses Atticu's to send him soine 

Kcce. he says, "xYc dui/Ua/is tnittrrc 

{omjidii^y* These chc5i5 were cither 

bond w ith iron or other metals.* The 

r applied to the chests in 

f money, and was opposed 

/ivi '." and amwrna. 

:a % I v-nsed in later limes 

xc ;..- ^" , iiiat is, the impel t:il 

Ann 3l*o signified the coffin in which 
or the bier on which the 
1 -uslv to burial." 

>i strong cell made of 
laves were confined.'* 

1_ - J If NIPCRCe.) 

fc a coveirtl carriage or litter, 
^^_ whiciiwas used in ancient timps 
lo«arT7 Uic ai^d and infirm. It is said to 
' the Dame of arcera on accoimt of ils 
r|Dan urea}* 

r«llt..9«.)— 5. (ziiii.. 9.1— 3. (LindVy'i lUit- 
rQ#4tf<, ii.. «••)—». (F^v. Flnfo >1« Virml*, p. 

Vim I c — ll»m-n in Virg.. G^-ont.. li., M) 
Frr.T. t T. r4prtpnf.>-*^. Mi-, ii'l At., 1., 9.- 
~ ■ i iilttii irihnw- 

. e9.)— II. 

. : 50. til. 4, ». 

■;-l,,, Mii-.Tafl.)-!-!. 
\Iil-in., c. K— Fe«ta», t. T. 
, iT., 31.— G«U., U.. 1.) 

ARCHAIRES'IAI Cup.ta/^rff/ai) wer€ the assem. 
blit'5 ot the jtroplf whii:ii were held for the (dectioni 
of tho^e nagi!>lrates at Alliens who were not chosen' 
by lot. The principal public ofiiecrs were chosen- 
by lot {KAppuToi), and the lots were drawn aimually 
in the temple of Theseus by ilie tbesmotheiac. Of 
those magi^trules> chuNCn by tlie giencrul asiembly 
of the ptiople {xtipoTQvrjToi), the most iniportaot 
were the slrategi, taxiarchi, hipparclii, anil phylar- 
chi. The public treasurers {Tofiiai}, and all ibe 
otIicen> connected with the collection of the tribute, 
all ambassadors, comxnissjoncrs of works, &c., 
were appointed in the same manner. 

The people always met in the Pnyx for the elec- 
tion of iheie magistraies, even in later timet, when 
it became usual to meet for other purposes in the 
Temple of Dionysus.* It is nol certain at what 
time of the year they met for this purpose, nor who 
presided over the assembly, but most probably the 
archons. The candidates for these offices, especi- 
ally for that of stratcgus, had re cour>c to briU-ry and 
corruption lo a great client, although Uie laws 
awarded capital punishment to tliat oifence, which 
was called by the Athenians dtKaofio^. The can- 
vassing of the electors and the soUcilalloD of 
llieir votes was called apxaipectui^ttv. ITie magis- 
trates who presided over the assembly mentioned 
the names of the camliiiales [TTf)v6uy/.eofl(ii*), and 
the people declared their acceptance or rejection of 
each by a show of hojids. They never appear 10 
have voted by ballot on these occasions. 

Those who were clecled could decline the office, 
alleging upon oath some sufficient reason why ihey 
were unable to discharge its duties, such as labour^ 
ing under a disease, d.c. : the expression for this 
was l^ofiwcBat ri^v upxvv* or Ti}v j^f t/joTok-iav.* It, 
however, an individual accepted the office to which 
he was cho.sen, he could not enter upon ihe dis- 
charge of his duties till lie had passed his examU 
nation lAoKipaaia) before the ihesmollietsc- If he 
failed in puasmg his examination (aiTofoKifiaai*fivai\ 
be incurred a modified species of arifila.* All pub- 
tic officers, however, were subject lo Ibe iTi^rrpo- 
T0via, or confirmation of their nii|>oinlmrnl by each 
successive prytany at the commence men t of its 
peiiod of oihce, when any magistrate might be 
deprived of his office (uvoxEtpoToi-ilaOai). In the 
Attic oraiwrs, we not unfrccjucnlly read of individn* 
als being thus deprived of Iheu: offices.* {Vid, 
Archon, p. 83.) 

•AUPCEION. [yid. Arktion.) 

ARCHKION i3pxeo/v) properly means any pub- 
lic piace belonging to llie mafir'stratrs, but is more 
particularly applied to the archive offn.-c, where the 
decrees oi liie people and other stale documents 
were preserved. This office is sometimes called 
merely ro dijfioaiov.* At Athens the archives were 
kept in the temple of the mother of the gods ip^ 
rpiftov), and the charge of it was intrusted lo the 
pTi^idenl (tn-carari/f) of the senate of the Five 

ARCIIIATER (apxiarpot, compounded o( apx»i 
or upxui', a chief, and iarpi't^, a physician), a medi- 
cal title nndcr the Roman emperors, the exact 
si^Tiififation of which has been the subject of much 
discussion ; for while some persons interpret it 
"the chief of the physicians'* {tjuasi upx^v rw» 
laTpuv), others explain it lo mean " the physician 
to the prince" (qutui roS &pxovTo^ iarpt^J. Upon 
tlie whole, it seems much more nroliable that the 
fonner is the true meaning of tnc word, ami fof 
these reasons: 1. From its ehTnology it cannol 

I. (Pi41ui, viii.. 134.)— a. (DoniMth., De Coron., |». 977.)— J. 
(Bemorth.. Ttai OoAiTp., P. 379.>— 4. (D«ni(«Jh. in Anrto«., i 
p T70.)— 5. [rid. Dt-rofrnth., r. Titnoih., p. lib' ; *"• TbiMJcnn. 
p. 1330.— Dinarcli. in Pliilocl., c. 4.— Coiminni Scltrim^nti, 0* 
C.mitin Atb., p. 3aO-330.)-« (Demwrfh,, l>e Cur., p 37&.)-r 
(Dem«th., wtM Utfmvf^f. S8l , io Ari«tog.. i., p «W. 

■ > a 




powibly have any oOicr sense, and of all the wutiis 
Bimilany roniKnl" ((ip.jtri'KTwi', (ip^ir/iiKXicof, dpx(. 
rrr/ffioror, &o ) Iht-rp in not onn thai has^ny rpfrr- 
ence lo ^'ihcprinrr," 3. We find \\\c title applicrl 
to physicians wIki livrtl ai Kdessa, Alexandren, &c., 
when? no king w'as al that time reigning. 3. Ga- 
Irn* &jicak5 or Andromachus lieirg appointed "/o 
Tuh twtt" Ihr physicians («/ixe(i'), i <•■. in fact, to be 
" arcliialcr." 4. Augii.stinc* applies the word lo 
,'EIsculapius, and Nt. Jerome (nu'tnnliDrically, of 
coarse) to our Baviour,' in both wljicn cases it evi- 
dently means " ihc chief physician." ft, It is ap- 
parently synonyniuUs with rro/flrK-'iiV-uji, sujmi mefU- 
ros, tltrmtnicx iMdkt/rum, and supi'rjKHilns vtttliicrum, 
all which expre5?iions occur in in ascriptions, &c. ti. 
We find thct names of several persons who were 
physicians to the emperor mentioned without (he 
nddition of the lille orchiahr. 7. The archiatri 
were divided into A. hjwU puJa/ti, who ntlendnt 
on the cra|>cnjr, and A. pi<pultirrx, who attended r!. 
iKc people; so that it i.*i cmain that itli tliose w^o 
twre this title were not " physicians to the primr." 
The chief argument in fai'our of the contran* opin- 
ion seems to arise from the fact, tliitt of all (hos/; 
who arc known to havo held the otfice of^., iho 
^Tcater part certainly were physicians to the ctn- 
neror as well ; but this is only wlial mifiht, A ffh/'h, 
tto expeclCii, V)7,, that those wlio had atliiined Ihc 
hii^hcst rank in their profes.sion would be chosen lo 
ftttcnd upon the prince (just as in England the 
President of the College of Physicians is cx-uflicio 
phvnctan to the sovereiim). 

The first p<*r5on whom wo find bearinff this title 
is Andromochiis, piiysician to Nero, ana inventor 
of the Theriaca * ("I'uK Tni:«uc».) But it is not 
known whether he nad al the same lime any sort 
of aathorily over the rest of the profession. In 
fact, the history of the title is as obscurw a* it* 
meaning, and u is chiefly by means of iJie laws 
re*.peciine: the medical profession that we Icam the 
rank and dutio.'< attached to iL In after times (as 
wai stated aborej the order appears to>hai'e been 
divided, and wp ffnd two distinct classes of awhia- 
Irt, viz., Ill ;itid thone of the m-oplc' 

The A. ■- ' * pentons oC hitrn mnk, 

who not . i .. :..tir ptnlc^sjon, bnl were 

judges on occanon ut any disputes that might oc- 
cur among the physicians' of the place. They hail 
certain privileges fp^nted to ibem, e. y., ihcy were 
exempted from all laxci, and iheir wives and chil- 
dren also; were not oblitr ' f ' -' -f soldier:* or 
others in the provinces; r lut in jJiisoii, 

Ac.; for, though these pii in at lirst to 

have been common to all I'liv^icians,* vet aOcr- 
wand they were confined to (he A. of ino palace 
and to Ihos"? of Itotne. Wiien they olptainc<l ihcix 
dismissal from attendance on the cm[ien>r, either 
ttO}n old ape or any oiher cause, they retained the 
title ex-arrhiatri or tj-arthuUrls.'^ TTie A. popniarts 
were established for the relief of the [Mwr, anil racli 
city was to be provided with five, seven, or ten, ac- 
cording to its size.' Rome had fourteen, besides 
one for the vestal virp'ns, and onefor lhep\'mnasia.' 
They were paid by the povemmenf. and were 
therefore obliged to attend Uicir pot)r paliLMits ^jrJ!- 
tiSf but were allowed lo receive foes fnim the rich." 
The A. populares were not appcjinlcd by the pov- 
cmors of the provinces, hut were eleeled by the 
people Ihemselvcs.'' The office appears to ha\-e 
Ijeen more lurraiive than that of A. s, pal., Ihootrli 
levi honourable. In later times, we find in f'awo* 
dorus*' the title "romci nrrJiinfrorum" "count of the 

~"l .~a>e Tbw. Kl Ph.. e. !.)-«. (He Civil. Uoi.iii.. 17.)— J. 
(lilt., Horn, in S. Lac.)— 4. (Oaltn, 1. c— Erotian., L*f Viwr. 
Hmp.wT., jn Pr»r )— 5 fP^ TfapcWtw., «ii., til, 3, H»« M«lpri» 
<tt I'T-iffi^oriliti*.)— 0. fC-t. J'i^I.. t., til. 52, t. fi. MMliri* el 

Jiftltwn AKliIltrt^rl— 7, H'intlntiKii., f"t\. I , 111. W, Infl. B.V— 

F^ fl>«ir 37. III. I. •, c.i-0 M'..!, Tl.f"<i'«,. I '•j-ia. (ptM. 

Th^wbrn., f.r.}—JI. fDtg. •■ I.J— 19. (Vir/. Usttiofii^ 
Conuopur tit CmM. Fvttiial. ArchMt., Ifelmiil.. IMd.) 

archiatri," together with an a< 
by which it appears that be 
jnd^e of all aispule^^? and difll< 
amoii!? the oificf.-rs of thf Kmpire as a 
AUOHIMIMUS. (yi(/. MmrsAl 
AUCHITF.CTD'RA. (Kirf, Anfl 
Auvii: Di'CTUB, Anctjii, Basilica, Bj 
TKMPt.r, Ac.) 
AUCHON i/^p\uvy Tbo govcmmci 
appears to have gone through the cycle 
which history records as the lot of 
states.* It be^an with monarchy; asid 
in^ through a dyn.isiy and aristocnia 
drmocrary. (By djilasty is here me 
supreuic power, (hough not monarchic 
fined 10 one family. J Of the kings of, 
sidereil as the capital of Attica, 'P^ 
•'aid to have hiccn tne first; for to hit 
ix'al individual or a reprcsontativej 
pericnl, is attributed the union of lh(' 
independent folates of Attica under ot 
last was Co<iru5, in acknowledgi 
pfitriolism in meeting death for hil 
Athenians are said to have determin* 
fihnuld puccecd him with tho title of 
king. It seems, however, equally prol 
»'as the nobles who nvailcil them'^elvc; 
portunity lo serve ihcir own inierrstSjJ 
the kingly power Inr another, the jl 
which Ibey called uf>\ovre^, or ru1o>fl| 
some time rontinticil to be, like the 
house of r.'otlnis, apptiinted for lil''* n 
tani point was gnined by the noble 
being made vjrriVAToc, or aeconntat)!!! 
course, implies that the nobilirv had i 
over it; and perhnns like the harons< 
ages, they cxercisetl the power of depo 
This state of things Instcd for twi * 
archon*. The next slep was lo liu 
nncp nf (he office to len yeai-s, siill 
the Medonlidie, or house of Co<lms, X 
Ush whal the Greeks called a dynosQ 
ifhonship of Kryxias, the last archnn o: 
elected as snch. At the end of hi.s ten 
r>8'I), n much greater change look pi 
chnn'ihip was made annual, and its vi 
divided among a rnllegc of nine.choaa 
( ^(eiporovia) from the Enpalrida*. or M 
no longer elected frtim the Medonli^fl 
This arrangement continued ill! thCT 
lablishf-d bv Solon, who made tlu' qua 
office de|>cnd not on biiih, but property 
ing (he election by sufTrage, and, accor 
tarch, so far impairing th*- n'libontv of 
and other magislra'e^ a*^ ' ■'» 

them to the courts of juM .1 

Xh,-. pi..,.,: .,, i.v lor is belli:.-.; i , 1 

c. iics(BC..'»OK):«forwcfi 

ti" linrtlyatlcr his lime; and 

pn,'NNly Mait'.H that Solon made no alt^ 
nSprtfif, or mo<Ie of ejection, hut only " 
lion ff)r office. If, however. Ihefe Ik* 
in the itfith of llie Ilrliasls.'wc arcfoi 
chisjnii thiit the election by lot was asj 
of Solon; bni the authority ofArislot 
idcncc strongly incline us n> some: 
or, rallicr, leave no doubt of its nec< 
chnnge is suptwsed to have been 
des,' who, aller the battle of Plal 

I. (VmI. Le CUftr. wnl S[n«iiv»), tL«t. •!» la M 
5lririi» NnirTM.— Phil. Mwi., miI. ii , p r*- — » 
AtJ|>«Tiul.>-J. (ThnrYtl.. ii., IS.l— I. Il 
tanmth., riitmr., lYTO.— Anmlirt.. Pfilit., >: 

«r Ath*n»,ll-, p. 7" • ■ - '■ '■'!" ■ - 

hfioibH Mai Tifn 

Plulnrcli, (^'<luo , 

I TiroocT.. p. 747.;- . .;, ..,.■■ -.-■ 

\ Utthi Kr'a\ \ 




&e property qoaUiicatioii, ihrowiug open 

Lshipaod othtT in.igi^idraci^s lo all the citi- 

bal Is to the Thefe;> as well as the other 

the (jnaer ol' vhorn were nut allowed by 

[laws bj bold any xuat'iilracy ai all; in can- 

with which, we und that, even in ihr lime 

the archons were cboseu by lot (mn 

class ol' cilizcuB (pi rr£VT<uroaio(u6(fi- 

the removal of the old rcslriclions, 
uricy was left to ensure resp-cclabiiiiv; for, 
if t? ■• --In entering on oflicc, he un- 
■ • I. called the ui'dApio/r,' a» to 

A 1_ and a gijod citizen, a good 

qnalined m point orpro]>erty: tl txei ru 
^^■^ ihf question put. Now tliere are' 
r supf)0&ing that this funa of ex- 
ji'd even aftpf the lime of Aris- 
. >■-, It would fgilow that the right in 
not triven to ilie Theles promiscnoos- 
to such as possessed a certain amotuit 
But even if it weie eo, it is admitted 
^tVr limitation so<»n b«?came obsolete; for 
^* that a needy old man, &o poor 
'.' allowanep, was not disqualified 
U-5 -. .-' li by hi.s iudi??LMi»:e, but only by 
l&nnllV; freedom from all such defects bc- 
ired for tlic office, as it was iu some re- 
' a sacred character. Yet, cvea aiier pa^v 
is£iciory uv<i*pi9<c* each of the'archons, in 
I vilh other mapstrates, was liable to be 
,00 complaint of misvonduct made before 
tiiB, at ihr fir^t rc^lar assembly in each 
On such an occasion, the kutx€tpt)Tovia, 
called, lf«?k place; and we read' that, in 
I' *e of archons was deprived 
v) for the misbehaviour of 
I .«^i. . iiL. y were, however, reinstated, 
of belter conduct for the future. ( Vui. 

pect to the later a«es of Athenian histo- 
fnom Strabo* that even in his day 
Rotiuuts allowed the freedom of 
may conclude that tlie Aihoninns 
cliriu' to a name and ofiice associated 
; r most cherished remembrances. 
-iiip, however, though sldl in ex- 
vu lucrely honorary, wc might expect 
nain^ of the consulate at Rome; and, 
learn that it wus sometimes fdied by 
I Hadrian and Plutarch. Such, more- 
ihe democratical tendency of tl>e assein- 
f justice establi^ed by S«»lon,' 
• r limes, the archons had lost the 
(owcr which they ot one lirac pos- 
tlkftt, too, after the dirision of their 
_ nine. They Iwcame, in fact, not, 
(Breetbcs of the ^ycmrocnt, but merely 
mai. ' UtJi tc5, eiercislng ftinctions and 
\r ■ ■ irill prr.>ceed to descril>e. 

'ated that the duties of the 

' -fiared bv a college of nine. 

^pvjdcnt of this body, wad called up- 

u( tm frnincnee, or upx^v tiruvifto^, 

fc inctiishcd by and registered 

ond was .<*tylc<l (iftt"" f^^^- 

I ; tlie third, noTJfiapxoCf or 

'<o rpm.iinini; six, <&raftoOeTai, 

■' ' ■■ :; of the archons, 

-h what belooff- 

ydleciivclr.' It 

rer. that a considtrrahle portion of the 

- -:■ ■■ - ■ -c -Di. 

-r tl 

v.. II.. :■:'..}— I. Ifrffi Tfl(i 
.. Tlwocr., mo.— Pultui, 
-. >— fi. (U, f. !.>—". (Piul. 
I A ;- V. (Scbdaioiui, 174, truial.) 

judicial functions of the ancient kings devolved 
upfin thaa^t'*"' ^Ovvfw^, who was altw euns^tituled 
a sort of slate protector of tiiosc who were imatile 
to defend themselves.* Thus he was to si)]it;rintcud 
orphans, heiresses, families losing their reprcscnui- 
tive« {tj'iKoi lil i^ffff/fioifitvoi), widows left pregnant, 
and to sec that they were not wronged in any way 
Should any one do so, he was empowered to inflict 
a fute of a certain amoiml, or to bring the parties to 
trial. Heiresses, indeed, seem to have been under 
lu.< peculiar care ; for we read* that he could com- 
pel the next of kin either to marry a poor heiress 
nimsflf, even tliuuyh she were of a lower class, vi 
to portion her in marriage to another. Again, we 
&nd* that, when a person claimed an inheritance 
or heiress adjudged to others, he summoned the 
party in possession before the arehon cponjiiius, 
who br(tut'lit the case into court, and made arrange- 
ments for irking the suit. Wc must, however, bear 
in mind that tliis authority was only exercised in 
cases where the parties were citizens, the pole- 
march hanng corresponding duties when the lieir- 
ess was an alien. It must also be undersicod that, 
except in very few cases, ibe archons did not decide 
themselves, but merely brought the causes inio 
court, and cast lots fur the dicasts who were to iiy 
the issue.* Another duty of the arehons was to re- 
ceive tiaayjeXtat, or informations against individu- 
als who had wronged heiresses, children who had 
mnllreaicd (heir parents, gtianlians who had neg- 
lected or defrauded their wards.* Informations of 
another kmd, the Iviet^i^ and ^uotr, were also laid 
before the eponjnnus, though Demnj.ihcnes assigned 
the former lo the thesmouielie. The last office of 
tlie arehon which we shall mention was of a sacred 
character; we alhide to his superintendence of the 
grefiter Dionysia and the Thargclia, the latter ccI^ 
brated in honour of Apollo and Artemis. 

1'he functions of the upxuv (iaoiXn'^ were almosi 
all connected with religion: his dtstiugnLshtng titi? 
shows iliai he u'as considered a representative cf 
the old kings in their capacity of high-priest, as the 
Itrr Sfinijintiuf was at Konle. Thus he preside;! 
at the Lencean, or older Dionvi^ia; superintended the 
mysterus and the giirnes called ?j3^Trodi5^<»p(ai, nnd 
had to offer up sacrifices and prayers in tnc Eleu- 
sinium, both at Athens and FJcusis. Moreover, in- 
dicimnits fjr impiety, and controversies about ihe 
priesthood, were laid before him; and, In cases of 
murder, he biuugbt the trial into the conrt of the aiei- 
opngu.s, nnd voted with its nicinhers. His wife, alw', 
who was called /?aff(?.((TOfj, had to offer certain fcao- 
rifices, and tlicrcforc it was required tliat she should 
he a citizen of pure blood, without stain or blemii-h. 
His court was held in what was called n tov jJae- 

The polemarch was originally, as his name de- 
notes, the commander-in-chief;'' and we find hrm 
discharging military duties ns late as the battle of 
Marathon, in conjunction with the ten arpar^yoi : 
he there took, like the kings of old, the command 
of the light wing of the anuy. Tliis, however, 
seems to l:e the last occasion on record of this ma- 
gistrate, appointed hy lot, being invested with such 
important lunclions;' and in aiier ages we find that 
his duties ceased to he militar}*, having been in a 
great measure transferred to the protection and sa- 
pcrintendt^ncc of the residrni aliens, 50 that he ns- 
seinble'l in many respects tlie pra»tor pcregrinns at 
Rome. In fact', wc learn from Aristotle, in his 

1. (DrmoWti.. Macnr., Ti^iios, p. IfTG.— Pnlliu, rjii , 80.}— S. 
fDrmcMtlt., M«i-Jir., p. 1(153.)— 3. (W.. p. 1055.- PuJIui. Oninii., 
»iii„ M.)— 4. (DomoiUi., c, Slcrh., 2, p. 1130.>— i. {KuKvctf 
/TirAifpor, }'oi/uiy, ic^iuv. Pullux, Oiiom., viu., iS, i^. — I>e 
ni(i»lb., Titnficr., (07.— ScliCminn, 174.) — 6. (I>mf»»th , Licr., 
910— Amlrot..flOI.— Nceru,13T0.— I,viia.^And..l03,wlifiotfci^ 
(liiUM BIO cr.uinL'ril***!, — Elm»IryB<l A.n«luj>li., Ao)i»m., 1113, •« 
pcholii.— ClitiUin, F, It.. 40*J, ■*.— Ilarpocr. n\ 'E'.flXriT^ tin 
tivffTffpitav. Pliitii. E'llliv. rl T^rrl., u\ fuv.- VipUuk. lt«nm^ 

viii., W.}~7. (lUivtS., VI.. lOfl, lit.— PoUui, Unom.. vui.,M.\ 


• Constiration of Athens." ihai ihe polcmarc 
in the same rvlaiion lo foreigneri as the/iTchcrti to 
citizens.' Thus, all actions airectuiK aliens, Uie 
isuteles and projteni, were brought betore him pre- 
Tiously to trial; aa, for instance, tliu ditiJ} airpoa- 
raaiuv again.'<t a furvigner fur hviiig in Athetu with- 
out a patron ; so was alfto llm dtAtf unoaTaaiov 
against a »lare who foiled in his duly to the Tna^tcr 
who had freed him. Moreover, it was the pole- 
ourcti'f. duty to offer the yearly sacrifice to Artemis, 
ux comniemorfltion of Uie vow made by CalUmnthus 
at Marathon, and to arrange the funeral gaaics in 
honour of ihoso who fell in war. These three or* 
chons, tlie inuvv/to^, /Juot^nxi and noXiftapxo^, were 
each allowed two assessors to assist them in the 
discharge of liicir duties. 

The thesmotheiaj were extensively connccicd 
with the al^mjlIi^t^lltion of ju>licc, and apprnr to 
have been called Ic^slators,' because, in the ab- 
sence of a written code, Uiey niii^ht be said to make 
laws, or ^cafioi, in the uncient languaj^e of Athens, 
though, in reality, ihey only declared and explained 
them. They were required to review, every year, 
the whole body of l;iws, iliat ihcy might detect any 
Ulconsistencie^ or «.U{>crduiltcs, and discover whfth- 
Cr any laws which were abrogated were in the public 
reconis among ihe rest-' Their report was submit- 
ted to the people, who referred the necessar)* alter- 
ations to a Icj^islative commiltec chosen for tlie pur- 
poito, and called voftoSerat. 

The chief part of the duties of the thc^inolhet.'B 
consisted in receiving infonnati<tns, and hrinipng 
CA^es to trial in the courts of law, of the days of 
silling in which ihey gave public notice.* They 
did not try them themselves, but sccra to have con- 
slliuted a M»r[ of in"imd jury, or inquest, Thus ihey 
received h6tii€(<: against pariicy who bad not puril 
Uieir lines, or owed any money to the state, and irray- 
yehai agninnt orators guilty of aotionn which dia- 

3ualihrd them from aitdrt'issing the {Kople ; and in 
elault of hrinRin^ the fonner parlies lo trial, they 
lost their light of frying up to the jireiop.'iiTtis a( ihe 
•nd of their year of oflice.' Again, imlicLmcnls for 
peraotml injiihes (tfi^V'-'f )/'"9o<) wore laid before 
lhcm,a.'{weK as inlortniitionsngninsl olive griiwers, 
for rooting up more tree* than was nllowcd to each 
proprietor bv law.* So, too, were the indictracnus 
for bribing the Hplirtra, or any of the courts of jus- 
tice at Athens, or tlie senate,* or fonning cluhs for 
the overthrt>w of llie democracy, and against re- 
tained advocates (ffvw/j'o/Wi) who look bnhea either 
in public or private caul's. Again, an information 
was laid before them if a foreiinier cohabited with 
u citizen, or a man gave in marriai.'e as his own 
Jaiighler the child of another, or confined as an 
adiiTtcrer one who was not so. They also had to 
refer infonnatious (tlaayyt^iru) to the people ; and 
^vhere on information had been laid before ilie sen- 
ate, and a condemnation ensued, it was their duty 
to bring the juJgment into the courts of justice for 
continnation or ren-'ion. 

A different office of theirs was to draw up and 
ratify iho avft6o/ji, or agreemenis with foreign 
slater, settling the terms on which their citizens 
should sue and be sued by the citizens of Athens' 
lu their collective capariiy, ihearchons are said to 
have had the power of dVath in case an cjcile re- 
turned to an inlcnlicled place : tliey also sui>erin- 
tcnded Uio iTrtxcipoTovia of the inagistraU'S, held 
every piytaay,' and brought to trial those whom the 

I. (DfmoMh.. UcT., 940.— Ariat. •(' TT-u--'. ■ * r^lft- 
DinTch.— PuIIqi, Till., *, U2, OT.)— S. (Ti ■ -*, 

Tol. ii., p. 17. (—3. (jfCKh., c. ClitBjph . 1., 

nil., S7. 88.)— 5 (Tlr-n.,MlL . Mi.l., flL"J ■ — 

TimorT.,707, — lii- ■ 'yi ; ii., [i. TJ, Uaiul.— JC»cliin., 

TiTTMinh.. p. 5.: . <*. St4>p)i., u., 1137— Ne»r», 

rjsj, jsfij. jsoti^ I -r-4Jiw, Till., be— scWiD«r>m 

m.—OArtb, /.. SW. 3iT.)-T. (PoJ/bi, Ononi.. TiU., W.— lUr- 
jPT'"''^'' *■■"•« i"/'fl-''>V*.—Schfln»iinn, S94.— Danoath^ Aniu, 

people deposed, if an action ox indictment 
consequence of it. Moreover, they ailoti 
dicasLs or jurymen, and prttbably presided 
annual election of the Mtulcgi and oUicr mil 

In concluding this enumeration of the doll 
the nrchons, we niuy remarlr that it is ne 
be cautir>u8 in our iiitcrprelutiun of the words 
and iip;ifOi>r«f : the fuel J6, that in ihe Alltr <»f 
they have a double meaning, someiti:< r| 

Ihe nrclions peculiarly so called, arr <* 

any other magistracy. Thus, in Xva u.., .. ^ ;.J 
on a cursory perusal, infer, that when a testain 
his properly away from his hcir-al-law, Iry 
was technicaUy called a rfoffif.* the archon lr#ol 
original \iiil into custody, and was required 
prcM'iit at the making of any addition or codi 
It. A more acruratc? ob-iervaiion proves thutl 
rCtv (lp,^(*)i'Tui' is meant one of the L(irvv^^oi% 
formed a magifitrary («p^) as well u the 

A few words will suffice for the privilecVi 
honoon of the archons.' The greatest of Ihi 
mer was l)ic exemption from the trlerurcbies; a 
not allowed even to the successors of Hanoi 
and Aristogciion. As a mark of their olhce^ 
wore a chaplet or crown of myrtle \ and il' an] 
struck or abused one of the thesmnthedi? 
archon, when wearing this badgv »'!' ' 
came dTiftt^, or inlanimis in the i^ 

ihcrebylusiug his civic lights. Th' d 

close of their year of scnice, were .i J 

lhememl>rrsoI'thearriopagus. (Vi'< J 

The principal auihuriiv on the subject ui Lhe arc 
and ihdr amies is Julius Pidlnjc, in a work 
'Ox'oftnariKov : ho was a professor of rbeUA 
Athens in the lime of ihc Kmnerur Coi 
A.D. l&O, lo whom he in.scribed his work, 
generally t>elieved to have borrowed his infoi 
from a lost treatise of Aristotle on the "CooKil 
of Athens." U i.s, however, n^■cr.^sury U r 
the Auic orators, as will bo H-on from' the rei 
ces which are given in ihe Course •■! rK-.. ^r 
Among the modem writers, Ui-ckh 
are occasionally useful, though they ^ 
account of the nrchonship. 

AHCHO'NES (d/>vwi'i?f). The taxes al 
were let out lo contractors, and w" '- 
fanned by a company under the < i 

(ipXt^vjjC. or chiel farmer, who Vid_ : _ ^, 
ivsptmsible lo iho state.* 

AkCIFIN rUS AGER. (ntl, AontMcMO 

♦AHKTION and ARKEION (^kuov ■oi 
Kiiov). 'Hwro ID great roiifusion of names 
uncertainty in respect lo ihe^e plants. Alstn 
marks that Diosroridcs' descripiinn of the &p 
agrees lielter with the character of the Ar 
tajtpa, or Burdock, than his description ti 
upKTwv. Sprfmgf'l, accordinfjly, lK*IdM th« ft 
lo be the Ardhtm Lojfpn, :i ' i 

may t^e the VKrbasciim ]> 1 

•AKKTOS (<'ipi«rof). 1 1... ..... J 

Vmit. Arcios^ L. The Greeks and .' j 

scarcely l)e acquainted with the U. 7n< 1 

u/Mrof of An'sioilo is the ordinary Ki ^ 

the habits of the nninml are well de^ i^ 

"The Itear," observes tliis writer, " | 

ons animal, and, by the supplene J 

climlts trees, and eats tlie fiuiis, aih! a 

1( also devours honey, having lira* | 

hives; crabs, loo, and anu il eats, 
upon flesh." Aristotle then dc.--' ni 
mal attacks the stag, the boar, 1 1 : < 


1. (De ' i 

Miil.. 521 

«t.>— a. (HorpocT.. I 

«a.— I>emt«di., 

,1.., »iii..*'t.---l. 

Ill'- 1.11 : 



fish, described by Aristotle. 
>\y ibc Cancer Ardus, or Bruad Lobster 

(also fomj^ And ca/iupo), an arch »us- 
\t Che hCAd of an aperture, ur carried 
of a wall tu auother, aiiu svrviuff as 
ceilfn? lo tiie space below. An arch is 
■-like stones or of bricks, 
.ill bound lirmly together 
pttaoi.i-- '-■. ii^j-- v^uiicone upou lliem, which 
Cr ia ibexcfore di£iliigaishcd by Uie oaiae uf key- 
seem that the arch, as Uii^ dcfmed, ajid 
by the Romans, was not known to the 
ia ihc early [»criods of iheir history, other- 
Iftfigioage so C4ipioiLS as tlicirs, and uf such 
catioB, would not have waiUcd a name 
k by which to dUiinguish it. The 
aicltes and \Tiult5 appears, however, to 
In Greece prerioiuily to the Roman 
gh not to have been in prac- 

- 'niclive principle bj* which an 

ttjgether, and to a&^M a solid 
itc - pressure ujwn ils circuinftT- 

«s kiiOMii u> incm even previously to Lhc 
wv* and its use is exempltfied in two of the 
' "" gs now remaining: the ch/inibcr 
homenus by Minyas, kin;^ of LJa-otia, 
Pansanias,* and Uie treasury of Aircus 
' Both these works arc constructed 
1, and each of them consists of a circa- 
formed by regular courses of stones 
ally over each other, each course pro- 
T-u the interior, and beyond the ouc 
;■ meet in an apex over the centre, 
■iHMl by a large stone, and thu? rc- 
ioside of a dome. Each of the hori- 
of stones Ibrmed a perfect ciicle, or 
arches joined together, as the 
bed plan of one of these courses will render 

fin be obMnred (hat the innermost end of each 
bereUed off into the shape of a wedj^e, the 
<f wbircii, if continued, would meet in the 
«f tfttewele, as is done in forming an arch ; 
0Lds against the earth are left rouijh, 
lices fiUed up with !»mall irregular- 
t '^c size of the principal 

Y -.iry to continue the sec- 

tl-;., ,,..... tfieir whole length. In- 
IT tbjCK chambers bad bef n constructed upon 
Vfirtnciplc, It is clear that the pressure of 
1 rcw&d ibem would have caused them to 
L The method of construction here de- 
-vai connmimicatcd lo the writer of the 
■ttkie by the late Sir William Gell. Thus 
% tfakl tbe Greeks did undei^iand the con- 
r {vinriptc upon which arches are formed, 

r (— 3. tVitg.. -fin., Ti.,6ai. 
'. Prmnplra of Dcaipi io Ar- 
>*^ II., 16.} 

even in the earliest times ; although it ilid not occox 
to ilieiu to divide the circle by a diameter, and set 
the half* of it upright to l»ear a superincumbent 
WL-ight. But ihey made use uf a coulrivance, even 
before the Trojan war, by which ihcy were enabled 
to gain all the advantagcsof our archway in making 
corridors, or hoUow galleries, and vhicn, in appear- 
ance, resembled the poiuled arch, such as is now 
termed Gothic. This was effected bycu'/any away 
the supt^rinoumbeot stones in the manner already 
described, at an angle of about 45^ Aviih the horizon. 
The motle of construction and appearance of the 
arches are represented in the annexed drawing of the 
walls of TIryns, copied from Sir William Cell's 
Ar^oiis. The gate of Signia (&pu) in Latium 
exhibits a similar example. 

Of the ditferenl forms and curves of arches now 
in use, the only one adopted by the Romans was 
the semicircle; and the use of this constitutes one 
leading distinction between Greek and Roman ar- 
chitecture, for by its anpHcaiinn the Romans were 
enabled to execuie wnrKs of far bolder construction 
than those of the Greeks : to erect bridges and 
aquseducts, and ilie most durable and massive struc- 
tures of brick. •(On the antiquity of the Arch 
among the Egyptians, Mr. Wilkinson has the fol- 
lowing remarKs: "There is reason to believe that 
some of tlie chambers in the pavilion of Remeses 
III., at Medeenel Haboo, were arched with stone, 
since the devices on the upper part of their walls 
show that the fallen rools had this form. At Sag- 
gira, a stone arch still exists of ihe time of tJic 
second Psammilicas, and, consequently, erected 600 
years before otir era ; nor can any one, who sees Ihe 
style of its construction, (or one moment doubt thai 
the Egyptians had been long accustomed to the erec- 
tion of stone vaulLs. It is highly probable that the 
small quantiiv of wood in F.p>'pt, and the consequent 
expense of this kind of roofing, led to the invention 
of the arch. It was evidently nscd In their tombs 
as early as the commencement of the eighteenth 
dynasty, or about the year 1540 B.C. ; and, judg- 
ing from some of the drawings at Bcni Hassan, il 
.seems to have been known In the lime of the first 
Osirtasen, whom I suppose to have been coniempo. 
rnry with Joseph."— AfanTwrn a'nd CvtUms «/" Ue 
Anc. Etnfpfinns, vol. ii.,p. IIG. H7, 1st icrieB.) 

ARCUS TRIUMPHALIS (a triumphal arch), 
an entire structure, forming a pasMBre-way, uiil 
erected in honour of an individual, or in eotnmeia* 
oration of n conquest. Triun-fi li :.■.(...'. w»fe 
built across the principal Mn*' nd, 

according to the spacr of iheir !■ tie*, 

consisted of a single archway, ur a c^iilnl oae tat 
carriages, and two amaUcr one* OD e%c>\ a&e fn 




rt— T^"7ors, which sonietiiiie& haw side com- 
II wiih iho ccfiire. Those acluiilly luaiiu 

u - . : c occasion ola triumphal cnti)banil jin> 
(.■c«Mun were merely itrajwrary luid basiilv ciectftl, 
and, haviu^ M^n'ed itieir purpose, wt-n; t.ikcii douii 
a^iiiu, and suint'tiuica repluctfU by uthers ol' mure 
dtiraUie mat>:^ndLs. 

Sk'iUuius is Uie firsl noon record who vrccted 
aiiyUiiiig cif the ktiid. lie huitt nn arch in tije 
t'omm Bu3ritmi, abuiU B.C. lUt>, and anoUier in 
the Circus Maximus, each of which was surmounu^l 
by yilt slames.' Six years aOerward, Scipio Afri- 
cauus built another on the Clivus Capiioliuus^ oo 
which he placed seven gilt sialu^^.s ami two h^mxes 
or horses i' and iu B.C. I'^l, Kabiui> Maximum baUi 
a fourth in the Via Sacra^ which is called by Cicero* 
the Pornix PaMiiwa. None of the^e r>futtun, the 
Arch of Aueustu5 at Rimini being one of tiic earli- 
est among tfiosc still .slaulini;. 

There arc [wi.'Dtv-one arches rccordc<l by difTi'rent 
tt'rilers as having been crirctcil Hi the cily of HiKiio, 
five of which now remain: 1. Arcu* Vfun, which 
was erected to the honour of CtAiulin.s Orusus on 
the Appion Way.* 2. Arcus 7V/i, at tlic foot of the 
Piilaline, which was cnnUctl to the honour of Titus, 
after his conquest of Jud;ea, bill doe* not appear to 
have Ik-'cu liui^'hcd till alter his death; fiiuce in the 
inscription upon it he is called OiruK, aJid lie is alst) 
represented as l>eiDg carried up to heaven u|jon an 
eagle. The bas-reli»-fs of tliis arch represent Uie 
spKjils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in 
tnumphal pmc<?ssion. This arch has only a single 
oj>e(iiiiij, will) two eoluimis of die Roman or Com- 
pusiti! order on each side of it. 3. Ari^ix ikji/tmn 
Siticrij which was erected by ihe senate (A.D. *207) 
.11 the end of the Via Sacra,' in honour of thai em- 
peror and his two sons, Caracalla and Ciela. on 
accomil ol his conquest of the Panhians and Ara- 
bians. 4. Arcus OoiUi-ni, erected to the honour of 
Grallienus by a private individual, M. Aurelius 
Victor. 5. Arcus CotiManlini, which is larp.'r and 
more profusely <.)mamented than the Arcii i^i* Titus. 
It has liirce arches in each t'ront, with mlunins sim- 

i! ■■ '■' '^ ' •1'! ^talueA on the entablatures over 

t' iIk." other sculptured omamenu, 

'I : -d the Arch of I'rajan. 

AKCIjS (pwf, rofnt), ihc bow used for shoolinc 
Arrows. The l>ow is one of the moM nn-itMit i»f all 

inpoDf), oud has beeo, from time ii K in 

_st,:rri. x^e >/?: the globe, both r i^e^I 

'«nd '.*AA>arous nations. Hence u. and 

Romans ascribed to it a mythirni orig^in, some ray- 
ing that it was the invention of Apollo, who tnuifht 
the use of it to the Cretans," and others altributin? 
Ihe discovery either to Scyihes the son of Jupiter. 
ror to Pcrscs the son of Pers-cus* These several 
ibles indirate nothini^tnore than tlie very sni»erior 

[ill and celebrity of the Cretans, the ^cvluian.s, 
and the Persians m archery. The use of ihc bow 
i*, however, characteriMic of Asia rather than of 
Europe. In the Roman annies it wa*! scarcely ever 
employed except by auxiliaries; mid thrive ntaili- 
arics, called sngiUarii, were chiefly Cretans and 

Likewise in the Grecian armies, archers acted 
unly a subonlinatc though imporiant port Their 
position was in the rear; and, liy takini^ advantage 
of the protection nflbrded by the heavy-armf;d sol- 
diers, who occupied the front ranks, their Bkill was 
rendered very effective in the doslnirtion of the 
enemy. Thus Homer* gives a long list of names 
m the Trojan army of men slain by the ai^ows of 
Tencer, the son of Telamou, who accomplished 

I. (I-t»., nrH., 97 )— 9. (l.i?., rmrii., J.)— S. fin V»tt., (., 

.)— 1. iSupl., CiMiJ., i.»— 4. (I>i«J. Sic.,».,74.)-«. (nin.,lf. 

N., ni., y(.)— '■ (I'l*.. txHTii-, 40 : alii., M. — Compw*. Xen., 

Autih, I. i,^ 9: KpltTn rc>{«friii.— ArriKa, Exp. Al., t., f^, M: 

*'5^'r'«^»»*. th" Crrimn. IttnApv of thf •rchon.'* K»cw<Ura<. 

0K^4e.* r»(4ftxfe>--^ ili.. nii., 960^15.} 

this object by sheltering himself imd< 
shield of hitilirother Ajax. 

Amon^ the Stylhiaus and Asiatics, arch 
miiversally praeti&ed, and l>ecame the | 
meiJiod of attack. In the dcscnj)lion givei 
rodotus* of the accoutrements ol the iiumel 
vaj>( nations wliich composed the army of 
we obicrve tJiat not only Arabians, Mede«, 
ajks, St^iiiians, and Persians, but neariy all I 
troops without ejcccpliou, used the l>ow. i 
tJiere were ditlercnccs characteristic of iba 
comitries in re-speci to its size, its lbrm,aiid 
terials of which it was made. Thua the 
and some others had lows, as well as arron 
of a cane (KuAa/xo<), which w as perhaps the 

Herodotus alsu alludes to the peculiar foi 
ScjTthian buw. Various authorities conspire 
that it corresponded with the upper of the 
ures here exhibited, wMch is taken from ci 

W. Hamilton's fictile vases. It shows the I 
or Parthiau bow uusliiuig, and Ofjrees willi 
of (hat now used by ihc Ttirtnrs, the modei 
*cnlatives of tlic ancient Scythir, In co; 
with this deliut'olion, an unlettered mstic, ' 
seen the name of Theseus (OilCKTC), say* 
third lettci was like a Scythian bow.* 

On the other hand, Ih^ GrTnin tMnr, the us 
of which h shown in the lower of the prcce 
nres, has a doublt* cur^'aturc, consi.stinp of 
eular portions united by the handle. The 
tion ftiid use of bows of tliis kind arc desr 
Homer* in the following manner: Pandf 
l.ycian nrchrr, having obininod ih ■ ' 

species of wild K'Kif.had them siw 
cd by a l.*owmau [Kefiao^t/oc Ttxrw. ,. iiti' • 
another at Ino lav, and fastened together h 
of a rii'C *'f g"ld {vpi<(j/.r} Kopurri). Prepi 
Rhont, he lowers his body (iron" jo/y uyxXiyoi 

f>arc the next wofnlcut). His conirnr»ior 
lim with their shields, llavini? hi' 
dmw« the blring towards hia hi' 
ncXnfftv). The bow i)hu^, as oji-w-r. ^ i. 
twangs, the string resounds, and the anJi 
reach its mark. We see this Dciion 
the following outline of a stattie bcU 

an .SI 
1 cxtaj 

group of the ^gina marbles, and pcrhirv t 

I. (Til., 6t-60.)-a. (All. Aibcn., i,. p. <M. 4.- 




lim^If.* The bow, placed [wind. Grcut pamii were taken to make this flooi 
f, \va* probably U broiui?, | hnnl; it was soracLiiiios ynvt^ wiili flint sionos,' h«( 
U10P-- iisunllv cov^rtrd wilh clay aiiJ suiuothed u'itli 

h i» tfrJdeM ibai a bov, made and handled in the 

■-■■•''•-' r'A not be lontfcr ihan 

^ four I vc I»ccn far less pott - 

lb*D I. On account ot the 

i kdiii-d by Ihe dassical fttubora 

fuuvnrtice oJ* iU' ■ 'J a diflcr- 

tkmkk the node ■ •w. The 

vIlhaiM kneeou . . „. . .. bb right 

«^ the siring lowiLTils his bttasi, as rcpre- 
'itfttbe jEttiDfOn <iarn''. in Hotttt''^ ncfoimt 
,»JOd ui ■- . ' "' ilia; 

on If to- 

rj5 — ■• ,'ed 

Bp ' '.•*!, Hi i^ i-iactiactl by our 

lis i; l.iy.* The Uriental arrow 

AbU u«r-a7y m jiroporiion to the bovr* and 

«b ProcupiiLs observer, with such forct 

Tied wilh eoKI 

Ti ritt^, or lian- 

15 calleti 

•lA «r tboraj '■"nii 
v^s sont 

been tin- 

ip of JcAlher (^ 

rptt*t9i(*% or of •• 
«f Ibe hor>C (iMrmui rtpiinui*"). 
am iMod. Ibe bo\r wn<> put into a cose (m,f- 
rr«f , CaryrKi ). - made uflcjither 

te ofbeo I- "' nonspicu- 

bo^ IS. Thus 

was e. 1 peg" or 

die sbooIdcTs.^* 

Orvelc and Roman divinities, the use 

is sxtrftiuted to ApoUo, Diana, Cupid, end 

.( nd tbey are otlen represcnte^t aniieil 

tV/. SAGfTTi.) 

^^-J, niso railed 

h it \vai{ made, 

■ the door 

' .in order 

\y-r- might pil- 

anriprir u'l'trir*; I'li nn 


M « UK U 

[re* hy fcjiriiikUng the water on their p<rr- 

Sc), the HtTon. Aristotle" dc- 
l. The fpuiUo^ trf?.?.of, thfi 
aitiaia^ L., or cotninnu Huron. 3. 
Ardn At/M,ttr Ore &lF.gTCi. 3. The 
^.K- ...r — ... i^'-rropean Bittern. 
ver>* hich, and 
as if It How up 
.i hen at rest, is 
up to the hc.iT- 
il -. i*= rii.Dim Ml ih«' M>aring flight of 
lis iiinurah'r true to nature: 

.Jftim supfa i-ttttit aftifii nnbcin**^* 

Wf ha- 

*— ■ i-'-h Ge^ner 

I Oppian. 
r aier the 

threshing-floor, was 
-1 on all sides to the 


-5. (AnBcmiD, iif. — 
'■VJ.)— I. (1. c.)-5. 
I'cr*., 1.)— e. (Sm 


111 I, 

I .. "*. I — *i t< 111 III 1 % UllrJ.T li ^U|^' 

la pivai iviilcr" It was alnj customarj- lo cover ii 
y Ml, i... .,r,„]^ which prevented iusecls injuiin;; it, 
iwin.i,Mipon it.' The grains of Uie corn 
u . ! I i>nt by the hoofs of cattle treading upon 

it, ot U Uiiiis (/MJ/.-J*). 

AIIEIOPAUUS {6 'AptitK iroyof. or hill of Area), 
at Atlu-ns, was a rocky eminence, lyint,' lo ihe wesi 
of, and not fur from, the Acruptlis. To iicoouut foi 
the name, various stories were told. Thu;-, some 
said that it was so called from the Amazons, the 
daughters of Ares, having eucami»ed lliere whea 
they attacked Athens; others again, as jKsehyhis, 
from tlic s-iTifires there olTereil lo that god; while 
[he more received opinion connected the name wilh 
ihc legend of Ares hnvin^ l)ecn brought to Irial there 
by Poseidon, for ihe murder of his son Halirrho 
liius.* To none, however, of these legends did Uic 
place owe its fame, but rather to the council ('H tv 
'.\fici<ft TTuyCfi ytov'/^) which held its sittings there, 
and was boiuciiniis called 'li avu l^ovArf, to dii^liu- 
giii-sh it from ihe senate of Five liuiidttnl, which sa: 
m the Ceramcicns within the city. That it was a 
bo<ly of very remote tinUqniiy, acting as a criminal 
Iribiinal, was evidently believed by the Athenians 
themselves. In proof of ilus, we may refer lo the 
,_.,.. ^-.: , ^ j^|- ^Y^^ omtors, and the legend ol 

i-n tried Itefore llie eotmeil Ibr llie 
■ '[lien a trial which took place be- 
fure Aiiiena, and which .£schylus represents as ihc 
origin of the court itself. Again, wc find ihol, even* the first Mcsscnian w;ir(H.O. 7-101 began, ihe 
Me^.-eninn kiugoII>rcd to refer tJie point* in dispute 
to the Argire Ampbictinny, or the Athenian Arei- 
opagiLs;» a proof not only of the existence of the 
body, but also that it hod already obtained consid- 
erable repoiation for eqtiity in itstiecisions ; a repa- 
tniion which it must have taken some lime to esiab. 

There is snifllcient proof, Lhcn» that the Areiopa* 
gns riistcd before the lime of Solon, though he is 
admitted to have so far modiiied iis crtnstitutii:in and 
sphere of duty that he migitt almost be called iui 
Ibunder. What that orieinal constitntiori was mas| 
in some degree be left io conjecliire, though there 
is every reason to suppose thai il w;is arislucratioal, 
the meinber> iK-ing taken, like llie EpheliE, from the 
noble patricinn families [apiartv^v). We may re- 
mark tbat,aner the time of Solon, the Ephetay^fifty- 
one in numlvr, sat colleetivelv in four ditierent 

courts, and vr .i^ — ■■■> ^- i^y^ (^^ hearing of such 

eases of acr ' le homicide as admit- 

ted of or re-i'! I ■-*h)re tlie accused coulij 

resume the civil ami religious righis he had ]o6t: a 
resumption impossible in rases of wilful mnrrfcr, the 
capital punishmenl forwhich eoiUd only be escaped 
by bnnishment fur life, so thai no expiation was re- 
quired or given.' Now tlie Epheltc fjnnerly ad- 
ministered jastiec in five courts, and for this and 
other reasons it has been coniectured that they and 
the Areiopagns then formed one conrt, which deci* 
ded in all cases of mnrder, whether wilful or acci- 
dental. In support of this view, it has been urged 
that the separatmnof I'unclions was rendered neces- 
saiy by that change of Solon which made iheArei- 
npagris no longer an arisiocraUc body, while the 
Epheiae remained so, and, as snch, were competent 
to admiijisier the rites of expiation, forming, as they 
Hid, a part of the sarn'"i law of Alliens, and there- 
fore lelt in the hands uf the old palrieians, even af- 
ter (he loss of their polilieal privilege?. On this 
point wc may remark, that the comiexiun insi.^ed 

I. <Cal<im., I.. 6.»— S. fVinf., G*orc., i.. IT8.)— 3. (C*Ut,V* 
R« Rnii., BI, m.)— 4. (C^4•lMlM ti.. 31 J— 5. (D«iitMib., Arl«., 

/ PvUux. Onota., \m„ lU.) 


on may to & great eiteut Vw? tnie; b«t that there 
was not a complel'; idt'mily of ttiiiPiions is r^"^'*-*<l 
bjr PInlarch (A'/»m) in a. qimtaiion irora iht laws 
of St)lon, fh(f\viiig iliat L-ven Iwrtore l''gt>laii>r 
the ArtMtipngiics and Ephctie wcrt* id some case,s 

rt hns Wen obserred, in (he article AncnoN, that 
til* I change uitn>diiceil by Solon in ihc 

c 1 Athens was to make ili<* qiialificalion 

liji ,,.1... ....,aDil, not on l)inh, Imt property; also 

thai, agrccaltly to his n-'lorms, the nine archons, al'- 
ler nn uncrcpptionahlc dtscharf^; of tlieir duties, 
"went np" to ilie Areiupagus, and hecaine membcre 
of it for fifo, unless expelled for inisrondtirt.* 

The coxincil then, alter his lime, ceaseti lo be aris- 
u>cratic in constitution; bni,a.s wc leani from Attic 
writers, continued so in spirit. In fact, Kolon U 
said 10 haro formed the tH*o councils, the senate 
and the Areiopagiis, to be a eheck tinon the democ- 
racy; that, as he himself cipressed it, "the state 
riding^ upon them a.^ nncliors, might be less tossea 
by Ktonnx." Nay, even after the archonn were no 
lon^r elected by suli'rage, bat by lot, and the ofliec 
was thrown ojica by Aristeides to all the Athenian 
cilizcas,t)ie ''upper council" still retained its ibnner 
lone of (ecling. We learn, indeed, from I^oeralrs,' 
that no one was so bad as not to put off his old hab- 
its on becoming an Arciopngile ; and, ihotnErh this 
may refer to private rather than public conduct, we 
may not on reason a lily suppose that the political 

Rrinciplcs of the younger would always lie modifled 
y the older and more numerous ineml>er5 : a modi- 
fication whi'.'h, Ihoui^h cnntinunllv le^s in dpfi^r^. 
would still be the *<ame in direction, and make the 
ArciopagTis what Pericles found it, a rounicraciing 
force to the democracy. Moreover, licvides these 
changes In its constitution, Solon altered and cx- 
lended its functions. Before his linic it was only a 
criminal court, trying cases of " wilful murtl'.T :ind 
wounfiinjj, of arson and noisonins,"' wherrns he 
gave it extensive powers of a censorial and political 
nature. Thu.< we leam that be made the coimcil 
an "overseer oreveryihini;, and the g^anlian of the 
laws" empowering it to inqulrt; how any one got 
his livingf, and to puui-ih the idle* 

We leam from other authorities that the Areiopa- 
gitcs were "suprriniendents of Roi>«l order and de- 
cency," terms rather unlimiic<l and undefmed, aa it 
i» ni>t improbable S<»Ion wi^hed to leave their au- 
thority. Them ure, however, reconled some i>ar- 
lieulaV instnjires of its exertion.* Thus wc find 
that tJiey called persons to account !br cxiravaj^aiil 
and di?iSoIuio living, and that, too. evm in the Inter 
days of Athenian hisior>'. On Uie other hand, they 
occasionally rewarded remarUahle cases of indus- 
try, and, in company with certain officers called 
yi't'oiKow/zoxmadedomieiliary vt.iit.s at private enter- 
tainrarnLi,to see that the numl»er of guests was not 
loo large, and also for other purposes. But their 
ctfn*iorial and political auihonty was not confined 
to matters of this j^nbcjplinate character. We learn 
from Aristotle,* that, at the time of the Median inva- 
sion, when there was no monev in the public treo-s- 
ury, the Areiopaffus advanced ei^ht drachmiE a man 
to each of the sailors: a statement which proves 
that tbev had a ireaiurv of their own, lathcr than 
any control over the pnhlic finance?, as some have 
tunned from it.' Acain we are told^ that, at the 
time of the bartleof ChTmneia, they .<ei7rtl anH nut 
to death lho«e who deAcrled their countr>', and that 
they were thon»ht by some to have been the chief 
preservation of the city. 

I, rDinare., c D«Bko«th., p. 07. — Plutarch, Vil. Sol.)— t. 
(Ar»tnp., H7.)— S. (Pollwt, Oomn., viii., 117.— tVmwth., Aiit., 
te7)__4. {MutarrK, Vu, Sol.— l^nTT., Arrmii.. H7,)— 5, fAlhr- 
A*ua, i».. p. 167, B. ; IM. ft. ; M, IJinJ.irf., vi.. WJS. c .— Pollot. 
OfMTM,, nn.. ItZ}~0, ii'lulMTch, TUtm.. 10.— V«rf. UAc^li. Publta 
jBtnn. of Atbftia, ml. i"., p. *M, tma*!.)— 7. CniiTlwfcll. Hill. 
Orr^e, ml. m., App. t.jS. /J.^varg ,, c. I,<K)r., IM.) 


It is probable that public opinion stipporled 
in acts of thii kind, wilhuiil the aid of whicli 
must have bciTi ].owerifss lor any such oljeci 
connexion with this point, we may add that, 
heinous crimes had notoriously l>ecn cuinmill 
the guilty parlies were not known, or no ao 
appeared, tne Areiopngns inquired into the ml 
and reported (nrro^ivttv) to the demus. Tb 
port or information was called airifaatt. Tbh 
a duly which they sometimes tinderlook on 
own fepponcibiliiy, and in the exercise of &i 
ejftahlished right, and sometimes on the order ' 
demas.* Nay, to such an extent did tiiey c 
iwwer, that on one occasion they apprehendi 
mdividual (Antiphon) who had ocvn - ••■"f 
the general assi-mbly, and again Ir | 

trial! which ended in liis condemnaii 
Agam we find them revoking an ^lopoi 
whereby -Bschfnes was made the anvoeal 
Atheus'beforc the Amphictyonlc council, and 
sliinting Ih-perirles in his mom. In ihesfl 
cases, also, they were roo«t probably support) 
public opinion 'or by a stroni? party m the stal 

They also had dulics connected with reU 
one of which was to superintend the sacred 
growing about Athens, and tr>' those who 
cliarsred with desiroyine them.* We rcad| 
that in the discharge of their duty as ndijfioo 
sors, ihey on one occasion examined whethi 
wife of the king archon was, as requirtd by U 
Athenian; and finding she was not, iiniKisod 
upon her h^^bQn^i.• We leam from the sum 
sng«: that it ua,s their otlice generally to pimil 
fmpioas and irreligious. Again we are tuld.ll 
rainer in a rhetoricJil way, that they rrdiew 
needy from the resources of the rich, coDlruK 
studies and education of the young, and inte; 
with an<! punished public cliAractor* aa such.' 

Indcpcnilcnt, then, of its jurisdiction as » 
nal court in cases of wilful murder, which 
continued lo the Areiopagus, its innueno* 
have been sufficicntlv ffreat lo have lieen a C 
erable olvstacle to the aggrandizement of t| 
morrary at the of ih-- ', 
slate. In fact, Plutarch' ei]>: 
Ion had this Jt)j>ct in view m .. 
and, accordingly, we find thai Fender, w 
was an archon or Areiopagitc, and who wa» 
sed to tlie aristocracy for maru 
diminish its power and circtui, 
lion. His coadjutor in t^li'^ '■' i" 
statesman of iniloxible ini' 1 1 i' , . : 
commander.* They rtpr iw m '-.l m 
in their attempts, not only in the a- 
on the stage, where i^^schylus prodi; 
of the Kumenidcs, the object of whi- d 
press upon ihe Aihenians the dignity, the 
ness, and con?ititutional worth of the ii 
which Pericles and Kphialtes wished to 
He reminds ihe Athenians that it was a it 
inslitulcJ by their patron gcKM 
into her mouth a pipulnr har.i' 
.1 '_':■;' ■ • "■- 'vntEons, and adm-riii •.-.;!-, .... „, v.;, 
I I :iis in possession of its old oad 

1" ;_:ht<, that under its watchful goal 

ship they might sleep in cccnrily.* Still the< 
siiion faileil : a deercr was earriwi, bv vbli 
Ariftotle says, ibe Areiopqpns wi " 
and many of its heretliiar)* rights ; ' 
ccro, who in one place sfteaks oi i 
governing Athens, olwerves in another, ihati 
thai lime all aulliority was vested in the ec< 


1. < Piitftrrbtii, o. Dtmoaih.. 07. -~ ^MmTOn. D* 
A'tKH,, 217. tnuBl.)— ». (TV,r:..., ii. i ... 'j-\ 
nnnh . e. IVinosDi., p. W.'i 
rtfii 5:*)«(ii;., l<»-|Il.l-a, M' 
Arfltott., p. 111.^-7. (Si»1mh. : . , 



)bc(i of its omament and honour. 

MA thai ihe people deprived the 

oear'iy all its jutlieiaJ auiliorily 

oAiyt^v aTiionf). rslahlJHliing an 

icy, and making tlicuisclves su- 

eouns of justice, as if there had for- 

i a snperior tribunal. Bat we infer from 

Ussi^ that the council lost considerable 

in mailers of sute; for we leam that 

ftt entered upon a career ol conquest and 

^meot lo wtuch she hn<l previously been 

f that, " like a rampar>t horse, she would 

be rein-sbot snapped at Euha'n, and Icap- 

we DctKhboarine i'slands." These ac- 
li^j^;. I. ^^., ... „^ .^.,.1 ^(jj others, 

^atlv at (o jterplex 

fTHi- ; . , ' ii-is been much 

ptrciw naitur of the alterations 

ted; some, among whom we 

. .' arc of opinion that he depri- 

f tlicir old jurisdiction incases 

i....^., , .Hid one of his chief arpimcnts 

ra3 ecideiitly the design of .£&cnylas to 

tm in this pniriKative, which therefore 

i;been asJMiiled. For a snthcicnt answer 

» voold refer oar readers lo Mr. Thirl- 

IBiks^' merely stating, in adilition, iJiat 

fas* expressly affirms, that neither tj-rant 

racv ha-l ever dartd to lake away from 

). In addition to which, it may 

■ eon^qnencps ascribed to ihe 

IS to indicate tliat the Arei- 

-, a criminal tribunal, but 

. .. ^^. i uf ils |Ktwcr as superin- 

I morals and conduct of ihc citizens, both 
^ reii^oo^ matters, and as exercising 
kA over iheir decisions. Now an author- 
brmcr kind seems far removed from any 
ifluence, and the popular belief as to its 
ild have made it a dangeniu^ object of 
lAay nothinj^ of the general satisfaction 
» haA always civcn. We mav observe, 
(»« of the cKief features of a democracy 
aU the officers of the state responsible; 
U n«>l improbable that one of the changes 
hr KmHi liiPK n-ris (n makc ilie Areiopa- 
■ 5, accotmiable to the dc- 
t i'jn, as, indeed, we know 

ard Were' This simple regulation would 
«ive made them suMenirnt, as they seem 
' - ■ ■ — :Mic opinion i wherea-s no such 
-leii m rrimrnal matters, their 
niry, being always s|)okcn of as 
ad holy; so much so, that Demasthene^ 
|bO( even the condemned whispered an 
\ aninst ihe righteousness of ilieir ver- 
leedl the proceeding before Ihe Arciopa- 
pes at murder, were, by their solemnity 
V^ v«U calculated lo ensure jtuii decis- 
1 pTDCflM was as follows: The kin^ ar- 
K&t the case into court, and sat as one of 
I who were assembled in llie open air, 
IfBftiYi against any coniamiQaiion from 
■I,* The accuser, who was said rJf 
nm hnaK^vTttv. Arst came forward to 
|mm oAlb (tkufioaia) that his accusation 
ftg over the slaujErhtcred victims, 
rxtirpatton Ufon himself and his 
rre it noi so. The accused then 
cftAffce with the same solemnity and 
B^h party then staled his case with 


J7I.)— J. (Hnl. Greece, toI. Hi., p. 
Puv «n kIjI* vi&ilirJitiaii of ihli lUtv* 

--' '- -f-tl ui Ilennftnn, 

p. yi.— IK-ckh, 

-A. (ArintitL.. [>. 

■..■,> vv .— -r-. (Antiphim. lie 

^>flh,, e. atiM.. L o. — PoUax. 

all possible plainness, keeping strictly to the sat»> 
ject, and uul b(*ing nlUiwcd lo appeal in any way to 
the feelm(^ ur passions of the judges.' After lh» 
first speech,' a criminal accu.scd of mnrder ruighi 
remove fri'tu Athcn:«, aud thus avoid the capital 
punishment tixod by Draco's Heoftoi, which on this 
point were still in force. Except in casea of p.'uri- 
cide, neither ihc nccu:ier nor the court had pc vcr lo 
prevent this; but the party who thus evaded the 
extreme punishment was not allowed lo re!!iru 
home;' and when any decree was passed at Ath- 
ens to Icjfalize Ihe return of exiles, an exception 
was always made against those who had thits left 
Ibt'ir couulr>'.* 

The reputation of the Arciopagiis as a criminal 
court was uf long continuance, as we may learn 
from an anecdote of Aulus GcUius, who iclU ns' 
that C. 00131)0113, proconsul oC the Roman prov- 
ince of Asia, referred a case which perplexed him- 
self and his council lo the Areiopaf^.^ {ui tul judirrA 
gruviora: cTrrcUtttiorcfquc) j iliey ingeniously settled 
the matter by ordering the parties to appear thai 
day 100 years {urUrsimo antw tufessi'). They exist- 
ed in name, indeed, till a very late perittd. Thus 
we find Cicero mentions the council in his letters;' 
and under the Emperore Graiian and Theodosius 
(A.D. SiiW), Toi'^iof *i7(TT0f is called proconsul of 
Greece, and an Areiopa^te.'' 

Of the rcspeciabibty and moral worth of the 
council, and the respect that was paid to it, we 
have abundant proof in the writing of the orators, 
where, indeed, it would be difficult lo find it men- 
tioned except in terms of praise. Thus L,vsias 
speaks of it as most righteous and veneraljle ;• 
and so great was the respect paid to ils members, 
that it was considered mdc in the demns laughing 
in their presence, while one of them was making an 
address to the assembly on a subject tiiey had been 
deputed to invesligate. This respect might, of 
course, facilitate the resumption of some of their 
lost power, more especially as they wore sometimes 
intrusted with inquiries on behalf of tlic state s" 
on (he occasion lo which we have just alluded, 
when they were made a sort of commissioncre to 
inquire into thr> ^taie of the buildings iihout the 
Pnyx, and decide upon the adoption or rejection of 
some proposed aUcraiions. Isocratcs, indeed, even 
in his time, when the previous inquiry or iuKifioebx 
had fallen into disuse, speaks well of their morel 
influence; Init, shortly after iho age of Demetrius 
Phalereus a change had taken place; ihey h;id lost 
much of ilieir respecLabilitv. and were but ill fitted 
to enforce a conduct in others which they did not 
observe themselves. 

The case of St. Paul is generally quoted as L 
instance of their autJmrily in religious matters; but 
the words of the sacred historian do not necessarilv 
imply tliat he was brought before the council, it 
mav, however, be remarked, that they certainly 
took cognisance of the iniroduciion of new and nn- 
aiithorized forms of rrUgioiis worship, called hrU 
Btra. le/>6, in contradislinction to the Triirptn orolder 
rites of the slate.' There was also a tradition that 
Plato was deterred from mentioning the name of 
Moses as a teacher of the unity of the Godhead, by 
his fear of the Areiopagus." 

With respect to the ntimber of the Areiopagn? *- 
ill original form, a point of no great moment, ihoro 
are various accoimts; but it is plaJn ihat there coiiW 
have been no fixed number wneji the archons bft. 
came members of this body at Ihe expiration of 

1. (Tn'ooifofsrc^i *liK titiv oMi aJxrtstaOiu: Aristot., Rli*^ 
i., I— Pidlur. Onom., vlii , 117.)—^ (iieri riy ^f^orrpiv \Ayov.J 
— 3. iiii^ftt J(i<ii'j /.!».}— <. (ffl K 'Ap€tot> Jtilyov i^tv/'ur^rf.^ 
V%J. Vltitu, l^n, iJ., !M— 4. (ni., 7.»— fl. (ad Fum , iiti., 1 1 
ftil Att., Y., n.) — T. fMounini, Arciop.) — 9. (An<i'x-., lOiU— 
Cnm[«iir(« jVth., c. Ttnurrh., 13. — Iwkt., Aiiinp., 145.— 
Athcngeua, it., p. Ifl7.)— 9. (Harpofr., ■■ v. 'EriPrroi Jafintt, 
SchOmun, D« Ct'ieit: AtH.. 381, trumU — 10. (Juiiu Mv<rr, 
Cohur. lulGrirc.. n. &3.} 


Mir y<nr of office. Lysia>, iridoi-d, speaks of 
UiL'ni' Brt foriniiiK u pari uf the Ar»'iitpat{»s ^ven 
(loriiii; ili;ii liiiif ; n !itait:iiiciu wbkti can only U: 
rccutiL'ik'd wiih tlic gciMTQl upiniou on the subjccL 
by diippKNing llial lliey foniicil a part uf ll»c council 
iluring ilieir y«'ar of oitice. but wcru nui pcrmaiiuiii 
1111*1111101^ till ilic cuid uf that tune, aud alter passing 
a fctitisfactoni' cxamttiaiiun. 
AllKiSA.' ( 1 "/. Ampuithiutiilm.) 
AUMTAL OUI wcr»; (wn»un« wliuae occupation 
appeapf lu liai'o Itveit to amu<ic the cum|Miiy at the 
Kuiiuin ili:incr-iabU'.'».' 'I'hoy wein lo Uave Iweii 
Loukcd u|Hjnuiili uicinpt, n.s JuitiiaI ^•priikM 

ul tht; mrmlfiA (..'ii>aubun C]iiiik> thai 

they wort' yoai \ i , of Uie C\a\c ojni iiuuc 

schoul\ wim, li ^.> procure luUuwcrs, iJc- 

Uvcrt'd thuir >>> , virtue aiul vice ai the 

(Uiincr>i uf the ncli, aiid that ll>ey Vivtv the hAnw ua 
(haiic whuin S*MH:ca* culls urriU^/itrrrs phiU>^ip/uDi* 
Kiipcrii aay.s that they uen: pervin^ who tKiastctl 
u( ihcir uwii vuluur (ti/jrrr/), hkc thu Milrt i^hrtoMun 
of riautus.' Tumcbiw takes llie wurd lo mean 
**aayerb uf pl<-aMaiit things," from uptTo^, pita»nnt.^ 
AltGE'l. We Icani from Livy' that Numa cun- 
Bcciutcd places for Uic celut>raliun of R-litfious jcr- 
vievs, which wore called by the ponlificcs ^'aif^ci.'' 
Varro cajln ihein Ihe chuf)c)» of tliu ar;;ei, and Miys 
they Mere tweiiiy seven in nuinlier. disiril.mod 'in 
tbr diil'erent diMiicis of the cilv We know but 
little of the particular use* to which ihey were ap- 
plied, and tliat little is uninipi)rtani. I'hux we are 
luld thai they were st)|i:mnly visited on the Liber- 
aliu, or fc^tli'ul of Haechus; and nl>n, that when- 
ever llie llanien dialK ui-m Cni/'i hi ihcui, he was 
to adhere lo eeruun « in also 

lo have been the dr; ..iphical 

reconis Thus we read m \ iiuu, " Ju .wi/ri.i Aff^r- 
arum taipfum <st sic; Oypius Piotis pnnccjt.i," file., 
which is followed by a description fjf the neJKh- 
liuujrhuiid. There was n tradition lliat tliese arad 
were named lioiu the chieftains who came with 
Ucr. ulc5, the Arrive, Ijl> Home, and occupied the 
Oipitolinc. or, ns it was oticienlly enlk'd, Katnniian 
Hilt Im 'I to 5fty what i.s ilie liisturical 

VllUo or I Jii-s legend ; wcuiay, Iwwever, 

nolice iib . . wiih the statement that Home 

wan lounded by ihe rela^fti^in*. with whom the 
turac of Argos was cuunecied.' 

