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Entered sccordiag to the Act of Congteae in the jtxt 1900, \sj 

Id the Office of the Librarian of Congrem. All righla reserved. 



It has been the aim of the Author in the preparation of the snccessive 
editioDB of this book to give sufficient but succinct information concern- 
ing every word that the student or physician will be likely to meet with 
in the course of hia professional reading. So ample, however, is the 
medical vocabulary of to-day tliat space for the insertion of all really 
useful terms has been secured only by the careful omission of obsolete 
words. Practical utility rather than historical tradition has controlled 
the selection of matter ; hence the work differs from most of its contem- 
poraries in omitting words which are nowadays found only in diction- 
aries. This has a double advantage, since it not only secures space for 
more useful material, but also greatly facilitates consultation. 

The space thus gained has been utilized by the insertion of much de- 
scriptive and explanatory matter under the more important headingB 
which would be very inadequately represented by a mere definition, how- 
ever full. Thus, under the principal diseases a sketch is given of their 
causatdon, symptoms and treatment ; under the more important organs, 
an outline of their structure and functions ; under each drug an account 
of it« action and therapeutic uses, and of all the preparations of it official 
in the latest editions of the pliarmacopceias of the United States, Great 
Britain (Ed. of 1898), and Germany (supplementary edition). The im- 
portant physiological functions and generic biological and chemical terms 
receive similar extended explanation. In arranging this descriptive mat- 
ter in consecutive form, continuity and logical order have been kept in 
view, rather than strict alphabetical arrangement. The inclusion of this 
encyclopsedic information constitutes a marked and, in the Author's 
belief, a very useful feature of the work. 

The present edition contains a vast amount of new material, represent- 
ing the great advances made in all branches of medicine since the pre- 
vious edition was issued. Aside from these additions the work has been 
revised in evety part, so that it is now believed to represent adequately 
the latest phase of the medical sciences. To this end it has been enriched 
with a full Ust of dental terms supplied by Professor H. H. Burchard, of 
Philadelphia, and a list ol veterinary terms prepared by Professor Leonard 

""> „„„..,Googlc 


Pearson, of the XJaiversity of PeDDsylvaDia, the State YeteriDarian. To 
these gentlemen, whose names are a guarantee of the excellence of the 
material famished, the Anthor wishes here to tender his grateful ac- 

In spite of the enormous number of additions, the size of the book has 
not been increased. To accomplish this desideratum of retaining its 
bulk within convenient limits while greatly augmenting its mass of in- 
formation, has required careful study. It has been effected by elim- 
inating matter rendered obsolete by the changes of the past few years, 
by a system of careful condensation, by grouping under one heading con- 
secutively occurring related words, and chiefly by rearrangement of the 
tables, which, though apparently smaller, have actually been enlarged in 
respect to the information they now contaiD. Lastly, and throughout, 
the skill and care of the printers have rendered possible the addition of 
matter equivalent to many pages without any apparent increase in size. 

The system of pronunciation is extremely simple, and yet adequate to 
indicate closely how each word should be sounded. Approximation, in- 
deed, is all that any system, however elaborate, can secure ; even the 
Webster International Dictionary, with its wealth of diacritical marks, pro- 
fesses to accomplish no more tlian this for general readers. Fu)l expla- 
nation of the system adopted is given in the Introduction. 

To fasten in the memory a vivid and enduring recollection of the 
meanings of words, no aid is equal to that furnished by their derivation. 
Special care has therefore been taken to state and define the original 
words from which medical terms are derived. To render this feature of 
the work available for those unfamiliar with Greek, all such derivations 
are given in ordinary type. Vowels long by nature have been appropri- 
ately marked, owing to the important influence of natural quantity in 
determining the pronunciation of a word and the form of its derivatives. 

As the essence of a dictionary liea in its definitions, no pains have 
been spared to make the explanation of each word clear and sufficient. 
In the case of words having several distinct meanings, clearness has been 
promoted by the use of numerals to emphasize the distinction. 

Certain matters, especially anatomical data, are best exhibited in tab- 
ular form. The Author hasaccordingly followed this principle in making 
tables of muscles, joints, arteries, and nerves, which set forth with con- 
siderable detail the main facts regarding these oi^ns in a manner best 
adapted for study. Certain other tables — notably those of the several 
varieties of bacteria, of fermentations, and of monstrosities — present in a 
convenient form material which is not to be found in the ordinary text- 



books, and which has been compiled from special treatises, mono^^phs 
and carrent literature. 

The colored plates, which appear for the first time in this edition, 
have been selected with a view to their practical utility, as illnstratiiig 
subjects which are of importance and general interest, but which are not 
portrayed in the ordinary text-books. 

. The Author takes pleasure in renewing here his appreciation, ex- 
pressed in the last edition, of the care bestowed by the Publishers upon 
every detail of its presentation. With compact yet pleasing typc^raphy 
each page has been made to contain an extraordinary amount of matter. 

A. D. 

Nbw Yobs. 




1. Plan. — The work consists of a series of mtyor titles or primes, each begin- 
ning a separate paragraph and printed in heavy type ; and of a series of sub- 
ordinate headings placed in the body of the paragraphs. The subordinate 
headings are distinguished by being printed in (a) heavy type when they are of 
an imporiiance nearly equal to tliatof the major heading, and when they receive 
an extended description ; (b} in italics or occasionally in small capitals when 
they are of secondary importance, and particularly when they represent sub- 
diviaions of a secondary heading of the kind mentioned under a; (c) in capital- 
ized Roman type when of quite subordinate importance, and particularly when 
unaccompanied by description or when given simply as instances of the meaning 
of a main heading, 

2. Arrangement. — The arrangement of the main headings is strictly alpha- 
betical, all the letters of a word or of a series of words forming a heading being 
taken into consideration in fixing its alphabetical place. Thus, Hvnter'e canal 
is placed after Hunterian chancre; la gitu, after Insidwita. There are only two 
exceptions to this strictly alphabetical order. The first is when two synony- 
mous terms differing in spelling are grouped together as the main heading of the 
same paragraph, in which case the one of the two which has the preferable form 
is placed before the other, although in alpbatietical order it may come after it. 
Thus, In the paragraph on Anearyam, the fact that the heading reads Aneurysm, 
Aneurism, denotes that the former spelling is regarded as the better of the two. 
The second exception to the alphabetical arrangement is in the cose of certain 
terms, properly regarded as mf^or headings, which for economy of space are 
given under a cognate word of similar spelling, being thus treated as subordinate 
headings. E. g., Qialoretan is f^ven under Caslor, Test type under Test, etc., thus 
throwing these compound ezpresaons slightly out of their natural order. This 
is especially done with many ai^ectives denoting quality, which are put under 
the nouns ftom which they are derived. 

Titles consisting of two or more words, especially of a noun and a qualifying 
adjective, ore usually entered in two places in the dictionary, i. e., under both 
of the words forming the title. In this cose the definition is given under the 
more significant word, or, if not t«o lengthy, is given in both places, the object 
being to avoid cross-references as &r as possible. 

Subheadings ore not, as a rule, arranged in the paragraph alphabetically, but 
rather in accordance with logical sequence. See J 9. 

3. felling. — The system of spelling adopt«d is intended to indicate the best 
usage regardless of analogy. As, however, there is wide variation in usage, 
and in many cases the best authorities differ, where two spellings of nearly equal 
currency exist for the same word, that orthography has been adopted which 
conforms more closely to analogy and the derivation of the word. Thus, 
.^Tt/ftelmirUAic has been preferred to Antketntintic, and Chorioid to Choroid; but 
Thyreoid, while ctymologically more correct than Thyroid, has hardly come into 
use sufficiently to warrant its supplanting the latt«r. 

<"" ,.,..c..,Googlc 


The hyphen has UBiiAlly heea omitted in compound expreesioos, except when 
employed to separate two vowels whicti might otherwise be r^^rded as forming 
a diphthong, and also when used to connect two works of co-ordinate impor- 
tance, as in Trackela-mattoid. Even in the latter case it has been omitt«d in 
certain often -recurring words like Pnewnmgagtrie and Qloagopharyngeal. 

4. fVonunciof ion.— Each prime theproDunciation of which is not self-evident 
is followed by symbols placed in parentheses indicating its pronunciation and 
accentuation. In doing this the aim has been to show existing usage, the pre- 
cedents both of analogy and authority often being disregarded when they were 
thought to controvert the latter. When two alternate pronunciations are given, 
it is understood that the first is preferred or is based upon the best authority, 
although the second is also in good use. Aa the system employed is necessarily 
only approximate, the A.uthor has used it with some freedom, occasionally snb- 
stitutlng one symbol for another when by so doing greater clearness could he se- 
cured. Each word has been treated by itself, the purpose being to indicate in 
as obvious a manner as possible how it is pronounced in ordinary conversation. 
A table showing the system adopted is printed on page x. 

The representation of the obscure vowels is difficult in any system, even the 
most elaborate. Very oilen, especially at the beginning or in the middle of a 
word, their sound approximates to that of the long vowels ; this has been in- 
dicated by the use of ee for obscure e and i, oh for obscure o, etc. This, although 
not precisely accurate, gives probably a better idea of the true sound than if 
they were represented by the symbol denotive of the short sound of the vowel. 

In Latin words the English pronunciation has been adopted, the only excep- 
tion being in giving the alternate form of words in -itia, the pronunciation 
■ee'ii* being very prevalent in this country. 

5. Indication of Plurals and Oenitivee. — In lAtin nouns of irregular declen- 
sion the genitive or plural form is given after the pronunciation. When not 
given, the plural is understood to be formed regularly in accordance with the 
following table : 

6. Aeeenfuation. — In giving the accentuation a principle has been followed 
similar to that in regard to pronunciation — namely, the maintenance of a proper 
mean between pedantic adherence to uniformity and the slipshod inaccuracy 
which has become too prevalent among medical men. In Latin words, and in 
Greek words regarded as Latin, the accent has uniformly been placed according 
to the rules of Latin quantity, e. g., in Pmria'sa and Siib'nilrae. But Latin 
and Greek words which have become anglicized are given an accent in accord- 
ance with English usage ; as Pleth'ora, Metamor'plwtis, Ver'ligo. 

0, Google 


In accordaDc« with the best Frencli usage, the accent desotive of stress has 
been omitted altogether from French words unless they are r^arded as angli- 

. .In certain compound words in which each part is usually made equally em- 
phatic in pronunciation, two primary accents are given. 

7. Etymology. — The derivation of each word is given in brackets, the root 
words being placed in italics, and Greek letters being transliterated into those 
of our own alphabet. In the Latin and Greek words all vowels long by nature 
have been ntarked with the macron (~).' This not only is a valuable guide in 
tracing the etymology of a word, but also enables those who wish to adopt the 
Roman pronunciation to do so, inasmuch as in this system it is only the vowels 
long by nature that are given the long sound, the others (including all vowels 
simply long by position and all common vowels') having the short sound. 

8. Prefixea and Affixes. — In order to save space, and also to call attention to 
the genetic relation of words, the more important prefixes and affixes are given 
in the body of the teit, and are referred to in giving the etymology of other 
words. In the case of a succession of words formed with the same prefix, that 
part of their pronunciation and derivation which contains the prefix is usually 
omitted. Thus, the heading Peritkelium is written Perithelium ( -thee'lee-um), 
[Gr. theU, nipple.], the pronunciation per'ee- of the first two syllables and the 
derivation (from Or. peri-, about,) being supplied from the statement made 
under the heading Pert- occurring previously in the vocabulary. 

9. Definilione. — The body of each paragraph is occupied by the definition, 
consisting of, fii'st, a succinct statement of what the word defined is; and, 
second, of more or less descriptive matter explaining its nature more fblly. 
When a word has several definitions, these are arranged in the order of etymo- 
logical development, and are numbered, so as to ensure proper distinction, each 
subheading being placed under the definition to which it properly belongs. 

The matter of each definition and of its subheadings is disposed in logical 
order, so as to form a connected description, and in all cases the natural has been 
preferred to the alphabetical sequence of topics. In extended descriptions 
natural subdivisions of the subject are indicated by italics, and in some instances 
by heavy type. Capitals and italics are used freely as marks of emphasis or dis- 
tinction particularly to mdicate the less important subheadings and to single out 
the names of pharmacopceial preparations. The prevailing rules of scientific 
nomenclature have been followed in regard to the capitalization of names of 
botanical and zoological classes, orders, genera, and species. Certain terms, 
like Bacteria, and Pungi, are sometimes written with capitals, sometimes with- 
out ; the former denoting the use of the terms in their scientifically restricted 
meaning as comprising well-defined divisions of the vegetable kingdom, the latter 
their use in their popular sense as vaguely limited groups. 

' This, however, is not osed in the « 
'Common voweU are regarded t ' 
common, is marked long. 




a = a in at. ; i = i in ^t. 

K ^ a in man. i o ^ o in not. 
ah =: a in father. ! ce = o German, 
ay ^ ay in tray, oh = o in note, 
aw = aw in saw, , ow = ow in cow. 

e = e in met. ■ oy =^ oy in boy. 
ee '^ ee in meet. I 00^=00 in cool, 
eh = e in there. | u = u in but. 
ew = ew in few, : uh = 00 in foot, 
ey = i in mine. | ue =: u French or 

I ch = cb in chat. 

cft^ch guttural (German), 
g ia always hard, as in get. 
j = j in join, 
n ^ n nasal (French), 
ng = ng in ring. 
s ia always hissing, as in this, 
th = th in thin, 
fh ^ tb in than. 


The main abbreviations are given in the text in their alphabetical order. The 
following comprise the remaining abbreviations which are used chiefly in the 
titles of the several articles : 
B, P. = British Pharma- 
copoeia (edition ( 
of 1898), 
dim, Bx diminutive. 
Eng. = English. 
F. = French. 
fem. ^ feminine, 

Q. ^ German. 
G.A.S. =: Nomenclature of 
German Ana 
tomical Society. 

GoptBla. ni. edi- 
tion (with supple- 
m e n t issued i n 


Gr. = Greek. 

It. = ItalUn. 

L. ^ Latin. 

masc. = masculine. 

n. =: noun, 
nent, = neuter. 

pi. = plural. 
Sp. ^ Spanish. 
U.S,=United States 
(Vn. edition, 
dated 1890, is- 
sued in 1893). 
, = verb. 


Arteries 46-50 

Arterial supply of certain regions, 60 

Badlli, 61-70 

Bacteria, Pathogenic Action of, 70 

Bacterium 71 

Cells, H2 

Cerebrum, Lobes, Gyri, and Fissures of, 116 

Element* 189-191 

Exanthemata, 206-208 

Fermentatjons, 216-219 

Joint* 306-309 

Uembranes, 849 

Micrococci, S58-359 

Monsters, 866-368 

Murmurs, Cardiac, 373-374 

"""- „„-,„.;G«?ftWlc 


Nerves ftnd Plexuses S98-408 

Poisons and Antidotes, 469-473 

Positions (Obstetric), 478 

R&les, and other Adventitious Beepiratory Sounds, .... 501 

Bespiralion, Morbid Alterations of, 50S-509 

Spirilla, 551-562 

Staphylococci, 556-667 

Streptococci, 662-568 

Tumors, 608" 

Veins, 622 

Vocal Signs in Disease, Changes of, 629 

Weights and Measures, . 6S4-637 


I. Bacilli and Micrococci, 61 

II. Caste and other Urinary Sedimente, 107 

ni. Centres of Cerebral Cortex 114 

rV. Embryo, Hnman, 192 

V. Leucocytes and Erythrocytes, normal and abnonnal, . . 328 

VI. Malarial Plasmodia 888 

VII. Malarial Plasmodia 338 

VIII. Staphylococci and Streptococci, 656 





A. AbbreviatioD for anode. 

A- or An-. A prefix in words of Greek 
origin, meaning not, without; correBpODdiog 
to English tin- and Latin turn- or <n-. 

I, A. AbbreviatioDS for ana, of each. 

Ab-. [L. = from.] A prefix in words of 
Latin origin, meaning off, awny, from. 

Abadia'i liga (ah-bah-deez). lAbadu,F. 
ocnIiBt.] Spaemodio contraction of the leva- 
tor palpebin; aaignof eiophthalmicgoitre. 

AbarUenlu (ab"Bhr-til('7u-lar). iAb- + 
L. articuliu. Joint.] Local^ away from the 
jointa, as A. lesions of gout. 

Ab&alk (a-baf'zhee-ah). [_A- + Gr. baiii, a 
going.] Inability to walk, especially when 
doe to incoordination of movement. 

Alws'Ul, Abftz'Ua. [Ay + axi>.} Situ- 
ated away from the axil. 

Abba's eaud«iu«r (ah-bayz). An appara- 
tus consisting of a mirror, adjustable dia- 
phragm, and series of lenses, placed t>eneath 
the stage of amicroscope; serving to condense 
light upon the object Tiewed and to bring oat 

Abba'i rlngi (ab'eez). [R. Abba, Ameri- 
can surgeon.] Catgut rings inserted to sop- 
port the intestine in enterorrhaphy. 

Abdoman (ab-doh'men). Ft. abdom'ina. 
[L., probably from abdere, to hide.] The 
belly ; tliat portion of the body l>etween the 
diaphragm above and the brim (or, accord- 
ing to some, the floor) of the pelvis below. 
Boat-ihapad a., hollowing of the front wall 
of the a., observed in children with meningitis 
and other cerebral diseases. Fmdnlon* ft., an 
a., BO BbDOTmalljr relaxed that its walls hang 
down in tiaai of the pubes. 

Abdom'lual. [L. abdomin^ IU.\ 1. Of, 
perbuning to, or contained in the abdomen ; as 


ra). A, walls (or parietee), 


extraction of the fetus, A, operatioi 

(= laparotomy). A. ansuryam, 

the a. aorta, or its branches. A. aorta, that 

part of the aorta which extends from the dia- 

Ehrngm lo the bifurcation of the vessel. A. 
andaff«, the binder; a broad bandace for 
supporting and making pressure upon the ab- 
domen after delivery or durine the operation 
of tapping. A. brain, the solar plciui. A. 
breathing (A. Tssplratlon), respiration per- 
formed by the diaphragm and abdominal mns- 
cles. See SupinUion. A. cavlt]', the cavity 
contained witii the walls of the abdomen and 
itself containing the a. viscera, A. dfopsy, 
ascites, A. fever, a sort of remittent fever, oc- 
curring in India, marked by diarrhiea, a. ten- 
derness, and tympanites. A. Altnle, an un- 
natural opening in the a. wall, cammunicadag 
usually with one of the hollow a, viscem. The 
most common varieties are biliary, gBstria,and 
intestinal fistules. A. ganglia, tlie sympa- 
thetic ganglia contained in the a. cavity. A. 
(••tation. A. pregnancy, extra-uterine gesta- 
tion occurring in the a. cavity. A. lines, the 
tendinous inscriptions in the a. wall (lineaalba, 
lineie semilunares, and lineeo transversie), also 
the lines on the skin corresponding to tnem. 
A. mnselM, the muscles forming the walla of 
the abdomen : the rectus abdominis, pyrami- 
dalis, external oblique, internal oblique, trans- 
versalis, and quadratus lumbomm. A. pbtb- 
Isls, tuberculosis of the parts within the ab- 
domen, particularly the peril^jr 
teric glands, and inteetin— * 
optosis. A. reflex, reflex 

muscles induced under n _, 

slight stimulation of the skin over the side of 
the abdomen. A. ring, the lower opening of 
called £r(«rniif a. 

the inguinal canal ; 

!d EiUntal a. 

rtn;; lu aperture eilendiDg upwatil and oat- 
warn in the apoaeurosia of the oxternal oblique, 
tnniunilting the epermatic cord id meo and 
the round irgBnient in women. The JaUmal 
a.riTigiBiui owning in the trsnsversalis fascia, 
forming tbe inner aperture of the iDeuinal 
canal. A. awtfaij, that branch of surgery 
vhich deaJe with lesionn of the alidomen anil 

AMom'lno-. Prefix meaning alxlominal. 
AbdoinlnD-BJiterlor, having the abdomen di- 
rected to the front, Abdomluo-poiMrlor. hav- 
ing the abdomen directed to the rear (said of 
the fetua in utero). Abdomluo-hyaUrtc'- 
tomr. Abdomino-hyiMrot'omr, taparo-hys- 
lereclomy, laparo-hyslcrolomy. Abdomlnoa'- 
C0V7, eiamination of the ahdomeu. eppcciailj 
by auscnitation. Abdomluo-Iborae'lc. of or 
relating to abdomen and tliorax. 

AbdncHU (ab-dew'aeni). [L. ab- + ducent, 
lukding.] 1. Alwiiicent. 3. An alwiuelor mus- 
cle, particularly the rectus oculi extemus <A. 
oc'tul); also the uerve (A. nerr*) supplying 
the rectus oculi exIemuH. Hence, A. i)liel«iu, 
the nucleus of this nerve. A. labln'mm, A. 
oris, the levator anguli oria. 

Abdncent (ab-dew'sent). Abducting. 

Abduct'. [L, ab- + durxTe, to lead.] To 
draw away lalerally from the median line. 
"'"""'"" 'rm, and thigh, to draw thci" "" 
28 n«ay from the median pli 

Of the leg, « 

d thigh, to draw their dis 

^ J from the median plane oi 

the body ; of the hand, to draw \Vt extremity 
toward the radial side of the forearm ; of the 
foot, to rotate its extremity away from the 
median plane of the body ; of the iingcni or 
toea, U> draw their AisiaX eilremitiea away 
from the middle line of the hand or foot (but, 
according to some, to draw them away from 
the median plane of tbe i>ody ~ for the two 
inner fingers and toes, adduction in the usu- 
ally accepted senne); of the eye, lo rotale in a 
horiianlal plane away from the noie. 

AbdacUon. (ab-duk'shun). [L. abda<ftio 
" oi- -I- ductio, a leading.] The act or process 
of abducting ; the state of being abducted. 

Abdoc'tor. PI. abdnclo'ree, abductors. 

iL.} That which aiMlucIs; especially an ab- 
DCting muscle. See Majcin, Table of. A. 
nerve, the abducens nerve. 

Aberrant (a-ber'ani). [L. abei'Tdnt = ab- 
+ erra-nt, wandering.] Wandering out of the 
straight or usual course, as Vas aberrans; 
atypical, aa an A. species, 

Abstratto (ab"ur-ay'shee-oh). [L. =ab- + 
errare, to wander.] Aberration; melBSlHsis; 
as J, iacif* (metastasis of milk), A. men'iinm 
(vicarious menstruation). 

Aberration (ab"ur-ay'BhuQ). Deviation 
from the regular or direct course. A. of a 
leiu, A. of a mirror, Op'tloal a., a scattering 
of rays passing through a lens or reflected from 
a mirror, so that they fail to unite at a focus. 
ItoompnBes(l) Spherical a., A. of tphericiiy, 
or a, doe to the met that nya from the pen- 


phery of a lens or mirror of spherical sur&ee 
come lo a focus sooner than the oli>er rays; 
hence the sharp image formed at the focus nf 
the latter is blurred by the indistinct imago 
formed by the unfocnscii peripheral nvya. It 
is con-ecttil by a diaphragm or stop which cul« 
ofl' I he peripheral rays; by uaingalena (orosseil 

lens) having front aad back surfaces of differ- 
ent curvature; by substituting a 

lenses or a combined convex and cor... 

(aplanatic tens) for a single lens; and in 


refrengibifity , and hence. aAer passing through 
a lens, converge \o different foci, so that the 
image formed at any one point is blurred by 

lessened by a diaphragm. The eye is partially 

1 jpj, gp|,g,^,.j,] jnd chromatic a. by ilr 

and by the action ofthe iris^ whicl 

upon the axis of tbe lens or mirror; Laterala. 
the amount of deviation measured upon a line 
perpendicular lo the axis and passing through 
the foeus. Hfrrid'ionata., the variation in re- 
fractive power occurring in different parts of 
the same meridian (of a lens or ofthe cornea). 
It is potitire when the refraction or power in- 
creases, and nrgativf, when the refraction de- 
erenses, fVom the centre of the cornea outward. 
Hentala,, A. ofmlnd, abnormal action of the 
mind not sufficient to constitute insanity, and 
usually temporary. 

Ablei {ab'ee-eez). PI. abi'etes. [L.) The 
fir tree; a genus of evergreen trees ofthe Coni- 
ferse ftirnisliing Canada balsam and Strashurg 
turpentine. Derived from species of A. and 
from related trees are; Ab'ietene or heptane 
(q.7.); Abiat'lckcld,acrrstallinesub8tanee. 
the anhydride of which (Ablet'lc aohrdrlde) 
forms the greater part of rosin ; Ab'tatllt, a 
resin olitained ftnm Canada balsam, Stresborg 
turpentine, and rosin ; and Ab'letlie, a sugar, 
CtlisOi, resembling raannile.; 

Ablogesetla (ab"eeM>h-jen'e-sis). [A- + Ot. 
bioi, life, and pniesii. a begetting.] Sponta- 
neous generation ; the spontaneous develop- 
ment of living beings from non-living matter. 

Abirritation (ab-ir"ee-tay'8hun). lAb- + 
irritati'm.l Lack of irritation or irritability ; 
especially, morbid lack of irritability ; atony. 

urgicai ope^iiuu. 



OlepIi&TlA ( ftb"lee'rfir' resh ), Ablepb' aron . 
[A- + Gr. blepharon eyelid.] Total or partial 
abwDce of the eyelidK. 

AUuant (ab'lew-ent). [L. nb^urru <■ afi- 
+ Jurnt, waabing.) Abiit«rgeiit, cleaniring. 

phemical Bubslancea purifinl by wasbing. 

Abnor'inal. [Through Old F. anorvial, fr. 
<lr. annina/M^nnoinalouB.] Anomalous, ir- 
regular, contrary ^ the usual rule or type. 

Abnormal'lty. 1. Thestatcof beingnbuor- 
mal. S. Ad abnormal thing, a monslrosit;. 

Abnomiltr {ab-nawr'niwt<?e). lAb- + h. 
norma, a rale.] Sw Abaonaatity. 

Abomainm (ab"oh-may'Bum), Abomssna 
(ab"oh-may'auB). [New L. — ao- ^ oniiimiiii, 
bullock's tripe.] The fourth or true stumui-h 
of mmiaaDts. SeeSlomacli. 

Atwral (a-boh'ral). [yl4- + o™/.] At or 
pertainiug to the end opposite to the umutb. 

Abort (a-bawrt'}. [Fr. L. aborirl (pntit 
part. a6itniM) = a&- + itrm, to rise,] 1. To 
-'■re birth before the proper time, to minearry. 

3. Of natural and morbid procesHcs, to be ei 
ehort; to be arresled prematurely. 8. To nit 
short, to arrest ; as to A. a disease. 

AbortUMlent (a-bawrt"ee-faj'shent). [L. 
aborti/acinia = aboriut+facieiit, making,] 1. 
Producing abortion. 3. A drug or agent pro- 
dacing aMtrtion. 

morbid proceu. 3. Theprodi .,-, 

anfthiag abortive or arrested in development. 
Expulsion of the fetus before the eeventb 
month of pregnancy ia A.; after the seventh 
month, premature labor. Some restrict the 
term ». to preniBture deliveries before llie 
Ih month. 

cessive vomiting of pregnancy, disproportion 
betireen the size of tlie pelvis and that of the 
fetus such as to interfere vith delivery at 
term, death of the fetus, etc. ; a. induced 
Ibr any other cause is crimliiBl. HlESed a., 
misKd labor. 

AbOTUonUt (a-bawr'shun-ist). One who 
make* a practice of producing criminal abor- 

AborUTe (a-bftivr'liv). [L. aborlVcHi.] 
Coming to an untimely end ; aborting. 
Aboi'tna. ri. ftlmr'tUB. [L.J Abortion. 

At>Ta«lllll8 (a-bmy'kec-iix). [^I- 4- bni- 
cAiHui.] A monster ehnracti'i'i^ed by Abia'- 
ebla or absonee of the arm. 

Al)raiio(ali-ray'Ehee-oh). [I...- «6- r radere, 
to shave.] Abrasion. A. cot'nete, n shaving 
or scraping oll'of cpacilies from the cornea. 

Abrailon (ob-ray'zhun). A Kcmpin^ off: 
an injury in which l!ie siiperlieial covering of 
a part is scraped or rubbed away. 

Ab'raa. [L.] A genus of leguminous 

plants. A. prsjcalorins, Indian (nrwild)lico- 

indigenous to India and natural iia-d in all 

latter called jt^ulritu, euiilain a mixture of 
poisonnua proteiils (Ab'llli). An infusion of 
jcquirity is applied to the eyes to cure old 

Bmnus by seltiug up a violent cojijunctivitiK 
Kqulrity ophtlialmia). 

Abieeai (ab'ses). [L. nWrMH^, departurv. 
fr. abi-ab and ceilfre, to go.] A more or 
less cirouniBcribed accumulation of pus con- 
tuined in a cavity which is farmed by the dis- 
integration and stretching of the liseueH due In 
the suppurative priKiw, and which in its out- 
set is complclcly closrd. An A. is to be dis- 
linguisbed from an tilrrr, which, being upon 
a free surfiicc, is cvpi'n from the outset | and 
from a collection ot^pus in a natural cavity of 
the body (the pleural cavity, the timpani 


See KiBpynna). in their ( 

I'a may be Acutt or (lint), characterized by 
marked inflammatory syniploms, pain, and 
heat, and by the rapidity of their dcvclopmeni 

and progress, and Chnmic or {Cnfd), niarkcil 
by their sluggish coume and the alwi'nce of 
pain and heat. Symptoms common to both 
chronic and acute a's arc the development of 
a swelling nnd the evidences of the prewun- 
n-sulting therefrom [absorption of the a<lju- 
cent tissues, pain from pressure upon nerves', 
hemorrhage from erosion of the vessels). In 
origin a's may lie (I) t'otuliliitionnl, i. c, 
due to a general discasi>, esperially tubercu- 
losis (I'ltbti' cutout, nr .vro/u/ouo, or Slnim- 
cms a.) or pyicmia {Pyirfmic a.). A «<'rof\L- 
louB a. is almost always chronic, and nearly all 
chronic a's are wrofulous, being due to tulier- 
culoufl disease of lymph-glands or of hone. 
Pyiemic a's are generally acute and metastatic. 
(3) An Jdiopulhic or (Zoctii) a., i. e., one 

Sroduce<l by local causes, in usually aeule anil 
ue to injury {Trauiaiitic a.). In mod* of 
occiirTBiice, a's may be Singh or Mulliple. 
and they are either Primary, when they orig- 
inate at the spot where they occur, or Seem^- 
art/, lor Mfla-lae ic, or Kmbol'ic), when they 
are set up by infective matter transported from 
a distance. A's are also named from their 
■Itnatlail as Subdilanrout, Rrliytperitontal, 


Perinephric, etc., and from the p»rt« tll»t 
tll«y occupy, as^/rfo/or, Hrpatic, Mammary, 
elc. In stnictnrs, an a. coii»iiils of an ia- 
ilurateO wall formed liy the iuliltrBtion of th« 
linaueB with inflBmmator}' products and en- 
i^lnsins a cavity whioh contains pun, fragments 
of broKni-down tisaup, and oftpn a centrul ne- 
protic mass, oallul the eon. The a. may also 
contain ipis (Tympnnit ic a.), blood {Ilamor- 
,Stereora'iroiua.),eii>d worniB (t'e/minoma.), 
and the pus itself may be ehecsy {C'a'wou* a.) 
or putrid. An a. umiall)- kwps on enlarcing 
uatil it reaclieH the Hurfiiceat nonie spot, where 
it is aaid to prasaot or paiDl, and where it 
Butisequently ruptures uid dinehargea its con- 
tents. ()i'ea.sionally an a, dries up without 
rupturinu (Oik a.. Abscess' Us Biecua). An a. 
urnich burruvrs through the (issues a Ions way 
liefore pointing is a Wandrriiig (or Hypo- 
tiaiie) a. P»oa* a. ia d wandering a. whieh 
starts from the vertebne and, borrowing along 
the sheath of the pwias, presents in the groin. 
Stitch a,, an a. foriniag abont a suture, 

AltaelMlon (nb-aizh'un). [L. absei/ftio, fr. 
nh- ■{■ Kiiidrrf, loeul.] A cutting off or cutting 

Absinths (ab'sinth). \i\, fr. L, abti»'- 
Ihiam, --- (ir. apiialhion^ wormwood.] 1, 
Wormwood ; the Artemisia Absinthium, an 
aromatic hitl«r plant containing a volatile 
oil (consisting mainly of Ab'slntliol,CiDUi<0), 
a bith-r prineiplo, AbBln'tUn, CuIIidOi, Ab- 
tln'tUc (nuecinie) ACld, Uuinin, etc. The 
li'Uvea and tops (Absinthium, U. S., Uerba 
iLlisinthii, (1. P.) are an anthelininthic and 
gastric tonic. Uose of Rrtraelam abaiiUAii, 
(i. P., 1.5-30 BT. (gin. 1-L') ; Tindura ab- 
tiathii, O. P., 3i (gm. ID); otVofa., 1-3 11 (gm. 
ll.i)( ; AbrintHa. gr. H (gm. O.C-tl.'ia). 

in soluliou. Itx use as a beverage produces a 
form of ah^obolixm called Ab'liutblim, char- 
acterized by verti^, convulsive nttncks, euta- 
neouB hypcroTslhcsia, and rapid deterioration of 
the physical and mental powers, terminating in 
general paresis. 

Absalnta (ab'soli-lewt). [L. ahiolS! liu, fr. 
ahioleerr, to set loose.] 1, Free from admix- 
ture, unronibined, pure; as A, acetic acid, A. 
alcohol (sec Alcohol). S. Freefrom condition 
or limitation, unqualified, not relative; aa A, 
oecomtaodnlion and A. near point (the accom- 
modation and near point of each eycbyitaelf). 
3. Hence, earriiHl to the utmost pitch, nllimnte, 
iinal; as .4. irro, the point (273%'.), at which 
all rases would have their volume reduced to 
nothing by the contraction due to cold. A. 
Itapcralare, temperature reckoned from thea. 
xero. 4. Hence, also, perfect, complete ; as A. 
Hcotomn (iwc Aicufona). B. Indcpcndentof sur- 
nnindliiga, not ntodified by varying conditions ; 
as A. hypermetropia (see Ilypermclropia) . 

Abiorb (ab-sawrb'). [L. abiorb?Te, tosuek 
up.] Tosuckupesaspon^; to take up liquid 
or gaa; to receive and retain within one's self; 
US to A. water, light or heat. 


Abmr'buil. [L. ab»or'bin*.'\ 1. AbMrb- 
ing; producing absorption, as A. treatment. 
A. eotWn, see CoUon. A. gUnd, a Ivmphatic 
gland. S. Anything which absorbs; espe- 
cially, a lymphatic or chyliferoiu vessel. 
Uence, A. systeni. the lymphatic system. 
3. A remedy, such as iodine, effecting ab- 

Absorptlom'star. l^Abtorption + mtter.l 

— hiematoscope in which the thickneaa of the 
layer of blood whose absorptive power is being 
teslcd, can be varied by any desired amonnt. 
Absorption (nb-sawrp'shuu). [L. ahtorf/- 
tio.] The set of absorbing or being absorbed. 
A. ratio, sec Cotfficient of tJtinctioa. A. spac- 
tnim, a si)ectrum crossed by certain character- 
istic lines (A. lines, A. bKndS) which replace 
rays that have been intercepted in their pas- 
sage through some medium. 

Abstergent (stK^tur'jcnt). [L. abtUr'gini, 
fr. abi — ab and tergerc, to wipe.] 1. Cleans- 
ing. 3. A cleansing agent. 

Ab'strftOt. [L. abttrat^luiH, ti. abttrahore, 
to withdrmw.] A dry powdered alcoholic ei- 
tract of a drug mixed with sugar of milk in 
such quantity that one part of the a. reprtsenls 
two parls of the drug. 

AbiiIla(a-bew'lee-ah).Abiilomuiln (a-bew"- 
loh-may'nee-ah). Bee Abotilia, 

Abnt'ment. Id dentistry, the natural teeth 
that form the support for a bridge. 

Auda (a-kay'sbah. a-kash'ab). [L. = Or. 
ataiiia.] A genus of shrubs and trees of the 
IjCgominoaie. The gummy exudation of A. 
Verek (A. Scn'egal), A. nilot'ica (A, vera), 
and other African species is gum arable (the 
bicum, U. P.). uBcu as a demulcent and for 

gum arsbic are derived from other species of 
A. A. Cat'echu of the East Indies and 
Jamaica, and probably also A. Suma of South- 
ern India, furnish catechu. 

Aoan'tlM. [Gr.] Spine; spinous proeesi. 

Acmn'tbUi. [L.] A geuuB of insects, includ- 
ing A. lectulu^ria (Cimex lectulariui) the 
bedbug, and A. cilia'ta. the Russian bedbng, 
said to lie more poisonous than our species. 

Acui'lblon. [Acanlha.] The base of the 
anterior nnsal spine. 

Acantbol'rsls. [Gr. aeantha i- /utu, a 
loosening.] Detachment of the pricklenjell 
layer of the akin, epidermolysis. 

AcantliomA (-thoh'mah). {Aeantha -t 
-omn.l Overgrowth or new growth of the 
prickk'-ccll layer of the skin. 

AoMiUiosla (-thoh'siB). lAcanlha + -otii.] 
An aOection of the prickle-ccU layer of the 
skin. A. nlg'rlcuiB, a byperplsaia of (he 



prickle-cells and papillary layer of tbe skin, 
m> that the skin becomes darker, and Sat warty 
growths farm upon it and npon the mucous 

Acar'dU. [L. = o- + Gr. kardia, heart.] 
Congenit&l absence of Ilie heart. 

Ac'anu. IL., tr. Gi. atari.'] The mites; 
> genuB of Arachnida. A. america'ous, the 
Pmei penetrans; A, brnch'ypus (A. exul'- 
cenuiB, A. hnma'nns, A. ncAbie i), the Sarcop- 
lea icabiei ; A, coEDedo'num (A. follieulo'- 
ram), tlie Demodei folliculonim; A. Ric'- 
iniM, the Ixodes Ricinai. Hence Acula'iU, 
Aoaro-deniMtl'Ha, ■ akin disease (as scabies) 
produced by an a. 

AeaUpbula (a-kat"a-ttiy'):hee-&h). [A- ^■ 
Or. iatti, thoroughly, + }>A[in«, a saying.] 
Morbid inability to combine and arrange 
words according to the rules of syntax. 

Aeandkt* (n-kaw'dayt). {A- + cauda.'] 
Without a tail ; wichoat tbe coccyx. 

AOO. Abbreviation for anodal closure 

Ace«lraaUir (ak-Be1''Qr-ay'tor). [L., 
eeltr&'rc, to hasten,] That which haslcna 
motion ; especially, a muscle or nerve which 
hastens and augments a motion already ini- 
tiated. A. twrvM of tha lt*art, fibres urising 
trma the upper dorsal nervts and pnssiug by 
way of the cervical sympathetic ganglia to the 
heart. Their stimulation causes increase in 
tbe rapidity and force of the heart's action. A. 
■rl'nM. see Mtuclu, Table of. 

AcceaBOTlna(ak''ee8-Boh'ree-u8). [L.,fr. nc- 
«M'«rc, to approach.] 1. Acceasory. 3. The 
spinal accessory nerve, also called .4 . Willi^ii. 
S. A muscle reinforcing the action of another. 
See Miucla, JkibU of. 

Aeeetury (ak-scs'oh-ree). Added to; ac- 
oompsnying in a subordinate capacity; asso- 
ciated and mlfilling similar but less important 
fanctions; as the A. palatine canal, A. mus. 
cles. A. nndeni, a nucleus for the spinal ~ 

of the fourth ventricle; it gives origin to those 
fibres of the nerve which innervate the laryn- 
geal mnicles, Bplual a. uarva, see Nerve. 

Aoddantal bmnorrliag*. Uterine hecmor- 
rhag«occurringlieforcdelivery, and not caused 
by placenta previa ; so called because due to 
accidental detachment of the placenta. 

Aoeldsut ntoroslE. A generic term for the 
various neuroses (railway spine, etc.) of hys- 
terical or neurasthenic character, produced by 
oocidenta and injuries, especially when at- 
tended with mental shock. 

AccommDdatlon (a-kom"oh-day'shun). [L. 
occtmiinoJa'iJo, fr. OOT<tmwu)iiar«, tofit to.] The 
act of fitting or adjusting | particularly, the 
act by which the eye is adjusted for dincrent 
distances. Positive a., or A. in the ordinary 
sense — i. c, the adjustment of the eye for near 
points — is effected by a contraction of the cili- 
ary mnscle (miMc/c o/n.) which matessniailer 


s the 

elastic force of the lens to Hssert itself and to 
bulge out its anterior surfsce. Kagatlve a., or 
the adjustment of the eye fur distant points, is 
ejected, by a relaxation of the ciliai^ muscle 
{assiaied, according to some, by a slight con- 
traction of the radiating fibres of the muscle). 
Begton of a., the linear distance )>etwcen the 
fir-point and nrar-point; i. c, the portion of 
space for all points of which the eye can be ad- 
justed by a. Bange (breadtb or amplltnde) 
of*., the change in the refractive condition of 
the eye produced by a. ; i. c, the difference 
meaBurcd in dioptrics hclween the refraction 
of the eye when adjusted for its far-point and 
that when adjusteif for its nt«r-paint. Retalirt 
range of a., the range for any given degree of 
convergence, measurul by the most powerful 
convex glass (ncKStivc portion of the range) + 
tlie most powerftil concave glass (positive por- 
lion of the range), which can be overcome, 
with the convergence still maintaineil. Abao- 
Ititea., the a. of cither eye when used by itself. 
Spasm of a., continuous spasmodic contraction 
of the ciliary muscle, nrouucine increased cnn- 

„hcr refractive I 

rfaily possesses. 

AecommodatlTe (a-kom'oh-day-tiv). Pro- 
ducing accommodation, as A. effort; associ- 
ated with or produced by excessive accommo- 
dation, as A. asthenopia. A. Irldoplegla. 
fiiilure of the iris Co contract when an effort 
of accommodation is made. 

Acconcheur (ak"oo-shur'). rF.] A mate 
who delivers women ; a male midwife. 

Aectunnlator (a-hewm'yn-lav-tor). [L.uc- 
eumuld' tor, fr. aeeiimnlare, to heap up.] An 
apparatus for collecting and storing electric- 
ity, e. g., a Leydcn jar or storage battery. 

A. 0. B. mlxtnre. A miiture of alcohol 1 
part, chloroform 2 parts, and ether 3 parte, 
used as an anawtbetic; so called from the in- 
itials of its constituents. 

state of being Aceph'alons or headless. 

Acephalo- (B-scfa-loh), Prefix meaning 
headless ; us Acepbalocar'dla, Acapbalo- 
ga«'trl8, Acephalorrha'chla, etc, forms of 
monstrosity charactcriied by absence of the 
head anil heart, head and alHlomcn, heod and 

Ac«mlni eerebil (a-surv'yn-lus ser'cc- 
brcy). [L.l Drain-sand; a sand^ material 
found in the pineal };land, consisting of cal- 
cium phosphate, calcium cnriionnle, and mag- 
nesium and ammonium phospliiil*. t 




vprted ii 

vinegar, a. A itt 

Acetatralar (aR"ee-tab'yu-lar). Of orper- 
tuining (o tht; acetabulum. 

AMtabnltun (iis"«c-tHli'yu-luui}. [L.-s 
viln■lalr^■ruf■l.J The <'up-sliapeii Jepn-ssion 
ill the iiinoniinate bone far the reception of 
the linul of tlw femur. 

Acetal (B^ee'tal). Mrc(-ic +a/-cohol.] 
Klhyliiteue itietUylutc, t'lIJi.Oi - ('Kj.CIi- 
(OCiHs)i, a eiilorlesx, mobile liquid, also 
riilled <U«tlin-acetaL Hypnotic in dosei 
r.f 2-3 3 {em. »-l-*f. EtIivHdene diniethy- 

1ut« (dlmethrl-acetal), l'l[i.Cll«x:'Il])i- 

<'(JIu(>j, is a liypnolie utuker than ordi- 

AcAtaldahrda (uit"el'aril(v-beyd). Acetic 

Acstomlds (a-wt'a-mevil. a-set'a-mid). 
l.lrflic ' niHl'le.j A mlorliw i-ryslallinc Sub- 
I'lHncf, rjll,vSil--(!lI>CO.NHi, having an 
udor of nuiuik--duni!. 

AMtMlUld« (as-ee-tsD'ce-Iid, -tBn'ee-leyd). 
fAcrtie \ aniline. L, ,icflamridam, U. S., 
Ii. P., G. ]'.] Antifebrin ; a <'ry»tall]ne nub- 
M«u.-e, CslUNO = C«(Ii.N{rtnsn) II, Blightly 
Holulile ju water, readily nilulile in ali-ohol. 

.\nti pyretic and anndyiie; u!<od for headache, 
iieamlKiB, and rlieumntiKio, and loeally as an 

antiseptic. In eicc'ssive diwi'a eauacs ifpstnic- 
tion of tlie blood-cnr^um-lvs, and tranKforma- 
tiou of tlie hecmoglobin into methiEnioglobin. 
I>o»e, 2-10 gr. (gni. 0.13-0.00). 

A«tate(a!i'ee-tayt). [-air. h.acflui,] A 
compound of acetic acid with a base. 

Acetic (a-scCik, a-tvc'tik). [Acilum 4^ -tc] 

,^ ^ _ Ordi- 

icid (Ac'iduoi aee'licuin, U. 8., B. P., 
Acidumaceticum dilu'tum, (i. P.) in an nquc- 
HUB solution ponlaining M-X per ceut. of the 

Sureaeid. IHttUr a, acid (Acidum accticum 
ilutum, U. a., K. P.) contains 6 per ceol. 
(4.27, B. P.) of tlie pnre acid, Fi/ro/ipiiroiia 
a. acid, wood vinegar. )>ilute a. acid is uecd 
like vinegar. A. al'dahyde, see Aldrhyitc. 
k. (Ulllj'drW*. the anhydride. C.II,0,= 
(Cin»0)»:Oor2Cin»Oi-HiO, of a. acid; a 
rolorlei^ liquid. A. eUier (£lher acelicus), 
the scetale of ao organic radicle ; an coDinion- 
Iv used, elhyl acetate. A. farmantatton, iwe 

Acatlll(aii'ee-lin). [AerlUV-in.] An ace- 
tate of glyeeryl, particularly glycervl triace- 
tate or triacfhn, a neutral oil, CiFItiOCiHsO). 
- C'dlitOg, found in the oil of Guonymua 

:ic acid ; a monobasic acid, (^HiOs ^ _ 
(CiIIiO)H..CO.OU. It ia produced under 
certain pathological conditions in the orgui- 
i»ni, giving rise to nephritis, and appearing in 
the urine cither under ita own form or as ace- 
tone (acetonuria). 

AcatonHinla (a5"ee-loh-nee'aiee-ah). [_Ace- 
loat t- Or. haima, blood.) The morbid condi- 
tion in wliich acetone is present in the blood. 
Occura in the laat stages of diabetes and is a 
cause of diabetic coma, producing epileptoid 
convulsions and sudden amaurosis. 

Acat(m« (as'ec-tohn). [AcetU + -one. L. 
acfli/nnm.^ 1. Dimethyl ketone (dlmatbyl 
a.). CjlUO-{Cnaji:CO; a colorless moHle 
liquid emitting au luBammable vupor of pecu- 
liar odor; misciblc with water and alcohol. 
Anthcluiintic and antiarthritic. Dose, 16- 
20 "I (gm. 1.00-1.23). A. eblorofonn, chloro- 
form mode from a. A.-dletbylinlplioiie, aul- 
phonal. 3. Any body of constitution similar 
to a. ; a ketone. 

AceUi-nltraU(Bs"ec-toh-Dey'tiayt). A com- 
pound of the same base with both acetic and 

Acetonltrll raa"ee-toh-ney'tril). [Acetic i- 
niVnV.] Methyl cyanide, CIIi.C:N ; a colorless 

Aoetonnrla (aa''ee-t«h-new'ree-ah). [Gr. 
oiiron, iirine.l A condition in which acetone 
is excreted in large amount in the urine. It oc- 
curs in diabetes (in advanced stage), pyrexia, 
certain psychosoH, carcinoma, and conditiona 
of inanition and digestive disorder. 

AcetopliMione (as"ee-toh-fee-nohn' ). [Act- 
lie I- phenyl + -OHe.\ See Ifypnone. 

Acatotartrat* (aH"ee-toh-l 
lie + larlriile.] A tartrate ii 
places hydrogen. 

Aeetotu (os-ce'lus). [h. acftff tut.'] l.Ofor 
pertaining lo vinegar. 3. Producing vinegar; 
as A. fermentation. 3. Resembling vinegar; 

AeetplieiietUUiic (as"et<fcc-net'ee-deen). 
Acetic + phenefidine.'] See Pkenaeeline. 

AMtnin (a-scc'tum). [L.] 1. Vinegar. 3- 
A vinegar ; a medicinal preparation containing 
vinegar as a menslrum. A. Kn'gUeiua. A. 
aromaflenm. aromatic vinegar. A. oantliar'- 
Idls. vinegar of cantliaridefl. A. eryataUUK'- 
blla. A. emdnm, glacial acetic acid. A. Ipe- 
eaonautin, vincgurof ipecac. A.Ugno'nuii, 
wood vinegnr. A. UUiar'syrl, solution of lead 
eubacplnte. A. o'pll, vinegar of opium. A. 
plumbl. solution of lend subacetatc. A. pyro- 
UKno'Bnin cmdnm, G, P., crude wood vinegar. 
A. pyrollgno'snm rectinca'toin. G. P., dis- 
tilled wood vinegar. A. Bator'nl. solution of 
lead Bubacetutc, A, BCUIn. vinegar of squill. 

radicle, CjlhO =, of acetic acid ; also 
called aceloiyl. A. cUoHda, a colorless 
iiqold, CiHsO.CI, em_ployed as a reagent. A. 
onda, acetic anhydride. ^ ~ r 

I),: ,t:b,C001^IC 


AMtyUmldopbanol (u"'ee-Ul-am"i-doh- 
fee'nol). lAcclgl + amide -i- pKenol.'] Acetan- 

Acetylene (a-Hel'ee-leen). lAeetyHlBtd^.) 
i--me.] 1. A eas, CiHt, buroiDg with a 
daiEling while light; formed by the incom- 
plete combnstiou of coal-gaa, and by addiHK 
water lo calcium carbide, a. Generically any 
hydrecartiaii of the formula CdIIid— i. 

AeetyUde(a-Het'ee-]eyd,a-8et'ee-1id). [Acrl. 
slene + -irfe.] A compound of acptylene witli 
an eiumcnt or tadiclt. 

AeetylTlienyltiytlrailiie (as"'et-il-fM"uil- 
heydrai-cen). lAcefi/l +phe>iyt + hydrazine.} 
A crystalline subatanee, CsHioN.O =C,H(NH: 
NU.CiHiO, used like antipyrine, aud eiCer- 
nally in psoriaais. A stroug poison producing 
jaundice. Dose J-3 gr. (gm. 0.3-0.20). 

AetW. A more or less continuous, usually 
fixed pain. 

Acbelll* (a-key'lee-ah). lA-+Or. cktilo*. 
lip.] AbEtence of the lip. 

Achetria (a-key'ree-ah). [A- I- Gr. cheir, 
hand.] Abseuce of the hand. 

AcHUlea (nk"i-lee'ah). [Fr. AchillU ttte 
Or. hero.] A genus of herbs of the Com- 
posite. A. Millefo'linm, jmrrow or milfoil of 
Europe and America, the tiiillffoliKm of the 
older phanoacopixias, is a stimulant, Ionic, 
and emmenagogue. 

AchUlaa tendon (a-kil'eez). The tendon of 
the gastrocuemiuB and soleus muscles, form- 
ing the prominent cord at the bock of the 
ankle. A.-t. reaction, the ankle^lonus. 

AchUlodynla (a-kil"oh-din'etsah). [Or. 
oduni, pain.} A condition chsracleriied by 
slight swelling round the insertion of the 
Achilles tendon and by pain on standing or 

AchUIetomy (ak"il-ot'oh-mee). i-timi/.'i 
Tenotomy of the Achilles tendon. 

Aclilorhydrla(ak"lawr-hid'ree-iih). {A- + 
thlorhydric] Complcleabnenccof free hydro- 
chloric acid from the gastric Juice. 

Aebolla (n.koh'lee-ah). [^- + Gr. chole, 
bile.] Absenceorl^Llureofthe secretion of bile. 

AcImndTDplatla (a-kon"droh-play'zee-ah). 

JA' + Oi, chomlrot, cartilage, + pttuxia, U> 
>rm.] Absent or defective formation of car- 

Aeboiion (a-koh'ree'on). [Gr.a^Aor, scurf.] 
A genus of Fungi. A. Sctaonlelu'li produces 
fbviis in men and mice and probably also 
onychomycoBia and tinea galli. Subvarieties, 
A. ev'lhptrix, A. alaffUm, etc., producing dif- 
ferent kinds of favus have been descri1)ed. 

Aobroma (ak-roh'mah), {A- + Gr.eArwno, 
color.] Absence of normal pigmentation, 
either congenital (albinism, leucoderma) or 
acquired (vitiligo, A. TltUlgo). 

AdiTomatlc (ak"roli-mat'ikt. [.4- + Gr. 
(Aroma, color.] 1. Uncolored ; preventing 


sisting of a convex lens or crown glass ce- 
ment^ to a concave lens of Bint glass. 3. Of 
or consisting of achromatin. 

Aebromatln (a-krob'ma-tin). The matrix 
of the nucleus of a cell ; so called beoauae it 
is but slightly colored by staining agents. 

Acliroin'&Usni(^a-kroh'ma-Unn). Theslate 
of being achromatic. 

AcliTomatopalBi(a-kroh"nia-top'see-ah). [A- 
-i- Gr. cArinna, color, + oprit, vision.] Total 

AotiromKtoala (a-kroh"ma.toh'Bis), Aoliro- 
mia (a-kroh'mee-ah). Lack of normal pig- 
mentation, as A. of red corpuscle*; nchrooui. 

Acbieinlo (a-kroh'mik). Of or marked by 
absence or disappearance of color ; as A. pvint 
(of a chemical reaction). 

AchTOOdextTln (a-kroh"oh.deka'trin). [Or. 
achroot, uncolored, + d&tfrin.] A variety of 
dextrin not colored by iodine and not con- 
vertible into sugar by the digestive ferments. 

AclkylU (a-kil'ce-ah). [A- + Gr. ehili. 
Juice.] Alisence or failure of a normal se- 
cretion, A. (aa'trlca, deficiency or abseuoe 
of the secretion of the gastric juice. 

Acbyloili (ak"ey-lob'sis). [.il--HGr. cAd- 
totit, chylificatioD.] Deficient formation of 

ActaymoeU (ak''ey-moh'sis). \_A- -f Gr. cAti- 
mof, juice.] Deficient formatioa of chyme. 

Acid (aa'id). [L. tu^idia, fr. the n 

— „ ... -- having ihe characters o_ .._ . 

S. ProduciDg, or associated with the produo- 
lion of, acids or acidity, as A. fermentation. 
A. albn'mln, albumin modified by treatment 
n-ith acids. See AHmminale. A. c«Ul, Be« 
Detomorphma cttU. A. dyapepslK, dyspepsia 

A. elixir of HftUer, A. aol- 
phnroui miztura, see Elixir. A, reutlen. 
indicating acidity ; an evidenc 

Add (as'id). [L, a</idum.\ 

consisting of an electro-negative element o 
radicle combined with one or more atoms oi 
hydrogen which are replaceable by an electro- 
positive element or radicle. The electro-nega- 
tive radicle which combines with the hydro- 
gen to form an a. is called the A. rullcle (al- 
though in oxyacids this term is sometimes ap- 
plied to the radicle minus the oxygen which 
links the hydrogen to the other atoms of the 
molecule). An a. containing no oxygen is a 
HrdTOgen t,.; one conlaiuing oxygen is an 
oxygen a. or Oxy-a. A's are called ifon^ 
batic, Dibam'c^ Tribafic, and Telrubarxe, ac- 
cording as their molecule consists of one, two, 
three, or four replaceable atoms of hydrogen 
united to an a. radicle. Some a's also con- 

is of replaceable hydro 

.._. •■ dihAj 

gen ill their radicle ; such a' 

irif, Trihydrie, or TetraAydric according as 



BHiud in the vhole molecule U two, uiirc, > 
four. An Inorganic (or Unaial) K. IB one Oil 
conUius no carbon; bd Orgruile ft. contaios 
OsrbOD, whith is generallv linked with the 
acid hydrogen by a double atom or oireen 
(-CO.OII ) . The orgtinic a'a include the Flitty 
»'■ derived from the paraffin series of hydro- 
carbons, and llie Aromatic a'a derived from 
the beoieae series. A Snlplroi a. or Tblo-a. 
is one in which sulphar replaces oiygen in the 
a. radicle. A'b have usuallj' a sour tasle, tiiro 
libDDS paper red (a. raactton), and neutral- 
iie alkalies, forming with theiD aeutral aalts. 
The arsenous, chromic, carbolic, and pymgal- 
lic a's of the pharmacopceiaa are not true a'e. 
See also Aeidum, 
AcidUable {a-Bid"(«-fey'a-bul). Capableof 

Aoldlflcatlon(a-Bid"ee-fce-ka;?'BhQn). The 
act of acidifying or rendering acid. 

AcldUy (a-Bid'ee-fey). lAcid + Ufacere, (o 
make.] To render aejd or sour; to convert 

AeUUmetar (as"ee-dim'e-tDr). [Acid + -mt^ 
Mr.] An apparatus for determining the 
amount of acid present in a mixture.^ 

Acidity (a-sid'ee-lee). [L. arfrf'i(d(.] 1. 
The state of being acid or sour. 8. In chem- 
istry, the quality of possessing the properties 
of 00 acid ; especially, tlic Uegree to whieii 
such pro^rti^ are possesRed. as shown by 
the capacity for ceutmliiing ulkalies. A. of 
the atomocli, acid dyspepsia. ; 

AcidoThile (as'id-oh-fil). [Gr. philtein, 
to love.] Oiyphile.* 

Acidnlate {a-sid'yu-layt). To render a lit- 
tle acid. 

Acidnlons (a-sid'vu-lus). [L. aeid'ulvt, 
dim. of a«(iu».] 1. Slightly acid. I. Acting 
chemically like an acid ; as A. elements, A. 

Aoidum (Bs-ee-dum). TL,] An acid. A. 
ace'tlcnm (A. aceticum dilu'tnm, elc.}, see 

Acitic acid. A. araentco'atim, A. aisenlo'- 

trioxide. A. oio'tlanm, nitric acid. A. ben- 
m'icnm, beozoic acid. A. borac'lcom, A. 
bo'Ticuffi, boric acid. A. baru'salcnm, hy- 
drocyanic acid. A. brtunhyilt'ilcain, hydm- 
bromic acid. A. campboi'lcnm, camphoric 
acid. A. carboricnm (A. enrbolicum lique- 
factum, etc.). Bee Carbolic acid. A. carbon'- 
Icnn, carbonic acid. A. cUorliyd'rlcnm, hy- 
drochloric acid. A. chlora-nitra'snin, nitro- 
hydrochloric acid. A. ohro'inictiin, chromic 
acid ; chrominm trioxlde. A. chryiopbaii'' 
ionm oTDdnin, chrysarobin. A. cit'rlciiia, 
citric acid. A. otSBO'llcBm, crcsotic aeid. 
A. CTAiyl'lenm, cresot. A. flnorhyd'rlciun. 
hydrofluoric acid. A. fOnnica'nun, A. Ibr- 
tnic'lcum, A. for'mlcnm, formic acid. A. 
gaU'ldun, gallic acid. A. gaUo-tano'lcimi, 
tannic acid. A. hydriod'lcnm, liydrioitic 
acid. A. bydrobTo'mlcnm dlla'tnni, see Hy- 
drobromic acid. A. hrdTOCUo'riCOm (A. hy- 

acid. A. hypopIioBpboro'anin d 

turn dilute hypophosphorous acid. A. lod' 
hyd rlcnin, bydnodic acid. A. lac'Ucnnt, 
lactic acid. A. mnrUt'tctun, hydrochloric 
acid. A. nl'trlotim (A. nitricum cnidum, 
etc.), see Nitric aeid. A. nltrO'hydrocUo'- 
rlctun, A. nltTO-muTUit'ictiin, nitro-hydro- 
chloric acid. A. nltroso-nl'trlciun, fuming 
nitric acid. A. nltro'sum, nitrous acid. A. 
ole'lenm, A. Dlein'iciiin, oleic acid. A. oz- 
Bl'lcnm, oxalic acid, A. phe'nlcnm, A. 
phenyl'lcum, carbolic acid. A. phoipbor'- 
icum (A. phosphoricum concenlratum, etc.), 
see Phosphoric aeid. A. plc'rlcnin, picric 
acid; trioitrophenol. A, pyrogall'lciun, py- 
rogallol. A. Eolicyl'lcnm, salicylic acid. A. 
■anton'lcnm, santonin. A. ■tiaarlinun, stearic 
acid. A. anccln'tcnm, succinic acid. A. bdI- 
fn'rlcum {A. sulfu'ricum crudum, etc.), see 
Sulpkurie aeid. A. stllfllTO'Biun, sulphurous 
acid. A. aulphn'Tlcnin (A. sulphu'ricom 
aromaticum, etc.], see Sulphvric acid. A. 
anlV^TUo'tiaa, fix Sulphuroua acid. A.tann'- 
IcDin, tannic acid. A. tartar'lcum, tartaric 
acid. A. trlclilorace'tlciim, trichloracetic 
acid. A. Tolerlan'icnm, A. TOle'rlcnm, vu- 

nee'-sis). M- +Gr. Bne«u, movement.] Un- 
natural lack of motility ; paralysis. 

multilobular or^n such as a racemose gland is 
composed ; particularly, one of the sacculated 
dilatations forming tiie terminal expansions of 
a minute passaee, such as the lateral bronchee 
of a glandular duct or the air-sacs of the Inngs. 

Acme (ak'mee). [L. =Gr. akmf, a point.] 
The highest point of anything, eBpecially of » 
morbid process. 

Aen« (ak'nec). [L.^Gr. atni.] An !n- 
flammalory aSeclion, usually chronic and 
disseminated, of the sebaeeons glands. In 
common a. (also called A. dlSMmlna'ta, A. 
Tulga'rls) the inflamed glands may form 
papules (A. pajmlo'ea. or, if the pnpale sur- 
rounds a comedo so as to have a black centre, 
A. pancta'la), pustules (A, piittnto'ta), or 
nodules due to enlargement of the glands with 
hypertrophy of the skin (A. hyperpla^ lica) , 
The subcutaneous tissue at the Inise of the 
pustule may be in a stale of chronic indura. 
tion (A. indvra'la). The indolent, usually 
dark-colored variety foand in broken-down 
subjects is A, caeheetico' rum {A. icTofulo- 
tn'nim). The lerm A. is sometimes also given 
to an inflammation of mucous follicles (e. g,, 
those of the cervix nteri), that are of the same 
nature as the sebaceous glands. Adenoid 
a., lupus miliaris. A. al'blda, milium. A. 
ortlScia'llB (A. medicamanto'sa), n. or 
dermatitis produced by citcmal irritants, 



Buch Si flODnel, dyes, tar, eto.^ or by in- 
lerDol medication, especially with bromides 

uid iodides (B-romic a.. Iodine a.. Tar a.). 
A. titroph'lca, the etropbic or scar stage of or- 
dinary a. or of u. rronlalis. A. contiiilo'Bk, 
horae-pox. A. coi'nea, Iteratoeix follicularis. 
A. aiythenuito'ia, rosacea. A. exnl'eerui*, 
a. marked by flabby papules of granulation 
tissae, which necrose and leave dfep scam. A. 
flnmta'Ui {A. neerofiea, A. neeroli^ tant, A. 

, rodent), an Bflection in which red- 

a form « " 

nuBtoles, depreraed and adherei.. , 

depressed scars. A. Itrp«rtropli'lD>, rosacea ; 
also ordinary a. associated with nodule forma- 
tion. A.k«lold, dernmtitiBpapillariscapillitii.'tftjnrk, A. ayoo'ilB, sycosis. A.mlllft'- 
rla, milium. A, msft'cea, meacea. A, ie- 
ta'cea, scborrhtea. A. syphlllt'lca, nrumi- 
nated pustular syphilide. A. nrtlea'tk, a 
very chronic sort of a. frontalis marked by 
Kara evanescent wheals which iloh and pain 
greatly. A. varlolofor'mls, a. frontalis and 
mollDBcnm contaeiosam. Lupoid «., a. fron- 
talis and lupus mlllaris. 

Aconite (ak'oh-neyt). rL./Koni'tHm = ai. 
aioniton.] A genus of herljs of the Ranuncu- 
laces. Ordinary A. is the Aconitum Napell'- 
iis, mouk's-hood or wolfs bane, of Europe 
and America. The parts used are the tubers 
(Aconi'tum, U. S., Aconi'li radii, B. P. 
Tu'bera aeoniti, G. P.) and leaves (Aconiti 
fo'lia). These contain the tribasic Aamil'ie 
acid, CtHiOa, and alkaloids, especially Aant'i- 
tim, Aifonine, and Ftextdaconitine. Bish or 
bikh (Aconiti fero'cia radii), the root of Aco- 
nitum feroi {Nepal or India-n a.), contains 
pseudaconitine ; and the root (Aconiti hetero- 
phy Hi radix ) of Aeon itumhet«rophyllan]( ^tm- 
alaycm a.) contains Atcctine. A. is a cardiac 
sedative, lessening the force and frequency of 
the heart-beats, and an analgesic, causing tin- 
eline and numbness when locally applied. 
tised in cardiac palpitation, sthenic fevers 
(especially at the outset), toasillitis, initial 
stage of pneumonia and bronchitis, neuralgia. 
Preparations and doses : E:ttrad (um aeonili, 
U. 9., gr. 0.2-0.3 Igm. 0.01-O.02); Extraiflum 
aeonitxfia'idvm, V. S., m. ss-l (gm. 0.03-0.06); 
TineM ra aconiti. 100 parts of which represent 
40 (D. S.), 6 (B. P.f, or 10 (0. P.) of the 
tubers, 1-6 Til (gm. 0.06-0.30) [U. S. prepara- 
tion]; lAnimen' turn aeonili, B. P. 

in acll ye principle of , „ 

either in the crystal liue furm (i*i(en^ a.), or as 
ao amorphous body {Amorphoui a.. Mild a.). 
Used like a. locally (in ointment, Ungittnlttm 
aeonilina, B. P.) and internally. Dose of 
crystalline a., gr. 0.002-^.010; of amorphous 
a., gr. 0,02-0.05, 

Acor'mni. [A- i (ir. kormos, trunk,] A 
monster destitute of a trunk. 

Ac'oruB, Ac'orln. See Catamii) (2d def.). 

Aconinetor (a-koo'me-lur). [Or. akouein. 


to hear, + -meter.] An instrument for mekB- 
uring the hearing distance. Politter'a a. is * 
little steel bar which is struck by a lever. It 
emila a sound of constant intensity which 
should be heard 40 or SO feet away. 

Aconitlc ( a-koo'sdk ). ( L. acoa^tie^u, 
acu'^ieut = Gr. aiouiliio*, ft. aioaein, to 
hear.} Of, pertaining to, or subserving hear- 
ing; as A. apparatus, A. (or andilor^) nerve 
(nerrus acusticus). A. cieit, see Crufos aait- 
tica. A. hysteria, a hysterical coiiditiou mark- 
ed by the development of great and sudden 
deafness, without vertigo, and associated with 
paricstbcBia. A. neurasthenia, a functional 
disorder marked by deafness which inoreasea 
with fatigue and mental strain, and decreases 
rapidly with rest. A. reflex, parrot-like utter- 
ance of words from a mere impulse of imita- 
tion. A. strlM, see Stria. A. tnherda, the 
upper part of the A. (auditory) arsa. 

sound-bell and vibratile membrane with a <x 
ical tip for insertion into the ear. 

AconsUci (a-koo'stiks). Thescience treat- 
ing of sound and hearing. 

Aeq.nlTed (ak-weyrd'V [L. aegutti'lvi.'] 
Qot; obtained ; particularly, got alter birth ; 
not congenital nor inborn. 

AcTaconltlne(ak"rvh-kon'ee-teen). lAerid 
+ acoaitum + -I'ne.] Fseudaconitine. 

AeruiiBi (a-krav'nee-al). (_A- + Gr. kra- 
nicm, skull.] Without skull ; affected with 
Acra'nla, or congenital absence of the skull. 

Acntnrssls (a-krafyu-ree'sis). [.^■ + Gr. 
triUo>, strength, + ourcn'g, urination.] Ina- 
bility to nnnatej retention of urine from 
atony of the bladder. 

Ae'rld. [L. af/ridue, fr. the root oo, sharp.} 
Sharp, harsh, irritating, burning, corrosive. 

Acrochordon (ak"roh-kawr'don). [Acrmt 
+ Gr, chorde, atring.] A soft growth, consist- 
ing of a group of enlarged sebuceoas glands, 
occurring on the eyelids and neck of old people. 

Aepodynia{ak"roh-din'ee-ah). [L. — acrm 
+ Gr. odiine, pain.] A disease marked by 
pains in the extremities, and erythema, infil- 
tration, and pigmentation of the skin. 

ACTOlolB (a-kroh'lec-in). [Aer-\A + ete-am 
+ -inj A light, very volatile oily liquid, 
CiHiC), giving off very irritant vapors; pro- 

tS*""ft "" '^'J ■"■M**"* «»iny<a, 
y the decomposition of glycerin. 
Acromeg'sly. [L. acromegalia = iu;r5n + 
Gr. mfjro) (root, megat-), great.] A disease 
characterized by a chronic symmetrical en- 
largement of tlie bones and soil parts of the 

""' "'" ind of the lower jaw, ''"" '~' 

f theoituitL-, 

%. [Acron + Gr. miiros, small.] 
n which the extremities atrophy 



AcTonlo-cUTlenlaT (a-kroh"m«e-oh-klA- 
yik'ju-lar). Of or pertnining to both acro- 
mion and clavicle, 

Acroinloii (a-kroh'mee-ont. [^i^on + Gr. 
omot, iiboulder,] The promioent procen of 
the scapula, forming the tip of the shoulder. 

Aeron. [L. = Or. air™.] An eitremily. 

Aero-Ducot'lc. [Acrid + nareolit.'] Both 
Kcrid BDil narcotic ; aa aa A.-u. poison. 

AcrovurtattliaiU (Bk"'roh-pBr"es-thee'- 
zhah). [Aeron + paratlhenaA Avnychronic 
diaeoiie marked by attacks of numbness and 
stiffnen in the eitremitics over the (erminal 
ramifications of the nerves; unaccompanied 
by pain, muscular atrophy, or paralysis, and 
usually eudiDR in spontaneous recovery, 

Actln'lc. Of or produritig actinism ' as A. 
fnergy. A. ntya, rays situated at or beyond 
the violet end of the spectroni producing 
especially powerful chemical eBects. 

Ae'tlnlun. [Gr. aktu {gen. aktltuti), ray.] 
The prop*: rty i)oiwiw«i by light-rays of pro- 
ducing chemical decomposition. 

ActtnocUA'otbrls. [Ot. aI:tii,mj,+iladot, 
branch, i-thrij:, hair.] The Streptothrix Acti- 

referred to Strcplothrix. 
AetbiomyaMti (ak"tin-ah-niejr-koh'sia}. A 
chronic infectious disease ailecting cattle 
(rarely other animals and man), produced 
mainly hj RtrepMthrix Actinoniyeea and 
fttreplotlinx Israeli, and marked by gradual 
loss of flesh and strength, hectic fever, and 
lymptoina due to the presence of suppurating 
tumors containing the flingus, in the mouth, 
throat, ai r-passaftes. viscera, bones, or skin. 
Treatment, symptomatic: use of potassium 

i_(ak'shun). [L. ( 

Local a., Rrfiej^ a. A. of Bireat, inhibiUon. 

ActlT* (ak'tiv). Working; energetic ; pro- 
ducing dmdcd maniftntetfccls, as A. principle, 
A, electricity, A. treatment; produced by 
virtue of an energetic and spontaneous force, 
and not simply as a result of external agents, 
as A. hnmiorrhage, A. congestion; not inert; 
not passive. 

AotuH (ak'tcw-al). [L, actaa' lU, St. agcre, 
todo.] Ileal; genuine; not simulated ; aa A. 
cautery (i. e., cautery by real heat). 

Ae'tol. [i^cf-ie.] Silver lactate. 

Acuity ( a- kew'ec-tii')- [L. acuilat, fr. acxure, 
to sharpen.] Sharpuew; distinclneas. 

AonmliurtMl (a-kcw'mee-nay-tcd). [L.a«u- 


mtndtiu, fr. oeaiafH, lip.} Tapering gradually 

AcuprMtnre (ak'eir-iiresfa-nr). [L. aan, 
a needle, ■( praarire.'] Pressure applied to an 
arteiT to arrest htemorrhage by means of 
ncedfidfl introduced into the aqjacent tiwuee. 

Acnpniictnra(ak'ev-pungt-yur), [h.aca*, 
leedle, + puiirture.] The act of plunging 

needles ii 

» counter- 

part; cmpl 

, alTrly in rli< __ 

a., faradization by means of needle electrodes 
passed into the muscles. 

Actutlinu(a-keiTs'lee-kus). [L.] 1. .Vcons- 
tic. 3. The auditory nerve. 

, .'ing a sudden develop- 
ment, short duration, and great intensity. 

AcntansiB (a-kewt'nes). 1. Sharpness, 
distinctness, acuity, as A. of sight; of sounds. 
the height of pilch, a. Of a morbid prooees, 
the state or degree of being acute. 

-Ml. [L. ad, to.] A suffix meaning toward, 
in the direction of. 

A.D. Abbreviation for auris dextra (right 

Ad&ctylona (a-dak'lee-lus). [A- -f Or. <faX'' 

tutoi, finger.] Destitute of fingers, 

AiUm'ti^pls (ad'amz ap'ul). The prom- 
inence formed in the front part of the throat by 
the thyroid cartibge. 

_ Adam' opwaUon. 1. An operation fbr re- 
lieving ectropion by excising a wedge-shaped 
Siece of the lid-border. 3. Ad operation fi>r 
cflection of the nasal septum, by breaking the 
projecting portion with forceps (AdaniB' for- 
ceps), and inserting a, splint. 

Adsptation (Bd"ap-lay'shun). [L.adavli/- 
liS, fr. adaptoTf, to fit to.] A fi^tting or aqiust- 
ment. A. Of the retliui, the process by which 
the retina, after a short sojourn in the dark, 
becomes more sensitive to luminous impres- 
sions, so that eight becomes more acute. 

Ad'dtlOU'i disease. [Described (1855) by 
T. Addiion of London,] A disease character- 
ized by a peculiar brownish pigmentation of 
the skm and a progressive and ultimately fatal 
asthenia; due generally to disease, especially 
tuberculosis, of the suprarenal capsules and 
probably caused by failure of the suprarenal 
secretions. The duration is from a few weeks 
to several years. Disease when unchecked 
alwaysfalal. Treatment: relief of symptonu ; 
administration of suprarenal extract. 

Ad'dlson'B keloid. Moipha;a. 

AdducsDB (a-dew'senz). [I>. = ad, to, + 
(fucn-r, to lead.] Adduoting; anadductor, A. 
oc'vll. tlie rectus oculi interuue. 

Addncent (ad-deVsent). Addncting. 

AddttCt'. [L.a.)</ii'«rf,toleadto.] Todrnw 
toward the median line. Of the arm, thigt 

to draw llieir distal extremities toward 

of the hand. 



ulnar side of tlie forearm ; of Hie fool, tu rotate 
its eitremity toward the median plaue of the 
bod; ', of the Saeers or toes, to draw their dis- 
tal eitremities toward tlie median line of the 
hand or foot (but, accordinK to Bonie, to draw 
them toward the median plane of the body = 
for the two inner toes and Gnftem aliduction in 
the ordinary eense of tlie word) ; of the eye, 
to rotate in a horizontal plane toward the nose. 

AddneUou (a-duk'shuu). [L. addnef lii<,(r. 
ad, to, + diieere, to lead.] Tlie act of ndduct- 
ing or Btate of being addueled. 

Addno'tor. PI. adducto'res [L.], adductor? 
[Eng.]. That which adducla; especially a 
mtucle tbat adducts. See Mutcltt, Table of. 

very deflnite in shape. A. callB, transparent 
KcretinK cells lining tlit glands of the stnninch, 
especially in the neighborhood of the pylorus; 
thought to contain pepainogeo. 

