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,-i irni,rr<'<\<?,k- I 

mth Uqjg ud niiatntloDa, S toIl Uedlam Sro. 98l »ch. 

Oanumiii] DHm and Bokas Aimtiumu, Btoouapht, Mttko- 

LOOT, A>D OlOaUFHT. Bf yubjDI WrltSTt. BdiUdby WH.aiOTH, 


A DICnONARY OF THE BIBLE; awpusiita rra Aitn- 


YatIoiu WriUn. ^itad by Wu. Bhith, D.C.L. ud IJ,J), Wltb 
UlnitntloDi. I Toll. Hsdlani Sto. Mi. ta. 


HiBTOBT. IUBnTDTioiiB, Mil Ajrnijnn™ of thn CHBDrnAW rHURCn, 
By Tuloiu Wrlton. Bdtted by Wh. SHira, D.O.L., ud ArclidoBcnn 
Cbutham, D.D. With niiutnttoDi. i toIl UnUsm Sn. tt. lU. M. 


ATmtE, STKTTS, AND DOCTBINBfl. Bj Vuloiu Writon. Edited 

aVH. Sunn, D.C.U, Aod PraroHT Wace, ILA. Vob. I. to III. 
dlun Bto. IU. Cd. och (lo ba complMed In « nU.). 


OLABraoAL. Intended to Dlutrmtc tha < Dlotloury of tlia Blbl*,' and 
the ■ OUmIobI nictlonnrlo.' Compfled ander tb* (UpgriDloidence ol 
Dr. William Sioth and Blr QanBai QiiaTa. With Docrtptlra Text, 
Indlcei, lio. WICllUII^>^FDll(>,£ 



A. A. Ai.itxtwnm Allbh, Pb. D. 

C. T. A. Chakles Thomas Arkold, M. A. 

One of the Masters in Bngb; School 
J. E. B. JoBM Ebmest Bods, M. A. 

Stndent of Christ Church, Oxford. 
Ch. A. B. Chhistun A. Brandis, 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 
EL H. B. Edwabd Hksbbst Bdhbdst, M. A. 

Lsle Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
A J. C Albaht Jaxes Christie, M. A. 

Late Fellow of Oriel College, Oxfmd. 
A. U. C Abtbcs HnoH GLonaH, M.A. 

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 
G.E.L.C. GxoRSB Edward Ltkoh Cotton, M.A. 

Fellow of Trinity Collie, Cambridge ; one of the 1 
Rogby School 
8. D. Sahdzl DAvmeoN, LL. D. 


Ssvilisn Professor of Astronomy in the Univeraity of Oxford. 
W. B. D. WaXIAH BODBAM Donn£. 
T.D. Thoicas Dtks. 

E. Fl Edwasd Elder, M. A. 

Head Master of Durham School. 
J. T. O. John Thohas Grates, M.A., F.R.8. 
W. A. G. WiLUAK Alexavdeb Grbenhiu, iLD. 

Trinity College, Oxford. 


One of the Masters in Rugby School 



vi LIST OF wsn^ss. 

W. M. G. WiLUAU Maxwell Gvrm, 

One of the Masters in the High School, Edinbui^ 
W. I. WiLLiAJi Ihne, Ph. D. 

Of the UniTCrsitr of Bonn. 

B. J. Benjahik Jowrr, U. A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Baliol College, Ozf<«d. 
H. G. L. Henrt Geoboe Liddell, M. A. 

Head Master of Weatminster SchooL 
G.L. Gborgg Long, M.A. 

Late Fellow of Trinity College, Caralridge. 
J. M M. John Mobell Mackbmxib, M.A. 

C. P.M. Charles Peteb Mason, B.A. 

Fellow of Univeraily College, London- 
J. C M Joseph Calrow Mkamb. 
H. H. M. Henbt Habt Miuuk, D.D. 

Dean of Sl Paul's. 
A. de M. AoGDSTUs de Mobgah. 

Profesaor of Mathematics in ITniTersity Collc^ Loudon. 
W. P. William Plate, LL. D. 

C. K P. Const ANTiNE Estlut Prichaed, B. A. 

Fellow of Baliol Collt^e, Oxford. 
W. R. William Rahsat, M. A. 

Professor of Humanity in the University of Glasgow. 
L. S. Leonbard Schuitz, Ph. D., F.B.S.K 

Hector of the High School of Bdinborgh. 
P. S. Philip Siotd, B.A. 

Of Univewity College, London. 
A. P. S. Arthur Pknkyhn Stanlet, M. A. 

Fellow and Tutor of University College^ Oxford. 
A, S. Adolph Stahb, 

Professor in the Gymnasium of Oldraburj. 
L. U- Ludwig URLraHfi 

Professor in the University of Bonn. 
E. W. BoBBRT Whistos, M, A, 

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

The Articles which have no Initials attached to them ore written by the Edif}r. 



Thi present work las been conducted on the same principles, and U deMg;ned 
nainlj for the use of the same persons, as the " Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities." It has been lon^ felt by most persons engaged in the Btndy of 
Antiquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English 
language for illustrating the Biography, Literature, and Mythology, of the 
Greek and Roman writers, and for enabling a diligent student to read them in 
the most profitable manner. The writings of modem continental philologists, as 
well as the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the 
difBculUes comiected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct 
knowledge and more comprehensive views than were formerly possessed. The 
articles in this Dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the 
original sources ; the best modem authorities have been diligently consulted ; 
and no laboiur has been, spared in order to bring up the subject to the present 
state of philological learning upon the continent as well as at home. 

A work, like the present, embracing the whole drcle of ancient history and 
literature for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least 
one man's life, and conld not in any case be written satisfactorily by a eingie 
individual, as no one man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the sub- 
jects of which it treats. Hie lives, for instance, of the ancient ntathema- 
tidans, jurists, and physicians, require in the person who writes them a 
competent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark 
Implies, to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and 
numerous other subjects. The Editor of the present work has been fortunate in 
obtaining the assistance of scholars, who bad made certain departments of anti- 
quity their particular study, and he desires to take this opportunity of returning 
his best thanks to them for their valuable aid, by which he has been able to pro* 
duce a work which conld not have been accomplished by any single perxm. 
The initials of each writer's name are given at the end of the articles be has 
written, and a list of the names of the contributors is prefixed to the work. 

The bit^raphical articles in this work include the names of all persons of 
any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest 
times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, 
and to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by 
the Turks in the year 1453. The lives of historical personages occurring in tlie 
history of the Byxantine empire are treated with comparative brevity, but accom- 



panied by sufficient references to ancieat writers to enable the reader to obtaia 
further iDformation if he wiahes. It hai not been thought advisable to omit the 
lives of 8uch persons altogether, as has usnally been done in classical dictiona- 
ries j partly because there is no other period short of the one chosen at which a 
■top can conTeniently be made ; and still more because the civil history of th« 
Byzantine empire is more or less connected with the history of literature and 
science, and, down to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, there was an 
interrupted seriee of Greek writers, the onussion of whose lives and of ma 
account of their works would be a serious deficiency in any work which aspired to 
give a complete view of Greek literature. 

The rela^ve length of the articles containing the lives of historical persons 
cannot be fixed, in a work like the present, simply by the importance of a man's 
life. It would he impossible to give within any reasonable compass a full and 
elaborate account of the lives of the great actors in Greek and Roman history ; 
nor is it necessary : for the lives of such persons are bonspicuous parts of history 
and, as such, are given at length in historical works. On the contrary, a Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Biography is peculiarly useful for the lives of 
those persons who do not occupy so prominent a position in history, since a know- 
ledge of their actions and character is oftentimes of great importance to a proper 
understanding of the anraent writers, and infonnation respec^ng such persons 
cannot be obtained in any other quarter. Accordmgly, such articles have had a 
space assigned to them in the work which might have been deemed dispropor- 
Uonate if it were not for this consideration. Woodcuts of ancient coins are 
given, wherever they could he referred to any individual or family. The draw- 
ings have been made from origiuab in the British Museum, except in a few 
cases, where the authority for the drawing is stated in the article. 

More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman Writers than 
to any other articles, partly because we have no complete history of Greek and 
Roman literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of 
modem German scholars contain on this subject more than on any other a store 
of valuable matter which has not yet found its way into English books, and has, 
hitherto, only parti^ly and in a few instances, exercised any influence on our 
course of classical instruction. In these articles a full account of the Works, as 
well as of the Lives, of the Writers is given, and, likewise, a list of the best 
editions of the works, together with references to the principal modem works 
upon each subject. 

The lives of all Christian Writers, though usually omitted in similar puhli- 
eations, have likewise been bserted in the present Work, since they constitute an 
important part of the history of Greek and Roman literature, and an account of 
their biography and writings can be attuned at present only by consulting a con- 
siderable number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a 
literary than a theological point of view ; and accordingly the discussion of strictly 


(heologicM] topics, nnh u the subjeota ni^t muIj bave given rise to, hu bMn 
carcfoll; ayoided. 

Cam haa been t^cen to teparato the mjtholo^cal articles &om those of an hii- 
torical natare, aa a reference to anj part of the book will shew. As it is necessai^ 
to discriniinate between the Greek and Italian Mjthol<^, an acoonnt of tlie Greek 
divinitiai is given under their Greek names, and of the Italian divinities nnder their 
Latin names, a practice which is uniTersallj adopted bj the continental writers^ 
which has recdved the sanction of some of onr own scholars, and is moreorer of 
■Dch importanoe in guarding against endless coniiiBioUB and mistakes aa to require 
no ifdlogj tor its introduction into this work. In the treatment of the articles them- 
•elres, the mystical school of iuterpret«rB haa been avoided, and those prindplea 
fallowed which bave b^n developed bj Toss, Butbnann, Welcker, K. O. MiUler, 
Lobeck, and others. Less space, relatiTely, has been given to these articles than to 
aaj other portion of the worlc, as it has not been oonaidered neceesarj to repeat all 
tbe fitncifnl specnlations which abound in the later Greek wrtten and in modern 
books upon this subject. 

The lives of Paintera, Sculptors, and Arohiteets, have been treated at conuderahle 
leDgth, and an acoonnt is given of all tlittr works still extant, or of which thore is 
anj record in ancient writers. These articles, H is hoped, will be uaeAil to the artist 
as well aa to the scholar. 

Some diffieultj haa been experienced respecting the admisffion or r^ection of cer- 
tain names, but the following is the gena!«l principle which has been adopted. The 
names of all persons are inserted, who sre mentioned in more than one passage of an 
■neient writer ; bat where a name occurs in onlj a single passage, and nothing more 
is known of the person than that passage contains, that name is in general omitted. 
On tbe other hand, tiie names of such persons are inserted when thej are intimate); 
eonneeted with some great historical event, or tiiere are other persona of the same 
name with whom the; might be confounded. 

When there are several persons of the same name, the articles have been arranged 
ffither in chronological or some alphabetical order. The latter plan has bees nsnallj 
adopted, whore tbere are manj persons of one name, as in the case of Aukaitom, 
Avnocans, and others, in which caaea a chronological arrangement wonld stand in 
the wa; of read; reference to an; particular individual whom the reader might be 
in search of. In the case of Boman names, the chronidogical order has, Ibr obviooa 
reaaona, been alwa;s adoplod, and the; have been given under the cognomens, and 
not under tbe gentile names. There is, however, a separate article devoted to each 
gens, in which w inserted a list of all the cognomens of that gens. 

In a yioA written b; several persons it is almost impossible to obtain exact m^- 
f<»init; of risference to the ancient Writers, but this has been done aa far as waa 
passible. Wherever an author is referred to bj pegCj t^ particular edition nsed 
I9 (he writer is genersU; stated; but of the writers enumerated below, tbe followfa^ 



eiUtiou are thrajt iotended where no othen are indicated : Plato, ed. H. Stephantu, 
1378 ; AtLeoaeus, ed. Casaubon, Faria, IS97 ; the Moralia of Flatarcb, ed. Franeof. 
1620; Strabo, ed. Caaaabon, Pari*, 1620; DeIIlo■tllene^ ed. Beiake, Lips. 1770; tha 
other Attic Oraton, ed. H. Stephaone, Farii, lS7fi ; tlie LatiD Gmnmariaiu, ed. 
H. Putachiua, Hanor. 1603; Hippocrates, ed. Kuho, Lipa. 1823-7; Erotianns, ed. 
Frana, Lipa. 1780; Dioteoridei, ed. Sprengel, Lipa. 1839-30; Aretaetu, ed. Kilhn, 
Lipe. 1B38; Rufua EpheaiuB, ed. Clinch, Lond. 1726; Soranus, ed. Dietz, Regim. 
Pruaa. 183S ; Gralen, ed. Kuhn, Lips. 1821-33; Oribaaiua, Aiitius, Alexander Tral- 
lianux, Pauliu Aegineta, Celsua, ed. H. Ste^Asnua, among the Hedicae Artia Prill- 
dpea, Paria, 1367 ; C%eliua Anreliauna, ed. Anunan, Anutel. 4to. 1700. 

Zfaniea of FUcea and Nations are not included in the Work, aa thoj will form the 
anlgect rf the fortiicoming "DiotioDarj of Greek and Booian Geognqthj." 


LmOoD, October, 1844. 



In the Mowing HM A V iodicatM lint tlia econ u of ftold, jB of mlrcr, A of rapptr, lA fint braiie 
RimBi, 2X uoond bioaia Ranuia, iJB thiid bnmie Banan. Tba wdglit oE all gold uid lilTer coint 
i> gnen, «ith tbo oxceptioa of the anni and dmarii, wtiich m for tho moot nut of ncauly (he huh 
wosfat ntpectiielf . Wti«n ■ coin lua Iwen reduced m mlaiged in ths dnwmg, tfaa diBnuitar of tha 
•rigiDal coin ii giren in the lut eolnnm, tha Dnmben in wbich rafn to tha *abi<rinad adJo : Uion 
wluch luTC no namban iffiiad to tham ate of tha mna >iu in tha drawing *a tlia originals 

S = eG SGS3 B B • 

I H i 



Do. (Empcnt.) . _ 


Alaiandar I^ king of 

AlKDudei IL, king of 

***■*"■*" I^ king of 


Alaxandei 11^ king of 

156 1 


ISO 3 
I8B 3 

Alaxaudei (Roman em- 
peror) ...,,,,, 

Alexander Zebina, kiog 
ofSjiis .... 

AmjDtai, king of Mace- 
Amjntaa, king of Oalatia 

AucigDani, king of Alia 
AntigoDU Oowtaa . . 


Autiocbiu, kingif Com- 

Anliocbui Hiarax , . . 
nliodiiu I., king of 


Antiochni VII. . . 
Antiochtti VIII. . . 
AnCiocfant IX. . . . 
Antiodma X. . . . 
Antiodin* XI. . . . 
Antiochiu XII. . . 
Antiochn* XIU. . 


Antoninu Pini . . 
M. Aiitouiui : . . . 
C. Antonini .... 
L. Antonini .... 
Julia Aqoilia Severs 



Ariaratbei IV. . . . 
Ariarathe* V. . , . 
Arianlhei VI. . . . 
AiiuallieB Vll.> . . 
Anobamnat I. . . 
Ariobamnei III. . 

Araacm III.' '.'.'.'. 

AiMcea V 



Arncw XIV. 

AiBuw XXVIII. . 

Do. .' .' .' .' '.'.'.'. 




AtLIm ..'.'.'.'.'.'. 



Balbua, Acilin* . . . 
Balbuif AotoDiDi . . 
Balbni, Atiui . . . . 
Balboa, ConwHua . . 
- ■■ ^ NaoTini . . . 
Balboa, Tboriw . . 































































































CoQMutiDiu IL 







Cmmt, 8«i. JqUw . . 
OUMT, C. JuUiu . . . 


C. W U C««i . . . 






Cuato, Muiu. 

Ca^lolinni, PatUliui . 














Deowtriiu I., king of 

D<ni«taiui II., king of 

Dometriut 1., king of 
Syri. . . 7 .^ . . 

8jri» ...".. .'. . 
DomMrim 111., king of 

oT ■■■..■ ■.■.:■. 








CDo 01 (Mo 

Dionjtiiu, of H«r>olB. 
DionyriM II, of Syi^ 









Dmnu, N>» Ckodiu 




Da ftidmin. 

Qudiu 11 

Ckopatn, wife tf Ad- 


Clai^ta, qu»n of 







ABAEUS CaSo^oi), a tnnuuiie of Apono de- 
rived from thfi town of Alne in PbociHi when tha 
Eod had a rich temple. ()lei;ch. (.c.'ASai ; Herod. 
TiiL 33 : Pnus. I. 35. g ], &e.) [L. S.] 

ABANTI'ADES ('AearTuOnt) .ignifies in 
general a detcendant of Abut, but ie SKd eapeci- 
Blly to desigTiate Perwaa. the grcat-grrnidsan of 
Ab»» (Ov. Mel. iT. 673, y. 138, 236), nnd 
Aeriiiiu, a »on of Abai. (Or. Atel. Lr. 807.) A 
female d^Kendant of Abaa, a> Danoe and Atalniite, 
waa called Abantiaa. [L. S.] 

ABA'NTIDAS ('AgwiSai), the xin of Paieai, 
hecflme lymnt of Sieyoa after murdering CLeiniaa, 
the fallicr of Aratui, B. c. S64. AialuB, who wu 
then onl; HTen jesn old, nairowly cicnped death. 
Abantidu mu fond of literature, and asa aicD*- 
lomed to attend the pliilognphioJ ditcnwiont of 
Deiniaa and Ariitntle, the dialectician, in the agora 
of Sicjan ; on one of these occasion! he wu* mui^ 
derad bj bit eneniiei. He wa* aacceeded in the 
trranny bv hta feiher, who wa« put to death by 
:iicoclp«. fPlut. AtuL2. 3; Pan*. ii.S.SS.) * 

ABARBA'BEA CASapftv^l), a Naiad, who 
b(H« two aon^ Afa^pna and Ped.'una, to Bucoiion, 
the »Me.t bnl illegitimate un of the Trojan King 
Lawnedon. (Horn. IL ri. 22, Ac.) Other writers 
do not meutlon this nvmph, but Hesjchiua (i. c.) 
laentiona 'AtapSapdu or ASofiCaAiuai oi the name 
ofacloia of nymphs, [L. S.] 

A'BARIS ('Ativn), son of Scathes, was a 
Hyperbon^on priest of Apollo (Herod, ir. 36), nnd 
aaoe (mm the coantry about the Caocaima {Of. 
MtL r. 86) to Oreece, whOe hia own camtrv was 
liaited bj a plagne. He wa« endowed with the 
nft of pnmhecy, and hf this as well aa by hia 
Scythian dress and simplidty and honctty he 
oeated great lensaliDn in Greece, and was held in 
highesteem.(Strab.Tu.p.3l)l.) He traTclifd about 
in Greece, canyiog with him sn arrow as the 
symbol of Apollo, and gave oraclea Toland, in 
his History of the Druii^ considers him to have 
hero s Draid of the Hebrides, bceanse the arrow 
fgrmcd a port of the costume of a Dmid. His 
htitory, which is entiti>[y mythiisl, is related in 
Tsrioui vayt, and worked up aith extraordinary 


particulon : be ii sud to bare taken no eartlily 
food (Herod. It. 36), and to bare ridden on his 
arrow, the giiX of Apollo, thnmgh the air. (Lnbeck, 
jJjrfmjiAamtu, p. 314,) He cured diseases by In- 
ranlnlions(PlBt.(;ibiriHtif.p.15H,Ii.), delivered the 
worid from a plague (Suidas, i. r, 'A^o^f), and 
built al Sparta n lei»[de of Kipfl udrufa. (Pnus. 
iii. 13. S -2.) Suidns and Euducia ascribe Ie him 
several works, such at incantations, Scythian 
oracles, a poem on the marriage of the river 
llebrus, eiplatory formulas, the arrival of Apotto 
among the Hypeiboieans, and a prose work on the 
origin of the gods. But such worka, if they were 
really current in ancient times, were no more 
genuine than hie re 
Phataris tho lyisnt. 
in Oreeee it staled differently, tome lixing it In 
01 3, others in 01. 31, and others again rnalce 
him a contemporary of Croetns. (Bentley, On :ht 
Epitl,B/PhaJara,f.3i.\ Lobeck places it about 
the year a.c. 570, t. e. about OL SS. Respecting 
the perplexing truditiona about Ai>aris see Klopfer, 
MyHuJanaelia Wii1er6iicli, I p. 2 ; Zap!, Dispute 
tio hiilorita de Abaride, Lips. 1707; Larcher, on 
Htrod. vol. iii. p. 416. [L. S.J 

ABAS CA«al). 1. A son of MeUneira, wa. 
changed by Demeter into a lizard, because he 
mocked the goddess when she had come on her 
wanderings into the house of her mother, and 
drank eagerly to quench her thint. (Nicander, 
Theriacas NataL Com. v. 14; Ot. Mtt. t. 
450.) Other traditions relate the tame stniy 
of a boy, Ascalabut, and call his mother Miime. 
(Antonin. Lib. 33.) 

2. The twemh Ring of Argos. He v,-ns the 
son of Lynceus and Hypeminestra, and grand- 
son of Danaus. He married Ocaleio, who bore 
him twin tons, Acrisiut and Proctus. (Apollod. 
ii. 2. g 1 i Hygin./'a&ITO.} When he informed 
his father of the death of Danaua, be wat re- 
warded with the thield of hia grandfiither, 
which was tocrcd to Hera. He is described as 
a SDccetsful conqneror and ai the founder of 
the towp of Abae in Phocis (Pans. x. 35. g I), 
and of the Pelasgic Argot in Thestalv. (Strah. 
ii. p. 431.) The Gune of his wariike spirit wa* 
BO great, (hat ecen aflar his death, when peopla 



Niolled, vbom bo bad ubdned, ibe; ««» put 
tD fli^I br tile ninpla act of ihaiiiiig them hii 
■hield. {Vuf.A*m.m.2a6iSert.adloe.) It wai 
from (hit Atau that the kingi of Argos were called 
bj the patronymk Abastiadi. [ABANruDaa.] 

ABA3 CA««). I. A Onak aopluat acd 
riiatoriciaD about vboae life nothing ii known. 
Suidai (i. e. 'AAit : compan Eudoda, p. fil) 
aicribea to him lirropuni iwofu^iiara and a work 
va ihetoric {rlxrn ht^opa^). What Pbatiot 
(I'A. 190. p. 160, b.<d.Bekkec) quote* from him, 
balangt probably to the tormfr work. (Compan 
Wall, nWor. Orate, lii. 1. p. 203.) 

S. A writer of ■ work called TVoico, train which 
Scniiu lad Aea. a. 264) baa pnaerred a bag- 
B»i.U [L.S.] 

ABASCANTUS ('AAto'JnvrM], a pTiyuciBn of 
Liigdiiniun (Ljooi), who probably lived in Cba 
Kcond centDiy after Cbriit. Hs a Kienl timei 
mentioned by Oalea (Dt Otmjiat. Midicam. tecamd. 
Lmxa, ii. 4. TOl. liiL p. 2781 who ha* alio prewrved 
an antidote JDTented by him again*! the bile of 
terpenti. {,D* AmM. iL IZ toL iit. p. 177.) The 

■criplioni in Omter^i collectionT five of wbicfa refin 
to a freedman of Angnitna, who ii inppoaed by 
KUhn f^Admaii. ai ElaieL Afidic Vn. a J. A. 
FabrKk, m - BibL Or." EiUL) to be tba wh 
peraon that i* mentioned by Oaleo. Thii however 
IB quite uncertain, aa abo whether nafMiAtKut 
'AMrnuSst in Oalen (A Qmpot. Medieam. 
•vm'^ Lotot. Tii. 3. ToL liii. p> 7 1 ) nfen to the 
anbjwl of thi* article. [W. A, O,] 

eudener, bnt of loyal deacent, wai made king of 
Sidon by Alexander tbe Gnat. (Curt. It. 1 ; JiuL 
i. lO.) ile ii oiled Batlonymu by Diodonu. 



ABUritUS CA<lit|»i], a Km of Meime*, or 
accotding to othen of Thniniui the Locrian. (Apot- 
lod-iLS. g 6; Hrwatabvoiuite 
of Heradea, and wai uvn to [nece* by the mam 
•T Diomede*, which Hendei had giren him to 


built the town of Abdeia to honour hun. Accard> 
ing to Hygiuui,(faA. .10,) Abdenu waa a lervant 
of Diomede*, the king of the Tbiacian Butonea, 
and waa killed by Heiaclei together with U) 
Diaiter and bii four meD-deTaniing bnnea. (Com- 
pare Pbiloatiat. Heroic. 3. j 1 i 19. g 2.) [U S.J 

ADDIAS ('Affilat), the pretended antbor of an 
Apocryphal book, entitled Tlu Hutoryi/llia Ayr- 
MicalamleiL Thiiworkcbumt 10 baie been written 
in Hebrew, to haia been trarakted into Greek by 
Kutropini, and thence bita Latin by Jolioi Afn- 
cBDDi. It wBi howerer originally written in Latin, 
about A. n. 910. It ii printed to Fabricini, 
Codtx Afcaypiat Nam Tat. p. 102. Sto. Hamb. 
1703. Abdiaa wai called too tbe fini Bithop of 
Babylon [A.J.C.] 

ABE'LLIO, ii the name of a diiinily found in 
inicriptian* which were diacsnred at Comniingea 
in Pnuxc (Qmter, /ucr. p. 37, 1 1 J. Scaliger, 
LeaiainAiuimiimat,i.6.) Buttmann [^jiiWttsnu, 
L p. 167, Ac) coniiden Abellio to be tbe MUDe 
name a* ApoQo, who in Crete and eliewhere waa 
called 'MlKiot, and by the Italian* aod aoiua Do. 
riui* Apello (Fe*L *. v. AptUimem ; EoMath. ad 
II. ii. 99), and that the duty i* the nme u tbe 
Gallic Apollo mentioned by Caesr (A^j. GaO. n, 

17). and nlao the uune u Bella or Belenu* mei» 
timed by Tertullian (Apalostt. 23) and Herodlan 
(liii. 3; eomp. CapitoL A/unaw, 22). A* tb* 
root of the word he Rcogniiea the Spartan B^Aii, 
i. a. the (an (He*)ch. i. e.], which appean in tha 
Syriac and Chaldaic Belu* or BaaL [L. S.) 

ABE'KCllTS, ST. CaWjhckh), the tnppried 
lucceHor of Sl Papba in the lee of Hiempoli*. 
Honiiahed a. n. ISO, Then are oKribed to him, 
1. An EpMt to Ok Emperor Mama Avrtlua, of 
which Baronio* apeak* ai extant, but he doea 
Dot produce it ; and, 2. A Book of Diedpla* 
(SlEAoi S<eaff(aAJai) addniued \o hi> Clergy ; thii 
too ii loat. See lUuHr. Efdm. OrmU SeripL 
Vitat,aP.Haiioii.Daait. 163S, [A. J. C.} 

( "Atytxpot, ^Aiciapoi, A^Topoi ), a name common 
to many rulera of Edeaa, tbe capital of tbe diitricl 
of Oirhoene in Hoopotamia. It leenu to have 
been a title and not a proper name. (Procopt 
BiU. Pen. ii 12.) Far the hulory of tbeee king* 
>eo Bayer, 'Hiitoria 0*rboena el Ede**ena ex 
nummii illu>tr*la," Petrop. 173*. Of tbe*e tha 
molt important are : 

1. The ally of the Roman* under Pompey, who 
tnacberouily drew Ciaiaua into an nniaTOrabla 

r'tioa befoiB bii defeat. He i* called Angatui 
Dion Caaaiui (iL 20), Acbarui the phylaicb 
of the Arabian* in tbe Parthian fablory aichbed 
to Appian' (p. 34. Schw.), and Aiiamne* by Pla- 
larch. (OraB.21.) 

2. The contemporary of Chriil. See the foUoir- 
iag article. 

3. The chie^ who ieu*ted Meherdatei, whom 
Claodin* wiabed to place on the Parthian throne ; 
ha i* oiled a king of the Arabian* by Tadiu* 
(^■a. lii. 1 2. 1 4), but wu probably an Oirhoo'nian. 

4. The coDterapomry of Trajan, who aent pr& 
ianti to that emperor when he invaded die eait, 
and lubieqaentiy waited upon him and beome hia 
aUy. (IKon Cuik liyiii. IH. 21.) 

6. The contemporary of Cancalla, who acted 
cruelly toward! hi* nation, and wa* depoaed by 
Caisealla. (Dion Ca*a. IxiiiL 12.) 

A'BOARUS, Toparcb of Edew>a, aappoied b^ 
Euaebiu* to have been the author of a letter 
written to our Saviour, which he foand in a church 
at EdeiiB and trBulated Iran the Syriac. The 
letter i* believed to be qwrion*. It i* giTeo by 
Euaebiua IHiel. E«l. i 13.) [A.J. C] 

A'BIA (^ACla), the nar*e of Hyllu*. a ion oT 
Heraclc*. She built a temple of Nencle* at In 
in Mtaaruia. for which the Ueraclid CmpbDUtc* 
afterwardi honoured her in variou* other waya, 
and alto by changing the name of the town of Ira 
into Abia. (Pau*. ii. 30. g 1.) (L. S.) 

a noble Spaniard, originally a friend of Cartham 
betrayed the Spaniah hoMagei at Saguaium, who 
were in the power of the Cuthnginian*, to tbo 
Roman grneral% the two Scipioi, after <lecei> ing 
Bniiar, the CanhagiuUn commander. (Liv. xiiL 
■i-i 1 Polyb.iiL9U, Aic.) 

ABI'SARES or ABl'SSARtlS ('Atwipm), 
called Embiuma {''BiiBieapai) by Diodonu (xviL 
90), an Indian king beyond tbe river Hydaepei, 
whoD! tenitory by in the mounlaini, lent embiu- 
lie* to Aleiaoder tbe Great both betoiv and after 
the conqneit of Peru*, although indined to eapou** 
the lide of the latter. Alexander not only allowed 
him to retain bii kingdom, but incnaaed il, and 


(Arnn, Aii^ t. 8. 20. 39 ; Ciut. Tiii. 12. 1 3. U. 


■ by AniaD. [Aiiab. i 

conjecturet that izutful ot AbUtameme 
G^ipadofua pratpoaHo, wa might to lead Afiicta 

ABITLA'NUS i'MT[mit), the nthor oT a 
timk tmUiia Dt Uritii iiuerted in llie wcond 
toIbok of Idekr'* Pki/tid tt Mrdiei (Tnun Mi- 
■Dto, BeroL Bto. 1U2, witb Ihe title Oipl Odpwv 
tlpayfAOTtia 'Apiarit rifi 2o^vtc(tou irapA ttjt¥ 
IrSaTt 'AAAti 'E^tni tw Ziw tFt«i 'AAXi) vlw roj 
20n, nfd. Si 'IriOiHf 'ACirtiarBv. He il the taoK! 
penon aa the ceJebisted Anbic ph JBician A piotRna^ 
vhoK nal name waa Abi 'Aii Ika Sini, i. H. 
370 or 375 — 128 (j. D. 980 or 98i— il>37), and 
from whoM great work Kitii td-KAiiin fi 't 7<M, 
ijirr Qnunr Jtfn^niwM, thu tnatiae ii probablj 
tiuutoled. [W. A. O.] 

ABLA'BIUS CA«Ai««0- !■ ■* phjudan on 
vhoae death there ia an epigram bj Theovebia in 
the Greek Anthidogj (vii. Sfi9), in which he i> 
eooiidend aa inferior onlj to Hippocratei and 
Galen. With napect to hi* dole, it ia only 
kaawn that he mnit have lived after Oslen, 
that i*, ajme time klar tbao the Hcond ceDlur; 
■fKtChhM. [W.A.G.J 

2. The illnitriaiu ClAAe^n-pwi), Ihe author of an 
nigTun in the Greek Anihologj (it 762) "on 
tne quoit of AadepiftdsL" NotiuDgmoroiiknovn 
of him, unksa he be the nme penon a* Ablabini, 
the NoTatian bithop of Nicaea, who waa a divciple 
of the ifaetaridan Troilna, and himielC etnineat 
in the laoie pnrteaaioa, and who lived under Ho- 
nori>naDdTheDdo«iiuiI.,at the and of the fourth 
■nd the beginning of tile lifth centuriea after CbriiL 
(Sooaiea, lliM. fin to. 12.) [P. g.J 

ABLA'VIUS. 1. Piefect of the cilj, the mi- 
Biuerasd bTonrite of ConiUmtine (be Great, wu 
mnrdeicd af^ the dfath of the latter. (Zottmua, 
a. 40.) Se waa coniol a. d. 331. There i> an 
epignm exUnt attribaled to him, in which the 
tagra of Neto and Conilantina are compared. 
(ADtkUt n. 261, ed. Utjtt.) 

2. A Roman hiatorian, whose age ii nnknown, 
wnite a hiiCor; of the Golbi, which ig lome- 
time* qooted by Jomandea a* bia aathorily, 
(DiIU. Geticir. 14. 2S.) 

ABRADA'TAS ('AC^oJlitrai), a king of Snia 
nd an ally of the Aaiyiiani aminat Cynii. Hi> 
wife Panuieia waa taken on the conqueit of the 
Aaayriui camp, while he waa abaent on a miaatoa 
to the Baetnana, In conaequBoce of the honoiv- 
hle tnatment which hit wife receiW from Cyma, 
be joinnl the latter with hia fbrcea. Ho fell in 
battle, while fighting againat the Efryptiana. In- 
eonaolable at her loaa, Pontheia put an end to her 
own life, aikd her example waa followed by her 
three eunncba. Cyma hud a high mound raiaed in 
their hanonr : on a pillar on the top were inacribed 
the namea of Abiadstaa and Paothcia in the Syriac 
duradera; and three columni below bore the in- 
■criptioa VKtrrro^in', in honour of th« eunucha. 
(Xto.C^.x.l.ii,n. l.$3l,&e.4.§2,&e.Tii. 
S. S 2, &c; Lodao. Inag. 20.) 

ABRETTE'NUS rAtptrniyit), a aofname of 
ZeoainUyaia. (Stidi. ui. p. 374.) [L. S ] 

ABBO'COHAS {■Atfoiiim}, one of the wlnp* 

of Artaxerxea Jitnemon, waa sent with an aimy of 
3U0,0UDinen " '-'■ ' - 

laaua [bur hundred heary-armed Greeka, who had 
deierted Abrecomaa, joined Cyrna. Abrocomaa did 
not defend the Syrian paiaei, aa waa expected, but 
marched to join the king. He burnt aome boat* to 
prevent Cynu Cnm crosaing the Euphratea, but did 
nol arrive in time for the battle of Cunaxa. (Xea. 
Avai. L 3. § 20, 4. 9 3, 5, 18, 7. S 12; Uarpocrat. 
and Suidna, i. e.) 

AliRU'COMES i'Mpnirainis) and hia bnitb« 
Hyperanlhea ('TrifidreittJ, the aona of Dariua hj 
Phnitagnne, the daughter of Ananei, were aloin at 
Themiopylae while fighting over the body of I^o- 
nidaa. (Herod, vii, 2~i4.) 

ABRUN or HABRON ("ASfiBv or'Affpw). I 
Son of the Attic orator Lycurgua. (Plut, Vii. dm. 
Oral.D. 843.) 

2. The eon of CalUaa, of the deme of Bale in 
Altica, wrote on the featiiali and aacrificea of tha 
Greek). (Steph. Byi. t. v. Banf.) He olio wrote a 
work irapl npaiHifiM', which ia frequently roierred 
to by Stephanus Byi. (kv. 'AiMn,"Afyot,&e.)Biii 
other ¥irit«ni. 

3. A gtanunanan, a Phrygianor Rhvdiaii, a popil 
of Tryphon. and originally a alave, taught at Home 
under the iirat Caeiari. (Suidna, i. v. "Atp^r.) 

4. A rich peraon at Aivoa, from whom tho pro 
verb "ASfwroi ^s, which waa applied to eitrsva- 
gant pereont, b laiii to have been derived. (:jui. 

ABRO'NIUS SILO, a Latin Poet, who lived 
in the latter port of the Angnatan age, waa a popil 
of Porctui Lstio. Hia aoD waa al» a poet, but 
degraded himulf by writing play a for panlomimea. 
(Senec Sua. iL p. 21. Bip.) 

ABRO-NYCHUS {'A^»yx«'\ the aon of 
Lyaiclea, an Athenian, waa itationed at Thetmopy- 
be with a veaael to conununicata between Leonidaa 
and the fleet at Artemiaium- He waa aubifr 
quently lent aa ambaaaador to Sparta with The- 
mialodea and Ariatndea reqiectiitg the fDniGcatioiia 
of Athena after the Peraian war. (Herod. vliL 21 ; 
Thoc. i. 91.) 

ABROTA ('ASpttni), the daughter of On- 
clieitua, tha Booetian, and the wife of Niaua, king 
of Megaria. On her death Niaua commanded all 
the M^ariao women to wear a garment of tha 
aame kind aa Abrota bad worn, which waa called 
iipAairoiHa (dipitpuiui), and waa a^ in nae in tha 
time of Plntarah.(^iaeiri.anuc.p.2»S,&1 

ARRCfTONUM {-AlpironHt), a Thisdan 
harlot, v.ho according lo aome aceounta waa the 
mother of Themiatoclea. Thero ia an epigram pre- 
aerved recording thia fitct (Plat. Z"*eiit.T; Alhen. 
liiL p. 576, c; Aelian, V. H. xa. 43.) Plutarch 
alao refen to her in bia'EfMrrucdi (p. 753, d.); and 
Lncion apeoka of a harlot of the Bume name (Dial, 
Mtrelr. 1). 

ABRU'POLIS, an aUy of the Romana, who 
attacked the dominiona of Paraeua, and laid them 
waaie aa &r a* Amjdiipolia, but waa afierwarda 
driven out of hia kingdom by Peraeua. (Liv, 
ilii. 13. 30.41.) 


ABSIMARUS. [TiBiBiuB ABsiiiAiiua.] 

AB8YRTUS or APSYRTUS rA*ivToi). a 

aon of Aeetea, king of Cekhta. and bretfaar of 

Medeia. Hia mother ia atated diflerently: Hj-gi- 


her IpaU, ApoUodonu (t. 

(iii. 241) Ailerodcia, u 

DDS (Fal>. 13) ca1li 
|-2S} Idyio, Apolk 
' 1 IlecHM, Newm, 

the tgok \irr brothel AUynua with h«r, and wbeD 
*he wai nenriy overtak«D by her blher, Ae mui- 
dered W broiher, cut hu hod; in piece) and 
tirewed tfaem on the irod, that her blher might 
Ihui be deta'med by gathering the limba of bit 
child. Tumi, the plnce when this horror wu 
comniitlcd, wiu belieTed to have derived its name 
from Tfjm., - cuL" (Apollod. L 9. §24 ; 0». Triit. 
iii. S ; coDipare ApoUon. iv. 338, &c 460, &c.) 
AcmrdiDg lo another Uadilion Absyrtui was not 
taken bt Mcdeia, but was lont out b^ hii lather 
in pureiiil of her. ile overtook her id Corcym, 
wlien; ihe had been kindly received by king 
Alcinoui,wbo refnwd to BurrendcrhertoAbijrtna. 
When he overtook her a tecocd time in the island 
of Minerva^ he waa alaln by Jaaon. (Hygin. Fub. 
S3.) ACmditianfo]lowedbyPacuvia>(Cic.(<(n<i/. 
d*or. iii. IS), Juttio (illi. 3), and Diodorua (W. 
45), called the ton of Aeelea, who traa murdered 
by Medeia, Aegialeua. [L. S.] 

ABULI'TES ('AjSovXiTqi), the alnp of Suti- 
ftim, aurrendered Suaa to Aleiander, when the 
Inlter approached thi city. The aaln^y waa le- 
atored to bim by Alemnder, but he and hia lOD 
Oiyathrei were afterwaidi executed by Alexander 
for the crimet they had committed in the govern- 
pient of the aatrapy. (Curt. t. 2 ; Airian, Anat. 
iii 16. vii. 4 1 Diod. xviL 65.) 

ABU'RIA OENS, plebeian. On the coini of 
thia gens we find the cognomen Qui., which is 

Chaps an abbreviation of Qerainua, The coins 
'e DO heads of persona on them. 

1. C. AaUKiva waa one of the ambassadon sent 
to Mafiniua and the CaTthaginiana, e. c 171. 
(Liv. alii. 35.) 

Z M, AuUHiua, tribune of the pleba. B.C 187, 
Opposed M. Fulvius the proconaul in his petition 
for a triumph, but withdrew hia oppoaition chiefly 
through the influence of hia colleague TL Giacchoa. 
(Liv. izili. 4. 5.) He waa praetor peregrinus, 
B.C 176. (Liv. iti. 18. 19.) 


ABYOFNUS {'ABvS^ris], a Greek historian, 
who wrote a history of Asij^ia ('Atra-upioKii). 
The time at which be lived is uncettun, but we 
know that he made use of the norkl of Megax- 
thencB and Beroana ( and Cyrillus (odr. Jidian. pp. 
a, 9) states, that he wrote in the Ionic dialect. 
Several fngments of his work are preserved by 
KuKbiua, Cyrillua and Sj'ncellua: it was particu- 
larly vnluable for chronology. An important frag- 
ment, which clears up some diificullics in Assyrian 
history, has been discovered in the Anoenian 
ttaitsLalioa of the Chronicon of Kuaebius. The 
fiegniEnti of his history have been published by 
Scaligei, " De HJcendalionu Irmponini," and 
llichter, *> Beroei Chaldaeotuni Ilisloriue." Ac, 
Lips. 1025. 

ACaCALLIS CAmwaXAf!), daughter of Minos, 
by whora,aGGurding to a Cielao uadilion, Heimea 
begoi Cydon; while according to a (ladition uf tlie 
legeauint, Cydon was a ton of Tegeatet, and im- 
migrated lo Crete fromTegea. (Paua. viiL 53. S2.) 
Apollo h«Dl by her a son Miletua, whom, for fi'ur 
ol her {aUer. AcacalUa exposed in a forest, where 
valves watched and suckled the child, until he 
was foimd bj ahepherda who brot^ht hilu up. 


(Anioiiin. Lib. 30.) Other sona of her and 
Apollo are Aniphithemia and Oaiamat. (ApoUon. 
iv. 1490, &c) Apoliodonia (ilL I. § 3) csils this 
daughter of Minos Acalle ('AiiilMn), but does not 
mention Mitclus as hrr aon, Acacallia waa in 
Crete a common name fur a narciasus. (Atheu. 
IT. p. 681 ; Hetj-ch. s.c.) [L. S.; 

ACA'CI US CAaitKioiX a rhetorician, of Caesarea 
in Palestine, lived under the emperor Julian, and 
was a friend of Libanius. (Suidaa, t. v. 'ArcUloi, 
AiSiriQS: Eunapins, Jiaeii ViL) Many of the 
letters of Libanus are addrcasol to him. [B. J.] 

2. A Syrian by birth, lived in a monastery 
near Antioch, aniC for bis active defence of the 
Church agaiatC Ariaoiim, was made Bichop of 
Berrhoea, a. D. 378, by St. Eusebiui of Samotata. 
While a pricat, he(with Paul, another priest] wrote 
lo St Epiphanina a letter, in comequcnce of ivLich 
Ihe latter composed hia Fananuin (a. a. 374-6). 
This letter is prefixed to the work. Jn A. D. 377- 
8, he waa sent lo Rome lo confute Apollinuria be- 
fore Pope SL Damosna. He waa present at the 
Oecumenical Council of Constantinople a. d. 361, 
and on the death of St. Meleliua took part in 
F^vian'a ordination to the See of Antioch, by 
whom he was afterwarda sent to the Pope in order 
to heal the achiem between the churches of the West 
and Antioch. Afterwarda, he took part in Ihe 
persecution against St. Chrysoatom (Socrntes, 
Hill. Bed. Ti. 13), and again compromised 
himself by oidnining aa successor to Flavian, 
Porphyrins, a man unworthy of the episcopate. 
He defended the heretic Nestorius against St. 
Cyril, though not hmiself pieaent at tlie Coun- 
cil of Ephesus. At a great aga, he bbouicd to re- 
concile SI. Cyril and the Easlero Biahopa at a 
Synodbeld BtBerrboeB,A. D.432. He died a. D. 
437, at the age of IIS years. Three of his letlera' 
remain in the original Greek, one lo St. Cyril, 

nl in the Collection of Coundls by Mansi, 
V. p. 1056,) and Iwo to Alexander, Bishop 

of IiiciBpolia.(JAii'. 1^819, 830, C.41. 55. £129, 


3. The One-eyed {i KoriipeaXitot), the pupil 
and tncceasor in the See of Caciarea of Euaebiut 
A. D. 340, whose lite he wrote. (Sociate*, HiU. 
Ecd, a. 4.) He wag able, learned, and unscra- 
puloua. At first a Setni-Arian hke bin matter, 
he founded afierwaids Ihe Homoeao party and 
was condemned by the Semi-Arians at Seleucia, 

D. 359. (Socralea, Hist. EctL ii. 89. 40; 
somen, Hi^. EaU. iv. 22. 23.) He lubse- 
ently became the associate of Aetius [Aetius], 
I author of the Anomoeon, then deserted him 
the command of Conaiantius, and, under the 
Catholic Jovian, subscribed the llomoousian or 
Creed of Nicaea. He died A. n. 366. He wrote 
iteen Books on Ete/enias^a and six of Alinrt- 
j. (St. Jeromo, Fir. IIL SB.) St. Epipha. 
hat preserved a fragment of his work u<,uni( 
Atareellui (c. IJatr. 72), and nothing else of hi* 
extant, though Sotomen speaks ot many valu- 
able works written by him. (HiO. Ecd. iii. 2.) 

Bitbop of Constantinople, succeeded Gen- 

nadiua A. D. 471, after being at the head of 

Orphan Asylum of that city. He dietinguish- 

himselfby defending the Council of Chalcedon 

inst the emperor Basilucui, who favoured the 

Monophytite heiny. Through his exertions Zeno, 

^ 1 whom Batilitcufi had usnipcd the empire, was 

ored (A. 0. 477), but the Monophysite. mean- 

froiD iu iud?tinilene», called the Henalicoii. A. D. 
48'2. Acacius wai 1cd into other eotuvHioni, 
wtiich drew upon him, on the nccusntion of John 
Taluk, agninst H'hum he supported the claimi of 
Pctfr Mangnt to the See of Alexandria, the 
an«ih^-o» of Pope Felii II, a. d. 481. Peter 
^fon-^fl had i^nined Aiii<^iuft*ft support by profcw- 
ing aneiit to tlie ciiiona of Chalcedon, though at 
heajt a Monophysit^ Acaciua refused to give ap 
pL-tCT Mongus, but ntaiiicd hii see till his death, 
4. B. ^as. There remain two tetlen of his, one 
» 64>i|i i'tomm Nona 

toI. vi 

^■2): II 

le original 

Peter Fullo, Archbi^op of Antioch, 
Grn-k, (lUd. p 1121.) 

5. Rtader at (a. C. 390). then the Bishop of 
MeUtene (a. a. 431). He wrote A. D. 431, 
agoinal Nestonoa. His leal led him to use 
erpmcioDB. apprentlj HtTouriog of the contrary 
heresy, which, for a time, prejudiced the em- 
peroT Theodosiua II. igoinst St. Cyril. He was 
pnaenC at the Oecamenioi] Council of Epheius 
A.D. 431, and constantly main [aincd its auth only. 
There remain of his productions a Homily (in 
Greek) delirered at the Council, (see Omdiianm 
Nona CoUtctio a Matai, toL v. p. 1 61,) and a letter 
written after it to Sl Cynl, which we hare in a 
LaUn translation. {Ibid. pp. 860, 998.) [A. J. C] 

ACACFSIUS i^fjmtiam), a lamama of 
Henne* (Callim. Hym. ia Kaa. 143), [or which 
Homer (//. iri. ISAj Od. xiir. 10) dh^s the 
form tUcUnrro ((trnw^riit). Some writeii derive it 
fnini the Arcadian tnwu of Acaceeium, in which 
be wa« belieTed to have been brDught up by king 
AcBcus ; ethers bum inwJt, and assign lo it the 
meaning : the god who caiuiot be hurt, or who doc> 
not hurt. The same nltribule a also given to 
Prometheus (Hes. Tlnag. 614), whence it may be 
inferred that its meaning is that of benefactor or 
delireter fironi eril. (Compare Spanh. ad Calliin. 
Lc; Spinner. lul 72: iri. 185.) [L. S.] 


A'CACUSCAMimj),a son of Lycnon and king 
of Atacerium in .^jcadia, of which he was belioicd 
to be the fbundcr. (Paus. riii. 3. g 1 ; St.-ph. Bys. 
.. e. •Airair+.iov.) (L. S.] 

ACADE'MUS CAinflu»40i),an Attic hero, wlio, 
wben Castor and Polydeuces inraded Attica lo 
libentl« their Bister IJi^len, betrayed to Ihcm that 
she was kept concealed at Aphidnoe. For this 
reason the Tyndarids always showed him much 
gratitude, and whenever the Idcedoemnuians la- 
nded Allies, they always spared the land belong 
iiig to Academus which lay an the Cephissus, >ii 
■tadia from Athena (Plat. Tlirj. 33 ; Diog. Laert. 
ill I. g 9.) Tliis piece of huid was subseqnently 
adonied with plaiie and olive planlatiDns (Plut^ 
Cia, 13), and waa railed Acadenitn from its 
original owner. [L.S.J 

ACALLF, lAcACAi-Lip.) 

A'CAM.iS ('A*Wt). I. A aon of Theseus 
and Phaedra, and brother of Demophoon. (Diod. 
ir. 62.) Pnviom. to the eipedition of the Creeks 
against Troy, he and Diomedca were sent to de- 
T^nd the surrender of Helen (this message Homer 
ascribes lo MeneUus and Udysscos, IL li. 139, 
&c), but dating his stay at Troy he won the 
aflection of Laodice, daughter of PrUm (Paitban. 
Kk. Erof. 16), and begot by her a ton, Miinitut, 


nrlin w»t brout(ht up by Aetbia, the grandmother nf 
Acamns. (SchoL ml Lyc-iplir. 499, Ate] Viivil 
(Aen. ii. 263) mentiont him among the (Ireeka 
concealed in the wooden horse at the taking of 

Thrace by his love for Phyllis ; but after leaving 
Thrace and arriving in the island of Cyprus, hs 
was killed by a fiiU from his hor^e npim his own 
sword. (SehoL ail Liflsplir. t. t) The prrmr)nlory 

Phrygio, otkd the Attic tribe Acnmautis, derived 
ihuir names from him. [Stoph. Ityi. >. e. 'Aiofar. 
Tier 1 Paus. I. 5. g 3.) He was painted in the 
Lesche at Drlphi by Polvgnotus, and there was also 
a ilatue of him at belplj. (Poua. i. 2G. g I, i. 
10. § I.) 

3. A son of Alilenor and Tlioano, was one 
of the btavcat Trojana (Horn II. ii. U23, liU 
100.) He avenged the death of his brother, who 
had been killed hy Ajax, by shiying Promnchna 
the Uoeoiian. (tL liv. 47U.) He liimsvlf was 
shun by Mcriones. (/J. ivi. 342.) 

3. A son of Eussonls, was one of the leaden 
of the Thincians in the Ti-ojan war (Horn. Jl. ii. 
U44, v. 463), and was slain by the Telaniouian 
Ajan. (/ 8.) (L.S.1 

ACANTHUS ('AMiflod, the Lacedaemonian, 
was victor in the tlaot-ot and the SAixei in Iha 
Olympic gomes lu OL 1.1, (b. c 7'20,) and accord' 
ing to tome accounts was the 6rat who mn naked 
ill these games. (Pans. v. B. g 3 ; Dionys. vii. 73) 
African, apod A'bji*. p. 143.) Other account* 
ascribe tliia to Onippiis the Megnrian. [Orbip- 
pua.] Thucydidcs says that the lAcedni-moniana 
were the first who contended naked ill gymnastic 
games. (L 6.) 

ACARNAN ('Amjpmif), one of the Epigones, 
was a son of Alcmaeun and Calirrhoe, and bruthor 
of Amphoterus. Their bther was murdered by 
Phegeus, when they were yet very young, and 
Calirrhoe prayed to Zeus to make her sons grow 
qcickly, that they might be able lo avenge ths 
death of their felher. The prayer was granted, 
and Aiairnnn with his brother slew Phegeus, his 
wife, and his two aons. The inhahitanU of 
Psophia, where the sons had been almn, pursued 
the murderers as &r asTegca, i^ere how 

At ll 


Achclous they carried the necklace and peplns of 
Harmonia to Delphi, and from thence they went 
to Epirus. whero Acnmon founded the state called 
after him Acamanio. (ApoUod. jii. 7. S 5—7 ; Ot. 
Mef. ix. 413, &C1 Thucyd. ii. 103; Slrab. i. 
p. 462.) [L.S.] 

ACASTUS ("AmwTM), a ion ot Pelias, king of 
IdIcujk and of Anaiibia, or as others call her, Phi- 
loKuiche. He was one of the Argi>iiauts(ApalIod. 
L 9. §10; Apolton.Rhod.i.324,&c), and also look 
part in the Calydonian hunt.(Ov.A/et. vjii. 30.5,&c.) 
Afier the return of the Argonauts his listers were 
soJnced by Medeiu to cut their bther in pieces 
and boit them; and Acsstiis, when he heard this, 
baned his Gitlier, drove lason and Medria, and 
according lo Pnusnnias (vii. II) his sittere also, 
from Iotcus,mid instituted funerd games in honour 
of his hther. (Hygin. FiA 34 and 273; Apollod. 
L 9.S27,&e.iPaua.iii.l8. g 9, vL 20. § 9, v. 17. 
£ 4 t Or. lUrl. li. 409, &c) During these games it 
happened that Astydamia, the wife at Aouiliit, 
who is ^so tailed Hippolyte, fell in love with 
I'elejB, whom Acastus had purified [mm the inn> 


der of Enrrtion. Whm Pclciu nfuted to littcD 

to h« iddictM*, the (Muted him to her huatxad 

of IwTing anempled to duhononr ber. (Apollod. 
iiL 13. g -2, Ac. ; Find. Ntm. it. 90,&c.) Acutu, 
faowpTerf did not tokfl immediate rereDge for Ihs 
•lle^ crime, but after he ud Peleiu tud been 
•haiiuig on mount Pelion, and the laller had bUen 
Mlwp, Aouliu took hii iward from him, and left 
bim atone and eipoied, to that Peleu* wa« nearly 
destnjred by the Centaan. But he wa* nred by 
CfaeiroD or Hermet, returned to Acaatua, and killed 
him together with hit wife. (Apollod. L c; Schol. 
^MdA|loatmIalld.l^2^^ The death of Acaalni 
u not mentionni by Apollodonu, bat anoidiog lo 
bim Peteui in coajunctioD with Ia»a and (he 
Dioacari merely coDquer and deatfoy lolciia. 
{AB>lleJ.iiL 1197.) [L.a.] 


mythical woman who oocun in the atariei in eailj 
Boman biitoiy. Macrobitu {Sal. L 10). with 
whom Plulanh [QwuL Rom. iS ; SomaL 5) 
■gnei in the main pointi, relatea the foUowiog 
Iraditioa about her. In the leign of Ancui Martini 
a Krrant {aedilmH) of the temple of Henalee in- 
vited during the holidaya the god to a game of 
lice, prmuiuiig that if he (hould loie the game, he 
would treat the god with a repait and a beaotiful 
woman. When tfe god had conquered the lerrant, 
ibe latter ihnt up Acca I^urentia, then the moat 
beantifiil and moil noloiioiu woman, together with 
a weU itored table in the temple of Henmlei, who, 
when (be left the tanctuary, adriied her to try to 
gain the affection of the tint wealthy man the 
ihoold meet. She incceeded in making Cain^ui, 
■n Etiuican, or ai Plutarch calli him, TaiTutiua. 
loTa and many her. AtW hi> desth )be inherited 
hia large property, which, when ihe heraelf died, 
■be lelt 10 the Roman people- Ancua, in gmtiCade 
for ibia, aBDWed her to be buried in the Velabrum, 
and inuituted an annual Inlival, the Larenlalia, 
at which eacrilice* were offered to the Lara*. 
(Comp. Varr. tmo. l.aLr. p. 86, ed. Bip.) Ao- 
eording lo other* (Macer, apad Maerali. i.e.; Ov. 
Faa. iii. iS, At ; Plin. tl. N. xYiii. 2), Acca 
Laurentia wai the wifd of the ihcplieRl Fnuatului 
and the nune of Romului and Remua after Ifacy 
had been taken from the ihe-wolC Plutarch in- 
deed itates, that thii Laurenda waa altogether a 
different being (ma the one occurring in the nign 
of Ancot i but other wtiten, >Dch at Macer, relate 
their atoriei ai belonging to the tame being. 
(Comp.aell.yi.70 AccordingtoMaiauriuiSabinui 
in Oelliu* {L c.) ihe wa* Uia molhet of twelie 
•ona, and when one of them died, Romnlus ttept 
into hia place, and adopted in conjunction with 
tlte remaming eleven the name of fratrea arrale*. 
(Comp. Plin. I. c) According to other aoceunt* 
again abe vas not the wife of Fauttulua, bat a 

Ctitate who from her mode of life wai called 
by the ahepherda, and who left the pnperty 
■he gained in that way to the Roman people. 
(Valer. Ant ap. GtU. L c; Lirj, i. i.) What- 
ever may be thought of the contndictjirr itate- 
nenta retpecting Aon l^nrentia, thua much eeema 
clear, that ihe was of Etruican origin, and con- 
nected with the worahip of the Laret, from which 
her Dame L4iTenlia itielf aeenu lo be derived. 
Thi> appean further from the number of her lona, 
which aaawera to that of the Iwelie country Larea, 
Mid from the circumitance that the day ucred to 

her WB> followed by one aacred to the tmna, 
(Hacrob. Sal. L a compare Milller, Elmier, ii. 
p. 103, Ac ; Hartimg, Dia Religion d»t SSmer, ii. 
p.H4,Atj [L.S.] 

L. A'CCIUS or ATTIUS, an early Ro- 
man tragic poet and the aon ^ a Ererdman, waa 
boni according to Jerome a c 170, and win fifty 
yeara younger than Pacuviui. He lived to a greal 
age i Cicero, when a young man, frequently coii- 
varKd with him. (_BnU. 28.) Hit tiiigediea were 
chiefly imitated from the Greeka, eip«ially froio 
Aeachylui, but he alio wrote aome on Roman aub- 
jecu (Pnulittala) ; one of which, entitled Bnitui, 
wai probably in honooi of hia patron D. Biulna. 
(Cic.iJ«i.S.ii:21,pro-(roLll.l Wepoweaaonlj 
fragmenta of hi> tiagediea, of which the moat im- 
portant have been preieried by Cicero, hut lufli- 
dent lemaina to jnitifr (he terma of admiistion in 
which he ii apoken of by the andeot writera. 
He ia particularly piaiwd for the atrength and 
vigour of hia language and the anblimity of hia 
tboughta. (Cic, pro Plane. 24, pn Sat. £6, Ax. | 
tlor. Ep. ii. 1. £6 i QuintiL x. 1. § 97 ; OeU. liii. 
2.) Beudei thete tragediea, he alu wrote jf»- 
ibIo in vene, containing the hialory of Rome, like 
Ihoae of Enniui ; and three proie woriia, ** Libti 
Didaacalion," which aeemi to have been a hialorj 
ofpoetry, " Libri Pragmaticon" and ^ Parergn'^; 
of the two latter no fragmenU art preaerved. The 
fragmenta of hit trugcchea have been coUecwd by 
Stephanna in " Frog. vcL PoeL 1^1." Pnri^ 
1564; Uaittaire, "Opera et Fr^. reL Poeu 
Lat." Lend. 1713; and Boihe, " Poet. Scenici 
Latin.," vol. t. Lipi. 1834: and the frngmonti of 
the Didajcalia by Madvig. " De L. Attii Didaa- 
caliia Comment." Hafaiae, 1831. 

T. A'CCIUS. a native of Piiaunim in Umliria 
and a Roman knight, waa the accuser of A. Cluen- 
(ina, whom Cicero defended b. c^ 66. He waa a 
pupil of Hennagoraa, and ia praiaed by Cicero for 
accuracy and fluency. (jSral. 23, pro CUmL 23, 
31, fi7.) 

ACCO, a chief of the Senonei in Oaol, who in- 
duced hia countrymen to revolt against Caesar, B. c 
£3. On the couclusion of the war Acco wu put to 
death by Caesar. IBelL Gail. vi. 4, 44.) 

ACCOLKIA OENS ia known lo ut only by 

. Ona 

name P. Accoleiui Idiiscc 

tiona a P. Accoleius Euhemenu, and a L. Accoleiu 

ACE'RATUS('Ainj()iiTe( -HMVi*iaimii),aGre*k 
grammarian, and the author of on epigram on 
Hector in the Greek Anthology. (viLISH.) No- 
thing U known of hit life. [P. S.) 

ACERBAS, a Tyrian prieat of Hercuk-s, who 
married Eliisa, the daughter of king Mutgo, and 
litter of Pygmalion. He waa posaascd of conii- 
deisble wealth, which, knowing ihe avarice of 
Pygmalion, who had incceeded his &ther. he coa- 
ched in the earth. But Pygmalion, who heard 
of these bidden treasures, had AcerW murdeied, 
in hopes that through his liitei he might obtain 
poaseseion of them. But the prudence of Eliata 
aaved the treaiurea^ and she emigmled from Phoe- 
nicia. (Justin. iviiL 4.) In this acconnl Acerbu 

at Dido in ViigiL (Atn. i. 343, 348. Ac) The 

Dsmet in Justin are nndgnbtedly more correct than 
in Vii^ili for Serviui (ad Arm. L 343) remarks, 
that Virgil heie, ai in other caaec, changed a fb- 


thai the nnl Dww <H Sichaeiu ww Sicharbu, 
which *«>» to be idollial with Acerbu. [Dido 
Pva-AMON.] [L. S.) 
ACERRO'NIA, > frjcnd of Agrippinn, Ibe 

BUucccNtul atLempt wai made at the nine time ts 
drawn Agrippioa. (Tac Ana. iit. 4 i Dion Cau. 
l»i. 13.) 

A. D. 37, the jfi in vhich Tibarioi died (Tac 
Aim. tL 4Bi SoeL 7U. 73), wu peihapi a de- 
acmdjint of the Co. Acemniua, vham Genu 
Bwntioiu in hit amion Sot Tulliiu, B. c 7 1 . u B 
tiropHmla. (la, &c.) 

ACERSrCOMES {'A,^m), a nunama 
of Apollo expreoive of hia beaaliful haii which 
waa oeiror col or •horn. (Horn. IL u. 39 ; Find. 
PglL m.iG.l [L.S.] 

ACESANOER fAx^iravSiMj) wrote a YMterj 
of Cjrene. (Schol. ad ApolL it. I£G1, 1750 ; ad 
PimL PylL ii. tikc, £7) Plutanh {^p. T. 3. 
I 8) ipcaka of a work of hi* mpecling Idbj* (npi 
AiWift), which may prahabl; bs the •aow vorli ■« 
thi hiatoi; of CjniH. The time at which be liired 
ia onkDown. 

A'CESAS OAHroi), a native of galamii m 
Cjnna, bmed for bi* ikill in weaving doth with 
WMgaled patlenu (jM^rwloriiH). Haaod biiioii 
HdicvD, who diatJDguisbed himulf in the lame 
■rl an mentioned by Athenacoa. (iL p. 18, b.) 
ZenoNua (peska of both aitiata, bat njr> that 
Acfwi [or, at he alia him Aoeaeiu, 'Ans^i) waa 
• aadve of Patan, and Helicon of Caryatua. He 
teUa aa aUo that they vera the fint who made a 
pepliu for Athena Poliaa. When they lived, we 
an not infoniiBd ; bnt it mint have been before 
the time of Euiipidei and Plato, who mention thii 
pepliu. {Fjir.Hx.ieS:PliiL Enli^ A 
■pecimeu of the workmanahip of theae two artiHU 
waa prvaerred in Ibe temple at Delphi, bearing an 
in«Tipdoo 10 the eficct, tiiat P^hw had imwted 
nandlotii ikill to their handa. [C. P. H.] 

ACIfSIAS ('AiKrlai), an ancient Onek phjn- 
cian, whoae age and conotiy an both unknown- 
It ia aaccrtained however that he lived at leaat 
fbnr bnndRd ytaca befote Chriit, aa the proverb 
'AjMffini Urara, Jeaaia cwrerf im, u qaoted on 
the authority of Ariataphsne*. Thii aaying (by 
which only Actaiaa ia known to tu,) waa ueed 
when any penon'a diuaio bname wane iuttoad of 
better under medical treatment, mod ii mentioned 
by Suidaa (t o. 'Aicniioi), Zenobint (iVonerft. 
Ceat. L i 52), Diogenianna (J-rooeri. ii. 3), Mi- 
chael Apoitoliui (Fruairb. iL 23), and Plutarch 
(l-Totrri. qailmi Altxadr. mi nol, 3 98). See 
aBB Pmxrb. i Cad. BodL g 82, in QaiaToi^'i 
PanamieffraiM Grata, Sro. OiOD. 1)136. It ii 
poaaiUe that an author beariog thii name, and 
BtnttDDod by Athanaeua (liL p.itG, c) ai baiiiig 
written a tnatiae ou the An <d Cooking {Haprv- 
TucJ), may be one and the tame pecton, bntof thit 
•0 have no certain infbinuuion. (J. J. Daier, 
A-I«g. Mrdie. QmL 4Io. Lip*. 1718.) [W. A. 0.] 

ACE-SIUS ('A-i™i), a tumame of Apollo, 
under which he waa wonhipped in Elia, when he 
had a iplendid temple in the agora. Thit vai- 
name, which haa the aame meaning aa dWo-rvp 
and dAtflioJMt, charactenaed the god ai the 
arartarofaTiL (Paut. vi 24. g 5.) [L. S.] 

ACESTES fAoJcmii), a aon of the Sicilian 


^ive^gDd Crinuni* and of a Trojan woman of tlw 
name of EgeMa or Sege*l« (Vifg. Ann. I I9S, iiO, 

v. 3S, 711, Ac), who according to Serviiu waa 
tent by her father Hippocet or Ipiottratua to Sicily, 
that ^e might not he devoured b; the montten, 
which inleited the territory of Troy, and which 
had been aent uito the land, bocsuH the Trojan* 
bad rcfaied to nwaid Poteidon and Apollo for 
having boilt the walla of their city. Whea Egeita 
Brrived in Sicily, the rivei^god CrimiHu in the 
forai of a bear or a dog begot by her a »on Aceates 
who wai afterward* nasrded ai the hero who had 
founded the town of Segeata. (Comp. SchoL ad 
Lya^r. 951, 963.) The tradition of Acetiet in 
Dionyiiua (i. G2), who caitt him A^estu* (Ar)4i- 
Tst), ia diffennt, for according to him the grand- 
&ther of Aegettm qimrrelled with Laomedon, who 
^w him and gate bit daughter* to gome mer- 
ebanta to convey them to a diilant land. A noble 
Trojan however embarked with them, and married 
me of them in Sicily, where ihe lubaequently gave 
birth to a Mm, A^eatot. During the war againil 
Troy A(ge*tu* obtained penniauon from Priam to 
[etnm and take part in the conteat, and afterwania 
ratumed to Sicily, when Aeneaa on hit arriral 
wBi hoi[Hlably nceived by him and Elymai, and 
built lot them the towna of Aegetta and Elyme. 
The account of Dionytiui. aeem* to be nothing but 
a ntionaliatic inteipretalion of the genuine legend. 
At to the incgnii*tenciea in Virgil'* acconnt of 
Aceatea, lee Herne, £iciiri. 1, oa Am. r. [L. S.I 
ACESTODO'RUS ('AMrTMj>.p.i), a Greek 
biitorical writer, who i* dted by Plutanh {Tlum. 
IS), and who*« work contniiwd, ai it appnn, an 
account of the battle of Salamii among other tbingi. 
The time at which he lived it niiknown. Sts- 
phanul (r. e. Ktyd^ti ■w6\a) tpeaka of an Acetto- 
doTui of Meealopolia, who wrote a work on citiea 
(npl loKiar), but whether thi* it the aameai th* 

ACESTUR {•\Ki<,-imf). A tur^e of ApoUo 
which chancteriae* him aa the god of the healing 
art, or b genend aa the averter of evil, like dx^ioi; 
(Eurip. Andnia. 901.) [L. S.] 

ACESTOR ('Aii<<rT>p), mmanied Sam* {ii- 
aot), on account of hi* foieigu origin, waa a tragic 
poet at Athena, and a contemporary of Aritto- 
pbanes. He aeeiu to have been either of Thncian 
or Myeiui origin. (Arittoph. Ava, 31 ; SchoL 
adbm.; Vttpai,,n\S; SchoL wJ/<«; Phot, and 
Suid. I. D. IdjBu : Welcker, Dit GriKi. TTygHd. 
p. 1032.) [R. W,] 

ACESTOR CAW<rr>v), a acnlplor mentioned 

by Pauianiai (vi. IT. S 3) aa having aiecutn) a 

itun of Aleiibiua, a natiie of Heraea in Arcadia, 

lu had guned a victory in the pentathlon at the 

Olympic game*. He waa bora at Cnoaau, or at 

any rata eierciaed hit pnfeuion then lor anme 

time. (Paat. 1. 16. § 4.) He had a ton named 

Amphion, who vra* alio a tcnlptor, and had 

itudied under Ptolicbua of Coreyni {Paut. vi 3. 

j 2) 1 » that Aceatcr mnit have been a contempo- 

niy of the latter, who flouiiihed about OL 82. 

(B. c i&%l [C. P. M-] 

ACESTO'RIDES CAxwropIBnO. ■ Corinthian, 

u made luprema commander by the Syncuaunt 

in B.C. 31 7, and banithed Agnthode* from the city. 

(Diod. lii. B.) 

ACESTOmHES wrote foir hooka of mythical 
oiie* relating to eveiy dty (rtir Kati irdKiii 
auimy). In theie he pv« man; leal biitorical 


account!, u nell ai thne which were merely 
mjthical, bnl he entitled them iivSmi to svoid 
cBloinD; uid U> indicate the ptouant nature af the 
work. It wu coDipiled from Cddod, ApoUodemt, 
Protagnnu and clhere. (Phot. itiU. eod. ISSi 
TieU. ChiLm. 144.} 

ACHAEA CAxal"), a rarroune of Demeter by 
vhich ihe wu worshipped at Athena by the Oe- 
phyineiina who hnd emigrated Ihither Trom Boeotia. 
(Hemd. T. 61 i Pint /.. tt Oiir. p. 378, n.) 

2. A luraome of Miner™ wonhippcd at Ln- 

Uiamedei were pn-eerred in her temple. (ArittoL 
Mirab. Naml. 117.) [L. S.) 

ACHAEUS CAxaiit), according lo nearly all 
tniditiont a ion of Xuthiii and Cretin, and come- 
qnrntly a brother of Ion and grsndton of Hellen 
Tlie Achaeans regnrdtd him a« the aothor of their 
race, and derived from him their own name as well 
at that of Achaia, which wa» fbimerl; called 
ApgiciluB. When hi> uncle Aeolut In Theoaly, 
whence he himaelf had came to PeloponDenis, died, 
he went thither and made himtetF moil-r of 
1'hthiolift, which now alu received Irom him the 
nameof Achua. ( Paan. -rii. 1 . g 2 : Strab. viii. 
p. 383 ; Apollod. L 7. S 3.) Serrins [adAa: i. 242) 
alone calls Achaeui a Eon of Joplter and Pithia, 
which is pmbnbly miswritten for Phlhia. [L. S.] 

ACHAEUS CAxaxf'), Bon of Andromachiu, 
whose lister Laodice married SeleucoB Callinicua, 
the father of Anliochue the Great- Achaeui 
himself married Loodice, (he daughter of Mithri- 
dati'S, king of Ponlua (Polyb. iv. SI. § 4, tiii, 
22. § 1 1.) He accompanied Seieiicua Cerauniia, the 
»on of Callinicua, in hia eipediiion acrois mount 
Taurvt againat Attolut, and after the aaaatsiniitioEi 
of Seleucua revenged his death ; and thongh he 
might eaaily have a.-aumed the roj*al power, he re- 
mained iailhfiil to the family of Scteucna Anti- 
ochua the Great, the lucceasor of Seleucua, ap- 
pointed him to the command of all A^ia on this 
^ide of mount Taunis, B. c 223. Achaeua re- 
covered for the Syrmn empire all the distiicu 
which Attains had gained ; hut having been blaely 
accused by Hcrmcias, the minister of Antiochus, 
of intending to revolt, he did so in self-defence, 
assamed the litl* cf king, and ruled oier the whole 
oF Asia on this side ol the Taunia As long aa 
Antiochus was engaged in the warw:th Ptolemy, 
he could not march against Achaeua ; but after a 
peace had been concluded with Ptolciny, he crossed 
the Taurus, united liii forces with Attains, de- 
prived Achaeus in one compaigit of all his do- 
miiiicmB and look Sardia with the exception of 
the citadel. Achaeus after suataintug a siege of 
two years in the citadel at last fell into the hands 
of Antiochus B. c. 214, through the treachery of 
Bolis, who bad been employed by Sosibiiu, tho 
minister of Ptolemy, to deliver him &cm his 
danger, but betrayed him to Antiochus, who 
ordered him to be put to death immediately. (Polyb. 
iv. 2. g6, i.. 48, T. 40. % 7, 4-2, 57, vii. 15—18, 
liii. 17—23.) 

ACHAEUS ("AxaiiJs) of Erelria in Ei-boea, a 
tragic poet, was bom b. c 404, the year in which 
Aeschylus gained his liral tictory, and fbnr yean 
before the birih of Euripides. In B.C 477, be 
contended with Sophoclci and Euripides, and 
though he sabsequendy brought out many dramas, 
according to tome at many as thirty or forty, he 


IragmcntsofAoIiaeas contain much si 


s only g 


logy, and his expressions were often forced a 
obscure. {Athcn.1. p.4Sl,c.} Still in the tatyncal 
drama he must have posMSted considerable merit, 
for in this department tome ancient critics thought 
him inferior only to Aeschylus. (Diug. Laer. iL 
133.) The tiiirt of seven of his satyrical drama* 
and often of hia tragedies are still known. The 
citaiiL fragments of bis pieces hare been collected, 
and edited by Uriichs, Bonn. 1B34. (Suidas, ». t.) 
This Achneua ahould not be confounded with a 
later tmgic writer of the same name, who was a 
native of Sj'racufle. According to Suidas and 

founi .n tmgediet. {ViVieht, IHJ.) [R. W.J 

ACHAE'MENE3 ('AxaiJnn)- 1. The an- 
ccitor of the Persian kings, who founded tho 
fiunily of the Achaemenidae CAxiiii^i''iiai ), which 
was the noblest bmily of the Pasaigadae, the 
noblest of the Peruan tribes. Achaemenes is said 
to haie been brought up by an eagle. According 
to a genealogy given by Xenct, the following was 
the order of the descent : Achaemenes, Teiepea, 
Cnmbvsei, Cyrus, Teiapes Ariammnes. Atiamcs, 
Hystatpcs, Dariui, Xenes. (Herod. L12S, vii. 11; 
Aelian, //uf. ..4n>n. xil 21.) The original seat of 
thithmilr was Achaemenla in Persis. (Steph.s.t). 
'Axaoittla.) The Roman poeU use the adjective 
Admemeaia m the tense of Persian. (Hor. Carm. 
iii. i.44, xiii. 3; Ot. At. Am. L 226, MAW. 

2. The ton of Doiius 1. was appointed by hit 
brother Xenes governor of Egypt, u. c. 4B4. He 
commanded the Egyptian fleet in the eipedition of 
Xenes againit Greece, and strongly opposed IJm 
prudentadviceof Deraamtus. When Egypt revolted 
under Inarus the Libyan in B, c 460, Achaemenoi 
was sent to subdue it, but was defeated and killed 
in battle by Inarus. (Herod. iiL 12, Tii. 7, 97, 
23fi; Diod. li. 74.) 

son of Adamaetns of Ithaca, and a companion of 
Ulysses who left him behind in Sicily, when he 
fled from the Cyclops. Here he waa fimnd by 
Aeneas who took him with him. (Viig. Aai. iii 
613, &c. ; Ot, Br F«>t. ii. 2. 25.) JL. S.] 

ACH A'ICUS,a aumameof L-MuMUiufl. 

ACHA'ICUS ("Axoliod), a philosopher, who 
wrote a work on Ethics. Hit lime is unknown. 
(Diog, Lacrt, tLBS; Thcodor. Grate. i^tcL car 
<iii. p. 9 1 D, ed. Schulze ; Clem. Alei. SUvm. iv. 
p. 49 G, d.) 

ACHELO'IS. 1. A surname of the Sirens, 
the daughters of Acheloos and a muse. (Ut. 
AM. V. 552, liv. 87 ; Apoliod. i. 7. S 10.) 

2. A general name for watet-nympbs, as in 
ColumelU {t. 263), where the compaitioDi of ilia 
Pegosids are called Acheloides. [L. S.1 

ACHELO'US CAxe^V"'). 'l« P^ "f ^he nver 
Achelous which was the greatest, and according to 
tradition, the most andent among the liven of 
Greece. He with SOW brother-rivers it described 
aa a ton of Oceanus and Thetys (He*. Thsos. 340), 
or of Oceanus and Gaea, or lastly of Helios and 
Gaea. (NalaL Com. vii. 2.) The origin of the 
river Achelous is thus described by Scrvius {ad 
Virg. Geora. L 9; An. viii. 300): When Ache- 
Ions on one occasion had lost hit daoghteit, tfaa 
Sirens, and in his grief invoked his mother Gaaa, 
she received him to her boaom, and on the spot 
where she received him, she caosed the rivet brar- 


!ng hi) name U> gnih forth. Other account! abont 
the origin of (lie river and it* ihudi nre given fay 
Stophnuiu of BTuntinm, Stt^M {i. p. 4G0), vid 
PiDtflicb, (Ik Fliim. 22.) Achelona the god wu 
■ eompetitDr with Henicia in the tuit for 
DetueiiB, uid fought with him for the brida. 
Acbetoai w^ canqnered in the contest, but lu be 
poMCMed the power of nuuming vsrioui fonnt, be 
metiimorphOEed binitelf fint into n aerpent and 


qnered by Heiscles, and deprived of 01 

il. 87), the Naiads changed I 
Herade* tonk fmm Acbetoua into the bom of 
plent;. When Thneua returned home from the 
CaljdoDian chue he mu invited and boapitublj 
RCeiTed by Acheloui, who related W him in what 
manner be had created the rilandt odled Echinadet. 
(Ov. Met Til). 547, &c) The niuneroua wives 
and deacertdanta cf Acheloui are tpoken of in 
■eparata artietes. Stnbo (i. p. 458) propoiea a 
Terr ingenioui interpretation of the legends about 
Acheloui, all of which according to hini erote from 
the natnR of the river itaelf. It resembled a bull'i 

iti reaebea gave riae 10 the atorj about hii fonning 
hinuelf ialo a lerpent and al>out hisliomi; the 
fiinnation of iiUnda at the month of the river re- 
qnirei no eiplanation. His conqunC by Hemcles 
loitty rEfen to the erobankmeDtt by which Heracles 
canRned the river to its bed and Uius gained Ir>;;c 

by the horn of plenty. (Compare Voia, Mylliolog. 
Brie/e, Ixjiii.) Othen derive the legend" about 
Aehelona from Egypt, and describe him a> a second 
Niliu- But however this may be, he waa from 
the euiieat times conudered to be n great divinity 
thnn^onl Greece (Hom. II. ixL 194), and was 
■Dvaked in prayers, ascrilicea, on taking oaths, &c 
(Epbonu op. Macrob. v. IB), and the Dodonean 
Zeui nanally added to each oracle be gave, the 
eommaad to olTi^r sacrifices to Aehelona. (Ephonii, 
L c) This wide eitent of the worship of Acheloua 
bIau acconnta for his being regarded as the repre- 
sentative of aweel water in oenpral, that is, as the 
KHirceofall nouriahment (Viig. Geoip. i. 9, with 
IhenoleotVosa.) The contest of Acheloua with 
Nereeles was represented on the throne of Amycloe 
(Paa& iiL 18. % 9), and in the treasury of tho 
Mesariiuis at Olympia there was a statue of bim 
made by Dontoa of cedar-wood and gold. (Paus. 
vi. 19. g 9.) <>n several coins of Acaraania the 
tod i* represented as a bull with the head of an 
aid man. (Coatp. Philostr. I«iag. n. 4.) [L. S.] 
ACHEMFI'NIDES. [.^chabhiniciu!.] 
AC'KERON (^Axipaiv). In ancient geogrnphv 
there occnr seTpml rivers of thia luune, all of whicK 
were, at least al one lime, believed to be connected 
with the lower worid. The river first looked upon 
h thia light woa the Acheron in Theaprotto. in 
Epirus, a country which appeared to the earliest 
Giwks as the end of the world in the wcit, aiid 
tke lomlity of the river led ihem to the belief that 
It waa the entrance into the lower worid. n'hen 
■Bbaequrntly Epirui and the countries beyond the 
ttn beicame better known, the Acheron or the en- 
tnBcr lo tho lower world was transferred lo other 


man distant parts, and at loal the Acheron waa 
ptsmd in thi lower norld itiieir. Thus we find in 
tlie Homerio poeaia (_0d. X. 513 ; comp. Piua. i. 17, 
S S) the Acheron d«critied as a river of U.dea, into 
iibich the PjriptilBgoion and Cocylus are said to 
How. Virgil (.4eii. vi. 397, with tha note of Sar. 
viua) describe" it is the principa! river of Tortaras, 
rrom which the Styi litd Cocytos sprang. Ac- 
cording to IiUr tradilioDB, Acberoa bid been a son 
of Hellas and Gaea or Denietar, and woa sbanged 
into the Hvsr bearing his name in tba lower worhl, 
bscauM bs hid nlmbed lbs lllans with drink 
during their conHsl with Zeus, They furtber 
■tiCa thai Aseilupbus was a sun of AcheroD and 
Orpbna or Gorgyra. (Natal. Com. iii 1.) In lila 
writers tlia name Acberen is used in a gentral 
sense to denignata the whole of [he lower worid. 
(Vir^. .4en. vii, 313 ; Cic. poit rtdit. w Siaai. lOj 
G. Napoo, Dim, 10.) Tbe Etruscans too Kera 
acquainted with the worship of Acberon (Achanuu) 
from vary eirly timeB, as wa must infer from ihsit 
Ai-beruntici libri, wliiuh among Tariooa other things 
treilrd on tbe ddfioitton of tbe souls, and on the 
sacriHcei (Achtnmtia laera) by which Ibis was to 
be tStcted. (Miiller, ElmUr, ii. S7, &c.) The 
description of tba Achena and the lower world in 
general in Plato's Pliiedo (p. 112) is TSrj peeu- 
lisr, sod not veiy easy lo onderst»i;d. [L. S.] 

ACHERU'SEA ('Axtpoixrla \l,^, or 'Ax<poi^ 
•rli), a name given by the ancients to sereml likes 
or swamps, irhich, like the various riven of the 

er world, until at hut the 
idered to be tn the lower 


: of Achen 
be connected leilA the Io< 
worid itself The lake to which 
haie been first attached was the 
protia, through which the river Acberon flowed. 
(Thue. i. 413 ; Simb. vii. p. 3'24.) Other takes or 
swnmpe of the same name, and believed to be in con- 
nexion with the lower world, were near Henniuiie 
In Argolii (Pans. ii. 35. % 7), near Heraclea in Bi- 
thynia{Xen. ^M*, vi. 2. §2; Died. liv. 31), be- 
tween Cutnae and cape Miaenum in Campania 
(Plin, H. N. m. 6; Strah. v. p. 243), and lastlv 
in Egypt, near Memphis. (Diod. i. 96.) L^" ^I 
ACHILLAS ('AxiUai), one of the guardiana 
of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Dionysus, and 
commander of lite troops, when Pompey fled 
lo Egypt, B. c 40. Ho is called by Caesar a man 
of eiimordinary darin;!, and it was he and L. 
Sepdmiui who killed Pompev. (Cnes. B. C iiL 
104; Liv. Epit. 104; Dion 'Cais. ihi. 4,} Ha 
subeequently joined the eunuch Pothinus in re- 
sisting Caesar, nnd having bad the command of the 
whole anny enlmsled to him by Pothinns, he 
marched agninat Alexandria with '20,000 iboi and 
3000 horse. Caesar, who was at Alejandrin, had 
not sufficient forces to oppose him, and sent am- 
kiuadors to treat with him, but these AchilhiB 
murdered lo remove all hopes of reconciliation. 
He then marched into Aleiandtin and obtnined 
posseaaion of the greateat pert of the city. Mean- 
while, however, Arainoii, the younger aialrr of 
Ptolemy, escaped &omCaeiar and joined Achillas i 
but diasenuoni breaking out between them, she 
had Achillas put to death by Ganymede." a eunugh, 
B. c. 47, to whom ihc then entrusted the command 
oflhefbrees, (Caei. fl. C. iiL 108— HiJ ; B. ^/«'. 
■; Dion Casa. iliL 36 — 40; Lucan n. S19— 
ACHILLES i'AxAAth). In the legends about 

life. (ii. 410,4c.) 
FT, uid took pnrt in the 
LB knew th&t ne wu not 


Achilln, »M kboBt all ihs brroa of the TrD)an war, 
the Homeiic tndi^oiu (hould ba onfuUy kept 
kpart Innn the Tanoiit additioni and emballiab- 
nUDU with which the gape d[ thi ancient atoiy 
have been filled op b; bter poet* and m^ogia- 
phen, not indeed b; fiibricBtiani of their own, bat 
bj adopting thoie wpplemeatary delaiU, bj which 
oral liadilion in the coarw of centoriei had tb- 
rioudj altered and deieloped die original kemrl 
•f the (toty, or thoie account! which were peculiar 
ddI; to certain lootlitiei. 

Homeric (tor}. Achilte* wu the un of Peleiu, 
king of the MtiTmidonet in Phthiotii, in Thmaly, 
and of the Nereid Thetia. (Horn. IL xx. 206, Ac) 
From bii father'i name ha i> oClen tailed IIi|A(I>qt, 
n>|Ai|i<iBni, or nqAiUff {Horn. /^ lyiii. 316; L 
1 ; L 197; Virg. Aai. ii. 263). and from that of 
hie grandfather Aeacni, he derired hit name Aea- 
ddea (AIuUi)t, IL iL 860 ; Viig. Aen. L 99). 
He WM edocBted from hii tender childhood bj 
Phoenii, who taught him eloquence and the orta 
of war, and accompanied him to the Trojan war, 
and to whom the hero alwap ihewed grenl at- 
tachment, (ii:. 4B5, &c.i 438, Ac) In the heal- 
ing art he wu instracted bv Cheiron, the centaor. 
(li. 632.) Uii mother Thetli foretold him that 
ail bte wu either to gain glorr and die earlv. or 
to liie a long but inglorioni lil 
The hero choae the latter, 
Trojan war, flam which he 

to retun. In fifty ihipa, or accoming to iat«r 
traditioni, in aiily (Hjgin. Fab. 97), be led hit 
hott* of Mjimidonet, Hellene*, and Achaeani 
againtt Tmj. fii. 681, &c., iri. 16B.) Her* the 
■wilVfoDted Achille* wu the gnat bulwark of the 
Greek*, and the worthy faiourite of Athena and 
Hem. (i. 195, 208.) FreTiont to hit di>pat« with 
Agamemnon, he lUTaged the country around Troy, 
and deatroyed twelre town* on the coa*t and ele- 
*en in the interior of the country, (in. 828, Sit.) 
When Agamemnon wu obliged to giie up Chry- 
iei> to her &ther, he threatened to take away 
BriteVi &Dm Achillea, who iumndeTod her on the 
pennation of Athena, but at the tame time refuted 
to lake RDT further part in the war, and ihut him- 
telf up in hit lent. Zeut, on the enlrealT of The- 
tia, proniited that Ticlory tbould be on the ride of 
the Trojan*, until the Acbaeani thould ha** ho- 
noured her ton. (L 26, to the end.) The afbin of 
the Oreeki declined in eoneequence, and thny wen 
■t Utt preeted lO hard, that Agamemnon adviied 
them to take to flight, (ii. 17,&c) Bot other 
chief* oppoied thi* coun*e1, and an emba**y wu 
aent to Achillet, offering him rich preaent* and the 
featonlion of Briae'ii (ii. 119,&c)i bat in lain. 
At la*t, howerer, he wa* penoaded fiy Patroclu*, 
hi* deareat friend, to allow him to make ute of hit 
men. hi* honet, and hi* aimonr. (iri. 49, &c) 
Fatrodui wu alain, and when thi* new* reached 
Achillea, he wa* aeind with tiliEpeakable grie£ 
Tbeti* con*oIed him, and promiaed new aimt, 
which were to be made by Hephaeatn*, and Iri* 
appeared to route him from hi* lamentation*, nod 
uborted him to reicue the body of Patroclu*. 
(iTiiL 166, ftc) Achillet now rote, and hit 
thundering Toice alone put the Trojani to flight. 
When bit new annour wa* brought to lum, 
be reconciled himtelf to Agamemnon, and hui~ 
ried to the 6eld of battle, ditdaining to take 
any drink or food nntil the death of hi* friend 
thould be arenged. (lii. 165, &c.) He wound- 

ed and tlew nnmbert of Trojan* (ix. x: 


at length met Hector, whom h 
■round the walla of the dly. He then ilew him, 
tied hi* body to hit chaiiot, and dragged bim 
to the ahipi of the Greek*, (uii.) After Ihii, he 
burnt the body of Patrocln*, together with twelve 
young captiTB Trojant, who were eacrificed to ap- 
peate the ipirit of hi* friend ; uid inbteqaentlj 
gate up the body of Hector to Priam, who canu- 
in penon to bt^ for it. (uiii. iii*.) Achillea 
himaelf fell in the battle at the Scoean gate, before 
Troy wu taken. Hit death itielf doe* not occur 
in the Iliad, bnt it i* alluded to in a few pa**ageL 
(iiiL 358, &C, uL 27S, &c.) It it eipreeily 
mentioned in the Odyeiey (xiir. 36, Ac), where 
it it taid that hit lall— hi* conqueror i* not men- 
tioned— wu lamented by godt and men, that hia 
nmaint together with Ihoie of Patroclu* were bo- 
ried in * golden um which Dionyan* had given a* 
a preaent to Tbeti*, and were deporited in a place 
on the coati of the Helleipont, where a mound 
wu railed over them. AchillM i* the principal 
hero of the Iliad, and the pnet dwell* upon the 

I of hi* 

with loTi 


tiun, feeling* in 
pathite with him. Achillea it the handiomeit 
and braTctt of all the Qreek* ; he it *ifectianala 
toward* hit mother and hit friend*, formidable in 
btttle*, which ore hi* delight; open-hearted and 
without tear, and at the tame time tutceptible to 
the gentle and quiet joyi of home. Hit gmteet 
paMion ig ambition, and when hit lente of honour ia 
hnrt, he it unrelenting in hit revenge and anger, but 
withal tubmit* obediently to the will of the god*. 
Later tradOkm. Theta chieSy conuat in ao- 
counli which fill up the bialory of hit youth and 
deatL Hia mother wiahing to make her ton im- 
mortal, it taid to haie concealed him by night in 
fire, in order to deatroy the mortal part* be had 
inherited from hit father, and by day ahe anointed 
him with ambmaia. But Peleu* one night dieco- 
fered hit child in the lire, and cried out in terror. 
Thetia left her eon and fled, and Peleui entruated 
him to Cheiron, who educated and inatrncied him 
in the arta of riding, hunting, and playing the 
phormini, and al*o changed hit original name, 
Ligyron,Le. the ~ whining," into Achillea. (Pind. 
Net*, iii. fil, &C.; Orph. Argon. 395 ; ApoUon. 
Rhod. ir. 813 ; Stat. AiM. L 269, «& ; ApoUod. 
iii. 13. § 6, &c) Cheiron fed hit pupil with the 
heart* of lion* and the marrow of bean. Accord- 
ing to other account*, Thetia endeavoured to make 
Achille* immortal by dipping him in tbe rixer 
Styx, and aucceeded with the exception of the an- 
klet, by which ahe held him {Fulgent. Mstiet. iii. 
7 ; StaL AiiLilL L 269), while othen again atats 
that ahe pot him in boiling water to te«t bin im. 
mortality, and that be wu found immortal except 
at the ankle*. From hia aixth year be fought with 
lion* and bear*, and caught ataga without doga or 
net*. Tbe ronie Calliope gave him the power of 
ainging to cheer hi* &iendt at banqueta. (Philottr. 
Her. lii. Z.) When he had reached the age of 
nine, Calchai declared that Troy could not be 
taken without hit aid, and Thetit knowing that 
thi* war would be fatal to him, di^uieed him u a 
maiden, and introduced bim among the daughter* 
of Lycomedei of Scyrot, where he wu tailed by 
the name of Pyrrha on account of hit golden iodtt. 
But hi* r«l chaiBcter did not remam concealed 
hng, (or one of hi* companion*, Deidameia, becama 

SDtber of a aon, PTrriiog oi NeoptalemiUi bj bim. 
The Oneki al Un diwuvcred hji fiaca of conosl- 
Bcnt, and u nnbauy VM lent (o LjcomedBi, 
who, thangb hs denied the preHnce of Achillea, 
jrel >ili>«ed the mewengen to leaick his palace. 
Odineui diKOTeiad the joung hero bj a Mrata- 
gem, Bod Achillea immediatel; promised hia auitt- 
■Dce to the (rre«kL (ApoUod. f. s. ,- Hygin. Fii. 
B6 I Stat. AeUL ii. 200.) A diHeient account of 
his star in Scfroi is gireu bj Plutarch {Tint. 35) 
and Philostratus. (Hw. xix. 3.) 

■" "■ conduct lowards Iphigeneia at 


ACHILLES ('AxiUtJi), a son of LfKin of 

Atheiu, wbo was beUefed lo bsTS Gnl iDtroduced 

' is native dty the mode of sending penoos 

iiilebj ostracism. (PwIcsd. MepLvi. p. 333.) 

Seversl euer and mora crsdibis acconnls, ho*' 

er, aacribe this iaatitation with more proliabilitj 

other per«ns. [L. S.] 

ACHILLES TATIUS CAxiAAflli Tirio.), or 

" ■ ' ■ " 'oris call him Achilles Statiua. 

r, IPHio 

Daring the war a^nat Tro;, Achilles slew 
PentliBSileia, an Amazon, but was deepl; moTed 
when be diacorered her beauty ; and when Ther~ 
■tee ridiculed him for his tendeneas of hrart, 
Aohilles killed the ico^r by ■ blow vith the fiat. 
(Q. Smym. i. 669, fte. ; Pans. T. 1 1. S '^ i camp. 
Bofk. PkHoetUS; LyCDph. Cat. 999; Tieties, 
^aitiDin.199.) He ako fouglit viih Memnon and 
Tnilua. (Q.Smym. iL *BO,*c.; Hygin. J^. Hi; 
Vii^ Aa. i. i7i, *c) The amunU of his death 
difier Tery mnch, though all agree in stating that 
he did not &U by human hands, or at least not 
■rithout the interference of tbe god Apollo. Ao- 
ocmling to some Unditions, he was killed by ApoUo 
himself (Soph. PUlod. 331 ; Q. Smym. liL 6'2 ; 
Uor. Ginii. IT. 6. 3, &e.}, as be bad been fore- 
told. (Horn. IL xxi. 278.) According to Hyginua 
(Pai. 107), Apollo assumed the appearance oT 
Paris in kil^ng bim, while others saj that Apolli 
merely directed the weapon of Paris against Achil- 
k*, and chua <ansed hia death, as had been snff- 
geated by the dying Hector. (Virg. Am. ji, 67j 
Ov. Jlfef. lii. 601, tc ; Hom. R ixiL 868, 4i ' 
I&^ Cretensis (ilL 29) relates his death thu 
Achilles loTed Polyiena, a daughter of Priam, aj 
tempted bj the promise that he should receive b 
as his wife, if he would join the Tmians, he we 
witbont arms into (he temple of Apiillo at Thyi 
bra, and waa asiatsinated there by Paria. (Camp. 
PhBoslT. ^Ter. jii. 11; ll^gia. Fa6. 107 and UO 
DanaPhryg. 34; Q. Smym. iii.60; TieU. ac 
Lfcaplir. 307.) Hi* body was reacued by Odya- 
ams and Ajax the Telamaniao; hia armour w 
promised by TheUs to (he brarest among tl 
llreeks, which gave rise to a contest between tl 
two heioea who had lesened his body. [A;ax.] 

AftB- his death, Achillea became one of i, 
ndgea in the lower world, and dwelled in the : 
knds of the blessed, where he was united with 
Medeia or Iphigeneia. The fabuloos island of Leuce 
Id the Eunne waa especially sacred to him, and 
was called Achillea, becaase, accordmg to acme re- 
ports, il eontaiaed hia body. (Mela, ii. 7; SchoL 
aJrt-f.A'™.. It. *9jPaoa.iiL 19.111.) Achilles 
was worshipped as one of the national heroes of 
Oleece. The Thesasliana, at the command of thi 
oracle of Dodona, cfleied annual sacrifices to bin: 
b Traas. (Pbilcstr. Ner. lii. 14.) In the ancient 
gymnasiiun at Olympia there was a cenotapb, at 
wbkh certain aolemnilies were performed before 
the Olympic games commenced. (Paul, ii, 2r 
I 2.) Saactoariea of Achillea existed on tb 
load from Arcadia to Sparta (Paoa. iii. 20. g B), o 
(ape SigFOminTmsCStrab. ii.p.4g4).andothi 
place*. The erents of his life were fr«inent1y n 
preatDtad in ancient works of art. ( Bottiger, Va- 
•i^l»)siiUe,iii. p.l44,&c.;Haae>mi (TlemenLL &2, 
t.l7iViUaB«iB.i.9;Mui.NiF.aG9.) [L.&] 


rhich ii 

re lired m th 
. But OS il 

IS fori 


tmitaled Hcliodon 
after this writer, and therefore belongs either lo 
the Rfth or the beginning of llie 
sixth eentuiT of our aers. Snidas atatsa that be 
was originally a Pagan, and that eulneqnently he 
was conrerted to Chriatisnity. The tmtii of this 
aaaertJOD, aa br aa Achilla Tatina, the an(horof 
the romance, is concerned, is not supported by tha 
work of Achillea, which bean no marks of Chri^ 
tion thoughts, while it would not be difficult to 
prore from it that he was a heathen. This 
lomanea is a history of the adranturea of 
two lOTeis, Cleitophon and Lenrippa. It bears tha 
title Til Kori AsurdnniF ical tUiEro^rra, and 
onndsts of eight books. Notwithstanding all it* 
defect*, il ia one of the best loTe-stories of the 
Greeka. Cleitophon is rqir es ented in it relating to 
a friend the whole couraa of the events from bfr 
ginning to end, a plan which lenders the story 
rather tedioua, and makes the narrator appear 
affected and insipid. Achilles, like his predecessor 
Heliodoms, disdained having recDursa lo what is 
mairellous and improbable in itself, but the accu- 
mulation of adventures and of physical a* well a* 
moral diliicullles, which the loven have to ove> 
come, before they are happily united, is too great 
and lenders the story improbable, ibough their ar- 
rangement and aucceaaoQ are ikilfnlly managed by 
the antbur. Nuraeroua porta of the work however 
are written withou( taate and judgment, and do 
not appear connected with the atoij by any inter- 
nal neceasity. Besides these, the work has a 
great many digressions, which, although interests 
ing in themselves and containing curious infor- 
mation, interrupt and impede the progress of tha 
narrative. The work is full of imitaaons of other 
writers Irom the time of Plato to that of Achilles 
himself and white he thus trust* to his books and 
bis learning, he appears ignorant of homan nature 
and the affiiira of real life. The laws ot dcooDcy 
and morality are not always paid due regard to, a 
defect which ia even noticed by PboUus. Tha 
style of the work, on which the author aoema to 
have bestowed bis principal core, is Ihoraughly 
rhetorical: then is a perpetual striving after ele- 
gance and beauty, after images, puns, and anti- 
these*. These things, however, were just what 
the age of Achilles required, and that his novel 
was much read, is attested by the number of 
MSS. stiU eilanL 

A part of it wa* first printed in a Latin tiana- 
lalion by Anoital della CroM (Crucejus), Ley- 
den, 1544 ; a complete tranihition appeared at 
Basel in l&&i. Tbe fint edition of the Greek 
originsl appeared at Heidelberg, 1601, Svo., print- 
ed together with similar work* of Longus and 
Partheniuoi An editian, with a volaaiinous though 
lallier canlew cMmnsntaiy, was published by Sal- 


iMUiii,LcydeD,1610,8io. Tbebnt and mail n>- ' 
cent cditioD i> b; ^. Jacobi, Leipiig, 1B21, in 
2 Tolf. 8m The em Tolume cSTiluni the prole- 
gomeruL, the text and the lAtin tranilatiim by 
Gmcejiu, wad the eBcoiid the rammentai^. There 
ii ■□ En^iah tianilation of the wdHi, b; A. H. 
(AnthoDj Hodgo), Oifoid, 1698, Sto. 

Suidai ucribei to thii lune Achillea Tatlui, a 
voA on the ipbere (vt|>l ^latfas), a fragment of 
which profeaaing to be an inlroduction to the 
PhMnomena of Antns (Eiaayayi) lii rd 'AfArov 
oaiW^MHi) ia (till ext«nb But at thia work ia 
nfened (o by Finnkoa (^taiitt. W. 10), 'vbo 
lived earlier than the time we hare auigned to 
Achillea, the uitboi of the work en the Sphera 
mmt hare liied before the time of the writer of 
the romance. The woric iteplf it of no panioilar 
Tlklne. It JA printed in PelaTiiUh UruMoiogia, 
Pari*, 1630, and Anuterdam, 1703, fol. Snidoi 
alw mentiona a work of Achillea Tatiai on Ety- 
nolc^, and another entitled Miacellaneoni llii- 
toriee ; u both are loit, it it impoBBible to deter- 
mine which Achillea wni their author. [L. S.] 

ACHILLEUS tuumed the title of empenr 
under Diodetiui nnd raigned oiar Egypt for aome 
lin)& He WBi at length taken bj Diocletian after 
■ uegs of eight monthB in Alexandria, and put 
lo death, A.n.296. (Eolrop. ix. ]4, 15; AureL 
VicL de Cbel. 39.) 

AClirLLlDES, a patronymic, formed from 
Achillea, and given to hia aon Pyrrhiis. (Ot. 
Havid. Tiii. 3.) (L S,] 

ACHlTtOE CAxifih}. or according to Apollo- 

doruifii. 1. §*) Anchinoe, which ia perhaps a mit- 

>r Anchiroe, woe a daughter of Nilt 

e been 

.inly a Chri 

ian. {..2 
r rather (if 

miptere, nr 

wife of a 


of Aegyptua and Danaiia. According to the acho- 
liaal on Ljcopbron (flB3 and UBl), Area begot 
by her a aon, Sithon, and according to H^eaippua 
(i^. Stfph. Bgi. t. V. UaXK-ini), dao two daugh- 
len, Pallenaea and RhKtea, from whom two 
tovni denied their namea. [L. S.) 

ACHLYS i'Ax>^il)' «>»rding to aome ancient 
coeniDganiea, the eternal night, and the iirtt 
created being which eiiited even beline Cliaoa. 
According lo Hpaiod, ilie wa> the personification 
of misery and aadneu, and as auch she n-na repre- 
•ented on the shield of Heracles (Scat. /fere. 364, 
&e.): pale, emaciated, and weeping, with chattel^ 
ing teeth, twellen knees, long naila on her hiigere, 
bloody cheeka, and her ihonldera thickly covered 
wiihduM. [I.. S.) 

ACHMET, aon of Seirim fAxf^Jr uUi ^i/nlii). 
the author of a work on the Interpretation of 
Dreima, "OK.poKpmifd, ia probably the same per- 
son ae Abli Bekr Mohammed Den Sirin, whose 
work on the same aiibject is still extant in Arabic 
in the Royal Libior}- at Pari^ (Odd/. Cod. Ma- 
RUKT, BibliaOi. R:g. I'arit. vol. L p. S30. cod. 
Nccx.,) and who was bom a. h. 3.1, (a. d. 653-4,) 
and died A. B. 110. (i. n. 728-9.) (See Nicoll and 
Pnsey, Cbtal. CM. ManuKT. Arai. BifJiolK Bodl. 
p. 516.) Thi« eonjecmre will aeem the more pro- 
bable when it is recollected that the two namea 
Akmed or AfAni^ and Moiaiaviedj however unlike 
each other they may appear in English, conaiat in 
AubIhc of four letters mch, and differ only in the 
linL There miut, however, be aome difierenu 
between Achmet'i work, in the form in which we 
lince it, and that of Ibn SirIn, as (he writer of the 
former (or the trsnihiuir) aj^Kara froiu iulemnl evi- | 

150, &c) It exists 
he above cnnjectore as to i 
t has only been pobli^hed 
vntiatl nf three huiiilrcd a: 
^mfesBca to be derived trnm what has been i 
un the snine inbjert by the Indiana, Peroiaiis, and 
F|[>pluin«. It wna translated out of Greek into 
Lnltn abmit the year 1160, by Leo TuKua, of 
which work two specimens are to be found in 
Caip. Bonhii Aditrmiria. (cxiL U, ed. Franco! 
1634, foil) It waa lirat puhlithed at Frankfurt, 
1577, 8ro., in a Latin iranolation, made by Leun- 
daviua, from a very irapprfect Greek manuscript, 
with the title " Apomasnris Apotelesmato, aive 
de Signihcatis et Eventis Insomnioniol, ex Indo. 
rum, Peraamm, Aegyptioniraque Discipliua." The 
woid ApfunoMara is a corruption of the name of 
the bmons Albnmoinr, or Abu Ma*tluir, and Leuii- 
claviua atlerwarda oclinowledged hit mistake in 
attributing the work to him. It wai published in 
Greek and Latin by ICigoltiua, and appended to 
hia edition of the Oneinxritka of AJlemidorui, 
Lutet. Paris. 1603, 4to., and aome Greek vnriou* 
leadings ore inserted by Jac. De Khoer in hia 
Otiam I>imtrinat, p. 338, Ac. Daventr. 1762, 
6t3. It has also been transtoled into Ilaliaii, 
French, and German, [W. A. G.] 

ACHO-LIUS held the oKa>. >,f Ala.jUler Ad- 
miaionHm m the reign of Valerian, (b. c 353 — 
260.) One of his works waa entitled Acta, and 
eonuuncd an account of the history of AurelUin. 
It wna in nine books at least. (Vopisc Aurel. 13,) 
He also wrote the life of Alexander Severus. 
(Lamprid. -4iw. Sre. 14. 48. 68.) 

ACHOLOE. [HittPviAR.] 

ACICHO'RIUS {•AK.x'h"") was one of the . 
leaders of the Gauli, who innided Thmce and 
Macedonia in B. c. 380. He and Brennut com- 
manded the divieion (hat marched into I'aeonia. 
In the following year, B. c. S79, he accompanied 
Brennuiin hia inva«on of Greece. (P»u..x.l9. 
g4..%22.8 5,23.§l,*c) Somewritersaoppose 
that Drcnnns and Acichorins are the aanie persona, 
the former being only a title and the lattrr the 
real name. (Schmidt, ** De fontibue vetcnim aiic- 
tnrum in ennrrandis expeditionibut a Oallia in 
Maredoniom susceplis." Berol. 1834.) 

ACIDA'LIA. a sumaoie of Venus (Virft. Am. 

730), . 


Orchomenos, in which 
Venug used to bathe with the Graces ; others con- 
nect the name with the Oieek iniSis, L a. cares or 
troublea. [L. S.] 

ACIDI'NUS, a family-name of the Manila 
gens. Cicero apeaka of the Acidini as among the 
first men of a former age. (Dehj. oar. ii. 21.) 

1. L. Manlii.>» AciiiiNus, praetor nrbauus in 
B. c. 310, waa sent bv the aenate into Sidir to 
bring back the consul' Valerius to Rome to hold 
the electiona. (Liv. xivi. 23, xivii. 4.) In R.r. 
207 he was with the inwpB tlatinned at Namin lo 
oppflae llaadrubol, and waa the lint to send to 
Rome intelligence of the defeat of (be hitter. (Liv. 
xxvii. SO.) In B. c. 206 he and L. CvnieliLis 
Lentnlu* had the province of SpMn entnieled tn 
them with procon'olar power. In the following 
year he conquered die Aosetani and llergetea, 
who had rebelled agninst the Romans in con«*- 
of the absence of Scipio. He did nil re- 
Rome till B. c 199, but was prevented by 

tb« tribune P. Porciiu Lua from entering the 

dtr in an ovation* which the icnate had gnuited 

kirn. (LiT. iiriii. 38. uLi. 1—3. 13, niii. 7.) 

2, L. iStKLIVt AolDlMUS FULVIAKtTS, origin- 

*11y belonged to the Fnlvia gens, but wu adopted 
hilc the Huntia gens, probably by the abore-nien- 

QtsrioT allotted to him, where ho reniBlned 
•. c 1 86. In the latter year ha defeated the 
Celtiberi, and had it not been for the arriial of his 
racce«tar wenld hare rednca] the whole people to 
■ibjecdon. He applied for a triumph in conse- 
quence, but obtain^ onl; an ovation. (LiT.iuviiL 
35, mil. 31, 39.) In B. c. 163 ha wu one of 
the ■mbaaadon icDt into OalUa Tninaiiipina, and 
ma bIbo appointed one of the IriuinTin for found- 
ing the l^tin colony of Aquileia, which was how- 
•rer not foUDded till B.C. 181. (Lir. luii. 64, 
S5, iL 31.) He wat contnl B. c 179. (Liv. iL 
43.) with hii own brother, Q. Fulviua Flaccu*, 
which ii the only initaoce of two brothen hold- 
ing the consalnhip at (be nme lime. {Frat. 
C^piuJ.; VelL Pat. iL 8.) At Ihs election of 
Aeidiima, M. Scipio declared him to be nu-iu 
lojuiH, tgngiam^ae emm. (Cic. de Or. ii. 64.) 

3. L. M^NLioa (AciDiNus), who wa« qnaesto 
inac 168 (LiT. ilr. 13), is probablj one of tbe 
two Maolii Acidim, who are mentioned two yeara 
before at illuslriooi roatha, and of whom one wat 
the HID of M. Manlioi, the other of L. Manlioi. 
(IJT. ilii. 49.) The latter ia probably the aame 
u the qnaeatur, and the aon of No. 2. 

4. AciDiNca, a jonng man who w 
pnnae hia atudiei at Alheni at the > 
yoiingCieen>,B.c4J. (Cicod Jtf. ili. 32.) He 
ia periiapa the aame Acidinua who aenl intelUgend 
to Cicero reipecting the death of Hnrcellua. (Cic 
■K^ Foot. iT. 12.) 

ACI'LIA 0EN3. The Gunily-nnme* of thii 
gena an Aviola. Balbuh, and Olabrio, of whict 
the lait two were andoDbledly plebeian, aa mem 
ben of theaa bfniliea wen frequentty tribonet o 

ACILIA'NUS, MINU'CIUS, a friend of Plin. 
the joDngFT, wat bom at Brixia (Brescia), and 
waa the Mm of Hinucjua Macrinot, wbo was en- 
rolled by Veapaaian among ihoae of piuelorinn 
rank. Acilianua waa tucceuivfly qnacator, 
bane, and piaetor, tod at bia death left I'liny }«rt 
of hia property. (Plin. ^. i. 14, ii. Ilj.) 

'AuMoFot), a Oieek Monk, a. o. 1341, di&lin- 
foimhed in the controTeray with the Heaychaai or 
Quietiat Monka of Mount Athoe. He euppiirted 
and tucceeded Barlaam in hia oppoaitinn lo theii 
notion that the light which appeared on the Mount 
of the TranatignrBtion waa utcmUcd. The em- 
peifir, John Cantacuicnua. took part (a. d. 1347) 
with Palamaa, the leader of the Quietiaks and ob- 
tained the condemnation of Ai.indynua by aeveral 
conncilB at Conatantincple, at one eapecially in 
A. D. 1351. Remaina of Acindyni 
EuLm lia ft OprriMtifme Du adctrstia mtperitiam 
Onfforii Palamae, j^c. in " Variorum Pontiiicum 
■d PeUom Goapheom EutychiBDum Epiatid." p,77, 
Gletaer. 4to. Ingotat. 1616, and Coram Iambi- 
turn de HaeraUm Palamaa, " Oiacclae Orlho- 
doiae Scriptoreis'' by Leo. AllaUni,p. 755, toL i. 
4ta. Rom. 1652. (A. J. C] 

ACIS ('Axil), according to Ovid (Mtl. liii. 

AC0NTHJ3. 13 

750, &c.) a aon of Faunui and Symnelhia. He 
waa beloTed by Uie nymph Oalalea, and Polyphe- 
mua the Cyclop, jealoua of him, cruahed liim under 
B huge rock. Hie Uood guihing Ibrth from under 
the rock was changed hy the nymph into the 
riret Aci* or Aciniua at ue fool of mount Aetna. 
This atory doea not occur any wbere elae, and is 
perhaps no more than a happy fiction auggealed by 
the manner in which the little rirer apringi fortii 
Irom under a TKk. [L S.] 

ACME'NES CAKM'ts), a enmeme of nrtain 
□pnpba narsbippcd at Elii, where a sacred enclo- 
Bare contained their altar, together with those d< 
otbergeds. (Paua. v. 15. g 4.) (L. S.) 

ACMO'NIDES, one of the thiee Cyclopes (Ot. 
FaaL It. 288), ia the aame aa Pyraemon in Virgil 
(Aen. »iii. 425), and aa Argea in moit other a*- 
counta of the Cyclopea. [L. S.J 

ACOETES ('AKoJTUt), according to Ovid(jW*<. 



red as pilot in a ahip. After 
landing at the ialand of Naxos. some of the Bailors 
brought with them on board a beautiful sleeping 
boy. whom they had found in the island and whom 
they wished to lake with them ; but Acoeiei, nho 
recognised in the boy the god Bacchus, dissuaded 
them from it, but in Toin, When the ship had 
reached the open sen, the boy awoke, and dcsirrd 
to be carried back to Naios. The aaitora promised 
to do BO, but did not keep tlieir word. Hereupon 
the god ahowed himself lo them in hia own mnjcaty; 
vines began to Iwiiie round the veesel, tigers ap- 
peared, and the sailors, seiied with madness, jump- 
ed into the sea and perished. Acoctes alone was 
saved and conveyed back to Naioa, where he was 
initiated in the Bacchic tnysteriea and hecnrae a 
priest of the god. tlyginus (i^. 134), wboaa 
story on tbe whole agrees with that of Ovid, and 
all the other writers who mention this advenluro 
of Bacchus, call tbe crew of the ship Tyrrhenian 
piralca, and derive the name of the Tyrrhenian sea 
from them. (Comp. ilora. Hyntu. ia Aiooi .' Apul- 
lod. iii. 5. § 3; Seneca, Otd. 449.) 


'AKOFTiat), a son of Lycoon, &om whom the town 
of Acoiitinm in Arcadia derived its name. (Apot- 
lod. iii 8. |liSteph.Byi.».e."Ait*mor) (I- S.} 

ACCNTIUS CAirii^iei), a beaoUful youth of 
the island of Ceoa. On one occaaton he came lo 
Delos to celebrate tbe annual festival of Diana, 
and fell in lave with Cydippe, the daughter of a 
noble Athenian. When he uw her siltbg in the 
temple attending to the sacrihce she was olfering, 
he threw before her an apple upon which he had 
written the words "I swear hy the sanctuary ol 
Diana lo many Acontiua." The nurae took up 
the apple and handed il to Cydippe, who read 
alond what waa written upon it, and then threw 
the apple away. But the goddeaa had heard her 
TOW, as Acontiiu had wished. After the festival 
waa orer, he went home, distracted by his love, 
but he waited for the result of what had happened 
and took no further etepa. After aome time, when 
Cydippo's fcthet waa about to give her in marriage 

r man, she i 

> ill ji 

[ before the 

nuptial aolemnitiea were to begin, and this accident 
waa repeated three timet. Acontiua, informed of 
the occurrence, hastened to Athenk and the Del- 
phic oracle, which n-aa consulted hy the maideira 
father, declared that Diana by the repeated ilhiesa 


meanE to poniih Cydippe for her peijnrr. The 
maiden then aipluned the whole aStii U> her mo- 
tlier, and the hthei wu Bt last induced to gire hi* 
daughler to Acontiu. Thii Mory u raUted by 
Ovid {Hmid. -JO, '21 ; comp. TruL ill 10. 73) 
and Amlacaelna [£^. x. 10), and iialMaUuded 
to in Mvcni bagmenU of ancient poeu, eneciall; 
of Callinaachua, who wrote a poeoi wiih the title 
CjnJippe. The uune itorj with ume inadificalioiu 
i* rclnled b; Antoninui Libenlii {Mitam. 1 ) of an 
Athenian HBTinocratet and CteijIlL (Comp. Cti- 
■ILI.Aand ButtniBiiii,^}Uii%.iLp.lI5.) [L.S.] 

A'COHIS ('Aitopii), king of Kgypt, entered in- 
to alliance wiui Evagoma, king of Cyprut, agauKt 
their connioQ cnemj Aiiaienei, king of Peru*, 
about B. c. 33S, and oaiLiled ETogonit with thipt 
■nd money. On the conduidon of the war witt 
F.TBgorB^ B. c. 376, the Penions directed thei 
force* ogaioal Eifypt. Acorit collected a luge 
arniy to oppose them, and engaged many Greek 
meieenariei, of whom he appoinled Chabriai gene- 
irL Chnbriiu, howeier, wai recalled by the Athe- 
niona on the complaint of Phamabeiua, who 
upointed by Anaierie* U coDdiKt the i 
When the Penian oStay entend F-iypl, wl 
waa not till B.C. 373, Acoria waa alrmdy dead. 
(Diod. II. 2-4, 8, 0, 29, 41, 42; TheopoDLap. 
PioL cod. 176.) SjnceUua (p. 76, a. p. 257, a ' 
auigne thirteen yean to hi* reign. 

ACHAEA {•Axpaia). 1. A daughter of tl 
rivei^aod Aiterion near Mycenae, who logethi 
with her >t>ten Euboea and Proiymna acted aa 
Dune* to Hen. A hill Aciaea oppoiite the temple 
of Hera noar Mycenae detired it* uune from her. 
(Pan.. iL. 17. g -l) 

2. Acraea and Actaeoi are a]*o attribute* giTcn 
to variou* goddeaie* and god* whoie temple* were 
Htualed upon hilla, inch a* Zeui, Hera, Aphrodite, 
Pallai, Artfmis and other*. (Paul. L 1. g 3, ii. 24. 
S 1( Apollod. i. 9. §28; VjtruT. i. 7 i Spaaheim, 
ad Ctiilim. Hym u Jot. 82.) [1. S.] 

ACHAEPHEUS CAir/aupuJi), a wn of Apollo, 
to wbom the foundation of the Boeutian town of 
Acmcpbia wai aicribed. Apollo, who wai wo> 
ihipped in that place, deriied from it the lunuune 
of Acnephiuior Aciaepbiaeii*. (Steph. Bvi.i-v. 
'Axpiupia.; PauL ii. 23. § 3, 40 g 2.) LI-- SO 

ACRAOAS ('AiqHfyat), a son of Zeu* and the 
Oceanid Ailerope, to whom the foundation of 
the lawn of Acmgaa (Agtigentum) in Sicily wai 
aacribed. (Sieph. Bja. iti.^A«pii-)«Tfi.) [L. S.J 

ACRAQA^ an engracer, or chater in lilver, 
•poken of by PUny. (uiiii. 12. % £5.) It ii not 
known eitbM' when or where he wu bom. Pliny 
Bay* that Aciagaa, Boetbui and My* were coo- 
udend but lilUe inferior to Mentor, an artial of 
great note in the gadie pni&MiaD ; and that work* 
of all three were in existence in hi* day, preierved 
in difierent temple* in the island of Rhodea 
Th»e of Acraga*, who waa eapecially famed for 

were in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodei, and con- 
•i*ted of cups with ligiire* of Bacchae and Cenlauti 
graved on Uiem. II iJie langu^e of Piiny juitihei 
ua in iiifeiriug that the three artist* whom he 
clusce together lived at the *ame time, that would 
fix the age of Aciagaa in the latter part of the fifth 
century b. c, a* My* wa» a conlempotary of 
Phidiai. fC. P.M.I 

ACRATO'PHORUS ('Axparofxlpoi), a sur- 
name of Dioiiyius, by which he wu dedgnated a* 


the girer of unmixed wine, and wonhipped at 
Phigaleia in Anadia. (Pau*. TiiL 39. g 4.) [L. S.] 

ACRATCPOTESCAicpannr^nD), the drinker 
of unmixed wine, waa a hero worahipped in Mn- 
nychia in Attica. (Polemo, op. AOai. ii. p. 39.) 
According to pMuanias (L Z S 4), who call* him 
aimply Acratu*, he wat one of the divine compa- 
nions of Dionysna, who cai wonhipped in Attica. 
Piuiania* *aw his image at Alhen* in the houta 
of Polytion, where it waa hied in the wall. [L. S.J 

A'CRATUS, B freedman of Nero, who wai *ent 
by Nero a. d. 64, into Asia and Achaia to plunder 
the temples and lake iway the ttatuei of the gpdM, 
[Tac Abb. it. 46, iti. 23 ; comp. Dion Chryi, 
mod. p. 644, ed. Reiske.) 

ACKION, a Locrian, was a Pythagorean philo- 
sopher. (Cic dt Fin. i. 29.) He it mentioned br 
Valetiua Maiimut (viiL 7, eil. 3, from 
eage of Cicero) under the name of Ariai, 
a &lae reading, instead of Acrion. 

ACEISIUNEIS, a patronymic of Danae. daugh- 
ter of Acritina. (Virg. Atn. Tii. 410.) Homor 
(/'. xiT. 319) nie* the form 'AJipuruini. [L. S-J 

ACEISIUNIADES, a patronymic of Peneu*, 
gnnd*an of Acri*iu*. (Ot. AfX. v. 70.) [L. S.J 

ACRI'SIUS ('AjEfilauii), aaon of Aba^ king of 
Algol and of Ocsleia. He waa grandson of Lyn- 
ceu* and great-giandeon of Dajiaua. Hia twin- 
brodier was Proetu*, with whom he is said to have 
quamlled eren in the womb of his mother. When 
Abo* died and Acnaius had grown up, he expelled 
Proetu* from his inheritance ; but, supported bj 
hii bthe>in-law lobate*. the Lycian, iWtu* re- 
tained, and Acriaius wa* compelled to ahan hia 
kingdom with' his brother by giving up to bim 
Tiiyni, while he retained Aigoa for himself. An 
oracle bad declared thai Danait, the daughter of 
Acriuua, would give birth to a ion, who wnolit 
kiU his grandfather. For this reaMiD he kept 
Danae shut up in a (ubtananeaD* apartment, T ia 
a braicn lower. But here *he becsme mother of 
Pcneui, notwilhalanding the precauliona uf her 
tather, according to lome account* by her uncle 
Proetu*, and according to othen by Zeu*, who 
viaited her in the form of a ahower of gold. Acri- 
aius ordered mother and child tc be exposed 
an the wide sea in a cheat ; but the chest Hoated 
towards the island of Seriphua, where both wen 
rescued by Dictys, the broLher of king PoiydecMa. 
(ApoUod. ii. 2. 8 1, 4. g 1 i Pan*, ii. 16- g 2, 2S. i 6, 
iii. IS. g 6i Hygin. /b£. 63.) At to the manner in 
which the orucle waa subsequently fulfilled in the 
case of Acriaiut, see PkRSiira. According to the 
SchotiatI on Euripides {Omi; 1087), Acrisiu* 
wa* the founder of the Delphic amphictyony. 
Strabo (ii. p. 420) believe* thai thi* amphictyony 
exuted befbie the time of Acrisiut, and thai he 
was only the first who regulated the ai&irt of the 
amphictyons, filed the town* which were to take 
part in the council, gave to each it* vote, and set- 
tled the jurisdiction af the aoiphictyoni. (Comp. 
Ubanin^ Oral, vol iii 472, A. Reitke.) [L. S.] 
ACRON, a king of the Caenineutei, whom 
Romnlui himself slew in battle. He dedicated 
arm* of Acron to Jupiter Feietrius at Spolia 

ma. (SH:I>Ki.o/Ant. f.»93.) Liiy men- 

la the circumstance without giving the name of 
king. l,P\at.Hon.l6;\l 
B6U; Liv. i, 10.) 

b Ht known ; bat, u he w niantioned lu being I 
oniLeinponuy vith EmpedoclM, who died Bbonl 

tlie bcgiTUiing oF tbe Peloponnenui war, he 

" * 'n llw fifth century before Ctrut. 

SiciU he 1 

philoupbical Bhool (JlTV^C 

that he wu in that dtj dniing the gnat plague 

(b. c. 430), uid lliM luge (at* for (he purpoM of 

E unhang the rui wm kindled in the ttreeu bj 
■■ dinciioti, which praved of great •crricn to 
«e»enJ of the lick. (Plut. Dt li. et Otir. 80; 
Orib«*. Stfm^. ri. 24, p. 97 ; AelLiu, lelrab. 
ii, KnD. i. 94, p. 223 ; Paul Aegin. iL 35, 
p. 4(16.) It ahoold howoTer be botsa in mind 
that ihcfB ii no mention of tbia in Thncy- 
£dea (iL 49, Ac), and, if it ia true that £m- 
pedoele* ot Knwnide* (who died B. c 467) wrote 
the eptaph on Acran, it may be doubted 
whether be wai in Athena at the time of the 
plague. Upon hii return to Agrigeutum be * 
anxiooa to enct a Guaiiy tomb, and iqiplied 
the aonate for a mpot of gronnd for tiiat puipoae 
acconot of hia eminenn aa n pfayiidan. Empe- 
dodea baweier reaiited tbia application aa being 
conlTBiT to the prindple of equkiiw, and piopoaed 
to inacriba on hia tomb the Coljowing aanaatii 
epitaph {Ttrfnirrutfr), wbtcb it >a quite impoiribli 
to tianilale ao aa to preaerre the pBroaanuiaia of 
the oriranal : 
*AJt(>o» TlfTiWi' 'Aitfiiw' 'Axfayarram' nrpis ixfov 

Kfrrrrti Kpiliwit iitpoi nrrpfSor (Ufwnfrrrr. 
Tbe aeeood line waa aometimea read thua: 
'AjvpffTtfnft lopv^f ri/iSai Axpfjj narix^u 
Some penoM attributed the whole epigram to 
Simonideo. (Snid. t. v. 'AupMr ; Eadoe. Vioiar^ 
ap. ViHoiimi, Amal. Or. L 49 ; Diog. Liieit. 
itiiL Gfi.) Tbe asit of the Empirici, in order to 
bout of ■ gnatet antiquity than the Dogmalid 
((banded tiy Theaaaloa, the aon, and Poljbua, the 
aou-in-kw of Hippoeialea, about B.C. 400), claimed 
Aeron a* their founder (Paeudo-OaL Intrad. 4. 
ToL TIT. p. 683), though Ihey did not really exbt 
before tbe third century B. c [Philinl'b; SaHi- 

XDK. 4.) Noueof Aenm'awarkaare now extant, 
though he wrote aereral in the Doric dialect on 
Medical and Phjucal aubjceta, of which tin titlea 
are p[»ened by Suidaa and Endocia- [W. A. 0.] 
ACRON, HELE'NIUS, aRoman gnunmarku, 
jmhaWj of the fiflh i»ntury a. a,, but whoae pre- 

mce, and alao, according to ume critica,the acholia 
whidi we have on Peniui. The gogmenta which 
wmain of tbe work on Hoioco, though much muti- 
.. . .... . . ■ ■ jiSe ■ • 

the i4der conunentaton, <j. Terentiua Sconnia and 
etbera, They were publithed lirat by A. Zoiotti, 
Milan, 1474, and again in 148S, and have often 
been pnUiobad aiitoe in diSerent editioni ; perii^ia 
the beet ia that by Oeo. Pabriduo, in hia ed. of 
Honcc, Baarl, 165S, Leipiig, 1671. A writer of 
irobably tbe 

which it loat, b 


iaieforred toby the gnmmarian Charinua. [A. A.] 
'AqmAjrqf}, the ion of the great logotheta Con- 
atontiana Acropolita the elder, belonged to a noble 
Byiontine fiumty which ttood in relationahip to 
the imperial &mily of the Ducaa. (Acropolila, 97.) 
He wu bom at Conctantinaple in 1S20 {lb. 39), 
bat accorapanied liii &thet in liia aiiteenth year to 


Nicaea, the naidence of tbe Oreek emperor John 
Vatatiea Dutao. There he conlinued and finiahed 
hia itudiea under Theodonu Eiaplerigui and Ni- 
cephorua Blemmida. (16. S2.} The rmpcnr em- 
ployed him afterward! m diplomatic afiitirB, and 
Acropolita ihewed himtelf a raj djacreet and 
skilful negociator. In 12GS he commanded the 
Nicaean army in the war between Michael, de»- 
pot of Epiiua, and the emperor Theodore II, the 
eon and tucceiaar of John. But be waa made pri- 
•oner, and waa only delivered in 1260 by the me- 
diaiton of Michael Palaeologua. Previouily to 
this he hod been appointed great logotheta, either 
by John or by Theodore, whom he had inilruited 
in logic Heanwhilo, Michael PoloeologoB waa 

CrocUimed emperor of Nicaea in 1260, and in 1261 
e eipulied the lAlini from Conalantinopte, and 
beoune emperor of the whole Eatt i and from thia 
moment Oeouiut Acropolita becomea known in 
the hiiioiy of the eaatern em)iire a> oiie of the 
greatest diplumatiata. After baring dischnrged the 

king of the fiulgoriana, he retired for acme yean 
Erom public a^ra, and made the inatruction of 
youth hia lote occupation. But he waa aoon em- 
ployed iti a Tcjy important negociation. Michael, 
afraid of a new Latin inraaion, propoied to pope 
Clemeni IV. to reunite tbe Oreek aiid the Latin 
Chureheajond ntgociaijoni ensued which wereca^ 
ried on during the reign of fire popes, Clemens IV. 
Gregory X. John XXI. Nicolaui III. and Martin 
IV. and the happy leaull nf which waa almost en- 
tirely owing to the skill of Acropolita. As early aa 
1273 Acropolita was sonl to pope Gregory X. and 
in 1274, at the Council of Lyons, he confiniied by 
an oath in tbe emperor's name that that confeuion 
of faith which hod been pniioiuly sent to Con- 
aiantiuople by tbe popo bad been adopted by the 
Oreeks. The reunion of the two churches waa 
afWrwardt broken ol^ but not through the bnlt of 
Acropolita. In 1232 Acropolita ma once more 
sent to Bulgaria, and shortly after bia retain he 
died, in the month of December of the same yor, 
in bis b'2nd year. 

Acropolita is the author of aareral work* : the 
moat important of which ia a history of the Bysao- 
tine empire, under the title Xpovutdr lis tr awSilm 
Twv it ihrrtpuu, that ja. from the taking of Con- 
aiaotinople by the I^tica in 1204, down to the 
year 1261, when Michael Palaeologus deliiered the 
"■ - 'le foreign yoke. Tbe MS. of this work 
n the library of Oegrgiua Cantacn»nua 
at Conatonlinople, and afterwords brought to Eu- 
rope. (Fabriciua,BiM.Cra«.ToLYii.p.r6B,) Tho 
fint edition of liiis work, with a Latin traaslalion 
waa puhliahed by Tbeodorus Douir, 
Lugd. Botav. 1614, 8to.; but a more critical one by 
Leo AUatioa, who used a Vatiom HS. and dirided 
the ten into chapten. It haa the title Twn'lou 
ToS 'AjtpmroAiToii toS ^1*70*011 KByatirov xpariKil 
Bvyyfiifri, Gtoryii AcropolHat, magm Ingathtlat, 
//triOrio, At Paris, leSl.foL This edition ia re- 
printed in the ** Corpus Byiantinorum Scriplorum," 
" lice, 1739, Tol. xiL This chronicle containa 
— . of the moat remarkable p«iodt of Byiontine 
history, but it is Bo short that it aeema to be enly 



work of tl 

he annw author, 


cb iaV 





view of gi. 


to those young 

n whoae M 

entiflc ed 

icauon he 


after hi. relui 

-n from hii bret embassy to Bnlgaria. 


Tile hiilory of MStbsel P»l*iilpgu5 liy PnchympTM 

niny be considered u a conlinuatioo of the work of 

Acnipolito- IJeaidei this work, Acropolita wrote 

Kvcm] ora^DDft* which he delivered in his cnpocity 


liublishcd. Fnbriciua (I'oL >ii. p. 47 1 ) gpwki of it 
MS. whiih hm the title tltpl tm diti Kifo-fox 
Kiaiiati trail Kol irtfil rir pooiXtiwai-rooi' lUxf 
iXtitnus Kwiwrairr ii'avw6Atvt. Georgiuft, OT '^ 
goriua Cypiius, who hm written aahonencomi 
Aeropolila, calla him the Plolo and the Ariiit 
hii time. Thii "encnniium" ii primed with , 
tin trnnalation at the hood of iliu edition of . 
politabyTh. Douin: it contnics iiicful infornmlion 
concerning Acropolita, idthough it ii full of adula- 
tion. Further infomution is contained in Acropo- 
liia'a hisloiy, especiiUly in the Inttcr part of it, and 
in PachymerM, iv. 28, xi. 2fi, 34. scq. [W. P.] 

ACROREITES ('A>[fw)H<T»i), & sunuunc of 
Dionjsus, under which be was worshipped at 
Siryon, and which ia synonymous with Eriphim, 
nnder which name be nni wonhipped at Meta- 
I'nnlum in southern lUily. (Steph. Dj-z. i. e. 
■A«^pfe) [I.S.] 

ACRO'TATUS (^AkpSt^ltb,). 1, The son of 
Cleomenes II. king of Spsno, incurred ihc displea- 
sure of a large part; at Sparta by oppoung the de- 
cree, which was to reloue from inwny all who hnd 
fled from the battle, in which Antipater defeated 


^ il Agnthodf 
Syracute. He liret tailed to Italy, and obtained 
assistance from Tarenlum ; but on hit oniial at 
Agrigentnm he acleil with Rich cruelty and tyranny 
that the inhabitants rose against him, and com- 
pelled him to leave the city. He returned to 
Sparta, and died before the death of his liither, 
nhich n-Bsiu e.c 309. lie left a tan,ATeuB,who 
siitcccded Cleonienei (Diod. XT. 70, 71 ; Paul. i. 
I.'.. §3, iii. e. g 1,2; Plut.^j«, 3.) 

■J. The grandson of the preceding, and the son 
of Arcua I. king of Spaita. He had unla«-ful in- 
tcnourae with Chelidonis, the young wife of Cleo- 
nymui, who waa the uncle of bit felhcr Areus ; 
and it waa this, together with the diiappoiutnieiit 
of not obtaining the throne, which h^d CleonymBe 
to invite Pyrrhua to Sparta, b. c Q72. Areas was 
then absent in Crete, and the safely of Sparta was 
mninly owing to the valour of Acrotatna. He suc- 
ceeded his lather in n. c. 265, but was kilted in 
the some year in battle against Atistodemus, the 
tyrant of Megalopolia Pauaanias, in speaking of 
Ilia death, calls him the son of Cleonymua. but he 
hat mistaken him for his grandlather, spoken of 
above. (Plut./Vr.J.e6-28M^,SiPaus.iii.e.§3, 
viii.27.gS, 3D.g3.) Areus and Acrotstns are ac- 
cused by Phyhirchut (op. Atlien. i», p. H2, b.) of 
having corrupted the simplicity of Spartan man- 

ACTAEA ('AjcTofa), a daughter af K'ereua and 
Doris. (Horn. II. iiviiL II ; ApoUod. i- 2. S 7 ; 
Hygin. Kii.p.7,ed. Slaveren.) [L. S.] 

ACTAEON CAiTTafoir). 1. Son of Arisiaeua 
and AutonoS, a danghtor of Cadmus. He waa 
trained in the art of hunting by the centaur Chei- 
ron, and was aflcriiaida torn to pieces by his own 
50 hounds on mount Citbaeroiu The namea of 
these hounds are giTcn by Ovid (Mtl. ilL 206, Sic) 
and Hyginua. {f«i. IBlj comp. Stat. TM. u. 303.) 

The cause of this misfortune it difleienlly staled ; 
according to some accounts it waa becauae he hai 
Been Artemis while she waa bathing in the vale pf 
Gargaphia, on the diecovery of which the god- 
deaa clunged him into a stag, in which form L* 
was torn to piecet by hia own dogs. (Ov. Afrt. 
iil 155, &c.; Hygiu. Fub. IGI ; Callini. L ii 
}'a!lad. 1 10.) Others nlate that be provoked the 
anger of the goddess by his boaating that he ei- 
celled her in hundng, or by his using for a feait 
the game which waa destinni as a sacrifice to her. 
(Eurip. Batdt. 320; Diod. iv. SI.) A third ac- 
count stated thai he waa killed by his dogs at the 
command of Zeus, because he sued for the hand of 
Semcle. (Acuailaua, op. >^otf. iii.4. g<.) Pau- 
eanias (ii. 2. g 3) saw near Orchomciiot the rock on 
which Aclacon uaed to rest when he waa btigued 
by hunting, and froni which he had teen Artemia 
in the bath ; but he is of opinion that the whole 
itoiy aroae from the circumstance that Actaeon 
was destroyed by his dogs in a natural fit of mad- 
ness, Palaephatui (a. e. Adaam) gives an absurd 
and trivial explanation ot iL According to the 
Orchomenian tradition the rock of Actaeon waa 
haunted by fail apectie, and the omcle of Delphi 
commanded the Orchomenians to bury the remains 
of tlie hem, wfaich they might happen to find, and 
fii an iron image of him upon the rock. This 
image still existed in the time of Pauaaniaa (ii. 
38. % 4), and tho Orchomeniana ofiiBred annual ao- 
crificec to Actaeon in that place. The manner id 
which Actaeon and his mother were pointed by 
Polvgnotui in the Lesche of Delphi, is described 
by Wusanias. (i. 30. g 2 ; comp. Mailer, Ordun<^ 
p. 318, So.) 

3. A eon of Melitana, and grandson of Abmn, 
who had fled from Argos to Corinth for fear of the 
tyrant PboidoiL Archias, a Corinthian, enamour- 
ed with the beauty of Actaeon, endeavoured to 
cany bim off \ but in the struggle which ensued 
between Melisaua and Arcfaias, Actaeon was kilted. 
Melissut brought his compWits forward at the 
Isthmian games, and piaying to tho gods for re- 
venge, he threw himself (torn a rock. Hereupon 
Corinth waa Tiaited by a plague and dRHight, 
and the oracle ordered the Corinihiani to propi- 
tiale Poseidon, and avenge the death of Actaeon. 
Upon this hint Archiaa emigrated to Sicily, where 
he founded the town of Syracuse. (Plut. Amat. 
Narr. p. 772 ; comp. Pans. T. 7. fi 2 ; Thocvd. ri. 
• ! Strab. viii. p. seo.) (L. S.] 

ACTAEUS CAirraSH). A eon of Erisichthon, 
and according to Pauianiss Ci. 2. g 5), the 
earliest king of Attica. He had three daughtera, 
Agnuloa, llerae, and Pandrosui, and was succeed- 
ed by Cecrops, who nmtiied Agiauloi. Accord- 
ing to ApoUodorus (iiL 14. 1.) on the other hand, 
Cecrops was the first king of Attica. [L. S.} 

ACTE, the concubine of Nero, vat a Ereed- 
woman, and originally a ilare purchased from 
Asia Minor. Nera loved her &r mora than his 
wife Oclavia, and at one time thought of marrying 
her; whence he pretended that the waa deacended 
from king Attalua. She snrvired Nero. (Tat 
Am. liiL 12, 46, liv. 2 ; Suet. Nrr. 28, SO ; Mon 
Cats. Ill 7.) 

ACTIACIJS, a surname of ApoUo, derired 

from Actium, one of the principal places of hit 

worship. (Ov. MM. liii. 716; Sliab. i. p. 45li 

compare Burmann, ad FrowH. p. 434.) [L. S-l 

ACTI'SANES CAjmmfciii), aking of Ethiopia, 

re <n^t perlui 


i Vjgyft mid goTcmed it with jiutic*. 
He fouided the dtj of Rhinocolnn on the coo- 
liDea of EgTpt and Syrin, ud wu ncceeded by 
Umda*, ui EgfptiaiL Diodonu uyi that Acti- 
— "'"""" in the reign of Amaaii, for 
, > to rad AmmouL At hU 

contomponry of C jnii, cannot 

temout (Diod.leO;St»l>.iTi.p.759.) 

ACTIU8. [Arnut] 

ACTOR CAimv)- 1- A Mn of Drion utd 
Dienede, the dughtor of Xnthu*. Ha m* that 
■ brothei of Aunopeia, Aenetn*, Phjlxou, and 
CcphaliUi and hnaband of Aegina, hther of Mo- 
Boetin*, iind gnnid(atb« of Patrocliu. (ApoUod. 
i. 9. J4.)S, iii. ID. SSi Pind.OI.ix.75|Hoiii. 
IL zi. 78S, xTi U.) 

!. A un of Phoibai and Hjimine, and haiband 
of Uidione. He vaa Ihne a Imthai of Augeoa, 
and bthnr of Enijtiii and Ctaetni. (ApoUod. jL 
7.g3i Pao..». 1.8ft *iii. U.jfi.) 

3. A cranpanion of AeDca* (Virg. Aen. ix. 500), 
who i* probabt; the nine who in another paiuge 
(lii. 94) ii called an Anrnncan, and of whoM con- 
qnend Uneo Tomnt made a boaat Thii story 
■ecnu to have given riie to the proTerbial ujing 
" AcKku quliam" (Jut. iL 100), for an; poor 
ipml in BcnaraL [Ij' ^] 

ACT&RIDES or ACTO'RION CAieroplti,t or 
'Aitto^Cm'), are patronymie toiait of Attor, and are 
codaeqnenti; RiTcn to deaeotdant* of an Actor, 

^h a* Palrodna (Or. Mrf. liii 37S ; TVit ' " 

39), I 

II (Ot. Met I. 79 ; compnie xi 

. 308, 

371), EacTtni, and Ctcstui. (Hom. IL ii. GSl, 
xiiL IBS, iL 750, niii. 638.) [L. 3.] 

H. ACrcyKIUS NASO, uenH to have writ- 
ten a liie of Jnlioi CaeBU; or a hialoiy of hii 
timea, which ia quoted by Snetoniiu. (JaL 9, £2.) 
The time at which he lifed ia unoertain, hot frnn 
the way in whieh ha ie referred to by Soetonina, 
he would abnoat teem to have been a contamporary 

ACTUATlUia CAmmi^Bij), the lamarae by 
which an ancient Greek phyitcian, whote reel 
Buae vat Joannea, ii conunonly knan-n. Hii 
fatbet'i name waa Zachaiiai ; he hinuelf pmctiKd 
■t Coaatantineple, and, ai it appean, with some 
degree of credit, a* he wa* honoured with the title 
of AthKawt, a dignity fRqnently conferred nt that 
«ntDponphyaici>n).(i>M.o/^ii(.p.GlI,b.) Veiy 
little IB known of the cTenti of hia lifg. and 
hi* date ii lather nncertain, km Hnne pervona reokon 
him to haTS lirad in the elcTentb cantnry, and 
Mbec* bring him down aa low at the beginning of 
lb« boitaenth. He probably liied towardi the 
aid of the thirteenth etntvry, at one of hit woibi 
ia dedJMtert to hit tator, Joaeph ttacendylaa, who 
lirad IB the nign of Andrmriena II. Palacologut, 
a. D. 1281—1938. One of hii KhooVfellowt i. 

■ilijiuaMl to hara been 
aerilMa (tboogh withn 

t (tboogh without naming him) aa going 
una an enbucy to the nnth. (Qe Mdk. Mtd. 
Pioat inLiL ^139,169.) 

One of hit workt it enlilkd, nipl 'S«VV*"*' "l 
HaBmr Tai VrxmS nnffum', «■! Ti)f nr' airi 
Aialr^t — " De Actionihna at Aflectibui Spirilnt 
Animnlit. ejnaqoe Nnttilione." Thii ia a paycho- 
IceioJ and phyginlosiia] Hork in two booki, in 
whidi all hit reuaning, uyi Fieind, teemi to be 
foondad npon the jKindplei laid down by Atitto- 
tla, Oalrn, and olhen, with retattcm to (he lama 
■Dbjeot. Tbi etyle OC thii trad it by no meMU 


impttre, and hai a gnat miiture of the old AlUe 
in it, which it very rarely to be met with in the 
later Oraek writer*. A tolatably full abitract of 
it it giren by BarehtiteS, HiiL Mtdic DiaL 1 i. p. 
338, Ac It waa firtt publiihed, Veiwt. 1547, Svo. 
in a Latin tnuulation by JuL Aicxandtinnt da 
Nentlain. The fint edition of the original wat 
publiihed, Pat. 1557, Hto. edited, witboal notet 
or prebce, by Jac. QoopyL A lecond Greek edi- 
tion upcared in 177-1, Uto. Lipi., under the care 
of J. F. Fiaeher. Ideler hat alto interted it in the 
Snt Tohune of hit Fhftid et Afediei Grata Mi- 
•orn, BeioL 6n>. 1B41 ; and the fini port of J. S. 
Bamardi Btliipaat Mtdieo-Crilicae, ed. Gruucr, 
Janae, 1795, Svo. containt tome Greek ScholLi 

Another of hit extant warha i) entitled, %ipa- 
mrriin) M4M<n, " I>e Melhodo Medendi." in aix 
iKiokt, which have hitherto appeared coinf^eie onlv 
in a Latin tiaiulation, though Dicli had, before hia 
death, oollected materialt for a Greek edition of 
thit and biiotberworkt. (Sue hitprs&ea to Oalen 
Da Diiteet. lUiae.) In thcte bookt, ny> Freiiid, 
though he chiefly fbllowa Oalen, and very often 
Aetiua and Pnolut AeoinelB without naming bin, 
yet ha makei nue of whateyer he lindi to hu pur- 
pose both in the old and modem writen, aa well 
borbariaDa at Gieekt ; and indeed ws find in him 
teTeial thingi that are not to be met with elte- 
where. The work wat wriiten eilempore, and 
detigned for the ute of Apoouichiit during lib 
embatay to the north. (Pmet L p. I:i9.) A Ijiitiii 
tranalation of thit work by Corn. H, Malhiiiua. 
waa liiat publitfaed Venet. 1551, 4to. The lint 
toDT bookt appear umelimea to huie been con- 
•idated to fimn a complete work, oF which ths 
fint and lecond haie been inaeitad by Ideler in 
the lecond volnmo of hit Phj/i. el Mai. Gr. Mm, 
BeroL 1842, undor the title Iltpl Aiaynimtii 
IIa0Dr,~ De Morbonim Dignoljone," and from which 
the Greek eilneta in H. Sicphent'a Dtdiotiaram 
Mediaun, Par. 1564, Sro. are probably tnken. 
The Sfth and tilth booka hare alao been taken for 
a tcpaiate work, and were publithed by them- 
Mlvei, Par. 1539, Bia and Baiil. 1540, 8vo. in 
a Latin tisjialalion by J. Ruelliut, with the title 
'^De Medicamentomm Compoutione-*^ An eitmct 
inmi thit work ia iniertcd in FcmDl't collection of 
writen Dt Febribm, Venet. 1576, fill. 

Hit other extant work ia Htpl Otfiv, " De 
Urini»,"in lexen booki. He hat treated of ihiiauli- 
JKl Tery fully and dittinctly, and, though he goei 
upon the phw which TheophilniProlag|nUianui had 
marked Dot, yet he hat added a grout deal of origi- 
nal matter. It It the mott complete and tyatenaiie 
wotk on the tubjed that remuiia from antiquity, 
» much ao that, till the cbemiutl inipnivemenU of 
the latt hundred yean, he had left hardly anything 

tayt Fieind, tiantcribed it almott word fiir word. 
Thii woii wot liitt publiihed in a Latin tnntW 
tion by Amhroie Leo, which appeared in 1519, 
VeneL 4to., and hat been eoTeral timet repiinled \ 
the Greek original bat been publiihed for the firat 
time in the tecond volume of Ideler't work quoted 
aboTo. Two Latin edilioni of hit coUectad 
work* are laid by Chonlant (/faadfiiat dtr B'i- 
c4inbni^ ylir <fia ^<tifdn MidicM, Leipzig, 1 84 1 ), 
to baTB been publiihed in the tamo ynr, 1556, 
one at Patii, and the other si Lyoni, both in St*. 
Hie Ibtea worki iM alta inMrte4 in the Medkm 



Artis PriMipit til H. Stephen!, Pu. \S67, foL 
{Preind'i HM. of Phftk; Sprengel. Hil. de la 
MU. ; Haller, mUimi. Mtdic Pncl. ,- BuchiiUD, 
HitLModic) [W. A. 0.1 

ACU'LEO occnn u a annwiiie of C. Fuhna 
who wu quaeator of L. Sdpio, uid na con- 
demned of pecnlalni. (Lit. lUTiii 55.) Acd- 
leo, howBTOT, SMini not to hare beflo a ngalar fit- 
milj-nanw of the Fnrii geni, but onlj a imtume 
giien to thii penon, of which a luailar eiaiDDle 
occnn in the foUowing artide- 

C. ACULEO, a Homui knight, who married 
the Biter of Helria, the mother of Cicero. H« 
wat uupaoed by no one in hi* daj in hii know- 
ledfto of tho Roman law, and poHeBud gnat 
aculenoM of mind, hot wu not diitinguiatied for 
other altainmenti. He wat a friend of L. Liciniui 
<Jnu»u, and wu defended bj him upon one oo 
caMOD. Thenmof AnileowaaC.Vi»lliu>Vam>; 
wliencs it would appear that Aculeo wsi only a 
antname given to the &lher from hii icntenen, and 
that hia fiiU name vaa C. Vi>e[Iini Varro Acnleo. 
(Cic. (b Or. L 43, u. 1, 65 ; BnL 78.) 

ACU'MENUS ('A«o.»««JiX a phpician rf 
Atheni, who lived in the lifth century before Chnit, 
and u mentioned aa the Mend and companion 
of SncnteL (PlaL PImdr. init. ; Xen. Memor. 
iii. ] 3. g 2.) He wa* the bthei of Eijiimachui, 
who wai alM a phjiician, and who it inlrodnced 
atone oftheBpcaJiert inPkto>Synipo>iun). (Plat. 
Praiag. p. 315, c ; Symp. p. 17G, e.) He i« alio 
mentioned in the collection of letten tint pobliahed 
by Leo Allatiua, PuiB, 1G37, 4Io. with the title 
Epul. Socratit ft Socrxiticorum^ and again by Orel- 
liut, Liea. 1815. 6vo. ep. It. p. 3). [W. A. O.] 