The name t}ft;rt wna given (o < ■ ■ s 

thrown into tlie Til>er fnmi Ihe Suli i ', 

OD the Ide5 of May in '■■-■■'* -'■ \r. 'I'ln^ u ,1- u.-in: 
bv the iwntifice^, 1)1" pnelorb, and niher 

ciliifens, after tJie i- : i^t the cnMnmary 

aaerlfiees. Tlie iiuufies were thirty in number, 
mailc of bulrushes, and in the form of men (rMiw^.n 
MtJIfitUt/M). Ovid niakeH various HU|i()asitionfl to 
account lor ihc orit^u of this rile ; we enn nn!y 
conjecture that it waa a syiriKdiad oflerin^' to jiro- 
pitiate the Rods, and that the number \*as a repre- 
aontative cither of the thirty imtrielon enrire at 
Itoine, or perhaps of the ihirty Latin townships, '" 

•AKOKMO'NK (t'lpyrfiuvti). a spcetrs of plant, 
which IXKlonDBiis is almost dispiwed la rr^'anl ns 
ideiuieal with llic Oiaunum, or Homed Poppv, 
Sprcngel sets it down i'or the Pap>jvrr rtf^rw(/ftr. 
The parat;raph in Dioscoridcs, in which the second 
species is described, would seeiii lo be spurious. 
Pliny calls liiis plant Arsertumin, and flSM>ii?t it vo- 
riyii* curative pnDj^rties in affections of the nervoos 
lyfclem. gout, angina, &c.'* 

I. twtfi rnf I'rjrdO, p. 
itnU.)— ft. l^w'.., (Vl;iv 

Liux. t...t 

tar i 


•! J' 


III), III.— rid. Arrnm. Or»t., c. An- 

. T4.)-3. (S«l. ly.. 15. Ifl.j— I. (Ep. 

1 , OciUr., "•!.}— fl. (Ruiwiti m Jut.. 

I., 13.)— 8. (i., 39 1-6, {Vnrro. IM 

1 . . if. .791 — A11I r,^\\ .— Nje- 

■>. Ilrl.inB. Ltt., 

'., 10. Jii.-lMu- 

M. tfl. llitt.. Vot. 1^ 

"Urr. ill si-]ilciUm<.^ Hnmi, tot. 1., p. 
1/., SW.—Adam%, AppoitJ., t. v.) 


ARGENTA KM, bank. 
Rome The public bank. 

di.Htin^nii»hcd JiA)in the */ _ 

da**** of mcnsani, the mrnMitu tfinnqurrin 
riri, were a sort ot cxtraoniinarv Tn.T;,M^ri 
oUice ticing generally filled by p' 
iheir business wat lo rrtfiilate 1! 
zeiis, and to provide ainl •! 
jfcneics.' *1 heie were >'■ 

lower than thcue, and wlin , ^ ^ 11 

that ol the angentarii ; and Ktili iower ntoOtlj 
nummvhrii, though these were aN" pnMie fui 
nricM. TbearRcntarn,<m the ei. . 
banker^, who tJul all kind<f of I" mi 

nnd a;;erify Ui<!tne'>^ lor iheir * .. - 

arc Called nrnmJutii ; orsrvUte mctistc 
areeiUi diMra.-.Ufies ; Wf^iifiattrrea ttipis at 
Tncir private character is clear, from wh 
says:* " Tabcma (i. e., nTgattnriu) jful 

(/luiruM HKl/l «'/ jh iVfitji/tpfttinff." A llliriM n] 

tr<im.ieiiiinx xt'irc carried onlhioui^h their inlel 
tiim, niij Ihey Ifepi the Aeeount-ljoukn uf their 
turners. Uenee all tenns reifpeciinf; the 
between debtor and creditor werff b'Trriwed, 
banking business : thus, rnitpurj.' 
put down on the debtur'^t hide in ' 
inean^ " lo lx>rrow money ;" f-.- 
back af^^ain ;" wtmrn (an item In tfic accot 
debt," or even " a debtor," as when Cic< 
" £1^0 Piet$ rebMi gcitxi hue $nm asfra/t%t$ 
novum existimer."* On these boukf of 
which liavc (jiven rise to the modem Italil 
of lxM>k-keeplnt' by diMible entry, sec Pliay,' 
Silt ii., r 

Tne function* of the areeniarii, bcil 
oriK^lnnl occripnlion of money-chnnjimj; (; 
rtr/ren/i), were tt^ follows ; ). Attending put 
as a(foutH lor purchasers, in which caf>c lh<^i 
calleil inirrjirrtr** y, A*'-*"'"" ■•" ' '"■■■' 
(jtftiffihit nutiiiHtmim). ."! 

keeping? a bank in the m 

If the (leposiie wan not to t>ear inti'iti^i, it 

firjvsttn/ri, or rarun prninin ;' if it was to 

est, il ^^^ " ' ' * ''"' - , - ral 

taid noi I 

nciion <'■'-. .:. , :- : 

The shopn ol the hankent were xn tbe cl 
round tlie forum : hence money borrowed 
banker is called as ciraimforanrum; nnd the I 
font ft'ierr or abirc, fifro mrrpi, Ac, mean 

coine banknif^ '* The r* • .'■■ -1 i' 

divided into corporatiuns I) 

foli^i^ium like the mensam 
argentarius was ncccssarilv a lre<.man. 

AKfiENTlJM {o/i)i'/»r). ailver. Ar< 
HertMlotus*" the Lydinns were the fiffil p 
put a stamp upon silver; but, according 
timony of most ancient wrilcp*. siUTr 
fir:»l coined at jEffina, by order of Pheit 
B C. 860." The silver coins of Grce< 
divided into three klnd^, which dillbr in app^ 
necordinic; to the ase In which tbcv were 
The must ancient are very thick, and of 
manship ; tho'ip of jlC^na u-<ually 
upper side Ihc fipire of a turtle or a 
on Ote under an indented mark, as if the 
the time of slrikinp the meul had been pla* 
a puiir;)ie«n, and had received a mar* 
weii?hl of the blow. The second kind, 
pear to bclunp lo the aeeof I*erjc!es and 

I. (Lit., uiii,, SI : "rrnjiifr prn-fnnm ftmnU U 
nirn*nn< full." — tV/, ftmin Itiiilrt-w*, I>- .*•«•■. » . pt 
Sitlmuint, \>f> M'xlo I'tnr., i>. yi9 ' '^m 

•ioriO.t-3. (Dm. \K til 1. 1. :n.)-4. --I 

B^atlttjr'i nortr on lltmrr. V.\ i<! 
col., ill., I, M, i**!.)— T 
U.S.S.t— A, (Sui'i., (>. 

tJoir., p, 723.1 Irt. {*.,'' ' , i«-, *;-, CF»r>*«; 

•rut, «xi, Strvk, 

KCi :' DUi una reiiiaric bouuiu yivmauiy ue 
} the coina^ of his own time. *(Mr. Hus- 
i his experimeots with three Atiic drachms 
At ages : the first was a thick one of the 
id earliest style; the second, a little later, 
>f a thick form, with the head of Minerva, 
ag that of the oldest coins, but not quite so 

the third, of the latest kind, broad and 
h the owl standing on the diota, the helmet 
rra's head surmounted by a high crest, and 
er characteristics of the later coinage of 
AAer stating the results, as given aoove, 
sey goes on to remark as follows : " Now, 
three drachmae, the first and third are less 
. other Greek money. Out of nine trials of 
nd cme of Roman silver, the third of the 
[tie coins in question is considerably the 
f all ; and the first of them is likewise in- 
all but two. The second, on the contrary, 
r standard than all, and therefore this alone 
mg to the coinage of which Xenophon 

And, as the other two must be uf diflerent 
e first belongs to an age earlier ihan Xeno- 
e second to a later. Thus it appears that 
IS to which the second drachma belongs, 
the middling class of Attic silver, between 
kest and nuest of all, and the broad, thin 
may be set down as contemporary with 
banes and Xenophon : the very clumsy and 
oted pieces, from which the first was taken, 
to an interior coinage of an earlier age ; and 
ad, thin coins to later times, when the munev 
or Athens at kast, considerably debased, 
ampaiative value of these coins proves also 
vas the practice among the Greeks to alloy 
1DC11W7, even where the currency had good 

and wide circulation ; and, therefore, those 
sue mistaken who have reckoned the worth 
u >f it were all, without exception, fine silver, 
iboQ^ it is conceivable that the alloy in the 
i coins is doe to want of skill to refine the 
^ 7ct,wha the later coins are baser than the 
er, tins can only be because they were inten- 

^ MS already remarked under JEa^ that 
^'M origintlly the univenal currency in 

Auc x^iucuituta uui«uucu iucu siivci iiuui luc Oli- 
ver mines at Laurion, which were generally regarded 
as the chief source of the wealth of Athens. We 
learn from Xenophon' that these mines had been 
worked in remote antiquity ; and Xenophon speaks 
of them as if he considered them inexhaustible. In 
the time of Demosthenes, however, the profit ari- 
sing from them had greatly diminished ; and in the 
second gentuiy of the Christian sera they were no 
longer worked.* The ore from which the silver 
was obtained was called tilver earth {apyvpin^ y^, 
or simply doyvpiTi^*). The same term {terra) v,na 
also appliea to the ore by the Romans, who obtained 
most or their silver from Spain.* 

The relative value of gold and silver difiercd 
considerably at diiTerent periods in Greek and Ro- 
man histonr. Herodotus mentions it' as 1 to 13 : 
Plato' as I to 13; Menander* as 1 to 10; and 
Livy' as I to 10, about B.C. 189. According to 
Suetonius,*" Julius Ceesar, on one occasion, ex- 
changed gold for silver in the proportion of 1 to 9; 
but the most usual proportion under the early Ro 
man emperors was about 1 to 13; and from C(»^ 
stantine to Justinian about 1 to 14, or 1 to 15.^* 

•ARGENTUM VIVUM, auicksUver or Mep. 
cury. It is first spoken of by Aristotle and Theo- 
phrastUB under the name of fluid silver {upvvpof x^ 
T6c)f and the mode of obtaining it is thus described 
by the latter: "This is procured when a portion 
of ciimabar is rubbed with vinegar in a brass mor- 
tar and with a brass pestle." All the modem pro- 
cesses, on the other hand, that are adopted for 
separating the mercury from the ore, depend upon 
the volatility of the metal, its conversion into va- 
j>our in distilling vessels or retorts, and its condensa^ 
lion by cold. The nature of this mineral, however, 
does not seem to have been much understood even 
four centuries later ; for Pliny^' distinguishes be- 
tween quicksilver (Argenium vivum) ana the liquid 
silver (Bydrareyrus) procured by processes which 
he describes from minium, or native ciimabar. 
This hydrai^yrus be supposes to be a spurious imi- 
tation of quicksilver, and fraudulent substitute for 
it in various uses to which it was applied.^* Dios- 
corides, however, who is generally supposed to 
have written about the same time with Pliny, means, 



drachmce for the first conviction, and a loss of civic 
rights iuTtftia) if Ihe same person was convicted 
three times oi indolence.^ According to Julius Po)- 
ltii,« Draco did not impose a severer punishment 
than uTiuia, and Solon did not punish a at all llll 
the ihiru ofTcnce." 

•ARGILLA, Potters' Clay, included frequently 
by the Latin writers under the general name of 
Creta. Thus Palladius says, ** Cretn, qwim turgiHam 
dicimvs:" and Oolnmella, "Cr€t^,qttaiUHiUvr_figidi, 
qitam^ive lumnvlii argiUam recant."* These writeni 
apeak repeatediv of"ereta JipUaris^"* "creta qua 
Jiunt amvhartt." Cclsu-S too, speaks of "crd^i 
jSgularis,^ and Vitruvius of "iwi ce cretn factum, 
non cacfum.'^ By the term CrrJ/i, therefore, was 
generally meant some whitish clay, such as potters' 
day, pipc-clav, or fullers' earth. {Vid. Cbkta.) 

•ARGI'TIS, a species of wine, celebrated by 
Virgil" for its eriraordinarj' durability, and prtv 
curcd from a small grape abounding in'juice. It is 
believed to have been a white wii;e. If this con- 
jecture be well founded, we may discover some 
analog' between it and the best growths of ilie Rhine, 
which are obtained from a small white grape, and 
are remarkable for their permanency." 

APrrPIOT iiIKH (tip;r,«ofdt«u)'wa3 acivilsnit 
of the class npdc rtva, and withui the jurisdiction 
of Ihe thesmolhet«, to compel the defendant to pay 
moneys in his possession, or for which he was lia- 
ble, 10 the plaintiff. Thisuctlon is casually alladed 
to iu two speeches of Demosthenes," and is treated 
of at larj^j in the speech against Callippus. 

*Ait(JYHl 'TIS (u/jjT^mc), a name given to (he 
ore from which silver was obtained. (Kwf. Argbn- 


ARGQIIOKOPEI'OJJ {ApyvpoKonatop), the place 
where munrv was coined, the mint. That nl Ath- 
ens appears to have been in or adjoining to the 
chapel iiifHJov) of a hero namrd Slophanrphortis. 
In it were kept the standard weights for the coins." 

ARGYRAS'PIDES iupyvpuamSec), a division of 
the Macedonian army, who were so called because 
they carried shields covered with silver plates. 
Tiiey were held in high honour by Alexander the 
Great, after whose death they went over to Amigo- 
nu5." LivT mentions them as the royal Cdhort in 
the anny of Antlgoiius.^* The Emperor Alexander 
Sevems had in his army a body of men who were 
called nrsrjrpnspides}* 

•AR'I.\ {ofda). a sppcies of plant. Banhin held 
it to be a kind of pear-tree, and Miller makes it to 
be that kind which gpis the English name of White 
Beam-tree, namely, the Ptirus Ann ol Hooker. But 
Schneider, upon ihe authority of Sibthorp, holds it 
to be a variety' of the dlufrcus JfeT.^* 

AR1.\DNE['A {'Kpiudvtia), festivals solemnized 
in the island of Naxos in honour of Ariadne, who, 
according to one tradition, had died here a natural 
death, and was honoured with snerifices, accom- 
panied by rejoicings and merriment.*' Another fes- 
tival of the same name was celebrated in honour of 
Ariadne in Cyprus, which was said to have been 
Instituted by Theseu.s in commemoration of her 
death in the month of Gorpirens. The Aniathu- 
fitans called the grove in which the grave of Ari- 
adne was .shown, that of Ajphrodite-Ariadne. This 
Is the account given by Plutarch*' from PEcon, an 
Amathusian writer. 

1 (Ljn., r.. Viir.., <l^yfa(. — Aji. Dimi. Lacrt. in Sulonc. — Har- 
poor., a. T. KttTffi cl inrajiot. — V^l. M11X..11..6, 3.}— *J. (Onom., 
mi., (t, « «.)— 3. ( I'trf. Tnyt-ir, L«ri. Lvaia^., p. 707, 708.)— 4. 
(Pt]l»(l.. i., S4, 3.— Cubim.. li.., 1I,(».)— 5. (Coliira., Hi., 11,9; 
vi., 17,0: nii..a,3.— Ve([..iii..4»— fi. (Cnlam.. eii.. 4. 5.)— 7. 
(1., J.J— «. [»iii.. I, a.)— 0. rOwjrj?., li.. 99.)— 10. (Hrtul«»oi»'« 
Aor. Winet, p, TS.)— 11. (in Buoc.. IrtOS : m OlTmii^wl., It79.) 
—IS. (PoUux, Ooom.. Tii., 103.— UOckh. Pali. Emo. of Athens, 
rol. i., p. HM, lr»iul.l— 13. (Justiii.. m., 7.— Curlms, iv.. 13.— 
Plot[»rr>i, Einniiii., 13, Av.)—H. (Li?.. xTfYii.,40.)— 13. { 
prid., Alitx. S«v., M.)— la. (Throplinut.. H. P.. i»., 7.— Aloms, 
ippnDd., «. r.)— 17. (PluUrrh, Th«,, BO.J— IS. (TU*^ «>n i 


ARIES {Kpi6c), the batlering-ram. was 
shake, perforate, and laiici duwn the walU oi b& 
sie^^^l cities. It consisted of a large bcajn, 
of the trunk of a tree, especially of a fir or an 
To one end was (aliened a mass of bronze or 
(Kc^a^i/, i/iSokfi, npQTufiri^), which resembled lit 
form the head of a ram ; and it is evident that 
shape uf the extremity ol the engine, as well atjj 
name, was given to it on account of the re^enibli 
of ius mode of action to that of a nim butting 
its forehead. The upper figure iu the annexed wc 
cut is taken from the ba&-rcUefs on the colur 
Trajan at Rome. It shows the aiies in its simi 
state, and as it was borne and impelled by hi 
hands, without other assistance. Even when 
art of war was much advanced, tlie rdiu musi 
been IrequentJy use<l in this manner, both wh< 
time was wanting for more complicated 
mcnts, and wherever the inequality of the 
rendered such arrangements impracticable, 
sculpture shows the ram directed against the 
of a wall, which must have been inure miner 
than any other pan. V^ AngtUarem (urrim iciiu; 
rant arietis vioientior.*") 

l\. — ^ 


In an improved form, the ram was surronn^ 
with iron bands, to which rings were attached, 
the purpose of su-spcnding it by ropes or chains fn 
a beam fixed transversely over it. See ilie I01 
figure in the woodcut. Bvihis contrivance 
dicrswere relieved from t^e necessity of 1 
the weight uf the ram, and they could 
give it a rapid and forcible motion bactwai 
forward, so as to nut the opposite wall into a si 
of vibration, and tmis to shatter it into fragment 

The use of this machine was farther aided 
placing the frame in which it wa.s suspended n| 
wheels, and also by constructing over it a wc 
roof, so as to form a '* tesiudo" {x^Xux't) npu 
which proiedei! the besieging party from the del 
sive assaults of the Ijcsicged. Josephus informs] 
that there was no tower so strong, no wall so thi 
as to resist the lorce of this machine, if its 
were continued long enough.* 

The beam of the aries was often of great lei 
e. ^., eo, 100, or even 120 feet. The design of 
was botn to art across an intcn*ening ditch, 
enable those who worked the machine to remaii 
a position of comparative security. A hi 
men, or eren a greater number, were sonoet 
employed to strike with the beam. 

The besieged had recourse to various cont 
ces in order to defend their walls and towers 
the attacks of the aries. l. They attempted, W 
throwing burning materials upon it, to set It on fire"; 
and, to prevent this from being effected, it was c oV" 
ered with sackcloth {6tf>{itt* cUiciis*) or with bi 

1. (Jac»phftfl.^SiiidiU.>— S. (Anin- Mtreall., xur., fi.)- 
fAppiut, BcU. M;tbri>L>— 4. (BelL JuJ.,lii.)— 5. (JowipH^' 
—8. O'offot-, iT..a3.l 


Mb*), which were sometimes inotsienetl 
ttpannu cj-upiili'V 2 They Ihrew down 
P9, ■"■ ■' ' * —nk vH liie iron head of the 
T.. u ihc same purjiose, ihey 

ir-on upright poais {UtUeno- 
Ihe exiremiuct*) of Uiese beams (hey su:>' 
of lead, ininks of trees, stunes, or 
They then caused tliese nonder- 
to fall rt^peaicdlv upon the liead of the 
t>.o L.i-, ir/. party aitempied to defeat 
rt I'lr 10 ttiose mentioned un- 

U ■ viz., by ihe use of sickles 

Im; tuJ^ ut luug poJcS {iisarrilAiA /«/ca/ts*), 
Oyed to cut the ropes l^ which tiie stones 
•weights wciT Mi<t)tniled. 4. They caughl 
of the ram \u a iiuoee {lapiro,* /ipo^otf*). 
' thus enabled lo dr^w it on one side and 
blows, or even !o overturn it and prevem 
altogether.' 5. They seized the head with 
brcep« armed with teeih, and eaJlfd the 
u*), and they ihtis batHed the elfonsof the 
in the same war a** by usine the noose. 
Ued sacks with chaff, or stutTed them with 
; materials, and su^ipcndcd them by ropes 
the ram was e.\ peeled to strike, so a« to 
blows and break their force, the bcsiegere 
\TijS the sickles, as already men- 
'i:.>,' This provision of sickles, 
lam, beloii;;ed to the more com- 
ne, called Ustuda aneinria. 
machines of this class were so con- 
be taken to pieces in order to be con- 
ce \n place, and were put together 

i ' with on anarhron- 

t ines as employed at 

»qI liiiiiu and ol LburentDm.^^ Fhucydi- 
prm-s the use of it by iIh: rclopoonrsianA at 
\i ' "' ■ 'I j5n( {y fjp5| tKicame an impor- 
\\ - in the hands of the Mnccdo- 

oiiaus. (ri(/. Falx, Ullkpulik, 


{<«>«''c). tbe ordinary ram. (>7i/. Ovii.) 

i'.un), a shellfish noticed by 

to a Kenns of the class Moi- 

-aceu undor llie Untaii-^}^ 

v), a species of plant. 

! alliance with the Ar%mi^ 

y, luudeni botanists ^ve it the name 

MiUer calls il Friar's Cowl in 

OLOCH'IA (upiffr€»^;fia), a Species of 
m Birthtt'ort. There is some diffi- 
ing the three kinds described by the 
s thinks there is little reason lor 
'Ihe tfT^K»y7TA)7 as Iwing the ArtauAochxa 
and the untpii as bemg the Lon^A of mod- 
lM3i; and ytlSprf'nsel iiiclincs lo refer the 
y A. palltda, ano ihf* other to the A. Crdun, 
^ii^^r,-.' ^ nr questionably the -injr/o/wA- 
IH, 1.1 Biiihwort." The Birlli- 

I |ifr ■ml tonic and stiinulniirij? 

L y\ ■ alher complaints in which 

lloc' 'ud useful, notices severe 

H, ■' breathin'T, hip-jjoul, (hv 

COfpi ind in Pt-iu, at die present 

A. J- '1 (called m that country 

F b tX^V/u, Of Star-Ucoil) is hii^hly es- 
A venedy against dvseuterics, malignnni 
r», colds rlicmnatic pains, &c. 
pajl os^d." 

UUMB, M*ir«ll.,xzM 7.) — 3. titno^^\ni ri}r 

JoMfib.. l.c.)— I. [Lir., xuciiit., S.) 

.r.i.T t ,- 1 — 7. (Ajnm. Marcfll., IT.. 

,1 v,-,((it,, Apf'ian., U. cc.) — 

.«l;i]i..7(Xi.>— 19. (ii., 

...... W. {Di«c«., «., IW.- 

,*.v.^lA '^ilH-m. *D|ieiiiI.,i.f.]— '10. (LinO- 


ARMA. ARMATU'RA (/vreo, jcuxta, Horn, ftr- 

Ao), arms, armour- 
There can be no doubt that, in the caillcsi time-, 
theGreeks, as well as other nations, used stones and 
clubs fur their weapon.s, anil that they wore ilic 
skins of the wild beasts which ihey had slain, at 
once as proofs of their strength and prowess, and 
as a protection lo their bodies. Hence Hercules 
was comuionly represented clad in the snoils of the 
JJemeau lion^ as well as carrying a club.* The 
use of the poatskin for a similar purpose has been 
noticed under the article JF.cxa, Theocritus, in tlie 
following lines, dcsciibcs the savai^ wrestler Amy- 
cus as wearine the skin of a lion, which was fasten- 
ed over his breast by two of the paws, and depended 
from thence over his back : 

AvTup ifTT^p vuToio *at avxivo^ ^uprfro 
'Axpuv depfia Xiovro^ a^pficvov ix noAeuvinf.* 
This mode of wearine: the lion's skin is displayed 
in two small bronzes of vers* high antiquity, which 
have beeti published by Micali,* and which are cop- 
ied in the annexed woudctit. 

In the Homeric battles, we have some trace* of 
the u«;c of hides for defensive armoitr.asin the third 
l«>ok of the Iliad,* where Paris appears li^'htly arm- 
ed with a bow and panther's skin upon his shoul- 
ders. In the ArgonauLic expedition, Ancxus, the 
Arcadian, always wore for the same purpose the 
shaffEry hide of a bear, and Arpiis that of^a black 
bull.' Even as late as tlie Messenian war, the 
mountaineers of Arcadia, servin» under Aristode- 
mus as lii^ht-armed soldiers, wore the skins both of 
sheep and poaLs, and also of bears, wolves, and oth- 
er wild bca.sts/ 

Nevertheless, the armour both of the Greek and 
Trojan armies, as represented by IIomer,was com- 
plete and elaborate. In various passaees he de- 
scribes the entire suit of armour of some of his grrcat- 
cst warriors, viz., of Achilles, Patroelus, Agamem- 
non, Menelaus, and Paris;' and we obsei-vc thai il 
consisted of the same portions which were used by 
ilic Greek soldiers ever after. Moreover, the order 
of p^ttin^• them on is always the same. The heavy- 
armed warrior, havinp: already a tunic around his 
lioily, and pr^-paring for combat, puts on, first, his 
grenvca (Kvjfiiith^, ocretr) ; secondly, his cuirass 
(tfdipof, lonca), to which belonged the fiirpjj under- 
neath, and the zone (Cwig, Ct^mijp, cinirulum) above; 
thirdly, his sword (^(>o<-, cnsis, gtadiuf), hunfl on 
the left side of his body hy means of a belt wnich 

I. (t'lA Tbeocr., xi»., 270.)— 3. (Id., xxii , W.)-J. (Tulia 
»TAtiti il Dotninm Hex Rimmiii, itl. xir., fig. %, ami ul. ivi., 1, fl^ 
7.)— 4. (111. I7.I— a. {On»h., Arftm., IW.— ApoH- Bh«I..t., 5M 
— Schot. in loc.)-^. (Pnui., W.. 11. « l.>— T. (II.. iri., SSS-SIQ 
U^ 1S9-198 ; li., I5-4S ; xtj., 130-I4t ; xii., aM-3»\.> 



passed orer th** right shodlder; fourthly, the large 
round ghicid {(T'U'of, atnr/r, ctjpeur, sevlum), support- 
p(l in ihe naino manm/r ; fifthly, his helmet (Ao^jfj, 
Kvi'fij.cojixts naUa); sJMhly aiitl lastly, he took hia 
»I»car {ty,x'>i\ ^^iffv, haata), or, in many cases, two 
Spears (Joi'/k dvu). Virgil represents the ouiiit of 
a warrior as cori-sislinij: of the same six portioni;, 
when he describes the armour made by Vulcan for 
jEneas, and brought to him by his mother.* The 
fonn and use of ihese poniuns nrc described in sep- 
arate articles under incir Lritin names. The an- 
nexed woodcul fxhihiis ihcm all in the form of a 
Greek warrior attired for battle, as shown in Hope's 
Oslumc oflhc AndaUi (i., 70). 

Those wht) tt(?re defended in the manner which 
has now boun reprcj^rnted, are 04illt d tty Homer tlo- 
wmrai, fnmi llieir gre.'ii bhitid (an-rir); also «;'.V'- 
ftaxoi, because tlicy f(>n^ht hand to liand with their 
adversaries ; but iniicli more I'ummonly irpoftaxot, 
because they occupied ihf front of the army: and 
it is to be observed thrti [hesu lemis, es]wciallj' the 
last, were hononrahk* lilh";, the expense of a com- 
plete suit of armour (TaioTrAi'i?') beinji of ilsf If suf- 
ficient to prijve the wealth and rank of the wearer, 
while his place on the field was no less iodicalivc 
cf strvngtli and hraverj'. 

In later times, the" hcav>'-armed soldiers were 
called ^tTAirai, because the term orrP.a more espe- 
cially denoted the defensive nnnour, the shield and 
thora^t. By wearini? ihey wore disiinpiishcd 
from the light-armed, whom Ilcrodoliis,' for the 
reason just mentioned, calls uvottmi, and who are 
aim* denominated i/u/oi and yi'fivof, yufti'ijrat or 
yt',uw}Tff. Instead of bcinp defended by the shield 
and thorax, their bodies had a much sh^btrr cover- 
ing, sometimes couiistinp of skins, as in the above- 
mentioned instance of the Arcadians, nnd some- 
times of leather or cloth; and, instead of the sword 
and lance, they commonly fong^htwiih darts, stones, 
hows and arrow*, or slintfs. Though ^rcnily infe- 
rior in rank and nmwes.'' to the hcavy-arracd sol- 
diery, it is probable that they often surpns-scd them 
in Tiwmbere; and by their agility, bv their rapid 
movements from place to place, and fiy emhrarinp 
ererr opportunity of assailinR the enemy, cominp 
towards the front nnder the protection of the hean'- 

ftrmed, and again retreating for safely into the reiij 
thev rendered important service to their emnlovm. 

"VVe are justified in ttsing the tt- rm * enij 
tiecausc the li^ht-armeU were cnriiinunly 

in asuhordinate canaciiy to indinduals ol'tJi. . 

armed soldier}', in this manner tltc Helots wen 
compelled to scn'c in the Spartan army. At lie 
baHlc tif Platfca, each Spartan had an api- 
of no less than seven Helots to earn* his , 

firotect him in danger, to assist him in cc: 
lis opponent, and aku lu prrform every ni' 
\ice.' On the same occasion, as we are i 
by Herodotus,* the other divisions of ih 
armv had only one light-anncd to otic heai 
soldier. In after times, also, ihc Atheni-M 
had usually one attendant, and received .! 
for Iwth himself and liis servant two dracli...- ,^. 
dav.* J 

besides the heavy and light armed soldier*, thf 
6frXiTai and V"^"/, who, in general, bore i 
one another the intimate notation now vx 

another dDscripHon of men, the r/' 

formed a part of the Greek armv, ih* 
hearof them in early limes. Insieai ; : ^ 

round shield, 1hey c;jrricd a smaller one called itic 
nO.rn, and in other rcpiH'cts their annonr, (hough 
heavier and more eflrctlve than that of the i'i)M,. 
was much lighter than that of the hopliies. ThB 
weapon on which they principally depended vnil 
the spear. 

The cities of Euhflpa agree*! to go to batlh' nrJf 
as hoplites, discardiiiE the use of light ain' 
pending on ihe sword and lance, and hand 
latter a.s a pike.* TI.*' KulNx-ans were prut 
duccd to form this agieeracnt in conscfjueii^ 
richnrss of tlteir island in the ores ol coj] - '- 
iron. On the other hand, those nations which ^adj 
neither mines, nor any considerable wealth ofotiiitj 
kinds, cnuld scarcely send any but Hght-armcd scIh 
dicrs, who commonly served ns mercenarie*;. 

The Romans legions consisted, as the CJictki*i 
fontry for the most part did, of heavy and ligW 
armed troops f ftris ct letis arftiaturti). Uul t\\tf\ 
were not formed upon the same svstemof aitaehingi 
individuals to "ne another, in inc relation of the 
master or employer and his scn'ant. A I all eveot% 
this .system did not prevail among the Romans Iff 
any extent^ and when Virgil, in the -fin/iV men- 
tions the armonr-bearer or squire (anntjfi'rr). ' 
understand him to allude lo the Grecian oi < 
practice, or to ailribuie such attendance and .sutc 
to kings and generals only. I 

When a legion was drawn np in order of v "''■ 
the heavy-anned were posted in from in " 
visions, viz., the jtrincipes, the hostoti, and ih- 
and Iwhind them were placed ihe lighi^irmi 
divisions, called the n?r«rii, and the acccnsi i ; 
the weiirh! and strength of the arms decreiiMrg 
eradually in these five divisions, imtil the rearcofrj 
sisted only of archers, slingcrs, and other tmnps. 
wlm might leave their place whenever occ;i 
quired, and make sTvift cxcnr^ions for the ( 
of attacking and annoying the enemy. KspccialiT 
in commencing an engagement, the light-aiVM« 
troops advanced to the front, strove lo put the enemf 
fo flicht, and, if successful, pursued ilioin. If, oo 
the other hand, they were worsted, they retreated 
again in a body behind the hea\*y iroons,' on whi»m 
as the main slay of the army.depcndea the deeisioi 
nf the conflict. If the hea\*Tr-- armed were vi- i..ri 
ous, the light-armed ajain mshed for^vard U' i i ii 
breaking the ranks nf (be enemv, and ihc potsui 
was left to them and to the cavalry, while ihe prfn 
cipes, hastaLl, and triarii maintained their ori ' 

I {.€ii.. viii..6|y-€aJ.)-«. (llei*!., I. 


I. flTcmd.. IT.. 10,9S-,10.— MsoM, Sjnirta, i., 1, n. ISA. 1J7 

-2.J1. f.}— S lThJirv.1.. m.. I7.>— J. (SitbU^ x., 1, I?, IJi. 

Oa, 63.» I 5. (Vtpit.. D, R, Milit., ii.» 15-17.) 

Aim A. 


figun: is lako'n fixun the arch 61 

tius at Rome. On comparing it with 

■ Mrp in llie laM wiumIcui, we 

(hi natumal chamcier is dis- 

a V, . tioe in the auitude and ex- 

[the sevei tkl pai i:s of the qnnotir curre^pond, 

oolj l^ist tlic Jfoman soldier wears a da^- 

»N£M0) nn lii^ ri:/ht siilc instead of a 

fell, ajul, in.'^li.'ad of g^reaves upon liis 

,. .■!;.! auii cfili^'a. All ilie cswiuial 

1 heavy artnoiir {Umco, msis, cii- 

.iie mentioned tu>;olher in an epi- 

li/ and all fxrepi the six-ar in q well- 

ge of St. i*uulj' whi'Mf enurnoralion 

eules will) the ttspircs nn the arch of 

I uhu in;ikt:s int-ntum, nul of grcaves, 

or Mndali tur iJtc feet. 

-. H'le parts of the heavy armour 
t or leather. The in':ial piinci- 
^1 ill O.C.I lormr.lion wrs iliai compnimdof 
hi ifa which wc: call bronze, or, more prup- 
Em^iat. f K«W. JE.S.) ilvncc Ihr nnrnes for 
t: ' .Tfj) are often used to mean ar- 

t rt'rtccted frora the arms of a war- 

L^i ^^-^''3 ;^aA^€itJ by Homer, and iux aeua 
Instead of copper, iron aiUrward camp 
(Xi..r.^iL-,-l.- n^cd iu the manufaclurc of 
iiadeof it arc much more 
!•:•: iron is, by exposure to 
lin!;ly Uatle lo corrosion 
Iver. and tin unniixcd with 
•-<- ■ '■" ''Specially to enrich 

tl>' the Cych>pes, nnticr 

Uno the suit for .^neas, 

If wtetkUOuedt ihey employ these various 

tnasters nl anus were called armulodares tuA camp^ 
doctorts (orXf)dM5a«rcu', iir>.nfI((!u(i«aAo(). 

The armory or arsenal, in which arms of all 

kinds uere kept, was called (iin)(i)n<:7i/(iriiim (urA($> 

^7*7, 'lT?.*i^f/(i«ioc') The mannK arsenal at tlie 

Pincus, built by the archilccl Pbilo, was Uie glory 

, oltlic Athenians.* 

I In nidc states of society, when the spirit of lio- 
' lence rendered life and projwrtv insecure, both Gfc- 
I cians and the nations arouutf, whom ihey called 
barbarians, constantly carried aims for incir dfr- 
I fence.' In the time of Thucydides* llie AtlieuiAiis 
I had discontinued this practice, hecacue the necessi- 
ty for being always armed existed no longer; but 
they all Ixire sjiears and shields in the public pro 

ARMA'RIUM, originally a place for keeping 
anus, aileruard a ccnboard, in which were kejn, 
not only artns, but iilso clothes, book?, money, or- 
namenis, iraaf*es, pictures, and other articles of 
Tolue. The armanum was g-cnerally placed in the 
atrium of the' The divi.-sions of a librarj* 
were called armnria} "We Dud nrmaritim ffist'-isvm 
mentionr'd as a kind of sepulchre iu an inscription 
in Grm*;r.' 
ARMAMF.NTA'RIUM. (Vid. Abma, p. 95.) 
*AHMENrACA M.VLA (fifM'ApficviaHa), a fruit, 
which nin.scorir)e-s miikes llic same with the prata- 
cirt of the Romans. There sccm.s little reason lo 
doubt that it is identical with our Aprirol* 

*AItM£N'lllM {'Afifiiviov), a blue pigment called 
after the countrv whence it came. The kind which 
by Dioscoritle.s is esteemed the best, Q])|H'ars to have 
b^en an eanh; for he requires it to lie smooth, fria- 
ble, and free from stone. Adams makes it to have 
Icen an impure carbonate of cojipcr, like the Lapis 
Layuli. Hill, howerer, maintains that it was a yel- 
low earth or ochre of copper. The Annrnivrti must 
not be confounded with ilic Lapm Armenlnt (Ai'lof 
'A/i//*»'mK'jf), or Arrnenian stone, first noticed by 
Paulas .f^g^incia. and whicli is called '/.iOo^ ^a<"ot'pmc 
by Myrcpsus. Jameson says the Armenian siune 
ot the aucicnis was a limestone imprepii.ned with 
earthy asnire copper, and in M'hich copper and iron 
pyrites were sometimes disseminated.* 

AR.VI1L1^\ {^•a'Aiov, \p0.iov, or -^itOLioy, x^iSuv, 
u/iOMru), a bracelet or armlcl. 

Amonj? all the nations of antiquity, the Medcs 
and Persians appear to have displayed the grcaiesi 
taste for ornaments of this class. They wore not 
only annillff on their w^rists, and oa the ami a little 
below the shoulder, but al.<o earring, collars or 
necklaces, and splendid turbans. These portion* 
of their dress often consisted of strings of valuable 
pearls, or were enriched with jewels. They were 
Intended to indicate the rank, [K>wer, and wealth of 
the wearer, and this use of them has continued 
throu;;h successive generations down to the jiresuni 

In Europe, polden annilliE were worn by the 
Gauls both on their arms and on their vrifts." Thi? 
Sabines also wore ponderous golden annillae on the 
left arm, about the time of the fouudatioa ofRonie ;" 


\ ht 5t7pp05ed that the Roman soldiers 
MMmir«ii their hish trnown as conquer- 
■1 bcu)^ T' xrurted in the use uf 

'egctim h' in his first UKik, de- 

tnA r*- ■• ,.,, o- Louuiof ihecxerc-iics 

Itf iJ The recruits were pn^vi- 

«fei' : and other weaf>ons uf un- 

ir a- ;:nd in other respects cx- 

\My. i--cipline of the drill. Thu 

JV.»-e iVpk-. n , 14-17.)-!. (JCn.. d.. 470.) 

1. (Virf. Lir.,«xi.,J3.— Jur.,xiii,,B3.)— 3. (Strah.ix., I. li 
— Plm., H. N.. vji., 38— Val. Mu.. »iii., 12.— Cir.. I>e OniL. U 
I4.>— 3. (TliiiCTil.,— t. (vi.,JR)-5. ( iit.IO, .. S 
— Cic, pro Clticnt., c. «.— rdmn.. S»t., W.— I'lio.. ]I. N , 
mil., 17, 32, xxrr., 9, «.)—«. (Vifruv., Tit., Pm-f.— V-ij^bo., 
Tiir..e.)— 7. (r.»*3,>'«. <.)—«. (IhMM-w., 1,185.— HtirJ.«iB fa 
Plm.. H. N., iv.,21.— C:uiri, Bibli<ith. JIi<T<an. Aral>.. viJ. {., ^ 
330.— G<-«Qrr. I<rx. RtmiiruiR.l—V. (Dinicur., ▼., 105.— Vltrwr., 
7, 0.— P'.in., H. N., xii»., as,— Adivmii, Append., •. t.— Mtfow*j 
Ar.r. MiiiPriJ . p. m, Cy.)— 10. (Ili-nxJ., Tili., 113; ix., 80.— 
Xi-n.. Annb., j.. S, 27 ; i.. 6, Stt.— C;rror„ i., 3. 2, 5 ; vi., 4, 9, «1 
■libi.— Ctiirr* Mytil., ap. Alhm., lii., H.— Diod. Sic, v., 44.— 
Oirn. Nr.p., Dat., lii.— Amm. MnrtrU., rxii).. *nh An. — CuDMtt 
r.<^n..iiir.. 22, 30, 47.- E7ck..xxni.,48.— aSam.. i., 10 — Wll 
liin»('i*'» Cuiturns i.f Auc. EfyrU *'"!■ lii-. p-3'4i 375.)- II (CI 
QuEulnif.. sp. Aiil. Grll., ix.', 13.— Ilrf)? roic ^fioxioei wai rvlt 
.,4, A.)-13. (LW., L, Jl.— Flm , i, I 

KUf-wnJi diXia -. Stratio, ir. 
— Vxl Max.. IX.. B. 1.) 


$iu\ fii the same early period, ihe Saroians U'ore 
' ichly-omiimcnied anaJeU at ihe solemn fe^vals 
In liunour oI'Judo.' 

It (Joes nut appear that armillos were subsequi^mly 
wont among: the Grecki* by tlie male sci. Bui itiosc 
Ifttiies who aimed at elegance and fa-nhion bail lioth 
ttnrXeU (rrepiCpaxiuvta^) and braccicU i^rfUKapma, 
'^i/My»(3«i, uKpoxetpia), of various materials. Khapcs, 
*ltiil styles of omamexii. In a comedy of PUulus, 
^ji>nncil upon a Greek model,' armillse are mcntion- 
' as pans of female adirc, and one kJiitl it dibiin- 
' 'iM by lUcf namo ot tpinUr. This tcmi (o^t^n- 
)p) is manifestly derived from o^yyu (to eom- 
|.J»rew), and h^ application is cjcplaiii'jd from Uie cir- 
cumstance that the bracelet jjo denominaied kept its 
'placf by compre-ssinff the arm uf llic wearer. The 
EAnniUa wasi, In fact, cither a thin pl.ite of metal, or 
[a wire of considerable thirkness; and, althouf^h 
[•onietimes a oumplcle rin?, ii was much more frc- 
faucmly made without haviiis,' its ends joined ; it was 
tUicn nirvcd, w as to require, when put on, to be 
llif*hlly ejcp.indcd by having its ends drawn apart 
from one anutberi' and, aceorduig to its Icnfftn, it 
went once, twice, or ihrice round the arm, or even 
i» greater numlw r of tlmps. When ii made several 
inw, it a^sumed Ihe form so clearly defined by Ho- 
ler in the rxpresjiion ^vofiTrruc i^ma^, *' Iwiated 
[igirals;"' a fonn illastrntcd bv numerous armilloe 
* gold and bronze in our roflcciiony of aniiqucs, 
[gnd exiiiliitcd very frequcnllv on the Grcrk painted 
(Seciheannexed wooilrin.fmm Sir William 
BamiltonS great work, vol. ii., pi. 35.) 

Th«se spiral wires w^re sometimes cn;,Tared so 
ia to exhihit the form of a serpent, and bracelets of 
,Ods desciipliou were called fnaics bv the Aiheiiian 

A^ in TfRard lo the frontal (ri^. AMrvx), so 
also in resjKict of armllln;, ibe Greeks conceived 
the allirr m a woddcAS |i> rcM-mhle that of a lady of 
siil-cr JU'auiv. Hence they attributed 

thcw to Aphrodite,' and traces of a 

mctallu .1. . -'.i'' seen upon the eelebra ted marble 
itaraeoiihal divinity preserved ut Ploa-nce. In the 
Briii-^h Ma^i:nmi.'( an iiiscriplioii/ found among the 
nins of the Parthenon at Athens, which makes dis- 
Ittnet mention of the ^fi^ahai upon both Ihe anna 
ala golden Victory prc>erved in temple.* 

I. <Aaii Samti Cann.ft Bactiii, p. H6.)~9, fX»n.. C'rmn..vt., 
41.— ChsnlfWi.nDtTTTille, p. III).) — 5. (M^ti.. iii,, " 
On(.,xif.,30.>— 5. (IL, sviii., 441).)— A. (M«-r» [. 

r, Aif,f.)~7. fPlat^rrh, i)t VutX- Rom,)— *^ i 
tSt.)—P. (tkKkh, 5»«uk„ ii^ jt. S01, Sn.— kl., C^cvt** 


Among the Romans we most commonl; 
armillia as Lonfcrred up*»n soldieni for dcci 
traordinan' merit.* fSec the n«_it woodcut.) 
staiice of this »K:cur* in Livy,' where, allei 
ry, <"'ne of Ihe ri»n>nl<i bestows golden cro' 
ilicent, four cenlurion 
.md trivcs j^ilver hi 

.- . . i.- ,.j.' , ., *uq were eii'r-- i- 

youngnr ajtd of inferior rank. . 
crowii^s and bracelets of gold wen- . 
and not to foreii^ners. These military hon 
enumerated in the insrriptiuns ujiou vadow 
monumcnui raised I o ihe memory of Romal 
and Mddier:-, staiInK that ihe emjK'ror hud [i 
them tof/fuii/us, ariuiUts,phuU'nA, A:o., aiid t 
cording the exact number of thc«e several 
lions.* The following form uf wonls iu«i 
ferring them is preserved bv Valenus Ml 
" JmtHrafar fc argtntcis anaUlis fforusf." 

Tne Roman females wore bracelets pi 
use and partly for ornament. The >i»c 
was lo hold amuleu. (Tirf. Amlm.tim.] 
gives a varioly uf direrliuns res|x*ciLnjj the i 
to be cifected byin.veningpanieularlbingK | 
leLs (armtUa,* brackuMlia^), and wearing ih 
^tanIly upon the arm. On tlie ^ume pnn< 
r.mperor Nero, in compliance with the w 
his molhfr, sometimes wore on his right 
exuvia: of a serjient, enclosed in a goldn! 

As ornaments, arniillrc wcrt! worn at Ron) 
by women ofcon-i '-—»■'■• --'i- 'vh- mrta 
was, for iJ)i& pur I <] ^ 

ciouK Rlone«( and > .1 

cntH of aralfcr, Siucttm nmnuitt, mcntionfM! 
venal* as »ent lo a ladv on her hinhdji 
piohahly braepletn set wilh aml>cr.'* In ttv 
mg woodcut, the tirvi jiiruie rcfirr?enLs a gol 
let dLscovercil at Home, un the Palatine J 
The rosette in the middle is composed of 

and rer7 delicate leaves. The two staHlfel 
on each side have been repeated where ibcl 
securing them are still visible. The secoii 
represents n gold bracelet found in Britain^ ; 
serretl in the British Museum. It ap[>cs 


t. (Fotiui, t.T.— Ui-I.. Onif., 1. r.j— a. (Lit,, i^ 4t 
N., rttii).,in.) — 4. (MarUu)liuuft, I>« AntiillM,p.99.9l 
-4. (Mil,, H. 5.)-«. (II. N., ii»iii.,9, 47.)-7./Iti*l 
a.>-8, (Siwl., Nit., 6-1— 8. (.t, 5O.I-J0. ("jpmrn 



>M wiies twisted together, and the 

ig il upon the arm by a cla^p, is 

rauon. Ithascvi'Jenily been a lady's 

les obiccis finely wrought io gold, 

!auuful (Warls and jewels, ladies' 

ft* also ftjrmed to display other exqui- 

|of art Riitligcr says* '* ii cmn scarcely be 

lat the mast splendid gems, with figures 

1, were designed to be worn in bracelets 

ircs&es, and oLher women of high rank in 

"he same author obsen'cs' " that the large 

,j7iT.iV v.ith three or four coils, were in- 

!i r the soldiers," and that it would 

h_ :'.i*< such massive ornaments to 

a I for wumen. A specimen of 

t ' Idghly valuaMearmilliis rep- 

r- I of ihe preceding figures. The 

^< •, U more than twice the length 

ir l^ found in Cheshire * 

|! worn by a Cali^ila,* it was re- 

: i^itravagaiico aiid eircmiuacy, 

t to Roman ideas and customs. 

/>t armiUaCus denoted a servile 

ar$iu/ia and ^eXiov are used for orna- 

^imr kind as those already explained, 

■"in the ankles, very commoaiy 

:tics rarelv by Europeans.* A 

lilrd armifla {armilluUn mncs'), 

by carpfutept." 

I \(, a Roman fe-^tivaJ for tlie 

It was celebrated every year 

me calends of November (Oct. 

.^ asscmbleil in arra5, and olfer- 

place called Annilustrum, or 

, the 13lh region of the city." 

ClA tjia^v'ii\ Horseradish. (Vif/. 



"ttr states of Greece, 
.;t IO their esinblish- 
-ii I ilie walls of a town, 
1 i-cing surprised by an en- 
i: > of husbandry w'crc car- 
I anus in their hand?.'* This 
ntid life must have tended pow- 
• ■ ! a martial spirit amuiii? the 
1 ■;.' V' may liavi- bom>wcd tlie 
ill ill'- nations of the Ea!>c,it 
i/ation of a military 
I, were brought near- 
uc^ffo uf t'Jilection as was consist- 
re of the arms in use before the in- 

Jr on Thebes and the war of Troy are 
!n->iXLn'*''s in the Grecian history of 
on a considerable scah?; 
>i'i (probably about B.C. 
tiivii Ls supposed to have 
^ 'Mil ihjt the troops of 
1 m Uiis war were at first 
; (or, in the second book 
resented as advising \%- 
iv into several l)odies,nc- 
irilMjs of which it was 
h dinsion under \\s own 
iiceivaMe. however, that 
always sabst*t when na- 
fcifEriitei lur one object; and, as the 
f*1 states appear to have hecn 
■I'aMy the mixture of the 
iial circnmstani.-e. nrisinij 
, ... - .w-h the arniv had lor some 


\4 1 


1. fp. 13T.1-S. [Arrhjwilnfia, nvii., 
%Vr.. 30— M»rt.,xi.,M.) 

... H. 2I.>-*1. (Vttruv., 

I in. Lftt., i»., M; *., 3.— 

. I'e Kr^i tiiitmt, V. R.— Inwript. in 

j lime previously rcraaincd. It may l* imaylnei. 
I ihcreiorc, that Uie advice of Nestor was only intfui 
I cd as a regular notice for re-foraiin? the army pre- 
paratory to inspection, and previously to a rciuni 
I to active service: be that as it may, the practice 
j was afterward general, r& well in the East as in the 
Greek slates of Europe. 

I In the fourth book of the Iliad,* the arran^meni 
of the army previously to an ensa^Mneut is dis- 
tinctly desc'ril)ed. A Ime of war-chariots, in whi'ih 
the chiefs fought, formed the front; the heavy-aim- 
ed foot were in the rear; and the middle space was 
occupied by archers or light-armed men, on wltotu 
less reliance could be placed. The warriors were 
proictied by cuirasses, greaves, and helmets, all of 
Wnze; they canied stiou^ bucklers, aud tlieirof 
fensive arms were javelins or pikes, atul swords. 
The battle began by darts being thruwn from the 
chariots as the latter advanced to break the ranks 
of the enemy: the chariots probably then fcU into the 
intervals between the divisions oV the troopr who 
fought on foot ; for the latter nre said to have moved 
up in close order and engaged, shield tou thing 
shield, and lance opposed to lance, while the light- 
armetl troop, now in the rear of all, or behind the 
chariots, discharged their arrows and stones over 
the heads of the combatants in front. The percept 
of Nestor, that the warriors should keep their ranks 
in action, acconJing to ilic manner of their ances- 
tors, indicates that a certain degree of regularity had 
long before been observed in the inarch of armies, 
or in the colli5ions of hostile troops. 

On contemplating the account given by Homer, It 
must appear evident that the practice of war in his 
age differed from that which was followed by the 
Asiatics, Egj-ptian-*, and Greeks of a much later peri- 
od, chiefly in the absence of cavalry : a circumstance 
which seems to prove ihai the art of horsemanship 
though not wholly unknown, since Diumcd rides oo 
one of the horses which had been mken frou the 
car of Rhesus," must have been then very iroj'c.-fecL 
The dense array in which the Greeks are represent- 
ed as formed, in the fourth nnd ihirtccnih Uioks of 
the Iliad, corresponds to that of the body of troops 
subsequently denominated a phalanx : and these are 
the fii^t occasions on which great boiiics of men are 
said to have been so drawn up. But, at the same 
lime, it must be remarked, that though the pool 
seems in some passages to consider tlie compact ar- 
rangement of troops as a matter of great importance : 
yet the issue of the battle is almost always decided 
by the personal prowess of individual chicftams, 
who are able to put to flight whole troops of ordinal 
ry soldiers. 

From a passage in the last book of the Iliad,' il 
appears tliai during the heroic ages, as they ore eall- 
cJ, every family in a state was obliged to furnish 
one man, or more, who were chosen by lot, when a 
chicftnin inlendetl to set out on a military cx^Todi- 
tion. Wliile absent from home, the tiwoj%s subsisted 
by sunjilies brought up from their own district, oi 
niised in that of the enemy. In the manner last 
mentioned, and by the plunder obtained in piratical 
excursions to the neighbouring coast**, the Greek 
Jinny supported itself during the ten yeare of ihp 
7'rojan war. 

When, after the return of the HeracUdaB, the 
j.l;ites of Greece had acquirr-d fiomc stability, the 
!»reat lawgivers of Sparta and .^iheif^. while form- 
ing constitutions for their several peopl.'!, are said to 
have made regulations f^r the military service. To 
(he free citizens only was it thought proper to grxiiii 
the honour of serving their country in complete ar- 
motir; and wc learn from Heroootus thnt slave* 
were m.iHe to act ^s. liglit-armed iroops. In tlie 
nction at Plataia ngainst Manlonius, the right wing 
of the Grecian army was composed of 10,000 La- 



eedxjnoniaDS, of whom half were S[>artai].s and 
each uf ihesti was ficconipanied by seven Heloi^; 
llie rcrnainiuK 51)00, who ■were iumi^bcd by tlie 
oiher towns of Lacouio, were each accompanied by 
one Helot* The eraploymenl of slaves in llie an- 
cient armies was, however, nlways considered an a 
dangerous measure; and it was apprehended, with 
rca&uii, that Uicv might turn against their maslers, 
or desen to the "tneuiy. 

The organization of the Laceda?monian army 
was more perfect than thai of any oilier in Greece, 
[t was ha&ed npon a graduated system of suhordi- 
•oalion, which gave to almo-^t every individual a de- 
gree (if authority, rendering the whole miliiary force 
a coumiuniiy of commaxu'ers,* m> (hut llie signal 
given by ihc king ran in an instant through the 
whole anoay." The foundation of this system is at- 
tributed lo Lycurgti5, who is said to have formed 
the Laeed&monian forces into six divisions {/:<u/M]t). 
Each/iooa was commanded by a no?.f/tapxoi, under 
whom were four ^^,i";W, eight TrevT^KoaTiipet, and 
aixteen hufiordfixo'- •* conscquenlly, two evoftoriai 
formed a rrevT^Kocrvf, iwo of these a ^^or, and 
four ?yix^i made a fi/>iia. The regular comple- 
ment of ihe cnomotia appears to have been twen- 
ly-foar men hcsiiJcs its captain. The lochus, then, 
consisted oidinarily of 100, and tlie mora of 400 
men. The front row of ihe enomotia appears in 
have consisted of three men, and the ordinar)'' depth 
of the line of eight men. The number of men in 
each enomotia was, however, not unfrequcntly in- 
creased. Thus, at the bailie of Maniinea, anoilier 
file was added ; so thnt the front row consisted of 
fbtir men, and each enomotia conscquenily contain- 
ed thirtj'-two men.* At the battle of Leuctra, on 
the contrary the nsnal number of files was retain- 
ed, but the depth of its ranks was increased from 
eight to twelve men, .^o that each enomotia contain- 
ed thirty-six men.* In the time of Xenophon, the 
mora appears to hare consisted usurillyof dOOnien.' 
The numbers 5eem, however, to have fluctuated 
considerably, acconling lo the grentrr or less in- 
crease in the number of the etomotia. Ejphonis 
makes the mora to consift of 500 men, and Polybi- 

At the battle of Mantinea there were seven lochi, 
and the strength of the lochus was doubled by Iving 
made to consist of four poniecostves and eight cno- 
mottce.* Upon iliis account Dr. Arnold remarks;'* 
" A question here arises why TJmcydides makes no 
meniion of the mora, which, according to Xeno- 
phon, was the !arp?st division of the Ijaced.Tmonian 
army, and consisted of four lochi; the whole fefpar- 
lan people being divided inlo^ mone. The scho- 
liast on Aristophanes" says that ihero were six lochi 
in Sparta, others say five, and Thiicydidea here 
speaksof .v-r'.-n j but 1 ih\nk he means lo include the 
Brasidi.^n soldiers and the neudamo<lcs; and, sup- 
posing them to hare formed togeiher one loehns, 
the numl-er of the re^ar Lacedxmouiaa lochi 
would thus be six. These lochi, containing each 
M2 men, are thus much lander than the rc^rular 
mora, which contained only 400, and approach more 
nearlv to the enlarged morn of iKMl men, such as ii 
usually was in active service in the time of Age^i- 
laus. AVas it that, among the many innovations in- 
troduced into Sparta after the iriamphanl close of 
the Pcbponnesian war, the term lochus was henrp. 
forward used in the sense in which the oiher Greeks 
commonly used it, that is, as a mere military divis- 
ion, consisting properly of about 100 men ; and that, 
to avoid confusion, tbe greater divisions, formerly 
called loehi, and whose number, as being connected 

ip\9trtx di>x*»ru»' nff/; TliaoyJ.. ▼., Mj— 3. (Ilci-nxi, Polit. 
Anhq.,*??.) — I. (Xmi., I>« Ro|x l»r*Hl., «i..<,)— 5 (Thurnl., 
r..(lfi.»-e. (Xen.. H"ll*n.. "., «. • H.)-T. flN.1 , ;v.. 5, * II, 
Jt.>— 8. (qaoledby PluUiTiih, ret*>PMl")— *■ iTtt*" »»!.,?., 96.) 
-10 'NouonThucyd., »., w.)— U. (Lyw»»™i., 4M.) 

with old traditions and political dinsions, wasj 
variable, were for the luiurc culled by liic lesAf 
ocal name of monc V 

'i'o each mora of heavy-armed infantry there] 
longed a body of cavalrv bearing the same 
consisting at the must of' lOU men, and cui 
by iho hrppannoal {irzTTnp^oarr}^*). The cavali 
said, by Plutarch, to have l«en divided in Oic 
of F.yeiirgus into oulomi iuv>.a/wi) of filly men 
but this portion of the Laced nimoniLiu anny 
unimportant, and served only to cover ibe wi 
the infantr)'. The three hundred knights fo 
the king's body-guard roust not be confot 
the cavalry. They were the choicest of 
tan youths, and fuught either on hor&eba< 
foot, as occasion required. 

Solon divided the Athenian people into fotiri 
es, of which the fir^c two comprehended those] 
sons whose estates were respectively equirali 
the value of 500 and 300 of the Attic meosiiicti 
mcdimui. These were nc»t ol'lii^cd to seiTftl 
infantr>' or on board ship, except in some cc 
but ihey were bound to keep a horse for the ; 
and to serve in the cavalry at their own 
The ihinl class, whose estates were eqnivi 
200 such measures, were obliged lo serve 
heavy-armed foot, providing their own arms; 
the i>eople of the fourth class, if unable to pr 
themselves with comolele armour, served 
among the light-armed troops or in the navy. 
ministers of religion, and persons who danced 
festival of Dionysus, were exempt from sei 
the armies; ihe same privilf)^ was also 
to those who farmed the Tevcnuts of the slat 
is no doubt that, among the Aiheninns, the 
of the army diflcred from those which, as 
ted, had been appointed by the Spartan U 
but the nature ol the divisions is unVnow 
•"cn only be surmised that ihev were snel 
hinted at in the Cyropaedia.* fu that work, 
nhon, who, being an Athenian, may r« snppo! 
nave ii: viuw ihe militar)' institutions of au 
conntr>', speaking of the advantages attendi 
subdivisions of laige ^•odie5 of men, with ies_ 
the power of re-forming ihoj-e Ix^Iies when ihey ! 
pen to be dispersed, elates* that the rufif 
of lOO men, and the ^o^'V ^^ twenty-four 

elusive of their officer); and in another 

mentions the thna^, or section of ten, aiid tfce 
-«f, or Bortion of five men. Tlie ruf/j 
have l>een the princijvjl clement in the diril 
troops in the Athenian army, and to 
epondetl to the rdoponncsian ^oxo^. The' 
was commanded by ten strategi (Hi/. Srsil 
and ten taxiarchs, and the cavalry hy two hi] 
and ten phvlarchs. These officers were eh( 
nually, and they appear to have appointed the 
ordinate officers of each rafff or /''.voj-. 

The mountainous character of Attica and. 
Peloponnesus is the reason that rarolry was 
numerous in those countries. Previously to 
Persian invasion of Greece, the number of hf 
soldiers l)cIon?in? to the Alheniai-s was but nil 
six. each of the ftirty-elght naticrariip {lavKf 
into which the .''tate was di»nded. furnishing 
persons ; but soon aflenranl the body was auj 
ed lo 1200 xora^irrof, or heavy-arined hoi 
and there was. besides, an equal numl>er of 
XioTfli, or archers, who ftHioht on horseback. 
horscN Ttfloneinsr to the fi'nner class werr eoi 
with bronw or other mei.-«l, nnd they were 
meuied with bells and embroidered clolhiny. 
fore beine allowed to serve, both mm and ht 
were subject lo an examination before the 
parcbs, and praiishmenis were decreet! ati^.ninsf 
sons who should enlrr without the requisite quil 



It vas ftlso the duiy of the hipparchs to 
carairy in time of peace' 
fitee ciii2en ot tbe UrceU states wa55, ac- 
to Xfnophoii and I'ltilarch, enrolled lor 
rice from Uie age of 18 or *H), to 5d or 
'^ al Sparta, at least, the ruJi* was coin- 
Ikis^ and ibe private people. Thy 
'sreviously lo jouiing the ranks, were 
the miliary uulies by the raxrucoi ur 
rs, vho were maintained by thu ?iaie 
; auil no town in Greece was with- 
or school. The times appointed 
the eicrcises, as well in the ^ymna- 
'eamp, were early in the momua*. and 
IP -mjf 10 rest The firM em- 

soldiers was 10 guard the 
may Uiey were associated \ritli 
as, uu accouul of their age, had been 
senice in the AlMJ. At «!0 year* 
rniau recruit could l>e sent on foreign 
It, amonp the Sparlnns, Uiis was srl- 
Ihc soldier was 30 years oU). No 
the legal agt» could be compelled to 
Jus co'inlr)", except in limes of public 
DBkeoiion is occa5iona!ly made of Fuch 
lUced iu the rear of the anny during 
charged with the caro of the bag- 
thc Athenians were enga^*d in an 
• T^ - ■■ -'rr' Peloi>oonesians sent 
i.s Mojrara^ in exi>oc- 
ftir; , ; 1ml the young and 

men who remamed to Fuard Athena 
under Mrronidcs, a^iust the enemy, and 
the success of the enterprise.' 
itioo to military duties, when the troops 
wa5 stijcilv enforced in all ifio 
.; but a considcrahle dilfcifncc prc- 
^ nf xhr two principal slates with re- 
')f the soldiers. The men 
V. i to witness theatrical per- 

anii u» iijjv.' in the oamp companies of 
diuicers. In the Lacetla.*monian army, 
these were forbidden; (he con- 
iperance, and Ihc observance of 
jteing prescribed to the SnattaD 
they might excel in war(tt'hich 
wisidered as the proper occupa- 
'"' ' rnarjly exercisca alone were 
!- of duty. Yel, while en- 
II w*^re encourapr^d to use 
anil w wc^ costly armour, ihoujrh the 
of their pcrsotis when at homi would 
Lbom to the reproach of etfcminacy. 
action, they crowned ihcrasclves with 
t\ iri.r.iwj Vith a resrulated pace, a 
[ ■ the hynm of Castor.* 

"■?<! not always voluntarily 

iLc ' '■', since it was found 

to j*cr • nLs a^inst such as 

— ■•-m^isUHl in adcp- 

hip, or in bein^ 

f 1 Irom the ^rmy 

ill ; &iid ai home, when a 

■m the ranlvs, he was made 

■ ' in women's ap- 

■laccrnl in asol- 

.....;jut bis buckler; 

1 that be. who onght 

till tht* last moment, 

n:lrcal; a coward would 

in order that he miffhl run 

''.r "k republics!, while the 

1 ii the jraics of each city, 

nvra expense in that class 

lune pennilled him to join. 

lOS.)— 1 (PlQUicli, trenrg.) 

Both at Athens and Sparta the iKreif, or horsomen, 
consisted of jjersons possessing considerable estate? 
and vigour of Inxiy ; each man furnished and main- 
laincii his own horse, and he was, besides, botmd to 
provide at least one looi-soldier as an atlendant. la 
the tinxe of Xenophyn, however, the spirit of the ori- 
^nal institution nad greatly declined ; noi only was 
the citizen allowed lo commute bis personal servi- 
ces for those uf a burseinaji hired in his stead, but 
the purchase and m.iinlcnance of the horses, wkich 
were imwsed us a tax on tJit; wealthy, were ill exe- 
cuted; ike men, also, who were least able iu body, 
and leasi desirous of distinguishing themselm, 
were admitted into ihe ranks of the cavalry. 

The distress occj-sioned by the long' continuance 
of the Peloponnesian war having put it otJt of ihe 
power of Ihe poorer citizens of Athens to serve the 
oouiury at iheir own expense, Pericles introduced 
the practice ol g^iving constant pay to a class of liie 
soldiers out of tlic oablic revenue; and this wa& 
sub';eqn''ntly adopted by Ihc other states of Greece. 
The amntiat of the pay varied, according to ciicum- 
stanc(«i, fiom two oboli to a drachma.* The com- 
manders of the Mxoi receivej double, and' the 
.•^iralegi fonr times, the pav of a private foot-soldier.* 
A truce having been made between the Athenians 
and Argives, it was appointed that, if one party ar- 
sisted another, those who sent tlie assistance should 
funiish their troops with provisions for thirty days; 
and it wns farther acreed, thai if the succoured party 
wished to retain the tro*>ps Ivcyond that time, iheV 
should pay, daily, one drachma (of .figina) for each 
horseman^ and three oholi for a Juol-soldier, whether 
heavy-armed, light-annnl, or ojcher.' At Athens,' 
by the laws of Solon, if a man lost a Urob in war, 
one obolus was allowed him daily for the rest of hir 
life at the pultljc expense ; ll»e paifnis and cliililrea 
of such as fell in action were also provided jot by 
ilie state. ( Vid. Adunitoi.) 

With the acouisilion of wealth, the love of east 
prevailed over that of gloni'; and the principal siatef 
of Greece, in order i" supply the pl.ices of .Mich citi- 
zens as claimed the pnnie;,'e of exemption from 
military service, were obliged to take m pay Imdie-s 
of troops which were raised among their poorer 
neiyhbourt. The Arcadians, like the modem tiwisF, 
were most generally reiainetl as auxiliaries in tJic 
armies of llie other Greek stales. In earlier limes 
to engage as a nit?rcen;iry in the service of a foreign 
power was considered tlishon curable ; and the naiue 
of the Carians^ who are said lo have been the first 
to do so, became on ihat account a term of reproach. 

The strength of a Grecian army consisted chiefly 
in its foot-soldiers; and of these there were at first 
but two classes ; the AK?.iTai, who wore heavy ar- 
mour, carried large shields, and in action used 
swords and long spears ; and the V'''*«^. who were 
light-annefl, having frequently only helmets and 
small bucklers, with neither ciiirasse*! nor greaves 
and who were cmploved chiefly as skirmishers in 
discharging arrows, liarts, or stones. An interme- 
diate class of troops, called r f?.ra<7Ta(, or targeteers, 
W.-IS formed at Alliens by Iphicrates, after the Pelo- 
ponnesian war :* iliey were anned nearly in the 
same manner as the 6n}JTat. hut their cuirasses 
were of linen instead of bronze or iron; their spear* 
were short, and they rjirried small round baclfkra 
(jreATai). These troops, uniting in some measure 
the siahilitv of the phalanx with the ability of the 
light-armed men, vfciV found to be highly efficieni; 
and from the time of their adoption, ihey were ex- 
tensively employed in Ihe Greek armies. A band 
of rluh-'men is incnlioned by Xcnophon among the 
Theban troops at the battle of Leuctra. 

Scarlet or crimson appears to have been the 
general coluur of the Greek uniform, at least in the 

I. (Tliacrd., iil-.r.J— S. fXcn., Aiuib.,TV>..R.M.'^— ^ CW% 
cjj., r, 47.}~4. <X«i., HtUoo., it., 4, i \t-\i.) 



days of XenophoD ; for hv observes' thai the anny 
el Agesilaut) appeared iiU bronze anil scarlet (a;Ta)>. 

• M Mcv ;(;a/Aui', ucavra it ^ivtAd ^aii'totiai). 

