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DICTIONARY 



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GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. 







DICTIONARY 



GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 



kditbd bt 



TV I L LI AM SMITH, LL.D. 

KDITOK OF THK *' DICTION A ET OF ORBSK AND ROMAN BIOORAPHT AND MYTHOLOeV.' 









*• * 







ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. 



IMPSOTBD Aia> BITLABGED. 



'BOSTON: 
LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY. 

1859. 






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LIST OF WRITERS. 



nnnAi^s. mambs. 

A. A. Alkxattdeb Allen, Ph. D. 

W. F. I>. l^ILXIAM FiSHBURN DONKIN, 1£ A. 

Fellow of University CoU^e, Oxford. 
W. Au G. WiLUAM Alexander GBEENHiLLy M.D. 

Trinity CoUege, Oxford. 

B. J. Benjamin Jowett, M.A. 

FeUow of Baliol CoUege, Oxford. 

C. R. K. Chables Rann Eennedt, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

T. H. K. Thomas Hewitt Key, M.A. 

Professor of Comparative Grammar in University Col- 
lege, London. 

H. G. L». Hembt Geobge Liddell, M.A. 

Head Master of Westminster SchooL 
G. L. Geobge Long, M.A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
C. P. M. Chables Peteb Mason, B. A. 

Fellow of University College, London. 
J. S. M. John Smith Mansfield, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
W. R. William Ramsat, M.A, 

Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow 

A. B. Anthony Rich, Jun. B. A. 

Late of Cains College, Cambridge. 
L. S. Leonhabd ScHMiTz, Ph.D., F.R.S.E. 

Rector of the High School of Edinbuigh. 
P. S. Philip Smith, B.A. 

Of the University of London. 

B. W. Bobebt Whiston, M. A. 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge* 
B. N. W. Ralph Nicholson Wobnum, Esq. 
J. X. James Yates, M. A., P. R. S. 

The Articles which have no initials attached to them are written by the Editor. 



PREFACE 



THE SECOND EDITION, 



It was inevitable that many defects should be fonnd in the first Edition of a 

vork Uke tVie Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, embracing a great 

variety of subjects, written by different persons, and published periodically. 

Of these no one was more fully aware than the Editor; and accordingly, 

when the sale of a very large impression rendered the preparation of a second 

Edition necessary, he resolved to spare no pains and exertions to render the 

work still more worthy of the approbation with which it had been already 

received. The following will be found to be the principal improvements in 

the present Edition. 

1. Many of the most important articles are rewritten. This is especially 
the case in the earlier portion of the work, since it was originally intended to 
complete it in a much smaller compass than was afterwards found advisable ; 
and accordingly many subjects in the earlier letters of the alphabet were treated 
in the first Edition with a brevity which prevented the writers from giving a 
full and satisfactory explanation of several important points. 

2. Many subjects which were entirely omitted in the first Edition are here 
supplied. Any one who has had experience in the arrangement of a work in 
alphabetical order will not be surprised that there should be many omissions 
in the first Edition of such a work. Some idea may be formed of the exten- 
sive additions made to the work, when it is stated that, including the articles 
which have been rewritten, the present Edition contains upwards of three 
hundred pages of entirely new matter. 

3. Those articles which have not been rewritten have been carefully revised, 
and in many of them errors have been corrected, extraneous matter omitted, 
and much additional information given. In this part of his labours the Editor 
has received the most valuable assistance from Mr. George Long, Dr. Schmitz, 
and Mr. Philip Smith. 

4. Additional iUustrations have been given by means of new woodcuts, 
wherever the subjects appeared to require them. Many of these new wood- 



Vm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

cuU are of considerable importance, as the reader maj see hj referring to 
the articles Amphitheatrumy Aquaeductus^ Columnar Templum, and many 
others. 

6. An alteration has been made in the arrangement of the work, which will 
tend to facilitate its use. In the former Edition there was some inconsistency 
in the use of Greek, Latin, and English words for the names of articles. In 
the present Edition the Latin language has been always employed for the 
heading of the articles, except in those subjects connected with Greek Anti- 
quities where no corresponding words existed in Latin; as, for instance, in legal 
terms, and in the names of magistrates. In these cases the Greek language has 
been necessarily employed ; but, in compliance with a wish expressed by many 
persons, the Greek words are given in Latin letters, with the Greek characters 
subjoined. 

In conclusion, the Editor has to express his regret that he is unable in any 
way to make the additions and alterations in the present Edition available to 
the purchasers of the former one. He had at one time thought of publishing 
them in a separate form; but he found, as the work proceeded, that this was quite 
impossible, on account of their great number and lengtli. In fact, the present 
Edition must be regarded, to a considerable extent, as a new work. 

WILLIAM SMITH. 

London, A^ugust Ist, 1848. 



PREFACE 



THE FIRST EDITION. 



Ths Btady of Greek and Eoman Antiquities has, in common with all other 
philological studies, made great progress in Europe within the last fifty years. 
The earlier writers on the suhject, whose works are contained in the collections 
of GronoYius and GraeTias, display little historical criticism, and give no com 
preheDsiTe view or living idea of the public and private life of the ancients. 
They were contented, for the most part, with merely collecting facts, and arrang- 
ing them in some systematic form, and seemed not to have felt the want of any 
thing more : they wrote aboat antiqaity as if the people had never existed ; 
they did not attempt to realise to their own minds, or to represent to those of 
othyerB, the living spirit of Greek and Roman civilisation. But by the labours 
of modem scholars life has been breathed into the study : men are no longer 
satisfied with isolated facts on separate departments of the subject, but endea- 
Toor to form some conception of antiquity as an organic whole, and to trace 
the relation of one part to another. 

There is scarcely a single subject included under the general name of Greek 
and Boman Antiquities, which has not received elucidation from the writings 
of tbe modem scholars of Germany. The history and political relations of the 
nations of antiquity have been placed in an entirely different light since the 
publication of Niebuhr's Roman History, which gave a new impulse to the 
^udy, and has been succeeded by the works of Bockh, K O. Miiller, Wachs- 
muth. El F. Hermann, and other distinguished scholars. The study of the 
Roman law, which has been unaccountably neglected in this country, has been 
prosecuted with extraordinary success by the great jurists of Germany, among 
whom Savigny stands preeminent, and claims our profoundest admiration. 
The subject of Attic law, though in a scientific point of view one of much 
less interest and importance than the Roman law, but without a competent 
knowledge of which it is impossible to understand the Greek orators, has also 
received much elucidation from the writings of Meier, Schomann, Bunsen, - 
Fktner, Hudtwalcker, and others. Nor has the private life of the ancients 
been neglected. The discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii has supplied 



X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

us with important information on the subject, which has also been dis- 
cussed with ability by several modem writers, among whom W. A. Becker, of 
Leipzig, deserves to be particularly mentioned. The study of ancient art like- 
wise, to which our scholars have paid little attention, has been diligently cul- 
tivated in Germany from the time of Winckelmann and Lessing, who founded 
the modem school of criticism in art, to which we are indebted for so many 
valuable works. 

While, however, so much has been done in every department of the subject, 
no attempt has hitherto been made, either in Germany or in this country, to 
make the results of modern researches available for the purposes of instruction, 
by giving them in a single work, adapted for the use of students. At present, 
correct information on many matters of antiquity can only be obtained by 
consulting a large number of costly works, which few students can have access 
to. It was therefore thought that a work on Greek and Roman Antiquities, 
which should be founded on a careful examination of the original sources, with 
such aids as could be derived from the best modern writers, and which should 
bring up the subject, so to speak, to the present state of philological learning, 
would form a useful acquisition to all persons engaged in the study of antiquity. 

It was supposed that this work might fall into the hands of two different classes 
of readers, and it was therefore considered proper to provide for the probable 
wants of each, as far as was possible. It has been intended not only for schools, 
but also for the use of students at universities, and of other persons, who may 
wish to obtain more extensive information on the subject than an elementary 
work can supply. Accordingly numerous references have been given, not only 
to the classical authors, but also to the best modem writers, which will point 
out the sources of information on each subject, and enable the reader to extend 
his inquiries further if he wishes. At the same time it must be observed, 
that it has been impossible to give at the end of each article the whole of the 
literature which belongs to it. Such a list of works as a full account of 
the literature would require, would have swelled the work much beyond the 
limits of a single volume, and it has therefore only been possible to refer to the 
principal modem authorities. This has been more particularly the case with 
such articles as treat of the Koman constitution and law, on which the modern 
writers are almost innumerable. 

A work like the present might have been arranged either in a systematic or 
an alphabetical form. Each plan has its advantages and disadvantages, but many 
reasons induced the Editor to adopt the latter. Besides the obvious advantage 
of an alphabetical arrangement in a work of reference like the present, it 
enabled the Editor to avail himself of the assistance of several scholars who had 
made certain departments of antiquity their particular study. It is quite im- 
possible that a work which comprehends all the subjects included under Greek 
and Roman Antiquities can be written satisfactorily by any one individual. As 
it was therefore absolutely necessary to divide the labour, no other arrangement 
offered so many facilities for the purpose as that which has been adopted ; in 
addition to which, the form of a Dictionary has the additional advantage of 
enabling the writer to give a complete account of a subject under one head, 
which cannot so well be done in a systematic work. An example will illustrate 
whdt is meant. A liistory of the patrician and plebeian orders at Rome can 



PRteFACB TO THE FIBST EDITION. Xl 

only !» gained from a systematic work by putting together the sUtements con- 
tuned in many different parts of the work, while, in a Dictionary, a connected 
view of their history is given from the earliest to the latest times under the 
respectiTe words. The same xexnark will apply to numerous other subjects. 

SoQie subjects have heen included in the present work which have not usually 
\ieeQ tieated of in works on Greek and Roman Antiquities. These subjects 
haTe been inserted on account of the important influence which they exercised 
upon the public and private life of the ancients. Thus, considerable space has 
been giren to the articles on Painting and Statuary, and also to those on the 
diferent departments of the I>raina. There may seem to be some inconsistency 
and apparent capricionsness in the admission and rejection of subjects, but it is 
rerj difficult to determine at what point to stop in a work of this kind. A 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, if understood in its most eztendye 
flgnificatioD, would comprehend an account of every thing relating to antiquity* 
In its narrower sense, however, the term is confined to an account of the public 
a!]d priyate life of the Greeks and Romans, and it is convenient to adhere to 
this signification of the w^ord, however arbitrary it may be. For this reason 
seTeral articles have heen inserted in the work which some persons may regard 
as out of place, and others have been omitted which have sometimes been im- 
properly included in writings on Greek and Roman Antiquities. Neither the 
names of persons and divinities, nor those of places, have been inserted in the 
present work, as the former will be treated of in the " Dictionary of Greek and 
Boman Biography and Mythology," and the latter in the " Dictionary of Greek 
and Roman Geography." 

The subjects of the woodcuts have been chosen by the writers of the articles 
Kbich they illustrate, and the drawings have been made under their superinten- 
dence.* Many of these have been taken from originals in the British Museum, 
and others from the different works which contain representations of works of 
andoit art, as the Mnseo Borbonico, Museo Capitolino, Millings Peintures de 
Vases Antiques, Tiachhein's and D'Hancarville's engravings from Sir William 
HamiUon*9 Vases, and other simikr works. Hitherto little use has been made in 
this country of existing works of art, for the purpose of illustrating antiquity. In 
many cases, however, the representation of an object gives a far better idea of 
the purposes for which it was intended, and the way in which it was used, than 
any explanation in words only can convey. Besides which, some acquaintance 
with the remains of ancient art is almost essential to a proper perception of the 
spirit of antiquity, and would tend to refine and elevate the taste, and lead to a 
just appreciation of works of art in general. 

Mr. Greorge Long, who has contributed to this work the articles relating to 
Roman Law, has sent the Editor the following remarks, which he wishes to 
make respecting the articles he has written, and which are accordingly subjoined 
in his own words. 

" The writer of the articles marked with the letters G. L. considers some 
" apology necessary in respect of what he has contributed to this work. He has 
** never had the advantage of attending a course of lectures on Roman Law, and 
'^ he has written these articles in the midst of numerous engagements, which left 

• The woodcuts have been executed by Mr. John Jackson. 



Xll PBBFACB TO THE FIBST EDITION. 

*^ little time for other labour. The want of proper materials also was often felt, 
*' and it would have been sufficient to prevent the writer from venturing on 
** such an undertaking, if he had not been able to avail himself of the library 
*' of his friend, Mr. William Wright^ of Lincoln's Inn. These circumstances 
" wil], perhaps, be some excuse for the errors and imperfections which will be 
** apparent enough to those who are competent judges. It is only those who 
'' have formed an adequate conception of the extent and variety of the matter 
'* of law in general, and of the Roman Law in particular, who can estimate the 
*' difficulty of writing on such a subject in England, and thej will allow to hizn 
** who has attempted it a just measure of indulgence. The writer claims such 
** indulgence from those living writers of whose labours he has availed himself, 
*^ if any of these articles should ever fall in their way. It will be apparent 
** that these articles have been written mainly with the view of illustrating 
*^ the classical writers ; and that a consideration of the persons for whose use 
** they are intended, and the present state of knowledge of the Roman Law in 
** this country, have been sufficient reasons for the omission of many important 
** matters which would have been useless to most readers and sometimes unin* 
« telligible.' 

'^ Though few modem writers have been used, compared with the whole 
** number who might have been used, they are not absolutely few, and many of 
** them to Englishmen are new. Many of them also are the best, and among 
*^ the best, of the kind. The difficulty of writing these articles was increased by 
*' the want of books in the English language ; for, though we have many writera 
** on various departments of the Roman Law, of whom two or three have been 
** referred to, they have been seldom used, and with very little profit" 

It would be improper to close these remarks without stating the obligations 
this work is under to Mr. Long. It was chiefly through his advice and en- 
couragement that the Editor was induced to undertake it, and during its 
progress he has always been ready to give his counsel whenever it was 
needed. It is therefore as much a matter of duty as it \? of pleasure, to make 
this public acknowledgment to him* 

WILLIAM SMITH. 

LondoD, April Sad, 184S. 



DICTIONARY 



GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. 



ABACUS. 

AFACUS (ItCop denoted primarilj a square 
talilet of anj material ; and waa hence implied in 
tite following ngnificatioiia : — 

1. la Aithitectore it denoted the flat square 
stooe, vhich conititiited the highest member of a 
ealimiB, being placed immediately under the archi- 
tnre. The annexed figure is drawn from that in 
tike British Museunk, which was taken from the 
^^Btheoon at Athenm, and is a perfect specimen of 
tiie capital of a Doiric column. 




In the wan ornamented orders of architectnre, 
*tth as the Corinthian, the sides of the abacas 
vere anred inwards, and a rose or some other 
decooliea was frequently placed in the middle of 
<*ch side ; but the name Abacus was given to the 
Mane thua direnified and enriched, as well as in 
in or%inal fonn. (VitruT. iii 3, iv. 1. § 7.) 

2. A painted panel, ooflfier, or square compart- 
Bent in the wall or ceiling of a chamber. (Plin. 
ff. N, mriJL 56, zzzr. 1, 13 ; VitruT. yii 3. 
1 10 ; Letranne, Petnim', nmr. ^ 476.) 

S. A wooden tray, used for a Tariety of por- 
poies in domestic economy. It was, for instance, 
the name given to the maeira (jidxTpa), ortray for 
koeadii^ dough. (Cradn. Frag.^ 27,ed. Runkel; 
Pi^uz. Ti 90, X. 105 ; Cato, IL R. 10 -, Hesych. 
i. a ftimr^ I SchtL ia Titoer. ir. 61.) 

4. A board, eoTered with sand or dust, used by 
mathemataciana for drawing diagrams (EustatL m 
Od. i 107), and by arithmeticians for the purposes 
of cakulalion. (Pern Sat I 131.) For the latter 
nupose perpendicnlar lines or channels seem to 
oare been dawn in the sand upon the board ; but 
■«****«■*•? the board had perpendicular wooden di- 
rinooa, the space oo the right hand being intended 
for mnts, the next space for tens, the next for 
hmdredi, md to on. Thus was constructed the 



ABACUS. 
h^dntow^ i^' cZ rlm<^i(owritf^ « the abacus on which 
they calculate,** i, «. reckon by the use of stones 
(i|4^«, ealaUi). (Comp. Pol. t. 26.) The figure 
following represents the probable form and appear- 
ance of such an abacus. The reader will observe, 
that stone after stone might be put into the right- 
hand partition until they amounted to 10, when it 
would be necessary to take them all out as repre- 
sented in the figure, and instead of them to put 
one stone into ^e next partition. The stones in 
this division might in like manner amount to 10, 
thus representing 10 k 10m 100, when it would be 
necessary to take out the 10, and instead of them 
to put one stone into the thixd partition, and so on. 
On this principle the stones in the abacus, as de- 
lineated in the figure, would be equivalent to 
359,310. 




5. A board adapted for playing with dice or 
countors, resembling a draught-board or back- 
gammon-board. (Caryst ap, Ath, x. p. 435, d ; 
Suet Nor, 22 ; Macrob. SaL L 5.) The Greeks had 
a tradition ascribing this contrivance to PaUimedes, 
hence they called it ** the abacus of Palamedes.** 
(Jh UaXaintfitutp iuSdjcior, Eustath. inOd.l 107.) 
[Latbunculi.] 

6. A table or sideboard, chiefly used for the 
display (exponere) of gold and silver cups. The 
tops of such tables were sometimes made of silver, 
but more usuaUy of marble, and appear in some 
cases to have had numerous cells or partitions be- 
neath, in which the plate was likewise placed. The 
use of abaci was first introduced at Rome from Asia 
Minor after the victories of Cn. Manlius Vulso, 
B. c. 187, and their introduction was r^arded as 
one of the marks of the growing luxury of the age.. 

B 



2 ABORTIO. 

(Cic VwT, IT. 16, Tvac, y. 21 ; Liv. xxxiz. 6 ; 
PliiL H.N, xxxviL 6 ; Petron. 73 ; Sid. ApolL xvii. 
7, 8.) These abaci are Bometimes called meaiaae 
Ddphicae. (Cic Verr. iv. 59; Mart zii. 67; 
Becker, GaUus^ vol I p. 140.) 

7. A part of the theatre on or near the stage. 

8. The diminutire Abaculus (igaicfiricoj) de- 
noted a tile of marble, glass, or any other substance 
used for making ornamental pavements. They were 
of various colours. (Plin. H. N, xxxvL 67 ; Mos- 
chion, ap. Ath. v. 207, d.) [J. Y.J 

ABACTUS VENTER. [Abortio.] 
ABALIENATIO. [Mancipium.] 
ABDICA'TIO. [MAOISTRATU&] 
ABOLLA, the Latin form of ijie6?iXay i, e. 
iyaeoX'fi, a loose woollen cloak. Nonius quotes a 
passage o( Vano to show that it was a garment 
worn by soldiers (vegtit miUtaris\ and thus op- 
posed to the toga. Its form and the mode of 
wearing it are seen in the figures annexed, taken 
from the bas-reliefs on the triumphal arch of Sep- 
timius Severus at Rome. 




It was, however, not confined to military occa- 
sions, but was also worn in the city, (Suet OaL 
35.) It was especially used by the Stoic philoso- 
phers at Rome as the pallium jAUoiophicum^ just as 
the Greek philosophers were accustomed to dis- 
tinguish themselves b^ a particular dress. (Juv. 
iv. 75; Mart iv. 58, viii. 48.) Hence the expres- 
sion of Juvenal (iv. 75) /acinu» tnajoria aboUae 
merely signifies, ** a crime committed by a very 
deep philosopher.^ (Heinrich,a(f«7tM7. Le,; Becker, 
Oalktt, vol il p. 99.) 

ABO'RTIO. This word and the cognate word 
tAortivus, abortus, were applied to a child pre- 
maturely bom, whence it appears that they were 
also ap^ied to signify a premature birth brought 
about designedly. The phrase abactus venter in 
Paulus (<SM Reoq>, iv. 9) simply means a pre- 
mature birth. That abortion in the secondary sense 
of the word was practised among the Romans, 
appears from various passages and from there being 
an enactment against it (Dig. 48. tit 19. s. 38.) 
It is not stated at what time a penalty against pro- 
curing abortion was established. It is maintained 
by some modem writers that the practice of abor- 
tion became so common among the Romans, that 
combined with celibacy and other causes it mate- 



ACCEPTILATIO. 

rially diminished the population of Rome. But this 
general assertion is not sufficiently proved. The 
practice of abortion appears not to have been vie-wed 
in the same light by the Greeks and Romans aa 
by the Christian nations of modem times. Aria- 
totle in his PoUHk (viL 14), recommends it on the 
condition that the child has not yet got senaatioTi 
and life, as he expresses it In Plato*s Republic 
(v. p. 25), it is also permitted. At Athena, a per- 
son who had caused the abortion of a child by 
means of a potion {iif*SKD»$pi9iov\ was liable to an 
action (ifie^^tc^s ypa^\ but we do not know 
what was the penalty in case of conviction : it x^-as 
certainly not death. There was a speech of Lysias 
on this subject, which is lost (Frag. p. 8. ed. 
Reiske.) [G.L.J 

ABROGA'TIO. [Lbx.] 

ABSOLU'TIO. [JuDBx.] 

ABSTINENDI BENEFI'CIUM. [Hbrbs.J 

ABU'SUS. [Usus FRUCTU&] 

ACAENA CAxaiyri, Jdcoiva, or in later Greek 
&ie€ya,in one place ^aivov) is a very ancient Greek 
word, for it is said to have been derived from the 
Thessalians or from the Pelasgians. It seems ori- 
ginally to have meant a point^ stick : thus it was 
applied both to a goad and to a shepherds staff. 
Afterwards it came (like our pole and perck, and 
the German stanffe) to mean a measuring rod of the 
length of ten Greek feet, or, according to Hesychius, 
9| ^X«f^9 which is the same thing. It was used 
in measuring land, and thus it resembles the Ro- 
man decempeda. It is doubtfiil whether there 
was a corresponding square measure. (Schol. ta 
ApoU. Rhod, liL 1326 ; Suid. s. v. ; Hesych. s. v. ; 
Schow, Hesych. Restit. p. 648 ; Olympiodor. ad 
Aristot MeteoroUtg. p. 25 ; Heron, qp. Salmas. €ul. 
Solin. p. 481 ; Wurm, de Pond. p. 93.) Compare 
ACNA. [P. 5.J 

ACA'TIUM. [NAVI8.] 

ACCENSI. 1. Public officers who attended on 
several of the Roman magistrates. They sum- 
moned the people to the assemblies, and those who 
had lawsuits to court ; they preserved order in the 
assemblies and the courts, and proclaimed the time 
of the day when it was the third hour, the sixth 
hour, and the ninth hour. An acoensus anciently 

Preceded the consul who had not the fasces, and 
Ictors without fasces walked behind him, which 
custom alter being disused was restored by Julius 
Caesar in his first consulship. (Varr. L.L.'vn. 58, 
ed. MuUer ; Plin. H. N. viL 60 ; Suet Jul 20 ; 
Liv. iiL S3.) Accensi also attended on the governors 
of provinces (Cic ad Fratr. LI. § 4), and were 
commonly freedmen of the magistrate on whom they 
attended. 

2. A body of reserve troops, who followed the 
Roman army without having any military duties to 
perform, and who were taken one by one to supply 
any vacancies that might occur in the legions. 
They were according to the census of S^ius 
Tullius taken from the fifth class of citizens. They 
were placed in battle in the rear of the army, be- 
hind the triarii, and seem to have acted sometimes 
as orderiies to the officers. They were also called 
AdscripticU and in later times Supentumerarii. 
(Fest s. V. Aeoensi, Adacriptidi; Liv.L 43, viii. 
8, 10 ; Veget iL 19 ; Niebuhr, Rom, HisL voLL 
p. 449, &c.) 

ACCEPTILA'TIO is defined to be a release by 
mutual interrogation between debtor and creditor, 
by which each party is exonerated from the same 



ACCBSSia 

In other vwds aeeepdiatb is tbe fetm 
•i ««sds by which a cnditor rImim hia debtor 
fsma m debt tx* obligation, aaid adcnowledgea he has 
RceHvd that which in fret he hat not reoeired 
(Tehiti iaoaginaria aolntiD). This release of debt by 
acoeptilatio applieB oaly to nch debts as have been 
coooacted bj stipalatio, c uufonnably to a rale of 
KaouB lav, that only ooBtzacts made by woids 
can be pat an cad toby words. Bat the astateness 
d the Roman lawyets foaad a mode of oomplyin^ 
vith the rale, and at the same time extendiag the 
aceeptilatio to all kinds and to any nomber of oon- 
txacta. This waa the invention of QaOus Aqailias, 
who derised m fionanla far redndng all and every 
kind of ooDtncts to the stipalatio. This being 
done, the aeeepdlatio wonld immedartely apply, 
iBascDoch as the mattter waa by ooch ftniala 
bnm^t within the general rale of law above men- 
tkmed. The aocepdhdo most be absolote and net 
coaditienal. A part of a debt or obligation might 
be released as weQ as the whole^ provided the 
thine was in its natoie cspaUe of divisifln. A 
popmos ooold not zdeose a debt by aooeptilatiQ, 
witboot the aaelaritas of his tutor, bat he eoald be 
njt nacd from a debt. A wonam also coald not 
ideaae a debt by stipalatio witboot the snctoiitas 
ofatotoc Tfaephiasebyvriiieh a creditor is said 
to release his ddiior by aceeptilatb is^ M&ori ao- 
ti f/rf asi, or g p cs pte Jvoen or jbn^ or owo yfaa t mo^ 
Lere^ When anything vHiieh was done on the behalf 
of or for the state, soch as a bailding fas instance, 
was iqipnyved by the eompeteat aathorities, it was 
said, m ouo e yrfai ydrn, oc fiQ^irrl (Dig. 46. tit 
4 ; 4& tiL 11. S.7 ; Gains, iL 84, && iiL 169, 
&c) [O.L.1 

ACCE'SSIO is a legal tena which signifies that 
two things are nnited in soch wise that one is 
ooosidcred to beeome a component pait ef the other ; 
one thing is considered the piincipid, and the other 
is conaidered to be an aooeosion or addition to it 
Sometinies it may be doabtfnl which is to be con- 
uia«d the principal thing and which the accession. 
Bat the owner of the principal thing, whichever it 
is, became the owner of the accession alsoi The 
raost nndispnted kind of aoeesrio is that which 
sris» from the onion of a thing with the groond ; 
and what the onion between tiie gnmnd and the 
thing is cem^lete^ the thing bdoogs to him who is 
the owner of the graond. Thns if a man bnilds 
o& the gnnnd of another man, the building bdongs 
to the owner of the gnmnd, anless it is a bailding 
of a BBoreabfe natore,asa tent ; for the role of law 
k '^saperiicies solo cedit** A tree belonging to 
oae man, if planted in the ground of another man, 
bdongs to the owner of tlw ground as soon as it 
bss token root The same rule af^lies to seeds 
sodplantik 

If one man wrote on the papynis (chartolae) or 
psrchmcnt (membrsnae) of another, the matnial 
VIS eonaidered the principal, end of oomse the 
viitiqg bekngedtotfaeownerof the paper or pareh- 
moit If a man painted a pieton on another man*s 
wood (tabola) or whatever ih» materials might be, 
the pasting was censidcnd to be the prindpsl 
(tabda pietane eedit). The prinripk which do- 
tmnined the acquisition of a new property by ae- 
eeno was this — the intimBteand inseparable union 
of the aeeessocy with the principal. Accordingly, 
there might be aeeessb by pun acddeat without 
tbe infeerveBtion of any rational agent If a pieoe 
of tend was tom away by a strenn from one man^s 



ACERRA. 8 

land and attached to the land of another, it became 
the property of the man to whose land it was at- 
tached after it was firmly attached to it, but not 
before^ This must not be confounded with the case 
of Alluvio. 

The person who lost his property by accessio 
had as a genend rale a right to be indemnified 
for his loss bv the person who acquired the new 
property. The exceptions were cases of nuUa fides. 

The tern accessio is aIsoa]^ied to things which 
are the products of other thmgs, and not added to 
them externally as in the esse just mentioned. 
Every accessio of this kind belongs to the owner 
of the principal thing : the produce of a beast, the 
pndttce of a field, and of a tree belongs to the 
owner. In some cases one man may have a right 
to the produce (finictas) of a thing, though the 
thmg belongs to another. [Usua raucTV&j 

Ine tenn aeoessaones was also applied to those 
who were soreties or bound for others as fidejussores. 
(])^4£. titl. il91. : Pachta,CbrMtdb-/aitfite. 
AwasM, iL p. 861 ; I>ig.41. tit I ; Gairai, ii. 73, 
dLc CoNvusia) [G. L.] 

AGCLAMATIO was the pablic expression of 
aj^robation or disapprobation, pleasure or dis- 
pleasure, Ac. by load arrhunationa On many oc- 
casions, there appear to have been certain forau of 
acclamations always used by the Bomaas ; as, for 
instanoe, at marriages, lo Hymm, HymmoM, or 
Talataio (explained by Lhr. i 9.) ; at triumphs, lo 
tnmmpie, Jo iriMn^ka ; at the conclusion of plays 
the last actor called oat PUiudiU to the spectaton ; 
orators were usually praised by such expresrions as 
Beaettpraedare^BdU ttJttUve^Ntm poiMl meUuty 
&c (Cic. De Orat. iii. 26.) Under the empire 
the name of aeelamalume$ was given to the pnuses 
and flatteries which the senate bestowed upon the 
emperor and his family. These acdamationes, 
which are frequently quoted by the Scnplon$ HU- 
torias AvgudaSj vrere often of considerable length, 
and seem to have been chanted by the whole body 
of senators. There were regular aodamatUmeM 
shouted by the people, of which one of the most 
common was DU ie servmL (Capitol Mamim, cfao, 
16, 26, Gordian, tm, 11 ; Lamprid. Alett, Setm. 
6—12 ; Vopisc 7b& 4, 5, 7, Prob, 11.) Other 
instances of aeekunaiiones are given by Fenarius, 
De VetermmAocla$iuUi<mibtuetPlau9Uy inGraerius, 
TWtMir. Rom, Antiq. vol vi. 

ACCUBA'TIO, the act of zeeliniag at meab. 

[COBNA.] 

ACCU'BITA, the name of couches which werb 
used in the time of the Ronum emperors, instead 
of the triclinium,for reclining upon at meals. The 
mattresses and foather-beds were softer and higher, 
and the supports (Jkbra) of them lower m pro- 
portion, than in the tridmium. The clothes and 
pillows spread over them were called aeeuMalaa, 
(Lamprid. HtUoff. 19, 25 ; SchoL ad Jut. Sat. v. 
17.) [J.Y.] 

ACCUSA'TIO. [Judex.] 

ACERRA (Xi8av«rfMs), the incense box used 
in sacrifices. (Hor. Oarm, iii. 6. 2 ; Virg. Aen. v. 
745.) The inoense was taken out of the acerra 
and let foil upon the burning altar : hence, we have 
the expression ds atarra libare. (Ov. se Pont iv. 
a 39 ; Pen. iL 6.) [Totubulum.] The acerra 
represented briow is taken from a tas-relief in the 
museum of the CapitoL 

The acerra was also, according to Festns («. «.\ 
a F«^^ altai^ placed before the dead, on which 
B 2 



ACHAICUM FOEDtTS. 




^^Jt^ 



perfumes were buint. There was a law in the 
Twelve Tables, which restricted the use of aoerrae 
at funemls. (Cia <ULeg.u, 24) [J. Y.] 

ACETABULUM {^is, Al^o^ir, i^ved^tov), 
a vinegar-cap, which, from the fondness <^ the 
Greeks and Romans for vinegar, was probably 
always placed on the table at meals to dip the food 
in before eating it The vessel was wide and 
open above, as we see in the annexed cat, tsken 
from Panof ka^i work on Greek vases ; and the 
name was also given to all cups resembling it in 
size and form, to whatever use they might be ap- 
plied. They were commonly of earthenware, but 
sometimes of silver, bronse, or gold. (Aristoph. 
jiv. 361 ; Athen. vl p. 230, zi p. 494 ; QuintiL 
viiL 6.) The cups used by jugglers in their per- 
formances were also called by this name. (Sen. 
iS^.46.) 




ACETA'BULUM, a Roman measure of capa- 
city, fluid and dry, equivalent to the Greek 6^6€aifoy. 
It was one-fourth of the hemina; and UierdTore 
one-eighth of the seztarius. It contained the 
weight in water of fifteen Attic drachmae. (Plin. 
H. M xxi. 34. s. 109.) [P. S.] 

ACHAICUM FOEDUS, the Achaean league. 
In treating of the Achaean leeffue we most dis- 
tingnish Iwtween two periods, ue earlier and the 
later ; the character of the former was pre-eminently 
religious, and that of the latter pre-eminently po- 
litical 

1. T%e earlier period,-^ When, the Heradeidae 
took possession of Peloponnesus, which had until 
then been chiefly inhabited by Achaeans, a portion 
of the latter, under Tisamenus, turned northwards 
and occupied the north coast of Peloponnesus, which 
was called ouyiaX^f, and from which the lonians, 
its former inhabitants, were expelled and sought 
refoge in Attica. The country which was thus 
occupied by the Achaeans and derived frcsm them 
its name of Achaia, contained twelve confederate 
towns, which were governed by the descendants of 



ACHAICUM FOEDUS. 

Tisamenus, till at length they abolished the Idngiy 
rule after the death of Ogyges, and established a 
democracy. In the time <^ Herodotus (I 143 ; 
comp. Stnib. viil p. 383, &c.) the twelve towns af 
which the league consisted were : Pellene, Aegeira, 
A^gae, Buia, Helioe^ Aegium, Rhypes (Rhypae>9 
Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenus, Dyme, aod 
Tritaeeis (Tntaen), After the time of HeroiotuB, 
Rhypes and Aegae disappear from the number of 
the confederated towns, as they had become de- 
serted (Pans. viL 23. 25 ; Strab. viii. p. 387), and 
Ceryneia and Leontium stepped into their place. 
(Polyb. iL 41 ; comp. Pans. viL 6.) The common 
place of meeting was Helice, which town, together 
widi Bura, was swallowed up by the sea during 
an earthqmike in & c. 373, whereupon A^nm was 
chosen as the place of meeting for Uie confederates. 
(Strab. viiL p. 384 ; Died. xv. 48 ; Pans. viL 24.) 
The bond which united the towns of the league 
was not BO much a political as a religious one, as is 
shown by the common sacrifice offered at Helice to 
Poseidon. This solemn sacrifice was perfectlj- 
aoalqgous to that offered by the lonians at the 
Panionia, and it is even intimated by Herodotus 
that it was an imitation of the Ionian solemnity. 
After the destruction of Helice, and when Aegium 
had become the central point of the league, the corn* 
mon sacrifice was oflfered up to the principal divini- 
ties of the latter town ; that is, to Zeus, sunamed 
Homagyrius, and to Demeter Panachaea. (Pans, 
vii 24.) In a political point of view the connec- 
tion between the several towns appears to have 
been ver^ loose, for we find that some of them 
acted quite independently of the rest (Thuc. iL 
9.) The confederation exercised no great influence 
in the affairs of Greece down to the time when it 
was broken up by the Macedonians. The Achaeans 
kept aloof fiN>m Uie restless commotions in the other 
parts of Greece, and their honesty and uncerity 
were recognised by the circumstance of their being 
appointed, after the battle of Leuctia, to arbitrate 
between the Thebans and Lacedaemonians. (Po- 
lyb. iL 39.) Demetrius, Cassander and Antigonus 
Gonatas placed garrisons in some of their towns, 
and in others tyrants rose supported by Macedonian 
influence. The towns were thus torn fiN>m one 
another, and the whole confederacy destroyed. 

2. T%0 later period. — When Antigonus m b. a 
281 made the unsuccessful attempt to deprive 
Ptolemaeus Ceraunus of the Macedonian throne, 
the Achaeans availed themselves of the opportunity 
of shaking off the Macedonian yoke, and renewing 
their ancient confederation. The grand object how- 
ever now was no longer a conunon worship, but a 
real political union among the confederates. The 
towns which first shook off the yoke of the op- 
pressors, were Dyme and Patrae, and the alliance 
concluded between them was speedily joined by the 
towns of Tritaea and Pharae. (Polyb. iL 41.) One 
town afier another now expelled the Macedonian 
garrisons and tyrants ; and when, in & a 277, 
A^um, the head of the earlier league, followed 
the example of the other towns, the foundation of 
the new confederacy was laid, and the main prin- 
ciples of its constitution were settled, though after- 
wards many changes and modifications were intro- 
duced. The fundamental laws were, that hence- 
forth the confederacy should form one inseparable 
state, that each town, which should join it, should 
have equal rights with the others, and that all 
memben, in regard to fof&ga countries, should be 



AGHAICUM FOEDUS. 

Rg*''^^ *■ d^wndcnt^aoid bound to obey in ererj 
reject iht fedccal govenunent, and thoM officen 
who were entRHied with the exeeatire. (Poijb. 
11.37, &cl) No town therefore was allowed to 
tneait with any tonaga power withoat the fanctum 
9£ the otbenL Aegivm^ for rriigious naaoiUi waa 
at fin* appointed the oential point of the leagoe, 
aad irtainrd tha distiactian ^^ the tiww* of Phi- 
kpocnea, who canied m decree that the meetii^ 
nght he hdd in any of the towns of the eon- 
fedoacy. (Lir. xzzriiL 30.) Acginm therdbre 
«■• the Beat of the goreniment» and it waa there 
that the ritiwma of the Tarioua towna met at rqpihg 
aai itafeed timea, to d^beiate upon the common 
aj&Di ef the leagaey and if it waa thoqght necea- 
avj, upon thooe of aepante towna, and eren upon 
mdiri^adj, and to dect the officen of the leaga& 
After faa:Tiiig thna eatabliahed a fiim anion among 
t heaia e t r ea ^ they aealoDaly exerted themaelTes in 
delivering other towna alao fitnn their tjianta and 
oppRaaaca. The kagoe, however, acquired ita 
great atEt^gth in b. c. 251, when Aratna nnited 
Sicyon, h» aatrre place, with it, and aome yean 
laterooned Corinth alao for it Megara, Traesene, 
and I^idanraaaooaildUowed their exam;^ Afler- 
waida Antos pe w oad e d all the more important 
towna of PelopoiBDena to join the confederacy, and 
tea Megahipolia, Aigoa^ Heimione, Phlina, and 
othea woe addeil to it In a abort period the 
leagoe readied the height of ita power, for it em* 
bnioed Athena, M^gan, Aegina, Safaunia, and the 
whole of Pehjpan&eana, with the exception of 
Sparta, His, Tegea, Orehomenoa, and Mantineia. 
Oceece aeened to reriTes, and promiaed to become 
and more muted than ever, bat it aoon 
r that ita freah power waa only employed 
in aelf-dealmction and annihilation. INit it wmild 
be foreign to the object of thia wofk to enter fur- 
ther into the kittory of the confederacy : we muat 
coafoie oondTea to an oatline of ita conatitation, 
aa it existed at the time of ita highest prosperity. 

Polybios (iL 38) remarks that there was no 
ether conatitntion in the world, in which all the 
moabea of the cammaiii^ had aoch a perfect 
e^nlitj' of righta, and ao much liberty, and, in 
short, whidi waa ao perfectly democratical and ao 
free fiom all adfiah and exdaaiTe regnlatioDa, aa 
the Achaean leme ; for aO memben had eqnal 
r^^itB, whether Uiey had belonged to it for many 
yeai^ or whetha they had only jnat joined it, and 
whether th^ were hzge or amall towna. The 
coBiaMm afiun of the comfedesate towns were regu> 
lated at general meetings attended by the citiaens 
of all the towns, and held r^galariy twice erery 
year, in the spring and in the aatomiL These 
meetings which h^ed three days, were hdd in a 
giore of Zens Homagyrius in the neighboiirhood of 
Aq;iam,andnear aametoary of Demeter Panachaea. 
(Pdyb. iL 54^ ir. 37, t. I, xxiz. 9; lAr, xxxiL 22, 
xcmii 32 ; StaKriiL p^ 385 ; Paos. rii 24.) In 
casca of mgent neeesrity, howerer, extnordinary 
meetings nught be conTened, dther at Aeginm or 
in sny other of the confederate places. (Lir. ttti. 
25; Pdyb. xxr. 1, xnx. 8 ; Pint Arai. 41.) 
Erery dttsen, both rich and poor, who had at- 
tained the age of thirty, might attend the assem- 
blies, ^leak and pnpoee any measure, to which 
they were imrited by a public herdd. (Polyb. 
xrix. 9 ; Lit. xxxiL 20.) Under these circum- 
ttaacea the aaaemblies were sometimes of the most 
» kind, and a wise and experienced man 



ACHAICUM FOEDUS. 5 

might find it difficult to gain a heariiw amoi^ the 
crowds of ignorant and foolish peopte. (Pdyb. 
xxxriik 4.) It is, howerer, natuid to suppose that 
the ordinaiy meetings, unless matten of tptdtd 
importance were to be discnaswl, were attended 
chiefly by the wedthicr daaaea, who had the meaaa 
of paying the expenses of their journey, for great 
numben lired at a eonsideimble distance from the 
pboe of meetiBg. 

The anbjecU which were to be braqght before 
the aaaembly were prepared by a council (fiouki)^ 
which aeema to have been permanent (Pdylk 
xxul 7, xxriiL 3, xxix. 9 ; Plut AraL 53.) The 
prindpal aubjecU on which the great aaaembly had 
to dedde were — peace and war (Pdyb. iv. 15, 
Ac) ; the reception of new towns into the con* 
federacy (Pdyb. xxr. 1) ; the dection of the ma- 
gistratea of the confederecy (Pdyb. ir, 37. 82 ; 
Pint AraL 41) ; the poniahment of crimea com- 
mitted by theae magistmtes, thoogh sometimes 
spedd judges were ^ipointed toe that purpeae, aa 
wdl aa the hononn or diatinctiona to be conferTCd 
upon them. (Pdyb. ir. 14, riiL 14, xL 5. 8 ; Paua. 
rii. 9.) The ambaaaadon of figre^n nationa had 
to appear before the aaaembly, and to ddiver the 
meaaagea of their states, which were then discussed 
by the assembled Achaeans. (Pdyb. rr. 7, xxiii. 
7, A&, xzriii 7 ; Liv. xxxiL 9.) The aaaembly 
likewiae had it m ita power to decree, aa to whe- 
ther negotiations were to be carried on with any 
foreign power or not, and no siq^le town was af* 
lowed to send embasnes to a foreign power on iu 
own respflBsibility eren on matten of merely locd 
importance, dthough otherwise erery separate town 
managed ita own internd afbin at ita own dia- 
cretion, ao long aa it did not interfere with the 
interesta of the leagucu No town further waa d- 
lowed to accept preaenta from a foreign power. 
(Pdyb. xxiii. 8 ; Psna. rii 9.) The Totea in the 
aaaemb ly were giyen according to towns, each bar- 
ing one rote, whether the town waa huge or amalL 
(Liv. xxxil 22, &c) 

The prindpal oflken of the confederacy were : 
1. at first two stiategi (oTpcmryoO, but after the 
year b. c 255, there waa only one (Strab. riii. 
pu 385), who in conjunction with an hipparehua 
(hnnpxot) or commander of the cavaby (Pdyb. 
T. 95, xxriii. 6) and an under-atrategus (fo'eorpo- 
nryrff, Polyb» It. 59) commanded the army for- 
nished by Uie confederacy, and was entnisted with 
the whole conduct of war ; 2. a public secretary 
(ypafAfutr€is\ and 3. ten demiuigi (hifAtavpyol^ 
Strab. L e, ; Lir. xxxil 22, xxxriii. 30 ; Polyb. ▼. 
1, xxiii. 10, who calls the demiuigi i^orrts). 
These officen aecm to have presided in the great 
assembly, where they probably farmed the body of 
men which Pdybiua (xxxviii 5) calls the Tcpovoia; 
the demiuigi or the strategus might convene the 
aaaembly, though the latter only when the people 
were oouTened in arma and for military pozpoaetk 
(Pdyb. ir. 7 ; Liy. xxxr. 25.) All the officen of 
the league were elected in the aaaembly held in 
the qyring, at the rising of the Pleiadea (Polyb. ii 
43, ir. 6. 37, ▼. 1), and legally they were inveated 
with their acTenl officea cmly for one year, though 
it frequently h^qiened that men of great merit and 
distinction were re-dected for aereral succeadre 
yeara. (Pint Arai. 24. 30, Oeom, 15.) If one of 
the officen died during the period of hia office, his 
place waa filled by hu predecessor, until the time 
for the new dections amyed. (Pdybi xL 2.) The 
B 3 



6 ACINACES. 

dose xnaaa existing among the confederate towns 
was, according to Poljbius (iL 37), strengthened 
by their adopting common weights, measures, and 
coins. 

But the perpetual discord of the members of the 
league, the hostility of Sparta, the intrigues of the 
Romans, and the folly and rashness of the later 
strategi, brought about not only the destruction and 
dissolution of the confederacy, but of the fineedom 
of all Greece, which with the £b11 of Corinth, in 
& c. 146, became a Roman province under the 
name of Achaia. (Comp. Schom, 0^«sqI. (Trieo&os- 
lands von (Ur EmtOehuHg ds9 AetoL u, AchiU$ek 
Bundes, especially pp. 49, &c 60, &c ; A. Matthiae^ 
VeroMchie SdmflU^ p. 239, &c. ; Drumann, Idem 
zur€hsch,des Ver/ails der Cfrieek. Staaten, ^ 447 ; 
Tittmann, Cfrieeh, Staatsvmfasa. p. 673, &c. ; K. F. 
Hermann, Griech. StaattaUerth. § 185.) [L. S.] 

ACHANE CAx<^)> & Persian and Boeotian 
measure, equivalent to 45 Attic medimnL (Aris- 
tot ap, SchoL ad ^mfopA. Aoharn, 108, 109 ; Suid. 
s. V.) According to Hesychius a Boeotian &x^ 
was equal to one Attic medimnus. [P. S.] 

A'CIES. [ExEBOTua] 

ACI'NACES (Aicu'dUciif), a Persian sword, 
whence Horace (Oarm. i 27. 5) speaks of the 
Mechu acmacet. It was a short and straight wea- 
pon, and thus differed fiom the Roman tiea, which 
was curved. (Pollux, i. 138 ; Joseph. AwL Jud, 
XX. 7. § 10. [Sku.] It was worn on the right 
side of the body (insignis acimaee <iscfro, VaL Place 
Argon, vi 701), whereas the Greeks and Romans 
usually had their swords suspended on the left side. 

The form of the acinaces, with the method of 
using it, is illustrated by the following Persepolitan 
figures. In all the bas-reliefs found at Persepolis, 
the acinaces is invariably straight, and is com* 
monly suspended over the right thigh, never over 
the left, but sometimes in front of the body. The 
form of the acinaces is also seen in the statues of 
the god Mithras, one of which is figured in the cut 
on the title-page of this work. 




A golden acinaces was fjtM]ucntly worn by the 
Persian nobility, and it was often given to indi- 
viduals by the kings of Persia as a mark of honour. 
(Herod, viil 120 ; Xen. Anab. i 2. § 27, a § 29.) 

The acinaces was also used by Uie GsspiL 
(Herod, vii. 67.) It was an object of religious 
worship among the Scythians and many of the 
northern nations of Europe. (Herod, iv. 62 ; Comp. 
Mela, ii. 1 ; A mm. Marc, xxxi 2.) [J. Y.] 



ACROTERIUM. 

ACI'SCULUa [Ascii-] 

ACLIS. [Hasta.] 

ACNA or ACNUA (also spdt agna and agm^aT) 
was, according to Varro, the Italian name, and. 
according to Columella, the common Baetican nsune 
of the actus quadratns. [Actus.] An old writer, 
quoted by Salmasius, says ''agnua habet pedes 
xim. ccoc,** i. «. 14,400 square feet The name is 
almost certainly connected with the Greek innu^m^ 
though the measure is different (Varm, R, H* 
i 10. § 2 ; Cohmu R. R, r. 2. § 5 ; Schneider, 
Comm^mL ad IL eo, ; Salmasius, ad SoUsu p. 
481.) [P. S.] 

ACO'NTION (Aicrfrruw). [Hasta.] 

ACRATISMA {iucpiruriui), [Cokna.] 

ACROA'MA (dicpdi^ui), any thing heard, and 
especially any thin^ heard with pleasure, signified 
a play <or musical piece ; hence a concert of ^yers 
on different musical instruments, and also an inter- 
lude, called emboUa by Cicero {pro SeaeL 54), which 
was performed during the exhioition of the public 
games. The word is also applied to the actors and 
musicians who were empl<nred to amuse guests 
during an entertainment (Cic. Fsrr. iv. 22 ; prt» 
Arch. 9 ; Suet Oelan. 74 ; Macrob. SaL iL 4) ; and 
it is sometimes used to designate the anagmottae. 
[Anaonostab.] 

ACROLITHI (Aicp^\i0oi), statues, of which the 
extremities (fooe, feet, and hands, or toes and 
fingers) only were of marble, and the remaining- 
part of the body of wood either gilt, or, what seems 
to have been more usual, covered with drapery. The 
word occurs only in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, 
Awd, vol. iii. p. 155, No. 20 ; Amtk, PaL xii. 
40), and in Vitruvius (iL 8. § 11) ; but statues of 
the kind are frequently mentioned by Pausanias 
(iL 4. § 1, vL 25. § 4, viL 21. §§ 4 or 10, viL 23. 
§ 5, viiL 25. § 4 or 6, viiL 31. § 1 or 2, and § 3 
or 6, ix. 4. § 1.) It is a mistake to suppose that 
all die statues of this kind belonged to an eariier 
period. They continued to be made at least down 
to the time of Praxiteles. (Comp. Jacobs, Com- 
meat in AntiL Grato,^ voL iiL Pt 1. p. 298 ; and 
Winckelmann, G^soiUoto dsr Kmut^ B. L c. 2. 
§13.) [P. a] 

ACRO'POLIS {hatpiwoKis). In almost all 
Greek cities, which were usually built upon a hill, 
rock, or some natural elevation, there was a kind of 
tower, a castle, or a citadel, built upon the highest 
part of the rock or hill, to whicn the name of 
acropolit was given. Thus we read of an acropolis 
at Athens, Corinth, Argos, Messene, and many 
other places. The Capitolium at Rome answered 
the same purpose as the Acropolis in the Greek 
cities ; and of the same kind were the tower of 
Agathocles at Utica (App. Pun, 14), and that of 
Antonia at Jerusalem. (Joseph. B, c/. v. § 8, 
Act ApoBtol. xxL 34.) At Athens, the Acropolis 
served as the treasury, and as the names of all 
public debtors were registered there, the expression 
of ** registered upon the Acropolis ** {iyyeypofu- 
fUtfos ip *AKpoiw6\ti) always means a public disbtor 
(iy iucpovSkti ytypofifiipot^ Dem. c TXaocr. p. 
1337. 24 ; BOckh. PvbL Eeon. t/ AAmu, p. 888, 
2nd edit). 

ACROSTCVLIUM {iKpoirr6?aop), [Navm.] 

ACROTE'RIUM (iucpitHiptop) signifies an ex- 
tremity of any thing. It is generally used in the 
pluraL 

1. In Architecture it seems to have been used 
originally in the same sense as the Latin /isfi^MMii, 



ACTA. 

iMWifTy, kt the ibping imf of a building, and mare 
pactieBkrij liar the onaHiMnttd front or gable of such 
a IDO^ that n,A0jpedimmL (Pint Casa. 63, com- 
pared vith CSc. na^ ii. 43» and Snet Oaet. 81.) 
Tha nnal ifaniiy of oeroferMs however, ia the 
prdntale placed en the eoouut of a pedimeat to 
reesTe itataei er other flnuunental figuiee. There 
vfR three acroteria, one above ea^ aai^ of the 
pwftnfiit VltnTiiiaeaji that thoee over the outer 
n^ {aanoL onpufarw) thould be aa high ae the 
wfa of the ^ympannm, and the one over the high- 
ol aogle one-eighth part h%her. (Vitnir, iil 3, 
«£.&.$ 12, ed. Sdmader.) Some writers in- 
ckde the etatoea themaelYea aa well aa the baaea 
inder the name ; but the only anthoritj for thia 
wot to be an emr of Sahoaaiiia. (/a AeL Spart 
F^nm. N^ 12.) 2. The extremitiea of the prow 
of a Tcaiel, whidi were uanally taken from a oon- 
qoendTeaad aa a maik of victory : the act of doing 
M«aacnnedi«|wng|N(£Ccir. (Xen. J/fOL ii 3. § 8, 
vi 2. S 36 ; Herod, iil 69, viii 121.) 8. The ez- 
traaitieaof aatatae,wiq0^feet,haiida,&c. (Dem. 
cJlmoer. ^ 738 ; Athen. v. p. 199, e.) £P. S.] 

ACrr A L Signified the pablic acta and orderi 
ef a Roonn magiaCnte, whidi after the expiration 
•f hia eflke w«re anbmitted to the aenate for ap- 
proval or xejectian. (Snet. does. 19, 23 ; CicL 
FML L 7, Ac) After the death of Juliua Caeear 
the triamviia awoce, and compelled all the other 
sagiatniea to awear, to obaei^ and maintain all 
hiaaeta (m octo jarar«,oonp. Tac Aim. L 72 ] Suet 
Jlii (7) ; and hence it became the eoatom on the 
afwuian of each emperor for the new mooareh to 
svcor to obaerve and reraect all the acta of hia 
predeeeaacra from Jniioa Caeaar downwarda, with 
tbe exeeptiaa of tboae who had been branded with 
infrmy after death, anch aa Nero and Domitian. 
Evoy year all the magiatratea upon enteiing anon 
their office on the let df January awore uqxoval of 
tkeactaof the reigning emperor: thia oath waa orir 
ginaDy taken by one magiatnte in each department 
on b^alf of hia colkegnea, but aobaequently it waa 
the aiaal pEactice for each mi^iiatrote to take the 
eath penmmlly. (Dum Oaaa. zlvil 18, liil 28 ; 
Tac Jsa. zvi. 22, with the JBzcunua of Idpaiua ; 
Dion Ca«. Iviii 17, Iz. 25.) 

2. Acta Foexnsu. were of two kinda : firat, 
Ihoae relating to the government, aa legea, pl»- 
biacita,edicta, the namea of all the magiatratea, Ac, 
which foamed pact of the tabulat jmUietmj and 
aeoondly, thoae connected with the coorta of law. 
The acta of the latter kind contained an acconnt 
of the different auita, with the argnmenta of the 
adrocatea and the deciaiona of the oonrt In the 
tine of the republic the namea of thoae who were 
acquittod and condemned were entered on the 
reeeida of the court (m kMat ab$olatitm mm 
mttUt, Gc mdFni.ym. 8. §. 8), and it appeara 
from the qnotationa of Aaoonina from theae Acta, 
that they nmat have contained abatracta of the 
tpewhra of the advocatea aa early aa the time of 
Ciaeaa, (/• Semriam, ^ 19, an MUoman, pp^ 32, 
44, 47, ed. OreUi) Under the empire the pro- 
eeediqpef the higher conita aeem to have been al- 
vajB preaenned,and they are frequently xeferred to 
mtheDigeat They are aometimea called 6^«to ; 
and thejr ooouneneed with the namea of the conaula 
far tbe year, and the day of the month. (Amm. 
Mare; zsii. 3 ; Anguat Acta e. Fortm, Mamek 
HefneL i. 16 ; Cod. Theod. 2. tit. 29. n 3.) Spe- 
onanaof theae Acta are given by Briaaoniua. (/>e 



ACTA, 7 

FutmmUay v. § 1 13.) They were taken by cleika 
(a6 adU fiirt)^ whoee titlea and dntiea occur in 
Lydua (efo Magittr, ii 20, A&) and the A^o^i^ 

8. Acta Militabia, contained an account of 
the dntiea, numbera, and ezpenoea of each legion 
(VegdL iL 19), and were probably preaerved in 
the military treaauiy founded by Auguatua (Suet^ 
Avg. i9 ; Ta& Amu i 78 ; Dion Caaa. Iv. 25.) 
The acldiera, who drew up theae acta, are fre- 
quently mentioned in inacriptiona and ancient wrU 
teca under varioua titlea, aa, Ubraruu legiam$; ae- 
btaruu or aetairim legkmiss iaimlarimt oattrmsu^ 

4. Acta Sbmatus, called alao Commbntarii 
Senatus (Tac. Am$. xv. 74) and Acta Path cm 
(Amt. V. 4), contained an account of the varioua 
mattera brought before the aenate, the opiniona of 
the chief apeaker^ and the deciaion of the honae. 
It haa beoEi uaually inferred from a paaaage of 
Suetoniua (^ Inito honore prixnua omnium inatituit, 
ut tarn aenatua quam p<^>ub diuma acta conficeren- 
tor et publicarentur,^ Caet, 20), that the pro- 
ceedinga of the aenato were not published till the 
firat oonaulahip of Juliua Caeaar, b. c. 59 ; but thi:i 
waa not atrictiy the caae ; for not only had the do- 
creea of the aenate been written down and pub- 
liahed long previooaly, but the debatea on the 
Gatilinarian oonapiiacy had been widely circulated 
by Cicero (p. SfUL 14, 15.) All that Suetoniua 
meana to aay ia, that the prooeedinga of the aenate, 
which had been only oocaaionally published before 
and by private individuala, were for the first time, 
by the command of Caeaar, publiahed r^gukriy 
every day (iomiusacta dkima) under the authority 
of government aa port of the daily gazette. Auguatua 
forbade the publication of the proceedinga of the 
aenate, but they atill continued to be preaerved, 
and one of the moat diatii^guisked senators, who re- 
ceived the title ab actU asno^aa, was choaen by the 
emperor to compile the account (Tac. ^aa. v. 4 ; 
Spart. Hadr, 3; Orelli, Inter, No. 2274, 3186.) 
The peraona entrusted with this office must not be 
confounded with the various clerks (actuarii^ $ervi 
jmbUdj $eribae, ceH8ualea\ who were present in the 
aenate to take notea of ita proceedii^ and who 
were only excluded when the senate passed a 
aemMiutoomstUium tacthrn^ that is, when they de- 
libemted on a aubject of the greatest importance, 
reapecting which aecresy waa necessary or advisa- 
ble (Capit. Chrd. 12.) It was doubtless from 
notea and papera of theae derka that the Acta were 
compiled by the aenator, who waa entrusted with 
thia (office The Acta were depoaited in some of 
the record offices in particular departmente of the 
public librariea, to which accesa could only be ob- 
tained by the expreaa permission of the praefectos 
urbl They were consulted and are frequently re- 
ferred to by the bter historians (Vopisc. Prob. 2 ; 
Lamprid. Sever, 56 ; CapitoL OpiL Afacr, 6), and 
many extracte from them were published in the 
Acta Diuma. Tacitus and Suetonius never refer 
to the Acta Senatus as authorities, but only to the 
Acta Diuxna, 

5. Acta Dxitrna, a gazette published daily at 
Rome by the authority of the government during 
the later times of the republic, and under the em- 
pire, correaponding in aome measure to our news- 
papers. (Tac Ami. iil 3, xiii. 31, xvi 22.) In 
addition to the title AeUi DiunMy we find them 
refetied to under the names of Diumoy Acta Pub- 

B 4 



s 



ACTA. 



UoOj Ada Urbanoj Acta Rerum tTihanarwn^ Acta 
PopuUy and they are frequently called simply 
Acta, The Greek writers on Roman histonr caU 
them rh ^ofurtiiuera, t^ 97ift6<ria ttroftrffiaroj 
rik 9rifi6<ria ypdftfAora and t^ Koiyft twofiy^ifaara. 
The nature of their contents will be best seen from 
the followii^ passage of Petronins (c 63) where 
in imitation of them is given by the actnarius of 
Trimalchio : — ** Actnarius — tamquam acta urbis 
recitayit : yii KaL Sextilis in praedio Cumano, quod 
est TrinuUchionis^ nati sunt pneri xxx., puellae 
XL. ; sublata in horreum ex area tritid millia mo- 
dinm quingenta; bores domiti quingentl Eodem 
die Mithridates serrus in crucem actus est, quia 
Gaii nostri genio maledixerat Eodem die in arcam 
relatum est, quod coUocari non potuit, sestertium 
centies. Eodem die incendium buBtxan est in hortis 
Pompeianis, ortum ex aedibus Nastae TillicL Jam 
etiam edicta aedilium redtabantur, et saltoariormn 
testamenta, quibus Trimalchio cum elogio exhae- 
redabatur ; jam nomina villicorum et repndiata a 
circumitore Uberta in balneatoris contubernio depre- 
hensa ; atriensis Baias relegatos ; jam reus fiictus 
dispensator; et judicium inter cubicularios actum.** 
From this passage, and fit>m the numerous' passages 
in andent writers, in which the Acta Diuma toe 
quoted (references to which are given in the works 
of Le Clerc and LiberkUhn dted l^ow), it would ap- 
pear that they usually contained the following mat* 
ters : — 1. The number of births and deaths in the 
city, an account of the money paid into the treasury 
from the provinces, and every thing relating to the 
supply of com. These particuhuB would be ex> 
txacted from the tabulae publicae. By an ancient 
regulation, ascribed to Servius Tullius (Dionys. iv. 
15), all births were registered in the temple of 
Venus, and all deaths in that of Libitina ; and we 
know that this practice was continued under ^e 
empire, only that at a later time the temple of 
Saturn was substituted for that of Venus for the 
registration of births. (JuL Cap. M, Aurd, 9.) 
2. Extracts from the Acta Forensia, containing the 
edicts of magistrates, the testaments of distinguished 
men, reports of trials, with the names of those who 
were acquitted and condemned, and likewise a list 
of the magistrates who were elected. 8. Extracts 
from the acta senatns, especially all the decrees and 
acclamationes [Aoclah atio] in honour of the 
reigning emperor. 4. A court circular^ containing 
an account of the births, deaths, festivals, and 
movements of the imperial fimiily. 5. An account 
of such public afiauRB and foreign vrars as the 
government thought proper to publish. 6. Curious 
and interesting occurrences, sttch as prodigies and 
miracles, the erection of new edifices, the confla- 
gration of buildings, funerals, sacrifices, a list of 
the various games, and especially amatory tales and 
adventures, with the names of the parties. (Comp. 
Cic. ad Fam. iL 15.) The fragments of some 
Acta Diuma have been published by Pighius and 
Dodwcll, but their genumeness is too doubtful to 
allow us to make use of them as authorities. 

It is certain that these acta were published 
under the authority of the ^vemment, but it is 
not stated under whose supenntendence they were 
drawn up. It is probable, however, that this duty 
devolved upon the magistrates, who had the care 
of the tabulae publicae, namely, the censon under 
the republic (Liv. iv. 8, xliii 16), and sometimes 
the quaestors, sometimes the praefecti aerarii under 
the empire. (Tac Aim, xiil 28.) By a rq[ulation 



ACTIA. 

of Alexander Severus, seven of the fourteen cnrR-> 
tores urbis, whom he appointed, had to be present 
when the acta were drawn upi (Lam;»i<L Alear^ 
Sev, 33.) The actual task of compiling them vrmm 
committed to subordinate officers, <aUed aetuarii or 
aetarii, who were assisted by various derka, and. 
by reporten (fUitaru)^ who toAi down in short-hand 
the proceedings in the courts, &c. After the act& 
had been drawn up, they were exposed for a time 
in some public place in the dty, where persons 
could read them and take copies of them. Many- 
scribes, whom Cicero speaks of under the name 
of operarUj made it their business to copy them 
or make extracts fitn them for the use of the 
wealthy in Rome, and especially in the provinces, 
where they were eagerly sought after and exten- 
nvely read. (Ci& ad Fam. viil I, xiil 8 ; Tac. 
Amt. xvi 22.) After the acta had beoi ex> 
posed in public fisr a certain time, they were de- 
pouted, like the Acta Senatus^ in some of the re- 
cord offioeSy or the public libraries. 

The style of the acta, as appears from the {Mia- 
sage in Petronius, was very simple and concise. 
They contained a bare enumeratim of focts without 
any attempt at ornament 

As to the time at which these acta were first 
composed, there is a considerable variety of opinion 
among modem writers. It is maintained that the 
passage of Suetonius (Cbss. 20), quoted abore, 
does not imply that the acta were first published 
in the first consulship of Julius Caesar, and that 
the meaning of it is, ** that he first ordained that 
the acta diuma of the senate should be compiled 
and published just as (jtam quam) those of the 
people had been.^ But although this interpreta- 
tion is probably the correct one, still there is no 
passage in the ancient writen in which tiie Acta 
Diuma are decisively mentioned, previoostoCaesar^a 
first consulship; for the diarium referred to by 
Sempronius Asdlio (OelL r. 18), which is fre- 
quently brought forward as a proof of this earlv pub- 
lication, is the journal of a pnvate person. There is 
likewise no evidence to support an opinion adopted 
by many modem writen that the publication of 
the acta first commenced in & c 133 to supply the 
place of the Annales Maximi, which were discon- 
tinued in that year (Cic. da OraL ii 12), while 
on the contrary the great difference of their con- 
tents renden it improbable that such was the case. 
The Acta Diuma continued in use to the downfoll 
of the westem empire, or at least till the removal 
of the seat of government to Constantinople, but 
they were never published at the latter d^. 

(Lipsius, Eaemmu ad Toe, Aim. r. 4 ; Emesti, 
Excurnta ad SineL J. Caet. 20 ; Schlosser, Utber 
die QueUen der tpatem lattin. GfekkktaehnSber^ 
beaonden Uber Ze^ungeny dte. in the^rcAte/iir G^- 
soUoite, pp. 80—106 ; Pratze, De FoaUbiu^ qmo9 in 
conaeribemUs rebus inde a T^berio uaqme ad mortem 
Nercnie geatia auctorea veterea aeemU videatUurj 
HaUe, 1840; Zell, Ueber die Zeitmigea der alien, 
Fribuzg, 1834 ; but the two best works on the 
subject are, Le Clerc, Dea Journamm eheg lea Ro^ 
maina, Paris, 1838, and Lieberktihn, De Diunna 
Romanorum AcHa, Weimar, 1840.) 

A'CTIA ("Airria), a festival of Apollo, cele- 
brated at Nicopolis in Epeinu, with wrotling, 
musical contests, horse-radng, and sea>fightsw It 
was established by Augustus, in commemoration 
of his victory over Antony off Actium, and was 
probably the revival of an andent festival ; for 



ACTIO. 

tbev« ym^ a cgfehnted temple of Apollo at Actinm, 
vUidi. is mentioned by Tfaoeydideo (i. 29), and 
^~ * (yvu p. 325X and which was enlarged by 
CiHb The games imtitated by Angnatna 
eelefaniCed eTery four yeara (irtyra^ifpff, 
aits) ; they receired the thle of a 



ACTIO. 



9 






■I" 



I AgDO, and -were alao called Olympia. (Strab. 
X. e. ; Dioo Caaa. li 1. ; Soet At^ 18 ; Bockh^ 
CSmjbl Imer, Ka 1720, n. 845 ; Kianae, OfyngnOj 

A'CnO ia defined by Ceboa (Dig. 44. tit 7. 
a. 51) to be the right of poisaing by judicial meana 
jjmdiein) vfaat ia a man^ due. 

'With le^ect to ita aobjeet-matter, the actio was 
fivided into two great diviaiona, the m permmam 
•eCiB, and the ta rem actio. The m permmam actio 
penon who waa boond to the 
by cflntract or delict, that is, when the 
t aoch pecaon waa ' dare, ftoeie, praea. 
ih» m rem actio applied to thoae 
\ when a man danned a cor|wial thing {eor- 
paetaiie wm) as hia property, or claimed a r^ht, aa 
ftr iwrfanc* the nae and enjoyment of a thmg, or 
tibe r^ght to a road orer a piece of groDnd {adiu), 
I called etmf' 




Tbe aa rem actio waa called mmUcatio ; the m per- 
■ m i iiaw actio was caDed in the later law eoHdietio^ 
lifaainf originaDy the phiintiff gaye the defendant 
Bodee to appear on a given day for the porpow of 
cbooaiqg a jadcx. (Oaina, rr. £.) 

The old actiona of the Boman law were called 
logic mtii om eB ^ or IcgitiauMC^ either becanae they were 
cAyiaaal y prorided fior by lawa Qegee)^ or becanae 
they wen atricUy adapted to the worda of the lawa, 
aad thacfoRcoaJdnotbeTaried. In like manner, 
the old write in England contained the matter or 
daim of the plaintiff expreaaed aoootding to the 
kfslrafe.* 

The fire modea of proceeding by legal action aa 

^ —" deacribed by Oaina (it. 12), were^ 

Per jndida poatulationem. Per con- 
Per manna injectionem. Per pignoria 




I of action giadnaDy fell into die- 
) of the ezoeniTe nicety required, 
tha frihin conaeqnent on the alighteat error 
ia the pleadinga ; of which there ia a notable ex- 
ample gijca by Oaina himaelf (iT. 11), in the caae 
of a pkintiff who oomfplained of hia Tinea (vxfev) 
bein^ cat down, and waa told that hia action waa 
bad, iwaamfwrh aa he ooght to hsTe naed the term 
tieea (arkaree) and not Tinea ; becanae the law of the 
TweireTablM, which gaTo hhntheactionfbr damage 
to hia Tinea, fawitained only the general ezpreaaion 
"treea** (oiiorw). The Lex Aebntia and two 
Legea JuUae aboliahed the old legitimae actionee^ 
except in the caae of damtmm it^istiim [Damnum 
iivfxctdm], and in matten which fell nnder the 
coigniBaoe of the CentomTiri [Cbntumvirl] 

In the old Boman conatitntion, the knowledge 
of the law waa doaely connected with the inati- 
talea and ceremonial of religion^ and waa accord- 
ingly in the handa of the patriciana alone, whoae 
aid their dienta were obliged to aak in all their 
legal dimteiL Appina Claodina Oaecna, perhapa 
Me of ue eariiest writers on law, drew up the 

* **BceTe qnidem com tit Ibrniatnm ad aimili- 
\ vqpilae jnria, quia breriteret panda verbia 
MM pr o fer entia exponit et explanat, aicut 

Kgida joiiairemqaae estbroTiterflnanat.** (Bracton, 

£413.) 



Tariona forma of actiona, probably for hia own use 
and tiiat of hia irienda : the manuscript was atolen 
or copied by hia scribe Cn. Flarins, who made it 
public: and thus, according to the story, the pie* 
beiana became acquainted with those legal forma 
which hitherto had been the exclnaiTc property of 
the patriciana. (Gic De OraL L 41, pro Mvreoa^ 
ell; IHg.l.tita2.a.2.§7.) 

Upon the old legal actiona being aboliahed, it 
became the practice to proaecute snita aocorduig to 
certain prescribed ferma or fennulae, aa they were 
called, which will be explained after we hsTO 
noticed Tarioua diriaiona of actiona, aa they are made 
by the Roman writers. 

The diriaion of aetiooee in the Boman law is 
somewhat complicated, and some of the divisions 
must be conaidered rather aa emanating from the 
schools of the rhetoricians than from any other 
source. But this diTision, though com^icated, 
may be somewhat simplified, or at least rendered 
more inteUjgible, if we oonrider that an action is a 
chum or demand made by one person against 
another, and that in order to be a Talid legal claim 
it muat be founded on a legal right "nie main 
diriaion cf actiona must therefore haTO a reference 
or analogy to the main diTision of rights ; for in 
erery system of law the fonn of the action must 
be tiie expression of the legal right. Now the 
general drnsion of rights in the Roman law is inta 
rights of dominion or ownership, which are rights 
against the whole world, and into rights arising 
firam contract, and qnaai contract, and delict The 
actio ta fi8fli implies a complainant, who claims a 
certain right against oTery person who may dis- 
pute it, and the object and end of the action are to 
compel an acknowledgment of the right by tho 
particular person who disputes it By this action 
the pbuntiff maintains his nroperty in or to a thing, 
or his rights to a benefit from a thing (jmvihUee). 
Thus the actio in rem is not so called on account 
of the subject-matter of the action, but the term is a 
technical phrase to express an action which is in no 
way founded on contract, and therefore has no de- 
terminate indiridual as the other neceasaiy party 
to the action ; but cTery indiridual who disputes 
the right becomes, by such act of diapnting, a party 
liable to such action. The actio m rem does not 
aacertain the complainant's rip;ht, and from tho 
nature of the action the complainant's right cannot 
be ascertained by it, for it is a right against all th^ 
world ; but the action determinea that the defendant 
has or has not a claim which is Talid against tho 
pkiintiff 'a daim. The actio in pereomam implies a 
determinate person or persons against whom the 
action liea, the right of the plaintiff being founded 
on the acts of the defendant or defendants : it ia, 
therefore, in respect of something which has been 
sgreed to be done, or iu respect of some injury for 
which the plaintiff claims compensation. The actio 
mixta of Justinian's legislation (Inst iT. tit 6, a 20) 
was so called from its being supposed to partake of 
the nature of the actio ta rem and the actio in per- 
eonam. Such waa the action among co-heirs as to 
the diTiaion of the inheritance, and the action for 
the purpose of settling boundariea which were 
Gonfiued. 

Bights, and the modea of enforcing them, may 
also be riewed with reference to the sources from 
which they flow. Thus, the righto of Boman 
citisens flowed in part from the sovereign power, 
in part from thoae to whom power was ddegated. 



10 



ACTIO. 



That body of law which was founded on, and flowed 
from the edicts of the praetors, and corule aediles, 
was called jut honorarium, as opposed to the Jiu 
drnts, in its narrower sense, which comprehended 
the ligsa^ pUHMoUa, mnaitu eontiUia, &c. The Jiu 
ionorarium introduced new rights and modified 
existing rights ; it also provided remedies suitable 
to such new rights and modifications of old rights, 
and this was effected by the actions which the 
praetors and aediles allowed. On this jurisdiction 
of the praetors and aediles is founded the distinc- 
tion of actions into eioUos and honorariaey or, as 
they are sometimes called, praefonod, from the 
greater importance of the praetor^s jurisdiction. 

There were several other divisions of actions, all 
of which had reference to the forms of procedure. 

A division of actions was sometimes made with 
reference to the object which the plaintiff had in 
view. If the object was to obtain a thing, the 
action was called perseetUoria, If the object was 
to obtain damages (poena) for an injury, as in the 
case of a thing stolen, the action was poenalia ; for 
the thing itsS could be daimed both by the vtii- 
dieaHo and the eondkHo. If the object was to 
obtain both the thing and damages, it was probably 
sometimes called aeHo mueta^ a term which had 
however another signification also, as already ob- 
served. The division of aethnM into direetae 
and wtiln must be traced historically to the aetume$ 
Jictitiae or fictions by which the rights of action 
were enlarged and extended. The origin of this 
division was in the power assumed by the praetor 
to ffrant an action in special cases where no action 
comd legally be brought, and in which an action, if 
brought, would have been inanit or inutiUM, After 
the decline of the pTaetor*s power, the aetionM 
utiles were still extended by the contrivances of the 
iurU prudentee and the rescripts of the emperors. 
Whenever an actio utUie was granted, it was 
fhimed on some analogy to a legally recognised 
right of action. Thus, in the examples given by 
Ghoius (iv. 34), he who obtained the honorum pot- 
eeesio by the piaetor^s edict, succeeded to the de- 
ceased by the praetorian and not the civil law : he 
had, therefore, no direct action (direeta actio) in 
respect of the rights of the deceased, and could only 
bring his action on the fiction of his being what he 
was not, namely, heree. 

Actions were also divided into ordutariae and 
eastraordinariae. The ordinariae were those which 
were prosecuted in the usual way, first before the 
praetor, m jure, and then before the judex, in 
fudido. When the whole matter was settled be- 
fore or by the praetor in a summary way, the name 
eaetraordinaria was applicable to such action. 
[Interdict.] 

The term eondictiones only applies to personal ac^ 
tions ; but not to all personal actions. It does not com- 
prehend actions at deUdo, nor bonae jidei actionee. 
As opposed to bonae ^dei actiones, oondietionee were 
sometimes called actionee atricH juris. In the ac- 
iUmes etrieU juris it appears that the formula of the 
praetor expressed in precise and strict terms the 
matter submitted to the judex, whose authority 
was thus confined within limits. In the actiones 
bonae fidei, or ex fde bona (Cic Top, 17), more 
latitude was given, either by the formula of the 
praetor, or was implied in the kind of action, such 
as the action e* empto, vendito, loeuto, &c, and the 
special circumstances of the case were to be taken 
into oonsideiation by the judex. The actiones 



ACTIO. 

atf^itrariae were so called from the judex in sacH 
case being called an arbiter, probably, as Festti^ 
says, because the whole matter in dispute -vma 
submitted to his judgment ; and he could decide 
according to the justice and equity of the caae, 
without being fettered by the praetor^ formula. 
It should be observed also, that the judex properly 
could only condemn in a sum of money ; but the 
arbiter might declare that any particular act should 
be done by either of the pirties, which was called 
his arbOrium, and was followed by the oondeamaHo 
if it was not obeyed. 

The division of actions into perpetuao and tstn" 
paroles had refereoce to the time within which an 
action might be brought, after the right of action 
had accrued. Originally those actions which were 
given by a far, seuatus consultum, or an imperial 
constitution, might be brought without any limi- 
tation as to time ; but those which were nanted 
by the praetor^s authority were generally limited 
to the year of his office. A time of limitation was, 
however, fixed for all actions by the late imperial 
constitutions. 

The division of actions into aetUmes m jus and 
i» faetun is properly no division of actions, but 
has merely reference to the nature of the formnla. 
In the formula in Jaetum eoncepta, the praetor 
might direct the judex barely to inquire as to the 
foct which was the only matter in issue ; and on 
finding the fiict, to make the proper oondmnnatio : 
as in the case of a freedman bringing an action 
against his patronus. (Gains, iv, 46.) In the 
formula in jus the fitct was not in issue, but the 
l^al consequences of the fiict were submitted to 
the discretion of the judex. The formula in /actum 
commenced with the technical expression, A' par^^ 
&c, *^ If it should appear,** &c.; the formnla inJHu 
commenced. Quod A, A,, &&, ** Whereas A. A. did 
so and sa** (Gains, iv. 47.) 

The actions which had for their object the 
punishment of crimes, were considered public ; as 
opposed to those actions by which some particular 
person daimed a right or compensation, and which 
were therefore called prioatac The fiwmer were 
properly called Judicia pubUoa; and the latter, as 
contrasted with them, were called judida privatct, 
[Judicium.] 

The actions called nooKiles arose when ajiUus 
familias (a son in the power of his fother), or a 
slave, committed a thelft, or did any injury to 
another. In either case the fother or owner might 
give up the wrong^doer to the person injured, or 
else he must pay competent damages. These ac- 
tions, it appears, take their name either from the 
injury committed, or because the wrong-doer was 
liable to be given up to punishment (homm) to the 
p^son injured. Some of these actions were of legal 
origin, as that of theft, which was given by the 
Twelve Tables ; that oidamuum vi^furiae, which was 
given by the Aquilia Lex ; and ^t of i$^furiarmn 
et vi bonorum raptorum, which was given by the 
edict, and therefore was of praetorian origin. This 
instance will serve to show that the Roman division 
and classification of actions varied according as the 
Roman writen contemplated the sources of rights 
of action, or the remedies and the modes of ob- 
taining them. 

An action was commenced by the plaintiff sum- 
moning the defendant to appear befine the praetor 
or other maffutrate who had jurisdietio : this pro- 
cess was culed in jus vocatio ; and, according to 



„ / 



ACTIO, 
the bvm of the Twdve TMrn^ was in effeet a 
<>"'g<Wg of tke defiendant befoie tlie piaeUv if he 
refsscd to go quietly. This rude prooeediiig was 
modified in huer times^ and in many cases there 
eoald be no m jisr voeaHo at all» and in other 
caaee is muM necessary to obtain the pzaetor^ pep- 
wis s ien mder pain of a penalty. It was also 
fsaMiahed that a man could not be dragged from 
hit own hooae ; bat if a man kept his house to 
avoid, as we ahonld say^ beinig senred with a writ, 
he na tke riak of a kind of seqaestiatian {aetor 
m Aam miftmbaiur). The object of these rules 
waa to make the defendant appear before the 
coB^eiait jmisdictien ; the device of enterii^ an 
lor the defendant does not seem to 



haTosqggcateditaelfto the Roman lawyex& (Dig. 2. 
tiL4.) Jf the defendant wouhi not go qnietly, 
the phmtilf called on any bystand^ to witness 
{mtB^miy that he had been duly summoned, 
teudied the car of the witness, and dragged the 
defrndant into court (Hor. SanulB. 76—78 ; 
Plantna, GarrmL v. 2.) The parties might aettle 
their diapute on their way to the court, or the de- 
fcodaat miffht he bailed by a vindez. (Ci& Top. 
2;GBiBa, IT. 46; Oeliias, zri 10.) The lindex 
onat not be cooikQnded with the vades. This 
aettleaMnt of dispotea on the way was called ^raas- 
adio m via^ and aerres to ezphun a pasnge in St 
]«atthev(T.25).* 

Whoi before the piaetor, the parties wore said 
>n operaL The plamtiff then pnyed for an ao- 
tMQ, and if the naetor aUowed ii{dab(U aeHomem), 
he then dechoed what action he intended to bring 
againat the defendant, which was called adsrs 
■rfinoaai. This mj^ht be dona in writing, or 
cnlly, or by the plamtiff taking the defimduit to 
the nfllif, and snowing him which action he in> 
tended to rely on. (Dig. 2. tit 13.) As the 
farwmiat eonpiehended, or were supposed to com- 
pnhcDd, every possible form of action that could 
be rBqc h ed by a pfauntiff, it was presumed that he 
eeold find among all the formulae some one which 
was adapted to his easc^ and he waa accordingly 
w i pi w i i wl to be withont excuse if he did not tue 
paias to adect the proper forauda. (Cic; Pro Bot. 
Chm. c. It) If he took the wrotf one, or if he 
daimed man than his due, he lost lis cause (ooass 
wrfrfdf, Ck^DeOraL 1 36) ; bntthepaetorwme- 
tiaws g^ve him leave toanwnd his daunortiifealMi. 
(Qaia% it. 53^ Ac;) 14 for example, the contract 
between the paitiea was for scmethii^ ta ^aasrv, 
sod the plaintiff ehiimed something mi ^pecM, he 
lost his action : thus the contract might be, that 
the drftwdant imdcrtDok to sell the plaintiff a 
quantity of dy e st uff or a sUto ; if tlie plaintiff 
daimed Tyrian purple, or a particular sIato, his 
action waa bad ; thensfere^ says Gains, aooording 
to the tema ef i!k» ccntiact so os^ht the claim of 
the Mrft e fi' o to bcb As the formulae were so numci^ 
COS snd conprehcBsive, the plaintiff had only to 
idect the fenuuk which he sn^posedto be suitable 
u his caae, and it would lequixe no further varia- 
tion than the insertian of the names of the parties 
and of the thing Haimfd, or the subject-matter of 
the snk, vrith the amount of damages, &c^ as the 
caaenqghtbe. When the praetor hftd granted an 
quired the defendant to give 



* It is not easT to state correctly the chan^ 
in piDcednre whidi took place after the abolition 
flffhe legitimiM adi oi m . (;ompaie (}aius iv. 25^ 46. 



ACTIO. U 

security for his appearance before the praetor (m 
jtmi) on a day named, commonly the day but one 
after the m^ voeaHo^ unless the matter in dispute 
was settled at once. The defendant, on findi^ a 
surety, was said vade$ dan (Hor. ^^Inwi. till), 
eac/tsKWMun promiUen^ or fototrt: the suiety, wu, 
was said ^Mmden; the plaintiff when latisfied 
with the surety was laid, vadari rewmf to let him 
go on his sureties, or to have sureties from him. 
When the defendant promised to appear injtu^ on 
the day named, without giving any surety, this waa 
called va di mtmimn puntm. In some cases fvcu- 
ptratcrei were named, who, in case of ihid de« 
fiendant making de&ult, condemned him in the 
sum of money named in the vadtmonium. 

If the defendant appeared on the day appointed, 
he was said vadinumium $t$Uf; if he did not ap* 
pear, he was said tNM^'auMtasi rf a wnrim, and the 
praetor gave to the plamtiff the bomonm potmuUk 
(Hor. Strm. i 9. 36—41 ; Cic. Pro P. QaM«M», 
c. 6.) Both parties, on the day ai^inted, were 
summoned by a crier (praaco), when the plaintiff 
made his daun or demand, which was reiy briefly 
expressed, and may be considered as conespondiiig 
to our dedaiation at law. 

The defendant might either deny the phuntifTs 
daim, or he might renly to it by a plea, en^ptith. 
If he simply denied tne phuntifTs claim, the cause 
was at issue, and a judex might be demanded. 
The fonns A the §aecqftio also were contained in 
the praetor^ edict, or upon hearing the focts the 
praetor a''apted the plea to the case. The eaecqiUo 
was the defeodanVs defence, and was often merdy 
an equiteble answer or plea to the plaintifi'*s legal 
demand. The plaintiff might daim a thing upon 
his eoDtract with the defiencUuit, and the derandant 
might not deny the contract, but might put in a 
pl^ of 'frand {dobu aia^), or that he had been 
constrained to come to such agreement The 
^aaotpHo was in effect something which nmtived 
the plaintiff*B d em and, and it was expressed by a 
negative dause : thus, if the defendant asserted that 
the plaintiff fraudulently claimed a sum of money 
which he had not given to the defendant, the etc- 
eeptio would run thus : Si mtan niiil dolo wmIo 
AmU AfferU Jadum nt ticqm Jiat. Though the 
€aecgttio prooeoied fixtm the defendant, it was ex- 
pressed in this form, in order to be adapted for 
mser t ion in the fQxmuh^ and to render the ooa- 
demmatio subject to the condition. 

Exceptions were permnptorias or dUatoriati, 
Peremptory exceptions were a complete and per- 
pqtual answer to the plamtiff^s demand, such as 
an exceptio of dobu maiua^ or of res jmiieaia* 
Dihitory exceptions .were,, as the name imports, 
merdy calcukted to dehi^ the plaintiff^ demand ; 
as, fior instance, by showug that the debt or duty 
daimed was not yet due. Oaius considers the ex- 
ceptio liii$ dioidmae and m rmdwae (iv. 122) as 
bdooging to this dass. If a plaintiff proaecuted 
his action after a dilatory exception, he lost alto- 
gether his right of action. There might be dilatoiy 
exceptions also to the perton of the phuntifi^ cf 
whicn dass is the eaomCio eogmttonOf by which the 
defendant objects either that the pluntiff is not 
intitled to sue by a ccgmior^ or that the o^gnitmr 
whom he had named was not qualified to act as a 
oQgnitor. If the exception was allowed, the plaintiff 
eould either sue hunself^ or name a proper oognitcr, 
as the case might be. If a defendant neglected to 
take advantage of a peremptory aaoep^ the pnetor 



12 



ACTIO. 



might afterwards give him permiflsion to avail him- 
Belf of it ; whether he could do the same in the case 
of a dilatory was a donbtM question. (Gains, iv. 
125.) 

The plaintiff might replj to the defendant*B op- 
aeptioy for the defendant by putting in his plea be- 
came an actor. [Actor.] The defendants plea 
might be good, and a complete answer to the plain- 
tiff's demand, and yet the plaintiff might allege 
something that would be an answer to the plea. 
Thus, in the example given by Oaius (iv. 126), if 
an aigentarius claimed the price of a thing sold by 
auction, the defendant mignt put in aplea« which, 
when inserted in the formula, would be of this 
shape: — Ut Ua demum emptor danrnetur^ si ei res 
quam emerit, iradiia sit ; and this would be in form 
a good plea. But if the conditions of sale were that 
the article should not be handed to the purchaser 
before the money was paid, the aigentarius might 
put in a repUcatio in this shape : — Nisi praedictum 
est ne alUer emptori res tradertfytr quam sipretium 
emptor soherit. If the defendant answered the 
r^UocUiOf his answer was called duplieatio; and the 
parties might go on to the triplioatio and quadrupU- 
oaOo, and eyen further, if the matters in question 
were such that they could not otherwise be brought 
to an issue. 

The praescr^DtiOy which wa« so called from being 
written at the hotd or beginning of the formula, 
was adapted lor the protection of the plaintiff in 
certain cases. (Gains, iT. 130, && ; Cic De Orat, 
i. 37.) For instance, if the defendant was bound 
to maJce to the plauitiff a certain fixed payment 
yearly or monthly, the plaintiff had a good cause 
of action for all the sums of money already dutf ; 
but in order to avoid making his demand for the 
future payments not yet due, it was necessary to 
use a praescription of the foUowing form: — Ea 
res offotur ciyus rei diesfmt, 

A person might maintain or defend an action by 
his eoffnitor or procurator, or, as we should say, by 
his attorney. The plaintiff and defendant useid a 
certain fonn of words in appointing a c<^gnitor, and 
it would appear that the appointment was made in 
the presence of both parties. The oognitor needed 
not to be present, and his appointment was oom« 
pleto when by his acts he had signified his assent. 
(Cic. Pro Q. noseioy c 2 ; Hor. Serm. I 6. 35.) 
No form of words was necessary for appointing a 
procurator, and he might be appointed without the 
knowledge of the opposite party. 

In many cases both pbiintiff and defendant 
might be required to give security {satisdare) ; for 
instance, in the case of an actio ut rem, the de- 
fendant who was in possession was required to 
give security, in order tnat if he lost his cause and 
did not restore the thing, nor pay its estimated 
value, the plaintiff might have an action against 
him or his sureties. When the actio in rem was 
prosecuted by ^e formula peOioria, that stipulaiio 
was made which was called Judieaium sotvi, Aa to 
its prosecution by the sponsio, see Sponsio and 
Cbntumviri. If the plaintiff sued m his own 
name, he gave no security ; nor was any security 
required, if a cognitor sued for him, either from 
the cognitor or the pbiintiff himself^ for the cog- 
nitor was personally liable. But if a procurator 
acted for him, he was obliged to give security that 
the plaintiff would adopt lus acts ; for the plaintiff 
was not prevented from bringing another action 
when a procurator acted for him. Tutors and 



ACTIO. 

curators generally gave security like procorators. 
In the case of an actio m personam, the same roles 
applied to the plaintiff as in the actio in, rem. If 
the defendant appeared by a oognitor, the defendant 
had to give security ; if by a procurator, the pro> 
curator had to give security. 

When the cause was brought to an iaane^ a 
judex or judioes might be demanded of the praetor 
who named or appointed a judex and delivered to 
him the formula which contained his instructions. 
The judices were said dari or addid. So fat the 
proceedings were said to be injure ; the proeecu* 
tion of the actio before the judex requires a separate 
discussion. [JuDiavH.] 

The foUowing is an example of a formula taken 
from Gains (iv. 47) : — Judex esta. Si paret Anlum 
Agerium apud Numerium Negidium measam 
argenioam dsposuisse eamque dolo malo Numerii 
NegidU Aulo Agerio reddUam nom esas fpuenH ea 
res erit tantam pecumamjudeag Numerium Neffidium 
Aulo Agerio condemmxto : si non paret, absaiviio. 

The nature of the formula, however, will be 
better understood from the following analysis of it 
by Gains : — It consisted of four parts, the demon' 
straHo, isUenOo, a^judieatio, eondemnaOo. The 
demonstratio is that part of the formula which 
explains what the subject-matter of the action is. 
For instance, if the subjecUmatter be a slave sold, 
the demonstratio would run thus: — Quod Aulus 
Agerius Numerio Negidio hominem vendidiL The 
inieniio contains the claim or demand of the 
plaintiff : — Si paret honunem eaejwre QuiriHum A uli 
AgerU esse. The a4judioatio is that part of the 
formula which gives the judex authority to adju- 
dicate the thing which is the subject of dispute to 
one or other of the litigant parties. If the action 
be among partners for dividing that which bdongs 
to them aU, the adjudication would run thus : — 
Quon^ifm a^judiouri oportet judess TiUo adjudieato. 
The oondemnatio is that part of the formula which 
gives the judex authority to condemn the de- 
fendant in a sum of money, or to acquit him: 
for example, Judex Numerium Negidium Aulo 
Agerio sestertium miUa oondenuia: si non paret, 
absolve. Sometimes the inieniio alone was requisite, 
as in the formulae called pra^udidales (which some 
modem writers make a ckiss of actions), in which 
the matter for inquiry was, whether a certain person 
was a freedman, what was the amount oft^dos, and 
other similar questions, when a fitct solely was the 
thing to be ascertained. 

Whenever the formula contamed the oondem' 
natio, it was framed with the view to pecuniary 
damages ; and accordingly, even when the plaintiff 
claimed a particular thing, the judex did not 
adjudge the defendant to give the thing, as was 
the ancient practice at Rome, but condemned him 
in a sum of money equivalent to the value of the 
thing. The formula might either name a fixed 
sum, or leave the estimation of the value of the 
thing to the judex, who in aU cases, however, was 
bound to name a definite sum in the condemnation. 

The formula then contained the pleadings, or 
the statements and counter-statements, of the 
plaintiff and the defendant ; for the inieniio, as we 
have seen, was the plaintiff^ declaration ; and if 
this was met by a plea, it was neoessaiy that this 
also should be inserted in the formula. The 
formula also oont^ed the directions for the judex, 
and gave him the power to act. The Englidi and 
Roman procedure are severally stated in Mr. 



ACTOR, 
^pracc^ vtxk OD the EqmUaUe Jmriadietiom of He 
C4mH of Okameerjh pp. 206—235. The Roman 
BxwM of prooedme underwent TariouB changes in 
t^ cenne of tune, which it la not Teiy eaay to 
descnbe ; b«t it haa been icsnaiked by HoUweg 
(^obAmA dc« Qm^mBeMBs, p. 19) that the ayttem 
ef prooedne mamteined itacdf in all eaaential par- 
ticdbn mahered fi>r xnanj centnrieB, and what 
ve feam from Cieeio (b. c 70) is almost the same 
as wbat we kam from Garas (▲. d. 160). Modem 
vTisen, howeTer, differ on Tarions points ; and the 
•abject leqvites a eomplete examination from one 
who is feUy aioinaiiitiHl with the Roman jaw, and 
inctiGaBy YeBsed in the naUire of legal pnoeedizigs 
gocsdly. 

The loQowiqg are the principal actions which 
we read af xa the Roman writeia, and which are 
Irieiy deacribed nnder their serersl heads: — 
Actio — Aquae plnriae aroendae ; Bonomm vi 
laptaran ; Cexti et Ineeiti ; Commodati; Com- 
Bofii drridmido ; Confttsoria ; Damni injuria dati ; 
Dejccti Tel efibai; Depensi; Depositi; De dolo 
saJo; EiKti et T«iditi; Ezercitoria; Ad Exhi- 
^eodom ; Familiae erciacnndae ; Fidudaria ; Fi- 
BiuB ' ipg^iiMUwwnf • Fnrti ; Hypothecana j Injuna- 
ram ; Inatitoiia ; Judicati ; Quod jussa ; Legis 
A<[B3iae ; Locad et condncti % Mandati ; Mntui ; 
Ncgativa ; NegoCiormn gestorum ; Noxalis ; De 
pasperie ; De pecnlio ; Pignontida, or Pignora- 
litia; Pnhlieiana; Quanti minoris; Rationibns 
distahendia ; De recepto ; Redhibitoria ; Rei 
oxozae, or Dotis ; Restitutoria and Rescissoria ; 
RotiliBna ; Sernana ; Pro socio ; Tributoria ; 
Totdae. [O. L.] 

ACTOR s^Tiified generally a plaintiff In a 
crnl or private action, the plaintiff was often called 
petitor; in a pnUic action (eoasa pmblioa), he was 
oBed aeemmxior. (Ci& ad AtL I 16.) The de- 
ieodant waa caDed reuB^ both in piiyate and public 
csfises: this term, howerer, according to Cicero 
{£k OraL n. 43), might signify either party, as in- 
deed we might conclude from the word itsell In 
a ffinte action, the defendant was often called 
adverasraa, but either party might be called ad- 
tvmuim with respect to the other. Originally, no 
penoB who waa not sas' juris could maintain an 
aetJoB ; a jUau J amH ia a ^ therefore, and a slaye, 
cooJd not maintain an action ; but in course of 
time oertun actiona were allowed to tLjUnufanulias 
in the absence of hia parent or his procurator, and 
abo in case the parent was incompetent to act 
fnm Badneas or other like cause. (Dig.47.tit 10. 
a 17.) Wards {pmpUU) brought their actions by 
tkeir tutor (httoi^ ; and in case they wished to 
bring an action against their tutor, the pnetor 
naaud a tutor for the purpose. (Oaius, L 184.) 
Pengrimij or aliena, originally brought their action 
thioojg;h their patronus ; but afterwards in their 
own name, by a fiction of law, that they were 
Boman dtxsena. A Roman dtisen might also 
generally bring his action by means of a cognitor 
cr procurator. [Acna] A umvenUas or cor- 
porate body, sued and was sued by their aetor or 
tytdiaa, (Dig. 8. tit 4.) 

Actor has also the sense of an agent or manager 
of anotherli business generally. The adorpubUeits 
was an oflieer who had the superintendence or care 
of sbves belonging to the states Lipsius says that 
tbeadbr^a&ifeat wasaslayeorfreednian. A slave 
could acquire property for others, though not for 
himidlt In the case mentioned by Pliny {Ep, m 



ACUS. 



IS 



18)y the aeior pMiau was the lepresentatiTe of 
the community (m p afifibo) of Comnm. (Tadt. 
Amu ii. 30, iil 67; LipsL Eaemn^adTaaL Amu ii 
30.) [G.U] 

ACTUA'RIAE NAVE& [Navwi] 
ACTUA'RII, or ACTA'RIl, clerics who com- 
piled the Acto Publica. [Acta, pi 8, b.] The 
name is also sometimes given to the iVbtorn, or 
short-hand writen, who took down the speeches 
in the senate and the courts (Suet JmL 55 ; Sen. 
Ep, 33) ; respecting whom and the use of short- 
hand among the Romans, see Notaku. 

2. Military officers whose duty it was to keep 
the accounts of the anny, to see that the con- 
tractors supplied the soldkrs with provisions ac- 
cording to agreement, &c (Amm. Marc xx. 5 ; 
Cod. 12. tit. 87. s. 5. 16 ; 12. tit 49.) 

3. The title of certain phyndans at the court 
of (Constantinople. [Msoicuai] 

ACTUS, a Roman measure of land, which 
formed the basis of the whole system of hnd 
measurement In that system the name aeiut (from 
ago\ which originally meant a way between fiekis 
for beasts of burthen to pass (or, as some ny, 
the length of a furrow), was given to such a way 
when of a definite width and length, and also to 
a square piece of knd of the same length. The 
former was called actus vuMtmus or simpler^ and 
was 120 feet (Roman) long by 4 feet wide. (Varro, 
/;. -L. iv. 4, or V. 84, MUller ; OAxasu v. 1. g 5, 
ed. Schneider ; Festns, a v. iter inter vidnos IV, 
pedum latum). The oohw ^uadraius^ which was 
the square unit in the system of Roman hmd- 
measurement, was of the same length as the ocfau 
mmuMtts, and of a width equal to its length: it 
was thus 120 feet square, and sontained 14,400 
square feet It was the half of a jogcr. (Colum. 
Lci Vano, I &, and A. A. L 1 0. ^ 2, ed. Schneider). 
The following are the etymolqgical explanations of 
the word : Actus vocabatur, ta quo bones a^eremtur 
cum aratro^ mno impetu justo (Plin. xviiL 3) ; Ut 
ager quo agipotsrat^skouaa^ actus, (Vuxro^L.L, 
L c) The actus furnishes an example of the use of 
the number twelve among the Romans, its length 
being twelve times the standard dscbmpxda. 
ColumeUa {Le, § 6) rays that the Gauls called the 
actus quadratusj aripemds ; but this could only be 
an approximate identification, for the actus qua- 
dratus is somewhat smaller than the great French 
arpcHt and much larger than the small arpeuL 
((Compare Acna ; Niebuhr, Hist. cfRoms^ vol ii. 
Appendix I.) [P. S.] 

ACTUS. [SBRvmjTBB.] 

ACUS (iS<A4{ni, fiOiotds^ ^o^r), a needle, a piiw 
The annexed figures of needles and pins, chiefly 



^ 



ci 



I 



CI 



4 



u 



ADLECTI. 



taken from oriffinaU in bronse, vnij in length from 
an inch and a naif to about eight inches. 

Pins were made not only of metal, but also of 
wood, bone, and ivory. They were used for the 
same purposes as with us, and also in dressing the 
hair. (Mart xiv. 24.) The mode of platting the 
hair, and then &stening it with a pin or neecUe, is 
shown in the annexed Bgure of a female hmd, 
taken from a marble group which was found at 
Apt, in the south of l^nnce. (Montfiuicon, Ant 
Bacp, Suppl, iii. 8.) This &shion has been con- 




tinued to our own times by the females of Italy, 
mid of some parts of Germany, as for instance, in 
the neighbourhood of Coblenz. 

ADDICTI. [NexlJ 

ADDI'CTIO. [Acna] 

ADDIX («Mi{, mtiis), a Greek measure of 
capacity, equal to four xo^J^uccy. (Hesych. s. v, ; 
SchoL ad Horn, Od. 19.) [P. S.] 

ADEIA (&dcia), freedom from fear, or security, 
in any public action. When any one in Athens, 
who had not the full priTilM;es of an Athenian 
citizen, such as a foreigner, a slave, &c., wished to 
accuse a person of any offnuce against the people, 
he was obliged to obtain first permission to do so, 
which permission was called adda. (Plut PericL 
81.) An Athenian citizen who had incurred 
aHmia, was also obliged to obtain adma before he 
could take part in public affiiirs (Plut Pkoo, 26) ; 
and it was not lawful for any one to propose to the 
people, that an atkiuu should be lestorad to his 
rights as a citizen, or that a public debtor should 
be released from his debt, till adeia had been 
granted for this purpose by a decree passed in an 
assembly of 6000 citizens voting secretly by ballot 
(Dem. e. Timocr. p. 715 ; Andoc de MyaL p. 86 ; 
Bijckh, PtMio Economy of Athens^ p. 392, 2d ed.) 

ADE'MPTIO. [Lboatum.] 

ADGNA'TI. [CoGNATL] 

ADGNA'TIO. [Hbrrs ; Testamsntum.] 

ADITIO HEREDITATIS. [Herbs.] 

ADJUDICA'TIO. [Actio.] 

ADLECTI or ALLECTI. 1. Those who were 
chosen to fill up a vacancy in any office or colle- 
gium, and especially those who were chosen to fill 
up the proper number of the senate. As these 
would be generally equites, Festns (s. v.) defines 
the adlecti to be equites added to the senate: and 
he appears in this passage to make a difference be- 
tween the adlecti and eon$cripti. But they were 
probably the same ; for in another passage (s. v. 
oonscripti)^ he gives the same definition of the cof»* 



ADOPTIO. 

teripU as he had done of the adhdij and Liiv^' 0^- 
1) says contcriptos m novum aenatnm tq^pellabani 
lectoi, 

2. Those nenons under the empire who were 
admitted to tne privileges and honours of the pme- 
torship, quaestorship, aedileship, and other public 
offices, without having any duties to perfomi. 
(Capitolin. Pertin. 6.) In mscriptions we con- 
stantly find, adleoUu inter tribmno8y inter quaestores^ 
inter praetoru^ &.C 

ADLECTOR, a collector of taxes in the pro- 
vinces in the time of the Roman emperorv. (Cod. 
Theod. 12. tit 6. s. 12.) 

ADMISSIONA'LES were cfaambetlaina at the 
imperial court, who introduced persona to the 
presence of the emperor. (Lamprid. Sever. 4 ; 
qfficium admisnoniM, Suet Veep, 14.) They were 
divided into four classes ; the chief officer of each 
class was called proarinuu euinuseionnm (Amm. 
Marc xxil 7) ; and the proKtmi were under the 
magister admiteUmwn. (Amm. Maic xv. 5 ; Vop. 
AureL 12.) The admissionales were uanally 
freedmen. (Cod. Theod. 6. tit 2. s. 12 ; tit. 9. 
s. 2 ; tit 85. s. 8.) 

Friends iq»pear to have been called amid admie- 
eionie primae, ieetmdae, or iertiae. According to 
some writers, they were so called in conaequence 
of the order in which they were admitted ; accord- 
ing to others, because the atrinm was divided into 
different parts, s^iarated fit>m one another by 
hangings, into which persons were admitted ac- 
cor£ng to the diffisrent degrees of fiivour in which 
they were held. (Sen. de Benrf. vi 83, 84, Genu 
LIO.) 

ADOLESCENS. [Infans.] 

ADO'NIA CAMrta), a festival celebrated in 
honour of Aphrodite and Adonis in most of the 
Grecian cities, as well as in numerous places in 
the East It ksted two days, and was celebrated 
by women exclusively. On the first day they 
brooght into the streets statues of Adonis, whico 
were laid out as corpses ; and they observed all 
the rites customary at funerals, beating themselves 
and uttering Uunentations. The second day was 
spent in merriment and feasting ; because Adonis 
was allowed to return to life, and spend half of 
the year with Aphrodite. (Aristoph. Paae, 412, 
Schol ad he, ; Plut AlcSb, 18, Nie, 13.) For 
fuller particulars respecting the worship and festi- 
vals of Adonis, see Dial. ^Bvogr.: v. Adonis, 

ADO'PTIO, adoption. 1. Greek, was called 
by the Athenians tunroiiia'ts, or sometimes simply 
volfiffis or ^ifftt. The Greek writers use dtirtf 
also as equivalent to the Roman adoptio^ and ^erol 
as ec[uivident to adopOvL (App.B. C. iii 18, 14.) 
The adoptive fother was said irotcitrtfcu, ciawotcl). 
a^at, or sometimes rotw : and the fiUher or mother 
(for a mother after the death of her husband 
could consent to her son being adopted) was said 
inwouTy : the son was said imrouur^, with re- 
ference to the fiunily which he lefl ; and clnrotc?. 
<r0cu, with reference to the fiunily into which he was 
received. The son, when adopted, was called 
voi7it6s, tl(nroiriT6s, 0T^rr6s: in opposition to the 
legitimate son bom of the body of the fiitber, who 
was called yviitrias. 

A man might adopt a son either in his lifetime 
or by his testament, provided he had no male off- 
spring and was of sound mind. He might also, by 
testament, name a person to take hii property, in 
case his son or sons should die imder ageb (Dem. 



ADOPTIO. 
Emrk arcfdbw YcuS. 13.) If he had male 
o^iniig, he could not dbpoee of his property. 
ThU nit of law was dooely comiected with the 
rule asto adnptinn ; iiar if he could haye adopted 
a eoa when he had male children, sach son would 
hare ihared his property with the rest of his male 
children, and to that esctent the fetther would hare 
czerciaed apower of diiyosition which the law de- 
nkd hifflL 

Only Athenian citizens coold be adopted ; but 
{nnales could be adc^ted (bv testament at least) as 
well as males. (Isaeus, IIcpi rov 'Ayviov KXipou.) 
The adopted child waa tiansfeired from his own 
Inuly and demna into thoae of the adoptiTa 
hxha ; he inherited his property and maintained 
the moa of his adoptiye fiiftaer. It was not 
necctcuy for him to take his new father*s name, 
hot he was registered as his son. The adopted 
ton Boaht retom to hia fiormer &mily, in case he 
left a oild to represent the &mily of his adoptive 
£ither: unless he so returned, he lost all right 
which he might have had on hu Other's tide if he 
kui not been adopted ; but he retained all rights 
which he might have on his mother^s side, for 
the act of adcncSon had no effect so fiu as concerned 
the mother ot the adopted person ; she still con- 
timed his mother aller the act of adoption. 

The next of kin of an Athenian citizen were 
iBtided to his property if he made no disposition 
flf it by will, or n»de no Talid adoption during his 
lifetzmle ; tbW were, therefore, interested in pre- 
Tenting fraudulent adoptions. The whole com- 
mmij were also interested in preventing the in- 
trodnetnm into their body of a person who was not 
sa Athenian dtiaen. To protect the rights of the 
next of kin against unjust daims by persons who 
allied thwnarlTes to be adopted sons, it was re- 
quind thftt the &ther should enter his son, whether 
boni of his body or adopted, in the register of his 
pbcatria (^fccrpuchr ypofifAOTHoif) at a certain 
nae, the Thaigelia (Isaeus, Tltpi rov *AiroXXo8i^. 
KA^pen, 3, 6), with the privity of his kinsmen and 
pki^ores (yorvroi, ^pdrepcs). Subsequently 
to this, it was neoessair to enter him in the 
register of the adoptive £uher*S demus {Xii^iapxiichif 
fpa^tfii^ua»\ without which registration it ap- 
pears that he did not possess the frill rights of 
ritiamship as a member of his new demus. 

If the adoption was by testament, registration 
was also required, which we may presume that the 
peraoo himself might procure to be done, if he was 
of age, or, if not, his guardian or next friend. If 
a diqmte arose as to the property of the deceased 
(icX%»ov SiaSixao-Ca) between the son adopted by 
testament and the next of kin, there could properly 
be no registntion of the adopted son until the tes- 
tsmcnt was established. If a man died childless 
and intestate, his next of kin, according to the 
Athenian rules of soccession (Dem. IIp&Aco»x» 
c6), took his oroperty by the right of blood 
(&>gcurv«a ««Td 7^5). Though registration 
might in this case also be requireC there was no 
adoption properly so called, as some modem writers 
sQppose ; for the next of kin necessarily belonged 
to the fiunily of the mtestate. 

The rales as to adoption among the Athenians 
are not quite free from difficulty, and it is not easy 
to avoid all error in stating them. The general 
doctrines may be mainly deduced from the orations 
of Isaeus, and those of* Demosthenes against 
Macartatns and Leocharea. 



ADOPTIO. 



15 



2. Roman. The Roman term was adoptio or 
adcptatio. (Cell. v. 19.) The Roman relation of 
parent and child arose either from a lawful mar- 
riage or from adoption. Adoptio was the general 
name which comprehended the two species, adoptio 
and adroffoHo ; and as the adopted person passed 
from his own fiunilia into that of the person adopt- 
ing, adoptio caused a ecq>iiis diminution and toe 
lowest of the three kinds. Adoption, in its specific 
sense, was the ceremony by which a person who 
was in the power of his parent ( m potestaie parens 
tum\ whether child or grandchild, male or female, 
was transferred to the power of the person adopting 
him. It was effected under the authority of a 
magistrate (tnoffidratus), the praetor, for instance, 
at Rome, or a governor (praeaes) in the provinces. 
The person to be adopted was mancipated [Man- 
ciPATio] by his natural father before the com- 
petent authority^ and surrendered to the adoptive 
fother by the legal fonn called injurt otttio, (GelL 
V. 19 ; Suet Aug, 64.) 

When a person was not in the power of his 
parent {mU juri$\ the ceremony of adoption was 
called adrogatio. Originally, it could only be 
effected at Rome, and onl^ by a vote of the 
populus ( pcpuli auetoritaie) in the comitia curiata 
(2^ curiata) ; the reason of this being that the 
caput or status of a Roman citizen could not, 
according to the laws of the Twelve Tables, be 
afiected except by a vote of the populus in the 
comitia curiata. Clodius, the enemy of Cicero^ 
was adrogated into a plebeian fomily by a lex 
curiata, in order to qualify himself to be elected a 
tribnnus plebis. (Cic ad Att, ii. 7, p. Dom.) 
Females could not be adopted by the adrogatio. 
Under the emperors it became the practice to effect 
the adrogatio by an imperial rescript {pritic^ 
cuictoritate, eat retcrgirio prineipit) ; but this practice 
had not become established in the time of Gaius, 
or, as it appears, of Ulpian. (Compare Gaius, i. 
98, with Gaius as cited in Dig. i. tit. 7. s. 2 ; and 
Ulpian, Frag, tit 8.) It would seem, however, 
from a passage in Tacitus {HitL L 15), that Galba 
adopted a successor without the ceremony of the 
adrogatio. By a rescript of the Emperor Anto- 
ninus Pius, addressed to the pontifices, those who 
were imder age {impuSbere»\ ot wards (pupiUt)^ 
could, with certain restrictions, be adopted by the 
adrogatio. If a &ther who had children in his 
power consented to be adopted by another person, 
both hhnself and his children became in the power 
of the adoptive father. All the property of the 
adopted son became at once the property of the 
adoptive fother. (Gains, ii 98.) A person could 
not legally be adopted by the adrogatio till he had 
made out a satisfactory case (,/iMto, ftono, oaumt) 
to the pontifices, who had the right of insisting on 
certain preliminary conditions. This power of the 
pontifices was probably founded on their riffht to 
preserve the due observance of the sacra of each 
ffens. (jCic p, Dom. IB, Slc,) It would accord- 
mgly have been a good ground of refusing their 
consent to an adrogatio, if the person to be adopted 
was Hie only male of his gens, for the sacra would 
in such case be lost It was required that the 
adoptive father also had no children, and no rea- 
sonable hopes of any ; and that he should be older 
than the person to be adopted. It is generally 
assumed that all adrogations were made before the 
curiae. Gaius, however, and Ulpian use the ex- 
pressions porpopuluniy audoritatepopuli^ expressions 



16 



ADORATIO. 






of very doubtful import with reference to their 
period* After the comitia curiata fell into disuse, 
it is moit probable that there was no fonnal aa- 
semblj of the curiae, and that they were repre- 
■cnted by the thirty Uctors. 

A wonum could not adopt a person, for eyen her 
own children were not in her power. 

The rules as to adoption which the legislation 
of Justinian established, are contained in the In- 
stitutes (I tit 11). 

The effect of adoption, as already stated, was to 
create the legal relation of fiither and son, just as 
if the adopted son were bom of the blood of the 
adoptiye father in lawful maznage. The adopted 
child was intitled to the name and sacra privata 
of the adopting parent, and it appears thiat the 
»reseryation of the sacra privata, which by the 
liws of the Twelve Tables were made perpetual, 
was frequently one of the reasona for a childless 
person adopting a son. In case of intestacy, the 
adopted child would be the heres of his adoptive 
fiither. He became the brother of his adoptive 
father^ daughter, and therefore could not many 
her ; but he did not become the son of the adoptive 
father^ wife, fi>r adoption only gave to the adopted 
son the jura agnationis. (Qaius, i. 97 — 107 ; Dig. 
1. tit 7 ; Cic p. Domo.) 

The phrase of ** adoption by testament** (Cic 
linU, 58) seems to be rather a misapplication of 
the term ; for though a man or woman might by 
testament name a heres, and impose the condition 
of the heres taking the name of the testator or 
testatrix, this so-caUed adoption could not produce 
the effects of a proper adoption. It could give to 
the person so said to be adopted, the name or pro- 
perty of the testator or testatrix, but nothing more. 
Niebuhr {Lectures^ voL iL p. 100) speaks of the 
testamentaiy adoption of C. Octavins by C. Julias 
Caesar, as the first that he knew of ; but the pas- 
sage of Cicero in the Brutut and another passage 
{Ad Hirt, viii. 8), show that other instances had 
occuired before. A person on passing fix>m one 
gens into another^ and taking the name of his new 
fiunilia, generally retained the name of his old gens 
also, with the addition to it of the termination 
oniM. (Cic. ad Att. iil 20, and the note of Vio- 
torius.) Thus, C. Octavius,afterwards the Emperor 
Augustas, upon being adopted by the testament of 
his unde the dictator, assumed ue name of Cains 
Julius Caesar Octavianus; but he caused the 
adoption to be confirmed by the curiae. As to the 
testamentary adoption of C. Octavius, see Drumann, 
trMQ&icto jRoiM, voL i. p. 337, and the references 
there given. Livia was adopted into the Julia 
gens by the testament of Augustus (Tac. Ann. 
I 8) ; and it was not stated that this required any 
confirmation. But things were changed tiien. The 
Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea gave certain privileges 
to those who had childran, among which privileges 
^vas a preference in being appointed to the praetor- 
ship and such offices. This led to an abuse of the 
practice of adoption ; for childless persons adopted 
children in order to qualify themselves for such 
offices, and then emancipated their adopted chil- 
dren. This abuse was checked by a senatus 
consultum in the time of Nero. {Tac Ann. xv. 19 ; 
Cie.de Of. m, 18, ad Att.ym.Si Suet JnL Cae*. 
8d» 7\&. 2, &c ; Heinec. Syntagma; Dig. 86. tit 
1. s. 63.) [G. L.] 

ADORATIO (w/NHrK^o-if) was paid to the 
gods in the following manner : — The person 



ADULTERIUM. 

stretched out his right hand to the statOA of tBe 
ffod whom he wished to honour, then kissed his 
hand and waved it to the statue. While doia^ 
this he moved round his whole body, fi>r which 
custom Plutarch {Num, 14) gives some curious 
reasons ; but the true reason probably was, tfaaA 
the pawn might be the more surely put into com- 
munication with the deity, as it was uncertaizi 
where he would reveal himself as the deuM 
prae$ens. It was also the practice to have the 
head and ears covered, so that only the forepart of 
the fiice remained imcovered. (PUn. N. H. xzviii. 
5 ; Minudus Felix, 2 ; Lucret t. 1197.) The 
adoroHo differed firom the croHo or prayers, which 
were offered with the hands fi>lded together and 
stretched out to the gods, the natural attitude pre- 
scribed by nature to the suppliant, and which we 
find mentioned by Homer. {II. vil 177; ^wrtd- 
trfuera x^P^* Mtch. Prom, 1004 ; eaelo mpituu 
/hrre mamtg, Hor. Chrm. iil 23. 1.) The adoration 
paid to the Roman emperon was borrowed from 
the eastern mode of adoration, and consisted in 
prostration on the ground, and kissing the feet and 
knees of the emperor. 
ADROGA'TIO. [Adoptio (Roman).] 
ADSCRIPTFVI. fAccENSi.] 
ADSERTOR. [Assxrtor.] 
ADSESSOR. [Assessor.] 
ADSIGNATIO. [Agharias Lxobs and 
AoxR.] 
ADSTIPULA'TIO. [Oblioationbs.] 
ADSTIPULA'TOR. [Intkrcbssio.] 
ADULTUS. [Inpans.] 
ADULTER'IUM, adultery. I. Grbbk. 
Among the Athenians, if a man caught another 
man in the act of criminal intercourse {fioixM^ 
with his wife, he might kill him with impunity ; 
and the law was also the same with respect to a 
concubine (voAAoic^). He might also inflict other 
punishment on the o^nder. It appears that amoog 
the Athenians there was no adultery, unless a 
mairied woman was concerned. (Lysias, Tir^p rov 
*EpetTocHiHwt ^yw.) But it was no adultery for 
a man to have connection with a married woman 
who prostituted herself or who was engaged in 
selling any thing in the agora. (Demosth. Kor^ 
Ncoipof, c. 18.) The Roman law appears to have 
been pretty nearly the same. (Paulus, Sent. Beoept. 
vi. tit 26.) The husband might, if he pleased, 
take a sum of money fiom the adulterer by way of 
compensation, and detain him till he fi>und sureties 
for the payment If the all«^ adulterer had 
been unjustly detained, he might bring an action 
against the husband ; and, if he gained his cause, 
he and his sureties were released. If he failed, 
the law required the sureties to deliver up the 
adulterer to the husband before the court, to do 
what he pleased with him, except that he was not 
to use a knife or dagger. (Demosth. Kar& Nco^. 
18.) 

The husband might also prosecute the adulterer 
in the action called /taix^iat ypap^. If the act of 
adultery was proved, the husband could no longer 
cohabit with his wife under pain of losing his 
privileges of a dtixen (&ri/Ja). The adulteress was 
excluded even fiom those temples which foreign 
women and slaves were allowed to enter ; and if 
she was seen there, any one mi^ht treat her as he 
pleased, provided he did not kill her or mutilate 
oer. (Dem. Kara Ncolp. c22; Aeschin. Kari 
Ti/Jidpx. c. 86.) 



ADULTERIUM. 

2. Roman. Adnlteriiim jooperlj i^nifiea, b 
the Romsm law, the ofienoe committed by a man, 
married or uxmumied, having sexual intercoone 
with another man'ft wife. Stultram (called by 
fte Greeks ^^opd} signifies the commerce with a 
vidov or a Tiigin. It was the condition of the 
feirm^ which detennined the legal character of 
adolteiy ; there was no adultery imless the female 
vas manied. It -is stated, howerer (Dig. 48. 
UL 5. s. 1 3), that a waoian might commit adultery 
vbether she was ^ justa uxor sire injusta,** the 
meaaixig of which is not quite certain ; but pro- 
idbly k means whether she was liying in a mar- 
ria^ recognised as a marriage by the Roman law 
or merely by the jus gentium. The male who 
ojcnmitted adultery was aduUer^ the female was 
'Ui^Itera. The Latin writers were pnsslcd about 
Lbe etymology of the word adolterium ; but if we 
hi<k to its various significations besides that of 
illegal sexual commerce, we may safely refer it to 
the same root as that which appears in adultus. 
The notioii is that of ** growing to,** "" fixing,** or 
** iteming to,** one thing on anoUier and extra- 
E-oos tiling: hence, among other meanings, the 
Kuaiaiis used adulterium and adulteratio as we 
c^ the word ** adalteratian,** to express the cor- 
rupting (^ a thing by mixing something with it of 
l-ss ^^Ine. 

In the time of Augustus a lex was enacted 
(probably B.C. 17), intitled Lex Julia <U Adul- 
Uriis ooeromdia^ the first chapter of which repealed 
s'lme prior enactments on the ume subject, with 
the i»oTisians of which prior enactments we are, 
h'>i7eTer, unacquainted. Horace {Qimi, vr. 5. 21) 
aliades to the Julian Jaw. In this law, the terms 
ad:ulterinm and stupnmi are used mdifferently ; but, 
fttridly speakings these two terms dififered as aboye 
stated. The curf prorisions of this hiw may be 
collected from the S^t (48. tit 5), ifrom Panlus 
iJSentent. ReeepL ii tit. 26. ed. Schulting), and Bris- 
Bonius {AdLepemJvliamDeAdulieriii^ Lib. Sing.). 

It seems not unlikdy that the enactments re> 
pealed by the Julian law contained special penal 
provisiiOQs against adultcfy; and it is also not 
improbable tmU, by the old law or custom, if the 
adulterer was caught in the fiict, he was at the 
mercy of the injund husband, and that the hus- 
band mi^t punish with death his adulterous wife. 
(Dionys. u. 25 ; Suet. Tib. 35.) It seems, also, 
that originally the act of adultery might be pro- 
seoited by any person, as being a public offence ; 
but under the emperors the right of prosecution 
was limited to ihe husband, &ther, brother, pa- 
tnitts, and aTuncnlos of the adulteress. 

By the Julian law, if a husband kept his wife 
after an act of adultery was known to him, and let 
the adulterer off, he was guilty of the offence of 
lenociniuuL. The husband or &ther in whose 
power the adulteress -was, had sixty days allowed 
for commencing proceedings against the vrifc, after 
which time any other person might prosecute. 
(Tacit. Jtm, ii. 85.) A woman conricted of 
adultery was mulcted In half of her dos and the 
third part of her property (Uma\ and banished 
(releffoia) to some misemble island, such as Seri- 
i>hoa, for instance. The adulterer was mulcted in 
half his property, and banished in like manner, 
but not to the same island as the woman. The 
adulterer and adulteress were subjected also to 
ciril incapacities ; but this law did not inflict the 
punishment of death on either party ; and in those 



ADVOCATUS. 



17 



instances under the emperan in which death ^-as 
inflicted, it must be considered as an extraordinary 
punishment, and beyond the provisions of the 
Julian law. (Tacit Ann, iL 50, iil 24 ; J. Lips. 
Eteatn, ad Tacii. Aim, iv. 42 ; Noodt, CJp, Omn. i. 
286, Slc) But by a constitution of Constantino 
(Cod. ix. 30, if it is genuine), the offence in the 
adulterer was made capital. By the legislation of 
Justinian (Nov, 134. c 10), the law of Con- 
stantino was probably only confirmed; but the 
adulteress was put into a convent, after being first 
whipped. If her husband did not take her out in 
two yean, she was compelled to assume the habit, 
and to spend the rest of her life in the convent 

The Julian law permitted the lather (both 
adoptive and natnnl) to kill the adulterer and 
adulteress in certain cases, as to which there were 
seveml nice distinctions established by the law. 
If the father killed only one of the parties, he 
brought himself within the penalties of the Cor- 
nelia kw De Sicariis. The husband might kill 
persons of a certain dass, described in the law, 
whom he caught in the act of adultery with his 
wife ; but he could not kill his wife. The hus- 
band, by the fifth chapter of the Julian law, could 
detain for twenty hours the adulterer whom he 
had caught in the foct, for the purpose of calling 
in witnesses to prove the adultery. If the wife 
was divorced for adultery, the husband was in- 
titled to retain part of the dos. (Ulpian, Fr, vL 
12.) The authorities for the Lex Julia de Adul- 
teriis, both ancient and modem, are collected by 
Kein, Das Crimimilncht der Rdmer^ 1844. [O. L.] 

ADVERSA'RIA, note-book, memorandum- 
book, posting-book, in which the Romans entered 
memoranda of any importance, especially of money 
received and expended, which i^ere afterwards 
transcribed, usually every month, into a kind of 
ledger. {Thlndae juttae^ eodex accepti et erpenn.) 
They were probably called Advermria, because 
they lay always open before the eyes. (Cic. p. Rote 
Com, 3 ; Prop, iil 23. 20.) 

ADVERSA'RIUS. [Actor.] 

ADU'NATI (oi^aToi), persons supported by 
the Athenian state, who, on account of mfirmity or 
bodily defects, were unable to obtain a livelihood. 
The sum which they received from the state ap- 
pears to have varied at different times. In the 
time of Lysias and Aristotle, (me obolus a day 
was given ; but it appears to have been afterwards 
increased to two oboli. The bounty was restricted 
to persons whose property was under three minae. 
It was awarded by a decree of the people ; but 
the examination of the individuals belonged to the 
senate of the Five Hundred : the payments were 
made by prytaneiaa. Peisistratus is said to have 
been the fint to introduce a law for the mainte- 
nance of those persons who had been mutilated in 
war ; but, according to others, this provision de- 
rived its origin finom a law of Solon. (Plut «Sit>^. 
31 ; Schol. ad Aetek, vol. iil p. 738, ed. Reiske ; 
Aesch. c. Tint, p. 123 ; Haipocrat Suid. Hesych. 
s. V, ; Lysias, *Tir\p rov 'ASvydrov, a spc ech 
written for an individual in order to prove that he 
was intitled to be supported by the state ; B5ckh, 
FvUie Econ. (/Athens, p. 242, &c. 2nd edit) 

ADVOCA'TUS seems originally to have signi- 
fied any person who gave another his md in any 
affair or business, as a witness for instance (Varr. 
De Re Rust, il c 5) ; or for the purpose of aiding 
and protecting him in taking possession of a piece 



18 



AEDILES. 



of propsrty. (Cic pro Caecin, c. 8.) It waa 
also used to ezpresa a person who gave his advice 
and aid to anotner in the management of a cause, 
as a jiiris-consultus did ; bnt the word did not 
signify the orator or patronns who made the speech 
(Cic. da Orat, it 74) in the time of Cicero. Under 
the emperors, it signified a person who in any way 
assisted in the conduct of a cause (Dig. 50. tit 18. 
8. 1), and was sometimes equiviilent to orator. 
(Tacit Ann. x. 6.) The advocate had then a fee, 
which was called honorarium. [Orator, Pa- 
tron us. Lex Cincia.] 

The advocatus is defined by Ulpian (Dig. 50, 
tit 13) to be any person who aids another in the 
conduct of a suit or action ; but under the empire 
the jurisconsult! no longer acted as advocates, in 
the old sense of that term. They had attained a 
higher position than that which they held under 
the republic. 

The advocatus fisci was an important officer 
established by Hadrianus. (Spart Hadrian, 60.) 
It was his business to look a&er the interests of 
the fiscus or the imperial treasury, and, among 
other things, to maintain its title to bona eaduoa. 
The various meanings of advocatus in the Middle 
Ages are given by Du Omge, Glon, (Dig. 28. 
tit 4. s. 3 ; HoUweg, Handbueh des CivilproafesteB, 
p. 196.) [G.L.J 

A'DYTUM. [Templum.] 

AEACEIA (a((iKcta), a festival of the Aegi- 
netans in honour of Aeacus, the details of which 
are not known. The victor in the games which 
were solemnised on the occasion, consecrated his 
chaplet in the magnificent temple of Aeacus. 
(SchoL ad Find. OL vii. 156, xiii 155 ; MUUer, 
Aegmetioa^ p. 140.) [L. S.] 

AEDES. [DoMUS; Templum.] 

AEDES VITIO'SAE, RUINO'SAK [Dam- 
num Infectum.] 

AEDI'CUL AE, signifies in the singiilar, a room, 
but in the plunU, a small house. It is, however, 
more frequently used in the sense of a shrine, at- 
tached to the walls of temples or houses, in which 
the statue of a deity was placed. The aediculae 
attached to houses, sometimes contained the pe- 
nates of the house, but more frequently the 
guardian gods of the street in which they were 
placed. (Liv. xxxv. 41 ; Petron. 2d.) 

AEDI'LES {hryopaofiiun). The name of these 
functionaries is said to be derived from their 
having the care of the temple (aedes) of Ceres. 
The aediles were originally two in number, and 
called aediles plebeii ; they were elected firom the 
plebes, and the institution of the office dates from 
the same time as that of the tribuni plebis, b. a 
494. Their duties at first seem to have been 
merely ministerial ; they were the* assistants of 
the tribunes in such matters as the tribunes en- 
trusted to them, among which are enumerated the 
hearing of causes of smaller importance. At an 
early period after their institution (b. c. 446), we 
find them appointed the keepers of the senatus 
consulta, which the consuls had hitherto arbitrarily 
suppressed or altered. (Liv. iiL 55.) They were 
also the keepers of the plebiscita. Other functions 
were gradually entrusted to them, and it is not 
always easy to distinguish their duties from some 
of those which belong to the censors ; nor to dis- 
tinguish all the duties of the plebeian and curule 
aediles, after the establishment of the curule 
aedilcship. Tbt^ bad the general superintendence 



AEDILES. 

of buildings, both sacred and private : under thia 
power they provided for the support and repair of 
temples, curie, &c., and took caie that private 
buildings which were in a ruinous state (aedes 
vitioaae^ ruinoaae) were repaired by the owners, or 
pulled down. The superintendence over the supply 
and distribution of water at Rome was, at an early- 
period, a matter of public administration. Ac- 
cording to Frontinus, this was the duty of the 
censors ; but when there were no censors, it waa 
within the province of the aediles. The care of 
each particular source or supply was fiurmed to un> 
dertakers {redemptores), and all that they did waa 
subject to the approbation of the censors or the 
aediles. {De Aquaeduct. Rom. lib. iL) The care of 
the streets and pavements, with the cleansing and 
draining of the city, belonged to the aediles, and 
the care of the cloacae. They had the office of 
distributing com among the plebes, which waa 
sometimes given gratuitously, sometimes sold at a 
cheap rate ; bnt this distribution of com at Rome 
must not be confounded with the duty of purchasing 
or procuring it from foreign parts, which was per- 
formed by 8ie consuls, quaestors, and praetors, and 
sometimes by an extraordinary magistrate, as the 
praeflBctus annonae. The aediles had to see that 
the public lands were not improperly used, and 
that the pasture-grounds of the state were not 
trespassed on ; and they had power to punish by 
fine any unlawful act in this respect The fines 
were employed in paving roads, and in other 
public purposes. They nad a general superin- 
tendence over buying and selling, and, as a con- 
sequence, the supenrision of the markets, of things 
exposed to sale, such as slaves, and of weights and 
measures : from this part of their duty is derived 
the name under which the aediles are mentioned 
by the Greek writers (&7opoy^/iot). It was their 
business to see that no new deities or religious 
rites were introduced into the city, to look after 
the observance of religious ceremonies, and the 
celebrations of the ancient feasts and festivals. 
The general superintendence of police compre- 
hended the duty of preserving order, decency, and 
the inspection of the baths, and houses of enter- 
tainment, of brothels, and of prostitutes. The 
aediles had various officers under them, as prae- 
cones, scribae, and viatores. 

The Aediles Curales, who were also two in 
number, were originally chosen only from the pa- 
tricians, afterwards alternately from the patricians 
and the plebes, and at last indifferontly from 
both. (Liv. vil 1.) The office of curule aediles 
was instituted a a 365, and, according to Livy, 
on the occasion of the plebeian aediles reftuing to 
consent to celebrate the ludi maximi for the space 
of four days instead of three ; upon which a 
senatus consultum was passed, by which two 
aediles were to be chosen firom the patricians. 
From this time four aediles, two plebeian and 
two curule, were annually elected. (Lir. vi. 42.) 
The distinctive honours of the aediles curules 
were, the sella curalis, from whence their title is 
derived, the toga praetexta, precedence in speaking 
in the senate, and the jus inuiginum. (Cic 
Verr. v. 14.) Only the aediles curules had the 
jus edioendi, or the power of promulgating edicta 
(Oaius, i. 6) ; but the rales comprised m their 
edictn served for the guidance of all the aediles. 
The edicta of the cumie aediles wero founded on 
their authori^ as superintendents of the marketSi 



AEDILES. 

and of liBjiiigmd Belling in gencial. Accordinglj, 
tbcir edicts had mainlj, or perhaps solely, reference 
to the lulcs as to buying and selling, and contracts 
far beigain and sale!. They were the foundation 
of the actionea aediliciae, among which are included 
ikeadhniiibitoriayBndgmMMHmmori». (Dig. 21. 
ta.1. De AedOiao JSdkto ; OelL iv. 2.) A great 
part of the prorisioins of the aediles'* edict relate to 
tke haying and selling of slaves. The persons 
both of the plebeian and cumle aediles were sa- 
CTMBBeti. (LiT. iiL 55.) 