ACUSILA'US ('AnxMrfAaot), of AigDi, one of 
the earlier Greek tc«iigraphen(Z>uf.i/.4nt. p.A75, 
a.), who probably Uvcd in the latter half of the 
aiith cenlary B. c He it called the ton of Cabraa 
or Scabraa. and it itckoued by tome among the 
Seven Wita Uen. Suidai (>. r.) >By^ that he 
wrote (ieneelogiet from bronie tabjeti, which hi> 
blher waa laid to have dog up in hit own houte. 
Three booki of hit Oencalogiei arc quoted, which 
ware for the moit part only a tmnalnlion of Heiiod 
intoproae. ( p.6'29,>.) Like moit 
of the other logographen, he wrote u the Ionic 
dialect. Plato i> the eariiett writer by whom he 
it mentioned. (^j>. p.176, b.) The woiki which 
bore the name of Acniilaiit in a later age, were 
BpuriooL (j; «. 'Enrrout MiAitff'iof, 'ItfTnp^oi, 
Xvyyp''^.) The fi^menti oF Aeuiilaiia have 
been pabliihed by Stuiti, Gerne, 1787 ; 3nd ed. 
Lip*. 1824 i and in the " Muieum Ciitknm." L 
p.3le, &c Cnmb. 1826. 

H. ACUTIUS, tribune of the plebi a c 401, 
waa elected by Iha other tribunei (by co-optation) 
in violation of the Trebonia lex. (Liv. v. 10 ; 
iMcf.</jBCp. 56S,a.) 

AI>A CAta), the daughter of Hecalomnnt, king 
of Caria, and tjiler of Manioliu, Artemiua, 
Idrieiu, and Pixodanta She wat nuuried to her 
brother Idrieut, who ancceeded Artemitin in B. c 
351 and died b. c 344. Oi> the death of her 
huaband ahe mcceeded to the throne of Catia, but 
waa expelled by her brother Pixodarua in ft c. 340 \ 
and on the death of the latter in B. c, 335 bit ton- 
in-law Orontobatei received the Btnpy o! Caiia 
from the Penian king. When Alexander entered 
Caria in a. c 334, Ada, who wai in poHetuon of 
the brtreaa of Alinda, tomndend thi> place to 

him and begged leave to adopt him as her WM. 
After laking Halicamouui, Alexander tumniitied 
the govenunent of Caria to her. (Arrian, AtaA. 
i. 23 ; Diod. ivi. 43, 74 ; Strah. xiv. pp. 65G, 657 : 
PInU Akx. 10.) 

ADAEUS, or ADDAEUS ('ASoZoior'AaBa^i), 
a Greek epigtBDimalic poet, a native moat pio- 
bably of Hacsdouia. 'i1io epithet HuiUroi it 
appended to his name before the third epigram 
in the Vat MS. {Anik. Or. vi. 228); and the 
lubjectt c^ the aecood, eighth, ninth, and tenth 
epigiumt agree with thia account of hii origin. 
He lived in the time of Alexander the Great, to 
whoM death he alludei. {AtOi. Gr. vii. 340.) 
The fifth epigram {AmA. Or. vii. 305) ia inscribed 
'AiSaiau Miiu\it>a/aii, and there waa a Mitylenaean 
of thia name, who wrote two prose wroka tlipl 
'Aya^/taroraiMt and Ittpl AuMaaii. (Athem. 
liilp. 606. t,xL p-471, r.) The time whan ha 
lived cannot be Bied with certainty. Reiaka, 

> be the lame pemon~ (AiUL Grate vi. 228, 
58, vii. 51, 238, 240, SOS, i. 20 ; Brunck, AaaL 
I. p. 224 1 Jaeoba, lilL p. 331.} [C. P. U.] 

D'ofiuiTifi, Socratea, Hut. Eaia. vii. 13), 
tor the moning of which ase Diet, t^ Amt. 
p. 507. Little ii known of hii penonal hiitoiy, 
except that he wai by biith a Jew, and that 
he waa one of thoae who fied from Aleioi^dho, 
at the time of the expuluon of the Jewt fo>m that 
city by the Patriarch SL Cyril, a. d. 415. He went 
to l^nitantinople, wat penuaded to embnce Chrit- 
tianity, appucDily by A Iticut the Patriarch of that 
city, and then returned to Alexandria. (Socialeo, 
I. c) He it the author of a Greek treatiie on 
pliyiiognomy, *ivw>>*iyionKd, in two booka, which 
II atill extant, and whieh it borrowed in a great 
mcaiure (ai he hinuelf confeioea, i. Prooem. p^ 
31^ 0^ Fiani.) fhmi Folemo't woik on the Muna 
tubjact. It it dedicated tc Conitantiut, who it 
luppoKd by F^iriciDi {BiUiiAk. Croeco, vol. ii. p. 
171, xiii. 34, ed. vet.) to be the pecaon who mar- 
ried Plocidia, the daughter of Theodoiiui tho 
Great, and who reigned for Kven mouthi in con- 
junctioti with the Empcior Honoiiui. It wat fint 
publiihed in Giwk at Parit, 1540, Svo^ then in 
Greek and Latin at Basle, 1544, Svo., and afkei^ 
wardi in Greek, togetlier with Atlian, Holemo and 
some other writers, at Rome, 1545, 4to. ; the hiM 
and best edition ii that byJ.O-KianiiuSiWhohaa 
inserted it in bis collection of the SiT7>tam/>A)n- 
agnomiae Vtltra, Gr. el Ul., Altenb. 1780, 8vo. 
AnoUier of his works, Hfpl 'liriiutt, Dt Vettit, ia 
quoted by the Scholiail to Hesiod, and an eitnct 
from it it given by Aetius (letrab. i arTm. 3, c. 

script in the Royal Library at Paris. Several of 
hit medical preacriptiona aio preserved by Oriba 

[W. A. G.) 
' 1. The son of 

Oeylni, the Corinthian commander in toe mvanon 
of Greece by Xeriea. Before the battle of Arle- 
miriom he threatened to lail away, but inu bribed 
by ThemistDcles to remain. He opposed Themia- 
tocles with grait insolence in the oouneil whkh 
the commooden held before the battie of Salamia. 
Acconling to the Athenians he took to flight at 
' of the battle, bnt thia 


2. Tie un of I^eacolophidei, an Athenian, wi 
one of tlie comnuuidcn with Aldbudea in the ei 
pedlli^migiiiDitAndrot, b. c 407. (Xen. //<^ 
t 531.) HewMsgainappoinledmeof the Athe- 
nian gcneralg after Che battle of Arginuue, 
406, and conDnned in office till the battle of Acrob- 
potanij, B.C. 4US, where he mu one of tht 
manden, and waa taken prinner. He vi 
onl; one of the Athenian priMneri vho vr, 
put to death, becBiiK he hod opposed the decree 
for cutting o^ the right hand* of the lACcdnemo- 
niana who might be taken in the battle. He wg 
Koued bj many of traBcherj' in tliia battle, an 
WW aftcrwardi impeached by Conon. (Xen. ffn/t 
7.Sl,i;.I.S30-3-2;PaDtiT. 17.S2,Ji.9.§5!Dcn 
tUfiiU. Irg. p. 101.; Lj-». o. Ale. pp. 14.1, 31.) 
Ari(U;dianei ipeaki of AdeimantUB in the " Frog) " 
(1513), which «u acted in the year of the battle, 
ai one vhoae death woa nHihed fbt ; and he alio 
calli him, apparently out of jest, the un of Lenco- 
lophu^ that ia, "White CmL" In the "Protn- 
gonu " of Pinto, Adeinuntne is alio apoken of aa 
preasnt on that ocouion (p. 315, e.}. 

3. The brother of Plato, who it frequently men- 
tioned by the latter. {ApoL Sacr. p. 34, a., dc 
Rep. iL p.367, e. P.54B, d.e.) 

ADGANDE'STRIUS, a chief of the Catti, 
oRered to kill Arminiui if the Romnni would lend 
him poison for the porposo ; but Tiberiui declined 
the ofler. (Tac Ann. n. 68.) 

ADHERBAL ('Airff^u). 1. A Carthngii 
conmuiDdaT in the Rrat Pnnic war. who wai plnccd 
Diei Drepana, and completclj defeated the Roman 
connil P. Claudius in a lea-fighl off Drepai " 
a4S. (Polyb. i. 49—52; Diod Ed. iiiv ' 

\ A Carthaginian commander imder 

the I 

ond Pun 

tiriv.) ' 
under Mago \ 

bated in 

fight off Carteia, in Spain, by C. Lacliue 
ens. (Lir. uviiL SO.) 

3. The son of Micipta, and nnndson of Man- 
niua, had the kingdom of Numidin left to him by 
hit (atier in conjunction with bi« brother HiempBii 
and Jugnrtha, a. c I IB. After the muider of bis 
brother by Jngurtba, Adherbal Hed to Rome and 
vu mtraed to hia ihare of the kingdom by the 
Romani in B. c 117. But Adhccbol wu again 
■tripped of his dominions by Jnmirtha and be- 
iie^d in Cirla, where he was Ircacheroasly killed 
bj Jngurtha in R. c. 112, although he had placed 
Lnnielf nnder the protection of the Romans. 
rSdl. Jag. 6, 13, 14,34, 25, 26; Lir. £)/. 63; 
IKod. Bxc luiT. p. G05. ed. Weaa.) 

ADIATORIX {•Manip.i), son of a t*trareh 
in Gahlia, belonged to Antony's party, and killed 
all tlK Romwis in Heradeia shortly before the 
buxle of Adinm. Afier tbii battle he was kid as 
priMoei in the trinmph of Augustus, and put (o 
death with his younger son. His elder son. 
Drtentna, wai sabtequenllj mode priest ef the 
ceUbiated godden in Comana. (Sirab. xii. pp. 543, 
S3S; SSS ; Cie. ad Fam. n. 12.) 

ADMETE ('AS^nfm). 1, AdangtcTofOceanna 
■ud Tbetys (Heaiod. Tiatj. 349X vhom Hjginot 
in the preGice to his fables calls Adnieto and a 
du^htn of Pontna and Thalaasa. 

3. A daughter of EoTystheus and Antimncbe or 
Ailnetr. Hendea was obliged by her bthsr to 
fetdi Gk her the girdle of Aret, which was worn 


by Hippolyte, queen ofthe Amamna ( 
A. gS.J Af«ordinglo TieIses(<ii<Z^r»fiAr. 1337), 
ahe accnnipanied Heracles on this expedition. 
There waaa tiBdi^on (Athen. it. p. 447), according 
to which Admete was originally a ptietteai of Hera 
at ArgOB, but fled with the image of the goddess 
to Sainot. Pintea wen engagol by the Argivea 
to fetch the image back, bnt the enterprise did uot 
succeed, for the ship when laden with the image 
could not be made to more. The men then look 
the image back to the coaet of Samoa and sailed 
away. When the Samians found it, they tied it 


of th 

ie Snmians celebrated nn annual festival 
called Tonea. This tlory aeems to be an inrention 
of the Argirea, by which they intended to pror* 
that the worship of Heia in their place was older 
than in Samoi. [L. S.] 

ADME'TUS ('AJmitoi), a son o( Pheres, the 
founder and king of Pherae in Theandy, and of 
PericlymeneoTCiymffne. (Apallod.LS.§3,9.SI4.) 
He took port in the Calydonian chase and the ex- 
pedition of the Argonauts. (Apollod.L9.§l6; Hy- 
S'n. Fab. 14. 173.) When he had succeeded his 
llier as king of Pherae, he sued for the hand of 
Alccitis, the danghtur of Peliaa, who promised her 

10 her in 

(Schol. ad EnHp. Aleetl. 2; 
Collim k. Di Apoll. 46, &c.), or according to otiiers 
because he was obliged to ser^'B a mortal for one 
year for having slain the Cyclopfc <Apollod. liL 10. 
S 4.) On the day of hia raairiage with Alcestis, 
Admetus neglected to offer a sacrifice to Artemis, 
and when in the evening he entered the bridal 
chamber, he foond there a number of snakas rolled 
np in a lomp. Apollo, howerer, reconciled 
Artemis to him, and at the Hune time induced the 
Moirae to grant to Admetut deliverance from 
death, if at the hour of hia death hia lather, mother, 
iiUd die for him. Alceaiis did so, bnt 
ccording to others Heracles, broogllt her 
: upper worid. (Apollod. i. 9. § 15; com- 
piue ALnutTis.) [L. S.] 

ADME'TUS ("ASfiirvoi), king of the Moios- 
int in the time of Tbeniislocles, who, when sn- 
pretna at Athena, had opposed him, perhaps not 
without insult, in same auit to the people. But when 
flying from the officera who were ordered to seize 
'lim aa a party to the treason of Pauianias, and 
Iriven from Gorcym to Epims, he found himself 
ipon some emergency, with no hope of reftige but 
be house of Admetus. Admetus was absent ; but 
Phthia his queen welcomed the Mianger, and Inde 
Mm, as the moat solemn form of supplication 
juong the Mokusians, take her son. the yonng 
irince, and ait with him in his hands upon the 
learth. Admetta on his letam home amuod hhn 
of protection ; according to another account in 
Plutarch, he himself and not Pthia enjoined the 
as aFlarding him a preteil for refund : he, at 
all that the Athenian 


say ; and sent Themistodei 

tafcly to Pydna ou hia way to the Persian conrt. 

(Thncyd.i. 136,137; Plut. 7».«. 24.) [A.H.C.1 

ADMETUS ^tttunrot), a Greek epigraiiv 

mattst, who lived in the early part of th* seecnd 


enitai7 after CoriiL Om line aCalmta pttntt 
by Ludau. (Dtmomia, 44 ; Bnmck, AtKj, iil ] 
•21.) [CP.MO 

ADCyNEUS fAB-nJl). 1. A nnmiH i 
DaCEhut, (ignifiei the Koler. (Anion. Spigr. uii 

2. Addneni i* umetimM DMd hj Latia poet* 
lor Adonii. (Plant. Mtmuek. L S. 36 i CatnlL 
nil. 9.) [L. S.] 

AIHrNlS (-ASwil), acGoldina to Apollodor 
(iii. 11. g 3) a ion of Cinjrai and H< ' 

( and Alpbniboea, 
tyttic poet Ptinjuit (op. Apoliod. I. c) a un 
Thnioi, king of Aujria, who begot him by 
own daughl« Smyrna. (Myrrha.) The and 
■tory ran thui: Smyrna had Defected the WOP- 
■hip of Aphrodite, and wai puniihcd by the god- 
deH with an unnatoral lore hi her blher. With 
the uaiitance of her nurie (he contriTed to ihi 
her father'! bed without being known to hi 
When he diKovend the crime be wiihed to ) 
her; but ibe fled, and on being nearly oirertaki 
prayed lo the godi to make her inniibls. They 
wen mared to pity and changed her into a tr 
tailed aiiifia. Alter the lapae of nine monti 
the tree bunt, and Adonit wu bam. Aphrodi 
waa w much channed with the beanty oTthe inliuit, 
that ihe concealed it in a cheat which the entraat- 
ed to Penepfaone ; bal when the latter diwovered 
the treaaure ahe had in her keeping, the refliacd to 
give it np. The cau waa bmught before Zeni, 
who decided the diapule by declaring that during 
fcKir month) af every year Adonii ihould be left la 
himaelt during four tDonlhe he ihould belong la 
Peraephone, and daring the remaining four to 
Aphrodite. Adonia howeier prclemng to lire 
with Aphrodite, alio spent with her the four 
montha otbt which ha had contronL Aflet^ 
warda Adonii died of a wound which he receive 
from a boar during the chaie. Thua far the ilory 
of Adonii vu related by Panyoiii. Ijiler writen 
fiimiih TSriaui alteration! and odditioni to it, 
Aeeotding to Hyginot ^Fab. 68, 164, 251, 271), 
Smymo waa paaiihed with the loie for her father, 
becuiie her mother Cenchreia had proTOked the 
anger of Aphi«iite by extolling the beauty of her 
daughter above that (^ the goddeaa. Smyrna after 
the diacoiery of her crime Itod into a foieit, where 
ahe waa changed into a tree from which Adonia 
came forth, when her father iplil it with hia 
iword. The diapote between Aphtedite and Per- 
aephone w>* according to aome accoonli aettled by 
Calliope, whom Zeui appointed u mediator b^ 
tween them. (Hygin. Poet. Aitron. W. 7.1 Orid 
<jMW I. 300, &cl adda the following faatntn: 
MyRfaa'i loTe of her father waa excited by the 
fnriw 1 Lndna aauated her when the gave birth to 
Adonia, and the Kaiada anointed him with the 
tear* MF hie mother, i e. with the fluid which 
trickled from the tree. Adonit grew Dp a moat 
htautifal yonib, and Venna loeed him and ahared 
wilb him the pteanuei of the chaae, though ahe 
tlwayi caotioned him againat the wild beaata. 
At bn he wounded a boar which killed him in 
Ite fury. According to taax Itadiliona Area 
(Mai>), or, aeeording to othera, Apollo aimmad 
the farm of a hoar and ihni killed Adonii, (Serr. 
ad Pirg. Sd. x.l»t Ptoleai. Hephaett. L p. 306, 
ed. Oale.) A third Moiy lehtad that DioDyeni 
(•nied eff Adonii. (Phaiwdn (^ Ptat. SfKgio$, 

!r. S.) When Aphivdila wa> infonnad of W 
belotad being wounded, ahe haatened to the apot 
and ipriakled nectar into hie blood, from which 
immediately flowera aptung up. Varioni other 
modifiouiona of the itory may be read in Hyginui 
(Foit. AMtmK. ii. 7), Theoctitni {Mj«. it.), 
BioD (Idyll. i.\ and in the icht^iait on Lyto- 
phfon. (H39, Ac) From the double marriage e( 
Aphrodite with Area and Adonia eprang Prnmna. 
(Schot. «f ApolUm. niad. i. 9, 32.) Bcvdei 
him Oolgoa and Bene are likewiia called chikiien 
of Adoni) and Aphrodite. (SchoL ad ITieocriL x>. 
100; Nonni Diimyi. lE. 166.) On hia death 
Adonii waa obliged to deecend into the lower 
world, but he waa aSowed to qiend ui montha 
out of every jnc with hia beloved Aphrodile in 
the upper worid. (Orpk. j^su. 66. 10.) 

The worship of Adonii, which in later tjmea 
waa apread over nearly all the countllea roand the 
MediteiTunean, wu, ai the atory itaelf mffieienthr 
indicate!, of Aiialic, or mote eapeeially of Phoent' 
cian origin. (Luciau, dedea Sjrr. e. 6.) Thence it 
Wat traoafcrred to Auytia, Egypt, Greece, and 
even Id Italy, though of eouree with variona mo- 
diUcationi- In the Homeric poemi no trace of it 
occura, and the later Greek poeti changed the 
original aymbolic ncconnt of Adonia into a poetical 
Itory. In Ihe Aaiatic religiona Aphrodite waa the 
fruclilj'ing princijde of natare, and Adonia appean 
to have reference to the death of nature in winter 
ipring— hen 

upper w 

nil denlh and hia return to hie were celehnted 
in annual Irativili ('AEurfa) at Byblos, Alexandria 
in Egypt, Atheni, and other phu»). [L. S.] 

ADRANUS (ASfsnit), a Sicilian divinity who 
wai worahipped in all the iebuid, but espeduUy at 
Adrsnui, a town near Mount Aetna. (Plut. TluiaC 
1-2; Diodor. liv. 37.) Heaychiua (i. e. naAwai) 
repreienti the god aa the father of Ihe Palici. 
According 10 Aelian (HiA Anim. li. 20), about 
1000 aacred doge were kept near hi* temple. 
Some modem critic* conaider thi* divinity to be of 
eastern ori^n, and connect the name Adranoi 
with the Portion Adar (fire), and regard him aa 
the ume u the Fboenieian Adramelech, and aa 
a penonilication of the tun or of fire in general. 
(Bochut, GeagraiA. Sacra, p. 630.) [L. S.] 

TUS, a contemporary of Athenaent, who wrote a 
lentnry in lire book* npon the work of Theo- 
tui, entitled v^l 'HSar, to which he added a 
uith book upon the Nicomachian Ethica of Arii- 
totle. (Athen. xv. p. 673, e. with Schweighautet^ 

ADRASTEIA ('ASpdn-na). 1. A Cretaa 
nymph, daughter <n Meliaaeui, to whom Rhea 
entruMed the infant Zeua to be reared in the Die- 
on grotto, in thii office Admiteia waa aaaiited 
her uiter Ida and tbo Corele* (ApoUod. i. 1. 
g'6 ; Coltimoch. iymn. ui Jar. 47), whom the 
Bcholioat on CoUimachoi calli her hrothera. Api^ 
loniua Rhodioa (liL 132, Ac.) relata that ahe gave 
to the infant Zeua a beautiful ^obe (•r^aipa'i lo 
play with, and on •ome Cretan eoin* Zena ii 
repreiented dttiDg upon a globe. (%anh. ad 
Callim. I. e.) 

2. A eomame of Nemesu, which ii d^vw] by 
ma writen fixm Adnitu), who it laid lo hivs 
built the lint nodDRry of Nemeaji on the rivet 
Aiopni (StnhL liii. p. 668), and 1^ othen frun 


iA it*oM 
xpe. (Valo- 

■ dsm bj Alnphiiii 


vgnify the goddflss whom 
ken. ad Hirod. uL 40.) 


ADRASTUS CASfWin-M), a Km m ivmum, 
riiag of Algol, and of Ljiinuehe. ( ApoUod. L 9. 
1 13.) Puuuiiu (u. e. I 3) cmni bit mother 
LjriukaMa, tai H^gniit (Fab. G9) Entjiioine. 
{ConpL Sdud. od £'h^. Ploni. 423.) Daring ■ 
ruee in ArgoA, 
uid Adiutiu 
.• fied to Poiybn., 
tbcn kir^ oT ^jdo. Wbsn Paljboi died wiLb- 
eat faetn. Adnata* raceeeded him on the throne 
af KcyoD, mA daring bin leigii be i> lud to hare 
inninted the Ncroeui games. (Ham. IL ii. 672 ; 
Find. Nm. ix. 30, Ac. j Herod, t. 67 ; Paat. il 
6. I K|) Afiermtrda, bowerer, Adnetna becanw 
neondled ts Amphianai, gan him hii rider Eri- 
pbjle in marriigc^ and returned to hi* kingdom of 
A^oB. Doling the thne b* reigned there it hap- 
pened that T jdeni U Calydm and Poljiieta of 
Tbdiee, both fugitire* (torn their netiTe countriei, 
net at Argoa n«r the palon of Adnutni, and 
cwne to wordi and from word* (o blowi. On 
hearing the noiae, Adrainia battened to them and 
iepaiated the combatants in whom he imtoediately 
recogniied the tiro men Ibat bad been prDmiied to 
him by an oracle at the fiitnre bntboud* of two 
of hi* daoghten ; for one bon on bia *hietd 
the figan of * bntr, and the other that of a 
tion, and the omcle wa«, that one of hii daughter* 
wa* to marrj a bmr and the other a lion. Adcu- 
tiu tbndnre gSTe bi* daughter DeTpjIe to TfdeD*, 
and Aigeia to Poljuicn, and at Uie lame time 
promieed to Wd each of tbeee princei lack to bk 
nni amntry. Adnutni now prepared for war 
BRainet Thcbe*. altboQgb Amphiaraiu fbielold that 
tli vho aheald engage in it ahoiitd pertib, with 
the exraplion of Adraetn*. (ApoHod. iiL 6. | 1, 
At I liygin. Fai. 69, 70.) 

Thui arate the celebrated war of the " Seven 
^ainat Thebea,' in which AdratCnt waa joined by 
(ii other heroei, via, Polynicea, Tjden*, Amphia- 
ram, Capancni, Hippranedon, and ParthenopaenL 
IiMead of Tydeni and Polynicfa other l^endl 
mentioa Eteocloe and Medilena. Thii war ended 
aa Dnfortonaldy ta AnphiafaDi bad predicted, 
and AdiaaOi alone waa nrad b; the awiftnen of 
hit hoiae Anion, the gill of Hrradea. (Horn. It. 
iiiiL 346, Ac i Pau*. riiL 25. %S: Apollod. iiL 
6.) Cteon of Thebe* refuting to allow the bodiei 
of the ni heroe* to be buried, Adraatn* went to 
AtboM and implored the sHintancs of the Athe- 
uiaoa. Tbeaen* waa penoaded to undertake an 
expedition againal Thebea ; he took the city and 
delivered vp the bodiea of the fallen heroe* to 
their friend* for bvrial. (Apollod. iii. 7. § I ; 
Pni. ii. ». I 1.) 

Ten year* after thi* Adraaloa peranaded the 
•PTcn aona of (he heroea, who had fallen in the 
war aguut Tbebea, to make a new attack npon 
that dty, and Anphiaraiu now declared that the 
gnd* apptoted of the nndsrtaking, and promiaed 
iKoe**. (Pan*, ii. 9. g 3; Apollod. iii. 7. § 2.) 
Urn war ia oelebrated in ancient itory a* the war 

A&RIANU& 31 

Ml in ihl* war, wa* Aegialeoa, tbe aon of Adra^ 
tna. Altar hating boilt a templa of Neowai* In 
the nrigbboorfawMl of Tbebe* [AdkastUii], be ast 

onl on hi* return home. But weighed down by 
old age and grief at thedealh of bi* ton be died at 
Me^Lia and wa* buried there. (Pan*. I IS. 3 1.) 
After hi* death be •*• wonbipped in aerenl parti 
of Oreece, a* at Megara (Pane, i^ o.), at Sicyon 
where hi* memory wu celebrated in tragic ebo- 
ru*e* (Herod, t. 67), and in Attica. (Pans. i. 30. 
g 1.) The legend* about Adnatui and the two 
wan againat Thebea hm fliroiahed moat ainjde 
materi^B for the epc as well at tragic poet* of 
Oraece (Puia. ii. 9. § 3), and tonM work* of art 
tdaling to the atoriei about Adnutu* are mentiocied 
inPanaani... (lii. 18. § 7, I. 10. g 2.) 

From Adrualni the female patronymic Adiaitins 
waa formed. (Hom. JL i. 419.) [L. 3.] 

ADRASTUS CAIfmrrol), a aon of the Phiy- 

ri king Cordiut, who had unintentionally killed 
brother, and waa in comequence expelled by 
hit hther aud depriTed of eTciything He took 
refage at a npfdiant at the court of king Cruemi, 
who purified him and received him kindly. After 
•ome time be wa* *ent out a* goardian of Aty*, 
the ion of Croeao*, who wa* to deliver the eoun- 
try from a wild boar which hod roade great havoc 
all around. Adraitna had the miafortune to ktO 
prince Aty*, while he wa* aiming at the wild 
beaat. Croem* pardoned the onfortunate man, a* 
he law in thii accident the will of the god* and 
tbe fulfilmanl of a prophecy ; but Adiattui could 
not endure to live longer and killed himielf on the 
tomb of Atya. (Herod. L 85-45.) [L. S.] 

ADRASTUS (^/^parrot), of Apbcodieia*, a 
Peripatetic philoeopbel, who lived in tbe lecond 
century after Chriet, the author of a treatiae on 
the arran){einent of Ariitotle'a writing* and hi* 
lyiteni of philoaophy, quoted by Simpliciua {Frae- 
fii/. in vai. lib. P^.), and by Achille* Tatiu 
(p BS). Some commentaric* of bia on iheTinvaeoi 
of Plato are aUo quoted by Porphyry (p. 270, bi 
Kartnenim Flaltmati), and a treatite on the Cate- 
goriea of Ari*totle by Oalen. None of theae have 

'Apfvmmr^ ia preaerred, in MS., in the Vatioin 
Library. (B. J.J 


ADRIA'NOS rA>p<»<'t)> ■ Or*^ ')>*ton<<<^ 
bom at Tyie in Phoenicia, who flouriihed under 
the empeton M. Antoninu* and Commodna. He 
vai the pupil of the oelebnted Herode* Atticne, 
and obtained the chair of philoaophy at Athena 
during the lifetime of hi* maater. Hi* advasc*- 
ment doea not teem to have impaired their mstqal 
regard ; Herodet dedaied that the anftniabed 
tpeechei of hi* *cholBr were ** the fragment* of a 
colo*flnt,** and Adrianu* *howed bia gratitude bya 
fiuient oration which he ]H<anounced over the aahea 
of hi* maater. Among a people who rivalled one 
another in their leal to do bun honour, AdriBOna 
did not ahew much of the ditcretion of a philoto- 
pher. Hia fint kctare commeneed with the modeat 
encomium on hinuelf vdAir tn *crriinii YpiW""^ 
while in the magniSeenee of hi* dreaa and eqeipag* 
he affected the atjle of tbe hierophant of phiioB- 
phy. A ttory may be *een in Pbiloatratu* of bi* 


ridicnls, Tba tiut of M. Anuuintu to Albnu 
made him acqiumteil witli Adriaiiui, whom be 
tDvitcd to Itoma ind bonound with hi* friendihip : 
(be emperor even eaodeicended to tet thii tbata of 
a declamMioD for him. After the death of Anto- 
ninui he beouna tbe private tecretuy of ConuiKidii*. 
Hiadeatbtook place at Rome in the eightieth jear 
of his aRe, not later than i.. a. 102, if it be true 
that Conunodna (who vaa am Minuted at the end 
of thii jmi) wat htm ■ kslter on hii death-bed, 
which he ia Rpreaented ai kieung with derout 
in hii lait momeDta. (Philottr. Vil. 
uidu, L R 'M^KoWi.) Of the vorka 
im by Suidag three declamoUona 
Tbeae have beeo edited by Leo 
AtCilius in the Erarpla Korra GratcoruHt So- 
l'la4Hritm va HUanooinw, Roroae, 1641, and bj 
W'aW iu the tirat toIuhk of tlte Rlittora Grata, 

1H3-2. [a J.] 

ADBIA'NUS CAJpKuJi), a Qreek poet, who 
wrote an epic poem on the hiatoiy of Aloiaader 
the Great, which waa called 'AA>{ar«p>rii. Of thii 
poem tile arireTilh book ia mentioned (Steph. Bji. 
I, c lirtia), but WB poaaeia only a fragnwnt con- 
aiitJng of one line. (Strph. Byi. j. r. 'iurrpaSa.) 
Suidu (a. e. 'Affimrii) menttona among oilier 
faeaa of ArrianuB one culled 'AKtlarSpdi, and 
then can be do doubt that thia is the work of 
Adrianui, which he by niiitake Hltributet to hit 
Arrianua. (Meineke, in the AbiojidL der Iter/in. 
Jtlmdemit, lfl3-2. p 124.) [L. S.] 

ADRIA'NUS ('AlpiWi) flouriilied, according 
Is Aniibiahop Uaher, A. D. 433. Then ia i^iliuit 
of hit, in Creek, Iiapope SamnaK /.ilerarum, Tir 
commended by PholiuafNo-S) to Iwginnen, edited 
by Dav. Hoeachel, 4to. Aug. Vindel. \6fr2, and 
■mDiigtbeCHrK>&<n.rol. Und. ItiSO. [A.J.C.] 

ADU'SIUS('AJoil™i).»™"ii"g'» the account 
t Xencnhon in the Cyropaedria, waa 

itrap of Ciuu, aa the iiiliabitiijiti 
, iL4.Sl.&c,viiL6.§7.) 
AEA. [Oau.] 

AEA, a huntTBH who waa melamorphoaed by 
(he god) into the &buloa> itUnd * 

Cyrua with an anny into Cnrio, 

the fenda which eiiated in the country. He nTti 

wnrda aatiated Uyitaapea in aubdaing I'hrygia, 

3 her from the punuil 
of Phiuia, the tiTer-god. (Val, Fhcc. i. 74-2, v. 
42fi.) [!.. S.] 

AIC'ACES(AU>n)T). I. The F.ilber of Syloaoii 
and Potycratea. (Herod, iu. 39, 139, vL 13.) 

2. The un of Syloaon, and the gnndaon of the 
prvoeding, waa tyrant of Snmoi, but waa deprived 
of bia tynnny by Aristagoiaa, when the Ionian! 
nvolted from the Fenians, B. c 500. He then 
fled to the Peraiani, and induced the Saraiana to 
abandoD the other Ionian* in the aea-figbt between 
the Peraiana and Ionian*. Alter thia battle, in 
which the latter were defeated, he waa restored to 
the tyianny of Samoa by the Peniona, B. c 4 94 . 
(Hend. iv. 138, n. 13, 14,35.) 

AEA'CIDES (Atucftiti), a patronv-mic from 

as Peleu* (Or. Mel. il. 237, Stc, xH. 365) Horn. 
/I. xri. la), Telamon (Or. AtiL >iii. 4 ; ApoUon. 
i. tSaOX Phocua (Or. Met, viL G6S, 796), the 
MQis of AeoGua ; Achillea, the grandaon of Aeecus 
(Horn, //. xi. 80.i; Virg. Aru. i. !)!)); and 
Pyrrhus the jitcal-giandson of Aeacui 




AEACIDES (AWUqt), the eon of A. 
king of Epirua, succeeded to the throne on the 
death of Iu* couuii Alexander, who waa aUin in 
Italy. (LIt. Tiii. 34.) Aeacide* mairied Phthia, 
the daughter of Menon of Phamltw, by whom he 
had the celebnled Pynho* and two daughter*, 
De'idamoa and Tni'ias. In B.C. SI7 he osaialtd 
Polyaperebon in restoring OIym|ria* and the young 
Alexander, who wot then only fire year* oid, to 
Macedonia. In the foUoHing year he marched to 
the aasiatance of Olympiiu, who was hard pressed 
iy Caaaonder ; but the Epirota disliked the aerriee, 
rote againat Acacidea, and droTe hini from th« 
kingdom. Pyrxhus, who waa then only two 
yean old, waa with difficulty sated fhnn deitnio- 
tion by some faithful wrrants. But beoiining lii«d 
of the Macedonian mle, the Epiroti recalled Aea' 
ddea in H. c. 313 ; Caaaudei immedtataly aeot an 
army oguintl him under Philip, who CDDqaeied 
him the aame year in two battle*, in the laat of 
which be wo* killed. (Pau*. i. I] i Died. lix. II, 
86,74; Pint. iVrA. L 2.) 

AE'ACUS (Ataixi), a un of Zeu* and Aegjna, 
a daughter of the river-god Asopu*. He was bom 
m the iahuid of Oenone or Oeao[Ha, whither 
Aegina liod been carried by Zeua to lecutB her 
from the anger of her parent*, and whence thia 
island wia ofterwarda called Aegiua. (ApoUod. 
iii. 12. § 6 ; Hygiii. Fob. 52 ; Pout. iL 2S. § 
2; comp. Noun. Uionys. vi. 213 j Or. Mm. vi. 
113, vii. 472, &c) According to some ac- 
counla Acacue waa a >on of Zeua and Europa. 
Some tradition* related that at the time when 
Aeacu* was bwm, Aegina wna not yet Inhalulcd, 
and tluit Zeus cboiig^ the onta (jiipfoiiits) 
of the isbiiid into meu (Mytaiidones) over whom 
AcuctiB ruled, or thai he made men grow up out 
ofthecnrth. (lies. f'ni9H.67, ed.Gdltling j Apol- 
lod-iiL I2.§aj Pao^td) OvidCiWe(.viL520; 
comp. Uygin. FuA. 52 ; Stnib. viii. p. 375), on the 
other liand, Kuppusea that the ialand waa not unin- 
habited at the lime of the birtH'af A«cu*, and lUlca 
that, in tlie reign of AoKUi, Ueia, jealous of 
Aegina, ravaged the ialoxd bearing the name of the 
latter by Bending a plague or a t^tfiu] dragon into 

olf, and that Zeus restored the population by 
changing the anu into men. Thfl*o legend*, as 
MiiUer justly remarks (Jejn«(ini), ore nothiug 
but a mythical ucionnt of the colonisation 3 
Aegina, which seems to have been originally in- 
habited by Peiiuigiaiis, and afterwsrda received 
colonist* from rkthiotjt, the scat of the Myrmi- 
donea, and from Phliut on the Aaopua. Aencu* 
while he reigned in Aegina was renowned iu all 
Greece for his justice and {Mcty, and was fre- 
quently called upon to settle dispute* not only 
among men, but even among the goda themselveB. 
(Find. /■**. viii. 48, Ac. i Paua. I 33. | S.) Ho 
waa *uch a favourite with the ktler, that, when 
(Ireece wa* visited by a drought in consequence o( 
a murder which hnd been committed (Diod. i*. 
60,6li ApoUod. iii. 12. ^ S), the omcle of Delphi 
declared that the calamity would not cease unlea* 
AeacuB prayed to the goda that it might ; which 
be accordingly did, and it ceaaed lu coutequence. 
Aeaeua htmsrir shewed his gratitude by erecting a 
temple to Zeua Paiihellenini on mount Paiihal- 
lenion (Phuj, ii 30. S 4), and the Aeginelana 
ifterivttfda bnill a stinctiiary in iheii- ialand railed 
Aeaccum, ivhith was a tqimre plate tncloBcd' "ij 


villi of vbite ni&iUe. Anciu wu brlicnd iii 
Inter limoi to be buried under the altar ill tbia 
ncredenckHue. (Paui.iL2a.§6.) Abgcndpre- 
■emd in PiaJMt (01. nii. 39, &c) relatei that 
Apollo and Pueidoa took Aescui ai their anitaot 
ia buildmg the waUi of Troy. When the work 
wai compleled, three dragoni ruihed agaiuit the 
wiU, UM while the two of them which attacked 
tboae parte of the wail built bj the godi fell i< 
dead, the ihinl fi»Bid iti waj into the dt; tfarougb 
the part built by Aeacui. Herentxin A|iolla pia- 
plMKed that Tco; would fall tfaroi^ the hands oj 
the Aeactda. Aeacui wu al» beUeied by th( 
A*y— *"" to hare (nironnded their ishuid with 
hj^ idiSi td protect it againit piiato. (Pam. 
§ S.) Semal other inddenti connected with Iha 
Btotj of Aeacoaara mentioned bj Orid. (Uef. 
MS, ftc^ ii. 436, &c) Bj EndeTi Aeactu 1 
two aoiu, Telamon and Pelnu, and bj Piamathe 
a eon, Phocni, wliom he fHeferred to the two 
otteia, who contrived to kill Phocoi during a 
conteat, and th«n Aed from their natiTe iiland. 
[PcLiua; TaLiuoN.] Afier hie death Aeocui 
bnune one of the three judgea in Hadea (Ot 
MtL iiii.35; Hot. Gaw. ii. 13. 2J), and accord- 
ing to Plato (Oorg, p. 523 ; compare Apolag. p, 
41 ; EhctbL. Koa^ &) e^Hciallj for tho ibadei of 
Europeana. In worlu of art he waa repreiented 
bearing a Kcptre and the kej'e of Hodeii (Apollod- 
iii. 1-2. §6i Pind. Iniit. TiiL47,&c) Amcue 
had •aiKtnariei both at Athena and in A^na 

iPaoa. ii. 29. § e i HeiTcb. t. e.; ScboL ad riid. 
i'lm. xiii. 155), and th* Ae^netan* regnrded 
him ai the tulaloir deity of timz ialuid. [Pind. 
AV-t riii. 22.) [L. S.] 

A^EA (AJuIa). 1. A Rumams ot Medeia, 
dtrirtd frem Acs, the anintry where hei bther 
Aeetoraled. (Apolloo. Rhod. iiL 1136.) 

2. A mnuune of Circe, the liater of Aei-tea 
(llonLOdlii. 33; Apollon. Rhod. It. &£S j Virg. 
Aai. m. 386.) tier ton Telegonua ii likewiie 
mentioned with thii nimanta, (jlcom^ Propert. 
iL 23. g 42.) 

3. A niniBDU of Calj-pio, who wu belieTed Ic 
hare inhaUted a onall iiland of the name of Aeaei 
in the itniti between Italy and Sicily. (Pomp. 
UeU, ii. 7; Propert. iiL 10. 91.) [L. S.] 

AEA'NTIDES (AlanSSnt). 1. The tyrant o( 
I«iapiitciu, to whom Hippiaa gave hii daughter 
Archcdice in marriage. (Thuc li. 59.) 

2. A tragic poet of Alexandria, mentioned ai 
one of the leren poels who formed the Tiagic 
Pleiad. Helired in the lime of the lecond Ptolemy. 
(SchoL ad Hepiaat, p. 32, 93, ed. Paw., 

AEBUTIA OENS, contained two bmilies the 
name* of which an C^Rua and Elva. Tbe for- 
nter wm plebeian, the latter patrician ; hut the 
getw via originally palrioan. Contiixn doee not 
•eem to have been a fdmily-nnme, but only a aur- 
name given to Poetumm Aebulini Elra, who waa 
cnuul in n. Ci 442. Thii geni va* dlitinguiahed 
in the early agei, hot from the time of the aboie- 
mentioned Aebutini Elva, no patrician laember of 
it held any cnmle office till the praelorthlp of M. 
Aehatioa Eln in B. c 176. 

It i> doubtful to which of the fiunily P. Aebutiua 
beioiiged, who diacloaed to the conaul the eiiitence 
•f tbe Bacchanalia at Rome, and wu rewnrdrd by 
the artiate in conacquence, B.c 186. (Liv. iiiii. 
9, 11.19.) 

AEDE'SIA(Aa((r[a),BiaKde philoH^pheroflhe 

AEDON. 21 

new Platonic Khool, lived in the fifth century after 
Chriat at Alexanilriit. She was a relation of Syria- 
nu> and the wife of Henneiaa, and waa equally 
celcbiBted for her beauty and hec virtuei. After 
the death of her boibaiid, (he devoted heraelf to 
relieving the wanta of the diatreued and the edu- 

to Athena, where they went to atudy philoaophy, 
and waa received with great diitinction by all the 
philoBophera there, and eapecially by Prwlna, to 
whom ihe had been betrothed by Syrianua, when 
she waa quite young. She lived to a conuderabid 
age, and her funeral oration waa pronounced by 
Damaaciua, who waa then a young man, in haia. 
meter venea. The namei of her aoni were Am- 
moniuiand Heliodorua. (Suidaa, f. e. ; Dainaaciua, 
<9). PJM. cod. S43, p. 341, b. ed. Bekker.) 

AEDE'SIUS {AlStaiat), a Cappadecian, cnlled 
a Platonic or perhaps more correctly an Eclectic 
philosopher, who lived in the fourth century, the 
friend and moat distinffuiaheddiadple of lamblicbu^ 
After the death of hit master the echool ot Syria 
was diapened, and Aedeeius fearing the real or 
fancied hostility of tbe Christian emperor Coustan- 
tine to pbiloiopby, took refuge in divination. An 
onule in hexameter verse repitsentad a pastoral 
life as hia only retreat, but his dildplea, perhaps 
calming hia fwra by a metaphorical interprelatioii, 
compelled him to resume his irxstructiona. He 
aettled at Peigamus. where he numbered among 
hia pupils the emperor Julian. After the acceaaion 
of the latter to tbe imperial purple he invited 
Aedesiu* to continue hia inalructioDa, but the de- 
clining atrength of the sage being unequal to the 
laakitwaofhis moat learned diaciplea, Chry tan the* 
and Euocbius, were by his own deaire appointed to 
aupply his pbce. {F.aiMp. Vil. A eda.) [B.J.) 

AEDON i'A-gS^y). I. A daughter of Pandn- 
teua of Ephesua. According to Homer {OJ. lii. 
517, &c) she waa the wife of Zethua, king of 
Thchea, and the motiier of Ilylua. Envioua of 
Niobe, tiie wife of her brather Amphion, who liad 
six sons and aix daughtera, ahe formed the plan of 
killing the eldest of Niobe'a aona, but by mistake 
slew her own aor. Itylua. Zeus relieved her grief 
by changing her into a nightingale, whose meldu- 
choly tunca are ivpresenled by the poet as Aedon^ 
lamentations about her child. (Compare Pher^ 
cydes, Fragn. p. 138, ed. Sturx ; Apollod. iiL 
£ § 6.) Acooiding to a later tradition preserved 
in Antoninus Ltberalis (c II), ASdon was the 
wife of Folylcchnus. an artiat of Colophon, and 
boasted that she lived more happily with him than 
Hera with Zeus, Hera lo ratenge herself ordered 

X Afdon 

husband. Polytechnns was tiien nuking a 
choir, and Aedon a piece of embroidery, and ibey 
agreed that whoever ahonld linish the work firat 
should receive from Ihe olher a femnle slave aa the 
prize. When Aedon had conquered her hnshend. 


shed U 

■t biher. 

see ner aislcr Clielidonls, he tnak 
I hiuL On his way home he ravished her, 
her in ahive'a attire, enjoined her to observe 
:lest silence, and gave her lo hia wife aa 
the promised priie. After aome time Cheliiloni^ 
' " ing hertelf nnobeerved, himented her own 
)ut ahe waa overheatd by Aedon, and the 
istcra conspired against i'olytechnus and 
hit son Itys, whom lhi»y placed bcfon- liirn 
ilihh. AedDa Hed wilb ('helidonts id her 


> ID ponuU of 
1 with hone;, 
and tbiu gxpoKd turn to Uie iiuncU. AMon now 
took pitj upon tbe niSeniigi of her hiubuid, mA 
when her raluioni wm on ihs point of killing her 
he tbii wnknoi, Z«u changed I'ldytachnna inbi 
B pelioui, the fanihar of Ardon Into ■ whoop, her 
bther into a laa ntgle, Cfaelidonit tnlo s nrallow, 
•nd Aedon luTKlf Into > nightingale. Hii* mjlhiu 
wiiiini to h>TS Migimled in nwre Mfnnlogie*, mi 
li of the ■ma dam ■* tbit aboat PliilorDele and 
Pracne. [L. S.J 

AEE^ES 01 AEETA (AMr^i), a »n of 
Helioauid PoMi*. (ApdUod. L S. 9 1 ; Hea. Titug. 
957.) According to other* hit mother'* oame wai 
Pena (Hjgio. Pn^. jil 14, ed. SuTenn), or 
AatioDe. (Schd. ad PimL OL xiiL G2.) He ww 
B bnrtliet of Ciice, Pinphae, and Penei. (H jgin. 
Le.; Af^Ooi-Le.! Horn. Od. x. 136, Jtc; Cic 
ji NaL Dmr. iiL IS.) He wa* manied to Idyia, 
B daoghlet of Oceanu, I7 whom he had two 
danghten, Hedela and Cbaldope, and one ton, 
Ab^rtu [HeBod. Tlai^MO.; Apollod. L9,3S.> 
He wu kW of Colchii at the time when Phiixu 
lltongfat thither the gotden flaeoa. At one time ha 
ma expelled from hit kingdoni hj hit hcothei 
Pane*, but wai natored bj nil danghlar Hedeia. 
(Apollod. L 9. S 38.) Compara Abbvhtui^ Ab- 
vouavtilm, lisoy, and Minii^ [L. 8.] 

patnmjniic farm* &om Aeite*, and an lued b? 
Roman poett to deaignate hit danghtCT Hedeia. 
(0>. Met f ii. 9, 296, Hmid. ri. 103 ; VaL FLuc 
viiL 333.) [L. S.] 

AEOA (AIr>l)> according to Hrainut {Poel. 
^ifr. ii. 13) a daughter of Olenn*, who wai a de- 
acendont of HephaeitD*. Aegn and her uiter 
Helice ouned the inbnt Zeu in Crete, and the 
foTTDer wai afterwardi changed b; the god into 
the conitfUition called Capella. Acconiing to 
other ttadition* meotioned by Hyginna, Aega wa» 
B danghter of Meliiaeni, king of Crete, and wai 
choien to ncUe the In&nt Zen* ; bat a* *he wai 
finind onabte to do it, the aarrice wat perfonned 
by the goat Amalthea. According to othen, again, 
Aega wat a danghter of Helio* *nd of nich daiiling 
brrghtneu, that the Titan* in their attack npon 
Olympni became frightened and nqoeiled their 
mother Oaea to conceal her in the eanh. She wat 
■ccordinsly confined in a caTe in Crete, where the 
kcame the nnrta of Zeui. In the fight with the 
Utant Zeus wa* commanded by an oiacle to corer 
binuelf with her akin ("tTu)- He obeyed the 
command and railed A«b among the ttart. 
SimiUvr, though tomewhat different aceonnti, were 

firen by Euemenu and othertt (Eratoith. Gilait. 
3 ; Antonin. Lib. 36 ; IdH^ant. Inita. i. 33. g 1 9.) 
It i* clear that in tome of theae ttoriei Aegis 
i* regarded aa a nymph, and in othen at a goat, 
though the two ideat ore not kept dearly diitiuct 
Inm each other. Her name it either connected 
wiih a1{, which aigniSei a goat, or with Itf.agateof 

coniidet the myth about her at made np of two 
diitinet onet, one being of an oatranomical iiatim 
and derived from the conilellation Canella, the riie 
of which bring* ttorma and lempeit* (Aiat Fkata. 
150), and the other referring to the goM which 
wu believed to have Bickled the in&nl Zan* in 
CiTle. (Comprire Buttmann in liklcr'a l/r^riug 
■wd A' Itulang dcr StcnmiiHai, p. 100 ; BSItiger, 

Amaliya, L p^ 10, Ac 1 Cmaer, !^6al. it, p. 
411 Ac.) [L. S.] 

AEOAEON (AlroW), a ion of Unniu hy 
Ooea. Aegaeon od hi* brothen Oyge* and 
Cottoi an known imdet the name of the Unuiidt 
(Hei. T^og. 303, &e.), and afe deacribed aa bugs 
monaten with a himdred aima (liHcTiyxiv^) ind 
fifty head*. (Apollod. L I . J I j He* Titag 149, 
Ac.) Ho*t wiiten menUon the thiid Uianid 
nnder the lume of Briaren* Inltend of Aegaeon, 
which i* explained in a puiage of Homer {11. i, 
403, Ac. ), who Hyi that men called him Aegaeon, 
but the godi Briaieiu. On one occauon when the 
Olympian godi were about to pnt Znu In chaini, 
Theti* oiled in the B**i*tanea of Ai^won, who 
compelled tha god* to de*i*t from their intention* 
[Ham. IL L S9S, Ac.) According to Hetiad 
{Ti«g. 1G4, Ac 617, Ac), Af^aeon and hia 
bmthera were bated by Uianua from the tinw of 
their biith, in conaequenoe of whieh thej wan 
concealed ia the depth of the earth, where thej 
nmained nntil tbe Titant began their war agnintt 
Zeoo. On the adTJca-vf GaeB Zest deGTOTMl the 
ttianida from thdr priton, that thaj mi^t atutt 
Um. The hnndred-amied gianta conquatad tha 
ntaiu by hurling at them thne hnndrad tmkt at 
OMe, and tecured the Tictoi; to ZtiM, who thnut 
the Titan* into Tartantt and placed the Heeaton- 
cheiraa at itt gate*, or, aoeording to other*, in th« 
depth of the ocean to guard them. (Hot. Tlim. 
617, Ac 61£, Ac) According to a legend in 
PBDgania«(ii. 1. B 6, iL 4. g 7X Brtamit wu choten 
a* arbitrator in the diapnte between Poaeidon and 
Heliot, and adjudged tbe Iithmo* to the former 
and the Acrocorinthu* to tha latler. The Scholiaat 
on Apolloniiu Rhodiiu (i. 1165) repmenta Ae- 
gaeon aa a nn of Oaea and Poutnt and ni living 
a* a marine god in the A^an in. Ovid (MeT. 
LL 1 0) and Philoaltatn. ( VtL AprMM. iv. «) like- 
wite regard him ai a marine god, while Virgil 
(.4«. X. ASfi) reckon* him among the giant* 
who atonned Olympn*, and Callimachua (^Hgm. 
w DtL )4I, Ac), r^prding him in the uune light, 
^acea him under mount Aetna. The Scholiast on 
Theocritn* (tiylL i. 65) call* Brianui one of tha 
Cydopa. The opinion which regard* Aegaeon and 
hi* bnthen aa only penonificaliona of the exln- 
oidinary power* of nature, anch at ate maniiated 
in the violent commotiont of the earth, at earth- 
quake*, Tolcsnic emptiont and the like, *eemi to 
explain beat the varioui account* about them. [ L. S.] 

AK0AEU3 (AJ^iwf), a tamame of Pnei- 
don, derived Tram the town of Aegna in EabacB, 
near which he had a mognificeDt temple npon a 
bill. (Stmb. ix. p. 405 ; Virg. An. iil. 74, whera 
Seiviua erroneoutly derive* the name from the 
Aegean tea.) [L. S.J 

AEUE1DE3 {Myttnty, > patRinymic (iom 
Acgeui, and enievitlly uaed to deajgnale Theteot, 
(Horn. //. i. 366; Ov. Heroid. iv. 59, iL 67 ; 
compote AwiiUB.) [L. S.J 

AEOE'RIA ot EOE'RIA, one of the Ounenaa 
in RomHi mythology, from whom, according to 
llie ligendi of eoily Roman ttorjr, Niimn recciTed 
hi* initructioni mpectiiig tha fomu of wonhip 
which he introduced. (Liv. i. 19; Vol. Max. i. 2. 
S 1.) The gnie in which the king had hit i.i- 
terriewi with the godde**, and in which a well 
guhad fiirth from a AaA receu, wot dedicated by 
him t" the Camenae. (Uv i. 31.) The Roman 
legendt, however, point out two diitinct placet 

tS ; Pht. Ifam, 4; LacMnt 
ilw other am tbe dty of Rome >t the'Pona 
Capen*, in tha nlle; now called Ciparella, where 
the vm^ ihietd had Ulen fmm hsTeo, and 
vbera Nmna 
bterriewi with hii IkIothI CaioenL (Piut. Naat. 
13 i Jdt. iii. 12.) OTid [MeC it. 431, &i 
•ompan Stiatk /. o.) KlaMa that, after the den 
of Noma, Aegeria Brd iato the itud; gniTe in t 
nla of Alicia, and there dirturiied bv bar lame 
tattooi tha worship of Diana which had ba 
fatonght ihithat tram Tanrii b; Ocetleis or, ae- 

Mienta of Virtaiu, who wm nudonhtcdl; 
Italian heniL Thi* it one of tha antt remarkable 
"—**"-*- of the maonar io which tha irorahip of 
Otaek drnnjtj or hero wu eoitntfted upon and 
cemlaiMd with a pocdy Ittdiao wcmhip^ Aqieiia 
was regarded ai a prophetic divinity, and alto m 
tha girer of life, whetKC ^e wu inToked by 
pregnant women. {¥tttta,*.v, Sffcriae; comftre 
Wagner, Cunmtriiliiliti de Egeriae fimtt tt tpeat 
(uo/ar tilm, Mortiur^ lS-24 ; Hannng, Die Bdig. 
itr Rimer, ii. p. J03, &c. and 213, &c) [L. S.] 

AEOESTUS. [Al-¥stks.1 

AEUKUS {Khtii). 1. AccordinK to tome 
accouulga ton of Pandion II. ktiig of Aiheut, and 
of Pj'Iia, while oihen call him a un of Scyiius or 
Phcmiua. and itate that be waa only an adopted 
ton of Pandion. (Paiu. i. 5. M, &c ; SchuL ad 
/.fo^r.iSi; ApoUod. iii. Ifi. $6.) Pandion 
had been expelled froni hit kingdom by the 
Metiunidi, but Acgeui in coojuDction with hit 
brotheii. Palla*, Nyioa, and Lycu) reatorvd him, 
and Aegeut being the eldett of the bratbera luc- 
eeeded Pandion. Aegetu fint married Meta, a 
daughter of lloplet, and then Chakiopp, the 
daaghter of Rhexenor, nmther of whom bore him 
any children. (ApollDd.iiL 15. |6,&c) Heatccib- 
nl thia miafortcme to the anger uf Aphrodite, and 
in order lo omdliala her introduced her worship 
Bl Athani. (Paut. L 14. § G.) AfUrwardt he begot 
Thneut by Aethra at Troeien. (Plut. Tlia. Z; 
Apollod. iii. 15. 87; Hygin. Fab. 37.) When 
Theaeoa hod grown np to manhood, and wai io- 
fanued of hit detcenl, he ¥tnit to Atheai and de- 
fEaled the fifty toot of hit uncle Palhu, who 
j|.i»i.|. iJig kingly dignity of Alhent, had made 
war apoa Aegcnt and depoeed hint, and alio 
wiahed lo exonda Theeeiu irom the auccenHon. 

(Plat, ria 13.) A<feiu waj mioied, 
aooa after. Hi* death it reUtted In the following 
naoitcr: When Theteiu went to Citle to deliver 
Atbeni from the tribnie it had to pay lo Muiot, 
be ptomited hit ftther [hat on hit retnni be woidd 
boiit white tailt at a lignal of hit lafely. On his 
approach to the ooatt of Attica he forgot hit 
piTimite, and bit father, who waa watching on a. 
iDck on the tcncooit, on peiceiring the blaw tail, 
thoogbt that bis um had periihed and threw bim- 
aelf into the tea, which according to lome tradi- 
tiont rrceircd from Ihii cTent the name of the 
AegaHU tea. (PlnL TIm. 32, Died. iv. 61; 
Paua. L 22. 3 5 ; Hygin. Fab. id; Serr. ad Am. iiL 
74.) Medew, who waa beliered Co hare tpent 
tome lime at Athens on her retum from Corinth 
to Coichia, it laid to have become mother of a ton, 
Mcdus by Aegcut. (Apoltod. i. 'J.%29 ; Hygin, 

Fab, 26.) Aegant wai one of the eponymic 
heUes of Attica i and one of the Attic tribet 
&om him. (Paut. 
• heroum of Aegeua 
believed to' be at Atheni (Paua. L n. § fi), and 
Pantaoiag mentiout two ttatnei of him, one at 
Atheni and the other at Delphi, the latter of which 
had been made of the tithes of the booty taken 
by the Atheniaot at Maiathon. (Pans. L 6. g 2, 

2. Tha eponymic ham of the phyte called tha 
Aegeidaa at Spoila, was a ton of Oeolycus, aikd 
grandson of Tlisiaa, the fonnder of the colon; in 
Then. (Hand. ir. 149.) All the Aegeidi were 
belieTCd to be Cadmeans, who formed a tettlement 
at Sparta prenoiu to the Dorian conquest. There 
it only tut diSCerence in the aeconnta, that, ac- 
cording to some, Aegaoa waa the leader of tha 
Cadmean ooloDittt at Sparta, whiles according to 
Herodolni, they iccuTed their name of A^ieTdt 
from the later Acgent, the eon of Oeolycni. (Pind. 
Pflk. T. 101 ; ItUt. TiL 18, &c with tha SchoL) 
There wat at Sparta a heronm of Acgent. (Pana. 
iiL 15. g 6 ; compare iv. 7. | 3.) [L. S.] 

JjyiaJi*ia), a daaghter of Adrattni and Am- 
phithen, or of Aegialeni the ton of Adraaint, 
whence she bears the surname of AdtasUna. (Hom. 
/tT. 41-3; ApoUod-i. 8. S6, 9. §13.) She was 
married to Diooiedes, who, on his retarn from 
Troy, found hei liiing in luiulteiy with Cometes. 
(Kiutath, ad JL t. p. G66.] The hero attributed 
thii mitfertuue to the anger of Aphrodite, whom 
he bad wounded in the war againat Tioy, but 
when Aegiale went to fiir as to threaten hia life, 
he lied to l-,aly. (SchoL ad Lyoophr. 610, Ur. 
47G, &c.) According to Dictys Crclcntis 

report, that Diomedei wot returning with a Trujon 
woman who lived with him at hit wife, and on his 
arrirU at Argot Aegiale expelled him. Jn Ovid 
(/6th 349) *ne ia deicribcd at tho type of a bnd 
wife. [L .S.] 

AEOI'ALEUS (Ai7<a\t^i). 1. A ton of 
Adraatui and Amphitbea or Demosnataa. (Apollod. 
i. 9. g 13 i Hygin. Fab. 71.1 He wot the only 
one among the Epigoaea that fell in the war 
Bgunst Thebet. (Apollod. iii 7. 3 3; Paut. ix. 5. S 7; 
compare ADHAarutL) He wot wonhipped at a 
hero at Pegae in Megarii, and it wat beliered 
that hie body iiad been conveyed thither &om 
Thebes and been buried there. (Paus. L 44. g7.) 

2. A ton of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia, 
from whom the part of Peloponnesni aflci- 
wardt called Achaia derived its name of Aegisleia. 

neus and first king of Sicyea, 
foandetion of the town of A^ialek was ascribed. 
S. A ton of Aeetet. [ABsrarua.] [U S.] 
AEOI'DIUS, a Roman commander in Oaul 
under Majaiimus. (a. n. 457— 461.) Afier the 
death of the latter, he muntained an independent 
toveieignty in Gaul, and was elected by the Franha 
as their king, after they had banished Childeric 
Four years aSerwarda, Childeric was rtitoPBd ; bat 
Aegidius did not oppose hit ittum, and he retained 
his influence in Gaul till his death. (Uregoc. Tn- 
ron. iL I'J.) 




X"' or Atylixn), ■ ■onnme of Zeu, &■ ihe beam 
nf the Aegii with which be itiike* terror into the 
impioiu uid hii eneraia. (Horn. IL L 202, il 1£7, 
375, Ac 1 Pind. /rtL ii. 93 i Hjgin. /"o* Ailr. ii. 
13.) OthsndetiTe thssuraamelron]al{>iid<fx^, 
nnd take it b> an oUiuioa to Zeoa being fed 1^ 
gcat. (Spanh. ad OiJfin. V»' " •''"• *^) [I~S.] 

At^OlMUS, or AEGI'HIUS (Xtrvui, 
Aiji^n), one oflhe moat WKient oflheOreak 
lihjudani, vbo ia nid b; Galen (Dt Diff^. Pali. 
i. 2, IT. a 11. ToL Tiii. pp.498, 716,752) ' 
have been the fint penm whe wrote n imlue 
the pnlM. He wu a natlTe of Velia in Lncauu, 
and IB Ruppowd to have lived before the 
Hippocintai, that ia, in the Gilh centurf befbra 
Chriat. Hii work wu entitled II>pl IlaViM, De 
/"alpilalionilmif (a name which alone raffidentiy 
indtcalei its antiqaii;,) and ia not now in aiiet- 
ence. Callimachiu(ap. JUea. liT. p, 643, e.)inen- 
tioni an nnthoi nained Aegimini, wbe wnle a 
work on the art of making cbceaecake* (irAaiiatir- 
d Pliny mentiona a per- 
le (ff. JV. TiL 49), who waa 
aaid to have lived two hundred Teon ', but whether 
these BM the laine or diferent indivjdnali i> quite 
uncertain [W. A. O.] 

AEOI'MIUS {Atyfl^et), (he mjrthical anoeit 
of the Doric race, who is deecribed aa their king 
nnd lawgirer at the time when they were yet io- 
habiliiig the noithem part* of Thesuly. (Pind, 
I'irth. t. 124, T. 96.) When inval<red in a vai 
with the Lapilhae, he called IleraJet to hit 
awintonee, and pramiMd him the third port of hi: 
tcrritiHy, if he deliTered him of hia ODemiea. The 
Idipiihoe were conqnered, but Heracles did not 
take for himaelf the territory promised to him by 
Aegimius, and left it in Imit t» the king who was 
to preserve it for the sons of Heractei. (Apoilod. 
ii.7. 3 7) Diod. iT.37.) Aegimiui had two sons, 
Dymiu and Pamphylas who migraled to Pelopon- 
neaus and were regarded as the Hnoeston of two 
branches of the Doric race (Dymanes and Pam- 
phylians), while the third bmnch derived its name 
from Hyllu* (Hylleans), the son of Heracles, who 
had been adopted by Aegimius. (Apoilod. ii. 8. 
g 3 ; SchoL ad Pmd. Pglh. i. 121.) Respecting 
the coniuiion between Aegimina and Heracles, 
•ee Mnller, Dor. L 35, &c. 

There existed iu antiquity an epic poem called 
" Aegimius," of which a few fragmenU are still 
exbtnl, aud which ia sometimes ascribed to Hesiod 
and sometimes to Cercops of Miletus. (Athen. iL 
p.An3; Steph. Byi. i.e. 'ASarrlt.) The main 
subject of this poem appears to hare been the war 
of Aegimiua and Hetiiclea against the Lapilhae. 
(Oroddeck, BiUia/h. der all. LiL md KmO, ii 64, 
&c; Miiller, Atr. L 33, &c; Welcker, i)ar .^mk^ 
Cfrlat, p. 266, Ac. The (rogmenta aie collected 
in Diintser, Die Froffm. d. iptKi. Poet, der 
CrioJi. Im tur JMt Alsiaad. p. 66, Ac) [L,S.) 

AEOI'NA. [Aucus.) 

AEOINAEA (Alyanla), a sumame of Anemia, 
under which ahewas worshipped at Sparta. (Paus. 
iii. 14. S 3.) It means cither the hnnlress of chs- 
nois, or the wielder of the jarelin (atyaria). ( L. S.] 

AEOINITFA. a modeller [Juior) mcnUoned 
by Pliny. (H. N. zxxv. 1 1 . a. 40.) Scholars are 
now pretty well agreed, that Winckehnann was 


of soHM artist, whose real name, for toaie reason or 
other, waa not given. Hi* brother Paoiaa, « 
paintsi of some distinetjon, wa* a pupil at Erigo- 
nus, who had been colonr-grinder to the artist 
Nealoea. We learn from FlutaKli {Auil. 13), 
that Nealces was a friend of Aralna of Sicyon, 
who was elected praetor of the Achaean leag-ia 
B. c. 24S. We shall not be hr wrong therofbre in 
assuming, that A^inela and his lx«ther flourUh' 
ed about OL cxl. b.c 230. (K. 0. HUUer, AniL 
dtr Ki«uL p. 151.) [C. P. M.] 

AEGI'OCHUa. [Ahuhtchub.] 
AE'OIPAN (AVni'), that iB,aaM-Faa, waa 
■ccording to lonie statements a being distinct from 
Pan, while others regard him as identtcal with 
Pan. Hia story appear* to bo altogether of late 
oiigio. Aoeording to Hyginna [FiJi. 155) he wa* 
the aon of Zeua and a goat, or of Zen* and Aega. 
the wits of Pan, and wa* transfetied to the 
Btara. (Hygin. /\«t .^Mr. ii. 13. f 28.) Other* 
again make Aegipan the father of Pan, and state 
that be a* well aa bit son was repraiented aa half 
niat and half Gih. (£rato«th. OataiL 27.) When 
Zona in hia coutett with the Titans was deprived 
of the sinews of bit hands and feet, Hennca and 
Aegipan secretly restored them to him and fitted 
them in their proper place*. (Apoilod. L 6. g 3 ; 
Hygin. PotL Aifr. L e.) Aceorduig to a R(nnan 
tmdition mendoned by Plutarch {ParalltL 22), 
A^pon bad apning from the incestuoua inler- 
conrse of Valeria of Tuacnlum and her bther 
Valerins, and was conudered only a dil&rentmune 
for Silvanui. (Comp. Pan, and Vosa, MgUmL 
Brie/; L p. SO, &c) [U S.} 

AE0ISTHi;S(At7i<Tfl<ii), a son of Thyestes, 
who nnsrittingly begot him by his own duighter 
Pelopia. Immnlialely after his birth he was ex- 
posed by his mother, but was found and saved by 
ahepherde and suckled by a goat, whence his name 
Aegiathus (from atg i Hygin. Fab. 67, 88 ; Actiaii, 
r./r.xii. 42). Subsequently be was searched after 
and found by Atreus, the biother of Thyestes, who 
bad him educated as his own child, so that every 
body believed Aegiathua to be hia son. In the night 
in which Pelnpla hod sbared Ike bod of her father, 
she had taken from him his sword which she 
afterwards gave to Aegiathus. This simrd became 
the means by which the incestuoua intercourse be- 
tween her and her lather was discovered, where- 
upon she put an end to her own life. Atreus in bis 
enmity toward* his brother icnt Aegislhus to kill 
him ; but ^e award which Aegiathus carried was 
the cBiuo of the recognition between Thyestes and 
his sou, and the latter relumed and slaw hit uncle 
Atreua, while he waa offering a aacri£ee on the 
sca^coeat Aogisthut and his &lher now took 
pntaetsion of their bwfiit inheiilance from which 
they had been expelled by Atreua. (Hygin. /. a 
and 952.) Homer appears to know nothing of all 
Ihcae tn^c occiirrencH, and we learo tmu him 
only that, after the death of Tbyeiles, Aegiethu* 
ruled as king at Hycenae and took do port in (ha 
Trojan eipeditjon. {(W. iv, 618, Ik.) While 
Agamemnon, tbe ton of Atreua, was absent on 
his expedition against Troy, A^ialhu* seduced 
Clylemnestza, the wife of AgamemnoD, and was so 
wicked aa to oIKr up thanks to the gods for the 
IS with which iiis eriminal eieniont were 
crowned. (Horn. Od. iii. 263, die) In order not 

tD V Dirpnted b; tlia ntnni of Agamemnon, he 

Ai^ithiu invimi him to ■ reput at whUb he had 
him trochrainulj- mardBivd. (Horn. Od. ir. £34, 
&c; Puu.iL16.e5.) After Ihii srent Aegitthai 
nigned htch jtan laaga oier Hjcenoe, nnlil in 
the eighth Onatea, the ton of Anmemnon, n- 
tttroed home and aTasged the death of hia bther 
bj patting the aduitem to dcMh- (Ham. Od, i. 
'is, AiC i compuv Aguuinoh, Clytuinvtb*, 
Ousrn.) [U &] 

ABGLB (AfyAn). I. ThoBUMtbaaalifiilof tha 
Nidada, d>a^taToFZeaaaiidNeaen{Vii[[. Bciog. 
tL 20), tn whom HeUo* begot the Chuilo. 
(Pana. ii. U. § I.) 

8. A nitet of PhaetoB, and daughter ef Uatioi 
aoda;raene. (Hygin. i'afr 1M,166.) Id her 
grief at the death of bar brother ihe and her n>len 
vera changed into poplal^ 

3. OneoftheHecperideL (Apo1lDd.ili.g11; 
StrT. ad AtH. it. 4B4 ; comp. HupnuDwi,) 

4. A n^rntih, danghter trf' Panopcui, who wm 
bclnTcd b; Thnen*, utd for whom he fbnoak Ari- 
adne. (Plat. J-4r«.90[Atheo,jtiii.p.6fi7.) [L. S.] 

AliOLK tAfYAq), ana of the dBOghlen of 
AwiwiUpiiia (PUn. H. ff. xxir. 40. | 31) by 
IdukpcLiA, the danghtor of the Sun, acoording to 
llennipput (op. Sciol. h AriHapA. PUU 701 1 or 
by Epionp, anording to Snidu. {>. v. 'Htri^nj.) 
Siie i> Hid to hate derind her name Aegle, 
" Brighttteaa," or " Splendour," either from the 
betuiiy of the hornan bod; when in good bralih, 
nr from the honour pud to the nodicd profoxion. 
(.1. 11. Meibom. OtrntatBt. at Hippocr. '^Jaijiir." 
lj«tfl. Rot.l64i(,4to.c6.|7, p.6£.) [W.A.O.] 

A er> LH'IS (Ary^nl'i), a daughter of Hyaunlhna 
who bod emigrated from Locedaemon to Alheiu. 
Doling the tiege of Athena h; Minoe, in the nign 
of A^ens, ahe together with her aiiten Anthei'a, 
Lvtaeo, and Orthaea, were aacriiieed on (he tomb 
of Oeiaeatna the Cyclop, ibr the patpow of avert- 
ing a pndlence then raging at Athena. (Apollod. 
iii. 15.S<-) [L.S.] 

AEOLES (Af)Ai|t), a Samian athlete, wbo waa 
damb, reooTend hia roiee when ho made an efibn 
on one occaaion to expreaa hi* indignation at an 
attempt to hnpoaa npon him in a public conteat. 
(OelL T. 9 ; VftL Max. L 8, eit. 4.) 

AE0LETE3 (Af^AiKut), thai ia, the radiant 
pid, a lumanw of Apollo. (Apollou. Rhod. ii. 
1730, Apdlod-i. 9. |20;Heiyeh. ..p.) [L. S.] 

AFXH)'B0LnS(AfT0«4A-.-\ Ihegoat-kiUer, a 
ioniaiDO of Dionyaoa, at Potnine in Boeotia. 
( 8. gl.) [L. S.] 

AGOO'CERUS (AV>*|>-i).a anmame of Pan, 
dracripliTa of hia fignn with the homa of a goat, 
but i* mote ennunonly the urune given to one ^ the 
ngni of the Zodiac. (Lncan, ii. 53S ; Lucret. t. 
614 ; C. Caea. Grnn-mAraL 218.) fL. S.] 

AEGO'PHAOU3(Al7o4>d'voi), the goal^tcr, 
■ oiniame of Heia, under wliich rhe n-aa nanhip 
ped bi the Ijuedaemoninni. (Paua. iiL 15. g 7 ; 
Hearch. and Kijm, M. i. r.) (L. S,] 

AEOUS and HOSCII.LUS. too diiela of the 
Allobrogea, who had aerred Caeaar with great 
fidelity in the Gallic wai, and were treated by 
him with grtat diatinciion. They accomsenied 
hiiB in hia aun[«%n> against Pampey, hnt hating 
been reproved by Caesar on iccnnnt of depriving 
the ravalrr of ila pay and appropriating the booty 
to theisitivo, they deaerted to Pompey inUrcece. 

AELIA 0EN8. 87 

(Cae^ imi. Civ. iiL S9, 60.) Aegna waa afM- 
warda kiUcd tn an engagement between the caralry 
of Caeur and Pompey. (iii. 84.) 

AEGYPTUS (ArTwrroi), a son of Belna and 
Anchinoo or Aihiroe, and twin-brother of Danans. 
(Apollod. ii. 1. g 4 , Tieta. ad T/Jtophr. 982, 
1155.) Euripidei repreiented Cephens and Phr- 
neni likewiie aa bnlhen of A^yptui. Belm 
aasigned to Danaaa tho aoTereignly i^ Libya, and 
to Aegyploa be gaxe Arabia. The latter al» >ub- 
dued the countiy of tbe Mehunpodo, which he 
called Aegjpl after hii own name. Afgyptua by 
bit aevetiil wlte* had fifty una, and it ao hap- 
pened that hia brother Danaua had jan a* many 
danghlert. (ApoUod. ii. 1. g fi i Hjgin. F,J,. 17D.) 
ItauauB had reaaon to fetr the tona of hit brother, 
and fled with hia dangfatera to Argoa in Pelopon- 
neaua. Thither he waa Mowed W the *ona of 
Aegyptna, who demanded hia daughtera for their 
wivea and promiaed laithfiil alliance. Danaiia 
complied with their requeit, and diatribnted hit 
danghtera antong them, bot to each of them he 
Rare a dagger, with which they were to kill their 
huibanda in the bridal night. Alt the aona of 
Aegyplm were thua murdered with the exception 
of Lynceua, who waa nTed by Hypermneatra. 
The Danaida buried the hesda of their muiderBd 
huabanda in I>ema, and their bodiea outside the 
town, and were afterward* purified of tlieir crime 
by Athena and Hermea at the command of Zeua, 
Pnaaaniaa (JL 34. g 3), who nw Ihemonnmeut under 
which tbeheadaof the wniofAegyptni were believ- 
ed to be bnried, aaya that it ttood on the way to 
Ijuina, the citadel of Argoa, and that their bodiei 
were boried at Lema. In Hyginu* (^ii/.. 168) 
the atory ia aomewhat diRerent. According to 
him, Aegyptni formed the plan of murdering 
Dannus and hu danghtera in <»der to gain pn»ie*- 
•ion of hi* dominiona. When Damus waa in- 
fonned of thia he fled with hi* danghtera to Argna. 
Aegyptua then aent out hia aona in pursuit of the 
fligilives, and enjoined them not to letum nnleaa 
they had alain Danaua. The sons of Aegyptua 
laid uege to Argoa, and when Dnnaua mw that 
further leaiatanec was useless, he put an end to the 
hostilities by giving to each of the besiegers one of 
hia daughters. The murder of the sane of Aegyp- 
tns then took place in the bridal nighL There 
was a tiadition at Pairae in Achua, according tn 
which Aegyptua himself came to Qivece, and died 
at Aroe »ith Rrief for the fate of hu eons. The 
temple of Seiapis at Patrae contained a monument 
of Aegyptu.. (Pans, lil SI. g 6.) [L. S.] 

AEIMNESTU8 ('Atlju-wToi), a SpMlan,who 
killed Mardnniua m the battle of Plataea, s. c 47fl, 
and afterwards fell himaelf in the Meaaenian war. 
(Herod, ii. 64.) The Spartan who killed Mar- 
doiiiuB, Plntareb {ArU. 19) call* Arimnntu* 

AE'LIA 13 ENS, plebeian, of which the fiuoily- 
names and sumAini^i am Catuh, Oalliik, (Jha- 
ciLia, Lamu, LiutiR, Pakti'h, SrAtaNUa, 
Stilo, Tuikro. Uii eoiiiB thi* gens ia also 
written Aifu, hnt Allia aeems to te a distinct 
gens. The only Eimily-nanies and aumnmes of the 
Aelia gena upon coins ars Bala, Laaia, FattMt, 
and Siynnut. Of UaUt nothing is known. Sga- 
'» the name of the favorite of Tiberius, who 
adopted by one of the Aelii. (Suanuk,) 
The firat member of (hia gena, who obtained Ihe 
consulahip, was P. Aetiut PaetuB in ■ c. 3S7. 


Uodtr llu Mnpin tha Aelim mnw bMMDS 

BKwc cdebaUd. It mt the nuw of ttw emp 

Hidrian, and conwiiDentl; of the AnUniiK*, wl 
ha adi^tad. 

I. fLir.iT.M.) 


uiu Hsreoliiu. (1^ 
trap. ixT 13 ) AunL Vkl. da Cam. S9.) 

AELIA'NUS, CASPE'RICS, pefect of tha 
Pnwtoriaa gmidi nwlcv Diontiui and Nsrrs. 
Ha udtod an iDnrraetiaii of tha gnaida againrt 
Nana, in w4at to abtain the jwiiiiliinwit of Kone 
.... 1, hot ma killed by TraJMi with 

ebaoiioiu paaoni, hot ma killed by Tnjui 
hia aceompUna. (lKob Caaa. IxriiL S, G.) 

a lutr, . 


1 Bonum (r./r. rii.3*), . 
■miiiifl the right) of Roman dliHaihip. Ka vru 
particnkrlj foQd of the Oreaki and of Greek Ut«- 
nture and ontoij. ( F. //. ix. 33, xiL 25.) 
Ha atudiwi Dndar Paaaaoiaa (he rhMoricJan, and 
imitatod the daqoence of NioMtratua and the ttjle 
of Dion Chryaiiatom ; but aapecialty admind 
Hendaa Attiena men (hao alL He tMuht ifaato- 
ric at Roma ia the tiaw of Hadrian, and faioice wu 
calM i ffo^ioTifi. 8o complete waa tha commaod 
he acquind oral (he Gisak langDaga that ha could 
tpeek aa well aa ■ oaliTa Athanun, and bencs waa 
otUed i fufdyXtrr-n oi fiaMfAoTvet. (Phikat. ViL 
Soph. ii. 31.) Ttut ihalorie, bewenr, waa aat hi) 
forte may eanl; tw beliered from the itjle of hia 
work* I and be appaca to have giren up teacbiw 
for writing. Suidai calla him 'Apxiip*))! (''ontifei). 
He liTed to above lilt; year* irf age, and had no 
childran. He did not manj, becniue he would 
Dot have any. There an two eauideiabla work* 
of hi* remaining : one a collection of miKellannua 
hiilory (HmhUi) 'laraplaj in fborteen book*, com- 
monly called hia " Varia Uiiloria," atid Ihe other 
a work on the peculiantiet of animalt (Ilipi Zinr 
iHiinpToi) in aerenteen book*, commonly allied hi* 
-De Animalium Nattua." The fonmir work con- 

ricty of aubjecta. Ita chief ralue 
Biiiei from ita containuig many psMgca from 
woriia of older aathoia wbKh ate now loM. It ia 
to be n^retted that in aclecting from Thucydidea, 
Herodotua, and other writer*, he ba* *aniBtime* 

!iien himtelf the Ironble of altering their iangoage. 
lut he tclla ui ha liked to luTe hi* own way and 
to tbllow hia own taite, and ao ha would aaem to 
hHve nltered lor the mere aake of putting tome- 
tbiiig diilerent. Tbe latter work i> of tha ame 
kind, fcnppy and gawping. It i* partly (sllected 
&Dni older wrilan, and initly the remit of hi* own 
obvcrrAlione both in Italy and nbroad- According 
lu Fhilostntui (i> ViL) he waa icarcely ever ont 
of Italy ; but he tell* u> EiimKlf that be tnTeUed 
a* hr a* At^pt ; and that he aaw at AJexandria 
an 01 with fire fret. (De Awt. li. 40 ) comp. xi 
11.) Thii book wonld appear to have become a 
popular and ilandard work on aoology, aince m the 
foiuteentb century Manuel Philea, a Byiantine 
poet, founded upon it a poem on aiiimala. At the 

: — that be haa ^lent gnat 
laboor, oib, and thooght ia writing it) — tittt ha 
haa pvfaiied tha porauit of knowle^ to the pui- 
aoit <rf wealth | and that, for hia part, be fomrf 
much Dwte pIcMon in obaerring the h^ta of tbs 
lion, the panther, and the S>i, in liateiung to tb« 
■tng of the nightinnle, and in atndying the mi- 
gfatima of etanea, Uiau in men keapuig np richea 

voik ha baa aonght to adhn* to 
tbe trndi. Nothing can be imagined more dafioent 

in arrangemant than thii work : he goes inaa ona 
■abject to another without the leaat hnk of aaaoci- 
ation; aa (e.g.) bum elephant) fiL 151 to dn^na 
(li. 16), from the lirer of mica (ii. 56) to the uaea 
irfoxan(ii.57). But (hi* at 
treating thing* wuxlAa nud^MS, 
taitioi»l i he adopted Ihi* [dan to giie rariaty to 
the work, and to aToid >*Hi»m iq the reader, Hu 
a^le, which be oonunend* to the indulgenoe of 
oitic*, though free from any great fault, ha* ih 
particular merit. 'He aimilarity of plan in the two 
worka, with other internal evideiuxa, aeam* to 
■hew that they were both written by the aauw 
Aelian, and not, aa Voaa and Valckeouf toajte^ 
tore, by two ditferent peraouL 

Jn both work* he aeein* deaiiDO* to incnlcata 
moral and religion* principLaa (aee K. /T. tiL 44 ; 
JMAnim. yi. 2, lii. 10, 11, ix. 7, »a6 B^iibig.) ; 
and he wrote aome treatiaet txynmlj on philoMi- 
phical and Rligion) imbjecu, eipecially one ou 
Pniidence (IIu) Hfovoloi) in three book* (Suidaa, 
K V. 'AfaautoTaii), and one on the Divine Mani- 
Csalationa (1I(|)1 9tiar 'Ertfyimw), directed agaiiut 
the Epicurcaiu, whom he alludea to elaewliera. 
{Dt Anim. vii. 44.) There are olio attributed to 
Aelian twenty leitera on hnalmidry and nich-lika 
matter* {*\ypouairai 'Evw^oAoJ), which are by 
feigned charactera, are written in a rhetorical un- 
real ityle, and are of no value. The iilit edition 
of all hi* work* waa by Conrad Oeinor, 1366, foL, 
containing slao tbs workt (rf' Henclidea, Pidemo, 
Adamantiuaand Mebunpu*. The ~ Varia Hiatoria" 
wu 6nt edited by Cunillna PeruKua, Rome, 
I54fi, 410.; the principal edition* aince are by 
Periioniu*, l^yden, 1701, Htc, by Gronoriua, 
Leyden, 17il], 3 Tola. 4to., and by Jtuhn, Leip- 
lig. 1 780, 3 ifda. 8>& Tha Da Animalium 
Notuin waa edited by Oronoviua, Lond. 1744, 
2 Tola. 4to., and by J. Q. Schneider, Leipiig, 
1784, 3 Tola 8t& The laat edition it that by 
Fr.Jacaba,Jana,lB3-2,3vola8io. Thi< contain* 
tha YaluaUe material* which Schneidec had cat- 
tected and left for a new edition. The Letten 
were pnbliaked ^lart from the other worita by 
Aldua Hanutiua in hia '^CoUectio RpiatviaruM 
Oraecanun," Venice, 1499, 4 to. 

Tha Varia Hialoiia baa been tno)latad into 
l^lin by C Oeaner, and into Ei«l>*ta by A. Fla- 
iniDg, Lond. 1A76, and by Sianiay, 166£; thia 
laat ha* been reprinted more than onoe. Tbe De 
Animalium Natura ha* been trun)lated into l^tin 
by Peter Qilliu* {a Frenchman) and by CoDIad 
Oeaner. Itdoaauot^pear to haiebeenmnalated 
into F.n 

There baa alao been attribnted to Adian a waA 
called Kunrrtfla raS rimtm, an attack on aa 
effeminate man, priAably meant for Elagabalu*. 
(Suida.,*«.-A#.r.J [A A.] 



AELIA'NUS, LU'CIUS, ona of llie tUr 
ruEi (a. d. 2S9-K6) under tlia Roman ampin. 
' '» purple in Oonl bAct ths doth of 
1 wu kiUed bj Ui own wMwn, Im- 


is. 7| IM^ PoO. TVuTVr. 4i AonlVict. <fo 

dm. n, ^H. Si.) 

■> anaeBt phynaan. ^iriw nmM bava Ond in the 
netad etn toi y lAar Ckri<t> •• he >• i>aiitioDad bjr 
OUan (Jl> TWhm ad AutpU. init. toL iit. 
p. SSB) u tha oUMt of kb tnton. Hii btbsi ii 
■qipoaad to kan alio baan a phrddu, aa Aaliuiua 
!• Mid br Oaln (Dt DimeaL MnieaL e. 1. p. ? 
ad. Dfeti) to bara mada an epiWme of hii fctW* 
analwii^l writinga. Oalen ipoiki of that pirt of 
lia work wUch tnated of tha TUmit&ta of the 
Mrtfaa M baing bald ia aome npale in hii time 
(iKdL)^ and be Brini<r* maation* hu talor with n- 
ipect. {ttid. & 7, 22, i^ 11, hi.) Dniing the 
innleiHa of an t^ideinic in Ilalj, AeUaniu ii 
i^ b7 Oalan {Dt Tlimiaa, ad PampUL ibid.) to 
kne naad the Thariaai (DieC. <f AnL art. Ti»- 
rlam) with gnat anioa«, both aa 

' hare broken ont at 
None of hit an>rk* 

77), with eoKtlf the nnu 
Ibit he mekea the epidemic 
Anlioch iuatead of in Italy. 
(aa fiv aa the writer ii awan 

[W. A. G.] 

pnjer ai ponti£u, when the fint •tone of the 
new Cuitol «■! iaid m 1. D. 7). (Tae. Hit i 
SX.) We loom friHU an inscription (Qniler, p, 4£: 
Orelli, n. 750), that hi* foil name wai TL Flantii 
Silmraa Aelianni, that ha held man; important 
nilitaiy eommandi, and that he wai twice conniL 
H» fint oontnlihip wh in a. n. j7 ; the date of 
hia acrand i* unknown. I 7t kT) 

waa nwat BcnhaUy a Greek, hut not the anme oa 
dandioa Aolianna. He Hvcd in Rome end wrote 
a vodc in Bfty-three cholera on the Militirr Tec- 
tka of the Gieeki (Hqil ZTponr)''*-* Tii*" 
'EM.vaimi>), which he dedicated to the emperor 
Hadrian. Ha alio giyea ■ brief acconnt ol the 
eonititntioa of a Roimn army at that time. The 
work anae, ha aaye {Dedic), from a conTanalion 
ha had with the emperor Nerra at Fnmtinni'i 
booae at Formiae. He pnmiae* a work on 
/fatal Tactin alio ; but thia, if it n 

* priated _, 

Ids. It i* nnally firaDd bound up with Leo'i 
IWtka [Ln>]. 

' ■ ' ' ' la l^tin iiiit by Theodorui 

>t Riva, 1487, K«elherwith VqjeliDi, nontinna, 
and Hedcatoa. It ia printed aln in RoborteDoi'i 


aioni. It ha* been tnnalaled inia Engliifa by 
Capt. John Bingham, Lend. 161S, foL, and by 
Lord Dillon, 1811, 4lo. [A. A.] 

AB'LIUS PROMOTUS (AlXwi npofw-oi), 
aa ancient phyriaan of Alexandria, of whoia pe> 
■onal hiilery no particular* are known, and whoaa 
date i* nncartajn. Ha i* inppoeed by Villoiioa 
(AhmiL Orate. toL ii. p. 179, note 1) to have 
lired after the time of Pompey the Great, that i*. 
in the Gnt oentnry befon Chiul ; b^ other* he i* 
eenaidered to be raoch more ancient ; and by 
Chonlaiit {Hiadbmdt dtr Bidivkmdt fSr dit 
Allien Mididm, Ed. 2. Leipaig, 1840, Btd.), on 
the other hand, be i* placed u late a* the lecoud 
half of the lir*t century after Chriat. He ii moit 

frobably the tame penon who i* quoted by Galen 
Dt Ompct. Mtdieaat. Kcmd. Imoi, it. 7, voL 
lii. p. 7S0) (imply by the namo of Ailim. He 
wrote seTeral Gnek medical work*, which are *till 
to be found in manuecript in diSerent librariea 
in Europe, bat of which rum* (a* br aa the writer 
it aware) hare eier hem pobliahed, though Kiihn 
intended hi* work* to luiTg been included in hi* 
collection of Oreak medical writers Some eitracta 
from me of hi* work* entitled A w t^i^i* ilfe^ 
e iaaJ H — /bnantanHi Odltctio, are inaerted by C. 
G. Kiihn in hia Addilam. ad EUmA. Mid. VtL a 
J.A.Fabrkaom''BiiL CH"£Uit.,and by Boos 
in hia Tmiaimi da SurbtOa, Verona, 17B1, 4to. 
Two Diher of hii work* are qnotad or mentioned 
by Hienn. Mereuriili* in hi* Farbt Lectioita, iii. 
4, and fail woric Di Fchw tt MorUi Vtmaioiit, 
L 1 6, iL 2 ; and aUo by Schneider in hit Prebcei 
to Nicander'* nenioco, p. ji., and Altx^Aamiaea, 
p. rit [W. A G.J 

AELLO. [Harftiai.] 

AELLOPUS ('A<U jvBin), a mntame of Iria, 
the uKiaenger of the god*, by which ihe ii de- 
ecribed ai ewift-footed Like a itorm-wind. Ilnmer 
uae* the (brm itWiToi. III. riii. 409.) [L. S.l 


AEHl'LIA. 1. A Tiital Tirgin, who, when 
the Mcred fire waa aidoguiihed on one ooaiian, 

cnlouily rekindled it by throwing a piece of her 
garment upon the extinct ember*. (Dion;*. iL 
"8; VaLMai. Ll.§7.) 

2. The Ihiid daoghler of L. Aemilius PauUu*, 

'ho fell in the baUle j>f Cannae, wat the wi& of 
Scipio Aflricanui I. and the mother of the celebrelcd 
"oraelia, the mother of Ihe Gracchi. She wua of 

mild diipoailion, and long turviied her buiband. 

ler proper^, which wai huvOi wa* inherited by 
her graiideon by adoption, Scipio AMcanu* 11., 
jaTO it to bii own mother Papiiia, who had 
bean diroRed by hii own lather L. Aemiliui. 

* AwnfUfid* I* a word naed by the later Greek 

iteta, and i* expUned by Dn Oinge (Men. Med, 

tt Iwfim. Oratek.) to mean eii, «tr<iu. It i* how- 

fteqnenlly naed in the anae giien to it in the 

Bee Leo, OtuptA Mtdit. iT. 1, 11. u 

erin. AMtd. Mti. Onm. pp. 153, liT. 



(Polyb. xiiii. 12 ; Diod. Ric. ixii.; Val. Mm. 

•i, 7. S I; Plot. Aem. 2; Uv. XKITiii. £7.) 

3. tbe Ihiid danghwr of t^ Aemiliiu Pdulliu 
Muedonicoi urai > little girl when her fatliet wu 
■ppointed eonnil * weond lime lo cgnduct the vmi 
apinrt Per«en«, Upon relunting home after hie 
election he fonnii her id lean, nnd upon inquiring 
the rea»n ihe told hitn that PerKoi hul died, 
which wu the name of tier dog; wfaeraupoa be 
eiclaimed ** I accept the emen," and r^ardcd it 
a> a pledge of hi* ufceH in the war. (Cte. de 
Div. I 46. il 40 ; Plut. .4ef*. 10.) 

4. Acmilia Lepida. [LiPlDA.] 
ealil virgin, who was put Id death b. 

4 fbt h 

She il 

mittcd il 

ft upon 
of the other ' 

rerd a 

virgin^ Marcia and Licinia, to 

crime, but theee two were acquitted by the ponti- 

fice*, when Aemilia wai condemned, bat weft 

■ubi«|aeni1; condemned bj the praetor L. CaMJni. 

(PinL QtaetL Ram. p. S84 1 Lit. EpA 6S ; 

0^atia^ i. IS ; AacoD. u Cic MiL p. 4G, ed. 


AEHI'LIA 0EN3, originallT written AIHI- 
LIA, one of iJie moat andent patrician home* at 
Rome. Ill origin ii leGured (o the time of Nmna, 
■nd il ii aiid lo haie been descended from Ma- 
mercni, who receiied the name of Aemiliu* on ar^ 
count of the pemuuiTrneu of hit languaga {ii 
aliiukSar iJytu). Tliii Mnmercni ii repn*en(ed 
b; »me aa the ion af Pjthagoru, and by othen 
a« the nm of Nnma, whUe a third aceonnl trscei 


□rtbeiuiccitonaf iheAcmilii. (SiL Itel tiii. 397.) 
It Kcrrii prell; clear that the Aemilii were of 
Sabine origin ; and Feilu derirei the name H>- 
mrccui Ernn the Otean, Mamen in that langnage 
being the nine a* Han. The Salnne* qwke 
OKan. ^e* then the Aemilii were anppoeed to 
have come to Rome in Ihe time of Numa, and 
Numa wae laid lo bare been intimate with Pythit 
gnme, we can aee the oHgiii of the l^end which 
makei the anceilar of ihe faoiue the ton of Pytha- 
gDraiL The lint member of the hoDM who ob- 
uined the coDMlahip wa> L. Aemiliot Mamercnt, 
in B. c. 4S4. 

The fcmilj-nnmes of thie gem are : BAtiHtIi,i, 
Bi'rj, Lbpidini, Mahihcub or Mamehcinub, 
Papuk, PAtTLLtia, RmiLLUB, ScAtinus. Of theie 
nanua Boca, Lepidoe, Paollni, and Scaunu are the 
only one* thnt occur on coine. 

AEMILIA'NUS. 1. The aon of L. Aemilin) 
Paollui MncedoDicua, wai adopted hy P.Comelini 
Scipio, the wn of P. Comeliua Scipio Africemu, 
and WBi thni called P. Comelini Scipio Aemilianna 
Africanu. [Scirro.] 

2. The governor of Pannonia and Moeiia in the 
reign of OaJliu. He u also called Aemitioi ; and 
on coini we hnd oe hii piaenomen both Uarctu 
and Caina On one coin ha ii called C Joliui 
AemiliwDa ; but then i* eome doubt about the 
gennineneuofthnword Jaliua.(Eckhel,Tii.p.372.) 

He ' 


defeated the barbariani who had inTaded hie pro- 
rince, and chawd them at Gu- ai the Danube, A.n. 
253. He diilribnted among hii eoldien the booty 
he hnd gained, and wa* aalutHi emperor by them. 
He then marched into Italy, hut Oallna, who had 


gctricr with hi* un Voluaianiu bv hii on-n aoljien^ 
Aemilianui wai acknowledged by the Kiuite. but 
wai alain after a reign of thrt«ar luurmouiliabr liii 
•oldien near Spolelum, on the approach of Vuler.- 
uiDi. According to ether accounti lie died a 
natural death. {Zoumu, L 26, 29; ZonBiaa, xiU 
21, 32 : Entrop. ii. S ; AureL Vict, da Out. Bl| 

3. One of Iha thirty tyianU (a. d. 959—268) 
wa* compelled by Ihe tnopa in Egypt U auume 
■he purple. He took the nmanie of Alexander or 
Aleiandrinot. Oallieniu iCDI Thcodotoi ngaimit 
him, by whom ha wai taken and irnt pritoncr In 
QiUienuL Aemilianni wa> atniogled in priaoo. 
(TiebelL Poll. TYy. T^. 22, OoHuil. 4, 5. ) 

ARMILIA'NUS (who ii alio caUsd Atntaim) 
lived in Iha fifth century after Chriit, and ia 
known at a phyaician, confeiwH^, and martyr. In 
the reign of the Vandal King Hnnneric (a. n. 
477-4S4), during Ihe Arion penecntion in Africa, 
be wu mod cnielly put to death. The Romiih 
church celebratei hii memory on Ihe tilth of I>e- 
cember, Ihe Greek church on the leventh. (jMor- 
t^ToL Aon. ed. Banm. ; Victor Vitenaii, D* Ptr- 
Kcai. KaWnJL V. 1, with Ruinart'i notea, Paiia. 
Sto. I094i BioTiua, Nomaelalor SandorTOH Prv 
fitiom Mediconm.) [W. A. 0.] 

ARMILIA'NUS (AW^iam), a native of Ihs 
lownof NicaMi,Bndan eiHgramDnuicpoet. Nothii^ 
further ia knovrn about him. Three of hii epi- 
giami have been pieaerved. (AnthoL Qnec. viL 
623, ir. 21H, 756.) [C. P. M.] 





AEHl'LIUS PROBUS. [Nai-oa, Coknb- 


Aeneaa, and applied 
wen believed to be aa 
a* Aaauiina, Auguatna, 
general. (Virg. Aa>. it C 

toQii), a pMnmymie fttm 

e Romam in 
Ex Pan. i. 35 ; 

. . tL.S.] 

AENE'AS (AfMlat). ffuHri; SlofJ. Aeneai 
was the ton of Anehiae* and Aphrodite, and bom 
on mount Ida. On hit hlher'a aide he wae a 
great-giandaon of Trot, and Ihna nearly related to 
the royal home of Troy, ai Piiam himielf waa a 
grwidton of Trot. (Ham. IL- xz. 315, &£., il 
B30, v. 347, Ac; H(*. TiKog. 1007, dX.) He waa 
educated frcm hii infiucy ai Dirdioiu, in the 
houH of AkHlhoua, Ihe huiband of bit litter. (IL 

nil 463. Ac.) At the hegiiuiii^ of Uk 
Ou OnAt nguiM Troy be did not Uke ar . 
fn it, and Ihe poet intimnla iW IheR eiiited an 
ill feeling between bin uid Priam, 
fj luffldent hananrlo Aesm. (IL liiL t60,&c, 
IX. 181.) Thii probably voae from ■ decree ' 
deidojf according to vbicb Aeneaa and hii i 
Bcendanta wen to rule OTer Tioy, lince the hoi 
af Priam bad draim upon itMlf tbe haired 
Cninion. (/J. ii. 307.) One day when Aeni 
waa tendiog hit flucki on mount Ida, be « 
attacked br Achillea, who took biB cattle and [ 
bim to digbt. Bat be wai reecued by Ihe godi. 
Thi* erent, howerer, and the ad monition of Apollo, 
mwed hti qiiril,uid he led hi> Dardaniani again it 
tbeOreek*. (/i. ii. S9,&c I90.&e., iL SI9,&c) 
Henceforth he and Hector arc the great tnilwarki 
of tite Trojana againit the Orceki, and Aeneai ap- 
peara belored and honoured by godi and men. (//■ 
li. 58, iri. 619, t. ISO, 467, li. 77, &c.) He ii 
among the Tiojaiu what Achillea ia among tbe 
Orwka. Both are toni of immortal mothen, both 
an M fend with the kiiiga,an<] both poueaa faonee 
ef dJTiue origin. (Kt. 26£, &c) Achillea him- 
•e)( U> whom Hector owiu hii inferiority, ihinka 
Aevta* a wwthy competilor. {ILtx. 175.) The 
plaee which Aoneai occnpiei among tbe Trojana i> 
wdl eipreaaed in Philmtralna (tier. 13), who tays 
that the Oreeki called Hector tbe hand, and Aencaa 
the aout of the Trojans. Respecting the hmTe and 
noble manner in which he pmlwli the body of ' ' 
BSend PaodaruB, see II. t. 299. On one occui 

iged in a eouteit with Diomedes, who 
ihty itoDe at him and broke his hip. 
10 the gionnd, and Aphrodite hailened 
to kii auiatance {IL i. 30£), and when she (oo 
was woonded, Apollo carried him fiom tbe Geld of 
battle to his temple, where he was enred by Leto 
and Artemis. (IL t. 345, &c) In the attack of 
the Trajani upon the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas 
cMmnanded the fourth host of the Trojans. (/(. 
xiL 98.) He avenged the death of Alcathoos by 
alaying Oenomaus and Aphareui, and hastened to 
the asustance of Hector, who was thrown on the 
arontid by Ajax. The last fiat Homer mentions 
11 bis light with Achillea. On this ai on all otber 
oMaaons, a god intcr]>a(ed and mTed hhn, and this 
time it was by PoKidon, who although in general 
hostile towards Ihe Trojant, ret mcned Aeuess. 
that the decree* of destiny mig^t be fulfilled, and 
Aeneaa and bis offspring might one day rule orer 
Ttmr. (/{.n. 178,&c, Sa5,«c) Thus far only 
ia the story of Aeneas to be galhared from the 
Uofoafic poema, and &r from alluding to Aeneas 
hanng emigmled after the captnre of Tioy, and 
haling founded a new kingdom in a foi«ign land, 
Ifaa poet distinctly inlimatea that be conceives 
Aeiwas and his descendaut* aa Rigning at Tray 
■fto- the eitinction of the hooMof Priam. (Comn. 
'■- • - -18.) 



hold out 

I* engaged ii 

I a mighty si 

traditions aa well aa in the eariier one*. (Ilygin. 
Fab. 115 I Philoili. L c.) Accotding to suiiie so- 
oounts Aeneas was not pnaent when Troy wna 
taken, a* he had been tent by Priam on an eipe- 
dilion to Phrygia, while according to othem he 
was nxjnealed by Aphrodite, just beturt Ihe Isli of 
the dly, to leave it, and accoidiugly went to mount 
Ida, canying his &iher on his shouldcrv 
HaL L 48.) A third account make 
at Troy to the last, and when all hopes disappenrcil, 
Aeneas with his Daidanians and the wucrion uf 
Ophiynium withdrew to the citadol of Peigainus, 
when the most costly treasures of the Trojans 
were kept. Here he repelled the enemy and re- 
ceived the fugitive Tnjans, until he could hold out 
no longer. He then sent the people abgud Id 
mount Ida, and foUoved them with hii warriots, 
the images of the gods, his fiitber, his wife, and 
his children, hoping that he would be able to 
maintain hmiself on thehcighuofmount Ida. Hut 
being threatened with an attack by tbe lireeks, he 
entered into negolialions with them, in eonsequenca 
of which he surrendered hia posiiion and was 
allowed to depart in sfety with his friends and 
■surea. (Dionjs. L 46, it; Aellan, I'. //. 
3-2 ; Hygin. fai. 254.) Othera again related 
that be wa* led by hi* hatred of Paris to betmy 
llion to the Greeks, and was allowed to depart 
free and «fe in C0Dsei]uence. (Dionys. (.t) Uiy 
(L 1) slates, that Aeneas and Antenar wen the 
only Trojans against whom the Greek* did not 
make use of theii right of conquest, on account of 
an ancient connexion of hospitality existing be- 
becanaaAaneaa had alvay* advised 
, n to letlon Helen to MeneUu*. 
(Comp. Suab. L e.) 

Tile farther part of the atory of Aeneas, after 
leanug mount Ida with his friends and the images 
of the foiM, especially that of PaUas {Palladium, 
Pans. li. 23. § 5) presents as many varialionB as 
that relating U th« taking of Troy. All account*, 
however, agree in slating that he left the cwsti ot 
Ana and erossed o>ec into Europe. Anording la 
some be went acrou the Hallequnt to tha penin- 
■ola of Pallene and died there ) according to others 
he proceeded from Thrace to the Awadina Oicho- 
menos and lettled there. {Strab. i.e.; PiuuL viii. 
I'i. § 5 : Dionya, HoL L 49.) By &r tbe greater 
number of later writer*, however, noiiou* to put 
m in connexion with (ha history of Idtium aud 
make him the aneestotial hero of the Romans, 
ite that he went to Italy, Ihongh aome assert 
that the Aeneas who tame to Italy was not Iha 
ti Anchiaet and Aphrodite, and other* that 
after his arrival in Italy he ntomed to Tioy, 
leaving hi* son Ascanius behind him. {Lycophr. 
1226, &c; Diony*. i. 53; Uv. L I.) A de- 
scription of the wanderings of Aeneas before he 
reached tbe coast of Laliom, and of Ihe varioo* 
towns and temple* he wa* believed to have fband- 
Laltt SlonK According to the Homeric hynm ed during his wandering*, is given by Dionytius 
on Apbtodile (257, Ac), Aeneas was brought np (i- 50. Ac), whose a«oant is on the whole the 
bj tba nymph* of mount Ida, and wns not taken same as that followed by Virgil in bis Aeneid, 
(0 bit fiither Anchitea, nnti! be had reached hi* although tbe htlsT makes various embellisbmenta 
fifth year.and then he was, according to the wish and addition*, some of which, a* his landing al 
•f th« goddeaa, given out a* the son of a nymph. Carthage and meeting with Dido, an irreconciiabl* 
Xeoophon (Dt Faiot. 1. | 15) tayt, that lie wo* with chronohwy. From Pallene (Thrace), where 
inatracted by ChAnn, the ttsnal teacher of the Aeneas sUyed the winterafter the takingof Troy, 
bene*. According to tbe ** Cypria," be even took and founded the town of Aeneia on the Thennaic 
part to carrying off Helen. His bravery in the golf (Ldv. xl. 4), he sailed with hi* compauion* to 
war against the Grecka ia mentioned in the Uter | Delo*, Cjthen (where ha founded, a lempl* W 


.1 Trojan 
nsiendi. From Epinu ha lulsd acna the 
lonkn Ma lo Italy, when ha landed at the 
lopfgian proiiHintin;. Hence he cniiaed <ner lo 
Sicilf, where be met the Tmjuu, Elymiii and 
Acgcuu* (Aceilea), Mod built the lovnt of El; me 
■nd A(f[oUL FromSudlj be tuled bnckto Italy, 
landed in the port of Palinnru, cwna to the 
ialand of Leuouia, and at Uit to the c<a«t of 
Latiiun. VarioTU Ngni poinC«l ont tbia place aa 
tbe end of hii wanderings, and he and hii Tntjani 
afcordingl; Kttled in Ldlium. The place where 
thej bad landed woi cnllsd Troj. Latintu, king 
of Lhe Aborigine*, when inlbnned a{ tbe arrival of 
the Unuigen, prepared for war, but abrwardi 
concluded an alliance wiib them, gim np to Iheir 
a pan of hii dorainioni, and with their uaiitonce 
conqnared the Kulnliana, with whom he wi 
at war. Aeneai founded the town of Lai 
called after LaTinia, the dangiitet of l^tinni, 
whom he nuiried, A new war then foUawed be- 
tween I^tinui and TninBa, in which both chieb 
fell, •rilenniHw Aeneoa became aole rulci of tbi 
Aboriginet and Trojano, and both 

heapecting the ii 


a battle witb the Rutoliani, who were aiaiated b, 
Meientiiu, king of the EtniKaDh A) hii body 
woi not found after tbe battle, it wa* believed that 
it hod been carried up la heaTon, or that he had 
pcriihed in tbe tirer Numiciua. The I«tina 
erected a mononient to him, wilfa the inicription 
To IIh fialur ani tuOat gad. (Joei ladigali. 
Lit. l 2 i Dionyi. i. 64 ; Stnb. *. p. 3-29, liil 
p iSS i Or. Met. riii. 828, 4t, nT. 76, &c., it, 
438, &&; Conon, NamO. *6; Pint. Rom. 3.) 
Two oth^ acconnta awnewhat diHetcnt £n>m thoae 
mentioned nboTe ore picaerred in Setrioa (od ^ea. 
ii. 281, from tbe work of Aba* on Tto;), and in 
Teetiee (od Lyvplir. 1252). Dionjnoi placet the 
bnding of Aeoeai in Italy and Uie building of 
laTininm aboat the end of the aeeond year after 
the taking of Tmy, and the death of Auuaa in tbe 
aerenCh jtar. Vir^ on tbe other hand npraient* 
Aeneai Unding in Italy (even yean after the &11 
of Troy, and oompriaea all the eienta in Italy 
frooi the bnding to the death of Turnu* within 
the apace of twenty daya. 

The atocy about the deacent of the Romaut 
from die Trojana throu^ Aeneoi waa Henerally 
reeeiTed and belieTcd at Rome at an eaiiy perioa, 
and probably une from the bet, ibat tbe inhi ' ' 

r Uliui 

11 the 

which A 

. . ■ inhabit- 

ed by people who wen all of the tame etock — 
Pelaagiana : hence alao the worthip of the Idaean 
Aphrodite in all pbice* the foundation of which it 
aaciibed to Aeneoi. Aeneai himiel^ therefore, 
•och at be aopean in bit wandcringi and final 
■ettlenent in Latium, ia nothing elae but the pe> 
Bonified idea of one common origin. In tbia 
ehanicler ha waa wor^ippad in the Toriont placet 
which WuxA their origin to him, (Lir. xL i.) 
Aeneofl waa frequently repRoented in atatuei and 
paintiugi by ancient BTtiati. (Paoi. iL 21. § 2, t. 
22: S 2 1 PUn. H. N. hit. 10. § 36.) On gemi 
■nd coina he ie uaonlly repreaented at carrying hie 
blher on hia ihonlder, and leading hit ton Atca- 

e* in the Ipgenda 
atnai Acneaa ana mo nioae oi anlving tbnn, sea 
Niebnbr, HaL qfRame, L p. 179, Ac lieiprct- 
ing tbe coluniei he ia laid to hnre founded, 
Fiedler, DsErnribiaAnieaeadl'ltoaticinacoiiniia 
patiiKBUami, Wetel, 1827. 4tD. About the wo> 
ihip and nligioni ehaiscter of Aeneai, tee Uacbold, 
VacUcUe da Tnganathrit Krir-jn, Stutlgurd, 
1836, p.302,&ci Uorlung, GtKkidUt .Itr Heli,. 
dtr RinKr, L p. 83, &c; and above nil H. H. 
Klanaen, Aokom amldit Pmuten, eipecially book i. 
p. 34. &C. [U S.J 

AENPAS (AJnlat) GAZAEUS, >o called 
from bia birth-place, flonriahcd a. d. 487. He 
wai at first a Pktoiiitt and a Sophiit, being a 
diiciple of tbe philoeopor Hieroclei (na apiMtn 
&om bit TieigiiFad—, Oallaud. p. 629) and a 
friend of Frocopiua (at we know from bli Epiitlet). 
Hii date thua ascertained it confirmed by hii 
ilatiug, that be had beard speak tome of tbe Con- 
leiaora whose tongues Hunneric hod tot out, A. D. 
4B«. [JIml. p. SB3, c) When a Cliriatian, bo 
compoied a dialogue, On tie Immoiialilg i/ tha 
Soul md iitt Baumctiom of At Body, called Tito- 
pkriulia from one of the interlocutors. Thii i^i- 
peantd Gnt in a Latin lenion by Ambroiini 
Comaldulenui, 8(0., Yen. 1613, and 4ta, BesiL 
1516. The original Greek, with the l^tinTpniou 
of Wolf; tbI. Tignr. 1S&9 ; with the Latin vrruon 
and note* of C. Barthiot, 4to. Lipi. 1655 (lee 
Fabriciua, dt Vtrilat. Rtiig. Oa-oL Sytlaliui, p. 107, 
Hamb. 1725); alio in OoUuidiV BiUiaHuai Fa- 
(Twin, ToL I. p. 629, Yen. 1766 i and with the 
notei of Boluonode, Sto. Par. 1836. In EbertV 
Dictionary ia the following tefcn-DCe : Wtnudorf 
Pr. di Atma Gax^ Numb. 1817, Ito. In the 
Aldine OJlatim </ EpMa In GrtdcAaOon there 
are 2S by Aeneas, Gr. iVt., Yen. 1499. gee Fa- 
bricins, BiHalli. Onuc. ToL L pp. 676-690. Some 
of the letlen of Aeneat may be finind in the Epry- 
dopaedia Pkiiologica of Joaiaa Paltua, (it. Svo., 
Yen. 1710, TOLL [A. J. C] 

AENE'AS SI'LVIUS, ton of ^Tiue. and 
gnudtoii of Atcaniua He it the third in the liit 
of the mythical kingt of Alba in Lstinm, and the 
"-'-'- -jgorded him aa the founder of thdr houie. 
3.) Dionyaiui (L 71) aacribei to a 
rwgn of 31 years. (Comp. Yirg. .^en. Ti. 769.) 
Grid {Mel. liT. 610, &c) doet not mention him 
long the Alban kingi. {L. S] 

AENE^AS (AIi't(u), tnmamctt TACTICUS 
(J Tiurrucoi), a Greek writer, whose precise date i* 

Aeneas of Styniphalut, who abont ti 

tbe battle of Mantineia (362, B.C.) diitinguiihed 

himself by bit braTciy and skill ai general of the 

'in auppoKt (bis Aeneat to b« 

mppotition ii confirmed by a 

{Cmamtitt. Paliorc 27) where he apoakt 

ly rf an Arcadian proTindaliim. But, 

r this may be, the general character of this 

work, tbe namei be mentiona, and the hiitmical 

whieb occur, with otbi^ inlemal aTidenct, 

■11 point to about thii period. He wrote a bne 

work on the whole art of war, rrforTntiii $iSMa, 

ipl Tur eifiairi\''Av itiroia^fioTa (Polyb. i. 

iuidaa, I. o. Alfefut), coneiiljng of sevNsl parts. 

leae only one it preierTe^i called -runucir re 

tai TO>jopieifTLKi¥ vr6iiyrifia rtfd tou irwr xP4 

To^iapKoA/itfoy arr^x*^, commonly called Ccm- 

mentariut Poliorceticus. The object of the book 

pWBge (e 


te ts iJiew bow ■ liega ihould be reuitcd, the n- 

ID be prnctiird, wmji of lending letten withrmt 
being detected, and without even the bearer* koow- 
ing aboot it (c 31, a iei7 nuiDtu one), &c It 
eoBluiu a good dfal of information on many poinli 
in uohaoEogf , and ia eipecially Tahiable aa con- 
Mining a large Oock of wordi and locbnicn] lenni 
oamtected vith war&m, dL-noting initninient*, &c, 
which are not to be lound Id any otbac work. 
From the eame circnmitanco, Dumj puaagea are 

Caiaabon with a Latin n 
pended to ht> edition of Polfbina (Pui*,1G09.) 
It wu lepobliihed by OrDiiDviuB in liia Polytuua, 
tdL lii. Anistetdam, 1670, and bj Emeati, Leipiig; 
1763. The lait edition ia that of J. C. Orelli, 
hajnig, 131R, with CaMobon'a renion and nola 
and an origijial commentary, publiAfaed ai a sopple- 
mcnt lo SchweighaeiuGT'i Polybina Betides the 
Vatican MS. there are three at Parit, on which 
Caambon founded hi* edition, and one ia ibe Lau- 
icDiian libcury at Fkrenca. Thii lait i>, according 
loOieni<Praef:p.6),tbeold«loraU. The work 
coBtaina many very comipt and mutilated pasHgea. 
An eptome of the whole book, not of tbe fra^ 
Ineoi now remaining, waa made by Cincaa, a ThiM- 
iBlian, who waa lent lo Rome by Pyrrhui, 279, 
a. a. (Aetiau, Tad. 1.) Thia abridgment i* re- 
femd to by Cicsn (ad Fbm. ii. 261 [A. A.I 
AENE'IUa or AENE'SIUS (Afrifuif or Ai«f 
aiat), a lumamB of Zeui, onder which ha waa 
woriliipped in tho iiland of Cephalenia, where he 
had a temple on tnount Aenoa. (He*, of). Sdol 
mt AfnOm. Rkod. ii. SS7.) [L. S.] 

AENESIDE'MUS (UrtnOinui), the ton ol 
Palaiciu, and one of the body-guarda of Hippo- 
cratea, tyrant of Gela, waa the son of Theron, the 
nderof the timeofthi *' 
(Herod. tTl 154, 16£.) [THtKOH.] 

AENESIDE'MUS (A;>ni(rl«i|fui),acelebnted 
sceptic, bora at CnoaiDi, in Crete, according to 
IMogcna Laerthu (ix. 1 16), but at Acgae, accord' 
ing to Photini (Cod. 212), [nbably liied a Uttle 
bier than Cicero. He WM a papil of lleracleide* 
and received from him the chair of pbilotophy, 
which had been banded down for abore tbree bun' 
dmi yeara from Pyrrbon, the fbunder of the aecL 
For ■ hi] accoont of the iceptical lyatem lee 
PvBBHOH. Aa Aenendemna diKned on many 
pointa from the ordinary Beplie, it urill be conT»- 
nieot before proceeding to hi* paiticnlar qdnioni, 
lo gire a ibort acconnt of the lyatem itaelC 

The aceptic began and end<.d in nniTenal 
doabL He was equally remored from the tern- 
dnoic who denied, aa from the dogmatic philoio- 
pber who affirmed ; indeed, he atlempted to con- 
foand both in one, and refute them by the mat 
argmnenti. (SeiL Emp. \. )■] Troth, be Ktid, 
wma not to be deaired for it* own laka, but for the 
lake of a certain repoae of mind ((tro/Hifla) which 
ibUowed ou it, an end which the iceptie beat at- 
tained lb another way, by anapending hi 


™u, « 

tmrel orer the wkile range of nMual, metaphyii- 
aal, and phyiiol acience. Hi* melhod la tbe 
Bompariaoo of oppoiit{.B, and faia aole aim Ia prove 
■bat Dotting can be proTed, or what he tensed. 


Ihe aroaUiitta of thing*. In common life he may 
act upon psui^taya with the leat of men i nature, 
law, and cnatom are allowed to bare their inHo- 
ence ; only when impelled to any vehement effort 
we are to remember that, here too, there is mock 
to be mid an both udea, and are not to loae ooi 
peace of mind by giaaping at a ahadow. 

The bmooi Una rfSwai of tbe iceplic* were a 
nomber of head* of argument intended to orer- 
tbmw tmth in whaterer fom it might appear. 
[PrHRHUN.] The oppoaite appearance* of the 
moral and natural world (Seit Emp. i. 14), the 
hllibility of intellect and lenK, and the illuaion* 
produced upon them by intcrrata of time and apace 
and by tttrj change rrf poaition. wen the lint 
orgnmenl* by which they aaiailed the nality of 
thmg*. We cannot explain what man it, we can- 
uol eiplain what the Mnaoi are: alitl tea* do we 
know tho way in which they are acted upon by 
the mind (ii. 4—7): beginning with nlUidpifv, 
wa muat end with oMr pik^or. We an not 
certain whether material object* are anything but 
idea* in the mind: at any rate the di^renl qua- 
title* whicb we pcrceiie in them may be wholly 
dependent on the percipient being ; or, lappoung 


onfbmidrd the world wilhoa 


wilbin, it waa a natural tronailion for tbe aceptia 
to confound phyucol and metaphygical aigumenta. 
The reasoning* of natural philouphy went over- 
thrown by metnphyiical aulitletie*. and malaphy- 
■ic* made to look alxurd by illuatratiDnt only ap- 
plicaUe to material thing*. The acknowledged 
imperfection of Ungoage wu alao pre**ed into the 
tenicoi vord\ they (ud, were ever varying in 
their signilication, as that the idcu of which they 
were the lign* roiiat be alike Tariable. The lead- 
ing idea of tbe whole lyalem waa, that all truth 

votved e 

timpleat truths, *ametbing 
muit be aimmed to make the rea*oaiBg appllnibte. 
The truth of the aensea was known lo us from the 
intellect, but the intellect operated through the 
teosea, n that out knowledge of the natora ot 
either depend* npim the ether. There was. how- 
ever, a deeper aide to thia pbiloeopby. Every- 
thing we know, confinaedly, run* up into aom»> 
thing we do not know : of the true nature of canaa 
and effect we an ignorartt, and hence to the 
bionrite method, i*i rw ait <(T4ip«i> iii0iAXiir, or 
arguing backward from csua to canie, the veiy 
iper^tion of human bcultiea pnvent* ooi 
giving an answer. We mutt know what we 

cauaea, if the first cause be wholly beyond i 
To judge, howerer, from the akelch of Seilua 
Empiricu* (Pyrrh. Hyp.), it wo* not this aide 
of their system n4iich the aceptic* chief!; lU'ged : 
fbr the meat part, it muat be confeued, ibaX they 
contented themaelTe* with dialectic aubtleliei. 

iposaible to nfiitfl. 

The cauwa of aecplidsm are mon lully given 
cmder the article Pvukhon. One of the most re- 
markable of Ita feature* waa ita conueiion with the 
later pbilotophy of the Ionian achooL From the iiul- 
ure of their attempt* to explain tho phenomena cf 
the viiiUa world, the lonioD philosopfaen were iit- 
ibly led on to deny the order and harmony of 


cnntion ; llie; n* nothing but a {wrpetnal uid 
ivei^chuiging duo*, acted upon, or nther aelf- 
■cIJDg, b; RQ inhonnt power of motion, of which 
(be nsluro wu only known by iu tSeOs. Tbia 
wu the doctrine of Hencleitai, that "tfae worid 
wu ■ fire eTer kindling and going out, which nuuli 
■11 lliingi and waa all thingL" It wu thit link oi 
conneiion between the aceptical and Ionian ichoob 
which Aeneiidemui atltmiplcd to reitore. Tht 
doclrine of Huadcitui, although it ipoke of a nib' 
tie fire, leallj meant nothing more tlian a principle 
of change ; and although it might lecm abeurd '- 
a atrict Keptic like Seitni Empiricna to qgirai er 
a principle of change, it iaroUed^ no ml incoDa 
tency with the aceptical ijitem. We are lefk 
conjecture aa to the way io which Aeneaidem 
arrived at hia conclawona : the fbllowing account of 
them aecmi probable. It will be aeen, from what 
hag been aaid, that the Meptlcal ayitem haJ do- 
atroj'ed eTerything hut aenaation. But aenaation la 
the effect of change, the principle of motion work- 
ing inlemoil;. It waa ver; natural then that the 
Bceplic, proceeding from the only 4^x4 which re- 
mained U him, ahonld auggeat an ciplanation of 
the outward world, derived bom thai of which 
alone he waa certain, hie own internal aenaationa. 
The mere auggeition of a probable cauae might 

■ceptica drew between th«r own abaotule uncer- 
tainty and the probability apoken of by the 
AcndemicB ; indeed, it waa inconaiatent with their 
inetaphjaiial paradoxei to draw conduaioiia at all : 
if M, we DiDM be content to allow that Aenceide- 
mua (ta Sextua Emfuricua impliea) got a little be- 
yond the dark region of acepticiam into tfae light 
of probaMity. 

Other acsltered opiniona of Aeneudemua have 
bera preaerved to ua, aomc of which aeem to iead 
to Ihe aame canclaaion. Time, he tud, wu ri It 
and ri Vfamr owpi (Pyr. Hyp. iii. !7), probably 
in alluaion to the doctrine of the Sloica, that all 
leolly cjdating aubalancet were (nttwra: in other 
worU, he meant to aay that time wu a really ei- 
iiting thing, and not merely a condiUoa of thooght. 
Thia waa connected with the principle of chacga, 
which waa inaeparable from a notion of time: if 
Ihe OBC had a real eiiatence (and upon iU exiat- 
enee the whole ayatem depended), the other mnat 
likewiae haie a real eiialence. In another place, 
aduiting hia language to that of Heradeilua, he 
•aid that "time waa air" (Seit. Bmp. adv. Logiaa, 
IT. 333.), probably meaning to {Uoalrate it b; the 
iaiperceptiUe uture of air, iu the same way that 
the motion of the world waa eaid to work by a 
Bubtlfl and inviaible lire. All thing*, aceoiding to 
hia doclrine, were but ^tuvifiov which were 
brou^t out and adupled to our peieeptiona by 
tbeirmutuBloppotition: metat^oricaliy they might 
be laid Io ahine forth tn the light of Heracleitiu'a 
fire. He did not, indeed, explain how thia union 
of oppoeiln made them lenaible to the tscultiea of 
nun : probably he would rather have auppotted 
hU view by the impoaaibilily of the mind conceiv- 
ing of anything otherwiie tlun in a alate of motion, 
or, aa he would have cjcpreswd it, in a ttale of mu- 
tual oppoailion. But fKurifUna are of two kind*, 
W.a and *inri (3eit. Emp. adv. Log. ii. 8), the 
l>ercepiinn« of indiridnala, ' ' 

(again Acn 


. and |MTa<Aq- 
Tinf, aimple motion and change. He leema alto to 
hare oppoaed the perpleiily which the aceptict en- 
dearoured (o bring about between matter and 
mind ; for he aaaerted that thought waa indepen- 
dent of the body, and "that the aentiaat povrer 
looked out through the crunniea of the Benaca." 
{Adv. Log. i. 349.) Laally, hia vigoroua mind 
waa above the peltry eonfoaion of pbyaical and 
raetaphyaicsl dialinctiona ; ba he declared, after 
Hemcleitui, " that a part waa the aame with the 
whole and yet different from it." The grand pe- 
cnliarily of hia antem waa the attempt la umte 
acepticiam with the eariier philoioidiy, to raiae a 
pontive foundation for it by accounting &am the 
nature of thing! for the never-ceaung changaa both 
in the material and ipiiitual world. 

Seitu* Empiricua ha* preaerved hia argument 
agaioat our knowledge of cauaea, *a well a* a table 
of eight methoda by which all a priori reaaoninga 
may be confuted, aa all aigumenta whatever may 
be by the Sfm tpins. 1. Either the canae given 
it nnieen. end not proreu by thing* aeen, a* if a 
peraon were to eiplun the motions of the planets 
by Ihe muaie of the aphetea. 11- Or if the canie 
be teen, it cannot be thewn to exclude other 
hypothete* ; we mutt not only prove the cauae, 
but diapoae of every other cauae. 111. A regular 
e^ct may be attributed to an irrcgalar cauae ; 
aa if one wen to explain the mationa of the 
heavenly bodiet by a audden impulte. IV. Men 
araue ftom thing* teen to thing* nnteen. aaaum- 
thal they are governed by thi 

V. O 

inconaiitent with phenomena and with other opi- 
nion*. Vr. Equ^y probable csnae* are accepted 
or rejected aa they agree with thia or that precon- 
ceived notion. VII. Theaa cauaea are at variance 
with phenomenB aa well aa with abttiaci urinciplea. 
VIll. Principles mn>t be uncertain, becauae the 
facta Irom which they proceed are micertain. (PyrriL 
17, ed.Fabr,) 

to be regretted that nothing ia known of 
the peraonal hiatory of Aeneaidemua. A liat of hia 
':a and a aketch of their contenla have been 
, irred hy Photiua. (Cod. 213.) He waa the 
author of three bookt of tlvf^tiytiai TMnnraloiit, 
and it mentioned aa a recent teacher of philotophj 
by Arialoclea. {Ap»d Eiatb. Praeparai. Bnaiy. 
m, 18.) It ia to Asneaidemoa that Seilua Em- 
iriricu waa indebted for ■ conaideraUe part of hia 
oric. [& J.] 

AENETE (Alrifrn), a dai^htet of Eoaoma, 
id wife oTAeneaa, by whinu aha bad a ton, 
Cyiicua, the founder tf the town of thia name. 
(Apollon. Rhod. i. 9S0 ; Orph. JryoH. £03, where 
'.e ia oJled Aenippe.) [L. S.] 

AK'MCUS (Afruiai), a Greek poet of the old 
comedy, whoae play 'Amia i* releiTed to by &ui- 
daa. (t. e. Atrwoi.) He aeemt ta be the tame aa 
"unicua mentioned by PolluK. (i. 100.) 

AENl'DES, a patronymic from Aeneaa, which 

applied by Valeriua Ftaccu* (iii, 4) to the in- 
habitant* of Cyiicua, whoae town waa believed 
to have been founded by Cyiicua, the aon of 
Aencai. [L. S.] 

* (Ov, jMft iv. 
i. 31. g ;), Hacareu* (Ov. 
in* (Viig. An. n. IG4), 


SuTphM (Ot. Met. liiL 26 ; Horn. IL tI. IM), 
aiOma (Mom. Od. li. 337), locaKiu (T»ti. of 


i. 337), locaKiu (T»ti. 
iMpkr. f 32); and lo hi* gnndmnt, u CephalL. 
(Or. Mtt. Ti. 621), Odjiwnu (Vii^. Am. n. £29), 
■nd Pbr}nciu. (VaL Flacc i. 286.) Anlii u tlic 
{■tRtDTmic of th« lismal* dHcendinti of Aeoliu, 
md u gino to hji dangbtsn Cumn and AlcyoiH^ 
(Or. Afat li, 873 ; Heroid. li. S.) [L. 8,] 

AE'OLUS (A&*<ii). In the mythical hhloiy 
of Onecs then are thna pertonagM of thi> name, 
who an ipakcn ofbj anarol wriunaa conaeet«d 
vith lyOB another^ bnt thu corxneidf 
fbied, that it ia impouible to gain a cWr new of 
than. (Hiiller, OnAom. p. ISS, &c.) W« «haU 
foUoir Diodonu, who dhtingniiha batween the 
lluee, although in othar puaigei he confoundii 

1 . A wa of Halloi and the nymph OneTa, 
a hrother of Donu and Xnthni. He u deacij 
a> the nker of Theaaaly, and regatdad ai 
foondcr of the Aaslie bnneb of the Oraek nation. 
He mairird Enante, the daughter of Deunochni, 
hj vhom ha had aeren khu and fire daughteia, 
and Bccsiding to utile wiitenalill man. (Apollod. 
L 7. g a 1 Schol. ad Piad. Pf&. it. ISO.) Ac- 
cording to Huiler^B nippoaitionT the moat andent 
and geniiine atoty know only of fbnr loni of 
Aeolna, Tii. SiaypJiui, Athaiua, Cnlhena, 
Salnoneoa, a* the repraaentatiTea of the fonr i 
bniicfaei of the Aeolie nee. The gnat eitei 
eonntry vhieh thii laee ooenpied, and the dedn of 
each put of it to Uaca id origin to tome deacendr 
ant i^ Aeohu, prahably gSTe riae to the rarying 
BccoontB abonC the number of bu childnn. Ac- 
cording to Hyginni {Fab. 236, 2421 Aeolus had 
one ion of the name of Hacsreiu, vbo, after haT>- 
>ng commilled inceit with hia Dttei Canaee, pnt 
an end to hia own life. According to Ovid {^Fltmid, 
1 1 ) Aeohu ihnw the fruit of this lore to the 
doga, and sent bii daughter a aword by which the 
wai to kill hemlr. (Comp. PluL ParaUd. p. 3]2.) 

2. Diodonu {\i. 67) nyk that the second 
Aeoloa wsa the great-gnmdiirn of the finl Aeolua, 
(Ring the aoa of Hippotei and MeUnippe, and 
the gnndaon oF Minisa the un of Aeoius. Ame, 
the daughter of thit aecond Aeolus, afterwardl be- 
came mother of a third Aeolna. (Comp. Paua. a. 
40. 1 i.) In another pauage (t. 7) Diodonu re- 
preaenli the third Aeolna aa a son of Hippotea. 

3. According to aome acconnta a son of Hip- 
potea, or, accordii^ to olhen, of Poseidon and 
Atne, the danghtet of the second Aeolus. His 
atory. vhicb probably reler* to the emignlion of a 
branch of theXeolkni to the west, is that related ; 
Ame dedand ta hsfiither that the was with child 
by Poteidon, bnt her father ditbeliering her ttale- 
Dient, gave her to a itEanger of Metsponbun in 
Italy, who took her to hia natira town. Hen the 
became mother of two soni, Boaotni and Aeo- 
lna (iii-), who were adopted by the man of Heta- 

Ctmn in accordance with an ancle. When they 
grown np to manhood, they took poateidon of 
Ibe soTereignty of Metanontmn by force. But 
when a di^le afterwards ante between thdr 
aDtber Ame and their fbater^motbei Aiitolyte, the 
two bmthen tlew the hitter and fled with their 
mocber from Metaoontoni, Aeolus went to some 
ishude in die Tyrmenian tea, which ceceiyrd &om 
him the name of the AeolUn iilanda, and accord- 
ing to aome acconnta built the town of Lipan. 
(Kod. IT. 6T, T. 7.) Hen be reigned ta ■ juit 


I and ptona king, behaTed kindly id the natiiea, 
and taught them the nie of nils in navigation, and 
I foretold tbem from sign* which he obaened in the 
I fin the natnn of the windi that were to tise. 
I Hence, aayi Diodonu, Aeoloi is described in 
I mythology aa the ruler OTer the windt, and it w«» 
. this Aeolua to whom Odysaeiu came during, hia 
I wandeiinga. A difietent account of the matter it 
I given tn Hyginut. {Fab. 186.) 

In ^ete acconnla Aeoliu, the fiilhef of tb* 
' Aeoliaii race, it placed in reladonship with Aeolua 
the mler and god of the windt. The gronndwoik 
' on which this eonneiion has been fanned by later 
poets and mytho^phers, it found in Homer. {Oi, 
T. 2. tx.) in Homer, howeier, Aeolna, the Mn 
of Hippotea, it neiibsr the god nor the father of 
the windt, bnt menly the happy ruler of the 
Aeolian idand, whom Ciunion had made the 
«vJi|i of the winds, which ha might tooths or ei- 
dte accotding to his pkasiire. [Od. i. 31, &c.) 
This ttalement of Homer and the etymology <tf 
the name of Aeolot fnm ii\Kn wen the cause, 
that in later lime* Aeolui was regarded as Ihe god 
and king of the winds, which h ' 

is therefon 

10 him 

wiihea to destroy Ihe fleet of the 
(Vitg. Am. L 7B.) The Aeolian idand 
ot nomei was in the time of Pautaniat believed U 
be Lipani(PaDt. x.n. g 3), and this or Strongyle 
wat accordingly regarded in latet timet aa the ^aca 
in which the god of the winds dwelled. (Viig. 
Aen. viii. 416, i. «9; Stinb. vi. p. 276.) Othei 
accounts phue the naidence of Aeolus in Thnce 
(Apollon. Rhod. i 954, iv. 76S; Callim. Hym. 
B> Dd. 26), or in the neighbourhood of Rhegtum 
in Italy. (Tieta. ad lyMpkr. 732 ) comp. Dlod. 
T. S.) The foUowing pataages of later poeta alto 
shew how univeiaally Aeolus had gradnallj come 
to be iTganled aa a god : Ot. Ma. i. 264, li. 748. 
liT. 223 i VaL Phot i. 575 ; Quint. Smym. rir. 
475. Whether he was npresented by the to- 
cienla in woikt of art is not certain, hut we now 
poesela no npretentation of him. [L. S.] 

ArPYTUS (Afcvro(), 1. One of the mylhi- 
cal kings of Arcadia. He wtu the ton of Eilatut 
(Pini OL Ti. 54), and originally ruled otbi Phae- 
aana on the Alpheini in Arcadia. When Cldtor, 
the ton of Ann, died without learing an; iuue, 
Aepytui lucceeded him and became king of the 
Arcadians, a part of whole country wat called 
after him Aepytit. (Pans. viii. 4. g 4. 34- I 3.) 
He is taid to have been killed during the cbaae on 
mount Se(^ by the bite of a Tenomont tnake. 
(Paut TiiL 4. g 4, 16. g 2.) Hit tomb then 
ttill d - 



o tee it, bemoH 



2. The'yonngett »n of Cretphontet the He- 
nclid, king of Mesaenia, and of Merope, the 
daughter <^ tba Arcadian king Cypedut. Cres- 
phontet and hia other Kni wen murdered daring 
an insnnection, and Aepytni alone, who waa 
ednnted in Uie hoote ot hit nsnd&ther Cypialaa, 
escaped the danger. The throne of Cresphontea 
waa in the meandme occopied by the Heradid 
PolyphonlCB, who alee forced Merope to become hia 
wift. (Apollod. ii, B. g 5.) When Aepytns had 
grown to manhood, he waa enabled by (he aid of 
Holcat, hitblhe^in-law,to retnm to hit kingdom, 
punith the murdenn of hie bther, Rnd put PiJy- 
phonta to death. He left a ton, OUucoi, and it 




m* {torn bim that aobaequcndj the kingi of M< 
teain were called Aepjtidi iiutead of the mo 
Iteneml name Hendid*. (Puu. ir. 3. g 3, &e^ 
(UL 5. g JS ; Hjgin. Fab. 137, 1 S4.) 

S. A Mm of Hippolhoiu, and king of Anadia. 
He wu ■ gnat-gnnd»n of the Aepftu* raendoned 
£nt Me <ru reifiung at the time when Omtea, 
in coDwqoenM of an oracle, left Mfcenae ar ~ 
leltled in Anadia. There wbi at Hontinfia 
•anctnaij, which dawn to the lateat tnne no mortal 
wai eTer allowed to enter. AepytiiB dimgarding 
the iBcred cutom craaed the threibold, bat «&> 
immediately atmck wiUi blindnea*, and died >ai 
aflar. He wa* loceeeded by hie nn Cyptelv 
(Pao^ TiiL 6. S S.) [L. S.] 

AE'RlUa ('Aepisi), Heretic, the intimate ftiei 
of Enetathim of Sebute in Armenia, a. D. 35 
wu liring when St. Epiphanioi wtnle hi* Book 
1, ±. D. 37^6. . 
c life, Eiutslhiiu waa laiaed 
J by him Aerina ws« ordained prieat 
and let D*er the Hoipital IwTuxrrpoptiov) of Pon- 
tui. (St. Epiph. adv. Hoar. 75. 5 1.) But nothing 
could allay the envy of Aerina at the eleTstion of 
hii companion. CanMe* and threat! were in min, 
and at last he left Eiutathiua, and publicly accuaed 
him of ooietotunesL He suemtjed a troop of 
men and women, who with him profeaaed the 
renunciation of alt worldly goodi (dmailo). De- 
nied entrnnce into the tovna, they roamed about 
the fieldi, and lodged in the open air or in cayea, 
eipoaed to the inclemency of the aeaaona. Aeiiua 
avperadded to the irreligion of Ariua the fallowing 
error. : I. The denial of a difference of order be- 
tween a hiihop and a prieat. 2. The rejection of 
prayer and almi for the dead. 3. The lefdial to 
obaerve Eaater and stated ^ta, on the grooitd of 

of hi> fbtlowen in the time of St. Anguatine. (Adv. 
Haer. g 53, vol Tiii. p. 18, which «a> written 
J. D. 428.) [A. J. C] 

AE'ROPE {'A*pi^), a daogfater of Crateos, 
king of Crete, and granddaughter of Minoe. Her 
bther, who bad received an oracle that he dieuld 
loae his life by one of hit children, gare her and 
her (iiter, Oymene, to Nauptini, who waa to aell 
them in a foreigQ bnd. Another aitier, Apemone, 
andher brother, Aelhcmenes, who had heard of the 
oracle, had left Crete and Eoiie to Rhodei. Aerope 
afierwaida mairied Pleibthenea, the aon of ACreuii, 
and became by him the mother of Agamemnon 
and Menelana. (Apollod. iii. 2. § 1, &c ; Scrr. ad 
Afn. i. 4S8 i Dretyi Cret. L 1.) After the death 
""''"' ' ■■ ""Hi Atreii«,and her' 

of PleiMheneg Aen 

aona, who were educated by Atreui, were generally 
believed to be hii lona. Aerope, however, became 
fiiithleu to Atreua, being aedDeed by Thyeetea. 
(Eurip. 0™t 5. &c, Helen. 3S7 ( Hygin. Fab. 

87 1 SchoL ad Ham. IL iL 219 i S«t. id 
262.) [L. &] 

AE'ROPUS CA^pmroi). 1. Tha brother of 
Perdiccas, who waa the liiat king of Macedonia of 
the bmily of Temenni. (Herod. Tiii. 1S70 

2. I. King of Macedonia, the aon of Philip I, 
the great-gnndion of Perdiccai, the fint king, and 
the father of Akctaa. (Herod, viii. 139.) 

3- 11. King of Maffidonia, guardian of OieiteB, 
the ion of ArcheUui, reigned nearly six yean 
from B. c. 399. The lint (bur yean of thia time 
U reigned jointly with Orcbtei, and the remainder 


alone. He waa nuxeeded by hia aon Pionniab 
camp. Polyaen. ii. I. S 17.) 

AB'SACUS (Abuar), a aon of Priam ana 
Ariabe, the daughter of Meropa, from whc^ Ae^ 
cofl learned the art of interpreting dmama. Whea 
Hecuba during her pregnancy with Pana dreamt 
that ahe waa giving birth to a boming piece of 
wood which apread eonSngratian tbtongh the 
whole dty, Aeiacna eiptained thia to mom, that 
ahe would give birth to a aon who WDold be the 

Aetacu) himaelf wai married to Aiterope, t_. 
danghter of the riTei^gad Cebien, whs died coriy, 
and while he waa Umenting her death he waa 
changed into a bird. (Apotlod. iii. 12. g G.) Orid 
{Met. li. 750) rel^el hia etory differoi^y. Ac- 
cording to him, Aeaacna wai the aon of Alexirhoa, 
the dimghler of the river Oranicna. He lived far 
from hia btherV court in the aolitude of mounloin- 
foreati. Heiperis, however, the daughter of 
Cebren, kindled love in hia heart, and on one oc- 
caaion while he waa panning her, ahe waa atnng 
b^ a viper and died. Aeaacna in hia grief threw 
hmuelf into the aea and waa changed by Tbetia 
into an aquatic bird. [L. S.] 

AFTSAKA (Alir<ffa), of Lnania, a female 
Pythagorean f hilDtapber, aajd to be a daogfater of 
Pythsgoraa, viote a worii "about Human Nataie," 
of which a fi^gment ia preserved by Stobaeoa. 
[Ed. L p. 847, ed. Hseien.) Some editon attri- 
bute this fiagmeni to Aresaa, one of the tnccaasor* 
of Pjthagoraa, but fienlley prefers reading Aeaais. 
She ia dsa mentioned in the hie of Pyihagoraa 
[ap. Phot. Cod. 249, p. 488, b. ed. Bekker), whets 
Beatley reads filsipa inttead of Zifo. (Dimrlatiam 
•pea Phalarit, p. 277.) 

AE'SCHINES {tt^lrns), the orator, was bom 
in Attica in the dcmni of Codiocidae, b a. c 389, 
aa ia clear &om hia speech agolnat Timarthns (p. 
73), which was delivered in B. c 345, and in 
which he himielf iBjs that he waa then in hia forty- 
fifth year. He ws* the aon of Tromes and Qlao- 
cothea, and if we Uiten to the account of Demos- 
tbeiies, his political antasDnist, hi> fioher waa not 
B free citisen of Alhent, but bad been a alave in 
the house of Elpias a ■chooimaater. After the re- 
turn of the Athenian exiles under Thnsybolua, 
Tromea himeelf kept a amall school, and Aescbinca 
in hig youth aaaialed 

auch servicea as were unworthy of a firee Alhi 

youth. DcmoBthenea further states, that Aea- 

chinea, in order to conced the low condition of bis 

father, changed hia name Tromea into Atromctoa, 

and thai he afterwaida uaurped the rigbta of an 

aiandlizen. (Dem. /Je GirofLpp. 313. 320, 

270.) The mother of Aeschinet ia deaciibed a* 

originally a dancer and a proatitutr, who even after 

her maniage with Tromea continued to cany aa 

nnlawful pmcticea in her house, and made money 

by initiating low and supentitious persona into a 

sort of private myaleries. She is said to have 

been generally known at Athena under the nick- 

me Empuaa. According to Acschinea bimaelf, 

the other hand, his fethpr Atriauetoa waa de- 

mded from an honourable family, and waa m 

ne way even connected with the noble piieatly 

oily of the Eteohntodae. He waa originally as 

athlete, bnt toal his praprty during the time of 

Peloponneaian war, and waa ofUriA'arda diiven 

fcoB hii Boantt; under tha tjmnnj of iIh Thirtv. 
He tben mmd in th> Atheniu nnniet in Au> 
and (ptnl the taaaiadrt of bii life at Atheni, at 
fint In tednced dicaaiitaiioei. (AaKh. De /alt, 
Leg.m- 38,47-) Hit meUur, too, wu a free 
Albeman citizen, and the daaghter of Olandai of 
Achmw. Wliich of lh«e acnmiti ii tius, cui- 
nM be deoded, bat there tecDu to be no doubt 
that DenKHthene* ia guilty of euggention in hi* 
■non>t oC tlis pueDti of Auchinea and hi* eaity 



lochana, was ald«r than biouclf^ and 
Apbobetai, wai the joaagen of iha three. Phi- 
lochaiea wu at one lime one of the ten Athenian 

rrala, an office wluch wu oonferred upon him 
three luioceseiTo yean ; Apfaobedu followed 
the calling of a ■cribo, bat had once boon lent on 
an embaaty to the king of P«na and wu afiar^ 
nnla eonneded with the adminiatratioa of the 
poUic rerenne of Atheoi. (Aeech. Da /alt. Lrg, 
p. M.) All ihsM thing* aaeDi to contain ttroiw 
etidence that the bmily of Aeichine*, Blthough 
poor, miut have be«n of lome lespeclabilitj. Rfr 
•peeling hia eariy youth nothing can be aaid with 
certainty, except that he auistod hia blhor in hii 
■choal, and that aflerword*, being of a itrong and 
athle^ conititiitian, he wat employed in the 
gynuiMia for money, to contend vilh other yonng 
men in their eiereuea. (Dem. Db Grron, p. 315; 
Plat. Fil. I oraL AttA. p. S40.) It ii a biomile 
ciulom of lata writen to place great oralon, philc- 
■opben, poet*, &£>, in the rel^on of leacher and 
Bcholar to one another, and accordingly Aeechinee 
M n^eeented aa a diadple of Socmtea, Plato, and 
leaerale*. If Iheee ttatanienU, which are eien 
contradicted by the indeoH themaelTei, ireie 
troe, Aeeehinea wonld not hare omitted to men- 
tion it in the many opportonitiea be hod. The 
diatingniibed orator and itataaman Ariitophon en- 
gaged Aeachine* aa a aciibe, and in the Muue 
capacity be aflerwaidi aerred Eubulna, a man of 
great influence with the democratiotl party, with 
whom he formed an intimate ftiendahip, uid to 
whose polilicBl prineiplea ha remained bithful lo 
tha and of hit life. That he lened two yean aa 
n^nAoi, from hia eighteenth lo hii twentieth 
•ear, aa all young men at Athena did, A«ichinei 
{Dtfalt. Ltg. p- 50) eiprceely atatea, and ihia 
period of hia nulilary training muat probably be 
placed before the lime that he acted aa a acribe to 
Ariatopbon 1 for we find that, afier learing the 
Mrrin of Eobolua, he tried hia fortune aa an actor, 
ttr wtieh hewu provided by nature with aalrmg 
and aenoroiu voice. He acted the parU of rptnt- 
7— wi ja, hot waa muocceaaM, and on one ocoi- 
■on, irtwn be waa perTonning in the character 
of OenonuHia, waa hiieed off the atue. (Dem. 
Dt Conn. p. 283.) After thii he left the alage 
and encaged in mQiloiy asrvicei, in which, accoid- 
iw to hi* own aeamnl (De fib. Leg. p. 50), he 
gained gnat diatinction. (Cump. Dam. Defnit. 
lag. pi 37S.) After icvcral lei* important engago- 
menu in ouiar [cna oE Greece, he diilinguiihed 
himaeir in B. c 362 in the battle of Hautineia ; 
and aftarwatda in B. c, 358, he abo look part in 
tbe ttipaditioa of the AtheuIaDa againat Enboea, 
■od Ibaght in iIm battle of l^ynaa, and on this 
a I laainn be ^taod Mich Uarab, that ha waa praiied 
^ t^ genmb on the apot. and, after the victory 
waa gwKd, waa eent to cany the cawa of it to 


Athena Temenide*, who vat lent with bio, 
bore witneaa lo his courage and brateiy, and tha 
Athenian* honoured him with a crown. (Aetch. 

Two yean before thia 

the k 

lished his reputatian. Hi* former occupation a* a 
icribe lo Arislophon and Eubnlus had made him 
aequunted with the tawi and conatilution of 
Athena, while his acting on the stage had been a 
niefu] preparation for public apeakiag. During 
the firat period of hi* public career, be was, lilte 
all other Athenian*, sealously engaged in directing 
the attention o( hia fellow-tiiiiens lo the growing 
power of Philip, and eihorted them to check it in 
its growth. After the &11 of Olvnlhus in B. v- 
348, Enbnln* prevailed on the Athoiiana to send 
an embuay to Peloponneaua with the object of 
uniting the Greeka agaiuat the common enemy, 
and Aeacbines woi tent to Arcadia. Here Acf- 
chinea apoke at Megalopolis againal Hieronymue, 
an emisiary of Philip, but without succesi ; and 
from thia moment Aeachinea, as well aa all hia 
fellow-dtiien*, gave up the hope of effecting aiit- 
tliiug by the united forces of Greece. (Dem. Ds 
filt.L«g. pp. 314, 438 i Aeaeb. DefiU. I^. p. 38.) 
When therefore Philip, in B. c 347, gave tbe 
Athenian* to underaland that he was inclined lo 
make pence with them, Philocratea uiged the ne- 
ceasily of lending an emhoaay to Philip to trat on 
the subject. Ten men, and among them Aescbinei 
and Daoaalbeues, were accsrdingly sent lo Philip, 
who receircd them with the utmost politenesa, and 
Aeachinea, when it waa hia turn to apeak, i«> 
minded the king of the righta which Athena bad 
to hii friendahip and alliance. The king promised 
to send forthwith ambasMdora lo Athena to nego- 
tiate the temu of peace. After the return of the 
Athenian ambaiiadon Ihey were each rewarded 
with a wreath of olive, aa the propoaal of Demofr 
thenes, for the manner in wluch they had di»- 
chorged their datiee. Aeschines from this momenl 
forward wo* inflexible in hia opinion, that nothing 
but peace with Pfiilip could avt^rt utter ruin from 
hia country. That this was perfectly in accordance 
with what Philip wished is clear, but there is no 
reason for auppoiing, that Aeschines had been 
bribed into thia opinion, or that he urged Ibe 
oecessity of pence with a view to min his country, 
(Aeech. ■■ CtitgA. p. 62.) Antipater and too 
other Macedonian ambaiiadora arrived at Athena 
soon after the return of the Athenian ones, and 
aflai various debates Demostlienea urgently advised 
the people lo conclude the peace, and speedily to 
send other ambaaaadora to Philip to reoeive hie 
oath to it. The only difierence between Aeschines 
and Demoathenea was, that the formerwould have 
concluded the peace even withoul providing for 
the Athenian allies, which was happily prevented 
by Demcethene*. Five Athenian ambaasadots, 
and among them Aeeehinea but not Demosthenc* 
{De Chrrm. p. 235), get out for Maoadonia iba 
mote speedily, as Philip was making war upon 
CeraoUeptes, a Thradan prince and ally of Athens. 
They went to Pella to wut for the arrivnl of 
Philip from Thiace, and were kept there for a con- 
liderabte time, for Philip did not come until he 
had completely subdued Cenobleplet. Al lout, 
howeirei, he awon to the peace, from which Ihe 



Phoduia wen aipnul j eiclnded. Philip honanr- 
«d thi Athaniui ■mtaaHdan with rich prsKnti, 
pnmiMd to mton all Athtniin priuncn withoDt 
nnum, and wrote ■ polite letter to tbe people of 
Atheiu ApologiEing for baTing detuned their ant- 
bundon k long. (Dem. lie faU. Lag. pp. S94, 
405.) H;rP<>"'l« *^^ Timanhiu, the former of 
whom wu B Erieud of Demotthenei, brought ^o^ 
v*rd ui tccQtttion Againet the amba««don, 
chutting them with high tresKii aguntt the re- 
public, becuue they mrTB bribed bj the kin^. 
Timarchui Hccated Aeschine*, and Hyperid» Phi- 
lecnlsL But Aeachinea evaded the danger b; 
bnngitig forward a coantei-aonuatioa sgaintt 
TiniucEiu (b. c 345), and b; ihewing that the 
mom] omduct of hn accuHt wai aueh that be bod 
no right to ipeak before the people. The ipeech 
to which Aeutuaea attuked ThnBrchni ii alill ei- 
taot, and it* efiect waa, that Timarehni wu obliged 
to drop hia accDaation, and Aeichinaa gained ■ bril- 
liant triomph. The operaliDDt of Philip after thii 
peace, and hii rnanh lowsnit Thennopjlae, made 
the Atheniana nry una*;, and Aeachinea, though 
tie onared the pnopU that the king had no hntile 
intentioiu lowarda Athena and only intended to 
chaitue Thebe^ waa again reqnealed to go a* ani- 
baaaador to Philip and insure hi* abiding by tbe 
tenna of hia peace. Bat he deferred going on Che 
pnteit that he waa ilL (Dem. DtfaU. Ltg. p. 
337.) On hi> return he pretended that the king 
had tecretlj confided to hun thai he would under- 
take nothing againat either Pbocia or Athena. 
Demoathenea law through the kingV plana aa well 
aa the irachtry of Aeichinea, and how juaC hia 
ap|)ieheiiBiont were beoune erident loon after the 
ratum of Aeachinea, when Philip announced to the 
Atbeniana that he had taken poeaesaion of Pbocia. 
Tbe people of Athena, howeTcr, were ailenced and 
hdled into aecurity by the repeated aaninmeea of 
ttie king and the reual oraton who adrocated bia 
caniB at Athena. In B. c S46, Aeachinea waa 

Hved greater hououra than 
could eier hare expected. 