Adenoc'tomy. [-rclomy.'] The excision of 

Adenine (ad'ee-neen). [Gr. mlfa, gland. 
bccanse firal obtained from the pancreas.] A 
leucomaine, CbUiNb (arimido-hvpolantliinc) 
fonned by the decomposition of nuclein, and 
fonnd in the kidney, spleen, iecrrting glands, 
semen, yeast, and tea-leaves. A.-hypoxuitli'- 
Isa, a leucomaine CiHiNg + CiIiiNiO, com- 
pounded of B. and uypoiauthine, 

Adatkltla (ad"ee-ner'tiB, -nee'tis). [Gr. 
otlen, gland, -I- -iti's.] Inflammation of a gland. 

Adeno- (ad'ee-noh-). [Gr. a(/fii, gland.] A 
prefix meaning gland or glandular. 

Adsno-ouclnoma (kHhr-see-noh'mah). 
Cancer of a gland ; especially, an adenoma 
which has uoaergcine caticeroue degeneration, 
or a cylindrical epithelioma. 

AdMia-cyatonuk {-ais-toh'mah). A cystic 
tnmor devdoped from an adenoma. 

Ad«a(M»lB(Bd'ee-nob-Beel). [-c?/^.] .\ tumor 
coDsigting of cysts with adeiiomntB growing 
tVoDi the walla. 

Adenosrapliy (mg[ra-fee). r-j™;iAji,] A 
treatise upon or description of glands. 

Ad'anold. [-oi't;.] 1. Resembling a glnnd 
or gland-tissue. A. caucar, cylindrical epithe- 
lioma. A. tlHQe. tissue of which that form- 
ing lymphatic glandn is a type; consisting of a 
network of fine fibrils of connective tissue, the 
meshes of which are fillul by numerous round 
cells, chivdy leucocytes. A. ttunor, A, growth, 
A. vegetation, asoftEmwthdue to hyperplasia 
of a. tissue, particularly in the vault of the 
pharynx. S. An a. growth. 

Adenology (-nol'oh-jce). [-Aj™.] That 
branch of anatomy treating of glands. 

Adenoma (-nDh'mah). [-orio.] A tumor 
comjKised of gland-tissue. True a. is a 
benign tumor, derived from the epiblast or 
hypoblast, ivscnibling a secreting gland in 


>tructurc. A. llmplex is not a tumor, but a 
>)mple hyperplasia of a glauil ; Malignant a. 
scrlindncal epithelioma; A. lebA'cenm, an 

eglomcrution of numerous sebaceous glands 
•scly packed together in the cleeper layera of 
he conum, and forming firm yellowish swell- 

AdSDO-myxoma (-mik-soh'mah), Adeno- 
myro-aarcema (-mik"eoh-sHhr-koli'mah). A 
myxoma or myxo-sarcoma aflecting a gland or 
cumbiiicd with an adenoma. 

Aaenoneure (ad'ee-noli-newr). A neuron 
n'gulating the action of a glnnd. 

Adenop'athy [-pathy,] An affection of a 
gland, especially a lymphatic gland. 

Adena-iixaoma (-sahr-koh'mah). A sar- 
coma affecting a gland or combined with an 

Adeno-typtiDa(-tey'fus). Form of typhoid 
fever in which the lesions are confincil to the 
spleen and mcspiiteric glands. 

Aden nicer (ah'den). \_AiUtt, town in 
Arabia.] Tropical phugedsma. 

Adenyl (aU'cc-nil). [Mtii-iat + -yl.} The 
bivalent radicle, CiIIiNi. A. Imlde, adenine. 
A. oxide, hypoxanthine. 

Adeurlieactd(ad"ee-nil'ik). Anacid com- 
bined with or containing atlenine, derived from 
the thymus. 

Ad'epa. Gen. ad'ipis. [L.] Lard. A. 
beaumlai, A. btitzoiiialita, A. inditrn/tu, A. 
pnrparalttt, A. laiilat, sec Lard. A. anaerl'- 
nni, goose's fut. A. Ush, A. lants hydro'ane, 
see Wool'fat. A. OVUl'u, mutton -tallow. 

Adermla (a-dur'mec-ah). [A- -V derma.} 
Absence of the skin, 

Adermogeneiii (a-dur"nioli-jcn'ee-8is). [A- 
+ Jemxa I- geneiit.y Imperfect or arrested de- 
velopment of the skin. 

Adliealon (ud-hee'zhun). [L. adha^io, fr. 
adha/ere, to stick to,] 1. The molecular 
force which causes dissimilar bodies when 
brought into contact to stick together. 1. 
The condition produced by this force; the 
stale of being stuck fast to a contiguous sur- 
face, S. Particularly, the stiekini together 
of wounded parts in the process of heating; 
union ; as Primary a,. Secondary a, Se 
Union. 4. A substance effecting a. between 
two ueighlioring parts; particularly, a band 
or roass-of udventilioua material, usually^ of 
inflammatory origin, uniting two neighboring 
surfaces which are normally separate. 

AdbeilTe (ad-lice'ziv). {L. ad/iaiV vu4.'] 1. 
Sticking fast to; sticky. A. plaster, resin 
plaster; Eiiglith a. plailer, isinglass plaster. 

3. Producing odhes 

i A. i 

Adlp'le acid. [L. adept, lard.] A crystal- 
Ine dibasic acid, OallioOtj produced by trent- 
ng various animal Gits with nitric acid. 

Adlpocere {nd'eivpob-seer) , [Adept \-cfra, 




x-like eubtdsnc?, c< 

cnliar dewirapoBiti' 

Adlpo'uw. {Adept I- -OBUi.] Sec Lipoma. 

Adtpoae (lul'ce-pohB). [L. nrftn'/nu, fr. 
adept.} 1. Faltv; rompoBHi of fat; na A. 
(or ffttty) tifBue taveFat), A. (or fntty) clegtii- 
eration anil infiltration («ee Drgtiitralioa) . 1. 

Adll . 

ta'tis. [L,] Corpulency. 

Adlp'sU. [vl- f Gr. <ii>m,lhirel,] An un- 
natural Inck of thfWQseof lliintt. 

Ad'ltni. PI. ad'itus. [I..] An i-ntranre. 
A. Kd m'tmin, the pnssap' from the tym- 
panic cevity to the mniitoiil nnlnini. A. l»r- 
rn'sli, the upper oriflvc of lt)c larynx. 

Ad'JnTMlt. [L. rtd'iwriiHj. fr. adjnmrt, to 
awist.] A m«ins or remc-ly whieh OMistn the 

Ad Ub'lttun. [I.,] At pIoHRun:; m niu«h 
aa maybcdrsired. Abbrevinttil to Ail lib. 

AdmAX'UlAlT. Near or Rfcriwory to the 
maxilla or maxillary elands. A. gland, an 
acceHiory salivary ^land ponring its t^vretiOD 
into the parotid duct. 

Ada«'a. [I,.] AppcmlBE™; auxiliary 
Rlructurefi. A. oe'nll, tli<- tathrynul gland, 

lids, anil other partH ae«« '" " ■"-" 

A. n'twl, tile ovarica and 

Adonl* (ft-doh'ni8). PI. ndo'nidw. [Fr. 
the mytholoKieal Adnnit, whose blood was 
fiibled to have marke<l the flower.] A ecnui 
of nlanta of the Kanunculaivv. A, venia'liB 
and other species are piirtpilive, and have been 
used in dropny in infunion. They eonlliin a bit- 
. . -.»_ .A.,-.,.- • - nhenrttonic 

ney.] A suprarenal CHpxul 

Adaorvtlon (ad-iawrp'iihun). [I^ ad, to, + 
torbert, lo duek in.l The priK'eBH by wliieh, 
independent of eapillary oetion, a HubMunee 
(e. g.^ charcoal) takwi certain liquiils or gnBes 
Into Its poren; due to a sort of affinity (Jfr- 
rhanicaC affinity) between the moleeulex of 
the Bubstauee and the liquids. 

AdTsnoMneiit (ad-vans' men t). The net of 
bringing up or forward ; e>ipe<'ially, of a mua- 
ole, tendon, or ligament, the opi'ration of dc- 
Iflchinfc it tram its insertion anil atlaehinff it 
Bt a point more remote from its origin, no as 
to pnt it more upon the sttWch anil tliu" ren- 
dcr ita aetion more elTeelive. A. is wmietimes 
accompli shell by shortening a tendon or liga- 
ment either by culling out a piece of it or by 
folding it upon ittiolf. 

AdTanUtU (ad"ven-ti»h'ec-Bli). (L. fern. 
of mfrfji/i'fim, foreign.] Theentemal eont of 

Adynam'la (aiVre-nani've-ah). [L. ^ Gr. 
a- + dunamii, |iower.] Pon-erlewnew : pros- 

AdjnuUo (ad"ee-nam'ik). Powerlexs; 
marked by prostration and lack of power, as 
A. conditions, A. ferer. 

XfOphonr (ec-gof 'oh-nee). See Egopkonj/. 

Xqo&tor (ee-kway'tor). See Equator. 

km (ay'ur). PI. a'eres. [Gr, dfr.] Air 
orgas. As a prefix, Aar-, «te .IrTO., 

AerkUd (ay'ur-ay-tcd). Containing or 
charged with gas; as A. mineral walera. 

Aerdtloii (ay"ur-ay'8hun). 1. The set I'f 
supplying with air, especially fresh air or that 
containing oxygen aufficieiit for respiration : 
as A. of the brood. 9. The act of charging 
with gas, particularly carbon dioxide. 

AerlAl (ay-ee'ree-al). Of or pertaining Ui 
the air; conveyed through the air, ea A. in- 
feetinn, A. conduction of sound. 

AeriiOrm (ay-er'ee-fawrm). [L. /oma, 
shape.] Kesembliugalr or gas; gaseous. 

Aero- (ay'ur-oh'j. Prefix meaning of, per- 
tainiug to. or containing air or gas, Aarottle 
(ay"ur-ob'ik) [Gr. Wo», life], growing best in 
the presence of air or oxygen ; as an Aerobic 
microbe (Awo'blon), Aarol>lo'BlB.thcstal«of 
being aerobic. Aarobloicope (-be/oh-skohp) 
[Gr. bill, lite, + -leope]. an apparatus for ex- 
amining and counting tlie organisms contained 
in air. Aoro-cyitoioopy (-siB-loe'koli-pcr) 
[rytlottopu'], examiualion of the bladder by 
means of the aero-ii ret h rose ipe. Aarody- 
nunlei (-dey-namikn) [Gr, duimmit, power}, 
the science which treats of gases in motion. 
Aeropbagy (ay-nr-ofa-Jec) [L. aeropltagia 
= lirr + Gr.pAnirrin. to eat], a repeated, ajias- 
moilic swallowing of air, with the prodnction 
of an audil>le sound. A symptom of hysteria. 
A«rophoblA (-foh'bee-ah) [CTr. phobai, fear}. 
abnormaldread of contact with air or dnlughtM. 
Aeropboma (ay"ur-of'ar-HB) [L. = d?r-fGr, 
phorrein, to carry], effervescent. AaiOpl«tb- 
yimogTkpb (-pleth-iz'mah-gncf ), nplethya- 
mograph for recording graphically the move- 
meiiln of the expired and inspired air. A'«ro- 
acop« [-tcopi], an apparalns for determin- 
ing the quality of air; especially one for 
collecting bacteria, etc., floating in the air, 
Asroitat'lca TGr. ilatikoi, making lo stand}, 
the science which treats of gases in eouiliii- 
rium. AerotharapentlcB (-l)ieT"a-pew'tiks). 
Aerotber'apy, tre]itnii'nt by tlie application of 
compressed or rarified air or of other gasi*. 
Aarotononutar (-toh-nora'e-tur) [Gr. umo*, 
tension, -)- uifttr\, an instrument for determin- 
ing the tension of gasi-s in the blood. Aaro- 
tyn'puul, through or by means of both the 
air and the tympanum ; as A.-t. conduulion of 
sound. Aaro-tiratbroicopir (■ew-rce-lliros'- 

koh-pee) [iirHlim -y -tropyX, examination of 
the urethm by the eleclnc light after prelimi- 
nary distention of the canal with air; per- 
formeil by an instrument called an Aero-nre'- 

AertarlTeriloii ( ay-ur" ter-ee-vui'shun ). 
[Gr. lirr, air, and I- Ifmia to bold (see Ar- 
tery). + L. rertrre. to turn.} Eversion of the 
coals uf a divided artery in order to arrest 


batmoiThBge : perforiucd by 
lited doDble hook (AarMiiT 

perforiucd by lueaiiH of » • 

lOh), PI. i 


Verdigris, fnnnerry official under this 

Sicnliu (eBk'yu-lus). [L.] A Keoas or 
trees and Ehrabs of tlie Supimlacetc. The bark 
of M. IlippocBsl'uDum, the borse-clieatnut, 
cuntains the biKcr glu collides fBc'nllii, 
CisDirfH, and Frarin. Ci.Hj.Om. The b.irk 
npd ffiscnlia are uned iu ueumlgia and malaria, 
Uose of iBsculiu, 6-10 gr. {(fm. 0.30-0.60). JE. 
ela'bru, Ohio buckeyu, and Ai. I'a'via, red 
liuckeye, are also used mediciually. 

«sthBBlogBiilo(e»-thee'iee-oh.jeD'lk). [Gr. 
aiithetig, sensation, + ■gem'c.^ Producing sen- 
sation: especially, nroducing return of seosa- 
lion after aQtexthesta. 

JBrtIie«lomet«r (es-thecz"e«-oni'e-tur). [Gr. 
aiilhaid, sensation, -f- -mtt^r,] Au instrument 
for ineaBurinE tlie degree of tactile scusibilily. 
It consista of two movable metallic points, 
which are placed in contact with the skin 
tuid approximated until the sensations pro- 
duced by the two are Aised, »o that the two 
points are felt as one. The di; 
the points is then inversel 
the delicacy of the tactile se 

iEBtkBiionBOrB (ea-thee'zee-ob-newr). 

XaUlailoiienTint* (es-theez"ee-Dh-neir-ro! 
ais). [Gr. oiffAeni, BeusaliOD, neuron, a ner 
and -otit,] A nerrous disease conaisting ir 
disturbance of *' — 

tion ; said of tbe sensory eonducling paths of 
tbe central nervous aystem. 

[L. aitlvat, of summer.] Blooming in the 
fate Bummer and ia autumn ; as M.-a. fever 
(see Jfo/oria), 

MUl (ee'Wl). [L. ata^ age.J Of, per- 
taioing to, or produced by old age. 

CUmf (ee'thar). PI. s'therefl. [Or. 
ailher, the upper air.] 1. Etber ; ethyl oxide, 
also called -*. lulphu'ricua ; of the U. S. and 
U. P., pnre ether, tbe jE. purifica'lui, B. P.; 
of the B. P. eommertial ether. 2. Another; 
& compound ether. M. ace'tlcnt, M. mVb"- 
rlo-aoe'tlcna, ethyl acetate. X. am"rlo- 
nlteo'llll, amy! nitrite. M. broma'tna, JB. 
bydrobro'micns, ethyl brximide. JB. ferra'- 
tni, ethereo-alcoholic tincture of iron chloride. 
M. Ittnnic'lctiB, JE. fonn'lcni, ethyl formate. 
M. hTdrlod'lOtu, C loda'tui, ethyl iodide. 
JB. metliTl'letU, methyl ether. JR. nitra'stiB, 
ethyl nitrite. S- petro'lai, beniin. S. 
phMpbora'tni, an ethereal tincture of phos- 
phorus. M. pyroace'tleiiB, acetone. 

mOijl (eth'il), SthylM (eth'ee-las), Alhy- 
Imnm (eth"ee-Wnom). [L.] See Eihyl, 
Ethylate, Ethytme. 

SUolonr (ee"lee-oroh-jee). See Etiology. 

AISDlU* (a-feb'ril). \.A-+febH,.1 Not 
febrile i without fever. 

JUEsctlos (af-fek'eliuu). [L. affaf lid = ad, 
io, ■'r facere-, to make.] Disease; disorder: 
espcciuliy. disease considered as apathoJogioal 
ehouge iu the texture or condition of an organ 

Aff'erant. [L. afferent, fr. afferrt, to carry 
to.] 1. Conducting to or toward ; as A. vet- 
sell (supplyinjf a part with blood). 3. Pan- 
ing or conducting from tbe periphery or tbe 
nerve centres ; as A. impulses, A. nerves. 

JUBn'lty. [L. affimlai, relationship.] 1. 
Relatianship ; congruence; oounectjoii. 9. 
The force, also called Oh«niical a., that binds 
atoms togelhiT to form chemical compounda. 
HeeliuiieAl a., see under Adiorplion. 

Affusion (af-few'zhun). [L. nffa'tio, fr. 
affuadcre, to pour upon.] 1. The act of pour- 
ing upon ; a method of treatment consisting 
of pouringwater upon the trady. 2. A liquid 
poured upon the tiody. 

AfricBu lathargr (leth'ur-jee). A disease 
also caileii sleeping tieiaaa, occurring among 
the negroes upon the west coast of Africa; 

characterized Ijy progresaively increasing so 
uulencG (which ultimately becomes continu- 
ous) and by emaciation. It is almost always 
fatal in three to six months. 

An«r-blrtli. Tbe placenta. 

AttOT-bTftln. The medulla. See Brain. 

AA«r-cataraet. A secondary cataract. 

Anm-lmagfl. An image remaining in sight 
ailer the object that produced it is withdrawn 
from view. 8ucb an imo^ ia poiiUve when 
it represents a continuation of the sensation 
and is of the same c«lor as the object ; nem- 
'hen from looking long at nn object the 

visual image becomi . „ . . 

insensitive. In the latter case the image is of 

the complementary color to tlie object. 

AfMi-paini. Pains due to uterine contrac- 
tion occurring in the duys following labor. 

An«r-Beiuatioii. A sensation persisting 
after the removal of the stimulus which causes 

Agalactia (aK"a-1ak'lec-ah). {A- -f Gr. 
gala, milk.] Absence of the secretion of milk. 

AgamogBnealB (a-gam"oh-jeu'ce-siB). [A- + 
Gr. gnmoa, murrioge, -I penui'j.] Reproduc- 
tion without copulation ;asexual reproduction. 

Ag'ar, Ag'af-ag'ar. A sort of gelatin de- 
rived from various Kast Indian Algie. It 
forms a thicli jelly with water, and is used as 
a culture medmm for bacteria [A. cidtuTct), 
eitiicr combined with tiouillon {NatTieat) or 
with bouillon and glycerin {(llyctrin a.). 

Ag'aric. See Agaricxta. 

Jlgar'le acid, ABaTiclcacld(ag-B-ris'ik). A 
powder obtuinei) from wliite agaric and used 
like the latter. I>o»e, gr. 0.2-0.,'i (gm. 0.01-0.03). 

JlgKricln (a-gaHee-ain). [L. agari<A'nam, 
G. F;] A bitterish principle obtained ftym 


f I -phenyl- 

white SRarii} iintl uscil like Ihe IuUlt. Uu»', irr. 
(1^1 (gm, 0.03-0.00). 

Assn(iine(ii-gnr'efne<-n). Alkaloid, identl- 
lied with choline obtaitiud from agaricus. 
lUlOlU (a-gar 

[ genus of Fl , 

rooms and tondHlools. A, eump^'triB ib tne 
i-ominon «lible mushroom. The poisonous A. 
niuca'rliu or Fly agaric eontains luusoHrine 
>iDd clioliue. 3. A nami^ fdvea to scvpral Fungi 

offidnHfi8''/A!'al..._. __ , ._ .„.„...„ 

orijircA(ip'oric),awhite,8ponKy, friable mass 
lironeharrhoen, diarrhivii, anil the excessive ae. 
rrelionofmilk. DoBe,.'H«Kr. jgm. 0.2lM).6Ol. 
A. cUmiKO'ram {Oak or Siirgeon't agarie), 
I'olyporus fontentatius, growing on oak and 
Ixirh trees, Dsed as a htemostntie and to n 
punk or tinder, and moxa. 

As'atlUn. [Gr. agalhot, good.] Ad 
giwic compound of aalipyl and methyl-pl: 
bydrazine. Dose, 10 gr. (gm. 0.60). 

^-nev'zee-ah, aj"ee-nee'Ehah), 
,._ee-8is). lA- + gtnr>i,.i Fail- 
ure or laek of development; aplaua, 

Afsnsla (a-joo'zee-ah). [A- + Gr. geu»i; 
liiKte.] Alnwnee of the sense of lusto. Piy- 
cblo a., a condition in which the sense of 
iiiste is retained, but the patient cannot infer 
the nature of the object Aroni it* taste, although 
it ia faiuiliar to him. 

Af^utinaUon {a-glew"tee-nay'Bhun). [L. 
iiffgliilina're, to glue together.] The act or 
process of gluing together- the stale of being 
glued together or made adherent. 

AgsmUluUve (ft-glew'tee-ne-tiv). Gluing 
together ; also an agent so acting, an agent pro- 
iliiciiig adhesion or cohesion of woundB. 

AgglntlDln (a-glew'tee-nin). A body sup- 
uciseil to be prvxeut in blooil-serum in ceKam 
iliBeaaes (as lyplioid fever) and bo cause the 
liiicterin of the disease to become agglutinated 
and motionless. Cf. It'irfo/ renclioii. 

Ag'Knsata. [L. aggrcga'lu», (r. ad, to, 
and gregare, to lierd.] Mussed togethc 
united bo an lo form a common mass. 
gUitds, Peycr'B patches. 

AsloblUU (a"gloh.bew'lee-ah). \A- + 1.. 
jj/oftu/«*, globule.] A defieieni^ of red blood- 

A«1om'U. IA- + Qr. glUisa, tongue.] 1. 
.\bsence of ttic tongue. 9. Absence of speech, 

Xi'mlnaM. [L. agmind'liit, tr. agmtn, 
n troop.] Crowded: massed together. A. 
gUllda, Peyer's patches. 

Agony (ag'oh-nee), [Fr. Gr. o(ronin,a 
gle.] The death -si niggle. 

natural <lread of being alone ii 

-a«Ta. [Gr] .\ suffix meaning a painnil 
affeelion oi; an attack of pain in. 

AgrunmatU'iniu. [A- + Gr. gramma, let- 
ter.J !jw of the power to form words gram- 
matically; a variety of aphasia. 

Agr»phla{a-graree-ah). [A- ■* C.r.graphtin, 
to wnte.J An impairment of the ability to 
cipn'ss ideas in writing. It may be due to 
incoiirdi nation of tlie movements necessary for 
writing (Motor a,, Atei'lc a.); to loea of 
memory of appearance of words when written 
(Seiuorr, TlanaJ, or Optical a,) : or to in- 
ability to associate sounds of words with the 
written characters representing them (inabil- 
ity to write from dictation — AcoiuHc or AtuU- 
torya.). It is further classed as Abaolnte (or 
Literal), when not a single letter can be 
written; Verbal, when real words cannot be 
written, although strings of letters looking 
like words are made; Hnalcal, when, al-' 
though acquainted with music, the patient 
cannot write musical characters. 

Agraphlc (B-graf 'ik). Of, pertaining to, or 
aSecled with agraphia. 

Agrypnia (a-grip'ncc-ah). ,_.. _, 
to chase, + Aujtnoi, sleep,] Insomnia. 

Ague (a/gew). [F. aVffa, sharp.] The 
periodically recurring paroxysm of fever or 
other n'inptoms prodnceil by malarial poison- 
ing. It is fnlermiUent if there is a complete, 
Remittent if there is an incomplete, cessation 
of the symptoms l>etween the paroiyBma. In 
Qiiotidiaa a, (he interval between the liegin- 
ning of each paroxysm is 24 hoiirBj in Ter- 
tian a., 4H ; In Quartan a., 72 ; in Qjiintan a.. 
96. A. cake, the enlarised spleen produced by 
malarial poisoning. BraiB a.. Braai Fonnd- 
era' a., paroiysms of chilliness, fever, and 
sweating occurring in brass-founders and work- 
ers in zinc. Brow a., periodical supraorbital 
neuralgia due to malaria. Dumb (orKaaked) 
a., a. in which the febrile paroiysms are re- 
placed by fits of lassitnde, anorexia, general 
pains, and other iudeBnite symptoms. 
Ah. Symbol for simple hypermetropic as- 

Ahm. Symbol for mixed astigmatism with 

the hypermelropia predominant. 

AlebmopluibU (eyk"moh.foh'bee-Bh). 

[Gr. mVSinf, spear-poinl, +pAo6tM, fear.) Un- 
natural dread of sharp points. 

of ti 

of extract, 4 gr 

Aln&um {a\,. ^,.„.,. ^ a.m^aac imevnu 

negroes, in which the little toe becomes ei. 
larged and is constricted by an indurated 
annular fiirrow surrounding its base, which 
'leepens until the toe drops off. 

_ A disease afiecting 



blow.l The uiviBiuii: KU- „ 

farth^H atmosphere. It ib n colorleBS, odorless 
miiture of 1 part by volume (23 per cent, by 
weight) of oiyeen and 4 parts by volume of 
Ditrogeo, with from 1 to 2 per cent, of ar^n, 
Che relative quanlity of these constiluents 
vary inKsliithtlynnderdi fferen tcireumstanciw. 
8ee also Atmogphert. Owing to (he oij-p^n 
which it contains, n. is a aupporter of respira- 
tion and eombuBlion^ its nitrogen and argon 
being inert and acting simply as dilacnts. 
A. in respiration ia cameil into the longs 
through Ihe A, -tube ' 

irregular spaces called A.-bu:b, and into each 
ODe of these latter open five or sii polyhedral 
r«c«»MS, the alveoli (A.-TSBioleB orA.-cellB} 
of the lungs. The a. which is carried back and 
(brth into and from the tonga in respiration is 
the Tidal a.; that which can be taken into the 
lungs in excess of the tidal a. by a forced inspi- 
ration, the Comptrmtn' tal a.; that which can 
be expelled in excess of tlie tidal a. by forced 
expiration, the Supplemen' lal or Eaerve a.; 
and that which remains in the lungs aAer the 
deepeet expiration, the Rfiiduai a. 

Alr-condncUon. Conduction of sound 
thron^h the air, external ear, and tympanum 
to the internal ear ; opposed to trnie-conductiott. 

Ali-donchB. See FolUxtrUaiian. 

AlT-MnboU«m. See EmboUtm. 

All-pump. An instrument for withdraw- 
ing air front a space 80 «a to produce a vacuum. 

Alna (ay'i-rol). Bismnth oxyiodogallate ; 
>D iodine compound of dennat«l forming a 
" li powder uied as a substitute for iodo- 

_, The Ftychotis tgowan, a plant 

nf India. Itafrnit (Fractusptycho'tis) yields 
A. oil, conluning thymol and cymeue. 

AkAn'tUon. AkAHtlia^miL. AkAsttio'sis, 
AkUwaia, AltllieslB. See Acanthion AcaMho- 

Ala(a;'lah). [L.] A wing; in anatomy, a 
broad Soring process prolecting laterally fh>m 
apart, A. e«reb«Ill(orBunptyA.). A lobe on 
tfc upper surface of either cerebellar hemiit- 
phere between the precentral and postceutraJ 
fissures. A. einB'r«&, a triangular mass of 
gray matter at the lower end of the fourth 
ventricle. A. ua'sl, A. of tbe nosa, the 

ntrid, the fiat expanded processes prelecting 
from either side of the IxSjy of the hone. A. 
maffna, or great wing, forms part of the mid- 
dle fbeea of the skull and external wall of the 
orbit. The A, parra, or lesaer winfj, forma the 
back part of the floor of the anterior fossa of 
the skull and of the roof of the orbit. AIM 
of the Tonur, the two piates of bone formed 
by the channelling of the upper anterior bonier 
for the reception of the perpendicular plate 

Alalia (a-lay'lee-ah). lA- + Gr. lalerin^ Ut 
talk.] AphnsiD. A. liMra'lls, stammenng. 
A. ijUabft'ria epftimod'lea, stuttering. 

Alant' camphor. See Elecampane. 

Alan'tol. [G. Alant, elecampane.] An oily 
peppermint-like liquid, CisHhOi, derived from 
elecampane. Used in chronic bronchitis and 
phthisis. Dose, gr. 0.2-0.5 (gm. 0.01-0.03). 

Alar (a^'lar). [L. ald'rit,] Of orpertnin- 
ing to a wiQg ; of or in the aiilla, as A. tho- 
racic artery; wing-like, OS A. ligaments of the 

Al'ate. [L. atd'lvt.'] Winged ; provided 
with alee. 

Whitish. 1. The 

spinal syslem, 
Al'blaana, [L.] 

Al'blnlsm. (L. a/friniVtntu, fr. ajfrtno.] A 
congenital deficiency of pigment. It ma; be 
and affects the shin, mucous membranes, hair, 
iris, and chorioid, which are all mnch paler 
than natural. 

Albtoo (al-ber'nob). [Sp.. fr. L. nllme. 
white.] One aflected with albinism. 

Alblnot'lo. Affected with albinism. 

Albolenefal'boh-leen). Anoily preparation. 

Albnxliiaa (al"bew-jin'ee-ah). [L. ^ tun- 
ica a., albugineous tunic] A tongh while 
fibrous layer of tissue inveirtiuB a part ; eape- 
eially, the A. testis. A, opldldym'ldoi, the 
fibrous capsule of the epididymis. A. Ue'nlo, 
the tunica propria of the spleen. A, Oc'nll. 
the sclerotic. A. penla, the fibrous envelope 
of the corpora cavemoBa. A. ova'Tll, the 
dense outer layer of the stroma of the ovary. 
A. leniun, the capaule of the kidney. A. 
testis, the strong fibrous investment of the 

AlbnglneauB (aVbew-jio'ee-ns). [L. aiW- 
ffin'eut, fr. altmi, while, through attrii^, B 
white spot.] Of or pertaining t« albumin or 
to the sclerotic. 

AlbamBn (al-bew'men). PI. albu'mina. 
[L., fr. afbiu, white.) Wfiileofegg; nee Egg- 

Albnmlmater (al"bew-mim'e-Cur). See Al- 

Albtunln (al-bew'min). lAlbumen -¥ ^n.} 
One of a class of proteids dietingnished by be- 
ing soluble in water and coagulable by heat, 
the most typical memberi of which (Katiro 
Bi's) occur nutnnilly in animal and vegetable 
tissues and fluids (Animal a, and Tagatabla 
a.). TheordiQaryvarietieHofnativea.areBgj 
a., a whitish, transparent, amorphous substance 

which dissolves in water to form an opale ' 

solution ; laiit-a., occurring in jnilk ; 



•arum a. (or blood 4. J, occDiring in the bliKid 
Bud other animal liquida, and the kiDduBuaUy 
found in the urine in altJumiDuria. St:rum a. 
differs from egg a. chiefly in not being eoagu- 
lable by ether and in having a liigher levoro- 
tary power. The chemical constitution of a. 
is very complex ; itcontains carbon, hydrogen, 
nitrogen, and oxygen, with a small amount of 
sulphur. The chief tests for a, are its prei'ipi- 
tation by nitric acid, potaaxium ferro-cyanide, 
sodium tungftale, picrirBciii.and mcn'ury and 
potassium iodide ; and its coagulation by heat, 
Acld-a., AUuU-ft., DflrlT»d a., see Altmrni- 

jUbmnlnata (al-ben'min-ayt). [L. albu'- 
mindi.i A derived albumin ; a compound of 
an albumin vith an acid [Acid-albamin^ Syn- 
tonin) or a base (Alkali-albumin). The a's 
are insoluble in water and neutral liquids. 

jLlbnialsUU'oiu(al-bew"iDin-if'ur-us). [L. 
fern, to bring.] Producing albumin. 

Albnmlnlnietor (al'bew"min-im'e-tur}. 
(-mrfw.J An instrument for estimating the 
albumin in urine. Esbacb'a a. ia a graduated 
tube in which is placed a measured quantity 
of urine and of picric acid. The volume pre- 
cipitated in 24 boura indicates the amount of 

Albmnlnold <al-bew'mio-oyd). [-oid.] 1. 
Besembling albumin. 3. One of a class of 
Hubstancea resembling proleids, usually found 
in skeletal tissues, and very nsistant to re- 
agents. The A'* include keratin, elaatin, ool- 
lagen, gelatin, lardacein. and the skeletjns. A. 
dMCMuntion, amyloid degeneration. 

le.] See A 

Albumluons (al-bew'min-ns). Of or con- 
taining albumin; as A. urine, A. diet. A. 
aegensratlon, cloudy swelling. A. glands, 
glands found in vurioUB secreting oi^ns, par- 
ticularly of the digestive tract, the ceils of 
which (A. cells) are small and angular, have 
a central nucleus, are uniformly granular, and 
are colored uniformly by staining agents. 

Albantniizla (iil-bew"mce-new'ree-Rh). 
[Gr. ouron, uriue.] The dischan^ of urine 
containing albumin (usually serum albumin). 
Due to a transudation of albumin from the 
blood, taking place in the kidney (Ti-oa a.), 
or to accidental admixture of pus, blood, or 
other alhurainons liquids with the urine (Palaa 
or AdTsntltloiia a.). The term false a. is also 
applied to the condition in which a substance 
not albumin, but resembling it, is voided with 
the uriue. True a. may occur apart from any 
structural disease of the kiduev (Fnnctloital 

Tamporary or Translant a. (usually func- 
tional) are : Cyclical a., recurring regulariy at 
certain times of the dajr, especially in anannic, 
dyspeptic, and neurotic sul>ject8i Dieiitic a., 
due to excess of albuminous food ; MiucaUtr 
o;, due to severe exercise ; the A . ofadoUteence, 
occnrring in youth without evident cause; 

a. caused by concentrated urine ; a. occurring 
in influenza, oialnria, lithicmia, and other 
general all'eetions; and, aceordiog to some, a 
Phptiological a, occurring in healthy persons. 

Albtunlnurlc (al-bew"mce-new'rik). Of. 
pertaining to, or associated with albuminuria ; 
caused \>y albumiuuria or by the state which 
produces it, as A. retinitis, A. neuritis. 

Albnmone (al'bcw-mohn). A body resem- 
bling proteose, erroneously supposed to occur 

Albninoae (al'ltew-mohs). [Album-m + 
-o*e.] A proleid formed as the first stage of the 
pancreatic or gastric di^-stion of other proteids. 
and by furiher digestion converted into pep- 
tone. The a's, unlike peptones, can not diffuse 
through animal membranes. They are pre- 

give the biuret reaction, after all 
the albumin present has lieen removed (by 
acidulating with acetic acid, precipitating 
with a saturated solution of salt, boiling 
and filtering). Of the varieties of a. 
formerly described, Antl-albnmosa is now 
known to be aciil-albumin, and Hsml-albn- 
tnoia to include a number of bodies, vis., Fbi- 
tiARY a'r comprising Proto-Ubnmoaaa and 
Hataro-albnmosai (of which DyialbnmoM 
is aspecial variety), formed in the first stages 
of gastric digestion ; and Secondary a'b 
(Dentaro'SlbtunoBn), formed in the second 
stages of gastric and the first stages of tryptie 

AlbtunoiUTla (ul-bew"moh-sew'rce-ah}. 
JGr.oiiron, urine.] The discharge of albumose 
in the urine. Due to absorption of albumoses 
from the intestine (in intestinal cancer and 
ulecr), to absorption of pus (in abscesses and 
empyema), to pneumonia and sometimes to 
renal disease, and occurs in osteomalacia, dis- 
ease of bone-marrow, and myxtodema. 

Alcap'tone. A dark eaKhy substance, not a 
definite chemical compound, obtained (n>m 
the urine in alcapWnuna. 

AlcaptoiMirlaial-kap"'rrR-ah). [Or. 
ouron, urine.] The discharge of alcaptone in . 
the urine: a eotidilion in which the urine, 
owing to the presence of pyrocatechin, uroleu- 
cic acid, and other substances, turns daric on 
standing, emits an aromatic odor, and gen- 
erates a substance reducing Fehling's solution. 

rolatjle, inflammable liquid, of aromatic odor 
and burning tflstc, produced by the fermenta- 
tion of grape-supar. It is present in all the 
fermented and distilled beverages; lieer and ale 
containing 4-10 pi'r cent., wines b-2Ti per cent., 
and whiskey, brandy, and gin IIKW per cent. 
Pure or Abiolnta a. is the A. absolu' turn U. 8., 
B. P. A- U. 8. contains 91, Spiritus, G. P., 
8.'i.6-S7, Spiritus rectifieatus, B. P., 90, Spiritus 
dilutus, 0. P., 60-61, A. dilu'tum, U. 8., 



46.5 per cent., and A. dilutum. B. P., 20-70 per 
cent, of ftbsolaten. A. deodora' ttim, U. S., a. 
freed from ftisel oil and other impuritiea end 
containlD^ 92.5 per ceat. of absolute a. A., 
owing to it« imwer of takin;- op water, coagu- 
lating albumio, and destroying low. forniB of 
tegptable life, is used as ao antiseptic and 
astringent, and aa a preserrativc for anatom- 
ical Bceciinens. Inteniallj' it is used OB a heart 
Miniulant in conditions of collapse and ex- 
hanstion from whatever cause; and id condi- 
tiona attended by great tissue-waste (fi^Teis) it 
is thoDght to act as a food. It is best given in 
repeat^ doses at short intervals, the amoont 

S'ven being regulated solely by Ibe effect pro- 
iced. 1. In general any hydrate of a ny- 
4rocarbon ; a compound of a hydrocarbon 

case the a. is called a pbenol (e. g., ordinary 
phenol, or carbolic acid); or may be en a. 
of the paraffin series, in which an aroma- 
tic hvdmcarhon repUces some of the hydro- 
a.}. Monacid or Monaiom'ic 
u I molecnle of hydroxyl, Dia- 
2, Triaiom'ie a's 3, TtlnUom'ic a's 

The chief a's of medicinal importance are 
Methyl a. Ta. methy'llcam, also called 
Pjproxytie, Puntli^ntmit, and Wood a.), 
Amj/I a. (A. amyl'icum, A. amyl'icos O. P. , 
^jaeiialOlt/eerul a.),anAPhenyla, (phenol, 
A. pbenyl'icDm^. S. A preparation made 
from or containing a. AmmtrniaUd a. (A. 
kmmoQia'tns), api^t of ammonia ; Oim'phor- 
auda. (A. camphora'tDs], spirit of camphor; 
Cauitic a., sodium etfaylate. 4. Anything 

Al'cDliolAte. 1. A compound of a labslAnce, 
«. ^., chloral, with alcohol. 3. A lubitanoe 
mamtained in the crystalline form by loose 
«ODibinatiou with on« or toore moleodles of 

Aleoliol'to. [L. akohofieut.] 1. Contain- 
ing alcohol ispiritnons. 3. Producingalcohol; 
AS A. fermentation. >. Prodaced by alcohol 
or by indulgence in alcoholic bevenigcfl ; aa A, 
poisoning, A. coma, A. insanity, A. paralysis. 
4. Affected by alcohol or with alcoholism ; as 
A. snbject. 

Al'MboUim. [L, aleohoti^mut.'i Poisoning 
with alcohol ; the condition of the aysteio pro- 
duced by the excessive use of alcohol. Aonta 
%. produced by a single large doee or a few re- 
peated doses of alcohol is characterized b^ men- 
tal excitement and confusion and incoordina- 
tion of movement, manifested chiefly in the 
speech, gait, and the movements of the eye. 
This condition is followed bj coma with siijns 
of cerebral compression (atertor, sluggish 
pnpils, slow full pulse). In t^lal cases lesions 
are foond in the ganglion cells of the brain, 
medulla, and cord. Chroule a., due to 
the Ions-continued use of alcoholic beverages, 
i* marked by chronic gastro-enteritis, chronic 


pharyngiUs and laryngitis, cirrhosis of the 
liver, neuritis, and general paralysis. Results 
of chronic or prolong acute a. are delirium 
tremens and a dimiuished power of n 
against cold, injury, or disease. 

Aldehyda (al'dee-heyd). [.^fcohol -H L. <U, 
out of, and Androgen, because regarded aa alco- 
hol deprived of hydrogen.] 1. A sabat«i)o« 
also called Ae^tie a CiHjO- CHi.CH:0, 
formed by oiidation of ethyl alcohol, and by 
fiinher oxidation converted into acetic acid ; a 
mobile, volatile liouid, of peculiar pungent 
odor, boUing at 21°C. A. has auEBSthetic prop- 
erties, and produces deep narcosis when in- 
haled. There are two polymeric forms, tnelal- 
dehydt and paraidihyde, the latter being used 
medicinallv. A.-COlUdlna, see Coilidine. >. 
Any one of a clan of bodies analogous to aoetie 
a., and formed of the molecule — CH : O com- 
bined with a hydrocarbon ; produced by oxi- 
dation of an alcohol and converted by further 
oxidation into an acid. They are named from 
the acids into which they are thus converted, 
c. g.. Benzoic a., from Bentoie acid. See 
Sttuoie, FornUe, elc. 

Alder (awl'dur). See Atmu. 

Aiaote (al'dohs). [.^fd-ehyde^-oK.] A 
sugar, such as dextrose, having the constitu- 
tion of an aldehyde formed by oxidation <^ ■ 
hexatomic alcohol. 

Ale. A beverage containing 6 to 8 per cent, of 
alcohol, prepared by fermenting barley-malt. 

Alwtltbaira-lo'ee-thal). [A- + Oi. UHOot, 
porridge.] Of an«g, having no proper yolk- 
'""'"■ ' '■ '■■""ingtheyolk-matlerdistribnted 
igh it. 

uniformly throng) 
Al'BmbTOth. A compound, (NHi.Clti.Hg- 

Clj + 2HiO, formed by evaporating a mixture 
of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride 
and corrosive sublimate; used as an antiseptic 
drceaing and by injection in syphilis. 

Alepp'o iHiU, Alappo button, Alappo vrll. 
See Oriental tore. 

Al'atrla. [Qr. ^corn-grinder, because the 
flowers look mealy.] A genus of plants of the 
Liliaceie. A. fiirino'sa, colic root or star grass, 
is used in amenorrhisB and dysmenornum. 
Dose of fluid extract, 10 m.. 

Aleiieoc;loslB(a"'Iew-kofa"see-toh'uB). [A- 
+ lmeoeyl«*ii.] A stale in which the forma- 
tion of leucocytes is diminished or arrested. 

Alexander's operation. Advancement of 
the round ligaments, performed to steady the 
ntenia or to restore it to its natural position. 

Alex'la. [.^■ + Gr, lexHn, to read.] Ina- 
bility to read, due either to inability to under- 
stand the meaning of the written or printed 
characters, although they are seen (OpUokl, 
Visual, or Sensory a.); or to inability to read 
aloud, although the characters are understood 
(Motor a.J . A variety of optical a. is Mvieal 
a. or inability to read music. A. is caused b* 

B lesion of the po 

l«ft parietal lobe. 

jUax'in. [tir. 

inferior region of the 

jufl&'ui. Lur. uir-tcrii, uj Ward off,1 A 
mbdlance produced either in the normal body 
(Sunn), or in a body rendered artificially im- 
mune (Fk]/laxin), and Berviug to protect the 
□rcaniaoi RKsinst bacteria {.Vyeoiozintaad My- 
copAj/iurfna), or their products (7Vu:o-a/<i'iM, 
iDcluding Toxatoiint and TojcopAj/'oxtRi). 

AlezlpluiniiM (a-leits"ee-fahr'mak),Alexl- 
pharmlc (»-1eka"ee-fiihr'mikl. l(ir. ataein, 
toward oft', and pftiirmaton, a drug.] A rem- 
edy counteraeting or preventing llie cfiect of a 

AlexocyU (a-lek'w>li-seyt). A lencoc^te 
BuppOBcd to eontain or give rise to an alexin. 

Alg«Blineter(Bl"jw-8im'e-lur). [Gr. algrfis, 
pain, + -mrtn-.J An apparatus for determin- 
ing eilher tbe Beusitivencss of the akin (Bjom- 
ttrum't a.), or the BensitJveneSB of tiie epigas- 
' - —a to pressure (Bt— '" ~ ' 

-»l»U(-al'jee-ah,-arjah). [Gr. o/ow, pain 
A suffix Bignifying pain ; as Neur-algia. 

state iu which pain is baMtutillr evoked by 
the sight or memory of paiu. ^gogsnet'lo, 
pertaining to a,; one subject to a, 

Al'gor. PI. algo'rea. [I-.J Chilliness. A. 
mortis, the coIdueHs of a Aead body. A. pro- 
gTMBl'Tlu, sclerema Deonalomm. 

AUeuiUon (ayr'yee-nay'shun). Estrange- 
ment; particularly, mental aberration, in- 

Alienist (ayl'yce-mst). One conversant with 
insanity and its treatment. 

Al'lment. [L. alimm'lum, fr. alert, to 
nourish.] Food. 

AliMenfary. [I., alen, to nourish.} Sub- 
serving nutrition or alimentation ; as A, food. 
A, canal, A. tract, the tube composed of 
mouth, (esophagus, stomach, and inlcNtincs, iu 
which the food is digested and assimilated. 
A. iritem, the a. tract together with ths 
organs (salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and 
lacteuls) concerned in the digestion andatworp- 

Allmmtatlon (al"ee-men-tay'shun). The 
act of supplyiug with food, 

AllspheiLOld (al"ce-sfL'c'noyd), Allapha- 
noldal(al"ee-sfee-noy'd«I). [Ala -uphca&id.] 
1. Belonging to or comprised within the ala 
muma of the sphenoid : as A. area of skull. 

aTThi -■■' -'- ' 

pterygoid processes. 

AUl'arln. A crystalline red coloring mat- 
ter, ChIIioOi +3niO, derived from madder, 
and t^ made synlbetically from coal-tar. 


Alltall (al'ka-ley). [Ar. al-gaVx, potash.J 

A term applied to several bases distioguisbed 
by acridity of taste, caustic properties, aolu- 
bitity in water, and ability to saponify fatji. 
A's share with other bases Uieir alkaline reac- 
tion and their power of neutralixiug acids to 
form salts. The chief a's are potaasa and po- 
tassium carbonate (Caustic a., CatuUc vaga- 
tatilc a.), soda and sodium carbonate (Htn- 
Sral a.), lithia, ammouiaand ammoninm car- 
bonote. lime, baryta, and magnesia, la dis- 
tinction from ammonia (Vol'atila a.), the 
other a'B, particularly soda and potassa, are 
called Flzad a's. The term mtntral a. is 
sometimes applied to all the a's above given 
as bciue inorganic compounds, while the term 
vegfiabte a. is given to the alkaloids. A.- 
altm'mln, see AlbumimUe. A.-mstalB, so- 
dium, potassium, and lithium, whose oxides 
and hydrates form tbe typteal a'a 

AlkaUm'ctor. [-meUr.] An instmmeot 
for performing Alkallm'star, i. e., determin- 
ing the amount of alkali In a mixture. 

Alkaline (al'ka-leyn). 1. Containing an 
alkali ; as A. bath. S. Haviug the properties 
of an alkali or Imse ^ in particular, exhibiting 
videnees of alkalinity as shown by the power 
" """" u red litmus paper blue or turmeric paper 

brown (A. rsaction) and so neutralize acids. 
A. earths, lime, baryta, strontia, aod mag- 
ueeia. A. tlda, the decrease in the acidity of 
the urine due to the secretion of gastric juice 
iu digestion. 

line properties or an a]kalin< 

AlkalUaUan(al"ka-ley-Eay'shun). Tbeact 
of rendering alkaline. 

Al'kaUie. To render alkaline. 

Al'kaloia. [Alkali + -aid.} A vegetable 
base ; a nitro^nous principle of alkaline reac- 
tion and basic properties, occurring in vege- 
table tissues or juices. The a's are, generally 
speaking, unsaturated ammonia derivativea 
(amines), and, like ammonia, apparently com- 
bine directly with acids to form crj^stalline 
sails. Ill reality these salts are combinations 

NOj.lICl. but H.rnUitNOsCl, jusl as am- 
monia hydrochloride (ammonium chloride) is 
nolKHiIICl, butNHi.CI. ArtUleU] as, al- 
kaline, nitrogenous bases, resembling tbe nat- 
ural a's, but huiltup synthetically by chem- 
ical processes ; e. g., apomorphine, antipyrine. 
Bases altogether similar to the vegetable a's 
arc found in animal tissues (Animal a'a), 
either in the normal state (leucomainea) or aa 
products of decomposition {ptomaines, Cada- 
ver'ie or Putrefaffive a's). 
Alkaptone, Alkaptonuria. See Aleaplont, 

A IcapUmuria. 

Alkyl. [Alkoitol (for alcohol) -I- -]/L'] Ge- 
neric name for a univuleut hydrocarbon (al- 
cohol radicle) of the fitty series. See Bydnt- 

,-../«, b,Goo»^Ic 


Al'kylMie. A bivalent hydrocarbon of the 
taily geriea (e. g., ethylene}, haviua the seneral 
fonnula— CH.-lCHi)=— CH^. 

Alkjl'ldenB. A bivalent hTdrocarboD of the 
fattj '^^ ■ 

ty aeries (e. e ethyliilene) baviag the g( 
il formula CnHi»+ i.CHi:. 

Allantlull (a 1-lien" tee-ay' aiB). [Or. at 
a BKUsage.] PoiBoning by sausages, 

AlUntotc (iil"au-toh'ik). Of or belonging 
lo the ollantois. A, olrcnlatioii, the cireula- 
tioD carried on in the fetus by means of the A. 
(Qmbilical) arterlei aiid Tetni. A. llnld, the 
turbid flnid filling the cavity of the allantoig. 
A. acid, a moDobaeic acid, CtllsKtOi, prepared 

from allaDloiH' 

L. veilclB, see Vtucte. 

base, QHaNiO! formed by the o^.iu...^u u< 
Dric acid ; found in the allantoic fluid and the 
urine just aner birth. 

AUantoU (a-leen'toh-is). Geo. allanto'idis. 
(Qr. atlat, sauBO^, and tidoi, likeness,] A 
■ac which, in the early stagea of fetal develop- 
ment, grows out from the posterior end of the 
emhiTfo, and, arching round it, soon envelops 
it completely. It mues with the subzonal 
membrane, and the two together subsequently 
form the true chorion and the placenta. It is 
connected with the fetus b^ a stalk which 
afterward becomes the umbilical cord. In its 
nature the a. appears lo be an excessively de- 
veloped urinary bladder, and its cavity (tilled 
with the allantoic fluid) contains such excre- 
tory products of the embryo «■ «"> nn* din- 

n the respiration and nutrition of the 

fetus by means of the allantoic circulation. 
The portion of a. within the embryo remains 
after birth as (he uixcbus and bladder. 

AUantotOZlCDIt (a-lien"toh-lok'Bee-kon). 
[Gr. allot, Bousape, -f toxikon, poisou.] The 
toiie principle ofpoisonous sausagee. 

AIlUoMui (aV'ee-ay'shus). Like garlic; 
having the odor of garlic. 

Al'llnm. [L.} A genus of plants of the 
Ijliaceie. The balb of A. sati'vum, or garlic 
(Bul'biia all'ii the A., V. S.), conUins a vola- 
tile oil (oil of garlic) consisting largely of 
allyl sulphide. A. is used as a stimulant, di. 
nretie, and antispasmodic, especially in bron- 
chitis and hydrophobia. Dose of a., 30 gr. 
(gm. Z.0); Syru'pnt all'ii, V. S., 3j (gm. 4.0). 
A. Pormm, the leek,_ A. Cepa. the onion, A. 
>d_A. Scbtenopra'- 

AUo-. [Gr, attoi,} Prefix meaning 
another. Allocllelrla (-key'ree-ah), Allo- 
chlrla (-kir'e<^ah) [Gr. cheir, hand], the ref- 
erence of a tactile or other sensory impression 
to the wrong part of the body. AUop'aitiy 
l-patkyl, a theory of treatment (Allopath'lc 
thaory, Allopath'ic tiaatmant) which holds 
.L_i _ 1! -_ .. . . ,]]},ai^ by remedies 

called regular practitioners, i. e,, all not b_ 
longing to the homoKipathie or eclectic schools. 
Alloirhyth'tnla [Gr. rhullimoa, rhythml, a 
regularly recurring disturbance of the rhythm 
of (he pulse. 

Allotriophagy {a-lot"ree-ofa-jee). [Gr. 
«(/u(riM. foreign, +pAoffrin, loeat.] The eat- 
ing of subslanees mauifeslly unfit for food. 

jUlot'ropUm, Allot'Topy. iAllo- + Gr. 
Irupot, a turning.] The property possessed by 
sc¥eralelements—e.g.,sulphuran(l oxygen— of 
appearing, nnder the same conditions of tem- 
perature and pressure, in several forms (Alio- 
trop'lD forms, All'otropea), having distinct 
physical characteristics. 

AUoz'an. lAll-ABtoiai; + orolic acid be- 
cause thought to contain the clemeuta of both 
bodies.) A reddish, crystalline sulwtancc, 
CiH]Nt0i+4n]O, formed by the oxidation of 
uric acid. By acids it is converted into oxalic 
acid, urea, and the crystalline base AUoxklk'- 
Ua«, CsH,N(Oi + alliO. 

Alloznrlc bu«B (al"okB-ew'rik). IAllo- + 
Gr. oirua, acid, +Kn"i;.] Bases related to uric 
acid ; a group including adenine, goanine, 
hypoianthine, and xanthine. See Ltaeomaine. 

AUoy'. [F. altn/er, fir. L. alligare, to bind 
to.] 1. A compound or mixture of a metal 
with one or more others, 3. The baser one of 
two metals so compounded. 

Allaplea (awl'speys). See Pimeata. 

sulphide, A. thio-clhtr), (CiIIe)]S, the print, 
pal constituentof oil of garlic, A. tUocyanata 
\A. pieudo-lhioeuanalr. A, >ulphocj/analt, A^ 
muHard oil), CifliNiCiS, the main constituent 
of oil of mustard, A. aldahyde (acrolein), are 
all more or less oily liquids of acrid odor. A. 
trlbromlde erroneous name for tribrombydrin. 
Allylamln«(al"il-am'een), [Allyl + amine,] 
An ammoniacnl liquid, C>Hi,NHi. 

and its fruit. BWMt a'B (Amyg'dHladulcis, 
U.S., B. P., Amyg'dalte dulces, G, P,) are 
the fVuit of the vanety diilcit, and Bitter a'l 
(Amygdala ama'ra, U. 8 R, P., Amjgdalie 
araarss, U. P.), the fruit of the variety amara 
of this species. Both sweet and bitter a's fiir- 
nish a fixed oil {A. oil, O'leum amygdalne, B. 
P., Oleum amygdala'rum, G, P., Oleum 
amygdaltE exprcss'um, U, S.), used in making 
' rmaceutical preparations and assdemul- 
;. Volatile oifof a., Oilof biuera. (O'leum 
amygdalae ama'rce, U. S.), distilled t^om bitter 
a., contains about 13 per cent, of hydrocyanic 
acid, and is used like the latter in doses of "L 
0.25 (gm. 0.015). Peeparations op sweet 
a's: Emut'mm ainygdalii, U. S, (Mistn'ra 
amygdala!, B. P., Emulsio simplex. Milk of 
a,), an emulsion of sweet a's with gum arable 
and suKar; Palvie amygdala eompo/itus, B 
P., nsed for making a. mixture exCemporane- 



oaslj; Synt'pHt amygdala, V. S. (Sini'puB 
BmyKdalBTUiD, G. P.), doae 1-2 5 (Km- 4-H). 
data. V. S., coDtAining 1-1000 of oil at bitter 
«. = 1-8000 of hjdrocyanic acid (Anun amyit- 
dfllarum amun'rum, G, P., cnatainiDf; I~10(>0 
of hydrocyanic acid), dose, 3 as (i^. 15), or for 
G. piet«ntti»D 3 »» (k™- 2); Spir'iiiu amyg- 
dala amara, U. S. (contuning 1 per cenl. of 
bi(terB.oil), doee, 15-30 >a (gm. 1-2). 

Al'niu. [L.] A genus of trees and ihnibs 
of the Bctulat^. The astringent bark of 
black (dder. A. glntiDo'BB of Earope and the 
A.serratula ta (A. mbraj of America is used in 

AIM (al'oh-ee). Gen. al'oes. [Gr. aloi.'l 
A genus of plants of the Liliacoe. the inspis- 
•al«l juice of the leaves of various species of 
«hjuh is the A. or Aloes (al'ohi) of the phar- 
maeopceias. The chief tinds of aloes are 
Barba'does alosa (A. barbaden'sis, U. S., 
B. P., Curafoa alom), derived from A. vulga'- 
riaor A. vera; Caps alOM (A. capen'sis, A. 
lu'i-ida, the A. of the G. P.). derived from A. 
fe'roi, A. spica'la, A. afnca'na, and other 
sppcies of the Cape of Good Hope ; Boootrlne 
tloM (A. Bocotri'^na. U. S., B. V.). also called 
ZantioaT aloa, derived from A. Perrjri and 
other species of Zanzibar and Kortheastem 
Africa. Other varieties are Hepatic aloes ( A. 
hepat'ica). Natal aloes, etc., A. purifiea'ta, 
U. fl., aloes purified for medicinal use by heat- 
ing with alcohol and straining. Aloes is a slow 
but efficient cathartic, acting mainly npon the 
lower part of the large iat^tiae, and s.h 

blood t 

the p 

conditions of the ii 

« and li 

of DtefKftnm aloet compoiilum, B. P., 5s8-2 
(pn. 15-60); EilToritum aloa, U. S., G. P. 
JLitractum aloes barbaden'sis, B. P.), 1-6 gr. 
(gm. O.06-O.40); PiCitla aloe,, V. 8. (Pil'ula 
aloes Bocotri'niE, Pilula aloes barbaden'sis, B. 
P.). Pifala aloa tt atafmtidm, U. S. {Pilnla 
aloes etasafctidn, B. P.).PiCnlaaloaelferri. 
U. 9. (Pilula aloes et ferri, B. P., Pil'ulffialoe- 
tiere ferra'tffl, G. P.), Pilula aloa tt matf- 
ieha, V. S., PiCttla aloa tt myrrha, U. S. 
(Pilula aloes el myrrhie, B. P.J, one to two 

fills or 4 to 8 gr.; TiJKla'ra aloa, U. S., B. 
.. Q. P., Tindu'ra aloa tt murrha, U. 8., 
and Tinct-a'ra atott compo^ Ua, O. P. (coDlain- 
Infc rhubarb, (tentian, Kedoory, and saffron), 
l-<3 (gm. 4-16). 

AloMla (al"oh-ct'ik). Of or pertaining to 
_..._ __ . - acid, CtHi- 

aloes; as A. purge. A. add, an acid, C 
{NO))0, produced by the decompositioi 


in'three varieties diR^riiig in chemical compo- 
sition, vit^BarboH oin derived from Barbadoes 
aloes, Soeal'oin (Zanal'oin) from Socotriue 
aloes, and IfataToi't from Natal aloes. Barba- 
loin and Hoealnin rte the a. of the pharmaco- 


poeias. Used like aloes. Doee, 1-2 gr. (gm. 

Alopecift (al"oh-pee^Bee-ah). [Or. alSpetia, 
fr. aUpfx, a fox. because the latter was snp- 
poeed to be particularly aOeclfd with bald 

Hatnml or Senile i 

IB baldneas c< 

_ old people. Premaliure or 

Prateillle a, (A. praimatn'Ta, A. praitmflit) 
is either idiopathic (ordinary premature bald- 
Beat due to no assignable cause} or sympto- 
matic, being then due to disease of the H^p. 
eepecially seborrhcea, psoriasis, and parasitie 
affections, to the exanthemata, to avphili*, to 
lepra, and to nervous distnrbanee. A. aiea'ta 
{A, cireumteripta. Area Celsi), sadden bald- 
ness, occurring in sharply-outlined smootll 
white patches on the scalp and other h^rj 
parts of the body ; probably caused by nervooa 
(trophic) disturbaiice. A. tmtar^'of, {A. 
pityro'dtt cajnlti^ii. Pityriasis capitis), a 
chronic affectiun characl«rized by repeated 
sheddingof the hair, which tiecomes dry, harsh, 
and lustreless, and by chronic deBqnamation Of 
abunduut dry or greasy scales (dandruff). A. 
nenrlt'lca, a, due to neuritis. A. neniot'lca, 
a. following disease or injury of the nerroo* 
system. Treatment of a., friction of scalp with 
the brush ; shampooing with alkaline, oily, and 
fatty lotions ; fktty diet, tonics, etc. 

series of isomeric compounds ; as Alpha-naph- 
tbol (thefirstof the varieties of naphthol). 

Al'pbol. [Alpha-naphthol.] Salicylate of 
alpha-Oiapbthol : a Bubslance, CiiHuOi, iso- 
meric with betol ; used as an anodyne and in- 
temal antiseptic in cystitis, rheumatism, and 
neuralgia. Dose, 8-16 gr. (gm. 0.5-1.0). 

Alplioa (al'fos). [Gr.] See Aortont. 

AlitonU (al-stoh'uee-ah). [L., fr. AtUon, 
a Scotch botanist.] A genus of tieea of the 
Apocjuaces. The bark (diiO'barlc, AlatoniB 
cortex) of A.schola'ris, oftheEaatlDdiesaod 
Australia, contains the alkaloids AI'atonlB* 
and Alaton'ldne, and with the bark (palt 
bart) of A. specta'bilis, of Java, Uoiedaaan 

the quality of the blood in such a way as to 
restore healthy action in disease. The chief 
a's are mercury and its compounds, iodine 
and the iodides, arsenic, and gold ; according 
to some, also cod-liver oil, the compounds of 
sodium and potassium, and iron. 

Altenuite (awl-tur'net). Succeeding by 

turns; occurringinsucccsKion. A.hemll "- 

A. paralyEli, see CroMtd htmipltgia. 

AltsmaUng (awl'tur-nov-tinp). [L. oWct'- 
naiu.1 Interchanging; changing from side 
to side or from one variety to another. A. 
cnrrentt, electric curtails, [he direction of 
which is continnally reversed ; e. ^., thoae 
produced in magnebxlectriG machines. A. 
squint, see Squint. 




Altliaa (al-thee'ab). [Gr. altbaia. fr. al- 
thtMai, to Woine sound.] A genus ofjilanW 
of the HalvaoeiG. The root (Radix olthEne, 
G. P.. the A., V. S.) and the leaves (Fo'lia 
altlueie, G. P.} of A. officios' iis^ or marehmal- 
low, furnish a mucilage {Mucila'go althaa) 
•nd are a demuloent. Sj/rTi'pus althaa, U. 8, 
(Sim'puB alUuBK, G. P.), is used as a vehicle, 
npectall; for cough medicineii. A. ro'aea, 
the hollyhock, has similar properties. 

[L. oiii'men; gen. aiii'tnintir.] 1. 

uomorphons with ordiaaiy a. and havins the 
general fonnnlaR'i(8O0-R""i(SOi)»+24HK), 
m which R' is ■ univalent and R''" a quad- 
liTtdent radicle. A's are distinguished into 
Alnmlnnin (or ordiuar;) I'l, Iron a's, and 
Oliroilie a'l according as aluminum, iron, or 
chromiom replaces R "; and as Ainmoiii&, 
Potash, or Soda a'l according as ammon;— 
potuaiiiin, or sodinni replaces R'. Thus 
and anuDODium gnlphale, (NH()i30i.Fe>- 
(BOt)i -H 24HtO, Is iron-ammonia alum. If 
UM radicle repueing R' is not named, polas- 
dnm ia nndentood to be meant; and if the 

^ Blum BDlphate, Soda a. is alui 

and aodlom anlpbote, Ammvaia o.^ alumlnu 

and patassinm' Eulpbate, KiSOt.A]t(SOt)i + 
34BtO. The A. (Ala'toen) of the U. 8. and 

taste, w 

na^ Uiat of the B. P. includes 

, andanunotiiaa. Both these a's 

oolorlev emtala of sweetish astringent 

'hiofa on nesting are converted into a 

ia«i (btmt or dried a., Ala- 

U. 8., B. P., Alumen uatum, 

a of poisoning, in dooea of 1-S S (gni. 

4-8V and locallf in solution, in substanee, oi 
as Qlfoerite of a. {OlycerC num atu'minit, B. 
P.), as an astringent and mild caustic for leu- 
eorrhoea, pharyngitis, oonjunctivitiB, olceis, 
and granuIatioDB, and as a nam: ------- 

d granul 

Alumina (al-eVmee-nah). Aluminum oxide, 
AliOi, the crygtalline form of which is the 
mby, sapphire, and corundum. 

Alnmlnated (al-ew'mee-na;-t«d). [L. alu- 
■H'nofuf, fr. alCmen. alum.] Containing or 
combined with alum ; as A. copper (see Cop- 

Altunlnliun (al"ya-niin'ee -um), Alnmlitol 
(a-lew'mee-nol). See .4/u?ninuin, Alumnol. 

AlnmllwiU (a-lew"mee-noh'sis). {Alvmina 
+ -o***-] Impregnation of the tdssaeB with par- 
ticles of clay or of alumina. 

Aluminum (a-lew'mee-num). fL., fr. alu- 
in«R.] A whitish lastrous metal like dnc, not 
readily tarnished, very light (ap. gr. 2.67), and 
very malleable and ductile; hence, nsed as a 
■DMtitale ftr silver in the manu&ctnre of in- 

struments. Atomicweight, 27 ; mdting-point, 
yWC. Thongh really quadrivalent, it ai-U 
in compounds like a triad ; e. g., A. chloride, 
AI.C1.. IS really a. = Al-Al = CI.. MetaUic a. 
has been used in phthisis in doses of gr. 0.35 
(gm.O.OlS). A. uetate (Alumini ace'tas.A. 
ace'ticum), a basic componDd, Ali(OB).- 
(C]IIiOi)i, of a. and acetic acid ; its solution 
{Ligvor aluminii aeelici. G. P.) ia an astrin- 
gent and deodorant. A. acato-slyce'rat«, A. 
acetO'tar'trate, compounds used as anttsei^cs 
and astringents in diseases of the naso-pharyni. 
A. boro-tannate, cutol. A. boro-tartrata, 
boral. A. chloride (Alumini chlo'ridum, A. 
chlora'turo), AltCI», a frystalline substance 
nsed in solution as a disinlectant and deodor- 
gallat«, gallal. A. bydrate, A. liy- 

droxlda (AInmini hydras, U. 8., Argilla pura, 
Argilla hydrata), Ali(OH)a, a white amor- 
piiouB powder used internally in doses of 3-6 

gr. (gm. 0.2-0.4) as an antacid and absorbent, 
and externally as a drying and protective 
agent. A. napbthol-solpliouata, alumnol. 
A. nitrate (Alumini nitras, A. nitricum), 
Ali(NOg)a-)-18HiO, is used in solution for 
pruritus viilvee. A. olaata is used in ointment 
as an astringent in sltin-diseases, ulcers, and 
bums. A. salicylate, salumin. A. liUoataB, 
compounded of a. and silicic acid, form the 
various clays (kiaoUn, bolaa alba), and topac 
and other minerals. A. inlphate (AInmini 
sulphas.U. S., Aluminium Bulfu'ricnm.Q. P.), 
Ali(S04)i + ISHiO, a crystalline substance 
nsed in 6 per cent, solation as a local stimu- 
lant, astringent, and deodorant^and in stronger 
solutions as a mild caustic. The componnd 
sulphates of a., aa A. and ammonium ttuphtUe 
(Alumini et ammonii sulphas) and A, and 
peiatrnvm talphaie (Alumini et potanii sul- 
phas), are the alums. A. stilpliooarlralale, 
BOEsl. A. tannate, tannal. 

Alnm'nol. [A Irtmin'mm -f -ol.'\ Alnmi- 
nnm naphthol-sulphonate, a whiUsh powder, 
nsed as a spray in laryngitis and rhinitis and 
in 0.6 to_ 10 iier cent, solution a 

AlTM-den'tal. Between the alveolar wall 
and (he tooth ; as A.-d. periosteum. 

Alreolar (al-vee'oh-lar). [L. alveola' ne.'\ 
Of or pertaining to an atveolus, as A, abscess ; 
containing alveoli, as an A. sarcoma. A. cax- 
dnoma, colloid carcinoma. A. arohas, the 
arches formed by the front edges of the A. 
MdgBS, i. e,, the A. procsaaof the superior 
maxilla and the A. border of the inferior 
ma^iilla which contain the alveoli of the teeth. 
A. point, the middle point of the npper a. 
arch. A. artary, a branch of the internal 
maiillary distributed to the upper teeth. A. 
Index, see Index. A. paaaaKss, the ultimate 
or intralobular bronchioles (air-sacs) into 
which the alveoli of the lungs empty. 

AlTeolvs (al-vee'oh-tus). [L.dlminuliveof 
aheat.s, channel.] A small recess or saccu- 
lated depression. A. Of the Jawe, one of the 
depressions lodging the teetlj, " A. ,^^ lUie 


Inngt, an air-rell. A. of tlia stamAelt, one of 

the honeycomb-like {leprvssioun of which the 
mucODB membmne of (he stonuieh is made up. 

Al7«iKiil«t'i pnmp (ahl-Tayrn-yahz). [Fr. 
AleerffHiatj ita maker.] A mercurial air-pump 
for eitractiDg gases from the blood. 

AlvllM (al'veyo). (L. alri'mu, fr. ahiu, 
belly.] Of. pertaining lo, or iJeriveilfrom the 
belly or inteHtioes ; tui A. discharges. 

Amaertiu (a-raak'nti). [A- + Gr. mdhroi, 
long, + is (gen. ino»), filameut.] WithOQt or 
appttrently without axis-cylinder proecM; as 
A. edit, certain nerve-eells with richly branch- 
inf> dendrites, in the inner nnclear layer of the 

AbmI'kuu. [Probably fr. Gr. mnlagma, a 
poultice or planter.] Aa alloy of mercury 
and another metal ; e. a.. Zinc a. (amalga- 
mated line), an alloy of zinc and mercury. 
A'b are Bfnary when the inercurj; is com- 
bined with one, rer" nary when combined with 

Amkl'gamata. To convert into an amal- 
gam ; to combine with or coat with mercury, 
as the iinc plates of a galvanic battery. 

Am&nltina (H-man'ee-leen). An alkaloid, 
now identified with choline, obtained from the 
Amanl't* mnaca'Tta (Agaricus muscariua). 
_ Amaxa (a-may'rsh). [L.] Bitter prepara- 

Amutla (a-mas'Cee-ah). [_A- + Gr. mattoi. 
breast.] Absence of the breasts, 

Amatorlna (ani"a-toh'ree-as). [L. (mi«- 
ewiia, understood), = the lorer's muscle.] 
The superior oblique, because used in ogling. 

AiiiaiiraiU(Hm"aw-rah'Bis). [Gr.,fr. antau- 
njei'i, to make dim.] Total blindness ; par- 
ticularly, blindness occurring without observ- 
able change in the eye. It is designated ac- 
cording to the site of the causal lesion [e. g., 
Cer'ebral a.. Spinal a.), or according to the 
nature ofthe latter (e.g., Urirmica.). A. par- 
tla'lli rngax, scotoma scintilltuis. 

Amaurotic (am"aw-rot'ik). Of, pertaining 
to, or characterized by amaurosis. A- eat't 
eya, glioma of the retina. A. Idtocy, see 

An'ber. lL,ambra,amliraflai^,>uccinuta.1 
A fos^l resin. Wing the exudate of several ex- 
tinct spceicsof Conifenc; a hard, yellowish or 
reddish, translucent, amorphous mass. On 
distillation it fumishes succinic acid auil oil 
. (O'leum suc'cini), an acrid liquid of 


cough, and amenorrho>G 
Am'bergTli. [^ L. a 

5-20 gr. (gm. 0.30-1.2S). 

AmlJldex'trovi. [L. ambidexter, fr. amb«, 
both, 'rdtiler, right.T Able to use Wie two 
iiands with equal facility. 

Amblyopia ({em"blee.(ih'pee-ah). [Gr. am- 
£/iM, dull, and op*, sight.] A dimness of sight; 
particularly, weak vision unaccomponiea by 
organic changes in the eye and incorrigible by 
glasses. It may be congenital, occurring then 
with other congenital defects of the eye, or ac- 
quired, and then due to prolonged disuse ofthe 
eye (A. ax anop'ala, A. tuna alanss), as from 
strabismus or cataract; Co peripheral irritation 
(Keflex *..): or to central causes, as in Hyi- 
t«r'leftl a,, Henraatheti'lo a., and Tozle a. 
(the latter including particularly A. aleohoV- 
iea. from chronic poisoning by alcohol, and 
A. •nicotiW iea atTobaiMoa,,, from excessive use 
of tobacco). CrosiMl a., one-sided a. asso- 
ciated with bemi-aniesthesia of the same ude 
of the body. 

Ambroala (icm-broh'zee-ah). A genus of 
herbs of the CompositiE. The pollen of A. 
arltmitia/c/ lia, rag-weed or hog-weed, is be- 
lieved to cause hay-fever. 

Ambnlaaoe (lem'bew-Ians). [L. ambuld'r«, 
to walk.] 1, A movable hoapitaJ for follow- 
ing the army in the field. 3. A wagon {A. 
Wagon) or other vehicle on wheels for trani- 
porting the mck or injured. 

Ambulant («m'bew-lant). AmbnlaUns 
(oim'bew-lay-ting), AmbnlatcoT (lem'bew-la- 
toh-rec). [*6u/dn».l 1. Walking about ; 
moving about from one place to another; mov- 
able, as A. clinic; of a disease, travellini from 
one spot to another, migrating. 3. Allowing 
the patient to walk about; a£ A. typhoid fever, 
A. plague. 

Ambuitio(a:m-bus'tee-oh). [L.] A bum. 

AmaDa, Amebic. See Anueba, Atacebic. 

Amalia (a-mee'lce-ah). [A- + Gr. mtlot, 
limb,] Congenital absence ofthe limhs. 

Am'elni. {A- + Gr. mrAu*, limb.] 1. 
Amelia. 9. A monster deatitute of limbs. 

Amenomanla (a-mcn"oh-may'uce-ah). [L. 
uniiEnH*, pleasant, +iHonin. madness.] Mono- 
mania with pleasant delusions. 

Amenorrli(Ba(a-men"oh-rce'ah). [.^. + Gr. 
mfn, amonth,andrAe«n, toflow.] Abnormal 
absence ofm — ' — *■ — 

len'shee-ah). [<1- -^ L. mens, 

mind,] Mental deficiency ; idiocy. 

Ametrom'eter. [-mf.lcr.'\ An instrument 
for measuring ametropia ; particularly, one in 

and character ol 


AmlL Symbol for mixed a^^atiam with 
the myopia predominant. 

Amide (a'mwd, B'mid]. [Am-moum + -iiU,} 
One of a group of compoandH formed from am- 
monia by tlie aqbatitution of an acid-radicle 
for the Hydrogen. Called Mon'amidei, Di'- 
amidei, Tri'amidtt, or Ttiramidft, according 
a« they are formed from one, two. three, or 
roar molecDlcfl of ammonia ; and Primary a'l 
(or simply A'l), Secondary a'a or inii(j«, and 
TartlaiT a'a or mtrili, accorditig as one, two, 
or three atoms of hydrogen are replaced in 
rarh ammonia molecule. 

Amldlu. [F. amidon, starch, + -tn.} One 
of the component parts of a atarch-gninule. 
SotubU a. (or simply A. J, amylodeitrm. In- 
tobttU (or Tigumtniary) a., amylin. 

Aml'do-. {Amide.'] A preGi placed before 
the Dame of a compound to indicate a modifi- 
cation of the latter produced by the sabatitu- 
tion of the radicle Nlli for hydrogen. It ia 
particDlarlT applied ts acids (Amldo-acidi^ . 
denoting tLen a replacement of hydrogen in 
the acid radicle by NHt. Thus, Amldo- 
»M'iie vAA {see Glj/eociiHi); Amldo-capTo'lo 
wdd (aee Leucine); Amido-IOT'mio add (see 
Carbamic acid). Ainldo-ben'iAue (Amido- 
b«u'Ml), see AniliTie. 

AmldOfen (a-mid'oh-ien). {Amide (for Ist 
def.lor F, atnidon, starch (for 2d def ) , + -gen.l 
1. Tbe univalent radicle NHiof the amidea 
and the amido-compounds. 3. Amylodeitrin. 

Amidvllll (a<mid'ya-lin). Amylodeitrin. 

Amlm'l*. [A-+ Gi. mimealhai.lomimic.] 
Inability to make gestures or signs correspond- 
ing to one's thoughts. It may be Atsx'lc, 
when lliere is absolute toss of the power of 
making gestores; or Anme'aic, when gestures 
can be made, bat the meaning attaching to 
them is no longer remembered, so that gestures 
can be imitated, but not initialed. 