It seems that after the appointment of the 
eirde aediles, the functions formerly exercised 
br the plebeian aediles were exercised, with some 
iev exeepCiooa, by all the aediles indifierently. 
Witkin fire days after being elected or entering 
OQ office^ they were required to determine by lot, 
« by agreement among themselves, what parts of 
the city each sfaoold take under his superintend- 
oee; and each aedile alone had the care of 
loaking after the paving and cleansing of the 
rinetS) and other matters, it may be presumed, of 
the isoie local character vrithin his district {TabuL 
Bend. cd. Maaoch.) 

In the superintendence of the pubUe festivals 
sfid solemnitiesi, there was a further distinction 
between the two sets of aedSes. Many of these 
fcstiTBls, such as those of Flora (Cic. Verr. v. 14 ; 
(hid. Fad. v. 278, &c.) and Ceres, were superin- 
teaded by eith^ set of aediles indifferently ; but 
tbe plebeian gamea {pftheU ludt) were under the 
npetitttendence of the plebeian aediles (Liv. xzxi 
M).), who had an allowance of money for that 
pnrpose; and the fines levied on the pecuarii, 
and otbcrs, seem to have been appropriated to 
these smong other public pmposes. (Liv. x. 23 ; 
zxrn. 6 ; Ovid. Fatt, v. 278, &c.) The celebra- 
tion of the Ludi magni or Romani, of the Ludi 
■cenict, and the ZaxS. Megalesii or Megalenses, 
bekogcd spedaDy to the cumle aediles (Liv. 
nxi 50 ; and the Didascaliae to the plays of 
Tcfeaee), and it was on such occasions tnat they 
often incmnd a pirodigious expense, with the view 
' [ the people and securing their votes in 



AEDILE& 



19 



fntBit deoions. This extravagant expenditure of 
tbe sediks aroae alter the dose of the second 
l^me wai^ and increased with the opportunities 
which iadividnals had of enriching themselves 
*^ the Roman arms were carried into Greece, 
Afries, and Spain. Even the prodigality of the em- 
poms bardly sorpaased that of individual curule 
sediles under the lepnblic ; such as C. Julius 
Caesar (Phit Ousor, 5) afterwards the dictator, 
P. Coraelins Lentolus Spmther ; and, above all, 
M. Aeinlins Scaorua, whose expenditure was not 
Inoted to hare show, but comprehended objects 
of paUic utility, as the repeiation of walls, dock- 
ywh, ports, and aquaeducts. (Cicde Qf.n.\7 ; 
Plin. H, K xxxm. 3, xxxvi 15.) An instance is 
BotaoBcd by Dion Gsssius (xliil 48) of the Ludi 
Megdon being superintended by the plebeian 
*^^» ; hut it was done pursuant to a senatns 
nosaham, and thus the particular exception con- 
few the general rule. 

la & a 45, Julius Caesar caused two curule 
a^^iks and four plebeian aediles to be elected ; 
Bid theneeforward, at leaat so long as the office of 
Mdile was of any importance, six aediles were 
Bunally elected. The two new plebeian aediles 
^m called Cerealea, and their duty was to look 
■ftcr tbe supply of eon. Though their office may 



not have been of any great importance after the 
institution of a pFEtefSecUis annonae by Augustus, 
there is no doubt that it existed for several cen- 
turies, and at least as late as the time of Oordian. 

The aediles belonged to the class of the 
minores magislnitus. Dionysius states that the 
aediles were originally chosen at the comitia 
curiata (ix. 43) ; but this is not probable. The 
plebeian aediles were originally chosen at the 
comitia centuriata, but afterwards at the comitia 
tributa (Dionys. vL 90. ix. 43. 49 ; Liv. ii 56, 
57), in which comitia the curule aediles also were 
chosen, at the same time (Plut Marita, 5) ; but 
it appears that there was a separate voting for 
the curule and the plebeian aediles, and that the 
curule aediles were elected first It appears that 
until the lex annalis was passed, a Roman citizen 
might be a candidate for any office after completing 
his twenty-seventh year. This lex annalis, which 
was passed at the instance of the tribune L. 
Villins Tappolus, &c. 180, fixed the age at which 
each office might be enjoyed. (Liv. xl. 44.) 
The passage of Livy does not mention what were 
the ages fixed by this law ; but it is collected 
from various passages of Roman writers, that the 
age fixed for the aedileship was thirty-six. This, 
at least, was the age at which a man could be a 
candidate for the curule aedileship, and it does not 
appear that there was a different rule for the 
plebeian aedileship. In Cicero^s time, the aediles 
were elected some time in July, the usual place of 
election was the Field of Mars (Campus Martins), 
and the presiding magistrate was a consul. 

The aediles existed under the emperors ; but 
their powers were gradually diminished, and their 
functions exercised by new officers created by the 
emperara. After the battle of Actium, Augustus 
appointed a praefectua urbi, who exercised the 
general police, which had formerly been one of the 
duties of the aediles. Augustus also took from 
the aediles, or exercised himself^ the office of 
superintending the religious rites, and the banish- 
ing from the dty of all foreign ceremonials ; he 
also assumed the superintendence of the temples, 
and thus may be said to have destroyed the aedile- 
ship by depriving it of its old and original func- 
tion. This will serve to explain the fact men- 
tioned by Dion Cassius (Iv. 24), that no one 
was willing to hold so contemptible an office, and 
Augustus was therefore reduced to the necessity 
of compelling persons to take it : persons were ac* 
cordingly chosen by lot, out of those who had 
served the office of quaestor and tribune ; and this 
was done more than once. The last recorded in- 
stance of the splendours of the aedileship is the 
administration of Agrippa, who volunteered to take 
the office, and repaired all the public buildings and 
all the roads at nis own expense, without dmwing 
anything from the treasury. (Dion Cass. xlix. 43 ; 
Plin. H. N. xxxvl 15.) The aedileship had, 
however, lost its true character before this time. 
Agrippa had already been consul before he accepted 
the office of aedile, and his munificent expenditure 
in this nominal office was the dose of the splendour 
of the aedileship. Augustus appointed the ainile 
aedilea specially to the office of putting out fires, 
and placed a body of 600 slaves at their command ; 
but the praefecti vigilum afterwards performed this 
duty. In like manner the cmraloreg viarum were 
appointed by him to superintend the roads near 
the dty, tCaa the quatuorviri to superintend those 
c 2 



20 



AEGINETARUM FERIAK 



within Rome. The curatores optirum puUicorum 
and the cttratores cUvei Tiberis, also appointed by 
Augustus, stripped the aediles of the remaining 
few duties that might be called honourable. They 
lost also the superintendence of wells, or springs, 
and of the aquaieducts. (Frontinus ii. De Aquaa- 
ducHbus.) They retained, under the early em- 
perors, a kind of police, for the purpose of repress- 
ing open licentiousness and disorder: thus the 
baths, eating-houses, and brothels were still sub- 
ject to their inspection, and the registration of 
prostitutes was still within their duties. (Tacit 
Aimed, ii. 85.) We read of the aediles under 
Augustus making search after libellous books, in 
order that they might be burnt ; and also under 
Tiberius (Tacit Ann. iv. 36.) 

The coloniae, and the municipia of the later 
period, had also their aediles, whose numbers and 
functions varied in different places. They seem, 
however, as to their powers and duties, to have re- 
sembled the aediles of Rome. They were chosen 
annually. (De Aedd. CoI.,Slc Otto. Lips. 1732.) 

The history, powers, and duties of the aediles 
are stated with great minuteness by Schubert, De 
Jlomattorum AedUibas^ lib. iv. Regimontii, 1828. 
See also Wunder, De Romanorum ComUiis Aedi- 
littm Curulium^ in his edition of Cicero^s Oration 
Pro Cn. Plancio, Leipzig, 1830. [O. L.] 

AEDI'TUI, AEDI'TUMI, AEDFTIMI 
(vfUKSpoi, CdKopoi\ persons who took care of the 
temples, and attended to the cleaning of them. 
Notwithstanding this menial service, they partook 
of the priestly character, and are sometimes even 
called priests by the Greek granmiarians. (Suid. 
Hesych. Etym. M. ». v. (dKopos ; Pollux, i. 14.) 
In many cases they were women, as Timo in 
Herodotus (vi. 134), who also speaks of her as 
^oioKopos^ from which it is clear that in some 
places several of these priests must have been at- 
tached to one and the same temple, and that they 
differed among themselves in rank. Subsequently ' 
the menial services connected with the office of the 
Neoeori were left to slaves, and the latter became a 
title given to priestly officers of high rank, of whom an 
account is given in a separate article. [Neocori.J 
The aeditui lived in the temples, or near them, 
and acted as ciceroni to those persons who 
wished to see them. (Plin. H. M xxxvi. 4. § 10 ; 
Cio. Verr. iv. 44 ; Liv. xxx. 17 ; Schol. ad Hor. 
Ep. iL 1. 230.) In ancient times the aeditui were 
citizens, but under the emperors freedmen. (Serv. 
ad Virg. Aen. ix. 648.) 

AEGINETA'RUM FE'RIAE {Pdyivjtr&v 
iopr-fi)^ a festival in honour of Poseidon, which 
lasted sixteen days, during which time every 
family took ;ts meals quietly and alone, no slave 
being allowed to wait, and no stranger invited to 
partake of them. From the circimistancc of each 
family being closely confined to itself, those who 
solenmised this festival were called fiovo^yoi. 
Plutarch {Quaest. Graec 44) traces its origin to the 
Trojan war,and says that,as many of the Aeginetans 
had lost their lives, partly in the siege of Troy and 
partly on their return home, those who reached 
their native island were received indeed with joy 
by their kinsmen ; but in order to avoid hurting 
the feelings of those families who had to lament 
the loss of their friends, they thought it proper 
neither to show their joy nor to offer any sacrifices 
in public. Every family, therefore, entertained 
privately their friends who had returned, and 



AEGia 
acted themselves as attendants, though not with- 
out rejoicings. [ L* S. ] 

AEGIS {cuyls\ the shield of Zeus, signifies 
literally a goat-skin, and is formed on the same 
analogy with ytSpls^ a fiiwn-skin. (Herod, iv. 189.) 
According to ancient mythology, the aegis worn by 
Zeus was the hide of the goat Amaltheia, which 
had suckled him in his infimcy. Hyginns relates 
(Astron. Poet. 13), that, when he was preparing 
to resist the Titans, he was directed, if he wished 
to conquer, to wear a goat-skin with the head of 
the Gorgon. To this particular goat-skin the term 
aegis was afterwards confined. Homer always re- 
presents it as part of the armour of Zeus, whom on 
this account he distinguishes by the epithet asffis- 
bearing (aiyioxoi). He, however, asserts, that it 
was borrowed on different occasions both by Apollo 
(II. XT. 229, 307—318, 360, xxiv. 20), and by 
Athena (IL ii. 447-^449, xviii. 204, xxi. 400). 

The skins of various quadrupeds having been 
used by the most ancient inhabitants of Greece 
for clothing and defence, we cannot wonder that 
the goat-skin was employed in the same manner. 
It must also be borne in mind that the heavy 
shields of the ancient Greeks were in part sup- 
ported by a belt or strap (rfKofi^u, baUeus) paaaing 
over the ri^ht shoulder, and, when not elevated 
with the shield, descending transversely tu the left 
hip. In order that a goat-skin might serve this 
purpose, two of its legs woiUd probably be tied 
over the right shoulder of the wearer, the other 
extremity being fastened to the mside of the shield. 
In combat the left arm would be passed under the 
hide, and would raise it together with the shield, 
as IS shown in a marble statue of Athena, pre- 
served in the museum at Naples, which, from its 
style of art, may be reckoned among the most an- 
cient in existence. 




Other statues of Athena represent her in a state 
of repose, and with the goat-«kin &lling obliquely 
firom its loose fastening over her right shoulder, so 
as to pass round the body under the left arm. The 
annexed figure is taken from a colossal statue of 
Athena at Dresden. 



AEGIS. 



AEGIS. 



21 




AootLer mode of wearing this garment, also of 
peaceful expreaaioo, it leen in a statue of Athena 
at Dresden, of still higher antiquity than that last 
rdemd to, and in the reij ancient image of the 
same goddcas from the temple of Zeus at Aegina. 
In hodi of these the aegis corers the right as well 
as the left shoulder, the hrcast, and the back, &11- 
isg behind so as almost to reach the feet. Schom 
(in BafttigetH AmaWtea, iL 215) considers this as 
the original fonn of the aegis. 

By a figure of speech. Homer uses the term 
segtt to denote not only the goat-skin, which it 
property signified, hat together with it the shield 
u> which it belonged. By thus nnderstandinff the 
wofd. It is easy to comprehend both why Athena 
is ssid to throw her &ther^ aegtt around her 
shoulders (72. r. 738, xriiL 204), and why on one 
occanon ApoUo is said to hdd it in his hand and 
to shake it ao as to terrify and confound the 
Greeks {IL xr. 229. 307 — 321), and on another 
occasion to cover with it the dead body of Hector 
in ofdcr to protect it from insult (xxiv. 20). In 
these passages we must suppose the aegis to mean 
the shield, together with the large expanded skin 
or belt hy which it was suspended from the right 
shoulder. 

As the Greeks prided themselves greatly on the 
rich and splendid ornaments of their shields, they 
suppo s ed the aegis to be adorned in a style cor- 
responding to the might and majesty of the father 
ef the goda. In the middle of it was fixed the 
appalling Gorgon^ head (7^ t. 741), and its 
border was surrounded with golden tassels 
(d^wm), each of which was worth a hecatomb 
(U. 446--449). In the figures above exhibited, 
the serpents of the Gorgon^ head are transferred 
to the horder of the skin. 

By the later poets and artists, the origuial con- 
ception of the aegis appears to hare been for- 
gotten or disregarded. They represent it as a 
breast-plate covered with metal in the form of 
scales, not used to support the shield, but extend- 
ing eqnally on both sides from shoulder to 
shoulder ; as in the annexed figure, taken fixnn a 
itstne at Florence. 

With this appearance the descriptions of the 
segis by the Latin poets generally correspond. 
(Viig. Aau viii. 485—438 ; VaL Flacc vi. 174 ; 
Sid. ApolL Carm. 15 ; SO. ItaL ix. 442.) 




It is remarkable that, although the aegu pro- 
perly belonged to Zeus, yet we seldom fiml it as 
an attribute of Zeus in works of art. There is, 
however, in the museum at Leyden, a marble statue 
of Zeus, found at Utica, in which the aegis hangs 
over his left shoulder. The annexed figure is taken 
from an ancient cameo. Zeus is here represented 
with the aegis wrapt round the fi>re part of his 
left aim. The shield is placed underneath it, at 
his feet 




The^ Roman emperors also assumed the aegis, 
intending thereby to exhibit themselves in the 
character of Jupiter. Of this the armed statue of 
Hadrian in the British Mnseum presents an ex> 
ample. ^ In these cases the more recent Roman 
conception of the aegis is of course followed, co- 
incidmg with the remark of Servius {Aen. viiL. 
435), that this breast-armour was called aegis 
when worn by a god ; lorica^ when worn by a man. 
I (Comp. Mart viL 1.) [J. Y.l 

C 3 



22 



AENUM. 



AEINAUTAE (iitiyavTai), magistrates at 
MUetiu, consisting of the chief men in the state, 
who obtained the supreme power on the deposition 
of the tyrants, Thoos and Damasenor. Whenever 
they wished to deliberate on important matters, 
they embarked on board ship (hence their name), 
put out at a distance from land, and did not return 
to shore till they had transacted their business. 
(Plut. Quaett. Graee, 32.) 
AEIPHU'GIA (hfiiwyla). [Exsilium.] 
AEISITI (ixtffvrot). [Prytaneium.] 
AENEATO'RES (ahenatores, Amm. Marc 
xziv. 4), were those who blew upon wind instru- 
ments in the Roman army, namely, the buc- 
dnaiores^ comicine$, and tubieinesj and they were 
so called because all these instruments were made 
of aes or bronze. (Suet Oae$. 32.) Aeneatores 
were also employed in the public games. (Sen. Ep. 
84.) A ooUeffium amuaiorum is mentioned in in- 
scriptions. (Orelli, Ituer, No. 4059.) 

AENIOMA (a2(y(7/ia), a riddle. It appean 
to have been a very ancient custom among the 
Greeks, especially at their symposia, to amuse 
themselves by proposing riddles to be solved. 
Their partiality for this sort of amusement is at- 
tested by the fact that some persons, such as 
Theodectes of Phaselis and Aristonymus, acquired 
considerable reputation as inventors and writers of 
riddles. (Athen. x. pp. 451, 452, ziL p.53&) Those 
who were successful in solving the nddle proposed 
to them received a prise, which had been pre- 
viously agreed upon by the company, and usually 
consisted of wreaths, taeniae, cakes, and other 
sweetmeats, or kisses, whereas a person unable to 
solve a riddle was condemned to drink in one 
breath a certain quantity of wine, sometimes mixed 
with salt water. (Athen. x. p. 457 ; Pollux, vi. 107 ; 
Hesych. s. v, ypttfms,) Those riddles which have 
come down to us are mostly in hexameter verse, 
and the tragic as well as comic writers not unfire- 
quently introduced them into their plays. Pollux 
(L c.) distinguishes two kinds of riddles, the 
aiviyiM and ypi^Sy and, according to him, the 
former was of a jocose and the latter of a serious 
nature ; but in the writers whose works have come 
down to us, no such distinction is observed ; and 
there are passages where the name yoi^t is 
given to the most ludicrous jokes of this kind. 
(Aristoph. Vesp. 20 ; comp. Becker, Chandetj 
vol. i. p. 473.) The Romans seem to have been too 
serious to find any great amusement in riddles ; 
and when Gellius (xviiL 2) introduces some Ro- 
mans at a banquet engaged in solving riddles, we 
must remember that the scene is laid at Athens ; 
and we do not hear of any Romans who invented 
or wrote riddles imtil a very late period. Appu- 
leius ^Tote a work entitled Liber Ladicrorum el 
Cwriphorum, which is lost After the time of Ap- 
puleius, several collections of riddles were made, 
some of which are still extant in MS. in various 
libraries. [L. S.] 

AE'NUM, or AHE'NUM (sc ««), a brazen 
vessel, used for boiling, is defined by Paullus to 
be a vessel hanging over the fire, in which water 
was boiled for drinking, whereas food was boiled 
in the oaoabus, (Dig. 33. tit 7. s. 18. § 3.) This 
distinction is not, however, always observed ; for 
we read of food being cooked in the acnum, (Juv. 
XV. 81 ; Ov. Met. vi. 645.) The word is also 
frequently used in the sense of a dyer^s copper ; 
and, as purple was the most celebrated dye of 



AERARII. 

antiquity, we find the expressions 5iie£omtmia««mm, 
TVn'ttm oi'Mun, &c (Ov. FkuL iii 822 ; Mart 
XIV. 133.) 

AEO'RA, or EO'RA (ait&pa, Upa\ a festival 
at Athens, accompanied with sacrifices and ban- 
quets, whence it is sometimes called cffSciwo^ 
The common account of its origin is as follows : — 
Icarins was killed by the shepherds to whom he 
had given wine, and who, being unacquainted 
with the effects of this beverage, fiincied in their 
intoxication that he had given them poison. 
Erigone, his daughter, guided by a fiEtithiul dog, 
discoveied the corpse of her fiither, whom she 
had sought a long time in vain ; and, praying to 
the gods that all Athenian maidens might perish 
in the same manner, hung herself. After this oc- 
currence, many Athenian women actually hung 
themselves, apparently without any motive what- 
ever ; and when the oracle was consulted respect- 
ing it, the answer was, that Icarius and Erigone 
must be propitiated by a festival. (Hygin. Pod, 
Attron, ii 4.) According to the Etymologiciim 
Magmm^ the festival was celebrated in hoDoor of 
Erigone, daughter of Aegisthus and Clytaenmestra, 
who came to Athens to bring the chaige of matri- 
cide against Orestes before the Areiopagus ; and, 
when he was acquitted, hung herself, with the 
same wish as the daughter of Icarius, and with 
the same consequences. According to Hesychius, 
the festival was celebrated in commemoration of 
the tyrant Temaleus, but no reason is assigned. 
Eustathius {ad Horn. pp. 889, 1535) calls the 
maiden who hung herself Aiora. But as the festival 
is also called *AA^ts (apparently from the wan- 
derings of Erigone, the daughter of Icarins), the 
legend which was first mentioned seems to be the 
most entitled to belief. Pollux (iv. 7. § 55) men- 
tions a song made by Theodoras of Colophon, 
which persons used to sing whilst swinging them- 
selves (4y 'reus alApais). It is, therefore, probable 
that the Athenian maidens, in remembrance of 
Erigone and the other Athenian women who had 
hung themselves, swung themselves during this 
festival, at the same time sinnng the above- 
mentioned song of Theodoras. (See also Athen. 
xiv. p. 618.) [L. &J 

AERA. [Chronologia.] 

AERA'RII, a class of Roman citizens, who 
are said not to have been contained in the thirty 
tribes instituted by Servius Tullius. It is, how- 
ever, one of the most difficult points in the Roman 
constitution to determine who they were ; since all 
the passages in which they are mentioned refer only 
to the power of the censors to degrade a citizen, 
for bad conduct, by removing him from his tribe 
and making him an aerarian; but we nowhere 
find any definition of what an aerarian was. The 
Pseudo-Asconius {ad Cic. divm, m OaeciL p. 103, 
ed. Orelli), says that a plebeian might be degraded 
by being transferred to the tabulae Caeriium and 
becoming an aerarius. The error in this state- 
ment is, that not only a plebeian, but a senator 
and an eques also might become an aerarian, while 
for a plebeian there was no other punishment ex- 
cept that of becoming an aerarian. From the 
Pseudo-Asconius we collect that to have one*8 
name transferred to the tables of the Caerites was 
equivalent to becoming an aerarian ; secondly, that 
an aerarian no longer belonged to a century ; and, 
thirdly, that he had to pay the tribute in a dif- 
ferent manner from the other citizens. These state- 



AERARIUM. 



AERAEIUM. 



93 



by the Scfaoliasta Craqnias 
«D Horace {EpUL l 6. C2> and by Qelliofl (xri. 
13). If we etrictly kee^ to what we there learn, 
we cannol adopt the opinioa tliat the aerarians 
fwtinitrd of artimia and freedmen (Niebuhr, Hitt 
ofBamm, voL L p. 472), for aome artisans had a 
Toy honooiable poaitioii in the Serrian conttita- 
tkn ; bat there were oertain occnpatuma, eapedaUy 
thoae of ictafl dealen (eenqMMet, KdviyAoi), which 
vcn tfaoBght degntding, and which were earned 
on geoeraUy by iaopolitei, who took up their abode 
at Rone, and the nombw of this clus of penons 
(■—icy PS or ekta sum m^^ragio) may have been 
Teiy gnat. These people we conceive to have 
heoi die t mrnu i ^ not, indeed, on account of their 
fwiipat i un , bat because they were citizens who 
did not enjoy the soffiage. Hoioe the Caerites 
vera pn>bably the first body of aerarians ; and 
any Ronan citizen guilty of a crime punishable 
by the eenaoca, might be degraded to the rank of 
so that his civic rights were sus- 
at least for the time tbit he was an 
L But we cannot suppose that the fitct of 
a Rmnaa citisen engaging in trade brought about 
waA a degradatioa ; loir there can be h'ttle doubt 
that the persoos c unaiituii ng the dty tribes (^ribua 
v^HMs) were more or less all engaged in trade and 
eonmefee. Henee, to nmove a man from a country 
tribe to a city tribe, cannot have been equivalent 
to making him aa aoariaa (Cic. pro CUunL 43), 
and the lattff can have been the case only when 
he was excluded firam aU the tribes, t>r when he 
be lon ge d to a city tribe ; so that moving him from 
hii tribe was equivalent to ezdnding hmi from all 
tribea, Penoma who were made imfimet likewise 
beeasM acnriana, for they lost the jus honorum 
and thesoffiagium. (Augustin. d» CSv, Dei, ii 13 ; 
Gcfn Ometd. 42.) The two scholiasts above 
reiened to agree in Mtedng that the aerarians had 
to |iay a tribntam pro capito ; and that this tax 
was cooaidenbly higher than that paid by the 
other dtisena, most be inferred from Livy (iv. 
24), who slates that Aemilius Mamerens was 
made an wetmmBi oetmpUeato cshm. They were 
■Bt allowed to aerve in the legions ; but as they 
aevstheless enjoyed the protection of the state, 
mA a high rate of taxation cannot be considered 



It has been asserted that the Ub^rtud, as such, 
bcifo^ged to the daas of the aerarians; but this 
tpiaiflB is foanded upon a wrong statement of 
Piatareh {PvflUe, 7), that freedmen did not obtain 
the soffiEage till the time of Appius Claudius ; for 
Dioayaias (ir. 22) informs us that Servius Tullius 
ineot p os a ted them with the dty tribes. (Comp. 
ZoBsyraa, vii 9; Husehke, Verfauimg det Sen, 
7ULp.494,&c.; GiKtling, O^ncA. der Aom. StoKs- 
nrf. pu 260, &c ; Becker, Hmdlmdk der JVim, 
AUerdL vol. ii. pfn 183— 11>6.) [L. S.] 

AERA'RII TRIBU'NI. [Aia Equkstrs ; 
TuBma.] 

AERA'RIUM (rh 3q^ior), the public trea- 
my at Rooie, and hence the public money itself 
Afuer the banishment of the kings the temple of 
Satant was employed, upon the proposition of 
Valenas PoplicMa, as the place for keeping the 
poUie money, and it eontinned to be so used till 
the ktcr times of the empire. (Plut PopL 12, 
^MMt. Aeok 42 ; Festos, «. e. Aerarumy Be- 

* Of this temple three Corinthian pilUirs with 



rides the public money and the accounts connected 
with its receipts, expenditure, and debtors, va* 
nous other things were preserved in the treasury ; 
of these the most important were : — 1. The 
standards of the legions (Liv. iii. 69, iv. 22, vii. 
23). 2. The various laws passed from time to 
time, engraven on brasen tables (Suet Caee, 28). 
Sw The decrees of the soiate, which were entered 
there in books kept for the purpose, though the 
original documents were preserved in the temple of 
Coes under the custody of the aediles. (Joseph. 
Ant xiv. 10. § 10 ; Plut CoU. Mm. 17 ; Cic; 
de Leg, iii. 4 ; Tac; Ann, vL 51.) [AxDiLXS.] 
4. Various othor public documents, the reports 
and despatehes of all generals and governors of 
provinces, the names of all foreign ambassadors 
that came to Rome [Lxgatus], &c. 

The aerarwm was the common treasuiy of the 
stete, and must be distinguished from the pubiiettm, 
which was the treasury of the populus or the pa- 
tricians. It is mentioned as one of the grievances 
of the plebeians that the booty gained in war 
was frequently paid into the publicum {redigiiurin 
pMiemn), instead of being paid into the aerarium, 
or distributed among the soldiers (Liv. 1142); 
but since we no longer read, after the time of thn 
decemvirate, of the booty being paid into the puV 
licum, but always into the aecarium, it is supposed 
by Niebuhr that this was a consequence of the de- 
oemviral legidation. (Niebuhr, Hiti, Rom, voL ii 
notes 386, 954.) Under the republic the aerarium 
was divided into two parts : the common treasury, 
in which were deposited the regtdar taxes [Tri- 
BUTUM ; Yxctigalia], and nom which were 
taken the sums of money needed for the ordinary 
expenditure of the state ; and the sacred treasury 
{tMerarium ecmctwn mtametivs, Liv. xxvii 10 ; Flor. 
iv. 2 ; Caes. B. C i 14 ; Cic. ad Alt vii. 21), 
which was never touched except in cases of ex- 
treme peril. Both of these treasuries were in the 
temple of Saturn, but in distinct parts of the temple. 
The sacred treasury seems to have been first es- 
toblished soon after the capture of Rome by the 
Oauls, in order that the state might always have 
money in the treasury to meet the danger which 
was ever most dreaded by the Romans, — a 
war with the Oauls. (Apnian, B, C. il 41.) At 
first, probably part of tne plunder which the 
Romans gained in their wars with their neigh* 
hours was paid into this sacred treasury ; but a 
regular means for augmenting it was established 
in B. c. 357 by the Lex Manlia, which enacted 
that a tax of five per cent (taosmna) upon the 
value of every manumitted slave should be paid 
into this treasury. As this money was to be pre- 
served, and therefore space was some object, it had, 
at least at a later time, either to be paid in gold 
or was kept in the treasury in gold, since Livy 
speaks of antmm vieettmarium (Liv. vii 16, xxvii. 
10 ; comp. Cic. ad, AH, il 16). A portion of the 
immense wealth obtained by the Romans in their 
conquests in the East was likewise deposited in the 
sacred treasury; and though we cannot suppose 



the architrave are still extant, standing on the 
Clivns Capitolinus to the right of a person as- 
cending the hill. It was rebuilt by L. Hunatius 
Pkincus in the time -of Augustus (Suet. Aug, 29 ; 
(helli, Tneer. No. 590), and again restored by Sep- 
timins Severus. (Becker, Handbtieh der BooM' 
oAot AitertkumM-, vol. L p^ 315.) 
c 4 



24 



AERARIUM. 



that it was spared in the civil wars between 
Marias and Sulla, yet Julius Caesar, when he ap- 
propriated it to his own use on the breaking out of 
the second civil war, a c. 49, still found in it enor- 
mous sums of money. (Plin. H. N. zxxiiL 3. s. 1 7 ; 
Dion Cass. zlL 17 ; Oros. vi 15 ; Lucan, iil 1 55.) 
Upon the establishment of the imperial power 
under Augustus, there was an important change 
made in the public income and ezpend^lture. He 
divided the provinces and the administration of the 
government between the senate, as the representa- 
tive of the old Roman people, and the Caesar : all 
the property of the former continued to be called 
aenarium, and that of the latter received the name 
oSfitcus. [Fiscua] The aerarium consequently, 
received all the taxes from the provinces belonging 
to the senate, and likewise most of the taxes which 
had formerly been levied in Italy itself such as 
the revenues of all public lands still remaining in 
Italy, the tax on manumissions, the custom>4uties, 
the water-rates for the use of the water brought 
into the city by the aquaeducts, the sewer-rates. 

Besides the aerarium and the fiaaUy Augustus 
established a third treasury, to provide for the pay 
and support of the army, and this received the 
name of aerarium mHitare, It was foimded in the 
consulship of M . Aemilius Lepidus and L. Arrun- 
tius, A. D. 6, in consequence of the difficulty which 
was experienced in obtaining sufficient funds from 
the ordinary revenues of the state to give the sol- 
diers their rewards upon dismission from service. 
Augustus paid a very large sum into the treasury 
upon its foundation, and promised to do so every 
year. In the Monumentum Ancyranum, Augustus 
is said to have paid into the treasury in the con- 
sulship of Aemilius and Arruntius 170 millions of 
sesterces ; but this sum is probably the entire 
amount which he contributed to it during his whole 
reign. As he reigned eight years and a half after 
the establishment of the treasury, and would pro- 
bably have made the payments half yearly, he 
would in that case have contributed ten millions of 
sesterces every half year. He also imposed several 
new taxes to be paid into this aerarium. (Suet 
Aug. 49 i Dion Cass. Iv. 23, 24, 25, 32 ; M<mu^ 
mentum Ancyranum^ jap. 32, 65, ed. Franzius and 
Ziunptius, Berol. 1845.) Of these the roost im- 
portant was the tfioesima hereditaium et UgaUmtmy 
a tax of five per cent, which had to be paid by 
every Roman citizen upon any inheritance or legacy 
being left to him, with the exception of such as 
were left to a citizen by his nearest relatives, or such 
as were below a certain amoimt (Dion Cass. I v. 
25, Ivl 28 ; Plin. Paitag, 37—40 ; Capitol. M. 
Anton, 11.) This tax was raised by Caracalla to 
ten per cent, but subsequently reduced by Macri- 
nus to 6ve (Dion Cass. Ixxvii. 9, Ixxviil 12), and 
eventually abolished altogether. (Od. 6. tit 33. 
s. 3.) There was also paid into the aerarium mili- 
tare a tax of one per cent upon every thing sold at 
auctions (een^nma rerum venalium)^ reduced by 
Tiberius to half per cent (duceniesima\ and after^ 
wards abolished by Caligula altogether for Italy 
(Tac. Ann, i. 76, ii. 42 ; Suet QU. 16) ; and 
likewise a tax upon every slave that was pur- 
chased, at first of two per cent (quingu^etima), 
and afterwards of four per cent, (qmnta et vicenma) 
of its value. (Dion Cass. Iv. 31 ; Tac. Ann. xiiL 
31 ; Orelli, Inter. No. 3336.) Besides these taxes, 
no doubt the booty obtained in war and not dis- 



AERARIUM. 

tributed among the soldiers was also deposited id 
the military treasury. 

The distinction between the aerarium and the 
fiscus continued to exist at least as late as the 
reign of M. Aurelius (rb jSoo-iXxirby koI t^ Sij/i^io*', 
Dion Cass. bcxL 33 ; Vulcat Qallic. Avid. Otss. 
7) ; but as the emperor gradually concentrated 
the administration of the whole empire into hU 
hands, the aerarium likewise became exclusively 
under his control, and this we find to have been 
the case even in the reign of M. Aurelius, when 
the distinction between the aerarium and the fisciu 
was still retained. (Dion Caas. IxxL 33.) When 
the aerarium ceased to belong to the senate, this 
distinction between the aerarium and fiscus natu- 
rally ceased also, as both of them were now the 
treasury of the Caesar ; and accordingly later 
jurists used the words aerarium and fiscus indis^ 
criminately, though properly speaking there was no 
treasury but that of the Caesar. The senate, how- 
ever, still continued to possess the management of 
the municipal chest {area puUioa) of the city. 
(Vopisc Aurelian. 20.) 

In the time of the republic, the entire management 
of the revenues of the state belonged to the senate ; 
and under the superintendence and control of the 
senate the quaestors had the charge of the aera- 
rium. [Sbnatus ; QuABSTOR.] With the excep- 
tion of the consuls, who had the right of drawing 
from the treasury whatever sums they pleased, the 
quaestors had not the power to make payments to 
any one, even to a dictator, without a special order 
from the senate. (Polyb. vi. 12, 13 ; Liv. xxxviiu 
55; Zonar. viL 13.) In B.C. 45, when no quaes- 
tors were chosen, two praefects of the city had 
the custody of the aerarium (Dion. C^ass. xliiL 48) ; 
but it doubtless passed again into the hands of the 
quaestors, when they were elected again in the 
following year. In their hands it seems to have 
remained till b.c. 28, when Augustus deprived 
them of it and gave it to two praefects, whom he 
allowed the senate to choose from among the prae- 
tors at the end of their year of office ; but as he 
suspected that this gave rise to canvassing, he en- 
acted, in B. c. 23, that two of the praetors in office 
should have the charge of the aerarium by lot 
(Suet Oetav. 86 ; Dion Cass. liii. 2, 32 ; Tac 
Ann. xiii. 29.) They were c&Ued praetores aerarU 
(Tac. Ann. i. 75 ; Frontm. de Aquae Duct. 100) or 
ad aerarium (Ordli, Inecr, n. 723). This arrange- 
ment continued till the reign of Claudius, who 
restored to the quaestors the care of the aerarium, 
depriving them of certain other offices which they 
had received from Augustus (Tac Ann. xiii. 29 ; 
Suet Claud. 24 ; Dion. C^ass. Ix. 24) ; but as their 
age seemed too young for so grave a trust, Nero 
took it from them and gave it to those who had 
been praetors, and who received the title of pra^ 
/ecti aerarii. (Tac Ami. xiii 28, 29.) During 
the latter part of the reign of Trajan, or the begin- 
ning of that of Vespasian, a fresh change seems to 
have been made, for we read of praetores aerarii 
in the time of the latter (Tac Hist, iv. 9) ; but in 
the reign of Trajan, if not before, it was again en- 
trusted to praefects, who appear to have hdd their 
office for two years ; and henceforth no further 
change seems to have been made. (Plin. Paneg, 
91, 92, Ep. X. 20 ; Suet Ciaud. 24.) They are 
called in inscriptions praejecti aerarii Saiumi^ and 
they appear to have had quaestors also to assist 
them in their duties, as we find mention of quaes- 



AES. 

lor«s mer^ru Saittnri in inscriptions under Hadrian 
andSerenuL <OTidiiis,^M^/»«cr.pil25.n.6.p. 131. 
B. 3 ; Grata, pi 1027, n. 4.) These praefects had 
jnnsdictaain ; and hefore their oonrt in the temple 
oS Satnniy all infoimations were laid respecting 
p it mw a t * due to the aefarinm and iiscns. (Plin. 
T^M^. 36 ; Dig. 49. tit. 14. ss. 13, 15.) 

The a er arium milHare was under the care of 
distinct praefects, who were first appointed bj lot 
fnm amoag those who had filled the office of 
bat were afterwards nominated by the 
(Dion. Caas^ It. 25 ; compw Tac Amu 
T. 8.) They freqaently occur in inscriptions under 
the title of praefecH aerarU mUHaru, (Walter, 
GaekUU^da i&miaiAm RediU,ji^^\^&.c^ 397, 
kjL. 2d edition ; Lipahis, ad Toe, Ann, ziiL 29.) 

AES (xaA«^')* These words signify both 
pore copper and a composition of metak, in which 
eo^a is the piedominant ingredient In the 
latter sense they should not be translated. 6nM», 
hat mther bnmm. Brass is a combination of copper 
and ztM^ while all the spedmens of ancient objects 
fetmedof the compound material called ass, are 
fvnnd upoa analysis to contain no sine ; but, with 
Toy limited cxceptioiis, to be composed entirely of 
tapper amd <m, which mixture is property called 
Imae. Our chief infonnation about the copper 
and branse of the ancients is derived from Pliny 
(£f. N, zzziT.). Copper, being one of the most 
abondantand genenlly distributed of the metals, 
was natmally used at a ipfry eariy period by the 
Gn^a and Romansi Pliny (/T. N. xxzir. 1) 
mntions three of its ores {Japides aeron)^ namely, 
oadada^ ckaieiHt^ and mtiriMiaim or oriekakum^ 
into the exact nature of which this ii not the place 
to inquire^ 

In the most ancient times we can ascend to, the 
chief supi^y came from Cyprus; whence the modem 
name ^copper is said to be derived. (Comp. Horn. 
Oiyt. i 184, and Nitzach's Note ; Plin. H, N, viL 
56. s. 57) ; but according to an old tradition it 
was first livond in £uboea, and the town of Chalcis 
took its name fnm a oopper-mine. (Plin. H, N. 
ir. 12. s^ 21«) It was also found in Asia and the 
soath of Italy, in Gaul, in the moantains of Spain 
(esnpi Pans. tL 19. § 2), and in the Alps. The 
ait of smeltii^ the ore was perfectly familiar to the 
Greeks of Uomcr^ time. (Comp. Hesiod. Tkeog. 
861--866.) 

The abondanee of copper sufficiently accounts for 
its general use among the ancients ; money, vases, 
and utensils of all sorts, whether for domestic or 
Mcrifidal purposes^ onounents, anns offensire and 
defensive, foraitoR, tablets for inscriptions, musical 
instraments, and indeed eveiy object to which it 
could be applied, being made of it (Hesiod, Op. 
H DL 150, 151 ; Lnovt v. 1286.) We have a 
remackable result of this fact in the useof xo^k*^^ 
and x*^^^^*"^* whae woricing in iron is meant 
(Hon. Od, ix. 391 ; Aristot JPoct. 25.) For aU 
these pniposes the pure metal would be com- 
paratively useless, some alloy being necessary both 
to harden it and to make it more fusible. Ao- 
eonliiigiy, the origin of the art of mixing copper 
and tin is lost in the mythological period, bemg 
ascribed to the Idaean Dactyli The proportions 
ia which the component parts were mixed seemed 
to have been much studied, and it is remarkable 
haw neaxiy they agree in all the specimens that 
bave been analysed. Some bronze pails fiK>m the 
rams of the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae ; 



AES. 



25 



some ancient coins of Corinth ; a very ancient 
Greek helmet, on which is a boustrophedon in- 
scription, now in the British Museimi ; portions of 
the breastplates of a piece of annour called the 
Bronzes of Siris, also preserved in our national col- 
lection ; and an antique sword found in France, 
produced in 100 parts, 

87*43 and 88 copper 

12-53 and 12 tin 

99-96 100 
At a later period than that to which some of the 
above works may be referred, the addition of a 
variety of metab seems to have been made to the 
original combination of copper and tin. The writen 
on art make particular mention of certain of these 
bronzes which, notwithstanding the changes they 
underwent by the introduction of novel elements, 
were still described by the words xo^^f and aes. 
That which appears to have held the first place in 
the estimation of the ancients was the aa CbrusMt • 
(Mcum^ which some pretended was an alloy made ac- 
cidentally, in the nrst instance, by the melting and 
running together of various metals (especially ^/<i 
and bronze\ at the burning of Corinth by Lucius 
Mummius, in b. c. 146. (Plin. H.N. xxxiv. 2. s. 8 ; 
Floras, ii« 1 6.) This account is obviously incor- 
recty as some of the artists whose productions 
are mentioned as composed of this highly valued 
metal, lived long before the event alluded to. 
Pliny (L e.) particularises three classes of the Co- 
rinthian bronze. The first, he says, was white 
(ocmdidum), the greater proportion of mher that 
was employed in its composition giving it a light 
colour. In the second sort or quality, ^d was in- 
troduced, in sufficient quantity to impart to the 
mixture a strong yellow or gold tint The third 
was composed of equal portions of the difieient 
metals. Some, however, contend that the aes 
CoriniAiaatm was no composition of precious metals 
at all, but merely a very pure and highly refined 
bronze. (Fiorillo^ in the KututUatt, 1832, No. 
97.) The next bronze of note among the ancient 
Greek sculptors is distinguished by the title of 
hepatizonj which it seems it acquired from its 
colour, which boro some resemblance to that of the 
liver (^ap). Pliny says that it was inferior to 
the Corinthian bronze, but was greatly preferred 
to the mixtures of Delos and Aegina, which, for a 
long period, had the highest reputation. The colour 
of the bronze called h^patizom must have been ver^* 
similar to that of the dngve eado bronzes — a dull 
reddish brown. Before the invention of these sorts 
of bronze, the first in order of celebri^ was the 
oef Deliacitm. Its reputation was so great that 
the island of Delos became the mart to which all 
who required works of art in metal crowded, and 
led, in time, to the establishment there of some of 
the greatest artists of antiquity. (Plin. /. o. 2. s« 4.) 
Next to the Delian, or rather in competition 
with it, the aet AegineHeiun was esteemed. No 
metal was produced naturally in Aegina ; but the 
founders and artists there were most skilful in 
their composition of bronze. The distinguished 
sculpton, Myron and Polycleitus, not only vied 
with one another in producing the finest works of 
art, but also in the choice of the bronze they used. 
Myron prefeired the Delian, while Polycleitus 
adopted the Aeginetan mixture. (Plin. H,N, 
xxxiv. 2. 8. 5.) From a passage in Plutarch it 
has been anppoeed that this fiir-fiimed Delian 



26 AES EQUESTRE. 

bronze was of a light and somewhat sickly tint 
(See Quatremere de Quincy, Jupiter Ofympim; 
Plut De Pytk, Orae. 2.) Plutarch says, that in 
his time its composition was unknown. For fur- 
ther information on the composition of bronze, see 
L. Savot (Nmn, Ant p. ii. c 17), Falbroni (in the 
Atti deli* Aoad. liaL vol. I pp. 203—245, and (fat- 
ting. GeL Anxeig, 1811, No. 87), and Winckel- 
nuuin (Werke^ vol ▼.). 

No ancient works in brass, properly so called, 
have yet been discovered, though it has been af- 
firmed that zinc was found in an analysis made of 
an antique sword (see Mongez, Mim. de VInatitaL) ; 
but it appeared in so extremely small a quantity, 
that it nardly deserved notice ; if it was indeed 
present, it may rather be attributed to some acci- 
dent of nature than to design. On the subject of 
metals and metallurgy in general, see Mbtalluii, 
and for the use of bronze in works of art see 
Statuaria. [P. S.] 

AES (money, fuunmi aenei or aerii). Since 
the most ancient coins in Rome and the old 
Italian states, were made of aes, this name was 
given to money in general, so that Ulpian (Dig. 
50. tit 16. 8. 159) says, £^m aureos mtmmos <xe$ 
didmus, (Compare Hor. Are Poet. 345, Bp. i. 7. 
23.) For the same reason we have ae» altenumy 
meaning debt, and aera in the plural, pay to the 
soldiera. (Liv. v. 4 ; Plin. H. N. xxadv. 1.) The 
Romans had no other coinage except bronze or 
copper (oes), till b. c. 269, five yean before the 
fint Punic war, when silver was first coined; 
gold was not coined till sixty-two years after silver. 
(Plin. H. N. xxxiil 13.) For this reason Argen- 
tinus, in the Italian mythology, was made the son 
of Aesculanus. {Quia print aerea peeunia in ueu 
ems coepit post argentea. August De Civ. Dei, 
iv. 21.) Respecting the Roman copper money, see 
As, and respecting the Greek copper money see 
Chaloous. [P. S.] 

AES CIRCUMFORA'NEUM, money bor- 
rowed from the Roman bankers (argeniarii\ who 
had shops in porticoes round the forum. (Cic. Ad 
Attie. iL 1.) 

AES EQUESTRE, AES HORDEA'RIUM, 
and AES MILITA'RE, were the ancient terms 
for the pay of the Roman soldiers, before the regu- 
lar tHpmditim was introduced. The aes equestre 
was the sum of money given for the purchase of 
the horse of an eques ; the aes hordearium, the 
sum of money paid yearly for the keep of the 
horse of an eques, in other words the pay of an 
eques ; and the aea nUlitare, the pay of a foot 
soldier. (Gains, iv. 27.) None of this money seems 
to have been taken from the public treasury, but 
to have been paid by certain private persons, to 
whom this duty was assigned by the state. 

The aes hotxieariwnkf which amounted to 2000 
asses, had to be paid by single women (viduae^ I e. 
both maidens and widows) and orphans (orU)^ pn>> 
vided they possessed a certain amount of property, 
on the principle, as Niebuhr remarks, that in a mUi- 
tary state, the women and children ought to con- 
tribute for those who fight in behalf of them and 
the commonwealth ; it being borne in mind, that 
they were not included in the census. (Liv. L 43 ; 
Cic de Rep. ii. 20.) The equites had a right to 
distrain (pignoris oapio) if the om hordearium was 
not paid. (Gains, L e.) 

The aes equestre, which amounted to 10,000 
asses, was to be given, according to the statement 



AES UXORIUM. 

of Livy {L c), out of the public treasury («r;Mf5/ib0) ; 
but as Gains says (l.c\ that the equites had a 
right to distrain for this money likewise, it seems 
impossible that this account can be oonect ; for wo 
can hardly conceive that a private person had a 
right of distress against a magistrate, that ia, 
against the state, or that he could distrain any of 
the public property of the state. It is more pro- 
bable that this money was also paid by the single 
women and orphans, and that it was against these 
that the equites had the same right to distrain, 
as they had in the case of the aes hordeairimm. 

The aes nUJitare, the amount of which is not 
expressly mentioned, had to be paid by the irSnmi 
aerorii, and if not paid, the foot soldien had a 
right of distress against them. (Cato, (qt. GeXL 
vii. 10 ; Varr. L. L. v. 181, ed. MUller ; Festus,*. t>. 
aerarii tribum ; Gains, /. e.) It is generally as- 
sumed from a passage of the Pseudo-Asconius (in 
Verr. p. 167, ed. Orelli), that these tribum aerarii 
were magistrates connected with the treasury, and 
that they were the assistants of the qnaeston ; 
but Madvig (De IVibums AerarOs Disputatio, in 
Opuscuh, voL ii. f>p. 258 — ^261), has brought for- 
ward good reasons for believing that the iribuai 
aerarii were private persons, who were liable to the 
payment of the aes mUUare, and upon whose pn>> 
perty a distress might be levied, if the money were 
not paid. He supposes that they were persons 
whose property was rated at a certain sum in the 
census, and that they obtained the name of tribu$n 
aerarii^ either because they received money from the 
treasury for the purpose of paying the soldien, or 
because, which is the more probable, they levied 
the tributum, which was imposed for the purpose 
of paying the army, and then paid it to the soldiers. 
The state thus avoided the trouble of collecting the 
tributum and of keeping minute accounts, for whicli 
reason the vectigalia were afterwards fiirmed, and 
the foot-soldiers were thus paid in a way similar 
to the horse-soldiers. These trilmm aerarii were no 
longer needed when the state took into its own 
hands the payment of the troops [Exkrcitus], 
but they were revived in B.c.70, as a distinct 
class in the commonwealth by the Lex Aurelia, 
which gave the judida to the senators, equites and 
tribuni aerarii [Tribuni Axraril] The opinion 
of Niebuhr (Hist, of Rome, vol. I p. 474.^ that the 
aes miUtare was paid by the aerarians [Abrarii] 
is, it must be recollected, merely a conjecture, 
which, however ingenious, is supported by no an- 
cient authority. 

It has been well remarked by Niebuhr (Hi9t. 
of Rome, vol. il p. 442), that the 2000 asses, which 
was the yearly pay of a horseman, give 200 asses 
a month, if divided by 10, and that the monthly 
pay of a foot soldier was 100 asses a month. It 
must be recollected that a year of ten, and not of 
twelve months, was used in all calculations of pay- 
ments at Rome in very remote times. 

AES MANUA'RIUM was the money won in 
pkying with dice, fnambus eoOectum. Mamts was 
the throw in the game. All who threw certain 
numbers, were obliged to put down a piece of 
money ; and whoever threw the Venus (the highest 
throw) won the whole sum, which was called the 
aesnumuarium. (Gell. xvii 13 ; Suet.<4fl^. 71.) 

AES UXO'RIUM, a tax paid by men who 
reached old age without having married. It was 
first imposed by the oenson, M. Furxot Camillus 
and M. Postnmius, in b. a 403, but we do not 



AETOLICUM FOEDUS. 

know whether it eontraned to be levied afterwardar 
(FeatM, & r. ; VaL Max. iL 9. § 1 s Plut OiMaZ^2.) 
(Lxx Jux,iA IT Papia Poppaxa.1 
AESTIMATIO LITIS. [Judk.] 
AESY3CNBTES (ouruH^nis, from olb-a, «a 
jut ^QrtiiMi,'* kcnoe ** a penon who gitee ereiy 
flDe hit joflt portion *% originaU j signified meiel j a 
jodgein the hetoic gamea, hot aftenrards indicated 
aa indiWdnal who was occadooallj- invested Tolon- 
taiilj hj- his fidlow-citiaeiia with mdimited power 
in a Greek slate. His power, acooiding to Aristotle, 
partaok in aome degree of the nature both of kingly 
sad tynnnkal authority ; since he was appointed 
kgaOy and inled over willing mbjecta, but at the 
■■e tiDW was not boand by any jaws in his pub- 
lic adnunistiaiion. (Aristot PoUt, iii. 9. §5, 
rr.8.|2;Hesych.s:«.) Hcnee Theophxastas calls 
the office Tvpovb o^er^, and Dionysins (t. 73) 
eoaipaxcs it with the dictatordiip at Rome. It 
was not hereditarf ; bat it was sometimes held 
far Ufis, and at other times only till some object 
aas aoeompiisbed, such as the reconciling of the 
nawas fiMtioiis in the state, and the lik& We 
lave only one express instance in which a person 
reeeiTed the title of Aesynmetes, namely, tiiat of 
Pittacoa, in Mytilene^ idio was appointed to this 
dignity, because the state had been long tom 
asonder by the Tsrioos fictions, and iHio succeeded 
ia restoring pence and order by his wise regulations 
and laws. (DionTs. ▼. 73 ; Strab. xiii p. 617 ; Pint 
Soiam^ 4 ; IMog. La&t i 75 ; Plehn, Leabiaea^ pp. 
461,48b,) Then woe, howerer, no doubt many other 
peaoBs who ruled under this title for a while in 
the various slates of Greece, and those legislators 
bore a stnog resemblanee to the aesynmetes, whom 
their feOow-citizens appointed with supreme power 
to enact laws, as Bncon, Solon, Zaleucus and 
Channdaa. In some states, such as Cyme and 
ChaVfdon, it was the title borne by the regular 
nagistrates. OVachsmutfa, HeOen. AUertkwm. 
TeL L pp. 423, 441, 2d ed. ; THtmann, Orieek. 
^aatm. p. 76; &c ; Schumann, Aniiq, Jvr, Publ, 
Grmc pi 88 ; Hermann, StaataaUerlk. § 63.) 
AETAS. [In FANS ; Impubjbs.] 
AETO'LICUM FOEDUS. {Koa^rwAh^ 
Xmr.) Theinhabitantsof the southern coast of the 
coontiT, afterwards called Aetolia, iqipear to have 
femcd a sort of confederacy as early as the time 
of Homer. (IL iL 638, Ac, xiii. 217 Sk.) In 
the time of Thucydides (iiL 111), the several 
Aetolian tribes between the rirers Achelous and 
Evenos, appear to have been quite independent of 
one another, although they were designated by the 
eoounoa name of Aetolians; but we nererthelese 
find that, on certain occasions, they acted in concert, 
as lor example, when they sent embassies to foreign 
powen, or when they hsid to ward off the attacks 
of a common enemy. (Thuc L &, iiL 95, &c.) 
It amy therefore be admitted that ihete did not 
cxirt any definite league among the tribes of Aeto- 
lia, and that it was only their common danger that 
Blade them act in concert; but such a state of 
thiags, at any rate, fittxlitated the formation of a 
league, when the time came at which it was needed. 
But the league appears as a Tery powerful one rery 
soon after Sie death of Alexander the Great, ris. 
diffing the I/unian war against Antipater. (Diod. 
xix. ^, zx. 99,) How fitf ito organisation was' 
tkn regulated is unknown, though a certain con- 
stitution must hare existed as early as that time, 
tines we find that Aristotle wrote a work on the 



AETOLICUM FOEDUS. 



27 



Aetolian constitatioa. ( Strab. riu p. 821.) But it 
was certainly wanting in internal solidity, and not 
based upon any firm principles. In ■. c 204, two 
of the heads of the conlederBcy, Dorimachus and 
Scopasi were commissioned to regulate its constitu- 
tion, and it was perbaps in cunsequence of their 
legolation, that a genenl cancelling of debts was 
decreed two years bter. (Polyb. xiiL 1, ^Vi^si. 
ffitt. 68.) The chaiaeteristic difference between 
the Aetolian and Achaean leagues, was that the 
fimner originally consisted of a conlederBcy of 
nations or tribes, while the latter was a cottfederacy 
of towns. Hence the ancient and great towns of 
the Aetolisns, thnoghoot the period of the league, 
are of no importance and exercise no infiufiw 
whatever. Eyen Thermon, although it was the 
head of the league, and the place where the ordi- 
nary meetings <Jthe confederates were held (Polyb. 
T. 8, xriil 31, xxriii. 4 ; Strsb. x. p. 463), did not 
serve as a fmtr i iss in times of war, and whenever 
the Aetolians were threatened by sny danger, they 
pre fe ned withdrawing to their impregnabfe moun- 



The sorereign power of the confederacy was 
Tested in the genenl assemblies of all the confede- 
ntes (mofhtf rmf AiriiX«r, eomeUhm Adolonm)^ 
and this assembly unquestionably had the right to 
discuss all questions respecting peace and war, and 
to elect the gnat dvil or nulitary officers of the 
leaflue. It is howeTcr dear, that those assemblies 
ooud not be attended by all the Aetolians, ibr 
many of them woe poor, and lived at a great dis- 
tance, in addition to which the roads were much 
more impassable than in other parts vi Oreeee. 
The censtitation of the league was thus in theory 
a democracy, but under the cover of that name it 
was in reality an aristocracy, and the name Pama^- 
toUatMf which Livy (xxxi. 29) applies to the Aeto- 
lian assembly, must be understood accordingly, as 
an assembly of the wealthiest and most influential 
persons, who occasionally passed the most arbitrary 
resolutions, and screened the maddest and most 
unlawful acts of the leading men under the fine 
name of a decree of all the Aetolians. 

We have already mentioned that the ordinary 
place of meeting was Thermon, but on extnordinary 
occasions assemblies were also held in other towns 
bdongbg to the league, though they were not 
situated in the counti^ of Aetolia Proper, e. g. at 
Heracleia (Liv. xxxiii. 3), Naupactos (xxxv. 12), 
Hypata (xxxvL 2, 8), and Lamia (xxxr. 43, 44). 
The questions which were to be brought before the 
assembly were sometimes discussed previously by 
a committee, selected from the great mass, and 
called Apocleti (&ir^itXi|roi, Suid. «. e. ; Liv. xxxri. 
28.) Some writers believe that the Apodeti formed 
a permanent council, and that the thirty men sent 
out to negotiate with Antiochns were only a com- 
mittee of the ApocletL (Polyb. iv. 9, xx. 10, 
xxi. 3 ; Tittmann, Cfriech. StaaUverf, pi 727.) 

The general assembly usoally met in the autumn, 
when the officers of the league were elected. (Polyb. 
iv. 37.) The highest among them, as among those 
of the Achaean league, bore the titie of orpcmn^r, 
whose office kuted only for one year. The first 
whose name is known, was Eurydamus, who com- 
manded the Aetolians in the war agamst the Gala- 
tians. (Pans. x. 16. § 2.) The stzategos had the 
right to convoke the assembly ; he presided in it, 
introduced the subjects for deliberation, and levied 
the troops. (Lir. xxxviiL 4.) He had his share 



20 



AFFINES, AFFINITAS. 



of the booty made in war, but wa« not allowed to 
vote in decisionB upon peace and war. (Liv. xxxy. 
25.) This was a wise precaution, as a sanguine 
strategus might easily have inyolved the league in 
wars which would have been ruinous to the nation. 
His name was signed to all public documents, 
treaties, and decrees of the general assembly. An 
exception occurs in the peace with the Romans, 
because they themselves dictated it and abandoned 
the usual form. (Polyb. xxiL 15.) Respecting 
the mode of election, we are informed by Hesychius 
(s. V. Kvdfup TOTpIq*), that it was decided by white 
and black beans, and not by voting, but by draw- 
ing lots, so that we must suppose the assembly 
nominated a number of candidates, who then had 
to draw lots, and the one who drew a white bean 
was strategus. 

The officers next in rank to the strategus were 
the hipparchus and the public scribe. (Polyb. xxiL 
15 ; comp. Liv. xxxviii. 11.) We further hear of 
c^yf^pot^ who act as arbiters (BOckh, Corp, Inter. 
voL ii. p. 633), and yofuypd^t^ who however may 
have had no more to do with the writing down of 
laws, than the Athenian nomothetae. (Bockh, 
L e. pp. 857, 868.) 

With the exception of the points above men- 
tioned, the constitution of the Aetolian league is 
involved in great obscurity. There are, however, 
two things which appear to have had an injurious 
effect upon the confederacy, first the circumstance 
that its members were scattered over a large tract 
of country, and that besides Aetolia Proper and 
some neighbouring countries, such as Locris and 
Thessaly, it embraced towns in the heart of Pelo- 
ponnesus, the island of Cephalenia in the west, and 
in the east the town of Cius on the Proponiu ; in 
the second place, many of the confederates had 
been forced to join the league, and were ready to 
abandon it again as soon as an opportunity offered. 
(Polyb. iv. 25 ; comp^ xxii. 13, 15 ; Liv. xxxviii. 
9, 11.) The towns which belonged to the league 
of course enjoyed isopolity ; but as it endeavoured 
to increase its strength in all possible ways, the 
Aetolians also formed connections of friendsnip and 
alliance with other states, which did not join the 
league. (Polyb. ii. 46.) The political existence 
of the league was destroyed in b. c. 189 by the 
treaty with Rome, and the treachery of the Roman 
party among the Aetolians themselves caused in 
&C.167 five hundred and fifty of the leading 
patriots to be put to death, and those who survived 
the massacre, were carried to Rome as prisoners. 
(Liv. xlv. 31 ; Justin, xxxiii. 2 ; comp. Tittmann, 
DarsUUung der Orieeh. Staatsverf. p. 721, &c. ; 
Lucas, Ueber Polyb. Dantdbmg des AetoL Bttndea^ 
Kdnigsberg, 1827, 4to. ; K. F. Hermann, Grieck. 
StaatadUerth. § 183 ; Schom, Geschiohie GrieehenL 
p.25,&c. ; BTSLndBtJit6T,DisGesch.de8AetoL Landes, 
rolkes und Btmdes^ p. 298, &c.) [L. S.] 

AETO'MA (&^»^). [Fastigium.] 

AFFI'NES, AFFI'NITAS, or ADPFNES, 
ADFI'NITAS. Affinitas is that relation into 
which one family comes with respect to another by 
a marriage between the members of the respective 
femilies ; but it is used more particularly to express 
the relation of husband and wife to the cognati of 
wife and husband respectively. The husband and 
wife were also affines with respect to their being 
members of different families ; and the betrothed 
husband and wife (sponsus, sponsa) with reference 
to their intended marriage. Affinitas can only be 



AGELA. 

*the result of a lawful marriage. There are no 
degrees of affinitas corresponding to those of cog- 
natio, though there are terms to express the mrioiis 
kinds of affinitas. The father of a husband is the 
socer of the husband^s wife, and the fiither of a 
wife is the socer of the wife^s husband ; the term 
socms expresses the same affinity with respect to 
the hnsband^s and wife^s mothers. A son's wife 
is nurus or daughter-in-law to the son*s parents ; 
a wife's husband is gener or son-in-law to the wife*B 
parents. 

Thus the avus, avia — pater, mater — of * the 
wife become by the marriage respectively the socer 
magnus, prosocrus, or socrus magna — socer, socrus 
— of the husband, who becomes with respect to then& 
severally progener and gener. In like manner the 
corresponding ancestors of the husband respectively 
assume the same names with respect to the son^s 
wife, who becomes with respect to them pronums 
and nurus. The son and daughter of a husband 
or wife bom of a prior mairiage, are called privignus 
and privigna, with respeet to their step-fiither or 
step-mother ; and, with respect to such children, 
the step-fiftther and step-mother are severaUy called 
vitricus and noverca. The husband's brother be- 
comes levir with respect to the wife, and his sister 
becomes Glos (the Greek y6XMs), Marriage was 
unlawful among persons who had become such 
affines as above-mentioned ; and the incapacity 
continued even after the dissolution of the mamage 
in which the affinitas originated. (Gaius, L 63.) 
A person who had sustained such a capitis diminutio 
as to lose both his freedom and the civitas, lost 
also all his affines. (Dig. 38. tit 10. s. 4 ; Bdcking, 
IfutUutU^nen^ vol L p. 267.) [G. L.] 

AGALMA (&7aA/ta). [Statuaria.] 

AGAMIOU GRAPHE {hrmUnt Tpa^). 
[Matrimonium.] 

AGA'SO, a groom, a slave whose business it 
was to take care of the horses. The word is alK> 
used for a driver of beasts of burthen, and is some- 
times applied to a slave who had to porform the 
lowest menial duties. (Liv. xliii 5 ; Plin. H. N. 
XXXV. 11 ; Curt viii. 6 ; Hor. S«rm. ii. 8. 72 ; Pers. 
V. 76.) 

AGATHOERGI {irfdiwpyot). In time of war 
the kings of Sparta had a body-guard of 300 knights 
(iwx6«j), of whom the five eldest retired every year, 
and weie employed ftur one year, und^ the name 
of agathoerffi in missions to foreign states. (Herod. 
I 67.) It has been maintained by some writers 
that the offothoerpi did not attain that rank merely 
by seniority, but were selected from the hnrtis by 
the ephors without reference to age. (Ruhnken, 
Ad Titnaei Lexic. Plat 8.v. ; Hesych. s. o. ; Bekker, 
AnMd. vol. i. p. 209.) 

A'GELA (ay^Aii), an assembly of young men 
in Crete, who lived together from their eighteenth 
year till the time of their marriage Up to the 
end of their seventeenth year they remained in 
their fiither's house ; and from the circumstance of 
their belonging to no agda^ they were called 
kT^ky^Xoi. They were then enrolled in agetae, 
which were of an aristocratic nature, and gave great 
power to particular families. An agda always 
consisted of the sons of the most noble citizens, 
who were usually under the jurisdiction of the 
'father of the youth who had been the mrans of col- 
lecting the offda. It was the duty of this person, 
called &yt\dTiis^ to superintend the military and 
gymnastic exercises of the youths (who were called 



ACER 
iftA^rrw), to acconpuiy them to the cbaie, and 
to pmisli them when disobedient. He was ac- 
coontafale, however, to the state, wluch supported 
tite 0^ at the public expense. AU the memhen 
of an ojpB&i were obliged to many at the ame 
time. When they eeaeed to belong to an agda, 
tbej partook oi the pahlic mealB for men (^irSpcia) 
[SrssiTiA]. Tbeae inatitntiona were afterwards 
pRsened in onlj a few atatea of Cretc^ aoch for 
iaitaoceaa Lyctos. (Bpborua^ op. Shnab, x. p. 480, 
&C.; Herad. Foot. c. 3. ; Hibck, Oeto, iii. p. 100, 
a«. ; Mulkr, Dor. !▼. S. § 3 ; HermanB, Grieek 
Sfeatatertiwwr, § 22 ; ^Wacbsmuth, JJelien. 
i&ertfra>ufaauie,ToLLp.362, 2d ed. ; Kiaose^ />u 
Ggmmutik «. Agomutik d, HtUemen^ p. 690, &c) 
At Sfiaita the yontliA left their parents* houses at 
KTcn jcasB of age and entered the ^vai. 

AGE'MA (^ttryiyia from &7«), the name of a 

choaea body of troops in the Macedonian army, 

ooaaating of horse-aoldiers and foot-soldiers, but 

naBallj of the former. It aeems to have varied in 

mskber ; sometiines it consisted of 150 men, at 

dha times of 300, and in later times it contsined 

aa many as 1000 w 2000 men. (Diod. xix. 27, 

28: liT. xrxrii. 40 ; xliiL 51. 58 ; Curt iv. 13 ; 

Po\jb.T.25, 65, zxri. 8 ; Hesych. and Suid. a. «.; 

Eastath. od Od. L p. Id!i9, 62.) 

AOEK is the general term for a district or tract 
of cosntty, which haa some definite limits, snd be- 
kaga to some political society. Ager Romanns is 
the old tcfritory of the Koroans. Agri, in the 
plonli often means landa in the country as opposed to 
town : ** eat in agris,^ means **he ia in the country : ^ 
^ mitteie in agros,^ a phrase that occnn m apeak- 
i^ of the agrarian laws, means to aasign portions of 
the Ager Pnblicos to indiTiduals. (Liv. yL 17» 
1.21.) 

Terra is sn indefinite term : it is a whole coun- 
try without reference to political limits, as Tena 
Italk. 

Ager PnbUcQs was the property of the Romsn 
state, part of the Publicum. Ager Privatus was 
the property of individnals. Some remaika on the 
gaoal dirision of land into Publicus and Privatus, 
and on the nature of land that was Sacer and Reli- 
, are contained in the article on the Agrarian 
Ager Occnpatorius is land occupied by a 
OS people when the conquered people had 
been driren oat {Rd Agrariae Avctoresy pu45, 
cd. Goes.) : the poaseasiones [Agbaaiab Lsgbs] 
were included in the Ager Occnpatorius. Such 
had as was restored to those who had loat it by 
oooqaest, was called Redditua The Ager Occu- 
patoDus was siso called Ager Arcifinius or Arcifinalia, 
ao denominated **ab aicendis hostibus ^ (p. 38. ed. 
Goes.). But the tenns Ager Arcifinius and Occu- 
patorios do not appear to be exactly equivalent, 
thoogh some of the writers on the Res Agniria 
nake them ao. Ager Arcifinius appeara to ezpresa 
the whole of a territory, which had only aome 
natural or arbitrary boundary, and was not defined 
by measurement {jpd uuiUa mensura amtineiur; 
Frantinusb) Such were the acattered portions of 
the Roman Ager Publicus. The Ager Occnpatorius 
night axgniiy so much of the public land included 
in theArcifinina as was held by poaseaaora (occn- 
patna), or, as Niebuhr explains it, the term Occu- 
patorius was confined to the public land, atrictly ao 
called, and designated the tenure under which it 
was held. 

Frontinofl divides lands into three heads (quah- 



AOER. 



29 



ET' 



itUet) : Ager Diviaas et Aaaignatas ; Ager mensoia 
comprehensos ; Ager Arcifinius. He defines the 
Arcifinius, as above stated. The Ager mensura 
comprehensos appeara to signify a tract, of which 
the limits were defined by measurement, which 
was given in th^ maas to aome community (rajHs 
wtodus univenua emiati ed aat»giiatM$\ of which 
he mentions two examplea, 

Ager Divisns et Assignatas was public land 
that was asaigned or granted to private pcraoos. 
The verb dieido^ or aome fwm of it, is used by Livy 
(iv. 51, V. 30) to expreas the distribution of the 
land. The word aM$igmo indicatea the fixing of 
the aigna or boondariea. Ager Quaestorius waa 
public land, which was aold by the qoaestora (pp^ 
2, 14, ed. Ooea.), in aquare patches, each aide of 
which was the length of ten linear actus : the aquare 
conaequently contained 100 quadrati actus or fifty 
jugera. 

Ager Limitatns was public land marked out by 
limites for the pnrpoae of assignment to coloni or 
othera. The lunites were drawn with reference 
to the heavens (pi 150, ed. Goes.) ; and this mode 
of dividing the land was founded on the old Etruscan 
doctrine, for the Etruscans divided the earth into 
parts, following the course of the sun by drawing 
a line firem east to west, and another firom aouth to 
north. This was the foundation of the limites of a 
templum, a term which means the celeatial vault, 
and also ao much of the earth^a aurfiu» ss the augur 
could comprehend in hia view. This was the 
foundation of the Roman Limitatio of land. A 
line (limes) was drawn through a given point irora 
east to west, which waa called the Decumanus, 
originally Duocimanus* (according to Hyginua), be- 
cauae it divides the earth into two parts : another 
line was drawn from aouth to north, which waa called 
(^ardo, *^ a mundi cardine.** The length of these 
two chief limites would be determined by the limits 
of the land which waa to be divided. The points 
from which the two chief limites were drawn varied 
according to circumstancea. Thoae which were pa- 
rallel to the Decumanus were Prorai, direct ; thoae 
which were parallel to the Cardo were Transversi, 
transverae. The limea was therefore a term applied 
to a boundary belonging to a tract of land, and the 
centuriae included in it, and ia different from finia, 
which ia the limit of any particular property. The 
Decimiani, Cardinea, and other limitea of a diatrict 
form an unchangeable kind of network in the midst 
of the changeable propertiea which have their aeveral 
fines (Rudorff ). The distance at which the limites 
were to be drawn, would depend on the magnitude 
of the squares or centuriae, as they were called, into 
which it was propoaed to divide the tract. The 
whole tract might not be aquare: aomedmcs the 
Decuman! Limites would be only half as long as the 
Cardines (pi 154. ed. Goes.). Every aixth lima, 
reckoning firom the Decumanus and mduding it, 
was wider than the intermediate limites, andtheae 
wider limites served as roads, but they were not 
included under the term of Viae Publicae, though a 
limes and a via publica might aomctimea coincide. 
(Hyginus, ed. Goea. p. 163.) The narrower limites 
were called Linearii in the provinces, but in Italy 



* Duocimanus, according to Hyginus, was 
changed into Decimanus ; **' Decumanus,'^ says 
Niebuhr, ** probably from making the figure of a 
croas, which resembles the numeral X, like decus- 
sattu.*^ Neither explanation is aatififoctory. 



so 



AGER. 



they were called SubruBcivL The limites parallel 
to the cardo were drawn in the same way. 

The Roman measure of length used for land 
was the actus of 120 feet : the square actus was 
14,400 square feet ; and a juger or jugeium was 
two actus quadrat!. The word centnria properly 
means a hundred of any thing. The reason of 
the term centuna being applied to these divi- 
sions may be, that the plebeian centuries contained 
100 actus, which is 50 jugera, the amount con- 
tained in the portions put up to sale by the quaes* 
tors: but Siculus Flaccus (p. 15, ed.Goes.) gives 
a different account. The oentuiia sometimes con- 
tained 200 jugera, and in Uter periods 240 and 
400. This division into centuriae only compre- 
hended the cultivable land. When a colony was 
founded or a tract of land was divided, that part 
which did not consist of arable land was the com- 
mon property of the colony or settlement ; and was 
used as pasture. Such tnctB appear to be the 
Compascuus Ager of the Lex Thoria (c. 4, &c.). 
The land that was thus limited, would often have 
an irregular boundary, and thus many centuries 
would be incomplete. Such pieces were called 
Subseciva, and were sometimes granted to the 
colony or community, and sometimes reserved to the 
state. That such portions existed in some quantity 
in Italy is shown by the ftct of Vespasian and Titus 
making sales of them, and Domitian is said to 
have restored them to the possessors. 

A plan of each tract of limited land was engraved 
on metal (aes), and deposited in the tabularium. 
This plan (forma) showed all the limites or cen- 
turiae, and was a permanent record of the original 
limitation. Descriptions also accompanied the phm, 
which mentioned the portions that l)eIonged to dif- 
ferent individuals, and other particulars. (Siculus 
Flaccus, De DwU. et Anig. ed. Goes., p. 16 ; and 
the passages collected by Brissonius, Sded. e» Jur. 
CfivU, iiL c. 5.) Some of these records, which be- 
long to an early period of Roman history, are men- 
tioned by Siculus Flaccus, as existing when he 
wrote (p. 24. ed. Goes.). These registered plans 
were the best evidence of the original division 
of the lands, and if disputes could not be settled 
otherwise, it was necessary to refer to them. 

As to the marks by which boundaries were dis- 
tinguished, they were different in the case of Ager 
Arcifinius and Ager Limitatus. In the case of 
Ager Arcifinius, the boundaries were either natural 
or artificial, as mountain ridges, roads, water sheds, 
rocks, hills, ramparts of earth, walls of rubble, and 
BO forth : rivers, brooks, ditches and water conduits 
were also used as boundaries. Marks were also 
made on rocks, and trees were planted for this 
purpose, or were lef^ standing (arbores intactae, 
antemissae). Trees were often marked: those 
which were the common proper^ of two land- 
ownen were marked on boui sides ; and those 
which belonged to a single proprietor were marked 
on the side which was turned nom the proprietor's 
land (arbores insignes, signatae,notatae). By cutting 
off a piece of the bar]^ a scar would be formed 
which would answer as a signum. In angles, such 
as a trifinium or quadrifinium, more special boundary 
marks were used, for instance, at a trifinium three 
trees would be planted. Taps, or pieces of wood, 
lead and iron, were also inserted in trees to point 
to some pieee of water as the nearest boundary. 

The Ager Limitatus was marked in a different 
way by boundary stones and posts, not by natural 



AGER. 

bamen. The boundaries of the territory were 
marked by termini, which received their namefl 
under the empire from the emperor who gave the 
commission for partitioning the laud. Accordingly, 
we find the expressions Lapides Augustales, Tibe- 
riani, and so forth, mentioned as the termini fixed 
by these emperon for the boundaries of the colonies 
which they founded. The Termini Territoriales 
marked the limits of the district, the Plenrici 
ran parallel to the Decumani and Cardines, the 
Actuarii Centuriales were at the angles of the 
centuriae, the Epipedonici in the centre of the 
centuriae, the Proportionales at the beginning and 
end of the jugera. The boundaries of a property 
were also marked by termini ; and the owner of 
a property might pliKe termini within it to marie 
the pieces into which he divided it for his chil- 
dren. 

The termini were either posts of wood or stones. 
In the colonies of Augustus, the boundaries of the 
centuriae were marked by stones ; those of the 
several allotments by oak posts (termini robusti, 
pali roborei) Sometimes pali actuarii are men- 
tioned, firom which it appears that the boundaries of 
the centuriae were sometimes determined by wooden 
posts. The stones used in a particular limitatio 
were of the same kind and colour in order to make 
them more useful as boundary stones. The stones 
were cither polished (politi, dolati) or rough hewn 
(taxati a ferro), or in their entire rough state. The 
size varied firom half a foot to two and a half feet, 
and the laiger might sometimes be mistaken by 
ignorant people for mile stones. The form of the 
stones also varied, as we see from the representations 
contained of them in the MSS. of the Agrimensores. 
The number of angles varied in those which were 
angular : some were cylindrical, some pointed, others 
of a pyramidal form. The brad stones at the be- 
ginning and end of a boundary were more con- 
spicuous than those which lay between them. In- 
scriptions and marks were also put on the termini. 
The termini on the boundaries of the limited land 
have often considerable inscriptions ; the oenturial 
and pleurite termini give the number of the century 
and the name of the limes. Various kinds of 
marks were also devised to fecilitate the ascertain- 
ing of boundaries without the trouble of referring 
to the plan. 

These precautions were not all. A stone might be 
removed and a boundary might thus become un- 
certain. It was accordingly the practice to bury 
something under the stone that was not perishable, 
as bones, embers and ashes from the offering made 
at the time when the stone was set up. Small 
coins were also put under it, and fragments of glass, 
pottery, and the like, which would serve to deter- 
mine the place of the stone. The same practice is 
enjoined by the laws of Manu (viii. 249, 250, 251), 
a fiict noticed by Dureau de la MaUe. On the intro- 
duction of Christianity, the practice of making such 
offerings was discontinued, and this kind of evidence 
was lost Under the old reli^on it was also the 
practice to traverse the boundanesat the terminalia, 
in the month of February. In the case of the 
territorial boundaries, this was done by the whole 
community ; and pursuant to this old custom, the 
boundaries of the original territory of Rome, six 
miles firom the city, were travened at the termixialia. 
Private persons also examined their boundaries at 
the terminalia, and the usual offerings were made. 
The parish perambulations and other perambola- 



AGGER. 

tMBs of Bodetii tiBtt bear HNne niemUaiiee to this 



AGONALIA. 



31 



It has been oboerred that finii, a term which 
ezpnaaea the boondarj of sepaiate propatiea,miist 
Bot be co nfiwu ded with limes ; nor must fhndiis be 
ranfcwindi d vithloena. A fisodns has detennioate 
b u Mwiarif ( fines) : a locos is indeterminate, and 
mcf be part of a fnndns or eomprise more than a 
fintdas. A dispute about a fundus is a question of 
taiUmtj ; a di^te about a bcus or finis is a dis- 



NiebahrconiecCnres'* that a fundus assigned bj 
the slate waa considexed as one entire fiun, as a 
vholc^ the limito of which could not be dianged.** 
Bat he adds, **ThiB did not prcdude the divisioo 
of estates, nor eTen the sale of duodecimal parts of 
them ; " and further, ** The sale or transfer of them, 
vhoD the whole was not alienated, was in parts 
seoovfing to the dnodedmal scale.** But to this it 
is replied hj Dureaa de la Malle, that when there 
wexe five, aeven or nine heredes, there must be a 
fiactiflnal division. A fundus geneially bad a par- 
ticnlar name which waa not changed, and it is 
stated that both in Italy and France many of these 
pxopettiea still haTe Roman names. But the fret 
of a fimdna ^emeralfy having a name, and the fiut 
flf the name b«ng often preaerred, does not prove 
that mU fundi reteined their original limits accord- 
ing to Roman usage ; nor does the fiKt, that there 
were sometimes two, sometimes three owners of one 
fimdns (Dig. 10. Ul I. a. 4.), prove that a fnndns 
never had its limits changed, while it disproves 
Nicbahr'^ assertion as to duodecimal parts, unless 
the halves and thirds were made up of duodecimal 
parts, which cannot be proved. It seems probable 
cndngh, that an original fundus would often retain 
its Imuts nnrbanged for centuries. But it is certain 
that the bounds (fines) of private properties often 
changed. Rudocff remazks : ** The boundary of a 
ptup e ity is changeable; It may by purchase, ex- 
change, and other alienation, be pushed further, 
SBod be carried bads.** The localities of the great 
CariineB, Decamani,and other Limites, as the same 
writer has been abeady quoted to show, are un- 
changeable. 

The difficulty of handling this subject is very 
great, owing to the corrupted text of the writers on 
the Res Agmria. The latest edition of these 
writers is 1^ Ooesius, Amsterdam, 1674. Anew 
aad ooRocted edition of these writers with a suit- 
able eommentary would be a valuable contribution 
to oar knowledge of the Roman hmd system. (Rei 
Agmriae Audontj ed. Goes. ; Rudor£^ ZeUtekrift 
fir GttMckL Hetkbno, Ueber die GrVnischeidungs- 
U^ge, voL X. ; Niebuhr, vol ii iqypendix 1 ; Durnm 
de h Malle, iSboaoais Pbtils^ ^ ibMRoms, voL ii 
pil66,&c:) [O.L.] 

AOER SAKCTUS (W/MWf). For an account 
•f the lands in Greece devoted to the service of 
rdigion, see Txmknos: for an account of those 
in Rome, see Sacxedos. 
AGETCKRIA (iyi|T^«a.) [Caknmia.] 
AGGER (x^^)* fron^ ^ "^^ j"^*^ ^'B* ^^"^ 
IB general fin* a hei^ or mound of any kind which 
might be made of stones, wood, earth or any other 
snbstanoe. It was more particulariy applied to a 
mound, usually composed of earth, which was raisM 
mund a bean^^ town, and which was gradually 
increased in breadth and hei(^t, till it equalled or 
•Tcrtopped the waDs. Hence we find the expres- 



ON^Mm; and the makhy of the agger is expressu J 
I7 the verbs ecilrMfv, eoajIriMre, jooarw, /Sm^ 
Some of these o^e^eres were gigantic works, flanked 
with towen to defend the wofkmen and soldiers, 
and surmomited by parapets, behind which the 
soldiers could discharge missiles upon the besieged 
towns. At the siege of Avarieum, Caesar raised in 
twenty-five days an agger 830 feet broad, and 80 
feet high. (^. r/. viL 24.) As the agger was 
sometimes made of wood, hurdles, and simihtf 
materials, we sometimes read of iu being set on 
fire. (Uv. xxxvL 28 ; Caea B,0. viL 24, ACii 
14, 16.) The word agger was also applied to the 
earthen wall surrounding a Roman enc amp ment, 
composed of the earth dug from the ditch (yboo), 
which was usually nine fleet broad and seven feet 
deep ; but if any attack was apprehended, the 
depth was increased to twelve feet, and the breadth 
to thirteen feet Sharp stakes, Ac, were usually 
fixed upon the agger, which was thenpdled tallmm. 
When both words are used (as in Gseaar, B. O. vii 
72, aggftr ae vaUmm\ the agger means the moimd 
of earth ; and the vallum & sharp stakes (roA*), 
which were fixed upon the agger. 

At Rome, the formidable rampart erected by 
Serviua Tnllius to protect the western side of Rome 
was called offper. It extended ham the further 
extremity of the Quirinal to that of the Esquiline. 
It was fifty feet broad, having a wall on the top, 
defended by towers, and beneath it was a ditch a 
hundred feet wide and thirty feet deep. (Cic de 
ifep. iL 6 ; Dionya ix. 68.) Pliny (H. N. iil fi. 
a 9) attributes the erection of this rampart toTar- 
quinius Superbus, but this is in opposition to aD 
the other ancient writers who speak of the matter. 

AGITATCVRESw [Cincus.] 

AGMEN. [ExBRciTus.] 

AONA'TI. [COGNATL] 

AGNCMEN. [NoifXN.] 

AGONA'LIA, or AGO'NIA (Ov. Fast. v. 
721), one of the most ancient festivals at Rome, 
celebnted several times in the year. Its institu- 
tion, like that of other religious rites and cere- 
monies, was attributed to Numa Pompilius. (Ma- 
crob. Saiium, i 4.) We leam from the andent 
calendars that it was celebrated on the three fol- 
lowing days, the 9th of January, the 21st of May, 
and the 1 1th of December (a. d. V. Id. Jam.; XII. 
KaL Jtm.: III. Id. Dee.) ; to which we should 
probably add the 17th of March (a. d. XVI. KoL 
Afr.\ the day on which the Liberalia was cele- 
brated, since VtoM festival is also called Agoma or 
Agomium MarHale. (Varr. L. L. vi. 14, ed. MUl- 
ler ; MacroK L e. ; KaUmdanwm VaHcamm.) The 
object of this festival was a disputed point among 
the andents themselves ; but as Hartung has ol^ 
served {Die ReUgim der RSmer^ vol. ii. p. 33), when 
it is recollected that the victim which was offered 
was a ram, that the penKm who offered it was the 
rex sacrificiilus, and that the place where it was 
offered was the regia (Var. jL J^ vi 12 ; Ov. Pad, 
L 838 ; Fest s. «. Agomhtm\ we shall not have 
much difficulty in understanding the significance 
of this festivil The ram was the usiul victim 
presented to the guardian gods of the state, and 
the rex sacrificultts and the regia could be em- 
plojred only for such ceremonies as were connected 
with the highest gods and affected the weal of the 
whole state. Reginrding the sacrifice in this light, 
we see a reason for its being offered several times 
in the year. 



32 



AGORA. 



The etymology of the name waa also a robjcct 
of much dispute among the ancients ; and the va- 
rious etymologies that were proposed are given at 
length by Ovid. {Fast, i. 319—332.) None of 
these, however, ore at all satisfifictory ; and we 
would therefore suggest another. It is well known 
that the Quirinal hUl was originally called Agoma^ 
and the Colline gate AganmM, (Fest. s. vo. Ago^ 
mum, QmrinaUa; comp. Dionys. ii. 37.) What is 
then more likely than that this sacrifice should 
have been originally offered on thu hill, and should 
thence have received the name of Agonalia ? It 
is expressly stated that the sacrifice was offered in 
the regia, or the damua regit^ which in the historical 
times was situated at the top of the mcra via, near 
the arch of Titus (Becker,* Handbuch d, Rom. AU 
terth, vol. I pp. 237, 238) ; but in the earliest times 
the regia is stated by an ancient writer to have 
been upon the Quirinal (Solin. i. 21), and this 
statement seems to render our supposition almost 
certain, (filastioal Mumwn^ voL iv. pp. 154 — 
157.) 

The Cirau Agonengis, as it is called, is sup- 
posed by many modem writers to have occupied 
the place of the present Piazza Navona, and to 
have been built by the emperor Alexander Sevenis 
on the spot where the victims were sacrificed at 
the Agonalia. Becker (Ibid. pp. 668—670) has 
however brought forward good reasons for question- 
ing whether this was a circus at all, and has shown 
that there is no authority whatever for giving it 
the name of circus Agonensis, 

AGO'NES (iLy&yts), the general term among 
the Greeks for the contests at their great nationid 
games. [Cbrtauina.] The word was also used 
to signify law-suits, and was especially employed 
in the phrase &ywy€s t«/4ijtoI and irlfAtiroi, [Ti- 

MEMA.] 

AGONOTHETAE (A-ywroa^oi), were per- 
sons, in the Grecian games, who decided disputes 
and adjudged the prizes to the victors. Originally, 
the person who instituted the contest and offered 
the prize was the agonot&etes, and this continued 
to be the practice in those games which were in- 
stituted by kings or private persons. But in the 
great public games, such as the Isthmian, Pythian, 
&C., the agonot/tetae were either the representatives 
of different states, as the Amphictyons at the 
Pythian games, or were chosen from the people in 
whose country the games were celebrated. During 
the flourishing times of the Grecian republics, the 
Eleians were the agonothetas in the Olympic games, 
the Corinthians in the Isthmian games, the Am- 
phictyons in the Pythian games, and the Corin- 
thians, Argives, and inhabitants of Cleonae in the 
Nemaean games. The ii.yctvo04rai were also called 
aicrv^u^Toi, iuyuvdpxat, hywyoBUat, hSXaQirat, 
pa69ovxoi or fKtBZov6iJuoi (from the staff they 
carried as an emblem of authority), fipaStis, 
fipaStvToi, 

AGORA (iiyopd), properly means an assembly 
of any nature, and is usimlly employed by Ilomcr 
for the general assembly of the people. The agora 
seems to have been considered an essential part in 
the constitaition of the early Grecian states, since 
the barbarity and uncivilised condition of the Cy- 
clops is characterised by their wanting such an 
assembly. (Hom. Od, ix. 1 12.) The agora, though 
usually convoked by the king, appears to have been 
also summoned at times by some distinguished 
chieftain, as for example, by Achilles before Troy. 



AGORA. 

(Horn. 77. i. 54.) The king occupied the most 
important seat in these assemblies, and near him 
sat the nobles, while the people aat in a circle 
around them. The power and rights of the people 
in these assemblies have been the subject of much 
dispute. PUtner, Tittman, and more recently 
Nitzsch in his commentary on the Odyssej, main- 
tain that the people was allowed to speak and vote ; 
while Miiller (Dor. iiL 1. § 3), who is followed 
by Grotc (HitL o/ Greece, vol. ii. p. 91), maintains 
that the nobles were the only persons who proposed 
measures, deliberated, and voted, and that the 
people was only present to hear the debate, and to 
express its feeling as a body ; which expressions' 
might then be noticed by a prince of a mild dis- 
position. The ktter view of the question ia con- 
firmed by the fact, that in no passage in the 
Odyssey is any of the people represented as taking 
part in the discussion ; while, in the Iliad, Uljssea 
inflicts personal chastisement upon Thersites, for 
presuming to attack the nobles in the agora. (It. 
ii. 211 — ^277.) The people appear to have been 
only called together to hear what had been already 
agreed upon in the council of the nobles, which 
is called ^vKtt (JL il 53, vi. 114, y4poyr($ 
fiovXtvToC), and do^Kos (Od. iL 26), and some- 
times even iiyopd (Od. ix, 112; iyopal /SovXtj- 
<l>6poi). Justice was administered in the agora by 
the king or chiefs (Hes. Theog. 85 ; Horn. //. 
xviii. 497, &C. Od. xiL 439), but the people had no 
share in its administration, and the agora served 
merely the purpose of publicity. The common 
phrases used in reference to the agora are cis ityopiiy 
KoXUiy ; iyooiiy rotuaOcu, rlO«r$ai ; tls riiy iryo- 
p^y tiffUyai, kyttptireai, &c ( Wachsmuth, Heden. 
AUerthumMk. vol. i. p. 346, 2d ed. ; Hermann, 
Lehrbueh. d. Cfriech. Siaaiaalt. § 65 ; Oiote, Jlist. 
o/Greece, voL ii pp. 91 — 101.) 

Among the Athenians, the proper name for the 
assembly of the people was iKK\ri<ri€L, and among 
the Dorians a\la. The tena agora was confined 
at Athens to the assemblies of the phylae and 
demL (Aescb. c. Qee. § 27. p. 50. 37 ; Schoroann, 
De Comitiis Atften. p. 27, Antiq. Jur. PuU. Graec. 
pp. 203, 205 ; Bockh, Corp. Inscrm. vol. L p. 125.) 
In Crete the original name iyopd continued to be 
applied to the popular assemblies till a late period. 
(Bekker, Anecdot. vol I p. 210.) 

A'GORA (iyopi), was the phice of public as- 
sembly in a Greek city, both for traffic, and for 
the transaction of all public business. It answers 
to the Baman forum; and, in fact, it is impossible 
to keep these two subjects entuely separate. 

In the earliest times, the Agora was merely an 
open piece of ground, which was generally in firont 
of the royal palace, and, in sea-port towns, close to 
the harbour. The Agora of Troy was in the cita- 
del. Here, the chieft met in coimcil, and sat in 
Judgment, and the people assembled to witness 
athletic games. It was evidently also the place of 
traffic and of general intercourse : in one passage 
of Homer, we have a lively picture of the idhrs 
who frequented it It was enclosed with large 
stones sunk into the earth, and seats of marble 
were placed in it for the chieft to sit in judgment, 
and it was hallowed by the shrine of one or more 
divinities. In the Agora which Homer particularly 
describes, — that of the Phaeacians, — there was 
a temple of Poseidon. (Hom. //. il 788, vii. 345, 
346, xviii. 497—506, Od, vi. 263—285, viii. 16, 
109,xvi. 361.) 



AGORA« 

Out of this timple amngement aroie the mag- 
dceat iryopal of later timea, which consisted of 
^ ooen space, enclosed b j porticoes or colonnades, 
-led into separate parts far the yarioos oocnpa- 
r^ which were parsaed in it, adorned with 
at££3, altars, and temples, and built about 
nh edifices far the transaction of public and 
T.^te business, and far the administrBtion of 

Oar information respecting these edifices is 
:jjf r scantj. The chief authorities are Paosanias 
id VitniTioa. The existing ruins are in such a 
it^ as to gire us a very litUe help. 
We have, first of aU, in this, as in other de- 
utiDents of architectare, to distinguish the an- 
?nt style fiom that introduced by the Greeks of 
nia after the Persian war, and more especially 
f Hippodamns of Miletus [see IKct of Biog. «.«.], 
h'ise cannectioQ with the building of kyopai of a 
^ form is mariced by the name 'IwoSd^io, 
&ich was apfdied to the Agoca in the Peiraens. 
[ IiqxMT. *. e. hmidfuta,) The general character 
t-jf Greek iycpd is thus described by Vitruvius 
r. 1) : — *^ The Greeks arrange their foia in a 
imn fanny with vexy wide double colonnades, 
:«d adi)ni them with oolomns set near one another 
^i with stone or marble entablatures, and they 
iiite walks in the unper stories.** 
Acion^ the irfopai described by Pausanias, that 
;{ ihe Eleians is mentioned by him (tL 24) as 
>iiz '^ not on the same plan as those of the lo- 
-ui> and the Greek cities adjoining Ionia, but it 
13 n:ilt in the more ancient fiuhion, with porticoes 
i-^aated from one another, and streets between 
' m. Bat the name of the Agora in our days is 
llifArmua^ and the people of the country ez- 
•!^>! tbcir horses there. But of the porticoes, 
i^ >ce towards the south i« of the Dorian style of 
^ IX, and the pillars diT.'de it into three parts (in 



AGORA, 



n 



this the Hellanodicae genersHy pass the day) : but 
against these (pillars) they place altars to Zeus . . . 
To one going along this portico, into the Agors, 
there lies on the left, along the ftirther side of 
this portico, the dwelling of the Hellanodicae 
{6 'EAAxvoSuce^) : and there is a street which 
divides it firom the Agora . . . And near the por- 
tico where the Hellanodicae pass the day, is 
another portico, there being one street between 
them : this the Eleians call the Corcyraean por- 
tico** (because it was built fix>m the tithe of spoil 
taken from the Corcyraeans in war). *^ But the 
style of the portico is Dorian and double, haring 
colunms on the one side towards the Agors, and 
on the other side towards the parts beyond the 
Agora: and along the middle of it is a wall, 
which thus supports the roof: and images are 
placed on both sides against the wall** He then 
proceeds to mention the ornaments of the Agors, 
namely, the statue of the philosopher Pyrrhon ; 
the temple and statue of Apollo Acesius ; the 
statues of the Sun and Moon ; the temple of the 
Graces, with their wooden statues, of which the 
dress was gilt, and the hands and feet were of 
white marble ; the temple of Seilenus, dedicated 
to him alone, and not in conmion with Dionysus ; 
and a monumental shrine, of peculiar fona, with- 
out walls, but with oak pillars supporting the roof, 
which was reported to be the monument of Ozylus. 
The Agora also contained the dwelling of the six- 
teen fmales, who wove in it the sacred robe for 
Hera. It is worthy of remark that several of 
these details confirm the high antiquity which 
Pausanias assigns to thu Agora. 

Hirt has drawn out the following plan from the 
description of Pausanias. {G€$chidUB dor Bau- 
kimst bet den AUm^ Tat xxL fig. 5.) We give it, 
not as feeling satisfied of its complete accuracy, but 
as a usefril conmientary on Pausanias. 



• • 



d n 



s 



s 



o/a 



• ••••• mr^ 




GRX)UNO PLAN OF THB OLD AGORA AT BLIS. 



A, the chief open space of the agora, called, in 
tbf time of Pausanias, )appodrwMtt : a, colonnades 
t^^nttd hy streets, 6: b, the Stoa in which the 
Hellanodicae sat, divided from the Agora by a 
nThfli : ^ the house of the Hellanodicae: «^ the 
1 btlus : D, the Corcyraean Stoa, composed of two 
p^ c looking mto the Agora, and d looking away 
[nm it: e, g. A, small temples : / statues of the 
^lui and Moon : i, monument of Oxylus : k, house 
of the sixteen women. 

In this Agora the Stoa, B, answers to the kter 
^inlicoy and the house c, to the prytaneivm in other 



Greek ikyopai. With respect to the other parts, it 
is pretty evident that the chief open space, a, which 
Pausanias calls rh fhtcuOpoy rijr iyopas, was de- 
voted to public assemblies and exercise, and the 
0TOCU (a), with their intervening streets (6), to 
private business and tra£Sc. Hirt traces a resem- 
blance of form between the Eleian agora and the 
Forum of Trajan. It is evident that the words of 
Vitruvius, above quoted, refer to the more modem, 
or Ionian form of the A^ra, as represented in the 
following plan, which is lUso taken from 



(Oetchiokte der Bauhmst, xxi. fig. 1) : — 



Hirt 



2J4 



AGORA. 




X\"c"rii"l"'\J 



I I 



J_L 



PLAN OP A GREEK AGORA, ACCORDING TO 
VITRUVIUS. 

A, the open court, surrounded hj double colon- 
nades and shops: B, the Curia: c, the chief temple, 



AGORA, 
also used as a treasury : d, the Basilica, or court of 
justice : s, the Tholns, in connection wiUi the other 
rooms of the Prytaneium, o, d. 

The cut below, which is also firom Hirt, re- 
presents a section of the Agora made along the 
dotted line on the plan. 

We gain further information respecting tbe build- 
ings connected with the Agora, and the works of 
art with which it was adorned, chiefly firom the 
statements of Paosanias respecting those of par- 
ticular cities, such as Athens (i. 5. § 2), Thebes 
(ix. 17. § 1), Sicyon (il 7. § 7, 9. § 6}, Argos (ii. 
21), Sparta (iii. 11), Tegea (viil 47. § 3), Mega- 
lopolis (viil 80. § 2), to which passages the reader 
is refened for the details. The buildings men- 
tioned in connection with the Agora are : — 1. 
Temples of the gods and shrines of heroes [Tem- 
PLUU], besides altars and statues of divinities. 
The epithet iiyopcuos is often applied to a divinity 
who was thus worshipped in the Agora (Paus. 
IL ee. ; Aesch. Ettmm, 976 ; Soph. Oed, Tyr, 
161, where mention is made of the circular throne 
of Artemis in the Agora), and Aeschylus ex- 
pressly refers to the ^ol iyopas iruTK^oi (Sept, 
c. Theb. 271, 272). 2. The Senate-house (i3owA€v- 
Hipioy), and other places for the meetings of the 
governing bodies, according to the constitution of the 




8BCTION OF THE SAME. 



particular state : in the Agora at Sparta, for ex- 
ample, there were the senate-house of the Gerontcs 
and the places of meeting of the Ephori, the No- 
mophylaces, and the Bidiaei. 3. The residence of 
the magistrates for the time being [Prytaneium]. 
4. Courts of justice [Basilica]. 5. The public 
treasury [Thesaurus]. 6. The prison [Carcer]. 
7* The police station, ijf such a term may be ap- 
plied to an ancient Agora. At Athens, for example, 
the station of the thousand Scythian bowmen, who 
formed the police force of the state, was in the 
middle of the Agora : this does not, however, seem 
to have been a permanent building, but only a 
number of tents. 8. Buildings used for the re- 
gulation of the standards of measure, and so forth ; 
such as the building vulgarly called the Temple of 
the Winds at Athens [Horologium], and the 
Milliarium Aureum at Rome, which seems to have 
been imitated from a similar standard at Athens 
[Milliarium]. To these various buildings must 
be added the works of art, with which the open 
area and the porticoes of the Agora were adorned ; 
which were chiefly in celebration of gods and 
heroes who figured in the mythology, of men who 
had deserved well of the state, of victories and 
other memorable events, besides those which ob- 
tained a place there purely by their merits as 
master-pieces of art As a specimen we may 
take the Agora at Athens, a portico of which, 
thence called the oto& TotKi\% was adorned with 
the paintings of Polygnotus, Micon, and others, 



and in which also stood the statues of the ten 
heroes (4pXTy^o<)» after whom the Phylae of 
Cleisthenes were named, of Solon, of Harmodius, 
and Aristogeiton, of the orator Lycurgus, and of 
very many others. It was customary also to build 
new porticoes out of the spoils taken in great wars, 
as examples of which we have the Corcyraean por- 
tico at Elis, mentioned above, and the Persian por- 
tico at Sparta. 

The open area of the Agora was originally the 
place of public assembly for all purposes, and of 
general resort Its use for political purposes is de- 
scribed in the preceding article. Here also were 
celebrated the public festivals. At Sparta, the 
part of. the Agoia in which stood the statues of 
Apollo, Artemis, and Leto, was called X^(^^9 ^^^ 
cause the choruses of the Ephebi performed their 
dances there at the festival of the Gymnopaedin. 
(Pans. iiL 9.) Lastly, it was the place of social 
and feshionable resort At Athens, fashionable 
loungers were called iLyd^fiara ayofms. 

Originally the Agora was also the market, and 
was surrounded with shops, as shown in the above 
plan. As commerce increased, it was found con- 
venient to separate the traffic firom the other kinds 
of business carried on in the Agora, and to assij^ 
to each its distinct place, though this was by no 
means universally the case. The market, whether 
identical with, or separate firom the Agora for po- 
litical and other assemblies, was divided into prta 
for the different sorts of merchandise, each of 



AGORA. 

coone fiirmfihwl with ooLamiadei^ which the cJiouite 
imdeced neoensrj, and partly with shops and 
staSkf paztly with temporary booths of wicker- 
vtak (^KfM, Hazpocr. & «. 0'Ki|rin|s ; Demosth. 
d«ar.p.284X JBach of these parts was called a 
«BcAs& It is genexaUy stated that this tem was 
applied only to that dirisum of the market where 
lusit, fish, and such things were sold ; bat Becker 
baa shown that it was vised also for other parts of 
the vmAtt {OkanUes^ toL L pp. 268, 269). The 
KTccal diTinaas of the market were named ac- 
csrdiDg to the articles exposed for sale in them. 
(Pan. iz. 47, z. 19.) Of these diTinons, the fol- 
hwu^ were the most important 

The part in which fish and other delicacies fiir 
the tdbk w«ie exposed to Bale was called I'x^vt, 
jifa», or ix ft '^ a^MAiy ^"T^P^ <nd was the chief 
eeosR of hosiTW<. It was open only fixr a limited 
tme^ the signal fat commencinff business being 
given hy the sound of a bell, which was obeyed 
with an eagerness that is more than once plea- 
fiady refiemd to by the ancient writeis. (Pla- 
ttfch, J^^poa. It. 4, 2 ; Strah. xi v. p. 658. ) The 
eoaneoeas and impositions of the fishaellen, and 
the attempts of pnrehaserB to beat them down, are 
fieqjBeatiy alladed to by the comic poets. ( Amphis, 
ef^AA. fL pi 224, e. ; Alexis, ibid. ; XenarcL ibid, 
pu 225, c; Alexia, ibid. p. 226, a, b.; comp. Pkt 
Le^ XL p. 9 1 7.) It is not quite clear whether meat, 
pesltry, and so forth, were sold in the Bame place 
as the fiih, or had a sepaiate division of the market 
s sfeig Bed to them. Bread was partly sold in the 
aa^Dcd place in the market, which was per- 
haps the nrae as the meal-market (rh, lU^ira), 
and partly carried romd for sale : the sellers 
wrre geaesally women, and were proverbially 
ab^ire. (Aristoph. Am. 857, Vesp. 1389.) In 
sDother part of the market, called /w^^iyat^ were 
dhe anaen who sold garlands of myrtle and 
sowcn be fiestivals and parties. (Pint Arat. 6 ; 
Aristpph. Tkesm, 448, 457.) Near these, pro- 
bohlT, were the sellers of ribands and fillets for 
the had. (Demoath. n Evbid. p. 1308.) The 
w^Miesale tmffic in wine, as distinct from the 
hauias of the jcdbnpAos [Caupo], was carried on 
m the market, the wine being brought in from 
the eoantry in carts, from which it was transfened 
to smphone: the process is represented in two 
pictams at Pompeii. (Alexis^ c^. Alh, x. p. 431, e.; 
Mm. Bmrboa. toL iv. Relax, d. Scav. A., and toL t. 
p. 4&) [Amphora.] The market for pottery was 
ealkd x^rpeu ; and must not be confounded with 
the plaee where cooks sat and offered themselves 
isi hire, with their cooking utensils: this latter 
«^a6e was called /tay€ip€UL, (Poll. ix. 48 ; Alexis, 
^ AUl ir. p. 164, £) In short, every kind of ne- 
cessary cr luxury was exposed for sale in its as- 
sigaed place. Thus, we fold, besides those already 
mentianed, the market for onions (t& Kp6/iva\ for 
garlidc ^r^ 0'K6poSay, fat nuts (r^ ic<(pua), for 
ap^ (rh ^AaX for teeh cheese (o x^P^' rvp6s\ 
for oil {roCXjuom\ for perfumes and unguents (rk 
f»paL tat frankincense {6 Xi€aafar6s)^ for spices 
(ri ipi/imraX for conches (w* icXZmu), for new and 
fiU dothes (SyofA tfiamSuroaikiS, or (nretp^«Xis, 
P<dL ^ 78), for books (iSi^Aio^mj), and for 
ihru (ra M^N£n9a, PoIL x. 19). Lastly,a part 
t£ tbe market was devoted to the money-changers 
{rparfCrai), [ArgsntabilJ Mention is some- 
timcs Bade of the women^ market, ywauctla 
^Tsp^ * tenn which has giren rise to much doubt 



AGORA. 85 

(Theopfar. Oar, 2 ; Poa z. 18.) The eommen 
exphumtion is, that it was the part of the market 
to which women resorted to pmthase what they 
wanted for household uses, ^t it appears dearly 
that pnrehases were seldom made in the market 
by women, and never by free women. The only 
pkusible explanation is, either that a distmct part 
of the market was assigned to those commodities, 
the seUers of which were women, such as the 
^osniXiScf, XcjriA9r^Ajt«f, Xfx«i'«*^^^'« ^^^ 
^ayov^A^r, and others, cr else that the tern 
was applied to that part of the msrkat where 
articles for the use of women were sold. But the 
matter is altogether doubtfiiL The above list of 
commodities, sold in the respective diviskms of the 
market, might he still further extended. Indeed, 
with reference to the Athenian market, to whidi 
the description chiefly applies, there can be no 
doubt that every article of home prodnes or of 
foreign oommeree from the known world was there 
exposed for sale. (See Thuc. iL 18 ; Xen. Oscoa. 
AtA. il 7 ; Isocr. Pan^, 64 ; Ath. xiv. p. 640, 
b,c.) 

It is not to be supposed, however, that the sale 
of these various articles was confined to the market 
Frequent mention is made of shops in other parts 
of the dty (s. g. Thuc viil 95), and some arddes, 
such as nit fish, seem to have been sold outside 
the gates. (Aiistoph. Equit, 1246.) 

The time durii^ which the market was fre- 
quented was the forenoon ; but it is difficult to de- 
termine precisely how much of the forenoon is 
denoted by the common phrases xA^AMNra &70p^ 
ircpl wKffiwo'cv irYOpdw^ s-Ai|0«Spi} iyopas. (Herod, 
ii. 173, vii 223.) Suidas (i. v.) expUuns w\ii$ovffa 
iryopd as Apa rpinf, but elsewhere (nv. w«pl wA^. 
ay.) he says that it was either the fourth, or fifth, 
or sixth hour. We might infer that the whole 
period thus designated was from nine to twelve 
o^dock (equinoct^ time) ; but Herodotus, in two 
passages (iii 104, iv. 181) makes a distinction be- 
tween wA^vo-a iiyopd and fuffrifiBpia, (Comp. 
Libon. Ep, 1084.) The time of the condusion of 
the market was called iyapas HidXveru (Herod, iii 
104, comp. Xenoph. Oeam. 12, 1 ; and for a fiir- 
ther discussion respecting the time of the full mar- 
ket, see Duker, ad TT^ue, riii. 92 ; Wessding, ad 
Diod, Sie. xiiL 48 ; Perixon. ad Aeiiam. V. H. xii. 
30 ; Gesner and Reiz, ad Ladan, PUIopt, 11, vol. 
iii pi 38 ; Bfthr, ad Herod. \l 173.) Daring these 
hours the market was a place not only of traffic 
but of general resort Thus Socrates habitually 
frequented it as one of the places where he had tho 
opportunity of conversmg with the greotest number 
of persons. (Xen. Mtm. I 1. § 10 ; PUt ApoL p. 
17.) It was also firequented in other parts of the 
day, especially in the evening, when many persons 
might be seen walking about or resting upon seats 
phued under the colonnades. (Demosth. tn Ccn, 
pi 1258; Pseudo-Plut VU. X. Or, ^ 849, d. ; 
Lucian. Jup, Trag, 16, vol. iL p^ 660.) Even the 
shops themselves, not only those of the barbers, the 
perfumers, and, the doctors, but even those of the 
leather-seUers and the hamess-maken, were com- 
mon places of resort for conversation ; and it was 
even esteemed discreditable to avoid them alto- 
gether. (Aristoph. PluL 337, Av, 1439 ; Xen. 
Mem. iv. 2. § 1 ; Lysias, tn PamsL pp. 730, 73^ 
de InvaL pi 754 ; Demosth. m Aristog. p. 786.) 

The persons who carried on traffic in the market 
were the country people {kyopcSoi)^ who brought 
D 2 



36 



AGORA. 



in their commoditiefl into the city, and the retail 
dealers (KdwriXoi) who exposed the ooods pur- 
chased of the former, or of producers of any kind 
(ttinov&Keu), or of foreign merchants (liiiropoi), for 
sale in the markets. (Plat, de Bepub, u, p^ 371 ; 
Xen. Mem, iil 7. § 6 ; Pint Arat. 8 ; Caupo.) 
A certain degree of difgnice was attached to the 
occupation of a retail dealer, though at Athens 
there were positiTO enactments to the contrary. 
(Andoc de Myst. p. 68 ; Aristot de Repub, L 10, 
iil 6 ; Plat Leg, id, pp. 918, 919 ; Diog. La&t l 
104, ix. 66 ; Aristoph. Eq, 181 ; Demosth. e, Eutnd. 
SO, p. 1303.) There is an interesting but very 
difficult question as to the effect which the occu- 
pation of selling in the market had npon the social 
position of women who engaged in it (Demosth. 
in Neaer, p. 1367 ; Lys. in Theonm, p. 361 ; Plut 
SoL 23 ; Harpocr. and Snid. «.«. UmXakri ; Becker, 
ChariUet^ toL L pp. 260—266.) The wholesale 
dealers also sold their goods by means of a sample 
(8c?y/Mi), either in the market, or in the place 
called Hfiy/Mf attached to the port. (Haipocr. 
8,v. 9t7yfUL I Poll. ix. 34 ; Plut Demoetk 23 ; 
Plat Leg. viL p. 788 ; Diphil. ap, Ath, xi. p. 499, e. ; 
B5ckh, Earn, of Ath, p. 58, 2d ed.) The retafl 
dealers either exposed their goods for sale in their 
shops, or hawked them about (AristoplL Aeham. 
33 ; Plut Apophih. Lcuxm. 62, p. 236.) The pri- 
vilege of freely selling in the market belonged to 
the citizens : foreigners had to pay a toll. (De- 
mosth. M Evbd. p. 1308 ; Bdckh, Eootu of Ath, 
p. 313.) 

Most citizens either made their own purchases 
in the market (Aeschin. a, Timardi. p. 87 ; 
Aristoph. Lynatr. 555 — 559), or employed a slave, 
who was called, from his office, kyopaimis (Xen. 
Menu i 5. § 2 ; comp. Ath. iv. p. 171 ; Poll iil 
126 ; Terent Andr, il 2. 31.) Sometimes female 
slaves performed this office (Lysias, de Oaed. 
Eratosth, p. 18, comp. p. 11), but such an appear- 
ance in public was not permitted to any free wo- 
man, except a courtezan (Machon, ap, Ath, xiil 
p. 580.) The philosopher Lynceus, of Samos, 
wrote a book for the guidance of purchasers in the 
market (Ath. vi. p. 228.) It was esteemed dis- 
reputable for people to carry home their purchases 
from the markets, and there were therefore porters 
in attendance for that purpose, who were called 
wpoihftucoif Ttulktfttmyfs, and TouSdvcf. (Theo- 
phrastCSktr. xvii. — ^xxii. ; Hesych. a,v. irpolivtucoi.) 
The preservation of order in the market was the 
office of the Aooranomi. 

Both the architectural details of the Agora and 
the uses of its several parts might be further illus- 
trated by the remains of the iryopi or iyopal (for 
it is even doubtful whether there were two or only 
<me) at Athens ; but this would lead us too fiir into 
topographical details. This port of the subject is 
fully discussed in the following works: Leake, 
Topogfry^kg of Athens; Krause, HeUcu, vol. ii. ; 
Miiller, in Ersch and Gruber^s Enegdop'ddiej art 
Attioa; Hirt, Lehre d, Geb'dude, ch. v. supp. 1 ; 
Wachsmuth, Hellen, AUerthunuk, vol. i. supp. 6, b, 
2ded. 

For the whole subject the chief modem au- 
thorities are the following : — Hirt, Lehre d, Ge- 
baude d. ChrietAen und Romem, ch. v. ; Stieglitz, 
Arch'doL d. Bcmkunsi; Wachsmuth, Hellenieehe 
Aiterihumshmde ; Bdckh, PuUie Oecommy of 
Athene ; and especially Becker, Charikles^ 4th 
floene, vol. i. pp. 236 — ^296, in the original. [P.S.] 



AGRAPHIOU GRAPHE. 

AGORA'NOMI (iyopay6fwt) were public 
fimctionaries in most of the Grecian states, whose 
duties corresponded in many respects to those of 
the Roman aediles ; whence Greek writers on 
Roman af&irs call the aediles by this name. Under 
the Roman empire, the agoranomi were called 
Koyiffrai (SchoL ad Aristoph, Acham, 688): they 
enjoyed in later times great honour and respect, 
and their office seems to have been regarded as 
one of the most honourable in the Greek states. 
We frequently read in inscriptions of their being 
rewarded wi^ crowns, of which many instances 
are given by MQller. (Aegineliea^ p. 138) They 
were called by the Romans curatores reiptsUieae, 
(Cod, 1. tit 54. s. 3.) 

Agoranomi existed both at Sparta and Athens. 
Our knowledge of the Spartan agoranomi is very 
limited, and derived almost entirely from inscrip- 
tions. They stepped into the place of the ancient 
Empdori ((far4Ko9poi) in the time of the Romans. 
They formed a collegium (trwapx^^) ^^ ^^^ ^^ 
their head, called *p4ir€vs (B5ckh, Corp, Instr. 
vol i. p. 610 ; and Sauppe in Rheimsches Museum^ 
vol iv. p. 159, New Series.) The Athenian ago- 
ranomi were regular magistrates during the flourish- 
ing times of the republic. They were ten in 
number, five for the city and five for the Peiraceus, 
and were chosen by lot, one from each tribe. 
(Dem. e, Timoar, p. 735 ; Aristoph. Adham, 689.) 
The reading in Harpocration (s. v, iL'yopay6fun), 
which mentions twenty agoranomi, fifteen for the 
city, and five for the Peiraeeus, is false. (Biickh, 
Corp, Inscr, voL i. p. 337.) 

The principal duty of the agoranomi was« as 
their name imports, to inspect the market, and to 
see that all the laws respecting its regulation were 
properly observed. They had the inspection of all 
things which were sold in the market, with the 
exception of com, which was subject to the juris- 
diction of the <riTo^v\aic(s. [Sitophylacb&] 
The agoranomi had in fact chiefly to attend to 
retail-trade (KomiXcia) : wholesale-trade was not 
much carried on in the market-place, and ^'as 
under the jurisdiction of the ^xi/ucXifrai rov *£fu 
mpiov. They regulated the price and quantity of 
all things which were brought into the market, 
and punished all persons convicted of cheating, 
especially by fifdse weights and measures. They 
had in general the power of punishing all infraction 
of the laws and regulations relating to the maiicct, 
by inflicting a fine upon the citizens, and personal 
chastisement upon foreigners and slaves, for which 
purpose they usually carried a whip. They had 
the care of all the temples and fountains in the 
market-place, and received the tax {^eyiKhy riKos) 
which foreigners and aliens were obliged to pay for 
the privilege of exposing their goods for sale in the 
market (Schol. ad Aristoph, Acham. 689 ; Plat 
Leg. vl p. 763, viii. p. 849, xi. pp. 91 7, 918 ; Liban. 
Dedam. 46 ; hyopas rikos, Aristoph. Aeham. 
861, and Schol ; Phot s, v. Korh -Miy hyopdy.) 
The public prostitutes were also subject to their 
regulations, as was the case at Corinth (Justin, xxi. 
5.}, and they fixed the price which each prostitute 
was to take. (Suid. and Zonar. s, v, Htdypofifxa.) 
The duties of the agoranomi resembled those of the 
astynoml [Astynoml] (Meier, Att, Process^ 
pp. 89—92; Biickh, PubL Eeon. of Athens^ pp. 48, 
333, 2nd ed.) 

AGRATHIOU GRAPHE' (hypa^looypa^). 
The names of all persons at Athens who owed any 



AGRARIAE LEGES. 

n» af moner to the tlate (ol ry Siyiooiy i^H- 
Aflrrcs) wcfe Rgiftered by the pnctares (vpdbr- 
Tfljpci)^ upon teUets kept Ibr that parpoM in the 
teapie ef Athena, «i the Acropolis (Dem. & Ari$U)g, 
L PL 791; Haipotf. andSiiidaa, jl v. ▼cvdryTpo^); 
and heoee the expRasion of being r^giitered on the 
Acnpolit (fvTrypcviffr^vaf Ir 'Aicpov^ci) alwayi 
mans bang indebted to the state. (Dem. e, 
TVKr.pil^S?.) Whoever paid his fine after Rgis- 
trauan vas erased, either whoUj or in part, ac- 
cacdinf to the amoont paid ; bat if a pemn^ name 
w impiup e il y erased, he was subject to the action 
ias BoB-frgistatioa {kypai^ian Tpoi^), which was 
vad<r the jnnsdictaon of the thesinothetae. If sn 
iadnridBal was not legisteied, he could onl j be 
pci ^feded agaiuBt by Imi(i5, and was not liable 
to the *if^liw 7paj4 (DenuM Tleoer.p. 1338.) 
HenrchioB, wboae aoooant has been fi)ilowed by 
UemsteriiBis and Weosding^ '^P^*'* ^ ^^ ^^^^ 
minshcn in saying that the ^Tpo^bv Tpo^ cooid 
be institnted against debton, who had not been 
nvisletcd. (Meier, AtL Proem^ ppw 353, 354 ; 
Bodih, AiUL JSbMk 4^^i«ais, pp. 388,389, 2nd ed.) 

AGRAPHOU METALLOU GRAPHE' 
{irfpii^m p^erJjJKmt ypm^) was an action bnraght 
befsce the thesmothetae at Athens, against an in> 
diTidnal, who worked a mine withoat haying pre- 
Tioady zegistered it. The state reqniied that all 
abes ihoaM be registeied, becanse the twenty* 
luarth part of their prodnce was payable to the 
pabljc trewny. (Blk^ PM. Boom, ^ Aikau, 
It 664, 2Dd ed. ; Meier, AtL ProeeM, p. 354.) 

AORA'RIAE LEGE& '^ It is not exactly 
trae tlai the agrarian hw of Cassias was the 
oriiest that was so caDed: erery law by which the 
ennsMNiwealth dispooed of its pablic land, bore 
that name ; as, for instance, that by which the 
I of die hiqga was panelled out among the 
and those by which colonies were 
JSycn in the narrower sense of a law 
vheRby the state exercised its ownership in re- 
iBoriag the old possessors from a part of its 
dMiaiB, and making oTer its right of property 
therein, sadi a law existed among those of Stfrios 
Tuffiaa.*' (Niebohr, Rom. HuL toL ii p. 129. 
toad.) 

The conplete history of the emKtments caDed 
ajsmran laws, either in the larger and more cor^ 
p!ct sense, or in the narrower sense of the term, 
as expfadncd in this extract, would be out of place 
\tn. The partJcnlar objects of each agrarian law 
oast be swrrtnuifd from its prorisions. But all 
these onmenms enactments had reference to the 
pebfic land ; and many of them were passed for 
tke porpose of settling Roman colonies in con- 
^Bcred dirtricts, and ssirigning to the loiduri, who 
femed a large part of such colonists, their shares 
a HKh lands. The true mfaning of all or any of 
thoe oiactBicnts can only be understood when we 
kKTc farmed a eorrect notion of property in land, 
SI leDognised by Roman biw. It is not necessary, 
is order to obtain this eorrect notion, to ascend to 
the origin of the Roman state^ thoogh if a eom- 
ptefe history of Rome could be written, our con- 
eeptin of the real character of property in had, 
SI noqgBiwd bj Roman kw, would be more en- 
isijied and more precise But the system of 
Bdoon law, as it existed under the emperorB, 
cootmed both the terms and the notions which 
keksged to those early agea, of which they are 
the Bsst folthfal historical moouments. In an 



AGRARIAE LEGESL 



37 



inquiry of the present kind, we may bcgb at any 
point in the historical series which is definite, and 
we may aseend from known and mtelligible no- 
tions which belong to a hOer age, towards their 
historical origin, thoqgh we may nerer be aUe to 
reach it. 

Gains (iL 2; Ac.), who probably witite under 
the Antonines, made two chief dinsions of Roman 
hud ; that which was dnmd jmv^ and that which 
Land which was diTini juris 



was either socer or nNgiont, (Compare Frontmus, 
De JU Agraria^ xiiL or p. 42. ed. Goes.) Land 
which was nccr was consecnted to the Dii So- 
pen ; knd which was religiosos belonged to the 
Dii Manes. Land was lude nccr by a lex or 
senatus consoltnm ; and, as the context shows, 
such land was land which had belonged to the 
state (jNfw&is Romamma), An individual could 
make a portion of his own land religiosus by the 
interment in it of one of his fiunily : but it was the 
better opinion that hmd in the provinces could not 
thus be made religiosus ; and the reason given is 
this, that the ownenhip or property in prorincial 
Isnds is either in the state {pop, Roml) or in the 
Caesar, and that individuals have only the posses- 
sion and enjoyment of it (/MssessftO ei mms /no- 
tes). Provincial huids were either tt^Dmdiaria or 
tnbmtaria: the stipendiaria were in those provinces 
which were considered to belong to the Roman 
state ; the tributaria were in those provinces which 
were considered as the property of the Caesar. 
Land which was humani juris, was divided into 
public end private: public hmd belonged to the 
state ; private huid, to individuals. 

It would seem to follow from the legal form ob- 
served in making land sacer, that it thereby ceased 
to be publicus ; for if it still continued publicus, it 
had not changed its essential quality. Niebuhr 
(Appendix l vol. iL) has stated that ** all Roman 
hmd was either the poperty of the state (common 
land, domain), or pnvate property, — ant pMiau 
a¥t pricattu;^ and he adds tliat ** the landed 
property of the state was either consecrated to the 
gods (mieer)f or allotted to men to reap its fruits 
{proyamm$,kmHamjtaru)/* Niebuhr then refers to 
the view of Gains, who makes the division into 
dMm jitns and Iwamsi' jftrU, the primary divi- 
sion ; but he relies on the authority of Frontimis, 
supported by Livy (viii 14), as evidence of the 
correctness of his own division.* 

Though the origin of that kind of property 

* It is obvious, on comparing two passages in 
Frontinus (De Be Agraria xi xiii.), that Niebuhr 
has mistaken the meaning of the writer, who 
clearly intends it to be inferred that the sacred 
land was not public land. Besides, if the meaning 
of Frontinus was what Niebuhr has supposed it to 
be, his authority is not equal to that of Gains on a 
matter which specially belongs to the province of 
the jurist, and is foreign to that of the agrimensor. 
The passage of Livy does not prove Niebnhr^s 
assertion. Livy merely states that the temple and 
grove of Sospita Juno should bo common to tho 
Lanuvini municipes and the Roman people ; and 
in what other terms could he express the fact 
that the temple should be used by both people ? 
That does not prove that a temple was eofuudered 
the same kind of pablic property as a tract of 
unoonsecrated land was. The form of dediUon in 
Livy (L 38) may easily be explained. 
D 3 



S8 



AGRARIAE LEGES. 



called public land must be refened to the earliest 
ages of the Roman state, it appears from Gains that 
under the emperors there was still land within the 
limits of the empire, the ownership of which was 
not in the individuals who potaetfed and enjoyed it, 
but in the populus Romanns, or the Caesar. This 
/XMMsnon and enjoyment are distinguished by him 
from ownership (dominntm). The term po§semo 
frequently occurs in those jurists from whom the 
Digest was compiled ; but in these writers, as they 
are known to us, it applies only to private land, 
and the Ager Publicus is hardly, if at all, ever 
noticed by Siem. Now this term Poesessio, as used 
in the Digest, means the possession ofpriwUe land 
by one who has no kind of right to it ; and this 
possessio was protected by the praetor^ interdict, 
even when it was without bona fides or justa 
causa: but the term Possessio in the Roman 
historians, Livy for instance, signifies the occupar 
tion (occupatio) and enjoyment ofpubiic land ; and 
the true notion of this, tae original Possessio, con- 
tains the whole solution of the question of the 
Agrarian Laws. For this solution we are mainly 
indebted to Niebuhr and Savigny. 

This latter kind of PossessiaJI that which has 
private land for its object, is demonstrated by 
Savigny (the term hero used can hardly be said 
to be too strong) to have arisen from the first 
kind of possessio : and thus it might readily be 
supposed that the Roman doctrine of possessio, as 
applied to the occupation of private land, would 
throw some light on the nature of that original 
possessio out of which it grew. In the imperial 
period, public land had almost ceased to exist in 
the Italian peninsula, but the subject of possession 
in private lands had become a well understood 
branch of Roman law. The remarks in the three 
following paraffraphs are from Savigny*s valuable 
work, Das Recht des Bentxes (5th ed. p. 172) :-> 

1. There were two kinds of land in the Roman 
state, ager ptMiats and ager privatus: in the 
latter alone private property existed. But con- 
formably to the old constitution, the greater port 
of the agcr publicus was occupied and enjoyed by 
private persons, and apparently by the patricians 
only, or at least by them chiefly till the enact- 
ment of the Lidnian Rogations ; yet the state 
could lesume the land at pleasure. Now we find 
no mention of any legal form for the protection of 
the occupier, or Possessor as he was called, of such 
public land against any other individual, though 
it cannot be doubted that such a form actually 
existed. But if we assume that the interdict 
which protected the possession of an individual in 
private land, was the form which protected the 
possessor of the public land, two problems are 
solved at the same time, — an historical origin is 
discovered for possession in private land, and « 
legal form for the protection of possession in public 
land. 

An hypothesis, which so clearly connects into 
one consistent whole, facts otherwise incapable of 
such connection, must be considered rather as 
evolving a latent fact, by placing other known 
fiicts in their true relative position, than as in- 
volving an independent assumption. But there 
is historical evidence in support of the hypo- 
thesis. 

2. The words possessio, possessor, and possidere 
are the technical terms used by writers of very 
different ages, to express the occupation and the 



AGRARIAE LEGES. 

enjoyment of the public hmds ; that is, the notion 
of occupying and enjoying public land was in the 
early ages of the republic distinguished from the 
right of property in it Nothing was so natoral as 
to apply this notion, when once fixed, to the pos- 
session of private land as distinct from the owner- 
ship ; and accordingly the same technical terms 
were applied to the possession of private land. 
Various applications of the word possessio, with 
reference to private land, appear m the Roman 
law, in the bonorum possessio of the praetorian 
heres and others. But all the uses of the word 
possessio, as applied to ager privatus, however 
they may differ in other respects, agreed in this : — 
they denoted an actual possession and enjoyment 
of a thing, without the strict Roman (Quiritarian) 
own^ship. 

8. The word possessio, which originally signified 
the right of the possessor, was in time used to 
signify the object of the right Thus offer 
signified a piece of land, viewed as an object of 
Quiritarian ownership ; possessio, a piece of land, 
in which a man had only a bonitarian or beneficial 
interest, as, for instance, Italic land not transferred 
by mancipatio, or land which firom its nature could 
not be the subject of Quiritarian ownership, as 
provincial lands and the old ager publicus. Pos- 
sessio accordingly implies usus; ager implies pro- 
prietas or own<ffship. This explanation of the 
terms nger and possessio is from a jurist of the 
imperial times, quoted by Savigny (Javolcnns, 
Dig. 60. tit 16. s. 116) ; but its value for the 
purpose of the present inquiry is not on that ac- 
count the less. The ager publicus, and all the old 
notions attached to it, as already observed, hardly 
occur in the extant Roman jurists ; but the name 
possessio, as applied to private land, and the legal 
notions attached to it, are of firequent occurrence. 
The form of the interdict, — uti possidetis, — as it 
appears in the Digest, is this : — Uti eas aedes.,.^pos- 
8idetis...vim fieri veto. But the original form of 
the interdict was: Uti nunc possidetis &xm/iotdum, 
&C. (Festus in Possessio) ; the word fundus, for 
which aedes was afterwards substituted, appears to 
indicate an original connection between the inter- 
dict and the ager publicus. 

We know nothing of the -origin of the Roman 
public land, except that it was acquired by con- 
quest, and when so acquired it belonged to the 
state, that is, to the populus, as the name publicus 
(populicus) imports ; and the original populus was 
the patricians only. We may suppose that in the 
eariy pmods of the Roman state, the conquered 
lands being the property of the populus, might be 
enjoyed by the members of that body, in any way 
that the body might determine. But it is not quite 
dear how these conquered lands were originally oc- 
cupied. The following passage from Appian {CXvU 
Wars, L 7) appears to give a probable account of 
the matter, and one which is not inconsistent with 
such facts as are otherwise known: — **The Ro- 
mans,** he says, ** when they conquered any part 
of Italy, seized a portion of the lands, and either 
built cities in them, or sent Roman colonists to 
settle in the cities which already existed. Such 
cities they designed to be garrison places. As to 
the land thus acquired from time to time, they 
either divided the cultivated part among the 
colonists, or sold it, or let it to fiirm. As to the 
land which had fallen out of cultivation in conse- 
quence of war, and which, indeed, was the lai^cr 



AdRARIAE LEGEa 

ptft, luiTing no time to allot h, tliey g&^e poUic 
notice tbat aoy oase vho chose migbt in the mean- 
UB)e cohiTate t&is land, on payment of part of the 
yeariy pnduce, namely, a tenth of the produce of 
smUe land, and a fi&h oi the prodnoe of olive^ 
yards and nBeyard^ A rate waa also fixed to be 
paid by ^oae who pastmed cattle (on this undi- 
rided land) both for the laiger and imaller ani- 
■aJiL And thia they did wiUi a view to increase 
iht Bomben of the Italian people, whom they eon- 
fidoed to be moat endunng of laboor, in order 
that they mgbt hare domestic allica. Bnt it 
tsnsd oat jnat the cuuti m y of their expectations. 
For the neb oocspied the greater part of this on- 
difided land, and at length, feding confident that 
tb^sboold neTcr be deprired <tf it, and getting 
bflid of SQch portioDa aa bordered on their lands, 
sad abs of the smafler portioaa in the possenion 
of the pooi^ some by pnrdiaae and othen by force, 
they became the cnltiTaton of extensiTe districts 
mitead of tuna. And in order that their calti- 
Titon and shepherds might be firee from military 
Boriee, they employed &Tes instead of freemen ; 
and they derived great profit firam their rspid in- 
oeaK^ which was &Toared by the immmiity of 
the daves from military service. In this way the 
great became very rich, and daves were nnmeroos 
dl thioegh the country. But this system reduced 
thenamber of the Italians, who were groond down 
by pofToty, taxea, and militaiy service ; and when- 
ever they had a re^te from these evils, they had 
i:dthiag to do, the land beiqg occupied by the 
ri^ who also employed slaves instead of free- 
aKn.*^ This paasage, thoogh it appears to contain 
Rack hiatorical truth, does not distmctly explain 
the oiiginal mode of oocopation ; for we can 
icaredy sappoee that there were not some rules 
pcesedbed as to the occupation of this undivided 
bad. Livy also gives no dear account of the 
B»de in which theae possessions were acquired ; 
thoegh he states in some passages that the eon- 
qaend lands were occupied by the nobles, and 
qmyatiu n (oocnpatio) in its proper sense signifies 
the lakiag posse osSon of vacant land. As the 
naaher of theae nobles was not very great, we 
aaj easily conceive that in the eariier periods oi the 
lepaUii^ they might regulate among themselves 
the BMde of occopatioo. The oompliunt against 
the aeblcs (patres) shortly before the enactment of 
the Fiirnrian Rogations was, that they were not 
coatoit with keeping the land which they ille- 
gaily posseased (posseaso per injnriam agio), but 
that they refhsed to distribute among the plebs the 
iscaat land (vacuum agrum) which had then re- 
cently been taken from the enemy. (Liv. iv. 51, 
vi 5l 37 ; Occur ATio). It probably sometimes 
fafipened that public famd was occupied, or s^ttofterf 
aa (to use a North American phrase), by any ad- 



AGRARIAE LEOES. 