Tlic oiliest existing works \ihii:h ireai expressly 
af Uie constiuuion loid tactics of the CJivcian nrmies 
are Uie treatises of .£lian and Arrian. which were 
wriltcn in the liint* o! Hadrian, when ilic art of war 
had chiUiKc^ it-'> character, ami uhea many details 
relating' to th** nncicnt military orgauiznliunn wore 
li^rgotUju. Vcllhesystcmiof tln.'sclaclicians,*(x'ak- 
ing gincrally, ap|K.'ar lu U-Iung to the agr of Philip 
ur Alexander ; and, coiise<iucMi|y, Ihey may U: lon- 
sidcred aa having succeeded those which have been 
iudicati'd above. 

iElian makes the lowest subdivision of the array 
(o consist of a At'xoi, drAOf, «r h'ufioTta, wlnoh bo 
says were then supposed to have been respectively 
ftles of IC, 1'2, or V men; and he recommends the 
latter. The numbers in the :3tipcrlor divisions pro- 
ceeded in a geomclriral progression by doubles, 
ftud the principal bodies were fonned and deiiomi- 
tiatcd aa follow: Konr ^i;^v« eonstltulcd a rrr/tafy- 
xla (=64 men), and two of ihnsc a Tufjf (^128 
men). The lallPx doubled, was called a trvvra^fja 
nr Inaym (Tn^fiO tntsn), tu which division it appears 
that five sapcmuraeraries were attached ; the^c 
were the crier, the ensign, the irum[x?ter, a servant, 
and an oftiiT-r, called oiipayn^, who hroudhi up the 
rear. Four of the'mL*nLionwl divisions formed 
a ,i;iAta/j_im (=1024 men), which, doubbxl, Iweame 
a Tf/.of, and quadrupled, formed the. body whirh 
*a» denomuiated a <^tt?.ayi This corps would 
therefore appear to have con'^isttd of 4090 men ; 
hut, in facL dirisions of very different sirengih!! 
were at diflTcrent limes desii,Miated by that name 
Xenophon, in the Cyropoidia, applies the Irrni jtfui- 
Unga to the Uiree preat divisions of the army of 
CrcBSiu. and in the Annha<sis to ihc bodies of Greek 
troops in the battle of Cunaxa. as welt as upon 
many other occasions. It is cvinenl, therefore, ihal 
bcJore the lirao of Philip of Maccdon, yhitiavx 
was a general cipression for nnv lar^-e l«Mv ol 
troops in Ihc Grecian anuies. Tnat prince, how- 
ever, luiitcd under this name GOOO of his moM eth- 
cient henvy-armed men, whom he called his rom- 
panion,*} ; he subjected them to judicious repiilaliony, 
and improved Iheir anns and divipline; and from 
tliat Ihue the name of his country wa^ constanily 
applied to bodies of troops wtiich were similarly 

The numcri<^il strength of the phalanx wa? prob- 
ably the preatcit in the dnj's of Philip and Alexan- 
der; and, if tlie tactics of jElian may be connidered 
applicable to the age of those monarch'^, it woidd 
appear that iho corpv, when complete, con5isted of 
amiui ]0,IK)0 hr-Avy-armetl men. It was divhlrd 
into four part**, each ennM-'lin? of 4000 itifu, who 
were drawn up in fi!' .p. The 

whole liront, projxTii <->i two 

(rrand divisions; bui •...• tiu --. ..u- -.i.jjcdinto 

iwo sections, and the two middle sections of the 
whole constituted the eontrr. or Ifi^a/.o^. The 
other* were de«icnalod Kipara, or win^a ; and in 
these the best troops scptu to have been placed. 
The evolutions were pcrf" I ' > (he eiiomoiy, 

or ainglc file, whether it v ' to exh*nd or 

to deepen the line; and iIil.- — . ..u interval be- 
tween every two sections lor the conrcoiencc of 

Tlic smallest division of theV>i?.o/, orlijrht troops, 
Kceording to the treatise of .l^liim, was the ^iS^of, 
which in this elaas coasikted of eif>ht ntt*n only; 
and four of theae are tatd to havr^ formed a m'trro' 
trie. The sections afterward increasetl by doubling 
the numbers in the preceding divisions up to the 
hrirttxfia^ whinh consisted of 8102 men ; and this 

was the whole number of the iffi}.o( who 
tached lo a ph.'danx of heavy-urmed troops. 

The Greek cavalry, according to jKlian, 
dindcd into bodies, of which the Mr:itlcst 
called Uig. it is Aaid lo have cunamled of 61 
titough the term was used in earlier timet 
party of hoise of any number.' A troop 
eviAapxin contained two iXai: and a divmion 
seijuently called Tafmi'Ttvapxf'i (fnxn Taa'nti 
Italy) was double the fonner. I'^i'*h of the 
eeeding divisions was double that which pre** 
it; and one, eonsibting of 20-18 men. was called' 
?.of: finally, the irriTayfio was equal to two 
and contained 401X1 men. The troops of ihediv 
or class, called by yKlian Tareuline?, are 
to have been .similar to those which also 
names of Jltftaxat and VTraairimai, and wl 
rcspo'.iucd to the present dragoons, since theyj 
gaged either (HI hor^'back or on foot, beiiigj 
by persons who took care of the horses 
ndcrs fought dismounted. Their armour 
ter than that of the ciuumon horsemen, 
than that of the fnrXtTai , and their first ei 
meni is ascribed to Alexander. It docs n( 
that war-chariot? were used in Greece 
heroic ages ; indeed, the inou;iiainous nal 
eountry rniusl have been unfavourable for 
lulions In the ICasl, however, thennnies 
coming to action in vast plains, not onlr^ 
use ofclianots commence at a very earty 
but ihev continued to be employed till the 
of Syrt^a and Kgvpt by tlie Itomans. Ntsne^ 
chariots formed the front of the Persian Uoe 
Alexander ovcrthn'w the empire of Dai 
vi^ion.^ oi' charit»ts were placed at Inlei 
the iirmy of Molon, when he was dcfeati 
tiochus the Great;* and Justin relates' Ihal' 
wen? 600 in the army which Miihradaies (I 
drew up against ihatof Ariaralhes. In (hi 
menis with Darius and Poms, the troops 
auiler were opjiosed to clephanlv ; and sul 
to the reign of that prince, those airmaU 
generally employed in the Oreek armies In 
They were arranged in line in front of the 
and carrii'd on ih«ir backs wnrxlen furr'-tv^in 
were pi-.- ■ '" ^''' '''"' ' ■ ■ 


were al.s'^ .;...... ,. . ...:..., 

together, they intenwined iheir trank* 
stronger, forcing hl^ opooncnl to turn his 
pierced him wlih his tusks; the men. in the 
time, fighting with their sj^ars.* Thus, at_|b| 
lie of Uapb''a, iK'twcn Antitwhus and 
one wing of the Elg\'ntian army was dt 
consequence of the elephants beinj 
in strength to tlioseof India. Elephants 
employed in the wars of the Greeks, Rt 
Carthaginians with each other. 

Tlie four chi*"f officers of n phalanx 
posejl In the following manner: The 
re.nnect lo merit was placed at the exirer 
rigiu wing; ihe second, at the extremity 
the third was placed on the right of the 
and the fourth on the left of the riffht 
like ortler was observed in pin ■ - ^ "^ 
the several MilMlivi>i'-'n«iof tlie [1 h^ 

given by iKHan for this fani- 
that thus the whole front of the line will l»e 
well commanded ; since, a!» he ohser^'ea, in 
(arithrneticaO progres-^ion, Ihe sum of the «" 
terms (s equal to that of the mean terms: whi 
mav be the value of this reasor> •' "n.-f v,qvi 
a dirficuU ta'-k lo determine t! 'ii* 

the oflicers with the precision n i r a. 

iiig them their proper nlaces in tlie seriies.. ! 
rienccd soldiers were also placed in the rear ( 

iJAf^^t ^■' ^'^~^' *^^* ■**' "• *•* 

1. (X*n.. Knib.,\.,»,^\*VVOP<Al^n'**V'\-» ll 



kophon, in th« Cyropaedia, cotn- 
ttxips thus ulficercd lo a house 
f^T , . i roi>f. 

i.x. was allowed, when 

, _ ^ . ij four cubits (5i or 6 

; when a charf^ was lo be made, the 

iuced 10 [WO cubits each way, and this 

ill ri'ttvLKTif. On Bonie occasions 

was allowed, and ihcn the order was 

rvvfto^, because the bucklers touched 

iki&9 or receiring an attack, when each 

rujiicd aUjut three ii^t in dej'ili, uad the 

spear, or aufuana, ubich was 18 ur SO 

A bdd in a hunzonlal pusitiuiu the 

which was in the hands of a froiit- 

jhi ppijeci abuut M feet from the line; 

Li which was in the hands of a sec- 

inight project about 1 1 feet, and so 

>re, of the sixteen ranks, which was 

depUi of tlte phnlanx, those in rear of 

Id not evideijtij* contribute by their 

inoyaiicc of Uie enemy: they conse- 

iheir pikes in an inclined position, 

the shoulders of the men in their front; 

tlicr werp cnaliled to airest the enemy's 

living over the front ranks, 

1 iliostf in the rear The 

lu i res5ii!j' with all their force 

»c men who were in their front, while ihey 
thcDi from fjlliiig back, increased the 
tharge, or the resi-sinnee uppi^sed to 
lerny ^^ iiml from a di^^tosiiiun similar 
tre supposed in the Sfwrtan troops 
"itPa, the Persian iiiliuilry, ill 
in close action, are said to 
in vast numbers in the vain attempt 
the den>« nuLsses of tljc Greek*. 

was one duty of the officers to pre- 
body of the men from inclining' lu- 
it hand ; to this there was ahvays a 
', because every soldier ciideavoujx-d 
rav, in i^der that he might le covered 
ibicby Ihc !-hieldof hi* companion; 
;r wa.-* incurred of having the army 
TArds its left by ihat of the enemy. 
It of thi> nature occurrcil to ihenmiy 
beitlc of Maniinea.' Previously to 
ijWticDlar word or sentence, avvdr,- 
out by the eommandcrs lo the 
Med, on demanding' it, to 
'. -Tti the enemy.' 
.-.;_ .;i>fiear to have been simple, 
Hans of ite iro»>p*i such as could be 
' fb'' frneral h^ure of the phalanx 
■ ■■, and this could, when re- 
'•• form of a solid or hollow 
J r- ' •, a triangle, or a por- 

efrefe. ' U it WU5 capable of 

> frout J to the bremuli nf the 

bIoqk wiiicb it was to move. li' the 
drawv np so that it* front exceeded 
it had ihe name of it}Avi)itiv\ on the 
«ikrii it adviiiiced in CAihiini], or on a 
<ban iu* de^tih. it waa callud irv^yof. i 
iu^ armie*were drawn up in twu 
Hit tii-Tc was aUo an oblique order I 
- ailvnnci^d near the ennmy, 
j't retired; and this difipo> 
ri wii'-n It waa d(rsi]'e<l to induce an 
iirsak bix liuo. It ii Mippoj^ed lu have 

iilv ■..!..i.t.d bv liie Tht-bans; and, at i 
t.; •■ ba-olinoi thus defeated 

Gniaiciu, aLio, Alf^xandrr, 
ii W k^iO,* Lbo practice of Epaminoudaii, 

(Tlmc>d.. »., 71, 7?.;— 3. (Xen., 
:. 9 10.)— I. rniaryJ., |r.. M.)— 

did ndt attack at once the whole army of the enemvi 
but threw himself with condensed forces against tnf 
centre only of the Persian line, 

Occasionallv, the phalanx was formed in two 
divisions, each li.cing outward, for Ihc purpose of 
engagiuy ilie enemy at once in froiit and rear, or on 
both llanks; these* orders were called re-soectively 
fi/i*^'oro/ior and nvTLOTofio^. Wlien the pluilaitx was 
in danger of being surrounded, it could be formed 
in four divLsions, which Oiced in onpoiite diicciions. 
At the battle of Arlwin, lIjc two djvJNions of Alex- 
ander's army formed a phalanx unth two fruDts ; 
and here the attack was directed against the right 
wing only of the Persians. 

'I'ne mancpuvres necessarj- for changing the front 
of the phalanx were generally performed by eounicr- 
marcluDg the liJes, because it was of iui|Hjrtynce 
that the officers or file leaders should \x in the 
front. When a phalanx was to be formed in ttvi 
parallel lines, tl»« leaders commonlv placed them- 
selves on the exterior front of each line, with tlit 
ovpayol, or lear-rdnk men, who were almost alwayi 
veteran soldiers, in the inirrJor ; the contrary dispo- 
sition was, however, sometimes adopted. 

The phalanx was made to take the form of a 
lozenge, or wedge, when it was intended to pieice 
the line of an enemy. At ihe battle of Leucim, 
the Lacednmonians, attempting to extend their line 
lo the right in urler to outuank the Thebani^, 
EnnminondaP, or, rather, Pelopidas, attacked them 
wnile they were diftvrdercd by that movement. C>n 
this occasion, tlic Bowtian iroops were drau'n up in 
the Jbixn of a hollow wedge, which was made b) 
two divisions of a double phalanx being joined to- 
gether at one end.' 

It may be 6aid that, from the disposition of the 
troops in the Greek armies, the success of an action 
depended in general on a single cflbrt, since there 
was no second line of troops to support the nrst in 
the event (if any disaster. The den^e order of the 
phalanx was only proper fora combat on aperfcctly 
level plain ; and even then the victory dcpcndetl 
rather on the prowess of the soldier than on thp 
skill of the commander, who was commonly dis- 
tinguished from the men only bv fighting at their 
head, Bui, when the field of battle wa5 commanded 
bv heights, and intersected by streams or defile», 
the unwieldy mass became incapable of aciir.c'y* 
while it was'overwhelmed by llw enemy's missiles: 
stjch was the slate of the Lacedapmonian troops 
when be.sicged in the island of Spharieria." The 
cavalry attached to a phalanx, or line of battle, 
was placed on its wings, and the light troops were 
in the rear, or in the intervals between thedivisions. 
An engagement sometimes consisted merely in the 
charges whieh the opposing cavalry made on each 
other, as in the battle betn'een the Lacedsemoniaus 
and Olynihians.' 

The simple battering-ram for demolishing the 
walls of fortresses is supposed to have been an it>- 
ventionof the earliest times: we learn from Thuc)'d- 
idcs* that it was employed by tlie Peloronnesians 
at Uie siege of Plalfea; ahtl, according to Vitruvius,* 
the ram, covered with a roof of hides or wood for 
the prutection of the men, was invented by Cctras 
of Chalcedon, who lived before the age of Philip 
and Alexander. (VjV/.Aries.^ But we have liiile 
kTiowledge of what may be called the ficld-artillerr 
of the Greeks at any period of iheir hif^lury. Di 
odorus Siculus mentions" that the KarafrMTjjf, or 
machine for throwing arrows, was invented or im- 
provrd at Syracuse in the time of Dionysius; but 
whether it was then used in the altaek of towns, or 
against trtwps in the field, docs not nppenr; and b 
is not till anout a century after the death vf Alex- 
ander thnt we have anv distinct intin-ation of mci 

I. (X«n., lWlMi..irii., 51— a. (Thucyd., ir, 35.1-3. tX« 
nt.ll..v.,5.)-l. (li..W)-S. (I.. lfl.)-6 (^■^•*JJ'-} 

macWnci being in thp imin of a GrecTftn "nny 
Acrordina to I'olyhius.' thprc were wilH ihc tTOo|>s 
o( Mnchaiiida» iniiny camagps filled with calapulttE 
anil wea{>unu ; Uiosc oiirriatji*!. appfiir to !\avr come 
up in rrar of l)u: Spartim nrmy ; r>iil, tirforc the nc- 
tion comrncncrd, they wrre i)ti}iK]»cil ol intervaJa 
along Mio Ironl of \hv lino, in onlft, as PhiUipo'mrn 
is Baid to have porceivrd, lo put the Acheean pha- 
lanx in disorder by disrliarKos of stones and darts. 
Af^uin.ft audi mi&!^il('8, aswollaa those which ciunc 
froui the ordinary »hug(i and buw», tho troopa,when 
not actually making a charjfc, ccjvcrixl ihrmselvra 
With their huiklcra ; the men in the lirsl rank 
{jlacmg theirs vorlii'-nlly in front, and those hrhiml, 
in stooping or kneeling pcksturcs. holding thoni ovor 
their licada an as to funn what was catted a ^t^ot'17 
(tortoisp), inclining down towards the rear 

AllMY (ROMAN). Tho or«ani.utionof the Ro- 
man urmy in early linics waa based upon ihL' con- 
Hiiluiion of Scrvius Tullius, which i» cxplaim-d 
undrr the article Comitu (.'icNTDRtATA ; in which an 
account is given of the Honian army in the time of 
the kings and in the early ages of the Kcpnblic 
U is only necessary to observe here, Chat it apiH.'Hr5 
plainly, from a variety of circumstances, that the 
liunif.H of the Roman infantry in early times were 
U'lt those of I ho lfi;ioii at a later period, and iliat 
the phalanx, which waa the battle-array of the 
Orteks, was also the form in xvhieh the Roman 
armiea were ohginnlly drawn up (C/iivi* anua 
Rumixni uti *unt t dttnde, pnKt*/uam Jiltjtewliarii /ncti 
Munt, scutii pro clijtets fcctri ; et *fun4 antra vhattxn^et 
BivitUii Maeohnidt, hot pogtra PtantpiUatim itnteta 
cruf capu iMft ') In Livy's dewriptioii' of the 
ImiUc which was fought near Vesuvius, wc have 
an account of the cunslitution of th<* Komnn army 
in the year U.C- 337 ; but, as this dcsenption enn- 
not 1)0 understood wiihuul e\ptumin^ the ancient 
lt>nnaiion of the army, wc shall pn)cped at once to 
Ifserihc the constitution of the army in lultT times 

In the time of I'olyhtus, which was (hat of TabiUs 
(UmI Scipio, every h':riou was ooininanded by six 
iiirlti.iry tribunes ; and. tn the event o{ Umx new 
1' :.'i''iin hcini^ mtendi'ii to bo raised, 14 of the trih- 
uiiL'6 were chosen from among thnso citixt'iis who 
had earriod arms in five oampait^ns, and 10 from 
those who had served iwief as iontr. The consuls, 
alter they entered np<pn their «>tlii'«', npi»<Miiled i\ dny 
on which all ihow who were of the nnliiary age 
w»'re required lo attend. When thr day for enroll- 
ing the iroupg arrived, the people assembled at the 
Capitol ;♦ and the consuls, with the as&istaneo of 
the military tribunes, prnrppded to hohl the levy, 
unless prevented hy tin .of the picbea • 

The mUitury tribunes, d iivjdcd into four 

bodies (which divisiim e^,,, -,,,,,,-...] to the general 
distribution of tlie army into four legions), drew 
out the tribes by lot, one by one ; then, eaUlng up 
that tribe upon which the lot first fell, they eliuse 
(//i^rruMf, whcncR the name legio) four ymtng men 
ne;irly e<|ual in ar:^ and stature. From these the 
tribunes of the firtjt l-gion chose one ; those of the 
second chose a second, and sft on : alter this four 
other men were sclecled, and now the trilium s of 
the second legion made the first choieci then those 
of the other legions in order, ami. last of all, the 
tribunes of the first legion made llieir ehoiee, In 
like manner, from the next four men, the tribunes. 
beginning with those of the Ihiid legion and ending 
with those of the second, made their choice. Ob- 
serving the same meibotl ol rotation to the em), it 
followed that all the legions were nearly alike with 
respect to the ages and sixture of tho men. Po- 

lyWus obspTTCR' that, anciently, the caTnlr^ 
were chosen afler the infantry, and that 20(1 
were allowed to every 4000 loot ; but he aUij 
it was then the custom to scliK^t the cavalf| 
and to assign 300 of these lo each legion. | 
citizen was obliged to serve in the army," 
required, between tho ages of 17 and 40 ' 
Each foot'Soldicr was obliged to aervo j 
twenty campaigns, and each horseman durfl 
And, except when a legal cause of . 

fa(/o) exl^led, the service was coin 
who refusetl to erdist could Ik? puii;-..r ,1 ,,, j 
imprisonment, and in some eases they mij 
sold as slavcM.' Tho grounds of exeinptia| 
age.* infirmity, and having ^e^ved the apfl 
lime. 'Hi© magistrates and prie.sts were lu 
empted, in general, from scning in the wari 
the same pnvdege was sonifiinie-s granted 1 
Bcnate or the people to individuals who had i 
ed ncrvjces lo the blate.* In sudden eiiiergi 
or when any particular danger w us nppichrni 
in the ease of a war in Italy or against tho 
holh of which were called tumutiuM,^ no cx<i| 
could t>e pleaded, but all were obligi il to tw rd 

(»SV«(j/i(jr lUcrrtf, ut deUctnn hntirrtfur^ ractUii^ 

vaUrcni *) rrrsona who were rated by the 0| 
bf low the value of 400 (Uarhiiift.', accord 
Polyhiufl. were allcjwwl to serve only in 1 
and these men formed what was called 

In the first agetjof the Keptiblie, each coi 
tisunlly tlie comniand of two Roman Icgii 
two hglonst of allies ; and the laii ! 

! the elates uf Italy nearly m the 1 

; the others were raised in Kome. i .. ; u, 

an allied legion was iifcuuMy e(|ual in numbcri 
of a Roman legion, but the cavalry aitaehedj 
fonner was twice as numerous as that wbl 
longetl to the lultcr.' 'Ihe rtgntation of ttt 
allied legions vaa superintended by twelve d 
railed prefet'ts {prer/trtt). whn were **el<>ci 
Ihw purpttAO by the consuls.'* tn the lint* of 
the two Ronutii legions fonned ihe centr 
IhoHC of the allies wer** placed, one on tho rij 
the other on the left Hank ; tho cavalry WM 
at tlw-' two extremities of the line ; that of 
lies in each wing, being on the outward tlnvM 
hgiunary h(ni»cn:en, on which aeouunl llicy I 
niinii' ol .Marii, (I'l*/. Ai-^nii ) .* t. .ii. .>r tf 
S4ddieni, both infantry ami eftvalry 
of vohinliers or of veterans wdc :■ ( 

lies, guarded the consul in tlie cHiiip. or 
about his person in the field ; at.d these vrvrd 
extraurdinarii. (Ktrf ExiaACtiuiMuii ) | 

The nuniher of men in a Roman legion 
much at dtiTcrent ImjrH. "When (^lamillun 
ten legions for the wara(»flin.^t the <inuU, e: 
&iHted of 4200„<U«<rd and 300 horse-tit 
but, previousjy to 'he baule of <'amiie, llt« 
decreed that Ihtr army shiHild eunBial 
U'Bions. and that the strength of ea'*h si 
6UOO foolMtlilirrE.*' According to I,ivy,'> 
gionfcwiiic'rt went to Africa with s ••* 
each of G^no foot-soMieni mid n;i 
tho boM eommentalors suppose th 
diers are meant) ; and diinng the srnmil 
Maeedonin, the consul .Cniiliiis Piiulus h 
leyions of ttOOO foot each, besides thp ttO. 
for service in that pounlry." The strength 

J. fMt.. mt. S.,~-f. (Lir., rtij^ H. — Compam Niebvbr, Rinn. 
/rw„ rW. ».. p. 4fi8.)—S. (riii., B,)~t (LI»., xrri., J3.)— 4. 


l.(vi.,M.*.)— 9. (Ur..l*.,*J;»ii..4— »V.rrt»^< 
a. (I.iv^ilii.,Sl>— 4. (Lit., i»i(i., I" ■ 
^ut. Urar, 11.. 9.)— A. (Cm:,, l*hil 
(, 11>— rhtl..»Ul.. t.— Li».. HI , l! 
It . x\i\., M.l— S. (Pyljb., »i., ei. « — ■_ -^ , ii.n umi 
Vtt.. !.>-» lUt..-»\... ^i.-i-W. tVuUh^ tu-. 111 "" 



icsralfyaecaato have been always nearly 

■ - IS in the service of Ktiinc 
[lio extent of Its ttrntory ; 
< ....,■ ^^.f., wlipn the state had ao- 
Uy Mi cnnque&td in the East, the 
t'wame very considerabU^ Notwith- 
Uic lo«!/'« Dustained at the battle of Can* 
,11-eiiiK) (hnt. munedjait^ly altcrward, the Komnna 
II r tij{iun!!i uf infantry, with 1000 
winning 8000 slavfs; llie cities 
■ :::!i lorce ; aad, suppusing 
ii> " d frum Cdnna% thu whole 

Ida: i',Oin)men. In iho second 

titer the hattic, the lUpiiblic had on foot IB 
,* and in the fourth year. 33 legions.^ In 
interview of Uctavms wiih Anluny and Lepi- 
ii waa aj^eod that the two former shoiihl prus- 
tJu - :' niist Urutua and Casaius, each at 
bcfti^ "IIS. aiid that the other should 

:kA vi k^mns to guard the city. At 

}i, Antjioyand Octaviua had, in all, tU legions, 
rh 3TP •'aid lo have been ooinpleie in number. 
■ 'v supenmiuerary troops ; and, there- 
■^ niubl have ainoimttMl to at least 
.wv uu.uuiy- Un the other hand, Brutuii and 
had iilito an arm) of 10 h giniis to oppose 
uii), -JO.OOO cavalry from Ihc cabtorn prov- 
r.tmg to Appian, Oclavius, after the 
jUs, found iiiuisclf master of all ihu 
;es, and at the head of 45 legions, 
t>S5,000 horse and 37.000 Ughi-anned 
jrT r", .' t-re, niorrover, the letiona serv- 
oad' Under Tiberius there were SA 

uf pL*ace, besides the troopii in 
uf the allHis* 

ignatcd by numbers, the legioni» 
jutii' uUr uoiiics. In a letter from Galba to 
V),' mriitiifn is made of llic Martia Ugw as 
imie of Uie veteran bodies enf^aged in an 
between Antony and Pan^a in the nortli of 
\n,i .-.I.,'.- (^sar was carrying ou the war 
freedoni of the city to a num- 
f that iMuntry, whuin he disci- 
i> n manner, ami imbttdicil tn a 

~i:;ii.ited aiauda ; hecaiisie tlie 
10; . !s a crest of feathers, like 

MI ii^iin btrdu' The legions 

II ... - by the narae of the place 

"1 I ai>ed or where they had served, 
• a, PurthtctL, or by that of the 
I hem. 

AnnaJr and elsewhere, makes 
iQ 01 UnUca of trnn^ culled vexiUant; and, 
•ocuunl ts iLMven of ihein, the place 
tj,^> i.^i.i .n fi.f I'-n '1 armies can only be 
jrs. however, must 
1 in a note upon the 
.' ihjt the vexillani were those 
the time of Augustus, were re- 
Irab i: V t^tii, but were rotamed, 

:•', under a tlai; (ffcxiV/ttm) 
ifMii till mditury duties, to ren- 
tiicir -anktance in tltr morti severe battlesi, 
tA#Awi6fnt of the empire, and keep in sub- 
thai hud been recently conqaered. 
fw t^tftfi^d fecistenl, ac rttincri »uh 
ecfUTdnua tmrnmnft, msi propulnaHdi h(»{ia.*) 
ctrtAiu miraher of vcxillarii attached 
- ' T 1 a passage in Taciius,' It 
■iniiiuntt^ to 600. They 
iBEii - -- -id from the legion, and 

I sometnnca those belonging to several legions sepm 
] to have been united m (»ne body (trcdeam rcnitan' 
mum miiia^). (The ruhsig^nani viihUs in Tacitus 
may bo looked upon as the same with the texiJUru.* 
I In Livy the iriani are said to he tub ngntj,^ where 
we perceive a close utialogy between the old (rio*:i 
and the vn:tUani or autm^naui of the age of Taci- 
tus, althou^di we must not suppubo that the vrjnf- 
Utni were llie same as the (n*ini ) 

After the selection of the men who were lo com- 
pose the legion, the military oath was administered: 
on this occasion, one person was appointed \i) pru 
iioun'.'e the words of the oath, and the rest of the 
legiunarios. advniieuig one by one, swore lo per- 
foria what the first had pronounced. I'bo form of 
the oath differeil at diflerent times : during the Re- 
publif, It contained an engagement lo be faithful to 
the Roman senate and people^ and to execute all 
the onlers that sliould be given by the commanders.* 
Under the emperors, hdelity lo the sovereign was 
introduced into itie oath -^ and, after the efitahlibh- 
ment of Christianity, the cngngejncni was made in 
the name of the Trinity und the majesty of the 
emperor* Livy says' that this military oath was 
first h'^lly exacted in (he time of the sceutid J'umc 
war, B.C. 3L0, and that, pteviuusly tuihut time, each 
decuria of cavalry and ceniuria of loot had only 
been accustomed to swear, voluntarily among them- 
selves, tliat they would act hke good soldiers. 

The whole itifantry of the legion was drawn up 
in three lines, each consisting of a separate class ot 
troops. In the first were the ha$tatt, &o called from 
the hasia, or Inns »pear which each roan caz:Jed, 
but which was alltrward disused :' these weic the 
youngtast of the soldjera. The second line was 
formed of the troops e^ilh-d jtnactprx ; these were 
men of mature age, and from their name it wuula 
appear that anciently they were placed in the front 
line.* In tiiu third line were the triarii, so called 
from tlicir pKiaitiun ; and these were veteran sul- 
(llers. each of whom carried two pila.\ or strong 
javelins, whence they were sometimes called friiu- 
nt, and the hastati und principes, who stood beibre 
them, anUpiiani. 

AV'hen vacancies occurred on service, the men 
who had long been in the ranks of the £i«t, or infe- 
rior of these three classes, were advanced to those 
of the second ; whence again, aller a time, they 
were received among the triarii, or veteran troops. 
In a legion cunsislmg of 4000 men. lliu number of 
the hastati was 1200 ; that of the principes was the 
same; but the triarii amounted to 600 only : if the 
strength of the legion exceeded 4000 men, that of 
the several bodies was increased proportionally. t)ie 
number of the last class alone remaining the same. 

The usual depth of each of the three bodies, or 
hues of troops in a legion, was ten men ; an inter- 
val, equal lo the extent of the manipuius, was left 
between every two of these divisions in the first 
and second lines, and rather greater inlervnla be- 
tween those in the third line. Every infantry «*1- 
dierof the legion was allowed, besides the ground 
on which he stiHid, a space equoi to three feet, both 
in length of front and in the depth of the filr'S, be- 
tween himself und the next man, in onler that he 
might have room for shifting the position of hia 
buckler according to the action of his opponent, foi 
throwing his javelin, or for using his sword with 
advantage." The divisions of the second hne were 
in general placed op|Xfsite the intervals uf the tirst. 
and, in like manner, the divifiinna of the third were 
opposite the intervals in the second. At the battle 

-I-, «■»., 3.)— 3, (Tac., Ann.. W., 
■II— i (Vi,*. Or., PhtU ill.. 3.)— «. 
b. Ifi.|-^. (Tiur., AuB.. i.. 96.—Cvtu- 
*«., lu., II .J 

I. (Tftc., niwt., it. 6a.)-8- (Hitt-. i., 70 ; J»., S3.)— 3. (Lir., 
viii, 8.1— ^. (Pitlyh., *!., ei. 8.)-^. (T«-., Il»t.. i».. 31.)-4. 
(VageC, Uo R« Mitil., u.. &.)— T. fixll.. >«.t-b. t^Uns \kt 

Uoff. Lu., if., 16 J— 9. :i.iT., nu., ( j— 10. tVi.lyl».,iTn^«» »4 




II Zama, however, the divisions ul troops in the 
<everoI lines were exactly opposiln each other ; but 
.his was a deviation from the usual dispdsitioii, in 
jrder that the elephants nf the CRrthaj^inians inighi 
pass quite through to the rear. In an itctioji, if the 
hasiatt were overpowered, they retired slowly to- 
wards the prineipcs ; and, fulhng into the intervals 
before nientioiied, the two clasfics in conjunction 
wmlinued thn roinbjt. In the mean timo, iho iria- 
rii, keeping one Knee on thf ground, cortTcd tliem- 
selves with their bucklers from ilic darts uf the en- 
emy ; and, in the even! of the first and second lines 
falling back, Ihoy united with them in making a 
powerful effort to obtain the viciorj*. 

Tbe light-armed troops, bearing the natne of tf> 
htcM and /rrcHtarti or rorani^ did not form a part 
of the legion, but fought in scattered parlies, wher- 
ever they were rf'<juircd- Thry carrie-d a strong 
cia*ular buckler three feci in diameter; the staff of 
;heir javelin was two cubits Innjj!, and alKuil ihr 
Uiickness ofa finger ; and the iron was furnieJ with 
a fine point, in order that it might be bent on the 
first djaehnrge. and, consoqueiitly. rendered useless 
to the enemy. 

The cavalry of the legion was ilivided into ten 
turmte, each containing; 30 men, and cneli turnr.n into 
three liecuna. or bodiea of It) men Each horse- 
man was alhrwed a space equal (•> Ove fiet in h'ngth 
in the direction of the line. Kacli turina hnd three 
Jecuriones^ or commander^ often : hut hn wUo was 
first cleeteil commanded the turma, and was prob- 
ably called dux turnui.^ 

Ill (he lime of the UepubUc, the six Irihunes who 
were placed ovfr a legion commanded by turns. 
(I'lrf Tribuni MiuTUM ) To every 100 men were 
appointed two centurions, the first uf whom was 
properly so called ; and the other, called fjttio, ura- 
fM«, or avhcrnturw, acted as a lieutenant, being cho- 
sen for the purpose of doing the duty in the event 
of the sickness or absence of the former.' The 
optio appears to have heen originally chutien by tlffe 
tribune, but afterward by llio ccniuri;m. (Virf. 
Ckntomio.) The cpnlurio also chose the standard- 
bearer, or ensign of hin cenlur>' [tii:n\fcr or vrziUu- 
riuj^). Each century was also dividett into bodies 
often, each of which was commanded by a decuno 
or decanua. The first ccnlunon of the iriarii was 
eallctl prim/;^f/«j ; he had charge of ilic eagle, and 
he commanded the whole It-gion umler the tribunes.* 
Thelighiormcd troops were also fomied into bands 
or centuries, each of which was cunnnanded by a 

To Marius or Ciesar is ascribed Ihe practice of 
driiwing up the Roman army in lines by cohorts, 
which gradually led to the abandcuuiiciil of the an- 
cient division of the Ioi:ioii nito manipuli ( Vul. M«- 
Nipri.i), and of the distinctions of hayi.iti. prinL'+pes, 
and triurii. Each legion was then divided into ten 
cohorts, each cohort into three infiniple.^, and cnoh 
maniple into two centuries, so that there were thir- 
ty maniples and sixty cenluries in a legion.* {Co- 
hoTs or rhors, Ihe Greek .T''prwr* originally eigniiie*! 
an enrlosiire fft sheep ctr [>oiiitry, and was a/ler- 
wanl used to d. *ignule the number of men which 
could stand wH m sndi an enrlosure ) From a 
passage in Livj, ,l 8p|>enrs that very anciently the 
allies or auxiliarifd uf K<iine were arranged by co- 
horts r a disposition which is again referred to in 
the 23d and SSth houk^ of his history,* and in other 
places, whence it may be concluded that among 

I. (Sall.j Ju?., J8.}— 3 {Fe.t«i. i. ».— Vcget., De Re Milit., 
i-, 7.)— S. (Ltv., Tin., B; ix\.t., 5.— Taril.. Ann., ii., 8I.>— «. 
(Lif , in-., 10.— Vcif., ii., B.-l.«»., Unll. Call., ii.. S5.)— 4. r In 
kffioao sunt Mnturi* wmsiuta, mNnipult inKiidi, f!(ih<inet dc- 
fwm:" Cinmut, up. Aul. Ccil.. %i\ 4.)~6. |u..AI).— 7. (uiii . 
V^■. xx*m.. 4S.) 

those troops it was ordmaruy adopted. But, fa i 
Commrntaries of Ctrsiir, the divisions o( alt the I 
gions, whether Roman or allied, are alike dealt 
led eoliorts, and Ihe term is aljw applied to tbe I 
of men (/wtfrf^na roAorjf) which wai* panirulnrlyi 
pointed to attend on the consul or commander; 
Cffsar* tells his army, which had objecteil to mat 
against Ahovistus, that if the other troops dh( 
refuso to follow him, he woald advance with 
tenth legion alone, and would make that legion 
prrctorian cohort. 

It has been supposed that Marius, who. in 
to re<Tuit the forcts of the Republic, was compel 
to admit men of all elaeses indisenminately into' 
ranks of the legions, diminished to two the 
lines of troops in winch the Koman armies hadi 
previously drawn up for action ; but, if such 
the fact, ihe regulation eould not ha%'c long rerai 
ed in force, since (^arsar uhuuIIv, as in the 
with the Helvetians,' fomicd his army in three hi 
and at I'harsalia he appears to have had a 
which constituted a fourth, or additional line, 
may be added, that the name of one. at least, oft 
three classes of legionary troops contiuued lo; 
applied till nrRr the end of the Republic ; for, in I 
first btjok of the Ctcil IVar,' Cwsar, luentfoning 
loss of Q I'uiginus in an action against Afrani 
designates him llie first centurion of the hastatij 
the Mth legion. 

The allied troops were raise<I and officered m 
in the siime manner as those of the Roman leji 
Init probably there was not among Ihem a divi 
of the heavy-armed infantry into three el 
Tliey were commanded by prefects (see page U 
who received their orders from the Rotuan com 
or tribune.^. The troops sent by foreign statrs 
the service of Home were designated auxiliar 
and they usually, but not invannbly, received 
pay and clulhing from the Republic. 

According to Livy. the Roman soldiers at 
received no pay UUpcndium) from the state. Il 
first cranied to Jhe foot A.U.C 317, in the war 
the Volaei,' and, three years aHerwarri, to 
horse, during the siege of Veii. Niebuhr, ho\ 
brings forward sudicient reasons for beheving 
the LToups received pa> at a mach earlier 
and th;it the eerarians {vtd. ^rarh) had al^ 
Iwen obliged to give pensions to the mfaniry, 
single women and minors did ti> the knights; 
he supfKtscs that the change alluded to by Livyi 
sisled in this, that every holdier now became 
tied lo pay, w!iereas prevjouBly the mimhrr of 
sioub been limiled hy Ihai of the per^one 
to be charged with lliem.* Polyhiiis* sti 
daily pay of a legionary soldier lo have 
ohoh, which were equal to 3^ ascs, and 
t^ days would amount to 100 asca. A _ 
yearly pay amounted to 2000 ases; and, sioM' 
Konmi year originally consisted of only ten moi 
his monthly pay amounted to 300 ases, which.' 
double the pay of a foolsuldier. Polybius^ 
us that a knight's ])ay was three times as 
that of a foot-soidier ; hut this was not inl 
till A.U.C. 351, and was designed, as Niebuhr 
remarked, as a comprn.siitinn for those who ser 
with ibeir own horses, which were originally 
plied by the state.' (Compare -Cs Hobpsakh 
A centurion received double the pay ofa legi( 

The pay of tbe atddiers was doubled by Ji 
Ca?sar.' In the time of Augustu-s the pay cif i 
gionary was 10 ases a day," which nas inci 
still more by Lkimitian {anduUt tfuartum sUptt 

I. (D*U, GaU..i.,40.>— r (IbW., ».. 94.)— S. (r. 4«.>— «. 
IT., M.— y (Kiim. Jliat., «o). u., [>. 438. tnul )— 4. <Ti., 
i.3.>— 7. (Ni.,«.a.»— 8 (Lit T.,W.J-«. <Sttrt.,J«L»J 
(Tac., Ami , t., IT.) 



Btrntes pay, ihe soldiers received a month- 
o! corn, and the wnturions double, and 
'tnple, Ihat ul'a lo^tonury.' 
inirr vi itio allirs was Mipplird with com 
iM Uiai or the Roiiiaii Icuionnries. 
). iiitd tc»fi than was duiinbiilcd to 

Hi iry, TUese regulations subsisted 

kw^ Uit- lime of the Uepubhc, or before Uie 
^ t(>p Itahan cities were incorporated with 
I " ind lo the same age must be re- 

[ of march and eneanipment de- 

^~ I -^ An account ut the luarehinij 
la Rouian army is given under the artiele 

a ' balile appears to have been e.x- 

\ ■ -o by the KuinanH durmg the time 

<■ [luifli.:, thouifh, in genrritl, their annie.s 
iwii Dp III Hire*' *?xienflL'd imcs of heairy- 
rmtpa [irjpUi aaes); Ihc cavalry being on 
[s, and the light troops cither in (runt ur 
i4nJing lo circuimtancti*!. At the baule of 
bowevpr. the infamry is said to have been 
p in one line, and in close order. On this 
k the Cauls and Spaniards, who were m 
re of the Carthagiiuan army, at firat drove 
I Uutnan^ ; and liic. lalttT. drawing troops 
»r wings to slrenglhen their centre, forined 
>orl of plialanx, whoso charge succeeded so 
I ibe enemy's line was broken ; but, prei>s- 
n&nl ixK> far, the wings of the latter closed 
t disi^rdered iroopB, and nearly surrounded 
[d ifae eiixagement with Lahienu?, the army 

s- ' ' iiitaeked both in Iront and rear, 

I ») luu*s, which were laced m op- 

^ I :ind, in the action with the Par- 

frKKias (Irtrw up the Koiiian unny in one 
udy, Itaving twelve cohorts on each of the 
b, with a division of cavah'y between every 
E>rbi in each face. 

urd of comiiiaDd was at flrst ^iven aluud 
eail of llie anny ; hut -iilinihus Paiilus 
Uu; . !i;ioiTi, and caused the Inbunc of the 
I've It in a low voice to his primi- 
led it lo the next centurion, and 
jlao that, anciently, the men on 
If posts during Ihe whole day, 
■ ■' . they sometimes fell asleep 
-Kmilius l*aulua, in ordt-r 
"f the men and the chance 
l>;Kjintrd that tUey should bo re- 
•grs, and llial ttiey should go on 
' <>hiold$ {Vid. C.48TnA.) 
■■\g the continuance of the ancient 
muid lo be more than equal to the 
ks for general service, and Po- 
y accounted for the fact. This 
rva lhat,'while the phalanx retained its 
pf'wer fif fiction, no force was able to 
'Ti It, or support the violence 
Ir" that the ph4i!arix required 
>>u1d be a nearly level phiiii; 
i;;ht avoid it; and, by ma- 
tnd rear, might cut off its 
liking place, the command- 
> '■ Uiat of the Romans had ii 

u. U-iid uii lu the attack a portion only the rest in n?serve; in lliis case, 
aunx was broken by the legion, or 
ke ihniijuh any part of the i^neiiiy's 
T .idvanlages were loM ; for 
It'll spaces into which the 
and diajxirsc the imops, 
v,LTV of no avail against men 
ItiM and strong swords. In this 

"•ijplK, t*., ti. «■)— J. {ini., e«. 3.) 

[manner, .'Emilius obtained a fictory over Persena 
I ut Pydiia,' and Phdip was defeated by Flaiuiniua at 
I the balile of Cynoceplialw." 
I The SM^veriiy of the Roman diseiplinc may be 
I said to have been occabionally relaxed, at lea^t in 
I the provinces, even during the Republic , for Scipio 
\ .l^imlianus, when he went to cutnmaiid ilie army in 
I Spain, found that the legioiuiry soldiers used carts 
to carry a portion of the burdens which formerly 
' they had borne on their own shoulders.' Uul, 
. among the disorders which prevailed during ihi 
j reigns of the successors of the Anloniiies, one of 
I the greatest evils was the almost total neglect of 
I warlike exea-ises aii/.-og the troojw which guarded 
I the city of ]{.ome. '^ le legionn on the frontiers 
I alone, in ihoue times, sustained iheir ancient a>pu- 
I union, and Soverus, by Uieir aid, ascended without 
I dirticuliy the throne then occupied by ih»:- unworthy 
! Juhunits. The ahnost total abandonment of the an- 
I cieni military ini^iiuiiiuns may be said lu have taken 
I place soon alter the tune of C'onstantme; lor, ae- 
I cording lo Vegetiui*.* who lived in the reign of Val- 
I enlinian II.. the soldiers of that ue_e were allowed 
I to dispense with the helmet and cuirass, as being 
I too heavy to t>e worn ; and he ascribes their frt* 
qucnt Hcfeala by the Goths to the want of the an- 
cient detensivu aanour. 

Vegeiius has given a description of the legion, 
which, though said to accord with that of the an- 
cients, ditfers entirely from the legions of Livy and 
Polybiiis. He considers it as consisting of ten co- 
horts, and slates that it was drawn up ni three lines 
of which the rirst contained live cohorts ; the trix>pa 
of this line were called princjpt'S, and were heavy- 
armed men, each carrying five arrows, loaded at 
one end with lead, in the huUow of the shield, be- 
sides a largo and small javcJIn. The fecund line, 
consisting of the tr(K>ps called hasiali, is said to 
have been formed by the remaining five cohorts. 
Ueliind these were placed the rcreiitarii (a son of 
li||kt-aruied troops, who perlonned the duty of a for- 
lom-hopt'); the target-men, who were aniied with 
darts, arrows, and swords ; and Itesides these there 
were slingcTB, archers, and crossbow-men. In rcur 
of all came the triarii, who were armed hke the 
principes and haslatt.' Now it was the genera] 
practice, during the Hepublic, to place the pruicipes 
in the sM?eond line, in rear of the hastaii ; ihtfrcfore, 
if Ihe dis^fotiilion given by Vegeiius ever had a real 
existrnee, it can only be supposed to have been in 
an age preceding that lu wliirh the description given 
by I.ivy* refers, or it was an arrangwni-nt adopted 
on the occasiun of some temporary refonii wluoh 
may have taken place under itie em|)erors. What 
follows may. perhaps, be readily admitted to apper 
tain to the Empire under the greatest of its princes 
The first of the exhorts, which bore the name ol 
cohort mtlhana, was superior lo the others, both 
with respect to the number and quality of the sol- 
diers ; it had, also, the elurgc of the eajjle and the 
standard of the emperor. Its Btreugth was 11U3 
foot-soldiers, and 132 cuirassiers on liursebuck, and 
Its poi^t was on the right of the first line. The re- 
maining four cohorts of the first hue contained each 
6A5 lulaotry and 66 cavalry, and the Ave cohorts 
of the second line contained each the siime nundiirr 
of infantry and cavalry. Thus Ihn whole legion 
was composed of 6100 foot-soldiers and 720 hoi^e- 
inen, not including either the triarii or the IglU 

Afler the eslahlishmenl of the imperial authority, 
the Buvereign appointed suine pervjn of eon^ulat 
dignity to command each Jrgion in tin: proTmccs ; 
and this officer, ob the euHHTor'a liputi-ii«nt. h^i 

riLi».,xhv^4l.>— 4. tPol/tU #TtN»* %)-* (Urf..C^ 
S7.}H. (t., IP.J— 5. <V«y«C^ iL. fl, IJ.)-^ (flM,. «.) ^ 



the title ut prsftttUB, or Uffattta Ugionia} The first 
apfiuinliiient of this kind appears tu bave taken 
|jLii:p in llie reign of Augualuj, and Tacitua men- 
lions the fxlatcnce of the odirr in llie rngii uf Ti- 
brrius- Ttie autlmrtly of the Ictfaliia wiia superior 
to that of the Inbune^t wliu twluro wure respunsible 
only to the fon&ul. In siK'aking of the officers of a 
Jcgion. •Vftjetius' mentions two Irihunea (probably 
meaning two classes of tnbunes). of which thu first, 
called iribunuflrnnjor, received hiaconimi.ssitm from 
the t'niptrur ; the othtT, called iribunus nuuor, rose 
to iliai runlt by merit or length of service. Subor- 
dinate to (he tribunes were, in each cohort, the sev- 
eral centurions, who bore the genenil name uf or- 
dinarii' To ever)' hundred men there were prolv 
ably, at one time, only the ne.nturio, whose post was 
in front of tlie division, and the opiio, whu remained 
in the rear, but it appears that Auijuslua and Vcs- 
{tusiaii increased the number of officers of this chiss ; 
for Vegelms observes that those whom these two 
cmpcrure added to ihoordinarii were called Augux- 
Utlts and t'lariakn.* The decurions or decani wfre, 
ft.s formerly, the leaders of tiles. According to Dion 
CasKius, seven cohorts of troops wt-re msliiuled by 
Augustus fur the defence of the city, and 
bore the name of rig-iles. It ap|>ears. however, that 
in the lime of Tacitus they ceased to be{leired 
as wddiers ; for ihat writer takes no notice of them 
when, in cnumeratinK the guards of Iltmie.he men- 
lions Uiree uroan and nine pranohan cohorts.' 

In li fragment of Arrian (the autlior of the work 
on the Tntrtics of the CJrreka) we have n brief no- 
Uee of the constitution of a Human army durinju; the 
reign "f Hadrian, and the. description will probably 
serve for any age between that lime and th«.' dissolu- 
tion of the Empire. It was so regulated that, when 
drawn up in order of battle, the legions should bo 
in one line eight deep, and no mention is rnaiie of 
any division of the troops into hastali, principes, 
ar.rt iriarn. The first four ranks were anned with 
the pdum, and the others with slender pikes or jav# 
iias. The men in the front rank were to present 
their pila at the level of the enemy's horses' breasts, 
and those in the second, third, and fourth ranks 
were to stand ready to throw theirs. A ninth rank 
was to consist of archers, and behinii all were the 
catapiili re for projectint; darts and arrows, and halisLffi 
for throwing stones, over the lieads of the men in 
front. The cavalry were dirwied tn be m tho rear 
of the legions, probably in the event of beinjif obliged 
to quit their stations on the winps. On the enemy 
making a charge, the second and I bird ranks were 
to clnse up to the first, and all llic&e were to pre- 
sent their pila ; the men in the fourth rank were to 
throw their weapons directly forward, and those in 
the rear were to discharge theirs over the heads 
of the others. The maruli of the anny was made 
in one column. First came the Itnnian artillery, 
in two ranks; these wero followed by archers on 
horseback and by the allied cavalry ; then came the 
Armenian nrchcrs on foot, and half of the allied in- 
fantry, whirh was llanked by the cavalry of Arhaia. 
The (lite of the Uomaii cavalry marehcfl at the head 
of the central division ; after them came the ordi- 
nary cavalry, then the catapults and the light troopi» 
attached to the legions, followed by thu legions 
themselvei. in rohorUj four men deep. At the head 
of the legion marched the pra*fe*Tl. his legale, the 
tribunes, and the centurions of the cohort 
The rear-guard consisted of the other half of the al- 
lied infantry and the baggage ; and the whole was 
dosed by the cavalr>' of the Geta;. 

After the settlement of the Kmpire, Augustus 
UBited with the troops which, under the uiuno of 

the pr eelorlan coliort. hud attended him as his| 
two legions of infantry which had been raiMd 
Itiily, and placed the whole in garrison in thei 
towns uf thai couniry, but never allowed murv 
three cohorts to be in one city.' Tthenus 
ward assembled this b^xly of men in a fortified n 
At Ronw," hut outside the walls of the city-,* , 
there, during 3U0 yeara, they were at times 
guards and the masters of the sovereign. Jn 
lime of 'J'iheriua there were nine prtctoriaa 
tioris,* but tlit'ir nuuilter was increased to tfixl 
under A'liellius. four of whom guarded the d 
When Severus had got possesaion of the Emp 
subsequently to the muider of Pertmax by lA 
pnetorians, he disarmed llie latter, and banial 
ilu^m from Knino; but such an institnuon was 
convenient to be neglected by the deei)oiie mona 
of a vast finpire. and^e Unmediateiy drew trom 
legions of the frontiers the men most reraar 
for their strength and courage ' Willi tliese 
formed an army uf 25.000 men. to whom. he 
pay and privileges superior tu those of the t 
troops ; and their commander, the prstortftn 
feci, was made both the bead of all the milil 
force and the chief minister of the Empire. By 
arrauijemenls of Diocletian, a prselorian priM 
was appiiinled, with hulh a tuilitary and a cud 
rii»dictiun, in each of the four great provinces. 111 
(jaul. lUyria, and the ii^ast, into wlurb the Eni| 
was then divided ; but u large body of guards* 
der the command of the prtpfect of Uome. cofl 
ued to form the giirrison of the city. t^ngage4 
the cause of Maxentius, these tru<ips. ahno!«t ak 
withslootl fur a time the shock nf (Joustantil 
Gallic army, and most of them are «iid to ti 
covere<l with their dead bodies the ground wl 
they occupied when in line ;' but, aller the deatl 
the former, ihe loriified camp of the prastoi 
destroyed, and tlieir institution wassuppi 

The command of all the annies of the 
was. then eoinmilted by Constantmc to two otRc 
who had the title of magtstri tmlttuni; one of 
was placed over ihe cavalry, and the other 
the infantry, yet both cominanded iRdiirere4iU}r.| 
troops of both clas-ses in any one army,* 
division of the Empire ilieir number was i 
and in the reign of Constantius it was inci 
eight. Acconling to Vegetius." the magister 
turn was a man of distinguished binh ; but 
writer observes that the troops were actually 
manded by the prsefeetus legtonts, who lield aflj 
termediato rank between the niagistcr mililnio 
the tribunes, whu were[)laced over the cohoita,^ 

The hope, of pn^venting those acts of ii 
naiion which had occurred among the li 
troop<t. appears to have induced ConslAntioe, 
immediate successors, to diminish the 
tho.>ie budles ; and. from a computation foul 
the numbiT uf the troops which garrisoi 
when It was beiieged by Sapor, it ap( 
Human loijion could not then have com 
uiure than 150U men" Of lliese conipdrativ4| 
Rmall bodies there were about I3'i in 
Euipire ; they were, however, not only will 
di.sciplme wtiieh characterized tlie Roman 
battle in former tiineti, but the pn>gress of 
lifid so far enervated the class of free cili 
a sulTicient number could not be found to 
ranks of the army. Slaves were adnnited 
every corps except the superior class of 
and the boldest of the Franks and Gotlis wi 


1. (T»c.i., Hist., i.. 8S.)-1. <n., 7.)- 
— A. (Tvit^ Ana,, it,, S.— Ltja. ia loo.) 


{it., 8.)— 4. <ii.. 7.) 

I. (SoBU,OctaT., 49.y— ». (Sum., Till.. ST.)— a. (SoMw] 
4HJ— I. (Taot., Ann., W., 5.)— 5, (Tarit., Hisf., il, 
(Dioo., lixiv,. 3.)— 7. tnuirffT. V«j(., x., 17)— «. ( 
il.— Pnuwr. Vrl.. ix-J- 0. (Zoiimtw. hh. U t— 10. {d 
iAvam. MuvcU„ txx., 3, ft 



of their services, to allain the 

fantfi In this a?p appear the first 

01 1 • ''' ' -A tenures ; for the lands be- 

V s, as ihe reward of valour, 

il ... ' ..Uuii that the sons of those 

like their fathers, serve the state in ihc 

lotion of ilie Roman arms was upheld 

n tti*» West by the troops v.nder Aetius. 

IV Ihcinarlia! vjrliics of Bt'lisarius ; 

■ we have of an en^nwrinent susi- 

;t of the ancii^nt baUl-s, is that 

:;S in bis arcount of the Persian 

nbine an action on the Euphrates 

the triHips nf that nation and thoi>e of Jus- 

«aj-s ihe latter presented a front whicli 

to Ihe assaults of the enemy's cavalry an 

bic line ol pikes, wliile llic bucklers of the 

• --■ "r-m from the tli);hts of arrows with 

il have otherwise been over^hrlm- 

;<_ ':iiie a Roman army he^n to as- 

( to that t»f an Asiatic people ; its strength 

n? in its cavalty. which was armed with 

helmet, and greaves, and which had ac- 

l^enty in the use of the javehn and bow ; 

ie mfanlry, forrned of men taken from the 

rank in si^citty, iU-amicd and dt&ciphiicd, 

chiefly as artiticers or labourers, or atlend- 

, tlie tor^-men, and in oction only engaged 

iitf:^n»ry hkc themselves. 

r*i/u), a medicinal substudce no- 
h ind F'aulus -lOgineia* It would 

' " tticcd by the oiher medical 
. Roman, or Arabic, unless 
-. with the cnmrocnlators on 
I :ic second Zeruttiifefh of Serapion. 

r« of Avicenna. It ^o, it must 
a ZiuMtry, ias this is the Zcrcaihelh of Se- 

. ./ t . .._ .r.-.^ ' jyivoj-vlorTflOf or-ov), the herb 
ilus d^'scribes iwo species 

,y, the Planliif; ' nifor and 

- sees no reajnn to Inii^t that 
species noticed by Ujwsr-4>.*d*s, aU 
kjtreagei hesitatingly refers them i ' «he P. 
ml flunfitfui r and Sibthorp incrka i)\e up- 
irig the P. Up;(rput. fjlack- 
. of Theophrastus as being 
■ jtrr Plantain* 
it about wliich great uncer- 
■•ilte holds It to l>e the Arum 
I, L.. wr Uie Wake-robin ; but Alston says 
>rr>lim m not the afjov, but the ufHa- 
ipinion of many." "I can- 
' observes Adams, "what 
- or Matthiolus points to. 
Bi' Qhinius referred il to the 

, 3 "a to the Aruni vul^arr. ; he 

■It undecided as to the difference 
rtn Arum and the Arvm X)io*cori' 
m-*?. without attempting to account 
tition of terms, decides that the ufiov 
\rum Drerunculus. Of Litlle 
^hti' ' 'anOfTiov the Arum nutcu- 

'I fr^ uer consulting all the beat 

DO thss subject, I must leave it in so un- 
a aal« '" 
l'TCS, a pervon afflicted with the orqva- 
• -^ ^andice.' Tins disease (called also 

-a. (I.. 13.)— 3. irn^ 113.)— I. 

' , •. • ,_fl. (DioKxn., ii., 153.— 

V- >■ , ». f.j— 7, (Th'">- 

' <.-!»., l>f> Mc*l., 111., 

< A fluUt qtUECUIlr]U« 

'111.. .<i,iM . I., ]», — " AnioatM 
>u« viO^utur:" Plia., B. N., zx.. 

trrepnc, aungo, Tf/fiu» morbva) derives its namt 
from the yellow tmt difl^used over the body, imita- 
Inijz in a manner the colours of the raintKiw.* It is 
fiometimes spelled arcuatua^ but less correcily. as 
(according to Nonius') arruj signities any arch, but 
mrtiutis only ibe iris, or rainbow ; as Lucretius, ""Tmjm 
color in uigris existit nubibv* araw.'* 

defined by Gaius* to be ihe " proof of u contract ui 
buying and selltnij ;" but it also has a more general 
signification. 7'hat thing was called arrha which 
the conlraciinp parties gave to one another, whether 
it wa.s n sum of inonev or anything else, as an evi- 
dence of the contract being made : it was no es- 
sential part of the contract of buying and sellmg, 
but only evidence of agreement as to price.' If the 
arrha was given as evidence of a contract abso- 
lutely made, it was called arrha pacta perfeclo data t 
if It was given as evidence of a contract io be made 
at a future lime, it was called arrha pactti imperjceto 
data. In the latter case, the party who relused to 
complete the contract lost the arrha which tie had 
given; and when he had received an arrha, but 
given none, be was obliged to restore double the 
amount of the arrha. Yet Ihe bare restoration of 
the arrha was sufficient, if both parties contienled 
to put an end t4> ihe contract, or If perfonnancc of 
the contract was resisted by either party on si;fB- 
cient grounds. In the former case, the arrha i'\\\y 
served, if dispute aru«e, as evidence of the uiiallct- 
nhle obligation of the eonlrnct, and a party to iho 
conlraci could not rescind the contract even wjih 
the lass of Ihe arrha, except by makmg out a proi>ct 
case. Hence amse the division of the arrha into 
ctrnfirmalorxa and pajulentiaii*. Il, m the lorniei 
case, the cotitraci was not completely performed, 
the auha was restored, and the party who was in 
fault lost the arrha which he had given. But when 
the contract was completely perfonned, in all cases 
where the arrha was money, it wna re.*itored, »t 
4Rkcn as pan of the price, unless 6peci;d customs 
delenuined otherwise ; when the arrha was a ring, 
or any other thing, not money, it was restored. 
Ihe recovery of the arrha was in all cases by « 
personal action. 

The arrha in some respects resembles the dcpos- 
tle of moucy which a purchaser of land in England 
generally pays, according to the couditiuiis of sale, 
on coninicting for his purchase. 

'3'lie lenn arrha. in its general sense of an evi- 
dencc of agreement, wss also used on other CLca. 
EJonS} aa in the case of betrothment (ttpontmlta ). 
( Vvl. Marruok ) Sometimes the word arrha is 
use<l as synonymous with pignus,' but this is nui 
the legal meaning of the term.' 

ARRHEPHORIA (Ap^^/i/a), a festival which, 
according to the various ways in which the name 
is written (for we find tpa^i^opta or i^tiAnina), is 
attributed to different deities. The first form is 
derived from u^i/ra, and thus would indicate a fes- 
tival at which mysterious thin^ were carried alraut. 
The other name would point tu Eree or Herse, who 
was believed to be a dnushicr of Ceerope, and 
whose worship intimately connected with that 
of Athena. But, even admitting the latter, we sttU 
have sufficient ground for ttelieving that the festival 
was solemni'/ed. m u higher sense, in honour ol 
Athena.* Jt was held at Athens, in the month of 

I. (Uid., OrijT.. ir., 8.— Noit. Miur., r., 14; "In antm »iinil' 
itiidiii''m.">— J. (1. R.)— 3. (VI., 525.)— 1. 0".. 13U.J— S. (Gani», 
Diif. IS, tit. 1, ■. ib.)-6. (T«rrnt.,H»amui.t., ill- 3.43.) -T 
tThibout, SvrtemdesPand^kicn Itfoliiif, ♦ U4.— I"'?- H?, tit. I, 
1. ii. tic. ^. t. «: 14, lit. 3. a. 6. « 13: IV, lir. l.». U,f fl.- 
CimI. 4. lit. SI, I. 17. — C«Uiu>,xvii., S.— Lomi'iiTc Unictiia,ii»c 
37. " I>r ar(|uiri'mlu riTumdnmiiii'j tncaasu «ni)iliotii»."utid wlmt 
be ny» ia the iirlta,wiili the pnMaga in Gum klnwly n(ttne4 
to.)— 6. (Eij-mol, Mag., s. v. *Aji^4p«.) 



Rkirophorion. Four girls, of between seven and 
eleven years/ were sclcftcil every year from the 
fiiont rljjittincuishcd t'aniiliea, two of wliom suimt- 
iniLiidrd ilie weaving of Uic sarrcd pejitus of Alhe- 
ua, w liicli was bfguii on the liut day of Pyano{tsion ;' 
the two others had to carry the myslcnoua and 
sacred veseeU of the goddess. TheM) lalter re- 
mained a whole y(*nr on the Acropolis, either in tlie 
Parthenon or some ai^oining building ;' and, when 
tht fty.ival commenced, the prit'ate.'w uf the (;oddeBs 
placed vessels upon their beads, llie contents of 
which were neither known to them nor lo the 
priestess. With these they descended to a natural 

STOlto within the district of Aphrodite, in the gar- 
ena. Here lliey deijosiled the sacred vesaela, and 
carried back something else, which Wiis covered, 
and hkewise unknown lo them. After this the 
girls were dismissed, and others were chosen to 
aiip[ily their place m the Aero|>olts. 'ilic girls 
wore while robes adorned with gold, which were 
left for the goddess ; and a pecnhar kind of cakes 
was baked for ihem. To cover the expenses of the 
festival, a peculiar liturgy was established, called 
ap^ttfofiia. All oUicr details concemiug litis festi- 
vul are unknown. 

AKROGATHX {Vtit. AnoPTto.) 
•ARSEN'IKON (upaeviKov) "does not mean 
what is commonly called amrnicy but the srjitfut-iul' 
fhitret of arxcnic, or orptmcnt."* Ccleus clearly in- 
dicates what it was when he says "'Aunpigrntntum, 
^umt iipatviKov a Gr<ccia nominatur."'* In a word, 
It 13 yellow orpitnent. and this hitter name itself is 
merely a corruption from aunpiemmtum, or " paint 
of gold." "It was called," observes Dr. Moore, 
^^ttmripitptirntum. perhaps, not merely from its gold- 
en colour nnd the use to which it was applied, but 
because the ancients thought it re-ally conUined 
Ibat metal. Pliny raeniions, among other modes 
of obtaining pdd, thai of niakinj* it from orpiment ; 
and says that Caligula ordered a great quantity of 
ihal 3i:b3*B'i;3 to be reduced, and obtained excej* 
lent gold, but in siieli small proportion as to lose 
by an experiment whieli waa not afterward repeal- 
ed.' Althoiigh no great reliance can he placed on 
this aceouiit, we are not, of necessity, lu regard 
it as a fable ; fur the mass experimented on rnay 
have contained, as it is said this mineral sometimes 
does, a small portion of gold."* The arsenic of the 
ancients, then, was considerally difterent from our 
oxyde of arsenic, which is a factilious suti»lanee 
procured from cubnit hy sublimation. The Arabian 
author Servitor, Imwevf r, desenhes the process of 
suShuliu;:; arsenic; and Avicenna makes mention 
uf while arsenic, by which he no duuht meant sub- 
linted arsenic, or the Arsenicum aUmm of modern 
cbymisls. According to the nnalysis of Klaproth. 
yellow orpiment consists of 63 parts of arsenic and 
38 of sulphur. The Greek name up(teviK6v {mascu- 
iine) is said by some to have been given to it txj- 
cause of the potent qualities it was diseovereil tn 
possess; (qualities, however, which the arsenic of 
the shops exhibits in a more intense dejrree.' '• Ga- 
len' says it was commonly called up<jtvtKl>v in hia 
time, but vrd tCjv amni'^nv to Truvra (iov'Ko^h'uv^ 
■by those who wished lo make everything conform 
lo the Attic dialed.' il/J/Hri'/fcov.'* According in 
IPliny, orpiment was dug in Syria, for the use of 
painters, near the surface of the ground ; Viinivius* 
mentions Pontus as n locality, and Dtoscorides" 
names Mysia as the country whence the best was 
brought; that of Pontus holding the second rank. 

I. fiii^fn^4(Mi,ipin:<pAimi,i^}>if'fiiMt: Arittoph., Ljnitt^ MS. ] 

*. (Sun)., ». T. XuAAitii.) — 3. (HttTpcicr., i. r. Smttvi-ipof 

'<ii.. i., !r. « 4.)— I. (De Med., v., 5,)— &. (IL N., iniii., 4.) 

•}. (A:ic. Miiieral«vy. p. 00.)— 7. (IJ. i1*.)— 6. (D« MfHlimm, 

»^}iYit. ■■'•. 3, (I. SyS, «1. Kttbn.— TbnnphrwtaB hm iuhtvf 

ai»,c 7l,(W.tfO.)-9. (rii., 7.J-10. (v^ 191.-Moott>, I. r.) 


The red sulphurct of arsenic was called Sane 
cha, and the ancienia apfxar lo have been wi 
acquainted with the kmdred nature of bolb the 
low and red. {Vui. Sandaracua.) 

AK'TAUA {ufjTu&7i), a Persian measure of c«| 
eily. wliich euniained, aeeordtng tu Herodotus.* 
riiedininusand3clii£uices (Attic)=lD2 Rouian«i 
larii =:11! gallonti 5 Oi>*J pints ; hut, accordmg to! 
das, Hesyetuue, PolyB!nus,"and Kpiphanma, il 
tamed 1 Attic niedunuus — DG ii^xtaru -— U galk 
7 U5fi pints, lliere was an Egyptian measure 
the same name, ot which there were two sorts, 
old and the new artaba.' The old ariaba com 
4i Uoman modii =73 sexiarii =8 galkins 7*: 
pints. Il was uboui equal to the Attic melrc 
and it was hiUf of the Ptolemaic medimnus, wht 
was to the Attic medimnus as 3 : 2. The 
and more common K^yplian artaba contained 
modii :r:53» stxiaru — ti gallons 4 8586 pmls.* 
was eijual to the Olympic cubic fool, and about 
as large as the JVrsian artaba.* 

ARTKMIS'IA CAtiTrfiiata), a festival cclcbi 
at Syracuse in houour of Artemis Potomia and 
teiru.* It lasted three days, which were 
spent in feasling and amusements.^ Dread 
fercd to her under the nnme ofAo^ja.* Ft 
of the same name, and iu honour of ihe same , 
dcss, were held m many places m (ireece ; 
principally at Delphi, where, according to Ilef 
sandrr.' they olTcred to the god a mullet on this 
c^sion. because it apprarcd to hunt and kill the 
hare, Qnd thus bore some resemblBiice to Artcinj 
the goddess of hunting. The same name was giv« 
lo the festivals of Artemis in CjTcne .i id Epheai 
though in ibe latter place the goddess nut t| 
Grecian Artemis, but a deily ol Eastern origin. 

•II. The numf of .iu herb, communlv calloil M*, 
KoTih, or MQikenttfrt. Uioscorides descril>es 
species, lilt; jro/.t'/t/.ui'fif, /lovotXwt'itf, and AtTrru 
Xoc. The first, aceordinir lo Sprengcl, is ihc Artc/i*u 
ar I'orescens i the second, Ihe Artermsia spicata; ai 
the third, the Artemisia campetlris. Dierbacli jtteei 
to entertain nuich (he same ideas regarding 
species of wormwood comprehended under 
upTffiiaia of HipptJcrates, The Wonnwood h( 
a pniinmrnt part m all the Hcrbals of antiquity, fr 
Uioscorides to Maccr Floridus.'" 