Amine (a'meeD,a'min). [Am-monia +-ine.J 
A base derived from ammonia by the substi- 
tution of a basic radicle for hydrogen. Called 
Sfonaminet, DiataiTia, SYiamina, and Trtra- 
nttiiei, according as the number of molecules 
of ammonia in the a. is one, two, three, or 
four; and PrimAry, SaeondAry, or TerUkry 
according as one, two, or three atoms of by- 
drogen are replaced in each ammonia mole- 
cule. The a's include probably most of tbe 
alfcaloids, ptomaines, and leucomaines. Like 
ammonia, they combine (apparently) directly 
with acids to form salts. See Ammonia. 

Am'lnol. An antiseptic solution containing 
trimethylamine and other an balances. 

Amitotic (am"ec-tot'ik). fA- + Gr. mitoi,a 
filament.] Not occurring by earyoeineais ; 
said of cell-division. 

Ammonl* (a-moh'uec-ab). [Fr, Jupiter 
Ammim, because ammonium chloride was ob- 
tained from near his temple in Libya.] A 
colorless gas, NIIi, of veiy penetrating odor 
and acrid taate. A. dissolves in water, form- 


ini'ffl, U. S., Liquor ammonite, B. P., Liquor 
auimonii caus'tici, U. P., all containing lOper 
cent, by weight of a.; Aqtia ammtmia/orttor, 
U. S., containing 2S, and Liquor ammonite 
for'tior, B. P., conttliningSS.S percent, of a,}. 
Strir'itiu ammonia, V. S., an alcoholic solu- 
tion containing 10 per cent, of a.; dose, 10-30 
m (gm. O.eO-2.00), SinyUiis ammonim 
aromalficui, V. S., B. P., an alcoholic 
solution of neutral ammonium carbonate and 
several volatile oils; dose, Sga-J (gm. 2-4), 
Spit'iltu ammonia felfiilui, B. P., contains 
aaafetida; dose, Jss-l (gm. 2^). Liquor am- 
monii anita'ttu. G. P., conUina anise ; dose, 
1-23. Linimen'tum aumumiir, V. S., B. P., 
and Linimen'tum ammoniato-camphora'tum, 
(i. P, {lAnimentum cam'phora compo^ilum, 
B. P.), are used as rubefacients and counter- 
irritants. The preparations of a. are used as 
antacids and stimulants in acidity of the 
stomacb and ardor urins, and in headache 
and hysteria. In composition a. is a bivalent 
radicle, uniting first with one atom of hydro- 
gen to form the univalent radicle ammonium, 
NHt. and then with a univalent radicle, e. g., 
chlorine. Sucb compounds were formerly re- 
garded as direct combinations of a. with an 
acid ; e. g.^the compound NII.CI was thought 
to be Nlli.nCl and was called hydrochlorate 
of a.; but it is now looked upon as being 
H.NH1.CI (a. hydride chloride), or, what is 
tbe same thing, NHi.a = ammonium chloride. 
A.-aliun, see Alum, 

AmmoulAD (a-mofa'nee-ak). [L. ammonf- 
acam, U. 8., B. P., G. P., fr. Jupiter Ammion, 
near whose temple it was obtained.] Gum 
ammoniac ; a gum-resin occurring in little 

B'obnies (tears) or cakes, derived from the 
orema Ammnniacum of Persia. AftlOKQ »: 
is derived from the Ferula tingitana. . A. is » 
stimulant erpectorant used in bronchitis and 
asthma ; dose, 10-.tOgr,(gm. 0.60-2.0). EmvU 
mm ammoniaci, U.S. (Mistu'ra ammoniac!, 
B.P.), iBgivenindoaesofl-2 3 (pm. 0.3-0.6). 
Empiiuflrum ammoniaci cum hydrar' gtrro, 
U. 8., B. P., is used as a counter-irritant in 
rbeumatism and pleurisy. 

Ammonl»c»l(am"moh-ney'B-kal). [ 
moniaca' li>.] Containing ammonia, as A. 
compounds ; like ammonia, as an A. odor. 

Ammonlaoo- (am"moh-ney'a-fcoh-). Apre- 

fii ;.._... 


. as. \. tincture of guaiac. A. glyoyx- 
ihliUi (Olycyrrhizi'num ammonia'tum, U. 
S.), a very sweet eryslallinesulwlance, conalst- 
ing mainly of ammonium gljeyrrhiialej NII*.- 
ChH(jN0i9, obtained by treating liconce-root 
with ammuuiH. Used like liconce. A. m«r- 
cnry, see Jtercury. A. copp«r (Cuprum am- 

m), copper and ammonium Bulphale. 



„ -- compounded with am- 

m ; aa Anunonlo-ciilorldtti Ammonlo- 
•illliltkte, a chloride or milphate eombinol 
with ammonium chloride or Bulphate. Am- 
monlo-feiTtc. AmmOQlO-ROdlC, cotitaining or 
eom^undcd with Brnmcmium and iron, am- 
moDiDm and sodium. 

Anunonlnm ^a-moh'nee-uni). [Jmmania + 
•tum.J The uoivalent radicle NHi assuDied to 
niat in thecompoandeof ammonia with acids. 
See Ammonia. Thu compounda of a. are 
clawed with those of sodium, potassiuiii, aud 
lithium, which thej resemble m their diffusi- 
bility and antacid properties ; but, as thej are 
retkdU; decomposed with the evolution of am- 
monia, they aUo eiert a powerfiil but transi- 
tory stimulant eBect upon the heart and res- 
Cation, and, being excreted by the lungs, 
p to liguelj the bronchial secretion. A. 
MeUte, NHi.CiHiOi, is used as a refrigerant 
Knd diaphoretic especially in fever. Doae of 
■olatioD ILiqtmr ammonit aceia'tU, V. S., 
B. P., Liquor ammonii acet'ici, G. P.), 2-~g 
5(mi.8-30). A. b«n'«0*t« (Ammonii ben' H>- 
«, U. 8.J B. P.J A. benio'ioum), NHi.CtHsOi, 
is used in onnarj derangements, especially 
phosphaturia, and in rheumatism ; dose, 10-20 

Er, (am. 0.60-1.26). A. bromide (Ammonii 
ro'midum, U. 8., B. P., A. broma'tam, G. P.), 
NHt.Br, is ased in epilepsy, delirium tremens, 
whooping cough, and rheumatism ; dose. 5-30 

S. (gm. 0.3-2.0). A. um'iiliorats, NHt.Ci»- 
LtOt, is used as a sedative ; dose, 3-4 gr. (gm. 
0.2). A. cu'bonAte {A. leiqaiearbonate, 
Ammonii carbo'nss, U.S., B, P., A. carboo'- 
kam, G.P.), is a compound, NHt.HCOi-NHi.. 
CXDi.NH, of Acid a. carbonate and A. carba- 
mate ; used as an expectorant in bronchitis 
and pneumonia and as a cardiac stimulant in 
all sorts of adynamic conditions, in poisonine 
by snake-bites, and in atcolioltsm ; dose, 2-10 
8T. (gm. 0.13-0,60). XieiUral a. carbonatt 
(NHijtCOi, forma the active constituent of 
Aromatic spirit of ammonia. A. cUoTlde. or 
sal ammoniac (Ammonii chlo'ridnm, U. 8., B. 
P., A. chlore'tura, G. P.), Nn,.Cl, a crystal- 
line substance used in dosew of 5 gr. (gm. 0.3) 
as a stimulant expertorant in bronchitis and 
pharyngitis and to lessen secretion in Icucor- 
rhcea.andin doses oflO-20gr.(gm. 0.60-1.25) in 
neuralgia, rheumatism (particularly muscular 
rheumatism), amenorrhtea, and dysmenor- 
rti<ea. A. and iron chloride (A. chlora'tum 
ferra'tum, G. P.), Ammonii etferri chloridum; 
dose, 3-10 p-. (gm. 0,2-0.6), is used in scrofula 
and auEEmia. A. ettrate, compound of a. and 
citricaoid, occurring in lAqttor ammonii cilra' - 
««,B. P.,doseofwh]chis2-6 3(gm.S-2,'>). A. 
CT^Miate, NII(.O.CX, a crvstalline substance 
isomeric with urea and nspd for preparing the 
latter BvnthetJcally. A. cy'ulle, 
exceedingly poisonous body. A. am'bslato, 
CsHiiOi-NHi. used to expel tape-worms; dose, 
6-lOgr. (gm. 0.5). A. flvorlda, NH.F, an anti- 
periodic and used in hypertrophy of spleen and 


in goitre ; dose, 0.04-0.15 gr.'in dilute solution. 
A. glroyn-hl'ute, ammoniated glycyrrhiiin. 
A. hydroililpUdo, NB(.SH, used as a test in 
solution. A. iodide (Ammonii iod'idum, U. 
8., A. jodatum), NHi.I, forms while cryst^s, 
need like other iodides and especially as a local 
resolvent applicSition ; dose, 1-10 gr. (gm. 
0.06-O.eO]. A. molyVdate, a substance (NHi)>- 
MoOi, nwd as a test. A. nitrate (Ammooii 
nitras^ U. 8., A. ni'tricnm), NHt.NOj. is used 
in making nitrous oxide gas. A. ox'uate (A. 
oxal'icum). (NH.)i(CiO0+H,O,ia used in so- 
lution asatest. A. phOBpIuite [Ammonii phoB- 
phas, B. P., A. phosphor' icqm),(NH.)i:HPO^ 
forms transparent crystals, used in gout, rheu- 
matisni, and diabetes; dose, 10-20 gr. (gm. 
0.60-1.2.^), A. plorata (A. carbazotatt), C*Hr 
(NOt)i.O.NHi, is used in exophthalmic goitre; 

ant ; dose, 2-10 gr. (gm: 0.13-0.60). A, illl- 
pholoh'tbyolAte, ichthyol. A. tArtrAte, com- 
pound of a. and tartanc acid, used as expec- 
torant; dose, 6-30 gr. (gm. 0.3-2.0). A. 
thioejr'ftnAte, NHi.BCN, used as a test. Aciif 
A. unta. NH4.CcUiN,09, occurs in alksUne 
urine and sometimes in urinary calculi, and 
has been used medicinally. A. Tale'rtaiiat* 
(Ammonii valeria'iias, U. S.), NH..CsH.Oi, 
is used in neuralgia, hysteria, and headache; 
dose, 2-10 gr. (gm. 0.10-0.60). 

Am'moBOl. Acetanilide loosely combined 
with ammonia; used like aoebinilide, but 
more stimulant. Doae, 3-10 gr. {gm. 0.2-0.6). 

AmnailA (am-nee'thee-ah). [A- + Gr. mni- 
*ti, memory.] Loss of memory ; particulBrly, 
an impairment in the expression of ideas, dne 
to a &ilnre to rememt>er the right words (Tar- 
bal a., or Amnesio aphasia). It may be 
caused by disease of the left angular, supra- 
marginal, aud posterior half of upper temporal 

Amneilo (am-nee'tik). Of, pertaining to, 
affected with, or characteriicd by amnesia ; a> 
A. aphasia, A. amimia. 

Am'nlon. [Gr., fr. amnit. a lamb, becaose 
first observed in lambs.] A membrane de- 
veloped fhim the somaloplenre in the second 
week of fetal life, and afterward constituting 
oneof the fetal envelopes. It begins anderthe 
form of folds upon the ventral asjKct of the 
embryo, surrounding the embryonic area like 
a shallow wall. These folds arch over the back 
of the embrj'o, and finally meet, forming a 
closed SRC, the amniotic cavity, which lies 
between the a. and the embryo and contains a 
somewhat turbid fluid, the amjiiotlc fluid or 
lAqaoT amnii. The latter contains mineral 
salts, lactates, and alittlc urea, and is probably 
the product of fetal excretion. The a. is com- 
posed of two layers, on inner layer (Traa a.. 
or simply A.) envelopingthe fetus and iKiDnd- 
ing the amniotic cavity, and an onter layer 
(Falie a., subiooal membrane), which be- 
comes separated from the inner and is closely 
attached to the lona pcllucida. The true a. ii 
term Gils the uterus and forms a metnbrwions 
bag {bag of loiters) surrounding and protecting 



tbc fttiw and lioing the nmbilical cord. It 
hdpa to dilate the m uteri at deliver;, and 
■fler the mpture of the a. the eBcapiDg amni- 
otic fluid lobricatea the parts and fiicilitates 

Amttba <a-mee'bah}. [L.^ fr. Gr. amotboi, 
chahring.] A. genDB of micnwcopic o^an- 
imna DelonnDK to the Pratoioa. An a. con- 
■iati of a ttogle nucleated c«ll which is ci>m- 
powd of granalar protoplaaoi, and keeps 
changing its ahape hy sending out irr^pilar 
pro ccMCJ g (Mendf^iodia) from various parts of 
i(a drenmference. B; this change of ahape 
the a. is enabled to move fhtm place to place 
(Ania'lioU moTament) and to envelop parti- 
eles of foreign matter. J, eo'i, a species found 
in the large intestine either normallv (A, coli 
eommonis), or in a peculiar form of dysentery 
which it causes (A. coli dysenterica, A. 
dvMnterite). A. mieai/ndu causes dfsentery 
Of tarkeyB,aDd another species has been found 
in oateomjelltis of the jaw. A, tnala'ria (A. 
lisbria qnartaiiK. A. febris tertians), the Plaa- 
■Mdinra maUrae. A. tuvgeiMa'lU, speciea 
found in the niine and vagina in bcmalaiia. 

AaiMMe (a-mee'bik]. Pertaining to or con- 
Uioing amnbc, as A. diseharges ; prodaoed 
bj or •swciated with amieb*, as A. dysen- 
iirj. A, abaoesi of liver. 

Anuiboaporidlnin (a-mee"boh-spoh-rid'ee- 
un). l^pon-l A cancer cell wh^ regarded 
as a paiikfiii« organ. 

A]iuibnila(Bni''ce-bew'ree-ah). [Or. ounm, 
■rine.] Hie discharge of ammbn in the nrine. 


iwr'hs). U'+Gr-m 


,ji- +Gr. jnorpi 

torm.] nkapeless;cxhibitinKaoregalar,fixt 
4r dennile shape ; nDn-cryitallin^ 

iBiatto (a-noh'ahci 
T«f IBM, detachment 

A]llMnK*(Bni-payr'(0). TlieBtTengthofaD 
dactne cnrretit in ampbes. 

*nip*ie(ahn-per,»m.pByt'), \¥t. Anpin, 
llie F. electrician.) A wel>er ; the unit for the 
nwaaareneot ot electric currents, being the 
ewncnt carried for one second against a resist- 
ance of one ohm by an electro-motive force of 
one volt. Hence, Amp«rain«tar (tem-payr'- 
mee-tur) [meter], inhtrumentfor measuring the 
number of a's in an electric current. 

iltbDgo ...... - . ., 

.leartlculareitremities are connected togethp: 
by flbroK«rtilage either direct)/ (ii ' 

bral articulations) c 


pobic Bymphyses). 

star], adiaaler, see Caryitcinaii. AtapUealooa 

(-ae^luB) [Or. i-wVoj, hollow], hollowed 

both of two opposite surfaces, ai ' 

vertebrw. AmpUcreatlne (-kr 

irtcu, flesh, -I- -I'lir], a teacomaii 


amphiarthroms and diarthrosis. 

found occasionally in the i 

is both 


1 [Gr. itoma, month], genu 

Amphistoma i.. _.. ._ 

In the cecum and colon. 

AmpUtrlclion* (Ecm-Gf ree-kus) [Gr. thrii, 

hair], haviog a flagellum at each pole; said 

of bacteria. 

Ampho- (am'Toh-) [Gr. ampU, both], 

trefii meaning Iwth. Ampboalbiiinois (-al'- 
ew-moha), an albumose (either proloalbu- 
moee, heteroalbumose, or deulerwilbumoee) 
which by digestion is converted into ampbo- 

Gptone. Impliopep'tona, the mixture of 
mipeptone and antipeplone produced by 
digestion of proteids in the stomach. AmphD- 
phll« (lem'foh-lil} [Gr. p&il<ein, to love], 
staining with both acid and basic dyes. 

Amphoric fiem-for'ik). [L. am'phora, a 
wiDe.jar.] Of or pertaining to a bottle. A. 
bubble, a sound like the babbling of Uqnid 

EDured out of a bottle, heard s 
ydro-pneumotlioraz when the patieDt is made 
to lean forward. A.raaonanea (A.percnsuon), 
tee JUtonanee. A. rMplnitlon (A. brealhinB), 
see JUtpirtOton. A. toIm (A. echo), A. wlila- 
par, see Vocal itgn*. TabU of. 

ir-us) . [Gr. anuiAot- 

__ _ . .._ , ,. ,_.. OBMlAot- 

— , belonging to both ddes.] Doublc'dded ; 
having opposite chaTactera ; as A. muffim, a 
reaction exhibited by some subatancea (e.g., 
sometimes by the urine) which tnra blue 
litmus paper red and red litmus paper blue, 

AmpIltmlB (Em'plee-tewd). [L. amplitSio, 
fr. omp/iM broad.]^ Width ; breadth ; partjcti- 
larly, the breadth or range of excursion of a 
body moving in a fixed path ; as the A. of W- 
bnUi'on of a tuning-fork or of the oscillating 
particles of luminiferous ether. A. of Mceom- 
modattoo, see AcammoSation. 


tioo, particularly thediuttationsat 
itiesof tbeieini'cireu/arcana^ oftheinlemat 
ear, on the peripheral extremities of the (ttfruM 
taciiferi beneatli the areola, and on the Fallo- 
pian tube near its fimbriated end. A. Of lao- 
tnm, the dilated portion of the rectum Just 
atiove tJie anus. See also Vater't a. and 
HenW* a. 

Amputation (iem"pew-tay'iihun). IT,, otn- 
putStio, fr. ampvtart, to fop off.] The re- 
moval of a projecting part, particularly an ex- 
tremity. A's may be producad by patholog- 
ical processes {Naiaral a., Spontamo'it a.), as 
in the fetus by the constriction of bands in 
utero {Ztijra-u (en'JK a., Coagen'ilal a.), or by 
gangrene ; by accident ( Traitmaiic a. ) ; or by 
design. According to the nnmber of parti 
involvad, a's are called Singlt. Double, or 
Multiple (Triple, Quadruiile) ; and a's in 
which two or more extremities are removed 
simultaneously by diSercnt operators, are 
called Stfn'chroninu. As to extent and lout- 
tlon, a's are either Complete, when the whole 
limb, or Partial, when a part or segment of it 
is removed. A Major a. is an a. of the whole 
orofalar^part of the arm, forearm, thigh, or 
leg; a Jftnor a. of thefingersorlo^. Thellne 


of a. may divide bone (A. in eonliiiuitu) or 
paw through a joi nt (A. in toiitigiill)/, D'nar- 
ticulation). Aa to tUna of pertormanca, a'a 
an- divided into Primary iApyrelfic)^ when 
iloDG for an injury before septic absorption and 
inflammatory reaction have Wkeo place; Sec- 
ondary (Intrapyrelic, or iHln-mtdiary), when 
done during tlie stage of septic infection and 
inflammation; Tertiary (or Chronic), when 
done after the sulNiidcnoe of the inflammatory 
reaction. AstomodeofperniTmaiica, a'sare 1. 
Circular, when a circular cut ix made through 
the sltin and then through tlic other hoU parts 
higher op; the skin being either allowed tore- 
tract like a cuff, or (in the Circularitiii-fiap 
a.J being turned back and sometimes also 
being spilt up on either side (Modified circu- 
lar a.). 2. By flaps {Flap a.), when the sofl 
parts below the tine of division are divided by 
obliqae inciaions into two or more segnientB 
(flaps), which are aflerwanl folded orer the 
bone. The flaps may be formed of skin and 
mnscle (musculo-cutaneous flaps), the oblique 
incision being carried all the way down to the 
bone; or of skin alone (cutaneous flaps)^ the 
niaEwies being divided hy a circular incision 
{Mixed a., SkinrjUiv a.). TtaU't a. {Reclan- 
ffular a.), one with a long rectangular mus- 
culo-cutaneous flap on one side ofthe limb and 
a short rectauf^lar flap on the other, Ocata,, 
one in which an oval incision is made by carry- 
ing the knife obliquely about the limb, so as 
to make a large flap on one aspect ofthe latter 
and a receding raw surface on the other, into 
which the Bap flts. Oilfoptiulic a., one in 
which two divided bone-sumoes are brought 
into contact, so as to unite in healing. Sub- 
pcriotteat a., one in which the cut end of the 
bone is covered over with a flap dJEsected up 
from the periost«um. Dry or Bioodlett a., one 
associated with little or no bleeding. For the 
spaoUl &'■ mx Cardtn'a a., Choparl't a., etc. 
Anraaia(a-mew'zce-ah). lA- + Or. moiuitf, 
music] Musical aphasia ; a condition com- 
prising flanaory a., in which the power of 
comprehending, and Holor a., in which tlie 
ability to express, musical sounds and ideas is 
deficient ; the deficiency not being due to any 
lesion of the peripheral motor or sensory or. 
OBoe. In sensory a. the patient has either lost 
his ear for music (Tone-deafnoi). or he no 
longer comprehends the significance of printed 
notes {^fotf-htindiifit). In motor a. the patient 
lias either forgotten how to sing in tune ( Vocal 

stand, musical symbols (JfunVn/ agraphia). 

jUil7»lla(»ro"ey-ee'Iee-ah). [A- + GT.mue- 
lot, marrow.J .\hsence ofthe Bpioal cord. 

Amrellnia (a-mey"ee-lin'ik). [,1- + Gr, 
nii«/(«, marrow, or i myftia.'] 1. Devoid of a 
spinal cord. 3. Destitute of myeli 


Almond. 3. The tonsil. 3. A lobule situated 
upon the Inferior an rfece of either hemisphere 
<if the cerebellum, behind the postnouutar 
fissure. 4. The amygdaloid nucleus. 


Amrg'dAlln. [L. amygdali' nam, b. amyg- 
dala f-i«.] Aglucosidc.CjoHnNOii +3HtO 
occurring in hitter almonds. It is decomposed 
hy the emutsin contained in the almonds into 
glucose and hydrocyanic acid, and is the 
source of the hydrocyanic acid in oil of bit- 
ter almonds. Decomposed by alkalies into 
Amygdal'lo aeld, CMtlieOii, and ammonia. 

Amygdallna (a-mig'da-lin). Pertaining (« 
or originnting from the tonsils ; as A. asthma. 

AmygdalltlB (a -mig" da-ley' lis, a-mig"da- 
lee'tis]. [Amygda/a + -ili*.] Tonsillitis. 

Amyg'd&lold. [Amjfgdala 4 -oid.i Almond- 
like I aa A. nucUtii, situated at the tip of the 
temporal lobe of the cerebrum. 

Amrs'dalollUi. lAmygdala + -tilh.'] Aeon- 
cretion in the tonsil. 

Amyg'dalotome. [Amygdala + -[ontt-i A 
tonsil lotome. 

Amygdalot'omr. [Amygdala + -tomy.'i 

Amyl (am'il). [Fr. ampfum because a. al- 
cohol is oblaiutd from starch.] The univa- 
lent redicle CtUi\. A. Hydride, CsHn.H, ia 
pentane. A. alcohol, CslIii.On (Al'cohol 
amyl'icum. Alcohol amyticus, G. P.), potato^ 
spirit, potato-oil, fiisel-oil, a colorless liquid, 
of suBbcatiug ethereal odor and burning taale, 
prepared by distilling potatoes. ltd ■-- - 

on ethereal, yellowish liquid, of peculiar fruity 
odor and pnngent taste. It occelerelea the 
heart's action, dilates the capillarica, and low- 
ers the blood-pressure, and is used to arrest and 
prevent spasm, especially in epilepsy, annua 
pectoris, and malarial chills, and ss an antidote 
in chloroform poisoning. Dose, 3-S dropejgm. 
0,20-0.30) by inhalation. A, ac'etate, CiHii.- 
CiHiO., A. vala'rl&nata, CsHii,C6n»0«, aro- 
matic liquids used as flavoring essences. 

Amylacaoue (am"il-ay'shiis), [L.amyla^- 
ceai, it. amylum.1 Starchy : like or contain- 
ing starch. A. oorpniclaa (Cor'pora amyla'- 
ceo), rounded bodies, looking like starch- 
granules; present normally in the brain and 
other organs ond particularly abundant in 
certain wasting diseases (myelitis, tabes). 



[Amyl -^ a. 

variety, ^Boamytanttnc. \\jtia}i--\..n.\^it%.\ji 
NHi, is a strongly alkaline^ colorless, very 
poisonous liquid, occurrinj; in cod-liver oil, 
and formed by the putre&ction of yeast, 

Amylasa (am'il-nys). [Amylv.m + -oje.] One 
of a group of enzymes that act to convert 
starch into sugar. The a'a comprise ntaltase, 
gran ulnae, and glucase. 

Amylene (ani'il-een). [Amyl + -cne.'\ A 
hydrocarbon, CtHio, occurring in several iao- 
inerio forms. Ordiuary a. (AmyVnam), 
which is a mixture of several varieties, is a 
volatile liquid of cabbage-tilie odor. It faaa 


been lued bj inhalatioD lU Hn aniesthetic, but 
may came death by paralysis of the heart. A. 
bydrita (AmyUnum hydra'tutn, G. P., A. 

aUohol. A. ytycot). aHii)(OH}i, a colorieia 

liquid of ethereal odor and . „ 

taste ; used as a hypnotic snd in epilepey. 
Dose, 15-00 m (gm. 1-4). 

of the glarch-groDule. 

Am'ylo-. [Amylum.l Prefix meaning of 
or pertaining to starch. 

iJnylWlK'tmi. [Dalrin.\ Soluble starch ; 
the soluble contents or granulose of the starch 
granule; a carbohydrate, (CiiIIii>Ow}u. 

Am'jloRirD). [ form-aldehyde.] A com- 
poand of formaldehyde and starch, used u a 
substitute for iodoform. 

Amrlosenlc (-jen'ik). [-genie.} Produc- 
ing starch. 

Am'Tlold. [•did,'] 1. Besembling starch, 
A. bodla*, seKAmylaceeu* corpniHa. A. de- 
Benerfttlon, a form of degeneration (waiy or 
albuminoid degeneration) in which a pecmiar 
proleid snb«tance (lardacein) ie deposited in 
the walls of the capillaries, and snbsequently 
in the celts of the ' 

suit of wasting disease, particularly phthi 
ry ■yphilia, and prolonged --" 

rt often aCTects Che liver, spli 

tertiary ■ 

snd prolonged suppuratior 


neys, which are larger, heavier, and denser 
than normal, look wax^ on section, and torn 
blue ou bcine treated with sulphuric acid and 
iodine or with iudigocannin. A. in1>ttanoe, 
of the older wril«rS| glycogen ; as now used, 
the substance deposited in a. dcKsneration, or 
lardacein. 3. ASected with a. degeneration ; 
asA. kidoev. a. The a. substance ; lardacein. 
4. An amy lose. 

AmTla-nltTOni ettaer (-ney'tms). Amyl 

AmylDpilD (au"il-op'sin). [Or. peptii, a 
cooking.] A ferment of the pancreatic Juice, 
which converts starches into sugar. 

Amylose (am"ll-ohs). [-Mr.] Any one of 
a class of carbohydrates comprising starch 
and similar substances. See Carbohydrate. 

AM'^lnm. [L. "Gr. amu/on.] Btarch. 

Amyoitbenla (a-mey^os.thee'nee-Bh, -thee- 
ney'ah). M- -<- Gr. tnu>, muscle, -I- *fA<no«, 
streogtu.] Deficiency of mnseular power. 

AmTOtropbla (a-nicy"oh-troh'fee-ah). rX- 
-f- Gr. mil, muscle, + Irep/ttin, to nourish.] 
Huscnlar atrophy. A. aplnalla prograsitTa, 
progTfflsive muscular atrophy {see Atrophy). 

AniTOtropliio (a-mey"oh-trof'ik). Associ- 
ated with muscular atrophy. A. lateral 
MlaroaU, a form of progressive muscular 
atrophy (see Alrop/iy), 

Amyottoptiy (am"ey-ot'roh-fce), Amyotro- 


An. Abbreviation for anode. 

An-. iiixA: 

Asa. [Gr.] An abbreviation meaning of 
each, equal parts of each. 

Anabloiii (an"o-bey-oh'8i8)^ [Or. aim- 
bioiriti, lo come to life again.] The resumption 
of Ainctional activity by an apparently lifeless 

Anabol'lo. Of. pertaining to, or endowed 
with anabolism. 

Anab'oUam. [Gr. ana. up, i- ballein, to 
east.] See Sftiabolitm. 

Anaear'dlnm. [L.] A genus of trees of the 
Terebinthaceee. A. occldenta'le, of tropical 
America, fiimishes the cashew nut, the acrid 
juice of which contains a vesicating principle, 
Cardol, CtillnOt, and is nsed for destroymg 
waria and corns and as a vermifuge. 

Anae'rotiini. [Gr. ana, up, -f krotoi, 

Sulsc.] The presence in a single pulse beat of 
istinct minor expansions preceding the main 
expansion. There may be one such minor ex- 
pansion {Anaditfrotitm,'], or there may be (wo 
XAtuUriifnHUm). Hence. Anftorot'le (.^no- 
dierot'ie, AyuUriero^ic), marked by a. (anadi- 
crolism, anatricrotism), 

Anaddlty (an"a-Bid-ee'tee). \_An- + a£id.1 
Lack of normal acidity ; aa Gastric a. 

Anadenla (an"a-dee'nee-ah). [jln- + Or. 
adcn, gland.} Absence of glands normally 
present. A. Teutrio'nll, absence or deficiency 
of the glands of the stomach. 

lo, Anadlo'ToUim. See Aiut^ 

(iin-ce"ma-loh'ai8l. {An- + 

hrenuit^t.1 Deficient or absent hssmalosis; 
speciScall;, pernicious anaemia. 

Alinnila(a-nee'mec-ah). [.<jn- -I- Gr. haima, 
blood.] BIoodlessnesB ; a stale in which the 
blood IB deficient either in quantity or quality. 
Local a., affecting a circumscribed part or or- 
gan, is due to interference with the local blood- 

.... , __iboli8m, thrombosis). OanarAl 

a., affecting the whole body, ie due to deficient 
supply of material for tlic blood in comparison 
with the demands of the system jmalnutrition 
fW>m any cause, protract^ fehnle and other 
wasting diseases, particularly tuberculosis and 
cancer). M diminished production or increased 
destruction of the blood-corpuscles (malaria), 
or to direct loss of blood ill/emorrhai/ie a., 
Traumalfic a,). Syhptomb Of a.; Fallorof 
the skin and mucous membranes, failure^ of 
physical and mental energy, cardiac palpita- 
tion, digestive disturbances, and the presence 
of systolic blowing murmurs (Anamtc bruit) 
beard usually at the base of the heart and in 
the arteries of Che neck, and of a continuous 
sound heard in the veins (venous 
eathent: relief of causal condition; 
tonics. A. Infan'tum pMndOlsn- 
cam'lca, a dJEtease of infiLols, probably only a 
variety of pernicious a. or of leucaimia, marked 
by splenic enlargement, leucocytcsis, and .the 


hum). Tr 


Eesence of all kinds of nbnnrniHl blood-cella, 
o'dlo A., TeiaR rattle Tevfr. Lymptiat'ic a.. 
{A. lyMphiUica), pseudoleucfmiB. KtnAT't 
*.., aDkylofltomiasiB. ProKreulTe venldona 
«. {Idiopath'ic a., EttKitiial a,. Ganglionic a., 
Mytlogentmt a.), chaniot<^rizrd by extreme 
diminution in the number nf erythrocTtea and 
by the ordinary Bymptoms of b., tu which are 
on«n added fever, <--^- - — j 

retinal hamorrhiiffeH. It is almoBt Invariably 
fatal in from six to thirty months. The best 
tt«Atment in hy arsenic and tonics. Bplenlc 
a. {A. tplen'ica, A. litna'lit), a &tal progres- 
■ive a. associated witli t!reat enlargement of 

Sleen without lenoocytoBis ; probably a variety 
pseadoleucffi mia. 

AUBinlc (a-nem'ik). Of, pertainini; to, 
caused by, or iaBociat«d with anaemia; as A. 
bruit (see Ayamia), A. in&rct (see Ir^farcl), 
A. necrosis (see Nterotii). 

Anfttioblc, AUBtt«bioUa (an-ay"nr-ob'ik, 
an-ay"ur-oh-bej-ot'ik). [.^n- + Gr. d*r, air, 
+ Wot, life.] Li vine beat without l^r or axygea. 
Henee, AuUrObe (an'Sy'ur-ohb), AluAroblon 
(an-ay^'ur-oli'bee-on), an a. organism. Aiutt- 
TOUoiia {an.ay"ur-oh-bey-oh'Bis), the Ktate of 
being a. 

■hah). [.dn- + Gr. au(A«{>^ Bensation.] To- 
tal or partial loss of Bensibilily, especially of 
tactile sensibility {IVietilea.). Leu freqaentljr, 
the term is used to denote abrogation of Uie 
other sorts of senaibili^, as Thermic a. 
(thermo-aDostheaia), Olfiuftory a. ( ^ loss 
of smell), QuilaUyry a. (^loss of taite , 
Jfiucular a. (absence of the muscular sensej, 
Visceral a. (absence of viaceral Bensationa). 
In Tot«l a. all varieties of sensibility are 
entirely abrogated in the affected part; ia 
Partial a. there is retention of some form 
of sensibility or of tactile sensibility in 
some degree. A. doloro'aa Is tactile a. as- 
sociated ivi^ pain in the antesthetic part. 
DlBiDcUt«d a., loss of sensibility to pain 
and to changes nf temperatun; with reten- 
tion of tactile sensibility. Fsyclilc a., a con- 
dition in which, though objects are felt, the 
senaationB they afford give no idea of their 
character. A. is also denominated according 
to the location of the lesion producing it ; as 
Spinal a.. Cerebral a. Oaneral a. is abroga- 
tion of Bensation all over the body : Local a. 
is confined to a limited area. Primary a., 
transient a. induced in a few momenta by the 
. adminlBtration of a very small amount nf 
antesthetic, Inllltration a., local a. induced 
by the injection of liquids, especially a solu- 
tion of cocaine, morphine, and common salt 
{Schleick'i aniatAfttc) into the BubHtance of 
the skin. A. is also used loosely, meaning the 
m of a.; as A. by the month, Rtictid a. 



iAnialhrtia + -mflfr.] 1. An ffisthef 
. A device for mesHuring the amount given 
of an aniesthetic. 

AnnttbeUc (an"es-the1'ik), 1. Affeeled 
with anieBtheaia; an an A. limb. 2. Pro- 


ducing anteatheaia. S. An agent prodtidng 
anasUiesia. A's are divided, according as 
they produce local or general ansesthcsia, into 
local (cocjiine, encaine, holocaiiie, orthotbrm, 
carbolic acid, and cold applied by ice or by 
the rhigoleue or ether spray) and ganeru 
(ether, chloroform, nitrous oiide, methylene 

The act of rendering anieBthetic or of placing 
under the influence of an anssthetic. 

AuNttlietlsa (a-nes'thee-teyz). To rmder 
aniEsthetic; lo put under the inflaenoe of an 
ansathetio. Hence, AuNc'tbatlHr, one who 
gives an auRsthetic. 

Anal (ay-nal). [L. ond'Si,] Of, pert^n- 
ing to, or Beat«d in or near the anus ; as A. 
nenralgJL A. &scia. A. reSex, a oontraction 
of the sphincter ani norrnally induced when 
the iJcin and mncons membrane of the aaoa 
are touched. 

Analap'tlc. [Qr. anaUpHiet.i Beatoia- 

Aaalgene (an-al'jeen). lAii- + Or. algot, 
pain.] Quinalgene. 

Analcaala {an"al-jee'iee-ah). Alosaof tho 
normal sensitivGness to pain. 

AaalfMlne (an"al-iee'imn). Autipjrrine. 

Aiulxatlo (aD"al-jefik), Alwlglo (ao-al'- 
jik). Analgesic. 

AuOogne (an'a-li^). A part which mem- 
bles another in fiinction, though not mjuMia lily 
in structure. Cf, Homologut. 

Analyser (an'a-ley-iar). In a polsrimeler, 
a Nicol prism which serves to eit^ngolah the 
ray already polariied by the polariier. 

Analyali (a-nal'i-sis). [Gr. awUutit, tr. 
aytatatin, ia unloose.] The resolntion of any- 
thing into ils components ; the determination 
of the parts of which a thing is made up. A. 
is Qualitative when it aims Bimply to deter- 
mine the kind of subetonces present in a com- 
pound ; Quan'tltatlTB when it determines 
their quantities or proportions. Quantitative 
a. may be conducted by weighing (ClrkVl- 
met'iic a.), or by measuring votumee of 
liquids (Tolnmet'ric a.), or by measuring 
vnlumea of gases (Oaiomet'ric a.}. A. is 
Orgaale or morgui'lo according aa the suh- 
stonces examined are organic (compounds of 
carbon) or inorganic. Prozllnate a. deter- 
mines the simpler compounds (proximate 
^inciplcs) of which a substance is compoacd ; 
intimate a. determines the elements fbrming 
it. ColoTlmet'rla a. determines the compoei- 
tioii of a substance (e. g., the blood) by the 
shade and intensity of its color, or the color of 
its derivatives; Bpectroscoplc a. (i^pectrum 
o.), by the character of its flpectnim, 

Anunnesla (^an"ftm-nee'sis). [Gr. - recol- 
lection,] The history furnished by a patient 
of his cose. 



prirattlhai, , . . 

exccffiire repeated eiereine of one pat ur uuc 
aet of muBcles ; as A. paralysU. 

AwuttiTiMUBlac (»D-af "froh-dii'ee^k), [An- 
+ Gr. Aphrodite, the ((Oddess of love.] Be- 
pivming Beinal desire; alw an agent bo 

AiukplAi'tlo. Of, or iwrtaiuing U) ana- 

Slasty ; replacing a deficieocy, s« A. flaps, 
.. opentioDB. 

An'aplastT. [Gr. anapUttiein, to ituhioD 
anew.] Tlie formation ofnew ports to replace 
a def cienc; ; the pnictice of plastic Burger; 
Aiuui'no(rapli, Anapnom'Btur. JOr. anap- 
noi, tmpitMioa, + graphtin, to write, or me- 
ter,] An instrument for measariug the velocity 
and pressure of the air-current in respiration. 
Ankpophrsla (an''a-pof'ee-Bi8). [Or. ana, 
ip, + apophytii.'] A process on a vertebra 
iDOTe, or, in the lower vertebne, behind the 

Aiuxltb'inlft. [Aii-+QT. arithntot, DDm- 
ber.] Inability to count. 

ABu'tbtl*. [^ »- + Or. aTihriOj a joining.] 
Inability to articnlate. ^. ^ttera' Jit, stammel'- 
ing. A. tpamuxffiea, A. iglktba'nt, stutter- 

ABmsai'ea. [Or. ana, up, and tarz, flesh.] 
Drops; of the cellnlai- tissue ; the etfumon of 
a serous liquid into the subcutaneous or sub- 
mucous connective Ussue, 

Awwar'eaaa. Dropsical. 

£e uret£iB opens on top of the penlt. 

AnaitomoaiB (a-iuta"toh-moh'Bis). PI. anas- 
toiBo'ses. [Or. anatlmtoein, to provide with 
a moutti.] 1. CommonicstioD of venelg with 
each other, either direct or effected by a 
braacii of calibre comparable to that of the 
vessels themselves, a. The production of a 
communication between any two hollow parts 
Dsnally distinct; as InU»'ti7iat a. (an opera- 
tion for making two parts of the ' ■ ■' 

naturally in juxtaposition ""—■"■■ 

<*.] Of . 
«flMed by anaatomous, as A. aneurysni ; 
effecting anastomods. Gr<a(a. twin (Trolatii's 
vein), an inferior cerebral vein anastomosinB 
with the middle cerebral and superior eerebnu 
and thus ealabllthing eommunlcaliDn between 
the cavernous and superior longitudinal sinu- 
ses. Poiterior a. vein (Lubbe's vein), a vein 
eflfectinK commnnicatiOQ between the cavern- 
ous and lateral sinuses. 

Anaitomat'lca ma«'n&. [L.] A bnuioh 
of the femoral artery. Bee Arterie*, Table of. 

Aitatom'lcal. 1. Of or pertainingto anat- 
omy or to dissec^on ; as A, tubercle (^ diasec- 
tlon-taberele). 3. Viewed ^m the standpoint 
of anatomy or the anatomist ; as J. ncc£ of the 


Anaf omlat. One skilled in analom;. 

Anat'omy. [Gr. analome, fr, analeinaein,t» 
cut up.] 1. The structure ofa living onanism or 
ofanypartof it; astheA. of a yertebiate. I. 
The science which treats of the structure of or- 
ganised bodies. Itrelateseithertothestructure 
and composition of the tissues and fluids of the 
bod; in general (Oenerala.J, or (o thedistinc- 
tive cliaracle™ of the individual parts and 
organs (DaicrlpUTe a.. Special a.). General 
a. ^ain comprises Hlnnta (or lUeroacoplaal 
or Hiltological) a., which is concerned witb 
the microscopical characters, and Oroas a., 
which relates to the macroscopical appear- 
ances of the tissut-ej and descriptive a. in- 
cludes Kaglonal (orTopograpIileal) a., which 
describes the parts cootaioed in certain regions 
of the bod; and their relations to each other. 
Practical a., a. studied by means of dissection 
and demonstration. Corrosion a,, the a. of 
organs from which parts not essential for dem- 
onstration have been removed by corrosive 
agents. A. isfurther classed, as HMlcal, when 
it serves to elucidato points eonnecled with the 
diagnosis and location of intiimsJ diseases; 
Snrgtcal, when similarly employed in the di- 
aKuoais of sQivical affections; OompaiatlTa, 
when used to demonstrato the similarities and 
diSereuces in structure between diflerent kinds 
of animals. Monual a., the a. of the normal 
bod; or organs; Morbid (or Pfttbologleal) •., 
the a. of parts altered by disease. 

Anatrleraf lo, Anatrlc'raUBm. See Anae- 

(an-aE"oh-tew'ree-ah). [.^n- + 
uxiKc Tur. inirtm, urine.] Deficient excretion 
of nitrogen (urea) intheurine, Thedeflciencj 
ma; be relative, as in hydruria, or absolute, as 
in renal inadequacy. 

AndiTloatB, AiuOiylaftonut. etc. BeeAniy- 
lotii, Aiilejiloitmiui, eto. 

AnconMni. Anoonans (anK"koh-nee'na). 
[Or. agkoa, the elbow.] See Mtuelet, Table of. 

pharyngeal n 
AlldrOBynouB(ieo-droj'ee-nus]. [L.ondro^- 

vntu — Gr. ancr, man, -t-^ne, woman.] Com- 

Andropogon (ien"droh-poh'gon). [Or. anir, 
man, +iiafKtn, beard.] A genus of grasses. 
Several species yield nagrant oils ; that of A. 

of India being theoii of ti«rACTUi,orof 

femon-frrOM (Oleum audropogi citrati). (-ayn). A suffix indicative of a sata- 
lated hydrocarbon ; i. e., of one in which the 
carbon has combined with it all the hydrogen 
atoms it can unite with ; particularly, indica- 
tive of a hydrocarbon of the fiktt; series (par- 
affin) ; e. g., meth-ane, hept-aae. 

Anelae'tnc. [^n- + etectric.l Old term for 
a non-conductor of electricit; ; so called be- 
cause it was thonghtthat such bodies could not 
be electrified. 



. , their- 

rilability oCa nervE taking plare at the anode 
when a galvanie current U pasxed throuf(l> the 
nerve. Henee, AnelactrMon'le, of or pertain- 
in c lo a. 

Anal'l oiwrKUOll (ah-nelz). [Ami, F. Bur- 
geon (Ifl78-173B).] See Aneiiryim. 

Anal'i lyiliis*. A Bjringe for washing out 
the lachrymal duct. 

Auamone (Bn"ce-iiioh'nw),Aneinoiilii(an"- 
M-moh'nin). IGr.anemoni.] Seel^Ualilta. 

AneneeplMlU (aD-en"see-lul'ee-Bh). [L. ^ 
An- + encephalon,} Abwncc of the brain. 

AnsBoaphal'le. Destitute of brain. 

Anarglc (an-ur'jik). [An- + Gr. rrgon. 
work.] Harked by or annucinled with laek of 
^ergy ; completely paHiive or non-rexJBlant ; 
a8.ll. tlujior, a form of liementia m irhieh the 
patient ib perfectly listleHS and non-resistant. 

Fashioned __ . „ . 

fluid ; OS an ^. barom'rlrr (i. e., one which 
conlainB no mercury ur other fluid). 

Aiietliiim(a-nee'thum). [L.-^Gr. anc'Aon.l 
A genus of herbs of (lie Uinbelliferffi furnish. 
ing dill, llenee An'etliene. a iiydrocarbon, 
C»Hi<, conUincd in oil of dill, and An'ethol 
a subiitunce, CioHnO. neeurring in oil of dill 
and anise both as a liquid and m solid form 

Ansnrysm, AnanrUm (nn'yuh-riim). [L. 
anrurytma - Gt. a»rurum»a. St. aneuriitirin, 
to dilate.] A snc filled with blood, formed by 
a circuTOScril>ed expansion of the coats of an 
arterv. A Trne a., or simply A., is one in 
which the wall of tlie sac is constituted by the 
arterial coats, at least one of which remains 
intact. A true a. is generally .%cn/ormj i. e., 
fbrmed of a pouch projecting from one side of 
an artery and eomiaunicating by a small open- 
ing with the cavitj' of the latter; but some- 
timea is C't/li'idrmd (tubular) or Ftiri/orm, 
when it is formed by a uniform dilatation in- 
volving the whole circumference of the vessel. 
A special variety of snccirorm a. is Her'ntal 
a., in which the sac iBformed by the inner coat 
projecting through a rent in the outer. A 
blnactlng a. is one in which the blood makes 
Its way between Ihe coats of an artery. A 
Fklia a. is one in which the arterial roat is 
ruptured at some point, and inclndes the 
SISqbs a., in which the blood is extravasated 
into the surrounding tissueii. and the Artarlo- 
TanonB a., in which the blood is poured into 
an adjacent vein either directly {Aneiiryimal 
varix) or through tiie intervention of » con- 
- - c{Varico><a.). Th" " " '- ' 

tunuB condition of smaller I 
Teasels and capillaries (A. liy anaatamoala, 
Anailoniatic a,. Spongy a., A. Taermnfim, 
angioma). JnORiUiN a's areTranmatlo {due 


to injuries) or Spantaneoni (or Endogenout). 
SxtMiial a's situated without Ihe body-cavi- 
ties, are named from the veswl a Reeled (Carotid 
a. Popliteal a., ete.). Intamal a'l, comprise 
Th€iracic a's, including A. of the hrart for a 
sacculated partial dilatation of the heart) and 
A. of the tnonicic a., or its main branehes: 
Abdominal it's (A. of the abdominal aorta and 
its branches) ; PfMc a'«,- and Intro-cranial 
a't (including Orbital a.). Symptomb of a. ; 
(I) Ad elastic pulsating tumor, diminished in 
size by presBureupon the tumorand the artery 
on the proiimal side of it, and increased by 
pressure upon the artery on the distal side; (2) 
an AiiruiT/fmal murmHr (bruil), heard over 
■be tumor; {3j signs of pressure (absorption 
of neighboring parts, pain, and paralyws from 
pressure upon nerves, etc.). Medicinal 
TREATMENT (used ID internal a'si : Absolute 
rest with starvation diet (Tufnell's, or, when 
combined with bleeding, Valsalva's method) ; 
potassium iodide. Sitkoical treatment: 
1. Excision of the sac (in ver^ small a's). 2. 
Opening of the sue and ligation of Briery on 
both proximal and distal sides (Autyllus's 
method), a. Ligation of artery either on 
proximal side close to the sac (.^nd'a method), 
or at some distance from Ihe sac (llunler's. or 
the usual method), or on proiimal side close 
to the sac (Itrasdor's method), or upon one of 
the branches of bifurcation of the artery (War- 
drop's method : confined to iDnominate a's). 
4. Pressure applied by instruments, by the 
fingers, or by forced flesion (in popliteal a.). 
R. Galvann-puneture, acupuncture, Slipunc- 
turc, or injection of the sac with styptics. A. 
neBdla, a nlont. curved needle for passing a 
ligature about an artery, 

AnaiiTTamal, AusiuIbiiuiI (an"7nh-rii'- 
mal). Of, pertaining to. or producing aneu- 
r;y-sm, as an A. tumor. A. dUttll'Mll, a con- 
dition predisposing to the production of aneu- 
rysms. A. TarlX, see under Aneurj/tn. 

AUBUTyamold (an"yuh-rii'moyd), [■oid.'] 
Aneurjsm-iike ; asA. (or Aneurysmal) varix. 

AngalO- ([en"iey^)h-). See Angio: 

Angallca (ien-jel'ee-kHb). [L.,fr. Gr.a 

t of it 


genusof hcrtsnf the Umbelliferw. The l 
of A. arctiaiigal'lca (ArehnngericaoffictDalts) 
of Europe, or Radix angelicte, G. P., contains 
a resin, Aogal'ldn, and the crystalliDe An- 
K«l'lc acid, Csl^sOi, and is used m bronchitis, 
gout, rheumatism, and intermittent fever. 
Dose, 10-30 gr. (gm.0,fi»-2,00). Spiritiu an- 
-"'- ^ompoililtu.Q.V.) c--'-' - — 

ADKlttti (!cn"jee-ey'tis. Kn"jee-ee'tis). [An- 
gio- + -!(».] Inflammation of a vessel. 

Angina (een'jee-nah). [L., fl-. Gr. agehonf, 
fr. agchrin, to choke.] Any etfection marked 
by suflbcntion or choking, and especially by 
spasmodic auSbcatire attacks; particularly, 





an affectioD of the fauc^ or pliarynx mi I'har- 
acteiiied; as A. arlkrit'ica, A. catarrhaf ii, 
A. eryiiptlati/ ta. A, rheumafica, A. learla- 
ftno'ia, gouty (cBlsrrhBl, eryBipeliitous, riieu- 
matic. or Bcarlatinal) pharyngitiB. A. con- 
vufn't'a, ffisophagiBinus. A. dip/ithfril' iea, 
diphtheritic pharyngitiH or larypgltiB. A. 
gangnmo'ta (Jfaliaiinnt a.). gnDgrFnous in- 
flammalion of Ihe faur'ia, A. mrmbratia' cea 
lA, trachea' III) , rrntip. A. iionKota'H {A. 
vleero'm), pharyn^tia iiIcemiB. A. p/ileg- 
mono'ia lA. lonttlla'rie), parenrhynuiloua 
toDiilUtiB. Betiign croitpoiii a,, pharyngitia 
herpetica, A. LndwlE'U (A. LndOT'lel), an 
acute puruleot inflaEniiiatian of the submaxil- 
lary coonective tiaeue. A. psc'birli, an af- 
fection characCcriztd by auddtn attacks of 
dyspntea and precontial distrewi, inteime pain 
beginning in the precordial rpgion and nuli- 
BtiDg up the sternum and down the arm, and 
k feeling of impending deiTlh. It oecuni either 
in conjunction with aortic unenryem and car- 
diac dineaxe (dilatation, degeneration, etc.), or 
idiopathically, and, according to Home, the 
term a. pectona is restricted to the latter ect of 
caaes. The direct cause of the attacks is said 
U> be Bndden spasmodic contraction of the ays- 
t«mia arteries. Often fatal, death occurring 
during theattacks. Treatment: amyl nitrite, 
nitroglycenn, or diffusible Btimulants during 
the attack ; tonic, dietetic, and hygienic mtss- 
ares in the intervals. 

Anginoaa (a:n'jee-DohB]. [L. anm'itnnjj.] 
Pertaining to angina; attended with severe 
inflammation of the fauces ; aH A. scarlet 

Anxio- ((en'jee-«h-). [Gr.a^irWan.aveeael.l 
A prefix meaning of or pertaining to a vessel. 
Also written Angrio-. 

Anglo-eaTanioaB tununr {-kav'ur-nus). A 
cavemouB angioma. 

Angio-cholitla (-koh-ley'tis, -koh-lee'tis). 
[Cftoi- + -Jft>,] Inflammation of the bile- 
eapillaries and bile-ducts. 

Angio-elepIuuitUaii (-el" 'ee-fan "tee-ay' - 
ris). A large, rapid ly-growing, simple angioma 
of the subcutaneous tissues, containing b large 

containing man; vaael 

Auglognpb (Een'jec-oh-gnef). [Gr. graph- 
em, t« write.] A variety of spbygmograph. 
A treatise upon 

trrae, bom, 
by belanEiectascs associated in groups and 
combined with thickening and hardening of 
the ejudermis. 

AnglolendU* (-lew-sey'tis, •lew-see' tis). 
[Gr. leutoi, while, -I- -iCtt.] Lymphangitis. 

Anglo-Utb'lc BUMmft. [G r. lith<n. stone.] 

Angiology (-oroh-jeel. {Aiiffio- t- -logy.J 
The science which treats of the vessels, or a 
BcienliGc discourse upon vessels. 

AngiolrmphomA (-lim-foh'mah). [Lymph 
+ -oma.'] A tumorcompose<lof lymph-venels. 

Anglama (Een"jee-oh'mah). [-oma.] A 
tumor composed of blood-vessels; compriung 
the Simple a., which is made up of a network 
of small aricries (Aneurysm by anastomosis) or 


... . tissue; and the CaT'emoiu a. (A.eavenu/- 
like the crectLle tiesuc of tlie penis, is made up 
of a framework of connective tissue enclosing 
large, irregular spaces filled with blood. A. 

com, lympbangiomB. A. pigmsltto'ili 
atropli'lcnni, xeroderma pigmentosum. A. 
■erplglno'simi {Infective a,), a skin disease 
marked by the presence of red elevated dot* 
which enlarge, become annular by sinking in 
of centre, and (inaDy coalesce. 

Aiiirlo-mromk(-mey-oh'mah). l.Amyoma 
containing many vessels. >■ A tumor occur- 
ring especially in the skin, composed of a new 
growth of the blood-vessels and their muscle- 
fib res. 

»t'», or paralytic relaxation _ __ 

the vessels. Hence, Anglotienrot'lc (Ajigiu- 
nxWlie, Ajigioparalyl'ie), of, pertaining to, or 
dependent upon a. (angiospasm, Bnginparaly- 
sis); as ..Jtij/Tunturoefc (Eitcma, a condition due 
to an a. marked by the development of transi- 
tory, ted or pale, painless, tederoatous swell- 
' — which usually cause no symptoms, but 

Anglo - ngnrotomy (-new-rot' -oh -mee). 
l-tomy.] The act nf cutting vessels und nerves. 

Anglop&ral'rBli, Anglopftralyt'lc. S^An- 

AsglOp'atlLy. [-paihy.'] Any aflection of 
the vcsHclB. Hence, Anglopath'ta, of or due 

containing many vesncis ; especially, one aris- 
ing from the cells of the vessel-walls. 

AnglDili (-oh'sis). [-ons.] An alTection of 
a blood-vessel, particuinriy of the skin. 

AngloipaAm (xn'jee-oh-spBzm),Angioip&i- 
tlc (-Bpaa'tik). 8ce AngioneuTOtit. 

Anglotilba (ffin'jee-oh-treyh). [Gr. tnbdn, 
to crush.] A sort of clamp for exerting very 

KaX pressure upon the tissues and preventing 
morrhage in operations. 
Angle (ang'gnl). [L. an! gut^ 
itufof, bent.] 1. A comer or iMiid ; ■ firaire 





formed by the inteisection of two lines or of 
two or more surfaces which have at lettit one 
point ID eommon ; urticularly, in Bnatomr, a 
■harp bend formed by the meeting of two 
borden or surfaces, as External ana Internal 
s'sof the eye and mouth, A. of the lower jaw, 
A. of the rib. Sscro-vertebral a., A. (or genu) 
of the intemal capsnle. Lndwlf's a... the 
janction of the first and second portions of the 
■temnm. 3. The degree of diveivence of two 
inlersecting lines or planes. A. of Inotda&CB, 
the a. included between a line A representing 
the direcUon oFa ray falling upon a refracting 

I. between B and the line C 

„ . . direction of the reflected or 

wted ray. The a, of reflection is equal to 

tbe a. of incidence, and the sine of the a. of 
fefractiou is a constant multiple of the sine of 
the a. of incidence. A. or poUnxkUon, the 
a- of incidence when tbe latter becomes sach 
that the reflected ray is totally polariied. 
OrltlcBl a., Llmltim a., the amount of the a. 
of incidence when the a. of reiV&ctioa is 90°, 
BO called becansc when the angle of incidence 
exceeds this amount the ray can no longer be 
refracted but undergoes total reflection. A. 
of dsTUUon, the a. between the incident and 
the refracted my. A. of tntnimnm darlatlon 
(or Da'TlaUns a.) of a prism, the least poesi- 
ble a. of deviation that can be produced by a 
given prism. Belt«ctiii( (or Piincli«l) a. of 
aitrism, the a. between tbe two refracting fiuies 
of a prism; in weak glass prisms it is twice 
the deviating a. A. of aperinra (or the ^ji«r- 
tnre] of a lens, the a, between linen drawn 
from its principal focus to tbe extremitiea of 
its diameter. vUnal a., the a. between the 
lines drawn from either extremity of an 

. ._ _ iiiB of tbe eye. A 

s. between the visual axis and the optical axis. 
A. gamm*, the a. between the optical axis of 
the eye and tbe BiatioD-line. FaolAl a., an a., 
variously measured, indicating the degree to 
which the forehead approaches the vertical; 
■upposed to be an approximate measure of the 
mental capacity. 

AngopbiMto (Kng"eob-ftay'Ehee^). [Gr. 
agchcin, to choke, and pkrasit, speech.] A 
drawling utterance ; hemming and hawing. 

AngnlUnUfang-gwirytib-lab). [L.-little 
eel.] See Ehab^ti,. 

Angnlar (ang'gew-lar). [L. anau/a'ni.l 1. 
containing one or more sharp bends; marked 
by or fbrming an angle; crooked; as A. de- 
formity, A. gyms, A. ' " ""' 

the angle of the eye). 

AngnatTiTajanKl'guB-tew'rah). TheGalipea 
Cusparia of Branl, and its bark. A. bark 
(Cuspa'riee cortex ] contains on alkaloid, An- 
coatn'rtiia, CioHmNOu, and a volatile oil ; it 
IB a bitter stimulant tonic; dose. gr. 10-30 
(gm. 0.60-2.00). Falte A. hark is the bark of 
8trychnos Nox vomica. 

ktoiU (Een-hee"iDa-l«h'BiB). See 

Anlialonliun (fen-ha-loh'nee-nm). See 
Maeal bvUon and Pellotint. 

AnbeUtton (an"hee-lay'Bhun). [h-ankilS- 
ito.] A slate of panting ; dyspncea. 

AnMdroiil (ffin"hid-roh'8iB}, Anhldrot'to, 
etc. See J mdronf , .JnufroKe. 

AsUl'toiu. {An- + Aufo-.] Structai«lem. 

Aabydtnmift (fen"hey'dree'mee-ah). Bee 

V Or. 

from a sabstance, especially an acid, by tbe 
abatr«ction of the elements of a molecule of 
water. The a's include various bodies, mch 
as carbon dioxide, arsenic trioxide, and chro- 
mium trioilde, erroneonsly called acids. 

Anliydroiu (ten-beT'drus}. [.in- + Or. 
hvddr, water.] Entirely destitute or deprived 
of water ; as A. aulphunc acid. 

AnidroiU (sii"id-roh'sis). [An- + Gr. U- 
drot, sweat.] Complete or partial abaenoe of 

Anldrot'lc. Arresting the secretion of sweat; 
also an agent so acting. 

AnilidB [on'ce-leyd, an'ee-lid). [AiUUiu + 
-ide.'\ A compound formed ttaia aniline by 
the substitution of a radicle for the hydrogea 
of the amine radicle NHi; e. g., aoeluiilide. 

AiiUlBa(an'ee-leeu, an'ee-tin). [Ar. aiv-tUl, 
Jie ind^ .--.-..■. ". . i . -^ .." 


nowfioi ... ._ _...,.__,__.. , 

the fiimes of which, when inhaled in execM, 
produce As'Uiam, cbaracteriied by vertin, 
cyanosis, muscular weakness, and diEesore 
disturbances. Its crystalline nupliaU, 
(C(U7N)i;Ht30i, has been given inchons 

■pUepsj in doses of 1-2 gr. (gm. 0.06-0.13). 
A. oolora (A. dyea), pigments prepared from 
coal-tar oil, including A. blut, A. moUt,A. 
pink (sa&anine), A. red ^fHichsin), A. ytltim, 
A. grem, and A, black (mgroein). Several or 
these are used in microscopy and medicine. 
Contact of these dyes with the skin Bomi 
produces dermatitis (A. rash). Crude 
oU), especially in alcoholic solutioii (A. 
alcobol) is used to decoloriie stsina in micros- 

As'lmftl. [L. anima'U, neut. of OTtfmd'K*, 
having tbe breath of life, from anima, epirit] 
I. An indej>endeut living organiam whioh re- 
quires for Its continued eiiatence gaseous oxy- 
gen and food conBisting mainly of organic 
mstter. «. [L. animd'tts.J Of or pertaining 
to such an organism, as A. chemistry, A. heat, 
A. electricity, A. life ; derived from an a., as 
A. food, A. alkaloid (see Alkaloid), A. chat^ 
coal (see Oharcoat), A. coniine (see Coniint), 
A. qninoidine (see Qaitu/idinei. A. starch 
(see Oli/eogen), A. magnetism (see BypMh 



ir radkle) «hirh in eiertrolyaie : 
)Bt«a at the positive pole. 

Anlrld'U. lAn- + irit']. Abscnre onheirU. 

An'lute. A suit of anisic arid. The a's are 
used like aninc acid. Doee of .Sodium a., 15 
gr. (gm. 1.0). 

AuliaUd (aii"e«-say-ted). IL. nni'ud'fui.] 
Coutoioing aniHe; ax A. spirit of ammonia. 

Anna (nn'is). [I,, an'tmin.] The Pinipi- 
nella An'iaum (AirlsnmTtilcft'ra). lufruil, 

A. orAn'laeod (Anieum, IT. S.. Aoisi fruetus, 

B. P., FrnctuB anisi, G. P.), fiimisheslhe vola- 
lileOilofn. «>/™»tamn, U.S., B.P.,G.P.). 

A. is used mainly as a carminative. Dose of 
a., lO-ao gr. (gin. 0.00-1.25) ; of oil of a., 2-5 
dropa (gm. 0.13-0.35) ; of A^aa antn. U. S^ 

B. P., H 3 (gni. 4-15) ; SpiV.'(i«ani«, 1-2 3 
(inn. 4-8) ofU. ti.ptvparalion, 5-20in.ofB. P. 
epirit. Star-a.. Cmlnaie a. [Aaitum etelln'- 
tum), is the Illioium anisatum ; ita fruit (llli- 
cium, U. a.) is used Vike n., and furnishes an 
oil practically itientical with oil of a., and in- 
cluded in the Oleum aniii, U. S. and B. P. 

AnUle add (a-ney'Bik). A crystalline acid. 
CsHiOj - C«II* {OCH.).CO.OH, produced by 
the oxidation of oil of anise. An antipyretic 
and antiseptic ; dose, 5-10 gr. (gm. 0.5). 

Aslwi- fa-ney'soh-). [Gr. aiiiiof^aa- + 
ui», equal.] A prefix meaning UDe4|uui. AniM- 
ooTu (■koh' roe-ah ) [Gr. tort, pupil], iiii-oiial- 
ity of the pupils. Anlsamatrap'lc [Gr. 
nrfn™, limit. + oys, BiKht]| having unequal 
ranee or limit of vision; pertaining t« or alTeoted 
TitE AvlMmetro'pU, or the bIaIc iii ivhich 
the reAlkCtive condition of the two eyea IH dif- 
fi^rent. Anliot'ropal, Anliotrop'lc, Anlsot'- 
ropou [Or. Irooot. a turning], not refnicting 
cquaUy under ail conditions; said of doubly 
refracting (polarizing) substances. 

Aiiiae(ang'kul). The region where the leg 
and foot join ; also the joint [A.-jmnl] betwet-n 
the tooi and leg. See Juinit Table of. A. 
clanni, A. Jerk, a series of rhythmical con- 
tractions of tbe foot produced m some cases 
when the foot is suddenly pressed upward and 
kept in this position, so as to put the muscles 
of tbe calf upon the stretch. 

AnkyloUsplutTaii (teng-kil-oh-blefa-ron). 
[Gr. aghtlf^ noose. + i/rpAaron, eyelid.] A 
total or partial adhesion together of the lids. 

Aiikylog10Miiiii(ieng"kil-ob-eIos'um). [Gr. 
aitkHli, noose, +aliiua, tongue.] Tongue-tie. 

Aiik7lD8a(ieDg'kee-loliz). Tomakerigidby 

AnkrloaU (Eeng"kee-loh'sis). [Gr. agkaU-eit 
fr. m/htlotin, to make crooked,] linnatural 
immobility of a joint. Bony (■ ■" — ' ' '- 
a condition of absolute immo' 
by the union of the bones fori 
TUh (Spvrioat, Ineomplflf, or Fibroat) k. 
is a stale of partial immnhility produced by 


fibrous bands or the adhesion of surfaces not 
osseous. Sma-cap'snlar {Ertra-artiYiilar) 
a. is false a. due to the rigidity of slructurcB 
outside of the joint proper; IntTa-artlc'nlar 
(lalra.cap'falur) a. is a. due to the adbesion 
of structures within the joint. 

Ankylastomlasli {tenK"kil-oh-stom-ee-By'- 
sis). [Aatyloitoma ( — ur. agtuloi, curved, 
+ il07iia, a mouth) and -iatit.] Miner's nns- 
mia (because observed in miners in St. Gnthard 
tunnel); u progressive, frequeutly fatal form 
of anaemia, produciit by a trcmatode worm, 
Doch'raiuB duodena'lis (Ankyloa'toma dno- 
danala), in the intestines. Treatment: male 
fern, thymol. 

AnkrloUa (icng"kil-oli'she«-ah). [Gr. off- 
tulf, noose, + out, ear.] Morliid adhesion of 
the walls of the external auditory canal, pro- 
ducing stricture of the latter. 

Aim«e'taut. [L. annec'tdnt.'i Joining or 
ini;; e,'g,, Ibe A. gj/ri, which connect 
pilal and parietal lobcH. 

, yu-lar), [L.annH/a'W,.] Ring- 
shaped. A. Ugament; the structure, composed 
partly of fascia, partly of ligaments, eucir- 
cling Wie wrist unJ the ankle. 

AuntlltlB (an'yii-lus). [L,] A ring. A. 
abdomlna'll* estemna and iDtomna, the 
external and inli'mal abdominal rings. A. 
mlgrana, geographical toiiRue. A. OTa'Ila, 
the oval annular margin of the foramen ovale 
of the heart. A, tympan'iciu, a curved plate 
of bone forming the anterior unci lower part of 
the osneous externa] auditory meatus ; a sepa- 
rate bone (tympanic bone) in the fetus. 

Auo-CDCcygeal (ay"noh-kok-sii'ee-al). Per- 
taining to the anus and coccyx. 

modal (a-noh'dal). Of or at the anode, 
as A. cloanre clonitt (or contraction, ACC, 
KnCC), the contractirai taking place at the 
anode upon closing the circuit; A. opening 
cloniu (AOC, AnOC). the contraction taking 
place at the anode upon opening the circuit. 

Aiioda(an'ohd). [Gr.nno, upward, fAodDi, 
a way .J The pomtive pole or electrode of a 
galvanic battery. 

Anodyne (ao'oh-deyn). [L. anddf ynum, fr. 
an- i- (jr. odanf, pain.] Relieving pain; an 
agent relieving pain. 

Anom'aloni. [L. anmn'atiii = Gr. anoma- 
Ion, irregular,] lawless; irregular; out of 
the ordinary way ; not normal. 

Anom'aly. [L. anomafia.) An anomalous 
or abnormal state ; irregularity. 

Aliomia(a-noh'mee-ah). [A- -f Gr.nnnfl'n, 
to assign,] Inability to give objects their 
proper name. 

AuonfymoB. [Gr.= an- + onHina, name.] See 

AnophoTta (an"oh-fnh-rce-ah). [Gr. and, 

o bear.] A condition in 

axes tend to rise too high. 

Anophthalmia (an"of-lharmee-ah),ABOph- 

thalmtu (Bn"of.thurmq8). [^n- -I- Ur. oph- 

Ihalmot, eye.] Absence of tb ' 

w&ich £ 


(«!».] PtrtMning 1« the anua 

Anorex'la. [^n- + Gr.o-rxt«,d^ire.l Lack 
of appetite. -*. ntrn/ta a. in which from 
nervous causes the natuml lenee of hun^r in 
persiMenlly deficient. 

Anortlto^rkpliy. [dn- t- oriho- i Gr. gm- 
pkfia, to write.] Inability to write eorreeliy ; 
motor Hgraphia. 

AnoNcl* (a-noz'mee-ah). [An- fGr, tame, 
odor.] Almsnce of the sense of amei). Fm- 
cAJca., n condition in which, the NL'iitvufiniiell 
beineintact, tlicodorofB ^miliar oliject gives 
no idea of its nature. 

Ano-Bplnal (By"noh-spey'nal). Governing 
the HDiis and ailuatcd in tlie Hpinal cord. 

AoottopU (an"oh-troh'p«'-ah). [(Jr. am',, 
up, +lropo>, a turning.] Visible deviation of 
both eyes upward. 

Ana-TMtMl (ay"noh-v™'ce-kal). [Anut 
+ rfiicti.l Pertaining to or eonnertiug the 
nnunand bladder. 

A]M»XMml& (an"ok-see'mee-ah}. [An- ~ oi- 
ygen + (ir. Aninin, blood,] Deficiency of ox- 
ygen in the blood. 

An'ia. [L.] A eoil or loop, wpeoinlly of 
nervous ti»sue ; as A. HnlFeri. tlie loop con- 
necting the facial and jclossopiiaryngeal 
nerves: A. hgpogloaa'i, the loop iH'twivn the 
dencendens and conimunicnnB hypoglussi. A. 
o/J/cH/f, llenle'aloop. 

Aut. An infifct of the genus Formica. 
Spiril of a'l (Spir'ituB rormiea'rani, G. P.) is 
an aleoliolic solution of formic acid, used as a 

AntMld (fcn-las;id). [.1. 

fid.} Pre- 

!s acidity. 
Antkconlsm (cen-t..^ ... 

agon, a contestj Op^ition; contrariety of 

Antkc'onlat. An opponent; especially, a 

.. .. „.e dlract when, like the exlemal and 
internal recti of llie sanie eye, they both act 
upon the same organ, and by their combined 
contraction keep the organ at rest in the 
primary poaitionj and are wiaaot«t«d when 
they set upon dilferent organs, and more these 
organs in parallel directions. Thus the super- 
ior rectUB of one eye and inferior oblique of the 
other, and the inferior rectus of one eye and 
Bupcnor oblique of the other, are associated ' 

AntAldc (len-tal'jik). [Anti- ■: Gr. algot, 
pain.] Relieving pain ; anodyne. 

AntallcaUiia (fcn.tal'ka-li'fn). lAnti- 
talinf.] Ncutrali^ingalkali""- ' — 



brachtam.] The fore- __.. .. 

JUttebr&'cblAl, of or pertaining to the forearm. 

An'tellexMl. In a state of anteflexion. 

AntsSexlmi (Kn"tee-flek'Bhun). [L. ante- 
feiio, fr. ante, and fitclrrr, to bend.] A bend- 
ing forward ; a form of displacement in which 
the anti^rior surface of an organ has a sharp 
bend in it, so as In throw the upper portion of 
the organ forward. 

AiitamMle(ient"ee-met'ik). [.4nfi- iemtiic.'] 
Preventing or arresting vomiting. 

Ante martem. [L.] Before death. 

Ants partnin. [L.] Before delivery. 

AuMproitJit'le. In front of the prostate; 
as A. glandi ( = Cowpcr's glands). 

Anterior (an-tee'ree-or). [L. = comparative 
' ■ I'd tV. anle.l Situated before or i 

_._ the fwnt of the cord), A. i, 
hcsiou of the iris to the parts in front). 

Antero- {an'tur-oh-). A prefix meaning in 
front. Antero-flxa'tian, attachment in front ; 
OS A.-f. of uterus. Astero-lnfe'rlor, in 
front and below. A.-lDter'iutl. in front and 
to the inner side; as A.-i. column of the 
mednlla. A.-lat'eral, in front and to one side ; 
as A.-I. column of the eord. A.-me'dlan, 
situated in front nnd in the middle. A.-P»rl'- 

L'iilis). AaUro-auiMirtor, in front and above. 

AuteTenlon (sn" tee- vur' shun). [L. anU- 
terild, fr. anle, and eertrrf, to turn.) A turn, 
ing forward ; a displacement of an organ in 
which tbc anterior surfiice is tipped forward, 
but is not bent at an angle, as in anteflexion. 

Aiitlielniliitlilc, AntbelnUntlo (sn"thel- 
min'thlk, Kn"thel-mln'tik). [Anti- + Gr. Iitl- 
Diini, a worm.] I>i'Slroying or expelling 
worms; vermifuge; also an agent so acting. 

An'theniU. ^«c CAataomile. 

Anthldrotio (s'n"ihid-n)t'ik). lAnti- + 
Gr. Aiifni", sweat.] Cheekiiigsweat; anagent 
that checks sweating. 

Authzaenmlft (a^n"lhrB-see'mce4h). [Gr. 
aiit/irax, coal, I Auiaia, blood.] Asphyxia. 

Astbraoene (o^n'lhra-seen). [Gr. anthrax, 
coal, + -f N^.] AerystallineBuh8tance,C»lIiii ^ 
C(ni:(CH)i:C(H(, derived from coal-tar oil. 

Antbraelne (len'thra-seen). [Anthrar I- 
' A poison ouaj>toiTiai II -■-— ' — ■ " — 



AnUirMOBla (ien"thra-koh'Bla). [Or. an- 
thrax, coal, and -onV.] PneumonocoDiouB. 

AuUiTaroblii(teD"Ihra-roh'bm). [Antkra- 
cene + arar<ifta + -tn.] A yellowiah powder 
used In a 10-20 per rent, oinlmwit or solution 
(in alcohol or alkiilies) for paraeitic akin dis- 
eaaes and peoriasia. 

An'tlmuc. PI. an'thnte«fl. rGr. = (!o«1.1 
1. See Carbtiiwlf. 3. A very btal contagious 
disease of cattle, occaaionall; tranBinit(«(i to 
man, also called splenic ftver, charbon. Con- 
tegloiu ».., XkUgnuit K. Caused by tlie Ba- 
eillDa onthracis {A. bacillu*), and character- 
ized in eattle by intestinal aymptome {Inltiti- 
nal a,), multiple hicmorrhagex, and eplenic 
enlargement ; in man usually by nnllapee and 
by the development of carbnnculous ulcera 
{malignaHl pu»luU), or a hard <ndeuiaat the 
aite of inoculation. Special, very fatal varie- 
ties of a. produced by inhalation are rag-piek- 
tr^ ditetut and viool-iorten' diatatt ; marked 
by tonsillar swelling and ceduma, and inflani- 
■nation of lungs and plt^ura {Palmanie a). A. 
albttmo'tff, A. pro' leidi, moderately poisonous 
albuDOSPti developed an a result of the jphyaio- 
iogical artion of the ItacilluH anthracis, A. 
prolan, an albuminous body fimud in Bacillus 
anthracix. Symptomatlo a., Slots a., a very 
fatal febrile disease iif ealtle, sheep, and kohIs, 

Erodnced by the Bacillus carbouiB, and marked 
r subcutaneous emphysema and infiltration 
of the rousrles with serum and blood. 

Aflthropolocy (iEn"throh-poroh-jee). [Gr. 
aTithropoi, man, + -logi/.'i The science which 
treats of man ; the natural history of man. 

Antbropometry (ien"throh-pom'et-ree). 
[Gr. anlhrupoi, man, + niffrnn, a nieaflure.] 
The measurement of the size, weight, and pro- 
portions of the human body ; also the science 
which denls with such roeasuremenls. 

AuthropophobU (a!n-throp"oh-foh'bee-ah). 

Ana- (len-tee-). [Gr] A prefix meaning 
(1) placed opposite to, acting in the opposite 
direction; (3) opposinK. eounteraeting, prC' 

of the gastric Juicel upon albumin ; resisting 
digestion by pepsin, but not by trypsin. 