99 



* It is stated in the American Almanac for 
1839, thai though the new tecritocy of Iowa con- 
tams above 20,000 inhabitants, ** none of the bnd 
bai beoi purchased, the people being all what are 
lemed squatters.** The land alluded to is all 
pBb&laod. The squatter often makes eonsider- 
aUe improvements on the land which he has oc- 
oipied, and even sells his interest in it, before any 
is made of the land. The privilege of 



But whatever was the mode in which these lands 
wero occupied, the possessor, when once in posses- 
sion, was, as we have seen, protected by the ptaetor^ 
interdict. The patron who permitted his client to 
occupy any part of his p oss e s s ion as tenant at will 
(praoorio), could eject him at pleasure by the lia- 
lerdietum depreeario; for the client did not obtain 
a possession by such pennission of his patron. The 
patron would, of course, have the same remedy 
against a tresiiasser. But any mdividnal, how- 
ever humble, who had a possession, was also pro- 
tected in it against the aggression of the rich ; and 
it was ** one of the grievances bitteriy complained 
of by the Oraochi, and all the patriots of their 
age, that while a soldier was serving against the 
enemy, his powerful neighbour, who coveted his 
small estate, ejected his wife and children.'* (Nieb.) 
The state could not ooly grant the occupation or 
possession of its public la^ but could seflit, snd 
thus convert public into private hnd. A romaifc- 
able passaige in Orosius (Savigny, p. 176^ nofeeX 
shows that public hmds, whidi had been givcsi 
to certain rdigious corporations to patmu, were 
sold in order to raise money fiw the exigencies of 
the state. The mOuig of that land which was 
p o ssesaarf, and the circumstance of the possession 
having been a ^mt or public act, are both con- 
tained in this passage^ 

The public lands which were occupied by pos- 
sessors, were sometimes called, with reference to 
such possession, oceupaiorii; and, with respect to 
the state, eoaoeasi. Public land which beaune pri- 
vate by sale was called qmauUnriMt: thiut which ii 
often spoken of as assigned ( ff s w y » Q /i it),was marked 
out and divided {Umitahu) among the plebeians 
in equal lots, and given to them in absolute owner- 
ship, or it was assigned to the persons who were 
sent out as a colony. Whether the land so granted 
to the colony should become Roman or not, de- 
pended on the nature of the colony. The name 
ager publicus was given to the public lands which 
were acquired even after the plebs had become one 
of the estates in the Roman constitution, though 
the name publicus, in its original sense, could no 
longer be applicable to such public lands. After 
the establishment of the plebs as an estate, the 
possession of public land was still claimed as the 
peculiar privilege of the patricians, as before the 
establishment of the plebs it seems to have been 
the only way in which public lands were enjoyed 
by the populus : the assignment, that is the grant 
by the state of the ownership <^ public land in 
fixed shares, was the privilege of the plebs. In 
the eariy ages, when the populus was the state, it 
does not appear that there was any assignment of 
public hmds among the populus, though it may be 
assumed that pubUe lands would occasionally be 
sold ; the mode of enjoyment of public land was 
that of possessio, subject to an annual payment to 
the state. It may be conjectured that this andent 
possessio, which we cannot consider as having its 
origin in anything else than the consent of the state, 
was a good title to the use of the land so long as 
the annual payments were made. At any rate, 
the plebs had no daim upon such andent posses- 
sions. But with the introduction of the plebs as a 
separate estate, and the acquisition of new hmds 



Ytt^Bpdon which is allowed to the squatter, or 
to the penoo who has purchased his interest, is 



the only security which either the squatter or the 
person who purduises from him, has for the im- 
provements made on the land* 
n 4 



io 



AORAKIAE LEGES. 



by conquest, it woald Beem that the pleVs had as 
good a title to a share of the newly conquered 
lands, as the patricians to the ezclosiye enjoyment 
of those lands which had been acquired by conquest 
before the plebs had become an estate ; and ac- 
cording to Livy (ir. 49), the plebs founded their 
claim to the captured lands on their serriccs in the 
war. The determination of what part of newly 
conquered lands (arable and Tineyards) should re- 
main public, and what part should be assigned to 
the plebs, which, Niebuhr says, ^ it need scarcely 
be observed was done after the completion of every 
conquest,*^ ought to have been an effectual way of 
settling all disputes between the patricians and 
plebs as to the possessions of the former ; for such 
an appropriation, if it were actually made, could 
have no other meaning than that the patricians 
were to have as sood title to possess their share 
as the plebs to the ownership of their assigned 
portions. The plebs at least could never &irly 
claim an assignment of public land, appropriated 
to remain such, at the time when they received 
the share of the conquered lands to which they 
were intitled. But the &ct is, that we have no 
evidence at all as to sucV division between lands 
appropriated to remain public and lands assigned 
in ownership, as Niebuhr assumes. All that we 
know is, that the patricians posaetsed huge tracts 
of public land, and that the plebs from time to 
time claimed and enforced a division of part of 
them. In such a condition of afiairs, many diffi- 
cult questions might arise ; and it is quite as pos- 
sible to conceive that the claims of the plebs might 
in some cases be as ill founded as the conduct of 
the patricians was alleged to be rapacious in ex- 
tending their possessions. In the course of time, 
owing to sales of possessions, fiunily settlements, 
permanent improvements made on the land, the 
claims on the land of creditors who had lent money 
on the security of it, and other causes, the equitable 
adjustment of rights under an agrarian law was 
impossible ; and this is a difficulty which Appian 
(i. 10. 18) particukrly mentions as resulting from 
the law of Tib. Gracchus. 

Public pasture hinds, it appears, were not the 
subject of assignment. 

The property (publimm) of the Roman people 
consisted of many things besides land. The con- 
quest of a territory, unless special terms were 
granted to the conquered, seems to have implied 
the acquisition by the Roman state of the conquered 
territory and all that it contained. Thus not only 
would land be acquired, which was available for 
com, vineyards, and pasture ; but mines, roads, 
rivers, hnrliours, and, as a consequence, tolls and 
duties. If a Roman colony was sent out to occupy 
a conquered territory or town, a part of the con- 
quered hinds was assigned to the colonists in com- 
plete ownership. [Colonia.] The remainder, it 
appears, was left or restored to the inhabitants. 
Not that we are to understand that they had the 
property in the land as they had before ; but it 
appears that they were subject to a payment, the 
produce of which belonged to the Roman people. 
In the case of the colony sent to Antium, Dionysius 
(ix. 60) states, ** that all the Antiates who had 
houses and lands remained in the country, and 
cultivated both the portions that were set aside for 
them and the portions appropriated to the colonists, 
on the condition of paying to them a fixed portion 
of the produce ; ** in which case, if the historian^s 



AGRARIAE LEGES, 
statement is true, all the sums paid by the original 
huidholders were appropriated to the colonists. 
Niebuhr seems to suppose, that the Roman state 
might at any time resume such restored lands ; 
and, no doubt, the notion of a possibility of re- 
sumption under some circumstances at least was 
involved in the tenure by which these lands were 
held ; but it may be doubted if the resumption of 
such lands was ever resorted to except in extraor- 
dinary cases, and except as to conquered lands 
which were the public lands of the conquered 
state. Private persons, who were permitted to 
retain their lands subject to the payment of a tax, 
were not the possessors to whom the agrarian laws 
applied. In many cases laige tracts of land were 
absolutely seised, their owners having perished in 
battle or been driven away, and extensive districts, 
either not cultivated at all or yery imperfectly cul- 
tivated, became the property of the atate. Such 
lands as were unoccupied could become the subject 
of possessio ; and the possessor would, in all cases, 
and in whatever manner he obtained the land, be 
liable to a payment to the state, as aboTe-men- 
tioned in the extract from Appian. 

This possessio was a real interest, for it was the 
subject of sale : it was the use (uaus) of the land ; 
but it was not the ager or property. The possessio 
strictly could not pass by the testament of the 
possessor, at least not by the mancipatio. (Gaiua, 
iL 102.) It is not easy, therefore, to imagine any 
mode by which the possession of the heres was 
protected, unless there was a legal form, such as 
Savigny has assumed to exist for the general pro- 
tection of possessiones in the public bnds. The 
possessor of public land never acquired the owner- 
ship by virtue of his possession ; it was not subject 
to usucapion. The ownership of the land which 
belonged to the state, could only be acquired by 
the grant of the ownerships or by purchase from 
the state. The state could at any time, according 
to strict righl^ sell that land which was only pos- 
sessed, or assign it to another than the possessor. 
The possession was, in £uAy with respect to the state, 
precarium ; and we may suppose that the lands so 
neld would at first receive few permanent improve- 
ments. In course of time, and particularly when 
the possessors had been undisturbed for many 
years, possession would iqipear, in an equitable 
point of view, to have become equivalent to ownei^ 
ship ; and the hardship of removing the possessors 
by an agrarian law would ^pear the greater, after 
the state had long acquiesced in their use and oc- 
cupation of the public land. 

In order to form a correct judgment of these en- 
actments which are specially cited as agrarian laws, 
it must be borne in mind that the possessors of 
public lands owed a yearly tenth, or fifth, as tlie 
case might be, to the state. These annual pay- 
ments were, it seems, often withheld by the pos- 
sessors, and thus the state was deprived of a fimd 
for the expenses of war and other^general purposes. 

The first mention by Livy of conqneared land 
being distributed among the plebs belongs to the 
reign of Servius Tullius (1 46, 47). The object of the 
agrarian hiw of Sp. Cassias (Liv. ii. 41 ; IKonys. 
viii 70), & a 484, is supposed by Niebuhr to have 
been ** tiiat the portion of the popnlus in the public 
lands should be set apart, that the rest should be 
divided among the plebeians, that the tithe should 
again be levied and applied to paying the anny.^' 
The agrarian law of C. Licinins Stolo (Liv, vi. 36 ; 



AGRAHIAE LEGSa 

Appaif B.C. IS) a. c. 36^ limited each mdi- 
vidaal^ pmaw i ui i of pnUic land to 500 jagen, 
aad iuimwed aoaie othfer reatrictkois ; but the pa»- 
mv bad no better title to the 600 jngen which 
the bnr ]eft him, than he SanaeAj had to what 
tke kw took from him. [Laoas Licinias.] 
The sarpbm land waa to he divided among the 
]4riwMi% ai we may aaaome from this beiajif an 
agniiai law. The Ttirinian law not effiwtii^ its 
tkjtet, nbu S cmpron ins Giacehoa, & c ISS, re- 
med the measoie for limiting the possession of 
pBb& land to 500 ji^gera. The aigoments of the 
poaesssn against thia measore, as they are stated 
br Aifsao {& C L 10), are soeh as might reason* 
aUy be mgcd ; but he adda that Giaochus pro- 
posed to give to each p ocsca s cr, bj way of com- 
pmntisn lor improrements made on the paUic 
hod, the ibn ownerdiip of 500 jogen, and half 
thst f aaatitj to each of his sons if he had any. 
Uatbr the &w of Tiberias Gncchns three commis- 
rnmm (triamriri) were to be choeen amraally by 
t^ ddr^-five tribes, who were to decide all qnes- 
tkos that might arise aa to the daims of the state 
T^na Isnds in the ooenpotion of poasessorap The 
lav prerided that the land which was to be re- 
~ ihoold be diatribnted in small allotments 
the poorer citizens, and they were not to 
hare the power of alienating their allotments^ 
GcKchoa also prop o s e d that ib» ready money 
wlueh Attains III^ Kii^ of Petsamns, had 
with all his other property beq[iieaUied to the 
Roman state, abonld be divided among the persons 
vho raoeiTed allotmenta, in order to enable them 
to stock their land. Tiberius Gncchns lost his 
Lie in a liot B. c 133 ; hot the senate allowed 
theccsBBiiasiaien to oootinne their labonrs. After 
the death of Tiberius Gncchns^ a tragical event 
happeaed at Bone. P. ComeliDs Sdpio, who had 
■siataiard the canse of the possessors, both Roman 
■id Itafiaa, against the measora of Gracchos, was 
feoid dead inhia bed. Suepicion was strong against 
the pai^ of Cains Graochns, the younger brother 
•f Tiberias, whose sister Sempronia was the wife of 
ScipiQ, hot no inquiry was made into the cause 
of Sc^^ death. Cains Giaochus became a tri- 
bae of the pleba, B. c. 123, and he put the law of 
hk brother ^;ain in fttee, for it had virtually been 
laqaded by the senate, b. c 129, by their with- 
diawii^ the powen from the three commissioners, 
of irbom Giacchus was one, and giving them to tha 
oaml, C Sempnoius Tuditanus, who^ being en- 
/s^fed in the lUyrian war, could not attend to the 
boaness. Cains Gracchus proposed the establish- 
Bient of various eirfonies under the provisions of 
the Jaw. To check his power, the senate called 
k the aid of another tribune, M. Livins Dnisaa, 
wbo ontlnd Gains in his popiUar measures. The 
hw of Gxaedins proposed that those who received 
sHotamta of hmd should pay the state a small 
somia respect of each. Dnuus released them from 
tkis p^meoL Cains propoeed to found two colo- 
oies : Draaits pr oposed to found twelve, each con- 
Bstof of three thousand men. Cains Gracchus 
krt luB life in a civil commotion b^ a 121. Shortly 
sfier his death, that clause of the Sempranian law 
wtieh ferbade the alienation of the allotments, 
vst i^ealed ; and they forthwith began to fell 
into the hands of the rich by porchase, or by 
dcged poichases as Appian obacorely states (B. C 
iVy A tribune, Spiirms Boriua (Bonus is the 
saae m the KSSL of Appian)* cairied a law to 



AGRARIAE LEOE& 41 

prevent fritvn divisions of the public land, with a 
provision that the sums payable in reqieet of this 
land to the state, should be fenaed into a fund for 
the rdief of the poor. But another tribane. Spa* 
riua Thorins, & c. Ill, repealed this kw as to the 
tax from the public luds, and thus the plebs kst 
everything fer the futoie, both lands and pooca* 
money. [Lax Thoiua.] 

Other agrsiian laws followed. In the sixth coih 
solship of Marios, b. c 100, agrarian laws were 
carried by the tribune I^ Appuleins Sataminns 
and his party, the object of wluch was chiefly to 
provide fer Uie Teteian soldien of Marina These 
measures were cairied by vkdenee, but they were 
subsequently declared nulL The tribune, M. 
Livins Drunis the yoan^, B. a 91, proposed the 
division of all the public land in Ikdy and the 
establishment of the colonies which had been pro* 
jected : he was fer giviqg away everything that 
the state had (Florus, iiL 16). This Diusas was 
also a tool of the senate, whose object was to 
humble the equestrian order by means of the plebs 
and the Italian Socii But the Sodi were also in- 
terested in opposing the measures of Drusus, as 
they possessed large parts of the public hmd m 
Italy. To gain their consent, Diusns promised to 
give them the full Roaoan citiaenship. But he 
and the senate could not agree on all these mea- 
sures, Drusus was murdered, and the Socii, seeing 
their hopes of the citiaenship balked, broke out in 
opoi war (&& 90). The measures of Drusus 
were declared null, and there was no investigatioQ 
as to his death. The Social or Marsic war, after 
threatening Rome with ruin, was ended by the 
Romans conceding what the allies demanded. 
[Lbx Julia.] 

The land to which all the agrarian lawa, prior 
to the Thoria Lex, applied, was the public hmd 
in Italy, south of the Macra and the Rubico, the 
southern boundaries of Gallia Cisalpina on the west 
and east coasts respectively. The Thoria Lex 
applied to all the public land within these limits, 
except what had been disposed of by assignation 
prior to the year blc. 133, in which Tiberias 
Gracchus was tribune, and except the Ager Cam- 
ponus. It applied also to public land in the pro- 
vince of Africa, and in the territory of Corinth. 
[Thoria Lbx.] The object of the agrarian few 
of P. Servilius RuUns, proposed in the consul- 
ship of Cicero b. a 63, was to sell all the public 
hmd both in and out d Italy, and to buy lands in 
Italy on which the poor were to be settled. Ten 
commissioners, with extraordinary powers, were to 
carry the few into efiect, and a host of surveyors, 
derks, and other ofiicerB, were to find employment 
in this agrarian joU The job was defeated by 
Cioero, whose three extant orations against RuUus 
contain most instructive matter on the condition 
of the Roman state at that time. The tribane 
Fferius, B. c 60, at the instigation of Cn. Pompeias, 
brought forward a measure for providing the sol- 
diers of Pompeins with fends. Ckao was not al- 
togeUier opposed to this measure, fer he vrished to 
please Pompeius. ()Qe clause of the few provided 
that lands should be bought for distribution vrith 
the money that should arise in the next five yean 
from the new revenues that had been created by 
the Asfetic conquests of Pompeius. The few was 
dropped, but it was reproduced in a somewhat 
altered shape by C. Julius Caesar in his consul- 
ship, B. a 59, and it included the SteUatis Ager 



42 



AGRARIAE LEGES. 



and the CampanuB Ager, which all previous agrar 
rian laws had left untouched. The fertile tract of 
Capua (Campanus Affcr) was distributed among 
20,000 persons, who had the qualification that the 
law required, of three or more children. After 
this distribution of the Campanian land, and the 
abolition of the port duties and tolls (portorid)^ 
Cicero observes {ad AU. ii 16), ** there was no 
revenue to be raised from Italy, except the five 
per cent (vioesima) ^ firom the tale and mann- 
miiution of slaves. 

The lands which the Roman people had acquired 
in the Italian peninsula bv conquest were greatly 
reduced in amount by the laws of Gracchus and by 
Bale. Confiacations in the civil wars, and conquests 
abroad, were, indeed, continually increasing the 
public lands ; but these lands were allotted to the 
soldiers and the numerous colonists to whom the 
state was continually giving landB. The system of 
colonisation which prevailed during the republic, 
was continued imder the emperors, and considerable 
tracts of Italian land were disposed of in this man- 
ner by Augustus and his successors. Vespasian as- 
signed lands in Samnium to his soldiers, and grants 
of Italian kinds are mentioned by subsequent em- 
perors, though we may infer that at the close of 
the second century of our aera, there was little 
public land left in the peninsula. Vespasian sold 
part of the public lands called subsecwa. Domitian 
gave the remainder of such lands all through Italy 
to the possessors (Aggenus). The conquests be- 
yond the limits of Italy furnished the emperors 
with the means of re warding the veterans by grants 
of land, and in this way the institutions of Rome 
were planted on a foreign soil. But, according to 
Gaius, property in the land was not acquired by 
such grant ; the ownenhip was still in the state, 
and the provincial landholder had only the pos- 
sessio. If this be tme, as against the Roman 
people or the Caesar, his interest in the land was 
one that might be resumed at any time, according 
to the strict rules of law, though it is easily con- 
ceived that such foreign possessions would daily 
aoqaire strength, and could not safely be dealt 
vrith as possessions had been in Italy by the 
various agrarian laws which had convulsed the 
Roman state. This assertion of the right of the 
populus Romanus and of the emperors, might 
be no wrong ^ inflicted on provincial landowners 
by the Roman jurisprudence,*^* as Niebuhr affirms. 
The tax paid by the holders of ager privatus in 
the provinces was the only thing which dis- 
tinguished the beneficial interest in such land fixnn 
Italic land, and might be, in legal effect, a recog- 
nition of the ownership according to Ronuui law. 
And this was Savigny^ earlier opinion with re- 
spect to the tax paid by provincial lands ; he con- 
sidered such tax due to the Roman peojde as the 
sovereign or ultimate owner of the lands. Ilis 
later opinion, as expressed in the ZeiUohri/t fiir 



* Niebuhr observes that Frontinus speaks of 
the " arva publtoa in the provinces, in contradis- 
tinction to the agri privati there ; ** but this he 
certainly does not. This contradistinction is made 
by his commentator Aggenus who, as he himself 
sa3's, only conjectures the meaning of Frontinus ; 
and, perhaps, he has not discovered it (Rei Agr, 
i^nripL pp. 38. 46, 47.) Savigny^s explanation of 
this passage is contained in the Zeitehri/i /ur 
Geteh. RechUw. voL xL p. 24. 



AGRARIAE LEGES. 
Cfeac^uMk^ Reehiawuaeiuaa/i (voL v. p. 254), ia, 
that under the Caesan a uniform system of direct 
taxation was established in the province*, to which 
all provincial huid was subject ; but land in Italy 
was free from this tax, and a provincial town could 
only acquire the like fireedom by receiving' the 
privilege expressed by the term Jus ItaUcom. The 
complete solution of the question here under dis- 
cussion could only be effected by ascertaining the 
origin and real nature of this provincial ]and>tax ; 
and as it may be difficult, if not impoaaibley to 
ascertain such fiicts, we must endeavour to give 
a probable solntion. Now it is consistent with 
Roman notions that all conquered land ahoold be 
considered as the property of the Romaui state ; 
and it is certain that such land, though aaaigned 
to individuals, did not by that drcomstance alone 
become invested with all the charactera of that 
Roman land which was private property. It had not 
the privilege of the Jus Italicnm, and conaeqaently 
could not be the object of Quiritarian ownership, 
with its incidents of mandpatio, &c All land in 
the provinces, including even that of the liberae 
dvitates, and the ager publicus propedy so called, 
could only become an object of Quiritarian owner- 
ship by having conferred upon it the privilege of 
Italic land, bv whidi it was also fUeased from the 
payment of the tax. It is dear that there might 
be and was ager privatus, or private property, in 
provincial hmd ; but this land had not the 
privil^pes of Italic land, unless such privilege was 
expressly given to it, and accordingly it paid a. tax. 
As the notions of landed property in all oomitries 
seem to suppose a comfdete ownership residing in 
some person, and as the provincial landowner, 
whose lands had not the privilege of the Jus 
Italicum, had not that kind of ownership which, 
according to the notions of Roman law, was com- 
plete ownership, it is difiicult to concdve that the 
ultimate ownership of provincial lands (with the 
exception of those of the liberae dvitates) could 
reside any where dse than in the populus Romanus, 
and, aiWr the establishment of the imperial power, 
in the populus Romanus or the Caesar. This 
question is, however, one of some difficulty, and 
wdl deserves further examination. It may be 
doubted, however, if Gaius means to say that 
there could be no Quiritarian ownership of private 
land in the provinces ; at least this would not be 
the case in those districts to which the Jus Italicum 
was extended. The case of the Recentoric lands, 
which is quoted by Niebuhr (Cic. e. RuUuMj L 4\ 
may be expUiined. The land here spoken of ^-as 
land in Sicily. One object of the measure of 
Rullus was to exact certain extraordinary pay- 
ments {vect^^ from the public bnds, that is, 
from the possessors of them ; but he excepted the 
Recentoric lands from the operation of his measure. 
If this is private land, Cicero argues, the exception 
is unnecessary. The argument, of course, assumes 
that there was or might be private land in Sicily :■ 
that is, there was or might be land which would 
not be affected by this part of the measure of 
Rullus. Now the opporition of public and private 
hind in this passage certainly proves, what can 
easily be proved without it, that individuals in the 
provmces owned land as individuals did in Italy ; 
and such land mjight with propriety be called 
priwUut^ as contrasted with that called pMiau ia 
the provinces : in &ct, it would not be easy to 
have found another name for it But we know 



AQRARIAE LEGES. 

&al «|er privatw in tlie proriiicefl, imlas it had 
wemi the Jub Italioom, was not the same thing 
u ag er ]W f ai — in Italj, though hoth were priTate 
fnpatj, Sacfa a paange then as that just le- 
kaedtoJB CSceroilendstoiioiieeesHay condnsion 
tkt the akiBate ownenfaip or domimon of this 
pmate fand was not in the Roman people. 

It «}j icsains briefl j to ncrtice the condition of 
the pafafie iand with Rspeei to the froctos, w vee- 
t«Bl which bekm^ged to the atate. This, as al- 
nadj o h i e r re d, was gencnll j m tenths and henee 
t^^gerpnbliois wns aomctiinea called deemnanns ; 
B «M alw snmftimea called ager TectigaliB. The 
tithei were genondlr fiumned b j the pabUcani, who 
paid tber mt most! j in money, hot wnnetimes in 
sasL The letting was managed by the censors, 
iad the lease was fior fire yean. The ibnn, how« 
crer, if leasii^ tbe tN&ths was that of ar sale, 
wm i ryah'a . In eonrse of time the word locatio 
w sfflied to these lenses. The phrase need by 
tbr RfiiBso wxiten was originally /rmelut loeaiio, 
vkich was the proper expression ; bnt we find the 
;ibaM, 9grum /humdam 2ooar«, also need in the 
ane tense, an ezpreaaion which aught appesz 
Msewhat ambigoona ; and eren o^na» tooon^ 
vUeh night mean the leasing of the public lands, 
and Bflt of the tenths dne Inm the posnmori of 
tbcso. Sdabo (p. 622), when speaking of the port 
daties sf Gome in Aeolis, says they were sold, by 
vhkh be no donbt means that they were &imed 
<s eertsza terms. It ia, however, made dear by 
Xicbahc, that in some instances at least tbe phrase 
asm ieemrty does mean the leasing of the tenths ; 
whether thb was always tbe meaning of the 
picase, it is not possible to aifinn. 

Thoa^ the term ager Tectigalii originally ex- 
preieed tbe paUie land, of which the tithe was 
leased, it afterwards came to ngnify lands which 
woe h a ted by tbe state, or by dinerent oonoTS- 
tiooa. This latter description would comprehend 
even iht ager pnUicos ; but this kind of pabbc 
praperty was gndnnliy reduced to a imall amount, 
and we find &» term ager Tectigalis, in the later 
period, ^ipiied to the luidi of towns which were 
io leand that the lessee, or thoee who derived their 
tithe from him, eonld not be ejected h> long as they 
paid the vectigaL This is the sger vectigalis of 
tbe D%eit (ri. tit. 3), on the model of which waa 
fKBied the emphyteusis, or ager emphytenticariits. 
[EiiPBTTBuaia.] The rights of the leaaee of the 
^ger Tectigalis were difierent firom thoae o{ a pos- 
aeaaor sf the old ager pnbliens, though the ager 
lectiplis was derived firom, snd was only a new 
fana of the ager pabbcus. Though he had only a 
jw B ««, and thMigh he is diatinguisfaed from the 
•vaer (rfoatmat), yet he was conaidered ss having 
the poaaearion of the land. He had, also, a right 
«f action agajnat the town, if he waa ejected firom 
tn kad, provided he had always paid his vectigaL 
The nabne of these sgraiian laws, of which the 
fiat was the prapoaed linr of Spnrins Casaiua, and 
the Isit, the bw of a Julius Caesar, B.a 69, ia 
cttiy understood. The plebs hcgm by claiming 
a dare in those eooqnoed lands of which the 
p**Kfvm dsimed the exdosiTe enjoyment, rob- 
jttttoA fixed pnyment to the state. It waa one 
object of the Rogations of Itidnius to check the 
power of the nohlea, and to limit their wealth ; 
nd ss they had at that time little landed property, 
tl& end woidd be aonanplislied by limiting their 
CBJajmeat of the pafaiic land. Bat a more im- 



AGRARIAB LEGES. 



48 



portant object waa to proride for the poorer dtiaens. 
In a country where there is little trade, and no 
mannftctoting industry, the land is the only sooree 
to which the poorer dssaea can htok fiv aabaist- 
ence. Accordingly, at Rome there was a continual 
demand for allotroenta, and these aUotmenU were 
made firom time to tone. These aUotmenU were 
just huge enough to mamtain a man and hta 
fimiily, and the encon r sgement of population was 
one of the objecta eontemphited by theae gtanta 
of Und. (Liv. v. 30.) Rome requred a conatant 
aupply of aoMiera, and the syatem was well 
adapted to give the supply. But this ayatera of 
email holdings did not prudooe all the reaolU that 
were antidpated. Poverty and mismanagement 
often compelled the email owners to adl their 
lands to their richer neighbonra, and one danae of 
the law of Tib. Gracchus Horbade persons selling 
their allotments. This dsnae was afterwards 
repealed, not, as aome would aoppoae, to frvoor the 
rich, bnt aimply because the repeal of ao absurd 
an enactment would be beneficia] to all f irties. 
In the later republic agrarian htwa were eon* 
aidered aa one meana of draining the city of the 
acorn of the population, which ia only an 'her 
proof of the unpolicy of these measures, fiv the 
worthless populace of a huge dty wfll never 
make a good agricultural population. (Cic ad 
AU. i 19.) They were also used as i*ieans 
of Bottling veteran aotdiera, who nnist dther be 
maintained as aoldiers, or pnmded for in aome 
way. Probably from about the doae of the 
aecond Punic war, when the Romans had large 
atanding armies, it became the practice to pro- 
ride fi>r thoae who had aerved their period by 
giving them a grant of land (Liv. xxxL 4) ; and 
this nractice became common under the hiter 
republic and the empire. The Roman aoldier al- 
waya looked forward to a rdeaae fiom aervice after 
a certain time, but it waa not poasible to aend 
him avray empty-handed. At the preaent day 
none of the powers of Europe which maintain very 
large armiea could aaliely disband them, for they 
could not proride for the aoldiera, and the aoldiera 
would certainly provide for themaelves at the ex- 
pense of othen. It waa perhapa not ao much a aya- 
tem of policy with the Romana as neoeaaity, which 
led them from time to time to giant landa in amall 
allotments to the various daaaea of dtizena who 
have been enumemted. 

The effecta of thia aystem muat be conaidered 
from aeveral pointa of view — aa a meana of ailenc- 
ing the ckmionrs of the poor, and one of the modes 
of reheving their poyoty, under which aspect 
they may he daaaed with die Leges Frumentariae ; 
of difiiiaing Roman aettlers over Italy, and thus 
extending the Roman power ; as a means of pro- 
riding for aoldiers ; and aa one of the waje in 
which popular leaders aoi^ht to extend their in* 
flucnce. The efiects on agriculture could hardly 
be beneficial, if we conaider that the fact of the 
aettlers often wanting capital is admitted by an- 
dent authoritiea, that they were liable to be called 
from their lands for military aerrice, and that 
persons to whom the land vraa given were often 
unacquainted with agricuHnre, and unaccustomed 
to field htbour. The evil that appeara in courae 
of time in all atatea ia the poverty of a large number 
of the people, for which cUfferent countriea attempt 
to ]»roride diflerent remediea. The Roman aystem 
of giving land fiiiled to remedy this evil ; bnt it 



44 



AGRICULTURAL 



was a syitem tbat developed itself of necessity in 
a state constituted like Rome. 

Those who may choose to investigate the sub- 
ject of the agnuian laws, will find the following 
references sufficient for the purpose : — Li v. i 46, 
47 ; iL 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 62, 61, 63, iiL 1, 9, 
iv. 12, 36, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 61, 62, 68, v. 24. 
30, Ti. 6, 6, 16, 21, 36, viL 16, x. 13, 47, zzziii. 
42, xxxiv. 40 ; Dionys. ii. 16, viii. 70, &a, ix. 
51, Ac, X. 36 ; Plut OamiUut^ c. 39, 71 Grao- 
chusy C, Oraodttu; Appian, B. C. L 7, &c ; Cic 
c. RuUtm; ad AtU u 19, ii. 16 ; Dion Cass. 
xxxviil 1, &c xlv. 9, &c xlviL 14, xlviil 2 ; Veil 
Pat ii. 2, 6, 44 ; Floras, iiL 13, &c. ; ZeiUiAnftfvr 
GeacMehtitche Recktmnsaenteha/tj Das Ackeigesets 
von Spurius Thorius, vol x. by Rudorif ; Niebuhr, 
Botnan Hidoty^ vol IL p. 129, &c. ; Savigny, 
DaaRecht dea BesUzee^ 6th ed. ; Classical Museum, 
Parts V. VL VII., articles by the author of this 
article, and an article by Professor Puchta, of 
Berlin ; Political Dictionary, art Agrarian LaWj 
by the author of this article. [O. L.] 

AORAUaiA (irypwKla) was a festival cele- 
brated by the Athenians in honour of Agmulos, 
the daughter of Cecrops. {Diet, of Biogr, #. v.) 
We possess no particulars respecting the time or 
mode of its celebration ; but it was, perhaps, con- 
nected with the solemn oath, which all Athenians, 
when they arrived at manhood {f^in%oi\ were 
obliged to take in the temple of Agnudos, that they 
would fight for their countiy, and always observe 
its laws. (Lycurg. c. Leocr, p. 189 ; Dem. de LegoL 
p. 438 ; Plut Alab. 16 ; Stobaeus, Serm, xll 141 ; 
Schomann, Dt QmUiis^ p. 332 ; Wachsmuth,£M- 
lai. Alterth, vol. i. p. 476, 2nd ed.) 

Agraulos was also honoured with a festival in 
Cyprus, iu the month Aphrodisius, at which human 
victims were offered. (Porphyr. De Abatin, ob 
Anim. i. 2.) 

AGRICULTU'RA, agriculture. 

AtUhariiies, — When we remember that agricul- 
ture, in the most extended acceptation of the term, 
was for many centuries the chie^ we may say, almost 
the sole peaceful occupation followed by any large 
portion of the free population in those European 
nations which first became highly civilised, we shall 
not be surprised to find that the contemporaries of 
Cicero were able to enumerate upwards of fifty 
Greek writers who had contributed to this science. 
But although the Homeric poems are filled with a 
series of the most channing pictures derived fix>m 
the business of a country life, although Hesiod 
supplies abundance of wise saws and pithy apho- 
risms, the traditional wisdom accumulated during 
many successive generations, although Xenophon 
has bequeathed to us a most gracefiu essay on the 
mond beauty of rustic pursuits interspersed with 
not a few instructive details, and although much 
that belongs to the Natural History of the subject 
will be found treasured up in the vast storehouses 
of Aristotle and Thcophnistus, yet nothing which 
can be regarded in the li^ht of a formal treatise 
upon the art as exhibited m the pastures and corn- 
fields of Hellas, has descended to us, except a 
volume, divided into twenty books, commonly 
known as the Geopomoa (Ttvwwucd), whose his- 
tory is somewhat obscure, but which, according to 
the account commonly received, was drawn up at 
the desire of Constantino VI. (a. d. 780—802) 
by a certain Cassianus Bassus, and consists of ex- 
tracts fix>m numerous writers, chiefly Greek, many 



AGRICULTURA. 
of whom flourished in the second, third, and Ibartli 
centuries. This collection is systematically ar- 
ranged and comprehends all the chief branches ; 
but it has never been considered of mucb value, 
except in so fisr as it tends to confirm or iUuatzate 
the statements found elsewhere. The inibniiation 
conveyed by it is, upon many points, extzemely 
meagre, the materials were worked up at a late period 
by an editor with whose history and qoaliiications 
for his task we are altogether unacquainted^ while 
the most important quotations are taken fixmi suxthoTB 
of whom we know little or nothing, so that ire can- 
not tell whether their precepts apply to the same 
or to different climates, whether they give ua the 
finiit of their own experience, or, as we have great 
reason to suspect in many instancfis, were them- 
selves mere compilers. 

The Romans, during the brightest periods of 
their history, were devotedly attached to the only 
lucrative profession in which any citizen could 
embark with honour, and from the first dawn until 
the decline of dieir literature, rural economy 
formed a favourite theme for composition both in 
prose and verse. The works of the Sascmac, 
fiither and son, those of Scrofa TremeUius, of 
Julius Hyginus, of Cornelius Celsus, of Julius 
Atticus, and of Julius Oraecinus have perished ; 
but we still possess, in addition to Vir^g^I, four 
*^ Scriptores de Re Rustics,** two, at least, of whom 
were practical men. We have, in the first place, 
162 chapters from the pen of the elder Cato 
(B.C. 234 — 149), a strange medley, containing 
many valuable hints for the management of the 
form, the olive garden, and the vineyard, thrown 
together without order or method, and mixed up 
with medical prescriptions, charms for dislocated 
and broken bones, culinary receipts, and sacred 
litanies, the whole forming a remarkable corapomid 
of simplicity and shrewdness, quiunt wisdom and 
blind supentition, bearing, moreover, a strong im- 
press of the national character; in the second 
place, we have the three books of Varro (b. c. 116 
— ^28X drawn up at the age of eighty, by one who 
was not only the most profound scholar of his age, 
but likewise a soldier, a politician, an enthusiastic 
and successful farmer; in the third place, the 
thirteen books of ColumeUa (a. d. 40 [P]), more 
minute than the preceding, especially in all that 
relates to the vine, the olive, gardening, and fruit 
trees, but evidently proceeding from one much less 
fiuniliar with his subject ; and, histly, the fourteen 
books of Palladius (a writer of uncertain date who 
closely copies Columella), of which twelve form a 
Farmer*s calendar, the difiersnt operations being 
ranged according to the months in which they 
ought to be performed. Besides the above, a 
whole book of Pliny and many detached chapters 
are devoted to matters connected with the labours 
of the husbandman ; but in this, as in the other 
portions of that remarkable encyclopaedia, the 
assertions must be received with caution, since they 
cannot be regarded as exhibiting the results of 
original investigation, nor even a voy correct repre* 
sentation of the opinions of others. 

We ought not here to pass over unnoticed the 
great woik of Mago the Carthaginian, who, as a 
native of one of die most fertile and carefully cul- 
tivated districts of the ancient world, must have 
had ample opportunities for acquiring knowledge. 
This production, extending to twenty-eight hooks, 
had attained such high feme that, after the de- 



AGRICULTURA. 

ttmedon of GartlHige» it was tnnakted into Latin 
W orden ci the aenmle ; a Greek Yenion, with ad- 
djtkoa and piobaUj wniwinnii, wat eacecnted by 
DfeeaywH of Utica^aiid piiWfthed in twenty booki 
duii^ the century belore tke oomnieneenient of 
«Br cfm ; and thia, again, waa a few yean after- 
mtfdi candenaed into six books by Diophanet of 
Nkaea, and preaented to King Deiotaina. In 
vkat (blfewa, Cato» Vano, and Colnmdk will be 
oar ckief sni^octa, althoogh icferenoet will be made 
to and Ulnatintions dxawn from the other aoucea 
isdicated above. (Yair. A 12. i 1 ; Col.iZ. A. 1 1 ; 
Plin. H. N. TToL 3 ; Pnl^. od G mpon, in ed. 
Nkki.) 

Kami Economy may be treated of imder two 



A. Agricnhnre proper (Ji^nicaltera), or the art 
oftilliwtheioiL 
R Ae management of stock {PaM^ 

A. AGRICULTURA. 

Africnltaie proper teaches the art of laising the 

TviniB oops neeesary Ibr the lastenance and com- 

fat of man and of the domestic animals, in each a 

■uDff that the prodnctiTe cneigies of the aoil 

^T be fnDy developed but not exbansted nor 

eafeeUed, and teadiea» fiurther, bow this may be 

smfBip<iffTM>^ with the least pomible expenditore 

of caphaL The cmpa to which the Gieeks and 

Romans chiefly directed their attention were — 

L Different kmda of grain, soch ai wheat and 

bailey ; kgnminooa Te^etablee cultivated for their 

•eedi, meh aa beana, peas, and lupines ; herbs cat 

green far forage, sneh as graas, tares, and lucerne ; 

and ptanti which famished the raw material for 

the textile foboca, anchaa hemp and flasL 2. Fruit 

tiees, especially tlie Tine, the dive, and the fig. 

3b Gaidea stnfii — For ihe second of thete divi- 

HBs werefo to the arbdes Olstum and Ynou. ; 

ad we shall not tooch at all upon gardening, smce 

the auanle detaOa eonneeted with thii topic are of 

fitde or no lerTioe in illustnting the dam' 

Agriadtnre in its restricted tense oompiehendi 
s fcaowirwe 

L Of the subject of our opemtions, that is, the 
fam(Jwmlm$jpnaedimm)y which mustbe considered, 
a. with reference to its situation and soil (quo 
he» a faofis), and 6. with xeferenoe to the dwell- 
Big-bonae and stpehding (villa et ttabuU), 

IL Of the instruments (auAwBMafo) required 
ti perfiatm the -various opentions (qmae m /imdo 
9fmmmt ae dAeamt am emUwnm oimta)^ these in- 
Anaaeats bexngtwofold, a. men (ha m i m§) ; and h. 
the amistanta of men (oAwtatcafa Ao iu iaai ) , vis. 
d a a Msti c •"^-^^l* (Aooes, agw, oobm, Ac) U^ther 
with tools (milnmtata\ pn^y so called, such 
siploi^hs and hairovn. 

IIL Of the opentions themselves, such as 
plfloghing, hanowing, and sowing (qmae ta fimdo 
rnkaH amaa mai faeiatdd)^ and of the time when 
tbcy are to be perfiinned {$pui qmdqmd itmpon 

lY. Of the object of these operations, vis. the 
difoent plants conodeied with reliBrence to their 
ipedes, varieties, andhabita. Under this head we 
aaj also coBTeniently include what is termed the 
ntitioB of crops, that is, the order in which they 
«q;ht to snceeed each other upon tlie same ground. 



AGRICULTURA. 
L a. CouNiTio Fundi 



45 



(Kmowfedg^ <^ Ae Form). In selecting a iam, 
the two points which first demanded attention 
vrere, 1. The healthiness of the situation (malm- 
Mtas), a matter of the greatest anxiety in Italy, 
where the ravages of malaria appear to have 
been not less fiual in andent thu they hare 
proved in modem times; and, 2. The geneial 
fertility of the soiL It was essential to be fully 
satisfied upon both of these paiticulan ; fiir to 
settle in a pestilential spot was to gamble with 
the Uyos and property of all concerned (mam aUmd 
Mi aiqme aim domimi vUob «i ni /kmuliant\ and 
no man in his senses vraold undettake to till 
land which was not likely to yield a hit rKura 
for his outlay of money and labour (/htdma pro 
w w pwis i f oo tabon). The next object of solicitade 
was a good asnect The property iras, if poosiUe, 
to hare a southerly exposure, to be shelter^d by a 
wooded bin from Uie sweep of boisterous ud cut- 
ting winds, and not to be liable to sodden mis- 
fortunes (me eal am tihmm met\ such as inundations 
or Yioient hail storms. It was highly important 
that it should be in the Tidnity of a populous town 
(^ppHima mi2Umi), or if not, that it should be 
readily aeeessiUe dther by sea, or by a naTigable 
stream (mwat s ama mama amibmiomd)^ or by a good 
wen frequented road (via boma ceUbntqme) ; that 
there sh<Nild be an abundant supply of water (&o- 
a«a» a9iKrasi); that it should he so situated that 
the preprietor, if he did not live upon the estate, 
might be able to gire actire and constant personal 
superintendence ; and, finally, that it should be 
moderate in sise, so that erery portion might be 
brought into foil cultivation (lamdak> nymfa ntra 
— .En^aaoa 00^). 

These prdiminaiy matters being ascertained, 
the soil might be considered in reference it to 
its general external features O^nna), /9. to iu 
internal qualities (qmaliM mi fcrra). 

a. In so for as its external features were con- 
cerned it might be flat (sobm eompsifrv), or upland 
rolling ground (coBimmm\ or high Ipng (moalo- 
nam), or might comprise within its umits all 
three, which was most desinsble, or any two of 
them. These variations would necessarily exer- 
cise important influence on the climate, on the 
description of cn^ which might be cultivated 
with advantage, and on the time chosen for per- 
forming the varions operations, the general rule 
being that as we ascend the temnerstare fells, that 
com and sown crops in genenti («;psfet) succeed 
beat on plains, Tmeysrds (eaMos) on gentle slopes, 
and timber trees (wilvae) upon elevated sites, and 
that the diiEerent laboiDS of the rustic may be 
id eariier upon low than upon high 
When flat it was better that it shoiSd 
^ently and umfixmly in one direction 
(agqmabilUer ta anom jMr<e« vergmt) than be a 
dead lerel (ad Ubellaw^ oegaam), for m the hitter 
case the drainage being necessarily imperfect, it 
would hare a tendency to become swampy ; but 
the worst form was when there were conrerging 
slopes, for there the water collected into pook 
(laemmas), 

i9. In so fiv as its internal qualities were con- 
cerned, soil might be dsssed undasix heads form- 
ing three antagonistic pain. : — 

1. The deep and &t (pimgmB\ 9. The shallow 
and lean (aiocmsH jejmmmm t), S. The loose (so^ 



ground. 



46 



AORICULTURA. 



hm\ 4. The dense (apuntm)^ 5. The wet (kumi- 
dwm^ aamotum^ M^ftpkMmm), 6. The dry (moomm), 
while the endleu gradations and combinations of 
which the elementary qualities were susceptible 
produced all the existing varieties. These are 
named sometimes from their most obvious consti- 
tuents, the stony {lapido$tM\ the grayelly {ptano- 
fifm), the sandy lartt»otum\ the mortaiy (soin/b- 
smm), the chalky {erdo9»im\ the clayey (cuyillo- 
smk) ; sometimes from their colour, the bk^fc 
(a^ram), the 6aik{piiUmm), the grey (mbaUmm), 
the red (ni6ibiM<^ttni), the white {allntm) ; some- 
times from their consistency, the crumbling (piUr$^ 
friabili^ AMritMm), as opposed to the tenacious 
{daumm^ erasfam, Mumm) ; sometimes from their 
natund products, the grassy {gramimmun^ herio- 
siiia), the weedy (^parvani) ; sometimes fit>m their 
taste, the salt {aaltum)^ the bitter {amarum) ; 
nbriea seems to have been a sort of red chalky 
clay, but what the epithets ndeela and maierma 
applied to earth (terra) by Cato may indicate, it 
is nard to determine (Cato 34 ; oomp. Plin. //. N, 
xviiL 17). The great object of the cultivator being 
to separate the particles as finely as possible (iteque 
eatm alimd ui oolen quam reaolvere el /ermemiare 
terram\ high value was attached to those soils 
which were not only rich, but naturally pulveru- 
lent Hence the first place was held by eolum 
pitigue el putre, the second by pkigmier dejuum^ 
while the worst was that which was at once dry, 
tenacious, and poor dnecum pariler el densum el 
maerum). The ancients wen in the habit of form- 
ing an estimate of untried ground, not only horn 
the qualities which could be detected by sight and 
touch, but also from the character of the trees, 
shrubs, and herbage growing upon it spontaneously, 
a test of more practical value than any of the 
othen enumerated in the second Georgic (177 — 
258.) 

When an estate was pnrehased, the land might 
be either in a state of culture (aUta movaUa)^ or in 
a state of nature (rudie offer). 

The comparative value of land under cultivation 
estimated W the crops which it was capable of 
bearing, is fixed by C^ (1), according to the fol> 
lowinff descending scale : — 

1. Vineyards («mea), provided they yielded 
good wine in abundance. 2. Garden ground well 
supplied with water (koriua irngiau), 8. Osier 
beds {eaUehtm), 4. Olive phmtations (oletum). 
5. Meadows {prcUum), 6. Com land (eampus 
finmeHtanme), 7. Groves which might be cut for 
timber or fire-wood (tiiva audma). 8. Arbuetmn. 
This name was given to fields planted with trees 
in regular rows. Upon these vines were trained, 
and the open ground cultivated for com or legu- 
minous crops in the ordinary manner, an arrange- 
ment extensively adopted in Campania, and many 
other parts of Italy m modem times, but by no 
means conducive to ffood husbandry. 9. Groves 
yielding aooms, beecn-mast, and chestnuts (^Um- 
daria eSboa). The fact that in the above scale, com 
land is phioed below meadows may perhaps be re- 
garded as an indication that, even in the time of 
Cato, agriculture was upon the decline among the 
Romans. 

When waste land was to be reclaimed, the or- 
dinary procedure was to root out the trees and 
brushwood (/rafeto), by which it might be encum- 
bered, to remove the rocks and stones which would 
impede the labours of men and oxen, to destroy by 



AORICULTURA. 

fire or otherwise troublesome weeds, sach aa fans 
and reeds {fiUeee^ JvacO, to drain off the aaper- 
fluoos moistare, to measure out the graond into 
fields of a convenient size, and to endoae these 
with suitable fences. The three laat^mentiooed 
processes alone require any particular notice, and 
we therefore subjoin a few words apon D&ajns, 
Land-Mbasuru, Fxncss. 

Drains (ybsscie,M/eici/iMali,«eilia) were of two 
kinds: — 

1. Open {pataUee). 2. Covered (loamoae), 

1. Foeeae paieniee, open ditches, alone were 
formed in dense and chalky soiL They were wide 
at top, and gradually narrowed in wedge fiuhion 
{mbriisUme eupmie wMIee) as they descended. 

2. Foeeae ooeooe, covered drains, or sfvere as 
they are termed in Scotland, were employed where 
the soil was loose, and emptied themselvea into the 
foseae paleiUee. They were usually aunk from 
three to four feet, were three feet wide at top and 
eighteea inches at bottom ; one half of the depth 
was filled up with small stones or sharp gravel 
(iMM^ fflarea\ and the earth which had been dug 
out, was thrown in above until the snr&oe was 
level Where stones or gravel could not readily 
be procured, green willow poles were introduced, 
crossing each other in all directions {qmoguoversme\ 
or a sort of rope was constracted of twigs twisted 
together so as to fit exactly into the bottom of tbe 
drain ; above this the leaves of some of the pine 
tribe were trodden down, and the whole oorerod 
up with earth. To prevent the apertures being 
choked by the felling down of the soil, tbe mouths 
were supported by two stones placed upright, and 
one across (niUiesimum est,..,ora e(tnan Unie 
utrimque lapidibue elatuminari el alio wpermteffi)- 
To cany off the surfiice-water firom land under 
crop, open frvrows {eutd aquaruyeiieee) were left at 
intervids, which discharged themselves into cross 
furrows {eoUiqiiias) at the extremities of the fields, 
and these again poured their streams into the 
ditches. (Cat 43. 155 ; Co\. ii. 2. 8 ; xL 2 ; Pallad. 
vi 3 ; Plin. H, N, xviil 6. 19. 26 ; Viig. Gtory. 

ilia) 

Mbasurxs of Land. — The measure employed 
for land in Latium was the Jugerumy which was 
a double aetue quadratue^ the actus quadratus, an- 
ciently called aenOy or aemia^ or offima, being a 
square, whose side was 120 Roman feet The 
subdivisions of the ae were applied to the jugenuu, 
the lowest in use being the eenpmlum^ a square 
whose side was ten feet 200 jugera formed a 
eenhuioy a term which is said to have arisen fivm 
the allotments of land made by Romulus to the 
citizens, for these being at the rate of 2 jogera 
to each man, 200 jugera would be assigned to 
every hundred men. Lastly, four centuriae made 
a ealiue. We thus have the following table : — 

1 scripulum s 100 square feet, Roman measure. 
144 scripula = 1 actus = 14,400 square feet 

2 actus = 1 jugcram = 28,800 square feet 
200 jugera «= 1 centuria. 

4 centuriae ^ 1 saltus. 

Now, since three actus quadnti contained 4800 
square yards, and since tbe Enslish imperial acre 
contains 4840 square yards, and since toe Roman 
foot was about I of an inch less than the im- 
perial foot, it follows that the Roman jnger ^^aa 
less than | of an imperial acre by about 500 square 
yards. 

In (Campania the measure for land was the 



AORICULTURA. 

mnmf j^ia i /mftii, s mjaare whose tide wag 100 
ieeif the wank oetet and wuij i m maiking the or- 
dawy lei^ of iuimw in the two legioiia. (Vair. 
A ALIO, A Zw IT. 4; CoLt. 1; F]itL H. N. 
xm. 3,) 
FmscES (mpea^ Me pimenta) were (^ four kinds : — 
L jnyiiwiinftiiii matmnle, the quickset hedge 

2L Ajiiiwusftiwi offnatej ft wooden paling made 
Titk i^f^hl stakes (paK) interlaced with brush- 
wood (wV^ w ftii wtfaMffrftt), or having two or more 
im ss i|iaii ( a iaifcs, bmgmria) passed throogh holes 
dnSed in the stakes, after the manner of what are 
BOW tenaedjiaiea ipaUt latia ferfhrattM et per ea 

3. JkpanortHS wuUiaire, consisting of a ditch 
C^cw) with the earth dug oat and thrown op in- 
sde so as to form ao embankment {agger\ a fence 
med cUeflj along the aides of pnbUc roads or on 
tSs haaks of riverB. 

4. Sfphaemtfrm y^s&rtZe, a wall which might be 
famed either of stones {maeeria), as in the Ticinity 
of Tnsoalam, or of baked bricks as in the north 
«f Italy, or of mo^baked bricks as in Sabmom, or 
of vasaes of earth aind stone pressed m between 
iifr%ht boards (Is Jbrpus\ and hence tenned 
firmaeiL These last were common in Spain, in 
Afiio, and near Tarentnm, and were said to htft 
ftr y ri i UuM i tt umnjnred by the weather. (Yarr. i 
14 ; Plin. H, M xxzT. 14 ; comp. CoL t. 10, z. 8; 
Palbd.i.34; tL 3.) 

Family, after the land had been diained, di- 
vided, soui fenced, the banks which serr^ as 
hoaB^ncs, and the road-sides were pbmted with 
tieea, the elm and the pophir being preferred, in 
Older to secure a sopply of leaves for the stock and 
tmber ibr domestic nse. (Cat. 6.) 

I. &. Villa Rustica. 

In erecting a house and offices, great importance 
was sttadied to the choice of a &vonrable position. 
The site selected was to be elevated rather than 
loir, in order to aeenre good ventilation and to 
av^ aU danger of exhawtions horn mmiing or 
riagnaat water ; nnder the brow of a hill, for the 
■ke <^ shelter ; &cing the east so as to enjoy 
SBBshxne in vrinter and shade in snmmer ; near, 
bat not too near to a stream, and with plenty of 
wood and pasture in the neighbourhood. The 
itm^nres were to be strictly in proportion to the 
cxtait of the &rm ; for if too ha:g^ the original 
cost is heavy, and they must be kept in repair at 
a great expense ; if too small, the various products 
would nm the risk of being injured by the want 
of proper receptacles {ita edifioet ne villa Jimdvm 
faatenU sees /mm^ss viZ&sm, Cat R. R, 3). The 
1^^4^myi were usually arranged round two courts, 
with a tank in the centre of each, and divided 
nito three parts, named according to the purposes 
fa which Uiey vrere destined. 1. {Pari) Urbana, 
2. (Pan) Rmaiiea. 3. {Pan) Pnutmria. 

1. Ufiaaa. This comprehended that part of 
& bftilding occupied by the master and his femily, 
fwsirtmg of eating rooms {eoenaiionu) and sleep- 
ily apartments (caAtea/b), with different aspects 
far summer and winter, baths (te/neona), and 
pwtiooes orjffomenedee {ambidaiUmtM), Columella 
neoomMDdf that this portion of the mansion should 
k ias& as eommodions as the means of the pro- 
tnstawm penmt, in order that he himBelf may 
Kta^tedtotpead mare time there, and that the 



AGRICULTURA. 



47 



lady of the femily {mainma) may be more willing 
to bear her husbnid company. 

2. RtuHea, This comprehended that part of the 
building occupied by the servants, consisting of a 
huge uid lofty kitchen (m&m), to which they 
might at all times resort, baths {balmetts) for their 
use on holidays, sleeping closets (eellae) for the 
teroi $ohiii, a gaol (^r^osAi/am) under ground for 
the mnri ffmetL In this division were included 
also the stables, byres, sheds, folds, courts, and 
enclosures of every description {ttdrnta, bMia^ 
Jtjpto, oeiZM, oories) for the working oxen (dbiatib* 
bocea\ and other stock kept at home, together with 
a magazine or storehouse {korreum) where all the 
implements of agriculture (onrns nuHaam taiArs- 
mentitm) were deposited, and within this, a lock-up 
room for the reception of the iron tools {ferro' 
memta). In so for as the distribution of rooms 
was concerned, the ov er s eer (^oUUata) was to have 
his chamber beside the main entrance {jamma)^ in 
order that he might observe all who came in or 
went oat, the book-keeper (yrw wr a to r) was to be 
placed over the gate, that he might watch the 
vUUau as wdl as the others, while the shepherds 
(optZtioaef), oxmen (6«6«fei), and such persons were 
to be lodged in the immediate vicinity of the ani- 
mals under their charge. 

3. FrHcbuuia, This comprehended that part of 
the building where the produce of the form was 
preserved, consisting of the oil cellar (eefiia olearia), 
the press-house {okia torea&sna), the vault for 
wines in the cask {ceUa vmana), the boiling-room 
for inspissating nrast {de/rtaaria)^ all of which 
were on the ground floor, or a little depressed be* 
low the level of the sofl. Above were hay-lofts 
{/oemlia), reporitories for chafl!^ straw, leaves, and 
other fodder {palearia), granaries (Aorreo, pra- 
n€tna\ a drying-ruom for newly cut wood {/uma- 
rium) in connection with the rustic bath flues, 
and store-rooms {<q)o&ecae) for wine in the am- 
phora, some of which communicated with the 
fianaarhan^ while others received the jars whose 
contents had been sufficiently mellowed by the 
influence of heat 

In addition to the conveniences enumerated 
above, a mill and bake house (pufrmwn et fiar- 
sttm) were attached to every establishment ; at 
least two open tanks (/MCMOtf, laau «a6 </to), one 
for the cattle and geese, the other for steeping 
lupines, osiers, and objects requiring maceration ; 
and, where there was no river or spring available, 
covered reservoirs (euferaas «a6 te^) into which 
rain water was conveyed for drinking snd culinary 
purposes. (Cat 3, 4, 14 ; Yarr. L 11—14 ; Col 
i. 6 ; Geopon. ii. 3.) 

II. Instrumbnta. 
The instrumenta employed to cultivate the 
ground were two-fold : a, Persons (Aomtnes) ; 
6. Aids to human toil (afmtatca&s hofmiiiim\ 
namely, oxen and other animals employed in 
work ; together with tools (tnsfrsmeato), in the 
restricted sense of the word. 

XL a. UoMiNia. 

The men employed to cultivate a form might 
be either, 1. ftee Ubouren (opsnirn), or 2. slaves 

(sBm). 

r. Fm labouren. Cato considers the focflity of 
procuring persons of this description, whom in ono 
place he calls msrcwiam politores^ as one of the 



48 



AGRICULTURA. 



circmnatances that ought to weigh with a purchaier 
in making choice of a farm ; for although a large 
proportion of the work upon great estates was, 
during the later ages at least of the Roman re- 
public, always performed by sUres, it was con- 
sidered advantageous to employ hirelings for those 
operations where a number of hands were re- 
quired for a limited period, as in hay-making, 
the com harvest, and the vintage, or, according to 
the cold-blooded recommendation of Varro, in 
unhealthy situations where slaves would have died 
off fiut, entailing a heavy loss on their owner. 
Operarii consist^ either of poor men with their 
fiunilies, who were hired directly by the farmer, 
or of gangs (ocmdvetUias Ubenrum operae) who 
entered into an engagement with a contractor 
(flMTOMiantw), who in his turn bargained with the 
farmer for some piece of work in the slumps or 
lastly, of persons who had incurred debt which 
Aey paid oS in work to their creditors. This, 
which was an ordmary practice in the earlier ages 
of the Roman republic, seems in later times to 
have been confined to foreign countries, being com- 
mon especially in Asia and lUyria. Free labourers 
worked under the inspection of an overseer (prae- 
ficlu9\ whose zeal was stimulated by rewards of 
different kinds. 

2. Slaves (Mm). Rustic slaves were divided 
into two great classes, those who were placed 
under no direct personal restraint {tend ioluiC)^ 
and those who worked in fetters (tervi vincti) 
when abroad, and when at home were confined in 
a kind of prison {erffattulvm\ where they were 
guarded and their wants supplied by a gaoler («r- 
gaatulariui). Slaves, moreover, in large establish- 
ments, were ranked in bodies according to the 
duties which they were iq>pointed to p^orm, it 
being a matter of obvious expediency that the 
same individuals should be regularly employed in 
the same tasks. Hence there were the ox-drivers 
{bubuld)^ who for the most part acted as plough- 
men also (oratofvf), the stable-men (Jugaru)^ who 
harnessed the domestic animals and tended them 
in their stalls, the vine-dressers (vmtorM), the 
leaf-strippers {/rondatons), the ordinary labourers 
(mediastan), and many other ckssified bodies. 
These, according to their respective occupations 
worked either singly, or in small gangs placed 
under the charge of inspectors (magiiin openim). 
When the owner (d<mmu9) did not reside upon 
the property and in person superintend the various 
ouerations in progress, the whole forming esta- 
blishment was under the control of a general 
overseer (vSHau, actor), himself a slave or freedman, 
who regulated the work, distributed food and 
clothing to the labourers, inspected the tools, 
kept a regular account of the stock, performed the 
stated sacrifices, bought what was necessary for 
the use of the household, and sold the produce of 
the form, for which he accounted to the proprietor, 
except on very extensive estates where there was 
usually a book-keeper (procuraior) who managed 
the pecuniary transactions, and held the viUicut in 
check. With the villicus was associated a female 
companion {ooniubemalis nuilier) called mUioOy 
who took charge of the female slaves, and the in- 
door details of the family. The duties and quali- 
fications of a villicus will be found enumerated 
in Cat. c 5, and Colum. i 8 ; comp. Qeopon. ii. 
44, 45. 

The food of the slaves composing the household 



AGRICULTURA. 

(famHia) was cUused under three heads, 1. CS&s- 
ria, 2. Vinmn, 3. PuLmmUanum, 

1. Cibaria. The mnoi compediH^ being kept con- 
stantly in confinement, received their fidod in the 
shape of bread at the rate of 4 pounds (Roman 
pound=ll|oi. avoirdupois) per diem in winter, 
and 5 pounds in summer, until the figs came in, 
when they went back to 4 poundi. The sere* 
tohUi received their food in the shape of com, at 
the rate of 4 modii (pecks) of wheat per month in 
winter, and 44 in summer. Those persona, such 
as the viltieusy the vUHoa^ and the shepherd iopi- 
/•o), who had no hard manual labour to perform, 
were allowed about one fourth less. 

2. Vmum. The quantity of wine allowed Taried 
much according to the season of the year, and the 
severity of the toil imposed, but a aenms mhUitM 
received about 8 amphorae (nearly 48 imperial 
gallons) a year, and a ssross oompeditiu about 10 
amphorae, besides lora [see Vinum] at discretion 
for three months after the vintage. 

3. Pubnentarium, As pulmentaria they received 
olives which had fiillen from the trees (pleae ca- 
duoas)y then those ripe olives {oleae tempettinae), 
frtnn which the least amount of oil could be ex- 
pressed, and, after the olives were all eaten up, 
salt fish (Ad!0o), and vinegar (aoetem). In addi- 
tion to the above, each individual was allowed a 
sextarius (very neariy an imperial pint) of oil per 
month, and a modius of salt per annum. 

The clothing {vuHmmta) of the nutac la^ 
bourers was of the most coarse description, but 
such as to protect them effectually from cold and 
wet, enabling them to pursue their avocations in 
all weaken. It consisted of thick woollen blanket 
shirts (teiMOoe), skin coats with loi^ sleeves (joelies 
nuuUeatae), cloaks with hoods (nga cuaUkUa^ cm- 
cuUonei), patch-work wrappers (cesftmer) made out 
of the old and ragged garments, together with 
strong sabots or wooden shoes (tculpimeae). A 
tunic was given every year, a $agum and a pair of 
toulpoiieae every other year. 

The number of hands required to cultivate a 
form, depended almost entirely on the nature of 
the crops. 

An arable form of 200 jugers where the ordi- 
nary crops of com and leguminous vegetables were 
raised required two pairs of oxen, two bubuici and 
six ordinary labourers, if free from trees, but if 
laid out as an arbustum, three additional hands. 

An olive garden of 240 jugers required three 
pain of oxen, three asses for carrying manure 
(onm omaU dUeUauriC), one ass for tuming the 
mill, five score of sheep, a villicus, a villica, five 
ordinary labourers, three bubuici, one ass-driver 
{amnarius)^ one shepherd {opiUo), one swineherd 
{mbuUm) ; in all twelve men and one woman. 

A vineyard of 100 jugers required one pair of 
oxen, one pair of draught asses (omat plostrarii)^ 
one mill ass (asinut molaris), a villicus, a villica, 
one bubulcus, one asinarius, one man to look after 
the plantations of willows used for withes (mUc- 
tarius), one subulcus, ten ordinary labouren; in 
all fifteen men and one woman. (Cat 6, 56--59, 
10, 11 ; Varr. 1 19 ; Colum. l 7, 8, ii. 12.) 

In what has been said above, we have assumed 
that the proprietor was also the fitrmer, but it was 
by no means uncommon to let (looare) land to a 
tenant (poUtor, parHarius^ Cat ; oUonus^ Varr. 
Colum.), who paid his rent either in money (pen- 
tio; ad peotatiam maneraiam comlfmi)^ as seems to 



AGRICULTURA. 

hvK heat tbe pfactiee wlien ColnmeDa wrote, or 
fej waakdag over to the landlord a fixed pnportioa 
mfthi produee (sua atoaato Med pmUbrnt 2oear»), ac- 



AORICULTURA. 



4» 



_ to tile •jstem described by Gato, and al- 
lied to br tbe jonnger Plin j. Tkeie ealc$d aome- 
toBcs tilled tbe Hune fiom from fiuher to aon for 
y wiat ia n a (ob&mu oa^a^eaoe), and niefa were eoo- 
^doed tbe noat desirable occopanta, aince thej 
bad a aort of bereditaiy mtcfest in the ao3, while 
«n tbe other band frequent changes conld acaroely 
&i to prove mjunona. Tbe worat tenanta were 
ibaoe who did not adthrate in penon, hot, liying 
m towns (uihanmM eoiomms\ employed gaaga of 
dzvea. Upon the whole Cobmielhi recommends 
tbe owner of an estate to keep it in hia own handa, 
except wben it ia rery bancn, tbe dimate nn- 
hoshby, or tbe distance from bis nanal place of 
abode ao great that be can aeldom be upon the 
mot Gkto givea m table of the proportion which 
tLe /wii a iaiia a owbt to pay, according to tbe nature 
of the crap, and tbe fertility of the region ; bntaa he 
wkji nothiag witb regard to the manner in which 
t^ coat of coltimtiain was divided between the 
parties, bis statement gives ns no ]»actical insight 
am tbe natnre of these leases (Gat 136, 137 ; 
CdflSL i 7, PUn. ^pp- ix. 37, comp. iiL 19.) 

IL &. Apminicula HoMiNuy. 



The doaaestBe animala employed in faiboor, and 
ibeir treatment will be oonaidered wider tbe ae- 
emd g^eat divisian of ma sabject, Pa$tks or the 
BBBagoaextt of stock. 

Tbe took ( iaaf i a aiaate) chiefly uaed by the &imer 
woe tbe ploogb ( wu/ n i a i ), the grabber {irpem), 
haznras (oralm,crato dttOaiaey, the lake (nutram), 
tbe apade (290, pala\ the hoe (aofvabna, Moba^ 
BarTw[?]),tbie sped or weeding-book (raaoo), the 
arrthe aad aicfcle (Jblx)^ the tbiaahmg-machine 
(p&dk&m Pocmana, fri&alam), the cart (plo- 
^r^U tbe axe (meww, dolabra), Theae wiU be 
dranfted aa we go along in ao fiv aa may be 
uetej a aiy to raider oar obaervationa intelligible, 
bat far fid! information tbe reader most consnlt 
the wfufuntt artidea devoted to each of tbe above 




in. ThB OrmRATlOVS of AGRICULTt7BK. 

Tbe SMSt inqMfftant opemtioQa performed by the 

wen : — 1. Ploogbing (ororfio). 2. Ma- 

1). 3. Sowing (ao^). 4. Harrow- 

»). 5. Hoemg (sarrHio). 6. Weeding 

7. Beapmg (memo). 8. Thrashing 

9. Winnowing {vtMiilatio). 10. Storing 

I who oflhred aaoifice on tbe Cerealia 
to Ceaes and Tdfaia, invoked twelve celestial patnma 
of theae iaboms by tbe namea Vtrvaetor ; Rqaa- 
TwtUotj (jboToior i Goootot j 
T ; Menar i Coiutdtoit 2 Om' 
&ar; FromUor ; algnificant i^pellationa which 
wiB be dearly vnderrtood from what followa. The 
fimetioaa of the last deity alone do not fidl within 
aor UtB ; bnt we shall add another to tbe liat in 
tbe pnam of j tenarfjai. (Serr. ad Virg, Qtorg, i 
31: V^H.N. xviL 9; Lactant i 20; Maoob. 
SaLLli Pta<lent PeridqpL iii. 449 ; Aogoatin. 
4»aikLxnL IB.) 

I. PlM^iu^ (aratki). 
Tkemnher oi times that land was plooghed, 
rajiag&vm two to mnct w vdl m the aeaaon at 



which the work was performed, dspended upon tbe 
nature of the aoil and tbe crop for which it was 
prepared. The object of ploogbing being to keep 
down weeds, to polveriae tbe earth aa finely as 
possible (Virg. Oeiorp, iL 204), and to expose every 
portion of it in torn to the action of tbe atmosphere, 
the operation was repeated sgain aad again (Viiig. 
Oeorp. I 47)t until these objecU were fuUy at- 
tained. When stiff low-Iying aoil (ooa^paa ol^*. 
aoaaa) waa broken np for wneat, it waa osoal to 
I^oiigb it foor times, first (/irosB M wfar a) aa early m 
apring aa tbe weather would permit (Virg. Oeoiy. 
L 63), after which the bmd was termed earooeteai, 
and hence the god Paroootor; for the aeeond time 
(q^Vm^srv, denofv, oarooeta mMptn)^ aboat the 
summer aobtice, under the patronage of tbe god 
Bqtaraior^takd on tbia occaaion tbe field waa croaa- 
ploughed (Virg. Oeofy, i 97) ; fir tbe third time 
(tertian)^ aboat the beginning of September ; and 
for the fiwirth time, abortly befixe the equinox, 
when it waa ribbed (Urate) for the reception of the 
aeed, tbe ribbing being executed under fovoor of 
the god Iti^rcitor^ ly adding two mouldboarda 
to tba plough, ( or t iifaai oariiteaa), one on each nde 
of the ahare. (Varr. L 29 ; PaUad. L 43.) Rich 
soil on aloping ground waa ploughed three timea 
only, tbe ploogbing in apring or at tbe beginning 
of September being omitted ; light (en/ta) moiat 
soil alao three times, at tbe end of August, esriy 
in September, and about the equinox ; whilst the 
pooteat bill aoil waa ploughed twice in n^iid auo- 
cesaion, esriy in September, ao that the moiature 
might not be dried up by the auauner heat (Viig. 
Georg. I 70.) 

The greatest csre was taken not to plough 
ground that had been rendered miry by rain, nor 
that which after a long drought had been wetted 
by sbowera which bad not penetrated beyond the 
aurfoce ((^L ii. 4 ; PaUad. ii. 3) ; but whether 
thia laat is really the terra carioea of Otto, aa 
Columella aeems to think, is by no means clear. 
(Oit V. 34 ; comp. PUn. H, N, xviL 5.) 

With regard to the depth to which the share 
was to be £iven, we have no very precise direc- 
tiona; bnt Columella recommenda generally deep 
ploughing (ii 2. § 23 ; compu Plin. H. N. xviii. 
16) in preference to mere acratching (aoor^iSoa^) 
with light aharea (ex^me tomeribm et deatatSme). 

The plough waa almoat invariably drawn by 
oxen, although Homer (/Z. x. 351 ; Od. viii. 124) 
prefera mulea, yoked cloae together in auch a 
to pull by their nedu and not by tbe 



homa, guided and stimulated chiefly by tbe voice. 
Tbe laah waa uaed very aparinoly, aad tbe young 
ateer waa never pridwd by we goad (etimmhu)^ 
ainoe it waa apt to render him reative and un- 
manageable. The animala were allowed to reat 
at tbe end of each furrow, but not to atop in the 
middle of it: wben unharneaaed, they were Gar»> 
fully rubbed down, allowed to cool, aad watered, 
before, they were tied up in the atall, their moutha 
having been previonaly waahed with wine. (CoL 
iL2L) 

The ploughman (Mabaa) was required to make 
perfectly straight and unifonn fiirrowa (aa^oo eorio 
me are»\ ao doae to each other aa altogether to ob- 
Uteiate the mark of the ahare, and waa porticuhuiy 
cautioned againat miaaing over any portion of the 
ground, and thus leaving aoanmat that is, raaaaca 
of hard unatiried earth {neadn erudum eohun et 
immotum rtUmqiiai^ quod offrieUae 



60 



AGRICULTURA. 



oamC). The nonnal length of a furrow wm 120 
feet, and thia is the original import of the word 
oetef. A distinction is drawn between wnu$ and 
wrmmty the fbimer being prqterly the/vrroto, the 
latter the extremity of the Airrow, or the turning 
pomt ; but this is far from being strictly obsenred. 
(Col. iL 5. §§ 27, 28.) 

Four days were allowed for the four plonghings 
of a juger of rich low-l3ring land {jngarum im$ 
agri qttatuor operig etgoeditwr). The first ploughing 
(protdstio) occupied two days, the second (Ueraiu^ 
one day, the third (ieriiaiio [?]) three fourths of a 
day, and ribbing for the seed one fourth of a day 
(m liram tatwm redigitur quadrante operae). The 
same time is allowed for the three ploughings of 
rich upland soil (eoUet pinffma toU) as for the four 
nloughings of the uliginosus campus, the &tigue 
being much greater, although the difficulties pre- 
sented by the aodivity were in some measure re- 
lieTed by ploughing hills in a slanting direction, 
instead of straight up and down. (Cat 61 ; Vair. 
i. 27. 29 ; CoL u. 2, 4 ; Plin. H, N. xvui. 19, 20. 
26 ; Pallad. i. 6, ii. 3, viiL 1, x. 1 ; Oeopon. iL 
23; and comp. Hom. IL xiiL 704; xviii. 370. 
540; OdT. 127.) 

2k Manurifig (stercoraiio). 

Manure (fimuty steretu). The manure chiefly 
employed was the dung of birds and of the or- 
dinary domestic animals (tterau eolumbumm^ Mm- 

&c.). This differed considerably in quality, ac- 
cording to the source from which it was procured ; 
and hence those who raised different kinds of crops 
are enjoined to keep the different sorts of dung 
separate, in order that each might be applied in 
the most adyantageous manner. That derived 
from pigeon-houses ((ix>lumbariu), from aviaries 
where thrushes were fiutened (etc amariu turdorum 
et mendanim)^ and from birds in general, except 
water-fowl, was considered as the hottest and most 
powerfid, and always placed apart, being sown by 
the hand exactly as we deal with guano at the 
present moment. The ancient writers very em- 
phatically point out the necessity of procuring large 
supplies <tf manure, which the Romans r^arded as 
under the especial patronage of a god named Ster- 
euHugj and nrmen were uived to collect straw, 
weeds, leaves of all sorts, hedge dippings, and 
tender twigs, which were first used to litter the 
stock, and then, when mixed with ashes, sweep- 
ings. of the house, road-scrapings, and filth of every 
description, serveid to swell the dunghills (tlerqui- 
Unia). These were at least two in number, one 
being intended for immediate use, the other for 
the reception of fresh materials, which were allowed 
to remam for a year ; dung, when old and weU 
rotted, being accounted best for all purposes, ex- 
cept fixr top-dressing of meadows, when it was 
used as fresh as possible. The dunghills were 
formed on ground that had been hollowed out and 
beaten down or paved, so that the moisture might 
not escape through the soil, and they wero covered 
over with brushwood or hurdles to prevent evapo- 
ration. In this way the whole mass was kept con- 
stantly moist, and fermentation was still further 
promoted by turning it over very firequently and 
incorporating the different parts. 

The partMuhir crops to which manuro was chiefly 
applied will be noticed hereafter ; but in so for as 
NIgaida the time of application it was laid down in 



AGRICULTURA. 

September or October, on the ground that was to he 
autumn sown ; and in the course of January or Fe* 
bruarv, on the ground that was to be spring 00 vn. 
A full manuring {tterooratio) for a juger of land 
on an upland slope (quod tpistiuM $t e rv a t€ Umr ) wa« 
24 loads («0&«t), each load being 80 modU or pecks ; 
while for bw-lying land (quod rarmt wtenonUmry 
18 loads were considered sufficient. The dung was 
thrown down in small heaps of the bulk of five 
modii, it was then broken small, was spread out 
equally and ploughed in instantly that it might not 
be dried up by the rays of the sun, great care being 
taken to perform these operations when the moon 
was waning, and if possible with a west wind. Ac- 
cording to the calculations of Columella, .the lire- 
stock necessary for a form of two hundred jugera 
ought to yield 1440 loads per year ; that is, enough 
for manuring 60 jugers at the rate of 24 loads to 
the juger. In what proportions this was distributed 
is nowhere very clearly defined, and must neces- 
sarily have varied according to circumstances. If 
we teke two statements of Cato in connection with 
each other, we shall be led to oondude that he ad- 
vises one half of the whole manure made upon a 
fiirm to be applied to the raising of green crops naed 
as fodder (jMi6s2iim), one-fourth to the topn&easing 
of meadows, and the remaining fourth to the olives 
and fruit-trees. Columella recommends the ma- 
nuring of light soil (ect^M terra) before the second 
ploughing ; but when rich lands were summer fol- 
lowed previous to a com crop, no manuro was con- 
sidered requisite. (Hom. Od. xviL 297, Theo- 
phrast a «. A iiL 25 ; Cat 5, 7, 29, 36, 37, 61 ; 
Varr. L 13, 38; Colum. ii. 5, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 
XL 2; Pallad. L 33, X. i ; C]c.deSmML\bi Plin. 
H.N. xviL 9, xviil 19,23; Geopon. ii. 21, 22.) 

The system of manuring by penning and feeding 
sheep upon a limited space of ground was neither 
unknown nor neglected, as we perceive firom the 
precepts of Cato (30), Varro (ii. 2. § 12), and 
Pliny {H, N. xviii. 53), all of whom recommend 
the practice. 

The ashes obtained by burning weeds, bushes, 
prunings, or any s<nt of superfluous wood, were 
found to have the best effect (Viiig. Georg. L 81 ; 
Colum. ii. 15 ; Plin. xvii. 9 ; Geopon. xii. 4), and 
sometimes, as we know from Virgil {Georg. i. 84), 
it was deemed profitable to set fire to the stubble 
standing in the fields. (Plin. H. N. xviii 30.) 
Caustic lime was employed as a fertiliser hj some 
of the tribes of Transalpine Gaul in the time of 
Pliny, but in Italy its application seems to have 
been very lunited and to have been confined to 
vines, olives, and cherry-trees. (Cat. 38 ; Palkd. 
i. 6 ; PluL ILN. xvil 9, xviiL 25, 30.) 

Marl also (marffo) of different kinds wss known 
to the Greeks, was iqiplicd by the Megarenses to 
wet cold lands, and was extensively employed in Gaul 
and Britain ; but not being found in Italy, did not 
enter into the agricultural arrangements of the 
Latins. Pliny devotes several chapters to an ela- 
borate discussion upon these earths, of which he 
describes various sorts which had been made the 
subject of experiment, classifying them according 
to Uxeir colour, their constitution, and their qiuili- I 
ties ; the white (a&i), the red (rufa\ the dove- i 
coloured {oolumbUta), the clayey {€uyUla<m\ the ' 
sandy (onsfiaoea), the stony (iopkaoea\ the ht 
(jnngui*\ and the caustic [?] {aspera). Some of 
them we recognise at once, as fbr example, the fot j 
white clayey marl chiefly used in Britain, the ef- 



AORICULTfJRA. 

ktU of vUdi were bdiered to endnK fior tUfjktf 
rem. (Piin. ff.'^T, zrii. 5, 8 ; comp. Yuvo, i 7, 
In GaBia Dnammfyima imtms ad ~' 



AGRICULTUIUL 



n 




Seneviiflt anlogoos to tbe use of xdbiI wm the 
XTVtoB ftniii^y reoommended byThMfdmstotaod 
Cobselk, l"t condemned by Pliny, of oombmniff 
Mib m wticii Mine qnolitj ezi8ted''m exoeac, witfi 
liMe Boneniqg opposite cfaaxaeten — diy gnvol 
vith €baSkj dvp, or hea^y wet loom with nnd, — 
the objeet beiag freqnently attained to a eertun 
extmt by ODbioil pkmgiung, which wai greatly ap- 
penedflfasanwons of renovating fieldi ezhaoited 
W tercR cnppinf^ (Theopknat IL *. A. iii. 25 ; 
Cdaa. ii 15; PKn. H. N. zru. 5.) 

WImi ocdkHiy nuunuee coold not be proeond 
■ laffideot qnaodtj, a icheme was leeorted to 
wlDch «M at one time puraaed in this coontry, 
1^ ■ it31 adopted with eonaideiabie raeoen in 
■my parte of Italy and in the eandy tiacte of 
ncdieni Fiance. The field waa aown aboat the 
■iddle of Septoaber with beana or faipinea, which 
««te piaagbed into the ground the Avowing 
ipna^fitt all caaea before the pod waa folly fermed, 
aed at an earlier atage of iJieir growth on light 
tlan on stiff eoila. Nay, many oopa, rach as 
basaa, peaa, Inpinea, vetdiea, lentila {enritUt, d- 
oen^), even when allowed to come to maturity, 
verp sKppoaed to exerciae an amelioiatittg influence, 
^«nded their roota were immediately boned by 
the ^i»h, ahhoogh peibapa in this caae thebene- 
fieal e£ct may ha^e leanlted firam the manure 
afplied bdiBce they were sown. On the other 
huid, com in general, poppies, fienogreek, and all 
cn^ polled np by the roota, such aa doerand flax, 
v«Te nppoaed to exhanst (arerv) the soil, which 
then leqaored either repoae or manure to restore its 
pcvezB. (TheopbrasL IL ♦. A. viiL 9 ; Cat 37 ; 
VaiT. L 23 ; Cohon. iL 12^—15, xL 2 ; Pallad. I 
€.in.4,x.9; Plin. /f.Mxviifl, XTiii. 10.14— 
IS.) 

3L 5bi0»^ (scx/ib) 

May be eonsidered under three heads. 1. The 
tiae of sewing. 2. The manner of sowing. 3. 
Tiie ^oiee, preparation, and quantity of the seed. 
1. The seed-time (semm<u) carr* HvCV^i oom- 
Bsaeed at the antnmnal equinox, and ended fifteen 
dara DeCbre the winter solstice. Few, howoTor, 
hm belbre the setting of the Pleiades (23d Oc- 
taber), naleas on cold wet ground, or in those lo- 
calitiea where bad weather set in soon ; indeed, it 
vas aa old proirerb that, while a late sowing often 
dimppointed the hopes of the husbandman, an early 
oae nevo' realised them {wutiuram waiitmefn aaepe 
4edptn weiere^ senna e«n>9ifaiR qmm mala aU) ; and 
the Yiigilian maxim is to the same purpose. Spring 
wwi3^ (ir iaiBaiiia tatio) was practised only in Tory 
deep ftiff land, idkieh would admit of being cropped 
far wTcxal years in sooceasion {rettibilu ager), or 
vheve, from pecoliar dreumstsnces oonnected with 
the wtBatkm or climate, such as the great incle- 
Bk^ay of the winters, it waa impossible for the 
fanner to sow in autumn ; and hence, generally 
ipeaking;, waa veaorted to Teiy sparingly , and fSnr the 
aost part from neoeaaity rather than inclination. 

2. We can infer fiom incidental notices in agri- 
csltoal writers, that the seed waa eoramitted to 
the ground in at least three different modes. 

& The seed waa cast upon a flat fuiface finely 



puhnriaed by the pknigb and harrow, tad thca 
eorered up by riblnng the land (tartio OMa arna^ 
JACTO axMiNB, botmt Uran diamtmr). (Varr. i. 
29; oomp. Colum. iL 13.) 

A. The bnd waa ribbed, the seed was then 
dropped upon the tops of the tirm or elevated 
ridgei, according to our flu hion for tumipai hOLAM 
nutmn nuHei 9oeaiU eatdam poroaa emm tie ai'oftaa 
OiC, tU wtti^dwM UxtiMt ffftfunfci lafoos- wtadittt 
l aaia / ai eeeoiaa ss dewi frwmnU i» p rae ft s of . (Cohua. 
ii 4. § 8.) This plan was fi»llow«l on wet land 
to secure a dry bed for the seed, which would 
probably be ooVered up by haad-rakea (nHlrie). 

0. The land was ribbed aa in the finrncr case ; 
but the aeed, instead of being dropped upon the 
ridge of the Ura^ was cast into the depiessian of the 
fiUTOw, and might be ooreied np either hy the hw- 
row or by plon^hu^ down the middle of the lira. 
This was practised on l%ht, sloping, and thcreiHa 
dry, land {mqim m tita md aiA safao lolfa ^ptr 
sanMoadas «s<, Coium. iL 4. 9 11). 

It will be leen clearly that, whichever of the 
above modes was adopted, the seed would spring 
up in regnkr rows, as if lown by a drill, and that 
only one half of the land woold be covered with 
seed. In point of fiwt, the quantity of seed sovm 
on a giren extent of gtonnd was not above half of 
what we employ. 

Vetches, fenugreek, and some other ctopa, aa 
will be noticed below, wen frequently ttuown 
upon land unprepared (eruda terra), and the seeds 
then ploughed in. The seed eeems to have been 
cast out of a three-peck basket (p i modiam mUO" 
nofli, M. ooriem), which from superstitious motiTcs 
was frequently eorered over with the skin of a 
hyaoui. Pliny points out how neceasary it waa 
that the hand of the sower should keep time arith 
his stride, in order that he might Matter the 
grains with perfect uniformity. 

3. The points chiefly attended to in the choice 
of seed com were, that it should be perfectly fresh 
and free from mixture or adulteration, and of an 
uniform reddish colour throughout its substance. 
When the crop was reaped, the largest and finest 
ears were selected by the hand, or, where the 
produce vras so great as to render this impossible, 
the heaviest grams were separated by a sieve 
{qmdqmd eteUraimr capitkrio e»pwrgamdmm erit) 
and reserved. In addition to these precautions it 
was not unusual to doctor seeds of all sorts {medioan 
temina) by sprinkling them with an alkaline 
liquor (ndram, i.e. probably carbonate of soda), 
or with the deposit left by newly expressed oil 
(amarea), or by steeping them in various prepara- 
tions, of which several are enumerated by Colu- 
mella and Pliny ; the object being twofold, in the 
first place to mcreose the quantity and quality of 
the produce, and in the second ^ce to protect it 
firom the ravages of vermin, especially the little 
animal called eareatio, probably the same insect 
with our weevil. 

The quantity of seed sown varied according to the 
soil, the situation, the season, and the weather, the 
general rule being that less aras required for rich 
and finely pulvensed (p«aj^ sf jM^^)* ot light 
and sharp (^roofe), or thin poor soil (maonoa, ea^) 
than for such as vras stiff and heavy (org aw w a , 
cretoMun), or moderately tenacious; less for an 
open field than for an oHmttitmy less at the begin- 
ning of the leason than towards the close (although 
this is contradicted by Pliuy, H. N, xvUL 24), and 
X 2 



52 .AGRICULTURA. 

'leaf iA rainy tlian in diy weather, maxima which 
aie fiilly ezpUdned by the authorities quoted be- 
low. The average amount of seed used for the 
three principal species of grain — wheat, spelt and 
barley — was respectively, five, ten, and six modii 
per juger.(Xenoph. Osoon. 17; Theophrast u. 6. and 
iii. 25 ; Cat 34, 36 ; Yair. I 29, 34, 40, 52 ; Co- 
luuL iL 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 13, xii. 2 ; Pallad. i. 6, 34, 
X. 2 ; Viig. Gwry. I 193, 219, 225^ Plin. H, N. 
xiT. 21» xri 27, xviiL 24, 73 ; Geopon. il 15 — ^20.) 

4. Harrowing (pooatio) 

Might be performed at two different periods : 
after the first or second ploughing, in order to 
powder the soil completely ; and aner sowing, in 
order to cover up the seed. When the land was 
encumbered with roots and deep-seated weeds, a 
grubber {irpM, Cat. 10. Vair. L,L, iv. 31) formed 
of a strong plank set with iron spikes was em- 
ployed, but in ordinary cases wicker hurdles (vi- 
mi$ieae crates)^ sometimes fitted with teeth (dm- 
iaia6\ were dragKod over the ground ; or the clods 
were broken with hand-rakes (rawtra). The seed, 
as we have seen above, beins for the most part 
ploughed in, and the operation for that reason placed 
under the patronage of a god Obaraior^ the second 
harrowing (iteraiio) was omitted, except where the 
surface still rose in lumps (Virg. Georg. i. 104) ; but 
since it was the duty of a good fiumer to have his 
fields in the best order before he began to sow, the 
older Roman writers considered harrowing after 
sowing as a proof of bad husbandry. — ^ Veteres 
Romani dixerunt male subactum agrcm, qui satis 
fimgibus occandtts sit.*' (Colum. ii 4, 13, xl 2 ; 
Plin. H.N. xviii. 20 ; Virg. Georg. I 94, 104.) 

5. Hoeing (tcariHo). 
The next care^ after covering up the seed, was 
to loosen the earth round the roots of the young 
blades, in order that air and moisture mijght gain 
free access and enable them to send forth more 
numerous and more vigorous shoots and fibres 
(ut /haieare posntU). This process was termed 
o'KoXeia, $arritioy or taroulaUOf and was carried 
on by hand with an instrument called mtokAmi, 
the form of which is not known. Com was usu- 
ally hoed twice, for the first time in winter, as 
soon as it fiiirly covered the ground (eum tola 
sttloo§ ootUeoBerini)^ provided there was no frost; 
and for the second tune in spring, befioro the stalk 
became jointed (atUeqtiam teget in artieidum eat) ; 
great care being taken al all times not to injure 
the root. On die first occasion, and then only, 
where the ground was dry and the situation warm, 
the plants, in addition to a simple hoeing (plana 
9arriiio\ were earthed up (adobruere). Columella 
recommends sarritio for almost all crops, ex- 
cept lupines ; but authorities differed much as to 
the necessity or propriety of performing the opera- 
tion in any case, and those who advocated its ex- 
pediency most warmly, agreed that the periods at 
which it ought to be executed, and the number of 
times that it onght to be repeated, must depend 
upon the soil, climate, and a variety of special 
curcumstances. (Cat 37 ; Varr. i 18, 29, S6 ; 
Colum. iL 11, xi. 2 ; Plin. H. N. xviiL 21, 26 ; 
Geopon. ii 24 ; comp. Plaut OapL iii 5. 3 ; 
Viig. Georg. 1 155.) 

6. Weeding (nmoaiio). 
Hoeing was followed by weeding (fiorca^urfUsf 



AGRICULTURA, 
runeaiio\ which in the case of giaSn crops took 
place immediately before they b^;an to blossom, 
or immediately after the flower hwi passed away. 
The weeds were either pulled up by the roou 
(evuUie tmOilibue Asrbw), or cut over with a biU- 
hook, which Palladius terms rmeo. (Cat 37 ; 
Varr. I 30 ; 0>lum. ii 11, xi 2 ; Pallad. i sob. 
fin. ; Plin. HN. xviii 21 ; Geopon. ii 24.) 

But after the fiumer had labonred with unre- 
mitting seal in cleaning and pulverising the soil, in 
selecting and medicatmg the seed, in koeiog the 
young blades, and in extirpating the cammon 
noxious weeds (2o2ufm, trUndiy lappOA, oanhd^ 
niM, anena)y the safety of the crop was threatened 
by a vast number of assailants (jhtm eoruas iUudant 
pedes) ; such as worms of various kinds (tsvrmteii/t) 
attacking both root and ear,.cateipillaia («rtoae), 
spiders {pkalBaigia)^ snails (^mmiom, codUSsoe), mice 
(mtir»«), moles {iaipae\ and thn whole race of 
birds, besides which, each kind of plant was be- 
lieved to have its own special vegetable enemy, 
which, if not carefiiUy watched, would firing up, 
choke, and destroy it The most fonnidabie of 
these pests are enumerated by Pliny {H. N. xviii 
1 7), who proposes sundry precantioDs and remedies, 
of which many are ridiculous superstitions. But 
the foe dreaded above all others in the vineyard 
and the cornfield was a peculiar blirht or mildew 
termed robigo^ which wrought such havoc in damp 
low-lying sitnations that it was regarded as a ma- 
nifestation of wrath on the port of a malignant 
spirit, whose fovour the rustic sought to propitiate 
by the annual festival of the Ro6ffaUa, [Robi- 

OALIA.] 

Another danger of an opposite description arose 
finom the grain shooting up so npidly that the stalk 
was likely to become immoderately long and weak. 
The danger in this case was averted by postur- 
ing down the too luxuriant herbage vrith sheep 
{Iweuriem tegetnm tenera depaeeU in keiia\ or by 
dngging over it an iron-toothed harrow (firaii* et 
hoe genua dentatae etilie /errei$\ hj whidi it was 
said to be combed {peetinart). (PIul H. N. xviii 
17. 21 ; Yirg. Georg. i 151.) 

7. Ret^nng (mestio). 

The com was reaped as soon as it had acquired 
a uniform yellow tint, without waiting until it 
had become dead ripe, in order to avoid the loss 
sustained by shakmg, and by the ravages of 
animals. The necessity of pursuing this course 
with regard to barley, is especially insisted upon ; 
but is quite at variance with modem practice. 
(Colum. ii 9.) 

Varro describes three distinct methods of reap- 
ing {tria genera mestiomie), 

1. That followed in Umbria, where the stalk 
was shorn dose to the ground with a hook (Jain); 
each handfol was laid down ; and when a num- 
ber of these had accumulated, the ears were cat 
off, thrown into baskets (eoritee)^ and sent to the 
thrashing-floor, the strew (atranuntmn) being left 
upon the field, and afterwards gathered into a 
hei^ 

2. That foUowed in Pioenum, where ihev used 
a small iron saw (aemda/brrea) fixed to the ex- 
tremity of a crooked wooden handle (li a n eum t»- 
eurvmn baHUnm) ; with this they laid hold of a 
bundle of* ears which were cut off, the strew being 
left standing to be mown subsequently. 

3. That fioUowed in the vidnity of Rome and 



AGRICULTUaA. 

plneea, wkoe tlie stalks wen \ 
kandasi 



k tbe kA band and cat at balf their height fron 
the gnond, the whole of the poctioa detached 
heii^ caiiTejed in. haskets to the thiashing-floor, 
ad the part left standing heing cat afterwards. 

The hat tiro methods only are partkufaal j no- 
tie^ hj Coiamdia, who deacribea the instraments 
c mf i e y e d in the aeecnd under the names of ^MflfMwt 
aad wnwyi ijug * J {wudH sMfyMi ocn ptctimwMt 
^ieam yiaaia l^gmmt^ ; and thoae enipi<rfcd in the 
tkird ^fdem iwriLaftifaa {jtuOti fakSbm wnWrttfi, 
dAaw atf wf fvefraCit oat dsMCieBialit iworfiimfi coImhii 
annO » ^ aeries of terms which hsTS never heen 
Toj Batiabctarily fxplainfid. In addition to the 
ab^ Pliaj- and Palladins describe a leaping- 
■aeyoe woriced by oxeii| which waa nrach nt^ 
m tbe extenaiTe leviel plains of the Oanls. Viigil 
{Gtar$. L 316), pfrhafw^ aDodea to binding np the 
cm in theKb; but his words are not lo dear 
apcB thk pont aa thoae of Homer in the chann- 
Bg picture of m harrest-field contained in the 
^keenth boA of tlie iZiaf . (Vair.i 60; Colum. 
E ^; PluL^.M xriiL 30 ; PaUad.TiL2 ; Oeopon. 
n. 25; eoanpL Horn. i2L ad. 67» zriii. 550.) 



After 



AORICULTURA. 



53 




» aato 



8L TkroOiu^ {pritm^. 

the crop had been properly dried and 

(temg^beia) by expoaure to the son, it 

- to the thiaahmg^floor (jUms, dAari^ 

(). Tfaia waa an open space, on some 

\ over whidi the wind had fiee coarse, 

inm, slightly nised in the centre to 

to ran a£ The earth was com* 

\rj heavy nllen (^roei e^tuidxo^ malari 

pounded with rammen {pamemU9\ and 

to a solid conaistcncy with cfaty and cha^ 



ypttfcd with hard stonec Here the corn 
vm spseod out and beaten with flails (baad»$ mfm- 
iere^/iuiSkmemdtnjptrtkuJIaffeUan); or more com- 
maBly«esBept when the eanakne had been breoght 
frms dm field, trodden oat (eafarvre) by the feet 
•f a nnmher of men or hones, who were driven 
hackwcods and Ibrwards within the ring. To pro- 
dace tfe cftd more easily and more perfectly, the 
: freqamtly yoked to a machine {iribn- 
taAso, tnka\ coosiatmg of a hoard 
i loaah by atladui^ to it .stones or pieces of 
and loaded with some heavy weight ; or, what 
termed a Panic wain {phrieUum Poematm) 
employod, being a set of toothed roUers 
rod wxth planks, on which saft the driter who 
gsded the team. 

Attoched to the area was a huge shed or half- 
cndosed bam (a a Wtw l ai ai X of safficient dimensions 
t» coBtain the whole cropw Here the com was 
dried in nafiivaaEBhIe seasons before being tluashed, 
sad hitfaor it waa horriedly conveyed for shelter 
when the harreat work was intempted by any 
saddm stonn. (C^ dl, 129; Yarn L 13, 6^ 52$ 
Cdam. i 6; ii 19; Palbd. I 86, viii 1 ; Plin. H, 
M xriii 29» 30 ; Horn. /A xiii. 588 ; XX. 495 ; xzi. 
77; \kg. Omrg. i 178f Geopon. il 26.) 

9. Wummtiag fymlUath), 

Whoi the grain was mixed with chaff, it was 
bid dawn in small piles upon the area, in otder 
that the fighter partides might be borne away by 
the paisng breere ; hot when the wind was not 
mfioeady strei^, it became n ccc smry to winnow 
(nmtiorv) it This was effected by a kbomer 



(Aiiif/Hrdjp, vmUUdor) who tossed it im from a 
sieve (ramnis, otyi'tiwn'asi) or shovel (vv^or. 



/ofiraai), when Uie heavy portion fdl down in a 
heap, and the chaff floated off thnmgh the air. 
When it was intended to keep the corn for any 
length of time, it was common to repeat the pro- 
cem (npttr^oTB, n^po^), that it might be tho- 
looghly cleaned. (Vair. i 52; Colom. ii. 9. 20 ; 
comp. Horn. IL v. 499; xiii 588L) 

10. iVewrmitioB <fOmm {deft aiioafa ssrwdb). 

After the corn had been thrashed ont and win- 
nowed, or at least the ean sepamted Cram the stalk, 
the next care wss to store np (ooaJere) the grain in 
fitting repositories (^ranarta, Aorres). The great 
object in view bemg to preserve it from becoming 
monldy or rotten, and to protect it from the lavages 
of vermin, eqwdally the weevil {cmadio\ we find 
that very great diversity of opinion existed aa to 
the means by which those ends might best be at- 
tained. By some the stors-honses were boilt with 
brick walls of great thickness, for the paipose, it 
would seem, of secnring a uniform tcmpenton, 
and had no window or apertnre, except a hole in 
the roo^ throogh which Uiey were filled. Others, 
again, raised these strnctures aloft on wooden 
colnnms, and allowed currents of air to nass 
through on all sides and even from below ; wnile 
others admitted particular winds only, such, namely, 
as were of a drying character. Many plastered 
the walls with a sort of hard stucco worked up 
with amurca, which was bdieved to act as a safe- 
guard against vermin, while others considered the 
use of liine under any form as decidedly injurious. 
These and many different opinions, together with 
receipts for various preparations wherewith to 
sprinkle the corn, will be found detailed in the 
authorities cited below, among whom Pliny veiy 
sensibly observes that the principal consideration 
ought to he the condition of the grsin itself when 
housed ; smce, if not perfectly dry, it must of ne- 
cessity breed mischiel In many countries, as in 
Thrace, Gappadoeia, Spain, and Africa, the com 
was hud up in piu {mbOma) sunk m a perfectly 
dry soil and well lined with chaff, a practice now 
extensively adopted m Tuscany. Wheat in the 
ear {mm tpiea sua) might, according to Vairo, if 
the air Was excluded, be preserved m such reoep- 
tades for fifty years, and millet for an hundrdL 
(Cat 92; Varr. I 57; Colum. 16; Pallad. i. 19; 
Plin. H, J\r. xviii 30 ; Qeopon. ii. 27—31.) 

IV. Crops. 

CropO) as already remarked, may be divided 
into foot classes : — 1. Grain or com crops. 2. Legu- 
minous crops, or pulse. 3. Crops cut green for forage. 
4. Crops which supplied the raw materials for the 
textile febrics. We might extend the number 
of classes did we purpose to treat of certain plants, 
such as poppies {papacera) and sesctaum, raised 
to a small extent only, and confined to particular 
localities ; but our limits do not permit us to em- 
brace so wide a field of inquiry. 

In addition to the above, much attenUon was 
devoted to what may be termed secondary crops ; 
those, namely, which did not afford directly food 
or clothing for man or beast, but Which were re- 
quired in order to filcilitate the cultivation and 
collection of the primary crops. Tliua» beds of 
willows (nlida) for baskets and withes, and of 
B 3 



54 



AGRICULTURA. 



reeds (armidmeta) for vine-props, were fireqaently in 
fiiTourable situations yery profitable, just as land 
in certain districts of Kent yields a large retnm 
when planted with yonng chestnuts for hop-poles. 

1. Com Crops (JrumaUa), 

The word applied in a general sense to denote 
what we now call " the cereal grasses " was Jht- 
menta; but of these wheat being by fat the most 
important, it is not wonderful that the term in 
question should be employed frequently to denote 
wheat specially, and occasionally in such a manner 
as to exclude other kinds of grain, as when Pliny 
remarks, ** calamus altior frumento quam hordeo,^* 
meaning ^ in wheat the stalk is longer than in 
barley/* The only frumenta which it will be 
necessary for us to consider particularly in this 
place are — 

a. Tritician and Far; 6. Hordeufn; c. Panicum 
and Milium, 

a. Tritiemn and Far. No one entertains any 
doubt that iriticum {vvphs in Greek, and by the 
later writers a7roi) is the generic name for the 
grain which we denominate wheat ; but when we 
proceed to examine the different species or varieties, 
we are involved in many difficulties, for the 
botanical descriptions transmitted to us by the 
ancients are in all cases so imperfect, and in 
many instances so directly at variance with each 
other, that it becomes almost impossible to identify 
with certainty the objects to which they refer, witn 
those fiuniliar to ourselves. CoIumelU (ii. 6 ; comp. 
Dioscorid. ii. 107 ; Theophr. H, P, viii. 1. 4X who 
attempts a systematic classification, assigns the first 
place among ^ fhunenta'* to Tritioum and Semen 
odoreum, each of which contained se^ eral species or 
varieties. Among many different kinds of triticum 
he deems the following only deser\ing of particular 
notice : — 

1. RcbtUy possessing superior weight and bril- 
liaucy {nUor), 

2. ^iligo, very white, but deficient in weight 
(Colum. iL 9, § 13 ; Plin, H,N, xviu. 8.) 

3. Trimestn (rpifiriyicuos s. rplfifivos\ a sort of 
siligo, receiving its name firom lying three months 
only in the ground, being spring-sown. We find 
this kind sometimes denominated Sifiriyos also, 
since in very warm situations it came to maturity 
in two months after it was sown. 

Among the different kinds of Semen adoreum^ 
the following are particularly noticed : — 

1. Far CUtiinum^ distinguished by its whiteness. 

2. Far vemiculum rutUum, 1 Both heavier than 
^, Farvenucidumcandidum.f the Cbmimm, 

4. HaUoattrum or Semen inmettn, very heavy 
and of fine quality. Here we must remark that 
although robuM^ siUgo^ and irimettre are set down as 
particiUar species or varieties of the more general 
term triiicumy which is used in contradistinction to 
aernen adorettm^ it is much more usual to find iriti- 
cum used in a restricted sense to denote ordinary 
winter wheat, in opposition to both siligo and ado- 
rettm, and hence Pliny declares that the most com- 
mon kinds of grain were ^Far^ called adoreum by 
the ancients, siligo^ and triiicttm,^ 

Now, with regard to the three kinds of trittcum 
enumerated above, we shall have little difficulty in 
deciding that they were not distinct species, but 
merely varieties of the same species ; for we are 
assured by Columella (iu 9), that triticum, when 
«own iu wet knd, passed m the course of three 



AGRICULTURA. 

years into siUgo, and by Pliny (xviu. 8) that mligo^ 
in most parts of Gaul, passed, at the end of two 
years, iaXjoiriiieum; agam. Columella, in describiiig 
trimutrty admits (although contradicted by Plin. 
/f. N, xviii. 7) that it is a variety of a%o, while 
modem experience teaches us that winter and spring 
wheats are convertible by subjecting them to pecu- 
liar modes of cultivation. Hence we amdade that 
rolms and sHigo were varieties of what is now- 
termed by botanists Tritiatm h/bemtmiy and that 
trimestre was a variety of our Tritkam ctestivum, 
which is itself a variety of the hybemum. 

The question with regard to Far, Ador^ Semen 
adoreum. Semen, Adoreum, names used indifferently 
by the Latin writers, does not admit of such an 
easy solution. But after a careful examination 
of the munerous, vague, perplexing, and oontiadic- 
toiy statements scattered over the classics^ the dis- 
cussion of which separately would ftr exceed our 
limits, we may with considerable confidence decide 
that /ar was a variety of the Greek {4a or C^Ut, and 
of the modem TriUcam spelta, if not absolutely 
identical with one or both. Spelt, which is fully 
recognised by botanists as a distinct species of triti« 
cum, is much more liardy than common wheat, suc- 
ceecUng well in high exposed situations where the 
hitter would not ripen, and its chaff adheres with 
singular firmness to the grain, both of which cir- 
cumstances were prominent characteristics of /ar. 
(Colum. iL 8 ; PUn. H.N. xviiL 7, 8, 30.) In- 
deed, it was found impossible to get rid of the thick 
double case in which it was enaoaed, by the ordi- 
nary modes of thrashing ; therefore it was stored 
up with the chaff attached (ixmeenU onm palea sua 
condi et sUpula tantitni et arisHs Uberatttr); and 
when used as food it was neoesaaxy to pound it in a 
mortar, or mb it in a mill of a peculiar oonstmctioo, 
in order to separate the tenacious husks — a process 
altogether distinct fiwm grinding, and indicated by 
the words /WMsrs, pistura, pisiores, (Cat 2 ; Plin. 
H. N. xviii. 1 0.) The idea entertained by some com- 
mentators, that the distinction between triticum and 
far consisted in the circumstance that the latter was 
awned while the former was beardless, is alto- 
gether untenaUe ; for not only does Pliny say ex- 
pressly in one passage (xviii. 10), far sine arista 
est, and in another (xviii 30), as distinctly that far 
had aristaej but it is perfectly dear fivm Vairo 
(l 48 ; compare Plin. H. N. xviii 7), that ordinary 
triticum had a beard, and from Pliny that siligo 
was generally, although not unifiomily, without 
one — a series of assertions whose contradictory 
nature need occasion no suiprise, since it is now 
well known that this, like colour, is a point which 
does not amonnt to specific difikenoe, for white, 
red, awned, and beardless wheats are found to 
change and run into each other, according to soil, 
climate, and mode of culture. Another fiict noticed 
by Pliny, to which, if conrect, botanists seem not 
to have given due attention, is, that triHeum had 
four joints in its stalk,yar six, and barley eight. 

AU agree that triticum (we shall use the word 
hereafter in the restricted sense of common winter* 
wheat) succeeded best in dry, slightly elevated, 
open ground, where the /ull ii^nence of the sun^s 
rays was not impeded by trees, while siligo and far 
were well adapted for low damp situations and stiff 
clayey soils (Cato 34, 35 ; Varr. i 9 ; Colum. iL 6; 
Plm. xviii 8). The sowing of winter wheat (satio 
autumnaUs) whether triticum, siligo, or adoreum, 
commenced for the most part, according to the 



AGRICULTURAL 

TajpEn pncept, after the moniiiig setting of the 
Pl^idei, tliBt ii, by the Roman calendar (ix. KaL 
Not.), after the 24th of October, and was alwayi 
CMdaded before the 9th of December, it being a 
■azira strietljT observed among prodent husband- 
sea to abstain from all field work lisr fifteen days 
lefere^ nd fifteen days after the winter solstice, 
la vet or l%ht aoila, how^rer, and in all ez- 
poied Htoationa, where it was important that the 
nofti ihoaM have a firm hold of the groond before 
the lams sad frosts set in, the sowing was fre- 
^endy eompletod by the end of September. 

Spnif sowmg (jioAio trimettrU) was practised 

adj wken the frimer had been preventai by ao- 

cidalsl drnmutancea from completing his work in 

autsan; or in those localities where, from the ex- 

aoDo eoid snd heavy snows, it was feared tbat the 

Tnag bhdes wonld be destroyed in winter ; or 

&aDT, where, from the depth and sdffiiess of the 

ttu^ Cenmhtdimi\ it might be cropped repeatedly 

vitbrat a frUow. In evoy case it was considered 

adriakble to throw the seed as soon as the weather 

weald pemit, that is, in ordinary seesona, early in 

Maidu Tht qnandty of seed leqnired was from 

l4ir to iiz modii of trUiemM or mlipo to the juger 

•coQidiDf as the soil was rich or poor ; and fimn 

li&e to tan modii of fiw. To anderstand this dif- 

'^coce, we must recollect that the frr was stored 

cpaed wwn oDtin tta thick husks ; and, therefore, 

vsold oeeapy abnoat twice as mnch space as when 

c'iOBed like the triticmn. The various operations 

ya fecm ed upon the above qoantity of seed before 

k coold be bnii^ght to the thzashii^-floor, required 

tai dan sad a half of watk. — Four for the plough- 

BSD (Mofaif ) ; one for the hairower (peecUor) ; 

tbee &r tbe hoer (sorrrfor), two days on the first 

occanoBySadone on the second ; one for the weeder 

(naosfcr) ; one and a half for the reaper {metmr), 

Tbe finest Italian wheat weighed firoro twenty- 

^ to twenty<4iz poonds the modius, which cor- 

Rtpoods to upwards of seventy English poonds 

AToirdnpois to the imperial bushel, the Roman 

pofid being veiy neariy 11*8 o& avoird., and the 

vgJUm -99119 of an imperial peek. The lightest 

^M tlist brought firom Gaol and firom the Cheiso- 

ficK. It did not weigh more than twenty pounds 

tbe nodiia. Imermediate were the Sardmian, the 

Alnaadrian, the Sicilian, the Boeotian, and the 

Afriesn, the two last approaching most nearly in 

anOeace to the Italian. 

The proportion which the produce bore to the 
■od lowa varied, when Cicero and Varro wrote, 
» ths richest and most h^hly cultivated districts 
of Sdly and Italy from 8 to 10 for 1 ; 16 for 1 
*u Raided as an extraordinary crop obtained in 
a frv UgUy fo,voured spots only, while in the age 
■f CohaeOa, when agriculture had fidlen into 
^7t the avenge return was less than 4 for I. 
Wrn ef Egvpt, the region of Bymcmm in Africa, 
tike aeighbouThood of Ooada in Syria, and the 
^^nitorf of Sybaris were said to render a hundred 
V etcn a handled and fifty fold ; but these ac- 
cents were in all likelihood greatly exaggerated. 
(Oe. n Verr, iii 47 ; Vair. L 44 ; Colum. iii. 3. 
|4-,P&Lir.Mxviii.21.) 

Ar is vnifonnly represented as having been the 
&it species of grain ever cultivated in Italy, and 
*• BBea wss emplojed exchisively in relinous cere- 
B<nics. Hence also/brma became the generic 
l^nB for flogr or meal vrfaether derived from for, 
^ tiitieani, or from any other oereaL Thus we 



AGRICULTURA 



65 



read of ir&i6M farina^ sU^inea /armt^ iordeaeea 
/arma, even avenaoea/anna (Plin. H. N, xviii. 9, 
XX. 1 3, xzii. 25). In the expressions^ tnticeum^ 
far ho^rdauoeMm found in Columella (viiL 5, 1 l),yar 
is evidently used fory^trmo, and we shall see 
that even siUpo is in like manner used to denote, not 
only the solid grain, but the flour produced by 
grinding it This being premised, we may pro- 
ceed to examine the meamng of the terms />o^, 
mmiloffo s. rimila^ eibarntm, sUj^o^Jloa, aUea^ amy- 
lunij ffraneoy &c, several of which have never been 
dearly explained. Here again we can give the re- 
sult only of an investigation, in the course of which 
we are obliged to thread our viray through state- 
ments at once obscure and irreconcilable. Regard- 
ing iritieum and siligo as two well distinguished 
varieties of wheat, their products when ground 
were thus classed by millers : — 

From triticum, 

1. PoUenj the finest flour dust, double dressed. 

2. Simiia^ or Similtigo, the best first flour. 

3. dharimn sseioM^antfm, second flour. 

4. Fur/hnSj bran. 

From siligo, 

1. Siiigo^ the finest double-dressed flour, used 
exclusively for pastiy and fancy bread. 

2. floe (mligmi$), first flour. 

8. dbaruim teamdariymj second flour. 

4. Jf^rfitreMf bran. 

It would appear that Celsus (ii. 18), consider- 
ing wheat generally as triticum, called the finest 
and purest flour sUiffo ; ordinary flour, rimila ; the 
whole produce of the grain, bran, and flour mixed 
together, cArirvpos. (Plm. //. N. xviil 8, 9, 
10,11.) 

AUca is placed by Pliny among the different 
kinds of com (xviii, 7), and is probably the same 
with the Halwastrum, Alicaatrumj or spring-sown 
/inr of Columella. But alioa is also used to denote, 
not only the gnun, but a particular preparation of 
it, most clearly described in another passage of 
Pliny (xviii. 11). The finest was znade from 
Campanian zea, which was first rubbed in a wooden 
mortar to remove the husk, and then (erctums 
itmieit) the pure grain (nwdaia medvUa) was 
pounded. In this manner thrt» sorts were pro- 
duced and classed according to their fineness, the 
minimum, the tecundarium, and the coarsest or 
aphaerTtnoy and each was mixed with a kind of fine 
white chalk, found between N^les and Puteoli, 
which became intimately amalgamated with it 
(tranta M oofTMiff, eoloremque et ieneritcUem q^hrt). 
This compound was the principle ingredient in a 
sort of porridge also called aUaiy while alioarius^ 
signifying properly one who pounded alica, fire- 
quently denotes a miller in general. (Plin. If. M 
xviiL 7, 11, 29, xxil 25 ; Cat 76 ; Cela. vi 6 ; 
Mart ii. 37, xiii. 6 ; Geopon. iiL 7.) 

Amylum is stareh, and the modes of preparing 
it are described by Cato (87), and Pliny {H. N. 
xviil 7). 

Cfranea was wheat, not ground, but merely 
divested of its husk, and made into a sort of por- 
ridge by boiling it in water and then adding milk. 
(Cat 86.) 

b. Hordeum s. Ordewn {icptBri ; Kps Hom.). 

Next in importance to ir'Uieum and adoreuniy was 

kordmim or barley, which was a more appropriate 

food for the lower animals than wheat, was better 

B 4 



M 



AGRICULTURA. 



for man -whea made into pclmta than wheat of an 
indifferent quality, and furnished excellent straw 
and chaff {stramenium^ palea). 

The species most generally cultivated, termed 
heaeattkkum or oouUkerinum^ was, we can scarcely 
doubt, identical with what we now call bear or 
bigg, the Hordeum heacatiuAon or six-rowed 
barley of botanists. It was sown after the vernal 
equinox (hence called rpi/t^j^, Theophr. H. P, 
viii. 1), upon land that had been twice ploughed, 
at the rate of five modii to the juger ; succeeded 
best in a dry, loose, rich soil ; and being an ex- 
hausting crop, the land from which it had been 
reaped was summer followed, or recruited by ma- 
nure. It was cut as soon as it was ripe ; for the 
stalk being brittle, was liable to be beaten down ; 
and the grain not being enclosed in an outer husk, 
was easily shaken. 

Another species, termed GalaHcmn or duti- 
Mttm, the same apparently with the modem HoT' 
deum vu^fan, or with Uie 'Hordeum ditUclnim, 
varieties of the common two-rowed barley, was 
remarkable for its weight and whiteness, and an- 
swered well for mixing with wheaten flour in 
baking bread for slaves. It was sown in autumn, 
winter or early spring, at the rate of six modii to 
the juger. Five modii of seed hordeum required 
six days and a half of labour to bring it to the 
thrashing-floor ; viz. ploughing three days, harrow- 
ing {ocoaUnia opera) one, hoeing (earrUoria) one 
and-a-hal^ reaping {me»9oria).oxi6. 

Pliny speaks of hordeum as the lightest of all 
frnmenta, weighing only 15 pounds to the modius 
(Roman poundHil 1*8 oz. avoird.). In mild cli- 
mates it might be sown early in autumn. (Theophr. 
H, P. viii. 1 ; Cat 35 ; Varr. L 34 ; Colum. ii. 
9. §§ 14, 15, 16 ; Virg. Georg, i. 210 ; Plin. H, N. 
xviii 7, 10 ; Oeopon. iL 14.) 

c. Pctnicum and MiUum are comihonly spoken of 
together, as if they were only varieties of tne same 
grain. The first is in all probability the Panicum 
mUiaeemn or common miUet of botanists, the 
ikviios or fUkivri of the Greeks ; the second is 
perhaps the Setaria ItaUoa or Italian millet, which 
corresponds to the description of leiyxpos ; while the 
species noticed by Pliny as having been brought 
from India less Uian ten years before the period 
when he wrote is, we can scarcely doubt, the 
Sorghum vulgare, or Durra of the Arabs. 

Panicum and milium were sown in spring 
(Virg. Georg, L 216), towards the end of March, 
at the rate of four sextarii (pints) only to the 
juger, but they required repeated hoeing and 
weeding to keep them clean. They succeeded well 
in light loose soil, even on sand if well irrigated ; 
and as soon as the ears were fairly formed, they 
were gathered by the hand, hung up to dry in the 
sun, and in this state would keep for a longer 
period than any other grain. Milium was baked 
into bread or cakes, very palatable when eaten 
hot ; and both panicum and milium made good 
porridge (puU). Although not much used by the 
population of Italy, except perhaps in Campania, 
they formed a most important article of food in 
the Gauls, in Pontus, in Sarmatia, and in Ethio> 
pia. (Cat 6 ; Colum. ii. 9. § 17 ; Plin. H, N, 
xviii. 7, 10, 26 ; Pollad. iv. 3 ; Geopon. ii. 38 ; 
Theophr. n. *, A il 17, /T. P, viiL 3 ; Dioecor. 
u. 119.) 

Seoale, rye, the Secale eereale of botanists, is not 
mentioned by any of the Greek writers unless it 



. AGRICULTURA. 
be the 0pl(a described by Galen (De Ahmmt. 
FaadU i. 2) as cultivated in Thrace anid Macedonia 
(but this, in all probability, was a coarse variety of 
spelt), nor by Cato, Vairo, Columella, nor Palla- 
dius. Pliny alone {H, N. xviii. 40) speaks of it, 
and in the following terms : — ** Secale Taurini aub 
Alpibus Aeiam vocant, deterrimum, et tantum ad 
arcendam fiunem : foecunda sed giadli stipola, 
nigritia triste, sed pondere praecipuum. Adniia- 
oetur huic for ut mitiget amaritudinem ejus ; et 
tamen sic qnoque ingratistimum ventri est Nas- 
citur qualicunque solo cum centesimo giano, ip- 
sumque pro laetamine est** In the previoos 
chapter he makes it identical with faarrogo^ that 
is, com sown for the purpose of being cut green as 
fodder. See remarks upon Farrago below. 

Aroma, the oat (fi^iuis s. fip&fMs, Theophr. 
H. P. viii. 4 ; Dioaoorid. iL 16), the Avena mxtiva 
of botanists, need scarcely be noticed in thia place 
since it cannot be raised as a grain with any ad- 
vantage in a climate so warm as that of Greece or 
of Italy. ColumeUa(ii.lO. §9)aadPliny (^.iV: 
xviii. 42, Avena Graeoa) recommended that it 
should be sown for green fodder, and the latter 
remarks that it became a sort of com {JrnmenHJit 
instar) in Germany, where it formed a regular 
crop, and where oatmeal porridge was a national 
dish (neque alia puUe vivani, H. N, xviii. 44. 
§ 1. comp. iv. 27, vL 35). In another passage 
{H, N. xxii. 68) the same author prescribes oat- 
meal {<»venaeea /ari$ta) steeped in vinegar as a 
remedy for spots on Uie skin. The Avena con- 
demned as a troublesome weed by Cato {H. B, 
xxxviL § 5) and Virgil (tterilet anenae, G. i. 154) 
is, probably, the Avena fatua of botanists, al- 
though Pliny (H, N, xviii. 44. § 1) makes no dis- 
tinction between this and die cultivated kind. 

Other cereals we may dismiss very briefly. 

Oryasa (ifnf(a, 6pv(or), rice, was imported from 
the East, and was much esteemed for making gmel 
(nfiKNia). 

Zea {(40, (^la), Olyra («Xupo), 7^^ (rUpv), 
and Arinca, of which the first two are named by 
Homer, must be regarded as varieties of the TYiti- 
eum Spdia or Far (Herod, ii. 36 ; Theophr. H. P. 
iL 5, viiL 9 ; Dioscorid. iL 110 ; Galen, de Ali- 
ment. FacfdU L 2, 13). The statements found in 
the eighteenth book of Pliny^s Natural History in 
reference to these four are altogether unintelligible 
when compared with each o&er. He evidently 
copied, as was too often his custom, fimn a num- 
ber of discordant authorities without attempting 
to reconcile or thinking it necessary to point out 
their contradictions. In one place (xviiL 20. § 4) 
he says distinctly that Arinoa is the Olyra of 
Homer, and in another he seems to say (xviiL 1 1) 
that Olyia in Egypt became Far {far in JEgypto 
ex olgra ootvficUur). Now we know from Hero- 
dotus (ii. 36) that in his time Olyra and Zea were 
considered synonymous, and that these exclusively 
were cultivated by the Eoyptians. Hence we 
shall be led to conclude that the wheat which 
has been raised recently firom the seeds discovered 
in the mummy cases is in reality the ancient Zea 
or Olyra, and from its appearance we should fur- 
ther be induced to identify it with the IVitieum 
ramoeum of Pliny {H. N. xviiL 21). 

With r^ard to Irio and HomUmm, of which 
the former se«ns to have been called ip^ifwy by 
the Greeks, both enumerated by Pliny among 
/rumenta, although he afterwards somewhat quali- 



AGRICULTURA. 

Ses tkii aBntioB, we do not kaaid a eonjeciiixeL 
(MiB. ff. AT. xriH. lOl § 1—22, xaai 75.) 

We Maj candade this wction with an ennmera- 
t»a of the leehucal temts emploTed to denote the 
differoi parte ef an ear and ^dk of ooni. 

The vfaole ear was named tpiea; the beaid or 
awa oTttte/ the ear, when heudleH, tpiea aw- 
Ciea, the white solid snbstaaoe of the grain, mA'- 
■■■» mfiiimm — mwdata wtedmBa — gnmmm ; the 
hoik which immediatelj envdopes the gianwn, 
gtmma^ with which eorfea^ Aanoo, /bllkmbu, are 
oaed as BjBaajnioas; the enter husk oevf / the 
hash with the short straw attached, po^ai / 



AORICULTURA. 



67 



J to which 
m legnminaiis phmts ; the knots or 
jwdi in die stem, ffeaiemfi, ariiadi; the sheath- 
Eke hbde in the stem fram which the ear isiues 
teh,a^p».. 

2. LegtmnmouB Crop^ (x^Bporo, LegmnxM^ 

The 'metaUca fiJUng propeily under this head, 
thkfly ci&Tated by the aodeiiti, were : a. Foha; 
4. IjKpmm; c Lmt s.. LaHaJa; d, deer; e, 
CTiviFvafa J /i Pkamebu; ff. Pimtm; to which, 
ia Oder to avoid nialtiplyiiig sabdiTisiona, we 
say add Nufi and Rapn^ lince in common with 
the k^anuna thej serred as food both for mea and 
Gitde. 

a. FhAa. The andent JidHL, the jcwd^f of the 
Gteda^ notwithstanding all that has been miffed to 

""^ ' — y, waa certainly one of the Tarieties of 

field bean, the Vkia Faba, or Faba 

Mstt of botanists. It required either 

rich and Strang, or well mannndhmd. Ifiownupon 

moiit low-lying groond that had remained long 

naoopped { v e te $9b um \ no previons pr^aration was 

iimaiMj ; bvt the leed was icattaed and at onoe 

^Di^ked in ; the field was then ribbed and finally 

harrawed (aamsammtermioaolouiffetaanauu^mara' 

bmuu, imptuwataimqm ocm&fptafX the object being 

to haiy the seed as deepas possible; But if beans 

were to be sown vpon Imd finm which a eon crop 

had hen jort reaped {ndibilU C9er),afterthe stabble 

was deaied away, msnnre was spread at the rate 

of twcB^ frnr TehiBS to the jnger, and then the re- 

■aoiag operations were the nme as aboTe. Rich 

hnd leqsLire d finom fiinr to six modii to the juger, 

pooKT nfl somewhat more. A portion of the seed 

was cnmmitt<H! to the groond about the middle 

(■irfifiT jsMflaCiX the rwnainder at the end of the 

esm-aowi^g season {stplimoniia^ aaUo), Viigil 

(Gteqpi L 215), indeed, fiillowing the practiee of his 

ova district^ directs that beans should be sown in 

ipcii^ ; bat this was disapproTcd of in the rest of 

Italy because the stalks (fiodet—fabdUa)^ the pods 

(nfifMs), and the hnsks {aem f<Aagmiim\ aU of 

which wen of great Tahie as food for cattle, were 

less Inxniant in the spring-sown {Jtnmetlria faba^ 

thaa ia the antamnal crop. Columella reoommends 

thtf beans ahoold be hoed three times, in which 

esse they reqiured no weeding. When they had 

szriTed at matority, they were reaped dose to the 

fsraand, were made iq» into sheaves (/%MCtea&'), 

woe »fc*««l»*«i by men who tossed the bundles with 

forks, tmmpled them under foot, and beat them 

with ilaik (famfis), and finally, were cleaned by 

vianowii^^ The harrest took place in Central 

Itsly about the end of May, and hence the first of 

Jaae was named Odeadae FtdtariaA, because on 

that day new beans were used in sacred rites. From 

fair to BX modii of seed required two days* work 



of the idooghman, if the land was newly broken 
up, but only one if it had been cropped the prerions 
season ; harrowing occupied one dav and a half, 
the first hoeing one day and a hal^ the second and 
third each one day, reaping one day ; in all, seven 
or eight days. 

Bean meal (fawmah iai, «7c9tm«) was baked into 
bread or cakes {ipros Kv4iup9s\ especially if 
mixed with the floor of wheat or millet ; when 
made mto porridge (Jbbaeia^ jmU /hbata)^ it was 
aooooated an acceptable offering to the gods and 
termed Aq^Woo, — a name properly applied to the 
beans brought home and set apart ior holy pur- 
poses. (Honi.iZ.xiiL589; Cat.S5; Varr. l44; 
ColuuLii 10,12;Pallad.iL9,TiL8; Plin./r.M 
xriL 5, xriii. 12, xix. S ; GeopQn.iL 35 ; IHoseorid. 
ii. 127 ; Theophr. /f. P. iv. 2, viL S, viii, 1 ; eonp. 
Fest s. V. R^rwa; OelL iy. 11, x. 15; Maaok 
SaLll^i Gcd^DkLLiO; Or. i^oiC t. OOL) 

b, Lt^imuy the b4pii»s of the Greeks, seems to 
indode the Lupmm albtu^ the L. Ii4mm, and the 
L. pUomu of botanists, the eonunon white, yellow, 
and rose lupines of our gardensi The firat of the 
above spedes was that chiefly cultivated by the 
Romans, and is prononnoed by Columella to be 
the most valnalde of the legnmina, because it de- 
manded very little labour, was a sore crop, and 
instead of exhausting, actaally refreshed and ma- 
nured the lend. Steqwd in water and afterwards 
boiled, it formed an excellent find for oxen in 
winter, and might be used even for man during 
periods of scareity. It could be sown as soon as 
thrashed, might be cast upon ground unprepared 
by ploqghing or any other operation (erwdw aoootf- 
6m), and was covered up anyhow, or not covered 
up atall, bdng protected by its bittcfnea from the 
attadcs of birds and other animals. 

The proper season for sowing was early in an- 
tumn, in oidcr that the stalks might acquire vigour 
before the cold weather set in ; the quantity of 
seed was ten modii to the jnger, and the crop was 
reaped after it had remained a year in the ground. 
It succeeded well in any dry light land, but not m 
wet tenacious soiL Ten modiirequired in all only 
three days* work ; one for^ covering up, one for 
harrowing, and one fiir req>tng, and of these opera- 
tions, the two fint might, if there was a press of 
work, be dispensed with. (Cat. v. 35 ; Colum. ii 
10, 16, xi. 2 ; Palhid. I 6, ii. 9, vL 3, vii. 3, ix. 2 ; 
Pliu. ff, N. xviii. 14 ; Oeopcn. ii 39 ; Viig. 
Cfeorp. i. 75.) 

e. Ltm» B. L ff t fe a fa , the ^oic^s of the Greeks, 
the modem Erwtm Lmt^ Vieia Lent^ or Lentile^ 
was sown twice ayear, hue in autumn {per mediam 
mmaitim) and early in spring, on dry hghi soil, in 
the proportion of rather more than a modius to the 
juger. It was recommended to mix the seed with 
dry manure, and after leaving it in this state for 
four or five days, then to scatter it A modius and 
a half required eight days* work — ploughing, three ; 
harrowing, one ; hoeing, two ; weeding, one ; pul- 
ling, one. (Cat. 35 ; Viig. Geor^ff, 1 228 ; Colum. 
ii 10, 12 ; XL 2. ; Plin. ff. N. xviii 12, 31 ; 
PaUad. xii 11 ; Theophr. ff, P, viii 3 ; Dioecorid. 
ii 129 ; Geopon. ii 37; comp. Martial, xiii 9. 1 ; 
GdixviiiS.) 

d. Goer, the ip4€tweos of the Greeks. The 
OScerarielimm {xpUs) and the CCoer Pa wi c iww, va- 
rieties of our common chick-pea, were sown in 
rich soil, during the month of March, in the pro- 
portioo of three modii to the juger, the 



58 



AGRICULTURA. 



baving been prerioiuly steeped to make them 
genninate more readily. The crop was conridered 
injurious to the soil, and therefore avoided by 
prudent husbandmen. Three modii of Cioer re- 
quired four days for ploughing and sowing, two 
days for harrowing, one day for hoeing, one day 
for weeding, and uree days for pulling (eeSiwsfatr 
irilut), (Colum. iL 10, 12 ; Plin. H. N. zriii. 12 ; 
Dioscorid. ii 126 ; Theophr. yiii 1, 3, 5, 6 ; Geo- 
pon.ii. 36.) 

e. Oi438rcula, the KdBupos of the Greeks, the 
Lathjfnu mtivui of botanists, which Pliny seems 
to regard as a small variety of the Cicer, was 
sown in good land either at the end of October or 
at the b%inning of the year, in the proportion of 
three modii to the juger. ' None of the legumina 
proved less hurtiiil to the ground, but it was rarely 
a successful crop, for it suffered most from the d^ 
weather and hot winds which usually prevailed 
when it was in flower. Four modii of Cioercula 
required six days* work — ploughing, three ; harrow- 
ing, one ; weeding, one ; pullmg, one. (Colum. ii. 
10, 12 ; Plin. H. AT. xviil 12 ; Pallad. il 6, iiL 4 ; 
Theophr. H.P. viil 3 ; oomp. Plutaroh. QuaeiL 
Rom.) 

f. PhcudM s. PluueoUta {^wHiKoi ; ^wHioKos ; 
^fiurfoXot), the common kidney-bean, succeeded 
best in rich land regularly cropped, and was sown 
towards the end of October m the proportion of 
four modii to the juger. These four modii re- 
quired three or four days* work, — ploughing, one 
or two, according to the soil ; harrowing, one ; 
reaping, one. The pods of the phaselus wero some- 
times eaten along with the seeis, according to our 
own custom. (Virg. Qtorg, i. 227 ; Colum. il 10, 
12, xi. 2 ; Plin. H, N, xviil 12 ; Pallad. ix. 12 ; 
x.1.) 

g. Pintm ('witrov ; irUros ; irUriros\ the common 
field pea, succeeded best in a loose soil, a warm 
situation, and a moist climate. It was sown im- 
mediately after the autumnal equinox, in the pro- 
portion of rather less than four modii to the juger, 
and cultivated exactly in the same manner as the 
pkcuebu, (Colum. il 10, 13 ; Plm. H,N, xviil 7, 
12 ; Theophr. H. P, iil 27, viii. 3, 5.) 

Napusy the /Bowids of Dioscoridcs, is the mo- 
dem Rape, the Brcusiea rapa of botanists. Pa- 
ptMK, the yoyyuXis of Theopbrastus, is the modem 
Turnip, the Bnutiea Naput of botanists. The 
value of these plants was in a great measure over- 
looked by the earlier Roman writers, while the 
Greeks reaaided them too much in ihe light of 
garden herbs ; but Pliny enlaiges upon their merits, 
and by the Gauls beyond the Po, who wintered 
their oxen upon them, their culture was deemed 
next in importance to that of com and wine. They 
were highly useful as food for man, for cattle^ and 
even for birds ; both the leaf and bulb were avail- 
able ; being very hardy, they could be left in the 
ground, or would keep well if stored up, and thus 
one crop might be made to hold out until another 
came in. They required loose, well-pulverised, 
and highly-manured soil Rapa sneoeeded best in 
low, moist situations, and were sown at the end of 
June after five ploughings (^wii^ mUeo) ; napi, 
which were more adai>ted for dry sloping land, at 
the end of August or the beginning of September, 
after four ploughings {qmcuio tuleo) ; both, however, 
in warm and well-watered spots might be sown 
in spring. A juger required four sextarii (about 
four imperial pints) of tunup seed and five of 



AGRICULTURA. 

rape seed, because the napus does not, like the 
rapum, expand into an ample bulb {mm in ven- 
trem IcUeaoit)^ but sends a tlun root straight do^ii 
{aod tenmem radieem deormnt offit). Columbia, 
however, distinctly states that the npum and 
napus passed into each other, under the inflnence 
of a change of soil or dimate. Rqoina is the term 
for a bed or field of turnips. (Dioscorid. iL 1 34, 
136 ; Cat V. 36 ; Colum. il 10 ; Plin. I£. 2^. 
xviil 13.) 