At thia Uoie Aeachinea and Demoathenea ware 
at the head of the (wo parttea, into which not 
only Athena, but all Greece wa* divided, and 
their political enmity created and nouriahed per- 
ianal hatred. Thii enmity tame to u head in the 
year b. c. S143, when Demoathenea charged Aee- 
chinei with hairing been bribed and having be- 
trayed the inlereata of hit country during the 
•econd embaaay to Philip. Thia charge of Demoa- 
thenea (npl wopairpM^dEu) waa not apoken, bnt 
poUiabed aa a memorial, and Aeachirxea anawered 
it in a ainiilar' memorial on the embaaay (rapl 
rapnTpaaCifat), which waa likewioe pabUihed 
{Dem. Dt fait. Leg. p. SS1\ and in the eompoei- 
tion of which he ia aaid to have been aaaiited by 
hia friend Eubulua. The reault of theae mutnal 
oIlBcka ia unknown, but there ia no doabt that it 
gave a aavere ahock to tbe popularity of Aeachinea. 
At the dnu he wrote hia memorial we gain a 
gUmpae into hia piTate life. Some yean befbro 
that eccuitunce he had married B daughter of Phi- 
lodemua, a man of hi^ reapeciability in hii tribe 
of Paeanio, and in IM3 he K-as bther of three 
bttle children. (Aeich. Dt/i^. Leg. p.53.) 

II waa probably in ».c 342, that Antiphon, 
vho bad been exiled and lired in Macedonia, 


•ecretly returned to the Peiraeeiu with the inten- 
tion of aetting fire to the Athenian ahipa af wai^ 
Demoathenea diacovered him, and had bim tx- 
reated. Aeachinea denoimced the conduct of De- 
moathenea aa a vioklion of the democralical conati- 
tution. An^phon wat aentenced to death ; and 
although no diKloanre of any kind could be ex- 
torted from him, itill it aeema to have been be- 
lieved in many quartera that Aeachinea had been 
bia iMiimplice. Hence the honourable office of 
mii^uKii to the auicluary in Deloa, whicb had juat 
been given )iim, waa taken from him and beatowed 
upon Hyperidea. {Demoath. Dt Coron. p. 271.) 
In B.C 340 Aeachinea waa again pieaent at Delphi 
a* Athenian m\ir]>jpai, and cauaed the aeeond 
aaered war agunit Amphiaa in Lacria for having 
taken into cidtivation aomc ncRd landa. Philip 
sntrualed with tbe aupreme command by the am- 
phictyoua, marched into Locria with on army of 
30,000 men, ravaged the country, and aatabliihed 
himieir in it. When in 338 he advanced aontb- 
ward aa br at Elatea, aU Greece iraa in conatena- 
tion. Demoathenea alone perwrered, and routed 
hia countrymen to a laat and deaperale atniggle. 
The battle of Chaeroneia in thia eame year decided 
the &te of Greece. The miafortune of that day 
gave a handle to the enemiea of Demoathenea For 
attacking him; but notwithatanding the briben 
which Aeachinea received from Antipater for thia 
purpoae, the pnre and nnstiuned patriotism of De- 
moathenea waa to generally recognised, that he 
received the honourable charge irf delivering iho 
fnneral oration over thoaa who had bllen at Chae- 
roneia. Clcaiphon ptopoaed that Demoathenea 
ahould be rewarded mr the aenricee he had dono 
lo hia country, with a golden crown in tbe theatre 
at tbe great Dionyata. Aeachinea availed himaelf 
of die illegal form in which thia reward waa pro- 
poied to be given, to bring a charge against Ctcni- 
pbon on that ground. Bnt he did not proaecule 
ibe matter till e^tyean later, that ia, in B. c 33U, 
when after tbe death of Philip, and the viclorica 
of Alexander, political a&in hod oaamncd a ditle- 
tcnt aepect in Greece. After having commenced 
the proaeculion of Cteaiphon, he ia nid lo have 
gone for aome time to Macedonia. What induced 
Sim to drop the proaecution of Cteaiphon, and lo 
lake it up again eight yeara aftarwarda, are quea- 
tiona which can only be anawered by conjecturca. 
The ipeech in which he accnied Cteaiphon in a.c. 
330, and which ia alill extant, ia ao akilfully ma- 
naged, that if he had mcceeded he would have 
totally deatroyed all the polilioil influence and 
authority of Demoathenea. The bttter anawered 
Aeachinea in hit celebraMd oration on the crown 
(upl iTTK^m). Even before Demoathenea had 
finiahed hia apeech, Aeachinea acknowledged him- 
aelf conquered, and withdrew from the court and 
hia country. When tbe matter wa* put to the votes, 
not even a tlfUi of them waa in favour of Aeachinea. 
Aeachinea went to Atia Minor. The atalement 
of Plutarch, that Demoathenea provided him with 
the mean* of accompjiahing hia joumey,ia surely a 
bble. He spent several yean in Ionia and Caria, 
occupying hunaelf with teaching riietoric, and 
oniioualy waiting lor the return of Alexander to 
Europe. When in B.C 324 the report of the 
dead of Alexander reached hi"' , be liji Asia and 
went to Rhodes, where he eitabliahed a school of 
eloquence, whidi aiibeequently betame very cele- 
brated, and occupiea a middle pnaition between ^ 



ns mt^Vn,.^ tf the Attic oaten, and the ab- 
le Iniaiianoi of (he •o-iallsd AiUtic achool of 
untsi^. On otu occauon he raad lo hit suilienee 
in RhodM hi! apeech agaimt CUtiphon, ind when 
uns of his bearan ei[H«HBd Ibrai utoniihment 
«t his havJDg been defeated nolwithHlandiDg his 
liriDiaiit ontion, he nplied, " Yon would M*w to 
be utoniahed, if ;on hod heard DemoicheiK*." 
fCic De Orat. iii. 56 ; PUn. H. N.yu.36; Plin. 
SpliL il 3 ; QuinctiL xl 8. S 6-) From Rhodei he 
went to Samoa, when he died in B.C 311. 

The condnct of Ae*chinea haa been ceuuied b]r 
(he mitan of all ag» ; and for thii nuuiy reaaoiu 
aaj be mentioned. In the lint pluK, and abore 
■11, it wtu fail miifbrtuiM Co bo ranatontly placed 
in juxlapontioD oi oiniulian to the ipotleai gloiy 
of DenuatluDe*, and Uiii mnat have made him ap- 
pear man guilty in the ejea of tkoee who taw 
Ihranali hia actiona, while in later tlmea the COD- 
tnut between the gnueat oralon ot the lime va* 
freqnantly mode the theme of rhetorical dechuna- 
tion, in which one of the two waa pnuied or 
blamed at the coet of the other, and kia with te- 
pid to truth than to etfect Reipectii^ the laat 
period of hia life we acsrcely poaa c aa any other 
•OBRe of iulbnaatiaD than the occeimta of late 
n^^hiala and declamationa. Another point to 
be conaidered in forming n jual eetimate of the 
•j ^m ^ r^rimr of Aeachinea ii, that he had no adTan- 
l^ea of edncalion, and that he owed hia gieatneoa 
la none but himaelfl Hia occnpations during the 
early part of hia life wen aneh u neceaeuil}' en- 
geodand in him the low deaire of gain and wealth ; 
and bad he OTercome theae paaaioDB, ha would 
bare been eqnai (o Domoithenea. There ia, how- 
etsr, not the alighteat ground ibr belieiing, thai 
AeacbinoB leoonunended peace with Macedonia at 
fini &nn any other moliTe than the deaire of pro- 
uotins the good of hia conntry, Demoathenea 
himauf acted in the aame apirit at that time, for 
the cnftineit of Philip deceived both i^ them. 
Bat whik Dempatbeoea allend hii policy on dia- 
eoreiing the ncict inlentiona of the king, Aeachinea 
eoatiniied to adTocale the principlea of peace. But 
than ia nothing lo juati^ Ihe belief that Aeachinea 
intended lo ruin hi* country, and i I ia ranch more 
probabta that the crafly lung made aoch on im- 
preaaion upon him, that he firmly beZieved he 
woa doing right, and waa tiiua mconjicioualy led 
•n to beeonie a Oailor lo hia country. But iio an> 
eieut wriler except Demoethene* chargea him with 
baling receind bribea from the Macedoniana for 
Ihe pnrpoaa of betraying hia conntiy. He appean 
Is haTo been carried away by the &roDt of the 
kii^ and the people, who deiighled in heairing 
&IBB him wh^ they themaelre* wiabed, and, 
« alao, by the of^outioii of Demoalhenea 



but h( 

Timsrchua, on Ihe Emhoarr, and i^ainit < 
Aa on ofatar, be waa infuior to none but Demot- 
thenek. He waa endowed by nature with extm- 
oidinuj Kalorical powers, of which hia orationa 
■ffixd abundant ptdoEl The &cilily and felicity 
of hi* dictioo, the boldneea and the Tiganr of hia 
deacrutkoia, eairy away the nadcr no*, at they 
nuat UTe cairied away hit audience. The an- 
fienla, a* Pbotiua (Cod. 6 1 ) remarica, deaignaled 
tbeae tbcee orationa oa the Gtaat, and the nine 
letter* which were eitoul in Ihe time of Pbotiua, 


aa Ihe Mtan. Beudet Ihe lime orationa, we now 
poaae ai twelve letlera which are aaeribed to Aea- 
chinea, which howerer are in all probabihty not 
more geuoine than the ao-ealled epiitle* of Pbalaria, 
and are nndonbtedly the work of lata aophiita. 

The principal aourcoa of information concerning 
Aoachinea are : 1. The orations of Demoathenea on 
the Emboaay, and on the Ciovn, and the ora^oni 
of Aeechinea on the Embaaay and againat Cteai- 
pbon. Theae Ibur orationa were tnnalaled into 
L«tin by Ciceio ; bat the tronalation ia left, and 
we DOW poaaesa only an eaaay which Cicero wrote 
as an introdocdon to them : " I>e optima genera 
Oratorum." 2. The Ufa in Plutarch'a VHat dteim, 
Ondorm. 3. Thelifeof Aeachinea by Philostratua. 
i. The lift of Aeachines by Liboniui. &. Apallo- 
nio*' Exageais. The last two works are printed 
in Reiake's edition, p. 10, fbU. The best modem 
eaaay on Aeachinea it thai by Pataow in Emch and 
amber's Eiu^fdopaiiii, ii. p. 7S, &e. Thet« i* 
also a work 1^ E. Slechow, Dt AaMna Ontorii 
Vita, BerUn, 1841, 4to., which it an attempt (o 
dear the ehaiaeter of Aeschinea from nfi the re- 
pnachet that bare been attached to it ) hut the 
eaaay ie written in exceedingly bad I«tin, and tht 
attempt ia a most complete feUnre. 

The first edition of tiie oiUiona of Aeachinea i* 
that of Aldus Manatiui in hit GJIhUo /OtlorKM 
Gramnm, Venice, 1S13, (oL An edition with s 
Latin tnuuktlDn, which alto contains the letters 
ascribed to Aeachinea, it that of H. Wol^ BaaeU 
1572, foL The next important edition ii that by 
Taylor, which conti^nt Ihe notes of Wolf, Tajlw, 
and Markland, and appraued at Cambridge in 
1748-S6 in hia collection of the Attic oiatort. In 
Reiake'a edition of the Attic oraton Aeachinea 
occnpiea the third Tolume, Lipo. 1771, Svo, The 
best editiooa are those of I. Bekkar, vol. iiL of hit 
Omtora Altid, Oxford, 1B23, Sto., for which 
thirteen new HSS. were collated, and of F. H. 
Broni, Zurich, IMt, 2 <rol«. Eio. The oration 
against Demosthenes hai ' 


■opher and rhctr 
according to ether accoonta, of Lysauiaa {Diog. 
Laert. ii. 60 ; Suidat, >. v. 'Airxltqt), and a disciple, 
olthangh by aome of hit coolemporariea held aa 
unwonhy one, of Socratea. Fmm the account ot 
I^ertiua, be appears to have been the fiunili^r friend 
of hia great master, who aaid Chat ** the aaosage- 
seller's son only knew how to honour him." The 
«une writer hat pieeened a tradilion that it woa 
Aeachinea, and not Crito, who o^red lo aatiat 
Socratea in his escape from prison. 

The greats port of his lile wo* spent in abject 
poterty, which gave rise to the adrice of Socrataa 
to him, "to borrow mottey of hunael^ by dimiiuah> 
ing hia duly wanCi." After the death of hit mas- 
ter, according lo the charge of Lytiaa apitd Altai. 
liii. p. fill, 0. f.), he kept a perftimei's shop with 
borrowed money, and preaently becoming bank- 
rupt, waa obliged to lean Athens. WlieClur from 
tiecesaity ot indlnation, he fallowed the &thian of 
the day, and retired lo the Syiacnaan court, where 
the friandthip of Arisdppns might console him for 
the contempt of Phito. He remained tlieic uniil 
the eipnltion of the younger Dionysius, and on 
hit return, finding it nteleta to attempt n rivalry 
with hia great conlemporariet, he gare pritatr lec- 
turei. One of Ihe charges which hii opponentt 



w (hat of noeiTii _ 
bii iunnctioni. AnDlber (Wiy wu inTenlol tliM 
tlwM dHi]D|{(W* mie leiUf iha work of Bnentn ; 
and Aritlippaa, eitbn frnm joke or nulke, poblicl? 
charged AeichinH wilb lbs theft while ha wu 
teoding lb«n al Menn. PEato it retatid by 
Hrifmda (i^md AOim. ji. p. S07, e.) U ban 
Mokn from him hia aolitiuy pnpil Xmoctatn. 
Tbc Ojne dialoguea, ntfj oprrqi, •! SitavT^r, 

which haTB csnie doVD to lu under ths name of 
AnehinH are not gtmiiiDe imuuna: it ia eTen 
doubted whether thej ue the aame woika which 


r, the tbiid editii 


hiTc bren edited by Fiachc 

which (Syo. Lip*. 17B6) conlaiiu (he chlicinn) of 
Wotf, and fonna part oE a tolume of ipuriona Pla- 
tonic dialogoei (.^iinniiu SoeraHd tU tiikltr iiaUigi 
^aaluor) b; Boclth, HeideL 1610. 

The genuine dialogneo, from the alight mention 
made of them bj Demetiina "' ' 
bare been CuW of Socntic in 
IIipl Iiw>, connden Aes^hi 
Xenot^on in elegance and pnrily of iljle. A long 
■nd imnnng paaiaae i* quoted bjr Cicero from him. 
(De IiHml. I, 31 ; Dlogenea l^ertint. iL 60-64, and 
the authnritiet collected by FiKher.) IB. J.] 

APSCHINES (Aiffxlnji); of MlLBTUB, a con- 
tenporaiy of Cicero, and a diitingniahed ontor in 
the Aiiatic itjlo of eloquence. He ii Mid by Dio- 

Knea Lacrtina to bare written on PoUtio. He 
rd in exile on auounl of baiinff qwken too freely 
to Pompey. (Cic BrtU. 9i ; I^og. Laert. iL 64 ; 
Stmb. xiv. p. 635 ; Sen. ChmroB. i. 8.) 

AE'SClllNES(Airx'"w). of NiAPOUn.a Peri- 
patetic philouphei, who wu at the head of the 
Atademj at Athena, together with Cbannadea and 
CUtomachueaboDt B.C 109. (Cic da Oral. i. II.) 
Diosene* Laerthu (ii. Si) nya, that he wu a 
popil of Helanlhiu the Rhodiao. 

AE'SCHINliS [Alaxirtii), an andent phyai- 
(ian, who lived in the latter half of the ronnh 
centory after ChriiL He wa* bom in the ialand 
nf Chioa, and aeltled at Athena, when he appeari 
to bare pmcliaed with very little ancceaa, but ac- 
quired great &me by a happy cnre of Enni^nua 
Saidianna, who on hia royage to Atheni (ai he telii 
Ha himiel^ u vita Pmatrti. p. 76, ed. Boiwn) 
had been iciied with a fever of a very violent 
kind, which yielded only to treatment of a peculiar 
nature. An Athenian physician of thii 
quoted by Pliny (//. ff. uviii. 10), of v 
only known, that he moil hare lived • 
before llu middle of the fiiat cmtnty afler 
Chrirt. [W.A.O.] 

AE'SCHRION, of SyiacuK, vhoM vrife Pippa 
WM one of the miatieuea of Verrea, i* frequently 
mentioned by Cieero in the Verrine Onttiimt. {iL 
)4, V. 12,31.) Ileawiated Vemn in nbbing the 
Synunmn) (ii. 31 ). and obtnined the hnning of 
Ihe tithe* of the Herbtlen«i lor the purpoie ' 
plundering them. (iJL 33.) 

ArSCHRlUN (AurxfiW), an iambk poet, 
unlive of Samoa. He ii mentioned by Atfaenaeo* 
(Tii.p.296,f.TiiL p.S3S,t),whohaapn«enod Bome 
cholianihic venei of hia, in which he defendi thr 
Samian Philaenlt afiainit Polycralea, the Athenian 
rhetorician and "nphiat Some of hii vc 
aUo quoted by Tietici (ad Ly^^r. USB). 

pupQ of Afiatotle, and 
who ia nid to have accompanied Alexander on 

•onM of bii expedition*. He ii mentioned by 
Snida* (t. c.) and Tutaet {CO. viii. 406). Aa 
iter of iambic* and choliambiea, 
many tcholaia have auppoaed him to be identical 
with the Samiau Aeichrion, and to have been 
Mityienaejm in eoniequenee of having n- 
r tome time In that city. (Schueidewin, 
Ddtdat i^Mliimiii itambic tt mtlieonm Grate f 
Jacobs Am),. Grate. liu. 834.) [C. P. M.] 

AE'SCHRION, a Onek writer on agriculture, 
of whom nothing more ia knowiL (Vair. da Aa 
Rmd. L 1.) 

AE'SCHRION (^Aurpcflmr), a native of Per- 

amu, and a phyneian ni the tecond century after 

:luitt. Ha wa« one of Oalen'a tntora, wbo tay* 

that be belonged to the lect of the Empirki, and 

he had a great knowtedjie of Pbirmncy and 

eria'Madka. Aeachrion wai the inventor of a 

Dated anpentilioui remedy for the tnle of a 

mad dog, which it mentioned with approbation by 

Oalen and OribaiJDt (^niopi. ilL p. £5), and at 

which the mott important iugndienl waa powdered 

crawRib. Theae he direct! to be caught at a time 

when the mn and moon were (n a pailicular relative 

poution, and to be baked alive. (GaL DtSmpL 

Mtdie. FaalL iL 34, vol liL p. 356 ; C. O. KUhn. 

ddOam. ad Elenck. Mad. Vt. a J. A. FiArie. 

'•BOL Or." BBliM.) [W, A. G.] 

AESCHYXIDES (AUx<^l»y,t), wrote a worii 

on agriculture, entitled ranpymi, which waa at 

leatt in three booka. (Athen. nv. p. 630, d; 

Aelian, da Antm. ivL 330 

AE'SCHYLUS (Al„xi>^oi) waa bom at EleoM* 
in Attica in B. c 323, an that he waa Ihirty-iiv* 
yeari of age at the time of the battle of Marathon, 
and conlempotarr with Simonidea and I^dar. 
Hia &ther Euphorion wa* probably connected with 
the wonhip of Deroeter, fnna which Aachyin* 
may naturally be luppoted to have received hi* 
fint religion* impretaiona. He wai himtelf^ ao- 
eording to some authoritiea, initiated in the mya- 
teriea, with reference to which, and to hia lurih- 
place Elenria, Arietophanea (Jiaa. 884) make* him 
to the Elennnian goddeu. PaoKniaa (L SI. 
relate* an anecdote of him, which, if tme, 
timck in very early youth with 
the exbibiiions of the drama. According to thia 
ttory, " When he vnia a boy be waa tet to watch 

Epea in the country, and there fell aalec[k In 
•Inuiben DionyaUB appealed to him, and 
ordered him to apply himaelf to tragedy. At day- 
break he made the attempt, and tucceeded very 
euily." Such a dream a* thia conld hardly hava 
remlted from anything but the impreanon pro- 
duced by Uvgic exhibitioiia upon a warm imagina- 
tion. At the age of 23 (b. c. 499), he made hia 
Grtt ai^iearance aa a competilnr for the prize of 
tragedy, againat Choerilut and Pmtinat, without 
however being *ucce«gful. Sixteen yean afler- 
vrard (s. c. 484), Aeachylua Kained hit firat victory. 
The title* of the piece* which he then brought out 

probably Pratina* and PhTynichna or Choerilua. 
Eight yean afterwardi he gained the prize with 
the trilogy of which the Peme, the ewlieat of hit 
einanl dranm*. wat one piece. The whole nnmber 
of victoriet altribiili^ to Aewhvlna amnunted lo 
Ihirii-cn, UMBt uf which were EJiiDcd bv him in the 

lay toth 
2) relal 

Inbml of aiiteai yean, bMmen KC. iBt, the 
jtu of Ilia Gnl tngk tiiIgij, and the do*e of the 
Fenian war bj Cinmu'i dinibli TJctory M the 
EniTmedoD, B.C iTO. (Bode, Gadk. dtr HdleK 
Didttiamil, iii. p. 212.) The j;ear B. c 468 wa« 
the date of a remaikable sTont in the poet'i life. 
Id that ;car he wu defeated ia a tngic conleat b; 
. hit j-ounger rival Sophoclei, and if we may b&- 
Kere PlataRh (C^n. S), hie moitiGcatioD at tliii 
indignity, M he conceiTed it, wai Ki great, that he 
quincd Athena in di^iut the Tety tame jua, and 
want to the court of Uiera (Pant. L 2. S 3). kii^ 
of Syracme, where he fonnd Simonidet the lyric 
potl, «ho aa veil aa hinuelf waa by that prince 
mOBt hoiinlably reteiTed. Of the lact of hia bar- 
ing Tinted Sicily at the time olltided to, then can 
be no doubt ; but vhetber the motive alleged by 
Plutarch for his doing >o vaa the only one, or a 
real one, ii a queatinn of conaidersble difiicnlty, 
though of little precUcal niomenl. It may be, aa 
bai been plausibly maintained by some authora, 
that Anchylna, whose family and penonal honoun 
wen cotmected with the gloriea i^ Maiathon, and 
the hooe* of the Fenian war, did uot lympathite 
with the apirit of aggrandisamcat by which the 
CDnndla of hii counlty Here then actmited, nor 
approre of ita policy la the atruggle for the 
aDpremcy am Greece. The contemporarict of 
hia eailiei yean, Hiltisdea, Aritteidea, and The- 
iniitocleB, irhna nchieiementa in the aervjce of 
theit eooatrr vera identified with thoae of hinuelf 
and hia &nu]y, had been aocceeded by Cimon : and 
the ariatocca^cal principlea which Aeachylua np- 
pofted were gmdaally being njpptonted and ofer- 
bonw by the adTance of democraey. From all 
^ii, AeacbylDi might have felt that he waa 
eatliving hia principle*, and have lelt it the mote 
keenly, from Cimon, the hero of the day, having 
been one of the judgei who awarded the tragic 
pri» to Sophoclei in preference to bimtel£ (Plat 
I c) On thii tuppoHtion, Athena could not have 
been an agreesbla reiideoce to a penon like 
Aeachylua, and therefore he might have been dia- 
poaed to leave it; but ttill it ia more than probable 
that hia defeat by Sophoclea materiully influenced 
bii detenninations, and waa at any rale the proxi- 
mate canae of hia removing to Sidiy. It baa been 
further conjectured that the charge of dWSiia oi 
impiety which waa brought aguinat Aeachylua lot 
an alleged pubKcntion iif the myileriea of Cerca 
(Ariatot. Eli. iiL IX but pouibly from political 
□kotiTea, waa in aoma measure connected with hia 
hia native country. If tfaia were 
it folloni, that the play or playt 

^ auppoKd (dUenoe tn the Atheniana, 

miKt have been pnbliihed before &. C 46S, and 
therefore that the trilogy of the Oieateia contd 
have had no coiuiexian with it. Shortly before 
the arrival of Aetchylui at the court ef Hiero, that 
prince had built the town of Aetna, at the bottom 
of the moonlain of that name, and on the lite of 
the andent Cblana : in OHineiion with Ihia event, 
Aeachyhu ia aaid to have compoaed hia plar of the 
"' in of Aetna (b.c 471, or 472), in which h* 

really th 

duced Uie phy of the Penae, 
which he had been victotioua i 
teau at Athena, (a. c 473.) 
the trilogy of the Svven afHV 
pr«eutcJ toon after lllo " Pc 

with the trilogy of 
tile dramatic con- 
low we know that 


thenfoce tLat the Ibrmer trilogy moat have been 
fintiepreaented not later than K.C. 470. (Wicker, 
TKigw, p. 520; SchoL ad AriHi^ Sim. 1063.) 
AriaUideB, who died in a. u. 4G<9, waa living at 
the time. (Plul. AriiL 3.) Beridea "The Womea 
of Aetna," Aeachylni ilao compoed other |aecea in 
Sicily, in which an taid to have occoiied KciUan 
wordt and eipreaaiont not inteiligibte to the Albe- 
niana (Athen. ji. p. 402, b.) From the number of 
anch wordt and eipreauona, which have been 
noticed in the later eirtant piaya of Aeachylua, it 
haa been inferred that he ipent acontidelahle time 
in Sidly, on thia hit fint ritiL We mutt not 
however omit to mention, that, according to tome 
aocotinta, Aeachylua alto viuted Sicily about b. c 
48S, pnvioui to what we have contidered hia firat 
vitiL (Bode,/d.iii.!^2t5.) The occation of thia 
been the rictory gtuned 

over him by Simonidcs, to whom the Atheniana 
adjudged the prize for the beat elegy on thoae who 
(ell at Marathon. Thii tradition, hovever, ia not 
anpported by atrong independent teKimony, and 
accordingly iti truth baa been much quetlioned. 
Suidaa indeed ttntet that Aeachylua had viaited 
Sicily even before thia, when he wat only twenty- 
five yeart cJ age (a. c 499), immediately after hia 
fint conleat with Fralinaa, on which occaaion the 
crowd of apecluton wa* to great at to taoae tlie 
&1I of the irooden tdanlu (lapia) or temporary 
acaffiildii^ on which thay were aocoinmodated 

In a c 467, hii &iend and patron king Hiero 
died ; and in b. c. 4fi3, it appeeri that Aeachylua 
waa again at Athena faiim the bet that the trilogy 
of the Orealeia waa prndncsd in that year. The 
omjecture ef fiockh, that thit might have been a 
tecond representation in the ' abaence of the poel, 
ia not lupporled by any probable raatoni, for we 
ntimatioa that the Oreateia ever had Ix^n 
acted before. (IIennann,C|i>uc.ii. p. 137.) In the 
tame or the following year (u. c. 457), Aeachylua 
again viaited Sicily fiir the laat time, and the 
reaaon aaaigned for thia hia tccond or aa othera 
conceive hia fourth vi^l to thia iihind, it both pro- 
bable and luffident. The bet it, that in hit play 
of the Eumenidet, the third and laat of the three 
playt which made up the Oreatean trilogy, Aea- 
chylua proved himaelf a decided aupportar of the 
ancient dignitiea and power of that " walchfiil 
guardian " of Athena, the aiittocratica] court of the 
Areiopagua, in oppoaition to Fericlet and hia de- 
itial coadjatori. With thit trilogy Aeachylua 

indeed as 

siful aa a poet, b 

le effecla he hod wi 

it did not product 
ana intended, And he founa mat no naq iinven 
in vain againtt the opiniona and viewt of a gene- 
ration to which be did not belong Accordingly it 
haa been conjectured that either from diaappoint- 
ment or fear of the contequeneee, or perbapa from 
both tbeae canaet, be again quilled Athena, and 
retired once more to Sieuy. But another reaaon, 
which if founded on truth, perhapa opeialed in 
conjunction with the former, baa been aatigned for 
hia latt Hjoura in Sicily. Thit rett* on a alata- 
ment made more or leia djatinctly by vnriona 
anlhora, to the effect that Aeachylua wai accuied 
of impiety before the court of the Areiopagua, and 
that he would have been condemned but for the 
interpoaition of hia brother Ameiniaa, who had 
diatingniahed bimtelf at the battle of Sahuiiia. 
(Aolian, r.//.v. 19.) Accor^ng to aomeauthnn 


tuTing m Hme of hu pliLj* eiuer diratgad or 
pn&nflly spoken of the myiUrief of Cen^ Ao- 
cording to Dthen« the charge originated &om hiA 
famTing inlitxiuoHl on the Mage the dnad god- 
denee, the Emncnide^ which he had dooe in inch 
k wnj at not only to do TiobnM to popular pce- 
iadiccbat >]m to udte the neateet ilann unooi 
Nov, the 

the aij*m» of Cem, and thenion we an in- 
clined la think that hii political enemiei atailed 

thenuelre* of the nnpapnluitj he had inoimd by 
hia " Chomi of FnriH," to get up agaioM him a 
ehaiga of impctj, which the; aapported not only 
bj what wai ohjectionable in the Eumenidct, bat 
aln in other playi not now extant At an; ntle, 
from the niuober of authoritiea all conGnving thi* 
conchiuoo, there can be no doobt that towanla the 
end of hii lifo Aeidijlu* incuned the aeriaua di>- 
]rimaare of a atrong partj at Aiheai, and that 
after the exhibition of the Omtenn trilogy he 
retired to OeU in Sicily, when he died B. c 456, 
in the $9ih year of hii age, and three yean after 
the lepmentation of the Eiunenidea On the 

nona. (Suidaa, •. e. Xft^-rtu^o.) An eagle, lay 
they, miilaking the poet'i bald head for a itone, 
)el a (ortoiie fall DpOQ it to break the thell, and 
n fdlfilled an oncia, accarding to which AeecbylDt 
wsa bted to die tn a blow from htsien. The 
inhabilantt of Oefa the wed their regard for 
hii character, by public loloninitiei in hia honour, 
by erecting a noble moaoment to him, and inioib- 
ing it with an epitafii written by bimaeUl (Paoi. 
LUM; Alhen. liT. 627. d. rat-^i™.) In it 
Gela ii raentioDed aa the place of hia burial, and 
^e field of Mmathon aa the place of bit moit 
^orioDi achieTanenti ; hat no mentiou ii made of 
hii poetiy, the only lubjcct of 


Athena slao hi> name and memory wero holden 
etpeeial rererence, and the prophecy in which he 
(Atben. viii. 547, e. (.) ii >aid to hare predicted hia 
own poelhumouA Ebme, when he waa fint defeated 
by Sophodea, waa amply folfilled. Hit piecci 
were fivquently reproduced oa the atoge ; and by 
A apeciat decree of the people, a chorua waa pn- 
-itded at the eipenae of the ilale tor any one who 
might with to exhibit hie tragediet a lecoiid time. 
(Ariatoph. Jdur. 102; Aekdiyl. vtta.) Hence 
Aiiataphanea (Tbs. 892) makea Aeechylm tay of 
himie^ that hia poetry did not die with him ; and 
even ^ter hi* deftth, he may be wd to bm 
gaiiwd many TJctoriea orer hii loceeaiora in Attic 
tragedy. (Hermann, Opmic n. p. 156.) The playa 
thna eihilnled (or the gnt tin» may nther bsre 
been thoie which Aeechylaa had not pmduced 
himael^ or toch ai had been repreacntad in Sicily, 
and not M Athena, during hia lifetime. The io- 
diTidaal* who exhibited Ua dnmatic ronaina on 
(he Attic atage wen hii aona Euphorion und Bion : 
(he farmer oi whom waa, in a c. 431, Tictorioat 
with a tetralogy over Sophoclea and Euripides 
(Argom. Eurip. Med.), and in addition to thii ia 
aaid to have gained four victoriei with drametie 
piece* of hi* bther'* never before repmenled. 
(BiDni6eld, ad Argmat. Ajam. p. SO.) Philodei 
a1*a, the *on of ■ Niler of Aeacbylui, waa licto- 
noa* over the King Oedipiii of Sophoclea. probably 
with a tragedy of bii undcY (Argum. Soph. Ocd. 


which continued for the a]Ace of 135 yeara. 

We liaTe hitherto apokon of Aefchylna aa a poet 
onW I but it moat not be forgotten that he waa alao 
higLly tsnowned aa a warrior. Uii tint achieve- 
menta aa a aoldier were in the battle of Manlhon, 
in which hii brother Cynaegeini and hinuelf lo 
highly diitingniahed themtdvo, that their eiploila 
wen commanoraied with a deacriptive painting in 
(ha theatn of Athena, which wa* thought to be 
much older than the atatoe then erected in honour 
of AcKhylna. (Paua. L 21. § 2.) The epitaph 
which he wrote on hinuelf, prorea that he con- 
•idered hit ahaie in that haltle aa the moit glo- 
riooa Bchierenient of hia life, thoogh he waa 
alio engaged at Artemianm, Salamia, and Pla- 
tan. (Paua. L It. $ 4.) All hii family, indeed, 
were djatingtiiahed (or brarery. Hii younger 
brother Ameiniu {Herod. niL 84 ; Diod. xi. 26) 
wai noted aa hanng ccmmenced the attack on 
the Peraian abipa at Sahunia, and at Marathon no 
one waa lo peraereringly brare ai Cynaegeirui. 
(Herod. Ti |]«.) Hence we may not nnreaKHt- 
ably luppoae, that the giutitnde of the Athenian! 
for inch aerricea contributed a 


h he 


after the battle of 
Maiaibon (b.c 464) and befon that of Ealamii. 
Nor can we wonder at the peculiar lividneai and 
qririt with which he portraya the " pomp and dr- 
mmstance" of war. aa in the Periae, and the 
" Seven againat Thebea," deacribing ila inddenta 
and nctiona aa one who had really been an Ktor 

The ityle of Aeichylua ia bold, eneigetic, and 
aubUrne. fiill of gorgeoua imagery, and nuigniAcenC 
eipreiaioni inch aa became the elevated cbaiaclera 
of his dmmai, and the idee* he wiahed to eipreta. 
(Ariatoph. Ran. 934.) This lublimily of dicliou 
waa however •ometime* carried to an extreme, 
which made hii language targid and inflated, » 
that a* QuintiUan (x. 1 ) aayi of him, " he ia 
grandiloquent to a fault" In the lorn of hia ex- 
preaaiona, the poetiol predominates over the lyo- 
lactical. He was pociiliaily fond of metaLphorical 
phiniei and itnnge componndi, and obsolete lan- 

and deacribing the awful and the lairible, rather 
than in axhibiting the woriiinn of the human 
mind imder the influence of cnmplicnled and various 
motive!. Bat notwilhatondtng the genera! eleva 
tiwi of hii style, the inbordinate chuacten in hia 
playa, aa the v^ntchman in the Agamemnon, and 
the none of Oreate* in the Choephorae, are mada 
to use language fitting their atation, and leH n- 
moved fixtm that of common life. 

The chaniclcn of Aeschylui, like his diction, 
are aablime and mnjestic, — they wen gods and 
hemea of coloeul magnitude, whoae imposing aapecl 
conld be endured by the heron of Manthon and 
Salamia, but wai loo awlul for the contemplation 
of the next generation, who compUined thai 
Aescbylua' language waa not hnnuui. (ArUloph. 
Ran. 105G.) Hence the general impreeaiona pro- 
duced by the poetry of Aescbylua were rather of a 
religiout thnn of n moral nature : hia peraonage* 
being both in action and Buffering, auprrhuinan, 
and therefore nut nlnraya fitted lo leach practical 




teagsL Ha jcodncN indaed > •■» of leliaioiii 
n«e, aad dread of tlie iiKatitUile powar u tlw 
godii to wkidi man u npnwnMd u beii^ entirel; 
iBbjcct i bat on the «dwi hand hnmaiulr often 



m Tictbn of • unggle betwaen rapoiDr boingL 
S>ill Aochjina otc tinw diwlow ■ proTidentia] 
Iider itf OMipenalion rad ntiibation, whik be 
■IwBjm leadiea the dntr of rviigDation and nb- 
BUBim to the will of the godM, and the fntiiit; 
■ad htal amaequoieea of ail oppoailign lo it. Sot 
QBrtettj ReTiev. Nn. 113, p. 315. 

With reaped to the comtniction of hi> plaja, 
it ha> been often remarked, that Ihej have 
littk or no plot, and ue therefon wanting in 
dnaatie intenet: thii defidenc; howerei nwy 
Miike n nuire than it otherviie would in conM- 
^iMDee of moit of hi* extant pliyi being only portA, 
er acta of a more complicated dianu, Stiil we 
cannal bdp being imptnied with the belief^ that 
he wBi more c^nble of aketcbing a lau (ratline, 
than of SDiDg Dp it* pvti, however bold and 
TigniTHU an the ikelchei by which he ponnfi 
aad gimp* hit cbaiacteri. Hii object, indeed, ac- 
oxdn^ to Anatophaoea, in nth pUji a* the 
Fcnae, and the Seren againit Thebea, which ue 
Buc rpkal than dnmatical. 

aCaitle b; the inddentt of an elaborate plot. {Ran. 
1000.) The ccligianB riewi and teneta of Ae>- 
ihjliu, ao &i aa they appear in hi* writinga, were 
BoDeric. like Homer, he npreient* Zani a* 
the nfrmae Rnlei of the UniTene, the aDorDe and 
natie irf bH thingi. To faoo all the other divini- 
Ciea aie aahject, and from him all their powen and 
■Btbocilj on derired. Eren Fate itaelf ii aome- 
timoa identkai with hi> will, and the renll of hia 
decreea. He only of all the beinn in heaien and 
•arth i* fra* to act 01 he pleaaes. (from. 40.) 

la Pbiloaaphieal aenlimenta, then wa* a tradi- 
tion that AaaehyhiB waa a IMbBgOTOm (Cic 7^ 
Diip. a, 10) i but of thia hia wiitii^ do not 
buniah on; tonchiMTe procrl^ thoogfa there certainty 
waa Bome aimilarity between hhn and Pythagora* 
in th« pmi^ and eleratian of their lentimenla. 
" " d iiielj deecription of the 

moitt of Aeechyloa, and of 
which be wa« held by hii can- 
immediate •nccMwra, i* giTea hy 
LopJiaBea in hii "Fn^" He ia then de- 
d oa pnmd and impatient, and hia ttyle and 
f^diia *ach aa we han deicribed it. Ariatopbann 
wa* cridailiT a tttj gieal admirer of IJm, and 
■ynpalhiaed m ao common degree with hi* politi- 
al and moral aentimenta. He conaideTed Aea- 
cbylnaaawilhogt a rital and nlteily anapproachaUe 
aa a tragic poet; aad njmaent* eren Sophodea 
UmacU aa readily yielding to and admitluig hi* 
a^elior duma la the tragic thnme. But few if 
an ef the aoeienl critic* •eeni to have allogelher 
coincided with Arislopbanea in hia estimation of 
Acacbjbu, thongh they give him credit for hti 
cxeellrata. Thna Dionyiini (D, PoU. PcL n. 9) 
|cai«e* tbo originatity of hia idcaa and of hia ex- 
preaeioiia, and the beauty of hii imagery, and the 
propriety and dignity of hi* characlen Longiuna 
l\S\ oiraka oT tui elented treatioa* and imagery, 
IB of hit expretoioni aa hanh and 

OTirrtiBined ; and Qaintilian (z. 1} aiprwui 
himwtf mach to (be ■tne eSbcL Tlio eipnaaion 
altiibnted to Sophodea, that Aiaehylu did what 
woi right witbont knowi^ it(Athen.x.p.42e,C), 
in other worda, that he waa an oncooiciaiii gentDBf 
wotking without an; knowledge ti or regard to 
the artittical law* of hii piofiMdon, i* worthy of 
note. So aim ia the abterration of Schl^el (L(«- 

mi|de omongit man]', that 

of Aeachyln* ani m 

thoae of regulated ifmmetiy, which then i 
away into delieacj and inHgnificanee ; and that 
poeDy in her £nt manifeitation alwayi appnache* 
neaRit to the awfulneai of religion, wtiaterei ahapa 
the latter may aaaume among the forion* lacei of 
men." AeacJiyliii himself uied to vy of hia 
dcamaa, that they wete bagmenta of the great 
t«nqDel of HoDUi'i table. (Athen. 'iii. p. 947, e.) 
The alterationa made by Acachylni b the compo- 
■iban and dramaUc n^rewDlation of Tragedy 
were lo great, that he wa* con*idered by the 
Athenioni a* the bther of it, jiut ai Homer wa* 
of Epic poetry and Herodoluiof Hialorj'. (Philoatr. 
Vit. Apoii. tL 11.) Ai the indettU themielTe* 
remarked, it waa a greater advance frem the 
elementary ptDdDctioni of Tfaeipii, Choerilus, and 
Phryuicbtu, to the ttately tragedy of Aeichylu*, 
than ftom the latter lo the perfect and refined 
form* of Sophodei. It waa the adi-ouce from 
in&ncy if not to matniity, at leaat to a yonthfal 
and Tigonnu manhood. Eren tbe improvement* 
and alteration* introdnced by hia uiccevior* were 
the natonl remit* and luggeilion* of th«e of 
Aeachylna. The fint and principal alteration 
which he made wai the introdnelion of a MCond 
actor (tnrrtfay^urr^t, Ariitol. Pan. 4. § 16), 
and the conieqnent fbttnation of the dialogne prtv 
petly M called, and the limitation of the choral 
pan*. So gnat waa the effect of Ihii change that 
Ariitntle denote* it by aayitig, that he mode the 
dialogue, the principal part of the play (rdr 
X6Tar Tptrraytmurriw rapurniairo), tnitead of 
the choral part, which wai now become anbaidiaij 
and Kcondary. Thii irmoTBtion waa of coane 
adopted by hii conlempomries, juit aa Aeachyln* 
himaelf {t. g. in the CkoepioriM 666—716] fol- 
lowed the enraple of Sophudea, in nbieiiaentljr 
intredneitig a tUrd actor. The cbaiaclen in hi* 
play* were •ometimea repmented by Aeachyln* 
tumult (Athen. i. p. 39.} In the early part of 
hia career he wai inpporled by an actor named 
Cleandma, and afterward* by Myniacu of Chal- 
ehia. (Vita apod Robert, p. 161.) The dialt^ne 
between the two principal chaiacten in the play* 
of Aeichyiaa waa geoeially kept up in a itrictly 
lymmetrual form, each thought or lentineat of 
the two ipeaken being eiprniod in one or two 
nnbnken linei : e. g. ai Ibc diokgne belweei. 
Kratoi and Hephaenn* at tbe beginning of the 
Ptomelhen*, In the Hme way, in the Seven 
againit Thebei, Eteock* alwny* exprtaaea himaelf 
in three Unci between the reflectinni of the choru*. 
Tbia ammgEment, differing a* it doea from the 
fbrmt of oTdinary convenation, gives to the dialogue 
of Aeachylu* an elevated and itoicly chonicter, 
which beip«k* tbe convenation of goda nnd he- 
roei. But the improvement* of Aeachylu* wrni 
not limited la the compoaition of tragedy : he added 

laid 10 have availed hiniielf of the (kill of Ago- 



Ibareni, who punled for him tb* Sirt 
hid em bnn dnwn aecording (o Ui« pincijiln of 
liDou per^wcti™. (Vitm«. Praef. lib. TJi.) He 
■Ih furnUisd iiii acton with mom •uitable and 
titigiu6c«iC dttum, with ngnifHanl and wioni 
muki, and with the thick-uled cothDmiu, to raiw 
their itMue to the height cif heioet. He monoier 
beatowed >a mneh Utention on the chonii doncei, 
that be ii nid to hale inienled varioiu liguret 
hinuel^ and to haie iiutmcled the choriiten in 
them without the aid of the rcgnUr baUet-niaaten. 
(Athen.Lp.2l.) So great mu Ae«hyln>' akill a* 
a teacher in thi> reipect, that TeleMei, one of hii 
(hariiten, va* able to exprcH hy dance alone the 
TarioDi incidraU of the play of the Seien againBl 
Thebet {Athen.i.t) The lemoMd of all dcedi 
of bloodahed and morder from the public view, in 
confoimi^ with the mis of Horace (A.r. IBS), 
ii alu aud to ban been a practice inlndund by 

i^.ri.11.) ■■-■ ■■ 

{ repreeenting at the caiue 
connected in eubject, u that 
eacn lormei] one act, ai it aere, of a ureut whole, 
which might be compared with lome of Shake- 
•pean'a hiitorical pUj>. Eren bcrore the lime of 
Aeeebylua, it had been cuiiomaiy to contend for 
the priie of tragpdj with three plajH exhibited at 
the ume time, bat it waa reicrTed for him to (hew 
hnw each of three tiagediea might be complete in 
ilielf. and independent of the teat, and neverthe- 
leii form a part of a barmonioiu and connected 
whole. The onlj example ttill extant of nicb ■ 
Inli^ ia tbe Oreeteia, aa it waa called. A Sati- 
rical play commonly followed each tragic trilogy, 
and it ii iwoidcd thai Aeachylua waa no leia a 
maiter of the ludicniaa than of the terioua diamik 

(Pant ii 13. §5.) 

Aeachylu ia Bid to haTs 


dies. Of thean only aeren 
"Peniana," tbe "Seven agnintt Thebee," the 
" Supplianta," the " PrDmetheut," tbe "Agamem- 
non," the "Choephoroo," and "* Enmonidei ;" the 
1«»1 three forming, ai alroidy remarked, the trilogy 
of tbe -Oresieia." The "Pcniani" waa acted in 
B. c. 47'2, and the "Seven agajnit Thebei" a year 
aftcrwarda The "Oreiteia" wai rcpreaenled in 
B.O. iHH ; the '^SupplianU' and the "Framelheua" 
were bniught onl •onw lime between ihe "SeTcn 
againat Thebet" and llw " Oresleia." It tut been 
luppoaed from >ome alludona in the "Supplianla," 
that thia phiy wai acted in b. c. 161, when Alheu 
waa allied with Ai^oa, 

The lint editioa of Aeacbylna waa print«d at 
Venice. 1 JIS. Sro.; but parti of the Agamemncm 

id the Choephoroo are not printed in thia edition. 

and tk 


phij. Of the anbteqneat editioni 
Stanley, Lond. IE63, fo. with the Scholia and a 
commentary, reedited by Butler. The beat recent 
ediliont ate by Wellauer, Lipa. 1633, W. Dindorf, 
Lipa. 1827, and ScbelefiEld,Camb. 1630. Then 
an nuDMrooi editiona of Tarioaa playi, of which 
thoM moat worthy of mention are by Blomfield, 
MaUer, KluueD, and Peiie. The principal Bdb- 
liah tnntUtion* an b; Potter, Harford, and Med- 
win. (PeteracD, Da Attciigii Vita tt FaMit, 
Haniae, 18U; Welcker, Die Aad^ THbpii 
PrmuOeut, Darmatadt, 1824, iVacUrag tmr Trt- 
Ingia, Fmnkf. 1R2G, and Die Griici. TragSdim, 
Bonn, 1610; Klauaen, Tkaioguuuma ActdMli 
Thigiii, BetoL 1S2D.) [R, W.) 

AB'SCHYLUS (AJvyri^et), of ALiXANnati, 

well-ii^ornied man. One of hit 
hiliraa," and another 
it of Ihe fanner it pre- 
I. p. £99.) According 
to ZcDobina (t. BS), he had alio written a work on 
prorerba. (nifilllalm/iitir; companSchneidcwin, 
I'lwfyL /'nr«m«^. p. xl) [L. &] 

AtrSCHYLUS of CNinua, a eentempurar^ of 
Cicero, and one of the moat eetebtated thetotioana 
in Alia Minor. (Cic BnO. 9], 6b.) 

AB'SCHYLUS (Aiox^Aoi), of Rhodu, waa 
appointed by Alexander the Great one of the iu. 
ipeclora of the govemon of that country after ita 
conqneat in B.C. 332. (Arrian, Anab. iii. 6 ; camp. 
Curt. IT. 8.) He i* not ipoken of again till b. c 
S19, when he i* mentioned a* conTsying in four 
ibipa ail hundred tatenU of ailrer frimi Cilicia to 
Macedonia, which were detained at EpheAiu by 
Antigonni, in order to poyhii fomign meicenariet. 
(Diod. iviiL 52.) 

AESCULA'PiUS CAncAqir^i), the god of the 
medical art. In the Homeric poema Aeacnlapiua 
doet not appear la be comidered aa a dirinily, but 
merely aa a hnman being, which ia indicated by 
the adjectire d^fior, which ia neier giien to a 
god. No alluiion ia nude to hii deacent, and he 
ia merely mentioned aa the hyrJlp iftiifun-f and the 
fhther of Machaon and Podaleiriua. {IL iL 731, 
iT. 191, xL 518.) From the ihcl that HanKr((Jtf. 
iv. 232) calla all thoae who practiaa the healing 
art denxndanl) of Paevm, and that Podaldriui 
and Machaon are oUled the aona of Aeiculapiua, 
it hat been inferred, that Aesculapini and Paeeon 
are the tame beuig, and contequeutly a dirinity. 
But whereTet Homer mentiona the healing god, it 
it alwa>t Paeeon, and neiet Aeaculapini ; and aa 
in the poet** opinion all phyaiciaiu were deaoended 
from Paeeon, he probably conaidered Aescnhpin* 
in the aonie hghu Thii auppoaition i> corroborated 
by the fact, that in Uter tunea Paeeon waa identi- 
fied with Apollo, and that Aeaculflfdua ia uni- 
renally deacribed aa a descendant of Apollo. The 

a> ruling over Trina, llhome, and Oechalia. [IL 
ii. 729.) According to Eualathina (od Horn. p. 
S30), Lapithee waa a ten of Apollo and Stilbe, and 
Aeacul^iu* wai a deicendaut of Lapithes. Thii 
tradition aeema to be baaed on the lame ground- 
work a* the mora common one, that Aeeculapiua 
waa a aon of ApoUo and Coronii, the danghter of 
Pfalegyaa, who ia a deacendani of lApithea. 
(Apoilod. iil 10. § 3; Fici. Pylk. m. 14, with 
Ihe SchoL) 

The common itoty than goea on ai fbllowa. 
When Coronii waa with cfaiU by Apollo, aha 

and ApoUo informed of thia by a raien, which 
he had tet to watch her, or, according to Pindar, 
by hi* own prophetic powen, gent hii dstsr 
Arlemii to kill Coronii. Artemii accordingly de- 
atioyed Coronis in her own honae at Lacereia in 
Tbeualy, on the thore of lake Baehia. (ComoL 
Kom. Hym. 17. &) Aetviding to Olid (AM; iL 
60fi. Ac) and Hyginot {PoeL Ailr. iL 40), it wk 
Apidla himaelf who killed Coronia and lachn. 
nhen the body of Coronii wai to be burnt, Apollo, 
"to oibtn (i-aui. ii. 36. g 5), UemM, 



BTcd tbe child (Atmilapiiu) froin the flanei, tad 
tamed it to Cbeiton, who intmcted the boy in 
the ut of holing end in hunting. (Pind. Pyii. 
in. I, Act Apallod. iii 10. 9 3 ; Puu. L e,) Ao- 
cording to Mfaa tndiliDnt AeeeuUpiiu va* bora 
■tTiiox in TbeeMly (Smb. nr. p. 6417), and 
athen agun rdtted that Coroni) gave birth to him 
during an expedition of her fether Phlegju into 
PelsponDeBtu, in the territory of EpidHurai, and 
that ihe eipoaed him on mmmt Titthdon, which 
waa bsfine called Myrtion. Hera ha wai fed by a 
goat and watched by a dog, until at lot he vu 
fbond by Aretlhanae, a shtidterd, who law the boy 
•nminDded by a luitre Uke that of lightning. 
(See a different senroni in Pbhi. TiiL 25. g 6.) 
From thie dauling iplendour, or from hia having 
been mcned from the flamea, be waa called by the 
Doriani olyKir^. The truth of the tradition that 
AeKohpiot wu bom in the tetiitny of Epi- 
dauraa, and waa not the son of Aittnoe, daughter 
of Leaci)^ni and bom in Meuenia, waa atteat- 
td by an oracle which waa coDtnlted to dedde the 
qnntion. (^Paoi. ii 26. S 6, it. 3. S S ; Cic i^ 
Nat Dear. liL 22, where three different Aetcnlo. 
pinica mre made ont of the diSerent local traditioni 
about him.) AfLBr Aeacnlapiu had gmwn up, 
irpotta apread orer ail ountiia, that he not only 
cnird alt the eick, but called the dead to life again. 
Aboni the manner in which he acquired thit latter 
power, there were two traditioDa in aiMnent timee. 
Aoording to the one (ApoUod, Le,\ lif^ hnd re- 
ceived from Athena the blood which hnd flowed 
from the icina of Oorgo, and the blood which had 
flowed bam the veini of the right aide of hei body 
poavawd the power ef resloring the dead to life. 
According to the other tradition, Aeacnlapiui on 
one ocouion waa ahnt up in tho houae of Olaucui, 
whom be wu to cme, and while he waa (landing 
abaorbed in ihongfat, there came a aerpent which 
twined round the ataff, and which be killed. 
Another lerpent then fsrae carrying in iti mouth 
■ hetb with which it recalled to life the one that 
had been IcUled, and Aeiculapini henceforth made 
■ue of the aame herb «Hth uie lame eSact upon 
men. (Hygin. PoM. Aifr. ii. l4.) Several per- 
aena, whom Aeaculapini wa> believed to havo re- 
alored to life, are mentioned by the Scholiaat on 
Pindar {Pylk. iiL 96) and by Apoltodonu. (L a.) 
When he waa eierciiing thi> art upon OlBneuai 
Zona killed Aeacol^iiua with a flaab of lightning, 
•a he feared leat men might gtadnaily contrive to 
eacape doth altogether (Apollod. iii. 10. % 1), or. 
■ccinding to othen, because Pluto had complained 
tX Aeaculapins diminiahing the number of the dead 
too moch. ( Diod. iv. 71; comp. SchoL ad Pind. 
PjO. iii. 102.) Bnt, on the request of Apolto, 
Zevi placed Aeaco^nns among the atara. (Hygin. 
PmL AUr. iL U.) Aeacnlapius is aba aaid to 
have taken part in the expedition of tbeArgonaula 
and in the Calydonian hunt. He was monicd to 
EpioDe, and heudes the two aoni apokan of by 
Hraner, we alio Snd mention of the fallowing cbil- 
dnai of hi* : Jaoiscns, Aleienor, AiBlua, Uygieia, 
Ae^ Use, and Panaceia (SchoL ad find. Pytk. 
m. U ; Pans. iL 10. g 3, L 34. g 2), moat of whom 
mn only penomfitalioDa of the powers aaciibed to 
their lather. 

These are the l^enda obonl one of the meat io- 
tereating and mportonl dirinities of antiquity. 
Variooa hypothesea have been bronght forward to 
taj^m the oligjn of hb ronhip in Greets; and. 


white some conuder Aeacnlapiua to have been 
originally a real peiwinege, whom traditioD had 
connected with variona marveUoni atones, othera 
have explained all tbe legenda about him as mere 
pcDoniticationi of certiun ideas. The aerpent, the 
perpetual symbol of Aescnlapins, baa given rise to 
tbe opinion, that the werbhip was derived &raa 
Egypt, and that Aesculapius was identical with 
the serpent Cnnph wonhipped in Egypt, or with 
the Phoenician Esmun. (Busebb Pratp. Eixmif. 
i. 10; comp. Pans. vii. 23. g 6.) But it does DOl 
seen] necessary to have recoone to foreign oHmtrie* 
in order to explain the worship of this god. Hia 
Btory is undoubtedly a combination of real evenia 
with tha results of thonghu or ideas, which, a* in 
so many instances in Greek mythology, are, liko 
the fonner, conaideied as facts. The kernel, ont 
of which the whole myth has grown, is porbape 
the account we read in Homer ; but gTSduolly the 
sphere in which AescuUpios acted waa >o extend- 
ed, that he became the lepreeentative or the per- 
sonification of the healing powers of nitnre, which 
aiC naturally enough described as the son (tha 
effects) of Helios, — Apollo, or the Son. 

AeacuL4)Lus was worshipped all over Qreecot 
and many towna, aa we luve seen, claimed tha 
honour of hia birUu Hia temple* were uauallj 
built in healthy places, on hills outside the town, 
and near wells which were beUeved to have 
healing powen. These temples wen not only 
pinca of wonliip, but were frequented by great 
numbers of sick persons, and may therefore b« 
compared Is modem hcniitali. (Plat. QmaeiL Ron. 
p. 3BG, r>.) The principal seal of his worship ia 
OteecB o'u Epidaurui, where he bad a temple sur- 
reunded with an extenute greve, within which no 
one was allowed to die, and no woman to give birth 
to a child. His tanetuaiy coDtained a raagnitioent 
statue of ivory and gold, tha work of Thraaymedea, 
in which he was represented aa a handsome and 
manly figure, resembling that of Zeus. (Pans. ii. 
26 and 27.) Ha waa seated on a threne, holding 
in one band a staff, and irith the other restiog 
upon the bead of a dragon (serpent), and by hi* 
side lay a dog. (Pans. ii. 27. g 2.) SeipenU 
were everywhere connected with the worship of 
Aescubpint, probably because they were a symbol 
of prudence and renovation, and were believed to 
have the power of discovoring herbs of wondreua 
powers, as is indicated in the story about Aescula. 
pins and the serpents in the house of Glaucus. 
Serpents were further believed to be guardians of 
wells with salutary powers. For these reasons a 

abounded, were not only kept in his temple (Pans, 
ii. 2H. g 1). but the god himself frequently ap- 
peared in the fiinn of a serpent. (Paus. iiL 2S. 
g 4 1 VaL Max. i. 8. g 2 ; Liv. EpU. 1 1 ; compare 
the accouDI of Alexander Pieudomantis in Lucian.) 
Besides the temple of Epidaurus, wheitce the wor- 
ship of the god waa tnmsphuiled to varioua other 
pans of the ancient world, we may mention those 
of Trices (Smb. ii. p. 437),Celaenae (xiiL p. 603), 
between Dyroe and Patiaa (viii. p. S86), near 
Cyllene (viu. p. 337), in the island of Cos (xiii. 
p. GA7 ; Pans. iiL 23. g 4), at Gerenia (Strab. viii. 
p. 3613), neai Cans in Arcadia (Steph. Byi. s. v.), 
at Sicyon (Pans. ii. 10. g 2). at Athena (L 21. g 7), 
near Patree {vii. 21. % 6), at Tilane in the tein- 

ly of Sicyon (liL 23. g 6), 

3), in MesBsne (iv. 31. g 8), a 


., Aaopnt (iiL 22. | 7), 

PergMnnm (ili. 26. 8 7), Leb«D» in Crete, 
Bmrnw. Baligras (ii. 36. S 7), Ambncia (Ut. 
iiiTiiL S), at R«m> and Dthn plucei. At Rome 
■he wonhip of AMCulqiiiu wu inUodiiced fivm 
Rpidaoiui at the cominaiiil of the Delphic and* 
or of the Sibflline book*, in R. c 293, for the 
pnrpoao of averting ■ patiiena. Retpecting the 
minealod) maniier in which thit wu effiKted Me 
Valeriiu Huimw (L 3. j2), lud Orid. {M<*. 
IT. 020, Ac; camp. Niebuhr, //n> / " 
iji. p. 40S, te-i LiT. I. 47, uii. 11; 

The licit, «bo Tinted the temple* of Aeicttt» 

E'ui, had nMullr to ipend one oi more nigbt* 
B MiictUBry {KoMtvr, aoAan, Patn. iL ! 
S 2), during which the; obaarred eerttun ml 
pKtcribed I^ the prieM*. The god then nioally 
RTcaled the remediei for th* diKMS in b dieam. 
(Ariitoph. Flat 662, Ac ; Cic 01 i^. ii. I 
Philoatr. Fits ^ps/ W L 7 ; JambL DtMfL 
2.) It wu in illanan to thi> iatuba&o tint mallj 

: Suet. 

■enling Sleep and Dnun. (Pmu. ii. 10. g 2.) 
Thoie whom the god cnred of tbeir diioaee oftered 
a sacrifice to bim, genemlly a cock (Plat Pimd. 
p. 11)l)orBgant(PBni.i.32. $8; Serr. a.i Viry. 
Gforg. iL 880), and hung op in hi) temple a 
tahlet recording the name « the uck, the di«f«ie. 
iind the manner in which the cum had been 
eflected. Tho timpla of Kpidaunu, Tricca, and 
Co*, wen ftJl of uch TOtive tableti, and KTeral of 
thorn an itill extant. (Pana. ii. 37. % 3; Stiab. 
TiiL p. 374; comp. Ditt. of AmL p. 673.) Re- 
•pecting the featiYali celebrated in hoaonr of Aet- 
cDtapiuiieeZM[4. i/.jiil.p, 1D3.&C TbeTariona 

the healinf; or raring god, and are parti; deriTed 
from the place* in which he wM worJiipped. 
Some of hit itatuei an deectibed by Panianiaa. 
(ii. 10. 3 3, X. 32. g 8.) Beiide* the attribatei 
mentioned in the dncription of hig aiatoe at Epi- 
daniuB, he is sometimes npr««enled holding in one 
hand a phial, and in the other a itatlF ; sometime* 
alto a boy is represented standing bj his side, who 
is the geninfl of recoTery, and is called Tdenihonu, 
Eaamerion, or Acesini. (Paa^ ii. U. j 7.) We 
nlll poaseu a caniidenble number of marble 
statues and bnita of Aeieulapiiu, a* well aa many 
representnlions on coin* and gems. (Bdttiger, 
AoudOaa, L p. 282 ; iL p. 361 ; Hirt. MgOO. 
BUderb. L p. B4 ; MUller, /Audi, dtr ArcUicL 
p, .S97, Ac. 710.) 

There were in antiquity two works which went 
under the name of Aesoil^ius, which, howevfir, 
wen no moR gennine than the works ascribed to 
Orpheus. (Fabridaa,0>6J. CVimc i. p. 55, Ac) 

The descendant* of Aesculapius wen called by 
the patronymic name Atd^riadae. f^KirKkirrMai^) 
Those writers, who connder Aescul^ios as a real 
personage, must n'gnrd the Asciepiadae as bie real 
deeeendants, to whom he transmitted his medical 
knowledge, and whose principal icat* wen Cos 
ond Cnidua. (P]rI. de Re PvU. iiL p. 403, Ac.) 
But the Asciepiadae wen alto regiuded at an 
order or caate of prietts, and for a long period 
the practice of medicine was intimatelj connected 
irith religion. The knowledge of medicine was 
nfpuded aa a Bcnd lecret, which wa* transmitted 
fR«B blhsr to ion in the &milie* oi iht Aidvpia- 

dae, and we still possets the oath whioh erery ooa 
was obliged to take when he wa* pot in ptnesaiou 
of the medical secnts. (Oalen, JmiL a p. 12S| 
Ariitid. OraL i. p. 80 ; comp. K. Spreogd, Gaok 
<Ur Mtdkm. tdL l) (L. &] 

AESERNI'NUS. [liU«».] 
AB'SION (AlirW), an Athenian orator, wa* a 
contemponry of DomoMhenet, with whom he wa* 
educat^ (Suidat, $. v. AqfUwMnii.) To what 
part; he belonged during the Macedonian time ia 
nncertain. When he was asked what he thought 
of the onton of his time, he taid, that when ha 
hard the other onton, he admired tbeir bmitity 
and sublime conTenations with the people, bit 
that the apeeche* of Demosthenes, when read, ex- 
celled all othen t? thair skiliid conitmction and 
their power, (Hermippat, <y. PtuL Dem. 10.) 
AriatoUe {lOel. iiL 10) mentions a bontifnl ei- 
preetian of Aedon. [L, S.] 

AESON (Abw), a son of CrMheo), the fbonder 
of lolco*, and of Tjio, the daoghler of Sahwment. 
He was exdoded by his step-brother Pelia* from 
hi* share in the kmgdom of Thaualy. He wa* 
lathee of Jaton and Promacbos, bat the name 
of bis wife it diSerently staled, as Pidymede, 
Aldmede, Amphinome, Polyphems, Polymele, 
Ame, and Scarphe. (ApoUod. L 9. gll and|l6; 
Horn. Oi iL 2fiB ! Tteti. ad l^oopir. 072 j Diod. 
IT. fiO ; SchoL ad JpoUim. L 45 ; SchoL ad Mam. 
Od. lii. 70.) Peliaa endnronred to lecan the 
throne to himself by sending Jason awaT with the 
Aif;Dnauts, but when one day he was snr]n*ad 
and frightened by the newt of th* retain of the 
Argonaut*, bo attonpled to get rid of Aeaon by 
force, Imt the latter put an eiul le hit own life. 
(Apollod. L 0. g 27.) According to an aoMoiit in 
Diodonia (it. $0), Peliaa (ompeUed Aeson to kill 
himself b; drinking ox'a blood, for he bad leeeiTed 
intelligence that Jason and hit companions had 
perished in their expedition. According to Orid 
[Mel. Tii. 163, 350, Ac), Aeson surriTed the 
retom of the Atgonaata, and was made yoang 
again by Modeia. Jason as the son of Aeaon i* 
called Aetonidet. lOnti. Arg. &&.) 1L.S.1 
AESffNIDES. [AisoN.] 
AESO'PUS (Afawroi), a writer of Fables, a 
>eci« of composition which has boon defined 
analogical nanBtiTet, intended to oonroy some 
moral lesson, in which inational animals or object* 
introduced at epetking." [PhMog. Jlfanm, L 
' .) Of hi* woritt none are »; ' ' 

his life scarcely anything it knowr 
to hare lired about B. c £70, for Her 


Hhodous as a fellow- 
tlare of Aesop't, and says that she liied in the 
time of Amams king of Egypt, who began to nign 
B. c. SG9. Plutarch makea him contemporary with 
Solon {Sift. Stfi. Cbm. p. IG2, c), and Laertina 
(i. 73) sayi, that he doniished about the 52tli 
Olympiad. The only ^parent authority againit 
' is that of Suidas {a v. hUmwat); bnt 
pe is plainly corrapt, and if we adopt the 
of Ctinton, it gim about B. c 620 for 
the date of hit birth; his death it placed b.c. £64, 
but may have occurred a little later. (See Clinton, 
PaA HelL n\. L pp. 213, 237, 239.) 

Suidas tells a> that ^moa, Sardis, Meaembria 
in Thrace, and Coti<eum in Phr}'gia dispute the 
honour of baring giren him birth. We an told 
that he was origiiiBlly a slare, and the reason rf 
hit fint writing Etblea ia giten by Phaedra*. (SL 

Pnlag^ 33. &c) 
Samiaat, Xanthna uid ladnum, fnnn the Intur of 
iriMia 1m reMired hii Ensdim. Upon this ha 
fuibd Cioenu (where we m (old th&t he 
pnred Solon tor dincmmei; to the kiog). i 
■Remsdi Pcuutntu nl AthaoL FlntaRli [de 
mm ffmiL. Vmd. p. 566) tell* <u, thM he wu aent 
to Delphi hj Cniaiu, to diitrihule imiDiig the 
dtJKiu fbnr nmuta a piece. Bot in couaaquiHice 
ef Kiiie diipnls uiaiiB on the mbjeet, he nfoKd 
In gira aaj mowT at all, upon which tha aniagad 
D^hiant threw him from a pnEi[Nce. Plagrie* 
vara sent ttpon them from the gada lor t"" ''*' 
and they prodtdmed their wiltingnew 
tmnpoiHitiitii for bii death to any one 
claim it. At length lailmon, the giaiidion of hii 
old muter, recaiTed the oompenmtion, ■ 
Dfsrer eanneiioii could be found. (Hend. ii. 134.) 
Then aeema Do Teaaon to doubt Ihie itoryaboat 
the compeDBIion, ud we haTO now lUled 
ciremiinBucea of Aaaop'i Ufa which leat on any an- 
Ihsiil;. But diera an a mat nriety of aneodolu 
and adimtnre* in which he ban the prindpd pnt, 
in a lib of bim piefixed to a book irf Fablet purport- 
ing to be hia, and eoUecIed bj llaiiniut Puuradea. 
a monk of the Ulh aeMoiy. Thif life npta- 
■enta Aeaop aa a perfect monaur of ngBneia and 
defermilj ; a notion lor which tiiere ia no authoiil; 
whateTe-. For he ia mentioTMd 
claiMca] atithota, where aa allnik 
•odbI pccnliarida wotdd hare bean moit natural, 
wilhont the ali^tett tnee of any inch allaBon. 

1 Plnli 

■a Convi< 

any jolua on hit farmer 
cacainon aa a uave, mere are nona on hit ap- 
paatance, and we need not imagine that tha an- 
aanu wooM be reatnuDad from inch jdua by any 
faclinn of delicacy, aince the noae of Socrataa 
tnmiuie* am^e matter ftv laillarj in tha Sympo- 
nm of Ptato. Beaidca. the A'**""™ canaed 
Lynppoa to erect a alatna in hia honmr, which 
had it been KDlptnicd in aoeordaiMS with the 
abore dcacription, would hare baan the lereraa of 

The notice* howerat which we poaaeaa of Aaanp 
are ao acattered and of auch doubtful authority, 
that there haTU not been wanting peraona to deny 
hia oziateDce altogether. " In poetical phihiaophy," 
■aya Vies in hii Sanaa f/aaea, " Aeaop will be 
found not to be any particular and actually odit' 
iog mm, but the abalrAtion of a data of men, or 
a poMinl character repraauitaliTa of tba companiooa 
■Dd attandanta of the heroea, luch aa certainly 
caiaUd mthetimaof IboHnnSi^ofOiwce." 
■■'""" '"*o which 

TUa htnrertx '» an 

it woold be Meat uiuaaouabte to plunge : 

* D left any written woriu at " 

Aeani left any written woriu at all, ia a qne*li» 
whjefa aflbrda conaideiafale room for doubt, and t 
^ndi Btnlley inelitKa to 
ArisMpluDei [ Foft 1259) 
kaming bia Fablei ia coan 
book, and Swralea who tamed them into poetry 
Tcnified iboae that " he knew, and could moat 
nadily muember." (Plat /'jkiHi. p. 61, b; Bent- 
ley, DitKTtatitm at Ot Fabia i^Aaaf., p. 136.) 

Uoweter thia may be, tt ia cenain that &biee, 
bearing Anop't name, were popular at Athena in 
ila moat intellectual age. We find tbnn frequently 
noticed by Artatophaoea One of the [deaaarea if 
a dicaM ( Fop. 366) waa, that among the candi 
datea for bia protection and Tota 


Co win bia taTonr by repeating to him Gtblea, and 
aome Aiowrm tI yi\our. Two aperimen* tt 
theae ^Aoca or drolUrua may be read in the 
Vmpae, 1401, &c., and in the ..4«a, Gfil.&c. The 
latter boweier ii laid by the Scholiaat to be the 
compoaitian of Aicliilochui, and it ia probable that 
many aneodotei and jeatt were attribntad to 
Aeaop, as the moat popular of all authora nt tha 
kind, which really were net hit. Thia it faTonr- 
able to Bentley'a theory, that hia &hlea were net 
collected in a written form, which alte derini 
additional pnbability from the hct that tbero it a 

quote Aeto[^ eren though they ■ 
referring to the aame bhk. Thna Aiittotle (jOe 
Part. Ania. iii. 2) citea from him a complaint of 
Momot, " that the bull't homi vera not placsd 
■boat hit ihouldan, where he might make the 
atrongett path, but in the tenderest fort, hit 
head," whilat Lucian (A%r. 32) makea the bult 
to bo " that hit homi weio not placed ttraight 
befon bit eyea." A written coUsctiou would have 
pilTenled auch a diiacHty. 

Betide* tha droUatiet above mentieued, there 
were probably &b)et of a paT» dttcriptioii, nnc^ 
at we hare aeco, Socrate* eondoawnded to turn 
them into Torae, of which a apecimen liat baea 
pmerred by Dwoone* J^ertins. Again, Plato, 
though he excluded Homer'* poon* from hi* 
imaginary Bepvblic, praiaet the writing* of AeeosL 
By him they >n called latoi (Fiaid. pp. GO, 61), 
though an able writer in the Philological Motenm 
(L p. 231) think* that the man ancient name for 
auch fictioni wni atrm, a word explained by 
Buttmann (lailogut, p. 60, Eng. tnntl.), " a 
Bpeech fuJ of meaning, or cunningly imagined" 
(flora. Od. xiT. 506), whence Ulyiae* ia called 
ao^^ouvr in reference to the particular aort of 
tpeeche* which mark hit character. In Heaiod 
(Op. ef Dia, 900X ■> b** V-^i into the atnae of 
a motnl bUe. The ab« or fuiAn of Aeaop wen 
certainly in praae : — they are called by Arial» 
phanea XJ701, and their anthoT (Herod. iL 134)ia 
Aftrorror i Xtfyivotot, X^oi being the peculiar 
word for Pmae, aa fin) wat for verae, and inclnd* 
ing both bUa and hiatory, though aftarwardt 
reatricted to oratory, when that becama a aeparale 
branch of compoaition. 

Following the example of Socratea, Dameltis* 

Phalenua (b, c. 320) turned AeM^** foblet into 

poetry, and collected them into a book \ and after 

liim an author, whoae name it unknown, pnb- 

liihed them in Elegiact, of which tome bagmenla 

are preaervad by Suidat. But the only Oreek 

Tertifier of Aeaop, of whoie writinga any whi^ 

Uile* are preteired ia Bahrioa, an authn of no 

sn powete, and who may well take hit ^ice 

longtt FabnlitU with Phaednit and Id Fon- 

ne. Hit TeraioQ ii in Choliambica, i. e. lamf, 

iailmff iamlnc* (xaAst, tufieai), veiaea which fat- 

r in all reapecu the tawt of the Iambic Tri- 

ler till the tilth foot, which it either a tpondea 

trochee, the Mh being pro|ierly an iambut. 

ia lernon wna made a little before the age of 

Anguattu, and conaJated of ten Bookt, of which a 

few acnttered bblea only ace preterred. Of the 

Idtin writert of Aeaopean &blei^ Phaadjui it the 

The (ablet now extant in prote, bearing the name 
of Aeaop, are onqneationably apurioua. Of theae 
thai« ore three prindpal coUecliont, tha one con- 

4B AES0PU3. 

Uining ISS bMet, pabliihcd lint A. D. IGIO, (ma 
HSS. M Hddclbng. Thi> la an clnmiT a forgrry, 
IliU it mratiou (ha onUr DrnuulM, who liied 200 
nan after AcMp, uid conUini a wbokr KnleDoe 
from Che book irf Job (ti^woI 7<1^ ^Afa/in- ol 
ir^mf, Trnwa) air ixiXfivdiitSa). Soma of tbe 
pauagea Bentlay baa alieva to ba frBgmenta of 
CbiJiJiimbic Tenea, and baa mads il tolecably «t- 
tain that Hiej wen Malen rnmi Babrina. I'b* 
other nllectioa wi* made by tbe abore mentioned 
monk of CoDitODtinople, Maiimiu Plaaudea. 
The** contain M leaal one Hebiaiim (^mir tr if 
■a^^: eompan t. g. Ecdea. iL 1, (tirav tr t^ 
mifSUf I'm), and among Ibem an wordi eotiiely 
mndrm, aa Ooin^js a tutd, ^u^tvpor a bceit, and 
alio tn«a oF the Choliambici of Babrim. Tbe 
thiid collectwn vaa foond in a MS. at Flomuc, 
and pubUibed in 1809. lu data ii about a cen- 
tury before the time of Planndea, aod it eontaina 
the life which waa pnlixed to hia odisction, wd 
commonly auppotcd to be bU awn. 

Bentley't diuenatian on Aenop ia appended le 
thoae on Phalaria. Tbegenuineneiaofthe exiallns 
Ibrgeriea waa itoutly maintained by hia Oxford 
antagoniata (Prebce to Aetupicartim Fatiilanat 
Ddaba, Oifocd 162S); Init then il no one in ont 
day who diaputaa hia deeiaion- 

It remaina to notice briefly tbe theoiy which 
aaugna to Aeanp'i bbles an oriEnul origin. Among 
the writen of Arabia, one of tbe moat bmoui ta 
Loltman, whom tome tnditioni make contempo- 
rary with David, olhen the aim of a litler or 
aont of Job, while again be baa been repreaented 
•I an ancient king or chief of the tribe of Ad. 
■* Lukman'a wiadom" ia piDTeibial among the 
Aiaba, and joined wilb JoKph'a beauty and 
Dand^ melody. [See the Thouiand and One 
Nighta (Ladb'* tianalation), Story of Prince 
Kamer-ex-Zeman and Frinceat Badoor, and Note 
la ch^ter x.] The Peraian acconnta of tbii 



giaAed thia and other 
tnditiona of Luknun npan Uh 
apecting Aeiop. The hUea aaciibed to Ae»p have 
in many reapect* an eaatem choiacter, allnding to 
Aaialic coatjnna, and introducing panthen, pe«- 
eoelta, and monkeya among their diamaUa peraon& 
AU ^ia makea it bkely that the Eablet attri- 
buted both to Lukman and Aeiop are denied from 

■ Fablw are. 


a of Aewp' 
I. The collection formed by Plannoea wiin a 
Latin tianalation, pabliibed at Milan by Buono 
Accorao at the end of the 15th century. 3. An- 
othrr edition of the tame collection, with ume 
■Jdilional bblea from ■ MS. in the BibUolfaeque 
dn Roi at Pofia, by Boberl Stephanoa, \h\S. 
3. The edition of Neielet, 1610, which added to 
theae tbe Ileidelbeig collection, publiihed at Fnuik- 
fon on the Main. ncK hare been followed by 
ediiJona of all or anme of the Fablea,by tlndaon at 
Oifbrd (ITIS), Hanptmann at Leipzig ( 1 74 1 ), 
Heuiinger at Leiplig (17fi6), Emeati at the 
aame place (1761), and O. H . Schaefer again at 
Leipzig (lelO, IttlS, ISSO). Franceico de Fnria 
addgd to the abore the new &ble« from the Flo- 
nnline MS., and bia edition waa reprinted by 
Cotay at Paria (1H!0). AU tbe bblea have been 
put together and pubtahed, 231 in number, by J. 
O.Schneider, at Brealau, in IBIO. [O. £. 1. C.J 


AESO'PUS, a Greek hialoiian, who wrote ■ 

life of Alexander the Oreat. The orighial ia l«i. 

but there ia a Latin tnuialation of it by Juliua 

Valoina [V.U.UIIU9], of which FtanciKua Jnrelua 
had, he aaya {ad Sgrnmak. &. x. £4), a manu- 
acript It waa fint publiahed, boweTer, by A. Mai 
ttma a MS. in the Ambroaiui library, Milan, 1017, 
41a., reprinted Frankfort, 1818, 8vo. The title ia 
" Itineiariom ad Conttantinum AngnaCuu, etc. : 
acceduni Julii Valerii Rea g«tae Aleiandri Mace- 
donia," etc The time when Aeaopna Uied ia on- 
certain, and even hia eiialence baa been doubled. 
(Barth, Advenuk ii. 10.) Mai, in the pre&ce to 
hi* edition, contended that tbe work waa written 
before 3H9, *. ti., becauae the tanple of Serapis at 
Alexandria, which waa deatroynl by order of 
Thendouua, ii tpoken of in the trantlalym (JuL 
Valer. L 31 ) aa atill alanding. But aerioua objec- 
tiona to tbia inference haTe been railed by Letronno 
(jaan. da Sataia, 1818, p. 617), who reCera it 
to Che leTenth or eightb century, which tbe weight 
of internal eiidence would rather point to. The 
book ia full of the moat extravagant atorice and 
glaring miiloket, and i> a work of no credit. [A.A.] 
moat celebrated tragic actor at Rome in the Cice- 
ronian period, probably a freedjnan of the Clodia 
gena. Uoiaee {£^1. ii. 1. B'2) and other anthora 
put him on a leTel with Roacina. (Pronto, p. 
44, ed. Niebubr.) Each waa preeminent in hia 
own department; Roaciua in comedy, being, with 
napect to action and delivery {promtHttiaiao), toon 
rapid (oifcKior, QuinliL /■■(. Or. il S. Sill); Ae- 
aopua in tragedy, being Dion weighty {gnmar, 
QuintiL He.). Aeeopua took gnat paint to perfect 
himaelf in hia ut by tariana methoda He dili- 
gently studied the exhibition of chancta ii 


iple, when Hor 
plead, he waa eonalantly in attendance, that he 
might watch and be able In reprewnt tbe mure 
truthfully the foelinga which were actually die- 
played on Mich oecaoiDna. (Val. Max. viii. 10, g 2.) 
He never, it ia aaid, put on the maak for the cha- 
meter he bad ta pertinm in, without fint looking 
at it attentively &om a diilance for aome time, 
that ao in performing he might pieaerve hia voice 
and action in perfect keeping with tbe appeftianca 
he would have. (Fionlo, de Eloq. 6. I, p. 37.) 
Perhapa thii anecdote may confirm the ojanioB 
(Did. efJwt. I. B. iVwJb), that nuiki had only 
lately been introduced in the regular drama at 
Rome, and wen not alwaya naed even for leading 
characlera ; for, accoiding to Ciceio (de Dm. i. 37), 
Aeaopua excelled in power of hce and fire of «- 
dortm vuitimv atque moiuum), 
onld not have been viaible if 
.m the 

whole pnaaage in Cicen and from the aneo- 
dotea recorded of him, hil acting would aeem to 
have been cbaiacteriaed chiefly by lining emphaMt 
and vehemence. On the whole, Cioen calli him 
nnantaf arlifer, and aaya he waa filled ta ad a 
leading part no leeg in real lix. than on the (Cage. 
(Pro Surf. 56.) It duel not appear that be eter 
perftirmed in comedy. Valeriua Maiimna (viii, 
10. § 2) odla Aeaopua and Roaciua both "ludiccae 
artia peritiaaimoa liroi,'' but thia may merely de- 
note Ule theatrical art in geueral, including tragedy 
oa well aa comedy. (Comp. ladkme Ubiat, Plin, ft. 
"- ' 36.) Fninte<aiUhiin(p.S7)niiyMi> Ja- 

Wfm. Fmn Cictn't rcmuk, howrvn, (dt Off. 
t. 114), it would Kcm that the character of Aju 
WM imtlwT too tngie for faim. (Camp. "Dae. f^tamL 
a. 17, ir. 25.) 

lAa Boodiu, Aeupni enjnired the intjmaey 
the gmt actor, who e^> hun mfar Aempn {ad 
Fam. Tii. 1), madtr Jamiliarit (ad Q& fVnL i. 2, 
4) ; tod Ilie7 teem to haro anght, from one an- 
atkef*! ■ociet;, improTeoieiit, each in hit re- 
^KctiTB art During hii exile, Cicero nceired 
mBiy TahuUs mariu of Aenpni'i friendahip. On 
•Be oceamm, in partknlar, haring la perfbi 
fart of TehmoD, baniihed frau hii conntrr. 
of AcdD*** pla;a, tbt tragedian, b] 

word* added to 

change n 
' hit teelin 

\o tha endent reality of hit feelingi, 
in leading the aodience to appl; Ue 
whole to the eaifl of Cicefo, and » did him 
f( II rial Mrrice than an; direct defence of btmHlf 
mold hare dona. The whole houe applanded. 
(nw A*£B6.) On another Mcaaioa 
"A-irfM qni libertitem dnum itabil 
mbttitated TUNh, and the audienos gara ntter- 
■ixe to their enthmiiiBil by 
-a ifaffluand tinea" (mHUm naoetritm ait. Pro 
Sat. 59). The time of hia death or hit ^e 
ant be iiied with eertaiit» ; but at the dedication 
cf the tbtalra of Pompey (b. c 55), he would aeem 
to have been eUfilj, tor be vat nndentiMd pnii- 
oBily to haTe retired from the ttage, and ira do 
not hear of hit being particnlarij ddicata : yet, 
fma the paaaage, iU-henJth or age wonM ^c 
have been the teaaon of hit retiring. On tl.. . 
riHDD, howeTsr, in honbar of the faitinl, be 
peared again i but jnat at he waa coming to one 
of the moit emphatic parte, the banning of an 
oath, -^ taemiJaUo, etc, hi* toice bBad bun, and 
he etnld not go through with the apeecL He wna 
enlly unable to procfed, to tliat any me 


aa the patMge in (Scero impliea (ml Fam. to, 1), 
a R«KUi aMJence would not do for ordinary pe^ 
fbrmera. Aeupoa, though fiu- fiDm frngal (Plin. 
H. M I. 73), raalized, l^e Roaciua, an immente 
fbrtane by hia proletuon. He left about 200,000 
aeatercr* to hit aoii Clcdina, who pmred a fbolith 
apendthrift. (Val. Uai.ii. I. g2.) Itii«id,fbr 
inatnKF, that he dltndted in linegar and dnnk a 
pearl waHh abont £8000, which be took finm the 
car-riiu of Caedlia Metella (Hor. JbJ. iL 3, 239 ; 
Val. Mai. ii. 1. g 2 i Macrob, iW. ii. 10 ; Plin. 
//. fif. ix. 59), a &TDnrile bM of the eitta- 
fipal BWEwmania in Borne. (Compare Suet. 
Otty. 37 1 Haoob. Sat iL 13.) The conneiian 
of Cieen'a aon-in-law Dolabella with the Bme 
bdy DO doubt increaaed the diitreta which Cicrro 
felt at the diaairinte proccedinga of the lun of hit 
■rid fnend. (Jd^a. zLlS.) [A. A.l 

AESYMNETB3 (AiiruMnit), a aumiune of 
Dianyiat, which ajgnifiea the Lord, «c Rider, and 
under which he wni worahifped at Aroe in Achaia. 
Tbe alary aliODt the introdnction of hi* worthip 
there it at (oHowb : There waa at Troy an andeni 
image of Dionyaua, the work of Hepbaeitoa, which 
Z»ui had once giten ai a pieaent to DaidiUDt. 
1 1 wot kept in a cheat, and Caiaandra, or, accord- 
ing to other*, Aeneat, lefl ihia cheat behind when 
•he quilted the dtr, becauae ahe knew that it 
wDoM do injniy to bim who potaetaed it. When 
tiie Oraeht dinded Ike spoilt of Trar among theai- 
■elFea. tkia cheat M ta the iban sf the Thettalian 

AETliER. 49 

Eurypylui, who on opening it tnddeniy (eU into a 
tlata of modneM. The oiBcte of Delphi, when 
contulled about hit reeorery, answered, ** Where 
than (halt Bee men perfonnina a atrange lacrilice, 
there (halt than dedicate the cheat, and then ihalt 
thou aettle." When Eurypylui caos to Aioe in 
Achaia, it waa jnat the teaton at which ita in- 
habitant* oflared every year to Artemis Triclaria a 
human iacrifice,can>itting of the &iraat youlh and 
the &it«n maiden of the place. Thia BKriAce waa 
oflered at an atonement for a crime which had 
once been committed in the temple of the goddeat. 
But an Oracle had declared to them, that they 
ehould be releaied from the neceaaity of making 
thit BcriAce, if a fiiretgn diTinity ahould be 
brought to them bj a foreign king. Thit oraele 
waa now fnlhllcd. Eurypylua on seeing the vio- 
limi led to the altar waa cured of hit madneaa and 
perceJTed that tliii wat the place painted out lu 
him by the omde; and the Aroeani alto, on aec- 
ing the god in the cheat, remembered the old 
prophecy, stopped the lacrifice, nod instituted a 
tettJial of Dionytui Aetjmnetit, for 

iial of Dionytui Aetjmnetit, for tl 
le of the god in the cfaetL Nine me 

During one night of thit fretival a priett car- 
ried the chcel outside the town, and all the 
cbilditn of the place, adorned, at formerly tlie 
victiint uted to be, with garlanda of com-oant, 
went down to the bank* of the riier Meiiichiua, 
which bad before been oiled Ameilichiut, hung 
up their garlandt, purified themaeltee, and then 
put on other gariandt of ivy, ai^r which they re- 
turned to the sanctuary of Dionytus Aesymitetes. 
(Pans. viL 19 and SO.] Thit traditian, though 
otherwite rery obtcure, evidently pointi to a time 
when human tacrificet were abolished at Aroe by 
the inlroduction of a new wonhip. At Palrae in 
Achaia there waa Ukewiie a temple dedicated to 
DionysoiAetymnetoa. (Paus. vil 21. 1 12.) [I.S.) 
AKTHA'LIDES (AitoiUqi), a aon of Herniet 
and Eupolemeia, a daughter of Myrmidon. He 
wnt the herald of the Aigonanta, and hod received 
from hit blher the focnlty of remembering every- 
thing, even in Hadet. He wat further allowed Is 
reside alternately in the upper and in the lower 
world. A* hi* •on] could not foivet anything eien 
after death, it remembered that from the body of 
Aethalidei it had tucceitively migrated into thoae 
of Euphorbiit, Hermolimut, Pyrrhua, and at laat 
into that of Pylhagoiat, in whom it ttill retained 
the recollection of ita fbmier raigmliont. (Apollon, 
Rhod. I 54, 640, Ac; Orph. Argon. 131 ; flygin. 
Fab. 14; Diog. Loert. %-iiL I . g 4, &c ; VaL Flauc 
■ 437.) [U SlJ 

AETHRR (AfSrlp). a pemonilied idea of the 
mythical cotmogonica. According to that of Uy- 
ginu* (F>a. Prif. p. 1, ed. SlaTcren). he wna, to- 
gether with Night, Day, and Erebut, begotten l.y 
I and Caligo (Darfcneta). According to that 
dod (ri«^. 124), Aether wat the aon of 
IS and hit titter Night, and a brother of 
Dny. (Comp. Phomut. JJb Nat. Dear. IS.) The 
children of Aether and Day nere Land, Heaven, 
--' Sea, and from hi* connciion with the Earth 
e sprang all the vice* which destroy the human 
race, and alto the Giants and Titana. (Hygin. 
Fu6. Prtf. p. 2, Ac) Theaa aocounta shew that, 
in the Grevk cotmogoniet. Aether wat comidered 
M one of the elementary lubsiancet ont of which 
the Uniicrte waa fomipd. In the Orphic hymna 



(i) Aethrr oppcari u the muI of the worid. ftniu 
which all life emanatei, na idea whith wiu alw 
adgpMd bj anme nf tlie earl; philoaoptien of 
Oreece. In Uter tiiii« Aalher *t» r«g«rded u 
Ibe vide space of Haven, Ihe reaidenca of the 
gmkiBnd ZeiuaithB Lnrd of the Aether, or A«[lter 
itHlf pereoniiied. (PacuT. (g>. Oc de NaL Dear. 
u.36,t0i Laaet. V. 499; Viig. Jn xiL UO, 
Otory. ii, .135.) [L. S.] 

ABTHE'RIE. [HsLiAom.] 

TTiIei of the fbnrth ceuturj, a TUktiie of Utria ac- 
cording to hia lonianie, or, according to Rahaniu 
Maarui, of Scythia, the author of a geostaphical 
work, called Aelhicj Coemographia. We learn 
frnm the pretace that a mcamrement of the whole 
Koman world waa ordered by Julioft Caeaor to 
mode by the moat ablo men, Ibat this meainnmu 
waa begun in the conbuldhip of Juliua Caeiai and 
M. Anloniua, l e. B. c 44; ihnt three Qreeki 

and Palyclitus ; that Zenodi 
mitem port, which occupied hini twenty-one ye 
Gto month*, and nine daya, on to the third con 
ahip of Aoguatua and CmHila ; that Theodc 
meainred the northern part, which occupied him 
twenty-nine yean, eight monlha, and ten dayi, on 
to the tenth congulibip of Auguitna ; and that 
Polyclitui meuurrd the aouthem port, which 
enpied him Iblrly-two yeuri, one month, and l«n 
daya; that tbua the whole (Rnman) worid waa 
gone Dier by the meaauren within thirty-two (?) 
yeani and thai a report of all it contained wi 
laid bdure the aenate. So it atands in the edd. 
but the nmnbera are eiideollr much cotrapled 
the conOndictoriiMM of Polyclitua'a ihan taking 
won than 82 yeara, and the whole me 
being made in leaa tlian (aifra) 32 yean : 

It ii to be obsened that, in thia intrriduclory 
(lalement, no menlioQ i> made of the weitem part 
(which in the work itielf comea nett to the eait- 
ern), eicept in the Vatiisn HS., where the ea>t«m 
part ia ginm to Micodomna, and the weatem to 

A ccnma of all the ptopU in the Romnn latijeo- 
tion waa held onder Augnalni. (Suidaa, i. v. 
ACyovimi,) By two late wriiera (CoMiodorui, 
Far. iii. 52, by an emccdalion of Hnachke, p. 6, 
SitF dm zur Zcil der Gtiurl Jem Chrvli gtkadaitm 
auiii,BreBlsu, 1840 i and Indonu,Ow.T. 36. § 
4), thia numbering of the peopie ia apokea of aa 
connected with the mnuurement of the hknd. Thia 
work in fact eouaiiti of two tcpaisle piecei. The 
Giat begioa with a abort introdDction, the anbalanee 
of which haa been given, and then prooeeda with 
an account of the moaurement of the Roman worid 
nndcr four henda, Orientalii, Occidentalia, Septen- 
trionalia, Meridiana pan. Then come aertea of 
liita of namet, arranged under heada, Maria, Iniu- 
lae, Monto, ProTinciae, Oppida, Flumina, and 
Oentel. Theie are bare liiti, excepting that the 
TiTen have an account of their rise, course, and 
length annexed. Thii ia the end of the lint part, 
the Etpoiitio. The lecond [«rt ii called Alia to- 
tiua orbia Dr!wnptio,and couaiati of four diTiuons: 
(I.J Aaiae ProFiocia* nlut com limilihiu etpopulia 
aniai (3.) Enropae litas, tta,; (S.) Africee silua, 
ftc.i (4.) Inaulae Noatri Maris. Thii pert, the 
Deacriptio, occora with alight rarialiona in Oroaiua, 
i. a. In Aethicua what looka like the original 
raoimencement, Majorca nostri, &c., ia tacked on 

to the pMeeding part, the Eipoddo, by llie wofda 
lioJtc quadripartiiam totau ifrrae comtammiitm ki 
qti dimaai iml. Fnnn (hii it woold appeal t*"' 
Aalhicna borrowed il from Oroaiu. 

The work abounda in emra. Sometimet the 
aame name occnn in different liata ; aa. for exam- 
ple, Cypnia and Rhodea Iwth in the north and in 
the eaat ; Conica both in the wcat and in the 
Bonth ; or a country ii put aa a town, aa Arabia ; 
Nnicum is pat araong the ialanda. Miatakea of 
thia kind would easily be made in copying liati, 
opeeially if in donble colamni. But &on< other 
rcaiona and from quolationa giien by Dieuil, a 
writer of the 9th conluiy, from the Coamogi^ibia, 
differing from the text aa we have it, the whole 
appears to be very csmipt. The whole i* ■ very 
meagre production, bnt ptvaonU a few valuabla 
poinla. Many auctcsafiil emendationa have been 
made by Snlmasiua in his Gxenalalionea Philolo- 
gicae, and there ia a very valuable eaiay on the 
whole lubjecl by iUtachl in the AMiiHlss Mtaao- 
(11143), i. 4. 

The sources of the Comogiaphia apptar to have 
been the measurements above deecribed, other offi- 
cial bits end document*, and also, in all probability, 
Agrippa'a Commencarii, which are constantly re- 
ferred to by Pliny IJIiM. Not. iii. iv. ». vi.) u an 
anthority, and hit Chart of the World, which was 
bunded on bJa CoDunentariL (PUn. HitL NaL iii 

Cassiodonu (ix BUtiL dim. 25) describes a 
coamograpbical woric by Joliua Honorioi Ciator 
in terma which snil exactly the work of Aelhicus ; 
and Salmanna regards Julini Honoriua aa the real 
anthor of thia work, to which opinion Ritachl leema 
to lean, reading Ethmcua inatead of Aethicua, and 
considering it as a mere appellative. In some 
MS3. the appaUatiTea Si^hiata and Philosophua 
an found. 

One of the oldaat MSS., if not the oldest, ia the 
Vatican one. Thia is the only one which ipeaka 
of the weat in the introduction. But il is iai». 
leaaly written : ooanftiu (e. g.) is several times 
put lor comiatitm. Sioi is found aa a contrac- 
tion (7) lor n^rofcr^iAi^ The introdnctiou ia very 
di%rent in thii and in the other USS. 

The first edition of the Cosmographia was by 
mler, Basel, 157^, together with the Itiuerarium 
AntoninL There is an edition by Henry Stephens, 
l£77, with Simler^ notes, which also contaiiia 
Dionyaiu*, Fomponius Meia, and Solinui. The 
last edition is by Oronorins, in hia edition of Fom- 
ponius Mela, Leyden, 1722. [A. A.] 

ABTUILLA (A»4«Aa or UttMa), a daughter 
of Laomedon and aiater of Piiam, Aityocbe, and 
Medcsicasta. After the fall of Troy she became 
e prisoner of Protesiiaiu, who took her, together 
ith other csplives, with him on bis voyage homei 
e landed at Scione in Thnce in order to take in 
nh water. While Prole«lu» bad gone inland, 
Aethilla persuaded her fellow-prisoners to act fire 

I the I 


and all R 

founded the town of Sdonc. (Tietz. 
ad I^o^r. 921, 1075 ; Conon, Namt 13 ; eom- 
psn P. Mela, ii. 3. § 150 1 Sleph. Byi. >. e; 
SiuJrn.) [L. &] 

ArTHI0PS(AiH<4), iheGlowing or theBlack. 
1. A surname of Zeus, under which he was wor- 
ahipped in the island of Chios. (Lycophron, Cam. 
fi37, with the note of Taetaea.) 

3. A son of Hephaestni, from whom Aethiofnn 

WM Wiond to hava derired iu name. (Plin. 
H. A. TL 35; Nat Com. U. G.) C^- ».] 

AETHLIUS OaWAjoi), th« fint king of ElU. 

Ku T. 1. g 3.) He wu ■ un of Zea> and 
Utf^eneia, tfaa daughter of DeDcalion (Apollod. 
J. 7. g 3; Hj^in. fU. 166), and wai muried to 
CaljCB, by whom fai bcgol Eadjmion. AcEoiding 
to MMue McoanU Eodymiaa wu hinitelf a Mn of 
Znu aDd first king of EIi& (ApoUod. i. 7. S &) 
Other tiaditioiu agBin mode ASthlina & iod oT 
Aeohu, wbo mu callad bj the lume of Zcna. 
(P«a. T. 8. 8 1.) [L. S.] 

AE'THLIUS (-AjSAuii), the author of a worii 
mtided ** Sunian Aniiala " ^Cifot iifuai), the fifth 
book of which i) quoted bj Athenaeiu, aithongh 
he eiprcMn a doubt abonl the genuinetteM of the 
worit. {iiT, p. B50, d. 6S3, E) Aethlini ia olw 
nfemd (o by Cleineiu Aleiasdrinoa {Fntr. p. 
SO. a), Eutathioi (orf CM. tS. 120, p. 1673), and 
in the Etymalofficum Haentun (i. o. a^nrrai}, 
when the name u written Athliiu. 

AETHBA (AIBp.)- ■■ A dimghtei of king 
Pillheiu of Troeun. BeUeiophan nied for her 
hand, bnt waa banidied from Corinth before the 
mptiBla took place. (PauL iL 31. g 12.) Shi 

uland of ^Aaeiia, wUtber ihe had gone, m cdiv 
mjneDce of a dnaia, ba the pnipoae of ofbiing a 
•Boifioo on the tomb of Sphaenu. Aethn th«e- 
ka dedicated in the ialud a lonple to Athona 
AfMoiia (the Deoeilfal), and called the iahnd 
Hteia initead of Sphaeiia, and alio introdoeed 
■Boog the maidena of Tnieien the muUm of dedi- 
cating their giidlsi to Athena Apanuria on the day 
«f their maniage. (Pana. ii. 33. § 1 1.) At a later 
time ehe became the mother of Theaaoi bj Aegena. 
(Phit. Tia. 3; Hjigin. Fab. 14.) In the night 
m which tbii look plaoa, Poesidan ^to waa be- 
Gered to bare b«en with her. (ApoHod. iii. \&. 
I 7 ! Hjgin. F«b. 57.) Acmrding to Plulatih 

iTha, 6) her fether epread thia report meiely thai 
heiBDa might be regarded aa the Ion of Poeeidon, 
who waa iDQch rcTsred at Troeien. Thii opinion, 
boweier, ii nothinE elw bat an Httcmpt lo itrip 
the genuine itorj rf iu inorvela. Aflpf thia event 
■be appeara liTing in Attica, from whence the waa 
earned off to Idcedaemon by Caat<v and Polj- 
deuce*, and became a alara ji Helen, with whom 
■he wu taken to Tio;. (PluL 7'iei. 34 ; Horn. 
II. ilL 144.) At the taking of Tny ihe came U 
the camp of the Oreeki, where ihe waa rccogniaed 
by her grandiona, and Demophon, one of theza, 
I procure her liberation, 
t a meiaenger to Helen 
ji Aetbia. Thia waa 
granted, and Aethia became free igain. ( Paua. i. 
•i&.ii; Diet. Ctet t. 13.) According to Hy- 
ginna (Fab, 243) the afterward* put an end to her 
own life fiom gnef at the death of her aont. The 
hialory of her bondage to Helen waa represented 
OD the eelebiaud cheat of Cypaeln* (Paiia it. 1 9. 
g 1 ; Dion Chrjaort. Orat. II), and in a iwnting 
by Palygnoto* in theLeiche of Ddphi. (Paut. i. 
25.8 2-) 

2. A daughter of Oceanoi, by whom AtLu be. 
got the twelre Hyadea, and a aon, Hjaa. (Or. 
FhtLf. 171; Hjgin. T'aft. 192.) lU S.J 

A ETH U'SA (AtftjKm), a danghter of Poaeidon 
vid Akyone, who waa beloTed by Apollo, and 
bote to him Elentber. (ApoUod. iii. 10. § 1; 
Paui.i». 20. ga.) (US.] 


AETHTIA (AIV>»), a auname of Athena, 

aaAm whkh ahe waa worahipprd in Hegsrta. 

(Paua. i. 6. 8 3; 41. g 6; Lycophr. Ow SfiS.) 

The word olffwa ^ignifiea a diver, and figoiatiTfliy 

a ahip, ao that the name mual have lefetmce to 

the goddeaa teaching the art of thip-bailding or 

nangalion. (Tielx. ad Lyaopir. I a) [L. S,] 


AE'TiON CArrlvr). L A Oreek acnlptoi of 

e leam that at the reqneit of Nidai, a Gunon* 
phjaician of Mileloi, he eiecuted a aiatne of Aea- 
cu^piu in cedar wood. He Hounihed about the 
middle of the third century ■. c There waa an 
eugniTerafthe same name; but when he lived ia not 
known. (K. 0. MiUlei,.dmLdiirA')MBt, p. ISl.) 
2. A celebrated paintsr, apoken of by Lndan 
{Da Mentd. CauL 42, Herod, or Attm, 4, 
&c_ Inuy. 7), who gifea a deamption of one of 
faia pictotea, repreeenting the marriage of Alexan- 
der and Roiaoa. Thu painting excited aoch 
admiiation when exhibited at the Olympic game*, 
that Pnieaiidna, one of the judgea, gave Ihe artiat 
hia daughter in majri^^ Afc'tlan aeoma to have 
excelled paiticnlaily in the art of mixing and hiy- 
ing on hu colgun. It haa commonly been aop- 
pmed that he li*ed in the time of Alexander the 
Oraat i hot the worda of Lucian (/feral 4) ahew 
clwiy that be must hare UTed abaut the time of 
Hadnan and the Anlonines. (K. O. UUUer, 
.dniL dtr Kuiat, p. 240 ; Ko^, Kmu^adkile, 
p. 930.) [C. P.M.] 

AETIUS, a RoDttn general, who with hia rival 
Boniface, haa jnatly been called by Procopiua the 
last of the Rvmana. He waa bom at Doroatana 
in Hoasia (Jomandea, de rtb. OtL 34), and hia 
bther Oaudentin*, a Scythian in the employ of 
the empire, having been killed in a mutiny, he 
waa early given aa a hoalage to Alaric, and under 
him learnt the arta of taiharian war. (Pbiloitoigiua, 
liL 12.) After an ineSectnal aappoit of the OBDipei 
John with an aimy of 00,000 men (i. D. 434), he 
became the general of the Roman fixce* imder 
Pladdia, at that time guardian of her son, the 
emperor Valeotinian III. In order to auppbuit in 
her favooi hia rival Bonifiuw, b^ treacberoua aecu- 
■aliona of each to the other, Aeliua occaaimed hia 
id the loaa of Afhia (Pmop. BiS. Vamd. I 
S, 4); the empieea, however, diacovered the fraud, 
~~' Aelini, after having met Bontboe at Ravenna, 
killed him in aingle combat [BoNiracii;!], waa 
■elf compelled to retiie in di^mca to the 
miah aimy which in 424 ha hwi aettled in 
nonia. (Pmper. and M»Tjalliini«, in anno 

Raatored with their help lo Italy, he became 

patrician and aole director of the anniaa of the 

Item empire. (Jomandea, de nk. Ott. 34.) In 

I capacity, through hit long acquaintance with 

the barbwian lettli:™, and chiedy with the Hum 

and Attila himiel^ in whoee court hia aon Carpilio 

')roaght up, be checked the tide of barbarian 

ion, and maintained the Roman pwer in 

foraeventeen;eBra(43.>t-4fiO)in Italy, Spain, 

in, and Oaul, in which hut country e^iecially 

labliahed hia influence by mean* of hia Hun 

Alan alliea and by hit tnaty with Theo- 

the Viunttb. (Sidon. ApolL Fang. AniL 

And when in 4£0 thit peace waa broken by 

nvauon of Attila, Aetiua la conoeit with 

ill AETIUS. 

Tbeodoric urestod it fim bj the timelj relief af 
Orluni and tfaen by tbe victory (^ Chali 
iOtrg. Tiiron. iL 7; Jarnandet, dt ni>. t 
36), and wu only proTanled fmta dtlowins up his 
•uccenea in Italy by want of sujipDrt bvth rnjld 
Valentinias and bia bubanan alliea. (Idati 
and ludorui, in anno 4S0.) [Attili.] T 
greatnna of hit position w the ule itay of 
the cmpin. and aa the aole link between Chiii- 
tendffin and the pogan barbarians, may w^ hai 
given rise to the brlief^ whether founded or no 
that he deaioned the imperial ^rone for himse 
and a barbuian Ibrona for his son Carpilio (Sid. 
ApoU. Pwmg. Aril. 20i>, and aceoidinglj in 
454, ha was mnidered by Valentinian bimKlf in 
an access of jnloiisy and nupidon (Piocop. Btii. 
Fmd, L 4), and with him (to nae the words of the 
coo temporary chroniclei Hftrc«llinus, in anno 4S4), 
"cecidii Hoaperinni Iroperium, noc potuit releiari." 

His phyirical and moinl ttctirily well fitted him 
for the life of ■ soldier (Oregor. Tnron. ii. 8), 
though destitute of any bigh principle, he tvlongs 
to the dais of men like Auguitus and " 
whose eaily crimes are gbocund by thi 
and g1oi7 of later life, and in whom a great and 
trying position naUy talii out new and unki 

(RenBtns Frigeridus, in Orcgor. TaroiL ii 
Procop, BdL VamL i. 3, 4 1 Jornandes, di Heb. 
<?<(. 34, 36 ; Oihbon, Diclima and FtdL c 3S. 3^ ; 
Heriien's Attila, p. 322.) [A. P. &] 

AETIUS {'Kiras), anmamod the Atktat, from 
hit denial of the Ood of ReTehition (St. Athanai. 
tU SumKl. § 6, p. S3, of the transhition, Oif. 1 B42 1 
Socr. Hit. Ecal. ii. 35 ; Soiom. Hiii. EccL W. 29), 
was bom in Coele Syria (Philoitorg. Hiit. EccL 
iii. IS; St. Baail, adv. Etaiom. I p. 10) at Antioch 

the Arian heresy. lie wu left fotherleaa and 
porerty when a child, and beraina the slaTe ol 
Tine-dresser^ wife (St Gregory Nanani. c. EtHum. 
p. 292. c D i but MS Not. Vaiaa ad FhOoaL iiL 
IS), then a tnielling tinker (S. Qr. ibid.) or a 
goldnnilh. (PhiL Aid.) Conviction in a fraud at 
ambition led him to abandon this life, and he ap- 
plied himself to medldne under a qnacfc, and aooii 
art op for himself at Antioch. (Soc iiL 15.) 
Kiom the schools of medicine being Arian, he ac- 
quired a leaning lowaids heresy. He &eijiiented 
the diipnCatioui meetings of the phyncians (3. Or. 
p. S93, d) and made snch progress in Eristidini, 
that ha becsme a paid advocate fbi such at wished 
their own theories eihibit^d most advantageously. 
On his mothe[> death he studied undei Panlinut 
II., Alias Bishop of Antioch, A. D. 331 ; but hii 
powers of dispntaljon having exasperated some in- 
flaential persons about EulBlini, the >nc«e>wr of 
Pauliaais he was obliged to quit Antioch for 
Anaaa^ua, when he resumed the trade of a gold- 
smith, A. n. 331. (PhaiiilS.) HereapnfeB- 
sor of grammai noticed bim, employed him aa a 

* After the fint reference, the reference* in this 
article are thtis abbreviated : — St Athaoauua, 
. de Si-Dodis [S. Ath.] ; St Basil, adv. Eunomianos 
(S. Daa.]; St Oregoiy Naxiancen adv. Eunominn. 
[S. Or.] The Histories of Socrates, Soumen, 
ThMdocet,and PhtloEtorgius, the Arian panegyrist 
of AitinB [Soc., Soi., Thdt., PhiL] ; S. Epiphaniut, 
adv. Haereses [S. Ep.]. 


in disgrace on publicly disputing against hia 
master's intcrprelalion of the Scripture. The 
Arian Bishop of the city, named Athanasioa, n- 
ceivcd him and read with him the GotptU. AJFter- 
wards he read the EfmUf with Antonius, a priest 
of Tartua till the promotion of the latter to the 
Episcopate, wben he returned to Antioi^ and 
studied the PropkeU with the priest Laontins. 
Hii obtrusive irrrligion obliged him again to quit 
Antioch, and he took refuge in Cilicia 0>efore a. d. 
34S), where he wns defeated in argument by some 
of Che grossest (Borbarian) Onottica. He return- 
ed to Antioch, but soon left it for Alexandria, 
being led thither by the liune of the Manichee 
Aphthonius, against whom he recovered the bnie 

disputation which he had lately lost He i 
resumed the study of medicine under Sopolit ana 
practised gratuitously, eanJug money by following 
his former trade by night (PhiL iiL 15) or Uving 
upon othi-n. (Tboodoret. IIul. EccL iL 23.) His 

plimlion of logical figure* and geometrical dia- 
grams to the Nature of the Word of Ood. (S. 
Epiphan. adv. flatrtt. § '2, and comp. f (i, p> 920.) 
He returned to Anliach on the elevation of his 
fbimer master Leontius to that See, a. n. 348, and 
was by him ordained Deacon (S. Ath. § 3B, ttantl. 
p. 136), though he declined the ordinary dode* of 
the Diaoonate and accepted that of lamihjf, a. n. 
350. (PhiL iii. ir.) The Catholic tojinen, 
Diodoms and Flavian, proteated against this or- 
dination, and Leontius was obliged tq depose huit 
(ThdL iL 19.) His dispute with BaaU of An- 
cyra, i, D, 351 (fin.), is the first indication of the 
Kiture tchism in the Arian heresy. (PhiL iiL 15.) 
Basil incensed Oallni (who became Caesar, March, 
A- □. 351) against Ae'tius, and Leontius' intem«- 
sion only saved the latter froni death. Soon 
llieophilut RltnninTB introduced him to Osllua (S. 
Or. p. 284), who liiade him his 6iend, and oftfn 
sent him to his brother Julian when in danger of 
aposCacy. (PhiL iiL 17.) There is a letter from 
Oallus eItnn^ coii^ ' ' 
hcsiun to Christunity, 
Aetiui. (Post Epist JiJiani, f. 158, ed. Boitson. 
Mogunt 1320.) Ae^ui nag implicated in llie 
murder of Domitian and Montius (see Oihbon, 
c. 19). A. o. 354 (S. Or. p. 394, a), but his 
insignificance saved him from the vengeance of 
Conslantius. However, he quitted Antioch for 
Aleiandria, where St. Athannaius was niaintaiii- 
ing Christianity against Arianism, and in A.n.S.v'i 
acted as Deacon under George of Cappadocia, the 
violent interloper into the See of St Athaoasiut. 
(St Ep. 76. § 1 1 Thdt ii. 34.) Hen Ennomiui 
became his pupil (PhiL iiL 20) and nmanuensit. 
(Soc ii. 35.) He is said by Phtlostorgius (iiL 19) 
to have refused ordination to the Episcopate, be- 
cause Serraa and Secundus, who made the ofier, 
had mixed vfith the Catholics ; in *. n. 358, when 
Eudoiins became bishop of Antioch (Thdt it 23), 
he rctomcd to that city, but popular feeling pre- 
vented End oiius from allowing him tn act as Dracoii. 
The Aetian (Eonomian, see Anli^e) schism now 
'■■'•■" The bold irraligion of 

here Ant! 

ns) t* 

in of Aria 

o Constg 

(Son. iv. 13); they allege al 

Qallns, and press the emperer to tnmmon a general 

CoDjidl (br the eetUement of the Theolngical 

•P»Udd. Tlw A«lisii intemt wiili Euarbiut 
(S«. L 16), tht poweiful Eunncli, dieidet 1 
tended conndl, but Dolirithitsiiding, the A 
are detested M Selencis, a. d, 359, nnd, dw 
the evandl, haiten to Coiututiiu, it Com 
nople, to Becnre hia pnttectifui igainA the 
poDcnt*. (S. Ath. tTwuL pp. 73, 77< 8S, 163, 
164.) Tbe Antt-Ai-tiaiii (who lie in bet the 
more ir ^ nct i ble Semi-Anui*, lee Ariub) tbllov, 
and tha^ tfaeir opponent* with maintuning a 
O^nmet in SybitaaceltTtftoiauir) in (beTrinitj, 
pnindng a paper to that effef I. A new Khiun 
Fune* atDOng the A^tiani, and Artini ii aban- 
dooed by bit friendi (ollpd Eniebiani oi Aca- 
ciuii, w« Arivh) and boniihed (S. Bai. L 4). 
after protraling aguml hit CDtnpuilani, who, 
holding the fame prindp/c wich bimwlf {vii. that 
the Son waa n cmtlan, Ktlr/ui), refuted to ac- 
knowledge the numaiy inference (lit. that He 
i> of KwUe nUawe to the Faiitr, ir6tiatiir). 
(Thdt. iL 23; Soi. JI. 33; S. Oreg. p. 301, D. ) 
PhtL IT. IS.) Hi* late frienda wodd not let him 
reraiin at Mnpcnestia, where he wai kindly n- 
eaired by Auientiua, the Biihop there : Acuini 
procnrea hia haniahment to Ambloda in Piiidta 
(PhiL T. I), where he compoied hil 300 blaa- 
phtmiei, aptioui inference! from the aymbo! of 
tiii irreligion, cii. that hjieiitratenat {iytmiata) 
■ the Mence (aivla.) of Deity ; which are refdted 
(ihne at teirt which St. Epiphanini had aeen} in 
S. Ep. aJt. Hoar. 76. He there nlla hia op- 
panentaChiDiulca, it, Temporala, with nn apparent 
aOuiion to ttaor cnnrtly abaequiDuaneaa. (Praebt. 

On Conataniitia'a death, Julian recalled the 
raian* exiled biihopa, aa well oa Aetina, wham 
, be bnited to bia court (Ep. Juliaai, SI, p. 62, 
ed. Boiaaon.), giving him, too, i hrm in Ijea- 
. . , -j^mjg^ herelicd Biihep of 
1, took off the eecleuBBlical candemuatian 
■ (PhiL liL S), and be wa* made 
Biibop at Conitantinople. (S. Ep. T^. p. 992, c) 
He qreada hii bereay by filing a biibop of hii 
own imligion at Conttantinople (Phil. viii. 2) and 
by miinmaiia, till the death of Jovian, a.d. 364. 
Valena, however, took part with Endoiina, the 
AcaciiD Biebnp of Conatantinople, and Aetina re- 
tirad to Leaboa, where he narrowly eaciped death 
at tbe band* i^ the goremor, pbced there by 
Pnconina in hia revolt againat Valena, A. n. 365, 
M6. (See Gibbon, ch. IS.) Agmn be look refuge 
in Conatantinople, but wii driven ihenro by hi* 
fbraier frienda. In vain he qiplied for protection 
to Endoxiua. now at Mitdanople with Valena; 
and in 1. D. 367 (PhiL ii. 7) he died, it asema, at 
CiHiataiilinoplB, unpitied by any bnt the etinally 
irretigioaa Eanomini, who bitrinl him. (Phil. ii. 
6.) The daciriDal arrora o( Aetina an iHlpd 
hiitenally in the article on Ariuh. From the 
Maoieheei he leenia to have learned hie licentiaua 
morala, which appeared in the mnet ihocking Soli- 
Hdianiim. and which he gnninded on a Onoatic 
intetpretBtion of St. John, irii, S. He denied, 
like Boat other faeretiea, the neceaiity of bating 
and nlf-iDOitiliation. (S. Ep. mh. Hatr. 76. % 4.) 
At aDme tine or other he waa a diaciple of Enie- 
bina of Sebaato. (S. Bai. Ep'l. 2S3 [79] and 
244 [«-2].) Sociata (ii. 35) apeaka of nvetal 
Ittto* fmm bim to Conitanline and olhen. Hii 
TVdi^ui ia to be Iband ap. S> Epil^ian. adv. Haer, 
76, f. 6U, ed. Petav. Colon. IKU2. [A. J. C] 

boa. fPhii 


AETIUS ("Airioi, Ai-Hw), a Greek medical 
wrili-r, wboie name ii commoaly but incorrectly 
■pelt ^eltai. Hiiloriana are not agreed stKint 
hia exact date. He ii placed by aome writera aa 
early oi the fourth century after Chrial ; bnt it i* 
plain from fail own woric that be did not write till 
the veiy end of the fifth or the beginning of the 
tilth, a* he refen (letrab. iiL Kr«. L S4, p. 464) 
not only to St. Cyril, Patriaieb of Alexandna, who 
died A. D. 444, bat alio (tetnA. ii. aanii. iii. 110, 
p. 357) to Petma Arebiater, who wai physician 
to Theodoric, kine of the Oatregotba, and there- 
fore mnat have bred atiU hiter ; he ia himaelf 
■laoted by Aleionder Traliianui (lii, 8, p. 346), 
who lived probably in the middle of the siith 
eentniy. He waa a native of Amida, a cily of 
Mcwpotnmia (Photiua, cod. 321) and itudied at 
Alexandria, which waa the moat bmoui medical 
•chool of the age. He woi probably a Cbriiiian. 
which may sccouut perhaps for hii being con- 
founded with another penon of the some name, a 
bmoui Arian of Antioch, who lived in the time of 
the Emperor Julian. In aome mannicripti he haa 
the title of aiiaii tjmuini, eoma oiKfint, which 
meana the cbief officer in attendance on the em- 
peror (lee Du Cange, Glim. Med. tt In/. Lnfn.); 
Chii title, occotding to Photini {L e.). he attained 
at Conatantinople, where he was pioctiiing medi- 
'ae. Aiitiua aeemi to be the Ertt Greek medical 
riter among the Christiana who giiet any ipeci- 
en of the apelli and chamu ao ninth in vogue 
ith the Egyptian!, inch aa that of St. Bloiae 
(fafro*. ii. ami. iv. 60, p. 404) in removing a 
bone which aticki in the throat, and another in re- 
lation to a Fiitulo. (MroA. iv.jenii.iill4, p.76S.) 
The diviiion of hii work BifAla 'larpwd 'ExKof- 
Itini, " Sixteen Booki on Hedidne," into four 
telrabibli (veTptWiSAoi) waa not mode by bimielt^ 
bul (at Fnbricine observei) waa the invention of 
some modem translator, oa hii way of quoting 
hia own work ia ac«irding to the numerical aeiiei 
of the booka Although hit work doe* not eon- 
tain much original matter, it it nevertheleas one of 
the most valuable medical lemuns of antiquity, aa 
being a very judidoni compilation from the writ- 
ing! of many aiithon whoie worki have been long 
Muco Int. The whole of it hni never appeared 
in the original Qteek ; one half woi publith- 
ed at Venice. 1534, fbl. "in aed. Aldi," with 
the title " Aetii Amideni Libronim Medicinalium 
lomui primui ; primi tcilicat libri Ocio nunc 
primnm in lucem edtii, Oracco;" the Kcond 
volume never appeattd. Some chapters of the 
ninth book were publiabed in Greek and Latin, by 
J. E. Hebenitreit. Lipa 4to. 1757, under the title 
** Tentamen Pbilologicum Medicum super Aiitii 
Amideni Synopiii Medicomm Velannn," Sc; and 
again in the same year, "Aiftii Amideni ArtKlUrmr 

Specimen alterum." Another chapter of the 

tame book waa edited in Greek and Idiin by J. 
MignnsaTengitiJim,Abcne, 1S17, 4(o.. with the 
title ** Commentalionnm in Aiftii Amideni Medici 
"Ai^itloTo Specimen Primom," etc. Another ex- 
tract, also from the ninth book, ia inaerted by 
Muatoxydei and Schinai in their " SfAAoY^ 
XaAiivww 'Awtic>6Ttn'," Vcnet. 1HI6, Svo. The 
twenty-liflh chapter of the ninth book woi edited 
in Greek and Ladn by J. C Ham, Lipa 1654, 
410.; and the chapter (Mm& i. itrm. iii. 164) 
" De Significalionibna Stellanun," ii iniertad in 
Givek and Latin by Petitvius, in hia ** Uramolo- 



(ma th« ngbth t 
publulwd at BskI, 1 5:13, fol.. in 
by Juiui ConiBriuB, with the 
liocfaeiii Medici de cof^naMendii i 

ifl1at«d into Idtin 

153.^, the remumnK Mn 
publiibed at Baael, b; 
roluiBe*, w tbaC the Ihn 


I. Mon 

e Irantlued and 

e volumBi fnna together a 
GOmplels and uniiomi editiou of the work. In 
1534, 4to., a complete Latm traiialstion wu pub- 
liihed at Venice by the Junta*. In 1542. Coma- 
riui completed and pubUBhed a Innsbtion of the 
whole work (BaiiL fol); which wia reprintad at 
Basel. 1549, 8>o.; Venice, 154S, 1544, 6(0.1 
Ljoni, 1549, fol.; and in H. Stephena'a " Me- 
dicae AtU. Prindpa,- Parifc 1567, foL Two 
uaeful works on Aatius deurve to be mentioned ; 
one by C OioiciuB (Horoieoj, entitled " Anno- 
t.itionei in Intetpretrt Aetii." BuiL 1540, 4lo.; 
the other an academical diuertion by C Weigel, 
entitled " Aetlanarain Eieccitalionam Specimen," 
Up.. 1781, 4to, (See FreindV HM. of PUfie, 
rrom whoae work many of the preceding nioatka 
have becD taken ; Cagoati Variat OinennL i«. 
le 1 Haller, BibiioA. Midie. Prael. ToL i. p. 200 ; 
Sprengel, fiiMt. de la Midedm; Choulant, HoMd- 
6iiM der BiidtirJmndt fur dii Adien Mviim.) 
[W. A. 0.] 

AFTIUS, SICA'MIUS (iKtjuoi i 'A^.o.), 
eomeUmei c^ed AiUta Skatii— or SkbIbi, the 
agtlior of a treatiaa Hepl MtKayxi^iit, De Melait- 
tkolia, which i> commonly printed among the 
worka of Galen. (Vol ill. p. 699, Sic) Hit date 
ia uncertiun, but, if he be not the lame person a> 
Ailtiua of Amida, he maathare lived after him, at 
hia Ireatiae corteuonda e;iactly with part of the 
lalter'a great medical work (Itlrab, it. urm, il 9 
— 1 1 , p. 250, &c) : it if compiled from Galea, 
Rafni, Poudonliia, and Marcellua. [W.A.O.] 

AETNA (AInni), a Scilian nymph, and accDid- 
ing to Alcimoi {ap. SduiL Tieooit. i. G5), a dangh- 
ter of UnulDl and Gaea, or of Bliareua. Simo- 
nidei Bid that sift had acted ai aibitmlor between 
Hcpbaeatiu and Demeter reipectii^ the poeaeuion 
of Sicily. By Zeoa or Hepbaealui >he became the 
mother of the PalicL (Serr. ad Jen. it 584.) 
Mount Aetna in Sicily wa« believed to hnre de- 
riTod it! name &om her, and under it Zcui buried 
TyphoD, Enceladua, or Briareua. The mountain 
ita^ WHi believed to be the place in which He- 
phaeiluB and the Cyclopa made the (hunderbolla 
(or Zeiu, (Eui^ Q«^ 296^ ProperL iii. 15. 21 ; 
Cie. Di DivimL u. 19,) [ L. &] 

AETNAEU9 (Alrmiii), an epithet giTen to 
HTeral god> and mythical beingi connected with 
Mount Aetna, iuch ai Zcui, of whom theia wai a 
■tatue on moont Aetna, and to whom a feetiral 
waa celebrated tkere, called Aetoaea (SchoL ad 
Piad. OL vi. 162), Hepbaeatua, who had hia work- 
(hop in the mountain, and a temple near it (Aelian. 
//id. Am. xl 3; %anbeim, ad CMim. kprni. in 
Diait. 56), and the Cydopa. (Virg. Aa. viiL 44D, 
xi.26S,a768; Ov. fiiP«i ii. 3. 115.) [L. &] 

AETC/LE (AlmtAif), a iorBame of Artemii, by 
which ahe woa wonhipped at Nanpaetua. la her 
temple in that town then wai a atatue of white 
marble repreaenting her in the attitude of throwing 
- -■—'-■-, (Vko. I. S8. S 6.) fL. 8.] 

9 G.) According to Peuuiitaa (r. L S 2), hia mo 
ther waa called Aaterodia, Chromia, or Hyperippe. 
Ha waa married lo Pronoe, by whom he had two 
aona, Pleuion and Calydon, Hia brother* were 
Paeon, Epeius, and othen. (Slepb. Byx.i.ii.Nd{ai; 
Conon. NarraL 14 ; Schol. ad Find. 01. i. 28.) Hi> 
lather compelled him and hii two brothen Paeon 
and Epdua to decide by a conteat at Olympia aa to 
which of them wa> to luceeed him in hia kingdom of 
Elia. EpeJn* gained the victory, and occupied the 
thnme ^ter hit bther, and on hia demise ha waa 
lucceeded by Aetolua. During the funeral gamei 
which were ceichniied in honour of Aian, be ran 
with hia chariot over Apia, the ton of Joaon or 
SalmoneuB, and killed him, whereupon he waa ex- 
pelled by the soni of Apia. (Apollod. I. c; Paui. v. 
1. g 6 ; Strab. viiL p. 357.) After leaving Pelopon- 
netut, he went to the country of the Curelea, be- 
tween the AchelooB and the Corinthian gulf, whete 
bs tlew Dorua, Laodocui, and Polypoetei, ^e sona 
of Helioa and Phtbia, and gave lo the country the 
name of Aetolia. (Apollod. Paua. U. m.) Thia 
story ia only a mythied account of the colonitadon 
of Aetolia. (Strab. i. p. 463.) 

Z A son of Oiylus and Pieria, and brother of 
l^iaa. He died at a tender age, and his parents 
were enjoined by an oracle to bury him neither 
within nor without the town of Elia. They accord- 
ingly buried him under the gate at which the toad 
to Olympia commenced. The gymnatiarch of £1J* 
used to offer an annual lacrifice on hit tomb aa late 
atthetimeofPautaniaa. (t. 4. g 2.) [L. a] 

AFER, DOMITIUa, of Nemauaus (Nismes) 
in Gaul, was praetor ^ o. 25, and gained the &- 
vour of Tiberius by accnnng Claudia Pulchra, the 
consobrina of Agrip^nna, in A. D. 26. (Tac Ann. 
iv. 52.) From thia time he became one of the 
most celebrated oraton in Rome, but sacrificed his 
chaiacter by conducting oEcuaatioci* fin- the govern- 
ment. In the following year, A. o. 37, he is again 

Quintiliua, the ton of Cbudia Pukhra. (Aim. it. 
66.) In consequence of the accuaation of Claudia 
Pulchra, and of same oSenci which he hod given 
to CaligiUa, ha waa accused by the emperor in ihe 
senate, but by concealing his own akill in speak- 
ing, and pretending to be overpowered by the . 
eloquence of Caligula, he not only esc^ied the 
danger, but was mode constd suffectus in a. d. 39. 
(Dion Coas. lii. 19, 20.) Id his old age Xfcr lost 
much of bis reputation by continuing to speak in 
public, when bis poweti were exhausted. (QulLtiL 
xiL 11.S3; Tae..iiiH.iv.52.) He died in the 
TMgn of Nero, a. d. 60 (Tac. Amt. xU. 19). in 
conseqaance of a mrfeit, according lo Hienmymiu 
in the Cbronicon of Eusebius. 

QuintiUan, when a young man, heard Domitiua 
Afer(comp. Plin..^iL UJ, and frequently »penka 
of him aa the moat dietinguiahed orator of his age. 
He says that Domitiut Afer and Julius Africanus 
were (he best ontoti he had hard, and that lie 
prefen the former to the bitter, {z. 1. S UB.) 
<juintilian lefen to a work of his "On Testimony" 
(v. 7. 8 7), to one entithid "Dicta" (tL 3. | 42), 
and to tome of hit orationa, of which those on be- 
half of DomiUUa, or CloantiUa, and Voluaenin 
Catulua seem to have been the most celebrated, 
(viii. 5. g 16. ix. 2. 3 SO, 3. § 66, 4. g 31, x. 1. 
I 24, &c) Reapee^iig the will of Domitiut Afer. 
teePlin. J^ vUi. 18. 

AFRA'NIA, CAIAorOAIA. the wife of the 

man, who alwaji pleaded 



very Utigioui wo- 
uioa to the poUIuh' 

TiiL 3. § 1 i Dig. 3. tit. 1. fc I. S S.) 

AFRA'NIA a£NS, plebeiMk, ii Ant nenticmed 
in the ascond oentuiy u. c. The only cognomen 
of thu gent, which ocean under the tepublic, ia 
SfTBLLio ; thoM luuiw* which hsn no oogBomen 
■le giTCD under ArKANlua. Sooie peruni of ihi* 
IMDW erideotly did not belong to the A&anis Oeni. 
On cshu we find only S. AAsniua uid M. Afro- 
niu, of whom nothing it known. (Eckbel, y. n. 

AFRA'NIUS. I. L. ArsiNiUK, a Roman 
comic poet, who lived at the bt^ning of the Srtl 
cenlor; o. c liia comedies deicribed Boman 
•cene* and nunoen {Chmotdiac logatae), end the 
■ubjecu were moatl; taken {rem the life of the 
lover rliTi {Comoediae tabemariae.^ Thej were 
&H]iteniif poUaled with diigracetul unoun, which, 
■ccnding toQuinliiian, wereonly arepreaeatatioaof 
the conduct ofAfnu]iii».{x 1.8 100.) Hedtoicted, 
howeTer, Roman life with *Dch Bcciiraey, that he 
i> du»d with Menandcr, (lom whom indeed he 
borrowed lusetj. (Hor. £p. ii. 1. 57 ; Macrob. 
&I. *i. 1 ; Cic dt /Vi. i 3.) He imitated the 
uyle of C. Titiu, and hii language ia piuiwd by 
Ciceco. I^BnL 4fi.) Hii comediea an ipoken of 
in the hi^Mtl temu b; the andeut writen, and 
midn ihe empire thej not only continned to ba 

•ccnn in the tiznaof Nero. (VeU. PaL L 17, ii. 19; 
Gelt. ziii. 8 ; Suet. Ner. 1 1 .) They aeem to have 
been weD known even at the lattet end of the 
fourth century. (Aawn. £pigr. 71.) Abaniiu 
But hare wriltan a gieat many eomediei, at the 
aame* and bagmeuti of between twenty and thirty 
an atill fmened. Thaaa &agnwnla have been 
poUiahed by Bothe, PaiL LaL Smac Fragmmla, 
and by Neokinh, Dtfiibiila logata Roman. 

2. L. ArBAMiDH, appean to hare been of ob- 
acnn Migin, aa he i* called by Cicero in contempt 
"the ton of Aalna," ai a penon of wham nobody 
- had hMcd. (Cic ad AIL \. IG, 20.) Hs wai firtt 
Iwooght into notice by Pompey, and wa* alwnji 
hia warm &iei>d and portiaan. In b. c 77 he waa 
me of Pompej'i legatee in the wu acaiiul Serto- 
tiua in Spain, and aJn aerred Pompey in the aame 
capacity in the Mithridatie war. (Plat. Smi. IS. 
Pom^ 34, 36, S9i Dion Caaa. xuTii 5.) On 
Pooqiey'a Rtntn to Rome, be waa andooi to ob- 
tain the conaolahip fbr A&nniaa, that he might the 
DHUsaanl^iairyhiaown plana intoeflect; and,nDt- 
vithatanding tita oppanlion of a powerfal party, 
he obtained the election of Afranina by influence 
and bribery. Daring hia conaalthip, howerer, 
(a. c SO), Afraniua did not do much for Pompey 
(XHon Caia. uxTii. 48), but probably mole &am 
want of experience in political affun than from 
any want of inclination. In a. a. SK Afraniua hod 
Ibe prolines of Ciaalplne Oaul (camp. Cic. ad Att. 
L 19), and it may hare been owing to aome advan- 
ta^ ha bad guned ma the Owib, that ha ob- 
tained the Irianph, of which Cicero apeaka in hia 
oiatiDO i^uiwt Piao. {c. 21.) 

When PoDpey obtadnad tba pronnna of the 
two Sgata in lua eeeond eooaulahip (n. c S5), 
be i«Dt ABanioi and Petreiai to gorem Spain 


in hii niinte, while he hinuelf remained ui Rome. 
(VelL Pat. iL 43.) On the breaking out of 
the civil war, B. c 49, Afmniua waa atiU in 
Spain with three legiona, and after uniting hia 
forcea with thoae of Pelreiua, he bad to oppoas 
Caeaar in tb* aame year, who had croued over 
into Spain aa aoon aa be hod obtained poaaea- 
uon of Italy. After a abort campaign, in which 
Afianina and Pdlreiua gained ume adtanlagea at 
fint, tbey were reduced to auch atiaita, that they 
were obliged to sue for the mercy of Caeaar. Thi* 
wai granted, on condition that tlieir tn»pa ahould 
be diibanded, and that they ahould not aerva 
againbt him again. (Caai. IkCi. S&-86 ; Appioa 
B. C. ii. 42. 43; Dion Cau, xli. 20-23{ Pluc 
Po«^. 66, Caa. 86.) Afraniua, however, did uoi 
keep hia word ; he immediately joined Pompey at 
Dyrrhadum, wIibtp be wua occosed by aome of the 
aristocracy, thongh certainly without juatice, of 
tieachety in Spain. After the battle of Djrrba- 
cium, Afraniua recommended an immediate return 
to Italy, eapecially aa Pompey wai nwaler of the 
aea ; but thia advice waa overrojed, aud the battle 
of Phanalia followed, B. a 48, in which Alianiua 
had the charge of tba («mp. (Appian, £. C ii. H5, 
76 ; Plut. Pmnp. 66 ; Dion Caaa. ili. 52 j Veil. 
PbL iL fi2.) Aa Afraniua waa one of thoH who 
could not hope lor pudon, he fled to AEhca,. and 
joined the Pompeian army under Calo and Sdpio. 
(Dion Cau. iliL 10.) After tba defeat of the 
Pompeiana at the battle of Thapnu, K t. 46, at 
which he waa preaent, he attempted to tiy into 
MauritanU with Faualua Sulla and about IfiOO 
horaonen, but waa taken priaoner by P. fiittiua, 
and killed a few daya oflerwania, according to 
•oms B4»>unta, in a aedilioa of the aoldiera, and 
according to othera, by the command of Caeaar. 
(Hirt Brit Afrie. 95 ; Suet. Om. U ; Dion Caaa. 
iliii. 12; Florua, iv. 2. § 90; Liv. E^nt. 114; 
Atir. Vict. tU Vir. ta. 7B,) 

Afianiua aeemi to have had aome talent for war, 
but little for civil abira. Dion Caaaiua »ya "that 
he woB a better dancer than a atateamon " (iiitii. 
iS\ and Cicero apeaka of him with the grealesi 
contempt during Ma conaulahip (ad.AU. i Id, 20), 
though at a later time, when Afraniua waa oppoaed 
to Caeaar, he call! him nowniudu. {PhiLxm. 14.) 

3. L. Afraniaa, aon of the preceding, negotiated 
with Caeaar in Spain through Snlpidut for hia cwi. 
and his IMher'a preaervation. He afterwarda went 
aa a hoatage to Cami. (Caea. B. C. i. 74. 84.) 


5. ArBANiDs Bunaua. [BunnuB.] 


7. AraiHiuB Dixtbb. [Dkxtxb.] 

S. T.AFiuKiDBor T.AcHXNiuainolalloiiBn, 
waa one of the ieadera of the Italian eonfaderatea 
in the Handc war, n. c. 90. In conjanction with 
Jndociliua Bud P. Ventidiua he defeated the legale 
Pompeiua Stnbo, and ptuaned him into Ftrmnm, 
bebie which, however, ha waa defeated in bia 
turn, and waa killed in the taUIie. (Appian, B. C. 
L 40, 47 ; Flomi, iii. 18.) 

AFRICA'NUa (SciPio.] 

AFRICA'NUS CAftwifdi), a writer on veto- 
Ttnary anrgery, whoie dato ia not certainly known, 
but who may very probably be the tame peraon a* 
Sei, JuliuaAfricanua, whoae work entitled KtoroJ 
contained information upon medical aubjecta. 
[AraiCANua, Six. JuLitia.] Hia remaina weiv 
publiafafld in the Collection of wtitora un Velcriiiary 


ne, firel iu a Lslui ti 

1 hy J. I 

lid*, Pur. lS3a, (al, and ■ami-wdi in Gnwk, Bu. 
1537, <W. edited by Grjnaeuiu [W. A. U.] 

uciil Raman juriaconiDlt, vbo lived under Anto- 
ninni Pini. Ha wu probably ■ papil of SalTiiu 
Julianui, the nlebnted nformer of tbe Edict 
under Hadriiui. [Julianub, Salviii!.] Ha con- 
■ulted JulisD on legal mbjecU (Dig. 3£. tit. 3. •. 3. 
3 4), uid there it a contiovarted puoga in the 
Digcil (A/ricamt lAro viaiino B^iUolartim apud 
JtUiamm jmcnl, Ac Dig. ^0. tit. i. l 89), vbkh 
ba) bean eiplaiscd in Tariout wayi ; eithar that 
he pnbliibed a li^al carreapondence wbicfa puaed 
between bim and Julionnt, or that he commented 
□pon the epiitolarj opinions given by Julianua in 

aommentury upon Julianui in the forra of letten. 
On the other hand, Jollanna "ex Sexto" i) quoted 
by Oaiui (iL 31B). which ibewa that Jnliaani an- 
notated Seitiu, the fonnula ■'ex Sexto" being 
aynonyrooua with "ad SeiRun." (Neubor, i^io 
Juriit. Klaitittr, B. 9.) Who wu Saxtni bnt 
Afiicanui ? Africanua ni the anther of " Libri 
IX Quaealionum," from which many pore extncia 
ale made in the Digest, a* may be aeen in Ham- 
mel'i " Paliiigeneata PandeclaTum," where the ex- 
tiacta from each jurist are brought together, and 
thoM that are ttUien from Africaniu occupy 26 
out of about 1800 pagu. 

From fail itmaint, thua pretened in the Dignt, 
it ia eiident that he wa> intimatdy acquainted 
with the opiniona of Julianaa, who u the pereoD 
aDuded ID when, vilheat any expmaed nominatira, 
he tiaet the word* air, ejuttniattf, tuganit, pulaaL, 
Mfinf, rapomlil, plaai, ROlof. Thia ii pnred by 
Cu)aa from a compaiucm of aome Greek acfaolia on 
the Elaolica with parallel extncta fmn A&icanua 
ill the DigeaL Paulliu and Ulpian baTa done 
Afrkaniia the honour of citing hia authority. He 
wa» fond of antiquarian lore (Dig. 7. tic 7. a. l,pr. 
when the true reading ia S. Gaceilmt, Dot &Aeiiiu), 
and hia -Libri IX Qnaeatioiinm," &om the coo- 
daeneis of the ilyle, the great tabtlety of the rco- 
aoning, and the knottineaa of the point* discuued, 
BO pniiled the old gleaaatort, that when they oune 

eiclaim Afiiami l»z,idtd diffic^a. (Heinecc. Itut. 
Jmr, Rom. § axri. n.) Uaacoiiu (da SetiiM Jttr, 
4. a 3} nppDaet that Africanua belonged to the 
legal iect of the Sabiniani [CAPrro], and aa our 
author trai a ileady follower of Salviua Jnlianna, 
who wai a Sabinian (Oaiua, iL 217, 21S}, thia 
euppoaition may be regarded aa eatabliabed. In 
the time of AJitoninui Piua, the diatinctiDa of 
■chooh or aecU had not yet worn oot. 

Among the writera of the Uvea of ancient law- 
yer* (Paodroltua, Jo, Bertrandna, Orotiua, &c) 
much diapute faaa arisen aa to the time when Atii- 
cann* wrote, in consequence of a corrupt or eno- 
IMOO* paaaage in LBmpridina(Lainp.,^li«. &v. 68), 
iriucb would make him a friend of ScTems Alei- 
■ndaraDdadiscipleof Papinian. Cnjas ingeniously 
and nuiabctorily dispote* of thia anachionitm by 
rafcrring to the mteraal eTJdence of an extract 
from A^kanuB (Dig. 30. lit. 1. a. 109), which a*- 
arnne* the TaUdily of a legal maiim that wai no 
lower in forca when Papinian wrote. 

For leaaona whkh it wonid ba tediout to detail, 
we hold. cODtnry to the opinion of MFngge(j4nuin. 
Jur. c 23), that oui Seitut Caerilius Abicanus ia 

identical with the JDiiit tMnetime* menlioned in 
the Digeat by the name Caetilio* or S. Caedliua, 
and alao with that S. Caedliua whoae dispute with 
Favorinns forms an amnung and interesting chapter 
in the Nocts Atticae. (GelL ix. 1.) G^us per- 

but, at all erenta, the lawyer's defence of the XII 
Tablaa againat the attacks of the philaicpher is 
"ben tTDvato," There ia aomelhing hnmoroualy 
etvel in the concluding atrake of the conTenation, 
in the pedantic way in which our jnriaconsult nn- 
dicatea the decemTiral law agatnat debtora — paria 
saomto, Ac. — by the example of MetiuB FuleOn*, 
and the hanh aentiment of Virgil ; 

**At tn dictia, Albanef manerea,'' 
The remain! of Afiicanus harg been admirably 
expounded by Cujaa (ad AJneanum IratMiu IX. 
in CDJac. Opp. lol. 1), and hare alao been annotated 
by Scipio OentilL (Scip. Genlilis, ZNsa. /-/JToit 
Afiioanum, 4lo. Attdoif. 1602-7.) 

. S 9*.) [J. T. G.] 

AFRICA'NUS, JU'LIUS, a celebrated orator 
in the reign of Nero, aeemt to hats been the aon 
of Julint AihcanuB. of the Gallic slate of the San- 

Aftt a 

quetMe of Africanua wa* chiefly chnracteriaed by 
lehemenca and energy. (Qnintil. i. 1. 9 IIS. 
IU. 10. % II, Gomp.niL fi. |1£: Dial-di On:. 
15.) Pliny mentioiu a graodaon of thia Julius 
Aihcano*, who wa* alao an advocate and was 
oppoaed to him apoa one occasiDn. [£^ Yii. 6.) 
He wa* conaul sul^tus in A. n. lOa 
AFRICA'NUS. SEX. JU'LIUS, a Christisn 
iter at the beginning of the third century, is 
called by Suidai a Libyan <i. o, 'AppiKarSt), but 
paaaed the greater part of his life at Emmana in 
Faleatine, where, aoootding to aome, bo waa bom. 
(Jenmie, de Fir. IU. 63.) When Emraaus waa 
destroyed by fire, Africanns wa* lent to Elagabalus 
solicit it* leitoration, in which iniirion he auo- 
tded: the new town wa* tailed NicopoU*. (a. n. 
221, Eusebius, Cinm. sub anno ; Synceltus, p. 
359, b.) Africanna anbae'iuently went to Alexan- 
dria to hear the philoaopher Henclas, iriio wm 
afterwards biahop of Alexandria. The later Syrian 
itate, that he waa subsequently made 
He was one of the moat Innied of the 
early 'Christ Ian niiten. Socrates {HiO. Eod. JL 
35) ctasees him with Origen and Clement ; and it 
ppear* ftom his letter on the History of Susanna, 
fiat be wa* acquainted with Hebrew. 

The chief work of Afticanna waa a Chronicou 

a Gto hooka (im-nUifAwr xfMnAoyiaJr), irom 

he creation of the worid, which he placed in 

il99 B. c. to A. D. 221, the Iborth y«r of the 

eign of Elagabalua. This work is lost, but a con- 

idetatde part of it i* extracted by Eusebiu* in his 

Chronicon," and many fn^enti of it are alao 

preswred h; Georgin* E^nceUua, Cedranna, and in 

the Pa«hJe Chronicon. (See Ideler, HauBmck 

d. OuvkJ. toL ii. p. 456, At) The &agmenta of 

work are given by Oallandi {Biti, PaL), and 

ith {RiUqHiat Srurac). 

ifricanu* wrote a letter to Origen impugning 
authority of the book nf Snaanna, to whiih 

OrigcD nplird. Thii letter ii i 
bwn inUuhed, twether vith Orif 
WstMeiii, Buie, 1674, ilo. It i 
in Da la Hns'i edition oF Origen. Afiicnnai ■!» 
wrote ■ letter to Ariileidea on the genealogiei of 
Cbriit in Mattheir and Lnks (Phot. BibL 34 ; 
Eueb. Hot. EoL Ti. 23^ of •rhich »me eitiacti 
■re giTen by Entebini. (i. 7.) 

There ii another worii attributed to AiHcsniu, 
ntitled Kforof, that ia, embroidered girdles, M 
oUed fhm the celebntej mrrJi of Aphrodite. 
Some tDodem vriten Boppoae thii work to have 
beeD wntt«n b^ wnie one die, hat it can scarcely 
be Atmbled that it waa written bjr the nme Afri- 
cania, auiee it Is expret^y mentioned among hii 
other mitbiga by Photint {I. c), Snidai {l. c), 
SyiKcDna [1. e.), and Euutriiu. (vi. 33.) Tho 
nmnber of booki of which it coniiiled, i« stated 
TBiionaly, Suidaa menlioiu twenty-fonr, Photiua 
fbnrteen, and Syncellne nine. It treated of 



butory, ihe military art, Ac, and Memi 
btcD B kind of cnmmoiHiUee twok, in which the 
anthoi entered the remilu of hia icadinf; Some 
of the booka are aaid to eiiat atitt in mannacript. 

I. 240, i 

n ore pnbliahed by Theve- 
not in the " Motheniatici Veterea," Parit, 1693, 
(b., and alio in the QeDponia of Coaaianna noHoa. 
(Neadham, Prtdrnm. ad CeCTioa.) The pan le- 
htii^ to the military art wa* tTantlated into 
FrriMb by Ouichard in the third volnme of " M^ 
iBoiiea criL et biaL nir pluaieora Pointa d'Anti- 
rplAtt militmiM," Beit 1774. ComparB Durean 
de la Halle, " PoltorciUqaa dea Anrietia,'" Paria, 
11119, 8to. 

noble ruik, waa detened by Agrippina from mar- 
rying Slana, In a. d. G3, he took the eenaos in 
Ihe p rei ince a of Oaol, together with Q. Volonaa 
and Trebelliiw Haiimaa. (Tae. Am. xiii 19, 
iiT. 46.) Hii name oceura in a fragment of the 
Fratrea Arralea. (Oroter, p. 1 1 9.) There waa a 
T. Seitina Africanna conaul with Tisjan in A. o. 
112, who waa |nnbably a descendant of the one 

d above 

work aboftt Olympta (rtpi 'OXhiimI 
referred to by Suida* uid Pbotint. 