AIITE'KIA (<lpr7,/jirt), a word commonly 
contrary to all analogy) derived utto roOu/pa Tqpri 
ab aire terFandu; because the ancients, ignoranli 
ilic circulation uf the blood, and finding (he arteri 
always emj>iy ufu-r death, supimsed they wi 
tubes eontamins; air" Die word was apphed 
the trachea by llippuerales" and his contempoi 
ries. hy whom Ihe vessels now called artcnca wi 
disimguislicd from the vans hy the addition of il 
word atpv^u. By later writers it is used to sign^ 
sometimes the trachea,^' and in this sense the 
thet Tpjjxeift, axpcra, is uceasionally added ;*• sot 
times an artery ;■* in which sense the epithet Xei 
/o'riff, is sometimes added, to distinguish it Irom 
trachea ; and sometimes, in the plural number, 

I. (i., !«.)— 2. (Strni., ir., 3, N.)— 3. <DidyiBU», c 11 
(Rht*tnn. Ftutii-fCanncntlf*. Puuil. ct Mciu*., t^ &0, 90. — Hli 
Drl Ewch., 5.)— 5. (BtkUi. M(tn>lt>ff. I'ntrraiich., p. »l3v 
Wurtii, (Ic Pw*)., i-c, p. 133.)—^. (Piml., Pyih., u.. !*.> 
(1,11., X**., 23.— I'lut.. Mfirr»-ll., la)— y. (Hi-sjcd., •. t.) 
(AtlicOKTiu, vii., p. SaS.J— 10. fLho»rrr., in., lift, 117. 
Ajtprnil., i. V.)— II. (Cir., tV Nut. Deor., ii., 55; " SinjnUl 
veriiu in onuic corpus JilTuntlitur, pl «tnrit«ii per nrtnniu." — C( 
iiarn Sflitfca. Qiurrt, Nal., in., 15, fy 4.— Plin., H. N.,ji. 
IS. (HMrir., til.. (}5-l, 063, ^.l. Kilho.)— 13. (AKstut.. H. 
i., 13, 5.— MwroU.. Satam.. rii., 15.— AiPt, p. 94.«». Kohi 
M. (A«^., p. 31.— Cic, l»o Nat. Dror.. ii,, 54.— C«U., Do Mi 
iv., I.) — 15. (Ccli., Uv Mwl.. IV., I, Art. qua* tafr^Tifi-ti 
««nt.— Ibid., II., 10.— Him., U. N., xi., 68.— 4rel„ p. SI, >._ 
4&c.)-10. (Aaci. mi Hueiui., jit, 13.— Aal- 0«1I , ti. A^ 
2C. -Aid., p. M, Ac.J 



?fDCtril^andin}r ilie opinion of many of the an- 
emia thil the arlenrs containtMl only air. it is 
Out Uie more inlelli;;ent among them knew 
well, 1. 'Hi-u ihi'V ronifltn blood/ nnil 
$t»l tJiis is of a dilFoR'nt naluru from that 
III in Ihi: veins.' Galpii, from whom the last 
oOUineii. calls lUe pulmonary artery ^'/M' 
1^, because it conveys venous blood, al- 
'tt has the form and struuture of an artery. 
the «ecliun of an artery is much more dan- 
and more ditficult to heal than that of a 
,• a. TliAt Uiere id a piibtation in the arteries 
Whiek docs not i?xii*i in thf! vem-s, nnd of which the 
tious are nf ^'at ralue, l>oth aa assisting to 
• correct diagnosis^ and al&o as an indication 

H*"rA {Vtd. PirroB) 

'RA {Aftorvfta), a Greek measure of surfaoB, 

rdinx to ^iiidas, was the fourth part of 

The Tr/j0pov, a» a measure of lenielh, 

100 Greek feet ; its square, therefore, 

feet, and therefore thearura =2fi00 Greek 

otus' mentions a measnTC of the same 

but apparently of a difTereiit size, lie says 

(I (* a h' '- ' '.•yptian cubits in every direc- 

Now It LMihit contained nearly 17J 

Ui'-. :. Mjuare of 100x17} inches, 

rty 14« leei, gives the tuimher of square 

" Mn the arura, vii , 21,90-1.' 
TEX (Km/ HtRuxi'EX ) 
AliES FKATKES. The fratres arvales 
nr company of twelve m number, 
!. acctirduitf to Varro,' from olTer- 
.i.ues for the fertility of the (ielda 
^miitea Jatinnt frrrpUrea^ vl fnife* fcrant 
«r««). That they were of extreme antiquity is 
proved by the legend which relers their institution 
l0ltanvuliifi.c<f whom it is said, that when his nurse 
T 1 -si one of her twelve sons, he al- 

:>e adopted by her in hi^ place, and 

j...... Jill the remaininj; eleven '* Fratres 

Wc also find a college called the Sodalca 
as tbe latter were eonfessetlly of Sabine 
lied for the of keeping up 
IS rites.'* there is some reason for 
pji*tiit;"n of Niebohr," that these colleges 
cemspooded one to the other : the Fratres Arvales 
MbK eonn^ied with the Latin, and the Sodales 
TMi with U.e Sabine, element of the Itnman state, 
IgBl -9B tliKte w«>re two colteffrs of the Luprm, 
J-, 11^ Fahti auil the Quiruitlii, the former of 
avem to have bcdnn;;!i;d to the Sahines. 
The office of the fratres arvales was for life, and 
vat B«t taken awuy even fruin an extlp or captive. 
Thty wore, as a badce of otftce, a chaplet of ears of 
(ffjrtMii etffuna) fastened on their heads with a 
tMii.I " Tlie number ^iven by iiiseriplions 
n ver more than nine ; though, ae- 
'od and general belief, it amount- 
•ne of their annual duties was to 
■ days' festival in honour of Dea 
m/[>'i-M-ii til lie b'eres. sometimes held on the 
r., and iiii , Boraelimes on the vi., iv., and 
Jan.i. c, on the 17th, 19th. and 20lh. or 
e tnk, tMu and 3Uth of May. Of this the mas- 
^ tiie cc4)ege^ apfjoirited annually, gave public 
~ (t^uthai) frtitn the Temple of Concord on 
ilol On ttte first and last of these days, 

?* »rt«rt>'4<Jniy ii iwrotnmrndMl.)— 

rp fitin., Tii., 8.)— 3. (Cel».. De 

' tiM Piili.. Db Canirs Puis., 

-5, (ti., Ififi.)— 0. <Hutif»y, 

.. Do PwoOnr., 4c.. p. M.J— 
rr.l— B. (MM«inui Soliiniii. 
. Ana., u 51.)— II. 'R«u- 

tlie college met at the house of Iheir president, re 
make offerinpa to the Dea L)ia ; on the seetmd they 
assembled in the urove of the same goildesa, abnut 
five miles south of lt(HTie, and there olfered sacrilicea 
for the ferlihiy of the eanh. An account of the 
difl'Tcnt ceremoniea of itiis festival is preacrrcd in 
an inscription, which was written in the first yeai 
of the Emperor Elagabalus (AD 218), who wa» 
elceied a member of ihe college under the name o^ 
M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix.' The same in- 
scription contains the followintj song or hymn, 
which appears to have been sung at this festival 
from Ihe most aneient times .- 

•* E Tie*, Lajes, ivralt. 

Net}€ lufive, Marmar, jiina incurrere in pUorU * 

Satur furere, Mara, lim<n #a/i, sta berbcr : 

Sfmunix alfcTiict ndtocaptl conctoa. 

E noM^ Marmor^ tueato ; 

Ttinmpe^ (riumpe^ Inumpr, triumpc, triumpe.** 
Klausen, in his work on this subject,* gives the fol 
lowing translation of the above : 
" Afi^e no*, Larrx^ yurale. 

Neve Inem, Mars, ainas *tu:HrriTe jn plures : 

SatHT furtrr, Mnm^ jirdt pulaa limrtij ata. vrrbere 

Semonea alUmi adcocabiU cunetoi, 

Apr not. Mam, juraio: 

Tnumphe" i^e. 
But, besides this festival of the Dea Dia, the fratrea 
nn'ales were required, on various owaaions under 
Uie emperors, to make vows and offer up thanka- 
givmgs, an enumeration of which is given in Fau 
cinlati.' Rlralio, indeed,* informs us that, in the 
reign of Tiberius, these priests {irpofivij^Qvc^) per- 
formed sacrifices called the amharvalia at various 
places on the borders of the ager Hotnanus, or 
oriLMnal territory of Rome ;' and among others, al 
Fe^ti, a place between fivo and six miles from the 
citVr in the direction of Alba. There is no boldness 
in Buppijsin;^' that this was a custom liandod down 
fhim time ifiimpmorial, and. moreover, that it was 
a duty of this prieslhood to invoke a blessing on the 
whole territory of Rome. It is proved by inscrip- 
itons that this college existed till the reign of tho 
Emperor Gimlian, or A.D. 325, and it is probable 
that ]t was not alwljshed till A.D. 400, together 
with the other colleges of the pagan priesthoods. 

The private amharvalia were certainly of a differ- 
ent (laLure from those mentioned by Strabo, and 
were so nailed from the victim [hostia ambarcaiix), 
that was slain on the occasion, being led three 
times round Ihe eomfieUls before the sickle was put 
to the com. This victim was accompanied by a 
crowd of merry-makers {clutnLM ct jtodi), the reap- 
ers and farm-servants dancing and singing, ae they 
marched along, the praises of Ceres, and praying 
for her favour and presence, while they ofTered bar 
the libations of milk, honey, and wine.* This cere- 
mony was al.HO railed a luxtraiio,'' or purification ; 
and for a beautiful descriptiuu of the holyday, and 
the prayers and vows made on Ihe occasion. Iho 
reailer la referred to Tibullus, lib. ii,. eleg. i. It is, 
porhaps, worth wliile to remark that I'olybius* uses 
lanijua^c almost applicable to the Roman amhar- 
valia in sjwaking of the Mantiacans, who, he says 
(specifying the ocrasion), made a purification, and 
carried victims round the city, and all the country : 
his words are, Oi Mavrivti^ jcoflop/iov iirai^ffOkTo, 
Kai (T^flyta Trfpi//fry«av r^f re jroAcuf KvuXtfi nai ryj 

There is, however, a still greater resemblance to 

I. (MftnBJ. AmcMonunM-n'i d*rli Ar^Tdl, tah. xli.— Ot»Ui, 
Ctirri. •.o*enp.t w. MTl).)— S. (DcCarmin* Fmirmii AiTalium, 
a. 53 )_3. (1^1., K. V.)— 4. (v., 3.)— 4. (Arnolil, Bom. Hurt., \^ 
n SI.)— 0. (Viix-, C*..f^., I.. 3M.>-7. (Virg.. Eclc«., ».. 83.»- 

Ike rite« we have been describing, in the ceremonies which show that it was depressed to ^ aad «rfe^ 

^ of its original weight. Several modem wrtos 

of Ihe rogation or gang week of the Latin Church 
These consisted of processions through the fields, 
accompanied with prayers {rogatioiu*) for a bless- 
ing on ihe fruits of the earth, and were continued 
during thr<e days in Whitsun-week. The custom 
was abolished at the Reformation in consequence 
of its abuse, and the perambulation of the parish 
boundaries substituted in its place. ^ 

•AllL'NDO. (Vid. KAAAMOS.) 

AS, or Libray a pound, the unit of weight among 
the Romans. {Vid. Libra.) 

AS, the unit of value in the Roman and old Ital- 

have contended, chiefly from the fact of ases beiaf 
found of so many different weights, that Pliny^ac- 
i count of the reductions of the coin is incorrect, aad 
I that these reductions took place gradually, in tke 
.lapse of successive centuries. But Bockh ha 
shown^ that there is no irace in early timeS'Of i 
j distinction between the a* grate and lighter mOD- 
I ey ; that the Twelve Tables know of no such dis> 
- tiiiction ; that, even after the introduction of ligtrter 
money, tinea and rewards were reckoned in m 
grave ; and that the style of the true Roman ooioi 

ian coina^'s, was made of copper, or of the mixed ; which still remain by no means proves that the 
metal called JEo. The origin of this coin has been heavier pieces are much older than those of tm 
already noticed under .Es. It was originally of the . ounces, but rather the contrary. His conclnskm is, 
weight of a pound of twelve ounces, whence it was j that all the reductions of the weight of the as, from 
called as lihrali* and ax grape. The oldest form of i a pound down to two ounces, took place during the 

it is that whit*h bears the figure of an animal (a bull 
ram, boar, or sow). The next and most common 
fomi is that described by Pliny,* as having the two- 
faced head of Janus on one side, and the prow of a 
ship on the other (whence the expression used by 
Roman boys in tossing up, capita out navim*). The 
annexed specimen, from the British Museum, weiglis 

I first Punic war. Indeed, if the reduction had beee 
very gradual, it is impossible that the Republic codd 
have made by it that gain which Pliny states to h%ve' 
been the motive for the step. 

The value of the as, of course, varied with its 
weight. Some writers, indeed, suppose that a rise 
took place in the value of copper, which compensi- 

40U0grains: thelcngthofthediametorinthisandthe |ted for the reduction in the weight of the as; w 

•wn lullowing cuts is half that of the original coins. 

that, in fdct, the at libralis of Senrius TuUios mi 

I not of much greater value than the lighter moo^ 

I of later times. But this supposition is directly co»- 

; tradicted^y Pliny's account of the reduction in the 

'' weight of the as ; and it would appear that the v>tae 

1 of cttpper hatl rather fiiUen than risen at the tine 

. when the reduction t>>;)k place." Before the redo^ 

' lion to two ounces, ten ases were equal to the d^ 

narius =aboui 8i pence English. (Vid. Dkitaiiui.) 

■ Then lore the as =3 4 farthings. By the leductioi 

the denarius wus made equal to 16 ases ; therefbl* 

the as =Sj farthings. 

j The as was divided into parts, which were mined 
; according to thi' number of ounces they contained. 
I They were the • mT. dextant, dodrans, bet^ $epluia, 
,*emify fuinci...., .;icr.s, ^uadraiu Of teruncitUt u*' 
tans, trs^nnx or *t sen ncia, and vwio, consisting Te> 
. sptvtivdy of 1 :. 10, 9. 8. 7, 6, 5. 4, 3, 2. li, and 1 
; ounces. Of these divisions the following n-ete n^ 
resented by coins-, namely, the semis, fHincims, 
truHs^ ^uddraits^ sextan*^ and uncia. There is > 
s^klitary instance of liie existence of the dodransg in 
a com of the Cassian family, bearing an S and three 
halls. We have no precise information as to the 
time when these divisions were first introduced, but 
it was prohably nearly as early as the first coinage 
of Ci»piH'r money. 

The stmts, senissis, or semi-^, half the as, or six 
I ouuivs. is always nurked with an S to represent its 
value, and very iVHnmonly with heads of Jii|Hter, 
Juui\ and Pdllas« aooompanied by strigils. 

'Hie »imiHciini, or piece oi five ounces, is very rare. 
Thert* is no specimen of it in ihe British MusemiL 
I It is distinguished by nve small bails to je pn a uA 
' Its value. 

The f'inu, iho third pan of the as, or piece of 
i I'our ounces, is marked w;th lour balls. Id the a^ 

Pliny* inftinus iis thai, in the time of the firM 
Punic war (B T. -2(14-24 U. in order to luwt the ex- 
penses of the sst.ue. thi* weight of a |H»und was di- 
minished, and ases wert* struck of the same weight 
as the sextans ^ihat is, two oumvs. or one sixth of 
the ancient weii:ht> ; and tluil thus the RopuWio 
paid ofl" Us debts, iraininjr live |wrt* in six : that af- 
terward, in the seivnd Puuio war, in the dictator- 
ship of Q. IV.tiius Ma\imus ^about BO. tlf\ ases 
of one ounce were nwde. and the denarius was de- 
creed to N* tH^ual to sixltvn asi-s, the UepuWio thus - 
gaining one h.ilf ; but that, in imlitacy pay, the dena- ] 
rius was alwavs givea for ten ast-s . and stvn 
after, bv the Papinan Kuv ^aNv.n \\ i\ li>l\ a^je* x^( ; 
half anoiin*^ weie made Fc'tu.-*, aU>.» meiitions ' 
the reduetion of the us to two oumvs at the tnue of 
the first Punic war. Tlien* s^vn* to have N-eu other 
reductions bt sides those mentunuvl hy Phin, for 
there exi-*! ases. and piirls of a*es, whu-h i»how tlut . 
this coin was made of U. liK 9. S, IV M U ouiuvs 

and thcn^ are copwr inmus of the 1 eivuiiun lanidy . . „ 

Mia "R n oi^ M _ j^^,^,^, ,.^Y..„^.„ t:^,^^ 5^ ^^^^.j^ Museum. the 

I. (ITiV.kiT, Efcl 


ScvUUl *« 


3irUi. Xrtmkv. |f» 



sides, wKh a thunderbolt on on^ai^ 
With a Mirigil ab<:<vc U, un Itic ulht^r 

■' i*iw, the fourih part of lh<^ 

uaiicea, has thrre halls to dc- 

valofi. Aa open hand, a ^trijjiU a dolphin, 

a star, iRadn of HitimiIps, Ceres, 

ooounon devices on this com. Plmy* says 

the tricna and quadmns bore tho image ol 

1W #rruiu. the sixth p<irt of the ns, or piece of 
miyw. I., .f^ rrv,. f. .lu Jn ihe annexed s;x> 
(irw»' r'uin. there re a cadu- 

^ uiit Ai I < . and A oooklc'-ahetl on 

Irallu7 Ju Muigiii lb 7'(J grains. 

. or iwelAh of the as, 

'niore appear on this 

liuiiiii, and of Diana, ships, 


Ill the wpight of the an, coins 

ici( ut the Taluc of 3, 3, 4, and oven 10 ases, 

csfl'^i!, re'.jwvlively, dumis orduponJiuB, 

f**' 1 4rrv4^iJt. Oilier multiples 

iW V' ' h>- tvorrls nf similar fornia- 

lor/^'vui'i^ i"ti :i^pt . tptii most of them do 

» coin*. 

io forms of (.xj^rt --:uii. In whii^h itj is 

Bumey witliom RfK-'nifytng tlip denomina- 

most understand the as Thus dent ^rtt^ 

Jteus arut mean, reapcctivvly, 10, 1000, 

» was used also fdr any whole which 

nded intoe<ia:il parts; tind thns^r part.s 

■'• Thus these wiirds were applird 

' and monry, but to iiieii^ures uf 

iiid capacity, to inhentrinces, inter- 

k>u«--k i.ii.iin. and many other Ihinjiis. Hence 

inM-» huits tiiuje, the heir to a whnleestnlc; 

€X iLttfanie, the heir lit the ninth part, Sec* 

•^••n ti»i 9 Uir phra«^ «m(»«ni A/rica,' and 

19 ff tfmjunn<n horanim * 

was <il»n cillcd. in ancient times, OMMarius 
imui). and in ti'reek t6 atrmipinv. Acrord- 
Pc4tbiui-,* the a^sanus was equal Io half the 
On the coins of Chios we find ufraapiovt 
'♦ ^*n\ aeirrnoia "-'t-u, tioaapta rpta. 
•AS AU^M if'ian^vn-), a plant. There can he no 
t. obmfx^%-^ Adams, thai it is Ihr At\inim Kuro- 
K, Of caimniiin Asarabaee^ Uoduna'tis niea- 
Ikat it !i . 1 <:i-.^ tlio trivial name of Hacrar in 
•li'f : ISO? Axarabacra was a com- 

^l^.' He denies, lM>wever, that 

RaJ /;a. , A(ir;- nf thc uMeienLe. But Spren- 
gd MflvuLilu tIkiJi opiniitn, niid mentions m confirm* 
atitm r^il.ipnn the nuUmniy of the Flora Vtronen- 
ctA, Uhal the A«>aralf:ir<'ii ip 'MlJrd barchrra and />flc- 
by •h*' inhuhitanl? of the district around Vcro- 
Aftwmlmq to hibthorp, it sttll grows in what 
«»«* Iff- !>n'vinmn territory, and in thc country 

'■ i^ generally white, and 
• , and whioh consists 
Liained by the ancients 


. IJ,)— ». {Vid. Cic, pro Cv^'inu. r. ().)— a. 
^ t]-^ til. N., »., H.t— ,V (ii.. l3.>-<. (Di«- 
]•!■», Ur Simp],, ri— Atlnma, Anpfod., c *.— Iltl< 
.*- 116.1 

ia, from the vicinity of Carpasus m C^ypm^ 
and from Car>sius in Uuha-a. In constiiucwe ol 
bcin^ found in (ho two lallcr localilii^. il wai« suina 
times called " the flax uf Oarp-isua"' (Xii-o*- Ko/mi 
ffiov*), and also " the Carystiun dtonc" <X(f/oc Ka/>v9- 
90<^). It was well adapted for makiiiji; thu wieki 
of lamps, because it is indcirtruotihle hy tire . and 
tience Uie Cireeks. who used it for tliis purpose, gave 
it the name "asbestos." which moans uiexiinKUi^rii- 
ahh>. Pausanias' mentions lite gulden lamp 
which hiirned day and nifjilit in the temple ot Athena 
Poliiuit. at Athens, had a wick of this sub8t;ince 

Jt was also fepnn and wuven Iritu cloth. Thus 
mnnufacttirtx), it waa used for napkins (^rz/irK/ia- 
yr/o,* ;{eif}6{taKTpa*), which were never washed, but 
cleanscrd in a mucl» more efleotive manner, whea- 
ercr they required it, by beiug thrown into thO 

Another use to whirh asbestine clnlh was atn 
plied, was Io preserve the remains uf dead 
burned in the funeral pile. Tlie corpse, havinfc 
wrapped in a cluth of ihis substance, was consumed 
with thc exoepljnn of the bonca, which were thus 
kvpt together and pa-stTved from being mingled 
with the ashes of the wood, liul the expenat- of 
this kind of cloth was so p'eat, that it could only 
be used at the ubs»-^juics of persons of thc moat ex- 
alted rank. Thc testimony of Pliny, who alono 
baa transmitted to us llic knowledgo of this species 
of posthumous luxury, has been corroborated hy 
tho discovery of pieces of the cloth in ancient Ro- 
man or Italian sepulchres. The most remarkable 
specimen of this kind was found at Kouie, A.D. 
1702, in a marhle saret>phagiis. 'Jlic scull and bones 
of the deceased were wrapped up in it. Its din en- 
sions were about live feet by six and a half Smia 
its discovery, it has been carefully preserved in tlifl 
Vati<!an Library ; and Sir J £. Smith, who saw it 
there, describes ita appearance in the following 
terms :* " It is coarsely spun, hut as sott and pliant 
as silk Our guide .set lire to one comer of it. and 
the verj' same part burned repeatedly with great 
rapidity and brightness without being at oil injured.'* 

Althoug]) asbestos is still found naturally associ- 
ated with rocks of serpentine in Cornwall, and in 
many foreign countries, it is now scarcely used ex- 
cept for some philosophical purposes, and, if made 
into cloth, it is only in very small quantities, and ua 
a matter of curio.sity. — •II. T\w Greek medical wri- 
ters use the term iltrfcffrof in a very different sense 
from the preceding. With them it indicates Calx 
rira, or Quicklime (n'ravoj- being understood). IJy 
Dioscorides it is more specially applied to the lime 
of sca-shella, •* I am not aware,'* obscn'cs Adams, 
•■ thai any Greek autliur uses the term aa&earo^ in 
the seniM! in which it Is employed by the Latin wri- 
ters and by motlcrn naturalists.'"' 

•ASCALAUOTKS {aOKaTLaGuTtj^), a s|«cie8 of 
Lizard. Its Greek luimes arc (iffjc«?.afiijr(jc uannJia' 
0OC, ya^^Turr^, and tti^^urrjCt all of which appcllaiiona 
arc given to one and the same anunal, namely, the 
Spotted Liiard. the .Sfc//io of ibe Laiin writers, and 
the Lfuerta c^cko of Linna:us. llie SuHio lived in 
walls, and waa iic!cu<tlomcd to run along these and'' 
on thc rxiufs of houses,* It was considered the en- 
emy of man, venomous ami cunning. Hence the 
term gtcJUomUHf, denoting! all kinds of fraud in bar- 
gaining, and the old Kngliah word guUinnate, or 
Fraud in the contract. The SuUio is llic 7\irrn/o/e, 
or Grcko tvbcTculeux of the south of Europe. Il 
must not be confounded with tho Laceru ttellio, L., 

I. (Paiu., U». 47.1— a. {Plut.,I»c OriT. Drf.H-S- [I e.)— 
4. (StAacq*, ftp. Al>. Ih'*'^-H. Comn^cnt., e. 90.) — i. (SlmbD, s.^ 
Plut..l c— "Mappw,'" IMiii.. 1!. N , in., <.)—«. (Tuur ua Cu»> 
iiwnt. vol., iL, p. 9I>1.)— ". (UiLi-condc*. T., IM-— Oftlm. -A* 
ti»«,— P. .-Kliii. — Onhfl^u*: plnnn^.— Adiiu, A|^f»iKl,, t. t. 
~6. f ^rMl->|>h., Nul>., 170, Ac.) 




or Ihe Stetlio of the Levant. This inisapplicalion 
ol the term was first made by Bolun. The Lacerta 
tttUiv is of un oHve t-olour. shaded with black, and 
\b very couuMon thruughoul ihc Ijcvant, and panic- 
ularly in Ep^pt. 'i'he L peckv, on Uie uther hand, 
is a apottc'd lizard, and some of ihc spectca. Ih^ 
Platydiictyli for instance, are painted wiilv ihe moat 
hvcly coUiura The. melancholy and heavy air of 
the Gcckkt, superadded to a certain reaemblnnee 
which it bears to the saJamnnder and the toad, have 
rendered it an object of hatred, and eauscd it to t>e 
c-o(u>idered as vcnonious, but of this there is no real 

•ASC'ARIS {aoKopl^X the small intestinal worm 
rarmcd in children and m adults afflicted with cer- 
'ain di«ea»es. It is the Ascanji rcrmiailariM, L." 

ASCiA, dim. AiSClULA (<7«r-u/»iof, oKt-napviov^ 
3n adze. 

Muratoii' has pnbiislied nnmerons representations 
of the adxe, as It is exhibited on ancient monuments. 
We select ilie three following, two of which show 
Ihe instrument itself, \vith a sJif^ht variety of form, 
while the third represents a bhip-builder holding* it 
in hia right hand, and using it to shape the rib lT a 
•essel. The blaile of llie adzt^ was freipieiilly curv- 
ed, as we see it m all these figures, in order that it 
might be eutployed to hollow out pieces v( wood, so 
as to eonslruet vessels either fur holding water or 
far lloaiing upon it. Calypso, in the Odyttcy.* fur- 
nishes Ulysses both with an axe (Tf?.«vc) and with 
" a weli-potiahed adze," as the most ne<:essary in- 
•^ruincnts for cutting .down trees and eonstruclinir 
^ whip. 

In other cases the curvature of the blade was 
much lew considerable, the adze being used nierely 
fu cut of!' all inci|iialilies, so as to make a rou^h 
f icce of timber smotdh {aurmre, ilvlare), and, as far 
P9 po8.sible, in p<ilisili it (poUrc). Cieero* quotes from 
Ite Twelve Tabk-s the following law, designed to 
1 strain the expenses of funeral.t : Hnffum ojtcia i\e 
I itto. 

In using the adze, thft shipwnght or carpenter was 
aiways in danger of inflicting severe blows upon his 
own feel if he marie a faJse stroke. Hence arose 
a proverb applied to those who were their own rn- 
emits, or did thnnsplves injury: Ipse mtkt araam 
in criwf tmpeg^i.* Auolher proverbial expression, de- 
rived from the use of the same tool, occurs in Plau- 
lua.^ The phrase Jam Itvc opun mt fTnscwfvm 
means, "'Hiis work is now begun,'" beeiii;se the 
ttiuglvhewing of the limber by means of the ascia, 
vhe formation of balks or planks out of the natural 
iniuk or branches of a tree, was the firitt step *o- 
wardj Ihe constnieiion of nn edifiec. On Uir other 
hand, we lead in Sophocles of a seat not even thus 
roLigh-hewu.* The expression used is etjuivnlenl 

I. (CuTi«r*i Anin. Kiarl..v>>l- ii.. II.3H, tTiouI.)— 3. (Aduiu, 
Annnd, ■. ».»— 3. (Ina. Vet. The*., i., 5»4-5;Ml.)— 4. (r ,S37.) 
-*. (Dr Lsff ,ii., 33.)— 6. (Pptron.. S*'..T4.>— 7. {Aiiu., il., 8, 
«l.>— H. (/J.;d^.avAoW)<.i/>vt»: (Kd. Cul.. lUl.) 


I to ^iarw •nirpov,^ and denoted a rock in 
I ral state. 

Dolh the substantive a*na, and the verb 
derived from it. retain the same signification in 
era Italian which they liad in Latm, as abcve] 

Vittuvius and PuUadius' give directions Ibr 
the ascia in chopping hme and mixing it so 
make mortar or plaster, l-'ur this ptirpoBe we ii 
suppose it to have had a blunt, unpolished blade 
a long handle. In fact, it would then resemi 
niodi.'in hoe, as used either by masons and plj 
ers for the use just specified, or by gardtmers of 
riculturists fur breaking the surface of tiie gi 
and eradicating weeds. Accordingly, I'aliadii 
his enumeration of the implements necessary] 
tilling the ground, mentions hoes with rakes 
to them at the back, atctat in arerjta fntrle rr/g 

Together with tlic three rrpre»entati»na i 
ascia, we have introduced into the preceding 
cut the ^gure of another instrument, token it 
coin of the Valerian family.^ This instrument 
called AeiscuLca. It was chiefly used hy mai 
whence, in the ancient glossaries, ActrculaHx 
translated AaTti/iof, a sivne-cuttrr 'ihe aeiscii 
or pick, as shown in the above £giire, was a 
curved, and it terminated in a point in one 
tion, and was sliaped like a hammer in the 
its helve was inserted so that it might In? used 
the same kiud of action as the adxe. Also, as' 
sub.stantive a»cm gave origin to the veib croJi 
meaning to hew a smooth piece of wo<>d out 
rough piece by means of itie adi&e, so aciMCHius \ 
origin to txacttculare^ meaning to hew anylhi 
of stone by the use of the pick. Various 
mental inscriptions, publiF>hed by Muratori,' 
persons against opening or destroying loinbs hgrj 

•AS KION {iioKiov), a species or variety of 
Jlc, mentioned by Theophraslus.* 

•ASCLE'PIAS (ii«A;jTmf). a plant, which^ 
ston, Woodville, Billerheck. and Sprcngel 
identifying with the Axchpias rincttwicum^ L 
oinciniil Swallow-wort. Suickhouse, however, 
fers ihe Thapsm Asclephnm. It was used in 
of dropsy,' and took its name from Asetci 
who first recommended Us use. 

ASCLKPIEI'A {' AaK}.T}nieta) is the nam« 
livals which were probably celehmted in aU 
where temples of Aselepius (.t^st'ulapius) w 
'I'be most celebrated, however, was that of £pi 
rus, which look place every live years, and way] 
emnized with contests of rhopsodists and musiot 
and with solemn pnw^essions and games. 
iTuia are alsfj mentioned at Athens,' which 
probably, like those of Epidaurus, soh.'iimizcd 
musical contests. They took place on the e:ghlk^ 
of the luoiith of Elaphebolion. 

•ASCYRON {uotvpov), a. plant. Di 
puts it beyond a doubt, that the uoKViwv is a bj 
of Hifpfricum, or St John's-wort ; but ivh^ch 
eiesit is cannot be satisfactorily detcnnined. S| 
gel, in lite hrst edition of li IS K. ll.H. prefers the i 
pcricnm Androsamum, or Tutsan; but in hisedl 
of Uioseorides he hesitates betwt-en the W, 
tatum and the //. montaratm. Dodotia-us is for' 
former, and Mutthiohis for the latter. Adams ihi 
that the dt'seription of iJioseorides is more appi 
hie to the androMomuM than to the ;wr/vi'«li 

1. 1\. ifl.i— a. (Vnriiv., vii.. a.-PftUiui.. I., I4.J-4. 

—I. (PluL B Ttirr*. Mon- V^r A' - •> >^i. (|, - ■ 
P.. i, 10.)— T. (Tli«-..pliin»t , I! 
Aiianis, Approd.t s. t. — BiUt.-tti 
( J.»chHw», c. Cioi., ]». 4W.— DtKi 
(IMIpHxtrk, Fltira CIUBicii, p. 



' -'"laifiov) wra» pivcn to 
Iten indenlcd with ilie 
a bl*-'i'i 1' 'J L-.i-Mir (tii'tWi' alfia, " liu- 
•)- A speciM of Uilsiimic oil was rx- 
Uits plant. Accurilirig U) Siblhorp, the 
M callM at the prr.»enl lUiy \\ti}.cafiov by 
lonkxiTMuunt Athos ; Xeixv^'^X'^'^^' i^ Zainc, 
9 it ^>WB in the hedges ; and oKovApi^a m La* 

'LlA ■■--'-■■ ■'■•' li-apiii;; U|»on thelealh- 
ivni^ kiiidd of ainufieiiieius 

III' iiili^eU during tht; A«- 

BOd utiicr le.'jtiraia m honour of Ujony»iis. 
Ii7ni%n£ ftacriiiceil a he-goat to tiie god, 
|hi^r out (if the skin, Kntf-arei) it with nil, ami 
il \*j ilaiM.!^ upon It. The various accidents 
■' ^".^nipt nrlordeil great amu»e- 
He who succeeded was 
iiu skin as a reward.' The 
howcTrr, enoneoiwly calls iho aacoha d 
ral, fur, ui reality, il only fbiawd a part of 

eCBKlAl rPA4'H (av£6eiac ypafn) was one 
s pri'svribed by the JVHic law.i for 
• •f impiety. From the Tarious 
.itiouasiilicxlani, it may be gal h- 
ne was as ill-detincd at Athens, 
• liable to be uiade the pretext for 
boa, iXi It has been in all other countries in 
civd power haa utlempted to reach uflen- 
. ' "Vi' natural limits of iia juria- 
-. however, upon whidi the 
.... . ,.. ...ised to come forward, may 
Aral, breaches of the eeietnoniaJ law 
tup ; and, secondly, indications of that, 
lognus casca of modern tiroes wnuld 
roduxr or heresy. The former com- 
I \i\yju consecrated grounda. 
MiV uf tciiiplesi, lt»e Violation 
. .,>iiiin of sar-ifioca and fcati- 
. ..•[ -[..u.--i. of the goils, the in- 
- ail J. I.iinwledgfd by the State, 
traiitrigre&^iions peculiarly defined 
■ Attic ancra, such as a private 
JO »•! ific EJeusinian mysteriea and their 
to the itn initiated, injury to the sacred 
..r '.I..-, I.' ;i aupphant bough {Ixtrripia) 
\ ail improper lime.' The 
may be exemplilicd by tlie 
'iuLu^araa^ for writing that "he could 
M' the guiln enisled or not,*' in the 
Anaiaeoras.* like that of Galileo in 
/or iinpupning the received opinions 
•' ''"■ condemnation of Socrates 
ts of the public worship to 
r these Dxamplcs will have 
idl Jl M mipo&aible to enumerate all the 
iixicii this sweeping accusation might be 
as it is not upon record that leli- 
was acandaltzi-ij at the profane je^ts 
'■ !' il forced Lpicunis to deny 
ii-reiit to human aotums, it 
1 !ie hmits at which jests and 
ea^nl, and |>enal impiety began. 

Ml (Fie trial any citizen that pleased 

' this, as in all otli- 

acti '' understood of ihav only 

r an incapacitating dtsfrau- 

i- .lis to have been n roin|)e- 

'f . ■•' nine archona and the arei- 

Wnrc iftn proper guardians of the sacied 

• , Ceor?., li., SH|.) 

■j?. Lnort., IX., mil., 
C. (J^B^ ApuL SiJcr.>— 7. 

I ouTca^wpTu, oijKoi'), it is not imposbjUe thai tbej 
I tiad albo a power of oHicial prosecution upon casu 
I ally discovering any injury done to their charge. 

The cases of Socrates, Aspasia, and Protagora* 
I may be adduced to show that citixeus, nsidcnt 
aji^ns,. and strangers were equally liable to this ac- 
cDsatioii. .\nd il' a minor, as represented iu the 
declamation of Anliphon, could be prosecuted for 
miirder {<puvov), a cnrac considered by the early 
Gre(^ks more in reference Co its ci-remonial pollu- 
tion than in respect of the injury inthcied upon so- 
J ciety, it can hardly be concluded tliai persons under 
I age were incapable of committing or sutfering IW*- 
ill is offence.' 

The magistrate who conducted the previous ex 
aminalion {avaspiaiO was, according to Meier," in 
variably the kinij archon, but whether the court into 
whicii he brought the causes were the areiopagus 
or the comnxjii heliaslic court, of boUi of which 
there are several instances, is supposed* to have 
been determined by the form of aeiiun adopted by 
the prosecutor, or the degree of competency to 
whicli the areK>pagus rose or fell at Iho diflerent 
periods of Athenian history. From the Apuiofsy of 
SiKTates we learn thai the forms of the trial upon 
this occasion were thuse usual in all public aclions 
{md. GKA?I1.\I). and that, ^tmraliy, tlic amount ot 
the penalty formed a separate question for the di- 
casts nAcr iho cuuviciion of tlie defendant. For 
some kinds of inipicly, however, tlic punishment 
was fixed by special hiws, as in the case of pirr- 
sons Mvurinif the tacred olive-trees, and in that men- 
tioned -y vVodocides.' 

If the accuser failed to obtain a fifth of the votes 
of the dicasts, he forfeited a thousand drachmiv, and 
incurred a modified uuftia. The other forms ot 
prosecution for this offence were the aiTayuy^* 
il>)J)rj(7(C.' h'iUi^ic,* irpoCoA^,* iit\^, iu extraordinary 
cases. tlaayyeXia ;*• besides these, Demosthenes 
mentions'* two otlicr courses that an accuser might 
adopt, ^tKu^caOat irpirt Kvfm^.jzi^ar, and ^post^v npbt 
Tov tiaai2.ia, of which it is difficult to give a satis- 
faetiiry cxplanatiun. 

ASIAH'CILE {umiipxf^t) were, in the Roman 
provinces of western Asia, the chief presidents of 
the religious riles, whose uiRce il was to exhibit 
games and theatrical amuseintnts every year, in 
honour of thii gtKjsand the Roman emperor, at their 
own expense, like the Roman tcdiles. As the ex- 
hibition of these games was attended with great 
Gxi>ense, wealthy persons were always chosen m fill 
this oflicc ; for \\ liich reason Strabo says that some 
of the inhabitanLs of Trallo:s, which was one of the 
most wealthy cities in Asia Minor, were always 
chosen asiarehs. They were ten in number, se- 
lected by the different towns of Asia Minor, and ap- 
proved of by the Roman procon.sul ; ofihese,one was 
the chief asiarch, and frequently, but not always, 
resided at Ephesus. Their ufCce only lasted for a 
year : but they appear to have enjoyed the title as 
a uiHrk of courtesy for the rest of their lives.*' This 
title also occurs in a Greek int^rriptinn at Assos in 
MyaiOj copied by Mr. FlUows." In the lelter writ- 
ten hy ihf C'hurch of Smyrna resfx^ting 0»e mar- 
tyrdom of Polycarp," we read that Phibp theasiarrh 
was rcftupsteri by Ihc infurtah il pi <■ " : 

a lion against Polycarp, which In 
lawful for him to do, as Iheexhibiiio a=<.r, 

(Kwiiyeata) had been finished. In . i of 

fl74.)— 3 CAr. Vmcttt, 300, 3IH, n. M,)- 

r«*«. 305.)— 5. {DrMy.L, ll0.)-6. (I)pii." ' i 

6y6.)— 7. (Mpitr,Att. Ptoccm. atfl.)— K (A .M 

— U. tLilwnlua. Ar|;iim. ul DrRiuath., in ^l — IU 

lAnii'j--, Do Mytl., 43.)— II. fr. Anclnit.. ' - lr«bc 

ii».. p. My.— Act*, in,, 31,— Wcutrin «-t Kuu<iM;i,iii lor.)— II 
(Eti'unwti in A414 Muiur. p. 49.1—14. (c. 19.) 



rtits epistle * Philip ia calie<l higtipriesl (up;t;ifpnV) 
which nppL'iirs to show that he musl have been chief 
asiarch of tht? pruvjnce. 

ASlLt/A {uoiAXn) was a wooflon pnle or yoke, 
held by a man cither un his Iwo shouldors, ur iiLoro 
commonly on one shoulder only, and used for car- 
rying burdens. 

'Die paintmgs in the ancient tombs of Egypt 
prove the general use of i\\i^ implement in thai 
Gouiitry, especially fur canyiMg bricks, waler-pails 
to irrigate the gardens, and bask^jls with all kinds 
cif provisions for the market. Mr. 13urlon luund at 
Thebes a wooden yoke of Uiis kind, with one of the 
leather straps belonging to it. The yoke (which is 
DOW in the Brirtsh Museum) is about :i| feet long, 
and the strap alwut 16 inches." 

We also hud this in^^lrument displayed in works 
ol Grecian art. A small bronzo lamp found at Sta- 
biaj (see the annexed woodcut) represents a boy 
carrying two baskets suspended from a pole wbieli 
rests upun his right shoulder. The two other rep- 
resentations here inlroihiced, though of n fancifu! 
or ludicrous character, show by that very circum- 
stance how fnmiliar the ancients must have been 
with the use of this piece of furniture. The first is 
froma beautiful sardonyx in the Florentine muse- 
um ; it represents a grasshopper carrying two bas- 
kets, suspended each l»y three cords from the ex- 
tremity of the yoke, and skdfully imitates the action 
of a man who is pniceeding on a journey. The 
other is from a Greek painted vase," and, under the 
disguise of a satyr, shows the mode in which lambs 

and other viands were Rometimes carried in pre- 
paring for a sacrifice lo Rarchns In the collectiim 
of antique gems at Berlin there are no less than 
four representations of men carri'ing burdens in this 

Aristotle* lias preserved an epigram of Simonide'?, 
which was probably inscribed tipnn tlte base of a 
statue erected at Olympia to the individual whom 
ft celebrates. It begins thus : 

'I^fli'f e^ 'A.pyovi e'l^ Teyiav ii^epov. 

This poor man, who had formerly obtained his living 
by bearing '•« rough yoke" upon his shoulders, to 
carry fish all the way from Argos lo Tcgca, a: 
length immortalized himself by a vietory at the 
Olympic games.* 

I. (c. SI.) — S. (WilVtriMin, MunMrn bdH Omlums vf AnHont 
Ecn>^ *"1- ii-. P- *. W, 137, ISH.)— 3. (Sir W. ItamillrMi'n Vn- 
M», ii., 40.)— 4. [Winrkrl'iiwriii, Pifrrf» irrat<T« J-i Damn rlr 
Sloarh, p. 317.}— S. (Kkst., ., 7.)-«. XAntbuL Otmc, i., 60, ocl. 


Aristophanes calls this implement ufo^c^Mv; 
introduces upon the stage a slave earrymg af 
load by means of it ; and he describes the 
iraosfcrring it from one shoulder to anoitier 
phrase fUTaGa?i.?i6/ievo^ rdrudo/Krv,* 

•ASI'LUS, a species of Gadfly or Ilorstcflyi 
customed to sting cattle. Virgil* makes it Uie 
with the uicTpof of the Greeks, and Varro' giY( 
it thr' name of Tabanuj. Pliny,* on the other 
informs us that it was called both tabamiM jndj 
ius. As in Latin, so in Greek there are two nai 
o/orpof and fii'Ui}: Bochart* and Aldrorandi* 
proved very satisfactorily, that by the Greek 
and writers on Uelles Letlrea these two lemia 
used imliscriminaiely. but that Aristotle and 
writers un matters of science apply the 
{oltjTpor) to a specits of gadfly, meaiiing, very 
ably, the (E»lnm iiorix ur Breeze, and the lattefj 
species of hon>ei]y, the Tabanus borifw. Tlu 
ams considers the nmst satisfactory account ol 
matter ; he deems it right, however, to mc 
that Srhnridrr, trcalnig of the /wu^- of A:ban^ 
fesse« himself unable to determine whether il' 
a species of dUtms. Tabaniut, or JJippototca; ai 
another place he oilers it as a conjecture, tl 
olarpa^ ol Aristotle was a species of Cula:, or , 
It seems agreed that the Asilus of Virgil wa^ 
Breeze.' Marlyn* gives a description of the 
which he takes lo be the same with the 
from an Italian author. He represents it as 
shape somewhat resembling a wasp or wdd 
It has twfl membranaceous wings, with whi 
makes a loud whizzing. 'ITie belly is tt^rminat 
three long rings, one less than the other, fr 
laai of which proceeds a formidable stmg. 
sling is composed of a tulw, through which tJiej 
is fc'niiU'.d, and of two augers, which make waj 
the tubo to penetrate into the skin of the a 
These augers arc armed with little knives, 
prick with their points and c jt with their 
causing intolerahle pain to the animal that is' 
ed by them. But this pain la not all ; for at] 
end of ibe sting, as at the end of a viper's 
and of the sting of wasps, bees, and hornets, 
forth a venomous liquor, which irritates andi 
the fibres of the wounded nenes, and ci 
wound to l>ecome fistulous. This fistula 
be kept open by tho egg, after the raar 
i.ssuc. Tlie egg is hatched within the 
the worm continues there till it is ready *ol 
a chrysalis, receiving its nourishment 
juice which Rows from the wounded fibres. , 
wnrms remain for nine or ten months 
skin, and then, liMMiig arrived almost to 
Ihcy cumc out of their own accord, and creep 
some hole or under some stone, and iher?" 
into the state of a cbr>'sali9, in which coot 
they lie quiet for some time, and at last come 
in the form of ihc parent fly.*' 

•AS'IM;S. (Kit/. Ono».) 

♦ASPAL'ATHUS {ufnr'lXado^), a species of I 
ny shrub, bearing a flower which sume call the 
o( Jenisalem, or Lady's Hose Much uncerlfll 
however, exists on this point. "I'he AspaktE 
says Charras,' "is the wood ofa thorn-tree or 1 
in virtues, taste, smell, and figure much roseml 
Lienum alfxs." Matthiolus is at great p«i 
prove that it is not tlic Santttlum rulru^i. 
gel, in the first edition of his R H. H , holds 
be the Genista aspalatfuniirs, hut in his editi 
Dioseoridcs he mclinea to the Ctftiwu* 

I. (Rwi.. 8.-r. 
H6.)— 3. (UpRr ;: 
lih. if., col. MB,) I ■ 

•. r.— .filimn, N. A, ^1 . ^* -\M.i.r.i] 4^«_,i.>- 
Georg., 111., 148.}— I). iRo^u] Vlmsmaca^^ t. v.) 



Til ttic works of the Aral)ian w ritora on 

fry. n f* sail! that ilie Aspalathus has a pur- 

loid lastr, nnd has no fruit. Ac- 

Vtliorsla, tin* Allies used uffiru'/.- 

^'j( ( . itic olhPr CJr«ks \Vc may con- 

\M it Mas often appliei] loosely to all 

' The nnd of the root of the As- 

an art/niAtic oil. 

lX (uffTiAcf), a species of Mole, called 

Aristotle,' ffTuXuV by Aristophanes,* 

ffvf hy Lycophron.* It is generally set 

)g the TaJpa EuTopca, L.. or common 

16 deserving of remark, that Olivifr, 

rt*. hits descnbfd a species or variety 

Rnind in ^Vsra Minor, which, I>r. Trail of 

thinks, aniwcrs better to Aristotle's dc- 

tlion the common mole. Aristotle was 

ut tlic Mote is not bhnd. althougli it has 

[I eyes * 

fAK'AGCS (uCTTTu/wjof or (wr^^njof), the 

ft well-known vegetable. Thcophras- 

Ihut Aspani^s has thorns in place of 

It is easy to perceive he means the 

afhyUus, L. Tlie wUd Asparagus, called 

by the ("»reek8, and comida by the Ro- 

»re used in medicine. The Greeks 

le term iia-rupayo^ to all tender stalks 

ing up for the production of fruit or 

^AtticM wrote iia^apayo^ with the aspi- 

thc j^ammariana and also Galen in* 

t* T!ie eommon name at present in Greece 

ii or oTo/wi/j'frt. 

"'*TUS. (Tirf. BiTDKc^r,) 

ILUS (aer^dfP.of), a plant, called by 
r«ru/a rr^o." and hence its English 
*m Spear." According to Sprengel, the 
ralen is the Omxthogalum Stachyoide* ; 
of Thcophrasiua and Dioscorides the As- 
TAmn»u^. \j This is the famous herb 
- as prowing in the meads 
' mentions (hat it was fre- 

. .1 i.'.ii;hlKiur)iood of sepulelires. 

name of the OrTntho^aium is the Stnr 

. — Tlie Asphodelus was used as a (wt- 

of llesiod.'* According to. Sibihorp, 

ic for this plant at the present day 

In I^conia it is termed ffrrovpdanv'/.a, 

" r]c«V), I. the Asp, a species of noxious 
[mentiODcd by both Grtek and Roman 
frmn Ihe dibcrepances which are ob- 
fn the accounts given by dilTerent authors, 
Kcni that several OifTorent species of poi- 
were known to the ancients under 
Galen, in fact, and the othtT 
describe three varieties of the 
rm, Cher^a'a, and Chelidonia.^' 
rtns that the Egyptians distin- 
'n Tarieiica of ii.^" " From various 
and particularly from the descrjp- 
it IS evident that the most common 
luf the Asp species was that lo which 
Aribs give thn name of III iUje, or 
kWt. This animal measun-s from three to 
igth : it 19 of a dark green roloxir, 
ly With hands of brown ; the scales 
**lu and upper surface of the tail are 
I, and Uic tail is about one fourth 
of iho whole body. The haje is 
tbe cohra rapcUt*, or spectacled 

lN>fhra«T . Ji. p 

7. — Ailaiiu, Ai>- 

■ n.. HTO.)— 4. (Ct»- 

iH. P^ I., lfl,>- 

Irr. Or. 1). Wrtrt T 

t 1>.. 41.— AJnnis, Aj)- 

p. M.) — n. (ThctiuA 



I snake of India, the chief apparent diflerence being 
its want of the singular yellow mark on the back^ 
I the neck, from which the latter species derives its 
'name. In other respects these two serpents are 
nearly of the samo .size ; Ihry arc equally venomous, 
aftd both have the [Kiwei of swelling out the neck 
whfn irritated, and raising themselves upright upon 
iheir tails, to dart by a single bound upon their ene- 
mies. The poison of the Asp is of the most deadly 
nature. The habit which this serpent has of erect- 
ing itselfwhen approached, made the ancient Egyp- 
tians imagine that it guarded the places which it 
inhabited. They made it the emblem of the divin- 
ity whom Ihey supposed lo protect the world ; and, 
accordingly, they have represented it on their tem- 
ples, sculptured on each side of a globe."' — II. {Vtd. 
Clipkcs ) 

•ASl'LE'N lUM CaffffX^iwl, a plant, which Sprcn- 
gel follows Tragus in referring to the Asplenium ec- 
terach, or. as he proposes to uall it, Gymnopramma 
cetcrach, our Spleenwort or .Milkwaste. He admits 
tliat he eould not ascertain the origin of the term 
cdcrofh. Miller, however, says '* the worti cetrr&fk 
is Arabic."* The Asplenium took its name from 
its suppC'sed uiility in disortlers of the spleen. 
ASSA'RirS NUMMUS. i^Vid. As.) 
ASSERES LECTICA'UIl. {Vid, Lbctica.) 
ASSERTOR or ADSERTOR contains the same 
root as the verb adtrrere, which, when coupled with 
the word manu, signifies to lay hold of a thing, to 
draw it towards one. Hence ijie phrase ar/vrrcre in 
tiberlattm, or Uberali adutrcrr. manH, apfiliea to hnn 
who lays liis hand on a person repuled to be a slave, 
and aanris or maintains his freedom. The person 
who thus inamiaineil Ihe freedom of a reputed slave 
was called aHscrtor,' and by the laws of the Twelve 
Tables, it was enact wl in favour of liberty, that such 
adserlor should not be called on to give security ip 
the ttaumiuenti actio to more than the amount of l. 
asses- The person whose freedom was thus claim- 
ed was said to he adstrtva. The expressions /lArr- 
aiir ratita and Hbcrtdtg miinujr, which occur in class- 
ical authors in connexion with the verb adgerert, 
will easily he understood from what has been aaid.^ 
Sometimes the word a/Ufrrre alone waa used as 
equivalent to adtcrcre in lilttTtatan-* 

The expression assfrcre in McrvituUm, to claim a 
person as a slave, occurs in Livy.* 

ASSESSOR or ADSESSOR, literally one who 
sits by the side of another. The duties of an as- 
sessor, as described by I'auhis,' related to " cogni- 
tiones, postulationes, libelli, rdicta, decreta, epislo- 
liei" from wJiich it appears that they were employ- 
ed in and about the administration of law I'he 
consuls, prwtors, governors of provinct'S, and the 
judices, were often imperfectly acquainted with the 
law and the forme of procedure, and it was neces- 
sary that they should have the aid of those who had 
made the law their study. The prsfectus pnetorio 
■md pra'fectus urbt, and other civil and military 
functionaries, had their assessors. An instance is 
mentioned by Tacitus* of the Emperor Tiberius as- 
sisting at the judicia {judiciis ad*\dchat), and taking 
his seal at the corner uf the trihuiial ; hut this pes- 
K^ige cannot be interprete<i to mean, as some persons 
interpret it, that the emperor sat there in the char- 
acter of an assessor, pro[>crly so called : the remark 
of Tacitus shows that, though the emperor might 
have taken his seat under the name of assessor, he 
eould be considered in no other light than as the 
head of the state. 

I. <Poinr CTClop»*ia, vol. li., p. 497.)— 9- (l>ic»con(Ii!», ih^ 
L4I.— Ailamt, Anprnd., s r.)— J. (Qnio*, ir., 14.)— 4. (Tennt . 
Ailflnh.. U., i.. W.— I'Uiit., Po-u., IV., li.. S3.— rirf. eham Ui* 
40. 111. I». De lilKTftli C»iiw.)~S. (Cic, pro Flw*., c. IT.\— *■ 
(it!., 44; iijuv., IB.)— 7. (Dig. I.ut 21, ■. I.)— 8. ^Atta , \ ,'l*^ 



The Emperor Alexander Sevenw gave the as- 
•essores a regular salary.^ Freedmen might be 
asseasores. In the later writers the assessores are 
mentioned under the various names of concUiarii^ 
iuri* ttudUnt comita, 6lc. The ttudion jurist men- 
tioned by GeUius* as assistant to the judices (?i9« 
adkibere in e&nsilium judicaturi aoUnt), were the as- 
sessores. SabinuSf as it appears from Ulpian,' 
wrote a book on the duties of assessors. The as- 
seftsors sat on the tribunal with the magistrate. 
Their advice or aid was given daring the proceed- 
ings as well as at other times, but uey never pro- 
nounced a judicial sentence. As the old forms of 
procedure gradually declined, the assessores, ac- 
cording to the conjecture of Savigny/ took the 
place of the judices. 

•ASS'IUS LAPIS CAmriof Xifef), a kind of stone, 
deriving its name from Assos, a city in the Troad. 
Such, at least, is the account of Pliny.* Dioecori- 
des,* however, calls it *Aoioc ^if'or, and Celsus^ 
Iit^ Atnu^ the Asian Stone ; the Last-mentioned 
author appearing to derive its name from Asia gen- 
erally. All these writers agree in riawing it with 
the stones which, from their consuming the bodies 
of the dead endoeed within them, were called tmr- 
tvphmgi {aQpKO^yoty The Assian stone was char- 
acterised by a laminated structure, a saline efflo- 
rescence of a sharp taste, and its styptic properties.* 
Galen, in describing this stone, says that it is of a 
spongy substance, light and finable ; that it is cov- 
ered with a farinaceous kind of powder, called the 
Flower of the Assian stone ; that the molecules of 
this flower are very penetrating ; that they consume 
flesh ; and that the stone has a similar property, bat 
ill a Ins degree. This efflorescence had, moreover, 
a saline taste. Galen adds, that it was of a yellow 
or whitish colour, and that, when mixed with resin 
of larpentine or with tar, it removed tubercles. 
Piiny repeats abnost the same account.* 

*AST ACUS (offTUof), a sea animal, described 
by Aristotle, Galen, Oppian. JElian, and others. It 
bt'^oogs to the class CnulsMs, and is called Gnim- 
m^To by the Italians;, Htmmr by the French, and 
Crt^isk by the English. It is the Atimemt Jbmm- 
its, L Ciivier has shown that it is the Elcphanius 
«V* Ptmv." 

*ASt£R (tt^ripX I. A ^ecies of bird, most 
probably the JFV«Mri>i/« nt^m. or Smaller Kedpole. — 
11. Tbe genos StHim, or Star-tish. It has been v». 
nousty dasavd under Zoopbyta. MoUusca. and 
Cmsiacea, by both ancient and modem naturalists. 
— III. One of the varieties of the Sanuan earth was 
abo caUed by this name. ( I'mI. Saxia Tkmmx, ) 

•ASTER ATTUnS OAfft^ "Amwik a plant. 
Accoiding to Apuleius. the Attrhm^ A*UTistm^ 
A9itr Alhm*. aad ImfmmUi*^ are syvooymous. 
Stackholue and Srhnnder ftitlifr ideati^ the «i9r«^ 
•m«Cof Tb««fhr»s(tts with it Maitya » at grvai 
pdUno to prove ihat the " Aat tiS u t ** of Virjj!!! » the 
Aster AttKWk BotaAuta aciKwdiitgly givi^ to the 
Itahdua blue ^arwoct the wum at Aattr ^Mtriau. 
'Itie iovrer of th<» Aster has iu kftves i*diat«^ like 
a star, wbemv its naate i*wt%k *- a star'X TtM* 
pUM was e<u|ik»yv«i in »we&l^E» of the groin, t 
wlNtkce the MUMM of hf^tmtSk* and AiaMtt«n ! 
thai wvtv «on¥HuiMi» apfMi lo^lt A a ethtfr aacWnt i 
:App#ttatki(k. .|«#M»t« w«» dimv^ ftvwa that «a' thr > 
nvvr vth« -M«wk in (."batpuw t%aal> on the banks of 
wh»:h this pteat gww w<y abundantly. 'Die iwt * 
'.>f the Aster. cMkvd tn oU .Vnanwan wi«ii\ » «#»- . 
;x>Q^ by i\thMMrib as a i^wd ivniiiMy to saKimevs \ 

among bees. The .Ister grows in tli 
on the hiUa of Italy and Sicily, frequei 
state. Sibthorp found it also near 
used to grow abundantly in Attica. 

*ASTER'IA, a gem, mentioned by 
came from India and from Carmania 
its name from its staiiike lustre whe: 
the rays of the sun. Mineralogists mi 
been that variety of opal whiiA is ca 
from its reflecting a reddish light whi 
iwards the sun. Plioy describes it s 
engrave ; " the difficulty," observes 
** arising probably, not from its hardn 
the numerous minute fissures wliich 1 
in all directions, and to which it is sup 
the playful variation of its coloors."* 

*ASTRIOS, a gem mentioned b] 
which occurred in India and on the si 
lene, but of the best quality in Cai 
Roman writer describes it as shining ' 
within it like a star, with the brightnei 
moon." Dr. Moore considers Werner' 
most probable, that it is the same wi 
stone of Ceylon.* 

ASTRAG'ALUS, an astragal, one 
ings in architecture, more especially * 
of the Ionic order. 

The astragal is always found as the 
ber of the Ionic capital, forming the 
tween it and the fluted shaft of the 
this we have a beautiful example in th 
the Temple of Bacchus at Teos, whii 
informed by Vitravius,* was built by 
of Alabanda, one of the most celebrat 
cient architects, and of which he 
descriptkA. One of the capitals of t 
shown in the aimexed woodcut Abe 
gal we see the echinus, and on each £ 
volute, to which is added an omamen 
of the aphistre of a ship. ( Vid. ApLr 

The astragal vras used with a beaut 
only in looic, bot also in Corinthian 
border or divide the three hcea of th' 
and it vras admitted under an echinus 
cornice. The fevrer figure in the woo 
small portion of the aaUagal ftwining t] 
of an architrave, which is now in the 
seum. and which vras pan of the Tern 
thens at Athens. It is dravm of the 
the marble itsdC The term mMtrm^il 
by VitiuTins»* was no doobt borrowed 

jpMws and tfther Givek wnaers en arci 
dietK*^l a bk>ne en the foot « ctrtau 
thif Ik^ma and wjif of whxh are cxiklt 
*NOTv i^wndtag Lfctrn term T^Lrs.* j 


\u.^ r*«^ «. W. S«A*i»aw/— A 


lUitary age aeema to hare 

tip<m for this service, with 

lion (if ChoroutH*. who apinar to havo 

when Uif concurrence of a fesnival 

;n rendered Ihe perfomiancc of both 

iWp,» and magistrates during their year 

1 '>i':rr8 nl' the revenue, though the 

n<)«thene«' su^ge^ts some doubts 

K'" i-Ji i'iia last excuse wns considered a 

It plea. We may pnoume Ihnl the accuser 

IBS la the similar aetiotk fur leaving the rtinks 

h^onX was any citizen that chose to come 

I (4 pnXbtino^, oif /f»ri)t and ihat the 

ptcoaipoeed of soldiers who had served in 

h^BtfO. The presidency of the court, ac* 

■ y*f- -_ tK'longed to the generals* The 

Mi-ifil, inrurreil disfranchisement 

' hiH person and that of his 

i there were very stringent laws 

!hc7 appeared at the publiu sacra, 

fct«cii uomen and slaves were admitted.* 

JVR, (be Falco PalunlMriiu, or (jo^hawk. 


IKCO, a jennet, or Spanish horse. {Vid. 

'N^OMI { aan-vciftot ), or street police of 

were ten in number, five for the city, and 

for Ibe Peir«U8. Aristotle (as quoted by 

. «. t.) Bays that they bad to attend to 

masiciaiis, to the scavengers, and such 

gcoeraJ, they h;:d lo take care of public 

they c-ould punish a man for being 

* It would seem, from what Aria- 

from tlie functions which Plato 

attifHinaj,^ that they had aliio the 

itdins. roads, and public buildings; 

that Philarclia words,'" i>Te tuv 

irw hrtaruTrf^ iji', mean " when be 

The a^tynomx and agoranomi di- 

ttwccn them most of the function^ of the 

antics The astyuomi at Thebes were 

(Kilt A00B.*NOMI.) 

AJ»c). In the Greek states, the 
k aJi^fs, sacred proves, and statues of the 
ImUv poaseaaed the privilege ofpruiocting 
IBh^MI eriminals, who Hod to them fur 
^^^^^K however, do not appear to have 

Poseidon in Ualauria ;* and tbo Templo Of Atbens^ 

Alea in Tegeo.' 

It would ap|>ear, however, that all sacred places 
were supposed to protect an individual to a certain 
extent, even if their right to do so was not recogni- 
sed by the laws of the state in which they were sit- 
uated. In such cases, Itowever, as the law gave no 
protection, it seems to have been cfmsidcred lawful 
to use any means in order to compel the individuals 
who had taken refuge lo leave the sanctuary, ex- 
cept dragging them out by personal violence. Thus 
it was not uncommon to ibrce a person from an al- 
tar or a statue of a god by the application of lire. 
We read in the AndTomache of Euripides,* that Her- 
mione says to Andromache, who had taken refuge 
at the statue of Thelis, rrvp aol irftaaoiau : on which 
passage the scholiast remark.*, " that it was the cus- 
tom lo apply fire lo those who fled to on altar. "• 
In the game manner, in the MoattUaria of Plautus/* 
Thcuropidcs says to the slave 'lYaniiis, who had 
fled to an altar, ** Jam jubeUo ignem tt sarment&y car- 
mf£i. ciTcunidAri." 

In the time of Tiberius, the number of places poa- 
scdsing the jus asyli in the Greek cities in Greece 
and Asia Minor became so numerous as seriously 
lo jmpede the administration of justice. In conse- 
quence of this, the senate, by the command of the 
emperor, limited the jus asyli to a few cities, but 
did not entirely abolish it, as Suetonius" lias erro- 
neously stated.'" 

The asylum which Komulus is said to have open- 
ed at Rome to increase the population of the city,'" 
was a place of refuge for tlie inhabitants of other 
states rather than a sanctuary for those who had 
violated the laws of the city. In the republican and 
early imperial times, a right of asylum, such as ex- 
isted m the Greek slates, docs not appear to have 
been recognised by tho Roman law. Livy seetna 
to speak of the right'* as peculiar to the Greeks: 
" Templurn ert Apollinh Deltum — eo jvre tancto pi« 
sunt tempia yutf asyla Oraci appellant " By a con- 
stitutio of Antoninus Pius, it was decreed that, if a 
slave in a provmce fle<l to the temples of the gods 
or the .statues of the emperors lo avoid the ill-usage 
of his master, the prieses could comjjol the master 
lo sell tho slave ;" and the slave was not regarded 
by the law as a runaway— /w^/inu.'* Tliis con- 
atjtutio of AntjnmtiB » quoted in Justiniaa'a Inati- 



emperor v^tre considered to inflict disgrace on their 
master, as it was reasonably supposed that no slave 
would take such a step unless he had received very 
bad usage from his master. If it could be {H'OTed 
that any individual bad instigated the slave of an- 
other to flee to the statue of an emperor, he was 
liable to an action eorrupli tervi.^ The right of 
asylum seems to have been generally, but not en- 
tirely, confined to slaves.* 

The term uavMa was also applied to the security 
from plunder (aavTua Kal xar« y^v Kai Kara ^uXaa- 
oav) which was sometimes granted by one state to 
another, or even to single individuals.' 

ATELEI'A {uTi^ia\ immunity from public bur- 
dens, was enjoyed at Athens by the arcbons for the 
time being ; by the descendants of certain persons, 
on whom it had been conferred as a reward for 
great services, as in the case of Harmodius and 
Aristugeiton ; and by the iohabitants uf certain for- 
eign states. It was of several kinds : it might be 
a general immunity {ariXeta dTrdvruv), or a more 
specif exemption, as from custom-duties, from the 
liturgies, or from providing sacrifices (ureAfia U- 
oCa^). The exemption from military service was 
also called ur^Aem.* 

ATELLA'NiE FABULiE. The Atellane plays 
were a species of farce or comedy, so called from 
AtcUa, a town of the Osci, in Campania. From 
this circumstance, and from being written tn the 
Oscan dialect, they were also called Ludi Otd. 
Judging from the modem Italian character and 
other circumstances, it is not unreasonable to sup- 
pose that they were at first, and in their native 
country, rude improvisatory farces, without dra- 
matic connexion, but full of raillery and wit, sug- 
gested by the contemporary events of the neigh- 
bourhood. However this may be, the "Atellane 
fables" at Rome had a peculiar and dramatic char- 
acter. Thus Macrobius* distinguishes between 
them and the Icsb elegant mimes of the Romans : 
the latter, he says, were acted in the Roman lan- 
guage, not the Oscan ; they consisted of only one 
act, whereas the Atellane and other plays had five, 
with laughable cxodia or interludes ; lastly, as he 
thought, they had not the accompaniment of the 
flute-player, nor of singing, nor gesticulation {motus 
corporit). One characteristic of these plays was 
that, instead of the satyrs and similar characters 
of the Greek satyric drama, which they in some re- 
spects resembled, they had Oscan characters drawn 
from real life, speaking their language, and person- 
ating some peculiar class of people in a particular 
locnhty. Such, indeed, are the Harlequin and Pul- 
cinello of the modem Italian stage, called maschere 
or masks, and supposed to be descended from the 
olU Oscan characters of the AteUans. Thus, even 
now, unni is one of the Harlequin's names, as san- 
nio in ihe haiiji farces was the name of a buffoon, 
who had his head shorn, and wore a dress of gay 
patchworic; and the very figure of Pulcinello is 
said to have been found in the stucco painting of 
Pompeii, in the old country of the Atellane.' On 
this subject Lady Morgan* speaks as follows : " The 
Pulcinello of Italy is not like the Polichinel of Paris, 
or the Punch of England ; but a particular charac- 
ter of low comedy peculiar to Naples, as Pantalone 
s of Venice, II DcHtoro of BoI<^a. Their name 
of Maschere comes from their wearing masks on 
the upper part of their faces. They are the remains 
of the Greek and Latin theatres, and are devoted to 
the depicting of national, or, rather, provincial ab- 

I tPir. 47, Ui. n. 1. 5.)— i (Dir 49, lil, 19. s. 38, t T.)— 3. 
(r»J. lUckh. t\»ri>. lascnpt., i.. p. 733.)— 4. (ri4. Demovth.. c. 
Upi. ft llii. WBif.— U&kh. Cori>.IuKrij>t..i..p.l2a.>— 5. tlV- 
BMWth. r. Nerf., p.iaiXS3.i— 0. (Salurn., lib, ih>-7. iSchle- 
lol m Urun. Lit.. l«cL *^n.)— 8. (Italr* & ^'i 


surdities and peculiarities." Again, at C 
Koln, famous for its connexion with the 
there still exists a puppet theatre iPufpat 
where droll farces are perfonned by dolls 
dialogue, spoken in the patois or dialect of 
try, and full of satirical local idlationa, is c 
by persons concealed.' 

These Atellane plays were notwraiext 
comedies in which magistrates and peraoc 
were introduced ; nor tabcmaruit the chai 
which were taken from low life : " they ral 
to have been a union of high comedy and 
dy." They were also distinguijrtied from t 
by the absence of low buflTooneiy and ribalt 
remarkable for a refined humour, such aa 
understood and appreciated by educatei 
Thus Cicero* reproaches one of his correi 
for a coarseness in bis joking, more like th 
of the mimes than the humour of the At 
bles, which in former times were the aft« 
dramatic representations (fecviu^m (Enon 
cum, non ut olim toUbat AteUamoKf ted tU 
mimum introduxUti). This statement < 
agrees with a remark of Valerius Maxiii 
these plays were tempered with an Italiai 
of taste ; and Donatus also* says of them, 
were remarkable for their antique eleganc< 
of language, but of style and character. 
gests an explanation of the fact that AtelL 
not performed by regular actors (histrionc 
Roman citizens of noble birth, who wei 
that account subjected to any degradatio 
tained their rights as citizens, and might 
the army.* This was not the case with < 
ors, so that the profession was confined ti 
era or freedmen. Niebuhr, however, is o: 
that all the three kinds of the Roman nat 
ma, and not the Atellans only, might be i 
ed by well-born Romans, without the hskir 

The Oscan or Opican language, in wh 
plays were written, was spread over all 
of Italy ; and as some inscriptions in it a 
gible to us, we cannot wonder that plays ^ 
Oscan were understood by the moje edu< 
mans. One peculiarity of it was the us4 
gu : thus, pid for quid.'' 