Sw Green Forage Orope (JPebda\ 

This term included all those crops which vrere 
cut green and employed exclusively as forage for 
the lower animals. The most important were : — 
a. Medioa, b. Foemtm Oraeeum. e. Vieicu d. 
deera. e. Brtmrn^ ErmUa. f. Farrago^ Ocy- 
m»ifi. g, Foenma, The description of the lost 
win involve an account of the system pursued in 
the management of meadows. 

a. Maiica {Mifiuefi sc ir6a) the modem L.n- 
oeme. The most important of all the pUnta cul- 
tivated for stock exclusively was Medica, so called 
because introduced into Greece during the Persian 
wars. When once properly sown, it would last 
for many years, might be cut repeatedly during 
the same season, renovated rather than exhausted 
the soil, was the best fiittener of lean cattle, the 
best restorative for those that were sick, and so 
nourishinff that a single juger supplied sufiicient 
food for uree horses during a whole year. Hence 
the greatest care was bestowed upon its culture. 

The spot fixed upon, which was to be neither 
dry nor spongy, received a first ploughing about 
the beginning of October, and the upturned earth 
was allowed to be exposed to the weather for the 
winter ; it was carefully ploughed a second time, 
at the beginning of February, when all the stones 
were gathered ofl^ and the larger clods broken by 
the hand ; in the month of March it was ploughed 
for a third time and harrowed. The ground thus 
prepared was divided into plots or beds (onecu) as 
in a garden, each fifty feet long and ten feet 
broad, so that ready access might be gained by 
the walks between for supplying water and ex- 
tirpating the weeds. Old dung was then spread 
over the whole, and the sowing took place at the 
end of April, a cyathus (about f^ of an imperial 
pint) of seed being allowed for each bed of the 
dimensions described above. The seed was im- 
mediately covered in with wooden rakes {i^neis 
ratidU$\ and the operations of hoeing and weed- 
ing were performed Rpeatedlv with wooden im- 
plements. It was not cut for the first time until it 
had dropped some of its seed, but afterwards 
might be cut as tender as the fiurmer thought fit. 
After each cutting it was well watered, and as 
soon as the young blades began to sprout, eveiy 
weed was sedulously removed. Mamiged in this 
manner it might be cut six times a year for ten 
(Plmy says uirty) years. It was necessary to 
use caution in giving it at first to cattle, since it 
was apt to inflate them, and make Uood too 
rapidly, but when they were habituated to its 
use it might be supplied freely. It is very re- 
markable that this species of forage, to which so 
much importance was attached by the Romans, 
has altogether disappeared firom Italy. We are 
assured by M. Chateauvienx that not a single phmt 
of it is now to be seen. (Vair. I 42 ; Colum. il 
10, 28 ; Viig. Georg, L 216 ; Pallad. iil 6, v. 1 ; 



AORICULTURA. 

Pfau H. N, xviiL 16 ; DioiDarid. iL177 ; Theophr. 
iSr. P. Till 7.) 

k Fum— I GW mc — I , Tarionsly tenned r^Aif , 
Pw« » f» » •> M«p«, acc^c^it and oly^^ws, 
be rnycrfh fommm Orueemm^ at oommoQ Fenn- 
pcek of boCuuitif wu called SSigma by conntnr 
propkr asd saeeeeded best vhen totally neglected, 
ofe hanf taken in the fint place not to boiy tbe 
•h4 deep {marifieaiime teritmr). Six or seven 
Bodii, vBdi ma the aflowanoe for a jnger, re- 
scind two days far towiog and one for reaping. 
(Cat 35 ; Colnm. a 10, xL 2 ; Plin. H. N. xriS. 
U,xxiT.19; Diasoorid.iL 134; Tbeophr. H. F. 
iL. 17, Tiii 8L) 

c Fida (adpmcw^ the 0uaA^ of Galen), Mane 
«e of tke Tarieties of the Vieia rnHna^ the Vetdi 
or ftvimer (or Winter) Tare of botanists. It 
a^'lit be sown on diy land at different periods of 
tte Teas, anally afaont the antonmal equinox whoi 
ntoided ftr green fodder ; in Janoary or later, when 
aiMd fir seed. (But see Plin. H. N. xriii 15.) 
TVe qvatity lecpiired in the former case was seven 
■odii to the juger, in the latter six. Particalar 
can vas taken not to cast the seed when Uiete 
«» drv or aaoistare of any sort apon the smfoce 
•^tbegmmd ; the period of the day selected for 
*ie opeatiQn was therefore some hoozs after san- 
CM, and BO more was scattered than ooold be 
^y^m^ op before nif^t» It required little labour — 
fi^Ng two daya, hanowing one, le^nng one ; 
n aS, Soar days' work for six or seven modii 
•Cat 35 ; Yaici 51 ; Viig. GmrgXlb ; Cdom. 
u-ia{2a,12.§3; Plin.H.iV:xTiii.l5; camp. 
0T.F«tT.2«7.) 

i' Gceta, the H/Xfios of Theophraato^ the Z«- 
(^ CSoero of botanists, was sown after one or 
(*o plooKUqgs (prMNo vtl aUero mUeo\ in the 
mh of Maich, Uke quantity of aeed varying, ao- 
^^ to the richneas of soil, from two and a 
^to 6ar Bodii for the jnger. In sonthem 
^^ H ms given to the catUe crashed (cioerci 
A»X steeped in water, and then mixed with 
^^ Twelve pounds of «n»n» were considered 
«lMcBl to sixteen of OMwra, and sufficient for a 

7«k«0fQZC|L 

(^Kcaaascaltivated for its seed also, and fonned 
ttA«B|abtiUe food for man, differinff little if at 
^ B laitB from the cieercnla, but being of a 
?*««*«. (Colum.iLll,§l,12; PaUaiiv, 
*; Wn. isr. AT. xviiL 12 ; Theophr. H, P, iv. 2.) 

<• ^firvavyiSirTdM, the5po«of of Dioacorides, are 
^fORidy varieties of the £rBM» JVrtb, or WOd 
UR «f bolaniita. Enmm succeeded best m poor 
«ThBd ; si%fat be sovm at any tune between the 
^toml eqainox and the bcgmning of March, at 
ut Qte of fire modii to the pager, and demanded 
^2*^ The above quantity required six days* 
^°]'^~'F^Klullg and sowing two, harrowing one, 
^«a|Weedmgone,ieapuigone. (yarr.i.82; 

]n.u v^. 100 { osiunuiLlo. J H H. § n, 

L. ' 8. 13. J 1, ▼!- A ». 2 ; Pallad. ii. 8 ; 
™». « M xviiL 15 ; Theophr. -»: P. ix. 22 ; 
*7wji u. 131 ; comp Plant. AfofeaOL i. 1.) 
^^^^^H^ Oif iwBBi. Onoomparing the various 
*y»MSaoted at the end of this paragraph, al- 
7^ ^ tbooad in csntiadictinns, we shall be 

. ^ '^ fimuf fo was the general term employed 
IJlJ'^aBykmd of oom cut green for fodder. 
'^f ant mu derived from/ir, the refuse of that 
^ \m% ooginaliy sown for this purpose (/or- 



AGRICULTURA. 59 

rago ssr rwrtmaoia fanit praedenmt 98riimr\ but 
afterwards rye (aow^), oato {avmae\ and barley, 
were employed ; the last-mentioDed being, in the 
eatimation of Columella, the beat ; and theae grains 
were not always aown alone, but frequently with 
an admixture of the vetch and varioua Icgumina. 
Hence /orroffo is used by Juvenal to denote a 
confused medley of heterogeneous topica. 

2. That as fiarrago properly denoted com cut 
green for fodder, ao o^mmn was the name given 
to plants of the bean kind, when need in the aame 
manner, before they came to maturity, and fanned 
pods.^ Manlius Sum gives the proportions of ten 
modii of beans, two of vetches, snd two of erviliae 
to the juger ; and this combination was said to be 
improved by the addition of Avema. Cfraeody sown 
in autumn ; it was the fint crop available in the 
early part of the year, and hence^ of the three fonns 
odiMMK, oetnitaii, o cy mm my we can scarcely doubt 
that the last is the most accurate, and that the 
name was given on account of the nq>idity of its 
growth in saving. From the expression of Pliny, 
** Apud antiquos ent pabuli genus quod Cato 
Oegmani vocat,** and tne silence of Columella, 
who mentions the sarden herb ocymum (basil) 
only, we infor that this sort of pabidum was little 
used after the time of Varro. The notion of 
Gesner that ocymum is clover, the iucMow rpnr^ 
nfXoF of Callimachns, is directly at variance with 
the statements of Pliny, who mentions tri/olium as 
a distinct phmt (Cat 27, 5% 54 ; Varr. i. 23, 
31 ; Colum. ii. 10. § 31, d^;, xi. 8. § 29 ; Plin. 
jy.iST.xviiLie.) 

ff. Foenum, Frata. So much importance was at- 
tached to stodc, that many considered a good mea- 
dow as the most valuable species of land, requiring 
little trouble or outlay, subject to none of the casual- 
ties to which other crops were exposed, affording a 
sure return every year, and that twofold, in the 
shape of bar and of pasture. The meadows were of 
two kinds, the Dry Meadow {sieoameumpratym) and 
the Iirigated or Water Meadow {praHtm rigitum)» 
The hay produced from a meadow whose own rich 
natural moisture did not require an artificial 
stimulus was the best. Any hmd which declined 
with a gentle slope, if either naturally rich and 
moist, or capable of irrigation, might be laid down 
as a meadow, and the most approved method of 
procedure was the following : — The land having 
been thoroughly ploughed and well laboured in 
summer, was in antomn sown with rapa, or napi 
or beans, the following year with wheat, and in 
the third year, all trees, bushes, and rank weeds 
having been extirpated, with the vetch (vidd) 
mixed vrith grass seeds. The dods were broken 
down with rakest the surfi^e accurately levelled 
by wicker hurdles, so that the scythe of tne mower 
(/bemaeea) might nowhere encounter any obstacle. 
The vetches were not cat until they had arrived at 
maturity and begun to drop their seed ; and after 
they had been removed, the grass, when it had at- 
tained to a proper height, was mown and made 
into hay. l^en the irrigation commenced, pro- 
rided the soil was stifi^ for in loose earth it was 
necessary to allow the grass roots to obtain a firm 
hold. For the first year xm stock were permitted 
to graze lest their foet should poach up the soft 
ground, but the young blades were cut from time 
to time. In the second year, after the hay-making 
was over, if the ground was sAoderately dry and 
hard, the smaller animals were admitted, but na 



60 AGRICULTURA. 

honee or oxen until tin third. About the inidd]^ 
of Fefamary in each year, an abundant top-dreBsing 
of manure mixed with gFBSB-seeda was applied to 
the upper part of the field, the benefit of which 
was extended to the lower portions by the flow 
either of natural rain or of artificial streams. 
When old meadows became mossy, the best re- 
medy was to sprinkle ashes copiously, which in 
many cases kflled the moss ; but when this &iled, 
the most sure plan was to break up the land afiesh, 
which, haying bun long undisturbed, was sure to 
afford abundwLt oops. 

In making hay, the grass was to be cut {faUd" 
Am wAseoart) before the stem had begim to lose 
its natural moisture, while the seed was not yet 
perfectly ripe ; and in drying, it was essential to 
avoid the two extremes of exposing it for too long 
or too short a time to the sun and air. In the 
former case, tiie juices were sucked out, and it 
became little better than straw ; in the latter, it 
was liable to ferment, heat, and take fire. After 
being properly turned over with forks {/urcUUs 
vencui) it was collected and laid in regular swathes 
(coartabimus in atriffam\ and then bound into 
sheaves or bundles {atqiie Ua manipUM vmaemtut). 
The loose stalks were next raked together {raddlU 
eradi) and the whole crop (/oeni$icia) carried home 
and stored in lofts, or, if this was not conve- 
nient, built up in the field into conical ricks (m 
metat extnti eonoeniei). Lastly, the inequalities 
passed over by the mowers (quae fotmtton prae- 
terierunt) were cut close and smooth {jridUenda 
pratOy id ett^ JalcSnu eoniectanda)^ an operation 
termed tidlire prahtmy the gleanings thus obtained, 
which fbimed a sort of aftermath, being called 
/oenum eordumj or gteUvnenia, (Cat 5, 8, 9, 29, 
50 ; Varr. L 7, 49 ; Colum. il 16—18; PaUad. 
il 2, iiL 1, iv. 2, x. 10.) 

4. Crops affording Materials for tetetHe Fabrics, 

Of these, the most important were, a. Cannabis : 
b. Limtm, 

a. Cannabis {KdanraSis^ KimnBos) the Cbmia&M 
so/tbo, or Common Hemp of botanists, required 
rich, moist, well-watered, deeply trenched, and 
highly manured land. Six grains were sown in 
every square foot of ground during the last week 
in February, but the operation might be delayed 
for a fortnight if the weather was rainy. Colu- 
mella is unable to give any details with re^^ to the 
amount of time and labour necessary for raising a 
crop of hemp. (Varr. i. 23 ; Colum. il 10, 12, 
21 ; Plin. H, N,^3l9 ; Dioscorid. iii. 165.) 

b. Linum (Aivov), the Linum usitatissimumj or 
Common Flax of botanists, being regarded as a 
Tery exhausting crop, was altogether avoided, un- 
less the soil happened to be peculiarly suitable, or 
the price which it bore in the district very in- 
viting (nisi pretium provHai). It was sown from 
the beginning of October until the end of the first 
week in December, in the proportion of eight modii 
to the jnger, and sometimes in February at the rate 
of ten modiL On account of its scourging qualities 
(Viig. Geoiy, i 77), it was generally grown upon 
rich land, such being less liable to be seriously in- 
inred, but some sowed it very thick upon poor 
land, in order that the stalks might be as thin, and 
therefore the fibres as delicate as possible. (Viig. 
Georp. L 212; Colum. il 10, 14; Plin. ff, iV: 
xril 9, xix. 1 ; Pallad. xi 2 ; Geopon. iL 10 ; 
Dioscorid. il 125 ; Theophr. H, P, viil 7.) 



AGRICULTURA 

Suooesdon or RotaHon o/Crops, 

It is evident from the instructions given hy 
Columella (il 4) for ploughing the best Land, that 
a summer follow usually preceded a com cropw For 
since the first ploughing was early in spring, the 
second in summer, and the third in automn, it is 
impossible that a crop could have been raised apcm 
the ground during any portion of the period here 
indicated ; and the same author expieasly states 
elsewhere (il 9), in accordance vrith the Virgilian 
precept (G. I 71), that the knd upon which wheat 
(far, eiUffo) vras grown ought to repose every other 
year ; in which case, however, manure might be 
dispensed with. Nor did this plan apply to com 
alone, for it would seem to have been the general 
practice to permit nearly one half of the fiirm to 
remain at rest, while the productive eoefgies of the 
other moielT were called into action. It will be 
seen from the calculations with r^nard to time and 
labour for an arable fiirm oontuning 200 jugera 
(Colum. il 12), that 100 jugen only were aown 
in antmnn, 50 with wheat, 50 with leguminona or 
green crops ; and if spring-sowmg was resorted toi, 
which was by no means general, 30 more, so that 
out of 200 jngers, at least 70, and more firequentl j 
100, were left followed. 

There were, indeed, exoeptions to this system. 
Some land was so peculiarly deep and rich that it 
might be cropped for two or more years in saoces- 
sion {terra restibiUs) ; but in this case it was re- 
lieved by varying the crop, the field from which 
winter wheat (far) had been reaped being highly 
manured and sown immediately with beans, or the 
ground which had home lupines, beans, vetches, 
or any renovating crop, was allowed to lie follow 
during winter and then sown with spring-wheat 
(far) (Viig. Gtorg, I 78 ; comp. Plin. H. N. 
xviil 21), while a third rotation, still more fovour- 
able^ was to take two leguminous or renovating 
crops after one exhausting or com crop. In Cam- 
pania, the extraordinary fertility of the soil al- 
lowed them to tax its energies much more severely, 
for there it was conmum to sow bailey, millet, 
turnips {rapa)^ and then barley or wheat agam, the 
hud receiving manure before the millet and turnips, 
but never remaining vacant ; while that pecnliariy 
favoured district near Naples, called the Campi 
Laborini^ or Terras Ldboriae^ now the Terra di 
Lanaro^ yielded an uninterrupted series of com 
crops, two of for, and one of millet, without a 
moment of repose (seribur toto omio, panioo ssmely 
bisfarre), (Cat 35 ; Varr. L 44 ; Viig. Cfeorp. I 
71, &c. ; Colum. il 9, 10, 12 ; Plin. H, N. xviil 
21, 23.) 

It will be proper, before bringhig this part of 
the subject to a dose, to explain a word which 
may occasion embarrassment in consequence of its 
signification being variously modified by the Roman 
agricultural writers. This is the adjective noedis^ 
which frequently appears as a substantive, and in 
all the three genders, according as agery terra^ or 
solum is undentood. 

1. The original meaning of nowdis or nonaUy 
looking to its etymology, must have been, land 
neudff redaifned from a state of nature ; and in 
this sense it is used by Pliny (H.^T. xvii. 5), 
Talis (sc odor) fere est in novalibns eaesa ffsters 
syha, (Comp. Callistr. in Pand. xlvil 21. 3.) 

2. Varro, m his treatise De JJngna LatiM (v. 
39 ; comp. vi. 59, ed. Miiller), places novaUsajfsr^ 




AOMCULTURA- 

hod vUck ii tllowed ooeaaonaUy to repose, in 
I to putASiM agtfy land which is cropped 
"Affer rwfiSafe 911* vHtJfuHtwr ao re- 
' €oiUta fm utteruuttititr a 
» aonfi^ — and henco Flinj {ff. N. xriiL 
19X y^ooait eat qmod alternii oiwu aeritur, 

X Vanoy in kit Treatue De Re Rustica (l 29), 
Maes Stffee to mean a field which has been 
^oQfhed and aown ; oynan, a field ploughed but 
nat yet aovn ; no tqfa n&i aa fi ia t y%(sl oiUeguam ae- 
n w rfe a mrt i wM iw n ofvf ii r , ambignona words which 
■ay he int e iyi eto d to denote a field which has 
bone a crap, b«t which has not been ploughed for 
a seoood crop ; in which case it will be equiTalent 
reu/aOowfieU. 

4. CebaneUn, in one pasH^ (vi. praef. § 1), 
cnploja aoaofe eobtm fat new or Tiigin land nn- 
toocM bj die plough ; fiir in contraatiiig the 
taacs of the agricnltoriat and the grader, he re- 
aadu that the fonner delighta quam mcuame tub- 
ocfo cf pmre ao£a, tbe latter aoca&* ffnmUnoeoque ; 
aadYsBB (p. pcaeL § 4) in like manner places ao- 
telis as paatoie land, in opposition to sepes, as com 
bad, — 6o§domiiueeaMaa^uteom9nodim»aaoaim- 
f nmwtm m m aegete etp aMmm m ttooaii, 

1 Cefanaena, in another passage, places euUa 
nvsfi^ bad under tillage in a genexal senie, in 
W i t ion to rmdia c^^er, land in a state of nature ; 
sod thas we mnst nndostand the kaeo tarn euUa 
aoMfii in Viiga'fe first £ekgm (t. 71), and tonaaa 
umba, the cdtivated fields from which a crop has 
Wen reaped, — a phxaae which fimns the connecting 
Imk between thb mwrning and that noticed abore 
■aderl (Comp. Pallad. i 6, ii. 10.) 

B. PASTIO. 

Tlie seeond great department of oor sabject is 
iWaSk ii lUa Paatoriaoj s. SeienHa PaatoraHa, 
tl^CM terns being all alike understood to denote 
<^ art of providing and feeding stock so as to 
jidd the most ample profit. 

Bit Poatio mnst be eonsidaed mider the two- 
fddfiamof 

^ Peal» AgnaHa a. Rea Pecmana^ and 

Tks iRaier oompvehending the management of 
o'^ ibeep, horaea, dec; ; the latter of poultry, 
P■^ fish, bees, aaod some other animals to be 



AGRICULTURA. 



61 



«. ^Aano AORsans a &xs picua&u. 
CoBlaiBs three heads: 

I> ifnoTM PeoKfeiL including^ 1. Sheep ; 2. 
0«^ja.Swineu 

^Mojprea Peaadea^ indnding, 1. Ktne ; 2. 
B<o«; 3. Asses ; 4. Mules. Varro indeed, for 
J_J^f« apparently except to presenre a sort of 

third 



Msical symmetry, places mules in the 
^^w, bat as they endentfy belong to the 
yw horses and asses, we have to this extent 
ecpsftedftoni his anangement. 

In. Aahnals prorided not for the profit which 
J^yjidd direetlj in the market, but necessary 
''"^IByr maintfnance of the farqp)ing; these 

^IVo^i (soMs) ; 2. Feeders (/wsfom). 

A^ in each of these nine subdiTisions (with 
w esttptidn of mules who do not breed) atten- 
^ nut be directed to nine different drcnm- 
*>Me^ of which four axe to be considered in the 
P^^MM of ito^ (jm peeora panmdo)^ four in the 



feeding of stock (in pecore paacendo\ while the 
ninth, of a more general character, relates to num- 
ber {da nunuro). 

The four circumstances which demand attention 
in purchasmg stock are, a. The age of the animal 
(oetos). 6. His points {eogmHo /mrmaa) by which 
we determine whether he is good of his kind. 
c His breeding {qm aU soamtb), by which we de- 
termine whether he is of a good kind, d. The 
legal forms (dejura in panmdo) essential to render 
a sale valid, and the warranty which the buyer 
may demand (quemadmodtan qmamqtte peeudem 
end opcrteat dvUi jure). 

The four circumstances to be considered after a 
breeding stock has been acquired are, e. The mode 
of feeding (paatio) in answer to the questions 
tckerej wienf and with tphai (in qua regione^ et 
quando et quoM). f. The impregnation of the 
female, the period of gestation, and her treatment 
while pregnant, all of which are embodied in the 
word /beiura, g. The rearing of the yonnff (mi- 
trioabu). h. The preserration of their health, and 
treatment when diseased (de aanitaie). 

t. The ninth and last inquiry (de manero) re- 
lates to the number of flocks and herds which can 
be maintained with advantage in a given space, 
the number of individuals which it is expedient to 
combine into one flock or herd, and the proportions 
to be observed with regard to the sex and age of 
the members of each flock and herd. 

In following the divisions and topics indicated 
above, we omit the discussions on the diseases of 
stock and their remedies, which abound in the 
agricultural writers, and which form the subject of 
an elaborate treatise (Mulo-medicina s. De Arte 
Yeterinaria\ bearing the name of Vegettua^ which 
is probably a translation or compilation from the 
works of the Greek Imriarpoi, or veterinary sur- 
geons, executed at a late period. 

I. MINORB8 PBCUDXfi. 

^ 1. Sheep (peeua ooUlum s. omarium) were di- 
vided into two classes with reference to their 
wool 

(1.) Pecua Urtumy whose fleeces were not pro- 
tected artificially. 

(2.) Peeua TarenHnum s. Pecva Cfraaeaun s. Ovea 
peSilae s. (hea iectaej whose fleeces were protected 
from all^ external injury by skin jackets. Their 
wool being thus rend^ed finer, and being more 
easily scoured and dyed, brought a higher price 
than any other. 

Sheep were likewise divided into two classes 
according as they were home-fed or reared in 
extensive and distant pastures ; we first consider 
them under this point of view. 

Home-fed sheep (gregea vittaUei) were allowed 
to pasture in the fields around the fium during a 
portion of the year, wherever the nature of the 
country and^ the system of cultivation pursued 
rendered this practicable, or, more frequently, 
were kept constantly confined in sheds (atabula — 
aepta — oviUa\ built in warm and shelt^ed situa- 
tions, with hard floors sloping outwards to prevent 
the accumulation of moisture, which was regarded 
as perticuhuiy injurious to both the feet and the 
fleece. They were fed upon cytisus, lucerne, 
bariey, and leffuminous seeds, or when such rich 
and succulent food could not be obtained, on hay, 
bran, chaf!^ S'&po buaks, and dry leaves, espe- 
cially those of the elm, oak, and fig, being at aU 



62 



AGRICULTURA. 



timet plentifully nipplied with salt They wen 
littered with leares and twiga, which were fre- 
quenUy changed, and the pens were kept care« 
folly dean. 

The more nomerotu flocks which were reared in 
extensive pastures (qui w taUiUu pcuoimtur) usually 
passed the winter in the low plains upon the coasts 
and were driren by n^ffolar drift reads (pallet 
publioae) in summer to 3ie mountains of Central 
Italy, just as in modem times yast droyes pass 
eyery autumn from the Abrnza to seek the more 
genial clunata of Puglia or the BCaremma. Those 
who were employed to watch them (opSianet) 
being often at a great distance from home were 
famished with beasts of burden for transporting 
the materials required in the oonstraction of folds 
and huts, at their halting places, and all the stores 
necessary for themselves and their charge. The 
sheep were usually collected every night to secure 
them against robbers and beasts of prey ; in sum- 
mer they fed in the morning and evening, and re- 
posed during the noontide heat in sheltered spots, 
while in winter they were not allowed to go out 
until the frost was off the ground. The flocks 
were often very numerous, containing sometimes 
15,000 head, one shepherd (opUio) being allowed 
to every five or six score. 

The breeds most prized by the early Romans 
were the Calabrian, the Apulian, which were short 
wooUed (fifvees viUo\ the Milesian, and, above all, 
the Tarentine ; but in the time of Columella those 
of Cisalpine Gaul from the vicinity of Altinum 
(Mart ziv. 153), and those from the Campi Macri 
round Parma and Mutina were especially es- 
teemed. The system of crossing was by no means 
unknown ; for M. Columella, the uncle of the 
author, produced an excellent variety by crossing 
the iectae oees of Cadiz with some wild rams fit>m 
Africa, and again crossing their progeny with the 
Tarentines. In purohasing stock attention was 
always paid to the localities where they were to 
be maintained ; thus sheep of huge size (prooerae 
aves) were naturally deemed best fitted for rich 
plains, stout compact animals (quadratae) for light 
hilly soils, and the smaller kinds (exiguaa) for 
mountainous regions, just as in this country the 
Lcicesters are kept with greatest advantage in the 
low-lying luxuriant pastures of Lincolnshire, 
Cheviots in the gmss hills from which they derive 
their name, and the black-fiioed on the lofty moun- 
tains of Wales and Scotland. As to colour, pure 
white was most sought after ; but certain natural 
tints, such as the dark grey ( puUMt\ which distin- 
guished the flocks of Pollentia in Liguria (fyudque 
ferca PoUaitia vittt, Silius, viiL 599), the yel- 
lowish brown (fiuou) in those of Corduba (so 
often celebrated by Martial, v. 37, viiL 2. 8, ix. 
62, xiv. 188 ; compi Juv. xii. 40), and the red 
brown (rtAer) in some of the Asiatic varieties, 
were highly prized. 

The points characteristic of a ffood animal and 
the warrant usually required of the seller will be 
found fully detailed in Varro (ii. 2) and Columella 
(viL 2, 3). 

Those which were smooth and bare under the 
belly (ventre glabro\ anciently called apieaey were 
always rejected, and particular care was taken that 
the fleece of the ram should be perfectly pure, or 
at least uniform in colour, his tongue idso being 
examined in order to ascertain that it was not 
bhttk or qwttedy smce such defects would have 



AGRICULTURA. 

been transmitted to his progeny. (Vngi. Cfeory. iS 

887 ; Colum. vii 3.) 

Ewes were not considered fit for breeding until 
they were two years old, and they continued U 
produce until they had reached the age of seven : 
rams (arietea) were believed to be in Tigour from 
three years old until eight The moat &yoMirablc 
period for impregnation in the case o£ ewes that 
had not previoiuly brought forth, waa the latter 
end of April, about the Palilia (21st April) ; for 
others, from the setting of Arcturus (1 3th May) to 
the setting of the Eagle (23d July) ; and, since the 
period of gestation was about 150 days, the earliest 
lambs (affnij agnae) would be yeaned in Septem- 
ber, the latest about the middle of December, these 
being, as was remarked by Celsos, the only 
animals produced with advantage in midwinter. 
Ewes when about to lamb (indeniee) w«re placed 
apart, constantly watched, and assisted in parturi- 
tion. As soon as they had brought forth, Uie first 
milk which was of a thick consistence, and called 
eolottroj was carefully withdrawn, being considered 
injurious in all animala, and productive of a disease 
named ooloetraHa, The lambs were now tended 
with the greatest solicitude, were generally kept 
in the house near a fire for some £kys, were not 
allowed to go forth to pasture for a considerable 
time, but were partially reared by the hand on 
the most tender and nourishing food, being finally 
weaned at the a^ of four months. Those laml» 
which were earned in the womb longer than the 
regular time were termed chordi ; those bom late 
in the season, sero^im / those which, in consequence 
of their mothers being unable to supply milk, were 
suckled by others, mibnmi. Castration was not per- 
formed upon such as were intended for wethers 
(^oerveoee) until five months old. The males set 
apart to supply the deficiencies in the breeding 
flock (<mo» anetes eubmittere volunt) were selected 
firom tne progeny of such ewes as usually gave 
birth to twins, those which were polled (mtUiU) 
being preferred on the whole to those with horns 
(eomuH), 

The management of ores /Mfft&w differed from that 
of the ordinary ffreges tnUatid merely in the amount 
of care with which they were tended. They were 
fiimished with an ample supply of the most nu- 
tritious food, each individual receiving daily in 
winter three sextarii (pints) of barley or of beans 
crushed in their pods (fresae cum suie valrtJit 
/hbae\ in addition to hay, lucerne, dry or green 
cytisus, and other fodder. Their stalls were 
usually paved with stone, and kept scrupulously 
clean ; they seldom left the house, and, when al- 
lowed to pasture, it was looked upon as essential 
that the ground should be fi*ee from bushes and 
briars of every description which might tear their 
fleece or its covering. The jackets were frequently 
taken off to cool the animals, the wool was combed 
out at least thrice a year, and well washed and 
annointed with oil and wine. The wethers were 
killed' at two years old, their skin being then in 
perfection. 

Sheep-shearing (Ummra) commenced in warn 
districts in April ; but in cold situations was de- 
ferred until the solstice. A fine day was chosen, 
and the operation was performed before the sun had 
attamed to its full power, in order that the sheep 
might not be hot and the wool not moist The most 
carefiil placed a rug under the animal (tegeticnJii 
mbjectit oves Umdere talent) that no portion of the dip 



AGRICULTURA. 

nfat be krt tr damaged (m 9M JUteti imierMmfy, 
Tke w«]y ithen fresh ahom and atiU impregnated 
vitk the mat oi the animal, waa adkd fana 
' the ileeoea whien rolled op were tenned 
or mfaiia i i , Owe JUrtae, when afaoni, 
I jewrdairriy amearad with wine and oil, to 
which white wax and hog^ lard were occaaion- 
alh^ added ; while the jaeketi o£ the eeet peU 
mm were aneiBted vith the aame mixtore, and 
thaicplaoBd oq the aaiimala. Initead of this, 
aoae rabbed in a waah cooipoaed of equal parta of 
haisi hipiae jaifi^ leeo of old wine, and amurca. 
Aaraaaaid inflirtH diiziiw the prooeae waa dieeaed 
wnL lir (jnm K^pddd). On the fourth day they 
wcR bedMd, if poeaihiey in the eea ; if not, in xain- 
vitff amced whh aah. In Spain and aome other 
^aea it waa rHetemaiy to ahear the aheep twioe a 
joz, BDder the bdief that the additional laboor 
vas nore than cempcnaated by the uicnaaedqaan- 
tirf ef woeL The ancient practice of plucking the 
wii. xaafeead o£ ahearing it, atiQ lingaed in certain 
dooicta eten when Pliny wrote. (Vair. vL 1* § 5, 
16, *20, ii 2 ; Coloaa. L Praet f 26, til 2, 3, 4, 
ii.2L SU ; Plin. H. N. Tiii. 47, 48 ; Pallad. a 
IS, T. 7, li. 8, TiL 6, TiiL 4, xiL 13.) 

2L Ooala ( jujuaa eoprauon) were divided into 
t«o rlnaipe, die ju a a a midiln m U ror^pibai, the 
poGed and thin fanired, and the ^eaae oormOKm 
et jdbean, the homed anid ahaggy ; but there doea 
aot appear to hawe been any difference in the mode 
of learing than, nor indeed dtf they aeem to have 
beea kepi diatinct ; bat it waa oooaidered adiia- 
ahle that the old he-goat, the dmx grtgU^ ahoold 
be wfihf, becanae he waa then leaa tnmbleaome 



AGRICULTURA. 



€1 



\ ehanicteriatic of a good animal will 
be iMBd eanmeiated in Vano (ii. 3, § 2 — 5) and 
a Cofaandla (til 6). The moat high bred had 
alv^t twe lang flapa of akin {verrmcmlaa^ lacunae) 
depndiag firam the throat One peculiarity ooo- 
nected wkh aalea araa that they were never war- 
BBted in good health, for they were believed to 
be alwi^ more or leaa labouring under fever. 

The Biaaagement of goata waa in moat reapecta 
the aame aa that of aheep, except that, although 
iatidpnint of froat and cold, they throve better in 
BMBataaiooa caggy ground or among copeewood, 
vhae they brouacd with great eagemeaa on the 
jsag twigs, than in open giaaay ]daina. Both 
feaa their wandering natore and their liability to 
emaaet i1infin«n whoi crowded in pena, not more 
tkaa fifty were kept together in a ilock under the 
cbanre of the aame goatherd (o y r ww w), the pro- 
pntjon of one nude {eaper^ Ureiu) to about fifteen 
leaaka (ei^wue, eapdk») bdng commonly ob- 
icrfed. 

When in atadb (oaphZia)9 the aloping floor waa 
aaally finmed oat of the native rock or paved 
TTTth naooth atonea, for no litter waa placed be- 
neath their foet. The booaea were awept out 
daOy : and it vraa deemed eiaential to their health 
tbat no moi s t ur e or dirt of any kind should be al- 
lowed to accamolate. The ahe-goat waa capable 
of breeding fiom one year old until eight ; but the 
prageoy of a nother under three yeara old were 
not worth keeping permanently, bnt aold off. The 
kit tioie for impregnation waa the end of autumn; 
he the period of gestation being five montha, the 
Ibds {hoadi) were thus bom in apring. If the dam 
vsi of a good stock, she generally produced two or 
evea three at • Urth^ which were weaned at the 



end of three months, and then tianslened at onoa 
to the flock {mAmiihaUur et at grtge irndpimU e$m\ 

The hair {pii*) oi goata waa ahom or plucked 
(eeproi eeUere ia the technicaJ phraae) out regu- 
krly, and uaed in the manufiactnre of coarw atuffii 
(anna ta eatinrmm U mi$eru mkmnma wamiiU^^^ 
piUm mmutnmt ad mamm mauHem m H ad bettiea tor- 
oMato). The dotha woven from this ■n^^^r'fl 
were termed CSZioia, beoaase the goata in the 
aouthcm and eentnl provinoes of Asia Minor, like 
the modem Angora spedes, were resHrfcable for 
the length of their hair. (/« CUada eiroaqm 
Syriet tiUo tommU veatumtmr^ are the words of 
Pliny, who here allodes to the ^oats from the 
Cinyps in Libya, the ** Cinyplui bird ^ of ViigiL) 
(Colum. i PraeC § 26, vii. 6 ; Plin. H. M viiL 
50 ; PaUad. xiL 13 ; Varr. iL 3, iL 1. f 5. 28.) 

S. Swine (peems mill mm) were divided into two 
classes, the me§ dmaae^ usually bfa^k in coloor, 
thickly covered with bristles ; and the saet gUArm^ ' 
generally white, and compantivdy amooth; bnt 
there aeema to have been little dificnnce in the 
management of the two breeda, except that the 
fiirmer waa the more hardy. 

The pointa chareeteriatie of a good animal, and 
the w a i r anly naoally required by the porehaaer, 
will be found in Varro (ii. 4), CdameUa (vii. 9), 
and PaDadius (iiL 26). 

Daring a great portion of the year, wherever it 
was pn^icable, they were driven out to feed eariy 
in the momiqg in woods where acoms, beech- 
mast, wild fruits, and berries abonnded ; and in 
the middle of the day they reposed, if possible, in 
swampy ground, where they had not only water 
but mud also wherein to wallow ; in the cool of 
the evening they fed again, were taught to assemble 
when the swineherd {nbidau) sounded his honi, 
and were then driven home to the form. In winter 
they were not allowed to go forth when frost was 
hard upon the ground. When kept in the honae, 
their chief fi)od was acoms, or when the supply of 
these felled, beans, barley, and other kinds of grain 
and pulae. The number in each herd varied fiwm 
100 to 150, or even more, according to drcum- 
atancea and the meana of the proprietor, and the 
proportion of one boar to ten aows waa usnaHy 
observed. 

The sows were not considered fit for breeding 
until upwards of a year old, and continued prolific 
to the age of seven ; boars (eerref) were in foil 
vigour firom one year old till four ; the best time 
for impregnation was from the middle of February 
up to the vernal equinox, the period of gestation 
was four months, and the pigs being weanied at the 
end of two, a double ferrow might be procured in 
a year. 

Each breeding sow (jurofa) brought up her pigs 
{poreus^ jwfco, poredhu) in a separate stye (Aara), 
oonstracted in such a manner that the superintend- 
ent (oM^ot, porcuUdor) might easily see into the 
interior and thus be prepared to relieve the progeny, 
which were in ccnstant danger of being crushed by 
the weight of the mother who was supposed to 
bring forth as many young as she had teats, and 
was capable of auck&ig eight at first, but when 
they increaaed in sise it was deemed advisable to 
withdraw one half of that number. Sucking pigs 
QactaUea) when ten days dd were accounted pure 
for sacrifice, and henee were anciently termed aaerea; 
after the suckling time (naerieotea, porcu^o^), whidi 
I hiated two months^ waa over, they were denomif 



64 AGRICULTURA. 

nated deHdj and Bometimes n^rendes, because not 
yet able to crunch hard food. The males not re« 
served for breeding were castrated when from six 
to twelve months old, and were then termed 
fttajalei. (Varr. iL 4 ; Colom. vii. 9, Prae£ L 
§ 26 ; Plin. H. N, viu. 61 ; PaUad. iv. 26.) 

^. Majorbs Pkcudxs. 

1. Kine (pecus bubuUtm^ armenlum bubuhtm) 
were divided into classes, according as they were 
kept at home and employed in the labours of the 
fiajnn (boves domm\ or pastured in huge herds 
(armanto). 

Bonet (kmiti, wherever the nature of the soil 
and the mode of culture pursued permitted, were 
allowed to pasture; since growing grass (virids 
pabulum) was considered the most suitable of all 
food ; when this could not be supplied, it became 
necessary to stall-feed them {alen ad pmeaepia) ; 
'but they were allowed to stand in the open air 
during the hot weather, while in winter they were 
kept in spacious byres (ttabula, cotuepta) built with 
a southerly aspect so as to be sheltered from cold 
winds, the floors being hard and sloping to prevent 
moisture from being absorbed, and to allow it to 
run off freely, while to promote the warmth and 
comfort of the animals they were bedded with 
abundance of litter (ttrametUum peeori et btdmt 
diUgmttr tubstemattar^ Cat. 5.), usually straw, or 
leaves, such as those of the ilex, which were sup- 
posed to yield little nourishment Their staple 
food from the middle of April until the middle of 
June was vetches, lucerne, clover, and other fodder 
cut green ; from the middle of June to the begin- 
ning of November the leaves of trees, those of the 
elm, the oak, and the poplar being regarded as the 
best ; from the beginning of November until April 
meadow hay (foenum prat&iue\ and, where hay 
could not be procured, chaff^ gi^p® husks, acorns, 
and dry leaves were substituted mixed with barley, 
or with some of the leguminous seeds, such as 
beans, lupines, or chick-peas previously steeped in 
water (nKu»raiae\ or crushed (Jresae), When an 
ox was fed upon hay, from 30 to 40 pounds weight 
(Roman pound = 111 oz. avoird.) was an ample 
allowance, except dunng the months of November 
and December, that is, during the ploughing and 
sowing season, when they received firom the feeder 
(palnUatoHus) as much food of the most nutritious 
kind as they could consume. Liunps of salt placed 
near the coruepta proved very attractive to the 
animals and conduced to their health. 

Large herds were pastured chiefly in woods 
where there was abundance of grass, leaves, and 
tender twigs, shifting to the coast in winter and to 
the cool shady hills in summer, under the charge of 
herdsmen (armaitorit), a dass altogether distmct 
from the bubulcL, or hinds, who woricedand tended 
the bovet domesticL The common number in a herd 
was from 100 to 120, the animals were carefully 
inspected every year, and the least promising (n^- 
eidae) weeded out The proportion of two bulls, a 
yearling and a two-year old, to 60 or 70 cows was 
usually observed, but CSolumella doubles the num- 
ber of males. The Umbrian oxen, especiaUy those 
on the Clitumnus, were the largest and finest in 
Italy ; those of Etrnria, Latium, and Gaul were 
smaller, but strongly made and well adapted for 
labour ; those of Thrace were valued for sacrificial 
poiposes in consequence of being for the most part 
pore white ; but the cattle of Epiros, the most im- 



AGRICULTURAL 

portant pastoral district of the Roman worid, wcm 
superior to all others. 

The points characteristic of a good animal, and 
the warranty usually demanded by the buyer, will 
be found fuUy detailed in Varro (ii 5), in Colu- 
mella, who here copies the description of the Car- 
thaginian Mago (vi 1, 20, 21), and in Palladius 
(iv. 11, 12). 

Cows {vacoae) were not fit for breedmg until 
they were upwards of two years old, and they con- 
tinued to produce until they had readied the age 
often. Considerable variation is to be found in 
the agricultural writers as to the age at which the 
bulls arrived at full vigomr, Varro considering 
that they might be employed when a year old. 
Columella and Pliny recommending that they 
dionld be kept until four. The fonner, however, 
is the precept of the practical man, and is con- 
sonant with modem experience. The time of ges- 
tation being neariy ten (lunar) months, the most 
favourable period for impregnation was from the 
middle of June to the end of July, for thus the 
calves (vitmli) would be bom when spring was 
well advanced (maturo vere). When parturition 
was approachmg, the pru|;nant cow (korda vacoa) 
was carefully watched, fed richly, and protected 
from the awaults of the gad-fly and other tor- 
menting assailants ; the calf for some time afler its 
birth was allowed to suck freely, but as it in- 
creased in strength was tempted with gieen food, 
in order that it might in some degree relieve the 
mother, and after six months had elapsed, was fed 
r^vhirly with wheat bran, bariey meal, or tender 
grass, and gradually weaned entirely. Castratiaa 
was performed at ihe age of two yeani The vi- 
tuli intended for labour were to be handled (tntc- 
ton) from an early age to render them tame, but 
were not to be broken in to work (demon) before 
their third, nor later than their fifth year. The 
method of breaking (domiiura) those taken wild 
from the herd is fully described by Columella 
(vL 2), and PaUadius fixes the end of March as the 
time most impropriate for oommendng the opem- 
tion. The members of a herd, acoudii^ to age 
and sex, were termed, Fitebtt, VtUUa ; Jucenau^ 
Jvnenea; Bos novdUu^ BwaihtM : Boi wtuba, 
Tattfusj Vaooa ; a bairen cow was named Taura, 
(Cat 5, 80 ; Varr. iL 1, 6 ; Colum. vi. 1—3, 20— 
24 ; Plin. H. iNT. viil 46 ; PaUad- iv. 11, 12, vi. 7, 
viiL 4.) 

2. Horses (pteus equinmn s. emUtium, amuiUMm 
emtinum) are divided by Columella into Genenti, 
blood horses ; Mularet^ horses adapted for breeding 
mules ; Ft^^xres, ordinary horses. 

The points of a horse, the method of ascertaining 
his age up to seven years old, and the warranty 
usuaUy given by the seller, are detailed in Varro 
(ii. 7. § 4, 5, 6 ) in Columella (vi 29), and in 
PalUdius (iv. 13). 

Horses either pastured in gnus fields or were fed 
in the stable upon dry hay (m ttabuli* aepraem- 
pUnu)^ to which barley was added when the ani- 
mal was required to undergo any extraordinary 
fiitigue. Brood mares were frequently kept in 
large troops which shifted, like sheep and oxen, 
firom the mountains to the coast, according to the 
season ; two mounted men being attached to each 
herd of fifty. The mare {equa) was considered fit 
for breeding at two years old, and continued pro- 
lific up to the age of ten ; the stallion (admutaritu) 
remained in vigour fhnn three yean old imt3 



AORICULTURA. 
msfr, fart wlwo joap wu limited to twdTe or 
£&ea females. The period of gegtalion beli^ 
twdre Imtar aeoths and ten da ji^ the beat time for 
bafngmtim anas fbom the Teniil equinox to the 
■azamer ■oiatice, ainee partoritioii vould then take 
pbee dazhy the moat fitTooimble waaon. High 
bred aaies were not allowed to prodaee moie than 
«»e in tvo jean. Ten daya after birth the faal 
{pmBm uyiiBi, ■^■■faap) waa permitted to 



paay ito dam to paataze ; at thease of five montha, 
it «at caatomacy to begin fiseding Uien arith bariej- 
■eal and baa, and when a year old, with pbun 
^^^mwn^ barley ; bvt the beat colts were allowed 
t» coatiBBe aadmig imtil they had eompleted two 
T«ars and at three years they were broken in for 
^ tafl ts which tbey were destined, whether for 
nd^ (md ewnmramy, for draqght (ad rkedam)^ 
f=st canying borthena (orfcecteroai), or for militaiy 
■rrice {ad fpi^>pimm\ bat they were notngnkriy 
vtaked antQ fonr oft 

fiaceaad war bonea were notcastiated ; hot the 
Rpoation waa freqfoently performed on those des- 
cjxd kr the rand, bm the connction that the 
m\ while leas bold and spirited was 



Bd£ng(am«n 



(* 



It is to be observed that horses were, and in- 
df«d are, Tsy titSie used for agrieoltsral purposes 
b Iisly asid Sonthcm Eorope, the ordinary toils 
'!«^ canied on afanoat exdnsirely by oxen, and 
^^eoce they never were by any means objects of 
asch goKnl interest to the fonner as among oor 



We may icmadc that Vario, ColmneUa, and 
naay other writera, repeat the absurd story em 
fafli^ed bj the poetzy of Viigil, that mares in 
trme districts of Spain beeame pregnant by the 
i of a pardcalar wind, adding that the eolts 
1 in this rnanwt^ did not live beyond the 
ue cf three yeais. (Varr. L Prae£ § 26, ii 1. 
§ la, 7. i 7 ; Colom. vi 27, 29 ; Plin. H.N.ym. 
42 : FsDad. if. IS.) 

X Astea (asasM, osuia) were divided into taro 
cfaaes, the Gmma mamnmhtm, or eonunon domestic 
^Bodraped (asiaaa, amihu), and the Gmiujemm^ 
t^e viU ass (oasq^, oao^ras), which was common 
m Phrygia mid Lycaonia, was eaafly tamed and 
Bide aa excellent craas. 

The mast celebrated breeds were those of Ar> 
esdn and of Beate. The ktter was so hirhly ea- 
leemed in the tinm of Varro, that a single indi- 
ndail of this atodc had been Imown to feteh sixty 
ttaassnd sesterces (ahont 5002. sterling), and a 
t«m of fonr, as maeh as four hundred Ukouaand 
(sfvards of 334NK. steilmg). Such animals were 
«f eomie delicatdy niirUiff il, being fed chiefly upon 
fv sad barley bnn (Jurfwrf ordeaeei). The infe- 
nar description of aaaes (auaoraasfiKf) were valued 
bv tencrs becaoae they were very hardy, not 
sahject to disease, capable of enduring much toil, 
required little food and that of the coarsest kind, 
mA as the leaves and twigs of thorny shrubs, and 
oidit be nnde aerviceable in various ways, as in 
eanyii^ boidena (aaeUi dosmarU)^ toming com 
aufis and even in plonp^hing, where the soil was 
MC itiC The time of unpregnation, the period of 
IHtaliea, and the mam^ement of the foals (pulU), 
wot the sane aa in hones. Ther were seldom 
keftiasafioent numbers to form a herd. (Varr. iL 
1.114, iL(L; Colam.Tii.1 ; Plin. ff. JNT. viii. 43 ; 
PkU.iv.14.) 



AGRICULTUAA. $$ 

4. Moles. JIfafasand ^a&i wen the general 
terms for the hybrid between a hoTK and aa am, 
but in practice a distinction waa drawn between 
Afa^' and HiimL ffmm were the progeny of a 
stallion and a sh e a m, MmH of a male am and a 
mare. The huter were laiger m proportion, and 
more esteemed than the former. A eroas some- 
times was formed between the mare and the ou^er 
as a matter of cariosity. 

Uncommon care was taken by breeders of mnlea 
in the selection of the parents. A strong hige- 
boned mare, powerful rsther than swift, was usu- 
ally chosen. The male asses at their birth were 
removed from their mother, suckled by mares, 
reared upon the moat nourishing food (hay and 
bariey), and attained to foil vigour when three 
years cJd. A good admiisarius from Aradia or 
Reate waa worth from thir^ to forty thousand sca- 
tercea {250L to 33(ML steriing). The period of 
gestation waa observed to be a little loigtr tkn 
in the case of the pure horse or aas, extending to 
thirteen lunar months ; in all other respects their 
habita, and mode of sale were tlie 

The great use of mules was in drawing travelling 
triages (kiaoB emm bmu eo^jmetJB ooana ca- 
Uemla m tm$ dmamhir); they were also employed, 
like asses, in carrying burdens upon pack saddlea 
{diUUae\ and in ploughiqg tight land. The foier 
kinds, when kept in herds, were driven m summer 
from the rich phuns of Romu on the Velmus to the 
Montes Guigurea. (Varr. iL 1. $ 16, iL 8 ; Colum. 
vi. 36, S7 ; Plin. H,N, viiL44 ; Pallad. iv. 14.) 

III. 

1. Dogs (eoBSf) were divided into three classes : 
o. Qnec FiOaUks, watch-dogs, whoae office was to 
guard form-houses against the aggressions of thieves. 

&. Cfanec Paatorala s. Cbaet FeeHartt, to protect 
the flocks and herds from robbers and wild beasts. 
Each opilio was ^erally attended by two of 
these, equipped with spiked coUars (sieflma), to 
serve as a defence in their encounters with wolves 
and other adversaries. 

e. Cbaec Vemtiiei, Sporting di^ 

VaiTo and Columella describe minntdy the 
points of the first two dasses, with which alone the 
former was concerned, and these seem to be iden- 
tical with the animals employed for the same pur- 
pose at the present day in the Abrusri. They 
were fed upon bariey meal and whey, or in phtces 
where no cheese was made, on wheaten bread 
moistened with the warm liquor in which beans 
had been boiled. (Varr. iL 9 ; Colum. viL 12.) 

2. Feeders (jNiifofw). 

The flocks and herds which fed in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of the forms were usually 
tended by old men, boys, or even women ; but 
those which were driven to distant and moun- 
tainous pastures were placed under the care of 
persons in the vigour of life, who always went well 
armed and were accompanied by beasts of burden 
(JMsiaato rfotiM a n a), carrying all the ^ipanitus and 
stores required during a protracted absence ; the 
whole body of men and animals being under the 
command of an experienced and trustworthy in-, 
dividual, styled Magitt&r Peeorit^* who kept all 
the accounts and possessed a competent knowledge 
of the veterinary art. 

We may conclude this part of the subject with 
a few words upon the management of dmry pnH 



$$ 



AORICULTURA. 



dace, which was treated ai a distinct science 
(rvpowoita) by the Greeks, who wrote many 
treatises upon the topic 

Cheese-making coomienced in May, and the 
method followed by the Romans was substantially 
the same as that now practised. The milk un- 
skimmed was used as fresh as possible, was slightly 
warmed, the rennet (coagulatm) was then added ; as 
soon as the curd formed, it was transferred to baskets 
(JtMoeUat^ ealaiki) or wooden chesets (^ormae) 
perforated with holes, in order that the whey 
(96rum) might drain off quickly, and was pressed 
down by weights to hasten the process. The mass 
was then taken out of the frame, sprinkled with 
salt, and placed upon a wicker crate or wooden 
board in a cool dark place ; when partially dried, 
it was again pressed more powerfully than before, 
again salted and again shelved, — operations which 
were repeated for several days until it had required 
a proper consistency. It might be flavoured with 
thyme, with pine cones, or any other ingredient, 
by mixing the condiments with the warm milk. 

The rennet or coagulum was usually obtained 
from the stomach of the hare, kid, or Iamb (poc^u- 
ktm leporinum, koedinuMy agninum\ the two former 
being preferred to the third, while some persons 
employed for the same purpose the milky juice 
expressed from a fig-tree branch, vinegar, and a 
variety of other substances. 

The cheeses from cows* milk (ooset bulntU) were 
believed to contain more nourishment, but to be 
more indigestible than those from ewes* milk {easei 
ovilli) ; the least nourishing and most digestible 
were those from goats* milk {easei eapn'nt), the 
new and moist cheeses in each case being more 
nourishing (moffis aUbiles^ and less heavy (in 
carport no* rendtd)^ than those which were old 
and dry. 

Butter is mentioned by Varro (iL2. § 16), but 
seems to have been scarcely used as an article of 
food (Varr. iL 1. § 28. 11 ; Colum. viL 8 ; Plin. 
H, N. XL 96, xxiv. 93, xxv. 39, xxviii, 34 ; Pal- 
lad, vl 9). 

fi. VILLATICA PASTIO. 

ViUaticae Pastiones^ from which many persons 
towards the close of the republic and under the 
empire derived large revenues, were separated into 
two departments, according to the names given to 
the buUduigs or enclosures adapted to the different 
animals: — 

I. Aviaria s. OnUtitanes, 
II. Vivaria, 

I. Aviaria s. Ormtkonet, in the most extended ac- 
ceptation of the term, signified receptacles for birds 
of every description, whether wild or tame^ terres- 
trial or amphibious, but it is frequently and con- 
reniently employed in a more limited sense to de- 
note the structures formed for birds caught in their 
wild state by the fowler (otfogot), from whom they 
were purchased, and then shut up and sold at a 
profit after they became fieit 

In this way we may distinguish between, a. 
Chhors in piano, 6. Columbarium, c. Omitfum, of 
which the first two only were known to the earlier 
Romans. 

a. Ooltan m pkmo, was the poultiy-yard in- 
dndlng the houses and courts destined for those 
domestic fowls which were bred and fed on the 
fium, and which were ncpt able or not permitted to 
'fly abroad. Of these the chief were, 1. Bam- 



AORICULTURA. 

door fowls or chickens (^o2Zma«). 2. Ghilnea Ib^ 
(ffoUinae Numidicae s. AJrioanae). 2i. Pheaaa 
(phasiani). 4. Peacocks (/kkwmm). S» Ge 
(ansere$), 6. Ducks (onaies). 7. Teal <?> (gu 
guedulae), 

b, ColmnbariwHj the dove-oote. 

e. The Ormtkon primer, the inmates of whi 
were chiefly, 1. Thrushes and blackbirds (/^r 
mendae), especially the former. 2. Quails (eoit 
nioet). 3. Turdedoves {turture*). 4. OrtoUns ( 
(miliariae), all of which are in Italy birds of pe 
sage arriving in great flocks at pardcnlar season 

II. In like manner the term VtvariOy whi* 
may be employed to denote all places contriv* 
for the reception of animals used for food or whii 
supplied articles of food and did not £fiU under tl 
denomination of peeiN^ or aoei, must be se|M&rat< 
into those designed for the reception of land an 
mals, and those hr fishes. 

a. Leporaria^ Apiaric^ Codaaaria, GUnMriOy an 
/S. Piteinae. 

a, LeporaritL The animals kept in Icpois 
ria were chiefly, 1. Hares and rabbiu (lepan»\ 

2. Various species of deer (eervi, oapreae^ or^pes 

3. Wild boan {apri), and under the same'catc 
gory rank, 4. Bees {apeai). 5. Snails (pockJea£, 
6. DoToaiM (ffUres), 

fi. Piscinae or fish-ponds, divided into — 

1. Piednae aquae duleie, fi[«sh-water ponds ; am 

2. Piedmae aquae eaUae, salt-water ponds. 
We commence then with a description of tht 

inhabitants of the Cohort in piano and their dwell- 
ing. 

L Aviaria. 
I. a. Cohort in piano. 

In the science of rearing poultry (RaHo Cohor- 
talis, bpvt$aTp64>ui\ three precepts were of genera] 
application. The birds were to be kept scrupulously 
clean, were to be abundantly supplied with frvsh 
air and pure water, and were to be protected from 
the attacks of weasels, hawks, and other vermin. 
The two former objects were attained by the choice 
of a suitable situation, and by incessant attention 
upon the part of the superintendents (euralotett 
custodes) ; the latter was effected by overlaying ti^ 
walls of the houses and courts, both inside and 
out, with coats of smooth hard phister or stucc^ 
and by covering over the open spaces with large 
nets. 

Again, the attention of those who desired to rear 
poultry with profit was chiefly occupied by 6vb 
considerations: 1. The choice of a good breeding; 
stock (depenere). 2. The impregnation of the 
hens (de /betura). 3. The management of ths i 
eggs during incubation (de ovis). 4. The rearing 
of the pullets (depuUis). 5. Fattenmg them for. 
the market (de /hrtura), this hut procea being, 
however, frequently conducted not by the fiinner 
(rusHeus), but by persons who made it their aole | 
occupation (Jartores), 

1, 2. Chickens {yzWrnae), Of the different i 
species of domestic fowls, the most important were 
^alUnae, which were divided into three dassea :— I 
o. GalUnae VUlaHoae s. Cohortales, the conunoB , 
chicken. 6. Oallinae A/rieanae s. Numidicae, ths ' 
same probably with the fitKtaypi^s of theOrveks, I 
the distinctions pomted out by Columella scaitelv 
amounting to a specific difference ; and e. Onllinai \ 
Rustieae. The Ust were found in great abimdsnce 
in the Insula Qallinaria, but it is so difficult to i 





AQBICVLTUILA. 

r fioB the datuipti oaB taumnittad to u 

Cjfef^ miij wen, tbRt we know not whether 

t0 legnd tboDB as pheuants as red- 

" e, «■ wood-gimue, or as some 

dHBoKat from anj o£ these. The 

alvBjB scaree and dear, were treated 

the same manner as peaoodu, 

of importanee to the fiiraer ; the 

little apokien of eroept as objects of 

CohoBeUa deelazes tJiat tbey woald 

aofineraeBt (m w&rwUmte ntm/btiamt). 

eonine oar obsenratiatis to the VU- 

Ineds cdebnted for fighting were 
tbe Rhodiaa, and the Cludcidean ; 
! not the most profitable Ibr the 
fxintB of a good bam-door Ibwl are 
4y < f*j* il toed \ij Vaira, CohuneUa, and Pal- 
rlM» mil fligne in recommend ing the breeder 
m rtje icS madm mm were white, Ibr they were more 
~ icMS fvolifie than those w^hose plnmage 
SovMH were permitted to rojun about 
_ tbe day, and pick up iwbat they 
cbe ^Tester nnmber were constantly 
r> in a pooltry yard (^aiUmarimm^ 
^rhich was an encloaed eonrt 
e> ^mitMt m vrmna aspect, strewed writh eand 
^f nl^-a -vlaesnena ftiaey might wallow, and corered 
^w^ mith m net. Jt contained hen-houaea ieaceae) 
CO wfcicb tbex ^<b***>« 1 ^ night and rooated upon 
•90^tm ^zeAclfeedl acxTofls (perfacos) Ibr their conTe- 
MMiiiT^ m afs O Mi^aiTtrr,) fixr the laying hens being 
eanstncCad miaakg^ tlae walls. The whole ests^ 
UiahBCBft wa» noder the control of a poultry 
mmn CmtiiMt lair, jnrsrfV^ ■• < a w «to r ffcdlimariua), who 
«ci9cied an adjoinia^ hut, nsually aaaiw t M by 
^T' ^S^ imiUMmi aod m boy, for the flocks were 
«ft« »«y lars«V «»Dtaaniiy °F««^«J Vj** ^"J" 
^^^ •ne proptvrti'MX of one cock (j^alUu) to 
fi^ hena w»a eoiiM»o«^y obs^red, the males not 
_i«d ior iMWsifnfs^ iMsh^rkOled y^^ ^'J^^e 
^^^^ (£1 wmmj Tf»«ir food conaiated of barley 

Igatam^ wli«n thcae articles could be 

Aigmxau bo* ^wHett *«> ^«^» ^^ ^^ 

^^^^ih^ r«f%»e of wheat, bran with a 

fci^ of the floor oaiMsHiig, the aeeda of cytwi^ 

"*t?*i^?^-- ,.■«»« besoB in Janoary snd con- 

fi^ to durty egws. *»«' "'^^^^^ wai hot or 

cM, WW ^M0d »***~rV-__ old, who wu kept 
jA««) from ooe *» VT^^tfo^B ti™«. " "» 

^""^ I?*.^^ J^Siy^oruHf the twenty 
!ir^' Jilli^^ .SSLg U.e eggs, that U^y 

wkkk 'P* ««°'™»*^';,^ req»i«d for hatch- 
*"'■'** **^ S Sr^bbtaTtfc^- with Mro^; 
hri«,«d tW ^mg 1?*^^^ fed by h«.d«. 

B avk nairow «ni»«, "»"* __^j. bird. wa» iwiuw 
'"""''''^ *" *^ T^^^^ftSiJh r^oali holeate.^ 
— nttdT in » liMltet, ^*"' ,*" fi— ■ the mmfc and 
S^'fa, Uie l«dj^ ogj^ ^ **^ gi^ ^ 



wi& thel 



AQRICULTURA. «l 

cnunped in spaee tbat he oould not toftt Moad 
In this Mate they were crammed with wheat 
linaeed, barley meal kaeaded with water inU 
oudl Imnpi (twimdae\ and other fiwiaaeeoui 
food, the opemtion requiring from twenty ti 
twenty-fiTo days. (Var. iiu 9 ; Colum. riii. 2, fta 
12 ; Plia. H. M X. 21 ; Pallad. i 27, 29.) - 

3L Phesesats {piaaitmf) are aot mentJoaej 
amoog domestis poultry hj Varro or Coluaiel^ 
but find a plaos in the oompiktioa of Pallsdioa, 
who directs that young birds, that is, thoie of i 
yesr old, should be selected as bresden in the 
proportioB of ooe cock to two hens, and that the 
eggi should be hatched by bam^oor fowls. The 
chicks were to be fed for the fint fortnight on cold 
boiled barley lightly sprinkled with wine, after- 
wards iqion bruised wheat, locusts, sad saffe eggs, 
sad were to be prevented from hsring access U 
water. They became fot in thiity days if shut ni 
snd crammad with wheat flour msde up into imsB 
lumps (hurumdaB) with oil (PsHad. L 29.) 

4. Peacocks (ptnomea, pam^ pom) sre said to 
hsTe been first introduced as an article of food by 
Q. Hortensiu at a banquet on the installatioB ii 
an aogur {miffwraU aditiaU eomia\ They speedily 
became bo much in request that ioon afterwards a 
single full-grown bird sold for fifty denarii (up- 
wards of a guinea snd a half), and a sin^e tgg 
for fire (upwards of three ahilliogs), while one 
breeder, M. Aufidins Lureo, derived an iaeoaie M 
60,000 lesterces (about 500C sterling) firom thii 
•ource akme. The most fovowable situations for 
rearing ppamrki were afforded by the small rocky 
but well-wooded islets off the Italiaa coast, where 
they roamed in freedom without fear of being lost 
or stolen, provided their own food, and brought up 
their young. Thoie persons who oould not oon- 
mand such advantage, k^ them in small esh 
closures roofed oyei^ or under portieoes, perehsa 
(perticae) being supplied for them to roost upon, 
with a kige grassy court in front, suirounded by s 
high wall and shaded by trees. They were fed 
upon all kinds of grain but chiefly bariev, did not 
arrive at full maturity for breedipg until three yean 
old, when one cock was allowed to five hens, sad 
care was taken to supply each bird with a separate 
nest (ctifcrvfo ca&tZia). The hatching prooeo was 
most profitably performed by common bam-door 
fowls, for in this way the pea-hen laid three times 
in a season, first five eggs (oes pcmmima)^ then 
four, and lastly two or three, but if allowed to in- 
cubate herself could rear only one brood. In the 
time of Varro, three chicks {ptdli pawmim) kit 
each full-grown bird were considered a foir return. 
(VaiT. iii 6 ; Colum. viii. 11 ; PaUad. I 28 ; 
Plin. X. 20 ; comp Juv. i. 143») 

6. Geese (ohsstm) wcte essily reared, but were 
not very profitable and lomewhat troublesome, for 
a ninning stream or a pond with a good supply of 
herbage was essential, and they oould not be 
turned out to graze in the vicinity of growing crops, 
which they toro up by the roots, at the same time 
destroying Tegetation by their dung. Birds for 
breeding wera always selected of a large size and 
pure white, the grey varied (vartt vd fiuct) being 
regarded as inferior on the supposition that th^ 
were more nearly allied to the wUd species. Their 
food consisted of clover, fenugreek, lettuce, to- 
gether with leguminous plants, all of which were 
sown for their use, and espedally an herb called 
fripi$ by the Gxedu, which seems to have be^ 
p 2 



68 



AGRICULTURA. 



a Mil of endive. Impregnation took place abont 
mid-winter, one gandier being allowed to three 
females, who when the laying season, which was 
early in spring, approached, were shat up in a struc- 
ture (xnyoiocKuoif) consisting of a court {eokon\ 
surrounded by a high wall with a portico inside 
containing receptacles (harae, ceUoAt tpelunoae), 
from two to three feet square, built of hewn stone 
or brick, well lined with chafl^ for the eggs^ In- 
cubation, according to the weather, lasted from 
twenty-fiye to thirty days, during which period the 
mothers were supplied by the custos with barley 
crushed in water. The goslings remained in the 
house for about ten days, and were fed upon po- 
lenta, poppy seed, and green cresses (nasturtium) 
chopped in water, after which they were taken out 
in fine weather to feed in marshy meadows and 
pools. It was found in practice most advantageous 
to employ bam-door hens to hatch the eggs, since 
they made more carefrd mothers ; ani in this case 
the goose would lay three times in a season, first 
five ®gB*> t^e^ ^our, and lastly three. 

Goslings, when from four to six months old, 
were shut up to fatten in dark warm coops (tagi- 
natium\ where they were fed with barley pottage 
and fine flour moistened with water, being allowed 
to eat and drink three times a day as much as 
they could swallow. In this way they became fit 
for the market in two months or less. A flock of 
geese furnished not only eggs but feathers also, for 
it was customary to pluck them twice a year, in 
spring and autumn, and the feathers were worth 
five denarii (about three shillings and fourpence) a 
pound. (Varro, iiL 10 ; Colum. viii. 13 ; Plin. 
H.N.T,22; PaUad.i30.) 

6. Ducks (anate$). The duck-house (wriiriro' 
rpwfmoy) was more costly than the chenoboscium. 
Tor within its limits were confined, not only ducks, 
but querquednlae, phalerides, boscades (whatever 
these may have been), and similar bizds which 
seek their food in pools and swamps. A flat piece 
of ffround, if possible marshy, was surrounded by a 
wall fifteen feet high, well stuccoed within and 
without, along the course of which upon an ele- 
vated ledge {enpido) a series of covered nests 
{teotoL euMia) were formed of hewn stone, the 
whole open space above being covered over with a 
net or trellice work {datris auperpotUia), A shal- 
low pond (piscina) was dug in the centre of the 
enclosure, the margin formed of oput signinumy and 
planted round with shrubs ; through this flowed a 
small stream which traversed the court in a sort of 
canal into which was thrown food for the inmates, 
consisting of wheat, barley, millet, acorns, grape 
skins, small crabs or cmy fish, and other water 
animals. The eggs were generally hatched by 
common hens, the precautiona taken during incu- 
bation and the rearing of the ducklings being the 
same as in the case of pullets. (Var. iii. 11 ; 
Colum. viii. 15.) 

I. b. Chlumbariunu 

Pigeons (eobimbuty adumba). Varro distin- 
guishes two species or varieties, the one Gemu 
aaaatile s. o^mfe, probably the Chhimba Uvia of 
naturalists, which was shy and wild, living m 
lofW turrets (mibUmst turriculae\ flying abroad 
without restraint, and generally of a darkish colour, 
dappled, and without any admixtun of white, the 
other kind mora tame (clementius)^ feeding about the 
4oon of the fium, and for the moat part white. Be- 



AGRICULTURA- 

tween these a cross breed (numseBum} was nsn 
reared for the market in a lofty edifice ^'M-^pu 
poTfto^tdy ; ireptar€pfiw), constructed for the ] 
pose. These buildings, placed under the chu 
of a ooiumbariuSy were frequently large enoagh 
contain 5000, were vaulted, or roofed in. with ti 
and furnished with one small entrance, but ^ 
lighted by means of large barred or latticed m 
dows (fenettrae Pumcanae^ s. re tt adaiOfey. 1 
walla, carefully stuccoed, were lined firom top 
bottom with rows of round-shaped nests witl 
single small aperture (cobmAoria), often formed 
earthenware (Jietilia), one being assigned to evi 
pair, while in front of each row a planlc 'was plac 
upon which the birds alighted. A copious sapplj' 
firesh water was introduced for drinking and wa4 
ing ; their food, consisting of the refuse of wb< 
(excreta tritici)^ millet, vetches, peas, kidney>bea] 
and other leguminous seeds, was placed in nam 
troughs ranged round the walls, and filled by pip 
firom without Those pigeons, which were kept 
the country, being allow^ to go out and in at wi 
supported themselves for a great part of the je 
upon what they picked up in the fields, and we 
regularly fed (aeoeptant eonditiva dbarw) for IM 
or three months only ; but those in or near a tow 
were confined in a great measure to the w^urrcp 
rpo^tovy lest they should be snared or deatroya 
They were very fruitful, since one pair would te* 
eight broods of two each in the course of a ye« 
and the young birds (pulH) very speedily arrive 
at maturity, and b^^ forthwith to lav in thei 
turn. Those set aside for the market bad thei 
wing feathers plucked out and their legs broken 
and were then fiittened upon white bread pre 
viously chewed (mandueaio eandido/areiuntpane) 
A handsome nair of breeding pigeons of a gooc 
stock would fetch at Rome, towaitb the dose of the 
republic, two hundred sesterces (upwards of a guincc 
and a half) ; if remaikably fine, as high as a thou- 
sand (neariy eight guineas) ; and as much as 8ix< 
teen hundred (more than thirteen pounds) was a 
price sometimes asked, while Columella speaks oi 
four thousand (upwards of thirty pounds) having 
been given in his time ; and some persona were 
said to have a hundred thousand (neariy a thou- 
sand pounds sterling) invested in tlus kind of pro- 
perty. The instinct which teaches pigeona to re- 
turn to the pkce where ihey have been fed wom 
remarked by the ancients, who were wont, for the 
sake of amusement, to bring them to the theatres 
and there let them loose. (Varr. iii. 7 ; Colum. 
viii. 8 ; Plin. H. N, z. 52, 74, zi 64, zviii 42 ; 
PaUad. L 24.) 

I. c Omiihonj Aviarium (&ppi$oTpo^iop), 

OmiikoneSy in the restricted sense, were di- 
vided into two cUisses: 1. Those canstmcted for 
pleasure merely being designed for the reception of 
nightingales and other singing burda. 2. Those for 
profit, in which thousands of wild birds were con- 
fined and fiittened. Vairo gives a very curious and 
minute descriotion of an omithon belonging to the 
first class, wnich he himself possessed, snd La- 
cullus endeavoured to combine the enjoyment of 
both, for he had a triclinium constructed in hii 
Tuscnlan villa inside of an omithon, delighting to 
behdd one set of birds placed upon ihe taUe ready 
for his repast, while otheia were fluttering at tbe 
windows by which the room was lighted. Oni- 
thones of the second daaa, with which alone we ire 



AORICULTCTRA. 



AGRICULTURA. 



6d 



i, were kept by poolterere (moMi^ 
itra)^ and enhea in the city, but the greater num- 
ber woe ntnted in Sabinmn, becanae thrushes 
vov XBost ■bmidant in that legioo. These huge 
c^^ were fbraied bj widiwing a space of ground 
vi'th hi^ mDa and eovering it in "with an aithed 
rDo£ Water waa intxodneed by pipes, and con- 
dneled in uu i i i ww i a narrow channels, the windows 
were few and smaD, that light might be excluded 
as wBch as poasible, and that the prisoners might 
ant pine fimm loolcing oat upon the open country, 
vhoe theirnBiteo-were enjoying freedom. Indeed, 
as BLUBiU»e were thmslieB, and so apt to despond 
■Qshm. fint canght, that it was the pcsctiee to shut 
thesB ap for aonie time witL other tame indiriduals 
of dkesr own kind (caferam*), who acted as decoys 
{oBtBetartaX, in reeoneili]^ them to aqitirity. In 
the iaietiar of tbia boildmg numerous stakes (paH) 
'voe fixed upright, npon which the birds might 
slifht ; bog potea alao (perHeae) were ananged in 
an iacfiaed poshion resting agamst the walls with 
ipsn nailed in lowa across, and lofts were con- 
straded, all for the same porpose. Two smaller 
apsrtBsenta were attached, one in which the super- 
iatendaat (cHrafor) deposited the birds which died 
a natanl death, in order that he might be able to 
S6 we aeooaoBla with his master, the other, celled 
the anrhseri'ai, eommnnicating with the greet hall 
by a door, into which those birds wanted for the 
Bcaiket wore driTen from time to time, and kiUed 
wt of Bght, lest the others might droop on witness- 
hig the frfte of their eompaniona. 

Mi&et and wild bemea were giren freely, but 
their chief food consisted of dij figs carefrdly 
perled (SBj/mOer pumta) and kneaded with for or 
paUea iafto ■nail lamps, which were chewed by per- 
ioas hired to pctfocm this opemtion. The birds 
aaially kept in an omithon haTe been mentioned 
shoreT bat of these by fin- the most important were 
thrashes, which made thdr appearance in vast 
iscks aboat the Temal equinox, and seem to have 
been in great reqinest ; fiir oat of a sin|^e establish- 
BMnt ia Sabinnm, in the time of Yami, five thousand 
vne sBBBetimes sold in a singie year at the rate of 
three denarii a head, thus yielding asnm of 60,000 
sestereea» aboot five hundred ponnids sterling. 

The asDure from omithones containing urushes 
ad blackbirds waa not only a powerful stimuhnt 
ta the asil, bat was given as fiiod to oxen and pigs, 
whs fottcaed on it rapidly. 

Turtle doves (terAms, dim. ImrianUae) belonged 
to the dsaa winch did not lay eggs in captivity 
(Me parii mee saelmdit)^ and oonaeqpientiy, as 
SDon as caagfat, wen put up to frrtten (volabuxi 
IBs wi mpUm' /artmnu dettimUmr). They were 
not h oaeicr confined in an ordinary omithon but 
ia a hattdiag samihr to a dove-cote, with this dif- 
foreaoe, that the interior, instead of being fitted up 
with eslambarla, contained rows of brackets (mate- 
fat), or short stakes piojectin^ horiaontaUy from the 
«^ and rising tier above tier. Over each rew, 
Slowest of which was three feet from the ground, 
^espca mala (faggrtpafas eanmaUnae) were stretched, 
n which the Irards reposed day and night, while 
Wi were drawn t^ht in frnat to prevent them 
fin iyv^ aboot, which aronld have rendered them 
k«k They foltened readily in harvest time, de- 
I|h% most in diy wheat, of which one-half 
Bote per day was aofBdent for 120 turtles, or in 
ttOrtmwtesed with awcet wine. (Varr.iii. 8 ; 
Ctia,rw,9i PaUad. i, 25 ; Piin.fl:Ar. x. 24, 



34, 35, 53, 58, 74 ; compi Phmt MosttO. i. 1. 44 ; 
Juv. vi 38.) 

II. YlVAKlA, 

II. a. Leporaria, 

Leporaria anciently were small walled paddocks, 
phmted thickly with shrubs to give shelter ; and in- 
tended, as the name implies, for the reception of 
animals of the hare kind ; viz. 1. The common grey 
hare(/te2teaiRAoonof<ram,sc^e«a«). 2. The moun- 
tain or white hare from the Alps, seldom brought 
to Rome (poH amdidi nmi). 3. Rabbits (cmamw/i), 
believed to be natives of Spain. These, at least 
the first and third, bred rapidly, were caught occa^ 
sionally, shut up in boxes, fottened and sold. In 
process of time, the name Uporariym was changed 
for the more appropriate term bnpunpo^Xov^ since 
a variety of wild animals, such as boars (apri\ 
stags (cem), and roe deer {oapre(m\ were pro- 
cured firom the hunter (eeaofor), and shut up in 
these paries, which now embraced several acres 
even in Italy, while in the provinces, espedally 
Transalpine Chuxl, they firequently comprehended 
a circuit of many miles of hill and swamp, glade 
and forest This space was, if possible, fenced 
by a wall of stone and lime, or of unbumt brick 
and day, or, where the extent rendered even the 
latter too costly, by a strong paling {vacerra) filmed 
of upright stakes {ttipitea) drilled with holes {per 
Uxtm f^iMtmter), throagh which poles (omt'tes) were 
passed horizontally, the whole of oak or cork tree 
timber, braced and, as it were, latticed by planks 
nailed diagonally (teri$ irannerda elairare)^ much 
m the fiisaion of wooden hurdles. Even in the 
largest enclosures it was necessary to support the 
animals in winter, and in those of moderate size 
they were frequently tamed to such an extent, that 
they would assemble at the sound of a horn to re- 
ceive their food. (Varr. iiL 12 ; Colum. ix. 1 ; 
Plin.^.iV:viii.62.) 

Bees (opes). The delight experienced in the 
management of these creatures is sufficiently proved 
by the space and care devoted to the subject in 
Viigil, and by the singularly minute instructions 
contained in the a^cultural writers, especially in 
Columella, who denved his materials from the still 
more elabarate compilations of Hyginus and Cel- 
sus, the former being the author of a regular bee 
calendar, in which the various precepts for the 
gnidanoe of the bee fonder (meliariua, apiariw ; 
fMXxrot^pT^t, mdiim^ua) were ananged in regular 
order according to the seasons and days of the year. 
The methods which the andents cLescribe differ 
little, even in trifling detafls, from those followed by 
ourselves, although m some respects our practice is 
inferior, since they never destroyed a hive for the 
sake of its contents, but abstracted a portion of the 
honey only, always leaving a suffident supply for 
the support of the insects in winter ; and the same 
swarm, occasionally reinforced by young recruits, 
in%ht thus continue for ten years, whicn was re- 
garded as the limit Our superior knowledge of 
natural history has howeva enabled us to deter- 
mine that the chief of the hive is always a female, 
not a male (rear) as was the general bdief ; to ascer- 
tain the respective duties performed by the queen, 
the woriung bees, and drones {/yd %,Jure»\ which 
were unknown or confounded ; and to reject the 
absurd fimcy, to which however we are indebted 
for the most charming episode in the Oeorgics, 
which originated with the Qreeks, and is repeated 
F 3 



7e AGRICULTURA. 

with tmbesitatiiig faith by almost eveiy anthority, 
that swarmB might be produced by spontaneous 
generation from the putrescent carcase of an ox 
(ear bubulo corpore putre/hdo ; and hence they were 
commonly termed fioay6vtu by the poets, and by 
ArcheUtus fio6s ^iixirns wtworrifiiya rdKya). 

The early Romans placed the hires in niches, 
hollowed out of the walls of the farm-house itself 
under the shelter of the eaves (m&for 9ubgrunda»\ 
but in later times it became more common to form 
a regular apiary (c^MartMrn, ahiearittm^ mellarivm ; 
fitXdrroTpo^'toy, /acXittwi^), sometimes so exten- 
sive, as to yield 5000 pounds of honey in a season. 
This was a small enclosure in the immediate 
vicinity of the villa, in a warm and sheltered spot, 
as little subject as possible to great variations of 
temperature, or to disturbances of any description 
from the elements or from animals ; and carefully 
removed fit>m the influence of foetid exhalations, 
such as might proceed from baths, kitchens, stables, 
dunghills, or the like. A supply of pure water was 
provided, and plantations were formed of those 
plants and flowers to which they weremost attached, 
especially the cytisus and thyme, the former as 
being conducive to the health of bees, the latter as 
affording the greatest quantity of honey (aplunmum 
ad melij^um). The yew was care^ly avoided, 
not because in itself noxious to the swarm, but be- 
cause the honey made from it was poisonous. (Sie 
mea Cymeaa JvgicaU examina /euros.) The hives 
(o/rt, alveij o/ceoria, icv^^Aeu), if stationary, were 
built of brick {dmnieUia laUribua faata) or baked 
dung (ear fimo\ if moveable, and these were con- 
sideied the most convenient, were hollowed out of 
a solid block, or formed of boards, or of wicker 
work, or of bark, or of earthenware, the last being 
accounted the worst, because more easily affected 
by heat or cold, while those of cork were accounted 
best. They were perforated with two small holes 
for the insects to pass in and out, were covered 
with moveable tops to enable the mellarius to in- 
spect the interior, which was done three times a 
month, in spring and summer, for the purpose of 
removing any fllth which might have accumulated, 
or any worms that might have found entrance ; and 
were arranged, but not in contact, in rows one 
above another, care being taken that there should 
not be more than three rows in all, and that the 
lowest row should rest upon a stone parapet, de- 
vated three feet from the ground, and coated with 
smooth stucco to prevent lisards, snakes, or other 
noxious animals from climbing up. 

When the season for swarming arrived, the 
movements which mdicated the approaching de- 
parture of a colony (eanmien) were watched un- 
remittingly, and when it was actually thrown off, 
they were deterred from a long flight by casting 
dust upon them, and by tinkling sounds, being 
at the same time tempted to alight upon some 
neighbouring branch by rubbing it with balm 
{apicutrttmy iu\urir6^KKov^ s. tUXufw^ s. /ucXi- 
^wAAor), or any sweet substance. When they 
had all collected, they were quietly transferred to 
a hive similarly prepiued, and if they showed any 
disinclination to enter were urged on by surround- 
ing them with a little smoke. 

If quarrelsome, their pugnacity was repressed 
by sprinkling them with honey water {meUa) ; if 
liwy, they were tempted out by placing the sweet- 
smelling plants they most loved, chiefly apiastrum 
Of thyme, in the immediate vicinity of ue hive, 



AGRICULTURA. 
recourse being had at the same time to a sligl 
frunigation. If distracted by sedition in cons< 
quence of the presence of two pretenders to th 
throne, the rivals were caught, examined, and th 
least promising put to death. In bad ^wreathei 
those stricken down and disabled by coM or muddei 
rain were tenderly collected, placed in a apo 
warmed by artificial heat, and as they revived ]ai< 
down before their hives. When the weather fa 
any length of time prevented them from fr^in^ 
abroad, they were fed upon honey and water, oi 
upon figs boiled in must and pounded into a -paste. 
The honey harvest {mtUatio^ mellia ^indemia^ 
eastraiio alvorum^ diea autnmdi, ftcAiroMTcs), ac- 
cording to Varro, took place three times a year, 
but more usually twice only, in June and October ; 
on the first visitation four-fifths, at the seoona two 
thirds of the honey was abstracted ; but these pro- 
portions varied much according to the season, and 
the strength of the particular hive. The syi>tom 
pursued was very simple : the moveable top liv-as 
taken off, or a door contrived in the side opened, 
the bees were driven away by a smoking apparatus, 
and the mellarius cut out with peculiarly formed 
knives as much of the contents as he thought fit. 
The comb {fatmt^ mipioK), which was the product 
of their industry, was composed of wax {cera^ mifihs) 
formed into hexagonal cells (soar angtiia eeUa\ the 
geometrical advantages of which were soon dis- 
covered by mathematicians, containing for the most 
part honey {md^ M^)y hut also the more so/id 
sweet substance commoiily called bee-bread {pro- 
.polUy itp6fwoXis\ the classical name being deri^ned, 
it is said, from the circumstance that it is found in 
greatest abundance near the entrance^ The combs 
were cemented together, and the crevices in the 
hive daubed over with a glutinous gum, the erithace 
{ipiBdKn) of Yam and his Greek authorities, 
which seems to be the same with what is else- 
where termed fneHigo (juKlrttfta), 

Columella and Palladius describe ingenious plans 
for getting possession of wild swarms (apes tyteea- 
ireB^/erae, nMftoae,as opposed to sr&asae, dairet) ; 
and Pliny notices the humble bees which con- 
structed their nests in the ground, but seems to 
suppose that they were (*eculiar to a district in 
Asia Minor. The marks which distinguish the 
varieties of the domestic species will be found de- 
tailed by the different authorities quoted below. 
(Aristot Hid, Anim, v« ix ; Aelian. de Anim. L 
69, 60, V. 10, 1 1 ; Var. iL 6, iiL 3, 16 ; Virg. Ckonf. 
iv. ; Coliun. ix. 3. &c., xL 2 ; Plin. H, N. xi. 5, 
&C. ; Pallad. I 37— 3d, iv. 16, v. 8, vl 10, vii. 7, 
ix. 7, xL IS, xiL &) 

Snails (axMeae), Certam species of snails were 
fovourite articles of food among the Romans, and 
were used also medicinally in diseases of the lungs 
and intestines The kinds most prized were those 
from Reate, which were small and white ; those 
from Africa of middlii^ size, and very fruitfiil ; 
those caUed aoUUmae^ also firom Africa, larger than 
the former ; and those from lUyria, which were the 
largest of aU. The place where they were preserved 
{cochUoaivmj was sheltered from the snn, kept 
moist, and not covered over, nor walled in, but 
surrounded by water, which prevented the escape 
of the inmates who were very prolific, and required 
nothing except a few laurel leaves and a litUe 
bran. They were fattened by shutting them up 
in a jar smeared with boiled must and fionr, and 
perforated with holes to admit air. It has been 



AGRICULTURA. 

leeordad tkai aa inCTidiial nuied FoItiui Hir- 
, near Tarqninii, the first coch- 
in Italy, a short time before 
the ara >nr betveoi Osesar and Pompe j. (Vair. 
m. U ; ran. H. A", iz. 56, zxx. 7, 15 ; camp. 
Sa]hst Jm^ 93.) 

Dooaice (^Ures) weie regarded a« articles of 
f&ch laxnry that their nse as food was forbidden 
m the mnptoarj laws of the UMre rigid censors ; 
but, nBtwithstanding^ a gUrarimm became a com- 
warn appendage to a rilla. It was a small space 
of fnKmd ssuTDintded wiUi a smooth wall of polished 
tf fmecoed stone, planted with aoom-bearing trees 
ie jiekl food, and containing holes {cam) for rear- 
h^ the joang. The j were fattened up in earthen 
ps% (dafia) of a peculiar eonstraction, upon chest- 
nida^ walnafts, ani aeoros.. (Vair. iiL 15 ; Plin. 
H. A", ix. 57 ; oomp. Martial, iii 58, xiiL 59 ; 
Petmi. 31 ; Amm. Marc zzriiL 4.) 

II. 5. Pudaae. 

Lastly, we may say a few words upon artificial 
Ssh poods, which were of two kinds — freshwater 
ponds (puBuum dmloes)^ and salt water ponds 
(j»j»w aabae s^ maritifnae). 

The fomer, frum an eariy period, had frequently 
bees attached to ordinary fonns, and proved a 
saaree idg^ ; the latter were uidaiown until the 
last half oentary of the republic, were mere ob- 
ject! of faiznxy, and were confined for the most part 
t» the richest members of the community, to many 
«€whoBi, Bach as Uirms, Philippus, Locullus, and 
HsrtEBiias, who are sneeringly termed /nisQUMirit 
Vt Cieem, they became objects of intense interest 
These reeeptaefes were constructed at a vast cost 
OQ the sea-eoast, a succession being frequently 
fcnscd for di&xcnt kinds of fish, and the most 
b^cniona and elaborate contriTances provided for 
the adnussion of the tide at particular periods, and 
§ar zcgolatiBg the temperature of the water ; laxge 
man were paid for the stock with which they 
veie filled, eonaisting chiefly of mullets and mu- 
aesae ; and a heavy expense was incurred in 
■siniainiag them, for fishermen were regularly 
es^fojed ID catch small fry for their food, and 
when the weather did not permit such su|^ies to 
le pneaied, salt aachoTies and the like were 
IBiiliiiatJ in the market For the most part they 
jieided no Ktom ^Khaterer, during the lifetime at 
ksst of the proprie t ors, for the innates were re- 
fsided as peta, and frequently became so tame as 
\» answer to the Toioe and eat from the hand. 
When salea did take place the prices were very 
h^ Thna Hima, who, on one occasion, lent 
Caaar 6,000 muraenae, at a subsequent period 
•bttined 4,000,000 of sesterces (upwards of 
30,0OOt) for an ordinary rilla, chiefly in conse- 
fueaee oi the ponds and the quantity of fish they 



AORIMENSORES. 



71 



A certain Sergius Osata, a short time before the 
Hsoric War, fimned artificial oyster-beds (vtraria 
mh m iw m ) firom which he obtained a large revenue. 
He fiist asserted and established the superiority of 
tbe shdl-fish from the Lncrine Lake, which luive 
tktmjM maintained their celebrity, although under 
tlie empire leas esteemed than those from Britain. 
(VaiT. ii. 12. iiL 17 ; Colum. riii 16, 17 ; Plin. 
F.JV:iz. 54, 55; Cic a<f ^ff. L 19.) 

Of modem treatises connected with the subject 
rf this article the most important is Dickson^ 
^Hmhaodzy of the Andents,*' 2 Tola. Ovo. 1788, 



the woik of a Scotch dcfgyman, who was well 
acquainted with the practical details of agriculture 
and who had studied the I^tin writers with great 
care, but whose scholarship was unfortunately so 
imperfect that he was in many instances unable to 
interpret correctly their expressions. Many use* 
fill and acute obserrations will be fiynnd in the 
** Economic Politique dcs Romains ^ by Duraw 
de hi Malle, 2 tomes, Sva Paris, 1840, but he also 
is for from being accurate, and he is erabamsssed 
thnraghout by very erroneous riews with regard to 
the rate of interest among the Romans, and by the 
singular misconception that from the expulsion of 
the kings until the end of the second PWic war, 
the law forbade any Roman citisen to possess more 
than 7 jugen of land. (Vol. ii p.2.) Those who 
desire to compare the agriculture of modem Italy 
with ancient usages will do well to consult Arthur 
Young's ** Travels in Italy,** and the Appendix of 
Symonds ; the ** Agriculture Toscane ** of J. C. L. 
Simonde, 8vo. O^ieve, 1801 ; and ** Lettres dcrites 
d'ltalie k Charies Pictet par M. LuUm de Cha- 
teanvieux** 8vo. Paris. 2nd ed. 1820. (W. R.) 

AORlMENS<yR£& At the fonndanon of a 
odony and the assignation of lands the auspida 
were taken, for which purpose the presence of the 
aogur was necessary. But the business of tlie 
augur did not extend beyond the religious part of 
the ceremony: the division and measurement of 
the hind were made by professional measurers. 
These were the Fbuiont mentioned in the eariy 
writers (Cic. c RuUmm, iL 13 ; Phmtas, Poemmlma^ 
Profog. 49), who in the later periods were called 
Mensores mid Agrimenaorea The business of a 
Fiuitor could only be done by a free man, and 
the honourable nature of his office is indicated by 
the rule that there was no baigain fiir his services, 
but he received his pay in the form of a gift. 
These Finitores appear also to have acted as jndioes, 
under the name of arbitri, in those disputes about 
boundaries which were pnrdy of a technical, not a 
legal, character. 

Under the empire the observance of the auspices 
in the fixing of camps and the establishment of 
military colonies was less regarded, and the prac- 
tice of the Agrimenaores was reduced to a system 
by Julius Frontinus, Hyginus, Siculus Fhuxus, and 
oUier Oromatic writen, as they are sometimes 
termed. As to the meaning of the term Oroma, 
and the derived words, see Facdolati, Leanaomy and 
the Index to Ooeshis, Rei Affrariae Scrijkorta, 
The teachen of geometry in the laige cities of the 
empire used to give practical instruction on the 
system of giomatice. This practical geometry was 
one of the liberalia studia (Dig. 50. tit IS. a 1) ; 
but the professors of geometry and the teachen of 
law were not exempted from the obligation of being 
tutores, and from other such burdens {Prag. Vat, 
§ 150), a fiict which shows the subordinate rank 
which the teachen of elementary science then held. 

The Agrimensor could mark out the limits of 
thecenturiae,and restore the boundaries where they 
were confiised, but he could not assign {amgnare) 
without a commission finm the emperor. Military 
persons of various classes are also sometimes men- 
tioned as practising surveying, and settling disputes 
about boundaries. The lower rank of the profes- 
sional Agrimensor, as contrasted with the FiniUx 
of eariier periods, is shown by the fi&ct that in the 
imperial period there might be a contract with am 
A^amenaor for paying him fiir his services. 
p 4 



72 



AGRIONIA. 



The Agrimeiuor uf the later period was merely 
employed in disputes as to the boimdaries of pro- 
perties. The foundation of colonies and the as- 
signation of lands were now less conmiun, though 
we read of colonies being established to a late 
period of the empire, and the boundaries of the 
lands must have been set out in due form. (Hy- 
ginus, p. 177, ed. Goes.) Those who marked out 
the ground in camps for the soldiers* tents are also 
cnll^ Mensores, but they were military men. (Ve- 
getius, De Re MiUtari^ iL 7.) The functions of 
the Agrimensor are shown by a passage of Hyginus 
(De Oontroven, p. 1 70) : in idl questions as to deter- 
mining boundaries by means of the marks {9igna\ 
the area of snr&oes, and exphiining maps and plans, 
the services of the Agrimensor were required : in 
all questions that concerned property, right of road, 
enjoyment of water, and other easements {aervitutee) 
they were not required, for these were purely legal 
questions. Generally, therefore, they were either 
employed by the parties themselves to settle 
boun<£uie8, or they received their instructions for 
that purpose from a judex. In this capacity they 
were advocatL But they also acted as judices, 
and could give a final decision in that class of 
smaller questions which concerned the quinque 
pedes of the Mamilia Lex [Lex Mamilu], as ap- 
pears from Frontinus (pp. 63, 75, ed. Goes.). Under 
the Christian emperors the name Mensores was 
changed into Agrimensores to distinguiBh them 
from another dass of Mensores, who are mentioned 
in the codes of Theodosius and Justinian (vi 34, 
xii. 28). By a rescript of Constantino and Con- 
stans (a. d. 344) the teachers and learners of 
geometry received immunity from civfl burdens. 
According to a constitution of Theodosius and Va- 
lentinian (a. d. 440) as given in the collection of 
Goesius (p. 344), they received jurisdiction in ques- 
tions of AUuvio ; but Rudorff observes, ^ that the 
decisive words ' ut jndicio agrimensoris finiatur,* 
and * haec agrimensorum semper esse judicia * are a 
spurious addition, which is not found either in Nov. 
Theod. Tit 20, nor in L. 3. C. De Alluv. (Cod. 
Just vii. tit 41).^ According to another constitu- 
tion of the same emperors, the Agrimensor was to 
receive an aureus from each of any three border- 
ing proprietors whose boundaries he settled, and if 
he set a limes right between proprietors, he re- 
ceived an aureus for each twelfUi part of the pro- 
perty through which he restored the limes. Fur- 
ther, by another constitution of the same emperors 
(Goesius, p. 343), the youn^ Agrimensores were to 
be called ** clarissimi ** while Uiey were students, 
and when they bcsgan to practise their profession, 
spectabiles. All this, which is repeated by modem 
writers, is utteriy incredible. (Rudorff, p. 420, 
&C., and the notes.) 

(Rudorff, Ueber die Feldmeseer, Zeitschrift fUr 
Geschicht Rechtsw. vol. x. p. 412, a dear and exact 
exposition ; Niebuhr, vol. ii. appendix 2 ; Dureau 
de la Malle, Eotmomie PoUHque dee Romainej vol L 
p. 179 ; the few remarks of the last writer are of 
no value.) [G. L.] 

AGRIO'NIA (&7pi<6vm), a festival which was 
celebrated at Orchomenus, in Boeotia, m honour of 
Dionysus, sumamed *hypi^nos. It appears from 
Plutaroh (Quaett, Rom. 102), that this testival was 
solemnised during the night nnly by women and 
the priests of Dionysus. It consisted of a kind of 
game, in which the women for a long time acted as 
& teduBg Dioayius, and at last called out to one 



AGROTERAS THUSIA- 
another that he had escaped to the Muses, and bad 
concealed himself with them. After this they pre- 
pared a repast ; and having enjoyed it, amused 
themselves with solving riddles. This festival was 
remarkable for a feature which proves its great 
antiquity. Some virgins, who were descended from 
the idinyans, and who probably used to assemble 
around the tem^e on the occasion, fled and 'were 
followed by the priest armed with a sword^ who 
was allowed to kill the one whom he first caxighu 
This sacrifice of a human being, though originally 
it roust have formed a regular part of the festival, 
seems to have been avoided in later times. One 
instance, however, occurred in the days of Plutarch. 
{Quaeet. Graee, 3a) But as the priest who had 
killed the woman was afterwards attacked by dis- 
ease, and several extraordinary acddenta occurred 
to the Minyans, the priest and his fiunily ivere 
deprived of their official functions. The festival, 
as well as its name, is said to have been derived 
from the daughters of Minyas, who, after having 
for a long time resisted the Bacchanalian fiiry, were 
at length seised by an invincible desire of eating 
human flesL They therefore cast lots on their 
own children, and as Hippasus, son of Leucippe, 
became the destined victim, they killed and ate 
him, whence the women belonging to that race 
were at the time of Plutarch still called the 
destroyers (oXeTai or oioXoMu) and the men 
mourners (V'oXocif). (MUller, Z>i« ilftsjer, pi. 166. 
&&; K. F. Hennann, Le&rbueh d. ^oUemHenefUcAen 
AUerlhUmer d, Chieehen^ § 63. n. 13.) [L. S.J 

AGRO'NOMI (iiypou6fMi\ are described by 
Aristotle as the country police, whose duties cor- 
responded in most respects to those of the astjnomi 
in the city [ Astynomi], and who performed nearly 
the same duties aa the hylori (6XMpoi). {PoUt, vL 
5.) Aristotle does not inform us in what state 
they existed ; but from the frequent mention of 
them by Plato, it appears probable that they be- 
longed to Attica. (PUt Li^. vL pp. 617, 618 ; 
Timaeus, Leap, t. v. and RuhxdEen^ note, in which 
several passages are quoted from Plato.) 

AGRO TERAS THU'SIA (iTpor^posdinrfa), 
a festival celebrated every year at Athens in honour 
of Artemis, sumamed Agrotera (from &7pa, chase). 
It was solemnized, according to Plutarch (De Ma- 
lign, Herod, 26), on the sixth of the month of 
Boedromion, and consisted in a sacrifice of 500 
goats, which continued to be offered in the time of 
Xenophon. (Xenoph. Anab, iii. 2. § 12.) Aelian 
( V, H. ii. 25) places the festival on the sixth day 
of Thaigelion, and says that 300 goats were sacri- 
ficed ; but as the battle of MareSion which gave 
rise to this solemn sacrifice, occurred on the sixth 
of Boedromion, Aelian^ statement appears to be 
wrong. (Pint De Glor. Aiken, 7.) 

This festival is said to have originated in the 
following manner: — When the Persians invaded 
Attica, CaUimachus, the polemarch, or, according to 
others, Miltiades, made a vow to saoifice to Artemis 
Agrotera as many goats as there [Aould be enemies 
slain at Marathon. But when the number of enemies 
slain was so great, that an equal number of goats 
could not be found at once, the Athenians decreed 
that 500 should be sacrificed every year. This is 
the statement made by Xenophon ; but other an- 
cient authors give different accounts. The Scholiast 
on Aristoph. (Eqait 666) rekites that the Athe- 
nians, before the battle, promised to sacrifice to 
Artemis one ox for eveiry enemy slain ; bat wbea 



AIKIAS DIKS. 

tile nwBiber of oxen could not be procnivd, tbey 
MlMdtated an equal nnmber of goats. [L. S.] 
AOYRMUS (feyvptas), [Elkusinia.] 
AQTRTAE (iy^tti\ mendicant piesU, who 
were aceutomed to travel throogh the difFeient 
tovaa of Oieece, aolidting ahnt for the gods whom 
ikej aerred. Theae priesU carried, either on their 
aboolden or on beasts of burthen, images of their 
reapectzre deides^ They appear to hare been of 
Onental or^in, and were chieflj connected with 
tbe vonfaip of Isis, Opis and Aiige (Herod, ir. 35), 
and espedaOy of the great mother of the gods ; 
whence they were called tarrparfCproi, They were 
geaeraOy speaking, persons of the lowest and most 
alMyidoned chamcter. They undertook to inflict 
•one urievoos bodily injury on the enemy of any 
izidiridaal who paid them for soch Ksrvices, and 
also promised, fin* a small som of money, to obtain 
forgivenesa firam the gods whom they serred, for 
any bbs which cither the indiridnal himself or 
kis mt»mMi» m . bad committed. (Pht Rtp. ii p. 
364, bi ; Pint. Si^tenL c 3 ; Zosim. i 11 ; Max. 
Tjx. zix. 3 ; Atben. tL p. 266, d ; Origen, e, CeU. 
L pu 8; PhiL Ltg. iL p. 792 ; Rahnken,cMl TTmoM 
La, «, ML ftyt (povo-oy and hneytayol ; EL F. Her- 
man, Lakr^mdk d, yotUtdimtUiekm AUertkumer d. 
Gri^ckm^ S 42, n. 13.) 

These mendicant priests came into Italy, bnt at 
what time is uncertain, together with the worship 
of the gods whom they senred. (Cic IM Leg, yl 
1$; Hcmdoc^ ad Hor. Serm, i 2. 2.) 
AHE'NUSL [Aknum.] 
AIKIAS DIKE (oiirlar 3M), an action brought 
St Athena, before the court of the Forty (ol rrr- 
rapiiDgrra), against any indiridual, who had struck 
a eitiaen of tl^ state. Any citizen, who bad been 
thus insulted, might proceed in two ways against 
the oOendiz^ P**^* either by the Mtciaf Sunt, 
vhidi vas apriTate action, or by the ffCpcwr Tyw^ 
which was looked upon in the light of a public 
prosecution, since the state was considered to be 
vnoged in an injury done to any citizen. It ap- 
peals to hare been a principle of the Athenian 
law, to gire an indiridual, who had been injured, 
lure thai one mode of obtaining redress. If the 
pSaintiff bronght it as a prirate suit, the defendant 
VBoId only be condemned to pay a fine, which the 
pUntiff receired ; but if the cause was brought 
SI a public suit, the accused might be punished 
trn with death, and if condemned to pay a fine, 
^ latter went to the state. 

It vas neeeanry to more two fiusts in bringing 
the aoclos Sonf before the Forty. First, That the 
iefcndaat had struck the plaintiff, who must hare 
ben a free man, with the intention of insulting 
him (JfT Mp«i), which, howerer, was always pre- 
RDsed to hare been the intention, unless the de- 
frndaat ooold prore that he only struck the pkin- 
tiff Id j^ce. Thus Ariston, after proring that he 
bd been struck by Conon, tells the judges that 
Cm win attempt to show that he had only 
itrad hnn in play. (DenL e. Oomm. p. 1261.) 
Secoodly, It was necesnry to prore that the de- 
feadant struck the plaintiff first, snd did not merely 
retun the blows which had been giren by the 
(hintiff ( Vx*"' X^^P^ ilKmnf, or merely iuiianf 
IfXW, Dem. c Emerp. pp. 1141, 1151.) 

la tUi action, the sum of money to be paid by 
tbe defeodaat as damages was not fixed by the laws ; 
bat tbephintiff assessed the amount according to 
tk iBJoy, which be thonght he had leceired, and 



ALA. 73 

the judges determined on the justice of the daim. 
It was thus an assessed action, and resembled the 
procedure in public causes. The orations of De> 
mosthenes against Conon, and of Isocmtes against 
Lochites, were spoken in an action of this kin^ and 
both of these hare come down to us ; and there 
were two orations of Lysias, which are lost, relating 
to the same action, namely, against Theopompus 
and Hippocrates. (Haipociat. «. v. olirtar ; Meier, 
Ati. Proeui, p. S47, Ac. ; Bockh, PM. Eeom. ^ 
Athens, pp. 352, 364, 372, 374, 2nd ed.) 

AITHOUSA (odreoiNra), a word mly used by 
Homer, is probably for odf9ov<ra irrod, a portico ex- 
posed to the son. From the passages in which it 
occurs, it seems to denote a corered portico, opening 
on to the court of the house, auX^, in front of the 
restibide, wp^Ovpor. Thus a chariot, learing the 
house, is described as passing out of the wp&vpw 
and the dtOawra. {IL xxir. 323 ; Od. iii 493, xr. 
146, 191.). The word is used also in the plural, 
to describe apparently the porticoes which sur- 
rounded the o*x4 (IL ri 243 ; Od. riiL 57.) 
It was in such a portico that guests were lodged 
fat the night (Od, iiL 399, ril 345). It was 
also the place of recepti<m for people flocking to the 
p^dace on a public occasion (//. xxir. 239 ; Od. 
riii. 57) ; and hence perhaps the epithet ^/>/3oinror, 
which Homer usually connects with it [P. 3. J 

ALA, a port of a Roman house. [Domus.] 

ALA, ALARFS, ALA'RII. These words, 
like all other terms connected with Roman war- 
fiue, were used in different or at least modified 
acceptations at difierent periods. 

Ala, which literally means ateing, was firom the 
earliest epochs employed to denote the wing of an 
army, and this signification it always retained, but 
in process of time was firequently used in a re- 
stricted sense. 

1. When a Roman army was composed of 
Roman citisens exdusirely, the flanks of the in- 
fontnr when drawn up in battle array were corered 
on the right and left by the caralry ; and henco 
Ala denoted the body of horse which was attached 
to and serred along with the fi>ot-soldiers of the 
legion. (See Cincius, de Re MiUtari, who, al- 
though he flourished & c 200, is eridently ex- 
plaimng m the passage quoted by Aulus Gellius, 
xri 4, the original acceptation of the term.) 

2. When, at a kter date, the Rcoum armies 
were composed partly of Roman citizens and partly 
of Soeiit either Latud or Italiei, it became the 
practioe to maishall the Roman troops in the centre 
of the battle line and the Sodi upon the wings. 
Hence ala and atom denoted the contingent fiir- 
nished b^ the allies, both horse and foot, and the 
two dirisions were distinguished as deactera ala and 
nmstra ala. (Lir. xxril 2, xxx. 21, xxxi. 21 ; 
Lips, de MiHL Bom. il dial 7. We find in Lir. 
z. 40, the expression cum eokortSme alariu, and in 
z. 43, D. Bruhtm Seaevam legatmn cum legume 
prima el deoem eokortSmt ak^He equitaiuqtie ire 
.... jmetit.) 

3. When the whole of the inhabitants of Italy 
had been admitted to the pririleges of Roman 
citizens the terms o&im, cokortee alariae were trans- 
ferred to the foreign troops serring along with the 
Roman armies. In Csesar (B. O. l 51) we see the 
Alarii expressly distinguished from the Ugionarii^ 
and we find the phrase (B. C. I 73) eokortee alariae 

I ei legianariae, while Cicero {pdFam, ii 17) speaka 
I of the AkuH Tratupadam\ 



74 



ALAUDA. 



4. Lastly, under the empire, the term ala was 
applied to regimeuts of horse, raised it would seem 
with very few exceptions in the provinces, serving 
apart from the legions and the cavalry of the le- 

?'ons. It is to troops of this description that 
acitns refers when (^Atm, zv. 10) he mentions 
AUuret PcamonU robur equticUus, 

Some further details on this subject are given 
under Exxrcitus. [W. R.J 

ALAB ARCHES (^o^ctpx^t), appears to have 
heen the chief magistrate of the Jews at Alexandria; 
hut whose duties, as far as the government was 
concerned^ chiefly consisted in raising and paying 
the taxes. (Joseph. Ant xviii. 18. § 1, xix. 5. 
§ 1, XX. 5. § 2; Euseb. ff, E, ii 5.) Hence, Ci- 
cero {ad Att. ii. 17) calls Pompey alabarches from 
his raising the taxes. The etymology of this word 
is altogether uncertain, and has given rise to great 
disputes ; some modem writers propose, but with- 
out sufficient reason, to change it, in all the pas- 
sages in which it occurs, into cwabarche$. The 
question is fully discussed by Stnrzius. {De Dia- 
lect. Macedon, et Alexandrin. p. 65, &c.) 

ALABASTRUM and ALABASTER (AAii. 
Bourrpov^ itKiJSaffrpos\ a box or vase for holding 
perfumes and ointments; so called because they 
were originally made of alabaster, of which the 
variety, called onyx-alabaster, was usually em- 
ployed for this purpose. (Plin.^. M xiii. 2. s. 3, 
zzxvL 8. s. 12.) They were, however, subse- 
quently made of other materials, as, for instance, 
gold (xy>^o-cia kK&ioffrptC), Such vases are fint 
mentioned by Herodotus (iii. 20), who speaks of 
an ** alabaster-box of perfumed ointment ^ {fibpov 
ii\iiSa<rrpoy\ as one of the presents sent by 
Cambyses to the Ethiopian king ; and after his 
time they occur both in Greek and Roman writers. 
(Aristoph. Aeham. 1053 ; Aeliaii, V. II. xii. 18 ; 
Martial, xi. 8 ; Matth. xxvi 7 ; Mark, xiv. 3 ; 
Luke, viL 37.) These vessels were of a tiqiering 
shape, and very often had a long narrow neck, 
which was scaled ; so that when the woman in the 
Gospels is said to break the alabaster-box of oint- 
ment for the purpose of anointing Christ, it ap- 
pears probable that she only broke the extremity 
of the neck, which was thus dosed. 

ALABASTRl'TES. [Alabastbr.] 

ALAEA CAAom), games which were annually 
celebrated at the festival of Athena, sumamed 
Alea, near Tegea, in the neighbourhood of the 
magnificent temple of the same goddess. (Paus. 
viiL 47. § 3.) [L. S.J 

ALA'RU. [Ala.] 

ALAUDA, a Gaulish word, the prototype of 
the modem French AUmette^ denoting a small 
crested bird of the lark kind which the Latins in 
allusion to its tuft denominated dtierUa, The 
name aUuda was bestowed by Julius Caesar on a 
legion of picked men, which he raised at his own 
ex pence among the inhabitants of Transalpine 
Gaul, about the year b. a 55, not as erroneously 
asserted by Gibbon, during the civil war ; which 
he equipped and disciplined after the Roman 
fashion ; and on which in a body, he at a sub- 
sequent period bestowed the freedom of the state. 
This seems to have been the first example of a 
regular Roman legion levied in a foreign country 
and composed of barbarians. The designation was, 
in all probability, applied fh»m a plume upon the 
helmet, resemblinff tne **apez** of the bird in 
question, or from the general shape and appearance 



ALEA. 

of the head-piece. Cicero in a letter to Atticns, 
written in b. a 44, states that he had received in- 
telligence that Antoiiius was marching upon the 
city *'cum legione alaudarum,*^ and from the 
Philippics we learn that by the Lex Judiciaria of 
Antonius even the common soldiers of this corps 
(Alaudae — matajmlares ex legume Alaudarum) 
were privileged to act as judices upon criminal 
trials, and enrolled along with the veterans in the 
third decuria of judices, avowedly, if we can trust 
the omtor, that the framcr of the law and his 
firiends might have functionaries in the courts of 
justice upon whose support they could depend. 

That the legion Alauda, was numbered V. is 
proved by several inscriptions, one of them be- 
longing to the age of Domitian in honour of a cer- 
tain Cn. Domitius, who among many other titles ia 
styled TRiB. MIL. LXG. V. ALAUDAE. It had 
however disappeared from the army list in the 
time of Dion Cassius, that is, in the early part of the 
third century, for the historian, when giving a cata- 
logue of such of the twenty-three or twenty-five 
legions which formed the establishment of Augustus, 
as existed when he wrote, makes no mention of any 
fifth legion except the Quinla MacedotUot$, (Suetoii. 
JuL 24 ; Caesar, B. C. L 39 ; Plin. H. M xl 44 ; 
Cic Philip. L 8. § 20, v. 5. § 12, xiiL 2. § 3, 1 8. 
§ 37 ; Grater, Corp. Inecrip, Lot. cccciil 1, 
DXLiv. 2, DXLix. 4, OLix. 7 ; OrcUi, Inscrip, 
Lai, n. 773.) £\V. R.J 

ALBOGALE'RUa [Apbx.] 

ALBUM is defined to be a tablet of any mate- 
rial on which the praetor's edicts, and the rules 
relating to actions and interdicts, were written. 
[Edictum.] The tablet was put up in a public 
place in Rome, in order that all persons might 
have notice of its contents. According to some 
authorities, the album was so called, because it was 
either a white material, or a material whitened, 
and of course the writing would be a different 
colour. According to other authorities, it was so 
called because the writing was in white letters. 
If any person wilfully altered or erased (raserit^ 
eorrvperit, nuUaverit) any thing in the album, he 
was liable to an action aUn oorrupH, and to a heavy 
penalty. (Dig. 2. tit L s. 7, 9.) 

Probably the word album originally meant any 
tablet containing any thing of a public nature. 
Thus, Cicero informs us that the Annales Maximi 
were written on the album by the pontifex niaxi- 
mus. (De Orat, ii. 12.) But, however this may 
be, it was in course of time used to signify a list 
of any public body ; thus we find the expression, 
ottntm temUoriumy used by Tacitus {Ann. iv. 42), 
to express the list of senators, and corresponding 
to the word leuooma used by Dion Cassius (Iv. 3). 
The phrase album decurionum signifies the Ust of 
decuriones whose names were entered on the 
album of a municipium, in the order prescribed 
by the lex municipalis, so far as the provisions 
of the lex extended. (Dig. 50. tit 3.) AUmmju- 
dicuM is the list of judices. (Suet Oand. 16.) 
[Judex.] [G.L.] 

ALCATHOEA (oAjcadoia). The name of 
games celebrated at Megara, in commemoration of 
the Eleian hero Alcathous, son of Pelops, who had 
killed a lion which had destroyed Euippus, son of 
King Megareus. (Pind. lathtn, viiL 148 ; Paus. i. 
42. §1.) [L.S.] 

ALEA, gaming, or playing at a game of chance 
of any kind. Hence, aUa^ aleatory a gamester, a 



ALEA. 



ALIPTAE. 



74 



bUol 



nayi 



Playmg witli iaK or fcwerew was gene- 
~»ecaiiae these were by &r the 
» of dbaace among the BonuHM. 
{Tax.08; TmBKA.) 

OaaiiDg was eofunleRd durqntable at Rome ; 
and hence iiAwftji was aaed as a tenn of repraach. 
(Ck. m CkL ii. 10, od AiL xir. 6.) It was also 
fe rfa i ddea aft Rome by special laws, durixig the 
tisea of the republic, and under die emperon 
(t»«te I^An alas). (Her. Cbr«. iii. 24. 68 ; Cic 
PiA?un.-23; Or. JVitL iL 470, &e^ Dig. 11. 
til. S.) We have, howerer, no express infiurm- 
ation as to the time when these laws were en- 
acted or the exact pcovisiaas whkh they contahied. 
"iboe are three laws mentioned in the Digest 
(•'. c) farindding gambling, the Lege$ TUia^ I*ub- 
Hda^md Cormdm^ and likewise a senatot eon- 
sofawBi, and the piaetor^ edictom. At what time 
the two fermer laws were passed is quite nnoer- 
am ; but the Lex Cornelia was pmbabiy one of 
the kwa of the dictator SaUa, who» we know, made 
ats to chedc the extxaYagaace and 
of prhrate penons^ [SuMTua] Some 
iafier fron a paamge of Plautoa {MiL 
tHar. iL 2. 9) that gaming most have been for- 
badden by law in hia time ; bat the kte tahria in 
this pasB^e seems rather to reier to the laws of the 
^aae than to any pnUic enactment. Some modem 
vriftezi, howercr, read kx akaria in this passage. 
The only kinds of gaming allowed by the law 
«cte, fixrt, piayiqg at table for the diffetent articles 
•I iDod, and pUyiqg for money at games of 
iOCBgth, swch as hnriing the javelin, nmning, 
tnmpmg^hoadng, &e. (Dig. L e.) Those who were 
eooTieted of gaming were condemned to pay four 
tiaes the sum they had staked (Pseudo-Ascon. m 
(ie. i^ta. § 24. PL 110. ed. OreUi), and became w- 
f(ma m ooosequenoe. We know that infamia 
ra fr eqae a tly a eonseqnence of a judicial dedskin 
IItcfaiua]; and we may infor that it was in this 
ose from the expression of Cicero. (** Hominem 
lese, qase est de alea, oondemnatum, m iaitegrum 
' Gc PkiL iL 23.) Justinian forbade all 
J both in public and in pritate. (Cod. 3. tit 
4^) Gaaws of chance were, however, tolemted in 
tfe moath of December at the Satuznslia, which was 
a period of gcnenl relaxation (Mart. iv. 14, t. 84; 
OeH. xriiL 13; Suet Awf^ 71); and among the 
Greeks, aa well as the Romans, public opinion 
s&Bved oU men to amuse themselTCs in this 
muBK (Earip. Med. 67 ; Cic; SemeA 16.) 
Usder the empire gambling was carried to a great 
Wight, and the laws were probably little more 
thu nominal. Many of the early emperon, 
Aiq^ostns, Caligula, Claudius, Yitellius, and Do- 
niusn, were very fond of gaming^ and set but an 
eril example to thdr subjects in this matter. 
(iSeet. Awp. 70, 71 ; Dion Cass. lix. 22 ; Suet 
'W. 41, O&m^ 33; Dion Cass. Ix. 2 ; SneLDom. 
31.) Pmfossed gamesters made a regular study of 
iMr mt ; and there were treatises on the subject, 
uFong i^kich was a book written by the emperor 
Cbndiasw (Or. DruL ii 471 ; Suet OonhI. 33.) 

Alea sometimes denotes the implement used in 
pbying, as in the phrase jada alea etLt ** the die 
is cast,** uttered hj Julias Caesar, inmiediately 
\eUjK be crossed the Rubicon (Suet Ja/. 82); and 
i: » oft«a used for chance, or uncertainty in gene- 
ral (Hot. Oirm. iL 1. 6 ; Cic Dw. iL 15.) Re- 
specting the enactments against 
iaa, (kimmtknit dtr ROmer, p. 883. 



ALEAIA CAX4ata\ afosti^ cdebrated to the 
honour of Athena Alea at Tegea with games and 
contests, of which we find mention in inscriptions. 
(Pans. Till. 47, 13; Kiause, Die GymmaMik u. 
AgtmuHk cC HMemm^ pp. 734—736 ; K. F. Her- 
msnn, Lekrhmek «L gatteediemeUickm Aiterikuuter d, 
Orieekem^ § 51, n. 11 ; comp. Halotla.) 

ALl CULA (iAAi( or JUXn^), an upper dress, 
which was, in all probability, identical with the 
chlamya, althonah Hesychius explains it as a kind 
of chiton (Euphor. />>. 1 12, ap. Meineke, Arnii, 
AUac pi 137 ; Callim. Fr, 149, op. Naeke, Opmee. 
Tol. ii. pL 86 ; Hesych. «. v. ; Suid. s. v. lUAiaca 
and ip^rfiiFi ; MUller, Ardu d. KmmeL, § 337, n. 6; 
Martial, xiL 83.) [P.S.] 

ALIMENTA'RII PUERI ET PUELLAR 
In the Roman republic, the poorer citixens were as- 
sisted by public distributions of con, oil, and money, 
which were called coapiaria. [Conoiauum.] 
These distributions were not made at stated periods, 
nor to any but grown-up inhabitants of Rome. The 
Emperor Nerra was the first who extended them to 
children, and Trajan appointed them to be made 
every month, both to orphans and to the children 
of poor parents. The children who received them 
were called fmeri et pmeUae almteniorii, and also 
(from the emperor) pmeri fm^Uaeqwe Ulpiami; and 
the officers who administered the institotion were 
called qmautoree peemuae ahmmtm iae^ qmaettoree 

The fragmento of an mteresting record of an m- 
stitution of this kind by Trajan have been found 
at Velleia, near Plaoentia, firom which we learn 
the sums which were thus dbtributed, and the 
means by which the money was raised. A 
similar institotion was founded by the younger 
Pliny, at Comnm. (Plin. Epi$l. vii. 18, L 8 ; and 
the inscription in Orelli, 1 172.) Trajan^ benevo- 
lent plans were carried on upon a larger scale by 
Hadrian and the Antonines. Under Commodus 
and Pertinax the distribution ceased. In the reign 
of Alexander Sererus, we sgain meet with aiimem' 
tarHpturi and jmeUae, who were called AfamfliaaaRt^ 
in honour of the emperor*s mother. We learn, 
from a decree of Hadrian (Ulp. «• Dip. 34. tit L 
s. 14), that boys enjoyed the benefita of this in« 
stitotion up to their eighteenth, and giris up to 
their fourteenth 3!:ear ; and, frmn an inscription 
(Fafaretti, 235, 619), that a boy four yean and 
seven months old received nine times the ordi- 
nary monthly distribution of com. (AureL Vict 
EpiL xiL 4 ; Capitolin. Ant. 7^ 8, Af . Aur. 
26, Pert 9 ; Spart Had. 7 ; Lamprid. See. 
Aleat. 57 ; Crelli, Itieer. 3864, 3365 ; Fabretti, 
234, 617 ; Rasche, Zee. Univ. Bei Num. s. «. 
7\Uela Itaiiae; Eekhel, Doet. Nmm. VeL vol. vL 
p.408; F. A.Wol^ Von emer miUem SH/hnig 
TVajame.) [P.S.] 

ALITILUS, a skve, who attended on bathers, 
to remove the superfluous hair from their bodies. 
(Sen. Ep. 66 ; Pignor. de Sere. 42.). [P. 8.] 

ALIPTAE (&Xc(irrai) among the Oieeks, 
were persons who anointed the bodies of the 
athletae, preparatory to their entering the palaes- 
tra. The chief object of this anointing was to close 
the pores of the body, in order to prevent excessive 
perspiration, and the weakness consequent thereon. 
To effect this object, the oil was not simply spread 
over the surface of the body, but idso well rubbad 
into the akin. The oil waa mixed with fina 



76 



ALLUVIO. 



African sand, seyeial jara full of which were found 
in the baths of Titus, and one of these is now in 
the British Museum. This prepantory anointing 
was called ^ wapwrKwaarueii rpl^^ts. The athleta 
was again anointed after the contest, in order to 
restore the tone of the skin and musdes ; this 
anointing was called ii drotfepaireii. He then 
bathed, and had the dust, sweat, and oil scraped 
off his body, by means of an instrument smiilar to 
the strigil of the Romans, and called arTXryyU^ and 
afterwards i^arpa. The aliptae took advantage 
of the knowledge they necessarily acquired of the 
state of the muscles of the athletae, and their gene- 
ral strength or weakness of body, to advise them 
as to their exercises and mode of life. They 
were thus a kind of medical trainers. larpaXtlirreu. 
(Pint de JVend, San. 16. p. 430 ; Celsus, i 1 ; 
Plin. H. N, xzix. 1, 2.) Sometimes they even 
superintended their exercises, as in the case of 
Milesias. (Pindar, (Hym. vlii. 54 — 7 1 ; and Ddckh *8 
note.) [Athlbtax.] The part of the palaestra 
in which the athletae were anointed was called 
oXetirr^ptoy. 

Among the Romans, the aliptae were slaves who 
scrubbed and anointed their masters in the baths. 
They, too, like the Greek A^cfirrai, appear to 
have attended to their masters* constitution and 
mode of life. (Cic. ad Fam. L 9, 35 ; Senec. Ep. 
66 ; Juvenal, Sai. m. 76, vi 422 ; Pignor. <U 
Sen. p. 81.) They were also called wietores. 
They used in their operations a kind of scraper 
called a strigil, towels {lintea)^ a cruise of oil {guUus), 
which was usually of horn, a bottle [Ampulla], 
and a small vessel called l^ietUa. [Baths.] 

The apartment in the Greek palaestra where 
the anointing was performed was called &A.eiT- 
rfipiov, that in the Roman baths was called 
unduarium. [P« S.] 

ALLU'VIO. «* That," says Gains (iL 70, Ac), 
** appears to be added to our land by alluvio, 
which a river adds to our land (offer) so gradually 
that we cannot estimate how much is added in 
each moment of time ; or, as it is commonly ex- 
pressed, it is that which is added so gradually as 
to escape observation. But if a river (at once) 
takes away a part of your land, and brings it to 
mine, this part still remains your property.** There 
is the same definition by Gaius in his Ret CoU- 
dianas (Dig. 41. tit 1. s. 7), with this addition: — 
** If the part thus suddoily taken away should 
adhere for a considerable time to my land, and the 
trees on such part should drive their roots into my 
land, firom that time such part appears to belong to 
my land.** The aeqvuitio per aUuviomem was con- 
sidered by the Roman jurists to be by the jus 
gentium, in the Roman sense of that tenn ; and it 
was comprehended under the general head of 
Accessio. A man might protect his land against 
loss from the action of a river by securing the 
banks of his land (Dig. 43. tit. 15 ; De Ripa 
Aftunemja), provided he did not injure the navi- 
gation. 

If an island was formed in the middle of a river, 
it was the common property of those who possessed 
lends on each bank of the river ; if it was not in 
the middle, it belonged to those who possessed lands 
on that bank of the river to which it was nearest. 
(Gains, iL 72.) This is explained more minutely 
in the Digest (41. tit 1. s. 7). A river means a 
public river {JUanm publicum). 

Accordii^ to a constitution of the Emperor 



AMBITUS. 
Antoninus Pius, there was no jus alluvionia io the 
case of agri limitati, for a certun quantity (certua 
cniqne modus) was assigned by the form of the 
centuriae. (Dig. 41. tit 1. s. 16; comp. A^zgvuiua 
Urbicns, in TttxR^iLCommeKL De AUmmme^ pans 
prior, ed. Goes ; and Aoxa.) Ciremmbimo difFera 
from alluvio in this, that the whole of the land in 
question is suironnded by water, and subject to 
its action, (^cero {De OraL L 88) enumerates the 
jura aUuvioimm and etreumluvionum as matters in- 
cluded under the head ofeaueae cetttumtfiraies. ' 

The doctrine of alluvio, as stated by Bracton in 
the cluster De aoquirendo Rerum Domimo (foL 9), 
is taken from the Digest (41. tit 1. s. 7), and is 
in several passages a copy of the words of Gaius, aa 
cited in the Digest [G. L.] 

ALOA or HALOA ('AA£a, 'AXmi), an Attic 
festival, but celebrated fHincipally at Eleusia, in 
honour of Demeter and Dionysus, the inventors of 
the plough and protectors of the fruits of the earth. 
It took pbce every year after the harvest was over, 
and only fruits were offered on this occasion, partly 
as a grateful acknowledgment for the benefits the 
husbandman had received, and partly that the next 
harvest might be plentifiil. We learn from De- 
mosthenes (c. Neaer. p. 1385), that it was unlawful 
to offer any bloody sacrifice on the day of this fes- 
tival, and that the priests alone had the privilege 
to offer the finxits. The festival was also called 
daX^ata (Hesych. t. «.)♦ or evyieofiurHipta. [LuS.] 

ALO'GIOU GRAPHE' {iJ^iw ypw^) an 
action which might be brought before the logistae 
(AoyurroQ at Athens, against all persons who 
neglected to pass their accounts, when their term 
of office expired. (Suid. Hesych. EtyraoL s. e. ; 
Pollux, viii. 54 ; Meier, AU. ProeesM^ p. 363.) 

ALTA'RE. [Ara.] 

ALUTA. [Calcbus.] 

ALYTAE (ix^oi). [Olympia.] 

AMANUENSIS, or AD M ANUM SBRVUS, 
a slave, or freedman, whose office it was to write 
letters and other things under his master^s direc- 
tion. The amanuensis must not be confounded 
with another sort of slaves, also called ad manmm 
tervif who were always kept ready to be employed 
in any business. (Suet Oaes. 74, Aug, 67, A^er. 
44, TU. 3, Vetp. 3 ; CSe. i>s Orai, in. 60, 225 ; 
Pignor. De Servis, 109.) [P. S.] 

AMARY'NTHIA, or AMARY'SIA CA/*a. 
pMtOy or *AfMp6<na), a festival of Artemis 
Amarynthia, or Amaryaia, celebrated, as it seems, 
originally at Amarynthus in Euboea, with extra- 
ordinary splendour ; but it was also solemnized 
in several places in Attica, such as Athmone 
(Pans. L 31. § 3) ; and the Athenians held a fee- 
tival, as Pausanias says, in honour of the same 
goddess, in no way less brilliant than that in 
Euboea. (Hesych. s. o. 'Afutpiiruu) The festi^-al 
in Euboea was distinguished for its splendid pro- 
cessions ; and Stntbo himself (x. p. 448) seems to 
have seen, in the temple of Artemis AmaryDthia, 
a column on which was recorded the sdendour 
with which the Eretrians at One time celebrated 
this festival. The inscription stated, that the pro- 
cession was formed of three thousand heavy-armed 
men, six hundred horsemen, and sixty chariots, 
(Comp. Schol. ad Find. OL xiil 159.) [L S.] 

AMBARVA'LIA. [Arvalrs Fratrbs.] 

A'MBITUS, which literally signifies ** a going 
abont,*^ cannot, perhaps, be more neariy expressed 
than by our woi^ oanvatsinff* After the plebs had 



AMBITUSw 

a distinct estate at Rome, and when the 
whcde bodyof thecstisens had become verj greatly 
imrraifJ , ve frequently read, in the Roman 
wiitefBy o(f the great efibrts which it was neoeswy 
far caadidates to make, in order to secure the 
TBiea of the citisens. At Rome, as in eveiy com- 
maoity into which the dement <if popular election 
enien^ aoiidtaticsi of Totes, and open or secret 
a iifl» e » c e and bribery, were among toe means by 
which a fandidatf secured his election to the offices 
of state. The electioos Rcnned annually, and 
caa£dates had plenty of praetioe in the various 



AMBITUS. 



77 



Wbatever may be the anthority of the piece 
iatitlcd ** Q. CSceronis de Petitione Consnlatus ad 
M. Tallima Fntrem,** it seems to present a pretty 
fiur pktare of thoae arts and means, by which a 
caadidate might lawfully endeaTour to secure the 
nUes of the doctors, and also some intimation of 
those meaofl which were not lawful, and which it 
was the object of Tarions enactments to repress. 

A candidate was called jMtifor; and his opponent 
w^ tdcvence to him, o wwpetftor. A candidate 
(riMiffrfiMfai) was so called frnm his appearing in the 
paUie pbcea, such as the fan and Campus Mar- 
tias, bdove his Mlow-citisens, in a whitened toga. 
On saeh oerasiwMi, the candidate was attended by 
kis friends (dSsAtefoncs), or followed by the poorer 
atxeeoa (steCotorar), who could in no ^er manner 
■how their good will or giTe their assistance. (Cic. 
pn Afaneao, c 34.) The word at$idmita 9 ez- 
premed both the contimial prcsenoe of the candi- 
date at Romcs, and his contimial solicitations. The 
csadidate, in going his rounds or taking his walk, 
aas aoDompattied by a aoieacfafar, who gave him 
the names of soeh persDns as he might meet ; the 
caadidate was thus eiSbled to address them by 
their Barnes, an indirect compliment which could 
not fan to be generally gratifying to the electon. 
The candidate accompanied his address with a 
sbake of the hand (^reaso^). The term bmiffid- 
Ua oarapcefacoded generally any kind of treating, 
as shows, fieaata, dux Oindids^ somethnes lA 
Roaie, and visited the raloniae and munidpia, in 
vtieh the dtizens had the snffia^ ; thus Cicero 
proposed to visit the Cisalpine towns, when he was 
1 cmdidate lor the consnlship. (Cic. ad AU, L 1.) 
Tbat ambitus, which was the object of several 
peasi enactments^ taken as a generic tenn, coropre- 
iMided the two species, — ombitM and largUkmet 
(kibeiy). LSbgraHtm and bemgiuteu are opposed 
Vf Cicero, as things allowable, to anbUiu and 
fan^An, as things illegal (Cic de Oral, ii 25 ; 
sad compare pro Murena^ c. 86.) The word for 
tmMhn m the Greek writen is ttiuurfUs, Mvaiej 
«as paid fiir votes ; and in order to insure secrecy 
sad secure the elector, penons called m i& rprdm 
wrre employed to make the bargain, tequeztres to 
kold the money till it was to be paid (Cic. pro 
OamL 26), and dmaorts to distribute it (Cic. 
ad AIL L 16.) The offence of ambitus was a 
satter which bdonged to the judicia publica, and 
the enactments ag^unst it were nnmerons. The 
eariiest enactment that is mentioned simply for- 
Isde peiBODS *^ to add white to their dress,** with 
s Tiew to an election. (B.a 432 ; Liv. iv. 25.) 
Tlui seems to mean using some white sign or 
token on the dress, to signify that a man was a 
candidate. The object of the law was to check 
ambUiOj the name for going about to canvass, in 
phoeoC which ambitus was subsequently employed. 