AOA'LLIAS. [AoAttln] 

AOALLI9 ('ATaWii) of Corcyia, a female 
gnuuiuarian, who wrote npon Homer. (Alhen. i. 
p. 14, d.) Some have aoppoaed frvm two pfluagea 
in Snidaa (i. c 'twirftAXa and 'Onpfa), that 
we onght to t«Bd Anagallii in this pouage of 
Athenaena. The icholiiuit npon Homer and En- 
ttolhina (ad It, xfiiL 49 1 ) mention a gnunmnrian 
of the name of Agalliaa. a pupil of Arutophanea 
the graiBDiarian. alao a Corcjraean and a coromon- 
laloT npon Homer, who may be the lame at AffJ- 
&a or perhapt her felher. 

AOAMEDE CArVfliSq). I- A daoghter of 
Angeioa and wife of Molina, who, according to 
[[omer (IL xi. 739), waa acqnainled with the heal- 
bg powera of all the plant* that grow npon the 
earth. Hyginua (Fab. 157) makeiher tbe mother 
of BeJna, Actor, and Pictya, by PoBeidon. 

% A daughter of Macario, fixmi whom Agamede, 
a plaCK in Lcaboa, wai belicied to have derived iU 
name. (Sleph Bjt. ,. r. ■h-m,-»r,.) [L.S.) 


AGAME'DES i'tiyaii'^s), a Km of St>-mphaIuB 
andgreat-grandsonof Area*. (Pana. viii.*4. g 5, S. 
3 3.) He was father of Cercyon by Epicaite, who 
also brought to him a at^^p-aon, Tropbonins, who 
iraa by iDnta believed to be a son ot Apollo. ' Ae- 
cording to othen, Agamedea wai a son of Apollo 
and Rpicaate, or of 7.eaM and locnale, and father of 
Trophoniua. The most common alory however ia, 
that be wna a aon of Ergina*, king of Orchomenua, 
and brother of Trophonias. These two biolhera an 
said tn have distingniahed themeelte* ai anhilecta, 
espedally in building templea and palacea. Among 
others, they built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, and 
a treasury of Hyrient, king of Hyria in Boeotia. 
(Pana. ii. 37- §3; StrHb.ii.p.421.} Theacholiast 
on Ariatophanea {N<A. £08) give* a aomewhal diife- 
rentocconnt from Chaiai, and makea them build (ha 
tTBOinry for king Angeiaa. The alory about thia 
treflaury in PauaBniaa bean a great reaemblBnce to 
that which Herodotus(ii. 121) relates of tbe traiaury 
of the Egyplinn king Rhampunitua. In the con- 
Blrudion of the treasury of Uyrieua, Agsmedes and 
Trophonins contrived to place one atone in auch a 
manner, that it could be taken oway ontaide, and 
thus fbrm<-d on entrance to the tnuaurr, without 
any body perceiving it. Agamede* and Trophoniua 
now constantly tubbed the traaniy ; and the king, 
aeeing that locVa and aenla were uninjured while hie 
treaaurea were constantly decreainng, set traps to 
catch the thief. Anunedes waa thus ensnared, and 
Trophoniua cut off his head to avert the discovery. 
After this, Trophonins was imroedialelj- swallowed 
up by the earth. On thia spot there waa afterwards, 
in the grove of Lebadeio, the sfMslted cave of Aga- 
modes with a column b; the ude of it. Here also 
was the otBcle of Trophoniua, and those who con- 
sulted it lint offered a lam to Agamedea and in- 
voked him, (Pau*. ii. 39. § 4 ; compare Diet, of 
Ant. p. 673.) A tradition mentioned by Cicero 
(T^isc. HaaaL I 47 j comp. Plut. De co<uol. ad 
ApcJitm. 14), slalea that Agimedea and Tmpho- 
niuB, after having built the temple of Apollo at 
Delphi, prayed to the god to grant them in reward 
for their labour what was beat for men. The god 
promised to do *o on a certain day, and when the 
day came, the two brothera died. The question a> 
to whether the story abont the E^ptian treasury 
ia derived from Greece, or whether the Greek stoiy 
waa an importation biat Egypt, ha* been anawcred 
by modem scholars in both ways; but MUlIec 
(Orotorn. p. 94,Ac.) has rendered it very probable 
that the tradition took it* liae among the Minyans, 
was transferred from them to Augeias, and was 
known in Greece long before the reign of Piommi- 
tichuB, during which the ictercoune between Ihe 
two countries was opened, [L. S.l 

AGAMEMNON TAw^a™-), 1, A son of 
Pleiethenes and grandson of Atreu*, king of My- 
cenae, in whoso house Agamemnon and Meuebiiit 
were educated after the death of their father. 
(ApoUod, iii, 2. g 2 ; Schol. urf Earip. Or. 6 i Schol. 
lu' //I'od, il 249.) and several other writers 
call him a son nf Aliena, giandson of Pelops, and 
great-grandson of Tantaloa. (Horn. IL li. ISl , 
Enrip, //./hi. 3S6 ; TsetnaiZjoop'ir. 147 ; Hygin. 
Pai. 97.) His mother woo, according to moat ao- 
counts, Aerope ; but some call Eriphyle the wife 
of Pleiitbenes and the mother of Agamemnon. 
Beiidet his brother Menelans, he bad a sister, who 
is lalled Anaxibiu, CvndragorB, oi Aslyocheia- 
(SchoL EnHp. Or. 5; Hygin, FoA. 17.) Aga- 


«f Atieiu. When tliey bod grown to man 
Atniu uut Agamemnon mud Msaelsui lo 
ThyeMsi. They fsuDd him at Delphi, Mid canied 
him to AtRiu, who thiev him into a dungeon. 
Aeginbn* mi oftenrBrd* conmuuided to kill him, 
but, ncogninng bia f jthrc in him, he abituned 
Cram Ihs emel dead, ilew Atreua, and after having 
upelled Agamemnon and Menelaui, hs and hii 
^ttta occupied the kingdom of Mjcooae. [Abois- 
TUU8.J The two broUien wandered abouc for a 
tiiMj and at lait came to Sparta, where Agamem- 
non married Clytemneetra, the dooghter of Tynda- 
nni, bj whom ba became the Euher of Iphituuua 
(Iphisoneiii], ChryMlhemit. Laodice (Electra), mid 
Orenei. (Horn. IL ix. U5, with the note of Eu^ 
inlh. J Lucret. L 86.) The manner in which Agu- 
meniDOD came lo the kingdom of Mjcenae, it dif- 
ferenllir related. Fnm Homer (11. a. lOG ; comp. 
Paua.ix.40. g6),ilappeuiaiif he had peocealjly 

niuiped hi* thrane. After he had become king of 
lirccuae, he rendered Skyon and ita king uibject 
to himielf (Pbul iL 6. g 4), and became tfae moat 
powerful piiace in Greece. A catalogue of hia 
dominioni it giTcn in the Iliad, (ii. 569, ""- 
comp. Strah. viiL p. S77 ; Thuoyd. L 9.) 1 
Hantu (II. a. 108) attributea to Agamemno 
•overeignty orer tU Argoa, the uanie Argos here 
•ignifiei PeloponnFMui, or the greater part of it. 

a PeloponnFMUi, or the greater part 
iar tbe dtj of Argoi waa goienied by Di 
(IL iL GfiS, tie) Stiabo (Lc.) haa alio 
that the name Argoi ii aometiniet oted by 
gic poeti at tynonymoui with Mycenao* 

When Helen, the wile of Menelaua, wai 
off by Pari*, the aon of Priam, Agamemi 
MeDelana callni upon all the Ore^ chjefi for aa- 
littance Bgainat Tr>;. (Odyt. xxir. US.) The 
cbi«& met at Argoa in the palacv of Diom ' 
where Againemnon vaa choten their chief 

IT, either in coiueqaence of hia luperior pairer 

by giTing them rich preaenti. (Dictyt, Cret. L 15, 
16.) After two yeara of pieparaUoo, the Gnek 
aimy and fleet aiaemblad in ^e pirt of Aulia in 
Boeolia. Agamemnon had prenouily ooaaulled 
the ancle about the itaue of the enterprite, and 
the aniwer gifen wat, that Troy ahouid &11 at the 
time when the moet diatinguithed among the Ore^ 
^oDld quarreL (Od. riiL 80.) A aim^ propbecr 


Id quarreL (Od. 
waa denied fiom a marrallaiu 
happened while the Oreeka wi 
Aulia. Once wboi a ncrifice vai offered under 
the bough* of a tree, a diagou cmwled forth (rom 

eight young birdi and their mother. Calchai in- 
terpreted the aign lo indicate that the Oreeka 
would hare to hght agaiml Troy for nine yesia, 
but that in the tenth the city would Ul. (JL iL 
303, Ac) An account of a diferent miracle por- 
tending the uime thing i> giieu by Aeichylui. 
( J^tUB, 1 1 0, &c) Another iutereiting inddenl 
happened while the Oreeka were aaaembled at 
Aulu. Agamemnon, it ia nid, killed ailag which 
waa Bcred to Artemi*, and in addilion proioked 
tfae anger of the goddaa* by inevereat worda. 
She in return viaitod the Qreek army with a pet- 
tilence, and produced a perfect calm, ao that the 


Greek* wore unable lo leaTe the port. When the 
aeert declared that the anger of the goddcaa could 
not be •ooihed unleia Iphigenela. the daughter of 
Agamemnon, were ofieted to her a* an stimiiig 
•acrifice, Diomedea and Odyaaeua were tent lo 
[etch her lo the camp under the pretext that ahe 
waa lo be married to Achille*. She came ; but at 
the moment when ahe waa to be aacriliced, ahe 
waa oiried off by Artemia heraelf (according to 
othen by Achillea) to Tautia, and another victim 
waa lubititulcd in her place. (Hygin. I'aL 98; 
Kurip^ Ijii^. Aid. 90, Iphig. rour. \h\ SophscL 
EUd. £65 ; Find. F^ iL 35 ; Oi. Mtk. xii. 31 ; 
Dict.Cret.L19i SchoLotf ^jra^t^. 183; AnCoDin. 
Lib. 27.) After thii the cahu ceaaed, and the 
□rmy sailed to the coaat of Tnty. Agamemnon 
alone had one hundred ahipa, independent of eiity 
which be bad lent lo the Arcadian^ (II. ii. £76, 

In tbe tenth year of the uegs of Troy — for it i* 
in thi* year that the Iliad open* — we End Ago- 
memnoD involred in a quaiiel with Achillea re- 
apectini (he poaaeaaioD of Briieia, whom Achillea 
waa obliged to gire up to Agamemnon. Achille* 
withdrew from the tidd of hattJe, and the Qnek* 
were ritiled by aucceuire diaasteia. (Achillis.} 
Zeui aent a dinm to Agamemnon 10 pertuade bim 
to lead the Qreeki to bsllle againat the Trojana. 

i/^ iL 8, &c) The king, in order to try the 
Ireeka, commanded them to return home, with 
which they readily complied, until their coumge 
waa rerived by Odyueui, who perauaded them to 
prepare for battle. (II IL 55, &c) After a single 
combat between Pari* and Menelaui, a battle 
followed, in which Agamemnon killed aoreral of 
the Trojaiu. When Hector challenged the brareit 
of the Greeka, Agamemnon offered to fight with 
him, but in hi* alead Ajai wai cboaen by lot. 
Soon af^ this auother battle took phice, m which 
tbe Oreeka wen wonted (//. Tiii.), and Agamem- 
noD in deapondence adriied tbe Greeka to lake to 
flight and return home. (II ii. 10.) But be 
waa oppoaed by tbe other heroea. An attempt to 
coucihate Acbillee Mod, and Agamemnon aaaem- 
bled the chie& in the ni^l to delibersle about the 
meaeurea to be adopted. (IL x. I, dtc.) Odyiaeua 
and Diomedea were then aent out aa apies, and on 
the day tbllowing the coDteat with the Trojan* wa* 
renewed. Agamemnon himself wna again one of 
tbe bnveat, and ilew many enemica with hi* own 
hand. At laat, howerer, he wai wounded by Coon 
and obliged lo withdraw to hia tent. (lU iL 250, 
&C.) Hector now adranced vidorioiuly, and Aga- 
memnon again advised the Greek* lo laie tbem- 
•el™ by fligbt. (IL nv. 75, 4c.) But Odjaaena 
and Diomedea again reaiated him, and the latter 
ptevailed upon hini lo return lo the battle which was 
going on near Ihe ihips. Poaddon alao appeared 
to AgamemuDU iu the figure of an aged man, and 
intpimd him with new courage, (fl. liT. 1 25, jic.) 
The pnaaing daiwer of the Greeks al htat induced 
Patroclua, the biend of Achillea, lo lake an 
energetic part in the battle, and hip &11 roused 
AchUlea 10 new acliTity, and led to his recondlia' 
tion with Agamemnon. In tbe gamea al tbe 
funenJ pyre of Palroclo*, Agamemnon guned tbe 
firal priu in throwing Ihe apear; (IL xiiii. 690, 

hJuiar to Adulltt. Bat he Deretlhaleu nut 
■boTc lU tbs Ondu by hi* dionity, pover, and 
nujutj (IL m. 16«, Ac), ud hii ey«a ud bead 
■re likened to tboH of Zeui, hie giidle to llut of 
Ant, MMti hi* breut to that of PoHidon. (/£. h, 
ill, Slc) AgBmenmoli ii among the QtHk 
bene* what Zeui ii among the godi of Olympiu. 
Thi* idea appear* to have guided the Ofcek aituti, 
for in Mi«al rcprMeaUlknu of Aganwrnnon elill 
eMast ibera U a remaduble reaeniblaiice to the 
rejifwfntitioiu of Zeiu. The emblem otiiii power 
and Dujeuy io Homer ii a nptre, the work of 

and Heimea to Feltqn, from whran 
to AgameniDaii. (IL ii. 100, Ac; comp. Paui. 
40. (6.) Hi* anDonr i* deiciibed in the Iliad. 
(Ills. At) 

The nmoining part of the itoiy of 
it teialad ia the Odjaieir, and by eaieml later 
wriUtfB, At tho taking oC Tmy he reoeiTod Ca*- 
nodn, the daughter of Priam, u hi* priia tOd. 
iL *21 J Din. Cret i. 13). by whom, attording 
Io a tiaditioD in Paoauiiaa (iL 16. i&\ he had 
ama, Teledamw and Pelopa. On hii return hi 
ha waa (wic« diiTCU out of bit conne by tlomu, 
but at taat landed in AigoUi, in the dominiao of 
Atgiithiu, who had tediiced Clytamneetra during 
the ahaence of hei hoibaud. He inrited Agnmem- 
Boe « bit artiral to a repaal, aud tiad him and hit 
canpaaiont treadiBtDuslj miudered during the 
faat (Od. iiL 263) tAauiaruua], and Cljtemnea- 

{Od. li. 400. Ac 423, uIt. SS, Ac.) Ody«Bna 
Biet the ahade of Agamemnon in the lower world. 
{OiL xL 387, CUT. 20.) Menehuu erected a 
monnmenl in hoBour of hit brother on the ri>er 
AegyptUL {Od. it. £84.) Paiuuiiaa (ii. 16. g 

noa waa ttiU extant at Mycenae. Tho tngic 
poela hare Yarionily modilied the itoiy of the 
miiider of AganuMonon. Aeachylni (Agan. H92, 
Ac) make* Clytemneitn alone mnider Agamem- 
non: the Ihiew a net oTer him while he wu b 
the bath, and ilew him with three itrokea. Her 
aotiTe ii [ortlT her jealouiy of Cauandia, and 
partly her adiJtennu life with Aegitthnt. Ao- 
eordmg to Tieize* (ad laa^. 109S), Aegitthua 

--'id lb* nnudorwilb the aauitance of Cly- 

Eoripide* (Or. 26) mentioni a gai- 
h Qytonnectn thnw over him inilead 
of a net, and fasth Sopboclet (£bcl £30) and En- 
ripdea repreamt the MoiBts of Iphigeoeia ai the 
cauae for which ahe mnideied liim. Aiker t)w 
d«ub of Agamemnon and Caiaandia, (heir two 
BOD* were murdered upon their lomb by A^istbni. 
(Pan*. iL IG. g G.) According to Pindar (/yi. 
IL 48) the murder of Agamemnon took placs at 
Amjrifae, in Laconiea, and Paoianiat (£ c) ilalea 
Ibat the inbahitaatt of thi* place diapnted with 
tboae of Mycenae the poiieuioa of the tomb of 
CaaaandtB. (Comp. Paul, ill 19. j 5.) In htter 
tinw* atatoea ef Agamemnon were erected in HTeral 
parte of Greece, aiid be wai wonbipped at a hero 
•t Amjda* and Olympia. (Pau*. iiL 19. g fi, t. 
25. g 5.) He wa* repreaented on the pedettal of 
tb* cdebnUed Rbamnunan Nemedt (i. 33. g 1\ 
and hi* Ggbl with Coon on the chett of Cypielut. 
(t. 19. g 1.) He waa painted in the Loche of 
Delphi, by Polygnotna. (z. 25. g 2; ccm- 

rre Plin. H. W. nxj. 36. g S i Quintil iL 13. 
ISi V«LHax.riiL It ihould be ra- 

A0APETU8. fin 

■laAad that aereiai Latin poet* luontion a butard 
•on of Agamemnon, of the name of Ualetnt, to 
whom the foundation of the town of Faliid ot 
Alenum it aMsibed. (0*. FoMt. It. 73; Jnor. 
iiL 13. 31 ; comp. Senr. ad Aou lii. 695; ail. 
Ila:. liiL 476.) 

2. A lurDame of Zeui, under whkb ha waa 
wonhipped at Sparta. (Lycophr. 335, with the 
SchoL 1 Euiiath. ad /I. iL 25.) Euitatbtui think* 
that the god derived thit name from the reaem- 
blance between him and Agamemnon ; while 
other* believe that it ii a mere epithet tigtiifying 
the Eternal, from dyav and fUmr. [ I^ S.] 

AQAMEMNO'NlDf::S ['Aynunrwam). a 
patronymic form bom Agamemnon, which it utcd 
to deriguBle hit wn Orette*. (Horn. Ol L 30; 
Jut. riii. 21i.) (L. S.J 

AOANl'CE or AOLAONI'CE ('AyarlKii oi 
'Ay\aoruai), daughter of Hegelor, a Tbetaalian, 
who by her knowledge of Aitronomy could foreteU 
when the moon would diiappear. and imposed 
upon credulooi women, by nying that the could 
draw down the moon. (Pint, di Off. CiKmg. p. 1 46, 
it Difia. Orac p. 417.) [L. S-J 

AGANIPPE ('ATorfwini). I. A nymph of 
the well of the tame nime at the foot of Houut 
Helicon, in Boeotia, which wu coniidered eacred 
to the Mow*, and beheTsd to haTs the power of 
inspiring Choie who drank of it. The nymph i* 

(Paul. iz. 2fl. § 3 ; Virg. Edog. x. 11) The 
Miksea aro tometimet called Aganipplde*. 

2. The wife of Acniiut, and according to torn* 
iccounti the mother of Danae, although the Utlef 
it more commonly called a daughter of Eorydka. 
(Hygin. Fai. 63; ScheL ad Apollom. RiaL a, 
1091.) [L. S.] 

AOANIPPIS, i* D*ed b^ Orid {Fa^ t. 7) a* 
an epithet of Hippocteno ; it* in^tanma hnm,*^^w> :> 

t quite dear. It it dioiTed 
- -ill or nymph, and aa A^uiippidei 
ugnate Ihe Mute*, Aginippii Hippocrene may 

« meanuig howerer ii 

ed from Agnippe, the 
lippidei i* uted to de- 

nothing but " 

lippooeiie, iBcfed to i 
lotet. [L. S.] 

AOAPE'NOR (^Ayar^imp), a aon of Ancaena, 
-' nandton of Lycuisut. He waa king of tha 
liani, and rcoeiTed liity ihipa fomi Aga- 

which b 


also occun among the 
Fai. El ; Apollod. iii. 
from Troy he 


temple of Aphrodite. (Pt 
riiL 5. g 2, Ac) He alao occur* in Ibe ttory of 
HiauoNii. (Apollod. iiL 7. g 6, 4e. [L. 3.] 

AOAPE'TUS CAyaTTrti,). I. Metropolitan 
Bithop of Rhodet, A. D. 4S7. When the Em- 
peror Leo wrote to him for the opinion of hie 
isffngant and hinuelf on the council of Chalcedon, 
he deiended it again*! Timotheua Aelurua. in ■ 
letter atill extant in a lAtin tiantlation. Coma- 
tionm Nona GMv^ i Maim, loL Til p. 5S0. 
2. St, bom at Rome, wu Archdeacon and 
ited to the Holy See a. D. 535. He wa* no 
Doer coutocrated than he took off the anathema* 
onounced by Pope Bonifius 11. againit hit ds- 
wjsed HtoI Dioacorua on a bite chane of Simony. 
He received aa appeal from the CathoUct of Con- 
tinople when Anthimui, the Monophytitei 
made their Bishop by Theodora. [Anthi- 



VUK.I The fe»r of sn inrauon of lUdy by 
Tiutiniui fed the Oodi Theodalni to oblige St. 
AgapetDt to go himiett to CooitaDtinople, in bi^ 
that Juatinian might be direrted Iroin hi* pnrpoK. 
(See BnrmiiBH S. Liberati, if. Manii, Omntio, 
vol. ii. p. 696-) A» to this lut object he conld 
make no impreeiion on the emperor, bnt he luc- 
eeeded In persmuling biin to depose Anthimtit, 
fttid when Mennu whb dioeeri to snecced him, 
AgRpetni Inid !ii< ovn hendi npm bini. The 
Council and the Synodal (interpreted into Greek] 
•ent by Agspetnt relating to theee ifiain may be 
(nnnd up. Man*!, rol. Tiii. pp. 869, 921. Com- 
ptunU vere wnt him bma Tarroni qoailen against 
the Mnnaphynle Acephsli ; bnt he died tnddenly 
A. D. 636, April 03, and they were read in ■ 
CouncU held on 2nd May, by Mennat, (Manei, 
ibid. p. 874.) There are two letlera from St 
Agnpetni to Juatinian in reply to a letter from the 
eoiperer, in the latter of which he refuaea to no- 
knovledge the Orden of the Ariani ; uid Uieie 
are two othen: 1. To the Biihopg of Africa, on 
the aune aubject ; 2. To Repantna, Biahop of 
Carthage, in anawer to a letter of confrralulalim 
on hi* elention to the Pontificate. (Uanii, Oxt- 
eOia, riiL pp. 816 — 860.) 

3. Deacon of the Church of SL Sophia, .i. D. 
627. Then are two other AgajiOi mentioned in 
a Connnt held by Menna* at tbia timo at Con- 
atantinople, who were Anhimandritet, or Ahbota. 
Agijwtoe wa* tntar to Juatinian, and, an the ac- 
eeaaion of the latter to the empire, addresaed to 
hnn AdmomtitmM om Ae Duty of a Prvtce^ in 
73 Section*, the imtial letter* of which Ham the 
dedication (Irfeou ra^oXafi* wapaimiKSr ajc- 
tuurttita). The repnte in which lhi> work wai 
held appear* from it* common title, vii. the AojuJ 
StcHoiu (ax^Sv PaaiXiKi). U wa* pnbliihed, 
with a Latin Teraion, by Zui. GJlirrg. Bvo., Van. 
1609, aflerwaida by •/. Brwum, 8to., Lipa. 1G69, 
Gr-6M, 8to., Lips. 1733, and in Gallandi-a /»«/■>- 
OtM, ToL li. p. 256, &C., Vcn. 1766, after the 
edition of Bandarim (Bettedic(ine). It wa* tnne- 
hled into French by Lonia XIII., 8>o. Par. 1612, 
and by Tb. Paynell into Sngli*h, I2mo., I^nd. 
1560. [A. J. C] 

AGAPETUS CA7rim|Toi), an ancient Greek 
pbyucian, wboae remedy for the goat ia mentioned 
with approbation by Alexander Trallianua (xi. 
p. 303) and Paiatu Aegineta. (iii. 78, p. 197, tu. 
II, p._661.) He probBhly liTcd between the thinl 
and uith centnriee after Chml, or certainly not 
hler, at Alexander Tiallianua, by whom he ii 
qnoled, b anppoeed to hare flonriabed about the 
beginning of the sith cenlnry. [ W. A. G.] 

AOATIUS CAyinas), an ancient phyacian of 
Alexandria, who taught and piacljaed medicine at 
Bystntiom with great mcteat and repnlation, and 
aaptired immense richea. Of hii dale it aui only 
be determined, that he mnat have lived before the 
end of the fifth century after Chriat, a* Damasdaa 
(from whom Photiut, BiblialA. cod. 242, and Suida* 
have taken their account of him) Jived abont 
thatlime. [W.A.O.] 

AGARISTA CA-W'"^)- I- The danghlcr of 
aeiathenea, tyrant of Sicyon, whom her fiilher 
promited to gi»e in marriape to the beit of the 
Greek*. Suilon came to Sicyon from all part* of 
Greece, and among other* MeKadca, ibe aon of 
Alcmaeon, from Atbcni. After lliey had been 
delaincd at Sityon for a whole year, during which 

time Cleisthcuea made trial of them ill vM.imi* 
waya, hei^ve Agariate (o Megiclei From thi* 
nuuriage came the Cleiatbenes who divided the 
Athenian* into ten tribe*, and Hippociale*. (Herod. 
Ti. 12G— 130; comp. Athen. n. p. 373, h. e_ 
xii. 511,b. c) 

3. The daoghlar of the abore-mentioaed Hip. 
pocratei, and the grand-daughter of the above- 
mentioned Agari*te, married Xanlbippu* and 
became the mother of Periclea. (Hemd. ri. ISO: 
Pint. Pfnd. S.) 

AGA'SIAS (Ayafflai), a Stymphalian of Ar- 
cadia (Xen. Amib. iv. 1. § 37), ia frequently 
mentioned by Xenophon a* a brave and active 
officer in the army of the Ten Thoutand. (AmIk 
i*. 7. S 11. T. 2. i 15, &c) Be wa* wounded 
while lighting againat Addatei. (_Aiiab. >iii. B. 
S 19.) 

AtiA'SIAS CA-rnrfu), *an of Dontheu*, a 
diatinguished aculptor of Ephem*. One of the 
productiona of hia chiiel, the atalne known by the 
name of the Borgheae gladialor, ia still prcierrcd 
in the gallery of the Louvre. This atatue, aa weJ 
at the ApoUo Beliidere, wa* diacovered among 
the rulna of a palace of the Roman cmperon on the 
aha of the ancient Antinm {Capo d'Aato). From 
the altitude of the fif^nre it ia clear, that ^e atatue 

ing with a mounted combatant ThierKh soajee- 
tores that it vnu intended to represent Achillea 
fighting with Pentheailea. The only recon] that 
we hare of this artiit it the inscription on the 
pedestal of the statue ; nor an there any data fbr 
ascertaining the age in which he lind, except the 
style of art displayed in the work iuelf, which 
competent judges think cannot have been produced 
earlier than the fourth cenlurj-, a. c. 

It is not quite clear whether the Aganat,vhD it 
mentioned as the father of Hemclidei, wa* the 
same as the author of the tioighcse atatne, or a 
different person. 

There wa* another sculptor of the aame name, 
alao an Ephetian, the aon of Menophilna. He it 
mentioned in a Greek baciiption, from which it 
appears that he exercised hia art in Delot while 
that ittand wa* n»der the Roman tway ; probably 
aomewbere about 1 00, u. u. (Thiersch, ^lodKii d. 
biU. KmH, p. 130 ; Miiller, ArrL d. Kma, 
P.15S.) [C.P. M.] 

('AtiwhcASi. 'AyijouiAni, 'Hyijo-wXiii), a king irf 
Spajia, the thirteenth of the line nf Proclet. He 
waa contemporary with the Agid Leon, and inc- 
ceeded hi* fiither Archidamna 1., probablT about 
B.C £90 or 600. During hia reign the Lnxdae- 
moniana carried on an unmccesafiil war against 
Tq;ca, but pntpered in their other wan. (Herod. 
L 66 ; Paus. iiL 7. S 6, 3. §. S.) [C. P. M.] 

AGA'STIIENES (^A-yaMmi), a ton of Au- 
geias, wham he aucceeded in the kingdom of Elis. 
He had a son, Polyienns, who occurs among the 
auitom of Helen. (Horn. //. ii. 624 ; Paue. y. 3. 
Ml Apollod.iii. 10. S8.) [L, S.] 

AGATHAtJOELUS, the eon of Csllitiratua 
wrote the life of Gt«Dry of Armenia in Greek, 
which it printod in the Atb 

[I. 330. There are manuscript* of it 
ibnrit* both of Paris atkd doieiice. 
whidi Agalfaangelut lived it unknown. (Fabric. 
BM. Grme. vol. i. p. 333, xi p. 554.) 
AOATHAOETUS f AToft^m). a Rhodiao, 

M public 

vho rreammended hii itBle to Hpoiue lb* udc of 
tbe Romuu at the b^rnaiDg af th« *>r between 
R«BH sad PencoB, b. c 171. (Polvb.ix- " ~ 

AOATHA'RCHIDES ('A7«*vxl»n0. 
AflATBARCHUS CATittepx"), » GrMk j, 
DBTian, hom at Cnide*. He wu bronglit up bj 
■ man (rf Ibe nune of Cinnseoii wu, R> Stnba 
(ni. p. 779) infonu tu, attached to the Peripa- 
tetic (chool of philoeophy, and wrote MitenJ 
hktoiiaJ and gn^imphical voriu. In hi* jouth 
he held the uloation of lecntary and nader to 
Hefultdea Lembui, who (according to Suidaa) 
lired in the i«an of Ptolemj Philmnelor. Thia 
king died B. c. I'16. He himaelf infbnna na (in 
bii worii on thfl Erythraeaa Sent, that he ivaa ub- 
■eqoentlf gnardiaa to one of the king* of Egjpt 
during hi* mJDoritf. Tbi* wsa no donbt one of 
the two Hioe of Plolemj Phjicon. Dodwell en- 
dfBTour* to ibew that it vol tbe joanger •od, 
Alexander, and object* to Soter, that he leigned 
majointl; with hi* mother. Thia, howeier, wa* 
the caae wilb Alexander likewiae. Wen ' 
and Clintim think the elder brother to he thi 

ant. a* Solec n. 1 


n Alexan- 
der in B. a 107, ten join after their hlher't 
deaib. HareoTer Dodwell'* data wonld Icsto too 
ibort an intenal between Ibe publication of Ag*- 
tfaarehidea'a work on the Erytbraean Sea (abont 
a.c. 113), and the worii of Ailemidonta 

An enameration of the workt of Agatbarcbidei 
it giTen bf Photini (Cod. 213). Ho wrote a 
woik on Aaa, in 10 book*, and one on Earopa, 
in 49 boofci; a geogiaphicHl work on the Ery- 
ibnean Sea, in 5 bookt, of the Rnt and fifUi 
book* af which Photiug giie* an abattact ; an 
epitsDe of the but mentioned woHi ; a treatiie on 
the Trogiodytse, in 5 book* ; an epitome of the 
AMii of ADtimaebni ; an epitome of the work* of 
tboee who bad wrillen wtpl Tfli gB w/ T i t flou- 
(loirlW irifuiw ; an hiatorind work, from the 
12ih and SOtb booki of wbich AthenacDi qaot«a 
(liLp. j37, b. tL p.251,C); and a trntiee on 
Ibe inlercoune of faieodi. The Gr*t three of 
these oalj had brcn read by Pbotiua. AgathaF- 
chide* conipowd hu work on the Erytbraean Sea, 
a* he tcllj ua himaelf, in hi* old Age (p. 14, ed. 
Hndi.), in the rrign probably of Ptolemy Soter II. 
It *ppt«r* to hsTe contaioed a great deal of laln- 
able nutlei. In the fint book was a diecDHion 
recpecting the origin of the name. In the £flh 
he described the mode of life amon^t the Selnean* 
in Aralua. and the Ichlhyopbagi, or tUb-ealen, 
Ibe way in which elephant* were caught by the 
elepbanl-ealCT*, and the mode of woding the gold 
nineo in the movntain* of ^ypt, near the Red 
Sea. Hii aeonnt of the Ichthyopb^ and of the 
mode of working the gold minea, ha* been copied 
by Diodom*. (iiL 12—IS.) Amongit other ei- 
tnoidinary aiumal* be mention* the earaelapud, 
which WM fbond in lb* eonnlry of tbe Traght- 
dytae, and the rbinocenia. 

Agatharchidei wrote in the Anic dialect. Hii 
i^la, according to Photina, m* dignified and pei^ 
^•ewma, and abounded ui ■entention* paatige*, 
wbicb in^arad a favonnblB apinion ot hi* jiidg- 

d^nily and e 


wat. ncqnainteil with the hnguoge of the Arlhio- 
piena (i/< Ruhr. M. p. 46), and apprara lo have 
Wn the fir*t who djtcovered the true cau*e of llie 
yeariy innndalionaoflha Nile. (Djod. I 41.) 

An AgBtbarchide*, of Samoa, i* mentioned bj 
Plnlorch, as the author of a work on Perua, and 
one ■•f)l \iiay. Fabiiciiu, howeier, tonjcctnre* 
thai the iroe readiog ii Agnthynidei, not Aga- 
tharchidei. 'Dodwell ID Hudton'g Geogr.Scr^OT. 
Miaara; a\oUm,Faiti UeO-Vii p.635.) [C.P.M.] 

There i* n curioui obaerration by AgsUlirchide* 
preierred by Plularch (ijfmpoe. Tiii, S. 8 3), of 
the *pecie> of warm cnlled Fiiario Mtdisana, or 
CufrKo Ham, which i* Ibe eailieat account of 
it that i* to be met with. See Juilui Weihe, 
De FUar. lUedat. CommeaL, BeroL 1S33, 8vd., 
and cipedally the xery learned work- by 0. H. 
WeWhiu*. Dt Vena Mvimaui, ^c AnguiL 
Vindel. 1674,4to. [W.A.G.] 

AQATIIARCHUS CAyMapx"), a S)Tacn«n. 
who wa* placed by the Syncnian* over a fleet of 
twelre ihip* in B. c 113, to ciiit their altiea and 
harai* the Athenian*. He wui afterward*, in the 
>ame year, one of the Syiacuaan commander* in 
the decidie battle fought in the harbour of Syia- 
ciue. (Thuc Til 2S, 70; DJod. xiiL 13.) 

AaATHAHCHUS {'ATiWa^..), an Athenian 
*ni*t, aaid by ViDniiu* (Prasf. ad U6. til) to 
hare inrented *cene-peinting, and to have painted 
a ecene (icaiani fidl) ibra tragedy which Aetchylu 
exhibited. A* thi* appear* to contradict Arietotle** 
a»ertion (i>«t 4. | 16), that eccne-painting wa* 
introduced by Sophncle*, Kme echolur* underttand 
VitrUTiD* lo mean merely, Ihnl Agalharchua cntf 
■tructed a alage. (Compats Hoc. Ep. mi Vit. S79 : 
ti pwdida uutromf piJpHa tiffuii.) But the context 
■hew* clearly that penpectiTB painting mu*t be 
meant, for Vitmtiu* goea on to «y, that Democrilaa 
and Anaxagorai, carrying out Uie principle* laid 
down in iha trestiae of Agathaix^hu*, wrote on the 
•ante tubject, ahewing how, in drawing, die tine* 
ought to be made to correapond, according to a nv 
tnnl proportion, to the figure which would be traced 
out on an imagiaary inlerrening plane by a pendl 
of raya proceeding from the eye, aa a fixed point 
irf light, to Ibe KTeral point* of the object viewed. 
probably not dll towardi the end of 
Aeachyliu'a carver ibat scene-painting wu intro- 
doced, and rut till the time of Sopbode* that it 
wai generally nude nee of ; which may account 
for what Aiialotle eaya 

There waa another Greek painter of the namg 
of Agatharchai, who wa* a natirg of the iihud of 
Samoi, and the aon of Eudemnik He wa* a eon- 
tamporary of Akibiadea and Zenxii. We hafe no 
' ' ■■ iOUDU respecting hi* perfcnnaneee, but 
. appear to bate been an artiat of much 
prided binuelf chiefly on the eaie and 
r^iidity with which be finiihed hi* work*. (Plat. 
PtrieLlS.) Plalan:h(^/«i. 16)and Andoddeaat 
greater length (» Aldt. p. 31. 1 5) tell an anecdol* 
of Aldbiades haring invei^ed Agatborchut to hii 
hooie and kept him there (or more than threa 
month* in atrict durRnoe, compelling him lo adorn 
it with hi* pendL The apeech of Andocide* above 
referred to teem* lo bare been deliyered after the 
deitructioa of Meloe (b. c. 416) and before the 
expedition to Sicily (b. c. 415); to that from the 
abave data tbe age of Agatharchua may be accu- 
rately fixed. Somp schotanfaa Bentley, B^itiiger, 
and Meyer) have aiippowd hmi lo be the Mime a* 


the eonteinpoTuy of Aetchjliu, vho, howerer, 
muM h*Tc mcoded him b; ■ giwd b;^ century. 
(MilUer, Arek. i Kwut, p. 88.) [C. P. M.] 

AUATHE-MERUS CA7a#iIlHfW>), Che >on of 
Orthon, end the author of ■ hibII geogtaphiod 
wark ia two booki, eotitled rqi yuBypaflas iwo- 
Tiniiata h fciTejjp (•* A Sketth of OeogiBphj 
in epitome"), addreMed to hit pnptl Philoa. Hii 
age canoQt be liTed with much certunty, hut he 
it Bupptned to have lived abant the b^inninv of 
the third cenlurj after ChriiL He tired after 
Ptolem;, whom he often guotct, and before the 
fnundstian of Conitiintinaple on the tite of Byion- 
tiam in i.. d. 328, as he mentioni onlj the old 
citjr Bynuitium. (ii. 14.) Wendetin bai Btlempt- 
ed to »hew that he wrote in the beginning of Uie 
third centDTy, from the itatement he givei of the 
diitancc of the tiopic fimn the eqimtor ; but Dod- 
well, who thinki he lived nearer the tine of 
Ptolemy, contend! that the eaknlation cannot be 
depended on. Krom hia apeahing of Albion fr p 
ffTfnrJinSfl Qpirrw, it hai been thought that he 
wrote not very long after the erection of the wnll 
of Severn^ Thia ia probably tme, but the langnige 
ii Ksroely deSnite enough to eitabllah the point. 

Hii work conilsti chiefly of eitracta from 
Ptolemy and other earlier writen. From a com- 
pariaon with Pliny, it appean that Artemidoma, 
of whole work a aort of compendium it contained 
in the lirat book, wai one of hit main anthoiitiei. 
He give* a abort account oF the vsrioua fornit 
■stigned to the Mith by nrlier writera, treats of 
the divinoni of the earth, aeaa, and iilandi, the 
winds, and the length and abortneia of the daja, 
and than laya down the moat important diitancea 
on the inhabited part of the earlli, reckoned in 
■tadia. Tbe ■nmaioe Agathemenia frequently 
occura in intcriptiona, (Dodwdl in Hudeou'i Geo- 
grofA. Scriftom Or. Minora ; Ukert, Oeogr. der 
Qritiiat u. SSmtr, pt. l dii. I . p. 236.) [C. P. M.] 

'A7ii9iffU|»f), an ancient Greek phyaician, who 
lived in the firal century after Chriat. He waa 
bora at Idcedaemon, and wna a pupil of the pbilo- 

■ ir Comntus, 

linlpd V 

i flboul 

(Piendo-Sneton. vild PeniL) In tbe old editioni 
nf SuetODioa he it oiled ^^o^emw, a mistake 
which waa tint eorrectad by Reineuna {Sifniagnta 
liacripL Amtyf. p. 610), &Dm the epitaph upon 
hiin and hia wife, Myrtale, which la pieaened 
in the jVonnom OnfMAUu and the Greek A*- 
liola/f, vol iil p. 3B1. | 224, ed. Tanehn. 
The apparent anomaly of a Roman praenomeu 
being given to a Oieek, may be accouDted for 
by the bet vhkh we learn from Suetoniut 
(Tiier. 6), that the Spartana were the hereditary 
slienU of the Claudia Qena. [C. Q. Kilhn, Ad- 
dOofii. ad EUndu Media. I'eL a J. A. Pabriaa. u 
"StUML Graeca' enUW.) [W. A. G.] 

AOATHIAS ('Avoelu), the ton of Mamno- 
niut, a rhetorician, wat born, aa it aeemi, in £36 
or 537 i..-D.(HUL\i. 16, and Vita Apailaatmti. 
Bonn. p. xi>.), at Myrina, a town at the month of 
the river Pythicoa in Aeolia (^Agatkiat FrootMoK, 
p. 9, ed. Bonn. ; p. 5, Par.; p. 7, Ven.), and re- 
eeived hia education in AleTondria^ where he 
atiidied literature. In £54 he went to Conatanti- 
Dopte {Hill. ii. 16), when hit bther then matt 

Lbably reaided, and itudled for teverat yean the 
man law. (^PV*- *') He afterward eierciaed 

with gnat tncecM the profeuion of an adveoita, 

though only for the take of a. livelihnod, hit b- 
niante oecupation being (he itndy of ancient 
poetry (HixL iil 1); and he paid particular alten- 
tion to niatoty. Hia proletnon of a lawyer waa 
thecanaeof hit tomime Sxo^n^'woitSnidaa.i.e. 
'hyMat), which word tignilied an advocate in the 
time of AgBthiaa. Niebnbr ( VHa Agalk. in ed. 
Bonn. p. IV.) believes, that be died during the 
reign of Tiberina Thru, a abort time before the 
death of thii emperor and the acceaoon of Mauri- 
^ua in £82. at the age of only 44 or 45 yean. 
AgBthiaa, who waa a Chriitian (Epigr. 3, S, and 
eipecialtj 4), enjoyed daring hit life tia eateem of 
aeveral great and diitingniahed men of bit time, 
anch at Theodorut the decurio, Paulua Silentiaiina, 
Eutychianni the younger, and Mawdoniut the ei- 
ccFnaul. He ahewed them his gratitude by dedicat- 
; to them aeveral of hit literary productiooa, and 
paid particular homage to Pauhia Silentiatiut, 
' ion of CyTua Flora^ who waa deacsnded from 
an old and illnatrioua bmily. (HimL v. 9.) 

Agatbtai it the author of the following woiki : 

1. ^B^ioKi, a collection of imall love poemt, 
divided into nine bookt ; the poemt are written in 
beiametrei. Nothing it extant of thia coUeetion, 
which the author csllt a juvenile eaaay. (Agath. 
ProBeirJian,p.6,ti. Bonn. ; p. 4, Par. ; p. ^ Ven.) 

2. KixkBi, an anthology containing poema of 
eady writera and of teveraJ of hia conlemporariea, 
chiefly of auch at were hit proteetort, among whom 
were Paulua Silentiaiiui and Maaedoniat. Thia 
collection waa divided into teien booVa, but nothing 
of it ia extant except the intrnduetioD, which wai 
written by Agathiat himtel£ However, 108 epi- 
gram*, which were in cirenlation either befim he 
collected hia KifxAoj, oi which he c o mpoaed at a 
later period, have come down to ua. The hit 
eeven and aeveral ot' 
nerally attributed to 
Silentiariua, && Tbe niigr 
the Aniiologia Oraeoa (iv. p. 3, ed. Jamba), and 
in the edition) of the hiatoricat woik of Agathiai. 
Joseph Scaliger, Janua Douni, and Bonavenlnrs 
Vulcaniua, have translated the greater pan of 
tbem into lAtin. Tbe epigramt were written and 
published aAer the Ao^uibL 

3. 'fiTfoSlaii ZxoABO^ucoi' Hifpirolau 'Ii>Tep{wi> E. 
"* Agnthiae Scholaatid Myrinetuii Hiatoriarum 
Libri V." This is hia principal work. It con- 
tnina the history from 653— ££8 x. D, a ahott 
period, hut remarkable for the impoRant events 
with which it it liUed np. The Gnt book eonuint 
the conqneat of Italy by Nartes over tbe Ootha, 
and the fint contetta between tbe Oreekt and the 
Fmnka ; the aecond book coalaina the continua- 
tion of these contesti, tbe deicription of the great 
earthquake of ££4, and the begmnlng of the war 
between the Oreekt and the Pertiana \ the Uiiid 
and tbe fourth hooka contain the continiuition of 
thii wat until the fint peace in 636 ; the fifth 
bot^ relatet the aecond gical earthquake of 667, 
the rebuilding of St. Sophia by Justinian, the 
plague, tbe expbita of BeUaariut over the Hunt 
and other barbarians in £68, and it fiaiihea 
abruptly with the 26lh chapter. 

Aralhius, after having related that he had 
abandoned hia poetiisl occupation lor more leriout 
studies ( Pmixmium, ed. Bonn. pp. 6, 7 j Par. p. < ; 
Ven. p. H), telle ui that aeveral diatingaithed nuo 
had Bu^nted to him the idcB of writing the hiatMy 


of liii time, and he addi, thai bs had nndertnken 
■be tuk tapeciaUy on tbe kdrke of Eutirchiauiu. 
[16.) Howcrer. he oillt Entjchiuiiu tbe onift- 
HDt oF the &inily of the Floii, > farail; to which 
Eatjchianui did not belong at oil. It i) tberefere 
gnbable thai, indaid of Eutfchisiiu, we miut 

Md PmIu. sa. - " 



.. (lb. = 

: 19.) AgBlfaiu IB not > grraX biito- 

know* the ^t heCUr. He Nidoin peaetretea 
Ihc renl csiiKa of thoae grrtl erenCa which form 
the mbjecti of hii book: bit biiior]' ii the work 
of a nun of bouneu, who odomi hii ityW with 

fortial, nnd in bI] tbtne thingi which he it nble to 
iradentiiiul he ibew) himself a nutn of good Knae. 
Hia ityle ii often bomtnialie ; he pniian himself ; 
in his Greek the lanic dialect preTaili, but it i* the 
Ionic of hii time, df^nented tnna iu claimcal 
pniilj into a ton of miilnre of all the other Greek 
diideete. Nothwitbatuiding theae deticieneea the 
work of AgBtbiu ia of high tbIuc, becanae it con- 
tuna a fifrTBt nomber of importajit beta concoming 
OIK of tbe moat eientfnl perioda of Roman hiatory. 
Edttiona : 'AyMav SxaXoaruciii »pl -r^t Bairt- 
Xiiaa "lovaranarai, riiioi E^ ed. BooaTentnia 
Valcanius, with a Latin tranatation, Lngduni, 1 694. 
The Pariajan edition, which ia contained in the 
" Coipoa Script. BjnaV waa pnhliahod in 1660; 
H eontaiRB many erron and conjectnisl innoTa- 
tiona. which have been Tvprinted and augmented 
b]r (he editon of the VeneliBn edition. Another 
edition waa pnbliahKd at Baael (in 1576?). A 
lAtin Irantlalion by Cbriatophomt Penona waa 
arporalely pnbliibed at Rome, 1616, fol., and 
IbL, and at Leyden, 1694, 8to. The beat edition 
k that of Niebnhr, Bonn. 1628, Bto., which forma 
tie ihiri Yolomo of the " Corpu* Scriptocum 
Hiatoiiae Byiandnaa." It containt the lAtin 
tranatation and the notee of BoaaTentnra Volcanina. 
IIh Epigninu form an appendix of thi> edition of 
Niebuhr, wiio ha* carefolly corrected the erron, 
and nmOTBd the iimavationa of the Parialan 
edition. [W, P.] 

AOATHITJUS ('Ayifawo.}, an eminent an- 
cient Omek phjiicinn. the founder of a new 

ajMlMwi. (Did. of Ant l v. 
He waa bom at Sparta and muit naTa urea m ue 
fint eentniy aflar Chriat, aa he waa the pupil of 
AtbenaniB, and the tutor of Anhigenea. (Oiden. 
AcAtif. Med. c 14. tdI. lix. p. 36S ; gnidaa, a. v. 
'/tfX'yi'^' ; Badoc Viaiur. ap. V'ilhneon, .^aeaif. 
Gr. nd. i. p. 66.) He ia aaid to have been once 
taxed with an attack of delirioni, brought on by 
want of ateep^ bam which he waa dolinnd by hia 
nipi] ATehigenea, who ordend hia head to be 
iDiDenteid with a great qaantity of warm oil. 
(Aetiaa, letr. i Mrm. iiL 172, p. 156.} He ia 
freqnently qnoted b; Oalen, who ntentiont him 
anran^ the Pneumatxl (IM Diyoot. Pvli. \. 3, 
ToL ™L p. 787.) None of hia writinga ait now 

Diati, S 

Mattlttei't Collactiaii, entitled XXI Vtltnun 
Ciaromm Medicorwit Oraeconrm Varia OputeitJa, 
Moaqaaa, IS08, 4to. See alio PaUadiua, Oom- 
' m Hipfoer. " Da Moth. PapiU. Ub. vi." ap. 
" ■ " ii Hippocr. tl Oaiai. vol. IL p. 66. 
opiniona of hia aect are not exactly 

known, bnt they were probably neariy the nme 
aa (hole of the EclecticL (Did. e/ Ani. i.v, 
Eclbcticl) (SeeJ.C.OiIerhauaen,^ufar. &r''W 
Pmamatie. Med. Alloil 1791, Sto.; CO. KUhn, 
Additim. ad ElemA. Medic Vet a J. A. PoArnn 
•^"■mJiallt. Grana" ariiUl.) [W.A.Q.l 

AOATHOCLR'A ('AyaeiK\,.a), amiitreaaof 
tbe profligate Ptolemy Philopator, King of Egypt, 
and aifiter of hia no teia pmflioaCe miniater 
Agathoclea. She and her brother, who both eier- 
eiaed the nioat nnhounded influence o*er the king, 
were introduced to him by their ambiliaua and 
airariciona mother, Oenanthe. Afler Ptolemy had 
pnt to death hit wife and tiater tlnrj'dice, Agn- 
tboelea became hia brouritc. On ihe denth of 
Ptolemy (b. c. 206), Agntboclea and her frienda 
kept the erent secret, that they might hare nn 
opportunity of ptnndering the roynl treaaury. 
They al» formed a conapiiacy for setting Aga- 
thodee on the throne. He managed for soma 
time, in conjunction with Soaibins, to act aa 
guardian to ue yonng king Ptolemy Epiphanea. 
At la*t tlie Egyptians and the Maixdoaiana of 
Alexandria, enaperated at hia ontnigea, n»e 
againat him, and Tlepolemns placed himself at 
their bead. They anrronnded the palace in the 
night, and forced their way in. Agathodei and 
hia natec implored in the moat abject manner that 
their tives might be apared, but in vain. Tha 
former vat killed by hia friends, that he migtit not 
be expowd to a more cmel fate. Agathoclea with 
her Slaters, and Oenanthe, who had taken refngo 
in a temple, were dragged tbrth, and in a atate of 
nakedneaa eipoaed to the fury of the mnltitDde, 
who literally tore them limb from limb. All their 
relatjoni and those who had had any abare in the 
murder of Eurydice were likeiriae put lo death. 
(Polyb. T, 68, zIt. 11, IT. S5~34 ; Jualin, HI. 
1, S ; Athen. ri. p. 251, liii. p. 676 i Pint. Cleom. 
33.) There waa another Agathoclea, tbe danghlo 
of a man named Ariatomcnea, who waa by birth 
an Acamanian, and rose to great power in Egypt, 
(Polyb. i c.) [C P. M.] 

AOA'THOCLES (■A7"*™^w)> » Sinlian ot 
ancb remarkable ability and energy, that he isiaed 
himsrir from the station of a potter lo (bat of tyrant 
nt Syramae and king of Sicily. He Booriabed in 
the latter part of the foorth and the beginning of 
tha third century, B. c.. ao tiiat the period of hi* 
dommion ia contempoiary with that of the aeeond 
.ind third Samnite wan, dnring which time hia 
power matt haTe been to Rome a canse of uinful 
interest ; yet so entire ia the loss of all Roniaa 
history of that epoch, that he ia not oner mentioned 
in the 9th and lOih l>ookt of Liry, though we 
know that he had Samnilei and Etmacans in hu 
aerriee, that aaaiatance waa aaked Irom him by tha 
Tarentinea (Strab. n. p. 280), and that he acloally 
landed in Italy. (See Amold'a Rotiu, c hit.) 
The events of hia life are detailed by Diodomi and 
Jnatin. Of thaie the Bnt baa taken hia accoant 
from Timaena of Tauromentuin, a historian whom 
Agathoclea banished from Sicily, and whose lore 
(or ceniuring olhen waa so great, that he wai nick- 
named £^/i'iM««(iBBlt.finder),(Athen. Tip. 272.) 
Hia natural pcDpenaity was not likely to be soft- 
ened when he waa doKribing the author of hia 
exile; and tKodorui himeetf does not hentale to 
accuse him of having calumniated Agathocles very 
groiily. (Praffm. lib. xii.) Polybina too ehargea 
him with wilfully penetting the truth (li. 15), ■« 


lliU tke uxouiit which he hu Utt mnit he ntrntd 
with much BHipidan. UutcUdu *Mrir> uc n- 
hted of tha eany jam of Agslhodes. Bom a 
I (own of Sic!]; nibject to CulhaKc, h< 

of Rh^am, 

bw &tb«r, CwcJDiu of RB^am, in cotueqaeoce of 
■i iDCcawon of troubleaouio dmini, pcinending 
that he would be ■ KHUn af much tvil to Sicily. 
Hi* mother, howerer, secretly preaerred hit li^ 
uid >t KTaa nan old he waa reitored lo hit b- 
ther, who bad long repeated of hit conduct to tli 
child. By him he wu taken to Syiacuae an 
brought np M a potter. In hit youth he led 
life A eitnngancs and debauchery, but wai n 
noritaUe for atrength and penonal beaioly, qualitit 
which recranmendM him to Damaa, a noble Syn- 

ioldier, then a chiliaieh, and aftarwirda a militalr 
tribune. On the death of Damaa, he married hia 
rkh widow, and ao became ana of ' 


exile. After ■erenl changea of fortune, . ... 
lotted an army which OTerawed both the Syiaouaiu 

that be would not interfere vilh tha ' 
which oath he kept by murdering 1000 1 

ing fiOOO citiieni, He wai immediately deckred 
•otereign of Syracnae, under tho titli '' ' - 

whole of Sicily, which wat doi under the domini 
of Carthage, had lubmitted lo him. In Che bottle 
of Hiraera, the aimy of Agathodea wai defeated 
with great ahuighler, and immediately after, Syn- 
cnae itaelf waa cloaely beiicged. At thii juncture, 
he foimsd the bold deugn of ATerling [he ruin 
which threatened him, by canving the vrar into 
AEricB. To obtain money for thie puipoae, he of. 
fered to let thoie who dreaded the mieerirt of a 
protracted uege depart from Syracuie, and then 
sent a body of armed men to plunder and murder 
Ihoie who accepted hia ofler. He kept hit detign 
a pnfound tecret, eluded the Carthnginian fieet, 
wtiicb vjii blockading the hitrbour, and though 
tlotely pnnued by them for aix day* and nighta, 
landed hu men in safety on tho ihorei of Africa. 
Advancing then into the midst of his aimy, arrayed 
in a splendid robe, and with a crown on hjs h^, 
be announced that be had Towed, as a thank-oSbr- 
iiig for hia escape, to socrilice hit iliipa to Demeter 
and the Kore, goddeaaea of Sicily. Thereupon, be 
burnt them all, and lo left hit loldiara tio hope of 
safety except in oonqneat. 

Ill* (accesses were most brilliant and r^>id. Of 
the two Sofietae of Cartilage, tha one, Etiimilcer, 
umed at the tynmny, and opposed the innders 
with little vigour; while the oUier, Hanno, fell in 
battle. He eonttanlly defeated the troop* of f^ar- 
thage, and had almott encamped under its walla, 
when the detection and craciiixion of Bumilcar in- 
fuied new life into the war. Agalhocles too waa 
summoned from Africa by tha aSain of Sicily, 
where the Agrigentiues hed aoddenly invited their 
f<-lIow.cDunlrymen to shake off hia yoke, and left 
hit army under his son Arahagathot, who was un- 
aWe to prevent a mutiny. Agathodea returned, 
but was delealed ; and, fearing a new outbreak on 
the part of hit troops, Sei from hia (amp with 
Arch^Bthut, who, however, loat bit way and wat 
teliea. Agathoclet .■waped j but in revenge for 


his deaertion, the soldiers murdered hit loni, and 
hen made peace with Carthage. New tnablea 
iwailed him in Sicily, where Deinooslei, a Syn- 
eutan exile, was at the head of a large army against 
him. But he made a treaty wjcb the Carthaginian*, 

defeated the exiles, n 
vonr, and then had no difficulty in redudng the 
revolted citie* of Sicily, of which island he bad 
some time before assumed the title of kingi He 
afterwards crvtted the Ionian tw, and ddended 
Corcyra ogainat Casaander. (Diod. ixi. fhij/r*,) 
He plund^ed the Lipari iilea, and alto carried hia 
arms into Italy, in order to attack the Bmttil 

But hia designs were interrupted by aetere ill- 
ness accompanied by great anxiety of mind, in 
consequence of bunily diitreMe*. Hia graodaon 
Archagathus murdered his son Agathodea, for tha 
take (^ tBcceeding to the crown, and the old king 
f«rad that the rest of hit family would share hit 
bte. Accordin^y, be resolied to send hia wife 
Teiena and her two children to Egypt, her nalJTe 
country ; they wept at the thoughts of hia dying 
that onared lor and alone, ajid he at aeeing them 
depart u exiles from the dominion which be bad 
won for them. They left him, and hia death fiil- 
lowed almost immediately. For this touching nar- 
ntiva, Timaeni and Diodorua after him aubsticnted 
a monstrons and incredible itory of hit being poi- 
toned by Maeno, an associate of Archagathus. 
The poison, we are told, waa concealed in the quill 
with which he cleaned hit teeth, and leduoed him 
to to frightfol a condition, that he waa placed on 
the fuu^ pile and burnt while yet living, being 
unable to give any agnt that he was not dead. 

There i* no doubt that Agathodea was a man 
who did not hesitate lo |Junge into any eicesse* 
of cruelly and treachery lo further hia own pur- 
poses. He peranaded Ophelias, king of Cyrene, 
la enter into an alliance with him against Carthage, 
and Ihen murdered him at a banquet, and sailed 
the command of hia army. He invited the princi- 
pal Syncunna to a festival, plied them with wine, 
mixed freely with them, dismvered their secret 
feeli□g^ and killed 501} who teemed oppo«d to hia 
liewt. So that while we reject the frctiona of 
Timaeus, we on as little undcratand the statement 
of Polybius, that though he need bloody means to 
acquire hit power, he anerwards became moal mild 
and gentle. To bis gnat abilities we have tha 
testimony of Sdpio Africanus, who when asked 
what men were in his opinion at once the boldest 
warriors and witett tiateamen, replied, Agathodea 
and Dionytiu^ (Polyb. it. 35.) He appeart alao 
to have possessed remarkable power* of wit and 
repartee, to have been a most agreeabh; companion, 
and to have lived in Syranua in a security gene- 
Tally unknown lo the Greek tyrants, unattended 
in public by guarda, and trusting entirely either to 
the popularity or terror of hia name. 

A* to Ihe chronoliwy of his life, hia huiding In 
Africa waa in the arcbonthip of Hieromnemon at 
Athens, and accompanied by an edipie of the sun, 
i.1. Aug. lo, B. c 310. (Cliovin, FoA HilL) 
He quitted it al the end of B. c. 307, died a. c Sa», 
after a reign of 2B yeurs, aged 7*2 according to 
Diodorua, though Lucian (^MacroU 10), gi^'OB his 
'S. Wesseling and Clinton prefer ibe stale- 

Agathodea left, were Ihe Madwrtini who aher hia 
death aeited Mrmnna, and oeiaaioiied the firat 
10. E. L. C.) 



AOATHOCLES CAToAwhqt]. 1. Ths b- 
tkv of Lynmuhiu, wu ■ ThnMlimi Potcat, but 
sbtaiDed tbe broor af Philip tluaa^ flMMiy, tad 
WM Bind 1^ km to h^ mk. (ThMpompiu, 
tp. AlJtm. n. V. 35B, £, Ac. ; Amu, Amab. ri. 
3& ImL 18.) 

2. The ua of Ljiimachia br an Odiriun 
wamm, whom Polyaenui (tL 12) mil* Macru. 
Agatbodtt wu tent b; hii btbar i 
OctM, about 3. c 293, bat vu dife&ted'and taken 
prinwr. He wu kiodlT treated by Dromiebacli), 
Ike Hag of ikB GolH, and icnt back ta hli Githei 
witk prvtoDU ; bat LjBinachiUt notvilhitanding, 
■aiefaed asaimt tks Oitas, and wia taken piiioiHi 
binaa]£ He too wat alio nleaied b; DnmicbarB- 
lia, nbo reoaiTed in coiuequciDM tha daughter of 
Lpfanachiu in moniaga. According to tonie an- 
tkori it wat only A^itliods, and according to 
otbera only Ljumacfana, who wu take 
(Diod. Bu. uL PL 659, sd. Wtm. g : 
I T ; Strab. rii. pp. 302, 306 ; Pint. A 
Jt mr. mam. eauA p. 66&, d.) In B. c 297, A^ 
tkodca wu HBt by hia btner agaiuat Damatnni 
PeKoRstea. who had marched into A>U to de- 
prive Lyaimachu of Lydia and Caria. In ihit 
erpedilion he waa mcceiafidi ha defeated Lyn- 
nachoa and dtofa him out of bii bther'i 
Tinna, (Pint. Awufr. c 46.) Agaduidei 
dcMined to be Che aiicceaaor of Lyiimadiot, and 
««■ popolat amang hi* rabieeta i bat hii ttep- 
notbn, Aninoc, piejndiced U>e mind of hii blhar 
agatnit him; and after an nnmccearfiil 
puiaoD him, Lyamachoa ait him ii 
when he wu mordared (b. c S84) by Ptolemasu 
Ceiaonaa, who wu a fagidTt at die eonrt of Lyii- 
m achna. Hi* widow Lyaaudra fled with hii chil- 
dran, and Alexander, hii brother, to SelsoDU in 
Alia, who made war npon Lyaimaehoi in o 
qaoice. (Memnon, op. Piel, Cod. ISi, pp. 
226. td. Bekker; Pau. L 10; Joitin, xrij 

AOATHOCLES ('A->aeixA.iii), aOreek biMo^ 
nan, who wrote the hiatoiy of Cyxicni (iripl 
KnfluB). He ii called by Athenaeni both 
Babylouiaii (i. p. 30, a. ii. p. 37G, ») and ■ Cy: 
can. (xiv. p. 646, £) He may originally hsTe 
cme Irani Babylon, and hate letlied at Cyticni. 
The Gtit and third bodu an refined to ^ Athe- 
Baana. (ii. n. 376, C, lii. p. 515, a.) The time at 
which Agathodea lired i* unknown, and hii work 

IB origin of R<an«. (Peatm, i^ t 
, PJ^ 1.) The tcboliut 
■ • itaamn {' 

ApoOimini (iT. 761) cite* itaamn {Arsfw^^uim) 
by an Agalbodta, who ii nmaDT nppoied to be 
the ume u tbe aboat-matioDad one. (Ceyuare 
BehoL W AiK nay; 486 ; Staph. By>. a. «. Bi««iH»; 
Sljaiet. M. I. V. A[irT«) 

There are KTenl other wiilen of the mum 
name. 1 • Agathodaa of AliBi, who wrola a work 
OB Gafaiu (^^Hvrutd, Soidai, t. v. KueIAmii). 2, Of 
Chio^ who wrote a work on mricnttnre. (Vai 
aadColmn.rfaA«AH<. ill Plin-tf. A^, i]ciL44 
a Of MDetoa, who wroU a worii on liraia. (Pli 
^/%mp.ll5S,e.) 4. Of SaBMM, who wrote 
■ " o of Peadnia. (Plat /h 


AaATIIODAEHON<'A7aMitI>iM'or AfaAlf 
9*dt), the " Oood God," a diTinity in hononrof 
wh<^ Ibe Oraeki diank ■ cap of unmixad wina at 
the end of erety repaM. A templa dadisatad la 
bin wu ntnalad on the road ftom Hagalmilia la 
Haenaloi in Anadia. Pamoaia* (tUi. 80. S 8) 
conjecluna that the name ia a mare e^tbet of Zeath 
(Comp. Lobad^ ad PkrymA. p. 60S.) [L. &] 

AOATHODABMON (' A-,aettati^f \tjatin 
of Aluiandria. All thai ii known of him ia, that 
he wu the deogner of lome mapi to accranpany 
Ptolemy'i GeoDiafhy. Copiei of iheie mapg an 
Cinind amwnded to aeveral HSS. of Ptolemy. On* 
of theae u at Vienna, anolhar at Venice. At the 
end of each of thoM USS. ii the following notice : 
"Ec T&r KAovtuiu HToAifiaJav rHfTpofunr fii- 
<aW iKiM rilr Hnvfi^ntr ■ ~ * " ' 

'AXiintptii dfvnfawv* (Agath. of Alexandria 
deiincoled the whole InbaUled world aoeording la 
Iba eight booka on Oaagiapby <rf CI. PtolaDcaoa). 
The Vienna MS. of PuJamy i* ana of the moat 

bcantifDl extant The mapi attached to it, 37 in 
nimtber, compriiing 1 geneisl map, ID nuqii of 
Eorope, 4 of Africa, and 1 3 of Aua, are coloured, 
the water being green, tbe moonlaini red or dark 
yellow, and the land while. The cUmatea, paral- 
laia, and (he honn of the langeM day, are marked 
on the Eul margin of the man, and the meridiana 
on the North and Sonth. We haya no eiidence 
u to when Agathodaemon lired, u the only notice 
pnaened reqieoting him ii that quoted aboia. 
There wu a giammarian of the aame name, to 
whom ume eilant letleia of ludore of Pelunmn 
are addmied. Soma ban thoncht him to be tha 
Apthodaemon in quaatipn. Heeren, howoTar, 
eoniiden the delineator rf tha nap* to have bean 
a contempomiy of Ptolemy, who (liiL 1, 2) men- 
tionacertmn mqiaorlablaa(wlvaKii), which H 
in number and anangemant with C ' ' ' 
thodaemon in the MSS. 

Variona error* hating in the conria of time CT«pt 
into th* oopiea of tbe mapi of Agathodaemon, 
Nicotau Doni*, a Benedictine motu, who flon- 
rithed aboDt i. n. 1470, realorad and corrected 
ihem, ubititDting Latin for Orcek namei. Hi* 
m^i* ara appanded to tbe Ebnerian MS- of 
Ptolemy. Thay are the lanw in nnmbet and 
! aame in order with theae of Agatho- 
(Heeren, ComiMmiaiiK cfa Fon^m* Gta- 
pnpk. Ptoliaaa TiAnianaupie Hi a n a a u i n iiii ( 
Raiixl, OmmniaiiaeHtico-littranaiUCLPIolmari 
OtogrtifUa t^»-m eodicAia, p. 7.) (C. P. M.] 

A'OATHON ('AtiUw), the aon of the Mace. 
donian Pbflotaa, and tha brother of Panwnioa 
and Aaander, wu giten a* a botlage to Antigonua 
in •■ c 313, by Ua bretber Aaandn, whs wu 
Htrap of Caiia, but wu taken back again by 
Ataiidet in a few daya. (Kod. xiz. 76.) Agathon 


of Aga. 



Oteak inicription. (Bitckh, Oirji. liatr, 106.) 

A'OATHON ('At^Jw), an Athenian tragic 

let, wu bom obont B. c 447, and apnmg from a 

:h and raq>ectable family. He wu eonieqaantly 

contemporary with Socralei and Aldbiadea and 

the other diftinguiihed chaiacter* of their age, 

with many of whom he wu on taima of intimate 

aujDuotanca. Amoogat theu wu hii friend 

Emipide). He wu nmiikablt for tha handicaw- 

Diaa of hi> penon and hi* Tariona aecomfdiihmenti. 

(Plat. Prolog, f. 166. b.) lie gained bii dm 

victory at tha I^naean fettiial in b. c 416, when 


he woi ■ little iboTc thirty yean of age : in honour 
cf whiA Plato reprcHnta the Sympnium, « han- 
qiKt, to h)iT« been given, vbich he hu made the 
octuion of hit dialogne » called. The Kene ii 
laid at Agathon'i hooae, and auKnigit the iatarlo- 
cuLon an, Apollodnnu, Socnlea, Ariitophanea, 
Diotima, and Alcihieda. Plato VM then ronrleen 
ycsn of nge, and b apectator at the tragic coDteat, 
in which Agathon waa Ticlorioni. (Atheo. v. p. 
317, a.) When Agathon vai aboat forty yean of 
age (a. c 407), he vitited the conrt of Archehni, 
the king of Macedonia (Aelian, V. H. liii. 4), 
where hii old friend Euripidea waa alio a gneat at 
the nme time. From the eipiEiaion in the Avue 
(tl.t), that he wu gone Jtfiuapw tJi^iciT, nothing 
certain can be determined ai to the.time of bit 
death. The phiue admiia of two meaning!, either 
thnt he wai then reiiding at the «art of Archelaoi, 
or that he waa dead. The former, howerer, ii the 
more probable inletpretalioD. (Ctinion, foM. HrU. 
Tol. ii. p. iiiii.) He ii generallj inppoaed to 
hnTe died about B. c. 100, at the ^e of forty- 
aeien. (Bode, OneiUoUc (far imm. DidUhuul, I 
p. 563.) The poetic merit* of Agathon wore eon- 
■ideiahle, but hii compotition* were more nnurk- 
able for elegance and flowery omamenta than force, 
vigonr, or iDblimity. They abounded in anti- 
theiia and metaphor, " with cheerfdl thooghli and 
kindly imagea," (Aelian, K //, lir. 13,) and he 
ii laid to have imitated in leiae the proae of Oar- 
giai the philotopher. The langmige which Plato 
put* into bit mouth in the Sy mpoiium, it of the 
aanie cbaructer, full of buimonioui worda and aofttj 
flowing perioda : an i>.aUv firi/ia ibfofirrl filorm. 
The ityle of hit TeiHl, and eapeciallj of hia Irriatl 
compodtioM, i* repreacnted hy Ariitophanea m hii 
Theamnphoriaiune (191; aa affected and effemi- 
nate, correiponding with hii penonal appearance 
and manner. )n that play (acted B.C 409), where 
be appean ai the friend of Euripidea, he i> ridiculed 
for hii e^minacy, both in mannen ind actioni, 
being bnnight on the atage in female dren In 
the Ranae, acted Ave yean afterwarda, Ariatophanea 
■peaki highly of huu ai a poet und a man, olluig 
him an droMi iraitrri)t mi mltirii toh ^l\aa. 
In the TheamopbotiaiuMe (29) alao, he calU him 
'A-fiiur 6 Mktuii. In tome mpecti, Agathon 
wna initmmental in earning the decline of tngpdy 
at Athena He waa the firtt tragic poet, according 
to Ariatotle (Foti. 16. § 2Q), who commeDced the 
practice of inserting chomiea between the acta, the 
lohjectmaller of which waa nneonnectcd with the 
atoTy of the drama, and which were therefore 
called J^iCJAi^id, or interfnlarj, aa being merely 
lyrical or mnaicid interludes. The tame critic 
(/•oif. IB. S 17) alM bUmeihim [cir lelecting loo 
eitcnaiTe lobjecta for hia tluAcdiea. Agathon alio 
wrote piecea, the story and charaelen of which 
were the creationi of pure fiction. One of theae 
vat called the "Fbwer- fAi^oi, Ariat Pott 9. 
fi 7) ; ilt tubject-matter waa neither mythical nor 
hittoricBl, and therefore probably "neither aerioaaly 
aitecling, nor terrible." (Schlegel, Drain. Lit. i. 
p. 189.) We cannot bat regntt the loaa of this 
work, which mutt hate been amuaing and original 
Tbe titlea offoor only of hia trugediet are known 
with certninty ; they an, the Thyeatet, the Teie- 
pbui, the Aerope, and tbe Alcraaeon. A fifth, 
which is Bicribed to him, i« of doubtfal authority. 
Tt it probable that Ariatophanet hat given ua 
•itractt frun tome of Agatbon's phiya in the 

Theaniophoriaiuaae,T. 100-130. Tbe opinion that 
Agathon alio wrote comedies, or that iWe wai a 
comic writer of thia name, hai been refuted by 
Beotley, in bia Diawrtation upon the ^jitjn of 
Koripidet, p. 117. (Ritichl, OiminimlaHo ie Agit- 
Utomi Vila, ArU tt Tragoediantm nliqmt, HaUc, 
18-29. Bto.) IR. W.l 

A'GATHON CkyiBmt), of Santo*, who wnle 
a woA upon Scylhia and another upon Riven. 
(Pint, de FItn. p. 115G, e. 1159, ai Stobaeut, 
Serm. tiL 100. 10, ed. Oaiafbrd.) 

AO'ATHON (-ArUw), at fint Reader. aAer- 
warda Librarian, at Conatantint^te. In a. D. 6)10, 
during hit Readenhip, he Kaa Notary or Re- 
porter at the 6th General Council, which con- 
demned the Monolhellte hemy. He lent copiei 
of the acta, written hy himielf. to the five Patri- 
archate*. He wrote, A. D. 712, a abort treatite, 
still extant in Orwk, on the attempta of Philip. 
picua Bardanet (711— 713) to revive the Mono- 
thdlte error, OxKitiorm Nora Coiltdio a Mama, 
vol. lii. p. 189, [A. J. CI 

ACiATHO'STHENES C^yaBoaBinn), a Greek 
hialoriao or philoaopher of uncertain iLite, who it 
referred to 1^ Tsetiei (ad I^eophr. 704, lOSI. 
out viL 645) as hii authority in matleii connect- 
ed with geography. There ia mention of a work 
of A^ihosthenes called ** Atiatioi Catmina" 

SGelmanicoa, aa Arat. Phaat. 2*), where Oale 
AUoa at /^irttaa. p. 125, &c) wiahed (o read 
tbe name Agiaoatbenea j forAglaoathenea or Aglo*- 
tbenea, who ia by aome considered to be the same 
aa AgBthosthenei, wrote a work on the hialory 
of Naioa, of which nothing is extant, bat which 
was much used by ancient writetn, (Hygin. foil. 
Aitr.u.lG; Eislotth. Oiful. ii. 27 i Pollul. ii. 
83 i Athen. m. p. 78 ; Plin. //. N. i». 22.) [L. 8.] 

AQATHCrr YCHUS ('A7oi4Ti.x<"). »n ancient 
veterinary auigeon, whose date and history are un- 
known, hut who probably lived in the fourth or 
fifth century after Christ. Some fragments of hia 
writings are to be found in the collection of works 
on thii aabjecl first publiibed in a lAtiu traoalation 
by Jo. Kudliut, feteruurac Mtdicnat IMri dm, 
Parii. 1530, foL, and afterwardt in Greek by 
Grynaeui, Bant. 1537. 4Io. [W. A. G.] 

AGATHYLLUS {'ATcUuXAot), of Arcadia, 
a Gieek elegiac poet, who is qnoted by Dionysiut 
in reference to the history of Aeneas and the foon- 
dation of Rome. Some of hia versea are preserved 
by Dionynu*. (L 49. 72.) 

AOATHYKNUS ('A-yiUu/woj), a aon o[ 
Aeolus, regarded si the founder of Agathymuia 
in Sicily. (Died. v. 8.) [L. S.] 

AGA'VE CAtouiI). 1. AdaughterofCadmiis, 

' ife of the Spartan Echion, by who 
■ tbe '" ■ 


lod. iii. 4. g 2). and when Semele, during 
pregnancy with Dionysus, waa deitroyed by the 
aight of the gplendour of Zeus, her aiitert spread 
the report that the had only endeavoured to con- 
ceal her guilt, by pretending that Zeut wat the 
father of her child, and that her deslniction was a 
jUBt punithment for her Gdeehood. This calonnj 
was afterwards most severely avenged upon Agave. 
For, after Dionyaus, the ton of Semele, had tra- 
versed the world, he came to Thebes and compelled 
the women to celebrate his Dienyiiac festivals on 
moDnt Cithaeron. Pentheui wishing to prevent 


•rttop tfacM rintoni prMstdingt, went liimielfto 
aiognt Citlueiro, bvt wtA tom to pj«cu tiien by 
hi* avn mother Agtre, who in her fRni; belieTed 
hin to be > wiU batt (Apollod. iiL 5. § 2 ; Ot. 
JM. iiL 725; comp. PiNTBsnB.) Hyginos ( Jbi, 
340, 254) mikci A^Te, >ft« Ihii deed, go to 
IDjm and aatrj king Ljcothme*, wbflm how- 
ner ihe aflerwudi killed in order to gun hU 
hingdan lor ha father Ctdmiu. Thia Kcannt ii 
namfeMi; tmufdaeed b; Hyghtiu, aai miut li*Te 
bdongiid (a an eiulier pwt of tlu itar; of Agave. 
2. [N«»KDii.] [L.S.] 

AODISTIS QAyHrris), a mythical being c»n- 
■Kted with the Pbrfgiau wonhip of Altea or 
Atjc PuMuiiaa {liL 17. § S) relate* the fbllov^ 
tag it«T abint Agdiati*. On one oaauoo Zens 
> begot h; Ibe Earth a mperhiimBii 
once man and woman, and 
waa called Agdialis. The godi dreaded it and 
■amanned it, and {rem it* Hined niSoia there 
grav up an alnond-treiL Once when the daogfater 
ef the riTcrged Saogarin* ws* gnthering the fruit 
*f thii treflf *he pot aome almond* into hei boaom ; 
bat hen the almond* diaappeared, and ahe became 
the mother of AHaa,Tho waa of mch eitraordinaiy 
bcaaty, that when he had grown Dp AgdUti* CfII 
in l«(e with bin. Hi* relatiTea, bowerer, de*ttiied 
him to becone the hniband of the daughEa of the 
■ ■ [ of PeiBinn*, whither he 



let he went aoomiingly. 
n the hymeneal aoDg had 

; the k 

t«r did the „ , 

dead, and otxaiiied bna Zta» the pR>mi*e that the 
body ef Atte* ahoald not became decomposed or 
diiBffwai. Thii i*, nyi Pannaia*, the mo*t po- 
pular accnmt of an atherwtae myiterion* affiur, 
which i* probably part of a aymbolical wonhip of 
the OMtiTe power* of naluie. A hill of the name 
af Agdiuii in Phrygia, at Ihe foot of which Atle* 
WB* belirred to be bnried, ii mentioned by Pausa- 
BBB. (i. 4. S S.) AccaTding to Ileeychina (*. e.) 
and Stnbo (nl p 567; camp. i. p. 469), Agdisti* 
t> the Mnie aa Cybele, who waa wonhipped at Pe*- 
■iniu ander that name. A itory aonwwhat diftr- 
ent ia oiTen by Amobio*. (Ads. GaiL ix. S. g 4 ; 
cnop. Hioiic. Felix, 21.) [L. S.] 

AGB'LADAS ('AytkJiia), a natiTe of Aigo* 
(PaaHi. Ti. 8. 1 4. vii. 24. 1 2, x. 10. g 3), pre- 
eminently di*tingat*hed a* a Htatnaiy. Hi* &nie 
i* enhanced by hi* I ' ' - ' - - - 

, Phidi 

. (Suit 

8duL ad Aniiopk. Rim. 604 ; TteMe^ ChUiad. 

L 16*, 1 

191 — 

Ttf'^iev are onquMtionably merely corruption* of 
'kjtjMtv, a* wa» fiiat obeerred by Menr*in*, with 
whom Winckelmann, ThierKh, and M'liller agree), 
ldyran,and Polydeto*. (Plin. H. N. iiiii. 8, *. 
19.) 'Ihe deteimination of the period when 
Agehidai flooriihed, haa giren riao to ■ great deal 
of diacnaaion, owing to the apparently eontradictary 
atatement* in the writer* who mention the name. 
Panaaniaa (Ti. 1 0. g 3) ten* lu that Agelada* caat a 
■tatue of Cleoatherie* (who gained a Tictoiy in the 
chariot-iBce in Ihe 6Gth Olympiad) with Ihe 
dwriot, hor«e*^ and charioteer, which waa Bet upat 
Olympia. Then wen alao al Olym[na itatne* by 
him of Timaaitbni* of Delphi and Anochn* of Ta- 
Rntmn. Now Timagithen* vu put to dtalh by the 
Alhemana, lor fait {uticipatiDn in the attempt oT 

L 2 (b. c fiD7)i and Anochua 

iMgorat in 01. 1 
("" ' " '" 

and if we Boppaae Ageladaa to nave Men Dam 
abont a. c 540, he may Tenr well hare been the 
initiactor of Phidiaa. On the other hand Pliny 
{L c) layi that Ageladaa, with Polydeliu, Phrad- 
mon, and Myron, flonriahed in the B7th Ol. Thii 
agree* with the itatemenl of the acholitui on 
Ariatophane*, that at Melite there wa* a atatne of 
'HpwiA^f dAttliKuui, the worit of Ageladaa Iba 
AigiTe, which waa aet up during the great pesd- 
lencc. (OL IuttiL 3. 4.) To theae nutfaoritiet 
moat be added a poaaage of Paaaania* (iT. 33. g S). 
where he ipeak* of a Btatue of 2en* made by 
Agelada* for the Motusniana of Naiqnctua. Thia 
muat have bten after ihe yenr b. f, 455, when the 
Mesaeniara were allowed by the Atheniana to 
■etlle at Naupaclna. In order to Rconcile theee 
conflicting aiatementa, aome aappoae that Pliny't 
date ia wrong, and thai ihe slatoe of Hercmea 
had been mode by Ageladaa long before it waa tet 
op at Helite : othera (a* Meyer and SiebeUa) that 
Pliny'* date i* correct, but that Ageladai dkd not 
make the atatne* of the Olympic liclora mentioned 
by Pannniaa till many year* after their rictoriet i 
which in the oat of three peraona, the dataa of 
whote *ictnrie* are ao nesriy the nme, would be 

The : 

hable aolulion ot the dillicnlty ia that ef Tbiench, 
who Ihtnka that then were two artiBts of thia 
name ; one an Aipie, the in itructor of Phidiaa, boni 
aWt B. c 540, the other a native of Sicyon, who 
flouriihed at the date asaigned In' Pliny, and waa 
confounded by the acholiaat on Aritluphane* with 
hia mon illuitriona ntuneaake of Argo*. Thiench 
*apporta thia hypotheei* by an able critidtm on a 
paaaueofPanaaniaa. (t. 24. g I.) Sillig aammea 
that there wen two artin* of the name of Ageiada*, 
but both Aigivei. Ageladaa the Argive eiecnted 
one of a group of three Muaea, npresenting n- 
•pectively the pretiding genin*e* of the diatonic, 
ctmimatie and enharmonic ityte* of Greek muaia 
Canaehua and Aristoclea of Sicyon made the other 
two. (Antijater, Amlh. PaL Pta*. 1ii>; Thiench, 
E^a*. d. bild. KiHt. pp. 168— )e4.) (C. P. M.) 
AOELA'US CAytMun). 1, A aon of Hen- 
clea and Omphale, and the fonnder of the hente ol 

and Diodorna (if.'Sl) from one Cleolana, while ha 
call* Ihe aon of Herade* and Omphale Lamna, and 
othen Laomedea. (Anton. Lib. i ; Palaephat dt 
lacnd. 46,) 

2. A aon of Damaator, and one of the auilon of 
Peneh^. (Horn. Oixi 321.) In the alruggle of 
Odyaaeua widi the Buiton, and after many of them 
had Ulen, Agelaut encouraged and headed thoae 
who auTTiTed (znL 131, 241). until at laat he too 
WB* Btruck dead by Odyaaeua with a javelin. 
(«ii. 293.) 

3. A atave of Priani, who erpoaed the infitnt 
Pari* on monnt Ida, in oonteqnence of a dram ot 
hia mother. When, after the lapM of fire daya, 
the alave found the infant ttill alive and Buckled 
by a bear, he took him to hia own haute and 
Iffougbt him up. (Apolkid. iii. 13. g 4 ; compare 


I a.) 

are «enia] other mythicnl penonage* of 
ime of AgeUua, concerning whom do paiticn- 
ire known. (Apollod. iL & g 6 i Ar.teain. 


Ub. a ; IIoiiL n. TiiL 257, xi. 302 ; Pan*, ri 
M.B7.) II'S.J 

AGBLA'US CATfAMt), of NHupnctai, wu 
iMding man in th* Aetoliui Rate nt tfai tims 
tlu Achaean Ingne. He ii fini meattoncd 
a. c 321, when he nDgociaWd the allium b«twgi 
th* Illirrun chief Secrdilaidu tni the Aetalian 
It wu through hii pennatiTe ipwch ihat Philip 


... .a hi. 1 

pea« with the Aetaliajii (b. < 
■lacted cnietiil af the latter in 
though hi* Goudnct in ncam 
*00D itftarwanl> blamed hy hii fickle 
(Polyb.iT. ie,T. 109— 107.) 

AQELEIA or AOELriS fAreXiCa or 'Ay*- 
hi|tt), a •oimsie et Athena, by which ihe ■■ deiig- 
natcd u the leadcT or p»tecIt«H of the peopb 
(Hen. II. IT. ISa, (. 76f, ri. 269, xr. 21! 
0<f.iiLS78,ftc) [L. 9.J 

AOE'LLIUS. [A. GaLHua.] 

AGE-NOR fATifnv). 1. A »n ofPoseido 
and Idbya, king of Phoeoida, and twin- brother of 
Bdni. (ApoUod. ii. 1. g i.) He married Tde- 
phiMa, by whoin ha became the fiilhei of Cadmui, 
Plmenii, Cylii. Thani, Phinen., and according 
to aome of EDro)s alio. (SchoL ad Emr^ Float. 
5t Hygin. Fab. 178; Paiu. i. 2S. g7: Seho' 
ad ApMiK. lOiod. il. I1i,m. \\65.) After hi 
danght«r Eoropi bad been carried off by Zent, 
Agfloer sent out hia tou in aearch of her, and en- 
joined them not to ictnra wilhrmt theii niter. Ai 
EuiDpa wu not to be laand, none of them re- 
tnmed, and all Httled in foreign conntriei. (Apol- 
lod. iiL 1. § 1 ; Hygin. Pb4. 178.) ViigU (j*™. 
j. SU) calli CuthaM the city of Agenor, bywh' ' 
be lUndea to the daacent of Dido from Agei 
Bntlmaim (AtfUolog. i. f. 232, &c.) poinu i 
that the genoine Phoeiucian naiue of Agenor i 
Ghnaa, which ii the nme aa Canaan, and aj 
tiiflae beta he bnilda Ike faypotheaii that Agenor 
er Cknai ii the Mme ai the Canaan ' ' ■ ' 

3. Aaonof JaMU,aiid &tberof AmuPanoptee, 
king of Argo*. (Apcdlad. ii. 1. i 2.7 Hdbninia 
IPivgm. p. 47, ed. Stun.) alalea that Agenor waa 
■ aon of Photonena, and brotiier of Jaana and Pc 
kagna, and (hat after their father's death, the tw< 
elder brothen divided hia dominiona between 
tkemaelTea in ancb a manner, that Pelaagua n- 
nired the conntry about the river Eraiinaa, and 
bnilt lariaaa, and Jaana the canntiy about Elii, 
After the death of theae two, Agenor, the yoang- 
Mt, invaded their dominiona, and tfana became king 

3. The »n and iacceaor of Triopai, 
kingdom of Argoa, He belonged to the hauae of 
Phoronena, and wai father of Crotopua. (Faua. 
ii. 16. 1 1; Hygin. Fai. HB.) 

i. A ion of Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grand- 
ton of Aetolnt, Epieaate, the dat^ter of Caty- 
don, became by him the mother of Porthaon and 
Demonice. (ApoIIod. L 7. S 7.) According to 
Paunniai (iiL 13. g G), Theatioi, the fadier of 
I>eda, i) likewiie a aon of tbta Agenor. 

a. A lOD of Pbegena, kiiw of Paophia, in Arca- 
dia. He *aa brother of Pmnoua and Aninoti, 
who waa married to Alcmaeon, bnt wa* abandoned 
by him. When Alcmaeon wanted to gin (he 
oelebrated necklace and peplna of Harmonia to bl> 
Hcond wife Catirrfioe, the daagiler of Aoheloni, 
be waa ahiin by Agrnot and Proneii* at the inati- 

lon of Phegeui. Bnt whan the two bmthera 
■e to Ddphi, where they intended to dedicate 
necklace and peplua, they were killed by Am- 


Calinhoe. (A|>oUod.iiL 7. f 5.) Panianiai (viU. 
24. g i), who relaUa the nme atwy, call* the chil- 
dren of Phegena, Tamenni, Anon, and Alphe- 

6. A aon of Uw TrojaD Anienot and Theanu, 
the prieateaa of Atheoa. (Horn. IL iL 50, vi 
297.) He appcara in the lUad aa coa. of tha 
hraieat among Ihe Trojani, and ia one of their 
leadeia in the attack upon the fbrtificationi of tha 
Oraeka. (iv. 167, zii. 93, xir. 426.) He evn 
Tentnrea to fwbt with Achillea, who ii wounded 
by him. (m- fi70, &c.) Apollo reacued him in 
a dond from the anger of Adiillea, and thenar 
Bumad himaelf the appearance of Agenor, by which 
meana he drew Auiille* away him the walla of 
Troy, and affiwded to the fugitjve Tnjana a aafa 
retreat to the nly. (iiL in fine.) According to 
Pauunial {.. 27. % 1) Agenor waa alain by Noo- 
plolemDt, and wai repreieoled by Poljgnolui ia 
the great painting in the Lescho of Delphi. 

Some other mythical pemonagea of thia dum 
occur in the Mowing poaaogei: ApoUod. ii. 1. gS, 
riL S. g 6 ; Hygin, FM. 14S. (L. 8.] 

AOENO'RIDBS ('A7i|nif>(ti)i), a patiDuymic 
of Agenor, designating a deecendant of an Agenor, 
inch aa Cadmai (Or. Mtt. iii. 6. Bl, 90; it. 
56S), Phinena (Val FUo. iT. 582), and Peneoa. 
(Ov. MitiT.771.) [L.S.] 

AOE'POLIS CAyfua)-!!), of Rhode^ wa* lont 
by hi* countrrmeu aa ambauador to (he conaul Q. 
Mardna Phili[q>UA, s. c 169, in the war with 
" iew wiUi him nrar 

n the fbUowing year, 
B. a 168, he went ai ambaaiador to Baoe to 
deprecate the anger of tha Romant. (Pdyb. 
xxviiL U, 15.iiii. 4, 7i Liv. xlv. 3.) 

or 'ATafffAfldi), from Hytiy and dyitp or \atfr, aiur. 
name of Philo or Hadei, deaciibing him ai tfie god 
who caniea away all men. (Callim. I/ymn. ■• Pal- 
lad. 130, with Sponheim'a note; Heeych. ks.; 
Aeichyl. op. Afim. iii. p. 99.1 Niouider (ap. 
.^U™. xv.p. 6S4)uge)lhelbrm H7»IA(ui. [L.S.] 

AGESANDER, a acnlptor, a native of the 
ialand of Rhodea. Hia name ocean in no author 
except Pliny (/f. N. iiivi. 5. a. 4), and wa 
know but of one woik which he eiecQled ; it is a 
work howOTei which beara the moM dcciaiva lea- 
timony to hia nupaaring geaiot. In conjiuicUoa 
with Polydomi and Athenodami ha Kulplured 
the group of Laocoon, a work which ia laalud Iqr 
all competent jndges among Ihe moat perfect aped- 
mens of ait, eipeoally on account of the admiiaUe 
manner in which amidM tha intonae enfiering 
portrayed in eteiy feature, limb, and mnacle, 
there ii atill preserved that air of nblime repots, 
which characterised the beit productioD* of Qreeian 
genina, Thia celebnued group waa diacovered in 
the year 1506, near the bathi of Titui on the 

I«i not hesitate to pro- 
ill other works both of 
atoUary and painting. A gnat deal haa been 
written respecting the age when Ageaander 
flonriabed, and vnnona opinions have been hald on 
nbjeet. Winckdmann and MilUer, frnming 
their judgment from the itjie of art diipUyed ia 

^ woik 'Mdt, ungD it to the ags of Lyilp- 
pn. HOllcT lliiiik* ths intsntltj of mStnng d«- 
pktod, mi the loiiwwhM tbcalrical air which 
boiwIm ths finmp. ihswa tlwl it balongi to a 
iuer M than tlut of Phidiia. Leuiog uid 
T)uai£ m tin other hand, aftar nhjactiiig tfas 
[■i^n of PHn; to as accnnle siaminatiDa, have 
oat to tha coDclurioD, that AgeiaiideT and the 
atha- nra artiati liTed in the niBn of Titui, and 
■calptimd the group expmdj for that emparur ; 
ad thii Dpinioa ia pnt^ genenll; acquiaced in. 
la addition to many other reuonB that might be 
wntioDed, if iftee pmnilted, if the Luicoon had 
bta a work of anliqniCy, va can hardl; onder- 
■amd how Plinj ihoald haTe lanlied il aboie 
all the vDiki of Phidias, Poljdelui, PmIitel•^ 
and LTtippaa. Bat we can lEeoiint for hii eiag- 
gomWd piaiw, if dw gr«ap wai modera and the 
■dauiatioii eidted b; ita eitcntion in Rome atill 
boh. Thiench ha* written a great deal Id iheir 
that (be phutie art did not decline b early >a ia 
■tnenlly luppoaed, but continued to flaniUh in 
nil TJgoDr from the lime of Phidiu iuiint«rTnpl- 
«Uj down to the nHgn af Tito*. Pliny wai Aiy 
aind in Hjing that tlie group waa acnlptond —' 
' A black, u tbe lapae of um' ' 


It a 

IA diacotered j 

pedettal of a ataUe found at Nettuuo (the aiKlent 
Antiom) that Athenodoiu* waa the ton of Age- 
■ander. Thi* makn it oot nnlikely that Polydonia 
also wu hi* aon, and that the iilhrr eiecuUd the 
%nn of LoacoMi himself hi* two loni the remaiu- 
tog t*o figorea. [Leaiing, Laoiaoni WiucktlmBnn, 
CI«*aL d. KmaL, i. I, 10; Thiench, Epotieit d. 
Ud. Km^ p. 318, ac; MiiUar, AreUioLiffii 4. 
XiMt, p. 152.) tC. P. M.J 

AQESA'NDRIDAS (^A-rtmrtpOai), the Km 
of Ageiwder <ooi>ip. Thnc L 139), the commander 
gf the LaeedviouiDian fleet aent to protect the 
malt af Huboea in B. c 41 1, waa attached by the 
Athemana near Enttin, ud obtuned a victory 
oTerthoB. (Thse. nil 91, »i, 96.) 

AGESl'ANAX CA-rxruUif), a Greek poet, of 
vbem a bmntiful fragment deasriptiTB of the moon 
I* preaerred in Plulaich. [Di/adt in or6. Imiae, 
p. 920.) It i* uncertain whether the poem to 
wkidi thi* Engment belonged wu of an epic or 
didKlie ehanctar. [L. S.] 

AOB'aiAS fAYvrfu), one of tha lambidae, 
aad an btnditary uicat of Zau* at Olympia, 
niaed the Tidory than in the mule nee, aid 
B ceklnted on that ■ccmiDt bj Pindar in the 
■ith Olympic ode. BSckh pkee* hi* iktoi? in 
the TSth Olympiad. 

AGESIDA'MUS f^Ayvrtlaiun), Km of Ar~ 
diealiatDa, an EpiaephyriBn Loctian, who con- 
qofnd, whea a boy, in boiiDg is the Olympic 

jia I Hi* TKtery it celebnMd by Pindar m 

the loth and llth Olympic odea. The Kholiail 
plaoa hi* Tietoiy in the 7tth Olympiad. He 
•hoold not be confounded wiUi Ageudamna, the 
&thei of Chromin*, who i* mentiiHied in the Ne- 
Bsn ode*. (L i% ix. S9.) 


AOESlLA'Ua L (-ATVr&ooi), ton of Doryimi*, 
aiith king of the Agid line at ^arta, eichuling 
AriatodeBraa, according to Apollodoni*, reigned 
farty-feor jcan, uid died in 3S6 B. c Pansuiia* 
■at II U* Rign a tbort mtcs but contemponty 
vith the Imiktiim of Lrnugni. (Pan*. iiL 3. g S i 
CXatcD, Fatii, L p. 835.) [A. H. C] 

A0ES1LAU9. e> 

AQESILA'US II., KHi by hi* lecond wjfc, Ba- 
pelia, of Archidamu* II., nuceeded hi* half-brD- 
Ihei, Agii II. a* oiuetaaDth king of the Eorypontid 
line ; excluding, on )lie ground of qmriiw* birth, 
and by the intereat of Lyiander, hi* nephew, 
Leoty chide*. [LscnvCHiDn.] Hi* reign extanda 
from 396 to 361 a. c, both induiiTe ; during moat 
of whidi time he wa*, in Plntaich't word*, "a* 
good aa thought commander and king of all Qieece,** 
and waa for the whole of it greatly identified with 
hi* country'* dceda and forttmea. The poutioa of 
that country, though internally weak, wa* eitai> 
nalty, in Greece, down to 394, one of anpiemacy 
acknowledged : the only field of it* ambition wa* 
Penda ; from 394 to 387, the Corinthian or fint 
Theban war, one of HipTemacy a*Bu]lod : in 387 
that aapremaey wa* leatoied orer Greece, in the 
peace of Antalddai, by the aacrifica of Aoatic pnt- 
ipeclB : and tbut more conhncd and more aMun, it 
became alvi more wanton. After 376, when Tbabe* 
i^BJned her freedom, we And it again aaiailed, 
and again for one moment realored, though on a 
lower level, in 371 i then oTsthiown lot erei at 
Leuctia, the next nine yean b«ng a atnggle for 
exiatenca amid danger* within lud without. 

Of the youth of Ageailan* we hare no detail, be- 
yond the mentiDn of hi* intinucy with Lnander. 
On the throne, which he ■*cended abimt the age of 
forty, we fint hear of him in the *uppre**ioD of 
Cinadon'a conafuncy. [Cinadod.] In hi* thiid 
year (396) he croaied into Aaia, and after a *hort 
campaign, and a winter of preparation, be in the 
next orerpowered the two ub^ Tiaa^ibeme* and 
Phamabatn* ; and. in the iprmg of 3S4, wa* en- 
camped in the plain of Thebe, preparing to advance 
into the heart of the empire, whan a meaaage ar- 
rived to *ummon him to the war at home. He 
calmly and promptly obeyed ; expreanng however 
to the Aaiatic Greek*, and doubtleas bimBclf in- 
dulging, hope* of a apeedy letam. Manhing rapid- 
ly by Xerxei'route, he met and defeated at&roneia 
in Boeotia the allied fbroe*. In S9S he wa* eng^od 
in a ravaging invaaioa of Argolii, in S92 in one of 
the Corinthian territory, in 391 be leducMl the 
Acamanian* to mbmiaeion ( but, in the remaining 
yean of the war, he i* uot mentioned. In the inter- 
val of peace, we find him declining the commmd in 
Sparta'a aggreaiion on Uantineia ; bat headins, &om 
motiiea, it i* aaid, of private triendablp, £ai on 
Phlini ; and openly jua^ing Phorinda*' leiinra of 
the Cadmeia. Of tha next war, tha lint two yean 
he coranunded in Boeotia, more bowever to the 
enemy** gain in point of ezperimce, than lea* in 
my other ; &om the fire remaining he wn* with- 
drawn by aevere ilbiea*. In the cougret* of 871 
an altercation ii recorded between him and Epami- 
nondaa ; and by hi* advice Thebe* mi peremplo- 
rilj eiduded bom ths peace, and order* given lot 
the blal campaign of Lauctis. In 370 we find 
him engaged in on embaaay to Mantineia, and 
reaantring the Spanana by an invaaion of Amdiii 
aad in 869 to hi* akill, connge, and preaenoe of 
mind, i* to be aacabed tlie nutinleiumce of the B» 
walled Sncta, amidit tha atlacka of four uniei, 
and nrolt* and conuuadc* of Uelot*, Pedoeei, 
and even Spartan*. Finally, in 362, he lad hi* 

""" Anadia; by fortunate inbcmation 

labiea to return in time to pierent the taz- 

if Sparts, and wa*, it (eemi, joint if not aoU 

"le battle of Mantineia. T« ^ 

lUBt probably be refemd hi* (■>- 



bsHj b) tlia ooul of Am» and negodatioru 

nej with the nTolted iBtnp^ 
DbKUn pungd of XenophoD (A^aut, ii. 26. 27) : 
umI, in perfomianB parhapi of Kime ilipulalion 
then mad^ he crDned, in the ipring of 361, with 
& body of I^icedamuDnian merceiurin into Egypt. 
Hare, ift« diiplayiag mucli of hu imcieDt ikiil, he 
diid, while preparing for hi* voyage hone, in the 
*inl«r of 361-60, after * Ufa of Bbove ei4[hly jean 
uid a reign of thirty-eight. Hii body wu em- 
balmed in mi, and iplendidly buried at Sparta. 

Refening to our iketch of Spartan hiaury, ve 
find Ageai^tu ihining mott in it* fint and laiC 

eareer in Aaia, sad ai, in eitnine age, moiutainiag 
hii proitrate coontiy. From Coroncia to Leuclta 
we He him portly anemplayed, at time* yielding 
to male motiTca, at tinwa jainiiig in nnlon acta 
of public injustice. No one of iSparta^i great de- 
feat*, but Kme of her L^ policy belong! to him. 
Id what other* do, ve miag him ; in what ha doei, 
we mil* the gicatuea* and cooiiiteney belonging to 
unity of pnrpoae uid eale command. No doubt b« 
vu hampered at home ; perhap*, too, from a man 
wilhdiswn, when now near &fty, from hit choien 
career, great action in a new one of any kind could 
not be looked for. Plutarch giie* among nmneriHi* 
apopfathegmnta hia letCerto the ephor* on hi* recall ^ 
"We hara reduced moit of Aua, dnTen back the 
borbarian*, made ann* abundant in Ionia. But 
*iiica you bid me, according to the decree, come 
home, I aholl follov my letter, may pertiap* tie eren 
before it. For my command i* not mine, but mi 
conntry** and her allies'. And a commander thai 
command* truly accotding to right when he lee 
hi* own commander in the taw* and ephor*, o: 
othan holding office in the lUte." Alio, an ex 
ckmation on hairing of the battle of Corinth . 
"Alas for Greece! aha ho* killed enough of her 
•on* to hare conqoered all the borbarioui.'* Of 
hi* courage, temperance, and hardioe**, many in- 
■tance* are giren : to lhe«e he added, eren in ex- 
cels, the leH Spartan qualitie* of kindlinei* and 
tenderaeu a* a father and a friend. Thu* we 
hare the *lory of hit riding acrou a (tick with hi* 
children ; and to gratify bis Km'a aSbction for Cleo- 
nymu*, ion of the culprit, he *aTed Sphodriaa from 
the punishment due, in ri^t and policy, fur his 
iiicuinoa into Attica in 370. So too the ^p«nt- 
ment of Peisander. [Pusamdir.] A letter of hit 
ran*, "If Niciai i* iunocenl, acquit him for that; 
if guilty, for my lako; any how acquit him," 
Froio Spartan cupidity and diahonesty, uid moatly, 
•Ten in public life, from ill fiiitb, hi* character i* 
clear. In peraon he wa* unall, mean-looking, aod 
lame, en which last ground objection had been 
mode to his acouaion, an oracle, curiouly fulfilled, 
baring warned Sparta of evil* awaiting her under 
a "lame •oieraignty." In hi* mga, indeed, her 
&li took pUcr, but not thnnwh him. Ageulaoa 
hinuelf wa* Sparta'* mo*t petted citiian and most 

(Xen. HtU. iii. 3, to the end, Agi- 
iiv.iT;Pau».iii.9, lU; Plut.andC. 
.,- P1uLA™iWm«.) [A.H. C] 

latest mai 
tUaui; Died. 

AQESILA'US('A')^[\iui\ a'Oreek bistorun, 
who wnle a work on the eoriy hiatoiy of Italy 
ClToAuid), &agmenu of which an preierred in 
Plutarch {ParalUla, p. M2), and Stabneui. (/Vo- 
HUg. ii. 27. li». 43. Ur. 10, ed.Oaiaf.) [C. P.M.] 



CA7fvl\*X^> 'AYtprfAaxoi, 'HyittrlXtx't), wia tba 
chief migiatrate {Pryiiau) al the Rhodiani, on 
the bredting out of the war between Ronie and 
Peneua in h. c. 171, and recommended hi* coun- 
tryman to e^Huie the aide of the Rcmana. He 
waa aent as ambasaador to Rome in B. c 169, and 
to tbe consul Aemiliu* Paulina in Macedonia, a. c 
lea. (Polyb. urii. 3, xxviii. 2, 14, iiii. t.) 

AOESl'MBROTUS, oommander of the Rho- 
dian Beat in the war between the Romans and 
Phiiip,kingofMacsdania,a.c200— IS7. (Lir. 
xxa. t6, iiiiL 16, 3':.) 

AOESl'POLIS I. ('ArirfffnAu), king of Sparta, 

_ c_. .» .!_ . _-i. ■---(jmiog with Eu- 

'omania*, while 
yet a minor, m B. c aat, anu reigned fenrtaen 
year*. He wa* placed under the guardiaiuhip of 
Ariatodemui, hi* nearetl of kin. He came to 
the cnwn Jnil about the time that the confe- 
deracy (partly biougbl about by the intriguea 
of the Persian aatnp Tit^raustea}, which waa 
formed by Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Aigo*, 
againat Spirta, rendenid it necetsar; to recall his 
colleague, Ageflilaua II., from Ada ; and the first 
military operation of hia reign waa the expedition 
to Coiinth, where the forces of the confederate* 
were then aawmblod. ■ The Spartan anny wa* led 
by Ariatodcmu*, and gained a signal victory oier 
the allies. (Xen. H^M. It. 2. | 0^ In the year 
B. c 390 Agcsipoli*, who had now reached hi* 
nujority, wa* eninuled with the command of an 
army for the iniaaion of Aigolis. Haring pro- 
cured the sanction of the Olympic and Delphic 
god* for disregarding any attempt which the Aigne* 
might make to stop hi* march, on the pretext of a 
ithgioui truce, he orried hi* ravage* itill farther 
than Agesilan* had done in a. (v 3S3 ; but a* be 
sufiered the aapect of the Tictinu to deter him from 
occupying a permanent pa*t, the expedition yielded 
no fruit but the plunder. (Xen. //etf. ir. 7. gS^i 
Pans. iiL 5. g 8.) In a. c 3ti3 the Spartan*, seis- 
ing upon some frlTolon* pretext*, lent an eipedi- 
tiou againet Montineio, in which Ageaipolis under- 
took the canmand, after it had beeu declined by 
Agesilan*. In [hi* expedition the Sforlaus were 
auisted by Thebes, aiid iu a battle with the Man- 
tineas*, Epomiuonda* and Pelopida*, who wen 
fighting ude by aide, narrowly eicaped death. Ha 
tiA. the town by diverting the river Ophi*, so a* to 
ky the tow grsonds at the foot of the wall* under 
water. The batoasnla, being made of unbaked 
brick*, ware unable to reai*t the action of the water. 
The wall* soon bi^u to totter, and the MantincaiM 
wen forced to surraoder. They were admitted to 
(erm* on condition that the papuiation should be 
dispened amoug the four hanuets, out of which it 
hod been collected to form the capital The demo- 
cntlcal leaden were permitted to go into exile. 
(Xen. /TeU. r. 2. §1-7; Fans. viiL 8. Si; Died. 
If. S, &c; Plat. Ptbf. 4 1 Ivicr. P-mu/. p. 67. a, 
Di Paae, p. 179, c) 

Early in d. c 303, an embainr eama to Sparta 
from the citie* of Acanthu* and ApoUonia, nquest- 
ing aiaistancs againat the Olynlhian*, who were 
endaavouting to tompel them to join their confede- 
racy. The Spartan* granted il^ but were not at 
first very sucneoful. After the defeat and death 
of Teleutias in the second campaign (a. c 3ttl) 
Ageiipulia took the command. He set out in .181, 
but did not begin i^teistiont till the ipring of 3110. 
He then acted with great vigour, and took Torou* 

}fi iHona ; but in tin midst of his lucteura he va* 
•oaed with ■ ferer, nrliich carried bim off in aeTen 
dajL He died at Aphjlii, in the peninauj* of 
PuleDe. Hi* body wn inunened in honej and 
coiTeyed home to Spaita for bnriaL Though 
Ageupolii did not ihire the imbitioDS Tiews of 
foreign conqneat cheriihed by Ageiihiut, hi> lou 
WM deeply legrelled by that prince, who aeema to 
hajt had a linceie re^ird for him. (Xen. Hdi. 
T. 3. § 8-9, 18-19; Diod. it. 22; Thirlvrall, Hiit. 
of Onto, ToL ii. pp. 405, <-26, ju: , i. pp. S, &e. 
20.) [C. P.M.] 

AOESI'POLIS 11., ion of Cleumbrotui, wsi 
the 23nl king of the Agid line. He BKended the 
Ihnme B. c 371, and reigned one year (Pant. 
iiL 6. g 1 ; Diod. nv. 60.) [C P. M.] 

AOESI'POLIS 111., the 31k ofthaAgid line, 
mti the ion of Ageiipolit, and grandton of Cleom- 
brottu II. Afler the death of Cleomenn he wai 
dated king while Mill a minor, and placed under 
the gnardianihip of hii uncle CleoDienea. (Helyb. 
IT. U.) He WB* however looa depoied by hia coU 
Icegoe Lyciugui, afler the death of Cleomenn. 
Wehaaiofhimaeit in b.c 1 95, when he wa* at 
the head of tlie Idcedaemonian eiiln, who joined 
1 bii attack upon Nabis, the tyrant 
'" . ixii*. 26.) He formed 
It abont B. c. 183 to Rome 
eiilea, and, with hit com- 
panioDi, waa intercepted by piiatea and killed. 
(Polyb.iii». 11.) [C. P. M.] 


AOETAS ['Ayirat), commander-in-chief of the 

d flpinu, and lavaged both coun- 

AOET'OR CA-r^rmp), a nmiaD 
ni gnU, for initancs, to -Zeaa 
(Stab. Serm. 42) : the name Menu to dncribe 
Zen* aa the leader and ruler of men ; but othen 
think, that it ii aynonymona with Agamemnon 
[AaAMiMHON, -2] :— to Apollo (Bnrip. Mid. 426) 
where howe<er Elmiley and othen pcsfer dyi^ii)).- 
— la Hermea, who condocti the •ooU of men to 
the lover wwld. Under thia name Hennea bad a 
•tatne at Hegalopolia. (Pain. TiiL 31. § 4.) [L. 3.] 

AGGE'NUS U'RBICUS, a writer on the 
aeknce of the Agrimenaorei. [DitL of AM. p. 30.) 
It it luiecTtain when ha liied ; bat he appeara to 
have been a Chiitlian, and it it not imprabahle 
Ihmi nne eipreteiont which he niea, that he lired 
at the latter pvt cpf the Ibuilh ccntnty of our en. 
The extant woiki aicribed to him are : — ** Aggeai 
Urbid in Jolinm Frontiuum Commealariui," a com- 
mnitaiy opoB the worlc " De Agronun Qotlitate," 
which it aaciibed to Frontinua ; " In Jolium Fion- 
tumn Commen&riivnm Liber aecundua qni Diaxo- 
gnptiiu didtor :" and ** Cammentanonim de Con- 
tnrcinia Agronmi Para prior et altera." The 
' ~ nnad work Niebuhr auppoiet to hare been 
n by Frontiniu, and in the IJme of Domi 



ihit tyrant aAer hit death. 
(Hid. ofSoiU, ToL ii. p. GSl.) 

tfi/ait) by Diodoroi, the mler of the Oanguidae 
and Pnuai in India, waa lud to be iIm eon of a 
barbv, whom the queen had married. Alexander 
wBi preparing to march agwnit him, when he wat 
ctopelled by hi* aoldiera, who had become tired of 

the war, to give np fiuther conqneata in India. 
(Curt. T. 2 ; Diod. iiiL 93, 94 ; Airian, Atiai. 
T. 25, &c: Plat. ^&c. 60.) 

A'aiASCAriai), ton of Agelochoa and gnnd- 
eoa of Tiumenua, a Spartan teer who predicted 
the victoiy of Lynnder at Aegoa-potanu. (Paua. 
iii.ll.g8.) [TLflAXaNUg.] 

A'UIAS fAyfot). 1. A Greek poet, whoaa 

Prtxlua. It haa been corrected by Thierach in 
Atla PUltL Atomic a. p. SSI, from the Codex 
Monocenut, which in one paaiage hat Agiai, 
and in another Hagiat. Tlie name itielf doea not 
occur in eeriy Oivek writers, anieaa it be aoppoted 
tlwl Egiaa or Hegiae ('Hyoi) in Clemena Aleian- 
drinui {Slvom. vi. p. 622), and PaoaantBa ( i, Z 
% I], ate only different formt of the aame name. 
He va* a native of Troeien, and the limo al whidi 
been about the year 

c 740. Hit 


if Vin-rot, L e. the hittory of the 
return of the Achaean heroea from Troy, and con- 
■iated of (lie booka. The poem b(xan with the 
canie of the mitlantmet which befel lae Achaouu 
on their way home and after their arriral, that ia, 
with the ontnge committed upon Caasandn and 
the Palladium; and the whole poem Riled up the 
tpaee which wa* left between the work of the 
poet Arctinua and the Odyaaey. The andent* 
themtelrea appear ta have been uncerLain about the 
author of thia poem, for they refer (o it timply by 
the name of Kimai, and when they mention the 
author, th^ only call hhn i rodt NddToui -fpii^nu 
(Alhen. Tii, p. 281 ; Paua. i. 28. g 4, 29. g 2. SO. 
§ 2 ; ApoUod. ii. 1. I 6 ; SchoL ad Odya. iv. |-2 ; 
Schol ad AriOofA. Eqtat. 1332; Lucian, D» 
Saltat, 46.) Hence aome writen attributed the 
NiSn-ai to Homer ( Suid. >. e. rioni ; Anlhtd. 
Planud. It. 301 while othen call ita aadior a Co- 
lophonian. (Etutath. ad Od3«. ivi. US.) Simi- 
lar poemt, and with the tame title, were written 
by other poett alu, auch ai Etimelui of Corinth 
(SchoL ad Pmd. OL liii. 31), Anticlcidet of 
Atheni (AtheiL ir. p. 157, ii. p. 166), Cleidemna 
(Athen. xiiL p. 609), and Lyiimacbnt. (Aihen. 
W. p. 15S; SchoL ad ApMm. Bliod. L 558.) 

B Kifirr 

we have genenlly b 

2. A comic writer. (Pollux, iii. 36 ; Meinelce, 
Hit. Omie. Umrc pp. 404, 416.) [L. S.) 

A'OIAS l^'Aylai), the author of ■ worii on 
Aigolii. l'Afya\a^ Athen. iii. p. 86, f.) He i* 
called i fumiruidi in another puaage of Athenaeua 
(liv. p. 626, f.), but the muaidan may be another 

AOIATIS. [Aoia IV.] 

Aai9 I. ('A711), king of Sparta, ton of En- 
lytthenea, began to reign, it it laid, about B. c 
1032. (MUller, i>or. 10I. ii. p. 5Il.tninal.) Ac- 
cording to Eutebiui (CAron. 1. p. 166) he ingDed 
only one year; according to Ajpolloderut, aa it 
appean, about 31 yean. Ihinng the r«gn of 
Enryithenea, the couqaered people were admitted 
to an equality of political rigbtt with the Doriana. 
Agit deprived Ihem of thete, and reduced them to 
the condition of aubjectt ts the Spanane. Tha 
inhabitanta of the town of Heloa attempted to 
■hake off the yoke, but they wen auhdued, and 
gave rise and name to the data «aUed Heleth 

,.t,zc-ctv Google 

73 AOIS 

(Kpbor. ap. Slrub. im. p. 361.) To hii 
wM ntemi the colony whidi wenl to ' 
iiadei PoUu ud Dclpbiu. (Comm. Narr. 
Flam liim tha kingi of thai line were called 
ATitn. Hii cotkagna wu Sons. (P«n>. iiL 
t I.) [C. P. M.] 

AOIS lU th« 17th of the En^-pontid li 
(beginning with Proclei), ncceeded hii &lhei 
At^idamiu, a. c. 427i uid nngatd a little mo 
than 28 jtat. In the nDUner of B. c 426, 
led tn taatj of Peloponnniani and thrir alliei 
bi u the vthmiu, with the intentiDn of inndicg 
Attica ; hot the^ wen deterred from adrandng 
bcther by a iDCceuion of euithqnaket which hap- 
pened when their had got eo fiu. (Thnc iii. 
89.) In the aprtng of the following feu he led 
■n ann; inta Attica, but quitted il fifteen daji 
after he had entend it. (Thuc ii. 2, 6.) In 
d. c. 119, the Atbito*, at the JnitigittiDn of AJd- 
biadea, attacked Epidanroa; and Agii witii the 
whole force of Idcedaemon let out at the 
time and marclied to (lie frontier dlj, Le 
No one, Thncf didea l^« oa, knew the piupsae ol 
thk eipcdition. It ws* protably to make a diver- 
noo in £iTour of Epidatiriti. (Thjrlwall, ToL ill 
p. 342.) At LenctiB the aapect at the laerificea 
deten-ed him from proceeding. Ha Ihenfoi ' ' 
hit troopi back, and lent round notice to the 
to be ready for an expedition at the end of the 
•acred month of the Cunean feativa] ; and when 
the ArgJTei repented their attack on Epidaonu, 
the Spartani again marched to the frontier town, 
Caryas, and ignin turned back, piofeiaedly on 
aceonnt <ii the aapect of the rictima. In the mid- 
dle of the following Humner (a C. 418) the Epi- 
daoriana being atiU hard preaied by the Argirea, 
the Laeedaemonbuis with their whole foKe and 
aoae alltea, under the command of Agit, invaded 
Argolia. By a tkilfiil manocavre he succeeded in 
intercepting the AtgiTea, and poaled hia army ad- 
TnnlageousTy between them and the city. But 
Jut as the battle was about to begin, ThiaajUas, 
one of the Argtre genenls, and Alciphron came ta 
Agi> and prevailed on him to conclude a tmce for 
four montha. Agis, without diKclosinghiamotiTea, 
drew off his array. On hit return he was acrenly 
cenanred for having thui thrown away the oppoi^ 
tanity of reducing Argoa, especially aa the Argivei 
bad seiied the opportuiiity afforded by hia i«tam 
and taken Oicbomenoa. It waa profoaed to pnll 
down hi* honsc, and inflict on him a fine of 100,560 
dnchroae. Bat on hia earnest entreaty they con- 
tented themiettea with appunting a council of 
war, eonaiating of 10 Spartans, without whom he 
waa not to lei^ an army out of the city. (Thuc 
T. 64, 67, &c) Shortly afterwards they received 
intelligence from Tegea, that, if not pr«np(!y suc- 
coured, the party fiiroorsble to Sparta in that cily 
would be compelled to giye way. The Spartans 

numd of Agia. He restored tranquillity at T^ea, 
and then manhed to Mantineta. By turning the 
watera ao a* to flood the lands of Hantineia, he 
aucoeeded in drawing the amy of the Mantineana 
and Atheniana down to the level ground. A bai- 
lie ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. 
Iliia waa one of the most important batties ever 
fought between Grecian itatea. (Thuc. v, 
71—73.) In B.C 4 17, when news reached Sparta 
of the countai^revolation at Argoa, in which the 
oligsrchical and Spartan bction waa overUirown, 

83.) Id the spring of B. c 413, Agia a 
Attica with a Peloponneaian army, and fortified 
Deceleia, a ateep eminence aboat 16 milea nortlt- 
eaat of Athens (Thuc to. 19, 27)i and in the 
winter of the aam* year, after the newt of tho 
diaaatroua &te of the Sicilian eipeditioo had 
reached Qreeca, lie marched northwards to levy 
contribntiona on the alliaa of Surta, for the pur- 
poae of conalructing a fleet. While at Deodeia be 
acted in a great meaaiiTe independently of the Spai> 
tan geremment, and received embaa iie s aa well 
from the diaaffected allies of the Athenians, aa 
{torn the Boeotiaua and other alliea of Sparta. 
(Thuc. viii. 3, 6.) He acema to have remained 
at Deceleia till the end of the Peloponneaian war. 
In 411, daring the adnuiuatration of the Four 
Hundred, he made an unnicceaajiil attempt on 
Athens itself. fThnc riii. 71.) In b. c 401, 
the oommand of the war againat Elis was eotruat- 
ed to Agia, who in the third yew compelled the 
Eteana to sue for peace. As he was returning 
from Delphi, whither he had gone to consenste a 
tenth of the spoil, he fell sick at Haraea in Aita- 
dia, and died m the eourte of a few dayt after ho 
iwhed Sparta. (Xen. Iftil. iiL 3. g 21. &c 
3. § 1—4.) He lefi a son, Leotyehidea, who 
however was eicloded from tiie throne, as there 
was tome suipicion with regard to his Intimacy. 
While Alcibiades was at Sparta he made Agia hit 
implacable enemy. Later writeri (Juatin, v. 2 ; 
Plut, Aleili. 23) BSMgn aa a reason, that the latter 
suspected him of having dishonoured his queen 
Timaea. It was probably at the suggestion of 
Agia, that orders were acnt out to Astyochna to 
put him Id death. Alcibiadea howerer received 
timely nolice, (according to Mine accotmta from 
Timaea herKlf) and kept out of the reach of tho 
Spartans. (Thue. viii. 12, 46 ; Plut. £j««=i 
32. AffHU. 8.) [C. P. M.) 

AOIS 111., the elder son of Aichidamnalll., was 
the 20th king of tho Eoirpontid line. His reign 
was short, bat eventful. He aooeeeded hta latJnT 
in B. c 338. In B. C SB3, we find him going 

in the Aegean, Phamabozus and Autophra- 
datea, to requeat money and an armament br car- 
rying on hHtQa operaliana against Alexander in 
Oicece. They gate him 30 lalenta and 10 tri- 
remea. Hia newt of the battle of laaui, however, 

Cit a check upon their plBn^ He aent the gal- 
ye to bia brotlier Ageailaui, with inatructions lo 
sajl with them to Crete, that he might secure 
that island for the Spartan intoreat. In this he 
teems in a great meattire to have lucceeded. 
Two yearn afterwardt (b. c. 331), the Greek 
ttatea which were leagued together against Alex- 
ander, teiied the opportunity of the disaster i/ 
Zopyrion and the revolt of the Thracians, to de- 
clare war againat Macedonia. Agia waa inveited 
with th# command, and with Ihe Idcedaemonian 
itmpt, and a body of 8000 Qreek meitenariet, 
who had been present at the )«Ule of laaot, 
gained a decisive victory ever a Macedonian army 
under Conagoa. Having been joined by the 
other forces of the league he Imd aiega to 
Hegalopolia. I'he dly held out till Antipatei 
' tehef, when a battle ensued, in which 


Agb WM defMUd and killad. It bappeued abmil 
thetincortlM Uttk of Aibek. (A[riMk,iL 13, 
Diad. xri. fiS, 68, etU. G2; Atmib. e. Cimipk 
p.77i Ciirt.ri.lj Jiirtin,iii.l.) IC. P. M.] 

AGIS IV., tbi dder nti of Endunidu II. 
tbc aitli kmg of the Eurrpontid Uuc M« 
oedad liu nther in b. c. 244, uul ndg»d fbnr 
jtm. Id B. c 343, thee the libention of Corinth 
bj Aratni^ th« geoei^ of the Achaean league, Agu 
M an anUT aoainit bim, but wu defeated. 
(Pana. ii. S. I i.) Tbe intsrett of hii nign, bov- 
«TBr, ia derived from BTent* of a different kind. 
Tbrongh the inflni of vealtb and lunuy, with 
theiT coDcomitant riai, tbe Spaitaoa had greatly 
degenerated Itoat tbe ancient tonplicit; aod 
tcTeritf of mannera. Not abore 700 far '" ' 
tbe gcnnina ^artan >tock remwned, and i: 
qaance of the innoTatian intndnod by Ef 
whs pcocuied a repeal of tbe law which lecuRd 
' Md of a &ini1? an 
1 property had p 
a few indiriduati, of wbon a gnait nv 
ia were bialea, » that not aboTS 100 Sparl 
bmiliea poaeaied eilatei, while tbe poor wi 
burdened with debt. Aff*, who from hi* earli 
ywlh had ahewn hia altachmenl to the andent 
dJadpUne, undertook to refonn theie abnaea, and 
n-ertabtiib the inatitotioni of Lycnlgna, Pi 
end be delenniiud to lay before tbe Spartan i 
a [ropoiitian for the abolitian ofall debt* and 
partitian afthelandi. Another port of hit plan w>* 
to giTB landed eitatea to the PerioecL Hit tcbemea 
were wsnnly leeoaded by the poorer rhuri and tbe 
ymuig men. and *a atrenaotiily oppoeed by tbe 
waduiy. He nieceeded, however, in gaining orer 
tbne Tery influential perMna, — fait ancle Ageii- 
hoa (a man of large pnperty, but who, being 
deeply ioTalTed in debt, hopol to profit by the 
innontiiniB of Agii), Lyiander, and Uondrodeidea. 
Haring procured Lyiander to be elected one of 
the epbora, he laid fait plant before tbe lenate. 
He propoaed that tba Spartan territory ahonld be 
dirided into two portiont, one to conaiat of i£00 
eqiBl krta, to be dirided aznongit tbe Spartana, 
wboae isnJii were to be filled up by tbe admia- 
rion of tbe PtoM reipectable of the Peiioed and 
rtnogen ; the other to contain 15,000 equal Iota, 
to be dirided- amongat the Ferioed. The aenale 
eonld not at fint oome to a deduon on the natter. 
lembly of tbe 

efevd to make tbe firat aaccifice, by giring up bii 
landa and monn, telling them that hia mother and 
gnmdmotber, who wen poaaeased of Breet wealth, 
with aS bit relatioaa and friendi, waold follow bia 
""TI* Hia generonty drew down the aip- 
pliBiei of tbe moltitnde. The oppoule party, 
howenr, beaded by Leonidaa, the other k'~ ~ ~ 

1 hia h 

irking, who 

Seleocna, king of Sjiia, got tbe aenate to reject 
the BMsaare, though only by one rota. Agii now 
delanniiMd to rid tiimaelf of Leonidaa. Lytander 
a m e ilia gly accnaed him of baring riolaled tbe lawa 
by manjing a atranger and bring in a foreign land. 
Leonidaa wna depoeed, and wai lucceeded by hia 
aon-B-law, Cleorabnitoa, who co-operated with 
Agii. Soon afterwarda, bowever, Lyiander'i lemi 
of affite expired, and the epbora of the fbttowing 
year were omoaed to Agis^ and designed to reatore 
liiiaaidiia They bronght an Hccutalion agsinat 
L] taoder and Mandroclridet, of attempting to rio- 

AGIS. 7i 

late the lawa. Aktmod at tbe turn eienta war* 
taking, tbe two tatter preiaijed on tbe kingi ta 
depote tbe epbon by fone and anpoint othm in 
their room. Leonidaa, who had returned to 
the dty, fled to Tegu, and in bia %bt waa 
protected by Asia (rem the riolenoe meditated 
againat bim by Agedlaua. The adfith araiica of 
tbe ktter fnutnted the plana of Agii, when tbeia 
now aeemed nothing to oppoaa tbe eiecntion of 
them. He perauaded hit nephew and Lyaander 
that the moat efCectnal way to aecura the oonaent 
of the wealthy to tbe diatribution of their landa, 
wonid be, to begin by cancelling the debta. Ao- 
cordiogly all bonda, n^aten, and lecniitiea were 
piled up in tbe market place and botnt Ageai- 
lant, haring seemed bia own endi, contrived rui- 
ont laretextt for delaying the diriaion of tbe landa. 
Meanwhile tbe Achanua uplied to Sparta iiw 
aauataivce agsinit the Aatdiana. Agit wai ae- 
cordin^y aent at the bead of an army. The cau- 
tious moiements of Antna gave Agia no opportu- 
nity of diitingoiabing himaelf in action, bat ha 
gained great credit by tbe eicellmt diadplina ha 
piesened among hia troops. Duting bit ' 


onduct and tbe i 

of the diviuon of the hinds that they made no 
oppovtion when the enemies of Agia openly 
brought back Leonidaa and aot bim on tbe throne. 
Agis and Cleombrotus fled for aanctuBiy, the 
ople of Athene Cbalcioecua, the 
iple of Foseidoiu Cleoml^tu* 
was anSered to go into exile. Agia waa entrapped 
' y some treecheroua friendi and thrown into 
riaon, Leonidaa immediately came with a band 
f mercenaiiei and sacoted the prison without, 
'hile tbe ephors entered It, and went through the 
mockery of a triaL When asked if be did not 
repent of what be had attempted, Agii replied, 
thai he abould never repent of to glorious a design. 

« of death. He « 

and pncipilBlely executed, the ephors fguing ■ 
rescue, as a great concoone of people bad atsem- 
blad round tbe priaon gatet. Agia, observing that 
le of hit execntlonen was moved to teari, laidf 
Weep not fbr me : niflering, oa 1 do, unjustly, 1 
n in a bqipier caae than my murderert." HIi 
mother Ageaiitrate and bit giandmotber war* 
etrangled on bit body. Agit was tbe £rat king of 
Sparta who had been put to death by the epbon. 
-'■"— ""ti who, however, ia undoubtedly wrong, 
ayi (riii. 10. Hi S7. 9 9), that be fell in battle. 
lu widow Agiatis wna forcibly married by L«o- 
lidaa to his son Cleomenea, bat nevenheleit they 
ntertained for each other a muloal afiectioa 
nd esteem. (Plutarch, Jgit, (Xtomaitt, Jratatj 
•ana. tlL 7. S 2.) [C. P. M.] 

AOIS CAt»), a Greek poet, > native of Aigoa, 
nd a oinlemponuy of Alexander tbe Oreat, whom 
e accompanied on his Adatic expedition. Car- 
iua (riii. 5) as well ai Artian iAna6. iv. 9) and 
Plutaith (Cta adulai. «f amie. diicrim. p. 60) de- 
tcribe him aa one of the baseat flatterers of tba 
king. Curtiui calls liim "* peedmorum carminum 
post Choerilum conditor," which probably refen 
rather to thdr Haltering chancier than to their 
worth aa poetry. The Greek Anthology (vi. 
152} contains an epigram, which ia probably tbe 
work of thit flatterer. (Jacoba, AmOcL iii. p. 
836 i Ziminennami, Zeiliidtnft JUr dii AlUrlk, 
1841, p. 164.) 

;p:cc; ..Google 


i(iiLp.£16} mciitia 


the kuthor 

AOLA'IA CA7Aatii). i. [ufliRim.] 

2. Tha wife oF ChftropDi uid mother of Nireiw, 
who led a mull band from the iiUnd of Synw 
against Troy. fHom. H. iL 671; Diod. t. bi.) 
Anothet Aguut u mentioned id ApoUodonu. (IL 
7. S 8.) [U S.] 

AOLAONl'CE. [AojNcct) 

AQLAOPHK'ME. [Sirinu.] 

AGLA'OPHON ('ArAaofv), a punlw, boro 
in the iilaod of ThiiHn, (be father and imtruclor 
of Polj-gnotiu. (Suidat and FhDtiiu,i.e. OoKiyru- 
TBt i Amh. Qr. ix. 700.) Ha had anothar aon 
named Ariitophon. (Plat. drrp. p. 44S. B.) A> 
Poljgnotiu flourished before the 90th 01. (Plin. 
H. N. iix>. 9. •. 3S), Aglsopbon pnhehly Urcd 
about OL 70. QuiDliUnn (jil 10. g S) pniKB bia 
paintings, which wim diatinguiBhed by the ura- 
plidty of iheir colouring, a> worthy of admiiBtion 
m other greundi beaidea their antiquity. There 
wu an Aglaopbon who fionriihed in the SOth OL 
■ccoidiiig to Ptiuy (//. N. hit. 9. a. 36), and hii 
atalemeuC i> conjiimed by a paaiage of Atbenaena 
(lii. f. £43, D.), bom which we Icani that he 
painted two pictuiei, in ana of which Olynipiai 
and Pythias, aa the preBiding gcniiuee of the 
Olympic aid Fjthian gamea, were reprsented 
crowningAkibiodeB; in Uie other Neraea, the pre- 
BJding deity of the Nemeau gainea, held Aldbiodea 
onheikneea. Akibiadei could not have gained 
any victoiiea much before 01. 91. {b. c 416.) It 
it therefore exceedingly likely that thit artlat was 
the aon of Arietophon, and gtandaon of the older 
Aglaophon, u among the Oreeki the son geiienUly 
bore the name not of hi* fether but of bii giwid- 
falhar. Plutarch [Ak&. 16} raya, that Aristo- 
phou wa> the author of the picture of N 
Aldliiade*. He may periup* hare aa 
■on. Thii Aglaophon wa*, according to 
firtt who repreaouted Victory with wingi. (SchoL 
ad Arieloph. Jva, G73.I [C. P. H.I 

AOLAOSTH£N£a [AaAosmBNia.] 


AOLA'CS {"AyXoii), ■ poor dtiien of PaopUi 
in Arcadia, whom the Delphic oracle prouoonced 
to be happier than Gy^a, king of Lydia, on 
count of hia coutentedneu, when the king aa 
■he oracle, if any man wai happier than he. (VaL 
Jdai. tiL 1. g 2 1 Plin. H. N. liL 47.} Pauai 
Diaa (TiiL 24. § 7) placea Aglaua in the time < 

AONAPTUS, an architect mentioned by Pai 
•aniaa (t. IG, § 4, tL 30. § 7^ as the builder of 

torch in the Altia at Olympia, which was called 
y the Elmni the •* porch of Agnaptua." When 
be lived i> uncertain. [C P. M.] 

A'GMUS C'Ati'ioi}, (he bther of Tiphy^ who 
was the pilot of the ship Aigo (Apollod. L 9. g IGj 
Orph. Arycnt, 540), whence Tiphj* it called 
Agniadei. [L S.] 

AQNODICE {'AyiHiStini), the name of the 
earlieat midwife mentioned among the Greekt. 
She was a native of Athena, where it was 
Ibrbiddeu b^ law for * woman or a ilaie to 
itudy medicine. According, however, to Hyginus 
{FnA. 274X on whose anthority alone the whole 
■lory realB, it would aopeai tbal Agnodioe die- 
guiaed heneif in man't c1otheB,and >o contrived to 
attend the leciurea of a pbyaician named HJcio- 

'oral of the other pnu> 
titionera, by whom she was summoned before the 
Areiopagus, and accused of corrupting the morala 
of her palienli. Upon her rcfiiUug this charge by 
making known her aex, ahe waa immediately ac- 
cused of baring violated the eiiaiiug law, which 
second danger ahe escaped by the wivei of the 
chief peraoni in Athens, whom ahe had attended^ 
coming forward in her behalf and succeeding at 
last in getting the obnciiuua law aboliahed. No 
date wfaateirer is attached to this stary,bnl aeyera] 
persons have, by calling the tutor of Agnodice by 
the name of Herapiiliu instead of Hvm]Ailta, 
placed it in the third or fourth century before 
Christ. But this emendation, though at £nt sight 
Teiy vsy and pLauaible, doea not appear altogether 
free &om objectiona. For, in the first place, if the 
stoiy is to be believed at all upon the authority of 
Hyginus, it would aeon to belong rather to the 
fifth or sixth century befbro Christ than the third 
or fourth ; secondly, we have no reason for think- 
ing that Agnodice we* ever at Alexandria, or 
Hemphilua at Aiheua ; and thinlly, it seems 
hanily piohebls that Hyginus would have called 
so celebrated a physician "a artain HemphUiA,** 
[Henpldlut qaidam.) [W. A. O.] 

AGNON, a Greek rhetoridau, who wrote ■ 
work against rhetoric, which tjuintilian (iL 17. 
g 15} calls " Rheloricet accusalio." Rhunken 
^tri. OriL OtoL Oraie. p. ic] and after him 
moat modem scholart have canaiilered this Agnon 
to be the aame man as Agnonidet, the contempo- 
iBiy of Phocion, as the latter is in some MSS. of 
Com. Nepoa {Phoe. 3) called Agnon. 

tilian, shews that he is a rhetorician, w 
a much later period. Whether however be is the 
Ame as the academic philosopher mentioned by 
Athenaeus(xiii.p.603),cannal be decided. [L.S.J 
AGNO'NIDKS (^Ayimritr,)), an Athenian 
demigogne and sycophant, a contemporary of 
Theophnstus and Phocion. The former was ao- 
CDsed by Agnonides of impiety, but was acquitted 
by the Areiopagus, and Theophrastui might bare 
ruined his accuser, bad he been less generous. (Diog. 
Lsert T. 37.) Agnonides was opposed to the Ma- 
cedonian party at Athens, and called Phocion a tiai- 
tor, tor which he wni exiled, as soon as Alexander, 
son of Polysperchon, got posseiMon of Athens. 
Afterwards, faowerer, he obtained from Antipater 
permission to retqm to his country through tha 
mediation of Phodon. (Plut Pkoe. 29.) But 
the sycophant soon forgot what he owed to hia 
benebctor, and not only continued to oppose the 
Macedonian (larty in the most vehement manner, 
but even induced the Athenians to sentence Pho- 
cion ta death at a traitor, who had delivered the 
Peiraeeus inia the hands ofNionor. (Plut. Phoe. 
33,33; ConkNep. /•ioe.3.) But the Athenians 
soon repented of their conduct tawarda Phodon, 
and put Agnonides to death to ^pesse his tuanes. 
(Plut. PAob. 3B.} [L. S.] 

AOON ('ATtJr), a personificatian of solemn 
nteits [iymm). He was rcpieseutcd in a statue 
at Olympia with ii>.'Hipti in hia haiida. This tfa- 
was a work of Dioiiysina, and dedicated by 
Smicythua of Bhcgium. (Paus. v. 36. § 3.) [L. &J 

1 by Quin- 


AGCKNIUS CA->wn«i). a uunuiM or tpilhet at 
mnal gnU. AHchflni lAgam. 513) 4Ih9 Sopho- 
dM (TVsaL 36) an it of ApoUo and Zeoa, ud 
■fifuaitl} in tta« mum of helpen in itroggla ud 
taolou. (Comp. EiutaUi. ad II. p. 13SA.) Bal 
AgDoio* i< more e^woall; nanl u > inniuiM if 
Hianm, who pienda oTcr all kinili of lolBiini 
caolHU. ('ATwai, Pan*. T. 14. § 7 ; I^d. Ofy»p. 
n 133, wiih the SchoL) [L. i] 

AGORA'CRITUS ('Arr>piUf>rri>t), a famoiu 
•latsarj and Kulplor, bom in the iiland of I'aroi, 
wbo flgnriihed bum aboDt OL 85 to 01. B8. (Plin. 
H, y. eiitL 5. a. -I.) Ka wa* the &voiuite 
I«pil gf Pbidka (Pant. ix. 34. § 1}, wbo it ovea 
aid bj Plioj to have iucriW Hmg of hi> 
own woriu with the nam of hit diuipla. On); 
ibur of bta (ffodoctionA are iKiition«), til a ■tatue 
of Zeoa and ooa of tha lUmiaa Athena in the 
tonple of that goddni at Athena (Paiu. L e.) ; ^ 
•taloe, probaUj of Cjbale, in the temjde of the 
Gieat Ooddea at Atheni (Plin. L c.) ; mi the 
Rhaaoiiuian Noneiia. Respecting thk> lait work 
then baa been a great deal of disciudan. The 
aasont iriiiehPllnj give* of it k, that Agoracrilot 
contended with AJamenea (another diMinnuthed 
diiB^ of Phidiaa) in making a Matua of Veniu ; 
and that Ih* Athtniaiu, throagh an nndue par^ 
tia&tjr toward* their amntryman, awarded the 
victory to Aicantenea. Agoracrittu, indignant at 
' ' ^ ' ' e iligfat alteiatione » aa to 

fc hi> Veni 


the peopk of Rhaumiu, on condition that it ihould 
not be let up In Athena. Paiuaniu (i. 33, % 2), 
without layiDg a word aboal Agoraeritui, myt 
tloU the Rhammnian Neineut wu the mA at 
Pbidiai, and wai made oat of the block of Parian 
maihle which the PeniaiK under Datii and 
Art^ibeme* brought with them for the porpoae of 
Httilig np a trophy. (See Theslelni and Parme- 
nio^Jatla/. Or. /'laaxf.iT. 12,221,322.) Thii 
Bceoont bDwever hae been rejected a* brolring 
■ onfiiiiaD of the ideaa connected by the Oreek> 
with the gaddoM Nemaii. The atatna moreovei 
wat Dot of Parian, bat of Peatelie nurUe. ( Um- 
tdiled AmSaKitia i/ AOka, p. 43.) Sliabo (ix. 
p. SM), Tietie* (CUioif. vil 154), Soida* and 
Pbotana nve other Tariationa in ipeaking of thie 
MaDie. It Kcma generally agreed that Pliny's 
•ccoont of the matter is right in the main ; and 
there hare been varioqs diiaertatinis on the way 
in whidi a itatne of Venua could hate been 
(kangcd into one of Nanena. (Winckefauaau, 
SSaaillMii Wirtt TOD J. Eiteleiii, voL T. p. 364 ; 
Zo^a, AbiamOaigm, pp. 66—62; K. 0. Miiller, 
Ani. d. Kmal, p. 102.) [C. P. M.J 

AOORAEA and AOORAECS ('A>gp<i(B and 
ATOfoii i ), ue epithets given to ■evernl divinitiet 
who were eonsideied as the pcDtecton of the at- 
aernbUe* nf the people in the iryvpi, inch ai Zeni 
(Pans. in. 11. g B. v. IS. § 3), Athena (iiL 11. 
i 8), Anamis (v, 15. § 3), and Hem»*. (L 15. 
I I, iL 9. g 7, ii. 17. § 1.) At Hermei wat the 

facnec to the iropd as the market-place. [L. S.] 
AGRAEU3 CA^poaf). the hunter, a nmame 
of ApoUo. After he hul killed the lion of Cilhae- 
ren, a temp)* was erected to him by Atcalhons at 
Mfgara nnder the name of ApoUo Agranu. (Paul. 
L 41. S 4 ; EntUth. ad II. p. 361.) [L. S.] 

ATfWiA^). I. A daughter of Actatut, (he tint 


king of Athtoi. By her hntbaod, Cacropa, tha 
beaune the mother of Eiyuchthon, Agiaulos, 
Hena, and PandroM*. (ApoUod. iiL 14. g 2; 
Pant. i. 2. I S.) 

3. A daugbter of CecnqM and Agtauloi, and 
mother of Alcippe by Area. This Agraalot ia 
an important pertmag* in the itMiea of Attica, 
and there ware three difietent iHendt about her, 
I. AoBKding to Pautmiai (i. 18. f 2) and HyginUB 
(/U. 166), Athena gave to her and her uilert 
Erichlhoniua in a cbett, with the eipieti command 
not to open it. But AgnniM and Heite conM 
not oontral their euriotity, and opened it ; whem- 
upon they were tciisd with madneti at the tight 
of Erichthoniua, and threw thenuelvee frmi the 
iteep rock of the Acropolii, or according to Hyginu 
into the tea. 2. According to Ovid (M*t. ii, 710, 
&c), Agiaulot and her titter survived their open- 
ing the cheat, and the former, who had inttigated 
her titter lo open it, wat punithed in thit manner. 
Hermet came to Athent daring the celebration of 
tha PanBtbeoaea, and fell in love with Herte. 
Athena made Agianlot to jealout of her titter, that 
■he eren attempted to prevent the god entering 
the home of Hcne. But, indignant at toch pre- 
tumption, he changed Agianloi into a ttone. 
3. The third legend repr e ienta AgrauLo* in a 
totally distent %ht. Athent wat at one tirao 
involved in a loi^protracted war, and an onde 
declared that it would ceate, if tome one wonid 
ncriEce himtelf for tha good of hit country. 
Agranloi came forward and threw henelf down 
the Acropolii^ The Atheniant, in gratitude Ibr 
Ihia, Imilt her a temple on the Aoupi^t, in which 
it nibtequently became cuilomaiy for tha young 
Atheniant, on receiving their fint niit of armotir, 
to lake an oath that they would alwtyi debnd 
their coonlry to the latt. (Sujd. and Heiych. (. v. 
'Kyfiai\at; Ulman, ad DtmoiA. dtfaU. Ug.; He- 
rod.viiL63i Plut.,rfMM6; Philochorut, /Wa. 
p. 18, ed. Siebelit) One of the Attic Inficii 
(Agraule) derived itt name from thit heroine, and 
a feitivftl and myiteriet were celebrated at Athena 
in honour of her. (Stepk Byi. i. o. 'ATpaiAif ; 
Lobeck, Jy/a<7>L p. S9 ; Ditl. ^ A mL f. SO, %.) 
According to Porphyry (i)e,^ Wat. a5aiRiii'»!.i. 3), 
the Wat alto woMiipped in Cypnu, where human 
•ncfifieei were offioed to her down to a T«y lata 
time. [US.] 

AGRESPHON CATpfa^iw), a Oreek nam- 
marian mentioned by Suidat. (l e. 'AnAAifeut.) 
He wrote a work nijA 'Ofwr^M'* (conoeming per- 
tona of the lame name). He cannot have lived 
earlier than the reign M Hadrian, at in hit work 
he apoke of an ApoUontut who lived in the time of 
that emperor. [C. P. M.] 

AOREUS {'Ayptit), a hunter, occurt at a Mu> 
name of Pan and Arialaea*. (Pind. PfA ix. 115; 
Apallon.Rhod.iii 507; Diad.iT.81i Hetyeh. •,k; 
SMmu. ad Solm. p. 81.) [L. S.] 

the moit remarkable men whom we meet with in 
the timet of the firtt twelve emperort of Rome, for 
hit eitnordinaiy ability at a general, hit great 
powen, ihewn in hit govemment of Britain, 
and borne witneit to by the deep and nnivertal 
feeling eidled in Rome by hit death (Tee. ^^rwv 
43), hit aingular integrity, and the eateem and 
love whkih ha commanded in all tha private tel»- 
tioni of life. 

Hit life of 55 yean (from June 13tb, A. n. 37, 

. Ha «u bom at the Romui odonj of Foram 
Jolii, the modem Prijiu id Prorenee. Hu btbir 
WH Jnlina OnediiDi of teiutoruii lank ; hii mo- 
thw JnlB ProdllK, who Ihroughoal fail 
•eam to hue watch«d with gmt cu 
hxie everted gtml ioflnnia OTcr htm. He (tndied 

Ehilnophj (ua uibbI edaottian of 
i^ier nok) from fail loriiett joath 
Hi* fint militnrr Mrrice wu under Soeloai 
Paulina* in Oitain (*- ■>. 60), in th« nlalion of 
OnMbmudu. (See Did. of Ant f.2B*,L) Hena 
faa retomed to Rome, wu married ■- "—"■-- 
DeddiaiiB, and went the round of the i „ 
the qoaeilonhip in Ana (a. d. S3>, nnder the pio- 
mniul Saliina Titianua, where lui integrity 
^ewn hj hii rehual to jfln the proaianil in 
erdinaij ijitem of extortion in ue Reman pm- 
rineea; the (ribunUa uid the pnetorahip, — in 
NereV time men nominal nffioen, RUed with dan- 
ger to the man who held them, in which a prudent 
mactiTity wai the onljr tie amr». Bj Oalba 
(i. D. 69) he wai af^KHDled to examioe the laaHl 
property of the templea, that Nen'i tyttem of 
nihbery (Soeton. f^er. 82) might be (topped. ' 
Ihs lame year he loat hu mother ; it wae in 
taming from her funeral in Uguria, that he hi 
ef Veqxuian^ luimiiiii. and unmedistely joi 
hia party. Under Vaapaiian hi* fint Mrrice 
the GoouDand of the SOch legion in Britain, (j 
70.) On hia ntnm, he waa laiied hy the empeior 
to the rank of pUriaaa, and let eter the provij 
of Aqnitania, whioh ha held fiii three jan. (a. 
71-76.) He wi* recalled to Rome (o be elected 
amaal (i. D. 77). and Britain, the great acene af 
hi* power, va* given to him, by gtoienJ conaent, 
■a lua proiinee. 

In thii year he betrothed hi* duighler to 
hiatoriaii Taatua ; in the following he jbtb fat 
him in maniage, and wai madejDf eniOT of Bril 
and one of the college of poiiti&. 

Agricola waa the twdfth Roman genenl who 
had been in Britain ; h* wsa the only one who 
eonpletely eftecied the mA of mbjugation to the 
Roman*, not mars by hi* eonMimmiUe military 
akiU, than br hia maat^y palicy in re«oneiling the 
Briunii to ihat yoke wludi hitherto they hM *o 
itl boiiia. He tao^t them the arta and Inmriea of 
<iTili*ed Ufa, to arttU in tawna, to bnild eamfort- 
able dwelling-bonaee and templeL H^eatabliihed 
a ayatca of ednotion Ear tne aon* of (be Britiah 
ehidi, amangit whim at kat the Bomaa language 
wa* ^lokaa, and the Roman toga worn aa a 

Ha wa* foil aoTBn yew* in Britain, fnm the 
}wr A. D. 78 to A. n. Si. The kat oonqneat af hi* 
vednMior Julin* Frontinnt had been that of the 
Biltuea (SoDth Walaa); and the la*t action of 
AgTiaaU^ command wa* the action at the foot of 
the Grampian hill*, whidi pot him in poaaeaaian of 
Ua whcJa of Britain a* fin north a* the northain 
bonndaiT of Perth and Aig^e. Hi* lint campaign 
(a. n. 78) m* oeenpied in the teconqnaii of Uana 
(Ai^hMB), and tha Oidorke* (Morth Wale*), the 
■tnmgh<dda of the Dmidi ; and the remainder of 
thia year, with the mit, wa* giien to making the 
befl>i»-meotioDed u nuignneiit) for the (ecuiity of 
tha Roman dominion in the already conqnered 
part* of Britain. The third campaign (a. B. SO) 

carried him northward* to the Tnna,* pmbabTj 

the Salway Frith; and the fbuith (a. d. 81) wa* 
taken tip in fortifying and taking poaaeanon of 
Uu* tract, and sdrandng aa Ear north aa the Fritba 
of Clyde and Forth. In the Gfih campaign (a. o, 
83), he waa engaged in tnbdiiing the liibca on 
the promontory oppoiite Ireland. Id the aiith 
(a. n. 83), be eiidored with hi* fleet and land 
(oTCiea the coaat of Fife and For&r. coming now 
for the firn time into coDtsct with the tme (^ledo- 
niani. They made a night attack on his camp 
(believed to be at Loch Ore, where dilchee and 
other tj»ce* of a Roman ounp are itill to be Been), 
and mecaeded in neeriy dcalreying the ninth legion; 
bnt in the geneml battle, which fbllowod, they 
wen repulaed. The aeienth and laat campaign (a. d. 
Si) gave Agricola complete and entire poeaeaaioa 
of the conntry, up to the northemmoat point 
which he had reached, by a moat decided lictory 
orer the aaaembled Caledoniona under their genetal 
Oal^acn* (aa it ia belieTed, 6om the Roman and 
Brituh remain* found there, and from the two 
tnmoli or aepolchnJ caiina) on the moor of Murdoch 
at the ibot of the Grampian hills. In this campaign 
his fleet aaDed northward* from the coast of Fife 
ronnd Britain to the Trutulentian harboni (snp- 
po*ed to be Sandwich), thui for the fii*t time dia- 
coreiing Britain to be an island. He withdrew 
hi* army into winter qituters, and soon after ( a. n. 
84) wa* recalled by the jealou* Domitiau. 