However, in one part of these plays, < 
canticum,* the Latin language, and some 
Greek,* was used. Thus we are told** tb 
these cantica opened with the words Venit 
a villa, " The baboon is come from bis 
house ;" and as Galba was entering Roc 
time, the audience caught up the burdc 
song, joining in chorus. It might be tho 
this is true only of the time of the empe 
we find that, even before then, the Latin 
was used, as in the instances given below, 
too, in other parts besides the eantiaim. 
nexion with this, it may be r^naiiced, tha 
eiything else at Rome, the Atellaos de| 
under the emperors, so as to beccnne mon 
mimes, till they were at last acted by 

They were written in verse, chiefly ian 
many trisyllabic feet. Lucius Sulla, the d 
believed to have written {days of this aoi 
statement in Alhensus,*' that he wrote 
comedies in his native, i. c, the Campanian 
Quintus Novius, who flourished about fifty 

1. {MamT** niDaboQk.)-9. (w! Faok, ix^ 1ft.)- 
4. (Viu Tfreirt.)— 5. (Lit., tiU %.}—6. (Hi«t. Roa 
320. tnuBsl.)— 7. (Nirb., Hist. Raou. nO. u p. 08.}- 
Oituw-., i.. 995. 1>« Fabnli To^:alx>— 9. (SueU, Na 
10. (Suft.. Galb*. c. IS.) — n. (r... p. Ml.) — 19. 
tM/tf^iiu rj Tiiviy ^ki : Hcrm., OpM., v., D« F 


■ ■'!, IS sdiil to have written aboiil 

ibe nafne« of aomo of these 

iiiiwn HI us. as yfrtcfhifK Eni(, or "Mac- 

a Elilx;" Onihmnn, or the " Poijlierer ;" 

ttma," the VinlugcTS," .5urtiu*, the "Deaf- 

I'^cmi, ihe "Thnrty man ;" from this play 

^^Pto prescrvcxl Uie hne, " i^avd viajTrnrpere yua- 

'^ ^tlfniiUM* non ijufunt. Qui non parnt, apud 

l/iiTweit" FnjniiK'or is itie some us fruor.' 

Itfui IVxnponius, of Bononia, who hvcd about 

M, WToU! jtfofcAiM Mtlts, the Pxcudo-Asanum- 

,iJw JWfD AdoftfOuM, the ^fliUtitiiuii or SacTU- 

dec la tliH last the following verse occurrod : 

i^ArifMfn ttiix appart:o, atquf adttumcT tn tnnplo 

.Vjwn'o here niuans " lo attend tipon." 'llie 

lu* *jLt 'A common character in these plays, 

1* A mn uf clown ; the Uucoo or Dabbler was 

rr ' 'IV^e plays sub^e*luentIy fill into neg- 


'<\ fay a eertam MummiuB,men- 
who does not, however, state 


ul la unpt^runen of Oscan, pari of an in- 
ind At Dantia, in Lnrania, with the Latin 
tllon written underneath : 
pi» ioH'^ fort is meddis innltaum herest 
'*! ^Mit fifm forUM mngisiratuM muUarc rofett 
Hp^Tt miilrcid altei» eituas moltas moltaum li- 
nt ud 

mm mtis^iitrit altii arani multa multarc ticitoy 
■ I- -ij(ii4>sed to be connected with ;(aip^<7n. 

ur, amprrt With ufi^tirepi. 

tl spermiena of Oscan, the reader is 
led Ut Urolefend'a JiuiiimnUa Linguit 0»(.<x, 
fwtilrta is taken the example given above, and 
I taiiouof It. The fnigiiienls of Poiii- 
ri collected and edilrd by Munk. 
M, a !K*hool [Indus) founded by the 
I. in at Rome, for the promotion of 
' ntiiie studies {inccnuarum artium*), 
italiid Aihcn.Tum from the town of Athens, 
vas still regarded as the seal of tntellectuai 
;nt.* The AthenK-um appears to have Imtii 
in the Capitol.' It was a kind of universi- 
id a stiiff of profeasors. for the various brnnch- 
tfndy, was regularly engaged. Uiwlcr Tlieo- 
I! , fnr example, there were three orators. 
'\^, five sophists one philosopher, two 
: -i-oiisults • Besides the instruction 
oy mt'se ma^tri, poets, orators, anil critics 
[■aenstomed to recite their canipositiun» there, 
prcteclions were sometinieH hunourcd 
tba (ifcsencti of the eroperons themselves. ' 
wfTP otTin- places where such recitalioiia 
I>ibrary of Trajan (cii/. BtBi-i- 
-. also, a room was hircil, and 
;., 1 *ri aauiiiinum, seats erected, &c. {Vui. 
toiK ■ ) 'the Aihrnopum seems lo have con- 
is, \^,,'■u T, iHiif till the liflh century. LiUJt ia 
■> of study or disciphne in the 
1 ronstitutioD of the year 370,' 
ngulations respeiiiug bludents iti 
, - h it would appear that it must have 
a T«r; <atenaive and im(K>rt;int institution. 
this it ODiifinned by other sU'itenients contiuiied 
..r r:..-. V 'Oirns and otlicr ancient amiiors, 
: that younfj men from all parts, 
;;:^uaJ school and college studJL's 
.*^ii or province, used to resort to 
ri of hlirticr university, for the pur- 
I <!ucation. 
, a Kpe^ies of smnll fish, 
ff'"»etvs, L.. but uncer- 


; I i.)— I. (Didfi. Imii.. p. 
%t., u, Ib-j A. a>>"'t. Utiii^ p. ti3K ¥,.}— 
..r. Ml)-4. (Cui. Tboudoi.xiv.. p. U, « I ) 

lain. Pennant says it is «'ommnn on the ronst o( 
Southampton, where it is called a smelt It is about 
four inches long. The Atherma is mei tinned by 
Aristotle and Oppian* 

ATllLK'i'.tl ('iWjyro/, off^^Tf/pe^) were persons 
who contended in the public ijames of the Oreelca 
and Romans for the prizes {ad'/.a, whence the name 
of u9Xi}Tai), which were given to those who con 
quered in contests of agdtty and stn'ogth. Thta 
name was, in the later period of Grecian history 
and amoni^ the Romans, pniperly confined lo those 
persims who pntirely devoted iheinselvrs to a course 
of training which might fit them Co excel in such 
contests, and who, in fact, made athlclic exercise* 
their profession. The atblet» differed, therefore, 
from the agonisiae {aYuvunai)^ vho only pursued 
gymnastic exercises for the sake of improving their 
health and bodily strength, and who, though they 
sometimes contended fur the prizes in the pubhc 
games, did not devote their whole lives, like the 
athletBD, to preparing for these contests. In early 
limes there dues not appear lo have been any dis- 
tinrtion between the athlete and agonistK ; smce 
we find that many individuals, who obtained prizes 
at the great nationni games of the Greeks, were 
persons of considerable political imporiance, who 
■were never considered to pursue athletic exercises 
as a profession. Thus we read that Phaylhis of 
Crotona, who had thrice conquered in the Pyihiaii 
games, commanded a vessel at the battle of Sala- 
mis ,• and that Doneus of Rhodes, who had ob- 
tained the prize in all of the four great festtvah}. was 
celebrated in Greece for his opt*osition to the Athe- 
nians.' But as the individuals who obtained the 
prizes HI these games reeeiveil great honours and 
rewards, not only from their fellow-eilizens, but also 
from foreign sUites, tliosc persons who intended to 
contend for the prizes made extraordinary elTorts to 
prepiin; themselves for the contest ; and it was 
soon found that, unless they subjected ihem&clvrs 
to a severer course of training than was afforded by 
liifi ordinary exeroisc* of Ihe gjTiuiiisia, they would 
nut have any chance of gaining the victory. Thus 
arose a class of individuals, to whom the term alli- 
letie was appropriated, and who lieeanie, in course 
of lime, the only persons who contended in the pulv 
he games. 

Athlete were first introduced at Rome B.C. 186 
in tho ^amea exhibited by Marcus Fulvius. on the 
conclusion of the ^li^tolian war.* Paullus ^milius 
arter the conquest of Perseofl, B.C 167, is said K. 
have exliibited games at Ampbifmhs. in which ath- 
letic contended.' A cirtamen alhletamm* was also 
exhibited by Scaurus in B.C. 5t> ; and among the 
various games with which Julius Cvirsar fraiified 
the people, wo read of a contest of aihlfita; which 
lasted for three days, and which was exhibited in a 
temporary stadium in the Campus Maritus.^ i'n- 
der the Roman emperors, and espifially under 
Nero, who was passionately ibnd of the Grecian 
games.* the number of athleto: iucreased greatly io 
Italy, lireeee. and Asia Minor; and nmriy inscrip- 
lions respecting ihem haveoome down to us, whieb 
show that professional athletw were very niinier- 
ous, and that they enjoyed several privileges. The> 
Ibnned at Rorne a kind of corporation, and possess- 
ed a tal/ularium and a common hall — curia alhlcta- 
mm,* in which they were aceuytomed to deliberate 
on all mailers which had a reference to the inter- 
ests of the lM>dy, We find that they were calleil 
Hrreutanei, and also Tystici, because tbey were ac- 

1. (Ahctut., n. A.I vi.. 17 ; ix>. S. — Opraan, Hal., i. — AJ<iib% 
AppeiHl., 1. r.)— 3. (Hvml,, mi.. 4?.— Fti'w., x., 9, ♦ 1.)— 1 
(P»u«.. vi..7, ^ 1,3-1—4. (I.iT., imt., M.)— a..aJT.. iK.. Ml 
—6. (Vol. Mai., li., 4. ♦ ".)— 7. (Sort.. Jul., 8».J— «. WiumV, 
Aqo.. uv., 80.)— 9. (Orelli, Inirntt., 2K6.1 



<imi'd l4i evirciw. in winter, In a covered place 
xyBlus;' ami tbul ihty hud a prLMidenl, wl.o 

wn- ■■ ■"'■ I ... '..J.:. I ■>■ uft^ifficvf:. 

I in any nfthn greai 

nni wtTt* oullod htrron- 

ica \ieaovinai), and recvivi^d. us has been already 
remarKcd, Ihc greatest hfjuoiirr^ and rewards. Such 
t conqueror wiifi consideml lo conior honour upon 
the stale lo which he lielonued ; tie eiiirred his im- 

tivo oity in irlumph, ihroii-:!; ■■ '■■ — '■ ■■ '■' Uo 

ualU fur his rcLxpltun, I" i. 

thai tho alato which \tM^-' ! ni 

no o«'C4i!iioii fur waUa.' I1l< u^iuulty puif^t'd Uin>U)jh 
ihc n'alU in a chariot drawn hy four wliite hnrM^. 
and Wi'ut aluiig Itiu principal ulrcot ul' th*^ city to 
the templo olthe gn.irdi;iii deity oflhi* »ialt\ where 
hymns ol" victory wart' sung. Th(»ao (^ame^i, \vhii*h 
gave the coijiiufrtirs ihp nyht of »nf:h an cntranrt' 
tnto the oity, were called txctzstici {I'roiii eiarXcif- 
vttv). This fenn was on^inally cnnfioed to the 
four great Grecian rcstivata, tUo Olympian, Isth* 
mian. Nemcan, and Pythian : but was afterward 
fi|»|ihril to other pubhc games, as, for umtance, Ui 
th<i»i^ instituted in Asia Minor.' In the Gnvk 
staioa, tlie victors in these games not only ohiain'-d 
ihe Krtatest glory and rcupect, hut also t(ul>»iaiiliiil 
rewards They were generally wheved from the 
payment of taxes, and also enjoyed the Anjt seal 
jcpuedp/a) in all public, games and npertacli's. 
Their statuejD were frcqueiiily erected at the com 
of tlin slnte, in the nm^t frciiuentecl piirt of the ci(y, 
ai the market- plac'*, the gymnm^i.t, and the nei)>b- 
bourtiiK>d of Uie temples,* At Athene, iiceortliii}* 
to a Uw of Solon, tho conqtierora in ibo Olvinpiu 
gomes wore rewardetl with a pnaeof ROOdrachmw; 
and (he connuerora in the Pythian. Nrnieftn, and 
Uthmian, witli one of 100 drautimaj / and at Spart^i 
ihry hud the privilege of AghLiniz near Ihe p(*r»nn 
of Iho kmg.' 'J'he privileges of the nthh'iir were 
j»r?5crve«l and increased by Auf;iuitut» ,' and the fol- 
lowing emperors appear to havo always treated 
them with considerable favour. Those who con- 
quered in the games called ihehistiei received, in the 
time of Trnjaii. a sum from llie utate, rernotd opjto- 
ma.* By a rrarnpt of DuK'I'itan fi" ' '' n, 

thiwcutMetm wbuhad uUtained mlbt ^ 

{>:arTt errtaminiM, by which iii prolialii . i. .... ...v 

i$gia9tiri /im/i) Dot less than three crowns, an<l hod 
nut bribed their aiitagoniMs to give them the victo- 
ry, &nj(»yed immunity from all taxes' 

The term athleta*. thongb »i>melimes applied met- 
aphofi.*atly to other comhataiils. was properly lim- 
ited to those who ctintended fur the priKC In the five 
following con testa : 1. HuHHuig ('lp<'//of, r«rj»«jf), 
which «r«s divided into four ddTerent oimtc^ls, 
namely, the oraAmifMiftoi, in which tho race wan the 
Inigth of the Btadium ; the dtac^dii'i/ior. in which 
the aladiuiu was tntvcrsed twico ; tnr do^i,^o()p(!>/ioc, 
which conaifited of several lengttis of tho stadium, 
twl tlic Dumber of which is uncertutu; and the 
inXiTodfjiifior, in which the runuer» wore arrnour 
2. Wrentltng (iruXtj, lucta). 3. Hortu^ {rrvyfirj, pu- 
eUatn*). 4 Thft prnlathtum {n/vTaO>ov}, or, as the 
i<omans culled it^ yuitvfuertmm. 6, Tho fntAcratmrn 
(iray-KfHiTtov). Of all lhe«o an account is given in 
■epAratcanicIea. Thtwc conlcsls were divided into 
• iwo kmdts : Ibt* $ccere {/iap^a, jiafn'Tcpa) and the 
Ught (Aor^ii, K',. '-*.-'" >^i Under the former were 
included wre-^t' .and the exercises of the 

pancratium, wti i <r-d of wrestling and t»ox- 

ing combined, and wm olw caOed pammachum." 

I (Viwiv.,?!., 10 i-'J i.*^'!-).. Ner., U.— PtdUirch. Syinp.. 
(;,».<«) — 3. ('• ' H0.)-4. (Pb'«., Ti.. 13. « ) : 

rii^n. *!.)-:• ., 5J. — Plut.. SjL. 9S.)— 0. 

/PiiiK, Lrv.. tt.} ■ ' u*., «.f— **. (IMm., Kp.. IIU. 

/•», — Prwt/urm Viuui., ti.. J'. •'(.f-^V, (CimI. i.,|i|. ft).} — 10- 
£fJato. KuU$*d., c. 3, p. STt.^ruiiutt Onaw,. ytiu 4.) 

firoftt attpntion was paid to the trnintni 
atblel'V. Tboy wca* g^'otriilly iraincd in tM 
/oi-irpoj, which, m lUi: (irerinn siaie^i. W4 
tinet places from iIk' gyninasi.i, though 
lm.'n frtvjuenlly confounded by nnMlcrn 
Thus Pansaniuu uifumis uu,' that near the 
aiem at Olyntpia there wero pitltestra.' for the 
Ictm : and Pluurcb expresaly aaya* that tho 
in which tho uthletie exnrcite is called a 
tm.* Their exercises were 8tip<'r intended l>y 
gymiiasiareh('^i'/ii'nc)((j^^i;r), and tlietrdii't waa 
ulaied by the nliptes {aXei-rrrrj^). (Vul Aui 
According tn I\iiii| anion,* (he atbb'tie did nut 
cienily eat mont, but princi))ally lived upon 
cheeao ;■ and Diogenea Laertius* inforrna. ~ 
their original diet t'oiiftiHlet] uf dried tigs,' 
new ehoesc.* and wheat.' Tho eating of 
th<* athletBB is said, aeeortling to some wi 
have been first introducod by Urommis of i 
Ins, m Arcadia ; and, according to olhei 
plulosirpber Pythagoras, or by on altpli 
name." According to Ualen," the ailiU 
pnictiacd the acvcro exerciwa," ale pork 
ticular kind <d' bread : and fnim a remai 
iigenea tho Cynic.'* it would appear that in hia 
bei'f and purk funned ihe ordinary diet of the 
ts, beef is alsfi mentioned by Plato'* a.^ tho 
of the albletoe -, and a writer (quoted by .Mhmi 
relates, that a Thi'hnn wbu lived upon goau*. 
became so strong that be was eniibjcd to ovt 
all the athlrts' of bis time At the end of the 
(^iaes of e.ieh d.iy, the nthletn^ were obliged 
A certain (juaiuiLy of ff^'d, which w^H usual 
nvnyKtu^ayia and uvayKOTpo^ia, or fiiaiaf 
al>«ir which, t!iey wero accu»tomod lo 
ftteep. The qmiiiiny of animal food wW 
celebrated atbleta*, such as Milo, Tlic£ 
AMydnmas. are »;iid to liave eaten, npi 
quite incredible.*' The f(K>d which they, 
usually dry. and is called by Jiiven.-xP* coitpfi ' 
mcining of which word »fJ0 Kupeni, ad U 

'Hie aildeto." were nnoinletl wild oit hv t1 
previously to entering the palu 
III tho public games, and werr <!' 

ten<l nuked. In the deserii>tiori oi iii<- l'-iii 
in tho iwenty-Lhird book of llie Iliad," ihei 
unis are &aid lo have worn a girdle a^»out th( 
iind the tfanic practice, as we learn from 
ides." anciently prevailed nt the Olymptc_ 
but was discontinued afterward. 

For farther mfonnation on the athletic, 
is referred to the articles Ntuhun, Nkmk*] 
vxhs, and PvTiiiAX Oamki , and to Knmsfr^a 
f^ttti-t, oiUr wtngCHsrh. Darxtrllun^ dfr iit 
AgoniMtik^ urul Fr-Htjpjch dtr iiftUncn (Half 
and OitfTJiput, odcr Durxlrtfting dtr grottt 
piarhrn Sputr (Vienna, iSilS). 

ATHhOTH'KT.t:. (KiJ. Aookotwrt. 
NoDici-: ) 

AITLIA lex. (V'lVi. TuToa.) 

ATI MIA {tiTifiUi), or the forfeiture of a 
eivi! rights, it was either total or (lartial. Ai 
was totally deprived of bis riglit^, both fur M 
and fur bi» descendants,** when he w-as 
of murder, theft, fabie witness, partiality 
violence offered lo a magistrate, and so foi 
liigh»'sl degree of firt^m fxcluded thi* pel 
ed by It from the forum, and fnim - i« 

t. (vl.,3I,»«.)-^{B/iiiii. )i,(iii«^ 

(Tl., J. ♦ 3.)— 4. {rv/jii' U ri». - 
[\n\Aa\ Eljiitu.) — ^- (Mipau fc., 

l, r.l -1 1. (Ill IV. L.vrt . 1. .-.) 

i , I 

|Ml.t.,clO.) , " 



pnlilic sacrifices, and froai the lanr 

iretl him liablo to iniiuetliafe impris- 

fuund in any of iheso pliices. It 

iniry or per|>*'tual ; uiul cilher ac- 

ncH with confiscalion of property. 

'«iW< only involved the forfeiture of some 

r» ». f"r inAiance, Uie rij^hl of pleading in 

Nirs wero suspended from their 

ii''y discharged their debt to the 

WHO had once bcconie altogether 

ry Bcldoin rcbiored lu their lust priv- 

li a loau diusieua on the subject of 

Aiidocides.* The converse term to Lrifiia 


fflALKX {Vii. Ubucapio.) 

;irXo»rrf), also eaUed Tdamonet. 
Q&cd, in a general sense, to 
rh sup^rla a burden, whelhcr 
\^tr an inanunate objeet ; but in 
[oage Ihey were specifically aj>- 
thoae mtaoiiar figures which are 
ifuUy used instead of motUUtont to 
Ihe cwona, vn upper member of a cornice : 
Tdtmnnfr, Crttci tero hot Atlantca twun/," 
rui'ius * The fable of Atlas, who bore the 
»ulderH, and of whom Homer says, 
'E.^rt Ai re Kiovn^ avro^ 
iLUV n Kai oi'pavhv uft^if ixov<st,* 
>rical derivation fur the name. Tliey 
led from Caryatides, which are al- 
as feniaJt; figures in ua erect po- 

applied as ornaments to the aides 
'ing the appearance of supporting 
'In the ship of Hiero, described by 
^* m which msUnce he reprcsiMils Iheui 
f «: .-, >!,,!:< in height, and sustaining the 

I- rm came to be nsrii in irony 
fij^tt')t lu ridicule a person of very dimin- 
led stature. 

hONiim cujutdam Allnnta vocamua: 
ittm ,- praram txtortamque jmiUarn 

at these figures is given in the 

• i from the tejndanvm in 

a'y arc placed round the 

.i.iJ support a cornice, upon 

the rf>of re^L-j, thus dividiti;? 

tbe walls into a iiuinber of 

[the uses uf which are explained 

larium in the article Bi.Tn8. 

iTpflnTi'AiV), a Rpei-ie-K oftliistle, 

■Tliialle. from its rcscm- 

,*».»-* <Vitni».,»t., lo.j— 3. (Od., 

blance to a distaff (ur^affrof), for whirh its stallr 
was often employed. It is not improbable, as Ad- 
ams thinks, that it was applied to several gurts of 
thiHtks, a tribe still very ditlicult to classify and 
distinguish. Kueliius and llonnulaus ni:ikc it out 
to be the Cvicut syhrstris, but this opinion is re- 
jected by MattliioIUA ; and that of Kuebsius, who 
held it to be tbe Carduut BtnedtctHs, does imt npftn 
less objectionable SprenficI, in ibe first edition of 
his R, H. H., inclines to the Cttrlltamug Canaltm, 
and lu tbe secunil to the C'. Crrttcus ; but iu his 
edition of Dioseorides he proposes the Cartiiia idn- 
a/A, L. Staekhouse hesitates almut the Atractylit 
eiimmifera. I'be motlem name in use among tbfi 
Greeks is «rpa*rt'?,i or aravpdyiuiOt. Siblhorp lound 
it in Southern fireecc.* 

ATKAMKN'TUM,a term applicable to any black 
colouring substance, for wbalevcr purpo&o it may 
be used," Uke the uzXav of the U reeks.' There 
were, however, three principal kinds uf stramen- 
lum ; one called tibrarmm or scnpCnrium (In Gre'k, 
ypa^tn&v tti^av), another called tuionum, the third 
frrtonum AlranuntHtn lilntrtuTn was what we call 
wrilinp-iuk* AtTamentum sutunnm was used by 
shoemakers fur dyeing leather.* This alramentum 
sulorium contained some poisonous ingredient, such 
as oil of vitriol ; whence a [lorsun ts said to die 
of atramentum sutorium, that ts, of poison, as in 
Cicero.* AtramtiUum. Uctorium or pctarium was 
used by painiers for Rome purfio'jos, apparently^ ns 
a son of varnibh. The scholiast on Arieluphaiies" 
says that the courts of justice, or thuaaTrj^ia. in 
Athens were called each after some letter of the al- 
phabet: one alpha, another beta, a third gamma, 
and 80 on. and that against the doors of each ^utao' 
Tfjpiav, the letter which lielonged to it wab written 
vri'f)^ (iutifjaTL, in "red ink." This "red ink," or 
*'red dye," could not, of course, be called atminen- 
tiHTi. Of Ibe ink of tbe fin-ekR, however, nntbmg 
certain is known, except what may bo gaihereu 
from tbe passage of Dcmosihcnrs above referred to, 
which will be noticed at'a'n ^*lnw. The ink of the 
Egyptians was evidently of a very superior kind, 
since its colour and brightness remain iu this day in 
some specimens of |npyrt.* 'I'he iniliui charac- 
ters of the pages are often written in red ink." 
Ink among the Romans is first found mentiuned in 
the passages of Cicero and Plautus above referred 
to. Pliny informs us how it was made. He says. 
" It was made of soot in rnrioiis wave, with burned 
re«in or pitch r and for this purpose," he adds, 
"they have built furiuices, which do not allow the 
smoke to escape. Tbe kind most commended is 
made in this way from pine-wood : it is mixed 
with soot from the fiminces or baths (that is, the 
hypocausts of the baths: v»V2 Uatu); and this they 
use ad voiumina scrtbenda. Somc also make a kind 
of ink by boiling and straining the teea of wine," 
Ac. With this account the statements of Vitruvi- 
us'* in the main n^c. The black matter emitted 
by the cultletish (sepia), and hence itself called 
fepia, was also used for atramenlum." .\ristotIi\ 
however, in treating of the cuttlefish," docs not re- 
fer to the use of the mntlcr ( ^o>.6^) which it emits, as 
ink.'* Pliny observes*' that an infusion of worm- 
wood with ink preserves a manuscript from mice." 

1. (Diuacur., iii., 37.— Tbrojiliriui., IL P., ti., i ; ji., I.— Ail 
ami, Ai'pcnd., ■. r. — BiUetbcck, Flora Cla&iica, p. Sll.) — 5 
(Plaal.. Mo««U., I., til., lOa.-Cic. Dc Nn. Dcor., ii., W* )— S 
(DriQ'itS.. vt/i Srr^., t 313, BcUi.>_l. (I'lr/. H»r., E\A»t., IL, 

i.MC.— rrtfi.ti^ S«t., c. 102,— Uic., od tiuiiil. Trnlr , I4.>— 

i. (Plitt.. U. N.. xzxir.. ]3.)-tl. (Atl Fan., ii.. 91)— 7. (Pli« 
H. N.. xxrv., 10,) — 8. (Plut., r^ S77.)— W. (fihiifth MuMum 
Ku-^plian Antiq., vul. li., p. 967.>— 10. (Ktyy^. Antiq., ii., «7(l 
2;'J.>— II. (v)i.. to. 197.)-ia. (Cic, iJu'N.rt. 1>*^.».. ii.. 50.- 
IVniu», Scu., ui.. It, IS.-AuMWiut, Iv.. T0.)-13. (IJ. A.)— H 
( Vid. , Elian. N. A-, i., M )-lft (U. N.,ia«i.,7.»— \ft. ^TU 
Ia»\m., iix^ 17.) 



m Itipvliolc, perhaps, it niny tw said tliat the inkft of 
Lhe ancients were rnnre durable than ouruwn; that 
Uipy were thicker and imiro unciutMis, in sulistanco 
and durdl)ihl> more restiiidhntilhe ink now n.sed by 
printers. An inkstand was discovered at Heruula- 
neum, cunlaining ink as ibick as oil, and still usa- 
blft for wriliii!T.' 

It would appear, nl&o, that thi» gumniy cliaracter 
of the mk, preventing it from running to tlie poinl 
of tltc pen, was as niueh complained of by tttc an- 
cient Itomans as it is liy oniselvea, IVrsius' rep- 
resents a fuppisb writer silting dgwn lu cuinijoso; 
but, as the ideas do tiol run freely, 

'■ Tunc queriiur, crojisut calamo quod pcndcat humor i 
iN'igra ijuod lufusa rantscai scpa l^mpha.^' 

They also nddfid water, as we do sometimes, to 
tliin it. Mr. Lane' remarks that the ink of the 
modern Egyjitinna "is vrry thiek and finimny." 

From a phrase used by Detnosihene», it would 
Bp))ear as if the colouring ingredient was obtained 
by nibbing from some solid substance, perhajw much 
as we nib Indian ink. Demosthene^j* is reproarh- 
ing .^schines with his low origin, and says that, 
" when a youth, he was in a stale of great want, as- 
sisted hift father in his seliool, rubbed the ink (pre 
pared the ink by rubbing, to (iOmv Tpi6uv), washed 
down the forms, and swept the schoolroom,"' ikc. 
It is probable that there were many ways of cc«l- 
ourin^ ink, especially of different colours. Rt^d ink 
(made of miniiitn, vermilion) was used for writing 
the titles and beginnings of books,' so al9<» was ink 
made of ruhncn, " rod ochre ;*" and because the 
heading}] of laics were written with rubrica, the 
word rubric, cimc to be used for the civil law.* So 
alburn^ a white or whited table, on which the prte- 
toTs' edicts were written, was used in a similar 
way. A person devoting himself to alfrum antl ru- 
krica was a person devoting himself to the law. 
{Vid. Aldcm ) There was also a very expensive 
rctl-culourird ink, with winch llic emperor used to 
wiile his signature, but winch any one else was 
by an edict' forbidden to use, excepting lhe sons or 
near relatives of the emperor, lo whom the privilege 
was expressly granted. But if the emperor was 
under age, his guardian used a green ink for writing 
his signature. • On the banners of Crassus there 
were ptoptc letters, iftoiviKu. yfuifmnra.'* On pillars 
atid nioniiMients. letters of gold and stiver, or Utters 
covered with gilt and silver, were sninpiimcs used, 
as appears from Cicero'* and Suetonius." In wri- 
ting, also, this was done at a later period Sueto- 
nius" says, that of the poems which Nero recited 
at Home, one part was written in pdd (or gilt) let- 
ters (aura* ttttcrix), and conscerateil to Jupiter Caj>- 
ilolinus.** This kind of illuminated writing was 
more practised after%vard in rcligmiis eoin|iosirions, 
which wore considered as worthy to be written in 
letters of gold (as we say even now), and, there- 
fore, were actually written so. Something liko what 
we call sympathetic ink, which is invisitile Ijll heat, 
or some prepamtion lie np]ilie<l, appears la have 
been not uncommon. So OviU^* advises writing 
love-letters with fresh milk, which would bo unread- 
able until the letters were sprinkled with coal dust : 
"Tula quoque est, fallitque oculos e larU rcccnn 
Littera: earhonia puhere tange ; leges." Ausoni- 
ua" gives the same direction (** Lacte inride notas ; 
aresccns charta tenebit Semper inndspicuas; pro- 

dentur Mcripla fatnUit"'). Pliny- luggesta 
milky aa|i contained in sonic planu might 
in the same way." 

An inkstand {airanuntanum, used only by 
writers; in Greek, ^eXovJo^of*) was cither sijigl 
double. The double inkstands were probalify^ 

1. (WiiKkelmun. vol. ii„ p. 137.) --3. (Sfct , iii., 13.)— 3. 
fMixt. Eirn*^<">"< ^-r P- ^^' xoitler edit.)^4. <rfpl Yrt<p-, ^ 
j|t.)_5. (O^id, Tri«t., i . 1. 7.) — n. (Sianninn. vii , 12.)— 7. 
(QaintiU xJi., 3.)— «. (Cwl. i.. Iil. S3. «. O— 'J. (M-ntfaoco, 
PbI»os., p. 3.)— 10. (iJton, xl., 18.)— II. (V^tt., i»., 3r.)-ia. 
Ikug . c. 7.)— 13. (Net., c. 10.)— 14. (Cotnpxro Phn., *«-, ».) 
-15. {Art. Am., iti., 627, &c.) — 16. (Eiiiat., xxiii.. SI.) 

tended to contain bolh black and red ink. mi 
the modem fashion. They were also of 
shapes, as, forexainpU>, round or hexagonal, 
had covers lo keep the dust from the ink. The j 
ceding cuts represent inkstands found at Pora| 

AT'lUUM, called otAiJ by the Greeks and 
Virgil,* and also fieaavTuor, vepiaruXov, rrrpU 

Two derivations of this word are given by' 
ancient writers, Festus and Varro refer \i lo 
same origin : Ah Atria popuht^ a (/vihuM ai' 
cxcmpla dcsumpta fuirunt ,*' but Servius, on tbn 
trary,* derives the term ah atro, propter fumu* 
e*He mJ-rhai in atriis ; a remark which explains] 
allusion of Juvenal,' Fumojioj cgutlum cum ditl 
mngisfros, since it was customary among the 
mans to preserve the statues ul' their anoestc 
the atrium, which were blackened hy the 
the fires kept there for the use of the Ih 

Atrium is used in a distinctive as well 
ivc sense, to designate a particular part in 
vale houses of tlie Komans {uid. Hdise), and I 
a class of public buildings, so called from their | 
cral rcscmblunee in construction to the aimira 
private house, ^^lere is Iikcwi?e a di?;tinctioo 
iween atrium and area ; the fonner being an 
area surrounded by a colonnade, while lb«>. 
had DO such ornament attached to iL Tl 
moreover, was sometimes a building by 
semhling, in some respects, the open b< 
Uakiuca), but consisting of three sides. Such 
lhe .\lriuin Publicum in the Capitol, which Lh 
forriis us was struck with lightning II.C, 818J 
was at other limes attached to some temi 
other edifice, and in such case consisted of an 
area and s<iirronnding portico in front of the 
lure, like that before the Church of St Peter m^ 

Several of these buildings are mentioned by] 
ancient historians, two of wliich were dedicai 
the same goddess, I^ibcrtas ; and hence a diffic 
is sometimes fell in Jccidmg which of the U 
meant when the ntrium Libenatis is spoke 
The most Ci'lehniied, as well as the most anc 
was situated upon the Avenlme Mount- Of 
there is no doubt ; for it is cnumeratpd hy Vi 
in his catalogue of the buddings contained iaj 
xiii. Regio, which comprises the Mons Avcnt" 
on which there was an wdes Libertatis huill 
dedicated by the father of Gracchus,' to which] 
atrium was attached either at the same ti 
shortly afterward ; for Livy also states'* that' 
hostages from Tarenium were confined inafrio. 
ertatit, which must refer to lhe alrium on the Al 

1. («xiri.. 8.) — 2. (Vwf. Can«pftrm«t dc Atramrtitt* 
Rfocni, Loml., IWO.)— 3. (r>»liijx. Oii-.m.. i.. U.)— 4, 
m.,3M.)— 5. (ViuTo, <!• Littg. Lat., ti., 33.)— 6. (In Vbl.^ 
tii., S&3.) — 7. (Sat., viti., B.) — 8. (Lir., xxit., 10,)— tii 
«xiT., 16.)— 10. (Dv., 7.) 



escape waa eflcated by the coirup- 
rs uf tlie teinple (conaj/its aditHis 
>t>it5 atrium Ituirc was a labularium, 
tabids {ta£Hi^g) rdatinj; tu the cen- 
rved ' 'i'he (jcnnanici mtlitts were 
at the same spoi in Uie tiiiio of Gal- 
enl from a passage in Suetonius,' in 
snys ihat they arrived too laio lo prevent 
er, wlwfh was perpetrated m the Korum, 
'{■ their having missed their way 
ir njut. 'lliis could not have hai>- 

^^ i... . . wme from ihfl mher atrium I.iber- 
kach was clu6e to the Forum Rumanuin. 
exunmation of slaves, when aecumpanicd 
Drture. also took place, by a strange anomaly. 
TtaXi»* which must also be referred, for 
ns. to the atrium on the Aventine. In- 
_^ e auium Libcrtalis is inenlioiied wilh- 
■flrffhet to distinguish it. it may safely be 
I'd that the mure celebratud one upon the 
IS meant. It was ri'paireil, or. more prod- 
ilt, by Asiitius PoUtti,' who also added to 
Uiccul library (btOlioilicca*), which explains 
on of Ovid.^ 

nu, ifu<t dociiw patuemnt pnma Ithdlu, 

trm LtUertoM tang-crc pat»a sua est." 

hiT airmra Libcrtatis is noticed by Ci- 

l.\i*e the mention of the Basilica 

:'ili with (he word/i>rMm(u^/prMm 

itl atnum Libertatxt txplicarcmitK), 

commentatorB, and induced the 

;-. pronounce the passage inexpli- 

rl*7 aiLtms that this infilanec is the only 

found, nrnong all the writers of antiquity, 

niiTitiiin is made of an »lrium Libortalis 

froai that on the Avenline; an"l hence he 

-.1 ).. it.Lnti ihai there was nu other, and to 

into atnum Minerva^ which is 

^ ictor as being in this (Iho eighrh) 

but m this he was mistaken, as is made 

[hy the subjoined fragment from n plan of 

;d since the time of Nanlini. which 

upon a marble pavn.cnt during the 

imius ScTenis and Caracatla. and is 

rod in the museum of the Cnpitul at 

lad termed la Pmnta Capuoltna. As the 

inscnbed upon each of tho buildings, no 

in he (v\\ «« to their identity; ami the forum 

r1 - must be the Forum Ca-sa- 

ii If? of the Uegioncs, nor any 

i iM.-. ever mention a building of 

p iiiiuu Komanum The Forum of 

V Ir d 111 the rear of the c<li(icea on 

(^' / o o • o o o Ovft 

o o a o 
O ft o 
K / B 

^ o « o BA, S I L| 

< U • O ^ .. 

'^-J^p a o_o_o o o o"?)' 
o • »'o O* 

of the Roman Fonmx;'* bo thai the 

f! be exactly as represented 
\'' Bamhra .Emilia, an eleva- 
11 the article Dahiuca ; ond, 

' ." w>ml oMcmJrTunt tnilicftln that 

rM— 2. (T»cit.Hi«t., I., 3.) 

, ja.) — 5. {Saet., Octar., 

TV.. 3.—«r.. »., 4.)— 7. 

. > . ,^.. 10.)— 4. (a<>ni.Aul.,r.,V.) 

.U to. — Fba., H. N.. uxrl., 1ft } 

although the name of its founder ia brolien off, yel 
the Mpen peristyles, without any surrounding wall, 
demonstrate whut basUica was intended, 'llwin the 
pas^aqe of Cicero will tw Katisfaclurily explained. 
In order to lay open the magnificent llasilica of 
PaultuB to the Forum of Caesar, he proposed lo buy 
and pull down some buildings which obstructed the 
view, which would extend the small forum of Cir- 
sar vsque ad Ltbcr(at\s atnuin, by doing which lio 
no doubt intended to court the favour of Cicsar, 
upon whose good-wiU he prides himself so much in 
the epistle. 

The dotted lines represent a crack in the marble 

The senate was held m early times m aino /'«■ 

•ATT'AGEN (urra/Tv or drruyof), the name ol 
3 bird mentioned by Aristotle, Aristophanes. Horace, 
and Martial. There have been various conjectures 
respecting it, some supposing it a pbeaAant. some a 
partridge, and others a woodcock. This lost opin- 
ion is probably the most correct, although Aduins 
inclines lo agree with Pennant, that the Attagen 
was tho same with the Godwil, or Scotttpai a^o- 
ecphtUA. Walpolc/ on the other hand, thinks it 
was the Tttnuj Francolinus. A writer, quoted by 
Athenrus,' describes the Aiiagen as being a liitlo 
larger than a partridge, having its back inaiked with 
numerous spots of a reddish c«ilour. llenc^ iho 
name of this bird is humorously applied by Aris- 
lophanes* to the back of a runaway slave, scin-d 
by the lash. The same WTiler also informs us that 
the Atlagcn was highly estct-med bv epicures,' 

*ATTKJ/EBUS (dfrtX*(w{-), generally taken fur 
a species of Gnat, but referred by Stackbnuse to the 
genus Attctebut, L.. a class of insects that attack 
the leaves and most tender parts of plants.* 

A'lTHIS (urtftf). a name given to any composi- 
tion which treated of the history of Attica.' Thia 
name seem*) lo linvo been used liccauMO Attica was 
also called 'Arflif.* Fausanias' calls his first book 
'Arff/f avy)pa^tf, N'cause it treats chicHy ol Atti- 
ca and Athens. The Atthides appear to have been 
not strictly historical; but also geographical, top- 
ographical, mythological, and archaolugical. By 
preserving the local history, legends, traditions, 
and antiquities, and thus drawing attention to the 
ancient standing and renown of the country, and 
connecting the present with the past, they tended 
to foster a strong national feeling. From what 
Dionysius says," it would appear ihat other dis- 
tricts had their local histories as well as Attica." 
The nature of the 'AHhdt^ we know only from a 
few fragments and incidental notices. The most 
ancient writer of these coini>osiliaiis would appear, 
Jicconling to Pausanias," to have been Clitode- 
mus — K?.tirot^r}fto^ vr K?.ci6rifio^ (o-zoaoi ra 'Atfj^-oi- 
WW iwtxt'jpm h/pa^iai; 6 upxaiOTaTO^). His 'ArWi'f 
was published about B.C. 378.*' Probably Pausa 
nias means that CUtodemus was the first notice 
Athtnian who wrote an 'Ar&ic, as Clinton observes, 
and not the first person ; for Hellanicus, a native of 
Lesbos, had written one before him. Another \m- 
ter of this clasft* was Andron ('AwJpuv), a native of 
Kahcamassus, as appears from Plutarch ;'* also An- 
drution — *Av6poTiuv ;^* and Philochoms, who held 
the office oUrpooK6:roc at Athens, BO. 30« '• His 
'A.Tfiic is quoted by the scholiast on Aristophanes" 
and Euripides '• Phanodemus, Demon, and Isicr 

1. <S»rT. m VirjT-, JF.n., »i., 235.)— S. fMenwiiw, *r., »'»I- »-, 
p. aea. m noti».)— 3. (u.. 39.)— 4. (A»^701.>— 5. (Ai>. Ailwtn., 
>)▼., 63a.)— 6. (Amtol., H. A-, »., 17.— Theophnut., 11. P.. it., 
4.)— 7. (Str»bo, Ix.. p. WS, B, pJ. CaKiub.)— «. (dtmbr.. it.. |' 
897.A.)-9. <ni.,SO, 9.)— 10. (Do Tli«.«l. j...!.. v.)— H. <Virf. 
TIiiriwiUl'»Grc*fj-,».il. ii.. u. 128.)- la. jx.. 15.)— 13. {Clintim, 
F. »., II. 3:3,)-M. (Vit. The*., «.)— li. (Vid, 8ch»l. im Am- 
», At., 13.— Nub., M9.)— 16. <l.lljit<jn. a»,S.)— IT tVwv* 
, 716.— A».,7«7j-18. lO««., JTl.) 




WCTe also wriicfs of 'ArBide^. Their date iff onee^ 
tain; but it a[»()eurs ihat Demon was nearly con- 
temporary M'llh PhiliH'ImniH, and that \»uyT fluurish- 
^ed B.C. 24<K32l. m llie rciyn of Ptoicnitt'i»» Eiicr- 
g«m. and was, a.s .Siiulna aasrrta, a pupil t»f Callmt- 
achus. The fragments uf PhUocnorua and An- 
drotiOQ hare been edited by C. ti. Siebolia (Leipsig, 
1611) « and those of Pbanodemus, Demon, CUcode- 
mus, and Ister also {[/^tpeig, 1612). 

A'rnCLIR'GKS {TO 'AT7iKtn'pytO< 'f* fhe Anic 
styU. Vilniviua,* when treating of the difTerenl 
constructions of dmtrways to sacrrd ctlifices, enu- 
merates three, the Doric, lontc, ami Attic (Atticur- 
gea). He first gives an account of the Done, then 
the Ionic, and, lastly, stales that the Attic follows 
generally the same rules as the Done ; and then, 
having instanced the points of difference between 
these two orders, he concludes by saying that he 
faas laid down all the rules necessary for the con- 
structjoo of the Doric, Ionic, and Corintliian or- 
ders {Doricis, laniciJi, Corintkiu^ue o^ri^iu), which 
would certainly seem to identify the Attic with the 
Corinlhian. Pliny, however,* designates as Allic 
cohniins (columtKu Atticag) tliose which have four 
angles and equal sides, i. e., a square pilaster, 
such as the order of columns in tho upper story of 
the Coliseum, which have Corinthian capitals ; but 
tiiC projection of their sides is not equal to the 
frunls- Tl>efe is much difficulty involved in this 
eonsideraiion : for if the people of Attica had an 
order of Iheir own, dtetinct from the Doric, which 
they commnnly adopted, as the Tuscans, lontans^ 
and Curinlliiims hail, it is singular that we uhould 
'not have any account of itj* distinctive priiperties, 
and thai Vilruvui!) himself should not have descri- 
bed it afl'lly as be has the other three. The 
only way to solve the difficulty is lo adopt tlie cx- 
|ilanation of i'liny, and to conclude that the Athe- 
had no distmct order of their own, with a pe- 
'enliar chanicter in all its component parts ; but that 
Ihcy adopted a column expressly Attic, i.e., a square 
one, with a Corinthian c tpital and an Aihc fMMet to 
Ihe other parts and pro|iorlion9 of tho Doric order. 
Thus Vitruvius may bo reconciled with himself; 
for he only speaksof the Atticurges as used in door* 
ways, where the square or .\liic columns of Pliny 
would be adminthly (ilted f()r Ihe upright jambs, 
which might be ornamenicd with a Corintliian cap- 
ital and an Attic base, the proportions and compo- 
nent pirts of which are enumerated by Vitruvius* 
The lowest he ter:;i» pliiuktu ; the one above tliat, 
torua inferior; Ihe next three divisions, fffu/ia cum 
fui« ijuadnM; and the higheat, the lanu sujtcnor. 

AUCno signifies gcDcrally "an increasing, an 
enhancement," and hence Uic name is applied to a 
ildio sale of goods, at which persons bid against 
10 aoother. The term auctiv is general, and com- 
ihe species honorum rmho and tfctio. As 
[Aapeoiea, audio signifies a public sale of goods by 
owner or his agent, or a sale of giKKis of a de- 
pei^on for iTie purpose of dividing the money 
ig those entitled to it, which was called aurtio 
^tdAtarm.* The sale was sometimes conducted 

1. nit..3.)-S. <U.N.,xixn.,«.j-? tui.,3.)- 
r»cui.. S.I 


<Cic., pro 

by an argentarius, or hy a magisier 
the time, place, and conditions of sale 
nounccd either by a public noUoe (mA«/c» 
<5cc ) or by a cner [prtuo). 

Tho usual phrases lo express ttie giving- 
of a sale are auctimieoi pro*cnber€y pntdsatri 
to determine on a sale, auchonem ccmsiuufr^ , 
purchaBcra {emi&ret)^ whrm assettr 
tunes said ad. tahuUm atUtMC The , 
lo bid are itcen, iicttari, which wois doii 
word of uitiutli, or by such significani 
known to all people who have attcndod „,. „.. 
'ITie property was said lo be knocked down {< 
lo the purchaser, who eilher entend mlo a 
gagcment lo pay the money to the argrntan 
magister, or it was sometimes a condition 
that there should be no dehvery of liie Ihmf 4 
payment ' {Vul Actio.) An entry was 
the hooka of ilie argentarius of ilic sale 
money due, and credit was given in the sani« 
to the purchaser when he paid the money 
p€cun%a lata, accepla rclata). TIiQs the bcxik 
argentarius might be used as evidence Uir 
chaser, both of his having made a purett 
having paid for the thing purchased. If the] 
was not paid according Lo the conditions of i 
argcnlanns could sue for it. 

The pra?co or crier seems lo have acted the p- 
of the modem auctioneer, so far as calling out 
biddings' and amusing the company. Slaves, wbt 
sold hy auction, w<;re placed on a stone or olher 
evated thing, and licncc the phrase h&im: de U 
emiuj. It was ubual to put up a &poar, 
auclions, a Byiiilxil derived, it is said, from 
cicnt practice of selling under u spear the 
quired in war. Ry ihe audio, the QuiritariaA 
ersliip in the ihint' sold was ttunsrerred lo ibe 
chaser. {Vul BoNotcttM Ehtio, Skctio.) 

AUCTOU, a word which contains tho same 
ment as attg-eo, and signifies general; y one 
largcs, conhrms, or gives lo a Uitng its com| 
and efficient form The numerous teclmit 
lications of the word are derived from this 
notion. As he who gives to a thing lliat w] 
necessary for its cttmpletcness, may in thiaj 
be viewed aa the chief actor or doer, the w( 
tor is also used in the sense of one who or 
or proposes a thing ; but this cannot be viewi 
]tis pi imar}' meaning. Accordingly, the woi 
tor, v.lieu used in connexion with lex or 
consultum, often uit-ans him who original 
proposes, aa appears from numerous 
When a measure was approved by the senalej 
It was confinncd by tho Voles of ihc peoi' 
senate were said aiuiures jUri, and this preUl 
approval was raltrd tcnatus auciontds.* In the] 
s.igc of Livy,' there ia an ambiguity io the u 
the word, arising from the statement of the 
ticc in Livy's time, and the oircumstanccs 
peculiar case of the election of a king. 'HiC 
of what Livy etates as lo the election of Numai 
a reservation of a veto ; *' Si dignum crearitis, 
Ires auctortM fient." The meaning, however, of 1 
whole passage is clearly this : tbe patres gave pel 
mission lo elect, and if the person elected 
be approved by them, that was to be coosidcT 
cqnivalerit to their nomination. 

In the imperial time, anctor is often 
emperor ipnnrcps) who recommcndtd 
the senate, and on which Tccommendaiu 
passed a senntus consultum.' 

WTien the word auctur is applied to him wl 
recommends, but does not origmate a legislalit 

1. iGuiu, iv., 136.)— 9. (C'io., da Oft., n.,S3.)— 3. (Li*^' 
S6. — Ctc, pn» l>on., c. 30.1 — 4. (Cic, Ural., e. 14.)— >. (t, ' 
- 0. (Gcuuft, i., 30, 60.— SiuUin. Vc^i., ll.j 



Kt is equivalent to »Mjor.^ Sometimes 
and suasor arn used in (he same 8cn- 
theroeaniDK of each i9 kept dislinrt? 
nfatacc to dealings t>ctwccn individuaU. 
•s tbc sense of owner,' and is defined thus ;* 
tbt Mtui t qu>(f jus IN nu traiu iL In this sense 
tfiCLoi 13 tlie •cller (rrnrii/ur), aa npiXMScd to the 
%I5VC (naiur) : the person who joined the seller in 
ft wnntr. or iis securiiy, was called aucior sccun- 
[— »-i «!■._• seller, or auc/or primuir * The 
enure,* auclorem laudare^ will 
ITie testator, wiilt respect lo 
Jit Ito called auctor.* 
. ' with the niciniogs of auctor as a1- 
[i^iacd, the notion of condcnlm?. appro- 
^\T\\ig validity to a moasurn alT('^:ting a 
atotui clejirly appears in the following 

iialso used generally to express any per- 
wbose authority any legal act ia done, 
we, rt means a tutor who is appointed lo 
'i&H\se a woman on aewunt of the infimuiy 
KX:" it IS also appUed to a tutor whoso bu- 
it M lu do or approve of certain acts on be- 
[ofa Irani ipMfilltui). 
imn aueiores juris is equivalent to jurisperi- 
If." an.i ihe law writers, or leaders of particular 
•i^»'» uC law. were culled tckola ouclortM. It is 
mi i^^ary to trace the other significationii of Ihiii 

AL'CTO RITAS The technical meanings of this 

■dforrctate wiih those of aucior 

Tito aueuiriias senatus was not a senatus con- 

; it WdB a measure, incomplete in it»f"jf, 

f*M[ rrecivcd its completion by some other au- 

[ jj. as applied to property, is equivalent 

"-£«i uwncrship, being a correlation of auctor." 

Ivta z prviriaion of the laws o( llie Twelve Ta- 

«% t!..^.! Eh* ro could be no usucapion of a stolen 

~ thus expre«4ed by Gellius in apeak- 

.10 law :" •* Qiiod tuhreptum erU ejus 

. .iUAiort/as esto ;'* the ownership of the 

n was siiU in the ori^nal owner." 

' ■ TIPS signifies a warranty or col- 

ihus correlated to auctor sc- 

-_:■■) actio means the action of 

.' mstrumcnta auctorilatis arc the 

I'-ea of title. 

Li of the pff tor ia sometimes used 

> hcial sanction of the prtctor, or his 

1 a pers^in. a tutor for instance, might 

iprlhM lo do some legal act," or, in oilier 

h.-n " The tutor, with respect to 

'- and female (pupiUi, pupillaX 

■rcTCy and auctoritaUm i/Ucrpo- 

ihc 1^ ia applicable where the ta- 

r 6t0ca ;< If; the latter, where he gives 

I ■{iiirotacjon aim coofinnuliun lo the act of his 

irA. IViiigh an infant had not a capacity to do 

).« Ai'i -rMcti wa-§ prejudicial lo him, he had a ca- 

rccoive or iissent to anything which Wiis 

i'Htt. s.n'1 III such case the auciontatot'xhe 


r-ided cases was called simiii- 
' jbji^-it^cr.n. aii.!:intds. The other meanings of 
becoritas naf be easily derived from the primary 

' Rnjlii. aV 27.)— 3. (Pit., Off., iii., 
51).)— I. (Utff. 50, tit. 17. «. 17S.)— S. 
I 'i. ». 4, k 51.)— 6. (Cic. Verr., r., 
' ■ rp.lIpnnii'JfO.CoJ., tit.ll.) — 
'If., miv., 2. — Oic, pm Cw 
<). (I>i|r. ].ltl.^l.9,«13.— 
; . c 4.— Pm i:»«in.. c. 96.)— 
-15. (Cir , Off., i., 12.— Uirfc- 
y^M FraitfUfTite, p. 417J— IB. 
a*;«itt^;iU 2,(it.I7.)— 17. (Owua.i., 100,— 

■ w 

ntoaning of the word, and from tho explaoatlora 
here given. 

AUDITO'UIUM, a place where poets, orators, 
and cntics were heard recite their comiHtsitions. 
There were places used expressly for this purpose, 
as thc.Mhcnsum. (VidATiiKSMuu.) Sometimes, 
ahio, a room was hired and converted to thi^ objecii 
by the erection of seats, and by other arrnn^ 
menls.i The tenn auditorium was also applied to 
a court, in which trials were heard.' Auditorium 
principis was the emperor's auditncccliamber.' 

•AVELLA'NA NtX. the Filbert, ihe fruit of (he 
Carylus Avctlana^ or Hascl nut-tree. It is the xapintv 
XloiTfiitv or 7jJTT0xufH'ov of Dioscorides.* Accord- 
ing to Pliny.* the earlier fonn of the Luiin name 
was Ai/ellina nur, an appellation coming very prob- 
ably from the Samniun city of At>rltinum, where 
this species of nut is said to have abounded, or else 
from the Campanian city of Abella. Merviiis is in 
favour of the latter.' Pliny says tho filberl came 
first from J*onlU3 into Lower Asia and Greece, and 
hence one of its Greek names, as given above, 
Kufjvov Uoi'Tucov.^ Macrobius styles it also jwi 
Prancttina,* but Pliny distinguishes between the 
nucej ArcHana and pTuncstime* Tlieoplirnstus" 
speaks of two varieties of this kind of nut, the one 
round, the other oblong ; the latter is referred by 
Sprcnuel to the Coryltui tubulasa, Willd." 

•AUGl TES (ncjiTr/r). a species of gem deriving 
its name from its brilliancy (ntr-^i;). l*liny says it 
was thought by many to be ditTerent from the Cal< 
lais, and hence the inference has been drawn that 
it waa generally ihe samo with the latter, whii h 
was probably turquoise.*' 

AlJGUIl meant a diviner by birds, hut was siiroe> 
times applied in a more extended sense. The word 
socma 10 bo connected with autreo. auffuro, in the 
same manner as fulgur with fui^eo and fule^iro. 
Augeo bears many traces of a reliKrious meaning, lo 
which it may have been at first re.diricicd." The 
idea of a second derivation from avis, confinned by 
tlio analogy of ausjicx {acUpcx), may perhaps have 
limited the signification of augur. It is not improh- 
at)lG tliat this last etymology may be the true one ; 
but if so, it is impossible lo explain the second cle- 
ment of the word. "Augur^ quod ab amum ^arntu 
dcTirari ijruinmalici ^amrin/," says SaUnasius. 

The institution of augurs is lost in the origin ol 
the Roman state. According to that view of the 
consiitution which makes it eomc entire from tho 
hands of the first king, a college of three was ap- 
pointed by Romulus, answering to Ihe number of 
the three early Irilws. Nuina was said to have 
added two.'* yet, at the passing of the Ogulnian 
law (B C. 300), the augurs were but four in num- 
ber : whether, as Livy" supposes, the deficiency, 
was accidental, ia uncertain. Niebuhr supposes 
that there were four augurs at the passing of the 
Ogulnian law, two apiece for the Khamnos and 
Tities. But it seems incredible that the third tribe 
should have l>(?cn excluded at so late a period ; nor 
does it appear how it ever obtained the privilege, as 
the additional augurs were elected from the plebs. 
By the law just mentioned, their number became 
nine, five of whom were chosen from the plebs. 
'J*he dictator Sulla fartlier increased them to fif- 
teen,'* a multiple of their original number, which 
probably had a reference lo the early iribos. This 
continued untd the time of Augustus, who. among 

1. (CoranBra Plin., Ep.. i., 13.— T»citu«, De Oral, c 9, W. 6 
-Suirt..Tih.,a, II.)— 5. {Pnul««, Di^. 4i>,lit.9.i. 1.;— 3. (Ul- 
piftfi, Diir. 4. til. 4. ». 18.)— I. (i.. ITdj-S. (H. N-. it.. *1)- 
fl. (in ViT7., Cftorff., li.. W.)— 7. (II. N.. x*., M.)— 8. (Sm,, ti,, 
14.)-9. (H. N., mi., 13.>— 10. (H. P., i>.., 15.)— 11- {P*o in 
Plin., It. N.. XI., M.)-ia. (M«m'« Aiup. Minaral., p. 181.>— IS 
^Conporo Ond. Fwi., i., SOB.}— 14. (Cio., Ue Kep., ^.^^^^ 
19. (I.. 0.)— 10. (Lir., Epit.. 80.) 



othtr extraordinary powcre, had ihe riplit conferred 
on him of dieting augurs at his pleasure, wtieUier 
there was a vacancy or not, B.C. 39,* so ihat from 
this ttinc tlir nninhtr of the nollege wm anlimitctl. 

According lo Dionysius,* the au^rs, Uke the 
other priests, wrie originally elected hj the comitia 
curiata, or assembly of the patricians, in their curia;. 
As nn election was complete wiihonl the sanction 
of augnry. the coHcffe virtually poBsrsspd a veto on 
the election of all its members Tliey very soon 
obtained the privilege of self-election (jus to-opta- 
tiyAts), which, with one iiitcmiption, viz,, at the 
Cicinion of the first plebeian ati^rs, they retained 
until B.C. 103, the year of the Domittan law. By 
tliis law it was enacted lliat vacancies in the priestly 
colleges should be filled up by the votes of a minori- 
ty of tlie tribes, r. r.. seventeen out of thhty-five, 
chosen by lot. The Domitinn law was repealed liy 
SuHa, but again restorwl B.C. 63, during the eon- 
flulship of Cicero, by the tribune T. Annius habie- 
n'ls, with the support of Ciesar. It was a senond 
time abropnte<l by Antony ; whether again rrslored 
by Hirtius and Pansa, in their general annulment 
of the acts of Antony, seems uncertain. Th<^ em- 
perors, as mentioned above, possessed the right of 
electing augurs at pleasure. 

The augiirshii) is described by Cicero, himself an 
BQgur, as the highest dignity in the state,' having 
an ftutlinriiy which could prevent the comitin from 
voting, or annul resolutions already passed,* il the 
auspices had not been duly jK'rfonnrd. Theword.s 
aiw die from a sinEtte nugiir might put a slop to all 
basincss, and a decree of the college had several 
times rescinded laws. Such exorbitant powers, as 
Cicero must have seen, depended for their contin- 
uance on the moderation of those who exercised 

The augurs were clectrd for life, and, even if rap- 
Itajly convicted, never lust their sacred characler.* 
They were to be free fmtri any taint of disease while 
performing their sacred functions, which Tlutarcli' 
thought was designed to show that purity of mind 
was required in the service of the gods. When n 
vacancy occurred, tlie candidate was nominated by 
two of the elder members of the college.* the elect- 
ors were sworn,'' and the new member took an oath 
of secrecy before his inauguration. The only di.s- 
tinctiun among them wns one of age, the eldest au- 
gur being styled magister cnllrgii* Among othi'r 
privileges, they enjoyed that of wearing the purple 
■prattTta-, or, according lo some, the Iralta. On an- 
cient coins they arc represented wearing a long 
robe, which veiled the head and reached down to 
the feet, thrown back over the left shouldiT. They 
hold in the right hand a Itiuus or curved wand, 
hooked at the end like a ernftier, and sometimes 
have the capix,' or earthen water vessel, by their 
side.'* On solemn occasions tliry appear to have 
w</m a garland on the head," Although many of 
the augurs were senators, their office gave lUem no 
plact! in the senate '• The manner of taking the 
aaspices is described under Auspicium, 

Ttie chief duties of the augurs were to obsen'c 
and report supernatural signs. They were also Um 
repocDtoriea of the ceremonial law, and had lo ad- 
vise on the expiation of prodigies, and other malitrs 
of religious observance. The sources of their an 
were ihieefold ; first,, the formulas and traditions of 
the cit'ege. which lu aneicnt limes met on the nones 
of every month ; secondly, the aufpiraits libri, which 
were extant even in Seneca's time ;" thirdly, the 

1. (Dinn, t\u M.>— a. (ii.. 22.)- 8. (De hf^., H., 13.1 — 4. 
tPlia., Ep., jp., 8.)— 4. (Qiir*l. Rom.. 7«.)— «. (Cic, Ptiil.. it., 5.) 
— T. (Cic^Hrnt.,!)— 8. (Cic.De Senwt., 18.)— «, (Li».,«.."-) 
—10. rOultsi, Icmra 1— 1 1. (Pltit., Co , p T30.]— 19. (Cic., ad 
AU^iT.,T)— 13. (Ep., 107.) 

eommrniarii au^urum, such as lliose of M 
of Appiufi Clodius Pulccr, which seem to have 
dtMingtiished from the former as the 
learned men from received sncred wntin: 
duties of the auguro were lo assist magi 
generals in tnking the aospices. At the pas&l! 
a Uz curiata, three were required to be pr 
number probably designed to represent the 
ancient tribes 

One of the difficulties connected with this sul 
is lo distinguish between the rrjigioiis duties 
augurs and of the higher m.igifjtralea. tJndci 
latter were included consnl, praetor, and censor 
quiEstor. as appears from Varro,* being oblige 
apply for Ihe auspices to his superior. A 
magistrate hnd the power of prorngtnng Ihe 
by the fonnula xc dc crrlo srrrnre. ( ViJ. A us-ru 
The law obliged him to give notice bcforehan 
that it can only have been a redigious way of 
ci8?ng a constitutional right. The sprctio, a* | 
termed, was a voluntary duty on the part of 
magistrate, and no actual observation was re^ni 
On tlie other hand, the augurs were employ 
virtue of Iheir office : they declared the auei| 
from immediate ohservniinn. without giving 
previous notice ; they had the right qT nvnuatit 
of tpectiot nt least in the comitia ; in other w 
they were to retJort prodigies where they dii^ 
to Invent them where they did not, cxisL 

Ttie college of aug\irs possessed far greater p 
CT in Ihe enrlirr than in the later pericnl of Rot 
history. T\\*' old legends delighted to teU of 
triumphs nf relrgion iw first kings were nu^ 
and Uomulii^ was believed to hare founded 
empii** by a direct intimation from heaven 
seema natural ihat aun-ury should have s 
amid! the simple habits of a msiic people, and 
we shtntld he inclined to refer il to a SabiTic ra 
than an Elniscnn origin. That a learned ty 
should he ingrof^ed on a more simple one, sue 
that of the an" nt Sabines, seems surely far I 
probable thiin Uie reverse Yet the pievalenc 
EtruscBn infln'^ncc. during the second and I 
centuries of i^uman history, must have grl 
modified thn primitive Iwlief It might almost 
pfar that the conflict between the oUl and new 
gion was hinted at in the stor)* of Attiw Ntn 
esfR'cially when we remember lliai Tarjui] 
whether of I-itin or Etruscan origin, is undnubl 
the representative of an Etruscan period. Th« 
mans themselves, as Miiller admits, distinguj 
between their own rites of angury and Eini 
divination. The separate origin of the Roioa 
hgton is implied in the tradition that Numa wi 
Sabine birth, nut lo mention that many of then 
used by the augurs (such as Sangualis avis, 
the 5ul)inc god Sancus, Titise aves. Sabinus cv 
hear Imros of a Sabine origin. Such a view i 
iticonsisient with the incorporation of many 
nf Ihe Etruscan system, as the constitution o( 
coilecc of augurs, or the divisions of the licavi 

Augury was one of the many safeguards w 
the wisdom of an oligarchy opposed to the tnt 
of the ptobs * Of tlie three comitia — curiota, 
turiata. and trihuia — the two former were aii 
to the nuEpices. As the favourable signs ' 
known to the augurs alone, Ihcir scruples w< 
pretext for Ihe government to put off an inc< 
nieitt assembly Yet m early times the at 
were not the mere tools of the govcmmeni 
formed by themselves, as is the case in almoi 
oligarchies, an important portion of the R 
slate. The terrors of religion, which the a 
and patricians used against the pleh<<, must 

I. (I.tnr. Ij>».. f: 9.)— 9. (Ctc^ VhiU it., ».>— J 11 

Dir., i., 9.)— 4. (liv.. ri. 41.) 



tiffned agatn^it themselves, especially 

pvriM when the colk-gc enjuyed an al>- 

>l over iht' rhxlion of its own membera. 

Jcings. ihi^ Hlory of Altii» Nn*viiis woms 

lept'ndi-nce uf the augurs. During 

their ptrnrr was supported by the 

'Opinion. Livy teils uk that the first 

*a Qbdieated iu eonsequence of a de- 

«!t«n(r«: and. on another occasion, the 

■ ;iloh4'i.-in dictator, M. C. 

crrntrd ' It was urgeij 

pail.. .^...-. ...rij .1.;,. Ueheved hy the plebeians 

^ ihnt the niii^pirrs wintld he proliined by 

l»ilmb->:«i[i of ihepk'hs lo the rii;litsof intemiar- 

■'ler maijrslracies. With the conaul- 

<n5 must have obtained the higher 

- I's'- magistrates were, in a great 

■ .;;i' on the aiiiiurs, the plehs would 

tL:- 1- -.>.-, on R level with the patricians 

•,::- ::; •■',' ilip Ogulfiian law. Piiriuff the 

, i!i. .;ivi:r» were emplnye<l by iMith par- 

pohlical tixds Ci«*ro" lainents the neglect 

'!'n»? of ijip art in his day. The college of 

'li^hed by Ihe Emperor Theo- 

> was the superalilion rooleii, 

-•-11 ill -.m iMurlernth century, a Christian 

found it necessary to issue an edict ng.iinst 

a riew of the Roman nugurs, which derives 
ffttni Etpiria, fit-eMiiller's Klruaher^ iii., fl. 
- ' \ T.ES {sc. ludi, also called Auf^vs- 
la, l»4icra, and by the GreeJc wri- 
ling III \.rr<*k inscriptions, StCaora, ^t6uaifia, 
i>i<j) were games celebrated in honour of 
tys at Rome and m other parts of the Ko- 
Enipire. After the tiattle of Aclium, a quin- 
kial icativaJ (rroi-r/yiytir Trri'rrnjpif) was inslitii- 
atul ihr birthday (jrrtWm) of Augustus, as 
llul ou M'hiL-h the virlorj' was announced at 
' i! as festival days ' In the 
'tilion to leniples and altars, 
'ure insliluled in almost every 
return from Rome to Greece, in 
;ng absent from Italy for two years, 
*} t'u wluoh he returned was made a festival, 
|e»Ikd Aueustaha ' Tlie Roman equiies were 
of their own accord, to celebrate the 
V of Augustus in every aliernale year ;' and 
tora, riefore any decree had been pass*-d for 
pOM, wire also in the habit of exhibiting 
. \t^:ir in honour of Augustus. Arcord- 
MU3,» it was not till B C 11 that 
■•■i-Tf established by a decree of the 
.1 he appears, from the 
■'^ mean the fesiival cel- 

ii J ..; .\iigustiis. This account 

ever, to be at variance with tlie siate- 
itu.% who speaks of the augusinles as 
red hi the rtign of Tiberius (ludos Ah- 
^rinfi'fn rajtU't turbarit rfi*fprrfftf'"), to 
.i-'e with the one ijuoted from 
. without MS. authority, chan- 
*^ . : t>i:i 'Tacitus apparently uses 

■I ' in;T 'if the fonnal recognition 
Willi h .\a made at the beginning of 
4if Tib«TtUM,^^ and thus speaks of them as 
ei! at that time Tliey were exhibit- 
in ihc fin.Mis, at firsl by the tribunes of 
I \}\e commencement of the reign of 
aArrwart) by the pr«ior peregrinrs.'" 
continued tr he exhibited in the iimc 
tbiit ia. atioul A.D 330.'* 

, IU ai. M.>— a. tZinm.. III). 

, 113.]—*. <Dioo, li.. 19.)~ 
'..>., It*,, I0,>— fl. (Sunl , Orlav,, 
fTMlt.. Ann., I..M.)— II. (TariU, Ann., 
I., ly— IKirn, Iti., M }— 13. (Utm3I.} 

The augustales or augusfnlia at Neapolia (N'a* 
ples) were ccJelirat^Ml with great splendour. They 
were instituted in the lifetiuie uf Augustus/ and 
wtTC celchraled every five years. Arrording to 
Slrabo,' who speaks of these games wittioui men- 
'tionmg their name, they rivalled the most magniti' 
cent of the (Grecian festivals. 'J'hey consisted of 
gymnastic and musical contests, and lasted for sev- 
eral days." At these games the Emperor Claudius 
brought forward a Greek comedy, uud received the 

Auguiitalia (IcCaora) were also celcbrale<l at AI- 
exandrea, as apfx^ara from an inscription in Ciruter ,* 
and in this city there was a magnifieenl lemplu to 
Augtistup {i^iCaoTriov, Aug^^stalc). We lind men- 
tion of Anguslalia in numerous other places, as Pcr- 
gamiis, Nieomedia, ic. 