Still the practice of using a white dnsi on oceasion 
of canvassing was usual, and appears to have given 
origin to the application of the tenn eomdidnSxa to 
one who was a petitor. (Owtoia omftitib, Persius, 
Sai. V. 177 ; Polyb. z. 4. ed. Bekker.) A Lex 
Poetelia (b.c 358 ; Liv. vii 15) forbade candi- 
dates canvamin^ on market days, and going about 



m the country where people 
mainly to c 



to the 

collected. The law was passed maiiUy to check 
the pretensons of novi homines, of whom the 
nobiks were jealous. By the Lex Cornelia Baebia 
(&C. 181) those who were convicted of ambitus 
were incapacitated from being candidates for ten 
yeara. (Liv. zL 19 ; SML Bob, p. 361.) The 
Lex Adlia OJpomia (a. c. 67) was intended to 
suppress treating of the electon and other like 
matters: the poialties wen fine, exclusion from 
the senate, and pcqwtual inopacity to hold office. 
(Dion Cass. zxzvL 21.) The Lex Tullia was 
passed in the oonsukhip of Cicero (s. c 63) for 
the purpose of adding to the penalties of the Adlia 
Calpomia. (Dion &ss. xxxvil 29; Ci& pro 
Mvrena, c 23.) The penalty under this lex was 
ten years* exile. This law forbade any person to 
exhibit public shows for two years before he was 
a candidate. It also forbade candidates hiring 
penons to attend them and be about their perMms. 
In the second consulship of H. Licinins Crassos 
and Cn. Pompeius Magnus (a. c 55) the Lex 
Lidnia was pused. This lex, which is entitled 
De Sodalitiis, did not alter the previous laws 
against bribery; but it was speoally directed 
against a particular mode of canvassing, which 
consisted in employing agents (todtUeo) to mark 
out the memben of the aevend tribes mto smaller 
portions, and to secure more effectually the votes 
by this division of labour. This distribution df 
the memben of the tribes was called deairiaiio. 
(Cic. pro Pkmeio^ c 18.) It was an obvious mode 
of better securing the votes ; and in the main is 
rightly explained by Rein, but completely mis- 
undentood by Wander and others Dromann 
{GeochickU Romt^ vol. iv. p. 93) confounds the cb- 
cwriaUo with the eoUio or coalition of candidates to 
procure votes. The mode of appointing the jndices 
in trials under the Lex Licinia was fSao provided 
by that lex. They were called indices Editicii, 
because the accuser or prosecutor nominated four 
tribes, and the accused was at liberty to reject one 
of them. The jndices were taken out of die other 
three tribes ; but the mode in which they were 
taken is not quite dear. The penalty under the 
Lex Lidnia was exile, but for what period is 
uncertam. The Lex Pompeia (& c. 52), passed 
when Pompdus was solo consul for part of that 
year, appean to have been rather a measure passed 
for the occadon of the trials then had and con- 
templated than any thing else. It provided for 
the mode of naming the judices, and shortened the 
prooeedingiL When C. Julius (Caesar obtained the 
supreme power in Rome, he used to recommend 
some of the candidates to the people, who, of 
course, followed his recommendation. As to the 
consulship, he managed the appointments to that 
office just as he pleued« (Suet Cbss. c 41.) The 
Lex Julia de Ambitn was passed (B.a 18) in 
the time of Augustus, and it exduded from office 
for five yean (Dion Cass. liv. 16 ; Suet OcL 34) 
those who were convicted of bribery. But as the 
Ity was milder than those under the former 
kws, we must oondude that they were repealed 



y^ 



AMBITUS. 



in whole or in part. Another Lex Jiilia dc Am- 
bitn was passed (b. c. 8 ; Dion Cas& Iv. 5) ap- 
parently to amend the law of b. c. 18. Candidates 
were required to deposit a sum of money before 
canvassing, which was forfeited if they were con- 
victed of bribery. If any yiolence was used by a 
candidate, he was liable to exile (aquae et igim 
interdictio). 

The popular forms of election were observed 
during the time of Augustus. Under Tiberius 
they ceased. Tacitus (Annal. i 15) observes: — 
^ The comitia were transferred from the campus to 
the patres,** the senate. 

While the choice of candidates was thus partly 
in the hands of the senate, bribery and corruption 
still influenced the elections, though the name of 
ambitus was, strictly speaking, no longer appli- 
cable. But in a short time, the appointment to 
public offices was entirely in the power of the em- 
perors ; and the magistrates of Rome, as weU as 
the populus, were merely the shadow of that which 
had once a substantial form. A Roman jurist, of 
the imperial period (Modestinus), in speaking of 
the Julia Lex de Ambitu, observes, ** This law is 
now obsolete in the city, because the creation of 
magistrates is the business of the princeps, and 
does not depend on the pleasure of the populus ; 
but if any one in a municipium should offend 
against this law in canvassing for a sacerdotium or 
magistratiis, he is punished, according to a senatus 
consultum, with infamy, and subjected to a penalty 
of 100 aurei." (Dig. 48. tit 14.) 

The laws that have been enumerated are pro- 
))ably all that were enacted, at least all of which 
any notice is preserved. Laws to repress bribery 
were made while the voting was open ; and they 
continued to be made after the vote by ballot was 
introduced at the popular elections by the Lex 
Gabinia (b. c. 139). Rein observes that " by this 
change the control over the voters was scarcely 
any longer possible ; and those who were bribed 
could not be distinguished from those who were 
not^ One argument in &vour of ballot in modem 
times has been that it would prevent bribery ; and 
probably it would diminish the practice, though 
not put an end to it But the notion of Rein that 
the bare &ct of the vote being secret would in- 
crease the difficulty of distinguishing the bribed 
from the unbribcd is absurd ; for the bare know- 
ledge of a man^s vote is no part of the evidence of 
bribery. It is worth remark that there is no in- 
dication of any penalty being attached to the 
receiving of a bribe for a vote. The utmost that 
can be proved is, that the dwitorea or one of the 
class of persons who assisted in bribery were 
punished. (Cic pro Plando, c 23, pro Murena, 
c 23.) But this is quite consistent with the rest : 
the briber and his agents were punished, not the 
bribed. When, therefore. Rein, who refers to 
these two passaces under the Lex Tullia, says : 
'* Even those who received money from the can- 
didates, or at least those who distributed it in 
their names, were punished,** he couples two things 
together that are entirely of a different kind. The 
proposed Lex Aufidia (Cic. ad Alt. i. 16) went 
so &r as to declare that if a candidate promised 
money to a tribe and did not pay it, he should be 
unpimished ; but if he did pay the money, he 
should further pay to each tribe (annually ?) 
3000 sesterces as long as he lived. This absurd 
.proposal was not carried; but it shows clearly 



AMICTUS. 
enough that the principle was to punish the briber 
only. 

The trials for ambitus were numerotu in the 
time of the republic. A list of them is giTen by 
Rein. The oration of Cicero in defence of L. 
Murena, who was charged with ambitus, and that 
in defence of Cn. Plancius, who was tried under 
the Lex Lieinia, are both extant (Rein, Criminal- 
recki der Romety where all the authorities are col- 
lected ; Cic. Pro Plameio, ed. Wundcr.) [G. L.] 

AMBLOSEOS GRAPHE' (A^Aiicrws 
ypa^), [Abortio.] 

AMBRO'SIA (ifiep6<ria\ festivals obserred in 
Greece, in honour of Dionysus, which seem to have 
derived their name from the luxuries of the table, 
or from the indulgence of drinking. According to 
Tsetses on Hesiod (Op. «t D. v. 504) these festivals 
were solemnised in die month of Lenaeon, during 
the vintage. (Etym. M. s. v. ATivau&y, p. 564. 7. ; 
G. £. W. Schneider, Ueber das AUimAs TAeaier- 
tvemi, p. 43 ; K. F. Hermann, Lehrb. d. gottemiieitstL 
AUerth. d. Griechen^ § 58. n. 7.) [L. S.] 

AMBUBAIAE, female musicians from Syria, 
who gained their living by performing in public, at 
Rome, especially in the Circus. Their name is 
derived from thd»Syrian word abvb or a»5»A, a 
flute. Their moral condition was that which 
females of their cUiss generally fall inta The 
Bayaderes of India will perhaps give the best idea 
of what they were. (Hor. Sat. i. 2. 1, with Hein- 
dorfs Note; Juvenal, iii. 62 ; Suet Ner.'il ; 
Priapeia, 26 ; Petron. Ixxiv. 13.) [P.S.] 

AMBU'RBIUM, or AMBURBIA'LE, a sa- 
crifice which was performed at Rome for the purifi- 
cation of the city, in the same manner as the 
ambarvalia was intended for the purification of the 
country. The victims were carried through the 
whole town, and the sacrifice was usually per- 
formed when any danger was apprehended in con- 
sequence of the appearance of prodigies, or other 
circumstances. (Obseq. De Prodig. c 48 ; ApuL 
Metamorph. iii. ab init. p. 49, Btpont ; Lncan. L 
593.) Scaliger supposed that the amburbinm and 
ambarvalia were the same ; but their difference is 
expressly assested by Servins (ad Virg. EcL iii. 
77), and Vopiscus (atnlmrijium ceUbratum, ambar- 
valia promitsa ; Aurel. c 20). 

AMENTUM. [Hasta.] 

AMICTO'RIUM, a linen covering for the 
breasts of women, probably the same as the stro- 
phium. [Strophium.] (Martxiv. 149.) In later 
times it seems to have been used in the same sense 
asAmictus. (Cod. Theod. 8. tit. 5. s. 48.) [Amic- 

TUS.] 

AMICTUS, AMI'CULUM. The verb omtcW 
is commonly opposed to induert^ the former being 
applied to the putting on of the outer garment, 
the chlamys, pallium, laena, or toga (Ifidnoy, ipa- 
pos) ; the latter, to Uie putting on of the inner gar- 
ment, the tunica (xtrtov). In consequence of this 
distinction, the verbal nouns, amictus and induhu^ 
even without any farther denomination of the dress 
being added, indicate respectively the outer and 
the inner clothing. (See TibuU. L 9. 13.; Com. 
Nep. Oimott, 4, Dai. 3. §2 ; Virg. Aem, iii 545, 
V. 421, compared with Apoll. Rhod. iL 30.) Some- 
times, however, though rarely, amidre and induere 
are each used in a more general way, so as to refer 
to any kind of clothing. 

In Greek amidre is expressed by i^wwr^^ 
i^iiwywrBoky itftM^x^vBai, 4wi€4}JieaikUi «€/»• 



AMPHICTYONES. 



AMPHICTYONES. 



79 



€ixXa^fm : tad tWaifv bj M^iy. Hence came 
4fc«<rp£s« ifKr€x^y im€\nfM and i-wtS^Keuotf, 
v<^€Ai|pwaiiid a-ffi^^Aaioy, an oater garment, and 
&d«yca, an inner gannent) a tunic, a shirt [J. Y.] 

A3f 31A (<f<MA)i A Greek meamre of length, 
equal to forty «^x<'^ (cubits), or lizty t^Scs (feet). 
It waa used in meaauiing land. (Hero, De Mm- 
mru.) [P.S.] 

AMNrSTIA (ifurnrriA), u a word nsed bj 
the iatier Greek writen, and from them borronred 
by the Romana, to describe the act or arrangement 
br vhich offences were forgaUat^ or regarded as 
if they bad not been committed, so that the of- 
^»der could not be odled to aocoont for them. 
TIm word is chiefly used with reference to the 
accnees committed, or alleged to hare been oom- 
BJned, against the laws, during those conflicts of 
offwsing factions which so often occurred in the 
OnA, repablics, and in which the Tictorious 
psity asoally took a sanguinary vengeance upon 
iti opponents. So rare, indeeid, were the ex- 
cepcions to this eooxse of vengeance, that there is 
€oW floe case of amnesty in Greek history, which 
requiics any particular notice. This was the am- 
Vfcsxj which terminated the struggle between the 
desBoczatical and digarchical parties at Athens, 
s:^ completed the revolution by which the power 
of the Thirty Tyrants was overthrown, b. c 403. 
It «as arranged by the mediation of the Spartan 
king Pansaniaa, and extended to all the dtisens 
vho bad eommitted illegal acts during the recent 
tioahles, with the exception of the Thirty and 
the Seven, and the Ten who had ruled in Pei- 
xaois ; and evmi they were only to be excepted in 
ease of their refusal to give an account of their 
fomnment ; their childroi were included in the 
aanesty, and were permitted to reside at Athens. 
An additioD was made to the oath of the senators, 
lading them not to receive any endeaia or c^pagope 
so aeeoont of anything done before the amnesty, 
dte strict observance of which was also imposed 
h? an oath upon the dicastae. (Xen. HeUen. IL 
4.' ^ 38 — 13 ; Andoc. de AfysL p. 44 ; Bern, 
n BoaoL pi 1018 ; Nepos, Thra^/buL 3^ who 
jaskes a oonfnaion between the Ten Tyranu of 
Peiaeas and the Ten who succeeded the Thirty 
in the city ; Taylor, Xjissoe VUa ; Wachsmuth, 
//«an. Aiierth. voL L pp. 646, 647, new edition ; 
Uenoann, FoliL Antiq. ofGreee^ § 169.) 

The {bcm of the word is incorrectly given in 
BOBie modem works as ofurQarcfa. But even the 
geonbie form only belongs to later Greek ; being 
used only by Plutarch (Oc 42, AsUotu 14), Hero- 
dian (iii 4. § 17, ▼. 4. § 18, viii. 12. § 6), Philo, 
sad still later writers. The better ^Titers nsed 
ftScic, and the verbal form is o& fiynffucoK^of, Re - 
cpeccii^ the supposed allusion to the word by 
Cicero, see Facciolati, a. v, [P. S.] 

AMPHIARAIA (a^Mtpdid), games celebrated 
in honour of the ancient hero Amphiaraus, in the 
neighboarhood of Oropus, where he had a temple 
vith a celebrated otncle. (Sckol, ad Find. OL vii. 
io4 ; the rites observed in his temple are de- 
scribed by Pansanias (L 34. § 3. ; K. F. Hermann, 
LAHk d. gottetdienfiff. AUertk. d. Orie^Jien^ § 63. 
a.1.) [L.S.] 

AMPHFCTYONES (•AAi4>iirrAi»'65), members 
tAviAutpkie^toma ( 'A^iicruoy£aor*A/i^iin-(oi'<a). 

Institutions called Amphictyonie appear to have 
existed in Qreeee from tune immemorial. Of their 
Bstnrc and object history gives us only a general 



idea ; but we may safely believe them to have been 
associations bf originally neighbouring tribes, formed 
for the regulation of mutiuU intercourse, and tha 
protection of a common temple or sanctuary, at which 
the representatives of the different members met* 
to trsnsact business and celebrate religious rites 
and games. This identity of religion, coupled 
with near neighbourhood, and that too in ages of 
remote antiquity, implies in all probability a cer- 
tain degree of affinity, which might of itself pro- 
duce unions and confederacies amongst tribes so 
situated, regarding each other as members of the 
same great femily. They would thus preserve 
among themselves, and transmit to their children, 
a spirit of nationality and brotherhood ; nor could 
any better means be devised than the bond of a 
common reli^ous worship, to counteract the hostile 
interests which, sooner or later, spring up in all 
laige societies. The causes and motives firom which 
we might expect such institutions to arise, existed 
in every neighbourhood ; and accordingly we find 
many Amptnctytmae of various degrees of import- 
ance, though our information respecting them is 
very deficient 

Thus we learn from Strabo, that there was one of 
some celebrity whose place of meeting was a sanc- 
tuary of Poseidon (Muller, Donams, ii. 10. § 5 ; 
Strah. viiL p. 374) at Calanria, an ancient settle- 
ment of the lonians in the Saronic Gull The original 
members were Epidaurus, Hermione, Nauplia, 
Prasiae in Laconia, Aegina, Athens, and die Boeo- 
tian Orchomenus (Thirlwall, Hui.o/Gnaot, voL i. 
p. 375); whose remoteness from each other makes it 
difficult to conceive what could have been the mo- 
tives for forming the confederation, more especially 
as religious causes seem precluded by the fikct, that 
Troezen, though so near to Calanria, and though 
Poseidon was its tutelary god, was not a memb«r. 
In after times, Argos and Sparta took the place of 
Nauplia and Prasiae, and religious ceremonies were 
the sole object of the meetings of the association. 
There also seems to have been another in Argolis 
(Strab. L c ; Pansan. iv. 5) distinct finom that of 
Calanria, the place of congress being the 'Hpoibr, 
or temple of Hera. Delos, too, was the centre of 
an Amphictyony — the religious metropolis, or 
'loTii} K^trwy of the neighbouring Cyclades, where 
deputies and embassies (^ct»poQ met to celebrate 
religious solemnities, in honour of the Dorian Apollo, 
and apparently without any reference to political 
objects. (Miiller, ii. 3. § 7 ; Callim. I/ymu. 325.) 

The system indeed was by no means confined to 
the mother country ; for the federal unions of the 
Dorians, lonians, and Aeolians, living on the west 
coast of Asia Minor, seem to have been Amphic- 
tyonie in spirit, although modified by exigencies of 
situation. Their main essence consisted in keep- 
ing periodical festivals in honour of the acknow- 
ledged gods of their respective nations. Thus the 
Dorians held a federal festival, and celebrated re- 
ligious games at Triopium, uniting with the worship 
of their national god Apollo that of the more an- 
cient and Pelasgic Dcmeter. The lonians met for 
similar purposes in honour of the Heliconian Po- 
seidon * at Mycale, — their place of assembly being 
called the Panionium, and their festival Panionia. 
The twelve towns of the Aeolians assembled at 
Grynea, in honour of Apollo. (Herod. 1 144, 148, 



* Poseidon was the god of the lonians, as 
Apollo of the Dorians. MUller, Dor. ii, 10. §. 5. 



80 



AMPHICTYONES. 



149; Dionys. iv. 25.) That these confederacies 
were not merely for offensive and defensive pur- 
poses, may be inferred from their existence after 
the subjugation of these colonies by Croesus ; and 
we know that Ualicamassus was excluded from the 
Dorian union, merely because one of its citizens 
had not made the usual offering to Apollo of the 
prize he had won in the Triopic contests. A con- 
federation somewhat similar, but more political than 
religions, existed in Lycia (Strab. xiv. p. 664): 
it was called the ** Lycian system,"^ and was 
composed of twenty-three cities. 

But besides these and others, there was one 
Amphictyony of greater celebrity than the rest, 
and much more lasting in its duration. This was 
by way of eminence called the Amphictyonic 
league ; and differed from the other associations in 
having two places of meeting, the sanctuaries of 
two divinities. These were the temple of De- 
meter, in the village of Anthela, near Thermopyke 
(Herod, vii. 200), where the deputies or repre- 
sentatives met in autumn ; and that of Apollo at 
Delphi, where they assembled in spring. The con- 
nection of this Amphictyony with the latter not 
only contributed to its dignity, but also to its per- 
manence. With respect to its early history, Strabo 
(ix. p. 420) says, that even in his days it was im- 
possible to learn its origin. We know, however, 
that it was originally composed of twelve tribes (not 
cities or states, it must be observed), each of which 
tribes contained various independent cities or states. 
We learn from Aeschines (De F. L. § 122, ed. 
Bekker), a most competent authority (b. c. 343), 
that eleven of these tribes were as follows : — The 
Thcssalians, Boeotians (not Thebans only), Do- 
rians, lonians, Perrhaebians, Magnetes, Locrians, 
Oetaeans or Ainianes, Phthiots or Achaeans of 
Phthia, Malians, or Melians, and Phocians ; other 
lists (Pans. x. 8. § 2) leave us in doubt whether the 
remaining tribe were the Dolopes or Delphians; 
but as the Delphians could hardly be called a dis- 
tinct tribe, their nobles appearing to have been 
Dorians, it seems probable that the Dolopes were 
originally members, and afterwards supplanted by 
the Delphians. (Titmann, pp. 39, 43.) The pre- 
ponderance of the Thessalian and northern nations 
of Greece proves the antiquity of the institution, 
no less than eight of the twelve tribes being of the 
Pelasgic race : and th^ &ct of the Dorians stand- 
ing on an equality with such tribes as the Malians, 
shows that it must have existed before the Dorian 
conquest of the Peloponnesus which originated 
several states more powerful, and therefore more 
likely to have sent their respective deputies, than 
the tribes mentioned. The Thessalians indeed in 
all probability joined the league about twenty years 
before that event, when they settled in Thessaly, 
after quitting Thesprotia in Epeirus, and the date of 
the origin of the league itself has been fixed (Clinton, 
F. H. vol. L p. 66) between the 60th and 80th years 
from the Ml of Troy. That it existed moreover 
before the Ionian migration, may be inferred from 
the lonians of Asia having a voto, acquired without 
doubt when in the country, and from the statement 
of Tacitus (AtmaL iv. 14) : *•* Samii decreto Am- 
phictyonum nitebantur, quis praecipuum fuit remm 
omnium judicium, qua tempestate Orseci, conditis 
per Asiam urbibus, ora mans potiebantur.** 

We learn from Aeschines {L c), that each of 
the twelve Amphictyonic tribes had two votes in 
congress, and that deputies from such towns as 



AMPHICTYONES. 
(Dorium and)* Cytininm had equal power with 
the Lacedaemonians, and that Eretria and Piiene, 
Ionian colonies, were on a par with Athens {la-&t^irt^ 
^Mt rois *A07iyalots), It seems therefore to follo^nr, 
either that each Amphictyonic tribe had a cycle 
(Strab. ix. p. 420 ; Pausan. x. 8. § 2), according 
to which its component states returned deputies, 
or that the vote of the tribe was determined by 
a majority of votes of the diiforent states of that 
tribe. The latter supposition might explain the 

foct of there being a larger and smaller assembly 

a fiovK-fi and iKKXtiiria — at some of the congresses, 
and it is confirmed by the circumstance that there 
was an annual election of deputies at Athena, un- 
less this city usurped functions not properly its 
own. 

The council itself was called Pplaea (nuAa£a) 
firom its meeting in the neighbourhood of Pylac 
(Thermopylae), but the same name was giren. to 
the session at Delphi as well as to that at Ther- 
mopyUe. It was composed of two classes of re- 
presentatives, one called Pylofforae {llvKir/6peu\ 
the other Hieromnemones (^Upofiv/i/iiOPts). Oif the 
former, three were annually elected at Athens to 
act with one Hieromnemon appointed by bt (Aris> 
toph. Nttbes^ v. 607.) That his office was highly 
honourable we may infer finom the oath of the 
HeliasU (Dem. c. TVmoor. § 170, ed. Bekker), in 
which he is mentioned with the ninearchons. On 
one occasion we find that the president of the 
council was a Hieromnemon, and that he was 
chosen general of the Amphictyonic forces, to act 
against Sie Amphissians. (Titmann, pi 87.) Hence 
it has been conjectured that the Hieromnemonea, 
also called UpaypafAfAorw, were superior in rank 
to the pylagorae. (Titmann, pp. 84, 86.) Aeschines 
also contrasts the two in such a way as to warrant 
the inference that the former office was the more 
permanent of the two. Thus he says (e-OSes. 
§ 115, ed. Bekker), ^ When Diognetus was Hiero« 
mnemon, ye chose me and two others Pylagorae.** 
He then contrasts *^the Hieromnemon of the 
Athenians with the Pylagorae for the time being.** 
There is even good reason for supposing that the 
Hieromnemon was elected for life (Clinton, F. ff. 
vol. iiL p. 621 ; Titmann, /. c), although some 
writers are of a different opinion. (Sch5mann, (U 
Conut p. 392.) Again, we find inscriptions (Bdckh, 
Inser, 1171 )« containing surveys by the Hieromne- 
mones, as if they form^ an executive ; and that 
the council coniBluded their proceedings on one 
occasion (Aesch. c. Ctes. § 124), by resolving that 
there should be an extraordinary meeting prerioualy 
to the next regular assembly, to which the Hiero- 
mnemones should come wiUi a decree to suit the 
emergency, just as if they had been a standing 
committee. Their name implies a more immediate 
connection with the temple; but whether they 
voted or not upon matters in general is doubtfiil : 
from the two Amphictyonic decrees quoted below, 
we might infer that they did not, while the in- 
scriptions (1688 and 1699), quoted by Schomann 
(p. 392), and the statement of Demosthenes {pro 
Coron. § 277, ed. Bekker), lead to a oontraiy con- 
clusion. The narrative of Aeschines (e, Ctes, 
§ 121) implies that they were more peculiarly the 
representatives of their constituent states. Pro- 
bably the respective functions of the two classes 

* There is a doubt about the reading, —See 
Thuc iii. 95 ; Titmann, p. 52. 



AHPHICTTONE& 

of reptcMBtadfet were not lirietlT defined, and 
varied at dHBseni times, if indeed uuj are always 
carrectiy di eiii ^ iu efced by the anthore who aUnde 
u> tbem. The ImAjftfia, or general assembly, in- 
doded not enlr the rtasswi meationed, bat also 
th«ae wrhe had joined in the sacrifices and were 
coosoltiBg the god, and as there was a large mul- 
titode ananally collected at the Anmhictyonic ses- 
MQ att Thenaofiylae, it was probably numeroosly 
aocaded. (Hcsjduna, ad SopjL TVocA. t. 6S9,) 
It was coavened on extxaqidinazy occasions by 
^e ehajnaan of the oeimcil CO rks ypti/ios 
#«#^£er, AesdL L cl). 

Of the dntiea of this latter body nothing will 

^vv as a dearer Tiew than the osiths taken and 

the decieca Bnde by it. The oath was as follows 

(Aeeeh. l>eF.L.% 121) : ^ They would destroy 

as dtj off the Amphktyons, nor cot off their 

stnaflH in war or peace ; and if any should do so, 

they wooU march against him and destroy his 

cities ; and shonld any pillage the property df the 

Ipody or be priTj to or phm any thing i^iainst what 

was in his temple at Delplo, th^ would take 

T«egmaee on hmi with hand and loot, and voice, 

aad all their might.^ There are two decrees given 

hr Demosthenea, both commencing thus (D^ de 

Cvr. S 197) : — ** When Cleinagoras was priest 

(ic^f^), at the qving meeting, it was reaolyed by 

tbe pf lag e ine and the assessors of the Amphictyons, 

sad the geneial body of them,** Ac The resolntion 

IB the seoood case was, that as the Amphissianscon- 

tsaed to cahrvste ** As aaend didna^^ Philip of 

Maeedsn shovdd be recinested to help ApoUo and the 

AaphidjBns, and that he was thereby constitated 

sbsohne gencnd of the Amphictyons. He ae- 

ccfaed the office, and soon reduced the offending 

atj Is sabjection. Ynm the oath and the decrees, 

ve Ke that the main dnty of the depoties was the 

ptcserretifln of the rights and dignity of the temple 

at Delphi. We know, too, that after it was burnt 

dowB (a a 548), they contracted with the Alcmae- 

flBidsefiirtherehaiUing (Herod, ii. 180,t.62); and 

Athcoaeos (& c. 160) informs us (ir. p. 1 73, b) that 

is otber matters connected with die worship of the 

Mphiaa god they condescended to the regnla- 

tim of tM nunnteat trifles. History, moreorer, 

tesches that if the oeoncil prodnoed any palpable 

fiectt, it was from their interest in Delphi ; and 

tfcangh it kept np a standing record of what onght 

to Ittve been the international law of Greece, it 

toawtiaMS acqoiesced in, and at other times was a 

pvtr to^ the most iniqnitons and cniel acts. Of 

tkii the case of Crissa is an instance. This town 

lay SB the Gnlf of Corinth, near Delphi, and was 

nradi frequented by pflgrims from the West. 

Tlie Criaaeans werechsmd by the Ddphians with 

mdue exutions from these strangers, and with 

•dur crimes. The comidl declared war against 

tbem, ss gniHy of a wrong against the god. The 

«v Is^ed ten yean, till, at the suggestion of 

SoIoB, the waters of the Pleistos were turned of!^ 

tbqi pouooed, and tamed again into the atj. 

The beneeed diank their fill, and Crissa was soon 

nsed to the gninnd ; and thus, if it were an Am- 

phieiyonie ci^, was a solemn oath doubly riolated. 

Iti toritaiy — ^tbe rich Crissaean or Cirrhaean plain 

to the god, and cwvcs impre> 



AMPHICTY0NE8. 



81 



cited npoB onr one who shonld till or dwell in it 
Thv coded the First Sacred War (& a 586), in 
tftidi tkeAthenians and Amphictyons were the in- 
ttBoaftoff Delpiiina Tcogeance. (Pans. x. 37. S ^ ; 



Clinton, F. /f. yoL ii. p.l d6 ; Aeschin. e. Q«t. § lOd.) 
The Second, or Phocian War (b. c. 866), was the 
most important in which the Amphic^ons were 
concerned (Thiriwall, Hut. ofOneee^ toL t. p. 263 
— 372) ; and in this the Thebans aTailed them- 
selTcs of the sanction of the council to take ven- 
geance on their enemies, the Phodans. To do 
this, however, it was necessary to call in Philip of 
Maoedon, who ieadily prodaimed himself the 
champion of Apollo, as it opened a pathway to his 
own ambition. The Phodans were subdued (b. a 
346), and the council decreed that all their cities, 
except Abac, should be rased, and the inhabitants 
disposed in villages not containing more than fifty 
inhabitants. Their two votes were given to Philip, 
who thereby gained a pretext for interfering with 
the affinxB of (Greece ; and also obtained the recog- 
nition of his subjects as Hellenes. To the causes 
of the Third Saored War allusion has been made 
in the deems quoted by Demosthenes. The Am- 
phissians tilled the devoted Cirrhaean plain, and 
behaved, as Strabo (ix. p. 41 9) says, worse than the 
Criasaeons of old (xc^povs ^<rw wcpl rohs (^yovr). 
Their submission to Philip was immediately fol- 
lowed Ifjf the battle of Chaenmeia (& & 338), and 
the extinction of the independence of Greece. Tu 
the following year, a congress of the Amphictyonic 
states was held ; in which war was dedared as if 
by united Greece against Perija, and Philip elected 
eommander-in-chie£ On this occasion die Am- 
phictyons assumed the character of national repre- 
sentatives as of old, when they set a price upon the 
head of Ephialtes, fiir his treason to Greece at 
Thermopylae, and erected monuments in honour of 
the Gredcs who fell there. Herodotus indeed 
(vii. 214, 228), speaking of them in reference to 
Ephialtes, calls them oi rmv t^Xhvtnf nvXjay6poi. 

We have snfinently shown that the Amphio* 
tyons themselves did not observe the oaths they 
took ; and that they did not much alleviate the 
horrors of war, or enforce what they had swom to 
do, is proved by many instances. Thus, for in- 
stance, Mycenae was deetrOTed by Argos ( n. c. 468X 
Thespiae and Plataeae by Thebee, and Thebes her- 
self swept finom the fiiee of the earth by Alexander 
{iK fUoris Ti9s'EAAd3o9 ^^sidCtr^, Aeschin. t, CU$. 
§ 138). Indeed, we may infer from Thueydidea 
(L 1 12), that a few yean before the Peloponnesian 
war, the council was a passive spectator of what 
he calls b Up^s w^Xcfiot, when the Lacedaemonians 
made an expedition to Delphi, and put the temple 
into the hands of the Delphiajis, Uie Athenians, 
after their departure, restonng it to the Phodans ; 
and yet the council is not mentioned as interfering. 
It wUl not be profitable to pursue its history further ; 
it need cnly be remarked, tiiat Augustus wished 
his new dty, Nioopolis (a. d. 31), to be enrolled 
among its members ; and that Pausanias, in the 
second century of our era, mentions it as still ex- 
isting, but deprived of all power and influence. 
In £it, even Demosthenes {DePaee^ p. 63), spoke 
of it as the shadow at Delphi {iiiv A^hjpots o'icicC). 
In the time of Pausanias, the number of Amphic- 
tyonic deputies was thirty. 

There are two points of some interest, which 
still remain to be considered ; and first, the ety- 
mology of the word Amphictyon. We are told 
(HarpocFSt «. v.) that Theopompus thought it de- 
rived from the name of Amphictyon, a prince of • 
Thessaly, and the supposed author of the institution. 
Others, as Anaximenes of Ijampsacus, connected it 



82 



AMPHICTYONS. 



with tlie void hfn^uerio^ts, or neighbours. Very 
few, if any, modem scholan doabt that the ktter 
view IB correct ; and that Amphictyon, with Hellen, 
DoruB, Ion, Xuthua,Thes8alus,Lari88a the daughter 
of Pelasgm, and others, axe not historical,but mythic 
pensonages — the representatives, or poetic personi- 
fications, of their alleged foundations, or ompring. 
As for Amphictyon (Thirlwall, Hid. of Oreaoe, 
voL L p. 373), it is too marvellous a coinddence 
that his name should be significant of the institu- 
tion itself ; and, as he was the son of Deucalion 
and Pyrrha, it is difficult to guess of whom his 
council consisted. {PhUoL Afmeicm, vol. ii p. 359.) 
Besides, though Herodotus (i. 56) and Thucydides 
<i. 3) had the opportunity, tiiey yet make no men- 
tion of him. We may conclude therefore, that the 
word should be written amphictiony *, from &fi^i- 
jKTtoFcs, or those that dwelt around some particular 
locality. 

The next question is one of greater difficulty ; 
it is this : — Where did the association originate ? 
— were its meetings first held at Delphi, or at 
Thermopylae ? There seems a greater amount of 
evidence in favour of the latter. In proof of this, 
we may state the preponderance of Thessalian 
tribes from the neighbourhood of the Maliac bay, 
and the comparative insignificance of many of 
them ; the assigned birthplace and residence of 
the mythic Amphictyon, the names Pylagorae and 
Pylaea. Besides, we know that Thessaly was the 
theatre and origin of many of the most important 
events of early Greek history : whereas, it was 
only in later times, and after the Dorian conquest 
of Peloponnesus, that Delphi became important 
enough for the meetings of such a body as the 
Amphictyonic ; nor if Delphi had been of old 
the only place of meeting, is it easy to account 
for what must have been a loss of its ancient 
dignity. But whatever was the cause, we have 
still the fact, that there were two places of con- 
gress ; to account for which, it has been supposed 
that there were originally two confederations, 
afterwards united by the growing power of Delphi, 
as connected with the Dorians, but still retaining 
the old places of meeting. We must, however, 
admit that it is a matter of mere conjecture whether 
this were the case or nol^ there being strong reasons 
in support of the opinion that the Doridns, on 
migmting southwards, combined the worship of the 
Hellenic Apollo with thdt of the Pelasgian Deraeter, 
as celebrated by the Amphictyons of Thessaly. 
Equally doubtfid is the question respecting the 
influence of Acrisius, king of Argos (Schol. ad 
Eurip. Orest. 1094 ; Callim. Spiff, xli ; Strab. ix. 
p. 420) ; and how hi it is true that he first brought 
the confederacy into order, and determined otner 
points connected with the institution. We may 
nowever remark that his alleged connection with 
it, is significant of a Pelasgic element in its con- 
formation. (Thirlwall, Hist. o/Cfreeoe^ ce. z. zliii. ; 
Heeren, Polit. Hist, of Cfreeee^ c 7 ; St. Croix, 
Des Andens Cfounememtns Fideratifs ; Tittmann, 
Utber den Bund der Ampfdetyonen ; MUUer, 
Dorians^ book ii 3. §. 5 ; PhU. Mus. vol i p. 324 ; 
Hermann, Mannud of the PoliL AtUiq, of Grteoe^ 
§ 11—14 ; Wachsmuth, HeUenisohe AUerAutm- 
kunde ; Niebuhr, Hid. of Rome^ vol. i. p. 31. 
transl.) [R. W.] 



♦ Thus Pindar (iV«ii. vi 42), *J£.v ifj^ucrtSywy 
Taupoip6y<f rpit'iiplSt : see Bdckh ad locum. 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 

AMPHIDRO'MIA iii»4^iBp6/ua\ a fiumly fe» 
tival of the Athenians at which the newly bom 
child was introduced into the fiunily, and rasaved 
its name. No particular day was fixed for this 
solemnity ; but it did not take place very aotm after 
the birth of the child, for it was believed that most 
children died before the seventh day, and the 
solemnity was therefore generally defened till 
after that period, that there might be at least some 
probability of the child remaining aUve. According 
to Snidas, the festival was held on the fifth day, 
when the women who had lent their assistance 
at the birth washed their hands, but this purifi- 
cation preceded the real solemnity. The friends 
and relations of the parents were invited to the 
festival of the amphidromia, which was held in the 
evening, and they generally i^peared with pre- 
sents, among which are mentioned the cuttle-fish 
and the mazine polyp. (Hesych. and Haipocr. 
f. o.) The house was decorated on the ontside widi 
olive branches when the child was a boy, or with 
garlands of wool when the child was a girl ; and 
a repast was prepared, at which, if we may judge 
from a fingment of Bphippus in Athenaeus (ix. pi 
370 ; comp. ii. p. 65), the guests must have beoi 
rather merry. The diild was then carried round 
the fire by the nurse, and thus, as it were, pre- 
sented to the gods of the house and to the fiuiuly, 
and at the same time received its name, to which 
the gnests were witnesses. (Isaeus, De PyrrH 
Haend, p. 34. a 30. Bekker.) The carrying of the 
child round the hearth was the principal part of 
the solemnity, from which its name was derived. 
But the Scholiast on Aristophanes {LjfssMtr. 758) 
derives its name ftom the fiict that the guests, 
whilst the name was given to the child, walked or 
danced around it. This festival is sometimes 
called from the day on which it Xwk. place : if on 
the seventh day, it is called l^8o/uu or Hloiuw. 
if on the tenth day, Scxini, &c. (Hesych. and 
Aristoph. Av. 923 ; K. F. Hermann, Lehrk d. 
ffottesdienttliehen aUertMinur d, Cfrieckeit, % 48. 
n.6.) [L.8.] 

AMPHIMALLUM. [Taprs.] 

AMPHIO'RCIA or AMPHOMO'SIA (V- 
^lopicla or iifi^fUMrta), the oath which was taken, 
both by the phiintiiF and defendant, before the 
trial of a cause in the Athenian courts, that they 
would speak the trutL (Hesych. Suid.) Ac- 
cording to Pollux (viii 10), the amphioreia also 
included the oath which the judges took, that they 
would decide according to the laws ; or, in case 
there was no express law on the snbject in dispute, 
that they would decide aeoordmg to the principles 
of justice. 

AMPHIPROSTYLOS* [Tbmplum]. 

AMPHISBETETSIS {ifufwreirvau.) [Hi- 

RX8.] 

AMPHITAPAE. [Tapes]. 

AMPHITHALAMUS. [Domm] 

AMPHITHEA'TRUM (htJt4>iB4aTpoF) was a 
description of building arranged for the exhibition 
of combats of gladiators, and wild beasts, and 
ships, which constituted the btdi ampkUheatrales. 
[Oladiatorbs ; Vxnatio ; Naumachia.] 

I. Its History, — Such exhibitions — which 
were pecuL'ar to the Romans, and which were un- 
known to the Greeks till the Romans introduced 
ihem — originally took place in the Forum and 
the Circus, the shows of gladiators being given 
in the former, and those of wild beasts in the 



AMPHITHBATRUM. 

latter ; indeed tbe ampihitlieatie itself is sometimes 
celled cureiuL The shape of the cimUikoweTer, was 
Tondt better fitted ibr the chariot laces^ for which it 
wa«at fint dcngned,thaii for the gladiatorial com- 
bats^ and the mixe wholesale slaughter of animals, 
vhkli, in process of time, came to he the faTonrite 
aranacsaeBtB of the Romans. For these purposes, 
the cixcBs was too long and too narrow, and the 
sf>iBa was a great impediment, so that a new fi>rm 
of hnilding was re^xired, which should accom- 
]iK>date a ranltitode of spectators in such a manner 
as that an migbt haTe a good view of the space 
•ecnpied by the eomfaatant&t which space too re- 
qoind to he of quite a difoent shape from the 
ciira^ aa the comhatants were to be kept as much 
V poAwihle in the same place. The idea of such 
a boSdiBg was suggested, as the name (from i^/n^, 
M luA mdoy b4vrpay^ a theain) seems to imply, 
hr the existioff theatre: indeed, the first am- 
phitheatre of which we have any account — that 
of C. Scriboanis Curio — was, literally, a double 
tieain\ being composed of two theatres, placed 
oa piTot^ so that they could be turned round, 
p^^^ctaton and all, and placed either back to back, 
&=n}iing two separate theatres for dramatic ex- 
kibidoDa, or free to free, forming an amphitheatre, 
Ibr the shows of gladiators and wild beasts. This 
edifice, which was erected by Curio (the oele- 
"bcazed psriisan of Caesar), for the celebration of 
his fiithier*s fjonersl games, is described and some- 
what vehemently commented upon by Pliny. 
(//. X. xsxTi. 15. s. 24. § 8.) Tbe next amphi- 
theatre^ and apparently the first to which the 
lanie was applied, was built by Julhu Caesar him 
p4£, dnring his perpetual dictatonhip, in b. a 46 
( Viim Cass, xlxii 22^ who thus describes the build- 
rif : BioTpow n Kmnfyeritthf^ 8 mat hfi^icerpov 
U Tov wifH^ vmrrax6^y cSfMU &rcv o-frqnjr fx*'>' 
Tpotn^^^). This, however, was still only of 
wood, a material which was firequently used for 
theatres, and which was, therefore, naturally 
sdopiied Ibr amphitheatres, but which sometimes 
pmed inadequate to support the weight of the 
ismeose body of spectators, and thus occasioned 
MioQs acddenta. For example, we are told that 
s vooden amphitheatre, which was buOt at 
PiiieBae in the reign of Tiberius by Atilius, a 
firrcdmaa, gave way, in consequence of the im- 
prriiKtions in the foundation and in the joints of 
tbe tiffiben, and buried cither 20,000 or 50,000 
tpectalois in its ruins. (SucL Tiber, 40 ; Tac. 
Am. iv. 63w) These wooden buildings were, of 
c«ne, also exposed to great danger from fire ; 
tbu a wooden amphitheatxe at Phiccntia was 
lionttd in the civil war between Otho and Vitel- 
Im (Tac. Hitt. iL 20.) 

It was not, however, till the fourth consulship of 
Asgustoa, B. c 30, that a more durable amphitheatre, 
«f ftooe, was elected l^ Statilius Taurus, in the Cam- 
Fu MartinsL (Dion Casa. li. 23 ; Suet. Odao. 29 ; 
Tic: Ami, iii 72 ; Strab. vL p. 236.) But, since 
tbii boildi]^ was destroyed by fire, it must be sup- 
pfW that only the shell was <^ stone, and the seats 
ud ctaircaaes of wood. This edifice was the only 



AMPHITHBATRUM. 



M 



* As a mere matter of etymology, the word 
hiwTfoif (a place htbdioldmff\ would more strictly 
^'^J to tJie amphiibeatre^ which was intended 
ndgsively for spectacle, while the theatre, which 
«u for recitations accompanied by music, might 
k It least at fitly described by the word tf^uoy. 



one of the kind until the building of the Flavian 
amphitheatre. It did not satisfy Calignk, who 
commenced an amphitheatre near the £pta ; but 
the work was not continued by Claudius. (Dion 
Cass. lix. 10 ; Suet CaL 18, 21.) Nero too, in 
his second consulship, a. d. 57, erected a vast am- 
phitheatre of wood, but this was only a temporary 
building. (Suet Ner. 12 ; Tac Ann. xiiu 31.) 
The amphidieatre of Taurus was destroyed in the 
burning of Rome, a.i>. 64 (Dion Cass. Ixii. 18), 
and was probably never restored, as it is not again 
mentioned. It is still a question with the topo- 
graphers whether any traces of it are now visible. 
(Comp. Becker, Handb. d, Rom. Alter. voL I pp. 642, 
643, and Uriichs, Beeckreibmy Rome. po. 53, 54.t) 

The erection of an amphitheatre in the midst of 
Rome, proportioned to the magnitude of the city, 
was among the desijpis of Augustus, who delighted 
in the spectacles of the venatio, and especially in 
the uncommon species and immense number of the 
animals exhibited in them ; so that, as he himself 
informs us, in one of his TenaHonee ther^ were 
no less than 3500 animals slaughtered. (Suet. 
Veep. 9 ; Aur. Vict EpU. 1 ; Afomnn. Ancyr.) 
It was not, however, till the reigns of Vespasian 
and Titus, that the design of Augustus was carried 
into effect by the erection of the AmphithetUrum 
Flaman, or, as it has been called since the time 
of Bede, the Coloeeeum or CoHeaemn, a name said 
tc be derived from the Colossus of Nero, which 
stood cloie by. 

This wonderful building, which fer magnitude 
can only be compared to the pyramids of Egypt, 
and which is perhaps the most sinking mommient at 
once of the material greatness and the moral degra- 
dation of Rome under the empire, was commenced 
by Vespasian, but at what precise time is uncertain ; 
for the genuineness of the medai^ which is quoted by 
Lipsius, as placing its eommencement in his eighth 
consulship, a. d. 77, is more than doubtfoT. (Rasche, 
LesB, Univ. Ret Num, vol v. pt 2. p^lOl/; 
Eckhel, Doetr. Num. Vet. vol. vi. p. 840.) It 
was completed by Titus, who dedicated it in 
A. D. 80, when 5000 animals of different kinds 
were slaughtered. (Suet Tit. 7 ; Dion Cass. Ixvi. 
25.) From the somewhat obscure account of an 
old writer (Qxtal. Imp. Vterm. p. 243, Rone), wo 
learn that Vespasian carried the building so fiu as 
to dedicate the first three ranges of scats, that 
Titus added two ranges more, and that Domitian 
completed the building uegue ad dypea. Without 
professmg to be able to explain these statements 
fully, we may observe that it fs extremely pro- 
bable, as will be seen more cleariy from the de- 
scription of the building, that Titus would dedi- 
cate the amphitheatre as soon as it was fit for use, 
without waiting for the final completion of the 
upper and less essential parts. 

There is an ecclesiastical tradition, but not en- 
titled to much credit, that the architect of the Co- 
lieaeum was a Christian, and aflerwar^ a martyr, 
named Gaudentins, and that thousands of the 
captive Jews were employed in its erectfon. 

The Flavian amphitheatre, from its enormous 

f In the lower eastern angle of the walls of 
Aurelian, near the church of S. Croce, are the re- 
mains of an amphitheatre, of brick, colled in the 
Nbtitia, the AmphUheatrum Ckutrenae. Its date is 
vpry uncertain. (Sec fiirther Becker, Ilandh. d. 
Rom, Alter. voL i. pp. 549, &c) 
6 2 



84 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 



size, rendered the labflequent erection of any other 
such building in Rome perfectly unnecessaiy. It 
became the spot where prince and people met to- 
gether to witness those sanguinary exhibitions, the 
degrading effects of which on the Roman character 
can hardly be over-estimated. It was thoroughly 
repaired by Antoninus Pius. (Capit Ant, Pi. 8.) 
In the reign of Macrinus, on the day of the Vulca- 
nalia, it was struck by lightning, by which the 
upper TOWS of benches were consumed, and so much 
damage was done to other parts of the structure, 
that the games were for some years celebrated in the 
Stadium. (Dion Cass. IzzyiiL 25.) Ito restora- 
tion was commenced by Elagabalus and completed 
by Alexander Severus. (Lamprid. HeUog, 17 ; 
Alex. See. 24.) It was again struck by lightning 
in the reign of Decius (Hieron. p. 475), but was 
soon restored, and the games continued to be cele- 
brated in it down to the sixth century. The latest 
recorded exhibition of wild beasts was in the 
reign of Theodoric Since that time it has been 
used sometimes in war as a fortress, and in peace 
as a quarry, whole pahices, such as the Cancellaria 
and the Palazzo Famese, having been built out of 
its spoils. At length the popes made efforts to 
preserve it : Sixtus V. attempted to use it as a 
woollen factory, and to convert the arcades into 
shops ; Clement XL enclosed the lower arcades, 
and, in 1750, Benedict XIV. consecrated it to 
Christians who had been martyred in it The best 
accounts of the building are contained in the follow- 
ing works : Lipsius de Amphiikeatro ; Nibby, delt 
AnJUeairo Flavio, a supplement to Nardini, vol. L 
p. 233, in which we have the most complete his- 
torical accoimt ; Fea, NoHzie degli $oam nell* 
An/Ueatro Mavio; Bunsen, Beschrmbung d. Stadt 
Rom, voL iii. p. 319, &c ; Cressy and Taylor, 
7%tf Archiiectural ArUiqtalie* of Rome; Maffei, 
Verona lUustrata; Stieglitz, Aiyshaol. d. Baukunsi ; 
Ilirt, GetckichU d. Baukunst bei den AUen, 

II. Description of the Fiaman AmphiOneatre, — 
Notwithstanding tb« damages of time, war, and 
spolLition, the Flavian amphitheatre still remains 
complete enough to give us a faAt idea, excepting 
in some minor details, of the structure and ar«> 
rangcments of this description of building. The 
notices of the ancient authors are extremely scanty ; 
and Vitruvius of course fails us here altogether ; 
indeed, this description of building was so com- 
pletely new in his time, that only once does the 
bare word amphtthecUrum occur in his book (L 7). 
AVo derive important aid from the remains of 
amphitheatres m the provinces of the ancient 
Roman empire. We shall first describe the Co- 
lisaeum, and then mention the chief points of dif- 
ference between it and these other amphitheatres. 

The very site of the Flavian amphitheatre, as of 
most others, furnishes an example of the prodigal 
contempt of labour and expense which the Roman 
emperors displayed in their great works of archi- 
tecture. The Greeks, in choosins the sites of their 
theatres, almost always availed themselves of some 
natural hollow on the side of a hill ; but the Roman 
amphitheatres, with few exceptions, stand upon a 
plain. The site of the Colisaeum was in the mid- 
dle of the city, in the valley between the CaeHus, 
the Esquiline, and the Velia, on the marshy ground 
which was previously the pond of Nero^s palace, 
ttoffnum Neronis (Suet. Vesp. 9 ; Martial, de Spect. 
ii. 5). No mere mcastures can give an adequate 
conception of this vast structure, the dimensions 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 
and arrangements of which were such am to Ibroish 
seaU for 87,000 spectatcm, round an arena lar^re 
enough to afford space for the combata of aeveral 
hundred animals at once, for the erohitioiis of 
mimic sea-fights, and for the exhibition of artifi- 
cial forests; with passages and staircases to gi've 
ingress and egress, without confusion, to the im- 
mense mass of spectators, and others for the at- 
tendants on the arena ; dens for the thousands of 
victims devoted to destruction ; channels for the ra- 
pid influx and outlet of water when the arena was 
used for a naumachia; and the means for the re- 
moval of the carcasses, and the other abominations 
of the arena. Admirable pictures of the ma^^i- 
tnde and magnificence of the amphitheatxe and its 
spectacles are drawn in the Essinfi of Montaigne 
(iiL $.), and in the latter part of Gibbon"!* twelfth 
chapter. As a general description of the building 

the following passage of Gibbon is perfect : ^ It 

was a building of an elliptic figure, founded on four- 
score arches, and rising, with four successive orders 
of architecture, to the height of 140 [157] feet. The 
outside of the edifice was incrusted with marble, 
and decorated with statues. The slopes of the Tsst 
concave, which formed the inside, were filled and 
surrounded with sixty or eighty rows of seats, of 
marble likewise, covered with cushions, and capable 
of receiving with ease about 80,000 q>ectatDrB. 
Sixty-four vomitories (for by that name the doors 
were very aptly distinguished), poured forth the 
immense multitude; and the entrances, passagesy 
and staircases, were contrived with such exquisite 
skill, that each person, whether of the senatorial, 
the equestrian, or the plebeian order, anived at 
his destined place without trouble or confusion. 
Nothing was omitted, which, in any respect, could 
be subservient to the convenience and pleasure of 
the spectators. They were protected finom the sun 
and rain by an ample canopy, occasionally drawn 
over their heads. The air was contiwudlj- re- 
fireshed by the phiying of fountains, and pro- 
fiisdy impregnated by the grateful scent of axo- 
matics. In the centre of the edifice, the arena^ or 
stage, was strewed with the finest sand, and suc- 
cessively assumed the most different forms. At 
one moment it seemed to rise out of the earth, like 
the garden of the Hesperides, and was afterwards 
broken into the rocks and caverns of Thrace. 
The Sttbtenaneous pipes conveyed an inexhaostible 
supply of water; and what had just before ap- 
peared a level plain, might be suddenly converted 
into a wide lake, covered with armed vessels, and 
replenished with the monsteit of the deep. In 
the decoration of these scenes, the Roman em- 
perors displayed their wealth and liberality ; and 
we read on various occasions that the whole furni- 
ture of the amphitheatre consisted either of silver, 
or of gold, or of amber. The poet who describes 
the games of Carinus, in the character of a shep- 
herd, attracted to the capital by the fame of their 
magnificence, affirms that the nets designed as a 
defence against the wild beasts were of gold 
wire; that the porticoes were gilded; and that 
the bdt or circle which divided the several ranks 
of spectators from each other, was studded with a 
precious mosaic of beautiful stones.** 

The following ground-plan, external elevation, 
and section, are from Hirt, and contain of course 
some conjectural details. The ground plan is so 
arranged as to exhibit in each of its quarters the 
plan of each of the stories : thus, the lower right 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 

■hows the true ^nnairf-plaii, or that 
of the loveat tierj; the next on the left ihows a 
pfaa of the evBCtian* on the lerel of the leeond row 
of exterior minmiM, as veil ai the leats which 
doped down hnm that leTel to the lower one ; the 
Bcxt q[aacter ahowi a similar plan of the third order, 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 



85 



and the upper ri^ht-hand quarter exhibits a view 
of the interior as it would appear to an eye looking 
rertically down upon it The dotted line* on the 
arena are the ndu, and their points of intersection 
the centrei) of the seTend am which make np the 
eUipeei. 




GROUND PLAN OP THB PLAYIAN AMPHrTHBATRX. 



ifiiiiijHmiiiQii^^ 



;ri;irf-i?riiiT)i^ifj!r»(i7;i:(SillPiB!iiii;iaiiM^ 



.T:i:;i\:!;iri>:ri's;i.i)>:£!s;iriiii!i^!(i]!igiir!in!aiii£^iri^^^^^^^^ 



IX>NOITUI>INAL XLXVATION OP THB PLAYIAN AMPHITHXATRB. 




LONGITUDINAL 81CT10N OP TUB FLAVIAN AllPHrTHRATRR. 

c a 



86 AMPHITHEATRUM. 

This stnictore, like all the other ezistiBg am- 
phitheatres, is of an elliptical form. It corers 
nearly six acres of ground. The plan divides it- 
self natuially into two concentric ellipses, of which 
the inner constituted the arena or space for the 
combats, while the ring between this and the outer 
circumference was occupied by the seats for the 
spectators. The lengths of the major and minor 
axes of these ellipses are, respectively, 287 feet by 
180, and 620 feet by 513. The width of the 
space appropriated to spectators is, therefore, 166] 
feet all round the building. The ratio of the 
diameters of the external ellipse is nearly that 
of 6 to 5, which becomes exactly the proportion, 
if we take in the substmctions of the foundation. 
Of course, the ratio of the diameters of the arena is 
different, on account of the diminished size : it is, 
in fact, nearly as 8 to 5. The minor axis of the 
arena is here, and generally, about one-third of 
that of the outer ellipse. The material used was 
stone, in large blocks, fastened together, where 
necessary, by metal damps. The exterior was 
faced with marble and adorned with statues. 
The external elevation requires little description. 
It is divided into four stories, corresponding to the 
tiers of corridors by which access was gained to 
the seats at different levels. These comdors are 
connected with the external air by eighty arched 
openings in each of the three lower stories. To 
the piers which divide these arches are attached 
three-quarter columns, that is, columns one-fourth 
of whose circumference appears to be buried in 
the wall behind them. Thus, each of the three 
lower stories presents a continuous fo9ade of eighty 
columns backed by piers, with eighty open arches 
between them, and with an entabhiture continued 
unbroken round the whole building. The width of 
the arches is as nearly as possible the same 
throughout the building, namely, 14 feet 6 inches, 
except at the extremities of the diameters of the 
ellipse, where they are two feet wider. Each tier 
is of a different order of architecture, the lowest 
being a plam Roman Doric, or perhaps rather 
Tuscan, the next Ionic, and the thud Corinthian. 
The columns of the second and third stories are 
placed on pedestals ; those of the lowest story 
are raised from the ground by a few steps. The 
highest tier is of quite a different character, as it 
merely consists of a wall, without corridors, against 
whicl^ instead of columns, are pUioed pilasters of 
the Corinthian order ; and the wall between them 
is pierced with windows, in the alternate interoo- 
lumniations only, and therefore, of course, forty in 
number. The whole is crowned with a bold en- 
tablature, which is pierced with holes above the 
brackets which supported the feet of the masts 
upon which the velariuM or awning was extended : 
and above the entablature is a small attic. The total 
height of that part of the building which remains 
entire, namely, about three-eighths of the whole 
circumference, is 157 feet : the stories are respec- 
tively about 30, 38, 38, and 44 feet high. The 
massiveness of the crowning entablature, the height 
•f the upper story, and the great sur&ce of bluik 
wall in Its intercolumniations, combine to give the 
elevation t somewhat hsavy appearance ; while 
the projecting cornices of each story, int^oepting 
the view from below, take off very much from the 
apparent height of the building. Indeed, it would 
be a waste of words to attempt to specify all the 
architectural defects of the compositioD. 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 

The stone used in the building is a species oi 
travertine : some of the blocks are as much as fiv« 
feet high, and eight or ten feet long ; and it ii 
remarkable, that all those which form Uie extcrioi 
have inscribed upon them small numbers or signs, 
which evidently indicate the phice of each in the 
buildings and which prove how great was the 
care taken to adapt every single stone to the form 
of the whole edifice. In some parts of the interior 
large masses of brickwork and tufo are seen : and 
in the upper part there are fragments of other 
buildings worked in ; but this, no doubt, happened 
in some of the various repairs. 

There are corns extan^ bearing on the reverse a 
view of the amphitheatre, so arranged as to show 
not only the outside, but a portion of the interior 
also. It is fix>m them that we learn the fiurt, that 
the outer arches of the second and third stories 
were decorated with statues in their openings, un- 
less, indeed, the figures shown in the arches are 
meant for rude representations of the people pe5». 
ing through the outer colonnade. These coins 
also show, on the highest story, in the alternate 
spaces between the piksters, circles against the 
wall, corresponding to the windows in the other 
alternate spaces ; they are, perhaps, the d^pea 
mentioned by the old author cited above, that is, 
ornamental metal shields, hung there to decorate 
the building. There are several coins of Titus 
and Domitian of this type (Eckhel, Dodr. I^^um. 
Vet vol. vi. pp. 357-;^59, 375). There are similar 
coins. of Oordlan, which are, however, very inferior 
in execution to those of Titus and Domitian. 
(Eckhel, vol vil p. 271.) The coins of Titus 
and Domitian also show a range of three stories of 
columns by the side of the amphitheatre, which 
(though the matter is doubtful) is supposed to re- 
present a colonnade which ran from tiie palace of 
Titu^ on the Esquiline to the amphitheatre, to 
which it gave access at the northern extremity of 
its minor axis, as shown on the phin. At die other 
extremity of this axis was the entrance fr«m the 
Palatine. 

The eighty arches of the lower stoiy (except 
the four at the extremities of the axes) formed the 
entrances for the spectattnrs, and gave admission 
to a corridor, running unintexruptedly round the 
building, behind whidi again is another precisely 
simikr corridor. (See the plan and section.) The 
space behind the second corridor is divided by 
eighty walls, radiatmg inwards from the inner piers 
of the second corridor ; which support the struc- 
ture, and between which are partly staircases lead- 
ing to the upper stories, and partly passages lead- 
ing into a third corridor, which, like the first and 
second, runs round the whole building. Be- 
yond this corridor the radiating walls are again 
continued, the spaces between them being occu- 
pied, as before, partly by staircases leading on the 
one side to the podmm, and on the other to the 
lower range of seats (iiMMiiKHMaa), and partly by 
passages leading to a fourth oontinuous corridor 
much lower and smaller than the others, which 
was divided from the arena by a massive wall 
(called podmm\ the top of which formed the place 
assigned to the spectators of the highest rank. 
From this fourth corridor there are several «n- 
trances to the arena ; snd it is most probable that 
the whole of the corridor was subservient to the 
arrangements of the anma. (See the lower right- 
hand quarter of the plan, and the section.) Ou 



AliPHlTHEATRUM, 

•^ meaod •tej we Imre the two ontttr colon- 

^>daf repmtedf aod ibe ndvating walls of the 

^Qk( Ubdir an eoadnaed np thnwigli this stoiy ; 

^ between tbem an staircases leading oat on to 

5y seooBtf range of seats, and paasagea leading 

^ a flBsfl maer comdor, fiom wiiich acceis is oV- 

tiined to a sort of tenaee (prtteemeHo) wiiich nuu 

iMud t&e baiUnig betweeu the fixat and second 

la^cs of sesfti^ and increases the fscflities for the 

■g eet ahw getting to IhA proper plaeea. Sloping 

4o«B froai tba^^roaaoMAb to the leTel of the t^ of 

tke fodam, sad sofipaited by tbe inner scries of 

BikiiiBg val^ aie the lower seriea of aeats^ On 

tbe tUrd itofj (above the floor of which the details 

ate afamtt entueljr eoojectmalX ^«i^« lisTe again 

the Anbie ffrfoniisdi*, the inneor ^waSl of which 

niei JBBcdiBtelj behind the top of 'the second 

al^ofteat^ with onlj the interval of a nanow 

fneamU^ to which aeoees w^as gir-en. by nn- 

eam 4mo m the wall jnat mentioned, which 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 



87 



WAS also pierced with windowii Abore the oatcr 
corridor of thii story ia a meszanine, or sma]] 
middle ttoiy, in front of which and abore the 
inner oolonnade were a few tien of wooden 
benches for the lowest daas of spectators. Abore 
this mesBmine was a gallerj, which ran right 
roond the building, and Uie front of which ia sup- 
poaed to haTC been formed by a range of columns. 
It seems that the terrace mrmed by the top of 
this gallery would be alao STailable for apectatora. 
And, lastly, the yery aummit of the wail was 
formed into a aort of terrace which was, no doubt, 
occupied by the men who woilied the ropea of the 
vdariwa. The doon which opened from the atair- 
cases and corridors on to the interior of the am- 
phitheatre were deaignated by the very appropriate 
name of imatitoria. The whole of the interior waa 
called caoea. The following aection (from Hirt) 
ezhibita theae anangementa aa clearir aa they can 
be ahown without the aid of penpectiTe. 




SBCnOH or THB OO&BIDORS, 8TA1R8, and 8BAT8. 



I. rL nL rV. The four atones of the exterior. 

A. The arena. 

A Tfaepodinm. 

CL Z>.B.P^ The four corridois. 

A Jff. L The three maeniana. 

«. Tbe upper pdlery ; L, The tenace over it 



R, The niace on the immnit of the wall for the 
managers of the relarium. 

Z. The atepa which anrrounded the building on 
the outaide. 

a. Stairs from the third colonnade to the po- 

o 4 



88 



AMPHITHEATRUM. 



6. Short tnuuvene steps from the podium to the 
first maenianum. (Compare the plan.) 

c, d. Stairs from the gromid story to the seeond ; 
whence the second maenianum was reached in 
two ways, e. and ff, 

e. Steps to the first praecinctio, from which there 
were short transverse steps (/,) to the second mae- 
nianum. 

ff. Stairs leading direct firom the corridors of the 
second stoiy to mo second maenianum, through 
the Tomitonum ct, 

k Stairs leading troxxL the floor of the second 
story to the smaU upper story, whence other stairs 
(8) led to the third story, from which access was 
obtained to the upper part of the second maenia- 
num by doors (fi) in the inner wall of the second 
corridor q. 

L Stairs from the second story to the mezza- 
nine, or middle story, whence access was obtained 
to the third maenianum b^ passages (7). 

/. Stairs in the mezzanme, leading to the upper 
port of the third maenianum, and to the gallery K. 

m. Steps firom the gallery to the terrace over it 

». Steps firom that terrace to the summit. 

0. p. Qrated openings to light the two inner 
corridors. 

q. See under h. 

B. Windows to light the mezzanine. 

t Windows of the gallery. 

V. Rest, and to. loop, for the masts of the vela- 
rium^. 

The arena was surrounded by a wall of suffi- 
cient height to guard the spectators against any 
danger firom the wild beasts, namely about fifteen 
feet A further protection was afforded, at least 
sometimes, by a network or trellis of metal ; 
and it is mentioned, as an instance of the profiise 
ostentation which the emperors were so fond of 
dispkying, that Nero, in his amphitheatre, had this 
trellis gilt, and its intersections ornamented with 
bosses of amber. (Plin. H, M zxxviL 3. s. 11. 
§ 2). The wall just mentioned appears to have 
been faced with marble, and to have had rollers 
suspended against it as an additional protection 
against the possibility of the wild beasts climbing 
it (Lips, de Amph. 12.) The terrace on the top 
of this wall, which was called podium (a name 
sometimes also applied to the wall itself), was 
no wider than to be capable of containing two, 
or at the ^ost three ranges of moveable seats, or 
chairs. This, as being by fiir the best situation 
for distinctly viewing the sports in the arena, and 
also more commodiously accessible than the seats 
higher up, was the place set apart for senators 
and other persons of distinction, such as the am- 
bassadors of foreign states (Suet Octao, 44 ; 
Juv. Sat, ii. 143, &c) ; the magistrates seem to 
have sat here in their curule chairs (Lipsius de 
Amph, 11); and it was here, also, that liie emperor 
himself tised to sit, in an elevated place called 
wggegtus (Suet Caet, 76 ; Plin. Patuff. 51), or 
cubtaUum (Suet. NerOf 12) ; and likewise the per^ 
son who exhibited the games, on a place elevated 
like a pulpit or tribunal (editoris tribunal). The 
vestal virgins also appear to have had a place 
allotted to them on the podium. (Suet Octan, 44). 

Above the podium were the gradus^ or seats of 
the other spectators, which were divided into stories 
called maeniana. The whole number of seats is 
supposed to have been about eighty. The first 
maatiatuim^ consisting of fourteen rows of stone of 



AMPHITHEATRUK. 

marble seats, was ai^ropriated to the eqiiestrK.va 
order. The seats i^»propriated to the senator^a 
and equites were covered with cushions {pul— 
mllis)^ which were first used in the time of Ca.- 
ligula. (Juv. Sat iii. 154 ; Dion, lix. 7.) Then^ 
after a horizontal space, tenned a praeebtetioy and. 
forming a continucMl landing-plaoe from the aeve^ 
nil staircases which opened on to it, succeeded th^ 
second mMmamtimf where were the seats called 
popidaria (Suet Damttian, 4), for the third daas 
of spectators, or the populau. Behind this waa the 
second prasdnctio^ bounded by the high wall al- 
ready mentioned ; above which was the third 
maenicmwm^ where there were only wooden benches 
for the pudlatij or common people. (Suet Octor. 
44.) The open gallery at the top was the only- 
part of the amphitheatre, in which women were 
permitted to witness the games, ezcq»t the vestal 
virgins, and perhaps a few ladies of distinction and 
influence who were suffered to share the space 
appropriated to the vestals (Suet Odan. 44). The 
seats of the maeinioata did not run in unbroken lines 
round the whole building, but were divided into 
portions called ewnei (finom their shape), by short 
flights of stairs which facilitated the access to the 
seaU. (Suet Od, 44 ; Juv. SaL vL 61.) See 
the plan, and the annexed section of a small portion 
of the seats. 



i 



Not only were the different ranges of seats ap. 
propriated to different classes of spectators, but it 
is pretty certain also that the different aaiei of 
each maenicxman were assigned to specific portions 
of the people, who were at once guided to their 
places by numbers |riaced over the external arehes 
by which the building was entered : these numbers 
still exist The ofilice of preserving order in the 
distribution of the places was assigned to attend- 
ants called locarii, and the whole management was 
under the superintendence of the vil^au ampki- 
theatri. 

It only remains to describe the oivmi, or 
central open space for the combatants, wliich de- 
rived its name from the sand with which it was 
covered, chiefly for the purpose of absorbing the 
blood. Such emperors as Caligula, Nero, and 
Carinus, showed Uieir prodigality by using cinna- 
bar and borax instead of the common sand. It 
was bounded, as already stated, by the wall of the 
podturuj but in the eariier amphitheatres, in which 
the podium was probably not so lofty, Uiere were 
ditohes (euripi) between it and the arenoj which 
were chiefly meant as a defence against the ele- 
phants. The euripi were first made by Julius 
Caesar, and were dispensed with by Nero, in 



AMPHITHEATRUK. 
ef^ertogHBipMelbrtiieapedalan. (SucLOmil 
SB ; nin. i^M TiiL 7 ; Lipdns «fa ^n^iA. 12.) 

"Tfe ifMee of the areoa vaa entirely open, ex- 
cefft that pwfaty then wu, in the eentre, an altar 
«f Dmba, or Plata, or flf Jnpjter Latiaria, on which, 
it ia iiifanni i d firoei aome paanget of the ancient 
aiithaca.,tiiat a int i ur u tt «aa aaoifioed at the open- 
iag of tke gvnea ; bvt the eTidenee it Teiy d^^t 
(l^ipiL de AwifiL 4.) There were icar piin^ial 
ftiimmw to it» at the eKtnmitiee of the azei of 
the efiifa^ fay paaeagea which led directly from 
the fimr u a n»pun di n g arehet of the exterior: 
these woe abo minor c a li aa cc a thnwgh the wall 
■f the padnm, Then» ie a difficulty about the 
piwitMB of the dens of the wild hcaati. The 
za^dx^ with whidi ^ast nnmbera of aninvJa were 
kt looee into the oraaa prorea that the dena moat 
haic beoi doae to iL The apaoea onder the aeata 
aeoB to haia been devoted entirely to the paaaue 
af die apeefeatora, with only the exoeptlfln of the 
H'wtHMiat eorridor, the entnmoea frcmi which to 
the oneaa aaggeat the probability that it was anb- 
aijaiy to the arena ; but, even if ao, it waa pro- 
bably oaed rather far the introduction and lemond 
of the mmaim^ than lor their aafe keepii^. Some 
haw mppaaed dena in the wall of the podntm : 
bat thb is qoite insafBdent In the year 1813, 
tbe eraaa araa excaTated, and extenaiTe aubatmo" 
taoBB woe disoeivcred, which, it haa been anppoaed, 
were the den^ fraan wUch the animala were let 
looae apoa the arena throoffh tnandoon. The 
chirf difiicalty is to reconcile aoch an anange- 
weot with the fret that the arma was frequently 
ieoded sad aaed lor a naval combat, and that too 
in the iatervals betweeai the fights of wild-beaatiL 
(Calpoin. Eebff. vii &A, 73 : the whole poem ia a 
TCTT ntereating deacripdon of the gamea of the 
aBpfeatheatre.) [Naumachia.] All that can be 
•aid vith any approach to certain^ ia, that theae 
aabalnetiana were either dena for the anirnah, or 
Canada far water, and poiaibly they may have 
bea ao atiaug e d as to combine both naea, though 
it a dificoh to understand how thia could have 
beea msBsged. The only method of aolviag the 
Sficahy in those caaea in which a aoasKKsiUia took 
fface ftrfnew the a— a rt owfa, appoaia to be, to 
aanme that tiie aninialB intended for the aeoond 
nmtio woe kc^ in the innemost colonnade, or 
ia dena in its immediate Tidnity during the aoa- 
■ooUa/ unkaa, which aeema to na quite incredi- 
bly then was any contrivance for at the aame 
tBK admitting the air to, and excluding the water 
&«a, their c^a beneath the arena. In the am- 
^hbealre at Verona, there are remains of duumela 
£v water under the arena, communicating with an 
opesb^ in ita centre ; but aome antiquariea belieye 
Aat these were only intended fat draining off the 



It is aaneeesaary to attempt a detailed deaerip- 
tiflo of the atataea and other omamenta with which 
the aaiphithealze waa adorned ; but the tojanam, 
or avniag, by which the spectators were sheltered 
fnm the aun, requirea amne explanation, which 
viD be fannd nnda Vkluic The apace requffed 
for the wofking of the vdamun^ and the height 
aeeeasry fior keepmg it from bending down by 
itioan weight ao low aa to obstruct the view from 
tbe sfiper bencheo, are probably the reasons for 
tbe great d j s pw p mti on between the height of the 
vpfier part of the amphitheatre, and the small 
fiaadMr of spectatws accoaunodsled in that part 



AMPHITHEATRUM. «l 

The Inxurioos upliances of fountains of scented 

water to refreah the apeetatoia, and ao forth, an 

auffidently described in the paasage already quoted 

from Gibbon. (Comp. Lucsa. ix. 808). 

IIL OOsr il«9NUttsa«r«. — The FUTiaa am. 
phitheatre, aa haa been already atated, waa, from 
the tone of ita erection, the only one m Rome ; 
ibr the obnona reaaon that it waa aaffiocnt fcr the 
whole popuhUkw. The little (lai|dirtaiiii— Cba- 
iremm waa probably only intended &r the aoldieis 
of the guard, who amnaed themaelvea there vrith 
fighta of ghidiatoTL But in the provincial citica, 
and espeaally the oohmiea, there were auuty aoi- 
phitheatrea. Indeed, it ia not a little intcteating 
to observe the contraat between the natttmal taatcs 
of the Gredcs and Romana, which ia indicated by 
the remama of theatrea in the coloniea of the 
fionner, and of amphitheatrea in thoae of the bitter. 
The immenae expenae of their conatmction would, 
however, natunuly ueTent the erection of many 
Buch buildings aa the Coliaaeum. (Gaaaiod. Ep. 
T, 42.) The provincial amphitheatrea were, pro- 
bably, like the earlier onea at Rome itaeU; gene- 
rally built of wood, auch aa thoae at Pla^ntia 
and Fidenae, already mentioned. Of theae wooden 
amphitheatrea there are of course no reoiaina ; 
but in aeveral of the larger citiea of the Roman 
empire there are important ruins of large am- 
nfaitheatrea of atone. The principal are thoae at 
Verona, Paestum, Pompeii, and Capua, in Italy ; 
at Nimea, Arlea, and Frejua, in France ; at PoU, 
in latcia ; at Syracuae, Catania, and aome oUier 
citiea in Sicily. They are all conatructed on the 
aame general prindidea aa the Coliaaeum, from 
which, again, they all differ by the abaence of 
the outeimoat corridor ; and, conaeqnently, their 
height could not have exceeded three atoriea ; 
while aome of them only had two. Of the Vero- 
neae amphitheatre^ the outer wall and colonnade 
are entirely gone, excepting four arches ; but the 
rest of the building u almost perfect. When 
complete, it had aeventy-two archea in the outer 
circle, and, of course, the same number of radiating 
walla, with their paaaagea and ataircaaea; the 
lei^ths of the axea of the outer ellipae were 500 
and 404 feet, thoae of the arena, 242 and 146. 
It waa probably built under Bomitian and Nerva. 
(Maffei, Verona lUustrata.) The next in import- 
ance ia that at Nimea, the outer dimenaiona of 
which are computed at 434 by 340 feet. ** Tho 
exterior wall, which is nearly perfect, oonaiata of 
a ground stoiy and upper story, each pierced with 
sixty arches, and ia surmounted by an attic; Ita 
height, from the lerel of the ground, is above 70 
English feet The lower or ground story ia 
adorned with pilasters, and the upper with Tuscan 
or Doric columns. The attic shows the holes 
destined to receive the poata on which waa stretched 
the awning that covered the amphitheatre. Tbe 
rows of seats are computed to have been originally 
32 in number. There were four principal en* 
trances. The amphitheatre haa been computed to 
hold 17,000 penKma: it was built with great 
solidity, without cement" (Pen. Cjfdop. art 
iVtmef.) That at Arlea waa three stories high, 
and has the peculiarity of being built on uneven 
ground, so that the lowest story is, for the most 
part, below the level of the surface, and tihe prin- 
cipal entzancea are on the second story. (For a 
detailed description, see Guis, Deseriftion <U 
VAmphUki£Ltre d*ArU^ 1665 ; and Pea. Cjfdop, 



00 



AMPHORA. 



art. Aries.) Both these amphitheatres belong pro- 
bably to ihe time of the Antonines. * (Ma^i, de 
Amph. Gall.) The amphitheatre at Pola standB 
on the side of a hill, and is higher on one side than 
on the other. There is little to remark respecting 
the other amphitheatres, except that a fragment of 
an inscription, found in that at Capua, informs us 
that it was built under Hadrian, at the cost of 
the inhabitants of the city, and was dedicated by 
Antoninus Pius ; and, concerning that of Pompeii, 
that the earthquake, which preceded the eruption 
by which the city was buried, injured the amphi- 
theatre so much, that antiquarians have been dis- 
appointed in looking for any new information from 
it ; there is an excellent description of it in the 
work entitled Pompeii^ vol L c 9. There are traces 
of amphitheatres of a ruder kind, chiefly of earth, 
in yarious parts of our own country, as at Dor- 
chester, Silchester, Caerleon, and Redruth. 

IV. Uaet o/ihs Amphideahre. -—Thh part of 
the subject is treated of under Gladiatorbs, 
Nadmachia, and Ybnationxs. This is not the 
place to discuss the influence of the spectacles of 
the amphitheatre on the character and destinies 
of the Roman people : some good remarks on the 
subject will be found in the Library of Entertain- 
ing Knowledge^ Menageries^ vol ii c. 12. [P. S.] 
AMPHOMO'SIA. [Amphiorkia.] 
AM'PHORA i&fupoptis^ old form Afiipupopt^s, 
Horn. IL xxiil 107 ; Od. x. 164, et alib. ; SchoL 
in Apoll Rhod. iv. 1187 ; Simon, in Anth, Pal. 
xiil 19). A laige vessel, which derived its name 
frt>m its being made with a handle on each side of 
the neck (firom i^l, on both tides^ and <t*^pc0 to 
earn/)j whence also it was called diata, that is, a 
vessel toith two ears (JHeoros^ Hlvros ffrdfutos or 
KiZuTKos^ Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 288, d. ; Ath. xi. 
p. 473 ; Moeris s. v. hfi^opia ; Hor. Cbrm. i 9. 
8). The form and size varied, but it was generally 
made tall and narrow, and terminating in a point, 
which could be let into a stand or into the ground, 
to keep the vessel upright ; several amphorae have 
been found in this position in the cellars at Pom- 
peii. The following cut represents amphorae fix>m 
the Townley and Elgin collections in the British 
Museum. 




AMPHORA, 

The usual material of the amphora was eartheo- 
ware (Hor. de Ar, Poet. 21), whence it was aim 
called testa {Carm. L 20. 2) : but Homer mentions 
them of gold and of stone (72. xxiii 92 ; Od, zxir. 
74, xiiL 105) : and in later times glass amphorae 
were not uncommon (Petron. 34) ; several have 
been found at Pompeii : Nepos mentiona, as a great 
rarity, amphorae oif onyx, as large as Chian cadi 
(pp. Plin. H. N. xxxvi 7. s. 12). The amphora 
was often made without handles. The name of 
the maker, or of the place of manu&cture, was some- 
times stamped upon them : this is the case with 
two in the Elgin collection, Noe. 238 and 244. 

[FiCTILB.] 

Amphorae were used for the pres^vation of 
various things which required careful keeping, 
such as wine, oil, honey, grapes, olives, and 
other fiTiits (Horn. IL xxiii 170 ; Cato, R.R.X. 
2 ; Colum. R. R. xii 16, 47 ; Hor. EpwL iL 15 ; 
Cic. 0. Veirr. iv. 74); for pickled meats (Xen. Anab. 
V. 4. § 28) ; and for molten gold and lead (Herod, 
iil 96 ; Nepos, Hamn. 9). There is in the British 
Museum a vessel resembling an amphora, which 
contams the fine African sand used by the athle- 
tae. It was found, with seventy others, in the 
baths of Titus, in 1772. Respectmg the use of 
the amphora in the streets of Rome, see Petron. 
70, 79 ; Propert. iv. 5. 73 ; Maciob. SacL '±12% 
and the commentators on Lucretius, iv. 1023. 
Homer and Sophocles mention amphorae as used 
for cmerary urns {IL xxiii. 91, 92 ; Soph. Fr. 
303, Dind.) ; and a discovery was made at Salona, 
in 1825, which proves that they were used as 
coffins : the amphora was divided in half in the 
direction of its length to receive the corpse, and 
the two halves were put together again and buried 
in the earth : the skdetons were found still entire. 
(Steinbiichel, AUertkum. p. 67.) Amphorae of par- 
ticular kinds were used ica various other pur- 
poses, such as the amphora nasitema for irrigation 
(Cato, R. R. 11. § 3), and the amphora ^partea^ 
which was perhaps a wicker amphora for gather- 
ing grapes in. {Ibid. § 2.) 

The most important emplo3nnent of the amphora 
was for the preservation of wine : its use for this 
purpose is fully described under Vinum. The 
following woodcut, taken fimn a painting on the 
wall of a house at Pompeii, represents the mode of 
filling the amphora from a wine-cart 




There is an interesting account of the use of 
the amphora among the J^ptians, in Sir G. Wil- 
kinson's Andent Egyptians^ vol il pp. 157—160. 



A3CPYX. 

TVe BEne m m jAoa ra vas dbo apidied both bj 

t&c Gneki sad the Roxmns to a definite mcamre 

of cqadtf » whkiL, borvrener, wu dififierent among 

tke t«a penplew^ the Raman aIl^>hoIa being only 

two-ilnrds of the Greek ft^n^opcfo. In both aiaes 

ife md appeals to be an abbreriation, the ftdl 

l^nae being in Greek ^k^c^opc^ ^i^rp^ris (<A« 

lAiimiiwd aay fco r aX and in latin oa^Nkiro faa- 

^hiBla{ (ll« eiiWb oa^M&ora). Respecting the mear 

aaes thoaoelTea, aee MsraxTSS, Quadeantai^ 

At Rooie a standard ampboca, called ampikora 

CaptoHaa^ vas kept in the temple of Jupiter on 

tike Cipitol (Rhemn. Fann. de BomL 61 ; CapitoL 

Msnm. 4). The siae of ahlps was estimated bj 

asfhfliae (Cic ad Fdm^ ziL 15 ; Liy. xxL 63); 

and the pndoee of a Tineyaxd was reckoned hy 

i^ niaaber of oatpftonoK, or of cald (of twenty 

aafjane each), vbkh it yielded. [P.^] 

AMPLIATIO. [Judicium.] 

AMPULLA (A^uOos, jSofiff^Aioj), a bottle, 

■aBitlly made either of glass or earthenwaze, rarely 

if noce valoable raaterialfl. Bottles both of gUas 

ad eazthenwaxe are preaerred in great quantities 

in oar cflQeetioDa of antiquities, and their forms 

■re Toy Tarioaa, though always narrow-mouthed, 

isd gcDeraU T more or leas appnMiching to globolar. 

Fr3b their round and awoUen shape, Horace i^ 

plies the word, aa the Greeks did A^jcv^r, to 

indicate giand and toig^d, but empty, language. 

iUv. B^ 1 3^ 14^ deAr.BocL 97.) Bottles were 

ued fiar holding all kinds of liquids, and are men- 

ticged e^ecially in connection with 'the bath. 

Evoy Jiman took with him to the bath a bottle 

of ^ (aiygg tJeandX for anointing the body 

tta hathing, and aa audi bottles firequently con- 

tasied perfioned oils we read of onipv/^ oomcMaas. 

(iCait m. 82. 26.) A bottle of this kind is figured 

■ader Balkvum. 

The dealer in bottles was called anqmBaritu, 
sod psit of lua business was to eorer them with 
leither (eornaa). A bottle so corered was called 
emftHar^bidtu (P]aat.i2H(2.in. 4. 51, 6lfici.ii. 1. 
77, c e mp ai ed with Featus, s. o. Btdnda,} 

AMPYX, AMPYCTER (<^«rvC, d^wrr^p), 
«dled by the Romans /ronialej was a broad boind 
er pfate'of metal, which Greek ladies of rank wore 
1^ the forehead as part of the head-dress. (IL 
zxs.4(>a— 470 ; AcachyL St^jp. 431 ; Theocr. L 
33k) Hence it is attributed to the female divinitiei* 
Artnss weaxv a frontal of gold (xptw^oy fyarvKo, 
blip. Hte. 464) ; and the epithet -xpttaiforvK^s is 
sfpiwd by Homer, Hesiod, and Pindar to the 
Mises, the Hooia, and the Fates. Ftom the ex- 
IRMoe tAp KiMD^wKa e^oy in a fragment of 
Piadar, we may infer that this ornament was 
■BtftiiBfs made of blue steel (x^oms) instead of 
foid ; and the Scholiast on the aboye cited passage 
«f Earipides asserts, that it was sometimes en- 
ndied with predoos stones. 

lyfnmtal of a kone was called by the same 
Bsme, and was occasionally made of similar 
rick watmals Hence, in the Hiad, the hoTBes 
vUch diaw the chariots of Hera and of Axes are 
oQed Xf^adfonncts. 

The SDOiezed woodcut ezhibitsHhe frontal on the 
heai flf Pegasus, tsken from one of Sir William 
HsmStoB^ vases, in contrast with the coirespond- 
BBjscmDcnt aa shown on the heads of two fonales 
is tke same eollection. 

FiQDtals were also worn by depbants. (Lir. 
nxrii. 40.) Hcsychius (a. v. AvSugr N^/iy) sup- 



AMUSSIS. 



91 




the men to have worn frontals in Ly- 
They appear to have been worn by the 
Jews and other nations of the East (Dent tI 8, 
XL 18.) [J. y.] 

AMULETUM <w«plarrsr, ««p<w«« ^A». 
rr^pioy), an amulet This word in Anbic (Hama- 
let) meana tkai toUek is tmtpemdmL It was probably 
brought by Arabian meruiants, together with the 
articles to which it was applied, when they were 
imported into Europe from the East It first occurs 
in the Natoral Histoiy of Pliny. 

An amulet was any object — a stone, a plant, 
an artificial production, or a piece of writing — 
which was suspended from the neck, or tied to 
any part of the body, frr the purpose of counteract- 
ing poison, curing or prerenting disease, warding 
off the eril eye, aiding women in childbirth, or 
obTiatipg calamities and securing advantages of 
any kind. 

Faith in the virtues of amulets was almost uni- 
versal in the ancient woiid, so that the whole art 
of medicine consisted in a very considerable degree 
of directions for their applicadoo ; and in propor- 
tion to the quantity of amulets preserved in our 
collections of antiquities, is the frm^uent mention of 
them in ancient treatiies on natural history, on the 
practioe of medicine, and on the virtues of plants 
and stones. Some of the amulets in our museums 
are merely rough unpolished fragmenu of such 
stones as amber, agate, comeliim, and jasper; 
others are wrought into die shape of beetles, quad- 
rupeds, ^^ fingers, and other members of the 
body. Tilers can be no doubt that the selection 
of stones either to be set in rings, or strung to- 
gether in necklaces, was often made with reference 
to their reputed virtues as amulets. (Plin. H. N, 
zzv. 9. s. 67, zziz. 4. s, 19, xzz. 10. b. 24., zxxvii. 
8. s. 37.) [FASCiNua] [J. Y.l 

AMUSSIS or AMUSSIUM, a carpenter^ 
and mason^s instrument, the use of which was to 
obtain a true plane surfooe ; but its construction 
is difficult to make out from the statements of the 
ancient writers. It appears clearly from Vitmvins 
(L 6. § 6) that it was different firom the n^a&i 
(straight rule), and from the UbeOa (plumbline or 
square), and that it was used for obtaining a tmer 
sariace, whether horizontal or perpendicukr, than 
those two mstmments together would give. It is 
defined by the grammarians as a rtffula or iaMa, 
made perfectly plane and smooth, and used for 
making work level and for smoothing stones {Regtda 
ad quam atiqmd txcuquatur^ Festus, s. o. ; anmma sal 
ae^MaaiaRteia leoigatwan^ H est apud fahros tahda 
qttaedam^ qua uitmiur ad sawa Imigaada^ Varr. ap, 
I iVoM, i 28) ; and another grammarian veiy clearly 



92 



ANAKEIA. 



describes it as a plane sarfiiceiy coyered with red 
ochre, which was placed on work, in order to 
test its smoothness, which it of course did by 
leaving the mark of the red ochre on any pro- 
jections. (Anutana est tabula mbrieata tpuu tie- 
miUitur ewaiminandi operit gratia^ an retium opu$ 
mrgat^ Sisenna, ap. Cbarit. ii. p. 178, Putsch). 
There was also a difference of opinion among the 
grammarians, whether the amussis was only an 
instroment for trying a level, or a tool for actually 
making one (Festas,«.«. jBrnrnvntm). The amus- 
sis was made sometimes of iron (Fest ibid,\ and 
Bometimes of marble (Vitruv. L &). It gives rise 
to the adverbs amussimj odamMistim, and eanmus- 
Mm, meaning with perfect regularity and exact- 
ness. (See Foroellini, Lexicon,) [P. S.] 

AMU'SSIUM. [Amussis.] 

ANADE'MA. [Mitra.] 

ANADI'KIA (Aj^a«i«k). [APBLLATia] 

ANA'GLYPHA or ANAGLYPTA {hi^i^ 
7Xu^, dM(7^t^rra), chased or embossed vessels 
made of bronze or of the precious metals, which 
derived their name from the work on them beinff 
in relief and not engraved. (Plin. H. N. zxziii. 
11. s. 49 ; Virg. Am. v. 267 ; Martial iv. S9 ; 
Cablatora ; ToRBUTiCB.) The name was also 
applied to sculptured gems. [P. S.] 

ANAGLYPTA. [Anagltpha.] 

ANAGNOSTAE, also called Ledores, were 
slaves, who were employed by the educated Romans 
in reading to them during meals or at other times. 
(Cic. ad AtL 112; Com. Nep. Att 14 ; Plin. Ep, 
L 15, iil 5, ix. 36.) 

ANAGO'GES DIKE' {hmywyiis 9Uni). If 
an individual sold a shive who had some secret 
disease — such, for instance, as epilepsy — without 
informing the purchaser of the circumstance, it 
was in the power of the latter to bring an action 
against the vendor within a certain time, which 
was fixed by the laws. In order to do this, he had 
to report (iufdytty) to the proper authorities the 
nature of the disease ; whence the action was called 
iwayuyris Blmi. Plato supplies us with some inform- 
ation on this action ; but it is uncertain whether 
his remarks apply to the action which was brought 
in the Athenian courts, or to an imaginary form of 
proceeding. (Plat Leg. xi. p. 916 ; Hesych. 8. v, 
ovayMyfi : Suid. 1. 1>. ivaywyi^^ iydy^aBm ; Meier, 
AU. Process, p. 525.) 

ANAGO'GIA {hyar&yia), a festival celebrated 
at Eryx, in Sicily, in honour of Aphrodite. The 
inhabitants of the place believed that, during this 
festival, the goddess went over into Africa, and 
that all the pigeons of the town and its neigh- 
bourhood likewise departed and accompanied her. 
(Aelian, Hist. An. iv. 2, V, H. I 14 ; Athen, ix. 
p. 394.) Nine days afterwards, at the so-called 
Karay^ta (return), one pigeon having returned 
and entered the temple, the rest followed. This was 
the signal for general rejoicing and feasting. The 
whole district was said at this time to smell of 
butter, which the inhabitants believed to be a 
sign that Aphrodite had returned. (Athen. ix. 
p. 395 ; comp. K. F. Hermann, LeM, d. goUes- 
diensL AUerth. d. Griechen^ § 68. n. 29.) [L. &] 

ANAKEIA (hydKua) or ANAKEION (dj^ 
Kfioy), a festival of the Dioscuri, or '^Avaxres, as 
they were called, at Athens. (Hesych. vol. I 
p. 325 ; Pollux, l 37.) Athenaeus (vi p. 235) 
mentions a temple of the Dioscuri called 'Aj^cioy, 
at Athens; he also informs us (iv. p. 137) that 



ANAKRISia 
the Athenians, probably on the oceaaion of thi 
festival, used to prepare for these heroes in th 
Piytaneium a meal consisting of cheese, a liarley 
cake, ripe figs, oUves, and garlic, in remembranct 
of the ancient mode of uvmg. These lieroe 
however, received the most distuiguished honoun 
in the Dorian and Achaean states, where it ma} 
be supposed that every town celebrated a festiva 
in their honour, though it may not haye been undei 
the name of kydntta. Pausanias (x. 88. 3) men- 
tions a festival held at Amphissa, called' that of the 
hftUermp Tat9uy : but adds that it was dispoted 
whether they were the Dioscuri, the Curetes, or the 
Cabeiri. (K. F. Hermann, Z^Arft. d,gotteadiengL Al- 
terth. d. CfficAen, § 62. n. 27.) [L. a J 

ANAKEI'MENA (Ajwccf^vo). [Donarta.] 
ANAKLETE'RIA {kyaKXrrrhpta\ the name 
of a solemnity at which a young prince waa pro- 
claimed king, and ascended the ^rone. The name 
was chiefly applied to the accession of the Ptolemaic 
kings of £gypt (Polyb. ReUq. xviiL 38, xxviix. 
10.) The prince went to Memphia, and was 
there adorned by the priests with the aacrcd 
diadem, and led into the temple of Phtha, where 
he vowed not to make any innovations either in 
the ordor of the year or of the festivals. He then 
carried to some distance the yoke of Apia, in order 
to be reminded of the sufferings of man. Re- 
joicings and sacrifices concluded the aolenmity. 
(Diod. Fragm. lib. xxx.) [L. a] 

ANAKLYPTE'RIA. [Matbimonicticj 
ANA'KRISIS {kyijKpuris\ the preliminary 
investi^tion of a case by a magistrate or avchon, 
before it was brought before the courts of justice 
at Athens. For the purpose of ascertaining whe- 
ther the action would lie, both parties, the com- 
plainant and defendant, were summoned, sepa- 
rately, and if either of litem did not appear with- 
out a formal request to have the matter dehiyed 
(^ctf/uoo-fa), he tacitly pleaded guilty, and accord- 
ingly lost the suit. (DemostL c Timor, p. 1324.) 
The anacrisis began by both the plaintiff and the 
defendant taking an oath, the former thereby at- 
testing that he had instituted the prosecution with 
truth and conscientiousness («-fKM»fio0'<a), and the 
latter, that to the best of his knowledge he was 
innocent (&yr»/uo<Ha). (Timaeus, Lex. Plat. p. 38, 
with Ruhnken'S note ; Diog. Laert il 40 ; Plat 
ApcL Socr. 3.) It was further promised by both, 
that the subsequent prosecution and defence 
should be conducted with fiumess and justice. 
(Harpocrat, Suid., Hesych. $. v. iurrwfuxria: 
Pollux, viiL 122.) If the defendant did not 
bring forward any objection to the matter being 
brought before a court of justice, the proceedii^ 
was termed c&euSucfo. (Demosth. e. Phorm. p. 908, 
c. StqA, p. 1103.) Such objections might he 
raised in regard to the incompetency of the court 
to which the matter was to be referred, or in regard 
to the form in which the accusation was brought 
forward, and the like (Lys. c PemeL p. 732 ; 
Pollux, viil 67) ; they were always looked upon 
with suspicion (Demosth. e. Zeocft. p. 1097, p. 
Phorm. p. 944) ; but, nevertheless, they were not 
unfrequently resorted to by defendants, either in 
the form of a Zioftaprvpla^ or that of a Tnpaypa^. 
In the case of a StofiaftTvpia, the plaintiff had to 
bring forward witnesses to show that the ob- 
jections raised by the defendant were unfounded ; 
and if this could not be done, the defendant bad a 
right to bring witnesses to show that his objections 



ANAKRISI& 
on jastioe, and in Bceordanee with 
the Ixwn, But each of the litigant parties might 
dcfaooDce the witnesses of his opponent as fiuse 
. and thos a seeondaij lawsuit might be 
t with the prindpl one. If the ^utftap- 
i waameiEted toin aciTil case, the party who 
nnde use of it had to deposit a sum of money 
(vqpoKKratfsA^), and when the plaintiff lost his 
ssit, he had to pay to the defendant a fine for 
kbTiBg Baaed an accusation without foundation. 
In lawsaitB about the snooessian to the property of 
a pcsHo, the haftaprvpU was the cidy form in 
wLkh objectioDS could he raised. (Bekker, 
AneadaL p. 2Z6,) The vaptrfpapii was an ob- 
jccaoB in writing^ which was made by the de- 
feadant, without hia employing any witnessea, 
and which was decided upon in court ; and in 
this, alaoy the loser had to pay a fine to the party 
thait gained the suit (Pollttz, viii 58.) When 
tbe phintiff gained his case, the prosecution pro- 
ceeded in its rq^nlar conne. The amiiypa/^ 
howerer, might be something more than a mere 
•IjectMA, inssmnch as the defendant might turn 
^^sajast Ae plaintiff, and zaise an accusation against 
hna. Such an accusation rery commonly con- 
sUied in the defendant chazging his accuser with 
hsriag no li^t to daim the pririleges of an 
Atheuan dtina, in consequence of which the 
btter was prevented from exexdsinff those priyi- 
k^ until he had established his mims to them. 
This kind of irrifpo^ was firequently a mere 
denee to snaoy the plaintift 

These aze, in geDessl, the proceedings in the 
iw^MU : sod fiom what thus took phioe, it is 
dear that the main part of the evidence on both 
dd«s was hroBght out in the iLydicptcis^ and at the 
Rgubr trial in court the main object was to work 
span the minds of the judges through the in- 
fiaeoee «f the orators, widi reference to the evi- 
deaee IvoBgfat oat in the iydusptris. The latter, 
thoefcte, consisted of the simple evidence which 
Rqaiied no ontorical discassion, and which was 
esBtaiDed, — 1. in laws ; 2. in docmnenia ; 3. in 
the statrawnt of free witnesses ; 4. in the stato- 
iseat of skvcs ; and 5. in oaths. In all these 
kinds «f evidence, one putty might have recourse 
to the TftfaAifO'tr, that is, call upon the other 
psrty to hdng ferward such other evidence as was 
m slready given. (Demosth. e. SUpL p. 1006, 
c Tieoer. p. 987, e. Pantaau p. 978.) There was, 
bvevcci DO strict obligation to comply with such 
s densad (Demosth. cOfywtp, p. 1181), and in 
oertsia cases the pvty called upon might, in ao- 
oordsBce with estaWisned laws, reiuse to comply 
with the demand ; fiv instance, persons belonging 
to die ame frmily oould not be compelled to ap> 
peer ss witiM ss sca a^pdnst one another. (DemostL 
c Tie. pu 1195.) But if the reading of a docu- 
BMDt, throwing light upon the point at issue, was 
Rfiued, the other 



ANAKRISI& 



93 



party might bring in a Sdni tis 



In regard to the kwa which either party misht 
aUoce in its sapport, it must be obeerved, that 
copid of them Imd to be read in the anacrisis, 
iinee it would hare been difficult for any magis- 
giitate or judge to fix* at once, upon the law or 
iavi besting npon the qoestion at issue. In what 
Baser the authorities were enabled to insure 
hiiUal aad eoneci copies being taken of the laws, 
ii net known ; bat it is highly probable that any 
as vh) took • eopy in the archires, had to get 



the signature of some public officer or scribe to 
attest the correctness of the copy. 

Other legal documents, such as contracts (avy- 
OTtKcUf <rvyypapat\ wills, books of accounts, and 
otiier records (Demosth. p. Phorm, p. 950), not 
only required the signature and seal of the party 
concerned, but their authenticity had to be attested 
by witnesses. (Demosth. & OneL p. 869). 

Evidence (/AOfn-vpIa) was given not only by free- 
bom and grown-up citizens, but dso by strangers 
or aliens (DemostlL e, LaeriL pp. 927, 929, 930, 
937), and even firom absent persons evidence 
might be procured (^ic/ta^vpfo, Demosth. cSteph. 
p. 1180 ; Pollux, viii. 36X or a statement of a 
deceased person might hie referred to {iuto^v 
fiofnvptiy^ Demosth. c. St^k p. 1130, e. Leodk, 
p. 1097). If any one was called npon to bear 
witness (jcXij-^^cik), he oould not r^iise it; and 
if he refused, he might be compelled to pay a fine 
of 1000 drachmae (Demosth. de FcUs, Leg, pp. 396, 
403 ; Aeschin. c. Tmoct, p. 71), unless he could 
establish by an oath (^^/too-fa), that he was 
unable to give his evidence in the case. Any one 
who had promised to bear witness, and afterwards 
fiuled to do so, became liable to the action of 8uci| 
Xcnro/toprvptov or fi\d€iis. The evidence of an 
avowed friend or enemy of either party might be 
rejected. (Aeschin. c. Timocr, p. 72.) All evi- 
dence was either taken down in writing as it was 
given by the witnesses, or in case of its having 
been sent in previously in writing, it was read 
aloud to the witness fer his recognition, and he 
had generally to confirm his statement by an oath. 
(Demosth. o. SUpk. pp. 1115, 1119, 1130, e. Con. 
p. 1269 ; comp. Diog. Laert. iv. 7.) The testi- 
mony of slaves was valid only when extorted by 
instruments of torture, to which either one party 
might offer to expose a slave, or the other might 
demand the torture of a shve. (Demosth. c. Ni^ 
eostr, p. 1254, c Jpkob, p. 855, o, Onet, p. 874, 
c Stej^ p. 1135.) 

A distinct oath was required in cases where 
there were no witnesses or documents, but it has 
been remarked above that oaths were also taken to 
confirm the authenticity of a document, or the truth 
of a statement of a witness* [JusjuiiANoirM.] 

If the evidence produced was so clear and sa- 
tisfiiCtoiT, that there was no doubt as to who was 
right, the magistr^ could decide the case at 
once^ without sending it to be tried in a court 
During the anacrisis as well as afterwards in the 
regular court, the liti^t parties might settle 
their dispute by an amicable anangemenC (De- 
mosth. c Tkeocrin, p. 1 323, c. Mid, p. 529 ; Aeschin. 
de Fala, Leg, p. 269 ; PoUux, viit 143.) But if 
the plsintiff, in a public matter, dropped his accu- 
sation, he became liable to a fine of 1000 drach- 
mae, and incurred partial atimia ; in later times, 
however, this punishment was not always inflicted, 
and in dvil cases the plaintiff only lost the sum 
of money which he had deposited. When the 
parties did not come to an .understanding during 
the anacrisis, all the rarious kinds of evidence 
brought forward were put into a vessel called 
ix^osj which was sealed and entrusted to some 
officer to be kept until it was wanted on the day 
of trial (Demosth. c. Ol^fmp, p. 1173 ; SchoL ad 
Aridoph, Vetp. 1427.) The period between the 
conclusion of the preliminary investigation and until 
the matter was brought before a*conrt, was con- 
sidered to belong to the anacrisis, and that period 



9i 



ANAXAGOREIA. 



WM difTerently fixed bj law, according to the 
nature of the charge. In cases of mnrder, the 
period was neyer less than three months, and in 
others the trial in court commenced on the 
thirtieth day after the beginning of the anacrisis, 
as, 0. ^. in the Succu iparucatt dfiTopucalf ficroAXi- 
KcU, and TpoiK6s (Harpocnt. «. «l (^nfiyipoi 9mm ; 
Pollux, viiL 63, 101), and the day fixed for the 
trial was called icvpla rov v6iuov. (Demosth. & 
Mid. p. 544.) In other cases, the day was fixed 
by the magistrate who conducted the anacrisis. 
But either party might petition for a postponement 
of the trial, and the opposite party might oppose 
the petition by an oath that the ground on which 
the delay was sought for, was not Talid, or un- 
satisfactory. (Harpocrat. «.v.&y0inrM/uw(a ; Pollux, 
Tiii. 60.) Through such machinat^ms, the deci- 
sion of a case might be delavedto the detriment of 
justice ; and the annals of ue Athenian courts are 
not wanting in numerous instances, in which the 
ends of justice were thwarted in this manner for a 
number of years. (Demosth. e. Mid, p. 541 ; 
comp. Meier and Schbmann, DerAtL Proa. p. 622 ; 
C. F. Hermann, GriedL StaatmiUh, § 141 ; Scho- 
man, AntiqmL Jur. pubL Cfraee, p. 279 ; Wachs- 
muth, Hellm. AUerthmM k umdey ii. p. 262, &c. 
2nd edit) The examination which an archon un- 
derwent before he entered on his office, was like- 
wise oailled dydbcpio-if. [L. S.] 

ANALEMMA {dydKjififta), in its origmal 
meaning, is any thing raised or supported ; it is 
applied in the plund to walls built on strong 
foundations. (Hesych. Snid. s. o.) VitruTius uses 
the word to describe an instrument which, by 
marking the lengths of the shadows of a fixed 
gnomon, showed the different altitudes of the sun 
at the different periods of the year. (Yitruv. ix. 
7, 8. s. 6, 7, Schneider.) It must not be con- 
founded with the modem analemma, which is much 
more complicated and precise than the instrument 
described by Vitruvius. [P. S.] 

ANAPIE'SMATA- [Thiatrum.] 

ANATHE'MATA (Awi^/wito.) [Donaria.] 

ANATOCISMUS. [Fenus.] 

ANAUMACHIOU GRAPHE' (h^av^uixiov 
7pa^), was an impeachment of the trierareh 
who had kept aloof from action while the rest 
of the fleet was engaged. From the personal na- 
ture of the offence and thq punishment, it is 
obvious that this action could (mly hare been di- 
rected against the actual commander of the ship, 
whether he was the sole person appointed to the 
office, or the active partner of the perhaps many 
<rvKrcXc7r, or the mere contractor (6 /ua^c^- 
ffdfityos). In a cause of this kind, the strategi 
would be the natural and official judges. The 
punishment prescribed by law fi>r this offence 
was a modified atimia, by which the criminal and 
his descendants were deprived of their political 
franchise ; but, as we leam firom Andocides, were 
allowed to retain possession of their property. 
(De MysL p. 10. 22, ed. Steph. ; Petit Leg. JtL 
p. 667.) [J.S.M.] 

ANAXAGOREIA (&ra(a7<$pcM), a day of 
recreation for all the youths at Lampsacus, which 
took place once every year, in compliance, it was 
said, with a wish expressed bv Anaxagoras, who, 
after being expelled from Athens, spent the re- 
mainder of his life here. This continued to be ob- 
served even iit the time of Diogenes La&tius. 
(^MCii^. c. 10.) [L.S.] 



ANGARIA. 

ANCHISTEIA (&7X«rrc(a). [Hbrxs.] 

ANCI'LE. [Salil] 

ANCILLA. [Sbrvus.] 

A'NCORA [Navis.] 

A'NKULE (47«^^i?X [Hasta.] 

ANDABATAE. [Gladiator.] 

ANDREIA (Ai^w). [Sy88itia.3 

A'NDRIAS (Wplof). [Statuaria.1 

ANDROGEO'NIA CAySpoyci^Ma), a festiva 
with games, held every year in the Cerameieus a 
Athens, in honour of the hero Androgens, son o 
Minos, who had overcome all his adversaries in tb( 
festive games of the Panathenaea, and was after 
wards killed by his jealous rivals, (Pans. L 27 
§ 9 ; Apollod. iiL 15. § 7 ; Hygin. Fab. 41 ; Diod 
iv. 60, 61.) According to Hesychius, the hero alsc 
bore the name of Eurygyes (the possessor of ex- 
tensive lands), and under this title games wen 
celebrated in his honour, 6 h^ EvpvyOtf iy^r. 
(Hesych. vol I p. 1332 ; K. F. Hermazm, GoUes- 
dieiut.AUerA.d.Gfrisehmy% 62, TL 22. [L. S.J 

ANDROLE'PSIA (&y«poXi?^ta or du^^Kk- 
^iok), a legal means by which the Athenians were 
enabled to take vengeance upon a oonunimity in 
which an Athenian citizen had been murdered. 
For when the state or city in whose tenitory the 
murder had been committed, refused to bring the 
murderer to trial, the law allowed the Athenians 
to take possession of three individuals of that 
state or city, and to have them imprisoned at 
Athens, as hostages, until satisfiiction was given, 
or the murderer delivered up, and the property 
found upon the persons thus seized was confiscated. 
(Demosth. c Arittoer, p. 647 ; Harpocrat $. v. ; 
Pollux, viii. 40 ; Suid. and Etym. M. 5.0.; 
Bekker, Amedot p. 213.) The persons entrusted 
with the office of seizing upon the three hos- 
tages, were usually the trierarchs, and the com- 
manders of ships of war. (DemostL IM Ccmm, 
Trier, p. 1232.) This Athenian custom is analo- 
gous to the darigatio of the Romans. (Liv. viiL 

14.) [L.a] 

ANDRONFTia [Dom us, Grbbk.] 
ANGARPA (krfe^ia, Hdt hryet^Up) is a 
word borrowed firom the Persians, signifying a 
system of posting, which was used among that 
people, and which, according to Xenophon, was 
established by Cyrus. Horses were provided, at 
certain distances, along the principal roads of the 
empire ; so that couriers (6770^01), who also, of 
course, relieved one another at certain distances, 
could proceed without interruption, both night and 
day, and in all weathers. (Herod, viii. 98 ; iii 126 ; 
Xen. Cyrop. viii. 6. § 1 7 ; Suid. s. v.) It may easily 
be supposed that, if the government arrangements 
failed in any point, the service of providing horses 
was made compulsory on individuals ; and hence 
the word came to mean compulsory service in for- 
warding royal messages ; and in this sense it was 
adopted by the Romans under the empire, and is 
firequently found in the Roman laws. The Roman 
cmgarixL, also called on^oriamm etMnOo or prae-^ 
etatio^ included the maintenance and supply, not 
only of horses, but of ships and messengers, in for- 
warding both letters and burdens ; it is defined si 
a p&rMude mmmu; and there was no ground of 
exemption from it allowed, except by the fiivour 
of the emperor. (Dig. 50. tit 4. s. 18. §§ 4, 29 ; 
tit 5. s. 10, 11; 49, tit 18. s. 4. § 1 ; Cod.Theod. 
8. tit 5 ; Cod. Justin. 12. tit 51.) 
According to Suidas, the Persian word was on* 



ANNULUS. 

gamHj applied to any bearers of bnrdent, and 

■exv to compnlsnry Kfrice of any kind. [P. S.] 

ANGIPORTUS, or ANGIPORTUM, a nar- 

n>v fasM bctvoea twoiowa of hooMS ; each a lane 

K^ht Ibto no iaaoe at aU^ or end in a priTate 

h juse, so as to be what the Fcench call a aMe- 

JBC, or it might tenninate at both ends in some 

^Mic street. The ancients derived the word 

frgsi aiyrff and fortmt^ and explain it as mean- 

inz, originally, the nairow entrsnce to a port. 

(Fest.p.17. ed.MuIkr; Vano, i>R X. £. t. 145, 

tI 41 ; dpian, in Dig. Z>0 Sigatf. Vmh, 59.) The 

DiSBiber of neh narrow oonrts, doses, or lanes seems 

to have been considexable in ancient Rome. (Cic 

^ ZXa. L 32, |k. J/tZ. 24, ad Herm. iy. 51 ; 

Plaat. J^aemL ir. Z 6, i^y. Norn, iii 1 ; Ter. 

il<li^ IT. 2. 39 ; H(8ataim.L25. 10 ; Catna 

5.Jw 4.) [L. a] 

ANGUSTUS CLAVU8. [Clavus.] 

ANNA'LES MA'XIHI. [Pontipbz.] 

ANNONA IS used to signify, 1. The produce 

cf the year in earn, findt, wine, &c.,and hence, 2. 

Pfonsons in general, especially the com which, in 

the latter yean of the repobtic, was collected in 

the stofebooses of the stat^ and sold to the poor at 

a cheap iBte in times of scarcity ; and which, imder 

the cmpenn, was disCribated to the people gra* 

taitoQsly, or given as pay and rewards. [(S>n- 

6LULIUH; Fbumbsttatio ; PRAXraCTUS An- 

W)SA1.1 [P. 8.] 

A'NNULUS(8a«HXiefXartng. Eveiy free- 
nan in Gieeee appears to hare nsed a ring ; and, 
St least m the earhest times, not as an oinament, 
hat as sa article 6r nse, as the ring always served 
aa a sesL How ancient the costom of wearing 
rings aaong the Greeks was, cannot be ascertained ; 
thoagh it is eertain, as even Pliny (H, N. Tnriii. 
4) olisaTes, that in the Homeric poems there are 
US tiaccs of it In works of fiction, however, and 
is thote l^cnds in which the cnstoms of later ages 
sre mixed v^ with those of the eariiest times, we 
fisd tlie most ancient heroes described as wearing 
tiapL (Pam, L 17. f 3, x. 30. § 2 ; Enrip. Ipkig. 
AwLlSi^ Hippol. 859.) Bat it is Idghly prohable 
tbst the costom of wearing ripgs was introduced 
into Greece from Asia, where it appears to have 
beei sfaooot nnivenal. (Herod, i. 195 ; Pkt. tU 
Re PwbL iL p. 359.) In the time of Solon seal- 
nsjBi {jrfp0rfii€s\ as well as the practice of conn- 
teifetdng tlMoa, seem to have been rather com- 
BMa, far Diogenes LaSrtios (L 57) speaks of a law 
«f Sokn which fbibade the artist to keep the form 
of a lesl (f^fsrfis) which he had sold. (Instances 
*i eoonterfeited sols are given in Becker*s Ckan- 
hlBs ii. p. 217.) Whether, however, it was cns- 
tMisry as eariy aa the time of Sokm to wear rings 
viik pcecioos stones on which figures were en- 
gESfe4 ■■■^T justly be doobted ; and it is much 
■me probable that at that time the figures were 
rat m the Brtal of the ring itself a costom which 
«ai sever abandoned altogether. Rings without 
pRdess stones were called Jfaf^if^oi, the name of the 
goi befaig i^il^of or <r^^ay(r. (Artemidor. Onetro- 
aiLiL^) In later times rings were worn more 
SI QiBaacDta than as articles for nse, and persons 
warn woe oo hatget satisfied with one, but wore 
tvo, three, or evoi more rinss ; and instances aro 
rsnfded of tliooe who regnlany loaded their hands 
«nb risfts. (Plat Ifg^. Mm. p. 868 ; Aristoph. 
Eeiln.9S2^ NtA. 332, with the 8chol; Dinarch. 
■ DrmmA, pu 29 i IKog. Lam. v. 1.) Greek 



ANNULUS. 



95 



women likewise used to wear rings, hot not so fi«- 
qnently as men ; the rings of women also I4>pear 
to have been less costly than those of men, fiv 
some aro mentioned which were made of amber, 
ivoiy, &C; (Artemid. L o.) Rings were mostly 
worn on the fourth finger (wopflt^co-or, Plut Sym- 
pog, Fragm, lib. It. ; Gellius, x. 10). The Lace- 
daemonians are said to have used iron rings at ail 
times. (Plin. H, JV. xzxiiL 4.) With the excep- 
tion perhaps of Sparta, the law does not appear tc 
have ever attempted in any Greek state to counte^ 
act the great partiality for this luxury ; and no* 
where in Greece does the right of wearing a gold 
ring appear to have been onifined to a partioilar 
order or dass of citizens. 

The custom of wearing rings was believed to 
have been introduced into Rome by the Sabines, 
who are described in the early legends as weatw 
ing gold rings with precious stones {gmnmait 
amnUi) of great beanty. (Liv. L 11 ; Dionys. it 
38.) Florus (i 5) states that it was introduced 
from £truria in the reign of Tarquinins Prisons, 
and Pliny (L o.) derives it from Greece. The 
bet that among the statues of the Roman kings 
in the ci4>itol, two, Numa and Serrius Tullius, 
were represented with rings, can scarcely be ad- 
duced as an argument for their early use, as later 
artists would natundly represent the kings with 
such insignia as characterised the highest magi- 
strates in later times. But at whatever time 
rings may have become customary at Rome, thus 
much is certain, that at first they were always ot 
iron, that they were destined for the same purpose 
as in Greece, namely, to be used as seals, and that 
every free Roman had a right to use such a ring. 
This iron ring was used down to the last period 
of the republic by such men as loved the simplicity 
of the good old times. Marius wore an iron ring 
in his triumph over Jugurtha, and several noble 
fimiilies adhered to the ancient custom, and never 
wore gold ones. (Plin. H, N. xxxiii. 6.) 

When senators in the eariy times of the republic 
were sent as ambassadors to a foreign state, they 
wore during the time of their mission gold rings, 
which they received from the state, and which 
were perhaps adomed with some symbolic repre- 
sentation of the republic, and might serve as a 
state-seaL But ambassadors used gold rings only 
in public ; in private they wore their iron ones. 
(Plin. xxxiii. 4.) In the course of time it be- 
came cnstomaiy for all the senators, chief msgi- 
strstes, and at last for the equites also, to wear 
a gold seal-ring. (Liv. ix. 7. 46, xxvi. 36 ; Cic. 
c Verr. iv. 25 ; Liv. xxiii. 12 ; Flor. iL 6.) This 
right of wearing a gold ring, which was subse- 
quentiy called the jus amuiU tnnrei^ or the jus 
aaas&Mwm, remained for several centuries at Rome 
the exclusive privilege of senators, ma^strotes, 
and equites, while all other persons contmued to 
use iron ones. ( Appian, ds Ab. Pun. 1 04.) Ma- 
sistntes and govemon of provinces seem to have 
had the right of conforring upon mferior officers, or 
such persons as had distinguished themselves, "iJbo 
privilege of wearing a gold ring. Verres thus 
presented his secretary with a gold ring in the 
assembly at Syracuse. (Cic e. Verr, iii. 76, 80, 
ad Fam. x. 32 ; Suet Cast. 39.) During die 
empire the right of gnmting the annulus aureus 
belonged to the emperors, and some of them were 
not very scrupulous in conferring this privilege. 
Augustus gave it to Mena, a freedman, and to 



96 



ANNULU& 



Antoniiu Man, a physician. (Dion Can. zlviiL 
48, liil 30.) In A. d. 23 the emperor TiberinB 
ordained that a gold ring thoold only be worn 
by thoee ingenui whoae fiithen and gnndfiUhen 
had had a property of 400,000 sestertia, and not 
by any freedman w alave. (Plin. H, N, zzziil 8.) 
Bat thia reatriction waa c^ little avail, and the 
ambition for the annoloa auieoa became greater 
than it had ever been before. (Plin. EpiaL vii. 26, 
Yiii 6 ; Suet Gcib. 12. 14 ; Tacit HtMt, L 13 ; 
Snet VUM, 12 ; Stat Sibs. iil 3. 143, &c) The 
emperon SeTerna and Aurdian conferred the right 
of wearing gold ringa npon all Roman soidiera 
(Herodian. iii. 8 ; Vopiac. AurtL 7) ; and Joa- 
tinian at length allowed all the citizena of the em- 
pire, whether ingenoi or libertini, to wear aach 
ringa. 

The atataa of a peraon who had received the jna 
annoli appeara to We differed at different timea. 
Daring the republic and the early part of the em- 
pire the juA annoli aeema to have made a peraon 
ingennna (if he waa a libertui), and to hare raiaed 
him to the rank of equei, provided he had the 
rcquiaite equeatrian cenaoa (Suet GqBk 10, 14 ; 
Tacit Hid. i. IS, iL 57), and it waa probably 
never granted to any one who did not poaaeaa thia 
cenaoa. Thoae who loat their property, or wen 
found goilty of a criminal offence, loat l^e jua an- 
nail (Juv. Sat xi. 42 ; Mart viil 5, iL 57.) 
Afterwarda, eapecially firoro the time of Hadrian, 
the privilege waa beatowed npon a great many 
freedmen, and such penona aa did not poaaeaa the 
equeatrian cenaua, who therefore for thii reoaon 
alone could not have become eqixitea ; nay, the jua 
annuli at thia late period did not even raise a 
freedman to the atation of ingenmia : he only be- 
came, aa it were, a half ingenuua (9aKMs iMgmuua\ 
that ia, he waa entitled to hold a public office, and 
might at any future time be raiaed to the rank of 
equea. (Jul Capitol Maerin. 4.) The Lex Viael- 
lia (Cod. 9. tit 21) punished thoae fireedmen, who 
aued for a public office without having the jua 
annoli aurel In many caaes a libertua might 
through the jua annuli become an equea, if he had 
the requisite cenaua, and the princepa allowed it ; 
but the annulus itaelf no longer included thia 
honour. Thia difference in the character of the 
annulua appeara to be clear alao from the fisict, that 
women received the jua annuli (Dig. 40. tit 10. 
a. 4), and that Alexander Severua, though he 
allowed all hia aoldiera to wear the gold ring, 
yet did not admit any freedmen among the equitea. 
(Lfunprid. AL Seo, 9.) The condition of a libertua 
who had received the jua annuli waa in the main 
aa follows : — Hadrian had laid down the general 
maxim, that he ahould be regarded as an ingenuua, 
aalvo jure patroni, (Dig. 40. tit 10. a. 6.) The 
patronua had also to give hia oonaent to hia freed- 
man accepting the jua annuli, and Commodua took 
the annulus away from thoae who had received it 
without this conaent (Dig. 40. tit 1 0. a. 8.) Henee 
a libertua with the annulua might be tortured, if^ 
e.^. hia patron died an unnatural death, aa in caae 
of auch a libertua dying, hia patron might ancceed 
to his property. The fireedman had thus during 
his lifetime only an imago libertatis, he was a 
quasi ingenuua but had not the atatiu of an in- 
genuua (Cod. 6. tit 8. a. 2 ; Dig. 40. tit 10. a. 5), 
and he died quaai libertua. In the reign of Jua* 
tinian these distinctiona were done away with. 
Isidorua (xix 32) ia probably alluding to the pe- 



ANNULUa 
riod preceding the reign of Jnatinian, when hA 
aaya, that fi^men wore gold, freedmen ailTer, 
and slaves iron rings. 

The practical porpoaea, for which rings, or laLther 
the figuiea engraved upon them, were used «t all 
timea, were the aame aa thoae for which wre iu« 
oar aeala. Beaidea thia, however, persona, ^whcn 
they left their houaea, oaed to aeal up such parts 
aa contained atorea or valuable thinga* in order to 
lecure them from thievea, especially alares. (Plat 
de Ltg. xil p. 954 ; Ariatoph. TVaaMtpA. 414, 
&& ; Plant Ca$, il 1. 1 ; Cic. ad Fmmu xiri. 26, 
de OroL il 61 ; Mart ix. 88.) The ring of a Ro- 
man emperor waa a kind of atate-aeal, and Uie em- 
peror aometimea allowed the nae of it to such 
peraona aa he wiahed to be regarded as hia repre- 
aentadvea. (Dion Caaa. Ixvi 2.) The keeping of 
the imperial aeal-ring waa entruated to an especial 
officer (csns atinmU, Juat HiaL, xliil 5). The 
signs engraved npon rings were veiy variooa, as we 
may judge from the apecimena atill extant : they 
were portraita of anceatora, or frienda, aabjects oon- 
nected with the mythology, or the wonhip of the 
goda ; and in many caaea a peraon had engraved 
upon hia aeal aymbolical alluaiona to the real or 
mythical hiatory of hia fomily. (Cic m QmHL iii. 
5 ; Val Max. lil 5. 1 ; Cic. ds FmOK v. 1 ; Saet. 
TUk BS. GSi Plin. H. N. il 7, &c) Sulla 
thoa wore a ring with a gem, on which Jngnrtha 
waa repreaented at the moment he waa made 
priaoner. (Plin. H, AT. xxxvil 4 ; Plot A/or. 1 0.) 
Pompey oaed a ring on which three trophies 'v^ere 
repreaented (Dion Caaa. xliil 18), and Angustns 
at first aealed with a i|»hinx afkerwaids with a 
portrait of Alexander the Great, and at last with 
hia own portrait, which waa anbaeqaently done bj 
aeveral emperora. (Plin. ff. N. xxxvil 4 ; Suet 
Ji^. 60 ; Dion Caaa. 11 8 ; Spartkn. Ifadr. 26.) 
The principal value of a ring oonaisted in the gem 
framed in it, or rather in the worfcmsnahip of the 
engraver. The atone moat freqnently used -was 
the onyx (trof^wos, cafMwO, on aeeoont of its 
various coloura, of which the artiata made the 
moat akilfril uae. In the art of engraving figuzres 
upon gema, the ancienta in point of beauty and 
execution for anrpaaa every tiling in thia depart- 
ment that modem timea can boaat oL The ring 
itaelf (fr^eyS^ny), in which the gem waa aet, -was 
likewiae in many caaea of beautiful worfcmanahip. 
The part of the ring which contained the gem was 
called pala. In Greece we find that aome persons 
fond of ahow naed to wear hollow rings, the inaide 
of which waa filled up with a leaa valuable snb- 
atanoe. (Artemid. L e.) 

With the increaaing love of luxury and ahow, 
the Romans, aa well aa the Qreeka, covered their 
fingera with ringa. Some peraona alao wore rings 
of immoderate aiae, and others uaed different ringa 
for aummer and winter. (Qninctil xl 8 ; Jut. i. 
28 : Mart xl 59, xiv. 123.) 

Much Bupeistition appeara to have been con- 
nected with ringa in ancient aa well aa in more 
modem timea ; but thia aeema to have been the 
caae in the Eaat and in Greece more than at Rome. 
Some peraona made it a lucrative trade to acll 
ringa, which were believed to poaaeaa magic powers, 
and to preserve thoae who wore them from external 
dangers. Such peraona are Endanraa in Aristo- 
phanes (PluL 883, with the Schol.), and Phertatna 
in Antiphanea (ap. Aiken, iil p. 123). These 
rings were for the moat part worn by the lower 



ANTAE. 

diMa^ ad tha not made of oofdy matend, aa may 
b« ufaxed froa ^ price (one dnduna) in tlie two 
iaiftaeei alwve lefeixed ta There are eerend 
edekntod rnge with magic powen» meotioiied 
bf the aaeieBl writeia, aa that of O jgca which 
k find in a gia%« (Plat de Re^M. li p. 
a5a,&c: Plin. J^. M TTTTii. 4), that of Chari- 
dern {Hdiod. AtUL tr. 8), and the iron ruw of 
EBcstet (iMOUk^PkUopm, 17). Compare Bedceiv 
a«aK ToL ii pL S98, &C. ; Kirehmann, ds ila- 
Htt, Sk^ 1657 ; P. Bazmann, de «/iwv ^an»- 
fara^UIbmjectUM. [L.SL] 

ANNUS [CAi.KNDAJun]c.] 

ANQUISITIO. [Jituxz.] 

ANSATAB HASTA£. [Hasta.] ^ 

ANTAE (vi^pwTdScs), were originaUy poets or 
pi&Bi iaokng a doorway. (Festna, «. «. ^ntat.) 
TIcj wen of a aqvare form, and are, in fiict, to he 
Rfnded father as atnngtliened tenninatkma of 
tk eaOi than ai piOan affixed to them. There 
ii M cktf catt ef the application of the word to 
4etxkd aqnne piDaza, althoogh Nonins ezplaina 
itirf fMd^ee&aMoe (1. § 124). 

The dief aw of ambm waa in that fonn of 
ti^fe, which waa called, firam them, m oa^at (ra^f 
h w^nrrh n\ which VitniTiaa (iii 1. a, 2 § 2, 
S^) daiGrihea aa havii^ in front, antae attached 
t» tie waOa which endooed the oeDa ; and in the 
aiddle, between the antae, two ooiomna aapporting 
t^ar^itiavc. The mina of templea, eoneaponding 
ti die dfaription of Vitrawina, are fonnd in Greece 
mA hm Miaar ; and we here exhibit aa a neci- 
MB a lealoiation of the £ront of the temple of 
Anaii Fnpylaea, at Eleosia, together with a 
pbatfthefronaoa: 




^^A»i 



BfB, tie eeOa, or pa6s. 



Vitranaa ghres the ibUowing mlea for a temple 
« e^ of the Doric order : — The breadth ahoold 
bebdf the length ; fiye-eightha of the length ahould 
^ oeenped )^ the eeOa, indnding ita front walla, 
^ icnaiiung three-eiriitha bj the pixmaoi or 
pwtiee I the oatae ahoold be of the aame thickneaa 



ANTBPIXA. 97 

aa the eolmana ; in the mtereoIoBuiialiena there 
ahould be a maiUe faahistrade, or aome other kind 
of railing, with gatea m it ; if the breadth of the 
portico exoeeda forty feet, there ahoold be anoiber 
pair of eohimna behind thoae between the cnrftM, 
and a little thinner than they ; beaidea other and 
minor detaila. (Vitmr. iy. 4.) 

In the pure Greek architecture, the amtae have 
no other capitala than a aacoeaaion of aimple moold- 
inga, aometimea onmmented with leaves and an- 
besqnca, and no baaea, or reiy aimple onea ; it ia 
only in the later (Roman) atyle, that they have 
capitala and baaea reaembling thoae of the oolumna 
between them. The antae were generally of the 
•ame thidueaa thnaighont ; the only inatanoe of 
their tapering ia in one of the templea of Paeatuni. 

In a Greek priTate hooae the entrance wu 
flanked by a pair of antae with no colunma be- 
tween them ; and the apace thua encloaed wu itaelf 
called wo^currdf. (VitniT. tL 10. a. 7. f 1. 8chn.) 
So alao Euripidea naea the term to denote either 
the pronaoa of a temple (IpL m Tour. 1 126), or 
the veatibole of a palace. (Pkoem. 415.) 

The following are the chief of the other paaaagea 
in which onftia or wapaardits are mentioned : — 
Eoripi Androm. 1 121, where Topuordios itp€/»mffrJL 
aignifiea the aima aoapended from one of the omtas 
of the temple ; Cratin. Dioayi. Fr. 9, <9». PoUme. 
vii. 122, X. 25, Meineke, Fr. Com. Graee. vol. ii 
p. 42 ; Xen. Him-, xi. 2 : Hero, Auiom. ^ 269 ; 
InteripL ap. GnOer. p. 207. See alao Stieglitz, 
ArekiUogie der BaJttmtt^ vol. i pp. 236—242. 
[Tbmplum.] [P. S.] 

ANTEAMBULO'NES, were akrea who were 
accnatomed to go before their maater^ in order to 
make way for them through the crowd. (Suet 
Vetp. 2.) They uaually called oat date loemm 
<2oNtMo MMo ; and if thia were not aofBcient to 
dear the way, they need their handa and elbowa 
for that parpoae. Pliny relatea an amnaing tale of 
an individual who waa ronghly handl^ by a 
Roman Imight, becauae hia akve had preaumed to 
tooch the latter, in order to make way for hia 
maater. (Ep. iii. 14.) The term amtetMmbulome§ 
waa alao given to the clienta, who were accnatomed 
to walk before their patrani when the latter ap- 
peared in public. (Martial, il 18, iii 7, x. 74.) 

ANTECESSO'RES, called alao ANTECUR- 
SO'RES, were horae-aoldieca, who were accnatomed 
to precede an army on the march, in order to chooae 
a auitaUe place for the camp^ and to make the 
neceaaaiy proviaiona for the army. They were not 
merely acouta, like the tpeeulataret, (Hirt BelL 
Afr, 12, who apeaka of yaeafatorea ti omiBoetaortB 
equkn; Snet VikO. 17 ; Caeai B. O. r. 47.) 
Thia name waa alao given to the teachera of the 
Roman law. (Cod. I tit. 17. a. 2. f 9. 11.) 

ANTECOENA [Cobna.] 
ANTEFIX A, terra-cottaa, which exhibited va- 
riooa ornamental deaigna, and were need in archi- 
tecture, to cover the frieze (zo!p4orMf ) or cornice 
of the entablature. (Featna, & v.) Theae term- 
oottaa do not appear to have been uaed among the 
Greeka, but were probably Etrnrian in their origin, 
and were thence taken for the decoration of Roman 
buildings. 

The name ani^Un ia evidently derived from the 
circumatance that they were Jiaed before the 
buildinga which they adorned ; and in many in- 
stancea they have been found foatened to the 
frieae with leaden naila. They were formed in 
H 



98 



ANTEFIXA. 



mooldfl, and then baked by fire ; so that the num- 
ber of them might be increased to any extent 
Of the great Tariety and ezquinte beauty of the 
workmanship, the reader may best form an idea by 
mspecting tne collection of them in the British 
Museum. 

The two imperfect antefiza, here represented, 
are among those found at VeUetri, and described 
by Carbni (Roma, 1785.) 





The first of them must have formed part of the 
upper border of the firieKe, or rather of the cornice. 
It contains a panther^s head, designed to serve as a 
spout for the rain-water to pass through in de- 
scending from the roof. Similar antefixa, but with 
comic masks instead of animals* heads, adorned 
the temple of Isis at Pompeii. The second of the 
above specimens represents two men who have a 
dispute, and who come before the sceptre-bearing 
kings, or judges, to have their cause decided. The 
style of this bas-relief indicates its high antiquity, 
and, at the same time, proves that the Volsci had 
attained to considerable taste in their architecture. 
Their antefixa are remarkable for being painted : 
the ground of that here represented is blue ; the 
hair of the six men is black, or brown ; their flesh 
red ; their garments white, yellow, and red : the 
chairs are white. The two holes may be observed, 
by which this slab was fixed upon the building. 

Cato the Censor complained that the Romans of 
his time began to despise ornaments of this de- 
scription, and to prefer the marble frieaee of 
Athens and Corinth. (Liv. xxxiv. 4.) The rising 
taste which Cato deplored may account for the su- 




ANTIDOSIS. 

perior beauty of the antefixa preserved in the Bri- 
tish Museum, which were discovered at Rome. A 
specimen of them is given at the foot of the pre- 
ceding column It represents Athena snperintoid- 
ing the oonstmction of die ship Argo. The man 
with the hammer and chisel is Argus, who bvdlt tbe 
vessel under her direction. Ths pilot Tiphys is 
assisted by her in attaching the sou to the yard. 
Another specimen of the antefixa is giTen under 
the article Anttz. 