On hi* retom to Rome, ha lived in retiranent, 
and when the gaiemment either of Aaia. ar Africa 
would have fidlen ta him, he considered it more 

Crudent to deeliiM the hononr. Ha died A. n. 93 1 
ia death waa, a* hi* hiagrapher plainly hint*, 
either immediately auscd or certainly haateoed 
hj the amisaarie* of the amperar, who eonld not 
bear the pieaence af a man pointed aat by univer- 
aal feeling aa akma fit ta meet the exigency at 
time* in which the Roman arma had auBered is- 
pealed reTene* in Germany and the conntiia* 
north of tha Danube. DionCaMin* (IiTi20) layi 
expreuly, that he m* killed by Domitian. 

In thu leoount we can do no more than refer to 
the beautiful and interesting description giian by 
Tadto* iAghc. 39 — i6) of hi* Ufa dnring hi* re- 
titement from office, hi* death, hi* peraon, and Ilia 
chaocter, which thongfa it had no fidd of action at 
home in that dreary tune, abewed itself dnring tha 
aeren yean in which it waa nnfatlared in Britain, 
aa great and wise and good. (Tacitn*, AgHnla.) 

There is as epigram at Antiphilns in tha Greek 
Anthology (Arnik. Snmdc il 180) upon an Agri- 
cola, which u commonly supposed to refer to the 
aelebrsCad one of this nunc. [C T. A.] 

AQRIO'NIUS rAjpuhm), a anmame of 
Dionysus, under which he was worshipped at 
OrBhomanna in Boealia, and from which his lesli- 
ral Agrionia in tfaat place derived it* name. {Did. 
o/A»t.p.3ai Mullar,OniloM.p.l66,Ae.) [L.S.] 

AGRI'OPAS, a writer spoken afby Pliny. («. 
JV. viii. 22, where some of the M3S- have Acopa* 
or Copa*.) He was the author of an account of tha 
Olympic victor*. [C. P. M.] 

AGRIPPA, an ancient n ' " 

' ' ^ 

,^,:cc; ..Google 



L 3.) A^ 

(Didae to AdIiu Oelliiu (nL 16), Plinr {H. [f. 
ni.C (.S), uid Soliniu (1), the word ugniiig> > 
VnL, t which tlia child it prewntnl vjlh iu lest 
'onBOMt i bat their derifrnticm of it from otgrt jiar- 
(wnpaualiMudeDoi^ (Cinnp.S«i. CM-filS.) 
A0aiPPArA7|i(irnu),a nptiialphiltHoplur, 
Mil; known to Iuitc lived later than Aeiteiidemiu, 
tba coDtaniiMnry of Cicero, frwn whgoi hs i> aid 
to bare been the Gfth in descent. He it quoted 
bf Diogenea I^ertiiu, who probkbl; wrou iboal 
tb« time of M. *"'""■""*, Tba "fire ^nndi of 
doubt" (at w^rrf ^fimi), wliidi ire giToi bv 
Sexto* Eiapihau aa > ramiuarj of the bter Kepli- 
ciam, en Mcribed bj Diogenc* l^ertiu (ix. 88) to 

II. The 

•d inlinitini : " aJl proof n^Bina hmm foHhet 
pnoC u)d ao im to infinity. 111. All thinga an 
(banged ai Ibeir ntationa becona changtd, or, ■* 
we loolc upon them id dtSonnt potnl* of new. 

IV. Ilie troth aweited ia menlr to hrpotheoa or, 

V. iD<olm t, licioua cinlft (Seitw EmpoicDa, 

With reCeruKC to tbeee Wrr* rpiwp, it ne«d 
odIj ba RBaAed, that the frat and third are a 
ahorl ammnarr of the ten original giaandaofdoobt 
which wua the bana of the eariin aoeptidaDL 
[PvBHHON.J The three additional oiiea ahew a 
ptogiraa in the aoeptica] ajatem, and ■ tianaitian 
from the ccmmon objectiODi derived from the blli- 
bilil; of tenae and opinion, to more tbattaet and 
ae t a p hjaical gnmnda of doubt. They aeem (o 

alkd i>7 Jowidia* [Ami. JM. iviL 3. | 2), 
Agiippa tha Onat," waa the ton of Ariatofaohia 
and BeiEoice, and giandaon rf Herod the Gieab 
Shortij befbra tha death ftf hia gnndbthtr, h« 
cwDO to RosM, where ha waa eduted with the 
future emparoT Clnndiua, and Drneai the aon of 
Tiberiua. He aqnandeied hia property in giving 
aumptaam enlertainmenta to giati^ hia princeljr 
friead*. and in beatowlng largenei on iIm freed- 
men of the empuor, and became ao deeply inTolred 
debt, that he waa compelled to fl; fnim Roma, 
d betook himaelf to a foitieu at Malatha in 
nmnwfc Thnnub the nwdialion of hia wifh 
Cypnla, with hi* uatar Henidiaa, the wife of He- 
rodju Antipaa, he waa allowsd to lake np hia 
abode at Tiberia*, and reeelTed the rank of aedile 
' I that dty, with a nnall jtariy ineame. Bat hav- 
ig qmuTdled with hia brother-iii-law, he fled to 
laccDo, the proconanl of Sjiia. Soon aftorwarda 
a waa ccmijcted, thran^ the information of hia 
nother Ariatobahui of haring ncuTed a bribe 
from the Damaioenea, who wiJisd to pnrehaaa hia 
inflocncc with tha procoaoil, and waa again cooi- 
pdled to At. He WH amatad oa be waa aboat W 
aail fat Itdj, liir a ama of money which he owed 
to the tieaanry of Caeanr. but made hia eacape, and 
nached Alexandria, where hi* wile aucceedod in 

died A. D. fiS, waa deacended fiom a family more 
ilhutriona than aaciimC, and did not diagiace it b; 
hia mode of lii^ (Toe ^«. ir. 34,61.) 

AORIPPA CASTOR ^hyfirwiu KAimf), 
■boat A. D. 1 35, praiaed aa a hiotoriao by £aae- 
Una, and for hii kaiming by St Jerome [d» Vmt 
JUif. c 21), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He 
wroU againat the twenty-foor booka of the Alei- 
andrku Qnoalic Baailido, on the Ooipel. Quota- 
tiona an made from hii work by EoaebiDi. {HuL 
Seeitt. ir. 7 ; aee Oallandi^ BiHiadiKca Pama, 
ToL L p. SSO.) [A. J. C] 

AORIPPA, FONTEIUS. 1. Ooeoftheac- 
cueen of Libo, *. D. 16, ii again mentioned in 
A. n. 19, aa ofeimg hia daoghter lot aveatal vir- 
gin. (Tac ^•t. iL 30, 88.) 

2. ProbaUj the aon of the preceding, conmand- 
ed the pnvinoa of Alia with prD-conaiiiir poi 
A. n. ea, and wh recalled from thence by Veapn- 
■tan, and tJaeed over Hoaria in ^ D. 70. He 
waa ahortly aflnwanl* killed is hattia b; the Sar- 
maCiaM. (Tac Hkt. m. 46; Joeepb. " ' ' 
TiL 4. I B.) ^ 

tm (^o. iL SI) the propinqnna of Oerma 
waa tribvne of the plebe a. d. IG, pnator a. d. 17, 
and eonaol A. n. 33. Mil moal chanclo' waa 
veiy law, and he ia apoksi of in 

<Tac Amm. L 77, iL SI, »i 49, S3, ri. 4.) 

Alaiareh. ! 

. and landed at PDleoli, 
Di^y received by Tibtrina, who en- 
Inuted him with the education of hia grandton 
Tiberioa. He alio fbmed an intimacy wiih CaJui 
Calignk. Having one day incaotioDBly arpreaeed 
a wuh that the Utier might aoon ancceed to (he 
throne, hia worda were reported by hia freedman 
EDtychu* to Tiberiua, who fiirthwith ihnw him 
into priion. Calignto, on hia aeceaoion (a. a. 37). 
let him at liberty, and gave him the teBarchiea of 
Lyaaniaa (Abilene) and Philinna (Bataaaaa. 
Trachonitia, and Anranitia). He olao p w aanted 
him with a golden chain of equal weight with tha 
iron one which he had worn in priaon. In the 
fidlowing year Agrippa lodi poaaeaaion of hia kinf- 
dom, and after die bani^unent of Herode* Antipaa. 
the latnichy of the lallar waa added to hi* domi- 

On the dmth of Calignla, Agrippa, who waa at 
tha Ubis in Rome, malariallj aaaiated Claudiua in 
gainiDg pnaawaion of the ampin. Ai a nward for 
hi* lervicea, Jodoca and Samaria wen anneied to 
hi* dominioaa, which were now eioi men eiten- 
aiye than thoae of Herod the Oieat He wu alio 
inveaCad with the conaolai dignity, and a league 
WM publicly made with him by Ctondina in the 
romm. At hia requeat, tha kingdom of Chalda 
waag^naitohiabrother Herode*. (A.n,4l.) Ha 
then went to Jeruaolem, when he ofiered aaciificea, 
and awpendad m the treaaoiy of the tempEe the 
golden duin which Caligula had given him. Hi* 
govamment waa mild and gmtk, and he wa* ex- 
ceedingly popnlar amot^at the Jew*. Id the dty 
of Beiytua he bnih a tbaaln and ani[diitfiealTe, 
ha^a, and porticoe*. The aanicianB oT 
pmrented him from finiahing the imprc( 
tiheationa with which he had begim to amnmnd 
Jenualem. Hit biendihip wa* courted by many 
of the neighbouring king* and nilera. It wa* 
probably to inereaie hia popularity with the Jew* 
that ke muaed the apoaUa Jane*, tbe Wothtl <f 
John, la be beheaded, and Peter to be coat into 




pcunn. {*, D. 44. Acti, xii.) It wu not hovcrer 
inerdf by mch kU that ta> Mnre to win iheii 
bioBT, u we •eg rrom tlM my in which, kt the 
riik of hie own life, or at Icut of hi> liberty, he 
{ntereeded with Cejignk dq behalf of the Jewe, 
when that emperor wm attcmpliiig to Ht np hit 
■tune in the temple at Jenuidisni. The mannet 
of hit death, which took place at Ceeearai in the 
nma year, ai he wu eihibiting game* in honour 
of tb« emperor, i> related in AcU lii.. and ii con- 
firmed in all eumlial pointe hy Joiephat, who 
rcpeeli Agrippa'i woidi, in which he ackiiowlcdsed 
the jiutice of the pnninhment that inflicted on him- 
After lingering five daya, he ejpirsd, in the fifty- 
Iburth year of si* age. 

By hia wife Cypro* he had a mo named Agrippa, 
and three dan^tcn, Berenice, who firat numed 
her uncle Heiodei, king of Chalcii, afterwarda 
livad with her bralher Agtippa, and aabaaqnently 
manied Pohuno, kil^; of Cilicia ; the ia alluded to 
by JoTinal (jilt, tl 156); Maiiamne, and Dnuilla, 
'io married Fslii, the proCTualor of Jndaea. (Ji 

UhL I 

I. § 2, I 

i. *.8, X 

. 4-Bi 

BdLJwL L28. gl, ii. 9. 11; Dion Caia. li. S ; 
L'uaeh. HI)L Ealtt. ii. 10.) [a P. H.] 

AORIPPA.HKRO'DElS IL, the ion oCAgrippa 
I., waa edooUed at the court of the empraor Clan- 
diua, and at the time of hit fathtr't dea^ waa only 
teraiteeu yeara old. Claodina thetefoie kept him 
at Rome, and aent Cnipiat Fadoa aa procnrator of 
the kingdom, which thua again became a RoniaQ 
pmrinco. On the death of Hemdet, king of 
Cbalcii (a. d. 48), hia little principality, with the 
right of aupetintending the temple and appointing 
tbt high piieat, waa giren to Agrippa, who fbu- 
yean afterwirda nceired in itt ilead the tatrar- 
chica tornierlv held by Philip and Lyianiaa, with 
the title of king. In A. D. 65, Nero added the 
dtiea of Tiberiat and Taricbeaa in Galilee, and 
Jiiliat, with fourteen Tillage* nmr it, in Peraea. 
Agrippa <:(pended Inigr auma in beantifying Jeni- 
mlem and other citio, etpecially Beiytoi. Hia 
paniaUty for the latter nnderpd him unpopalar 
■■■ 1 tubjecta and the caprieii 

: of dialike 


loit the outbreak of the war with the Romana, 
Agrippa attempted in Tain to ditmade the people 
fmni rebelling. When the war waa began, he 
tided with the Romana, and waa wounded at the 
aiege of Gamala. After the capture of Jermaleo], 
he went with hia aiater Berenice to Rome, where 
he wai inteitad with the dignity of piaelor. He 
died in the aeventieth year of hia age, in the third 
year of the leign of Tiajan. He waa the taat 
prince of the bouae of the Heroda. It waa before 
thia Agrippa that the apoatle Paul made hia de- 
fence. (>. D. SO. A<t$. XXI. nn.) He Hied on 
ternit of intimacy with (he hiitorian Joaaphna, 
who hat preterred two of the lettera he raceiied 
from him, (Jotq>h. AaL J»d. iriL b. % 4, xiz. 9. 
3 2, IX. 1. S 3, £. § a, 7. g 1, 8. § 4 A 1 1, S. B 4 ! 
nca.Jml. ii. 11. 9 6, 12. § 1, 16, 17. g I, it. 1. 33i 
ya. a. fl4 ; Phot Old. 33.) [C. P. M.J 

AORIPPA, MAKCIUS, a nuui of the lowest 
origin, waa appointed hy Hacrinni in B. c 217, 
(irtt to the goTemracnt of Pannonia and afier- 
*- ■- -MofDacia. (Dion. Caaa. Iixiiii. 13.) 


le flee^ who it mention 

Spartianna at priry to the death of Anuoinua 
CsncaUua. (^irfafi. Gir. ti.) 


AORIPPA PO'STUMUS, a poathnmona ton 
of M.Vipaanint Agrippa, by Julia, the daughter ot 
Angnatua, waa bom in a. c. 13. He waa adoptad 
by Augnitua together with Tiberiua in A. D. 4, 
and he ataumed the toga Tiriiia in the following 
ynir, A. D. B. (Snet. 6li«ie. 64, 65; DlOD Que. 
)i>. 29, If. 22.) Notwitbatanding hia adoption he 
wai atlerwardt taniahed by Auguttua to the iakutd 
of PUnatia, on the coatt of Cornea, a diagrace 
which he incurred on account of hit tarage and 
intractable cboiactu' ; but be wot not gnilty of 
any crime. There be waa under the mrreiUance 
of aoldlert, and Aiiguitua obtained a Benaluacon- 
aultum hy which the baniahment wot kgollj- con- 
firmed tar the time of hia life. The pToportj of 
Agrippa waa aaaigoed b; Auguatui to the treanii^ 
of the army. It ia aaid that during hiicaptiTily 
ho received the ridt of An^atut, wlio aecretiy 
went to Ptanaaia, accompanied hy Fabina Moii- 
mna. Augntlna and Agnppa, both deeply affected, 
abed lean when they met, and it wai beliet- 
ed that Agrippa would be restored to liberty. 
But the newt of thia liait rtached Livia, the 
mother of Tiberiot, and Agrippa remained a cap- 
tire. Afler the acceaaion of I'iberioa, in a. d. 14, 
Agrippa waa murdered by a centurion, who en- 
tend hia priion and killed him after a long 
itruggle, for Agrippa waa a man of great bodily 
atiength. When the «nturion afkerwoida went to 
Tiberiua to give him an afcotmt of the execution, 
the emperor denied baring giren any order for it, 
and it ia Tery probable that Liria ma the aecret 
author of the crime. There waa a tumour that 
Augutlna bad left an order he the execution of 
Agrippa, but thii i> poaitiiely contradictsd by 
Tacicna. (Tac. Am. i. 3—6 ; Dion Cata. W. 32, 
IriL 3; Suet.'.ii, 716.22; VeOei. il 104. 112.) 

After the death of Agrippa, a ilaTo of the name 
of Clemen^ wbo waa not informed of the murder, 
huided on Planaaia with the iutenlion of leatoring 
Agrippa to liberty and carrying him off to the 
army in Oermony. When he heard of what bad 
taken plaoe, be tried to pn^t by hit groit [«aem- 
blance to the murdered captive, and he gare hini- 
•elf out aa Agrippa. He landed at Ottia, and 
foimd many who boUcTed bim, or alfected to 
believe him, but he wai teiaed and pot to death 
hy order of Tiberiua. (Tac. Amt. il 39, 40.) 

The name of Agrippa Caeear it finuid on a medal 
of Corinth. [W.P.J 

AORIPPA, VIBULE'NUS, a Roman kui^t, 
who took poiaon in the aanale hooie at the time of 
hia trial, A. d. 36; he bad brought the pMton with 
him in a ring. (Tac. An. n. 40 ; Dion. Caaa. 
Iriii. 21.) 

AORIPPA, M. VIPSA'NIUS, waa bom in 
B. c 63. He waa the un of Luelua, and wat de- 
aonded fnim a very obacure fiunily. At the age 
of twenty he atudiad at Apollonia in lllyria, toge- 
ther witli young Octaviut, afterwardt Ociavianua 
and Anguitua. After the moniei of J. Caeiar u 
H. c 44, Agrippa waa one of thoee intimate friendt 
of OctaTiua, who adriaed him to proceed immedi- 
ately to Rome. Octariua took Agrippa with him, 
and charged him to receive the oath of fidelity &om 
Mveral li^oni which bod declared in hia fiivour. 
Hiving been choien conanl in n. c 43, Getanut 
gave to hia friend Agrippa the delicate commiaeiwa 

li proKCDting C. Cunna, ddb of the mnrdcren of 
J. Clear. At the oatbink of the PcnuiDiiu war 
betwni Octaniu, now OctaTiannt, and L. Anto- 
miu, in B. c 41, Agri[fi«, vba wu then pnetOT, 
tataimoiaA put of the brcca of Octaviuiu, uid 
■ftcr diKinguuhiii^ hinuelf b^ ikilful inaiioeaTrei, 
ba^eged L. Antoniiu \o PemiiB. He took tbe 
Uiwn in B. c 40, and Umrdi tbe end of tbe mne 
Tsr ntook Sipontnni, which had (idleu into tbe 
tiaiida of M. AntDiuiHL In a. C. 38, Afi^)]» ob- 
tuned freeh ttKcw in ObdI, where b* gnelled a 
rer^ of the nUiTe cbie& ; he ilia penjctiBted into 
Otmnxj H br u tbe cttunti; of the Cnlti, uid 
tmupluted tbo Ubii to tbe. left buik of tbe 
BJune ; whereupon he 
renlted Aqnitani, whran he 
dience. Hi> Ticloriea, eqHCBlly 
contributed modi to ■Beming tbe power of Octan- 
eaitt. ukl be wm recalled bj him to Dadertake the 
fonuBand of the war againM Sei. Pompeiu, 
which waa OD the point of Dreaking oat, B. c. 37. 
OctaviuiDa offered him a triumph, which Af 
declined, but sceepted the connlihip, to whi 
•mt pnrinoted bj OctaTianna in B. c S7. Dioi 
Cunna (ilniL 19) leema to ny that he «a* con- 
■dI when he went to Oaul, but the word* inAnvt 
Si iteii Amxlaii TiKXev item to be an^iiciona, 
Bnleaa tbey are to be interted a little higher, after 
the paaaage, t# It Ay^wwf T^r mi rovrurov 
wapaffHMJr iyxtpi""', which refer to an event 
which took place dnring tbe conanlahip of AgHppL 
Far, iminedintelj after bis pmmotion to thii dj^ 
nilT, he waa charged by Octarioniu with the coo- 
Mmction of a fleet, which wu the more ceceMarj, 
w Seitot Pompey wu matter of the aea. 

Agrippa, in whom thongfata nnd deedi were 
nerer aefBrated (Velld ii. 79), executed Ihia 
order wiUi pnnnpt eneigf. The Loctine lake 

ch Apima 

hariwor, which he called the Jcdian port in honour 
of Oelananua, and where he eieiciaed hit lailan 
and marinera till thej veie able to encounter the 
cjcperienced aoilozi of Pompey. In & c 36, Agrip- 
pa defeated Sex. Pompej fint at Mjlae, and aiki^ 
mrdt at Naulochiu on the coait of Sidly, and the 
latter itf tbete rietoriea broke tbe naval lupremacy 
of Pompey. He nKcived in conaequence the ho- 
ir of a naval crown, which waa firat conferred 
«i bin ; diaugfa, according to other autboritiet, 
L Vaira waa tbe fint who obtained it from Pom- 
pej the Oieat (Vellei. ii 8t ; Liv. 



a. H, N. I 

. i; Virg. 

in B. c 3£, Agiippa had tbe command of the 
war in Illvria, and afterwardi aerved onder Octa- 
vianoa, when tbe latter had proceBded to that coun- 
try. Qn hia return, he volunteiily afflepted the 
■edilcabip in & c. 33, although he had been conaol, 
and expended immenie aumt of money upon great 
pnUSo woika. He rettoml the Appian, Mircian, 
and Animian aqueduct*, conetrecled a new one, 
fifteen milea in length, from the Tepola to Rome, 
to which he gave the name of the Julian, in honoor 
of OctavBDita, and had an immenae uumbei of 

within the tovn. He alto bad the large cloaca of 
Tarquiniu Priema entirely deanaed. Hi* Tarioua 
werke wne adorned with Matnei by the firal ar- 
Ikta of Rome. TheM iptendid buildinga he ang- 
■iiitnJ in a. C 37, during hia third contnlahip, by 
aennl others and among tbeie wat the Pantheon, 


on which we ttill read the inacription : "H. Agiippa 
L. F. Col Tertium fecit." (Dion Caaa. ilii. 4S, 
liii. 27 1 Plin. /f. N. mvi. 15. •. 24 $ 3; Stiab. 

p. 23£ ; Fion^. De Aifuaed. 9.) 

When tbe war Inroke oat betwaen OelaTianu* 

Corinth; and in the battle of Actinm (a c SI) 
eommanded, the victny wu Dtainly 
owing to hia ekilL On bit return to Rome in 
B. c. 80, Octavianna, now Augnatua, rewarded 
him with a " veiiUDm caenlenm," or aeagwuin 

In B.a28,Agrippabec8maoonanlfbrtheaecoud 
time with AiguatBt, and about thit time mairied 
hfareetb, the niece of Anguttut, and the daughter 
c^ hit titter Oclavia. Hit former wife, Pompouia, 
'^e daughter of T. Pomponiut Atticnt, wu either 

ad or divorced. In Uie following year, a. c S7i 
was again connil the thiid time with Augnttui. 

In B. c 26, Agrippa accranpsnied Anguttua (■) 

e war egointC ^e Canabriant. About this time 
Jealouaj- ante between him and hia biother-iu-law 
Maicellut, the nephew of AugutCut, and who 
aeemcd to be deatjued at bit nicceaaor. Angnitnt, 
anxiooi to prevent difiereucea that might have bad 
terioiu coDtequenoea lor him, aent Agrippa u pro- 
consul to Syria. Agrippi of couna left Rome, but 
he itopped at Mitylene in the itland of Letboa, 
leaving the government of Syria to bit legate. 
The apprebention* of Auguatut were removed by 
the death of Marcellni in a c 23, and Agrippa 
immediately retumed to Roma, where he wat the 
ily expected, as tronblet had broken 
' ■ ■" ' ■■ ' " c 21. 

out during the election 
Anguttua n ' ' ' 

lit &ithful friend 
family, and accordingly induced him 
lo oivorca nu wife Moieella, and marry Julia, the 
widow of Marcellut and tbe daughter of Auguttui 
by hia third wife, Scribonia. (b.c.31.) 

In B^ C. 19, Agripi* went into Oaul. He peci- 

fiad the turbulent nativea, and conxtmcted four 

gieat public roadi and a aplendid aqueduct at 

Nemausut (Ntnet). From thence he proceeded 

Spain and aubdued the Cantabriana aftera tbort 

.tl - ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 


did be accept a triumph vbich Anguilus o%red 
him. In B.C. IB, be wu invetted with the tribn- 
nicdan power for live yeaii together with Augntlnt ; 
and in the tbllowing year (b. c 17), hia two tone, 
Caiut and Ludu, wen adopted by Augnatua. 
At the cloaa of the year, he accepted an invit*- 
tion of Herod the Oreat, and went to Jeniaa- 
lein. He founded the military colony of fierytoa 
(Beyrul), thence he proceeded in B. c 16 to tbe 
Pontst Euiinua, and compelled the Boaporani to 
accept Polemo for their king and to reetore the 
Roman eaglea which had b«n taken by Mitbri- 
dates. On hit return he itayed aome time in 
Ionia, where hs granted priiilegea to the Jew* 
whose caute wu beaded by Henid ( Joaejdi. Anti}. 
Jud. xvL 2), and then pniceeded to Rome, where 
ha arrived in B. c. 13. After hit tribunidan power 
had been prolonged for fire yean, be went to Pan- 
nonia to rettore tranquillity to that province. He 
returned in a c 12, after having been luccewfiil 
at utnai, and retired to Campania. There be di-d 
nneipectedly, in the month of Marah, A. c 1 2, in 


hii 51M jta- HU bod; wu earrjtd ta Rome. 

and wat burled in the mwiuleiua of Angiutot, 
<riin hiiSKlf piononnced a fnnoml ontum otbt ib 

Dion Cauini IcU* ni (iii. I.&c), tiut in the reu 
■. c 29 Angiutiu auembled hit &iendi and coaii- 
■ellon, Agnppft and MaacecuH, demanding their 
opinion u to whether it would ba adiinble fiir 
him to ninrp monaichical power, or to reetore to 
the niition it* fbnner republican government. 
Thi» u eomboiHied bj Snotonini (Octan. 38), 
who Mj* that Angutaa twice deliberated upon 
thai labjael. Tbe ipaeche* which Agrippa and 
Maaeenai deliverBd on tbti ooouion are i^Tea bj 
Dion CaauDt; bat tbe artilicial character of them 
nak« thna toqiicioiii. HoweTer it doei not leeni 
likal; ftom the general character of Dion Caadua 
w ■ hiilorian that theas ipeecbea are inrented bj 
him ; and it 11 not improbable, and aach a auppt^ 
sition niita enlinly the character of ADgailai, 
that ihoM ipeechea were nallf prononnoed, thoDgh 
preconoerled between Angnatoa and hii conniallor* 
to maks the Ronun nation belicTe that the &te of 
the lepoblic wu atill a matlar of diacniuon, and 
that Angnitiu wtmU not aaninie monarchica] power 
till be had been eonnnced that it wa* neoeenrj 
far the wel&te of the Dilion. Beaidea, Agr^tpa, 
who aacoiding to Dion Caadoa, adned ADgiatna 
to Katon the republic, waa a man iriioae political 
Bfrinion* had evidenll* a monarchieal teodancjr. 

Agrippa wai o» of the moat diatingiiahed and 
nnpoitant men o( (he ago of Auguatna. Ha 
nnat be conaidcred ai a chkr lopporl of the tiling 
nonarehical conititution, and without Agrippa 
Angiutns coald Karcelj have mccseded in luldng 
himielf the abaolate maitffi- of the Roman 'em|nr«L 
Kmi CbauDi (lii. 29, &c>, Velleiu Patarcnloa 
(K. 79), Sanaa (£>. 94}, and RoiBoe_((M. L «), 
qieak with eqnal admiration of hia mariu. 

Plinj conataullf raCera to die ' Commantaiti'' of 
Agrtppa ai an aathorit; (Elenchua, iii. it. t. ti, 
eomp. iii. 3), which may indicate certain official 
liita drawn np by him in the meaninment of the 
Roman world under Angnatoa [AcraiciTaJ, in 
which he ma; have taken part 

Agrippa Ml aeteral children. B; hii Grat wife 
Pomponia, be had Vipaanta, who wu nuiriKl to 
Tiberiui Caetar, the nunaaor of Aognitiu. B; 
fail aecond wife, Mamlla, he had aeveral children 
who an not mentioned i and by hii third wife, 
Julia, he had two danghten, Jnlia, married to 
L. Aemiliat Paalloa, and Agrippina married to 
Garmanicua, and three uni, Caini [Ciuin, C], 
Ludni [Cawah, L.], and Aoriffa PoRTOiina. 
(Dion Can. lib. 4&-54 ; LiY. EpH. 117-136; 
Appian, BtIL Oia. lib. B ; Soet. Oslan.; Frandien, 
M. Pqwtawf JgnjjM, *mi iUoriiiit UxtemidHpig 
Stir daam Ltkm latd Whttm, Altona, 1836.) 

Then an laTetal madala of Agrippa: in the ana 
figured below, he ii repreaenied with a naral 
crown; on the rerene ii Neptnne indicating hu 
«. [W. P.] 


AORIPPl'N A I., tbe yonngeit daiuhler of SL 

Vip«nini Agrippa and of JdIw, the danghler of 

Angutm, wai bom lome time befon b. c. 12. 

She married Caewr Oeimuiicni, the »n of Draini 

, b; whoir 

e diil- 

dnn. Agrippina waa gifted wilb gT«at powera 
of mind, a noble chancter, and iU the moral 
and phjDcal qualitiea that conitituted the model 
of a Rimuui matron : her lore fbr her buaband wai 
lincDie and laiting, her chaitit; wai ipotieaa, her 
ferritit; wai a virtne in tbe ejei of the Romani, 
and her attachment to her children araa an emi- 
nent feature of her chancier. Sha jieldad t» one 
dangeroui paiuon, amtutton. Aogiutaa ahewed 
her partienlar attention and attachment. (Soetoii. 

At the death of Angnitna In A. D. \i, ihe waa 
on tbe Lover Rhine with Oennanieni, who oam- 
mindrd the legiona there. Her hniband wnt the 
idol of tbe arm;, and the legimi on the Rhine, 
diuatiified with the aocetuon of Tiberioi, mani- 
fealed their intention of proclaiming Oennanicua 
- '-' """' hated and dreaded 


Gnt will!. In thia perilona litnation, Qennani 
and Agrippina laTed tbemwlTea b; 
energ; ; be qtieUed the oatbrtflk an 
var agninit the Gerraana. In the 

Qsrmanicoa, and he ahewed ai much antipath; (a 
Agripjuna, m he bad loTe to her eldn aatar, hi* 



_. , lua made an ;' 

into Oenoao;, retnmed t 
ounpugn wu not inglorioua fbr ine nomana, out 
the; were worn ont b; hardihipa, and perbapa 
hanimd on their manh b; mne band* of Gst^ 
mana. Thm the nunont wu ipread that tbe main 
bod; of the Oermani wu ^iprmchiug ta iniada 
(laid. Oermaninia was abanit, and it wai pro- 
poaed to deitn; the bridge orat tbe Rhine. 
(Camp. Strab. ir. p. \H.) If thia had been done, 
the retreat of Caeana'i arm; woold Ibtb been cnt 
of^ hot it wai laTed b; tbe firm oppodtion of 
Agrippina to mch a cowardly meuare. When 
the troopa ^pnached, iht went to the bridge, 
acting Bi a general, and reoeiting the »1diai a* 
the; croued it ; Ihe wonnded among them wen 
preiented by her with clotbei, and the; ncriied 
from her own handi ever;thing neceuar; for the 
cure of their wonnda. (Tat ^aa. L 69.) Oer- 
minieni baring been recalled by Tiberiui, ihe ac- 
companied her huiband to Alia (a. d. 17), and 
after hi* death, or rather mardar [OEnHaNiciiH], 
iho retnmed to Ilalj. She atayed lom* dayi at 
tbe iiland of Corcjra to recover ' ' 
and then landed at Brundnrimn, 
two of her children, and holding : 

with the aahea of her hoaband. At the new* 
of her arrival, Ihe port, the walla, and errn the 
~"'~ ' the bon*** ware occapied b; erowdi oT 
iw were anrioni to lae and nlute her. 
•olemnl; received by the otBcen of two 
iborta, which libarin* had lent to 
Bnindiniom fbr the pnrpon of aceompanring her 
to Rome ; the tim containing the aaho* of German 
nicu wai borne by tribnnei and cestDrioni, and 
the fbnenl procearion wai received on its march 
b; the Dta^tratei of Cabbria, Apulia, and Cam- 
pania ; b; Dnira*, the Km of Tiberiui ; Claodini, 
the bratbar of Oennanieni ; b; the ollur ehitdien 

er griei; 


Duuv toua jtmit Tibarina diignued hii hatred 
■f Agrin>>»' • but ihe •oon beame eipoKd to 
MOM acGDMknu ind iulriguea. She uked th« 
cmperor'a peimuaon to chooM anolhec hiutvnd, 

pntpoution. SejocuB, vho exercwd bji □nbound' 
«d mauenm dtbt Tibmua, then a prey ta menul 
diMrdei*! peniuded Agiippiu that Qie naperar 
iotcaded to poiaon her. Alonned at auch a report^ 
ake nfiued to eat an apple which the Brnpeior 
ofleiBd- b«r tma hia tabic, and Tiberiat in hii 
tarn complained of Agrippina regarding him 
a* ft poijoner. According lo Suetouiiu. all thiA 
1 inlrigae pcecoscerted betv 

ud Sejaniu, who, ai 

L. bad E 

l^ui of leading Asripjuna 
rina waa exlnmelj aoipicioua of Agrippina, and 
■hend hia hoatits feelingi hy *lluuv« wordt or 
Bq;kc(ful tiluiee. There were no erideDceg of 
ambitiona plana fonned by Agiippina, hat the 
tmnoar kaTing been a^oeod that ue would fly to 
the aimy, he bamahed her U> the ialand of Pan- 
dataria (a. d. 30) vhere her mother Julia had 
died in «iile. U«t aona Nero and Dniaua wfln 
likawiae baniahed and both died an nnnatuial 
daath. She lired three yasra on that bairan 
ialand ; at hut ahe refoaed to take any food, 
and died moat probably by Tolantaiy atarratiDn. 
Her AtaXh took place preeiiely two yean after and 
on tbe aane date aa the tnurder of Sejonna, that ii 
in A. D. 33. Tacitna and Snelontna tell oa, that 
Tibeiina boaated that he had not Mrangled her. 
l&utoo. TiL 5S;T*c An. Ti. 26.) The aahea 
of Agripirina and thoee of her aon Nero ware 
afterwards brought to Rome by older of her loii, 
the emperor Cal^nU, who acrnck Tuiona medala in 
hononi of hia mother. In the one fignred below, 
the head of Caligula ia on one aide and that of hia 
notber on the other. The wordi 
Etitely, i;, caBsaa. xvo. oi 



with M. Aemiliaa Lepidui, the huahand of 
Liter DruailU, bani^ed her lo tka ialand of 
Pontia, which vaa aituated oppotile the bay of 
Caiata, aft the ccut of Italy. Her liiter DniaiUa 
likenite baniahed lo Pontia, ani it aaema 
; their exile waa connected with the poniah- 
Lt of Lepidoi, who wai put to death far baring 
ipired agninat the emperor. PreTlonaly to her 
exile, Agiippina wat compelled hy her brother 
to rarry to Home the aahea of Lepidua, Thii 
happened in a. d. 39. Agrippina and her aial^ 
■rere relaaaed in A. D. 41, by their nncle, Clnu- 
liui, iminediately after hia aceeaaiun, Although 
lia wife, Meiuliua, wai the mortal enemy 
if Agiippina. Meaaalina waa pat In dwth by 
Older of ClaadiuB in a. n. 48 ; and in the fallaw- 
idg year, a. d. 49, Agrippina succeeded in miir- 
rying the emperor. Claudiua waa her oncie, hat 
her marriage waa legaliaed hj a aenatuacon nul- 
lum, hy which the maniage of a man with hia 
bro^er'a daughter vat dechued ralid ; thia tenatua- 
CDOtullam waa afterwarda abrogated hy the emper- 
on Conatantine and Conatoni. In thia intrigue 
Agrippina diaplayed the qoalitiea of an accocnpliahed 
conrlezan, and tuch waa (he influence of her cbanna 
and luperior tslcnta oter the old emperor, that, in 
prejndice of hia own aon, Brilannicua, he adopt- 
ed Domiiiua, the ion of Agrippina by her £nt 
hnaband, Co. Domiliaa AhenDborbua. (a. d, jl.) 
Agrippina was wtiatad in her aeeret plana by 
PalhUL, the petfidioiu confidant of Claudiua. By 
her intrigue*, L. Junina Silonua, tha busband of 
OctaTu^ tha danghter of Claudiua, waa pal to 
death, and in a. D. 63, Oelaria waa marned to 
yoimg Nen. Lotlia Paultina, once the ri>a] of 
Agrippuia for tha band of the emperor, waa accui.ed 
of high treason and condemned to death ; hut ahe 
pat an end to her own life. Uomitia Lepida, the 
aister of Cn, DamiiJua Ahenoherhua, met with a 
aimilar &te. A^r having thua removed tboae 
whoae rimlahip aha dreaded, or whoae virtues the 
envied, Agrippina Tanlved ID get rid of hei hna- 
band, and to govern the enipin through her aacco- 
dency over her un Nero, hi 

(Tie. Am. L— tL i Snelon. Odm. 64, Tik 
CUiff. Le.i Dion. CaaL IviL 6, 6, Iviii. 22.) [W. P J 

AOBIPPI'NA II., the datighter of Oermani- 
ens and Agrippina tha elder, dao^ter of M. 
Tipanini Agrippa. She waa born hetvaen A. v, 
13 and 17, at the OpiHdnm Ubiorum, afterarardi 
called in honoar of her Colonia Agrippina, now 
Cologne, and then the head-quarten of tha legioni 
annmaoded by her &ther. In a. n. 38, aha mar- 
ried Co. DondthH Ahenotsrboa, a man not nn- 
Hke her, and whom ahe loot in a. n. 40. After 
Ilia death ahe roairied Ciiapua Poaaienna, who died 
■tma yean afterwaida ; and she was aceaied of hav- 
ing poiaoued him, either for the purpoae of oblain- 
btg hia great fintone, or Ibr aome aeeret motive ol 
Bmeh higher impntance. She waa already known 
lor her acandaloua conduct, for bar luait perfidi 
MM inlrignea, and for an anboonded ambition 
She waa aeeoaed of having connnitled inceat witl 
her own hnither, the emperor Cuna Caligula, 
wbo under the pretext of having diacovered 

wbo under the pretext 
Am aha had IJvad in an 

- of thia 

ioae, AgTTppina, atsiited by Locuata and Xen 
a Qieek physician, poiaoned the old empcmr, in 
A. D. £4, at Sinueaaa, a watering-phica lo which 1 ; 
ba had letited lor the aake of hia health. N'eco , . 
waa proclaimed emperor, and pnienled lo the 
troopa hy Burrua, whom Agrippina had appointed 
prnefectna pnetorio. Narcis>«a, the rich frecdman 
of Claadiiia, M. Jonini Silanua, proconaul of Atia, 
the brother of L. Jnniui Silonna, and a great- 
grandaon of Anguatna, loat their Ijirea at the insti- 
gation of Agrippina, who would have augmented 
the number of bar vjctuna, hut for the oppoaition 
of Burrua and Seneca, recalled by Agrippina from 
hia exile to conduct tha education of Nero. Mean- 
while, the young empeivr took tome atepa to ahake 
off the iniupportable aacendency of hia mother. 
The jsdouay of Agrtpphia roae from her aon'a pa- 
aion for Acte, and, after her, for Poppaea Sabuia, 
the vrife of M. Salviua Otho. To reconquer hia 
afieclion, Agrippina employed, but in vain, meat 
daring and moat revolting meana. Sbe threatened 

<e Britannii 
1 aoUciled her a 

a poiaoned by Nen 

d aba 




CHWM. At kM, ha death mi nuind upon 
bf Nan, who wiahed to n[iadi>tt Octavii mi 
narrj Pof^Mk, bnt vhote plui m* thvuted 
bf lu* DUtliar. Thni petlj feminioc inUigii« 
became tli« ouiu of Agri[i|rina'> ruin. Nen 
iniiud her under the preuit af a recoacilUcion 
to riul hun at Baiae, on the emit of Campania. 
She went thither bj ■«. In their conTention 
hypocriif wai ditptoycd on both uda. She 
left Baiae b; the Hme way ; but the reuel waa 
to conirited, that it was to break to pieoi 
when out at les. It only putlj brokn, and Agrip- 

nt Acsmnia waa kiUed. A^ppina 
'ilia near the Lncrine lake, and infona- 
ed her un of her happy eacape- Now, Nero 
ehuged Bumu to murder hie laolher ; but Bnmu 
declining it, AuipetDi, the camnumder of the ficet, 
who had invented the itratagem of the thip, was 
eompelled by Nen> and Biurui to andertake the 
tatk. Anicetoi went to hei rilla with a choaen 
band, and hii men inrpriied her in her bedtoom. 
"Venlrem feri" she cried out, after the wu but 
■lightlj wounded, and inuoediatel; afterwaidi si- 
pired under the blowi of a centurion, (a. d. 60.) 
(Tie. AMU. iiT. 8.) It WM told, that Nero went 
10 the villa, and that he admind the beaulj of the 
dead bod; of hii mother : thii wai believed bj 
•ome, doubted b; other*. (liv. 9.) Agrippina left 
comnieDUii** concerning ber hialorf and that of 
her family, which Taduu coniulted, according to 
-■-'""•■ imp. Plin. Hit. 


. 6. a. R, £ 


B BBTaral medala of Agnppina, which 
are diitloguiahahle from th«a of her mother b; 
the titie of Angtuta, which thoea af hsr mother 
never have. On nine of her medati the a t«pre- 
•entad with her huihand CLandina, in othcn with 
her MHi Nan. The (bnner ii the caM in the one 
annexed. The word* on each aide an leapectively, 
AvavvriM, and tl clavd. caiur. 

(Tlc.^iH.b'b.iiLiiii.liv.;i;NonCaai.tib.1il. — 
^ii.;Siatbai.Cla-d.*S,it, Nen,&,6.) [W.P.I 

AGRIPPl'NUS, Buhop of Canhwe, of 
venerable mamorj, bat known for being ui* lint 
to m a ui taiD the necaaaitj of rfrbaptixing all 
heretici. (Vincent. Urineui. CowaamL L 9.) St, 
Cyprian regarded (hii opinion aa the correclioa of 
an error (3. Augnitin. Dt A^tftnu, ii. 7, vol ii. 
f. IDS, ed. Beoed.), and St. Angpitine aesna to 
Imply he defended hii error in writing, (^ul. SS, 
e. 10.) He held the Coondl of 70 BiUiops at 
Carthago abont A. n. 200 (Vulg. a. d. 2I£, Mana 
A. c. 217) on (he mbject of Baptiim. Though he 
emd in a matter yet undefined by the ChnnS, St. 
Angoitise notice* tbat neither be nor St. Cyprian 
thonght of aepaiating Irom the Church. (Dt 
Bvtimo. in. 2, p. 109.) [A. J. C] 

«a* put (0 death by Tiberioa on a charge of (nu- 
WB. (Sneb JU. ei.) Agrippinu* wu aceoaed at ; 


the •ame time ai Tbniiea, A. u. 67, and wai l«- 
niahed from Italy. (Tac. Ann. ivi. 28, 29. 39.) 
He waa a Stoic pbilowpher, and i* iiioken of with 
piaiie by £pinetiu (,aB.SIiib,Serm.7),aai Airiaa, 

A'GRIUS CAypat), a aon of PorthuHi and 
Euryte, and brother of Oenent, king of Calydon in 
Aeulia, Aloathoui, Melai, Leucopeni, and Sterope^ 
He wag lather of aii loni, of whom Tberaitet wnl 
one. Theae ion* of Agriua deprived Ocneua of 
hi* kingdom, and gave it to their father; but all of 
them, with the exception of Thenilea, were (tain 
by Diomedea, the giaodsou of Oeneui. ( Apollod. 
i. 7. § to, B. S S, Sk.) Apollodom* places (heae 
event* before the expedition of the Oreeki agaiiut 
Troy, wbile Hyginu* (F<Ur, 175, comp. 212 and 
Anionin. Lib. 37) itatee, that Diomadei, when he 
heard, after the fall of Troy, of the miafortune o( 
hia grandhther Oeneua, haaUned back and expelled 

carding to othen, Agrtui and bit (on* were alaiu 
by Diomeda. (Camp. Pan*. iL 25. g 2 ; Ov. He- 
Poid. ii. 1G3.) 

Then an ume otber mythical penonagei of (he 
name of Agriua, concerning whom notliiug of jnte- 
mtii known. (Heuod. Tjioy. I01S,&c) Apollod. 
L 6. § 2. ii. 5. g 4.) (L. S.) 

grammarian, the anthor of on extant work ** 1)9 
Orthogrephk et DiSerentia Sermonia," intended aa 
a aup^ment to a work on (he aorae lubject, by 
Flavina Caper, and dedicated to a Inabop, Eucbe- 
rioa. He it anppsaed to have lived in the middle 
of (he fith cenUuy of our era. Hi* work ia printed 
in Putacbiui' " Orammaticaa laCinae Anctom 
Antiqni,- pp. 2266-2275. [C. P. M.] 

AGROBTAS fATpoivBi), a Greek hiitorian, 
who wrote a work on Snthia (Siueucd), from the 
thirteenth book of which the icholiait on Apollo- 
nina (ii. 1248) qnote*, and one on Libya (AiSiwii), 
the fourth book of which ii quoted by the aama 
icholiait. (iv. 1396.) He ii alio mentioned by 
Slephanm Byt (a o. 'A>i«Aot.) [C. P. M.) 

AORON fAffB*). 1. The ion of Ninui, the 
linl of the Lydian dynaaly of the Heradeidoe. 
The tradition waa, that thia dyiuuty auppbnted a 
native race of kingi, having been originally en- 
tntated with the gpTemment aa deputiea. The 
namea Ninni and Beliu in their genealogy render 
it probable that they were either Awyrian gaver- 
non, or princei of Auyrian origin, and that their 
acceiuon marki the period of an Aiayrian con- 
qneiL (Herod, i. 7.) 

2. The ion of Pleucatui, a kmg of lUyria. In 
the atrength of hit land and naval forcea he inr- 
paaied all the preceding kinga of that country. 
When the AetoUana attempted to compel the Me- 
dionian* to join their confederacy, Agron imder. 
took to protect them, having btwi induced to do 
BO by a large bribe which be received from Deme- 
trioi, the fother of Philip. He accordingly aent id 
^eir aaiiitauce a force of 5000 Illyriani, who 
gained a deciaive victory over the Aetoliana* 
Agron, OTBTJajed at the nowi of thii aiicees*, gave 
biiaaelf up to foaating, and, in conaequence of hia ex- . 
ceaa, contracted a pleDniy, of which ho died. (B.t% 
231.) He waa mcceeded in the government by 
hia wife Teata. Juat after hia dcMh, an embaaiy 
arrived from the Rfflnana, who had aent to mediata 
in bdiaJf of the inhabitanta of the ialand of la^ 
who had revolted from Agnm eitd placed tb**- 



mhf nnda tba pn>l«ctiaD of ibe Romaiu. Bf 
Ui fint wife, TritcoU, vhom he dinned, he had 
1 ton named Piiinei, or PiniMU, who larrired 
Um, ud wu placed under the guardiuiahip of 
Demettrioj Phunu, who muried hit nethet after 
the death of Teata. (Kod Ca». luiT. 46, 151 ; 
Polyb. u. 3— ( i Ajqiim, 10. 7 i Flor. ii. G ; PliiL 
ff.Mmi*. B.) [C. P.M.] 

AOROTERA rATporfpa), (he hnnU™, a nil- 
iBme of Artemii. (Horn, /J. uL 471.) Al Agrae 
M the Iliinu, when ifae *&• beliered to have Ant 
honied ifUr her arrira) from Dcla»,AjUunuA^lem 
had > t«rople witb ■ itatue cariTing a bow. (Paui. 
L IS. B 7-) Under thii oame ihe wai alio wor- 
shipped at Aegeiia. (yiL S6. g 2.) The name 
Altera u (foonjiDDiu with Agraea [AaBiiun], 
hut Eiutathini (od //. {lJSIII) deriT« it from the 
tawnti Ag^MA. Conceniiag the wonhip of AnenuA 
Asroten at Atheni, iee Hid. d/" AmL i. v. 'Aypo. 
t{hu SmrJo, p. 51. [L. S.] 

AOYIEUS CAjmii), ■ Bunanie of Apollo de- 
KxilMng him aa the protector of the itnetA and 
public place*. Aa luch he waa wonhipped at 
Acbamaa (Pau. i. SI. § 3), UyeaiM (ii. IS. § 7), 
■ud at TegcK. (viiL Si. % 1.) The origin of the 
woiahip of Apollo A^jieDi !a the bat of theae 
phco w nhiled bj Paumniaa. (Compare Hot. 
ft™. IT. 6. 28 ; Macrob. Sit L 9.) [L. S.] 

AOy'RRHIUS CA.yif^,), a native of Collj- 
tna in Attica, nhom Andoddei inmicallf calk riv 
itaJiir nd-jtMr [de MyL p. 6fi, ed. Reiike), after 
bong in piiion manj jean for embenlement of 
paUw monaj, obtained aboat b. c 3S5 the rettor- 
ation of the Theoricoii, and alao tripled the pa; for 
■nending tiie aiaembl;, though lie reduced the 
alloiraDce pnriond; given to the comic wrilen. 
(Harpocnt. a. n. BtiMicJ, 'Kfij^aa ; Suidaa, t. v. 
bxKviiBirti^*; SchoL ad Ariiloph. BaL 102; 
Don. e. T&HCr. p. 74S.) By thia expenditure of 
the {nbUe reTenue AgjTTbiaa beoune so papular, 
that he waa appointed general in a. c. 389- (Xen. 
H^ a. 8. i 31 ; Diod. xiv. 99 ; Bbckh, FM. 
Earn, of AOOM, pp. 223, 224, 316, &c., 2nd ed. 
EogL tnujiL ; SiJiomann, dt OtmiHU, p. 6£, it.) 

AHA'LA, the name of a patrician &mi1; of the 
Serrilia Ceni. There were alio aeveial peiaoni of 
thia gent with the name of Smelm Aiait, who 
D*<r '"kf' formed a different bmilj from Ibe Ahft- 
lae ; bat aa the Ahalae and Sttncti Abalae an 
fivquenll; coafounded, all (ha penona of ibeae 
Dame* are ^Ten here. 

1. C. Sbkviliue StrDctur Ahali, conn 
476, died in hit year of office, a>app«n from the 
FaatL (LiT. ii. 49.) 

2. C- SnviLiuR Structiw Au*La, magiitei 
eqaitmn b.c.439, when L. Cincinnatni was ap- 
pointed dictatw on the pnleuce that Sp. Maeliui 
WB* plottins agaijiit the stale. In the night, in 
which the dictator was appointed, the capitol aud 
all the atnug poets were garriKiiiHl by the paiti- 
san* of the patricians. In the momina, when the 
pccfje asaemLJed in the fbmm, and Sp. Maelius 
■owng them, Ahala aommoued the latter lo appear 
tiefen the dictator ; and upon Maeliua disobeying 
■nd taking refuge in the crowd, Ahala nubed into 
the throng and killed him. (Lit. It. 13, 14 ; Zd- 
nmt, liL SO ; Dionn. £ie. Mai, L p. 3.) Thi 
*ct i* menlioiwl by hter writen as an example of 
■Bcient heroiam, iai is frequeclly refened lo by 
Geen in terma of the higheat admiration (ta CatiL 
L i, pn UiL 3, Cato, 16) ; bnt it wu in nality 


aeaaeotmnider, and wu w renided at ibe tim*. 
Ahala waa bmu^t to trial, and only eai^wd coo- 
demnalion by a Toluntaiy eiile. (VaL Mai. T. 3. 
§ 2 ; Cic ^ Atp. 13, pro Don. 3*2.) Liry paMoa 
OTH this, and only menUons (i*. 21 ), that a bill 
was btoagbl in three yean afterwards, B- c 436, 
by another Sp- Maelitu, a tribune, for coufiscatiag 
the property of Ahala, but that it failed. 

A lepresentatiou of Ahala is given on a coin of 
M. Brutus, the mutderer of Caesar, but wa cannot 
■uppose it to be anything more tluui an inuiginary 
likcneaa. M. Brutus pnlended thai be was des- 
cended from L. Bmtua, the first amsul, on hi* 
felbei's aide, and from C Ahala on bis mother'al 
and thus wu sprung from two tjnnnicide*i 
( (Kf.^n.iiiL40-) The head of Brutiu 
on the annexed coin ia tliendm intended lo lepr*- 

3. C SiRviLiDR Q, r. C. N. SrnvoToa Ahala, 

consul B. c 137. (Liv. iv. 30.} 

4. C. StKviLitia P. r. Q. n. STRUcrcs Ah^iLa, 

the same year ; which laller dignity he obtained 
in couseijuence of snpporting the senate against hii 
ccdleagve*, who did not with a dictator to be ap- 
pointed. For the same reason be wu elected 
consular tribune a aecond time in the following 
year, 407- He wu consular tribune a third time 
in 402, when he assisted the senate in impelling 
bis coUoiguos to resign who had been defeated by 
the enemy. (Li>. iv. 56, S7, t. 8, 9.) 

5. C- Sehviliuh Ahali, magister equitnm 
a c. 3S9, when Comillu wu appointed dictator a 
thtid lime. (Liv- tL 2.) Ahala is spoken of ai 
mngister equitum in SS5, on occasion of the trial 
of Manliui. Menlius snmjnoned him to beer wit- 
ness in his faTour, u one of those whose lives he 
had saved in battle ; but Ahala did not appear. 
(It. 20.) Pliny, who mentiont this dreumsiBnca, 
calls Ahala /'-Serviliui. {^. M liL 39.) 

6. Q- SutviLiu* Q. F. Q. N. Ahaljl, consul 
B. c. 36b, and again B. c. S62, in the latter of 
which years he appointed Ap. Claudius dictator, 
. r. _ i .. pigf^yui colleague L. Oennciu* had been 

n battle. In 360 hi 

; appoi 

Gallic batitiiiu, and 
defeated the Oanls near the ColUne gale. He held 
the eomitia aa inleirei in 3Sfi. (Ut. tH. 1, 4, 6, 

7. Q. SiRViLiun Q. F. Q. n. AbxLa, magistet 
oquitam B- c 351, when M. Fabiua wu ^pointed 
dictator to frustrate Che Lidnian law, and consul 
a c 342, at the beginning of the fint Samnite 
war. He remained in the city ; his colleague had 
the cbwgB of the war. (Liv. vii. 22, 38.) 

AHENOBABHUS, the name of a plebeian 
family of the Dusiitia Oins, so called mm tb* 
red hair which many of this family had. To ex- 
plain lliis name, which signifies "Red- Beard," aud 
to assign a high antiquity to their fiunily, it waa 
said tlut the Dioscnri uuwuBood le ow of thd( 



■ncMbm the vietoTf of tlw Ramain OTCC the Latin* | blaek hair and beard, wbkh isnnediatdy becMM 
al lake RceUm (■. c. 496), and, (o ooii£m the red. (Suet. Ntr. 1 ; Pint. AamO. 38, OtrU. ti 
•nth tt wW tbaf Mid, tliat thejr )Ciaked hie | DionTh tL IS ; Tertnll. Jpgt 33.) 

dramu AaiHoauiBaBiiii. 
1. Cn. Donitiiu Ahenobaibiu, Co. b. a IIKL 

& Cn. Domitiiu Abaubutnia, Cot. Si 

S. Co. Domitiiu Aheuobacbiu, Coa. k & 1! 


4. CkL Donhiiu Ahenabaibui, Coa. a 

S. L. Domiliiii Aheoofaulm*, Cat. & a M. 

t, Cn. DoDutin* Ahmiibariwu. ProbaU; eon of 
No.4. lHedB.c.81. Huried ConielB, dai^ 
tw ef L ConuliDi CSnna, Cm b. c. B7. 

7. L. Damitia* Abenobarlrai, Coa. 
B.c.£l. Manied Ponia, tUt« 

8. Cn. Domitiiu Alwoobaibni, Cot. B. c. 32. 

t,Coa.B.c 16. 

Harried M. Vala- 

)3. L. Domitjut AhenobaTbni, tlie emparoi K»o. 

1. Cn. DaHiTiDH L. v. L. h. Ai 

[dabeUa aedilee. c 196, pmsnited, in eonj unction 
villi hia colleagne C. Cnrio, man; pewani^ and 
with the fiuei raised iherefrom bnitt a temple of 
Panniu in the itland of the Tiber, which he dedi- 
cated in hit pnetanhip, b. c ]9i. (Lit. xxiiiL 
43, iiiiT. 42, 4S, G3.) He wu connil in 192, 
and waa lent againit the Boii, who nbnutted to 
bim ; but he nmained in tbeii caanti; till the 
ibllowing year, «hen he WM tocceeded b; the 
oontul Scipio Nana. (im. 10, 20, 22, 40, nxvL 
tl.) In 190, ho wBi legate of the connilL. Scipio 
in the var againit Antiodiiu the Great. (niTiL 
89; Plat. Apopia. Bom. On. Domit.) In hia 
coninlthip one of bit oxen ii taid Co Iutb uttered 
the wanung "Roma, cays tibi." (Lit. hit. 21 ; 
VaL Hai. L 6. J 5, who bliel; ttyi, Bdlo Pumeo 

2. Ch. DoKmro Cn. r. L. n. ABiNOBaitBDs, 

ton of the preceding, vaa choaen ponCifer in H. <x 
172, when a young man (LiT. lUi. SB), and in 169 

Uaoedonia. (iliT. IS.) la 167 he wat one of the 
ten comtDJuionen ttr arranging the afftira of Mn- 
eedonia in conjunctisn with Aeinllini PaoUnt (iIt. 
17} 1 and when the eonmlt of 162 abdicated on 
account of eomg &ult in the tnapice* in their elec- 
tion, be and Comeliiu Leatuloi wen cboten con- 
■ult in their Mead. (CicdiA'af.Z)ear.ii.4, dt Oh. 
ii. 35; Val. Mat. L I. § S.) 

3. Cn. DoHJTiua Cm. r, Cn. n. AHinoBiitBija, 
ton of the preceding, wai lent in hii coninlehlp, 
B. c 122, againM the AUoblngei in Oanl, becauie 
thn had receiTed Tentomaliui, the king of the 
SalluTJi and the enemy of the Romans, and had 
laid waalo the territory of the Aedui, the friendi 
of the Romant. In 121 he conquered the Alio- 
Ingea and their ally Vitaitna, king irf ^e Arremi, 
nearViodalinm, at the confluence of the Saiga and 

tlie Rhodanut ; and he guncd the battle maialf 
throngh the terror canaed by hia elephanCa. He 

phiea, and went in ptweiiian thtoqgh the pioTinca 
carried by an elmhant. He triumphed in 120. 
(LiT. .^hI. 61 ; Flonu, tii. 2 ; Sirab. it. p. 191 ; 
Cic prv Pcmt. 12, BnU. 26 ; Vellci. iL 10, 39 ; 
Orot T. 13 ; Suet. Ner. 2, who contoundi bim 
with hie ion.) He ima cenior in llfi with Caeci- 
lioi Metelloi, and eipelled twenty-two pendoa 
bom the lenale. ( Lit. EpO, 62 ; C)c pro C/uaU. 
42.) He waa alto Pontifei. {SneL U.) The 
Via Domitia in Oanl waa made by bim. (Cic pro 

Foot, e,) 

104, in the M 

« Corai. p. SI, ed. OnllL) When I 
pontiffs did not elect him in pUue of hit father, he 
broaght forward the law (Cm Domitia), by wliiih 
the right of election wai tmnaferred from the 
piieitly coUegee to the peo[de. (Diet o/Anl. pp. 
773, b. 774, a.) The pe<^e afterwarda elected 
him Pontifei Mjuimni out of gratitude. (Lit. 
^.BT; C\<^proDaot.U: Val. Mat tI. 5. J S.) 
He proaecuted in hia tribunate and aftenrarda 
tCTer^ of hia priTBte enemiet, u Aemiliua Siaurua 
and Juniut SUanui. (Val. Hai. I. c; Dion Csaa. 
Fr. 100; Cic Dn. m GuiaL 20, Vtrr. iL 47, 
OonnL 2, pro Scaa: I.) He wai conanl D. c. 96 
with C Catdua, and center B. c 92, with ydniot 
Cnatnt. the cntw. In hit cenaonhip he and'hit 
colleague abut up the achoola of the Latin rhetori- 
ciana (Cic da OraL iii. 24 ; OelL ir. 1 1), but thit 
wu ihe only thing in whiiji they acted in concert. 
Their ceDBorthip wa> long celebrated tor their di>- 
putet- Domitina waa of a Tiolent temper, and wai 
moreoTer in bronr of the andenl limplidty of Ut- 
ing, while Ciaatni lored luuiy and e 

vt. Anwof tb> mui; Kjii^ recorded sf bi 
«• an told tiuu Crawu ab«r(ed, "that it mi 
waoder IhU m mui had » b«jd of biui, who bad 
■ wnthofiiwiaiidBluanorUad.'' (P\m. H. N. 
iriiL 1; SiHt. JLil; VaL Hu. ii. I. S 4 ! Munb. 
SOL ii. 11.) CicCTB Ufa, that Domitiiu waa not 
la be ivckoiied among tbo oialora, btil that bo 
qioke well cnoii^ and bad uffianit talent to 
Mintun hi* h^ laok. (Cic Bnt. 14.) 

£. L. DoHiTKJS Cn. r. Cn. n. Ahbnobarbds, 
KM of No. 3 Bad brother of No. 4, «M paoliir ' 
Sicil;, {sobaUy in B. c 96, •hoRlj afLcr the Ser- 
Tik war, wboi ilaTca had been forbidden to cbitj 
anna. He ordered a iUtc to be crucified for kiU- 
iag a wild bear with k bunting ipear. (Cic Frrr. 
T. a ; VaL Mai. tL 3. § 5.) He wu codidI in 
94. In (be diil war between Muiui and Sulla, 
he eqiouaed the nds of the latter, and wa> tntir- 
dtred at Ronie, by oder of the joungei Mariiu, 
bj the xnaator Damaaippna (Appian, B- G. i 
Velki.a.26t Otn. t. SO.) 

6. Cn. Domitids Cn. r. Cn. r. Abinodabbds, 
tftxrently a aon of Nck i, married Coroelia, daugh- 
lo af L Conwlina Cinna, couul in a. c. 87, and 
in the anl war between Hanoi and Solla eapooaefi 
the ade cf the former. When Sulla obtained thr 
npreme power in 82, Ahenobarboi vaa proacribed, 
and Bed to Afiva, where he w*i joiaed b; many 
who WB« in the mme condition aa himielF: Wi^ 
tlte — i---~- of the Nomidian kii^, Hiarbai, b( 
eiJerted an aimj, bat wa* defeated near Utica by 
Co. Peopeiua, vbrnn SnDa bad aent agiunit him, 
•■d waa afterwardi killed in the uonning of ' ' 
oanp, K c. 81. Aecarding to lome acannti, he 
wa* killed after the battle hj OHIUUBnd of Pompe;. 
(Ur.Ei>iL89i PluLPoa^ 10, 12 i Zomuu, a. 2) 
Ona. T. 21 ; VaL Mai. >i. 2. t 8.) 

7. Li. DomitiIii Cn. r. Cn. n. AhiNobahBus, 
aoo af Not 4, b firat mentianed in b. c. 70 by 
Oon, aa a wilneH agaiut Verre*. In fi' ' 
wa* curale aedile, when he eihibiled a bui 
Numidiaii lion*, and contiiiDed the gwnea as 
thai the people were obliged to leave the i 
before the eihihition wa* over, in order to take 
food, which waa the Grat time they bad done an. 
(Dka Caaa. xxxtiL 46 ; FUo. If. N. nil bi ; this 
paoae in the pmea waa odled dil md iu m, Hor. Ep. 
I. 19. 47.) He mairied Porda, the aiater of M. 
Calo, and in hii aedileahip mpporled the latter in 
hia pavpaaala againat bribery at election*, which 
were directed agaiut Pompey, who wa* pnrebaaing 
ntaa tiir A&sntna. The politicaJ opiniana of Ahe- 
Bofcarbn* coincided with tbo*e of Cato; be waa 
thmgbout hia life one of ibe itrongeat anpporlera 
of the arialocratical party. He took an active part 
ia oppoaiag the maiuaie* of Caaaar and Pompey 
•Aer ibeir coalitioo, and in 59 waa atnued by 

r, of being an 

Ahauharbiu waa praetor in a. c 58, and pn>- 
poeed an inveatigation inU the Tatidity of the 
Julian [aw* of the preceding year ; but the aenale 
dievd not eateruin hia propoaitioai. He waa can- 
didate for the Eonauiabip of Sfi, and threatened 
thait h* anmld in hi* couanlihip carry into eiecti- 
tioa tk» Baaanrea he had propwd in hia praetor- 
Ato, ud deprive Caaaar of hia province. He waa 
diha t eJ, hownn, by Pompey and Craacua. who 
•lae became wnilidalra. and wa* driven froin the 
Cnapm Maitioa on the day of election by foroi of 


amUi He becmw a caodidale again in the foUoW' 
ing year, and Caear and PotDpry, whaae power 
wa* firmly eilabliehcd, did not Bppoae him. H« 
irdingly elected con*Dl for G4 with Ap. 

a pnTinoe at th 


Pompey. He did not g 

piration of hi* CDnanlihip ; 
Iwlween Caeaar and Pompey coded, he becamo 
doaely allied with the latter. In B. c S3, he wa* 
eboMn by Pompey to pnaide, aa qnaeaiior, in the 
court for the trinl of Cladjo*. For the next two 
or three yonra dnring Cicero'a abaeoce in Cili- 
cia, our infonnation about Afaenobarbu ia princi- 
pally derived from the Ipltera of bi* enemy Coelin* 
to Cicero. In B. c. 50 he waa a nndidale for the 
place in the college of angura, vacant by the death 
of Hortenaiiu, but waa defeated by Antony thimgh 
the influence of Caeaar. 

The lenate appointed him to auoceed Caeaar io 
the pro'ioce of farther Oanl, and on the march of 
the btter into Italy (49). he wai the only one of 
the ariatocraticsJ party who afaewed any energy or 
coumge. He threw bimaelf into Corfininm with 
about twenty cohorta, eipecltiw to be aopportcd by 
Pompey ; but a* the latter did aothing in aaaiat 
him, he waa compelled by hia own Imop* to hit- 
render to Caeaar. Hia own ioldier* were incorpo- 
■Bled into Caeaar'* army, bnl AbenotairbuB itaa 
diamiiaed by Caeaar uninjured— an act of clemency 
which be did not eiped, and which he would ce> 
tainly not have ahewed, if he had been ibe con- 
queror, Deapairing of life, he bad onjered hi* 
pfayiician to adminialer to him pojaon, but the tnl- 
ter gave him only a ileeping draught. AhenobarUua' 
fbelingi agabat Caeaar remained unaltered, hut he 
waa too deeply offetided by the conduct of Pompey 
to join him immediately. He'reiired for a ihort 
time to Coia in Etruria, and afterward* *ailcd to 
Haaailla, of whicb the inhabitant* appoinled bin 
goTemor. He pmaectilcd the war vigrrcualy 
Bgajnat Caeaar; but the (own waa eventually taken. 

Ahenoharbua now went to Pompey in Theaaaly, 
id pmpoaed that after the war ail aeuator* ahould 
: brought to trial who bad remained neutral 

and, Bcxording to Cicero a aaaertion in the aennd 
Philippic, by the hand of Antony. Ahenoharboa 
wai a man of great energy of character; he r»^ 
mained firm to hia political prindplea, but waa 
little acmpulooa in the maan* he employed to 
maintain ihem. (The p*saagea of Cioero in which 
Ahenobarbu* i* mentioned are given in Otelli** 
OKmadiam TUAswa ; Soet. A'ar. 2 ; Dion Cau, 
lib. mil. xli. i Cae*. BiO. Cm.) 

8. Cn. DotuTitiB L. r. Cn. h. AuaNOSiaBus, 
ion of the nreoading, waa taken with hia father at 
Corfioiom (ft. c 49), and waa preaeni at the batll* 
of Pbaraalia (48), but did not take any further 
part in the war. He did not bawever retara to 
Italy till 46, when he waa pudoned by Cae- 
aar. He probably had no ahare in the tnurdar 
if Caeaai (44), though aome writer* eipreaaly 
laaert that he va* one of the conapiratora ; bat Im 
otlowed Brutua into MacedonB aflu CaaMv'a 
death, and waa condemned by the I«i Pedia in 
43 aa one of the murdann of Caeaai, la 43 Im 


cimmaiided ■ fl«et of fifty ihin in th« loman urn, 
■ud completelj defnled Donutioi CalviDiu on the 
d*7 of the fint battle (^ Philippi, w the latter 
attemptsd to aail ont of Broodiuiiim. He wm 
■duled Impenloc in couequena, end a ncurd of 
thu TJctoij ii prewned in the annexed coin, vhicli 
npnuenta a troph; placed npOQ the piov of 
naieL The head dd the othei aide of the coi 
ha* a beaid, in rafemiw to tb* lepnted oiigm i 
tb* family. 

After the latlla of PbDippi (42), AlMnobubiu 

oondoited the war independently of Sei, Pompeina, 
and with a fleet of mentj ahipi and two l^oi 
plondered the coaata of the lonun tot. 

In 40 Abenobarbu became recondled to Antony 
which gave great oflsDoe to OctBTianaa, and vt 
placed O'er Btthjnia by ALtony. In the peai 
•onc]iid»d with Sex. Pompeiu in 39, Antony pn 
Tided for the lafety of Ahenobarbua, and obtained 
for him the promiae of the coainlihip for 32. 
Ahenobarbtu remained a coneideiable time in 
Alia, and voompanied Antony in hi* unfbrtonata 
tampaign against the ParthianB in 3fi. He became 
aoninl, according to sgreemnit, in 33, in wMcb 
yaar iha open rapture took place betTsen Antony 
and Aoguitu*. Ahenobarbaa tted ftaa Rome to 
Antony at Epbemu, when be found Cleopatra 
with him, and endeaTonred, in rain, to obtaJp her 
nmoTal &om the aimy. Many of the loldiera, 
diignited with the coudact of Antony, oSend the 
command to bim ; but be preferred deeerting the 
farty altogetlier, and accordingly went OTer to 
AoguilDi idiortly before the batUe of Actiom. He 
wai not, howeTfT, preunt at the battle, ai he died 
a few dayi aAcr joining Angnatna. Suetomni nya 
that ha a'ai the beat of hii bmily. (Cic PML ii. 
11, I. 6, Brvt. 2S, ad Fam. tL 22 ; Apmon, B. C. 
1. 55, 63, fi5; Phit AtUon. 70, 71 i Dion Caw. 
lib. ilriL— I; Vellei. ii. 76, U; Suet. A*r. 3 
Tac Aim. ii. U.) 

9. L. DoMinuB Cn. r. L. K. AHiNORaHBUi, 
•on of the preceding, waa betrothed in a. c 36, at 
the meeting of Octananui and Antony at Ti 
turn, to Antonia^ the daughter of the latter by 
OctaTio. He wa> aedile in B. c 32, and couul in 
B. c 16. After bi>can>ulihip,and probablyae the 
nuxeuor of Tibeiiui, be commanded the Roman 
army in Qemuuiy, croued the Elbe, and penetrat- 
ed further into the country than any of hii prede- 
ceaaon had done. He received in conacquence the 
ituignia of a triumph. He died A, D. 2S. Sueto- 
niuB deicribei him aa haughty, prodigal, and cruel, 
and [vlatOi that in hit aedileahip he commanded 
the eeuior L. Plancni to make way for him ; and 
that in hit praetonhip and couiulship he brought 
Roman knighta and matrona on the atsgt^ He 
aihibiled ahowi of wild beaata in OTery quartet of 
the city, and hii gladiatorial combata wen con- 
ducted with ao much bloodahed, that Auguilus 
woa obliged to put some nttraiat upon them. 
(Suet filer, i; Tat 4™. It. 44; Dion Can. liv 
£9 1 VeUei. tL 72.) 


10. Cn. DoMmvB L. r. Cn. n. Ahinobabbiiiv 
aon of the preceding, and bther of the emperor 
Nero. He married Agrippina, the danghter of 
Oermanima. He waa CDn«nl A. D. 82, and after- 
wardi pacomnl in Sicily. He diod at Pyrgi in 
Elruria of dropay. Uia life waa atwned with 
dimei of erery hind. He was acenaed ai the ac- 
complice of Albocilla of the Crimea of adultery and 
murder, and also of inceat with hia aiiler Domitia 
Lepida, and otily eao^ied execution by the death 
of Tibecioa. When congiatulated on the birth of 
hii SOD, afterwords Nero, ha replied that whatsTcr 
waa B|nng titim him and Agrippina conld only 
bring mm to the itata. (Snet. Aiir. S, G ; Tac 
Am. ir. 7fi, Ti. 1, 47, III. 64 ; VeUei. ii. 73 i 
Dion Caia. IriiL 17.) 

11. DaHiTU, dsngfaterof No. 9. [DoMina.] 

12. DoMrriA LiriDA, daughter of No. 9. 
[Dourn* LapiDi.] 

13. L. Doaimus Ahbhobarbus, son of No. 
10, afterwarda the emperor Neio. [Niao-J 

14. Ch. Dnwinus ABiNOBikRBua, pnetor in 
B. c 64, pnaided at the aecond trial of M. Coeliui. 
(Cic. ad Qh. Fr. ii. 13.) He may have been the 
•on of No. E. 

15. L. DoMinua AaaHoBiHRUS, praetor B. c 
30, commanded the prorince of nearer Spain, with 
the title of procnnniL In 79, he wai inrnmoned 
into Auiher Spain by Q. Melellui Piua, who wai 
in want of aiiistance againit Sortonus, but he 
waa defeated and killed by Hirtoleiua, quoeator of 
Sertoriua, ncM the Anaa. {Plut Sen. 12; Lir, 
Epit. so ; Eutrvp. ii 1 ; FUirua, iii. 22 ; Oioa, 
V. 23.) 

AJAX ( Aliii). 1. A aon of Telamon, king of 
Salamia, by Paiiboaa or Eriboeo (Apollod. ill 12. 
% 7 ; Piua. i. 42. g 4 ; I^d. Iitk. -rieB; Diod. 
It. 72], andagiondaou of Aeacna^ Homer calli 
him Ajai the Telamoniau, Ajai the Great, or 
aimply Ajw (/t ii. 768, ix. 169, iIt. 410 ; comp. 
Find. /ttt. Ti. 3S), whereaa the other Ajai, the 
aon of Oileoa, is alwaya diatingniahod from the 
iarmer by ume epithet. According to Homer 
Ajai joined the expedition of the (h«ek« agninat 
Tnty, with bii SBlaminiani, in twelre abipa (/Z. 
ii. G57 ; comp. Strab. ii. p. 394), and was next to 
Achillea the moat diitingDiihed and the bmveit 
among the QiMka. (ii. 76S, ii-il 2/9, Ac) Ha 
is deicribed aa toll of alatuii^and his head and 
broad ahoujden ai rising above those of oil the 
Orseke (iiL 226, &c.) i In beauty he was inferior 
to none hot Achillea. (Of. li. BSD, icIt. 17 i 
comp. PauB. i. 3.^. § 3.) When Hector challenged 
the brareat of the Qreeka to lingle combat, Ajan 
came forward among Micral othen. The poapia 
prayed that he might light, and when tha lot 
fcU to Ajoi (/i Tii. 179, At), and he ^ 
proachcd. Hector bimKlf began to tremble. (215.) 
He wounded Hector and da^ed him to the ground 
by a huge stone. The combatant! were sepaiated, 
and upon parting they exchanged arms with ons 
another oi a token of mutual ealeem. (305, Ac.) 
Ajox waa alao one of the ambaaaadon whom Aga- 
memnon tent to conciliate Achillea, (ix. IS9.) He 
fought several timet bcsidet with Hrctor, ita in the 
battle nsr the ahipa of the OTeek»(xiv. 409, &t it. 
416, itL 1 14), and in protecting the body of Patn>- 
cioa. (ini.l2S,732.) In the gameiatthefuneisl 
pile of PatrDcloi, Ajax fought with Odyaarua, but 
ilhont gaininH any decided adTantoge o' 

(iiiii. 720, &C.), . 

1 like n 

IT with Dio- 



MdeL lDllHeaD[art>bonttli<anD«u<>rAdiillM, 
i* mi BonqBaad ^ OdyMnu, and tliii, mjt 
HoDMr, bcama the cmiua of hii diUh. (Od. iL 

mat hit mint in 

Um Mirf of Ajuii, tha Tdunoiiiaii, ii 
« Homenc pooiu. l^tu 

fmth, but man npedallj abDut bii dsalh, « 

AI, Ac.), AJBX baonn inTobtenUe □ 
qotDO of s pnjer vUch Hends crSend to Zetu, 
wbik b* WM on K Tint in Salamu- The cbild 

., ie pnyec «• • fcradr. 

Anramiiialo LTCophnm (4U with the 
SchoL), Aju wu boni befon HenclM mat to 
TdHBon, ud the hen made the child inToliuT- 
ahU tij wmppiiig him up in hi> lion'i ikin. 
(Conqi. SehoL ad H xxifi. Wl.) Aju ii ■!» 
nentioned unoDg the niton of Helen. (ApollwL 
iiL 10. J 8; Hjgin. /U, SI:) . During the vai 
■gainit Tnj-, Ajaz, like AehiUet, made eiconioai 
inio Dcigfiboiiiing comtiiet. The Snt of them wai 
to the Thiadao CbenODSfu, whrae he took Foly- 
donA, ibe eon of Prtam, who lud been entnuted 
to the care of king Polymneitor, tocether vith 
rich booty. Tbenee, he weat into Phrjgia, >l«w 
king Toathrai, or Teleota*, in linglt conibM, ud 
oiried off gnat ipoili, lUid Tecineen, the king'i 
^Bghler, who tvcuM hi> miitnu. (Diet Cret. 
iL 18; Sonh. 4|L 210, 480, Ac ; Hor. Girm ii. 
4.6.) lathccontrataixnit theanuuiaCAchiUee, 
rtiieiiiiiiiaiii, on the adrisB of Athena, awarded 
the pdto to OdjiMiia. Thii diacomfinm threw 
Ajax inta an awtiil tlato of madneaa. In the 
night he nuhed from bia tent, attacked the iheep 
of the Oiaek aimj, made gi«t haToc among them, 
and dr^gad dead and living animal* into bit lent, 
{uicjing that thej wen bia enemiei. When, in 
the Dcming, he recofered hii wnie* and beheld 
what he bad done, ihame and deipair led him to 
datinj' himaelf with the awotd which Hector had 
ones ginn him aa a pnaeat. (Find: Ntm. riL 
36; Soph. 4f. 42,377, 853; br. MA liiu 1, 
Ac. ; Lf eophr. L a.) Leea poetical tiaiicioni 
make Ajai die by the banda of othen. (Diet. 
CrL t. is ; Du. Phryg. 36, and the Oreck aign- 
awdt to S<i|A. Ajaz.) Hii Rep-brDthei Tencnu 
wai ehaiged bj Telamon with Ihe nnuder of Ajai, 
bat raccMded in dealing hiDUelf from tbe amiM- 
tion. (Pau. L 38. I 13.) A tiwiitian mentioned 
by Paomiu (i M. | 3 ; oimp. Or. Met. liii. 
S97, Ac) OatH, thai from hli blood there ipnng 
op a pnrnle flower which bore the letten ai on iti 
leaTca, irtiiefa wen at once the iniliali of hii name 
■ad BXPTewite of a ugh. Aocording to Dictyt, 
NaoptoieDnt, Oia »n of Achillea, deponted the 
aihet of tha ban in a golden nm on monnt Rhoe- 
teion i aod aeeoiding to Sophedea, be wu buried 
by hii bcoiber Tencmi against the will of the 
Atnndae. (Conp. Q. Smym. t. £00 ; Philoatr. tfer. 
Ii. A) Paoiaoiai (iil ! 9. J 1 1 ) npreeenu Ajai, 
like many other hooei, ai living after bii death in 
tha Hlaod af Leoce. It if laid that whan, in the 
tinw of the empetor Hadrian, the Ma bad waihed 
•im (he grare of Ajax, bonea of luperhDniaa aiie 
wen found in 11 wiiich the empenr, howoTer, 
. (PhOoitr. /fer. L 3 ; 

id Is be b 

AJAX. n 

windaiing of bia aoul after hi* death, m* PUto, 
AiA> AiU.x.infin.; 

Ajai WBi vonhipped in Salunii aa tbe tatebuj 
bero of the iiland, and bad a tem[de with a itatne 
(here, and wa* bonaored with a fcatiTnl, ACarTHo, 
{Diit. if At. M. o.) At Alheni too be wu wop- 
ifaipped, and wai one of the eponymic beroei, one 
of iha Attic tribe* (^natit) beu^ callod after him. 
(Pad*. L SA g 2; PlsL Sjwfn. l. 10.) Not bi 
from tbe town ithoeteioo, on the promontory of tha 

Ajai, wilh a beaatifol ilatue, which Anloniai 
lent to ^ypt, but which waa re*ton>d (o ita ori- 
ginal place by Angnetui. (Strab. xiiL p. S9fi.) 
According to Dictyt Cretenaii (v. 1 6) the wife of 
Ajai wai Olaoca, by whom ihe bad a ion, Aeao- 


e had a 

Enrjeaeei. (Sopb. Jj. S3S.) ScrcnJ iUoetriona 
Athaniani of the hiatoricsl timec,>UGbaa Miltiade*, 
Cimon, and Alcibiadea, traced their pedigree to iht 
Telamonian Ajai: (Paul, a 39. g i ; Pint. AlcH. 
1.) Tha tnditioni about thii hen fnmiahed 
pl^tiful material*, not only for poeta, but alio for 
BUlptora and pajnten. Hia dngle combat with 
Hector wa> lepreMnted on tbe diett of CjpMloi 
(Paoi. T. 19. 1 1); hia Itatne formed a pan of a 
large gnup at Olympia, the work of LyciuL (Pau*. 
T. 32. § 2; Gomp. Plin. H. H. xut. 10. g 3S; 
Aelian, V, H. ii. II.) A beantitul amlplund 
head, which i« generally belicTed to be a head of 
Ajai, ii iCitl enant in the Egiemont coUecdon at 
Petworth. (Btitliger, Amid&ea, iiL p. 258.) 

2. TheionofOiIeai,kingaflheLocriaiu, who 
ii alao called the LeiKr Ajai. (Horn. It. ii. £27.} 
Hii mother'* name wa* Eriopia. According to 
Stmbo {ii. p. 425) bii birthplace wai Naryi in 
Locria, whence Orid {MtU lir. 468} calti bim 
Narydu* jloro*. Aocording to the Iliad (it. 527, 
Ac) be led hia Locriana in forty ibipi (Hygin. 
FiA. 97, nyi twenty) againat Tiuy. He i> de- 
•cribed a> one of Uie great beroee among the 
Qreeki, and acti frequently in conjunction with 
the Telamonian Ajai. He ii imall of alalan and 
wean a linen cuinm (\vaMf>i)(), but ii biaia 
and intrepid, eipecially ikilled in throwing tbe 
•pear, and, next to Achillea, the matt nrift-ioDted 
among all the Oreeki. (//. xir. £20, &c., itiiL 
7S9, Ac.) Hii principal eiploiti during the iiege 
of Troy an mentioned in the following paaugea : 
XiiL 700, &c iiT. 520, &c iiL 350, lyiL 356, 
732, Ac In the funeral gamei at the pyre of 
Palroclu* he contended witb Odyueua and Anti- 
lochuB for the prize in the footrace; but Athena, 
who wu hoitile towardi bim and brouied Odyi- 
•eui, made him itumbte and fall, eo that he 
fpiined only the eecond priic (xxiiL 751, Ac) 
On hia return from Troy hi* veaeel waa wrecked 
on tbe Whirling Rock* (rupal WrpoiX but he him- 
lelf eicaped upon a rock thrcngb Ihe aatiatance of 
Poieidon, and woold bare been aared in ipite of 
.\tbena, but he ued preaiunptuoiu worda, and 
nid that he would eacape the dangen of tbe aea 
in defiance of the immortala. Hengpcn Poieidon 
aplit the rack witb hia trident, and Ajai wu 
aB-allowed np by the lea. [Od. ir. 499, Ac) 

In later tradition! thii Ajai ii called a eon of 
OYleua and the nymph Rhene, and it alao men- 
tioned among tbe auitor* of Helen. (Hygin. FiA. 
81, 97; Apollod. iii. 10. g 8.) Aocording to a 
tradition in Pbilntntna {Her. TiiL 1), Ajai had 
a tame dragon, fire cubili in length, wbich fblluw 


Athana, when Cunndn hsd taken refuge, ind 
mi nnbndng llw lUtoa of the goddeu s* * i — 
pliuiL Ajai dragged her awsT with Tiolencv 
M her to the other captiret. (Viig. Am. ii. i 
Eorip. Troad. 70,&c.; T^Cret.T.12; Hygiik 
F»A. 116.) According to aome atatemenU he 
•Tan Tiolated Caisandra in the temple of Iha god- 
ileat (TrTphiod. 635; Q. SniTm. liiL 422', 
Ljeophr. 3SD, with the Si^oL); OdjaHtta at kaat 
aceiued him of this dime, and Aju mu to be 
■toned to death, bnt nved binueH bj aUbliilung 
hii innocence b; an oath. (Pani. x. 26. j I, SI. 
I I.) Tbe wbole charge, ia oa the other hand, 
laid to hare been ao uiTention of Agamap"—™ 
who wanted to have Cawandn for hiniaeIC 
whether tne or not, Athena had niflideDE r 
ftir being indignant, aa Ajai bad dragged ■ 
nliant from her temple. When on Mi TOyi^ 
BomeimTd be name to the Caphanan ncka on die 
MUt of Rnboea, hii ahip vai wracked in a itoim, 
be himtclf wu killed hj Athena witb a Saab of 
lighlning, and hia bodj- vai waabed upon the racki, 
which henceforth were called the mcka of Ajax. 
(Hjgin. FiA. 116 ; comp. Virg. Am. i. 40, Ac, 
xL 260.) For a different account of bit deUfa lee 
PhilMtr. Her. riiL 3, and ScboL ad Lmftr. L e. 
After ht> death bia apirit dwelled in the iiland of 
Lena. (Paui. iiL 19. | II.) The Opuntian 
Locriani wonhipped Ajax ai thnr natjoud hem, 
and (D great waa their bith in him, that when 
they drew np their army in bailie arnij, thej ai- 
vaji left one phicc open for him, beliering that, 
although inviaibie to them, he wa> fighting for and 
among them. (Paiu. i. o. ; Conon. ffarni. 18.) 
The itory of Ajax wag beqntntlj made uae of b; 
andenl poeta and artiata, and the hero who ap- 
peara on aome Loczian coina with the helmet, 
ahield, and iword, ii protnbiT Ajax ifae aon of 
OTIeua. (Mionnet, No. 570, Ac) [L. &] 

A'IDES,"Att.j.. [HiDiM.] 

AIDO'NEUS CAn«"i!>). 1. A lengthened 
finn of 'Atlhti. (Hom. JL t. 190, ii. 61.) 



2. A 1 

PerKphone, and bther of Core. After Theaeua, 
with the asualance of Peirithoua, had orriad off 
Helen, and ooncealad her at Aphidnae [AciD>- 
uub), ha vent with Peirithout to Epeirua to pro- 
cure for him B* a reward Core, llie dau^ter of 
Aidoneui. Thia king thinking the two iLrangen 
wen weU-meaning aoitora, oSired the hand of hia 
danghter to PeirilbDua, on condidon that he ahanld 
fight and conquer hia dog, which bore the name of 
Cerbenu. Bnt when ATdoneua diacoTend that 
the; had come with the intention of carrying off 
hia danghter, he had Peirithooa killed by Cerbenii, 
and kept Theaeua in c^itirity, who waa after- 
warda relnaed at the requeat o! Heinelea. (Ptut 
Tif. 31, 35.) Etuebiaa (Clinm. p. 27) ealla tbe 
wife of Aldonena, a daughter of queen Demeler, 
with whom he had elopwL It Ii dear that tha 
ttory about ATdoneu ia nothing bnt the aaered 
legend of tha rape of Peraephone, draaied op in 
the form of a hiatoiy, and ia tmdanbtedly the work 
of a late interpreter, or nther deetroyar of genuine 
ancient myths. [L. S,] 


dirimtj. In the ] 

u, 389, a abort ti 


lore the inraaion of the Oaula, a nice was baud 
at Rome in tbe Via nora, during tbe ailenoe of 
ni^t, anDonndng that the Oaal* were af^madiing. 
(Lit. t. 32.) No attention waa at tbe time paid 
to the warning, but after the Oaula had withdnwn 
bom tha city, the Romana nmambeied the pro- 
phede Toice, and atoned for thdr nogloct by erect- 
ing on the apol in the Via ootb, where the roKB 
had been heard, a templnm, that is, an altar with 
a aacred endoanre around it, to Aiua Locutius, or 
the "Announcing Speaker." {LiT.T.iO; Vaiio, 
ap. OjIL iri. 17 1 Cic. da DiuimiL L Hi, iL 

32.) [L. a.] 

ALABANDU9 (-AAittvSat), a Carian hen, 
•on of Euippua and CalitThoe, whom the inhabit- 
anta of Alahandn worshipped aa the founder of 
their town. (Steph. Dyi. i. v. 'Mtittaia ; Cic 
di Ni^ Dior. liL 16, 19.) [L. S.1 

ALAOffNIA ('AAtrjoWo), a dangbter of 
Zona and Eunpn, fnm whom Alogonia, a town in 
Laconta, derJTed it> Dame. (Paul. iiL 21. j 6, 
26. g 8 ; Nat Com. TiiL 23.) [L S.] 

ALALCOMENE-IS ('AAjUm^rqli), a gui- 
oama of Athena, derired fium the tien Alalco- 
menaa, or tram the Boeotian tiII^ ol Alolco- 
menae, when sha waa belicTed to hare been bam. 
Otheci deriie the name from the rerb (UdA«ii>, 
•o that it would aignily the ** powerful defender." 
(Horn. IL iT. 8 ; Slepb. Byi. t. v. 'AAnAni^rw ; 
MiiUcr, OnAant. p. 213.) [U S.J 

ALALCO'MENES fA^o^m^.JiDi), a Boeotian 
ontocbthon, who waa beliered to have given tba 
name to the Boeotiaii AUtcomenae, to hava 
brought op Athena, who was boni there, and to 
have been the firat who intieduced her worafaipL 
(Pans. ii. 33. % 4.) According to Plutarch (iM 
OaodaL Fngm. h), he adWied Zeua to hare a 
figure of oak-wood dreeoed In bridal attire, and 
oiried about amjdat hymentml aongt, in aider to 
change the anger of Uen into joilouay. The 
name of the wife of Alalcomenes waa Ath^ 
nala, and that of hia aon, Olaucopus, both of 
which nfer to the goddess Athena. (Sleph. Bya. 
j; V. 'AXaXMoiiittar ; Paua. ix. 3. g 3 ; compL 
Did. ofAiL u V. Aoito^i Miiller, Orck«. a. 
213.) [L. S.] 

ALAIXOHE'MA CAAalun>fw£o), one of the 
daughten of Ogygea, who aa well as her two 
listers, Thelxionoea and Anlia, wera refolded oa 
auperaatnral beings, who watched dtcc oatbi and 
aa* that they wore not taken imshly or thoughl- 
lessly. Their name vma IlpiifiEIiRiJ, and they had 
a temple in common at tha Ciwt of the Telpbuaian 
mount in Boeolia. The repreaentationa of these 
dirinitiea conaiated of mere heads, and no parts gf 
animala were aecrilioed to them, eioept hoidi. 
(Paoa. ix. 33. I 2, 4 ; Panyaaii, ap. Sirpk Bfi. 
I. e. Tpw/iiKti ; Suid. a n. HffiOUt^ ; hl'iiller. Or- 
lAcn.'p. 136, Ae.) IL.&.] 

ALARl'CUS, in Oennnn At-rie, £ e, " All 
rich," king of the Vingothi, remarluUe aa 
being the fint of the baibarian cbiefi who ei^ 
lered and sacked tbe dly of Rome, and tha first 
enemy who had appeared before ita walla lince the 
time of Hannibal He waa ol the &mily of DaJtha, 
or Bold, the aecond noblest hmily of the Visigotha. 
( Jonundes, da &A. FM. 29.) Hia Emt appeoiance 
in hiatoryia in l.D. 394, when he waa uiveited 
by Theodcoini with tbe oomnund of the Oothie 
aniiliarie* in hia war with Eiigenins. (Zoikaua, 
.) In 396, [nrtly from anger at being refuanl 


At cnminaiid of ths ■mim of the tnttm ra 
portlj Bt die inuigaUoa <rf' Rnflniu (Socntoi 
HiiL Bed. TJL 10). he inTBded ud denalaUd 
OiMce, till, by ihc unml of Stilicho in 397. ht 
«M tompellBd to ttaipe to Epimi. Whilm tht 
be wa«, hj Ihe vnkaea of Artadiot, appointed 
prfrct of easleni Illf ricnin (Zagimiu> t. A, 6), and 
fully oving to thh olSce, and die uie he made of 
It in ^Tiding aniu fiw fail own pnipoeM, partly to 
hu binli and bme, wu by hi> coDntiyiimi elected 
king in 39S. (Claiidlui, EiOnp. iL 312, BtO. On. 
S33— i4a) 

The mt of his bfe wn menl in the two innt- 
Ahu of Italy. The £»t (40(M03), apparently 
■nproToked, bronghl him only to ItavennB, and, 
after a hloody defeat at follentia, in which hie nife 
and treaaurn were taken, and a masterly letreat 
to Verona (Onu. »ii. 87 ), waa ended by the treaty 
with Stilicho, which tranafensd hie aenicet from 
Arcadiiu to Honuriua, and made him prefect of the 
watern initod of the eoatem lUyricuin. In Ihii 
edacity he fixed hii eainp at Aemona. in eipecla- 
tBn of the fuUilment of liii demandi for pay, and 
for a weatpm province, aa the fbtnre home of hii 
nation. The aecond inotuion (106-410) wu oeca- 
aoned by the delay of thit Mfihntnt, and hy the 
maBncnoftbeOoihic&miliain Italy on Stilicho '■ 
dtsih. It ii marked by the three siegea of Rome. 
Th« tint (408), aa being a protracted blockade, 

The second (409), was Dccaeioned by a reftuol to 
eomply with Alaric"! demand*, and, open the ociq- 
palion of Ottia, ended in the unconditional lurren- 
dei of the dly, and in the diiponl of the empire 
by .Uaiic to Attalua, till on ditcOTCry of hia inia- 
fiacity, he reatored it to Honoriua, (Zo>imiu,T. n.) 
The third (JIO), wsi occoiioned hy an aanolt apon 
hia troopa nnder the imperial aBncliart, and woe 
ended by the treacherona opeiung of the Salaiian 
gate on August 24, and the lack of die dty for aii 
daya. It wai immediately followed by (he occu- 
pation of the Rinth of ItuTy, and the deaigii of in- 
Tading Sidly and Africa. Thia intention, how- 
erer, wa> interrupted by hia death, after a short 
illnBi* at Conientia, where he ima bniied in the 
bed of the ad^nt river Bnaentinns, and the 
place of his interment concealed by the maisacre of 
■U the workmen employed on the occasion. [Oros. 
tS. 39; Jo^lande^ 30.J 

The few personal traits that are ncoided of htm 
^-his answer to the Roman embaaay with a hoarse 
kagfa in answer to their threat of deipemte neisl- 
anee, 'The thicker the hay, the easier mown," 
and, m rrjjy to their qneilion of what he wottld 
IcaTS them, "Your lircs" — an in the ime savage 
hnmoai of a barbarian cnaqoeror. (Zo>imns,v. 40.) 
Bat the impresoon left npoa pa by his general 
character is of a higher order. The real military 
■kill shewn in his escape from Greece, and in hia 
Mnot W Verona; the wish at Atbciu to shew 
that be adapted the ate of the batb and the other 
utenial fbraii of cinliwd life ; the moderation and 
joalioe which he obaened lowards the Rnmana in 
the times of pnce; the huninnily whith diatin- 
guished him during the sack of Home^-indicate 
something superior to (he mere ciaft and lawless 
ambition which he seemi to hare possessed id 
emamon with other bavarian thiti*. So alao hia 
senrplea agaiaat fighting on Easter-day when at- 
iMled at Pollen tia, and his rcierencc for the chnrcbes 
daring the sack of the dly (Oroa. lii 37, 39), 

imply that the Christian fiuth, ii 

li he hi 

been iiutrvcted by Aiian teachers, had laid ao 
hold at least on hi* imagination, and bad not 
been tinged with that fierce hostility a^unst the 
orthodox parly which marked the Arims of Iha 
Vandal tribes. Accotdingly, we find that the 
Christian port of his contemporaries regarded hlrnt 
in comparison with the other iniadeni of the empin 
aa the representatiTeofeinlisation and Christianity, 

the itill half p^an dly (Onn. liL 37), and tha 
very slight injury which the grtat Iniildiags of 
Greece and Rome sustained horn his two inranona 
confirm the same view. And amongit the Pagans 
ise of the pretematanl character of 
prevailed, (hough ex[Keased in a dif- 
The dialogue which Oaadian {Bdt. 
GtL 48S-540) represents him to bavo held with 
the aged couoaellon of hia own tribe seems to be 
the heathen rerrion of the ecdetiaitical etory, (hat 
he stopped themonk who begged him to nare Roma 
with the answer, that ha was driven on by a voice 
'hich he coold not resist. [Bocrates, HiiL Ecu, 
IL 10.) So also his vision of Achilles and Ui- 
■na appearing to defend the dty of Athens, aa 
Kordeo by Zosimss (t. 6), if it doe* not imply 
lingering respect and fear in the mind of Altirio 
himself toirards the andent worship, — at least 
expresses the belief li the pagan historian, that hi* 

call (or divine interf^nee. 

The permanent eflect* of hi* career are to ba 
fonod only in (he establishment of the Vingothio 
kingdom of Spain by (he warrior* whom ha was 
the first to lea4 into the west. 

The anthorities for the invasion of Qreece and 
the first two sieges of Rome are Zoaimna (v. vi): 
for the first invadon of Italy, Jotnandes da JUL Oil, 
SO; Claudian, B. OtL: for the diitd siege and 
sack of Rome, Jomandes, A; Orodas, viL S9; 
Aug. (Sv, Dti, L I-IO ( HieronjBL ^M. ad Prat- 
dp. ; Procop. Beil. VawL i. 2 ) Sosomen, HiiL 
Eo^. \x. 9, 10; laid. Hiapolenais, Cknmaa Oat- 
torus.) The invadona of Italy are involved in 
great confodon by these writers, eoedally by 
Jomandes, who blends the battle of PoUentia in 
403 with tha maHcre of the Oaths m 408. By 
they ate redooed in Gibbon 
(c 30, 31 ) to the order which has been here follow- 
ed. SeeBlaoGode&oy,(i.l/'UA]s^.iiL3. [A.P.B.] 

ALASTOR ('AAaflrapp). 1. According (o He- 
syehiui and the Etymologicnm M., a snmame of 
" ' lUng him as the avenger of evil deed*. 

avenges wrongs o 
24. S 4 ; Plot. Dt Def. Onu. 13, &c ; AeschyL 
^fni>Ll479, l£DS,J^!n. 343; Soph. TVtuiL 1093) 
Enrip. /"iosiL ] 550, Ac) 

2. AsonofNelensandChhnii. WhenHeradea 
took Pylos, Alaalor and his bcntben, except 
Nestor, were slain by him, (Apollod. i. 9. g 9; 
SchoL ad AaJiom. Rkod. L IS6.) According to 
Parthenhis (c. 13) he was to be married to Hai>- 

lyce, who, however, was taken from him by ber 
Lher aymenuL 

3. A Lycian, who wa* a eompanwn ol Sarpe- 
m, and slain by Odyaiens. (Rom. IL T. 677 ; 
I. Met xiii. 267.) Another Alastor is mention- 
in Horn. II. viiL 333, liiL 422. [L. 8.] 

ALASTiyRIDES ('A*<vT<vl>q>). > patn- 



■ji^ frm AlutOE, uid gitm by Homer (IL xz. 
46S) to Tim, who nt piotnblf ■ wn of ilia 
liTciui Alutoi meDtiimad BboTc [I^ S.] 

ALATHE'US, called ODOTHABU3 b; Cko- 
diu, beorae irith Sapbni, in A. D. 376, on the 
death of Vithimir, the gnardiaii of Vithericna, the 
jnoiw king of the Greuthmigi, the duel tribe of 
tbe Ortn^otbi. Al*tbaiu ud Saphnc led their 
paeple lenu the Dannbe in thii jnr, ud uniting 
tbeir firoB* with tbow of the Viiigotht under 
FMtigBfn, look part agunat the Braun* in the i 
battle of HadiBW^ i. d. 378, in which the em- 
jpans Valan ma defJnted and killed. Aftcs 
BlrnkderlDg the mroiiDding conntrj, Alathena and 
B^ihiu oTentaally letn ua ed the Daoobe, but 
■ppeaied again on ita bank* in 388, with du io- 
tanttorn of utTading the Boman ptorinna agnin. 
Tbej wen, howerar, rapnliad, and Alatbeni wai 
dain. (Anim. Hai& irri. S, ftc. ; Jornond. ib 
Jfai. (M. 36. 27 ; Clandion, d* IV Okh. Hour. 
636 ; Zonmni, it. S9.) 

ALBA SI'LVIUS, one of the mythical Ungi 
tl Alba, laid to hiTo been the ion of Lalinu, and 
the bthar of Atyi, aecoiding to lify, and of C»- 
petut, according to Dianjiiu, He reigned thirtj- 
■ine vean. (Lir. I Si Dionya. L 71.1 

Al-BIA OENa. No peianu of thu gem ob- 
tained an; oSeet in the ilate till the Gnt oennuy 
B. a Thtj all bore the cognomen CuiaiNis. 

L. ALBI'NIUS. 1. One of the tribnnea of 
Che pleba, at the firrt invitation of the offlo^ a. c 
494. (LiT. ii. 33.) Aiconhia calla him L. Albi- 
nina C. f. Patereolna. (A ac OontU p. 7B, ed. 

on the Alia, H. c S90, and oreiiaok on the Jam- 
■nlu, the prieata and Teitali canTing the lacred 
■hingi : he made hit funilj alight and took aa 
many aa he waa able to Caen. (Lit. t. 40 ; VaL 
Max. i. 1. S 10.) The oonnlar tribone in & c. 
979, whom Liv; (li. 30) calla M. Albinioi, ia 
prolablj the Bnw penon aa the aboTs. (C<anp. 
Hiebohr, HkL of Rami, ii. n. 1201.) 

ALBINOVA'NUS, C. PEDO, a friend and 
conlemiKinirf of Ovid, to whom the latter addrea- 
aeioneofhiaEinatletiTomPonlua. (Lt. 10.) He 
fa chiBied hj Qointilian (x. t) among the epc 
poeta ; OTid alu ipeaka of hie poem on the ex- 
ploiU of TheHU, and colli him ndvai Fedo, on 
Acconnt of the nibHtnitf of hii atjle. {Ei, Piml. 
IT. 16. 6.) Ho U atippmed to haye written an 
epic poem on tite eiploiu of Oermanicut, (he eon 
of DruD*, of which twenty-three linea are pre- 
lerTed in the ihawru of Seneca. (lih.i.) Tbia 
fragment ii nanally entitled " De Nsrigstione 
Germanic^ per Oceanian Septenlrienalem," and 
deaeribea the Toynge of OermonicnB through the 
Amiflia (Ems) into the northern ocean, a. d. 16- 
(Comp. Tbc Anm. iL 23.) It would leem fiom 
Martial (v. £), that AlbinoTanni waa alw a writer 
of epignunL L. Seneca wai acquainted with him, 
and colli him/oMofor eUgamtminuu. (Ep. 122.) 

Three lAtin el^iea are attributed to AlhiucK ' 
Tanna, bat withonl on; uifficient authority i , 
nameiy,^ — I. " Ad LiTiam Aug. deMorte Drusi," 
whiefa ia aeoibad to Ovid by many, and baa been 
puhljahed (eparstely by Biemer, Helnut. 177S. 
■i. " In Obilnm Maecenntit.'' 3. *■ De Verbia Mao- 
canatia raoribundi," {VVemadorf, Potiae Latiiu 
Mmoru, uL pp. 1S1, &C., 155, &c) 

The ftagiaent of AlbinoTanna on the TOyue of 
Gannaniciu, haa been pDbliahed by H. StejAena, 
Fragm. PixL,p. 416,Pitboana, .^'^roM.effWis. 
vtL, p. 239, Bnimann, AaA lot. ii. ep. 131, 
Wemadorf, Pail. lai. Mill. IV. L p. 229, &c. 
All that hao been aacribed to Albinonuiaa waa 

rbliahed at Amaterdam, 1703, with the notea (4 
Scaliger and olhen. The lilt edition ia bj 
Heinecke, which contadna the t«it, and a Oeimaa 
banilation in Terae, Quedlinbnrg, 1819. 

to the party of Marioa in the fint riyil war, and 

of the alste in b. c 87. He theienpoa fled to 
Hiemnal in Numidia. After the defeU of Celtn 
and Norboniu in B. c Bl, he obained the pardon 
of Sulla by treacheiouily putting to death many 
of the principal officer! of Norbanua, whom he had 
inTitad to a banqueL Arinuainm in eoneeqaenco 
MTOlted to Snlta, whance the Paeudo-Aaconiua (•■ 
Oie. FffT. p. 168, ed. Onlli) apaaka of Albino- 
Tanna betraying it. (Apmau, S. CI i. 60, 62; 91 ; 
SToma. iiL 31. g 7.) 

ALBI'NUS or ALBUS, the name of the pcin- 
ci^ fimiily of the patridan Poalnmia gena. Hm 
anginal name waa Albna, aa appaara bma the 
Faati, which waa ofterwarda lengthened into Albi- 
nua. We find in pnqier names in Latin, dcrintina 
in ama, aiaif,and unu, need withottt any additional 
meaning, in the aane tenaa aa the limple form^ 
(Comp. Niebuhr, ffaf. i/Amu, i. n. 219.) 

1. A. FosTUMiua P. r. Albus RauiLLaNsia, 
waa, aocording to Livy, dictator B.C. 498, when 
ho eonquered the Latini in ibo great battle near 
lake BegiUua. Romon atory related that Caator 
and Pollur were aeen fighting in Ihia battle on tba 
nde of the Bomana, whence the dictator ofterwaida 
dedicatad a tomple to Coitor and Pollnn in the 
fonun. He waa conaul b. c 496, in which year 
aome of the *nn«Ttt, according to LiTy, placed the 
battle of the lake Ragillua ; and it ia to thii ytai 
that Dionyaiui aaaigna it. (Lir. U. 19, 20, 31 ; 
Dionya. li 3, Ac ; VaL Uai. i- 8. g I ; Cie. d* 
tfal. Dear. ii. 2, iii. 6.) The anmome RegOlennB 
ia uaoolly auppoaed to hare been derived from thia 
battle ; but Niebnhi thinka that it waa taken feon 
a place of reiidence, juat aa the Claudii bore the 
aania name, and that the later annahata only uike 
of Paatumiaa oi commander in cooiequence of tba 
name. LiTy (iii. 45] lUtea aipreaaly, that Scipio 
Africsnoi waa the Rnt Boman who obtained a 
aumame from hia conqueeta. (Niebuhr, Niil. y 
Sanui, i. p. 556.) 

Many of the o<nn* of the Albini commemorata 
thii Ttctory of tbeir anceetor, aa in the one annexed. 
On one aide the head of Diana ii rcpreienlcd wt^ 
the Icttoia Bout underneath, which are partly 
tffajcei^ and ou the reTone are three honemao 
uumpUng on a foot-aoldier. 

2. 9p. PonvMnn A. r. F. 
iNBis, q>patHitlj, accoiding It , . 

of the prModing, (though it mut be obaetrcd. 

LiNBls, q>patHitlj, accoiding to th^ Faiti, i 

''■■'" Tding, (though it mnat be obeetTc ... . 

rly fimaa no dependance an ba plac*) 

,.t,zc-ctv Google 



e gannlogiiK,) iru connil K c 

,2; Dimyi. ii. 60.) He wu one of the 
thiH caramwiQiun acDt into Onece to collect iu- 
(uaMiOD abent ihc lawi of that cmmtiy, and waa 
a member of Uie fint dflccRiTiratfl in 4£1. (LIt, 
m. 31, 33; Dion;i.i.52,5eJ He Dommaiided, 
ai kgatm, the centn of the namaii army in the 
battl* in wbkh the Aequiuu and VoUdani wen 
Mealed in 446. (Lir. iiL 70.) 

S. A. PosTDHius A. r. P. n. Albiis Rmil- 
LnniU, t^jparently ion of No. 1, wu cnunl B. c 
464, and cmrried on war againit the AeqnianL 
He waa aeat ai ambauador to the Aeqntaut in 
458, on which occaiion he wb> inanlled by thaii 
conmander. (Lit. iii. 4, 6, 25 ; Diouyi. ii. 62, 6B.) 

4. Sf. PiwTUMiuK Br. r. A. it. Ai-bub Rniit- 
t No 2, vu coniular Iri- 

, and Hired aa legalDi in the <rac in 
the Ibllawing year. (Lir. it. 35, S7.) 

5. P. PoaTtiHiim A. r. A. N. Albinus Ruil- 
i^KNan, whom LiTy talli Maima, »a* eonaular 
tribnne b-c 414, and wu killed in an inMineciion 
of the leMian, whom he had dimnTed of the plun- 
der of Ihe Aeqidan town of Bidae, which he bad 

■ ■ ' 1. (LiT. iT. 4B, 50.) 

In Ihor cenionhip a fine wa* inpoHd npon all 
■»ai who remained lingle np to old age. (VaLMax. 
B.S.i\: PluL Cam.'i; DicLqfAnl.:v. Uicrimn.) 
7. A. PoaruMii;^ Albinvs Rmillkniuh, cod- 
mlar tribnne d. c. 397, oJlected with his wllesgua 
L. J ulini an army of Totunteen, lioie the tlibnne* 
pnTcnted them from making n regular levy, and 
eat off a body of Tatqniaienw*, who were return- 
ii^ home after plundering the Roman tarritoty. 



8. Sp. PonDMiUB Ai^ihim Rian.LBNBja,con- 
anlar tribnne ■. c 394, carried on the war againit 
theAeqniani; be at firat inflbred a defeat, bat 
afterwaida conqnered Ihcm eomplelely. (Lir. T. 

9. Sp- PoaTUMiTM Albindb, vat eonnil ■; C 
334, and iuTadsd, with hi* colleague T. Valuini 
OilTiniM, the ooimtry of the Sidicini ; but, on ae- 
eoont of the great form which the enemy had col- 
lected, and the report that the Samnitea were com- 
ing to their miitaiwe, a dictator wai ^ipoialed. 
(Ur. Tiii. 16, 17.) He waa oeoior in 333 and 
laapiiliir eqoitnm m 327, when M. Ctaodiiu Uar- 
ccdini wa* ij^ointed dietatoi to hold tlie comitia. 
<TiiL 17, 23.i In 331, he waa cohbdI a Kcond 
lima with T. VetDriai Calrinui, and marched 
■oainH the Samnitea, hot wu defeated near Can- 
dnm, and obliged to mtiender with hi* whole 
■imy, who were tent nnder the ydce. At the 
price of hb detiToance and that of the army, ha 
BiidJiiteoIleaf[iia and the other commandcn aware, 
in the name of the republic, to a humiliating peace. 
The conmla, on their retnm to Rome, laid down 
their office after appointing a dietattrr ; and the 
•enate, on the advice of Pottnmioi, reaolTcd that 
all pereoDi who had awom to the peace thonld be 
pTcn np to the Samnitea. Poatumini, with thi 
etiier pruonen, aeeatdiagly went to the SamniM, 
bat they Rfnaed to accept them. (Ut. ii. 1— '" 
AppiaD, lb Bib. Samm. 3—6 1 Cic d( Q^ iii 

10. A. Po«ruiutis A. r. L. x. Albinuk, wat 


conml K C 243 with Latatim Catnhn, who de- 
feated the Carthifiniaiu off the Aegalea, and thua 

brought the fint Punic war to an end. Albiant 
waa kept ID the dly, againit hit will, by the Poo- 
tifei Maiimnt, beouue he waa Flamen Man>ali& 
(Lit. ^A is, uiii. IS; Eatrop. iL 27 i VaL 
Uai. L 1. 1 1.) He wat cantor in 234. (PoJ^ 

U. L. PoaruHius, A. r. A. H- AkBiNua, ap- 
panntly a ton of the preceding, waa conaul B. c- 
334, and again in 339. In hi* leeond cotuulthip 
he mnde war upon the lUyriana. (Eutntp iii. 4 ; 
Oroa. iT. 13 i Dion Caia. frag. 151 i PtJ^b. iL 1 1, 
du, who emiDeoaily calli him AiUm m*te«d of 
LmeuM.) Id 316, the third year of the lecond 
Punic war, he waa made praetor, and leut inta 
Ciialpine Gaol, and while abaent wu elected ecu- 
aul the third time for the following year, 215. But 
he did not lire to enter Dpon hit conaulikip) for 
atroyed by the Boii m the 

(LiT. .:dL 35, iiiU. 24 1 Polyh. 
iii. 106, 118; Cic. ran L 37.) 

13. 8f- Piwruifius L. r. A. H. Alunds, wat 
praetor perBgiinaa in & c 189 (lir. iutIL 47, 
50). and oniaal in 136. In hi* cooeulihip the 
■enBtnaconiultum wu paaed, which ia *till extant, 
eappretaiag the wonhip of Baechni in Rome, in 
conieqnence of the abominable crime* which were 
commilted in eonnexioD with iL (uiii. 6, II, 
Ac.; VaLUai.TL 3. g 7 ; Plin. H. N. uxiiL 
lOi DiAi/ Aid. p. 344.) He wat alto angur, 
and died in 179 at an adnnced age. (Lir il. 
42 1 Cic aua, 8.) 

13. A. PoRTuuiDa A. r. A. n. Albihus, 
wu cnmle aedile b. c 187, when he cihibited 
the Oreat Ounea, praetor 135, and conaul 160. 
(Ut. mix. 7, 23, iL 35.) In bia conaulihip 
be conducted the war againit the Ligurian*. 
(tL41,) Be wit cenaor 174 with Q. Fulviua. 
Their cetuonhip wu a icTere one ; they expelled 
nine member* Enxn the teData, and degraded many 
ofeqneatiiannuik. They eiecated, howeTer, many 
public worfca. (ili. 32, ilii. 10 ; eomp. Cic- Perr. 
1. 41.) He wu elected in bit oeneorihip one of 
the dacemriri wcranini in the placa of L. Comelioi 
Lentulua. (LiT. iliL 10.) Albino* wu ei^aged 
in many 'public miuiona. In 175 he wu acnt 
into northern Greece to inquire bto the truth of 

of the Dardaniima and Thee- 
be Butamae and Peneua. (Polyb. 
171 he wu lent u one of the am- 
nle (LiT. xliL 35); and after Iha 
ooiiqueal of Macedonia in 168 he wu one of iIm 
ten conmiiaaionen appointed to (ettle the abin 
of the country with Aemiliut Paulina. (xIt. 17.) 
LJTy not on&equendy calla him Luamt, from 
which it would aeem that be wu blind of one eye. 

14. Sp. PoirruHius A. F. A. n. Ai.binui 
Pa ULLDLUS, probably a brother of No. 13 and IS, 
perbapa obtamed the aumarae of Paullolna, u 
being small of ttature, to diitinguiafa him more 
accurately from bit two brothen. He wu praetor 
inSidly, B.C lB3,andconHil, 174- (LiT. xuix. 
45, xh. 26, xliii. 2.) 

15. L. PoBTtTHitis A. r. A. N. Albindb, pro- 
bably a brother of No. 13 and 14, wu prMloi 
B. c ISO, and obtained the proTince of forthei 
Spain. Hit command wu prolonged inlhafolloiik 



. (I-iT. 

S8, 44, 47, 48, SO, itL S, 1 1.) He wu dodiuI m 
ITS, villi M. Poi^u Lmtbi; uid the vu in 
Lignru mu udgned to both eonnita. Albiuiu, 
bowsTer, wu fin! khI into Cuntonia to Hponts 
the lud of the itate fironi that of pptue pereoni ; 
sod thia boDDcM oecapied him all the ntrameT, sa 
lk>t he «u naable to go iota hii pniiiice. He 
«■! the (inl Roman rowiUnle who pat the alliea 
ID »0T eipenie in tisTiJliiiB through their temto- 
liea. (ill S3, riii. 1. 9.) The f«li>B] of the 
Flonlia, which had Iwra dieom tinned, waa re- 
■tond in hi« oonralihip. (Or. Fiat. t. 329.) In 
171, he WM one of the ambundon aent to Miu- 
niua and the Carthagiaiaoi in order lo raJH troop* 
for the war againit PerHui. (Lir. ilii. i&.) Id 
169 ha waa an TuvancEstaful candidate for the cen- 
aanhip. (iliii. 16.) He aerred under Aemiliu) 
Paulloi in Macedonia in IGS, and eonmuuidBd the 
aecood Ic^on in the hulls with Peraeui. (ilir. 
*1.) The laH time he i» mentionod it in thi* 
war, when he waa aent to plnndar the town of the 
AeniL (ilr. 37.) 

16, A. PosTumus ALBlNna, one of the officei* 
in the aimj of Aanilioa PaoUoi in Macedonia, 

■ B. 0. 168, Ha waa aent bj PauUua to treat with 
Peraau ; and afierwaida PencD* and hia aoa Philip 
were committed to hi* on b; Panllua. (Ut. 
«1». 4, 38.) 

17. L. PwrrDHinB Sr. r. L. h. Albiudb, 
■ppanntl; aon of No. 12, waa cimile ae^e ■. c. 
161, and eihibiled the Ladi Megaleoaea, at which 
the Eanucb of Tennce waa acted. He waa oonaol 
in lfi4, and died aeien day* after he had aet ODi 
from Rome in order to go to hia province. It wa* 
mppnesd that he waa piriiODed by hia wife. 
(Obaeq. 76 ; VaL Max. Ti. S. § 8.) 

IB. A. POSTUMllTB A. F. A. M. ALBimw, app* 
rentlj aon of No. 13, waa praetor B. c. IfiS (Cic. 
Jiad. iL 4S ; Polyb. i.iiiL \\ and conaill in 151 
with L. LiciniuB LncuUui. He and hit colleague 
were thrown into priaon by the tribonea for coo- 
docting die Icriea with loo much aaTeritj. (Lit. 
BpO. 48; Poiyb. hit. S; On* i». 31.) He 
waa one of the ambaaaadon aent in 153 to make 
MO between Allalu* and Pnuia* (Polyb. ixuiL 
II), and accompanied L. Mummint Achaicua into 
Gnecain 146 aa one of hi* legalea. Then waa a 
Btatue erected lo hi* hononr on the lithmna. 
(Cic ad AtL liil SO, 32.) Albmiu waa well ac- 
qnmnled with Greeli literature, and wrote in that 
language a poem and a Roman hiatory, the latter 
of which ia mentioned by aeTeial anaent wiiten. 
Polyluua (iL 6) apealu of him a* a Tain and tight- 
headed nun, who diaparagod hi* own people, and 
wai aillily derated la the alodj- nf Greek literBture. 
He relatet a tale of him and the elder Cale, who 
Tepraved Albinut ahaiplj, becnaae in the pre&ce 
to hia hialnry he begged the pardon of hia readera, 
if ne ahould make any mtttakea in writing in a 
foreign language ; Cato reminded him that he waa 
not compelled to write at ull, but that it ho choae to 
write, he had no hndneaa to aak for the indolgence 
of bis leaden. Thia tale i> alio related by Gellini 
(iL 8), Macrobiua (Prefiue lo Satm.), Plataich 
(cWo, 12), and Suida) (i. e. A!Ao» Wmrriiuoi). 
Polybin* alto aayt ^lat Albinua imitated the worat 
parta of the Qiesk chancier, that he waa entirely 
dCToled lo pleaaUR, and ahiilted all labour and 

danger. He tdatet thai ha retired to Thah«% 
when the battle wa* fought at Phod*, on the pica 
of indiapoaitian, but aflarwarda wrote an account 
of it lo the lanate aa if he had been preaenL 
Cieero epeaka with rather more respect of hia Uls- 
lary merita ; he call* him daetiu homo and liitrrn^ 
lai et diirfai. (Cic .,4aiii. ii. 45,.fira<.2l.) Hn- 
crobina (iL 16) qootea a paaaage (nnn the fini book 

po*ed that the Greek bialoiy m , 
laled into Uitin. A work of AlbioDt. on Ihe 
airiial of Aeneaa in Italy, ia referred to by Ser- 
viait(ad F^..4«.ii.7l0^and theantboioftha 
work ** De Origine Gentia Romauae," e. It. 
(Kianae, Vilae 1 Ffagm. t^tltrum Hilotimnm 
Amnormt, p. 1 27, Ilc.) 

la. Sf. Pdrtuhius ALBiNin MaaNoa, wu 
Gonani a. c 148, in which year a great fire ha[K 
pened at Rome. (Obaeq. 78.) It ia thia Sp. 
Albinua, of whom Cicero ipeakt in the itmAu (c. 
35), and aaya that there were many ormtaona of hia, 

30. 8r. PoeruMiuR Sf. p. Sr. n. Albihur, 
probahty aon of No. 19. waa connd B. c. 110, ami 
obtained the pnrince of Numidia to carry on the 
war againit Jognrtha. He i: ' 
ntioui for war, but when he i 

that bii 

le reached the profince. 

lurrender. Many per. 
ippoaed tW bit iaadiTity wa* intentional, 
and that Jogurtha bad bought him oTer. When 
Albinua departed from Africa, ha left hia brothw 
Aulna in command. [Sec No. 21.] After th* 
deflBat of the latter he retuiued to Nmnidia, but 
'liaomniied tiale of hia 
lie uia war, and handed 
'the following 

army, be did 

ly in thii eoni 

. Orot. \w. 15; Eatnp. h. 36.) Ha w 
condemned by the Mamilia Lex, which waa patted 
10 puniah ali Iboac who bad been guilty of tleaaoi^ 
able practice* with Jngurtha. (Cic. BnA. 84 ( 
ocmp. Sail. J^. 40.) 

31. A.PoeTUMlmALBn•ll^b^lther of Ko.20, 
and pratnbly ton of No. 19, waa left by hia biD- 
ther aa pio-pcaetor, in command of the army in 
Afirica in b. c 110. [See No. 20.] He manhsd 
to betiege Snthal, when the tnaauna of Jugunha 
wen depoaited ; bat Jogurtha, under the promiae 
of giving him a large anm of money, induced him 
to lead hi* army into a ntired [dace, where ha 
waa auddenly attacked by the Numidum king, and 
oidy aared hia Inop* from total deitniction by 
allowing them lo paaa under the yoke, and under- 
taking to lesTe Nnmidia in ten daya. (SalL Jag. 

33. A. PoETDiiiUB A. F. Sf. n. ALSiHua, giand- 
aon of No. 19, and probably aon of No. 31, wv 
conaul a c 9S, with M. Anlonini. (Plin. H. S. 
TJiL 7 ; Obaeq. IDS.) Oelliua (It. 6) quoiea the 

tulahip in omaequence of the apeai* of Mar* having 
moved. Cicero laja that he waa a good apeakar. 
{Bnt. 35, jxM Rtd. ad Qotr. 5.) 

The following coin it nppoMd by Eckhel (nL 
T. p. 388) and olhen lo irfar to thv Albino*. On 
one aide i* the head of a female with the letter* 
HispiN., which may perbapa have nfeience lo tlw 
Tlclory which hit ancealor L, Aibinaa obtained in 
Spain. [Saa No. !£,] On tba other iid« • ogan 


b npKwnted •tretching oni hit bind to an oigle, 
k militarr tMndacd, *iid behind him ue the biaa 
with the axo. Oa it an the ktten A. post. a. r. 
nstaid of ALBIN.|, Oa 

3& A. Poaroinin Albiniii, ■ penon af prae- 
tttian m^ oommanded tha fl«t, b. c 89, iu the 
Uanie w, nod wu killed by hi* own HJdien 
uder the [jca IhU he meditated tnachery, bat in 
Italic on ■coKuit of hu emeltj. Snlla, who wu 
Ihoi ■ legate of the connl Pondni C4I0, ineor^ 
niad hii troop* with his own, but did not punuh 
theoBenden. (Ut. .Q>& 75 ; Plat. SU^ 6.) 

34. A- PoeTDuim Ai.BiNita wu plued bj 
Oeur DTCI Sidir, B. c. «8. (Appian, B.aU. IB.) 

2£. D. Junwt Baurat Albindi, adopted '- 
No. 2S, ud dxnmeinanted in the umeiod D 
vbera Bratni ia called Ai.aD<r(a) bkvtl 

ALBlTflTS, pronntorof Jndaea, in Iha reign 
efNeni, aboot «. d. 83 and 64, nceeeded Psetu, 
and WW gniltj of almoal arei; kind of crinM in 
hi* gennunenL He pardoned the lileu cnmisali 
br RMnej, aod ihameleielj plundered the pro- 
lindalL He wu ncceeded bj Floma (Joeeph. 
J^Jmd.*^a.iliBdLJMd.a. 14. S 1.) The 
Ldchiub ALBtNUB mendooed below ma; potiilil; 
hate been the nme penon. 

ALBI'NUS ('AAftrei), ■ Pbtonie phikeophi 
who iiTed at Smyma and wu a contempaiarj 
Galen. (Qalan. toL ir. p. 372, ed. Baiil.) 
ahort tract by him, entitled tiviryiiy^ dt to 
nArfram AiaA^vt, baa come down to oa, and 
paidiihsd in the wcoiid Tolume (p. 44) of the fim 
aditioD of Fabriaoa} bat omitted in the leprial 
by Hariea, beaue it it to be found prefixed 
BwiUl's editioi of tfatva diahgnei of Plato, Oio 
I77t ; and to Fiacber'i bar dialogue of Plato, 
L^ 17fU. It omitaina hardly anjtUif of ' 
' * r expUiniDg the natiue of 

bialogne, 1 

He k md to ban w 

ALBINU3. 8» 

wrote n I^din leme woiks on nmiie and geo- 
metry. (RJ-l 

ALBI'NUS, CLOT)IUS, whoee foU name 
waa Dedmu Clodiu Ceionioi Septimiu* Al- 
bimu, the HID of Ceionitu Poatumiiu and 
AureUa Tllmialiiin. wa* bom at Adnunetum in 
Africa; but the y««r of bii birth ia not known. 
Ananding to hie hther'a itatement (CapitoL 
Cbd. AOm. 4), he retei.ed the name of AlW- 
nna on accomit of the extraordinary whiteneat of 
hie body. Shewing great diapoaition for a military 
Ufa, he entered the anny at an early age and 
aerred with grtat diatinction, eepedally dniing the 
rebellion of Avidiua Caaaiua againat the emperor 
Marciu Aoreliut, in A. D. I7£. Hit merita were 
acknowledged by the emporar in two lettan (ii. 
10) in which he nlla Albinaa an African, who re- 
tembled bis eonntrymen bal little, and who wa* 
pniaewotthj for hia military eiperieaee, and the 
gruyilj of hia cbaincler. The emperor likewiae 
declared, that without Albinu the li«iona (in 
Bilhynia) would haTe gone oTer to Aiidiu* Ca»- 
tioK and that he intended to hsTe him choaen 
eonaoL The eniHnir Commodni ^Te Albinui a 
commnnd in 0am and afterwarda m Britain. A 
Mae rumDOr having been apieod that Commodua 
had ^ed, Albinu harangued the aimy in Britain 
on the occanon, attacking Commodu u a tynmt, 
and mainLihiing -' - '- '* *-- '-' 
Roman empire U 
dignity and power. The 
witb theae tenlimenta, but n 
who wnt Jnniu Seienu to aupertede . 
hia command. At thia time Alhinna mnat nare 
been a rery distingoiahed man, which we may 
eondnde tram On &et, that iooie time befbn 
Commodiit bad ofieied him the title of Caaaw, 
which be witely decfined. Notwithitanding the 
appointincait of Janini Serenia aa hia ancceaaor, 
^Innat kept Ua eomnund til] after the mordsr of 
Commodu and that of hit tocceaaor Pertinax in 
A. D. 193. It it donbtfitl it Albinnt waa the 
aeciet author of the mordar of Pertinax, to which 
Capitolinm make* an allaaon. (/i. 14.) 

After the death of Pertinax, Didiua Jnlianu 
purchaaed the throne by bribing the piuetoriana t 
bat immediately aflernrda, C. Peecenruu Ni^ 
wu proclaimed emperor by the legiona in Syria j 
L. Septimiiu Se»erus by the troopa in Illyrictun 
and Pannonia; and Albino* by the armiea in Bri- 
tain aod OauL Juliantu baling been put to dalh 
by order of the aerate, who dreaded the power 
of Seplimint SeTcru, the Ijiiter turned hi* anna 
aaaintt Pescennius Niger. With regard to Al- 
binaa, we mut beliere that Seieru* made a pto- 
TiaioD*! arrangement with him, conferring upon 
him the title of Caatar, and holding with him 
tlM conanlahip in a. n. Ifi4. But after the deieat 
and death of Niger in a. ■>. 194, and the complEte 
diacomfitun of hia adherent*, eapecially after the 
Ul of Byxantium in a. n- ItKi, Sareiu ret^Ted 
to make himself the abeatata maaler of the Roman 
empin. Albinu aeeing the danger of hia poutiou, 
which he had incrcaaed by hit indolnnce, prepared 
for rematancc. He narrowly eaaped being 
laanttinated by a meaeenger of SeTem* (it. 7, 8), 
whereupon be put himaelf at the head of nia anny, 
which u aaid to have conaiated of 180,000 men. 
He mat the equal SotXM of Seienu at Lugdunmn 
(Lyon*), in QtxH, and (ben fbngbt with him oa 
the IStli of Febroary, 197 (^arlmn. &i«r. 1 1), > 



Uoodj batik, in wliich he n> at lint TictDnmu, 
bat at Um vm entinlf defeated, and loat hi* life 
either bj iiiieidB, or hj ordei of Sererm, aft«r 
haTing bean nude a priKoet. Uia bodj wu ill 
traaM bj SaTenu, who tent hit bead to Rome, 
and aoeoBpaniad it with an iruolent letter, m 
which he iDocked the lenate for their odhennoe in 
AlbiDiiL The town of Lngdunum wae pLtmdered 
and deitrojed, and (he odheienti of AUnnui wen 
ctnell; praeeentsd b; SeTeni). 

Albtnut wat a man of great bodilf bant; and 
■trength ; he waa an eTperienoed genaial ; a ■Icii* 
ta[ gladiator ; a aeven, and o^en cruel commander ; 
and he hu been called the Catiline of hii lise. 
He had one aon, or perhap* two, who were pat to 
death with their mother, by order of Sevenu. It 
11 laid that he wrote a traatlee on egncultnre, 
and a collection of etoriei, called Uileiiiu. (C^ 
tolinaa, Claimi Albiwm: Dion Caw. Ui. 4—7; 
Herodian, ii IS, iii. 0—7.) 

There ore HTenl medab of Albinni. In tha 
aoe aanaiad ha i* «llad d. mod. axrr. aluk. 
UM. IW. P.] 

hand, waa faaoA in the bed of tbe ritn Anio. 
Her Kirtef, or oradea, which belonged id the Uibri 
fatala, were, at the i>mniand of Ihe eenate. dcpo- 
■ited and kept in the Capitol The unall H|uiira 
tsnpk of thia Sibyl ii itill eilant at Tinli. He- 
■pecting the kxality, eea Kephalidea, Batm dvn4 
/ta»s^Lp. I2S, &e. [L. S.] 

ALBU^^IUSorALDUTIUata phy.iciiii at 
Borne, who lifed probably about the beginuiuc ot 
middle of the fini rentnry afWr Chriit, and wl.u it 
mentioned h^ Pliny {H. N. uii. £) at having 
gained by biB practice tlie annual income of two 
Hundred and fifty thoniand lentercci (abnut I'JU'iL 
2., 6rf.). Thii u con^deted by Pliny to be a very 
loj^ ium,and may therefore gife ui lome notion of 
tbe fortune! made by phj-ticiana at Roma abuul Iha 
beginning of tbe empire. (W. A. O.] 

T, ALBU'CIUS or ALBUTIUS. finitbed hit 
■tndie* Bt Athena at the latter end of the tecond 
century B. c, and belonged to tbe Epicoiean oect. 
He waa wdl acquainted with Greek lileiatuie. or 
rather, layi Cioeio, wu almoet a Oieek. (UrnL 
3£.) On account of hit affecting on eiety Mcaiion 
the Oreek language and philoaopby, be wat uti- 
riaed by Lueiliut, whoae Unea upon him are pn- 
aerred by Cicero (dt Fm. i. 3); and Cicero bimialf 
tpeeki of him ai a light-minded man. He accuied, 
bat nnracccafiilly, Q. Mudui Scaeiola, the augur, 
of maladminiitration (r^Mtmntlae) in hit province^ 
{Bna. 26, Dt Oral, il 70.) In t.c 105 Albociiu^ 

ALBIIfUS, LUCEana, wat made by N« 
procmaloi of Hauretania Caatatjeniii, to which 
Galba added the picrinea of Tingitana. After the 
d«th of Oalba, a. d. fi9, be eaponied the tide of 
Otho, and prepared to inrada Spun. ClaTint 
Rofiu, who commanded in Spain, being aLirmed at 
tbit, tent centorimi into Mauratonia to induce Ibe 
Hanri to teTolt againit Albinnt. They accom- 
pUtied thii without much difficulty ; and Albinoi 
wat murdered with hit wife. (Tac HiM. ii. fiS, 59.) 

a ton of Poieidon and brother of Dercyniu oi 
Bargion, together with whom ha attacked Hemclrn, 
^hen he potted through Ibeir country (Liguria) 
with the oien of Oeryon. But they paid for their 
pcaanmption with their tivet. (Apollod. iL 6. g 10; 
Pomp. Mela, ii- G § 39.) The Scboliart on Lyco- 
phron (648) callt the bnther of Alebion, Ligyi. 
The tlory it alto alluded to in Hyginai(/'Mt.^i<r. 
a G) and Dionnine. (L 41.) [L. S.) 

ALBUCILtA, the wife of Satrioi Secundoi, 
and inAmoni for her many amourt, wat accuied id 
the loit year of the reign of Tibcriui (^ n. S7) of 
treaion, or impiety, ageinil the emperor (wiptrfatii 
i> primaptm), and, with her, Cn. Dmutiiu Abeno- 
harbnt, Vibitu Mtrmt, and L. Arrantint, aa ao- 
compliceL Sbe waa eatt into priion by command 
of the lenale, after making an ineffectoal attempt 
to detlroy benelf: (Tac. Ami. li 47, 48.) 

ALBU'NEA, a pnnihetic nymph or SibjU to 
whom in the neightfonrhood of Til:w a grove waa 
conaecrated, with a well and a wmple. Near it 
waa Ihe oracle of Faunnt Fatiduut. (Viis. Aem. 
Ill 81, Ac 1 Hor. (hrm. L 7. 12 i Tibuf a. 5. 
69.) Laclantiui (De SibfU. i 6) tlatea, that the 
tenth Sibyl, called Albunea, wat wonhipped at 
Tibur, and that hn image, holding a book in one 

n SanJini 

d gainud 

which he t 
oier tome robben, be celebrated a trim , 
province. On bit return to Rome, he applied to 
tbe teoaCe for the honour of a tuimlicatio, but thii 
wu refuted, and he wu accuted in B. c I US of 
lepetundne by C. JuHai Caetar, and condemned. 
Cn. Pompeini Strobo had oBered himiclf u the 
accnter, but he waa not allowed In conduct the 
pneecutian, becanae be had been the qeaeator of 
AlbucioL (flB ProK. Qmi. 7, ta Pitoa. S8, Ore. ia 
Ouof. 19,d*Q^ii. 14.) After hit condemnation, 
he retired to Athena and punued the itudy of phi- 
loeopby, (7W. t. 37.) He left behind him tome 
oreliuDt, which had been nad by Cictio. (first i&.) 
Vtrro {da Ht SmtL iii 2. $ IT) tpfaka of tome 
aatiret by L. Albuciu written in the ttyle of Luci- 
liui ; he oppeora to be the tame perton u Titut. ^ 
C. ALBU'CIUS SILAS. -Hta=»9 Lill-OSl 

ALCAECS CAAicaSis). 1, A ton of PeneOa 

and Andromeda, and married to Hipponome, the 
daughter of Menoeceu of Thebe^ by whom he 
became the father of Amphytrion and Anaio. 
(Apollod. iL 4. g 5 ; SchoL ad fxr^i. HraJt. 836.) 
According to Fantaniu (viii. 14, g S) hit wife'a 
name wat Ijwmome, n daughter 4^ the Amdian 
Qnnena, or Lyudice, a daughter of PelopL 

2. According to Diodorui (L 14) the original 
name of Uerulea, given him on account of hia 
daiceDt ftom Alcaaoa, tha aon of Peneo*. [H ■- 

3. A ton of Heradet by a female alate of Jar- 
danna, bum whom the dyntaty of tha Haraclida 
in Lydia were believed to be detcended. (Herod, 
i. 7.) Diodonu (ir. 31) callt thii ton of Hera- 
det, Cleohuit. (Comp. Hellanicnt, qh Sfl^ 4b 
1. v. 'Ax^Xn; Weaeling, ad Diod. L a.) 

4. According to Dinlomt (t. 79) a genua) of 
Rhadamanthya, who pnteated him witli tlu idand 

«r Fatn. ApoDodoru* (iL 6. g 9} rdaU* tjiat ae 
«■■ ■'■on irf' Androgeiu (the md of Mino*) uid 
bntbei of Slheneliu, and that vhen Heracki, on 
tu expedition (a fetch tha girdle of Am, which 
«u IB Hn po MM lion of the queen of ^e Amuon*, 
UTiTed at Fuoe, »ma of hi* compaoioni were 
■bin 1^ the hhii of Minoe, Tending then. He- 
nclee, in hii luger, ilev the deecenduitt of Minoe, 
except Akaeua and Stheiteliu, vhom ha took irith 
him, (od 10 whom ha afteiinid) aMigned the 
■■land of Tbaiu ti tbeir hahttation. [L. S.] 

ALCAEUS ('AAHM>f),af HnauiB, the mtliDr 
of a Dunba of cpignnu in the Greek enthologj, 
from MOM of vhieh hii date nu; be oidlT Gied. 
He na contemporarf with PhUip III., Icing of 
Hkcedonia, and 100 of Demetiitu, igainit whom 
wvenl of hii epigranu are pointed, apparentlj 
from patriotic leelingi. One of theaa epignma, 
howerer, gsva eren man ofienee to tha Roman 
gencnl, namisinOB, than ts Philip, on account of 
(he anthor'a aacribing the nctor; of Cyiuieeepha- 
bie to the Aeteliana aa much aa to the KomanL 
Philip contented hinuelf with wridng an epigiam 
Id replj to that of Akaeos, in which he gave the 
HeMCDian a ler; broad hint of the bta he might 
eiptcl if he fell into hii hand*. (Pint fJamm. 
9.) Thiirepljhaa nngolarijenoiigh led " ' 

n pruia of Flunininoa, the 
D geoeral'i name, Titiu, led 

Taetua (Prvleg. m I^mlotm) into the error of 

-- -^ ' -lioeiiateiieBrfanei' 

oen*, two other peraona of the •■ 

Akaeut imder tha emperor Titoa. Thoee apignmi 
ef Alowtu which bear intamal sridence of their 
date, were written between the vean 219 and 


Of the (wen^two epignmu in the Oreek An- 
tbologj whkh bear the name of "Alcsena," two haTe 
(he word "MjtUenaaDi" added to it ; but Jecoha 
•eem* to be p«feet!y right in taking ihii to be the 
addition of Ksna ignorant copjdit. Othan bear 
the name of "Ak^oi Meaeenini," and eonie of 
Alcaeni alone. Bat in the laat elaii there aie 
•eveial which mnet, from internal eridence, hare 
been written by Akaeua of MoHene, and, in fact, 
then teema no naaoo to doubt hii being the author 
of tha whole twent*-twa 

■ of Al- 

. , ,___, _. _. eipellad 

frxim Rome h? a decree of the lenate about 17S or 
151 a, c. (Paium. od AtHam. V. H.ix.i2; Alhen. 
liL p. S*i, A. i Soidaa, 1. e. Irtianpoi) ; the other 
i* incidentallf ^kan of bf PcJjbina ■■ being 
■fcutomed to ridicule the gnniniaiian iHiaBte*. 
(Poljb. ixxii 6 ; & c I60.T It !• jut poadUe 
that thcte two penoiu, of whom nothing further i* 
known, may hare been identical with each other, 
and with the epigrammatist. 

(Jaraba, Antlkil. Orate iSL pp. S36-BS8 ; there 
it a relertDca to Alcaaui of Mceaena in Eiuatau, 
J^»»»r. £hii^ I. a.) [P. 3.] 

ALCAEUS CAXawi), of MvilLOtB, tn the 
idand of Leahoa, the caiOeat of the Aeolian Ijrrk 
poeta, begao la flaotiih in the 42nd Oljmpiad 
' when a DOateet had commenced between the noblei 
and the peopk in hit naiire Mate. Akaen* be- 
longed b7 Urtb to tha (onner parlj, and wannty 
•HMBied their eauia. In the ■econd year of the 
tioA OljBpiad (b. c Gil }, we find the brothen of 


.Ucaeut, namrif, Cici^ and Ac^nwnidaa, Eiktiuf 
under PJItacui against Helanchm*, who k da- 
•cribed 11 the tyrant of Ltaboa. and who fell in the 
conflict. (Diog. Laert L H, 79 ; Strab. liiL pu 
617 ; SniiUu, a. e. Kbia and nfTTawi ; Eljmi^ 
M. p. 51^ 1; B. Klhyei, mitewl of lUu); Clin- 
ton, Fadi, L p. SIS.) Akaeu doea not appear 
to hare token part with hii brothen on thia 00a- 
■ion: on the eontrery, he ■peoki of Helanduiu in 
term) of high pruMu <Pr. 7, ^ 426, BlomGeld.) 
Alcaene ii mentioned In conneiion irith the war 
in Tnoi, betwoen the Atheniani and Hjtilen 

'iUi lui ova band the Inder of the Athe- 
nians, Phiynon, on Olympic Tictor, the MytiliK 
naeaci were defeated, and Alcaeui inconed tha 
dingmce of fearing bia armi behind on the jidd of 
battle ; tbeae anni vere hnng up aa a trophy by 
the Atheniana in the temple of Palla* at Sigemn. 
[Henxl. Y. 95; Pint. d. Html. Mil^- *■ 1^ F> 
HS8; Stiab, liii. pp. E99, fiOO; Eoieb. Ckron. 
Olym. ilUL S; Clmlon, fiuft, i. f. 319.} Hia 
•ending home the newt of ihit diiuter in a |)oem, 
addreiaed to hit Mend Melaoiwui (Fr. £6, p. 
438, filomf.), leemi to ahew that tie had ■ reputk- 
' ]n for coorage, aoch ■■ a ungle diaaater conld not 
idonger; and ■ccording!}' we find him ipoken of 
I ancient wrilen si a 'ervtt and skilfol warrior. 
(AnthoL Palat. ii. 1B4; Ck. Thw. XJup. iv. 33 ; 
Hor. Ginii. L 33. Gi Athen. it. p. 667.) Ha 
thonght that hii Ijn was be« employed in ani- 
mating hii ftiendt to woriika dcedi, and hia houa 
!■ deicribed by hinuelf aa famiabed with tha wta- 
pom of war rather than with the inatrnmenta of 
hia art. (Athen. xIt. p. 627; Fr. 24, p. 480, 
Blomf.) During the period which followed tha 
war about Siffenm. the conteat between the noblea 
la brought to a crini ; 
e, headed by a ...... 

1 tTranta, and ai 

ined the n 

e Cleaoactida, aocceeded in driring the noblea 
Lo exile. Dniing thii eiril war Alcaena engaged 
actifcly ou the lida of the noblea, whoie >[nnu he 
endeavoured to cheer by a number e( moit ani- 
mated odei foil of inTHtirei againit the tjranta ; 
■nd after the defeat of hii party, he, with hia hn>- 
Antinienidai, led them ngain in an attempt to 
regain their country. To oppoeo thia attempt Pit- 
taeua wa> onanimouily chwrn by the people aa 
atffv>iinfn|i (dictator) or tynnt. He held hia 
~ * len yean (b. c 589 — 579), and during 
he defeated all tha eSbrta of the exiled 
noblea, aikd eatoUiahed the conitilution on a popu- 
lar baaia ; and then ha reiigned hii power. 
(Stnh. xiiL p. 617; Akaeua, Ft. 33, p. 230, 
EOomE ) Aiiat. Rtp. lii. 9. j 6, or iiL 14 ; Plot. 
AmaL | 18, p. 768 ; Diog. Uert L 79 ; Dionja, 
r. p. 836, ^Ib.) [PrrrAeoa.] 

Notwithatanding the iniectiToa of Alcaen* 
■gainaC him, Pittacna ia nid to have aet him at 
liberty when he had been token priuner, laying 
that " lorginneaa ia better than raTenge." (Diog. 
I«rt. L 76; Valer. Hai. It. 1. | S.) Alcaena 
hoa Dot eacaped the n^idoa of being norad by 
pereonal ambition in hu o^ioaitiaD Ui nttacnfc 
(Stiab. xiiL ^ 617.) Wlwa Akaetu and Anlt 
menidai perceired that all hope of thnr reatoiation 



■id be Kpp"'* to hare written pnetm in wlikh kii 

BdTsiIiin»b7«wend«cribiid. (Hot. Gmi. u. 
13. 28.) Antimeuidu mlind t)w Bnice of Ihs 
kipg of BdijIoDt sod pcrtnmed an uploil vliich 
wu edetmtHi br Alawut. (Stnb. siiL p. 617, 
Fr. 33, p. 433, BWC) NoLhiog u known of the 
lift of Akaem after this period ; hat from the 
politial MM« of MTtikne it ii moit probable thai 
la died in eiile. 

Among the nine priodpal lyiic poeta of Onece 
■Dme undent wrilert aaiign dw fiiM place, othen the 
aBcond, to AlcaauL Hia writing! pment lo ue the 
Aeoljaii Ijiic at iu higheat point. Bal their circula- 
tion in Oieeee imdu to ban been limited by the 
aDangeneu of the Aeolk dialed, and peihnpa their 
haa to ua maj be partly attributed to the aame caaae. 
Two RceDuoni of the worki of Aicaeui were made 
hj the grammarian* Atutarchui and AriKophanea. 
Some bigmenta of bit poem* which lemaio, and 
the eicelient imitationi of Homec, eiubla nt lo 
nndentand lomething of thnr character. 

Hii poemi, which conualsd of at laaat tenbooka 
(Athen. li. p. 461), were ailed in geneiBl Odea, 
Hfinna, or Sonn (ftrfucra). Thoae which hare 
reeciied the higheat paiae are hi* warlike or pa- 
triotic odea nferring to the frctioni of hi* atats 
vTorHiTiad or tixixmuriainutd, the "Alcaei mt 
oaot* Camoanae" of Hono. {Oinii. ii. 13. 27 ; 
QuintiL 1. 1. 1 63 ; Dionja. ale VeL Sa^ Ecmt. ii. 
8, p. 73, Sflb.) Among the ftagmanu of theae 

the death of Mjnihu (Fi. 1, Blomf), and put at 
> compaiiaon of hia nimed pnrty lo a diiabled ibip 
(Fr. i, Blomt), both of wbkh an linelj imitated 
b; Horace. (Oinii. i. 37, 1. H.) Man; fragment* 
are pnemd. eapedall; by Athenaeni (i. pp. 439, 
430), in which the poet anga the ptaite* of wine. 
(Fr. 1, 3, le, 18,20, Blomf.; camp. Hot. Cam. L 9. 
IB.) Hilller lemaA*, that "it may be doubled 
whether Alcaeua eompoaed a tepuata c!au of 
driniung aong* (wpMortxi) ; . , , it i* more proba- 
ble that he connected erery exhortation to drink 
with iome reflection, either upon the {nrticoUr 
drtnnulancca of the time, or opon man^* de*tiny 
in geneial." Of hit erotic poem* we hare but fi 
nmaini. Among them were eome addre**ed 
Saj^ho; one of whldi, with Sappho'* reply, i* 
pniMrrad by AriHotle (iUet. L 9 1 Fr. 33, Blomf. 
Sappho, b. 50), and ether* to beaatiful youthi 
(Hor. Oaru. i. 32. 10; Cie. dt NaL Dnr. i. SE 
Tuts. Qwetf. IT. S3.} Mo*l of hie remaining poema 
are reUgiona hymn* and epignuni. Many of hit 
poem* an addieaied to hia friend* individually. 

The poetry of Alcaent i* alway* impauiom 
Not only witli him, but with the Aeolic icboot 
geneml, poetry waa not a more art, but the ph 
and wafm ou^ioaring of the writer'* inmoat feelin 

The metn* of Alcaeua were genenlly linfy, 
and hii poema eeem M hare been 

abort aincte atrophea, in all of which tl 
ponding lino - ' ■' 
ode* of III 

I* were of the n 

\mn iniented the 
well-known Alcaic atn^he. 

Hi* likenei* ia jMeaerred, together with that of 
Pittacua, an a bnaa coin of Mytilene in the Royal 
MuBGiun at Peril, which ia engntted by ViacontL 
(/™. PL iii. Ho. 3.) 

The fnmnent* of^ Alwot wno Gnrt collected 
by Mich. Neander in hi* '*Aii*toliigia Pindarics," 
BauL 1U6, Std., then by Hmiy Slepbou in hi* 
aoUaction ol the fiagmenu of the nine chief lyric 

irfareeee(lSS7),or which there are aarcnl 
n*, and by Fulyiu* Uruniu, 15611, Bvo. Th* 
more modern coUeclioni are thoae by Jani, Halae 
San. 1780—1782, 4ta.; by Strange, Halle. 1810, 
Sto.; by Blomfield, in the "Muaeum Cri^uin," 
ToL I p. 431, Ac, Comb- t8-2G, nprintnl in (.laia- 
ford** "Poetae Gmeci Hioomi" and the moit 
complete edition i* that of Malthiae, "Alcui 
Mytilenaei reliquiae," Lip*. 3B27. Additional 
ft^menta haie been printed in the Rheni^ Mit- 
teom for 1829, 1S33, and IS35 ; in Jahn'i -Jahi^ 
biicb. fur Philolog." for 1830; nnd in Cnmei'i 
"Aneodola Giaeca," toL L OiC 1 USS. 