AnUallJiuiild (-ol'bciT-mid). A body, prob- 
ably an acid -albumin, produced by the pro- 
longed action of acids upon albumin, and 
resisting peptic digestion. Not normally pres- 
ent in gtiBtric digestion. 

AnttalbOBWi* (-al'bew-mohs). [AnH- (3) 
^albumotf,] Albumose produced by the di- 
gfotion of antialbumid and converletl by 
nirtber digestion into antipeploue. 

IntUrUirlt'lc. See AnlaHhrilic. 


AstlUlMmorrbaxlc (-b1en"oh-r^'ik). Pre- 
venting or arresting gouurrhiea. 
AntlCMi'orlB. CancroiD. 

particularly, of a paroxysm, to occuT before 
the regular time ; as Anlidpating intermillent, 
an inlermitlent in which the paroxysms recur 
at on earlier hoar every day. 
Astleva (een-tey'kns). [L.] In front; an- 

AiiUdlphtheriii(-difthur-in). A liquid ob- 
tained from cu Kures of the diphtheria tmcillua; 
used locally in diphtheria. 

Antidotal (sn"tee-dob'tal). Pertaining to' 
or having the characleis of an antidote. 

Antldot« (len'tee-dohl}. [L. antid'otam - 
ami- (3) + Or. didoaaf, to give.J A remedy 
given to counteract a poison. See Poiioni and 
AiUidotei, Table of. A's act by intervening 
between the poison and the surface which it 
would otherwioe affect tHachui'lCAl a.)j by 
changing the chemical ehHracter of the poison, 
---■ thus rendering it inert (Ohamtcal ft.) ; 


AntldyianteT'lc. Preventing or counter- 
acting dysentery. 

AntUeDrUe (-feb'ril). Antipyretic. 

AstUeK'Tls. [I,./^frn», fever.] AceUniKde; 
so called because reducing fever. 

AiitlfarmBntaUTa(-fnr-men'tay-tiv). [Ftr- 
ment.] See Anlizsmotic. 

AntUiallx (sn-tey'hee-liks). The curved 
prominence in the middle of the auricle op- 
posite the helix. 

Antlkam'nlK. [Gr. iamnein. to be ill.] A 
proprietary preparation used like autipyrine. 
said to consist of acetanilide and sodium bicar- 
bonate with or without caffeine and tartaric 
acid. Dose. 3-10 gr. (gm. 0.3-0.6). 

AntUlth'lo. [Gr. /i'iAdi, stone.] Preventing 
the formation of calculi. 

bacteria of the latter, so that Ihc bacteria 
selves are destroyed by Ibe alexins. Hence 
AutU'ysli, the action of an a.; AAtllyt'lc of 
or pertaining to an a. or to antilysis. 

AotimBtropla (-met-roh'pee-ah). [Gr. mt- 
Iron, measnre, + ops, sight.] Anisometropia 
in which the two eyes have the oppofitc kind 
of refraction (one myopic, the other hyperme- 

Afitlintaamat'lo. Counteracting miasm. 

Antlmlcroblo (<mey-kroh'bik). Antibac- 

AfiUm'onata. A componnd of antimony 

pentoxide with a base. , - i 



Antlrn'onottMl. Combined wilh antimony; 
as A. hydrogra, or elibine, Khlli, a foul- 
ainellinR kob mlule by combining antimony 
with hydrogen. 

Amtlmoolk] ((Fn"t^-[noh'iiee-fl]). [L. anti- 
monia'Hi.} 1. Containing antimony, as A. 
wine, A. powder ; a mmpounil or prcpttnilioa 
containing antimony, S. Produced by anti- 
mony, as A. poisoning. 

AnttanonlaM ('moh'nec-ayt }. Antiraonate. 

AntUnon'ta. Containing antimony as a 
penliul nulicli.-. A. arid, antimony pentoxide. 

Antlm'anlda. A compound of antimony 
villi anothiT element or with a radicle. 

Aatlmonlom (-moh'nce-uK). Containing 
antimony en a triad. A. acid, antimony tri- 

Antlrn'onlte. A compound o[ antimony 
trioxide with a base. 

Antlmonlnratt«d (■mon'yu-ret-Ml). Anti- 

Antimony (i 

- (2) + 


iiecauHC said to have proveil poixonoua Rrat in 
the cane of rertain monks ; Mtibiiim,] A non- 
metotlic, solid element, nymliol Kli (for stib- 
ium )j atomic weight IIU.S. A. iiieithcratriail, 
fbrming Antiiao' niout, or n pentad, forming 
.^ ii/fmo' niV, compounds. Impure A. trlanl- 
Irtllda (AniimoniuuHHulphide, (.'rtb^eoritfacjt 
a.) is the Anlimonii nurphidnm, U. 8., Anli- 
monium nigrum, Slib'ium sulfura'tum ni- 
grum, G. 1'.. HI>i.S] ; purified, it la the Anti- 
monii sul'phiduui pnrifica'tum, U. !J., Anti- 
monium nigrum purifica'tum. B. P. It is a 
blnek powder uwd in makine the other com- 
pouDilR. Combined with a umalt amount of 
a. trioxide, it forms Bnlpli'nrktad &. (Antimo- 
niam enluliura'tnm, H. H.. B. P.), and with 
re of the Irioiide, A. oz;ialphld«. 

.- --.. - ,— ..-: I'.S. (Pil'L 

Ityri 8ubehIo'n(UcoinpO!<'ll«,B. P., Plommer's 
pills), contain eaeh gr. ns of 8ulphurat«l a. and 
calomel and Ifp-. of resin of ^aiae. A. p«nta- 
inlpbld«, Antimonic sulphide, S1>i?t, dolden 
tulnhidr, of a., golden sulphur, is the Stibium 
milfuratum aurantiaeam, (i. P. A. chloride, 
B«n«i Of a., SbCli, is a very caustic deliques. 
c«nt substance, used for cauterizing poisoned 
wounds and small tumors. A. trlozlda, anti- 
monious oxid«, H'hilra. (Antimonii ox'idum. 
V. S., I). P.), KhiOi, is sivcn in doses of 2-i 
gr. (gm.>); combined with 2 parts of 
calcium forms Antimonial powder 
{PalmtanliiaoniWih,V.ii.,ll. P.); dose, 6-10 
gr. (gm. 0.«Mi.3,''>). A. pantozMO, StnOi, 
combines with hnses ta form the Anlim' onatet. 
A. and poUialnm twrtrato, TaHrattd a. or 
Tartar rmrlie (Aniimoni) el potass'ii tartras, 
U. 8., Antimonium lartara'tum. II. P., Tar'- 
larns stibia'lus, G. P.), 2IK.SbOC.H«) + 
HiO, fcinns colorless cryslaln, of sweetish me- 
tallic taste, wluble in water. Locally it is a 
marked irritant, cansing an eruption of pus- 


tules; internally in small doses it produces 
nausea, diaphoresis, diminution of the force of 
the heart's beat, and lowering of Ihe blood- 
^re(tsure; in large doses (1-2 gr.J it is emetic. 
It is used as an expeetnrant in bronchitis, 
>neuo]onia, and laryngitis— dose. gr. 0.1-0.2 
gm. 0.i)(&-O.OI(j); and as a nauseant — dooegr. 
i.3-0.5 (gm. 0.015-0.050). Viaum aatinumii, 
V. 8. (Vinum aniimonia'ie, B. P., Vinum 
slibia'tum, 0. P.), contains 2 gr. and Sgrv'put 
ilia componilw. M. S.. aliout 1 gr. of larlar 
netic to the fluidounce. Vngwrn' turn lar'- 
'ri ttibia'li, li. P., containing 20 per cent, of 
>rtar emetic, is used as a counter-inilaot. 
JUitln«imag1c (-new'ral-jik). Counler- 
^tiog neuralgia. 

AnUnon'nln. Pata-iHium dinilro-cresolate, 

C(IIi{XOi)).Clh.OK; used in i-T. per cent, 

solutiira to destroy molds, preserve wood, and 

prevent fi^rincnlHtian and dry-rot. 

Anttniwln (oen-tin'oh-iin). [Gr. notot, dis- 

JThe sodium wll of nosophene ; a blue 
cr used as an antiseptic either in substance 
, o lupus or chancres) or in 1 to 3 per cent. 
solution (for instruments, the eye, rooulh,elc.). 

AnUpeptonef-pep'tuhn). lAiill- (3} + prp- 
iiif.] The vanety of peptone which resists 

digestion by trypsin; camic acid. 

pcrioilical (especially malarial) n 
AnUmrtsMlUc (-per"ee;atBt'tik)., In a di- 

:ian opposed . 

t of pcristaisi) 

AnUpUorUUc (-floh-jis'tik). iAiiti-CA) f 
Gr. phlogiirin, to set on fire.] Preventing or 
reducing inflammation. 

AnUpbUllllD (-tey'sin). A rondiSed rorm 
of tuix'rculin used as a remeilj; for phthisis 
(tuherculcv'is) by hypodermic injection. 

Antlplu'tla. Opposing the formation of 
plastic exudations ; also a remedy so acting. 

AntlpnanniDcoeelC BMMun (■new"moh-knk'- 
sik), Antlpnenmotozln (■new"moh-lok'sin}. 
[PneHBiororciit 01 piwiimo- + foxin.] A serum 
obtained tlom men aifected with pnenmonia 
or from animals rendered immune by inocuja- 
tion with pneumococct. I'sed in pneumonia. 

Antlpmritic (.proo.rit'ik). IPruritui.'} 
Preventing itching. 

Antlpj;onln(-pey'oh'nin). {GT.putm.puB.i 
Acid sodium borate ; usc<l as an antiseptic. 

Antlprratio (.pey-rcl'ik). [Gr. parrlot, 
feverish.] Kclicving fever ; a remedy reliev- 
ing fever. The chief a's are cold (cold l>alh, 
ice. wet pack); diaphoretics, particularly 
aconite, veratnim vimlc. tartar emetic, etc., 
which diminish the force of the heart and 
arterial tension ; andtheDiTACta't, including 



AbUvtHim (icn"le*-pey'rOTn, Kn-tip'ee- 
reen). [(jr.par, fire, t- -iar ; L. antipyri'aa, 
antipurV nam, (j. P ..phriutiS nttm, H. P.] An 
aniecialslkBloid CllHltNtO^C«Hl.NlClOIf- 
aione); a bitter, crjrBl&llinc subatance, soluble 
in water and alcobol ; used aa an antipjrelic 
and in rheumatisiD, and aa an anodyni^ in neu- 
ralgia and misraine. Doiw. 3-15 gr. (kui. 0.30- 
1.00). A. aallcrlaito, we Salipyrine. 

Autlrab'lii. Curing or preventing rabies. 

AnUilwniiuitlo (-rnh-mat'ik). Curing or 
preventing rheumatism. 

Anttieorbntlc (-akairr-bew'tik). [Scorbv- 
tiu, scurvy.] Preventing scurvy. 

AsUSflpilne (-sep'scen). \Anliifpn:] Mo- 
nobreraacetaiiilide, ('sIIaJtrNO ; a sulMtance 
used aa a sedative. Dose, 7 gr. (gm, 0.60). 

AnUaep'iU. [Gr. septia, putrefaction.] 
The destruction or arrest of growth of mor- 
bid germs. 

AntUep'tlc. [Gr. aeptikoi, pntrefiictive.] 
I. Destroy ine or arresting the growth of mor- 
bid gemis ; bTso an agent so acting. 3. Freed 
from infection ; made clean by the destruction 
ofmortiidgerms. asati A. wound. A. surgerr, 
A. traatmaut, the treatment of wounds by the 
application of Hubststicen that destroy or in- 
hibit the growlli of morbid Kerms. A. dreM- 
lAg, a dressing containing as. The principal 
A'b arc mercuric salts (especially corrosive 
sublimate, mercury cyanide, mercury and line 
cyanide); silver salts (including protargiil); 
carbolic acid, creosote, creisol, thymol, creulin ; 

iphlhalinej naphthol, and hyilronaphtliol 


odoform, lodol, eurtighene, aristol, airol, 
nosophene, and antinosin ; formalin ; hydro- 
gen peroxide; pyoctanine; xeroform. 

AsUMpUeUm (-sep'lee-aiEm). Thescience, 
art or theory of antiseptic treatment. 

AnUMpUdty (-aep-tiVce-tce). The slate or 
degree of being antiseptic. 

AntlMp'tol. Cinchonine iodosulphate ; b 
reddish, odorless powder, used like lodofona. 

AutlBltumlll (-spaz'min), A compound of 
naroeine-sodium and snlium salicylate. Anti- 
spasmodic and sedative; used in whooping 
couih and other spasmodic coughs and in lar- 
yngiamns stridulus. Dose, \-2 gr. (gm. 0.01- 
0.10) according to age. 

Asttapumodlo (-spez-mod'ik). Relieving 
■pasm ; a remedy reducing spasm. 

AntUpai'Uc. 1- Antispaamodic. 3. De- 

AntUtraptoeooclc aenuD (-strep"toh-kok' 
sik), Antlitrtptoeoaeln (■strep"iDh-kok'sin). 
Streptococcus antitoxin. 

AntUndom (-aew-doh'ral). [L. tudor, 
sweat.] Preventing sweating. 

AuUtb'uiar. [Ami- {\) \ thenar:] Placed 
opposite the palm (or sole); a tenn applied to 
certain muscles, as the ailduclor pollicis. 

AiiUUtarmla (thur'mik). [Gr. thm^, 
beat.] Antipyi^ic. 

Antttlienttiii* (-thur'meen). A substaiiee, 
C61U.SH-NH.CsHtO., used as antipyretic. 

AuUtox'lo. [Gr. lorikoa. poison.] Coun- 
teracting poison. A. imtt, see Antitoxin. 

AnUtox'in. A substance counteracting a 
toxin ; speciGcally, a ^^ubslance opposing the 
action of a spccinc poison, and derived from 
the body (particular!}' the hlood-serum) of an 
animal inoculated with that poison and thus 
rendered Immune against it. Tlie principal 
a's are Diphtheria a. (Diphthena serum), 
Sirtptococcm a. (Antistreplococcic serum), 
Tftanm a., and Piifumacaceue a. (.\ntipneu- 
mococcic serum), used in diphtheria, strepto- 
coccus infection, tetanus, and pneumonia. The 
slrengtb of a. is measured in Antiloric (or 
Immunizing) unili ; the unit of diphtheria a. 
being the amount of a. that will neutntliie 
100 times the dose of a certain standard toxin 
that is just fatal to a guinea-pig of 250 $m. 
weight. For tetanus and other a'a umilar 

AnUt'ragni. [Anti- (l) + iragui.] The 
prominence of the auricle fronting the tragus. 

AnUtnbsrctilona (-lew-burk'ew-lus). Op- 
poeing tuberculosis; as A. lenim, serum used 
as an antitoxin in the treatment of tuberculosis. 

AaUtyplwW(-tey'foyd). Counteracting ty- 
phoid fever; as A, trrnm, serum used as an 
antitoxin in treatment of typhoid fever. 

AntlTsnln (-vee'nin), AuttTsn'omoiis ■•- 
nun. Serum obtained from animals that have 
been rendered immune against cobra-poison 
by progressive inoculations with the latter; 
used as a re'medy for cobra-bitea. 

AstUymoflc. [Gr. iiimr, leaven.] Op- 
posing fermentation or the action of germs 
which are supposed to act like ferments. 

An'txal. Of or pertaining to an antrum. 

Antrec'tomr. [Aninim + -rrJomi/.'] Re- 
moval of the walls of the mastoid antrum, so 
as to allovr the cavity of the latter to become 
filled with fibrous liHsue. 

Antrltla (len-trey'tis, ain-tree'tis). lAnlmm 
-<- -iVi>.] Inflammation of an antrum. 

AiitTopIwra(ien'troh-rawr). [.4»/rMin + Gr. 
phortfin, to carry. L- aiilroph' omt, U. P.] A 
medicated bougie. 

Antroioop* (len'troh-skohp). [-teope.'\ An 
apparatus for giving a view of the antrum ; 
particularly, a tubular speculum which oan be 
introduced into the maxillary antrum and 
which illuminates its interior. 

Antro-trmpui'la. Of or pertaining to the 
mastoid antrum and the tympanum ; as A.-t. 
inflammation (AatrotTmpanl'tla). 

An'tmm. [L. = cave.] A large recess, es- 

K'ially one in a bone. A. of Blgtuno'e (A. 
ghmori, Maiillary a.), the large cavity ia 

the body of Ihe tiupvrior maxilla, ron 
ingwith Ihe now. Hactold a. (A. 
eum), the irrppilar ravily in tht .■!.«.■...>. 
bone, fommuniratinK with the dniin-isvity. 
A. prlo'rl (A, pi/li/rirHin). the portion of the 
Homarh ruvil; adjoininK the pylonis; wpa- 
rated fmm the rest of the Momach by a slight 

AsnrU (a-new'iw-ah), [.^n- +Gr, ouron. 
urine.] Suppresnion of urine. 

Anvi (av'Due). [L. Tor ataiu, fr. root ai-, 
to Bit,] The inferior operinK of the rectum, 
through whieh Ihe feees are diwharKed. ArU- 
fldal K. is an o;>eninKror thedinrhartceoffpivti 
tDadeataomepointnlmveliienalurt' ~ " "" 
in the colon. PreMnatnral &., 
opens in some abnonnal situation. 

Ab'tU, See /nciut. 

AnydTMtnU (aii"ey-dree'mee-ah). [-1n- 
-( Gr. htidor, water, -f haima, blotxl,] Di- 
minution in the nninunt of water contained in 
the blood, as in cholera. 

AA'rtm. [fir. Aniilitof, effi-clnal.] A 33 
percent, aqneoue solution of sulpho-ienthyolic 

AorU (ay-awr'lah). [C.r. aonf, fr. arirfia. 
lo hpove.] Tlie Rrpat vetwi KprininnK fmni 
the left ventricle of the heart, and (fivinjt rise 

'lainine to Ihe 

- --,- - ,.- — , ^..ding the aorta, 

as A. plexus (of Ihe sympathetic). A. Tftl»«», 
the three semilunar valves closing the pa.'«iKe 
(A. OpentDK) Iwtu-eeii the aorta anil the left 
ventricle. Hence, A. mttimtir, a murmur in- 
dicative of [li<>ease nf these valves (A. TalTulkT 
dlaaua). This is either Dirn-i (systolic or 
obstructive), heard with the first sound of the 
heart (in which cane it in often inorganiel. or 
Jtrgni' gilaul (indirect or diastolic). Sec.Vnr- 

InHammation of tlie a 

Ape-)iULd. A hand in which the thumb is 
pernianenlly ahdueted and extendnl, as in 
Bome cases of proftressive muscular atrophy. 

AparlMlt (a-ppc'ree-ent). [h. ager'ien*. 
opening.] Openinif Ihe bowels; mildly ea- 
tnarlic ; also a metlicine so aelins. 

Aparlodle (a-pee"rec-oil'ik). N'ol nrrioilie ; 
of Kalvanometer nceilles, not eontinuine to os- 
cillate, but coming at once to a point of rest. 

Avwtnra (ap'ur-tewr). [L. aprrtfira, tr. 
aperire, lo open.] An openini; or orifice. A. 
or lant, sec Atigle «f aprrlurr. 

Ap«x (ay'peks). PI. ap'ices. [L.] The lop 
of anything ; the pointetl extremity of a con- 
ical organ; aa the A. of the heart. A. beat, 


theheart-best fell at the apex, i.e., in the fifth 
left inlercoatal space. 

ApbkUc (a-fav'kik). [.4- ■■■ Gr. phnki. 
lens.] D.-stituteoflhecrvstalline lens; marked 
by Apha'Ua (absence of the lens) ; as an A. 

ApIl«lSMUi(af'al-jee'zee-Bh). Sev HapkaU 

AphuU (a-fay'zhah). [A- i- Gr. phamt, 
a saying.] A condition in whicli, without 
mental disease or lesion of the peripheral 
organs, there is impairment of the ability to 
receive ideas (apraxia) or communicate them 
(asymbolia). In Kotot a. (nrongl;? called 
Alnj-ira.) the patient, although knowing what 
he wishes lo say, can not express his ideas by 
speech, or gestures ; due lo lesion of Broca s 
centre or fibres running from it lo the bulbar 
nuclei. In QTapbo-motOT a., the patient can 
not express his ideas in writing [see Agra- 
pMn). In AtuUtory ». (due to lesion of Ihe 
auditory centre in Ihe Bret left temporal con- 
volution or of the fibres IVom this centre to the 
periphery or lo ot lie r cent res), sounds are heard, 
hut their meaning is not understood (wnrd- 
deafncss and mind -deafness). In TtilUkl K. 
(due to lesion of the visual centre in Ihe lefl 

blindness, visual agraphia, visual alexia, 
mind'blindneH'). .\udiiory and visnal a. 
together constitute Stntoryit. Am»rtir. a., a 
term for aiiv variety of a. due to inability to 
remember the right word. 

Apbulc (a-fay'zik). Of or afiecled with 
aphasia; a person having aphaua. 

Aplteinl«(a-fi«'tnee-ah). [A- + GT.plifmi, 
speech.] Motor aphasia. 

ApboulA (a-fnh'nee-ah). [^--i-Gr. phnnf. 
voice.] Speechlessness due to direct or reflex 
disturbance of Ihe funclions of llie organs of 
voice, and not to central causes, as in aphasia. 
A. may be dne to congestion or inflammation 
" the larynx, especially from o - - - - !- 

■■'ic speakers (A. olarleo'nut 
r the laryngeal nerves (A. , 
hysteria (Hyitar'lcal a.). 

ApbOnlO (a-fon'ih). Voiceless; without 
auilihle sound ; us A. speech, A. cough. 

ApbTMia (a-fray'jdiah). [A- -^ Gr. pbrtuii, 
olteraiice.] Dumbnoa from whatever cause. 
It may lie due to voluntary abstention from 
s}tecch, I'speciallv in Ihe insane (A. parano'- 
l(ta) ; to disorder of the vocal apparatus 
(aphonia) ; or to lesion of Ihe Bi)eecli -centres 

Aphrodlttac (ar'roh-diz'ee-ak). IGr.Aph- 
rmlilf, the goddess of love.] llcighlening 
sexual desire; an agent stimulating venereal 

Apbth«(arthee). tU] fkf Thrutl,. Bad- 
nar'a a., small ulcers on the hard palate pro- 
duced by abrasion. Cbronlc a.. Tropical a. 
{A. orirnlalrr), psilosis. SpliOOtlC a., foot- 
and-mouth disease. 


■c throat, A. lomillilii 


AptathoM (Hl'lhoyil). [-Old.] Reseiobling 

ApliUuiIdeB (af'thoh-cy'dez). [L.] Aph- 
thoid I an Bplithoid disease. A- chron'lck, 

ApbthonKUi (af.ihonpt'JM-nh). [-4- : Gr. 
phlhoggos, sound.] SpaHm of the inuBoleii nf 
the tongue and ibe hroid rpp,tm occurring 
when an attempl U maiiK to speak. 

Aphthatu (af thus). [L. aphikSma.} OF 
or pertaining to Bphliuc. ^ A. fcrrr, foot;ftnd. 
mou^ disease. A, —- 
pharyngilia herpeti 

Ap'lMl. [L. npiVa'Mji,] Of, pertaining to, 
orsiluatedattheapei. A. fOruilMl, ll1eop1^n- 
ing in the apex of Ihc tooth-root, traiismilling 
vessels and nerves to the pulp. A. •pfto*, the 
space between the extremity of a tooth-root 
and the wall of the alveolus. 

Ap'lOl. iApium + -o/,] A greenish oil de- 
rived from parslej' (Petroseli iiuni sati'vum 
or Ap'tnin Petroaell'niim). Used in ulonic 
amenorrhisa and dysinenorrhuui in doses of 5-6 
tn. (gm, 0.30-0.40); and in malaria in doses of 
10-30 m (gro. 0.6-1.2.^). 

Aplollne (a.ppy'oh-leen). A subittnnee de- 
rived from parsley, used as an emmeuagogue ; 
dose, 8-10 m (gra. 0.5). 

Apluiatlc <ap"la-nat'ik). [A- r- Gr. i>la- 
tuUiioi, wandering.] l^nafleetiil bv spherical 
oberration. A. focui, that focus of a lenx the 
ruTs cnmnatiug from whieh do not undergo 
spherical aberration on passing through the 
lens. A. lent, a lens eoinposed of two or niore 
pane of different cun'aliinj, disposed so as to 
eorreet spherical aberration. 

AplAlla (a-play'ihab). lA- + (ir. plaairin, 
to shape.] Defective formation or devctop- 

Aplat'tlc. Having no tendency to form or 
develop into new lisaue ; as A. lymph. 

ApnennuttoiU (ap-new"nia-lah'His). [A- 
~ pneaatalo- + -oris.] Congenital alelectaBia 
of the lungs. 

Apil«»(ap-nee'ah). [A- 1- Gr.piiot, breath.] 
1. A condition charaelerized by a temporary 
arrest of rcspiratiou, unatlended by any of the 
phenomena of dyspniea ; produeeil hy very 
thoniugh preliminary aeration of the lungs (as 
by forced respiration), a. Asphyiia. 

Ap'o-. [Gr. npo.] In wordsof Greek origin, 
a prefix meaning away frooi, off from, derived 
from, or deprived of. 

Apoobromatle (a-pok"roh-niat'ik). [Apo- 
+ Gr. cArwBta, color.] Achromatic. A. lent, 
A. sraMm, asysteniconsiiitingofan objective 
and an eye pieee, having the opposite kinds of 
error, so that spbericiil and chromatic aberra- 
tion is very aceurntely corrected ; espeeiully 
adapted for high-power niieroseopic objectives 
and for photography. 

A. hydrochloride, CiglTiiXOi.HCl, an expecto- 


IS of herlH of the Apocynj 
The root of A.cannab'inuni, or Canada hemp, 
is the A., U. S.; contains Apoc'/nbi and 
Apocy'nelD, which act like digitalin, and is 
eiithartic. expeelonint, and, in doses of 20 gr. 
(gm. 1.2ri). emetic ; ustil in dropsy and aa a 
and antiperiodic, in doses of 5 gr. 

gaslnc tonic and antipenodic, in doses of 5 gr. 
(gm.O.SO). Dose of Krirae'lvm npoif gni fin.' - 
idam, V. S., «-30 m (gtn. 0.50-2.00). 

Apolu (a-poh'lar). [A- - 
Devoid of upole or of polarity ; ofo 
destitute of axons. 

Apol'ytln. [Gr. Apal«tii, delivere 
A eomnound, <'(IIt(UrilU)NlI.C«IIiO«, o 
phenelidine and citric oi-id ; used like pnen 
acetin. Dose, S-30 gr. (gm. 0.5-2.0>. 

ApomorpUiM (ap"oh-mawr'feen ). [Apo- 
f morphiiif. L. apomorphV »a. apomorph ia, 
apomoi-phi'num.'\ An alkaloid, CiiIIuNOj. 
produi^ed from morphine by abstraction of the 
[■Iftiients of a molecule of water. A. hydro- 

. of bronchial secretioo,^ and 
muscular relaxation. Given aa an emetic in 
doses of gr. 0.1-0.2 (gm. 0.onH).013); as an ex- 
peetorant in repeated doses of gr. 0.02 (gm. 
0.001). liijeelio npu-morphiint hypmUr'intca, 
B. P., is a 1 per cent, solution of a. hydro- 

Apoii«nioili (a-pon"yu-roh'siB). [Apo--¥ 
Gr. ntiiroH. a sinew.] A white, shining mem- 
brane of connective tissue, serving either to 
cover in and bind down the muaeles and other 
structures of a region and keep them in place 
(A. o/ineM(Bi«(f, Aponeurot'ictascia, General 
a.), or toconnect muscles and tendons with the 
parts which they move (A. ofiiuertioH). 

Aponatirtnltli (a-pnn"yu-roh-sey'tis, -see*- 
tis). [-t'ffi.] Indamniatiou of an aponeurosis. 

A. fuelA, see under Aponenrotit. 

Apopbyauy (a-pnfee-»er-cc), ApophyMtl 
(ap"oh-6i!'ce-al). Consisting of, relating to, or 
affecting un apophysis; as A. fracture. A. 
point, see Spinouipoinl. 

Apophyiti (a-pofee-sis). [Apo- + Gr. 
pkHsit, a growth.] A bony process (usually 



which bus never been entirely separated from 
the bone of whieh it forms a part. A. of In- 
(TBM'Ua, one of the lesser wings of the 

taining to apoplexy, as A. stroke ; aiTected with 

'— - A. iMblt, a plethoric cor'-'" ' 

predisposing to apoplexy. 



+ L /or... 

opoplexy ; a" A 


pi fuein, to sttiL,.^ _. 

Icind; particularly, a slate of paralysig an 

-i of Hudilrii dvr^lnpnit^^ rsprrialiy wh( 

' V (HamanlUkK'lc a., 8u 

t. ) or th« el 

(nln'Mini^, .. 

».) into thp BubBtBnreof the bmia i<W'hral 
a.. Verrbrltar a.. Bulbnr a.) or the npinsl 
coni {.'^piwil a.) or their etivelopiHt {Mrnia'- 
gral a.), llv many a, is aliu) held to inrliide 
the roina and panily'ifi produred by eraboIiBm 
and throniliiMis(Bmiiiil'lca.,TliromtMit'lea.}. 
Pnnctloual (or Hmtou) %. in a condition 
Hiniilsr to true a., due to ponjj^fltion (*'onp«- 
lipe n.),ana;mia, or Bonie other purely fun<^ 
lional demntcemcnt nf the nrrvouH xyiiti'in. 3. 
The miiliirn elTuHion of blood into the sub- 
ntancc of any orran. A. in this sense is din- 
linpiished, aecordinit to its situation, into Pu/"- 
mnnary. Splraie, Ilrpafir, JUaat, Rrt'inul, 
ChoriiiCdal, etc 

jLiMthMarlM' walsht (a-polh'ec'ker^ei 
wayt'). See Wdgkia and MfUiirri. 

tlu-f-inV n,. nt,„„ . , 

iHh Hul>s(aniv dvposilnl from mf\iiiiDiis or<ie- 
I'ootionn wiien expow-d to tlie air or to other 
influences favorint; their decompoBition. 

AlMinne (ap'oh-nvm). [L. apr/tema, fr. 
apo- + Ur. irri'n, to boil.] A decoction. 

Appu«tni(ap"ur-Hy'tus.ap"nr4t'uR). [L. 
appara'litt, gen. apparn'ISi, fr. ad, to, and 
para'rr.U' make ready.] 1. A eoltection of 
parts di-Hlsned to fulfil iionie specific Alnetiot) ; 
as the Aii'Hilory (or Acani/fir) a. V-^tht as- 
semblaeeof part.i essential forhearini;, includ- 
ing the Sound-perei-iviuR and !*iiuniJ-coniluet- 
inKa.l. IV'i/ a. (the variouH orfpins subserv- 
inK phonnticin). ete. A. UguiBBto'aiu colli, 
theoecipilo-sxoiiliiKament. IminoTAbla A., a 
set of appliances for keeping a part, su<'h as a 
fraetun-d limh, at rest. S. An o1isi<lolc term 
for cystotomy, cnmprisinK A. niAlor. or median 
cystotomy, and A. minor, or perineal^ section 
fnra caleulus irhich has been fom-d into the 
perineum by preHMure. 

AppendAse (a-pcnd'ej). [L. m^nrj^um.] 
Anaddnioracrewnrvpart ; a subsidiary orian 
or stnietnre atliieliui to or ailjoininK another 
orjtan. A'l of the eya. the cycl)roB-s, eye- 
lushes, conjunctiva, loehryma] (ctand. Inehry- 
mul sac. and nasal duct. A'« ofthe ikla, Ibe 
nails, hnlm, solmceous (jlandN, aii<i sweiit- 
glands. A'l of th» oUnu, the ntt-rine liea- 
mpnlc, fivnricfl, niid Fallopian lube*. Anrle'- 
lllArA.,(n u supcmnMierorj proci-sw pnijei't- 
ing from the pinna ; ('i) the appendix auricular. 
'jnh). ,..,, 
n the region of the 
appeitciix vcrmiloriniH, 

App«ndea'tomr, Appendlcsrtomy (a- pen" 
d«*-sek'tom-ee). t-fclom^.'i Kxciaion of thi 
Terroiform appendix. 

Appu'dloL IL. apBendUralii.i 1. Of or 
pertainine to an appenda^ or appendix, t. 
Speeifi<-ally, of or pertaining to the appendix 
vermiformia, as A. absceie ; due to the diaeaw 
of the appendix, aa A. colic. 
AppendldtU (a-peD"(lee-sey'ti8, -see'tis). 
ilii.'i Infiammalion of the appendix vermi- 
irmis. SyniptomR: Pain, lendemesti. and oflen 
hard, doueiiy lumor in the right iliac fooaa ; 
rver and other constitntional symptoms in 
jppurative a, ; sudden collapse with fatal 
pentonitis if perforation occurs. Treatment : 
AntiphlngislicB ; removal of app-ndix. A. 
oltUverMU, a. marked by gradual oblitera- 
tion of tlie lumen of the appendii, due to 
' 'roaia of the submueoua tianie and circum- 
ibed peritonitis with resultant atrophy of 
mucous membmne. 

anric'niM, a musrular pouch projecting from 
tlie anterior and inner aurfaci' of either auricle 
of the heart and overlapping the root of the 
pulmonary artery. Eii'ilform (or Xlpbold) 
a., the lowermost piece of the stemuro. A. 
TormUbr'mla (Vermiform a.), a worm-like 
diverticulum of the ciecum, about 0.3 inch in 
diameter and 3-0 inches long. AppMldl'OM 
•plplo'lca, poucheB of peritoneum filled with 
fat, attached to the colon (especially the trans- 
verse colon) and upper part of tlie rectum. 9. 
Specilically, the vermiform a. 

Ap'petlte. [L. n7)p<-'^<!, todesire.] Desire, 
craving; especially, a natutal, healthy dmi re 
for the gralificatioD of hunger or some other 
bodily need. 

AppIaiutUo (ap"pla-uay'shee-oh). [L., fr, 
applaiidrt,to 6atU-n.] Flattening; oaA-ev/- 
ntir, flattening of the cornea. 

Appla (ap'ul). IL. potnunt.] The fmit of 
the Pyrus Malus. Soura'scont^n malic acid, 
and Ihe^ E/trarliim ferri poma'tiim, t). P., 

AvpllCMli>u(np"plee-kay'shunJ. 1. Theaot 

Applloator (ap'plee-kay-tur). An instru- 
ment for making applications ; particularly, a 
cottonholdcr or dinnlar appliance for convey- 
ing drugs into the vagina, noae, or other cav- 

Apprm'lnuil. Neighboring ; conlignoua ; aa 
A. mirfarf, that surface of a tooth which ad- 
joins anolhcr tooth. 

ApproxImAtton tiittira. See Stilurt. 

Aimut'la. [A- ' tir. prarit. u doing.] A 
condition in nhicli, without loss of mental 
power, a pemoii can not un<lerstand the nature 
of objects that he perceives by his senses. Thna 
in VlB'uAl A. )ic does not recognize a fkmiliar 





«bject, although be sees it (Mind-blindneEB, 
Word-bliDdncm); in Att'dltorr k. ht attachcB 
DO mesniDS to fitmiliar souniU, nlthmigh he 
hean them (Mind-deafnrw, Wnnl-drtifDPHi') ; 
and in Ptvchic anarlhrsia, Ptychic anowmia, 
and AvrAic agtn»ia, he failH lo Mpprepiate (he 
luitnre of bmiliRr objects that be handlee, 
amella, or tssles. 

Aproatlti(a-pruk't(«'ah), [A- + Gi. prolao», 
anoB.] Alraenee of the anue. 

ApToiezlA (ftp"roh-Bek'»ec-ah). [A- + Gr. 
proetcheiB, lo attend.] Jnaltenlion ; a heed- 
leas, listless condition, or inability to fix the 
mind upon n sahjei-l, due to meatul lielx^tuile 
or to dMective hearing. 

Ain«iopla (ap"raH-oh' pee-all). [A- 4 Gr. 
pnnoptm, fiiee.] Absence, complete or partial, 
of the face, 

ApMlapllNU(ap-sera-fee'diah). M- +Gt. 
ptilaphafin, lo feel, to alrolie.] Absence of 
Ihe sense of Wuch ; anffistheaia limited lu laetilc 

whisper, complete aphonia. Specifically, 
]>)e(e but temporary aphonia due to a fiinC' 
tional disease such as hysteria. 

Aptraliim (ap-Iey'a-lizm). [A- + Gr. 
plaalon, seiiTa.] Deficiency of saliva. 

Apu (ay'iius). [A- + Gr. putw, foot.] A 
nioDEler devoid of feet. 

Apyretlc (aj>"ey-rel'ik), ApytaxUl <ap"ey' 
rek'sec-al). Unattended with fever. 

Aqtia(ak'wah). [L.] 1. Water, made as 
pure aa possible (U. S.). The varieties recog- 
nised in pharmacy are ; A. bulPirai, boilius 
water; A. commiPnit, ordinary (nndistilled) 
waler( A. dtailloUa, V. S., B. P., G. P., 
distilled water; A. fentnt, hot water ^ vl. 
Jturiaiilii, river-water- A. fontii, spnng- 
watcr; A. fri^iita, cold water ; A. laari'ita, 
sea-water; A. tainera'lit.a mineral spring 
watiT; -*, ni"iii'/i>, water from mellei] unow ; 
A. pluma'lii, rain-water. 3. A solution of a 
medieinal sul>atanee in water < A. in«<llcliift'IU, 
A. madlciA'to) ; arcording to the U. H., a so- 
lution of a Tolatile suh^ncc ' ' " 

these latter (exeept the aroinonlH-'Haters) is _ 
tal>lctipDon or ^is (gm. 15). For these and 
simitarprepnralions(A. ammonite, A. campbo- 
rata, A. ehlorata, etc.), see Ammoaia, Cam- 
phor, Chlorine, etc. A. Carmefilo' rum, com- 
pound spirit of melissa; A. colonitn' tit, 
cologTie-waler ; .,4. /or(i«, nitric acid ; A. Itua- 
Ifta rneantn' tit, conipoimd infusion of senna , 
A. taercaria' lit nigra, A. nigra, black wash ; 
..4, (WffSroia'/o, hydrogen peroxide; A.ofymy 
riafiea, cblurine-water ; A. phngtdftn'ici , 
jellow wash; A. pkageda-H'ica nigra, blaek 

lydrochloric acid ; A. tatamt'iia, a. plumbi. 
S. A liquid of Ibe body resembling water ; as 
A. oc'nit (the aqueous liumor). A. p«ric«r'dU 
(the pericardial liquid), A. Ubrrln'tlil (the 
fluid ofthe labyrinth). A. un'nU (the fluid of 
the amnion). 

AqtwcapinUtlB ( ah"wah-kaps-yu-lcy'lis, 
-lee'tis). [.J^iia + rapmir + -ilti.] Inflam- 
mation of Ih'H'1'met'smemhrane; an improper 
term for sitohb iritis or cyelitis. 

AqnftpiuLCtnra ( ak"wah - punRkt'yur ). 
[Aqua + punflnrf.] Tlie inlmduclion of 
water into or beneath Ihe skin either through 
a puncture or, by the applicniiou of great 
force, through the unbroken integument. 

Annadnct (ak'wce-duki)- [L. agu<nfuc'f«« 
— amia + dtirlHi, a pMSKSge.] Properly, a canal 
for the conduction of liquid ; hence any canal. 
A. of Fallop'plu {Aqvinhictut Fallopp'ii), 
the ciin-cd canal in tlie petrous bone running 
from the inttmal audilory meatus lo Ihe stylo- 
mastoid foramen, and !od|[ing the facial nerve. 
A. Of the coeb'lak {Aguiriluetat corh'lra), a 
canal opening on Ihe basilar surfiice ofthe pe- 
IrouB bone, transmilling a small rein lo the 
cochlea, A. of tlie TMUbiUa (Aquirdufiui 
ralil/nii), a eanal opening on the poelerior 
Kurfoce of the pelnius bone and transmitting a 
vein lo the vestibule. A. of Syl'Tliu (A<iu<r- 
dvfliii etrebri, Aqii/rdiirtiit Syfrii), Ihe canal 
connecting Ihe third and fourth venlriclesof 
Ihe brain, 

AltllMIW (n/kwee-us). [L. agujftiii, fr. 
a^iKi.] Watei? ; containing or made with 
water, as A, solution, A. extract ; resembling 
water. A. liiunor (often called simply A.), 
Ihe limpid watery liquid occupying that por- 
tion of the cavity of I he eye (A, cbainlMr) ly- 
ing l)etween the cornea and Ihe lens. 

At. Symbol for argon. 

Arab'la aoUL An aciil. the calcium salt of 
which (kr'sliate of calcium) constitutes the 
main part of gum arahic. Dolha. and its cal- 
ciumsaltarecallei) Ar'klllll. By decomposing 
a. a., a very sweet crystalline sugar (AraVl- 
noia, gum-euger). CsHioOi, is produced. 

Ar&euaic acid (ar"a-kid'ik), Ar'acUa 



cAnr, Bpldi 

ply A.), Ihe very delicate serous membrane 
lolerposed between the dura anil pia in Ihe 
brain and spinal cord. The a. is closely at- 
lached to Ihe dura, but along the fissures and 
the deep depressions of the brain and cord it is 
■eparaled from the pia by a space (subarach- 
noid space) which is filled with cerebro-spinal 
fluid and communicates with Die fourth ven- 
tricle. A. cyst, hnimatoma of the. dura. 


Aiachnoldttli (a-rek"Djli-pC'd'y'liti, -dre- 
tin). Arachnitis. 

ATMomeMr <ar"ee-oni'e-tur). [Gr. araim, 
thiu, + -m<lfr.) See Ilylnimftrr. 

Araii-Dliclisnne trp« (ah'ran-duc-sht'n). 
The ordinary tjpe of progirsaive mnsculnr 

The nodule of libro-<«rliliiKe iipon the free 
edge of each segment of the semilunar valve of 
the heart. 

ArutUtu, Vrat'trlcle of. The cul-de-sac 
forming the inferior cilremity of the fourth 

Araroba, B. P. (ar''a-roh'hah), (ion jtovr- 
der; a browulah powder ohlained from cavities 
in the wood of Andjra Araroha, a Jaranew 
tree of the Leguminoaie ; the source of ehrya- 

Atbor. PI. arbo'rea, [L.] A Iree. A. ▼«», 
the Thuja occideatnlis. A. vita of tbe car*- 
iMlllun. the nuliating and branrhine laiuiuic 
of white iinbi'tance seen in loiigiludinal secliuns 
of a hemisphere of tbe eereWllum. A, TltB 

anching .. 
inal of the 

Arbnttn (ahr'bew-tin). A glucoslde, 
CiiIIkOt, ubluinnl fVom the AT'bUtU (Arct- 
ostaphylos) Ut» htbI. Vsed in cyaiitis. gonor- 
rhiea, and as a diuretic in dropsy; dose, 5- 
15 nr. (gm. 0.3-1.0). 

Arc. [L. arciu, a bow.] A portion of the 
eireumferenee of a cirele ; a tract or pathway 
bent upon itaetf. B«fl«X a., see Keflex. 

ATEAUDm (ahr-kay'num). [L.] A secret 

Aroli. [L. arciu.} A structure having the 
sliape of a bnw, innre or lew rigid. The Bony 
ardiM are the Supra-or' blial, formed by the 

Eromioeiit margin of the orbit : Xaial, formed 
y the nasal lionea and nasal pmeesg of the 
superior maxilla; Zggamafie: Alrtfolar; Dca- 
lai ; Vt/tebral, including the archm formed 
both by the vcrtebMe and by the ribs (see 
Hrrmala:,IfrtiMla.): Pufc/e, formed by the 
rami and bodies of the two pubic hones; and 
the arches of the Foot, formed by the Imnes of 
the tarsus. The Aichei of fucla are the 
C'rarat (or yciaora/) and I>rfp Crural (see 
Crural). The Artaiial arebas are the a. of 
the.iorto, the ftirpa/, the Sujwr^i'n/ and Drep 
palnuir, Planlar, and Tarml. See Artrrif, 
Tableoj. ArohaBOfioft parti are those of the 
Palate, formed by the pillars of the fanees; 
Qf the Colon ( ~ the transverse colon) ; of the 
Kidney, that portion of the cortex of the 
kidney between any single pymmid and the 
adjacent portion of the capsule; of Vorti, 
fomi^ by the eitemal and internal rods 
of Corti. The Fetal (or Brobryanlc) arches 
are the Viifcrral (Posto'rnl, Pbaryn'geal) 
archet. or cartitapnouB curveii segments on 
the anterior aspect of the embrvo, comprising 
the Mandil/alar a. (from which are formed 
the upper and lower jaw, the malleus, incus, 

of arterial arches, one for each viBceral a. The 
upper two disappear ; the third forms the com- 
mou. external, and intcmal carotid ; the fourth 
on the left side forms the thoracic aorta, arch 
of tlie aorta, and the subclavian, on the right 
side the innominate and subclavian ; and the 
fifth (Pufmonarya.) on the left ade forma the 
pulmonary artery. 

Arcb-conbracUng. The operation of con- 
tractiug the deutal arch, or making it more 

ArcHe- (ahi'kee-),AroU- (ahr'kee-). [Gr. 
archein, to lead the way.] Prefixes meaning 
first in order of time, primitive, original, or, 
sometime.', superlative. AtebeblOflls (-faey- 
oh'sis), Arcb«sa»Mli (-jen'e-sis) [Gr. Mo», 
life, or griirsit, begetting], spontaneous gener- 
ation. Arcben'Wron [(ir. enirron, intestine], 
the primitive stomach of the embryo; formM 
liy an invagination of the body-wall, and open- 
ing externally by the blastopore. Arcbatypa 
(ahr'kee-teyp). a primitive or original type; 
the BupposttiliouB simple type from which 
various derived forms are regarded as spring- 
ing. Ar'oblblaat [Gr. blaHof, sprout], (I) 
the discus proligenia ; (2) the epiblast; (3) a 
proliferating epithelial cell derived from the 
epiblast. AreublaB'tiO, of or derived from 
the epiblast. Aroblblaito'ina, a tumor (such 
■ - .) derived from the epiblast. 

Arcb-spraadlng. The operation of spread- 
ing or flattening out the dental arch. 

Ardfonn (ahrs'ee-form). [L.arcut forma, 
shape.] Arcuate ; as A. fibres, A. nucleus (see 

Arc'tlum. [L.] See Burdock. 

Arcuata (ahr'kew-ayt). [L. ar^uS'ius, &■, 
arcu*.] Arched; bow-shnped. A. CMn'inlE- 
Bure. the posterior optic commisMire. A. 
flbras, arching fibres In the medulla, com- 
prising the arciform {fnlernata.), which de- 
cussate in froM to form the anterior pyramids; 
and tiie Ketemal a., which spring from the 
gracile and cuneate nuelei and pass to the 
restiform body, being connected on the way 
with a mass of gray matter {hence called the 
A. nn'oleni) on the surface of the anterior 
pyramid. A. Ilgamenta, two tendinous bands. 


r of w 

I. <£<> 

nunt) arches over the psoas magnus I 
the body of the firTi to the transverse process 
of the second lunibiir vertebra ; the outer 
{Ligamfii'lam arciin'liiiii rjf^r'wKin), arching 
over the quailratiis iuniboruni from the trans- 
veree process of the second lumbar vertebra to 
tlie last rib. Rothgiveoripntothediaphmgm. 
A. llgameitt of knea. an arche<l band strength- 
ening the Iraek part of the eftpaule of the knee- 
joint on tlie outer si<le. 

Ar'cni. PI. ar'cuB. [L.] A bow, A. 



■enl'Ui, A. MBlll* cor'nan, a vhitUh rinK 
ocrnrrinj! in olit ppople in the comeo nfHr ann 
concentric irith ilx margin ; due to deposition 
of a hyaline mnt^na]. A. ■anl'lil iMltU, an 
opaque nog frequenll; oeeurring in old pvo- 
ple in the rryslallin? lens near its equator. A. 
palatl'nl, the pillars of the taucei' eompriung 
A. slosMHpAlatl'iLlil, or anterior, and A. 
phuyiiKO-pAlatl'uni. or poeterior pillar. 

Ardor nrinn (nhr'dawr ew-rey'nw). [L.] 
A eenne of soaldiiiK in the urethra an the urine 
paasea; a regular eymplom of urethritiB. 

Aru (ay'ree-nh). [L.] 1. A definitely 
limited portion of Kuperlieial iipace. The A'a 
of tha ■knll are the Frmiial ( ^ the ennvex 
HUriare of the fmntal bone), Anlero-pftri' rial. 

and Po^fro-parf rtal (i. e., Ilioee portii 

the parietal We lying i •- -■- >- '- 

and behind the parietal 

lying ivdpertivelv in A-ont of 

.arietal emineneei. Otcipi^at 

( -^ the occipital hone above the mperior 
curved line), Si{vamoio-lem' porat (HjuamouB 
portion of Ine temporal bone), and Alirphe- 
noi'dat ( =-■ great wing of tlie sphenoid). The 
temporal ridge divides the first thnv b'h into 
upper and lower, and a line paeaing from the 
orbit through the frontal eminence divides the 
upper frontal a. into a Snprro-frontal a. and 
Mldfromal a. A. cribro'aa.see .Wiicu/o cribro- 
fa. TheA'*orUieDmilRre: Fronlo-parielal 
a., the frontal lolw with theaecending parietal 
convolution; Jfb(or ( Kicilo-motor, Krcilable, 
or Solandic) a., the anterior and posterior 
central convolulionB; Faritlo-lfmporal {or 
Snuory), or the temporal lobe with that part 
of the parietal lobe behind the motor a.; and 
the Atulitory a. (A. aeuBtica), Ilypogleital a.. 
Vagii* a,, portionii of the floor of the fourth 
ventricle repreacniing the origin of the audi- 
tory, hypogloBBal, and vagus nerves. Slnelt- 
cotiim a., etc., see under Crntrr. Oar'mlnA- 
UTa (or Bmbiyon'tc) *,., (he spot of thicken- 
ing in the ovum indicating the place where 
the embryo in afterward developed ; divided 
into an outer opaque portion (A. opa'cn) and 
an inner lianslueenl part {A. prUn'rida), 
A. v/ueKlo'in (Vax'cnlar a.], a portion of the 
a. opaca which bpcomea filled with blood- 
veMielB. Cobniialm'a a., one of the polygonal 
apace* observed in the cross-section of a mus- 
cular fibre. 3. Alopecia areata, also called A. 
Celal {A. circumtrrip'ta, A. orirn<a' lii, etc.). 

AracA (a-ree'kah). A genus of ^:ast Indian 
palm trees. A. cat echu fumisliea the A. nut, 
or betel-nut (Reraen are'ew, G. P.). Astrin- 
gent and tKuiafuge ; dose, 2-^ 5 (S™- f^lS). 

Araeollua (a-ree'koh-lecn). An alkaloid, 
Call isNOi, obtained IVnm areca i an oily liquid. 
The crystalline, A. hydrobromidt, is used in 
1 per cent, solntion as a tulotic. 

Areola (a-ree'oh-lah). [L.dim.of arm.] A 
narrow zone enveloping; a part; as an A. of 
inflammation aurrounding a pnslule (e.g., the 
Vaccinal a. surrounding the vaccine pustulej. 
A.ofthebraut (A. mammiel, the pigmented 
zone surrounding the nipple. During preg- 
nancy it becomes much narker, constitnting 
the Primary a. Secondary a., a spotted pig- 


menled zone aurrounding the primary a. in 

the latter stages of pregnancy. 

Areolar (a-ree'oh-lar). [L.UTfola'rit.l Con- 
taining small open areas or meshes. A. Uarae, 
connective tissue. A. chorloidl'tla, see Chor- 

AT8antamlna(ahr-jen'ta-meen). [Argmlum, 
J- -amine.'] A liquid made by dissolving silver 
phosphate in an aqueous solution of ethylene- 
diamine. Used in gonorrhcea in 1 :4OU0 ao- 

ArgenUc. Argantoni (ahr-jen'tik, ahr'jen- 

tus). Containing silver. 

Atganttun (ahr-jen'luni). [L. akin to fir. 
argot, white.] Sifver. A. Tlnun, mercury. 

Arsm»(ahr-jil'ah). [L.] See.Bo/<-. 

Arslnlna(ahr'jee-iieen). A base, C>lIi<N<Oi, 
allied to crentinine ; found in plant tissues, and 
one of the constant decomposition products of 

Ar'gol. Crude potassium bitartrate. 

Ar'gon. [A- + <ir. n^on,work,on account 
of its chemical inactivity.] A gaseous ele- 
ment forming from 1 to 2 per cent, of the atmoB- 

AT'gonln. [/Irff-entum.] A compound of 
silver and casein ; a irhile powder used in 2 to 
in per cent, solution in gonorrh<pa and in 3 
per cent, solution in ophthalmia neonatorom. 

Arsyll-Robartaon pupil. [Argyll-Rohrrt- 
ion, Scotch ophlhalniologisl.] A pupil which 
does not react to light, hut contracts when an 
accommodative effort is made. 

roh'si*). [(Jr. arg>iro,. silver.] f — -"■'■- 
in which silver in depositeil in the I 
dueing an indelible dark st 

AiUnancBphallA (a-riu"en-Bee-tal'ee-aliJ. 

Ailea bark (ah-ree'kah). ralisaya-barfc 
fnim Arica, Peru. It and allied barks con- 
tain the alkaloid Ar'ldna, ChIImNiOi. 

ArUloa myrlitlCM (a-ril'ua mir- is* toe-see). 
See Mofe. 

. r»IIi..OjIj. A brownish-red 
powder used as a drying and dendnrant agent 
in wounds, bums, rhinitis, otitis, ozeenl^ 
endometritis, lupus, eczema, psoriasis, and 

AritlUDomAnlA (a-rith"raoh-may'nee-ah). 
[Or. arilhmo», number, 4 mnnin.] A condi- 
tion in which the mind busies itaelf with 
numbers to the exclusion of other things; 
monomania upon the subject of numbers. 

Arm. The upper extremity ; especially, the 
superior segment of it, extending from the 
shouldiT to the elhow. A. lioiia, see Hvmervt, 
A. centre, the centre for movements of the a., 
situati'd in (he middle Ihird of the anterior 
and posterior central convolutions. 

Armature (ah/ma-tewr). [L, arma/u'ro.a. 
defcHBive apparatus.] A bur oraoft iron placed 

ic tissues, pro- 


Armorfccla (nhr"miih-raj''8hee-ah). [Fr. L. 
■amvraciia, at or pertaiDing to Britlan;.] Sm 
■ Armr Itcb. S«e Ilch. 

A. moot 

I of Kui 

if hurope, 

. a fiimiiinee A. flowers (Arnicie 

flores, U. 9., Florea amicii;, O. P.) and A. root 
(Arnicie railix, V.i^., Arniotc rhiio'uui, B. P.). 
A. conlainit an acrid rtfin Al'ulcUi, r-nllMOi, 
and IB a stimulant unil loral irritant; dnse. 5-30 
iff. (Km. 0.30-2.00). Preparation)! and dosea: 
Tinetu'ra arnica /m-um, U.S. (Tinctu'ra ar- 
nicie, G. P.), and Tinfta'ra arniea radPfii, 
IJ. S. (Tinclu'ra arnica-, B. P.). 10-60 "l (gm. 
0.60-4.00). but used chiefly as embrocationn for 
hniisea, nprains, and painful HwcllinES of all 
kinds; JCxImf'limarniea radt'tii, V. 3., 3-5 
or. (ern. 0.2O-O.3O) ; Erlrai'tum araiea radi'- 
W« 0ii-i-liim, V. 8., 10-30 "l (gra. 0.60-2.00) ; 
EinplaJtrum arnica, U. S. 

AmoM'i ganglion. [.4rnoM,G.,anat(inii8t.] 
The olic Banglion, 

Arnold'* narra. The auricular branch of 
the pneumogBEftric. 

Aronui (a-roh'mnb). [Gr.] Fragrance: 
wipecially. the fragrance eihaied by atticleaof 
food and drink. 

AronuLt'le. [L. ariimat'tcwt, fr. Gr, arima, 
b«grance.] 1. Fragrant; lipicy; containing 
epicva or other odnrona or splcy-tadinx sub- 
Bianres ; as A. powder of chalk, A. powder of 
chalk and opium (see under Calcium). A. 
fluid «xtrftet(f':xtrac'tuni aromat'icum flu'- 
idum, U. S.), a fluid extract mode from a. 
powder; (low, ,?»■ (em. 2.00). A. povder 
fPulvia aromBl'lcim, U. S.}, a mixture of cai- 
damom 15 parts, nulmee 15, ginger 35, and 
cinnamon 35; dose, 10-30 gr. (gni. 0.60-3.00). 

* •■unlaa llw^'ii^ «»....«>' !»..> fl I> \ . 

reof 2p«rta each of peppermint, Thymna 
Serphyllum, tiiyme, and lavender, and 1 part 
«ach of cloves and cubeb. A. sulphuric Mid, 

__i Sulphuric acid. A. tyrap (Syru'pus 
aromnticns, U. P.). a nvrup of orange and 
cinnamon. A. tincture (Tinclu'raaromnl'ica, 
O. P.), a tincture containing cinnamon, ginger, 
. galangai, cloves, and cordainora. A. ^JiesBT 
(Ace' turn aroroaf icum, G. P.). a solution of 
the oiU of cinnamon, juniper, lavender, pepper- 
tnint. toseniMry, lemon, and ctovex, in alcohol 
anddiluteaceticacid. 3. Containing benzene 
or a benzene derivative; as an A. compound, 
A. aciit, A, alcohol. 

Aromtne (a-rnli'meen). [Aromalie + -inc.'\ 
A peculiar alkaloid obtained from urine;_Bo 
called because containing a benzene derivative 
in its chemical structun;. 

Ar'r&ek. An alcoholic beverage distilled 
from fermented rice. 

ATTBctor*! pill (a"rek-toh'reeE pey'ley). 
IL.] Literally, the raisers of tiie hair: certain 
muscles of tlie subcutaneous tissue which are 

attached to the hair-sheathB, and which wheu 
contracted make the hair stand on end. 

ArrUnesMplimUa (a-rin"en-sef-Bl'ee-ah). 
[A- + rhlnrnctpAalon.i Absence of the 
rhinencephalon ; cyclopia. 

Arrbytli'mla. [/t- -l-Gr.rAu(ftinot, rhythm.] 
Lack of rhythm, especially of the heart. 

ArThyth'mlc. Not rhythmical. 

Arroilon (a-roh'xhun). [L. ad, 
to, + rodfrr. to gnaw.] The disappearance of 
a vessel nsll under pressure bjr a process of 
simple wasting. 

Arraw-Toot (ar'oh-rootl. [L. maran'W.] 
A variety of starch derived from the rhizome 
of the Maran'ta anindina'cea, an herb nf tlie 
West Indies. Eatt Indian a.-r. is from the 
Marantain'dica of Bengal and the East Indies ; 
Brazilian a.-r. is prejMired cassava. A.-r. is 
used as a nutrilir>us and non-irritating food in 
feven and other conditions of gastric and in' 
testinal Irritability. 

Attowi, eanitlc (ar'ohz, kaws'tik). Arrow- 
shaped pieces made of arsenic or some other 
caustic material ; used for insertion into the 
substance of cancerous tumors. 

Ar'ieiiat«, Arienlate (ahr-aee'nee-ayt). (L. 
ari?niU. ari^niat.] See under JrMiiic. 

Ar'tenetted. See Arttaiarelttd. 

Arian-linmol (ahr''sen-hee'mn)J. H«mol 
combined nith 1 per cent, of araenic trjoiide. 
Dose, li-,1 gr. {gm. 0.1-0.2). 

Ar'Hnlc. [L. arten'icam, arein'ittta, ar- 
tifnuai, fr. Gr. arthi, male, on account of its 
strength.] A non-metallic element of the 
nitrogen group; a brittle, lustrous, grayish, 
crystalline solid, emitling an odor of garlic ; 
sp. gr., 6.7 to 5.96 ; nloniic weight, 74.(1 ; sy m- 
IhiI, As. In composition a. acts as a triad, 
forming the ArM'nlons compounds, and a 
pentad, formingthcAnen'lccompounds. The 
conipounds of a., in a single large dose or in 
repnitcd small doses, act ss poisons. See 
PuieuHt. In medicinal doses they act as tonics 
and alteratives and improve nutrition: they 
are used in anoimia, chlorosis, scrofula, chorea, 
malarial disorders, especially of a non-febrile 
and chronic form, and chronic eczema and 
scaly skin diseases. Ordinary A., WkiU a., 
AWnous acid (Ac'idnm arseno'suro, U. S., 
Acidumarscnio'sum, It. P., Ac'idumarscnico'- 
Bum.G. P.. Arsen'icumalbum), isA. trlozida, 
AsiOi, a glass}' or opaque and white substance, 
of faint Kweetisii taste. Dose, gr. 0.03^.00 
(gm. 0,0<l3-0.«04). I,ocally applied, it is a 
strong caustic, and has lieen used as a depila- 
tory and to remove malignant growths. A 1 
per cent, solution {Liaiior a<fi(fl arteno'n, V. 
>*., Liquor arsen'ici hydrovhio'riens, B. P., is 
given in doses of .1-5 "l (gm. 0.20-0.30). It is 
reaIlyarseniouBanhydride,trne ArMnlotu add 
being IIAxr)]. a monobasic acid forming salt! 
culled Ax'senltss. JJgnorpofan^iiarieni'tit, 
IT. S. (Liquor arsenica'lis. It. P., Li<|uor ka'- 

solulion of PoU^iitm arxcnitr, KAsOi'; 100 
parts correspond to 1 part of a. tripfide ; dm 



3-6m(gm.0.20-0.«)). A. pantoi'iile AbjOs. 
combineB witb 1,2, Hni) 3 molecules of water, 
(orniiDg rCBpectively Melareen'ic acid, UAsOs, 
Pyroareen'ic aeid, II<AsiOj, and Orthottrffn'ic 

£1 Aiman'lc) acid, HiAsOi. The latter forms 
e a«lts uillnl Ar'sBiuMB or Ans'nl&tea. Of 
thcM, are used the acid ^Wi'ittn arienate (S<>'- 
dii Brse'DBS, U. H.. B. P., Na'trium arBeiiie'- 
kum), NaiIIAs04 + 7HiO, duse, gr. U.03- 
0.10 igtn. 0.(102-0.006); its 1 percent, solution 
{Liguorii/4'i<"-K»a'lii,V. S.. B. P., Pear- 
son a BolutioD); andiron arWHaf; (Ferri aiBe'- 
nas, B. P.), Fe>(ABO.}j + GHK), Joae, ftr. 
0.0O-0.25 (gm. 0.003-0.015). A. chlorlda 
(Arse'oi chlo'ridum, Arsen'ieum ehlora'tam}, 
AsClt. a colorlMS liquid, ia very poisonous. A. 
bromlda (Arscn'i bro'midiini, Arwn'icuni 
broma'tum), AflBn, iser;Btalline. A. lodld* 
(Arae'ni iod'iduin, U. S., Arsenii ioiliduiu, 
B. P., Arsen'ieum joda'lura), Aals, rormiDK 
red crTstaU, ie used in niironic skin diseases 
Bod corjia; dose, gr. 0.04 (gni. O.OOS). Solu- 
tion of lodiile of a. and mrrcary, Ponovan'a 
solution (Liquorarve'niethTdrar'g^ri lod'idi, 
U. 8., Liquor arsenii et hydrargyrj iodidi, B. 
P.}, ia used in syphilis ana chronic sltin dis- 
esses; dose, 5-10 "l (gm. O.SO-O.Co). A. dtanl- 
plilda, or realgar, A»j^, A. trlsolplilda, or 
orplment, AsiSt. and A. pentAanlpUde, Asi^s, 
are pipnenln employed in the artf and some- 
timea in medicine. Other arsenical pignienta 
are ScAecWi grttn (copper arsenilc) and 
Schaeinfurth and Pane grtms [compounda of 
copper with a. and acetic acid). They are 
frequent causes of arBenieal poisoning. 

Artan'leftl. [L. arsfnica'/i..] Of, pertain- 
ing to, or containing arsenic ; produced by 
arsenic, as A. poisoning, A. paralysis. 

Arianlda (abr'see-neyd). A compound of 
arsenic with a basic clement or radicle as 
Hydrogen a. {^arsine). 

Anauloni (ahr-see'nee-us). [L. anhU!/- 
nM.] Arscnous. 

Ar'tenlto. [L. arifnU.'i See under Arteuie 

ATMUlorttUd (ahr-sen'yuh-ret-ed}. Com- 
bined with or containing arsenic. A. hydro- 

Araenoiu (ahr-see'nous). [L. orM-w/ sia.'] 
Containing arsenic as a triad. A. ncld, A. 
Ulhydrlde, nee under jlr*miV (n.). 

Anlne (ahr-Been). Mr«-enic + -ine (3).} 

c)USga8,ABHi, evolved in Marsh's 

in composition a radicle act- 

A very poison i 

ing like ammonia. 
Artonlnm (ahr 
Amni-ontuTn.] The univalent 

Artonlnm (ahr-soh'nee-um). lAra- 
Aunn-ontuTn.] The univalent radii ' 
analogous to i 


AT't«Ihet. [L. arte, hy aH, +/ortuTn, eome- 
Ui ing done,] An artificial product; particu- 
larly, a change produced in a part by manipu- 
lati<Hi. and simulating one prodnced by disease 
or injury. 


*rterl»(ahr-t«e'ree-ah). [L.] Seevlrteiy. 

Arterial jahr-tee'ree-al). [L. arterib'eii».\ 
Of or pertaining to an artery, as A. tumor, A, 
compressor ; proceeding from an artery, as A. 
hiemorrhage. A, Tkiu, a varicose artery. 
See uniler Antaryam. 

ArtorUUiaUoi) (ahr'lee"ree-a-ley-zaT'- 
shim). The act of making arterial ; especially, 
the conversion of venous into arterial blood. 

Ar'terin. A pigment distinct from harmo- 

Arterlole (ahr-tee'ree-ohl). [L, arteri'ola, 
dim. of arlcria.'] A diminutive artery. The 
BtrtOgllt a'a (Arteri'ols rectie) are branches 
of the proiier arteries of the kidney, which 
enter at the base of a pyramid and paxs 
through the latter straight to its apex. 

ArterlollUt (ahr'tee'iee-Dh-lith}. IGrMl/ioi, 
stone.] A concretion in an artery. 

Artarlom'star. l-mtter.l An instminent 
for measuring the variations in calibre of a, 
pulsating artery. 

Arterloactwotli (-sklee-roh'sis). [Sell- 
ron'i.] Hyaline degeneration of the connec- 
tive tissue of tile intimaof an artery, occurring 
especially in old age; producing rigidity m 
the artery and slow degeneration of the parta 
supplied by it. It may be diffuse {A-diffu'ta, 
occurring physiologically) or clrctimseribeil 
{A. dreantecrip' la, A. Tiido'ia, one variety of 
which is atheroma). Hence, AxMrlo-icla- 
rot'lo, of or pertaining to a.-s. 

Arlertot'omy, l-iomy.] The opening of 
an artery, particularly lor the purpose of ab- 
stracting blood ; an operation usually per- 
formed upon the temporal ariery. 

Arterlo-Taiioiu (-vee'nusl. Belonging to 
both an artery and a vein. 

Arteritis (ahr"tnr-ey'tia, ahr"tur-ee'tis). 
[-UisJ] Inflammation of an artery. 

Artmy (ar'tar-ee). [L. irlgria = Gr, 
aricria = acr. air, + (CTfetn, to keep, because 
supposed to contain air.] One of the veesela 
whose office it is to convey the blood (Vom the 
heart to various paria of the body. Ana. con- 
sislBofthreecmts; an/nrrma/tSerousorKn- 
dolhelial) coat (Intima or Tunica intima), 
composed of a layer of nucleated flat endothe- 
lial cells, surrounded by one or more layeiB of 
longitudmal elsatic fibres (fenestrated mem- 
brane) and connective tissue ; a Middtt (Or- 
cular, FibrouH. or Muscular) coat composed of 
tranaveree elastic and muscular fibres ; and an 
External (fibrous) coat (Adventitia, Tunica 
adventitia), eompoaed of connective tissue and 
fibres. The a's are also enclosed In 


•hM,tlui composed of thin connective j so-dilatcr nerves) which are distributed to the 
rived eenerally from the deep fascia!. Thej are muscular coat and regulate the calibre of the 
Bupplied with blood-TeHeli (vata nuorum) a. Bnd-a. or Tsrmlnal k. one which cloeKDnt 
which ramify benesth the aheoth, and with anastomose with another either directly or by 

nerres (VBB0-iD0tor = Vaso-constrictoror Va- I its branches. 


Aoromlal thoracic, AUr Uiomdc. See 7^ 

jUve'aUr. From Inlemal Maxillary. Brancbeb 

to molar and bicuspid teeth (Superior Vealal), 

maitllary antrum, nums, 
AnaiMmot'lCft Magna- From Brachial. To 

parts ftlmui elbow. 
Anaatomotlca Hacna. From Femoral. To 

linee-iolnt and Bkln at thtgh. 
jt¥i ynl«r From Facial. TO cheelc, lactirymal 

■ac, and orbicularis palpebmnim, 
AoitM. From left ventricle of he&rt. Arcll Rives 

off Sigla and Left Ommary to "- — ' ■ - 


igtit side ol head and right upper extrent- 
iBon (ia-Md and L(fl SuMufion lo 
head and left upper extremlly. 
lis viiiiiuiuitlon the Tboraele Aorta sends 
blanches to pericardium, brniichl. luntn (nutri 
ent),{caophBicus,anr] posterior mediastinum, am 
10 pairs ot InUnoMult to ribs, inlercosial mus 
cles, vertebne, and cord : and is continued as th< 
AbdOIIIllialAOrta, which glvesotl the Phrcnk 
Oatlac Aili, Superior Uimilerie. 2 fiupramal, 
SbuU, iSpermallc (Onirfaa), Jnfrelor Xaenlerli 
8 Laabar, and Saera Media, to the abdominal vls- 
eeia and the spine : and ends In BlglU and L^ 
(bmnuin Iliue, supplying pelvis and lower — 

Au'dUoTTi Intwnal. From Basilar. To cochlea 
and vestibule. 

Aarie'ular, Anterior. From Temporal. To an- 

ifade.Lona Thoraeic, ^ufmctipiitar. Autrrior 

..ttrrinr CireumJIfj!, lo aillla, shouldei^ 

joint, shoulder-muscles. Ends in Srachial, sup- 
plying arm, 

Bat'llKT. Formed by Junction of Iwo Veilebrals. 
Brancbes. Traan-erm. to pons: InlTiiat Audilora 
to Inlemal ear ; Ai-UTior and Superior Ortbell'ir, 
to cerebellum. Ends In Right and Ufl Foilerior 
C^ebral, supplying cerebrum. 

BrK'chlal. Contlnuatlonor Axillary. Branches, 

Into S 

BrulllO-cepliaUc. t^ee Innomlnale. 

Bron'cMal. 'i or 3 from Thoracic Aorta. To 
broncbl and lungs, 

Cuot'ld, Comtnon. Lsfl hvm Arch of Aorta; 
Right from Innominate. No lateral branches, 
Endt^ In Kriernal and Internal Caroiid, supplying 
head, neck, face, and brain (Iti part). 

OarOVtd, Sxtamal. From (Common Carotid, 
BftANCHES. tiaperioT Tltifriiitl, lo thyroid ^land. 

mdiim Phttryagetd, t 

scies, meninges, and 

pharynx; Ends, in Tnnponil, supplying region ot 
ear and temple, and liOernai lla^Sary, lo mid- 
dle ear, palate, Iceth. naso-pharynx, noee, deep 
muscle, and meninges. 
Carot'id, Intenud. fn>m Common Carotid. 
Branches, 7^panic,Arleria!lteceplaadi,Anterior 
Mertingad. lo middle ear and parts at base of 
brain ; <Jp>iUialmie. lo eye, orbit, and forehead ; 
Pa^erior OMmuBiaitim;, (o posterior cerebral ; 
Esas.inAnterioraadSidil'-'—*--' '-■"- 

the Carpal Areliet (Anterior and Poatarlor). 

To front and back ot wrist. 
Cuttral of Retina. From Ophthalmic. Toretlna. 

Cerebell'ar, Anterior and superior, from Bas- 
ilar ; InfarlOT, from Vertebral. To cerebcnum. 

Cer'ebral. Anterior. Fmm internal Carotid. To 
orbital surface ot frontal lobe, Isl and M frontal 
con volutions, mesial surfaceof cerebrum, corpus 
callosum, olfactory and optic nerves. 

Cer'ebral, Kiddle. Continuation of Internal 
Carotid. Brahches. Jittenud and fnfemoJ Stri- 
ate, lo corpus Btrialum, optic thalamus, and ex- 
ternal and internal capsules; lo insula: /n- 
/mur fhmlnt, lo orbital surface of frontal lobe 

and 3d frontal conv'-"— ■■■"-- '^—•~' 

to asuending frontal 
Aacendinfj fysrietal. t( 

Bcendlng parii 

and inferior 

, , _^ J Left. Formed 

by bifuroation of Basilar. To mesial and lateral 
surfaces ol occlpilnl and temporal lobes ; optic 

' neck ; roitrriuT Scapular, i 

CbO'TlOld, AntSTlOT, 

Oer'vlcal, AicsiuUnK, from Inferior Thyroid ; 

Deep, from Su|*rior Inlereoslal; Snparflclal, 

from Transversalls Colli. To muscles of neck. 
Cerrlcal. TranaTerse. From Thyroid Axis. 

Branchrr. ^iiperficint Orrieal. to munclM and 

glands r' — '■ ■ f^-- -^ - ■^ ■- 

. . Internal carotid; 

Poiterlot, from Pcslcrior Cerebral, To choriold 

CU'lary. Short. Loos, and Anterior. From 

Ophtrialmle and its branches. To choriold, 

Cir'ciiniflez, Anterior and Posterior. From 

Aiillarj-. To ahoulder-)o)nt. 
ClT'cninilez, Bxtemal and Internal. From 

Frotnnda I'emoriB. To muscles of thigh. 
Cll'cntnllex R'lac. From Kxtemal lilac. To 

ClT'cnmllex U'lac, SnperBclal, From Femoral, 
To skin of groin. 

Ooch'lear. From internal Auditory, Tocochlea. 

Cm'UacAxla, From Alidominal Aorta, Divides 
into (latlrie. Splmir. and Hrpnlir. lo stomach, 
pancreas, liver, spleen, and duodenum, 

Cel'lca Dntra^CoUea Media. F^om Superior 

Meaer teric. To ascending aii 


OOtIca slnla'b*. From Inferior Mesenteric. To 

deKCendlng colon. 
Oomai Nerrl Uchlid'lcl. From SdaUc. To 

<M>ma» Nerrt Phraii'lel. From Internal Mom- 
muy. To diaphragm. 

Commanlc&tliig, Anterior. Connects two An- 
terior Cerebrals. 

Oomnnmlcatlnf , Foatarlor. Connects Interna] 
Carotid with Interior Cerebral. 

CoT'onaiTiBUlblandLett. From Arch of Aorta. 
To heart. 

Cor'oiuuy.BnpMlOTBDd Inferior. From Facial. 
To Upg and septum of no«e. 

Cot'ohmt of Stonacli. See OaHHc (of Ctcllac 

Cramaater'lc. From Epigastric. To cremaster. 
CrlCO-thy'rold. From superior Thyroid. To 

GyatlC. From Right Hepatic. To gall-bladder. 
Dental. Inferior. From internal Maxillary. 

Bhanches, JkTilat. to teeth of lower ]aw; Myiii- 

/fj/o/ft, to mj-lo-hyoid muscle; /«dwr, to lower 

Incisor Icetn : JTcTtfoJ, to chin. 
Dental, Snoerlor. From Alreolar, To upper 

molars and Ucuspids. 
DorHllsCUtor'ldU. From Internal Pudic. To 

DorsallB Hail. From Kasal. To dorsum of note. 
DoraallB Pedlle. Continuation of Anterior Tibial. 

Branches, TUrun;, .Veliilanal. Dtmallt IfaUucii, 

and OmimunieaHnii to dorsum of foot and toes. 
Soru'lii FenU. From internal Pudlc. To glans 

penis and prepuoe- 
DOTia'lU ScftpQlo. From Suhscapuli 

muscles about scapi-'- 
BplKM'tTlc. From 

lyemaMeric. Fvblo. 