ANTENNA. [Navm.] 

ANTEPAGMENTA, doorposts, the jambs of 
a door. Vitrurius (ir. 6.) gives minute instmc- 
tions respecting the fonn 'and proportions of the 
antepagmenta in the doors of temples ; and these 
are found in general to correspond with the ex- 
amples preserved among the lemams of Oredan 
architecture. (See Hirt, Baukmut muh den Grtmd- 
i'dtzen dm- AUimj xvi.) [Janua.] [J. Y.j 

ANTEPILA'NI. [ExBRcrrus.] 

ANTESIGNA'NI. [Exbrcitub.] 

ANTESTA'RI. fAcTia] 

ANTHESPHO'RIA (Mtf^6pia\ a flower- 
festival, principally celebrated in fi^y, in honoar 
of Demeter and Penephone, in eommoBoration of 
the return of Persephone to her mother in the be- 
ginning of spring. It consbted in nthering flowers 
and twining garlands, becaose Penephone had 
been carried off by Pluto while engaged in this 
occupation. (Pollux, L 87.) Strabo (vL p.256) 
relates that at Hipponium the women celebrated a 
shnilar festival in honour of Demeter, which was 
]»obably called anthesphoria, since it was derived 
firom Sicily. The women themselves gathered tbe 
flowers for the garlands which they wore on the 
occasion, and it would have been a disgrace to buy 
the flowen for that poipose. Anthesphoria were 
also solemnized in honour of other deities, especi- 
ally in honour of Hera, sumamed 'ApdUa^ at Aigos 
(Pans, il 22. § 1), where maidens, carrying baakeu 
filled with flowers, went in procession, whilst a tune 
called UpdKioy was pkyed on the flute. (Comp. 
Etym, Cfud, p. 57.) Aphrodite, too, was wor- 
shipped at Cnossus, under the name ^Ai^ia 
(Hesych. s. v.), and has therefore been oompa^^d 
with Flora, the Roman deity, as the anthesphoria 
have been with the Roman festival of the Phri- 
/ertum, or FUmdia, [L. S.] 

ANTHESTE'RIA- [Dionysia.] 

ANTI'DOSIS (&yr(9o<nf), in iU literal and 
general meaning, '^an exchange,** was, in the 
language of the Attic courts, peculiarly applied to 
proceedings under a law which is said to have ori- 

g'nated with Solon. TDemosth. c Pkamipp, init.) 
y this, a citizen nonunated to perform a leituigia, 
such as a trierarehy or choregia, or to rank among 
the property-tax payers in a class disproportioned 
to his means, was empowered to call upon any 
qualified person not so charged to take the office 
in his stead, or submit <o a complete exchange of 
property — the chaige in question, of course, at- 
taching to the first party, if the exchange were 
finally eflfected. For these proceedings the courts 
were opened at a stated time evccy year by the 
magistrates that had official cognizance of the 
particular subject ; such as the strategi in cases of 
trierarehy and rating to the property-taxes, and 
the arehon in those of choregia ; and to the tri- 
bunal of such an officer, it was the first st» of the 
challenger to summon his opponent (Dem. e. 
I Phaenijjp, p. 1040 ; Meier, Att, Prooest, ^ 471 j 



ANTIOOKEIA. 



ANTIGBAPHE. 



99 



Tim clr hrrSUvm, LynM *Tv^^ 
p. 74S.y It my be pEMnmed 
thift he tka fcnBaSj repcAtod kis piDponl, vad 
t]bM tht other fntj atetcd hit objectioiia^ wiuch, 
if obritniw ■ffirwiit in law, might, pwhapi, 
aaihame ue mvgiatiate to diflnin the case ; if 
otb a w ia ^ the legal xeaistanoe, and ppepantiona 
ht hri^gii^ the canae beibra the dicaata, would 
rnXMEtiSj htffn hoe. In the hOter case, or if the 
rnhimg s vere accepted, the kw dizeeted the 
rhiTJpngfr to repair to the honaes and hmds of his 
aBt^giwJrtjaad aecuie hxmael^aa all the chums and 
liahStiesofthaeBlate were to be txans£eRed, from 
frirwinif f iiiM I Hill II a nil III of the nal pioperty, by 
obaori^g what mortgage phcards (Vm), if any, 
vcvefixftl upon it, and against chmdestine lemointl 
gf the other elfecta, by seiding np the chambeiB that 
cBataiwd them, and, if he pleased, by puttiog 
b«£& B the WBiswn. (bom. & Piaem^ 
ppi IMO, IMl.) His opponent was, at the same 
time, iwiwiwd^ that he was at liber^ to deal in 
like manwr with the estate of the chaDenger, 
a^ leeeived notke to attend the pn^wr tribmial 
(D a fixed day, to take the nsoal eath. The 
eBtries hoe deacnbed seem, in contempfattion of 
lav, to have been « eom^ete efiSBetaation of the 
cacha^CL (Den. e. Mid, p. 540, & Phamupp, 
p 1041. %&\ and if does not appear that primarily 
thoe wBi any Ic^^al necearity frr a further latifi- 
eatimi by the diasts ; but, in practioe, this most 
always have beesi reqniied by the conflict of 
tween the parties The next pro> 
the oath, which was taken by both 
l^and paip ott l ed that they woold fiuthfolly 
V all their pcoperty, except shares held in 
the aSvar saiiieB at Lanrion ; for these wen not 
xaied to leiftBigiae er property-taxes, nor conse- 
yeatfy hnhie to the exdmnge. Inpomaaceof 
this agnenent, the law enjoined that they should 
pirhaiy esnreek afcwmtaef their respectiTe assets 
( A a e fa snM s) within three days ; bat in pnctiee 
the tane B%kt be extended by the consent of the 
^sfio^v. After ihis, if the mstter were still 
B s u si yw a i s f M l , it woald assame the shape and 
Uew the eoerse of an ordinary lawantt [Dica'], 
■der the cendnct of the magistnto with^ whose 
jcrisdictiBBt it had onginaUy eome. The verdict of 
the dieasfts, when adverse to the dmUeaged, seems 
nccsiy to have rendered imperative the first de- 
aaad of his antagonist^ vi& that he should sabmit 
i» the rgrhaiy er imdertake the charge in qncs- 
taa ; and as ue altenmtive was open to the fonncf^ 
sad a ^■■^■■■■■if might be acceded to by the bit- 
t^ at any stage of the proceedings, we aiay iniier 
that the cxelmnge was rarely, if erei^ finally ac- 
Ths iricsomeness, however, ef the se- 
dating which the litigant was pre- 
i the SM of his own property, and die- 
bringing actions fir embenlenient and 
the like against ouers (fiv his prospective reim- 
IwiwiiMiil waa reckoned a part of thie seqnes- 
talad estate, Dem. & Afkob, il pw 841, e. Mid, 
f. 540), woidd invariably cause a speedy, perhaps, 
a most esses, a ftir adjostment of the bordens 
iaddeni to the condition of a wealthy Athenian. 
(BSdch, PM. Bern. <f JAsm, pp. 580—583, 
Siided.) [J.&M.] 

ANTIGONEIA (^brfy^Mia), sacrifices insti- 
tated by Aratns and celebrated at Sicyon with 
MeessioBs, and contests, in honour of 
Dwan, with whom Amtos fi>rmed an 




ths purpose of thwarting the plans of 
(PkuOsos •' ^ ~ ■ - 



alliinfti fiir ths i 

Cleomenes. (PlnuOioak 16, AroL, 45 ;' Polyh. 

xxviil 16, XXX. 20.) [L. a J 

ANTIORAPUE' (arriypet^X oriainany sig- 
nified the writii^ pat in b^ the defendant, in all 
can s e ^ whether paUtc or pnvate, in answer to the 
indictment or faul of the nrosecutor. From this 
signification, it was applied by an ea^ transition 
to the substance as well as tlie form out the reply, 
both of which are also indicated by irrwyioo'k, 
which Bieana, orimarily, the oath conoboiatiqg the 
statement of tne aocoaed. Harpociatinn has re- 
nuuked that OHtigrapk^ might denote, as antomosia 
does in its more extended application, the bill and 
affidavit of either party ; vul this remsrk seems 
to be justified by a passi^je of Plato. {Apoiog, 
Soc p. 27. c) iSfhftmann, however, maintains 
(AU, Prooettf p. 465) that amiMgn^ was only 
used in this stgnification in the case of pctaoos 
who laid daim to an unassigaed inheritance. 
Here, neither the fixst nor amy other claimant 
could appear in the chamcter of a prosecntor ; 
that is, no Siaif or tyicAmia oould be strictly said 
to be directed by one competitor against another, 
when aU came forward volontarilv to the tribunal 
to defend their several titles. This cinumstsnoe 
Schdmann has suggested as a reason why the 
docaments of each Hsimant were denoted by the 
teixn in question. 

Perhaps the word ** plea,* though by no means 
a coincident term, may be allowed to be a tolerably 
proximate rendering of antigraphe. Of pleas there 
can be ooly two kinds, the dilaUay, and thoee to 
ths action. The fiamcr, in Attic law, comprehends 
all such alkgations as, by ssscrtinff the incom- 
petency of the oonrt, the disabilitv of the pUintifi; 
or privilege of the defendant, and the like, would 
have a tendency to show that the cause in ito 
present state could not be brought into court (jtk 
ciffoTufyi/ior cZirau riiw llmiir) ; the huter, every- 
thing that could be adduced by way of denial, ex- 
cuse, justification, aud defence ^neraUy. It must 
be^ at the same time, kept in mmd, that the process 
caUed ** special pleadii^,** was at Athens sapplied 
by the magistrate holdmg the anacriais, at which 
both parties produced their aIl<^tioQs, with the 
evidaDoe to substantiate them ; and that the 
object of this part of the proceeding was, under 
the directions, and with the assistance of the 
magistrate, to prepare and enucleate the question 
for the dicasts. The fbUowing is an instance of 
the simplest form of indictment and plaa: — 
**ApoUodoros, the son of Pasion of Acharoae^ 
against Stephanos, son of Menedes of Achamae, 
for perjury. The penalty rated, a talent Ste- 
phanas bore fidse witness against me, when he 
gave in evidence the matters in the tablets. Ste- 
phanus, son of Menedes of Achamae. I witnessed 
truly, when I gave in evidence the things in the 
tablet"* (Dem.M^to9Mtlpilll5.) The plead- 
ings might be altered during the anacriais ; but 
once consigned to the echinus, they, as well aa 
all the other accompanying documen1ai| were pro- 
tected by the official seid from any dumge by the 
UtignntL On the day of trial,and in the presence 
of the dicasts, the echinus was opened, and the 
plea was then read by the deriL of the court, togo- 
theff with iU antagonist biU. Whether it was 
preserved afterwards as a public record, which we 
know to have been the case wHh reflect to th^ 
ypt^ in some Ciiasea» we are not informed* 
H 2 



too ANTLIA. 

From what has been already stated, it will 
have been observed, that questions requiring a pre- 
vious decision, would frequently arise upon the al- 
legations of the plea ; and that the plea to the ac- 
tion in particular would often contain matter that 
would tend essentially to alter, and, in sonie cases, 
to reverse the relative positions of the parties. In 
the first case, a trial before the dicasts would be 
granted by the magistrate whenever he was loth 
to incur the responsibility of decision ; in the se- 
cond, a cross-action might be instituted, and car- 
ried on separately, though, perhaps, simultaneously 
with the original suit Cases would also some- 
times occur in which the defendant, from oonsider- 
iilg the indictment as an unwarrantable aggres- 
sion, or, perhaps, one best repelled by attack, would 
be tempted to retaliate upon some delinquency of 
his opponent, utterly unconnected with the cause 
in hand, and to diis he would be, in most cases, 
able to resort An instance of each kmd will be 
briefly given, by citing the common paroffraphiy as 
a cause arising upon a dilatory plea ; a cross-action 
for assault (cuicfas) upon a primary action for the 
same (Dem. th Ev, et Mnesib. p. 1153) ; and a 
^KifjuuriOf or ^judicial examination of the life or 
morals ** of an orator upon an impeachment for 
misconduct in an embassy (irapee^p€<ri€ia). (Aesch. 
tn Timarak.) All causes of this secondary nature 
(and there was hardly one of any kind cognisable 
by the Attic courts, that might not occasionally 
rank among them) were, when viewed in their 
relation with the primary action, comprehended 
by the enlarged signification of antigraphiy or, in 
other words, this term, inexpressive of form or 
substance, is indicative of a repellent or retaliative 
quality, that might be incidental to a great variety 
of causes. The distmction, however, that is im- 
plied by (miigraphi^ was not merely verbal and 
unsubstantial ; for we are told, in order to prevent 
frivolous suits on the one hand, and unfidr elusion 
upon the other, the loser in aparagraphij or cross- 
action upon a private suit, was condemned by a 
spccdal law to pay the hrwSfXloy rateable upon the 
^valuation of the main cause, if he &Oed to obtain 
the votes of one-fifth of the jury,' and certain 
court fees (irpvrayud) not briflinally incident to 
the suit That there was a smiilar provision in 
public causes, we may presume fitnn analogy, 
though we have no authority to determine the 
matter. (Meier, i<^^. Prooess, pi 625.) [J.S.M.] 

ANTIGRAPHEIS (iuniypouf>^7s), [Gram- 

MATBU&] 

ANTINOEIA (iun-ty^ia), annual festivals and 
quinquennial games, which the Roman emperor 
Hadrian instituted in honour of his fovourite^ 
Antinous, after he was drowned in the NOe, or, 
according to others, had sacrificed himself for his 
sovereign, in a fit of religious fimaticism. The 
festivals were celebrated in Bithynia, and at Man- 
tineia, in which places he was worshipped as a 
god. (Spartian. Hadricm^ c 14 ; Dion Cass. 
Lrix. 10 ; Pans. viii. 9. § 4.) [L. S.] 

ANTIPHERNA (AKrr^pva). [Dos.] 

ANTIQUA'RII. [Libraril] 

A'NTLIA (jkmXiii)^ any machine for raising 
water ; a pmnp. The annexed figure shows a 
machine which is still used on the river Eissach 
in the Tyrol, the ancient Atagis. As the current 
puts the wheel in motion, the jars on its margin 
are successively immersed and filled with water. 
When they reach the top, the water is aent into 



. ANTLIA- • 

a trough, from' which it is conveyed to a distance, 
and chiefly used for irrigation. 

Lucretius (v. 517) mentions a machine con- 
tmcted on this principle : — ^ Ut fluvios vctssre 
rotas atque haustra videmus.** 




In situations where the water was at rest, a« in 
a pond or a well, or where the current was too 
sbw and feeble to put the machine in motion, it 
was constructed so as to be wrooght by animal 
force, and slaves or criminals were commonly em- 
plojed for the purpose (cIs krrXlwf KoraiuM' 
trOriyu, Artemid. Onmne. i. 50 ; m emUiam eom- 
denmare^ Suet T3>, 51.) Five such machines are 
described by Vitruvius, in addition to thatwhidi has 
been already explained, and which, as he observes, 
was turned nns operaman caloatura^ ipmmjimmmu 
impuUu, These five were, 1. the tympanum ; a 
tread- wheel, wrought homMut ealem Uff m t .- 2. a 
wheel resembling toat in the preceding figure ; but 
having, instead of pots, wooden boxes or backets 
(modioli quadrali\ so arranged as to form steps for 
those who trod the wheel : S. the chain-pump : 
4. the cochlea, or Archimedes* screw : and 5. the 
detSbiea m oo it so, or forcing-pamp. (Vitruv. z. 
4 — ^7; Drieberg; P^teitm, ErfimUuigm der Grieeken, 
p. 44— >60.) 

On the other hand, the antlia with which Mar- 
tial (iz. 19) watered his garden, was probably the 
pole and bucket univernlly employed in Italy, 
Greece, and Egypt The pole is curved, as shown 
in the annexed figure ; beomse it is the stem of a 




— i ..m::^^ - 



APATURIA.' 

ir, or iDBe other tspering tree. The biidLet, lieing 
muaAei to the ti^ of the tree, benda it by its 
we%ht ; and the thJAnfw of the other extremity 
Miiu as ft coontenoise. The great antMiiuty of 
ths aetkod d nomig water it prored by lepre- 
■nrtaliMi of it m ^yptian paintingt. ( WiDuii- 
aoD, Mammn. amd OaL of Ame, Eggjpiy il 1 — I ; 
Ke abo i>£GL d^Embmo^ tqL L p. 257.) [J. Y.] 
ANTOMCySIA iiarrmtuirla). [Anakrisis, 

p. 92; a; PAKAGlULPBt.] 

ANTTX (IbrvC probably allied etymologically 
to ^awCX the rim or border of any thins, espe- 
daBy of aahield,orchaxiot The rim of tM huge 
xvaad ihidd of the ancient Oredu was thinner 
shaa the part which it endoaed. Thos the oma- 
Bntal border of the shield of Achilles, fid>ricated 
by Hephaestna, was only threefold, the shield itself 
beiag serealbld. (/Z. rviiL 479 ; comp. xz. 275.) 
See fiaaipJirs of the am^ of a shield in woodcuts 
to AyranzA, Akm a, Clipbu& 

Ob the odier hand, the antyx of a chariot most 
have been thicker than the body to which it was 
attired, and to which it gave botii fonn and 
ittragtii. For the same r»>ason, it was often made 
daabk, as in the chariot of Hera. (Aoiol 84 ircpi- 
9f»im brvyds cl^c, IL t. 728.) It rose in front 
cf a chariot in a curred fonn, on which the reins 
m^ be fauB^ (JL t. 262, 322.) A simple form 
flf It is exhibited in the annexed woodcat from the 



APATUBIA- 



lei 




-v^ of CarlonL Sometimes antyx is nsed to 
B^:aify the chariot itself. [J. Y.] 

APA'GELI iim^fuot). [A«ELA.] 
APAGCGE (fanarywy^). [Endbixis.] 
APATU'RIA {knr46pui\ was a political festi- 
Tsl, which the AUienians had in common with all 
the Gre^s of the Ionian name (Herod, i. U7X 
-wkk the exception of those of Colophon and 
EphesiH. It was odebrated in the month of 
Ptaaepaian, and lasted for three days. The on- 
gm of this festival is related in the following man- 
aer: — About the year 1100 B.C., the Athenians 
weie carrying on a war against the Boeotians, con- 
eemmg tiie district of Cihwnae, or, according to 
othen, respecting the little town of Oenoe. 
The Boeotian Xanthraa, or Xanthus, challenged 
Thymoctea, king of Auica, to smgle combat ; 
ud when he lefiised, Melanthus, a Messenian 
exile of the honse of the NelidS| oflfered himself 
to fight for Thymoetea, on condition that, if ric- 
tonm, he shookl be the soccessw to Thymoetes. 
The sffer was aeeepted ; and when Xanthius and 
MdanthoB began the engagement, there appeared 
beUnd Xanthias a man in the rpayri^xhe skm of a 
hiaek she-goat. Mehmthos reminded his adyersary 
that hfr was vkdating the;bwi of single combat by 



baring a companion, and while Xanthios looked 
aroond, MeJanthos slew the dteewed Xanthins, 
Fiom that time, the Athenians cdebrated two fes- 
tirala, the Apabiria, and that of Dionysus Melan- 
aegis, who was beliered to hare been the man 
who appeared behind Xanthins. -This is the story 
related by the Scholiast on Aristophanes. (Aekorm, 
146.) This tradition has ^Ten rise to a folse ety- 
mology of the name ^hraroi^pia, which was formeiiy 
considered to be derhrad from &awrar, to dooeiTe. 
All modem critics, howcTer (MOUer, JDorioM, L 
5. 4 ; Wetcker,ilasdlyC TViL pL288),agree that the 
name is composed of «=:■ fya, and a-ar^ia, which is 
perfectly consistent with what Xenophon (/fettos. 
I 7. § 8) says of the fostiral : *Er oTs {iantrwpUts) 
tH Tc warfyts md oi ov>7«yf<s ^^wt ofi^uf 
tdn-M. According to this deriTStion, it is the 
festival at which the phiatriae met, to discuss and 
settle their o«n affidrs. But, as every citisen was 
a member of a phiatria, the festival extended 
over the whole nation, who assembled oooordti^ to 
pkratriae, Wekker {Amkamg x. TViloff. p. 200X 
on account of the prominent part which Dionysus 
takes in the legend respecting the origin of the 
Attic Apatnria, conceives that it arose from the 
drcnmstance that fomilies belonging to the Dio- 
nysiaa tribe of the Aegioores had been registered 
among the citiaens. 

The first day of the festival, which probably fell 
on the elevenUi of the month of Pyanepsion, was 
called Soprio, or S^prcia ( Athen. iv, p. 1 7 1 ; Hesych. 
and Suid. «. o.) ; on which eveiy citisen went in 
the evening to the phiatrium, or to the house of 
some wealthy member of his own phiatria, and 
there enjoyed the supper prepared for him. (Aris- 
toph. AcAaru. 146.) That the cup-bearers {oM^ 
wrai) were not i<Ue on this occasion, may be seen 
from Photius (Lexic s. v. AofnrtaX, 

The second day was called ia^^wu (&m^ 
^^ly) from the sacrifice offered on this day to 
Zeus, somamed *^piost and to Athena, and 
sometimes to Dionysus Melanaegis. This was a 
state sacrifice, m which all citisens took part The 
day was chiefly devoted to the gods, and to it 
must, perh^M, be confined what Harpocmtion (s. 
V. AofjLirds) mentions, firom the Atthis of Istrus, 
that the Athenians at the apaturia used to dress 
splendidly, kindle torches on the altar of Hephae- 
stus^ and sacrifice and sinff in honour of him. 
Proclus on Plato (7\«n. p. 21. &), in opposition to 
all other authorities, calls the first day ol the Apa- 
turia iy^iMTif, and the second Soprio, which is, 
perhaps, nothing more than a slip of his pen. 

On the third day, called icovpcwrir {Kovpos\ 
children bom in that year, in the fomilies of (he 
phratriae, or such as were not yet registered, were 
taken by their fethers, or in their absenee by their 
representatives (ic^yMoi), before the assembled 
members of the phiatria. For every child a 
sheep or goat was sacrificed. The rictim waa 
called ftcibr, and he who sacrificed it fitueytoy6s 
(/icwToryf cr). It is said that the victim was not 
allowed to be below (Harpocratt Suid. Phot t. v. 
Mcfby), or, accordinff to Pollux (iii 52), above, a 
certain weight Whenever any one thought he 
had reason to oppose the reception of the chUd 
into the phiatria, he stated the case, and, at the 
same time, led away the victim firom the altar. 
(Demoeth. c MaoarL p. 1054.) If the menn 
bers of the phiatria found the objections to the 
leoeption of the child to be sufficient, the vio- 
H 3 



ion 



APEX. 



tim was lemoTed ; when no objections were 
laued, the &ther, or he who taDplied hii place, 
was obliged to eetabliah by oath that die child waa 
the oflbpring of fr ee -bo m parenta, and dtizena of 
Athena. ( Isaeni, IM ffaencL dnm. p. 100. fil9 ; 
Demoath. & EtAuL p. 131 5.) After the Tictim 
was ncrifioed, the phnlores gave their Totea, 
which they took from the altar of Jupiter Phia- 
triiu. When the majority Yoted agamat the re- 
ception, the canae might be tried berore one of the 
coorta of Athens ; and if the daima of the child 
were fbond unobjectionable, ita name, aa well as 
that of the father, was entered in the register of 
the phratria, and those who had wished to effect 
the ezelosion of the child were liable to be panished. 
(Demosth. o. Maeart. p. 1078.) Then followed 
the distribution of wine, and of the victim, of 
which eveiy phrator receiTod his share ; and poems 
were recited by the elder hopy aq^ a prise was 
giren to him who acquitted himself the best on the 
occasion. (Pkt TUm. p. 21, &.) On this day, also^ 
illegitimate children on whom the privileges of 
Athenian citiaens were to be bestowed, as well as 
children adopted by citiaens, and newly created 
citizens were introdnoed ; but the last, it appears, 
could only be received into a phratria when they 
nad previously been adopted by a dtisen; and 
their children, when bom by a mother who was 
a citizen, had a le^timate chum to be inscribed in 
the phratria of their grandfiither, on their mother^ 
side. (Platner« Bei^agey y. 168.) In Uter times, 
however, the difficulties of beinff admitted into a 
phratria seem to have been greatly diminished. 

Some writers have added a fourth day to this 
festival, under the name of tvt99a (Hesych. «. v. 
'Airoro^ta : and Simplidus on AriatoL Pky», iv. 
p. 167. a.)i but this is no pardcuUir day of the 
festival, for firi^Sa signifies nothing else but a day 
subsequent to any festival. (See Rhunken, Ad 
Tim, Leac. Plat p. 119.) [L. &] 

APAU'LIA. [Matrimonium.] 

APELEU'THERI(Air€Xe^€poi). [Libertl] 

APERTA NAVI& [NAVxa] 

APEX, a cap worn by the flamines and salii at 
Rome. The essential part of the apex, to which 
alone the name properly belonged, was a pointed 
piece of olive-wood, the base of which was sur- 
rounded with a lock of wool This was worn on 
the top of the head, and was held there either by 
fillets only, or, as was more commonly the case, 
by the aid of a cap, which fitted the head, and 
was also &stened by means of two strings or Innds, 
which were called oficMia (Festns, •. v.\ or of- 
findioet (Festus, t. v.\ though the hitter word is 
also interpreted to mean a kind of button, by 
which the strings were fastened under the chin. 
(Corap. Serv. od Vify, Aen, iL 683, viil 664, z. 
270.) 

The flamines were forbidden by law to go into 
public, or even into the open air without the apex 
(Oell. z. 15), and hence we find the ezpression of 
aUcui apio&M dtalem mponer^ used as equivalent to 
the appointment of a fliunen dialis. (Liv. vL 41.) 
Sulpicins was deprived of the priesthood, only be- 
cause the apez fell from his head whilst he was 
sacrificing. (VaL Max. i. 1. § 4.) 

Dionysios (ii. 70) describes the cap as being of 
a conical form. On ancient monuments we see it 
lound as well as conical. From its various forms, 
as shown on bas-rdieft and on coins of the Roman 
wmperors, who as priests were entitled to wear it^ 



APHRODISIA. 

we havie selected nzlsr the annexed voodeoft. Tbe 
middle figure is from a bas-relief^ diownw caw q£ 
the salii witli a rod in his right han£ The 
Albogalerusjor albas galeroa wnsawhite cap wana 
b^ the flamen dialis, made of the akin of a wliHe 
victim sacrificed to Jufitttf and had the i^ex 
fiutened to it by means of an oliye-tw%. (Featua^ 
«. V. albogahnu: GeU. z. 1&) 




From apez was formed the epithet c^Mocrtec, 
applied to the flamen dialis by Orid {FatL iii. 
197). 

APHLASTON (<«;i«rroir). [Navibl] 

APHORMES DIKE' (A^pMns Skn), was Um 
action brought against a banker or monej-lender 
(rpcnrt ((n^f), to recover fimds advanced for the 
purpose of being employed as bankiqg capital. 
Though such moneys were also styled vopoKiarmBih 
Kouy or depouts, to distmguish them from the pri- 
vate capital of the banker (^Ua iupof^)^ there is 
an essential diffierenoe between the actions ki^op§t^s 
and Tapeucaratf^icns, as the latter implied that the 
defendant had refbsed to return a depont intrusted 
to him, not upon the condition of his paying a 
stated interest for its use, as in the fbmer case, 
but merely that it might be safe in hia keeping 
till the affiiiiB of the plaintiff should enable him to 
resume its possession in security. [Paeaoata- 
thecb'.] The fiormer action was of the daas irp6a 
rufo^ and came under the jurisdiction of the thesmo- 
thetae. The speech of Demosthenes in behalf of 
Phonnio was made in a wc^erypa^ against an 
action of this kind. [J. a M.1 

APHRACTU8. [Navml] 

APHRODI'SIA CA^tVia), festivak eele- 
binted in honour of Aphrodite, in a great number 
of towns in Greece, but particnlariy in tlie ishmd 
of Cyprus. Her most andent temple was at P^»hoa» 
which was built by ASrias or Cinyras, in whoae 
fiunily the priestly dignity was hereditazy. (Tadt. 
HiaL il S, AfmaL ill 62 ; Mazim. Tyr. Sbtm, 83.) 
No bloody sacrifices were allowed to be ofiered to 
her, but only piiro fire, flowers, and incense (Vifg. 
Am, i 116) ; and therefiue, when Tadtos {HiaL 
ii 3) speaks of victims, we must dther snppose, 
with Ernesti, that they were killed merely that Uie 
priest might inspect their mtestine% or for the pur- 
pose of affording a feast to the persons present at 
the festival At all events, however, the iltar of 
the goddess was not allowed to be polluted with 
the blood of the victims, which were mortly he- 
^ts. Mysteries were also celebrated at Pa]dio8 
m honour of Aphrodite ; and those who weie ini- 



APOORAPHB. 

Iale4 flfaed to thcgoddeas a inece of 
iceemd m retnm a wwiwire of mh and a pSaflua 
1b theajfrterieatkauKlvai* they leeeiYvd iitttnie- 
tkoi Ir T§ t4xp9 iimxucp. A Mcond or new 
?vfbm kid hccB tmflty aooordmg to tmditioo, ifter 
ike T^u «i^ by the Axadkn Agapenor ; and, 
■mifiv to Stnbo (sr. jk. 683X men and women 
fiini«Aff towns of the idand aBaemUed at New 
f^phoi, ad went m BDlenm neeauon to Old 
fyMi^afirtaDceof nctystadja; and the name 
d the print of Aphrodite^ iykrw^ (fieB7^<^«>, 
Kem to have ari^iinated in hk heading this pro* 
coBon. Aphrodite was woiahipped in most towns 
rfCypia^ud in other puts A Gneoe^soch as 
Cythn, Sputa, Tbebea, Elis, &c ; and thoogh 
Bi Apfandiaia ace mcBtaonad in these ph^ea, we 
fane no nasan to donht their esistencs ; we find 
tlasi expfody B MirtiiaMrd at Gooanth and Athens, 
vkntlwy wen dielly cdehnited by theniunetoas 
pnedtataa (Athcn. ziii pn. 574, 579, xir. p^ 669.) 
AB0ihv|nst festival of Aphrodite and Adonis to 
Sate ■ aicntiaBed by MnsaeoB. {Htro md 

APLUSTRE. [Nayb.! 
APOCLBTI {kroKKirr^ [AnroLicuM Fob- 
Kmk*27.b.]. 

APODECTAE ( Ase » AcrM Xthe ReceiTen,were 
piVie offieen at Athena, wbo wcae intndnoed by 
CiPirtfwa k the pinee of the ancient cefaMteCae 
(ntaip^nB). Tbey vere ten in number, one fer 
oA tnhs, and their dnty was to receiTO all the 
mimtf toxes and distabnte them to the sqiante 
Inate «f te administzntion, which were enti- 
tled t» than. They aceordingly kept listo of 
ymm iaddited to the state, made entries of all 
■mqri that wcte paid in, and ensed the names of 
tkMlaRfioae ^ liata. They had the power 
t» dedds caases connected with the snbjecto undor 
tkk naaigement ; tfa«ngh if the matters in dis- 
pat woe of imya t mn cat they woe obliged to 
hrbf them fcr deosioai into the ordinsiy eourts. 
(Pi>an,riS. 97; Etyonokig. Ua%. Harpooat. Soid. 
BofdL jLot ; Aristot. PitL vL 8 ; Dem. c Ttmocr, 
|fi75a,7G2 ; Aeadi. €.Ckto. p^ 375 ; BddLh,P«A^ 
&M. fl^illfeas, pu 159, 2nd ed.) 

APOORAPHB' <terypa^>, is literally **a 
lirt,flrmkler;'* btttmthe kt^nage of the Attic 
eavti, the tsma i kMc y ^ww and kmypdi/^wBtu 
ki tkee sepaiato applications : — 1. 'AaoTpo^ 
aai mod k refierence to an aocnmlion in pobttc 
me partacnkriy when then were aereral 
I ; the de n and ati on, the bill of indict- 
natt, sad eanmeiaiifln of the aoooaed, would in 
fin cms be termed tffMynvifte, and difier but litde, 
if «t ail, from the ordinary grapkl. ( Andoc. dt 
i^ 13 ; Amipb. ^ Oororf. 783.) 2.1tim- 
{fod the making of a soiemn pntest or aseerticm 
khR simigiatiafte, to the intent that it might be 
PReored by himi, tffl it was repaired to be given 
iaeriioee. (Dem. m PAmo. 1040.) 3. It was 
• upwififatian of property, aaid to bdong to the 
*bB,bat actaaHy in the posa ea ai en of a private 
pnm ; which specfficaUon was made, with a view 
n te cmiiiscatifln of sach ptopsity to the state. 

The bat ooe mdy reqnins a more extended 
QknB&B. llMn woald be two oocaaions upon 
vkch itwmdd oeonr; fitst, when a penon held 
piUie popaty withoot pwdmse, as an intruder ; 
tod eeeoodly, whm the sobstaaoe of an individual 
' L in oonaefBcnoe of a jodi- 



AP0KERUX1& 



IDS 



cial award, n k the caae of a dedared state 
debtor. If no oppoeitioa wen oAred, the ^po* 
ffnfUJk would attam ito object, ander the can of 
the magistnto to a^ose office it was brongfat ; 
otherwise, a pablk action aioae^ which k ako de- 
iignated by the some title. 
In a caoae of the fint kmd, which k aaid 
aome caies to have ako borne the name wd9ep 
fx«« tA xM^mb'* "•! it^a, ravra afii, the claimant 
against the atate had manly to pnve hk titk to 
the property; and with this are amst ckas the 
e of a penon that impagoad the oftogmpkL, 
whenby the anbstonre of another was, or was pro- 
posed to be, eanfiaeatod, on the graand that he had 
a kan by way of mortgage or other reeogniard 



seoarity imm a portion of it; or that the part m 
qaeation did not m any way belong to the state 
debloc, or permn ao mulcted. Thk kind of oppo- 
aition to the apogmpki, k illustrated in the ap s c c h 
of Demosthenes against Nicostntua, m which we 
lean that AnoDodonis had institated an apogmfkk 
against AreUinsfais, ftr non-payment of a penalty 
ineamd in a Ibnner action. Upoi thia, Nice- 
stntos attacks the description of tlie property, and 
muntaias that three akves wen wroQgly set down 
m it as beknging to Arethaaias, kr they wen m 
fret hk own. 

In the aecond ease, the defenee could of coone 
only pnoeed i^on the alleged illegality of the former 
peimlty ; and of thk we have an matanoe in the 
speedi of Lysiaa» kr the aoidier. Then Polyaenas 
had been i omhaiiiied by the gencnk to pay a fine 
ftr a breach of disdpline ; and, as he did not pay 
it within the appointed tiaae, an apttgrofki to the 
amount of the fine area directed against him, 
which he (nipaaea» on the ground that the fine iras 
iOegaL The oftogrofliJk might be inatituted by an 
Athenian citiaen ; but if there were no private 
pneeeutor, it becmne the doty of the demarchi to 
proceed with it officially. Soeaetimes, however, 
extraordinsiy ooonniwionera, as the <niAAir)ft£r and 
Ci?n?rai, were appMUted for the puipooe. The 
auito institated against the opo^rap*^ bekngod to 
the jurisdiction of the Eleven, and for a whik to 
that of the SyndicL (IIp^ rotiv ewtticmr dao- 
Tpo^^ droTipd^wr, Lycmg. quoted by Haipo- 
cration.) The further conduct of theae csnaes 
would, of course, k a great measure depoid upon 
the ckimant bong, or not beinc, in poaaeaaion 
of the proscribed proper^. In & fiiat case the 
dvo>p(U«r, in the aecond the ckimant, would 
appear in the character of a pkintiff. In a caae 
like that of Kicostratns above cited, the ckinuuit 
would be obliged to de^it a certain aum, which 
he forfeited if he loat h» cause (vcyajearaCaA.^) ; 
in sll, he would probably be obliged to pay the 
costo or court foes (v^vreMia) upon the same con- 
tingency. 

A private citken^ who pnaecuted an indivi- 
dual by means of ianr/pa/^ fivfeited a thauaand 
drachmae^ if he fiuled to obtein the votes of one- 
fifth of th^dkasts, and reimburMd the defendant 
hk piytaaeia upon acquittal. In the former case, 
too, he tiroold pnbably incur a modified atimia, 
ue. a reatrictkn from briaglng such actiona for 
the fiitnre. [J. S. M.] 

APOKERtXiS (&lrMV^')« implies the 
method by Whkh a father eoidd at Athena diaaolve 
the le|^ sonnection between hioDself and ku eon ; 
but as it k not mentioned by any of the oraton 
or the ^der writon, it could nrely have taken 
H 4 



104 



APOPHORA. 



place. Aeoording to the author of the declama- 
tion on the subject (^A90Kfipvrr6furo§), which has 
generally been attributed to Ludan, substantial 
reasons were required to insure the ratification of 
such extraordinary severity. Those suggested in 
the treatise referred to are, deficiency in filial 
attention, riotous living, and profligacy generally. 
A subsequent act of pardon might annul thb 
solemn rejection ; but if it were not so avoided, 
the son was denied by his &ther while alive, and 
disinherited afterwards. It does not, however, 
appear that his privileges as to his tribe or the 
state underwent any alteration. The court of the 
archon must have been that in which causes of 
this kind were brought forward, and the rejection 
would be completed and declared by the voice of 
the herald (dwoietipv^ai). It is probable that an 
adoptive fiither also might resort to this remedy 
against the ingratitude of a son. (Meier, AtL 
Process, p. 432, &c) [J. S. M.] 

APOIiEIPSIS (&r^Xc4is). [Divobtium.] 
APOLLINA'RES LUDI. [Ludl] 
APOLLO'NIA CAvoAAniria) is the name of a 
propitiatory festival solemnixed at Sicyon, in honour 
of Apollo and Artemis, of which Pausanias (ii 7. 
§ 7) gives the following account : — Apollo and 
Artemis, after the destruction of the Python, had 
wished to be purified at Sicyon (Asg^Ma) ; but 
being driven away by a phantom (whence in after* 
times a certain spot in the town was called ^€os\ 
they proceeded to Carmanos in Crete. Upon this 
the inhabitants of Sicyon were attacked by a pesti- 
lence, and the seers ordered them to appease the 
deities. Seven boys and the same number of girls 
were ordered to go to the river Sythas, and bathe 
in its waters ; then to carry the statues of the two 
deities into the temple of Peitho, and fimm thence 
back to that of Apollo. Similar rites, says Pausa- 
nias, still continue to be observed ; for at the fes- 
tival of Apollo, the boys go to the river Sythas, 
and carry the two deities into the temple of Peitho, 
and thence back to that of Apolla 

Although festivals under the name of Apollonia, 
in honour of ApoUo, are mentioned in no other 
place, still it is not improbable that they existed un- 
der the same name in other towns of Greece. [ L. S.] 
APOPEMPSIS (iar6w9fja\ns). [Divortium.] 
APOPHANSIS, or APOPHASIS (Airrf^or- 
ffis or Av^^curts), was the proclamation of the de- 
cision which the majority of the judges came to at 
the end of a trial, and was thus also used to signify 
the day on which the trial took place. (D^ e. 
Euerget, p. 1 1 63 ; Lex Rhetor, p. 210.) The woid 
was also employed to indicate the account of a 
pcrson^s property, which was obliged to be given 
when an aniidosis was demanded. [Antidosis.] 
APOTHORA (Aro^oyxi), which properlymeans 
** produce or profit ** of any kind, was used at 
Athens to signify the profit which accrued to mas- 
ters firom their slaves. It thus signified the sum 
which slaves paid to their masters when they la- 
boured on their own account, and the sum which 
masters received when they let out their slaves on 
hire either for the mines or any other kind of 
labour, and also the money which was paid by the 
state for the use of the shivet who served in the 
fleet (Dem. c Aphob. i. p. 819, e. Nioottr, p. 
1253 ; Andoc. DeMyster, p. 19 ; Xen. Rep, Atk, 
i. 11 ; B()ckh, PM, Boom. o/AtUns, p. 72, 2nd ed.) 
The term <yM^akora was alio applied to the money 
which was paid by the allied itatet to Sparta, for 



'wliicl 



APOSTOLEia 

the purpose of oanying on the i 
Persians. When Athens acquned the i 
these moneys were called ^fwc (£ 
p. 396.) 

APOPHORETA (&m^^pirr»), 
were given to friends at the end d an entertain- 
ment, to take home with them. Theae preMenti 
were usually given on festival days, eapecisdly 
during the Saturnalia. Martial gtvet the title oi 
ApofSortta to the fourteenth book of his Epigrama, 
which oontams a number of eptgraras on the tfaingi 
usually given away as t^fopkonia, (SoeL V^ap* 
19 ; CU. 66 ; Ottm, 76.) 

APOPHRADES HEMERAI (awo^prfScs 
4/U^), unludcy or unfortunate days (^&n mfiuHy^ 
on which no public business, nor any important 
affiurs of any kind, were transacted at Atbena. 
Such were the hut three days but one of eweij^ 
month, and the twenty-fifth day of tlie moodh 
Thaigelion, on which the Plynteiia weie cele* 
brated. (.fii^ni. Mag, p. 131 ; Pint AleSb. S4 ; 
Lucian, Pmidotog. 13.; SchOmann, De Cmmiins, 
^50.) . 

APORRHETA (&ira^a), Htenlfy <* things 
forbidden,^ has two peculiar, but widely diflferenC, 
acceptations in the Attic dialect In one of theae 
it implies contraband goods, an enomeration ol 
which at the different periods of Athenian hiatorT-, 
is given by Bdckh (PttbL Eoom, cf AAtms^ p. 53, 
2nd ed.) ; in the other, it denotes certain oontn- 
melious epithets, fixmi the application of which 
both the living and the dead were protected by 
special laws. (Meier, AU. Proosm, pu 482.) 
Among these, h^^ii^wos^ wvcrpaXoUu^ and fufrpa- 
Xofot are certainly to be reckoned ; aiid other 
words, as ^(^^oovii, though not forbidden monti' 
naiim bv the law, seem to have been equally 
actionable. The penalty for using theae words 
was a fine of 600 drachmae (Isoc m LodL p. 396), 
recoverable in an action for abusive language 
(Kcucnyofflas), It is surmised that this fine was in- 
curred by Meidias in two actions on the occasion 
mentioned by Demosthenes (w Mid. ppi 640, 643 ; 
see also Hudtwalcker,Z>0 DiaeUL pil60). [J.S.M.] 

APOSTA'SIOU DIKE' (iancratriov Micif). 
This is the only private suit which came, as for as 
we know, under the exclusive jurisdiction of the 
polemarch. (Aristot De Atk, H^, quoted by 
Harpociat) It could be brought against none 
but a freedman (&ire\c^poi), and the only pro- 
secutor permitted to appear was the citixen to 
whom he had been indebted for his liberty, unless 
this privilege was transmitted to the sons of each 
former master. The tenor of the accusation was, 
that there had been a defiuilt in duty to the pro- 
secutor ; but what attentions might be daimed 
from the freedman, we ake not informed. It is 
said, however, that the greatest delict of this kind 
was the selection of a patron (vfNNrr^tnis) othei 
than the former master. If convicted, the defend- 
ant was publicly sold ; but if acquitted, the nn- 
prosperous connection ceased fiir ever, and the 
freedman was at liberty to select any dtiaen for 
his patron. The patron oould also summarily 
punish the above-mentioned delinquencies of hit 
treedman by private incaroeiation without any 
legal award. (PetitZ>9.^«ie. p.261.) [J.S.M.J 

APOSTOLEIS {iatwnoKMis\ ten public officea 
at Athens, whose duty it was to see that the ships 
wero properly equipiied and provided by those 
wh<( were bound to diachaige the trienichjb 



iJ'OTHEOSl& 

ing the toBonhm who neg^tocted to fiuniah the 
ikips pnpcriy (Den. ^re Cbr. p. 262) ; and they 
ooQititited a board, in coBJanctiaii with the in- 
ipedon of the docks (of tmt p trnfi m^ hn/tifk^rmt)^ 
far tfte pnneation of aD mtten lektiiig to the 
efdpBCBtofthei^pa. (Denke. Aen^. p.1147 ; 
Uaa, AIL Pmem, p. 112 ; BSckh, PM. Eooiu 

APOTHE'CA (Jbo04Kv),a pheemthenpper 
|irt of the hoBK, hi which the RooBain fre^neBtly 
flaced the eaithen amphome in which their wlnea 



APOTHEOSIS. 
aUanee of 



1«5 



This placeit which was qnite 
diSefCBft'lnB the ceOs waai'w, was aboTO the 
fiamitm: mat it was thought that the passage 
if & OMke thraogh the edobb tended greatly to 
iaaease the flavoar of the wioCL (Golam. i 6. 
§ 90; Hoe. Oarm, iii. & 11, Sot ii 5. 7, and 
Hdotef ^ notab) The podtion of the apotheca 
cx{dBSi the eipweaisp in Uonee (CbrM. iiL 21. 
IXlUmmiuiutBi, (Camp. BedcoV ^oAia^ ▼ol- "• 
I.1ML) 

APOTHEO'SIS (ftntf^Mns), the ennfanent of 
1 witil anong the gods. The niTthoIo^ of 
Otetee ooateina avmerous imtancfa of the deifica- 
lioi flf Bsrtsb ; hot in Uie lepuUican times of 
Gneee ve find lew examples of soeh deifieataott. 
XIk mhahitBDili of Amphipolis, howerei^ offered 
•ci^ieei to Bneidas after his death (Thnc. y. 
11) ; sad the people of Egeste boilt an Unmm to 
PhS^pai, sad also offexed sacrifiees to him on ac- 
cHBt sf Us pefssnal beanty. (Herod, t. 47.) In 
tbe QttA kngdoma, which anse in the East on 
& itiManibgiBnut of the empiie of AleiandfT, it 
doeaMtsBpesrtofaave been anoommon for the soe- 
cemr t» tM dinne to ha;Te ofloed divine hononis 
to die faner soreRign. Such an apotheosis of 
Pioleqr, hug of Egypt, k described by Theo- 
(ntu in his 17th IdyL (See Gsaauboa's note on 

The tena apotheoaia, among the Remans, pio- 
pcrij rignffied the dev^ion of a deceased emperar 
to divBie honoai*. Thia pnctiee, which wss com- 
Bon ipiB the death of almost all the emperars, 
{ from theopinioo, which was 



with festiral and reUgioas obsenrances, is Tisible 
thiooghont the city. The body of the dead they 
honoor after hnmaa ftshion, with a qdendid 
fanersl ; and making a waxen ionge in all respects 
resembling him, they expose it to view in the 
▼estibnle of the palace, on a lof^ iTflcy coach of 
||reat siae, s|cead with doth of gold. The figum 
u made pallid, like a side man. Doriiw most ef 
the day senaton ait ronnd the bed on the left side, 
dothed in bkck ; and noUe women on the ri^t, 
dothed in plain white gsimenta, like monmeia, 
wearing no gold or neduaceSb These eeremoniea 
eontinne for seren days ; and the physicians seTe> 
rally approach the conch, and looking on the sick 



gnoiOy cDtotained among the Remans, that the 
iMb or muHs of their aneeston became deities ; 
nd ai it was *^«""«<" far children to wonhip the 
naBM «f dieir fiitiben, so it wm natoral fior divine 
humB to be pabBdy paid to a deceased emperor, 
vb aas rqpuded as the parent of his coontry. 
niispotheosis of an emperor was usually called 
emmaHo; and the emp e ror who received the 
^onosr of an apotheoois, wm said w lieoram ««- 
wnoi r^eni^ or eomaeerari. In the eaiiiest times 
KoBibi is mid to lusre been admitted to divme 
bwnt ander the name of Qnizinns (Pint Bom, 
27,28 ;Liv. 116; Cic. (&A^.iL 10) ; bat none 
«f tfae other Reman kings appears to have received 
^ boBOBi^ and in the repaUican times we also 
nd of BO instance of an apotheosis. Jolios Caesar 
vaa deified after his deatli^ and games were insti- 
t«cd to his honoor by Augostus (Soet. JnL Com. 
tt) ; sad ^ ezanple thus set vras foDowed in 
^ose of the other em p e r or s . 

The cermnnies obsoved on the occasion of 
<B qwtheoM have been minntely described by 
Ben^B (iv. 2) in the fioiDowiDg passage : — 
'It is the castora of the Romans to deify those 
^ tbeir cmperon whft die, leaving soeeesson ; 
9>A lUi.nie thqr call lyotheoris. On this 



man, my that he grows worm and worm. And 
when th^ have made believe that he is dead, the 
noUeat of the equestrian and chosen yonthe of the 
senatorial orden take ap the eonch, and bear it 
ahmg the Via Sacra, and expow it in the dd 
fbfnm. Platfeims like steps are built upon mA 
nde ; on one of which stsnds a chorus of noble 
youths, and on the opposite, a choma of women of 
high rank; who sing hymns and soqgs of praise 
to the dffwned, modnkted in a selenm and mour» 
fnl sdaiiL Aftcnvards they bear the couch 
through the dty to the Campos llartinB, m the 
broadest part of which a squan pile is constructed 
entirely df logi of timber of the hugest siae, in the 
shape of a chamber, filled with ii^8otS| and on the 
outside adorned with hangings mterwoven with 
gdd and ivory images and pictures. Upon this, a 
similar but smaller chamber is buih, with open 
doom and windows, and above it, a third and 
fourth, still dimhiisbiiy to the top, m that one 
miffht compare it to the light-houses which are 
called Phari In the i^cond stoiy they place a 
bed, and collect all sorts of avomatics and mcense, 
and every ton of fragrant fruit or heib or juice ; 
lor all dties, and nations, and peisons of eminence 
emulate each other in contributing these last gifts 
in honour of the emperor. And when a vmt heap 
of aromatics b collected, there is a procession of 
horsemen and of chariots around the pile, with the 
drivers dothed in robes of ~ 



Id wearing 

masks made to resemble the most distiDgnished 
Roman generals and emperors. When all this is 
done, the others set fire to it on every side, which 
easily catches hold of the fiiggots and aromatics ; 
and from the highest and smallest story, as from 
a pinimrlf, an eag^e b let loose to mount into the 
sky as the fire ascends, which is bdieved by the 
Romans to cany the soul of the emperor from 
earth to heaven ; and from that time ne is wor- 
shipped with the other gods.** 

In oonfinmity with Siis account, it is common 
to see on medals struck in honour of an apotheosis 
an altar vrith fire on it, and an eagle, the bird of 
Jupiter, taking flight into the air. The number of 
medals of this dsMnption is very numerous. We 
can from them medab alone trace the names of 
sixty individuals, who received the honours of an 
apotiieosis, firom the time of Julius Caesar to that 
of Constantino the Great On most of them the 
word CoNSBCRATio oceon, and on some Greek 
cons the word A«I£PXK;iX The following wood- 
cut b token from an agate, which b sup p o sed to 
represent the i^otheosb of Germanicus. (Mont- 
foncon. Ami. Eiqd, SuppL vd. v. p. 1S7.) In hb 
left hand he holds the cornucopia, and Victory b 
placing a lanrd crown upon him. . 



APPELLATIO. 




A YflTj nmOar re p mcn t it tion to the abore is 
found OD the triumpW arch of TitoB, on which 
Titui ia represented as being carried op to the 
skies on an eagle. There is a beantiful reptesen* 
tation of the apotheosis of Angostos on an onjx- 
stone in the Tcjtl mnseom of Paris. 

Many other monuments haTO come down to as, 
which represent an apotheosis. Of these the most 
celebrated is the bas-relief in the Townlej gallery 
In the British Mnseom, which represents the 
apotheosis of Homer. It is clearij of Roman work- 
manship, and is supposed to have been exeented in 
the time of the Emperor Chmdins. 

The wires, and other female reUuions of the 
emperors, sometimes receiyed the honour of an 
apotheosis. This was the case with Livia Angnsta, 
with Poppaea the wife of Nero, and with Faustina 
the wife of Antoninus. (Suet CUnuL 11 ; Dion 
Cass. zL 5 ; Tac. Ann, xvi. 21 ; Capitolin. Anton, 
PkiloB. 26.) 

APPARITO'RES, the general name for the 
public sorrants of the magistrates at Rome, namely, 
the AocBNsi, CARmPEX, Coactorbs, Inter- 

PRBTBS,LiCT0RB8,Pr AB0ONB8, SCRIBAX, StATOR, 

Strator, ViATORBfl, of whom an account is ^ren 
in separate articles. They were called mantores 
because they were at hand to execute tne com- 
mands of the magistmtes {quod iU apparebami M 
prae$to erant ad olmeqmum^ Serr. Ad Virg, Am, xii. 
850; Cic. pro CUient. 63; Liv. 18). Their 
ierrioe or attendance was called apparUw, (Cic 
ad Pom, xiiL 54, ad Q^, Pr, \. \. % 4.) The 
lerrants of the military tribunes were also called 
apparitores. We read that the Emperor Severus 
forbade the military tribunes to retain the appari- 
tores, whom they were accustomed to haTo. 
(Lamprid. Sm^r, 52.) 

Under the emperors, the apparitores were di- 
vided into numerous classes, and enjoyed peculiar 
pririleges, of which an account is given in Just 
Cod.12. tit53— 50. 

APPELLA'TIO. 1. Grbbk (^>c<rif, or Ara- 
ZiKla), Owing to the constitution of the Athenian 
tribunals, each of which was generally appropriated 
to its particular sub^ts of oognisance, and therefore 
could not be considered as homogeneous with cr 
subordinate to any other, there was little oppor- 
tunity for bringing appeals properly so called. It 
is to be observed also, that in general a cause was 
finally and irrevocably decided by the verdict of 
the dicasts (Sdciy o^rorcA^s). There were, how- 
ever, some exceptions, in which appeals and new 
tri^s might be resorted to. 

A new trial to annul the previous award might 



APPELLATia 
be obtained, if the loser could prove that it was 
not owing to his negligence that judgment had 
gone by default, or that the dicasts had been de- 
ceived by false witnesses. And upon the expul- 
sion of the thirty tyrants, a spedal law aanuhed 
all the judgments that had been girea dnriog 
the usurpation. (Dem. e. Timocr. pi 718.) The 
neculior title of the above-mentioned ouues was 
ordSiicot S^oi, which was also applied to all causes 
of which the subject-matter was by any means 
again submitted to the decision of a oonrt 

An appeal from a vwdict of the heliasta was 
allowed cnly when one of the parties was a dtisen 
of a foreign state, between which and Athens 
an agreement existed as to the method of 
settling disputes between individuals of the re- 
spective countries (Bfirac &r^ o ^ yrf^ ^ w r ). If ndi 
a foreigner lost his cause at Athena, he was per- 
mitted to appeal to the proper court in another 
state, which {imtXirros vdXit) B«dch, Sch&naim, 
and Hudtwalcker suppose to have been the native 
country of the litigant Pfaitner, on the other 
hand, arguing from the intention of the regulation, 
via. to protect both parties from the pnrSality of 
each other'fe feUow-citisens, contends that some 
disinterested state would probably be a^ecfted for 
this purpose. The technical words employed vpoa 
this occasion are ^mcoXciir, lioraXcMac, and ^ 
IkicXirrof, the Uist used as a substantive, mobably 
by the later writers only, for l^o-ts. (Harpocr. 
Hudtw. D9 Diad, p. 125.) This as well as the 
other cases of appeal are noticed by Pollax (viiL 
82, 63) in the foUowii^ words: — *"l£^«ris m 
when one tnuisfers a cause from the arbitrators 
(Suunrroi), or aichons, or men of the township 
{^UliAroA) to the dicasts, or from the senate to the 
assembly of the people, or from the assembly to a 
court (SiiraoT^pcor), or from the dicasts to a foreign 
tribunal ; and thecause was then tenned i^de'i/un. 
Those suits were also called ImtXirrw Kaw. The 
deposit staked in appeals, which we now call 
wapa€6\u»^ is by Aristotle styled 'n^oKorJ^ 
The appeals from the diaetetae are generally men- 
tioned by Dem. c Apkob. p. 882 ; c BoeoL de 
Date, pp. 1013, 1017, 1024; and Hudtwalcker 
supposes that they were allowable ia all cases 
except when the fiii o6ffa iUcti was resorted to. 

[DlKB.] 

It is not easy to determine upon what occaaions 
an appeal from the archons could be preferred ; for 
afWr the time of Solon their power of deciding 
causes had degenerated into the mere presidency of 
a court (iry^fUfwia 8uc«OTiyp(ov), and the conduct 
of the previous examination of canses {Mmptcts}, 
It has been also remarked (Platner, Proe, wmd 
Klag, vol I p. 243), that upon the plamtiff^ suit 
being rejected in this previous examination as 
unfit to be brought before a court, he would most 
probably proceed against the archon in the a«sem« 
bly of the people for denial of justice, or would 
wait till the expiration of his year of office, and 
attack him when he came to render the account of 
his conduct in the magistracy (vvtf^voi). (Antiph. 
De Ckormt p. 788.) An appeal, however, from the 
archons, as well as from all other effieers, was very 
possible when they imposed a fine of their own 
authority and without the sanction of a court ; and 
it might also take place when the king ardion had 
by his sole voice made an award of dues and privi* 
leges (7^) contested by two priesthoods or si 
dotal races. {Lm. Rkeimam^ pp. 219, ifl.) 



APPBLLATia 
The ipMlftoB ike demolM would ocenr, wlien 
a poaoK lutberto lUmiiiMt one of their membeiii 



bed bMn dadarad hf tbemtobean 
■o guMJii ci lwn If the appeal woe Bwde, tiM 
dcMae appeared by their adToeate aa plaiiitiil^ 
•ad the naah vaa t^ l ee titut iflnef thefranchiie, 
cr Aa i ee lk w ai d tha alanty of the delondaiit 

It wiB hma bcea obeemd, that in the three 
leit cHBBi the appeal waa nade from few or eingle 
•r locd ja4get to tlia heKaeti, who wen eon- 
lidaed thereptceeBtatrreiof the people or eooatiy. 
With nmet to the pRMaedm^noDew doenments 
iMBi to mm been added to the eontenti of the 
eddnas ^on an appeal ; bat the aiirriiiit woold 
be Mained a M aU v to an eiamination, as fer ae 
aas BeenHTf, of tliaae d^mi i nfu i a which had been 
akmdf pot in by the HtigaBti. 

Then ie aone obaenri^ reepeetiag the twt> next 
Uaie eC appeal that an noticed bj PoUnz. It ie 
o^eetved by SchdMuin {AU. /VooeM, p. 771) 
thtt the appeal fiom tho aenale to the people lefen 
ti cMee wUeh the loraaer were for variooa reaeons 

£flMliaed to deddo, and by Plataer (roL L pi427X 
dnt it oceoned wlnn the aflnate waa aocoaed^ 
WfVf eaeeedfld ita poweni 

Upon the appeal frooB the aawmbly to eooit, there 
■ ahea diflaemj eofqgimoB between the two hat- 



{AtL 
^ PL 77 1) that the worda of PoUoz are to be 
iffKed la a volontaxy lefiefence of a caoae by the 
mmUtf to the dicaata, and Plataer aoggeating 
tknaUeeaae of one tlint ineoired a naejadicinm 
flf ihe aawmbly againat turn (vpeCeX^ mn-oxacfo- 
tarfa) aDaig npon a oanrt (pusmrripmr) to gife 
kn tha appmlimiij of findimting hiBBadf fion a 
c^9B that hia antagenirt dedined to follow ap. 
raMrainaappaaaathe caae of a magiatEate aom- 
aarily I tp ee u d by the a a aa m bly, and demanding 
topmeUiBaoceneebelbretheheliaata [J^M.] 
1 BoKAK Tbe word appbllatk^ and the 
I verb ly ya ff a w ^ an need in the eariy 
rnten to axpru aa the a|:plicadon of an 
to a naipatiate» and particakriy to 



J ar threatened to be inflicted. It 
I froai jnveoaaljb, which in the eariy 
I to aignify an afpeal to the popolna 
It would aeem that the 
lyata tia waa an" ancient li^t of the BeoMn 
^■■k Tbe aani t ing Haaatraa, who maidered 
■■* lirta^ appraled fem the dnamviri to the 
I'phai (Lrr. i 26.) The deceaiTiri took away 
^ ^nvoatla; but it waa reatored by a lex con- 
mi ^ pnifocataone, and it waa at the aame 
^ aaacted that in foton no laagiatnte ahoold 
y* aaia fma whoaa there ahenld be no appeaL 
0« tkii Uvy Cu. 65) nmaika, that the plebea 
y »aw pntocted by the provoeatio aai the 
^^^■iaaa eaaiBaaa/ tlua latter tenn haa nferenoe 
to the Mllatio praperly ao called (iiL 13. M). 
^ipw (Ut. iii. 66) applied (m»tUmmO to the 
^^n«» and when thia pndaeadno effioct, and 
"* ^ anarted by a Tiator, he i^pealed (prow>- 
"^ (Seen {De OraL il 48) i^paan to aUade 
"fta m c mb Uehnant of the novocatio^ which ia 
•«»i«ud kj Utj (iiL 66). The complete phiaae 
*• itha 



"^fhnae which espieaaea the appeiiatio, la 
i Tz"^ ttd m the bter writen ^ipeUanad. 
IS!? ^^ * penon midkt ^pptOan from one 
^toaaathcrofeq[a«iank|aad,Qfooazae, 



APPELLATIO. 107 

from aa infericr to a anpeiior magiatnte ; and from 
one tribune to another. 

The appeala which haTO here been referred to^ 
wen limited to criminal matters In ctvil aoita there 
waa not, and could not be any appeal under the re- 
public, for the purpoae of reriaing and altering a 
dedaion, for each magiatmte had power to decide 
finally within the limito of hia juriadiction : and aa 
a general rale, the aentcnco of a jadez could not 
be rofened 1^ the magiatnte who appointed the 

Sdez. The only mode in which a penon could 
ive relief in anch caaea, waa by the interceaaio 
of a anperior magiatnte, or the appeUatio of the 
tribmm which would be in the nature of a atay of 
execution. The In mUtgnm laifcYaftu alao eziated 
under the repuUib 

When the anpreme power beoama reated in the 
emperan, the tenna proYocado and appeUatio loat 
their original aigtiification. Thua GMUna (ir. 14) 
baa uaed pronoeatio for amllatio. In the Digeat 
(4d. tit 1. De AppeikaioiAM) pnmwatio and ap- 
peUatio are uaed indiacriminately, to ezpreea what 
we caU an appeal in dril matten : but uoTocatio 
aeema ao &r to have retained ita original meaning 
aa to be the only teim need for an appeal in 
criminal matten. The emperor centred m him* 
aelf both the power of the p^ailaa and the Toto of 
the tribnnea ; but the a|ipnl to him waa properiy 
in the laat reaort Anguatna (Sueton. Octaviaumt^ 
33) eatabliahed a ayatem of regular appeala from 
lit^ant paitiea at Rome to the Praetor Urbanu^ 
aa in the proyineea to the goramork Nero (Sueton, 
Aero, 17) enacted that, all appeala from prinati 
{TmA'LAmaL ziv. 28)jiMUdwahould be to theaenate. 
AppeUatio among the later Roman jnriata, then, n^ 
n^ea an application for redren from the dedaion 
of an infenor to a anperior, on the gnnmd of wrong 
dedaion, or other anffident groim£ According to 
Ulpian (1% 49. tit. IX >ppe<d> wen common 
among the Romana, ^ on account of the ii^uatioe 
cr ignoraaoe of thoae who had to dedde (/M<fi- 
oonte), though aometimea an appeal alten a pro- 
per deciaion, aa it ia not a neceaaaiy conaeqoenoe 
that he who giTea the laat givea alao the beat deca- 
non.** Thia ramaric muat be taken in connection 
with the Roman ayatem of procedure, by which 
aucb matten wen refened to a judex for hia ded* 
aion, after the pleadiaga had brought the matter 
in diipate to an iaaue. From the emperor himaelf 
there waa, of ooune, no appeal ; and by a conatitn- 
tion of Hadrian, there waa no appeal from the 
aenate to the emperor. The emperor, in appoint- 
ing a judex, miff ht exdude aU appeal and make 
the dedaion of the judex finaL M. Aurelina by a 
reacript (Diff. 4d. tit 1. a 1, 21) directed aa i^ 
peal from the judgment of a judex to the magia- 
trate who had appointed the judex. The appeal, 
or UUBm» appeUiorkUf ahowed who waa the ap- 
peUant, againat whom the appeal waa, and what 
waa the judgment appealed m>nL 

AppeUatio alao meena to anmmon a party before 
a judex, or to call upon him to peifeim aomething 
that he haa undertaken to do. {Ck,AdAtt,lB^ 
The debtor who waa anmmooed (appdlatut) by 
hia creditor, and obeyed the anmmona, waa aaid 
nyoiwfere. 

The ^ratem of appeOationea aa eatabliahed under 
the empire waa of veiy extenuve application, and 
waa not limited to matten of crimmal and dril 
procedure, A penon might appeal in matten that 
related to the fiacua^ to penaltiea and finea, and 



108 AQUAEDUCTUS. 

to civil blBoet and bnideni. Tbii ■dbfed it fbllj 
treated by HoUweg, H<mdbmch de$ CimiproM$m$y 
p. 850. [O.L.] 

APPLICATIO'NIS JUS. [Exbiliwm.] 

APROSTA'SIOU ORAPHE' (tepcNrroirlotf 
TpcM^), an acCioD frUing under the jnrisdictioB of 
the polemarch, which was brought againtt thooe 
metoeki, or resident aliens, who had neglected to 
provide thenuelyei with a patron (vpoordrifs). 
This action is stated to have been also braoght 
against those metoeki, who exerdsed the rights of 
fidi citiiens, or did not pay the /irroUior, a tax 
of twelve drachmae exacted from resident aliens ; 
bnt Meier has remarked that this action was only 
applicable in such cases, provided that the metoeki 
had no patron. (Harpocrat ; Zonar. ; Sold, and 
the other grammarians; Meier, AU, Proeus^ 
pu 315, &c) 

APSIS or ABSIS (&«^fs), in its Uteial meaning 
from &rr«, is a fastening of any kind ; for example, 
the meshes of a net (Hom. /I t. 487.) It vras ap- 
plied specially to the joining together the extremities 
of a piece of wood, so as to give it the shape of a 
bow ; and hence it came to signify anything of 
that shape, sach as a bow, an axth, or a wheeL 
(Hes. Qp. 424 ; Herod. It. 72.) A potter'fe wheel 
is described, in the Anthology, as k^kXos &^i8os. 
The next transition of meaning is to anything 
vaulted (for example, i^ AirovpoyUi ia^ts, eA« wxmH 
of iMoea, Pkt Phaedr. p. 247, b.) ; and in this 
sense it was adopted in architectore, first, for any 
building or portion of a building of a circular form, 
or vaulted (Plin. E^oitL il 17. § 18), and more 
especially for the drcohtf and vaulted end of a 
Basilica. (Paul NoL JE^. 12 ; Au^in, Ep, 203 ; 
laid. Orig. xv. 8.) For other applications of it, all 
with the general meaning of a vault or curve, see 
Forcellinl [P. S.] 

AQUAEDUCTUS (Mpa7<«#y(a), literally, a 
watezHionduit, would, of course, properly describe 
any channel for the passiige of water ; but the 
w<nrd is used especially for the magnificent struc- 
tures by means of which Rome and other cities 
of the Roman empira were supplied with water, 
and which may be described in general terms as a 
channel, constructed as nearly as possible with a 
regular declivity from the source whence the 
water was derived to the place where it was de- 
livered, carried through hills by means of tunnels, 
and over valleys upon a substructian of solid 
masonry or arches. 

The aqueduct is mentioned by Strabo as among 
the structures which were neglected by the Greeks, 
and first brought into use by the Romans (v. 
p. 235). It wiQ presently be seen that this state- 
ment requires some slight modification ; but, if 
understood of the grand structures we haye refened 
to, it is true enough that the Cheeks (before the 
Roman conquest) had none such, and for the 
obvious reason, tJiat they had no need of them. 
There is no occasion to discuss the possibility or 
impossibility of constructing aqueducts without 
arches, which is the reason alleged by some 
writers for their not being used by the Greeks ; 
there is reason enough in the physical geography 
of the country. Springs (icp^nu, Kfwwol) were 
sufficiently abundant to supply the great cities 
with water ; and great attention vras paid to the 
pre s erv a tion and iSomment of them ; they were 
converted into public fountains by the formation of 
*» head for their watets, and the erection of an 



AQUAEDUCTUa 

onammtai superstiuctoro ; and wer6 dedicated to 
some god or hero. Pansanias (x. 4. § I) ooosidas 
no place to deserve the name of ob^« which has 
not snch a fimntain. We are indebted to the 
same auUior and other Greek writers for acoooots 
of some of the most celebrated fonmtama ; soeh as 
that of Thea^es, at Megan (Pans. L 40. § 1) ; 
those of Peirene and Lona at Corinth, where 
there wen many other fiNmtaina, aa well as li 
Roman aqueduct erected by Hadrian (it 3. §§2, 
3, 5 ; 4. § 5) ; that in the grave of Aeacolapius at 
Epidamvs (ii 17. § 5) ; and several others (iv. 31, 
32, 34, viL 5, 21, viii 13), of which we need 
only mention the EmuttkromM at Athena, which 
was constmcted by Peisistratus and his aesia, and 
of which Thocydides records the inteieating fint, 
marking the transition finm the natoral springs to 
the artificial ibantain, and showing the importance 
attached even to the former, that **• it was called 
CaIlirho({ formerly, vokm tke tgmagt soerv vUStk 
((paiftptkf Twr wifyair oAoifir, Thne. ii 15 ; Pans. L 
14 § 1) : to this enumeration might be added the 
springs of salt-water in certain temples ; as in 
those of Erechthens at Athens, and of Poseidon 
Hippios at Mantineia. (Pans, i 26. § 5, viiL 10. 

In these cases we have no reason to s uypu s e that 
there was any thing more than a fountain over or 
dose to the springs, fbnning a head fisr the vrater 
derived, either immediately, or by very short 
channels, (torn them. But we are not without 
examples of constructions more nearly approaching 
the Roman aqneducts in kind, though not in 
doree. That the Greeks, at a Tery eariy period, 
had some powers of hydrazHc engUM^n^g m snomi 
by the drainage tmmels of the lake Copeu, and 
tb« snnihr works of Phaeax at Agrigentum 
[EMI88AUVM] ; and we have an mstance of a 
channel for water being carried throogk a moun- 
tain, to supply the city of Samoa. The height of 
the mountain was 150 dguiae (900 Greek feet) ; 
the length of the tunnel was seven stadia (7-8ths 
of a RoHDian mile, or about 1420 yards) ; its section 
was a square of eight Greek feet The actual 
channel for the water was cut below this, and was, 
if the text is right, thirty Greek feet deqn, and 
three wide ; the water passed through pipes {9ik 
irmKfymtf) from a copious spring, and waa thiis 
brought to the city. (Herod, iii. 60.) MuIIer 
conjectures that the work was one of those executed 
by Polycntes (ArehBoL d, Kumtt^ § 81). 

The chief regulations among the Gredu respect- 
ing fountains and springs, whether in town or 
country, vrere the following: — Water might be 
fetched from the public fountains or wells to a 
distance of four stadia ; beyond this, persons must 
dig their own wells ; but if any one dug to a 
depth of ten or^moB (or, according to Plato, M^x^ 
Tfis MptifttZos yris) vrithout finding vrater, he was 
permitted to take from his neighbour^ well a 
pitcher of six ekoet twice a day (PlutSof. 23.; 
Plat Leff, vilL p. 844, a,b). 

The Romans were in a very difierent position, 
with respect to the supply of water, firam most of 
the Greek cities. They, at first, had recourse to 
the Tiber, and to wells sunk in the city ; but 
the vrater obtained from those sources was very 
unwholesome, and must soon have nroved insuf- 
ficient, from the growth of the popiuation, to say 
nothing of the supplies afterwards required for the 
naumac ki ae and public bathSb It was this neees- 



AQUAEDUCrUS. 

mtj HbA led to die in^oition «hf liqiiedneta, in 
ads to bring pate water from a ooniiderable 
dBtuee, fim the hills, in ftct, which nuroimd the 
CamgaffUL. The date of the fizBt aqoedaet ib as- 
i^gied bj Frantiiiiia to the year A.U.C. 441, or 
B.C 313 {Dt Aqmaed. UrL Rom. 4, pu 14, ed. 
Mb) ; nd the immlMff of aqoedncts wat gia- 
dnOj B M wnw i d , parti j at the ^ablic expense, and 
pHtlj by the ■nnifioeiioe of inuridoaliytO], in the 
oae of ProoBpiiiBy thej amoanted to fourteen ; 
•ai, even bcfixe they were all eieeted, they might 
well eicite the adnuradoo which Pliny exnresees 
witfc mpeet to the Clandiaii aqnedact, in tne fol- 
kwii^ |Mii«e (^. iV: xzzrt Ifi. 8. 24) : — '^ But 
if ID J ane inll earelially calenlatff the quantity of 
the pohUe nipply of water, for baths, reaerroirs, 
hpoiei, tfCDches (ear^'), gaidenii, aiid sabnibaa 
Tflhi ; ad, akng the distnee wluch it tiavems, 
the anches bvih, the mountains pedbiated, the 
nOeyi levelled ; he will eooleis that there never 
wiBythingnoie wandarfhl in the whole world.** 
fiot why did the Rmnans waste ao much 
mmj and labonr on works, the porpoee of which 
■igbt bave been effected mnch more edentifically 
bj the nimie plan of lining pipes along the 
graaad? Ot eoarBe,it b eaay to giro the nnthink- 
bf aaswer, that th^ were ignorant of the laws of 
hjdnMaiics, and did not know that water finds 
iti tva level I It is tnily marv^ons that inch 
a sbmd notion should erer haye been enter- 
taiaed, and yet it is the conmion ezpbnation of 
the iaet of their hoilding aqoedneta instead of 
Uyiqg down water-pipes. If it were at all neoes- 
eeavy to prove that a nation, so fiir advanced in 
cmlintiea as the Bomani, or indeed that sny in- 
4ividiial airived at yean of diioretion, had die- 
nvned that water finds its own krel, the proof 
Bight be iopplied from panagea in Latin anthoTi ~ 
frm the whole ai 



«(the 



amii^ements for the distribution 
of the aqnednct^ and from the 



-^ 


' ^^ 


i 




-J 







«»«.Thei 

^A The bann, made of Uodu of travertine. 



^ VitfBvina not oahr ezpnesly states the law 
(<^<l,ii5),batdescnbes one fonn of theaqne- 
te ia vhkh it was pnusticaUy applied (yiiL 7. 
^^m wiD be aeen below. Pliny alao^ in de- 
^iUoi^pMHige of water through pipes, states 
whvkdMse very distinet teims : — *" SnUt 
isni." (H.iV;rExl«.i.l>l.) 



AQUAEDUCTUa 109 

very ezifttenee of their muneronsfoimtains; asad&- 
cisire ocular demonstration, we hsTe given above a 
iection of one of the many fountaine atill existing 
at PompeiL Another reason aasigned for the 
oonstmction of aqueducts by the Romans is their 
want of the materials, and the mannfiictnring skHl, 
to make pipes of a sufficient size ; combined, on 
the other hand, with the love of magnificence and 
the ostentatious disregard of expense, by which 
the aichitectoial woks of the empire are cha* 
racteriaed. Some weight should doubtless be as- 
signed to these considerations, although, in &ct, 
the Romans made use of pipes as well as aqueducts : - 
but the great point is, that it has been too hastily 
assumed that tne aqueduct it an unscientific mode 
of conveying water to a large dty from distant 
sources ; or that it is pecuUar to the andents. 
London itself is chiefly supplied by an aqueduct, 
for such is the New River in pdndple, idthongh 
the coontry through which it flows is such as not 
to require arches and tunnels like those of the 
Roman aqueducts ; and the remaric would apply to 
several other sreat dties. The whole matter is a 
question of the balance of advantages. On the 
one hand there is the expense of the aqueduct : 
on the other, the enormous pipes which would be 
required for the conveyance of an equal quantity 
of water, their liability to get obstructed, and to 
yield at the joints, the loss by finction, especially 
in the bends, and the unequal pressure of the 
water. In fiiet, the most recent feat of engineer- 
ing science in this department b exactly a return 
to the Roman aqueduct, which has been preferred 
to any other plan for conveying water in large 
quantities a considerable distance, over great in- 
equalities of flroond: we refer to the aqueduct, 
begun in 1837 and finished in 1842, by which 
the vrater of the river Croton is conveyed a dis> 
tance of forty miles, for the supply of New York, 
and which is thus described: — ''An srtificial 
channel, built with square stones, supported on 
solid masonry, is earned over valleys, throngh 
rivers, under hills, on arehes and banks, or through 
tunnels and bridges, over these fiirty miles. Not 
a pipe, but a sort of oondensed rivei^ arched over 
to keep it pure and safe, is made to flow at the 
rate of a mile and a half an hour towards New 
York.** A more exact description of an ancient 
Roman aqueduct could not easily be given. (See 
IlbutratUm* of Ike CroUm Aqutdndj by F. B. 
Tower, 1843.) 

The detailed description of the anangements of 
the aqueduct vrill be better understood, afbr an 
enumeration of the principal aqueducts by which 
water was conyeyed to Rome across the Cam- 

They were fourteen in number ; and only four 
of them bdong to the time of the republic, while 
five were built in Uie reigns of Augustus and 
daudiua Our knowledge of the subject is de- 
rived almost entirely from the treatise De Aquae* 
duet&u$ UHn* Bomae, 1^ S. Julius Frontinns, who 
vras euraior aguarmm (keeper of the aqueducts) 
under Nerva and Tnjan. It should be observed 
that the Aquaeductut is often called simply Aqua. 

1. The Aqiia Afpia vras begun by the censor 
Appius CSaudius Caecns (to whom also Rome was 
indebted for hsf first great road), in B.C. 318. Its 
sources vrere near the Via Pramettinay between 
the seventh and eighth milestones, and iU ter- 
minalkn was at thefa<iiia«» iy As Porto 7Vv«"Mfia; 



no AQUAEDUCTUa. 

Ite length was 11,190 poMtus, for 11^130 of which 
It was earned under the eorth, and for the remaining 
60 pasMSj withm the city, from the Porta Capena 
to Uie Pwta Trigemma, it was on arches. The 
distribution of its water began from the CUmu 
JhAHoM. (Frontin. 6 ; LiT. bu 29 ; Diod. xx. 36 ; 
Aur. Vict. Vir. IBumL 34, who con£oimds it with 
the Awuk) No traces of it remain. 

2. The Anio Vetut was commenced fbrtj years 
later, & c. 273, by the censor M. Curios Dentatus, 
and was finished by M. Fulvins Flaccas. The ex- 
pense was defrayed out of the spoils taken from 
Pynhus. The water was derived from the river 
Anio, above Tibur, at a distance of twenty Roman 
miles from the city ; but, on acoouit of its wind- 
inn, its actoal length was forty-three miles, of 
which length less than a quarter of a mile only 
(namely, 221 paatat) was above the ground. 
There are considerable remains of this aquednet on 
the Anrelian waU, near the Porta Maggion, and 
also in the neighbourhood of Tivoli It was built 
of blocks of peperino stone, and the water-course 
was lined with a thick ooating of cement (Front. 6; 
Aur. Vict Vir, JIL 43.) 

8. The Aqua Mania^ one of the most important 
of the whole^ was built by the praetor Q. Marcius 
Rax^ by command of the senate, in B.C. 144. 
The want of a more plentifrJ supply of water bad 
been long felt, especially as that furnished by the 
Auio Vetm was of such bad quality as to be al- 
most unfit for drinking ; and, in ikc. 179, the 
censors, M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Flaccus 
Nobilior, had proposed the erection of a new 
aqueduct ; but the scheme had been defeated, in 
consequence of Lidnius Crsssus reftising to let it 
be carried through his lands. (Liv. xl. 51.) The 
two existing aqueducts had also fidlen into decay 
by neglect, and had been much injured by private 
penons drawiiw off the water at different parts of 
their councb The senate therefore commissioned 
the praetor Mardus to repair the old aqueducts, 
and to build a third, which was named after him. 
Some writers have pretended that the original 
oonstruetion of this aqueduct is to be ascribed to 
Anous Msreius, alleging a passage of Plin^ {H.N, 
xxxL 3. s. 24), and a medal of the Maieian gens, 
femily Philippus, which bears on the obverse a 
head with the legend Ancvs, and on the reverse 
a representation of an aqueduct, with the letters 
Aqvaia between the arches, supporting an 
equestrian statue with the legend Puillzpfys: 
but those who know any thing of the history of 
Roman fiunily records will understand that this 
medal bean no evidence to the point in question, 
and is simply a perpetuation of two of the greatest 
distinctions of the Marda gmt, their alleged de- 
scent from Ancus, and the aqueduct which bore 
their name ; and Pliny^ opinion is simply one of 
his ludicrous blunders, arising probably from his 
confounding Marcius Rex with the king Anous 
Karcius. (Eckhel, Z)oo^. ATwn. Vet vol v. p. 248.) 




This aqueduct commenced at the side of the 
Fia FoMo, thirty-six mfles firom Rome; its 



AQUAEDUCrrUS. 

length was 61,7101faMiis, of which only 7463 
were above ground ; namely, 528 on solid sab- 
structions, and 6935 on arches. It was high 
enough to supply water to the summit of the 
Capitoline Mount It was repaired by Agrippa 
in his aedileship, ac. 33 (see below. No. 5.), and 
the volume of iu water was increased by Au- 
gustus, by means of the water of a spring 800 
passtu from it: the short aqueduct which eon- 
veyed this water was called the Aqua An^uata^ 
but is never enumerated as a distinct aqueduct 
Pliny states that the water of the Aqwa Marda 
was the coldest and most wholesome cf sJl which 
was brought to Rome ; and Vitravius mid other 
writers r^er to the excellence of the water aa being 
proverbiaL Several arches of the Aqua Marda 
axe still standing. (Frontin. 12 ; Plin. if. A^. xxxi. 
3. s. 24, who differs from Frontinus in some of the 
details ; Strab. v. p. 240 ; Vitmv. viiL 3. $ I ; 
Dion Cass. xlix. 42 ; Plut CorioL 1 ; Propert. iiu 
22, 24 ; Martial vi. 42. 16 ; Stat SUic. L 5, 
25.) 

4. The Aqua Tqmla^ which was built by the 
censors Cn. Servilins Caepio and L. Cassias Lon- 
ginus in & a 127, began at a spot in the Lucullan 
or Tuscolan land, two miles to the right of the 
tenth milestone on the ViaLaHaa. It was afiter- 
wards connected with 

5. The Aqua Julia, Am<»g the splendid public 
works executed by Agrippa in his aadileahip, 
B. a 33, was the formation of a new aqnedact,aiMi 
the restoration of all the old ones. From a source 
two miles to the right of the twelfUi milestone of 
the Via LaHua, he constructed his aquednet (the 
Aqua JuUa) first to the Aqua T^pula^ m which 
it was merged as for as the reservoir (jMtema) 
on the Via Latma, seven miles from Rome. 
From this reservoir the water was carried along 
two distinct channels, on the same substructions 
(which were probably the original substructions 
of the Aqua Tepuia^ newly restored), the lower 
channel being called the Aqua Tepda^ and the 
upper the Aqua JuUa ; and this double aqueduct 
agam was united with the Aoua Mardoy over the 
watercourse of which the other two were carried. 
The monument erected at the junction of these 
three aqueducts, is still to be seen dose to the 
Porta S. Lorenzo, It bears an inscription referring 
to the repairs under CaracaUa. (See the woodcut 
below, p. 112.) The whole course of the Aqua 
JuUa^ firom its source, amounted to 15,426 jmzssms, 
partly on massive substructions, and partly on 
arches. (Frontin. 8, 9, 19.) 

6. The Aqua Virgo was built by Agrippa, to 
supply his baths. From a source in a marshy 
spot by the eighth milestone on the Via Ck/taHma, 
it was conducted by a very circuitous route, chiefly 
under the ground, to the M. PittduSy whence it 
was carried on arches to the Cbmpsc Martius. lu 
length was 14,105 pamu, of which 12,865 were 
underground ; in its subtenanean course it re- 
ceived the water of numerous sprim ; and its 
water was as highly esteemed for bathing as that 
of the ^9iia Afyroia was for drinking. It is ons 
of the two aqueducts on the left bank of the Tiber, 
which are still in use, though on amnch-dimimshed 
scale. (See below.) The oriffin of its name is 
variously explained. (Frontin. 10 ; Dion CSsss. liv. 
11 ; Plin. ff, N, xxxl 3. s.25 s Casmod. For. 
vii. 6 ; Ovid, TritL iii 12. 22 ; Martial v. 20. 9, 
VL 42. 18, xi. 47. 6.) 



AQUAEDUCTITS. 

7. Vm Jfw jUmimm (MnetiniM cdkd dM 
ifM^M^MfeX an Ike etker side qf the Tiber, 
ns uMHlimliiil hf Avgiutni from the Laem 
lUOmm (£^9 A* Jlf«»«9WBM>), wUch ky 6500 
fMvttlheqght of the femteoith mfleikioe on the 
Fm (3MAa, te the part of the i!!9i» TVoMtf&rMa 
bd0v t]» .faniffat. Its length vae 212,173 
poH^of vhidi enlj- 358 nece oo aicfaee ; end 
ia e«er mi » had that it eoeld only have been 
iaMaded fa the w^f^ of Avgnelnsli JVoaaMMUe, 
udfirealaJByganlaiiL Ite nata i ui r wae 1800 
hctldi^ by 1200 vide, (f^tin. 11.) 

8, 9. The t«o meet magnifioeBt aqvedneti wete 

^Afft^OamiSa and the Amo Noon (or Aipa 

Mifoa iVbea), both cewmffieed by Gafigola in 

1. 1. 3C, and finiehed by €bHidios in ▲. d. 50. 

Tie viter of theil^aa CftmdM vae derived from two 

oopiMB and esodknt ifinBge, called Cbamfae and 

IMm, near the thir^-eigfath mileatone on the Via 

%iMmmm^ and it vaa afte r war da inoeaaed by a 

1^ ^nng) ^fiodoiiM. Ita water waa reckoned 

i^kat after the ilfaraa. Ita length waa 46,406 

fuat (aearty 46| mileB), of which 0567 were on 

ackiL (K a alia greater lei^ waa the Amo 

jVosy which began at the fbrty-aecond mileatone, 

on the FisMfaMaaM, and reeeived in addition, at 

^ tluity-cighth mikaloiie, oppooite the aoureea of 

tk J^ OaadM, a atream called the Hkm* H§t- 

whifi. It waa the kngeat and the higheat of 

ifltfaeaqnedactB, ita length being neariy 59 milea 

{3S,7(IO Tamm\ and aone of ito arehea 100 

feet high. Intiie neigfabonihood of the dty theae 

twa aqaedncta were united, fanning two ehannela 

« tba warn anhea, the Chmdia below and the 

Am tkmm abeve. An inteveating raonmnent 

oBoeded with theae aqaedncta, ia the gate now 

cifled Pmto Maggior^y' which waa originally a 

mgiifieait daable arch, by meana of which the 

■fttdact waa earned over the Via Lciikama and 

the fis Aiwaerfuai. The Pvrta Labieam waa 

UadKd ^ hy Henerina ; but the arch haa been 

htdjdeazedeflaabarbaieaaconatnictiona. Orer 

thi 4oaUe wtA. are three inaeriptiena, which le- 

w4 the aanea of Cfamdiaa aa the boiMer, and of 

Vofana and TItna aa the reatoren of the aqne- 

lect (See tiie woodcnt below.) By the aide 

rf tiiii arch the aqnednet paaaea along the wall of 

Andim fcr aome diataaice, and then it ia con- 

taned opea die iifwa AaronmN or ChMttmMtoei, 

«^ woe added by Nero to the ojgxnal atroe- 

teR, and which terminated at the temple of 

(Uia^whidi waa alao boiH by Nero, on the 

(^Am, where the water waa probably eonreyed 

« a earfeAaa idieadT bnilt frr the Aqm JwUa^ 

lad far abiaadi of the A^wa Mardoy which had 

Wa at aome previooa time eontinned to the 

OKfoi : the nunommt caDed the Arch of Dola- 

1^ is nnbaUy a lemnaat of thia common ene^ 

^ (Becker, Hamdh. d. BSm. AUtrA. toL l 

B^4I>-«0S.) 

Tkeie aioe aqoedncto were all that exiated m 
^ tine of Kranturaa, who thoa qieaka of them 
co'UTely, in tenna which can hardly be thought 
o>BwtBd:~.«Ibe 



oKiMrfia mi/kma edebruia cpem 
Itka heea cakakted that theae nine aqoedoda 
^■nidMi Rone with a aopply of water equal to 
t^ enied dawn by a mer thirty leet broad by 
n ^ lloarmg at the rate of thirty mcfaea a 
>«»i Thoe wM alao nother aqoednct, not 



AQUAEDUCTUa 111 

reckoned with the niae^ hecanaa ita watm w«a 
no longer broaght all the way to Bome : 

10. Thia waa the Aqua Owivw, which had ita 
aonree near that of the JwHof and which waa ori- 
ginally canied right through the Cirena Mazimw i 
bot the water waa ao bad, that Agrippa wonld not 
bring it into thtJuKa^ bat ahndoned it to the 
people of the Tnacohm hmd ; hence it waa caUed 
Aqua 2>ammaia. At a hitar period, nait of ita 
water waa broaght into thoilfaa Jmlia. (FronthLO.) 
Conaiderable tzacea of it remain. 

There are atili Ibor aqaedveta of bter eoft- 
atmctum to be added to the liat. 

11. The Aqua TVvffma waa broogbt by Tn^ 
from the Laem SabaHmu (now Bfmeeiamo\ to 
aapply the Jamieuhu and the Rigio TVaattiUrma, 
Ita conatruction b recorded on eoina of gold, ailTer, 
and bronse, of the yean 111 and 112 a. d. 
(Eckhel, Doetr. Num. V0L ri. pn. 425, 428^ 
Trajan alao reatored and improTod tne other aqae- 
dncta, eapectally the jlatbiVbmtf. (FroDtin.92,03.) 

12. The Aqua Alemaadrima waa oonatrocted by 
Alexander SeTenu ; ita aomce waa in the landa of 
Tuacalom, about fourteen milea from Rome, be- 
tween Gabii and the Lake Reffillnai Ita amall 
height ahowa that it waa intended for the hatha of 
ScTenia, which were in one of the vaUeya of Rome. 
(Lamprid. AUa, Sm>. 25 ; Fafaretti, Diaa. L § 25.) 

13. The Aqua S^iHrnkma^ built by Septimiua 
Severua, waa, perhapa, only a branch of the Aqua 
JuUOf fonned by the emperor to bring water to hia 
^tha. (Fabretti,Z)u».iiL§285.) 

14. The Aqua AlgmOia had ita aoarce at M. 
AlgUm by the Via TWeaJoao, 9000 pa§m§ from 
R«ne, according to Fabretti ; bat mere prabaUy 
15,000. Ita builder ia unknown. 

These aeem to faaTo been the fourteen aqoeduda, 
which were atill preaerred in uae at Rome in the 
time of Procopiua {CMh, L 19) ; but there ia a 
doubt respecting aome of the laat fire. Thua the 
EpHogua to the Natitia mentiona the daMMo, the 
SeeerMao, and the Auiomta^ and makea the whole 
number nineteen ; while Aureliua Victor enu- 
menitea twenty. The account of Prooopiua aeema 
the moat exact, and the exceaa in the other atato* 
menta may be exphuned from the enumeiatian of 
the amall acceaaoiy bnmchea of the chief aqueducta : 
for the Aqua Jovia of Bonaen there ia no auffident 
authority. (BeckexvHaMi6.cl.iRMi.uliSefKA.ToLi 
p. 707.) 

Great paina were taken by aueoeaaiTe emperora 
to preaerre and repair the aqueducta. From the 
Qothic ware downwarda, they hare for the moat 
part ahared the fote of the other great Roman 
worka of architecture ; their aitnation and purpoae 
rendering them peculiariy expoaed to injuiy in 
war ; bat atill thmr remaina fonn the moat atriking 
foatnoea of the Campagna, over which their linea 
of mined arehea, dothed with iry and the wild 
fig-tree^ radiate in nuioua directiona. Three ol 
them atill aerre for their ancient utfa ; and theae 
three akae, acoonixng to Toamon, aupply the 
modem city with a quantity of water muoi greater 
than that which ia fomiahed to Paria by the Canal 
de lK)areq, for a population aiz timea aa laige. 
They are : — (1.) The Acqua VergioMj the ancient. 
Aqua VtrffOy which waa reatored by Pope Piua IV. 
and further embelliahed by Benedict XIV. and 
Clement XIIL The chief portion of ita waten 
guah out through the beant^ Fonkma di Trwi^ 
but it «^ snppliea twelre other pubUo fonntuna^' 



112 AtJUAEDUCTUS. 

and the greater part of the lower city. (2.) The 
Aoqua Feliet^ named after the oonyentnal name of 
its restorer Sixtns V. (Fra Felice) is, probably, a 
part of the ancient Aqua CUmdiOj though some 
take it for the AleaBondrma, It supplies twenty- 
seven public fountains, and the eastern part of the 
city. (3.) The Aoqua PacloL, the ancient AUieiina, 
supplies the JVanMietvere and the Vatican, and 
feeds, among others, the splendid fountains before 
St Peter*s. Of the rains' of the other aqueducts 
the most extensive, within Rome, are those of the 
Arcui Neromam^ and of the Aqua Orahra ; the 
most interestinff are the Porta Maggiore^ with the 
two channels of the Aqua Claudia and Aido Novus, 
and the remains of the triple aqueduct of Agrippa 
by the Porta S, Lorenzo. The following woodcut 
(after Hirt) represents restored sections of them, 
preserving their relative proportions : — 




Fig. 1. — Section of the Porta Magghre at 
Rome : a. the Aqua Claudia ; 6. the Anio Noma ; 
e, openings to give vent to the air. 

Fig. 2. — Section of the triple aqueduct of 
Agrippa: a. the Aqua Marda; k the Aqua 
Tepda; e, the Aqua JuUa, The two latter are 
of brick and vaulted over. The air-vents are also 
shown. 

The magnificence displayed by the Romans in 
their pubkc works of this dass, was by no means 
confined to the capital ; for aqueducts more or less 
stupendous were constructed by them in various 
ana even very remote parts of the empire, — at 
Athens, Corinth, Catuia, Salona, Nicomedia, 
Ephesus, Smyrna, Alexandria in the Troad, Syra- 
cuse, Mets, Clermont in Auveigne, Nimes (the 
Pont du Oard), Lyon, Evora, Merida, and Se^via. 
Those at Ephetnr and Alexandria were built by 



AQUAEDUCTUS.* 

Hadrian and Herodes Atticns, and that at AiheoM 
was commenced by Hadrian and finished by Anto- 
ninus Pius, who also buflt those at Corinth and 
Nicomedia. That at Evora, which was built by 
Quintus Sertorius, is still in good preserrRtioii ; 
and at its termination in the city Ims a Teiy ele- 
gant eatteOmm in two stories, the lower <me of 
which has Ionic columns. Merida in Spsun, the 
Augusta Emerita of the Romans, who established 
a odony there in the time of Augustus, haa among 
its other antiquities the repiains of two aqnedncta, 
of one of which thirty-seven piers are standing, 
with three tiers of arches ; while of the other 
there are only two which form part of the original 
constructions, the rest being modem. Bat that oi 
Segovia, for which some Spanish writers have 
clfumed an antiquity anterior to the sway of the 
Romans in Spain, is one of the most perfect and 
magnificent works of the kind anywhoe remain- 
ing. It ii entirely of stone, and of great solidity, 
the piers beinff eight feet wide sind eleren in 
depth ; and, where it traverses a part of the city, 
the height is upwards of a hundred feet, and it has 
two tien of arches, the lowermost of which are 
exceedingly lofty. 

We proceed to describe in detail the construc- 
tion and arrangements of Roman aqueducta. There 
are three matters to be considered: the soonce 
from which the water was derived ; the aqueduct 
itself by which it was conveyed ; and the reser- 
voir in which it was received, and firam which it 
was distributed for use. 

(1.) The Souroet, — It is unnecessary to follow 
Vitruvius into the minute rules whidi he lays 
down for the discoveiry of springs, where they 
were not naturally visible, and for testing the 
quality of the water : it is enough to refer to his 
statements as showing the importance attached to 
these points. (Vitruv. viil 1.) It was also neces- 
sary that the springs should have such an eleva- 
tion, as that, after allowing for the fidl necessaiy 
to give the channel its proper inclination, the water 
should enter the final reservoir at a sufficient 
height to permit of its distribution for public and 
private use ; for there were no engines used, as in 
modem waterworks, to raise the water to a higher 
elevation than that at which it was required. 
When the source bad been fixed upon, whether it 
was an open spring (Jbn»\ or one got at by sink- 
ing a well ( jw^saw), a head was dug for the water, 
and indos^ with a wall ; and, if necessary, the 
supply was increased by digging channels from 
neighbouring springs : the rales for these (^>era- 
tions also are minutely laid down by Vitruvius 
(viiL7.i.6.§§12— 15). 

(2.) 7%sCSbaMM2,or^9Malifc<«Cs0j^*— In order 
to convey the water from its source to its destina- 
tion, a channel was constructed, having a sli^t, 
and, as nearly as possible, a uniform declivity. 
An elaborate description of the means adopted to 
secure this object is quite needless for readers of 
the present day, as they were almost precisely 

* Though the word a^MMcfsctes is applied gene- 
rally to the whole stractore, vet in its special and 
proper meaning it seems only to have signified 
that part of tlu work in whicu the water-coannel 
was carried over a valley, on arches or on solid 
substructions : a channd on the surfece of the 
ground was properiy called ricm; and onebeneuth 
the surfiioe, rirss mAkrramauy or amkmluM, . 



AQUAEDUCTUSL 
saihr tD tbow vith which we are fimuliar m our 
aflvmj*: hiQs wore pierced through by tunnels, 
Kid TaflcTi croHed either by solid saltttnictions 
or arches of mMODiy, according to the height re- 
%«ied ; and of these arches tfere were often two 
tiers, and aaiaetiines eren three. The channel 
itself iapeema^ amA«) was a tioqgh of brick or 
tfoK, lined with cement, and coTered with a 
capai^ whd^ was ahnoat always arched ; and the 
water etdMr rsa directly through this trough, or it 
vaa carried throogh pipes kid along the trough. 
Wl»B the cbmxaM was carried beneath the sur- 
fiKe, if the hiO through which it passed was of 
rock, it waa mcxely ent in the rock ; but if of earth 
«r sand, it was eonstructed of blodu of stone. 

The fioOowing woodcut represents a portion of 
a doable-axvhed aqoednct, and shows a section of 
the 9an»(a): 6 6 are projecting blocks, which 
are oilea aecn in soeh podtions, and which were 
daahtleas the aapports for the centerings used in 
boildiag the archea. 




The oifaject o£ coTering the ^mou was to exclude 
the sBi and rain, and other corruptions and ob- 
■tractaana ; bat it was necessary to proride a vent 
hr the air, which otherwise would haye been 
ooBipreascd to rach a degree as to burst the walls 
cr locf of the gteau. These ventrholes were 
made at regolar intervals in the roof of the ipecM, 
flc, when another channel passed over !t, in the 
side. They are represented in the sections, given 
above, of the ^9110 Ckmdia, Marcia^ &e. To 
ventilBte the sabtenanean channel of an aqueduct, 
a shaft {fmtem) of masonry was carried to the 
mrftee of the gronnd at intervals of an attua^ or 
120 RooBan feet (or two oefas, according to Pliny, 
who calls them jmrum), as shown in the fi^owing 
woodcat (after Hirt), which represents the phin, 
kngitadinal section, and transverse section, of 
port of a rimu aa Ugrramau^ the ruins of which 
stiD exist at Palmyra. 

The fficas stAtanrtmoit possessed the advantage 
over the atptaeituittu of being less exposed to 
tariatioos of temperature, and more secure from 
iajary ; on the other hand, it was of course more 
diftddt to get at when it required repairs. A 
gfer ca ce to the account given ^xnre, of the Roman 



AQUABDUcrrua 113 

aqueducts, will show how huge a portion of them 
was subterranean. 




a 



f'-^f.^y 



J 



a, The water-couise ; A, steps giving access to 
it ; e, the shaft ; d, e, section of the q)ecma and 
shaft ; f^ transverse section of them. 

Instead o^ or within, the »peem$^ pip^ (JUiwlae, 
tulruU)^ were often used for the passage of the 
water. They were of lead, or terra-cotta ijictilt$\ 
and sometimes, for the sake of economy, of leather. 
The rules which Yitruvius lays down apply par- 
ticuhurly to leaden pipes, although he gives the 
preference to the ewthen ones, chiefly on the 
ground that the water which passed throogh them 
was more wholesome. The pipes were made in 
lengths not less than ten feet, and of various 
widths, which were denominated in the manner 
explained under Fistula. They were cemented 
together at the joints, which in earthen pipes were 
made to overlap, and when the water was first let 
in, ashes were mixed with it, in order that they 
might settle in the joints and stop them more com- 
pletely. The use of pipes permitted variations to 
be made in the construction of the aqueduct: 
namely, the water could be carried round, instead 
of through a hill, if the circuit was not too great ; 
and in very wide valleys, the costly structure of 
arches could be dispensed with. In this case, a 
low horizontal substruction was made across the 
bottom of the valley, and the pipe was brought 
down the one slope, along this substruction, and 
up the opposite slope, to a height, of conne, 
somewhat less than that of the opposite side. The 
horixontal part of the pipe across the bottom of the 
valley (omfer), had ventilating openings for the 
escape of the air. At the bendings, instead of the 
pipe, an elbow was bored in a solid piece of stone, 
into which the ends of the adjacent pieces of pipe 
were securely cemented. (For further details, see 
Yitruvius.) In those places where the pipes 
were laid on the surface, reservoirs were sometimes 
made, at intervals of 200 actus (24,000 feet), m 
carder that, if a part of the pipe needed repair, the 
supply of water might not be entirely cut off. The 
advantage in the use of pipes, according to Yitruvius, 
was the fiicility of repairing them. 

The slope {fiutigiHm\ on which the aqueduct 
was buOt, in order to give the water a proper fall 
{W)ramentunC)y ought not, says Yitruvius, to be 
less than half a foot in every 100 feet (1 in 200) ; 
but Pliny only allows a siciiiats (a quarter of an 
inch) in 100 feet The great circuit, which most 
of the aqueducts of Rome made, was taken chiefly 
(as is the case with the New River), to prevent 
the too rapid descent of the water. There is, 
however, a considerable variation in their de- 
clivities : for example^ the Aqua Marcia and the 
I 



114 AQUAEDUCTU& 

Aqtta Clamdia^ though of such different heights at 
Rome, have their sources at the same elevation. 

At convenient points on the course of the aque- 
duct, and especially near the middle and end, 
there was generally a reservoir (piscma, pudma 
limota) in which the water might deposit any 
sediment that it contained. The construction of 
these reservoirs will be understood from the follow- 
ing woodcut, which represents a restored section of 
one which still exists. 




The water flowed frt>m the aqueduct a into the 
first upper chamber, thence down and up again 
through the openings 6, e, e, into the second upper 
chamber, out of which it passed into the continua- 
tion of the aqueduct /, having deposited iU sedi- 
ment in the two lower chambers, which could be 
cleaned out by the door <L The piadna was not 
always vaulted : Hirt, from whose work the above 
cut is taken, gives also an engraving of an open 
piseifM, These reservoirs were not aJways used : 
for example, the Aqua Virgo and the Alnetina 
were without them. They were especially neces- 
sary when the water was conveyed through pipes. 
Thev were also used as reservoirs for the supply 
of the neighbouring country, chiefly for the pur- 
poses of irrigation. 

The details, which we have now been noticing, 
are minutely described by Frontinus, and by 
Vitnivius* (viii. c 7. s. 6), and briefly by Pliny 
(/f.AT.xxxi 6. S.31). 

(3.) The TerminatWH of the Aqueducit and the 
ArrangemenU far the Dtkribution of its Water. 
— The water thus conducted to the city was re- 
ceived, when it reached the walls, in a vast reser- 
voir called ccuteUum^ which formed the head of 
water and also served the purpose of a mder. 
The more ancient name in use, when the aque- 
ducts were first constructed, was dividiculum, 
(Fest «. V.) From this principal caeiellttm the 
water flowed into other oastdta^ whence it was 
distributed for public and private use. The term 
castelium is sometimes also applied to the inter- 
mediate reservoirs already mentioned. 

The chief castelium was, externally, a highly 
decorated building ; for example, that of Hadrian, 
at Athens, was adorned with Ionic pillars, and 
that at Evora, in Portugal, had the form of a cir- 
cular temple. Internally, there was generally one 
vast chamber, with a vaulted roof supported by 
massive pillars, into which the water flowed from 



* The particular attention which Vitruvius 
pays to the conveyance nf water through pipes, 
warrants the supposition that in hjs time, when 
some of the most important of the aqueducts were 
not yet erected, that method was very laigely 
employed. 



AQUAEDUCTUa 
the aqueduct, and from which it was condiictod 
through pipes of fixed dimensions, into three amaller 
reservoirs, which were, however, so amuised, that 
the middle one was only supplied from the orer- 
flow of the other two. Of these three reaerroira, 
the two outer supplied respectively the public baths 
and the private houses, and the middle one the 
public ponds and fountains (laeus et wa lirmirs ) : 
so that, in case of a deficient supply for uaefol 
purposes, none would be wasted on the fountains : 
the arrangement also enabled a proper aooount to 
be kept <J the quantity supplied for private use, 
for the protection of the revenue derived from this 
source. (Yitniv. viiL 7. s. 6. §§ 1, 2.) 

The minor eastella, which received the water 
from this chief head, were distributed anrex the 
city, in such a manner that the Aqua Appia sap- 
plied seven regiones by means of twenty easiefla / 
the Anio Vetus^ ten regiones through thirty-five 
east^la ; the Marda^ ten r^/ioues through fif^-one 
easteila ; the Tepula^ four regiones through fourteen 
eastdla ; the Julia^ seven regiones through seven- 
teen easteila; the Vifgo, three regiones throagh 
eighteen easteUa ; the Claudia and iheAnio Veius^ 
ninety-two oastila, (Frontin. 79 — 86.) For an 
account of the parts of the city supplied by the 
different aqueducts, see Becker, Handb. d. Hatn, 
Altertk vol L pp.707, 708. 

The subjoined plan and elevation represent a 
ruin stfll remaining at Rome, commonly called the 
"Trophies of Ms^us,^ which is generally con- 
sidered to have been the castelium of an aqueduct. 




It is now much diUpidated, but was tolerably 
entire about the middle of the 16th centniy, as 
may be seen by the drawing published by Oamucd 
(Aniichiiii di Roma^ iii. p. 100), from which this 
restoration is made. The trophies, then remain- 
ing in their places, firom which the monument 
derives its modem appellation, are now phiced on 
the Capitol The ground plan is given from an 
excavation made some years since by the students 
of the French Academy ; it explains part of the 
internal construction, and shows the arrangement 
adopted for disposing of the superfluous water of 
an aqueduct The general stream of water is first 
divided by the round projecting buttress into two 
courses, which subdivide themselves into five minor 
streams, and finally fiJl into a reservoir. 

The easteila were divided into two daises, the 
puUioa and privata. 



AQUABDUCTUa 

necariiBi fJUka we» agua mbAiTided into 
Bx daiMi, wbich fimiihed mter £ar the (ollowiog 
BMi—Cl.) The Pnetorimaunp (aufra) ; (2.) 
IkpoB^ aod Ibimtaiiia (iocw «tf mdimte*) ; (8.) 
tbed wisi i w i iiMriit i if , aad«mpliitlieatw (wm m ) ; 
(4.) the tethsy and the aemoe of oettain im- 
pcRmt hadkiafta, ndi at the lianen, dyen, and 
ttBiien(cpera/iMU«oa) ; (5.)iiRgii}ardistiihntioDi 
cade bj the ipedal ofder of the emperor (nomaat 
r;«aam); (6.) txtraordiiiary giants to private 
imjiridaik by die &Toar of the prince {h nmfima 
Oaani). ^e diitribiitioa nnder each of theie 
bidi is dcKiibed by FVenliniis (3, 78). 

Titt tadtiBa jmoto wo«, as the name implies, 
fa tke nppiy <^ prinUe hooses. When a supply 
ofvattrfrom the aqoedocts was fint granted for 
fcnaae wei, each persoo obtained his quantom by 
imotiig a bnneh pipe, aa we do, into the main ; 
vbid was probably the eostom in the age of 
VitnTin, ss he makes no mention of prirate re- 
•ffvon. Indeed, in early times, aU the water 
faco^t to Rome by the aqueducts was applied to 
paUie parpoMs exdaaireiy, it being forbidden to 
tkedtboa to divert any portion of it to their own 
»e, cuept mdi as escaped by flaws in the ducts 
er pipes, which was termed cigaaaHfatoa.. (Fnmtin. 
$4.) Bat as even thia permission opened a 
door far gnat abases from the ftandnleot eondnct 
•f die uftBu, who damaged the dv:ts for the 
parpoie oif Mllmg the aqiaa eadaea, and as the sab- 
nqamt method of sapply leqoired the main-pipe 
to be puBctared in too many plaoBS (Frontin. 27), 
a Raedy vas sought by the mstitntion of easteUa 
pnata, sad the pablie were henceforward fer- 
biddes to collect the oftia on/aoo, onless permission 
vai givm by special fisTour (Aea^^'ant) of the 
eapenc (Fkontin. 111.) The eaaUila privata 
vec boilt at the joint expense of the fomilies 
Rp{fied 1^ them ; bat they were considered as 
poUic property, and were mider the control of the 
ttniam vpMtnm, (Frontan. 106.) The right of 
v^ O* o^aae t atyeln ite s) did not follow the 
beir or pnrcbaser of the property, but was renewed 
br gnat apon every change in the possession. 
lFnn6L 107.) 

Tbe leadm dstema, which each person had in 
bit ovB hoDse to receive the water hiid on from 
tbe oMAi&Da m iva imm^ were called couteUa do- 



AQUAE PLUVIAE. XiS 

As a fhrther secority, the mUm waa stamped. 
Pipes which had no ca/ar, were termed soArfat. 
Frantinas also observes that the velocity of tha 
water passing threugh the oottc, and, eooseqaently, 
the quantity given ont, oould be vafied aeootdiog 
to the angle which the oottr mada with the side of 
the reservoir : its proper position was, of eoomi 



Afl the water which entered the easidbtm was 
■oaaed, at its ingress and egress, by the sise of 
tbe tebe through which it passed. The former 
w called audUiKf aeoqptoriusj the latter eroffab>- 
rm. To distribate the water was termed eroffore ; 
tbe dittribntion, erogatio; the size of the tube, 
f^»ianmx«madMlorumeapae^M^cslMmeu. The 
■sdler pipes which led from tiie main to the 
huaei of primte persons, were called ptmctoe; 
thae ioNited by finad into the duct itself or into 
tbe aain after it had left the castellum, fUiulae 

The mtgaiia was regulated by a tube called 
o^ of the diameter required, and not less than a 
feot is leogth, attached to the extremity of each 
pi{«f wbcie it entered the castellum ; it was pro- 
kUj of \fj^ jn |]|2 tjgoQ ^ Vitrovhis, such only 
^OBgBiaitioiied by him ; but was made of bionae 
("ttw) when Frontinus wrote, in order to check 
^ ngoery of the sqnarii, who were able to in- 
uoK or daniBish the flow of water from the 
' ^ tangnmaig or extending the lead. 



It is evident how watchful an overaiafat most 
have been required to keep the aqueducts m icpab^ 
to regulate their use, and to prevent the ftandulent 
abstraction of their water. Under the repafalic^ 
this office waa dischaiged, sometimes, hj the 
censors, but more generally by the aediles (Ci& 
ad Dip. viii. 6), and sometimes a special over- 
seer was appointed. (Fn>ntin.95, 119.) Augustas 
fint established the office uf atraior (or pra^ 
/ftetas) a^vanna (Suet Octfon. 37), the duties 
of which are minutely described by Fraatinns (99X 
who seems, while he held the office, to have per- 
formed it with the utmost aeal: amoqg other 
carea, he had plans and models nmde of the whole 
oourae of all the aqueducts (17, 64). The e«- 
raiore$ aqmamm were invested with considerable 
authority. They were attended ovtside the city 
by two lictors, throe public sbves, a secretaiy, and 
other attendanta. 

In the time of Nerva and Trajan, a body of four 
hundred and sixty sUves were constantly employed 
nnder the orders of the atratorm aqmt mm in at- 
tending to the aqueducts. They wen divided 
into two fomilies, the /amSia pMea^ established 
by Agrippa, and the famiUa Cbssoris, added by 
Claudius ; and they were subdivided into the fol- 
lowing classes : — 1. The vSUei, whose duty it was 
to attend to the pipes and ob^hJss. 2. The eaatd- 
iarU^ who had the superintendence of att the 
aasfeAb,both within and without the city. 3. The 
dratHoreSj so called because they had to go from 
post to post, to examine into the state of the works, 
and also to keep watch over the labourers em- 
ployed upon them. 4. The mUamiiy or pavionrs, 
who had to remove and relay the pavement when 
the pipes beneath it required attention. 5. The 
teeforet, who had chaige of the masoniy of the 
aqueducts. These and other workmen appear to 
have been included nnder the genersl term of 
Aquaril (Cod. xiL tit 42 or 48. s. 10 ; Frontin. 
1 16, 1 1 7.) The following are the most important 
wocks on the Roman aqueducts : — Frontinus, de 
AgutuducHbua Urbii Romas; Fabretti, ds Aquit 
€t Aqitae dm etUnu VettriM Romae; Stieglits, Ar- 
ekaologie dm' Bamhaui; Hixt, 0€$ck»ekU d. Bam- 
haut; Phitner and Hansen, BuekreOmmg d, Stadi 
Rom; Becker, Handlmck d. RSmimskem AUer- 
thnmer^ voL L) [P. S.] 

AQUAE DUCTUS. [SEaviTtTTW.] 

AQUAE ET IGNIS INTERD|CTIO. 

[EXSILIUM.] 

AQUAE HAUSTUS. [SaavrruTBs.] 
AQUAE PLUVIAE ARCENDAE ACTIO. 
That water was called aqua plmoia which foil from 
the clouds, and overflowed in consequence of 
showers, and the prevention of injury to land from 
such water was the object of this action. The action 
aquae plmriae was allowed between the owners of 
adjoining land, and might be maintained either by 
the owner of the higher land against the owner of 
the lower knd, in case the hitter by any thing done 
to his land {manu/aeto opere) prevented the water 
from flowing naturally from the higher to the lower 
I 2 



116 



ARA. 



land ; or hj tlie owner of the lower land against 
the owner of the higher land, in case the ktter did 
any thing to his land by which the water flowed 
frinn it into the lower land in a different way from 
what it natorally woold. In the absence of any 
special custom or law to the contrary, the lower 
land was sabject to receive the water which flowed 
naturally from the upper land ; and this rule of 
law was thus expressed, — ager inferior tmperiori 
mnoiL The fertilising matenals carried down to 
the lower land were considered as an ample com- 
pensation for any damage which it might sustain 
from the water. Many difficult questions occurred 
in the application to practice of the general rules 
of law as to aqua pluria ; and, among others, this 
question, — What tilings done by the owners of the 
land were to be considered as preventing or alter- 
ing the natural flow of the waters ? The conclusion 
of Ulpian is, that acts done to the land for the pur- 
poses of cultivation were not to be considered as acts 
interfering with the natural flow of the waters. 
Water which increased from the fiilling of lain, or 
in consequence of rain changed its colour, was con- 
sidered within the definition of aqua pluvia ; for 
it was not necessary that ths water in question 
should be only nun water, it was sufficient if there 
was any rain water in it. Thus, when water 
naturally flowed from a pond or marsh, and a per- 
son did something to exclude such water from 
coming on his land, if such marsh received any 
increase from nun water, and so injured the land of 
a neighbour, the person would be compelled by 
this action to remove the obstacle whicn he had 
created to the free passage of the water. 

This action was allowed for the special pro- 
tection of land {ager) : if the water injured a town 
or a building, the case then belonged to flumina and 
stillicidia. The action was only allowed to prevent 
damage, and therefore a person could not have 
this remedy against his neighbour, who did any 
thing to his own land by which he stopped the 
water which would otherwise flow to that person's 
land and be profitable to it. The title m the 
Digest contains many curious cases. (Dig. 39. 
tit 3 ; Cic Pro Muren. 10, Tcpio. 9 ; Bocthius, 
CkmmetU. m Cie. Top. iv. 9.) [G. L.] 

AQUA'RII, were slaves who carried water for 
bathinff, &c. into the female apartments : they were 
also called aquarioU^ and were held in great con- 
tempt (Juv. vl 332 ; Festus, «. v. and MUUer'S 
Note ; Hieron. Ep, 27 ; JuL Paul, iil 7.) Becker 
imagines that the name was also applied to slaves 
who had the care of the fountains and ponds in 
gardens. {OoUus, vol. i. p. 288.) The aquarii 
were also public officers who attended to the aque- 
ducts under the aediles, and afterwards under the 
cmxUoret aqtmrmm. (Cic. ad Fam, viil 6 ; Zeno, 
Cod, JusL xi. tit 42 ; Aquaeductus.) [P. &] 

A'QCILA [SlONA MlLlTARlA.] 

ARA {fictfi6s, iaxdpa, ^wr^ptoy), an altar. 
Altars were in antiquity so indispensable a part of 
the worship of the gods, that it seemed impossible 
to conceive of the worship of the gods without 
altars. Thus we have the amusing syllogism in 
Lucian, ci ykp tlol /9«»/Aof, tUrl koI ^toP &\xii 
li^v fW i3«/Ao(, 9l(r\y 6pa koL ^toi (Jupiter Trag, 
c 51). In reference to the terms, fiotfUs property 
signifies any elevation, and hence we find in 
Homer Uf^s fi^tfiSs, but it afterwards came to be 
applied to an elevation used for the worship of the 
gods, and hence an altar. 'E<rxdpa was used in 



ARA 
the limited sense of an altar for bumt-oflTerin^s. 
In Latin ara and aliare are often used without 
any distinction, but properiy ara was lower than 
altare: the latter was erected in hooonr of the 
superior gods, the former in honour of the inferioxv 
heroes and demigodsw Thus we read in Virg;il 
(JEWLv. 65): — 

^ En quattnor aram z 
Ecce duas tibi, Daphni; duas, altaria, Phoebo.** 

On the other hand, sacrifices were ofkted to the 
infernal gods, not upon altars, but in cavitios 
(icrobei^ tcrcUouli^ fiSSpoi, XdOutoi) dug in the 
ground. (Festus, «. v. AUaria.) 

As among the andents almost every reU^oos 
act was accompanied by sacrifice, it waw oCten 
necessary to provide altars on the spur of the oc> 
casion, and they were then constructed of earth, 
sods, or stones, collected on the spot When the 
occasion was not sudden, they were boflt -with 
regular courses of masonry or brickwork, as is 
clearly shown in several examples on the oolamn 
of Trajan at Rome. See the left-hand figure in 
the woodcut annexed. The first deviation fixran 
this absolute simplicity of form consisted in the 
addition of a base, and of a corresponding pirojec- 
tion at the top, the latter being intended to hold 
the fire and the objects offered in sacrifice. These 
two parts are so common as to be almost uniform 
types of the form of an altar, and will be found in 
til the figures inserted underneath. 



-v^t 


ill X 


1 1 if 


-v^^t 


i ' i 




Altars were either square or roond. The lattor 
form, which was the less common of the two. ia 
exemplified in the following figures. 




In later times altars were ornamented with fes- 
toons and sarlands of flowers ; and the altar repre- 
sented in the next cut shows the manner in which 
these festoons were suspended. They were also 
adorned with sculpture ; and some were covered 
with the works of the most celebrated artists of 
antiquity. The first cut above exhibits a specimen 
of the elaborate style, the outline of an Etruscan 
altar, in contrast with the unadorned altar. If an 
altar was erected before a statue of a god, it was 
always to be lower than the statue before which it 



ARATEIA, 

wm pkeed (YitniT. iy. 9). Of thii we hare an 
exunpte in a mrdallwin on the Aich of Constantine 
at BoDci, xcptcaentmg an altar erected befin a 
•acae of ApofloL See the annexed cut. 




It vaa neeeanry that an ahar ihoald be built 
ia the open air, in order that the steam of the 
nmSee in%hi be wafted up to heaven, and it 
■ight be bmlt in anj pboe, aa on the side of a 
Bsantain, on the shore of the sea, or in a sacred 
j^nre. Bat aa the worship of the gods was in 
later times chiefly connected with temples, altars 
became an indispensable part of the latter, and 
thoa^ there could be altars without temples, there 
eoald hnrdly be temples without altars. The altars 
of bent-ofeings, at which animal sacrifices were 
p rese nted , were erected before the temples (i3«^ 
vpw!^ Aeach. SigyiL 497), as shown in the wood- 
cat in the artide Antab ; but there were also 
sltsn, on which incense was burnt and bloodless 
mrificea oflered, within the temple, and principally 
bdbre the statue of the dirinity to whom they were 
dedicated. All altars were places of refuge. The 
sappGcnnts were considered as placing themselTes 
mder the protection of the deities to whom the 
ahan were cons e cr a ted ; and Tiolence to the unfbr- 
iBBste, eren to skres and criminals, in such dr- 
canstancca, was regarded as riolence towards the 
ddtka themselTes. It was also the practice among 
the Greeks to take solemn oaths at altars, either 
tddng hold of the altar or of the statue of the god. 
Cicero {prt> Balb. 5) expressly mentions this as a 
Greek practice. (Compu K. F. Hermann, GcUeB- 
4kM^ AUertk, d. GrUckem^ § 17, and § 22. n. 9.) 
ARAEOSTYLOa [Templum.] 
ARATEIA (d^cia), two sacrifices offered 
erery year at Sicyon in honour of Aratus, the 
aneal of the Achaeans, who after his death was 
Mooar edby his co untr y m en as a hero, in consequence 
of the comnauid of an ocade. (Pans. iL 9. § 4.) 
Tbe fiJl aeooont of the two festive days is pre- 
served in Pfaatarebls Life of Aratus (c. 53). The 
SKyoBianBy myt he^ ofier to AnUoi two sacrifices 



ARATKUM. 117 

erety year: the one on the day on which he 
deliTored his native town from tyranny, which 
is the fifth of the month of Daiuna, the sama 
which the Athenians call Anthestcrion ; and this 
sacrifice they call cmrlifta. The other they cele- 
brate in tbe month in which they believe that he 
was bora. On the first, the priest of Zeus ofTeied 
tbe sacrifices ; on the seeond, the priest of Aratna, 
wearing a white ribbon with purple spots in the 
centre, songs being sung to the lyre by the 
actors of the stage. The public teacher {ypivm- 
viapxos) led his boys and youths in pioeeasion, 
probably to the heronm of Arataa, followed by the 
senators adorned with aarianda, after whom came 
those dtixens who wished to join the psoccasian. 
The Sicyoniana stiU observe, be adds, some puis 
of the solemnity, but the principal honours have 
been abolished by time and other drcumstaacea. 
(Wachsmuth, HeUm. AUmrik, vol. ii p^ 528.) [L.S. J 

ARATRUM (iparpo^)^ a plough. The 
Greeks appear to have had fiom the earliest 
times diversities in the fmluon of their phaighsi 
Hesiod {Op. «i Ditt^ 432) advises the fiurmer to 
have always two phmfffas, so that if one broke the 
other mi^ht be ready for use ; and they were to be 
of two kmds, the one called avr^ywor, because in it 
the plough-tail (r^SjlmHa^bmra) was of the same 
pieoe of timber with the share-beam (fi^ayia, dloac, 
(iemiaUy and the pole (^^s, lorofoc^, ttmo) ; and 
the other called aifardv, iLa. compacted, becaaae in 
it the three above-mentioned parts, which were 
moreover to be of three different kinds of timber, 
were adjusted to one another, and fiwtened to- 
gether by means of nails {y6fi/pot^uf), (Comp. 
UouL IL X. 353, xiii 703.) 

The method of formmg a plough of the former 
kind waa by taking a young tree with two branches 
proceeding from its trunk in opposite directions, so 
that whilst in ploughing the trunk was made to 
serve for the pole, one of the two branches stood 
upwards and became the tail, and the other pene- 
trated the ground, and, being covered sometimes 
with bronxe or iron, fulfilled the purpose of a share. 
This form is exhibited in the uppermost figure of 
the annexed woodcut, taken from a medaL The 




next figure shows the plough still used in Mysia, 
as described and delineated by Sir C. Fellows. It 
is a little mora complicated than the first plough, 
inasmuch as it consists of two pieces of timber in- 
stead of one, a handle {4x^?<% $tiva) being inserted 
into the larger pieoe at one side of it. SirC. Fellows 
1 3 



118 



ARATRUM. 



{Eafanum m Ama Mhwr^ 1838, p. 71) oliMnret 
that each portion of this instmmeiit is still called 
by its ancient Greek name, and adds, that it seems 
suited only to the light soil prevailing where he 
obsenred it, that it is held by one hand only, that 
the farm of the share (8iw) laries, and that the 
plough is frequently nsed without any share. ** It 
IS drawn by two oxen, yoked from the pole, and 
gnided by a long reed or thin stick (ic<(rp<M>s), 
which has a spnd or scraper at the end far cleaning 
the share.** See the lowest fignre in the woodcnt 

Another recent traveller in Greece gives the 
following aoooont of the plough which he saw in 
that comitiy — a description iq[yproaeliing still nearer 
to the Ti|irr^r iporpw of Homer and Hesiod. ^ It 
is composed,** says he, **of two curved pieces of 
wood, one longer than the other. The long piece 
forms the pole, and one end of it being joined to 
the other piece about a foot horn the bottom, 
divides it mto a share, which is cased with iron, 
and a handle. The share is, besides, attached to 
the pole by a short cross-bar of wood. Two oxen, 
with no other harness than yokes, are joined to the 
pole, and driven by the ploughnuun, who holds the 
handle in his left hand, and the goad in his right** 
(HobhoDse, Jomrney throuffh AUmnc^^ &&, vol L 
p. 140.) A view of the plain of Elis, representing 
this ploDgh in use, is given by Mr. & Stanhope in 
hisO/yiR;»a(pL42). 

The yoke and pole nsed anciently in ploughing 
did not diifer from those employed for draught in 
generaL Consequently they do not here require 
any further description. [Juqum.] To the bottom 
of the pole, in the compacted plough, was attached 
the ptough-iaU, which, according to Hesiod, might 
be made of any piece of a tree (especially the 
wpofos^ L e. the ilex, or holm-oak), the natural 
curvature of which fitted it to this use. But in 
the time and country of Viigil pains were taken 
to force a tree into that form which was most ex- 
actly adapted to the purpose. {Gtorg. i 1 69, 170.) 
The upper end of the bnris being held by the 
ploughnum, the lower part, below its junction with 
the pole, was used to hold the Aare-beam, which 
was either sheathed with metal, or driven bare into 
the ground, according to circumstances. 

To these three continuous and most essential 
parts, the two following are added in the descrip- 
tion of the plough by Viigil : — 

1. The earth-loards, or motdd-loards (aures\ 
rising on each side, bending outwardly, in such a 
manner as to throw on either hand the soil which 
had been previously loosened and raised by the 
share, and adjusted to the share-beam which was 
made double for the purpose of receiving them : — 

^ Binae aunt, duplici aptantur dmtalia dorso.** 

According to Palladius (i. 43), it was desirable to 
have ploughs both with earth-boards {aurita) and 
without them (timplida). 

2. The hamlU (stiva), which is seen in Fel- 
low8*8 woodcut, and likewise in the following re- 
presentation of an ancient Italian plough. Virgil 
considers this part as used to turn the plough at 
the end of the furrow. " Stivaque, quae cumis a 
tergo torqueat imos.** Servius, however, in his 
note on this line explains riiva to mean " the 
handle by which the plough is directed.** It is pro- 
bable that, OS the dentaUa, i. e. the two share-beams, 
which Virgil supposes were in the form of the 
Greek letter A, which he describes by duplici dono^ 



ARATUUM. • 
the bmis was fastened to the left share-beam, and 
the stiva to the right, so that, instead of the simple 
plough of the Greeks, that described by Virgil, and 
used, no doubt, in his countiy (see the following 
woodcut), was more like the modem Lancashire 
plough, which is commonly held behind with both 
hands. Sometimes, however, the strra (ix^^Vj 
Hes. Op. et JXes, 467) was used alone and instead 
of the tail, as in the Mysian plough above repre- 
sented. To a plough so constructed the ku^uage 
of Columella was especially applicable, ** Anitor 
stivae paene rectus innititnr** (i. 9) ; and the ex- 
pressions of Ovid, ** Stivaeque innixus azator ** 
(AfeL viii 218), and ** Inde premens stivam de- 
signat moenia sulco.** (Fast, iv. 825.) In place of 
**• stiva,** Ovid also uses the less appropriate term 
** capulus** (Ep. de Pontoy L 8. 61) ; ** Ipse manu 
capuliun prensi moderatns aiatri.** When the plough 
was held either by the stiva alone, or by the buns 
alone, a piece of wood (maniada) was fixed across 
the summit, and on this the kbourer pressed with 
both hands. Besides guiding the plough in a 
straight Ime, his duty was to force the aluire to a 
sufficient depth into the soil Virgil allades to this 
in the phrase ** Depresso aratro ** (Cfeoiy. I 45). 
The cross-bar, which is seen in Mr. Fellows^s 
drawing, and mentioned in Sir J. C. Hobhouse's 
description, and which passes from the pole to the 
share for the purpose of giving additional strength, 
was called tfw^Uhy, in Latin /klcntm. The coulter 
(cuUer, Plin. H. M xviiL 48) was used by the 
Romans as it is with us. It was mserted mto the 
pole so as to depend vertically before the share, 
cutting through the roots which came in its vniy, 
and thus preparing far the more complete loosening 
and overturning of the soil by the share. 

About the tune of Pliny two small wheels (rotoej 
rohdae) were added to the plough in Rhaetia ; and 
Servius (/. e.) mentions the use of them in the 
countiy of VixgiL The annexed woodcut shows 
the form of a wheel-plough, as represented on a 
piece of engraved jasper, of Roman vrorkmanship 
It also shows distinctly the tano or pole, the 
coulter or eultoTj the dentale or share-beam, the 
buris or plough-tail, and the handle or afteo. 




(Caylus, Itec, d*Ani, t. pi. 83. No. 6.) It coi- 
rcsponds, in all essential particulars, with the 




ASGHIATER. 

fbagh Bov used «boat Mantua and Yenioe, of 
•which aa e^gniTiiig h giren aboTC. 1. Bona 
2L TcsML 3. Peaiale. 4. Colter. &. Vomer. 
€L Aorei. 

Re ay e ctuy the opeiatioii of ploaghina, lee 
Afiucut-TURji, p» 4a [J. Y.] 

A-RBITER. [JuoKX.] 

ARBITRAllIA A'CTIO. [Actio.] 

ARCA, a ckesi or coffer. — LA chest, in whkh 
the BinwM wexe aocBstomed to place their monejr: 
the phme «« arva miioorB had the meaning of 
pajiBg IB leadj money. (Comp. Cic. ad AtL i 
d.) These chesta were either made of or bound 
with ii«i» or other metala. (Jot. zL 26, xiy. 259.) 
The name an» vaa vaoallj giren to the chesti 
ID whidi the rich kept their money, and was op- 
poMd to the smalkr locuU (Jav. i. 89), tacosla* 
(Jar. zi 26), and crmtma. 

2. Arva fmbiica was nied nnder the empire to 
sigsify the dtj-fbnds» which were distinct from 
the aennam and the fisciis, and the administia- 
taoQ of which helooged to the senate. (Vopiac 
AmrtL 20.) The name area was, however, also 
oed as eqiuvaknt to fiscat^ that is, the imperial 
tnuDiy : thna, we read of the area fnamudana^ 
fobuaia^ So, (Symm. x. 33 ; 



ARCHIATER. 



n» 



spare Die. 50. tiL 4. a 1.) 
3.^faBa]80i~ 



» Bgnififd the coffin in which penons 
(Anr. Vict !)• Fir. ML 42 ; Loom, 
rm. 736>, or the hier on which the corpse was 
placed pRvioBsly to hwiaL (Dig. 11. tit 7. a 7.) 
4. It waaalsoastrongcellmadeof oak, in which 
oanada and slaves were confined. (Cic. Pro 
Mihm. c 22 ; Festus, ao. Rdmm.) 

A'RCEBA, a covered carriage or litter, spread 
vish doChs, which was nsed in ancient times in 
BoEsey to cany the aged and infinn. It is said to 
hne obtained the name of arcera on account of its 
ursfmMance to an area. (Vair. L. JL v. 140, ed. 
HSBer ; OelL xr. 1.) 

ARCHEION (ipx^'oi^) properly means any 
pcHk piaee hdongbg to the magistrates (comp. 
Hood. iv. €2X hot was more particuUvly applied 
at Athens to the archive office, where the decrees 
of the peo^ and other state documents were pre- 
loved. This office is sometimes called merely t^ 
S^^nssr. (Dem.deCbr.p.275.) At Athens the 
iftfahres were kept in the temple of the mother .of 
tbe goda (jtifrp^^y, and the chaige of it was in- 
tosMed to the president (ivurrArris) of the senate 
of theKve-hondred. (Dem. <U FaU Leg. p. 381, 
tmAriatoff. L p. 799 ; Pans. L 3. § 4.) 