(Bode, fiioslibUa der Lmidm DidUkuMl dtt 
Hdltm^ ii. p. 378. &c) {P- 3.] 

AXCAEUS (AAn^ei), the ion of Miccu*. <na 
a natire of MrriLiNB, according to Suidaa, who' 
may, hawerei, bale confounded hin in thia point 
with the lyric poet. He i* found exhibiting at 
Athen* a* a poet of the cAi comedy, or nther of 
that mixed comedy, which formed the traniitioa 
between the oU and the middle. In B. c. 38)1, he 
Imught fbrwatd a play entitled tlaat^-n, in iha 
lame conleal in which Ariitophanea exhibited hii 
tecond Plutui, but, if the meaning of Suidaa i* 
rightly underMood, be obtained only the hfih 
plaoa. He left ten playi, of which aome frag- 
menla lemain, and the fbllowing title* are known, 

Alcaeua, a tn^e poet, mentioned by Fabrido* 
{miiatk. Gnuc iL p. 282), doe. not appear lo be 
a different peiwn from Akaeoi the comedian. 
llie miilnke of calling him a tragic poet aroae 
•imply from an erroneona raiding of the title of hia 
" Corooodo-tragoedia." 

(The Onek Argument to the Plutui; Soidai, 
1. B. ; Pollux, X. 1 ; Caaubon on Athen. iii. p. 
306 ; Heineka, Prt^. Comie. Onec L p. 244, 
iL p. 824 ; Bode, CueUoUa dtr Cmmutuiiia 
OcUhpul der Hdbmm, iL p. 386.) [P. S.] 

ALCA'MENES ('AAn^vitt), Idng of Sparta, 
1 0th of the Agid*. ten of Teteclu, commanded, ao- 
eording to Panianiai, in the nigbl-eipedilion 
againit Ampheia, which conmienced the fint Mea- 
•enian war, but died before it* 4tb year. Thia 
would fix the 38 yean aeaigned him by ApoUodonu, 
about 779 to 742 b. c. In hi* leign Holn. wa* 
taken, a place noir the mouth of the F.urota*, 
the laat independent hold moel likely of the old 
Achaean popnlalion, and the tnppoeed origin of the 
term Helot. (P«». iii. 2- § 7, It. 4. | S, 3. § 3 ( 
Herod, til 204 ; Pint Apo^Mk. Lac) [A H. C.J 

ALCA'MENES ('AXwy^nii), the ion of Sthe- 
nelaidaa, whom Agi* appointed at httrmoit of the 
Leabiani, when uey wiibed to remit from the 
Athenian! in a. c- 412. Whan Alcamene* put to 
••■ with twenty-one ihip* lo lail to Chioa, he waa 
pormed by the Athenian Beet off the Uthmn* of 
Corinth, and driten on than. The Athenian* at- 
tacked the thipi when on ihore, and Alcamanea 
wai killed in the engugemenv (Tbuc viiL fi, 10.) 

ALCA'M&MES ('AAufiinn), a diitingui*hed 
(tatoary and Kolptor, a native i^ Athene. (Plin. 
H. ff. idtL 5. a 4.) Suida (i v.) calli him t 
Lamnian (if by Alcamene* he mean* the aitiat). 
Thia K. 0. Miiller (Ani. dtr KiaaL p. S6) intei~ 
preta to mean that he waa a cleruchoi, or holder of 
one of the xAiipoi in Lemnea, Vou, who i* fol- 
lowed by Thlench (^wobn dir bild. Kumt. p. 
130), cenjectuied that the true rndii^ i* A^tei^ 


u tnni in the 


Md wnrding); thai 
dutrict csUhI ibe Al/uw, 
ODtkfinsied bj hii faaiing mode a itBtue o( DioujHu 
fn gold and iratj to ■dam n leniple of that ggd in 
tlw LsBeom, > ftit of- the Limnae. ( Poiu. L 20. 
I 2.) He wu Itafl moat Gunotu of ^e pnpili of 
Pliidiai, Imt wm not m doM ui imitator of hie 
Buur u Agonuritiu. Like hi* feUov-pnpil, he 
•itnmd fail talent chiefly in mtdiing iiatuei of 
Ibe ddtie*. By indent wiiten he ii nnked 
namgtt the moat diatingoiifaed artuU, and ii con- 
aidend bj Pauauiaa Kwond only lo PhidiBL 
(Qidntil. xiL 10. § 8 1 Dionyi. IM Demoitk. aam. 
<n>l. tL p. HOB, ed. ReEske; Pbu. t. 10. 3 2.) 
He Bouiahed ftnm about OL 84 ( Plio. H. N. iiilv. 
& L 19) to OL 9S (b. c 144-400}. Pliny's dnte h 
imfiniiedtwPaDBnia>,KbaHy3(iiiL9. S l),thu 
Pnudule* flonmhed in the Ihiid genemtion attei 
Akamenet ; and Pnuitelea, as Pliny t«Ua ni, fluui^ 
itbrd about OL 104 (b. c 364). The tut work* 
ef hia vhieh ve btai of^ vera the eolouol atatue* 
rf Athene and llerralei, which Thraiybuliu erected 
in the tem|Je of Hercnlei at Thcbea after the ei- 
ulaioo of the tyninti from Athena, (a. c 403.) 
He nurt bWDtiful and renowned of the worka of 
Alamenea wot a alatae of Venoi, called from the 
phce where it woa set np, 'H Ir nfi-aii '^•fpo- 
Kna. (Lncian, I<ia^ita, 4, 6 ; Paot. i. 19. § 2.) 
It ia aaid that Phidiai himKlf put the Gniahing 
kncbM Is thi* work. (Flin. H. N. nxti. 6. t. 4.) 
The bnoala, cheelu, and handa were eapecially 
■dmired. It haa been anppoaed by aonie that thia 
vaa the Vanoa for which he ^ned the prize over 
Aganeritaa. There ii no direct endencs of thia, 
>Dd it ia aatcely coniiatent with what Pliny laya, 
tbat Akmienea owed hia incccaa more to the b- 
TOuitiam of hii fellow-dtiicna than to the eicel- 
Lma of hii statue. Another celebrated specimen 
•f hii geniua wai the western pediment of the 
temple at OlvmiHa, ornamented wilh a repreienta- 
tun of the battle between ths Centann and the 
I«|iilluK. (Paoa. T. 10. i 2.) Other woriii of bia 
were: ■ atatne of Man in the temple of that god 
at Atben* (Paiu. L 8. § 5); a atalDO of Hephae- 
Mna, in which the lamenesa of the god was so ia- 
genioiiBly npreaentod as not to gire the nppeatBnce 
Bfdefonnity (Cic.itiiA'at£iei>r. L 30; VaL Mai. 
Tiii. II. eit. 3) ; an Aeacnlainiia at Mantineia 
(Pans. TiiL 9. % 1); a three-fbnned Hecate (the 
first of the kind), and a Pmcne in Ihe Acropolia at 
Atheiu (Pons. ii. 30. J 2, L 24. g 3) ; and a bronie 
•tataeofaoictOT in the Pentathlon. (Plin. iuIt. 
6. a. 19.) A atarf of verr doubtful crediluli^ ii 
VM hj Tutiea [CML viiL 193), that Akamenea 
■od I^iidias conloxled in making a statue of 
Athene, and that before the atatuea were erected 
B their destined elcTatcd position, that of Alca- 
Moua waa Ibe most admired OD ncconnt of its de- 
Ikile finish ; but that, when set up, Ihe effrct of 
tbe mom ationgly defined features in that of Phi- 
diaa ouued the Athenian! lo change their opinion. 
On B Raman ina^jph in the *illa Albani then 
ia tbe UlDwing imeription : 

Q, liOLUua Alcambnh 
Dk, it Duumvir. 
If Ibia cMltliiu tbe noM of the artist, be would 
team to btne been a dmcodant of an Akamenea, 
who bad bMO the dare and afterwarda the freed- 
Bra ef ona of tbe Lollian bmily, and to boTe at- 
labMd t» the digni^ of decuiio and duumnr in 
He periiapa aiercisod the art 



ri eming ai an ai 

anoing thm 
(Ot. MtL 

(Winckehnann, riiL 4, 
*i [C. P. M.] 

ALCALDES CAAnripoi). There an three 
mylhical peraonaget of thia name, who are men* 
ticBied leapectiTely in Horn. //. T. ti76 ; Virg. Ara. 
ii. 7GG ; Anlonin. Lib. 14. A female Akondra 
ocean in tbe OL It. 12£. [L. S.] 

ALCANDER ('AAnripot), a jonng Spartan, 
who attacked Lycuigus and tbmii out one of hia 
eye*, when his fellow-cilixeiu were discontented 
with the laws he propoaed. Hia mangled face, 
howoTer, prodoeed shame and repentance in hia 
enemiea, and thej delivered up Aicander to him to 
be punished aa he thought fit. But Ljcnygna pai^ 
donod hia outnge, and thus converted him into 
one of his warmest friends. (PluL I4E. 1 1 ; AcUan, 
r. H. liiL 23; VaL Uax. t. 3. 9 elL 3.) 

'AAKrBiJTi), a daughter of Minyas, and sister of 
Leucippe and Anippe. Instraid of Araippe, Ae- 
liaa (V. H.'ia. 42) calla the latter AHstippn, and 
Plulnreh (Qwtat. Gt. 38) Aninoe. At the time 
when the worship of Dionyaiu waa introduced into 
Boeoiia, and white the other women and raaidena 
were reveUing and nnging onr the mountains in 
Bacchic joy, these two uaten alone remained at 
home, deToting tbemselvea to their usual occupa- 
tions, and thus profiuiing the days aacrod to the 
god. Dionysua pnniahed them by chanaing thrui 
into bats, and their work into vines. (C 
i». 1—40, .'MO — 415.) Plutarch, Aeli, 
Antoninua Liberalia, thongh with some dinervncea 
in ttia detail, relate that Wonyaus appeared lo tbe 
usten in the foim of a maidozi, and iniited them 
lo parlaks in the Dionysiac mysteries. When 
thia reqneal waa not complied with, the pA meta- 
moiphoaed himself aucceaaiTelj into a bull, a lion, 
ana a panther, and Ihe aialen wen seised with 
madnesa. In thia state thn wen eager to houoai 
the god, and Leucippe, who was chosen by lot 
to 0^ a aacrifice to Dionyaus, gate up her own 
son Hippaaus lo be torn to {riecea. In extreme 
Bacchic frenzy the usten now roamed orei the 
monntaini, until al hul Hermea changed them into 
birda. Plntardi adds that down to his time the 
men of Orchomenos deacended bum that bmily 
wen called ^wAJiii, thai it, moumen, and the wo- 
men jAtToi or ofs^tia, that is, the deslroyers. la 
what manner the neglect of the Dionysiac worahip 
on the part irf Alcatioe and her sister waa atoned 
for erery year at the batiial of tbe Agrionia, sea 
i>Ht. if Aid. 1. D. 'hif<.i*a. ; csmp. Bottroann, 
MgAiJag. iL p.201,&e. [L.3.J 

ALCATHOUS CA»J«W<»»)- 1. a aon of 
Pelopt and Hippodameia, bntboc of Atreus and 
Thyestes, fint manied Pyigo and aflerwaida 
Koaecbme, and waa tbe hther of Eebepolia, Cnl- 
lipolia, Iphino<(,Peribo«a, and Aalomednia. (Paaa. 
143-9 1,4,43. S 4; Apollod. iL4. g 11, iil. 12. 
9 7.) Panaanias (!. 41. S 4) niatea thai, after 

son Tunalcns had likewise fiillcn by the hands of 
Theseos, offered hia daughter Euaeehma and hia 
kingdom to him who should tbiy that lion. Al- 
cslhoua undertook the task, canqnered the linn, 
and ihna obtained Euaechme for his wife, and 
afterwards became Ihe aaccessor of Hegnreui. In 
gntitade far thi* success, tie Luilt at Megnra a 
temple of Artemis AgroteiB and ApoUo Agiaem. 
He also reatored the walls of Megnm, wbiuS 1u4 


been dntrapid b7 dta CrMiu. (P>iu.l4I.S S.) 
In tfaii woi^ he wtu lud to bare been autited k^ 
Apollo, and tbs itone, upon wbieb tbe god lued to 
place bii Ijie vbile be wu U work, woi eren ii 
Ikle timn belienid, wbcD Mnick, to gire forth i 
Mnuid limikc to thai of ■ lyre. (PanOi L 42. 9 1 
Or. lUsL TiiL 15, Ac. ; Viig. Or. 105 ; Theogn. 
75].) Echepolii, one of the uni of AlcolhooK, 
WM killed dluing the CaljdoniBn hunt in Aelolio, 
>i>d when hia brotbet CoilipoUs hastened to cuij 
the nd tiding! to bii father, he ibnnd him en- 
^^od in ofloring > lacritice to Apollo, and think- 
ing it unfit to o9er ncrificei at luch a moment, 
Ite matched awa; the wood from the altar. Alot- 
thoui Imagming thii to be an act of ncrilegioai 
wantonneia, kued hii aon on the •»( with a 
piece of vood. (Pani. i. 42. S 7.) The acropoli* 
of Ktgta va* called by a name deciTsd &om that 
DfAkatboui. (1.12. §7.) 

2. A eon of Porthoon and Euryte. who vaa 
dain by Tydent (Apollod, i. 7. § ID, B. g £ ; 
Oiod. It. U.) 

3. A ion of Aeiyets and boaband of Hippo- 
dimeia, the daughter of Anebiiei and linei of 
Aeiuaa, who woi educated in bii honae. (Horn. 
R liiL 466.) In the war of Tny he woi one of 
the Trojan bndets, and mi one of the bandaomeet 
■nd bisTeit among them. (71. liL 93, liii. 437.) 
He waa ^n by Idomeneni with the aiiiitance M 
Poeeidon, who itruck Alcathoiu with blindoeee 
and panlyied bii limbe *o that be coold not fl« 
(fi xiiL 4S3, 4c.)— Another pertonngo of tbi 
name ii mentioned by Virgil, Ann. x. 747. [L.S.J 

ALCEIDBS fAAnfSit^, aconding to eome od- 
connla the name which Henclea originally bo» 
(Apollod. ii. 4. § 12), while, according to Uodo- 
ni, hi* original name woi ALCABoa. [L. S.! 

ALCESTIS or ALCESTE f^Aktvmt at "AJ. 
tdmi), a daaghter of PeUaa and Anaxibia, and 
mother of Eumelai and Admetna. (Apollod. L 9. 
I ID, 15.) Homer [IL a. 715) cull* bee tbe hir- 
eit among the danghlen of Pelao. When Adme- 
tna, king of Pherae, raed for her bond, Peliaa, in 
order to get rid of the numeranB niton, declued 
that be wonid give hia daughter to him only who 
ahoold come to Mi conrt In a chariot drawn by 
lioni and boon. Thii wai accompliifaed by Ad- 
mdm, with tbe aid of Apollo. For the fitrther 
Itory, iee AoiiBToa. The aacrifiee of bernlf for 
Admetu* wai highly celebnled in antiquity. 
(Aelian, V. H. iIt. 45, Ammal. L 16 ; Philoatr. 
Htr. ii. 4 ; Or. An Am. iii. 19 ; Rnrip. AkaHi.) 
Toward! her bther, too, ihe ihewed her filial af- 
fection, br, at leait, accoiding lo Kodoroa (ji. 52 ; 
comp. howerer, Paloepb, Dt mendib. 41 ), ihe did 
not ihare in the crime of her listen, wbo auu- 

^icra) in Delphi, of which Athenieiu qaolM Ilia 
aecraul book. (liii p. 591, c) 

A'LCBTAS I. CAXjcJTaf),king of Epirdo, wa* 
the ion of Thaiypui. For »aie reaeon or otiier, 
which we an nut infonned of, he va* expelled 
from hia kingdom, and took refuge with the eider 
Dionyano, tyrant of Syrucnie, by whom he waa 
reiuitaled. After hii reitoration we find him the 
ally of the Atbenioni, and of Jiun, the Tagiu of 
Thoialy. Id b. c 373, he appeared at Athena 
with JaaiHL, for the purpoie <^ defending Tims- 
theoi, who, throagh their influence, woi acquitted. 
On hi* death Ihe kingdom, which till then bad 
been goTemed by one king, wai dinded between 
Neoplalemm and Arybboi or Arynt- 



A their Githi 

Ancient ai well ai modern critlci bare attempt«d 
to eipkin the return of Aleeatie to lif^ in a ration- 
aliaCic manner, by auppoaing that during a KTeT* 
illneu the wne restored to Ufe by a plijaiciin of 
the name of Horadei. (Paloepb. I. c ; Plat. Ama- 
lor, p. 761.) Akeuii wai repreaented on tbe 
cheat of Cypeelua, in a group ihewing the funeral 
ademnitica of Peliao. (Paul. t. 17. § 4.) In the 
niueam of Florence there la on olio r^en, the 
noifc of Cleomenci, which ii believed to tepieaent 
Aloeitia devoting herself to death. (Meyer, OooL 
tUrhildesd. A'Kwto, L p. 162, u. 159.) [L. S.] 

A'LCETA3 ('AAWtbi), whoae age ii unknown, 
waa tlie author of a work on Ihe o&ringi (droai)- 

11. §3; Dem.I1 

100. IT. 13. 36.) ■■ [C. P. M.] 

A'LCBTAS II.,kingDfEplKcis, waitheionar 

Arymboi, and grandmn of Alcelai I. On account 

nngOTemable temper, ho waa baniihed by 

qipointed his younger ion, Aeoddei, 

. On tbe death of Aoaddei, who 

battle fought with Caiaander b. c 

313, tbe Epirots remlled Alcetai. Casnnder lent 

ly ogaiaat him under the command of Lydi- 

t loan after enteiod into an alliance with him 

(b. c 312). The Bpirota, incenaed at the outngia 

of Akstai, toie Igamal him nod put him to death, 

together with hii two lona ; on which Pyrrhui, 

the ion of Aeacidei, wai phioed npon the IhruDe 

bj hii [ootectar Clanciai, king of the llljriina, 

B.C.307. (Pana.L 11. g5i Dioliix. 68, 89; 

Pint Pyrrh. 8.) [C P. M.] 

A'LCETA3 CaaWtu), the eighth kiiu <i 
Macidonia, counting from Cannna, and the mtb, 
oomiting tram Perdiccaa, reigned, according to 
Euebini, twenty-nine yean. He waa the btbei 
of Amynlai I., who reigned in the latter part of 
the aixth century b. c. (Herod. viiL 139.) 

ATjCETAS {"AMtiraf), the brother of Pbbdk)- 

CAB and »n of Orostea, i> fint mentioned aa one 

of Alexander*) general! in hia Indian eipaditioD. 

(Arrian, ir. 27.) On the death of Alexander, ha 

espooecd hii brotber't party, and, at hii orden, 

murdered in a c 322 Cyane, the balf^ialer vl 

Alexander the Great, when she wi^ed to many 

her daughter Euirdioe to Philip Atihidaeufc 

(Died. ill. 52 J Polyaen, Tiii. 60 j Anion, a;^ 

PlaL p. 7D, ed. Bekker.) At the time of Pec- 

lurder in Egypt in 321, Alcetai wu with 

■ in Alia Minor engaged igainit Cntenu; 

army of Perdiccas, which had n*altid 

1 and Joined Ptolemy, condemned Alcetia 

and all the paitiion! of his laiither to death. The 

war agninit Alcetai, who had now left Eumenea 

id united hia force! with thoae of Attains, waa 

itruated to Antigono!. Alcetai and Attala! ware 

defeated in Piridia in S20, and Alceta* retreated 

to Termnani. He wse anrrendered by the elder 

inhabiUuite to Antigonua, and, to arold bUing into 

hi) hand! alive, ilew himaelf. (Diod. XTiiL 29, 37, 

44 — 16 1 Juatin, xiil 6, 6 ; Arrian, a}i./^W.( a) 

ALCIBI'ADES {'AAK^uiSqi), the aon of 

einiu, wBi bom at Athena about B. c 450, or a 

little eoriier. His fiitber fell at CortineiaB. c 447, 

. and a yoDngu- ion. (Plat.JVafa>jr. 

p. 330^ a.) The loat campaign of ^a war with 

Potidaea waa in B. c 439. Now ai Alcibiwiaa 

lernd in thu war, and the young Athenian! wee* 

Ibteign militaiy lerrica before thaj 

tb* PeuiMtmlidi 

ImJ ■HBDcd Ihrir SOtb jmt, 1m eonM not hare 
been born tUct than B.cM9. IfheHrrcdin tbc 
Cm cunpugn (a c 433), be most tare bttn at 
km fin ;eu* old 41 the linx of big &tliBr*i dsth. 
N^« (Alab. 10) Bji hs mu iboat kfttj yiui 
old « the dme of hu doth (g. c 404), and bu 
miittki hu been coped hj Hitlbrd. 

Aldbndee mi emuiectcd by biith with the 
KwUeit &miliei of Athens. Tbrongh his &ther 
be tnced hu deecent from SoiyiBoei, the hd 
rf .^u (Pbl. JliJb. L p. 13\), and tbnw^ 
bim mnn AeBcui and Zeo^ HU mother, Deido 
macba, ni the daughter of Megacl«>, the haul of 
tbe bnue of the Alcmaeonida.* Thiu on both 
aidee he had heredibiy clainu on iht: attachment 
of the people ; for hii paternal gmodhther, Alci- 
irominent part in the expQliion of 
> (lucnt. Di Big. 10), and hii 
■Miner wai oeicended from Cleiithenea, the friend 
•f ibe cmnnonall^. Hii bther Cleiniai did good 
■OTke in the Penian war. He fitted out and 
Oanoed ■ trireme at his own eipenie, and greatly 
diningui«hed himielf in the battle of ArttmiBiom. 
{Hetod. TiiL 17.) One of his anoeelon of the 
name of Cleiniu earned a leu enriaUe notorietj 
bj taking bsadolent advantage of the Seiaachlheia 
of Soloo. The name Alcibiadei wai of Idnnian 
origin (Thnc tiiU 6), and wai deriTed 
Sfutan bmily to which the ephor Endiui belong- 
ed, with which that of Aldbiada had been an- 
ciently cBOBtrttd by the tiei of hoepitalily. The 
fint who ban the name wat tbe giand&thei i ' 
tbe great Aldbiadea. 

On the death of bi>&ther(B. c 447), Aldbiadi 
wai left to the gsBrdianihip of hii rtlationi Periclei 
and Aiiphron.i' Zopyru, the Thracian, ia men- 
tioned ai one of bi> inMnicton. (PliL Ale. i. 
p. 122.) From hii Tecy boyhood ' "' ' ' 

ngiu of thit inflexible detennination 
cd bim ibnmgfaont bfe. 

lie wu at erery period of hii life remarkable for 
the eitraordinary beanty of hii penon, of which he 
aeenu Id hare been exceedingly vain. Eren when 
on militaiy lerrice be carried a ihield inlaid with 

EU and ivoty, and bearing the derice of Zeni 
iling the' ihonderbdL When he grew op, he 
earned a ditgracetiil notoriety by hit amonn and 
debancberiei. Al the age of 18 be entered npon 
the pBMfwion of hit fortnne, which had doubtleu 
been arefblly hnibanded dating hii long minority 
by bia gnardjana. Coniiucted a* he wai with the 
Boit inflnfnlial &miliei in the dty, the inheritor 
of the bijeit ferttuiei in Alheni (to which 
'- — '~-' - large aceeuion through 


MtiHly and energy, ponaaaed of great powtn of 
ainiinimni. and urged m) by an amtdtiDn which no 
obKaela eonld dannC, and which waa not oiei 
icrupoloui ai to the meani by which it* enda wan 
10 be gained,— in a city like Athena, amoogM a 
people like the Alheniani, (of tbe leading feaCurea 
of whoae ohancter he may not unaptly be regarded 
ai an fanpenonalion,) and i- ' '■'■- ■"■ — 

be afterwarda n 

lingular vei- 

■ Demoatbene* (Mid. p. SGI) nyi, that the 
BHtber of Akibiadea waa the daughter of Hippo- 
nicni, and that hia father WM connected with tbe 
Alcmaeonidie. Tbe latter itatemeDt may poaubly 
be tnia, Bnt it ii difficult to explain the former, 
■nleia we nipFoee Demoithmei to haTe confounded 
tbe great Alcibiade* with hia ion. 

t Agaiiale, the molhor of Periclei and Aripbon, 
wai tlw daoghtar of Himocralaa, whoae brother 
Cleiilhenea wai the grandfather of Dejnomache. 
(Hcrad. Ti 131 ; lucr. Dr B^. 10; Boeckh, 
fiKfUe. ad Find. Pylll. nL p. S02.) 

{ He receiTed a pornon of 1 talenta with hii 
arife, which wai to be doubled on the birth of a 

U field 
aingalariy wail adapted for the eieteiie and diiplay 
of nil brilliant powera, Accuitomed, however, 
fmn hii boybood to the flattery of admiring sum- 
panioni and needy paiaiitei, he early imbibed thai 
inordinate Tanily and lore of diilinction, which 
marked hii whole career ; and he waa thua led to 
place tba moat perfect confidence in hii own powen 
long before he had obtained itrength of mind 
•nScient lo vithitand the aednctive infiuence of 
the temptationa which lunounded bim. Socialea 
■aw hia nut capabiUtiea, and attempted to win 
him lo the patha of Tirtue. Their intimacy 
wu itrengtbened by nntual lervicei. In one of 
the engagemoita beCors Potidafo, Akibiadei waa 
dangcronaly wounded, but wai rescued by S^h 
At the batae of Deliam (b. c 124), AI- 
. who wu moualed, bad an opportnnity of 
protecting Socrates from the punueia. (PktL 
Omviit pp. 220, 221; Itaa. De Big. 12.) The 
leiaou of the philoaopher wen not altogether 
without influence open his pu[ul, but the enl ten- 
denciea of hia ehancter had taken too deep root to 
render a thorough reformation poiubla, and be 
liatened more readily to Ihoae who adviied bim lo 
aacnn by Ibe readieat noma (he gtatificatioo of 
hia deairea. 

Aleibiadei waa exceatively fond of notoriety and 
display. At the Olympic game* (probably in OL 
S», B, 0. 424) he contended with leTen diariote 
in the aame raoa, and gained the fint, iscond, and 
fonrlh prisea. Hia liberality in diacbaiging tfaa 
office of trierarch, and in providing (or the publi* 
imuieraenti, rendered him very papular wiin the 

core of youthful impetuoiilj and thoughtieianeea, 
lii moit violent and extravagant acta, into whicfa 
le wu probaUy u often led by bia love of nolo- 
iely u by any other motive. Acconota of variona 
Ditancea of tbii kind, ai hie fbcciUe detention of 
Agatharchni, hii violence to hii wife Hippuela, 

ived HegemoD from a lawiuit, 
by openly obliterating the record, are given br 
Plntairb, Andocidea, and Athenaeua. (ii. p. 407.) 
' e more prudent citiuni thought it laler to 
at hia delinquendea, than to eiaq>erala 
him bj puniibmeDt. Aa Aeicbylui ii made to 
- by Ariatopbanei (Fngi, 1427), "A lion'a 
>- ongbt not to be reared in a city ; but if ■ 
reara one, he moat let him have hii way." 
Of the early political life of Akibiadea we hear 
but httie. While Cleon waa alive be probably 
appeared bnt aeldom in the aaiembly. From albt- 
noni which were contained in the Aarra*«t g( 
Ariitophanei (acted K c 427) it appeari that he 
had already nMkeo there. (For the ilory coa- 
ted with hu fint a[qMBraoDe in the aiiemUy, 
Plutarch, Aleib. 10.) At unie period or other 

Hii marriage took place befon the battle tf 
Delium (b. c. 424), in which Hi^nicui ww 
■lain. (Andoc Alcib. p. SO.) 


balon B. c. 420, ha bmd omied ■ dtttne for in- 
enauiig the tribate paid bj the nibjsct alUea of 
AtbflDi, and by hii mBiugement it wu nuied la 
dmU« tba wnaunt Bied b; Arutoldes. After the 
diMh of Cleon thera wu no rinl Me &t all to 
ca» with Aleibiadw axcspt Nictoa. To the politi- 
cal Tiam o( the Utter, who wu uixiau) for penoe 
and KpoH ood aT«ne to all ptaiu of foreign con 
qneMa, Ahsibiadn mi completelf oppoKd. and hi 
jaalouif of the iafiuence and bigh diotoctar of hi 
linl, led him to Bntertain a TOiy cordial dialilu 
tovarda him. Od one occujaii onlf do we find 
them aoited in purpoae and feeUng, and thai waa 
whcD Hyperbola) threatened one of them with 
baoiahment. On thii the; united their influence, 
■ad Hyperbolui hinuelf wu ottradaad. The dote 
of thii occnirence [■ uncartun. 

Aleibiadei had been detirona d( reneiring llion 
tiat of hoapilality by which his family hud been 
coDDectad urith Sparta, but which hitd been broken 
. off by bi> ^raodhther. With thii view be riad 
with Nida* m bit good officea towordi the Spartei) 
priiODUi taken in Sphacteiia ; but in the negolia- 
llonawhich ended in the peace of 421, the Sportani 
pnierrad employing the interrentiou of Niciai 
■od I^chei. Incanted at thii alight, Alctbiadea 
tbrew all hit indoence into the oppodte tcale, and 
in B. c. 4W, after tricking the Spanan ambaaadon 
iriio had come for the porpow of thwarting hia 
pbsa, brought about an aUiaoce with Argoa, Elta, 
■nd Mnntioeia. In 419 he wu choien Stistegoa, 
■nd at the head of a mull Athenian fone mAnlhed 
Into Peloponneini, and in tatioui way) fuithered 
the inleretti of the new confedemcy. During the 
next three yean ha took a prominent part in the 
.complieated negotiationa and military operation! 
irtiidi were carried on. Whether oi not he waa 
the inadgator of the onjuat ezpeditioa againat the 
Hdian* i* not dear ; nit ha waa at any nie the 
antbor of tbe decree for thnr barbarooa pnniah- 

whom he hod a aon. 

In B. c 41 5 Aldbiadea appeara aa tbe fbremiHt 
among the adiocatea of the Siolian expedition 
(Thoc vi.), which hia ambition led him to beliere 
would be a atcp towarda the conqueat of Italy, 
Carth^C and the Paloponneuta. (Thuc. n. 90.) 
While the preponliona for the aipedJtioD were 
going on, there occnned the myateiioDi muUIation 
of the Heimee-boits. A nun named Pythouicoa 
chaiged Aleibiadei with baring diTolged and pro- 
bned the Eleoainian myateiiea ; uid ■mther man, 
Androdea, endesioured lo connaot thia and aimilar 
oBencee with the motilatieo of the Hennaet In 
■pile of hia dennnda for an inveatigatioD, Ald- 
biadea waa aent out with Niciai and Lamachui in 
eommand of the fleet, but waa lecalled before he 
cmld arry out the plan of operaliona which at hia 
■uggeation had been adopted, namelj, to endeaTDur 
to win OTer the Oreek towna in Stdly, except 
Sjimcnae and Selinna, and eidte the natiie Sicdi 
Id leToh, and then attack Syracnac He waa 
allowed lo accompany the Salaminia in hia own 
gaUay, but managed to eicspe at Tborii, from 
whidi phu« ha croaaed orer to Cjllene, and thence 
SparU St the. invitation of the 
„ . iment. He now (^peared aa the 
avowed enemy of hia oonntty ; diadoaed lo the 
Spartaoa the t>huu of the Ath^iiana, and recom- 
mendsd lh«m to tend OyHppat to Syracoae, and 
to fortify Deceleia. (thuc iL 88, Ac, nL 13, 

27, 28.) Bdore he left Sicily he had miuiaged ta 
defeat a pUn which had been laid foe the acquiai- 
tion of Meaaana. At Athena acntence of death 
waa poaaed upon him, hia property confiscated, and 
a cnne pronounced upon him by the miniatera of 
religion. At Sparta he rendered hinuelf popular 
by the bdljty with which he adopted the Spartan 
mannert. Through hia inibmneutolity many of 
the Aiiatie tUiea d^ Athena were induced to reiolt, 
and an allianoa waa brought about with Tiasa- 
pheme* (Thnc^Tiii.6,&c); but the machinationt cf 
hia enemy Agia [Aoie II.] induced him tn abandon 
the Spartona and take rejigs with Tisoaphemei 
(n. c 412), whoae hvonr he toon gained by hit 
uniiiBlled talenti for aodal interconrte. The 
etuangranent of TiHaphemei from hia Spaitoa 
alliea ennied. Alcibiodea, the enemy of Sparta, 
wiahed to rotom lo Athena. He according- 
ly entered into eorretpondence with the moat 
influential peraont in the Athenian fleet at Samoa, 
oSering to bring over Tiatapheniei lo on alliance 
with Athena, but making it a condition, that oli- 
^hy ahonld be eetablishad there. Thia coincid- 
ing with the wiahai of thoie with whom ha was 
negotiating, thoie political morementt were tel on 
foot by Peitander, which ended (b. c 411) in the 
eatabliahmennt ef the Four Hundred. The oli- 

rha, however. Coding he could not perfonn 
promiiea with reapect lo Titsophemea, and 
conicious that he had at heart no real liking for an 
oligarchy, would not lecaJt him- But the toldiera 
- --le aimament at games headed by Thraiybuliit 
ThraaylliiB, dechired dieir resolution to restore 
democracy, and passed a vote, by which Alctbiadea 
waa porduoed and recalled, and ^pcinted one of 
their generola. He oonfeired an important benefit 
m hit country, by restisining the aaldicn from 
letuming at once to Athena aod to commencing a 
nvil war ; and in the course of the some ycsr the 
iligorcby waa overtlmwn without their sssiatance. 
Akibiodet and the other eiilet were reoillcd, but 
for the next four yean he remained abroad, and 
r hia command Ibe Athenians gained the vio- 
a ef Cynotsema, Abydos,* and Cysicua, and 
possestiou of Chalcedon and Byzantium. Id 
407, he returned to Athena, where he wai 
received with great enthueioam. The tecorda of 
the proceedinga against him were tunk in the aea, 
' * property waa reitored, the piietta were ordered 
econt their cuiaea, and he waa appointed com~ 
ide>in-chief of all the land and aea forcciL 
(Died. liiL 69 ; PluL Ale. 33 ; Xen. HkU. i. 4. 
§ 13—20.) He aignalised hia relnm by conduct- 
ing the mystic procession to Eleuiis, which hod 
^ interrupted tiooe the occupation of Decdeia, 
hit unaucceu^ expedition againat Androa 
and the defeat at Notiom, occasioned during hit 
abtence by the imprudence of hia lieutenant, An- 
tiochut, who brought on an engagement againat hit 
ordera, fumiahed hit enemiea with a haniUe against 
him, and be waa tupeneded in hit command. 
(b. c 4UG.) 

Thinking that Atheni would aoucely be a nfa 

place for him, Aldbiadea went in 

voluntary exile 

Shortly after the victory at Abvdoi, Ald- 
H paid a visit to Tiaaaphemcs, who had ai^ 
1 in the neighbourhood of the Helleq«nt, but 
arrested by him and aent to Soidit. Afier ■ 
[h't impriaonment, however, he tuceesded ia 
making hia escape. (Xen. HtUtn. I 1. i 9.) 

to hi* fbttiM domun at Biguiths id I 
Cbtnonena. Ha eoDiicted * bmd of 
and mada mr im tha naighbaDring Thndan 
tribe*, bj which nMUi* ba eoniidanbTr enridied 
himaeU^ and affiinlad pivtaction to tba na^bonjN 
lag Gnek dtiea. BeAm tks btal butla of Aagn*- 
FDtami(B.c.406), hanrauiniefiectail mining to 
tba Atbanku geoanu. Aftat the aatabliabment 
of tlM tjnuny o( tba ThiMy (b. c 401), he w*a 
condauDad to baniahmant. Upcm tliii ha took 
Itftga with t^kunabanu, and wai abont to pn- 
CHd to tba conn of Artazatxe*, when one night 
Ua boon WM annatinded by a btuid of anoad man, 
•nd aet <hi fire. He nubed oat *«rord in band, 
bat Ul, pieroed with arrow*, (b. c 404.) Ac- 
cording to Diodonu rod Gpbonu (Diod. lir. II) 

.1 . !_. ^jji^ enu»»*rio* of Phamabam*, who 

to tbii *tep either by hi* own jealonij 
, or bf the instigation of the Spartan*. 
It ii mare probable that thej weie either eniptoyad 
by (be %Mtaii*, or (acoKiiing to one accoant in 
Platard) by tha biolheii of a tod; whom Ald- 
taade* had •edoced. Hi* corpaa wu taken ap 
ratd boiiad by hi* miatraaa TimAndnL Athenaeas 

Daiuty u HeliaM, tha plaea of hii death, and a 
■tatna of him ancled thetteu by tha snipeniT 
Hadrian, who alio ia«titnl«d eartaiu jeaiiy lacri- 
licea in hi* honoiir. He kA a xm hj hi* wife 
Hiniarets, named Aldbiadaa, who nerer diitin- 
gBNBed himaalC It wa* for him that Iioeratea 
wrote tba ^Mach Uipl toS Ztiyavi. Two of 
Lysa*** •pecche* (xir. and xr.) are diiected 
■gainit bim. The fbrtone which he left behind 
■rim tanwd ant to ba imallei than bis patrimony. 
(Pint. AicA. and fficia; Thocyd. lib. v.— viiL; 
Xene^D, HiUtH. Ub. i. ii. ; Andoe. ■■ Akib. and 
AMfHtr.; Imxr.DtBigii! Nepo*, .JMA. ,- Died. 
rii. 78—84. xiii. a— 6, 37—41, 4S, 46, 49— il. 
64—73 ; Adien. L p. 3, it. p^ 184. t. pp. Sli, 216, 
ii. p. 407. li p. 506, liL pp. G26, S34, £3e, liii. 
pp. B74, 676.) [C. P. M.] 

ALCIBI'ADBS CAXnti^Sqi), a Sputan exile, 
WBi icatond to hi* conntry abont a. c. 1 84, by the 
AchBeBn*. but was imgnitefhl enongfa to go a* any 
baaMdor from SpKrto to Home, in order to aecnsfl 
Philopoemen and the Achae^*. (Polyb. "iii , 4, 

4; LiT. 


ALCI'DAHAS CAAiiWai), a Onek tbeto- 
fkian, WB* a native of Elaes in Aeolii, in Aeia 
Mioot. (QnintiL iii. l.§10, with Spalding** LOle.) 
He was a pninl of Ouigias, and resided at Athen* 
between tiie yean B. c 432 ind 411. Here ha 
gavB initractioni in elaqaeuce, Hctording to Endo- 
cis (p. 100), a* the niixa»r of hi* master, and 
VM the last of that sophistital school, with which 
tba only abject of eloqaence was to please the 
hcsrers by the pomp and brilliimcy of wordt. That 
the voriu of Alddamna bore the Mmngeit morits 
of tbia character of hi* Khool 1* italed by Ari>- 
tetle (liieL iiL S. $8), who ceneureg bis pompoaa 
diction and ettran^iant mo of poetieal epiCnet* and 
phraart, and by Dionyrio* (£■> Iimo, 19), who 
call* bis style ttdgar and inflated. Ha is said to 
bile been an Dpponeat of IsocratM (Tieti. Ciil. 
iL 673), bat whether ibit ttalenient refer* to real 
fenooai enmity, oc whether i( i* merely an infer- 
ence &om the foct, that Alcidama* eondemaed the 
tian* for tha purpose of deh- 

■1 woriuef Alcida- 


mas, ioeb ai an Enlogy on Death, in wbieh ha 
eanmaratsd the eiil* ofHiaman life, and of which 
Cicero aeems to apealc with gnat faint (Ibici. 
48) ; a •baw-neaeh, caUad Kiyat MemViurf' 
(Aiiatot. aJuL L tSL t 6) ; a work on mnue (Sni- 
da*, fc e. 'AAsUfui) ; and nma acienlifle woifc^ 
Til. one on ibetorie (Wxnt ^vnipunf, Plnt.i)niMM((. 
A), and another caHed A^y« ^imWi (INog. Laari. 
riii. 66) ; but all of them *n now I«t. Tielwi* 
(CHL li. 7fiS) had (till before him aevenl on^oa* 
of Alddamn*, but we now pa i* * «* only two deda- 
nulioni which go nnder his name. 1 . '05ianr*^i, 
4 HTil noAB^^wi -rpaSoaiat, in which Odysaeu* 
i* mode to acciue Palamede* of tnacheiy to tba 
cansa of tha Oreek* doling the siege of Troy. 2. 
wtfl ro^igTiir, in which the antbi^ (al* forth tha 
advonloae* of dsliTaring extempore speache* orar 
ibose Mich have preriniuly bean written oM. 
These two oration*, tha neond of which ia the bat- 
ter one, both in form and thonriit, bear icaroaly 
any trace* of tba fiuilt* which AriMotle and Dio- . 
nyiini ean*uta in the worka rf Alddamu t tbair 
mnll is rather being frigid and inupid. It baa 
therefore been maintained by aeTera] critic*, that 
tfae*a oration* arv not tha work* of Alcidama* ; 
and with ngud to the fir*t of them, the aiiffio- 
ution i* supported by strong pfobability ; the se- 
cond nutj ha>re been written by Alcidwna* with a 
the influence of iMwrstea. Tha 

first edition of them ii 
Oreek orator* published by Aldus, Venice, 1513, 
foL Tha beat modem editiontare thoae in Reiske'a 
OraioTei Ormci, ToL viii. p. 64, &c ; and in 
Bekkerl Orviont AlUci, tdL lil (OifonL) [L.3.] 

A'LClDAa {"AAkBiu), was appointed, B. c, 
4S8, cunnumder of the Peloponnenan fleet, which 
wo* sent to Laabo* for tha relief of Uytilane, thea 
beaieged by the Athenian*. But Mytiloie aa- 
rendered to the Athenian* *eTen day* before tba 
PelDponncsian fleet arriTed on the coait of Asm g 
and Alcidas, who, like moat of the Spartan com- 
mander), had little entoipiiaa, resolved to retom 
home, although be wo* ncommaaded either to at- 
tempt the reooTery of Uytilene or M moke a de- 
•cent upon the Ionian cosat. While aaiUng along 
thecoaat,he(a:pInred many ycasela, and put to death 
alltbeAtbanianaliieiwhamlie took. FromEpheaa* 
he aailad home with the utmost speed, being chaaed 
by theAthenian fleet, under Pachea, as br at Patmoa. 
(Thutiii 16, 36 — 33.) After receiving reinforce- 
nent*, Akida* nuled M Corcyra, B. c. 427 ; and 
vhen the Athenian* and CMcyratan* lailsd out to 
n«t him. he defeated tbem and drove them lack' 
o tha island. With bi* batdtnal canlion, how- 
jver. he would not follow up the advantage be had 
gained ; and being informed that a large Athenian 
fleet wa* ^ipniaching, he ailed baiJi to Pelopoo- 
nesn*. (iii. 6»— 81.) In B.C. 426, ha wa* one 
of the leaden of the oolony founded by the Imc^ 
daemooian* at Heraclna, neu Thermopylae, (iii. 

ALCI'DICE ('AAviJIkd), the daughter of Aleuo. 
and wife of SaUnoneus, by whom ahe bad a dangh- 
tcr. Tyro. Alcidice died eariy, and Solmonaui 
afterwari* married Sideto, (Diod. iv. 68 ; Apot- 
lod. L 9. 1 fl.) [L. S.] 

ALCI'MACHUa, a painter mentioned by 
Pliny. (H. M xiiv. 11. s. 40.) Ho 1* not 
■poken of by any other writor, and all that ii 
known about bim ia, that ha painted a picture of 
IHoiippu*, a victor in the pancratium at Olyiupta. 



Dioiippni lived id the tima of Alaxuidet die 
Omt. (Adkm, V. H. x. -22; Diod. xviL 100; 
Alfaen. *i. p' 251, «.} Alcin»chu( there&n pro- 
bablj' Uied nboal the auna tima. [C. P. H.] 

ALCl'MEDK (•AAjc.^a.j), ■ dnughlw of Phy- 
Ucn* md Clymene, the dsughto of Minysi. (Apot- 
lon. Rhod. i. 4G ; SchoL ad toe. ani ad \. 230.) 
She mairied Aeun, b; whom >he became the 
Mother of Jamn (Oi, Hamid. it, 105 ; Hjgin. 
F>A. 1 S and 14 ), who, however, u called b; othen 
■ eoD of PoljiDede, Anie, or Soiphe. (Apollod. i. 
9. i 8 ; eomp. Asbon, Jason.} [I. S.] 

ALCI'MEDON ('AAiri/Ul-r). 1. An Aro»- 
lian hero, fiom whom the Arcadian slain Aldme- 
He «a> ^e bther of 

don deiired i 

t Hen 

UTcd. (FaM. Tui. 12. g 2.) [Ai 

3. One of the Tfirhenian aailDn, who wuled 
t« can7 off the infant Dionjini from NaiDi, bat 
waa nwtanHKphoKd, with hig compaiuan), inlo a 
dolphin. (Ov. MeL iii. 616 ; Uygin. Fab. 134 ; 
oonip, Acorraa.) 

3. A Hin of Laracene, and vne of the comman- 
den of the MyrmidoDi under Patnidai. (Horn. IL 
itL 187, ivii. 476, 4e.) lU S.] 

ALCI'MEDON, an anbowr or chawr, ipoken 
of bj- Vir^l {Edag. iii. 37, 44), who mentiona 
Bome gvbleta oiFhii woriunanihip. [C. P. M.] 

ALCl'HENES {'AAjH/UritO. 1. A ion of 
Olancut, who wu nnintanttonally lulled by hie 
liTDther Bellerophon. According to tome tradi- 
■isnt, tbia bnther of Bellertf hon wa* oiled Deli- 
adet, or Peiren. {Apollod. iL 3. § 1.) 

2. One of the looa of Jawm and Medeia. When 
Jaion aubeeqnently wanted to marrf Oiauee, hia 
aona Aldmenei and Tiiander wen mocdered by 
Mrdeiai and vera aAcrtrarda buried by Jaeon in 
the aanctuary of Heia at Cfdnlh. (Diod. iT. fi 4, 
5S.) Ih. &] 

ALCI'HENES CAAinfi^>n|i),wi Athenian comic 
jnet, ^iparently a contemponuy of Andiylut. 
One of hie [Macea i> auppoied to have been the 
KaKvySim (the Female Swimmen). Hia worka 
were gnadj admired by Tynnichua, a younger 
contemporary of Aeachylna 

There waa a tra^ writer of the huim name, a 
native of Megaia. mentioned by Snidaa. (Meineke, 
HiiL CriL Comearmi Orate, p. 481 ; Suid. a. t^ 
•AXKiiUrtit and 'AAj^uI* ) [C. P. M.] 

A'LCIMUS ('AAxvisi}. alw) called JaciiDoa, or 
Joachim ('Uxtiiios), one of the Jewiah priests, who 
upouMd the Syrian canae. He waa made h^h 
pnett by Demetrina, aboDt B.C. 161, and waa in- 
Matled in hia office by the help of a Syrian army. 
In conaequence of hit eruelliee be waa expelled by 
the Jewa, and obliged to fly lo Antiech, but waa 
reatored by the help of another Syrian army. He 
continued in hia oflice, ander the piotecdon of the 
Syriona, till hia death, which happened suddenly 
(b. c. 159) while he waa ptilling down the wall of 
die temple that divided the court of the Gentile* 
from that of the lanehlea. (Joseph. AnL JiLui, 
9.% 7; I Afoocoi. vii. it) 

A'LCIMUS ('AMvwi). a Oieek ihetoriuan 
whom Diogenea Laertioi (ii. 114) calli the moet 
diitingniibed of all Onek rhetaiicdans, flourished 
about B. c 300. It is not certain whether he ii 

*Mi. Adienaeiis in 

leveral pUcea speak* of a 


cillan Ahaniia, who appears to have been tht 
author of a gnat hiatotical wori^ parta of which 
ara refertcd to under the namea <£ 'iToXuoi aod 
XicsAuciL But whether he va* the same as the 
riielorician Akimus, cannot be detaimined. (Athen, 
I. p. 441, iii. p. 518, vii. p. 822.) [L. S.) 

writer of seven ^ort poems in the Latin anthology, 
whom Wenudorf hea shewn (FaHL LaL Mai. voL 
vi p. 26, &C.) to be Che same person as Alcimut, 
the rhetorician in Aqnitania, in Gaul, who ii spoken 
of in lams of high pnise by Sidonioa Apollinarii, 
{BpitL viiL U, t. 10,) and Ausoniub (A^isb. 
BwrdigaL iL^ His data ii detennined by Hiero- 
nymna in his Chronicon, who lays that Alcimus 
and Delphidins taught in Aqailania in ut. 5G0. 
Hit poems are superior to most of hia time. 
They are printed by Meier, in hia " Anthologia 
Latuia," ep. 264 -260, and by Weniadatf; vol ti. 
p. 194, &e. 

ALCl'NOUS fAAjcfHsi). I. A son of Nau- 
sithous, aod grandaon of Poseidon. His name is 
celebrated in the ttory of the Argonauts, and still 
moie in that of the wanderings r2 Odyseens. In 
the fbimer Alunaus ia represented aa living with 
hia queen Aiete in the uitmi of Ihtpane. The 
ArgonHols, on their reUim &Dni Colclua, csme to 
his island, and were moat hoaplably reieived. 
When the Colchiani, in their punnit ol the Argo- 
nauts, likewise arrived in Drepane, and demanded 
that Medeia should be delivered up to them, Alci- 
uoua declared that if she was still a maiden At 
should be restored to them, but if she was already 
the wife of Jason, he would prelect her and her 
husband Bgunat the Coichiana. The Colchiana wen 
oUiged,by the contrivance of Arete, to depart with- 
oDt theii princess, and the Argonanta continued 
tbnr voyage homewarda, after they had received 
munificent pisaent* from AlcinoBS. (Apollon. Rhod. 
iv. 9904226 ; Orph. .Jipon. 1288, &c. ; Apollod. 
i. 3. § 25, 26.) Accoiding to Homer, .^Idnous is 
the happy ruler of the Phaeaciana in the island of 
Scheria, who has by Arebi five aona and one dat^h- 
ter, NaoaicBa. (Od. tL 12, Ac, 62, &c) The 
description of hia palace and hia dominions, the 
mode in which Odyaaeua ia received, the enter- 
tainments given to him, and the atoriea he related 
lo the king about hia own wanderings, ocenpy a 
considerable portion of the Odyaaey (from book vL 
to liii,), and form one of its moat chamiing paito. 
{Comp. Hygin. Fab. 126 and 126.) 

2. A son of Hippothoon, who, in conjuncUon 
with hia father and eleven brothers, expelled Ic^ 
rion and Tyndareu* from Lacedaemon, but waa 
afterwards killed, with his bther and brothers, bj 
Ueisclea. (Apollod. iii. 10. §6.) [L. &] 

A'LCINOUS ('AAklnrut), a Platonic phihisa- 
pher, who probably lived under the Caesars. Ho- 
ihing is known of hii persoDol hiatory, but a woric 
entitled 'EiriTOfi^ i£r IlAiiTBKit SiyiiAriir, con- 
taining an analysis of the Platonic philaso|>bT, a* 
it waa set fbrth by late writers, has been preserved. 
The treatiae i* written lather in the manner of 
Aristotle than of Plata, and the author haa not 
hesitated to introduce any of the views of other 
philosophers which seemed lo add to the complele- 
nees of the system. Thus the parts of the syllo. 
gitm (c 6), the doctrine of the mean and of Iha 
({(It and irtpytm (c 2. 8), are attributed to 
Plato ; aa weU as the division of philosophy which 
was conunon to tlw Peripatetica and Stoics. It 


WH Inpoidhk from llw writiDgi of Hala to gat m 
i^Man omiplete in iu jmrtt, and hence the t«nip- 
tBtion of Msi wrilen, who laDght for ijatan, to 
inn Plato and Ariibitle, wilhost pereeiring the 
imnutencj of tb* union, while ereiTthing which 
mited theii pnipoae wu fcarleoly UEribed to the 
foimdec of thor own lect. In the tnatiH of 
Aldnoiu. bowerer, then Ue itiU tncee of the ni- 
lil of Phlo, hdwtTer low an idea he giTee nf hie 
'" iw^likal talent. He heU the wotU and 
ing nul to be etemaL Thi* Hnl of the 
*»'**'■" (4 ^"x4 ^>S lUrim) wa* not enated bf 
Gad, bat, to me the imaga et Alnamu, it vaa 
■mkcned b; bin a* {rem a proibimd alecfs u>d 
Ivned towndt bim*^ "that it might look out 
upon intenectaal thing* (c 14) and ncuTi toma 
u^ idm hnn tba diriiM mind." It wa* the fint 
irf a aneeeaiion of intcniwdiate being* between Ood 
and man. The SUai proceeded immediately baa 
the mind of Ood. and were the bighe*! object of 
mir inteDect ; the ••tana" of mittei, the type* of 
anuJUe thing*, haTiin a real being in IhemaelTei. 
<c 9.} He diflend irom the caitier Platoniit* in 
conHiung the lUoi to genend law* : it *e*aied an 
DDWonhy notHm that Ood eonld oonemTo an lUa 
of thing* artifidd or nnnstiuat, or of indiTidnalt 
tr paitiealan, or of anj diing lehtiTe. He •rem* 
to bare aimed st hmnoriiiiig the Tiewi of Plato 
and Anatotle on the Xiiu, ■> he di>tingai*hed 
tfatn from the Mit, Ibnn* of Ihingi, which he at 
lowed were tneqaiaUe : a Ttew which KOiu ne- 
eeeearilj connected with the doctrine of the eternity 
and •tifciiiteiice of mattCT, God, the lint fbnn- 
tain of the iUoi, could not be known a* ha i* : it 
f* bnt a bint nation of him we obtain Emn n^a- 
tiona and an^ogiea : hi* natnie ii ecguolly beyond 
Dor power of eipteinon or concepdon. Below him 
are a eerie* of beings (laifiom) who loperintend 
Ae pndnctiDQ af aH tiling thing*, end hM iater- 
(Done with men. The hmoan lonl peue* thmogfa 
larioaa tian u nigi a tion*, tlnu connecting the lerie* 
with the lower elaiae* of being, until it i* (inslly 
fonfied and rendered acceptaUa to God. It will 
be *een that hi* n*tcm vai a componnd at PiMa 
and Anitotle, with aome nut* borrowed fma the 
cut, and perhap* deriTed from ■ atod; of the 
Pythagorean lyitem. (Hitter, Ofdaeile derPhila- 

AlcinoD* fint appoued in tiie I«tin Tcrnon of 
Pietn Beihi, which wu pnbliahed at Rome with 
Apulrina, U6ft, ioL The Greek text wai printed 
hi the Aldine edition of Apiileiue. 1521, Sro. 
Another edition ii that of Fell, Oxford, 1667. 
The beat i* by J. F. Fiacher, Leipiig. 1783, 8to. 
It WB* tran^ted into French by J. J. Combe» 
Donnoo*, Pari*, IBM, Sto., end into En^^ih by 
Stanley in hi* Hirtory of Pbiloeoidiy. [B. J.J 

ALCIPHRON ('AAa(^^p»), a Oredi lophiit, 
and the moM eminent among the Greek epietolo- 
Etaphen. BopectiDg hi* life ar tbe age in which 
he liTed we poncM no direct inlonnalion wbat- 
crer. Sone of the earlier critic*, lu Ia Crma uid 
I. C. Walt placed ban, without any plauible 
teneon, in tlie fifth centuty af our aenu Ben^, 
nd other* who followed bim, pUeed Aldphron 
is tbe period between Locian and Arietaeiietiti, 
that i*, between a.n. 170 and S50, while othsn 
again aengn to him a date eren (aiiier than ^e 
lime of Lodan. Tbe only cinnmntanca that 
enggeat* anythinn reipe c t in g hi* age 1* the fact. 

g tbe It 


« (i. B and 33) between Lacian and .UeipbTon g 

idcc lb* name of Alaphno 118 
fictitiea* lettan, in 8 boi^ lb* object of wbicfa 
i* to delineate the chaneten of certain rime* vt 
neo, by intndadng them M eiprr—ing their pe- 
coliar iantiment* and opmion* npon wibjeet* with 
which tbey wcl« bmiliai. Tbe cluee* of panon* 
wbich Aldphnm choee for thii pnipoie are Eibw- 
man, oouitry people, panntea, and balaaraa or 
Athenian coarleBn*. All an made to eipie** 
their aantimenti in the mo*t an«^ and elegant 
knguige, eren when tbe nibjed* are of a low 
or obecana kind. The character* are thni lone- 
irlial railed above ibair common itandanl, wilhoat 
any great liolation of the troth of reality. The 
fbiin of tbeae letter* ii exqniaitely beautiFat, and 
the laugonge i* tbe pan At^ dialect, inch a* it 
wa* apdien in the beet time* in bmiliai but re- 
fined eonTar*ation at Athen*. The icene from 
which tbe letter* are dated ii, with a few eicep- 
tiona, Atheni and iti vicinity \ and the lime, wber- 
BTor it i* diicemible, ia the period after the reign 
of Aleiandei the Great. Tha naw Attic comedy 
I tbe principal aouice from which the aatbor ii- 
ri hie infonnatton ncpecting the character* and 
man which he deecribea, and for thi* reanHi 
le lattan contain much Talnable infanuatioa 
about lh« priiata lile of the Athenian* of that tinM 
It ha* bean *ud, that Alciphnm i* an imitaloi of 
Lncian ; but beaidai tlie atyle, and, in a few in- 
'' ct matter, there ii no neemblance 


which ti 

two treat tbeir uibjecta ia totally HSnt 

dariTed thnr materiali from the lame aoune*, and 

Ltyle both aimed at tbe pvateat periection of tba 
genoine Attic Greek. Beiglar ha* tmly remarked, 
-' ' Aldphron etude in the nna rela^on to Me- 
ier a* Ludin to Ariatopbanea. The fint ed> 
of Alcipbnn** letlen la that of Aldiu, in hi* 
cdlection of the Greek Epiitolograpbar*, Venice, 
li99, Ito. Thi* edition, bowcTer, conteini only 
thoae letten which, in more modern edition*, fonn 
tbe fint two book*. SeroDty-two new letten warn 
added Iiom a Vienna and a Vatian MS, by Beiglpr, 
in hii edition (Leipiig, 1715, Btq.) with noica and 
a Idtin trani^tion. Tbeae aerenly-twa epiatlea 
form tba third book in fieivter'a edition. J. A. 
Wagner, in hi* edition ( Leipng, 1 798, S tot*, 8(0., 
widi tbe notea of Beigtar), added two naw lettan 
entire, and fngmanta of fint otbai*. One Itaig 
letter, which ha* not jal beau puhhahed entin, 
eiiate in aererel Paria HS8. [L. S.] 

ALCIPPE ('AAdm)). 1. A daogbter of 
Area and Agranloa, tbe duighter of Cectop*. Ua- 
lirrhothiaa, the ion of Poieidon, intended (o Tiobrta 
her, but wu* aurpriied by Are*, and killed, for 
which Poeeidon bore a grudge anunt Area. (Pan*, 
i. 21.87; Apollod-iii. U. 6 2.) 

2. A maiden, who wee diahononred by her own 
brother, Aitraeiu, unwillingly. When Aitneo* 
became aware of hi* deed, he threw bimtelf into a 
river, which received from him the name of Aetna- 
Dt, but wa* afterward* called Caicua. (PluL £1* 

Other penonagea ef thi* m 


ApoUod. iiL 15. g 8; Diod. It. 16; EiutBth. ad Horn. 
p.77b'j Horn. a(. iT. 134. [AxcvoNtDU.] [L-S.] 

ALCIS CAXxa), that ii, ths Stt 
■ninaiiis of Athsna, under which ihe « 
pad id Miuedoaii. (Ur. iliL5].) 

2. A deity nmong the Nihanali, 
Oenmui tribe. (Tadt OtrvL 43.) Orimm (OiMt- 
tok MyOul. p. 39 ) coiuidera Alcii in the punge 
of Twiliu to be the genitive of Alx, which, «e- 
eonling to him, rigniniM a ncrad ncn, and i» 
connected with the Oteek l\m. Anolher Akia 
oecnn in ApoUodarua, iL I. S 5. [L. S.] 

ALG['8TH£NE,a female punter ipoken of bj 
Plin; {H. N. hit. II. i. 40), who meatiaDi one 
of her pictniH rapreHnUng a dancer. (C. P. M.J 
ALCITHOE. [Alcatho«.J 
AOXITHUS CAAjciSai), wnt M ambuBdor b]r 
ibe Achaeaai to Ptalem; Philametor, B.C 169, 
when they heard that the AnadaUria [lee Diet, i/ 
Ant I.e.) were to be celebralsd in hia honour. 
(Poljb. iinii. 10, IS.) 

ALCMAEON {'M.icM'''), a ton of AmphiB' 
taiu and Eriphyle, and brother of Amphilochoa, 
Eoiydico, and Demoiuaa. (Apollod. lil 7- % 3.) 
Hii mother waa induced by the necUaa of Hac- 
uonia, which ahe rooeivud horn PoEyneicsa, to per- 
anade her hiuband Amphianuia to take part in the 
expedition agninat Thabea. (Horn. Od. it. 247. 
Ac) Bat bafbre Amphianiu act ont, h 
hia tool to kill their molher aa aoon aa the* ihould 
be grown np. (Apollod. iiL 6. S 2 ; Hygia. Fab. 
73.) When the Epigoni prepared for a aecond 
•ipedition egaintt Thebca, to avenge the death of 
tiieii fetheri, the oracle promiud them lacceea and 
TictoIT, if the; chose Alcmaeon their leader. He 
waa at Gut disinclined to undertake the command. 

deaira to poaaeaa Ihe necklace and pe[daa of Har* 
mania, and Alcmaeon, lo gnUi^ her wiah, went lo 
Paophit to gel them from Phegeui, under the pre- 
text that he intended to dedicate [hem at Delphi 
in order lo be freed &om hia madneaa Phegeua 
complied with bia requeat, bnl when he heard that 
the treaanrei were fetched for Colirrhoe, he lent 
hia Bona Prtnoni and Agenor (Apollad.iiL 7. IG^ 
or, aocording U Pauaasiaa (<iiL 34. g 4), Temenai 
and Aiion, aflor him, with the comnuud lo kill 
htm. Thia waa done, but the aona of Alcmaooa by 
Calinhoe took bloody vengeance at the inatigation 
of their mother. (Apollod. Paua. U.iK.;Ot. AftL 
ii. 407, Ac) 

The liar; abant Alcmaeon fumiihed rich mata- 
riali for the epic and tragic poeta of Qr«ece, and 
their Roman imitatora. Bui none of theae poema 
ia now eitani, and we only know fnim Apollo- 
dorua (iil 7-9 7), that Eoripidn, in hit ttngedy 
" Alcmaeon," ttaMd that after the lall of Thebea 
he married Manto, the daughter of Teireaiaa, and 
that be had two children by her, Aiuphilochua and 
whom he gave to Creon, king of C^ 
daua of 

, Titian. Alcmaeon dia- 
tinguiahed himielf greatly in it, and ilew Laodo- 
miu,the ton of Etaoclea.( Apollod. iiL 7. 9 2, &c ; 
comp. Diod. it. 66.) When, after the fell of 
Thebea, he learnt Ihe rcoaon for which hit mother 
had urged him on to take port in the expedition, 
he ttcw hei on the advice of an oracle of ApoUo, 
and, accordina to aome tcaditioDt, in conjnncdon 
with hit brother Amphikchua. For thia deed he 
became mad, and wat haunted by Ihe Erinnye*. He 
fini came to Oiclena in Arcadia, and thence went 
to Phegeni in Piophia, and being purified by the 
Utter, he married hia daughter Andnoe or Alpha- 
aJboea (Paui. niL 34. g 4), (o whom he gave the 
Beekiace and peplni of Harmonia. But the coun- 
try in which be now ntided waa Titited by h3U>- 
dty, in conieqnence of hit being the murderer of 
hit mother, and the oracle advued him to go to 
AGheloui. According to Pauaaniaa, he left Peophi 
■- - '■ ■ •■ ■■■ otyetce 

anbeequent to the mnrder of hit molfaer, and woi 
tberefbre under no cnne. The country thua point- 
ed out waa a tnct of land which had been rscently 
tbrmed at the moutb of the liTer Achekma, Apoi- 
lodonit ogreea with thia Bcconnt, but givet a de- 
tailed hittory of Alcmaeon'a wanderingi until he 
reached the mouth of Achelont, who gare him hit 
dnnghlar Calirrhoa in mairi^e, CaiUnJiaal had a 

to ednate. The wife of Cieo 
Ltiaoidinary beonty of Tiiiphon^ ^ 
told her at a akTc, and Alcmaeon himaelf bon^t 
her, without knowing that ahe wat hi* daughter. 
(Diod. iT. 66 ; Paua. nL 3. § 1, ii. S3. 9 1.) 
Alcmaeon aflor hia death waa wortliipped aa ■ 
hero, and al Thebea he aeenu to bare had an altar, 
near Che hooae of Pindar (PyUt. Tiii. 80, Ac), who 
calli him bia neighbour and Ihe goardhm of hia 
property, and alao aeema tn auggeat that prophetio 
poweia were aacribed to him, ae 10 hji fiiuier Am- 
phioiaua. At Piophis hia tomb waa ahewn, lui- 
ronnded with lofly and tacred cypreiaea. ( Paua. 
viii. 24. g 4.) At Oropui, in Attica, where Am- 
phiaiaut and Amphilochui were worthipped, Alo- 
maeon enjoyed no tueb honours, becauae he wat a 
matricide. (Paui. L 34. g 3.) He waa repreaentad 
in a ttatue at Delphi, and on the cheaC of Cypea- 
lua. (x. 10. 9 2, «. 17. g 4.) [U S.] 

ALCMAEON (AAj^oIw), aon of the M^actea 
who waa gtiilty of aacrilege with retpecl to the fot- 
lowert of Ciman, wnt united by Cnwaua to Sardia 
in contcquence of the aervicei he had rendered U 
an emboaty tent by Croetut lo consult the Delphio 
oracle. On hia arrival at Solvit, Croetua mad* 
him a present of aa mach gold aa he could carry 
out of the treaaury. Alcmaeon look Ihe king at 
hit word, by putlmg on a moit c^ncioua dnaa, 
the folda of wluch (aa well aa the vncont space of 
a pair of very wide boota, alio provided for the 
occaiion) he stuffed with gold, and then filled hia 
mouth and hair with gold dual. Crocaui laughed 
at the Irick, and pnaented him with as much again 
(abaut 690 a. c). The wealth thus acquired is said 
contributed greatly to the subsequent proa- 

iBcet, and on one ocosion gained the ptiie in a 
chariotrace at Olympia. ( Herod. £ c. ; Itacratat, 

Biffit, c 10. p. 351.] We an informed by . 

Plutanh [Satan, ell), that be oommanded the 

Alheniana in die Cirrhaean war, which began 

- c 600. [P. S.] 

ALCMAEON fAAii/uCw), one of the most 

linent natural pbiloaophert of antiquity, waa a 

ttfe of Crolona in Magna Qmecia. Hia fiilher'a 

me was Pirithua, and he it said to have been a 

pupil of Pythagoras, and must therefore have lived 

ta tba ktter half of the liith cental; Iwlbra Chiiit. 
(Ding. L>£rt. tiil. 83.) Nothing mon il knovn of the 
Meat* of hii lib. Hii nuiM cdcbnled mnatamical 
diiconrj ha* baon DOttced in the Did. ofAal. p. 
756. k ; but whsther fail knawledra is thii bnncli 
of (donca ww deriTcd fiom tha djiaectiou dT aui- 
bbU or of hmiBii bodiaa, it ■ ^pntcd qneition, 
which it ii difficult to decide. Chalcidiua, on 
whoH aathority the &ct nati, merely nji [Com- 
moU. B PkO. "Tim." p. 368, ed. Fabr.}, "qui 


Ha u 

; Cle- 

meat Aletandr. arom. L p. 308) 
AM penoD who vroU an DMnial philoaophj 
ifaaiK i r KiTur), and to bare inienled lablea (Jii- 
6iibu, lud. Orig, I 39). He b1» wrote H>enl 
Mhet medial and pbiloauphical woika, of which 
nothing bat the tiilei and a fev fngmenti hare 
baoD preierred b; Stotoeoa (Eolog, P^it.), Plu- 
tairii {De Pig*. Piilat. Dor.), and Oalen. (Hulor. 
PUlotifk.) A further ueomil of bit philoaophicil 
opiniooa OMj be fbiuid in Henago'a Notet to Dio- 

r>ea Lainiai, Tiij. 83, p. 387 ; Le Clara, HiiL de 
atU.; Alfont. Ciuconiui op. Faine. BMoli. 
OnkK. ToL liii. p. 48, ed. ret. ; Sprengel, ttiit ih 
laM(d.TolLp.239i C. G. K6ha, Dt PUIck^ 
cab Hifgair. MadicimM CiUlor: Lipa. 1781, Ito., 
laprinled in Ackennann't Ojnao. ad Hiitor. Medic 
PertaKmha, Norimb. 1797, Sto., and b Kiihn^ 
Opiac Acad. Mtd. tt PMoL Lipa. 18-27-8, 3 Tola. 
8TD. ; laasiae, OanL ibr Afxttw. [W. A. 0.] 


AIlhoQgli AlanaeoD ii termad ft papil of Pjtha- 
iiat, thaca ii great teaaon to donbt wheiner be 
u ft Pfthagaiean at all ; Li* name aeemt to bare 
ept ioto the litta of rappoailitiooi Pjthaganani 
by later wriUct. (DnDdit, (ktUtUt 
•fUa, ToL i. p. SOT.) AriMolk (JWMa- 
filiyt, k. £} mentioa* him u nenrij contenqniaiT' 
with Pythagoras, bal dietinguiihe* between th« 
oToixtut of opponie*, under which the Pjthago- 
mn* indudtd all thiugt, and the double principlB 
of Alcmaeon, according to Arittoile, lota oitended, 
oJthoagh be doe* not explain the preciie differ^ 
eoce. Other doctrineaof Alcmaeon hftTe been piB- 
tened lo n*. He laid that the human aoul wa* 
inunortal and partook of the dirine nalura, beante 
Uka the faeaTanly bodia* it coDlained in ittatf a 
principle of molioo. (Ari*t. d» Aaima, L 2, p. 
lOb;CK.dt NaL D*or.i. 11.) The ocUpoe c€ 
alto eteniel, be nippoied to 

le from it* ifaape^ which he wid w 

I like* 

:h hare < 

leLkle to phjuG* or medicine i and team to have 
nciaen paiily oat of the ^nalaliont of the Ionian 
•cbool, witb which rather than the Pythagoreaa, 
Arittoile vpfon to connect Alcmaooo, partly fioin 
the tiaditionaiT lore of the ouUeit nwdical idenoa. 
(Bnodii, Tol. L p. £08.) [R J.] 

ALCMAEO'NIDAE (AAa/ioiwlSai), a nobU 
CuhQt at Atheni, membsrt of which fill ■ ^laee in 
Grecian biitoi; from 1 100 to 100 b. c The fi^ 
lowing it ft genealogical labia of the bmily. 

1. Alcmaeon, fixmdai of the family, 1100 B. & 

2. (Megaelea), 6th peipetnol archon. 

i. (Alcniaeai), latt peipetnal oichon. (b. a 75£ — 7t&) 

7. Claitlhene*, (the le- 

B. c (Sea Alcmaboh.) 

6. Megadea, the iqiponanl^Agaritle, daughter o 
J- P^.j«_h.. I tyrant of SKyon. 

Ifl.AIobiadeb Hit pa- 
rentage it unknown, 
bnthewaataid toba 

the htfaerH dde. ( Da- 
mokth. nAfU. p. J6 1.} 

Il.Ajdoebni, 15.C]eiiuw= 
plftL Ew' commanded 

3S&) Arlemiiinm 

at ConHuia 
K c Ul. 
17; PluL 

11, Megaclea, Ttetor 
in the Pjthian 
garnet. (Pind, 

12. Megaclea. 
(Herod, n. 

16.Deinomache-f-Hippanicii*,17.EaiyptolcgninL lS.Periclei, IS.Atiphron. 
■ • (PluLC&a.*.) (Ihegiflat (PloL.lte, 
MBtH- I; Plat. 

,^,:cc; ..Google 


30. W2 

. Xld-21.Celi^ 23.AlifliiuK33.CI«nui 
biadnt (Xenoph. (the gMt (Plat. 
(XenopL Comiv. geneisL Prob^, 
». la) Alcibi- p. S20.) 

Wnliu. 27.Xj» 



2«.C>IUu. 25.Iwdica=Cimoa. 
(Tbe Qch (Plat. (PlBkiVo- 

Callus.) Cb*.^) wm 94) 

Ft. 37.) 

TIm Akmaaomdaa wen ■ bnmdi of the bmilj 
of th« NSLUDAB. The N^die wen drirai out 
ef Pjlu* in HeNcnk bj the Doiuui, abool 1 100 
B. c, and vent to Atheni, where Helanthiu, the 
npmentatiTe of the Ma bnnch of the bmilj be- 
caoM king, utd AkmaeoD, the icpreientuiTe of the 
■Bcond brwcb.beame > noble aod the aacenor of Ibe 
AlonHiniidae. Alcmaemi wa« the graat-fpnndaoii 
of Neetor. (Paoe. ij. 18. g 7.) Among the uchou* 
fet life, die unb i> named Megsdet, and tha lut 
"nt, (• tha aicbmu for life 

don, it la tmbabla that 

1 tmbabla that Ih« 
tke mother*! aide. 

The Gnt remarbbia 

gaelea, who brongbt apoD lite hmQj the goilt of 

Cjlim. (B.C612.) [CiMOitMiUACLn.] The ei- 
putaion of tbe Alenueanida wu now londlj de- 
manded, and Soloo, who probably taw in tach an 
•rant an important atep towardi his intended ro- 
foime, adriied than to labmit Ibeii onu* to a 
tribonal of three hundred nobloi. Tbe rotnlt wai 
that tbey were lianiihed inm Athena and ntind 
to Pliod% pobaUj about 699 or S96 B. c Their 
wealtli hanag bcMi aog^nantsd hy tba Hbenlity of 
CKmn* to AlcmaMn, ibe eon of Ht^aclet [Alo- 
ii*aoN], and tbeir infloeiMe incnaKd bf Uia an- 
riage of Megacka. the Km of Alcmaenn, to Agariita, 
Uie daaghter of CloMfasnaa, tymnl of Kcjon, thej 
took advantwe of the dinded alata of Athena, and 
by jotuiag Ue party of Lyraigiu, they eflbcted 
their return ; and ibortly aRenrarde, by a aimilar 
union, llwy eipeUed P«uatiatiu wan after he bad 
•eiaedthegoienimeut.(B, cS£9.) [PiisurnaTua.] 
Thii etateofthingididDothutlongi for, at the end 
ofliieyean, Me^ei gBTe hii daughter Couyia m 
marriage to PeiiiitrMui,nid aadtted in hit reitota- 
tion to Athene But a db* qaaml immediately 
amar out of the conduct of Peiaigtratna towardi hii 
wife, and the Alcmaeonid* once more expelled him. 
During the following ten yeart, Peiuitnitnt ooL- 
lecled an army, with Which he iniaded AlUca, 
and defeated die Alcmaeonida, who were now once 
more driven into eiila. Tbey weie, however, itill 
fbnnidable enemiea After tbe death of Hipper^ 
chna, tbey took poMeeaen of Uptydicnm, a fort- 
Mai on Ibe frontia of AKica, aod made an at- 
tempt U reatore tbemMltei, but weie defeated bj 
Hif^nu. They had, howerer, a mon important 
■ouna «f inflnance. In tbe year 648 b.c. the 
tempi* of ApaUo at Delphi waa bnmt, and the 
AlcDUMwnidi having contracted with the Amphic- 
tjonic conniil to rebuild it, executed the worit in 
a itjla of roagnilicence which mueh exceeded their 
engagemenL lliey thni guned great popularity 
throughont Qreeoe, wbile they contrived to bring 
the PeiuitiBlida into odium by charging them with 
having nuiad tha 6k. The onide, beudea, b- 

TDored them IhencefiiTtli ; and whenerei it waa 
eonmlted by a Spartan, on whatever matter, the 
anawer alwayi contained an exhortation to give 
Atheni freedom ; and the renit woe that at bngth 

found themeeUei in an inlaltd poaiiion, betwe 
the noUei, iriui qipear to have been oppoeed to 
them, and the popular party which had been hi- 
theno attached to the Pei*i*tratidt. Cleiathenei, 
now the head of tha Alemaeonidae, joined the lat- 
ter party, and gave a new conatitutioD to Atheut. 
Fnnher paiticnlan reipecting the femily are 
given under the namei of iti membera. (Herud. 
vi lZl-131;Pindar,/yji.Tii.,andBi>ckh-inoteii 
Ointon'a FaiH. ii. p. i, 299.) [P. &] 

ALCMAN ('AMfuCr), called 'bj the Attic and 
bter Qraek writen Alcmaeon { AAnfialvr), the 
chief lyric poet of Sparta, waa by birUi a Lydiun 
of Saidii. Hia fi»her'i name wu Damaa or Xit>- 
rua He waa brought into Laconia ai a ibive, evi- 
dently when very young. Hia mailer, wb«o 
name waa Ageudaa, diacoveted hii geniui, and 
emandpated bim ; and he then began to diilingniih 
hiraielf ai a If ric poet. (Suidaa, i. v.; Heiaclid. 
Pont i-oKt p. 206 ; VoU. PaL L 18 ; Alcmau, ft. 
11, Wekker; Epigrama by Alexander Aetolua, 
Leonidai, and Antiiater Tfaeee., in Jacob"! AntloL 
Orate L p. 207, No. 3, p. 175, No. 80, iL p. 1 10, 
No. 6G; in the Anthol. Palat vii. 709, 19, 18.) 
In the epignun lait cited it ii mid, that the two 
contuienli itnve for the honour of bit birth ; and 
Suidaa (J. c) colli him a I^canian of Meiaoa, 
which may mean, bowcTer, that he wua enrolled 
a* a dtixHi of Meaeoa after hii emancipation. Tbe 
above itatement* leem to be more in actotdance 
with the sulhoritiea than the opinion of Bode, that 
Alcman'i bther waa brought fiiiDi Sardti ta Spaita 
aa a alave, and that Alcman himself waa bom at 
MeiBoa. It ii not known to what extent he ob- 
tained tbe rigbti of citixenahip. 

The time at which Alcman Uted i* rendered 
anmewhat doubtful by the diflercnt elatementa of 
the Qieek and Armenian copiei of Euiebiui, and 
of the chronographen who followed him. On the 
whale, however, tha Oraek copy of Eu>ebiu* ap- 
pear! to be right in placing him at the tecond year 
ofthetireDty-HTenth Olympiad. rii.c67).) He 
waa contempoiery with Ardyt, king of Lydia, 
who reigned bom 678 to 629, B. c, with Leicbea, 
the aatbor of the "* Little Iliad," and with Ter- 

Cder, during the later yean of theie two poet* ; 
naa older than Steuchorua, and hs ii Mud to 
have been the t«cher of Anon. From tfaeae dr- 
camMancM, and from the bet which we lean 
fTomhiniaelf {fV.29J, thatholivedloagrenlage, 
we may conclude, with Clinton, that he flouriihed 
fromabante?! toabont 631 B.a (Clinton, /int. 
i. pp. 189, 191, 365; Hermann, Aatii. Laeait. pp. 




TS, 77.) Hs ii nid to han died, b'ke Sulk, of 
llw maiia paiioJarii. (AriitoL HaL Amm. y. 
SI or 25 ) Flut Sulia, X : Pliu. H. jV. iL 33. 

Tho poriod during vhieh moit of AIcniaii> 
pocnu wen «Kqpo»d. vu tbrt whkb foUowad 
At coDchuim of the KCand H«««uBn mr. Di 
fa^ thi* pariod ot quiet, tbe Spartani b^nn 
dwriih tbt lute fi>r tbe ^nritual enjaynUDti of 
povtiy, which, thongh felt by them long befon, 
ud nero lUaiiked to a high Mate of ddtiratian, 

whib their Mtention wu ■baorbed f '- 

■ of impciiTainmt Akmsn 

1 hj Tstpandec, u Aeolian poet, 
. jvK 676 B. G., had mnred from 
Lnboi to the mainlud of Greece, end had intn- 
dnosd tin AeaGaa Ijrie mio the Pdoponnenu. 
Thie now atjle of poetry wat ipeedily adapted to 
the tkaad (aim in which the Doric poetry hed hither 
to heen caM, end gntduaUy inppianted Uutt eariior 
Myle whidi wai nearer to the epic In the S3rd 
•r 84th Olympiad, Terpander made hia great im- 
ptOTeitiHiti in mDue. {TutfANoBK.] Hence 
■nee the peculiar chaiaeter of tbe poeliy of hia 
jouffd eontempotan, Alcman, which preaentsd 
tin OMcal lyrk in Uia hifheit eicdlence which 
tt> miac of Terpander enabled it to reach. Bnt 
AlOMDi bad also an intimate ac^auatamoe with 
tbe PhijigiBB and Lydian ityloi of laiuic, and he 
waa huuelf the inTenlor of new fermi of riiythm, 
■«■■ of whkh bore hit name. 

i. kne portion of Alcmin'i poetry wm emtio. 
bet. Be a eeid by tome andant writen to hare 
bnn (he iofentof of erotic poetir. (Athen. liii. 
p. 6M t Soida*, $. e.) From hu poem* of thii 
<1mb, which are tnarited by a freedom boidering on 
BeentHHuoen, he obtained the epilhstiof "iweet" 
Mid ** pkaMOt" (y\vKit, xftit). Among theie 
poenu were many hymeneal jkce^ Bat the Par- 
dtatia, which form a branch of Akman'i poemi, 
■mat DOt be coofbimded with the erotic Utey 
wefB eo called becaiue they were composed for the 
pnipoae of bnng wag by cfaoniie* of Tiigiiu, and 
not on account of their uhjecti, which were tcit 
variona, wmctiiDea indeed enttie, but often reti- 
pooa. Alcman^ otlter poem* enhtan hymni to 
the goda. Paeani, PmiodB^ tonga adn)ted for diBo- 
tent religioui fntiTila, and alwrt ethical or philo- 
aophioal triecea. It ii diipoled whether he wrota 
any of tboee Anapaeetic w■T■(ong^ or matchea, 
anidi wen called J^ifcnjpw ; but it teemi very 
■niikalj that he aboatd We negledsd a kind of 
conipMition whkh had bam lendvnd to pt^nlar 
by Tyrtaeua. 

SaidM to have been the fint poet who eompoeed 
any -nna but dactylic hemmetert. Thii lUte- 

ahoTtcT dactylic linea into which Akraan broke np 
tha Homeiic heiamelei. la thii praclica, how- 
Brer, he had been preceded by Archilochni, fmrn 
whom be borrowed KTemI odieri of hii peculiir 
metre*: othera he invented himult Araong bi* 
metie* we find Tarion* fbinu of tlie dactylic, ana- 
paeitic, trochaie, and iambic, a* well a* iinet eom- 
poeed of di&rsDt Metiei, (at example, iambic and 
atiiparitir The Crelic baumetar wat named 
Akmanie, trrmt hia baing h* isTenlor. The poem* 
' " e chietfy in ttraphea, compoaed ' 

' '■ ^" ''ffonghont I 

. From their 

ALCMEIfE. 107 

dHn:d chamclo we mlftfat ooiutadB that th«y aom^ 
timet bad aa anliitrophic fonn, and thi* leema to 
be canGnoed by tha atatement of Hephaettian 
<p. ISt, Qaiaf), that ha compoHid odea of ibnitatD 
atrophea, in which thoe waa a change of metre 
after the lerenth etiophe. There it no trace of an 
tfoie fiillowing tbe atnphe and antiatropbe, in hia 

The dialect of Aleman wat the Spartan Dorie, 
with an intermiitnre of the Aeolic Tbe popular 
idionu of Iflconia appow moat frequendy in fail 

mof the n 

thmed the tiadltian, tl „ „. 

with thote of Terpander, at the firrt performance 
of the gyrniwpoadia at Sparta (a. c 66G, Aelian, 
V.H.:aL 30), and tba aaoertaned fact, that they 
wBte frequently afterwardi ooad at that featiTal. 
(Atheo. IT. p. 678.) The few fr^menu whkh 
remaia acaraely allow n* to judge how far he da- 
aerred hi* reputatian ; but Hme of them di^lay a 
true poetltal iiHiit. 

Akman'i poeaia compriied mi bodc^ tha sft- 
tant firagmmti of which are indnded in the eol- 
lectiant of Neander, H. Sle[riieD*, and Fnlviua 
Uiainni. The Uteet and beat edition ia that of 
Welcker. Qieaien, 1B16. [P. fl,] 

ALCMIJ^NE (•AXK^'^wn), a daaghter of Eleo- 
tryon, king of Ueaaane, by Anuo, the daughtw 
of Alcaeoi, (Apollod. ii ^ § 5.) According to 
other Bccomita har mother waa callad Lyiidicia 
(Schol. ad Find. (Ktii. ii; Plat lia. 7), or 
Eniydica. (Diod. it. S.) The poet Aiiaa i^iiU' 
tented Akmene at a daugbtn of Amphjanoa and 
Eiiphyla, (PaiM. V. IT. S 4.) ApoOodoto* men- 
tioui ten hiothen of Alcmaiie, who, with the tx- 
ception of one, LicynmJnt, fell in a contett with 
the goniof Pterehiiia, who had (airied off tha cattle 
of Eleetiyon. Eiectryon, «i aetting out to aven^ 
the death of bit aona, [ell hia kingdom and hia 
daughter Alcmene to Amphitryon, who, oain- 
taniiosaily. killed Elaetiyan. Stheoeln* tluna- 
expelled Amphitryon, who, together with 
me and Licymniua, went to Thebe*. Ak- 
mene declared tiut aha would mony him who 
thonld arenge the death of her brother*. Amphi- 

'OD nndeRook the taak, and invited Creon eC 

lebe* to aaaiit him. Dining hit abaanca, Zeiu, 
of Amphitryon, Tinted Alcmene, 
■ ' >- - huihand, related to hot 
_ _ _ iged the death of bet 

brotbeia. fApollod. iL 4. S 6—8; 0«. Amor. I 
1!L iS; Diod. iv. 9; Hygin. Fab.W; Lnuan, 
Dialog. Dtor. 10.) When Amphitryon himaelf 
tetamed on the next day and wanted to giTO an 
acconnt of hi* achieTemenU, ahe waa tnrpnaed at 
the rapeti^on, bat TeiraaiB* aolTcd tha myatery, 
Alcmene became the mother of Heraclet by Zana, 
and lA Iphido* by AmphitryMi. Heia, jealoua 
of Alcmene, delayed the birth of Hetade* fbr 
teren day*, that Euryithena might be bora tint, 
and thiu be entitled to greater right*, according to 
a TOW of Zen* himaelE (Horn. IL ilt B6, Acj 
Or. Met ii. 273, St i Diod. I c.) After tba 
death of Amphitryon, Alcmene manied Rhadaman- 
lhTa,a»onofZen*,atOtaleiainBoeotia. (Aptdlod. 
iL i. % 11.) After Heraclea waa raiaad to the 
rank of a god, Alcmene and hi* aoni, in dread nf 
Euryatheus, flod to Trachi*, and thence to Athaua, 



ud wbcB Ilylliu had cat off Ihs Wd of Emyi- 
thcoif Atcmena ntiified tuir leraigii bj pickiiw 
tbe cja out of ihe head. (ApoUod. iL 8. g 1.) 
The Kzonnta of htt death an nrf ducnpanL 
Ateording to Puuuiiu (L i], | 1), the dwd in 
MoguU, OD her wif from Argoa to Thcbea, and 
M the ■ana of Hcnde* duagncd M to wbtther 
■he wu to be cairied to Ar^oa or to Tbebea, ibe 

..._.. D oiBde. Accotding to Plntanh, 

(£>cfiai.&i<ir. p.S78,)h«rtombaiidlhatof Rhad*- 
manlhji vets at Haliartoi in BoeetiB, and ben 
wia Dpened b; Agoibuu, lor die pnipcae of cajr;- 
ii^ bet lemauu to Sparta. According to Phem- 
C7dM (C^i. AiHom. Lit. SS), ihe lired witb hei 
mu, after Ihs death of EaiTUheDi, at Tbebn, 
and dild than at an adtaiicad age. When the 
aou of Htnelet wiahed la bniy her, Zeoa aent 
llamai to Idte hec body awaj, and to airj it to 
the iilaudi of the bleaMO, and gira bet in maniage 
Iham to Rbadwnantbja. Hmnea according toc^ 
bar eat of her ettfn, and pst into it a atone ao 
bimwj that the Heiadida coold not n 

itona, the; encted 
which in later tinMa contained the Mnctoaiy of 
Alanena. (Paui. ii. 16. £ 4.) At Athena, too, 
^a ma woihipped u a benaae, and an nltat mu 
erected to her in the templeofHenKlca. (QiHaar^, 
Paul. i. 19. i i.) She waa repreaented on the cheat 
of Cjpttilna (Paul. t. IS. 1 1), and epic aa weU aa 
tragic poeta made &eqaent naa of her atory, though 
no poem of the kind ia now extant. (Hea.&^//>n. 
init; Pana.». 17. S*.18. gl.) [L. S.] 

ALCON or ALCO CAXnrJ. 1. A tonof Hip- 
' na of the Caledonian bunion, waa 
ir with hla buier and biolben, bj- 
had n beraini at " — '" "- " ■ 
iii 10. 95; UTgin.J^at.173] 
16. g J.) 

2. A aon of ETachthen*, king of Athena, and 
bther of Phaienu the Arginunl. (Apollon. Shod. 
L 97; Hjgin./'oi. 14.) Valerina FIbccui (i. 399, 
Ac) replvaenu bim aa aoeb a akiUal archer, that 
once, when a aer^xnt had entwined bii aoo, ho 
■bet the aerpent withont bulling bia child. Viigil 
(EcJng. T. 11) mealiona an Aloon, whom Setrioa 
calla a Cretan, and of whom he relatea almoat the 
aama atoi7 at that which ValEtini Flaonu aicribea 
to Alcoa, the ion of EredithFoa. 

Two other peraonage* of the aanM name oeenr in 
Cicero (da JVot Otnr. m. 21), and m Hygino*. 
(^06.173.) [L.S.] 

ALCON, a mirgeen (caberaM mtdicwi) at Rome 
in Ihe reign of Claadiat, A. n. 41-64, who ia aaid 
bj PliuT (K it. ixii. 8} to hne been baniafaed 
lo Oaul, and to baia been fined ten millisn of 
•eilercet: //. & mitiei ceal. mifi. (abont 78,125/.). 
After hia letncn fnm baniihnieat, be ia aaid to 
ban ffuned by bit practice an eqnal aom within a 
few jmn, which, howerer, aeema ao enonnoua 
{compare Al.BUaii* and AaaiiN-nt's), that there 
moat prohnbly be aome miatake in tht triL A 
aargeoa of the aune name, who ia mentioned by 
Martial {£p9ffr, xL 84) aa a contemporary, may 
piiaaiblT be the aonw peraon. [W. A. Q.] 

ALCON, a alatoary mentioned by Pliny. {//. A^. 
xiiii. 14. a. 40.) MewBa theaatWoraiutae 
of Ilermlet at Tbebea, made of iron, aa lymbaltral 
of the godH endunnce of lebonr. [C. P. M.] 


I. A Pkind, a danghter of Athi and Pletone, bj 
wbnn Poaddon be^t Aethoan, Hyriena and Hy- 
pereoor. (Apollod. iii. 10. g 1 ; Hygiu. I'rtitf. 
/u& p. il, ed.8UTeini; Oj. Umid. lii. 13J.J 
To theae childnn Panianiaa (iL SO. j 7) adda two 
othera, Hjrperea and Anthaa. 

S: Adanghlerof AeohuandBnareteorAflgiala. 
She waa maiiied M Ceji, and tired u happy with 
him, that they were pieeomptuena enough U call 
each other Zena and Hera, fis which Zena mctft^ 
morphoaed them into birda, lUicvitT and it^(, 
(ApaI!od.L7. S!l.&c;Hygin.Fat.65.) Hyginoa 
reiatet that Cejri periahed in a ahipwrtdi, that 
Alcyone for gitef threw beraelf into the aea, and 
that the goda, oat of comuuiian, changed the two 
into Irinla. It waa &bled, that during Che aeren 
dayi befoR, and aa many after, Ihe ahorleat day of 
the year, while the bird dAnwi* waa breeding, 
there alwayt preTailsd calma at tea- An onbel- 
lidied form of the tuns tury it given by Orid. 
(Mit ri. 410, Ac. : comp, Virg. Otay. i. 399.) 

3. A aomaiBe of Oeopetra, Ihe wife of Mele»- 
nr, who died with grief at ber buaband baing 
killed byApolK (Horn, /t ii. 663; Eoatath. 
ad Horn. a. 77Si Hygin. PuA 174.) [L. S.] 

ALCY'oNEUS rAAnien^), 1. A giant, who 
kept potaeaei<di of the latbmna of Corinth at the 
time when Heradea dn»e away the oxen of 
Qeiyon. The giant attacked him, cmthed tweire 
waggona and twenty-four of the men of Hemdea 
witn a huge block of atone. Hendea bimaelf 
warded off the atone with hia dub and alow Aky- 
onent. The block, with which the riant had at- 
tempted the life of Heradea, waa ahewn on the 
lithmui down to a rerr Sate period. (Pind. Nm, 
it. 44, with the SchoL) In another paatage (/«L 
•i 46, &c) Pindar calla Alcyonena a TbmeiMi 
tbejdierd, and placea the ttra^;!* with bim in tb* 

Z One of the gianti. [OiOAims.] [L. S.] 
ALCYO'KIDES ('AAnoWld), the daugfalera 

of the giant Alcyenena (2). After their bthet^ 
death, they threw themaeliet into the eea, and 
were changed into ice-lnrda. Their namea an 
Phtbonia, Anthe, Methone, Alcippe, Pallene, 
Drinu), and Aiteria. (Enaiath. ad Uom. p. 776 ; 
SuidBi,i.r. 'AMnnrOtl.) [US.] 

A'LEA fAAb), a tnmuDa of Athena, under 
whicb the wat worthipped at Ale*, Mantineia, 
andTcgea. (Pant *iii. S3, g 1, 9. g 3, ii. 17.ST.) 
The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, whicb waa 
the oldeit, wu inid to hsTe been built by Aleut, 
the aon of Apheidat, from whom the goddeaa pro- 
bably denied thia tatname. (Paoi. liiL 4. | 6.) 
Thia tempte waa bntnt down in n. c 894, and 
a new one built by Scopat, which in aiie and 
iplendour inrpaaied all other temple* in Pelopon- 
Detot, and wat turrounded by a triple row of 
columnt of different erdeia. The ttatne of the 
goddeaa, which waa made by Endoeni all of irory, 
waa uibaequently carried to Rome by Angualua to 
adorn Ihe Forum Auguati. (Puta. riii. 46. § 4, 46 
g I and 3, 47. g 1.) The temple of Athena Ales 
at Tegfk wna an ancient and rcTeied aayhun, and 
the namea of many penona aie recolded who aared 
tbemaelTea by aeeking n4iige in it. (Psna. iii. S. 
g 6. iL 17. § 7, iii. 7. S 8.^ The prieateaa et 
Athena Aim at Tegea wat alwaya a nieiden, who 
held her odice only until ahe nached the ^ of 
puberty. (Pnut. viiL 47. g 2.) Re^ndiug tha 
Bichitecluie and the acidpttiKi of (hi* tetnfle, ae« 

Majcr, Oaik. dtr liUemd. KSiat*, iL p. M, A 
Ob lb* nad &001 ^uta u Tbenipna then v 
HkcwM* > MMu of AtlMU AIn. (Pan*. uL 1 
S '•) [I' S-J 



ALECTOR fAAirtwp). I. The btber of 
Laitu, thfl Argimuit (Apollod. L 9. § 16.) Hi 
ma {iL nii. 602) csJli him Alectryon. 

2, A iDii of Aoaugnru aod &lher of Iphii 
king of Aigoa. He vw coniulled by Palrnrict 
at to ttw maDiier m vhich Arophiaraiu niigbt be 
ccaipeDed to take put in the expedition againtt 
TbeboL (Apollod. iii. 6. § 2 1 Psu. ii. IB. § 4.) 
Two otlief* of the lanifl pamo are mentioned in 
Bomer. (Od. ii. 10; Eutalfa. od //on, pp. 30S 

and li9a) [h. 8.] 

ALEVES ('AA^n))), a ton of Hippotai 

id the Siijpiiida, thirty jean after the 
" 'opmnetae by the Heiatlidt. 
1 oUed the Aletidae, w ' 
It at Corinth down to the tin 
. (Puu. iL 4. g 3, T. IB. § 2 ; Stnb. 
p,»S9; Callim. /Vu^. 103i Piiid. OL liii. 
VcUmiu Paterculiu (i. 3) calli him ■ dnceni 
cf Hoadca in the nilh degree. He nceiTod an 
(facte, prxDidng him the Krereignly of Athene, if 
dofiiu the war, which hib then going on, it* king 
aboold ranain anicjiued. Thu ontde beatne 
known at Athena, and Codmi lacriticed himaelf 
fochittDontrj. (Conon, JVarrat 26.) [CoDBUJ " 

Other penoni of thii muoe are menlioiied 
ApoUod. ill 10. a ei HygiiL Fab. 122, and 
Vbv. Am. I 121, ix. 462. lU S.] 

ALEUAS and ALEU'ADAE rAAidni aj 
AAndloi). Ateota ii the aueitorial hero of the 
TTliee^lilii. or, more particniariy, of the lArinHeen 
bnilj of the Aleoadae. (Find. PylL i. B, with 
the SehoL) The Alenadae wen the nobleit and 
BOM poweifbl among all the bmiliea of Theaolj, 
whence Herodotu (tIL 6) calli iu member* 8aai- 
Xni. (Comp. Diod. IT. 61,j[Ti 14.) The fint 
Alaoaa, who bore the iiiinama of Ilil^t, that U, 
the red-hairad, ia nlltd king (hare synonynwui 
*itb Ti«aa, >ae Did. qfAnL p. 832) of TbetMly, 
a>d ■ itfffndint of Ueiadee throi^ TheMalu, 
•ua of the many aoiu of HeiadeeL (Snidaa, t. v. 
'AXmAui; Ul[rian, aJ Dan. OlynlX. L; SchoL 
■JJ;>aa«.iU«f. iii. 1090; Vellei. L 3.) PInUreh 
(A Jm. PraL in fin.) atatea, thai he wai baled by 
kia father m Bccoont of hi* hangfaty and HTige 

■et Ub citcled king and mclioiied by the god of 
iN^ld. Hit reign wai man ^oriou than Uat irf 
Miy of hit toeattor^ and the nation roae in power 
•■d iovoftanca. Thit Aleoti, who belongt to the 
mjthial period of Oreek hiMoiy, ia in dl prohn- 
bdii; the Boia at the one who, aecmding to Hege- 
Bco {ap. AtL Atarn. nil U), wat beloTed by a 
dngoo. Avoiding to Aritliille {tf, Harpoerat. 
*. e. Terp^xi") the diriiioo of TboMly into linr 
pait^ ef which tneet remained down to the Itlstt 
tinea, look place in the reign of the fint Aleoai. 
ftrtlmann i^eea thia hero in tho period between 
the ■>-ealled tetnin of the Hemdida and the age of 
Paititmlaa. Bat eien eariier than the time of 
Pauuetnuai the family of the Alenadaa appean to 
ksra become ^eided uto two btanehea, tba Alaa- 

ALBUA9. in 

adae and the Bcopadae, called aftw Scopai, ptoba- 
bly a eon of AleooL (Or. /iu, 312.) The Sco. 
[•dae inhabited Crannon and peih^ Phanalua 
alia, while the main brondi, the Aleuidae, nmain- 
ed at LaiitM. The influence of the bmiliea, bow- 
eeer, wa> iwl confined to thew lawnt, bat extended 
more or leee okt the grea t er part of TbetMty. 
They formed in reality a powerful arittocratH; 
party {BaBtktU) in oppoMtion to the gnat body of 
the TheoBliana. (Herod. riL 172.) 

The vrlteat hiitoricai penon, who probably b^ 
long! to Ihe AleuBdae, it Euiybchoi, who teimi- 
naled the war of Cinfaa about b.c 590. (Stnb. ix. 
p. 418.) [EuKTLOcaDa.] In the time of the poet 
Simonidet we find a aecoDd Aleoa*, who wat a 
friend of the poet. He ii called a ton of Echecnt- 
tidet and Syria {SchoL ad Thaxrit. itL 31); hot 
betidet the anggeition of Orid (/iu, 225), that ha 
had a tngic end, nothing it known abont him. 
At the time when Xeriei iiiraded Oieece, thne 
■one of thia Alenat, Thonx, Eury[rrlat, and Thra- 
sydaeot, came to him at ambatMdan, to reqnett 
him to go on with the war, and to pnmiie liim 
(heir auiitanee, (Herod. viL 6.) [Thoiuz.] 
When, after the Pertian war, Leolycbide* waa 
Mnt to Thetuly to chaitiu thowi who had acted 
at tmilort to their country, he allowed himielf to 
be bribed by the Alenndae, although he might 
haTc tubdned aU Thctealy. (Hecod. tL T2-, Paui. 
iii. 7. § 8.) Thit bet ihewi that the power of the 
Aleoai wsi then Kill ai great at before. Abont 
the ymr B. c 460, we find an Alenad Onatet, too 
of Echecntidea, who came lo Atheni at a fngitiTc. 
and pertuaded the Atheniant to eiert themaelToa 
hi hit Rttoratioo. (Thnc L ill.) He had 
been expelled either by the Thetialiani 01 mora 
probably by a bction of hit own bmily, who 
wiihed to exclude bim frtim the dignity of flotfiWi 
{i.*. probably Tagni), for tocb fenda among th« 
Atenadae thonielTea an frequently mentioned. 
(Xen. ./faoi. L 1. § 10,) 

After the end of Ihe PelopooHBan war, another 

fiunilj, tbe djnuli of Pheraa, gradnally 
'er and inHuence, and gave a great ihock 
lo the power of the Ahmadae. At early aa B. c. 
375, Jaton of Pheise, after Ttrioiu ttrngglee, anc- 
ceeded in tailing himtelf to the dignity of Tagna. 
(Xeit. HtOn. iL 3. g 4 ; Diod. lir. 82. it. 60.) 
When the dyniaU of Pheroe became tyranniod, 
tome of the LariiiBean Alenadae con^ired te put 
an end lo their rule, and for thit purpote ihey in riled 
Alexander, king of Macedonia, the ton of Amynlaa. 
(Diod. XT. 61.) Alexander took UritH and 
Crannon, bnt kept them to himtelC Afterwaida, 
Pelo[ndaa reatored the original lUta of ihingt in 
Thewly ; bnt the dynattt of Phene toon mn- 
Terad their power, and the Alenadae again tolicited 
tba aauttancs of Macedonia againat them. Philip 
willingly complied with the requett, broke the 
power of the tyianlt of Pherae, rettored the townt 
to an ^raeaianoe of freedom, and made the Aleunr 
dae hit bithful friendi and atliea. (IHod. itL 14.) 
In what manner Philip mod them for hit purpoiet, 
and how little he qiuvd them when it waa hit 
intereit to do to. it lufBdently atteiled. (Dem. 
deOw. p.a4l; Poijaen. iT. 2. g llj Ulfmui,/.e.) 
Among the telianhi whom he enlnitted with the 
' iMration of Theualy, there it one Tfamiy- 
(Theopomp. op. Alim. -n. p. 249), who 

■I I . I 1 ^ ^^ Aleuadte, jont aa 

it Dirationcd at one e( 



tb* conpaiuoBB of Alaxudar Iba Otikl (Pint. Z>> 
rn»9wi: 13; Gomp.Slmh.ii.p.&Sa.) The b- 
nil; now auk ioU isBgniiieaiice, uid tha lut 
demio Mce of an Alnwl ii Thofu, a fiimd of 
Aitigoniu. (Pint. UnHfr. 29.^ Whstber lb« 
Knlpton AlcuBi. Dicntiouod bjr Pliny (_H. N. unT. 
8), and So^M of Pana, ware in mj wv <«■■- 

DMtod with the Aleudas, catmot bo ■ 
Sao BMckh^ Cbmnaiter? « i'nd. 
Schneider, aa^rii<o(./'aU. T. 5, 9; but 
calut; Bnttmaun, Koa den G*teUtdU dei 
in hiiAf^tkilLii. p.246,&c whobum 
foUoviag gooealogical table of the " 


Emo, OB Taour, or TanaALT. 
Motbtr AroheJice. 

Ot. U. Ecbecotideik 


I wlfa Djaeru 
k I 

Antiochui, Tagtifc 

Thorax, Eniypyliu, Thnuy daeiu. 


ALEUA8, an aitiat who waa bmom for hit 
Matuei of philiMoplien. (Plin. //. N. iiiiT. & i. 
19,28.) [C.P. M.] 

A'LEUS CAAali), ■ HD of Apheidai, and 
gnndun of Altai. He wai king of Teg«a in 
Anadia, and oairied to Nuiua, and ii Hid to 
ban fnanded the town of Ales and Uw tint tem- 
ple of A^eua Alea at Tegcs. (Pnna. TiiL S3. ^ 1, 
<.B3,&c; Ap>>Uod.iiL9.§l.) [ALU.] [L. S.] 

ALEXA'MENUS ('AA>(<v<«>Ji>, waa Renen] 
of the AeUltan^ B.C. IKS {Poljb. iriii. -26), and 
wa* cent by the Aetoliani, in B. c 192, to obtain 
poaaeaiioD of Laeadaemon. Ha aocceeded in hii 
object, and killed Nabia, tbe tyrant of Lacedae- 
mon ; but tho lAcedaemoniaiu riaing agunat him 
ahonl; after, ba and moat of hia troopi wen killed. 
(Li*. »«v. 3i — 36.) 

ALEXA'MENUS CAX,la^rit\ of Tooa, 
waa, according to Ariilotla, in hii woik 
poeti {iTfpl VHirrwp), the firat penon who ' 
dialofnei in the Sooatk ely le before the ti 
Plalo.(Athen.ii.p.505,b.e.i Diog.lA£n.iii 


ALEXANDER ('AAj(a«f>iii), tha defender of 
men, a •umama of Heia undra whuii she waa 
worabippad at Sicyon. A temple hod been bnitt 
tbere lo Haia Aluandna by Adiaatna afia' hii 
flight tran Argo*. (Schcd. ad Pmd. Nam. ii. 80 ; 
comp. Apollod. iiL IS. g 5.) [L. S.} 

ALEXANDER CAAJta»«pai), a man whom 
Mithiidatea ii charged by Snlla with haiing lent 
to iiiaiiinnfe Nicomedea. (Appiiai, D* Heil, Mithr. 
G7.) He aefini to be the aante peraoD u Alexan- 
der tin Pqihiagonian, who ii afUrwardi (76, Ac) 
mentioned aa one of the genenle of Mithridata 
and waa mads priionec by Luculloa, who kept bii 
Vs adorn bii Iriun^ at Rone. [L. S.] 

1D1. Thisaydaeu. 

ALEXA'NDER CAAitwffWi), a nhit and 
martyr, whoie mamoiy ia celebrated by the Roniiah 
chnrch, together with the other martyn of Lyofl> 
and Vienne, on the lecond of June. He waa a 
native of Phrygia, and a phyHcian by pTtilbidoD, 
and waa pot to dAth, i. D. 177. during the perae- 
cotiDn that taged aaainit tha cbarehe* of JLyona 
and Viaine nnder &t empemr Marcni Aunliui. 
lEfM. Eadm. Lugdwi. it Viam. apod EuKb. Hid. 
AM.T.l.p.163.) Hewaacandemned,togethecwith 
another Chriitian, to be deToored 1^ wild beasts 
in the amphitheatre, and died (ai the biatoriaa 
erpnaHi it) "neither nttering a groan nor a lyl- 
lable, bat conreming in hii baart with Ood." 
(BioTiui, Nomaulaiar Saiulorvn J^^mbdm Afa- 
dicorum; AforAireJ. AonoL ad. Baion. ; AttaSame- 
lormm, June S.) [W. A. O.] 

ALEXANDER, an AcAHMANtAK, who had 
ODce been a biend of Philip IIL of Macedonia, 
but fcnaok hint, and inuDualad himielf lo much 
into the ftvonc of Antiochni tbe Great, that ba 
wsi admicied to hii moat lecret deltberationi. He 
adriied the king lo iniade Oreece, holding out to 
him the nwat brilliant ptoapectl of (ictary orel the 
Romana, B. c 192. (Lii. xut. IS.) AnliodiiU 
followed his adyice. In the battle of Cyn^lcaphala^ 
in which Antiochn) waa defeated by tbe Romani, 
AleniDder waa corered with wound), and in thia 
Rata be <anied the newi of the defnt to hia king, 
who waa staying at Thronium, on the Maliae guit 
When the king, on hii retreat from Greece, 'had 
mched Cenaeom in Enboaa, Alexaitder died and 
waa buried there, B. c 191. (xutI SO.) [L. 9.1 

ytuoi), a peripatetic philoeopber, who flouriifaiid at 
Home in the firet century, and a diiciple of the 
, cdebmted malheiDBticiin SoHgeuea, whoie calcol*- 


tfao* wot OMd b7 JbUd* Cmmt fa kb eon«etioB 
of tha jau. He ww tabn W lb* amperar Nan. 
^nidu, I. e. 'AA^twIpM At)wu ; Swt TO. fi7.) 
Two tnatnet on the writii^ of Atulolta «a Btlri- 
baled to him by lome, but ue (aigmd by otban 
to Alernkder Aphndincoisi. L On the Mateoiv- 
logy of AciMotle, edited in Qieek by F. AnIuiMi, 
Van. 1537, in Latin by Alex. Piecidmnini, 164U, 
M. II. AeoaunentMTonlheMetaphyiica. The 
Ond bai naicr been pnUiabed, but tbeie ii a 
Latin Tenic«i by SepDlTed% Rom. 1637. [B.J.] 
ALEXANDER AEQUS. [Aleicahdib IV., 


AI^XANDER ('M^forSfwi). ■ Km of AiuB- 
Tin, wu one of the conuniuiden of tha Hacedo- 
aiin xaXcAmttt in the anuy of Antigonni Doiod 
during the battle af SeUaaia agwnit Cleomeaei III. 
afS]»rta,iaB.c323. (Polyb. ii. 66.) [L. S.] 

Atnt, No. 3.] 

ALEXANDER fAA^vSfm), un of Aiiito- 
rv»t a na^Ta of the Hacedooian diitrict called 
Lynmtia, wbeiioa he ia nniBlly csUad Alezandar 
Ljaeeilat, Jnitin (li. I) make* Iha aingnlar 
trV-'^ of caliisg hini ■ brother of LyneeitBa, 
while in other pauagei (d. 7, xii. 11) he naea the 
aoneet eipreatian. He waa a contempotary of 
Pbifip of Macedonia aod Alexander the Great 
He had two broCbcn, Heromenn aod Arritabaeni ; 
dl thioa wen known to hare been aceomplices in 
tba wndor of Pbilip, in a c 3r~ 

h atltt 

who had taken part in tha murder, and Alexander 
the Lynceitian waa the only one that wai pnr. 
doned, becanaa he wai tba Gnt who did homage to 
Aleinder the Qraal at bia idng. (Airion, Aiatb. 
L 2S ; Cortiai, ril 1 ; Jiutin, xi. 2.) Bnt king 
^l*wti^wi- oot only pardoned him, but eren made 
him hia &iend and railed him to high honoora. 
He wai fiiat entnated with the command of an 
■imy in Thiace, and afUrwaidi raceiTed the com- 
maad of tba TheaaUian bona. In thia cantdty 

padidon. In & c SSt, when Alaxandai 
■t^ing at Pbaselia, be waa infbimed, that tba 
LyneealiBn waa carrying on a ascnt 
«jth king Uarina, Had that a Urge 
waa pnmiied, for which ha waa lo mnraer nii 
aoTeieign. The bearer of the lettera fiom Darini 
wai taken by Pannenion and bronght before Alai- 
ander, and tbe tteadiary waa manifeat. Yet 
Alexander, dreading to eieata any hoatila feeling 
in Antipata, tba regent of Maoedonia, wheae 
daughter waa married to the Lyncoetian, Ihon^t 
itadnHlile not lo pot bin to dnUh, and bad hun 
Mddy depoaed from bii ofike and kept in cna- 
tody. In lluB nanoer be waa diagged about for 
tbcea yeaia with the aitny in Aaia, until in e. c 
SSO, wban, Philetaa baring bean put to death lor 

Alaxander the Lynesttian ahould tikewiae be tried 
and puaiibad aoeoniiiQ to hit doaerti King Aiei- 
•ndar ^ti way, and aa tbe traitor waa nnable lo 
- ' ' " ji; be waa pot to dmtb at Proph- 

te^ and nil 1 i Jnatin. liL U ; Died, iril S2, SO.) 
Tbe abject of thia tmitor waa pnhably, with the 
aid of Peru, to gain poaaaaijon of the throne of 
Maeedimia, wbicb pieriooa tn the rtign vf Amyn- 
IM IL had for a time bakmged to hi* bnily. [L. S.} 
ALEXANDER ('AAifwIVwi), an Abtolian, 


who, in Bonjunetioa with Dorymachna, put binuelf 
in poMeauon of tbe town of Aegairs in Achaia, 
donng tba SocUl war, in n. c 220. Bat lbs con- 
duct « Alexander and bii aiaociatea wa> » in»- 
IcDt and mpadona, that the inhabitania of the 
town nee to eipel the amall band of tbe AetoUana. 
In the enaaing conteat AJaiander waa lulled while 
lighting. (Polyb. ii. 67. 58.) f L. 3.] 

AfavAw), a Gnek poet and nanunaiiaa, who liied 
in the iwn of Ptidamaeoa AiladalpbiM, Ue waa 
tbe eon of Satynu and Stratodeia, and a natJTa of 
Plenron in Aetolia, but ^lent tbe greater part of 
hia lib at Alexandria, where ha waa reckoned one 
of the seTan tragic poeta who conatituted the tn^pc 
pleiad. (Suid. a, e.; Eudoc. p. 62 ; Paoi. ii. 22. g 7 ; 
ScbaladHom. IL iri. 233.) He had an office 
in tha library at Alexandria, and waa commit- 
■ioned by the hing to make a collection of all tha 
tiagtdiea and ntyrie diamai that were extant. 
He apent lome time, together with Antagoiaa and 
Aratua, at the court of Aatigonui Oonataa. {Am- 
toa, PkatKormna et Diotmn. iL pp. 131, 143, An. 
116, ed. Bnhle.} Notwiihilanding tbe diitinction 
be enjoyed aa a tragic post, ha appeara to hare bad 
greater merit aa a writer of epic poema, elegiea, 
epigiama, and cynaedL Among his epic poeiua, 
we poiaesa the tillei and wme fragmaata of three 
piecet : the Fiafaennan (iAiedr, Atheo. tii. p. 296), 
Kiika DC Krika (Athen. tii. p. 283), whicb, how- 
ever, i) deaignated by Athenaeni aa doubtfnl, and 
Helens. (Bekker, AataL p. S6.) Of hia eleriev 
•ome beautiful fragment! an atill extant. (Alhan. 
IT. p,170,xi.p. 196, IT. p. 8991 Strab. xii. p. ££<j 
liT. p. 681 i Partheo. EraL 4 i Tula. ad. I^eapir. 
266 1 Sehol. and Eoatath. ad IL ii. 911.) Hia 
Cynaedi, or ^Iwtad reiTf^utro, are mentMmad by 
Strabo (lir. p. 618) and Athenaena. (liT. p. 630.) 
Some anapaealic reraea in praiia of EnripideB are 
pceKTTed Id Oelliua. (ii. 20.) 

All tbe tagmenta a Alexander Aetotna are col 
lected in "./Jexandri Aetoli fragmeala eolL et ilL 
A. Cqiellmann," Bonm 18-39, Std. i comp^ Welo- 
iin, DkOfittLTn^SdiaL.^ 1263, Ac; Dilntier, 
Dia Ftrtym. itr EpuA. I'oaii itr OriadiMii, von 
jUmaad. dm Cnnn, ^c p. 7, Aa. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER ('AAl^vrtpoi), (ST.,) of Alix- 
AHDHII, incoeedad aa palriarcb irf' that city St. 
Achillaa, (aa hia predeceieor, St Peter, had pre- 
dicted, Mariifr. S. Fttri, ap. Snriiun,ToL tL p. 577,) 
A. D. 312. He, " (he noble Champion of Apoatolie 
Doctrine," (TbmdL Hut Ead. i. %) fint laid baie 
the iiTc^giou of Arina, and condemned him in hia 
diapnta with Alexander Baacaita. St Alexander 
waa at the Oecumenical Conncil of Nicaea, A. n. 
S2S, with bii deacon, St AlhanaMua, and, acareely 
fire montha after, died, April 17^ a. d. 326. 
St Epipbamna {adv. Hatrm. 69. § 1) wiyt he wrote 
■ome aeTenty circular epiatlea againat Anna, and 
Socratea (H. E. L 6). and Soiomen I.H. E.i.\), 
that he cidlecled them into one rolume. Two 
epiatlea remain ; 1. to Alexander, blahop of Coi>- 
■lantinople, written after the Council at Alexan- 
dria which condemned Anna, and before the other 
circular letlen to the rarioiu biihopa. (See TheodL 
H.E. i.i; Gallnnd. BOi. Patr. toL It. p. 141.) 
2. The Encyclic letter aonouncing Ariua^ depo- 
aition (Son. H.B.LS, and Oalland. Lc p, 451), 
with the anbacriplioni from aelaaini Cyiiceii. 
(Mil. dm. NiaiHt. iL 3, ap. Hana. Gmeilia. loL it 
p. 801.) There lanaini, too, Tit Dgatitiim >/ 


AHm «t JU^ L a. an AddrcM to tlw PrieMi >nd 
Deacona, deriring their cMcnnence therein (ap. 
8. Athanu toL I P*. 1. p. SSS, Paru, 1698 ; aee 
Oalluid. Le. p. AM). Two fngment* nHire, apod 
OaUand. (Lcf. 456.) Si. Athananot a1» gim 
(b« Mcand qnitki. {Leo. 397.) [A. J. C.J 

ALEXANDEH l'Af.i(<aSpti), comnuuider of 
the bone in the aimy of ANnOONUa DoROX dur- 
ing the nr agaiut CleomcDe* III. o! SpnrtB. 
(Paijb. ii. 66.) He fooght agaiut Philoposneu, 

fbmd him ti 

■. (il 68.) Thia A 

!r il probahl; the 
Lntignnua, aa the 
■unriian of Philip, bad amnioled comnuuidrr of 
Fhilip'a bodj-guud, and wbo waa cdnnmialed by 
ApeUea. (iv. B7.) SnUeqnently he wai •enl by 
PhiKp a* ambniaHlor to Thebea, Ic penecule Me- 
aakaa, (t. 28.) Polybina atalea, that at all time* 
be aianifeited a mott eitnerdinarv attachment la 
hit king. (ciL 12.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER fAAffu.Jp*.), of Ahtiocuu, 
a friend at M. Anlonioi, who bring ai:qDaiiiled 
vilh the Syriac language, aeted twice aa interpreter 
, between Antonioa and one Mithridatea, who be- 
tfaved to him l)ia plana of the Parthiani, to laic 
tbe'Ronumi. Thii happened in u.c. 36. (PHudn- 
Appian, Parli. pp. 93, B6, ed. Schwcigh.) [L. S.] 
AI.EXAND1£R {•AxilarBpo,), hh of Auro- 
mua, the triumvir, and Cleopaint, queen of Egypt. 
He and hi* twin-aiater Cleopalra were bom n. c. 
40. Antonini beaiowed on him the titlea of "He- 
lioa," and " King of Kings," and called hia lialer 
" Selene." He alao deitined for him, aa an inde- 
. pendent kingdom, Annenia, and mch conntrin aa 
' laighi yet be conquered between tho Eupfarale* 
ond Indua, and wrote to the aenate to hare hii 
grant* oonlirmed 1 but hia letter was not niflered 
to be read in public (a. t 34.) After the con- 

nat of Armenia Anlonioi belnthed Jotape, the 
gbter of the Median king Aitavaadea, to hia 
*DB Alexander. When Oetaiianni made himielf 
maaler of Alexnndria, he apared Alexander, but 
took him and hia uiter to Rome, to adorn hia 
triumph. They were genemuahr receiied by Oo- 
tavia, the wife of Antonins, who educated them 
with her own children, ( Dion Caniua, ilii. SI, 
40,41,44, I. 2fi, 1i21 ; Plut ^ittoR. 96, 64, »7i 
LiT.J^ 131. 13-2.) [CP. M.] 

ALEXANDER ('AU(<u«|Ut), biihop of Ata- 
■BJ, aent with hi* nameanke of Hierapolii by 
John of Antioch lo the Council of Ipheaua. A 
letter by him ia ailant in Latin in the A^om Cbl- 
IttHo OondUomm i SUpiim. BaUxio, p. 834. c 
133. fH. Pant, 1683. [A. J. C] 

mitfH 'Afpatwiflti), a natire of Aphrodiaiaa in 
Carta, who liTed at the end of the (econd and the 
beginning of the third century after Chriit, themoit 
celehnled of the commentatora on Arittolle. He 
wu the diaciple of Herminua and Arittocle* the 
Meiaenian, and like them endi«V(inred to free the 
Peripatetic phiioaophy from the ayncretiim of Am- 

tcrpretation of the writingiorAriitotle. The UlJe 
i JtirrWs WBi the t«itimony to the eitent or the 
emllence of hia comnentarie*. AbonI ha!f hi* 
roluminoua work* wen edited and trandated into 
. Latin at the rerind of Klemtore; there are a few 
more extant in the original Greek, which hare 
nsver been printed, and an Arabic reiiion ia {se- 

lf w 
not be rated highly, 
an all on the model of hia g»t maater ; Ihent ia 
the Mme penpieuity and power of analyna, united 
with alnwat more llian Ariitotelian plaiiuieia of 
atylej ererywhere "a ftat anifcce," with nothing 
to interrupt or atrike the attention. In a mind ao 
thoroughly imbned with Analolle, it cannot be ex- 
pected there ahonld be much place for original 
thought. Hi* oidy endeaiour i> to ad^t the 
work* of hit maaler to the ^irit and huigoHge of 
hia own nge ; but in doing ao he i* conslanlly re- 
called to the earlier phiioaophy, and attack* bj- 
gonc opinion*, aa though (hey had the aanw liiiin 
power a* when the writing* of Ariatotle were di. 
recK'd ngainit them. (Ritier, GrxlachU da- PUUf 
rngJiu, voL iv. p. 256.) 

The Pialoniala and earlier Stoica are hia chief 
opponent*, for be leganled tho Epicnrenna 2a too 
lenaual and unphileaophicol to be worth a aerioua 
aniwer. Againil the notion of (he fint, that the 
world, although created, might yet by the will of 
Ood be made impetiahnble, he urged that Ood conld 
not alter the natnie of thing*, and quoted the 
PUloniat doctrine of the necesury coeiiatence nf 
eril in all corruptible thing*. (Kicter, p. 263.) 
Qod himael^ ho *aid, wa* [ho lery form oT 
thing*. Yet, howerar difficult it may be to 
enter into thi* abaliact notion of Ood, It would 
be unjnat, a* aome hare don^ to charge him with 
atheiim, a* in many pnmagei he attribute* miud 
and intelligence to the divine Being. Thia ia 
one of the pomta in whidk ho haa brought out 
the view* of Ariatotle more clearly, from hia living 
in the light of a later age. Ood, he Baya(u Afr^u- 
p*j». ii. p. 820), ia "properly and Mmply one, the 
Bcir-eiiitent *ub«ance, the author of motion him- 
ielf unmoTed, the great and good Ddty, without 
without end :" and again (m Meliipi. 
p. S81) be aaaerta, that to deprive God of pro- 
vidcnee i* the aame thing aa depriving honey of 
aweetneaa. Ere of wannlh, mow of whilcnea* and 
coolneaa, or the aont of motion. The providence of 
Ood, however, i* not directed in the (onie way to 
the aublonary world and the reat of the univeme r 
the bitter ia committed not indeed to bte, but to 
general law*, while the concern* of men axe the 
immediate care of Ood, although he find not in 
(he government of them the full perfection of hi* 
being. {(^aoL Nat. I 25, ii. 21 .) He law no incon- 
uttency, a* perii^ there wa* none, between theie 
huh notion* of Ood and the materialiam with 
which they wen connected. Aa Ood waa the 
fonn of all thing*, ao tile human aoul wa* likewiia 
a fbim of matter, which it waa impoanble to con- 
ceive a* eiiating in an independent *tata. Ha 
*eema however to have made a diatinction between 
the powen of reflection and tcneation, for he taj* 
(lU Aniiaa, i. p. 138), that the aoul needed not the 
body a* an initmrnent to take in objrcta of thought, 
but wa* mOicient of it*elf ; unleH the latter i* U 
be looked upon ai an inomaiitency into which he 

' ■ led by tiio I- ■ 

idun with 
phiioaophy. (Brucker, « . .,..., 

The moat importiuit tnatiaa of hi* which hat 
come down to nt, i* the **De Fato," an inquiry 
into the opinion* of Ariatotle on tbe anl^eet « 
Fate and FreewilL It ia probably one <rf hii btMt 


*«iki, uid mnrt bMn btea written betvcen the 
jmn I9»-eU, bnuue dedkaMd (0 ths j<rint «i>- 
penn Sithiu and CuBcalb. Here the eariier 
Stoici an bii oppmenu, who uwrtad that all 
ibiagt UMB bmu ao elcniaJ and indiiitilnble chain 
of ouuea and dbcta^ The labject ii traated 
pnetjcally nUher than •paeDlattTatj. UniTOMl 
(fnuon, tha Bcmmnn oae of langnage, and intenial 
tmadBaiima, an hu laaid acnnMnti, That bie 
ba* a ml ciiateDca, i* prorcd bv the distinction 
we diaw bet«e«n ble, chance, and peiiibiiitf . and 
beliraai En* and npnnmrj actiont. It i> another 
woid tor jmtan, and ita woi^ingi aie Been in tbe 
(radnicH of men and thing* (c. 6), lor it ii an all- 
pgrrading came of real, but not abiolula, povec. 
The &tdi*m of the Stoica doe* away with &»■ 
will, and 10 deatn^ mponiibilitj : it ig at vari- 
ana with eTeiy thoujiht, word, and dMd, of oui 
lina. The Stoio, indeed, attempt Co nconcile 
Mwarity and freewill } but, prapeil; tfmkiag, 
tbej sail freewill in a new Mnue for iLe ataiMianf 
nropnatiiui cf onr will in the decreet of natnn : 

paetka the anbtle dJatincHBn oF a will neeeiinrilj 
7<t tedj acting; aikl beoce, bj deetnjing ' 


rated b7 denying 
tUngt then oan be taj taOL fonknowledge, u fore- 
knowledge N pnportioaed to dirine powv, and i* a 
knotriedge of what diTioe power can peifatm. The 
SUmbI tmw ineritably leadi to Ibe oraidaaon, timt 
all tha existing ordinance* of religioa an blaephe- 
■em and ahuinL 

Tfaia trealiH, which haa been edited by Orelti, 
fiTe* a mod idea of bit Mjla and metbod. Upon 
the whole, it moil be allowed that, altho^ with 
fthler we cannot phce him hi^ at an independent 
tbiaker, he did moah to encoonee the acraiua 
Nndy of Arialoda, and azerleit an udnenca which, 
BLLuiiliug (a Joliua Scaliger, wat etiU tidl in bit 
day. (Bncker, toL iL p. 480.) 

Tba fbUowing liit of faia wuk* i* abridged from 
Hailea'i Pabridiia. (Vd. t. p. «M.) I. Ht^ 
iltrnpftrtt uJ Ti» i^' 4|itf, Di J^ digut te 
gaod m meitra peMaU mt: the tlxiit tnatiie 
nentiDned aboTfl, dedicated la the empenn 8e- 
Tcnu and CaraoUa ; fint printed by the >no- 
ceeton of Aldiu Uaaatiat, 1£34, folio, at the end 
of the work* of Themittint ; tianilated into Latin 
by Orotin* in the collection entitled "Vetamm 
Phlkii. SenlentiH de Fato," Pari*, '1648, 4(0, 
Lend, less, 12D>m and edited by (halli, Zorith, 
1 B34, Sto, with a fragment of Alexander Aphndii. 
IhFertiBta,»ni tnadtetof AmBoniM, Plotinn*, Ac. 
on thetameinbieet. IL GieuMatarwiCYirJfmifui) 
m primum libniM Anaifiiaiiiim Priemm Ariiloiiela, 
Venet. Aldi, lS2a,f;)l.i Floten. 1S3I, 4Ui^wi(h a 
Latin inulotion by J. Bap. Felidanii*. III. Com- 
mmlariM. « VIH &ra, TojKonm, Voo. Aldi, 
1513; with a Latin Teruon by 0. Doiotheiu, Ven. 
1526 iuul 1541. and Pari*, 1 543, folio ; and another 
by KatarJDi, Ven. 1563, 157S, folio. IV. Com- 
maU w EUackoi SifUitiiati Qttmi, Ven. Aldi, 

XII librot; ex Tenione J. G. Sepnlndae, Rom, 
1527, Pari*, 1636, Ven. 1*44 and 1561. The 
Greek text ha* nerer been printed, althoagfa it 
exiit* in the Pari* library and Hieral otheni. 
yi. InUbmmdtSemtMitiaipiafabKiumcadiaUi 
the Greek te«t it printed at the end of the com- 
menUiT of Simpliciua on the De AnimlL, Ven. Aldi, 
1537, folio ; there i* alio a Latin Ternon by Lud 
liai Philothaeai, Ven. 1544, 1549, 1554, 1659, 
1573. VIL /■ AritUMUt Mttmiogica; Yen. 
Aldi, 1527) nppoted by lome not to be the 
woik of Alexander Aphrod. VIII. De MMomt; 
bonnd up in the Hune edition a 

IX. A Anm& b 


printed in Greek at the end of Themiil 
150-2, 1614, tbUo. 

e preceding; 
net work*). 

: there 


Qnek, Ven. Trinca.elli, liSfl, 
folio; in ^11*^", by Hieronjinaa BigolinD*, Ven. 
1541, 1549, 1555, 559, 1563. XL larpucd 
'Kwofiimri W tuffud n^xifAitfiara, (^umtkma 
Mtdkae tt PnAtmuta Pl^nea. XII. n^ n>^ 
rmr, lAeOm <U FtMlnii. The but two tnatiael 
an attributed by Theodon Oaia and many otbei 
writeti laAleiuiderTialUanua. Tkej ue apidun 

Uia eoounentariai n the Categoriei, on the let* 
tar Analytict (of the bat then wa* a tnndatica 
by St Jerome), on th* De AuimL and Rhetorical 
woAi, and al» on thoae vipl yo^i^mh ml ^fcpu, 
together with a WDric entillad Liber 1 de Thedagili, 
probably diitincl from lb* ComBtnlariei m lb* 
Melaphyrica, an Mill eiMnit in Amine. A Cont- 
mentsy on the prior Anlytki^ on Ibe De Inlef- 
pretalioue, a treatiie on the Viitln*, a woric enti- 
tled Tifl toi^tw A^ot, a tteati** agunit Zan»- 
bin* the Epicarean, and another on the mton aad 
qnalitie* of SloDet, alio a book of AUegoriea ftoni 
mythological bUea, an all either quoted by otbeis 
or referred to by bimtelt [B. J.] 

Betidet the work* nninnally attribaied to 

otben, of wbiefa the aalbor it not eotainly known, 
but wbieb an by MHne panoot mppoaad to belong 
lo him, and whicfa conmanly go ondCT bia Bann 
Tha fint of tbtae it antilled lorpKd 'Aaef^urs 
aal *iwwd IlfvfMfwra, i^at^ioma Mtdka* tt 
PToUmala Pij/ika, which then an ttrong naaona 
for beKeiing to ba the work of tone other writer. 
In the firM place, it i* not mentioned in the li*c of 
hi* woriu giTen by the Aiabie author qaated by 
Ckiiri {BittioA. AnHeo-Hi^. Eteia^iL loL i. 
p. 24S) ) eeaiDdly, it appear* to have be«n wrilten 
by a peraon who belonged to tha medical pnfeauan 
(iL piaeL et § UX which wa* not the ca*e with 
Alexander Aphrodiuenua ; thirdly, the Writer re- 
fen (i. S7) to a work by bineel^ entitled 'AUU^ 
"JoptM T«v ilt ^tois 'AnvAarro^jwr HiffaMSf 
"ImofiAr, AUngariat Ifittorvruti OrrJUiliitm Jt 
Dot Fahrkaiantm^ which we do not find meatioix 
ed among Alexander'* work* ; foorthly, be nwia 
(ban once apeak* of the ual •• immectal (iL pmeL 
ec ^ 63, 67), wbich doctrine AleMnder Aphndt- 
lienaii denied i and fifthly, the atyle and hayi^ 
of the work aeem to belong to a later age. Seven! 
eminent critics anppoee it Co belong to Alexander 
TiBiliannt, but it does not leem likely tbM a 
Chrifltian writer would bare compoeed the mytho- 
logical work mentioned abOTe. It eonwt* of lw» 


imki, «Mi] cmtaiiw M*en] intawtinit medicaj ib- 
•emtioiu a]«^ wilk mncfa thai i« friToloni 
Irifling. It WH Gnt publiifaed m ■ Latin tr 
lion bj 0«arga Valk, Vnet. IIRB, foL The 
Gnek text u to be fbmid m the AJdine sdition of 
AriMMls'i Torki, Vsnet <bL U9S, and ia tb ' . 
bylborghit, FrucoC 1 68£, Sro. ; it wu pnbliibed 
with a L*^ tiaiulatian bj J. DaTiii«, I>arii. 1540, 
1541. 16ma.; and it ia inHirtiid in tbii fint tiJiuih 
of Idelei't Pkjirici H Miiid Onad Afaora, BcniL 
1R4I, Sto. 

The othac sock i) « dioit treatiM, lUfl nuprrSi , 
D» FtiritiiM, vbicb i) iJdr ew ed to a roedital pn[ul 
whoiii the aathor ofien to inatrnel in anj otbt 
bnoch of medidoe ; it ii al» omitted in th 
Aralnc Hit of Alexander^ woAt nenlioned above. 
For thcK nuoni il doea not wem likelj to be the 
work of Aleuiider Apbrodiaienua, while the whole 
of the twelfth book of the rnat medical work o! 
Alexander Trallianiu (to whom it baa alio 
attributed) ii taken np with the nibject of Feyet, 
and ha would bErdlf ure written tvo treatitei on 
the lamo diame without making b either the 
aligbtett Hllunan to ike other. It ntaj poaublj 
belong to one of the other nmnerona {dijaiciana of 
the name of Alexander. It wu fint pobliahed in 
a Lnlin tranebition bj Oeorge Valla, Venet. U9S, 
fbt.,whichwaiae™iB] times Tpptinted. The Greek 
tait fint appaied in the Cambridge Afwnn 
rHfnm, ToL iL pp. 3S9— SBS, tranacribed by Oe- 
tnccrina Schinaa from a nuuinacripl al Floreni 
waa pnbliahed, togetberwith Vslla'i ttnnaUtii 
Fiani Paaanw, Vraliilai. 1822, 4lo., and al 
Phmow'i Opurmla Acaiiemiiia, Up*. 1SS&, Bro^ 
p. .^31. The Greek text alone ii contoined in the 
liral volume of Ideler'a Pliytid et Mrdid Oraaci 
MirKfo, BeroL 1841, 8to. [W. A. G.] 

AT.RXANDER I'/Ai^atfnt), the eldeat aon of 
AnreTOBi/LUi II., king of Jndiea, wat takon pri- 
toner, with hia lather and brother, by Pompey, oa 
the cnpture of Jernanlem (b. c. 83), but made hia 
ea«ipe na ihey wen being conveyed to Rome. In 
p. c. .^7. he appeared in Jndaea, niited on army of 
10,000 foot and ISOO borte, and fbrtiiied Alenm- 
droion and other atrong poiti. Hyrcanua applied 
for aid to Gabinhii, wbe bronght a large army 
■gainit Alexander, and acnt M. Antonhia with a 
body of tfoopa in advance. In a battle fbnght 
near Jemaalem, Alexander wa* defeated with great 
Imi, and took lefuge in the fbrtreu of Aleian- 
dreioD, which wu ftirtbwilh inveated. Through 
the medialion of hia mother he woe permitted to 
depart, on condition of ranenduing all the fai~ 
treaae* itill in hia power. In the fdloving year, 
during the expedition of Oabiniua into Egypt, 
Alexander again excited the Jewa lo revolt, and 
celtected an army. He maaiacred all the RomRna 
who fall in bi> way, and belief the real, who hod 
taken mfuge on Moniit GeriimL After rejecting 
the terma of peace which were o^red to him by 
CabiniiH, he waa delealad nrar Mount Tabor with 
the loM of 10,000 men. The apirit of hia ad- 
herenta. honever. »aa not entiiely cnubcd, for in 
B.C 5S. an the death of Crsaaui, he again collected 
MiRie fbicea, but wu compelled to come lo terma by 
i'Maiofc (B. c 52.) In B. c «9, on the breaking 
out of Che d«il war, Caeaar aet Ariatobnlui at 
liberty, and aent him to Jndaea, to further hit in- 
tereata in that quarter He wa* poiioned on the 
jnumey, and Alexander, who wu prcjnring to 
auppnrthim, woaieiied at the command of Pompey, 

and beheaded at Aniiocb. (Joaepb. jimL Jad, 
xiv. 5—7 ; Befl. AA L 8, 9,) [C P. Jl.] 

ALEXANDER, of Athbns, a comic poet, tka 
aon of Aritdon, whoie name ocetm in an inacrip- 
tion grven in Biickh {Corp. Inter, L p. 765), who 
referaittothe 145th OIympiad.(B.c200.) Then 

who woi a writer of the middle comedy, quoted 
by the SchoL on Hotuer (IL ix. SIS), and Arialoph. 
(HoM. 864), ■ndAtheD.(iv.p.l70,e.x.p.496,c; 
MoiMie, /VnpuL Om. vol 1 p. 487.) [C.P. M.J 

ALEXANDER [•/Mfa-^i), an amUaeadoT 
of king Attaldo, aent to Rome in & c 188, Is 
negotiate peace with the Roman aenate. (Pojyb. 
ivu. 10.) (L. S.} 

a penon of low origin, uaorped the throne of 
the Greek kingdom of Syria, in ike year 150, 
M. c, jvetoiding that be wu the aon of Antioehna 
Etaphanea. Hia claim wu aet up by Hencleide*, 
who had been the treaaorer of the kite king Aulio- 
chu Epiphanea, but bad been baniihed to Rhode* 
by the reigning king, Demethni Soterj and be 
WM anpported by Ptolemy Philomelor, king of 
Egypt, Ariartfaee Pbilopator, king of Cappadodn, 

and Attain* Philadelphv ' " ' " 

Hencleidei alMi, having ta! 

nccecded in obtaining a decree ot uie aenate in 
bi> favour. Funiiabed with foicei by the» alliea, 
Alexander entered Syria in 1 £3, B. c, took poa- 
aeoaion of PtolemaiB, and tbnght a battle with 
Demetrina Soier, in which, however, he wu de> 
feaied. In the year 160 B. c. Alexander tp^a 
met Demetrini in battle with bettet incG***. The 
umy of DeOKtriua wu completely rooted, and b« 
himself periahed tn the fli^t. No sooner bad 
Alexander thne obtained the kingdom than he 
gave np the adminialiatian of aUn to bii mima- 
ter Ammonina, and bimaelf to a life of pleooare, 
Ammoniu put to death all the memben of the lata 
royal family who were in hia pawer; bnt two tons 
ot Demetrina wen >afe in Crete. The elder of 
them, who wo* named Demetriu*, took the 8eld in 
Cilicia agoinat the nturpcr. Alexander applied 
for help to hi* bthei-in-law, Ptolemy Philometor, 
who man:hed into Syria, and then dechued hint- 
aelf in favour of DemeCriua Alexander now re- 
tnmed fmm Cilicia, whither be bad gone to meet 
Demetrina. and engaged in battle with Ptolemy at 
the river Ocnopaiu. In ihi* battle, thoufih 
Ptolemy fell, Alexander wsi completely deCbalfd, 
and be wu afterwnrda murdered by an Anbiao 
emir with whom he bad taken nfuge. (b. c. 148.) 
The meaning of hia aamams (B^) i* doubtful 
It ia iBoat probablj a title aignitying ** lord " or 

king." On anme of hi* coina he ia called 
f^ipbane*" and " NiccphnnH" after hia pre- 
tended hlher. On othera " Euergetea " and 
" Theopalor." (Polyb. xxxiif. 14, 16 ; Liv. f^ 
I liii. ; Jiutin, xir. j Appian, Sfriaca, c 67 ; 1 

MMak I. II ; JotpLAmL iuL3.t4; Eueb. 
Ctn-lam; Ctiatan, Fa^ iii. p. 924.) [P. S.] 
ALEXANDER, (f fimou-, ha uid Thyni* 
wSbated Demetriiu, the ■» of Philip IlL of 
lIaeedimi>,atH(radu>,iaB.c.l79. ( 

OOB. DBHVnUM, MB of PuiLIT.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER TAAitaFipiu), u 6nt buhop 
b CirrADOCU, flsoridwd a. d. 212, On the 
doth of Sn«a»a, A. 11.311, hiTUud Jaraatem, 
■ad WM madi (oadjMat of the iftd Nifciwui, 
>!.,.__ r.i._. ^h^^Imm beaftenmd* (uooMd^d. 

writlen by him to the AotiotfiUa ; of uwtW to 
(he ADtiD«b<net (Airf. End. il 11); of & thiid 
to Origen (ri, 14); and of Another, vritten in con- 
jiDietion with Thsoctiitiu of CKiwn, to Dcmo- 
Diiu of Atexwdin. (li. 19.) [A. J. C] 

mttfoi i 'Ai^pomif), flonriibed in tha third 
centniy. To noid the dangen of a hand- 
KBae pecaon, he diigniaed himaelf and lived aa 
a eoal-htater at Cumae, in Asia Minor. The we 
•f ihit dcj being nont, the people aaked Sl 
Ongor7 TbauBatnrpu to come and ordain them a 
hiahop. He rejected many who were offered for 

littae to lank, one in mockerf erind ddl, " Well, 
Ibea! naka Aleirader, the c«l>btaTer, hiihop!" 
St. Qi^ot7 had him nmnioDed, diacoTared hia 
diigaiaa, ud haring ansjsd hint in aacerdDtal 
nMmenla, urmuutad him to the pei^ile, who, with 
■itsriaB aod joj, accepted the wnntment He 
ad tot i them In homelj but digoified phiaae, 
aad nled th* ehuich tiU tha Deoan peraecutian, 
wbao ba va« bunt, a. d. 211. (S. Qr^. Njiaen. 
FiL S Gng. n m aa jtuiy . H 19, 20, mf. Oalland. 
BMiadL. Pair. toL iiL pp. 4S7— 460.) {A. J. C.] 
ALEXANDER ('A*^ErD4^>}, third Km of 
CAUAHDaR, king of Haeedonia, by Theaialiinica, 
Bater of Alemida the Great. In hia qoanel 
wilfc Ua elder htotber Antigatet br the goiem- 
■ont [ARTiPAmi, he ailed in the idd of 
Pjrrhna of Epinu and Demetrini PolionatM. 
T» tbe fbnMT ho ma ceopdled to Rtnnder, aa 
tbt ftke of hii aDJance, tbe knd on tile leacaa w 
af Hacadoaia, taffatba with the l a o i iat ea of Am- 
baaeia, Aomania, and Ampfailochia. (Pint. 
Pftri. f. US, b.) Demetritii, aosoidina to Plo- 
tonh {Prrr*. 3SS, d., Dtmtlr. 906, a.), airind 
alter Pjnfana had retirad, and when mattaio, 
thraagh hia mediatiDn, had been oinnged between 
tbe brvtheck Deauttiai, thenfbce, wat now an 
nnwelcame TJutoc, and Aieiander. while he re- 
ceiled him with oO ontward drUily, ii laid by 
PlBtacch to ban laid a plan for maideriiig him at 
a baooaati wbkk wa* baffled, howawr, by tbe 
■ of Dnatriw. (Dmtfr. M6, a. b.) 
[t day Devetinu tou hia departare, and 
AlexaodaratteadedUmaa&riaTbeaaly. Hete, 
at l^iia, be went to dine with Dametriai, and 


It of poU^) WM H 

Grienda who atlcsdad him, one of whua ia laid 
' Ibal DemeOtnu waa only on* day 
tbon. (Plat. Dtmtk "' 
; IwH. iTi. 1 i Diod. ixL Eic T.) 

r. p. iw£ 


HTANTINOPLB, waa the third aon of the emperor 
Baajlina and Eudoeia. Ha waa bom about A. n. 
870, and, after hia Mhar'a death, be and hia bro- 
ther Lao, the phUaao^v, boa tbe tilb afimpentor 
ia conunan. Lea died on the Uth of May, Sll, 
and Alexander raoaiTed tha impuial crews, toga- 
Ihir with the gnardiamUp <rf hu bcotha'V aan, 
Contt antin ua Porphyiagontn*, wb«n he weoU 
bsTa nntilaMd ao at to tmdet bira imGt to nteni, 
bad be not ben pceraDtad. Tha tajga of Alai- 
aader, which laatad only bt en* year and *Moa 
daya, waa one nointermptad aariea of acta rf 
(TOett^, debauchar}, and liriiiiliiiaiiiiai ; fat tbe 
reotiamta which he bad beat obUgad to pat om 
himoelf during the UtetinHt of bii hnthaii wen 
ibnwn off immediately after hia aiuiaiiiai, and 
the worthiaat seiaou) wen nmoTed frnm the coort 
while tha ninulati te hi* hula aad paanon* wan 
laiied to the higheat honoura. He involTed hia 
(CBplre in a war with Sinwoo, king of tha Bd^ 
riuu, but be did not Utc to oee ita ontbnak. He 
died on tbe 7tfa of Jane, 612, in eonHqaence of a 
dehsuch, after which be loiji vialaat eieniae on 
boneback. (Coniiant h BatiL 201 Scylita. pp. 
G69, 608 1 Zonan^ iri. 15, &c) [L. S,] 

ALEXANDEK (ST.), patnanb of C 
nople. [An.™.) 

of Sulla, Aecord- 


aOreek writer 
ing to Siudsi he wu a nalire of Epbeaaa and a 
pupil of Craiea, and doling tba war of Sulta in 
Qieece waa made ptiaoner and wld a* a aUTe to 
Coraeliua Lentolua, who took him to Rome and 
made him the paedigogna of bia cbiUreo. Afi«^ 
warda Lcntuloa reatond him to beedom. From 
Suidaa it would aeem aa if be had neeiRd the 
gentile name ComeliDa from Lcntnltu, while Stt- 
Tiui (od .^ea. I. SS6) laTa, that ha recejied the 
B«man baachiae from L. Comdina SoUo. He 
died at I^annlam in a Ere which conamned hia 
boqae, aad at ioen aa hia wife beaid of theola. 
mity, aba hmg benel£ Tba atatanant of Snidaa 
that ba waa a notiTa irf Epbaaoa ia contiadicted by 
St^banua frr^otiiu (f. «. Keriieer), who aya 
that bawai anatiTeofCotiBBum in Leaaat PhlTghi 
aad a ion of Aadepiadea, and who ia bone ont by 
tbe EtymelDgioDn Ifaginmi (a. vb. Wtauia and 
wtfiftvit), when Alexander la oiled Kariot^ 
The «""■"" of Polyhiator waa giren to him en 
aecaant oC hii prodigioai leaning. He ia laid to 
haTe written inniimerable worko, bat the gnataM 
and moot important among them waa one cooajating 
of 42 bookf, which SlephanDi Bjiantiua (alia 
narreiav^ TAiri A^i. Thia wotk luipean to 
hare contained hiitorical and geographical accounta 
of nearly all ixnmtrieB of the ancient world. Each 
of the forty booka treated of a leparate country, 
and ben a eoireipending dJe, each aa Phijgiaca, 
Carica, Lycisa^ Ac But anch tlllea ore not al- 
way* aim indication* of a book fonning only a 
part of tbe great work ; and in aorae catea it ia 
manifeat that particular coDntiiea wen tnalad of 
in aepaiate wivkB. Thoa we 6nd mention of tbe 
fint book of a eepante wotk on Crete (SchoL ad 
Apol^M. Bkod. I'. 1492), and of another on the 
" Tiactua lUyrieua." (VaL Moi. riii. 13. eit. T.t 

and Pliny, A eepante work on the Pbiygiaa 



oindcfuu it meMiaued b; Plutatth (De Mm. S), 
Did then ia enc; pTotntnlitj that Aknnder Polj- 
hHtar it bIbo th« utthor c^ Che work AtoBctxal 
tiAaaipm; whkh Mmu to be the gnnmdvrorh of 
DiMnua t^ertiiu. [Albiandbb Lvcunur.} 
won on the (Tmbol* of the Pythuareani i* i 
tioned b; OemaH AteDutdriniu {Sim*. I p. 1 31 ) 
and CynUal (ode JalioM. ii. p. 133). He ■!» 
wrote B hiitary of Judaea, of which a coosdeiable 
Eregment ia pTEwTred in Eneebiiia. [Prarp. Kavtg, 
ix. 17; comp. Clem. Alexand. iSlmm. L p 143 ; 
8teph.B;i.t.t).'Iiiv)ala.) A biiUiy of Rome in fiie 
boolu ii mentioned bj Soidaa, and b tew fngmenta 
of it an prnerred in Serriai. (Ad Am. TiiL 330, 
I. 388.) A complete liit of all the knnwn titlei 
of the worki of Aleiandei Polyhiator it giiren in 
Vowiu, £■ Hilt Grata, p. 1S7, Ik., ed. Wealer- 
mann. [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER I. II, kingi of Egypt [Pn>- 

ALEXANDER ('AA^tv^^t) I., king of Eri- 
BITS, wai the Ku d Neinitotemat and brother of 
Oljmpita, the mother of Alexander the Qieat. 
lie ouhb Bt an earlj age la the court of Philip of 
Macedonia, and after the Qmaan &ihion became 
the object of hit Bttschment. Philip in requital 
mad; him king of Epint, after dethroning hit cmc 
aiit Acacidet. When Oljmpiu wat repudiated 
hj her husband, the went to her biT>therp and en- 
drBToured to induce him to make war on Philip. 
Phibp, howeier, declined the conteat, and formed 
a teeond alliance with him bj giving him hia 
daughter Cleopoira in nuuriafle. [n, c 336.) At 
the wedding Philip waa aaaatuaatcd by Paiuuiiaa. 
In B. c S32, Alexander, at the request of the 
Tarentinea, croeted orer into Italy, to aid them 
aipinil the Lacaniant and BruttiL After a victory 

he msde a tnaty with the Roman). Succeat alill 
(nllowed hit aroia. He took Heracles and Conten- 
lia fram the Lncaniant, end Teiina and Sipontnm 
from the DrutuL But in b.c S26, throogfa the 
truichery of aome Lucanian eiilea, he wat oom- 
pelled to engage under aubTonraUe nreumttancet 
near Pandotia, on the bonkt of the Acheiun, and 
fell by Cbe band of one of the eiilea, at he waa 
emaing the river \ thui accompliihing the prophecy 
of the Oracle of Dodona, which had bidden him be- 
wan of Pandotia and the Acbemn. He left a eon, 
' Neoptolemna, and a daughter, Cadmee. (Juilin, 
Till 6, ii. 6, 7, lii. S, iriL 3, xriiL 1, udiL 1 ; 
Lir. viiL 3, 17, 34 ; Diod. iri. 72.) The hoKl on 
the annexed coin of Akxandei I. i^inanti that 
of Jupiter. 