:«#'trlc, Bnperflclal. From Femonl 

sHn of groin and abdi 

Bttunol'dal, Anterior and Foiterlor. From Oph- 
thalmic, To etbmoldal cells, noee, and meDlnges. 

Fadal. From External Carotid. Bhanches, la- 
firfor Palatine, TbatOlaT. Submaiaiars. to soft 
palate, tonslli and lubmaxillarr gland: Sub- 
iMn^ and Jfuwtdor to chin and mnsclesotlaw; 
litfiaior Labial uiHIn/aioranASupfrtorCbronary 
M Upe and Interlorof nose; laterahi Nail to out- 
Bide of nose, ENnein^nffu^ariSupplylna lachry- 
mal sac and cheek. 

FAdal, TnuUTOTH. From Temporal. To parot- 
id glaikd, maiseler, and skin. 

Fem'oral. Continuation of External Iliac. 
BttANCHfs, Swperfieial Eplgatlric, SuperJIclal Cir- 
omutei Hiac. and StwaJMal Eitemal Pttdic to 
skin of abdomen.gnMn, and external organs of 
generation; J^orn £rfi;riiiil i> perineum and 
•crotum (or labium) ; Fntfimda ftmorit, to hlp- 
JoiDC, muscles of hip and thigh; JfuKufor to 
muscles of thigh: AnagUmiitiea Manna to knee- 
joint and skin of thigh. EMsa In PoplUa^, sup- 

Frontal. Aicendlng and Inferior. See under 

m Cffillac Axis, To o<8opb>£us and 
s from Splenic. To greater curva- 

/itfrnffr l^loric to pylorus, 

jMrica Dcdra, supplying _ „ 

stomacli and great omentum; and JtantTdUim- 
Ihtodeaalit Superior. Buppljing duodenum and 

nlol. Togreatcurvaturc and wallsof stomach 

Olnta'al. From Internal lilac. To htp-lolnt, 

deep muBclea of hip. 
aivto'al. Inferior. From Sciatic. To glutens 

Hnmorrhol'dal. Bxtarnal lor Inferior) (from 
Internal Pudio). Wddle (from anterior trench 
nt Internal lltuR], BvperlOI (from Inferior 
Mesenteric). TO rectum, anus, and anal 

Bepat'ic. From Cosllac Axis, Brancbib. Pjfioric, 
to pylorus and small curvature ol stomach; 
Gaitro-Daodaiatu, to great curvature of stomach, 
duodenum, pancreas. Ends In Right Hrpatic: 
sunplylnKright lobe of liver and gall-bladder, 
tn(( LtfllTrpalic to left lobe ol liver, 

Hyold. 2 from Lingual and Superior Thyroid. 
To muscles Inseried in hyold bone. 

n'ao-Col'lc, FromSuperiorMesenteric. To end 
of Ileum, ctecum, appendix, and beginning of 

n'lac, Common. From Abdominal AoriiL 
Branches to peritoneum, noas, and ureter 
Ends in Exifraal and Internal liiae. 

n'lac, Sztamal. FromCommon lilac. Bhanches, 
"-'--^ - drcumpaJUac^anA others^to ab- 


organs, perineum, and lower eitrt 
D'iac, Internal. From Common I Itac. Bkanches 
OF Antehior trunk. Uttpetiar, Middle, and la- 
Jaiar Vetical I loffinal). to bladder, vas deferens, 
nnstate, and seminal veaicla (or to vaiina) ; 
MbMle HR7T,orTMd<U. to rectum; U^ne, to 
'under, to bladder, ilium, lllacus, 

and muscles of hip ; Tntmud Pudir, to am 
temal organs of Ecneration, pcrineur ' 
to muscles of pelvia and lilp, sciatic " 
Joint. JiRANCHi- - " 


tele nerve, hip- 

K TRUNK, nlo- 


Inftftor'bltal. From Internal Maxillary. To 
musclesof orbit, tachrvmal eland and sac max- 
lUarj' antrum, front teeth of upper Jaw, face. 

Innom'lnate. From Arch of Aorta. Divides 
into Rlaht Oimmnn Carolid and Right Sabrlai-lan, 
supiJlyinK the right side of the brain, spinal 
cord and membranes, neck, larynx, trachea, 
dlaphra^nn, and trunk, and the right mammary 
gland, axilla, and upper extremity. 

Intercos'tal. lO pairs from Thoracic Aorta. 


i lo rl 

veMctpnc. spinal r 



IntercM'ta], Asterlor. 5 nr « 

1 Musri 

■)■ glanJ. 

Intarcoi'hd. Superior. From SubrUvEBn, 
Brakchks, A)«t> iWrlml, In niuwles ol necli: 
/iitirnnWoJ. to nist '2 iiiltmwla] epwKs and lo 
Rplnal iiinl and uiuu-lcs. 

IntaroaB'einu. From I'lnar. Divid(« InloAn- 

tarlorsiiii Poiterlor InteroiMoni i>ui>piyitiK 

radius and iiLiia, dee[) utruciures o( fuR»iTo, 
Ti ka<UBl 

IntaroM'AODi Raoorrant. Krom PceiprUir In- 
. To dLfp structures of fonaum. 
1, Infaflor. From Facial. To lowi-r lip. 

d meninges, 
IT Tliyrold); Snparll 

glnnd^ teminrui 

and Uferlor larTweM ( i rlro-Th)!^!!!! I'Stim 

Supcri<a'Th)Tiitd|, To larjni, 
LatMft'lU Hul. I''n>ni Farlal. To aide of now. 
Unnal. From External Curotid. Branches, 

I{y>a-i. Donuilii Limjuir. HxWan-ua. and Katibit. 

to (he mitwli-a n( the hyolil iione. the longuc, 

BUblineual Eland, mouth, ^ms, soft fttlafe. Ion- 

Ell, eiilKhitlu. 
lumb&r. 4 paira Irm 

and uoulentH oF »|>lne; 

lUUa'OlU-, Extamal and Intanud. From An- 
terior Tibial. To BDkle. 

Hftin'mary, tntamal. From gubclavlan. 
BbaNchim. to mcdiaatlnuin. pericardium, and 
Henium ; Oimni Xmi PArmiri. to diaphntfnn : 6 
Anltrior /nfrmaiiif. lo 6 upper InterciBtal epaces : 
e Prrf'tralma. to mannnary sland and prrioral 
muscli-s. Kniia. in 3lHfr,Uo-IVirniie. Bui>plvine 
diaphragm and lower inlereoital spacw; and 
Stiftnior t^iffagtric, lo anterior muBeles of abdo- 

MHMter'lO. From Internal Maiillar)-. To 

ICMtOld. From Occipital. Toduramalcr. 

Mkz'lllaiT, InMmaJ. Fror 

J)BANrHE». Twmpar'' '~ • 

and Smaa Mealngi-., . . „ 

(iOBM'rian ^n^tllon, and facial n< 

middle ear: Miiidk 

PtOatlar, — , , „ 

ta nasu-pharj'nx and Eumavhlan tube; 

.*ppAnui-rtAi(mc (or A'awifl. to iiBn» and aeccs- 

— ;.. ..,.. „ — |^[jj .4jjroinr. BUpplyinB back 

J Ruinn; and Iitfmorbilal, to 


MadlUtl'IML Fmm Inler 
anterior mollastlnum. 


MadlaaU'iuI, Porterlor. From Thoracic Aorta. 

To posterior medioallnum. 
Henln'KMl (from AM'endin)! Pharyiurcal), An- 
terior (from Canitld), btferlor (from Ocrl- 
Silall, iCddle and SnuOl ('lom Internal 
[aii:ilary). Posterior (from Venebrall- Tn 
meninjtea, cranium, tiasserian ganglion, and 

■o-Dualnialit lajaiur. 

llBtacar'paL Sec /n«To«rowjr. Domni. 
HeU.tftr'ial. Prom DotssIIh Pedis. Bhanch», 

S Intrrotseoia to clefts belwevn toes. 
HnBcnlo-Pbreii'lc. From Inlemal Hammar)-. 

BiUNcaEHlo diaphragm and abdominal muscle:^; 

5 or B ^ lUaior Inlemtlali to lower InterCTetBi 

Mrlo-Ill'old. From Inferior Dental. To mylo- 
MasH. OrintemalMailllary. See5pAeno-PQfa(Jnr, 
Kosftl. By bifnrcalinn of Ophthalmic. Bbanch^ 
lo lachj'mol sac and an^lar anery ; Dortolit 


tibia. Irom Posterior Tibial. 
Obtnnt'tor. From a 

lo be. .. . ._ 

In Bstsnkl and Int«rnsl Obturator, 

EU]q>1ylnK bip-loint and muscles of hip. 
Ooelp'ltal. From l^xtemal Carotid. BELANCBe-, 

I-riiurpi Orricii lo 

■uum.i^-q vt un-.', ui iii-vjk. lIlNIIS ID brUkchCB 

supplying occlpul. 
Oplnlial'inlc. Fmm Internal Carotid. Bbanchib, 
LofhrymfO. SnpraorbSal. Aid/rior and Ftiitrrior 
JUhmoiiliil, SHiKrior and Infrrior ftifp/ftroi, lo 
meninges, rontents and ualle of orMt. ethmoid 
cells, inlerior ol ncee. eyelids, forehead, and 
foi-e; .''ftiJrf, tonjj, and .4n/(nor07ian)tochortold, 
cilian' processes, and Iris; Cntral Artery <)fllttiiut 
to retina; J(iwii/nr to muBcleaof eye and con- 
junctiva. EsM in froulal and KoMl, supplyiug 

. To OTary, 

forehead and surface of 

Pal'Ulua.AieendUiK (or Inferior) from Facial ; 
Deacendltig (or Poatertot) from Inferior 
Maxillary. To hard and soft paJale, tonslli, and 

Pklmtir Arcb. Deep. From Radial. 1 


IHailai to adetut t\nxers. 
tUdtalis Indleis. 

t Marginal 

Puierakt'tG | 

Pal'pBbTal. Bzt«rti&l (Iroin Lachrymal I : tn- 
temfclJfniDiOphthftlniU'l. To upper and lowtr 
eyelid and uaul dutl ; lonalnic " 
brandies and ['ppfTftini /jh«t Tumi 

■■Tiprettticie parvie, Pancre&dea 
magnaj. i moi t>plenic. To pancreas. 

Putcreatlco-Duodeiui'Ili. Infarlor (from Su- 

g^rinr Mesenteric) and Bnperlor ((mm tiagtro- 
nodenalla). To pancreas and duodenum. 

Puloe'ftl, SnpwflelftI and TTMUvene. From 
Internal Pudlc. To scrotum (or labium) and 


fibula and 
oRfol, to front ol 

Pbairn'feta, AacMtdtnc. From Externa) Cai^ 

□tid. BBiNCHDi lo mUBclceand nerva of neck. 

pbarynx. soft palate, tonsil, Eustachian tube, 

and meninges. 
Fbrea'lc. 1 pair from Abdominal Aorta orCieliac 

Alls. To alaphragm and adjacent Tiscera. 
Phren'ic. Bnperlor. See Coma Nervi Phrenici. 
Plairtu: Arett. From Eitemal Plantar, Joining 

with Dieital from Dncsalls Vviia. BOAKcHts to 

■ole o( foot : Potlerior Pn/oraUng, to Interodse-. 

OUB branches ol metaiaisai ; Digllat, to outer 

naatar, Bxtanua and Internal. Terminal 

bnuichcaot l\)8Ierii)r Tibial. Sole.inncraldeof 

FopllWtl. Contlnuatlonof Femoral. Branchrs, 
Sap^riortnd /f^/W^orifiuru^r (aural), to muscles 
of calf; CutanamK. to skin of calf: 2 Superior. 2 
Xitferlor, and 1 Azypoa Articular, to kncc-Joint. 
Divides Into Aalmor and PoiUrior Tibii^, sup- 
plying leg and foot. 

Prinaepi CWTi'di. Prom Occipital. Brahchis 
to trapezius and anastomosing iritb Superior 
Cervical, Vertebral, and Deep Cervical. 

FrliiMpi PoU'leii. From Radial, To thumb. 

PToran'lla ObttI'cU, See Gervlcal, Deep- 

FTOfDn'ila Fem'orla. Prom Femoial. To hip- 
joint muscles of hip and thigh. 

FTDtnn'da, InniTlor and Bnperlor. From 
Biacblal. To Bhoulder-musclcs, clbow-jolnl, 
and parts about elbow, 

PtOT7(0-Pal'»till«. From Inferior Mailllary. 
To poaryDX and Eustachian tube. 

Pn'blO. From Epigastric and OUuiator. To 
pubic r^on. 

Pa'dlo. Bxtonial, Dmp (or InfbrlOT) and in- 
perfldal (or BddmIot). From Femoral. To 
eitemal o^ans ot generation, 

Fa'dtC, InMmal. By Ufurcatlon of anterior 
DUDk of Internal Iliac. Biuhches to muscles, 
d pelvic viscera; Inferior (or 

Ectemai) Hxmo 

TOtum lor Is 
6, to bull) of 

urethra (In 

perineum ; Arlerv qf BuBi, 

lemale. bulb ot vagina) : 

fiowiM and DoTtaiU Penit < 

to penis or clitoris. 
Pol'monary, From liaht ventricle of heart 

DlTldeBlntoIUsbtaQd L«n pnlmoiiary, carT7- 

Ing venotis blood to right and left lungs. 
PyWrlC. From Hepatic. To pylorus and lesser 

iw ; Mmrubir to munclca of forearm ; Suprr- 
Jlclalit Villa. Dortalit PuUirii, and Priarrpt PoBicii 
to thumb; .Infn-ftirand iWfrturdirpni to wrist; 
KrfnnirjKiJtlHtdoisal Inlcrrissonus) to Zd liilcr- 
oesvous Efiace: Donatit Indieii and Badialit 
Iiidiclji to Index llntier. Eniih In Dtrp Palmar 
Arrli. supplying Intermetacarpal spaces, palm, 
and wrist. 
Badla'Ils In'dlcU. From Radial. To Index 

Ba'Qlna. ConllnaallonofLlngiial. TDUnderside 
of tongue. 

Benal. l pair from Abdominal Aorta. To kidney. 

Ba'cral, Lateral (Bnparior and Infarlor), 
From Internal Iliac a-Bterlor trunk), ToBacral 
canal, muscles and skin back of sacrum. 

Ba'cral. Klddla. From Alilomlnal Aorla. Tosa- 
cral canal and rectum ; enters coccygeal gland. 

8c»p'ttlar, Foatarlor. ('onllnuallon of Trans- 
verse Cenical. To lallsslmus doisl. rhomboids, 
and trapezius. 

Sclat'lC. By bifurcation of anterior trunk of In- 
ternal Iliac. BhAMCHEB to perineal muscles. 

, bladder, prostate: UxxvfMai, Inferior 
s..,..tu.. and others to muscles of hip; Arttnlar 
to lilp-joiiit; OmKi Atrvi iKhiadia to Bclatio 

Birmoid. From Inferior Mesenteric. To sig- 
moid Beiurt. 

Bp«nliat'lC. I pair from Abdominal Aorta. To 
epididymis and testicle. 

B^heno-Pal'atipe. From_ Internal Maxillary. 

SpinAl, Anterior. From Vertebral. Unites with 
lellow to form beginning of .ilnWrtor ifrrdfan 
(q. v.), supplying cord and its membranes. 

Spinal, Lateral. From Vertebral. To spinal 
coid, memDranes, and vertebra. 

Spinal, Poatarlor. From Vertebral, Intercostals, 
Lumbar, To back of spinal cord. 

Splen'iC. From CiBllac Ails. Branches, Pan- 

6 to 7 Oa>Mc I vasa brevla) ai 
Siniitra to greater curvature ui bdi 
Id spleen »ltb offshouts tn Blomacb 

Btemo-llaa'told. From Superior 
Occipital. To stcmo-maslold muBi 

BtrlO-Hai'tOld. From Fusterlor Ai 
maatoid cells and tympanum. 

Snbcla'Tlan, Rlcbt, f 

. Oaitro-KpipliHca 

tmtat Mammary, to uiapnrafciu, anterior m^ias- 
tlnum, pericardium, mammary gland, ribs, and 
intercostal, pectoral, and abdominal muscles: 
Superior Inlercotial. to 2 upper tnlcrccetal spaces, 
deep muscles of neck, tkintlnued as Axl/tarj/, 
supplying axilla and Its walls, muscles of 
shoulder, upper extremity. 

Bublin'giul, From Lingual, To sublingual 
gland, muscles of lower jaw. 

Bnbmax'Ulary. From Facial. To BUbmoilllarj 



Bnbscakp'nla'- Fiom AxlllBn'. Brakcbes, Doo 
laiit Ncaputr and others, U> sc»pu]ta muscles. 

BnpsrfiOlKlll TOlM. From Had tal. To thumb, 

BnPTMOT'bitel. From Opbthatnilc. To forehead, 
upper mugclfs □[ orbit. 

BnpntfV'nal. From Abdominal Aorta. To su- 
jwarenal cajBulcs. 

anpratei,p'ulai. From Thyroid Axis. To 
BOOUldcc-JoInt, muwlM at nwk. 

TofBkt. From I>oniaMg Peilis. To tarsal Joint^ 
and extensor brtvb dltdloruni. 

Tuial Atcbea, BnpaHor and InftrKir. From 
Palieliral. To upper and loner Udn, 

Tun'pOTftl. By bifurcation of Exiermi] Caro- 
tid. BnANoBiai to Iempnro-mailllar>' Joint; 
7Voii»iffi»; fhrial, toparotla gland, mafwdcr, side 
of (ei't: Aittrrlor AurinUar. lo Iron! of aurlcli'; 
Hidillr Temporal, to temporal miwle. Ends In 
A iilrrinr and riutrrior TViHj«rnJ, lo forehead and 
t;lde of bead. 

al Arterjotrt-ilna. To temporal lialf of Retina. 

Tlionic'lc (from Ailllar}-] : AcramUl. to mus- 

clea of shoulder; AlAT, lo axilla; Long and 

fplnnl [-anal, an<f museles'of neek.' Eniih lii 
thyroid gland. 

TbT'rolll. BupsrlOT. From £xt(rmal Carotid. 
Bkanchek. //jniirf, .sfcTNo-JtfoBnW, and olbers. to 
musolPH of £ront of neek; Svperhir tnr™oMiand 
CWni-nvroHf, to larynx. ENiixlnthyniM glands. 

TliT'rald AzIb. Fmm Subclaiian. Breaks up 
lilt* Inftri'if Tkvroiil. lo larynx, mehea, ipsopha- 
fnia, muH'les of neek, Ihyrnid eland ; Suant- 
rrapiilnr, to miiH-les uf iierk. should er-jnint ; 
TVan'riTjic (Wi'Mif. to muscles ol neck and 

Tlb'Ul. Anterior. By bifurcation of Popliteal. 

Bhanches, TWiciiKmirmXtoknee-i-'—' " 

fnr lo miiM-lcs of front ol Icr;^ /> 

Min, supplying dorsum of 


Tibial, Portarlor, By lilfiireatlon of PnpUieal. 

BftANcHtB, Peronfot to siructures outside i 

lutck of ankle. Hbula, deep muscles of calf; 
.Vri/rmii to tiUa; Mojieiilnr to musclfs of ealf ; 
Ommunirxtliiig to Peroneal; 2 or 3 Inlernal 
lyilnuran lo lieel. Divides Into Inlernal and 
fMcrmd Ifanlar supplying Inner side of fool and 
sole, and plantar surface of toes. 

Tou'slUar. From Facial, To tODsll. 

Tt&'^mU. From Inferior Thyroid. To trachea. 

TTMUTersalll colli. See Om-intI, Tranitrrte. 

TraiuTarae. From Basilar, TV pons and cere- 

Tympan'lc. From Internal Carotid and Internal 
Haxlliary. To tympanum, 

ttlnar. By bifurcallon of Brachial. Brak 

.(to knee- joint;. Wuwii- 

■ ' MmialanA '- 

Lined as JMrsi 

«■ ilnar Rei^urrnt to elbow- 

d' ulna ; .ViHiruJar to muscles of forearm; An- 
iar and i'mlfrior Oirpal to wrist. Eneib In 

To uterus, bladder, ureter. 

Vw'lnal. See Veilral. Infer/or. 

TaMbra'irta, See fimt™: (of Splenic). 

VUA iBtaiU'nl T«n'til(. 12-15 from Superior 
Mesenteric. To Jejunum and Ileum. 

Vetr'tebTal. From subclavian. BRAKCHtH, Lai- 
mil. Aiil'Tlif. and J'n^erfar Spiwil, to vertebra;, 
spinal cord, and membianea; Maicalar, to deep 
muscle* of neck; rot/irior Meaingial, lo lali 
rercbelU; W-nor O-rebtBar. to cerebellum. 
Unites with fellow to form Au/bir, [supplying 
pons, cervliellum, base and interior of eerebnim. 

Vailcal. InfMrlor and Middle. From Internal 

side of bladder, u 


A, Onter Surfaee of Hetui. 
1. Bcftlpand7«rlci«liltuil. Temporal (anterior. 

Internal Maxillary ideen (i-oiporal branch); 
a. Fwe. Facial {submeiilal. muscular, inferior 
labial, superior coronary. Inferior coronary, 
lateralis nasi, angular) ; Internal Mailllary 
( infra-orbital bianchl ; Temporal lanterior 
temporal, transverse fai-lal| ; Ophlhalmie 
(lachrymal, supra-orhital, fronlal, nasal). 

B. I'pptr Sftpiratory TVorf, 
3- MaaalFMia, Ophthalmic (anterior and pos- 
terior elhmoidall, toolfactory portion ; Inters 
nal Maxillary (sphenn-|ialatlne, descending 

Klollne, alveolar), to respiratory poriion; 
cial (superior coronarj'). 
i. BUunoU. Frontal, and Spbonoidal 81n- 
msl. Onhthalmlc (anterior and posterior 
ethmoidal); Internal Maiillarr (spheno- 


_, . Internal Maxillary 

(alveolar. Infraorbital. spheuo-paJatlne), 
e. Maao-pburns and IStutacblui Tuba, Aa- 

.-ending I-haryngeal ; Internal Maxillary (Vi- 
dian. pter>'go-|ialalliie) ; Facial (ascending 

C, Orgaf i!f Spfctal Srntt. 
S. Sir, ExtamU. Paalerior Auricular; Occip- 
ital; Temporal (anterior auricular). 
I. BaXjIUddla.^ Inlernal^axillary (tympanic. 

BoiT'; Pfitcrtor ,_. 

■--nal Carotid ^tympaidc) ; 


10. Bar. Intenial. Basilar (auditory) i Poaterico' 

Auricular (slylo-masbtid). 

11. Ere. OphtbBlmlc(cenlmIof rctlDatorettna: 

long — ■ "■ ■-■ ' -...- — 


llMllnjMB Ot BTAln. lDteni*1 MaxHIuy 
(middle Dienlnnal, Bmall menEngeal); Oc- 
dpllal; ABcetHUng Pharyngeal: Intem&l 
Cuotld (Ulterior mealneeal); Ophthalmic 
(anterior uid poeterior ethmolit, lachrymal) ; 
venebral ([UMerior meningeal). 

CerebnuD. Inlemal Cok " 

brat, middle cerebral, bi 

B««llar (poaterlor cerebral; 

15. OarabBUtim. BoEilar (antertor cerebellar, 

BD p^or cerebellar) ; Vertebrallinferkn-eere- 

16. Poiu. Basilar (tratuverae branches). 

17. M»dnU*. Vertebral (oDlertot and pmlerlor 



Interior Thyroid; Thorado 

I. Stomacb. <is£lTlc; Hepatic (pyloric, gastro- 
?p1pli>1ca deitra) ; Splenic (rasa brerla, gai- 



«n(eric (poncreatico- 

Supwlor Intercoatal; Thoracic Anrta (Inter- 
coEtals): Lumhar: Internal 1 liar { illo-lunibar, 

median, two posterior, and laleral spinal 
arteries with central artery of cord. 

25. Jejunum and Heum. Superior Ucsenteric 

(vBMlnlestlni tenuis, lleOHMlIc). 

26. Cneum. Superior Mesenteric (ileocolic). 

'JT, Oolon. Superior Mesenteric (Ileocolic, cnlica 
dcitra, collcB media) ; Interior Mesenteric 
(col lea sinistra, sigmoid), 

IS. Rectum. Interior Mesenteric (superior bcem- 
orrhnldol); Intertinl lilac (middle htemor 
rhoidal, sflatic, and, through internal pudic, 
the inferior hiemorrlioldal); Middle ijacral, 

2S. Pancreoi. Hepatic (pancreatlcn-duodenallt 
Eupcriorl : Splenic ( jiancreallcffi panic, pan- 
1 latma) ; Superior Mesenteric (pan- 

F. IWn. 


31. ToniU, Son Patata, and Lower Phomis. 

Faclaf (ascending palatine, tonsillar); Lin- I IhbUiif. 

Udnaj. Renal. 

iscular, labial. ' Si. Ureter. Renal: Spermatic: Internal Iliac 
(superior vcbIcbI, uterine, etc.). 
33. Bladder. Internal Iliac (superior middle, 
and interior vmicol, H'lallc, ulerine). 
"~ ■■- - -- 'irial supply of jolnig, see Jolnit, 

Artery-eonatrlo'Ur. An ._ , . 

siRtineof a blunt hookvhich can be projected 
from its cose, passed about an artery, and 
Bcnrwed np so ns to compress the vessel. 

Artery-fOrcep*. A forceps designed either for 
calchiDgupiCiimpressing.orlwisting an artery. 

Ar'Uiral. [h. arthrfflitj it. Or. arlhron. 
Joint.] Oforpertainingtonjoint; asA. nerves. 

ArtbnlsU (nhr-thral'jah). [Gr. aHhron, 
joint. -I- -algia.} Pain, especially of a neural- 
([ie character, in a joint. 

Arthreo'temy. [Gr. arthron, joint, + 
-telotay.l Excision of a Joint. 

(Chronic rbeunutic &., Bhenm'«told «., 
osteo-arthritis), a chronic disease allied to 
rheumatiHm, and in Charcot's joint-disease (a 
complication of locomotor ulaiia) ; sponpy 
infiltration and ptnstic cxuiiation, due to the 
presence of giimniata (SypUtltlc &.) ; deposi- 
tion of uratm, causing clironic nodular thicKen- 
ing and nlceration about joints (Clironle 
gouty a,.) : chronic suppuration and disinte- 
gration of the joint, startinf; from the adjacent 
'-"le (some forms of syphilitic a.) ; ^owdisin- 

»rtWVl«. (L. «MJ<«j.l Ofp, p,r- n'oIimL 
lining to arthnlts or gout. A. diath'eill, a __f„i nntinvrin 


in a. are : Liquid eSueion. with 

ing, redness pain, and fever (Acnte %..). as in 
the forma due to rheumatism (Acnte rbeu- 
luttlc tt.), gout (Acute gouty a.), or gonor- 
rhtea (gonorrho*! rhenmatism) ; purulent 
effusion and disintegration of the joint, with 
ai^ute inflamniatory symptoms (Bupp'nrtiUTe 
k.), doe to py«mia and traumatism ; chronic 
hyperironhy and ossification of parts of the 

e rhenmatic a. ; iodides and colchica 
chronic rheumatic a.; colchicum in gout: 
iodides in m>hili8 ; cod-liver oil, iodides, and 
tonics in tuberculous a. Local treatuent: 
Cold applications for inflammatui^' swelling' 
counier-irritanlB {especially blisters and 
iodine) to promote absorption ; extension and 
immovableapparatus to keep inflamed surfncee 
apart and at rest; incision and evacuation in 
suppurative and tuberculous a. ; orthopaidla 
apparatus for deformity. 
AT'tlulUtm. The arthritic diathesia. 


Thich reproduc<B by arthrosporcfl. Artbrod'a- 
eli [Gr. dtein, lo bind], an operation, e. g., 
excision, for uniting two oppoaiug joint-aur- 
faces, so as to produce nnkylcMis. ArtIiroill& 
(ahr-throh'dec-ah), Artbrodlal joint (aiir- 
throh'<tee-al) [Gr., fr. arthrddfa, well-fitted], 
that form of articulation wliich allows of a 
glidingmovemcntofone ' ' ' in 

another. ArUirodyiila ( ], 

pain in a joint. Artlm a 

description of joints or s. 

ArthTOBTTpOila [-gn'j--] *, 

crcnitcdncss], morbid aD< of 

a joint. ArUiroUtMuli r. 

lilhoi, stone, +-ia«>],g< '■ 

oh-jcc) [-/Off!/], a diwoi '; 

that branch of aoatom' le 

joinU. ArUironBOTftUlft (-new-ral'jah), neu- 
ralgic pain in a joint. ArUiTOp^«iUtT[-f>afAy], 


locomotor a 

Hi/p'Hropkic putmoTiarji 

aTlhTopathy, hypertrophic pulmonary osteo- 
pathT. See Oileopathy. ArUiropb7nia(.rey'- 
mah) [Gr.pAuino,frrowlh],Hwpllingorft joint. 
ArUiropIlTt* ( ah K throb -fey t) [Ur. phvloii, 
vegetable] an outgrowth into the cavity of a 
joint, produced by hypertrophy of the joint- 
struotureB. Ar'tliropiaatj ('plaily], the for- 
mation of a joint by ani6cial means. Ar'thro. 
■pora, a spore formed by tbe separation and 
Bubsequenl germination of one end of a rod-like 
cell. ArUiIOl'omy[-f(nn^],inciaionintoa joint. 

Ar'tlttd. JGr. arUoi, even.] An element 
whose qnantivalence is expressed b; an even 

AitlclB {ahr'lee-kul). [L. artic^utus, dim. 
of urtiu,^ An inters rticufar segment ; one of 
the individual members constituting a jointed 
series or chain. 

ArttouIkT (abr-tik'yu-lar). [L.artieald'rii, 
fr. aHicafiui, dim. of arta*, a joint.] Of, per- 
taining to, oraScctingajoiut; as A. cartilage. 
A. rheumatism. A. muscle of knee (Artlcu- 
Urli K«nn), see Matcla, IhbU o/. 

ArtlcnUU (ahr-tik'ya-let). [L. artiatld'lut, 
fr. articuldre. to join.] Joined ; connected ; 
of speech, made up of distinct syllables con- 
nected so as to form words and phrascH. 

Articulate (Bhr-tik'yn-layt). [L. arlieu- 
la're, to fit to,] 1. To join with or together ; 
as to A. a skeleton. 3. To be joined to; as the 
bones A. with each other. 3. To join sylla- 
bles together ; to utter coherent sounds. 

AirtlcnUHoo (abr-tik"yu-lay'Bhnn). [L. 
aiiicald'lio, fr. aHiculvt, a little joint.] 1. 
The act of joining together; particularly, the 
act of joining vocal sounds bo as lo form ByLla- 
bles, words, and phrases. 3. See JaiiU. 

Artleulat«ty (ahr-tik'yiih'lay-toh-ree). Of 
or pertaining to articulation. 

Artlnclal (ahr" tee-fish' al). [L. arlimdUi; 
fr. arte, by art, and fatrrt, tO make.] Made 
by human art or skill ; said particularly of a 
part or process made in imitation of or as a 
sabstitute for a natural part or process ; as A. 


eye, A. limb. A. anus. A. pupil, A. teeth, A, 
respiration, A. fecundation. 
Ary -aplgIottiaeMi(ar"'ee-ep"ee-plot-tid'ee- 

), Aryteno-eplKlottldaui (ar 

' ■" I'ce-an), Connecting or nemng- 
lenoid cartilage and the epiglot- 

ing to the arytenoid cartilat 

tis. A. folds, folds of muet 

tending from the arytenoid cartilage to the 
epiglottis. A. muKlf (Arybsno-eplflottid'- 
ena), see Maiela, Table of. 

Aryt«naid(a-rit'ee-noyd). \l,.arylano\d' ent, 
from Gr. amtaina, pitcher, and ■oirf.] Pilcher- 
shaped. A. oartUage, Bee£ar^.(. A.maaola 
(Arytanoid'cus), see Muscitt, Table of. 

Aa. 1. Symbol for arsenic, a. Abbrevia- 
tion for astigniatii^m. 

A. B. Abbreviation for auris sinistra (letl 

Asbas'tos. [Gr. = inextinguishable.] A 
double silicate of magnesium and calcium 
occurring in sod, elastic filaments ; not affected 
by intense heat and a marked non-conductor of 

Asafetldi, B. P., Asa fmtlda.U. ! 

' Uda,G.P. (as-a-fet'ee-dahj. Ag 
■licky odor and taste derived li 

fMtlda,G.p'. (as-a-ifet'ee-dahj. Agan 
garlicky odor and taste derived Iroii 
fiEt'ida (U. S.), and other species of Ferula, 

used in hysteria, hypochondriasis, and chorea, 
particularly when digestive disturbances and 
tympanites are present. Dose, 3-16 gr. (gm. 
0.20-1.00): of A. emulsion (Milk of a., EmuV- 
turn fuafalida, V. 8.1, 1-2 5 (gm. 16-30); 
Tincttt'ra atafalida, U. S. (Tfnctura asafeti- 
dffi, B. P.), 30-60 m (gm. 2-4); PiCvla am- 
fMida, U. 8., each containing 3 gr. of a., 1-3 
pills; PiCaU aVoce rt atafaald^, U. S, 
(Pilula aloes ct asafetida-, B. P.), 1-3 pills; 
or4-8gr. (gni. 0.25-0.50). Spir'iliuanmo'nia 
feeUua. B. P., 1 3 (g™. *)■ 

Aaoarlaiaa (as-ka'rec-sevd). [AKarit -<■ L. 
cailcri, to kill.] A remedy destroying asca- 

At'carlB. PI. aecar'ides. [L.= Gr. (wiarff.] 
A genus of worms. A. lambricoi' dei, the 
round worm or lumbricoid worm, resembling 
the common earth-worm in size and appoir- 
ance, iufests the small intestine, producing 
colicky pains, diarrhcea, and sometimea con- 
vulsions. The remedy most employed is san- 
tonin. A. myitax is a species found in cats 

Aieendlng <a-sen'ding). [L. dtcendenn, fr. 
ad, to, and scandfre, to climb.] t. Rising; 
proceeding from below upward jhaving a ver- 
tical direction or tendency ; as A. parietal con- 
volution. A. pualTiti, a paralysis beginning 
in the lower extremities and involving succes- 
Bively the muscles of the alidonien, thorax. 

, laryni, throat, and palate. 
U a. paralyit't (Landry's paralysis) is a 
]. usually felal. running its course in from 
days to four weeks, usually anattended by 
al lesions and believed to be due to periph- 
neuritis or disorder of peripheral neurons. 



3. Ri^K or directed from the periphery toward 
tbe nerve centres ; as A. curmit, A. deKenera- 
tion (see Current, Degcneraiion ). A. trftctl, 
trscta or the nervoiui Bfstem vhich undergo a. 
degeneration when (hc^ or their peripheral 
conaectioiiB are injnred. 

AloitM (a-se/teez). [Gr. a^kufii, fr. ruhoi, 
a pouch.] An accumulatioo of serous fluid in 
the peritoneal cavity ; abdotnioal dropsy ', 
dro)My of the peritoneum. A. is due UHinLUy 
either to local inflanintalory disease of the 
peritoneum, as tubcrculosia, or to obstruction 
of venous circulatina caused by cardiac, 
hepatic, or renal disease. It is marked by a 
fluctaanl, elaatir, usually paiuless abdominal 
swelling, which changes its shape with the at- 
titude of the patient, and always emits a tym- 
panitic percussion -note at its most prominent 
part and a Rat percumion-nate laterally. Treat- 
ment; Relief of causal diseast; aspiration or 
paracentesis; hot liaths, diaphoretica, diuretics, 
and hydragogue cathartics. 

Aa'aprol. [/l- + Gr.iopro«, rotten.] Calci- 
um naphthol-sulphonnte, (CiiiH(.OH.SO>)]Ca 
-(-SBiO; a white powder, used as an auti- 
septio in gonorrhixa, vaginitis, etc., in 3 to 5 
p^ cent, solution, and in gout and rheumatism 
in doses of I&-60 gr. (gm. 1-4). 

JD with scissors over tne dedection^ break- 

ine the segments with a forceps, reducing the 
deflection, and inserting a tube to keep the 
fragments in place. 

AloIeciM (as-k lee' pee-as). [Gr. atklrpiaa, 
fr. Aiilipioi, .EsculapiuH.] A genua of herbs 
of the Asclepiadaceie. The rootof A.tubero'sa. 
butterfly-weed or pleurisy -root, is tbe A., U. 
8.; useil as a diaphoretie in fevers, especially 
rheumatic fever, tironchi lis, and pneumonia. 
DoBeofa.,20-60gr.((rm. 1.20-4.00); of Ertroe'- 
lum mclepi'adiifiv'idum, V. S., 15-30"l (gm. 
1-2). A. incama'ta, swamp milkweed, and 
A. comu'ti {A. syri'acal. common milkweed, 
are given as diuretics in dropsy. 

ABCOCoee'iu. [Gr. rutot, poach, -I- kokkot, 
kernel.] See 3IicTococcit». 

ABMB|iot« (as'koh-spawr). [Gr. atkot, 
pouch. -I- nanw, seed.] A spore formed " 
Fungi within a q>ecinl sac (U 
ginm), as distinguished from a nt 

-aae (ays). Suffix meaning ferment. 

AMll'ns. [L.] Thecodfish. ffUuoi jec'oni 
(uefft' cod-liver oil. AseU'ine. an amorphoui 
base, CuIIiiKt, contained in minute quautititi 
In cod-liver oil ; poisonous in large doses. 

Aaap'ala. [L. — A- + Gr. trptia, putrefac- 
tion.] Absence of infection ; freedom IVom 
morbid germs or other infective agencies. 

Aiep'tlc. Of or pertHining to asepsis, as A. 
surgery; free from infection, as A. nounda. 


Hence, AMp'tidnn, the science or art of a. 
surgery ; Asap'tleli*, (o render a. 

A*ap'tol. iAsrptic + -ot.'] Crude sulpho- 
phenol. See Salphocarbolic acid, 

AMXttkl (a«ek9'ew-al). [.4- + srfuaf.] Non- 
sexual ; in<lependent of sei or of seiual rela- 
tions, as A. guaeratioo. 

Aah. 1. The iocombuatlble residue left 
when a substance is burned. 3. Any one of 
several trees, especially of the genua Fraxiuua. 

ABpaluomni (as-par'a^oh'mus). [Gr. a»- 
pnla-t, the mole. 4 tuma, body.] See Moatttrs, 
TabU of. 

Aipftr&CtiiB (as-pj»r'a-jeen). [From the 
plant amarag\i» 4- -iii«.] A crystalline base, 
C.HsNiCh, produced by (he deconjpoaiUon of 
proleide, especially in plants. 

AapAraginlc ftcld (as-par"a-jin'ik), Aa- 
par'tlc »cid. A dibasic acid, CiHiNO*, pro- 
duced by the decomposition of asparagine, 
proteids, and gelatin. 

Aa'pect. [L. atpictre, to look toward.] 1. 
An outlook [ that portion of the surface of 
anything which looks in a given direction ; as 
the Dortal a. of a limb, i. e., that portion 
which looka toward the back. 3. The way in 
which anything looks ; appearance. 

AiP«TEllliii (bb" pur-jit' us). [L. = a brush 
used in sprinkling noly water in churches.] 
A genus of Fungi, so called from the shape of 
the fructification. A. fumlKa'tai, A. nlgar, 
A, BlaQcm, A. llATlia produce a form of my- 
cosis marked by the development of membra- 
nous growths with consecutive necrosis. This 
mycosis may affect the lungs (pneumottomu- 
eoria atpergillina, an acute or chronic fatal di- 
sease transmitted to man from birds), the ex- 
ternal ear (otomDCBiii atofrgillina) , the cornea 
{irrDtomycoiit atperffilHna), nose, and kid- 
neys. A. mallgnus, occBfionally causing oto- 
tnycusis in man, prmluees generalized mycoais 
in rabbits. A. ory'i» converts the starch and 
dextrin of rice into sugar, which is then con- 
verted by a yeast-fungus into alcohol forming 
the rice wine (sacki) of the Japanese; and is 
also used in making Taka-diastase from 
wheat-bran. The spores of A. furnish a black 
pigment (Asperglll'itL, Vegetable hiematin) 
closely resembling hiematin. 

{A-+p,T. spmno,^ seed.] 



. throb.] The . _ 
dition in which there is a permanent ar 
the respiratory movements and extreme 
ency of oxygen in the blood. It is marked by 
extreme cyanosis and a sense of sufTocation, 
followeit by coma. It may be due to strangu- 
lation, drowning (A. ■nbineTBlo'iili), the in- 
halation of eoa^gns (A. carbon'tM) or other 
gases, or any other cause producing great, im- 


pairment of ifflpirstion. A. dmhu 
occurriDg in newborn infanta from 
Local ft., see Raifnaud't dUerut. 

Aspbysitl (as-fii'(e-al). Characterized b; 
■aphjxia ; as the A, form of insolation. 

Aaphyziuit (ns-fik'see-ent). Producing 
Wphyiia; an agent producing aflphyiia. 

AspbrxlAM (as-fik'see-a^t). To put 
condition of asphyxia. 

Aapld'Hun. [L., fr. Gr. <upii, ahield.] A 

fennaoff — "" — ■"■" ' ' "'" 
nalisis the A., U. 3. (Filii 

■nna of ferns. The rhiiome of A. Filii 

Filiz maa) and Drjopteris marai- 
■ " ° "'■" " " Kfii- 


Doae, 30-90 gr. (em. 2-6) ; of - _ 

{pUoTtm'aa atptdii U. S., Eitractum filiris, 
G. P., Eitractum filicis liq'uidum, B. P.), 
1-33 (gni.4-8), 

Alpl40Bp«r'mk. [L. =Gr. axpit, shield, + 
tperma, seed.] See Qarbraeko. 

Aapidoipinnliio (as-pid' ' oli-«pur' meen ) . 
An alkaloid derived t^om quebracho iind uNt-d 
like the latter. Dose, 1-2 gr. (gin. O.Oii-0.13). 

AiplTaitloil(aa"peie-ra]''Bhua). [,Ui,+ 
tpirare, to breathe.] The act of sucking np or 
toward ' eaprcially, the act of freeing from 
liquids by pumping. 

AiplratOT (as'pee-raj-tor). An apparatua 
for reniovini; liquids by suction. It is essen- 
tially a pump or other form of suction appa- 
ratus attached to a cannula which is intro- 
duced into the part to lie evacuateil. 

Asporofsnic (a-spah"roh-jen'-ik). [A- + 
tport + ■genic.1 Not producing aporea. 

AMlm'Uabla. Capable of being assimilated. 

AiBl]iill(,tlon (a-siin"ec-lay'Bhun). [L. ad, 
'- -■ lilare, to make like.] Complete in- 
ion ; the conveniian of a nutrient sub- 

.jto an integral part of the l)ody which 

has absorbed it, so that tlie substance lows its 
identity and is no longer traceable under its 
own form. 

AtMOlatad (a-soh'nhcc-ay-teil), [L. asaoci- 
d'lai, (t, nd, to, and tociut, a fellow.] Joiued 
with another, especially in the performance of 
afuDction. A. KiU^'onUt, Ke AiilagoHitl. A. 
moTementa, movements of two or more parts 
acting in concert ; parlirulnrly, movements 
tending to place bilateral organs in a similar 
position, as abduction of one eye and adilue- 
uon of the other. A. pAralyals, A. ipaiin, 
paralysis or spaam of a. movi'tnetits (c. p., 
spasm or paralysis producing conjugate dcviu- 
'•-m of the eyes). 


standing.] Inability to stand erect, due to 
conditions other than parulysis, p. g., to ataxia. 

M in tabes (Atajiea.), or to hvslena. A.-aba,'- 
■U, a. combined with inability to walk, while 
■cnsHtion, museiilur strength, and co-ordina- 
tion except for standing and walking are un- 


Artftt'lc. [.4- + Halic.} Not tendlsg to 
awume a fixed or regular Dosition. A. DMdl*, 
A. PKlT, a magnetic needle or pair of needles 
which have their polarity neutralized so that 
they can point in all directions indifferently. 
Hence, Aitat'loiun, the state of being a. 

Aitatttoal* (a-Blee"a-UA'sU). U- + Gr. 
itear, fat, + -on's.] Absence or deficiency of 
sebum. Due to immersion in alkalies or 
symptomatic of Other skin diseases. Treat- 
ment; removal of cause; fatty inunctions. 

Aa'Ur. [L. ^aUr.] A star-like figure 
composed of chromatin, which forma in the 

K)cesB of division of a e«ll-nucleus. See 
aaier and MbnaMer. 

AstaraocnoBU (as-tee" ree-og-noh' sis). [A- 
-I- Gr. lirreot, solid, +gndai», recognition.] In- 
ebitity to recognize the shape or nature of an 
object by the sense of touch. 

ABtorlon (a-stcc'ree-on). [Gr. =a kind of 
spider.] The point on the skull at which the 
occipital, temporal, and pariclal lionee join. 

Aatanul(a-atu['nal). [A- + ilemtim.} Not 
joined to the sternum ; as A. ribs. 

Aster'nlB,. Absence of the Blernam. 

AstbaniA (os-thee-ney'ah, as-thee'nee-ah). 
[L. tuthenia — Gr. (ulhrneia, from a- + illienot, 
strength.] Failure of strength; debilitv; 
weakness. Hence, Aitbsn'lc.cnaractcriied by 
weakness or a depression of vitality; as As- 
thenic fever. Ailhenic bulbar paralsfii, myas- 
thenia gravis pseuduparalytica. 

AathanoplA (as"thee-noh'pee-ah). [Or. at- 

Ihmit, weak, I 

r-, -^... lUpid tiring of the 
>n, evidenced by a sense of 
1 the eyes, headache, ambly' 

fitliguc or pain 

opia, etc. A. may oe JLccom'moaauvv luue 

to btigue of the ciliary muscle, especially from 
having to overcome hypermetropia or astigma- 
tism). Mnacnlax (due to fatigue in uvercoming 
anomalies of the muscles of Uie eye), Nerroiu 
''-- -- central r — "" " — •-— -^ 


ies, such as hysleria), 
iofthere-' -■ -^ 

TmtiaI (from irregular a atigmi 

by pressure of the lids on the cucucb). 

Aithanap'tc. Of, caused by, or affected 
with asthenopia. 

AlttUDft (as'mnh). [Gr. aitlim, 

blow.] A disease characterized by periodical 

1 _..__i.^ of dyspntea due * 

of the bronchi. 

paroiysmal attacks of dyspu 

__ True a, 

(SasentUl or Nwrova a.), a. unaccompanied 

by structural changes in the bronchi, is due to 
nervous impulses propagated from the me- 
dulla. It may be RoSox, being set up by 
causes of irritation in the skin (CManeoiita.), 
fltomacb {CnMric a.), nose {Nmal a.), tonsils 

(Aiay^daline a.), etc. Attacks ' 

thoficofa, oci 

inflammation of the t. , . . 

Broncblt'lc a.} and with empbysenia of the 

H«,y X., fee Ilay.feerr. Heberden'a ft., angina 
pectoris. Kopp't (nr KUUt'i or Tbymlc) a., 
laryngismus stridulus. The attacks of a. last 


_. ma 

conjunction wi til catarrhal 
le bronchi (OaUunhal o 


from a few miDiites to several dajr, and are 
cbaracterized by extreme dyBpnwA : labored 
attempts al iDBpinttioD, during which all the 
accessory muiicl«a of respiration are ealted into 
play ; great distention of the eheet ; and liy 
prolonged expiretion with wbistlingand sonor- 
ons rbonchi in both inspiration and expiration. 
l^eatmetit : Change of climHte or mode of liv- 
ing 1 iodide of pobUKium ; during the attack, 
antinpoamodLcs, particularly belladonna, mor- 
phine, lobelia, inhalationa of ctiloroform or 

potaasium nitrate, or tobacco. 

AitbmjtttD (as-mat'ik). 1. Of, pertaining 
to, or caused by asthma, as A. breatbintc, A. 
attacks; affected by a»thma. as an A. patient. 
I- A person affected with asthma. 

AitUmU'lo. Haviog I 
affected with astigmatism. 

AaUs'DUtUiin. IA-+Gr. iiigma, a dot.] 
A condition in which the refractive power of 
the eye varies in different meridians, so that 
the rays which enter it along one meridian are 
brought to a focus sooner tbuii those which 
enter it along another. The meridian along 
whieh the grealesl 'refraction lakes place is 
usually at right angles to that along which the 
refraction iq the teas!. Tlie former is usually 
vertical ornearlyso (A. with the mlej; rarely 
boriionlal (A. agalut the mle) or oblique 
(Oblique a.). In Simple a. the refraction 
along one meridian is emmetropic, and in the 
olher meridians hypermetropic {Simple hyper- 
metroj/ica.) or myopic (Simple myop'ie a.). 
It is corrected by a simple convex or concave 
cylinder. In Componnd a. the eye is hyper- 
metropic ICompoaiid hypermrtrop'ic a.) or 

•„,»n.^. r/^^„!..,^^ ^»^'.'.- „ ^ {,^ oil n^^ri. 

is corrected by a spherical glass and a cylinder 
of the same sign cumbined. I u Mixed a. the 

crossed eylindera (i . 

bined], or by a spherica] glass and a cylinder 
of opposite signs. The A^ of a. in simple a. 
is the emmetropic meridian; in compound a. 
the meridian wnicb is least myonic or hyper- 
metropic ; while in mixed a. thciv are Iwo 
Bxee, corresponding to the axes of the two cy- 
linders which correct the a. A. is Regular 
when the refractive power of the eye shows a 
oniform increase or decrease from one meridian 


all parts of the same meridian ; otherwise the 
a. IS IrregulaT. A. is caused by irregularity 
of curvature or refracting powereitbcr in the 
cornea (Corneal a. )or the lens (LentlciOar a. ) . 

Aatlginom'eter. {-meter.] A device for 
measuring astigmatism. 

Aatlgmom'etiT. ThcmeasurementofaBtig- 

Astracalac't«my. [-retonij.) Excision of 
the astragalus. 

Astrac'alns. [L. '^Gr. oflnigalot.] 1. The 
huckle-bone or uppermost bone of the tanns. 

Jt articulates above with Ihe (ibia and fibula, 
forming the ankle-joint; below with the cal- 
caneum, forming the A(trag'alo-caIea'nMUi 

joint; in front with the scaphoid bone, form- 
ing the Aatrag'alo-Bcaph'old joint. 3. A genus 
of shrubs belonging to the I-eguminaste, vari- 
ous species of which fumiah Iragacanth. 
Aitrapophobla (a8-trap"oh-fob'bee-ah). 

Aatrlngent (as-trin'jent). [L. aitrin'gtns, 
fr. ad, to, + tiringrre, to bind.] 1, Drawing 
op, drawing tight, or puckering up by reduc- 

especially by causing contraction of its blood- 
vessels, a. A remedy so acting. The a's are 
either Vegetable, consisting of gallic or tannic 
acid or bodies containing them or similar aub- 
sUnces (kino, krameria, catechu, nut-galls, 
geranium, opium), or Hliieral, comprising the 
soluble salts of most of the heavier metals 

ver, lead, antimony), particularly the sul- 
phates and acetates, aud in dilute solutions the 
chlorides. The a's are used for stimulating 
inflamed and ulcerated surfaces and checking 
morbid discharges (diarrhcea, cicessive seere- 
lion from the respiratory tract, conjunctivitis, 
pharyngitis, leucorrh<ea, gonnirhiea, cystitis, 

Aa'troblaat. [Gr. aifer. star 4 blattot. 
sprout.] An embryonic cell which develops 
info an astrocyte. 

A«trocyte(Ees'troh-Beyt). [, + 
jhi/n», eell.] A stellate neuroglia cell (spider- 
cell, Deitera'cell). 

Atrmbolla <as"im-bol'ee-ah}. [A- + C,r. 

»tini6o/o'i, a token.] Inabilityto 

ideas by any kind of sign. 

Atymmetry (a-sim'ee-tree), {A- * ij/mtne- 
try.} Lack of symmetry. 

Aamercr (a-ain'ur-jee). [A- + Gt. tun, 
together, + ergon, work.] IncoKinliaation. 
Progreaise lucomotor a., tabes. 

Aayiti>le(a-siB'toh-lee). {A- (- (ivrto/*.] De- 
fective contraction of the ventricles of the 
heart. Aaystol'lc, of, marked by, or due to a. 

Atac'tlc. See Ataxic. 

variety o , _. 

'•■i derived from an Biitvuiiii mun,- m n-™ n:- 

iiole. the immediate ancestors not displaying 

L AtaTli'Uc, of or marked by a. 
Atai'la. [L, = a- + Gr. tajtit, an arrange- 

aent.] Inco-onii nation ; the slate in which 

he various movements required for the pcr- 
fbrmunce of any act are Improperly adjusti^l 
to each other, so that the act is impenectly 
carried out. A. is designated as Cei'ebral, 
CerehtlFur, or Spinal, aeconling to Ihe site of 
the causal lesion. See Co-ordiiiulion. Family 
(or Frledrslch'a, or Hereditary a.), giite 
ilrrrilikiry. Loeomoter a. (Progressive inco- 
motora.i. tabes. Statle a., sec lirach-Rum- 
berg fymptmi 



AUiz'le. Of, pertaining to, marked by, or 
due to ataxia ; ait A. guit, A. paraplegia. 

-aM (-ayt). [L. •at.'] A suffix indicative 
of the sail of an acid, particularl; of an add 
whose name ends in -te. 

AMlec'tasU. [I,. = nWo. + ^ff<Hij..] Im- 
perfect eipannion, eHpeciallj of the lungs at 
birth (A. pu!mo' niimi, 

At'alo-. [Gr. alelfi, imperfect.] A prefii 
signifvingiQipcrfectdevelopnieat: e. g., At«lo- 

OM'dift, Ateloebel'Ua, AMlaflaai'lft, AMlo- 
mre'U''. imperfect development of the heart, 
the lips, the tongue, the spinal cord. 

AUiar'nuuiont. [A- '-Gr. thfrmi. heat.] 
Opaque to hiait ; absorbing heat-tayn and so 
not aJloning theui to pass. Atllw'lllMlcr, the 
state of being a. 

AthBromA(nth"ur-oh'iaab), IGr.ath/rdma, 
tr. al/ifrf, porridge.] 1. A eebaceous cyst; 
oAencaMed't'f. 3. A fattj^orfibrous 
metamorphosis, iieeinoins in the inner and 
extending gradually to the middle and outer 
coats of arteries producing eircumscril)ed yel- 
low patches of librons induration or of soften- 
ing. It is a frequent cause of aneurysm. 
Atnerom'atona, or, pertaining to, or marked 
by a. Athero'aU, AUtaronutta'tli, the con- 
dition of the system producing Or marked by 
the development of a. 

Athatold (alh'ee-toyd). [Alhtl-oeia + -oi'd.] 
Resembling athetosis; choreoid. 

AtlMtotls (ath"ee-tah'Bi8). PI. alheto'ses. 
[L., fr. a- -f Gr. tilhniaij to set,] An affection 
characterized by slow, irregular, involuntary 
movements of the fingers and toes. 

At&rap'ilft. [A- "- Gr. thrtptit, nutrition.] 
The condition in which the body is insuffi- 
ciently nourished. 

Athyroldatlou (a-lhey"roy-day'Bhun), lA- 
+ Ihjiroid,} The slateof the system due to in- 
sufficient secretion by the thyroid gland ; held 
to obtain in cretinism and myxtedema. 

AtlU. IName of giant who was fabled to 
carry the heavens ou his shoulders.] The 
uppermost vertebra. It consists of a bony 
nng divided into two parU by the transverse 
ligament, the rear part containing the cord, 
and the front part being filled up by the 
odontoid process of the axis. The a. articu- 
lates with the occipital bone (Occipilo-at'loid 
joint) and with the axis (AUo-u'oid Joint). 

Atmldallminlii (at"mid-a]-bew'min). [Gr. 
almit, vapor, + albamin,'\ A peculiar proti-id 
produced by the action of superheated steam 
upon proleids. (Jon verted by uirther hydratiou 
into an albumose (Atmldal'DtimoM). 

Atmolyali (ul-mol'is-is). [Gr.a'mof, vapor, 
+ Intit. a loosing.] The net of pawning a mix- 
ture of two or more gases through a porous 
diaphragm in order to separate those that 
are more from tliosi> that are less diffusible. 

Atmom'ator. [Gr. almoa, vapor, + ■melrr.] 
An apparatus for measuring tne amount of 
moisture exhaled by evaporation. 

Atmoapher* (at'moh-Kfcer). [Gr. aimat. 


. _ra, sphere.] I. 1 

ler substances surrounding the earth. 
It consists of air (—oxygen + nitrogen + ar- 
gon) with smalt quantities of aqueous vapor, 

solid, liquid, and gaseous impurities. 3. The 

5re«8ure normally cxerteil by the a. at the sea- 
Tvel; i. e., a pressure of about 15 pounds to 
the square inch. Hence, Atmoapharlc (at"- 
moh-sfer'ik), of or pertaining la the a. 

At'om. [Or. atomo*. indivisible, fr. <i- + 
<rinii;in, to cut.] One of the ultimate particles 
of which a molecule is made up ; the smallest 
possible amount of an element capable of ex- 
isting and of still exhibiting the chemical 
properties of that element. 

AUm'le. Of or pertaining to an atom. A. 
walgbt, the weight of an atom, measured by 
comparison with the weightof hydrogen as a 
unit. A. hMt, see Heat. 

Atomlelt; (at"oh-miB'ee-tee). Quantlva- 

Atomlier (at'ob-mey-zur). Aninstnimeut 
for converting liquids into very minuli: ffo- 
tides or into a spray, especially by the im- 
pact of a jet of air or of steam. 

Aton'le. Pertaining to, characterised by, 
or due to slimy ; as A. dyspepsia. 

Atony (at'oh-nee). [L. atonia = a- + Gr. 
tonoj, a stretching.] Lack of tone, or of the 
proper degree of strength or tension ; feeble- 
ness; as A. of the stomach. 

Atoz'lc. [A- -Hoxic] Not toxic. 

AtrabUUrr (»t"ra-bil'ce-er*e). [L. itra- 
lUia'rit. fr. alra 6i/i>^black bile] Of or 
pertaining to black bile ; black with bile. A. 
capinlaa, the suprarenal capsules, so called 
because of (be blackness of tlieir medulla. 

perfb rate part ; . 

AtTleUa (a-trik'ee-ah). W- + Or. (ftrfa, 
hair.] Congenital absence of hair. 

Atllp'llclim. A condition of (edema and 
nervous disorder ascribed to contact with 

Slants of the genua Atriplex, but probably 
ue to spider bites. 

AtTlnm (av'lree-um). [L.^aninnerconrt.] 
1. The Buncleof the heart; especially, the 
auricle exclusive of the appendix aarfcnlB. 
3. The portion of the tympanic cavity lying 
below the head of the malleus. See Ear. 

At'ropn. [From Alropoi, one of the three 
Fates.] See Selladonim. 

Atrophlo (a-trofib). Pertaining to or due 
to atrophy, as A. spotn; luarkiil by atrophy, 
as A. (ipiMa/ pai-a/i/»M (^poliomyelitis imte- 

le of a part, due cither lojlisappei 



sappl; of blood (o a part or in the power of ax- 
similMion in the latter. It reKularly results 
from prolonfreddlsuseof ft part (A. of dlsnia), 
which maj l>e pathological, an in paralyzed 
muBclefi, or physiologic, bb in fetal or^na 
which are no longer of serrice to the organism 
(Phjalolof'lcal a..). When affe<'tiQe the 
whole body it is failed Osneral a., then bcin^ 
due to nome eenerol interference with nutri- 
tion or to the degenerative processes attending 
«ldage(Banlla A.). A.of a hollow oi^n like 
the heart Diny be associated with eittier dila- 
tation (Eccra'trlc a..) or conlractioa (Con- 
cen'tnc ft.) of the cavity of the latter; or (he 
parity may be unchanged in size (Simple 
A.). Brown a., see ^rown. Acuta yellows. , 
see Yeltoo'. FrovreHlTe mntcnlu' ft., a 
chronic disease chaniclerized hy a. of hiio- 
eessive groups of muscles, causing peculiar 
deformity and dislortiou, and finally produc- 
ing death by involvement of the respiratory 
muscles or of the reepiralory centre; due to 
degeneration of the anterior gray comuu of the 
cord, the anl*rior nerve roots, and the pyra- 
midal tracts. A variety is amyotrophic lateral 
sclerosis. Tonle ft., muscular a. associated 
with rigidity. 

Atropine (at'roh-peen). XAlropa -V -iat. L, 
alTopl'na, U. S., B. P., atrffpia, oinmV niim.\ 
A hitler crystalline alkaloid, CiTUnNOi, ob- 
tained from belladonna. It stimulates the 
aympathetic and depresses the cerehro-spinal 
motor and sensory nerves ; causing dilatation 
of the pupil, parulysis of accommodation, in- 
crease in the force and frequency of the heart's 
action atid the blood-pressure, flushing of the 
face, incrfase in the vigor of respiratioD, re- 
prtraion of the secretion of saliva, bronchial 
mucus, sweat, and milk. Used for (he same 
purpoees as belladonna in doses of gr. 0.005- 
0.02, and in 1 per cent, solution is instilled 
into the eye to paralyze the accommodation in 
testing the refraction, to dilate the pupil so as 
to prevent adhesion of the iris in iritis and 
keratitis, and to diminish the vascularity of 
the iris in iritis. A. solphftte (Atropine sul- 

Ehfts, U. S., B. P., Atropinum sulfu'ricum, 
. P.), (CnlTnN0i)i.H>S04, a crystalline or 
amorphoos salt very soluble in water; used 
like a. Lamella atropina. B. P., gelatin discs 
containing each gr. O.OOOS of a. sulphate. 
Liquor atropina lulpha'tii, B. P., a 1 per 
cent, aqueous solution of a. sulphate, fin- 
guta' tarn atropina, B. P., contains 2 percent. 

Atroplnlie (a-troh'pin-eyi). To put under 
the influence of atropine. AtropuUiftUon, 
the act of alropinizing. 

Attar, AttftT or roH. Oil of rose. 

Attenn&nt (al-ten'ew-ent). Producing at- 
tenuation; an agent producing attenuation. 

AtteliilftUon(at-ten"ew-ay'shua). (L.oKen- 
vSliu. fr. arf. to, and teaait. Ihin.J The act uf 
thinniug or rarefying ; particularly, the act "f 


>r intensity of a thing, 
. __. ., A. for the purpose of 

rcnderinft a virus uf suitable strength for 
inoculation is effected by the action of anti- 
septics; by exposure to air, to compressed 
oxygen, to light, or to heat; and by passing 
the virus through one or more animal organ- 
isms. The last-named mclhod is utilized in 
the prophylaxis of small-poi by inoculation 
or vncci nation and in serotherapy. 


j'told. Of 

AttoUeni (aC-tol'enz). [L.l Raising; that 
which raises ; as A. aurtm (A. auric'ula?j A. 
auric' II lam), the muscle which li(\s the auricle. 

attrahere. to draw to.l A drawing to or to- 
ward ; a lendency of bodies toward each other, 
as Chemical a.. Capillary a. A. boilloi. A- 
spharsB, bodies which form between the male 
and female pronucleus in the impregnated 
ovum and later take part in lis segmentation. 

At'tTftSeni. [I,.] Drawing forward; a mus- 
cle which draws forwanl, as A. attrem, the 
muscle which draws the auricle forward. 

Atyploal (a-tip^ee-kel). [.1- l-Gr. tapoi, 
stomp.] Not typical ; not formed in accord- 
ance with the regular or customary plan. 

An. Symbol for gold (aurum). 

Auctioneer'! apftim. A spasm akin to 
writer's cramp, occurring in auctioneers. 

Andlometwr (aw"dce-om'e-tur). [L.audirr, 
to hear, + -mtler.'] An instrument — particu- 
larly one constructed upon the principle of the 
microphone or telephone — for measuring the 
intensity of hearing. 

Andlpbone (aw'dee-fohn). [L. audlrt, (o 
bear, -t- Gr. pAdnr, voice.] An apparatus for 
enabling the deaf to hear conversation. 

Audition (aw-dieh'un). [L. audi'lai, fr. 
audire, to hear.] Hearing. 

Auditive (aw'dee-tiv). A person in whom 

by memories and ideas. 

Auditory (aw"dee-toh'ree). [h.audUSriaii, 
audUl'tnu, ft, audi re, to hear,] Of, pertaining 
to, or subserving hearing ; as the A. nerve, A. 
hallucinations. A. ftreft, the point of origin of 
the a. nerve, in the Soor of the fourth ventricle, 
A. Cftpinle, a cartilaginous capsule in (he em- 
bryo, which becomes united to Ihe cranium 
and forms the external ear. A. cantra, the 
nerve-ceutre for the appreciation of sounds; 
sitaaled in the supi-rior temporal convolution, 
A. dytnaUie'slA (A. tirparsilge'ilft), a slato 
of unnatural discomfort or pain produced when 
sounds are heard. A. Held, that portion of 
space within whose limits a Bounding body can 
he heard. A.tiftlra, ciliaof theepilhelial cells 
oflhemacnleeand cristteacusticic in which the 
filanientsof the a. nerve terminate. A. hyper- 
nsthe'sla, excessive acuteness of hearing. A. 
mea'tni the passage to tlie cur,comprising the 


I the medulla (Extfrnal, latei .^. 
mtei), in which the roots of 
the a. Derve end. A. proeeii, the annulus 
trmpanicUB. A. lac, a vesicle Tonned in the 
embryo by the iDvaginHtioa of the epiblast, 
uid ailenrard developing into the essential 
parts of the inlemal ear (organ of Corti, 
utricle, Haeoule, and epithelium of eemi-eirou- 
iBrcanaln). A. teetti. nipplc-like projeetionB 

AnlK (aw'lah). [L. ^courtyard.] The up- 
per portion of (he ttiinl ventricle of the brain, 
forming the comiuoD cavity into which the 
third nnd lateral ventricles open. 

Aura (aw'mh). [L. a breeie.] 1. The 
breeze (Bleo'trleal %., KUclric brmr) pro- 
duced by the current of electrified parljrles of 
air in the proximity of a static electrical ma- 
chine; also the bnish-like discharge of elec- 
tricity that takes place from a point attached 
to static machine. 3. A peculiar phenomenon 
(Spllap'tle a.) preceding an epileptic at- 
tack. Kpileptic aune may be motor (shiver- 
ing, tremor, epasm, etc.); ttniory (feelings of 
numbness, heat, cold, {Hin, pressure, flashes 
of liffhtj blindness, abnormal tastes or odors, 
etc.); miceral (especially the ^^pigaatrie a. — 
pain or oilier abnormal sensations referred to 
the |nt of the stomach ; a W sensations of suf- 
focation, nausea, palpitation, etc.); mto-miilor 
and Kfreelory (redness, pallor, excessive flow 
otst\Via); ptyehieal {trar, dreamy sensations), 

Atir»l (aVral). [L. a«r.», ear.] 1. Of, 
pertaining to, or for the ear, as A. speculum, 
A. forceps ; arising from the ear, as A. vertigo. 
S. Of or pertaining (o an aura. 

AliTHiilii«(BW-ram'ecn). \_Aaram V amine.l 
Si-e Pnoclauhif. 

Anrantliim (aw-ran'shec-um). [L.] See 

Anrlo (aw-rik). See Gold. 

Anriel* (nw'ri-kul). [L. awrtVii/a, dim. 
of nuri«, ear.] 1. Theexpandedeartilnginoua 
portion of the external ear not contained within 
the head. %, Oneoftheupprrlwoof the four 
chambers constituting the tienrt. 

AnrlCDlM' (aW'rik'yu-lar). [L. aunVu/n'rts, 

nerves; also of or pertaining in the ear in gen- 
eral, aural. A. Dnnre, s Assure in the petrous 
bone, lodging the a. branch of the pneuinogas- 
tric. A. point, the centre of the orifice of the 
external auditory meatus. 3. Ear-shaped, as 
the A. surface of the ilium. 
Anrlcnlarli (aw-rik" y "-'ay' ris). [L.] 

' --— ' '— 'nrmii understood) an auric- 

I. mci^ntu (a branch of the 

Aorlcnlo- (aw-rik' ynh-loh-). Prefii mean- 
ingauricular. Aurlctilo-brsciiiat'lc, connect- 
ing the auricular point and the bregma; as 
A.-b. line. Aurlcnlb-cra'Qlal, of or belonging 

dthe c 

; the 

.inricle and temple ; 

Tentrle'iilaT, between, connecting, or common 

to an auricle and ventricle of the heart; as 

Au'rln (E.). lAu.r«m + -fn.] Pieonin. 

Anna (aw" ris J.'res. [X.) Ear, 

Anrlaoal'plnm. [L. = aurit + L. lailptrf, 
to scrape.] An instrument for scraping out 
foreign matter from the ear ; an ear-pivk. 

Au'rlBcope. [Aurii ■¥ -icopt.'] An inatru- 
ment for eiamimng the ear. 

AnrUt (aw-rist). An otologist. 

Aurocblo'Tlda, Anrocr'Milde. Auro-na'- 
tiinm chlorft'tum, An'rona, Au'nun. See 

of diagnos . 
either limn«'dlat«, in which the ear is applied 
directly to the surface examined, or me'illatfl. 
when a solid cylinder or hollow tube (stetho- 
scope, A. tnbe) is interposed l>etween the ear 
and the soffece. A, is used chiefly for ascer- 
taining the condition of the heart, lungs, pleura. 
and (EBOphagns: the presence and character of 

fluid in ttpp middle ear (by a. combined with 
politzeri ration) ; and the presenceof pregnancy 
and the position nnd seit of the fetus (.^.^fAe 
fetal itart). Anacnl'MloiT, of, pertaining 
to, or ascertained by a. 



B Hlf; I 


soil], native ; onginating in an organism and 
out of the elements of the organism : as Autoch- 
thonous pigments. Antoolavo (aw'toh-klayv) 
tL. cloii>, key], a digester for sterilizing or 
eating by superheated steam. Auto-dlgea- 
tlon, see Aalopeptia. Antnelc (aw-lee'sik) 
[Gr. oikoi, house], living all one's life upon 
llie same oi^tanism ; said of parasites. Aato- 
genoiM (-oj'ee-nus) [■gtnoia], self-generated ; 
generated wilbiu ones own body; as Aulo- 
genoiuditeaiie or poi$an. AatOg'lKpblNii [Gt. 
graphft'ii.lo write], dermographism. Auto- 
Lufec'tion, self-infection ; infection of a part by 
micro-organ isinslransporfHl from another part 
of the same boily. Opposed lo Auloloxii. 
Aato-lnomiUible (-i-nok yu-la-bul), inocula- 
blc upon the same organism ; said of a virus 
which, generated at one spot upon the body, 
will infect nnother spot if inoculated (here. 
Anto-lnocnlatlon (-i.nok"yu-lav'Bliun), self- 
inoculalioQ ; inoculation, especially sponta- 
neous inoculation, with a virus ijeneraled in 
or upon one's own bndv. Auto-Uttozlck'tloii, 
autotoiis. Ant«l«r]mg:'o»oopB,8niiiKiruroent 
for performing Antolaryngoa'copy. or the 



vimel eiamination of one'a own larrnx. 
AdtonUkt'lc [Or. root ina-. to strive after], 
Belf-originatcd ; spontaneous; not obviouHly 
dependent upon external stimuli; as Automatic 
action of (iio heart. In common parlance the 
tenn is restricted to machine-like actions, or 
those performed without (he intervention of the 
will ; e. g., the reflex movements during sleep. 
Antom'Atlsm, automatic, spontaneous, or self- 
iniUated action ; including Regular aiUoma- 
litM (e. g., the aeljou or the heart) and Irreffa- 
tar automatiam (e. v., "the conscious activity of 
the brain). Auton'omom [Gr. nonuM, law], 
self-ruled, indeiwndent ; marked by Auton'- 
ony, or the ability to act independently of 
other parts or organiams. Antopep'ala [Gr. 
pfptisj a cooking], self-digestion ; post-mortem 
diction of the stomach-walle by the gastric 
juice. Autophagy (-tofa-jee) [ 
eat], the act of feeding upon one's self; a 
term applied both to the actual eating of one's 
own tissues and also to the utiiiialiou by the 
organism, in cases of starvation^ of the reserve 
material (fat, etc.), contained in the tissues. 
Aatophoootu (-toroh-Dus), of, pHaining to, 
or marked by autophony. Aatopnony t -tof 'oh- 
nee) [Or. phonf, voice], (1) the condition in 
which one s own voice appeare altered in qual- 
ity or intensity; (2) the auscultation of one's 
own voice transmitted tlirongh the chest of a 

Eitient. AnlopbthAlmoscopy (-of "tha]-m□B'- 
oh-pee),ophthalmonc<>pypmct1sed upon one's 
own eye by a apecially devised ophthalmoscope 
(Ant^htnal'moBcope). Antoplas'tlc, of or 
pertaining to nutoplasty, as Autoplastic sur- 
gery; made by autoplaaty; as Autoplastic 
gralts. An'toplaaty \-pla*ty\, the artiScia) 

Slacement of a loss of substance by material 
en from the same organi-sm. An'topay [(ir. 
oprU, sight], a post-mortem eiaminafion ; the 
examination and dissection of a cadaver for 
diagnostic purposes. Antoa'copy [-jcop.v] . ( 1 ) 

■— tion of one's own organs; (2) ex- 

in of the larynx and trachea directly 
(1. e., without the use of n throat-itiirror). 
Antoalte (aw'toh-seyll [Gr. tUot, food], a 
monster capable of an independent existence. 
AntotoznniU (-lok-see'mee-ah), toxEcmia 
from poisons generated in one's own body. An- 
toXB^mlc, of or due to autotoxtemia. Anbl- 
toz'la, Belf-poisoning ; poisoning of a part or of 
the whole system by the transportation of virus 
or toxins fmm another part of the same body. 
Antotraniftialoii (-tranz-few'zhun), trans- 
fusion of hlood into a patient from his own 
body; effected by raising and bnndaging (be 
limbs BO as to force the binnd in them toward 
the trunk and head. AutotypUiAUon (-ley'- 
iee-ia]r-shnn ), the |iroduction (by over-work 
and failure of excretion) of a condition resem- 
bling typhoid fever; due to nccnmulation of 
toxic waste products in the system. 

Avaicnlar (a-vask'yu-lar). [A- + vaicu- 
tar.'] Not vascular; bloodless. Hence, Atu- 
Onlarlie (a-vaek'yii-lar-eyz), to render a., as 
by compressive bandage. 

ATMia (a-vee'nab). [I,.] See OoT. 

ATOKMtro'i law (ah-voh-gah'drohz law). 


The law first enunciated by Avogadro (1811), 
tbat equal volumes of substances in the pis- 
eouB state contain under the same conditions 
the same number of molecules. 

ATOlrdapolB VBlght (av''ur-dew-povz' 
wayt). [O. E. avrr (goods), de (of), pei* ( = 
F.piHd*), weight,] ^ixWeighUandMtasaTra. 

Avulsion (a-vul'shun), [L. atulmo, fr. 
avelitre, to pluck off.] A forcible tearing 
away or apart. 

Az'lal. [L. aiia'lii.l Of or pertaining to 
an axis ; along or in the direction of on axis. 

AzUem'iiift. [Axit-vOr. lemma, husk.] 
The sheath of the axis-cylinder between it and 
the myelin. 

AxUl'a. [L.] The arm-pit; the pyram- 
idal space bounded by the cheal-wBlf inter' 
nally, the inner surfkce of the arm cxterDally, 
the pectoralia major in front, and the sub- 
scapularis teres major, and latiBaimua dorsi 
behind. It coutains the axillary artery and 
vein and their branches, the brachial plexus, 
lymph glands, fat, and connective (issue. 

Ax'UUry. [L. axilla'ritA I. Of pertain- 
ing to, orcontained in theaxilla; as A. artery. 

wail of the axilla lying above the sixth rib. 
3. Directed toward or in relation with the 
axilla ; as A. border of scapula. 