II. AIJGU8TALES were an order of priests in 
the municipia, who were appointed by Augustus, 
and selectnl from the libertini, who.«e duly it was 
lo attend to the religious rites connetUed with Ihe 
worship of the Lares and Penates, which Augustus 
put in places where two or more ways met [in t^m- 
pih^y The name of this order of priests occurs 
frequently in inscriptions, from whicli we learn 
the Augustales formed, in most municipia, a kind 
of rorponilion, of which the first six in importance 
luid the title of acnn, and the remainder that of 
comptait* Larum Aug.^ It has been maintaiued 
by some modem writers tliat these augustales^'vere 
civil magistrates ; but there is good reason for I'e- 
lieving that their duties were entirely of a rehgioua 
nature. The office, which was called Aufrutia/itas^ 
was looked upon as honourable, and was much 
sought alter by the more wealthy hherlini ; ami it 
appears that the decunones in the municipia were 
accustomed to sell the dignity, since we find it re- 
corded in an inscription tliat the office hnd been 
eonlerred gratuitously upon an indiviilual on accuuiit 
of the benefits which he had conferred uiwn the 
town (onto dfcunonum ol> uurifa ejus honoion Au- 
gustalUatia crattiUunx Jecrtvit*). 'J"hc number of 
augustales in cncli niunicipium does not apt>ear to 
have had any limitation ; and it seems that, ui 
course of lime, almost nil the resiM.'ctable libt-nini 
in every mnnicipium belonged to the order, which 
thus formed a middle class between the deeuriones 
and plehs, hke the equestnan order Hi Rome. We 
find In the inscriptions of many municipia that the 
decurtuiies, seviri or auguslaiesy and plebe, are 
mentioned together, as if they were the three prin- 
cipal classes into which the conununity was div* 

The nugustalos of wliom we have l>Gcn speaking 
should be carefully distineuislK^l from the xoitaicx 
Ait^tsialea, who were an order of priests instituted 
by Tiberius to attend to the worship of Augustus.'" 
They were cliosen by lot from among the principal 
persons of Rome, and were twenty-one iu nuuil>er. 
to which were added Tiberius, Drusus, Claudius, 
and Gcrmanicus.*^ They were also called naterdous 
AuffustaUs ;^* and sometimes simply Aui<u»talts.^* 
It appears that similar priests were appomied to at- 
tend to the worship of other ctnperors after their 
decease ; and we accordingly find, in inscriptions, 
mention made of the aodale* Kovii, Hadhanait*, 
-JiVmNi, Antoniniy Ac ** 

It appi-ars that the fiaminfn AvguslaU* ought to 
be distinguished from the bixUUs Aufj^xtalta. Wo 
And that famines and sacerdotes were appointed 


1. (Suet., Octmf., tIB.)— 2. (»., p. »*«.>— 3. (S(r«bo. 1. c.)— 1. 
(Sii«t., Claud., II. — Comparo Dum, Ix-.fl.) — 5. (SIS, S.)— B 
(8rliul. ID Hor., S«I.. It., ui., StJl.]— T. [Orvlli, Inscnn., 9039.— 
Compure Pclron.. S»l., c. 30.)—*. (Otellj, 3313.)— tf. (Orelli, 
39:tU.j— 10. (Tacit.. Ann., ).. M. — Coaifiain Urrlli, lnKinp., 
saw, 2367, Ac.J— It. (Tucit., 1. O— Ifi. (Ticit.. Awu, u.,va.\ 
-13. (Taoi., Uttt., li., M.)-H. (OmUi, Iftfcchp..Ua"\.4tt.^ 



tn the lirelimc of AugAstus to attend to his worship ; 
but M'c have the express statements of Suetonius 
and Dion Cussius that this worship was confined 
to the provinces, and was not practised in Iloiue, 
or in an}' part of Italy, during the lifetime of Au- 
gustus.' Women even were appointed priestesses 
of Augustus, as appears from an inscription in Gm- 
trr :* this practice probably look its origin from the 
appointment of Livia, by a decree of the senate, to 
be priestess to her deceased husband.' It seems 
probable that the sodalcs Augustales were intrusted 
with the management of the worship, but that the 
flamines Augustales were the persons who actually 
offered the siicrifices and performed the other sacr^ 
rites. A mombcr of the sodalea Augustales was 
sometimes a flamen also {Ncroni Casari, ftainini 
Augitstali, siHlaii Augu»tali*) ; and it is not iniproha- 
blu that the flamines were apf)ointed hy the sodales. 
AUGUSTUS. {VitL Calbxdab, Roman.) 
AUL.«UM. {Vid. SiPAKiuM, Tapbs, Velum ) 
•AULOTIAS {ai'Xuma^), a large fish, of which 
iElian gives an interesting account. Kondelet re- 
fers it to the genus LabruM, or Wrasse, but Adams 
thinks it much more probable that it was a species 
of S^ualust or Shark. 

AULOS (av?Mi), a wind instrument played with 
the fmgers. It consisted of several parts : yXwrrif 
or y7.uTTa, the mouthpiece, which was taken off 
when not used, and kept in a case iyXuTTOKOfatov) ; 
v:Tvy?jurTtc, the under part of the mouthpiece, oHen 
put for the mouthpiece itself; &?,fiot, pieces of wood 
<ir bone inserted in the Tpvir^fsara or openings, and 
pushed aside, or up and down, so as to narrow or 
extend the compass of the scale at pleasure; 
v^'iAfttov, similar to 6?^oc, but inserted in tiie mouth- 
piece so as to lessen the power of the instrument 
when required : it is often confounded with u^fioc 
and >>.(^rra. houCvi appears to have been the 
same with o/fto^: according to Hesychius, it was 
also a kind of at'>.t<. ^op6eia was not a part of the 
ct/.i'c, but a &trap ^slened at the back of the head, 
with a hole in front fitting to the mouthpiece. {Vid. 
i'HosBEiA.') For an account of r'.ic ditFerent sorts 
of av/.oi, sec Tibia ; and for the charnctcr of flute 
mu:>ic, and its adaptation to the different modes, 
»ce MfsicA. 

Al'REL'S. (Tii. ArauM.) 
ALRIGA. ( Tirf. CiRccs ) 
'ALRIPIGMENTUM. (Vid Arsesiccm.) 
AUKUM (.r/n-aof^ Gold. It is stated under Aa- 
ur.NTLM. that as laie as the commencement of the 
Piloponnesian war. the Athenians had no gold coin* 
a;:e. It would appear from a passage in the Anti- 
c-'nt* that in the time of Sophocles gold was rare 
at Athens. Indeed, throughout the whole of Greece, 
lh f'jzh gold was by no means unknown, it appeara 
•-» Lave been obtained chiefly through the Greek 
c:::es ol Asia Minor and the adjacent islands, which 
;tus&e«sed it in abundance. 'Hie Homeric poems 
^yi'dk constantly of gold being laid up in treasuries^ 
aud u±c-d in large quantities tor the purpose of or- 
camtnt : but this is sufficiently accounted for by 
the fact tltat Homer was an Asiatic Greek. The 
cu:*f p:ac6» from which the Greeks procured their j 
ffCd were India. Arabia. Armenia. Colchis, and ; 
Truas. h was found mixed with the sands of the 
Paciolus ar.i other rivers. | 

Gcxrs GcLD MosEv. — The time when gold was i 
\r^\ coj]^ ai Athens is very uncertain. Aristoph- | 
sn^i 5-peaks :a the Fr-^^t - W6 B.C.) of to koivov ' 
Xs\':U;. " the dvw cold money."' which he imme- ■ 
"i -.-ii ^y aftpn"ar': czlls ~::'.-i xc>.K:a* The scho- 

: T>* :.. A-1.. -.. I. --f-.-t.. i.v.iT.. X.—V. a. 'a.. SO.)— 

1 ?■_■.: —3. I* =. :■ . *■: —4. ir*:*::-. Li*t.p.. saw. 

i:-^-? —5 K-'--:;.. -- » «. _»— P.I.-t. 0-. r... -.T^f .— Sx- 

s^t'.;. -Ei.f.T ::". :. ^. -•;--:-. .:--.rt t^iu.?. es.^- 
fc i„ ..;>. -T ...r:^. — f. ..-..:ai. 

liast on this passage states that in tLe preeadi 
year the golden statues of Victory had been coic 
into money, and be quotes Hellanicua and Re. 
chorus as authorities for this statement Itwoi 
appear from the language both (tf Aristophanes a 
the scholiast, and it is probable, from the cirec 
stances of Athens at the time (it waa the y" 
before the battle of .£go8potami), that this wi_ 
greatly debased gold coinage, struck to meet a p 
ticular exigency. This matter ia distinot from 
general question respecting the Athenian gold cm 
age, fur the Attic money waa proverbial for 
purity , and the granmiarians, who state that Atb* 
had a gold coinage at an early period, speak irf'iH 
very pure. There are other passages in Aristopi 
nes in which gold money is spoken of, bnt in tte 
ho ia referring to Persian money, whkh is ka» 
to have been imported into Athens before the At3 
nians bad any gold coinage of their own; and e« 
this seems to have been a rarity.* Demostfaen 
always uses upyvplov for money, except when hd 
speaking of foreign gold. In the speech sgaii 
Phormio, where he repeatedly uses the word jff 
aiov, we are expressly told what was the monc? 1 
referred to, namely, 130 staters of Cyzicos.* foa 
rates, who uses the word in the same way, speil 
in one passage of buying gold money (;iy}vouvcrv}i 
exchange for sOver.' In many passages of Ik 
orators, gold money is expressly 'said to have bei 
imported from Persia and Macedonia. If we ks 
at the Athenian history, we find that the siln 
mines at Laurion were regarded as one of ft 
greatest treasures possessed hy the state ; bot l 
such mention is made of gold. Thucydides,' i 
enumerating the money in the Athenian treastn^i 
the beginning of the Peloponneaian war, does K 
mention gold ; and Xenophon speaks of the mon 
of Athens in a manner which would lead us to fla| 
pose that it had no gold coinage in his time.* H 
mines of Scaptehyle, in Thrace, were jndca 
worked some years before this period,* hot thegd 
procured from them does not appear to have bee 
coined, but to have been Uid up in the treasotyi 
the form of counters {^oide^''). Foreign gold ca 
was oflcn brought into the treasury, as some of d 
allies paid their tribute in money oif Cyzicus. 71 
gold money thus introduced may have been aQovi 
to circulate, while silver remained the cona 
money of the state. 

Tlie character of the Attic gold coins now in a 
istence, and their small numtter (about a dozen), i 
a strong proof against the existence of a gidd at 
reney at Athens at an early period, "niere n 
three Attic staters in the British Museimi, and oe 
in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow, which tha 
is good reason to believe arc genuine ; their weigU 
agree exactly with the Attic standard. In ft 
character of the impression, they bear a striking n 
semblance to the old Attic silver ; but they dm 
from it by the absence of the thick, bulky fonn, 89 
the high rehef of the impression wtiich is sceni 
the old silver of Athens, and in the old gold coil 
of other states. In thickness, Tolume, and tk 
depth of the die from which they were stnick, thi 
closely resemble the Macedonian coinage. Not 
as upon the rise of the Macedonian empin% fo' 
became plentiful in Greece, and was coined inlu| 
quantities by the Macedonian kings, it is not il 
probable that Athens; like other Grecian stale 
Okay have followed their example, and issued ago 
coinage in imitation of her ancient silver. On U 
whole, it appears most prxthable that gold mon 

1. (Tkl. Ansi^iplk.. Aclora., t^ llO. I0&.— EqviU t., 4 
— .\T.. M» iT4.i— 2. ip. M4. — Cocnrai* bis anctth^w 
.\ »<.-.. r- SOS.' — S. ^Tra!*at-.^ 367.) -4. (ul, 13.) - 
V.^:-._V.. IT.. 10 — ^. .T»iar>iL, w., 103.]— T. (BBckk, 
icr..--.. Tv-i. I., p. 143, 14&,j 



at Athens in tl»e period betwwn 
Alexander ttie Great, if we except the 
^■me of debased gold m the year 407 
Inun umiJar to thai just disoii&scd d^riacs 
Ittcct to other Greek Mates, which uc know 
ulaitlver currency, but of which a Jew 
'va ttt found. This is the case with .^Jgina. 
I Argn»,Car>'stus in Euha>a, Acamania. and 
, ilot of these coins, all except two bear 
■j^JLin their weight or workmanship, of 
^^B ptmwl not carher than xVlex»nUer 
P^^hcre IB gteal reason, tiicrefnre, to 
'utf no gold coinage existed in Greece 
fttfinr the time of tliat monarch. 
kmiJi very early period the Asiatic nationB, 
ask cities of Asia Minor and the adjacent 
as Sicily an*l (Gyrene, possessed a 
bich was more or less current in 
says thni the I^ydians were 
gold, and the slater of Cri£sus 
the earhcst gold coin known 
ks. The Dane was a Persian coin. 
f Cyucus and Phoesa bad a considerable 
fn Grocer- There was a gold coinage in 
f «irly as the liinc of Polycrates.' The 
r Siphnus and Thasos, which jxiafieascd 
E^ npp'Mr tu hare bad a gold coinage at 
fcf iMd. In most of the coins of the Greek 
)fSM Minor the metal is rery baso. The 
|n gold coinafre came into cjrculaliun in 
the lime of Philiptand continued in use 
heclion of Greete to the Romans. (Vtit. 


Gold Money. — The standard gold coin 
KA-^ \\)f aurrtu nummus, OT dcnanus aure- 
1 to PHny,' was first coined 62 
I -liver coinapp (frrf. Abgextpm), 

the ytat 307 B.C. The lowest denomi- 
f the acrupulum, which was made eJiual 
prtii. The w. ight of ibe scrupulum, as 
try Mr. llu^-.-y,* was 18 00 grs. In the 
^BTum there are gold coins of one, two, 
i lour iMirupuIa, the weights of wlijcb arc 
ifctflw and (W 9 grains respectively. Tliey 
k^EMars on one aide, and on the other 
^^ftog on a thunderbolt, and beneath 
Plb "Roai*." The first has the mark 
Rertiil ; the second, xxxx (40 sestertii) 
,^i^% (60 sestfrtii). Of the last wu sub- 
Ignfing : 

It afterward nurci were coined of 
ill weiyhl was diminished, till, 
ling nf this word is doubtful), 

pound This cliange is sup- 

mmmation of extant specimens, 

iJr In the time of Julius Cvsar. 

weight of the aurei of 40 to the 

; of thoM of 45 to the pound, 

specimens exist whieh rnmcup 

the heaviest known is one ol" 

wciuhs I2d 2 grains. The average 

of Julius CtEsar is fixod by I*c- 

(rrains. those of Nero, I153D 

.'!phl of the aureus was 

I to the weight nf the de- 

^_: ;'ic same, namely, ii.s U : 1 

aa 2 1 : 1). Therefore, since 

pri^hl of the d*nariire, und er th^ 

13.)— 4 

til.. M.H-S fll-N . uxK 

early em|>eror9, was 60 grains, that of the aureui 
should be 120. The average weight of the aurei 
of Aiigiisius, in thn Drilish Museum, is 121 SB 
grains : and as the weight was afterward dimin* 
ished, we may take the average at VH) grains. 

There seems to have been no intentional alloy in 
the Roman gold coins, but they generally cuntaincd 
a small portion of native silver. The average alloy 

1 be aureus of the Roman emperors, therefore, 
contained jJJ= l of a grain of alloy, and, there- 
fore, 119 6 grains of pure gold. Now a sovereign 
contains 1 13 IV grains of pure gold. Therefore Uio 
value of the aua-us in terms of the sovereign is 
f[2:A=I 0564=1/. U. U. and a little more than 
u hallpenny. This is its value according to the 
present worth of gold ; but its cuiTcni value in 
Rome was different from this, on account of the 
difference in the worth of the metal. Tho aureus 
passed for 25 denarii ; therefore, the denarius being 
8Jt/,, It was worth 17*. 8^d. The ratio of the 
value of gnid to that of silver is given in the arti- 
cle Arobktum. 

The following cut represents an aureus of Au- 
gustus in the British Museum, which weighs 131 
grains : 

Alexander Scverus coined pieces of one hoif ant< 
one third of the aureus, called semiait and irtmif 
sij,' after which time the aureus wis called toltdus 

Conatantine the Great coined aurei of 73 to the 
pound, at which standard the coin remained to the 
end of the Empire.' 

AL'RUM CORUNARILWI. When a general in 
a Roman province had obtained a victory, it was 
the custom for the cities in his own provinces, and 
for those from the neighbouring states, to send 
goliJen crowns to him, which were carried belbre 
him in his triumph at Rome' This practice ap- 
pears to iiave been burrowed from the Greeks ; foi 
Chares relates, in his history of Alexander,* that 
after the conquest of Persia, crowns were sent to 
Alexander which amounted to the weight of 10,500 
talents The number uf crowns which were sent 
to a Roman iieneral was sometimes very ^at. 
Cn. Maiilius liad 200 cruwna carried before bim in 
the triumph which he obtained on account of hia 
conquest of ttie Gauls in Asia.* In tbe time uf 
Cicero, it appears to have been usual lor the cities 
nf the provinces, instead of sending crowns on oc- 
caaiun of a victory, to pay money, which was called 
aurum caronanurn-* This offering, which was at 
first voluntary, came lo be regarded as a regular 
tribute, and seems tu have bein somclimes exacted 
by the governors of the provinces even when no 
victory Tiad been gained. By a law of Julius Cie- 
sar.' it was provided that the aurum corunarium 
should not lie gi%en iinlc^is a triumpli was decreed ; 
hut under the empernrs it was exacted ffn many 
other occasions, aa, for instance, on the adoption of 
Antoninus Pius.* U continued lobe culJccied, ap* 
paroiilly as a part of the revenue, in the time of 
Valeniinian and Theodostus.* 

I. lUmprid., AJm. Sat^ r. M.>-5. (Cod. x., til. 70. «. 6.^ 
IIuMcj- on AwiMit Wright* wiil Mtmry.— Wurui, I>« Po»d., 
4c.)— 3. (Lit., ixiviii., 37; xxxix., 7.— FmIuj, i. t. Trinm- 
phalM Curon*.}— ^. (*r- Athati., »ii., p. Mfl, A.)— 5. <I.rt, 
iiiix., 7.)— fl. (Cic, L"g. Ab?., li., 23.— Alii. lj«l)., r., •.— 
.Monum. Anc7T.>— 7. (Clc. in P»., e.!r;.)— 6. (.Ci^nloUn., &%Ua 
Piua, c 4.J— y. fC«l. 1^ Ul. 7-*.) 



■rrins says* Ihat aurum coronarium was a aom 
ot monfy txactcd from cnncjuered nations, in con- 
■ideriuion of the lirea of i\\t citizens being spared ; 
but (his statement docM not apix-itr tu bo corre^ct. 

AURUM LUSTRA'LK was a tax impoaed by 
Constantinc, accurdiug to Zosiniiis.* upon all mer- 
chants and traders, whirh was payable a: evpry 
loBtruoi, or every four years, and not at every five, 
aa minht have been experird from the original 
length of the lustrum. This tax was alsa called 
auri el argenii (AtUaiio or praatatio^ and thus, in 
Greek, h owrc/rta i} rov xp^'o<iP)vpov.* It appears 
from an inscription in Gruier* that there was a dis- 
tinct oOicer appointed to collect this tax (auri IvJi- 
tralix coMCtor). 

AUSPICiUM originally meant a sign from birds. 
The word is dcrivtHl from aom, and the root »p(c. 
As the Roman religion was gradually extendrd by 
additions from Greece and Eiruria, the meaning of 
the word was widened, so as to include any auper- 
natural sign. The'chicf difference between an^i- 
ctum and augunum seems to have been, that the 
latter term is never applied to the apcctio of the 
magistrate. {Vid, Auour.) 

Whoever has tiiought on this part of the Roman 
religion cannot but feel astonished at its exceeding 
simplicity. The rudest obserrationa on the instinct 
of birds, sui-h as the country people make in all 
ages, were the foundation of the Roman belipf. 
The system ouUived Ihe age for which it was 
adapted and in which it arose. Its duration may 
be attributed to its convenience as a political in- 
Blrument : at length, as learning and civilization m- 
oreaaed, it ceased to be regarded in any other light. 

Yet, simple as the system appears, of its innu- 
merable details only n faint outline can be given.* 
Birds were divide*! into two clus-ses, oarincs and 
tnrpttes ; the farmer gave omens by sin;^inflr, the 
latter by their flight and the motion of their wings. 
Every motion of every bird Iiad a different mean- 
ing, according to the different eireumslanecs or 
limes of the year when it wa.% observed Many 
signs were supposed to be so obvious, that any, not 
ttUnded by fate, might understand them; and much 
was not reducible to any rule, the meaning of which 
could only t>o detected by the discriiniualion of au- 

Another divi;jioa of birds was into dextra and 
tiniatrtr, about the meaning of which some ditlicully 
has arisen, from a confusion of Greek and Roman 
notions in the writings of the classics. The Greeks 
and RomanB were generally agreed that auspicious 
signs came from the east-, hut as the Greek priest 
turned his face lo the north, the east was on his 
right hand ; the Roman aiitrur, with his face to the 
south, had the cast on hia left. The confusion was 
farther increased hy the euphemisms common to 
both nations; and the rule itself was not universal, 
at least with the Romans : the jay when il appeared 
on the left, the crow on the right, being thought to 
give sure omens.' 

The auspices were taken before a marriage,' be- 
fore enlcring on an expedition,' before tiic passing 
of laws or election of magictrales, or any otiier im- 
portant occasion, whether public or private. Can- 
didates fur public olHcoit used (o sleep without the 
walls on the night before the elertion. that they 
might take the auspices before daylight. In early 
times, such was the importance attached to them, 
that a soldier was released from the military oath 
if thf auspices had not been duly performed. 

I. (In V)r)e„j«o.,Tiil.,T91.J— 9. fii,. 39.)— 3. {Cnd. 11. tit. I. 
—Cod. Thcudo*.. 13. lit. I.>— «. (p. 347. a. 4.)— 3. {Vtd. NifAai, 
De Ausunu — Ouleii?T«, l>o Auff.— Dtfuiwstcr, Autiq. Rfim.,hb. 
m.i-«. (Ilor.. Od., HI., txrii.. ll-Irt.— Kp., l.,vii„52._Viw., 
M^.u.,fm.^Eeloft., il., 13 — PemoB, S«t.,T., 1H.>— 7. (Cic, 
OTDi*.,!., II.)-« 'Plut Marc. Cn«.) 

The commander-in-chief of an array i 
auapues, together with the jmpenum^ and 8 ^ 

was therefore said to be carried on t/' -^^ 

imprratons, even if he were absent It 
and thus, tf the legatus gained a ^ 
absence of his conunandor, the latter, and 
deputy, was honoured by a triumph. _ 

The ordinarir' manner of taking the soepiici*— 
as follows : The augur went out before the ds- 
of day, and, silting in an open place, with his br^ 
veiled, marked out wiih a waml (UtuM) thi dic^ 
ions of the heavens. Next he declared, m a 
emn form of words, the limits as««ignr-d, maHB 
shniba or trees, called Ujqua,^ his boundary one— ^ 
correspondent to that in the sky. The it 
oMguralf, which appears la have included both, 
divided into four parts : those to the east and «M 
were termed smistrff. and lU^nx ,■ to the Dorth 4 
south, antica and postka. {V%d. Aoujiesi 
If a breath of air disturbed the calmr 
heavens (n siUntiitm non a»et% the aospK 
not be taken, and, according to Plutarch,' il 
this reason the augurs carried lanterns open 
wind- After sacrificing, Ihe augur offered 
for the desired aii^ms to appear, repeating, 
inferior minister, a set fonn : unless the 
pearances were confirmed hy subsequent ones» 
were insufBctent. If, in returning home, 
came to a running stream, he again rcpfti 
prayer, and [winfied himself in its waters 
wise the auspices were held to be null. 

Another method of taking the auspices, 
usual on military ex(>(?ditions, was from the fe 
of birds confined in a cage, and commiiied 
care of the puUanus. An uiicient decn-e of t 
lege of augurs allowed the atispicea lo be 
from any bird.* When all around seemed i 
able {mtfntw, h. r. iptod fimni vitio rant), 
at dawn" or in the evening, the puUarius op 
the cage, and threw to the chickens pulse, or >l 
of 8oft cake. If they refused lo come out,' 
eat, or uttered a cry {occtnercnt), or beat their 
or flew away, the aigna were considered unl 
able, and the engagement was delayed, 
contrary, if they ate greedily, so that somi 
and struck Uie e^xXh (tnpmUum adutimttm} 
dium quasi Urripariutn^ jto/uftrnum, from je' 
latter part of the word probably from the 
mwffl), it was held a favourable sign. Two 
kinds of tripudm arc mentioned by Feslus, th 
piuUufn oactnum, from the cry of birds, and « 
from the sound of the pulse falling to the 

Tiie place where the auspices were taken, 
augur aadum, augurali, or augitraJoriumt was 
to Ihc heavens: one of the most ancient of 
was on the Palatine Hill, the regular station 
observations of augurs. Sometimes the 
were taken in the Capitol, or in the pomffirium. 
the camp, a place was set apart to the right of J 
general's tent' On other occasions, when 
auspices were taken without the walls, the 
pitched a tent after a solemn form : if he rep 
the pomoerium without taking the auspices, tt 
neceasar>' that the tent should be taken dowAJ 
dedicated anew." 

The lex -filia and Fufia provided that no 
blies of the i>rople nhould be held, mxt prt%t 
scrcahim esset.^^ It appears to have coafif 
the magistrates the power of obnunciaiiot or 
posing a veto. ( Vid. Avovk.) 

Auspicia were said lo be chvic^ prohibitoryt 

I. {VwTO, De Lroj. Lat.. n., 4.)— 5. (Cic. De Viv» fij 
—3. fQoaivt. Rom.)— 4. (Cir., l>c Di»., tt., 3i.f— S. (1 
4a.)—*- (Vftl. Max-, i., 4 >— 7. (Cic, Do Dit., ii., 34.>--«LJ 
Ep< 5il Pub., n., fl. — Sflrr, In -ftn.. lit., DO: *^ Trwwtr* { 
visa rfpoDU.")— 9. [TboU.,Aiui.. ii..13.)— 10. (V&i. Ml 
•II. <Cic., Pro SexliOt c 17.~Pn> Vat., o. 0.) 


wptfnVo. obtained by prayer, opposed to 

,^r<B*3ii**nin* : vttj^ft thos6 nf Ibc highrr, 

■ '■ : rcKuta, when ihe 

Ilarius into pivinn 

. 1/. »m.-; a*, from iho bright- 

: weapons, an art which Cico- 

v\ hia own ilay ; jugr. aujpieium, 

,"'ariiig in paiTis ; vedtatre, from ani- 

I '(0'77«in), from lightning, iVc. ; pra- 

passing the borders (^fita6nri/piti) ; 

crossing a river; no/e (civofitov), 

: 'iiM.i ,a -.'.'.'■ WaV.» 

J»;*nirm idJuiis was taken once during the year, 

■- -'ilv i.i lidif ..f peace.* 10 inquire of the goda 

if'ing of the state. 

■ {& kind of eagle, probably the 

tj) Mj,i &o L%ill".il from the Sabine god Sancus, 

wp Ibe T^fiiT cp«, arourding to Varro,* from 

■^Jw Titu Both were in high etiteem wiiti 

\pff^ The owl. U\r swallow, ihf jay, the 

were almost al^vays inauspicious : the 

tbe bird of Jupiter, on the other hand, was 

liy a meascnger of good, aa also the heron. 

crow. Vfore a mamage, was considered an 

ufm.ninmonial happiness. 

pi^nODs in eurh matters may find a vast 

of simdar particulars in linlcnfre,* which 

tod ic the fil\h volume of the Thetaunut of 


TSTERA'LIS, a plant mentioned by Apuleius, 
with the Sisymbrium. (KiJ. Sistm- 

''""^ 'avrax«in?f ). •* 'pcciCS of Agate, 

,; burned, accdrding to Pliny, a 

J iliat of myrrh. Salmasius 

r:i, in Ihe text of Pliny, for au- 

■''X jnc dictu»t quod staclte odo- 

ha, hilhrrrt w*fM*." Hc has 00 MS. 

rcTcr. in his favour.' 
'TICA {ViJ. NovKt.t« ) 
iA (oWiV'^ri. which liierslly means 
»c!f-cooking," was the name of a 
•Opposed by Ilotti^i-r to have t>een 
water, or for keqnni? it hot. Its 
■wn for certain; but BSttiger* con- 
. resi'e'l, which is engraved in Cay- 
Minrn of an aulhepsa* 
speaks of authepsK among other costly 
and Delian ressels. In later limes ihey 
oTsilTpr." VoB5, in his commentary on 
i," compares this vessel with the Greek Jt- 
|lblii»r. wliirh occurs in Lucian'* and Athcnaeus." 

• 1 with having de- 
iif'my riurinff war. 
,... (i[)on this subject. 
* from the words of a 
ilicnes (Ilipian), that the 
c^l u»B crune w as death. Meier*' awards 
'T of the rniirt m which it was tried to 
liistance of persons who 
.ii^jer, williDul any inlen- 
'■"■ b4'ing tried by ibc 
."), will make us 
wm bgftrti n ■ ; ''rsonit not enli.'^ted 

'awfcCus eoald bv mdictvd of this offence before a 
iWsrr iWbnftal 

1 waj( the name civcn bv 


!'« Dir , 11., 3l».)^3. (II.,r., 

I Tj— i. tUfl Linff. l*ai., 

■ ■ .}— <y. (Dc AururiiB, 

fmu. in IfX'.j— fl. (Sa- 

1 .b. 27.) 

il. , Iff; 

, ,.. 6.)- 

I., ill , '^11 J- 13. {{x-z. AU^ 

n. liEKh. iQ Clct., 100, 

the Greeks to tho*e states which were go\ emea bj 
their own Mws,and were not subject to any foreiga 
power* This name was also given to those cities 
subject to the Romanfl, which were permitted to 
enjoy their own laws, and elect their own maps- 
Irales (Omfif*. »u\$ Uptbut tt judicrig usx avT(ni> 
ftiav adrpla, rtrixentnl*). 'I "his permission was re 
garded as a great privilege and mark of honour; 
and wo nceordin^ly find it recorded on coins and 
medals, as, for instance, on those of Antioch. AN- 
of Halicamassus. AAIKaPXACCEQN ATTONO- 
MIJN, and on those of rnanv other cities.' 


AUXILIA'RES. ( Vid. Socu.) 

AXAMEN'TA. {Vid. Siui.) 

AXI'NK (i.^ii'j,). (Vid. Secubis.) 

AX'ONES (u^n-er) were wooden tablets ol a 
square or pyramidal form, made to tuni on an axis, 
on which were written the laws of Solon, 'J'hey 
were at first preserved in the Acropolis, but were 
afterward placed, through the advice of Ephialtc-s, 
In the Agnni, in order that all iwrsons might be able 
lo read them.* According to Aristotle,' they were 
the same as the xv^atf. A small portion of iheiu 
was preserved in the tune of Plutareh {i. e.) in iLe 


DADYLO'NICUM, a Babylonian shawL The 
splendid productions of the Babyluiuan looms, which 
appear, even as early as the days of Joshua, to have 
excited universal admiration,^ were, like Uie shawls 
of modern Persia, adorned both with gold and with 
vanously coloured figures. Hence Publius Syrus* 
compares a peacock s train to a figured Babyloni- 
cum, enriched with gold {ylumato aureo Balyhmto). 
Lucretius* and Martial" reh^brate the magnificence 
of these textures, and Pliny" mentions the enor- 
mous prices of some which were intended to serve as 
furniture for triclinia (inclxmana Batyhnica). Nev- 
ertheless, Plutarch mforms us, in hts Life of tlie elder 
Catu, that when one of ihese precious shawls {iifi- 
tXfjfia Tuv -rroiKt^.uv haCvXavmov) was bequeathed 
to bim, he immediateiy gave it away. ( Vut. Vxu- 
Lirx, Pkbistroma^ Straoulvm.) 

BACCA. (Kid. luAUiis. MoKiLi) 

•BACCAR or BACC'ARIS ^aKxapt^ a plant. 
'• Even in ancient times," remarks Adams, " it was 
a matter of dispute what this was. Galen says 
that Ihe term had been applied both to an herb and 
a Lydian ointment. Of modern authorities, some 
have supposed it to be Clary^ some I'ox-^lvvt, and 
some Atcns^ or Btnntt; but all these opinions are 
utterly at variance with its characters as given by 
Dioscorides." Dr. Martyn remarks that many hold 
it to be spdicnard, but he is rather inclined lo iden- 
tify it with the Conyra of the ancients." Matlhiu- 
lus, in like manner, and Banhin, point to the Ctmy- 
za squamtsa, L. ; which I think the most probable 
cunjecturo tliat has been funned respecting it. 
(hough It does not satisfy Sprengol. Dierbach. 
however, contends far its being the Gwtvkihum 
xangMinotm, or Bloody Cudweed. Sprengef makes 
the * Baccar' of Virgil'* lo have been the VtUrtana 
Ctltica, Celtic Valerian."" A species of aromatic 
oil or unguent was m<idc out of the root of the 
Baccar, called fJoKxdptvw /npov. 

I. (Thurjd.. T., IS, 57.— Xpn., H*llea., »., 1. » 3I.)-3. (Cie., 
%d Alt., tu, 2.)— 3. {Spiuih.. De PrKst. et iJiu Nudubci., f^. 
760. Anut.j 1071.1—4. (Plut., Sul., U.— Schol. in A>uu>i»ii , Ai , 
134)0; mad tb« suthiintin quoted to Patit.. Lrg. AU., p. ITS^ 
uiil W»cli»n.aUi, i., I, p. S«.>— 3. Up. Plut.. Sol., t».)~9. 
{C'ompfcw Patti., I., IS, ♦S)-7. (Jo*li., vii.,210— **- ("P-Pe- 
tron., r. W.)— fl. {IV., 1033.)— 10. {tuI., 58,)— 11. <»iii., 1^)— 
13. (iu-,4.1.)— n (mViiK.,Eduff., i»., 19.>— 14. CVir^.^t. e.>— 
IS- lAdAut*, Aitpcud., i. T IhUeifaouk, FUm C\mu\c^ ^. fl\&.t 

L^CHANA'LIA. {Vul Diosviu.j 

BAC'ULtS.i/im. bACiLLtS. BAL:IL].UM(^u<. 
rpov, aKif-rpov), a stnlf, a walking-aiirk. 

The aid afTorded by the jSanrpov lo iho steps of 
the aged is rccoffnised in the celcbraied enigma of 
the Sphinx, which was solved by CEdipus.* In his 
old age, CKdipus bimsielf is represented asking his 
daughter for ibe same support : Buwrpa Ttpoapep', u 
tUvov.* When, ia Ovid's Metamorphoses, certain 
of the gods (vn., Minerva* and Vcrtumnua*) as- 
sume the garb of uld women, thev i,iku the bacuhLs 
to lean upon. On the other hand, an old man in 
Juvenal,* describing himself as still hale and vig- 
orous, says that he walked without a stick {nulla 
dextram subeunu baeiHo). 

If the loss of sight was added to in&imity, the 
BtafT was requisite for direction as well as for sup- 
port. To ibe blind se^^r Tireaias one was given, 
which served him instead of eyes ineya ^uxTpov^* 
OKrfXTpov^), Homer represents him as carrying it 
even in Erebus.* 

A dutiful and affertionate daughter ia figuratively 
called the staff of her aged parents. Thus Hecuba 
describes Polyxena (;?d«T/)oi'*), and the same beau- 
tiful metaplior is applied to Antigone and Ismenc, 
the daughters of CEdipus iCKT/ZTpu^^ 

The staff anil wallet were frequently bomo by 
philosophers, and were more especially characiens- 
tic of the Cynics. (Vid. Pen* ) 

The ahopiierds also used a straight stafl* as well 
as a crook. Tlic annexed woodcut, taken from u 
gem in the Florentiue rabinrt, shown the attire of a 
Roman sliepherd in the character of Faustulus, who 
is contpmplaling the she-wolf with Romulus and 
Remus. It Uluatrates what Ovid'^ says of himself 
io his exile : 

'■' ^."W veiim baculo fotcert niiut (tm.'* 

Among the gods, .-E-sculapiiis," Janus," and oc- 
casionally Sonuius,^' were represented as old men 
leaning on a etafl' 

It appears that the kings of Sparta carried a trun- 
cheon {/3aKrr}fua) as the ensign of their authority." 
On the occasion of one of them lifLing it up in a 
threatening attitude, Themistocles returned the cel- 
ebrated answer, "Strike, but hear." In referenre 
to tliis custom, the truncheon {itacuius) was carried 
In the hand by actors on the Unman staged* The 
dicasts at Athens received, at the time of their ap- 
pointment, a fiiiKTjjf}ta and myificAof as a mark of 
tlieir authority.*' 

Crooked slicks were carried by men of fashion at 
Athena (jiia/cT^j/w'ai tCh' OKoXtCtv Ik AaKcdaifiovoz^*). 

As baciituM was a general term, its application in 
rarious specific senses is farther explained under 
LrruDs, Pkdum, Scsptbux, Viroa. 

BAKTE'RIA (JiaKTijpia). {Vid. 

I. (Apollodor., iii.,5.— Schol. inEarip^Plio!n., M.J— S. (Eu- 
nn., Phten.. ITiQ.— Ctrmpftio IMO.)— 3. («., 27.)—*. (nr., 
AM.)— a. (S«l., ill., 27.)— «. (Callim.. Ut. Pali., l»7.)-7. 
UpoUodtr., ni.» 0.)— 8. (OJ., xi.. fli.)— 9. (Eurip., Hec., 278.)— 
10. (Soph., tEJ. Cul., Ml, 1105.)— II. (Do Punto. i.e.y— 12. 
(0»»d, Moi., XT., «5.)— 13. (Put., i., 177.)— M. (Bacrciief io 
VilU AlUm.)— 15. (Thucvd,. Tiij., 84.— Daker in loc.J — IB. 
rSuet.. Ncr., 34.)— 17. fDcroosth^ Do Cor., p. SW.— Tcixlar la 
WcJ— 18. (Tlur-jil mrt., ChM., 5.) 


*BAL^i:'i\A {t^Xaiva), the Wbl 
conquest of Bniain by the Komail 
probjible that they may have acquiit) 
edge of the Baiana mysiuf.(im, or Qj 
Whale, ami that it may be the Bdlm 
which Juvenal' alludes The ana 
acquainted with the Baltrna PhyMoM 
fin-tish. (Tid. Phv8alu».) There ^ 
however, that the ^dXaiva of Ariatt 
as well as of Xenocrates and Galcq 
s€Ur micropa, L., the Cachalot or SpM 

•bAL^ANUS (/jl*aai'Of). I. A d 
described by Aristotle and Xenocrv 
according tu Curay, is tlic Lepa» M 
in English the Barnacle.' i 

JI. (OuAai'Of /itpr^ur/), the Nut-A 
a perfume uas obtained by the ancia 
ides says, " It is the fruit of a tree j 
Myrica, like what is called the Pont 
ner part of which* when presacd, like] 
emits a liquid that is usetl for prepai 
menls." Moses Charras says of ii» *| 
called by the Greeks Balanvs Myrepi 
tnnns (Han* UNtrurntaria, afffirds ila 
in the eame manner as other fnu 
which furni.shes the Nut-Den has a 
Hyjtrratuhcra moringa, Vahl., in £n^ 
Bonduc-tree. *' It is worthy of rfi} 
Nut-Ben is called also Myrohalamtw^ 
and Romans, a term which it is ini|i 
rentier should not confound with iho 
the Arabians and of the modc^. 
aione-fruiL^ got from the East. It 
authors who make mention of the 1^ 
riua, Zo^nnus Panopolita, and Myreg 

BAL'ATRO, a professional jester,! 
asite.' In Horace.' Balatro is use 
name — Sorvihus Balatro. An old sd 
mentmg on this word, derives thai 
from (he proper names ; buffoons bi 
truuc», because Ser^iUus Balatro i 
but this is opposed to the natural inft 
former passage, and was said to get 
culty. Festus derives the word frt 
supposes bj^ooiis to have been 
because tlicy were dirty fellows, ai 
with spota of mud {btatea), with « 
spattered in walking ; but this is op) 
etymology and common sense. Ana 
derived it from baraUiruiu, and sup 
to have been called balntrones, bccai 
bpciik, curried their Jesting to marktf 
very depth {haraihrum) of tlie shaml 
macellt*). According to some readji 
has baraihro in a similar sense to bai 
balatro may be connected with Imla^ 
a sheep, and hence) to speak sillily. 
connected with blatero, a busy-bodyi 
were paid for their jests, aud thtj 
wealthy were generally open to ihCJ 
of tlie ainuseiiieiu they afforded tho I 

♦BAL'EKUS (liii^.f/jof ), a fish ofth 
.\rtedi supposes it a species of Cy^ 
Frencli BordcUat, and in German A 


•BALLOTE (,.?nA>.ur//), a plant, j 
*';>ttrrum nigrum" confounding, appt 
with TTpafftoy. In another place'* his 

I. (Sat.,!,. U.)— 2. (Ari»tot., U. A., i. 
N. A., a., 53; T., 48; ix^ 50. — Adum, 
(Adnmi, Append., ■- t,)— 4. (Iliir., Od., tii. 
COT., IT., 157. — Paul. JEgiti-t tii. — Pljn., H. 
Append., «. t.J— «. {ITftr.. Sal., I., iu, 2.)- 
—8. (Hut., E|.., I., rv., 31. J— 0. (In., ' 
IS.) — 11. (Amta.. M. A., ilii., 30. — A^ 
IS. (H. N., xxvLi.| S0.]-]9. [U. N., xx.. WJ 



louml, under thenameof " Jfarrw- 

rbich, aa llnrdouin re-marks, in evi- 

tc* Baiihin n('cordiiii.'ly marlkS his 

ilperwxof Marruhmm, narncly, hi:$ Marrufjium 

\J€tU'mt atj ibe Baltoie Dioscor. ^prcngel 

U) the BalloU ni^ra^ L., to which Miller 

Enilith name of "slinking Black Horc- 

8ib(liurp, however, prefers a species of 

llr, natnctv, the Lamium Striatum.' 

•flAl;S.\ir_'M (JaAaauuv), the Balsani'tref*, and 
ItiUun iUtlf exiKle^ froni il. The latter, 
tt more correclly called OpobalMnmum. 
desert Gpohaluamuai," says Moses 
'u a tliick, ininsparenl juice, or Uquor. iq 
ircKQibling turponiinc, but much more pleas- 
It on^t to dislil, alter incision made in the 
•<tiy.\ liufii lilt' brandies of a shrub called Bal- 
S::' iigel gives an inleresliiig account of 
ile comes to the conclusion that 
' rn is the product of two difl'erent 
rit; jI iJirjb, nainely, the .-Imyru* Gtieddenxis 
the i Ojni^amuiH, which, however, are re- 
tke Mme species by Uelon. The muAt 
among the Uumaus uo^ the one 
tWeore now referring, and which la known 
[flipRMiiKlay by the names of Balsam ofJudsa, 
EfTjii, ftnd Syria. "Tliere are different 
of Diis that now form objects of commerce; 
thftw ffliK'h 'he Itomans prized most, namely, 
^fliiUJoed from the Amynu OoobaUcmum, rarely 
Europe, being nearly all L'unt.miic«l in tlm 
ViliMl is bold in the shops ii* an inrLrior kmd 
1, obtameU by Uecoctiun. 1*ho Arabs ttt 
liment dsy coll tho Amy rus Opohalsamum by the 
uTAceidffi, which we may recogmse as the A, 
m the descnptton (ruen of iheir Udsdn 
U by Avicenna and AlHioul-Lalif."* 
LTKUS {TtAt^iuv)^ a belt, a shoulder-belt, a 

of the ancient armour was used to sus- 
iqrI . nnd. as the sword commonly hung 
Icit hip, its belt was supported by the 
!er, and passed obliquely over the breast, 
iu tiie beuuliful cameo hero introduced 
the riorcntinc Museum. This ligure, exccu- 
u lui'.ii-. \\:v vou of Alexander, is supposed 
, and may be compared with 
■irnor in p. 04, which shows 
(U->Ui 4^:»4:cnilmfC obliquely over the back. 

^man in page 95, on the other 
losing ovtr the left shoulder, 
Lu support a dagger or other 
%:anj;;ni;; oo the right side. 

K.T4 -^ {IKoacuf.. 1.. 16.— Tbcuphnd., u., 1 , ii., 0.) 

In the Homeric times the Greeks also used a bell 
to support the shield, which, n.s well as the snorrl, 
was worn by thciu on the left side ; and this sK'ond 
belt lay over the other, and was larger and hi oadei 
than 11 {7C/nfiuv onrriiSo^ ;* — ?.ur^of rf?.G/*wvoc ;' tid 
ffif (Tvw TtXouOf* ;* Vid. JiMii, p. tW). The two 
betla upon lue breast of Ajax. the son oi Tela* 
own. who carried a remarkably heavy niiicld, are 
Dicnlioncd in Uic Iliad. ^ But, although he wils 
saved by this double covering from being wounded 
by Hector's 6|>ear, yet the Innpuage of Homer' 
clearly implies that the practice alluded to was uo 
the lield of battle productive of great heat and an- 
noyance ; and this circmnstance probably led to the 
disuse of tho oppresMve shield-belt, and to the 
iniention of iho Carian ox^vov by which it was &u- 
perscded. {Vid. Clipeds.) The ancient practice 
must also have occasioned some inconvenience in 
pultmg on the armour. The circumstance to which 
some of the Alexandrine critics objected, that Home? 
makes his heroes assume the «hield before the hel- 
met, may be explained from the impossibility of 
throwing the shield-bell over the lofty crest of the 
helmet, supposing the helmet to have been put on 
first ; and yet a w arriur, already encumbered with 
his large and ponderous shield, might hare had 
some ditBculty in putting on his helmet. The very 
early disuse of the shield-belt accounts for the fact, 
that, except in the case of the JEgis, which was 
retained on account of its mythological impor- 
tance, this part of tho ancient armour is never ex* 
hibilcd iu paintings or seulptures. Even the au- 
thor of the Shield uf Hercules' supposes it to h« 

A third use of the balteus was to suspend the 
quiver, and sometimes, together with it» the bow. 
Hence Nemesianus, describing the dress of Dianas 
w hen she attires herself for the chase, says, 

"Comtgesquc xinuj ffcmmatus haltats arUt."^ 

And a similar expression [ImUeua et rnocet volucrei 
in pcctore hroit) is used by Livius Andronicua;* 
because the belt, besides fulfilling the purpose for 
which it *(C-aa intended, of supporting the quiver, 
also confined the ganneiits, and prevented them 
from being blown about by the wind. This belt 
passed over the right shoulder and under the left 
arm, in the same manner with the others. 

According to Theocritus, Amphitryon used a 
sword-belt made of cloth, hnen being probably in- 
tended (vtonhjirru Ti^.ofiuvo^*). More commonly 
the bell, wh<'ther employed to support the sword, 
the shield, or the quiver, was made of leather (tcX- 
c^uoi aKVTivcirsi^'*). It was ornamented (^awj'Of,*' 
Ifitigni* baiteus aura"). That which Agamemnon 
wore with his shield was plated with silver, and oo 
it was also displayed a serpent (Jpdf w^") wrought in 
blue steel. The three heads of the serpent {xefaXai 
rpeic ufifpiCTpe^tO wcre turned back, so as to form 
hooks ibr fastening the two ends of the bell logelh- 
er. When, in the shades below, Ulysses meets 
Hercules armed with his bow ami arrows (vid. Aa- 
cub). he wears on his breast a golden belt for sos- 
peiidiiig Iiis quiver {iaprijp jtpwffcof reXo/xwv'*), on 
which arc embossed both the animals of the chase 
and cxhibitiDns uf the slaughter of men. In a pas- 
sage already quoted, Diana's belt is described as 
enriched with jewels. In like manner.^ncas gives 
as a prize in the games at his father's tomb a quiver 
full of arrows, with tho belt belonging to it, which 
was covered with gold, and liad a buckle, or ratli- 

1. (D., if., 398; iii.. S34.-Schol. ad Ioc.>— 2. (IL, t., ?»- 
79fi.)— 3. (It., XTt., tt03 )— 4. (\iv.,-4(M-10fl.>— 5. (II. c^.)— <. (I. 
ia»-l».>— 7. (CVb"?., «J.)-». (m>. Tenat. M»ar.)— 0. (IdyU, 
xiir.,4-*.>— 10. (tatmid., 1.. ITI.)-!!. (11., sii.. 401.)- IS !,\^ 
Flat-., r., 1J»,)-I3. (n.«,3g)-l4. lO0.,ii,6W.1 



ipB, a button (fibufa), ^nri^^hcd with a ^cm.^ 
We may presume that, in the Bword-beli described 
by Valcriufi l-'lacciu.* 

" Qua <antlut nTnbit 
Baiteus, ct gtmini commUlunt ora dracimc9," 

Iho fastening was made by the taitternl joining of 
Uic two rirapnna' heads The annexed woodcut 
shows a bronze clafip, wjtli three dragons' heads, 
which is in the coIl»'<'li*in of ancient armour at 
Goodrich Court, in Hrrerordshire, and which scenut 
to have belonged to a Jluman baiieus. 

A sword-belt enriched with gold, on which a cel- 
ebrated sculptor had produced a representation of 
the Danaidfl murdering their husbands on the bridal 
mglU, gives occasion to the concluding incident of 
the .1-]neid. 

That taste fur richly-decorated sword-belts, the 
prevalence of which, in the .Augustan age, may l>e 
mferred from the mention of them in liie ^neid. 
did not decline under the succeeding emperors. It 
i<t, indeed, mentioned as an instance of the self-de- 
rual and moderation of Hadrian, that he had no 
gold on his belt." But Phny* records the common 
practice, in his time, of covering this part of the 
•oldier's dress with lamina of the precious meiala ; 
jnd of the great inlnnsic vahie and elaborate orna- 
ment of those which were worn by persona attach- 
ed to the court, we may form some judgment from 
the eircumstancG that tlio tiolttanujt, or master of 
the belts, was a dii-tinct officer in the iin|>eria] 
household Spon, who has published an inscription 
from the family tomb of one of these officrrs/ re- 
marks, that their business must have been to pro- 
vide, prepare, and preserve all the belts in the ar- 
mamentariHm. This oflice will appear still more 
considerable from the fact that belts (f^alieoh) were 
occasionally given as military rewards, together 
with tortfvea and arnnila.* 

In a general sense, "baiteus" was applied not 
only to the simple belt, or the more splendid baldric 
which passed over the shoulder, but also to the 
girdle {einffvium) which encompassed the waist 
(Cota muniTMn utraque''). Hence the girdle of 
Orion, called Qin't) by Aratiis, is rather incorrectly 
denominated baiteus in the translations of that au- 
thor by Germanicus and Avieniis. The obligiie ar- 
rangement of the baiteus, in the proper sense of that 
term, is alluded to by Quinctilian in his advice re- 
specting the mode of wearing the toga : oblique du- 

VilruTius applies the term "baitci" to the bands 
■urroundin^^ the volute on each side of an Ionic 
capital.' (Kher writers apply it lo the largo steps, 
presenting the appearance of parallel walls, by which 
an amphitheatre was divided into stones for the 
scoommudatiun of difibrent classes of spectators." 

I. {iEn.,T^81I-31».»— 1. (lii., 190.)— 3. (Spwtwn., Hadr., 10.) 
—1. (H. K., xxiiii., S4.)— 5. (Miici.llan. Enid. Ajit., p. SIM.)— 
B. (Jul. Capitol., Aluimin.. S.)— 7. [Sil. lul., x., IHl.— Lvt^n, 
u., aai.— Lrdat. Do Maf. Ri)m., ii.. 13.— CnrirpuB. ■•. 115.)— S. 
(Invticui. Or., it., 3..)— 0. (l)« Atvh., hi., 5. «d. SchntrM^r.— 
0«nrl]i, Bncfe iiWr Vitni*., ii., p. S5.) — 10. (CalpUTB., Kclof., 
rti.. 17.— Tvtltaiian, Da S ectac., 3.) 

Vitruvius calls these divisi< .< , 
the baltei are found bymi-i-u.,* ,.,t.,; ,., ^. -, 
high, the steps which they enclose beins one 
two inches high. 

•BAMBAK'10N(^fl/iCd«(M'), a term which' 
only in the works of Myrepsus, the last of the Gt 
physicians. It appears to be the seed of the 
xi/pwm, or Collon-plant. 

" BA.MSJLME.NT (GRKEK), ^vy^. Banist 
among the Greek states seldom, if ever, appesfvj 
a punishment appointed by law for particular of 
CCS. ■ We might, indeed, expect this ; for the dii 
ion of Greece into a nimjber of independent 
would neither admit of the establishment of 
colonies, as among us, nor of the various kindsl 
exile which we read of under the Koman emj 
Tho general term ^yn <6ight) was, for ib« 
part, applied in the case of those who, in onlerj 
avoid acme punishment or danger, removed fn' 
their own country to another. Proof of this is i 
m the records of the heroic ages, and chiefly 
homicide had been commitied, whether with 
wiiMout malice aforethought. Thus* PaU« 
pears as a fugitive lor life, m conscquenco 
slaughter {uniftoKTaoi^) committed by him 
boy, and in anger. In the same manner.* 
clymenus is repreaenled as a fugitive and wi 
over the earth, and even in foreign lands 
liy the fi*ar of vengeance from the nuroeroM i 
men of tho man w)u<m he had slain. The dl 
taking vengeance was in cnse:n of this kind 
ered sacred, though the penalty of exile wax 
times remitted, and the homicide allowed to 
in his country on payment of a wotiTj, the 
hloud, or wehrgeld of the Germfins,* which 
mailu CO the relatives or nearest connexions of 4 
slain ' We even read of princes m the heroic i 
being compelled to leave their country after 
commission of homicide on any of their subji 
and «>v('n though there were no relatives loi 
tliQ slain man, utill deference to public oph 
jMJsed on the homicide a temporary abacneef'l 
lie had otitiiiiied expiation at the hands of 
who seems to hnve been called the uyviT^f,or\ 
ficr. Kor an illustration of this, the reader ill 
ferred to the story of Adrastus and (Jnesus.* 

In the later times of Athenian history, 
banishment, partook of the same nature, and 
practised nearly in the eaino cases as in 
aj'esr with this difference, that the laws 
ly defined its limits, its legal consequence' 
ration. Thus an action for wiUtd mui 
brought before thf) Areiopagus, and far ml 
ter befure the court of the Ephetae. Thoi 
might, in either case, withdraw himself (^ 
fore sentence ^va^possed ; but when a 
evaded the punishment to which an act of 
would have exposed him had he remained 
own land, he was then banished forever (« 
aei^'yiav), and not allowed to return home tt* 
when other exiles were restored upon a gene 
amnesty, since, on such occaaioos, a special ei 
tion was made against criminals banished by 
Areiopagus (ol ^< '\peiav Truyov ^evyovrri). A 

victed murderer, if found within the hinits of 1 
state, might be seized and put to death,* and 
ever harboured or entertained {vjztAiiaTo) any 
who had fled from his country {rOv ^rvyitvrur 
to avoid a capital punishment, was liable to 
same penalties as the fugitive himselT.** 

1. tjye Arch.. T.. 3. 8.)— a. (11., xmi.. 88.1 
XV., 37S.>— 4. (Tacil ,Grnn., 91.)—*. HU i" 
■an., T.. r.^'SSl, ed. Scbiitmrt.)- 7. (CI, ii 
in loc.f-^. (HkitmI., 1, 33.1—9. (Deaouli., e. Aii»i. 
(DroKwlh., c. PiAfci., 1338, 9.) 



y^ says Umt itiu word 4rvy€ti> was 

lo the exile of iIiom whu commit- 

Lh lualico alunlliotight, whereas ihc 

/u6iari»o0at was use<i where the art was nnl 

Tlie (tropcriy, also, waa confiscated 

tihe farmer ca«e, hiii not in the latter. 

a verdict uf manslaughter was returned, it 

osual for the convjrted party to leave (/^Mr) 

ks country by a certain road, and to remain in 

be induced «oiue one of the relutives of 

man to take compassion on liim (juf dv 

Ti«i rwv iv yivti rov ntKovGoTo^). During 

iicv, his posae&sions were ^rrri/za, that is, 

;aied ; but if he remained at home, or 

bcJbre the requirements of the taw were 

ihc wais liable lo be driven or earrieil oiii 

itry by force." It somptMnos li»p|>i>np<l 

fiiptive for nuinslaughirr was charged ^vnh 

in that ca&e he pleaded on board ship, be- 

eaon which sat at Phreatio, in the I'ei- 

mforraed what were ihe cnnse<iuen- 

ivfrs or the slain man refused to make 

:>ppo4mg that there waii no eum- 

]' :Ltle to conclude that the exile 

)u ,u L. ..-^uii after a fuied lime, in ca:je6 

Iter, bni not of murder, this seems to 

usual m otiier parts of Greece as well as 

Ailkens> Plain,* who is believed lo hare copied 

r o( his laws from the consiituiion of Alliens, 

Ibe period of hanifthment Un manNlauKliter at 

yiar* and ilie word urcviai'Tiifnu;, explained to 

year's exile fur ihe conimisMOii ufhoinieicle 

^vw 6pucaaiX seems to imply ihat ihc custuiii 

■pTrsrv ijpncral We have, indeed, the aulliuri- 

n' to prove that al 8p:irta bani»]iment 

. lence of involuntary homicide, ihouj^rh 

! UH its duralum. 

.i>t only was an Rctual murder pnn- 

-.uiiiahnient and ronfiKcalion. hut also a 

H wpopoiaf^ot wounding with intent to kill. 
4c«lh might out ensued 'i'he same piinish- 
nm inflicted on persona who nwted up the 
vltres at Athens.* and liy the laws of Suinn 
ocie was linble to it who remained neuter du 
IIk pohiieal eunl'Mitions.* 

^ UAll^^ A»vij. ' ■' ' '■" ^ "i/^nt, as a general lerm, is 
ItapfvAtPTiJeiJ the dirtVrenee between 

hpiw> l** 4-iT ! by Sitidas, and the acho 

mat oa ' />," if we are lu understand by 

Ibctiit . ur banishment for life. '* ♦177) 

^Ikey} ilifli:r:i from ostracism, inasmuch as those 
" lose their property by confuica- 
tbe ostracized do not ; the former, 
hare no fixed place of abode, no time ol' return 
led, bot tbe Inner have." This ostracism is 
bfrntoe^* to have heap instituted by Cleis- 
4ft^ th^ cTptilsion of ine ppisislratidte ; its 
«" " thus Gxplamed by Aristotle :" 

-> <Iio ot»»ervca) used to ostra- 
iviii«'>i ii'jm the city for a definite time, 
•.ued to be pre-eminent ;iU)ve their 
by reason of their wealth, the num- 
vf tfkcir MiMids, or any other means of influ- 
U *» wt^U known, and implied m the qnota- 
' ostracism was not a punish- 
but ratlier a precautionary re- 
t^it'.< ■>\ini possessed sufTieieiit power in 
la excite either envy or fear Thus Plu- 

ItemtMlh., c. Ans.. 6M mml M4.)— 3. 

.'—I. fMflgniu«. Ml Lytui.\a.t SHS — 

... L, . -s fLeji., 11. g65.)_<J. (Ab- 

, p, 100— Demcnth., c. 

«o5 'AroAtnfa. 1083.)— 

.... ... ... Aul. G»|l., a., 19.)~I0. 

V U., lUK, 33.— Diod. Sic., zi.,&i.} 

tarch' says it was a t^ood-naliiied way of nlhrtn; 
envy {^'hxtv iratmfivOia ^(Aui (?/>urof ) by the .humili- 
ation of superior dignity and power. Tlif manner 
of efferlinj? it was as followa : A apace in tlin uyoftd 
was enclosed by barriers, with ten epiranees for 
the ten tribes. By these the tribesmen fntered, 
each witli his oorpwiov, or piece of tile, on which 
was written the name of the individoal wlmm he 
wished to be (uttracized. The nine archuns and llie 
senate, i. e , the preaidenta of that body. su|»eriii- 
lended the proce.<'dinfift, and the party who had the 
greatest number of votes against huu, supposing 
that this numlier amounted lo flOOO, was obliged lo 
withdraw (fieracr^iai) from the city wilhin ten 
days ; if the number of voles did not amount tu 
6000. nothing was done.^ Plutarch' dilTers from 
other uuthurities in staling that, for an expulsion 
!»' this sort, it was not necefcsary that the votes 
Civen a^amst any individual should amount to 6000, 
but only that the snm total .should not be less than 
thai number. All, however, agree, that the party 
thus expelled (^ iKK.7ifwxOctf)'wua not deprived of his 
property. The ostracism was also called the Kcpa- 
mKT} /iiiffTi^f, or earthenware scourge, from the ma- 
terial of the (larpaKov on which the names were 

Some of the most distinguished men at Athens 
were removed hy ostracism, but recalled when the 
city found their services indispensable. Among 
these were Themisiocles, Arisieides, Cimoa, and 
Alcibiades; of the first of whom Thucydides* states 
that liis residence during ostracism was at ArgoB» 
ihuiigh he was not confined lo that city, but visit- 
ed other {larta of Peloponnesus, The last person 
against whom it was used at Athens was Hyperbo- 
lus, a demagogue of low birth and character ; but 
the Athenians tliought tlieir own dignity compro- 
mised, and i^stracism dcgradeii by such an apphra- 
tiun of it, and accordingly discontinued the prae- 

Ostracism prevailed in other dcraocratical statea 
as well as Athens ; namely, Argos, Miletus, and Me- 
gara : it was by some, indeed, considered to be i 
necessary, or. at any rate, a useful precaution for 
ensuring equality among the citizens of a state. But 
it soon became mischievous; for, as Aristotle* re- 
marks, " Men did not look lo the interests of the 
comnuinity. but used ostracisms for party purposes" 

From the oslracism of Athens was copied the 
petaliani {-eraMafiv^) of the I^yracusans. so called 
from the ir^roAa. or leaves of the olive, on which 
was written the name of the person whom they 
wished to remove from the city. The removal, 
however, was only for five years ; a suificicnt time, 
as ihey thoiigbt, Lo humble, the priile and hopes of 
the exile. But petalism did nut last long ; for the 
fear of this " humbling" deterred the best qualified 
among the citizens from taking any part in publto 
•in'uirs, and the degenerary and bad government 
which followed soon led lo a repeal of the law, B.C. 

In connexion with petalism, it may be remarked, 
itiai if any one were falsely registered in a deinus 
or ward at Athens, his expulsion w'as called /k^X. 
\o^fHQ. from the votes being given by leaves. ■ 

The reader of Greek history wdl remember that, 
besides those exiled by law, or ostracized, there 
was frequently a great number of [Xjhlical exiles in 
Greece; men who, having distinguished themselves 
as ttie leaders of one party, were expelled, or (ri>li- 

I. (Psnc.c.lO.)— S. {Schal.inAiiit.,&(u]T..MO.)— 3. (Arwt., 
e. 7.)— 4. (i., taA.>--S, <Pl«t., Ariit., r 7.— nnM-Vf!., viii . 7S.) 
— «. (Pobt.. 111., 6.)— 7. (Diod, Sic, XI., f. 67.— N'lohuhr, Hiit 
Rom., i., S04, tniul.)— 8. <Muor, Hut. Jurm AU^ 63.— \«<r«u^ 
c. Nicnn., 644.) 



jed to irmoTo from thrir native city whrn the ot>- 
(Hisitp Tactinn bccaine pTfdominaiil. 'V\\vy arc spo- 
ken of aft o( ^(I'j'OjTff or ol ^Knta6vTtf, anil as u/ 
(iar«Atf(>»T/f after lUeir return (9 HuOoAcf), the word 
Mardy^tv being applied to tbuse wtto were in&tru 
menial in effecting it.* 

liAMSHMENT (ROMAN). In tbe later ii»oo- 
rinl period, fistlivm was a fjeneral term used ici ex- 
press « punisliiuii'iit, of wlucli ihoro were several 
sjKicies. Paulus,* M'hcn speaking of ihowe jinlicia 
publica, wljjeb are capitulia, defines tbetn by the 
rnnaoquent puni»bmetii. which is death, or exsili 
uni ; nnd exsilium he defines to L>e aqu<r tt ifiitu 
tHterdiftto, by which the caput or citizenship of the 
criminal was taken away. Oilier kinds of exsilium. 
he says, were properly colled rc/rrrufio, and the ikio 
gntus retained his ottizentihip The dislincih'u i»e- 
twcen releyjiiiu and ox&Uium existed under the 
Kcpuhlic' OviJ alio* deM'tibos hituReir, not as ex- 
ffui, which he contsiders a term of reproach, but as 
rttfgatujt. Speaking of tlie emperor, he »ays, 

'* Stc pitam, nee oj/ts, netJuM noAi eivu ademilt" 
and a little farther on, 

'* A^i/ nisi me patriit juiMit ahire/itciti."^ 

Marcianiia* innkcK three dirisjonK of exsihuin : it 
WIS Cither an inierdiritim from certain places na- 
med, and wiu* then cuilwl lata fuga (n term equiva- 
lent to the libera fugn or UbttHm exntlivm of atomo 
wntore) ; or il was an interdiction of nil places ex- 
cept some pliicn named ; or it wa» the (omtraint of 
in iiland (as oppo.scd to lain fugn). Ncmdl' ror- 
recta the extract from Mareian ihns : " KxBilium 
dujitex CBt : aut cortorum tocotum mtenlictio, ut 
lata fnga ; aut omnmm N»i*<»ruin prrtor certmn lo- 
cum, ul insule vinculum," ftc. The passage is 
evidently corrupt in som*.' editions of ihc Digest, 
and the correction of Noodt is supported by jp»od 
reaaoat. It seems that Marcian is here Bpe;iking 
of ihe two kinds of relrgatio* and he dors not in- 
clude the eiMtlium, which was aoiXrtnpiinird with 
Ihe loss of th#» nriVrt*; for, ifhia dcfniition includes 
ad the kinds of exjtUmm, it ia mnnifcAily incomplete ; 
and if it includes only rtUfnUio, as it musl do from 
the terms of it, the deftniiion is wrnng^, inssmnrh as 
there nro only iwu kindn of rrtraatio. The conelu- 
Bion is. that the text of Marcian is either oirrupt, 
01 has been allered by the compder of the DigcM. 

OCrdefiatio Ihero were iwn kinds : a jjeraon (iiight 
he forbidden to live in a particular province, nr in 
HonM*, and cither for an indefinite or a definite time; 
or an island might be assignwl to ilie rclcgalne for 
his residence. Kelcsalio was noi followed by loss 
of oilixcnsbip or projM^rty, except so far as the scn- 
Mnce of relegalio might extend to pari of the per- 
Ma*B property. The rele^atiis retained his citizen* 
■hip, the ownership of his property, mid the fnUria 
poitHat, whether the telegatio was for a definite or 
an indefinite time. Iliu rclegntio. in fact, merely 
confrnwl the (tersun within, or exrliidfd him from, 
particular places, which is according to the defini- 
tion of .1%lni8 (ialhi*..* who says that the punish- 
Dient was imp<»ied by a lex, scnatua eonsuUum, or 
Uteodirtmn of n mnpistratus. Hie words of Ovid 
expre.'js the \<?\^\ effect of rclepitio in a manner lit- 
erally and technically correct. '• Tlie term relegnti© 

1 (Mt'unlll*. An Urt , T., IP.— Wnrhimulh, IIMI. Allrrtli., 
1-. 9 M ; II., ♦ W luiil (IK.— Metpr and AvcbOmann, Alt. Fr<«>e»*. p. 
T4I.— MiflttiBiin, lit) C.wiitt. Aibi'ii., p. 3<Vt, tninil.— Timvua, 
Lex. Plntoa.— IVh-Ui, 11., 17V. iianal.}— 3. (Diif. 4rt, tit. I.., S.) 
—1. (1.1* . Ml., 10; It., 4.~<: ic, nw P- ^xl., 12 t— 4. nvi«t., 
f,Jt.)— ft. (('■<iu)««ro Ta«l.. n.. 127.)— 0. '!>i7 ■!*<. in -N, , T, > 
—7. (Op- 0(1,11., I., W.t—^l. {VutaiaiK \" 
T.>— 0. (PMtuff. ». T. IL-kintl )-Io. (1. 
nr tn tbff ffillowinir fia*>\v^* ' !<i>ft , * > 
Timsu.. Ann.. 111., t7. **.— S0..I., ClnuO.. i. ■,-.i, wfuiii ia-t, d* ih^ 


is applied by Cicero' lo the case of Titus Ml 
who had been cuinptlled by his (nlher to live ini 
itude in the country 

Deportatio in insvlam, or drporlatio siiuplyt 
intioiluced under the emperors in place of tho 
ct ignia interdictio.* The eovemor of a prwi 
(pragM) had not the power of pronouncinj^ the 
teucc of deportatio; but thts power was givrn to' 
prwfcctu-s urbi by a ^^^ac^pt*»f thcKmiwrorSci 
Tho conse»iueni-c of dipfirtaiio was lobs of pre 
and citizinship. but not of freedom. Thougt) 
dcportatus ceased to be a Unman citizrn, ha 
the capacity to buy and sell, and do other 
which might bo done according to the jus uentll 
t^cp^jriniio differed from relcgatin ' 'v ^hoi 
and also tii beinf! always for an in 
relcjjatiis went mlo banishment , ti. .: , - ....lua 
conducted to his place of banishment, somcui 

As the exsilium in Ihc special sense, and tbo 
pnrtatio KhiIc away a person's civiIas, it fol 
timt. if he w:is a father, his children ccast-d 
hts power ; and if he was a son, he eeasodJ 
his fnlhcr'a power ; for the relationship ej 
by the terms piitna potettas could not exist 
either party had censed to he a Honian cili 
HcIeKHtio of a father or of a son, of courw, had 
thid effect. But the interdict and llic depot 
did not dissolve marriacc* 

When a person, cither parent or child, waa 
denmed to ihc mines or lo fi^'hl with wild U 
the relation of Iho pntna poffMtan was dissull 
Hiis, ibouKfi not rcekoned a Bpccica of exsi' 
resembled deportatio m its conwquenccai. 