[. llLBlSUUtl 

ALEXANDER II., king of EriBOB, wna the 
»n of Pyrrhua and Lonam, the daughter of the 
Sicilian tyrant Agathodet. He tiuxeeded hit fa- 
ther in B. c 272, and contiaoed the war which hia 
htlier bad begun with Antigonut Qouataa, whom 
ho aueceeded in driving fiinn the kingdom of 
Maeedou. Ha waa, however, dt^ntaetted of both 

Macedon and Epu:nt by Donetriaa, tbe aon tf 
Antigonut; upon which he took reluge amongat 

hia own tubjcctt, who entrltained a great ntlach- 
uient for faim, he rcicovered Epimt. It appean 
that he wat in alliance with the Aetoliani. He 
married hit utter Olympiaa, by whom he had two 
tont, Pyrrhua and Plolemaeut, and a daughter, 
Phthia. On the death of Alexander, Olympiat 
aaaitmed the rc^ncy on behalf of her aoni, and 
married Phthia to Uemetriut. Then an eiUnt 
ailver and copper mint of ihit king. The former 
bear a youthful head covered with the akin of an 
elephants head, aa appeara in the one figured be- 
low. The revene repretenU Pallaa holding a tpeai 
in one hand and a thield in the otber, and before 
her itandt an eagle on a thunderbolt. (Juttin, iviL 
1, uvi. 2, 8, iiviil 1 ; Polyb. ii. 45, ii. 3*; 
Pint Fyrri. 9.) [C. P. M.) 

ALEXANDER ('AA^faxt^), « Greek anaM- 

of the emperor H. Antonimu. (CaptoL M.Aat,2 ; 
M. Antonin. L g 10.) Wo ttill poaaeat a Aoysi 
trerdipas pronotmced upon him by the rheurician 
Arialeidei. (Vol. L Ona!.>n.p.}42,&c) [US.] 

ALEXANDER, ton of Herod. (HuioiiiG.) 

ALEXANDER {•filU(arlpof). 1. Didiop <4 
HiBRAraLia in Phrygia, fiooriafaed a.dl 353. He 
waa the author ef a bosk entitled, OaUieewfjU^ 
■MrodHsd by Cirut mlo Ok wcaid tI laair tirif- 
wrfKt Xaurrif di TJr xiaiier. irM. f ; sot extant. 

2. Bithop of Hierapolii. a. d. 431. He wna 
tent by John, bitbop of Antioch, to advusle the 
auae of Nettoriua at the Council of Epbeiua. Hia 
hoatility to St. Cyril wat luch, that he openly 
charged him with ApolUnaranitm, and rejected 
the communion of John, Theodorel, and the other 
Eaalem biabopt, on their reconciliation with him. 
He appealed to the pope, but wat rejected, and 
wm at liat banlihed by the emperor to FamotJiia 
in Egypt. Twenty-threeletteraofhitareerlanlin 
Latin b the &fm>dho* adntmt Tiageadiam Inaaa 
ap. Novam CoUtctvnem ComaUonan i Balttao, p. 
870, &c Paria, 1683. [A. J. C] 

S0LYMITANU3,a diadple, firat, of Pantaenua, 
then of St Clement, at Alexandria, when he be- 
cune acquainted with Origen, ( Euieb. HiiL Bed. ii. 
14,) waa biahop of FlaTiopolis, (Tiltement, HxmL 
Bed. a 415,) in O^padocia. (8. Hier. Vir. IlL 
% 6%) In Uie penecution nnder Severca he wat 

where he remained till Atclepiadea aueceeded 
SeiBpion at Anlioch, a. d. 211, the beginning of 
Caracalla'a leign. (See [a] the Epiatle St. Alex- 
ander tent to the Antioehenet by St Clement of 
Ineh. H.E.n. 11.) Euaeluut re- 

htc* (I. b), that b7 IKTim nTahllon he be- 
mot endjntor biihop to Naiduni, biihop ot 
AsUft, i. a. jBTiiMletn, x. o. 212. (See Eueb. 
If.JS.ii.S; OnmK. ad A. D. 228, lUid Aleuo- 
dn't [B] Eputle to tfae AntinoiUK ip. Etueb, ff. £ 
tL 11.) Daring hu «pua>pete of neeilj fortj 

rn (for be continDed biihop on the d«lh ^ 
NudiMu), he tuUeeted b raluable libiarj of 
Eodfiatia^ Epittim, whkb eiiaUd in tbe lime of 
EoKbiiii. (K£Ti30.) He receiTcd Origen vhen 
tba tmnblee at Alaisndm dioTe him theoee, i. D. 
316, and Bude him, ihongh ■ kayniBii, explain the 
Senptiina (nblidj, e proceediag which he jnitified 
in [7] (O eputle to BubepDemelriui,of Aleiandria, 
(Rp. Eiueh. «£ Ti !9,) irho, boweyer, lent 
■erne deeconi to bring Origan home. Ae Origea 
ni punng thnn^ Pslealine, on ume Dccemu; 
boabwie, St. Aleiuder otdained him print, 
(S. HicT. Le. St^62,) which eaiued gnat dii- 
l<itti«iM»intha(Jnnh.[Oui>iN.] Afn^entof a 
(Ij lrttcr&om8t.Alera]dertaOrigeaanthenib- 
jecluMU,q>.AnA£C£:Ti.U. St. Alexander 
died in the Dadaa penecBtion, t. o. 361, in pri»n 
(& DwD, Alu. <9h £Wak a: £ Ti. 46) after gnu 
Mflerinfi [Emeb. n. SS), and it ooauDemmaled in 
tha EaMom diDich on 1 2th DMsnbu, in the WaM- 

St. CkBCnt ef Alenodria dedicated to him hi* A 

l/r. £ Ti IS.) Hie fiagmenti have been meo- 
timei in chranDlogical older, and an collected 
in Oallandi, BOL Pair. a. p. 201, and in Roatfa'a 
/fa<^v» amt, iL p. 39. , [A. J. C.] 

"Iwnuf), wBi the eon of Jobannea Hjnann*,and 
IwDther at Ariatobalua L, whom ba ncceeded, aa 
Riw of the Java, in a c. 104, after ^ttir- - 
6at,tk one of ]ii* brotbata, nho laid iJaim I 
cnwiL He lodt adnnti^ of the DDqniet it 
Syria to attack the dtiea of Plolemai* (A<n), 
Ihm, and Gan, which, with Mveral othan, had 
made tbemMtTta independent. The peopli 
Pidenal* applied for aid to Ptolemy I^thjnu, 
then king at C3'pnu, who came with an anny of 
thirtj dioaeand men. Alexander wa> defeated on 
the banka of Uie Jordan, and Ptolemy laTsged the 
emntry in the moM barbatiMU manuar. In b. c 
102, Cleopatia came to the aaeiitance of Alt 
der with ■ fieat and ami;, and Ptolemy wai 
priled to relnni to Cynnn (a. c. 101.) Soor 
terwuda Alexander mradad Coele Syria, an 
ueved bii attacki apoa the iodepeodent dtiea. In 
B. c 96 he took Uaia, deatroyed the city, ar ' 
raaiBcrod all the iuhabilaata. The lenlt of the 
Bndertakingi, and hia having attached hiraielf 
the party of the Saddnaaes dnv npim him tha 
batnd of tba Phadaeea, who wen by for Uie mnv 
Dmnenma party. He waa attacked by tha peo[de 
in & c 94, while affidatinc aa hi^piieat at thi 
fcattof Tabemacla; hot tha inramctian wai pu 
doWD, and (ix iheiMand of tha innrgenti ilaio. It 
the Belt year (a. c B3) be made an expeditiaT 
wintt Anbia, and made the Aiab* (/OikBd ani 
t£e Mcabitea tribotacy. But in b. c 92, in t 
cwnpaign againil Obadaa, the onii of the Atabe of 
tiaolonitia, he felt intd an amhoah in the 1 
taina of Oadaia ; bii aimy waa ealinily dattnyed, 
and he binuelf oKaped with difficulty. The Pha- 
riieei leiied tha opportnnily thna afforded, and 
broke ont into open tenit. At Gnt they 
tDcHfni. and Al o jcuid c r was competled (o I 


the nHnintaina (a c 8S) | hot two yeat* after- 
waidi lia gained two deduTe rictoriea. After tha 
•ecood of diMB, he caoied eight hundttd of the 
chief men unongat the rebel* to ba cradiied, and 
■ee and children to be bntcbered bafcie 
^ I, while he and hia concnbiae* banqueted 
in aiEht r^ the Tictima. Tbii act of atrodty pro' 
cured for him tha name of " the Thracian." It 
prednced iti aSa;!, haweiei, and tha reballien waa 
shortly afWwardi iiippceaied, after the war bad 
Uuted ail yean. During the next three year* 
Alexander made «nw tocceHful campaign*, reco- 
Teied ieveial dtie* and fortreaaea, and piubed hi* 
conqneeta beyond the Jordan- On hi* return to 
D a a SI, hia exceadTe drioking 
quartan ague, ot which be died three 
yean sfierwud*, while engaged in the tiaga n( 
Ragaba in Oeraaena, after a reign of twaiiiy-aeveu 
yeai& He left hi* kingdom to hi* wife Aiexandm. 
Coin* of tfaii king are extant, ftom which it ap- 
pear* that hii proper name wa* Jonathan, and iHiit 
Alerander wa* a name which be aanmed accord- 
ing to tha pravalent coatam. ( Joaaphu*, A nJ. JmJ. 
xa. 13-16.) [C. P. M.] 

ALEXANDER CAAJfaiSfief), Himamed lalU^ 
the chief canmandei of Ae Aetoliana, waa a man 
of condderable ability and doqnenoa fiir an Aelu- 
hu. (Ut. xixii. 33; Potyb. xni. 8, Ac.) In 
B. 0. 19s ha wu prtaent at a aolloqny held at 
Nicaea on the Haliac gnlf^ and apoke against Phi. 
lip III. of Hacedonia, laying that the king ought 
to be compelled to quit Qreece, and to mtorv to 
the Aetoliani the town* which had fbnaerly been 
■abject to them. Philip, indignant at inch a de- 
mand being made by an AetoUau, aniwered him 
in a epeeeh from hii ihip. (LiT. mii 34.) Soon 
after thii meeting he wai aent aa ambaindar oi 
tba AMolian* to Botne, where, logelher with other 
(DTOji, he wu to treat with the aenale about 
peace, bat at the aune time to bring accuaationi 
agaiut Philip. (Poljb. xtH 10.) In ac 197. 
Alexander again took pan in a meeting, at which 
T. Qoinetina Plamininu* with hi* allie* and king 
Phi^ were praaent, and at which peace with Phi- 
lip waa diKuaed. Alexander diaiuaded hi* Mend* 
trim aay peacaflil anangrmenl with Philip. (Po- 
lyb. iriii. 19, Ac; Appian, MoorJ. viL J.) Id 
a c ISA, when a oongraia of all the Greek alatea 
that wan allied with Rome wa* conroked hf T. 
Qninctiui Flaminina* at Corinth, for the purpoaa 
<i Doiuidering the war that wa* to be undertaken 
against Nal^a, Alexander apoke ttain*t the Atbfr 
man*, and alio iniiaaaled that the Itomani were 
acting fnadniently toward* Oraece. (Ut. iixir. 
23.) When in b. 0. 18B M. Fnlriua NoWlio^ 
after hi* rictoiy o»er Antiochu*, wai expected to 

Aihen* and Rhode* i and Alexander lain*, logo- 
tber with Phaneaa and Lycopua, were aenl to 
Rome to me for peace. Alexander, now an old 
nuui, wa* at the head of the embauy ; but he and 
hia colleagnea ware made priaonen in Ca[diBlenin 
by iba Epeirot*, for the purpoae of extorting a heavy 
tanaom. Alexander, howeier, although he wu 
lerj wealthy, reftued to pay it, and wu ationi- 
ingly kept in captirity for lome day*, after whith 
he waa liberated, at the command of the Romans, 
without any ransom. (Polyb. Ixii. 9.) [US.] 

ALEXANDER fAAifavIfWt), iumanwd LviH- 
NUH (Avx»>). a Greek rbatarician and pueL He 
WM a naliie of EphcMU, wbrDce he ii logielimr* 



callad Alennder ^iImmih, ud mnM h>T< liTad 
Aijiiij befon the tuw of Smbo (dt. p. 642), 
who nanliaiu liim ini<»ig tb« man nont Ephaun 
witlion, sod iIm HUh, that ba took a port in the 
|K>litiaI (ibin of hii natire eilj. Stnba ucribe* 
la bin a biilarf, and pmu of ■ didactio kind, 
via. ant on aMnmoBij and anotbtr an gmgnfXtj, 
in whidi h< deaeribea tha gnat conCiDenU of the 
world, tnating of «ch in a iqianM worii or book. 

sane of the continaDt of whiili it 
accoDiit. Wbat kind of hirto!; il waa that SOtha 
■lludn U>, ii niKartain. The ta-eaOed Aoralioa 
Victor {di Orig. OtmL Rom. 9) quote*, it ii Irne, 
the lir>t book of ■ liiatory of th« Manic war by 
AlciBodcr the Epherian ; bnt tbii aatbsritir ii 
non than doubtful Sooie wrilcn haTe tuppooed 
that thii Aleinndar i) the anthot of the hiilory of 
tb« wt CM aiop of tireak philoaaphen (ol iwr ^Ao- 
fftf^M- iiotsxo'), which ia n often iderred to b; 
DiogeD« Uertiiu (i. 116, iL 19, IM, iii. 4. S, 
It. 62, Til. 17S, Tiii, 2i, ii. 61 ) i but thi* work 
belonged probably to Alexander Polirhiitor. Hia 
leogmphiisl poem, of which ieiaral ftagmenta are 
■till eitant, u fnqanidy leferred to by St«phaniu 
Bynntio* and othan. <Steph.Byi.i.». Ailn)«gi^ 
Tttrpotini, A«paf, TpKomi, HfAtrain, dtc-; Gomp. 
Eflilatb. ad Dimf. Fariig. 3B8, 5B1.) Of bie 
aativnomical pons a fragpent ii itin eilaat, which 
ha> been emmeouiy attributed by Oale {AiH—d, 
ad Partial p. 49) and Schneider (ad Tihw. ii. 
p. S3, Ac) to Alannder Aatolna. f See Naeke, 
Sdutiae CnOou, p. T, Ac) U ii highly pnbaUa 
that Cicero (ad AU. ii. 20, 23) ia ipsakiag of 
Alexander Lychnui whan he Mya, that Alanrndw 
il not a good poet, a eaielaai writer, bnt yet poa- 

AuarwtM'nit), waa •■> called from Lynpolii, in 
Eg3rpt, whetlier aa bom them, or becaoae he waa 
bialiop there, ia nncertoin. At Gnt a pagan, he 
waa next inilmcted in Manichecaam 1^ panoni 
acquainted with Manea hiiuial£ ConvetlM to the 
faith, he wrote a confutation of the hereiy (Thiff- 
talMt da Placita jlf<UK^Hon(Hi) in Oreek, which 
wni tint publiihed by CombeGi, 

cf tiycopolii, (Phot ^fUtatu dt Manek, m. 
ilfoa{rinoH. BibL OaiJm. p. Sfif,) and pnbaUy 
inuDodialely preceded Maletiiu, (Le Qnien, (Man 
JTaw. ml. iL p. «97.) [A. J. aj 

ALEXANDER (khUfApot^, tha aan of Lra^ 
MaCHtra by an Odiytian woman, whom PolyaaDat 
(ti. \i) calli Haerii. On tha murder of hia 
brnlher Agathadea [aea p. 6S, ■] by oommand of 
kia father in s. c 381, ha Sad into Au with the 
Tidow of hia brother, and aalidtad aid of Seiancua. 
A war ananed In comeqnence between Selanoi* 
and LjnimapliDi, which t«minated in the deiot 
and death of the latter, who waa alajn in battle hi 
B.c.2«l,iatha pIMn of Con* inPhiypa. Hli 
body waa eonmed ty hia boo AJexBader to the 
Chenoneau, and then buried batweao Caidia and 
Factya, whoe hia t4mb waa nmaining in the time 
of Paoaaniaa. (L 10. f 1, 5 1 Appian, agr. 64.) 

ALEXANDER I. ('AAifwIfKii), th> tenth king 
of MlCBDOHIiiWH thaaODOf AmynlaiL When 
Megahaiiu aenl to MacedoniB, about a. c A07, to 
demand earth and water, ai a token of tabnuHion 

to Darini, Amynlaa waa itiU icigning. At a ban- 
quet ^Ttm to the Panian oiToya, the latter de- 
manded the preaenee of the ladieaof the eonrt, and 
Amyntaa, thnnigfa lear of hia gneala, ordered them 
to attend, fiat whan the P" " ' ' ' 

offw indignitiea 
to ntire, nnder 

beanlifiiUy, and intndncvd in their al 
Macedonian youtha, dreaaed in female attira, who 
■lew the Peniaai. Aa the Patuana did not r»- 
tDin, Hagabaaoa aant Bubaisa with aoBa troopa 

Runeded hii bther in the kingdom aoon after 

theae a*enH. (Herod. ». 17—21, yiiL 136; 

w» obliged to mbaiit to the Patiian genenl Mar- 
donioafHuod. tL **); and in Xerxo.' bfa^on 

Parnan army. He gained the confidence of Ma<- 

donioa, and waa aent by him to Athena aft«' the 

bitttla of Salamia, to pt^poa. p«a to the Athe- 

Che Peniana. He wai nntncceaafnl in hii mil- 
lion i bnt thoDgb he csntinned in the Penian 
amy, he wbi alwayi leently indined to the cauae 
of the Oreeki, and informed them the night before 
the battle of Platseaa of tha intention of Mardoniui 
to fight on the folloiring day. (>itL 136, UO— 
143, ii. 44. 4&.) He »u iliTe in n. c 463, 
when Cimon recovered ThawM. (Pint. Cim. U.) 
He waa locceeded by Peidiciai IL 

AlexandaT wa> the Grit nicinba of the royal 
iwniiy of Macedonia, who preaentad himielf aa a 
competitor at the Olympic gamea, and waa admit- 
ted to them after proring hia Gntk deicant. 
(Heiwl. *. 22; Juitin, liL 3.) In hit reign 
Idacedonia nceired a coiaidaiBble acccMJon of ter- 
ritory. (Thnc il. 90.) 

ALEXANDER IL ^AXiiiaitpit), the lii- 
teentb king of M^cnnoNU, the eldeit ion of 
Amyntaa II., noceeded hii father in a c 369, 
and appnri to hare reigned nearly two yean, 
though Diodonu aaaigna mly one to hia tvign. 
While engaged in Theaidy in a wnr with Alexan- 
der of Pheraa, a tunrper roie up in Macedonia of 
the name of Ptolemy Aloritea, whom Diodonia, 
appaienlly wilhovt mod aathorin, call* a brothu 
of the king. Pelopuai, being caUed in to mediate 
between toem, left Alaimider in poaaeaaiDn of the 
kingdcai, bat took with Urn to Tbebea aereial 

ilagM; among whom, 
nti, waa PhiLp, the yi 
ler, aftennrda kingcf J 

ander, afterwaida'lcingcJHaoMlonia, and folher of 
Alexander the Oteat. Bat he bad acamly left 
Macedonia, before Alexander waa murderrd by 
Plolemy Aloritea. or according to Jitstiu (viL 5). 
thtough the intriguea of hia mother, Eucydice. 

ti <me of tlM 

Ltg, p. iiyi) u 



•t tlM mudann. (Dind. IT. 60, 
61,67,71, 77i Pial.Ptbfi. 36,37; Athcn. dr. 
p. 62S, <L; Anchin. ifa/o^ Z^. p. SI, L 33.) 

ALEXANDER IIL fAA^ivllpsi), king oT 
IfAdDOHU, 1011111110(1 tba Gi«t, wu bora at 
Pdla, in the ummui of a. c 36£. He *aj the 
■on ^ Philip 11. and Olympu, uid he inherited 
mnch of the mtiml diipodtipn of both of hii ps- 
read — iba cool lbnthaa{^t and pntctieal viadam 
of hii btber, and the vdent cnthuDum and do- 
goTcmalil* puuoD* of hi* Bwlher. Hi* mother 
beioi^ed to the n7«l houe of Epeinu, and thiwigfa 
her he tncad hu dcKoit bam the gmt b^ 
Achille*. Hii eail; edoeatioii mu eonmitted to 
Leonidu and Lnuuachiu, the fbimer of whom 
waa a lelatioD of hi* mothei'i, and the lattei an 
Acamaskn. Leonidu orij iceiulaiiMd him to 
endure toil and hardifaip, bat Ljiimacbiu recom- 
mended hiraielf to hii njaJ pupil b? obiequiaiu 
Huter;. But Aleiaiider wai alw placed under 
the can ef Ariitotla, who acquired an influence 
oier hit mind and chancter, which ii momfat to 
the latett period (rf hia tiie. Ariitotle wrote hi 
hii 11M a Inatiie wi the art of goferamenl ; and 
■he dear and compRtheiuiTS viewa of the politica] 
rdationiofoatiauiaiid of the nature ofgorernment, 
which Aleiandtt ihevi ia the midit of all bis con- 
(junti, ma; billy be aacribed to the le«aan> he 
hud reeeiv^ in hu yoath from the gresteat of phi- 
loeophen. It i* not impoaeihle loo that hii Iotb 
of diacoTeiy, which diitingaithn him from the 
herd of Tnl^v crnqoePHa, ma; alio hare besD tot 
{danled in faim bj the reaeanbe* of Atiatotle. Nor 
waa hia phywal education n^lscted. He waa 
eailf tninod in all manly and athletic aporta ; in 
hatiemanahip he eioelied all of hi* age ; and in 
the art of war he had the advantage of hi* blherV 

At the earl; age of aiilaen, Alexander waa en- 
tnuled aiilh the goverpownt of Maoedonia h; hii 
bther, while he waa obliged to l«Te hia hingdom 
to march againat Bjaanttimi. He fint diatinguiahed 
himaeir. howerer, at the battle of ChMroneia 
(b. k. 3311), where the nctor; waa maini; owing U 
hi( inipetnoait; and cotuage. 

On the mnHer of Phihp (b. c. 330}, jnit after 
he had madu anangemenla to march into Ana at 
the head of the confederate Gieaka, Alexander 
aKcnded the throne of Uacedon, and found him- 
aelf aarTODnded h; enemie* on ever; aide. Attaloa, 
the nncie of Cleopatra, who had bMn MnU into 
Aaia b; Parmenion with a eonaidetable ibree, oa- 
pind to the throne ; the Oreeka, rooaed hy De- 
EMelbenea, threw off the Uaeedoniut aopremacy i 
and the harbariani in the north threatvied hia 
dominiona. Nothing but the prompteat energy 
could tare him ; but in thii Aleiaadar waa neiet 
defident. Attolna waa auied and put to death. 
Hia npid march into the aonlh of Oleece OTer- 
Bwed all opposition ! Tbebca, which had bera 
mngi HtiTC i^nat him, iubmilted when he >p- 
pmrcd at it* gstet ; and the aaavmhled Greek) at 

if Corinth, with the aole aiosption ot 
the lAcedaemoniana, elected him to the command 
agaiiut Perna, which had prerioitaly been beatowed . 
upon hia bther. Bdng now at Uberty to reduce 
the harbariana of the north Ut obedience, he 
rhed (eari; in B.C 33E) acron monnl Haemua, 
defeated the Triballi, and adTaoced aa br ai the 
Dannbe, which he croiaed, and received emhaaaies 
from the Scythiana and other nationt. On hia 
return, he marched weatward, and auhdned the 
lUyriana and Taulantii, nho wen obUged to anb- 
-' Uacedoaian anpremacy. While eo- 
eas diatanl conntriea, a report of hia 
d^kth reached Greece, and the Thebana onra more 

them. He advanced into Boeotiu by rapid marchea, 
and speared before the gatea of the city almoal 
before the inhabitanta had received intelligence of 
'lii inmacL The dty waa taken by aaaanlt ; all the 
laibuDgi, with tbe eicaptimi of die home of Pin- 
dar, were levdled with tbe gnnnd ; moat of the 
iohahitBnta batchucd, and the nat aold aa alavn. 
Athena (caied « nnubr fate, and aent an embsoy 
deprecating hia wiath ; t»t Alexander did not >d- 

mee faruer ; the pnniahment of Tbebea waa a 

ifflcient warning to Oieece. 
Aleiands now diiecled all hia energy to prepare 

>r the expedition againat Peteia. In the apring 
334, he croued o ■• " ■■ 

with a 


theoa 30,000 wen foot and 6 

fonnar only 12,000 wen Maeedoniana. But 
erience had ahewn that thii ws* a force which 
Penian king could reaist. Darint, the reigning 
king of Penia, had no military akiU, and could 
only hope to oppoae Aleiander hy engaging the 
eervicea of mercenary Oreeka, of whom be obtained 
large anppltea. 

AJexander'i firat a^genient with the Peruast 
u on the banka of the Oranicna, where they at- 
tempted to prevent hia paaaage over it. Menmon, 
• lUiodian Oieek.waa in the anoy of the Peniana, 
and had ncoaunended Uiem to withdraw a* Aleian- 
anny advanced, and lay waale the cnuntry ; 
but thi* advice was not followed, and the Penians 
'ere defeated, Menmon was the ablest genera! 
that Darius had, and hia death in the foDowiiig 
(b. c 333) relieved Alexander from a formid- 
able opponent. After the cspuire of HalicanuMoa. 
Memnan had collected a powerful fleet, in which 
Alexander vraa greatly deficient i he had tnken 
many of theialandi in the Aegaean, •ad' threatened 

Before marching againat Baina, Alexander 
(hooghl it expedient to anbdne the chief tovma on 
the western ceaal of Aaia Mmor. The k*t event 
of importance in the (ampoign waa the capture of 
Halicamaasna, whkh was not taken till late in the 
autumn, after a vigorous defence by Memnon. 
Alexander marched along (he coast of Lycia and 
Pamphylia, and then northward into Pbrygia and 
to Oortunm, where he cut oi untied the cBlebrated 
Gordian knot, which, it was said, waa to he 
huaened only by the eonqneror of Aaia. 

In B. c 333, he «*a joined at Oordium by re- 
in forcenumta bom Macedonia, and commeoced his 
second campaign. From Gordium he marched 
through (he centre of Aaia Minor into Cilicia to 
the city of Tamia, where he nearly lost his life hy 
a fever, brought on by hia great e 
threugh throwing himiielf, n' 



cold waten of tha Cjdim*. thutu immtimt had 
coUsetad u iramtnte tjmj of 600,000, w GOOJMIO 
men, with 30,000 OTMk memnuifli ; but initnd 
nf wutin^ for Alaxander^fl mppmah in Ui« wido 
ptnin of Sochi, where ho had bsen itaEioticd Cat 
loma tiait, and which waa Eaiourablc to bia nom- 
bers and the evalatiou of hia CBiair;, he adniual 
into the lumvii' pl^u of lanu, when defeat wmi 
Blmoal ccTtaiD. Aleunder had paaaed thimgh 
thi> plain into STria before Darioa n«hed it ) but 
ai BOOD aa he noeired inlelligeoce of the moTe- 
menla of Darina, he retraced hii aMpa, and in the 
battle which fallowed the Penian army wat de- 
feated with dreadFdl tlanghter. Darioa took to 
flight, u tooti at be nw his left wins rooted, and 
atoped acrou the Kophratea bj tha tori of Tbap- 
Hcna ; hul hia mother, wifs, and children fell into 
the hnnda of Alexander, who treated Ibem with 
(he Dtmoat delicacy aad reapsct. The battle of 
Ihub, which wa> ftiu^t towardi the doae of B. c. 
11.13 ilecidcd tha 6ite of the Peraian empire ; bat 
Alexander judged it moat prudent not to imrane 
Daiiua. hni to aubdne Phoenicia, which wai »pe- 
ciallj hnnidable bf ita nargr, and eoDilantl; 
threnlened Ihsrebf to attack the couta of Greece 
and Macedonia. Moat of the dtiea of Phoenicia 
■ubmitled a> he approached ; Tjn alone refuaed to 
iurrender. Thia city waa not taksn till the mid- 
die of B. c 33*2. after an obatinale defence of aeren 
■oonlha. and waa feaifiillT pnniahed ^ the tlaugb- 
ter of aOOO Tyriana and the aale of^ 30,000 into 
aiaTerr. Next followed (he ai^a of Gaxa, which 
again dda^ Aleiaoder two miKitha, aad after- 
wuda, according to JoaapbDt, be marched to Jeru- 
aalam, intending to pnmak the peopk fi>r retoBng 
■ " ' ■ ' " ' la directed fron hia pnrpoaa 


9t mentioned bj Aiiian, 

Alexander next maidwd into SgTpt, which 
gbdlf aubniilted to Ibe oonqnanr, for the T 
tiaoi had ever hated the Paiaiana, who ini 
their religion and Tiolated their tamidea. In Ibe 

of the Nile, the dly of Alexandria, which t 
tended abonld fonn the centre of commeice between 
the aaatem and weatecn worlda, and which iODii 
pKm than realited tha expectation) of ita tbonder. 
He no* determined to viiii the temple of Jupiter 
AmmoQ, and ptltr proceeding &«m Alexandria 
along (he eoaal to Paiaatoninm, he tamed aoath- 
ward throogb the deiert and thnt reached the temple. 
He waa lalulad by tha piiasta aa the aos of Ja- 
piter Ammon. 

In Ibe iprfng of ihe aame year (n. c. 331), 
Aleuwder aet ont Id meet Darioa, who had col- 
lected Boolber nrmr. He marcned through Phoe- 
nicinand Srria to the Euphralea, which he ccoaaed at 
the ford of Thapaacui ; from thence he proceeded 
through Meaapotamia, crossed the Tigria, and at 
lenslh met with Ihe immenae hoatt of Dariua, aaid 

in the plains of Oangamela. The battle waa Ibnght 
in Ihe month of Oelober, B. C 331, and ended in 
the complela deist of the Peniaua, who anSered 
immenae alaoghlar. Alexander ponued the fbgi- 
liret to .\fb«la (Ertal), which place haa girea ita 
name to the battle, and which waa diatant about 
fihj milea IVoni the >pnt where it wat fooght. D»- 
i)ut, who bad left the field of battle early in the 

day, fled la Ednlaoa (Hamadan), in Media. 

doubtleaa to conciliate ibe 
affectiona of bit new eabjecta ; bat theae 001- 
ward ligna of eattsn royalty were also accom- 
panied by many acta worthy only of an c«atein 
tyrant ; he axeiciaod no controol orer hia paa- 
•iont, and frequently gaTa way to the moat Tiolent 
and nngoTenable eioeue*. 

" — Arbela, Alexander marched to Babylon, 

and Pen 


tbe palace of Peraepolis, and, according to aoDM 
acconnta, in the rerelnr of a banquet, at the inati- 
gation of Thaia, an Athenian coan«Bn. 

At the banning of B. c. 330, Alexander 
marehed bom Peraepolia into Media, where Darioa 
had collected a new force. On bit approach, 
Dariu* fled through Rhagae and the paiaee of the 
Elbnn mounlaint. called by the andenta the Ou- 
pian Oatea, into the fiaetrian previncst. After 
atopping a abort time at Ecbalana, Alexander pap- 
aned him thnnigh the detent of Parthia, and hod 
nearly readied him, when the natbrtunate king waa 
mnrdered by Bchus aalnp of Badrla. and bit >•- 
tociatea. Alexander aent hia body to Peraepolia, to 
be buried in the tombt of the Penian kinga. Beaaui 
eac^ied to Bactria, and atntmcd the title of king 
of Penia. Alexander adTaneed Into Hyrtania, in 
order to gain over the remnant of the Orecki of 
Dariut't army, who wen aaaemUed there. After 
aome negoliulion he lucceeded ; they were all par- 
doned, and a great many of them taken into hia 
pay. After ipending fifteen daya at Zadncarta, 
the capital of Parihia, he marched to the fiontieia 
of Areia, wbidi he entnuted to Sstibsnanea, the 
former latT^ of the country, and aet out on hia 
maroh towaidi Bactria to attack Beunt, but had 
not ^Dceeded hi, when be waa recalled by the re- 
mit of Sacibaraanea. By incredible eier^na be 
ntnmed lo Artaouana, the c^tal of the prarince, 
in two dayi' manh : the Btr^ took to flight, and 
a new goTemw waa WKnnted. Inirtead of n- 
tnming hia march into Bactria, Aleninder aeema 
to bars thought it moie prudent to aobdoe the 
aonth-««*teiQ paita of Arda, and accordingly 
marched into the counDy of the Dranpe and 

During the anny'a alay at Praphthaata, tha caiif- 
tal of the Dmngae, an erent occurred, which 
thewi the altered character of Alexander, and re- 

Pannenion, who waa at the head of an army at 
Bcbalana, waa also put lo death by mmmand d 
Alaxander, who (e*nd leet he abonld attempt ti 
revenge bla aon. Beteral other triala far tnaaoo 
Mowed, and many Haeedoniant were eiecnted. 

of the Ariaapi to the Ancbod, a people weat ot 
the Indnt, whom he eonquered. Their conquett 
and the complete lubjugatian of Areia occupied 
Ihe winter of tbit tw. (b. c 330.) In Ihe he- 
ginning of the following year (a. c. 33!)), he 
croMed the mountaina of Ibe Paropamiiui (tha 

BiodM Coo^), uid mucbed into Bactria uuiut 
BoHU. On Ue appcoftdt of Alexander, Bnnii 

fbUoved 1u^^ 
riier on th« ikini of tlia tenli Uuffed with >tni«. 
6hQTt]; after the paiiage Bhbu vu betrayed into 
hu handi, and, after being cruelly mntilaled by 
•cder of Alexander, waa pat to dcatL Fnm the 
Oitu Aleiauder adnnced a> for ai Aie Jaxaitee 
(the Sir), which he crooed, and delealed Hienl 
Snthian tribe* nonh of that riTer. After 
foonding a dljr Alexandria an the JiuurtM, he 
TVtraced hii itepi, recmoed the Oini, and retnmed 
to Zariaapa or Bactia, where be apent the winter 
of 329. It waa here that Alexander kiUed hia 
biend Clejtoi in a dnmkea RreL [CtUTua.] 

In the ipring of & c 326, Alsxaoder again 
irunod the On* to 
Socdiana, bat wm not able to eSect it 
and •raardinf^y went into winter qnarlen at Nan- 
taca, a place in the middle of the proTinca. At the 
ttff""'"g tf the (bllowinff year, B. c 327, he took 
• moonlain fartma, in which 
piince, had depodtad 
The beauty of Itoxana, dob of the latter, captivated 
the conqneror, and he aceoidinf^; nude her hia 
wile. Thi* nwrriage with one of hi* eaitem >nl>- 
jeel* waa in aeconance with the whole of hi* 
" ■ . ■ . .. ofSogdi- 

le preparatianB (or the iniBrion of India, 
a BaMria, another Mnapiracy wa* diKo*- 



■ii Oxyartea, a 

Aleianler did not lean Bactria till lata in the 
qving of K. c. 327, and oDiaed the indn*, pndia- 
Uy uar the modem Attock. He now entoed 
the aHUtty of die Penjab, or the Fire lUTei*. 
' ■' fiie inuned 

Dim, and tJ 
ached the HydBn«, 
upon the oppoaite bonk of which Poroa, an Indian 
king, wai poatad with a large army and a coniidei^ 
■Ne nanbar of etephanta. Aleiandsr managed to 
doaa the ii>cr gnpercti<ed by the Indian king, 
and then an obaluiats battle followed, in which 
Peiaa wa* ^l-'--'— ' after a gallant reoMance, and 
Odten pnoner. Alaxander natored to him hit 
nngdam, and tnalad him with di*tingniihed 

Alexandet leaiunad thirty dayi on the Hydaipea, 
dari)^ which time be fboMed two lowna, one on 
taeli bank of the riTO': one waa called Bucephala, 
in honoor of hi* hone Buc^hahia, who died here, 
alter carrjiu him through ao many nctoiie* ; and 

Fnau ihencs tie maidied to the Accaine* (the 
Uiinab), which ha crotaed, and lubeeqaently to the 
Hydntote* (the RaToe), which be a]*a croated, 
to attad another Ponia, who had prepared 
to raaiat him. Bat a* be > 
ihia Poni* fled, and hia don 


■^ notwitlutaading hi* ent 
a obliged to bad than b 

piweed i and Alento- 
entreatie* and pnyera, 
He retarned 
HydaqKa, where he had pnrioualy giren 
order* for the bailding of a fleet, and then lailed 
down the ri<er with about BOOO man, while tb> 
remainder marched along the bauka in two diii- 
uooa. Thii waa lata in the antmnn of 327. The 
people on each aide of the rirer aubmilled with- 
ont leailance, aioept the Malli, in tha conquut 
of one of whoae plaee* Alexander wai tcierely 
wounded. At the confluence of the Aee*ln« 
and the Indu*, Alexander fuonded a oitj, nnd 
left Philip aa aatrap, with a coniideiahlc body 
of Greeks. Here he boilt eoma fraih ihipa, and 
ihortly afUiward* leot about a third of the 
army, nndei Cratenu, through tha eonntry of 
the Arachoti and Dtmgae into Carmania. He 
hinuelf continned hii (Dyage down the Indui, 
founded a city at Pattala, the apex of tha delta 
of the lodui, and lailed into the Indian ooeao. 
He (eema to haie reached the mmlh of the 
Indu* abani the middle of 326. Ntucha* waa 
lent with the fleet to *a3 along the o 
the Paraian gulf [Naaacaui], and A' 
eet out from Pattala, about September, to ratum 
to Perna. In hi* march through Uednwa, hia 
army tuftied greatly from want of water and 
proTiaioni, till Uiey arrired at Para, where they 
obtained auppliea. From Fura be advanced to 
Carman (Kirman), the capital of Carmania, where 
he waa joined by Cratenu, with hia detachment 
of the army, and also by Neardin*, who bad 
iKBODipliihed the •oyage in lafaty. Alexander 
aent the greot body of the army, under Ha- 
phaeation, along the Penian gulf, while he him- 
aelf, with a unall force, marched to Pa*argadae, 
and &om thoiea to Penepolia, where ha ap- 
pnnted Penceatao, a JUaeedDDian, goTamoi, in 
l^ca of the former one, a Penian, whom he 
put to death, for oppreaung the fHVvinoe. 

Fnm Peraepolia Alexander adnnced to Suta, 
which he reached in the banning of 325. Hara 
he allowed himaelf and hi* troop* acne reat from 
their laboon ; and faithful to hia plan of fctming 
hii Earopuo and Aiiatic lubject* into one people, 
ha iwigned to about euhty it hi* ganenili Anatio 
wiTe*, and gave with them rich dowriea. He his- 
aelf took a aecond wife, BatiiDe, tha aldeat daogfa- 
ter of Iterina, and according to eoane sooonnta, a 
third, Paryiatia, the daughter of Ochna. About 
10,000 Macedonian* alao followed the example 
of th«r king and genenl*, and married Aiiatie 
women ; ail theae rvceiTsd preMnt* from the king, 
Alexander alao enrolled hvge number* of Anatica 
among his tnepa, and taught tham tha Uacadonian 
tactica. H* Boceoiat directed hia attention to tb* 

£upbr«te* and IVi* "ude naTigahle, by nowring 

the artifidal obilrnction* which had been made in 
the river for tha purpoee of irrigation. 

The Muedoniana, who were diamnleDled with 
aeteral of the new arrangeaient* of the. king, and 
capedally at hi* placing the Peraiana on an equality 
with thenuelTea in many reapecta, me in mutiny 
asainat him, which he quelled with aome little 
difficulty, and be eflerwarda diiniigued about 1 0,000 
MocMonian veierana, who returned to Europe un- 
der ihe command of Cralem*. Towiirdt the close 
of llie «nme year (h. r. 32S} he wvnt to tclmbuia. 


•hen he laM faji gnaL hra 
hu giuf for hi* Ima knsw no boimiU. From Edw- 
tuu h« marched to Ba-hjloTL, nbduing in bii way 
the Coe^i, ■ DUHialua bribe ; and before be Roch- 
nd BabjUm, ha waa mel b; imbuiadon imai 
ilnuMt cvirj put of the known woiid, who had 
came ta do honuge to the nev eoaqnaor of Ana. 

Alexander reached Babjloa in the ipring of & c. 
331, about a yeoi beTon W death, notwithitand- 
iiV the wamingi of tbe Chaldeaa*, vho predicted 
•nl to him if be entcmi the uil j at that lime. Hs 
■nl«nd»d to mak< Dsbyion the capital of hi* ampira, 
aa tlw ben point of oommnnication betvean hi* 

nnmeroDa and g^iantic. Hii Gnt object wai the 
cowjneat of Antna, which WM to be followed, it 
wu laid, b; the ubjugatioa of iMly, Canha^ 

IDerelj to coaqoeaL Ho 
a fleet on tbe Cai|riaii, and to enJon that tea, 
vbich w** laid to be comuttad with (ba northern 
oceao. He alao intended to improTe the dialriba- 
lion of walert in tlw Babyhnuui plain, and for 
that porpoee Bailed down the Enphiatea to inapecC 
the anal calkd Pallaeopaa. On hii ntoin to 
Bibj'lou, he bnod the pnparatioiu lor tbe Anbian 
•xpedition neail; eompleta ; but ihnoat iiamedt- 
alrl; aAcrwarda he waa aUacked by a forer, pro- 
bably bron^t on b; hia recent enrtiom in the 
nianhy diatricta aronnd Babylon, and aggt»- 
>alad by the quantity of wine he bad dnmk 
at a banquet giTen to hit principal officer*. He 
died aAcr an ilbieaa of aleieu day*, in the ntanth 
of Hay or Jane, B. c. S33. Ha died at the age of 
ihirtv-two, wAer a reign of twalre yean and «ght 
numuka* He anointed no one aa hi* aocc CT ior, 
but jn*t before bu death he sare hia ring to Pen- 
dktaa. Ronna waa with chUd at the time of bia 
death, and aflarwaida bore a eon, who ia known by 
the naoM of Aleiander Aegoi. 

The hialaiy of Alennder fanni an impo rtan t 
epoch in tbe hiatory of aiBiikind. Unlike otbar 

mrj *tep of hie coune tbe Oreek lannage and 
dnlintion look root and Smriahed ; and after hi* 
death Oreek kingdom* were framed in ell parte of 
Aaia, wbich continued to eiiat for cenluriea By 
bi* conqueata the knowledge of mankind waa in- 
creaiad ; the aeience* of geography, nanual hiatory 
- ' ■' " ' I addition*!""' "' 

that a road i 

,_ana becune i 


No eontampomr7 author of the ampaign* of 
Alexander nrTina. Our beat account comet fiom 
Anian, who lived in tbe tecond eeotory of the 
Chiiatian aera, but who draw up hi* biitory from 
the aoooonta td Ptolauy, the aon of Lanui, and 
Ariatobnlni of Camandria. Tbe hiatory of Quinlua 
Cutiaa^ Plntaicb'* lite of Alexander, and the 


epilone* of Juatin and Diodoru Sicnhu, wen aln 
compled from eailier ■niter*. Tbe beat modem 
writera on the anbject ara : St. Cnnx, Sruh 
0i(ifae Aa oaaoH //Moriau rf* ^ Janailn J( &fXMd, 
Uioyaen, OtKUMi Abiaiidm dm Oraan.; Wil- 
liam*, Lifi </ Abmmhiri Thiilwall, mnerf qf 
Onam^ Tola- vi. and rii. 

ALEXANDER IV. rAXi{a>«pei), king of 
Uacedovia, the ton of Alexaoder Ibe Oreal and 
Roxaaa, waa bom ahortly after lbs death of hi* 
htber, in B. c 32S. He wa* acknowledged a* the 
partner of Philip Arrhidaeu* in tbe empire, and waa 
under the gnardianahip of Perdicou, the legenc 
till the death of the latter in B. c 321. He ws* 
then for a abort time placed under the gnardianahip 
of Pithon end the general AnhidaeBt, and aubae- 
qnently nnder that of Antipater, irtio conveyed 
^-— — ith hia mother Roiana, and the king Philip 
lia ID 320. 

in 819, the goveniinent fell' into tbe b 
Polnperchon ; but Enrydiee, the wife of Philip 
Anliidaena, began to form a powerful party in 
Macedonia fn oppoution to Polyaperchon -, and 
Roiana, dreading her inflneno, fled with her (on 
Alennder into Epeirua, where Olympiaa bad liTed 
for a longtime. At the ina^atiou irf Olympiaa, 
Aeacidea, king of Epeiroa, made conunon laue 
with Polyipocbon, and reaiored the young Alex- 
ander to Macedonia in S17. {AiAcuiaK] Enry- 
dice and her huaband were put to death, and the 
anpreme power f^ into (he handa of Olympiaa. 
(lii. 1 1 ; Juatin. liv. S.) But in the following 
year Coaaander obtained pDaaeeaion of Macedonia, 
put Olympia* to denlh, and impriuncd Aleiander 
and hia mother. They remained in priaon till iha 
general peace made in 31 1, when Aleiander'a title 
to the crovn waa rectwniaed. Many of hia jsir- 
tinu demanded that be abould be immediately 
Wileaaed ftom priaon and placed upon the throne. 
Caaaaoder therefore reeohad to get rid of ao dan- 
genua a linl, and caaaed him and hit mother 
Roiana to ba murderad aecretly in pritoo. (B-c. 
311. Kad. iii.61, S2, el, 106; jDitin,ir.3i 
Pan*, ix. 7. t 2.) 

ALEXANDER f^AXiiarSpoi). « Maojloro- 
LITJN. He waa originally a Mncedoiiian, but lied 
received the franchiae end wu aettlcd at Megalv 
poll* about B. c 190. He pntirndcd to bo a de- 
aeendant of Alexander the Qreol, and eecordlaglr 
called hia two ton* Pbilip and Alexander. Hu 
daughter Apun* wu married to Amynander, 
kins of the Athamaniana Her eldcat brolher, 
Philip, fbllowed har to her court, and being of a 
nin character, be allowed himaalf to he tempted 
with the proapect of gaining potieawon of Iha 
throne of Macedonia. (I^t. ixit. iT ) Appian, j^. 
13; camp. Philip, aon of Alkxxndbk.) [L.R.] 

ALEXANDER CAVijorapoi), brother of MoLO. 
On the accsttion of Antiochua III., afterwardi 
called Ibe Great, in n. c S24, he entrusted Alex- 
ander with the government of the tatr^iy of Penia, 
and Hek) reoaved Media. Antiochaa wa* then 
only fif^eoi yean of age, and thla circumalance, 
logetfaer wiUi the fact Uial Heimeiaa, a baae flat- 
terer and cnfly intriguer, whom eiery one hod M 
(ear, wi* ali-poweiful at hia court, induced tbe two 
broliier* lo form the fita of cavnng the upper 
aatnpie* of the kinidon ~ 

la poatible, and it 

.Tolvnt in 

•dnicc tbat die wu agauut the rebeli wu entnut- 
ed to meu without courage and ability. In h. c. 
3-20, howeTet. Anuochoi hinueir nndeitook the 
eommand. Moto wu deaerted b; bii troopi, aod 
to iToid falling into tbs huidi of the kbg, pnt ui 
end to hii own hh. All the kaden of the lebel- 
lion followed hi> example, and one oT them, who 
cfloped to Peru, killed Holo^ mother and chil- 
dren, pemtaded Alexander to pnl an md to hia 
lile, aitd at bn killed himietf dpoa the bodiea of 
bii friend*. {Polfb. T. 40, 41, 43, 54.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER the Monk (-AAJtontpoi funt- 
Xii), perhape a natiye of Cjprni. All w« know 
of hia age ia, that he liTed belbn Michael Olycaa, 
A. n. 1 120, who qnotn hun. Two ontion* bj him 
■R eitauL 1. A Panegyric oa St. Barnabu, op. 
BoOamli Ada Sm^onm, tdL ui. p. 435. 2. Con- 
corning the Invention of the Cron, ap. Gnimr. de 
Ova CSiritti, 4ta. Iisdit. 1600. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER fA\/{iu«pot) of Mynnos in 
Caiia, a Onek writer on looli^ of uncertain dale. 
Hia woika, which are now loal, mnat ban been 
csnndend lery Talnable by (he ancientt, lince 
they refei lo them tutj frcqnently. The titlea of 
bia worka are : Kttihw 'Ivrofla, a long fragnwnt 
of which, belonEing to the aeeond book, i> quoted 
by Athenaeoi. (t. p. 231, comp. ii. p. 6S ; Aelian,«.iiL2S, iv.33,T.27,i.B4.) Thii work 
b piobafaty the sune aa that which in other paa- 
■gea ia aimply called Uip) ZiJtw, and of which 
Alhenaena (ii. p. 392) llkewiee qnoUi the lecond 
book. The work on bitdi {tltpi Hrqwr, PluC. 
Mar. 17i Alhen. ix. pp. 387, 388, 390, &c) waa 
k lepante work, and the aeeond book of it ia quot- 
ed by Alhenaeua. Diogenea Laertiiu (L 29) men- 
tioni one Alexon of Myndoa aa the anthor of & 
work on mytha, of which he qnotea the ninth book. 
Tbia author being otherwiae unknown. Menage 
propoaed to nad 'AAifurllpgi S MuvEini initead of 
AAi'^. But ereiylhing ia ancenoin, and the 
mnjectun at leait ia not yen pmbeble. [L. S.] 

SoBfafnai, or i Hou^qviou, as Suidsa OLtIa hira), a 
Oteck rlietoridan, who lived in the reign of Ha- 
drian or that of the Antoninea. About hia hfe 
nothing ii known. We poraeia two worki which 
■n atcribed to him. The one which certdnly it 
hit wotk bean the tide ntfi tit riji Aiavniat xal 
A^ean Xxvu^ori i. e. *■ De Fignris Senlendarum 
et Elocntinnia.*' J. Rnfinianua in hia work on the 
that Aquib Ronumus, in hia treatiie " De Piguria 
SentcDtianun et Elacutianin,*' took hi* mat^ial* 
tnaa Alexander Numcniua^ work mentioned above. 
The Hcond work beanne the name of Alexander 
NumeniuB, entitled Utpi \wiSHJCTiJidr, i. e. " On 
&how-ipecch«," ia admitted on all hand* not to be 
hia work, but of a later grammarian of the name of 
Alexander ; it ia, to apeu mon correctly, made up 
■very damaily from two diatinct one*, one of which 
wa* written W one Alexander, and the 
iiamaia. (Vaiea. ad Etmb. Hid. Ecda. , 

Tlw 6nt edition of thawi two work* ia that of 
Akfau, in hi* collection of the JOutara Oraia, 
Venke, 1508, foL, voL L p.S74, &c They ue 
■1*0 contaiBed in Wat*'* Aietom Oraea, 
Tbe gemdne wotk of Alexander Nnme 
■bo boeo edited, together with Minndanua and 
Pboebammoit, by L. Nonnann, with a Latin tran*- 
btion and a«ful note*, Upaala, 1890. Svo. (See 
Ruhuken, <irf JgW. Ram. p. 139. tic '" 



IL. S.) 
ALEXANDER, in Athenian riiNTia, one at 

'hoae production* it extant, painted on a marble 
tablet which bean hia name. (Wiuckeboann, 
p. <7, V. p. 120. ed. Eiielein.) There wa* 
of king Peneoa of thia name, who waa a 
ikilful loreutea. (Plat. Aunil. Patd. 37.) There 
wa* alio a VL LoUiu* Alexander, an engraver, 
whose name occur* in an in*cjiption in Ddiu, p. 
319, No. 14. [C. P. M.I 

ALEXANDER _CAx^tM«^i), the PAPHLiui^ 
JM, a celebrated impoator, who flouriahed about 
the beginning of the aeeond centoiy (Lncian. J/at. 
6), a native of Abonoteicho* on the Euxine, and 
the pupil of a friend of Apollaniui Tyanaen*. Hi* 
hiatoiy, which i* told by Ludan with gnat wimtt, 
i* chiefly an acconnt of the variou* contrivancea by 
which he eatabliahad and maintained the credit M 
oracle. Being, according to Lncian'* account, at 
his wit's end for the mean* of life, with many 
natural advantages of mannei aod person, he d». 
termined on the following impoatnie. After rua- 
ing the expectation* of the Paphlagonians with a 
reported vint of the god Aeecul^u*^ and giving 
himMlf out, under the unction of an oracle, aa ■ 
descendant of Peneua, he gretijied the expectation 
'hich he had himself laiseil, by finding a serpent, 
'hich he juggled out of an egg, in the fonndations 
of the new temple of Aeeculapiua. A larger aei^ 
pent, which he brought with him from Pella, was 
diaguiaed with a human head, until the dull Paph- 
bgonians really believed that a new god Gtycon 
had appnred among them, and gave oractea in tbe 
serpent Dark and crowded rooma, 
joggling tricks, and the other arte of more vnlgai 
magiciana, were the chief meana uaed to impoae 
crednlona populace, which Lncian detects 
a* mnch xest a* any modem sceptic in the 
manela of animal magnetiim. Every one who 
ipted to expose the impostor, wns accused of 
being a Christian or Epicnreaa ; and evt-n Lucian, 
who amused himself with his contradictory ora- 
cles, hardly escaped the effect* of bis malignity. 
He bad hia spies at Rome, and busied himself 
with the ailtun of the whole world : at the lime 
when a pestilence wag raging, many were executed 
at hii Instigation, as the author* of this calamity. 
He said, that the soul of Pythagom* bad migrated 
into his body, and piopheaied that he should live 
a hundred and fifty years, and then die Erom the 
fidl of a thunderbolt: unfortunately, an utcer in 
the \fig put on end io hu imposture in the seven- 
tieth year of hie age, just a* he was in the height 
of hb glory, and had requested the emperor to 
have a medal struck in honour of himself and the 
new god. The inSnenc* be attained over the 
poptdace seem* incredible ; indeed, the narrative 
of Lncian would appear to be a mere romance, 
were it not confirmed by some niedab of Antoninus 
and M. Amelias. [B. J.} 

ALEXANDER CAAlE««poi) of PArHioa, a 
Greek writer on mythology of micertain date. 
Euatatbiu* (nd j/bn. Oi. z. pp. 1658, 1713) refen 
to him as his autfaotit}'. [L. S.j 

ALEXANDER('AAj{<i>4fnr),ttimamed Pbi.i> 
rLAToN {I1if\in-XdT»], a Oreefc rhetorician of the 
age of the Antonine*, wa* a son of Alexander of 
Seleucia, in Cilicia, and of Setencis. (Pbiloelr. 
YiL Soph. iL 5. g I , compBied with Epi$l. A/^bi. 
Tgtm. 1 3, when the {sther of Alexander Pelophs- 



um U oiled Stnton, whicli, howirtr, losj be a 
men huiuiik.) Hit hlhn «u iliitingniihed u 
a pleader in tfae conrti of jiutic«, bj which ha ac- 
qnind oonNdenble property, hat he died at in age 
wheo hii eon <ret wanted the care oF a father. 
Ilia place, howeTer, wai npplied by hia friend^ 
ripeciall; b; ApaUonina of TjBDa, who ia uud to 
hare been in love wilh Seleacit on icconnl of her 
ettraordioatj beaatjr, in whkh atw wm equalled 
h; her eon. Hia edoestioa *u entnittsd M Gnt 
to Pbaforinni, and ifUrwarda to Dionyiiua. He 
apeol the property whkh hia hther had leA him 
apoD pleuure*, but, aayi Fhiloatntiia, not con- 
temptible pleaanna. When he had atlainod the 
■ge of muihood, the town of Seleucia, for (onw 
naMD now aoknown, tent Alemoder ai untaaik- 
dor to tho emperor Antoniniu Piua, who ia laid to 
hare ridicoled the young man for the extiaTagant 
can he beaEowed on hia oatward ^peaiance. He 
■pent the gnaler part of hia life away from hi) 
uliTe place, tx Anliochin, Rome, Tunu, and Cra- 
Tellod thraoj^ all Egypt, u fiu' a* the oonnCry of 
the Ttivai. { Ethiopiuu.) It eeema to hare been 
joriBf hit itay at AJitioehia that ho wu appointed 
Oreek aecretaiy to the emperor M. Antoninoa, 
who «■■ caiTniig ni ■ war in Pannonia, 
A. D. 174. On hia jontney to the empei 
made a ahort itay at Athena, where he met tho 
fclehntrd rhetorician Herodei Atticna. Ha had 
a rhetorical conleat unlh him id which he not only 
(mqnend hia bmont adTeraaiy, bnt gained hu 
rateem and Bdmiration to anch a degree, thai 
Hcrodea honoored him with a mnnifieent present 
One Corinthian, howeier. of the name of Sceptet 
~ e thought of Aluaoder, ex- 
rtng that ho ha ' 
o[ Plato." Thj 
ming gain liae to the anmame ef Peloplaton. 
T» ^ace and time of hia death are not known. 
PhiloatratoB giree the nriooi itatementi which he 
foond about theae pointa. Alexander waa one of 
tbe grenteit iheloridani of hia age, and he ii 
eqiaaally pniaed (bt the subliraity of hia ityle and 
the boldneee of hja thooghta ; hut he ji not known 
to ha>a written anything. An account of hia life 
ia giren by Philoatralm (Fit. &pk. il S), who hai 
aba preaerred aerenil of hi* layinga, and aome of 
the aubjecta on which be made apeechea. (Comp, 
Saidaa, a. p. 'AA/fovipot At^out in fin. ; Endoc 
p. i-2.) [L. 3.] 

ALEXANDER CAA^w^t), Km of PiKsiua, 
king of Macedonia, waa a child at the eonqoeat of 
hia father by the Romana, and after tho trinmph 
of Aemiliaa Paulina in b. c 167, waa kept in coa- 
lody at Alba, together with hia &thei. He be- 
canM tkilfal in Ae toreutic art, learned the I«tin 

ALEXANDER CAAiEovSpoi), ^nint of Ph>- 


I of hi 

1 Diodonu (it. 61} telle ua 
that, on the aaaaaaination of Jaaon, B. c 370, Po- 
Ijdarut hia brother toled for a year, and waa then 
poiaoned by Alexander, another bmther. Accord- 
kg to Xenophon {HM. vL 4. g 34}, Folydorua 
waa mnidered by hia brothel Polyphiun, and Polj- 
pfaroD, in hia torn, E. c. 369,* by Alexander — hia 
■epido, according to Phifanh, who relatea alio that 

* Thiadi 

fi) i but, **a WeaaeUi^ on Diod. (xt. 75.) 

Alexander wonhipped aa a god tfae apear witk 
which be slew hia Duels. (Plat. Pe^.p. 39S,&ct 
Wesa. ad Dhd. I, c.) Alexander goiemed lytan- 
nical!y,aDd aceordingtoDiodartu (Ic), differently 
from the former rulen, hot Polyphron, at leaal, 
■eema to ha<e aet him the example. <Xen. I. c) 
The Thsaaalian alatei, howoTer, which had ac- 
knowledged the authority of Jaun the Tsgna 
(Xta.Hta.ti. \.%*,6,lK.i Diod. i>. 60), wen 
not so willing to sabmit to the oppreanon of Alex- 
ander the tyrant, and they appbcd therefore (and 
eapecially the old GunDy of the Alenadae of La- 
tiaB, who had moat reason to fear him) to Alex- 
ander, king of Maeedon, aon of Amyntaa IL 
The tyrant, with hia characteristic energy, pre- 
pared to meet hit enemy in Macedonia, bat die 
king antidpated him, and, reaching Laritsa, waa 
aamitled into the city, obliged the Theaaalian Alex- 
ander to flee to Pherae, and left a garrison in Lak- 
rissa, as well aa in Cianon, which had also come 
orertohim. (Diod. it. SI.) Bnt the Macedonian 
haring retired, his friends in TheatsJy, dreading 
tho vengeance of Alexander, tent for aid to Thebes, 
the policy of which stale, of course, was to check a 
neighbonr who miglit otherwise become so formid- 
able, and Pelopidu waa acrordingly despatched to 
sncconrthem. On the arciiai of the latter at La- 
risaa, whence aecoiding to Diodoma (it. 67) he 
dislodged the Macedonian gairison, Alexander pre- 
sented himaelf and offered anbraiaaiDn ; but aoen 
after (•csped by flight, alarmed by die indignation 
which Pelopidat expressed at the tales he heard of 
hit cruelty and tynuiniial profiigacy. {Diod. Le.; 
Pint /"aiop. p. 291, d.) These erenU appear to 
be referable to the early part of the year 368. In 
the aummer of that year Pelopidaa waa again sent 
into Thesialy, in cousequence t^ Eresh complaints 
against Alexander. Aconnpajiied by Iimeniaa, ha 
vent merely as a negotiator, and without any mi- 
litary fbiee, and Tentniing incanlionsly within the 
power of the tyrant, waa adted by him and 
thrown into priaon. (Diod. it. 71 ; Plat PtL p. 
292, d; Pdyb, Tiii. 1.) The languMa of Do- 
mostbenea (a Arutoer. p. 660) wiU haidly 
support Mitfoid^ inference, that Pelt^idas was 
taken prisoner in bntlle. (See Milfold, Gr. Hiit. 
ch. 27. sec G.) The Thebana sent a btrgr amiy 
into Thestaly to retcne Pclopida*, bnt they ceuld 
not keep the field egajutt tho superior caralry of 
Alexander, who, aid«t by auiiliariea from Athena, 
porsued them with great slaughter^ and the do- 
Btmction of the whole Theban anny ia said to hart 
been aTerted only by the ability of Epaminondaa, 
who waa aerring in tfae ca m paign, faut not as ge- 

The next year, 367, waa aignaliiod by a iped- 
men of Alexander's tnacheroua cruelty, in the 
roasHKre of the dtixena of Scoluasn (Plot, PA p. 
2&3i Diod. IT. 75; Paua-ri. B); and alao by an- 
other expedition of the Thebana under Epaminon. 
dai into Theaialy, to eSect the ral«se of Pehi|HdBt. 
According to Plulaieh, the tyrant did not dan to 
oBei letiBtaDce, and was glad to purehase even a 
thirty days' truce by the delitery of the prisoners. 
(Plot. />cJL pp. 293, 294 ; Diod. it. lb.) During 
the next three years Alexuider would seem to 
haTe renewed lua attempts against the states of 
Thessaly, especially those of Magrteaia and Phihio- 
tia (PIdL PiL p. 295, a), for at the end of that 
time, B.C. 364, we Rnil them again applying to 
Thebsi (gf pcotectian against him. Thu army ap. 


Minl«d to much nndsr Psiopidu U nid to ban 

itm dunjcd bj an eclipK (June IS, Mi), aod 
PeJopIdu, kkving it behind, cnund ThcHal; M 
(IM head of chnw hnndnd Totnntaer honeman md 
Hou nMrcenann. A butla nuned at Cynaics- 
plwlaj, wherein Pelopidu wu binuelf •lain, bat 
defeated AlexandBT (Pint. PtL pp. 29i, 298 ; 
Diod. XT. 80) -, and thit victoi; wu cIoHly lol- 
lawed bjr another of thii Tbebant undu AUcitei 
and Diogiton, iriio obliged Alennder to reaton to 
the ThoHlioni the Gooqaeied townK, to confine 
himmlf to PhenB, and to be a dependent ally of 
Thebe*. (Plut PtL p. 297, Aci Diod. it. 60; 
ama. Xen. /M.TJi. £. §1.) 

The death of EpaininoDdai m .162, if it fiwd 
Athena from fear of Thehea, appean at the nnM 
time to haTC expoaed her lo annoyance from ALov- 
ander, vho, ai tboogb he felt that he had no fni- 
tber ocouoQ for ke«|nDg up hi) Athenian alliance, 
made apira^cnl descenl on Tanot and olhen of 
tiM CTcmei, plnndering lbe^^ and making tiavet 
of the inhahilanti. Pepanthna loo he baueged, 
and "eren landed troopa in Attica itael^ and 
■oied the pott of Panormni, a little eaitncd of 
SonionL** Leotlbenea, tha Athcoian admiml, do- 
fcaled him. and ralicTod Feparethiu, but Ainran- 
dat dabToied hia men from Uockade in Pannnnna, 
look aaTonJ A(^ trimnea, and gdnndartd the 

e. Pclj^. pp. 1207, 1208 ! «(>1 irrnl>. t«i rpttip. 
p. iSU ; Thirinll, Or. Hid. toL >. p. 209 : but 
nr aDotba account of Iba poaitiDn of Panonnoa, 

ate Wtn. ad Diod. 

ITie mnrder of Alexander ia aiBgnad by Diodo- 
TV to B. c S67. Phitarch giTca a detailed ac- 
count of it, containing a HtoIj picture of a lemi- 
barfaarian palace. Onaida watowd tbTDoriiont it 
all the night, except at the tjrant'i bedcBamber, 
which waa litoated at the lop of a faMldet, and at 
the doo( of which a fciodoaa dog waa chained, 
^lebe, the wife and eontin of Alexander, and 
daoghler of Jaaon (PhiL PiL p. 393, a), concealed 
her tbrea brothera in the honae during the day, 
(■naed the dog to be temorad when Alexander had 
letiied to real, and baiing co*Bred the ilepi of the 
ladder with wool, bronghl np the yoong men to 
Imt Imabmd'a diamber. Tboorii ibe had taken 
■way Alaiaader'a iword, they feared to aat abant 
the dead tiii ahe tliMBimed to awake him md die- 
cover ail : the; then entered and deapatcbed bim. 
Hia body waa eait forth into the atieata, and 
•xpoaed to ctcit indigDi^. Of Thebe'a MotiTe 
fcr Ibe imrdeT ^Senot aceomnta an firen. Pht- 
tarcb atatea it to bsTo been bar of ber baiband, 
together with \ureA of hia cniel and bmtal eha- 
raetet, and aacribea these fiielingB principally to 
the npiMentatHnu of Pelopidaa, when the ti- 
aitad him m hia priion. In (^cero the deed ii 
weribed to jealouay. (PlnL /U pp. 2SS, b, 297, d; 
Diod. itL 14, Xen. /faU. t1 4. | 37; Cie. ib Q^ 
n. 7. See alao Cie. de /». ii. 49, when Alex- 
ander*! murder iUnatratea a knotty point lor ape- 
dal pleading ; alao Aiialot. of. Oi. Jt Div. L 25 ; 
Ihe drtsm of Esdemob) [E. B.] 

tfiH ^iXa^ifiv), an ancient Oreek phyneian, who 
ia called by Oeutriaa Hontianni (if. p. 102, d. ed. 
Aigeut. IS32), AltMcmder Amalor Vtri, and wbo 
ia probably the aane penen who ia qnoled 
Caeliai Anreliaona {Dt Marb. Aeut. ii. ' 

'! p- 7^ 


lived probably lowtudi the end of the fint centnir 
befereChriat,aaS(isbo tpeakaof him (xiLp^SBO') 
Aa a contemporaiy ; he waa a pupil of Aaclapaadea 
(OcUit. Herat. I. c.\ aucceeded Zniia aa head of 
a celebrated Herophilean achool of medicine, eatB' 
bliihed in Phrygis between Laodicea and Canua 
(Stnb. L c), and waa tutor \a Ariitoicnua and 
Demoathenea Philalethea. (Qalen. AZ>i^.Pa^ 
iT. 4, 10, Tol. Tiii. pp. 727, 71(t.) He ia HTenl 
timea mentioned tr)r Oalen and alao by Sonnua 
{De AtU OiHttr. c; 93, p. 210), and appeara to 
have written aome medial worka, which are do 
lonoer extant. [W. A. O.] 

ALEXANDER CAxtfattpet), waa appointed 
goiemor of Puocn by Philip III. of Macedonia. 
The Phocian town of Phanoleiu waa conunanded 
by Jaaon, lo whom he had entnated thii pott. In 
concert with bim he ioTiled the Aeloliana to coana 
and take poaaeaaian of the town, promiting that it 
ihould be opened and aarreiidend to them. The 
Aetoliani, under the command of Aegetaa, accord- 
ingly enlend the town at night j and when theu 
beat men were within the wdls, they vera made 
priaonera by Alexander and hia aaaociate. Tbia 
happened in B.C 217. (Polyb. t. 06.) [L. S.] 



ALEXANDER CAAJtari|Wf), aon of PoLva- 

faacROH, Ihe Macedonian. The regent Anti- 

C, on hia death (b. c 320), left Ihe regency to 
, iperchou, to the exduaion and conaequeiit die- 
content of hit own ion, Caaaander. (Diod. xviii. 
48;PlaL/'io<!.p.7S&,C} The chief men.wbohad 
been plaoed in authority by Antipnter in the gar- 
riaoned towna of Greece, were bvour^le to Caa- 
aander, aa their palnin'i oon, and Polyiperchan*i 

Antipater, and reetoie democracy when it had been 
aboHibed by the latter. It waa then, m the pro- 
aecMian of thia detign, that hit aon Alexander waa 
aent to Athena, b. c SIB, with the alleged object 
of deliTering tiie city from Nicanor, who by Caa. 
■anderl appointment commanded the gorriaon 
plaled by Antipater in Munycbia. (PlnL Plnr. 
755,e756,e.iDiod.iTiii.6&.) Before hia airital, 
Nicanor, beaidea atrengthening himaelf with tntb 
troopa JaMonydiia.had alao tnaeheronaly aeiied ibe 
Pnnaena. Taocenpy IheeetwoponahinnelfBDon 
■l^ieand to be no leea the intention of Alexander, 
— an intention whidi be bad probably formed 
befeie any commnnicstion with thodon, though 
DiodMiu {L e.) teem* to imply Ihe conlraiy. The 
AAaniana, however, looked on Phodon aa the an- 
thor of the detigik, and their toapidona and anger 
b^g eiciled by the priTate conference! of Alex- 
ander with Nicanor, Phocion waa occuaed of irea- 
aon, and, fleeing with aeveral of hia fricnda to 
Alexander, waa by him detpatched to Polytpo 
ebon. (Diod. iviiL 66 ; Plat. Pia.'. 7GG, f. 7S7,a.) 
Caaaander, arriving at Athcnt toon after and occn- 
pyins the Peiiaeeua, wai there be«eged by Poly- 
apeicbou with a Urge fnroe ; bul the tuppliei of 
the latter being inadequate, he waa obliged to wiih- 
dmw B portion of hi* array, with which he wont to 
attempt the reduction of Mtgalopolia, while Alex- 
ander WBi left in command of the remainder at 
Athena, (Diod. iviii, 68.) Here he appean to 
have continued withput effecting anything, till the 
treaty and lapilnlation of Athen 
(Paoa. i. 26 ; Diod. xviiL 74) gnve 
power of the latltt. 

lything, liU tbi 
with CaatandQ 



When PalnpercbiHi,1iaflledat Mcg«lopa1i>(Diod. 
xriii. 72), withdre» into MacnJoni*, hii un Keiu 
to hiva been tefi wit!i an aimy in PeloponDau, 
wbue, u we maul ja Diudonu (lii. 36), the field 
m to him, end the (riendi of aligaich; 

WW left open to 
wen gmiU)' *U 

id b; the deputi 
le inteUigence of the muider of 
Airhiduui end EDr;dka b; OlTmpiu, B.a 317. 
(Pmni. L 11 I Diod. TIE. 1 1.) Dnring hie iliieiice, 
Aleiuider lucceeded in bnoging aver to hipuelf 
Kveral citio ud important pbuea in the Pelopon- 
PHtu (Diol ai. si) ; but, on Coeuder'i retain 
to the vrnth, ti&ei cruahing Olympiu in Mocedoo, 
ha in rain attempted to check him b; hia fortifioi- 
tioD of the IithmuB, for CMondsr, puung to 
Kpidaunu bf lea, ragained Arg« and Henniase, 
and afteiwaidB alio the Meaaemon lowni, with the 
exception oF Ilhoma. (Diod. lii. 54.) 

In th« next year, 315, AutigODa) (whoao wo- 
bicion and nicceaaea in the «a*t bad united againit 
him CaaiBoder, Ljndowchna, Aaander, and Ptolem; 
Soter), among other meoanna, lent Ariatodcraua 
into the Peloponneana lo form a league of amily 
with PolfipeichoD and Alenuderi aiul the lattei 
waa penuaded hj Arietodemn) to pan OTer to Aaiit 
foi a penonal conference with Antigoniu. Finding 
him at Tyre, a tnal; wu made hetWKii them, and 
Alexander returned to Onece with a preaent of 
SOD talenli from Antigoniu, and a multitude of 
magnilicent praniitea. (IKod. lii. 60,61.) Yst, 
in the lery «amB year, we find him nmonndng hit 
alliance with Antigonui, nod bribed br the tiUe of 
goTcrnor of the Peloponnetna to nconole himielC to 
Qwander. (Diod. xii. 64.) 

In the emningycar, 314, we read of him at en- 
wed for CaaBoder in the uege of Cyllene, which 
howerer waa niiaed b^ Ariilodemui and hie 
Aelolian SDiiliaiiet. After the return of Ariito- 
demut to Aelolia, the citiieni of Djme, in Achaia, 
having beii^ed the citadel, which vaa occupied by 
one of Caiaander^ ganiHma, Alexander forced hia 

"-..:--■'■"" ■ ■ 

menC, or exik. (Diod. lii. 66.) Very loon aner 
lliii he WH murdered al Sicyon by Alexion, a 
Sicyonian, leaiing the ccounand of hit furce* Is 
one who proTcd hectelf fully adequate to the taak, 
— bia wife CnteMpolia. (*. o. 31t, Diod. lii. 
67.) fE. K] 

ALEXANDER fAAjforlpot), a Rhodiin. In 
the war a|{ainBl Cattius he waa at the bead of the 
popvtar party, and waa raised to the office of pcy- 
Unit, B. c. 43. (Appian, -ie BtO. Ch. ir. 66.) But 
Boon of^, he and the Rhodian Admiral, MnaHaa, 
were defatted by Caauua in a i»-fighl nlf Cnidua. 
(Appian, da Bdl. Oh. iv. 71.) [L. S.] 

ALEXANDER (ST.), biihop of Hoke, a. d. 
109—119. (Eateb. HiML Ead. n. 4.) There are 
three Epiillrt ialtely aicribed to him by Iiidore 
Mercator, aa well aa a decntt according to Gmtian. 
(Mana,a>iioa(i.Tol.i.pp.G13 — 647.) Heracleon 
it (aid (in the book I'ratdeitvialiu, nf. Sinnood. 
0pp. soL i. p, 470) to hare broached hu heresy in 
Sicily in the time of Sb Alexander, and lo have 
been ccofnted by him. But Ueiadeou waa not, 
peibapa, yet bora. [A. J. C] 

ALEXANDER, who aaomied the title of Em- 
rBKon OF RoNB in a. d.311, waa, according to tome 
nccouQtt, a Phrygian, and according to others a 
Pannonian. He vaa appointed by MaientiDa 
Rovemoi uf Africa, but diicovering that Maxeu- 


liut was plotting against hii life, be aaaniMd Iha 
porplo, though he waa of an advanced age and 
a timid nature. Maxentiua tent soma tnupa 
againit bim under Rufiua VdusJaiHia, who put 
down the innmction without difficulty. Akx- 
ander waa taken and strangled. (Zoaimua, ii. 12, 
II; Ani. Vict'IeClui.40, .QWL40.) There an 
a few medals of Alexander. In the ana auncied 
we find the woida Imp. AbiiASnaK. P. F. Avo.; 
the nniwe re^eaents Victory, with thia insciip- 
tion, VicToitu A1.KXAKDBI Auo. N., and at 
the bottom, P. K. 



ALEXANUER,L II.,kingBofSyiia. [Albx- 




ovSpat), waa bom at Alexandria, of Jewish parents 
Hia father held the office of Aiabareh in Alexandria, 
and hia uncle was Philo, the well-known writer. 
Alexander, hoven^r, did not coutinne in the &ith 
of hit anceBtora, and was nwarded for hia apoaCacy 
by varioua public appoiotmenta. In the reign of 
Claudius he auccceded Fadius aa [>ocnia(or al 
Judaea, about a. a. 46, and was promoted to the 
equestrian order. He was subaequently appointad 
by Nen procurator of Egypt ; and by hia urden 

andria in a tumult in the d^. It waa apparently 
during hia guvemment in Egypt that be nceota- 
panied Corbulo in hia expedition into Armenia, 
A. D, 64 ; and he waa in thia campaign ^ren aa 
one of the hoat^^ to aecure the aaiely of Tiridalea, 
when the latter liiited the Roman camp. Alex- 
ander VHS the first R«nan governor who declared 
in favour of Vespasian ; and the day on which be 
adminiateicd the oath to the kgioni m the name of 
Veapuiau, the Kalends of July, A. n, 69, is re- 
garded as the beginning of that empeiur'a nign. 
Alexander afterwarda accompanied TituB in the war 

Tinst JudBel^ and waa present at the lakiog 
Jeniaalrm. (Joseph. JnL JwL xx. 4. g 2; 
B^ Jiui. it II. 9 6. IB. § 1, 18. g 7, a, iv. 10. 
S 6, vL 4. 9 3j Tnc Amm. xv. 28, ffit L 11, ii. 
74,79; Suet Keip. 6.) 

i TpaJiXjofii), one of the moat eminent of tbe an- 
cient phyuciana, waa born at Tralle*, a aty of 
Lydin, from whence be derirea hia name. Hia 
date may isfely be put in the aiith century after 
Christ, for he mentiona Aiftiu. (lii. 8, p. 346), 
who probably did not write dll the end of the 
fifth or the beginuing of the sixth centnry, and 
he it himself quoted by Paolua Aegineta (iii. 28, 
7a, TiL 6, n, 19, pp. 447, 49S, 650, 660, 667^ 
who is supposed lo have lived in the sevendi ; be- 
aidea which, he ia mentioned at a contanporaiyby 
AgBthiea [Hisl. v. p. 149), who aet about writing 
his History in the beginning of the nign of Justin 
the younger, about a. d. S65. He had the ad- 
vantage of being brought np under his father, 
Stephanui, who was himself a phyaidan (iv. I, 

fk mV and al«o unda aiwUiei penon, wbow 
maat m iam not maition, bnt to wluw n 
CoHou he ^dicmta hii chief iroik (lii. L p. 313), 
wUeh hg wrato oat of gntitDda it hit nqmt. 
H« wM k Buui at in >KtennT« pntctiM, of i Tciy 
kng expriMiKa, and of gnU repntatiaii, not only 
Kt RaBW, bat wbereTK he traTelled in Sfuin, 
Oanl, and Italy (l 16. pp. 1&6, 1S7), vhaice he 
WM allad by ny of aninenea " Alennder the 
KinidaiL" Anthiu qxaka alw iridi gnat pnuM 
■f hi* bar bnUen, Anthoniaa, EKoaeaTW. Hetro' 
dona, andOlymiriiu, who «i 

pilar, like Aetioa, OrihaBiu, and other*, but J* an 
aatluv of qaitc a diArenl (lamp, and hu more the 
■ii of an original wnter. He wrote hii gnat woik 
(aa he tell* 0* hinael^ in. I, p. 3 13] in an eitnme 
dd an, from the nanha of bii own eiparienee, 
whan aa could do lotigar bear tha &ti^ue of pne- 
tin. Hi* atyle in the main, nyi Fnind, ii Tciy 
good, (hart, dw, and (to nae hi* own term, liL 1, 
pt S13) ooBMtJng of ooBmm ei{B«iaion* ; and 
tboodi ((hnogli a mixlan c€ HBaa bnign word* 
nmwinned peibapa by lu* Mnla) not alwayt p<- 
fKtiy elqant, yet Teiy aipnaaTa and intelUgibl 
"' ' ' a coaiidBTi Alaxandar to hare bdangM 

part of hi* pnctica appear* to be bit belief 
chanai and amoleta, laina of whidi may be quoted 
a* tpedoMni. For a qoDtidian aguv, ** Qatbi 
ao oiire leaf before ni»-ri*a, write on it with con 
BOO ink lo, poL, B, and hang it reond the neck ^ 
(lii. 7. p. S39) ; for the gnnt, " Write an i 
■lata gf gold, during the waning of the moon, iiri, 
»^ I*. «*. T* « f J., »<. w. xK 1*. rt 
•K, and wear it nnmd the utklei ; prononncing alao 
i^, dfil*, fW, 3p.rft flair, x-i." (xL 1, p. 31 3), 
or elae thii nne of Homer (IL & 951 

while the mora i* in Libia ; bnt it i* mneh better 
If the thonld be in Ijo." (lUd.) In exor „ 
Ibe goat {Hid. p. 311) he Hy*, " I uljnre Oer by 
the gnat name laJ XafocM," that i*, m'>T 
/11K^> and a little farther on, ■* I adjure ^ee 
by the hdy lumw* lad, ZoCiuM, 'ASmt, "EUi,' 

that ii, vfjN yp^ ;iiM3!I nVT; from 

which he would *pp«r to bare been either a Jew 
or a Ouialian, and, from hi* frequenlly preteribing 
•via* ■ deah, it ii moat probable that ha wa* a 
Chiiitian. Hiichief waik, entitled BiSAJa Iwrpunl 
Awoituoi, Lari D¥oibeim tb St Mtdim, tint 
a^fptarA in an old, berbannu, and impariect Iiatin 
tranilatiim, with the title Alanmiri Yatrm Prae- 
tiu.4'0., Lngd. i501,4to., which wn* HTeral time* 
nprintad, and corrected and UBcnded by Albani 
'Toriniu, BaiiL 1533, IbL It va> fir*t edited i 
Greek by Jae. Ooopyln*, Par. 154S, fbU ■ beauti- 
hl and (caree editWD, containing alio NiiKot dt 

L 1B66, 8td., which i* a ru« and Talnable 
cditim. Qmnter'a trtnaktion ha* been aereral 
time* reprraled, and ia inserted by H. Stephi" '~ 
hi* Mrditat ArUt PrvK^Ht, Pan*, 1G67, Ii 
al*a brmt part of Ualler** Collaetira of Medical 
WHlen, Uoiaun. 1772, 8™, 3 to'" ■^- -"— 


work of Alexander'* that i* *till extant i* a abort 
tnatiie, n*pl 'V^yBwr, Dt Lmmbrieu, which waa 
fini pubUihed in Qnek and Latin by Hieron. Her- 
:urialii,VenBt. le70,iUi. It iialao iiuerted in hi* 
wvck Dt Mofbit PntTonm, FnncoC UtU, Sto., and 
in tbo twelfth Tolume of the old edition of Fabrieins, 
BiiHatluica Otoko { the Latin tranilalion akme i* 
Indoded in Haller'a CoUectioa mentioned abore. 
by Dr. Sptenger 

.. Wonnd* of 
Urine written by him i* alluded to by JooiUK* 
Actoarini (Zti Urin. Diffir. c. 2. p. 4S), and ha 
himialf mentjan* a work of hi* dd Diteaae* oS the 
Syei, which waa ttanilatad into Arabic. (Sprenger, 
Wenrich,i.(.) The other medical ireatiio on ITea- 
ri*y, which i* laid to hare been alio tiandated into 
Arabic, WB* probably only the aiilh book of hi* 
great work, which i> enliiely devoted lo the eon- 
iideration of thii diiwie. A very fall aeconnt of 
the life and work* of Alexander TrnDianni waa 
publiahed at London, 1734, ere., by Edward Mil- 
ward, H. D., entitled " TidHannt IU(i>i*aen* ; or, 
an Accoont of Alexander Ttallian, one of the Greek 
Writer* that flnuiahed after Oalen : ahewing that 
thete Author* are for from duerring the imputa- 
tion of mere oempilen," &a Two other medical 
work* wUch are •ometinw* altribnted to Alexander 
TraUianu (ni. a Collection of Medical and Physi- 
cal Problem*, and a treetlie on Feien) are QDliccd 
tmdar ALniKDU Apiiiu)dis]IN*ib. (Freind't 
HM. i/Pkgmc, whoae wordt hsTe been eonwlime* 
borrowad ; Fabriciu*, BibL GroBC ml. lii. p. S93, 
M|. ed. TCL; Haller, BAtictkma Mtdieam Pneli- 
Aiceam.i.; Sprengel, /fM lU la MhL tom. ii.; 
Iienaee, GttcUdilt der Mtdica; Chonlant, Hand- 
ImA der fliuAenloKfa fiir die AeOere Medieii.) 
[W. A. O.J 

ALEXANDER ('AAjfuV), of Tkichohiim 
in Aetolia, wa* conniander of the AetoKanB in 
B.C 218 and 819. He attacked the rear of the 
army of Philip on hi* return from Thrrmui, Lut 
the lAampl wa* nnmcceufiiJ, and many Aeloliani 
fen. (Polyh. ». IS.) [L.S.] 

['Axlffirtfot Zadavi), the eon of a merchant 
named Protarehu*, w»* *et up by Ptolemy Phyecon, 
king of Egypt, a* a pretender to the crown of (he 
Greek kingdom of Syria ■bonly after the dath at 
Antiochua Sidete* and the return cf Demelrin* 
Nicalor &am hi* captivity among the Parthian*. 
(B.C. 128.) Antiaeb. Apemea, and ae'eral other 
ciliea, di«gn«ted with the tyranny of Demetriun, 
acknowledged the autborily of Alexander, wha 
pretended lo liaTe been adopted by Antiochua 
Sidete* ; but he nerei *ucceeded in obtaining 
power over the whole of Syria, In t)ie tarlier 
part of the year 126 he defeated Demetrina, who 
fled to Tyre and wa* there killed ; but in the mid 
die of the aame year Aleauider'i palron, the king 
of Egypt. Kt up againit him Antiocbui Orypui. a 
■on of Demetrina, by whom ho w»« defeated in 
Bed to Antioch, where he 
the (empte of Jupiter, in order 


tn pay hia troopa ; but th« pBODle 
lod drova him not of the c' 

Hi I 

n hU ii 

the handa of iDbben, who delivnvd 
Antiochoi, bj wham be was putIi><luuh,B.c. 122. 
He wu weak and gfteminate, but Mimetiiiiei geiie- 

punhued iIbto,^ was ^plied lo him m* a term of 
Rpnach, fnnn ■ report that he had been bought 
by Ploleni; ai a iIbtb. Several of hit coiiu ale 
extant In Che ooe figured below Jnpiter ia le- 
pretented on the rerene, holding in the right hand 
■ mull image of rictorj. 

(Jutin.xiiii. l,3i Joeepb. Jitfi;. xiiL 9, 10; 
dutoii, Fam, iiL p. S34.) [P. S.] 


ALEXANDRIDES ('AA^&u>«pIIi,i) afDelpU, 
a Onek biitoriaa of nncertaia date. If we maj 
Jadga frtyta the nibjecta on which hit hittoiy la 
qnated u an antlioiitj, it would leem tb*t bia 
work woi ■ biilory of Delphi (Fiat. LfKtmL 18 ; 
ScboL ad Emrip. AlcaL I, where nndaabtedlir the 
HiOie penon i* meant, though the MS. reading ia 
Anazandride* ; SchoL ad AruUph. Pkt. 926.) 

ALEXA'NOR fAAtfibwp), a ion of Machaon, 
and grandKHi of Aeecnlapiaa, who built Ut hia «n 
a temnle at Titana in the tnrilorr of Sie<ran. He 
himKlf too wai wonhipped there, and ncriRoea 
were ofieied to him after umaet only. (Pan*, ii. 
33.8 4, II. 9 6, Ac) [Ua] 

ALEXARCHUS ('AA^xn), a OiHk hie 
tarian, who wrela a werk on the biitorr of Italy 
('iToAwil), of which Plntarch {FanUUL 7) quota 
the third book. Serriui (ad Aai. iiL S34) men- 
tiona aa opinion of hia reapecling the origin of the 
name! Epeirua and Campania, which unqDeation- 
ably belonged to hii work on Italy. The writer 
of Ihia fume, whom Plutarch mentjana in another 
paange ( A /<; ef Ol p. 365), i> pmbably a dilferent 
penon. [L. S.J 

ALEXARCHUS i'AXlfpfXi't). 1. A brother 

the fonnder of a town called Unmopolii, the rite 
of which ia unknown. Here he ia nid to hare 
introduced a number of word* of hia own coinige- 
which, thou^ Terj expreaeiie, amtai to haii 
been regarded aa a kmd of alang. (Athen.iiL p.98. 
2. A Corinthian, who, while the lAcetbenio 

re fortifring Decdaia in Attica, a. 


uated with the conunsnd of 600 hoplitea, with 
whom he joined the Sicilian expedition. (Thucyd. 
viL 13.) [L. S.] 

ALE'XIAS ('AA^liu), an ancient Greek phyri- 
eian, who wu a pupil of Thraayaa of Maniinea, 
and liied probably about tlie middle of the fourth 
ccntni? before Chriit. Theophrutua mentiona 
him ■* hanng Ured ahortly befoi* hia tima (ITiU. 

Plant, ii. 16. S 8), and apeaka highly of hia abOI- 
tiea and acquirementa. [W. A. Q.] 

ALEXl'CACUS {'AXtpm,..), the arorter ol 
evil, i* a aumame given by the Oreeki to leTenJ 
deities aa-^Zeua (Orph. IM Lapid, Proaeta. i.f, — 
to Apollo, who wai worthipped under thii name 
by the Athenians, becauie he whi believed to have 
■topped the plague which raged at Athena in the 
time of the Pehiponneaian war (Pana. i, 3. | 3. 
liii. 41. § £),— and la Henicle& (Lactont v. 3,) 

ALEXICLES CAAtluAqi), an Athenian gene- 
ral, who balMiged to the oligarchial or Lacedoano- 
nian party at Athena. After the revolution of B. c 
41 1, be and aerenl of hia Mend* quitted the city 
and went to their firieadi at Deceleia. But he na 
afterwards made [daoner in Peiiaeeus, and sen- 
tenced to death for hia participation in the guilt of 
Phiynichna. (Thucyd. viiL 92 ; Lycurg. in Leoer. 
p. 164.) [L. S.] 

ALEXICRATESCAA({iiip4T^),a Pythagorean 
phlloMpher who lived at the tima <rf' Plntarch, and 
whose diadplea continnad to ohaerve the amnent 
diet i^the Pythagoieaoa, abetaaning from fiah alto- 
gether. (Plut. ^lajMt. viii. ji. 72S.) Another 
penan of thia name oecnii in Plutarch, PyrrL fi.) 

ALCXIDA ('AA<(3nX > 4>a^ter of Ampbi- 

■rana. from whom certain divinittea called EUaii 

( 'EAaEtfwi, i e. the avecteia <d e^nleptie fita) were 

believed to be descended. (Pint. Quaat. Or. 23.) 


ALEXI'NUSCAAaf^i), a philoaopher of the 
DWectic or Megarisn ecbDol and a diaciple of En- 
bulides [Eucliqes], from hii eristic pnpimaitiea 
beetionaly named 'EAeTfinii, who lived ^ut the 
beginning of the third century befon ChiisL He 
wu a native of Elia, and a contemporary of ZcDo. 
From Elia he went to Olympta, in the Tain hope, 
it i> aaid, of (bunding a aect which might be called 
the Olympian ; butbia diaciplea aoon became dia- 
guited with the nnbealthineia of the place and 
dieir acsnty mcana of aubaistence, and left bila 
with a ungle attendant None of hia doctrine* 
have biieD preairved to na, but bom the brief men- 
tion made of him by Cicere (Arad. iL 24), he 
tphiatical pnaales, like 


of his sect Atheni . 
a paean which be wrote tn honour ti 
the Macedonian, and which was lOng at 
I the sound of ^e lyre. Aleiinna alao 
wreia against Zeno, wboaa pnrfesaed antagcaiiat he 
waa, and againat Ephorua the hiatoriazL Diogeifea 
I^ertiui Ima pRaerved some lines on bis doth, 
which waa occasioDed by bis being pierced with 
a reed while iwinuning in the Alpaana. (Diog. 109. 110.) IR J.] 

ALE'XION, an ancient phyridan, who waa pro- 
bably (judging from hia name) a native of Oreece ; 
he waa a &iend of Cicero, who praises hia medical 
skill, and deeply hunenta hia Hidden death, b. c 
44. (.irf^«.vii.S,iiii.25,iv.l.da) [W.A.0.1 

ALEXl'PPUS {-AXiitwwts), an ancient Grcok 
phyaiciin, who ii mentioned by Plutarch {Ala. 
c. 41 ) aa having receired a letter fnan Aleiuider 
himself, to thank him for having cured Peucealaa, 
one of hia dficera, of an iUneaa pmbably about b. c. 
327. [W. A. G.J 

ALEXIS CAA'£")- !■ A comic poet, bom at 
Thurii, in Magna Oraeeia (Suidaa ■. v. 'A*.X but 
admitted aubaequenlly to the privilt^e of an 

Admuan dtiiai, and eniDUed io the dnne OTov, 
bdongiog to the tribe Leontis. (Strph. Byi. i.«,} 
He mu (he nDck and iniiructor of MeiiMnder. 
(Snida. t. e,-AA.{.i; Proleg. Amioph. p. iii.) 
When lie wu bom wa are not eipreul; to]d, but 
he IJTcd to the age oF lOS (Plut. Dt/ecL Orae. 
p. 420, e.). Bud wu living U leaac as late ei 
B. c 288. Not the town af Thurii waa de- 
■trof ed b7 the Liusiiani about B. c. 390, It i> 
Ihenfbra not at all unlikely that the paienta of 
Alexia, in older to eacape from the threatened de- 
Mrsction of their d^, remoTed ahortl; before vith 
their litde un to Athena. Perhma therefore we 
maf tM\gn sboal B. c 394 aa ibe date of the 
birth of Alexia. He had a aon Slephanua, who 
al» wrote comcdieB. (Suidaa L c) He appears 
to haTo been rather addicted to (ha pleaaurea of ' 
the table. (Atheo. vJiL p. S44.) According 
PlDtarch (Dt Smit Admnitl. Re^. p. 735, b ,. 
hr expired upon the atage while being crowned as 
Tictor. Bj the old giBinniariant he is commoalj 
oiled a writer of the middle comedy, and bag- 
menu ond the titles of many of hia playa confirm 
this itatement. Still, for more than 30 years he 
was cantfrBporai? nith Pbilippidei, Philemon, Mf- 
nander, and Diphilns, and leTerHl fragments shew 
that he also wrote pieces which would be dasud 
with thoae of the new comedr. He was a 
markably pcoUfic writer. Soiiua says he wr 
S15 plays, and the titlei of 1 1 3 baie come do 
to m. The Mtpn-ii, 'AymXiar, 'OAufiridSuf 
and napiatns, in which he ridiculed Plato, w 
imiUibly_eihibited as early as the J04th Olyp- 

ALEXIS CAAefu), a sculptor , 


a 19) as one of 
Jiiaa (yi. 3. § 3) 

piad. Tbe'A7£«i, in which ht 
gotaa, was no doubt written while he was alit 
•nd Aeachines (c Thmrci. pp. G — B) in B. c 34. 
■peaks of him as then liring. The 'Alt>vpoi and 
STBVTiAnii, in which he satirized Demosthenes, 
yien acted ahonly afier B. c. 3*3. The 'Iinroi 
in which be alluded to the decree of Sophocte 
BgsiuM the philosophers, in B. c 316. Thi 
niptutut in B. c 313. The *apimraini\-n anc 
ToSnAtiiaJo, in B. c 306. At might haie beei 
expected in a person who wrote so much, the Bami 
passage frequently occurred in setetal plays ; no. 
did he scruple sometimes lo borrow ftom othe 
poetH, as, for example, from Eubulus. (Athen. i 
p. 25, f.) Carjstius of Pergamus (19). JlAn. Ti 
p, 236, e.} sajB he was the fint who invented th< 
pnrt of the parasite. This is not quite correct, aj 
It had been introduced bdbre him by Epichannua 
but he appears to hare been the fint who gave i' 
the form in which it afterwards appeared upon the 
■(age, and to have been very happy in hi* exhibi- 
tion of it. His wit and elegance are praised by 
Athenoen* (iL p. 59, f.), whose testimony is con- 
firmed by the extant fragments. A considerable 
list of peculiar words and forms used by him is 
given by M«i:ieke. His plays were freqaentty 
translated bv the Roman comic wrilen. (Oell. ii. 
23.) The fngments we posseaa of his plays have 
been pitserved chiefly by Athe"-™" "n^ Rinli.«ii 
(Meineka, Pngm. Com. 

Ointon, Fortt Hdlrnia, 

pvati ; Fabridos, Biil. Gr. vol. ii. p. '406, Ac.) 

3. A wiitei meationed by Atheiueus (x. p. 410) 
M the amhoi of a tnatiae tifi AiImpKifat. 

8. A SamiaB, the aathor of an historical work 
CsBod Xituai^Dpoi or^Ofm Zofuiucol (Samian Am- 
na/i), which Athenaenf qaotet. (liii. p. 572, f_ 

.iLp.34(^d.) ,^ cr .. . 

{liii. p.S72, 1 
[C. P. M.) 

menlioned by Pliny (jcixi 
the pupils of Polyclelui. 

mentions au anist of the same name, a native 01 
Sicyon. and bther of the sculptor Canthanis. It 
cannot be satisbctoiily settled whether these are 
the same, or dilTerent persons. Pliny's account 
implies that he had the elder Poljeletus in view, 
in which case Alexia could not hare flourished 

01. 130, a c, 300. (Plinv. ff- N. xxxiv. 8. s. 
IS.) If the two were idcniicnl, as Thiersch 
(^nwioi der bild. Kiaat. p. 276) thinks, we must 
suppou either that Pliny made a mistake, and (hat 
Alexis studied onder the yoonget Polycletns, or 
else that the Eutychides, whoM dale is given t^ 
Pliny, was not the artist under whom Canthanu 
sludied. [C.P. M,] 

CAX({it , or 'AAi(ioi Yiotiriirit), emperor of Con- 
stantinople, was most probably bom in A. D. 104B. 
He was the son of John Camuenna, and the 
nephew of the emperor Isaac Comnenns, and ib- 
ceived a careful education from his mother Anna. 
He accompaniod the emperor Romanus Diogenes 
in the war against Alp- A nlin, sultan of tbeTurks- 
Seljuks, and was present at t 
kenl. where this emperor was 

sutlan. After the deposition of Romanus 

e bottia of Mala*- 

1 1071, . 


bto(her Isaac joined tho parly of the n 
Michael VII. Ducas. who employed Alexis against 
the rebels who hod produced great disturbances is 
Ada Minor, In this war Aleiis distinguished him- 
self as a successful general, and shewed that extra- 
ordinary shrewdness which afterwards became the 
principal feature of his character. He defended 
Michael VII. against the rebel N'icephonu Bo(a- 
nialea, but the cause of Michael having become hope- 
less, he readily joined the victorious rebel, who be- 
came empetoi under the title of Nicephonts 111. in 
1077. The authority ofNicephorus II L was disobey- 
ed by several rebels, among whom Nicepbonis 
Bryennius in Epeirus was the most dangervus ; but 
Alexis defeated them one after the other, and the 
grateful emperor conferred upon him the title of 
"Sebastos." Alexis was then considered as the lint 
genera] of (he Byniitine empire, but his military re- 
nown made him suspected in (he eyesof the emperor, 
who kept him at Constantinople and tried to ^at 
ridofhimbyhoseitilrigues. But AlexisoppoBedin. 
irignes to intrigiies,andashemisnolon1y (hemost 
gallant, but also the most artful among his shrewd 
countrymen, he outdid the emperor, who at laM 
gave orders, that his eyes should be put out. 
Alexis now fled to the army on the Danube, and 
was proclaimed emperor by the troops. Assisted 
by his brother Isaac, who acted with great gene- 
rosity, Alexis marched to Constantinople, obtained 
possession of the dty by a stratagem, deposed the 
emperor, and BsoiDded the throne in 1001. 

The Bviantine empire was then at (he point of 
rein. While Alexis carried on the war against 
the rebel Nicephorus Bryennius, and afterwards 
during his forced sojourn at Constantinople, and 
the time of his ditfcronces with Nicephnrui III^ 
Metek-Shah, the son of Alp-Arslin, and the 
gnstest prince of the Seljnks, had conquered the 
Byzantine part of Asia Minor, which he ceded to 
'^ ' iisin Soliman. The Bulgarians threatened to 


invade Tbnce, and Robort Onixaid, dnke o( 
Apulia, will) a mighty boat of Nomuui kcugbu, bid 
cnaKd the Adrialic and laid uege to DnntiJ, the 
aDcisnt DjmuhiDm. In thii mideal 
Alexia evinced eitraordinarf aclivitj-. 
duded peace with the Seljuks cedii^ 
them ; he made an alHaitce with Venke ud Henrj 
1 v., emperor of Gemuuiy ; and he uld ths uured 
nueli of the churchei to paj hii Hoop*. }lii 
h the NDrmsiu ivsa long and bloodjr. 


but faui 


I of -Rearj IV., compelled iJw Ni 
leave Epeinii iu 10S4. During thii time the Sel- 
juk* had iKommenced hoitililiea, and thnalened 
to block ap Conilanlinople with a fleet conitnicted 
b]r (Jreek csplirea. In Ihii extremity Alexia 
implond tbe auiatanca of the European prince*. 

Tbe conqnett of Jenualera by the Seljuki, the 
intemipljoii of the pious pilgrimage) to the holy 
giBTe, and the (eiationi which tbe Cbriatian* in 
the Eaat bad to endure from tlie inlidelt, bad pro- 
duced an extraordinary excitemeDl among the 
nniion* in Europe. Tbe idea of reecuing the town 
of our Saviour beoune popular -, the pope and the 
princet ihewed themselve* fevonrable to tucb an 
expedition, and they rewlvcd upon it after the 
ambaaaadon of Alexia had related to them at 
PiaceiuB in 1095 the hopeleu state of the Chi 
tiani in Asia. The fint Cruiaden appRired 
Conilantinople in 1D96. they wen coniniaaded | great 
r Peter the Hermit and Waller the Pennyleu, | Alexia Angeliu-Coi: 


The life of .Alexia haa been aiehlly, though 
very partially, described by hit daughter, Anna 
Comuena, in her AUmo, which i* the principal 
aonrcB concerning this emperor. (Conip. Clycaa, p> 
4{ Alhrrtu■Aquell>i^ii. 9-I9iWilb<:lmuiTyRnui, 
iL S, -23 ; eomp. S. F. Wilken, " Kemm ab Alexia 
L, Joanne, MsJiuele el Aleiio II. Coninenis geita- 
nun libri quatuor," Heidelberg, IBIl.) [W. P.] 

("AA^ij or "AAijioi KopjTjttii), emperor of Coo- 
■nntinople, the aon of the emperor Monad Com- 
nenus, was bom in 1167, according to Nieetaa. 
In 1179, he married Agnei or Anna, the daughtd 
oF king Louis VII. of France, and succeeded hia 
htherinliaO, under tbe guudianahip of his mo- 
ther Maria, the daughter of Raymond, prince of 
Antioch. They both beome victims of the ambi- 
tion of Andronicu) Comnennt, who first compelled 
tbe 3-aaiig emperor to sign the dealh of his mother, 
and then put Alexis to death in llt>3; wheteupoa 
he succeeded him on the throne. (Nicetna, AIniM 
Mantl. G>mH. fil. ; comp. Ducange, Faniiiiae Bu^ 
amtinat^f. 188.) [W. P.) 

CAA>{ii or 'AAjJiM 'A7t»Adi), the brother of thi- 

blinded in 1195. Being a descendant of Ale lii 1. 

■nny. Alexia hastened to send them over to 
Aaia, where they we[« mssaacrcd hj the Turks. 
Soon after them came a powerful anny, command- 
ed by Oodirey of DouiUon, and their continued 
stay in the neighbourhood of Conatantinopte gav< 
Dcation to acnout differcucea between the L«iint 
and theOreeki. However Alexia, by the alternate 
uaeof threata and p>-nuasion>, not only succeeded 
iu getting rid of the dsngenma foreignen by 
iiig them over to Ana, but also inanagsd the , 
of Godfrey of Bouillon and hit turbulent barons 
wiiS so much dexterity, that they contented to 
take the oath of vassalage for those provinc 
which they might conquer in Asia, and promii 
to Tvxlon to the emperor the Byzantine territoriea, 
which bad been taken by the Seljuka. In hia 
turn lie promiaed to assist them in their enterprise 
widi a strong army, bnl the dangerona alale of the 
empire prevented him from keeping his word. 
However, in proportion as the Cruaaders, in 1097, 
advanced into Asia, Alexis followed them with a 
ohoten body, and thus gradually reunited with hit 
einpiie Nirsea, Chios, Rhodet, Smyrna, Ephesus, 
Saidea, and finally all AtU Minor. The descend- 
anta of Bohcmond, prince of Antioch, did homage 
to Alexii, to whom they realored Taraus and 
Mnlniiatra. During the Ealicr yx-ait of hit reign, 
Alexis was occnpied with coniolliIatinE the do- 
meatic peare of hit empire, which was then often 
di-tnrbed by religious tronblea. He died in 1118, 
al (he ege of seventy, and hit auiik'tior waa hit 
aon .lohn, generally called Calo-Joonnea. 

Alexit was the author of a work entitled 
Xo^qpuif}, which was published in the 4th volume 
af the AnaUela Gratia, Par. 16X8, and alto (rma 
a later manntcript by Gronoviua at the end of hit 

'e extant, lae Fabric. BiU. Grace viLp. 729. 

ith Penis and the Seljuka of 
Kontah, but bis armies were defeated. Being 
hose, npacious, and cruel, he incuii«d the batrad 
and contempt of hia tubjecta, and pr^iared hia 
ruin. He loat the crown thnmgh hia nephew. 
Alexia, the ton of Imac II. Angelua, who, laving 
etcsped &Dm Contiantinople, tncceeded in pci~ 
tuHding the Crundert assembled in Venice to 
make sn expedition egaintt the nturper. Amotint- 
ing to 20,000 men, and commanded by Dandolo, 
doge of Venice, they attacked ConttanlinoplB ui 
the month of July, 1203; but before they hod 
taken this city, Alexis III. abandoned hia palace 
and fled to Italy, carrying with him 10,(100 pounds 
of gold. Aftrr his flight, Conatantiuople waa oc- 
cupied by the Crusadeii, who recogniaed aa em- 
perors the blinded Isaac and bit ton Alexia. 
[Albxib IV.] He atterwardt returned to Oteecc, 
and treacherouily blinded tbe emperor Alexia 
V. Munnptlut, who after hit depoution in 
1-204, bad fled to Alexit 111., whose dangliler 
he had married. Meanwhile, Theodore Latcartt 
succeeded in making bhntelf independent at Nicnea, 
hut waa involved in a war irith Ghayitfred-dln. 
tulton oF Eoniah. In 1-210, Alexia III. Sed to 
this sultan, and peraoaded him to support hit 
elaima to the throne of Bysantium, and to declare 
war Hgainat I'lirodote Lajcarit. The war proved 
btal fiir the lultan, wbo was killed in the battle of 
Antiocb, and Alexia III. was made prisoner- 
Theodore Lotcarit had married Anna Angela Com. 
' daughter of Alexia III., but tbia 
not present him from confining 
&thei-in-biwtoa moDaateiy al Nioea. (1310.) 
There Alexia III. died aome years after at an 
advanced age ; the exact year of hia birth il 
not known. (Nieetaa, AUxU Angdm, Iiaaetm 
Atigdm, iii. 8, Ac; iiaaenH et All. fiL c. ll 
Villchardouin, De la Cbujwifa ia ComtaulinaiLs, 
Paris, 1838, c. il, 56, kc.) [W. P.J 

fAA^ or 'AX^m 'AyT<A«), mu the xm of the 
•npsor \mtc 1 1. Angelni, It ia numtiDned nnder 
Alixii III. that, after the depoailion of thii 
peror, ho lod hia bther iren placed oa the thi 
by the Criuadrn. Alnia IV. wu c^PImed tofte- 
ther with Ihbc II. on the 29t(i of July. 1203, 
md, to iecnn himaelf on the throne, engiiged tho 
Cmiadeii to contiTine at Coiutantinople. He had 
ptaniied them to put an end to the Khiim of the 
Onek Church, but did not do anything for that 
porpOK, nor did he folfil his other engi^emt - 
towwd* the Cmaaden. At the nme time, be 
net nndentand how to munUiiii hit dignity unong 
the tuihulenl and haaghty boTDni of Italy, Prance, 
and FbindoiB, who win ""'"' ~ ■"'" — ---' 

and hi* deliiei 

nenlJy ar 


Docaa, uraamed Hm^ 

taphioa, an unbitiana and enlerprinngtnan, took 
■dnntage of theae trooblea, and anddenly Miud 
the crown. By hii order Alexia IV. vaa pot lo 
death m the 2Slh of Janua^, 1301; laanc 11. 
died of giiefl (Nicetu, Imaaits Atg^ni, iii. c. 8, 
Ac; IiaaaaelAUiafil.; ViUehardonin. f Ml e. 
61. 56, 60, At, 102—107.) [W. P.] 

or 'A^J{u» Aa6Ka), mrnamed "Meihzuphlub," on 
Monnl of the dow junction of hia ihaggy eye- 
broiri, waa crowned emperor of Canstanlinaple on 
the 8ti> of February, 1 201, afler baitog been pre- 
aeut ac the mnrder of Alexia IV, who wu put to 
death t^ hii mder. Hii earlier life ia almoat nn- 
kuwn. Nieeus, howeTer, Matev that be had 
always been lapacioas and Talnptuona ; on the 
other hand, he waa a mnn of gnat coumge aod 
eoeigj. ImmediaUly after he had nsurped the 
throne, the Cmaaden, who were atill aaaeinblcd 
onder the watla of Cr 
city. Alexia V. diadiioed 
them on diahonoarable conditioni, and pnpared 
for leuatance, in which he waa Tigorously aasiated 
by Theodore LsMaiia. IIoweTer, conrage anddenly 
abmdoned hint, and he fled to tho depoaed em- 
peror Alexia HI., whoae daoghter En doxia Angela- 
Catnnena be bad just married. ConatantiDOple 
waa taken by itorm by the Cmsadera (12th of 
April, 1201). who, after baring ccmmitted theae 
BDmra, of which Nicetns, an eye-vitneaa, girea 
Moh an emphatical deecriplian, chose Baldwin, 
eemit of Flanders, emperor of Conatantinople, but 
kanng him only (he fourth part of the empire. 
After being deprived of aigUt by hia &lhe^in-law, 
Alexis V. Bed to the Morea, bat waa atnatad and 
canied to ConstantinDple, where the Ctnaden put 
hin to death by caating him from the top of the 
TheodoBan column. (1204.) (Nicetaa.Mirnr'Uu,' 
bursM Amgilmt el Ala. fi.e.i,6; Gala Frm- 
asm, c 94 1 ViUehardouin, Hid. c Al, 66, 60, 
ftc. 98, 108, 118-115, J27, 4c.) [W. P.] 

ALE'XIUS ARISTPNUS ifAXteft'hpiirr^ 
rti), Oeconomni of the Oreat Chnieh at Canstan- 
tinople, flooruhed «- □. 1166. in which year he 
waa preaent at the Connril of Conilantinople. He 
edited a Sjniepiii Diirainm with achaKa, which ii 
giToi by Bishop Bereridge in hia Poadartoa Cat- 
■H^ OnD. 1672, foL Td. il post pag. IDS, and 
nL i. p. I, ftc Other works by bim an qootod. 
See Fabric. BM. Or. nl iL p. 2S0. [A. J. C] 
ALE'XIUS Caa/(«i), Patriarch of Cok(it*n- 
iwcrtB. a SMmber of the monastery o< Slndiva 
ffcamded a. d. 16I>), succeeded Enalathln ■• l>i.- 


I triarch a. d. 1025. In A. o. 1034 be crowned 
! Michael IV. the &*oiirile of Zoe, who, to make 
way for him, procured the death of her huiband, 
the Empenr Romanoi. He thwarted the allempls 
of John (tho emperor'i brother) to gain the patri- 
archal we (a. d. 1036), and died jk. n. 1043. Ot. 
ma of hia are eilani, ap. Jui Gr. Ran. toL i. 
lib. It. p. 250, UunclsT. Frsncof. 1596. See 
Fabric. BUI. Gr. Tol. xi. p. SB8. [A, J. C] 

composed a Caium or Hgrnm oa St. Denietriai At 
MiBtyr, It is uncertain when he liTod. The 
canon ii in manuscript. See Liimbiciiit, Ribliodi. 
Vindobon. toL t. p. 899, ed. Kollar. [A. J. C] 

ALBXON ('AA^{»v), an Achaean who Mt*ed in 
the Carthaginian garTiaon at Lilybaenm while it 
waa besieged by the Romaaa in e.c.250. During 
this aiegs aome of the Gallic mercenariea engaged 
in the aerrice of the Carthaginiana formed the plan 
vS betraying the fottrOH into the handa of the Ro- 
mana. Bnt Alexou, who had on a Fonoar ocaaioo 
■a*od the town of Agrigentom from a aimilar 
attempt of trcachenms mercenaries, now acted in 
the same faithfiil iiplrit,and gare infomiationof the 
plot lo the Carthaginian commander Himilco. He 
alao aaiiltnd him in inducing the mercenaries to 
remain faithful and resist Uie teuiplationi offered by 
their comradea. (Poljb, L 43, IL 7.) [L S.] 
ALEXON MYND1U3. [ALmxaNDia Mrtf. 

A'LFIUS FLAVU3. [Flavuil] 
ALGOS CAAYet), ia uaed by Beaiod (Tjk^ 
327) in the ploial, aa the penoniBcatiDn of somwi 
and griefs, whi^ are then npnaenled as the 
daugbtera nf Eris. [L. S.] 

L ALIE'NTTS, plebeian aedile s. a 454, ao- 
cuaed Veturins, the consul of the fi>rmet year, on 
Doount of selling the booty which had htea gained 
'~ war, and placing the amonnt in thf (enrium. 



ALIMENTUS, L. CI'NCIUS, a celebrated 
Raman annaliat, antiquary, and jotist, who waa 
praetor in Sicily, B. c 209, with the command 
of two legieni. He wrote an tconint of his Im- 
piiaonment in the second Punic war, and a hiatory 
of Oorgiai Leontinua ; but these works probably 
formed partofhia^nnafu. (Lir. xii.38.} He i* 
freqiMntly cited by Featus, and the fragments whidi 
hare been thus pmened were collected by Waase, 
and may be found appended to Corte's Sidluat. 

Niebuhr (I p. 272) piaiaea Alimentua aa a 
really crilit»l inTnatigatoc of antiquity, who threw 
light on the bittoij of bis country by researchea 

eminent peraonal qnalitiea, such as strike a gnat 

treat bis Roman prisoneti very roughly, made a 
distinction in hia behalf^ and gave him an account 
of his paaaage threngh Oaul and oTer the AlK 
which Alimentui af&rwardi ineorporated in hia 
hiatory. It is only in hia IragmenU that we And 
a distinct statement of the earlier relation between 
Bnme and Latium, which in all the annals has 
been uiiinpreiiented by national ptide. The ptrint, 
boweTci. npoD which Niebuhr bys most stress, is 
tho remarkable diRerenee between Aliiuenlos and 
at! other chronalogen in dating the building of the 
i-ity abonl the fourth year of the 12th Olympiad. 



'HiB diRitnnoe ii Ihe more important in ui histo- 
rical view, from AUinenlui having written on the 
old Roman calendar and having carefnlly ex- 
amined the m«t aneieat Etmican aad RoDian 
chronology. It ii ingeniouly aooimted for by 
Nieliuhr, by loppoiiag our author to have re- 
duced the andent cyclical yean, conriating of 
ten Dionlha, to an equivalent number of common 
yean of twelve mcmthi. Now, the ponlifli 
reckoned 133 cyclical yean before the leign oF 
Tarqiiinine Piiiciu, Ihnn which time, according to 
Juliui Oncchanne, the uae of the old calendar nai 
ditconlinned. The reduction maJcei a difference 

of 23 years, (or 1S3— 

-=23, and 22 yeans 

7. 2, bring u 

AlimentDi competed a ttcatiw Di (^ffldo J*nr- 

amnlii, coataiuing at lout two boaki ; one book 
He Vtrii. priiat, one Dt OmraUm Falt$tatt, one 
Di Comitia, one De Faitit, two, at leut, My<tago- 
jnoiK, and eeveral Ih Bit Militari. In the tatter 
work he handle* the lubjecti of milit&ry levies, of 
Ihe ceremonies of dedsiing war, and generally of 
the Ju Ftaaie. (GclL ivi. 4 ; Vosi. HiA. Gt. it. 
13. fin.. Hid. LaLLi;¥. Lochmami, dtFmab. 
Ilialor. Tit. Livii Cbm. i. 1 7, ilo. 1 U22 ; Zimmem, 
flUm. Itrcklt-varh. L g 73.) (J. T. 0.] 

ALIMENTUS, M. CrNCIUS. tribune of the 

Eleba o. c 204, proposed in his tribmieship the law 
nown by the name of Cinaa Xav de I}oint tt 
Muaeribat, or AtuneratiM La. (Liv. Uliv. i ; 
CicOUo, 4, rfsOnif. iL71, adAHlHO; Feslns, 
1. 0. il/iiiurattr.) This laar was confirmed ia Ihe 
time of Augustus. (Did, ufAnf, t. v. Cincia Ln.) 
one of the sons of Lycaon, killed by Zens with a 
ttuh of lightning for their insolence. (Apollod. 

8. g 1.) The town of AUpbeca or Aliph,;irn 
Arcadia was believed to have been founded by 
him, and to have derived its name from him. 
(Psoi. viiL, 26. S4i StepLByi.i.u'AAi- 
*«.»■) [L. S.] 

ALITTA or ALILATCAaItto or'AAiAdr), the 
nanie by wbich, according to HerodotDs(L 131, liL 
Bt, the Ambs culled Aphrodite Uraaia. [L. S.] 

ALLKCTUS, WHS raised to the bighest digni- 
ties in Britain during the dominiLin of Caiauiius; 
but the crimes which he committed, and the fear 

293 to murder Carouiius and aunme (he impe- 
riiJ title in Britain for bimielf. He enjoyed hit 
honours for three yean, at the end of wbicli Con- 
siantius sent Asclepiodotus with an army and Sect 
aguinst him. Alleclus wu defeated in A. D. 2!)E, 
and Britain wu» thus cleared of usurpen. (Aurel. 
Vict, de Gut. 39 ; Eutnp. ii. 14.) On the an- 
nexed BHn the inscription is Imf. C. Alluttiis. 
P.F.Auo, [US.] 


Fr.\. l.g3),nndpmetorinB.r. 49. {AIAO.t. 
IS.) In the following veur, he had Ibe provim 
of Siuly, and sent to Caeur, who was then In 
Africa, a larg; body of troops. He continued in 
Sicily till B. c. 47, and rfceived the title of Tio- 
consul Two of Cicero's letlen are addressed M 
him. (Hirt. fldt Afr. 2, 34 ; Cic ad Pam. no. 
7S, 7S.j Hit nsme occurs an a coin, which has 
on one side C. Cam. Imp. Cm. Iter., and on tb* 
other A. ALLiixva Pnocoa. 

S. WiiB sent by Dolabella, B. c. 4S. to bring to 
him the legions which were in Egypt. On his r»- 
tum trom Egypt with four legions, he was sur- 

Erited by Cuiuus in Pslcstine, who was at the 
esd of eight legions. As hit foreet were so infe- 
rior. Allienos joined Cassina (Appian, B. C. iiL 
78, it. S9 ; Cie. FhO. iL 1 2, 1 3 ; Casaiak ap. Cie. 
od/'ani.iii. II, 12.) This Allienos may perhapa 
be the same person ss No 1. 

to a most beautiRil virgin, who was taken prisoner 
by Sci[no in Spain, b. c 209. Scipio generously 
gnvs her to Alluciut, and refused Ihe presents her 
pnrenU ofleied him. The story it beautifully told 
in Livy (iivL 50). and is alio related by olhet 
writers (Polyb. i. 19 ; VuL Mai. iv. 3. ^ li Sil. 
IlaL IV. 26B. &c) 

ALMO, the god of a river in the neighbourhood 
of Rome, who, like Tiberinns and others, w«t 
by the a 

the I 

of the 


le godt 

A. ALLIETflUS. I. A friend of Cicero's, who 
it spoken of by him in bi^ teTToa He wni the 
legale of Q. Cicero in Ati^ a. c. 60 (Cic. ad Qh. 

(Cic. de Mai. Dmr. ii 

Cw7- Za*. V. 71, ed. Muller,) [US.] 

A LMOPS rAAM-.C)> " giant, ibe sm of Poseidon 

and Helle, from whom the district of Alraopin and 

inhabitants, the Almnpps in Macedonia, were 

believed to have dcnved their name. (Sliph. B)1. 

..o. -AX/wirfa.) [I^S.] 

fAAwfiSoj, AXoiTJSoj or 'AAijaSai), are patronymic 
fornn from Aloeu\ but are used to detignnte the 
two tons of his wife Iphimedeia by Poseidon : via. 
Otui and Ephialtes. The Aloeidae are renowned 
in the esilieil stories of Greece lor tbeir eitnir- 
dinary strength and daring ipiril. When they 
were nine yean old, each of their bodie* measnred 
nine cubits in breudlh and twenty-seven in heigllL 
At this eoriy age, they threntened Ibe Olympian 
gods with wnr, and attempted to pile mount Osea 
upon Olympus, nnd Pelion upon Ossa. They 
wonld have accomplished their object, says Homer, 
had they been allowed to grow up to the n^ of 
manhood ; but Apotlo destroyed them before th«r 
beards began to appear. (fU. iL 30.1, &c.) In 
Ihe lliad(v.B8S,*«.; eomp. Philattr. de Vit. Sopi. 
ii. 1. g I) the poet letatet another feat of their 
early age. They put the god Ars in chaiot, and 
kept him imprisoned for Airteen months; to that 
he would have perished, had not Hermes been ia- 
formed of it by Eriboea, and lecretty liberated the 
prisoner. The same ilories are related by ApoUo- 
dorus (i. 7. § 4), who however does not make them 
perish in the attempt upon Oiympni. According 
to him, they actuaJly piled the monntaint upon 
one another, and threatened to change land into 
sea and sea into Land. Tbey ate further said to 
have grown every year one cubit !□ breadth and 
three in height. At another proof of their daring:, 
it is relnled, that Ephialtes lued tor the hand of 
Heni, and Otus for that of Artemis. But this led 
to their destruction in the island of Naxos 'Comp, 

Pind. PfdL. IT. 158, At) Hare Artemii appaued 
te than in ths fbnn of a ilag^ and can between 
tke two bmtherif who, both aiming at thf animal 
■I tba ama time, ihol each other dead. Hjginiu 
(A& 38} fdatel Uieir death in a umikr manner, 
bat nuket Apollo aend ths btal atag. (Comp. 
CdKm. Aym. n man. 281 1 ApoUon. Rhod. L 
481, with the SchoL) A> a puniihment for ihsir 
praamptioii, th*r wen, in Hadei, tied to > pillar 
with MipniM, with their bxa tunted airaj- fram 
(•eh other, iiid were ptrpemallj' lormenlAd bj 
llw (hrieks of an owL (Mnnck, ad Hfga. i.e.; 
Viig. Am. Ti 583.) Diodoni* (t. 60, la.), who 
doei not mention the Komerk itoria, coatrifet to 
gife to hii aceonnt an appeamice of biatorj. Ao- 
eotding to him, th» Aloradas are TheuaJisn heroet 
who wen lent ont by their fether Aloetu to fetch 
tack their mother Iphimedeia and her daughter 
PmoMii, who had been carried ofF In Thraoan). 
After hning OTertaken and defeated the Thiaeiant 
TM tho idaud of Stmngrla (Nuoa), tbey Httled 
there m mien onr the Thneiani, But uon after, 
Ilw7 killed each other in a diipnts which hod 
■riMn between them, and the Naiiana wonhipped 
then la beroet. The Ibundation of the town of 
Alrinm in Tbeeealy wai aicribed to them. (Sleph. 
Bf*. A k) In all theee traditioni the Aloeidae an 
Rfffeienled a* only remarkable fbt their gigantic 
^jaical itreivth ; but then i> another itnr; which 
^ue* them m a difltnnt light. Paunnia* (ix. 
2>. I ]) nlatea, that thej were believed \a have 
been the fint of all men who wonhipped the 

Ihii meutain to them ; but they worahippod only 
three Miuea— Uelate, Hneme, and Aoide, and 
Inmded the town of Aiera in BoeaUn. Sepulchral 

of Pnuaniaa (ii. 22. § S) near the Boeotian town 
•f ^MhedoD. Idter times fabled of their bonei 
bring wen in TheHaly. (Philoatr. L 3.) The in- 
tetpntation ot theie Indilioni by etymologiei from 
tMm and i\iti, which hag been attempted by 
nodem Kbolare, i» little nti^betory. [L S.] 

ALO'EUS CAAtMiit). 1. A eon of Poeeidon 
and Canace. He married Iphimedeia, the danph- 
lerof Triop^ who wai in lore with Poieidon, and 
■Md to walk by the tea-ride, take her handa full 
ef iu water, and iprinkle her bokim with it. The 
two eona whom ahe had by Poaeidon wen called 
Aloeidae. (Horn. IL t. 38S, Ocf.ii.30fi; Apollod. 
i7.g*.) [Aloud*..] 

S. A eon of Helioa by fSne or Antiope, who 
rec«Ted (rtun hi* lather the MXpnignty o*er the 
diatrict of Atopia. (Paiu. ill. i6,& ga) (L.8.] 

A'LOPE ('AAAm), a dangfaler of Ctnjoa, 
who waa belored by Poeeidnn on aeeonnt of her 
great beanly, and became by him the mother of 
a ion, whom ahe eTpeeed immediately after hia 
birth. Bat a man ewne and auckled the child 
unto it wa* txiud by ahepherda, who icU into a 
diapola aa to who waa to haie the beaotifbl kingly 
auire ef the boy. The coae waa bnught brfon 
CariTim, who, on reeogninng by the dret* whose 
diild the boy waa, ordned Alope to be impritoned 
in sfdar to be pnl to dnlh, and her child to be ei- 
poaed ^in. The latter waa fed and feand in the 
Mme manner w befbra, and the ahepherda called 
bn Hippothoaa. [HtProTBOiX.] The body of 
Alope waa chained by Poaeidon into a well, which 
ben the Mme name. (Hyno. PiA. 1S7 i Pana. L 
1.1 3; Arietoph, Av. 633.) The town of Alopp, 


in Theaaaly, waa betiered to have dertnd ita namo 
from her. (Pherecyd. ap. SUplt. Bip. i. v. 'AA^nk 
where, howeTcr, Philonidea apeak* of an Alope aa 
a daughter of Actor.) There waa a monoment of 
Alope on the mad bant Eleoai* to Megara. on the 
■pot when ahe wai betieTcd to hare been killed 
byherfelher. (Pana. L 39. § S.) IL. S.] 

ALVPECUS. [AaraAaicDB.] 

AL0RCU3, a Spaniard in Hannibal'* army, 
who waa a &iend end hoape* of the Saguntinea, 
went into Sagnnlom, when the city waa ndiicrd 
to the last extremity, to endearour to penunde the 
inhabitant* to aocept Hannihal'a latm*. (Lit. zxi. 
12, Ac) 

('AA^oio, 'AAf«la, er 'AA^unsu), a numune of 
Arteinia, which ih* deriTed from the rirer god 
Aipheiaa, who laved her, and nnder which ahe 
wa> worahipped at Letrini in Etis (Pan*, ti. 23. | 
fi ; Stnh. Tiii. p^ 343), and in Ortygia. (SchoL 
ad Pad. Fftk. ii, 13, Nm.. L 3.) [L. S.] 

ALPHEIAS, a name by which Oiid (Mtt r. 
487) derignale* the nymph of the Sidlinii well 
Arethon, becanae it waa believed to hare a aub- 
termneona communication with the riTer Alpbeio*, 
iu Peloponneiua. [L. S.] 

'AA^t), the god of the rirer Alphsina in Peto- 
ponneana, a eon of Oceanna and Thetyi. (Pind. 
Ntm. i. 1 ; Hei. Titog. 338.) According to 
Pauaaniaa (t. 7. f 3} AJpheiua waa a paanooale 
bnnler and fell in lore with the nymph Arethnia, 
but ahe lied from him to the iiland of Ortyg^ 
near Syracuae, and melamorpboaed heneif into a 
well, whenupon Alpheiu* became a river, which 
flowing from Peloponneaua under the aca to Or- 
tygia, there united ita waten with those of the 
well Arethnaa. (Conp. Schol. ad Pind. Ntni. i. 
3.) Thia alory ia rehiled KHDewhat diflereutly by 
Ovid. (Afi^ T. 072, &c) Anthnaa, aftuinymph, 
once while bathing in the river Alphetua in Arca- 
dia, waa aorpriied and pnraoed by the god; but 
Artemi* took pity upon her and changed her into 
a well, which flowed under the tarth to the iiland 
of Ortygia. (Comp. Serr. ad Finj. £d. i. *; 
Viig Ann. iii. 694; Stat. SiJv. L 2, 203; T^\ 
i 27l.iT.259; Lucinn,£>u^Marn.3.} Artemia, 
who ii hrre only mentioned incidentally, wai. ac- 
cording to other tndilioni, the abject ot the love of 
Alpheiua. Once, it ii uiid, when punned by hint 
•he fled to Letrini in Klia, and hen the corered 
her (ace and those of her companioni (nymphi) with 
mud, ao thai Alpheina could not diicovcr or 
diatinguiah her, and wu obliged to return. (Paui. 
Ti. 22. § 5.) Thia occauoned the building of a 
temple of Artemii Alpbaea at Letrini. According 
to another veraion, Uie goddeu fled to Ortygia, 
where ahe had likewiie a temple under the name 
of Alphas. (SchoL oif Find. Fylh. ii. 12.) An 
ulluaion to Alpheiua' bve of Artemii i* aleo con- 
tained in the bet, that at Olympia the two diiini- 
tica had one altar in commoiL (Pana. T. 14. | Sj 
SchoL ad Piad. OL v. 10.) In theae accounia 
two or more distinct itoriei aeon to be miied up 
together, but they probably originated ii 
popular belief, that then « 

and the well Arethuaa. For, among le 
thing! it waa beliered, that a cap thrown into tha 
AlpheiuB would make ita reappearance in the well 
Anihaaa in Ortygia. (Stnh. ti. p. 270, tiiL p. 

natnial aabtcm- 



finndalion of gnu Uonu. It vui encted by the 
mJdqHO^e, mechuika, uid founeuiu, and on 
the lop of it then wen fiia pilUn, wbich Hero- 
dotoi uw, ud on wbidi were mentioned tlui dif- 
ferent ponioD* raJMd by SKh ; from ihie it ip- 
peared ihnt the coartfuoi did the gnalar part. 
It mcannd aix pl«tbn and t«o lUdis In drcom- 
fcRnce, ud thinrai plelfan in breadth. Aownl- 
ing u wmn wrilen. it wtu called ihe " tomb of th« 
comteiatL," and wu crecttd by a mii>creH of OygH. 
(Cloich. ap. Alien, liii. p. 573, a.) Thii mound 
■tilleiiiti. lit. Hamilton tayt{lkKartim in Atia 
Afimor, loL L p. US), that it took him about ten 
mitlDtca to ride nnuid iti hue, which would give 
it a dtnimiereDce of neariy a mile { and "bt alio 
tialei, t^ lowardi the noitb it conaiata of the na- 
tal^ rn^ — ■ while, horiioiitaUy atratified earthy 
linieilinM, cut away w u to apuear part of the 
•tructura. The npper portioD, he addi, ii land 
and gmnl, ^^anndy bnmghi from tbe twd of the 
Herama. He tonod on the top the ranaiii* of a 
(bandatinn nearly fifteen diet aqnare, on the 
north of which waa a hnge drcnlor itone ten feet 
ta diameter, with a Oat bottom and a railed edge 

Ihe uei of the tomoliia. 

ALY'PIUS CA^rut). ibe oathor of a Greek 
■BDneal Imliie entitled tlirarfiwytl ^ixrunf There 
an no liJenbly Mra frvundi foT identifying him 
with any one <n the rariani penoni who bora the 
nana in Ibe linKi of the later emperon, and of 
wheae hjalory anything ii known. According to 
the meat planaihla conjecture, he wu that Alypioi 
whom Ennapioa, in hii Life of lamblichua, cele- 
bntea for hii icnte intellect (d JiaAiirrriia-rErot 
'AAineT^ and dimiuutiTe elatnre, and who, being 
a friend of lamblichua, probably flooriibed under 
Jaliui and hii immediale lucceaon. Tfaia Aly- 
piu wag a native of Alexandria, and died there at 
an advanced age, and tbeiefoie can haidly hare 
been the penon called by Ammianua Marcelliniu 
AlspUt Aiitiocimii, who waa firat prefect of Rri- 
lain, and afterwardi employed by Julian in bi> 
attempt to rebuild the Jewiah temple. Julian 
addieaei two epirtlea (29 and 30) to Alypitu 
P<h>Xid4> 'AAmI^ dlt\^ Yiavxafioii). in one of 
arhich he thanka hun for a geofiiaphiiBl trealiie or 
durt i it would aeem more LkeTy ibst ihia waa Ihe 
Antiochian Aut that he wai the Alexandrian 
Almu 01 Hennini mppoies, if indeed he waa 
eilber one cr the other. lamblichui wrote a life, 
>Qt DOW extaol, of the Alexandrian. 

(Heanin*, Nvl. ad Aljft. f, 166, &e.&; Jn- 
Bao, BpiA iiuc XII. and not. p. 297, ed. Heyler ; 
Eonapina, ViL lambliA. and not. rol ii. p. 63, ed. 
WyttenUeh; Amm. HarcelL uiii. 1. 3 2; Da 
k Borde, Chd* or la Manqm, toL iiL p.- 133.) 

The work of Alypioi coniiit* wholly, with Ihe 
•UMtioa of a ihort introduction, of tiiti of Ibe 
nmbali nied (both tar foice and initmment) to 
deiMla ^ the ■oandi in the fony-fiTe ecalee pro- 
dioed by taking each of tbe GftMn modea in the 
Ibm genera. (Diatonic, Chrnnutic, EnhumoDic) 
II tieati, therefore, in &ct, of only one (the fifih, 
aaaely) of the aeven branchei into wbidi the enb- 
)eet ia, at utoal, diTided in the introduction ; and 
nay poanbdy be merely a frogment of a larger 
weak. Il would bare been moit nloable if any 
aonsderable number of aiamplea had been left ui 
af the actnal uie ef the aj^i 



•ailnd in il ; lotirlnnilclj rery lew n 


Bumey, Hal. ■j/Miuk, vdL i. p. S3), and they leem 
10 bdong to an earlier ttage of the acience. Maw- 
erer, tbe work aenei to thro* aome Light on the 
obicure hiilory of the modea. (S«e Bockh, dt 
Mitr. PM. c. 8. p. 235, c. 9. 12.) The text, 
which Kemed hi^ieleaily coirupt to Meuiaioa, ita 
6rat editor, wai lettered, apparently with lu^ 
eeen, by tbe laboun of the learned and inde&tig^ 



Septem, ed. Marc. Mciboinlue, Anulel. 1652 ; 
AnMoxeniu, Nicomacbiu, Alypitu, ed. Joh. Meui> 
tina. Lufld. Bat. 1BI6.) [\V. F. D.] 

ALYTIUS ("AAiirioi), prieM of the great 
church at Conilantinople, flouriihod A. n. 430. 
Then it eilant an epittle from bim to St. Cyril 
(in Greek), exhorting bmi to a vigoroui retittaiKe 
againit the hereiy of Ncttoriut. (See OoHciliormM 
Xbai<Mitii3,iAtaiui,t<ilv.p.H63.) [AJ.C.] 

ALYPUS CAAmoi), a itatuary. a natiTe ef 
Kcyon. He atadied under Naucydea, the Argira. 
Hia age may be fixed from hia haring executed 

in tlie rictory of Lyiandrr at Aegotpotaml (B c 
405.) Pautaoioa alai mcullona tome Uatuea «f 
Olympic Tictora made by him. (li. 1, g 2, i. 9. | 4, 
tL 1. 8 2. 8. g S.) [C. P. M.] 

ALYZSUS ('AXiyf<^), a ton of leariut and 
brother of Penelope and Leucadiua. After hit 
fiither'a death, he reigned in conjuoetion with bia 
brother over Acarnania, and ia aaid to have ^nded 
the town of Alyieia there. (Strab. i. p. 452i 
Steph. Byi...B.'AAiifB«.) [L. S.] 

(MifHairoi), a conmon name among tbe Thiaeiani. 
It wai alto, according to Pialtany, tbe name of a 
people and mountain! in Thiaee. Paoianiaa (i. i. 
f 4) ipeaki of an Amadoeiu wbo came from the 

1. King of the Odiyiae in Thnea, waa a friend 
of Aldbiadea, and ii mentioned at Ibe time of the 

battle of Aesotpotami, B.C 405. (Diod. xiii.105.) 
He and SeuUiei were tbe moat powerful princea in 
Tb[a« when Xenophon Titiled the csnntiy in 8. c 
400. They were, howeror, ftequenlly at varianw, 
bnl were reconciled to one another by Thiaaybulni, 
the Athenian commander, in B. c. 390, and ioducad 
by him lo become the alliei of Atheni. (Xen. 
An,d^ Tii. 3. I 32, 3. 8 16, 7. S 3, dit, JfM. ir. 
3. § 2R; Died. dt. 94.) Tbi* Amadocua may 
perhipt be the aame oa the one mentioned by Aria- 
totle, who, he laya, wo* attacked by hia general 
Seulhct,a Thncian. (/>(A t. S, p. 1 S2, ed. OSttltng.) 
3. A Ruler ia Thrace, who inherited in con- 
junction with Beriaadea and Ceiaobleplea the do- 
minion of Cotya, on the death of the latter in 
B. c 3SH, Amadocua waa probably a wn of 
Cotya and a brolber of the other two princea, 
though thia it not ttaled by Demoalhenei. (Dem. 
iaAruloer. p. 633. &c) [CmaOBLBPTK.] Ama- 
docua acenu to ban had a aon of tbe Mme name, 
(laocr. Plalipp. p. 63, d. compared with Harpo- 

1^ the princei of Tbraee, who wu de- 
feated and taken prieoner by Philip, king of 
Macedonia. B- c I Hi. (Ut Iixil. 36.) 
AMAE'SiX SE'KTIA i* mentioned by Vale- 
la Moiimua (vtii. 3. § 1) at an jnataiice of a 
male who pleaded bet own cauae before the prae- 
r. (About B. c 77.) Sba waa oJled .dodro- 
„i>e, from baling a nian'i tpirit with a female 
foim. Comfoie ArRAMii and Horti.vhia. 



■f Ibe cailiHt Boman writcn in bvour of the Kpicu- 
mm phitHopbj. lU vroI« mtmsI worLi, which 
uc cennued bj Ciuro aa dcticienl in ansngenienl 
ud itylc He i> mentionrd bj do otbei viiter 
but Cicen. (Aead. L % Tmc it. 3.) 

AMALTUEIA ('A^hm). 1. The nnn> of 
the in<knl Zem iflu hii Irirth in Crele. Tbe ui- 
dcntt theDwlve* appear to hate been u ancenain 
■boDt ibe eljmologj of ihe name ai about the 
Teal naraie of Anialtheia. Heiychiui derivei it 
fiom (he Tcrb itioMltuiir, to noiiriih or to enrich ; 
otben from iiiixeaina), i. & fino or hard ; and 
atbera again frvm d»iaAi) and Mo, according to 
which it vonld ngnifj the divine goat, or the 
tender goddew. The common deriniiion ii {mm 
dfijAffit, to milk or melt. According to Kine 
tnditioni AmiJtheia i> the goat who auckled the 
infimt JoTe (Hjgin. Pad. AiIt. 0. 13; Aral. 
Piaai. 163 ; Callim. //r«n. u Jan. 49), and who 
una afterwBida nwarded for ihia aerrice by being 
phiced among the alan. (Comp. Apollod. i 1. § 
6.) [Aioi.] According to another let of tis- 
ditioui Anulthcia waa a nymph, and daughter of 
Occanua, Helioi, Haemoniua, or of the Cretan 
king Meliueoi (Schid. ad Horn. IL uL 194; 
Emlorth. Catait. 13; Apolk>d. ]L 7. %S: Lac- 
taoL /mM. i. 22; Hygin. I.e., aod fab. 139, 
where he colli the njiqph Adamanleia},and ii aaid 
to hale led Zeoi with the milk of agoal. When thia 
goat once broke off one of her horni, the nymph 
Amaliheia filled it with frnh herbi and fniil and 
gate it to Zeut, who tran^aoed it together with 
tha goat among the atan. (0>id, Fail. T. 115. 
Ac) According to other acconnU Zeiu him»lf 
broke off one of the homi of the goat Amallhcio, 
|ate it to the diughten of Meliiaeua, and en- 
dowed it with inch powen that wlieneTer the poa- 
teiaor wiihed, il woold inilaulaneonily became uled 
with whateTer might be deiired. (Apollod. I. c; 
Sehol. ad CoBoR. I. c.) Thia it the atory abonl 
tbe origin of the celebrated horn of AmaJlhela, 
commoidy called Ibc horn of plenty or comucopin, 
which pUyi auch a prominent part in the itortea 
of Greece, and which wai nied in later timet ai 

! lymbol of plenty in generaJ. (Slrab. i. p. 458, 
■- - ■ ■■. 35.) [AuHr '■■ 

; Diod. V 
donia (iii. 68) giie 
which diffen frnm 

I of Amaltheia, 

! Lihyar 


Amaliheia, a maiden of eiliaordinary besuly, and 

Ste her a very fertile tract of land which had the 
m of a bull'i bom, and received trom ita qneen 
the name of the horn of Amaltheia. Thii account, 
however, ii only one of the man; Bprdniena of a 
ralionaliitic interpretation of the ancient mythui. 
The horn apptara to be one of the moai ancient 
and aimplett vetteli for drinking, and Ibui we find 
the itoiy of Amaltheia giving Zeua to drink from 
a horn reprcieuled in an ancient woik of ail alill 
eilanL (aaleria Oiuitiniani, iL p. 61.) The 
horn of plenty waa frequently given aa an altrihule 
to tbe repreuntationt of Tyche or Fortuna. (Paua 
iv. 30. § 4, viL 26. §3-, comp. Bottiger, A«al- 
iibeu, oder dtr CreUtitiadK Zeut aU Sti^i^ng; 
Welcker, VAer «» Ontiidt Culimie n Tlnbm, 


2. One of the Sibyli (Tibnil, ii. G. 67> whom 
Lictantioi (I G) identiAe* with Ibe CnmaMn 
Sibyt, who ia laid to hate aoM to king Tarqniniua 
tbe cclebnted Sibylline booka. The lamc ii ataled 


by Serrin* [ad An. <ti. 72) and by Lydin (A 
Mna. i>. 34); comp. Kbuuen, Aotnt und He 

Paol™, p. 299, 4c. [L.S.1 

AMANDUS. lAiLiAWua, p. 28, a.] 
AMARANTU8 ("AwWt"), of Alexandria. 
wrote a commenlaiy upon one of Theoctitoa* 
Idyll {Etymri. M. p. 273. 40, ed. Sylb.), and a 
work entitled »pl SKif^t. Reipecling hii time, 
we only know thai he liied auh(«(uently to Juha. 
king of Uaurelania. (Alhen. viiL p. 343, e^x. 

p. iu.f;) 

AHARYNCEL'S ('A/i^niyatiSf), a chief of thf 
Eleani, and ton of Onciimachui or of Acetor. 
(Hygia. Fai.97; Eu*talh,ad f/oin. p. 303.) Ac- 
cording to Hyginua, Amaryncvui himaelf joined tfas 
eipeditioDagaingiTroy wiihninoieenahipa. Homer, 
on the other hand, only mention! hit *on biam 
(Amuynceidet) a* partaking in the Trojan war. 
{11. ii. 62-2, iv, 617.) When Amarynceui died. 
hia aona celebrated funeral gamea in hia honour, in 
which NealoT, aa he himtelf relatci (//.uiii. 629, 
Ac), look parL According to Tuuianiaa (t. i. g 
6) Amorynceua bad been of great aervice to Augetu 
Bgainit Hendei, in retnm for which Augeoa ahared 
hi. throne with him. [L. S.] 

AMAItYNTHi:S ('Aw^iv6gO, ■ hunter of 
Aitemia, from whom the town of Amaryntbua in 
Euboea (Sleph, Hji Euboea ilielf) waa be- 
lieved to have derived it* name. (StiaL x. p. 
448.) From thia hero, or rather from the town of 
Amamithtu, Artemia derived the inrnanw Ama- 
lynthui or Amaryaia, under which >be was wop. 
■hipped there and ak> in Attica. (Paoa. i. 3t. g 
3, comp, Ditt if'Anl. t. o. 'Afiapireia.) [L. S.] 

AMA'tilii CAfuurii). I. King of Egypt in 
early lioiei, accDiding to Diodorua (L Gl)), in 
a boM reign Egypt waa conquered by Actiunea, 
king of Ethiopia. [ArruuNia.] 

2, King of Egypt, iDceeeded Apiiea, the hut 
king of (he line of Paammelichna, in b. c fiG9: 
He waa of oomparMiKly low origin (HcrodotUi 
ii. 172, calla him Sq^ufnif), and waa bom at 
Siuph, ■ town in tbe Soitic nome. When the 
Egyptian! revolted agiiinat Apiies Amaiia waa 
lent to quell the inautiection, but went oibt 
to the aide of the rebtla, and waa plocbumed 
king by them. He delealed Apnea in a batlte 
near Msmemphif, and took hioi priaoner. He 
•ermcd ditpoied to treat hia captive with great 
mildneia, but waa induced to deliver him up lata 
the handi of the Egyptian!, who put him to dsalh. 
It wo* probably to ttrtngthen himaelf againat a 
powerful party formed ogaiuat him anwngit the 
wairioroMa, that be cnllivated the frien^ip of 
the Oreeka. He not only gave up to them the city 
of Naucrati!, which had httherto been their only 
mart, but opened all tha month) of the Nile to 
ihem, and aUowtd them to bmld tempka to their 
own deitiea. Ha contnctcd an alUanca with tha 
Oreeka of Cyrene, aod bimielt married Ijidice, a 
Cyieniiclady, (Herod. iL 181.) Heronovedthe 
loniana and Cariana, who weto aettled on the 
Pelnaiac month of tha Nile, to Memphia, and 
formed them into a body-giuud for hinuelf. 
(iL 154.) He alao •niered into alliance with 
Croeiua (L 77) nnd with Polycralea, llie tyrant 
of Samoa (iii, 39, 40), who ia laid to have in- 
troduced Pythagoiu to him by letter, (Uiog, 
Laert. viii. 3.) Amaaia alio lenl piatenu to 
•everal of the Orwk dtiea. (Hand. ii. 182.) 
Solon in the couna of Ua (nvidt rititad im- 

,.t,zc-ctv Google 

(L 30; 

Pint. Soloo, 26) PliU. Timaait, p. 21.) 

it would «pp™r from Xenophon if^rvp. riii, 
I 2D) thac, after the orerthrow af Cioeaua aj 
Cjnu, Amaaii wu compelled to pay liibnte. 
He iliDTe lo via tbe Skjma of the pri«st-casle b; 
building Ihem templet. During the reign of 
Anuuia agriculture, conunerce, and tbe am 
flouriahed greatly. Tbe eiieniion af Egj^lian 
toiomerco vaa much faToured by the conquest of 
Cyproa, which be made tributary. Hii reign wn« 
•ne of almoit nnintermpled peace and proaperity, 
which gave him leiiure for adorning Egypt nilh 
■emal magnificent buildioga and work! of an, (ii. 
ITS, 176.) The plans of conquest which Cynu 
had been unable lo carry mto eflect, were followed 
out by Cambysea, who in b. c. 525 led an army 
■gainu Egypt. According to the iloij (old by 
Herodotni (iii. 1), Cambysea bad been incensed 
Itj a deception pracliied upon him by Amasis, 
who. pretending to comply with a demand of the 
Fenian king, that he ahould send him hii daughter 
to adorn bis baiem, nibetitDted the dai^hlar of 
Apiiea for bia own. Amaaia however did not 
lite to aee the &11 of his country. He died be- 
fore CambyKs leached the bordera,afUr a reign af 
44 yean, and was bnried at Sais in the tomb 
which he had conitmcted in the Ismple of Athens. 
(iii.lO,ii. Ifl9.) Hiacorpie wasaflerwarda taken 
sol of the tomb and shaniffully inanlted by the 
order of Combyaes. (Iii. 16.) A* a goiemor he 
cihiblled gnM abilities, and wa> the anthoc of 
•eieial tuemi regnlationi (iL 177), but he appean 
to bare indulged in more hmiliarity towarda those 
^loul him than waa altogether conaiatent with hit 
kingly dignity. (Herod. iL 161—182, liL 1—16 ; 
Diod. i. 6B, 95.) 

3. A Peiaian of the tribe of tha Uaraphii, 
who wu sent by Arysndes, tbe goiemor of 
Egypt under Cambysea, at the head of an anny, 
to ttiist Pheretime, the mother of Arceailaui 
im kingof Cyrene. He took Barca by iUaU- 
fon and tnacheiy, and made an unauccesaful 
attempt upon Cyiene. He was then recalled by 
Airandea. On itt manh back the Persian army 
n&ied severely from the Libyoni. (Herod, ir. 
167,201,203.) [C. P.M.] 

AMASTRI9 or AMESTBIS ('AniwTf.i. or 
'A^HOTpii). 1. The wife of Xories, and mother 
of Artaierrea 1. According to Herodotua, ahe 
waa the daughter of Otanea, according to Ctetiaa, 
who oalla her Amistris, of Onophas. She waa 
cruet and rindictive. On one occaaion the aacii- 
ficed fburteen youtht of the noblest Peruan Euuillet 
to the god said to dwell beneath the earth. The 
tale of her horrible mutilatiou of the wife of Mit- 
Btloa, recorded by Herodotua, givea at 
pietaTB of the intrigues and eruelues of a 
harem. She aurriTed Xeriea. (Herod. 
114, ii. 108—113; Cteaiaa, /-ow. c 20 
Lion ; Plot. Alcii. p. 123, c) 

2. A daughter of Artaieraet II., whon 
ther pronused in marriage to Teribaiua. Intteod 
•f liilfilluig hit promiia, he married her himself 
(PIuL Artar. c 27.) 

3. Also called Amattrina fAfuirrpivif), th< 
^^Car of Oiyartet, the brother of Daiint, wai 
BTen by Aleiaader in marriage to Cratems. 