Ax'topUtm. lAxie + Gr. plaima, some- 
thing fashioned.] Neuroplasm. 

ii. PI. ai'es. [L.=axle.] 1. That 

about which anything revolves, whether 

hence, the second cervical vertebre, 

imaginary line (A. of rot^ttlon) 

about whose odontoid process the atlas and 
with it the cranium rotates. 9. Hence, any 
part inserted in the body like a pivot ; e. g., 
the Cerebro-apl'iul a. (^thebrain and spinal 
cord, which are inserted into the bony canal 
formed by the skull and spine). 3. Hence 
also, a line about which a body may be con- 
ceived to revolve; any line, straight or cuned, 
about which the parts of a body are symmetri- 
cally disposed. A. of tbe ntema, A. of the 
P«1t1b, the line formed by joining the centres 
of successive transverse sections of the uterus 
or the pelvis; a line indicative of the direction 
of the utfrine or pelvic cavity. A. of the nut- 
III of the pelvis, A. of the ialH (or tnm) of the 
pelvis, lines drawn perpendicular respectively 
to the planes of the outlet and of the inlet of 
the pelvis, and passing through the centres of 
these planes. Op'llGal a. of the eye, a line 

a lana or mlrroT, the line poxsing through 
both the centre of curvature and the focus of the 
lens or mirror. Secondary a., a line, oblique 
to tlie principal a., passing through the nodal 
point of a lens or the centre of curvature of a 
mirror. A. of aetlgmatlim, see AaligmatUm. 
4. A short arterial trunk which br^ks up id- 


most immMliatel; into aeveral radiatiog 
branches, e. g., the TbTTOld ft., the CmUao a. 
8m ArUriet, Table of. 

Axli-e7lliidar(Bk"8U-uri[i-dur). S«e.V<nv. 
A-e, proeeit, see Aioa. 

AxU-trBcUon forcepi, AzU-tnetor. In- 
fltmmeDla for applying traction apon the fetus 
in the direction of the pelvic axis. 

Ax'lM. One of the filaments into which an 
aiis^rlinder divides at its termination. 

Ax'on. The axis^rlinder proc*™ of a 

grease,] Grease; lard; 
aa A. parol, a. porci'na (— hog's lard). 

As. gymlKil for nitrogen (azote). 

As&lelu (a-iay'iee-in). Skk Fiuhtin. 

AiaiUTAeIita(ai'Bd"<?e.»k'tah). Agenusof 
treea. The baric and leaves (Azadiracnbe cor- 
tei et folia) of A. indlca are used aa a bitter 
tonic, febrifuge, and application in skin dia- 

_.„.. ben lene, Cull loNi 

two molecules of benzene (C«IIi) in which 
double atom of bfdrogen is so replaced. 

AHOiparmktUm (B.zoh"oh-spuT'ma-tizm). 
[A- >- Gr. xiion, animal, -f- tperma, seed.] A 
condition in which aperniatozoa are absent or 

Aiote (ai-oht). {A- + Gr. z6i, life, bccauw 
not supporting respiration.] Nitrogen. 

A>OtlMd(az'oh-leyzd). [Aiott.'] Nitrogen- 
ous; containing nitrogen, 

Asotnrl* (az"oh-tcw'ree-ah). {Atote f Gr, 
ouron, urine,] 1. The condition in which the 
nitroKenous matter ^urea) of the urine, aitd 
UHuaily also the unne itself are in excess; 
marked by digestive and nutritive diaturh- 
anccs, and often leading todiabeles. 3, Adis- 
eaae of the horse marked by hemoglobinuria 
and paraptegia. 



Cover-glass Preparation of Pericardial 
Exudate Showing Bacillus Pyocyaneus 
Stained Blue, and the Bacillus Tuberculosis 
Stained Red. (Ernst.) Micrococcus Lanceolalus. (Abbott.) 

.■; uf,-. 

\< ■■■■■ ^v* 

Urethral DischarRe from a Case nf GonorrlKta, showing Gonococci Enclosed ii 

Pus Corpuscles, and Lyina Free in the Discharge. Stained 

with Methylene Blue. (C. E. Simon.i 


,-../«, b,Goot^Ic 


B. Symbol far boroo. 

Ba. Symbol Tor barium. 

Babb'itt mBtAl. [1. BabMft of America, 
its inventor.] A white alloy of tin and cop- 
per with a little aDtimony ; used in dentistry. 

B&bBiU (Imh-bay'zee^h). [Sabtt, F. bac- 
teriologist.] A genus of Protozoa, B. llOTlf, 
motile, often psJreil, oval organisin ocelipying 
the erythrocyte!! of cattle and producing epi- 
demic htem^lohinuria (Roumanian cattle- 
fever). S. OTlB. in orythrofiytes of sheep, pro- 
duces heemoglobinuria and jaundice. 

Bac'c*. [L.] Abeny; aa Bacca cabuba' - 
nim^ cubebs; Bacca dome/tic<e, bncktliom 
bemea: Bacca Janip'eri, juniper berries; 
BaeccB iattri, laurel berries. 

[L. bacilla>ri», fr. b^ltv*.} 1- 
sieting of rods ; as B. layer (layer of 
cones) of the retina. 3. O^ or perl 

sign of pnrulcnl, as distiugnished from ser- 

■a eSiision in the cheat. 

IMiclUar (ba-sirar),BftcUlar7(bB8'il-er-ee). 

I'rti fr. Ai«7/.ui.l 1. Of or con- 

of rods and 

. _ __ .. pertaining to 



BftcUllu (ba-sil'us). [L. a little rod dim. 
of bacalui, rod.] 1. A rod or rod-shaped 
body ; as one of the rods of the retina. 3. A 
medicinal substance put up in rod form ; a 
medicated bougie. 3. A genus of Bacteria, 
comprising the more slender and donated 
rod forms. According to some^ the term is re- 
stricted to sporiicrous, according to othent to 
flagellate forms. 


B. Mddentalla tat'anl. 
with Inoculfttion-tc 

,. ii bloody cEdema local^ 

■nd paralyKi alternating with convulsions. 

B. WMtleni. Id beer. Short, blunt rods. Con- 
verts alcohol Into acetic acid, and acetic acid 
into carbon dioxide and water. 

B. U'ldl botjT'lcl, In mixtures of cheese and 
saccharine tolutlona. Evolves feUd gas, coagu- 
lates milk, produces tiulyrtc acid. 

B. U'ldl lairtlcl. Variety ol B. aerogenes, oc- 
eniring In sour milk. Decomposes various sugars 
into lactic acid, carbon dloilde, and alcohol; 
precipitates casein. 

B. atfnss contMglo'BH. In pus o( horeo-poi 
(acne canlagiosa of horse). Bhoit rods, straight 
or nearly soi non-motllc. Inunctions produce 
acne in horses, cows, sheep, aod dogs (fatal In 

Silnea-[dgs i ; subcutaneous Injec tlons cause cry- 
pelatous swelling, suppuration, orpyiemla. 
B. tMOtfWt. In feces, urine of cyalills. sour 
milk, cheese, air, and water. Converts carbohy- 
dmte* into lactic acid (the most usual cause of 
spontaneous lactic add fermentation), and into 
acetic and formic acids. A variety (fl. indigo- 
genui) causes indlgo-fermentatlou. Subcula- 
neously, causes local »uppui»lion, and In the 
peritoneum peritonitis anil septicemia. In man 
causes purulent cystitis and sometimes pyelo-ne- 

Ehritls ; and fermentative changes in the Intcs- 
nes of nuislng infants. 
S. aerog'enet capsnla'tns. Occurs In bodies In 
which emphysema has dcTcloped after death ; 
also In dust. Immobile caiwulated rods some- 
times in chains. Produces aliundance of in- 

r, with death li 

lirium, high fever, 
"wo or three days, 
nis and discolored; 

AffeclaftisEuea emp . 

or In cases of mixed Infection suppurate. 

B. AlbnaeadaT'eTlB. Inbloodof fourdaj-s'oM 
cadaver. Motile, ■lender rods. Kills mice and 
guinea-pigs with rapid putrefaction. 

B. al'vel. In disease of bees, called foul-brood. 
Blender, motile rods with very large spores. In 
mice and guinea-;^ produces cedema. gan- 

B. All)7lalMtC't«r. in putrefying v^lable in- 


r, deit 

a into 

carbon dioxide, and hydrogen; dissolves casein; 
decomposes cellulose. 
B. aMVlOv'omi. Found on trees affected with 
pear-blight and apple-blight, which it causes. 

B. unyloiy'DU. in aqueduct water. Decom- 
poses sugar Into acetic and butyric acids, hydro- 
gen, and carbon dioxide; and starch into ethyl 
and amyl alcohol. 

IS. Namegiventosevcral baeilliol 
which are poisonous. 

mUk, C 

anthrax (malignant pustule, wooj-sorteni' illa- 
easc, etc.). Inoculated, produces gelatinous 
exudate locally, and fatal sepllraemlB witli great 
splenic enlargement. 

B. aa'ttiTACli aymptomaf lei. See B. carbonit. 

B. ftphUiO'aili. Very short, noD-motile, In cul- 
tures clcecly resembles B. coll. Said to cause 
severe forms of foot-and-mouth disease ; In cattle 
produces vesicles and ulcers In mouth and nose, 
and cutaneous hcemorrhages. 

B. a'pltmi. Kesembles B. antbracis. Causes 
peculiar disease of bees. 

B. aaiULt'llia. Name applied lo several species 
found in drinking water. Closely resembles B. 
typhosus and B. coll, but not pathogenic. 

B. arthrlt'ldiB cbron'lCB. in joints in chronic 
rheumntlstn. In rabbits. Inoculated in joints 
produces chronic proliferative arthritis; under 
the skin causes scpticaimla. 

B. ftmuitl'acm, B. kn'rena. In water. Pro- 
duce yellow pigments. 

B. ftti'retu minnttta'liniiB, Inair. Cauaessep- 
tlcremia In mice, abscesses in rabbits. 

B. beilber'lciu. Inotmnsiniierl-herl.andBald 
tocataedisease in rabbits. Pathogeny not proved. 


A produce d<7f;en en 
dulla, ba«al uron^l'^ <tii<' luiu. 

B. ttOTlMpticn*. In blood and aileiafttoua 
fluids of aniniBli dying ot European rollle- 
pluiie (WildMUChe). Short, Immolillc roda. 
Probftblj' ideulicBl wllh B. buIbcpUcuf, In 
Tattle, hones. go&tB, hoga. tsbbite, mice, doces, 
fuises fatal septicaemia wllh tiicmorrluigus, in- 
testinal mycosis, and pleuro- pneumonia. 

B. brMlkTlMl'lll. Produced eevere epidemic 
" * febrile enteritis, Eet_ up by eating diseased 

— - . - t up b 

, Ilstoiln tcslBtsboilin) 

B. bronoUtldlipntrldM. ii 

bronehltte. Motile. Culiurest 
Introduced Into lungs of rabbi 

sputum of putrid 

B. of.broncbo-pneiunoiilaliicatU*. SvfJt.o/ 

fom-ttaa dieeaae. 

B. Ot bubonic placne- i^ce H. prsr/t. 

B. bnecalli max'imai. SeeR-naxIrnuibuceaiit. 

B. Of bufhlo-pla^e. Probably a varlctj' of 
bovlseptlcus. Non-mottle, oval rode. In blo<m, 
oniane, and necrctlons of the Asiatic buffalo and 
other anlDiBls, In which It produces a fatal 
febrile dtsease. marked by gelatinous exudates 
into the su be iitaiicoiis tissue and CDngeattou -' 

B. bntyT'lonl (Iluepp?). In fleshy roots, mil 
water, and ganlen soil. Very motile, slendi., 
Bporiferous. In milk coa»rulates casein, then 
dtssolves and pcploiil^»« llie cnasulum. formin 
also leucine and lyroslne; produces butyric-aci 
fermentation; dissolves cellulose. 

B. butyrtcnslPtazmowsSy). SccB, nuij/IUftflrfo 

B- cadav'srla. Inorgansof rethcToMcadaYcn 
Lirne. non-inotile, wllboui spores. Patliogcni 
lor guUica-iilRs. 

B. unalla capBUlk'tna. B, pncumonlic occui 

le milk-sugar Into glucose and the latter li 

periostfiis and iion-suppuratlye oetlllawHh hy- 

S chol'ern au'atam. B. almost exactly like 
B. cholene galllnarum, but not palhngenic for 
lieiiB. doves, or rabbits. Causes In ducks disease 
quite like cklcken-cbolera. 

B. cborera caliUDlia'ram. Probably a variety 
of B, cliolertc galllnanmi, but not pathogenic 
for chickens. In doves causes dlsea^ie tike 
chtcken-eholera. Kalal to rabbits and (with pro- 
duction ot local InUammalion only) to guinea- 

B. chol'arn galUna'mm, m blrdsaffected with 
epidemic cTi Ick en-cholera ; also constantly In 
iuiesilntsof ijiivcs- Non-motile, Bbort, routided ; 
often prolonged into fliamenls. Produces in 
hens, doves, geese, ducks, mice, and rabbits local 
necmsia and a rapidly fatal scpti™ " 

luppr, I 

gin St 
B- canalli parvna. in 

)wcr water. Small, 
md guinea-pigs. 
See £. of KpUcmiia 

„. „, d blood 

of gulnea-plg. Rods ultb rounded ends, sur- 
toundert by large oval cajsule ; often in groups 
of 2'8 or 3's. Very fatal lo mite and while mice; 
lessBo [oRiilnea-pigs. Causes rapid post-morlem 
decompoffitlon, and gives tissues a peculiar, te- 
nacious, Tiscid character. 

B, capnla'tni mnoo'tnt. Sec B. mtma. 

B, eaptnia'tni •ep'ticni. in so 

RcsombliUL, _ 

duces a faial septicaemia 
B. carbCnlB. In^ fluids of animals dying ( 


id culture* 

. Produc 


B. of cattle Ktrcy, Sireplothrix (arciulca. 

B, cavlcl'das. ^ve B. eiAi immobilU. 

B, cancaa'leas. B. alleged, but on doubtful ai 
Ihority, to be present in keflr ferment and t 
coDven cow's milk Into keflr by n 

B.^ cbolOK|«i 

iirhagic duodenitis, and (in 

J. T — |,gp animals 

Indol and 

purulent py- 

purulenl menlnglils, renal abscess, 

nirapcritotieal injections kill animal , 

B. dr'ciUalii, 

B. Olt'TeiLt. 

ilow fatal pneumonia, pleurisy, a 

imcllmes In pain or 
f,.^-,.,-^- d,,mLjx-vD ,<.uixyu-..ellow pigment. 

B. dfrans codaT'erla, In blood of corpse, fifty 
hours after dpatJi. Kon-motlle. oblong, in rows. 
Emits odor of sulphuretted hydrogen; forms 
yellow pigment. Non-palhogenlc. non-loilc, 

B. cUTatni. See £. pfnuto-d fpWKriciu. 

B. i!Oli,B. eoUeonuna'uli. Inlnt(stlnes(usaal) 
and In mouth; also In air, water, etc. Sluggishly 
mollle, rather slender, varying much ft sUc. 
Produces acetous fermentanon of lactose, mal- 
tose, and Blyccrin, and bread-fermentation In 
Elerillzed dough; produces gas from glucose; 
forms Indol Id peptone solutions and bouillon ; 
reduces nitrates and nitrites. In subcutaneous 
injection pyogenic; in peritoneum lane dout 
cause peritoDllis or enteritis due lo ditnislon of 
toxin, DIflerent varieties show selective aedon ; 
thus kind found In hcrbivora is not polsonoui 
forherblvora, that found in man acts most upon 
the small Intestine. In man may, especially In 
case of Inleatliial disease, pass from the Inlestlncs 
Into other parts of the body and thus cause in- 
lectiouB eiddemic enteritis, and (either alone or 
In conluncllon with other mlcrobea) dysentery, 
'ocnolltis, multiple abscess of the liver, cys- 

I. and may (rarely) cause general 

I. colt eolorab'lUs, in cholelithiasis, and In 
feces and organs of yellow fever- Causes sep- 
tloemia in mice ; pathogenic for dogs If Injectai 
Into the ligatcd bile-duct, and for rabbits, If In- 
jected Into peritoneum. 
B. coll dyianterlciM, Variety of B. coll occur- 

,-../«, b,Goo»^lc 


B. coll immolilllB. In leefs (trequent). In 
larRe doees cHUSui alxcess. or II In]«c<ed In peri- 
loneum. peritnnllte and Beptlcien]i&. A virulent 
i-ulety Ib B. caricidui, nhluh Is very lata) to 

B.. colon. Bee B. rati. 

B., Comma. See SpiHUoni eholertt. 

B. conlmietlTlt'ldli. In acute epidemic con. 

SictlvitiB (pink-eye): especially in fonmnarked 
absence of (olilculaj svfellinB. N'on-mollle. 
ver7cniBiU(lmmiD. long); often in 2'Borcha 
Inoculations in conluncllva produce piak-eyi 

e B. pvudo-mur 

B. coj)roK'eiiiui punu. 
B. of eoni-italk OlteMe. 

with InfecttouB broncho-j 

digease). Bhort, oval, ver^ 

rabbits, gulnea-pigii, and plgeonB. ProbBtily 

„..b InfecttouB 

digease). Bhort, oval, ven- 

rabbits. sulnea-pIgH, and 

identical with B. zue. 
B. oraasniipiltlK'WlIU. In eputum and costing 

on (ongue. Bhort, thick, vith rouniled cnile: 

often bent like a sausage. Fatal [or mice : iu 

rabbits produces fatal geptlcamla. Large doecs 

In rBbblle and dogs cause very rapidly fatal 

B. ctuitctilicl'diu. See B. choierr ffoUinantm^ 
B. ennlcnllid'aas luiTknlBit'ila. See B. oolt 

B. cnnlcallci'iliu Immo'bllla. Quite like B. 

cholersgallinanim, but only gllehtly pel bogenlc 

tor doves and guinea-pigs. 

>a guinea-i 

^gs with inflammation of se 

B. ontila'nll pneumoB'lciis. 1/ 

galUnarum. ^n rabbits and gul 
fatal pneumonia and pleurisy w 
Mptlcremla. Bubculaneoualy, p; 
spreading atscea without genets 

B. etmle'all •ep'Uciu. 
tics in rr-'-"" '--'.i- 

rabbits c 

BS a fatal 

„„. Jn all orgfti_, — , 

and InSammation of serous membranes). In 
gulnea-iilgs causes local abeccss. 

B. CTUiOg'snsi. In blue milk. Motile; l^i 
0.3-<).5 mmm. Produces pigment, 

B. deUcftt'nln*. In water. Ckiagtilales milk ; 
reduces nltralea. 

B. dutltrU'CMU. B. converting nitrates Into 

B. dlpbtha'rls, B. dlpHUterlt'iau. m true 
dtpDtheria (Diembrnnes of diphtherial, or mem- 
brsnoug, or croupous pharyngllls. laryngitis, 
rhinitis, and con]uiictlvltlB|. Immobile: very 
irregular in size and shape, especially in cultures 
(ipiitdlfrshaped. wedge-shaped, and clubbed); 
darkly italutng points (polar granules) in prolo- 
plaim. Produces acid lennentatlon ol glucose, 

\j;,^a3ij, J>-.l..t_-lU 

ble ivoti 

fragoienlaUon ofnuciel and cell-destruction in 

A'Titim. Causes 

Is In funis. 

dlphUia'rlB colimiba'riun. Agalamerated ; 
..i.n I ^^^ ^..>.^~i =„j. Causing dcstruc- 
In pigeons, from 
litted toman: also 

rounded >. 

epiioolics of diphth 
m it Isoccaslonally In 

to rabbils. and tnlee. . 

chickens, gutaea-pigs, and rats ; dogs 1j 
dlpIlthS'rlB etmla'nll. From organs of rabbits 
lytngollhediaease. 3-4i;l.0-1.4mmm.; rounded 
it ends; often In pairs or rows. In rabbils, In- 
raTcnous Inlecllon causes accumulation of 
bacllU In liver and spleen: Introduced by mouth, 
>roduces inflammation and necrosis of Intestinal 

illphtbe'ria ipn'ilns. PceB-iufHdo-dipfttAe. 

dlphlbe'rlK TltnloTtUD. See StivptaOHx 

dU'bllLS. From feces in diarrhtea. Fatal to 

. dDl>las pnenmo'iila. In sputum of pneu- 
monia. Id rabbils. guinea-pigs, mice, and doves, 
dema and necnele at site of Injecticoi, 
auu jBLttl septicemia with btemorrhages. 
1. driMiteT'ln Uqoefii'cleu. in Japanese 
dysentery. In mice and rabbits causes cedema 
at site of tnoculatlon, nodules In liver and 
nileen. and ulcerating nodules in large Intes- 

organs and blood. Small, n 

B. empbyiemftto'iai. Found in pneutoothorax 

and a gaseous phlegmon In man. Fonns a gas 

which is often putnd. In guinea-pigs causes a 

sorlated with other bact^a, produces suppura- 
tlon and develops a fetid gas, 

B. andocardlt'ldls capinla'tus. From heart- 
thrombus and splenic and renal infarcts In a 
case of enilocardliis. Oval, often capeulaled 
arid In poire or chains ; probably Identical trltb 
B. pneumoniae, rroducesendocarditislnrabbils. 

B. andocixdtt'ldls crli'eiu. From vegetations 
in ulcerative endoranlltls. Motile, short, with 
rounded ends. Produces atncesses at site of In- 
oculation In mice and rabbits; and in rabblM 
with valvular heart lEslon also sets up endo- 

B. •Qtarlt'tdia. From animals alTecIed with en- 
teritis, and repeatedly found In persons poisoned 
by eating disused meat. Motlfe ; often paired. 
Produces In man, cattle, and many other ani- 
mals (not In dogs. cats, and chickensi, intense 
enteritis, with desquamation of skin durlag 
convalescence. Infection usually from IntestliiiQ 
absorption. Poison resists boiling. 

B. enterlViaif iporog'enes. In milk and dejec- 
tions of dlarrhoEa. Causes dlarrlKea. 

B. Spldann'ldlB. in interspaces between I«el, 
spots of intertrigo, carcinoma. 2,H-3.0x0.3mmm,; 
sporiferouB, Probably non-pathogenlc- 

B. •qnl IntaBttnti'lls, in intestine of hone: 
very like B, coll. 

B. eryalpel'Uoa Banm. See B. 

B. anrtlMm'fttii. in skin eruption and blood Id 
severe fonns of erythema nodosum followed by 
gangrene of the akin. 2,2-^5;eD.C-0.T mnf 

: i„ Goo^Tc 


muiLlly In eroups, Inoculatkois In Kulnca-ptgs 

cause erupikm of luruncl«s with guigienoug 

B. erytliroi'porai. Tn nutrefvlns liquids and 

In drlnklnK nati^r. Mnlllc ullh i«ddlsli epores. 

Forma fluorestcnl, greenish-yellow plBment. 
B. Mtbace'UciU. &pKl(« decompoeing gl)-cerin 

iDlo bIcoIio) and aeellc ai-ld. 
B. asthftcatoincelu'letu. B.decnnipnslnrman- 

nllo and dulclle Into alcobal and acetic and 

succinic acids. 
B. Of ZtUTopeu cktUe-pUgn*. Sec B. bovitrp- 

'. ruipcitifer 


with septica^i 

in of tlie orsBiiB. 
B. fBCfclli alcallg'enuB. In feees. Ooselj- re- 
Bembles B. lyphceus, but inoculation with 
typhoid Ecrum aiTurds no Immunity against its 

B. fBTti IBp^CUl, III cat's sputum. Verr 

small. Ctaieee scplicfl^mla in mice, rabbits, and 

B. or ferrat-plafoe. Sec B. mtulda teptiau. 
B. Bgu'raiu. See B. Prolcut. 
B., rUuiMntury. in stomach in cancer and no 

other disease. Long threads. 
B., Flnklsr-PllOI'S. See Spiriaum /InUcrf. 
B. flUta'DU*. In hay InfuslotiB. Immm.broad; 

sporifeious. ConveilE glycerin Into alcohol and 

lAher products. 
B. llnarei'cuii llqneflt'deni. in water and 

conjunctival sac. Ver>' motile ; small ; slender. 

Forms grccnlsb-ycllow fluorescent pl;rment. ^'tt- 

riet ics are B.JInorf«ivniif7iu-/ort(Ti" ■"'■"■■''■"'■■'""• 

found InskiulnsclxirrlKra, B.flm 

vaitd ftlaclcrs in Norway, and i 

id In gelatin eulluirs 

emimodorol trim ethyl amine. 

B. fott'ldnl. Inold cheese, cow-dung.a 
liquids of mice inoculated with gai . . 

Motile ; ppiirlfemus; I mmin. broad. All cullurf 

-y Ictld odor due la 

acid le 

B. fnt'iam Oia'DM. Ece Miawiavt Lontm- 

B., FriuilMl'B. The Mlcrooorcus lanccolatua. 
B. FrBndenrsl'cbU. in air, abfcefsoi, and else- 
where. DecomiMBca urea. 
B. frlSil«t>ergen'ilB. lnpolsniiouBsausaHe,H»er, 

lent febrile (iaatrci-i-nt trills, wUh dlswrnlnation 
of ornanlmia In body ; In animals alw) wme- 
tlmes paiaplcela. Polfion destroyed liy heating. 

B., Frledliuder'l. f^ B. pneuiamisr. 

B. toscnl Umbft'tni. in rotten eggs. Btiort; 
motile. Produces bmwn pigment. 

B. CkUlni.'mni. In blood of ehlekens dying 
from epizootic rcsemtillnR chicken-cholera. Kon- 

motllr; rourvded : 0.9-1 .;)x0.75mmm.; closely re- 
sembling B. chnlerc galllnarum. Causes fata) 
enteritis and Beiiticipmla Id chickens; doves and 

B. natromroo'Blaovli. Inacutefatalepiiootic 
of sheep marked by hicmorrhaele fnstro-intea- 
tinal Inflammallon. Cil-^mmm,; often paired. 

B. rtOCl'vnpyog'enM. S^ B. pyogna gInglrK. 

B. KlnXlTlVldls. Inscuri-y. In rabbits, guinea- 
pigs, and dogs, causes Bl«cesses surrounded by 
hDcmorrhagic (Edema ; if awoi'iated with slrep- 
lococei caUBi-a general, usually fatal, hanior- 

B. Of gUndata. See B. matlrl. 

Produces odorlei.. , , 

saliva, and warch-paiite 

causes ueph rills in dogs. 

B., Stub. In timothy and oti 

dung, milk, and butter. Like 1 

seld, Pjogenic, 

larilies. Affected animals do 
leppuitn In itiilnea-pigs and 
>f local reeudo- 
Ld Istlnguishable 

animals produces a sort of local i 
— — 'f llocBllied nodules Indlstli 
■y tubercles) 

from mil 
i. (TkTO'alftDt. In epidermis ol spves between 

m. DevelopsveryrepulslTO 

B. of nouie-dlMaie. tn lungs of grouse In a 
peculiar disease marked by pneumonia, enter- 
his. swelling of liver and kidneys, and general 
sepllcscmia. Immolille ; rounded or ovaf eocci, 
0.4-0.6 mmm., or rods, 0,8-1.6 mmm. long. Valal 
lo mice, guinea-pigs, and certain birds. 

B. rnmmo'sn*. Converts cane-sugar Into gum 
with formation of gluccec, mannlte, and fatty 

B, Of hsmOTThmglc asptlcMinla. See £. <if 

.. , ira men dyingof fatal 

purpuric di&cafie. Produces fatal hicinorThaglc 

duces fatal toils ideath being caused by Illtcred 

B. hnmoirhu'lciu aepbiit'ldlB. in luemor- 

rbagle iicpbrilis. Very like B. choleric galllua- 
rum. In guinea-pigs causes fatal htemorrbagic 
septlncmla and nephritis. 

B. bamOTTbsff'Iciu sbp'Uoiu. in hieraorrhagic 
Be[>ilB In man Produces fatal ha?morrhaglc 
septlcirmla In mice and rabbits. 

B. bmnorrtug'lciu velano'sns. In blood and 
fiiifineous pustules of child dying of luemorrha- 
infecllon. Immobile; rounded; 0.75-1.8X 
' ^m. In dogs, rabbits, and guinea-pigs 

(fltal disease marked by disseminated 

hirmorrhages due to the noii-coaeulaMllty of 
thelilood, and by parenchymatous disease of tbe 
liver and kidneys. 

B. hsiDlltMTObloiill'llllt. In che«sy l)-mpb- 
gland of gulnea-plg Inoculated with scrofulous 
material Slightly motile; very variable in 
shape (like B. Proteus). Innocuous for sound 
tlKiues, but In dead tissues produces liquefaction 
with evolution of gas, and is strongly toxic. 
causing fever, vomiting, and death. 

B- Haia'll. Converts milk and bouillon Into a 
mucilaginous mass. 

B. Of bOK-CbOlsra. See B. nipriH/rr. 

B. of bog-eTTslpela*. Bee B. rtmiinpnliiiK luit. 

B. byutn'thi aap'tlcns. in diseased hyacinths' 
Actively motile; 4-6il mmm ; Increase by Asslon- 



Produce* putrefocUve odor; Inocatatioiis In 
ti jBdntlu cause Ibelr dlseue nnd deMh. 
B. byal'liiiu. In water. Kcdiic^a oltiatet Co 

B. bydropb'lliu fnions. id waKt Producea 
Kpticamla In flsh, fiogs, nbbils, mica, dogi, 
cmb, doves, and bens. 

B. lOtcroe'eUM. in tlrcr and blood In acute 
lellow alrnph)', and In Intestines In lyplinld and 
olber diseagat. Like B. coll. 3ald to produce 
aeptlctemia wilb detreneiatlon of liver In mice, 
or according to some erychematoii^i pmnMnn. 
EtIolOBlcal slauu In "■ "■-■- ■ 

wblch It Is found 

B. letMDg'anM capsnl&'tiu. Namo^ven toB. 
pneumonia when found In spleen In Jaundice. 

B. leterol'dei. In blood and all tbe organs In 
yellow fever. Molile; ciliated : !^-lil-2mmni. ; 
rounded at both ends Produces toxin catislnR 
pro/ouDd degeneration of oniaug. Pathogenic 
lor maor animals: in doge produces luJuns 
closely i«aembling these of yellow (ever, 

B. In'tUcoa, B. In'dleni mbar. in Etomoch ol 

East Indian raoake/. Very short; motile; 
rounded ends. Produces brick-red pigment; 
lar^ Intravenous lujeoilons In rabbits cause 
death from gaBlro-enlerlliB. 
B. indlxoK'MlM. Variety of B. aem^nes found 
— Indigo-' — ■ ■■ -'--' '— '- " • — 


(ermeniatlon thi 
B. Inflnan'iB, I 
a. bronchia! 

Ine rise In tbem U 

. and ^vlnL __. 

It produces blue 

nlnfluenia in c 

jnucoua membrane, and lungs U 

diseased. Often in leucocytes. Non-niotlle; 
non-sporlferous; 0.5x0.2-0.3 mmm ; often In inlrs. 
Grows only In media conlalnin^r blood, blood 

which Tq monkeys and rabbits causes fever and 

prastrailon (symptoms " " ^ *' "' 

of badlU Ihemsefves). 

B.. jMOlIltr. In Jequlrlty Infusions. Motile: 

sporllerous; 2.&-1.&X0.6 mmm. Not pMliogenIc 
B., KlUMitD'B. Bee B. patit. 
B., Koofa'B. See B. tuberctUotit. 
B. UctK. Name given to eleven different bacilli 

which all peptonize and coagulate milk, turning 

It bitter. 

B. ImctlB cyanog'aUM. See B. eyajiogmet. 

B. UoUl^er;thn>g'«iM._, In red milk. Shorty 

turning milk blood- 
B. UcUa pttnltO'rt. In milk. Thick, slightly 

curved rods, breaking up into cocci. Makes 

milk Tisctd and somewhat acid with a quite 

specific odor. 
B. lep'OTU letalU. m intestinal contenls In 

yellow fever. In rabbits causes rapidly fatal 

•eptic»mla marked by stupor. 
B. lepr». In blood and In specific lesions ol 

1 ,. („ Ereat numbers. Very like 

lut differs i "— ' ' '~' — 

jt results thus iar obfidned are un- 

c*nl*. In dogsdjlDg with le 

. fWal to rabbits. 


. IsTklw. Regularly present in sour dough, 
with Ssccharoraycss minor causes bread^^- 
mentatlon. Transforms elucoee Into lactic and 
acetic acids with carbon dioxide and hydrogen 
. Umbatnt acldl Uotlcl. Id tiesh mliki 
'" j;shorC; cafsulaled. Produces lactic 

In. milk. Bhort. thick, motile 

,..,_.., .-..^, ,; sporl- 


B. Uoder'inoi. 

lerouB. Peptonizes 
Into butjTates. 
B. liqasb'dens. In water. Rhort anij 
bdedends; actively motile Gelatin 

» B. pncumonfruf Wjuf 

B. Ilqaafa'dana magnna. Subcutaneous llnulds 
of while mice and guinea-pigs dying from Inoc- 
ulallon »1th garden Kill. Motile; straight or 
stightlycurved ; 3-6I0.S-1.1 mmm.. forming long 
fllamenis: sporlferous. Develops gas smelling 

B. Uqnetk'eleiia pamu. Same origin as B. 
II — .i_„i„„. ™ — lug Non-motile; S-SiO.S-O.T 

B.. LoBsr'B. gee B. diphlhttix. 
B. Lnbln'lUi. In putrid 

letani. Produces gas In i. 

and the formation of sero-pus. 
B., Lnitgarten's. See B. ttrpMlidi: 
B. Kaddoi'l. In river water. DecompoBee 
B. ma'idlB. In grains of Indian com an 

cultures. In m 


, ... aold. and a vobuile si 

allied to the aldehydes. Not In Itself 

pathogenic, but produces from maize a toilc 
subalance which causes nanxisis and paraly^ in 
white mice and dogs. 

B. or malignant tedBiIUt. Sec B. aaraiata 

B. maU'tl. In nodules of glanders. Non-motile; 
1.5-3I0.2.T-0.40 mmm. l"roduce» typical glanders 
in men, horses, asses, cats, lions, and tigers; In 
guinea-pigs, typical glanders combined with 
purulent orchitis (this reaction utilized as a 
means of dlaKnostleatlng disvaeel. In field- 
mice causes disseminated nodules like glaixders, 

B. marBlllen'ilB. In epizootic among bogs, 
marked by Intestinal lesions. Like B. suipes- 
tlfer, but dlflerlng In certain characters. 

B. mai'lmuB baeeiiliB. In mouth and in con- 
cretions of pliaryngomyinsls. Fllai 
tufts composed of rows of bacilli, 
brownish- violet with Iodine. 

B. menlsglt'liUB, B. mBnlngit'tdlapi 


purulent meidngltls. liutile: 2x0.7 


ig HIami 

B. menliiElt'ldlk a«rog'enes. 

B. tDes«nt«T'tctu nucns. 

.nasal injections cause 

...., ,._all and s ., 

ellowlsh-brown jrtgment. 

. ripotatoes. MoIlle; 

slender; grouped o ' "' " .. - 

n filaments; sporUoout. 



On potMoes produces reddish [dgiiieDtuideinlli 

B. maMiit«rloui vnln'tttt. On potatoes and 
iDmim:. Mottle; small and Ihtplrwtth rounded 
ends; otten joined Into fllaments: forms very 
resistant spores, Cnacutales casern and ron- 
TerD loct&les into butyrat»: exerts diasUtIc 
ftction upon stanch. Cause of rot In polMiies. 

B. marblflcuu IiotIb. in flesh of cow slek of 
puerperal fever. Very Infections for mice. 


goats. Bacilli disseminated in onnns and mus- 
cles. Proljabiyi-auBeofaimllarBftectionlnnian, 
B. mncO'ltU OIB'ns. See B. oz^nz, 

B. moltUor'itili trleliorrbex'la. Bald to pro~ 

duce Hodara's disease, 
B. mtirtpSBf Utr. in neld-mlce. oaurine an epl- 
— "ic among them. Very Dlie B, typhi murium. 
....... ,__^. .... ^^[]ti j(iiu n,|r- 

with bactltl 

B. murlMp'Uaiu. in putrefactive liquids and 
garden soil ; very prevalenl. Non-motile ; 0.8- 
1.0xD,l-4).2 mmm, ; extremely like (prohebly 

filled with bacilli ai 

apathy. Leui 

B. mnrlsep'Uciu plBonuir'pliiie. In absreFses. 

especially in a case ol puenx-nil pynmla. Motile ; 

resembles B Proleua. Bhowtn(( all torma from 

cocci to opirllla. In while mice causes swelling 

of spleen and death; rBbbtt8alsasuscept]blB;or- 

dlnary mice more resistant, 
B. miute'ln ■■p'Uciu, In blood and organs !□ 

' ■ ■' Rods with rounded ends, or short 

pleurisy; lu other aDlmals. 
B. mr^l'dM. In water and soil. Motile 
fferous; 1.6-2.4x0,9 mmra,, joined to fonn long 
Interlacing fllaments. Enctsellcallytmrisforms 
Ihe nitrogen of albuminoid bodies into ammonia: 
very Important in eflecting the processes going 

B. neapoUM'nni. Bee B. mii. 

B, necroph'onu. See StreploUira mnitvti. 

B. MltrObac'teT. In soil. Conrerts ammonia 
Into nitrites and then into nitrates, 

B- NltroBOm'oiuM enropM'ni , B. Nltroiom'oiiae 
Javknlen'ili. TwoBpeclc« found In soli, con- 
vertlni; ammonia Into nitrites, Dialingulshed 
by hBiing Sagella only at the poles, 

B. nodO'SQB pamu. in human urethra, Kon' 
motile; 1.2-lAxOA mmm., with club-like swell- 

e between 11 v- 



drnles; cultures emit' peiietintlng odor. Injec 
tlons In many animals cause rapid death wltt 
(onriation of extensive <edeina at tlie File of In 
oculatlon, Kot usually pathogenic lor man, 
B. mit'mtMt a«ro'bllU. Root of military hi» 

f.tal ; small intestine. Very slusgishly mollte 
J6-l,MiO,76-l.l» mmm,; often Tn Ti at S's 


Produces in ruines-pigs. mice, and rati bloody, 

Klatinous cedema. with formation of penetrat- 
; gaa and irith enlargernent of the spieeu. 
). odem'KtlB thermoph'lliiB. In a diseased 
guitiea-|iig and In ciutle. Distinguished by Ita 
-'slstance to heat. Very pathogenic, i^oduciT^ 

gelatinous icden: 

tllVlctu. In.nsf^l St 
A welling 


mmm.: in Irr^^ular grou[». Cultures emit 
strong disagreeable odor. 
B. ozyt'ocna pemtclo'tiu. Variety of B, 
pnoumonije occurring In milk that h»* stood fn" 

B. OIM'QM. In oziena. Like B, pneumonia In 
mice and guinea-pigs causes local InBltrMion. 
and In mice also fatal septicicmla. 

B. pumt OTfttlu. In European swlne-plague. 
Probably identical with B, sulseptlcus, 

B. Faatenr'l. in putrid urine. Decomposes urea. 

B paitanrla'iiiis. In beei^wort aiid beers poor 
in alcohol. Acts like B, acetlcus. but gives blue 
color wltmodlne, 

B. paitlB, B. psstli bnbon'tcs. In blood and 
especially in buboes of plague. Short, oval, 
sometimes In rows, often capsulated : non- 
motile; aerobic. In rats, mice, guinea-pigs, rab- 
bits, and sheep, causes bloody •cdetna with 
hipmorrhages. serous eHudons. hypetiemla of 
Intestines, and general septicicmlB. 

B. phaila'iil ■ap'tlcna. In eplrootic. In pheao- 
ante, causing somnolence, catarrhal enteritis, 
and septtciemia. Like B, coll: very motile. Other 

birds and rabbits not aliected, 

B. pbleg'monaa empbriamaM'ai 

aero^jena eaptalatua. 

B.Of plak-aya. See B. coT^juncth'Oldit. 

B. psenmo'niM. In otitis, meningitis, and pneu- 
monia; In healthy mouth and sir-passages: 
and In air and drain-water. Non-mottle, oval 
cocci, usually In paint and often caraulated ; or 
short, thick rods. Cultures develop gas. In 
mice, guinea-plgfi. and rablilts, causes picurisv. 
Inflltration and foci of Inflammation In lung, 
swelling of spleen. In man causes certain rases 
of pnenmonla (especially those of malignant 
type), also pleurisy, otitis media corneal ulcere, 
pericarditis, endocarditis, and meningitis, 

B. of pnenmonla In eatu*. 

See B. 

7, paftimonifuf 

B. or pnenmonla In tarkara. _ — 

gallinarum. Causes In lurkej*s rlgldll 
weakness, corj-za, and dlarrhcca: In r 

Causes In lurkej-s rigidity and 
.rj'KB. and dlarrhos: In rablilts. 
septlciomla. pneumonia, and pericarditis; In 
guinea-pigs, local suppuration. Hens and dove* 
less affected, and other birds not at all, 
B. pnetunon'lcni ac'llla. In vagus-pneumonia 
ofra'-'-'" ■ ' -— ~ -• —- '-'- — -■ 

rabbits ; organs of man dying of vi 

inla MotileclllrtlcalcocciordipLococci. 
thick bacilli, Culturesemlt unpleasant 

nJecltoiiB Into air-passages 

n rabbits, mice, and guinea- 




cattledylngoicontaEkHispneinnoniai: probably 
not nuee ol the dlgenae. Non-motile ; shnrt 
rods ; In calnires. resemble cocci. In catlle. In- 
jectloaa subcutaneously r»aae abBcssses : Injec- 
llom Into blood or iangs came fatal pneumonlB. 
The extract ot the cultures Is the loilc pnninioiia- 

eptoMUc occuning In mice and n 
tad in pneomonla In monVeys. ^ 
Ihort. UTftlRbt rods 0.2 mniTn. tblck 
develop nnpleamnt odor. Inmlce,cBi: 
rhBRiC eDterlHg, pneumonia, and » 

mentg. Attacks starch and cellulone, producing 
fennenlation of potatoes, lupines, etc. 

B., Potato. See B. mamlertau milgahu. 

B. Of potato-rot. On pnlaloes, Demmposeii 
dextrcee Into butyric and rarbnnic aciilB, and 
disBolTcs starch. DwompoKs alhumlnnide. By 
these effecta produces potato-rot (wet-rot). 

B. prOdlRlo'iiu. starchy sulstanccs. as tiread. 
Very Bhnrt rod-like coccun or dlnlococcug. 
Potatoeulture* emit odor of trimeihylamlne. 
" » red coloring matter. Often caunea Bpoll- 

. Scarcely patho(renic. 

B. PT<ft«ni. 

putrid infeelion. Very wlde-spreai 
Hie: ciliated; sl!>;hlly cui^ed: u| 

iliim ; blood and' ttesues 

,— infeelion. Very v ' ' 

tile 1^ ciliated ; sl!>;hlly c 

r-pl^ with hi 
a. Develops 


lalne capable of giving 
r dtstroya rabbits and 

Infection}. Produces some cues of meat pouon- 
iDg. cholera infantum, pyelo-nephritia, and 
cyittitis ; and is the cause of the fetor In some 
cases of nasal disease vlth retained secretion. 

B. Fr»'t«ill fltior«s'C«lU. Varied forms. In 
Wdl's disease, especially in urine. Cultures 
fetid and show green fluomcence. Causes sepU- 
csmla In rabbits and Well's disease in man. 

B. Frotaiulata'Ila. in gangrenous lun^ and in 
spleen nt man dying with septic symptoms. 
Hodentely motile, capsulated : rounded ends; 
0.8-1.& mmm.. thick: variously nodulated. 
Causes fatal septicffimia in mice and rabbits. 
Probably tame as B. capsulalus sepUcus. 

B. pTO'tmia isp'tlciu. In necrmls of mucous 
membrsneof colon attended with senls. Motile: 
--_.^,.. V..U imm. broad ar-" 

imit f 

lactls albus. turning milk Mrter. 
B. paeadodlphthar'ictu. NameappllediiiTarl- 
ous bacilli morphnlnSlcally Identical with B. 
dlphlherlff, but non-virulent. Probably com- 


Sysenlery. B, rtrinim 
much ' increaaea in cai 


these, especially B. lerosls. are probably only 
attenuated forms of B. dlpbtherl^: others dls- 
lingulshed by absence of polar granules and 
IhelT Inability to cause acid fermentatlOD of 
glucoec arc probably distinct. 
B. PBeudo-lnflnen'ia. In broneho-pneiimonia, 
otitis media purulciila, andacase like Influenza. 

tural characters, and produces similar disease 

B.'TissudO'-tBdaiil'atlB. In (edematous fluid and 
tl&ues of mice inoculated with garden-earth. 
Light border surrounding bacilli : sptniferous. 
Inmlceproducesrrdema. in rabbi IS erysipelatous 
swelling: in Imth fatal. PerhajKonlyanattenu- 

sald to produce Immunl^ against mallgiuuit 

B. pEandDpnttiinaii'lciiB. Form ot B. pneu- 

B. of pseudo-rabtei. 

dying Irom tiioculailoiis unmc imui 

Verv slender. Inoculations pioduc 

creels, and fatal paralytic rabies. 
B. piendotatan'iciiB 'anaerobitu), B. pMUdo- 

tatan'tcns asrol)lnt. Twospecles resembling 

B. telanl, but not pathogenic. 
B. pssndotnbeTculo'all. In m 

united into chains islreptolhrti form) non- 
motile. Very like B. typhosus. In nearly all 
rodents produces pseu'dntuberculosls, marked 

(especially In aMomlnal organs) of miliary 
nodules, which contain the bacilli. Laltcr 
often lodged within the cells. Disease often 
occurs in epizootics. 
B. pundotnbarcolo'Bls mn'rlnm, B. pi«ndo- 
tubercnlo'iU OtIb. Like B. diphtherlie. In 
mice, subcutaneous Injections cause abscess or 

Ceral fatal Infection; intraperitoneal Injections 
nice, and subcutaneous injections In guinea- 
pigs cause pseudotuberculo^, 
B. psendotnberenlo'ila tlm'lUs. Very like B. 

IKcudotuberculosls. In rodents causing either 
tmeudoliiberculosls or death without formation 
of nodules. Filtered cultures not directly poi- 

B. psandotTPho'Bni. in soil, water, and various 
rails of the body. Precisely like B. typhosus, 
and probably identical with It. 

B. of pulmonary EtiiiKTes*. Bee B. Prolnti 

B. pntrlTicna coll. In feces. Verj' motile : 

poisonous in targe quni 
B.pyocya'naai. Ingreei 

Not pyogenic, but 

ireen or grayish pus. Actively 

iwxdr^-l.O mmni. ; flagellate at pole only. iW 
duces blue pigment tpvoFi/anin and a yellow- 
ish-brown pigment turning gray when oxidized). 
Occurs often, but rarely dangerous to man. 
causing suppuration: In animals causes local 
abscesses or ti^morrhaglc irdema. and In large 
drees death with alliuminuria, fever, and paraly- 
sis. Its products counteract the effect of B. 



B._P7<ir'enas doaol'Dni. in sewkse. Reoembles 
K EDlse|ilicu9. t'auscn local stscL«8«« and Bome' 
(Imes eeptligemla with purulent pericarditis, 
pleurisy, or |ierllonltls. 

B profanes ctmidb. See B. pnainundm. 

B. vrOK'eiim fot'ldns. In feild pus of ana) 
a&eeie. glixhlly Diutlle: 1.5x06 mmm. Caiues 
fatal seplieuMnift In mice and guinea-pigs. Prob- 
ably ktcntical wit h B. coll. 

B- PToCenes fwt'ldai Uqnah'clsnB. In an 
oflflc cerebral alw:a>K. CaUiwa in rabbits multi- 
ple purulent arlhTilit. 

B. P7ilg'en«s slngl'vtB. Inalv«nlarabm:ts8and 

couniled eniig. Bubeutaneous itijrclinns nyo- 
^nle; tntrapvrltnnuil Injections caum; fwal 
peritonUls I" mice, Ruinea-pigs, and rabbits. 

B. pyos'«UM Ila'nsfft'olsiu. in otitic pyemia. 
Pattao)(cnlc for mice. 

B- pyos'enas BOlt. Ineartli. Cauiiesaliec^ 
KcnHL^l with h. i»c"dolu 

B. Tftdldc'OliU. In root nndulcs and plant 
lo jiulserre nutrition of pla 



B. ruilel'(lni. in fmga dying of scpUcimnia In 

B. renftlil bovll. Very IILe B. diphtheria, 
CauslnR puruh'iil pyclo-ncphritlK In nx with 
diphtheritic indamuiatlon of ureiera and blad- 

and abscesses in Bubcutaii« 


SuhwdueTothteuf). Xnn-motlle; 0,6x0,: 
ClciKely alilod to B. muriseiilii^na. In ume, 
vhite rats, and doves, causes fatal Eeptlca^mla : 
In rabbits snhcutanccHU Injectlotw cause crj'- 
ripelas which may lea-l lo fatal infection. Other 
animals llllle affecled. 

B. rutMT In'dleiU. !<cc B. inificiu. 

B. ml»« urdl'nN. in sardines. Produces red 
[dfnncnl. When mixed wllh oiher liat.ierta 

B. BsUTa'rlna ■aptloni, Sec Hicr 

B. lalmoiilci'diu. i*rnd 

oommunleated (mm Infi 
B. a&n'IfttlllU trpU. In blond (ni 

Club-shaped or'ovolrtal : o'llcn in 
in ch^ns. In mbblls. truinea-jilg: 

aomc'tinics dlsaenilnBllon of bacilli. 
B. ■aproit'Miai. Name applied to varlot 

vhich arcnlHalned from feild animal ei 

or (mm pus, and u'hiise cultures emit . 

putrelacUve odor. More or less pyogen 
B. ■UDiOg'aDai TtDl. Name applied lo 

bBclUl Dccuning In putrefying wine. 
B. BclieUTlen. See S. epiderniidit. 
B, flclllinmellratell'lL See B. nanw. 

lisease contagious uid 

mirs: rarely 
, and white 
death, with 

rlotis bacilli 


I mo5u^, and B- ctmicuif 


Like B. 

, jamultlple 

_ ji canary-birds and fatal sepd- 

B. or ■apUcMmlA In nibbiM. See A ci 

dui. B. m,, - 

B. of BapUcsmla hnmarrliAclcs. Name given 
CDllccllTely to B. HcclilentaliBletaui. B. cholera 
golUnarum. K. cbnli-rtt anatum, B. bovlscptlcua. 
B. sulseptlcus, and other tacilli, vhieh are 
akin morpholiwlcally, and alike produce homor- 
rbaglc septleiemla. 

B. MP'Ueiu ftduulUAtnt. in ornns and blood 
of infant dying of septliamia. Peculiarly acu- 
minated. Don-eareulated, slender cnceus. &USCI 
talal fetirile disease ol rabbits and guinea-pigs, 

B. ■ap'tlCtU Bcrlg'elliU, In manured soil. 
LtkcB.chnletB^galllnarum. but longer. Kapidly 
fatal to mlcCi Hcld.mlce. and rabbits. 

B. ■ap'Uctu karfttonuLU'cla, la cornea and 
organs of child dylnr- ' 

sepsis after kcralo- 
i^iiuit iinu. U.I uimm. Iblck : often In 
capsulalcd. Inoculations in cornea 

relibitsaiid mice cau.>es fatal septictemia. Frob- 

imm. thick 
j,v.'.«, Anri CAtMiilAlnl Tni 


B. sep'tletu pn'UdlU. in cerebro-sninal duld 
and liver of a cholera patient. Clteely allied lo 
B. Proteus in appearance and palhogeny, 

B. •ep'tlCIU ■pnUs'aniU. See Microeocau Irm- 

B. lap'tlonB til'carlB tutfrnno'il. In blood, 

organs, cord, and ulcers of a child dying from 
gangmnouB ulcere. Motile r oval or rod-shaped 

In mice and guinea-pigs produce 


I, soniewhac curved rods. 2-fl 
■ l-green coloring 
with subpleuiml 


w liver 

. „ ... _-.„...x labia majora and 

minors, fold of thigh, anal ri^on. Very like B, 
syphllidls and B. tubercukels. but readily de- 
eolorlied by alcohol, and not pathogenic. 
B. (oridni. In subcutaneous fluids of white 
mice and guinea-iiigs dying from InocnlaUoiu 
■den-soiL IHotile; J.SsO.fimmm, ; often 
emit fetid odor. Non-patho- 

B. ■OTfU. Produci 
leaves of sorghum. 
B. iplno'sas. ^m 

red o 

blackish spot* o 

origin as B. solidus. Hotjle; 

often In lllaments. Cultures 

emit odor like Swiss chetse. NoB-pethogenic. 

B. ■patlg'annatan'uli. Inspuiumofadvaneed 

Shthli^ts and caiarrhnl pneumonia. Produce* 
Ltal sepllcnimla lo rabbits and white rats, 
B., BlarBberrS- Hvv Hicnxoccut lanmtatia. 
B. itrlatiiB albna. see B. ptfatkidiiMhrricv*, 
B. itHatlU lUvtia. In nasal murus. Striate 

rods [iniduclng sulphur-colored pigment. 
B, (rab'tUlB, In hay-in(uslons, air, water, soil. 
feces, putrefying matter. MoUlc. flagellate rods. 


apofcs. Non- pathogen L 

B. inlel'dtu. See B. latnytitiu. 

B. lulpeBtlfer, In tilood, organs, awl lesions at 
Tuigi dyintt of hot:-rhali!ra. and Danish and 
French swine-plaguo. Motile: ovoid cellB, 
CS-LZiOe mmm. <;ul(urcs [miduce no liidol 
nor phenol. In rabbllB. mice, anil gulnotplcit, 
causes Inflainniatlon of Internal organs wUh 
accumulation ol bacilli and marked enteritis: 
in hog!, hoK^jholera and the related forms ol 
BVtIne-plaKUe, marked by iileeiatlve and ne- 
crotic gaslro-enterltls and colitis, 

B. aolBep^tnU. la onnns tn German swine- 
plague (tntectloui disease marked by chee«y 
uieumoniai. Very like B. cholene gafllnanim. 
ProduccH phenol and Indol. Causes fatal Sep- 
lleiEiniB In rabbits, mice, and small blids. Dogs 
and ^Inea-pigs more Ttlnclory, and chickens 
little afteclHl. In all animals causes marked 
tuemorrhai^lc cedema at site of Inoculation. In 

i and pleura with septlcivT 

B. or iwlns-arTilpaltw. 

motile. Pnidueea 1 

B. of IWlna-faTBr. See S. mtpetlifa: 

B. ■yeoairenis rcrt'ldni. Iti beard of man 
affected with syccfils- Kon-motile; straljrht; 
1.0-1.8x0.25-0.30 mmm.; oflen In chains; Inunc- 
tions of cultures cause syrosis In man with 
bacilli In lesions; subcutaneous injections In 
rabbits pyogenic. 

B. Of tymptomatlc uiUlraz. Bee B. carbonlt. 

B. lynxan'tbot. in yellow milk. Actively 
II- <, — .. 1 o-yellow pigment in 

B. npbUlllil, In tissues andsecredonsolsyph!- 
Uttc morWd processes. Slender, often sinuate 
rods. 2-4 mmm. long, with somewhat knobbed 
ends: snmcUma enclosed In rounded or polyg- 
onal cells lather larger than a while blood-eor- 
pnscle. Very like B. tuberculosis, but more 
readily decolorired. Probable cause of syphilis. 

B. tachyotoniu. In feces of cholera morbus. 
Causes rapidly fatal septicemia In mice and 

B- tot'uil. In soil and wound-secretions of 
tetanus Sluggishly motile; 3-4itO.J-0.5 mmm.. 
with large terminal spore, giving It a knobbed 
appearance. Spores extremely resistant, living 
for over a year. Markedly anaerobic. Produces 
trsumalic tetanus, puerperal tetanus, and te- 
tanus neonatorum ; the symptoms of the^e dis- 
eases being produced by the extremely powerful 
toxin that the b. produces or carries with It. 
while the bacilli themnelves remain locally con- 
fined. Acts especially when Introduced In the 
form of sports, In the presence of other bacteria. 

B. Of tstaniu of iBOciilatton. See B. (vxldm- 


B. tharmoiiti'Uiu. Name applied to variouH 
bacilli present in dung, earth, the intestinal 
cwuti of man mii) animals, and in grain and 
milk, and having the common proper^ o( grow- 
ing at a temperature ol aV-lifC. and of produc- 
ing heat by their growth. 

B.ofUinDtliy, Sees., OroH. 

B. tnbercolo'ila. In products of tuberculous 
processes of all kinds, enclneed in giant cells or 
free In blood. Non-motile, slender rods, usually 
somewhat bent, 2-6 mmm. long ; staining with 
great difficulty, but when stained resisting de- 
colorlzatlon. Occasionally shows branching 

in man, apes, cattle, horses, fhcep, guinea-pigs, 
rabbits, field-mice, and pigeons, while mice, 
dogs, and cats nearly or quire Immune- 
B. tDbATCnlO'BlB a'-rtiun. t'lnsely resembles B. 
tuberculosis, of whiih it Is perhajB only a form, 
although It shows greater tendency to develop 
branched torms.and the cultures differ. Causes 
miliary tuberculosis in rhlckens. ducks, pigeons, 
and pheasants I nith lubercnloiis noduiee in 
spleen, liver, and peritoneum): in mammalia 
usually only local lesions, but in rabbits often 
genenillzed tuberculmls, and In giJneo-plgs 
death with but slight lesions. 

found in re 

■vlng the nutrition of the Utter. 

lis tMlDTldBl'TIB, ll 

' ig-cough. Motile ; ' 

n In 

SKSl .. 

_. single, sometimes In pairs or chains. 

rottiogcnic for white mice; and injections Inlo 
lungs of rabbltiand puppies produce bronehitts. 
broncho-pneumonia, and attacks like whooping- 
cough. Apparentlycauseof whooping-cough In 

]. trpU. B. typUl aMomln^lla. See B. Wilia- 

„ _..,)n of bacilli In oigi.._. 

produceslm-al necrosis with metastases. Cultures 
used to exterminate field-mice. 
B, trpbo'sni. In blood, urine, feces, and organs 
In typhoid fever. Occurs In tissues massed in 
clumps. Usually disappeani In outside world, 
especlallv when In water, but can live a lonit 
time In feces, ovslers, etc. Very motile; l-3i 
:cred all over with flagella: 

unded t 


forms, but its colonies on potatoes arc Invisl 
and it rrarularty forms peculiar sfiore-like swell- 
ings (polar granulesi at the ends of the ccHf. 
ESee also tt'MaTt rfoction)^ Causes no fermentH- 
tion {does not produce gas in glncosv solutions) 
and usually docs not produce Indol. Notverv 
pathogenic for animals, although killing rabUls 
and gnlnea-p^ : effects seem to be toxic, rather 
than infective. Sometimes true lyphnid leskimi 
produced, especially it susceptibility of animal 
has pievIouBly been heightened by the growth of 
saprophytes <B. coll. etc) or by alisorptlon of 
fermentative products from Intestinal FOnal. In 
man causes typhoid fever ; may also produce In- 
flammation and suppuration in muscles, jolntfi. 

ond organs, and cspef'-'" - ■- ■— 

nils and perlnstltls). 

B, nblq'nltnB, See B. aerogma. 

B. nl'cerla cancro'sl. In tissues and secretions 
of chancroid. Bacilli. 0.5-1. A mmm, long, often 
forming parallel chains ; occtwlonally Intracellu- 
lar. Produces typical soft chancre. 

B. tire'n. In urine. Short: 1 mmm, ihlrk. 

B. rt'padel. See B. ademoHi amiblvt. 

B. v«gl'll». In vaginal secretion a 

e acid reocili 


B. vlrai'cani, B. TlreiceBi pftllM'ceiiB. see 

B.fiiioretcent ium4iqaFjO'imt. 
B. VlBCO'Biii. In soil and river-water, Mol,H(|-^. 


1.5-2.0x0,5 mmm.: UBU&lly paired. Produ(^es 
green Huoreiicent isiloHng msiter. 
B. YlSMI'ana cenvlB'llB. in viscid beer, yean, 
air. uid tnucllaglnouG bread. Caiues dtvi-lop- 

B. Vlie«'tlU laotU. In naler. Non-motile; 
■"■ ■■ "inders milk iranepftrent 

and viscid. 

B. Tiaeo'inB ■ac'cbul. 

solutions Into touEh past; 
meunDorphused celluluie. 


. vltoo'ttu Tinl. Produces mucllaglnouB tmu- 
formMloQ In white wine. 
TiUC»'ri>. See B. PnUtu. 

TBlgattU. Bee B. maenleriau valgatvt. 
., VMkB'S. Bee B. ixn\lu7icarilida. 
'■Is. See B. pieudodiphaicm. 
Causes disease of 

which bi 

;H dorE mudlaglaoiii 

lactvria in deJelcriouBBi 

BftotorMmla (bak"tur'ee'mee-aih). [Gr, 
kaima. blooil.1 A condition in which the 
blood conlainalia 

Bftcterlai (bak-tee' 

riuBi.J Tliemember „ , 

geiieiicallyj theSchizomycetes. comprising the 
^□eni Bacillus (iacluding Lcptotlirix, Prote- 
us, and PHeudoiDona«), Buctcnum, BeagiutoB, 
Crenothrix, Micrococcus (including Diplocuc- 
ciiaand Neisseria), Sarcina, Spirillum (includ- 
ing Vibrio), Spirochete, Staphylococcus, and 
HCreptococcuB. I), ciimpniie SkpropliTUa b. , 
which can not, and Paraaltlc b., which can 

multiply ii 
favorable c 

. ., . ._. .. ngbody. All b. if under 
favorable conditions can cause disease (Ffttlio- 
genlc b.), and parasitic b. except the natund 

patBsites of the mouth and intestines, are al- 
ways pathogenic. B. are pathogenic either 
be<^uge they multiply excessively (Vlmlent 
or lufMtlouB b.), or becau.w they produce an 

'- ntof poisonortoxin (Toxleb,). 

lisona either remain conSned Ui 
disseminated through the sys- 
the latter case spreading by continuous 
in, by metastoflis (as in pyicmia), or by 
uniform diffusion in the blood (septicfcmia). 
See also lafcction. Toxin, and SepUcumia. 

B. and their pi 



re pathogenic, cauBlne local iirlla- 
polsoDlng igmeral toiiit. 

I. BAprOphytlc B«ct«TUl, i. e., those which un- 
deigo no development In the living organism. 
1. Those acting simply to produce local trrfbt- 

e bacteria '(contained In spoiled 
tood. or causing auto-lnloxicalloii from pu- 
trefying mailer In the digestive tract), 

I. PaTftitUe (lufMtlont, or Vlraletit) Bag- 

tarts, which undereo development In the living 
body, and whose development ts regularly as- 
•odated with diseased processes. Include 
1. Those vhlch produeeonlyloc&l inftcUos. 

(a) But very slight local development, but 
produce powerful toxins, catiting tyaleinic 
pofKHiJng. Ulcrobes of tetanus and diph- 
theria (In animals). 

(b] Marked heal (tnrtopmmJ fn Uit ileplh of 
the tiaua. General toxic ellects varying. 

mcl ol 

ither catarrhal Infl 

2. Those whicii pmduce Een«ral luftctlon. 

(a) Sprrttdinffby cimtinuuv. Mlcrobcsof ma- 
lignant pmegmnns and of expertmental 

(Py»mta) produced liy Blranlococci and 
staphylococci ; or aregnuialatloii-tnmon 
(produced by the mlcrolies of tuberculosis, 
leprosy, slandeiB, and syphlllsj : or are un- 
attended by hlstoloKlcal changes, as in ty- 
phoid lever, 
(cj Spreailing ftji anifarm dilTutiim through 
the blood (BeptlanmiA, BactertnmiA). 
Microtis of various lomiB of sepitcieniia 
In animals; relaising fever, luemorrhaglc 
Infecflon.and the seplliwmla due u> strep- 
, __j ,._ malinnant ery- 


Bacterl»mla.(bak"tur-ee-ee'mee-ah). Bac- 
Of, belonging 

BacMrtcldftl (hak-tur-ee-sey'dal). [L, 
eadtrr, tu kill.] Destroying bacteria. 

Bactnlclde (bak'tur-ee-seyd). Bacterici- 
dal : also au agent destroying bacteria. 

BMterlo- (bak-tee'rcv-oh-). Prefix mean- 
ing of or pertaining to bacteria. 

BACterloflBOTSsalii (-ftew"oh-res'Hin). A 
fluorescent pigment proiiuced by bacteria. 

Btuit«rlola(y (hak-tee"rec-ol'o.jee). \-logy.'] 
The science that treats of bacteria. Ileuce, 

BactorloIog'Ual, of or bv meaas of b.; Bac- 
tartol'offltt, one skilled in b. 

BacMrtotyt'lc. [Gr, Ixitikot, loosening.] 
Causing the disintegration of bacteria. 

Sacterlopnr'pnrln. [L. mtrpur, purple.] 
A purplish pigiuent produced by the Beggiatoa 

Bftcl«rlMeop'lc. [Ur. tknpeeia, to look at.] 
Of or designed for inspectiun or investigation of 
bacteria ; ait B. eiamination, 

BBCterlotber'apy, Treatment of disease 
by the introduction of Iraclerin into the body, 

BACterlproteln (hak"tur-ee-proh' tee-in). 
{Protein,'] A bacterial proteid.- See Turm. 

.- See lunit. 


(bak-tee'ree-um} . 
tirion, a amall staff.] 1. A genuB of Schl_ 
omjceles compriidDg the i>hart, atnUKht rod 
fonnB ; by some restricU'd b> the non-sporiftr- 

hat- I oua, b^ others to the n 


B. Ace^enm. (i) i 
B. ftCldl laCUol. 

produces iMtlc acid with the _ __ „_ 

and the formation ol alcohol. 
B. ««ros'«iiei. BaellluB aerosenea. 
B. ramglilci'Biim. Bacillus pyocyaneus. 
B. Of bnllUo-pUxne. Bacillus ol buOolo- 

B. ooli comma'na. Bacillus coll. 

B. Of Sanlili iwlne-placTte. Badllus sulpesti- 

B. tirytttftil'»,ioi ranm. Bacillus rhusiopathlfe 

B. of EnropAUi oattl«-pla«na. Bacillus bori' 

B. Of Frwich BirliM-plaKti«- Bacillus sulpem- 

of lu»K-etu»lBm. Bacillus suipesurer. 
lactls aeror'enei. Bacillus aerngenee. 
Micrococcus Isjiccolatus. 
1. Bacillus pneumoniie. 
*l'liC7'aitnm. Bacillus laclis cyaTiogcnes, 
Tenno. Old name tor b. suppoeed tobeoiuse 
>f putrcrsctlon ; probabl)- the Bacillus Proteus. 
UtolMid'enm. Bacillus aerogenes. 
lire's. In decompcsed ommonlacAJ urine. 
t>hort. rounded or oval ; like Bacillus aerogenes. 
UecompcBes urea with formation ol funmoniuni 
B. liimU'lMUll. Bacillus aerogenes, 

B. anthracls. B. canulalum, B. cholene nlli- 
_ ,. _.._,_......,.. — „ ......,..^.,^)^ 3 

_, _. .....Ivff DviwenfB. B. influeo. ~ 

.,.._. _. Umbalui.. _. 

lurisepllcutD. B. pasteurianum. B. i 
latls. B. syphiiiilb, B. larhyctonum 
ulosls, see BaeiUm anUiracU, etc. 


Bac'torold. [-tml.] 1. Resembling bacteria 
or a bacterium. 3. A zoogltea-like bacterium 
(e. g., the Bacillus radicicolus) found in the 
root-nodules of growing plants. 

Bael (bay'ul). [L. 6«/a.] The jEgle mar"- 
meloa, or Bengal quince, a tree of India. B. 
fruit (Belsfructus), an orange-like fruit, is an 
astringent and demalcent, used in dysenlery 
and diarrhrea. Dose of Eilraef tmn beta liq- 
vidum, 1-2 3 (gat. *-8). 

B&ff. A compre^ble closed sac or pouch. 
Ice-b., a thin b. filled with ice. used for apply- 
ing cold in local infiammations, etc. Pollt- 
Mr'B b., a rubber b. used in politzerization. 
B. orwftton, the amnion. 

Baker'a Itch. Eczema of the hands occur- 
ring in bakers.dne to the effects of heat. 

BalMlc* (bal'ens). [L. bilam: ^ bit. twice, 
+ tanXj plate.] An instrumeat for weighing, 
consistiDg of a rod or beam oscillating upoo a 
support situated at its centre of gravity, and 
carrying at either end a pan, one for holding 
weights, the other for holding the objects lo be 
weighed. Toraton b., an apparatus for meas- 
uring magnetic and electric attraction, consist- 
ingof a shellac needle suspended by a fine wire 
so OS to be rotated in a horizontal plane when 
a gilt ball at the end of the needle is attracted 
or repelled by a magnet or electrified body. 

of the snrTace of the glan 

Balano-poitliltU (bar'a-noh-pos-they'tis, 
■Ihee'tisJ. [L. = balanitis + poathUia,'] In- 
SammslJoD <n the glans penis and the prepuce. 

BalbntlM (bal-bew'shee-eez), [L.] Stam- 

BaldnuB (bawld'oes). See Alopecia. 

Ball-uid-Mekal Joint. See Joint. 

B«Uott«ni«Ilt (bah.loht-mahn). [P.] A 
means of diagnosticating pregnancy by push- 
ing the finger against the uterine wall (either 
directly through the vagina or indirectly 
through the abdominal wall) and thus caus- 
ing the embryo to bound up and Dilt back 
again ; also the sensation thus imparted to the 
impinging finger. 

Bairn (bahm). 1. A balsam. S. The Me- 
lissa officinalis; also called Lemon b. B. of 
Olle&d, Bal'samum giteaden'se, a fragrant 
viscid liquid derived from Balsamodeu dron 
Opubal'samum. B.-of-OUuul flr, the Abiea 
bolsamea, furnishing Canada balsam. 

Balneology (bal"nee<ol'ob-jee). [Balneam 
+ 'logy). The science which treats of baths 
and bathing. 

Balneotherapby (bal"nce-oh-ther'n-pee). 
[Balneum + Iherapi/.] Treatment by baths. 

Bal'nenm. [L.] A bath. 

BalBWn (bBwl'sam). [L. fiariamum-Or. 
bahanum, fr, Arabic] 1. Ad aromatic liquid 
I or semi-solid vegetable exudation, composed 
of oil and resin ; an oleo-reain ; especially, of the 
U. S. and B. P., an oleo-resin conlainmg ben- 
zoic or cinnaniic acid. The principal natural 
b'a are B. of Peru (Balsamum peruvia'num, 
U. S., B. P.,G, P.), derived from the Toluif 'era 
Perei'rfe, a leguminous tree of South and Cen- 
tral America; a dark-brown syrupy liquid, of 
fragrant odor and bitterieh, burning taste, 
consisting mainly of benzyl cinnaraote (C»Hi.- 
OtHt.Oi. an aromatic oil) with benzyl ben- 
I zoate (dHi.CiHT.O.), benzyl alcohol (GH,.- 



OH), elc. It is Btimalanl to mucous mem- 
branes, and in employed interaally for 
bronchorrhira, dysentery, and diarrhsa: dow, 
30 <n (gm. 2). Exlernally it U an antiseptic 
and Btimulant, used as a dresaing for ulcerB, 
indolent wounds, and discharging mucous sur- 
fitces, B. of Toln (Balsamum tululn'num, U. 
8., B. P., G. P.), derived fram tlie Toluif' 

b. of I^ru. Preparations; d'u' 
flu«, U. S., B. P., dose. I 3 (Km. 4); and Tinc- 
lu'ra loluta'na. U. S„ B, P., 1-2 3 (gm- *-»)■ 
B. or eopklva, B. oapivl (BalHimum copai' vie, 
G. P.), see Viipaiba. Heeca b. (Italsatnum 
eiIesden'Be),seeita/i»o/G>7M<f. Cuiada b.. 
i. of fir (Balsamum ranaden'se). Canaila tur- 
pentine (see TurpfHliiir). Other b'Bare/iflui'/- 
ambar, ilorax {HulHumam Bty'racis, Bal- 
samum Ktu'racis, BalNamum Htyrue'inum), and 
btatoiti. I. All unetunuH or semi-fluid prep- 
aration of any sort uk-iI for external appliea- 
tion. Kntmes b., (I) nutmee butter, (2) 1<b1- 
samum nucintw (xee Xulmi-g). Frlard'S b. 

iBnlsamum Friardi, erroneoualy called 
i'riar'g b.), compound tincture iif benwin. 
Boffmann'a b. (Balsamum vilie HolTman'iii), 
nee OleobaUamic miztare. Opodel'doc b., 
necSuap. Tnipentlne b. (Itulsnnium tereliin- 
Ihiua'tum), turpentine ointment. B. of eul- 
plLiir (KalsaiQum Biirphuris), a mixture of 
Bulphur and an oily Butistance (rspecittlly lin- 


Balsamic (bnwl-.wiu'ik). [L. balmm'icm.'\ 
PerlninitiE to. c^ontaining, or resembling a 
balsam. B. tlQCture (Tinctu'ra bnlsnm'ica), 
eompuund tincture of benzoin. 

Bamberger'! tlgll(hahm'berR-orz). [Bam- 
brrgrr. G, phy-icjun.l The presence at the 
angle of the ncnpula of evidences of consolida- 
tion (dullness, increased fremitus, tironehial 
breathing), which disappear whm the patient 
leans forward. A sign of pericardial efiusion. 

Banau'a. The Musa snpien'tium, a tree of 
the MusacecG,and ite fruit. Meal made from 
the ^it is used as a nutrient in dyspepsia. 

Bandage (ban'dej). A device consisting of 
some pliable fabric adjusted to a part either 
for the purpose of covering it and keeping 
dre8sing8inptac«(Frot«cUv*b.), or for apply- 
ing prcHsure (?lMatireb.),or for immobilizing 

le part (Immovable b.). Theordinary 

ic EoUer b., or roller, a strip of muslin, . 

iiel, or other material from J to 4 or .i i nches 

wide and from 1 to Ti yanls long, rolled .. 

tight c:|-linder. A roller ti. is called a Cinrii- 
lar. Spiral, or Figarr-ofS b. according as its 
turns are carrleil about the limb or the trunk 
in a circle, a spiral, or a figure-of-S ; it is !tr- 
vemd when every alternat« turn is foliled 
over so Ihnt the under surface becomes npiier- 
most ; and is Jiecurrrnt when, as in covering 
the end of a limb, the b. is carried alternotely 
forward and bock with overlapping turns. A 


^tica b, is a fignre-af-8 in which one loop or 
the 8 turns about an ejtremily, as the arm 
or thigh, and the other loop about the body 
or other part to which the extremity is at- 
tached. X T-b. is one shaped like a T, (spe- 
cially one the horizontal limb of which 
passes about the body and the vertical liml> 
antero-nosteriorlv aronnd the perineum. In 
a double T b. there are two vertical bands. 
The rolled-np part of a roller h. is called the 
hrad : the unrolled part the fait. If it is 
rolled ap at both ends, it has two heads i if 
the tail IB split into two or more divisions, the 
b.ia Tuv-lailfdoTJUany-lailed. K'sare named 
according to the p«rU t« wUcli tbej are 
applied, as Finger b,. Body b., Ahdom'ii ' ' 

(for frai-tured claviele), 
red lower jaw); or fVom 
their nte, as Xatpentory b. (for suspending 

Barton b. (for fractured lower jaw); r 

their nte, as Xatpentorv b. (for suspt 

the testicle). Immovable b't are made with 

piaster of Wris, stareh, gum. paraffin, »au-r- 
glnss, or glue, which are soft when the b. is 
applied, hut hanlen afterward, Elftfllcb., a 

, )j^ nuule of ruhlier or webbing; as 

J b., a rublier b. applied to a limb to 

Band]'! ring (bahnd'lz). An annular bulg- 
ing of the uterus occurring during labor, and 
situated at the junction of the contractile part 
of the organ above and the non-eontmcting 

BuidoUu (bnn'doh-lin). Mucilage of quina'- 
seed aromatized with cologne-nater; used as 
an application to the hair. 

Buit'lng treatment. [From Bauilnff. the 
name of tlie man who practisetl it.] .\ mode 
of treatment for the reduction of corpulence by 
a diet consisting largely of proteids. 

BaptlaU (bap-tiz'ee-nh). [Gr. baplrin, to 
dye.] A genus of plants of the i^^miuoHiF. 
The root of B. tinclo'ria or wild indigo of the 
United States, contains resin and an alkaloid, 
Bap'tlalne, and isemelo-catharticand stimu- 
lant; used internally in fevers and externally 
in sores of the moulh and ulcers. I>i»eof Imp- 
tiBine,i-.Tgr. (gm. 0.aH).30). 

Baf. In the horse, the reflection of the wnll 
ofthehoofat the heel. 

tur). [Cir. barog, weight, + niWifn's, sensa- 
tion. -*- -mflfr.} An apparatus for measuring 
sensitiveness to pressure or weight. 