It remains to examine the meanme of the 
cxsihuni in the rrpublienn period, and 1 
far as we can, to Jli? orii^in. Cicrrn 
no Honian w.-w ever deprived of his > . .. 
freedom by a lex In the oration Mro 
makes the same iiHsertiun, but in a (|uaU 
ho says that no special lex, that is. no pnt 
could be pastned against the caput of a Komanj 
zcn unless he was tirsi condemned in a judit 
was, HCCordniK to Cicero, a lundamcntal prjl 
Kofuan law.' that no Roman citizen could 
freedom or his citizenship without his cor 
adds, that Roman ettizens who went out 
culonislA could not become I^alin unless llxiy' 
vohmtiirily and registered tlielr nnmes : tho«e.^ 
were condemned of capital criin«s did mil 
ciiizcn»>liip tjll they were adiniil"d as citn 
oUirr Klatc , and this was effect^*' ■■ 
them of their civilas (ndempdo • 'M 

intcnhctio tecti, nquoi el ignis. ' 
Slated in the oration Pro Caema,* with lite 
that a Roman citizen, when he was riTeivodi 
another state, lost JM citizenship .it KomeJ 
by the Roman law r niou could not he a 
two states. This ren.ion, however, would 
ly gotxl fur showinj; that a Hoiiuin citizen ruuid] 
lyecome a citizen of another conununity. 
oratiou Pro Balho,^ tbe proposition is put 
this funn : that a Roman whu iKwamo a 
another slate thtrtly ceased to be a Romv 
It mu^t not be forcolten, that in the oration i 
cina. It is one of Cicero*s objects to prove 
elictit had Uie riftlits of a Roman cilixeni 
the oration Pro Domn, to prove that he hii 
not been an exsul. thoiitrh he was liiterdictod f 
lire and water within 400 null's of Roiiie '* 

1. (Oit, ill., ai.)~l (ripidn, Dif, 49, nt. IS. t. > , YH. 

5 1 -T mnins. I.. I7S.)-4. fC.-l. :.. t( !fl. » -1 , lH IT,. 

IMirv., c •i').) 


;c. :i| )-'j, (.. iL 

\\f (<'iCm wl 



• Mt'' ■' ! from fire and water, 

^ vt ly. (o u&e 1h4 own 

wmf^L^ f* P"ng i^M,Miiiii til'' hutits, h(* could only 
«rape ite ooawx)ucncp^. namrly. exsilitim, riUier 
to nrtf m? CO ihr rjrt nf lii«t uol InMiia ft'ceivrJ as a 
or by aUcgitiR ihi* lUegalj- 
II" •• nti^t liiin. But tbv latter 

!- ht ^.>ms to mnintiiin hia 
>i' iil'^4'S that lie wag made 
:tii, Mjtliout having been 

I l>eiH>d, a Roman citizen 

' into ^xslUum (o anolbcr 

tber statu might liare a 

t Honii\ by virtue of cer- 

- existing between sticb 

" ) This right 

i-r. to the Slate 

.1. jiccl to bis own 

.i, and hia condition 

\lw stale vvhicb hu 

U£ WitA i>«yu4/tNM4; Ami Ql Home he might 

hanaelt i^pplicArt §() to a quasi-pairuiiuv, a 

which gavR r^ iuns involving 

lonis. Til' I'lUJt appears^ 

III-' ■ »■■ .. ,*. i^onwho was 

'httwi. The prefix 

to ^•< (if ex m rxxulf and 

twRg jkiui fMii ti» prutmblj related to coif in 

I ' which Ciecrrt 
ini- I to the depri- 

«f Ifafr cJ... . ..■ . and itselfect 

JOKiBfaeitiite a person from exercising the 

•r a cHora uithin the limits wbieh the sen- 

mfnicd. .Sappo&ing it to be true, that no 

dtisrn onlil. m direri ierni«, \*p deprived 

^ettllM, •' ■ ■ " ■ ■ e of the 

'itf Rctii •- llmt a 

ww^d n.i-^.; >" ...<■'..■ i'.. .'. 'i-j....i that iti- 

whirh could not \Hi dune direi.*lly ; and 

f '. »A IS the aqiim cl ignis intenlictio. 

i^enteace of a'liiffi tt ijjnis in- 

I rn we consider the HyniboJical 

III ihc ii'4ua n igni», The bride, on the 

ia normfir, was receiTed by hrr inisihand 

|ikQ«nd V"-' * ■• ' ■ ' "TO symbohetil of his 

bcr an i and sustentatton. 

& . iiioD of the aymboli- 

cf vfiia vX tfimis ni the marriage cere- 

tt ijn»r (nrenrrling u> the expression 

mt ■•'• '(T huniiinam rifam 

.1 '! of interdict was 

'■' ■' ■■ ■ " Tib- 


ira^i applied, 

! cecperxt, ccia* 

^rii itcrtuu ;• and there 

in the Ipx of Clodius, by 

«a (Miip-nrd. 

of the inti>rdiii. which in the time 
wjiB acrompamed with the Iosb of 
ecald luirdJy have had any other effect 
tjnr-y t'irprn It mnv \ir inif that exsilium, 

I. 'I'i, waa not in 

1' I' of aqua cl 

»in.iic,*i. . (:• u ^ if he likedt 

XaXht^ (•' iii; an outcast, and 

1-fiUit'-.: ,iny kgal act. In- 

itial bamskfncnt can 
li Pi^le huj} distant 
ott« to wbitli the offender can be 

sent. Tluis banishment, as a penalty, did not criBl 
in theold law When isopoliiieal reUticaia 
existed bttwt'cn Kome and aiiotlier state, exsilium 
might Ir^ the privilege of an otTcnder. Cicero 
might then truly say that exi<iliuni was ni^ a pun- 
ishment, but a mode of evading puni.T«hntent ;* and 
ibis la quite consistent wiih the interdiel being a 
pimitihment, and having for ita object the exsiliuin. 

According to Mobuhr, the interdict was intended 
10 prevent a person who had become an exsul from 
refuT-iiiHg lu Ktiint.' and reauming his eitiiten9hi;i ; 
and Ihc interdict was taken ofl' wh(^n an axsui was 
recalled: un opinion m direct contradiction to all 
the testimony of antiquity. Farther, Mcbuhr as 
serte that they who settled in an iinpriviJeged place 
(one that was not in an isopoUtieal connexion with 
Rome) needed a decree of tlie iwopU-, declaring 
that their bettlemenl should operate as a letial ex- 
sdnim. And this assertion is supported by a hiuKle 
passage in Livy," Irom which it appeared that it was 
declared by a plehiscilum, ihiil C. Fabius, by goiQ" 
into exile {esuiaJum) to Tarquinii, which was amu- 
nieipium,' w as legally in exile. 

Niebuhr asserts that Cicero had not lost his fran- 
chise by the interdict, but Cicero eays that thi 
consequence of such an intentict was the h>ss ot 
caput. And the ground on which he mainly ul- 
tentptetl to fiiipporl his case was. that the lex by 
which he was interdicted was in fact no lex, but o 
proceeding altogether irregular. Farther, the tnlcr- 
dlci did pat-a against Cicero, but was not tokm ufT 
when he was recalled. It is imfHjs&ible to caution 
the reader too much against adopting inipheilly any- 
thing that is staled in the oraiions Pro Cj^tn^, iVo 
Balho^ and Pro Domo ; and, indeed, anywhere cUe. 
when Cicero has a case to bupp*trt, 

BAPHI'l'M (jiatfiiov, ^aoftaniiv), an establish* 
munt for dyeing cluih, a dyeliouse. 

An apparatus for weaving cloth, and adapting it 
to all the purposes of life, btmg part of every Greek 
and Roman household, it was a maiter of necessity 
that the Roman govcrnmeni should have it.s own 
insiilutions for suiiilar uses ; and the iimnense 
quantity of clotli required, both for the army and for 
all the olTicers of the court, made it tndis[H'n&alde 
that these institutions should be condueled on a 
large scale. They were erected in various parts of 
the empire, according to the previous hahiis of the 
people employed and the facilities for carrying on 
their «p«-'raliOiis. Tarentum, havmg been cclebra 
ted during many centuries lor the fineness and 
beauty of its woollen maimfacturos, was selected 
OS one of the most suitable places for an imperial 
baphium * Traces of this efatablishmeiit are still 
apparent in a vast accumulation near I'aranto, 
called "Monte Testacco," and consisting of the 
sheila of the Murex, the animal which aO'orded tba 
purple dye. 

A passage in Ji^lius Lampridius* shows that these 
great dyehouses nnist have existed as early as the 
second century. It is stated that a certain kind ot 
purple, commonly called " Probiana," because I'ro- 
bus, the superintendent of the dyehouses (baphiit 
pmpotitun). had invented it, was after^vard called 
" Alexandrina," on account of the preference given 
to it by the Emperor Alexander Sevems. Besulea 
the officer mentioned in this passage, who pruttably 
had the general oversight of all the Impertal baphia, 
it appears that there were jiersona called prorura- 
tors, who were intrusted with the direction of 
them in the several cities where they were e« 
tablished. Thus the yotitia Dtgnitatum utnu^gv*. 
Imperii, compiled about AD. 426, mentions the 

IT.)— a. (Pfu tuma*, c ao.i— 1. (Pro Ca;nn».»— 2, (ml.. S->-8. iPm C»nwi. t. \;\-A 

'*» Uag. iM., #r,/-^. (PBitiW, / {Ctmjmn Hmnt^ £[>., 11., ii„ 8117, ^uh Sftr(>«i iDN\Tf ^(i«oi|t 

/jr.,mj-3. (AJcz. StT..c.lO.) 


nc^AT ;(sw*nt b> vt .antncc^ si :iKtr xrt. 

HhK'k'tHyj.H 'Vtd '^/ftTn.-i 

tMfcyi&A «l;.Ar» ka?4 prt-ruutrf at ^iftrmc uia«» 
Mrf m<!:r^.t «yy;n:r>»A « ib rtaipiKC to cV JMant 
lw»T« ti«wn T*^ mryrjt. TV ovMt n^aed laodmi 
MttifM* r^^afarrl tV h^sm! an an < tt» umtwm ee, vob- 
Mtt ImvjCj '>r rM-aniftf , rmt the anrKSU fenerallT 
r'^Mfvaz/i] lU ifr'/«lb 4jyf fr/rm wob nf^ral xaea- 
Ufm ; aM U*at CM '/T^Hu v«r« noc behukdhaod ui 
U.tA, ari7 fA'^^ tiban m ^cfaer arta. is uifiicKnit? 
iihr/wft r^ u^. MaSrKMt «»f tb^ir phikffiopben. The 
f^i.'M^ r'vy^/vvrpA^if'.rf WhKh M ap(4jC4 tO lettlDg 
iri« b^rd ^rwr, mipti^t a positiirt cihore- G^i»w- 
allf fKf^iakirijf. a thv^lc ti«arij, irvyi^ 3affit or (!a<nV< 
wan fyrtMi«Krr«:4 ajv a marfc 'A manlin«M. TV 
^>r«^k fftiiUfVfptt'n'ii Wfrrn flurtlD^ubfcd bf tVir 
k/fiK tf'nMt M a i^/rt r/f ba^l^f;, and beD<;« tt*e term 
wbicb f'«!niMi4* applmi Vf Hf^OTat^a, magiMttr imrlm- 
tu» Th«T ihrtwnn hHfttf^n Wf.n b^znieA men ; as 
AfCJirriTmri'm, Ajax, Mfrnclaoa, UI^Mies.* Accord- 
injf Ui f :Utytiifj^M, rjuril by Athenftos,* tV Greeks 
worf; tUf. tn'HM till ihA tmje of AkrzandertV Great, 
and h'! a'l'la tlmt thr^ firm man who was riiaren 
was «alM #:v*rr after icnf/titv, " shaveo*' (from 
Mff'fH^}. J'liitarrh^ says that the reason for tV 
fthavmK was that th<7 might not be polled by tV 
iMjsr'l in battle. I'he cust/jm of shaving the beard 
continu'^l among tb? Or&:kH till the lime of Justin- 
isn, nnd during that period even the statues of the 
^tU^tphf.TH were witlimit the beard. The phUoso- 
fjiiern, howevcrr, generally continued the old badge 
of tlirfir proffSHion, and their ftstentation in so doing 
gHve rlHf! to the saying that a long beard does not 
\tnUt: H philosopher (iruyovorpn^ia ^iXoao^ oi 
itotft)t Hw\ a man whfmf; wisdom Btop^>ed with his 
iH'iird was ealled U ituyuvo^ oo^^c- So Aulas Gel- 
lius* says, " Vtdro harbam et pailium, philotophum 
ntmdiim video." Homno" speaks of "feeding the 
philowfpliie tfoard."" Tlin Romans, in early times, 
woru the hf'ard uncut, as wc learn from the insult 
offered by thn fiaul to Marcus I'apirius,*^ and from 
(Jlcrro ;*■ and, according to Varro" and Pliny," the 
Uoninn lH*ards were not simvrd till B.C. 300, when 
1'. 'I'icinhm Ms-no broug!it over a barber from Sicily; 
nnd I'Uny adds, that tlie first Roman who was 
shaved {roMvn) every day was Scipio Africanus. 
His (!UHtom, however, was soon followed, and sha- 
ving hrrnnir u rt^guliir thing. The lower orders, then 
ns now, wore not always able to do the same, and 
lienon llin jrers of Martial" In the later times of 
thn Kpptiblic, there were many who shaved the 
lM*nrd only imriially, and trimmed it so as to give it 
nn nrnanientnl form ; to them the terms bene bar- 
hati^* and hnrhiituti" arc applied. When in mourn- 
ing, nil th(> higher as well as tlie lower orders let 
their In-nrds grow. 

In the general way in Rome at this time, a long 
beard {barba promisMo}*) was considered a nmrk of 

1 <H. N., itxvii., M.)— 3. (MMira'i Anr. Mineral., p. IM.)— 
i (AriiCiph, l.vtiit., |(l7t.)— 4. {Sat., tv.. 1.)— 4> tll-txx:ii.,?4i 
iilv., ftie.~tM., xvi,, I70.}-(I. (xiii., 505, nl. Cuaub.)— 7. 
rrhr".. V. 5.) -H. (It.. 9.)~1). (Sm., U.. ii., S5.)— 10. (Compare 
huinttl., XL, I.) -n. (l.iv.. y.. 4!.)-13. (Pm Ol., 14.)— IS. 
(IvRr Wmm.. II.. r. Ml -14. (vii.. 5tt.)— 15. {vii.,W; xii..59.) 
—lit. (IV.. t'Mil.. II.. 10.)— 17. {Oic., Kp. vi An., i., 14, Ifl.— 
fhtruKl.. t4.>-lH. (Lit., izTii., M.) 


aoc xJk mm. u cook ■ 
Sot uiK 4f iDaTBf was 
«f maaivxA. and Ae dip 
vas r*»iK6n£«ii as a 
tiralar lsk ued Sor ikm ts V dooe. 
's«>vev«r. X vas iene «Vb ihe vonag 1 
seined iV tnfa t^jk.* Af iWi did il 
year. Caii^ia la has SWa. The hair 
sorh oceaaoas was eoaaeeraicd lo i 
Thns 'S'^TO p«c hja sp ia a cold bnCr set v 
and d««ii«a£ed ii to Japiia'Capiloliaiis.* 
mentions a persoa «1ki aral ftia hair as 
lo .fccobpcas Pi iLiiisaii aad request 
u> write some dettactton lusia on the 
He sent the kair wish a box set wit! 

WHb the Emperor Badiiu the bean 
rerire.' Ptoiairfa says that the enperoi 
hide some scars on his bee "Hie pra 
ward became eommon, aad tiH the tin 
stantme the Great the onperora appea 
and coins with beards. The Reman! 
beards grow in time of moarning; so 
did* for the deatb of Julias Cwsar, an 
when he had it shaved off he made a 
festirity.* The Greeks, <hi the other 
such occasions, shared the beaid close.* 
says that the beards a( the inh^itants c 
siterides were Idee those o( goats. Tac 
that the Catti let their hair and beard 
would not hare tbem cot till they ha 

Babbxbs. The Greek name for a b 
Kovpev^, and the Latin teauor. The tern 
is modem European languages is derive 
low Latin barbaiorius, which is found in 
The barber of the ancients was a far m 
tant personage than his modem repr 
Men had not oAen the necessary implemi 
various operations of the toOet : comb: 
perfumes, and tools for clipping, cuttini 
(Sec. Accordingly, the whole process 
performed at the barber's, and hence the 
course of people who daily gossiped a 
ttrina, or barber's shop. Besides the i 
barber and hairdresser, strictly so calle 
cient tmuor discharged other offices. H 
a nail-parer. He was, in fact, much 
English barber was when he extracte<3 
well as cut and dressed hair. People wl 
necessary instruments for all the difTei 
tions, generally hA also slaves expres 
purpose of performing them. The busir 
barber was threefold. First, there was i 
of hair : hence the barber's question, nuf 
For this purpose, he used various knives 
sizes and shapes, and degrees of sharpnt 
Lucian," in enumerating the apparatus o: 
shop, mentions ir^Oo^ fiaxtupidiav (jtaxo 
pic, KoviMc are used also, in I>tin ct 
scissors, ^aXic, Siir^ ftaxaipa^* (in Latin 
icia\ were used too.'* Uaxatpa waa 
word. (Bottigcr, however, says that 1 
were merely used, forming a kind of scia 

I. (LJT., xrrii., M.)— 3. (Jqt., Sat., Ht, 166 
CftlifT-, 10.H4. (Suet., Ner., IL)— 5. (Pntf. ad 
(Dion, IxTlii., p. 113S, c. 15.)— 7. (Suet^ OcUi 
(Dion, xlriii., 34. — Comparo Cio. id Verr., ii., 1 
Pluturb, Pelopid. uid Alez.— Saet.. Cal., 5.)— U 
-n. (G«nn., c. 3.)— IS. (Pint., De Gam I., IS 
Ittdort.. c M.>— 14. (PoUaz., Oboid., ii., St.>— 
Aiitttq^., Aiclutfn.t 848.— Lucian, Pii^ o. «tO 



lode or cutting the faair was with 
fiiif ftaxaifi^.^) }ncg\i\ZT\iy and 
the hair was considered a great 
generally, and Irom Horaf^ ;' 
^, alter the liair-cutiing, ttiR uneven 
(I <Hii by iWL-pzcrft, an operation to 
8[t|>hc>9 liic icnn frapayjyeaOat. So 
on gnrat men, who wished to look 
irciistomcd to pull out iho gray hairs 
t* This was considered, however, a mark 
tUMCj} The person who was to he oprra- 
bgrlhe b.irber had a roujjh cloth {ufi6?.Lvot; 
in Htauiua') laid on hi.s shouldera, as now, 
Itfce haire off his dress, &c. Tho second 
Ui^ liusin«-?<9 was Ahaving {raHerc, raaiture, 
.Tkia was done wtih a ivpiv, a nova£ula^'^ 
taM0. relainiiifr the I^tm root, call it), 
BJ iin a case, ^^frr;, ^poOoKrj, ^'pnt^KTic, 
PHte."* Some, who would not submit to 
lioa ol' tho mzor, used instead some [low- 
bioryomtinenui or plaatera, as psihthnmj* 
*«,■*• Venetvm hUum ,-'» dropax}* Stray 
III «8Cftpe«l the ra-Aor were pulled out with 
cere or Iweexers {rohdUt, Tfnxo>.uCiw). 
\ port of the barlier'a work was to pare 
I of Ibe hands, an opcrdtion which the 
lipriHud by the words hvitxt^ctv and urr>- 
t The iBstmnients used ibr this purpose 
kd hwxttrnipiOy ir. ftaxaifun.^* This prac- 
H^oyiiig a man expressly to pare the nails 
Plaulus'a humorous description of the 

'H tonsnr tingvfn dempnetat, 
I ahttutu pranegmina."^* 

tiuijici It did nut occur to pare his nails 
•ive llic raoneyhewoull ht.eio pay; 
L. — It, „. ,f,p panngs, m huiH- uf making 
So Martial, in rallying a fop, 
-peusc with the baibor's servi- 
pig diftcrcnt kinds of plasters, &c., asks 
\d/a£uta attics 1 What will your nails 
\ "wm you get your nails pared \ So Ti* 
^J fiitd iprodesl) ungtuM artiJiciH docta 
; frucn which it appeals that ibc 
was in the habit ol' cuipNiyiug one 
ioaable tonsors. The inatrumenU 
toby Martial.'* 
{QuptiTu^ or ^uf^iTav\ a stringed in- 
by Theocritiia ffoXivio/jJof.*" The 
uT*)i'* led the grainmahans to dc- 
from ^<ipvq and ft'iTo^, a thread or 
ling to Sinibu," who, if the read- 
ikcs it the same with aa/iCvuTf, it 
in. Pindar, in a fragment qiioced 
the inTcntion of it to Tcrpan- 
aaolher place" it i^ ascribed lo Anac- 
^ysjOB** tells us that lu his day it was 
iiuno: " ' Its, but that thn KomanH, 
-^tdl retained it at ancient 
.IjIc to determine its exact 
ly : later writers use the word 
Xvpa. (V'uf. Lysa) 


a species of marble, as Pliny" 

a , p. 80.}— J. (Sat., i., 3, 31— Kpirt,, i.. t, 
f Arn«nf4i.. Equil., W8.)— 3. {AnI. OpII., 
: '' - ,T.>— fl. (Capi., II., li., I".)— T. 
: \tiil"y)>., ITiPim., 220.— Pl']- 
-9. (PUn., H- N- iiiii.. tl>, 
II (Phn.,m„74.)— IS. (Ib.iii., 
ii.,7W.— Schol. ID Inc.— TTiPfH 
r OftMu., ti.. 14S.)— U. (Pollux, 
1 '" ■'' 'Eiiff., ili.,74.}— 
'■» inMona.) — 19. 
M«]j[. in Toc»,> — 
'. .T., n. 633, •.) — 
Ilk., 7I,>— 85. (U. 

tenns it. found in .i^thiopia, of lh«^ eolmir and bard^ 
ness of iron, whence its name, froiu an Oriental term 
Imtalt, signifying "iron." To what Eastern lan- 
guage this word belongs is not known ; we may eom- 
I»are with it, however, the Hebrew baj:zel. Pliny 
speaks of fine works of art in Kg^ptian haHalt, and 
of these some have found their way to iCome, as 
the lions at the base of the ascent to the (Japilol, 
and the Sphinx of the Villa Borghcse.^ Wmekel- 
manii distinguii^hes two kinds ol this stone : the 
black, which is the more common sort, is the ma- 
tcnal of the figures just mentioned ; the other vari- 
ety has a gn;oiiisli hue ' We must hp c-arefiil not 
lo confound the haxaltcB of the ancients with the 
mrtdem basalt. The former was merely a species 
of syenite, commonly called basaltoid syenite, black 
Kgyptian basalt, and "baaalte antique." The ba- 
salt of the moderns is a hard, dark-coloured rock, 
of igneous ongin.' 

HASANISTAI. [Vul. Basanos.) 

•IJASAMTE8 LAPIS {fituraviTTft 7J&of), C2A\e^ 
also BaianoM and Ijnpui LydtuSy the Touchstone. 
Its Greek and English names both refer to Its olSee 
of trying metals by the touch. The ap[H'llation oi 
" Lydian Stone" was derived from the circumstance 
of Lydia having been one of its principal Iwalities. 
It was also obtained in Kgypt, and, bctiidea the uso 
just mentioned, was wrought into various orna- 
ments, OS it still is at the present day. Oihor 
names for the Touchstone wcro Chryntes, from its 
particular eOicacy in the trial of gold, and CoOcuIa, 
because generally formed, for convenience' sake, 
into the shape of a small whetstone.* The Baa^- 
nito or Touchstone dill'ers but little from the com- 
mon variety of silicious slate. Its colour is grayish 
or bluish black, or even perfectly black. If a bar of 
gold be rubbed against the smooth surface of this 
stone, a metallic trace is lelt, by the colour of which 
an ejcpehenced eye can form some estimate of tho 
purity of the gold This was the ancient mode of 
proceeding. In modem times, however, the judg- 
ment is still farther determined by the changes pro- 
duced in this metallio trace by the application of ni- 
tric acid [aquafortis), which immediately dissolves 
those substances with which the gold may be al- 
loyed. Basalt and some other varieties of argillite 
ans^t'cr the same purpose. Tho touchstones cm- 
ployed by the jewellers of Paris are composed chief- 
ly of hornblende. Brogniart calls it Cornicnne Lyd' 

BAS'ANOS ipatravof), the general term among 
the Athenians for the application of torture. By « 
decree of Scainandrius, it was ordained that no free 
Athenian could be put to the torture ;* and this ap- 
I>ears to have been the general practice, notwith- 
standing tho assertion of Cicero^ to the contrary 
((/( ingtitu4tt Afhcnienriitm^ Rhodiorvm—opud quoa 
liberi eivfjtque lorqurntur). The only two apparent 
exceptions to this practice are mentioned by Anli- 
phon* and Lysias • But, in the case mentioned 
by Antiphon, Bockh^* has shown that the torture 
was not applied at Athens, but In a foreign country ; 
nnd in Ly&las, as it is a Platwan boy that is spokci! 
of. w-p have no occasion to conclude that he was at, 
Athenian citizen, since wc learn fram Dcmosthe 
nes" that all Platieans were not necessarily Athe- 
nian ciiixens. It must, however, !« olraerved, that 
the decree of Scarnandrius does not appear lo have 
interdicted the use of torture as a means of execu- 
tionr since we find Demosthenes" reminding the 

1. (MooTv's MineralogT, p. Sti.} — 3. (Wiuckeliiuuiii, Wrrkc, 
»vl. T., p. 1 10, 400, ic.H-9. (Fit, m Plm.. 1. c.)—4. (IIili'« Tlie- 
(tpymsHii, p. 180, ia nnlis.] — 5. (Ckarrlnnd'k Mini^ntlog;. p 
SlW.)— S. (Aniloc, D« Myst., 9S.— Comfwra Lya-, «■«/ rpiv^. 
177.— c. Aifunu., "IM.)— 7. (Or»t. Prnl.. o. S4.>— 8. U>f ||rn«1. 
ookI.. THO.)— g. (it.Siiiuin, 1S3.>— 10. (SuaUliAu«.(let MVuiiwt. 
I., p. IW i ii-, p. 4ia.)-ll . vc NcM.. 1381.)— U. {\if> eor.,yt\i 




jndgca that tbcv hat] put Anliphon to death by tlie 
rack (oT/icd/iJfldiTi't).' 

The fviilenre of (ilavt'ti wus, however, always ta- 
ken with tortnrp, and iheir irslrmony wns not oth- 
erwise received.' From thi:) circuriisuinco iheir 
testimony appears In have been considered of more 
value than that of freemen. Thus laeeus' savs, 
" When slaves and I'rccmcn are at Iiand, ynn do not 
make use ofihc testimony of freemen ; but, putting 
slaves 10 the torture, you thus endeavour to liiid out 
the truth of what has been done." Numerous pas- 
£>Hge» of a eimilar nature might easily t>e produeed 
from the orators.* Any pers(»n might oiTer his own 
slave to be examined by torture, or demand that of 
his adversary, and the offer or demand was equally 
called irpoKAfjaic Wr ^dcavov If the opponent re- 
fused to give up hisi^ave to be thusexammed, such 
a refusal was looked upon as a strong presumpiiun 
against bim. 'I*ho ?rp6«ij?oif appears to have been 
genenilly made in writing.' and to have been deliv- 
ered to the opponent in the presence of witnesses 
in the most frequented part of ilie Agora;' and as 
there were several modes of torture, the particular 
one to hp employed was usually specified.' Some- 
tunes, when a person ulTeTed his slave for torture, 
he gave his opponent the liberty of adopting nny 
mode of torture which llie latter pleased.* The 
parties interested either superintended the torture 
themselves, or chose certain persons for this pur- 
pose, hence called fiacaviarai^ who took the evi- 
dence of the slaves.' In some cases, however, we 
find a pubhc slave attached to Uie court, wlio ad- 
miiiistrrfd the torture;"* but this appears only lo 
have taken place when the torture was administer- 
ed in the court, in presence of the judges.'* This 
pnblic mndn of administering the torture was, how- 
ever, certainly contrary to the usual practice." The 
general practice was to read at the trinl the depo- 
sitions of the slaves, which were calkd ^aaavui,'' 
and to confirm them by the testimony of those who 
were present at the administration of the torture. 

BA8CAN'IA. {ViiL Fascikcm.) 

BASCAUDA, a British basket. Tliia term, which 
remams with very little variation in the Welsli 
*'basKawd*' and the Knttlish *' basket.'' was con- 
veyed to Rome topel her with the articles denoted 
by it. We find it used by JuvenaP* and by Mar- 
tial" in connexions which imply Ihat ihesfi articles 
were held in much esteem by ihe luxurious Ro- 
mans- In nnj other mamifacture did ourl3nttsh an- 
cestors excel so as to obtain for their productions a 
similar dislinctioji," lu wliat couBisted the curios- 
ity and the value of thcsso baskets, we are not in- 
formed ; but they seem tu be classed among vessels 
capatile of holdinfr water. 

BASiLEIA (Baai?^ia) was the name of a festival 
celebrated at I.,ehadetn, in Dceotia, in honour of Tro- 
phonius, who had the sumuuie of BaciXeix- This 
fcsliral was alM called Trophonia — Tpo^urm ;" 
and was firRt observed under the tatler name as a 
seneral festival of the Bceotians aflcr the battJe of 

BAS'II-EUS (liaoiXtvr), ANAX (ui-of), titles ori- 
ginally given 10 any persons in authority, and ap- 

1 (Campftre Pliimrcb. Phoc., c. 35.)— 2. (Anttph., Tetral,. i., 
p. 033.)— 3. (Dc Ciron. H»rrd , 30S.) — 4. (Cm|«r« Drmfi»th., 
c. Onctor., !., p. V74. — Aiitiphoii, I»o Clioreut., 778. — Lyoune-, 
c [,«ocr., l^tf-103.)— A. [Dvinocth.. c. Piuiluia., OTS.>— 0. (Uc- 
■i«lh.,c Aphi'lt., III..&I8.)— 7. (Demotlh-.r. Sleph., i., 1120.) 
~S. (Antijih., Ti*i <71»oreiil., 777.)— 0. ^i\A^,n■ot (ino'itinT.ii, 
iimrr^nftn tU ri 'li^attrriio*: Ivx-t.. Trap., c ».— Compar* 
DrmMth., c. ruitkoa^ 976. 070. — AoUph., KartfYnpia ^ftfiptax., 
tW.) — 10. imjfitjTtu <U iS^ir » ffipfoi, gai (iaaaviii navriov i^wr ; 
JCieh..Pe Ltff.. 9S1.ed. Taylur.)— 11. (.£wh..l.r.— DeuMth., 
C. EncTg'., 1144.)— 12. {jlneavRMiv oIk l«Ttv iravrim hti&v i De- 
■HwOi.. c. Slrj.h., I., II W.)— 13. (lUrpttrr., Suid., i. ». — He- 
n>«Ui.. c. \ic«tiiit., 19M.)— 14. [ui., 46.)— 13. (nv..W.l— 10. 
(H«iry'»Ui«t.iirBnuio.b.i.,r.6f p.220 )— IT. (PoUaZf OaoniM 
L, I, ? 37 •— 1^*. (Diod. Sic, j.x., 53. J 

plied in the first instance indiscrimmately, wn 
any accurate distmction. In the governmenl 
Plioracia. which was a mi.xed i\jnstitution, cut 
ing of one supreme maffistrate, twelve peers 
cuuneUlors, and the asseuibly of the people, eaiA 
the twelve who shared, as well as the cue i 
nominally possessed the supremo power, is da 
nated by the word /JauUrtf.' w*hich title hcca 
afterward strictly appropriated in the sense oft 
term kmg ; but ava^ continued long to have a ait 
wider signitieation. In the Oedipus Tyrannu^. I 
title ava^ is applied lo Apollo,* to Tircsia-s,' to Q 
on and G^dipus.* and to the Chorus.* Isocxal 
uses yiaffiXfif in the sense of kmg, and avai 
aetly synonymous with prince, calhng the 
sons uvoHTtc* and his daughters uvaaeat. TliB 1 
of bastleus wa^ applied to magistrates m some 
publican slates, vvho possessed no regal pover, I 
who generally attended lo whatever was connf 
with the religion of the slate and public wonl 
Tiius the second archon at Athens had the tit 
t>asUeus (Dirf. Abchon), and we find mi 
with the game title in the republican statefti 
phi.' Siphmis.' Clialeedon, Cyzaeus, Sec* 

After the introduclion of the republican fomj 
government into Ihe Grecian communities, ai 
terra {rvfyavvo^^ tyrajinua) came into use, m out 
distinction lu the other two, and was used to d< 
naie any :iiizen who liad acquired and rciainc 
life the supreme authority in a stale which had; 
viously enjoyed the republican form of govcnii 
The Urni tyrant, ihurelbre. aiiiung the Greekft,! 
a ditferent signiticatiun from its usual acccptanc 
iiKidern language ; and when used n.'pruacbfu 
i.^ only in a pohtiral, and not a monil sensej 
many of the Greek tyrants conferred great 
upttti thi'ir eounlry. 

BASILICA (se, adcs, auh, pttrlicvs — ^c 
also rr^'m'^J, a building which served as a 
law and an exchange, or place of meeting fori 
chants and nitn of business. The term is der 
according to Philander," from iio-aiAcvc, a 
refen^ncu to early times, when the chief i 
administered the laws he made \ but it is morej 
niediaifly adopted from the Greeks of 
whose second arohon was Myleil ufix^v 
and the tribunal where he adjudicated 
f(r)f,'' Ihe siihsinntive aula or porticu* in Lathi 
ing omitted for convenience, and (he distinctl 
ilhet converted into a substantive. The Oi 
wriLcrs, who speak of the Uoman basilicGr, caUt 
sometimes aroa't fiaatMKai, and sometimes 

The first eilificeof this description was noti 
ed until B.C. 182 ;" for it is expressly stated by] 
historian that there were no basilica: at the til 
the lire, wlnt-h destroyed ?,o many bnildings m 
Forum, under the consulate of Marcellus and 
nos, U C 212.'* It was situated in the Foniiif^ 
joining the Curia, and was denominated Be 
Porcia, in com mo mo rat ion of its founder, M- 
cius Cato. Besides this, there were twenty ott 
erected at difTercnt periods, within the city| 
Rorao," of which the following arc ihc mosl^ 
quenlLy alludt^l to liy the ancient authors : I. 
tea Scmpfonia, con?tructed by Titus Scmj 
B.C. 171," and supposed, by Donati and Ni 
lo have been between the vicus Tuscus and 
Velabmra. 2. Basihca Optmia, which was 
the Comitium. 3. iUsthca I*auh _t'mi/ri, or 

I. (Od., Tiii., 390.)-S. (1.610.)-i (1. MM.)— 4. (1.011 
(1. Oil-)—*- (Eviifl., vol. n., p. 318, i^. AuiTFr.)— 7. I 
Qusct. Gt., fii., 177.)—*. (Ii^jcr., J^irin., c. 1*.)— 0. <1 
•rntilh, 1., i., p. 146.)— 10. (Stat., t^ilv., i.. 1, 30.— SiutL, 
31.)~n. (Coutoieiit. Viiruv.)— 13. (I'aus., t.. 3. « I.— Di 
Ari6to(fil., p. 7TB.)— 13. Ctiv., »xisM44.) — 14. iLir.,ti 
—15. (PiliK-., Lvx. Aot., ». *. Baaitic*.)— 1». (Liv^ *lif , 



M, called also Regia. Pauli by Statius.^ 
mentions two basilicee of this name, of 
» was buiit, and the other only restored, 
s .£milius. Both these edifices were in 
n, and one was celebrated for its oped per- 
Phiygian colamos,* which Plutarch {Cat.) 
a erected by L. j£miliua Paulus during his 
p, at an expense of 1500 talents, sent to 
'esar from Gaol, as a bribe to gain him 
1 the aristocratica] party. A representa- 
lis is given below. 4. Basilica Pompeii, 
o regioy* near the theatre of Pompey. 6. 
fulia, erected by Julius Caesar, in the Fo- 
opposite to the Basilica Emilia. It was 
roof of this bnilding that CaUgula scatter- 

among the people for several successive 
. BarJica Can et Luetic the grandsons of 
, by whom it was founded.* 7. Basilica 
Frajani^ in the Forum of Trajan. 8. Basilr 
aniiniy erected by the Emperor Constau- 
osed to be the ruin now remaining on the 
1, near the Temple of Rome and Venus, 
lonly called the Temple of Peace. Of all 
piificent edifices, nothing now remains be- 
ground plan, and the bases and some por- 
e columns and superstructure of the last 
e basilica at Pompeii is in better preserva- 

extemal walls, ranges of columns, and 
f the judges being still tolerably perfect on 
d floor. 

rran, or, where there was more than one, 
hich was in the most frequented and cen- 
of the city, was always selected for the 
basilica ; and hence it is that the classic 
ot unfrequently use the terms forum and 
fnonymously, as in the passage of Clau- 
'.suetaqitt cingit Regius aurtUis fora fascibua 
7r, where the Forum is not meant, but the 
hich was in it, and which was surround- 
lictors who stood in the Forum.* 
us' directs that the most sheltered part of 
n should be selected for the site of a basil- 
ler that Che public might suffer as little as 
rom exposure to bad weather, while going 
timing from, their place of business ; he 
> hare added, for their greater convenience 
aged within, since many of these edifices, 
the more ancient ones, were entirely open 
emal air, being surrounded and protected 
an open peristyle of columns, as the an- 
ireaentation of the Basilica Emilia, from a 

Lepidua, with the inscription, clearly 

boweYer, the Romans became wealthy 
fid, and, consequently, more effeminate, a 
nibstitated for the external peristyle, and 
ina were confined to the interior ; or, if 
naaDy, it was only in decorating the irpo- 
eatibole of entrance. This was the only 
hicfa took place in the form of these build- 

the time vf their first institution until 

•%. (Ad Att., IT.. 10.)— 3. (FliD., U. N., xxxri.. 34, 
J>* BsU. CiT., lib. ii.>— 4. (Sucu. Octar.. 31.)— 3. 
ir^ J7.)— 6- (Suet- OctBT.,- 20.) — 7. (De llraor. 
A«Sb>— 6. (PttiK., Lex. Ant., I. e. — Nard., Rom. 

-•. ;t . 1.) 

they were converted into Christian churches The 
ground plan of all of them is rectangular, and their 
width not more than half, nor less than one thinl 
of the length ;* but if the area on which the edi- 
fice was to be raised was not proportion ably long, 
small chambers {chaUidica) were cat off* from one 
of the ends,' wbicfa served as conveniences for the 
judges or merchants. This area was divided into 
three naves, consisting of a centre {media portieus) 
and two side aisles, separated from the centre one 
each by a single row of columns: a mode of con- 
struction particularly adapted to buildings intended 
for the reception of a large concourse of peo^e. At 
one end of the centre aisle was the tribunal of the 
judge, in form either rectangular or circular, and 
sometimes cut off from the length of the grand nave 
(as is seen in the annexed plan of the basilica at 
Pompeii, which also affords an example of the 
chambers of the judices or chalcidica above men- 
tioned), or otherwise thrown out from the posterior 

'' — "r 


-xl • • • • ' 

* '1 



wall of the building, like the tribune of some of the 
most ancient churches in Rome, and then called the 
hemicycle : an instance of which is afforded in the 
Basilica Trajani, of which the plan is given below 
It will be observed that this was a most sumptuous 
edifice, possessing a double tribune, and double rcw 
of columns on each side of the centre aisle, dividi ig 
the whole into five naves. 

The internal tribune was probably the original 
construction, when the basilica was simply used as 
a court of justice ; but when those spacious halls 
were erected for the convenience of traders as well 
as loungers, then the semicircular and external 
tribune was adopted, in order that the noise anU 

confusion in the basilica might not internipt tne 
proceedings of the magistrates.' In the centre of 
this tribune was placed the cumle chair of the prs- 
tor, and seats for judices, who sometimes amounV 

J, f VitjTir., I. C.J— «. (VittnT., L c.>— ». tVittwr.,;.©.^ 



W to the nmnbcr of 190.^ and Iho aavocaie*; ^^ 
roimi! (lie »»1ps of the hemicyclp. called IhP M"i»,j,8 
{ttimun), WLTL' scats for jji-tsons of dislinolion, «s 
well aa lli« (lartirg «'n(•>l^<'d m ihe procrcdiciirs. [{ 
woa ill I In? wing nf ihr inbunc ihat Tib»'riuM aat tu 
ovenwv llu* jiidgTMi'Dt ai th^ trial of Uranuis Mat- 
cellus." 'J'hf lw(j side aisles, as has boon HBid, 
wt^re ftcpamled frtim the centre one bja rowofcoI- 
ucnnH, behind L'lich of which was placed a Hqtmrf! 
pier or pilaster ljmra»tata'), which supported the 
lloHfing ol an upper fwirtioo, smnlar m the gaUerjr 
of a modern church ']'lie upper guUcry waa in 
like mannLT decorated wilh culumnB, of lower di- 
nien&ioRB than ihuao below ; and ihf;s« served to 
8up[>ort ibe roof, and were connected with one an- 
other by a imrapct wall or baJuatrude (plufau^ 
whjcli wrved a» a defence ai^'ainst llie danger of 
falling over, and screened the crowd of loileruts 
above (sui'lfiistlicuHi^) fnun ihp iR'«ple of bnsincss in 
Iho ftna l)elnw.* This aaUery reached entirely 
round the inside of the building, and wau friMjucnleO 
by women as well as men, Ihc women on on© eide 
and the men on iho other, who went to hear and 
•ec what was Roing on.' The stdircasc whicli led 
to the upper portico wna on Itio outside, as is f»een 
in the plan of the DaBtlica of PoniiK-ii. It ia arnii- 
lariy tuiuaied in iho l$ji«ilinu of Cunstantinc. 'the 
whole area of UieBU raagniriconi sirucluves wno 
covered with Ihrec wparate ccihnga. of (he kind 
called te*tMdinalu$n, like a tortoise bIicII ; in l<^ehni- 
cal languug(^ now denoniinatet) cirvcd, an expression 
ttMd to diBlinguish 3 ceiling which has the jrcncnil 
appearance ol a vuult, the central [Kirt of which ig, 
bowcvur, flat, while the niiirgioR im-line by n cylin- 
drical shell from eiich of the four sides of the cen- 
tral arjunre lo Ibo Hide walU , in which torm the 
ancifinta untt^iiied a rcAcmblanco to Uio ahell of a 
. tortoise. 

From Iho description which haa been given, it 
will be eviilenl how much these edifices werv adapt- 
ed, in Iheir Rcnenil form and conBinicltnn, lo the 
uaea of n I linslmn church ; lo which purpose some 
of tliem were, m foci, converted, as may ho inferred 
from a passnge in Aiiaonius. addressed to the Em- 
peror (iratinnua: BiuUira olim ntcuttia pl(tta,nuuc 
voliM jtro tua Httlutf rvacfptis.* Hence the later wri- 
tcni of the Empire apply Ihc term basilicir to nil 
churches built after the model just dcscritM.d ; and 
*uch were ihe earliest edifices dedicated to Chris- 
tian worship, which, with their original designntion, 
conlinue to this day, bemg still called at Koine ba- 
tilicke. A Christian basilica consisted of four prin- 
cipal parta ; I. Upovao^, ilic vestibule of entrance. 
3. Nci-c. iwci'jf, and soiuelimc.t e-temmin, the niive 
or centre aisle, which was divided from the two 
aide onca by a row of columns on each of it* sides 
Here the {jeuple assembled for the purposes of wor- 
aliip. 3 'Afdfnjv (from utnfMuvnv, lo usectid), 
ru9 {Ihe choir), and stifri^ciHum, a pfln of the lower 
extremity of ihe nave rotscil above the Kcnenil level 
of the door by a liight of Hieps 4 '\/fwTrinv, hpiiv 
fifffia, ttinttvartum, whirli answer^ lo Ihe tribune 
of the ancient basilica. In the centre of this sanc- 
tuary was placed the hitli allar, under a lalwmacle 
or canopy, auch aa sitll remains in the Basilica of 
St John of I^leran at Rome, at which the priest 
ofliciAted with his face turned towards the i»eopIe, 
Around lhi« altar, and in the wings of the aanciua- 
num. were scati for the »ssi^iuut eleruy, wilh an 
elevated chair for the bishop at the bollom of the 
circle in the centre* 

I. (Pirn.. Kp., «.. S3.)— S. fT»eiu,AnB.,i..75.)— 3. (VitftiT., 

LO— *. (V|trg».. I. cj— a, (PUui., C^ipi., |V ,„.,J5.v_«. ,Vi. 

Wtr., J. e.^—?. /rtm.. /. c.>— «. («nrf. IrL pro rcni»u|**u.>— ». 

fTht.-^tr. UnMil ff^tt., turn Jm-t,. M»rt. Ctm>n\., lb., p. b.— Cl- 

BASIK'ICA (BaoiXmal ^mniUir). About 
870, the (I'reek emperor BiisiliUH. ihc Macedoi 
coinmenced this work, which u. ' ' 

Bon l>ro, the pliilosophcr. Uci 
9ilius, there had been sevcrai Ot - .. 
the Pandect, the Code, and the lustiii 
was no authorized Greek venbion ' i 
numerous Cuni^litutioiu of Justinian ^b 
and the contradictory interpretatiuna of the j 
were a farther reason fur publishing a revised 
text under the imperial authority. This great 1^ 
was called Dauilica, or llaotMKai ^tara^rt^: \t^ 
revised by the order of ConstanLinus I'orpUynM 
ncia, about A.D. 945. The Basilica compris(.sl 
Institutes, Pandect, Code, the NoveUor, and Uj# 
penal Consiituiinns subsequent to the lime of J 
tiniun, in a Uruek translation, in six I ^ ' ' hi 
lire subdivided into liUf-s. The pu'i. [j 

authorized hwly of law in the Urcek !•. 
the gradual disuiiie of the original cuinpUatiai 
justimun m the East. 

'Jlie arrangfunent of the matter in the Basi 
OS follows: All the matter relating to a given 
ject IS nclccled from the Corpus Juns ; the est 
fnun the Pandect are placttd lirsl under each 
Iheu ibe eonslilutions of ihe Code, and 
dor the proviBliius contained in Iho Inst 
the Novellw, which confinn orcomplelc t 
ions of the Pandect. The Uasihca does 
tain all tlint the Corpus Juris contains ; b: 
tains nuroerou.H fragments of the <tpmions 
jurists, and ol iniperial Constiiuiions, which 
III the C'OrpUH Juris. 

The Bnailtcii was published, with a l^iin n 
by Kiihntl. Parii*, 1647, seven vols, fol Fabrot 
lished only Ihiriy-aix hooks complete, and aUK 
era moompleie : the other books were m 
from an extract from ihr HaF>dica and ' 
Four of ilie deficient Ijouks were afu ; 
MS., and piihll^hed hy lieihard Mt-< >m(c>>. 
iransLition hy y Otto Keitz, in the hlih vol 
his Tlicsaun... ^...ts Civdls et Canuniei ; and 
were also puhh^hed separately in Londuit in 
fuho, aa a HUpp • ment lo Kahn>l's i^lilioa A 
orillcal edition, hy lite Dmihcrs Hi'inibach, was 
menood in IH3:^, and is now m progn-sa 

•BASILISCrs {fian(hnKOi)» 'he P 
times called CwkJilnce, from llie \ l' 

moilem tunes, that it is produeed lii 
a cock. " Nicander describes il," ot>servc» Un 
ams, "as having a small body, about three 
long, and of a shinmg colour. All the nnci 
Ihors !»peak with horror of the poison of the B 
which ihcy aflinn to be of so deadly n nati 
prove fatal, not only wlieii introduced into 
but also when iranamiiicd thmugh anothi 
Avicenna relates the ciise of a soldier, who, 
iransfixed a basilisk with a npcar, it.n venom 
fatal lo him, and alao to his horse, whose lip 
cidentally wounded hy it. A somewhat ai 
ry is idltided to t»y I,ucan.^ Linntcu-~ 
course, all the aloriea at)out the Bas 

fabulous, refers Ihia creature, aa me: 

ancients, to the Lacerta l^iutna. I cannot help tl 
ing it very prohlemaricai, however, whether Ih 
iuin4 be indeed the Basilisk of the ancients. 
met auppoacs the Scriptural basiliok to be the 
with I ho Cohrn Hi Capello, but I am not a wan 
its bring found in Africa The seriwnt whic 
described under the name of HtiMknh hy Jadi 
would answer very well in most re«pc<c(a M 
ancient descriptions of the Bfcsiliak "■ 

UAS'lTCK'NA. a kind of litter {Uctiea) m 
women were carried in the lime of the Roman 



to bare resembled the lectica 
iflloMlj; and the only dinenincu 
that the leciica was carried by 
ito,«iullbf baatema by twn mules. Several 
ii« of Uie word have been proposed. Sal- 
wppohes il In be derived from ilie Greek 
!,>* A itesenption of a basicma is given by 
iv, Balnearium^ Balnntm, Ai- 
liiiwHCff, tJi'i'ii'T, and Thtrtfut. These words 
piominonly translated by our freneral term 
IsUts; but in the wntmes ot the earlier 
bcttrr authors lliey nrc used with a nice dis- 
Btdneum or Mineum^ which is derived 
UrMk ikiXnvfiuv,' sigiiilies, m its prnuary 
hath or balhmif-vossol. such as most per- 
'4n| consequence among the Hoinuna pos- 
in their own house^i - m which sense it is 
Cicero,' biiltnciim calrjim juUi/o^ and from 
to signify the chamber which con- 
_ tuth' {labrum li in balineo noH ett), wluch 
'Ao proper translation of tbe word (talncan- 
Theilinunutive haincolum is adopted by Sen- 
^i(^aie the bath-room of Scipio, in the 
luin, and is cxiirc^sly usi'd to charac- 
i»ii;ni.-,iimrn^ modtMv of rcpoWican mao- 
iit the luxury of htii own times. 
-^ of private individuals became 
aptuuu^ and comprised many rooms iii- 
ic one Miiall cliamber des^cribed by Sene- 
li: : iir halmta was adopted, which 

ict^ ..ii^t', bad refereni^e only to the 

^ i i.-.uns. Thus Cicero terms the 

le villa ol his brother Quintus' baincaria. 

baltnfa, which, according to Varro,* 

liar number, were the public baths. 

however, used in the singular, to dcsig- 

ifale bdtli, in im mi^^ription quoted by Rei- 

Thus Cicero'* s[M'iiks of Imlnetu SeniaSt 

,1.',..,. -.11.) irt rrjih/iuto Aa/n«flrnm," and 

letu Sitjos. Dot this accuracy 

d by many of the subsequent 

fiiifiicuJafly by the pocls, among whom 

)( uncnmiuonly used in the plural number 

tlie public baths, since tlic word balnea 

«0( be introduced in an tiexamcter verse. 

ibo. in the same snnlonco, makea use of ilie 

plural *jdnrti for public, and of balneum fur a 

i'' \i\\\ '■ * TKtrma ( from i^rp^trj, warmth) m^an, 

-prinjjs or baths of wanu water, but 

to bi' applifnl to the structures in 

tMibs wore pla».>:d, and which were both 

'Jliere was, however, a material dis- 

Iween the halnt^z and therm<c, inusnuich 

»pr *as the term used under the Hipiib- 

[ffrrediothe public establishmenLs of that 

ctinlAined no appliances for luxury be- 

jncie convenience of hot and cold haths, 

tef naiiiti was g^iven to those inngniH- 

"icli grew up under the Empire, and 

within their range of buildings all 

icea belonging to the Gieek gymtia- 

I rvi^uiar establishment appropriated 

tiuog, which distinction is noticed by Juvo- 

*'''^petii nu thrrmaj, ant Phahi htdnea." 

il*ntere. howcTer. use these lejins wilh- 

Tlius the baths erecletl by Clau- 

ihe frcedroan of tbe Emperor Clau- 

—A. (n-l \it,.ii„3.)— 
-7. (wl Q.Fratr. lu., 

.... .... ^. . .1., 41. W. MaiW.)-^». 

Vra t:<Pl.. aft.)-II. (lb., to.)— IS. {in., 

I dian, arc styled by Statius' balntA^ and by MartiaP 

' Etrusci tkenntUic. In un (pigrnui, also, by Mar- 

■ lial," "xubtce baiucum ihermu,'' the terms are not ap- 

phfd to the whole budding, hut to two different 

cbambers in the saiuo edifice. 

Jiathing was a practice famdiar to ilic Ureeks of 
both sexes from iho earliest times, bolh in fresh 
water and salt, and m the natural warm springs aa 
well as vessds artificiaUy heated. 'I'hus Nauaicae, 
daughter of .\lcinuus, kuig of Phu'acia, giK's nut witJi 
her attendants to wash !ier clothes, and, after the 
task 18 done, she bathes herbelf in itie river* Ulys- 
ses, who is conducted to the same spot, strips and 
takes a bath, while she and her servants suuid 
aside.* Europa also bathes in the nver Anaurus.* 
and Helen and bcr companions in the Kuroias.^ 
Warm springs were also resorted to for the purjHise 
of bathing. The 'HpoxAtia Xavrpu shown by Vul- 
can or Minerva to Hercules arc celebrated Uy the 
poeta. Pindar spc^aks of the hot bath of tlie nymphs 
— ^cpfta Nvfti^v ?MVTpi'i,* and Homer' celebrates one 
of tbe streams of tlie Ncamander for tis wann tem- 
perature. The artiticial warm bath was taken in a 
ve.ssel called tuitifjiyOu^ by Homer,'"becauso il dimin- 
ished the uncleaulmess of the skin, and Iftf-aat^ by 
Athenmus." Jt would appear, from the description 
of the bath uduunistered to Ulysses in the palace of 
Circe, that tliis vessel did nut contain water itself, 
but was onl)' used for the bather to ait in while the 
warm water was jxiured over him, which was heated 
in a largo caldron or tripod, under which tbe lire was 
placed, and, wheu sullienjiitly warmed^ was taken 
out in nther ve-ssel.s, and poure<l ovt-x tbe head and 
shoulders of the person who sat in the aadftiy^of.** 
Where cleanliness merely was the object sought, 
cold bathing was adopted, which was conciidered aa 
most bracing to the nerves ;*' but, after violent boJ- 
dy fatigue or exertion, w;irm water was made uso 
of, in order to refresh the body and relax the over- 
tension of ibe muaclrs.'* Thus tbe daufuvOtt^ is pre- 
pared for I'eisistrstus and Telemaehus in tbe pal- 
ace of Meneluiis.'^and is resorted to by Ulysses and 
Dioined, when they return with the captured tiorses 
of Rhesus.'* 

'Ef />' (iffo/iftftjuf Ptivrec H\effTac Xotffovro. 
From which passage we also learn that the vessel 
was of polished marble, like the basins {labra) which 
have been diseo\'ered in the Koman baths. An- 
dromache, in the 22d book of the Iliad, prepares a 
hot halli for Hector against his return from battle; 
and Nestor, in the Ulb, orders Hecamcde to make 
reaily the warm bath (&tpfia Xocrpd) ; and Ihe Phae- 
acians are represented as being addicted to the van- 
ities of dress, wanu baths, and sexual indulgence.'* 

Klfiard t' i^rifwtAa, Aorrpii re i)fp/id, Kai rival. 
It was also customary for the Greeks to lake two 
baths in succession, first cold and afterward warm ; 
thus, in the passage of the Viad just referred In, 
Ulysses and Diomed both bathe m Ibe sea, and af- 
terward refresh themselves with a warm balh (d^d- 
fiivdo^) upon returning to their tents. The custom 
of plunging into cohl water after the warm bath 
mentioned by Ariatides," who wrote in the second 
century, does not refer to the Greeks of this early 
age. but to those who lived after the subjugation of 
their country by Iho Romans, from whom the habit 
was most probably borrowed. 
After bathing, both sexes anointed themselves. 

I. (Sylv., j.,3, I3.)-». f»t.. i«,>— 3. (LT., W,J— 4. (Od.. »i^ 
48, «.»-a. (Od., .i., ai0-494.h-«. (Mwch., U., ii.. 31.>-7. 
(The<»rT., Id., tii., «9.)— «. {0\ymp., «ii., 37,)— 9. (tl., *»ii., 
140.1— 10. (vtoA n» r^ Sanv mtt4Qttv.—VUa^onjHi9, *. t. ia^- 
iftt<)ai.i—M. (l,e. 10. p. 94.)— IS. (Od., z., 350-303.)- 13. r«4- 
Aiffro r«K vnWip ff»Jo0opo(: Aih^n., 1. r,)— 14. (Id. ilnit.y— IS 
tOd.. iv.. 48.> — 16 (It., «., STfl.)— 17- (Od., »)U., We.)— I* 
{Tow. 1., Ornt. t. Sucr. Stna., p. itft.J 




Ihe worapn* as wtill aa men, in order thai the skin 
mi|r)it not be \vii harsh and ruugh, especially alter 
wam» wiilrr ' Oil {llaiuv) la Ihe only ointment 
mfiilionc'd by ilomcr as used for this pnr[>nsi% and 
Pljny* says ihal the Greeks had no liclUrr oinlment 
at the nine of the Trojan war than oil peTfuincd 
with herbs In all the |ussages quoted above^ the 
bathers anoint themselves with clear pure oil (Xi'rr' 
ifAa/w): but in the 23d book of tlie Iliad.* Venus 
anoints the body of Hector with oil scented with 
roses {i?.ai<(t ^otlCevn), and, in the 14th book of tlic 
same poetn,' Juno annlms herself with ail "ambro- 
sial sweet, and odonleroiis'* {ufiCpoatov^ iAavuv, rid- 
vQfirvov) ■- and elsewhere the oil is termed ii'u6e^, 
sweet-smelling, upon which epithet the eonimenta- 
lors and AlhenteuB* remark that Horner waa ac- 
quainted with the use of more precious oinimenis, 
but ealls thini oil Wilh an epithet to distinguish 
them fruni eoimnon oiL The nnoient heroes, how- 
ever, never used precious un[;uents (ftvpa). 

Among the Greeks as well as Rnmans, bathing 
was always a prehminary to the hour of meals. In- 
deed, the process of eating seems to liave folhiwed 
as a matter ol" course upon that of bathing; for 
even Nausicae and her companions, lu the pau&age 
refei red to above, immediately after they had bathed 
and anointed themselves, sat duvvn to eat by the 
river's side while waiting for the clothes to drj.' 

The Laet'do^inoniuns, who considered warm wa- 
ter as enervating and cffeminAte, iimuI two kimis of 
baths, namely, the cold daily t>alh in the Hurotas, 
which Agesilaus also used," and a dr>* .sudoritic liath 
in a chamber healed with warm air by means of a 
stove ;• and from them the chamber used by the 
Romans for a similar purpoetf was termed Lacon- 

Thns it seems clear tliat the Creeks were famil- 
iar with the uae of tlie balh, both as a source of 
benllh and pleasure, lona; before it camo inlu goiier- 
A praotice among the ICujtmns, iilibough they had 
Qo public cslabhshmenls expre-'ftly devoted lo the 
jurpose of the sunie magitilicencc as the Roiiimis 
had ; in which sense the words of Artemidoms" 
may be understood, when he says. "They were 
unarquaintetl with the use of baths" d^aXaietu otx 
^itiaav) ; for it ap]H?ar5 that tlie Athenians, at least, 
had pirttlic baths {?.ovTpuvi^) attached to the gym- 
nasia, whidi were more used by the pommon peo- 
ple than hy tlie great and weallliy, who liad private 
b"it!i8 in their own houses.'* 

The Koraans, as well as Greeks, resorted to the 
rivers, in the carhcr periods of their history, from 
motives of beulth or cleanliness, and not of luxury; 
for. as the use of linen was little known in those 
ages," health as well as comfort rendered rreiiiienl 
Ablutions necessary. Thus we learn from Seneca'* 
that the ancient Romans washed their legs and 
arras daily, and bathed their whole body once a 

Il 13 not recorded at what precise period the use 
of tho warm bath was iirst introduced among tlie 
Koroans; but we learn from Setit'ca" lh;it Sripio 
had a warm bath in hi-^ villa at hitenmni, wlurh, 
however, was of Ihn simpU^t kind, consisting of a 
umplc chumher. just suthctent for the necissnry 
porposes, and without any pretension to luxury. 
It was "small and dark," he says, " after the man- 
ner of the ancients." This was a bath of warm 
ueirr; but the practice of heating an apartment 
ffilh warm air by flues placed immediately under il. 

1. (Od., n., «.)— a. (Alhen., 1. c.)— a. (H. N^ lui, I.)— I. 
(1. 166.)— 5. n. IT2.) — 0. {x»^ II.)— 7. (Od.. n., W.) — 8, 
(Xrn.. Hiitlon., »., 4, H IS.— Plut.. Ale, 23.)— 9. (Dion, Ini., u. 
S15, rtj. llnnnot., 1006-1—10. (I'mbipojc t>trmlM, in., p. 413. nl. 
SieHcnXm.— CvAub.mloc.]— 11. (i.,M.)— 19. (Xea., De IUr< 
Alb., ii.. 10.1-13. (F»tir., Drar. Urb. Rom., c IS.)— 14. (Ep., 
Ifl.>-15. (l.r.) 

so aa to produce a vapour bath, is statcil by 
us Maximuti^ and by Pliny' to have been mvt 
by Sergiua Grata, who livctl in the age of Ci 
before the Maraiu war. 'I'he expresi^iion tisefi^ 
Valerius Maximus is balnea pcnsilta, and by 
baltneojt fcnsiU*^ which is differently explaj|ipdi| 
different commentators ; but a single glance at 
plans inserted below will be suiUcieni in oi 
comprehend the manner in which the Doormg oTj 
chambers was lunpenticd over the hollow ccllaj 
the hypo<'aust, called hy Vitjuvms mpenstira 
daiiorum,* so as to leave no doubt as to the pr 
meaning of the invention, witich is more fully J 
emplltied in the fuUowing pussiage ofAusunhn 
'^Quid (mrmorem) ^tr aviphwea ttUtttnuUt 
Balnea, fcrrentt cum MuUibtr haxtttva operto^ 
Volrit anhelaloJi tectoria ptr caiMftamm^M, 
Incttiavm ^lomtrans astu txtpirante Mtporcm T" 
By the lime of Cicero, the use of baths. 
public and private, of wann water and liot air, 
obtained ver>' generally. and with aconsidirabie] 
grce of luxur)", if not of splendour, as may be 
lecied from a Iniler to his brother,* in which he] 
fonns him lliat he had given directions for rfmt" 
the vafhiiir bath, (fljjfl) into Ihe opposi' 
nnilrcssing-room {tipojytcrium), on ii- 

t3ue being placed in an injudicious smlu.i,, 

we learn from the same author ibai then? 
baths at Rome in his time — tmi-neas .Vmiuj* — "wl 
were open to the public upon payment of a 

In the earlier ages of Roman hisiory, a 
greater delicacy was observed wilh re^jwci to 
miscuous bathing, even among ine mm. than 
usual among the Greeks ; for, according to Vij 
riuB Maximu.'*,* it was deemed indecent fur a fnl 
to bathe in company with his own son after ha! 
attained tho age of puberty, or a 8<m in-law wit 
father-in-law: the same respectful reserve 
shown to blood and afGnity as was paid lu the 
pies of the gods, towards whom il was considi 
as an act of irreligion even to appear naketl in 
of the places consecrated to their worship.* 
f irtuo passed away as wealth increased ; and, wj 
the ilierma' came into use. not only did the 
bathe tojrelher in ntiuibers, but even men and wi 
stripped and bathed promiscuously in the same 
Il is tn:e, however, that the public cstabh&bi 
often contained separate baths !ur both sexes 
joining to each other," as will be seen in have! 
also the case at the baths of Pompeii. Aulas 
liys*' relates a alory of a consul's wife who 
whim to bathe at Tuanum (Teaiio), a small pr 
cial town of Campania, in the men's baths (bt 
vmlifjur) ; prohaljly because, in a small town. 
female department, like that at Ponipni, was mor* 
oonfiiiud and less convenient than that assigned t< 
the men ; and an order was consequently given tfi 
the quEBittr, M. Marius. to turn the men out. But 
whether the men and women were allowed to us« 
each other's chambers indiscriminately, or thai 
.some of the public establishments had only one 
common set of hatha for both, the custom prevailed 
under the Empire of men and women bathing indi» 
criminatcly together." This custom was fortmldcf 
by Hadrian" and bv M. Aurelius Antonmus;** 
Alexander Sevenis prohihiled any batbs. cox 
to both sexes (haliua miiia)^ from being openi 
Rome '* 

1. (ii..l.)-S. {ir.V.,ii..79.)-3. (».,ll.>— 4. (Mown. 
-a. end Q. FrUr, ui., 1, « I.)— fi. (Pro C<rl..25.)— 7. |Ib., 
—6. (11., t, 7.)— tf. {Cuoin«irc Cic, lift Off., i., 35.— Dc 
ii., SS.)— 10. (VilniT., v., 10.— Varnt, Il<- Line. l^U, U_ 
II, (x.,3.)— 18. (lMm„ II. N., «s»ui., M.)— 13, (Smt ' 
c. 1.)— 14. {Cnptlubu., AkUm. PhilcMouh , c.a3.>—iy f| 
AIM. Ser., c. «.) ' 



laths {bairtca)were first inslitn- 
for ihe lower orders, wlio alone 
pi.i'iir . itic people of wealih, as well as 
formed tljeequr^trlan and senalorian or- 
i.i.Y.itr baths in their own houses. But 
noi long enjoyed ; for, ns'early 
' 'I Julius OvNar, wc find no less a 
Utfu the mother of Augufitus making nse 
lUo establisbraenlfi,' which were probably, 
t, arparatoii from the men's; and, m pro- 
, <rvcn the iMnperurs thcmsrlvea batlied 
wUb the nieancit of (he people. Thus 
Dfteii bathed in public amon)^ (he herd {cum 
; and ^-vcn the virtuous Alexander Sc- 
: his b.itli among the populace in the thcr- 
d hiiii54.'lf ert^clod, as well as in those of 
cessors, and relumrd to the palace in hJs 
;* and the abandoned Gallienus amu- 
bv bathing m the midst of the young 
fbolb eeics — men, women, and children* 
Ihs were opened at siimisc and closed at 
in the time of Alexander Severus, it 
r that they were kept open nearly all 
Ltcd* to have furni±>hed oil for his 
) previ(misty were nut opened be- 
■uiroram), and were shut before 
il ; and Juvenal' mclutlcs in his 
• inimoraliiicft, that of tiking the 
Igbt ii>tUnea %octe nibith which uay. bow- 
ir (o private baths. 

ir« uf a batb wsb a quadrant, the smallest 
UMwA money from the age of Cicero down- \ 
*•■•'■■ •■ '- ;iaid to tho krtper of the bath' 
.p,e It is termed by Cicero, in the 
juadrantarta permulalio, and hy 
rr* quojiraiuana. Chiklreo bcluw a cer- 
r ndinittt^ free.' 

credulity niri ^ii nondum ars favan/ur." 

lii'i. .ind fnreignr^ra, w?re admitted to 

if not to all. without payment. 

'.. loacription found al Rome, and 

L- OCTaVIO. L. r. CiM. 

fturo TR[B. VIL 


IM WPTT closed when any misfortune hap- 
Ti" ," and Suetonius taya Ihat the 
;.i:ide it a capital oflt-nc? to in- 
;. of bathins upfm any religious 
T were originally placed undiT thr 
CO of itio Kdiles, whose bwainesa it 
also in repair, and to see that 
i;i and of a properiemperatiue." 
Tiocta, Llio >ame duly seems to have de- 
n the nufl'stor. as may be inferred from 
^■IrvaJy quoled from Aulut> Gelliu:i ** 
■i tmnkDy a«oji»'nrd l>y the Uonian? for 
rteh vna the eighth hour, ur shortly af- 

wmfti^riB arrtoTt ; lavtJnmur una; 

#1*1/ Sttpkant balnta juncla mihr" 

titae avnc but invalids were allowed to 

Vilnivios n'ckonathe ln's: hours 

r bathrti:: f" he from midday until aLuut 

■ n,' bath al the ninth hour in 

r»d I :i in winter;'* and Marlia. 

-I lSj*rt.. Ha4lr.. c IT.)— 3. (Irfuo- 

-* (TivlM-ll. I'ulltu, Lta Cltlllf Q. diiub., 

s,-... 1. cj— fl. (Sat., tl., <10.> 

, Sut., 1., HI.. I?7.— Juv., 8ut., 

i^ro., Sat., It., lyi.) — lU. (1^1. 

■i.jw..'-. laj— 19. (lb,)— »3. (lb.— 

. (Mirt.. E[.., j^ m ; xi.. 53.1— 

IT. (r.. 10.)-ia. (Ep., id, 1, fk) 

speaks of taJting a bath, when fatlgaed and weary, 
at the tenth hour, and even later* 

When Ihe water was ready and the baths pre- 
pared, notice was given by the sound of a b^U — hm 
fhcrmamn.* One of these bells, with the inscription 
FiBMi liAi-NEATORts, was found in the therms Uio> 
cietiana}, m the year IJHS, and come into ihu pos- 
session of tho lOiimed Futvius Trrsintis.' 