ARCHIA'TER {ipx^pos^ compounded of 
Vx^ « ^VX^9 * chief, and larp6s^ a physician), 
a medical title under the Roman emperars, the 
eiact. signification of which has been the subject 
of moch discussion ; fiv while some persons in- 
ttrpret it ** the chief of the physicians ^ (gutui 
Vx«*' '"M' tarpAp) others explain it to mean ** the 
chyskian to the prince** {quad rod ipxot^os 
lorp^s). Upon the whole it seems tolerably cer- 
tun that the fonner is the true meaning of the 
«txd, and lor these reasons : — I. From its ety- 
Bokgy it can hardly have any other sense, and 
of sfl the words similarly fimned (Apx'T^CTflfr, 
ipX"'P^>*^^^i'0'» d^icruraorof, &c) there is not 
one that has any reference to '^ t&s prineey 2. We 
fbd the title applied to physicians who lived at 
Edesaa, Alexandria, &&, where no king was at 
that dniere%ning. 3. Oalen (de J%er, ad Pis, c 1, 
vol ST. pu 21 1, ed. KGhn) speaks of Andromachos 



heh^ appomted ''lo rmk cmr"^ the physidaaa 
{Ikpxw^ue^ in iact, to be «* arehiater." 4. An- 
gustiae {De CbriL M, iii. 17) applies the word to 
Aeaenlapins, and St Jerome (metaphoricaUy of 
couse) to oar Saviour (xiii HimdL ta S, lmc\ 
m both which eases it evidently neans ** the chief 
physician.** & It is apparently synonymous with 



aU which < 
inscriptians, 4te^ and also with the title 
RaiM 'aia 't^Otbbd, among the Aabiaaa 6. We 
find the names of seveial persons who were phy- 
sicians to the emperor, mentioned without the ad- 
dition of the title ordUo^. 7. The areh^tri were 
divided into ArekkOri mmeU palaHi, who attended 
on the emperor, and AreUairi popmlarm, who at- 
tended on the peo|ple ; so that it is certain that aU 
those who bote this title were not ** physicians to 
the prmae.^ The chief argument in lavonr of the 
oontsaiy opmion seems to arise from the fret, that 
of all those who are known to have heU the office 
of AnUairi the greater part oertainlv wen also 
physicians to the emperor ; bat this is only what 
might a priori be expected, vis. that those who 
had attained the highest rank m their profession 
would be chosen to attend upon the prince. * 



The first person whom we find bearing this title 
is Andromachos, physician to Nero, and inventor 
of the Tberiaca (Oalen. Le, ; £rotian. Lete. Voe. 
Hippoer. Praet) : but it is not known whether he 
had at the same time any sort of authority over the 
rest of the pn^iession. In fi^t, the hiitoiy of the 
title is as obscure as its meaning, and it is chiefly 
by means of the laws respecting the medical pro- 
fusion that we learn the rank and duties attached 
to it In after times (as was stated above) the 
order appears to have been divided, and we find 
two distinct classes of archiatri, vis. those of the 
pahuio and those of the people. (Cod. Theodos. 
xiii tit 3 ; De Medieu ei Pn^tmibme,) The 
arddatri mmeHpalaiU were persons of high rank, 
who not only exercised their profession, but were 
judges on occasion of any disputes that might occur 
among the physicians of the place. They had 
certain privileges granted to them, «. p, ihtj were 
exempted from sll taxes, as were also their wives 
and children ; they were not obliged to lodge 
soldiers or others in the provinces ; they could not 
be put in prisjn, Slc ; for though these privileges 
seem at first to have been common to all physicians 
{Cod. Just X. tit 52. s. 6. Medieoe ei manme 
ArcUairoe)^ yet sfterwards they were confined to 
the archiatri of the palace, and to those of Rome. 
When they obtained their dismissal from attend- 
ance on the emperor, either from old age or any 
other cause, they retained the title «#-<irdlMi6t, 
or ex-arekiairie, (Cod. x. tit 62. leg. 6.) The 
oroUo^rs pcptdaree were established for the relief 
of the poor, and each city was to be provided with 
five, seven, or ten, according to its sixe. (Dig. 
27. tit 1. a 6.) Rome had fourteen, besides one 
for the vestal virgins, and one fiir the gymnasia. 
(Cod. Theodos. L &) They were paid by the go- 
vernment, and were therefore obliged to attend 
their poor patients gratis $ but were allowed to re- 
ceive fees from the rich. ((>>d. Theodos. I. cw) The 
archiatri popnlares were not appointed by the 

* Just as in England the President of the Col- 
lege of Physicians is (ox used to be) ex-officio phy* 
sician to the sovereign. 

I 4 



120 



ARCHITECTURA. 



goTenum of the proTuices, bat were elected hj the 
people themaeWet. (Dig. 50. tit 9. b. 1.) The 
office appears to have been more lucrative than that 
of azchiatri aancti palatii, though lew honourable. 
In Uter timet, we find in CaMiodonu (lee Meibom. 
QmmeiU. m Cats. FormmL Arehiair. Helmst 1668) 
the title " comes archiatrorom,** *^countof the arch- 
iatri,*^ together with an account of his duties, by 
which it appears that he was the arbiter and judge 
of all disputes and difficulties, and ranked among 
the officers of the empire as a moarnu or dta. 
(See Le Clerc, and Sprengel, Hitt, de la Med, 
Farther information on the subject maj be found 
in seyeral works referred to in the Oxford edition 
of TheophHus De Corj). Hum, Fabr, p. 275 ; and 
in Ooldhom, De ArdUatria Romame et eorum Ori- 
gme utque ad fnem imperii Bomam OocidentaHs, 
Lips. 1841.) [W.A.G.] 

ARCHIMI'MUS. [MiMua.] 

ARCHITECTU'RA {ipx^rti^wla, Apx"-**- 
rwuHi)^ in its widest sense, signifies all that we 
understand by arehiieolurey and by civil and mili- 
tary engineering : in its more restricted meaning, it 
is the science of building according to the laws of 
proportion and the principles of heauty. In the 
former sense, it has its foundation in necetntg : in 
the latter, upon art taking occasion finom necessity. 
The hut of a savage is not, properly speaking, a 
work of architecture; neither, on the other hand, 
is a building in which different and incongruous 
styles are exhibited side by side. An architectural 
construction, in the artistic sense, must possess not 
only utility^ but beoMty^ and also unity: it must be 
suggestive of some idea^ and referable to some 
modd. 

The architecture of every people is not only a 
most interesting branch of its antiquities, but also 
a most important feature in its histoiy ; as it forms 
one of the most durable and most intelligible evi- 
dences of advancement in civilization. If the 
Greek and Roman literature and history had been 
a bUuik, what ideas of their knowledge, and power, 
and social condition would their monuments have 
still suggested to us I What a store of such ideas 
is even now being developed fi:om the monuments 
of Asia, Egypt, and America 1 

The object of the present article is to give a very 
compendious account of the history and principles 
of the art, as practised by the Greeks and Romans. 
The details of the subject will be, for the most 
part, referred to their separate and proper heads. 
The lives of the architects will be found in the 
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Mythology and 
Biography. 

It is well observed by Stie^tz that architecture 
has its origin in nature and religion. The neces- 
sity for a habitation, and the attempt to adorn those 
habitations which were intended for the gods, are 
the two causes from which the art derives its ex- 
istence. In eariy times we have no reason to sup- 
pose that much attention was paid to domestic 
architecture, but we have much evidence to the 
contrary. The resources of the art were lavished 
upon the temples of the gods ; and hence the 
greater part of the history of Grecian architecture 
is inseparably connected with that of the temple, 
and has its proper place under Txmplum, and the 
subordinate headings, such as Column a, under 
which heads also the different orders are described. 

But, though the first rise of architecture, as a 
fine art, is connected with the temple, yet, viewed 



ARCHITECTURA. 

88 the science of constmction, it must baTe been 
employed, even earlier, for oth^ purposes, nich as 
the erection of fortifications, paboes, treasiiTi<», and 
other woiks of utility. Accordingly, it is the 
general opinion of antiquaries, that the very earliest 
edifices, of which we have any remains, are the so- 
called Cyclopean works, m which we see hnge 
unsquared blocks of stone built together in the best 
way that their shapes would allow ; although it 
can be proved, in some instances, that the rudeness 
of this sort of work is no sufficient proof of its very 
eariy date, for that it was adopted, not from want 
of skill, but on account of the object of the work, 
and the nature of the materials employed. (Bon- 
bury, On Cydopean Remtmu in Cadndltaiyy in the 
OEa]n»ca/^1ftue«m,vol.ii.) [MuR us.] The account 
of the early palaces cannot well be separated from 
that of domestic architecture in general, -and is 
therefore given under Dom us ; that of erections in- 
tended, or supposed to be intended, for treasuries, 
will be found under Thb8AURU8. 

In addition to these, however, there axe other 
purposes, for which architecture, still using the 
term in its lower sense, would be required in a 
very eariy stage of political society ; such as the 
general arrangement of cities, the provision of 
a jJace for ue transaction of public business, 
with the necessary edifices appertaining to it 
[AooRA, Forum], and the whole class of works 
which we embrace under the head of civil en- 
gineering, such as those for drainage [Cvoaca^ 
EifissARius], for communication [Vijl, Pons], 
and for the supply of water [ Aquabductus]. The 
nature of these several wcoks among the Greeks 
and Romans, and the periods of their development, 
are described under the several articles. Almost 
equally necessary are places devoted to public ex- 
ercise, health, and amusement, Gymnasium, Sta- 
dium, HippODROMus, Circus, Balnbum, Thba- 
trum, Amphitubatrum. Lastly, the skill of 
the architect has been finom the eariiest times em- 
ployed to preserve the memory of departed men 
and post events ; and hence we have the various 
works of monumental and triumphal architecture, 
which are described under the heads Funus, 
Arcus, Columna. 

The materials employed by the architect were 
marble or stone, wood, and various kinds of earth, 
possessing the property of being plastic while moist 
and hardening in drying, vn& cement and metal 
clamps for fastenings : the various metals were also 
extensively used in the way of ornament. The de- 
tails of this branch of the subject ore given in the 
descriptions of the several kinds of building. 

The prindples of architectural science are utHity, 
proportion^ and the imitation of nature. The fint 
requisite is that every detail of a building should 
be subordinate to its general purpose. Next, the 
form of the whole and of its parts must be derived 
from simple geometrical figures; namely, the straight 
line, the plane surface, and regular or symmetrieil 
rectilinear figures, as the equilateral or isosceles 
triangle, the square or rectangle, and the regular 
polygons ; symmetrical curves, as the circle and 
ellipse ; and the solids arising out of these various 
figures, such as the cube, the pyramid, the cylinder, 
the cone, the hemisphere, dec Lastly, the oma- 
ments, by which these forms are relieved and 
beautified, must all be founded either on geo- 
metrical forms or on the imitation of nature. 

To this outline of the purposes and principlei of 



ARCHITBCTURA. 



ARCHON. 



131 



tke arty it obI J 



I to tiib}«Hii a Inef iketch of 



toBljra 

its hstoij, wU^ Hirt and HUllear diride into £▼« 
pehodi : tke iiat, wliich is cliieA j mythical, comet 
dim to tha tine of CypMlna, OL 30, & a 660 
(Mulkr bdi^ tlda period down to the 50th Olym- 
piad, & G 5d0) : the aecond period ooBDea down to 
the tenaoistion of the Penian war, OL 75. 2, && 
478 (MuBer hrii^ it down to OL 80, B. c 460) : 
the ^iid M the hriPiant period from the end of the 
PeniBB war to the denth of Akzander the Oxeat, 
OL 114, &C. 323 (HUDer doaca thia period with 
the death of Philip, OL 1 11, && 336) : the fomth 
paipd is biWH^t doam by Hirt to the battle of 
AcdniB, & c 31, but by Muller only to the 
Booan oonqneat of Greeoe, &a 146; the ktter 
drnaaoa haa the conTenicnce of making the tian- 
utkiB feoaa Greek to Roman arehitectnie : Hirfk 
&3h period ia that of the Roman empire, down to 
the (Micatinn of Conatantinople, a, d. 330 ; while 
MiBer'^ fifth period embmrea the whole hiatoiy of 
RaoBa aidiitectoFe, from the time when it bc^an 
t» zaitaie the Greek, down to the middle aget, 
Thrn it became milled with the Gothic : Hirfk 
diriaga nqnirea na to dimw a more definite line of 
rfpamri ifiua than is poaeible, between the Roman 
aad Byzantxae styiei, and alao pJaoea that line too 



The chametoriatics of theae serenl periods will 
"be deTelaped nnder the artidea which describe the 
•evKal daaaea of boildmas: they are therefore 
aotio^ in this place with the utmost possible 
Werity. Onrinlanialifln respecting the first period 
ii denred from the Homeric poems, the tiadi- 
by other writers, and the most 
Qta of Greece, Central Italy, and 
the eoaat of Asia IClnor. Strongly fortified rides, 
pilaeea, and tRnsoriea, are the chief works of 
the eaiCcr part of thia period ; and to it may be 
rrftned aaost of the so-called Qydopean remains ; 
vhile the en of the Dorian inrasion marks, in 
aQ probilHlity, the commencement of the Dorian 
■trie of temple architecture. The prindpal names 
ef arti^ belonging to this period are Daedalus, 
EaxyafaH, Hypcrbina, Dodas, and some others In 
the leoood period the art made rspid adfances 
vaia ^Mt powetfiil patronage of the aristooadea 
a Mme dties, as at Sparta, and of the tyrants in 
ethos, .aa Cypadns at Corinth, Theagnes at Megan, 
CieiAheaes at Sicyon, the Peisistiatids at Athena, 
aad Polyoatea at Samoa. Aidkitectme now as> 
' deridedly the charseter of a fine art, and 
t associated with the sister arts of scnlptnre 
aad paiaring^ which are essential to its devdop> 
B0it The temples of particular deities were en- 
xkhed and adonied by presents, sach as those 
vhich Croesaa aent to 6»e Pjrthian Apollo. Mag- 
Kfioeat tesaples sprai^ op in all the prindpal 
Oie^ dties; and while the Doric order was 
braght almost, if not quite, to perfection, in Greeoe 
Ptdikk; m the Doric colonies of Asia Minor, aad 
ia Ceotml Italy and Sidly, the Ionic order ap- 
pealed, ahcady perfect at its first invention, in the 
gnat tcBf^ of Artemis at Ephesna. The ruins 
a3I existing at Ptestum, Syxacnse, Agrigentum, 
Sdiaas, Aegina,and other places, are imperishable 
SHfinflMnts of ihia period. Nor were worics of 
itility neglected, as we see m the finintain of the 
Paaatratids at Athens, the aqnoduct at Samoa 
[A4FAXD0CTU8],the sewers (iHr^r^iot) and hatha 
(oAayifl^pa) at Agrigentum. To diis period also 
bdflogthegRai works of the Reman kmg*. The 



of the third aad most briOiaat 
period of the art was signalised by the lebnilding 
of Athens, the establishment of legnhur prindples 
for the laying out of dties by Hippodamns of Mile- 
tus, aad the great wofks of the age of Perides, by 
the contemporsries of Pheidias, at Athena, Beusis, 
aad Olympia ; during ita coarse OTeiy dty of 
Greeoe and her eohmies was adorned with splendid 
edifiees of ereiy description ; aad its tenaination 
is marked by the magufieent worics of Deiaocratea 
aad his contemporaries at Aleiandria, Antiocfa, 
and other cities. The first part of the fourth pe» 
riod saw the eztensian of the Greek aichitectare 
oyer the eountriea eooquered by Alenndcr, and, 
in the Weat, the eommeneemcnt of the new style, 
which arose from the imitittiimt with some alter- 
ations, of the Greek fiama by Rooaan ardiitects, 
to which the conquest of Greece gave, of course, 
a new impulse; By the time of Augustus, Rome 
was adorned with every kind of public mid pri- 
Tate edifiee, sunounded by villas, and fomisbed 
with roads and aqoeductt ; and these various 
erections were adorned by the fiama of Gieciaa 
art ; but already Vitiuvius begins to eomplain that 
the parity of that art is eoimpted by the intenniz- 
tore of heterogeneous fonns. This ntoeess of dete- 
riomtion went on rapidly during the fifth period, 
though combined at fint with increaaing mag- 
nificwice in the scale aad number of the buildinga 
erected. The eariy part of this period is made illua- 
tiioasby the numerous woriu of Augustus, aad his 
successors, espedally the Flavii, Nerva, Trajan, 
Hadrian, and the Antonines, at Rome and in the 
pnvinoes ; but from the time of the Antonines the 
dedine of the art was nmid and decided. In one 
department, a new oapube was given to architec- 
ture by the riae of Christian churches, which were 
generally buDt on the model of the Roman Basilica. 
One of the most splendid specimens of Christian 
ardiitectnre is the church of S. Sophia at Constan* 
tinople, buHt in the reign of Justinian, a. jk 537, 
and restored, after its partial destruction by an 
earthquake, in 554. But, long before this time, 
the Greco-Roman style had become thoroughly 
coiTupted, and that new style, which is called the 
Byzantine, had arisen out cf the mixture of Roman 
aichitecture with ideas derived fima the Northem 
nations. It is beyond our limits to pursue the 
history of this and later styles of the art 

Of the ancient wrilen^ fi»m whom our knowledge 
of the subject is derived, the most hnportant is, of 
course, Vitmrins. The following are the prindpal 
modem woiks on the genenl subject : — Winckel« 
mann, Amnerien^ffm iiler die B amkm i i der Aflem^ 
1762; Stieglits, ^fvAiioJc^M der Baukmnst, 1801, 
and G^aaUbtoiierBaaiMai^ 1827; Hirt, Boaifcaiu^ 
aoei dm Gnrndeatun der AUen, 1809, and G'es- 
oUeto derBoMkmut beiden AUem,\d2\\ MOUer, 
Hamdbuek der Arckaologie der Kwut, 1825 ; the 
various works of travels, topogrqihy, and anti- 
quities, such as those of Stuart, Chandler, Clarke, 
Dodwell, &&, all the most important of which 
will be found dted by the authorities referred to ; 
and, for Central Italy, MfiUer'k Etrmker, and 
Abeken'k MtUeUialiem tfor der Ilomeeekem Herr» 
mAa/i. [P.S.] 

ARCHITHEO'RUS. [Dmlia.] 

ARCHON (^XM")* The govenmieni of 
Athens appears to have gone through the cyde of 
changes, which andent history records as the lot of 
many other states. It began with monaaxhy ; and 



122 



ARCHON, 



after paaaing ihiongh a dynaaty * and arutoeracy, 
ended in democracy. Of the kings of Athens, con- 
sidered as the capital of Attica, Theseus may 
be said to hare been the first ; for to him 
whether as a real individual or a representatiTe 
of a certain period, is attributed the union of the 
different and independent states of Attica under 
one head. (Thuc ii 16.) The last was Codrus ; 
in acknowledgment of whose patriotism in 
meeting death for his country, the Athenians 
are said to have determined that no one should 
succeed him with the title of JScktiXc^s, or king. 
It seems, however, equally probable, that it was 
the nobles who availed themselves of this oppor- 
tunity to serve their own interests, by abolish- 
ing the kingly power for another, the possessors of 
which they called jfipx^"^*'* or rulers. These for 
some time continued to be, like the kings of the 
house of Codrus, appointed for life : still an impor- 
tant point was gained by the nobles, the office 
being made &irtMwos, or accountable (Paua. iv. 5. 
§ 4 ; Dem. c Neaer, p. 1370 ; Atistot FoUt. il 
9 ; Btfckh, Pub, Eoon, if Aikent, vol. ii. p. 27. 
1st ed.), which of course implies that the nobility 
had some control over it ; and perhaps, like the 
barons of the feudal ages, they exercised the power 
of deposition. 

Tlus state of thmgs ksted for twelve reigns of 
aichons. The next step was to limit the continu- 
ance of the office to ten years, still confining it to 
the Medontidae, or house of Codrus, so as to esta- 
blish what the Greeks called a dynaaty, till the 
archonship of Eiyxias, the last archon of that family 
elected as such, and the seventh decennial archon. 
(Clinton, F, H,, vol. i. p. 1 82.) At the end of his 
ten years (a c. 684), a much greater change took 
phuse: the aichonship was made annual, and its 
various duties divided among a college of nine, 
chosen by suffrage (x^iporotfla) from the Eupar 
tridae, or Patricians, and no longer elected from the 
Medontidae exclusively. This arrangement con- 
tinued till the timocracy established by Solon, who 
made the qualification for office depend not on 
birth, but property, still retaining the election by 
suffrage, and, according to Plutarch, so for im- 
pairing the authority of the archons and other 
magistrates, as to legalise an appeal from them 
to the courts of justice instituted by himself. 
(*Oa'o reus hpXM ira^t Kpivtiv, 6fiola»s icol rcpl 
iietlimif €ls rh tiKorrtipwp i^iUrtis l^jcfv. 
Pint. Solon. 18.) The election l^ lot ia believed 
to have been introduced by Cleiathenes (b. a 
508 ; Herod, vi. 109) ; for we find this practice 
existing shortiy after his time ; and Aristotie 
(PoUt. il 9) expressly states that Solon made no 
alteration in the sSpwtSj or mode of election, but 
only ill the qualification for office; I^ however, 
there be no interpolation in the oath of the 
Heliasts (Dem. & Timocr, p. 747), we are forced 
to the conclusion that the election by lot was 
as old as the time of Solon ; but the authority 
of Aristotie and other evidence stionj^y incline 
us to some such supposition, or rather leave 
no doubt of its neeessi^. The last change is sup- 
posed to have been made by Aristeides (Fp^ri 
4^ur/ua Kou^y f 7reu r^r toXitcuv, ical rohs ipx'*^' 
ras i^ 'AdjivaUn' vdtrrmif ai^ilj#ai, Plut Ariel, 
22), who, after the battie of Plataea (b. a 479), 



* By this is meant that thesupreme power, though 
not monarchical, was confined to one family. 



ARCHON. 
abolished the properhr qualification, throwing op^ 
the archonship and other magistraeies to all the cit 
sens, that is, to the Thetes, as wdl as the oth< 
classes, the former of whom were not allowed b; 
Solon^s laws to hold any magistracy at all ; in con 
formity with which, we find that, even in the timi 
of Aristeides, the archons were chosen by lot froo 
the wealthiest class of citizens (ol wcrroiciNrM 
/ii^ifuroi, Plut Arist. ad init). 

Still, after the removal <^ the old restrictiona 
some security was left to insure reapectabilitT 
for, previously to an archon entering on office, b< 
underwent an examination called the ds^djcfHtrti 
(Pollux, vilL 85 : Deinar. c. Aridog. p. 107 ; rohi 
4rw4a tipxovras ayaic(^trt ei yow4as <S wounknt^ 
Dem. c. EubuL ^ 1320), as to his bein^^ a ]egi< 
timate and a good citizen, a good son, and qnaiified 
in point of property : c2 rh ri/nifAd im-of airr^ \ 
was the question put Now, there are (Scho- 
mann, De Oomiiiu, p. 312. ; Bdckh, voL iL p. 2/7) 
strong reasons for supposing that this form of ex- 
amination continued even after the time of Ari- 
steides ; and if so, it would follow that the right 
in question was not given to the Thetes pro- 
miscuously, but only to such as possessed a cer- 
tain amount of property. But even if it were so, 
it is admitted that this hitter limitation soon be- 
came obsolete ; for we read in Lysias (*Tr^ rov 
*A3vrarov, p. 169), that a needy old man, so 
poor as to receive a state allowance, was not dis- 
qualified from being archon by hia indigence, but 
only by bodily infinnity ; freedom from all such 
defects being required for the office, as it was in 
some respects of a sacred character. Yet, even after 
passing a satisfactory iofducpurif, each of the archons, 
m common with other magistrates, was liable to 
be deposed, on complaint of misconduct made be- 
fore the people, at the first r^iular assembly in each 
prytany. On such an occasion, the httxttpo- 
royloj as it was called, took place ; and we 
read (Dem. & Theoerin. p. 1330 ; Pollux, vuL 95 ; 
Harp, in Kupla *EKic\fi<ria) that, in one case, the 
whole body of Beo-futSirtu was deprived of office 
(i.'K€x*ipoTOP^i0ri\ for the misbehaviour of one of 
their body: they were, however, reinstated, on 
promise of better conduct for the foture. 

With respect to the hiter a^ of Athenian 
history, we learn fitim Strabo (ix. 1), that even 
in his day, the Romans allowed tiie freedom 
of Athens ; and we may conclude that the Athe- 
nians would fondly cling to a name and office 
associated with some of their most cherished 
remembrances. That the archonship, howerer, 
though still in existence, was merely honoranr, we 
might expect from the analogy of tiie consulate at 
Rome ; and, indeed, we learn that it was some- 
times filled by strangers, as Hadrian and Plutarch. 
Such, moreover, was the democratical tendency of 
the assembly and courts of justice established 
by Solon, that, even in earlier times, the archons 
had lost the great pditical power which they at 
one time poswssed (Thuc. i 126), and that, too, 
after the division of their ftmctions amongst nine. 
They became, in fiurt, not as of old, directors of the 
government; but merely municipal nagistrates, 
exercising fonctions and bearing tides which we 
will proceed to describe. 

It has been already stated, that the duties of the 
single archon were shared by a college of nine. 
The first or president of this body vu called 
I 6 &^X*^> by way of pre-eminence ; and sometimes 



ABCHON. 



tyd ifg b tewd m his name. The 

Btjied A 0mnAgi%^ or the king aidum ; the tfaod, 

i nA /j mp X B I , cr caMuiiM l er-ip-durf ; thaRoam- 

msmXfWid mrpuMvu i, or legailatoia. Aa Rgardt the 

of the ascfaani^ it » •ameiimei diiBciilt to 

what belflnged to them mdindiMlly 

eidlectiTely. It aeeiu, however, that a 

eoBsiiaahle pation of the jadidal fgaeHaam of 

dK aadai ki^ga t fa i elng d upon the Arekom ^po- 

who waa alao ceiwtittited a aoiit of atate 

r of thoae vho wcte vnahle to defend them- 

(Dem. «. Afoeor. Nifws^ pi 1076 ; PoOiix, 

¥£. 89.) Una he had to aapmntend oiphant 

nd thor fftatra, heiwata, iamilira kwing their 

TUfiirntiiriffB (o&M of ^^^^mv^iw), vidowa 

kft pwgninit, and to aee that thej were not 

wna^ed m any vaj. Should any one do aa» he 

was tMpoMWtt e d to infliet a fiae of a eettain 

;»ortobniig the partieatotnaL Heiieaaea, 

to have been vnder hia peenliar 

read (Dem. & JUioear. pu 1069), 

dat he eeald coaapel the next of kin either to 

■any apoor heireaa himarif, eren though she were 

•f a)sw«r daaa, or to portion her in marriage to 

aMher. Again we find {Id. p. 1055 ; P<9liix, 

TOL 62) t^t, when a pereon dairaed an inhe- 

adjndged to otheia, he lom- 

. the paily in poaewaion befiire the archon 

I (^murora) who hronght the caae into 

cGos^ and made anangementa fiir tzyioc the niit. 

We waAi howvvciv bar in mind that toia aatho- 

xiif waa only exerdaed in eaaea where the partiea 

woe iiiia e Ba, the polemaich having corretpondiDg 

danes when ^ heiwaa was an alien. It must alao 

he andetatood that, except in very few eaaea, the 

n^oaa did not dedde themaelvea, hot merely 

Uoaght the canaea into court, and eaat lota fer the 

^ia^ who were to try ^ iaane. (Dem. o. 

Sttfk. n. p^ 1136.) Another duty of the arehons 

wat to leeexve oi a w yy tA iai (Harpocr. t. v.), tx in- 

it inidividnala who had wmu g ed 

I who had maltreated their parenta, 

who had neglected or dcftaoded their 

(ffrfiariy ^nicA.'^pov, Terlapr, 6p^aimtf. 

Dem. <. Afaear. p 1069 ; Schgnwrni, pi 181.) In- 

" ' |«f and ^do-if. 




Bof another kind, the ir6ci|<r 
vme abo laid hefete the eponynma, though De~ 
■wathnnfB (cs. Thaoer, pw 707) aaaigned the fenner 
IB the theBmothetae. (EHnnxia.) The kat office 
tf the atchoii which we ahaU mention waa of a 
■CRd fharartrr ; we aUade to hia Biipenntendence 
d the neater IMonyaia and the Thaigdia, the 
hiler ewhimted in honoor of Apollo and Artemii. 
(Poflax, viiL 89.) 

The fanctaoBB of the fiunXe^^ or Kmff Ardkm^ 
vcfe afaaoat all connected with religion : hia dia- 
title ahowa that he waa ooDBJdered a 
$ of the old kiaga in their capacity of 



Thaa he preaided at the Lenaean, or dder Diony sia ; 
BB p fiintoi i de d the aiyaleriea and the gamea called 
^fT| i ¥ a in^ Bp fai , and had to offer up aaerifioea and 
ia the KlfnaJniam, both at Athena and 
lioraaiVHV indictmenta fer impiety, and 
fa at i afei a iei ahont the priaatfaood, were laid before 
hiai ; aad, in eaaea of mmdei^ he hnnght the trial 
lata the caoit of the Axeiopagna, aad voted with ita 
Aeabca, Hia wife, alao, who waa eaBed $aaU 
AiB«aer^te«iXi9»«,had to offer certain saciifieea, 
~ I it waa seqaiied that she should be a 



ARCBOK lis 

eitixen of pore Uood. withoat atain or blemlBh* 
His eoart waa held in what waa called 4 toS 
fimrtKim ered. (Dem. & Laer. pi 940 ; c. An-- 
drat p. 601 ; cNmasr. p.1870; Lyaiaa, e.A»doe. 
p. 109^ where the dutiea are cnomeiated ; Efaaaley, 
Ad ArukpLAekar. 1 148, et Scholia ; Harpocr. il v. 
'Ewt^MAiH^ twr ^wmipMir ; Plato, EmAfjAr, 
ad mit. et JlntL ad fin. ; PoUnx, viii 90.) 

The Pidmmarek waa originally, aa hia name de* 
notea, the commander-ia-chief (Herod, vi 109, 
HI ; Pottnx, viii. 91) ; aad we find him dia- 
charging militaiy dutiea aa Into aa the battle of 
Marathon, in conjunction vrith the ten eTpanryo^ : 
he there took, like the kings of old, the command of 
the right wing of the army. Thia, however, seems to 
be the laat occaaian on leeordof thia amgistrato a|^ 
pomted by lot, being inveated with auch important 
fimctiona ; and in after agea we find tlmt hia 
dutiea oeaaed to be miBtaiy, having been m a great 
meaanre transferred to the protectioD and saperin* 
tendenoe of the reaidcnt aliena, ao that he reaembled 
in many leapecta the praetor peregrinua at Rone. In 
feet, we learn from Aristotle, in Ua ** ConatitBtion of 
Athena,** that the polcmaith stood in the saam 
rdation to fiwcignen aa the aichon to dtiaena^ 
(Demoath. e. Laer, pi 940 ; AiiaL apnd Harpocr. 
«.e.;Polhtx, viii 91,92.) Thna, all actiona affect- 
ing aliena, the iaotdea and poxeni, were fafoogbt 
bSore him previonaW to timl ; aa, fer jnatawe, 
the Usai iarpo^rmgimt against a fiireigner, fiw 
living in Athena without a patron ; ao waa alao 
the Zitcn knarariam against a alave who feiled in 
hia duty to the master who had freed him. More* 
over, it was the poferaaich's duty to offer the 
yeariy sacrifioe to Artemis, in commem o ration of 
the vow made by GaIUmachna» at Marathon, and 
to arranee the fnnoal gamea in honour of thoae 
who feu in war. These three archona, the 
^vdfv/ioff, fitunK*^, and woX4/ta^fy wen each 
allowed two assfssors to assist them in the dia- 
charge of their dutiea. 

The TheamdheUu were extcnaively connected 
with the administration of justice, a]»d appear to 
have been called legiabtora (Thiriwall, HiM. tf 
Cfreeo^ voL iL p. 17), because in the abaence of a 
written code, they might be aaid to make laws, or 
d«r/io(, in the ancient language of Athena, 
though in reality they only declared and ex* 
]daiiwd them. They wen required to review, 
every year, the whole body of lawa, that they 
mifffat detect any inoonsistenciea or snperfinitiea, 
and diacover whether any laws which were abro- 
gated were in the public records amongst the rest 
(Aesehin. e. Otenpk, p. 59.) Their report waa sub- 
aaitted to the people, who referred the necessary 
alterationa to a legislative committee choaen for 
the poipoae^ and called Poii«64rai, 

The chief part of the duties of the theamothetaa 
oooaisted in receiving infonnations, and bringing 
eaaea to trial in the opurta of law, of the days of 
sitting in which they gave public notice. (Pollux, 
viiL 87, 88.) They did not try them themselves ; 
but seem tohave conatitoted a sort of grand jury, 
or inqueat Thus they received 4w9€i^€is against 
partiea who had not paid their finea, or owed any 
money to the state ; and in de&nlt of bringing 
the fenner partiea to trial, they lost their right A 
going up to the Areiopagua at the end of their year 
of dfic^. (Dem. e, Meid. p. 529 ; e. Afocor. n. 
1075 ; e. Tbnoor, 707; BdcUi, voL i. p. 69, voL li. 
pu72.) Again, indictmenta fer pecaooal iigurioa 



124 ARCHON. 

{ti€p€ms ypa/pot) were laid before them, as well as 
informations against olive growers, for rooting up 
more trees than was allowed to each proprietor 
by law. So, too, were the indictments for bribing 
the Heliaea, or any of the courts of justice at 
Athens, or the senate, or forming dubs £ar the 
overthrow of the democracy, and against retained 
adyocates (<nnrfiyopoi) who took bribes either in 
public or private causes. Asain, an information 
was laid before them if a foreigner cohabited with 
a citiaen, or a man gave in marriage as his own 
dauffhter the child of another, or confined as an 
adulterer one who was not so. They also had to 
refer informations (c2<rary«Aieu) to the people ; 
and where an information had been laid before the 
senate, and a condemnation ensued, it was their 
duty to bring the judgment into the courts of 
justice for confirmation or revision. (Dem. e. Stiq>L 
il p. 1137 ; c. Neaer. pp. 1351, 1363, 1368, 
€. Thnocr. p. 720 ; Pollux, viii 88 ; Bdckh, toI. l 
pp. 259, 317.) 

A different office of theirs was to draw up and 
ratify the o-^/aSoAxi, or agreements, with foreign 
states, settling the terms on which their citizens 
should sue and be sued by the citizens of Athens. 
In their collective o^Mcity, the arehons are said to 
have had the power of death in case an exile re- 
tamed to an interdicted phice : they also superin- 
tended the hrix9iporovia of the magistrates, held 
every prytany {hc^purwri tl 9oKtt koXus tfpx<*0« 
and brought to trial thore whom the people de- 
posed, if an action or indictment were the con- 
sequence of it. Moreover, they allotted the dicasts 
or jurymen, and probably presided at the annual 
election of the strategi and other military officers. 
(Pollux, viii. 87, 88 ; Harpocr.s. v. Karax^iporoyla: 
SchSmann, p. 231 ; Dem. e. Arts. p. 630.) 

We may here remark, that it is necessary 
to be cautious in our interpretation of the words 
itpxil and ipx^'^^'i ^ince in the Attic orators 
they have a double meaning, sometimes refer- 
ring to the arehons peculiariy so called, and 
sometimes to any other magistracy. Thus in 
laaeus (De Otonynd HaeredJ) we might on a 
cursory perusal infer, that when a testator left 
his property away from his heir-at-law, by what 
was technically called a Z6<ris (Harpocr. s. v./ 
Isaeus, wtpl K\4p«v), the arehon took the original 
will into custody, and was required to be present 
at the making of any addition or codicil to it. A 
more accurate observation proves that by eff rwr 
ipX^iTtn^ is meant one of the hrrvi^fwtj who 
formed a magistracy (^x4) as well as the nine 
arehons. 

A few words will suffice for the privileges and 
honours of the arehons. The greatest of the former 
was the exemption from the trienurchies — a boon 
not allowed even to the successors of Harmodlus 
and Aristogeiton. As a mark of their office^ they 
wore a chaplet or crown of myrtle ; and if any 
one struck or abused one of the ihesmothetae or 
the arehon, when wearing this badge of office, he 
became Ariftof, or infiunous in the fullest extent, 
thereby losing his civic rights. (Bitckh, voL ii. 
p. 322 ; Dem. c LepL pp. 462, 464, 465, c. Matt 
p. 524 ; Pollux, viii. 86.) The arehons, at the dose 
of their year of service, were admitted among the 
members of the Areiopagus. [Arxxopaou&] 

The Arehon Eponymus being an annual magis- 
trate at Athens, like the consul at Rome, it is 
nanifost thai a coirect list of the arehons is an 



ARCUS. 
important element in the determinatinn of AtBe 
nian chronology. Now from Chaon (b. c. 694), the 
first annual araion, to Oomiat (& c 560), we have 
the names of about twenty-four. From b» gl 66C 
to the invasion of Xerxes (& a 480), the umei 
and years of about twenty-four more hare been 
determined. From n. a 480 to 292, Diodonis and 
Dionyshu Halicamassus furnish an almoat un- 
broken succession for a period of neari j 200 years. 
The names, so for as they are known, are giTen by 
Clinton (F. £r.), who remarks that the oompila 
of the Parian marbles places the annual arehons one 
year too high respectively. He also states (toL ii. 
n. 12) that the best list is that of Coraini, who 
however is surpassed by Wesseling within the period 
embraced by the remains of Diodonis. [R.W. j 
ARCHO'NES (apx<^*)- [Txlonbs.J 
ARCIFFNIUS AOER. [Aobb.] 
ARCUS (also /wmse, Virg. Am. vi 631 ; Cic. 
m Verr. i 7 ; Kafuipa\ an areh. It is possible to 
give an areh^ form to the covering of any opening 
by placing horizonta] courses oi stones projecting 
over one another, from both sides of the opening*, 
till they meet at top, and then cutting the ends of 
the projecting stones to a regular curve, as shown 
below. This form is found in the most ancient 
arehitecture of nearly all nations, but it does not 
constitute a true areh. A true arch is formed of 
a series of wedge-like stones, or of bricks, support- 
ing each other, and idl bound firmly together by 
their mutual pressure. 

It would seem that the arch, as thus defined, 
and as used by the Romans, was not known to the 
Greeks in the early periods of their history, other- 
wise a language so copious as theirs, and of such 
ready application, would not have wanted a name 
properly Greek by which to distinguish it But 
the constructive prindple, by which an arch is 
made to hold together, and to afford a solid re- 
sistance against the pressure upon its circumference, 
was known to them even previously to the Trojan 
war, and its use is exemplified in two of the 
earliest buildings now remaining — the chamber 
built at Orehoroenus, by Minyas, king of Boeotia, 
described by Pausanias (ix. 38), and the treasury 
of Atreus at Mycenae. (Pans, ii 16.) Both 
these works are constructed under ground, and 
each of them consists of a cireular chamber formed 
by regular courses of stones laid horisontally over 
each other, each course projecting towards the in- 
terior, and beyond the one below it, till they meet 
in an apex over the centre, which was capped by a 
laige stone, and thus resembled the inside of a 
dome. Each of the horisontal courses of stones 
formed a perfect drde, or two semicircular arehes 
joined together, as the subjoined plan of one of 
these courses will render evident. 

It wiU be observed that the innermost end of 
each stone is bevelled off into the shape of a wedge, 
the apex of which, if continued, would meet in the 
centre of the cirele, as is done in forming sn areh ; 
while the outer ends against the earth are left rough, 
and their intentioes filled up with small irregular- 
shaped atones, the immense sixe of the prindpal 
stones rendering it unnecessary to continue the 
sectional cutting throughout their whde lei^h. 
Indeed, if these chamben had been constructed 
upon any other prindple, it is dear that the pres- 
sure of earth all around them would have caused 
them to collapse. The method of constraction 
here described was oommanicaled to the writer 



ARCUSu 
oT tfae pRMnt artide by tbe late Sir William 
GeO. Tliitt it seems tliAt the Greeks did ander- 
staad the coostractrre pcincii^ npon which aicbes 




are finned, ereo in the earliest times ; although 
St did not occur to them to diride the circle by a 
^metei^ and set the half of it upright to beer a 
cpowimbent weight But they made use of a 
««tri^aiiee eren bd^ the Trojan war, by which 
^^ ^«« enabled to gain all the advantages of our 
arthway in making corridors, or hollow galleries, 
12^ which in appearance resembled the pointed 
^fa, ioA as » now tenned Gothic This was 
f&cted by catting away the superincumbent stones 
IB the manner already described, at an angle of 
about 15® with tfae horizon. The mode of con- 
■tTBction and appearance of such arches is repre- 
Knted in the annexed drawing of the walls of 
TiiTBs, copied from Sir William Gell'k Argolis. 
The gate of Signia (iS^kQ m Latium exhibits a 
Biaiiar example. 




Tbe principle of the true arch seems to hare 
beea known to the Romans from the earliest 
period: it is used in the Ctoaea Maxima, It is 
iBQit pnrfiably an Etruscan invention. The use of 
H eoBstitntes one leading distinction between 
Greek and Roman architecture, for by its iq>plica- 
lioQ the Romans were enabled to execute works 
«flsr bolder constmctioD than those of the Greeks 



ARCUS TRIUMPHALia 12$ 

— to erect bridges and aqaedocts, and tbe most 
durable and massive structures of brick. The 
Romans, however, never used any other form of 
arch than the semicircle. [A. R.1 

ARCUS TRIUMPHA'LIS(a triumphal arch), 
was a structurs peculiar to the Romans, *mnn y 
whom it seems to have taken its origin fiom the 
Porla THmmpkaHs^ the nte by which a general 
oelefanting a triumph led his army into the city, on 
which occasions the gate was adorned with trophies 
and other memorials of the particular victory cele- 
brated: In process of time other arches were 
erected, both at Rome and in tbe provinces, to 
celebrate single victories, the memorials of which 
were carved npon them or fixed to them, and these 
remained as permanent monuments. They even 
came to be erected in memory of a Tictory br 
which there had been no triumph ; nay, even to 
commemorate other events than victories. That 
at Ancona, for example, was erected in honour of 
Trajan, when he had improved the harbour of the 
city at his own eomense. 

Triumphal arches were insulated structures 
built across the principal streets of the city, 
and, according to the ^lace of their respective 
localities, consisted of either a sii^le arch-way, 
or of a central one for carriages, wiUi two smaller 
ones on each side for foot passengers, which 
sometimes have side communications with tbe 
centre arch. Sometimes there were two arches oi 
equal height, side by side. Each front was orna- 
mented with trophies and bas-reliefs, which were 
also placed on the sides of the passages. Both 
fii^ades had usually columns against the pier^ 
supporting an entablature, surmounted by a lofty 
attic, on the front of which was the inscription, 
and on the top of it bronze chariots, war-horses, 
statoes, and trophies. 

Stertinius is the first upon record who erected 
any thing of the kind. He built an arch in the 
Forum Boarium, about ac. 196, and another 
in the Circus Maximus, each of which was sur- 
mounted by gilt statues. (Liv. xxxiiL 27.) Six 
years afterwards, Scipio Africanus built another on 
the Clivus Capitolinus, on which he placed seven 
gilt Btotues and two figures of horMS (Liv. xxxvii 
3) ; and in BL a 121, Fabius Maximus built a 
fourth in the Via Sacra, which is called by Cicero 
(in Verr. L 7) the Fornuc FabioMut. None of 
these remain, the Arch of Augustus at Rimini 
being one of the earliest among those still stand- 
ing. That these erections were eiUier temporary 
or very insignificant, may be inferred from the 
silence of Vitruvius, who says nothing of triomphal 
arches. We might bb sure, from the nature of 
the case, that such stiiictures would especially 
mark the period of the empire. 

There are twenty-one arches recorded by dif- 
ferent writers as having been erected in the city 
of Rome, five of which now remain : — 1. Areut 
Dnuif which was erected to the honour of Nero 
Ckudius Brusus on the Appian way. (Suet. 
CUn$d. 1.) 2. Arau TUi^ at the foot of the 
Palatine, which was erected to the honour of 
Titus, after his conquest of Judaea, but was not 
finished till afker his death ; since in the hiscrip- 
tion npon it he is called Dnms^ and he is also 
represented as bem^ carried up to heaven upon an 
eagle. The bas-relieft of this arch represent the 
spoils from the temple of Jerusalem carried in 
triumphal procession ; and are among the best 



126 



ARCU& 



AREIOPAGUa 



ipecimeni of Boroan tculptim. This arch has 
only a single opening, with two columns of the 
Roman or composite order on each side of it 3. 
Arau Septtmii Seven, which was erected hj the 
senate (a. d. 203) at the end of the Via Sacra, 
in honour of that emperor and his two sons, 
Caracalla and Oeta, on account of his victories 
over the Parthians and Aiahians. 4. Aretu Gal- 
Iknit erected to the honour of Gallienvs by a pri- 
Tate individoal, M. Aurdius Victor. 5. Arau 
QmateuUtni, which is huger and more profusely 
ornamented than the Arch of Titus. It was 
elected by the senate in honour of Coostantine, 
after his Tictory oTer Mazentius. It consists of 
three arches, with colunms against each front, and 
statues on llie entablatures otot them, which, with 
the other sculptured ornaments, originally de- 
corated the arch of Trajan. [P. S.] 

ARCUS (jSi^f, T6^i»), the bow used for shoot- 
ing arrows, is one of the most ancient of all wea- 
pons, but is characteristic of Asia rather than of 
Europe. Thus in the description given by Hero- 
dotus (vii. 61' — 80) of the various nations com- 
posing the array of Xerxes, we observe that nearly 
all the troops without exception used the bow. 
The Scythians and Parthians were the most cele- 
brated archen in the East, and among the Greeks 
the Cretans, who frequently served as a separate 
corps in the Greek armies, and subsequently also 
among the auxiliary troops of the Romans. (Comp. 
Xcn. Anab. i. 2. § 9 ; Liv. xlu. 35.) 

The form of the Scythian and Parthian bow 
differed from that of the Greeks. The former was 
in the sliape of a half-moon, and is shown in the 
upper of tne two figures here exhibited, which is 
taken from one of Sir W. HamilUm^s fictile vaseib 
(Comp. Amm. Marc xxiL 8.) The Greek bow, on 
the other band, the usual form of which is shown 




in the lower of the preceding figures, has a double 
curvature, consisting of twacircular portions united 
in the middle (rnx^^)- According to the descrip- 
tion in Homer (//. iv. 105 — 126), the bow was 
made of two pieces of horn, hence firequently called 
Kdpas and eornu. The bow-string (ytvpA) was 
twisted, and was frequently made of thongs of 
leather (vtvpa /S^fia). It was always fastened to 
one end of the bow, and at the other end there 
hung a ring or hook (Kop^yri\ usually made of 
metal (xpvir^), to which the string was attached, 
when the bow was to be used. In the same pas- 
sage of Homer we have a description of a man 
preparing to shoot, and this account is illustrated 
by the following outline of a statue belonging to 
the group of the Aeginetan marbles. The bow, 
placed in the hands of this statue, was probably 
of bronze, and has been lost. 




When not used, the bow was put into a case 
{ro^oOiiicrij yttpvrSs, Ooryhu), which was made of 
leather, and sometimes ornamented {faieu^6sj Horn. 
Od, xxi. 54). The bow-case is very conspicuous 
in the sculptured bas-reliefs of Peraepolis. It 
frequently held the arrows as well as the bo«r, 
and on this account is often confounded with the 
Pharetra or quiver. Though its use was com- 
paratively rare amon^ the Greeks and Romans, 
we find it exhibited m a bas-relief in the Museo 
Pio- Clementine (vol iv. tav. 43), which is copied 
in the annexed cut 




ARDA'LION (hfMktw). [Funur.] 

A'REA. [AoRicuLTURA, p.44.] 

AREIOTAGUS. The Areiopagns (S^AptM 
wdyos, or hill of Ares), at Athens, was a rocky 
eminence, lying to the west o^ and not far from the 
Acropolis. To account for the name, various stories 
were told. Thus, some said that it was so called from 
the Amazons, the daughters of Ares, having encamped 
there when they attacked Athens ; others again, ss 
Aeschylus, fivm the sacrifices there offered by them 
to that god ; while the more received opinion con- 
nected the name with the legend of Ares having 
been brought to trial there by Poseidon, for the 
murder of his son Halirrhotius. (Dem. e. Aristocr. 
p. 642 ; AeschyL Bum, 659.) To none, however, 
of these legends did the pUce owe its fiune, bat 
rather to the council ('H iv *Afwly '^^TV ^ovX^), 
which held its sittings there, and was somctinias 



AHEIOPAOUSL 

oQed H Im» /io«A4, to dkiingiikli H from the 
MSBteafRre Hundred, wUch at in theCeraineienB 
whhin tkb dtf. Tbat it m a body of tctj remote 
SBtaqntj, actix^ as a oiminal tribonal, wai eti- 
dently bdiefed bgr the Athenians themselTes. In 
jneid^bkfWwmjnSerioihe ezpcen astertions 
ef tbe onton, and the legend of Oiettcs bsTii^ 
beat tried bcfcre the oouncil for the muxder of his 
Butkcr — a trial vhkh took place before Athena, 
aad vUeh Aeaehyhis re p w enta as the origin of 
the eoeit ilsdi. Again, we find that even before 
the fint Ifcisenian war (& & 740) bepiaa, the 
MoKaius offered to referthe pcxinti in dispate to 
the Axgrre Amphietion j, or the Athenisn Azeio- 
p^ (Pane. ir. 5. § 1 ; Thiriwall, HigL GrBeet, 
ToL L p. M5), becanae thii body waa bdiered to 
kre had jariidiction in cases of mandsnghter 
(Stttf ^ttmJ^y^ •'fimn of dd.** 

There ii safEcient pno^ then^ that the Areiopa- 
pa existed before the time of SoMli, though he is 
admitted to hare so for modified iti oonstitotion 
aod sftken of duty, that he migbt almost be called 
iti faoader. What tkit original constitatbn was, 
ant in some degree be left to conjectoxe, though 
there is eroy zeason to suppose that it was 
witocxitieal, the memben being taken, like 
the Ephetoe, from the noble patrician fomilies 
< VwrMqr). We may lemaric tnat, after the time 
of Soipo, the Ephetae, fifty-one in nnmber, sat 
colkctivdy in four different conrts, and were 
^ai]^ with the hearing of snch cases of acci- 
deatsl er jostifiable homicide as admitted of or re- 
quired ezpktifln, before the accosed could resmne 
the dril and religious rights he had lost: a re- 
iBBptkii inroossible in cases of wilfiil mnrder, the 
cspital pamsmaent for which eonld only be esoped 
hj haaiiknient for life, so that no expiation was 
leqnized cr given. (Muller, jEiniMa. § 64 ; PoUaz, 
Tm. 125.) Now the Ephetar fimnerly adminis- 
tered justice in five couits, and for this and other 
icaspos it has been conjectnred that they and the 
Areiopagus then fonned one coort, which decided 
m all cases of morder, whether wilftil or accidental. 
Is snppoft of this view, it has been urged that the 
lepazatiin of functions was rendered necessaiy by 
tliat ehsx^ of Solon which made the Areiopagus 
DO longer aa aristocratic body, while the Ephetae 
maained so^ and as snch were competent to ad- 
niiiistcr the rights of expiation, fonning, as they 
did, a pert of tbe sacred law of Athois, and there- 
fare left in the hands of the old patricians, even 
after the loss of their political privileges. Oa this 
point we may xemaik, that the connection insisted 
6B waj to a great extent be Ime ; but that there 
was not a coiqileto identic of functions is proved 
br Plstareh {Solom. c.19), in a qnototion from the 
hws of Sokm, showing that even before that legis- 
lator the Afuopagites and Ephetae were :' 



AREIOPAGU& 



m 



It hss been obser?ed, in the article Ajkcbon, 
thst the principal change introduced by Solon in 
the oonstitatian of Athens, was to make the quali- 
fication for office depend not on birth but property ; 
abo that, i^ieeably to his reforms, the ninearehons, 
after aa nnexeeptianable discharge of their duties, 
''vest vp** to the Areiopagoa, and became mem- 
btn of it far fife, unleaa expelled for miscondnct. 
(Deiaar. c: Demc$ik y. 97 ; ¥\vA.SoL c 18.) 

The eoundl then, aft^ his time, ceased to be 
arirtooatie in eonstitntion ; bnt, as we leam from 
Attic writea* eontinned so in spirit. In foct, 



SolsB is aaid to have fesmed the two eoonefli, the 
senate and the Areioutgna, to be a check upon the 
demooaey ; that, as he himaelf ex pressed it, ** the 
stote, riding npon them as anehora, m^t be less 
tossed by stonnsL** Nay, even after the arehons 
were no longer elected l^ sofiage bat by lot, and 
the office was thrown open by Aristeides to aU the 
Athenian citizens, the ** upper 000001** still re- 
tained its former tone of fieding. We learn, in- 
deed, from Isoceates {Areio^ p. 147), that no one 
was so bad as not to put off his old habits on be- 
coming an Areiopagite; and though this may refer 
to privato rather than pnblic conduct, we may not 
unreasonably suppose that the political principles 
of the younger would always be mndififd by the 
older and more nnmenMis members— a nM»diiiati«n 
which, though continually less in degree, would 
still be the ssme in direction, and make the Ani»- 
pogos what Perides found it, a oounti 
to the democracy. Moreover, besides these ch 
in ite oonstitotion, Sokm altered and extended ito 
fimctions. Before his time it was only a criminal 
court, trying cases of ** wilful minder and wonnd- 
ing, of anon and poiaoning** (PoUnx, viii 117 ; 
Dem. 0. AriMt, p. 627), whereas he cave it extensive 
powers of a ce ns ori a l and political nature. Thoa 
we learn that he made the council an **ovcrseer 
of everything, and the guardiaa of the laws,** em- 
powering it to inquire how any one got his living, 
and to punish the idle. (Plntareh. Sokm, c 22 ; 
Isoc L &) 

We leam from other authorities that the 
Arempagites were ** superintendente of good order 
and decency,** terms rather unlimited and unde- 
fined, as it is not improbable Solon wished to 
leave their authority. There are, however, re- 
corded some particular instances of its exertion. 
(Atfaen.iv. pp. 1 67, c. — 168, b. vi p. 245, e. ed. Din- 
dorf ; PoUux, viiL 112.) Thus we find that they 
called persons to account fixr extravaeant and dis- 
soluto living, and that too even in ute later days 
of Athenian history. On the other hand, they oe- 
carionalty rewarddl remaikable cases of indiutry, 
and, in company with certain officen called 
TVMuieortf/Aoi, made domidliaiy visits at prinUe en- 
tertainments, to see that the number of gueste 
was not too large, and also for other purposes. 
But their censorial and political authority was not 
confined to matters of thii snbordinato chaiacter. 
We leam from Aristotle (Pint. TkmtM. c. 10 ; see 
Bockh, voL i. p. 208), that at the time of the 
Median invasion, when there was no money in 
the pnblic treasury, the Areiopagus advanced eight 
drachmae a man to each of the nilon — astotement 
which proves that they had a treasury of their 
own, rather than any control over the public 
finances, as some have inferred from it (Thiriwall, 
Hist Gneeee, voL iiL app. 1.) Again, we are told 
(Lyeaig. & £00^ p. 154) that at the time of the 
battle of Chaeroneia, they seized and put to death 
those who deserted their oonntiy, and that they 
were thought by some to have been the chief pre- 
servation of the city. 

It is probable that publie opmion supported 
them in acts of this kind, without the aid of which 
they must have been powerless for any snch ob- 
jects. In connection with this point, we may add 
that when heinous crimes had notoriously been 
committed, but the guilty parties were not known, 
or no accnser appeared, tne Areiopaffus inquired 
into the subject, and reported (&9ro^a&cv) to the 



128 



ARETOPAGU& 



demnB. The report or informatioii was called 
ii,w6^>airis. This was a duty which they sometimes 
undertook on their own responsibility, and in the 
exercise of an old-established right, and sometimes 
on the order of the demns. (Deinarch. c Dem. pw 97 ; 
Schumann, De Cbrndns, p. 217, tnmsL) Nay, 
to such an extent did they cany this power, that 
on one occasion they apprehended an individual 
(Antiphon) who had been acquitted by the 
general assembly, and again brought him to a 
trial, which ended in his condemnation and death. 
(Dem. De Cor. pp.271, 272; Deinaich. cDenu 
p. 98.) Again, we find them revoking an appoint- 
ment of the people whereby Aeschines was made 
the advocate of Athens b^ore the Amphictionic 
council, and substituting Hyperides in his room. 
In these two cases also, they were most probably 
supported by public opinion, or by a strong party 
in tlie state. (Dem. /. a) 

They also had duties connected with relicion, 
one of which was to superintend the sacred olives 
growing about Athens, and tiy those who were 
charged with destroying them. (Lysias, IIcpl rov 
2i}«coD, p. 110.) We read, too, that in the dis- 
charge of their duty as religious censors, they on 
one occasion examined whether the wife of the 
king archon was, as required by law, an Athenian ; 
and finding she was not, imposed a fine upon her 
husband. (Dem. c Nsaer. p. 1372.) We learn 
firom the same passage, that it was their office 
generally to punish the impious and irreligious. 
Agun we axe told, though rather in a rhetorical 
way, that they relieved the needy from the re- 
sources of the rich, controlled the studies and 
education of the young, and interfered with and 
punished public characters as such. (Isocr. Areiop, 
p. 161.) 

Independent, then, of its jurisdiction as a 
criminal court in cases of wilfid murder, which 
Solon continued to the Areiopagus, its influence 
must have been sufficiently great to have been a 
considerable obstacle to the agsrandisement of the 
democracy at the expense of the other parties in 
the state. In fiict, Plutarch (Solon, c. 18), ex- 
pressly states tlutt Solon had this object in view 
m its reconstruction ; and accordingly, we find 
that Pericles, who never was an archon or Areio- 
pagite, and who was opposed to the aristocracy for 
many reasons, resolved to diminish its power and 
circumscribe its sphere of action. His coadjutor 
in this woric was Ephialtes, a statesman of inflexible 
integrity, and also a military commander. (Plut 
Cim, 7, Peric 10, 1 3.) They experienced much op- 
position in their attempts, not only in the assembly, 
but also on the stage, where Aeschylus produced 
his tragedy of the Eumenides, the object of which 
was to impress upon the Athenians the dignity, the 
sacredncss, and constitutional worth of the insti- 
tution which Pericles and Ephialtes wished to re- 
form. He reminds the Athenians that it was a 
tribunal instituted by their patron goddess Athena, 
and puts mto her mouth a popular harangue full 
of warnings against innovations, and admonishing 
them to leave the Areiopai^is in possession of its 
old and well grounded rights, that under its watch- 
ful guardianship they might sleep in security. 
(MUller, Eunu § 35.) Still the opposition failed : 
a decree was carried, about b. & 458, by which, as 
Aristotle nys, the Areiopagus was *^ mutOated,** and 
many of its hereditary rights abolished. (Arist PoL 
ii 9 ; Cic. Z>0 Nat, Deor. ii. 29, De Rep. i. 27.) 



AREIOPAGUS. 
Cicero, who in one place speaks of the ooundl as 
governing Athens, observes in another that from that 
tune all authority was vested in the eeclesia, and 
the state robbed of its ornament and honour. Plu- 
tarch (dnuMy 15) tells us that the people deprived 
the Areiopagus of neariy all its judicial authority 
(rebr Kpitrtis wXV ^>Jy9n^ ordo-of), establishing 
an unmixed democncy, and making themselves 
supreme in the courts of justice, as if there had 
formeriy been a superior tribunal Bat we infer 
from another passage, that the oooncil lost con- 
siderable authority in matters of state ; for we 
learn that Athens then entered upon a career of 
conquest and aggrandisement to which she had 
previously been a stranger ; that, ** like a rampant 
horse, she would not obey the reins, but sn^)ped 
at Euboea, and leaped upon the neighbonnng 
islands.*^ These accounts in themsdvea, and as 
compared with others, are sufficiently vague and 
inconsistent to perplex and embarrass ; accord- 
ingly, there has been much discussion as to the 
precise nature of the alterations which Pericles 
effected ; some, amongst whom we may mention 
MuUer {Bum. § 37), are of opinion that he de- 
prived the Areiopagus of their old jurisdiction in 
cases of wilful murder, and one of his chief argu- 
ments is that it was evidently the design of Aes- 
chylus to support them in this prerogative, which 
therefore must have been assailed. For a suffi- 
cient answer to this, we would refer our readen 
to Bishop Thirl wall's remarks {HiaL of Greece, 
vol. iiL p. 24), merely stating in addition, that 
Demosthenes (c. Aridocr. p. 641) * expressly 
affirms, that neither tyrant nor democracy had 
ever dared to take away from them this jurisdic- 
tion. In addition to which it may be remarked, 
that the consequences ascribed to the innovation 
do not indicate that the Areiopagus lost its au- 
thority as a criminal tribunal, but rather that it 
was shorn of its power as superintoiding the 
morals and conduct of the citizens, both in civil 
and religious matters, and as exercising some 
control over their decisions. Now an authority 
of the former kind seems fiir removed from any 
political influence, and the popular belief as to its 
origin would have made it a dangerous object of 
attack, to say nothing of the general satisfaction 
the verdicts had always given. We may observe, 
too, that one of the chief features of a democracy 
is to make all the officers of the state responsible ; 
and that it is not improbable that one of the 
changes introduced by Ephialtes was, to make the 
Areiopagus, like other functionaries, accountable 
to the demus for their administration^ as. indeed, 
we know they afterwards were. (Aesch. & Ota. 
p. 56 ; Bdckh, vol. i p. 353.) This simple re- 
gulation would evidently have made them subser- 
vient, as they seem to have been, to public opinion; 
whereas no such subserviency is recorded in 
criminal matters, their tribunal, on the contrary, 
being always spoken of as most just and holy ; so 
much so, that Demosthenes says (c ArieL pp. 641, 
642) that not even the condemned whisp^vd an 
insinuation against the righteousness of their 
verdicts. Indeed, the proceedings before the 
Areiopagus, in cases of murder, were by their 
solenmity and fiiimess well calculated to insure 



* For an able vindication of this statement of 
Demosthenes^ the reader is referred to Hermann, 
Opuee. vol. iv. p. 299. 



AREIOPAGUSL 

jut deexnoBt. The pvoocai wm as IbDoirt : — Tbe 
kii^ aickon (PoDox, viii 90) bnwght the caee 
iato court, and sat as one of the judges, who were 
anembkd in the open air, piobaUy to goard 
againstanj eantaminatkm from the cnminaL (An- 
tipbon, Db CmtKU Herod, p. 130; Dem. e. AritL 
Lc; Poniuc, sm. 33.) The aecnaer, who was 
Bid dt 'Apfto^ wdiyor iwt<nc^^rr§tp^ fint came foi^ 
vaid to make a solemn oaUi (jUm/iaoia) that his 
smrMtion was true, standmg over the slaoghtered 
Tictxma, and imprecaUuig eztiipation upon himself 
and his wliole fiumly, were it not so. The aoGfOsed 
then denied the cham with the tame solemnitj 
sad fixm of oath. Each party then stated hu 
esse with all poasible plaumeas, keeping strictlr to 
the subject, and not being allowed to i^ipeu in 
say war to the feelings or paaiioms of the judges 
{rpoottLAifC^OA 9inc i^t^ o&M olieriiwSai. 
AristoC Rket. L 1 ; Pollux, yiii 117.) After the 
fiiit ^eech (jtierit ritw wp6r€pop \i6yw\ a crimtDal 
seeaMd of murder might remoTO fiom Athens, 
sad thaa sroid the capitsl punishment fixed by 
Dtajea^ Ocv/io^, which on this point were stiU in 
fcsce. Except in cases of panicide, neither the 
seeawr nor the court had power to preTent this ; 
but the party who thus evaded the extreme punish- 
meat was not allowed to return home {<pt^t 
^M^ryMv), and when any decree was passed at 
Athena to legalise the return of exika, an exception 
vsft always made asainst those who had thus left 
their c uon t ry (at «( *A^fov vdtyov ^vTorrcr). 
See Plato, £c^ ix. 11. 

The repntatioQ of the Areiopagus as a criminal 
cmst was of long eontinnanoe, as we may learn 
itam aa anecdote of Aulus Oellius, who tells us 
{ra. 7) that C Dolahella, proconsul of the Ro- 
Dan pcvvinoe of Asia, referred a case which per- 
plexed himself and his council to the Areiopagus 
(i< md Jmdieeg j f rnv hr t M awrntalioretoiw) ; they 
iagenioasly settled the matter by orderii^ the 
parties to appear that day 100 years {eeiUetimo 
osao ademe)» They existed in name, indeed, tiH 
a very late period. Thus we find Cicero mentions 
the csoBcil in his letters {Ad Fam. xiiL 1 ; Ad 
AtL L 14, T. 11) ; and under the emperors Gntisn 
sod Theodesins (a. d. 380), 'Po^f ^ifOTor is 
caQed proeoiisnl of Greece, and an Areiopagite. 
QUeaaamM^ Araop.) 

Of the respectability and moral worth of the 

cooBcil, and the respect that was paid to it, we 

have shondant proof in the writings of the Athe- 

nisn onton, when, indeed, it would be difficult to 

find it mentioned except in terms of praise. 

Thai Lynas speaks of it as most righteous and 

▼eaetsble (& Amdoe. pi 104 ; compare Aesch. e, 

TuMT. 12 ; Jaofa. ArgkfK 148) ; and so great was 

the Rspect paid to its membos, that it was con- 

sidend rude in the demus knghiny in their prs- 

seneci while one of them was makmg an address 

to the assembly on a subject they had been de- 

pBted to inrestigate. This respect might, of coune, 

fcrilitste the resumption of some of their lost 

poatc, more especially as they were sometimes 

iutnsted with inquiries on behalf of the state, 

as on the occasiott to iriuch we hare just alluded, 

wben they were made a sort of commissioners, to 

iaqviie into the state oi the buildings about the 

Pbtx, and decide upon the adoption or rejection 

of Hoe proposed alteiaUons. Isocrates, indeed, 

eren m iiii time, when the pcoTWos inquiry or 

^^ofuuia had fidlen into disuse, speaks well of 



ARQ£t 



19» 



their moral inflnfflce $ but shortlr after the ago of 
Demetrius Phalereus, a chaz^ had taken {uacei 
they had lost much of their respectability, and 
were but ill fitted to enforce a conduct in others 
which they did not obserre themselTes. (Athen. 
iT. pc 167.) 

The case of St Paul (Act. xril 22.) is generally 
quoted as an instance of their anthori^ in religious 
matters ; but the words of the lacred historian do 
not necessarily hnply that he was brought before the 
connciL It may, however, be renuuked, that they 
certainly took coq|niaanoe of the introduction of 
new and unauthonaed forms of religious worship, 
called MBm Itpd, in contradistmetion to the 
wd(rpM or older rites of the state. (Harpocfatt.ee. 
Twttfrroi *Eopral ; Schtfmann, De Cbmtim, pk.286. 
transL) There was also a tradition that Pkto was 
deterred from mentioning the name of Moses as a 
teacher of the unity of the Godhead, by his iear of the 
Areiopagus. (Jnstinlfartyr,CSDybr.<M<£?nMe.p.22.) 

With respect to the number of the Areiopagus 
in its original form, a point of no great moment, 
there are various scoounts; but it is plain that 
there could have been no fixed number when the 
archons became members of this body at the ex- 
piration of their year of office. Lysias, indeed, 
speaks of them (ne^rovSiicov, pp. 1 10, 1 11 ; see 
Argmm, OraL c AndraL) as forming a psit of the 
Areiopagus even during that tune; a statement 
which can only be reooncfled vrith the general 
opinion on the subject, by supposing that they 
formed a part of the council during their year of 
office, but were not permanent memben till the 
end of that time, and after passing a satisfiutoiy 
examination. [R» W.] 

ARE'NA. [Amphithkatrum.] 

ARETA'LOGI, a class of persons whose con- 
venation formed one of the entertunments of the 
Roman dinner-tablesL (Suet Oeftve. 74.) The 
word literally signifies penoiu who dUeomne o6oi4 
vutue; and the class of perwrns intended seem to 
hsTe been poor philosophers, chiefly of the Cynic 
and Stoic sects, who, unable to gain a living by 
their public lectures, obtained a maintenance at 
the tables of the rich by their philosophical con- 
venation. Such a life would naturslly degenerate 
into that of the paiasite and buffoon ; and acccHrd- 
ing^y we find tnese perMus sp<4Len of contemp- 
tuously by Juvenal, who uses the phrase meiuUw 
aretaloguB : they became a sort of scicfTae. ( Juv. 
SaL XV. 15, 16 ; comp. Casaubon. ad Suei. L e. ; 
and Ruperti and Heinrich, ad Juv, I. ci) [P. S.] 

A'RGEI. We learn firom Livy (I 22) that 
Numa consecrated pkces for the celebration of 
religious services, which were called by the ponti- 
fices '^ wttteir Varro calls them the chapds of the 
argei, and says they were twenty-seven in num- 
ber, distributed in the different districts of the 
dty. We know but little of the particular uses 
to which they were applied, and that little is un- 
important Thus we are told that they were 
Boienmly visited on the Liberalia, or festival of 
Bacchus ; and also, that wfaeneyer the flamen 
dialis went (wU) to them, he was to adhere to 
certain observances. They seem slso to have been 
the depositaries of topogrephical records. Thus 
we read m Varro, — In merms Argeorum mriphun 
nt tic: Oppiut mtm$ prineepi^ &c, which is fol- 
lowed by a description of the neighbourhnod. There 
was a tradition that these arwei were named torn 
the chieftains who came vrith Hercules, the Aigive, 



180 



ARQENTARII. 



lo Rome, and occupied the Capitoline, or, as it was 
andently called, Satnniiaii bilL It ia impoasible to 
•ay what is the histoiical Talae or meaning of this 
legend ; we may, however, notice its confbrmi^ 
with the statement that Rome was founded by 
the Pelasgians, with whom the name of Aigos was 
connected. (Yair. Z. L, t. 45, ed. Mtiller ; Or. 
FatL iii. 791 ; GelL x. 15 ; Niebnhr, Bom, Hitt 
vol i p. 214.) 

The name aigei was also given to certain figmes 
thrown into the Tiber from the Snblician bridge, 
on the Ides of May in every year. This was 
done by the pontifioes, the vesttus, the praetors, 
and other citizens, after the performance of the 
customary sacrifices. The images were thirty in 
number, made of bulroshes, and in the form of 
men (cXBwAa iu^ip^€\a^pn»oonan siandaeraviro- 
rum). Ovid makes various suppositions to acccnmt 
for the origin of this rite ; we can only conjecture 
that it was a symbolical offering to propitiate the 
gods, and that the number was a representative 
either of the thirty patrician curiae at Rome, or 
perhaps of the thirty Latin townships. Dion3rBins 
of Huicamassus states (L 19, 38) that the custom 
continued to liis times, and was instituted by Her- 
cules to satis^r the scruples of the natives when 
he abolished the human sacrifices formerly made 
to Saturn. (Varr. L.L. vii. 44 ; Ov. Fast, v. 621 ; 
Plut. QkouI. Rom, p. 102, Reiske ; Arnold, Rom, 
Hid, vol i. p. 67 ; Bunsen and Platner, Betehrm" 
Imag Roms^ vol i. p. 688—7020 [R. W.J 

ARGENTA'RII (rfHwrcilroi), bankers or 
money changers. 1. Grssk. The bankers at 
Athens were caJled Tpavc^rcu firom their tabli>s 
(Tpdw9(ou) at which ihey sat, while carxying on 
their business. Public or state banks seem to 
have be^ a thing unknown in antiquity, though 
the state must have exercised some kind of super- 
intendence, since without it it is scarcely possible 
to conceive how persons could have placed such 
unlimited confidence in the banken, as they are 
known to have done at Athens. They had their 
stands or tables in the market place (Plat ApoL 
p. 17, H^. Min, p. 868), and although the bank- 
ing and money cnanging business was mostly 
carried on by iiiroiKoiy or resident aliens and freed- 
men, still these persons do not seem to have been 
looked upon with any disrespect, and the business 
itself was not disreputable. Their principal occu- 
pation was that of changing money at an agio 
(Isocrat Trapex, 21 ; Dem. De JaU. Leg, pi 376, 
0. Pofyd, p. 1218 ; Pollux, iii 84, viL 170) ; but 
they firequently took money, at a moderate pre- 
mium, from persons who did not like to occupy 
themselves with the management of their own 
affairs. Thus the fiither of Demosthenes, e. g,^ 
kept a part of his capital in the hands of bankers. 
(Dem. c Aphob, I p. 816.) These persons then lent 
the money with profit to others, and thus, to a 
certain degree, obtained possession of a monopoly. 
The greater part of the capital with which they 
did business in this way, belonged to others (Dem. 
p, Phorm, p. 948), but sometimes they also em- 
ployed coital of their own. Although their sole 
object was pecuniaiy gain (Dem. p, Phorm, p. 953), 
and not by any means to connect themselves with 
wealthy or illustrious fimiUies, yet they acquired 
great credit at Athens, and formed business con- 
nections in all the principal towns of Greece, 
whereby their business was effBCtually supported. 
(Dem. p, Phorm, p. 958, aPo^^ p. 1224.) They 



ARGENTARII. 

even mamtained so great a reputation that ihH only 
were they considered as secure merely by virtue of 
their calling, but such confidence was placed in 
them, that sometimes business was transacted \rith 
them without witnesses (Isocr. Trapex, 2X ^^^^ 
that money and contracts of debt were deposited 
with them, and agreements were concluded or can- 
celled in their presence. (Dem. e. CaU^. p. 1 243, 
c Dkmjfsod, p. 1287.) The great importance of 
their business is dear from the immense wealth of 
Pasion, whose bank produced a net annnal profit 
of 100 mmae. (Dem. p, Phorm, p. 946.) There 
are, however, instances of bankers losing every- 
thing they possessed, and becoming uftcr^ l>ank- 
rupt (Dem. p. Phorm, p. 959, e, sSph, L pw II 20.) 
That these bankers took a high interest when they 
lent out money, scarcely needs any proof, their 
loans on the deposits of goods are sufficient evi- 
dence. (Dem. c. Nicostr, p. 1249.) Their iiaual 
interest was 36 per cent, an interest that acaacclj 
occurs any where except in oases of money lent on 
bottomry. The only instance of a bank recognized 
and conducted on behalf of the state occurs at 
Byzantium, where at one time it was let by the 
republic to capitalists to iarm. (Arist. Oeoon, ii. 
p. 283 ; comp. Bdckh, PM. Eeonom, ^ Athens^ 
p. 126, &c 2d edit) 

2. Roman. The Argmlarti at Rome were also 
called orgmiieaA mmuae eMreUont, ar^enii dis- 
iractontajkdnegoiiaioreste^iargeiimae, (Orelli, 
Inacript, n. 4060.) They must be distingaished 
froBk the mentarii or public bankers, though even 
the ancients confound the terms, as the memmxrii 
sometimes did the same kind of business as the 
Bigentarii, and they must also be distingaished 
from the mmmnUirii, [Mkitsaru; Kuncasu- 
LARii.] The argentarii were private peraons, who 
carried on business on their own responsibility, and 
were not in the service of the republic ; hut the 
shops or tabemoiS which they occupied and in 
which they transacted their business about the 
forum, were state property. (Dig. 18. tit. 1. 
s. 32 ; liv. xl. 51.) As their chief business -was 
that of changing money, the aigentarii probably 
existed at Rome from very early times, as the in- 
teroonrse of the Romans with other Itidian nations 
could not well exist without them ; the first men- 
tion, however, of their existing at Reone and 
having their shops or stalls around the famm, oc- 
curs about B. c. 350, m the wars against the Sam- 
nites. (Liv. vii. 21.) The business of the ar»»n- 
tarii, with which that of the mensarii coincided 
in many points, was very varied, and comprised 
almost every thing connected with money or mer- 
cantile tzansactions, but it may be divided into 
the following branches. 1. PermnOatio, or the 
exchange of foreign coin for Roman coin, in 
which case a small agio (collybus) was paid to 
them. (Cic m Verr. iii 78.) In later times 
when the Romans became acquainted with the 
Greek custom of usmg bills of exchange, the 
Roman argentarii, e.g., received sums of money 
which had to be paid at Athens, and then drew 
a bill payable at Athens by some banker in 
that city. This mode of transacting busmess 
is likewise called permutatio (Cic. ad Att, sdi. 
24, 27, XV. 15 ; comp. v. 16, xi. 1, 24, ad 
Fam, ii. 17, iii 5, orf Qumt, Frat. I 3, jd. I^^ 
bir, 14), and rendered it necesiaiy for the argen- 
tarii to be acquainted with the current value of 
the same coin in different ph^es and at different 



ABOENTABIL 

tML (See tjiecammait. an Cic. jpry Qwiirf, 4,) 
% Hie keeping of same of nooey ibr otlier per> 
MBft. Sodh mwy n^ifat be depoeited bj the 
evBcr BMfely to nve famiaelf the tzoaUe of keep- 
isf it aad mkiiig paymeati, and in tUt case it 
ves edkd depotHmmj the aigentsrius then paid 
i the menejwai called «a6i»/»e- 
Wben a paymemtvai te be made, the 
r ttM the a rge nto ri ne perMiiaUy or he 
diev a ckeqoe. (Pknt. CkanatL iL 3. 66, ftc^ iii. 
6fi, IT. 31 3), &C.) Or the monej wai depoeited on 
<wirfiii« of tbe aigoitaiins paying inteicft ; in 
thii ease the monej was called crvriitaM, and the 
aifuilaiia a might of ooune employ the money 
^BDMlf in miy huatiTe manner. (Suet Awff, 39.) 
The aigeBtaau thos did almost the same sort of 
Iwnnum as a aodeni banker. Many penons en- 
tnsted aU their camtal to them (Ci&p. Oma 6), 
sad hjitaaeea in whieh the angntsni made pay- 
■ate ia the name of thoee whMo monsj they had 
is hand, aoe mentioned very freqoentfy. A pay- 
Bent made thnmgh a banker was called jmt aiea- 
mm,^watmaaf orysr iw«saif seryfara— , while a 
psTmeat laade by the debtor in person was a pay* 
BKst or ores or de domo, (PhwL OntmL t. 3. 
7, ft«^ 43, Oqeft'o. iL 3. 89 ; Cie. otf ^tt. i 9, 
Tap. 3 ; SehoL ad HoraL £UL ii 3. 69 ; Sense 
EpaL 26; Gains, iiL 131.) An aigentaiins 
Bercr paid away any person^ money without 
bebg eilher anthoriaed by him in penon or re- 
eeiTi^g a dieqae whieh was called p rn' tenp t h ^ 
aad the payment waa then made either in cash, 
(^ if the psESoo vho was to noeive it, kept an 
aceoaat with the same banker, he had it added 
is the baakerls book to his own deposit This was 
fikcwise called ^sTMrAers or simply senftsw. (Pkmt 
Jm. a. 4. 30, Aie^ CmrmL t. 2. 20 ; Donat ad 
r««LPionB.T. 7. 2a,ft4^arf^ds^iL4.1S; 
Qc. od jiiL IT. 18, ix. 12, zii. 51, PiO^. t. 4, 
« Verr. t. 19 ; Hont. Sat, ii 3. 76.) It also oe- 
oastWtaigentarii madepayments fisr penons who 
hid not deposited any money with them ; this 
m eqairalent to lending money, whieh in £ut 
they sftes did ftr a certain per cenlsge of interest 
(Pkst Chvc IF. 1. 19, 2. 22, TVae. L 1. 61, Ac, 
Jb>£ i 2L 40; Tae. Aon. tL 17.) Of all this 
I, sf the receipts as well as of the ezpen- 
the aigentarii kept aecmato aeeoonts in 
MucaOed eo&es, fateftK or nxeidiiM (Plin. i7. AT. 
n. 7), aad there is erery reason for beUering that 
^ were acqnainted with what is called m book- 
fce^B^ doable cntiy. When an aigentarios set- 
tied In aeconnts widi persons with whom he did 
Iwii i se m , it was done either in writing or ocslly, 
both patties meeting lor the porpose (Dig. 2. 
tk.U. S.47. §1, 14. tit 8. s.20; Phut Am- 
U.m.h. 6S,&&), and the party fmmd to be in 
debt paid what he owed, aad then had his name 
e^Mod (aooMa ospedHrs or eapaagere) from the 
fasaker^ books. (Pbat CitL I 3. 41 ; Cic. oJ 
AM. xn. 6.) As the books of the a ige n tarii were 
fQiosily kept vidi gieat aomuat^, and partieo- 
kriy ia regard to data, they ware looked open as 
dacameats of high andiority, aad were I4ipealed 
ioB the eoots of jostioe as nneaaieptionable eri- 
desee. (Cic^ jx. Ouc 6 ; Gellias, ziT. 2.) Henee 
the sfg e ntarii were elien concemed in eiTil cases, 
as BMocy tmnsactions were rarely eoochided with- 
eat their hiilnenoe or co-op^mtion. Their codices 
cr tshsiae eoold not be withheld from a perwn 
vhs ia esort refarred to them for the porpose of 



AKOKNTAlUf. 



131 



his cause, aad to ptodnea them was 
calledodsrv (Dig. 2. tit 13. a. 1. § 1), wpn^irra 
codiema (2. tit 13. s. 6. ||§ 7, 8). 3. Their con- 
nection widi oommeroe and pnblic anetions. This 
faianeh of their basinem seems to hare been one of 
the moat aaeisnt In primto sales aad pnrrhsses, 
they snmHimfa acted as argents fiir eitncr party 
(aitoijiiaiis. Plant Cbie. iii 1. 61), and sometimes 
they nndcrtook to sell the whole estate of a peraon, 
as an inheritaaoeu (Dig. 5. tit 3. s. 18, 46. tit 
3. s. 88.) At puUie anetions they were almost 
invariably prasent, registering the articles sold, 
their prioes, aad pnrehasera, and receiving the pay- 
ment from the purehasen. (Cic. p. Case. 4, 6 ; 
(^linctiL xi 2 ; Suet Asr. 6 ; Gmns, iv. 126 ; 
(>>pitoIin. Awtom, 9.) At anetions, howeTcr, the 
sigentarii might transact business throogh their 
deiks or senrants, who were called eo ae tom from * 
their ooUeeting the money. 4. The testing of the 
genuineness o? coins {probaiio a ai a i oi a s i). The 
frequent esses of ibigeiy, as wdl as the frequent 
oecuirence of foreign coins, rendered it necessary 
to have persons to decide upon their value, and the 
aigentani, from the natoxe of thdr oocupation, were 
belt qualified to act as probatotes ; henoe they 
were present in this capacity at all payments of 
any kige amount This, however, seems originally 
to have been a part of the dnty of public oflioers, 
the mensarii or nummularii, until in the eourse of 
time the opinion of an aigentarius also came to bo 
looked upon as decisive ; and this custom was 
sanctioned by a law of Marius Ontidianus. (PUn. 
H, N. xziii 9 ; compc Cic. ad AtL zii 6 ; Dig. 
46. tit 3. s. 39.) 5. The mtUdonm vtadUio, that 
is, the obligation of pnrehasniff from the mint the 
newly ooin«l money, and drcmating it among the 
people. This brsnch of their fractions occurs only 
under the empire. (Symmach. Bpid. iz. 49 ; 
PMcop. Amecd, 26 ; comp. Salmasius, Db Una; c 
17. n. 504.) 

Although the argentarii were not in the service 
of the state, they existed only in a limited number, 
and Harmed a eoUeginm, which was divided into 
tottuiiain or oorponttiflns, which alone had the right 
to admit new members of their guild. (Orelli, 
/aserytf. n, 918, 995.) It appeara that no one 
but free men could become memben of such a cor^ 
poiation, and whenever sbves are mentioned as 
argentarii, they most be oonoeived as acting only 
as servants, and in the name of their masters, who 
remained the responsible parties even if slaves had 
transacted bosbess with their own pecniium. (Dig. 
2. tit 13. s. 4. §3, 14. tits. s. 19.) Withr^ard 
to the legal relation among the members of the 
corporatioBs, there existed various regulations ; one 
member (sodus), for example, was responsible for 
the other. (Anct ad Heremn, ii 13 ; Dig. 2. tit 
14. as. 9, 25, 27.) They also enjoyed several 
privileffes in the time of the empire, and Justinian, 
a partHwlar patron of ihe aigentarii^ gK*^y in- 
CTMsed these privil^;es (Justin. Niw. 136) ; but 
dishonest aigentarii were always severely punished 
(Suet Ckdb. 10 ; Anson, ^m^t. 15), and in the 
time of the emperon, they were under the super- 
intendence of the praefectos uibi (Dig. 1. tit 12. 
s. 1. § 9.) 

As refptfds the respeetabilHy of the aigentarii, 
the passages of the an«nents seem to contradict one 
another, for some writers speak of their occupation 
as respectable and honourable (Cic p. Oaee. 4 ; 
AuieL Vict 72; Suet Vmp, 1 ; Acron. ad Horat 
K 2 



132 



AROKNTUM. 



Sat. L 6. 86), while Athen speak of them with 
contempt (Plant Cure, W. 2. 20, Conn, ProL 25, 
&C. ; Tructd, i 1. 47) ; hut this contradiction may 
he easily reconciled by dis^gnishing hetween a 
lower and a higher class of ai^ntariL A wealthy 
argentarins who carried on basiness on a lai^ 
scale, was nndoahtedly as much a person of re- 
spectability as a banker in modem times ; but 
others who did business only on a small scale, 
or degraded their calling by acting as usurers, can- 
not have been held in any esteem. It has already 
been observed that the aigenteriS had their shops 
round the forum (Li v. ijc. 40, xxvi. 11, 27 ; Pkut 
True, i 1. 51 ; Terent Phorm, v. 6. 28, Addph, 
ii. 4. 13) ; hence to become bankrupt, was expressed 
by fitro eedere^ or oMrs, or /bro mergi, (Plaut 
Epid. I 2. 16 ; Dig. 16. tit 3. s. 7. § 2.) The 
* shops or booths were public property, and built by 
the censors, who sold the use of them to the azgen- 
tariL (Liv. xxxix. 44, xl. 51, riL 27, xliv. 16; 
comp. J. G. Sieber, DittertcU. ds Arpentariu, Lip- 
siae, 1737 ; H. Hubert, Di^atU. juHdicae HI. de 
Argentaria veterum, Tmject 1739 ; W. T. Kraut, 
De ArgeniariU d NumtMilariie^ Gottingen, 
1826.) [L. S.] 

ARGENTUM (itpyv^f), silver, one of the two 
metals which, on account of their beauty, their du- 
rability, their density, and their rarity, have been 
esteemed in all civilised countries, and in all ages, as 
preciouB, and which have, on account of the above 
qualities and the fieuality of working them, been used 
for money. The ancients were acquainted with silver 
from the earliest known periods. (Pliny ascribes its 
discovery to Erichthonius or to Aeacus, H, iV. vii. 
56. s. 57.) It is constantly mentioned in Homer; 
but in a manner which proves that it was com- 
paratively scarce. It was much more abundant in 
Asia than in Greece Proper, where there were not 
many silver mines. The accounts we have of the 
revenues of the early Lydian and Persian kings, 
and of the presents of some of them, such as Gyges 
and Croesus, to Pytho and other shrines, prove 
the great abundance of both the precious metals in 
Western Asia. Of this wealth, however, a very 
huge proportion was laid up in the royal and 
sacred treasuries, both in Asia and in Greece. But 
in time, and chiefly by the effects of wars, these 
accumulations were dispersed, and the precious 
metals became commoner and cheaper throughout 
Greece. Thus, the spoils of the Asiatics in the 
Persian wars, and the payment of Greek meroe- 
nari.'s by the Persian kings, the expenditure of 
Pericles on war and works of art, the plimder of 
the temple of Delphi by the Phocians, the military 
expenses and wholesale bribery of Philip, and, 
above all, the conquests of Alexander, caused a 
vast increase in the amount of silver and gold in 
actual circulation. The accounts we have of the 
treasures possessed by the successors of Alexander 
would be almost inoedible if they were not per- 
fectly well attested. 

It was about this time also that the riches of 
the East began to be familiar to the Romans, 
among whom the precious metals were, in early 
times, extremely rare. Verr little of them was 
found in Italy ; and though Cisalpine Gaul fur- 
nished some gold, which was carried down by the 
Alpine torrents, it contained but a very small pro- 
portion of silver. The silver mines of Spain nad 
been wrought by the Carthaginians at a very 
early period ; and from this source, as well as 



ARGENTUM.' 

from the East, the Romans no doubt obtained most 
of their silver as an article of commerce. But 
when first Spain and then Greece, Asia Minor, 
and Syria, were brought beneath the Roman 
power, they obtained that abundant supply both 
of silver and gold which f<»ined the instrument of 
the extravagance and luxmy of the later republic 
and the empire. ** The value of the precious 
metals did not, however, fiill in proportion to their 
increase, as huge quantities, wrought for works of 
art, were taken out of circulation.** (Bockh.) 

The relative value of gold and sOver differed 
considerably at different periods in Greek and 
Roman history. Herodotus mentions it (iii 95) 
as 13 to 1 ; Pkto (H^. c 6. p. 231), as 12 to 1 ; 
Menander (ap. PoUme. ix. 76), as 10 to 1 ; and 
Livy (xxxviiL 11), as 10 to I, about b. a 189. 
According to Suetonius (JtiL Caet, 54), Juliua 
Caesar, on one occasion, exchanged silver lor gold 
in the proportion of 9 to 1 ; but the most usual 
proportion under the early Roman emperors was 
about 12 to 1 ; and from Constantine to Justinian 
about 14 to 1, or 15 to 1. The proportion in mo* 
dem times, since the discovery of the American 
mines, has varied between 17 to 1 and 14 to 1. 

SUioer Mine* and Ores. — In the earliest times 
the Chreeks obtained their silver chiefly as an 
article of commerce from the Phocaeans and the 
Samians ; but they soon began to work the rich mines 
of their own country and its islands. The chief 
mines were in Siphnos, Thessaly, and Attica. In 
the last-named country, the silver mines of Laurioa 
furnished a most abundant supply, and were gene- 
rally regarded as the chief soturce of the wealth of 
Athens. We learn from Xenophon {VecHg. iv. 
2), that these mines had been worked in remote 
antiquity ; and Xenophon speaks of them as if he 
considered them inexhaustible. In the time of 
Demosthenes, however, the profit arising from 
them had greatly diminished ; and in the second 
century of the Christian era they were no longer 
worked. (Pans. i. 1. § 1.) The Romans obtained 
most of their silver from the very rich mines of 
Spain, which had been previously worked by the 
Pnoenicians and Carthagmians, and which, though 
abandoned for those of Mexico, are still not ex> 
hausted. The ore from which the silver was ob- 
tained was called ailver earth (ipyupmr 7^, or 
sunply iipyvpiTif, Xen. Vedig. i. 5, iv. 2). The 
same term (terra) was also allied to the ore by 
the Romans. 

A full account of all that is known respecting 
the ores of silver known to the ancients, their 
mining operations, and their processes for the re- 
duction of the ores, is given by Bik:kh. {Disaeria- 
tiou OS the Silver Mines o/Laurum^ §§ 3, 4, 5.) 

Uses 0/ Silver. — By for the most important use 
of silver among the Greeks was for money. It 
was originally the nniversal currency in Greece. 
Mr. Knight, however, maintains (PtoL Horn.) that 
gold was coined first because it was the more 
readily found, and the more easily worked ; but 
there are sufficient reasons for believing that, un- 
til some time afUr the end of the Peloponnesian 
war, the Athenians had no gold currency. [Au- 
RUM.] It may be remarked here that all the 
words connected with money are derived from 
ipyvpoSf and not from 7CFva'6s, as KoropTi^p^, 
"to bribe with money ;" iLpyvpafun€6sy ** a money- 
changer,^ &c; and ttfyvpos is itself not unfire- 
quently used to signify money in general (Soph* 



ARGIAS GRAPHS. 

Aali^, 395X » a» i» in Latin. At Rome, on the 
ceBtniT, wtm wme not coined till b. a 269, before 
whidi period Greek aalTer was in cticnktion at 
Boaie ; and t^ principal rilYer coin of the Ro- 
■aai, the demanmay waa borrowed from the Grade 
iradtmm. For fiirther detaila rejecting alTer 
ffloaer, see NuMMua, Dbn Aftiua, Dkachma. 

Fraai a verf eariy period, olTer was wed also 
3 wodks of ait. Its cmpiloynient for ornamenting 
anai, m often vefeiTed to by Homer, belongs to 
tkis head. The nse of it for men purposes of 
kiuy and ostentation, as in plate, seems to have 
» gcBoafly prevalent abont ^e dose of the 
raia (Athen. ri. p. 22d, t\ bat 
■Bcfe moR so from the time of Alexander, after 
vhick it beeomea ao common as hardly to need 
s&y proof or iUustzation, — more eommon indeed 
tko with OS. (CicL m Verr, ir. 21.) The Ro- 
saas £sti^gaished between plain and chaaed silver 
TssKb by calling the former jmro or laia (Plin. 
^ in. 1 ; Jvr. ix. 141, ziv. (72 ; Mart iv. 38), 
lod the letter gaefafci, oqpera, or iortumaUk, [Cab- 

LATTRA; TonBI7T]CB.j 

The chief ancient anthorities respecting silver, 
K «dl ss gdd« are the 3d, 4th, and 5th books of 
SseUm, the 5th of Diodonis, eepedally cc 27 and 
M. sad the 33d of Pliny, from c. 6. s. 31 ; of mo- 
don walks the most importaat are BSckh'k PMio 
Eamm§ nf Atkaa^ Bk. L cc 1—3, with the sup- 
fkmestaiy Dnaertalioft o* ikt Silver Mmea of 
loribisand Jacob'^ Hutary of 1U PreeUnu M«- 
IstA [P.&] 

A'ROIAS GRAPHE' i^^yiu 7P«^), that is, 
K action far idleness. Yagiants and idlen were 
fi^ tolemted at Athens from very early times, and 
cToy penon was obliged to be able to state by 
vixt means he wapported himself. (Herod, ii 
]77; Diod. i. 77.) According to some (Plut 
SoL 37, PoUoz, viiL 42), even Dnco had enacted 
hvs against Sdleneas, while, according to others, 
S^n, in his Iqpslation, borrowed these kws from 
the Eg^p tian a, and others again state that PeUis- 
tzatas was the fint who introdnced them at Athens. 
(Plat. SoL 31.) In accordance with this htw, 
vfakh is called ^pyia% v^f, all poor people were 
o'!>l^ed to signify that they were carrying on some 
hnooaUe bosmess by which they gained their 
lirdihood (l)em.e.JE:ifM.p.l308; Isocrttt^reo- 
po^ 17 ; Dionys. zx. 2) ; and if a person by his 
idkneas injnred his fiunily, an action might be 
his^t sgainst him beibre the archon eponymns 
not oaly by a member of his fiunily, but by any 
ooe vho ^oae to do so. (Zenie. Se^aer.^ p. 310.) 
At the time when the Areiopegus was still in the 
foil po s s es s ion of its powers, the archon seems to 
have lakl the charge before tiie court of the Areio- 
psgsa. If the action was bronght against a person 
for the fiat time, a fine might be inflicted on him, 
sad if he was fimnd gnilty a second or third time, 
he mi^ be punished with krifda. (Pollux, viii. 
42.) Draco had ordained atimia as the penalty 
eren far the first conviction of idleness. (Plut, 
PoQ. IL ee.) This hiw was modified by Solon, 
vho iafficted atimia only when a person was con* 
rkttd a third time, and it is doubtini as to whe- 
tho* in kter times the atimia was inflicted at all 
^ idkaess. As the Areiopagns was entrosted 
vith the gencrd soperintendence of the moral con> 
dsct of cttisena, it is probable that it might inter- 
fere ia cases of ifjia^ even when no one came for> 
vard ts bring an sction against a person guilty of 



ARIES. 



133 



it (VaL Max. il 6 • Plainer, P^noeos. il p. 150, 
&c; Meier und Schoemann, AtL Froe. ppi li/3, 
298, && ; Bfckh, FwbL Eeom. p. 475, 2d edit) 
According to Adian ( V. H. iv. IX a similar law 
ejosted s&> at Sardes. [L. &] 

ARGU'RIOU DIKE' (Vy»p<o« Winr), a civil 
suit of the dass vp6s riyo, and within Uie juris- 
diction of the thesmothetae, to compel the defend- 
ant to pa^ monies in his possession, or for which 
he vras liable, to the pbuntiff. This action is 
cssodly alluded to in two speeches of Demos- 
thenes (t« BoeoL p. 1 002, m Olympiodor. y, 1 1 79), 
and is treated of at large in the speech against 
Callippns. [J. S. M.] 

ARO YRA'SPIDES ik(rfvpd0wii€s\ a division 
of the Macedonian aimy of Alexander the Great, 
who were so called because they cszried shields 
covered with silver plates. They were picked 
men, and were commanded by Nicanor, the son of 
Paimenion, and were held in high honour by 
Alexander. After the death of Alexander they 
fi>Uowed Eumenes, bvt afterwards they deserted to 
Antigonus, and delivered £umenes up to him. 
Antigonus, however, soon broke up the corps, find- 
ing it too turbulent to manage. (Diod. xviL 57, 
58, 59, xviii. 63, xix. 12, 41, 43, 48 ; Justin, xii. 
7;Curtius,iv.l3 §27 ; Plutarch, ^aaieN. 13, &c.; 
Dreysen,^<iioft/o2ff.Ji!ftr. passim.) The Greek kings 
of Syria seem to have had a corps of the same name 
in their anny : Livy mentions them as the royal 
cohort in the army of Antiochus the Great, (Liv. 
xxxviL 40 ; Polyb. v. 79.) The Emperor Alex- 
ander Sevens, among other thmgs in which he 
imitated Alexander the Great, had in his army 
bodies of men who were called ariffjfrocupule$ and 
chyBoatpides. (Lamprid. Aleat, Sev, 50.) [P. S.] 

ARGYROCOPEION {iipyvpoicm7dr\ the 
place where money was coined^ the mint, at Athens. 
It appears to have been in or adjoining to the 
chapel (^p^opr) of a hero named Stephaaephorus, 
in which were kept the standard weights fi>r the 
coins, just as at Rome in the sanctuary of Juno 
Moneta. [Monxta.] (Pollux, vii. 103; Har- 
pocrat ; Suid. ; Bdckh, Corp. Inter, vd. I p. 164, 
and the explanation of that inscription in his 
PuUie Eeonomjf of Athens^ p. 144, 2nd ed.; comp. 
Talxntum.) [P. S.J 

ARIADNEIA (i^t6Zr€ia), festivals solemnised 
in the island of Naxos in honour of Ariadne, who, 
according to one tradition, had died here a natural 
death, and was honoured with sacrifices, accom- 
panied by rejoicing and merriment (Plut 7%e«. 
20.) Another festival of the same name was 
celebrated in honour of Ariadne in Cyprus, which 
was said to have been instituted by Theseus in 
commemoration of her death in the month of Gor- 
piaeus. The Amatbusians called the grove ia 
which the grave of Ariadne was shown, that of 
Aphrodite- Ariadne. This is the account given by 
Plutarch (Tket, 20) fiom Paeon, an Amatbusian 
writer. (Comp. C. F. Hermann, Lehrk det GoUet" 
dionstl. Aiterihumer^ § 65. n. 12.) [L. S.J 

A'RIES iicpUs), the battering-ram, was used to 
shake, perforate, and batter down the walls of be- 
sieged dties. It consisted of a huge beam, made 
of the trunk of a tree, especially of a fir or an ash. 
To one end was fiistened a mass of bronze or iron 
(icf^aX^, i/iSoKfi^ TfHirofi'li\ which resembled in 
its form the head of a ram. The upper figure in 
the annexed woodcut is taken from die bas-reliefs 
on the column of Trajan at Rome. It shows the 
K 3 



184 ARISTOCRATIA. 

aries in its simplest state, and as it was borne and 
impelled bj human hands, without other assistance. 
In an improved form, the ram was surrounded with 
iron bands, to which rings were attached for the 
purpose of suspending it by ropes or chains from a 
beam fixed transyersely over it See the lower 
figure in the woodcut By this contrivance the 
soldiers were relieved firom the necessity of sup- 
porting the weight of the ram, and they could with 
case give it a rapid and forcible motion backwards 
and forwards. 




(tT fi- 



321 



The use of this machine was further aided by 
placing the frame in which it was suspended upon 
wheels, and also by constructing over it a wooden 
roof, so as to form a ^ testudo ^ (xcAc^kij Kpto<p6pos, 
Appian, Beli. MWi. 73 ; testudo arietaria, Vitruv. x. 
19), which protected the besieging porty from the 
defensive assaults of the besieged. Josephus, who 
gives a description of the machine (B, J. iil 7. § 19), 
adds, that there was no tower so strong, no wall 
so thick, as to resist the force of this machine, if 
its blows were continued long enouffh. The beam 
of the aries was often of great length, e. g. 80, 100, 
or even 120 feet The desisn of this was both to 
act across an intervening ditch, and to enable those 
who worked the machine to remain in a position of 
comparative security. A himdred men, or even a 
greater number, were sometimes employed to strike 
with the beam. 

The aries first became an important military 
engine in the hands of the Macedonians, at the 
time of Philip and Alexander the Great, though 
it was known at a much earlier period. (Comp. 
Thuc. ii. 76.) Vitruvius speaks (L e.) of tolydus^ 
a Thessalian, in the time of Philip, who greatly 
improved the machine, and his improvements were 
carried out still fiirther by Diades and Chaereas, 
who served in the campaigns of Alexander the 
Great. The Romans learnt firom the Greeks the 
art of building these machines^ and appear to hiive 
employed them for the first time to any considerable 
extent in the siege of Syracuse in the second Punic 
war. [HxLBPOLis.] 

ARISTOCRA'TIA {hpi<rrokparta\ a term 
in common use among Greek writers on politics, 
though rarely employ^ by historians^ or otherwise 
than in connection with political theories. It sig- 
nifies literally ^ the government of the best men^"^ 
and as used by Plato, Aristotle, t'olybiusj &e^ it 
meant (in reference to a state where political 
power was not shared by the bulk of the commu- 
nity, but was in the hands of a privileged class^ 



ARISTOCRATIA. 

existmg along with a class personally free, and 
possessed of civil rights, but excluded from the 
exercise of the highest political fhnctiona) the go- 
remment of a clan whose supfemacy was founded 
not on wealth merely, but on personal distinction 
(2hrov fi^ ft6roy irXavrlvdifP a\X& jcal Apurrit^w 
alpowToi riis itfrx^s, Aristot PoL iv. 5. pu 1 27, 
ed. Gdttl *H hptffroKpvria fio6\rrai riiy &wmpoxh» 
ixoy4fjitiw rots apUrrois rw itoKtr&m^ Ibidu p. 
128). That there should be an aristocracy, more- 
over, it was essential that the administzation of 
afiairs should be conducted with a view to the 
promotion of the general interests, not for the ex- 
clusive or predominant advantage of the pririleged 
class. (Aristot Pol. iil 5, p. 83, ed. GOttl. ; Plat 
PolU. p. 301, a.) As soon as the government 
ceased to be thus conducted, or whenever the only- 
title to political power in the dominant dass wau the 
possession of superior wealth, the constitution was 
termed an oligarchy (hXiyapx^^ which, in the 
technical use of the term, was always looked upon 
as a corruption (v-ap^irtfflurty, Aristot PoL iiL 5. 
p. 84, ed. Gottl.) of an aristocracy. (OmipL Plat. 
/. 0. ; Arist Pol, iv. 8. pn. 117, 11 8, ed. Glottl. iv. 6, 
hpivroKparias'^tpos ip€r^, 6\ty«ipx^ias 9k wXitu- 
Tor.) In the practical application of the tenn aris- 
tocracy, however, the personal excellence which was 
held to be a necessary element was not of a higher 
kind than what, according to the deeply-seated 
ideas of the Greeks, was commonly hereditary in 
families of noble birth (Phit Menex. n. 237, a^ 
Craiyl, p. 394, a. ; Aristot PoL iv. 6, i yitp eu- 
y4vttd 4oriv iipx<uos irXoirroj koI iiptr^, v- 1* 
c^yeyeir yitp cTyeu ZoKowrty off tiripx^t rpor y^ g^wv 
&ptr^ Koi xXovros), and in early times would 
be the ordinary accompaniments of noble rank, 
namely, wealth, military skill, and superior edu- 
cation and intelligence (comp. Aristot PoL iv. 6, 
tiiUdcurl Ka\tiy .... ApurroKparias 9iii rb ftaAJV.or 
iu€o\ov$tty irai3ciay koI Hydytiay rois 9lnropca^4- 
pois). It is to bo noted that the word iiptcrra- 
tcparia is never, like the English term (trisiocracy^ 
the name of a dass, but only of a particular political 
constitution^ 

On tracing the historical development of aris- 
tocratical government^ we meet with a condition 
of things which may almost be called hy that 
name m the state of society depicted in the 
Homeric poems, where we already see the power 
of the kings limited by that of a body of princ<^ 
or nobles^ such as would naturally arise in tlie in- 
fancy of society, especially among tribes in which, 
from the frequency of wars, martial skill iK'ouId 
be a sure and speedy method of acquiring supe- 
riority. When the kingly £Eimilies died out, or 
were stripped of their peculiar privileges, the su- 
preme power naturally passed into the hands of 
these princes or chieftains, who formed a body of 
nobles, whose descendants would of course for the 
most part inherit those natural, and be also alone in 
a position to secure those acquired advantages, espe- 
cially warlike skill, which would form uieir title 
to political superiority. Some aristocracies thua 
arose from the natural progress of society : others 
arose from conquest The changes consequent on 
the rise of the Hellenes, and the Thessalian, 
Boeotian and Dorian conquests in Greece, esta- 
blished pretty generally a state of things in ^ebich 
we find the political power in the hands of a l>ody 
of nobles consisting chiefly or entirely of the oon> 
querors) bdbesth whom is a free population xiot 



ARMA. 

I of political rigliti, oonsiiliiig of tht older 
ita of the ki^ together witb, in moot 
wwtMKffo, a body of oeifr attached to the *in««*tw 
of the aoUea: Theae last an detcribed luder 
Tanoot nam e a , at E^rorpttai ia Attica, or Foftdfoi 
Of ia SjTBcmM and lereral of the Doric itatca. 
From the anpenor efficieiicy of the caTalrj in early 
tioMiy we alao find the noblea as a dass hearing 
the aaaM trmdrai^ 'Incts , or 'Ino^^ai (as in 
Chalds^ Hcfod. t. 77X since, generdlj speaking, 
thej alone had wealth sofficient to enable them to 
eqn^ themselTes for that kind of senrice ; and in 
most states the first great adrance of the com- 
nnoahj in pow«r arose from their gaining greater 
effideacj as heavy-armed foot soldiers ; that force, 
vhen ptoperly organised and armed, being found 
Bxve than a match for caralry. (See especially 
Aiift PoL It. S, 10 ; K. F. Hermann, Grieck, 
^aatulmtk. c iii §§55—59 ; Wachsmnth, Het- 
iem. Abertkmmui. ToL L c 3. §§ 30, 31 ; Thiri- 
vall, HUL <^ Greece, toL L c 10. p. 394, &c) 
CoBipaie the articles Eupatridak, Giomori, 
Patricil [C. p. M.] 

ARMA, ARMATU'RA (IhrAa, Horn. Irrco, 
tc^m), anna, armour. Homer describes in Tariotis 
paaages the entire snit of armour of some of his 
greatest warriots, riz. of Achilles, Patroclos, Aga- 
aMBXBon, Mendans and Paris {IL ill 328—339, 
ir. 132— 13a, xi 15—45, rri. 130—142, xix. 364 
— 391) ; and we obserre that it consisted of the 
wae portioDa which were nsed by the Greek soldiers 
ever afteK. Moreover, the order of patting them on 
M always the same. The heavy-armed warrior, 
hsiiBg already a tonic around his body, and pre- 
pnmg for combat, puts on, — ^fint, his greaves (icny- 
/u3«^ ocnaoe) ; secondly, his cuirass {bAfc^ loriea\ 
to which belonged the idrpni underneath, and the 
looe (C<^n|, (mcrii^^dMguhtm) above ; thirdly, his 
•word ({^<M^ easui, gladiue) hung on the left side of 
kis body by means of a belt which passed over the 
right shoulder; fourthly, the lai^ round shield 
(^4<0f, 40w(r, eUpeuMy scateia), supported in the 
same manner ; fifthly, his helmet («c^pvr, Kwhi, cat- 
9U, ffolea) ; sixthly and lastly, he took his spear 
ihx*^ S^'S haetay, or, in many cases, two spears 
(Ss^ Mw)« The form and use of these portions 
are described in separate articles under their Latin 
BBmea. The annexed woodcut exhibits them all in 
the form of a Greek warrior attired for battle, as 
shown in Hope'k Coatume of the Anctentt (I 70). 

Those who were defended in the manner which 
has now been represented, are called by Homer 
a«TtoTa(, finom their great shield (kmrls) ; also 
VT^c^X^ because they fought hand to hand 
whh their adversaries ; but much more commonly 
TpSfiaxoi becanse they occii]ned the front of the 
snny : and it is to be observed that these terms, 
e^eoally the last, were honourable titles, the ex- 
pense of a complete suit of annour (woyosrAii;, 
Herod. L 60) bemg of itself sufficient to prove the 
wealth and rank of the wearer, while his place on 
tbe field was no less indicative of strength and 
beaveiy. 

In later times, the heavy-armed soldiers were 
eaOed ^Xlroc, becanse the term IhrXa more espe- 
cxslly denoted the defensive armour, the shield and 
thoiaz. By wearing these they were distinguished 
from the light-armed, whom Herodotus (ix. 62, 
63), for the reason just mentioned, calls vorXot, 
mA who are also denominated ^(Ao(, and yvfufoi, 
jlttf^oL, or ytffunfrts. Instead of being defended 



ARMA 



135 



by the shield and thorax, their bodies had a 
much slighter covering, sometimei cons i sti n g of 




skins, and iometimes of leather or eloth ; and m- 
stead of the sword and hmcev they commonly fought 
with darts, stones, bows and anows, or slings. 

Besides the heavy and light-armed soldiers, the 
^Arrcu and ^iXjU, who in general bore towards 
one another the intimate relation now explained, 
another description of men, the T9\raffraly also 
formed a part of the Greek army, though we do 
not hear of them in early times. Instesd of the 
laige round shield, they carried a smaller one called 
the w^Xny, and in other respects their armour was 
much liahter than that of the hoplites. The weapon 
on which they principally depended was the spear. 

The Roman soldiers had different kinds of arms 
and armour ; but an accoimt of the arms of the 
different kinds of troops cannot be separated from a 
description of the troops of a Konum army, and the 
reader is therefore referred to Exbrcitus. We 
need only give here the figure of a Roman soldier 
taken firom the areh of Septimus Severus at Rome. 
On comparing it with that of the Qreek hoplite in 
the other cut, we pereeive that the several parts of 
the armour corre^Kmd, excepting only that the 
Roman soldier wears a dagger {ftAxcupa^ pvgio) 
on his right side instead of a sword on his left, and 
instead of greaves upon his legs, hsm/emoralia and 
aaligae. All the essential parts of the Roman 
heavy armour (lovioay sasu^ dtpema^ ffcUea, haeta) 
are mentioned together in an epigram of Martial 
(ix. 57) ; and all except the spear in a well known 
passage {Epk. vl 14—17) of St Paul, whose enu- 
meration exactly coincides with the fi^^ures on the 
arch of Severus, and who makes mention not only 
of greaves, but of shoes or sandals fi>r the feet 

The soft or flexible parts of the heavy armour 
were made of doth or leather. The metal princi- 
pally used in their fonnation was that compound of 
copper and tin which we call bronse, or mum 
K 4 



136 ARMILLA. 

propeHy bell-metaL [Abs.] Hence the names 

for this metal (x«^6f^ ae>) are often lued to mean 




armour, and the light reflected from the arms of a 
warrior is called aby^ x''^^^^ ^7 Homer, and lux 
atna by Virgil. (Am. iL 470. ) Instead of copper, 
iron afterwards came to be very extensirely used 
in the manu&cture of arms, although articles made 
of it are much more rarely discovered, because iron 
is by exposure to air and moistijre exceedingly liable 
to corrosion and decay. Gold and silver, and tin 
unmixed with copper, were also used, more espe- 
cially to enrich and adorn the armour. [J. Y.] 

ARMA'RIUM, originally a phice for keeping 
arms, afterwards a cupboard, set upright in the 
wall of a room, in which were kept not only arms, 
but also clothes, books, money, ornaments, small 
images and pictures, and other articles of value. 
The armarium was generally placed in the atrium 
of the house. (Dig. 33. tit. 10. s. 3 ; Cic. Pro 
auent. 64 ; Petron. Sat, 29 ; Plin. H, N, xxix. 
5. s. 32, XXXV. 2.) The divisions of a library 
were called armaria, (Vitruv. viL Prae/,; Vopisc 
Tac, 8.) We find armarium distegum mentioned 
AS a kind of sepulchre in an inscription in Gruter 
(p. 383. No. 4). For other passages see Forcel- 
lini,*.t>. [P. S.] 

ARMILLA (if^ioy, ^^4\iov, or if/cAAiey, x^- 
j^y, iifA^iZiai\ a bracelet or armlet, worn both by 
men and women. It was a favourite ornament of 
the Modes and Persians (Herod, viii. 113, ix. 80; 
Xen. Anah, i. 2. § 27) ; and in Europe was also 
worn by the Gauls and Sabines. (ClelL ix. 13 ; 
Liv. L II.) Bracelets do not appear to have been 
worn among the Greeks by the male sex, but Greek 
ladies had bracelets of various materials, shapes^ 
and styles of ornament The bracelet was some* 
times called v^iynr^ip (from v^iyyw), in Latin 
Bpinther or tpitUer (Plant Menaedk ill 3), which 
derived its name from its keeping its place by com- 
pressing the arm of the wearer. Bracelets seem to 
have ^n frequently made without having their 
ends joined ; they were then curved, so as to require, 



ARMILLA. 

when put on, to be slightly expanded by having 
their ends drawn apart from one another ; and, ac< 
cording to their length, they went once, twice, or 
thrice round the arm, or even a greater number of 
times. As they frequently exhibited the form of 
serpents, they were in such cases called makn 
(^is) by ihe Athenians (Hesych. «. o. 5^is). 
Twisted bracelets of the kind described above oftei 
occur on Greek painted vases. See the annexed 
cut fix>m Sir William Hamilton's great work, 
vol. ii. pL 35. 




Bracelets were likewise worn at Rome by kdiei 
of rank, but it was considered a maik of effeminacy 
for men in an ordinary way to use such female 
ornaments. (Suet CaL 52, Ner, 30.) They were, 
however, publicly conferred by a Roman general 
upon soldiers for deeds of extraordinary merit 
(Liv. X. 44 ; Plin. H, N, xxxiiL 2 ; Festus, *. v.) \ 
in which case they were worn as a mark of honour, 
and probably difrered in form fitim the ordinary 
ornaments of the kind. See the cut below. 

The following cuts exhibit Roman bracelets. 
The first figure represents a gold bracelet dis- 
covered at Rome on the Palatine Mount (Caylus, 
Rec d^AtU, voL v. pi ^3.) The rosette in the 
middle is composed of distinct and very delicate 
leaves. The two starlike flowers on each side of 
it have been repeated where the holes for securing 
them are still Visible. The second figure represents 




AARA. 

■ fold Inaedet fixmd in Bntain, and pnaerred in 
t^ Bntttk Mueom. It appears to be made of two 



ARTABA. 



1^7 




gd^ witei twitted togetlief; and the mode of fiia- 
ttoisgit oponthe ann, by a (la^ u worthj of ob- 
■emtioe. It has eTidentlj been a ladj'k ornament. 
Tbe third figure repieKnU an anniUa, which moit 
kre been mtended as a reward for soldiery for it 
wold be ndiculons to sonpose snch a mauive or- 
Bunmt to hare been deugned for women. The 
on|:inaI, of pare gold, is more than twiee the 
lofth of the figore, and was found in Cheshire. 
(JnakuD&yia, xxvii. 400.) 

ARMILU'STRIUM, a Roman festind for the 
parification of arms. It was celebrated erery year 
«o the 14th htSan the calends of Noyember (Oct 
19), when the dtizens assembled in arms and 
ofatd acrifices in the place called Armilnstnim, 
or VicBs Armilnstri, in tbe 1 3th region of the citj. 
(Festus, *©.; Yarns ^^ ^Wi^- ^^^^ >▼• 32, r. S; 
Ut. mii. 37 ; P. Vict IM Regionibm U, R.; 
Insdip. in Grater, p. 250.) [P. &] 

ARRA,A'RRABO,orARRHA,A'RHHAB0, 
Gaia» (iiL 13d.) says : ** What isgiten as anra, ia 
1 proof of a contract of buying and selling;^ but 
it ilao has a more general Bignilcation. Tluit thing 
»a» called anha which one contracting party gave 
to aaothcr, whether it was a sum of money or any 
thing else, as an evidence of the contract of sale 
beiag made: it wras no enential part of the con- 
tact of baying and selling, but only evidence of 
atreemeat as to price. (Gaius, Dig. 1& tit 1 . a 35). 
Aa anha might be given before the completion 
of a cootract, when the agreement was that some 
bnnal instrument in writing should be made, 
beibce the contract should be considered perfect 
If be who gave the arrha refosed to perfect the 
contact, he forfeited it : if he who had received 
the arrha, refused to perfect the contract, he was 
obliged to return double the amount of the arrha. If 
^ anha was given as evidence of a contract abao- 
htdv nade, it was evidence of the unalterable 
obligation of the contract, which neither party 
*W could reaqnd; unless the arrha was ez- 
PRwly given to provide for the case of either 
pmj changing his mind, on the condition that if 
^ giTcr receded from his bargain, he should for- 
feit tbe arrha, and if the receiver receded from 
bis borg^ he should forfeit double its value. 
Wben the contract was completely performed, in 
^ esses where the airfaa was money, it was re- 
ftcred, or taken as part of the price, unless special 
cBMooM determined otherwise; when the arrha 
vai a ring or any other thing, not money, it was 
rmered. The recovery of the arrha was by a 



Tbe arrha m some respects resembles the deposit 



of money which a purchsser of land m Englind 
generally pays, according to the conditions of sale, 
on contracting for his nurchase ; and the earnest 
money aometunes paid on a sale of moveable 
things. 

The term arrha, in its general sense of an evi- 
dence of agreement, was also used on other oc- 
casions, as in the case of betrothment {apcmmaiia), 
[Mateimonium.] Sometimes the wend arrha is 
used as synonymous with pignns (Terent HeamUmL 
iii 3. 42), but this is not the legal meaning of 
the term. (Thibaut, Syttem de* Pamdektm-IMtt^ 
§ 144 ; Inst iii tit 33 ; Dig. 1& tit 1. s. 35 ; tit 3. 
a 6; 14. tit 3. a 5. §15; 19. tit 1. all. §6; 
Cod. 4. tit 21. s. 17 ; Gellius, xviL 2 ; compare 
Bracton, ii. c. 27, Z>s aeqmrendo Rerum Domi- 
fdo m cemsa EwqftiomiM^ and what he says on the 
arrha^ with the passage in Oaius already referred 
to.) (G. L.] 

ARRHEPHCRIA (a^^V^fNa), a festival 
which, according to the various ways in which the 
name is written (for we find ip4ni^6pta or i^pii^pia) 
is attributed to different dcitiea The first form is 
derived from tf^/hrro, and thus would indicate a 
festival at which mysterious things were carried 
about The other name would point to Erse or 
Herae, a daughter of Cectops, and whose worship 
was inthnatefy connected with that of Athena. 
And there is^ indeed, sufficient ground for believ- 
ing that the festival was solemnised, in a higher 
sense, in honour of Athena. (EtymoL Mag, a o. 
*K^^n^6pok) It was held at Athens, in the month 
of Skirophorion. Four girls, of between seven and 
eleven years (&^^i}^poi, iptni^poi^ i^^if^poi: 
Aristoph. LytUL 642), were selected every year 
by the king archon from the most distinguished 
fiunilies, two of whom superintended the weaving 
of the sacred peplus of Athena, which was bvgun 
on the last day of Pvanepsion (Suid. a v. Xa\. 
Kcia) ; the two others had to carry the mysterious 
and sacred vessels of the goddess. These Utter 
remained a whole year on the Acropolis, either in 
the Parthenon or some adjoining building (Har- 
pocrat a v, Auvyo^ipos : Paua i. 27. § 4) ; and 
when the festival commenced, the priestess of the 
goddess placed vessels upon their heads, the con- 
tents of which were neither known to them nor to 
the priestess. With these they descended to a 
natural grotto within the district of Aphrodite in 
the gardena Here they deposited the sacred ves- 
sels, and carried back something else, which was 
covered and likewise unknown to them. After 
this the girls were dismissed, and others were 
chosen to supply their place in the acropolia The 
girls wore white robes adorned with gold, which 
were left for the goddess ; and a peculiar kind of 
cakes was baked for theuL To cover the expenses of 
the festival, a peculiar liturgy was established, called 
i^prt^popia. All other details concerning this fes- 
tival are unknown. (Comp. C. F. Hermann, Lekrb, 
der ffottetdimstL AlUrth, § 61. n. 9.) [L. S.J 

ARROGA'TIO. [Adoptio.] 

A'RTABA {&prderi\ a Persian measure of 
capacity, principally used as a corn-measure, which 
contained, according to Herodotus (L 192), 1 me- 
dininus and 3 choenices (Attic), t.e. 51 choenices 
sb102 Roman sextarii= 12^ gallons neatly ; but, 
according to Suidas, Hesychins, Polyaenus (JStraL 
iv. 3, 32), and Epiphanius {Pomd, 24) only 1 
Attic medimnus =^96 8extariiHil2 gallons neatly: 
the latter is, however, only an approximate value.. 



138 



ARVALES FRATRES. 



There was on Egyptian mearare of the same name, 
of which there wen two sorts, the old and the new 
artaha. (Didjmos, c. 19.) The old artaha oon* 
tained 4| Roman modii = 72 sextarii ■* 9 gallons 
nearlj, according to most writers; hut Galen 
(c. 5) makes it exactly 5 modii It was ahoat 
equal to the Attic metretes ; and it was half of 
the Ptolemaic medimnns, which was to the Attic 
medimnns as 3 : 2. The later and more oonunon 
Egyptian arhata contained 3^ modii » 53^ mx- 
tarii OB $^ gallons aboat,which is so nearly the half 
of the Persian, that we may fiuriy sappose that in 
reality it was the hal£ It was equal to the 
Olympic cnbic foot (Rhemn. Fann. CbrmM d» 
P<md. 0t Mm9. v. 89, 90 ; Hieion. Ad Execk, 6 ; 
Bfickh, MOrolcff, Untenueh, pp. 242, hc^ 283 ; 
PvbLJSooH. o/Aih. p. 93^ 2nd ed.; Wonn, Ds 
Pomd., && p. 133.) [P. a] 

ARTEMrSIA (VrcA^o-ca), one of the great fes- 
tivals celebrated in honour of Artemis iiA various 
parts of Greece, in the spring of the year. We find it 
mentioned at Syracuse in nonour of Artemis Po- 
tamia and Soteria. (Find. Pytk, il 12.) It lasted 
three days, which were principally spent in feasting 
and amusements. (Liv. xxr. 23 ; Plut MareelL 
18.) Bread was offered to her under the name of 
Aoxiik (Hesych. s. v.) But these festivals occur in 
many other places in Greece, as at Delphi, wherei 
according to Hegesander (Athen.Tii. n. 326), they 
offered to the ^dess a mullet on tnis occasion ; 
because it i4>peaied to hunt and kill the sea*hare, 
and thus bore some resemblance to Artemis, the 
goddess of hunting. The same name was given to 
the festivals of Artemis in Cyrene and Ephesus, 
though in the latter pUice the goddess was not the 
Grecian Artemis, but a deity of Eastern origin. 
(Dionys. iv. 26 ; Achill. Tat vl 4, vii 12, viil 
17 ; Xenoph. Ephes. I 2.) [L. S.] 

ARU'RA (tffwvpa), a Greek measure of surface, 
which would wpear, from its name, to have been 
originally the chief land-measure. It was, accord- 
ing to Suidas, the fourth part of the irKdBpor. 
The ir\d$pop, as a measure of length, contained 
100 Greek feet; its square therefore si 0,000 
feet, and therefore the arura ^=2600 Greek square 
feet, or the square of 60 feet 

Herodotus (u. 168) mentions a measure of the 
same name, but apparently of a difierent sixe. He 
says that it is a hundred Egyptian cubits in every 
direction. Now the Egyptian cubit contained 
nearly 17| inches (Hussey, Aneimt Wmg^^ &c. 
p. 237) ; therefore the square of 100 x 17| inches, 
iLe. nearly 148 feet, gives approximately the num- 
ber of square feet (English) in ^e arura, viz. 
21,904. (Wurm, /)« Poiw/. &c p. 94.) [P. S.] 

ARUSPEX. [Haruspbx.] 

ARVA'LES FRATRES. The fratres arvales 
formed a college or company of twelve in number, 
and were so called, according to Vanro {D0 LUtg. 
Lot, V. 86, Mttller), firom ofiering public sacri- 
fices for the fertility of the fields. That they were 
of extreme antiquity is proved by the legend which 
refers their institution to Romulus, of whom it is 
said, that when his nurse Acca Lanrentia lost one of 
her twelve sons, he allowed himself to be adopted 
by her in his place, and called himself and the 
remaining eleven " Fratres Arvales." (Gell. vi 7.) 
We also find a coUege called the Sodalea TUii^ and 
as the hitter were confessedly of Sabine origin, and 
instituted for the purpose of keeping up the Sabine 
religious rites (Tac. Ann. i. 63), there ii some 



ARVALES FRATRES. 

reason for the supposition of Niebvltr {Bom. But. 
voL L p. 303), thiat these coDegea eocvespoBded one 
to the other — the Fratres Arndes being connected 
with the Latin, and Uie Sodales Titii with the 
Sabine, element of the Roman state, jost as there 
were two colleges of the Lmpeni, naxnely, the Fahn 
and the QntJacfi/iY, the former of whom seem to 
have belonged to tiie Sabinei. 

The office of the finatres arval«a wm for U£e, 
and was not taken away even from an exile or 
captive. They wore,asa badge of office, a duplet 
of ears of com (tpiou eoroma) fisstencd on their 
heads with a white band. (Plin. If. AT. xviii. 2.) 
The number siven by inscriptions Tariea, but it is 
never more than nine ; though, aocording to the 
legend and general belief it amounted to twelTe^ 
One of their annual duties was to oelelnate a three 
days* festival in honour of Dea Dia, aoppooed to be 
Ceres, sometimes hel4on the xyl, xit., and xin, 
sometimes on the vl, iv., and ni. KaL Jun., I & 
on the 17th, 19th, and 20th, or the 27th, 29th, 
and 30th of May. Of this the master of the 
college, appointed annually, gave public notice 
(imdiaiat) from the temple of Conoord en the 
capitoL On the first and last of these days, the 
college met at the honse of their president, to make 
offerings to the Dea Dia ; on the second they as- 
sembled in the grove of the same goddess, about 
five miles south of Rome, and there <iffered sacri> 
fioes for the fertility of the eartL An account of 
the diiiierent ceremonies of this festival is preserved 
in an inscription, which was written in the first 
year of the Emperor Elagabalus (a. d. 218), who 
was elected a member of the coUege under the 
name of M. Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix. The 
same inscription contains a hymn, which appears 
to have been sung at the festival firom the most 
ancient times. (Marini, AtH e MonumemH de/fU 
ArvaUy tab. xIL ; Orelli, Oarp. Inserip. nr. 2270 ; 
Klausen, De Cbmms Pralrtan ArvaUttm.) 

Besides this festival of the Dea Dia, the fntre§ 
arvales were required on various occasions, under 
the emperors, to make voWs and offer np thanks' 
giving an enumeration of which is given in For- 
cellim. (Lex, s. 9.) Strabo, mdeed (v. 3X infonns 
us that, in the reign of Tiberius, these priests 
(Upofurfiftoy^s) performed sacrifices called the Amr- 
barvalia at vanous places on the borders of the 
ager Romanns, or original teiritoiy of Rome ; and 
amongst others, at Festi, a place between five and 
six n^es from the city, in the direction of Albs. 
There ia no boldness in supposing that this was a 
custom handed down from time immemorial, and, 
moreover, that it was a duty of this priesthood to 
invoke a blessing on the whole teiritoiy of Rome. 
It is proved by inscriptions that this coUege ex- 
isted till the reign of the Emperor Goidian, or a. d. 
326, and it is probable that it was not abolished 
till A. D. 400, tc^ther with the other colleges of 
the Pagan priesthoods. 

The private ambarvalia were certainly of a 
different nature fhmi those mentioned by Stnbo, 
and were so caUed from the victim (ko&Ha ambar- 
valii) that was shtin on the occasion being led three 
times round the cornfields, before the sickle was 
put to the com. This victim was accompanied by 
a crowd of merry-makers (ckorus et woen), the 
reapers and fium-servants dancmg and singing, ss 
they marehed along, the praises of Ceres, and 
praying for her &vonr and wesence, whUe they 
off(^red her the libations of muk, honey, and winSi 



(Tiip. Gmmg. i 3S&.) Thia ceremonj was alio ealled 

• farfi urf i u (Viiy. £aL t. 83% or pnriikatioB ; and 

for a lnMiilifiil dei c ri pii on of the holiday, and the 

^BajOB and towi made on the oecaabn, the reader 

it l e femd to Tibnlliia (u. 1). It ia, perhaps, 

voffth while to lemaik that Poljbhia (it. 21. § 9) 

uses laagDBge almost applicable to the Roman am- 

bainalm xa fpeakingof the Mantineani, who, henys 

(specifying the oecanon), made a ponfication, and 

taxned. rietime nmnd the citj, and all the country. 

TImiv ia, however, a ttiU greater reaembkuioe to 

the iHea we have been docribing, in the cere- 

zBcides of the rogatioa or gaqg wedt of the Latin 

chTXTch. These ooniisted of pncesiionB through 

the fields, aoeompanied with prayen irogatUmea) 

for a Wewsing on the fruits of the earth, and were 

coatiBiied during three days in Whitson-week. 

The coscom was abolished at the Relonnation in 

cacse^aenee of its abase, and the peFambulation of 

the panah boondanes sabstitoted in its pkce. 

(Hoohcr, Eed. iW. t. 61. 2 ; Wheatley, Cbm. 

i>^.T.20.) [R.W.] 

ARX (Kspa), signified a height within the waUs 
af a dty, birt which was nerer dosed by a wall 
ai^ainst the city in earlier times, and Tery seldom 
ia later tbnes. The same city may haye had 
Kvoal aneeg^ as was the case at Riane ; and hence 
Yiigil says with great propriety {Gwr^ iL 535) : — 

* SepteBiq[ae mm sihimiiro circumdedit aroes.^ 



AS. 



139 



As howercr, there was generally one principal 
he%ht in the city, the woraarsr came to be used as 
eqairakaft to mavpoUt [AcROPOLis]. (Niebuhr, 
Hia« ^Romt^ toL ilL note 411.) At Rome, one 
of the sammits of the Cafntoline hill was speoally 
esQed Arm, bat which of them was so called has 
beea a sali^ of great dispate among Rraoon topo- 
icraphersb The opinion of the best modem writers 
a, that the Chpstolwai was on the northern summit, 
md the Afm oo the soathenL The An was the 
Rgskr place at Rome for taking the auspices, and 
au licBce likewise called oa^mcMtem, according 
to Paalos Diacannai, thoogh it is more probable 
that the AagnEBcnhmi was a place in the Arx. 
(Lrr. i. 18, z. 7; P^nL Diac. t.o. At^uraaUum; 
Bcder, itSMMoi. AHerHL toL i p. 386, &&, to!, ii. 
prti p. 313.) 

AS, or Liira^ a poond, the unit of weight 
sang the Romans. [Lma^} 

AS, the earliest denominatioD of money, and 
the emstaat mut of vakie, in the Roman and old 
Itibm iiiiiBflgw, was made of the mixed metsl 
oiled AxsL L&e other denominations of money, 
it OS doabt erigiBally signified a pound weight of 
eopper BDetnaed : tUs is expressly stated by Ti- 
awm, who ascribes the first coinage of oet to 
Sernas Tollius. (Plin. //. N. xzxiiL 8. s. 13, 
XTiiL 3 ; Vano, J)e lU BmaL ii 1 ; Orid. Fast 
T.281.) Aecording to some accounts, it was 
coioed fiom the commencement of the dty (Plin. 
H. y. xxxir. \\cr from the time of Numa (Epiph. 
Mm. U Pomd,; Isidor. Etym, xri. 18) ; and ac- 
ciidiiig to others, the first coinage was attributed 
toJiBBssrSatoni. (Macrob. Sisteni. i. 7.) This 
BTthiesl ftatement in &ct signifies, what we know 
alio HI histofical eTidenoe, that the old states of 
Ednria, sad of Central Italy, possessed a bronse 
sr copfMr onnage from the carHsst times. On 
tJK other hand, those of Southern Italy, and 
(he eont, aa frr oa Campania, made use of silTsr 
Boner. The Roman monetary system was pro- 



bably derived from Etmria. (Niebuhr, Hiii, nf 
Rcme^ ToL L p. 457, 3d ed. ; Abeken, MUtd- 
IloHen, pp. 284, 326.) 

The earliest copper coins were not 8track,bnt cast 
in a mould. [Forma.] In the collection of corns at 
the British Museum there are four ases joined to- 
gether, as they were taken from the mould in which 
many were cast at once. In most ases the edge 
shows where they were serered from each other. 

Under the R^nan empire, the right of coining 
silTer and gold belonged only to the emperors ; but 
the copper coinage was left to the aerarium, which 
was under the jurisdicUon of the senate. [Comp. 