(Arrian. AmJi. vii. 4.) Cratenu having bllei 

lore with Pbila, the daughter of Aotipater, Amaa- 
Mi maniMl DionjNus, tjuai of Heiacleia, in Bi- 
thynin, a. c 322. After the dealb of IHanyuua, 


c. 306, who left her guardian of their chil- 

Clearchus, Oxyathret, and Amattrii, she 

led Lyaimachna, B. c. 302. LyBimacbui, 

ver, abandoned her ihortly afterwarda, and 

married Aninoe, the daughter of Ptolemy Phila- 

u>; whereupon A nuutria retired to Hencleia, 

. the governed in her own right. She also 

ed a city, called aflfr her own name, on tbo 

oat of Paphlagonia. She waa drowned by 

ro S0D> about a c. 288. (Memnon, c. 4, 5l 

Diod. XX. 109.) The head figured below probably 

rcprcBonta Amaaliit: the woman on the reveno 

hold! a amall figure of rictory in her hand. (Eck- 

hel,iLp. 421.) 

AMA'TA, the wife of king Latinua and mother 
of Lavinia, who, when Aeneaa sued for the hand 
of tbe latter, oppoaed him, because ahe had already 
promiaed Lavinia to Tutnus. At the same time 
the was instigated by Alecto, who acted nccordii^ 
10 the reqaeat of Juno, to ttir up the war wiu 
Tnmus, This atory fills (he greater part of llw 
aoTenlb book of Virgil's Aeneid. When AmaU 
waa informed that TumDs had Men in battle, she 
hang herself. (Virg. Atn. liL 600) Dionys. L 
"■■) [L.S-] 

A'UATKES CAiidffiii),a son of Heradea, from 

lom the town of Amathus in Cypiut waa be- 
iieved to have derived ila name. According to 
some tiaditiont, however, ilt name waa denved 
from Amathusa, the mother of Cinyraa. (Steph. 
Byt I. V. 'AiioBm ) [L. S.J 

Soaaia or 'tuiaSoinnia), a Buntsme of Aphrodite, 
which it derired from the town of Amaihut in 
Cyprna, one of the mott ancient seats of her WD> 
thip. (Tac. AnmL iii. 62 i Ov. Jmar. iiL 15. 16 ; 
Virg. dr. 242 ; CatulL kviii. fil.) [L. S.] 

AMA'TIUS, sumamed PKudomariui, a pel^ 
ton of low origin, who pretended lo be either the 
■on or gmndion of the great Mariua. Un the 
death of Julius Caeaar B. c 44, he came forward 
at a papular leader, and erected an altar to Coator 
on the spot where bit body had been bnmL Ha 
waa, however, shortly afterwards seiied by th* 
coniul Antony and put to death without a trial. 
This ille^ act wai approved of by the senate iii 
coutequence of the advanlaget they derived Eronl 
it. Valeriut Maximut (ix. 15. § 2) says, tliat hit 
name waa Herophilus. (Appian, B. C. iii. 2, 3i 
Liv. Epit. 116; Cit ad AH. xn. 19, xiv. 6—8, 
J'iilipp. L 2; Nicolaus Damatoenui, Vit. Aug. 
c 14. p. 358. ed. Comes.) 

AUA'Z0N£3 ('A^rst), a warlike race of 
females, who act a prominent part in several of the 
adventuns of Greek mythology. All accounti of 
them agree in the tiatement, that thej- came from 
the country about the Caucaiua, and that theic 
principal seats were on the river Thermodon, in 
[ho neighbourhood of tbe modem Trebiiond. From 
dience they are laid to have at different timet in- 
vaded Tbnce, Atia Minor, the Ulandt of the A^ 

MB, Oirece, Sjna, AnbU. Egypt, and Ubva. 

The conntij aboal the Thfnnodon with iti opilal 
TbemiKj-m wu iaialjiled onlj bj the Amuoni, 
Irho ven goTenwd hy a quHiL Tha Gorgamno, 
ft laa of meoy vtn Kparat«d from them bj n 
noaillain, but vdob everj year the Amazons met 
the Oaigareaai in the moantuni for the puipote at 
pCDpsgUing their race, and then lelomed to their 
ovn CDUUtry. Thtir children, vhen of the femaJe 
HI, wrtv brought up hy th« Amaion motheni. and 
tmined in thfir Fnauinary punniti of war, riding, 
hunting, and cultiTating the hmd ; but each girl 
had hvr right bnait cut oB: their male chlldreD, 
on the other hand, were lent to the Gargurean*, or 
put to death. (Strab. li. p. 503, Ac; Diod. iL *S, 
&c^ iil £2, ic; Jiutin, ii. 4.) The principal god* 
they wonhincd were Ar» and Artemii Taum- 
poloa. The foundatioii of Kietal towni in Aiia 
Minor and in ibe iilandt of tha Aegean ii ascribed 
to them, e. g.oS Ephenu, Smyrna, Cyme, Hjrina, 
and Puphoi. Stnbo doubu the eiiilence of auch 
■ nee of fenulei, while Diodorat Ulempta to giTe 
an lucounl of them, which aunmee all the appear^ 
■nee of hiitory. That the Anuuoai were regu^ed 
BB a leol hiitorical nee down to a late period, ia 
Fvidenl from the tiadition, that, when Aleiaoder 
the Great apprrsched the country of the Amoiona, 
tiK'ir queen Thaleitiii haitened to him, in order to 
brnme mother br the eoDqnenr of Aua. (Pint 

ulbjr. te.) 

I)nt we confine ounelrea ben to noticing aome 
d! tha mythical adTeotare* with which the Ama- 
■ona ore connected. They an aaid to hare in- 
nded Lycia in the reign of lobalea, bat were de- 
atroyed by BcUervpfaontea. who happened to ba 
atayiogai the king'g court. (Horn. ILti. lS6,&c; 

Sciioi odLjIcnpk. n.) [BlLLBaOFHONTU, Lao- 

HIDON.] At the Ifaie when Priam waa yet a 
young man, they iniaded Phtygia, and fought 
with the Phrygian) and Trojtuii. (Ham. 11. iii. 
1 89, &: J The ninth among the labotin impooed 
upon Hemdea hy Enrystheua, wu to take from 
Hippolj-te, the qneen of the Amoiona, her girdle, 
the enaign of her kingly power, which ahe hod re- 
ceived aa a pmenl from Area. (ApoUod. iL 5. f 9; 
Diod. ii. 16; Hygin. i^oi. 30; Quint Smyra. xi. 
2U.) [HiRACLKS.] Inlhereignof ThsHuathry 
invaded Atliok (Psua. i. 2 ; Plut Tha. 31, 33.) 
[Th isius.] Toward! the end of the Tmjnn war, 
tha Aoiaioni, ondei their queen Pentheaileia, 
came to the aaaiilaiice of Priam ; but the qneen 
wo* killed by Achillea. (Quist. Smyin. L Ci69 ; 
Paut.T.11. §3; Pbiloat(.//«r. xix. 19.) [PiN- 

The qoeation u to what the Amatnnt mlly 
were, or rsther, what gare ciee to the belief thai 
there waa auch a iac« of women, baa been much 
diacnaaed by ancient a* well aa modem writen. 
Herodotua (i<. 110) laya, that in the Scythian 
lanpiage their name waa Oiorpi^ which he uana- 
lalea by dripairr^m. The Oi«ek name Amaionea 
It nanally derived fmai ftoj'if i, the bretut and it nip- 
poted to mean "brautlieea," or "not brought up l>y 
thebnut," "beingBwiih itfong breatta," or "with 
one brvat." (Philottr. ^ c ; Enatatb. oif tfon, p. 
403.) Othen derive it from the Citiaauan word 
ansa, laid to iigni<y the moon, or from Samaldk, 
which, according to a Caucaaian tradition, ia taid 

ty pUuaible ; 

way) in which it haa been attempted to account 
for the origin cf the ttory about the Amaioni, tn'o 
deterve to be mentioned. One opinion ia, that tliO 
peculiar way in which the women of aome of the 
Caucaaian diatrict) lived, and performed the dulie* 
which in other conntriea devolve upon men, toge- 
ther with the many intlancea of leDMle t^very 
and courage which ore noticed aa nmarkalile even 
by modem traveltera, were conveyed to the inh»- 
bitsnla of weitem Atia and the Gt«eht in vugue and 
obMure reporta, and Ihua gave rite to the belief in 
the eilitence of each a warlike race of women, and 
thai the*e mmoura and reportt wen aubtequenily 
worked out and embelllthed by popular Uvditioa 
and poetry. Othera think that the Amaaoni 
were originally prieateatet of Artemlt (the moou), 
whole wonhip waa widely apread in Alio, lUid 
which they ore laid to have eatablithed in varioiu 
porta. It i« fnrtlier inforrad, from the name Auu- 
lonea, that theae prictleaaea mutilated their bodiea by 
colting off their bmita in a manner aimilar lo Ih.-il 
in which the Oalli and other prieata mutihiled their 
bodies, and that thui the Amaioni lepretcnled the 
male ideal in the fenutle lei, jutt at the Colli tepre- 
tented the female ideal In the mole ki. But it would 
be diHicnlt, in the fint place, to prove the enilr ncs 
of tnch prietleatea, and in the aecand, to thaw iinw 
they could hare occaaioned the belief in a wljole 
fenmle race of thia kind. Neither the poe ^col nor 
hiitnncal troditiont aboui ' 
anything to render thit ^ 
and, in the abaence of all poutive e' 

(Comp. MUller, Oniom. p. 356, &c) 

The lepreientation of theae watlike women oo- 
copied the Greek ortitti very eilenuvely, and wg 
■till poeeen a huge aeriea of the moat beautiful 
work* of art, tncfa at painunga on vaaei and walla, 
bronie*, telieia, and gema, in which the Amaaona 
and their bunlea widi men are repntented. Tha 
moM celebrated work* of thia kind in nnbquity 
were the battle of the Amanmt frith the Athenian* 
in the Poecile at Athen^ by Nicon (Pan*. L IA. 
e 3), on the tbield of Athena, and on the fbot- 
atool of the Olympian Zena, by Phidiaa. (i. 17. J 3.) 
Amaaona were ajao repreaented hy Akamenn in 
the pediment of the temple of Zen* at Olympia. 
(v. lU. i 3.) Reapecling the extant repieeentation* 
of Amaiont and their coMumea, ie« MiiBer, HaiulL 
d. ArrhSol. (i 365,417. [L. S.] 

AMAZtfNlUS (-A/u^dnai), a auname of 
Apollo, under which he wu woiihippcd, and bed 
a temple at Pyrrhicbus in Laconia. The name 
wu derived (illier from the belief that the Ama- 
iont had penetrated into Peloponneaui aa jar oa 
Pyrrhichua, or that they had founded the tempi* 
there. (Paul. ilL 26. § 2.) (L. i] 

AMBIGATUS, king of tha CdU in Gaul in 
the reign of Tor^uinini Priacua. He belonged to 
tha Biturigea, the moat powerful of the Celtic peo- 
ple. When Amhignlut wst advanced in years he 
■ent out Belloveaut and Sigoveaoi, the tont of hit 
tialer, with large •warmi of hit people to aeak new 
eettlement*, iti coneequence of the great nmnber of 
the populnlioo. BelloTeiu) and Sigoveani drew 
lota u to the conree they ihonld take ; the latter 
in consequence went to the Hen^yiiian Etjrttt and 
the foimer into Italy. (Liv. v. 34.) 

AMBI'ORIX, a chief of Ibe Ebnronet. a Gallic 
people between the Henar and the Rhine, who 
wen foniMtty tributary tu tha Aduuici, but weit 



delitued by Caeiai bum th« pajinent of tbii tii- 
buti. Id d. c. Si, Cuav pWad a lefion uid fire 
cohoiu, nDder the cnnuDand of Q. Titoriui Sabinm 
and L. Aunmculaiiu Colta, in ths tenitoiiei of 
lh« EboroQiTt for the poipMe of pouiDg the winter 
then. But £ft«n diyi after thej bad been *la- 
t»Ded in their Ifirritoriet, the Eburones KTolted at 
the innigstiOD of Ambiaiu and Cativokiu, another 
diieC boieged the Rinnan camp, and destroyed 
ahnnt all the Roman troopa, after they had been 
bdnced by Ambiorir to !*»»« their camp under 
promise of a lafe-cauduct. After their deatmction 
AmlnaTix hastened to the Aduatici and Nejrii, 
■nd indDced them, in eonjanction with the Ebu- 
nnei, lo attack the camp of Q. Cicero, who waa 
itatiwied for the winter among the NerviL The 
GnnneH of C^ro, and the defeat of the Oaala on 
the airifal of Caetar, compelled Amirierii to laiae 
the liege. In the fcjlowing yean Ambiorix con- 
tinaed to pnaecate the war agiintt Caeaar, but 
though all hie plana were thwarted, and the dif- 
fcrent tioopa he miied were defeated by Caeaar, he 
alwaya eacaped blliug bto the handa of the con- 
quenr. (Caea. B. G. t. 21, 36—51, rl 5, 29— 
43, Tiii.31, Ac; DiooCoai. i1. S— 10, 31, &Ci 
Lir. ^Ht. 106.) Aeeording to Flonia (iiL 10. 
{ 8) he eacaped the Tsiigeance of the Booians by 
fleeing beyond the Rhine. 

I~ AMBI'VIUS TlTRPia [Tuawo.] 

AMBOLOOE'RA ('A/iCoXirrfpa). from ira- 
awn and yiiKu " detaying old age," ai a eur- 
Dame of Aphrodite, who haid a atitne at Sparta 
tmder Ihia name. (Paoa. iii. 16. § 1 ; Plot. 
Sympa-io. 6.) [L. S.] 

AMBRA'CIA ^AiOpaiila), a daughter of An- 
geaa, fiom whom the town of Ambracia deriTed ita 
name. (Sleph. Byi. i.e.,- Euetath. ud Diongt. P*- 
Tvi/. 192.) Other tisditioni repment her ai a 
grsnitdatighter of Apollo, and a daughter of Mel>- 
uena, king of the Uryopn. (Anton. Lib. 1.) A 
third account derived the name of the town from 
Amhnu, a ton of Thetprotua and grandun of 
Lyeaon. (Staph. By». (. a) [L. S.] 

NU3, a nobleman and courtier (S. Kpipb. adv. 
Umr. 61. [11] 3 S) flonrithed *- D. 230. At lirst 
■ Valeniinian (Eoieb. //. £ TiL IB) and Marcionist, 
he waa won to the bith by Orioen, whose con- 
atant (ellow-atiident he beoune (Origen, Ep. ad 
Africaa. *al. L p. 39), and wai ordained deacon. 
(8. Hier. Vir. lU^r. 56.) He plied Oiigon with 
qoeationa, and uraed him to write hii Com- 
mentanea ( JpreJibimiT ), nipplying bim with 
tnnaoiben in abundance. He thona a> a Con- 
feaior during the penecutjon of JuUuaMaiiminui 
(Eiueb. Ti. 18) a. D. 236. and died between a. D. 
247 and 253. Hia lelten to Origen (^luaed by 
St. Jerome) are lost; part of one exitta ap. f}rigcn, 
J.ih. dt OnU. c & p. 208, a. b. (See Routh'a 
Rdimiat Sacr. iL ^ 367.) Origen dedicated to 
hini bia Eiiorbilvtn Iv Marignlom ; Booki aguiiul 
Ctltmi: Cbi i aaitory a» Si. JoIm'i (Joml ; and On 
Proftr. [A. J. CI 

AMBROSIUS, ST., biehop of MtLan, waa 
bom pmbaUy at Auguala TreTirorum (IVeoa), 
which waa the leot of goTemment for the pcorince 
of Gatd, of which hii fathn waa prefect. Hia 
tnognpben difler la to whether the date of hii 
birUi waa ,133 or 310 a. d., but the latter ii pn>- 
Mdy tba tme data. Circumatancea occniTed in 
his in&ncy which were undentood lo portend his 


future greatness. Hi* &ther having died, Ai» 
biDse, Uien a boy, sccompanieit his mother la 
Rome, where he received the education of an advi^ 
and Symtnachna. H« 
ilan, then the imperial 
a high reputation for 
lorensic eloquence. This ssccesa, together with 
the inilDEiice of his family, led to his appointment 
(about 370 a. D., or > little later) as consular pre- 
fect of the prorincea of LJgunn and Aemilia, whose 
seat of government wa* Mihu). 

The struggle between the Catholics and Arianit 
waa now at ita height in the Western Church, 
and [jpon the death of Aurentina, bishop of Milan, 
in 371, the question of the appointment of hi* 
successor led to an open conflict between the two 
parties. Ambrose exerted his influence to mlwa 
peace, and addressed the people in a cnnciliatory 
speech, at the eoncluidon of which a child in the 
further pan of the crowd cried out "Ambmsiia 
epuecpra." The words were recelTed a> an omcle 
from heaven, and Ambraae was elected bishop by 
the ncclamalion of the whole mnlMtude, the bishops 
of both parties uniting in his election. It wus in 
v^u that he adopted tl 
the determination of 1 
make them cLtnge their mind (Paulin. Vit 
pp. 2, 3): in vnin did he flee froin Milan ii 
night; he mistook hii way, and found himself tb* 
next rooming before the gale of the eily. At 
length he rielded lo the expreas command of the 
emperor f Valentinian I.), and wa* conaeoated on 
the eighth day after his baptism, for at the time of 

Immediately af^r his election he gave all hie 
property to the church and the poor, and adopted 
en aacetic mode of life, while the public adruinis- 
tration of his ofliceR'as most firm and skilfoL He 
WHS a great patron of monasliciBm : about two 
jttn after his coniecmtion be wrote hit three 
books "De Vitgmibus," and dedicated them to hi* 
siller Marcellina. la the Arian controversy he 
espoused the orthodox side i ' ' 

e people; 
mind (PaD 

his bishopric by deraaading that hi 
' d by an orthodox hf ' 
!t iligenily to the 

be performed by i 


itudy oE theology 
iphcian, a presbyter of Rome, who after- 
wards became bia successor in the bishopric. His 
influence soon became very gnat, both with the 
people and with the emperor Valentinian and his 
son Gratian, for whose instniction he composed his 
treatises "De Fide," and "De Spiritu Sancto." 
In the year 377, in consequence of an invasion of 
Italy by the northern borborinns, Ambrose fled lo 
lllyricum, and af\erwunli<(in Cave's opinion) lidted 
Home. After his return to Milan, he waa employed 
by the court on important political affuira. When 
Maximua, after the death of Gratian (383), threat- 
ened Italy, Juitina, the mt^ther of the young em- 
peror Valantiniim II., sent Ambrose on an em- 
bassy to the usurper, whose adiaDce the bithop 
succeeded in delaying. At a later iwiiod (387), 
Ambrose went again to Treves on a like mission ; 
bat bis conduct on thii occasion gnve such aflttace 
to Maximas, that he was comp^ed to Ittum to 
Italy in baste. 

While rendering tbeae political services lo Jua- 
tina and Valentinian, Ambrose was at open **■ 
riaiice with them on die great religious question of 
the age. Justina was herself an Arian, and had 
brought up the young emperor in the same teneta. 


Her conttM with Aaibnw brnn in i 
when ^e iippoiiit«d ui Arian biihop 


which Ambrote vtat to 
SitTnium, and, a miraculoui judgment an an Arian 
who iniulud him having ilnick terror irU) liia op- 
panenu, he oontecrated Anenniiiu, who wu of 
the onliodox patty, a* hiihop of SiTminm, and 
then relumed to Milan, where Juilina let on foot 
•evend intrigoeft against him, bat without effect. 
In the year 3B2, Palladiiu and Secnndianus two 
Arian biiliopt, petitioned . Ontian for a genend 

iny; \ 

ough the influence of Ambrose, inalrad of a 
reneral council, a synod of Italian, Illyrian and 

which Ambrose preuded, and by which Palladiu* 
md Secundianut were depoeed. 
At length, in the year* 385 and 386, AmbroH 

in the 

name of the em|ieror, demanded of 
UK of at leaat one of the churchea in Milan, br 
the perfoimance of divine worship by Arian eccle- 
riaaliCL Ambtoee refiued, and the people row up 
to whe hit part. At Eaiter (3S3) an atlempt wu 
made by Jailinn lo take forcible pomeseion of the 
basilica, but the ihow of n aistanee was ao great, 
that the attempt wu abandoned, and the court 
Wat even obliged to apply to Ambrose to quell the 
tomulL He answered, that he had not stirred 

■idence and the baaiiioi, 
heaitated lo attack. In fact, the people were ai- 
moat wholly on the tide of Ambroee, tbe Arian 
faily coDualing of few beyond the conrt and the 
Gothic tmopa. Auicntiui, an Arian Irishop, who 
wat jDsIinn'a chief adviser in these proceeding!, 
DOW challenged Ambme to a public disputntinn tn 
tbe cmperoT't palace ; but Ambrose refused, anying 

thai s 

I of tl 

only pi 

place for tuch 
nianded to leiTo the city, which he at once refused 
to do, jind in this refusal the people still supported 
him. In order to keep up iha apirils of tbe peo- 
ple, he introduced into the church where they kept 
watch the reguhir perfbnnance of antiphonal hvnios, 
wbiiih had been long practised in the Koslem 
Church, but not hitherto introduced into the West. 
At length, the conteat was decided about a year 

leported lo have attend^ the discoTeiy of the 
reliques of two hitherla unknown mattyn, Gerva- 
aiu* and Prvtaiiut. A blind man was said to 
haie been restored to light, and aeveral demoniacs 
dUposaeued. These event* are recorded by Am- 
bn«e himself, bj hit iKnItrj Paulinua, and by 
hi* ditdple Augustine, who waa in Milan at the 
time ; but a particulai discusuon of the truth of 
these miracles would be out of place here. They 
were denied by the Ariant and discredited by the 
Eonrt, hut the impretaisn made by them upon the 
people in gcueial wai such, that Juttina thought it 
prudent to desist from her attempt. (AmbrDs.A>ut 
iii.xi.iii.iiii. g2.liiLli¥.; Panlin, ri/.^minx. 
§ 14-17, p. 1. Ben.; Augu.tin. Ci»/c«. ix. 7. § H- 
16, IM dr. Dti, xiii 8. g 2, Ser-a. 318, 2B6.) 

An imperial rescript wa* however issued In the 
nine year for the toleration of all sect* of Chris- 
tiant, any oifeucs Hguintl which wai made high 
INuon (Cod. Theodoi. IV. De F<<le CaliKiic,^ ; 
but we have no evidence that its eiecutiuu wa* 


attempted ; and the state of the parties was quit* 
alured by the drath of Justina in the neit year 
(.1fl7), when Valentlnian became a Catholic, and . 
still more completelv by the victory of Theodosins 
over MaiimuB (388). This event put the whole 

who was a firm Catholic, and over whom Ambrosa 
speedily acquired such intluence, that, after ths 
masucw at Tht-ssalonica in 390, he refusrd Theo- 
dosiuB admission into the church of Milan for a 
period of eight months, and only restored him after 
he had performed a public penance, and bad con- 
fessed that he had learnt the difference between 
an emperor and a pricsL 

AmbroM was an ac^ve (^ ponaot not only of the 
Ariana, hut al» of the Maeedoniaiu, Apollinaritna, 
and NovaCians. and of Jovinian. It wa* probably 
about the year 384 tbat he suecessfully resisted 
tbe petition of Symmacbus and the heathen sena- 
tor* of Rome for the restoration of tbe altar of 
Victory. He was the principal instructor of Au- 
gustine in the Christian iailh. [Auqustikuh.] 

The latter yean of his life, with the exception 
of a sbiHt absence from Milan during the usurpa- 
tion of Eugenius (39:), were devoted lo the care 
of his bishopric He died on the 4tb of April, 
A. a. 397. 

At a writer, Ambrose cannot be ranked high, 
notwithstanding his great eloqoenn. His theo- 
logical knowledge scarcely emended beyond a fair 
■ tbe works of the Greek falhon, 



of haste, 
of action than of letters. 

Hit works are very gumeront, though several of 
them have been lost. They consist of Letters, 
Sermons, and Orations, Commentaries on Scrip- 
ture, Treatiiea in commendation of celibacy and 
' other tiea^ae*, of which the most 

"Dc Otficiia Ministronun," which ia ge- 
nerally considered his best work j "Da Mystcriis;" 
'De Sacnunentis ;" '■De Poenitentia i" and the 
above-mentioned works, "De Fide," and "DeSpi- 
rilu Sancto," which ate both upon the Trinity. 
The well-known hymn, "Te Deum laudamos," hiia 
been ascribed to him, but its date it at least a cen- 
tury later. There are other hymns atcribt-d lo 
him, but upon doubtful authority. He is believed 
to have settled tbe order of public worship in the 
churches of Milan in the form which it had till the 
eighth century under the names of "Ofiicium Am- 
broaianum" and " Misaa Ambroaiana.** 

The best edition of his works is that of tho 
Benedictinet, 3 vols. foL, Paria, 1686 and 169% 
with an Appendix containing a life of Ambrose bv 
hia seerelary Paulinus, another in Greek, which is 
anonymous, and is chiefly copied from Theodorel's 
Ecclesiastical H istory, and a third by the Itcnedio- 
tine cdiuirs. Two woriis of Ambrose, EiplaiiaUo 
^mioli ad iaiiiamiot, and EpisUJa de Fidt, havs 
been discovered by Angelo Maii, and an pubUshed 
by him in the seventh volunM of hit Sr^onM* 
TcteruM Nora CMeetio. [P. &] 

AMBRO'SlUS,a hearer of Didymiu, at Alex- 
andria, lived a. n. 392, and was the aulfaor of 
CommfHtaria on Jub, and a book in vene against 
ApoUinariB of Laodicea. Neither i* eitaoL (S. 
Hieron. o!e Vir. lUut. % 126.) (A. J. C] 

A'MBBYON {'A^piaf) wrote a work os 
Theocritus the Cliian, fnm which Dioffeuct Laer- 

tiDs(t. ll)qaotatu •[dgnni of Thaacritiu aguoH 

AMHIIYSSUS CAMtpi^ai'), the mylbial 
founder of (he town of AmbijiHii oc AtDphiyuai 
in Phodt (Pan*, i. S6. g 2.) [L. S,] 

fAriSavAla, 'A^wAiai, and 'Autaikua), tunwam 
nnder which the SpulBm wonliipped Alheno, llie 
VioKoA and Zeiu. (Pbul iii. 13. S 4.) Tl.« 
naming of the name ii uncetuin, but it ha) been 
nippoeed lo be denied &0111 dratdAjm, and to de- 
ngiiaw thoee diTinitiei u the delaven of death. 

AMBUSTU3, the name of a fiunily at the 
fnlHi.'iui Fabia OENg. The fint member of the 
Fnbia geiu, who acquired thi* eognomen, wai Q. 
Fabiiu Vibulanui, CDUMil in B.C. 11'2,<rhD appsui 
to hate been a lOD of N. Pabini Vibulaoiu, coniul 
in B. c 421 . From thia time the imnw Vibulanui 
wai dnpl, and that of Ambuatiu took iu phue. 
The latter m* in iu urn aappliuitwl b; that of 
Maiimiu, which na Gni acquired bj Q- Fabiua, 
•on of Nol 7 [we below], anj wai handad dam 
bf him lo hii deKendaota. 

1. <1. FaBIUS M. F. Q. H. ViBULaHUB AxBUS- 

TUi^ coniul in S.C. 413. (Lir. ii. 6'2.) 

2. M. F*B[iii Amburtub, Pontifei Maximiu 
in the 7eai that Rome waa taken bj the Oanla, 
B. C 390. Hit three bm [ue Noi. 3, 4, and 
AJ were aent ai ambBaaadon to the Oaula, when 
the latter wen beeieging Cluuum, aM took pan 
is a bIIj nf the b«ie){ed ngHtiiat the Oauli. The 
Uauli demanded that the Fabii should be nic- 
R]idered to them (or liolaling the law of nationa ; 
and opoD the lenate reiiiung to give np the guilty 
pattiea, ihty marched againil Rome. The three 

buua. (LiT. T. 35, 36, 41i Plut. CiiiN. 17.) 

3. K. Fabidb 11. r. Q. N. AHBUartiB, aon of 
Ko. 2 and brother to Noa. A and 5, wai rjnaeator 
in B. c 409, with three plebeiani m hit colleaguea, 
whKh wat the lint time that quaetun were 
ehoeen from the plnba. (lir. it. 54.) He was 
connikr tribune (or the tint liuie in 404 (It. 61 ], 
again in 401 (t. 10>, a tliinl time in 395 (t. 24), 
•nd • fbarth time in 390. [See No. 2.) 

4. N. Fabiub M. p. Q. n. Aubustub, ton of 
No. 2 and brother to Not. 3 and 5, conanlar tri- 
bune in a c. 406 (LiT. it. S8), and ^ain in 990. 
[See No. 2.] 

B. Q, FaBIUB M. t. Q. m. Akbustub, aon of 
No. 2 and hrothei to Noa. 3 and 4, conanlai tr>- 
)>uHina.c390. [See No. 2.] 

6. M. FaBiua K. F. M. N. Akbustub, aon, aa 
h appeaia, of No. 3, waa connlai tribuns in B. c 
3SI. (IJT. Ti. 22.) He had two dnughlera, of 
whom the aUar waa married to Ser. Sulpicius, and 
the jromger to C. Liciniui Stolo, the aathor of the 
Licinian Rogationa. Anording (0 the ilorf re- 
oorded bj Liijr, (he }oui^r Fabia induced her 
Gither to aadtt her huibond in obcaiDuig the con- 
•ulihip for tbe plebeian order, into which ahe had 
nairied. (n. 34.) Anibuato* wat consular tribtme 
a tecond time in 3£9, and took an actiTe put in 
aapport of the Lidnian Rogatiuna, (li 3£.) He 
waa cenaoT in 363. {tiul, Cbpilot.) 

7. M. F^BiuB N. r. M. h. Ahbubtub, ton, aa 
M Bppnfa, of No. 4, wu eonanl in b. c SCO, and 
earned on the war againM the Hemici, whom he 
fonqaeied, and oblained as oration in conietiucnce. 
(Lir. (ik II i FatL TroMiA.) He wu couHil a 


Mcond time in 35S, and cairied on the war t^aii 
the Faliaci and Tarquinienaei, whom he alao cc 
queied. Aa he waa abicnt fmni Rome when the 

time came Cor holdini 

10 aecure both placet in the 
own order again, which waa ell 
haTe returned 

minated interrege* 
the patriciani waa 
onsniship for theif 


chired two patriciaaa coniuli in riobiinn of the 
Licinian law. (Lit. tIL 17.) Ho waa coninl a 
ihin! lime in 354, when he ranqnered the Tiburtet 
and obtained a triumph in conseqaence. (rii, 16, 
19; Fan. TVuDi^) In 351 he waa appointed 
dictator merely to Ernatrate the Lidnian law again 
at the coRiitia, but did not aocceed in hii object. 
{Ut. >;L 22.) He waa altTe in 325, when hi* 
ton. Q. Fabiua Maximua Rnllianua, waa maaler at 
the hone to Papiriua, and fled to Rome to implor* 
protection from the rengeance of the dictator. Hi 
interceded on hia lon'a behalf both with the aenala 
and the people, (riii. 33.) 

8. C. FaBitJS (C. F. M. M.) Amhustl'b, eontu 

pointed through fear of the Gaula. (Lir. Tii. 12 ) 

9. M. Faniua M. F. N. v. Ambl'stus, aon ap- 
parently of No. 7, and brother to the great Q. 
Fabiu* Maiimna Rullisnua, waa maater of tfa« 
horse in B. c. 3'22. (Lit. viii. 38.) 

10. Q. Fabiu* (Q. f. g. k.) Ambubtub, die- 
tnlor in B. c. 321, but immediately reugned 
through tome fanlt in the election. (LiT. ii. 7.) 

11. C. Fabiub M. f. N. n. Aububtus, aon ap- 
parently uf No. 7, and bnther to No. 9, waa 
appointed maater of the hone in b. c 315 in plan 
of Q. Auliua, who fell in bottle. (Lir. ii. 23.) 

AMEINIAS. [Nahcwsub.) 

A.MF.l'NlAS ('AfUitlat), a younger brother of 
Aescbylua, of the Attic drmoa of Pnllene accord- 
ing to Hendotua (tiIL 84, 93), or of that of 
IWlea according (0 Plutarch {Tlitm. 14), dittin- 
guiahed binuelf at the battle of Salamii(B. c 480) 
tay making the fint attack upon the PeniBn ahipa, 
and alao by his purauit of Artemisia. He and 
Eumenea were judged to hnva been the brareal on 
this ocnuiDn among all the Athenian). (Herod. 
PluL U. eci Diod. xL 27.) Aelian mention* 
(V. H. T. 19), that Anieinisi prerented the eoo- 
demnation of hit brother Aeachylua by the Aieio- 
pagua. [AascHirtua, p. 41, a.] 

AMKINOCLES (■A(Mi«HtA'7i), a Cednthian 
ahipbuilder. who Tiaited Samoa about B. c 704, 
and built four ahipa for the Samiani. (Thuc. L 13.) 
Pliny («■- N. riL 56) aayi, that ITiueydidea meit- 
tionsd Ameinocles aa the inrentor of the trireme ; 
but this ia a mitlake, for Thucydidea merely state* 
that triremea were lirai built at Corinth in Oreocs, 

According to Syncellus (p. 212, c), triremea wera 
first built at Athens hv Ameinodea. 

AMEI'PSUS (-a;.!.^!), a comic poet of 
Athens, coutempomry with Ariatophanei, whom ho 
twice conquered in the dramatic conteita, gainii^ 
the aecond pri» with hia lUnwt when Ariat»- 
phanea waa third with the " Clonda" (423 a a.), 
and tbe Rnt with hia KiifiaHrral, when Ariato- 
iihanea gained the leeond with the " Birds." (414 
a. c\ Argum. in Ariatoph. Nub. et Ac.) Th* 


lUnaf aj^eon to bare bad the iBine lubject mi 
•Im u tb* ** Cloudt." tt t> at \tatt certun thai 
Bacrau* appeand in the play, and thai ths Chorn* 
coiuitlcd of *iitrnrTaL (Diog. Idiit. iL 28 ; 
Alheu. T. p. 31H.) AriitopKimei alludn to 
Ameipsuia tb« " Frogi" (t. 12— U), and wb 
■n told in the anonymoiu life of Arutophanet, 
that when Ariituphanea fint eifaibited bit playt, 
in the name* of oiher pseta, Amdpna* applied to 
him the proTerb rtrpiBi ■ytyani!, wt ' 

Heradei, who v 

1 for olhen," in a 

> fourth of the 

Ameipiini wrote manr enmediea, ant of which 
there remain onlj a few fni^enti of the (ollaw- 
ing : —'AKnarraei fun-It, KaTMBinr (doubtful), 
lUvHii, Wo,x«(. San^, i1t¥iir>i, and of aone 
the namei of which ore unknown. MoM of hii 
plajt were of ibe old cnmedv, but Hme, in all 
prababilitf, were of the middle. (Meineke, fVojj. 
Com. i. p. 199, ii. p. 701.) [P. S.] 

AMt:LES\'GORASrA(«A*mW»««) orME- 
LESA'GOBAS (Mt* 1^070,101). ■• he it eaUed by 
other*, of Chalcedoh, one of the earlj Greek hiito- 
riani, frcm whom (iorgiai and l^ndcmoi of Naxo* 
hoiTDwed. (Clem. Alex. SlratH. rl p. 629, a; 
Scbol. ad Sw^. ^laal. 2 ; ApoUod. iii. 10. g 3, 
where Uejoe has lubstituted HaXijory^pai for 
Mnxnrr'pu.) Maiimu. Tyriu. (Sma, 88. f 3) 
apeaki of a Meleugorai, a nativi of Eleniia, and 
Antigonui of Cnrjttoi {HimI. Mirai. c 12) of an 
Aioeleugorai of Athena, the latter of whom wral« 
■n account of Allien ; theae penoni an piobably 
the aanw, and perhnpi alu the aune at Aind«(A- 

rirai of Chalcedon. (Voaum, dt Hiai. Graet. p. 
2. ed. Weitemniin.) 

AMK'LIUS ('AfifAiotJ, a narire o( Apainea 
■eoarding to Suidaa (t. v. Atiikm), be ' *" 

tinninfi the name of the Apoatli 

been preNived by Euiebioa {Pragp. Erang, iL 

19.) S«e Snid. Porphyr. 0. ct.; Syrian. liL 

iltlnp^Si. p. 47, a. SI, b. 69, a. 8S, a.; Bentley. 

Kfiuirti OH Frtt-TimHng, p. 1S2, Ac, Loud. 

lUS; Fyhric. Bibl. Grate. Hi. p. 160. 

AMENTES ('A/<4rTt)t), an ancient Oieek aur- 

C, meiiti4%aAd by Galan ta Iha inrenloT of aomo 
.. liona btodaen. (De FatdU, e. 58, tl, 89. 
TdL xii. pp. 486. 487. 4B3. ed. Chart.) Some 
ftapnenia of the oorki of a ■orgmn named 
jliaynliu (of v-hlch name AtaenltM ia Tcry ponibly 
a eomiptiiin) (till eiiit in lb> nianu<rri[4 C'lllec- 
tl«i or Surgical Wriien by Niceli* (Fabricioi, 
BiU. Or. ni. lii. p, 778, «d ret.), and one ei- 
tnol i> pr«B«ned by Oribuiui (CoU. Utdic xWiii. 
80} in Ih* fonrtb ToJuiw of Cardinal Uai'i Coliac- 
ti"n </ dau'cf Autlortt t Veticanit CedUibiu, p. 
89, Koin, laSl, Sio. Hia dale is unknown tx- 
ctf* that be mnit ban lite<t in or befo.-e thaaeeond 
century after Cbrint. He niay pnbap* be Ib« aaaw 
pFiaon who ia aaid by the SchollaU on Theocrilui 
ildtU XTii. I3S) lo bate been pot 10 dealb by 
Pi-ieoiy Phitadelpfanx, aboni B.C. Mi, for plotting 
ag.iiai lu'alife. [W.A.O.] 

AUB'BIAS ('A/t^Moi), of Uandonia, a pam- 
murian, who wroie a work enliited r^So-ffaj. 
*bich gare an accotint of the nieaning of woida, 
and uiolhn ealM 'Fi^orafiutii. (Alban. ~ - 

ITS. a, e, IT. p.esi,4dtCi3choLaif4>oa:AM. 
ii 384, 12S4 ; Knatv, od HofA. a. «. 'ABmUnt.) 

AMERISTUS ( tMpxms), tho brother of the 
poet Steaichonia, ia mentioned by Prodna (orf 
Badid. iL p. 19) aa one of the eai4y Greek geo- 
meten. He lived in the latter end of the acTealb 
isnliiry B. c 

AMESTRia ['iua.] 

AMIA'NUS, whom Cicero mentiona in a letter 
to Atticiii(ri. 1. g 13), written B. c. SO, wa> pro- 
babli a debtor of Allicua in Cilida. 

AMtSO'DARUS{'A^u(nH<v<n).aking of Lycia, 
who wu aaid to hare biuii^t up the moniler Chi- 
maera. (Horn. IL xti. 328 ; Eiutath. ad Hunt. f. 
1 062 ; Apollod. iL 3. g 1 ; Atlian, H. A. ii. 23.) 
Die tana A^mniut and Maria were tlajn at Tny 
by theaoniofKeator. (//.iTi.317,&c) [L. S.] 

A'MITON CAftlTw), of Eleutherae in Crete, 
it laid to hare been the firit peraon who anng lo 
the lyre amatory poema. Hit detcendanla wara 
called v(«i(or«{'AtiiTop<i). (Alhen, lir. p.63e,b.) 
Then leemi aome coiruption in the text of Athe- 
nneua, aa the two namea Afott^m and Amitona do 
not correapond. Inilead of the foltner we ought 
perhapa I» i«id Ametor. (Corap. Eti-m. M. p. 83. 
15,ed. Sylburg.i Heiych. a. k ^A/iqrilpt^) 

AMMIA'NUS ('A^vuWi), a Oteek e^gfam- 
matiat, but piofaaUy a Roinaii by birtlu The 
Gmk Antholo^ containa 27 tpigiama by him 
(Jacobe, ill pp. 93 — 9B), to which muat ba added 
another contained in the Vatican MS. [Jacoba, 
xiiL p. 693), and another, which ia placei' tnong 
the anonymoua epigrama, but which tome MSS. 
aaaign lo Ammianut. (Jacoba, iT. p. 127, No. iliL) 
T>icy are all of a iuxtioua cbaiacler. In die 
Planadean MS. he it called Abhianut, which 
Wemadocf tnppotea to be a Greek fbim of Ananua 
or Aiienut. {foel. Lai. Min. t. p. ii. p. 675.) 

The dme at which he lired may be gathered, 
with tolerable certainty, from hi* epigiwnt. That 
he wat a contempoiary of the epigrammatiM Ludl- 
liot, who iired under Nero, ha* been inferred froB 
the drcnmatancs that both attack an oialor named 
Ftaocni. (Ammian. Ei>. 2; Lncil. £^ 86, ap. 
Jaeobt.) One of hi* epignmi (13) i* identical 
iciih Iha la*t two liuea of <M>e of Hartial'i (ia. 3D), 
vho it auppoitd by aome to bif* traoalated tbeie 
llnea frion Ammiwiu, and Ibtrerore to hxve tived 
nrar him. But the fact ia equally well eiplain*d 
on tbt tnppoailioo that the [KOIa were contempo- 
imry. From iwo other epifErama of AinniiaiftU* 
(Jacobi, Tol. ir. p. 137, Ko. 41, and ToL liiL 
p 139}, we &af that ha waa ecolamporary with 
ibe aophiil Aatonina Pidnno, who flunriahed niider 
Trajan and Hadrian. (Jacob*, AntM. Grate. XL 
pp. 31^, 313, nil. p. 840.) [P. S.] 

AMHU'NUS HARCELLl'NUS, " the laat 
anl^t irf Rome who compoaed a profane hiaW«y 
In the Latin language," wa* by Uith a Ore<^ aa 
lie hlnueir fnquenlly dKlarta (luL tub fln., 
nil. 8. g 83, uiii. 6. g SO, Ik.}, anil a nailra of 
liyrian Anliucfa, aa we itifer from a leller addraated 
to him by Ubaniua. (S« Vale'a pr^f. m Ammiat. 
.VareiilU.) At an tarly age he aiubrwHi tba pn>- 
ftialon of anna, and waa adoiiliad amwig the 
proltctom domatia, whicli fnnta that he belonged 
10 a ditiinKuiBhtd fiunily, *ipc* none were anrolled 
in that corpa iicept young men of nobln blood, or 
cfficen wlioee TaluDT and fidelity had baeo ptsTed 
in long aerrice. Of hit anbaeqnaqt {nanotion no- 
thing la known. Ha waa atlacUd to Ih* ataff sf 


Uniciniu, one at iha mnt able unong Uie nnenls 
tl Coiutaiitiiu, and accdDipaiiied him lo Ue Kait 
b S50. He nturned wiili hi> connDaader to Iu]y 
bar jewn aSiemiit, froin ihence puBcd over into 
Gaul, uui MsiiUd in the enteipiiia igBinit Sylvo- 
BU(, again faUowed Uni^ni when deipatched Tot 
a Mcond time te the Eait, and appein to hsTe 
Bercr quitted him until the period of bia final dia- 
fmee in 360. Ammianni nbieqnentlj attended 
the emperor Julian in hie campaign againit tlie 
Pcniani, vai pmenl at Antiocb in 371, when the 
pint of Theodonu wa» delected in the reign of 
Valcns, and witneswd the torture* inflicted upon 
the coni))irsU)n. (xxix. I § 34.) ETcntuallj- 
bo eitabliehed himtelf M Rome, where he com- 
powd hi* hittorj, aod during the [H«greM of the 
talk read •everaJ porUoni publicl;r, which wen 

•f hi* death u not reconled, but it miut have hap- 
pened later than 390, aince a reference occur* to 
the conaoltbip of Neoterina. which belong* la that 

The worii of Animianu* extended from the ae- 
ceuioo of Nerra, j, d. 96, the point at which the 
biitorie* of Tntitu* end the biograpbie* of Sueto- 
Biw lenninatrd, lo the death of Valena, a. d. 3TH, 
coinpriiiag a period of 262 year*. It was divided 
ioto Ihinj-one book*, of which the firat thirteen 
Hr. 1d(L The remaining eighteen embrace the acta 
<rf ConMandu* from ^D. 353, the leventeenth fear 
of hi* reigr., together with the wliole career of 
Oallna, Julianna, Jonanu*, Valenlinianoa, and 
ValenL The portion preaerred include* the tron*- 
aclkOD* of tweDty^live Tear* onl^, which proTe* 
that iha •arlier booki ninit hiTS pnaenlad a Terr 
eondraiaJ afatidgmetit of the aimts coiilniinni in 
lb* louR ipaca over which tbef alratclied ; anrl 
bene* we may fed Mliifinl, that what ba* been 
awad ia iDBcfa uion nluable than what ha* pe- 

Oibboo (cap. iiTi.) pay* a wrlt-dnerred tri. 
bull lo tb* accnrac/, fl<lelilf, and imprtialiij of 
Ammians*. W* art indabied to him (or a kiww- 
Mt» at many importaul facta not elarichere re- 
eofdad, and for much Taiuabie imiglit into lb* 
ncdea of tbooght and the gcnrral lone uf public 
feeliDg pieraUut in bi* daj. Hi* liixtur; inu>t not. 
biiwaTar»be regarded a* a complete clinjDlcle of that 
«a ; thoB* imetediag* oalj are brought forward 
pnmtBBotlj in whloh he hinuelf wai enguged, and 
■aarlj all the italamant* admitted appeal to be 
fiiaaded npco hia own obHrraliona, or upun the in- 
fofnialioo derind from tnulwortbj eje.wiineitca. 
A ocnuderabl* nnmber of dLmertation* lod digrat- 
aiona an introdncid, maaj of tbam high]; iniereit- 
ia^ and ialD>bl& Such are bi* noliitti of the 
iniilutioos and maimer* of the SarBie<i> (liv. 4). 
at ib« Scjtbiaiu and Sarmatiana (itIj. IS), of ibe 
Hon* and Abini (mi. S), of iht E^Tpliana and 
liidr CDBBtrj (xiii. 6. 14 — 16). uii hi* geofim- 
pliicol dUca«iiOB npoo Giiul (it. 9X tbe Foutna 
(u<>. B), aMl Tl.raa (urii. tX altbuUgh Ibe 
acenracj uf many of hi* delaib hal been called in 
^■Mution hj D'Aiirilk. La*» l^liualc aod leai 
jadidoua arc bi* gealo|{ical ipeenlalion* upon earth, 
quk** (iTJL 7), hie aiitroaouiicaJ inquiria* ioU 
crlipaa* (ix. 3), ccoMta (ur. 10), aul th* regu 
b loo uf tlie nieodar (utL 1), hia nwdical r» 
•aaTchiB iiita the origin of epHlemita (iii. 4), liii 
ioolo^cal ihMTT oD the daliBctioD of buui b; 


motquiloe* (iviii. 7), and hi* horlicultiml tmmj 
-\ the impregnation of palm* (riir. 3). But ia 
IdiUon to iuduttiy iu reeeaicb and honeaty of 
irpoie, he wa* gifted with a large meauire of 
rong common *en*e which enabled bim in many 
points to rile superior lo the prejudice of hi* day^ 
and with a clear-lighted independence of iiHrit 
^ich prevented him from being daazled or over- 
bed by the brilliancy and tbe lerron which eo- 
iopcd the imperial throne. The wretched 
nitj, weaknei*, and de' 
rendering him an emy pi 

profiiguie minione by whom ne wa* *uirounoea, 
the female intrigue* which ruled the court of 
OoUua, and the condicting element* of vice and 
virtue which were *o *tjongly combined iu the cha- 
iBcter of Valentinian. ore all iketched with bold- 
■*, vigour, and Imth. But although gufficienlly 
ite iu delecting and eipoiing the follie* of other*, 
1 eipecially in ridiculing tbe abaurditie* of po- 
lar luperitition, Anuuiauu* did not entirely 
ope tbe contiigion. The geaeial and deep- 
Lted belief in magic apell*, otnena, prodi^ea, and 
icIm, which appean to have gained additional 
ength upon the bnt iutroduclian of Chriitianitj, 
dcnlly eicrcined no tumll influence over liii 
lid. The old legend! and ductrinet of the Pagan 
ed mid the lubllc myetidun which pliiloiopbcra 
pretended to dtacover lurking below, when mined 
p with the para and ainiple but ilartling tenet* of 
le new hith, formed a confuaed mou which few 
itcUccta, except ibote of the very highett doaa, 
luld reduce te order and baimony. 
A keen conlroTeny hai been maintained with 
regard to the religioua creed of our author. (See 
Bn'le.) There i* nolliing in his >> "hirh 
o>u entitle ui to decide the queaiion pualiivaly. In 
several paaaage* be *pe>h*wiili uiariied reapect of 
Cliristiioiiy and ita prafcKHr* (ui. *uh fin., itii, 

bi* ttr.ingett expreMioni, which era all almbuled 
by Gibbon " id th* i no mi parable pliancy of a 
polytbeinl,' aSiird no cunciuili* evidence that he 
<*ai hinuelf a disciple of the cttaa. On the other 
hand be doe* not acrupie to aiiginallie wiih the 
ntjtii^t sererily the lavage fury of the cuntendjng 
^ecta (uil S), nor U\\ to reprobate Ih* bloody lio- 
lence ef Darnaam and Ursinui 

n the a 

L 3): the ab*enc« of ail 
lacy of Julian, and ibe lenna 
' C»i'- 

11, nil. 3), ibe Oeoiaa (ixi. 14), llerturi 
5, XIV. 4), and oihar deiiiea, are by many con. 
iideTEd a* decilive proof* that he waa a pogan. 
Indeed, aa Heyn* justly remaika, many of tlie 

committing themaelvei. Being probably devoid uf 
atruiig religiou* prio.iplefc tliey ftit unwilling te 
baiard any declalsliun which might one d*y ex- 
pose Ihem to peneonlion and prevent ihein from 
adopting the various forma wbich the faltli uf the 

Little can be laid in praise of the style of Am- 
mtanna. The malodioni flow and limple dignity 
of tbe pars model* i/ compurition had long 
ceaied lo b* reliilied, and wa loo often detect Iha 
Innh dlctiun ind invulved parioda of an imperfectly 
educalnl foreixu aolilier, relieved oocationally by tb* 
pompon* inftirion and flonhy glitter of the rhetori- 
cal achooli. Hi* phraieulugy aa ii refnrdi tbe lig- 
niGcatioo, gramma.ical inflciiuni, and syniaclicol 

141 AMMON. 

aombiiutioni of wonis, pnbably npmenU the oir- 
rml language of Lhe age, bat muit be pranouDced 
ftll of taiUriuni and ia!rci>mi *hen judg*' 
cording to Ihe lUindaid of Cicero and Liif . 

The Editio Princept of Aimnianui Marcelliniu, 
edital by Angelui Sabiniu, wa> prinUd at Rome, 
in folio, hj George Sachiel and Barth. Golich ' 
the sou 1474. li ia Tcrj incorrect, and coDiai 
Is booka oaij, from Ihe Mill to the 26th, both 
iDchiaiTe. The remauiing file wen Srat pabliahed 
b; Accoru, vho, in hia edition printed in folio at 
Augiburg in 1532, bnaita that he had eomcled 
tire thouiand erron. 

The moit uaefu! modent edition) are Aote of 
arODOTiai, 41o., Lugd. Bat. lC93i of Ernesti, 8to. 
Lipk, 1773', bat above all, that which wa* com- 
raenced bj Wagnrr, completed after hia death bj 
ErAirdt, and publiahed at Leip«e, in 3 toIi. Sto. 
1808. [W. R.] 

AMMON ("Afiun), originiUlj an Aclhiopian 
or Libjan dirinity, whoH worship inbiequenilr 
tpirad all over Egypt, a pari of the northern coaal 
of Africa, ami many paita of Oreece. The real 
Egyptian name waa Aman or Ammiin (Herod, ii 
42 j PIdL 4e ft Hi Om. 9) ; the Greeki called him 
Zeni Ammon, the Romani Jnpitet Aramon, and 
theHebiewaAmoo. (JerenLilvLS5.) That in the 
coanlrin where hii wonhip waa lint established 
he waa revered in certain mpecti aa the aapreme 
divinity, ia clear from the iact, that the Greeka 
Rcogniaed in him their own Zeui, althoagh the 
identity of the two goda in later timea rrata upon 
philoaopbical apemlationa, made at a period when 
the original ehaiacter of Amnion wa* almoit loat 
aight o£ and a more apiritual new of him aubati- 
tuled in it* place. 

The most ancient irat of hia worahip appears to 
haie been Meroe, wnere he bad a much reiered 
oncle (Herod, ii. S9); thence it waa introduced 
into Sgypti where the worahip took tbe Rimeat 
root at Thebea in Upper Egypt, which was Ihen- 
fbre frequenlty called by the Greek* Dioapolia, or 
the city of reot. (Herod. iL 42 i DiDd.Ll5.) 
Another &nioua aeat of the god, with a celebrated 
oracle, wa* in the oaaia of Aminonium (Siwah) in 
theLihvan deiert; the wcrahipwatalioeitAbliahed 
in Cyn.naica. (1-aui. i. 13. § 3.) The god waa 
reprenented either in the form of a ram, or aa a 
human being with the head of a ram ( Herod. L a ; 
Strab. irii. p. 812) [ but there are (ome repre*en- 

dear that the original idea of Amman waa that of 
a piotector and leader of the flock*. The Aethto- 
piana were a nomadic people, flocka of aheep con- 
atiluted their principal waallh, and it ii perfectly 
in accordance with the notiona of the Aethiopiana 
as well aa Egypttaaa to worahip the animal which 
is the leader and protector of the flock. This view 
i* supparted by varions atories about Amman. 
Hyginni [Foti. Attr. i. SO) whose aceonnt ia only 
a rationalistic interpretation of the origin of the 
god'* worship, relates that some African of the 
name of Ammon brought to Liber, who waa then 
in poaseuion of Fg)'pU ■ ^»^ff quantity of altle 
In return for this, Liber gave him a piece of land 
near Thebea, and in commemoretini of the benelita 
b* had eenleired upon the god, he wa* represented aa 
a hnnui being Willi horn*. WhatPau*auias(iv.-23. 


g 5) and Euatalliiua (ad Dianyt. Periig. 2I3]| n- 
mark, aa well as one of the many etytnologiea of tbe 
name of Ammon from the Egyp^an woid Amom, 
which ligniBea a ahepherd, or to feed, likewia* 
accord with the opinion that Ammon wa* originally 
the leader and protector of flock*. Herodotaa !•- 
Utea a alory to account for the cam'* head (IL 42): 
Heracles wanted to aee Zeu*, but the latter wiahed 
to atoid the interriew ; when, however, Heiietea 
at laat had recourse to enlreatie*, Zeua contnTed 
Uie fallowing eipedient : be cut off tbe head of a 
nuD, and holding thi* before hi* own head, and 
having covered the remaining part of hia body 
with the *kin of the ram, he appwred before Hera- 
dea. Hence, Herodotus adda, the Thebana never 

occaiion they kill and flay a ram, and with ita akin 
they dreas the itatne of Zeus (Ammon) ; by tha 
aide of this atatne Ihey then place that of HeradeL 
A aimilac account mentioned by Servina (ad Aja. 
iv. 196)mayaervea»acommenlBryupoaHerodotnfc 
When Bacchus, or according to others, Heracles, 
went to India and led his army through the deaerta 
of Libya, he waa at last quite eihaasled with 
thirst, and invoked hia folher, Jupiter. " 
a mm appeared, which led lleradea ti 
where it tmned a spring in the aand by sc 
with its fooL For ihia reason, 
Jupiter Ammon, whose name ia 
dl^Ht (sand), ia represented with the boni* of a 
ram. (Comp. Hygin. Fak 133, />ast. Ailr. L 20; 
Lucan, I'JutrxiL \i. 51 1.) There are seveisl other 
traditions, with various mo<Uficstions arising tima 
Ihe time and place of their origin ; but all agree in 
refoesenting the ram a* tbe guide and deliverer tt 
the wandering herd* or herd*men in the deaerta, 
either in a direct way, or by giving oraclea. Am- 
nion, thei«fore, who ii identical with the nun, ia 
the guide and protector of man and of all his poa- 
•esuona ; he atanda in the lame relation to mao- 
kind as the common nm to hi* flock. 

The introduction of the wonhip cf Ammon &<nn 
Acthiopia into Egypt waa symbolically represented 
in a ceremony wluch wa* peifbrmed at Thebea 
once in every year. On a certain day, the image 
of the god waa carried across the river Nile into 
Libya, aud after aome days it wis brought back, aa 
if the god had arrived from Aetbiopii. (Diod. L 97.) 
Tbe aatne account is given by Eustathiua (ad Horn. 
/t T, p. 128), though in a somewhat different form; 
' he relates, that according to some, the Aethio- 
^ n* used to fetch the images of Zeus and other 
god* &om the great temple of Zeus at Thebes, 
With these image* they went about, at a certain 
period, in Libya, celebrated a aplendid fcatival for 
.welve daya— for this, he adds, is thf number of 
he gods they wonhip This number twelve coi>- 
aina an allurion to the number of ngn* in the 
;odLBC, of which the lam (o^wrj ia one. Thus wa 
irrive at the second phasis in the character of 
^mon, who is here conceived aa the sun in the 
sign of Caper. (Zeua disguised in the skin of a ram. 
See Hygin. F^ 133, Poet. AOr. L 20 ; MacrohL 
&U. L21. IBi Aelian, ri^. I. 18.) This astro- 
nomical character of Amman ia of later origin, and 
perhaps not older than the aiith century before 
ChrisL The speculating Greeks of still later times 
aadgued to Ammon a more spiritual natore. Thna 
Diodorut. though in a pa«*age (iii. 6B, Ac) ha 
make* Amman a king of Libya, duecribea him (L 
1 1, &C.) as the apiril pettading the universe, and 



m die nthor of ill liA in utun. [Comp. Pint. A 
li.ttOi.9, 21.) The new PlitooiiU pen - ' 
in Anunon their deDuurgoi, that ia, the craau 
pKMrrer of the vorld. Ai thii ubjeet bekog* 
nora e^edallj lo the niTthoIgn of E^t, ve 
cwiDat ban enler into > detailed ducneuan Kbmt 
tha latnni and cbancUr whieb llio later Greeki 
■Higual to him, or hii eonnenon with Dionjeni 
and Uenclea. Rnpecting thcM poinli and thi 
Tariooi opinioiu of modem mtica, a* well at Ihi 
diffeient repraentatiOH of Ammon (till extant, 
die reader maj coninl I Jablonak j, Pamtiioii Atggfi. 
Bohlea, Oh aOt ImU«^ aul bmdnr AitobM 
ai/^pim,u.e.2.i9i J. C Prichard, ^(9pMra 
MyOohigf; J. F. Chani|iallwa, PimlUam Eg^tia^ 
Vmt, 18-23. 

The wocihip of Ammon wu introdDoed into 
Qieece at as earij period, probabl)' Ihroogh the 
medium of the Oreek colony in CjmiB, which 
BDM have formed a oonneiiDn with the gtea" - 
de of Ammon in the Oaiit uon after iu eata 

gift of PiDdar. at Thebt* (Paoa, ii. 16. J 1). 
anotho' at Spirta, tbo ii^abilanta of wbiek, a* 
Pauiania* {iii. 1 B. 1 2) Hya, eoniolted Um orade 
ef Ammon in Liifya from carlj tmui -^ 

ibe other Qreehi. At Aphytii, AmnxH 
iUf^ied, fiwn the time of Lytander, ai i 
IB ^moninm. Pindar the poet hoaODr 
with a hymn. At Megalopoli* the god waa npre- 
•ented with the hewl of a ram (Pana. nil. S2. f 1), 
and the Oreeka of Cymaiea dediated at Dd^i a 
eharist with aaletiM of Ammon. (x. 13. gS.j Tbe 
koBwe which Alexander said lo tha god in \! 


t Rome, aboat tha 
time of tha fint inmion of the Oodia, and bond 
IboB la b* 21 mile* in dicoit. (Olympiodonu, 
■p. FtaL ad. 80. p. 63, ad. Bekker.) [P. S.] 

AMMON fAww). I. Bitbop of Hadriaaople, 
i. D. WO. wrote <in Ol«ik) ft. - " 
■gainat Oiigeniim (not extant). 
AmnxKi, from ihii work ponibly, may be found ap. 
S.Cyiil.Alei.£t(.({aAD^fii^(VDLT. pL2. ' 
fin. p. SO. ed. Paria. IfiSfl.) fie wai pteeent 
the Conndl of Conitanlinopla i. n. B94. held 
uxaiion of the dedication of Rnfniii'i chorth. 
Mar Cbakedon. (Soi. Hid. EccL riiL S. 3 j Manu, 
OiMMia. n4.aLp.65].) 

2. Bithop of ElHTchia, in tbo Tbabaida, 
tbe 4th and 5th canturiea. To him ia addraa 
the Canonical Epiilla of Tbtophilu of Alaxandria, 
ap. 4n*iAaiBeTrT»ii,T(,p. 170. Papa- 
broehini haa puhliahed in a l^n Ternon hia 
EpUtJe to TheophiluB, Dt VUa tl Oommtatiom 
as. Packamii it Tkiudori (ap. Bidland. Aita Sane- 
(oraai. toL lii. p. 347. Ac.). It containa an 
biiMle of 8l Antony. [A. J. C] 

AMHO'N AS ('AMiafm) or AMOUN CAiuC'), 
bonder of ima iX the moat oelebrattd monaatic 
fmnmnniliea in EgypL Obliged by hia relationi 
ta many, be peranaded hit bride (o perpetual eon- 
tineiK* (Sonn. HiiL Eai. i 1 4) by tbe antbority 
of St. PaoP* ^ialla to tba CorinthiMia. (Sam. 
Km. Bid. IT. 31) IVy lired together thna fbi 
IS yean, wbtn at bar wieb, fat greater parfaction, 
■key parted, and ho ratind to Soetii and lit 
Nitria, to the mth of I^e Manotia, where he 
Und 23 jeara, Ttnling bii uiter-wife twin in tba 


year. (Ibid, and Pallad. HuL La-a. c. 7 ; Rblliii. 
ViLPatr.t.2S.) He died before St. Antony (Inni 
wheal there iaan epiilIetabim,S.AthaiL 0pp. voL 
L pC 3, p. 9S9, ed. Bened.), i a. before i. o. 36A. 
for the Utter awerted that ha beheld the aou^ nf 
Abmud borne by angel* to hearen {Vil. S. Anbma % 
a Athansa. g 60), and aa SL Athuaaioa'a bialoiy 
of St. Antony pieacrrea the order of time, he died 
perhapa about a. a. B20. There are aerentaen or 
nineteen BtdmofAtettitiM [nipiXiun) aaeribed to 
him ; tbe Greek original eiiata in MS. (Ldmbeeina, 
Biblialk. VmdoL lib. ir. cod. 156. No. 6) ; they an 
puhliahed in the L^tin Tenion of Oerhald Vowu* 
in the BOiliati. PP. Atatica, toL iL p. 484, Pari*. 
1661. 7\sB>^int^n<K/«(iMiExuoflheiama 
Amoun, or one bearing the aame name, eiiat alao 
inMS. (LnmbecJlc. Cod.155, No.2.) [AJ.C] 

AMMO'NIA {'AMiuala), a nmaDi* of Hera, 
under which iho wa* worihipped In Elia. The 
inbahitanta of Elia bad from the earliett tjoiea 
been in the habit of conanlting the onde of Zona 
Ammon in Ubya. (Pana. r. 15. | 7.) [L. S.) 

AMMONIA'NUS fAMwau^i), a Greek 
gmramaiian, who tired in the fifth centorr after 
Chriat. Ha wai a nlation and a friend of the phi- 
loaopher Syiianua, and deroted hia attention to 
the atudy of the Greek poeta. It i> recoided of 
him that he had an aa*, wbicb beoune to fbnd of 
poetry from Itnening to iu matter, that it tH^lect- 
ed iu food. (DamaKio*, ap. PiaL p. 339, a., ed. 
Bekker ; Suid. t. n. 'AMuinvdi and 'Ont kipat.) 

AHMO'NIUS, a bTonrite of At-xx 

Balaa, king of Syria, ti 
•d the entire nuuugeme 

Duuugemeni of psblic a&ira. An>- 
■ ■ put to death 
friend* of the king, the qneen Laodice, 
and Antigonua, tba ton of Itemetrina. Being de- 
tected in plotting agunat the life of Ptolemy PU- 
lometor, aboat 8. C 147, tha latter required 
Alexander to tnrrender Ammoniua to him ; but 
though Alexander refiued to do tbit, Ammoniua 
Wat pnt to death by the inbabitanu of Antioch, 
whom Ptolemy had induced to eapooie hie cauta. 
(Lir. Epil. 50 ; Joaepb. Ant. xiiL 4. g 5 ; Diod. 
En. 29, p. 628, ed. Weat.) 

AMHD741US j;'AMu<naf) of Albxihdhu, 
the aou of AmnMmin*, wa* a po|nl af AlaxaDder, 
and on* of the chief teacban in tha giammatical 
tchool Eainded by Ariitanbia. (Smd. a; «. 'Aft- 
^uiriu.) He wrote cnnnaentariea opon Hooai^ 
Pindar, and Ariatophanea, none of which an tx- 
tant. {Fabric BiU. Onue. >. p. 712; Matter, 
Ciiatt kittanqutM Mur rtmU d'AUmndn, i, pp. 

AMM^NIUS ('AwJnaf\ of Alizandru. 
Pieabyter and Oeoonomut of the Church in that 
dty, and an ^yptian by birth, A. n. 4i8. He 
aobacribed the Epittle aent by the deijy of Egypt 
to the emperor Leo, in behalf of the Cooncd of 
Cbalcedon. {OomcUia, ed. Labbei, toL ii. p. 897, 
b.) Ha wrote (in OnA) Oa lit D^wnm 
bttwtn Natan ami PerKm, againtt tha Mono- 
phjaite hereay of Eatycbaa and Diaecen* (not 
>i[ant) i an Etpom^m of lit Book t^ Ad» (ap. 
OKmm Onuc Patr.m AcL SS ApoMonmi, Std, 

<m. 183 


da Ptatnu (naed by Nintat in hia Catou ; aea 
Cod. 189, Bibliolh. Coitlin., ed. Montbuc; p 
244) i On lie Heraitunm (no lemaini) ; Oi SL 
Jalm'$ GaipA, which exiiU in the (WnH Grao- 
corvM F^rMM « S. Joai. ed. Corderil, toL, 

I'M AUH0N1U3. 

Aotw. I6S0. H* i> quoted in Ihe (htnat oa Che 
MUory ofSHomudi aitd an Dunal, (A'om Cal- 
Uet-Str^ FiL >b AugelD Huo, p. 166,ftc.TvLL 
A. a. \e2B.) [A. J. CO 



It thit cl«M of ths 1th MUtnij. 
oE the Egyptian Ape. On the Tigotmu Dninliniv of 
idolMrj m Egjpt b; the biihop Thecnihiliu A. D. 
38V-Stl< Anmonin* uid Melkdiiu aed to Coo- 
MuiliDnla and then ntnmed tiMit profeuion. 
(Socr. MiL Bed. t. 1G.) AnuDODiiia wnle, in 

Am (stpl dfufwr ml liaf^pur Kii—ir), which je 
■pptnded to muij laxiomu, «. ^ to that of Soqiiila. 
It wu edited bj Valckntaei, 41<L, Lngd. Bat. 17S9, 
and with futher notia bj Chr. Fiid. Amman, 
Sto., Eilang. 1787. Thai* ia aaoths waA by 
ihia AmmoDiu, n(i irvfiBtitylai, which hai not 
fM beeD FUMd. ^Fabric. BOL Grata, loL *. 
)k 71i.) The hiitonan Soerate* waa a papl of 
Ammomia. (Hid. Bed. 1. 16.) [A.J. C] 

AMHONIUS CA^rm), m at Hiuus, 
•tndiad with hia braUuii Maliodonu at Athtni 
DDder Produ (wb» di«d a. & 484), and waa the 
uuwtat of gioplioina, Aidepiaa TnUianm, John 
PhODpiKma, and IhwiidBi. Hit Cbmrnuatanet (in 
Oreek) on Phto and Ptoleior are ioat, la well a* 
nw; on Ariiuik. Hii artwl woriu an Ohk- 
■Hlomt ae lit liw ^ PoijAyry, or On /tM 
Pndkatlm, hcM poUiahed at Venice in ISOO, and 
On at OMUpona o/ Aritbtttt, and Z)a IiUtrpn- 
MiMcfintpnbliihed at Venice in IMS. See too 
apL Alenuid. Aphrodii. Dt Fato, f. 180, Sto. 
Ijood. ISfB. The abore-Damed Commentaiiea on 
Aiiatotle aie alao pnUiahed in the Sdialia n 
^niM. ed. Bnudia. In HS-arehiaCommenlariaa 
on Aiiatotle'i Topic* and Mota^Jijtica, and hi* 
MUMw (OMfrMwii AilnbMam. rPabric AU 
Ortm. ToL t. p. 707.) [A- J- CJ 

AMMONIUS, df LaMPUl, a Tilkge of 
Attica, a Pelipaletia pUloaopbar, who Ured 
the Bnt owtw; of the Chriatian wn. H* i 
tb* initrnetar of PhrtH^ who pniwa hi* gnat 
learning {Siftp. iii. 1), and intndncH Um die- 
anning on leEgioa and lacred litei. (ii. 15.) 
Conmi endwnnui to ihew (« «U /" ' " -" 
that Ammonini of l^mprae ia naUf 

'' ' ' ■ the Egj-ptiau n»Dlioned by 

acammt he received the uHnonien of 
KiSoii/ut. An account of hit mode d opatatioii. 
*• dncribed bj Celan* {Dt Mtd. m. 26, p. 161), 
iigiTHiin th*X>>ct^^<H.p.320. Scr - '- ' 
prepantiona ned by a phndan of the 
occoT alao in Aetiua and Paolni Ae| 

a Plntaich obtained the minate knowledge of 
Egyptian wonhip whi<± he haa ihewn in hia tiea- 
tiie on lat and Ouria. 

of I^mprae ii mentioned by A 
bar of the worii Dt D^irmtU 

nina, the aathor of the worii Dt DiffirmtiU Vi 
tonoB, under the word PiBfiit, ai hnTJng written a 
tnetiae Iltpl Bw>u*r, or a* the Mer title ia giren 
by Athenaeai, Wfi Baifwr lol ftwivr. (li. p. 
476, 1) Whether the aame AmmODio* wu the 
anther of another work, Xli^ Tin 'Mv^irir 
"ErmflSon; mentianed by AthenM* (liiL p. 567, 
a), i. uncertain. [R J.] 

an eninant anigeon of Alexandria, mentioned by 
Celmi (/)t Med. -m. Ptmci p. 137), wboae exact 
date 1* not known, but who pnbably Hoed in the 
teiga af Ptolemy PhiladdpriDi, ■. c £83— S4T, 
aa hii name oocnn in Celmi together with thoe 
of MTer^ ether lurgeon) who tired at that time. 
He ia chiefly celebrated for haTiog been the firat 
peiwn who thought of breaking a ilone within Ibe 

r. A. 0.1 

Id A. D. 372. 

Zaaa o- 13, ed. Roiweyd. p. 543.) He knew the 
Bible by heart, and carrfally itndied Didymua, Ori- 
geu, aod the othia ecileaiaatical anthora, la a. ■>. 
S39-341 he accompanied St. Alhanaiint to Rome. 
In A. D. 371-S, Peter II. nmeeded the latteT,and 
■hen Im Bed to Rome &om hia Ariao penecutora, 
AmmoniuB retired &Dm Canopni into PaleeliiK. 
He witoeiaed Ine cnultiea of the Saneena againat 
th* mmka of Mount Sinai l. D. 377, and raeiTed 
intelligenoe of th* ■uftringa of otheia near the Bed 
Sea. On hia letnm to Egypt, he took op hia 
abode at Memphia, and d* 

II Egyptian. Thia 

being finnd at Nauciatia hj a priea^ naawd John, 
waa by him traoilated into Qieek, and in that 
fora ia extant, in drUi Mariymm Ett^ tri- 
uapU (p. 88, mL CombeSa, Stl, Par. 1660). 

promotion to the epiae^iala. (Socr. iT. 33 ; PaBad. 
HitL Laia. c 13.) [A. J. C] 

AMM0V1U3 CAmu<»0') the PiurATBTir, 
who wrote only a few potnu and dedamatian*. 
He wu A di^rent penon fnm Ammonina, the 
toehei of Plotinna. (Leogin. op. Porftf/r. in 
PtoHt. eA. c 30 1 Philoalr. ii. 27 ; Rohnkeo, Dim, 

AMMCrNIUS ('Awul*<oi}, a Greek Pon-, 
who liTCd in the reign of the empem Tlwodoau 1 1. 
He wrote an enc poem on the inaamctioD of the 

quoted in IhcEtymolo^cnm hfaguuui ^i.ii.MlHrrat) 
fkom one Anuacaiina, and the two epignma in the 
Anthott^ Oneea (iii. 3, pL 841, ed. JacoU), 
which bear the aame name, belong to him, i* nn- 
ecrtain. [L. S.] 

hBMadot of PTDLmaBtra Anletea, who wi* asat 
to Rome B. c 6S In *eek atnatanca againit the 
Alnandriana, who had oppoaed the king. (Cic 
ad Fawi. i. I.) He ia peihapa the aame penon la 
the AmmoniBt who ia ipoken of aa one of the 
agentaof DeoHtni in B. c. 44. {Ad AH. it. IS.) 

AMMffNIUS, aUled SACCA3 C*W-'"<" 
SoKJnt, L r. 3iuiR>fJ|»f ), or aack-mrier, becaiiae 
hia official employment waicairjing the com, landed 
at Alenndru, aa a public porter (aaoairnia, ace 
Gothofred ad Cod. TVodo.. 14, tiu 22), waa bore 
of Chriatian parenti. Potphyrj aaaerta (lib. 3, 
arfc, CkrtHim. an. Fuaeb. H. £. n. 19), Eowbioi 
(L t.) and St. Jernne ( Fir. ItL f 55) deny, thM 
he apottatind baa the kith. At any rate ha 
comlHiied the itndy of phi1aaa[riiy with Chiiatianity, 
and ia i^anled by tho** who maintain hia apeitat* 
•a the fixinder of the later PhUonic School 


Amapf hii diadplM an mtntiooBd (.oiigiiiui, He- 
coniiu, Flolinu (Anm. HumIL uu.), both 
Origan, and Sfc HukIu. He died A. O. 24S, il 
Ilia age of nun than 80 yeata. A life of AiiOtt- 
tls, inGud lo (ha Caammtarf of hia niimwat-a 
oa Iha CatagoriM, baa baan aacnbad la him, but it 
k fnhMj Iba woA of J^d Pbaaponoi. Tbe 
Pagan diaciplaa of AmsMuoa beld a kind o( phi- 
laaophual t]ieidoe7. Faith mu deriTed by in- 
wvd pcncptian ; Ood waa tbnefiild in —nmee, 
mUlligmn, (ni. in knovledga of himsalf) and 
MHT {riz. in actiiity), the IvD latter notion 
bai>V iafeiioi to the Scat ; the can of the worid 
waa (Dtiaated to godi of an infarior nca, balo« 
tbaaa aotin wsra daemm*, good and badi an 
naalie U* and thewgy led ta the knovladge of 
tba Infaiito, she ma vcaahipped by the Tulgw, 
mlj in ibeiT nalitiiial daitiat. The Aleiandnui 
^yika and ftytLolm wen in BccDidaiKa with 
ihri prii«*i[J««. Ifwa an to conaidar bin a 
CbnMan, ho waa, beddea hia phihwopbj (which 
waaU, of ooocae, than be teprcMnlad bj Origco, 
and not by tbe pagan Abiandrini wbool a* above 
deanibad} noted for bii wiitinga (Enseb. H.B.-n. 
19), e^cciail; on the acdptorea. (Bnaeb. Epit. 
ai Cb^iiiai. i OaStadi-t BM. Pair. toL ii.) " 

which eiiita in the l«tiD Tenion cj Victor, iaiibaf 
af Cuia {in tbe 6th cent., who wron^y aacnbad 
it to lUn) and of Lnaciiiina. (Sea MmmmhAi 
Pa^. OrliaJoiegr^ia, L pL 2, par Orynsenn, pp. 
6«l-747, (oL, Bad^ IB69; E Ofieco tom pci 
Cnwmar. J—Miian. Aug. Vind. 4lo., 153S| and 
in Otnonn, Aagab., Bto., 1534; the touhi ef 
Victoi, If (font., Sto., 1 624 ; Cotou., 8to., 1 £82 ( 
in Rtf-lnqi. at ConuiL UcuaL & U. V. da 
Sakm, 8*0^1774; BibUaO-l^tr. 1 Oalknd., nri. 

iL p.«Sl,V«Ht^ 17aS: wharand. Fnltfom. 
Brwdra Aa HannnT, AnuDonlm wnM Da Ob»- 
tmm M<9m tt J^ (EatA. H. B. yi. 19). which 
ia pcaiaad by St, Jemae ( Fir. Ilbalr. g BS), bat 
ia bMt. [A. J. C] 

AUNIEI'ADES ('A/owaUo or -A^vurttti), 
tba Djowha of the ova Amninia in Crete, who 
aie sMDtHHied in connexion with Iha wimhip of 
Aitomiilbeie. (CaUim. ffj/mH. m Dior. \5,162 
ApoUon. Rhod. iiL 881.) [U S.] 

AMOHS'TUS CA/i^irrat), a QrtA writer of 
DiiCcrtBiu data, who mole a work on tbe peofda 
called Attad (Plia. H. ff. ii. 17. a. 20), and 
aaothec entitled 'AnlwABui Ik Miiupttt. (Ant^on. 
Caryal. HiiL Mir. e. 1 84 1 cemp. Aalian, V. H. 
Xiii. 6.) We oEght pmbably to ned 'A/i^iarrat 
initeadcf'ATfijfaro in SchoL a>i .^^xA iii. 179, 
and Eodoc VioL a. 248. 

AMOMPHA'RETUS {'Jinf^ifnti), com- 

amy, who Mfoaed to much jnTioualy to the 
battte of Platan (B.C 479) to a put of tbe plain 
MBT tbe dty, ■■ Piaeaniai ofdued, because he 
thoB^I that Boch a nuneiBeiit waa equinlent to a 
light. He at lei^ clianged hii miiui when he 
had b*ea left by tba othtr part of the atniy, and 
aet OBI to join Pai^uiiaa. He fell in the battle 
which fallowed, after diaUngaiahing hima^ by hit 
baareiy, and wa* bniiad among the litam. 
(Hand. ii. £3—67, 71, 85 ; Plut. ArMi. 17.) 
Aa to the ineaoing af the laat woid aee DicL </ 
jfnt a a. Etmr, and Thirlwally HiH. of Grma, u. 

AMOR, the god of tore and harmoDj. Ha bad 


no place in the leligion of the Roman*, who know 
and (peak of him only &om what they had heard 
from the Oraeka, and tiaatlata the Oraek name 
Eio* into Amor. [Eaoa.] [L. 8.] 

AMORAEUS ('A/uyoEM), king of tba Deibicae, 
in a war isninM wlxiai, acoording to Cladaa 
(PmK. c 6, ed. Lion), Cynu, tbe Grrt king of 

AHOROES (^AiOpym). 1. A king of the 
Sacae, according to Cleidai, whmn Cyna, kmg of 
Peiaia, conquered in battle, bvt afterwaida ra- 
teaeed, whoa he himeelf wat Tanqoiahed and taken 
priaoner by ^Mrnhhra. the wife of Amotgea. 
Cteaiaa npreaanla Aanges aa anbaeqnently one of 
the iinnni aOiaa of Cyme. {Ptnie. ec 8, 4, 7, B, 

2. A Pernau coamandar, killed in Caria, ia 
the reroll of Iba proTinca, a. c 49B. (Heiod. t. 

S. The baatard eon of Piaaathoa, who raroltod 
in Caria aboat B. c 411. Tbe Peloponaeaiani 
aaaialad TiiM^nMi in patting down tbia nrolt, 
and toidc Isaoi, B. c. 413, which waa bald by 
Amoigee. The latter fell into thaii handa so (ha 
captora of the place, and waa nirrendered by tbem 
to liawpbeiDek (Thne. riii. i, IB, 38, S4.) 

AUPE'Lm& We poaaesi a nhort trad bear- 
ing tbe title Lndi AmpeUi L&er Afemoriala. It 
waa fitat made known by Salmaaiiia, in IS3S, fmin 
a MSl in the library of Jniottu, and rabaeqnent 
editos fbltowing hi> eiam^e bare generally ap- 
pended it to aditioni of FIotmi. Wa conelade 
from internal eridence (ec. 39, 47), that it niuat 
tarn been onnpoaed after the reign of Tiajan, and 
befen tbe final diTiaion of the Roman coipira. 
Himaiiiii, Annnianni Maicellinna, and Symmachna 

in eonnezian with thirteen hiwa of the Thandoeian 
eodck Sdoniae ApoUinarii alao (ii. 301) ecan- 
■Mnoiatee the l*H"^^^g of an Ampelioi, but we 
nowhere End any allnuon which would enable na to 
aalabliah Boonneiion betweoi the peraon or penona 
■pokan of by thoae wrilera and the rompiler of (he 
Liber Hemerialia. On the contraiy 01£«u' haa 
addsced raaoni (in lOemadua for 1843, 
p. 1 4fi), which render il pnbable that the author 
of the Uber Mamocialia lived at an euUcr time 
than the abOTe-mentioned penona. It is itated 
in c IS of (hia boiA, " Sulla prinua 

Diocletian and Mnximianai Tengned the gavara- 
ment in A., o. lOfi, and thia event it tpoken of by 

all the hiiteriani who treat ef that period, the 
Libai Uamorialia would teem to have been c«d- 
poted at leaM beferc that year. 

Thit work, which is dedicated to a certain Ma- 
criaoa or Marinoa, equallj unknowa with tbe 
author him«;.lf , is a sort of conman-^ace-book, 
containing witldn a short compoat a oondensed and 
meagre anmmary, collected &om variont sonrcaa, of 
the moM striking objedh and phaenomena of the 
material universe and the moat remarkable arenta 
in the history of the world, the whole daaeified 

point of view. Neariy all the beta recorded an 
to be lound elaewhera in a more detailed and saiia- 
lactoty form, and truth it ao blended with false- 

hood, ud the b 


lunden committed no numi 
B Died with lalety for refe 
The itjle, where it ii not a mere caUjogua of 
namei, it ample mnd unidTected, bat both i 
eomtruetion of the temenctt »nd in the ii 
puticuUr irordi, Ire can detect many tiac 
corrupted latinily. The omunentsriei knd 
ciuni of Sahmiuiu, Murstiu, Freintbeim, . 
noa, Periioniut and other icbolua will be found 
in iba edition of Duker at the end of hii Flonia. 
(Lug. Bat 1722^1744, and repiialed at Leipa. 
1832.) Ampeliiu waa fint publiahad in a aeparate 
fimn, with verj naefiil prol^t<«noii«, by Txachockt 
(Leipa. 1793), and mbeequentlr by Pocltwiti 
(Liinenb. 1623), and F. A. Beck. (l«ipa 
1826.) [W. R,] 

AMPHt'ANAX CAfi^u£«(), a king of Lyda 
When Proetua waa expelled bom Ai^ by hia 
twin-brother Acritiua, Amphianax received him ' 
hi* court, gaTo him hia dangbtet Anteia (aome a 
her S^eneboea) b marriage, and atUrwarda led 
him hack to Argotit, where hii thaie in tli _ 
*eniineDt and Tiiyiii were restored to him. Some 
traditioiia called thia Lycian king lobatea. (Apol- 
lad.ii. 2. §1; Horn. /t vi 157, &c) [L. S.] 

AMPHIA'NUS, a Greek tragic poet at Ale 
uidiia. (SchoL ad Otraaa. AnL SS2, p. 79, od. 

AMPHIARAl'DES, ■ nationjrmie from Ani- 
phiaraui, by which OVid (Fad. li. 4S) calla hia 
aon Alcmaeon. [L. S.] 

AMPHIARA'US {'A.uM™'). i aon of Oiclea 
and HypermneatiB, the daughter of Theatiua. 
(Horn. Od. IT. 244 ; ApoUod. L fl. § 2 ; Hygii 
Fai. 73 1 Paua. ii. 21. S 2.) On hia bther-t aid 
he waa deicended &om the fiunoni aeet UeUimpna. 
(Paua. Ti. 17. I «.) Some tiaditiona npreaented 
him ta a ion ^ Apollo by Hjpennneatia, which, 
however, ii merely a poelicBl eipreuion to de- 
•cribe him at a >eer and pnphet. (Hygin. Fai. 
70.) Amphiaraoi ii renowned in ancient itotj aa 
a biaTe beni : he ia mentjooed among the liantera 
of the Caljdoniaa boar, which he ia laid to faaTe 
daprired of one eye, and alao at one of the Argo- 
naut*. (ApoUod. i. 8. g 2, 9. g 16.) For a time 
he feigned at Aivot in common with Adraitoi; 
hut, in a lead which brake out between them, 
Adraitut took to HighL Aftcrwarda, boweTer, he 
became reconciled with Ampbiaiaut, and gave him 
hit titter Eriphyle in marriage [ADnairrueJ, by 
whom Amphiaraut became the &ther of Alanaaon, 
Amphilochot, Eurydia, and Demonaaaa. On 
marryii^ Eriphyle, Amphiaraua had awom, (hat 
he would abide by the deciaion of Eriphyle on any 
point in which he ahould differ in opinion from 
Adraatui. When, therefore, the latter called upon 
him to join the Bipedilion of the Seven againit 
Thebet, Amphiaraua, although he fonaaw iu uu- 
Ibrtauate iaaue and at firit refuted to take any 
port in It, wBi nerertheleaa pertuaded by hia wi^ 
to join hia friendi, for Eriphyle had been enticed 
to induce her hutbend by the necklace of Harmonia 
which Polyneicet had given her. AmphiaiBui on 
leaving Aipn enjoined liii aont to avenge hit 
death on their heartleaa mother. (ApoUod. iiL 6. 
I 2 ; Mygin. Fai. 73 ; Diod. ir. 65 ; Hom. Od. 
IT. 247,&c) On their way to Thebe* the heroea 
loatiluted the Nemean gamea, and Amphiaiana 
won the Ticlon in the cbuietRue and in throwing 
the diaeut. (ApoUod. iiL 6. g 4.) During the 
war againat Thebea, Amphiaraua fought bnvdy 

(Pmo. OC. Ti. 26, &c), but aUU he could not np- 

preia hia aoger at the whole imdertaking, and 
when Tydeua, whom he r^arded aa the originator 
of the eipedi^on, wu aevetely wounded by Mehi- 
nippua, and Athena wat hattenmg to render him 
immorud, Amphisiaua cut off the head of Mela- 
nippua, who had in the mean time been ilain, and 
gave Tydeui hit bninitu drink, and Albena,itruck 
with horror at the tight, withdrew. (Apollod. iiL 
6. § 8.) When Adraatut and Amphiaraua were 
(he only heroet who turvived, (he lalier wai pnr- 
tued by Perictymenni, and fled towardi the river 
lameniua. Here the earth opaued before he waa 
overtaken by hia enemy, and twallowed up Am- 

Ehiaraua together with hit chariot, Irat Zeot made 
im immortal. (Pind. ytm. ii. 57, C tL 21, 
&e.i Ptut. ParalL 6; Cic At JXn. L 40.) 
Henceforth Amphiaiana waa wonhipped aa a hens 
tint at Oropoa and afterwarda in all Greece. 
(Paul. L 34. g 2 i Ur. zlv. 27.) He had a mao- 
tuaiy at Argot (Paua. iL S3, g 2), a atatne at 
Atbeni (L 8. g 3), and a heroum at Sparta, 
(MilUer, Oreltom. pp. 146, 486.) The departure 
of Amphianna from hie home when ha went to 
Thebea, waa lepreaented on the cheat of Cyptelua. 
(Paua. T. ] 7. g 4.) Beapecting aome extant vorki 
of art, of which Amphiaiana it the nibject, ae* 
OiilneiieD, Dit alt griecUidii Braue dei Jki'mina 
Kaiiiuti in T^iMi^ea, Stuttg. and Tubing. IG35. 

The prophetic power, which Amphiaraui waa 
believed to poateta, wu accounhid for by hia de- 
Bcent from Melamput or ApoUo, though there wai 
alao a local Uadition at Piiliua, according lo which 
he had acquired them in a night which he qient in 
the prophetic honae (oI»> fvarruiis) of Phliua. 
(Paua, iL 13. g6;comp. LS4. SS.) He wat, 
like aU aeeri, a bvourita of Zeut wd ApoUo. 
(Hom. Od. IT. 24fi.) Beapecting the oiade of 
Amphiaiana tea Did. of AnU lv. OraaiMm. It 
■hould he remarked here, that Virgil (^ea. viL 671 ) 
men^oni three Greek heniea ai contempoiaiiea of 
Aeneat, via. Tiburtut, CatiUuB, and Com, the fiitt 
of whom waa believed to be the fininder of Tibur, 
and it deacribed by Pliny (tf. M ztL 87) at a eoD 
of Amphiaraua. [L. S.] 

oeived inatructian in phUoaoidiy from ^tinua. 
(Porphyr. nl Pli*m. e. 9.) 

AMPHI'CRATES ('AH«,>dn,j), king of Sa- . 
mot in ancient timet, in whoae reign the Samiana 
invaded Aegina. (Herod. iiL G9.) 

AMPHI'CBATES {'Aiitticfi!nti\ a Greek 
lophiit and riielorician of A^na, He na a 
contemporary of Ti^anet (b. c 70). and being 
exiled (we know not lor what reatra) fhim Athena, 
hewenttoSclMiceiaontheTigrit. Tba inbaUtanla 
of thit place reqaetted bim to teach rhetoric ol 
their city, but he haoglitily redhied, taying, that 
the veuel waa too amaU 10 Cimtain a dolphin. Ha 
then went to Cleopatra, the daughter of Milhrt- 
datea, who waa mairied to Tigranea, and who 
teana to havt become attached to him. Amphi- 
cratet toon drew tuipiciont upon himaelf, and waa 
forbidden to have any intereoune with the Oieeka, 
whereupiHi he ttarred hinitelf to death. (Pint. 
£wu/^22.) LongiDUt (da iUJun. p. £4, ed.Toup) 
mentiDna bim along with H^etiat and Hatria, 
enanrea him for hit affectation of ■nbUinity. 

m cdebiated men (npl Irii^ 

mt^, AthuL xiii. p. S76; Diw. LaorL iL lOIX 
i* DDceittin. {L &] 

AMPHl'CRATES, ■ Onck •cnlpMr, pnbiblr 
■f Atheiu. linn he wu Ihe maker of * eUtut 
which Iha Athenioiu creMsd in hoooiir of a conr- 
teiui, who hnriog Inrnt itnoi IlanDodioa and 
Aiulngciton their cooipinc]' iguntt Hippiu ud 
BippBrchoi, mt tDrtDKd to dculi bj Ihe tjnuili, 
without diidouiig iba Mcnt. Her uuiie wu 
Lcana (a luiai) : and the Atheniana, nnwitling 
apen]; to luneor a eonrtenn, had the atatna made 
in the bm of a bmaar; and, to poii 
whkb it «aa meant to commoiKinte, 

waa omitted. We know nothing of the 

ij ioTer from the narrft- 

je lOon after the eipnl- 

(B.C510.] In the 

ii oar aole aulhoritj 

ia a manifeat (ormptioa of 

ipUeraUM U only a 

able ona, by BiUig. 

{OalabigMAf1ifii!mm.t.v.)' [P. &J 

AMPHICTYON (■AH«T«(r).a .on of Den- 
alion and Pynha (ApoUod. I 7. j 3), or according 
to othen an autochthon, who after baring nwrried 
Cranae, the daughter of Cranaui, king of Attica^ 
Vxpellcd hia bther-in-Iaw Ennn hia kinsdom and 
Mrpad hia thmne. He mled tor tw^re yean, 
d wiB then in tun aipeUed by 

amlptar'i age, onleaa 
tiTe that the itatne 
aiui of thi 
paawB of Pliny, 


the text, anil the reading 

(ApoUod. iiL 14. i &, Ac; Pana. L 3. g 
owding to SnHalhina (ad Horn. p. 377), 
laanied to Chtbonopatn, by whom ba had a aon, 
Pbyacaa, tba btber of Loenii. According ' 
Bt^hanna Bynntina (t. v. Wffmi), howei 
Aetotna waa a aon and Phjacna a gnindaon 
Amphic^oD. He waa beliered to bate been the 
Grit who introduced the coatom of miiiDg 
with water, and to hare dedicated two iXu 
Dionyna Onhoa and the nympha. (Eoitatb. ad 
Bom. p. 1B16.) Dionyuniot Halicamaaana (ir. 
Si), who call* him a aon of Hellen, Fanaaniai (x. 
.9. i I), and othen, tegaid A^htdjon aa the 
bander of the amphietyony of lliermopylae, and 
in eonaeqaenee of thia belief a aanctoary of Am- 
pbietyon waa bmll in the liUags of Anthela on 
Ihe Aaopoi, which waa tbe moat ancient place of 
neatingof ihiiampbictvony. (Hand. Tii. 300.) 
Bn tlua belief i> witboot an; foimdatioii, and 
aiDia fmo the ancie nta aatigning the establiihment 
at their inititntiona ta lomi mythical hero. (Diet. 
tfAM. K B. Amfkytiem.) [L, S.] 

af Demeter, derind from Antbcia, where ahe wai 

place oir meeting for the amphictyona of Thermo- 
pylae, and becaoie iBaiBcei were oSend to her at 
toe opening of every meeting. (Herod, to. 200 ; 
Stnb. ii. p. 429.) [L, S.l 

AMPHI'DAMAS l^h^iiiuu). 1. A ton of 
Lyeorgoi and Cliophito, and bther of Anlimache, 
who manied Euryithou. (ApcJlod. iiL 9. g 3.) 
According to Panuniaa (riii. i. f 6) and ApoUo- 
nioa Rhodim (i. IGS) be waa a aon of Aleni, and 
conieqnenljy a brothfr of Lycorgat, Cepheni, and 
Aoge, and took part ui the expedition of the 
Argonaata. (Hygin. FA. 14.) 

3. A king of Chalcia in Euboea, after whoae 
death bia aona celebrated foneral gamei, in whirb 
Hewd won the priae in a poetical conteat. It 
cannited of a gaUen tripod, which he dedicated 
to Ihe Huea of Helicon. (Hca. Qi.KA 654,&c) 


3. Tbe father of Clyaonymtu, wbom Patroclna 
killed when yet a child. (Horn. IL ziiil 87 i 
ApoUod. iiL 13. f 8.) Olber mythical peraonaoaa 
of tbi> name occur in ApoUod. iL 5. S 11 ; Hygm. 
Rii. 14 ; Horn. II x. 366, Ac [L. S.} 

^iiliai, 'A^jk^wi), general of the Eleani in 
B. c. 318, wai taken priaonei by Philip, king of 
Macedonia, and cairied to Oiympia, bat waa let at 
liberty on bii tmdertaking to bring orer hii cons- 
trymen to Philip*! lidb But not auccneding in 
hii attempt, he went back to Philip, and it ipoken 
of aa ddendiog Aiatna againit the chargea <f 
Apellet. (Polyb. ir. 7S, 34, 86.) 

AMPHI'DICUS ('A^iKoiJ, a Theban who, 
in the war of tbe Seien againal hia natira dty, 
•lew Parthoiopaeiu. (ApoUod. iiL 6. § 8.) Ac- 
cording to Eoripidea (/*iim. 1156), howeTer, it 
wai Peridymeiuu who kilted Parthenopaeua. 
Paiuania* (ii. 18. S 4) caUa bim Aipbodicna. 

name in Apdlodoroa. [L. S.] 

fier^f), a nimama of Dionyina (Orph. Hym». 
Sa. 1, SI. 10.) It ii belieied that at Atheni, 
■^era tbe Dionyiiac featinla were held annually, 
■_■"■_■_■'■ Thebet, where 
they were celebrated eiety third year, it waa in- 
' rfHetaled to be rrnonymoiu with rjiunii. [US.] 
AMPHIQYEEIS (kp^rpif^ii), lame or limp- 
' ing on bolh feet, a iiimame of Hephaeitua, giren 
him becaoae Zona threw him from Olympui upon 
tbe nrth for hating wiihed to anpport Hem. 
(Horn. IL L 599; comp. ApoUod. L 3. S 5.) 
[HirHABWDS.] ri-S.] 

AMPHI'LOCHUS (•A/.flXoxoj), a ion of 
Amphianui and Eriphyte, and binder of Alc- 
maaon. (ApoUod. iiL 7. 9 3 ; Horn. Od. it. 348.) 
Whan fall father went aniinit Thehea, Amphi- 
lochna waa, according to Pauianiaa (t. 17. % 4), 
yet an in&nt, although ten yean afterwardi he ia 
mentioned at one of the Epigoni, and accordiog to 
tome traditiona aauated hia biotber in tbe murder 
of hii mother. [AtcuASON.] He ia alto men- 
tioned among the luilon of Helen, and at having 
taken part in the Trojan war. On the retom 
from thii expedition he together with Mopsua. 
who waa like himaelf a aeer, foonded the town of 
MaUoa in Cilicia. Hence he proceeded to hia 
natire place, Argoa, But aa he wat not latiified 
with Ihe itate of afliurt there, be relumed to 
Malloi. When Mopini refueed to bUow him asy 
thare in the sOTemmcDt of their common colony, 
tbe two teen fought a tingle combal in which both 
were killed. Thii combal w» de«:ribed by »ima 
aa baring ariaen out of a diipute iboot their pn- 
phetic powera. Their tomba, which were placed 
in aach a manner that the one could not be aean 
from the other, eiiated aa lala aa the lime of 
Stnbo, mar moant Margaaa, not far &om Pyra- 
nraa. (Slrab, lir, p. 676 ; Lycophron, 439, with 
the SchoL) Accordjng to other traditiona (Stnb> 
lir. p. 643), Amphilocbua and Calchaa, on their 
return from Troy, went on foot to the celebrated 
gmre of tbe Clarian ApoUo near Colophon. In 
■ome accouuU he Wat Bid to hnie been killed by 
ApoUo. (He*, op. ^ra£. TIT. p. 676.) According 
to Thncydidet (ii. 68) Amphilochut returned from 
Tn>y to Argot, but being diuatiaiicd there, h 


ucribe ths finmdatioD of tbi> Wwi 
(Stiab. *il p. 326), or to Amphilochni the 
AlcoHwon. (ApoUod. iii. 7. | 7.) Being & 
tfas «a«r Amphianat, Amphiloclia* «u lil 
believed to be endowed with pn^elie po 
4nd at MbIIoi in Cilida tlien wu ui on 
Amphilochiu, vhich in the tiine ot PansuuM (i. 
34. 3 9) wu Tcgnrded u Iht mort tmthfnl of all. 
[D'mL of Ant. p. 673.) He waa wonhippsd to- 

Esllier with hii falhef at OiDpiu ; at Atkeni T 
id an altai. and at ^larta a henam. (Paai. 
34. g 2, iil \&. g 6.) 

Then an two othet m/thieil penonagea of thia 


T. 9 7), and the other. 
EnL 27.) 

AMPHI'IX}CHU3, or ArHim, a 
agricultare mentioned by Vuro (A. H. 
Columella [i 1). PUn; aiw >peaka of a wo'i* of 

hii - De Hediea •! Cyliao.- (ff. N. 


liUui of CyilGD* in the middlo of the i 
Iai7, to whom Phatiui, the patriaieh of Conatanti- 
nople, wrote wieral letter*, and whoM atuwen 
are lUll extant in manoKript. (Fibric. SiU Orate. 
Tiii. p. 382.) 

AMPHILO'CHIUS, ST, biahop of Iconhw, 
the friend ot St Bmil and St Gregory of " ' 
waa bom at Caeaareia, and began life aa 
(Bainage, Anna!. Pulilie. Bed. iii. p. 14 
OMudii BiUiAh. PiAlr. yd. iL Pnlcgom. ; ^»d. 
S. Ortg. ffa*. 9 [159]. Park 1840.) He lired 
in rBtirement with hii bthar at Oibiali* in Cappa- 
docia, till he waa lummoned to preiide orar tbe 
a« of IcoDiom in Lycaonia, or Piiidia 3**, a. 
373-4. St. Baul'i OmgraKilKocy EpiMie on tlie 
occaaion i* oitanu (^. 393, aL 161, toL iii. p. 
351, ed. Bencd.) Me uon after paid St. Baail a 
Tiiit, and pcnuaded him to ondartake hia worii 
"On the Holy OhoW" {vol. iU. p. 1), which h* 
Boiihed 1. D. 375-S. St. Baail'i Oamomuat SpMm 
ato addrexed to St. Amphilachiu (J^ <- pp. 368, 
290, 324, written A. D. 374, 375). The latter bad 
teceiTed St. Baail^ pfomiaed book on the Dirinity 
of the Holy Ohoit, when in A. n. 377 he aant a 
■ynodicil letter (extant, ^L Mnnii'i Catdlia. tdL 
iii. p. 505) to certain byiopi, probably oF Lyoa, 
infected with, or in danger ol^ HacedoDianiam. 
The Aiisn pcraecntion of the chnrch ceaaod on the 
death of Valeni (j. D. 378), and in 381, Amphi^ 
lochiiu wai preaent at the OenunenieJ Council of 
Conitantinople. While (here, he aigned, aa a wil- 
ncB, St. aitvocy Naiianian'i will \Opp. 3. Qng. 
p. 204, A. B.^ and he wai oomiuatsd with Optimal 

ii Aniioch iti Piiidia ai the 
mnoioD in the dioceae of Atia. 
obtained from Theodi 

of cstholii 
n i,. D. 383, he 
heodoiini a prohibition of Ariui 
ically exhibiting the ilight other- 
wife pni on tnp Son of Ood by a contemptooai 
treatment of the young Anadiun. (Fleury'i Bai. 
Hut. iTiii. c 27.) Thii aame yeai he called a 

, (Thesdt. Hatnl. firi. 
In A. D. 394 he wu at the Coaodi of Conilanti- 
Dopla [Ha Ammom of Hadrianople], which con- 
l^med Bagndiui in the tee of Bo^ia. Thi* ia 
the lut wa bear of bim. He died bafiiR the fee- 
aecution of St. ChrywaMn, pflbaWy " ""' 

dhe i 

23id. Kii r 

maina (in Qreek) hare been edited by CombtE^ 
with theae of Helbodim ot Patara and Andreai of 
Crete, KiL Pat. 1644. Of £^ ^ontfio ajeribed 
to him, Mmo at leait are (uppotititioui (Oallandi 
giroejiw imong hii worki, toI. vi. B^iliali. Pair.), 
aa ii the lift i^SL BaiO. There ia atuibntad to 
him an iambic poem of 333 veriea (iu refersDce 
to the Trinity) addreiacd to Sdeucui, nepliew of 
St. Olympiu (who had henelf been hionght up by 
Theodoaia, aiitef to St. Amphilochini) and gnnd- 
•on of the genenl Tn^joii, who peridied with hit 
maater, Valena, at Hadrianople, a. n. 37a Gal- 
tandi adda the teitimony of Coamaa ladicopleaitea 
(6th cent.) to that of John Damaacene, Zouaraa, 
and BalMioon, in bioiu of the authenticity of thia 
poan. ComboB* ha* eolleclad hia fiagmeal* (L c 
pp. 1 Sa- 154), and Gallaodi haa added to than (f. r. 
p. 497, Ac, and fi«%. p. 12). Hi* wo4 on the 
Holy Oheal ia loat. (Sl Jeiome, daan>(.£U e. 
133 1 Fabiic Biil. Otate. toI. riiL pp. S7S— SSI.) 
St. Qf^iy Naxianaan ilatea, that ** by piayen, 
adotation of the Trinity, and lacriticei, be nbdoed 
tlw pun of diicaiaa." (fibrTK. ad Vilal. toL ii. hi. 
1030, T. 244.) The 9th, 25— 28th, 62nd, 171•^ 
and 184tli Epiitlea U St On^ry an addnHed 
to hin. [A. J, C] 

AHPHILCCHIUS, bi*hop of Sins in Pain- 
phylia, who waa pnaantat the oosncil of Epbiaua, 
in which Neetoiiu* waa B>ndemned,A. D. 421, and 
who waa probably the author of lome homJica 
that go midar the name of Amphilochiu* <^ Ico- 
ninm. (Phot Ood. 82, p. 13, a., C5>A 230, p.383, 
a.,ed.Bekk.; L(tbbeaa,di!&n)i(£lx^TaLl p. 63.) 
AMPHl'LYTHS fA^upkin-oi), a celebrated 
ir in the time of Paiiiilratai. Herodolui (L 62) 
coUi him an Acamanlan, bat Plato ( TAe^ p.l34,d) 
__,™ .,._._,_.. ,„. ^ i. p. 833) i^eak 

ginaliy an Acaniaoiu, and p^i^ ncsirvd the 
fiaackiat at Albena frma PtdaiMfataB. Thii anp- 
poailion ranoTea tko neoaaulj of ValckenaerV 
amendatian. {AiHmd.Lt.) 

AHPHI'HACHUS ('A/.f(fuix<»)- 1. A am 
of Cleataa and Theronice, and giudaon of KOta 
ta of Poaeidon. Ha ia manlioiud among the Htjt- 
or^ of Helen, and wai one of the four chiefi who 
led the Epeianiagainit Tray. (Aputlod.iiL10.g8; 
Paiu.T.3.|4| Horn. /J;iL 630.) He waa alaiu 
by Uactot. {IL liiL 185, &c) 

3. A Mm of Nomion, who together wiih hi^ bro- 
thor Naatei led a hoil of Caiiani to the aaiiiMiioe 
of the Trojan*. He want to battle richly kdoiDed 

ith gold, but wai thrown by Adiillea into the 

nmander. (Horn.//, ii. 870, ftc) Conon (AW^ 
rat, 6} calli him a king of the Lydani. 

Two other mytiiical par^onagea of thia name oc- 
enrinApollad.iL4.g5.andPaui.T.3.$4. [L.S.] 

AMPHl'HACUUS CAfi^frux"). obtained the 
•atr^iy of Mea^otamia, together will) Arbalitia, ia 
the diriiioa of tbe [aoTince* bj Anlipater in a. a 
321. (ArTian,qfi./'iDtp.71,b.,26,ed.Bekkeii 
Diod. iTiii. 39.) 

AMPHl'HBDON fA/ifviAWr), a aoD of Me- 
laneni of Ithaca, with whom Agamemnon had 
been ilaying whm in oune to tall upon Odyiaeai 
lo join tbe Gneka againit Troy, and whom he 
afterwaidi reci^iied in Hadei. (llom. Od. ixii. 
103, &e.) He waa one of the ■uitot* of Penelope, 
and wa* *laiD by Tekmachna. {Od. ixii. 284.^ 
Another mythical pentmagt of thia name oocon in 
Grid. {Mel. ». 75.) [L. S.] 


Hul iDotlwr of Jhdd. When hec hiubuid and 
ha •en PnuDsdiiu hod been *lain bj Peliu, and 
ibe loo mu on tfaa paint of riwrini Uieir fkte, ihe 
flsd to Iha heuth of Paliu, IhM hii dime mighl 
be iggimTBtod by morderiiig her on that uovd 
■poL She then coned the morderar of her nl»- 
tJTH, ind plonged m iword into bee own hreut. 
(Died. IT. fiO 1 Apollon. Bhod. L 4G.) Tvo other 
mythical penonBga of thii nvne >n mentianBd in 
Diod. It. 53, and in Ibe lliaJ, iriii. 44. L^^ S.] 

AHPHI'ON ('A/ifJ(»). 1. AtonofZauond 
ABtiope, the dai^hter of Njcteoi of Thebee, and 
twin-bnlber of Z«lh<u. (Oy. JU/l. ri. 110, &c; 
AfoDod. iii. A. I 5.) When Antiape ni with 
child bj tbehtbei of thegodt, fsurorfieiDini&theT 
fadiK«d her to flee to Epopeui M Sicfon, whan 
■he nuiied. Njctetn lulled hinuelf in detpui, 
hat chuged hi* bntliet Ljeui to svenge him on 
BpopMU and Antiope. Ljcia aaordingl; nuudnd 
■gaini SicTon, look ths town, dew Epopem, and 
famed Antiope with him to Elenlbenu in Boeotia. 
Daring her impiMnmetit then the gave birth to 
IvD uiu, Amphioit and Zelhai, who wen eiyoeed, 
b«t fbncd and brought np bj ihepheidi. (ApoUod. 
/. c) Aecording to H;gtna> [Fab. 7), Antiope 
wu the wife of Ljena, nid waa wduced bjr E|»- 
Hue. Hetenpun ihe ww rapodiatad bj ha hum- 
baud, and it wu not ontil after tUa aTuil that tbft 
wai Tiuttd b; Zeu. Diica, the aecood wi£i el 
Ljena, waa jealoiu of Antiope, and bad her pat in 
ebaiw i bat Zena helped her in eic^Hng to moont 
Gthaenn, where ihe gare birth to har two tana. 
AccMding to ApoUodenu, ihe nnnained in capCi- 
fitj (or • hmg time afker the binh of her eoiv, 

who gi 


w tfaor deaeent. Hennea (aceordHig to othera, 
Apollo, or the Hniea) gaT* Amphiou ■ lyre, who 
beneelbrth pnetsed eong and nuiie, while hii bn>- 
thei ^ent hii tiau in hnnting and lending the 
•oeke. (HocaL ^h^ i. IB. 4i, Ac.) The two 
brotben, whooi £<uiaiilea [Plum. 609) eaUa "the 
IKoKDii wHh while honea^" ibitified the town of 
Entneif near Thetpiae, ud aeitled then. (Suph. 
Bjx t. a) Antiope, who bad in the meanliine 
bam m7 iD-tnated bj Lntu and Dine, eataped 
fan her priaeo, her dnma haTing nincnloiuh 
ketalMacDad; and her aoni, an lecogniaing then 
awllMr, want to Th^ea, UOed Lnoa, tied Dins 
Id a biB, aod had her diw«] aboat till aha loo 
waa kiHad, and then Ihrewler body into a wall, 
which waa (nn Ihia time called the weU of Diree. 
After hafing taken poeaeanin of Thebea, the two 
bnthete fortified the town bj a wall, the nuona 
br which an difienntlj ilatsd. It ia aid, that 
whan AnpUon plajed hi* l<rre, the Monea not ocl; 
■OTcd of Ihair own accord id the place when the; 
wan wanted, bat fitted themaelrM together •>> ea to 
bna the walL (ApolloD. Rhod. L 740, 7£G, with 
iha SehoL s STiicelL p. 125, d. ; Host, ad JtKm. 
SB4,&b) A^ihien afterward* manied Niobe, 
wha bara Urn manj aona and daugbtera, all of 
whom wM killed br Apello. (Ap<d]od.iiL5. S6; 
OdBoa, u. 7 ; H^n. At. 7, 3 ; Hob. Od. a. 
3S0.dtc.i Paul. iz. fi. I 4 ; comp, NuiBi.) At 
nwd* Ibe death of Amphioo, Ond (MA n. 371) 
it mu a, that be killed himaelf with a •word feun 
giief at the loe* of hi* chitdnn. According to 
e«han, ha waa kiQed by Apollo becau* he oude 
BB awanlt cm the Pjthian temple of Iha god. (Hj- 
pn. Fab. 9.) Astpbion waa bniiad together with 

AMPH1SSU3. lai 

hie brother at Thebea (or, according to Slephanui 
Bjnntiu*, •. «. TiSapa/n, al Titfaonea), and the 
TitboraeoD* beliered, that thoy coold make their 
own field* man frnilful by taking, at a certain 
lime of the year, from Amphioo** gnve a |Mece of 
earth, oikd put^g it on the gtmie of Antiope. For 
thii rcaaon the Theban* watched the grave of Am- 
phion at that paiticulac ■eaaon. (Paoi. ix. 17. | 3, 
Ac) In Hade* Amphion wo* pmiiahed for bii 
conduct toward* Leio. (ix. 5. g 4.) The foUoHing 
paeugee may alao be compaied : Paoi. iL 6. § 2, 
Ti.2a.§8; Pn)pert.iii. I3.S9. The puniahment 
inflicted hj Am(Jilon and hie brolhar npon Krca 
ii npneented in one of die fineat woika of art nill 
eitwil— the oelehiBlad Fameaian boll, the worii of 
ApoUonio* and TaniiKDa, which waa dieoDTOTed in 
1546, and placed in Ihe palace Fameaa at Rome. 
(PlinT,ff.JV. mTl4; HeyncjiMt^wir.^Viiits, 
ii.pLlS3,&c; comp-UUtler, l>aiaM.l>.S27, &c) 
3. A (on of Ja*oa and huiband of Ponaphone, 
bj whom be became the blhar of Ciiloria. (Hem. 
Od. D. 251, &c.) In Homer, thii Amphion, king 
of Orcfa om e p oe, ia diatinct from Amphion, Ihe hoe- 
hand of Niobe; but in eaiUar tradition* they teem 
to bare been regarded a* the lame persin. (En- 
italh. adHina. p. 1684 j MUller, Onkom. pp. 281, 


Then an three other mylhical panonagee of 
thii name, one a leader of the Epeiani agalnit 
Ti^ (Horn. IL liiL 692X tl» ""'^ one of the 
Argi)iuaU(ApaIIaB.IUiod.L176; Oiph-^rp.SUt 
aygiii. Fat. 14), and the third one of the eooa of 
Nuba. [Nuaa.] [L. 3.] 

AMPHION CA/^fw). 1. A icnlplor, iou of 
AcsaTOR, pnpil of PtoUchnj of CoicyrB, and leaehar 
of Piao of Cahnreia, wa* a natire ^ Cuoaaiu, and 
flooriabed about B. c 438 or 434. Ha executed a 
gronp in which Battn*, the cokmiaer of Cynn^ 
wa* repreaentad in a chariot, with Libya crowning 
him, and Cynne a* the charioteer. Thie gronp 
waa dedicated at Delphi by the people of Cynne. 
(Pant ri. 3. g 3, I. Is. B 4.) 

2, A Onek painter, waa contemponrr with 
Apellee (b. a SS3), who yidded te him ia 

al: Mda 

Biotier'i conjeo- 
■ pnM,of 

tont Hblamthid*). 

AHPHIS CA/i^), an Athenian w 
the middle c<nnedy, contanporarr wit! 
iO|^ Plata A lefeienca to Pluyne, the Thaa- 
plan, in one of hia pla^ (Athm. xiii. p. 691, d.), 
proTee that be wae al»e m B. c S33. We baTO 
the title! of twenty-Hi of hi* pbiyt, and a few 
fr^pnenti of tbem. (SIuda^ i. e.; Pdlai, L 333; 
Diog. l«rt. ill. 27 ; Athen. xiiL p. 567, f- ; Mei- 
neke, L p. 403, iii. p. 301.) LP- S.] 

AMPH1S5A f A/i^unn), a daughter of Maca- 
reu* and grand^aghttr of Aeolna, waa beloTcd by 
Apollo, and ii nid to hare given the name to IM 
town of Amphian in Phoda, where her mtmay 
wa* perpetnaled by a iplendid monnment. (Pan*. 
x.B8.e2,&c) (L.S.1 

AHPHISSU3 t'A/i«»'»'t)> a ion of Apollo 
and Dryope, ia laid to hare been of extraordinary 
atnngth, and to baTe built the town of Oela on 
the mountain of the nme name. Hen he aleo 
{bonded two tamplei, one of Apollo and the other 
of the Nymph*. Al the latter, garnet were otle- 
bratad down to a late period. (Ant^m. Lib. S3.) 


curi. Thaj wtn btUcTod to have taken put in 
the eipcdiliim of Jmou to Cokbu. aod to luce od- 
fnpied a part of that oountrj which vm called 
■fLcr them Heniochia, ai ^vl^oi ngnifiea a 
ckarioleei. (Stiab. iL p. 495 ; Jutin. iliL S.) 
Pliuj (/r. JV. ii 5) allt them Amphitui and Thel- 
efaina, (Comp. Mda, L 19. f 110; ludor. Onp. 
XT. 1; Ammian. Mucellin. uii. 8.) [L. S.] 

AMPHreTRATUa ('A^ifbrpaTot), a Qntk 
■cnlptor, Sooriihed aboat b. c ifii. Fnm tha 
mtioM at two of bia woi^i b; Plinf ( ixi r i 4. 
f 10) and Tatiaa (Orof. n Orate. S2, p. Ill, 
Wortb.), it ii nppwd that dhM of hia itUoe* 
w«n caM in bnni^ and that mutj of them irere 
[P. S.] 


Naaunon ani Captianraa, oi Cqihalun, bj tbe 
n^mph TTitoni>. (HygiiL fai. U; ApoUon. 
HbDd.iT. 1490 [L.S.] 

AHPHITBITB CAiifnftn,), Kcaiding to 
Hesod (TliKg- 343) and ApoUodom (i. 3. f 7} 
a Neirid, though in other plum ApoUodorai (L 2. 
|3,L4.f6)cBll>hcran Oocuid. Sha k npn- 
•enlod aa the wife of Poaeidon and the godde« of 
the wa (the Msdilemntrnti), and ihe ii IheRfore 
a hind of funate PoKidon. In the Uonierie 
poema ihe doe* not occur u a goddeie, and Am- 
phitrile ia nwrely tha nuoe of the lea. ' 
•udent jaMBge* ia which the occnn i 
goddeaa ii that of H«iad ahore rebrTed to aod 
the Homeric hjmn on the Delian Apolto (94), 
whfn ahe ia npmeuted ai baring been pm- 
•ent at the birth of Apollo, When Poaeidon 
ened Jbi her hand, ahe Sed to Atlaa, but her 
loTac •enl qiiai after her, and among them ooa 
Delphinaa, who brought abont the mairiage be- 
tween her and Poaodon, and tfae gnleful god 
nwiTdad hia Hrriea bj placing bim among the 
atan. (EratoMh. CUcuL 31 ; Hjpa. PoeL Aitr. 
ii 17.) When aftarwud* PoaeidoD (hewed lome 
UtadnneDt to ScTlla, Aniphilrite'i jealotuy wai 
ezciled to anch a degiee, that ibo threw tome 
Busic herb* into tho wdl in which Scjlla uwd to 

with Bi bewU and twdie feet. (Taeta. ad l^ixpk. 
45, 640.) She became bf Poeeidon the motheroT 
Triton, Rhode, or Rhodoa, and Benthrocyme. 
(HMiod. TUag. 930, &c.; ApoUod. L 4. g 6; iii. 
15. § 4.) LaUc poet! re^id Amphitrite ai the 
RoddeM of the Ma in general, or the octan. (Eurip. 
Qat703; Ot. Af«t L 14.) Amphitrite wai fit- 
qnenlly repreientcd in ancient woika of art ; her 
6ifim reaembled that of Aphrodite, hnt ahe wai 
ntnallf diitinguiihed bom bar by ■ aort of net 
which kept hei hair together, and bj the clawi of 
a crab on her fKehoad. She «aa •omatime* re- 
preaented aa tiding en tnarine aninwta, and aomo- 
time* a* dnwn by them. The tempi* of Poeeidon 
on th* Corinthian itthmoi contained a ttatoe of 
Amphitiit* (Paoa. ii. 1. § 7], and h«t iigore ap- 
pealed among the relief oinament* of th* temple of 
Apollo at Amyciw (iii. 19. § *)• o" th* thnne of 
tbe Olympian Zeoa, and b o^er place*, (t. 2. S 3> 
tomp.L 17. f 3, T.2i;. J2.) We ttill poaaeia a 
(onndeiabl* nttmber of lapreaentationi of Ampbi- 
trit*. A enlo<*al ataln* u her exiata in the Vilk 
Aibani, and ahe frequently appean on coina of 
Sytioii*. Tbe moat beiuiuful ipedmen extant ia 

that on the arch of Annato* at RiminL (Wfno- 

kebnann, AlU DatauiUr, i. 36 ; Hirt, MgOoL 
aitdaimdL. iL p. 1£9.) [L. S.] 


Tp^), a BOn of Alaeu, king of Tmeien, by 
Hipponome, the daughtor of Manoecsui. (ApoUod, 
ii. 4. i 5.) Pauaaniaa (>iii. 14. g 2) call) hia 
UMther I^onome. While Electryoo, the brother 
of AJcaeni, wai reigning at Mycenae, the aona ct 
Ptcrelao* together with the Taiphian* iafaded hi* 
territory, demanded tfae enrrender of tfae kingdoaq, 
and droTc away hia oxen. The anu of Electtyoa 
enlend upon a ecnleit with the aona of Ptetelaua, 
bat the combatanu on both lidai all fell, io that 
EHectryon bad only one aon, Licymniiia, left, and 
Pterelana likewiae only one, Enereb Tbe Ta- 
phiana, howerer, ewaped with the oien, which 
thej entnated to Pcdjienni, king of the "Elnuu. 
Thence they wen afterwarda hroogbt back to 
Idycoiaa by Amphitryon eAer he bad paid a 
raniom. Electryoo now neolred opon aTCnging 
tbe dcatfa of hia aona, and to make war upon the 
Tapfaiana. During hia abeenca he entroated faia 
kingdom and hie daogfatar Alonene to Amphitryon, 
on eoodi^on that hig ihould not many her till 
after hia ntors from the war. Amphilryon now 
leatored to Electryon tfae oxen be hod biongbt 
tack to Mycenae ; one of them turned wild, and 
ai Amphitryon attemptod to itrike it with hia 
dab, he accidentally hit tfae head of Etectryon and 
killed him on the apoL Sthenelna, tha biother of 
Electr)'on, aToiled himielf of thia opporlanity for 
iba pnrpoae of aipellina Amphitryon, who together 
with Akmen* and LKymniiu went to Tbebea, 
Here ha waa purified by Creon, hia uncle. In 
order to win. the band ii Alcmene, Amphitryoii 
prepared to avenge die death of Alanene'abtothera 
on the Tapkiana (Tekboani), and teqoeated Creon 
to aauit him in hi* enleipriae, which tbe latter 
promited on condition that Am|jiiliyan ahould de- 
lirer the Cadmtan eoiuiliy from a wild fox which 
wBi making great haToc tbei& But aa it waa 
decreed by bte that thia fox abonld not be oier- 
taken by any one, Amphitryon went to Cepbalua 
of Athena, who poaaeaaed a bnwoa dog, wbicli, 
according to another decree of ite, orertook ertij 
animal it poraued. Cephalna waa induced to lend 
Amphitiyon hia dog on condition that he ahould 
recaiTe a port of the ^ila of the expedition againat 
the Tapfaiana Now when the dog waa faunling 
tfae fox. Fate got onl of ita dilemma by Zeoa 
changing the two fnJTrfla into atone. Aaaialcd by 
Capholua, Panopeni, Hdeiaa, and Croon, Amphi> 
tryou now attacked and ravaged tfae iilanda of tfa« 
T^liiani, but could not aobdue them ao long a* 
Pterelaua lived. Thia chief had on hu bead one 
golden hair, the gift of PoMidon, which rendered 
him immorUL Hi* daughter Comactho, who waa 
in lore with Amphitryon, cut otf this hoii, and 
after Ptareloui had died in conaequence, Amphi- 
tryon took poiaeaiion at tbe ialanda ; and having 
put to death Comaatho, and given the ialanda to 
Cephalai and Ualeina, he returned to Thebei with 
' ' Bpoila, out of which he dedicated a tripod to 
ilio lamenioi. (Apollod. iL 4. | 6, 7 ; Paua. 
10.g4; Herod. T.9.) Reapecling the amonr 
of Zeoi with Alonene during the ahecnce of An- 
phitiyon aae Alcmbnk. Amphitryon fell in a war 
againat Eiginua, king of the Minyona, in which 
ha and Hendea delivered Thebei from the tribute 
which the city bad to pay to Erginui aa an alai>» 

■aol fi>T thB iniudH of Clymcnu. (Apollod. S. i. 
I S,&e.) Hii tomb wu ifaawn at Theb« in ths 
time at Puusniu. (L 41. | 1 ; compsn Horn. Od. 
xl 266, ic; Ha. Seat. Jfm. iniL; Diod. IT. 9, 
Ac ; HTgin. Fjb. 29, Si4 ; Mijller, Ortiom. p. 
907, &C.) Asachjiua and Sophodei wrote each a 
tnged; of the name oC Amphitryon, which am 
Odw 1d>l We nil] poteeu > eomcdr itf Plantui, 
the " AmphitTDO," [he inbjecl of which ii a Indi- 
CrcHu reprsKHtstioD of Uie riut of Zeoi to Alanene 
in the dilgolK of her lorer Amphitryon. [L. S.1 

Amphitrjou, hj which 
dee^nated, becwuB hit mother 
AniphitiTon. (Or. MaL ix. ItO, xt. 19; Find. 
01. ai. 26, [L.S.] 

A'HPHIUS ('Afi^iL ■ MD of Henpi u 
bmiher of AdniBtai. Thete two heathen took 
put ID the Ttojan war «gunst their bther'* ad- 
lice, and were alain by Diomedea. (Horn. JL iL 
S2«. Ik., iL 328, Ac.) lAnother hero of thia 
Bune, who wa* bo ally of the Tiojuu, occnn in 
IL T. 612. [L. S.] 

AMPH0TERU3 CA».<>fTVM), » »" of Alo- 

BsBm by Calinhoe, and bnUier of Acarnon. 

[AcARHAN.] A TiDJan of thia oame occnn Hom. 

/iiti.4lS. [L. S.] 

AilPHOTERVS Cf^ttparifit), the brother of 

Cntenii, wu appoint* ~ 

CDnunaoaer of the fleet 
Amphotenis subdued the ialanda between Greece 
and Aala which did not acknowMge Alexander, 
cleared Crete of the Peniani and piialea, and lul- 
ed to Peloponneioa B. c S31, to pat down a liting 
■gainit the Macedonian power. (Airian, L 35, iiL 
' 6; Cnrl. iil I, ii. S,8.} 

T. A'MPIUS BALBU3. [Balbds.] 


AMPY'CIDES ('AfCTMcltiit), a patron^c 

fiem Ampynu or Ampyx, applied to Mopena. (Dv. 

JUtt liH. 316,360, xiL 456, BU ; Ap^on. Rhod. 

I 1083! eomp. Orph, Jijf. 721.) [L. 8.] 

A'MPYCUS (-A/m™)- I- A aon of Peliia, 
bmband of Chlorii, and father of the ftunooi leer 
Hopni. (Hygin. Fab. 14, 12S; Apollon. Rhod. 
L 1083; Or. Mel. lii. 456.) Paiuaniai (t. 17. 
|4, TiL 18. % 4] calla him Ampyi. 

!L A son of Japetua, a bard and prieit of Cerea, 
kiDed bj Pettaliu at the marriago of Peraeua (Ot. 
Ma t. 110, Ac.) Another personage of Chia name 
•eeiin b Orpb, J,g. 721. [U S.J 

AMPYX ('*/«.(). l.[AiiM'cufi] 2. There 
azB two other mythical penou^ea of thia name. 
(Or. Ml. T. 1B4, liL. 460.) [L. 8.] 

AMU'LIUS. [Romulus.] 
AHU'LIUS, a Roman painter, who wat chiefl; 
Boptojed in decorating the Oolden Honae of Nero. 
One of hia woiiLa waa a picture of Mincna, vhidi 
■Iwajt looked at the spectator, whaterer point of 
view he choae. Pliny cii]!a him "gravta et anerai, 
ideraqne floridna," and adda, thai he only pointed 
fii' a few honra in the day, and that witli auch a 
legard <br hia own dignity, that ho would not lay 
ande hia toga:, eren when employed in tho midat 
of aeaSblding and machinery. (Plin. ixiv. 37: 
Voaa, in an emendation of thia pataage, among 
•Cher aheimUona, aubititutei FhhailM for AoiMliaa. 
Hii reading ii adopted by Jnniua and Sillig ; but 
tlMR leema lo be no nfficienl gmond to reject the 
•Id leading.) [P. S ] 


AHYCLAEUS ('AmokX-Cu), • anmaDU of 
Apollo, deriied from the town itf Amyclae in Lk- 
conia, when ha had a celebrated aanetaarjr. Hit 
coIobbI statna there it eitimataill by Panaaniat (iii. 
19. i 2) at thirty cnhita in height. It appenn to 
hare been very ancient, for wilh the eiasption d 
the head, handa, and feet, the whole Kaemhled 
more a biaien pillar than a >taCae. This figan et 
the god wore a helmet, and in hii handi he held a 
apear and a bow. The women of Amyclae mada 
arery year a new x"^ f"' the god, and the place 

tained the throne of Amjdae, a work of Bathydea 
of Hagneaia, which Ponaaniaa bw. (iiL 18. | 6, 
dtc 1 comp. Welcker, Zaltdaift fir OttA. dtr 
aU. KiuL i. 2, p. 280, &c) [L. &] 

AMYCLAEUS ('VviAiiut), a Corinthian 
•eulptor, who, in conjooction with Diylhu, exe- 
ented in bninie a gronp which the Phociant dedi- 
cated at Delphi, after their iktorj oicr the Thea- 
aaliana at the beginning of the Pendan war, a. c 
460. (Paoa. x. I. § 4, 13. § 4; Hend. Tiil 37.) 
The aabject of thia piece of acnlptnn waa the con- 
teit of HeQclei with Apollo fiir-the iBcied tripod. 
Heraclea and Apollo were lepnaenled at both 
baling hold of the tiipod, while Leto and Arte- 
mis iupported ApoUo, and Hetaclet waa enconnged 
by Athene. The legend to which the gionp rs- 
feired it related by Paonniaa (x. 13. g 4) ; the 
reaaon for auch a aubject being eboaen by the Pho- 
ciana on thia occaaion, aaema to be theii own con- 
DexioQ with Apollo aa guardiana of the Delphic 
oncte, and, on the other hand, beaoie the Thea- 

I. 3.) The attempt of Heisclea to carry off 
the tripod teema to hare been a bToorile inbject 
with the Greek artiata : two or three repreaentk- 
of it are itiU extant. (Winckelmann, ITanta, 
, 2S6,ed.l626; Silltg,i^D.; compare Dnu. Da, 
Chionir.) [P. S.] 

AMYCLA3 CAfi^iAof), a ton of Ucedae- 
mon and Sparta, ani &dier of Hyacinthnl by 
Diomede, the daughter of Lapithna. (Apollod. iii. 
10. §3; Paua. i. 9. S 3, Til 18. | 4.) He wat 
king of Laconia, and waa regarded ai the founder 
of the town of Amyclae. (Paua. iiL 1. j 3.) Two 
other mythical penonogea of thia name occur in 
Parthen. BnL 15, and Apollod. iiL 9. S 1. [LS.] 
AMYCLl'DES, a patronymic from Araydaa, 
by which Ovid {MeL x. 162) dcii^tea Hjacin- 
Chna, who, accoraing to aome tndituma, wna a »a 
ofAmydaa. [L. R] 

AMYCLUS 0'A*'Wi»oi), or AMYCLAS ('A^ 
KAat) of Heracleia, one of Plato'a diiciplea. (Diog. 
UBrUiii.46; Aelian, K. /f. iiL 19.) 

A'MYCUS CA^uwoi). 1. A Hn of Poaeidon 
iiy Bithynii, or by the Bithjnian nymph Melia. 
'le waa ruler of the country of the Bebrycea, and 
rhen the Argonanti landed on the coait of hia 
ominiona, he challenged the brareat of Uiem to a 
oiing match. Polydeucea, who accepted the 
challenge, killed him. (Apollod. L 9. § 20 ; Hygin. 
i'oi. 17; ApoUon. Biod.iLinit.) The Scholioat 
on Apollonioa (ji. 98) lelatca, that Polydeucea 
bound Amycua. Preiioua to thia fatal encounter 
with the Argonanta, Amycua had had a feud wiib 
Lycna, king of Myna, who wat anpported by He- 
raclea, and in it Mydon, the brother of Amycija, 
M by the handa of Handea. (Apollod. iL 6. g &i 


iL 7S*.) Pliny {H. N. r 


leUle^ that opon the Mmb of Amjretu there gn« 
■ ipcde* of bmrel {laurm mkuk^ vbich had the 
aSect that, vhan a bnnch o( it v«* taken on 
baard a Toaai, the cnv b^an to quaml, and did 
not ceue until the hrancb wai thiown oveiboai^ 
Thne othef mflhica] panosage* of thii name oo- 
(ur in Or. MO. liL 345 ; Virg. Jm. x. 7U6, coni- 
jB[«d with Horn. II. n. 389; Viig. Atm. lii. 509, 
comiiBnd with t. 297. [L. S.] 

AMYMO'NE ('A^uyuJml <nu of the daughien 
of Danaiu aod El^ibuitiL Whan Danani airivad 
in Argot, th« countiy, acoording to (ha wiih of 
Foaddon, who wai indignant at Inacbtu, wa* nf- 
faring from a diDiight, wid Danaiu lent out Amj- 
none to bteb water. Heelins a itag, ihe (hat at 
it, bat hit a deeping latyr, wbo roee and pnnaed 
her. Poaaidon appeared, and reicoed the maiden 
fnm the latjT, hot approprialad her to himself^ 
and than thewed her the Delia at Lama. (Apollod. 
ii. 1- S !■) According lo another form of the tra- 
dition, AmjmonB fell adeep on her expedition in 
•earch of water, and wu enrpriiad by a istiT. 
Sha iDToked Poaaidon, who appeand and out oil 
tiident at Ibe ntfr, which bawaier itmck into a 
nek, aa that the yalyr eacaped. Pouidoa, after 
lanahing the ■~'^-". bade bei dnw the trident 
fnm the rodt, fnm whieh a thraafold ipiing gnih- 
•d forth inuaadiateljr, which wai called after her 
the wall of AmjiBoiia. Her Km by Poaaidon «aa 
eaUad Ifanplini. (Hygin. PiA. 169 ; Lndm, DiaL 
Maria. 6; Psaa. u. S7. |1.) The itocy of Any- 
nione waa the aubjeel of one of the Mtyrie dnmaa 
of Aetdi jloa, and ii r^reiauled apon a nue which 
WM diacoratad at N^ia in 1790. (Bbttigei:, 
^iMJd«a,ii.p.275.) [L.&] 

AMYNANDER CA^uliwtpoi), king of tha 
Athananaa, fint appean in hiitor; ai mediator 
between Philip of Macadonia and the AetoUana. 
(b. c 208.) When the Romani were about u 
wage war on Philip, they aent ambauadort to 
Ainpiaadet to inlbnn hun of theii iatantioo. 
On the eanmencement of the war he ODie to the 
aamp of tha Homaiu and pomiaed them aatiilance : 
the talk of bringing otbt the Aetaliant to an 
aUianoa with the Romana wa* axignad to him. 
In a a 193 ha took tha towoi of Fhoca and 
Oomphi, and imwed Thewal;. He wa* preeant 
at the conlarenco between Pluninio* and Philip, 
•od during tha elioit tnua wai unt bj tlie fbnnar 
to Rome. He wi* again preaant at the 
held with Philip after the battle of Cyni 
On the condution of peace he wai allaweo to re- 
tain all the fortreaiei which he had taken bam 
Philip. In the war which the Roman*, nipported 
by Pnilip, waged with Antiochiu 111. Amjnander 
induced by hii brather-in-law, Philip of 
ilopolii, to aide with Antiochna, to whom he 
ired active •erriai. But in B.C 191 he wa* 
driien from hi* kingdom by Philip, and Sed with 
aia wife and children to Ambiacia. The Rtanan* 
required that he •hoiild be delirered up, but their 
demand wa* not complied with, and with the 
aHJWmee of the Aeloliani he recoiered hii king- 
doDi. He lent ambajaadon to Rome and to the 
ikipiea in Aeia, to treat for peace, whiidi waa 
granted him. (e. c 189.) He afterward* induced 
Ihe Ambraciota to larreiidar to the Roman*. 

Ha married Apamia, the daoghtet of a Meoalo- 

""• ' * ' — ider. Ranting hia SmOi 

(LIT. u*iL 30, uix. V2, 

Uegalopolii, to ■ 
reudered active ■ 

ml. 38, mil 14, luiiL B, 3^ nxw. 47,uiitI, 
7— 10. 14,28, 32, nrriii 1,3, 9 1 Pdyb. iTi. 87. 
xTiL 1, 10, iviii. 19, 30, xx. 10, uiL S, 12 1 

Apfrian, ^. 17.) [CP M.] 

AMYNO'MACHUS ('A^iwjfuxef), tha ton of 

Fm. iL 31.) 

AMYNTAS (-A^itimi) U king of Maoedonii, 
ion of Alcetaa, and fifth in deacent from Perdicoa, 
the founder of the dynaaty. (Herod. TiiL 189 i 
comp. TkDcyd. iL lOOj Jaat TiL 1, -^"'i 2; 
Pani. iz. 10.) 

It waa under him that Macedonia became tii- 
bntary to the Penian*. Megabaaoa, whom Dariu* 
on hii return from hii Scythian eipediuon had 
left at the head of 60,000 men in Ennpe (Hertid. 
iv. 143), lent after the eonqueit of Paeonia to »• 

Uely complied with hii demand. The Penian 
taifrji on thii oocauon bahavad with much in- 
•oloDce at the banquet to which Amyntu iniited 
them, and wen mardeied by hii ion Alexander. 
(See p. US, b.) After thii we God nothing »■ 
corded of Amjntai, except hi* rSet to the Peiiia- 
tratidae of Anihemui in Chalcidice, when Hippiaa 
had juit been diiappointed in hi* hope of a taatota. 
tion to Athene by the power of the Spartan con- 
foderacy. (Herod, t. 94; MlUL Ah-. App. L f 
16 ; WaHa, ad Tkae. iL 99.) Amynta* died 
ahcnit 498 n. c. leaTing the kingdom to Alexander. 
Uenxlatui (liiL 136) ^icidu of a eon of Bubarei 
and Oygaaa, called Amynlas after hii gmnd&ther. 

3. IL king of Macedonia, waa un of Philip,* 
tlM hiothei iS Peidicca* II. (Thuc iL Sfi.) 
He lucceeded hi* fothar in hii apanage in Upper 
Macedonia, of which Pexdtccaa laHni to ban 
wiihad to dajKiTe him, a* he had befoi* endeai- 
onrcd to wrait it &om Philip, but bad bean hin- 
dered by the Athenian*. (Thuc L 57.) 

In tha year 429 b. c Amyntai, aided by Bi- 
talcei, kii^ of tha Odryaian Tbraciani, itood 
forward to contett with Penlicca* tha throne of 
Macedonia ttialf; hot the latter eontrifed to 

ibtain peace thnmgh the mediation of Seuthei, tha 
lepbew of the Thiacian king (Thnc ii. 101); 
and Amyntaa wai llini ofaUged to content bimielf 
with hia hereditary prindpeJity. In the thirty- 
fifth year, however, after thia, B. c 394, he ob- 
tained the crown by llie murder of Pauaaniii, aon 
of the Diorper Aeiopui. (Died. iIt. 89.) It wa* 
neverthelen conleited with him by Argaeni, the 
ion of "■■—""-, who wai iDpported by Bardylii, 
the lllyriao chief: the mull waa, that Amyntaa 
wa* driien from Musdonia, but found a nfiiga 
among the Theualiana, and wai enabled by 
their aid to recover hit kingdom. (Died. lir. 92 ; 
Itoa. ArdM. p. 125, b. c; comp. Dud. itL 
4; Cic dt Off. ii. 11-} Bat befon hii flight, 
when bard preaaed by Argaeui and the Illyriaiu, 
he had gicen up to the Olvnlhiani a large tnict of 
territory bordering upon their own, — dnpairing. 
u it would laem, <tf a ceitoration to the throne, 
and willing to cede tha land in queition to Olyn. 
thui rather than to hii rival. (Died. liv. 92, ir. 
19.) On hii return he claimed back what ha pm> 

* There ii »ma diacrapancy of itatenwnt on 
thi* point. Juitin (rJL 4) and Aelian (liL 43) 
call Amyntaa the wn of IfeneUui. See, toi^ 
Diod. )i. 6H, ■—' Wo*»ling, arf ior. 


faMed to biTB antnuted to tlwin u > depoDt, uid 
u the; nfund U TNton it, he qiplied to Sptna 
fot ud. (Diod. IT. 19.) A umDar applicatkia 
wu abo ivdc, H. c 832, bj tho tovnt of Aauithn* 
nid ApoUooiB, wUdi hid been thnslened b; 
Oljnlhiu fbr dadinuig to jein bn cnnftdenK;. 
(Xol/AKt.S. Ill, Ac) Witb the Goneent of 
the illiei of ^put>, tha nqninid mceoar wb> 
giTio, under the eommaod nuseiHTelj of Eodo- 
midn (with wImib hie brotbei ^oebidu wu 
anodatad), Telentiu, Agenpolii, and Pdybiadu, 

the ^Krtanew 
I, and by Den 

(it. 71)ca]l> Ptolemy at 

re TigoTDoeij 
1 by Amyntaa, and by Deidae, tu> kint- 
■Ba% frinea of Blymia. Basde* thia alhance with 
Sparta, whitii he fftin to haTo preeerTed wich- 
eot intemiptiea to faia death, AJayntaa miited 
hiaualfabowithJaeoaofPherae (Diod. it. 60), 
and omAU; enttiratad the Hodihip of Albeni, 
with wlliefa atato he wimld haTa a bead of mnoii 
B thib vaaaotn jeahmiy of Otynthu and pn- 
lahlj lim ti Tbebe*. Of hit frienddiip tovaria 
tha Athadnu ha giTe pnw^ l>t, by adTOtating 
Ami daim to the pn m iann of Ampfaipalii (Aeach. 
nvl Ofii^ P- S3) I and, 2nd]y, by adopting 
Iphkatea aa bia Hin. (/d. p. 33.) 

It ippean to ham baea in the nign of AmynlBi, 
aa ii peihapa iapliad In' Stnfao (Bh. tIL p. BM), 
that th* ent of the Hacedoniaii gOTemmant wu 
raaorad tttm Aegae or Edeen to Pella, ihoi^ 
the iimiat itJD continaed to be the hmyin^placa 

JsMiu {TiL 4) labtaa, that a plot woi laid lot 
hie iwawinatiim Iq* hia wife Enrydiet^ who wiehed 
to plaoa her aon-in-law and paiamour, Ptolem; of 
AIotu, on the thnwa, bnl that the deei^ waa 
■ w Ajnynlai by bei dfloghter. Dradonu 
lie Pttdemy of Alonu the im of Amyn- 
w ; mu ise Wmaeling'i note ad loe^ and Thirl- 
waU, Or. Hid. voL t. n. 162. Amyntu died in 
■B a^Tuoed age, b.c S70, leaTiiMtbiw Intimate 
■ana, Almandw, Petdiocaa, and t£a fanooi Philip. 
(JaaLtc; Diod. it. 80.) 

3. Gnadaod of Anyntu II., wu left an in&nt 
■■ ifrnfi.! ppiaeiaioil of the throne of Macedonia, 
whenhiafUlwr Fa>dicaaIII. fellin battle ^ainat 
the niyikaa, a. c SfiO. (Diod. xn. 3.) He waa 
qaietly enlndad Emm the kingly power by hi> 
■acla Philip, a. c 359, who had at fint acted 
Bicn^ at regent (JuK. TiL £), and who fell him- 
ulf ao mb m Ua aanrpation, that he brought np 
Aayatu at hia nmrt, and gare hin one of hi> 
daa^iten in marriage In the Amt year of the 
reign af Alexander tbe Great, a. c S36, Amyntai 
waa asacatad for a )i!ot agnlnat the king') life. 
(ThiHw. Or. ffM. ToL T. pp. 165, ISE, 177, toL 
tL f. 99, and tbe aatbodtiea to which be refera ; 
JnaL xiL G, aod r[ein•hein^ td Curt. TJ. 9, 17) 


4. A Macedonian officer ii 
MD of ADdromama. (Died. iTii. 45 ; Curt. t. 1. 
i *0-, Arnma, lit. p. 72, C, ed. Slenb.) After the 
battle of the Onniau, K.C. 334, when the guiiaon 
of Sardii wu quietly aunenderad tti Alexander, 
Amyntaa waa the offioei lent forward to nceive it 
from the comnumder, Hilhrenea. (Arr. L p. 17, c. j 
Fninih.5Bp.iiCWtii.6.gl2.) Two yean after, 
932, we again hear of him at being eent Into Ma- 
cedonia to colleet leTiee, white Aleninder after the 
nege of Oan adTUKcd to Egypt ; and be retamed 
with them in the enuiing year, when the king wu 
in poeaewton of Sua. (An. iii. p.6i,c ; Cun. it, 
6. 1 BO, T. 1. § 40, Tii. 1. S 88.) 

Andnmenu (Attalua and Simmiae) were ureeted 
on inipieian of ha*fng been ensued in the plot. 
The nu^DD waa atrengthioed ^ their known 
indmaey with Phiklai, and by the fact that their 
brother Polemo bad fled frmn the camp when the 
latlw waa a^nhended (Arr. iii. pp. 72, £, 73, a.), 
or according to Cirtioa (TiL 1. g 10), when be wu 
giTCOi np to tbe tortnre. Amyntaa daiended himaelf 
and hi) bntbara ably (Cart. ni. I. { IB, &e.), and 
their innocence behig farther eatabliihed by Polemo'e 
rBmMraoce (Curt tIL S. g 1, &e.i Arr. iii. p. 7S| 
a.), Uiey were acquitted. Soma little tinie after, 
AJnyatu wu killed by an IitdW at the ^egt of 
a TUlagii. (Ait. iiL L c.) It ii donbtfut wiiatbar 
the Bon of Androioenee i* the Amyntu mentioned 
by Cortina (iiL 9. | 7) m cammuider of a portion 
of the Mandonian ttiwpa at the battle of Inoi, 
& c S8t ; w again, the peiaon ^eken of ae lead- 
ing a brigade at the feidng of the "PonanOatai,'* 
c. BBl. (Cnrt. T, 4. lao.) Bnt "Amyntu" 

■ppean U 

(See Cart. It. IB. g 28, t. 2. g 5, 

TiiL 3. g 14, IS, tL 7. f 15, tL 9. $ 28.) 

£. Tha Macedonian fbgitlTe and tiailor, im 
of Antiochoa. Anian (p. 17, £) aaoibea hii 
flight baa Macedonia to hi* hatred and bat of 
Asunder the Great; the gronnd of thcee fael- 
ingi ii not Mated, but Hitnid (ch. 44. aect. 1) 
conneota liim with the plot of Panianlu and tha 
nmrder of Pbibp. He tAok tefbge in Ephean* 
under Perrian protection ; whence, boweTer, after 
Che battle i^ tbe Qnoicna, fsaring tbe *{firtiach of 
AlriandcT, he cKsped with the Greek niercenariei 
who gniTitaned the place, and fled to the court ut 
DarefDa. (Arr. i.c) In Che winter o[ the nme 
year, a. c 333, while Aleisnder wu at Phaaelii 
in Lycda, diacorery waa made of a plot againil hia 
life, in which Amynlaa wu implicated. He ap- 
peara to have acted u the channel thnngh whom 
Ihiiein* had been negotiating with Aleiuider the 
Lynceetifln, and had promiaed to aid him in monnt- 
ing tbe throne of Macedonia on condition of hia 
aaaaaainating hia maater. The deiign wna diaco- 
Tered t]iit>uEb the cenfeaaion ef Aaiainee, a Peraian, 
whom Dorejua had deapatched on a aecret miaaion 
to the Lynceetian, and who wu amrehended by 
Piitnenia in Phrygia. (Arr. i. pp. 94, e., 25, b.) 

At the battleoflaana we hear again of Amynlu 
u a onnmander of Greek merennariea in the Fer- 
aian aernce (Cart iiL II. § 18; camp. Air. iL p. 
40, b.) ; and Plutarch and Arrian mention hia ad- 
TJce Tiunly giTen to Dariue ehortly betbre, to await 
Alexander'! appmacli in the lai^ open plaint te 
(ha weatward of CiJicia. (PlnL Altt. p. 675, k, 
Att. iL pp. 38, r,, 84, a.) 


On llu defiM of the Penuni >t tha batlla nt 
Ima, AmTDMi Bed with a luge bodj of Oceeki 
to Tiipolii in Pboenid*. There he Kiied k 
■hip*, with which be tuned dtbt to Cjpnu, i 
IhetHB to Egypt, of tJie HTenignty of which- 
doDble tnitoF—he daigned to pooien hisuelf. 
The gfttM of Pehuinm wen opened to him i 
pntending tlut be ame with ■uthorit; (ivm Da- 
nine : thnioe he pteied on tc Memphic, and ' 
joined by ■ Urge umnber at Egntiaiu, defeat 
■ battle the Pecnan gairiaon under Hanee*. But 
tbi* Tietoiy made hi* tcoopi OTer-coofidant and in- 
eantioDi, and, while they wetv dlipened for phin- 
der, Haiacei lallied forth upon them, and Amyntu 
himMtTwai killed with the gnaler part of hii men. 
(Diod. xviL 48 ; An. ii. p. 40, c i CuR. iT. 1. 1 27, 
ite, IT. 7. § 1. 2.) 

It i* poenUe that the labject of tbe preeent arti- 
cle owy bare been the Amjntai wbo ii men^oned 
■muig the ambanaJon eent to the Boeotiane by 
Pbilip, B. c. 838, to preTent the csatsaplUed 
alliance of Tbebea with Athena. It nay ^«o hare 
bean the eon of Andiomenea. (Phit Dtm. pp. 849, 
8U; Diod. x*L 86.^ 

6. A king of Oaktia and iaTenl of tho ailja- 
ceut coontriai, mentimied by Strabo (lil p. &G9) 


fint poeeeieed Lycaonia, where he nuintained 
mon thui 300 fiodu. (Strab. liL p. 668.) To 
thii be added the territory of Deifae by the mnidei 
of it! prinee, Autipater, the friend of Cicero (Cic 
ad Fiin. ziiL 73), and Innra and Cappadoda by 
RooHUi fiiToar. Plutarch, who ennmeiBte* faim 
among the adharenti of Antony at Actiom {AnU 
p. 944, c), epeake probaUy by anticipB^n in call- 
ing him liiiig of Oalalia, for he did not nuceed to 
that till the death OS Delotami {Strab. liL p. £67); 
and the latter ia mentianed by Plutarch himaetf 
(AiU. p. 94fi, b.) aa deaerting to Octaviiu, juat be- 
fore tbe battle, together with Amyntaa. 

While punning hit Kheme* of iggrandiiement, 
and endesTonring to reduce the rebactory high- 
landen anmnd him, Amyntaa made himiolf master 
of Homooada (Smb. xiL p. £69), or Homona 
<Plin. H.N. T. 27), and dew the prince of that 
place; but hit death waa avenged b; hii widow, 
and Amyntaa fell a Tictiln to an ambuih which 
■he laid for him. (SMLto.) (E. E.] 

AMYNTAS CAm^™.), a Oi«k writer of a 
WDit entitled IroSfiof, which waa probably an ac- 
count of the difFeicnt ha]ting-plac« of Aleiandei 
(he Great in hii Aiiatie eipedition. He perhap* 
■ccorapenied Alexander. (N