Wliile the bath was used for health merely or 
cleanliness, a single one was consirlered stiflicicnt 
at a lime, and that only when requisite. But the 
luxuries of the Empire knew no such bounds, and 
the daily bath was sometimes repeated as many as 
seven and eight times in succession — the number 
which Ihe Kmperor Commodus indulged himself 
with.* Gurdian bathed seven times a day in sum- 
mer, and twice in winlor; the Rmperor Gnllitnus 
six or seven times in summer, and twice or thrice 
in winter.' Commodus also look his meals in tho 
hath / a custom which was not coniined to a dis- 
solute empCTor alone, for Martial' attacks a certain 
i£miiius for the same practice, which passage, how- 
ever, is differently interpreted by some commenta- 

It was the usual and constant habit of the Ro- 
mans lo take the bath after exercise, and previous- 
ly tu their principal meal {carta); but the debauchees 
of tho Empire bathed also aflcr eating, as well ao 
before, in order to promote digestion, so aa to ac- 
quire a new appnilte fiir fresh dclicacirs. Nero is 
related Id have indulged in this practice,* which is 
also alluded to hy Juvenal.* 

Upon (luiiLing the bath, it was usuat for the Ro- 
mans, as well as Greeks, lo be anointed wilh oil ; lo 
which custom both Ptmpey and Brutus are repre- 
sented by Plutarch as adhering But a particular 
habit of body, or tendency to certain complaints, 
sometimes required tins order to be reversed ; for 
which reason Augustus, who suffered from nervous 
disorders, was accustomed to anoint himself before 
bathing;*" and a similar practice was adopted hy 
Alexander Sevcnis." The most usual practice, 
howpTer, seems lo have been tn take some gentle 
exercise (exercitatw) in tho first instance, and then, 
after bathing, to be anointed either in the sun, or in 
tlie tepid or thermal chamber, and finally to take 
their Ibod, 

'Hie Horaana did not content ihemaoU'Cs wilh a 
single bath of hot or cold water, but they weni 
through a course of hnihs in succession, in which 
the agency of air as w-ell as water was applied. Ft 
irt difficult to ascerutin the. precise order in which 
line course was usually taken, if, indeed, there was 
any general practice beyond the whim of the indi- 
vidual. Under medical irealment, of course the 
succession would be regulated by the nature of the 
disease for which a cure was souglit, and would 
var}', also, according to the different practice of dif- 
ferent jihysicians. It is certain, however, that it 
was a general practice to close the pores and brace 
the tHxly after the excessive pcrspiratinn of the va-. 
pour ba;h, either by pouring cold w"ater over iho 
head, or by plunging at once into the ;Hffrmn, or mio 
a river, as the Russians still do,** and as the Romani 
sometimes did, as we leam fnm Ausonius. 
" Vtdi ego iefcssot multo auAore lavacri 
Fiutiiiijse locus, tt frigtffa ptscinartrm, 
Vt rim» frurrcntur aqvu ; mox amnc rtfate* 
PUtudcnh geiidum ^Hvten j/eputitit naimtu."^* 

Musa. tlio physician of Aoguatus, is said to have 

J. (EmjfT., ill., M; «., TO.>-e. <Mi»l.. Ep.. iiiv., 163.)— 3L 
rAppcn*]. Eul CiaoMm.. De Tnclin.}-— 4. (LiiRipnd., Conmod^c. 
2,)— 4. (CnpU.)!., CtLlU e. i;.)— 0. (L»mpntl., 1. r.|— 7. {Euigr., 
III.. I8.>— h. (San., Nen., ST,)— ft. (S«t., i., 143.)— Itt (Swrt., 
IVtnr.. &9.>— II. (Lunrri'l., Aid. S««^ L 0.)— U. tT(>Ax*i 
Ruaita.)— 13. {MmcU« Ml.) 


introduced this practice,* whirh brr*ATno quite the 
fashion, in consequence of the benefit which the 
empcrur derived from It. itiouKh Dion' accuses liim 
of haviii>; artfully caused the death of MarcelUis hy 
sn impropTT application <if the same treatment In 
other cases ii was considered conducive lo heuJth 
to pour wiirin wa«»- over the head hcforc the vapour 
hath, and cold wntf immediately after it ,* and at 
other limes a «iiccessinn of warin, tepid, and cold 
water was resorted to. 

The two physicians, C7L>n and Celsus* difTer in 
Bome respceis as to the orr^cr in which the bnih» 
should l>c token ; tlie fonncr rrcoimnending (insl the 
hot ftir of the Lacoiiicum (atpi d(pf£t'ft\ next the 
balh of wanu water {i^up ^cpfiAv and /m-r/wi'), af- 
terward the cold, and. finally, *to be well rubbed ;♦ 
while the latter recommends his patients Arat to 
sweat for a short lime in the tepid chamher (trpula- 
num) without undrcsKlnfi ; then to proceed into the 
thermal chanibi-r {rtihiianutn), and, after having gone 
through a regular course of perspiration there, not 
to dut.ceiid inio the warm bath (solium), but to pour 
a quantity of wann water orer the head, then te- 
pid, and finally cold : allerward to be scraped with 
the sirigil {pcrfncan), and finally rubbed dry and 
anointed* Such, in alt probability, waa the usual 
habit of the Romans when the buih was re»orled to 
as a daily source of plrasnrc, and not for any par- 
ticular medical trealnient; the more so, as it re- 
aembles, in many respects, the system of baitiinff 
stiU in pnictic'i among the Onenlals. who, as Sir 
W Cell remarks, "succeeded by cnnqtieat to the 
luxuries of the enervateil Greeks and Romans."* 

In the |ms«ige quoted above from Galen, it 19 
plain that the word ?ioOrftov is used for a wann 
bath, in which s^-nae it also occurs in llie same au- 
thor. Viiruviua,' on the contrary, says thai the 
Greeks used the same word to signify a cold bath 
(fhffiila tat>atio, qiiam Graci }jovTpov rontant). The 
contradiction between the two authors is here point- 
ed out, for the purpose of showing the imposaibihty, 
am well as iinpropnety, of attcmptinf! to fix one pro- 
ciso meaning to eaoh of the difTerent terms nude 
use of by the ancient writers in p>fi:roncc to ihoir 
batliinK establishments. 

Having thuR iletaJled from classical authorities 
the general habits of the Romans in connexion with 
their system of bathing, it now remains to exnmin*^ 
and explain the internal nrrancements of the atrue- 
turcn which mntained tli^ir baths, which will serve 
as a practical unnmentary ujKm all that has been 
•aid Indeed, there arc more amplp am) U-tter ma- 
terials for acquiring a thorough insight into Roman 

I. (Plm^ll. t«f.,»T.,»*.)-lL (liii..p.5l7.>— J. (Plia., R. N.. I. (Hi 
xrrt)/., J#.— rrj»i»*, f)^ MM., i,.l.)— (. rc;4kn, V" M-lh'-!-. Utn<- u( 

JtMfa^Jt, r.. to. p. 71**^ TttU, isl. KOtiD J— 5. KVU.. t>» Moil., i., t I>b Lu«. Ui ., H., W, «1. Mttllw.— Cumiwi U 
^J--A{C*>/l'0pjio/>om,n>Li,p.m,eil.l8X.)-' " ~ " 


manners in this one particular, than for any 
of the usages connected wiUi their domestic 
I.ucian, m the Irealise which is inscribed 
has given a niintiU; and interesting descriplio 
set (tf baths creeled by wn nrchiiprt of that ll 
which it is to tw regretted is much too long a 
sertioo U\ this place, hut which is well worth] 
sol; and an excavation made at Pompeii betj 
the years 1824, '25, laid o))en a complete get 
lie baths {l>a/nra), wiib many of the chiunbcrB,J 
to the ceilings, in go"il preservation, and 
ed m all their Jm]>orta»t parts upon rules 
lar to those laid down by Vilnivius. 

In order to render llie subjoined •■■"" 
easily intelligible, the preceding w<" 
ed. which is taken from a fresco pn 
walls of the ibermic of Titus at Rome. 

'nie wmnJcul on the following page re 
ground-plan of the baths of Pompeii, which are 
ly surrounded on three sides by hou»'*H andi 
thus forming what the Romans lenit" * ' * 

The whole building, which com, K 

set of baths, ha.H six different entr.i; ; n 
street, one of which. A, gives admissiun iJ 
smaller set only, which were apprf)priated d 
women, and five others to the mah' •' il 

which two, B and f', communicate I 

furnaces, and the other three, D, K, i . .^ .».. ;i 
thing apartments, of which K. the nearest 1 
Forum, was the principal one ; the other two, 1 
E, being on onptisile sidrs of the buildmg, i 
for the convenience of those who lived on thft 
and east sides of the city. Tn have a rjuK 
entrances (i^uAotf TroXAoiff Tethi)4jftivov) i» a 
the qiiolilics enumerated by I.ucinn -— -— -ii 
wcll-eon.structe<I set of baths. ' l*n.- I 

principal entrance F, which is rcn. 1 

street by a narrow footway tuirrnnndmg the 1 
(the outer curb of which is marktKl upon th« 
by the thin line drawn round it), and after Atm 
ing three steps, tlm bather find.** tipJin bis left 
n small chamber t), which contiim ' i1 

ence (Infrina'), and prcM'^ceds into :i '' 

(S), which run rouml three sides of ai 
atri«m (3), and these together formed the vi 
of the itatha — reKtilnttum Wncurwrn,* in w' 
servants belonging to llie eatdidrnhment, 
i^iich of the slaves and attendanis of ihi^ 
wealthy whose services wtTc not rr-i 
tenur, waited. There arc s<*als !■ 

mndation placed underneath the ^^ ~ . 

TJiis compartment answers exactly lo ttM! 
which is described by Lucian.* Within thia 

inpmaa, A.}— a. (iotrtiM «m sIm «»i 
if Vtum, fur tho IwtliinflHrrtML giMWi 

w «ou,, I., I »iB uiui- L»' -, t»-, W, «!. Mttllw.— Cuini«rv *.. 

(r., II.) \ c. a, n. m.>-l. \Sl\i»Xn OaV^lft.'i-A. a.c..i 



balbs (iWftr«/or>, who exacted the 
by each visiter, was also stationed -, 
i^ly, in it was found the box for holding 
Tirt* room (4) which nms back from 
might have been appropri:ilcd to him ; 
.nughl have been an acut or eir.dia, fur 
of Ihe better classes while awaii- 
of their acquaintances frotn the intc- 
;h cnac' tt will corresiMinit with the 
itioneil hj Lucian,' adjoining to tlie 
itiog-place (iv aptanp^ tU ruv i^ Tiiv- 
^atrjUvuv oixf/^iuruv). In this court like- 
^ng iJie most public |.iace, advertisements 
lhe«tre. or other onnouncemenls of general 
pt)sled up, one of whicli, announcing 
show, still rcinainfi. (6) Is the corrt- 
)nduci£ from the ciilrance £ inlo t)tc 
(6.^ A nmall cell of similar use as 
ling one in Uie opposite corridor (1). 
of cammtinir*alinn whirh leads into 
(*l). ihc/rj^'iJrtnwm, which also served 
or tpftliatvnum, a room for un- 
which \s also accessible from the 
<3oor D, Ihroueh the corridor (9), in 
1% anuU niche is obstrvaMe, which probably 
\4at tbe station of another laintalor, who col- 
icy from those entering from the north 
then, is the centre m which all the 
tiate met before entering into the In- 
bAth«; and its localily. as well as oth- 
ptk- fentiircs in its fittmgs up, leave no 
ihal It served as an undressing-room 
Vompetana. It does not api>ear that 
rule of ronstmction was followed by 
of flntiquily with regard to the local- 
st ndaptr-d for an apodyteri* 
rnentioncd hy Viiruvius, nor 
' '■'* says enough for us to 
''(^'i(/flriMminlhc baths 
\"i the last apartment, 
It number of chambers for the 
in the centre of which is an 
hatha of cold wnier" Pliny 
itie npodytmum at one of bis 
ne. frigidarium^* and it is plain, 

c. J.>— S. n ' ») ^ (Ep., T., 6.) 

from a passage already quoted, that the anodyttmum 
was a warm apartiuenl in the battis belonging t4 
the villa of Cicero's broltier Wuintus {eusa in alit- 
mm apodyteni an^ium promopt),to which tempera* 
tore Celsus also assigns it. In the thermK at Rcmei 
each of ilie hot and cold departments had probably 
a separate apodytenum attached to it ; or, if not, the 
ground-plan was so arranged that one apodytrrutm 
would be contiguous to, and serve for both or either; 
but wlicre space and means were circumscribed, ai 
in the little city of Pompeii, it is more reasonable to 
conclude iltat ihe fri^tdnrium aer^'cd as an apodytc- 
n'um fur those who confined themselves to cold ba- 
thing, and the Upidanum for thosQ who commenced 
their ablutions in the warm apartments. The ba- 
thers were exi)ecteil to take atl* tlieir garments in 
the apodytcrium, it not bcmg pennitted to enter into 
the intcnor unless nakeil.' They were then deliv- 
ered to a class of slaves called capiarii (from capta^ 
the small case in which children carried their hooka 
to school), whose doty it was to take charge of them. 
These men were notorious for dishonesty, and lea- 
gued with all the thiwes of the city, so that they 
connived at tho robberies they were placed there to 
prevent. Hence the exprcAaion of Catullus, " O/u- 
rum optume balneariorum /"' and Tracbilo. in the Ku- 
dens o^ Plautus,' complains bitterly of their rogue- 
ry, which, m the capital, was carried to such an ex- 
cess that very severe laws wore enacted agatnsl 
them, the crime of sicahng in the baths being made 
a capital oflence. 

To return into the chamber itself: it is vaulted 
and spacious, with slono seats along two sides of 
the wall {h, b\ and a step for the feet below, slight- 
ly raisod from the floor {puhinu* el f^radtis*). Holes 
can still be 8e<?n in the walls, which might have 
served for pegs on which the garments were hung 
when taken off; for in a small provincial town like 
Pompeii, where a robbery connnitted in the baibs 
could scarcely escape detection, there would he no 
necessity for capsani to take charge of them. It 
was lighted by a window closed with glass, and or- 
namented with stucco mouldings and painted yel- 
low. A section and drawing of this interior is giv- 

I (Cic..Pn>Cci!l..Sfl.)— 9. {Cirm.,ixilU.,ll— *.ClV,-ro^.x 
AI.)— 4. (ViUTjf., »., 100 



•r/i^ v<:.'. ' .*i, joeAAH .-TjA-SfcTt^u-j '.7 ra* kit.**: 

*^>r.', aM *.Vrtf thr*-^ f*J!* "J^ip, »m! Lju r»o xuks^yt 
•v>« t/» t4f:.iitJiSj; thf: »!*v;»nrt loto .■«. » *«tt wir-^f ft *t t,VT (Vr/h '// iO iDc^iM ^f'Xft tfi« Sy*. 
t//tti. Ifft ttif: ^iry0Vz *A *^iaiAit>x tb^ baUj^ni to Kit 
I'fWii Afi/l »%iiti tb#:ff»)>^lir':«. TV vnp^ ft'Z^ 'if 
Ifii4 *rt«t.w t^t'/.n:UH \o h% wj*at C»«rro u^tzxA wb<n 
ti't wrM'T, *' i^hmf.m fritnnsm tfduustm, vM )«<etaM 
hfa/.k,a n/m t.jft.nd'Tf.ntur** It M pT'/fftbl^ tlut mauiy 
t0i:rvmn f/mU:ttiiA tU*-titfif:\vim with the crjid haah 
f/nf/, \umU-aA of ifoificf thrfM((1i th'i ft^TTre vjt/ajv. of 
|fTtipirat)f/fi in th'; mnrm a[/artrrir:rft« ; and as the 
jttprjdnrtum alorf: ':0(il/l have had nofrlTect in tjaths 
Ilk': th':ii':, wh'fT'! it xw.tfXy hf.mi^ an an a^yUri- 
vm, thi natatto rniMt U; r'^f'^rr'-.d Uj wh^rn it is aaid 
Ihat at ori'; [Mrri'id r/ild tfittthii wrrm in anch request 
that in;»rfMy any Miiera w/rre uwrd.* Tb«-Te i» a 
|flatf>frin or aHihiilaUiry ($chola*f round the !>alh, 
alMi o( rrarWe, and four nich'-a of the aame material 
tUntumui at rttKtiinr intervala round l\it: walla, with 
IHulintaln, for ataturm prohahly, placed in them ; 
MivrordHiK to .Sir W. (jell,* with nrrata, which he 
liit4;r|irf4N *chnla, fitr the ace<miinodation of pcraona 
waiting an opjHjrtunity Ut hathe ; liut a paaaai^c of 
VitruviuH,* hnff^afUir qiirrti^l, aefrma to cfjntradict 
UiiH iiMT of tlio tf^rin : and M:aiK were placed in the 
fruiutmtum adjoininu, Utr the exprraa piinwiM! of ac- 
ronifiiodHtiha thoM! who were otili({rxl to wait for 
lliMr turn. Tim ecilintf ia vault/:<lt and the oham- 
h'-r liulitid hy 11 window in the centre. The an- 
ni'Ki'd wiNHJnit if'jirrMinta a frigidariuni^ with ita 

xr-x^ a fv*:v si 
'^i9^:^j::|aa*)oa&iX4K5Hefl5paaaBefld& U 
vcs &Jio <-— wjw^ vxi a wii ,n|M vKcrdv 
^^ic rrra.Ttg ««cr. 3id. 11 it 

aa^ or £->r k««7izr r j^a ea ci 

»*A i&:«&<^ CA ^ linag^ ^ praees of vmi 
baih:a( a^d n^aiitxi, cAerc^ iKo (IS) tke fi/ijh 


This di2xbi?r t^id imx eofslia 
Pocap^ or at tbe boxks of Hippiv. fad 
\i0AXjbA. with varm axr of aa agreeable 
in rrrrlcT to [rcpoTC the bodj fiv the great beH tf 
tbe Tap^AT and warm baths ; and. apoa retimui^ 
Ui ohTiate the danzer of a too soddea tvaaBtkn la 
tbe open a:r la this respect it lesembtea enell^; 
tbe tepid chamber described tnr Lneim,* whkh m^ 
says was of a moderaie and not oppreaaiTc bei^j 
adioining to which he plaoea a room lor iTrnn*ng 

In the hatha at Pompeii this chamber aerredl&D] 
wise as an mvodyUruKm for tboae who took ty| 
warm bath ; for which purpose tbe fittings np an 
evidently adapted, the walls being dirvted iatoi 
number of separate compartmenta or 
receiving the garments when taken off, by a 
of figures of the kind called AUmUt* or Te 
which project from the walls, and support a 
cornice above them. One of these diTisions, 
the Telamonea, is represented in the article KtLOh 
TCI. Two bronze benches were also found in ftei 
room, which was heated as well by ita 
to the hypocaust of the adjoining diaodier. aa i 
brazier of bronze (/<xru/us), in whidi the 
ashes were still remaining when the excai 
was made. A representation of it is given in tti 
annexed woodcut. Its whole length was aenj 
feet, and ita breadth two feet six inches. ; 

rttld buth^ tit nnt< rMniiiity. HUpponed tohnvt^ fomi- 
od n puM i>l tho t'onniitn vitluuf <^iron>, to whoHO 
ntio tiio titylit III roiiHliuctiiin, and tlio uho of the 
Numilr IHmio iihlttr, itiiditublcdiy ht'loug. Tho bath 
tlni'if, into which llu« wiUrv hIiII oonliimoa to flow 
Ihiui u uri};hhiMuini> xprutg. \* phtcrd undrr tho nl- 
ntvr, and lh(« twtt dtHiiH on t'm*h »\^t opemnl into 
■mall rhattdHMK, whh'h prtitmMy nrrvtM \\» atunt^ff- 
tia. U la Ktdl to l)i> Hi'iMi in tho Kitn1t'u>» of Ino Vil- 
la Oa|Hw«h. at MoU di l)ai'ta> tho oito of tho unoiont 

9. {KMW \\^wx»^u I »•» 4 tVuniv. «. U>.> 4. 0- c.>-a. 

III addition to this service, there can be little dotAl 
that this apartment was used as a depoaitorjftr 
tiiigucnts and a room for anointing {uXtimhfMh 
nnctvarium, eletotkesium), the proper place for wbJcfc 
iH represented by Lucian* as adjoining to the ttfh 
tlarium, and by Pliny* as adjoining to the hy;x>caiut: 
and for which purpose some of the niches betweea 
tlie Telamonea seem to be peculiarly adapted. Il 
the larger eslablishments, a separate chamber wsi 
nlUuted to these purposes, as may be seen by refet^ 
ring to tho drawing taken from the Tliemw o( 
Titus ; but, as there is no other spot within the d^ 
ouit of tho Pompeian baths which could be applied 
in the same manner, we may safely conclude thit 
tho inhabitants of this city were anointed in tbfl 
tepidarium. which service was performed by slaves 
called unctore* and alipta. {Vid. Aupt-c) Fo( 
IhiH purpose the common people used oil simply oi 
S4)nuninies soonled ; but the more wealthy dassei 
indulgtHl in the greatest extravagance with regard 
to Ihoir perfumes and unguents. These they ei* 
Iher pnH*ur«'d from the rtaothesium of the baths, 01 
brought with thorn in small glass bottles {ampmiU 
o/rantr), hundreds of which have been discoverej 
in dttioit'nt oxoavations made in various parts of 

I. (U c. •->-». IL eO-3. (Er ,i^ 17.) 



"J. AwpcLLA.) The fifth book of Alhe- 
mtalDS an ample treatise upon the numerous 
tf" ointmcnls used by the Romans ; which 
is al-W) fully treated by Pliny." 
uU is nif?ntioned by Suetonius* as htiving 
d a new luxury in the use ol the baih, by 
og Ibo water, whether hot or cold, by an iti- 
0f precious odoura, or, aa Phny relates ihe 
y anointing the walls with valuable un- 
I a practice, he adds, wliich was adopted by 
the bUtcs of Nero, that the luxury slmulil 
ioofincd to royalty {ne prinripaie vidcalur hoc 

1 this apartment^ a door, which closed by its 
sight, to prc^Tnt tlic admission of cold air, 

into No. 13, the thermal chamber, or con- 
■ rudaiw of Vitmvius ;* and which, in exact 
lily with bis directions, contains the warm 
a/itncm, or calda lacatio,* at one of its ex- 
s, anil the geniicircular vapour, or Laroni- 
the other; while the centre space between 

end4, termed juAatw by Vitruvius,' and ru- 
I by Seneca, is exactly twice the length of 
b, Bceonting to the directions of Viiruviua. 
|ect m leaving so much space between the 
ftth and the Lnconintm was to give room for 
mastic exercises of the persons within the 
fari^o were accuatomcd to promulo a full 
^^biration by rapid movenirnrs of the arms 
Plr by lifting weights ; which practice is 
U) by Juvenal:' 

** SUa^no gojiiUt sudare lumultu, 
m U^Koia gravi ctctdcntnt brachia massa." 

" •"^*''''''=hments, the conveniences contain 

'111 occupied two separate cells, 

13 appropriated to the warm bath, 

tparitiieui was then termed ctjltlarium, cella 

I Of balnciim, and the other which comprised 

jonicum and sudatory — Lacomcui/i sudatto- 

which part alont was then designated un- 

.,,,..,-. '--■^rncamcralatmiiitto. Thisdislribu- 

l in the painting on the walls of 

I : 1 litis; in which there is also annth* 

^inrity lo be observed, viz , the passii^ of 

licalton {intcTcaprdo) between the two cham- 

e fiofirinj! uf which is suspended over thp 

iBt. Lucian informs us of the use for which 

..... _. ^^.^^ intended, where he mentiuns 

:raotcnstic conveniences in the 

ihai the bathers need not retrace 

■1 the whole suite of apartiuenls by 

niered, but might return from Ihe 

^^uitH'r by a shorter circuit through a 

flbUp lemporalure {Si'/ipifta &rf)fwO oUiifta- 

With communicated immediately with the 

Irarro-watcr bath, which is termed eaUU la- 
! Vitnjviu*,'* bahncnm by Cicero," piscina or 
tiffna by Pliny*" and Suetonius," as well as 
■■d iFvliitm by Cicero," appears to have 
^Hnous marble vase, sometimes standing 
tn^T, like that in the pieluro from the 
} of Tiiu.* ; and «imeiimcs either partly ele- 
Ikpvc the QiMu as it was at Pompeii, or en- 
ink into It, as directed by Vjiruvius." The 
\ntm is generally used of a bath containing 
|rat«r, and piscina of one whicli contains 
Vft the real distinction seems to be that the 
hu larger than the former, as m the words 
to aftmuly quoted, ** latiorem pixnnam vittms- 

».)— t. (Cil., 17.)-1. (I. e.)— *. (▼., II.)— 5. 

(l.f..(_7. (9tu.,Ti^<50.)-8. (Vitn>»^I.c.> 

W. (1. f,J— II. M Ati., II.. 3.)— ir (E[..,ii., 

t7.>-H. iCie., til P»Bi., iiT.. IB.)— 15. (Ill 

gem." Pliny' uses the term piKina for a pona m 
tank in the open air (which was probably the accu- 
rate and genuine sense of the word) ; which, from 
being ejtposrd to the heat of the 8un» possessed a 
higher temperature than the cold bath, which last 
he distinguishes in the same sentence hy the word 
putcus, "a well," which probably was that ropre- 
sented m ibo drawing from the batli at Mola.' 
Mscenas is said, by Dion,' to have b<rn the first 
person who made use of a piscina of warm wator, 
called by Dion «o^i'^fi/>(^/)a.* — The words of Vitru- 
viua," in speaking of lin; wann-water bath, are aa 
follows . *' The bath (lahntm) abould be placed un- 
derneath tlie window, in such a position that the 
persons who stand around may not cast their shad- 
ows upon it. Ttic platform which surrounds the 
bath {nchoifx labroTMm) must be sufficiently spacious 
lo allow the surrounding observers, who are wail- 
ing for their turn, to stand there wiUiout crowd- 
ing each other. The width of the passage or chan- 
nel (alteus), which lies bf,-Lwcen the parapet {pin- 
tcus) and the wall, should not be less than six feet, 
so that the space occupied by the seat and its stop 
below (pulvinus ct gradus inferior) may lake ofl' 
just two feet from the whole width." Tlte sub- 
joined plans, given by Marini^ will explain bti 

A, ^rum, or bath : B, ncfttrfa, or platform ; C,;»i»*- 
tevs, or parapet; 1), (Uvcus^ passage between the 
pliiicus and wall; F, »u/ri/i«*, or seat; and E, the 
lower step {gradus inferior), which together lake up 
two feet. 

The warm bath at Pompeii is a square basin of 
rnarble, and is ascended from the outside by two 
steps raised from the floor, which answered lo the 
parapet otpluUus of Vitruvius. Around ran a nar- 
row platform {»choU); but which, in consequence of 
the limited extent of the building, would not admit 
of a scat ipnlvtioLs) all round it. On the interior, 
another step, dividing c(iually the whole length of 
the cistern, allowed the baihera to sit down and 
wash themselves. The annexed section will ren* 
i^iij this casdy intelligible. 

A, labrum ; B, »chola ; C, pluieu* ; D, the step on 
the inside, probably called solium, which word is 
eomelimea apparently used to express the bath 
itself; and Cicero* certainly makes U8C of the terra 

I. <Ep.. T., fl.} — 9. (" 8i Mitora laiwa ftui Mpidliu Telil, m 
ana ftteOm ttt, in ptvxiino jmieui, rx quo poMi* runai tdnrinffl 
iri ptKoitoat taptma,")— 3. (lib. Ir.) — 4. (srMlrJf re nXvu^ffipas 
5(ci'^ WrtTOj iv Tjj wrfAti Koriff* uaai'S — 5. (*"., 10.) — 0. (•» 
Pliua., tl,) 




to express a vessel for containing liquids. Bat tlie 
explanation given above is mach more satisfactory, 
and is also supported by a number of passages in 
which it is used. It is adopted by Fulv. Ursinus/ 
who represents the tolium, in a dravring copied from 
McrcurialiSi'as a portable bench or seat, placed 
sometimes within and sometimes by the side of the 
bath. Augustus is represented' as making use of a 
wooden Molium (^uod ipse Hispanico verbo dureiam 
Tocabat) ; in which passage it is evident that a seat 
was meant, upon which he sat to have warm water 
poured over him. In the women's baths of the op 
ulcnt and luxurious capital, the $olia were some- 
times made of silver.* 

Wo now turn to the opposite extremity of ihe 
chamber which contains the Laconicum or vapour 
bath, BO called because it was the custom of ttio 
Laccdnmonians to strip and anoint themselves 
without using warm water after the perspiration 
produced by their athletic exercises ;* to which 
origin of the term Martial also alludes :' 
" Hitu$ n flactant tibi Loconum, 
Contentua potet arido vapore 
Cruda Virgine Martiave mergi" 

By tho terms Virgine and Martia the poet refers to 
the Aqua Virgo and tho Aqua Martia^ two streams 
brought to Rome by the aqueducts.) ( Vid. Aqu^k- 

It is termed 0**0 by Cicero,* from fiC". to dry \ 
because it produced perspiration by means of a dry. 
hot atmosphere; which Cclsus' consequently tern is 
Mudationes <ai(u, "dry sweating," which, he afltr- 
ward adds,' was produced by dry warmtl^ (calcve 
ticco). It was called by the Greeks nvpiair^ptov.^'* 
fiom the fire of the hypocaust, which was extend*.!) 
under it; and hence by Alexander Aphrodis., ^poi- 
iJoWr, " a dry vaulted chamber." 

Yitruvius says that its width should be equal to 
its height, reckoning from the flooring (tuspensur^i) 
to the bottom of the thole (imam curraturam kenit- 
tphitrii\ over the centre of which an orifice is lett, 
from which a bronze shield (clipcua) was suspended 
This reflated tho temperature of the apartment, 
being raised or lowered by means of chains to whif h 
it was attached. The form of the cell was requinnt 
to be circular, in order that tho warm air from tlie 
hypocaust might encircle it with greater facility, ^^ 
In accordance with these rules is the Laconicam at 
Pompeii, a section of which is gives below, the cU- 
peus only being added in order to make the mean- 
mg more clear. 

A, The suspended pavement, ntpenntrm ; B, th<- 
junction of the hemisphvrium with the side wall^ , 
ima atrrctura kemispkarii; C, tho shield, ctipeus ; 
£ and F, the chains by which it is raised and low- 
ered ; D, a Ubrumy or flat marble vase, hkc those 
called uzz€ by the Italians, into which a supply of 
water was introduced by a single pipe running 
diTough the stem. Its use is not exactly ascertain* 
ed in this place, nor whether the water i't contained 
was hot < r cold. 

It would not bo proper to dismiss this account of 
the iMctmirum without alluding to an t^nion adopt- 
ed by some writers, among whom are Galiano and 

Cameron, that the Laeonieum waa merely a a 
cupola, with a metal shield over it, rising abort 
flooring (tutpenMura) of the chamber, in the ma 
represented oy the drawing from the Therma 
tus, which drawing has, doubtless, given rise U 
opinion. But it will be observed that the deaic 
question is little more than a aection, and thai 
artist may have resorted to the expedient in c 
to show the apparatus belonging to one end ol 
chamber, as is frequently done in similar pi 
where any part which required to be represe 
upon a larger scale is inserted in full developi 
within the general section ; for in none of the 
merous baths which have been discovered in '. 
or elsewhere, even where the pavements were 
perfect state, has any such contrivance been obi 
cd. Besides which, it is manifest that the eh 
could not be raised or lowered in the design alh 
to, seeing that the chains for that purpose could 
be reached in the situation represented, or, ii 
tained, could not be handled, as they must be 
hot from the heat of the hypocaost, into which 
wer« inserted. In addition to which, the rem 
discovered tally exactly with the directions of 
truvius, which this does not. 

After having gone through the regular conn 
perspiration, the Romans made use of instram 
called ttrigiUs (or MtrigUa^) to scrape off the 
spiration, much in the same way as we are ao 
tomed to scrape the sweat oflT a horse with a p 
of iron hoop after he has mn a heat, or come 
from violent exercise. These instruments, • 
specimens of which are represented in the IbD 
iiig woodcut, and many of which have been diai 

1, (AppfnO, in Omc««.. IV Tnciiii.>-4. (D* Art. Gr»a.)- ered among the rains <rf the variow baths of 
IST^x^'^^:^: v!.?l;u i^vS-l-iJ^gl-iiS: iS;:: , t^juity. ^e^ made of bone, bron«. inm, aod «l, 
1::., 1. % i.v— tt. (III., np. utt.^-». lYi., 17.^— 10. (VuM.. Lri. ui corresponding m lonn with the epithet or A 

CtTm.. t. T.v— II. iVitrar., t., 10.— S«« ftlw Atbensw, u., t>. 



distiiDgcre ferro."* The poorer clasa- 
r oUign] to scrape thoinKclves, but tite more 
} took their slaves to ttip ballia for ihn pur- 
I ui'L whu'li IS cfluciilaKMl hy a curious slory 
hy Spftrtian ' The emperor, while hathitiji^ 
; observing an old soldier, whom he had for- 
Bown among the logions, rubbing his back, 
WUe do. against the marble walls of the 
t.itked him why ho conTcrted the wall into 
; and learning that he was too poor to kf?cp 
he gave him one^ and money for his niain- 
, On the following day, u[K)n hia return to 
I he found n whole row ot old men rubbing 
res m the same manner against the wall, in 
I of experiencing the same gtiod fortune 
\ pnoco*s liltL-rttliiy ; but, instemi of taking 
, he had Ihem all ealled up, and told ihem 
one another. 

trigi] was by no means a blunt inslrument ; 
jntiy, ita edge was sttUeiied by the appliea- 
D. whieb was dropped upon it from a small 
died guttut (called also ampuUa, Xqct-^of, ^t>- 

iAaio^finv*. Vul. Ampulla.) Thift had 
t neck, 50 as to discharge its contents drop 
from whence the name w taken. A rej)- 
l^flf a g^jttus is given in the preceding 
^^flu^slus is related to have aufl'ered 
^B^iolcDl use of this instmmcnt * In- 
td persons of a delicate habit made use of 

which Pliny says answered for towels as 
itrigUs. They were finally dried with tow- 
ff), and anointed.* 

)otunioii |>eopIt; were su[)i)lied with these 
j«i in tbt baths, but the more wealthy car- 
r own with ihun, as we mfer from Persius :* 
fier, ei atrtgHet Cnspini ad balnea defer.** 

ftdds also soap and towels to the list. 
Ihe otM^ration of scraping and rubbing dry, 
ivd into, or remained in. the icpidarium until 
nght It prudent to encounter the open air. 
oca not appear to have been customary to 
Ihr Water, when there was any. wlueh was 
Mse at Pfimpeii. nor in the baths of Hippi- 
KT of the trpidanum or Jngidarium ; the 
ittre only of the almosphere in these two 
a being of consequence to break the sudden 
^m the extreme of hot to cold. 
[UDg DOW back into the frigidariutn [S), 

Ejg to the directions of Vitruvius,* 
14) communicating with the mouth 
{<), which is also seen m the next 
the boilers, called prafurnium, prop- 
iyiJnv ( froiu ir/jd, before, and -jreiyzvCi 
^.issing down that passage, wc re-ach 
mbet (15) into which the prufurnium pro- 
pd which has also an entrance from the 
t B It WAS appropriated to the use of those 
( ->.,,„. ,,{ tiif. fire-a (fimiacatores). There 
in it ; one of which leads to the 
iiid the other to the coppers which 
^ ih« water. Of these there were three : 
irliieh rniiiained the hot water — caJdarium 
in) ; the second the tepid — tepida- 
st the cold— /n^Janum. The 
[itn^duced into the warm bath by 
It pipe, marked on the plan, and 
the wall. Underneath the calda- 
the furnace //urtiiu"). which serv- 
w«tor. and give out streams of warm 
oeUa of the hypocawilum (from 

.H"i"in, e. 17.) — 9. (RujM-rti in 
...30.)— i. (Jhv., R.t..iii,, 
K.N.. Mil., 47.5—0. (Sat. 
_, . .. ,j .,: .1.', «l. Hutz.j— 9. iLuciMi, 1. 
t. (Fiio., £p^ II., 17.)— 11. (Hor., Ep,, i., 

£?ro, und^r, and ttatu. to burn). It passed fVom tne 
furnace under the first and last of the caldrons hy 
two flues, which are marked upon the plan. These 
coppers were conftrucled in the same manner as is 
represented in the enjjraving from the Thermm ol 
Titus ; the one containing hot water being placed 
immediately over the furnace ; and, as the water 
was drawn out from thence, it was supplied from 
the next, the tepidarivm, which was already con- 
siderably healed, from its contiguity to the furnace 
and the hypocaust below it, so that it supplied the 
deficiency of tlie fonner without materially dimin- 
itthintj its temperature ; and the vacuum in this last 
was again filled up from the farthest removed, which 
contauied the cold water received directly from the 
square ro-senroir seen behind them ; a prinripje 
which lias at length been introduced into the mod 
ern bathing establishments, where its efficacy, both 
in saving lime and expense, is fully acknowledged. 
The iMiilers themselves no longer remain, but the 
impressions which they have left in the mortar in 
which they were imbedded are clearly visible, and 
enable us to ascertain their respective positions anil 
dimensions, the first of which, the caldarium is rep- 
resented in the annexed cut. 

Behind the coppers there is another corridor (16), 
leading into the court or atrium (17) appropriated to 
the servants of the hath, and which has also the 
convenience of nn immediate communication with 
the street by the door at C. 

We now proceed to the adjoining set of baths, 
which were assigned to the women. The entrance 
is hy the door A, which conducis into a small ves- 
tibule (16), and thence Into the aptHfyferium (I9), 
which, like the one in the men's baths, has a seal 
{puhinu9 ct gradua) on cither aide huilt up against 
the wall. This o|)ens upon a c<dd bath. {'20), an> 
swering to the mtaiio of the other set, but of much 
smtiller diuiensinn, and probably similar to the one 
denominated hy Pliny' jmte.tut. There are four 
steps on the inside to descend into it. Opposite to 
the door of entrance into the apotlytcrium is another 
doorway which leads to the upidarium (21), which 
also communicates with the thermal chamber (22), 
on one side of which is a warm bath in a square re- 
cess, and at thu farther extremity the Laconicum 
with ita iabrurn. The floor of this chamber is sus- 
pended, and its walls perforated for flues, like the 
corresponding one in the men's baths. 

Tlie comparative sinallneBS and inferiority of the 
Gittngs-up in this suite of baths has induced some 
Italian nntiquarics to throw a doubt upon the fact 
of Itjeir being assigned to the women ; and among 
these the Abbalo lorio' ingeniously suggests that 
they were an old set of buths, to whicnthc linger 
ones were subsetiuently added when they became 
t<Ki small for the incre;tsing weailh and population 
of the city. But the stor)*, already quoted, of the 

t. (I.e.)— 9. [Plan tie FoDip«u.) 




eoiiaurs wife who turned the men out of tliptr baths 
Bt Teanum fur her ctjnvenienoe, 8<M^ms siifliciently 
\o negative micU a suppo^ilion, and to prove that 
the inhabilaiiuuf ancieut ItalVi \( not more selfish^ 
nere oeitainly le&s lo^allant than their successors 
Tn addition to this, Vitruvjus expressly enjoins titnl 
ttie baths of the men and women, though separate, 
should be contiguous to each other, in order tlial 
they might he supphed from the eaiiie hoilerti and 
hypocaust ;' directions which are hern fultilJed to the 
letter, as u glanee at the plan will drmunstrale. 

It does not enter within the scope of this article 
to investigate the source from whenee, or the man- 
ner in which, the water was supplied to ihe baths of 
Pompeii. But it may he remariied that the sugces- 
lion of Mazois, who wrote just after the excavation 
was commenced, and which has been copied from 
htm by the editor of the vohmies on TomiKii pub- 
lished by the Soeiely for the DifTusioii of Useful 
Knowledge, was not coiifirined by the excavation ; 
and those who arc interestwl in the matter may 
eonsult the fourth appendix to the Plan de Pompcxt^ 
by Uic Ahtiate lorio. 

Nutwithstaiidinf? the ample account which has 
been given of the plans and usQj:es respect ini{ baths 
in general, something yet remains to be aaid about 
thai particular class denominated Therni;H ; of which 
eeiabtishmenls Hie baths, in faet, constituted iho 
smailest part. The IhermiL', properly speaking, were 
a Roman adaptation of the Greek gymnasium, or 
palxstra (nJ. Pal^kbtra), as described by ^'ilruvi- 
ua;" both of whicli containfnl fl system of hatha in 
conjunction with conveiiienfres for athletic t'^">'-i^ 
and youthful sports, exeilni^ in which the rlieton- 
cians declaimed, poets recited, and philosophers lee- 
ttircd, as well aa porticoes and vcstihulos for the 
idle, and libraries for the learned. They were dec- 
orated with the finest objects of art, both in pairit- 
mg and sculpture, covered with precious marblos, 
and adorned w iih fountains and shaded walks and 
plantations, like the groves of the Academy. It 
may be said that ih^y boffau and ended with the 
Empire, for it was n<rt until the lime nf Augustus 
Ihal these magnificent structures were eoiniiieuced. 
M Ajcrrippa is the first who mTurded these luxuries 
to his countrymen, by bequeathing to them the ther- 
me and gardens which he had erected in the Cam- 
pas Manius* The Pantheon, now existing at 
Rome, served originally as a vestibule to these 
baths ; and, as it was considered too magniUcent 
for the purpose, it is supf>osed that Agrippa added 
the portico and consecrated It as a temple, for which 
use it still serves. It apjM.'ara 4'rom a passage in 
Sidonius ApollinariB.* ihat the whole of those biiild- 
mgs, together with Ihe adjacent 'niermae Nemnia- 
nip, remained entire in the year A.D. 4fi6. Little is 
now left beyond a few fragments of ruins, and the 
Panlheon, The example set by Agrippa was fol- 
lowed by Nero, and afterward by Tilus ; the ruins 
of whose thermnrt arc still visible, covering a vast 
extent, partly mider ground anJ partly almve the 
Esiiuiline Hill. Thcrmw were also erected by Tra- 
jan. Caracalla, and. Diocletian, of the last two of 
which ample remains stiil exist ; and even as late 
ds Constantine, besides several which were con- 
structed by private individuals, P. Victor enumer- 
ates sixteen, and Panvinus* has added four more. 

Previously to the erection of these cstablish- 
menls for the use of the population, it was custom- 
ary for those who sougtit the favour of the people 
to give them a day's bathing free of expense. Thus, 
■ceordtng to Biun Casstus.* Faiistus, the son of 
Sulla, fumiehed wann baths and oil gratis lo the 

I. (Vitr., T.. IO.t-1. (».,n.)— 1 (I)i-m.IiY.. tfim. i.,p.7ftU.— 
Drttript., p. lOS.)— e. (xuvU., p. I49.J 

people for one day : and Augustus, on one 

furnished warm bnttm and barbers lo Uie 
the same periwi ({oir of expense,' and at 
lime for a whole year lo the women as well 
men.' From thence it is fair to infer that 
quadrant paid for admission into the f^alnea was 
exacted at the ihetma, which, as the w< 
of the emperors, would naturally be opened u*] 
im|)erial generosity to all, and without any cbar| 
otherwise the whole city would have thronged 
the eslablisbmenl bei|ueathcd to them by Agripf 
and in confirmation of this opmion, it may be 
marked, that the old CBtablistunentB, which W( 
probably erected by priTalc enterprise,* were 
cd meniorta.* Most, if not all, of the other 
tions previously detailed as relating to theecoDC 
of the baths, apply equally to the thermi) : but it 
to Ihe^e establishments espoeially that the dissuh 
ctinduct of the emperors, and other luxurious 
dtilgences of the people in general, detaded in 
compositions of the satirists and later wrilors, rai 
be considered lo refer. 

Although considerable, remains of the 
thennin are siill visible, yet, from the very ruino 
state in which they are found, we are fnr from 
ing able to arrive at the same accurate Icnowl 
of their component parts, and the usages to vhi 
they were appUed. as has been done with rcspecH 
the balnea: ; or, indeed, lo discover a salisfai 
mode of reconciling their constructive details 
the description which Vitruvius has left of the bal 
appertaining to a Greek palicstra, or the dcscripli 
Riven by Lucian of the baths of Hippias. All, i 
deed, la dnubt and guess-work ; each of the 
men who have prettiided lo give an account of i 
contents dtlTering in ntmost all the essential 
ulars from one nnother. And yet the great si 
Tnrity in the groundplnn of the three which sIiU 
main cannot fail to strike e\'en a superficial obsei 
er; so great, indeed, that it is hnpossiblo not 
perceive at once that they were all constni< 
upon a similar plan. Not, however, to dismiaa 
BUbjrrl wjthoiil enabling our readers lo form 
Ihin^ like a general idea of these cuormotiscdi 
whieh, tVorti their extent and magnificence, 
been likened to provincres (in modnm provinaatt 
^istntriiL*), a ground-plan of the Thermre of Cait 
calla is annexetl. wluch are the best 
among remaining, and which were, perhaj 
more splendid than all ihe rest, Tliose apartmt 
of which the use is ascertatncd with the fippeami 
of prnbnbiliiy. will be alone marked and ex| 
The dark parts reprcKcnt the remains still 
Ihe open lines are restorations. 

A, Portico fronting the street made by Carac 
W'ben he constructed his therms. B, Separate 
thingroonis. cither for the use of the common 
pie, or. perhaps, for any persons who did not i 
lo litUhe in public. C, Apodytcria attached to tlici 
P, D, and E, E, the |K)rticoes.* P, P, Kxedra, 
wbifh there were seats for the philosophers lo fat 
their conversations ' O, H>*p»ihrw, passages 
to the ail*: Hifpatkra ambulaJionea quas Gnect 
ptSfiofiifiac, nostri xystos appellant.' 11, H, Stadia] 
ihc pals^stra — quadrata five ollrm^a.^ I, I, Poenril 
schools or academies where public lectures va 
delivered. J, J, and K, K. Rooms appropriated 
the servants of the baths {}tAlntatijm). In ibe 
ter are staircases for ascending to the principal 
ervoir. L. Space occupied by walks and sbrul 
ies — ambulAhones inter platanemcM^' M, Tlie 
or stadium in which the youth perfonnrd their 

I. (Id., liv., p. 75*.)— S. (Id., xlii., p. MO.l-S. (| 
Plin., H. N., ii., 70.)-4. (Plin.. Kj.., ii.. 17.)— 5. (Ami 
cell., ivi., 6.)--fi. (VitniT., v., II.)— 7. (Viirtt*.. 1. c— Cic. 
Om., li., J.J— fl. (VitrOT., 1. cj— 0. (VjItut , L r,)— 10 (1 
tmv^ 1. cj 




W"* •« < 4 « • o a 

w" It noa 9a ^ ocoottoa^pao t p a pa 

R'Uh *fala for the spcflators,^ called ihc 
M. N, N. Ueaervuirs, wilh upper 6toni:s, 
cIcv)ition3 of which are given in itio two 
nt wuodctits. O, A<]i]»<!uct wliich siTp- 
P. The cistern or piscinn. Tliis 
[e of buildings occupies unc mile in 

>w c^nne lo the arrangement of the interior, 
it 15 vfry diffirtiU to assign satisfactory 
la Q rrprcsoni* iho principal entrancc?a, 
there were eight- K, the nafatio, jtitcina. 
Iter bath, to which the direct entrance 
portico is by a vestibule on either side 
which is surrounded by a set of 
!h served most probably as rooms for 
lyttna), anointing {unr.tuaTt,i\ and 
captarii. Those nearest to the per- 
"iap», the conuferia, where the pow- 
which the wrestlers used in order lo 
grasp upon their adversaries - 
hauMio gpar^t mt pulrcri paimis^ 

fulca laclu JLivesctl arrwrt","' 
quAlity of the ornaments which ihcBC 
have had, and tht^ staircases in two of 
fr\'»denec that they were occupied by 
T P* considered to be the lepidarium, 
jjrsnn iKith.-* (a, u, n, ir) taken out of its 
id two lahra on iu two Hanks. There 
descending into tli« baths, m one of 
lof the conduit are still mnnifeat. Thus 
■ppeiir that the centre part of this apart* 
r«d (M " '^putartumt havinc a Inilncum or 
in fob, . f Its cnrntrs. The centre part, 

like that also of tbc preceding apartment, is stip- 
parted by ei«ht nnmenso columns 

Tlte apartments beyond this, which are too inuclf: 
dilapidated to be restored with any degree of cer* 
tatniy. contained, of course, the laconiciim and su- 
datories, for which the round chamber W, and its 
appurtenances aeem to be adapted, and which are 
also contiguous lo the reservoirs, Z, Z.* 

t, e probably comprised the rphcbta, or places 
where tlie youth were taught their exercises, with 
tlie ap[!urtenancea belonging to thcni, such as llie 
sphanstcrtum and corycai/m. The first of thesa 
takes its name from the game at ball, so much in 
favour with the Romans, at which MartiaPs friend 
was playin£; when the bell sounded to announce 
that the water was ready* T)ie latter is derived 
from KtJpvKos, a sack,* which was filled with bran 
and olive husks for the youn^, and Rand for the 
more robust, and then suspended at a certain height, 
and swmip backward and forward by the playere.* 

The chambers also on the other side, which are 
not marked, probably served for the exercises of 
the palaestra in bad weather.* * 

These baths contained art upper story, of which 
nnrhing remains beyond what is just sufficient to 
indicate the fact. They have been mentioned and 
eulnpized by several of the I-atin authors • 

It will be observed that there is no part of the 
bathing department separated from the rest which 
could be assigned for the use of the women exclu- 
sively. From this it muM be inferred either that 
both sexes alwaVs bathed together proraiscuoualy 

I. (VilniT., f., IL)-a. {M»n., Kp., lir., 163.)— 3. (Ifeiyrli.. 
I. v.y— 4. (Aulis, Dc Gymn. Cuoit., ft. St.— Anli)!., ap. OntiM., 
Coll. M«1., «.)— i. (Viiiuv., »., 1 !.)-«. (SpJirtiiin., CBnu-ftll., 
c. B. — Lniuiirid., Hvlinirsb., c. 17. — AU'i. Scr.. r. 5(5, — EutnY^ 
viti., U.— Oljnap., up. Fhot., p. IH, ul. Aug. VmdfV.,\CQ\.> 



m the llicnniB. or that the women wrtc exRlnd.^J 
altogpilier iroui itiOAe catatiliBhinrmu, uiid only n<l- 
luittcd tu the balnea. 

ll rernaiiiA to t-xplain the manner in which thr 
imtnen»u tuKly of water reiiuirud Iot the auppty nf 
n^'t of hulhH in ttio tlicniii!* was ht>ntod, wUich linti 
be*M» prrforincd very ftntUifnctorily by riramai an<I 
Campion, as may bo seen hy a r(.T".'rftii'»' to i\w iwci 
8tlhjuine4 Brrtlons uf the casteUnm a-piirtluctutt arid 
vijcin/i b(;Ionging to the riiorni^c ofCurucaita. 



A, archer ol liiu u'^U'ducL wliicU cDiiveyoil the 
water into the p'uieina B, from whcixe it llowi^i] 
into the upper rango of cella ihroush the apertnre 
at U, anil ihcm'o aeatn descended into the lower 
onca by the ap<'rltirc at D, whiob were placed im- 
liiodialcly over Ibe hypocauat E, the pricfurniuin of 
which JH seen in the tranarcnsL' seetion at K. in the 
IdWor i-u(. Thi-ro were Ihirty-two of these eclU 
arraiigcd in two rows owr the liy|H>caust. aixtccn 
on eiich sulo, and ail coiuiiiunicaling with earh 
other; iuui over ihem! a .similar iiumbfT dimlhirly 
arranged, which connnunicaied with ihosu btlo'.v 
by the apt^rturc at Ti. The parting walls between 
ttiese cells were hkcwise perforated with fluca, 
which wrved to dissominnte the beat all round the 
whnlc body of water. When the waior wa^s sufli- 
cmntly wann, it was torncd on to thf baths thruujth 
pi|K'8 eomluetcd likcwisL' thruu;;h lluis m order to 
pievciiV the loss ol" lein(>ernture duriiit; ihp pasaage, 
and Ihu varuum was supplied hy tepid water from 
Iho raniio alHive, which was rephMiishrd from the 
piscina ; rxar.tly upim the principle rrpn-setiti'd in 
the drawing from tlio Thornuc of Ttiiis, ingeniously 
apphcil np.ia a much larHcr m*alf. 

BATILM'.S (u/iiif). a sbovd. Pliny ineniiona 
llio use of iron aliovein, wh'Ji h^aK'd, in testing 
sdver and verdigris.' Horace ridicules the vain 
|>0[nposity of a municipal uincer in tlie binall town 
Of Fundi, who had n shovel of red-hot elinreoal 
carried before him in [whlic fur the purpose of buni- 
inKon it frankincense and other odours {pruna ha- 
ttilum*). Varro points out tbu uae of the shovel in 
the poultry.yard (cum iutUlUt nratmire, ac MtercM* 
tMUrt^). The same instnimeni was employed, to- 
gether with the spade, fur inakmjL; roads and for 
Tariotta agricultural operations (auai*), " }Iamn" 
ftrs alio mentioned as utensils for extinuuiahin^ 
irea. These may have been woodm shovels, tiaed 
for throwing water, a* we now see them employed 
in some countries which abound in pools and canals.* 

7. tPfia.. ». n.. iTxiii.. 44 ; itiu., tlO.)~t. (Sst^ 1., v^ M.) 
— JC fO« Re Rat., iii., 0.) — 4 (X^n., C/mp., vi., 1. — Brunei^ 
AjimJ^ t,.. p. M.—OMpotucM, U., n)~~5. (Jur,, iir., VU,} 

•BATIS (/Jor/c). a ap^iea of fii 
Rata buliM,1, , railed in French ro/iarr, i 
the Fiair or SkaU* 

•UATOS (/iurof), a plant or shrub, Uic i 
winch, as described by Tlieophraslus,* 
arranged by StaeUiou»e : 'i he first, nr f>,} 
the HuhuJi fruitf.ojruM, or Conunun Flratit' 
j»i'ctind, or ;|fn/in/ftnTr>c \h the Jf. Chama 
Ckiud-I^errj* (called in Kcotlnnd the Avru 
third, or nvvitoCaTo^^ is the H. \dau», or W 
Sprengel ap'ces with almost all the autboi 
the liuTo^, properly B[>cakin^, of Dioaco 
Oalen, is the HuOum frultctiruM ; and the 
Hubn* xdtrui. It may be proper to remari 
Ibc pools, iiiirox is oHen applied to at 
t^lirub. '^llins, in the following epigram, ll 
In the stem of the ruse : 

" To ^66oi' t'tKiuH^ii f3ainv ;^'popoy, ^v St t 
Zr/Tuv cvftfjcttf uv fttiAot' uAAu (iarov.*** 

•DATRACH'IllM ($aTpdxiav), n plant 
Apiileius says. ^' Nutcitur tuepr in Sardinia. 
SehnlKe, who is othr'r\\'iho undecided rr»{; 
holds ii to Ik! idintieiil with the " Sardva 
Virgil and others, namely, a tt)»eeies of Ui 
r«/«#, or Crowfoot. •Sprcngcl refers the 
cies of Dioscnndos to the JianuHnilu* j 
the second to the K. tanugtuoauji ; the tbi 
R- muricalus ; ami the fourth to the R, 
U|KJn the authority of Sihlhorp* 

•DATKAUHUS [.^iuriHixoa I- The Fn 
in I.atin Rann The name was applied I 
Bpreies of the genus Hana. " The comt 
of {Jrcece," olwerves Dodwcll, " have a nt 
didlrcnt from that of the froga of the 
rlunatf's, and there cannot be a more perf 
tion vf it than the lirekckrktx Utax koax 
tophanes." — The Hatm urborca, aeeordiii 
same traveller, is of a most beautiful U 
colour, and in its form nearly reseinhlc» 
mnn fro^;, but is uf a sinaller size ; U 
lunger claws, and a ^hitinnus uiatte^r si 
viilh uhirh it attaches lUelf with greal 
any fliih6ian(.'c Ihnl comes in ItA way. 
chidlly on ltee», and jumps with surjinsi 
from bnmch to branch. Its colour is t 
identified with that of the leaves, that t 
dilficult to dislinguiflh the one from the ol 
eyes are of n most beautiful vivncily. am 
extn-mely cold that, when held in the har 
duces a chilly sriisntinii like a picee of 
song is sur]iriHio(j)y I'lud and sbrUI, and in 
almost as InectiBani and tiresome as Lhat< 
tix- These animals are more common to 
than in other parts of Greece* 

II. A s)}«H'ii's uf tibli, calltMl in Enj^iab t 
fish, Frog-lish. and S( a-devd It is th4 
piacatvriiu, h. ; in Frrnch, Bandruie ; ii 
Marhno pfMciUmf. Aristotle calls It the 
uXini:^ M[m\ the fl ciA^nr By Ovid it I 
Hana ; by Fliny, Rana^ and also Koia ] 
and hy ('icero, Rana manna. Sebneidii 
commentary on Aristotle, states that the 
of Oppian would np|>ear to be the Lapfuum 
and Lhut of^llhan the L. ve*ptrtiiio.* 

RAXA or IIAXFIA. n sandal made oft 
leaves, twigs, or fibres. According to 
this kind of sandal was worn on the 8tag9 I 
while the colfaurnua was appropriate to tr 
ors. When, therefore, one of ihe char; 

I. (Anotot.. 11. A. 

rn.p., i.,s,e, 15, 16; III.. IS. 

3, Ac. — .t^liKU, N. A., s* 

thai. Gr»c 
v., S 

(«^ 3, . . 

Plm.. U. N^ IX. 

30 )_C. ill, 

'Dlr«rv>r,. l«.. 37. 911 

.. .*Nl -It.,., I 

SI ; UT., lU.^Cic., Kit. tJ«wr.. 


MjS, * Qui extergtntur laxeal" we may 
kuo 10 poiiil to the sandals on bis feet. 
Dpbov also wore Bandals of this descrip- 
Sfl in the linio of Tertulhan' uiid Apule- 

probebly for the siike of sunplicity and 

adds that bases were made of willow 
« and that they were also called calonrt ; 
inks that ill':; latter term was derived from 
ilc cuAoi*. wood. Ii is probable that in 
5* were made of Spanish broom (tpartum*). 
kierous specimens of them discovered in 
kfinbs, wo perceive that the Egyptians 
u uf palm-leaves and papyrus.' They are 
|.otMerTable on tlio feci of Egyptian stat- 
KRitioc to Herodotus, sandals of pnpyrus 
f~ ^-*' -:•) were a part of the required 
r lres& of the Egyptian priests. 

iu:it he intended his words to m- 
uiily sandals made, strictly speaking, of 
Mit those also in which the leaves of the 
were an ingredient, and of which Apulcius 
linct mention, when he describes a young 
red with a linen sheet and wearing ean- 
{UntdM amicitlu inUctum-, ■ptdcs'pir. pal- 
vtuiutunC). The aceompanymg wooocut 
ro sanddls exactly aii&wering to this de- 
fri»m the eoUectian in the British Museum, 
worn on the right foot. It has 
side for fastening the band whir h 
i:jiep. This hand, tugelher with 
eo'Dnecled with it, which was inserled 
ffreat and the second toe, is made of 
the papvTOs, undivided and uowrought. 
shows a Gandal in which the por- 
-leuf are interlaced wiih irreat neat- 
ily. the sewing an^! binding being 
of papyrus. Tlic three holes may 
for the passage of the band and lig<i- 




that Uieae Tegeiablc sandals were 
pcvamentcd, so as to iKrcome expensive 
for Tcrlulhan says, " HiKcns et hoja 
nfwr."" The making of them, in all 
was the business of a class of men 
I ; and these, with the Moltani^ who 
ds of Bandals, constituted a corpora- 
Bl Rome* 

{fi6iX>.a), the common Leech, or Hi- 

Tlie appliratiun of leeches is often 

' HaJen and the medical authors 

The poet Oppian alludes to 

' nf the leech, and describes very 

Um pffoceas by which it fills itself with 

"' T "-V^iov), commonly called a gum, 

5. (LV PalUo. p. 117, ed. R.(riUt.)-3. 

H. N., m.,T.)— 3, (Wilkinwni's 

M. ui.. p. »M.)— fl. (ii..37.)-7. 

-, )K Sfl.)— 0, (Munui, Atti dtfiU 

p. <a.)— iU UUhvut-, It.* OOI).— AJoaift, Appeju!^ 


but in reahtv a gum-resin, the ongin of wliich is a 
subject of doubt. It wuuld appear thai there atn 
two, if not more, kinds of bdeUium, ibo source 
of one of which seems to be ascertnmcd ; the oth- 
ers are matters of controversy. The BdeiltHM ol 
the ancients cumc from India. Arabia, Babylonuu 
and Bactriana. Tlie last was the bcst.^ It JKU 
comoo, though not exclusively, from Asia. Adan- 
ton states that he aaw in Africa the substance ex- 
ude from a ttiomy species of Amynt, called by Iha 
natives Nwuilout. From its re-semblancc to myrrh, 
the analogy is lu favour of its being obtained frum 
an Amyru or Baitamodcndron. The opinion of its 
being obtained from a palm, cither (he Ltontaru* 
domcstica (OKrln.) or the Borassiu fiabclliformiB, is 
very imprubahle. The SicUiau bdellium is produced 
by the Drums Huipatttctui (Dccand), which grows 
ufi the isluTids and shores of the Mediterranean. 
The KgiTitiaii iKlelUum is conjectured to be pro- 
duced by the Birra^au* Jiabelti/ormix already alluded 
to. Bioscorides and Galen describe two kinds of 
bdellium, the second of which is Btrvzoin, according 
to Ilardouin and Sprengcl. 

II. A substance mentioned in the second chapter 
of Genesis,* and which has given rise tu a great 
diversity of opinion. Ilie Hebrew name is UdoUk, 
which the Scptuagint renders by dvOpai, " carbun- 
cle ;" the Synac version, " beryll" (rending Uto- 
tah'); the Arabic, "pearls;" Aquila, Theudution, 
and Symmachus, " BdelUum ;" while some are m 
favour of " co'stali" an opinion which Keland, 
among others, maintains.* Thert is nothing, how- 
ever, of BO much value in bdeUium as to warrant 
the mention of this in the account of a particular 
region ; it is more than probable, uu the contrary, 
that pearls are meant, as expressed by the Arabic 
version. This view of the subject was maintained 
by many of the Jewish rabbins, and, among others, 
by Benjamin of Tudcla. BcKrhart also advocates it 
with great learning ; and it derives great support 
from anoUicr passage in the Sacred Writings, where 
Manna is compared with BdcUiwn, As tlie Manna 
Ls said to have been white and round, these two 
charaetcristics give rise at once to a resemblance 
between it and pearls.' 

BKBAiaXEfiS AIKH {SiCaiuaciJ^ dUjj), 
tion to compel the vendor to make a good title, was 
had recourse to when the right or possession of the 
purchaser was impugned or disturbed by a third 
person. A claimant under these circumstances, 
unless the present owner were inclined tu (ight the 
battle himself {aifTOfiaxciv), was referred to the 
vendor as the proper defendant in the cause (nV -rpa- 
rijfpa avuyeiv). If the vendor were then unwiUing 
to appear, the action in-question was the legal rem- 
edy against him, and might be resorted to by the 
purchaser even when the earnest only bad been 
paid.* From the passages in the oration of Dcmos- 
thcnca against Pantmnetus thai bear upon the sub- 
ject, it [£) concluded by Hemldus' that the liability 
to be so called upon was inherent in the character 
of a vendor, and, therefure, not the subject of spe- 
cific warranty or covenants for title. The same 
critic also concludes, from the glossea of Hesychius 
and Suidas, that ihis action might in like manner 
be brought against a fraudulent niongager.* If Iho 
claimant had eslablii-lied his right, and been, by ihe 
decision of the dicasts, put in legal possession of the 
propiTty, whether movable or otherwise, as appears 
from the case in the speech against Pantieneius, 
the ejected purchaser was entitled to sue for reim- 

]. [Phn., U. N.. xii.. ».— Prripl. Mar. Errihr., p. 31, M, JS. 
10.— Ctwiiw, Indic, 19.— B»hrm loc.. p. 31'*.)— «. (».. IS-)- 
S. {B.«li»rt, Ihrnn:., P. ii-, c«l. 6T4 )— 4. (I»im*rrt. Muf«ll.. P. 
1., p. 87. wjqti.— UtHKiinidllep, dJ tJrn., 1. r.)— 4. (B'.K'lKin.l. c] 
—i Ularpocrtt., B. *. avru)m\th, dtSaltuatf.) — 7. (A«ibi«»1». la 
Balm., It., 3, 0.)— 8. (A.niDuulv. iii 3«lin., ir., a.m An.| 



^racment fro n the vendor br the action in que»- 
Kon.* 'Ihe causo ia classed by -Mpkt' among the 
iUot vf}6t nva^ or rivil uctiuns that tell wiLbiu the 
copiizancc of the thesmolhetw. 

•bKLO.NE ific?^), the Garfish or Ilom-fish, 
tht^E90£ BeUme^ L. It is called Durio in Athonipus ; 
^Ut^ir ^aXoTTd} by i£liBn ;* ^9*^ by Oppian ;* 
and AcuM srvt Belone by Pliny,' vho elsewhere says, 
" Bctoite gut acuUati vccantur."* The Belone gets 
its name froui lis long and slender shape, like a 
" noedle." The bonps of this fish are rf inarkablc 
for ihcir colour, which is a beautiful green, not 
arising cither from cooking or the spinal marrow, 
as some hare believed. There is a long disserta- 
tion on this fish in the AdJenda to Schneider's edi- 
tion of .-Ottan. and in Gcsnor, De AijuatUilus.^ 

*BECHIO.\. (Virf, BHXION.) 

•BEMA O^a) iy"i- EccLEsii.) 

BENDIUEI'A (findt^rta), a Thracian festival in 
honour of the goddess Hndi^, who is said to he 
identical \vith the Grecian Art&nis' and with the 
Knman Diana. The festival was of a baccbanaJian 
characlcr.' From Thrace it was brought to Athens, 
where it was celebrated m the Peinrus, according 
to the scholiast on Plaio,** on the nineteenth, or, 
according to Aristoteles Khudius and others, ol 
iirofWTifiaTurTai^ referred to by Proclus," on the 
twentieth, of the month Thargelion, before the Pan- 
athenipaMinura.'* Herodotus" says that he knows 
that the Tliraclan and p3>onian women, when they 
sacnfice lo the royal Artemis, never offer the vic- 
tims without a wheat-stalk (uitv rvpOv KoXdftrjr). 
This was probably at the Beidideia. The Temple 
of Bri'Jic was caU'cd Jin'diAeiov.** 


bcneficium is equivalent to feudum or tief in the 
writers on the feudal Uiw, and is an iniercal in land, 
or thin<^.^ inseparable fnmi the land, or thint^ im- 
movable." The beneficiahus is he who has a bene- 
Acium. The term benefice is also applied to an 
ecclesiastical preferment.'" | 

The terra bcneficium is of frequent occurrence in 
the Roman law, in the sense of some special ptivi- 
lege or favour granted to a person in respect of age, 
sex, or condition Bat the word was also used in 
other senses, and the meaning of the term, as it 
appears in the feudal law, is clearly derivable frt>ni 
the signification of the tenn among the Romans of 
the liter rrpublican and earlier imperial times, tn 
the tunc of Cicero, it was usual for a gencnU or a 
governor of a province to report to tho treasury 
the names of those under his command who had 
dune good service lo the state : those who were 
ini-liiited in such report were said in benejuiis ad 
itrarium de/erri.^^ In bcnejiciis in these passages may 
mean that the persons so reported were considered 
as persons who had deserved well of the st^iLe, and 
so tho word hcnfj\dum may have reference lo the 
services of the individuals ; but as the olj* et fur 
which Ihcir services were reported was the benefit 
of the individuals, it seems that the Icriii had refer- 
ence also lo the reward, iiiiraediato or remote, 
obtained for their services. The honours and offi- 
ces of the Roman slate, in ibe republican period, 
were called ihebeneficla of the Pupulus Homanus. 

Beneficium also signified any promnlion eonferriNl 
on, cr Ifrant made to soldiers, who werv thence 

ixU^ II.>-T. (AJwi.. Al.r*t«I-. •■ "•)-»■ (Ilriych., ^ V. B/,- 
"'iVliX.v^ ».»..... 4..)-l3. iV'-^^^^, hi'*'.. W 1 >-'<» 

called beiieficiarii : this practice was 
we see from inscriptions in Gruter,* in som^ 
which ibe heneficiarius is represented by the ' 
letters B F. In this sense we most undens%, 
liie passage of Ciesar* when he speaks of the wwm 
nil bcnejicta and the rruii^iue clientdtt of Pomper^ 
Ciierior Spain. Brnefieiarius is also used by < 
sar' lo express llie person who had receiv«!^ 
bcneficium. It does not, however, appear fi 
these passages what the beneficium actually 
It might be any kind of honour, or special es< 
tion from service.* 

Bencficiarius is opposed by Feslus' lo m' 
in the sense of one who is released from mi! 
ser\'iee, as opposed to one who is bound to do 
itary service. 

It appears that grants of land and other 
made by the Roman emperors were called 
and were entered m a hook called Ltber 
oruin.* The secretary or clerk who kepi 
was colled a commemanit bcncficiorum 
from an inscription in Gruler.' 

•BER'BERI Oicp^fp:), according lo Rondelcti 
Concha margantt/cra, or Mother of Pearl 
as Adams supposes, the Aricula jnarganti/cr* 
naturalists.* Kuslalhius makes it an Indian 
It appears to be connected in some way with 
commerce of the Eastern region, or seacuastf 
ed Uarbaria.* 

•BERRIKOK'KA (0epiKOKKa\ a synonyme 

Malum Armrnificumt Or Apncol. 

•BKRVLLUS (.i^'/pvA^). the Beryl, a 
stone, furming a sub-species of emerald. The 
mans would apticar to have )K>eu in the habi 
studding their cujis with beryls, and hence J 
says, "ct inaqnaJcs htryilo Vttro trtitt phicl< 
The affinity between the bejy] and ihe emc 
not unknown to the ancienus, and heoce 
marks, " Bcr>Is appear to many lo have 
or, at least, a like nature with emeralds.' 
cording to this writer, ihcy came from India, 
were rarely found in other countries. At the 
ent day, however, the finest beo'ls are obt 
from Dauria, on the frontiers of China. They oocui; 
also, in the Uralian Mountains, and other p.i'ts ol 
.Sibi?ria, in France. Saxony, the Vniied Stan?, aii^ 
Brazil, especially the latter.*' The normal i_\pcQl 
the Beiyl, as of the emerald, is the hexaedral prwi^ 
more or less modified; the pointing, howeur. li 
not always complete." Pliny seems lo re. 
crj'siallinc form of the sione as the resu.i 
lapidary's art; he adiJs. however, that son:.; 
pose the Beryl to be naturally of that shape, 
same writer enumerates eight diflerenl kinds : " 
best were those of a pure sea-green, our o^m 
rino, or, as the French tenn it, Beru aigut 
The next in esteem were called ChrytobcryU, 
are somewhat vaguely described as *pauUo fm 
ores, 8cd in aur^um rolorem cjeunte fitlgort.* ' 
was probably the yellow emerald, such as ocean 
Auvergne, or at Haddam in Connecticut. The ih 
was called Ckrifsoprase, and would seem to bav 
been, m fact, as Phny says some considered ilt i 
mineral propm t:cnent, diflcrent frt>m the Bervl, U 
resembled m colour the juice of the leak, but wilb 
s«.mcwhat of a golden tinge, and hence Its name. 
Although we are uncertam as lo the mineral hert 
describLiI, yet it la not improbable that il was the 
same now called Chrysoprase, and to which Lch* 

Tr ■ \i . ^"■* '" ' '^--Sn«.. Tib., ia.>--S (.. T \-M 

T'lri^ ^'"""^li* *-««'»-. JL- >M^G^ti