NUMMUS ; MONITA.] 

The as was originally of the weight of a pound 
of twelye ounces, whence it was culed aa UbroMa 
in contradistinction to the rednoed ases which have 
now to be spoken o^ and which give rise to one 
of the most perplexing questions in the whole 
range of archaeology. 

Pliny {H. N. xxxiii 8. s. 13) infixrms us that 
in the time of the first Punic war (& c. 264 — 24 1 >, 
in order to meet the expenses of the state, the full 
weight of a pound was diminished, and ases were 
struck of the same weight as the sextans (that is, 
two ounces, or one sixth of the ancient weight) ; 
and that thus the republic paid off its debts, gaining 
five parts in six : that afterwards, in the second 
Punic war, in the dictatorship of Q. Fabius Maxi- 
mus (about & a 217), ases of one ounce were 
made, and the denarius was decreed to be equal 
to sixteen ases, the republic thus gaining one half ; 
but that in military pay the denarius was always 
given fiir ten ases : and that soon after, by the 
Papirian law (about B.C. 191), ases of half aa 
ounce were made. Festus also (s. o. Seselaniani 
Ataea) mentions the redaction of the as to two 
ounces at the time of the first Punic war. There 
seem to have been other redactions besides those 
mentioned by Pliny, for there exist ases, and parts 
of ases, which show that this coin was made of 
every number of ounces from twdve down to one, 
besides intermediate fractions ; and there are cop- 
per coins of the Terentian family which show that 
It was depressed to ^ and even ^ of its original 
weight Though some of these standards may be 
rejected as accidental, yet on the whole they clorly 
prove, as Niebuhr observes (HuL of Rome^ vol. i. 
p. 461), that there must have been several re- 
ductions before the first which Pliny mentions. 
Niebuhr maintains further, that these various 
standards prove that Pliny^ account of the redac- 
tions of tne coin is entiidy incorrect, and that 
these redactions took pU^e gradually from a very 
eariy period, and were caused by a rise in the 
value of copper in comparison with silver, so that 
the denarius was in the first Panic war really 
equal in value to only twenty ounces of copper, 
and in the seoood Punic war to sixteen ounces, in- 
stead of 120, which was its nominal value. He 
admits, however, that the times when these reduc- 
tions were resolved upon were chiefly those when 
the state was desiroos of rdieving the debton ; 
and thinks that we miffht assign, with tolemble 
accuracy, the periods when these reductions took 
place. On the other hand, Bockh argues thai 
there is no proof of any such increase in the value 
of copper, and on this and many other grounds his 
condusion is, that all the reductions of the weight 
of the as, from a pound down to two ounces, took 
pkce during the first Punic war, and that they 



140 



AS. 



were aceompanied by a real and correapondiiig diini- 
nuticm in the valtie of the aa. (Meiroloffiteke Un- 
ienudumffm, § 28.) It is impoaaible to giTe here 
even a summarj of the arguments on boUi sides : 
the remarks of Niebohr and Btfckh most them- 
selves be studied. It is by no means improbable 
that there waa some mcrease in the valae of copper 
during the period before the first Punio war, and 
also that the fixing of the sextantal standard arose 
partly out of the relation of Talue between copper 
and the sil?er coinage which had been Tery lately 
introduced. On the other hand, it is impossible 
entirely to reject Pliny^ statement that the im- 
mediate object of the reductions he mentions was 
the public gain. Mr. Grote, who sides with BSckh, 
remarks, Siat ^such a proceeding has been so 
neariy uniTersal with goremments, both ancient 
and modem, that the contrary may be looked upon 
as a remarkable exception.** (CUutioal Mtueunty 
Tol. i. p. 32.) 

These Tariations make it. impossible to fix any 
Talue for the as, except with reference to some 
more specific standard ; and this we find in the 
denarius. Taking the value of this coin at about 
fi^ pence [Dbnarius], the as, at the time of the 
first coinage of the denarius (b. a 269), was one- 
tenth of this ndue, that is, about *85 of a penny or 
3'4 fiuihings ; and in the time of the second Punic 
war, when 16 ases went to the denarius^ the as was 
worth about 2 } fiuthings. When the silver coinage 
got thoroughly established, the reckoning was no 
longer by ases, but by sestertii. [Sbstbrtius.] 
Also, during the period or pcsriods of reduction, 
the term ass ^kmm, which originally signified the 
old heavy coins, as opposed to the reduced ases, 
came to mean any quantity of copper coins, of 
whatever weight or coinage, reckoned not by tale, 
but by the old standard of a pound weight to the 
as ; and this standard was actually maintained in 
certain payments, such as mUitary pay, fines, &c 
(Liv. iv. 41, 60, v. 2, xxxii. 26 ; Plin. L e* ; Sen. 
ad Helv. 12 ; Niebuhr, Hisi. of Borne, vol. I pp. 
466, 467). This mode of reckoning also supplied 
a common measure for the money of Rome, and 
the other states of Italy, which had ases of very 
various weights, most of them heavier than the 
Roman. The name of aes grave was also applied 
to the uncoined metal. (Servius, ad Virg. Aen, 
▼i. 862 ; Mana, aes rmU, metaUum in/edum, 
Isidor. xvi. 18. 13.) 

The oldest form of the as is that which bears 
the figure of an animal (a bull, ram, boar, or sow) ; 
whence the ancient writers derived the word for 
money, peamia^ firom peeue, an etymology on which 
no opinion need be pronounced ; but whether this 
impress was intended to represent property by that 
fi>rm of it which was then most common, or had 
some mythological meaning, is doul)tful. Niebuhr 
denies the antiqui^ of this type, but his sole ob- 
jection is satisfiictorily answerad by Bdckh. The 
type seems however to have been much less used 
in the Roman than in some other old Italian coin- 
ages ; and most of the pieces which bear it are of 
a rude oblong shape. The next fi>nn, and the 
common one in the oldest Roman ases, is round, 
and is that described by Pliny {H. N, xxxiii. 3. 
s. 13), as having the two-£soed head of Janus on 
one side, and the prow of a ship on the other 
(whence the expression used by Roman boyi in 
tossing up, ec^pita amt nortm, Macrob. Sat, i. 7). 
The annexed specimen, firom the British Museum, 



A& 

weighs 4000 grains : the length of the diameter tn 
this and the two fi>Uowing cuts is half tbat of the 
original coins. 



,^.^^^=^. 




The as was divided into parts, which were 
named according to the number of ounces they 
contained. They were the detttue, dexkms^ dodrasis, 
6m, teptuiufj ssniM, quinaaue, trimt^ quadrans or 
tenmciut^ sextant, eeeamx or tesamda, and mfdoj 
consisting respectively of II, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 
3, 2, H, and 1 ounces. Of these divisions the 
fi)llowing wero represented by coins ; namely, the 
temie, quincunx, trient, quadrane, aexUmt, and uneicu 
There is a solitary instance of the existence of the 
dodfans, in a com of the Cassian fiimily, bearing 
an S and three balls. We have no precise inform* 
ation as to the time when these divisions were 
first introduced, but it was probably nearly as 
eariy as the first coinage of copper money. 

The semis, semissis, or semi-as, half the aa. or six 
ounces, is always marked with an S to represent 
its value, and very commonly with heads of Jupi- 
ter, Juno, and Pallas, accompanied by strigils. 
The 9i(<fioiM«i, or piece of five ounces, is very rare. 
There is no specimen of it in the British Museum. 
It is distinguished by five small balls to represent 
its value. The triens^ the third part of the as, or 
piece of four ounces, is mariced with four balU. 
In the annexed specimen, firom the British Mu- 
seum, the balls appear on both sides, with a 




thunderbolt on one side, and a dolphin with a strigil 
above it on the other. Its weight is 1571 grains. 



AS. 

The qaadrmt or ienmeaut^ the fourth part of 
iktUtV piece of three onncee, bu three balls to 
deaole its Tahie. An «ypen hand, a BtrigO, a dol- 
pJiixi, giains of oocn, a star, heads of Heieoles, 
CeieS) &C, are comnion deviees on this coin. Pliny 
{H. N. zzxiii 3. s. 13) says that both the triens 
isd qnsdzans ban the imi^ of a shipi The 
aoiaas, the sixth part of the as, or piece of two 
eeacei, bean two balls. In the annexed specimen, 
from the Britisfa Mosenm, there is a cadncens and 
itr^ on one side, and a eockle-shell on the other. 
It! weigfat is 779 gmiiis. 



ASCOLIASMUS. 



141 




Tbe aada, one ounce piece, or twelfth of the aa, 
ii Birked by a siii^e bailL There appear on this 
em beads of Pallas, of Roma, and of Diana, ships, 
frogs, sad ears of barley. (For other doTices, see 

After the reduction in the weight of the as, 
team were strack of the Talue of 2, 3, 4, and even 
10 aies, which were called respectirely dussis or 
iapemdiMA, (rcnsai, quadrusBis^ and deeums. Other 
iBik^fes of the as were denoted by words of similar 
farmstioa, up to eemtausU^ 100 ases ; but most of 
then do not exist aa coins. 

It is a Teiy remarkable &ct that, while the 
duodedmal drnsion of the as prevailed among the 
Bstkai of Italy south of the Apennines, the deci- 
mldrriaiaa was in use to the north of that chain ; 
Mtbst, of the former nations no quincunx has been 
^JaooToed, of the latter no semis. In Sicily the 
tvs lyitems were mixed. [Ponoxra.] For further 
ietajk respecting the coinage of the other Italian 
itea,see BdfdLh, MttroL UntertmeL § 27 ; Abeken, 
MiUd'JtaUat, and Lepsius, Ueber die VeHtretimg 
da ItaHtckm Mtrnx^fatems von Etrmnem au$. 

In certain forms <rf expression, in which aet is 
■Md for money witbont specifying the denomina- 
tJoB, we most understand the as. Thus (ieatoem, 
taik atritfdeoieg aen$^ mean respectiTely 10, 1000, 
1,000,000 osM. 

Tbe word as was used alio for any whole which 
vtt to be divided into twelve equal uarts ; and 
tboae ports were called imdas. Thus the nomen- 
cistsre of the dnodeetmal division of the as was ap- 
Hd not flaly to weight and money, but to measures 
of kngtk, snrfoce, and c^iacity, to inheritances, 
iatereEt, homes, funis, and many other things. 
HeKe,fiar example, the phrases Aaere$ e» a$9e^ Ute I 
beir to a whole estate; kaeret eit dodramitjihe heir 
to tbree-fbnrths, Ac {Cic Pro Caecm^ 6 ; Com. 
K^ AUit. 5.) Pliny even uses the phrases somts- 
m J/rioas (/f. JV. xviiL 6L s. 7), and dodnmtes el 
tmrneiaehonrmm {ff.N. a 14. a. 11). 

Tbesiwasalso called, in ancient times, cuearimt 
[t sssiswt), and in Greek rh iuradpun^. Accord- 
ing to Polybius (ii 15) the assarius was equal to 
biJf tbe obdas. On the coins of Chios we find 
ifWfMr, io'vapUnr %fiunf^ iuro'dpia 8iiw, iuro'dpia 
Tpio. (In addition to the works referred to in this 
tttide, and those of Hussey and Wurm, mucb 
'v^hahle iafionnation will be found in the work 
tatitld, Aes Gntve del Mueeo Kirdierkato^ dee. 



Roma, 1839, 4to. ; and m Lepsiusli review of it 
appended to his Ireatiie Ueber die T^rrhener-Pelae- 
pw.) [P.S.] 

ASCAULES. [Tibia.] 

ASCI A (vmiwapvow, Hom. Od. v. 235), an adzet 
Muxatori (/m. Vet. Thee, L 534 — 536) has pub< 
lished numerous representations of the adze, as it 
is exhibited on ancient monuments. We select the 
three following, two of which show the instrument 
itself; with a slight variety of form, while tbe third 
represenU a ship-builder holding it in his right 
hand, and using it to shape the rib of a vessel. 




We also give another instrument in the above cut 
taken from a coin of the Valerian family, and 
ailed adeeulMa, It was chiefly used by masons, 
whence, in the ancient glossaries, Adeeulariue is 
translated A«r^/io9, a etome^nUer. 

As to the reason why Ascia is represented on 
sepulchral monuments, see Forcellmi, Lexicon^ 
•.«. [J.Y.] 

ASCLEPIEIA (fluricX^fcta), the name of festi- 
vals which were probably celebrated in all phices 
where temples of Asdepius (Aesculapius) existed. 
The most celebrated, however, was that of Epi- 
daurus, which took place every five years, and 
was solenmixed with contests of rhapsodists and 
musicians, and with solemn processions and games* 
(SchoL ad Find. Nem, iil 145 ; Paus. a 26. §. 7.) 
*A(ricX^cM are also mentioned at Lampsacus 
(Bdckh, Corp. luecr. vol. ii. pw 1131), and at 
Athens (Aeschin, e. Ctesipk. p, 455), which were, 
probably, like those of Epidaurus, solemnised with 
musical contests. They took place on the eighth 
day of the month of E^apheboUon. [L. S.] 

ASCOLIASMUS (A(rK9»\twrfUs^ the leaping 
upon the leathern bag, iurK6s) was one of the 
many kinds of amusements in which the Athenians 
indulged during the Anthesteria and other festivals 
in honour of IMonysus. The Athenians sacrificed 




142 



ASEBEIAS GRAPHS. 



a hc-goat to the god, made a ba^ oat of the tkin, 
tmeared it with oiJ, and then tned to dance upon 
it The Tarioua accidents accompanying this at- 
tempt aflfbrded great amuiement to the spectaUffs. 
He who aocceeded was rictor, and received the 
skin as a reward. (SchoL ad Ari$toph, PltU. 1 130 ; 
Plat Symp, p. 190 ; Virg. Geofy. il 384 ; PoUnx, 
ix. 121 ; Hesjch. t. «. AaimXjdCmrrts ; Kranse, 
G^nmculik wid Affomttik d. Hellmem^ pi 399, who 
gives a representation of it firam an ancient gem, 
which is copied in the aboTe cut) 

ASEBEIAS GRAPHE (iurtUias ypcuf^^ was 
one of the many forms prescribed by the Attie 
laws for the impeachment of impiety. From the 
varioas tenor of the accusations still extant, it may 
be gathered that this crime was as ill-d^ned at 
Athens, and therefore as liable to be made the 
pretext for persecution, as it has been in all other 
countries in which the civil power has attempted 
to reach offences so much beyond the natural limits 
of its jurisdiction. The occasions, however, upon 
which the Athenian accuser professed to come xbr- 
ward may be classed as, first, breaches of the cere- 
monial law of public worship ; and, secondly, 
indications of that, which in analogous cases of 
modem times would be called heterodoxy, or 
heresy. The former comprehended encroachment 
upon consecrated grounds, the plunder, or other 
injury of temples, the violation of asylums, the in- 
temiption of sacrifices and festivals, the mutihtion 
of statues of the gods, the introductioi^ of deities 
not acknowledged by the state, and various other 
tninsgrossionspecnliariy defined by the laws of the 
Attic sacra, such as a private celebration of the 
Eleusinian mjrsteries and their divulgation to the 
uninitiated, injury to the sacred olive trees, or 
phicing a suppliant bough (Uenipla) on a particular 
altar at an improper time. (Andoc:^Afy^p.llO.) 
The hereticid delinqneneies may be exemplified 
by the expulrion of Protagoras (Biog. LaHrt. ix. 
61, 52) for writing ** tluit he could not learn 
whether the gods existed or not,^ in the persecu- 
tion of Anazagoras (Diog. Lam. it 12), hke that 
of Galileo in after times, for impugning ue received 
opinions about the sun, and the condemnation of 
Socrates for not holding the objects of the public 
worship to be gods. (Xcn.Apol. Soe,) The va- 
riety of these examples will have shown that it 
is impossible to enumerate all the cases to which 
this sweeping accusation might be extended ; and, 
as it is not upon record that religious Athens 
(Xen. Rtp. Ath. iil 8) was scandalised at the pro- 
fane jests of Aristophanes, or that it forced Epicu- 
rus to deny that the gods were indifferent to hu- 
man actions, it is difficult to ascertain the limit at 
which jests and scepticism ended, and penal im- 
piety began. 

With respect to the trial, any citisen that pleased 
6 fiouXAfiMvos — which, however, in this as in all 
other public actions, must be understood of those 
only who did not labour under an incapacitating 
disfranchisement (&r<fi(a) — seems to have been a 
competent accuser ; but as the nine archons, and 
the areiopagites, were the proper guardians of the 
sacred olives (ftop^oi, criKoi^ Lysias, lltfA rov 
2i}«toO, p. 282), it is not impossible that they had 
also a power of official prosecution upon casually 
discovering any injury done to their charge. 

The cases of Socrates, Aspasia, and Protagoras, 
may be adduced to show toat citiaens, resident 
aliens and strangers, were equally liable to this 



ASILLA. 
accusation. And if a minor, as repi ' sjcn ted in tin 
declamation of Antiphon, could be proaecuted foi 
murder (^^u), a crime considered by the earii 
Greeks more in reference to its cereraonisJ pol- 
lution than in respect of the injury inflicted npoi 
society, it can hardly be eonclnded that per- 
sons under age were incapable of oomjiiittiiig, oi 
sufiierimL for this offence. (Antiph. T^alraL ii 

^674.) ^ 

The magistrate, who conducted the prerions ex- 
amination (Mx^ffis) was, acoordlnip to Meier 
(AtL Proe, pp. 300, 304, n. 34) invariably the king 
arehon, but whether the court into which he brought 
the causes were the areiopegus, or the oommoa 
heliastic court, of both of which there are several 
instances, is supposed (Meier, AU. Proe. p. 305 ) 
to have been determined by the form of action 
adopted by the prosecutor, or the degree of com- 
petency to which the areiopagus rose or fell at the 
different periods of Athenian history. From the 
Apology ofSoer<a» we learn that the forma of the 
trial upon this occasion were thoae usual in all 
public actions, and that, pmsni^^, the amoont of 
the penalty formed a separate question ior the di- 
casts after the conviction of the defendant. For 
some kinds of impiety, however, the poniahment 
was fixed»hy special kws, as in the case of persons 
injuring the sacred olive trees, and in that men- 
tioned by Andocidet (Jh MytL p. 110). 

If the accuser foiled to obtain a fifth of the Totea 
of the dicasts, he forfeited a thousand drachmae, 
and incurred a modified hriyXoL, The other forms 
ol prosecution for this oflfaioe were the iangywyh 
(Dem.c^fN/fX)<.p,(v01.26), ^^^h^iTO-is (Meier, AU. 
Pne, p. 246), ffr3c<|is (Andoc. De MyaL p. 8), 
vpoSoMi (Libanius, Aryiim. ad Dem. m Mid. &09, 
1 0), and in extraordinary cases cIs-oyycAla (Andoc 
De Myd, p. 43) ; besides these, DemosUienes men- 
tions (e. AndvoL p. 601) two oUier conrMS that an 
accuser might adopt, hutd(<Hr9ai wp^s E&fieAvfftas, 
and ^pdftuf rp6s rhi fiaa-ik^eij of which it is diffi- 
cult to give a satisfoetoiy explanation. [J. S. M.] 

ASI ARCHAE (duri^ai), were, in the Roman 
province of Asia, the chief preaidents of the re- 
ligions rites, whose office it was to exhibit games 
and theatrical amusements every year, in honour of 
the gods and the Roman emperor, at their own 
expense, like the Roman aed&les. As the exhi- 
bition of these games were attended with great 
expense, wealthy persons were always chosen to 
fill this office; for which reason, Strabo says, 
some of the inhabitants of Tralles, which was one 
of the most wealthy cities in Aida, were always 
chosen asiarehs. They were ten in number, se- 
lected annually by the difierent towns of Asia, 
and approved of by the Roman proconsul ; of 
these, one was the ehief asiareh, and ftequently, 
but not always, resided at Ephesas. Their office 
lasted only for a year ; but they appear to have 
enjoyed the title as a mark of courtesy for the rest 
of their lives. In the other Roman provinces in 
Asia, we find similar magistrates conrespondhfi g to 
the Asiaichae in prooonsidar Asia, as for instance 
the Bithyniarehae, Oalataichae, Lyciazcfaae« Ac, 
(Stzab. xiv. p. 649 ; Acts, xix. 31., with the 
notes of Wetstein and Kuinoel ; Eusebw If. E. ir. 
16 ; Winer, BU^i$eiet Reakoorierhmek^ aitAsiar- 
aim.) 

ASILLA (Ib'iAAa), a wooden pole, or yoke, 
held by a man either cm his two shouMers, or 
more commonly on one shoulda only, and used fo« 



oiM 



ASSESSOR. 

(Arifltot. RkH, I 7.) It ii 
hj Anskmhanet {Bam, 8). It do- 
htn chien J bom its firequcDt oe- 
m wfk* of Gieciaip art, of which aome 
we givcB in the annezed cat 



ASTRAGALUS. 



143 




ASSA'RIUS NUMMUS. [As.] 
ASSERTOR^ or ADSERTOR, eontaini the 
BOM root as the verb adterm, which, when coapled 
▼itk the wwd «MMi, signifies to hiy hold of a thing, 
to diav it towards one. Hence the phrase odssreiv 
« Uhtrb Ut m ^ or UberaU adaenrt moaaf, applies to 
Ibb who lajs his hand on a person repat«d to be 
tfkre, and onerfs, or maintains his freedom. The 
poMB who thus maintained the freedom of a re- 
puted ikve was called admrior (Gains, iv. 14), and 
by tbc hws of the Twelre Tables it was enacted 
is fxvnar of libertj, that snch adsertor shonld not 
be failed on to give security in the sacnunenti actio 
to Bore than the amount of l. assea. The person 
vhose freedom was thos claimed, was said to be 
9imim, The expressions UberaUt eoasa, and 
tt«v& sw—g, which occur in classical authors, 
m tmmtrtian with the rerb adaertrt, will easily 
be TBdoBtood from what has been said. (Terent 
AJdpL ii. 1. 40 ; Phut Pom. iv. 2. 83 ; see 
^ Dig. 40. tit. 12. J>e UberaU Catua,) Some- 
tact the word odmnn alone was used as equiva- 
lent to uimrtrt m UbertaUm. (Cic. I^tq Flaeeo. 
cl7.) 

The expression auerert m tervitutem^ to claim a 
penoo as a s^Te, occurs b LiTj (iiL 44, xxxiv. 

la.) [G.L.] 

, ASSESSOR, or ADSESSOR, literally, one who 
Rti by the side of another. The duties of an 
UtttHf, as described by Paulus (Dig. 1. tit 21. 
■■ I.) rdated to ^ cognitiones, postnlationes, libelii, 
edicts, dccreta, epistolae ;** from which it iq>pears 
Abai Uiey were employed in and about the adminis- 
tBttou of law. The consuls, praetors, goTemors of 
(fonnces, and the judioea, were often imperfectly 
Kqainted with the law and the forms of proce- 
^ sad it was necessary that they should have 
tbc aid of those who had made the kw their study. 
((^dcOraiDre,L37, Im Femna, ii. 29). The 
pa^KlBs pcsetorio, and psaefectns urbi, and other 



dvil and militaiy fbaetionarieB, had thefr assessors. 
An instance is mentioned by Tacitus {Aim, i. 75) 
of the Emperor Tiberius assisting at the judicia 
{jmdiaiM adtuUbai), and taking his seat at the 
comer of the tribunal ; but this irtmagr cannot 
be interpreted to mean, as some persons interpret 
it, that the emporor sat there in the character 
of an assessor properly so called : the remark of 
Tacitus shows that, though the emperor might have 
taken his seat under ue name of assessor and 
affected to be such, he could be considered in no 
other light than as the head of the state. (Compare 
Sueton. 7^ Nen, 33, Tib, OUtiidiusy 12). 

Under the empire the practice of having as- 
sessors continued (Plin. J^. I 20, vL 11, x. 19 ; 
Gellius, L 22). Suetonius {Golba^ 14) mentions the 
case of an assessor being named to the office of 
praefectos praetorio. The Emperor Alexander 
Sevenis gave the assessores a regular aalar}'. 
(Lamprid. AIb9. Sev, 46.) Freedmcn might be 
assessores. In the kter writers the assessores are 
mentioned under the various names of emuUiariit 
Juris studum^ oomctes, &c. The>rw atmdiom^ men- 
tioned by Gellius (xiL 13), as assistant to the 
judices {qmoi adJtiben m eotmUum judiathtri so- 
lemt)^ were the assessores. Sabinus, as it i^ipears 
from Ulpian (Dig. 47. tit. 10. s. 5), wrote a book 
on the duties of assessors. The assessors sat on the 
tribunal with the magistrate. Their advice, or aid, 
was given during the proceedings as well as at 
other times, but they never pronounced a judicial 
sentence. As the old forms of procedure gradually 
declined, the a ss es so r es, according to the conjec- 
ture of Savigny {Gt9ckiehU ds$ Bom, BeckU im 
MUUUtlter^ vol l p. 79), took the place of the judices. 
For other mattenreUtting to the assessores, see HoU- 
weg, HoMUmek dei Civi^>roxe$$u, pi 152. [G. L.] 

ASSI'DUI. [LocupLKTSs] 

ASTRA'GALUS (iorpayoAorX literaUy sig- 
nifies that particular bone in the ankles of certain 
quadrupeds, which the Greeks, as well as the Ro- 
mana, used for dice and other purposes, as described 
under the corresponding Latin word Talus. 

As a Latin word, astragalus is used by Vitruvins, 
who of course borrowed it firora the Greek writen 
on architecture, for a certain moulding (the astragal) 
which seems to hare derived its name from its re- 
semblance to a string or chain of taii; and it is in 
fact always used in positions where it seems in- 
tended to bind together the parts to which it is 
applied. It belongs properiy to the more highly 
decorated forms of the Ionic order, in whidi it 
appean as a lower edging to the lai^ mouldings, 
eqiedally the eaUtms (ovolo), particularly in the 
capital, as shown in the following woodcut, which 
represents an Ionic capital found in the ruins of the 
temple of Dionysus at Teos. Still finer examples 
occur in the capitals of the temples of Erechtheus 
and Athene Polias, at Athens, where it is seen, too, 
on the sides of the volutes. It is also often used 
in the entablature as an edging to the divisions of 
the cornice, friese, and architrave. The lower 
figure in the woodcut represents a portion of the 
astragal which runs beneath the crowning moulding 
of the architrave of the temple of Erechtheus. It 
is taken from a firagment in the British Museum, 
and is drawn of the same siae as the <Hri^;inal. 

The term is also applied to a plam convex 
moulding of the same sectional outline as the 
former, but without the division into links, just 
like a iorus on a small scale : in this form it is used 



1 44 ASTROLOOIA. 

in the Ionic ba«e [Spira]. In the orden wihse- 
quent to the Ionic, — the Corinthian, Roman 
Doric, and Composite, — the astragal was very 



iE^"^i':'>^--T"i:i'^i^ 




mmm 





freely used. The rules for the use of the moulding 
are given by Vitruvius (iil 5. § 3, iv. 6. §§ 2, 3. 
Schneid.). Numerous fine examples of it will be 
found in the plates of Manch (Die Grieckischen tmd 
Romischen Bau-Ordnungen^ Potsdam, 1 845.) [P.S.] 

ASTRATEIAS GRAPHE' {iurrpartias 
ypaujyfiX was the accusation instituted against per- 
sons who &iled to appear among the troops after they 
had been enrolled for the campaign by the generals. 
(Lys. in Ale. pp. 521, 571.) We may presume that 
the accuser in this, as in the similar action for leaving 
the ranks (Xeivoro^Iov), was any citizen that chose 
to come forward (6 fiov\6fuyos^ oU l(c<m), and that 
the court was composed of soldiers who had served 
in the campaign. The presidency of the court, ac- 
cording to Meier, belonged to the ^nerals. The 
defendant, if convicted, incurred disfranchisement 
< — &rifi(a, both in his own person and that of his 
descendants, and there were very stringent laws to 
punish them if they appeared at the public sacra, 
to which even women and slaves were admitted. 
(Andoc de Myst. p. 35 ; Aesch. in Ctea. p. 59 ; 
Dem. m Timocr. p. 732 ; Meier, Att. Prooets, 
p. 363, &c) [J.S.M.] 

ASTKOLO'UIA. This word is occasionally 
employed by the best Latin writers (e. g. Cic die 
Divin, ii. 42.) to denote astronomy in general, and 
indeed is found in that sense more frequently than 
attrononUay which is of rare occurrence. In the 
present article, however, we confine ourselves to 
what is strictly termed judicial aUrology, and 
treat of astronomy under Astronomia. 

At a period far beyond the records of authentic 
history a belief arose, which still prevails un- 
shaken in the East, that a mysterious but close 
connection subsisted between the relative position 
and movements of the heavenly bodies and the 
fiiite of man. In process of time it was maintained 
that the fortunes of each individual throughout 
life depended upon the aspect of the sky at the 
moment of his birth, and especially upon the star 
which vras rising above the horixon at the instant 
when he saw the light, wii. upon those which 
were in its immediate vicinity (oonfimctae\ or re- 
moved from it by a sixth, a fourth, or a third part 
of a great circle of the sphere, or, finally, upon 
those which were at the opposite extremity of the 
■ame diameter (oppositae). Few doubted that by 
observation and deep study persons might acquire 
the power of expounding these appearances, that 



ASTROLOOIA. 

the destiny of the child might be predicted wit] 
certainty by those who were skilled to interpre 
the language of the stars, and that the result o 
any undertaking might be foretold from the a^>ect 
of the firmament when it was commenced. Henc4 
a numerous and powerfid class of men aroae wh< 
were distinguished by various designations. From 
the country where astronomy was first studied, and 
their science was first developed, the^ were called 
Chaldaei or Bal/ylumi; from observuig the stairs, 
culronomi, cutrologi^ planetarii; fit>m employing 
diagrams such as were nsed by geometricians, ma- 
thematid; from determining Uie lot of man at hia 
natal hour, getieOiIiaai ; from prophesying the con- 
summation of his struggles, aamrtXtcfurrucoi ; 
while their art was known as iurrpoXayia, /*«- 
rctfpoXoyia, ycrc^XtoAxryta, ivorcXccrfiarur^, Ara 
CSuddaeorumy Mathetts^ or, from the tables they 
consulted, vufcuctiHi. Their calcuhitions were 
termed Babvlonii numeric XaXZcduv fi^doSoi, XoA- 
Hcduy if^<^i8cf, RcUiones ChaldcUeae; their re- 
sponses when consulted CkcUdaeorum numita^ 
Chaldaeorum natalida praedicta^ Attrologorum 
pmedicta. 

The stars and constellations to which attention 
was chiefly directed were the planets and the 
signs of the zodiac, some of which were supposed 
to exert uniformly a benign influence (iyoBorouH 
iun4p€s), such as Venus, Jupiter, Luna, Virgo, 
Libra, Taurus ; others to be uniformly malign 
(kokowoioI iurrip*s\ such as Satumus, Mars, 
Scorpio, Capricomus ; others to be doubtfixl (^<- 
itoivoi iurr4pts\ such as Mercurius. By the com- 
bination and conjunction (avt^fMfi'fi, amateUatin) 
or opposition, however, of those benign with those 
malign, the power of the latter might be neu- 
tral!^ or even reversed, and a most happy 
horoscope be produced, as in the case of Augustus 
who was bom under Capricomus (Suet Aug. 94 >, 
and hence that figure frequently appears on his 
medals. For the sake of expediting calculations, 
the risings, settings, movements, and relative posi- 
tions (ofYus, oooeutis, fTioftts, vicM, diaeetsiones^ 
coetua, eonvaUma, coneuraion^j dreuittta^ irmtsitMs^ 
habUua^ format poaiiura^ pontua dderum et apaiia) 
were carefully registered in tables (riyoKts, 
i^fi€pi^€s). In so fiw as the planets were con- 
cerned, it was of especial importance to note 
through what sign of the zodiac they happened to 
be passing, since each planet had a peculiar sign, 
called the domua or house of the planet, during 
its sojourn in which it possessed supericur power. 
Thus Libra, Capricomus, and Scorpio were re- 
spectively the kouaea of Venus, Saturn, and Mars. 

The exact period of birth (hora geiataUa) bcin<r 
the critical moment, the computations founded 
upon it were styled ydvtats (geniiura\ itpocKSros 
{horoaoopua), or simply J^^fux, and the star or 
stars in the ascendant aidua nateUiHmit^ aideru mi- 
tcUitia. 

Astrologers seem to have found their way to 
Italy even before a free communication was opened 
up with the East by the Roman conquests in 
Greece and Asia, since they are mentioned con- 
temptuously by Ennius. (ap. Cic. De Die. I 58.) 
About a century later the government seem to have 
become sensible of the inconvenience and danger 
likely to arise from the presence of such impostors, 
for in a a 139 an edict was promulgated by C. 
Comelius Hispallus, at that time praetor, by which 
the Chaldaeans were banished from the city, an.1 



ASTRONOMIA. 

orienatoqnt Italjr vithin ten dayi (YaL Maz.L 
1 §2>,aBd dtrfwen again baniihed from the dtj 
B B.C. 33^ bj II. Agrippn, who was then aedile. 
(DioaGHLxlxz. 1.) Another aeroe ordinanee waa 
leveled bj Aqgu atua ai^unst thia das* (Dion Caia. 
IxT. 1, bcri. 23X bat the frequent oceanence of 
iKk phiaaea aa ** expolH et matheauiticoa ** (Snet 
7%. 36% * ndaia Italia mathematids ** (Tac. HuL 
iL 62X in the hiateriana of the cmpin proTe how 
&B a hold theae pretenderi mnat hare obtained 
of«r the pnblie mind, and how profitable the oo- 
capatHB amai have been which ooold induce them 
to kaie diagnce, and lometxmea a cnel death 
(Tac Anm, n. 32). Notwithatanding the number 
■od ftringenl chaBBctcr of the penal enactments by 
nkidi tkuBj wcte dcnovmeed, they appear to hare 
and althooni £rom time to 



kfpt their 

tbae amhti or terrified into lOence, to hare re- 
iiTcd with freah Tigoor in aeaiona of conloiion 
as j aaudiy, when all daaaea of the communxtj 
■napenae between hope and fear, were 
to yield to eveiy supentitious im- 
psitt.' It nnat be lemembered alao, that the most 
aato e prineca did not dwidain, when agitated by 
dnbli «r exciled by ambitiona longingi, to ao- 
qiire the prindplea of the art and to consult its 
yufijMi , aa we may perceive, not to multiply 
mnqJet, fram the well-known atoiy of Tiberius 
acd Thasyllus (Tac ^aa. vi 20, 21). Hence 
Tadtis, after leeoantiQg the high piomisea by 
irhiek tha ** nmthemstki " stimnkted Otho to 
uoBM the purple, adds in a tone of soRowfhl 
icagaation, "^cenna iKMsmom potentibus infidum, 
ipenndbat blkx, qaod. in dvitate nostra et reta- 



ASTRONOMIA. 



145 



Uav semper et retinebitur.* 
42,&&;GeIL3 



(See Cic Div. iL 
. zir. 1 ; Hot. Cbna. il 17. 17 ; Pen. 
T. 46 ; Jut. iiL 43, vii 194, xiT. 248, vi 563 
-o«l ; Tac; Amu ii. 27, 32, iil 22, iv. 5«, ti. 
20, lii 22, 52, 68, xri 14, Ui$L L 22, il 62; 
Saet. 7%. 14, 36, FdaO. 14, iVsro, 40 ; OelLlP; 
IKoB GuBL zliz. 43, Ivi 25, Irii. 15, Ixr. 1 ; 
Zoos, ii p. 142; Lipa. Eaam, vii. ad Toe, Ami, 
». ; Jsai, Baemn. ad Hor, Conn, il 17. 17 ; Ru- 
rf^NoLad Toe, Amu il 27. For the penal 
oMaenii, see Rein, Jku CrmmalreeiU der 
Ammt, y, 901, Ac. Leipaig, 1844. Those who 
woald acquire a knowledge of the tedinical de- 
^ik of astnlogy, aa pnctiaed by the andents, 
B«t pause the worka of Manilius, Julius Pir< 
ucit, sad Ptolemy.) [W.R.] 

ASTRON(yMIA, astRmomy. It is not pro- 

T<*e4 m the pNscnt artide to give a technical his> 

i«7 >f the rise and progicsa «f astronomT among 

tie sadcnls, but to confine ourselres to what may 

W regsided aa the popular portian of the science, 

^ ftWiisliiais. namely, upon the relative position 

nd sppsRut msTements of the celestial bodies, 

■^easily the fixed stars, which from the earliest 

*F^ engsgcd the attention of those dasses of men 

v^ Si shepherds or mariners were wont to pass 

t^iURhlshiUieopenair. We shall consider : — 

. 1. las Jtiftfcot names by which the constella- 

tiais «se ^tttingnishffd among the Greeks and 

Bmsbs, and the Icgoida attadied to each ; but 

vcihdaMt attempt to investigats at length the 

•rigia «( these names nor the times and places 

vka sad where they were first bestowed. The 

■BtoakfiK this first section hare been carefully 

oQwicd by Idekr in hia casay entitled UnUr- 

lUttdmUrwpnm^mdduBedaUtmgdtr 

1 0«rii% 1809)» a work which we now 



mention spedally once for all to aroid the neeesnty 
of constant references ; in the Hitiorueie Vnier- 
Mfcftan^ea mberdieaslromomiteieH Beobaehttmgem der 
AlUMy by the same author (Berlin, 1806) ; in a 
paper by Buttmann Vher die Entstehmg der Stem- 
bilder mrfder grieekiaehen S/are, contained in the 
Transactions of the Berlin Academy for 1826 ; and 
in the 6'MoiUbJUs der AMtronomie of Schanboch. 

2. The risings and settinn of the fixed stan 
considered with reference to the podtion of the sun 
in the ecliptic, — a series of phenomena, which re- 
cuiring r^^^ilarly every tropical year, served in 
the most remote ages as the sole guides for the 
operations of the husbandman, and which, being 
in later times frequently appealed to b^ the poets, 
are sometimes designated the ** Poetical Risings 
and Settings of the Stars.*^ Here we chiefly de- 
pend upon the compihtions and dissertations, 
andent and modeni, brought together in the 
Uramdoffion of Petavius ; upon the disquisition by 
J. F. P&ff entitled Commadatio de Ortibw d Oe- 
outSnu Siderum apud ametore$ damoM commemoro' 
tot (Ootting. 1786) ; upon a paper by Ideler, Utter 
dem aetnmomietAm Theil der Faeti dee Ovid^ in the 
Transacdons of the Berlin Academy for 1822 — 
1823, and on the HtrndbmA der Ckronoloffie by the 
same author. 

3. The division of the year into two, three, or 
more seasons, according to the risings and settings 
of particular stan or clusters of stars. The Hamd- 
bmek der CkromoUiffie contains a full examination of 
all the most important passages from the Greek and 
Roman authors which bear upon these points. 

The determination of the length of the year and 
the distribution of time into months, days, hours, 
and other periods, which in some degree belong to 
the same subject, are treated of separately under 
the heads of Calcndaaium and Diss, and con- 
fining our attention ioe the present to the fixed 
stars {emmee^ eteUae erra^Bcaa, see GelL xiv. 1), 
we shall make a few remarks on the bodies of the 
sohr system under Planbtas. 

I. Ths History and Names of thi Con- 

8TXLLATI0N8. 

To begin with the two earliest among profiuie 
writers, Homer and Hesiod, the former notices the 
Bear or Waggon; Bootee; Oriom; the Dog qf 
OrioH ; the PleUidee^ and the Hyadee : the Utter, 
Orkm; Siriue ; the Pleiadee ; the Hyadee; and 
Areturue, We are not entitled to condude from 
this that they were not acquainted with the names 
or fimns of any other constellations, but it seems 
certain that neither the LUtle Bear nor the Dragon 
were known to Homer, for although these remain 
always above the horison in the latitude of Greece 
and Asia Minor, he speaks of the (Great) Bear as 
the only constellation which never plunges into 
Oceaa^s baths ; and we are elsewhere, as will be 
seen below, distinctly told that the Little Bear was 
introduced into Greece from the East by Thales. 

Pliny {H. N» il 6) attributes the invention of the 
signs of the sodiac to Cleostratus of Tenedos (fl. & c 
500), and asserts that Ariee and Sagittariue were 
marked out before the rest. The first distinct in- 
fonnation, however, with regard to the Grecian 
heavens was oontamed in the*%yovTfioy and the 
^aut6tuwa of Eudoxus of Cnidna, who diied & a 352. 
Both of these works are, it is troe, lost with the ex- 
ception of a few fragments, but their contenU are 
known to us from the poem of Aratus (fl. b.c. 260)» 

L 



146 



ASTKONOMIA. 



vhkh, as we areaatnred in the commentary which 
hean the name of Hipparchna, does little more than 
npresent in vene, with rery few Tariationa, the 
matter contained in -the two treatises named above, 
especiallj in the latter. The great popularity en- 
ioyed by the prodoction of Anitas (Cum eoie ei 
Inma tunper Aratua erU) must have depended upon 
the attractions presented by his theme, and cer- 
tainly not upon the spirit or grace with whidi that 
theme was handled. We know the munes of 
thirty-fiye Greeks who composed commentaries 
upon it, and we are acquainted with no less than 
three translations into Latin verse — one by Cicero, 
of which fragments only remain ; another by Caesar 
Germanicus, of which a oonsiderable portion has 
been preserved ; and a third by Rufus Festos 
Avienus, which is entire. Virgil borrowed largely 
from this source in those portions of his Geor^ics 
which contain references to the heavenly bodies, 
and particularly in that section which is devoted 
to prognostics of the weather. There are also 
valuable Greek scholia ascribed to the younger 
Theon, but manifestly compounded of materials 
derived from many different quarters. The work 
itself is divided into three parts : 

1. A description of the constellations, extending 
to line 454. 

2. A short account of the Planets, of the Milky 
Way, of the Tropical Circles, and of the Equator, 
followed from v. 659 by a full detail of the stars 
which rise and set as each sign of the aodiac ap- 
pears in succession (eiiyoywroAaQ. 

3. At line 733 commences what is frequently 
xegarded as a separate poem, and placed apart 
under the title Aiwrrifiua^ consisting of a eoUeeti<m 
of the various appearances whioh enable an ob- 
server of nature to predict the weather. It will 
be seen below that the constellations described by 
Aratus still retain, with a few variations, the names 
by which he distinguishes them. 

In a little tract ascribed to Eratosthenes (fl.B.c. 
230), entitled Karoirrcpur/Aoi, probably an abridg- 
ment of a more complete treatise, in which he 
detaQs the mythological origin of the constellations, 
together with tho number and place of the stars in 
each, we find the same forms arranged in the same 
order as in Atntus, who is followed step by step. 
The Bird^ however, is here termed the Swan ; the 
OBHtaur is individualised into dnron; and the 
Hair of Berenice appears for the first time, having 
been introduced by Conon in honour of the sister- 
wife of Ptolemy Euergetes. 

Scientific astronomy commenced at Ale]candria 
in the early part of the third century before our 
era ; and the first steps were made by Timocharis 
and Aristyllua, who flourished about B.C 290. 
They invented the method of determining the 
places of the fixed stars, by referring them to one 
of the great circles of the heavens, and fer this 
purpose selected the equator. By them, as we 
leant from Ptolemy, the right ascension and de- 
clination of many stars were observed, among 
others of Spioa in the Virgin, which they found 
to be 8° froin the equinox of autumn. 

Hipporehus, about 150 years later, followed up 
the track which they had indicated : his observ- 
ations extended firom b. a 162 to b. c. 127 ; and, 
whether we regard the originality, the magnitude, 
or the importance of his labours, he is weU entitled 
to be regarded as the fether of the science. (See 
Plin. H, N, ii 26.) In addition to many other 



ASTRONOHIA. 

services, he first drew up a regular cstaJqgiie of 
the fixed stars, pointing out their positian and 
magnitude, he first delineated accnratdy the shape 
of the constellations, and he first di s co v ere d the 
precession of the equinoxes by oon^aiii^f his own 
observations with those of Tunocfaaris and Aria* 
tyllus. It is much to be bunented that all the 
works of so great a man should have perished, 
with the exoeptioo of a oommentary in thne books 
upon the description of the fixed stars by Eudoxns 
and Aratus (*E{^i|orfff rw *Ap6rov ool Ev^ov 
^w/A^vwr), the least valuable peihaps of all his 
productaons. We have, however, every reasoo to 
believe that the substance of his most valuable ob- 
servations has been preeerved in the Almagest of 
Ptolemy, whidi long enjoyed such hi^h fiune that all 
former authors were allowed to sink into oblivion. 

The catalogue of the fixed stars by Ptolemy 
(fi. A. D. 100), contained in the seventh and eighth 
books of the Almagest and derived in all pro- 
bability in a great measure from that eompiled by 
Hipparchus, bng served as the model for all sub- 
sequent labours in the same fieid, and little more 
than two centuries have elapsed since any attempt 
was made to supersede it by something more per- 
fect It embraces 48 constellations (21 northem, 
15 southem, and the 12 signs of the aodiac), com* 
prising 15 stars of the first magnitude, 46 of tlie 
seeond, 208 of the third, 474 of the fimrth, 21 7 
of the fifth, 49 of the sixth, 9 obscure, and 5 
nebulous, in all 1022. These are the consteUa- 
tions, usually denominated the Old ContteUaticms^ 
to distinguish them firam the additions made in 
modem times, and these we shall consider in re- 
gular order. The stars are enumerated aeoording 
to the place which they occupy in the figures, the 
latitude, longitude, and magnitude of each hekag 
specified. In connection with many constellations, 
several stars are mentioned as hftop^mrei^ that is, 
not included within the limits of any one of the 
figures ; among those near the Lion he notices the 
Hair ofBeremee^ among those near the Eagle the 
AnHnoue. The single stars and small groups to 
which partieular names are assigned, are, .irctfan-vs, 
the Lyre^ OapeUa, the Kida^ the Ec^Sy the Hyades, 
the JHeiades, the Manger^ the Anee, Reffuius 
(fiauri}dffKos\ Vindenuatrixy Spica^ Jatofvs, the 
Hotmd (he does not give the imm^SirmB^Camofms, 
and PrcK^fom, 

Among our Greek authorities we must not pass 
over Geminus, whose work Elo'cryvryj^ els Th 
^atvSfuva contains in sixteen chapters an expoei« 
tion of the most striking fr^ts in Astronomy and 
Mathematical Geography. We know nothing of 
him personally ; but it has been infeired firom hie 
book that he was a native of Rhodes, and that he 
flourished about ac. 70, at Rome, or at some 
place under the same parallel. The second chapter 
treats of the consteUations and of those stars and 
small clusters distinguished by particular names. 
The Ckima Beremeea^ which is not indnded in the 
21 northern constellations of Ptolemy, has herb 
an independent place assigned to it ; the JFktoL^ or 
lAttle Horte, is termed rpvrofiii Tmrev acofl* *Iw. 
TopxoPj whioh seems to indicate that it was in- 
troduced hf Hipparchus ; in addition to the 15 
Southem Constellations of Ptolemy, we find the 
Stream (x^*' 65aTOf) issuing from the urn of 
Aquarius, and the Tkyrnu of the Centaor. The 
sixteenth chapter is particularly interestii^g and 
valuaUe, since it contains a porapegma or ealenda» 



ASTRONOMIA. 
af the zningi aad uetdm of the fixed etan, with 
pnfneMica of the weather, aocordinff to Meton, 
K M rtfflwm , Endoziu, Calippus, and o^en, the oh- 
MTfatMHu of etth heing quoted sepantely. 

The Reomf adopted the knowledge of the ilan 
eoanBOBnted bj the Oreeka wiuiovt in the 
■fighlesft degree extepding it Only two Latin 
vnteni diaeame ipedally on the lobject, Manflioa 
■od Jnlina Flnnicaa, and their tieatiaea bdong 
nsher to Jvdicial Aaoologj. The poeta» however, 
opedailj Grid and Viigil, make frecpient allu- 
■aaa ta the rianga axid tettmga of the fixed atara, 
t» the aoat rensikahle cenatdhtiona and to the 
fepndi nttached to them. Cicero, Gcnnanicua, 
and Aiieav. aa we have stated abore^ exeented 
tniiwhtfnna of Aimtna, whfle in Vitrariiia, FUny, 
CoiBMOa, Martianns G^ella, the SehoUaat on 
GeraanicM, and Hmnaa, we find a mnltitade of 
detoflL Mnmliaa, it is dear, took Antas fiv his 
geide in ao fiv aa the eonatdlationa woe con- 
esoed ; fir he doea notnoCiee theHairifB^wiee, 
tb /ho^ nor the &MSBkni ChMm. 

Plivf qieaka of the eonstelktions as serenty-two 
Bmher; hot he aeems to have eked oat the Bom 
by eovnting aepantely portions of figioes, snch 
» dM Pleiadea, the Hytdtt^ the ITm and the 
AeaB y J y i MU M , the T^frmu 4/ tta OMtew, 
tk Htad €f Medmm^ the SfpmAir </ FeneuM^ 
tke Jf«9er, the Two Aate», Oapeila^ the Kidi, 
tike Hair 0/ BanmSiM, the Tknm t^ Oae$ar^ and 
pnbaUf the more oonspieneiis among the indiyi- 
doal ftni, snch as Antimu and Striiu. He sets 
^own themnnber of obaenred stars at 1600, which 
ki eneeeds the cntal^gne of Ptolemy. 

The Scholia 00 G«rmaniciis do not constitote a 
Rgafar uw umeiilai y like the Scholia on Antas, 
Wt are traaahtiona firom Eratosthenes, with some 
ezeeipta, added snbaequently perhaps, from the 
^fanOiaeeaet Barbara of Nigidina Fignlu and 
•^ VDika on aatnoomical mySis. 

Tbe i\Mtfaaa Attromomiamy which bears the 
BISK •£ Byginna, im written in the style of Era- 
ftlifms, and ia in a great measore bonowed from 
bin. No Bodee ia here taken of the Foal nor of 
tie SoiAtru Crmm, which prores that at the 
tine when it waa eompoaed, whenerer that may 
IttTc been, mon attentian was paid to Aiatos than 
to H^parchas and Ptolemy. 



Aames ofOe OmatdkUumt, 

la idiat foQows we anange the eonstellationa, 
«i& one or two trifling exeeptions» in the order 
da pt id by Ptolemy, eirameratii« first the twenty- 
w Borthem aligns ; secondly, the twdve sodiacal 
■gBS; aad lastlr, the fifteen soathem signs. In 
eaeb ease we giTe, fint, the name by which the 
^flartfllsticai ia known among onndTes; secondly, 
tbe oeme ascribed to it by Aratus; and lastly, the 
^^ Qreek and Latin names which most fire- 
Ittady oecar or whidi desenre porticalar notice. 

NoTthem Signs. 

1. Thb OaBATBsAa, Thb Plouob, Chaalis* 
Wim, 'A^KTes 0<»>dXi|), 'EXirn (Arat 27, 
kt.% Mofor ArdmM^ Major Una (Oennaa.), Hs- 
fioi (Gc, IfaniL i 303). Tbe moat remarkable 
chair m the neithem hemisphere both on account 
tf hi briDianey and from the dieomstaace that it 
■ever naks below tbe horiiQn in Europe and those 
pvti e( Asia known to the andents, is that which 
aicady aft the time of Homer was known by the 



A8TR0N0MIA. 147 

names of "A^Ncrot, The Sio Bear, or*A^a, 7%« 
Wagsfom (IL xriii 487, Od. t. 275), which the 
Romans transbted by the eqnirdent terms Una 
and Flau t tr u m or CWraa, At a kter period whan 
the Leaser Bear had been added to the mnnber of 
the celestial signa» the epitheU /ftydKti aad fwtpd 
were applied to them respectively by way of dis- 
tinction, and in like manner Ond (JVitL ir. 3) 
speaks of them as mo^na atmon^M /erae. The 
andent Itdian name fixr the seven bright star* 
which fi)rm the most conmcnons portion of the 
group was ^i^ptan THoaat (Cic.), that ia, according 
to the interpielation of Vano {L. L. j'lA ; OelL 
ii.21 ; Featas, «. «. TWomm), Tkt Snm PlooMtp 
OsoB, an appellation which as wdl as thatof (la^a 
waa extended to the Lesser Bear: Thus Aratns 
fwn me nces his description 

9im 94 fur iifAi^s fx^wrcu 
"AfKToi Bfta rpox6mai, rh 3^ KaXdorrai Sftaioi^ 

deriving V«(ai, absurdly enough, firara 4^; Virgil 
celebrates 

Axtrtorum, plaviasqne Hyadas, ffmimoaqm JViome^ 
and Vitnivins (ix. 8) not only employs Septem- 
trio simply for the Greater Bear, but distinguishes 
between Sepitmirio mqjor and Sepiemirio mimor^ 
and again speaks of the ArcUm^ qai Sep(miUnont§ 



In addition to the above designations we find 
*£Aiinr, applied to the Greater Bear alone, derived 
fimn its sweeping round in a curve (kwh rov 4Ai>- 
<rca«ai, SchoL ad AraL 37), while from the mythi- 
cal connection established between this constella- 
tion and Callisto, daughter of the Arcadian moiiardi 
Lycaon, the Latin poets constantly refer to it as 
Ljfoatmit Aretos; Parrka$i$ ArdM : Parrkamdea 
MttUae/MaMaliaUrm^Ac The term ^oeet /cam 
employed by Propertius (ii. 24. 24), is explained 
below (No. 5) under Arctopkj/laaf. For the story of 
Cdlisto and her transfiirmatkm see Ovid. Met ii. 
409,. Faat ii 155 ; Serv. ad Fcry. Gwy, I 246 ; 
Hygin. PoeL Attron, ii 1. 2. 

2. Thb Lxssaa or Littlb Bkab, "A^Mcror 
OuicyMC), Kvr^oupo, Kur6aoupa (Arat 27--308), 
Ardut mtnor (Cic), QmoMfro (Cic. Manili 306). 
This constellation, we are assured by many au- 
thorities (SdioL ad Horn. JL xviii 187 ; AchilL 
Tat Itoffog. m AraL Pkam, e. 1 ; Diog. Lafrt i 
23; Hygin. PoSL AdronJ ii 2), was first added to 
the Gredan catalogues by Thdes by whom it may 
possibly have been imported from the East ; and 
while from its dose resemblance in form, it shared 
the names of "A/mctoi and Sfta^a with its more an- 
dent and miyestic companion, it enjoyed exdu- 
sivdy the appellations of ^oirUcri and Kvrdaovpa, 
The fimner was derived from the circtunstance 
that it was sdected by the Phoenicians as the 
guide by which they shaped their coone at sea, 
the Gredan mariners with less judgment employ- 
ing Hdioe for the same purpose (Ant 37 ; Erat. 
Oai. 2 ; Sc)|oL ad Gorman, p. B9 ; Hygin. P, A, 
ii 2). The latter, signifyug cams ctmda^ applied 
by the ancients to the whde figure, and not as in 
modem times merdy to the jMle star, seems to 
have been suggested by the appearance presented 
by three of the stars which fi>nn a circular sweep, 
bearing seme resemblanoe to the upturned curi of 
a dog^ tail, and will thus be an exnression analo- 
gous to tkat of Hdieo, The earW astronomers 
seem to have generally considered that one of the 
L 2 



148 



astronomia: 



tan in the Little Bear marked the pobidon of the 
pole, but it is difficult to determine firom their 
words to which they teverally refer. Accord- 
ing to HyginuB who, however, seems not to 
have clearly understood Eratosthenes whom he 
quotes, one of the three stars Csnning the tail was 
odled Polu9 and the two others, from circling 
round it, Xopcvral, The Danoam^ the same appa- 
rently with the lAidMdf of the Scholiast on Ger- 
manicus. 

Those poets who regarded the Great Bear as 
Callisto represented the Little Bear as her dog; but 
according to another legend commonly received, 
the two bears were the two nymphs who acted as 
nurses in Crete to in&nt Jove (Arat 31), and 
hence the phrase Cretaeas ArcH (German.). 

3. Thb Dragon, Apdxw (Arat 45), trans- 
lated by the Latins Draco (Cic. German. Vitruv.), 
Serpens (German. Vitruv. Manil. OvidX and Anguts 
(Virgil. Ovid. Manil.). Servius (ad Virg. Qwrg. 
i. 205) remarks that there are three Angmt in the 
sky, one lying between the Bears : 

Mazimus hie flezu sinuoso elabitnr Anguis 
Ciicum perque duas in morem fluminis Arctot : 

(comp. Vitmv. is. 3): the second grasped by 
Ophiucut: the third, to the south, around the Crater 
and Cionms. The superior richness of the Greek 
language distinguished these as Apdxcty, 'O^u, and 
*T8/n7. The description of Amtus has been ren- 
dered almost verbatim and with great spirit by 
Virgil in the lines quoted above. Mythologically, 
the dragon was regarded as the snake which once 
guarded the apples of the Hesperides, or as a snake 
snatched by Minerva firom the giants and whirled 
by her aloft to the pole. (Hygin. P, A. iL 3, iii. 
2 ; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. I 244 ) 

4. Cbphbus, Ki}^^s (AiHt 183), Cep&eus 
(Cic Vitruv. Manil), lasides C^iiheua (German.). 
The legends respecting this ill-fated monarch and 
the other members of his &mily who beamed in 
the heavens, Cbsnopeio, Peneua^ and Andromeda^ 
are detailed at length in the Catasterisms of Era- 
tosthenes and in Hyginus. 

5. Thb Bbar-Wardbn,Bootb8,Thb Wag- 
GONBR, *KpKTO^iXa^ (Arat 91), Arctopkvlaae 
(Cic. German. Manil. I 823), translated by Ovid 
{Tritt, I 10. 15) Custot Uraae^ and by Vitmvius 
(iz. 3.) Ctutot Arcti, or simply Cusios (/. c), was 
denominated also Bo«^; (Arat L e.)* Bodes (Cic. 
(German. Manil.), L e. Btdndats^ the oz-driver, and 
according to the Scholiast on Aratns (/. e,)TpvyrtT^s^ 
the vintager. The first name which supposes the 
constellations to represent a man upon tne watch 
denotes simply the position of the figure with re- 
gard to the Great Bear, or when the latter was 
regarded as Odlisto, then Arctophykz became 
her son Areas, by whom she was hunted and 
slain ; the second name, which is fi>und in Homer 
(Od. V. 27 2> refers to the ^Ifui^o, the imaginary 
form of BoAnis being fancied to occupy the place 
of the driver of the team ; the third name is con- 
nected with the period of the heliacal rising of the 
group which indicated the season of the vintage. 

The chief star in the constellation is Arctubus, 
'ApicTovpos (Arat 95^ Areturus (Cic. German. 
Vitmv. ManiL), a word of similar import with 
Arctophykix. It is twice mentioned by Hesiod 
{Erg, 566, 610% and, as we shall see hereafter, 
occupied a prominent place in the calendars of 
Greece and Rome. Some late writers, such as the 



ASTRONOMIA: 

Scholiast on Germanicns, Hyginns and Martianos 
Otpella, use the name Areturus for the whole con- 
stellation, but Aratus, Geminus, and Ptolemy cod- 
sider it as a single star. 

The legends with regard to BoOtes present many 
different aspects ; by the Greeks he was usually 
represented as Arais, the son of Callisto ; Ovid in 
one passage {Fast, vi. 235) calls him Lycaon, the 
fiither of the hi^yless damsel ; by others he was 
pronounced to be Icarins (or Icams) to whom 
Bacchus taught the use of the vine, and then the 
constellation Virgo was his daqghter; Erigone, 
and either the greater or the lessernoond, was her 
dog Maera (Omts Icarias^ Ov. FasL iv. 939). 
Hence, too, the Septemtriones are styled Bones 
loarii by Propertius (ii. 24. 24). 

Homer (Od, v. 272) calls Botttes S^ 8^ from 
his descending below the horizon in an upright 
position, and therefore very gradually. (Compare 
Ov. Fast, iii 405 ; CUud. Rapt. Proserp. ii. IdO, 
and the ^ pigri sanaca Bootae ** of Juvenal, v. 2S. 

6. Thb Nortubrn Crown, Sr^^oros (Arat. 
71), Corona (Cic. Vitinv. ManiL), AriadMes eoroma^ 
AfMoattroffo, German.). Ptolemy distiqgnishes be- 
tween the Northern and the Southern Crown (2t« 
^oyor fi6p€tos, vArtos^ and hence the modem name. 
According to the legend commonly adopted this was 
the chaplet of Arii^bie placed by Bacchus in the 
firmament to do honour to his mistress, and hence 
the epithets applied by Germanicus as quoted 
above. (Comp. Virg. Georg. L 222 ; Ov. PasL iii. 
460 ; ManiL L 330.) 

The name Gemnut, now given to the most re- 
splendent star in the circle, was not known to the 
Romans. 

7. Hbrculbs. The constellation now known bj 
this name is described by Aratus (v. 63) as an un- 
known or nameless form (ct8««Aoi' HSorw ; iem^ios 
clSciXoio), which from its resemblance to a man 
toiling {jjuoTfiovri ia^fii ioiK\n cSBo0Xor) on his 
knees, was usually called *Epy6tfatnWf which the 
Romans either expressed in the same letters, En- 
gonasi (ManiL v. 645^ Engomasm (C]lic.X ^^ ^ 'h® 
translations Geniadatus^ IngOuaUatus (Vitmv. ix. 
3X Ingemicultts (Jul. Firm. viiL 17), Nims in 
genibus (Vitruv. ibid.), NuBageim^)eeies (German. 
ManiL I 322, v. 645X Dextro gam mam (Oer- 
man.X or simply Nisus s. Niams (Ci& German.), 
Inmxus (Avien. 205X or with reference to the 
labouring attitude Defectum sidus^ Effigies d^eda 
labore (German.). 

According to Avienus (v. 175X the appellation 
of Hercules was bestowed by Panyasis, by others 
it was regarded as Theseus, by oUiers as Ceteus, 
son of Lycaon, by others as Prometheus chained to 
Caucasus. (Hygin. P. A. u. 6, iii 5.) 

8. Thb Ltrb, X^Xvs, A6pa (Arat 268), l^ra 
(German. Vitruv. ManiL i. 83 IX Fides (Cic), 
Fidis (CoL zl 2. § 43, Ac), Fidiada (Plin. H. A\ 
xviii. 64. &c.). Ptolemy (^.A) designates as 
6 Xe^iirpdt rris Xvpar, the peculiarly bright star 
(a Lyrae), which renders thu constelbUioo so con- 
spicuous ; but it appears probable that the simple 
A6pa among the Greek astronomers, as well as 
Fidis and Fidiada among the Latins, was fre- 
quently employed to denote this single star, as 
well as the whole sign. Manilius seems to qwak 
of Fides as a oonstelktion distinct from Lyia, but 
the passages an very confused (1 409 ; comp. 324, 
337). The invention of the Lyro being ascribed 
to Mercury, we naturally find die ^itfaeCi *Eppaiii 



ASTRONOMIA. 

(Ant 574X KbAA^m^v (MT), MiercMriain (G«- 
tm.X C^fBmia (de.} attached to it. 

a Th» Swan, "O^irts, cdfoAoy 8|wif (Ami 
erS, 275X ^&» (<3cX Volmcris^ AvU (Vitrnv. 
ix.4X Tbe Binl is the name ^ven bj Antos 
the conateDation termed by Em- 
(c 35> K^KVDS^ rendered €)fmma by 



ASTRONOMIA. 



149 



I and MaaOina, fiar w^hich the ■ynonym 
Okir a freqeently aabatituted. By m jthologwU it 
twrqpided as the awan of L.eda. 

IICassiopbia, Kna-o-c^vcMK <Arat. \^9\Ca»' 
mtftk (Gc Gcsman. MaoiL i. 361X Cbcsuipaa 
(Timr.). For themjth regarding her, aee Hygin. 
P.JL u, 10 ; comp. Arat. 6&4 ; ManiL t. 604; 
PnpefL i. 17. 3 ; ColmnelL ad. 2. § 78. 

11. PaasBva^ ncporc^ CAmt. 248X Penou 
(Ck. Octaian. VitxirF. ManiL i. 357, 866X was 
pictmd as bearing in one hand n crooked sword 
(spi, UzX and in the other the head of the 
GocfOi Mednaa, rop>^rtosr (Oemin. Ptolem.), Gar- 
gmtam eapml (Vitmv. ix. 3\ Cforpomis era (ManiL 
i. S66X Ofwi Gor^amis. (Hjgin. J>. ^. iii 11). 

12. Tea CsAiuoxsKm, 'Mwioxot (Ant 156), 
AonodkOT (ManiL i. 369>, Jiwripa (Cic Gcnnan. 
VittsT.y, jiar^otor (Avion.), was, according to 
•w kgokd (Gcrmaau), JB r i et kom int, 

Qoem inanm canni ▼olitantem Japiter alto 
Qiadx^a^ eoDspexit eqnia. Manil. i. 870. 

AecflKdn^ to another (Ocrman. ibitL) Myrtiliis the 
Lhjiam.u: of Oenomans, who betrayed his master 
to Pehifa. (HygiD. fVift. 84.) 

The brif^tteat star in thia conatellation (a) was 
tOBMd A]( (Aiat. 157> by the Greeks, who 
picfcned a goat aapportednpon the upper part of tbe 
left «B of the figure, and by the Romans Capella 
(Ovid. MaaiL Plin.) or Ctgm (Cic VitruT. Hor. 
GcsBi^ OtlameL). The epithet 'XXXcyny in Aratas 
064X •iT«"*™g to the explanation of bis Scholiast, 
-waa nffBed b^rftm ^^ the o^ rested M r^s AA^i^r 
TOT 'Bj^xsa, and hence Oleme^ OUmimm poest, 
CHmmam asAvas. Its helisical rising took place 
asan befae the winter aolstice, and thns it was 
tamed isj^Bw pbgeitdey 'while the legends de- 
dazed that this was the very goat AmalUieis who 
isned Jnpher npon Moont Ida. Both of these 
poBta aie toadied upon in the couplet of Orid : 
Xasdtor Oleniae signnm ploTiale Capellae, 
Hb dati codum praemia lactis habet. 

Tletwo stars iC* ^^ phwed by Aiatns (166) 
Md n«?i III! on the wrist of Annga were 

Thb Kim, l^a^o* (Arat. 158), Hoedi (Cic. 
VkmT. JfaaiL L 372% •»<* are said to hare been 
£nt named by Cleoatratna of Taiedos about b. c. 
50f (Hygin. />. A. ii- 13)- Jhcy, as weB as 
CMa.'wrspoken of aa heralds of the storm. 
SS^i372rVi«g. Ge^^ i- 205,^^«. \«63 ; 
^Omm.^ I. 2a) The star which marks tbe 
^^«To^t!^^ the Bull waj ««rfing to 
Vitr.vius(ix. 3); caned^«r^^««.»>«e he 
was ssaposed to hold it m »»» ^^j. „. .., 

(Ck. JMsoiLt. 3S4X ^"V"**^ (Cotamd. a. 2. 
iMV^^«tor««s 7sclMrf. OennsB.), was com- 
' b •^^nZTw «v»tliical writers and poeto as 



the fignre, was tenncd t^i (Aral 89X AngmM 
(Cic Gennan.), or Serfitiu ((He VitruT.), 

Serpestaa Graiis (^)A««eftss nomine dictos 
DiTidit, &c Manil. l 838. 

and is reckoned as a separate constdlation. 

15. Thb Arrow, *Oi<rr^t (Ant SI IX 'Ufyv 
(Eratosth.), SagUta (German. Vitmr.), Obm 
•o^iSMa, F^dgmu wagiHa (Cic), is distinct from the 
arrow fitted to the bow of Sagittarius, the archer, 
in the sodiac Henoe Aratas, after describing the 
latter, adds 

^XffTi 94 ru wovr4pm fi€€kii/Ums lAXor torr^t 
AvT^ff Krcp ro^ovL 

(Compi (Sc 825 ; Gennan. 688 ; HaniL i 349.) 

16. Thb Eaglb, *Atr^f (Airr^r, Arat 315), 
Aqmia (Cic Vitmv.), or, in poetical divnmlocn- 
tion, Jotfit armiger (Gennan. Arien-X Jocia aln 
(German. ManiL I 350), Armiger nmeu tmgmbiu 
oIm (German.X Praepes adwmea Jons (Or. J-att. 
tL 196). Tbe principd star is named spedally 
krrSs hj Ptdemy ; but from tbe drcomstance of 
his plaang it among those of tbe second magnitude, 
it has beok oonjeetored that it was lea bright in 
his day than at present 

Antinous. Ptolemy, when noticing the stars 
aromd the Eagle not property induded within the 
limits of the constellation, remarks, 4^ iv h 
*Arrlpoos^ which oorrobonUes the statement of 
Dion Otfsins, that Hadrian assigned a star to bis 
fiftToaritc Antinous, as a separate constellation, 
was iint introduced by Tycho Bnbc 

17. Thb Dolphin, AtX^s (Ant 313X i. 
AcA^, J)efy)kmMM (Cic Gennan. Vitnir. ManiL 
L 353X Deiphim (German.) was regarded by 
mythologists as the dolphin which bore Arion. 

18. Thb Littlb Hor6B,*Iswov rporoft^, lite- 
nlly, the /on quarUrw tfa kormy was unknown to 
Antns and Entosthenes ; bot appears firom the 
words of Geminus to bare been introduced by 
Hipparehus. It is not noticed by VitruTius nor 
by Manilius^ 

19. PBOASUfS 'IvTor (Ant 205), EquMs ((}ic 
VitniY. ManiL i 355), iSMi^pet, Sompn aie$ 
(German.). Tbe legends having dedared that this 
was the steed of Bellerophon, the name Pegasus 
((German. 505) was empbyed as early as Entos- 
thenes to distinguisb the constellatioiis, but Antos 
speaks of it simply as (he horm. (Ot. Fatt. iii 
450.) Tbe figun was supposed to represent the 
foro qoartenonly. 

20. Andrombda, 'Ai^^m^ (Ant 197X 
Awdromuda s. Awdromeda (Cic German. Vitrar. 
ManiL L 857, 363). Andromeda was the daugh- 
ter of Cepheus and Cassiopeia, and hence the con- 
stellation is termed Cepkeit by Manilius and 
(}ermanicns (L 443), while in consequence of her 
deliverance from the sea monster by Perseus we 
find Psrasa in tbe scholiast on Germanicus. 

21. Thb Trianolb, AcXrwrtfr (Ant 235; 
CicX Ddtohm. (Gennan. ManiL L 360X the rpf. 
ytnwf of Ptolemy, and hence Vitmy. ix. 3, ** In- 
snper Arietis signum iacientes stellae sunt trigomum 
paribus lateribus.** 

Signs ofihe Zodiac. 

1. Thb Ram, Kpt6s (Ant 225X Aries (Cic 
Gennan. Vitruy. ManiL i 263X Lawiger (Ger- 
man. 699 ; ManiL iL 546). This was the very 
gdden-fleeced nm wbicb bore away Pbryxos and 
J. 3 



150 



ASTRONOMIA. 



Hdle from the wrath of loo, and benoe the de- 
fignations in Ond of Pkryna Om, Pmm Aiku^- 
manHdoi IleUes. 

2. Tm Bull, Tavpos (Aiat 167% Taunu 
(Cic German. VitniT. Manil. L 264), Bot (Gor- 
man. 181X was by some mjthologers regarded as 
the boll into which Jupiter tnuisformed himself to 
gain Europa ; according to others as the cow into 
which lo was metamorphosed ; in either case an 
object of jealousj to Juno, as indicated by Orid 
(Fast, ir. 7. 7). In another passage (tL 712), in 
reference to the former idea, he speaks of him as 
A^etioreut, while Martial (x. 51) applies the epi- 
thet TyrMt. 

This constellation is chiefly remarkable from 
inclading within its limits two small but closely 
packed dusters of stars, which attracted attention 
at a very early period, and are distinguished by 
Homer (/Z. xviiL 486) and Hesiod (Esy. 615) as 
the Hyadbs and Plbuldbs, names which they 
still retain unchanged. 

The HYADI8, 'raScs (Aiat. 173), Hytdes 
(German. &c.), situated in the forehead of the 
figure {M Tearrl fur^hr^^ Arat ; M reD^ /9o»- 
Kpdmvj Oemin.), deriyed their name &ir^ rov fitiy, 
because the period of their setting in the morning 
twilight (the end of Noyember) marked the most 
wet and stormy period of the year. By the Ita- 
lian peasants they were denominated the nioM&ie, 
L e. the little swine, and hence it has beoi ima- 
gined, but probably erroneously, that TdJ^s is ety- 
mologically connected with *Ts (Plin. H, AT. xyiiL 
26 ; Gell. xiiL 9). They set in the evening 
twilight at Rome, towards the dose of the re- 
public, about the 20th of April, and hence were 
known as the $idu$ PariUeium, (or Paiilieiwm\ the 
Parilia (or PaUUa\ the festival which marked the 
birth-day of the dty, being kept upon the 2l8t. 
Ancient astronomers were not agreed as to the 
number of stars included in the Hyades (see 
SchoL ad Arat,), Thales reckoned two only (via. 
a and e), the two eyes of the bull ; Euripides 
three ; Achaeus four ; Hesiod five ; Pherecydes 
seven. The latter made njrmphs of them, and the 
names have been preserved by Hyginns. One of 
these, Tkyem^ is put by Ovid {Fa$L vi 711) for 
the whole group, which elsewhere (v. 734) he 
terms the Sidnt HyuUu^ in allusion to a legend 
which he bad previously (v. 169) recounted. 

Still more important were the Plbladks, 
nXctoScs, UXiiUUs (Hom. L e, Aiat 255 regards 
them as a distinct constellation), Pisiadet (Ger- 
man. &c &c.), a word for which various etjrmo- 
logies have been proposed, the most reasonable 
being the verb wXciV, their heliacal rising and 
setting in the first half of May and the beginning 
of November having been the signal in the early 
ages of Greece for the mariner to commence and to 
discontinue his voj'ages. The fonn wcXcloScs, i e. 
the flock of pigeoits, ]«obably originated in a cor- 
ruption. The Italian name was VergiUas (Cic), 
Stdus Vergiliarvm (Vitruv. iz. 2), derived mani- 
festly from their heliacal rising in spring. Aratus 
notices the circumstance that they are commonly 
spoken of as the sewn starsi although six only are 
visible, and thus Ovid also 

** (^e septem did sex tamen esse solent^ 

The foct is that the duster consists of six stars, 
which can be distinctly seen by the naked eye, 
and of seyeral Yeiy small ones, which are tele* 



ASTRONOMIA. 

soopic. Under very fovooiable drcomatanoBa, bow- 
ever, one of these may have oocasionallj been 
discerned, as Hipparchoa states, or, poaaibly, as 
we know to have been the eaae with other fixed 
stars, one of them may have lost a portion of the 
lustre which it at one poiod poasflssed, and bave 
become neariy or totally invisible. Be thia aa it 
may, the disappeatanee of the seventh Pleiad gave 
rise to a multitude of legends. By Hcoiod th^ 
are styled 'ArXoycrtZ^ CUUraa if Atiam^ fmm 
whom the Roman poets adopted the exp re a a ion. 
Atlamiidet^ the name of the damseb (AraU 262) 
being Alcjfoms^ Menps^ Cdnena, Eleatra^ Stenpe 
(or Atkrops^ Gennan.), ToMtU and MoAbu Of 
these six wedded divinities, the seventh a mortal 
man, and thus her brilliancy became dimmed by 
the influence of the debasing alliance. One or 
oth» of the above namea is frequentiy employed 
to denote the whole, as Taggtta (Viig. Qm^^ ir. 
232 ; Ov. Met. iii. 594), Maia (Viig. G^os^ i. 
225), SUnps (Oy. TVid, x. 14), and in like 
manner FlXciis or Pleitu ia oftoi uaed in the 
singular. 

3. Thb Twins, AOu/mm (Aral 147), C^^mtim 
(Cic. German. Vitruv. ManiL L 265). The two 
brightest stars, being supposed to repreaent Castor 
and Pollux. 

4. Thb Crab, Kopjclms (Aiat. 147), Gmeer 
(Cic Vitruv. Gennan. ManiL L 265), called 
LemaeuM by Columella (x. 313), because, aooosrdii^ 
to the legend, it crawled out of the Lenoaeaa 
swamp to attack Hercules while he vraa doing 
battie with the Hydra. The epithet /iWorwas in 
Ovid {Mst, X. 127) and Manilioa (iii. 3ie> pro- 
bably refers merely to the ordinary habita of the 
animal, and not, aa Ideler supposes^ to the aame 
contest 

Two small stars in this oonstelUrtion (7, S> were 
called "Oroi, Asini s. AseUi^ the Donkeya, one beiog 
distinguiahed aa the northern (^ptiot), the other 
aa the southern (i^ios), and a nebular bri|fbt> 
neas between them, 4dri^, PraesBps, the Stall or 
Manger. (Aiat 894, &c ; Plm. U. AT. xviiL 35 ; 
Ptolem.) These seem to form what Maniliaa calla 
Jwgulae (v. 174, and note of Scalig.), although 
Jugula is a name sometimes applied to Orion. 

5. Thb Lion, A^ar (Arat 149), Lao (Cic. 
German. Vitruv. ManiL i. 266), regarded au the 
Nemean lion slain by Hercules, and hence con- 
stantly termed simply Nemamu (e. g. Manil. iii. 
409). The bright star now known as iS^ralKa, a 
name introduced by Copenicoa, waa andeatly , aa we 
leain from the acholiaat on Amtua, called /Boo-tA^- 
Kof , and marked the heart of the animal {iwl t^s 
Kt^las), InPlinyitisA^(^.Ar.xviii.26,28), 
in the schoUaat on Geimanicns, T^/benme, which is 
either a ooiTuptioB, or arose from his *"«*^kiny the 
meaning of the word in Pliny, who saya, ** Stella 
Reffia iq>peUata Tuberoni in pectore Leonia,** t. e. 
The star on the Lion's heart called Hmiu b^ 
Tubcro. ^^ ^ 

6. Thb Virgin, Uapeins (Aiat 9€, Ac), 
Vuyo (Cic German. Vitiuv. ManiL i. 265), JSri^ 

gom (ManiL ii. 552, et pass.), was mythically t«. 
garded as Auc^, JitttiHa^ ctAttraea^ or aa.fir^owe, 
or as Csres^ or aa /sis, or as /brtaao, the laat 
name being given to her, accordhw to the aeholiaat 
on Germanicoa, " because she is a neadlesa oooatel- 
lation.** 

Thebrighteat star in the consteUation ia called 
by AnUua ardxvr. Spin (German. VitruT.X 



ASTRONOMIiL 

(Cie.X Tbb Corn Bab, and tU« the 
%aR is w appo mi. to giup m ber left hand. 

Tbe atar wlueh Bariu tbe right wing («) was 
TpoT^mytp^f (Amt. 138) k wpurpf/ynrks i. rpn- 
I 'I ' ktK tnunbted fi im'ifa w iVifpr FSmieMMlor ■» 
I'ndiMnibr, and it now known u VukUmiairiMy 
Timnw which it l e ie i w ed in oonaeqnenoe of rising 
•hMtlybefcn the period ofthe Tinti^ (Ant 138 
joid adUL ; OdnndL xi 2. § 24 ; Ot. FmL iu, 
407; Pfin. ff.N. xriiL 28, 31 ; VitniT. ix. 3, 
mjM thmi the Greek nane was wparfbywr^s^ and 
the BoMm, Px%\wimlimi^ M<^,) 

7. Thb BAI.A1ICB was fay the earlier Greek ae- 
t niianers inTariahly denominated XifAoi (Ant 
9S\ Odm {Gc Oerman. ManiL iL 544, et paaa-X 
Tbb Claws, •. sl of the ScacpioB, which standi 
next m the Zediwcs, Oenunaa, whofloarished,it is 
heiiswd, aboat B. c 80, is, as fives we know, the 
ficat Gieek writer who distiagaishes the seventh 
^a aa Zinr^ which ia osed bj Ptolemy indtf- 
fcsotlr with Xsi^aL The tem LAm, for which 
Geam m eoe pnwsage emploja •/iyaai, was first 
hiBallj adapted by the Romans in the Calendar 
rfJaliasCaieiif, to whom it was tery probably 
saggestedby Seaigcaes. The figore, it woold seem, 
aas dmived froaa the East, and mnst be regarded 
ssasfBihol of c^aali^hftrodnced into the heaTens 
at the period when the entrance of the san into 
tkat r— TftrntT^tn marked the Antanmal Equinox. 
The T^^**^*^ ItftiB writeiB, such as VitniTiua, 
GolameOa, and Pliay, nntformly distinguish this 
Bga by the name Libn alone ; the poets nse 
either gihii or Cirine, as may soit their purpose; 
Maailins cambiaes both into one phnse (Jupa 
CUmrwm^ i 909), while the ingenbos eoaceit bj 
vhidi Viigil represents the Scorpion as dnwing 
ia Us daws ia order to amke room for Aogostos, 
ii kaswn to every reader of the fiat Geoigie. 
(Oaa^ Or. MtL ii. 195.) 

Ib the eommeBiafy of Theon on the Ahnagest, 
lAn k tegpmoAy represented by Airpa or Afrpai, 
a void er^^aally boizowed by the Roamns fran 
tke Sieiliaaa, tranafermed into Xa&ra, and then 
L to the later Greeks in the new sense of a 



ASTRONOMIA. 



151 



I. Tax ScoHFioN, aicopvior (Ant 85. 304X 
SBorfma (Ck: German.), Seorpiot (ManiL i. 268, 
et pMs^X ^<oef^ (Vitrnv.). Cicero, in his tmns- 
IstMnof Axataa, and Maailins, both make use also 
rf tfce tent Ntpa^ a word, according to Festna, of 
AfrieK origin, sometimes employed to denote a 
Searfmm aadaoasetimeaa Crab (Phuit Oml ii. a 7; 
Cic d$ Fku T. 15) ; and thas Gcera, in line 460 
of bit Antaa, diatmetly indicates the fiNOth sign by 
t^ vard NepOf whidi ebewhere is pnt fer the 
Sooviea. Aratns names this consteDation ii4ya 
^V^ Old r^oa ^(^ (84,402), bearase,accQidhv 
tDtiieGredBBaixangcBaeBt,asex|^amed in the last 
pangiaph, it occupied, together with its daws, the 
^ace of two dgnsu (Or. MeL ii. 195.) 

'A jT d^ j, now Aataies, the name giTen to the 
Ugfatest siKV i* fii>^ ^<Mn>d i>> ^ ^"^^^'^ ^ P^lc>By, 
and probaUy reien to its colour and brilliaacy, rt- 
•i&^«krf ^(the phmet) JfariL 

9. Thb AbcbxiLi ro^€vrksy reC«vr4^ and 
mftj Wev(Amt 306, 400, 664, 665), Stigittanw 
(TitnT.), a y di y e toM (CicX Sa^Uii^ (German.), 
Ardkmm{Gc.\ sad simply Arcm (Cic. German. X 
IVs bowman was aappooed to be in the shape of 
a emiHt {MiatmB eqma, MamL i. 270), hence is 
(wiqiiiKij tamed CmiamrMtf and Mmetimes indi- 



ndualiaed into CUrom {HaemomU areas, Ot. Mm. 
it 81), thus givnig rise to a confusion between this 
sign and the Centaur among the southen constel* 
fauions. (CVanp. ColumdI. x. 56 ; Hygia. P. A, 
iL 27.) 

10. Thb (}oat (t.c the ChamoisX Aiydacpwt 
(Ant 284X AegoeeroB (German.), Caprioormm 
(Cic. German. YitruT. BfaaiL L 271), O^ter 
(ManiL iL 659), ealled also Tliw by Emtosthenee. 
Hygtnasythe sdioliast on Germanicus, and IsidornSi 
inform us that some of the ancients represented 
this creature with the tail of a fish, and in this 
form it is actoally figured oo sereial coins of Au- 
gustus, who was bora under the sign. No notice 
of such a pecuUaiity in shape is taken by Antas, 
Entosthenes, or Ptolemy. 

ll.Tna Watxhmaii, 'T3pex^f (Ant 283), 
Hfdr9ckoo9 (German.), ^TMorww (Cic Vitray. 
German. ManiL L 472), il^si^nMaf (German. 560), 
Fwmiema kUieef (German. 388), A^qmonm jimmit 
(ManiL iL 558), Jmtmitgenmt tiqmmm (Ot. fy§L 
L 652), and simply Jwomu (Manil. ir. 709), was 
regarded by those who connected the figure with 
mythical legenda sometimes as D tm e nU om (German. 
568), sometimes as Gomymtdn. (ManiL ▼. 487 ; 
connp. ScboL ad AraL 283.) 

The fbnr stan (7, £^ 99 ') «b the rigth hand 
were, according to Geminus, named icdXris, which 
is equinlent to the lAtin Sitiila^ an Urn. 

The Watib Strxam, *lr3c»p (Arat), x^» 
iKSoTor, Aqua (Cic), ^^i<f^ Aquae (SchoL Germ. 
119), which ends with the bright star, now known 
by the Anbic name Fomakmd or Fomaiktml, in 
the mouth of tbe Piscis Anstnlis (see ManiL L 
446, and compi Vitrur. ix. 4, 9aas tero a6 Aqmtrio 
fwndi memonhtr Aqua prq/hut mUr PiteU Auttrim 
08f>ut et eaudam Orfk*)* i* regarded as a smnto 
conatellation under the name of 'TSap by Antna 
(389—399), and also by Geminus, who distin- 
gnishes it as the 'TiMp rh kwh rov TZpoxioy^ **' the 
Water flowing from the Waterman,** in order that 
it may not be confounded wiUi the constellatioa 
Eridanus, the Ilora^f 4 iarh rev 'Opfsfros, ** the 
Rivet flowing from Orion.** 

12. Thb FiaaBa» *lx9^t (Ant 240) or in 
the dual *Ix^, Pteeee (Cic VitniT.), Gemimi 
Pieeety Imbr^eri duo Pieeee (German.). One of 
these was entitled the Northem (AquUomuuPieeiey 
VitzuT. ix. ^), the other tbe Southern Fish (SchoL 
ad Arat. 240 ; Ot. FaeL iii. 401 ; SchoL (German. 
Hygin. P. A. iiL 29) ; but in order to prevent the 
embamssment which might arise from identifying 
the latter with the "Ix^s piriot^ or Pieeie Aue- 
tralie^ a constdktion of the southern hemisphere, 
Ptolemy names the northern of the two hr^iuros, 
and the other ityeviiivet^ a precaution by no means 
unnecessary sinee Manilias actually confounds (L 
272) the fishes of the Zodiac with the Piscis 
Anstralis. Tbe Scholiast on Antus remarks that 
the Northem Fish was represented with a swal- 
low*s head, and on that account styled x*^^^^ 
(L e. ibraatfiataaf) by the Cbaldaieans, a circum- 
stance for which Sanger accounts by supposing 
that the name was ^ven ia consequence of the 
entrance of the sun mto this constellation, when 
the swallow appeared in Greece as the henld of 
Spring. 

The legends connected with this constellation 
(Entosth. 58 ; Hygin. P. ^. iL 30. 41) bear re- 
ference to a Syrian diTinity, termed by the Greeks 
sometimes ylfofyolM) a Semitic word signifying The 
L 4 



152 



ASTRONOMIA. 



Cfreat Fisk\ sometimes Deroeto^ sometimes Deroe, 
This power they confounded with another Syrian 
goddess AstarU^ whom again they identified with 
their own Aphrodite. The story ran that when 
€eeing in tezror from the violence of Typhon, she 
plunged into the Euphrates, and was transformed 
into a fish. (Manil ii. 33^ iv. 580.) Avienus 
terms these fishes Bombyai^ for which Grotius has 
rightly proposed to substitute Bcanbyeii^ for Atar- 
gatis was specially worshipped at Bantbjfoe or 
HierapoUa in Cyrrhestica. (Strab. zti. p. 517; 
Plin. //. N, T. 23 ; Selden, de DnaSyriis^ il 3.) 

The bright star (a) which is supposed to form 
the knot of the two bands which connects the 
fishes by their tails^ is by Aratus (245) named 
^M€<rftos irovpcuos^ by his scholiast 9€<rfihs o6- 
palos^ by Geminus and Germanicos simply ^Mitc- 
fioSf terms variously translated Nodus (Cic), 
Nodus PUotum (Vitruv.X Nodus eoelesHs (Avion.), 
Oonunissura pisoium (Plin. zviii. 31). The bands 
themselves are called in one passage of Aratua 
(362) A^fffwl ohfKuoi^ more commonly Alyoi or 
Altm^ the Vinda of Cicero and Germanicus, the 
AUiffomeiUum Unteum of the scholiast on the latter. 

From Vitruvius (ix. 4) it appears that the 
sprinklinff of indistinct stars between the Fishes 
and the Whale, was called by the Greeks 'Ep/tiiy- 
3^n}, a word explained by Hesychius to mean rw 
ifjufipw iurripmy x^^^» 

Southern Stgns. 

1. Thb Whalb, Ktrrof (Aral 353), 'Op^s 
(Jul. Firm. Astron. viii. 17), Oeius (Vitruv. ix. 4 ; 
Manil. i. 440), Pristis (German. 644 ; ManiL i. 
363), Nereia Pistris (German. 714), Neptwna 
Pistrix (Cic, comp. German. 709). The last three 
designations are difierent forma of the Greek 
np^<ms, which Suidas interprets to signify eI8oi 
KTiTovs ia\a<r(riov. This was the sea-monster, ac- 
cording to Aratus, sent to devour Andromeda. 

2. Orion, 'CifUmv (Arat 322), 'ClapUfv (Find. 
OUlim.), Orum (Cic. German. Vitruv. Manil. I 
399), Oarion (Catull. Ixv. sub fin.), Proles Hyrua 
(Ov. Fast, vl 719, comp. v. 495). Arf^ in Julius 
Firmicus (viiL 9), is probably a corrupt form of 
Oarion. 

This is one of the oldest constellations, being 
noticed in Homer (xviil 486) and Hesiod {Efy. 
598, 615, 619), both of whom employ the expres- 
sion ffBivos ^Clpiwvos. The figure was supposed to 
represent an armed warrior (((^cos l^i irrwoiB^Sy 
Arat), graspinff a shield in his left hand and a 
club in his right {manu laeca tenem oftjpettm, da- 
nan altera, Vitruv. ix. 4), with a glitteniig belt, 
from which a sword depended {Balteus Orioms^ 
Vagina, German. ; Ensis, Cic)' The origin of the 
name is quite unknown, the ordinary derivation 
from oZpov, to which a mythical legend was 
adapted, being altogether unworthy of attention. 
The morning set^ng of this remarkable cluster, 
about the b^tnning of November, pointed out in 
ancient times to the husbandman and the mariner 
the approach of the most stormy period of the year. 
(Hor. Carm. I 28. 21, Epod, xv. 7, Carm, iii. 
27. 18, Epod. X. 9 ; Virg. Aen, I 535, iv. 52.) 

An anonjrmous Greek writer quoted by Scaliger 
decUres that the popular name for Orion was 
*AAerpoir^foi', which Seems a corruption of *AAcic- 
rpoir^Sior, i e. Codks-focAs and Ideler thinks that 
we can, without any great stretch of fancy, trace a 
resemblance to a fowl strutting along. 



ASTRONOMIA. 

Among the Romans Jugula or Jmgulae aeems to 
have been the indigenous appellation ; the former 
is noticed by Varro and Festus, the latter occurs 
in Plautus {Amph. I 1. 119) — 

** Nee Jngulae, neque Vespemgo, neque Yergiliae 
occidunt i" 

but no satisfiictory explanation has been proposed. 
The two bright stars (a, y) under ^e head were 
called Humeri. (Var. L.L.y\. 3.) 

3. Thb Erioanus, lUnuiUs (Ant. 358), Am- 
nis (Cic German.). Aratus remarks that it was 
considered as a remnant of the Eridanna, 

litl^aifov 'HpiXhi^oui iroKvKXabarov vorofuudf 

that mythical non-existent (rhy fiifioftau y^s Crro, 
Strab.) stream which proved a fruitful aoarce of 
speculation in ancient as it has done in modem 
times. The Romans identified the Eridaaos with 
the Po ; and hence while Cicero employs the former, 
Germanicus uses Eridanus and Padns indiffieiently. 
(Comp. Vitruv. ix. 4.) From Eratosthenes, the 
Scholiast on Germanicus and Hyginiu (^. A. il 
32), we leani that this oonstellation was by others 
called the Nile, that being the only earthly river 
which flowed firom the aonth towards the north, as 
this stream of stars appears to do when rising above 
the horiz<Mi. 

4. Thb Harb, Aoeyw6s (Ant 338), Aay^ 
Lepus (Vitruv. ix. 4), Lempes Lqfus ((}ic), Amriius 
Ltpus (German.), Veloaf Lepus (Manil.). 

5. Thb Gbbat Dog, KA»k, Sc^of (Arat. 326), 
Onm (Cic), OwmfiS^rnw (German.). Antiu<342) 
employs the phrase ^ut^UaioKiWs, but the epithet 
must be here nnderBtaod to refer to the magnitude 
of the principal star and not to the ctmsteUation 
Proeymy which the Greeks never call the LUlle or 
Lesser Doff, 

The most important star in the Great Dog, per- 
haps the brightest in the heavens, was frequently 
specially named KAwv, sometimes emphatically 
rd (iirrpoy, and by the Romans Cams or Oamseula^ 
but is more frequently designated by the appellation 
Scipios, iSiruM, which occurs four times in Hesiod 
{Ery, 417, 587, 619, Scut. 397), although, in the 
first of these passages, the sun, and not a fixed 
star, is probably indicated. Indeed the word seems 
to be properly an adjective, agtdfying gUtteris^ or 
bright; and Eratosthenes remarks (c. 33), that 
astronomers were in the habit of denominating other 
stars %€tplovs itk r ^ r^f ^Aoyk» ubr^tw. Homer 
twice {IL V. 5, xxii. 25) alludes to this star with- 
out naming it, in one passage with the epithet 
hfKsipiv6s, which will be discussed hereafter. 
■ About four hundred years befoie our era, the 
heliacal rising of Sirius at Athens, corresponding 
with the entrance of the sun into the sign Leo, 
marked the hottest season of the year, and this 
observation being taken on trust by the Romans 
of a later epoch without considering whether it 
suited their age and country, the Dies Cameuiares 
became proverbial among them, as the Dog Iksys 
are among ourselves, and the poets constantly refer 
to the Lion and the Dog in connection with the 
heats of midsummer. 

6. Thb Littlb Doo, Upwtissy (Arat 450), 
Procgon (German.), or, literally translated, ^is<e- 
eanem (Cic.), Antsoams (schoL German.), so called 
because in Greece the oonstellation in question 
rises heliacally before the (Great) Dog. The names 
Anteeams and Anteoanem^ however, do not appeau* 



ASTRONOMIA^ 

Is iare been getunHj adopted, for Plinj {ff. iST. 
xrm 38), wken ifMBkiE^ of Ptocyoo, remarki, 
**qiiad ^dos apnd Romiinoe doo hafaet nomen. 
Bin Omicaiam faane velimiisinteliigi, hoc ett, mino- 
na cmem nt in astris pingitiir,** words which do 
Bst Deeeanriljr bnpl j that Fncjoa erer was ae- 
taaDT tenoed Cbmiw&i hj the Roman writen, 
ahhoagh thk was certaml j sometmies the case if 
lie can trust the express assertion of Hyginns, 
(Bc Icarii) antem sna adpeHsdone et 
wii fiifti i dixemnt, tpaa a Graecis, qnod 
aatc naim e m canem exoritmr, vpoK^Hr adpeOatar ^ 
(P. A. ii. 4). A passage in Pliny (M N, xriii. 
€9. i Z\ wxnld at fiist sight appear to be dedsive: 
* IV. Kalendaa Mali, Giais occidxt, sidos et per 
ae r^uaweoB, et em prneoeekkro Cba fe nfa w mtcetm 
At." Bat nnce we know that in Northern htti- 
tadfs the Great Dog not only rises after, bat also 
sets befine the Little IXig, it is evident that, nnless 
we suppose Pliny to be inTolred in inextricable 
coafnion, Qmieaia cannot here signify the sign 
Ptixpm. The explanation generslly adopted, sd- 
tboogh somewhat finwd, is that a reference is 
■sde to the practice of offerinff a dog in sacri- 
&8 on the Roblgalia. (See Or. FaaL ir. 936, 
kc ; GofanadL z. ^2, and the commentatois on 
Pliny.) 

While, as on the whole seems probable, Procyon 
ns sometimea termed Canicola by the Romans, so 
en the other hand, the star Sirios seems to haTe 
bem occaiiooally called npotcim^ by the Greeks 
becaose he rae before the rest of the constellation 
to which he bdonged. (See Galen. Qmnuat, m 
HifipoeraL Epidem^ i) We cannot, howcTer, 
sttadi this meaning to the words of Horace (Conn. 
£.2$. 18)— 

jam Phwyon fiirit 
Bt st^la Tesani LeoniB — 

hr the appearance of Procyon woold to his conntry- 
■ea be m reality a more sore indicadon of the 
hottert season than the rising of the (Greater Dog. 

We haTe already intimated that the Greeks 
ieapaJbt the two oonstdlations simply as K^r 
sad n^Mc^wr, not as the Greater and Lesser Dog, 
a &i^ickion which prevailed among the Romans, 
a* we peneiTe daily firam Yitrurius (ix. 4) : 
"Geminos antem minnscolns Canis seqnitur contia 
Afigim capat : Major item seqnitor Minorem.** 

When BoStea was regarded as Icarins, and 
Viiigo, as his daughter &igone, Procyon became 
Ifaca, the dog of Icarins. (Hygin. P. ui. ii. 4 ; 
eaap. Or. FaeL iv. 940.) 

7. Trb Ship Argo, ^AfyA (Arat 342), Argo 
(Ck. ManiL i 420), Naci» {Cic\ Argo Navis 
(Cic), ^Totas qaae mominahtr Argo (Vitniy.), 
^yoajaqjpis (Geiman.). Ralis /feroam (Manil. 
T. 13). Like Pegasns and the Boll, it was sup- 
posed to rqiresent only one half of the object 
lyirofios\ the pardon namely of the yessd be- 
kisd tbe mast (i<rrbr Six^oM'a jcot^ ixin}»^ Arat. 
SOS. P^pps trakHary German.). The brightest 
>tv WIS by Eudoxos and Aratns (351, 368) dis- 
tiofCniahed as wifKtUjor (^ubemaeulum, Cic), the 
n4dn, instead of which Kitm^os {deUa CoMopi 
fofinngkm&ae ett ignota^ Vitrav. ix. 4), aname 
vhicfa sppeais first in Eratosthenes (c. 37X uid 
Hippsrcbss, became genersl. According to the 
Srbctisst on Germanicns, it was called also Pidt- 
•wn, or, as Martianns CSapeUa has it, PUdemaeus^ 

ta boBoar, erideotly, of some Egyptian monarch. 



ASTRGNOMIA. 153 

This star, as the words of Vitnnrins indicate^ was 
not risible in Italian huitndes. 

Cicero, in addition to the mdder, distinguishes 
the mast (wtahm) also, ** ndiato stipite miJum.** 

a. Th» Water Swak», tapif (Arat. 444), 
*tV (Eratosth. Gcndn. Ptolem), ffpdm (Ck, 
Germ. Hygin. Arien.X Hgdrvt (Germ.X Ai^aie 
(VitniT. ix.4; Or. FaaL iL243; HaniL i. 422. 
See also Senr. ad Vivg, Oeon, 1 205 ; Hyinn. 
/».^.iL40, ia39). 

9. Thk Cup, Kpdkup (Arat 448% Chrisr (Qer- 
man. VitraT. ManiL L 424), Fa^ftme CnUeru 
(Cic.), I7nM>(SchoL (German.). 

10. Thb Ravsn or Caow, EX3«\or tt6paKo$ 
(Arat 449X Cbrswf (Cic. German VitruT.), 
PkoeAo meet ale$ (ManiL L 424). 

The Cap and the Raven were represented as 
standing upon the hack of the Water Snake, and 
the whole three are gitmped together by Grid 
(Faat. iL 243) m the couplet : ^ 

Continuata looo tria aiders, Oonnn et Angmia^ 
Et medius Crater inter ntmmqae jaoet 

1 1. Thx Cbntaub, Klrronpof (Arat 431, 436), 
'IwT((rat4p(Aiat664XXs<p«r(Eratosth.Xai». . 
iaarm (Cic. VitruT. German.), Gemmae Bi/bnaie 
(Gennan.), Seaipee ((3erman.), DmpUei Ceakaenu 
imagiae (ManiL I 425), Odrtrn (German. 418, 
624). Bj Ptolemy he is represented with a thyr- 
sus in his hand, and these stars were, as we are 
told by (}eminus, formed by Hipparchus into a dis- 
tinct consteUation under tbe name 9»pe'6?uoyxos, 

12. Thb Wolp, 9tiplw (Arat 442), Beatia 
(VitruT. ir. 4X Hoatia (Hygin. P. A. iL 38). 
This, aocordinff to Arstos (L e.) was a wild beast 
grasped in the hand of the Centaur, but it reeeiyed 
no name from the Greeks or Romans. 

13. Thb Altar, ewH^piow (Arat 403% Am 
(Cic. Germsn. ManiL i. 428), Apta AUaria aaeria 
(685X according to Geminus and Ptolemy Ovfuo- 
T^ptor, translated TWruMiim by Germanicns and 
VitruTius (ix. 4). The scholiast on Germanicai 
furnishes two other names, Saer a r i m m and Pharaa, 
In the legend preserved by Manilius (L 428), it 
was the altar erected by Jore when heaven was 
invaded by the giants 

14. Thb Southbrn Crown. Not named by 
Aratns, who merely remarks (401) that under the 
fere-feet of Sagittarius are some stars sweeping 
round in a circle (Siywrol ir^icA^), but to tnese 
Geminus and Ptolemy give the specific name of 
Sr^^oror y&rtos. In consequence of no legend 
being attached to the group, Germanicos (388) de- 
scrilws it as 

aiaekoaore (hrona 
Ante Sagittiferi multum pemicia crura. 

(Comp. Hygin. P. AAL 28. Manilius takes no 
notice of it) Geminus has preserved two other 
names, Obpcofiffaos snd Kifpiwcibr ; the former 
Martianus Capella renders by Codahaa^ the latter, 
used by Hipparchus, denotes a herald^s wand of 
peace. OtherB, according to the scholiast on Am- 
tUB, regarded it as Ixion*B wheel {^Uvos rpox^\ 

15. Thb Southbrn Fish, 'Ix^* pirios 
(Arat 887), Ptade Notiaa (MamL L 445 ; Hygin. 
P. A. iil 40), Piaeia Aaatralia (Cic), Piada 
Auatrinua (Vitruv. ix. 4 ; ColumeU. xL 2). 

It appears from Eratosthenes (38), snd the 
scholiast on Germanicus, that it was styled also 
*IX^ ^^70^9 Pi^da magaiaa. 



154 



ASTRONOMIA. 



Before qaitting this part of our mbject, we 
must add a few worda on 

Coma Berenices; Beremeee Crmie. MUous, 

1. Thb Hair of Bbkbnick, IXX^No^f s. 
B^tfTpvxof Bcpoylmrs (Callim. Schol odAraLl 46), 
Qmta Beremeee (see CatuIL Ixr.) waa, ■■ we hsTe 
seen aboTe, fonned by Conon out of certain unap- 
propriated (Aftop^orro/) atan behind the Lion^ 
Tail, in honour of Berenice, the wife of Ptolemy 
Euergetea, and afifbrded a theme for a compli- 
mentAiy degj by Callimachua, of which we poe- 
aess a tnuLiJation by Catullus. The constellation 
being unknown to Aratus, is not alluded to by his 
translators, Cicero and Oerraanicus, nor is it 
noticed by Manilius. When Pliny {H, A^. iL 71) 
observes ** Septemtrionet non oemit Troglodytice, 
et confinis .£gyptus: nee Canopum Italia, et 
quern vocant Berenices Crinem ; item quem sub 
Divo Auji^usto oognominaTere Caesaris Thxonon, 
insignes ibi Stellas,^ it Lb much more probable that 
he committed a positive blunder, than that, as 
some have supposed, he intended to indicate under 
the name of Beremeee Crinem some southern sign 
to which no one else makes any allusion. 

2. We find in Ovid {FfuL il 793) the followins 
couplet in reference to the night of the 17th of 
March: — 

Stella Lycaoniam rergit declivis ad Arcton 
MUmu, Hoec ilia nocte videnda venit, 

and in PUny (H. N. xviii. 65. § 1), ** Caesar et 
rdus Martiaa ferales sibi annotavit Soorpionis oc- 
casu : XV. vero Kalendas Aprilis Italiae Milvum 
ostendi : duodecimo Kalendas Equum occidere ma- 
tutino.'^ In the first of these passages we find a 
constellation named Milmu or the Kite described 
as one of the northern signs, or at least as a sign 
visible in Italy, and the period of its rising fixed 
to the 1 7th of March. The words of Pliny, although 
more ambiguous than those of Ovid, would lead us 
to suppose that he was quoting this, as well as the 
prece(Ung observation, from the Calendar of Caesar ; 
but the abruptness of his ordinary style is such as 
to prevent us from affirming this with certainty. 

Now no Greek and no other Roman writers 
mention any constellatioB bearing the above name, 
nor can we adopt the explanation of Grotius, who 
supposes that the Swan or the Eagle is indicated, 
for the rising of these signs is removed by three 
months from the period here fixed. Ideler has, in 
all probability, discovered the solution of the 
enigma. In the Parapegma of Geminus, a phae- 
nomenon described by the words 'licriyos ^vfreuy 
i.e. Milvus apparet^ is placed by Eudoxus thirteen 
days before the vernal equinox, and by Euctemon 
and Calippus respectively, eight days and one day 
before the same epoch, while Ptolemy, in his 
^dfftis i,itXeafm¥^ marks under the 12th of Phame- 
noth (i. e. according to Ideler 8th March), Eu8d(9^ 
X€^(S^y «ca2 herofos ^euyrrcu. But the hertyes, 
tendered milwu by the Latins, was, as we are 
told by Aristotle {H, A, viiL 16), a bird of pas- 
sage, and hence the arrival of the hcraros^ like that 
of the swallow, took place at and served to mark a 
particQlar season of the year. Ovid and Pliny, 
being ignorant of this fiict, and finding in the 
calendars which they consulted the words Afilmu 
oppamL, took it fi>r granted, without frirther in- 
quiry, that Mihme was the name of a constellation; 
for when we consider the context of the naturalist. 



AfiTRONOMIA. 

as well as the date, but one day later than thai 
fixed by Ovid, we can scarcely doubt that he, as 
well as the poet» believed Mihmt to be a "^ SteQa.** 

IL Risings and Sittinos op ths Fizsd 
Stars. 

A nation like the Greeks, whose dimate per- 
mitted them to watch their flocks by night during 
a considerable part of the year, could not £ul to 
remark that certain fixed stars a^ipeazed and dis- 
appeared in regular succession, as the sun passed 
through the dilferent stages of his annual career. 
Accordingly, we find, that as early as the time of 
Hesiod, the changes of the seasons^ and the more 
important operations of agriculture, were fixed with 
reference to the risings and settings of Orion, the 
Pleiades, the Hyades, Arctums, and Sinus. Such 
observations were in the first instance extremdy 
rude ; but after Thales had turned the attentian 
of his countrymen to scientific astronomy, these 
celestial phenomena were determined vrith great 
care and accuracy : tables were drawn up in which 
the risings and settings of the more brilliant stan, 
with refierenoe to the sun, were fully detailed, to- 
gether with such notices, touching the winds and 
weather to be expected at the different epochs, as 
experience suggested. Copies were engraved on 
stone or brass, and, being nailed or hung up in the 
market-places of laige towns and other phues of 
public resort, received the name of wapatr^paTa. 
Two catalo^es of this description have been pre- 
served which are valuable, inasmuch as they 
firequently quote the authority of the early Greek 
astronomers, Meton, Euctemon, Eudoxus, Calippus, 
&c for their statements. The one was drawn up 
by Geminus (fl. B. c. 80), the other by the famous 
Ptolemy (a. d. 140). In the former the risings 
and settings of the stan are fixed according to 
the passage of the sun through the signs of the 
Bodiac ; in the Latter they are ranged under the 
months and years of the Julian Calendar. 

The practice conunenced by Hesiod was followed 
by subsequent writers upon rural economy, and 
we accordingly find numerous precepts in Viigilt 
Columella, and Pliny delivered with reference to 
the risings and settinn of the stars, forming a 
complete Caiendarium Rusticum. Ovid has com- 
bined the Fasti of the city with these Rural Al- 
manacs, and has thus gained an opportunity of 
enlivening his poem by recounting the varioai 
myths attached to the oonstellationa Indeed it 
would appear that Caesar, when he reconstructed 
the Fasti of Rome, included the risings and set- 
tings of the stars, since Pliny frequently quotes the 
authority of Caesar for his statements on these 
points. Thus the Fasti of Ovid may be considered 
as a commentary upon the almanac in common 
use. 

The early Grecian paropegmata were undoubt- 
edly constructed from actual observation in the 
countries where they were first exhibited, and must 
therefore have completely answered the jpuipoie 
for which they were intended. But this doef not 
by any means hold good of the oorrespanding 
compilations of the Romans, who, being little 
vened in astronomy themselves, copied blindly 
from othen without knowledge or discrimination. 

It is neoeesaiy to attend to two fiieu : — 

1. The time of the risings and settings of the 
fixed stars varies for the same place at different 
epochs. Thus the Pleiades which at Rome rose 



ASTRONOMIA. 

i!ai^ with tlie inn <m the 16th of April, fi. c. 44, 
nmt vith the ran at Rome •evenl daji earlier in 
tie «ge «f Melon, and do not now rise with the 
«iB at Rome until aevenl days hiter. This is 
erased Vy the preeessioD of the equinoxes. 

2. The time of the risings and setting of the 
fix«d sun is different on the same day m phKes 
ahose latknde ia diffioeot Thns, in the year 
-rhax the Pleiades rose along with the son at 
Rone oa the 16ih of April, th^ did not rise along 
viih the sun at Athena until the 22d of ApriL 

Too little sttfTitimn was paid to these consider- 
sdflss by the Ramaa wntexs ; and cansequently 
«rv net on&eqnently discorer that they combined 
tbr ebserratiooa of aatronomers who lived at times 
aad phees leoiote from them and from each other 
— thatcalcidatoBna made Cor the ktitude of Athens, 
or sf Abodes, or of Alexandria, 300 years before, 
T<ie sdopted at onee snd tiansfened to their 
eaksdan wxthont change or modification. 

Aaother souzte of confusion is a want of pre- 
dsko in specifying the different kinds of rismgs 
Dd Kttings, which ought always to be most care- 
6i11t distinguished from each other by appropriate 
ickntific tenns. 

The tkings and settings of the fixed stars, when 
ooasidered nith refierenoe to the smi^ place in his 
or^'t, may be arranged under eight heads : — 
(a) "^^en a star riaes at sunrise. 
(l) When a star rises at sunset, 
(c) When a star aeU at sunrise. 
{i) WhoL a star acts at sunset 
(s) When a star rises shortly befi>n the son so 
it to be just risible in the morning twilight as it 
anesds shore the horiaon before its rays are orar* 
povoed by the light of the more brilliant lu- 



(0) When a star rises shortly after sunset so as 
to be jnst risible in the evening twilight as it 
ocends shore the horizfxu 

{i) When a star sets shortly before sunrise so 
» to be just risible in the morning twilight as it 
■ski below the hociiOB. 

(8) When a star sets shortly after sunset so as 
to be jut risible in the evening twilight as it 
nab below the horison. 

The nsmes by whkh these, taken in order, are 
diKiinuBSted by the Greek astronomen Geminus 
<^«W?- «P^ ri.) and Ptolemy {Math, Syntax, viii 
4) an the fi>]lowinff : — 

(a) *Et(to\^ i^ ^i|tfii^, G. — "E^a o-vraya- 
wJ^iMiHl, V.—OrtmMataiimu Venu, True 

BttlBlltf risiSff . 

(l)%»iTo\j> itnr^pla i\i^tv4, G. — 'Zmrcpia 
^^ivovro^ ij^i,9ty^F.--Ortu» Vupertimu Fenu. 



Tne 



evcnmg nstnir. 



[e) hhvis i^a 6XnBu^, G. — 'E^a ovyKord- 
J^w dAi|(M,-p._-Ooi»f«f MatuHnus Venu. 
Tneaienung setting. 

(4) &Wu iowcfrfa iXufiu^f G. — 'Eowepta 
'^J'w^lwit dXti^ud^ P. — Oeoasus Ve^>ertmu$ 
^•w. Tme evening setting. 

!«> tvcroX^ 1^ fttUfOfiSniy G.— 'Eya vpooi 
^ ^cuwoftdtm, P,—OrtuM Maiutimu Apparmu 
\ Of^ Bdiaaia, HeBacal rising, L e. First risible 
<^«f aslar in the mondng twilight. 
Jfi) * tvtTo)3i ivrtpia. ^uvoiUrn, G. — '^umpta 
™w»^ foiM^iini, P.^OrfMS Vetpertunu 
^Ppvwt. Last riaible rising of a star after 



(7) Wif ^ ^MM^nr, 0.-~'E^ wp6hHrt9 



ASTRONOMIA. 15< 

(ImivofjJmi, P. — OccoMt MoMnma Appwenu 
First visible setting of a star befiire sunrise. 

(8) Ikinris icr^pla ^yoftdytif G. — 'Etnrtpia 
iwucard^wns ipaunfUvny P.— Oooows FaqDwfiaas 
Apparmt s. Oooosas Heliaem, Heliacal setting, 
i. e. Last risible setting of a star in the evening 
twilight 

With regard to the above technicaltties we must 
observe 

1. That Geminus (t &) draws a distinction be- 
tween the words ^^oroA^ and 4wito\^. By 
dtwroKii he nnderstands the rising of a star con> 
sidered simply with reference to its elevation above 
the horizon, which takes phioe once in twenty-fimr 
hours in consequence of the diurnal motion ; by 
#wiroX^, the rising of the star considered with re> 
ference to its distance from the sun, which depends 
upon the son^ place in the ediptie. As to the 
settings of the stars, he would make Zitau the cor- 
relative of iuwT9K'h and api^s ol hniTo\4i ; but to 
this hwt definition he does not himself adhere, 
since he constantiy employs 8^is to denote the 
setting of a star, when considered with leferenoe 
to iu distance from the sun. Ptolemy, while he 
includes aU the risings and settings under the 
general designation of ^cUrst^ dwAoywr, endeavours 
to intXDduoe an improved namendatare, by vaiy* 
ing the proposition accordinff as the star rises of 
sets aknig with (<r^), or before (jtp6) or after 
(^Q the snn, but pays no regard to the role of 
Geminus with respect to dnrroX^ and i'rtroKk, 

2. Two terms, in addition to those set down 
above, ate commonly employed by vrriters on 
these topics, the Gosmical rismg and setting 
{OrtuB OotmieuMy Oeouttu CI), and the Acrony- 
cajLL rising and setting (Ortut Aercmyekmy O^ 
catuM A.\ 

The epithet CbmUeHgf as applied to this subject, 
first occun in a note of Servios on Viig. Georp, L 
218, ^ortos et oocasns duo sunt: unos ^Aiofc^i, 
id est, 9olari9i et alter aotf^fiucdf, id est, numdamu : 
nnde fit ut ea signa quae cum sole orinntur a nobis 
non possint rid^ ; et ea, quae rideoms, quaatnn 
ad solis rationem pertinet, rid^^atur oocidere.^ 
Modem astronoBBers have for the most part (see 
Petarius, Varr. Dim, p. 3, ed. 1690) adopted the 
phrase Orfat Cbsmicas to indicate the rising marked 
(a), that is, the Ortus Matutkuu Venu^ and Oo- 
coma Cotmieus to indicate the setting nuuked (c), 
that is, the Oeeasm MaMkma Vmna^ but Ideler 
(ffutorMole (/adfrMdfcM^ea, &C. p. 311), while he 
interprets Orfat Ommem in the sense usually re- 
ceived, spplies Oooaaua Cosmiau to the setting 
marked (y\ that is, to the OdDMvs Matuii$nu 
AppannB, 

Again, the epithet dxp^ntxos appears to be 
first used by Theophrastns (Do Sipmis Pluo. et VenL 
cap. I § 2) where diwroKai dicp6pvxpt are alone 
mentioned, and are distinctiy ezpbuned to mean 
the rising of a star at sunset, that is, the Orttu 
VeaperOiuu Vmna mariced (6), and in this sense 
the phrase Or1u$ Aeromjfckua is found in the trea- 
tises of Petarius and otiieis who employ also the 
expression Ooocmms Aerottpekus to indicate the set- 
ting marked (cf)* that is, the Oceoius Vt^)ertmu9 
Venu, Idder concurs in the latter, but interprets 
OvfMf AemnjftkiM to mean the rising marked (jS), 
that is, the Ortue Vetpertmm Appart$u, This riew 
is certainly at variance with the words of Theo- 
phraatna, which are quite explicit and an cor- 
roborated by Julius Fiimieos (ii 8) ; but on the 



156 



ASTRONOMIA. 



other band in the Panpegma of Geminni, in the 
observBtions ascribed to Eadozus, iuep6infxot is 
the genera] term applied to all eyening settings, and 
most of these unquestionably refer to the apparent 
phenomena. Eactemon agam makes use of i<nr4- 
pios to express the same meaning. The words 
*Kpitrovpos dKp6wx9S vpttfas Wci under Sooipias 
d. 8. are probably cormpt 

Under these circumstances to prevent all con- 
fusion or ambiguity, we have altogether passed over 
the terms Chtmiau and Aenmyckut in our table, 
but have retained HeHaau^ which, like Commem^ 
first occurs in the passage quoted from Servius, 
but is applied uniformly by subsecjuent writers to 
the phenomenon marked (a) and (5), and to no 
others. 

8. Pliny {H, N. xriiL 25) proposes to desig- 
nate by EmermUy what we have called the He- 
liacal Rising (a), because the star then for the 
first time emerges from the sun^ rays, and by 
OoeuUatiOy what we have called the HeUaeal Settuig 
(8), because this is the last appearance of the star, 
whieh is forthwith obscured by the sun*s rays, but 
these terms do not appear to have been ever gene- 
rally received. 

4l It is manifest that of the eight phenomena, 
named above, the first four are purely matters of 
calculation, since the true risings and settings never 
can be visible to the naked eye. These then 
ought always to have been, and for some time al- 
ways were, excluded firom rural calendars intended 
for the use of practical men. We find, however, 
from the fragments of Calippna, preserved in the 
Parapegma of Geminns, when verified by compu- 
tation, that this astronomer had substituted the 
true risings and settings for the appuent risings 
and settings, which were there marked in the tables 
of Eactemon, Meton and Eudoxus. Hence, great 
caution would become indispensable in quoting 
firom different authorities, or m advancing an ori- 
ginal statement If the rising of a star was named, 
it would be necessary not only to specify whether 
it was the morning or the evening rising, but also 
whether the true or the apparent rising was indi- 
cated, and to proceed in like manner for the setting 
of a star. Now and then we find in Columella and 
Pliny some attempt to preserve accuracy in one or 
other of these essential points, as when the latter ob- 
serves (xviiL 74) : **PridieKalendas (Nov.) Caesari 
Arcturus occidit et Suculae eaBoriuniur aun 9oU ; ^ 
^ XVI. Kal Octob.^gypto Spica, quam tenet Virgo, 
exoritur matutino, Etesiaeque desinunt Hoc idem 
Caesari XIV. Kalendas XIII. Assyriae signifi- 
cant;** and even in Virgil, as when he defines 
the morning tettmg of the Pleiads : ^ Ante tibi 
Eoae Atlantides abscondantur;** but for the most 
part both in prose writers and in poets, every- 
thing is vague and unsatisfactory ; risings and 
settings of tdl descriptions, calculated for different 
epochs and for different latitudes, are thrown to- 
gether at random. In order to substantiate these 
chuges, we may examine the statements contained 
in Columella, Ovid, and Pliny with regard to Z^ro, 
a GonsteUation to which considerable importance 
was attached by the Romans, since the beginning 
of Autumn in the calendar of Caesar was marked 
by its (true) morning setting. It will suit our 
purpose particularly well, because from its limited 
extent every portion of the constellation became 
visible, within two or three days after the appear- 
ance of the first star ; and hence no ambiguity 



ASTRONOMIA. 

could arise from the heliacal rising of the eztmne 
portions being separated by an mterval of some 
weeks, as was the case with Orion and others 
stretching over a large space in the heavens^ in 
treating of which it became necessary to Mpedfr 
particidiar portions of the figure, as when we read 
** Ononis humerus oritur ;** " Gladius Orionia oc- 
cidere incipit ; ** Orion totus oritur,** and so forth. 
In the folbwing quotations, the wwds FidU suid 
FidiaUa seem to be absolutely synonymooa, there 
being no reason to bdieve that the latter waa ap- 
plied exclusively to the peculiariy bright star which 
m the cataloffues of modem astronomers is a Ljfrae^ 
the 6 Kofiwpbt rifs K6pas of Ptolemy, although to 
this in all probabilitv moat of the observations were 
directed. We shsJl set down in rq|;ular order 
first the settings and then the risings. 

SeUing$ of Lyra, 

(1.) Pridie Id. Aug. (12 August) Fidia occidit 
mane et Auctumnus indptt. CH, xL 2. § 57. 

According to Pliny (xviii. 59), the setting of 
Fidicula {PidiaJaA oooomu ) marked the commence* 
ment of autumn, and took phice on the forty-sixth 
day after the solstice, that is, on the 8th of Angnat, 
if we include, according to the Roman method of 
computation, the 24th oif June, the day fimn which 
he reckoned. In a subsequent chapter (68. § 2) he 
states that the phenomenon in question took place, 
aocordiog to the Calendar of Caesar, on the 1 1 th of 
August, but that more accurate observations had 
fixed it to the 8th, and this he soon after repeats 
(69.14). 

(2.) XIIL Kal. Sept (t.0. 20 August) Sol in 
Virginem transitum fiicit ... hoc eodem die Fidia 
occidit—- X. KaL Sept (23 August) ex eodcm 
sidere tempestas plerumque oritur et pluvia. Co- 
kmelL xi. 2. § 58. 

(3.) XI. KaL Feb. (22d January) Fidicula Vea- 
pere occidit, dies pluvius. CohmelL x. 2. § 5. 

Ovid places the setting on 23rd of January. 

Fulgebit toto jam Lyra nulla pola FaaL L 653b 

(4.) III. KaL Feb. (30 January) Fidicula oc- 
cidit CdwndL xl 2. § 6. 

(5.) KaL Feb. (1 February) Fidis incipit oc- 
ddera Ventus Enrinus et inteidum Auster com 
grandine est OolumdL xi 2. § 14. 

IIL Non. Febr. (3rd February) Fidis tota oc- 
cidit CoUmdL Ibid. 

Ovid, without alluding to what he had said be- 
fore, remarics on the 2nd of February (^Fiut. 
iL73): 

nU nocte aliquis tollens ad sidcra vultum, 
Dicet, ubi est hodie, quae Lyra fhlsit heri ? 

Pliny has (xviiL 64) ** Et pridie Nonas Febm- 
(4th February) Fidicula vesperi (sc. ooddit). 



Ridngt <^ Z^/ra, 

(6.) IX. KaL MaL (23rd April) prima nocte 
Fidicula apparet, tempestatem significat OohumetL 
XL 2. § 37. 

VI. KaL HaL (26th April) Bseotiae et Atticae 
Canis Vesperi occultatur, Fidicuk mane oritur. 
PUm, xviiL 66. § I. 

(7.) Ovid {FaaL v. 415) names the 5th of May 
as the day on which Lyra rises. 

(8.) III. Id. HaL (13th May) Fidis mane ex- 
critor, significat tempestatem. C W awa ff . xL 2. § 40. 



ASTRONOHIA. 
IIL Id. MaL FWailae ezoctua. PlM.rri]l67. 
S3. 

Id. Mai (I5th May) Fidis mane exontur. 
GdmrndL zi 3L § 4S. 

(9.) nL Nod. Noremb. (3id Norember) Fi- 
dicok ame esoritar, IdeiBBt et jhdt, CohmdL 
ZL^S84. 

(lOl) yilL Id.NoTemK (6th Norember) idem 
dditt tptom emritnr, Aaater Tel Favcniua, hiemal 
O^mO. Ibid. 

(II.) XTL KaL Dec. (16tk Norember) Fidis 
exaritar mane, Anstcr, interdun Aquilo magnoa. 

OibwA XL 2. f sa. 

(I2L) Nod. Janaar. (5th January) Fidia ez- 
ffitor BBDe: tempeataa Taria. QdumeU, zi. 2. 
S57. 

losthcrint Nooae, miaJs tibi nubibua atris, 
Signa dabont imbrea ezoriente Lyra. 

Ovid. Fast. I 3\S, 

Vndk Nenaa Janoarias (4th Jannaty) Caeeari 
DdpUBBs mstatino ezoritor et poatero die Fi* 
dicala. Piia. zriiL 64. 

The total divqiard of piecisiaD in the phraaeo- 
kgr eaif i ayed in deooibing the above a{>peaFances 
is endent in ahnoet every asiertioa, but the con- 
iaaa amy be conaidered to hare reached a dimaz 
vhm «e read the worda **' Fidia (or Fidicida) ex- 
oriBw anne^** naed without rariation or ezplanation 
to doMta a phenomeDon aasigned to the 26th of 
Apra, the Sd and 15th of May, the 3d and 16th 
of Navembo'. By pxamining each pangraph 
Kpaialely, we ihall be atill more fully convinced 
of the cankaaDeH and ignorance diaplay ed. 

(1.) The trm mormuig mttkig of Lumia Ljfra§ 
taek phoe at Rome in the age of Caesar, on the 
l'2ch or 13th of Angnat, and therefore the Calendar 
of Caesar here fioUowed by Columella was more ao- 
cirate than the authorities quoted by PlmT, unless 
time re£esred to a different latitude. Kemark, 
Wvercc, that no hint is dropped by either to in- 
dJESle iSoMl the Arwe, and not the app ar m U morning 
adHag is meant ; and it ought to be boine in mind 
tbt the latter happened, at the epoch in question, 
GO that very day at Alezandria. In the Para- 
pegBBof Gcminns also, we find, under Uth of 
Aa|Bst(I7 Leo), Eineriftmn \6pa Sv^oi. 

(2.) Una must be the appa r a U nunmmg setting 
aikh took plaee at Rome on 24th of August for 
^ Jvlian epoch. 

(3.) The frwa evening eettingy calcnhited for 
Alezaadzia at the same epoch, took place on 23d 
of Jaaaaiy, the Tory day named by Ovid. 

(4.) This is the hetiaeal tetting^ which, for 
Laeida Lyra^ todc place at Rome on 28th of 



ASTRONOMIA. 



157 



(3l) These notices seem to be borrowed firom 
oU Greek calendars. Endozus, as quoted by Qe- 
BtDoa, aarigna the enening {dtcpAmrxos) tetting of 
Lmtothe 11th degree of Aquarius, that is, the 
4di of Febraary aecwding to the Julian calendar. 

It wiQ be seen that the three last paragraphs 
(3lX (4.x (5.), without any change of expression, 
fead die setting of Lyra orer a space extending 
^ 23d of January to 4th February, Uie ap- 
paient and true settings for Rome bemg on the 
SStk Jaanary and 9th February respectively. 

(6.) Th/t appannt evening rieing^ which seems 
dearir pointed out by the words of Columella, 
took pkee at Rome for the Julian em on 14th of 
Afril, at Alexandria on 26th of April : the tnne 



tn ening riting at Rome on 22d April, and to this, 
therefere, the statement of ColuineUa, from what- 
OTcr source derired, must, if accurate, apply. 
Pliny has here fidlen into a palpable blunder, and 
has written man$ §or veeperi. In fiut he has 
copied, perhaps at second hand, the obserration of 
Eudoxus witn regard to the Lyre and Dog (see 
Parapeg. of Oem.), except that he has inserted the 
word aiaas where the Greek astronomer sim|dy 
says X^ hrn-ikKti, 

(7.) This will agree tolerably well with the 
^Srae eceim^ riming at Alexandria ftxt the Julian 
era, but is twenty-one days too late for the <iRpa- 
reni evening aeUing at Rome, and thirteen days too 
late for the ^ths evening eetti^. 

(8.) Here all is cnor. We must manifestly 
substitute veapere fat m ane in both passages of 
Columella ; but even thus the obsenration will 
not gire anything like a dose approximation to any 
rising of Lyra either at Rome or Alexandria in the 
Julian age. 

(9.) Copied verbatim along with the accom- 
panying prognostic of the weather, from the Para* 
pegma of Oeminus, where it is ascribed to £uc- 
temoo. The day, however, corresponds closely 
with the keliaeal rieit^^ which took place at Rome 
on 5th of November. 

(10.) Copied along with the prognostic "hie- 
mat*' (jcol 6 d^ x^*f^*P^ yiirrui &s M rk 
voXA^) from the same compilation where it is as- 
cribed to Democritus, who fixed upon this day for 
the ime morning rising (X^pa ^iMXXci fyta 4iXiqf 
dpiffxenrt). At Rome this roM^ fell upon 23d 
of October. 

(11.) Copied again from the same source, wh«e 
it is ascribed to Eudoxus. Here the observation can 
in no way be stretched so as to apply to Rome. 

(12.) Thia, like the last, can in no way be made 
applicable to Rome ; but the heUaeal setting at 
Alexandria took place, for that epoch* about four 
days later, on the 9th or 10th of January. 

Having now pointed out the difficulties which 
the student must expect to encounter in prosecuting 
his inquiries in this department, we proceed briefly 
to examine the most remarkable passages in the 
classical writers, where particular periods of the 
year are defined by refeiring to the risings and 
settings of the stars. We begin with the most 
important, — the Pleiades, Aieturus, and Sirius, 
which we shall discuss fully, and then add a few 
words upon others of less note. 

Thb Plxiadk& 

Hbsiod. — Hesiod indicates the period of bar- 
▼est by the rising of the Atlas-bom Pleiads {Erg, 
384) after they had remained concealed for forty 
days and forty nights. Now in the affe of Hesiod 
(b. c. 800), the heliacal rising of the Pleiads took 
place at Athens, according to the computation of 
Ideler, on the 19th of May of the Julian Calendar, 
which is just the season when the wheat crop 
comes to maturity in that climate. Again (/. c), 
he indicates the commencement of the plooghing- 
seaaon, and the dose of the season for navigating, 
by the morning setting of the Pleiads, which in 
that age and ktitude fell about the third of the 
Julian November. In these and all other passages 
where Hesiod speaks of the rismgs and settings of 
the stars, we must unquestionably assume that he 
refers to the apparent phenomena. Indeed it ia 
by no means improbable that the precepts which 



158 



ASTRONOMIA. 



he inculcates may be tbe result of the personal ob- 
servations of himself and his contemporaries. 

Varro, Columblla, Pliny. — Morning Ris- 
ing, — (I.) Yano, where he describes the distribu- 
tion of the year into eight divisions, according to 
the calendar of Caesar, states that there was a 
space of forty-six days from the remal equinox 
(25th Match) to the rising of the Pleiades ( Veryi- 
Uarum eaBoitium\ which is thus fixed to the 8th or 
9th of May. (i?. A i. 28.) 

(2.) Pliny (xviii. 66. § 1) names the 10th of 
May. 

Columella has three distinct notices (R, R. xi. 
2. §§ 36, 89). 

(3.) X. KaL MaL (22d April) Ver^iliae mm 
so2e oriuntur. 

(4.) NimU MaiU {1x)i'NLkj) VergilUie exorimtmr 



(5.) VL fdus 9C Mai (10th May) VergiUM 
Mae apparent ; and this last corresponds with his 
assertion elsewhere, that the phenomenon takes 
place forty-eight days after the vernal equinox 
(ix. 14. §4). 

Now the true morning rising of the Pleiads 
took place at Rome in the age of the above 
writers, who are all embraced within the limits of 
a century, about the 16th of April, the apparent 
or helia<»l rising about the 28th of May. Hence, 
not one of the above statements is accurate. But 
(1) (2) (4) (5) approach closely to the observ- 
ation of Euctemon (b.c 430), according to whom 
the Pleiad rises on the 13th of Taurus (8th of 
May), and (S), which expressly refers to the true 
rising, although inapplicable to Rome, will suit the 
latitude of Athens for the epoch in question. 

Morning Setting. — (1.) Varro places the setting 
of the Pleiades {Vergiliarum oooasum) forty-five 
days after the autumnal equinox (24th Sept), that 
is, on the 6th or 7th of November {R. R. i. 28). 

(2.) Pliny names the 11th of NoTember (xviil 
60, 74 ; the text in c. 59 is corrupt). 

Columella, as before, has a succession of notices. 

(3.) Xril. et XIL KaL Noo. (20th and 21st 
Oct) Soli* eeeoriu VergiHae mdpiunt ooddere. 

(4.) r, KaL Nov, (28th Oct) VergiUae oed- 
dunt. 

(6.) VL Id, Nov. (8th Nov.) VtrgOiae 
ocddttnt, 

(6.) ir. Id. Nov. (10th Nov.) hiem 

These are all taken from his calendar in xi. 2 ; 
but in ix. 14. § 11, ** Ab aequinoctio . . , . ad Fer- 
giliarum oooasum diebue XL.^ t.e. 2d or 3d of 
November. Compare ii. 8. § 1. 

Now the true morning setting of the Pleiads 
took place for Rome at that epoch on the 29th of 
October, the apparent morning setting on the 9th 
of November. Hence, it appears that (5) may be 
regarded as an accurate determination of the ap- 
parent morning setting, and that (1) and (2) ap- 
proach nearly to the truth, especially when we 
bear in mind that variations to the extent of two 
or even three days must be allowe