B&rb. The orifice of Wharton's duet in the 

Barbadoea aloea (liahr-buy'dohz al'ohi). 
[L. al'ot barbadhi' sif.l See Aha. 
Barbadoea leg. See EIrphantiaeii. 
Barbadoei nut. Sec Jatropha. 
Btrbal'Dln. [ifnrft-adoes alofs * -in.] See 


Bar'taerry. See Berberis. 

BArtMT'i ltd). Sycosis and tiD«« sycoaU. 

B«rBgln(bar'e-4iii]. [Fr.SarigaiaFmiix 
where there are mineral Bprings containing it.] 
A gelatinous nuiterial, made up of varioos low 
vegetable orKaniBuia (Befcgiatoa, etc.), de- 
poaitcd from sulphuT'Spring water. 

BulU'a. The ashes of Tsriooa moriDC 
plants, containing about 30 per cent, of so- 
dium carbonate. 

Barlnm (ba^ree-um). _[Gr. bana, heavy 


lion, Bnryta-water, Aqua bary'ti, G. P. test) 

a gray or white amorphoua aubstance. B. 
hydnte (Barii liydmsj, Ba(01I)i,a cryBtol- 
line substance soluble m water. B. chloride 
( Barii chlo'ridum, Baryumchlora' turn), liaCii 
t 2iliO (dose^ gr. 0.1-0.5), B. Droinlda (Barii 
hro'midum, llaryum broma'tum), Ilauri + 
2HK), and B. Iodide (Barii iod'idnm, Baryum 
joda'tum). Ball -f- 2HiO, are said to bo heart 
tonics, and have been used in sero^ila and 
internal aneurysm. B. carbotute (Barii par- 
ho'nas, Barjum carbon' icum), BaCOj B, BUl- 
plIAte (Barii autphas, Baryum sulfu ricum), 

chemistry, and 

Bark. [L. corux.'i The outer protecting 
rind of thewoody nlrtof plRQls. Caiiaaya b., 
Peruvian b.. Sea b.. Yellow b., cinchona. 
Panama b.. Soap b., quillaia. Sacred b., 

BukDWt UiMiieiiti. The anterior and 

posterior liga men ta of the elboW'joint. 

BuOey. The Hordeum distichon and ita 
seed; • grain caltivated in the temperate re- 
Itionsof Europe, Aaia, and America. Peart li. 
(Hor'deum decortica turn, Ilor'deuni perla'- 
tum), the husked grain, is a nutritious food 
containing 12-16 per cent, of gluten and albu- 
min and 60-70 per cent, of stareh. Gronnd, it 
forms B. flour or B. meal (Fari'na hor'dei), 
and boiled wilh water the mucilaginona B.- 
water (Decoc'tum hor'dei), used as a food 
and demulcent in febrile and intestinal disor- 
ders, and to relieve irritation of the throat and 
air-poHsages. B. which hasbeguntogerminate 
forms B, malt (see Mall). 

Bailow's disease. An acute disease, re- 
garded m a form of scurvy, occorring at the 
end of the suckling period ; marked by great 
pain and tenderness in the limbs; periosteal 
swellings (due to subperiosteal hsjmorrhagea) ; 
".■dema, hffimorrhagic spots, and leaden liue of 
the skin ; and bleeding, spongy gums. 

Bamn'ater. [Gr. Saron, weight, + -»m(«-.] 
An iDstmmcnl Inr measnnng the pressure of 
the atmosphere. U consists ofa tubv closed at 
one end, which is tilled with mercury and then 
inverted into a reservoir containing mercury, 


when the mercurjr in the tube fails to a certain 
level, varying with the atmospheric pressure 
JHeron'rlalb.). Thespacealwve themereury 
in the tube is a vacuum (baroiael'ric vacuum, 
Toricell'iao vacuum). An Aneroid b. consists 
of a metallic box partly exhausted of air; the 
presaureof the air upon this box ia transmitted 
to an index which registers its force. 

Bartbollii'i dnet (baht'toh-linz). [T. Bar- 
tholin, Danish anatomiet (1610-1680).] One 
of the duels of the sublingual gland opening 
into or near the duct of Wharton. 

BarUtolla'a glutdi. Two glands situated 
one on either side of the commencement of the 
vagina, and opening in front of the hymen by 
a long duct. 

Barton's bandage. A bandage for fracture 
of the lower jaw. 

Barton's Itactnre. Fracture of the lower 
end of the radius opening into the wrist-joint. 

Bamch's sign (bah'roocAs). [S. Barueh, 
N. Y. physician (1893).] A sign of typhoid 

perature (2° in one-half liour) by tlie use of 

progrcaaively cooler baths. 

Banirla (^ba-nK/ree-ah). [Or. fianw, heavy, 
-f ouran, unne.] A condition in which nil the 
aolidsof the urine are increased in about equal 
amount, without any corresponding increase 
" the water ei ' 


Baryta (ba-rey'tah), Barytes (ba-rey'leez). 
Barium oxide. See Barium, 

Baryiun (bay'ree-um). See Barium. 

(baysal). [L. biad'li$.'\ Of, pei- 

to, tormina - = ' ■ "-- ■— - 

Tioijciiiniiy, situated ul tuc uiM« u 
basilar. B. gan'slla, the corpus i , . 

tic thalamus, locos niger, corpora quodrige- 
mina, and internal geniculate body. B. ar- 
t«nat system, the circle of Willis and its 
immediate branches. 

Base (bays). [Gr. batit, a pedestal.] 1. 
The foundation or understmcture upon which 
anything rests; the lowermost part of imy- 
thiug, as B. of the skull, H. of the brain ; the 
fundamental part or constituent of anything, 
as B. of a prescription. 1. A substance which 
combines with acids to form salts; a radicle 
which replaces hydrogen in acids so as to fbrm 
salts. The b'a comprise (I) the oxides and 
hydrates of the electro-poaitive elements or 
red ides ; (2) ammonia and its compounds 
(Ammonia ti'a), including the amines, amides. 
Vegetable's b'a (alkuloida), and most of the 
Anlmalb's(ptomaiti<s,!eucomaineB). Nearly 
all the ammonia b's contain carbon, and are 
hence colled Organ'lc b'a. 

Basedow's dlseaae (bahs'e-dors). Exoph- 
thalmic goitre; described by Basedow (18^0). 

Basement membrane. A transparent struc- 
ireless membrane lying immediately beneath 

ed lately beneath 


the epithelium of njucouB membreiiea sad of 
aeoreting glands. 

Bftaluuii's mlxtura. Mixture of iron and 
ammouium acetate. 

BftBle (bay'sih). Oforpertjtiiiiiifttoabaw; 
havmit the churDctcrs of a bane, aa a B. salt 
<Bee Satl). 

Bulelt7(bay-»i3'ee-tee). 1. The Elate of beine 
basie ; the amount of basic power pcHHCFtHed 
b; nil alkali, as measured by its ability to 
neutralize aridB. 3. The ability to neutralize 
boKei postteswd hy aridii ; e«peeialty, thedcKree 
of this ability as mensured by Ihe number of 

Add ) Maaiibatic acid, Dibamc acid, 

BASi-hyal ( i)ay"i<ce-hey'al ). Bul-byOia 
(bay"see.hey'ojrd). [Zfaire + Aprnd.] Per- 
taining to or situated at the Inxse of the hy- 
oid l>oiie; represeiitiDe I'm animals) the body 
of Ihe hyeid iM>iie, as the Jl, bone. 

BmUu (baz'i-lar). [L. b<uiUi' ri:] Sit- 
uated at Ihe liane (cspeeially of the brain); 
hasal ; as the B. arti-ry, B. meningitis, R. pro- 
o-sa of the flcripitul bone. B. membTMie 
(Membra'naliusifa'ris), the membrane extend- 
ing from the margin of Uie lamina opiralta 
to the wall of (he cochlea, and forming (he 
floor of Ihe scala media. B. pit, a depression 
in the crown of an inciaor tooth above ita neck. 
B. alnUB, tile transvenie sinus. B. vein, vein 
formed by junction of anterior cerebral, deep 
Sylvian, and inferior striate veins. 

BAtillO (ba-Ell'ik). [Gr. hatililun, royal.] 
Prc-cmiiteiit ; an the B. vein at the arm, ao 
called on account of itii fancied importance. 

BaaUlconoliitiiieiit (l)a-ziI'ee-kon). [L.un- 
oaen'/Hm baxifieiita, G. P., = royal ointment, 
fr. Gr. hatitikot, royal.] Resin cerate. 

BuUytl* (lia-zii've 
aeparation.] Tlie act . 
at Ihe bane of the skull in the embryo, pre- 
liminary to Ihe extraction of the latter. 

BmaUTit (bas'<-e-lisi). An instrument for 
doing uiailysis. 

Baalocctpltal (l>ay"Nee-ok-nip'cc-tul). Of. 
pertaiiiinK to. or conHlitutine the base (basilar 

Croceas) of the occipilnl lione ; as B. boar, a 
one in the emiiryo which subsequeutly forms 
Ihe basilar process. 

BtAloglosBOB (bny"see-oh-Elos'us). [Batf 
+ Gr. glMxa. longiie.] The part of the hyo- 
glossus atlnviieil to Ihe liody of the hyoid hone. 

Bulon (bay'scK'-on). [Fr. ftMc] A point 
Httuateil in (he miilille line at the anterior bor- 
der of (lie foramen miigimm. 

Bmalottilie (bny'see-oh-treyb)_. [dr. batit, 
liase, +frii'i'i'", l« crush.] An instrument for 
performinK Ba,'Bli>trlpi7, or the operation of 
crushing tlic liasr of the festal skull. 

Bula(bBy'ais). Pl.ha'ses. [Gr.1 Abase; 
as B. (Ti'nti. Ihe luise of the skull. Jl. pe- 
dan'culi (or simply B.), the cnista. 

B«aiipll«10ld (bay".«'e<sfi'e'noyd). Of or 

sphenoid and the se 

i-Occlpltal (bay"soh-ok-sip'e( 

aa B. granules, B. leucocytes. 

Basoapllelioldal (liay"soh-8fee-noy'daJ). 
See Batigphenoid. 

Basilnl'B «p«niUon (bah-see'neez). [Ba*- 
fiiii. It. surgeon.] An opemlion for tbe radi- 
cal cure of liL-mia by disHccting up and sutur- 
ing Ihe parta so as to produce solid union. 

Baaaora Bom (bahs'oh-rBh). A gum of un- 
certain botuDicnl origin imported from Bes- 
sura, on the i'crnian Gulf. It eontaina large 
amounts of Baaa'oTln. a mucilage used as a 
protective uppiication in skin diseases. 

Bktll. [L. baFneum.i Any medium int« 
which a body is immersed, especially for pur- 
poses of purification or medication or for tbe 
applii'ation of heat or cold. The medium 
usually employed is water. This, if unmixed 
(Hon-medlcated b.}, ia used mainl; for the 
purpose of ablution or for applying heat 
and cold, and is given under the form of the 
Cold b. (temperature from 0°-2l= C. = 32"- 
70° F.), used lo reduce temperature (local or 
general) and inflammBtioD, and in the vigor- 
ous as a tonic ; the Temperate ft. (tezuperature 
ai"-:!!)" C, = 70°-*5° F.) and the Tepid b. 
(temperature 30''-33'' C. = 85°-92° F.), used 
for ablution and to reduce temperature in 
febrile states by a prolonged applieatiOD [Per- 
miineiu ft.); the Warmb. (temperature 33°- 
37° C. =!>2°-!>H° F.), used as a sedative, mild 
tonic, antispasmodic, and diaphoretic, and in 
chronic diseases of the skin and joints, amen- 
norrhcca, and chronic hepatic 
iflammution ; the Hoi ft. (tem- 

orrbcea, dysmenorrhcca, and chro 

peralure .IT^-M" C. = BB"-!!!" F.), used a 

Sneral and eulaneuus stimulant and a power- 
1 antispasmodic and diaphoretic in chronic 
skin diseases, syphilis, chronic articular affec- 
lioiis^ convulsions, dysmcuorrhiea, irreducible 
henna, paralytic and neuralgic affections, 
ond auppresaion of urine. The Vapor-b. or 
Steam-b, (of which the KuMian ft. is a vari- 
ety) and the Hot-air b. (of which the Tnrk- 
ilk ft. ia a variety) are employed for similar 
purposes to the not b. The principal Medl- 

used to check sweating and in hepatic dis- 
eoBcB ; Ihe Alkaline ft. (made with the car- 
bonates of sodium or potassium), used for the 
relief of pnirilus and in many skin diseases; 
Sall-vatrr ft. {Brine-b.). used oa a cutuneoui 
stimulant and general tonicj Aalringenl b.. 
Including the Alum-b., used tor hums and to 
check profuse discharges, and ibeOak-barh t. 

d the<)alc-barh b. 



ftnd similar b'scoDtaioing tannic acid; EbwI- 
licnl b., made with bran, com meal, gelatin, 
or some otber deinnlcent subiitaaot', used for 
■oothinE cutuneouB irritation ; Salphur-b. 
(made by diesotvinK potoKsium i;iil))liLde 


in scrofula and srabies; MmMnat-rnpor b. 
(made bj- volatiliziog a roereurial sail), used 
ID syphilid. Used lilce the artificial min- 
etul OS, but of greater efficaey, are the Mat- 
nr&I madicaUd^ b'a (Miatral springt. Sea- 
water}. Mud, Peat, and Saitd (usually 



are also used as b's, es[»rciaUy . 
Theumatism and pHralysis. In appll- 
b's may be either General (applied to 

the wholo body) or I^rlial. The chief 
tien of the latter are the Fool-b. (Fedilu'- 
vium), used as a derivative in acute catarrhal 
troubles and cerebral congestion ; tlie Sili (or 
Ilip-b.), in which the hips and buttocks are 
immerwd, used in acute inflammatory or spas- 
modic affections of the genito-urinary organs ; 
and tire Bouehe (q. v.). A Sponge-6., in 
which wetBponges are passed over the surface. 
is used chiefly mr ablution and as a rvfriger- 
aut I the latter action being heightened by the 
addition of alcohol {Aicohal-b.) or of ammoni- 
acal salts to the water (Evaporating lolioni). 
An InMraal b, consists iu the iniection of 

large amounts of w 

r into the coloi 

B and diuresis. An . . _ 

prises (a) the Hydro-electric or Electro-ther- 
mal b., which is an ordinary water, hot-air, or 
vapor b, in which a current of electricity is 
paiised through the patient either throogh the 
medium of the water or directly ; and (b) the 
Etretro-ntatic b. (Static 6.), a method of elec- 
trization in which a charge of static electricity 
Imparted to au insulated patient is slowly taken 
up by the surrounding air, which thus forms a 
sort of b. B's or mineral waters when taken in 
eicess produce B. forer, marked by anorexia, 
debility, acceleration of pulse, and heat of the 
akin, or cause a cutaneous eruption (psydracia 
thcrmalis}. IncnUMISTBYandpharmacy.ab. 
is a medium in which a substance that is being 
heat«d is immereed in order to prevent the 
temperature rising above a certain point ; as a 
Water-b. (which does not allow the immersed 
substance to exceed 100° C. = 212'" F.), Oil-b. 
(made of linseed oil; limit of temperature 
300° C. = 572° F.), Olycertn-S. (limit of tem- 
perature 200° C. = 383° F.), and Sand-b. 

Battarli'mna. [Gr. battariirin, to stam- 
mer.] Tumultuous and precipitate speech. 

defflgned to reinforce each other' 
OmlTan'le [or VolU'lo) b. consists of one or 
more galvanic cellt so united as to Ainiish a 
galvanic current. Galvanic cells consist of 
two elemotlti, namely, a plate readily aSected 
by chemical action (generating plale) and a 


plate fur collecting the electricity {cotlecling 
DioM), and either one or two j(ui(t< (B. flnlda), 

!ting upon 

the generating plate. The 
in all cases is zinc. Some 

cells also have a dcpolariter, for preventing 
(by chemical combination) the accumulation 
of gas upon eitlier collecting or generating 
plate, and an ama^amafi'nirafr'R', for keeping 
the zmc coated with mcrcar;. The principal 
one- Onld cells are— the Smeecrtl: collecting 
plale, platinized silver; b. fluid, dilute aul- 
phunc acid. Grenel (or JNehTomalt-of- 
polath) cell: collecting plate, carlion: b. 
fluid (and depolarizer), a solution of potas- 
sium dichroniate. Falter cell; collecting 
plate and b. fluid as in Grenet cell, and a 
mixture of mercury and water as an amal- 
^mating agent. Maril-Dairy ceil; collect- 
ing plate, carbon ; h. fluid, depolarizer, and 
amHlganiating agent, a paste of mereuric or 
mercitrous solphate and water. Gaiffe cetl: 
collecting plate, silver (produced by decom- 
position of silver chloride); b. fluid, solution of 
sodium chloride. Lfclancht ertl: collecting 
plate, carbon; b. fluid^ a solution of ammon- 
ium chloride; depolarizer, manganese dioxide. 
The principal two-fluid csUi ore— the Daniill 
eelt : collecting plate, copper ; b. fluids, dilute 
sulphuric acid, and a solution of copper sul- 
phate, separated by a porous diaphn^trn. 5m- 
men and HaUke cell: collecting plate, copper; 
b. fluids, a solution of copper sulphate a ~ 

ids, a solution of copper sulphate and 
septuraled bva porous diaphragm pocked 
papier- inach*. Grairily cell {Calland 
ceil. Hill cell); same as Siemen and Halskeeell 
but the fluids are superimponed (by the force 
of gravity) without intervening diaphragm, 
and the upper fluid may he cither water, a 
solution of zinc sulphate, or dilute sulphuric 
acid. Grove'e cell; collecting plate, plati- 
nlim; b. fluids, nitric and dilute sulphuric 
acids. Butuea b.: like Grove's, but collecting 
plalc is gas-carbon. B's are usually named 
according to the cells which compm>e them ; e. 
g., a Daniell b., a Gravitv b. A Oonatant b. 
IS a b., especially a two-fluid b., in which the 
in tensity remains the same for a comparatively 
long time. A Storace b. is a special form of 
galvanic b., in which electricity generated by 
an ordinary galvanic b. or by a dynamo can 
be stored for a long time and used as required. 
A Cauterr b. is a storage b. or other form of 
specially constructed galvanic b, used for heat- 
ing a platinum wire which forms part of the 
circuit and which is employed as a cautery 
point. ATarad'lc (orFaxada'lc)b. consistsof 
~ coil of wire through which passes a galve~'~ 

. . . cell, an apparatus for causing ai 
periodical interruptions of this current, uiiu a 
second coil parallel to the first, in which there 
is generated, every time the primary cu rrent is 
mode and broken, a secondary (or induced) 
current. A Combined b. is an apparatus con- 
taining a galvanic and faradic b. in the same 
case : a Cabinet b., one lodged in a cabinet or 
fixed piece of fumiti 

Batteya " 

of Georgia 


mpecially trhrn thf latter arc unt obviously 
diseased, but are l>elievnl 1« be ahnnrmal in 
their functions; Kpaying. Tlie oriitinRl opera- 
tioii was done throUKh llie vajiina; it ix nov 
jtenerallj done l>y laparotomy. 

BktUedoOT placenta. A placenta in whiph 
the umbiliral cord in atlnclied near the edge 
instead of a( thi' centre. 

Banlilii'* valTS (boh-liaMz). [(i. Bauhin, 
a French Mwiiw anatoiuisl of the loth century. 
L. valvula liauhlit'ii.'] The iliii-eiee«l vaive. 

B. A. nn». S^ Ohm. 

BanuBCliaMtlanilboirn'slieyl-izin). [/hmii- 
(f An'iit, its invenlor. j Multiple punelii 

Kith needles 


Bay. [Original meaninK, n berry, fr. F. bnif. 
L. bdfca.] AnuineKivi!ntutliel..anrcl,M;n-ia, 
and other treeH. B. oil, oil of luun-l. oil of 
mjTciB, B. rum, spirit of myrcia. White b., 
Sweet 1)., MaRiinlia slauea. 

Bazln'i dl*eftH(l>Mh-xa«x), [/Jntin. F. der- 
ma tologist.] Krylhcniu iiidiirBlum w.Ti)fu]o- 


senibliiie uyrrli, derived fruni xevcml Afri- 
can and KhhI Indian spei-iesof lliilsainea. 

Beakar(bi«'kur). AeylindrlFHlglassvessel 
with wide or Sarins mouth, umiI in chemical 
manipulntiotis ; also ciilleil n It. glav, B. cell, 
a jcnblet cell ; a cell found in mucous mem- 
branes, shaped lilie a pihtet and filled with 
mucus at ita free, oxpnndeil end. 

also lor nuy plant whose sii^ reseuil>teK a b. in 
shape. BncK-b., see Jliirthfiin. Calabar b.. 
Ordeal b.. stv Phyaimiigiini. CaatOT b., the 
seed of the Hicinus coniiniiiiif [si-c I'-ulnr oil). 
St. Isnatlni b., see Ignaliii. Touka b., see 

B«ar'beTr7. Sec Um Uni. 

B«ar'B weed, f^ee Kriodlciyoii. 

B«at. A pulsulion produced by two notes 
not in uniiion soundinK tiigetlier. 

BaDeem (l>ee-liec'roo). The Xectan'dra 
Rodis'i, or greenheart live of (iiiiana. lis 
bark (Xectan'ilne corti'x) Ih hitler and as- 
trintcenl ; used as a Ionic and remcily in ma- 
larial disen-w. Jt •■onlnips the alkaloid Nec- 
tan'drine. ('mHuNOi, and Bebaa'rlna, Cii- 
KnNOa, the siilpliate i>f which (iteheri'me 
sulphna, Ih-becri'uuin sulfu'rienra), (Ciailii- 
NO)}iHtSOi, is used as a suMilutc for qui- 
nine; doH, 1-10 gr. (em. n.O(M).«ni). 

BMhio (bek'ik, iHH-'kili). f(!r. bfiiloi. fr, 
bix, uough,] Itelievini; eou)[h ; a eoiigh- 

BMl. [Anglo-Saxon Ac/.] 1. An article of 
fiimitnre for the body to lie in while Hleuping 
or resting; acoueh with covering for the Iwdy. 
A FTaetnre b. is a b. iwpiTiaily adnpled ior 


patients with fractures. Water-b,, Alr-b., 
a b. in which the cushions are aaca maderately 
distended with water or air ; used to equalize 
the preBSUre over the whole surface of the body 
and prevent unilue pressure upon the prom- 
inent parts of the body in patients who can- 
not change (heir position. B.-pan, i 
r... ..».w.iJlni,. tko .,..{..^,..,.1 K> ' ' 

while lying in bed. B.'iore, an ulcer pro- 
duced over prominent portions of the body by 
pn-ssure from lying long in bed. B.-bns, see 
Afaiuhia. 3. That in which anything resU 
or is implanted. 
Bednai'a apliUia. See Aphtha. 

t, thro 

gh F. 

6t"/.] - 

extract (B. eaaence, Eitrac'tum camis) is 
maile hy eihausting chopped b. with water, 
which in Liebig't exlracl is eold and is com- 
bined with 4 to R parta per IfXIO of salt and 0.5 
part of hydrochloric acid. In Ltube't exlrael 
the b. is prciiigest^l by boiling with hydro- 
chloric acid. B. tsaisa b. citract made with 
hot vater. If the heat is applied before strain- 
ing the tea, the latter loses its albuminous 
conslilnents and nearly all of its nntriment, 
but htlll is a Ktimulant, and is useful in the 

B.-meal (powdered b.l, contain all then' 
ment of the b. in readily digeslibic form. 

Beer. A lieverage made by fermenting an 
infusion of liarlej^-malt with ho^. It contains 
3-1(1 per cent, of alcohol, and is slightly nar- 
cotic, owing lo the hops which it contains. 

Beer'i knlft (hayrz). [Beer, a German 
ophthalmolojtist (1763-1821).] A knife the 
blade of which slopes sharply from heel to 
point, so as to form a right-angled triangle with 
the cutting edge along the hypothenuse. Used 
in cataract operationsand tor eicisi ng staphy- 
lotnata of the cornea. 

Beeiwax (beei'waks). Yellow wax. 

of the 

Sitsar b. (Bi'tnvulga'. , _. , . 

a variety of saccharose. 

B«Cf1atoa(bcj"ce-ah-toh'ah). [From Big- 
^'nfo, an Italian botanist.] Agcnuaof Srhizo- 
mycetcs forming lon^, thick, more or less sep- 
tate lilaments, contaming sulphur granules. 
B. alba, saprophyte occurring in sulphur- 
walers (forming baref^in), and refuse of sugar 
factories and tanneries, li. Toeeo-pvr^ci-iia 
name applied to various Alga: containing a 
purplisli pigment ; not a B. 

B«U (bec-lah). SmBaet. 

Belcb. To expel wind forcibly fWim the 

Belladoiul'a. [It, = fair lady, because used 
to l>eaulifv Ihe eves by causing dilatation of 
thepupik] The At' roDaBclludonnaor deadly 
nighlsliade; an herb of the Sol anaccE. indig- 
enous to Europe and Asia. The parts used 
arc R-leaves [Bel I ail on nic fo'lia, U. 8.. B. R, 
Fo'lia iH'lladoniuc, O. P.) and B,-rw>t (Bella- 


piiDciplc to which theae efitftti uru due ia 
atropine (q. v.). B, in useil ex(«niiill^ and 
interoaUyaa an anliapasiiKMlic for colic (inUa. 

of the uphincttr luii, rhorder, and dysmen- 
orrhiee ; as an anndjne in neuralgia ; (o 
reprcsa the aecretion otavrmt, oaliva, or uiilk ; 
■a a cardiac Htiinulant in eullap»e ; to aliort 
maBtitJB, phnryn^tis, and bronchiti" ; atii] 

{Sueetu belladontue. B. P.). 6-15 "l (gm. 0.3- 
1.0); InspisBBtcd juice {Ertrar^ lum belladoniue 
vii'ide, B. P.), er. 0,25-1.0 (gm. 0.015-0.060): 
TinctnfrabtliaiUtnna folio' rum,V.S.,f>'nV(gm. 
0.3); Emplatlrum belladonna, v. ^-l Unqaeii- 
lum betladtmna, V. S, Preparations of the 
root; JEitraiftumbilladoniuealcohoCiaim.B, 
P., er. B8 (gm. 0.0.^); Eitraj^ lam belladonna 
nuli'ciijtu'tiJum.U. S.(Extraclumi>eiladonnEB 
lianidnm, B. P.), 1-2 itl (gm. 0.06-0.13); Tinc- 
tu'ra belladonna. B. P., 5-15 "l (gm. 0.3-1.0); 
Sappotiti/ria belladonna, B.P.,vach 

U. S.. B. P. 

Ballooq's cumola (or lonnd). A curved 
cannula for plug^tig the poaterior nares in 
epiiUkiia. It cnnHtHls of a cannula introduced 
Uie_ naso-pharjrnx. It 

in front an'l projecting inl 
...._ .._>o-phar]rnx. It containe a curved roi 
wbicb, when pushed forward, projects 

behiud tiiesoll palate and can then have a plug 
attached to it. On withdrawing the rud into 
theeannula the plug ia drawn up into the poe- 

BoU'B pals;, Bell'i piTAlyili. ParalyaU 
of the fiicial nerve; to called from tjir Charlta 
Bell, an English Burgeon, who described H. 

Belly. 1. See J6<ioi 

BMix»l«nlii<M(ben-gswl'l[«ins). SeeSaft. 
Benign <l 

nui, benigi ., , _ „ 

life or health ; capable of InHting indefinilclr 
without neceeaaruy involvine eerioun c:onB«- 
qnences; as a R. tumor. Benlg'nancy. the 
Male or qnality of being h. 

Baana, Beiuio oil (ben'ee). See Srtamr. 

Benunlllde (ben-zan'ee-leed). IBcnxoyl + 
aiuftne + -f lie.] A crvBtalline subBtsnee, Cii- 
HiiNO ^ C«Ih.NH.OO.CtlIt, used as an an- 
tipyretir ; done, 10-15 gr. (gm. 0.6-1.0). 

-tne (lieing first ohtained from lienioic acid). 
L. hen'iotum (G. P. test).] A hydrocarbon, 
CtUi, derived fVoni coal-tar; a colorless, in- 
flammable liquid, of peculiar odor, also called 

tution, constitute the aromatic compounds, in- 
cluding phenol, aniline, picric acid. benEOic 

Benilinlde (hen 'zee-meed, ben'zce-mid). 

! Benzoic + •imidr,} A crystalline substance. 
CjH^)).:CilI.(C.V)>--'rnUi,N,<>,, occurring 
in crude bitler-aluiond oil. 

Ban'llll. [Fr. benioie f- 'in; a name orig- 
inally applied to heuzene. L. benii'num, 
U. S.l Light n-troleom oil ; that portion of 
pctnileum whieli distils between 50" and 75° C. 
it is a colorless, inHammabtc liquid, of strong 
odor, and consists of a mixture of hydrocar- 
bonsnf the fatty series. It is also called Petto'- 
Uum b. (Benzi'num petro'lci, G. P.). to dis- 
tinguish it from Coal-tar b., a mixture of 
hydrocarbons of the aromatic series obtained 
by the distillation of coal-tar oil. 

(iM-n'ioh-avt). [Bemoic + -ate. 
A salt of iKUiofc acid (q. v.). 

_.. . (ben' loh -ay-ted). [L. 6enioiS'(iM, 

benio'iciu,} Comhincd with or containing 
benzoin or benzoic acid ; as B. tincture oT 
opium (see Opium), B. lard. 

BNUoe, G. P. (ben'zoh-ee). [L.J Benaoin. 

Banioaite (ben'zoh-een). Toluene. 

BmuoIo (ben-zoh'ik). [L. bemo'icut.] Of 
or contaiued in benzoin. B. ftold (Ac'idum 
benzo'icum, U. S.. B. P., G. P.), CillgOi- 
CiHi-CO.OlI, contained in benzoin, the bal- 
sams, and other reainoid substanceB, is a monO' 
basic crystalline acid, of aromatic odor and 
pungent taste ; a marked aniiseptic and anti- 
pyretic, an anialkaline increasiug the acidity 
of the urine, and astimulant to the circulation, 
respiration, and bronchial secretion. It is used 
in cyslilis with ammoniacul bronchitis 
(both by inhalation and internally), and as a 
local and iulemal antiseptic; dose, .5-20 gr. 
(gm. 0.30-1.25). Its salts the Ban'Mataa, 
have (he same properties. The principal are — 
.^mnonium beiauatr (Ammo'nii ben znas, U. 
S.. B. P.). dose, 10-20 gr. (gm. 1.00); ZifAium 
benioaie (Lith'ii bcn'zoas, U. H.). dose, 5-30 
gr. (gm. 0.55-2,00); and Sodium btiaoate 
(So'dii ben'&MS, U. S.. B. P.), dose, 15-30 gr. 
(gm. 1-2). Sitmulh benioate and yaphlSyl 
benioate (benzonaphthol) are intestintS onu- 
septicB. Trochiifeiu aeidi bemo'id, B. P., 
conlaiuB gr. ss (gm. 0.03) of b. acid. B. 
al'dehyde, CrlUO « UIU.COII. isan aromatic 
colorless liquid, of burning taste. constituUng 
the greater part of bitter-almond oil. 

Benioln (ben-n>h'iu, beo'zoyn, ben'zoh-in). 
[Sp. bemui, fr. Ar. lulidn-jdm. Sumatra, in- 
cense. L. bcmoi'nuia, U. 8., B. P., bea'ioe, O. 
P.] Aconcretebal<amderivedih>m theStyru 



BfDEoin, B tree of the East Iixlies. It consists 
□minly of a rmin and benzoic acid. It is used 
for the rame purposex as houzoic ariiS ; i]o«e, 
5-30 gr. (kdj. 0.30-2.00). VnjMmiinm: Tine- 
tu'ra beTOofni, U. S. (Tinctu'ra liea'iaes. Q. 
P.), iJose, 1 3 (gm. 4); Tincla'ra bentot'ni 
eompo^ila, V, S., B. P., which contains also 
aloes. Btorax, and balsam of Told, dose, 1 H 
(gm. 4): and Adrpi bfmoina' to*. U. S. (Adepa 
bensoa'tus, B. P.), or Isrd containing 2 per 

BenioUutfld (t^en-zoh'ee-nay-ted). Ben- 

...... . ' ^° eniollicDt 

application to the nose and naso-pharynx. 

Beniol (ben'zol, ben-zol'}. [Bemoia + -ol. 
L. bm'iotvBt. G. P.] 1. See Bcnzcnt. S. Of 
the B. P., a mixture of hydrocarbons distilled 
tmm coal-tar oil between 80° and 120° €.. and 
consisting of 70 per cent, of beuiene, and 20 to 
30 per cent, of toluene, 

Bennmapbtllol (heD"zoh-naf' thol). [Bm- 

naphlhol and henioio acid. Antiseptic and 
diuretic : useful in septic slates of the intestinal 
tract. Dose. 4-8 gr. (gm. 0.25-0.50). 

nnivalent acid radicle. Ci 

benzoic acid. BeniOTl-ftc'onlna, aconitine. 

Beuorl-KiiAiacol.lienuiBal. BMUoyl-methyl- 

•GKonlne, cocaine. Beuoyl-pieiida-tTopliie, 


Ben'iyl. [Benzoic + •yi.'\ A hydrocarbon, 
CtHi = Ctlls.CH], acting as a univalent rad- 
icle. B. alcohol, C.lli.CIh.OH, or phenyl- 
tnethyl alcohol, an oily liquid occurniig nat- 
urally in Btorox, balsam of Peru, end balsam 
of Toln, and formed by the hydration of ben- 
zoic aldehyde. B. ban'Hkte, CnlIi.Clh.Ct- 
HeOi, and B. clnu'aiute (einnani'cin}, (".lli,- 
CHlCiHtOi, occur naturally in the balnamsof 
Peru and Tolu. 

BeilieTia. t . 

of shrubs of the Burheridaeete. _ 

root-bark of B. Tnlca'ria, the berberry of Eu- 
rope and the II. H., are used as an aetrin(rcnt 
kiid bitter tonic and antiperi[>dic. B. Aqnlfo'- 
Uwn. the mountain grape of Oregon, is used 
aaan anti^odicand in syphilis. B. Ly'dnin 
of India, is used as a tonic- and for inllaniMia- 
tions of the eves. Most Bpcciea contain Bor'- 
berluo (BerfN'ri'na, IhTlwri'nuin). CmIIit- 
NOi + filliO, a bitter, yellow. crysUllinc alka- 
loid which isalso found incolumba, hydmstis, 
dophylluui.and other plan Im. Its sulphate, 
irochloride, carbonate, and phosphate are 
used as tonics and antiperiodics ; dose. 1-10 gr. 
(gm. 0.06-0,60). 

Ber'gunot. [Turkish, through the Italian.) 

ee of Soathem 

rind of its fhi 

the volatile Oil of b. ((^leum bei^mott's, 
U. S.), used for scenting pharmaceutical prep- 
arations, and the crystalline, B. oampbor, 
Bmop'teUfl, CallaOi. 

BarKoron'i ohoraa (liehr.zhe-ronz). [B,, 
F. physician (1N.S0).] See Chorea. 

BOTt-barl (ber'ee-her'ee). A form of mul- 
tiple neuritis endeniic in .lapfln and the t«st 
Indies, regardol as a specific constitutional dis- 
ease. Marked by paralysis, oiuscular atrophy, 
neuralKic puins, ledema, and dystesthesiie, ea- 
pecially in the legs. The spinal cord may be 
more or less affected. Usually fatal. 

Boilln-blne. Iron ferrocyanide, or a prep- 
aration containing it, used as a stain. 

BerUtollet-i Uw (behr-toh-layz). [Ber- 
thoUei, a F. chemist.] 1. The law that if two 
salts soluble in a given medium Are brought 
together in that medium, and if theconditioos 
arc such that by their interaction the^ can 
give rise to a new salt less soluble in the 
medium than pitbervsuchasalt will in general 
be produced, 3. The law that iftwo saltsare 
capable of combining to form a salt more 
volatile than either, they will form this salt 
whenever mixed and subjected to a dry heat. 

Berttn'a bonoa (hehr-tanz). [Berlin. & F. 
anatomiat.] The sphenoidal turbinated bones. 

Benin's colnnuu. See Kidney. 

BoBtlal'lty. [L. be/tia, beast.] Sexual 
intercourse with an animal. 

BeU (bee'tah). [Gr. bila.\ The second 
letter of the Greek alphabet ; hence a jprcfii 
denoting the second of two or more similar 
bodies, as Beta-mxphthol (see yaphlhol). 

Bola (bee'tah). [L.] See Beei. 

Betalne (l)ee'tay-een). [Fr. brln (2) -I- -tn«.] 
An alkaloid, CelliiNOi.obttuned from the heet 
and other plants, and produced by the oxida- 
tion of choline. 

B«tal-unt(bee'tul). See^reca. 

Betol (bee'tol). [Bera-uaphthol (sec Ifaplt- 
lhon+-ol.] BcM-naphChyl salicylate. CtHt- 
(<)H).CO.O(CiallT) ; naphlhalol ; used in 
rhciimnlism, cystitis, and intestinal septus; 
dose, 5-7 gr. (gm. 0.30-0.50) per diem. 

Bolt'maiut'B Wat. A lest in which the pres- 
ence of arsenic is indicated by the production 
of a brown color or brown precipitate when 
Iheaubstancetesteil isdissnivea in hydrochloric 
acid and mixed with tin-lbil and a solution of 
stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid. 

BeloU (het'yu-lah), BMnlln (befya-lin). 
See under Birch. 

Blung. [Ar.] TheleavesandBniallatalkBof 
Cannabis indica. In India and Persia, smoked 
and used ns a narcotic and intoxicant. 

Bl- (bey-). Bin-. [L. bin. twice.] 1. A pre- 
fix meaningtwo, two-fold, double.] 3. A pre- 
fix denoting a double amount ; especially, in 
chemical terms, denoting a double amount of 
the element or radicle indicated by the luc- 


teitna exist: (n) Thoee endine in -ide.a&Ili- 
Wmtdc, Bi-cklo' ride, Bi-ej/anide, Bin-i'o- 
did*, Bin-<K^idf, Bi-tuVphiae, denoting bro- 

les, chlorides, e< 

ma ine firet bromide, chloride, tiv.. ui lue 
■eries. E. g., mercury bichloride, HgCIi, con- 
laioB twice as much chlorine, in proportion to 
the mercarv, as the protochloride. HgtCli. See 
also Di-. Xb) Termn in which Bi- is prefixed 
tothe names of oxTsaJis (ending in -ateai-ilf); 
in this case the salt is meant vhich. according 
to the old nomenclaturej conlainB donblc the 
normal proportinn of acid combined with the 
base, or id which, acconling to modem views, 
but one-halfofthe acid hydrogen JB replaced by 
a tiaae. K. g., sodium bi-carbonate is KallCO), 
l>ecauae, in comparison with the normal car- 
bonate, NaiCOi, the amount of COi, compared 
with the amount of Na, is twice as great m the 
former as in the latter. The principal terms 
thus formed arc Br-cai'bimate. Bin-oj^ alatt, 
Bi-vho^phaie, Bi-raH phntt, Bt-mtVphitt, Bi- 
uytrale, Bi-ii' rate, which are now replaced by 
acid carbonate, acid oxalate, etc. 

Bl. Symbol for bismuth. 

Blknilcnlai (bey-aw-rik'ya-lar). Between 
or connecting tlie two auricular points ; as B. 

Blbule (bey-bay'uk). [Bi- (I) -<■ biut.'\ 
Donbly basic ; dibalic. 

Blbor»te(bej-boh'niyt). [fli-{2) + ftorir,] 
See PyroboTote. 

Blbromlds (bey-broh'meyd). 8ceJ}t-(2). 

Blbnlotu (bib'yu-luH). [L. Mfulua, fr. 
bibert, todrink.] Readily absorbing moiature. 

Bloaxboitate(bey-kahr'bob-nayt). See under 
Jt*- (2), 

BlMndate (bey-kaw'dayt]. [Bi- (1) -f L. 
tmida. tail.] Having two tails or laiMike 

Blcaps (bey'seps), [Bi- (1)+L. caput, head 
pi. bicip'tla.J 1. Having two head B. t. The 
two-headed muscle of (he arm [B.,B.briu^Aii,'biti) and thigh {B, /em'orit, B. cnin'i). 

B. rsllex, flexion of for 

ping the b. tendon. 

Blcblorlde (bey-kloh'reyd). SeeBi- (2). 

BtclmniBta (bey-kroh'majt), [Bi- (2) + 
eiromic] See Diehromate. 

Blelpltal(bey-sip'ee-tal). Uaving two heads. 
M B. muHcles ; pertaining to or in relation to 
that which has two heads (i. e., to the biceps), 
as B. groove. 

BlconcaTa (bey-kon'kayv), BlconTei (bey, 
kon'vekB). Doubly concave or convex. 

ing processes ; as B. tooth, B. valve of the heart. 

Bloyuilde (bey-sey'a-neyd). Sec St- (2). 

B. t. d. Abbreviation for bit in die (twice a 

Bld'dM't KiAgll^ Ganglia in tlie septum 

n produced by (ap- 


of the frog's heart at the termination of the 
cardiac branches of the pneumogastric. 

Bidet (bi-def). [F.J A basin set on legs, 
used for bathing the pubic or perineal region. 

Blel«otroIrsli (bey"ee-lek-troree-siB). A 
variety of electrolyBis in which decomposition 
takes place at both the positive and the nega- 
tive pole, and the elements t^us liberated re- 
unite to form a new combination. 

Billd (bey'fid). [L. bi'fidnt^bi- (1) -h-fin- 
derr, to split.] Splitnearly urquiteia two ; as 
B. spine (see Spina fiijSdo), 

Blflez cankl (bcy'fieks). [Bi- 11) 4 L. 
fieaert., to bend.] A sac formed between the 
claws of sheep by a reflection of skin. 

BUbcal (bey-foh'knl). Having two foci; as 
B. lem, a Irns ground so that the upper por- 
tion has a diRerent fociiH (dificrent refracting 
power) from the lower. 

BlK'elow'a ligament. The ilia-femoral (or 
V-) ligament of the hip ; named from Bigelow, 
the Boston anrgeon. 

BlKemlnoni(bey-jem'ee-ous). [L.bigtmintu 
~ bi- + geviimii, twin.) Of the pulse, inter- 
mitting or Ehowing irregularity after every 
two beats. 

Bl«onHa(hey-goh'nee-al). Between or con- 
necting the two gonions ; as B. diameter. 

Bilateral (bey-Iat'ur-al). [L. bilalera'lit 
= fri- (I) + latxa, Bide.] Two-sided; exisling 
on both Bide» (of the body) ; as B. paralysis. 

BUa. [L. bili; fel.} The hitler. yeilowiHh 
greenish, or brownish viiwid alkalme liqnid 
secreted by the liver. It consists of water 
holding in solution various inorganic salts, 
from 5 to 10 per cent, of B.-salti (sodium gly- 
cocholale and taurocholate). 1.5 to 3 per cent. 
of B. coloring matter (/(iftm'Wn), CnHi«- 
NiOi and 0.26 per cent, of cholcaterin (B.-fat). 
The b. is nianufactureil iti the liver-cells, and 
is discharged into the B.-caplUarlts, minute 
canals lyinK between the cells, and then into 
the B.-dnoM, which start from the margins of 
the lobules and which unite to form the hepa- 
tic duct. Here it pasavs into the Common b.- 
dtiet (formed by tlie junction of the hepatic 
and cystic ducts), and thence either into the 
duodenum or the gall-bladder. The b, assists 
the action of the pancreatic juice, and when 
combined with the latter emulsifies fata, con- 
verts fatty acids into soaps, and prevents 
pntrcfiictive changes in (he intestine. In 
jaundice it occurs in the urine and the tisBucs, 

a'ving them a yellow color. Its preseuee is 
own by Gmelin'i teat for bile-pigments — 
change of the reddish bilirubin under the ac- 
-tion of nitric acid successively Into green (Biti- 
itet'din), biae {Biliry'anin, Cholecyanin),v\a- 
let.dirty-red, and yellow (CAo/«(chn)— and by 
Pettenkoflfer's test for b. -acids (production of a 
purple color by treatment with sulphuric acid 
aod cane-sugar). Green b., produced by the 
action of air or gealric juiceon yellow b,, con- 
tnins biliverdin, produced by (he oxidation of 
bilirubin. Other pigments of the b. are Bili- 
fuMfia, Bilipra'nn, and BiliAu'min. OS-b. 


{Fel bovii purifiea' 
purificatum, B. P.) are used for constipation, 
catarrhal jaundice, and ascorides. Doee, 10 
gr. (gm. 0.eO). 

BUbanla (bil-hahrt'see-ah). IBilhan, 0. 
helmiutholoK"*.] Agenusof parasitic wormi. 
B. hitmato'bia, a species oceurring in _Egypt 
and the Cape of GocmJ Hop«; found in the 
mesenteric veins and veins of tlie bladder, ure- 
ter, and pelvis of the kidney : cuuaing vesical 
irritability. inQammation of llie urinary tract, 
hiematuria, and dysentery. Treatment: injec- 
tion of bitter infusions or potassium iodide 
into bladder ; loniea. 

BU'lUT- [L. ftifid'n'i.1 Belonging to or 
conveying bile, as B. duct, b. Sstula ; anecting 
ororiginatingin the bile-ducts, as B. cirrhosis, 
B. cone, B. calculi. 

(bil"ee-fu8'in), BUUli 

(Gr. kaaaeoi, blue; L. ftacai, tawny; L. 

Xumtw.soil.J ikemU. 

BUlu (bey'lin). A mixtureof tbebile^alts, 
sodium laurocholate and glTcocholale. 

BlUnenrlue (bil"ee-new'reen). [BiU + 
nearine.] Choline. 

BUlons (bil'^ns). Consistintc of i>ile, as B. 
vomiting ; having or characterized by an ex- 
ce8Bofbilc;aErect«d with biliousness. B. fever, 
« fever, especially a remittent fever (B. re- 
■nltt'ent), marked by vomiting of bile; also 
acute gastritis. B. typhoid, B. tysbn*, (1) 
relapsing fever ; (2) Weil's disease. 

BUlOtlsnesi (bil'yus-aes). Apoputarname 
for a condition marked bv indieestion, anor- 
exia, constipation, headiiche, and malaise, at- 
tribuUHl to excessive secretion of bile. 

BUipraaln (biVee-pray'siu). BlUmblA 
{bil"ee-roo'bin), BlUvenUn 0>il"^*ur'din), 
[L. pratinut, greenish, mber, red, or BiridU, 
green.] 8ee Bile, 

BlmUMill (bey-man'ew-al). [Bi- (1) + L. 
menus, hand.] With or hj both bands ; as 
B. palpation. 

Bin-. SceBi-. 

Blaanral (bio-aw'ral). [Bin- + aun'j.] 
With, by means of, or for both ears; as B. 
stethoscope, B, hearing. 

Binder (beyn'dur). A broad bondage ap- 
plied about the abdomen, especially after 
BlnlOdiae <hin-ey'oh-deyd}. See Bi- (2). 
'.] Withorbymeai 
>n 1 for both eyes at i 

BlnozKUU (bin-ok'sa-layt). See Bi- (3). 
Blnozlde (bin-ok'seyd). See .fit- (2). 
Bl«- (bey'oh-). [Or. bio», life.] A prefix 

meaning life or living. Biocbanilcal (-kern'- 
ee-kal), of or pertainiug to the chemistn of 
living organisms or of vital processes. Blo- 
geneals (-jen'ee-sis). the genesis or develop- 
raent of living organisms from living matter, 
as opposed to their development from non-lir- 
ing auhstance (abiogenesis). Biology (-ol'oh- 
Jee), the science of life and of its manifesta- 
tions in living organisms: the science relat- 
ing! to the Btruclure and functions of living 
things. Bl'oplMUn [(}. plarma, something 
formed], plastic living matter; the primitive 
material out of which organized bodies are 
constructed. Bl'oplMl [Gr. pianein, li> 
fashion], an anatomical element ; an inde- 
pendently existing particle of living matter. 
BiOB^copy, examination to determine «helhi>r 
life is present or has been present at certain 
times previous. 

Bloae (bey'olis). [fi«- + -oie, because re- 
garded as two molecules of glucose less water.] 
A saccharose. 

Blparletal (bey"pa-rey'e-ta]). Pertaining 
to or extending between both parietal bones. 

Blp'odal. [Bi- (1) + L. pM, foot.] With 
or on both feet ; as B. progression. 

Blpann'lfbrm. Doubly penniform ; of a 
muscle, having its fibres inserted more or less 
perpendicularly into the sides of a tendon 
which runs longitudinally through tlie inb- 
atanceof the muscle. 

BlphoiphaM (bey-[bs'fayt). 9ee£i'-(2). 
1. Having two 
I, having two a 

Birch. The genus BetuJ a, typical of the 
ftetulacese. The White b. (Bet'ula alba) of 
Europe and the Northern United Slate* fur- 
nishes a pungent volatile oil, and on dry dis- 
tillation the aromatic B. tar, which on le- 
distillation affords Empyrrumalic oil of b. 
(Cleuin msci]. Tlie bark contains the crys- 
talline B. campbaT (Bct'ulin), CitU««0>. 'Hie 
American Sii^et b. {Bet'ula lenta) contains 
ganlthcrin, which when the bark or leaves are 
distilled is transformed into a volatile oil 
lOleam briula volat'ile, V. S.) identical with 
oil of wintei^reen. tl also contains tannin. 

Bird-claw Iiand. See Claie-hand. 

Bird pepper. See Captieum. 

Blrd-pnx. See Epithelioma contagiotUM. 

Blrefrlngeut (bey"ree-rrin'jent). Doubly 

Blith. The act, process, or period of being 
bom. B.-mark, aspotorgrowth {particnlarly 
a ngevns) upon the skin, existing from b. B. 
palsy, paralysis due to meningeal hKmor- 
rhsge occurring in the child during b. 

Bisexual (bey-seks'ew-al). Of double sex ; 

Bls'kra butt'on. [Fr. Biikra, Algeria.] 
Uee Oriental lort. 

Bla'mal. Bismuth methylene-digallale. An 
astringent powder, used in diBTrh<ea. Dose, 
2-5 gr. (gni. l).l,'i-0.30). 



Blamuok bran. 8e« Brown. 

Bia'mntb. [Qei. Wiamuth. L. bitmu'lhum.'i 
A. metallic element occurring in grayish shin- 
ing masaea, which melt at 270° C.:Byiub«l, Bi; 
atomic weight, 210;, 9.83. In composi- 
tioD b. acta as a dyad, a triad, and a pentad. 
Compounds withtheirdosea: Normal B. ban'- 
««te, 6-15gr. [gni.0.3-1.0). See, »ii6- 
bejuoatc. B. boro-pbeiuite, markasol. B. 
car'boUita (B. phraalt.B.^ktnot). 16-46 gr. 
(gm. 1-3) per diem. B. car'bOiiaM, see B. 
Mabaarbonate. B. citrate (Biemuthi citra«. 

moDii citras, U. S.); 2-6 gr. (gm. 0.13-0.30). 
Liqattr biamuihi et amTnonii citra'tia, B. P.; 
3O-60ni(gm. 2-4). B. ore'iylate (B.-trwoi) ; 
16-45gr.(gm. 1-3) per diem. B. dlthlOiaUc'- 

7lat«, thioform. B. metliylaiia-dlgall'ate, 
bismaJ. B. napli'tholato (B.-naphtkol)\ gr. 
15-46 (gm. t-.l) per diem. B. noaopheus, 
endoiine. B. olMlte, used externally. B. oz- 
IdB (if. IrioTide, bismnthoua oiide, Biamnthi 
oxidnm B. P.), BiiOi; 3 gr. (gm. 0.2). B. 
ozTben'ioato, B. ozycar'bonaie, etc., »ee B. 
rubbeiaoatc, B, etibcarbonatf., etc. B. oxy- 
■Allc'ylato, see B. taiicylatt. B. pantoz'- 
ida (biamuthic Oiide), BiiOi. contained in 
bismuthio acid. B. plioapli«t«; 3-8 gr. (gm. 
0.2-0.6). B. PTTDgall'ato (B.^pyragati ot), 
Dsed eilemally in skin diaeaae. B. salic'- 
ylSita (B. BxyaalieylaU) , Biiimuthisalic'ylas. 
B. P., Biamntum aubsalkyl'icum. O. P.), 
C«H,.OH.CO.O.BiO ; 5-20 gr. {gm. 0.30-1.25!. 
B. nib-I>en'iiHrt« (B. osySemoate), Bi- 
(CtHt.COi)t.Bi(OH)i. B. ■nbcur'bonata (B. 
carbvnale, B. oxvcarbonate, Bismutbi aub- 
carbi/naa, U. 8., Bismutbi carbonaa. B. P.), 

OiC0s + H,0; 10-60 gr. (gm. O.S-2.0). 
i^ciu bi»mutMcompotilui, B. P., con- 
tains 2 gr^ns of b. sabi^rbonate with mag- 
nesium and calcium carbonates. B. inbgall'ato 
is. oiyaaUale, biuiio b. gallate), dermatol. 
. •nbl'odlda (B. oxffiodide). BiOI ; 1-3 gr. 
(gm. 0.06-O.20). B. anbnl'tratstir.oiynrtnKe, 
Bismuthi snb'nitraa, U. S., B. P., Bismutnm 
aubni'tricum, Q. P.), BiO.N(>j + HtO; 10 gr. 
(gm. 0.6). B. inbBBllc'ylate, see B. lalicy- 
iate. B. trlbronLpbe'nata (B. iribromphi- 
nol), leroform. B. trlanl'trate IB. temi- 
Irate. B. nilTote), Bi(NOi)i +5HK). B. 
iale'TUnat«;l-3gr.(^m. 0.06-0.20). B.salts 
are used tnlemally in inflamed and ulcerated 
conditions of the stomach and inteatinea (ulcer 
and cancer of stomach, gastritis, diarrhiea, 
dysentery, and typhoid fever), and externally 
for ulcerated, abraded, and innnmed aurfaces, 
as a snuff in coryia, and to ehecfe morbid 
■weeting. The bcnxoate, carbotate. creaylaCe, 
naphthnlate. salicylate, subiodide. and tri- 
bromphcnate arc used particnlarly as intesti- 
nal antiaeptica ; the benzoate (and sub-ben lo- 
ate), borophenale (markasol), pyrogal lute, sal- 
icylate, aubgallate (dermatol), aubiodide, aub- 
Ditrate (and dithioaal icy late, or thioform) as 
drying and protective applications to wounds; 
Uie oleatc and pyrogallate in skin diseases; 
and b. valeiianate like other valerianatea. 


mew'thik). (Containing bis- 
mntb as a pentad radicle ; as B. oxide (— bis- 
muth pentoxide). B. arid, a monobasic acid, 

poisoning produced by bismuth, 
thom (bis' mew-thus). Containing 
bismuth aa a triad; as B. oxide (^biamutb 

BUtonry(bia'tur-e«l. f F. ^^^(^m^■.] Along, 
Blender, and tapering knife, either straight or 
curved, sharp or probe- pointed. 

BlsnlpliaM (bey-sul'fayt), Blstllphide (bey- 
snl'feyd), BlanlpUte {bey-aul'feyt|, Bltar- 
trat« (bey-tahr'trayt). See under B\- (2). 

Blt«. The special way in which in any 
individual the upper and lower teeth oome 

Bitter. [Same root as biU. L. atnd'nu.] 
1. Having a peculiar taste, like that of qui nine, 
strychnine, quassia, ete. B. almond, see Al- 
mond. B. asple, B. encnmber, colocynth. B. 
«Uxlr (Elii'ir amarum, Q. P.), a mixture of 
extract of wormwood 2 parts, draoaaccharum 
of peppermint 1 part, water 6 parts, and aro- 
matic tincture and b, tincture, of each, 1 part. 
B. latt. magnesium sulphate. B. Umnora 
(Tinctu'ra amara, G. P.), a tincture contain- 
ing gentian, centaury, orange-peel, unripe 
oranges, and zedoary, S. Aa a noun, espe- 
cially in pi., a b. principle or medicine; as 
Vegetable b'g, Aramatie b'l. B'a act as atimn- 
lants to the gastric mucous membrane, excit- 
ing the flow of gastric jaice and increaaing the 
appetites. Hemedies which act solely in this 
way Hjid have no further effects are called 

SlmylB b's. 

Bltter-iweet. The Sola'num Dulcama'ra, 
a shrubby plant of Europe and America. The 
stalks are the Dulcama'ra U. S., used for 
psoriasia and other skin diseaaes, muscular 
rheamatiam, chronic bronchitis, whooping 
cough, nymphomania, and satyriasis. Dose 
of EstToSlum dulcama'ra fiti'idum, U. S., 1 
3 (gm. 4). 

Bltnmen (bi-tew'men). The solid residue 
left alter the distillation of petroleum. 

Blvntto (bey-ew'rayt). See under .St- (2). 

Biuret (t 

heated (thus forming b.) and then treated with 
caustic soda and copper sulphate. 

BlT'alauI. [Bi- (1) -I- L. valent, worth.] 
EquivaJenttotwoatomaof hvdrogen; capable 
of combining with or of replacing two atoms 
of hydrogen. 

BlvalTB {bey-valv). [L. Mroi-™-- ti- (1) 
+ i>a/Da, the fold of a door.] Ilaving two 
valTcs or blades aa a B. speculum. 



BlTMlMT (bey-ven'tar). [L. = M- (1) + 
venler, bellv.] Two-bcllied ; ft two-bellied 
maicle, u B. mandib'alte (=the digastric), 
B. cerri'ciB. 

BUek. 1. Deroidorcolaroroflightireflect- 
iDg neither white light nor colored rays ; hnT- 
ing a hae the oppodiCe of white. B. aldsr. 
the Aluui serrulatA, RhKiDDna Frangala, and 
Priooa verticillata, B. aittliiianr, antimonr 
truulphide. B. blrcb, the Betula lenU. B. 
brjony, the Bryonia alba [bi'eBUSc of its b. 
berri<«). B. coiioab IB. tnakereol), 

Ages. Probably a variety of the plague. 
B. drancht, compound infaaion of Mniia. 
B. drop, vinei^ar of opium. B. favsr, see 
Blaek-iiater fevtr. B. sli>E*''. coated gin- 

Sr. B. haw, Tibumum. B. head, comedo. 
Indnrfttton of inngi, anthracoaia. B. lead, 
graphite. B. leg, purpura hEemorrhagica ; 
Ul cattle and sheep, gym ptomatic antbrai. B. 
meaclea, measles in which tbe eruption ia 
hsmorrhigic. B. mnttftTil, see MaMard. B. 
ttVBVt.Ke Pepper, B. quarter, symptomatic 
aothrai. B. root, lept&ndra. B. t«&, te»- 
leayei turned b. by being dried slowly and 
kept in heaps. B. tongne. gloaHophytia. B. 
TOmtt, matter conaiating of blood made b. by 
the gastric juice, vomited io yellow fever and 
Other diaeaaea. B. walnut, the Juglens nigra 
(see WalrttU). B. waaL, water containrng 
Ijt (UEpension mercurous oxide (b. oxide of 
mercury], made by precipitating li 
withcalomel. 3. That which lab., t 
a b. pigment. 
Bon- ' 


deposited from a Hame. 

Blaok'berry. A name for certain apeciefl of 
the genua Rubua and their fruit, it. root- 
bark (Rubus, U, S,), the root-bark of Eobus 
vilto'sua (common b.), Rubus canaden'sia 

(dewberry, Low b.), and Kubus trivia'lis 
Baah-b., dewberry), is an astringent and 
tonic; used in children's diarrhcea. Dose of 
ExlToiflum rabifiu'idum, U. S., 1 ^ (gm. 4) ; 
at Syra'pu* ruln,\}.&..2 Z {gm- 8). 

Black-water fever. A variety of malarial 
fever, occurring in vrestem Africa, marked by 

C' lundice and hiemoglobinuria, and oflen by 
ilious vomiting ami nephritie. Often fatal 
death being due to excessive destruction of 
blood-cells, unemia, or cerebraJ e 

BlAdder. [L. eyi/lit, vfA'ea.] 
collapBible sac with membranous ■ 

walls, acting as a reservoir for 

nrlauT li, (often called simply the B.) . 
cupiea the anterior part of the J)eivi8, but 


and in adults when distended 

the hypogastric region. It ia held 

. K- I.™™™™!. ...!„., — ,^1 .S..WI.. of reif^. 

{>lace by Ugamenl* composed partly of reflec- 
tions of the perjl«neuni (false ligaments), 
partly of fibrous and muscalar tissue (true 
ligaments, including the two anterior or pubo- 

frostatic, the Iwo lateral, and the urachusj. 
I ii covered on ita posterior surface by peri- 


tonenm, and is composed of a mmteular coat, 
— •<- np of longitudinal and circular fibres; 

:lar coat, of eunnective tisaae loosely 

connecting the muscular with tbe mucous coat ; 
and a mucinu coat lined with stratified epi- 
thelium. The b. receives the urine from the 
nretera which enter it at the upper part of ita 
base (or Jundut), and discharges it through 
the urethra, which begins at the neck or nar- 
row, constncled portion just in front of the 
l«se. The circular fihreaof (bemuscularcoat 
Borroundinif theorifieeof the urethra form the 
tphjneter of tbe b., which, except during mic- 
as to prevent the escape of urine. Konually 
the b. holds about a pint, but may bold much 
more. Oall b. (Vesica fellea),tJie pyriform 
sac upon the lower surface of the iiver, serving 
as a reservoir for the bile. It consists of an 
externa] fihro-rauscular coat, partly covered 
by peritoneum, and of an internal mucous 
coat, lined with columnar epithelium and se- 
creting a thick mucus. It empties into Ibe 
cystic duct, which joins with the hepatic duci 
to form the common bile-duet. 

Blftdder-wonn. See CyiHeercuM. 

Blancard'B pills. Pills of iodide of iron. 

Bland. [L. blandut.'] Mild ; nolnitating. 

BUat. [Jllaito-.] A nucleated erjthrocyt*. 
See MegalobUut, MieroblcM, and Namoblail, 
(bias-tee' mah). [Gr.^bnd, fr. 
o sprout.] Formative o" - ''■ 

r homogeneo 

bla^o*. bad.] A prefix 
meaning of, or pertaining to, germination or 
thegerm(ovum). Hence, Blaatochylo (blffs'- 
toh-keyl) [Gr. ckilloe, juice] ; BlUtOCMle 
(biles' loh-seel) and BiKltoccalome j-see'lohm) 
[Gr.itoiVoi, hollow] ;Blaa't«denn [Gr. derma, 
Bkin];Blastomere (bles'toh-mcer) \GT.mero>, 
part] ; Blas'topore [Gr. ooriw, pore] ; Blaato- 
aphere (blEs'toh-sfeer) [Gr. ipftaira, sphere]. 
See BlOMtaht, 

Bla*tomycet«»(-mey-8ee'teei). [Gr.matet, 
fungus.] The Saccharomyoetes. 

BiMtulft (blEest'yu-lah ). [Dim. of blailoi, 
bud.] The blastosphere ; the globular, mul- 
tinucleated mass formed of the aggregation of 
cells (blaslomeres) into which the ovum splits 
□p after fecundation, Ry the accumulation of 
fluid (hlastochyle) in the interior of the b. 
tbe cells are pressed ouiward until they form 
a peripheral layer (blastoderm, blastodermic 
membrsne) enclosing a centrBl segmentation 
cavity (bIastoc<ele or blastoccBlonie). The b. 
istlius converted into a vesicle (blnstodcrmic 
vesicle). Ultimately the wall of this vesicle 
becomes iuvaxinated, forming the primitive 
stomach, which communicBles with Ibe exte- 
rior by the invagination orifice (blastopore). 

BUud'B pllla (blowdz). Pills resembling 
the compound pills of iron (U. S.), but con- 
taining equal parts of drict sulphate of iruu 
and potassium carbonate. 



BImmUiii powder. Chlor[na(«d lime. 
BlMf-eya. Uargiaal blephuitin. 

Bltlb. A bliiter ; & circumscribed, flnctui 
•welliiiE, of medium size, due to elevBtion of 
the epldermia by serum. It ia interiuediale ' 
■iie Detweeo a vesicle and a bulla. 

Bte«'aer. One who bleeds readily and u.. 
controllabLy after slight injury ; a subject of 

Bleiinarrliacl& (blen"oh-raj'ee-ah). [Or, 
blenna, mucus, + rhegnuatkai, Co break out.] 
1. An exceffiive discharge of mucus. 3. 
Gonorrhiea. llenceiBIennorrhaiTia (blea"ah- 
r^'ik), c}iaract«rized by, pertainiiiK to, or 
caused by b, ; gooorrhceal. 

BlMIIU)R'IlMa(blen"ab.ree'ah). \Gr.blmna, 
mucus, -I- rhoid, a SovinE. I 1. Profuse dis- 
cbarge of mucus; especially, a catarrhal in- 
flammation characterized by a profuse muco- 
Snrulent discharge, as B, o/ t/in taehrymat mc, 
. GonorrhcEO ; especially, a gonorrha^al in- 
flammation of the conjunctiva. B. in divided 
inloB. adulto'rnm(Gon(irrh(B'alopb!balmia), 
which may be either acute or chronic, and 
which is produced by infection of the eye 
with ^onococci ; and B. neonato'mm (Oph- 
thalmia neoDatorumJ. produced in iufauts at 
birth by contact of tlie eye with the secretion 
of the rasina of the mother. Symploum: 
swelling of lids, fireat swelling and redness of 
conjunctiva of lids and eyeball (chemosis), 

firofuse purulent discharge, and ulceration of 
he cornea, with pain, pliotophobia, and fever. 

diver nitrate (2 per cent, solution) as long 
■oppQiation lasts, and the use of solid copper 
■olphate and other aatriogents in the chronic 
>tage. B. neonatorum may be prevented by 
Credo's method (instillation of 2 per ctnt. so- 
latioD of silver nitrate in eyes i mm eili ate! y after 
birth, and careful cleansing). B. of all kinds 
U extremely contagious. 

BlenuoTTlinal (blen"oh-ree'ai). [L. blen- 
norrAo'iciM.} OonorrhiBal. 

Blennoi'taslii. [Gr. blemus. 

delioDocent substancej acting as a vaso-con- 
■tricior and blenoostatic for respiratory tract. 
Used in coryto, hay-fever, laryngitis and 
bronchitiB. Done, 6 gr. (gm. 0.3) singly or in 
broken doaea. 
BlennootAt'lc. Checking the secretioa of 

Blepharitis marginailB. 

BleplMTltU (blef'ur-ey'tis, -ee'tis). [BU- 
phari>- -f -Hit.l Inflammation of the eyelids. 
lUncma] b. (B. nursm^'lU, B. cUU'rla), a 
chronic diffuse inflammation of the sebaceous 
|d*nd« aloD^ the margin of the lids, making 
the latter thick and red (blear-eye), and either 
oovered with crusts and alcenited (B. ulcero'- 
la) or covered with scales (B. iqauno'sA}. It 

moval of <n 

oiidc of mercury or of ammonialed mercury. 
Blepharo- {blef'ur-oh-). [Gr. blephaTon, 
eyelid.] A prefix meaningof orpertaining to 
the eyelid. Blep&aro-ftdonltl* (-ud"ee-ney'- 
tia, -nee'lia), blepharitis marginalis. Blopik- 
UTO-HdonoiQa (-nd^e^'-noh'mah), nn adenoma 
of the margin ofthelida; a new growtb com- 
posedofglandulartubcs. Blepharo-atbOTOma 
(-olli"ur-oh'raBh), an atheroma (Bebaecous 
cyst) of (be lid. BlepharochalaaU (-kal'a-i ' 

Blep&tf - chromldioalB (-kroh"mee-droli'- 
sis) [chromidrotit] , pigmentation of the lids 
occurring in spots upon the skin. Bloplutro- 
pbtmottl (-fey-moh'sis) [Gr. phlmoeiii. to 
muzile], conRenitsI contraction of the palpe- 
bral fissure. Blepll'aroplaBty, the reme<ly- 
ing of defects or faulty nhape of the lid by 
operation. Blephaioptoala {-op-lnh'sist [Gr. 
ptStii, a falling], ptosis. Blepnaror'rh&ptty 
T-rAcp%], the operation of slilching togctlier 

J 1 i;.i. Bleph'aroipMiii, 

• r of the lids, 
o set in place], 
.c-speculum. Bltpharot'omy [-tomi/]. the 

^( of incising the eyelid. 

Blea Bed thistle. Centturea beoedicta. 

The absence of tight. It may 
e due to lesion of the eye, the optic nerve, the 
ptic tracts, the optic radial' 

... conditioL „ 

lesion of the cerebral cortex, in which without 
alteration in the eve or in the conducting tracts 
from the eye to the visual centre, the sight of 
familiar objects affords no idea of their nature. 
Word'b., a variety of mind.b.,in which written 
or printed word-Eymbole, although seen, an- not 
appreciated as words; due io lesion of lower 
and posterior part of the lefl parietal lobe. 
Oolor-b., or h. for one or more colora, is called 
Bbie-b.. Red-b., Total color b., etc., according 
to the color that is not perceived. See Color- 
blindnrn, Mlght-b., inability toseeby night; 
hemerslopia. Say-b., inaliilily to see by day ; 
nyctalopia. Bnow-b,, a violent conjunctivitis 
with transient b., due to daziiing by light 
reflected tTooi snow. 

Bllnd-apot. An area normally present in 
the visual field, 15° to the temporal side ofthe 
point of Gintion, within which do objects are 
seen. It corresponds to that portion of the 
f^indus which, being occupieil by the heiid of 
the optic nerve, is insensitive to light. 

BUitUng. Repeated involuntary winking ; 

BlU'tor. 1. A bleb or bulla ) c«lled WAtor- 
b. or Bload-b. according as its contents are 
serous or blootly. 3. An agent producing a 
bleb or bulla ; a vesicant. B'a (which are 
usually made of cantbarides — C^'.b.) are ni 



to produce itrong count^r-irritatioo, local de- 
pletion, and absorption in neuralaia and irri- 
tative conditions (as vomiting from Kastrie 
irritability) and in inflammationB Tpneu- 
-monia, pluurie;, pericarditis, rheumatiBni, 
nicninratis), and as a stimulant iu typhus and 
typhoid fuvera, ooma. and puraljsiH. Flying 
"" — "' " " '" of small n's applied in Buc- 

Blla'terlng. Producing a bleb or bulla. B. 
CBTBte (B. piMter), cerate of cantharides. B. 
eoUo'dlOU, cootbaridal collodion. B. liquid 

ILiquorepi spas' ticuH. B. P.), a 50 per cent, so- 
ution of cantharidea Id acetic ether. 

.- M carry nutriment and oxygen to the tissues 
of the body. It is a crimson liquid of salty 
taale and Hlkaline reaction, sp. gr, l.O.'iS-l.oez, 
forming al>out 8 per cent, of the total weight 
of the wxly. It is composed of 35 to 60 per 
cent, of formed elements (B.-COrp'nsel«S) 
Aiiating in acolorlessliquid (n. -plasma). The 
b.-corpusclea include (a) the Bad b.-corpna- 
clM (erj/MroejiWi), biconcave, circular, yellow- 
ish discs, 7.5 micro millimetres in diameter, 
containing a nucleo-proleid, hxmoglobin. or B. 
aolorlng matter (30 per cent.), which acts 
as a carrier of oxygen ; (A) White corpasclti 
((Bueocy*<»), white, granular, spherical, pro- 
teid bodieB, varying in size, Gut averaging 
II) micromi Hi metres in diameter, which ei- 
hibit amosboid morements, pass under cer- 
tain cooditionB through the capillary walls, 
take up foreign particles (bacteria, pigment) 
present in the o. (act as phagocvtes), and 
appear 1« saiist in producing coagulation ; (e) 
B.-plAteletS (B.-fllsca), disc-shaped or irr^u- 
lar bodies, 2 to3niieromillimetres in diameter, 
thought to assist in producing coaeiilation : 
(i) fine granules or B.-dust, A cubic milli- 
metre of b. contains 5,000,000 red corpuscles 
and 10,000 white corpusclea. B.'Plaama cnn- 
lama about 8 per cent, of proteids including 
three albumins (scrum-albuminslnnd twogloh- 
nlins (serum-globulin and fibrinogen). and 1-2 
per cent, of fats, AH Its (mostly sodium chloride), 
etc. On escaping from the liody, and Bome- 
times within the vessels, b. coagalatet, form, 
ine a B.-cIot, consisting of corpuscles and 
filirin. The b. receives the products of diges- 
tion and effete matters from the tissues lhroui;h 
the thoracic duct and the cRpillnries of the 
portal circulation ; and it receives oiygen in 
the lungs (thus liecoming aerated). Aerated 
b. (Arterial b.) is bright red, owing to the 
combination of tlic oxygen with hiemoglobin 
(formingoiybamoslobin). It is found in the 
pulmonary vein, the left heart, and all the 
systemic arteries. In the capillaries the blood 
gives up oxygen to the tissues and becomes the 
dark TenoitS 1>. which is found in the systemic 
veins, right heart, and pulmonary artery. In 
the vessels the b. exerts a certain varying 
amount of pressure {B.-preisure) agninsl the 
vessel-wallB, B. when exlravasated undergo^ 
ehanges, the hicmoglobin being decomposed 

tL cisru'Ieiu.l 1. Of or having the 
e aky. B.-bllndneaa, color-blind- 

into httmatine and globulin, and finally Into 
hnmatoidin. Compounds of hwmatine with 
acids form the crystalline luemiu (B.- 


BlDod'leis. Without effusion of blood; m 
B. operaiion, an operation in which by some 
means (e. g., an elastic bandage and tourni- 
quet) Ihe blood is expelled from the seat of 
operation and prevented from re-entering it. 

Blood'lettlng. The withdrawal of blood 
from the body, either in large quantities so as ta 
deplete the whole system ( General b., usually 
performed by opening a vein in the arm), or 
in small quantities by leeches or wet cupe ap- 
plied over the seat of disease (Local 6.). 

Blood-poliontng. Properly, the condition 
in which toxins are diffused through the blood 
(general toiis) ; loosely applied also to aepti- 
cGEmia and pyemia. 

Blood-quotient. The quotient obtained by 
dividing the amount of hicmoglobin in the 
blood (expressed as a percentage of the nor- 
mal amount) by the number of erythrocytes 
(eiprcBsed as a percentage of the normal 
amount). Normally = 100-^ 100 = 1; but may 
vary in health from 0.90 to 1.06. 

Blood'root. See Saniruinoria. 

Blood'abot. Over-filled with blood; oon- 
geflted ; injected. 

Bloody Bnx. Dysentery. 

color of tl . 

ness in which b. is not disting ,, 

the Iris versicolor and iris pallida. B. KVin 
tree, the EncalyptuB globuliiH. B. mug (B. 
pill), massof mercury. B. ointment, mercu it 
ointment. B. atoae (B. vllarlol], copper sul- 

8 hate. 3. A b. pigment or color. See Ber- 
n b., JUelhyUntb., etc. 

Boas' rea'gent. A mixture of rteorcin G 
parts, sugar 3, and alcohol 1(10, which strikesa 
red color with hydrochloric acid, and is used 
as a test for the presence of the latter especially 
in the stomach. 

BOM's teat. A lest for lactic acid in which 
the lactic acid is decomposed by sulphuric acid 
and manganese dioxide into aldehyde and 
formic acid, and the aldehyde is then converted 
into iodoform by leading into an alkaline solu- 
tion of iodine. 

Boat-shaped abdo'mwi. See Abdomen. 

BochdalBlc'i gangUon (bohcVdah-leka). A 
swelling nt (he junction of the anterior dental 
ami one of the superior uasal nerves. 

Body. [L. eor'pus.'l 1. The whole assem- 
blage of parts tlint make up the material part 
of a man or animal. 1. The trunk of the b.; 
Iienne Ihe main or central part of anything) 
that of which the remaining parts arc regarded 
as oflshoots ; as B. of a vertebra, B. of the 
uterus. B. -louse, that variety of louse which 
infi'Sta the trunk. B. A cireumscnbed massor 
structure separated from other structures by 
situation or function. See Araniiu*. B. of, 
aeniculate 6., etc.; also CeTpu^^JAJJoTpuKlf. 

BO(bMUi. See Buekbean. 
Bos ipSiTlii. See Spavin. 
BoU. Sec FufuikU. OeUU b., ate Orien- 

BolUu. Thevaporiiation of a liquid when 
Uking plara at sunii a tempemture (B.-point) 
that the coDtained gams acquire a teDsion 
equal to that of the atmosphere and rise in 
bubbles to the sarfoce. 

Bole. [L. bSltu, argilla.] A varietj' of 
cla; coiupoBed chiefly of alamiaiim Bilicste. 
TUlta b. {Bolus alba, G. P., argilla puia). a 
whitish, friable, earth; clay. Arroe'nlui b.. 
a kind of clay colored rod by iroo. 


Pen m us Bum us, » . ., _ ._ 

Manimiacete. It contains an alkaloid, Bol' 
dlna, and a volatile oil, and has been used as 
a tonic Id annmia and dyspepsia. 

Bolna (boh'lus). [L. =Gr. bdlos. a clod.] 
1. A morsel; a rounded mass; especially a 
big pill. 3. See Bolf. 

Bone. [L. oi.] One of the separate pieces 
of the skeleton or hard framework of the body. 
The b's are divided into the Lons b'l, com- 
piisiDg the clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, 
Rmur, tibia, fibula, metacarpal b's, raelatar- 
■al b s, and phalanges; Snort Vl, those 
of the carpus and tareus ; Flat b's, occip- 
ital, t^uietal, frontal, uasal, lachrymal, and 
inoominale b's, vomer, scapula, stemuui, and 
ribs; Irragular (Hlxed), vertebrs. sacrum, 
coccyx, lemporalj sphenoid, ethmoid, supe- 
rior maiillary, intvrior maxillary, palate, 
inferior turbinated, hyoid. Ses'amold b,, a 
amal], flat b. (e. g., Clie patella) occurring in 
a leodon playioK over a bony surface. Wor'- 
mUB b'l, irregular little b's lying in the 
sutures between the b's of the skull. In their 
DRVGLOFUENT b's are celled Gar'tUafa b's 
(those which arc developed from, or at least 
in, cartilage) Bad Hembransb'i (those which, 
like the cranial b's, are developed within 
membrane). B's are composed op compact 
tissue covering their whole eiterior Burface, 
and in the long b's forming the greater part of 
the shall ; and of spongy or cancellous tissue. 
forming the interior portions, and constituting 
(he greater part of the short b's and of Ihe ar- 
tienlar extremities of the long b's. Vompact 
tiuve is traversed by canals (ITavertian 
eavalt) from which radiate canaliculi. These 
■ _. |.|-mQ|jgj fij concentric lamelta 

.^ ,_. olt " 

IB of the caniiliciili tl 

The lamelUe are joined togetiier by fibres 
(Sharpey'B perforating fibres). CancfUom 
ItMHt resembles compact in structure, but is 
filled with large cavities (marrow-cavities), 
which in young b. are filled with red marrow. 
The shall of long b's is pierced by a central 
civitj (mediitlary canal) which is filled with 
yellow marrow. This cavity and the marrow- 
cavities of cancellous b, are in connection with 
Um Uavernan canals. B's are lined ei- 


leriorly by a protective and nutrient mem- 
brane i^erioiteum) . B. is really a form of 

connective tissue the (ibres of which are infil- 
trated and made rigid by iooiitanio salts. The 
organic substratum composing Xi percent, of 
b. is otiein. The inorganic talu (B.-Bah, Of 
ustum) are calcium phosphate (B.-phoiphate) 
■nt., calcium carbonate 11, calcium 

sorhable drainage-tubes and B.-plAtoi o 

dlsoB, employed to hold the intestine in place 
when sutures are pasted through it. 

Boue-eouduo'tlou. The conduction uf 
sound to the internal ear through the bones of 
the head, and not through the external meatus. 

Boae'Mt. The Eupatorium perfoliatnm. 

Bone apavln. See Spavin. 

Bonnet's capanle (bo-nayii). [Boim^., V. 
surgeon (1842).] Sec Tenon' icapralt. 

BonnlsT's rings (bnu-uee-ayz). [BonniT, 
P. surgeon.] An appliance forperformtng in- 
testinal anastomosis, consiBling of two furnilff. 
each furnished with a ring of cork and with a 
number of barbed points. Kach ferrule is in. 
serted into one of the cut ends of gut, and Ihe 
points OD each are thrust through and paa-K^ 
into the cork ring on the other ternile. 

Boot, Jnood's (zhue-nohz). A boot for 
henneticall^ enclosing the foot and teg, and 
provided with an apparatus for the exhaustion 
of air from it, so as to cause a flow of blood to 
the parts within. 

Boracic (bob-ras'ik). Containing borax, 
B. add. see Boric add. 

Bortd (boh'rai). [ifor-ate4a/-uminum.1 
Aluminum boro-tartrate ; an astringent and 

Boiato (bob'rayt). [L. ftordi.] A salt of 
boric acid. 

Barkted (boh' ray-ted^. [L. bar&'lut, bo- 
raxi'tat.'] Combined with or containing Iwiric 
acid or borai. as B. cotton. B. tartar (Tar'- 
tanis boraxa'tus, Q. P.), a white, acid, amor- 
phous powder made by evaporating a solution 
of 2 parts of borax and 5 of potassium hitar- 

BHttai(boh'raks). Gen. bo'racis. [L. ft., B. 
P.,G.P.,*>diiftords,U.8.] Sodium pyroborate, 
NajBiOv + 10HK». B. forma transparent crys- 
tals of sweetish taste: used as an appl ication in 
thrush and other allections of the mouth and 
throat, and intemaJly as a diuretic and em- 
menagogne; dose, 5-20 gr. (gm. 0.30-1.25). 
Prejmrations :_ qiycerfnum Wracii. B. P. 
. car'mln, a solution of 
rmin in water, with or withont the 
if alcohol or caustic soda ; used as a 




Bo'rlc&cld. [^idumbefrimim,V.S.,B. 
P., O. P., aeidum bora' eicam-l Orthoborio 
acid, HtBOs, a whil« crfBtnlliue powder, spar- 
logly soluble in water. It ia ui antitejitic, 
uaed in intlammations and ulceration of the 
akin and mucous membranes, eilber dry (es- 
pet'iRll)' in otitis); in aqueous or aleohalic solu- 
tion ; miied with glyeerin iGlgcerinuiit acidi 
borici, B. P.) ; as an ointment (Uag-atnUum 
o/^ idi borici, B. P. ) ; or ditfused through cottnn 
(Borated cotton). 

Borlnu (boh'rizm). Poisoning bv boric 
acid ; marked by vomiting, hiccough, ery- 
thema, and heart fitilure, which ma? be fatal. 

Boi'neo eunphor. A substance resembline 
camphor derived from Dryobalanope Cam- 
phnra, a tree of Borneo and Sumatra. It 
ronsists of Bor'neol (Camphyl alcohol), Cid- 
H»0. The same tree fiimiBheB Bothm cam- 
phot oil. i-onsistinKOf boriieol and a resin dia- 
aolved in a liquid (BoT'neeiie), CitHit. 

Borodtr&M (boli"roh-Bit'rayt). A com- 
pound of a base with both boric and citric 

BorosIycarldB (boh"roh-Blis'ur-erd), Boio- 
Kl;o«rlB (boh"roli-glia'ur-in). Glyceryl bor- 
ate: a pasty Bubstauce used aB an antiseptic, 
made by heating together G3 parts of boric acid 
and 92 orglycerm. 

fiaroglycaral (boh"roh-glis'ur-oi). [L. 

f'lyetrlltim baroqlyeerlnl, V. S.J A fluid 
ijrmed by heating together equal parts of 
boroglyceride and glycerin. 

Boron (boh'ron). [Borai.] A non-metal- 
lic element contained in borax ; occurring both 
as acryelaltineand an amorpbouB solid ; sym- 
bol, B ; atomic wcigbt, 10.9. 

BoTOtart»te (boh"roh-tahr'trayt). Acom- 
pound of a baw with both boric and tartaric 
acids. PoUutiam 6., a crystalline substance, 
used to dissolfc urinary calculi ; dose, 20 gr. 
(gm. 1.2S). 

Bot. A name applied to various parasitic 
larrie, especially tliose of ths horse gad-fly 
(GastrophiluB equi) found in the atomoch of 
Uie horse. Hence, Bot-fly, any insect whoae 
larvie form bota. 

BotkUo'i forauMU (boh-tah'lobz). The 
foramen ovale connecting the two auricles in 
the fetal heart. 

BoUuloeepbalni (^botb"ree-ob-sef'B-luB). 
[Gr. botkrion, a little pit, + kephair, head.] A 
genua of tapeworroa, Beveral species of which, 
BBpecially Ji. latia, the hroad or Swiss tape- 
worm, are parasitic in man. See Tapewonn. 

BDtT70coc'cUB,BotTyDm7caa ( l)ot"ree-om'ta- 
eez). [Gr. botrttt, cluster of grapes, + kokioi, 
kernel, or -I- tnuirj, fungus.] See Mieroaiccai 

BotryomycoaU (bot"ree-ob-mey-koh'sia). 

BotryUi(boh-trey'tis). [Gr. io(n«, cluster 
of grapes from the grape-like sporopht 


disease called muacardine. B. Untl^a causes 
disease in larvK of may-beetles, and pure cul- 
tures have been used U> eradicate latter. B. 
hnuii'raiM, the Trichophyton tonsurans, 
Bongw'l teit (bcet'gerz). \_Bolfgir G. 

tested is alkaline, and boiling with bismnth 
Bubnitrate, when, if glucose is present, blaok 
metallic bismuth is precipitated. 

Bottlnl'i operation (bot-tee'neei;). [BiA- 
tini, surgeon of Fuvia.J An operation for an 
enlarged prostate consisting in making a chan- 
nel through the prostate with the galvano- 

BotiillNnni (bot"yu-liz'mus). [L. botulu*, 
sausage.] A condition produced by eating 
certain kinds of sausages and other meat prod- 
ucts; marked by pronounced nervous symp- 
toms (mydriasis, ptosis, dysphagia, deficiency 
of saliva]. Due to BHcillushotulinus. 

Bougie (boo-ihee'). [F.J 1. A candle or 
taper; a medicine in the form of a candle, ei 

, , __ — jhugus. B'fl 

used for exploring or dilating a stri„.. 
ploringb., DUaUngb.), when they CI. .. . ._ 
steel, rubber or whalebone, and frequently 
have bulbous tips (Bulbous ■>.); or for apply- 
ing medicine, when they are often composed 
of medicated gelatin (AjUrophora) . t. Todi- 

Boullmla (boo-lim'ee-ah), Bonpbtbalmla 
(boof-thal'mcL'-ah), Booplttbalmiu (boof- 
thal'mus), See Bulimia, etc. 

I Hiues, uue «) iiie gr» 
them of certain ethers. 
Bonuole (boo-sohl). (F.— compass.] A 


Bow. Amechanical applianceused in teeth- 
regulating; placed either on the outside {La- 
bial b.y, or the inside {Linffoat fr.) of tbe 
dental arch. 

Bow'el, [L. botellut, dim. of botulut, sau- 
sage.] The intestine; that portion of tbe ali- 
mentary canal extending from the stomach 
to tbe anus. B.'oompUdnt, diarrhtea (espe- 
cially in children), due usually to disordered 
intestinal digestion. InflamTnatlon of the b'a. 
properly, enteritis and colitis; popularly ap- 
plied to peritonitis. 

Sowlags (boh'legz). A condition in which 
the knees are boweii out (genn varum). It is 
remedied by suitable apparatus, forcible 
straightening, or osteotomy. 

Bowman's capanle (bob'msnz). The cap- 
sule (Malpighian capsule) surrounding the 
Malpighian tuft of a kidney. 

Bovnutn'i mombrans. The homogeneoDS 
membrane lying beneath the anterior epithe- 
lium of the cornea (from which it is r^dily 



separable), and lying upon the corneal stroma, 
into which it loerges. 

BovmuL'a Bl&ndl. Tabular glands pecu- 
liar io the ol&Ftory mucous membrane. 

Bownum'i probai. Silver proben of gradu- 
ated siie used io eiploring and dilating the 
lachrymal duct. 

Boyle'* law. [R. BayU, Triah phTsicist 
(1637-1091).] The law that, if the tempera- 
ture remain! constant, the volume of a gas 
varies in inveise proportion to the pressure t« 
which it is subjected. 

Bt. Symbol of bromine. 

Braolllal ( bra/ kee-al) . [L. brdehid'tit, fr. 
brackiumJ] Of or pertaining to the upper 
arm - bh b. artery, B. fascia. B. monospasm. 
B. pleioi, the pleius of nerves supplying the 
upper eitremity. See Ntrva, Table of. 

BrftcUalglA (brak-ee-al'jah), [BriicMam 
+ -algia.} Pain, especially QeuFHlgic pain, in 
the upper arm. 

BractOallH (l)ray"kee-ay'liB). [L.] Bn- 
cbiiil. B. aiLtl'oiu (B. lutet'imi, or simply 
B.), see Uuietet, Table of. 

Bra(!hlO-(brak'ee-oh-). [L. firarAtum,] Of 
or pertaining (o the arm. BraoUo-eeplul'lo, 
pertaining to or supplying both arm and head ; 
as Brae hio-ceph alio (or innominate) artery, 
Br&elilo-om'ral, pertaining to both arm and 
thigh. BracUo-tft'clal, ^rtaining to both 
arm and face : as Bracbio- facial paralysis. 
Btftobio-radlA'lla, the supinator longuB. 

Bn«llliun(bray'kee-um, brak'ce-um). [L.] 
1. The upper arm. 3. Either one of the four 
bends of^vhile nervona substance connecting 
the corpora quadrigemina with the optic 
tbalnmua and optic tracts. 

Braoh-Bomberg symplom (brabfA-ram'- 
berg). Inability displayed by patients with 
locomotor ataxia to stand steady when the eyea 

(-aef'a-lns) [Ur. ktphate, head], having i 
short head 1 I. e., one short in the antem-pos 
terior diameter. BrftohrsiUktlilA (brnk"ig- 
nath'ee-ah) [Or. gnathoi. jaw], stunted devel- 
opment of the jaw. BttuaiTtiMtropU (-mee- 
troh'pee-ah) [Or. mftron, measure, + op», 
sight], myopia. 
Brady- (hrad'ee-). [Gr. 6ra</H», slow.] A 

Erctix meaning slow, Bridyar'thrla, Brady- 
L'lla [Gr. arthria, a joiniiiR, or liiltein, to 
talk], slow and drawling articulation or ut- 
terance. Bradycar'dU, ununual slowness of 
the heart ; the state in which the heart-beats 
donoteiceedfortyaminulc. BradydlaatOl'U, 
abnormal prolongation of (he heart's diastole. 
Bradyphra'ala [Or, pAran'^, ntt«nuice], slow- 
ness of speech due (o sluggishness of thought. 

Br«dHm(bray'diim). [.I.Brnii, whowrote 
a treatise on hypnotism.] See Hypaotiim, 

Brain. \L. enttph' alon.] That part of the 
central nervous system contained within the 
cranial cavity ; comprising the cerebrum, cere- 


bellum, pons, and medulla. IntheBl 
b. is composed of threcTaaloIea, anterior, mid- 
dle, aud posterior. The anlerior vetielc gives 
off the optic «eticte (which develops into the 
retina and optic nerve), and then divides into 
two parts, an anterior (Prosencephalon) and 
posterior (Tlinlamcneephalon). The Prosen- 
cephalon (Pora-bralu) forms the cerebral hem- 
ispheres (budded off from it an two lateral 
vesicles, the cavity of which constitutra the 
lateral ventricles), corpora striata, and olfac- 
tory lobes (Rhinencephalon). The floor of the 
Thalameneephalon or Diencephalon (IntM- 
bralu) forms the optic chiasm and infiindi- 
bulum ; its walls the optic thalami ; its roof 
the pmeal gland, anterior and posterior com- 
missures, velum interpositum, and chorioid 
Sleius; auditscavitytliethird ventricle. The 
oor of the middle vaicle (Hld-bralu, Mesen- 
cephalon) forms the crura cerebri ; its roof the 
corjwra quadrigemina ; and its cavity the 
aguwluct of Sylvius. The poaltrior r'liele 

r (Hlnd- 

Kpeneephalon ) , the Hoor of which develops 
into the pons and the roof into the cerebellum ; 
and a posterior (AHeT-brain, Myelencephalon, 
Melencephalon fWilderll, the floor and sides 
of which form the medulla, and the cavity ths 
fourth ventricle. The b. is composed of a coi^ 
tei of gray matter (in the cerebrum and cere- 
bellum); a serieaof central ganglia; radiating 
and longitudinal fibres connecting the cord 
with the lower ganglia, and these with each 
other and the curtei ; and transverse or com- 
missural fibres connecting one half of the b. 
.u._ mu . f.L_i ■ ip^ 

iththeother. The oortez of the 1 ^. 

convoliUioru and folia, separated by sulci oi 
isures. fiee Cerebrum and Ctrehillum. The 
immlistu'al fibre* comprise the corpus callo- 

and postenor commissure bridg- 
ing the third veutrlcle, and the fornix, all of 
which connect the two cerebral hemispheres; 
the middle peduncles of the cerebellum, which 
in part serve to connect the two cerebellar 
hemispheres; and decussating fibres in the 
medulla and pons. The lon^tndlnal llbiea 
and ganglia comprise five systems: (1) The 
pedal tyitem includes the pyramidal tract 
starting fVom Ibc parietal cortex, the anlerior 
cortical fibres tVom the frontal cortei, the pos- 
terior cortical Qbrcs from the temporal and 
occipital cortex, and the caudate and part of 
the lenticular nucleus with the fibres descend- 
ing from them ; these fibres all pass through 
the internal capsule and pes of the cms cero- 
bri into the pons, where all terminate except 
the pyramidal tract, which passes down to 
form the anlerior pyramids of the medulla, 
and ia continuous with the pyramidal tract of 
the eord. (2) The tegmental tyilem includes 
the optic thalamus, with radiating fibres con- 
necting it with the cortex, the longitudinal 
fibres of the tegmentum of the crus cerebri 
with the imbedded nuclei (red nneleua, sub- 
stantia nigra, corpus subthalamicum), the 
tegmentum of the pons with the locus cteruleus, 
fibres connecting the tegmentum with the cor- 
tex, the superior peduncle of the cerebellom 


aoDDecting the cerebellum with the 1^- 
meDturn, the fillet conuecting the nucleus 

Sravilia and nucleus cuneatua of the me- 
alla with the Icgmentum. Ibe longitudinal 
posterior bundle of the pons, tbe brsi^hia of 
the corpora quadrigcniina and the reticular 
famiBtioD of the medulla. {3} The gj/strm 
of cetitrat ivf.iUriciiar) fray maUtr com- 

Eises the gray matter lining the ventncleB, 
eluding the uuclei of the cranial nerves 
(adjoining tbe fourth ventricle) and the 
tuber eincreum on the floor of tiie third 

entricte. (4) The tyitem of outlgl no cerebral 
yanfflia comprises the corpora quaari^mina 
and the exUmal and iDteniiil geniculate 

■. (5) Tbecerebtllariyileiai:omL 

nuclei of the cerelicllum (corpus dciitatum, 
emboliform nucleus, roof'nucleua, etc. ), with 
the cereWllar tracts (inferior peduncles of 
tbe cerebellum or restiform bodies, conuected 
below with the olivary bodies and nucleus 
gracilis and cunestus, and with the cerebellar 
tract and posterior median and eilerual poste- 
rior columns of the cord). The fttnetloiu of 
Uie b. arc : The evolution of all mtellei-tiial 
proccS!>e» and of Che emotions (cerebral cortex ) . 
the reception and conscious appreciation of 
aeusations (nerve-nuclei, corpora guadriKem- 
Ina, tegmental system, occipital and teniporo- 
■phenoidal cortex), the initiation of voluntary 
mottoDS, iucludiug speech (parielo-frontal cor' 
tei, or motor area, in connection with pyra- 
midal tract), production and regulation of 
body-heat (caudate nucleus, tuber eiiicnMim], 
regulation of vaso-motor aelion (tubiT oine- 
reum, medulla), maintenance of respiration 
(medulla), inhibition of heart's action Ime- 
duUa), initiation and maintenance of the acta 
of deglulilion and vomiting (mnlulla), ac- 
celemtion and inhibition of peristalsis (me- 
dulla), acceleration and inhibition of various 
visceral operations (cerebral cortei), eo-or- 
dination of complicated movemeats (cerebel- 
lum). WelgHt of b., 50 oz. avoird. (male), 
44 oz. (female) ; rangiTig between 30 and 64 oi. 


The nerve-cells receive, store op, anu manu- 
fo<ture, and the nerve-fibres tronsmlt, ner^■ous 
y and impulses. The b, is cOTSTad by its 


, which covers it closely, the serous mem- 
brane (arachnoid), and the external fibrous 
membrane or dun mater. The arachnoid 
bridi;CK over the laiw fisautes of the b., leav- 
ing spaces (auharacnnnid spaces) filled with 
cerebro-Bpinal fluid. TheTantrl^aaof theb., 
which are continuous with each other, with 
tbe central caunl of tbe cord, and wilh tbe 
subarachnoid spaces, arc lined with a layer of 
Ella cells (ependyma) and are filled with ccre- 
Bro-spinal fluid. RftUv&y b., sec Railicay. 

Braln-terar. Meningitis. 

Brain-sand. Acervulus cerebri. 

Brui. The integuments of wheat separated 

from the flour. It is used in making B. bread, 
which, if the deprived of its starch, make* 
a good food for diabetics, and in making a de- 
mulcent bath (B.-t>atb) for the treatment of 
irritated slates of the skin. 

Branchial (breng'kee-al). [Gr. bmgchia, 
gills.] Pertaining lo or resembling jtiirs. B. 
arohes, the four or five creacenlic ridgea 
formed upon each side of the front of the 
head in the embryo. Each conlnins an aor- 
tic arch, and is separated from the adjoining 
h. areh by a B. clBft (B. fiainre). B. fla- 
ttUa, a fistula of the neck, due to non-closure 
of a b. cleft. 

Branchlogenom ( brang-kee-oi'ee-nns). 

t Branchial -\ -geiumt,] Developed from a 
ranchial cleft j as B. cyst. 

Brand treatment (brahnt). [Brand, G. 
physician.] The tn>atmcnt of typhoid fever 
by cold baths. 

Brao'dr- [0. E. braitdirine, burnt or dis- 
tilled wine. L. apJr'iliu ciui galliel, V. 8., 
B. P., .pir-iViK ; .i-iui, G. P.) A beverage dis- 
tilled from wine or from grapes, containing 40- 
50 per cent, by weight of alcohol. It contains 
aalight amount of acetic acid, with ethyl ace- 
tate, ethyl len an thy late, and otlier ethers, and, 
when newly made or badly prepared, aniyl 
alcohol. lis quality improves wilb age. Prep- 
aration: egB-flip, lt.roixture(Jfttru'ri(>piWfu( 
tini ffaltlci. a. P. = 4 OI. each of b. and cinna- 
mon-water, one-half oz. sugar, yolks of two 
eggs). Foiato-b., b. made b;r aistillation of 
potatoes, containing, if distillation is continued 
too long, large amountKof amyl alcohol. 

Bra'ador'a operation. [Bratdor, a F. sur- 
geon who proposed it at the begioning of this 
century.] Sec Aneurym. 

Braaa agna, Braaa-tDniider'i agne. t^ 

Bras';. An acute blood disease of sheep. 

Brawny. Of the conaistepce of Brawn, or 
firm and contracted muscle. 

Btayera (brey-ee'rah),Bra7ena (brey-ee'- 
rin). See Cnuo. 

Brailiian arroirTaot. Tapioca. 

Braill wood. Tbe heart-wood of Pello- 

Shorum dubium, a lejfnminons tree of Brazil. 
. decoction from it is used as an indicator, 
turning purplish-red with alkalies, and yel- 
low with acids. 

Braad. [L. pant's,] A food-stuS' made by 
mixing the flour of some grain with water 
and other ingredients and baking. Ordinary 
Theat b. made from the flour of the inner 
part of the groin without the envelopes (White 
b.j, contains 8 percent, of proteids, 50 of car- 
bohydrates (starch, etc.), 1..^ of fat, 2 of min- 
eral salts. Brown t>., arabam b., which in- 
cludes the outer portions of the grain and 
contains more fotty and nitrogenous matter, is 
somewhat irritant and stimulant to the intes- 
tine, and is used fbr constipation. Rj» b. 
closely resembles wheat b. Com b. (made 
t :..., ,._.,: --luch larger a " 


the soft part of vheat br«ad : uied in making 
emollient poultioes (B. panltice, B.-and-mllk 
IKiiiltlce), and in the form of a. pill-mau |S. 
pUl) aa an excipient. 

Br««k. To Beparate foreiblj into two or 
more parti ; of an electric current, to cut off 
or interrupt. 

Breaker. An applituice for breaking a cir- 


Breast, t. The protuberance formed by the 
mammary j-land and the structures surround- 
ing it. B. ptimp, a suction apparatus used for 
evacuatine the milk from the b. 3. The ex- 
ternal surface of the thoiai. 

Breut-pang. Angina pectoris. 

BreatUng. See Retmratitm. B. capacity, 
the entire amount of air that can be expelled 
from the lungs aflcr taking the deepest possi- 
ble breath. See Retpiratien. 

Br»eoIl. The t)uttockB : as B. praenlalion, 
presentation of the buttocks of the fetus at the 
OS uteri during parturitioD. 

Breeie, Bleetrlo(orBtaUe). See Jura (2). 

Brec'ina. [Gr.] That part of the head cor- 
rcepoodiug to the anterior roDt&nelle. 

Bren'ner'i tOr'tnoIa. A formula express- 
ing the resu I (a of galvanic stimulation of the 
aiiditory nerve. It is: Cathode in external 
auditory meatus, loud sound heard on elosiiig 
circuit, continuing with diminished intensity 
daring closare, and ceasing when circuit le 
broken ; anode in meatus, no sound on closing 
or during closure of circuit, feeble sound on 
breaking oircait. 

BrlckUrer'i Itcb. See Itch. 

Bridge. A device replacing a missing nat- 
ural tooth and supported entirely by anchorage 
to adjoining natiital t«eth {abulmcnu). The 
crowns anchored to the abutments are called 
atnUmenl-croimu, and the portion of the brid^ 
between the abutments is the body. Each arti- 
ficial tooth forming part of the body is a 

Bridle. A device used in the regulation of 
teeth, which has metal eitenaions protruding 
beyond the comera of the lips. 

Bridle ■tnctnie. A stricture consisting of 
a narrow band stretched across a canal as the 

Brlglit's dtieaae. [R. Bright, London phy- 
sician, who fint described it. L. mortnu 
Brighfii.} A name applied to any diseaae of 
the kidney attended with albuminuria. Acute 
B'l d., acute parenchymatous or acute dilfuse 
nephritis ; ChroiUc B'a a., chronic parpnchj;- 
matous nephritis, chronic diffuse (or intersti- 
tial) nephritis, amyloid kidney. 

Brine. A solution of rommon salt contain- 
ing more than two or three per cent, of the 
laUer. B.-l)atli, a bath made up of b. or arti- 
ficial sea-water 1 a stimulunt and tonic, used 
in amemia, chlorosis, scrofula, and chronic 

Brltlili gum. Dextrin. 

Broad'bant'B sign, [BroadbeiU, Eng. phy- 
sician.] Retraction of" the costal interspaces 
posteriorly during systole, a sign of adherent 

Broad ligament. [L. liganttn'tiim lattim.) 
1. Either one of the two vertical folds of peri- 
toneum extending laterally, one from either 
side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis. It 
contains the FaHoppian tube, ovary and body 
of Bosenmiiller, and round ligament. 3. An 
antero-poste nor, vertical, sickle-shaped, double 
fold of peritoneum attaching the Tiver to the 
diaphragm and slieath of the rectus abdominis 

Broca'B centre, Broea'a eonrolvtlon. 
IBroca, F. neurologist.] The third left frontal 
convolution ; the centre for the movements of 

Broca's ponch. An elastic sac, filled with 
connective tissue and fat, contained in each 
labium majus. 

Broca'B SqnaTe. A sort of T-square agiplied 
to the head in order to mark on the outside of 
the skull the situation of the central fissure. - 
I the 

Bromal (broh'mal). [Brom-iDe + orde- 
hyde.] Tri bromal d eh yde ; an oily liquid, 
CHBnO = CBn.CHO, or chloral in which 
bromine replaces chlorine. B. hydrate (Bro'- 
malum hydra'tum), CtHBn(OII)i, a crystal- 
line substance used as a substitute for chloral 
hydrate and in epilepsy and chorea ; dose, 1-7 
gr. (gra. 0.06-0.60). 

BrameJln (broh'ma-lin). Bromethyl-for- 
mioe. (CHi)aNi.C]HsBr. A sedative tised in 
epilepsy ; dose, 30-tiO gr. (gm. 2-4). 

Sromunlde (broh-ma-meed). [Srotn-ine 

.Igia. Dose, 10-16 gr. (gm. C 

Bromatoxlimns (broh"'inah-l«k"siz'muB). 
[Gr. broma, food, + Uiiikon, poison.] Poison- 
ing by food. 

Bromate (broh'mayt). [Bromic + -ate. L. 
brffmai.] A salt of bromic acid. 

Bromated (broh' may-led). [L. brdma'lut, 
bromtird' lut.'i Containing or combined with 

Bromelln (broh-mee'lin). A very active 
proteolytic ferment derived from the pine- 
apple (Bromelia Ananai), 

BTemethyl-fonnlne (broh-meth"il-&wr'- 
meen). IBrom-ine + flhyl + /ormitit,} Broma- 

BrDmHydilo(brohm-hey'drik). See Hsdro- 

Bromlc (broh'mik). Of, pertaining to, or 
produced by bromine or the bromides: as B. 
acne. B. acid, a monobasic acid, HBrOi. 



(hroh'meyd). [Bromine + -ide. 
L. brd'miditm, Aromurc'Enm.] A compound of 
AD element ar radicle with bromine ; b, salt of 
hydrobromic acid. The oBifi»l b'e with their 
ilosee are those of: Ammonium (Ammo'Dii 
broraidum, U. S., B. P., Arumo'nium bromn'- 
tum, O. P.), KHi,Br,gr. 5-30 (eni. O.3O-2.0O) ; 
Oalolnm (Csl'eii bromidum, U. S.), CiiGn, 
20-30 gr. (gm. 1.30-2.00); Ethyl (^ther 
broma'tuB, G. P.). used as a geuen.! and local 
anicHthetic, 1-10 3 bTinhalacion; Hydrogen, 
cr Ilydrobromic acid, HBr (Ae'idum hydro- 
bro'micum dilu'tum, U. S., B. P. = 10 ptr 
cent, solution, 1-4 3 [gD>. 4-16]) ; Uthlnm 
(Li'thii bromidum, U. S.), LiBr, 5-30 gr. 
(gm. 0.30-2.00) ; PotMSlnm (Polass'ii bromi- 
ium, U. 8., B. P.. Kal'ium broma'tum, O. 
P.),5-.S0gT. (gm, 0.30-2.00); Sodlnm [So'dii 
broraidura, U. S.,B. P., Na'triuiu broma'tum, 
G. P.), 5-30 gr. (gm. 0..15-2.D0) ; BtronUmn 
(Stron'tii bromidum, U. S.J, 10^0 gr. (gm. 
0.6-3.6); Zinc (Zinoi broiuidum. P. ii,), 1-6 
gr. (f^. O.Oe-0.35). All the b's are nervous 
wdatives, relieving or preventing spasm, in- 
somnia, ele., due loeicesHive cerebral or spinal 
irritability (epilepsy, iufaDtile convulsions. 

hysteria). Potassium b. depresses Uie heart 
and often irritates the stomach ; ammonium 
b. stimulates the heart, but is more irritant; 
sodium b., calcium b., and lithium b. are less 
irritant and not depresEfant. Gold b., AuBrj, 
la used in epilepsy; dose, 0.2-0.5 gr. (gm. 0.01- 
Bromldla (broh-raid'ee-ah). A liquid pro- 

Erietary preparnlion, siLid to contain potassium 
romide, chloral hydrate, cannabis indica, and 
hyoscyamua. Dose, 1-2 3'. 

BromldTOsla (broh"mid-roh'sis). [Gf. bro- 
moi, stink, + hidrotii. sweating,] The exhala- 
tion of fetid sweat, B, oecura phyaiolopically 
in negroes and some other races. It la most 
marked in the axilla, groin, genitals, and feet. 
Treatment : dusting powders, lotions, or oint- 
ments of salicylic acid, boric acid, boroglycer- 
ide, naphthol, potassium permanganale. 
Bromlna (broh'meen). [ 

on account of its disagreeal— _ 

mum, U. S., G, P.] A non-metullic element ; 
a rMldish-brown corrosive liquid, emitting 
suffocating brown fumes; atomic weight, 70.75; 
•p, gr., 2.1W0; symbol, Br. B, is used in chemis. 
try in the form ofaatu rated aqueousaolutionlir. 
-(ca(«r^ Aqua broma'ta, U. P. te^t)andasadiB- 
iafccta^t. B. baths coDtainiog 30 ^ of b. are 
used in scrofulous, syphilitic, and pigmentary 
skin diBeoscB. B. combines directly with other 
elements, forming Bromides and llydrobromic 
acid, and with oiygen and hydrogen to form 
Bromic and Ilypobromoua acids. B. penta- 
Chlortde, BrCls, a very corrosive liquid used 


aJning 10 per cent, of bromii . 
oilasaiiexcipicnt. Uacd like bromides. Dose, 
1-4 3 (gm. 4-15). 

compounds, especially hi 

acne eruption (bromide acnej, leror oi nream, 

sleepiness, lassitude, intellectual stupor, loss of 

. (broh'moh-fiiwrm}. [Bromint 

+ /urni.ic.l Formyl bromide, tribrom-me- 
thane, CHBn, a liquid boiling at 152° C. 
Used as an anssthetic in whooping-cough ; 



Bromo-gollol (hroh"moh-garol), Bronui- 
gall'lc acid. See Gallobromol. 

Bromo-bKmol (broh"moh-hee'mol). lls^ 
mol containing 3.7 per cent, bromine. Used 
like bromides. Dose, 15-30 gr. (gm. 1-2). 

Bro'mnm, [L.] See Bromine. 

Bromnrat (brom'yuh-ret). [L. bromarg- 
luia.] See Bromide. 

BroncbUl (bron^'kee-sll. [L. brancbia'- 
/(«,] Of or pertaining to a bronchus; as B. 
arteries, B. braatbrng (B, respiration), see 
Rapiration. B, voice, B, irlilBper, see Vocal 
Sigiu, Table of. B, crises, see CritU. 

BroncUectMlB ( hrong"kee-ek'ta-8is). 
IBroacliat + eclan'i.'i Dilatation of a broD~ 
chus. B. occurs in ehronic bronchitis, and is 
frequently marked by fetor of the breath and 
expeetonition due to the retention of secretioii 
in the dilated bronchus, 

SToncUole (brong'kee-ohl). [L, bnmthi- 
oliUj dim. of firoiwAw,] One of the finer 
subdivisions of the brouchi; or, according to 
some, the very finest subdivision of a bron- 
chus, the terminal branch of an intralobular 
brouchium. Hence, BroncbloIlUB (-ley'tis, 
-lee'tis) [-ifii], inflammation of a b. 

BrancIilUc(brong-kit'ik). Of or pertaining 
to hrouehitis. 

__ cold, to the inhalation ol 

irritating substances, and to microbio infection 
(in typhoid fever, mcusles, lnflucnxa,and tfaein- 
feetiouB b. produced by tlie Micrococcus lance- 
olatus. Micrococcus catarrhalis, etc,). Marked 
by fever (usually moderate); pain m or near 
the sternal region (increased by conghin'g); 
cou^h at first dry (dry stat^), afterward accom- 
panied by iniico-pus (stage of secretion); dysp- 
nasA. Treatment; counter-irritation (mustard 

ClaHter or cups to cliest); derivation (hot foot- 
ath); diaphoresis; inhalation of steam, plain 
or medicated ; sedatives (opium, belladonna]; 
eipeetorants (aconite, ipecac, tartar emetic, 
squill in the dry stage, ammonium chloride or 
carbonate, senega, balsam of Tolu in the stage 
of secretion) ; emetics (ipecac, apomorphine) 
in great dyspno^ due to excess of secretion. 
Oaptllary b., acute b,, alfecting the finer 
liial tuber '-'-■' -""- '- — 

bronchial tubes, associated v 

often fatal, oBually requiring Btiiiiul*tii 

luinng Btimulatiaii 



! heart disease), or to rhrotiic general diseniiua 
tiiberculosiB, eyphilia). Marked bj repeated 
Bttacba of coughiDg ; by eipertamtiun, which 
may be seantj (Dry b.) or very profuse (bron- 
chorrbiea), and somctimee rei:d (Fetid b.); 
and by secondary ehitnges in the chest (bron. 
chiul dilatation, cmphyBcma of the iiinss, 
bronchial collapse, tubular pneumonia), pro- 
dueine constant dyspntea, cngorRemcnt of the 
right heart, cyanosiB, and nnaaarca. Treat- 
ment: hygienic Ichenge of elimate, protection 
from changes of weather); tonic (alcohol, iron, 
quinine, dizitalis, strychnine, cod-liver oil, 
nourishing diet); counter-irritant (blisters, 
iodine to chest) : expectorant (ammonium 
chloride, apomorphirie, asafmtida. terebeoe, 
euculyplol, potusBium iodide and squill Co in- 
crease and riquefy secretions; balsam of Tolu, 
helludonna, sencKa, and sprays of alum, tannic 
acid, or Mouset's solution in bronchorrhrxa to 
diminish secretion}. FlMtle (or Fl'brlnDUB 
or Oroupmu) b., a form in which costs of the 
bronchi coDBistiaR of coagulaled fibrin are 
coughed up. The physical signs of b. are 
mainly rhonchi and riles, indicating contrac- 
tion of the bronchi or bronchioles and the 
preHeace of secretion in them. 

Broachlmn [brong'kec-nm). One of the 
■ubdiviaions of a bronchus. 

Bronolio-(broQ^koh-). Of or pertaining to 
a bronchus; bronchial. Broncll(i-ci.T'«Tn[)n(, 

Ertly bronchial and partly cavcmous; as 
-c. respiration, Bronctiocale (brong'koh- 
seel) [-«(«]. literally, a tumor of a bronchus; 
guilre. BrDa'chollUi [-'lYAI, a concretion in 
~ bronchus. BronehomycOHli (-niey-koh'sis), 

disease of the bronchi dui „ . 

Cbop'atbr. any alTeclion of a bronchi 
Brnnolioplionj (-of oh-nee) [(ir.pAoi " * 


see V^ocal Sigi , .,. 

the act of closing a fistula of the bronchus or 
trachea by a plastic operation. Bronchopnau- 
monla (-new-moh'nee-ah), catarrhal or lobu- 
lar pneumonia, BTonebo-pta'moaary, be- 
longing to both bronchi and lungs; as B.-p. 
nerves. Broncliorrliagl* (-raj'ce-ah) [-rAoffi'aJ , 
heniorrhiLge from a bronchus. BronclioiTliiBa 

.. nchuH; espeeially, a, pair of Bcissors for 
layinK open the bronchi in autopsies. Broa- 
durt'omy f-fomwl, incision into the larynx, 
traeheiL or bronchi. Broncbo-rMlonlaT (-vee- 
sik'yn-lar), bronchial and Tesicular; as B.-t. 
respiration, i. e., respiration intermediate in 
quality and pilch between normal breathing 
and bronchial breathing. 8ee Rttpiralion. 

BrtmolmiCbronp'kus), [h.=Gr.brogckBi.'\ 
One of the branches into which the trachea 
divides inferiorly. The trachea divides into 
Elgbt and Left b., distributed to the riBht and 
left iDDgs, and each dividing and subdividing 


into smaller bronchi (bronchia), and then a Iti- 
matel^ into bronchioles which end in the air- 
sacs into which the acini of the lung open. 
The bronchi carry air to and from the lungs. 
Broiue dUbeUa. See DiabeUi. 
Brotued bUh. Addison 's disesK. 
jbruhm). The Sarotham'n 
>f the Legui 

the Boliii Scoparin, 
CiillnOto, and the liquid alLaloid Sparteine, 
CisHmNi; arc diuretic and cathartic; used ID 
dropsy ; dose, 1-2 3 (gm. 4-H). Preparations 
and doses: Siiccat icoparii, B. P., 1-2 3 
(gm. 4-»); Infu'iam tcoparii, B. P., 1-2 A 
(gm. 30-60); ExlTtuflam tcoparii fiuidam, V. 
S., 30-60 m {gm. 2-4). 

Brow. The supra-orbital region ; tberegion 
above the eyebrows. B.-agne, supra-orbital 
neuralgia, due lo malaria. B. preientaUon, 
Ihe condition in which the brow of the fetus 

Brown. 1. Hayine a color composed of a 
mixture of black, white, and red m varying 
proportions, B. atrophy, B. IndnraUon, 
atrophy or induration (cirrhosis), associated 
with b. coloration, due to pi^entation ; as B. 
atrophy of the heart. B, induration of the 
Inngs. S. mlxtnre, compound licorice mix- 
ture. 3. A b. pigment. BUmarckb., triami- 
doaiKi-benzene, a pigment used in microscopy. 

Brown'lan moyement. [R. Browa de- 
scribed it (1827).] See MoveJneiU. 

Brown- SAqiuxd'a paralysis ( or ayndroma ) . 
Paralysis of sensation on one side and of mo- 
Uon on the other side of the body, due to a 
lesion afTecting the white and gray matter of 
one lateral hair of the cord. 

Bmeli'i membrane (broocAs). The lamina 
TJtpea of the chorioid. 

Brttolae(broo'Be™), [BnicM (a shrub from 
which it was supposed to be derived) +-ine. 
L. bnid'na, finicf num.] Acrystalliue alka- 
loid CuIIbNiOi, occurring in nux vomica. 
Used as a tonic and locally as an anodyne in 
acute otitis. Dose, gr. O.OS-0.50 (gm. O.OOK- 

Briicke'i mnicl« (brue'keE). [E. W. 
BrucJte, G. anatomist (1846).] 

Bmlie. See Cimttui'on and Cantutt. 

Brolt (hrue-ee). [F.^ a noise.] A rourmnr 
or advenlitiouH sound ; pariicularly. onedevel- 
oped in the chest. B. ifalran (brazen sound), 
' of metallic tinkle heard in auscultation 
. -cussion over a thoracic cavity. B. de 
cnlineuf (new-leather noise), a creaking sound 
heard in the rcspinitory movements in dry 
pleurisy and^rirarditis. B. de drapean (flag 
sound), a noise like the flapping of a flag, pro- 
duced by the movement of intralaryngeai or 
achcal growths during respiration. B. 
de dlable, a buzzing or humming murmur in 
the veins, otien heant in anEemia. B. de pot 
fil4, cracked-pot rtttonance (sec JiaoJuinrrA . 
Anenrjsmal i., the single or double m 



lyDchronoDB with the heart-Bound, heard Over 
uiuieinysm. FUMnUlb., theutorinesouffle, 
a SDond of varying chunicter heard over the 
pregn&Dt utenia, 

Smmwr'aglMdalbroo'Dfri). [J.C.Srun- 
ner, who in the seventeenth century rtesorihed 
them.] Oiif-lobulHl racemose glands In the 
nibmucoaa of the duodenum ; opening on the 
free surface by aingle ducts. 

Bryant'! rectuigla. The rectangular fiini re 
formed bj (A) a perpendicular dropped from 
the sntenor Huperior spine of the ilium to the 
plane of the lied when the pntient Ib flat on hie 
i-.i. ._j ■■.> _ .;__ jfj^u ffon, (he great 

Bryonr (brey'oh-nee). [L. bryffniu.) A 

SIU9 of Kuropean clinibine planta of the 
curbitac«B. The root of Itlark h. (Bryo'. 
nia alba) and Red b. (Ilryo'nia diu'ica) U the 
Bryonia, V. S. It containsa bitter gli 

cough; dose, KMiU gr. (gm. O.liO-t.Od); UKed 
externally as a niberuek'nl. Do«e of TViicfu' ra 
frrjonio!, U. S., i5-lW "l (gm. 1-4). 

Btlbo (bew'boh). [L., fr. Gr. bonbon.'] An 
InOamed and swollen lymphatic glanil: par- 
ticuJarly, one la the groin, it's may break 
down into pus (Snp'pnitttlTe b,), and, 
whether suppurating or not, may remain 
swollen along time without licing painful or 
reddened (Itrdolent b.). G's are due to ab- 
sorption of infective raalcrial. and, according 
to their orlclll, arc called Simple (Syiiipa- 
Ihetie), due to some non-spvcilic source of ir- 
TitAtion: GonoTTfu^al; Vetiifreal (including 
Ibe SypliiliUe !>., an indolent ppumtive 
iDuUfple b., iDd the Vij'nlmt h.. a suppum- 
tive nniglandular b. occurring with a chan- 
croid); AntiVen'fiW (occurring in the plague); 
and ^nonoiu (Scrofulom) b., an indolent, 
frequently suppurative vancly produceil by 

Bul»iiooelB(bew.bon'oh-»eel). [■«/*.] An 
incompletely deficendcti inguinal hernia, form- 
ing a swelling tike a bnbo in the groin. 

Buc'Ckl. [L. burcn'i'f, fr. burru, cheek.] 1. 

Bnccliutor(huk-see-nay'li>r). [L.^atnira- 

peter.] Themuscleofthecheek. S^ it'uclrt, 

Bncco-cemcal (buk"koh-sHr'vee-k8l). Of 
or pertainiue to the neck and the buccal nur- 
faceofa tooth. 

Bnebti (bew'kew). Various species of Ba- 
ro'sma, comprising South African shrubs of 
the Rulacete. The leaves of Itarosma betu- 
li'na (Short b.]. Barosma crenuia'ta, and Ba- 
rasma wrratifo'lia (LOttK b.) are the B., U. S. 
(B. folia, B. P., folia bucco): they contain a 
volatile oil consisting largely of a stcaroplene 
diosphunol. CiiIIbOi; diun-IJc and gastric 
Ionic; used in chronic pyelitis, cystitis, and 
urethritis: dose, 20-30 gr. (gm. 1.25-2.00). 
Dose of Eirlrac'lutn b. Jta'idum, U. S., 20-30 
m. (gm. I.25-2.0I»; Infu'ium b.. B. P., 1-2 5 
(gm, 30-60); Tinclu'ra b., B. P., 1-2 S 
(gm. 4-8). 

BnclCbsan. The Menyanthes trifbliata. a 

_ ., ghicoside, Menf/anthin, Cnllw- 

Oit ; they are a bitter tonic, used in dyspepsia 
and skin diseases. Preparation : Extraifhat 
Iri/oliiftbrini, G. P. 

BnclMye. See under .Eaculu*. 

Buck'i •xtculon. [Gurdon fiMti.asurReoii 
of New York.] A form of extension for frac- 
ture of the thigh. Rifccled by weights at- 
tached to the leg. while counler^i tension is 
made by the weight of the body, brought inl« 
play by tilling up the foot of the bed. 

Buck's flucUt. l^e continuation upon the 
penis of the superficial perineal fascia. 

Buck'tlwm. The lUiamnus cathar* liens, a 
European shrub of the RhamnaccK. Its ber- 
( FrueluB rhampi catharlicie, G. P.) afford 

used in making the Erlra/flum rhamni 
catharlicir flaidam, G, P., and the Sirvfrnt 
rhamni ealharilctr, G. 1'. Cathartic. Dose 

of extract and syr ' ~ " " 

the Rhamnua Fra 

Bncneinla tropica (buk-nee'mee-ah trup'- 
ik.ah). [Or. 6oi«, ox, + knhnf. leg.] He- 

Bud, BuUlaB. See GemmwCe, Oemmation. 

Bnfl^ coat. A grayish or yellow!^ coagn- 
lum sometime.i forming on coaj{ulatJug bluod. 
It is a clot which cither contains an excess of 
librin or is deficient in red corposcles. owing 
to the neltling of the latter cansed by delay in 

Buhl's dlMua (boolz). An acute fatal dis- 
ease of new-bom infants, marked by fatty de- 
generation of the viscera, purpura, meliena, 
jaundice, and mdema. 

Bnlama boU. A fiiruncular affection pro- 
duced by the penetration beneath the skin of 
the grub of some insect ; seen in the island of 
Bulama and elsewhere on the west coast of 

BtQb. [L. balbtu,] 1. A nearly globular 
underground plant^talk branching at once 
into leaves: as Onion-b., B. of squill {Balbat 
tdlta, G. P.). S. Hence any rounded or 
Qask-like swelling, particularly a terminaJ 
one. B. of a hair (Balr-b.), the terminal ez- 
punsion of the root of a hair. B. of ths eya 
iBwIbw of^vN), the eyeball. B. of «orpna 



, the dilated portioD near the 
posterior end, where each eorpuB cavemcHUm 
Joiai its fellow. B, ot corpui ipouslOBum, 
the dilated poaterior end of the corpus spou- 
pmum. B. ot VMUbOle ( Balbiu vejUib'ali), 
tbf ovoid body made up of a plexus of veiiu, 
situated on cither side of the vestibule of the 
Tagioa behind the labia minDra, OlOtctory 
b., see Ol/aOort/. B't of Kranse, ovoid b's, 
0.05 mm, m diameter, situated in the eonjunc- 
Uva and about the mouth, glam penis, and 

Btd'bu. 1. Of or pertainine to the bulb 
(medulla obloDgsta) lasB. mj/ehlis i = inflam- 
mation of the medulla}. B. parurili, pu- 
ralysis, particularly of Uie several cerebral 
nerres, due to disease (usually ehronie and 
pr<^Te«aive) of the medulla; labio-glosso- 
laryngeal paralysis. Aahenic b. paralyiit, 
myasthenia gravis pseud oparalytiea. 3. Of 
orpertaininjg to thebulbuBoculi (eyeball);as 
B. conjunctiva. 

BimiO-c«T«nimBa (bul"boh-kaT-ur-noh'- 
us). [Balb {2) •{■ eavenwtu body.] The ac- 
celerator urine. 

Bnlbo-niiclaar [bnl"boh-new'klee-ar). 

iBulb (3) + jiuefcu*,] or or pertaininfF to the 

BnlI>o-iiTeUiTaI(bDl"boh-ew-ree'thral). Of 
or in relation with the bulbous portion of the 
urethra; as B.-u. glands f^' Cowper's glands). 

Bta'boni. [L. balbfffiu.i 1. Having or 
lerminatiDg in a bulb. B. nerres, nerves in 
an amputation-atump which enlarge at the 
end and become painful, producinf; neuralgia, 
S. Pertaining or containn] in a bulb ; as the 
B, portion of the urethra (contained in the 
bulb of the corpus spongiosum), 3. Bulbar. 

Bnl'bui. [L.] BteBulb. 

BnUn}lA (bew'lim'ee-ab). [Qr. boutlmia^ 
boat, ox + iimo*, hunger,] Inordinate desire 
for food ; insatiable appetite. 

n bullet leaves a dark mark. 
BnU's-eye eondeiiMF. Alensforilluminat- 
iag an opaque object viewed under the micro- 

BnlpUs. A contaf^ous aflection occurring 
in Nicaragua, in which crops of itching pap- 
ales appear on the skin, and are followed by 

whitish {While b.) or blackish {Btacl: b.} 

Biillloii(bun'yun), [Provincial Eng. Aunny, same root as bun.] Enlargement 

the overlying skiu, forcing inward of (I 

and inflammation of the Joint. Treatment: 
remedying of deformity by apparatus ; leod- 
and-opium wash ; counter-irritation ; puncture 

smokeless flai 

Bnnsen's cell (boon'scnz). See Battery. 

Bnphthalmla (bewf-thol'mee-ah), Bnpll- 
tmomns (bewf-that'mus), [Gr. bmit, oi, + 
ophtkalmot, eye.] Marked distention of the 
eye in all its parts; a disease, occurring con- 
gen itally or in infanry, proliably akin to glau- 

Bur. 1. See Burdock. 3. A drill with a 
revolving head serrated or provided with a 
series of cutting blades. 

BtiTdacba colnnmtboor'dahcA's), [C. F, 
5urrfocA,G,neural0Ki8t(iai9),] Thepoatero- 
extemal column of the spinal cord. 

Bnr'doek. The Lappa officinalis, or bar, 
a plantof the Compositie, The root (Lappa, 
U. S.) is diuretic and diaphoretic ; used in 
rheumatism, gout, scrofula, syphilis, and skin 
diseases; done, 1-S 3 (8i»-^^); oS laUratf ttim 
lappa fixt'idwn, U. S., »>-60 "R {gm. 2-4). 

Burette (bew-rct'), [K.] Agradoatedtube 
provided with a stopcock, used in volumetric 
chemical analysis. 

Burgundy pltoh. See Pilch, 

Bnrmeie rtncwonn. Tinea trichophytina 

Bum. [L, eombv^tio.'\ A lesion produced 
by the local action of great heat or of caustics. 
B'sof the first degree produce reddening of the 
skin; of the second di-grce, vesication; third 
degree, partial destruction of the skin ; fourth 
degree, destruction of the whole thickness of 
the skin; fifth degree, destruction down to the 
bone ; sixth dwee, destruction of the limb, 
bones and all, B's above the third degree pro- 
duce very contractile cicatrices which cause 
often ijreat deformity. Treatment: puncture 
of vesicles, protection of surface by lime lini- 
ment (Carron oil), lead carbonate and its oint- 
ment, zinc oxide, biamnth subnitrate, starch, 

relWe irriBuou 
Bomatt'i dlslnTsctlug fluid. Solution of 

Bum's ligament. The falciform process of 
foscia lata forming the upper boundary of the 
saphenous openi ng, 

Bnming- glass. A convex lens used for 
concentrating heat-rays to a focus and thui 
setting fire to an object placed there. 

Bunt. [L. iMfiM.] Deprived of animal 
matter by burning; calcined; as B. alum 
(dried alum), B. bone (hone-ash), B. lime 
(quick-lime), B, gypsum (Calcinm sulphalr' 

cinm sulphate). 


n young 

Biirqiilim (buer'kizm). [Burq, » F. near- ' 
ologirt.] Hetallotheraphy. I 

Bnr'M. (L. = a purse.] 1. A recess or ! 
pouch of any sort. B. pbAryn'gMl. a n 
the pbaryDX found in embrros and in , 

children. 3. A sac lined with endotheli , 

ritualcd either in the subcutaneous connective 

and Ihe skin, or between a bony sui^tce and a 
leDdon playing over it (Byno'vl&l b.). 

Bnr'iAl. Of or pertaining to a bursa. 

Bnrae. See Buria. 

BnrSlUa (hur-sey'tis. bur^see'tis). [fiitrm 
+ -UU-i Inflammation of a bursa. 

Bntw (bew'tee-ah). A eenus of trees of Ihe 
LeKUminoxie. TheKumof B. frondosa of India 

iBulen gummi, B. or Bengal Inno) a used 
ike kino. 

Bnttor. (L. biui/ mm '^ Gr. bouiuron.'] 1. 
The soU fatlj raaen made bj churning milk. 
Consists of 86 to 92 per cent, of neulral fats 
(mainly margarin and oleio, with very small 
amounts of butyrin, caprylin. caprin, and 
caproin), mixed with caiieiii, salt, and water. 
B. milk, ehurucd milk from which the h. haa 
been removed: a nutritious food containing 
4 per cent, of nitrogenous mattt'r and H per 
cent, of sugar. 3. Anysuiist' — " "-— "'■i>"~ 
b., as B. of antlmonr (Butyi 
antimony trichloride ; B. of 
cacao), oil of theobroma; B. Of Use (ftuty- 
rum zinci), zinc ehluride ; Oocaannt b,, oil of 
cocoaout; Mntmegb,, nee Nutmeg. 

Bntt«rfl]r-WBed, Asclepiaa, 

Bntt'emnt. The Juglans cinerea, a North 
American tree of the Juglandacete, The bit- 
ter Inner root-bark (Juglans, U. S.) is cathar- 
tic, Doee of Eitra^ turn juglan' dii, V. 8., 5- 
30 gr. (gm. 0.30-2.00). 

Bntt'ook. [L. Tuifia.) The rounded prom- 

t resembling 



ic (Buty- 

See Xurphy'M BuUon. 

BntTl (bew'til). [Butgrie + -yl.] A univ- 
alent radicle, CtHt. B. Klcoliiil, a liquid, 
C4ll(.0H, of which tbere are four isomeric 
varieties. B. iniutkrd-aU (B, isothiocyanate, 
B. isosulphocyanalej, a liquid, C4II1.CNS, oc- 
curring in oil of seurvy grass. 

Bntylamlne (liew"til-am'een). A liquid 
base, C.HiiX - CtlU.NH,, occurring in eod- 
liver oil : n diuretic and diaphoretic, and id 
large doses emetic and depressant. 

Batrlehlona (bew"til-kloh'ral). Croton- 
cbloral. CH..CHCl.CCIi.COH=C(HiClrf>; bu- 
tyric aldehyde in which 3 atoms of chlorine 
replace hydrogen. See Chloral. 

BntTTaoMnu (bew"ti-ray'Bhus). Butt«ry. 

Butyrlo (bew-tir'ik), Deriveil from butler. 
S. ftdd, a monobasic volatile acid, CiHgOi, 
comprising Sormol h. acid. CHi.CHj.CIIi.- 
CO,OH, a sour-smelling liquid produced by 
a fermentation (B. ftrmsntatlon) of sugar, 
starch, milk, and cheese, and occurnDg in 
the sweat and feces ; and Itobulyric ncid, 
(Cn.)i:CH.CH,.CO.OH. B. acid forms salts 
called Bn't)rrftt«B, including the butyrutea of 
organic radicles (B.«UierB). Ithas been used 
" -"■"---- S. aldshyda (Butyral'dehyde), 
1....1J ! — i„ ..„g isomeric 

I BntTtlii(bew'tur-in). [Buiyrit 
cerylbutyrate; a neutral'-* "' 

CtlisO, is a liquid occurring in ti 
modi Gcations. 

™j Gly 

._. __ _.fat, C.H((CH,Oi)i, 

butter and other fills. 
ButyroM <bew'tur-oyd). \Batyric -V -oirf.] 
Botlery ; as B. tumori, certain tumors of the 
breast having contents like butter. 

Bntyiometor (bew"tir-om'ee-tur), [Bvty- 

rtim + -mrter.\ An apparatus for determining 

the amount ofbutter ((atty matter) in milk. 

Biitynim(bew-ter'nim). [L.] SeeBuMer. 

Bnxllie (liuk'seen). IL. buxat^ box-tr«e, 

[)«m which b, is derived,] Berbenne, 



C. 1. Symbol of carbon. 3. Abbreviation 
foTCODgius (gallon). 3. Abbreviation for cen- 
tieiade. 4. Abbreviation for donas and clos- 
ar«. 6. Abbreviation for color-aense. 

e'. Sjmbol oftlie coefficient of partege. 

Oti. Symbol for calcinm. 

Cab&Ulna alOBB (bab'a-le;]]). [Low L. 
taballut, hone.] Horse aloes; ma inferior, 
fetid kind of aloes. 

CaOM (kft-kab'ab). Tbe Kede of Theo- 
broma Cacao (C. tree), a species of the 3ter- 
cnliaccte. It lumiBhea cocoa, chocolate, and 
oUof tbeobroma (O.btittar, (Xleum o.,G. P.). 

CMliaeUc (ka-kek'tik). Of or character- 
tied by cachexia ; aa a C. aspect. 

CulMZla (ka-kek'see-ah). {Gi.^kakoi, 
bad. + htxii, habit of body]. A profound aaii 
conspicuous stale of constitntional derange- 
ment, due to the action of a disease (as ma- 
laria, tuberculosis, syphilis, cancer, renal or 
cardiac diseHfle) or a poison (as lead, nieroary, 
arsenic) which produces great impairmeDt of 
oatrition. 0. afrlca'na, C. ameilca'na, an- 
kytoetomiasis. C. apbtbo'aa, psiloEis. C. 
aplen'lca, a disease in which there is pro- 
gremive anffimia with eulargemeDt of the 
■pleen, but without leuciEDiia or iovolve- 
ment of the lymphatic glands, C. (truml' 
pll'Ta, C. tbyrMprl'ra, a form of c. allied to 
or the mme as myicedema, produced by re- 
moval of the thyroid body. 

OAOOplaa'tlo. [Gr. kakot, bad, -vpUutikoi, 
forming.] Indisposed to form tissue. 

OacounlAlka-koz'mee-ah). [Or. taitos, bad, 
+ atmi, smell.] A bad odor. 

Caoot'ropby. [Or. kako>, bad, + trtphein, 
to nourish.] Malnutrition. 

Cactiiie (tftk'teen). The active principle of 
the Ccreus (Cactus) grandifloms. 
1 (ka-kew' 

r^ant '^'' ' 

•nperior vermis of the cerebellum. 

CadaTor(ka-day'vur). PI. cadav'era. [L., 
tr. eadere, to &I1.J Thedead body ofa human 

CkdaTer'lc. Of orderived from acsdaver; 
a* C. alkaloid ( ^a ptomaitie), C. coni'int 
(cadaverine), C. rigidtty (rigor mortis). 

OataTWlne (ka^av'ur-ecn). {Cadaver + 
-in*.] A ptomaine, C6HhNj=NH..(CH.}iN lit, 
or ijenlamethTlene-diamine. It is a syrupy 
liquid of very disagreeable odor, produr^ by 
the putrefaction nf auimal tissues, and by the 
action of '.he Spirillum eholcrte nod Spirillum 
Finkleri, and occurring in the urine in cystin- 
uria and pernicious ane^mia. It can produce 
■uppuration, but i" not very toxic. Its hydro- 
chloride readily decomposes into piperidine. 

of. See Jvniprr. 
.... ._. (kay'din-een). A sesqtiilerpene, 
CisIIu, found in tbeoilsof cade, cub«bs,Bavin, 
camphor, etc. 

Cad'mlum. _ A metallic cry stall izable ele- 
ment, resembling tin in appearance and prop- 
erties; melting-point, 315* C. (592° F.J; sp. 
gr.,S.60-8,69i atomic weight, 111.8; bivalent: 
symbol, Cd. C. Iodide (^drnii iod'idum, C. 
joda'tum), Cdli, eepeeially in ointment {Un~ 
guen'ttim cadmii ind'idi), and 0. o'leata are 
used in skin dinesses and glandular enlarge- 
ments. C. sulphate (Cadmii sulphas, C. sul- 
fii'ricum). SCdSO* + HHjO, an astringent, used 
in 1 to 8 pro mille solution in chronic conjunc- 
tivitis, urethritis, and otorrhcea. 

CEBcal (see'kal). [L. dsna'^M.] 1. Blind; 
ending in a blind passage or cul-de-sac. 3. 
Of or belonging to the c»enm. 

CNcam(see'kum). [L. - blind (luiwdnum, 
understood).] The dilated commencement Of 
the large intestine, into which open the ileum 
and the vermiform appendix. 0. Teatlb'nll, 
the lower blind extremity of the scala media. 

CBmentnm (see-men' lum). [L.] Cement. 

Cnlaxlaii section (see-iay'ree-an). [Said 
to be from Julius Ocmr, who wss brought into 
the world in this way.] Incision made throueh 
the abdominal wail and olerua in order to de- 
liver a fetus. The operation is indicated when 
delivery by the natural passages, even with 
the aid of embryotomy or cephiilotripsy, is im- 
possible or hazardous; or particular^ when 
the pelvic outlet is contracted to leas than two 
inches ; or when tbe mother is dead and tbe 
child still alive, A special variety of C. s. in 
which the peritoneum and uterus are not 
opened is laparo-etytTotomy. 

CBsium (see'ze 

from the blue col 

A univalent metallic element ; 

132.5 ; symbol, Cb. 0. and an 

mlde, CsBr + 3NII(.Br, end 0. rnbldiom uid 

ammonlnm bromide, are used like the olber 

bromides. Dose, 15-45 gr. (gm. 1-3). 

CoIFmi. [L.] Coffee. 

GatTee'lc acid. A crystalline acid, CiHbOi, 
found in coffee. 

Cafl81iie_(karee;een). [L. Mjri'no.U. S.. 

e and miar- 

[l.I--1.25percent,).guarBna(6percent.). Itia 
methyl-theobromine and trimethyl-i an thine, 
CiII(CHi)i(CHt}NiOi. C. is a stjmulant of 



(he DcireHWDtrea tmd of reflex ictivitj, Ibui 
Indirectly BtiinalatioK the heart and eleva- 
ting the blood-preaHure* it is diuretic and 
retards tinue-wasli-. Used in dropey, car- 
diac disease, opium- poison ine, and niigraiue; 
dose, 1-3 gr. (xin. CI.06-O.2U). C. citrate 
(or CieraUd e Caffeina otira'la. It. S., Caffei- 
nie citiaa, B. P.) and the efferveaoeut citrate 
(Caffi^ina citrata effervnw-enB, U. M., Oaffeine 
citnu eO'ervee'cenH, B. P.) are mechanical 
mixture* of c. and citric acid ; do»e,3ET. (kto. 
O.liO) or more. C. uid Mdlnm b«D«Mit« ( C. 
vrdio- bemoatr, Coffei nu m natrio- benzo' leu m , G . 

P.), C. and lodlnm saJleylate, andC. hydro- 
bromide with other aalta of c. are used hypo- 
dermically; dow, ^-6gr. (gin. 0.13-0.40). C.- 
■ulphon'lc acid. O.-anl'plioiutM, nee Sym- 
phorot. C. rAla'rlaiiAtfl is used iu hyalencal 
vomiting and whooping-cough. 

OaUa'de Add, CAUn'olii, Calu'ctc acid, 
Oaln'cliL Agluroflidederivedfrom Chiococca 
nicemoBa (radii aiiTira). Cathartic and di- 
uretic in doses of 2-4 gr, (gm. 0.12-0.25); 
emetic in donca of 8-15 gr. (gm. 0.5-1.0). 

OalBiou dlaeaae fkay'son). Tunnel dia- 
ease; diver's paralrsiii; an affectjou produced 
by sudden return to ordinary atmospheric 
pressure adcr exposure to great pressure (in 
caissons, diving-bells, etc.). Characteriied 
by pains in the baclt. head, 
co-ordination, parapicgii " 

turn to greater almosphenc pressure, dry caps 
to spine, ergot. 

CKl'eput. OaJ'uput. The Melaleu'ca Lenca- East Indian tree of the MyrtaceK. 
~- 'ti)j the volatile oil from the leaves, is 

greenish and of a camphonlceoue < 

taste; consists ehieny of Cajspn'tol, i.isiiit.- 

lIiO, the hydrate of Cajepn'tane, CiolTtt ; used 

a clarifying ., 
anodyne, antispasmodic, carminative, and 
anthelminlhic loeally and internally ; in colic, 
dysmenorrh(ea. cholera, nervous spasms, rheu- 
matism, neumlgia, toothache, and sic in dis- 
eases ; dose. 2-10 n (gm. O.IS-0.65). Spir'itat 
emtipu'ti, I!. P., contains 10 per cent, of the 
oil ; dose, 5-20 "l (gm. O.S-1.2.'!). 

Caa'abax bean. See Fhyiotligma. 

Calunlne (kal'a-mecn). Native zinc car- 
bonate. ?repax«dc, (Calami'ua pnepara'ta, 
lapis cataniiiia'ris prspara'ta) is c. calcined, 
powdered, and washed ; used as a dusting and 
drying powder, and astringent. 

Cal'amna. l. A reed. C. larlpto'rlua (or 
•imply C), a writer's reed or pen, the space 
formed by the diverging restiform biidies at the 
lowerpariof the fourth ventricle, which resem- 
bles 4 plume. 3. Sweet Sag; the Ac'orus c, 
{C. aroma' ticus), a plant of the Araeeic grow- 
ing In North America, Asia, and Europe. The 
aromatic rbiuime(C., U. S.,RhiiH>' ma calami, 
O. P.) contains a volatile oil (O'leum calami 
0. P.) and a bitter glucoside. jle'orjn. Used 
M a bitter tonic and carminative in dyspepsia 
and colic. Dose of Eitnuflwn calami, G. P., 


lOgr. (gm. 0.6); Extraif litm ealanti Jltt' idmm, 
U.S., 10-20 "l (gm, O.BO-l-2a); Tineiv'ra cal- 
ami, G. P., 1 3 (giD.4). 3. A genus of pAliD*. 
Bee J}Tagtm*9 oLood^ 

CalCMMnm (kal-kay'nee-um). The oa cal- 
cis or heel-bone ; an irregularly quadrangular 
short bone forming the back part of the tar- 
sus. It articulates with the astragalus (ante- 
rior and posterior Calca'neo-aatraealold 
artieulationt), to which it is joined by the 
eilemal, posterior, and interosseous Calcs- 
neo-astnig'^aloid ligamcnli; and with the 
cuboid bone (Oalcaneo-ea'tiold articulation), 
to wliich It is joined by the superior, interos- 
seous, long, and short Calcaneo-cu'boid tiga- 
mtiiU; and it is joinedto Ibescaphoid bone by 
the superior and inferior Calcanao-aCApll'old 
(or Galeaneo-iutTlc'nlari ligaments, to the 
tibia by the Calcaueo-tlb'tal (deltoid) tin- 
ment, and to the fibula by the Cftleaneo-SV- 
nllx (external lateral) ligament. Calcaneo- 
pUn'tar, of or pertaining to the c. and the 
sole; as C.-p nerves. 

CAl'eu. PL, calca'ria. [L.] A spur. C. 
aTla (or simply C), thchippocampns minor ; a 
longitudinal eminence on the floor of the pos- 
terior comuof the lateral ventricle. 0. Urn- 
ora'le. a vertical plate of compact tissue lying 
in fl^>^t of the leaser trochanter of the femur 
and serving to strengthen the neck. 

Calcareoiia(kBl-kBy'ree-UB). [L. Coicd'reu, 
fr. calx.] Containing lime or calcium ; as C. 
salts. C. dagsnerfttlon, a form of degeneis- 
tioti iu which calcium carbonate is deposited 
in the tissues. 

(kal-kay'ree-ah). Lime. C. cUo- 
n'ta (G. P.) chtoritiated lime. C. bT'Orlca, 
a solution of calcium hydrate used as a test 
(G. P.). C. iwU (G.P.J, quick-lime. 

Oalcarine (kal'kar-ia}. [L.calcdri' 
calcar,] Rpur-shnped ; as C, fittUTC, on the 
mesial surface of the occipital lobe, separating 
the cuneus from the subcalesrine gyros. 

Oalctflc (kal-sifik). [Calx * L. taccrt, to 
(nake.] Converting into lime or salts of cal- 

Caldflcatlou (kaV'see-fee-kay'Bhun). The 
act of calcifying. 

Calcify (ksl'sce-fcy). Toronvertinlo or im- 
pregnate with a calcium salt. 

Calclgarons (kal-sH'nr-us). [Caix -I- L. 
gcrtTi. Id bear.] Producing calcium salts ; as 
C. trill (odontoblasts and osteoblasts). 

Oaldae (kal'aeyn ). To deprive of moisture 
and of volatile and combustible constituents 
by exposing to heat. 

Calcium (kal'see-nm). [Cafu^ H«m.] A 
metallic element contained in lime, chalk, 
niorble and gypsum ; a yellowish solid ; ap. 
gr., 1.57H; bivalent; symbol, Ca; atomic 
weight, 30.9. 0. Bc'etaU (Calcii ace'las), 
Ca(rilli09)i + IIiO, is used as a resolvent in 
scrofula and psoriasis. C. ar'abaM forms 
gum arable. C. bromld* (Calcii bro'midum, 
tl. 8., C. hroma'Ium), CaBri, a sedatire naed 


.a boQES, shelU (Prepared oyBter-Bbcll, Testa 
pneparata), various aniniiilcancretiaiia (craba' 
eyes, lapides eancrorum), coral, chalk, and 
marble; and, prepared for iiiedii:Eual use, aa 
prepared chaHt((.Vrfap™)ora'(a,U.S.,B. P.), 
and precipitated chalk {Calrii carbo'nag pra- 
cipita'tat. U. 8.. B. P., C. carbon'icum pne- 
cipilatum, G. P.). AstrioKent and antacid; 
used in acid dyHpcpsia, diarrhota, and coliv, 
and (U a dusting powder for bumfl and abra- 
Bions. Dose, 5-60 gr.fgni, 0.3-4.0): of ,tfi<(«ra 
CTtta, U. S., B. P., 1 5 (gm. 15) ; PaMt CTeM 
compo^iliu, U. S., 2(M0 gr. {gm. 1.25^.00) ; 
PuivU ereta aramaiiciti, B. P., 10-60 gr. (gm. 
, 0.6-4.0); Palvii crela aromatictueumopio, B. 
P., 10-10 gr. (gm. O.B-2.6) ; Trochi/ci crrta. 
U. S., l-iXoTKasea. C. ohlOTlde ICaldi chlo'- 
ridum. U. 8., B. P., C. chlora'tum, G. P. 
test), CaCli, a bygroscopic white powder used 
toatworh water lromga9es,and Internally given 
•a a resolvent in enlargement of glands and in 
tumors of the uterus and ovary; dose, 10-20 
gr. (gm. 0.60-1.2ri). 0, flu'ortile, CaFi. occura 
ID bonea and teetb. 0. glycaro-pliDSpliate, 
CaCiHTPOt. a crystalline powder used an a 
nervine tonic in neuraBthenia, phosphatur - 

solvent of uric aeid and an allerative in gout 
andscrofbla; dose,5-15gr. (gm. 0.3-1.0). C. 
hydrate, 0. hydrox'ldB (Caleii bydran, B. P.), 
slaked lime (see lAmr). 0. hydroml'phldt 
(C. n(^ftir<inK<),Ca(SH)i, isused as a depi~ 
Utary (Uartin'adepilatory). 0. bypoolilo'nte 
(Caleii hypochlo'^ria, C. hypochioro'sam), 
Ca(OCn, u believed to exist in chlorinated 
time. 0. lirvoiibDi'vIilte (Caleii hypopboe'- 
phis. B. P.), CbH<(POi)i, is uBed like c. 
phoophale, especiaUy in tubercalons, scrofiila, 
and rickets; dtwe, 10-30 gr. (gm. 0.60-2.00) ; 
of Suru'put /lypophotphflam, V. 3., and of 
Btru'p^it hi/pophoipki' turn cunt ferro. V. S,, 
wbieb contain 4.5 per cent, of c. bypophos- 
phile. 4 3 (gm. 15). C. I'odaU (Caleii lo'das' 
Ca(10i)i, IB an antiseptic and aniipyretii 
dose. 3-lOgr. (^.0.2-0.6). C. I'odlde (Calc: 

loais, and profuse suppuration : done, 1-3 gr. 
(gm. 0.06-0.20); C. lactate, Ca(CiHiOili + 
SHiO^ is alterative and bone-produ 

... jicVeta and scrofula, C. uictopliaspliate 
is used in rickelH, scrofula, and tuberculoBla. 
Dose,,'HOgT. (gia. 0,2-0.6) ; of Si/ruptu ealeii 
laetopkoi^Ka'lvi.V, 8.. B. P.,H 3 {gin.4-15). 
0. lutplithol-inl'phonate, anaprol. C. u- 
mte, Ca(NOi)t, is the white efflorescenct 
that fbrmB on the walle of stables or othei 
places where urine evaporates. C. ox'alate 
CaCiOi -t- 2HtO, occurs in the urine in Heparate 
eryitals or in calculi. 0. ozlde, see Lime, 0. 
pennaii'faiiAte is an antiseptic used like po- 
tuidam permanganale, bat is moch more 
poweifnl; also given internally in diarrhoea 
of child ren;doie,gr. 0.76-2.00 (gm. 0.06-0.13). 
0. pkocphataaare: Normal c. orthophoipAait, 
bone-pfaiMpliate, Cbi(POi}i (Caleii phosphss 

wturtiiipnaturally in bones.tettn.and n. . . 
all the tiKsues of the body, and firming the 
phospbatie precipitate of alkaline urine; 
— i-.j— ■- - grtiophosphale (stellar phos- 

brain and^fomiiiis the phosphnle of acid 
and other acid fluidB of Inc body ; G. meta- 
photphate, Ca(PO))i; ('. pyrophotphalt. Cat- 
FjOt; C.hypnphorpkalf,C«l'Oi I- fiiO. Nor- 
mal c. pbosphale la used in cofea when the 
earthy salts of the body are dehcient; dose, 
5-IOgr.(gm. 0.35-0.6.''.). C. ■aUc'yUte,C»(Ci- 
tliOiJi + 2HiO, is used in gastric and intestinal 
caUrrh; dose, 10-20 gr. (gm. 0.60-1.26). C. 
■an'tonate, a taEtelesa powder, used aa an an- 
thelminlhic; dose, gr. U.5-1.S (gm. 0.O3-O.1O). 
0. sncrate, a compound of c. and Baceharose, 
iscontainedinlimeHyrup. C. lolpluite occurs 
as gjipsum or alabaster, CaiSOi <- 2)IiO, and 
deprived of its water of oryBlallimtion b^- 
hi-nting, aa burnt gjrpsum or plaster of Pbtih 
(Cnlcii sulphas eisiccatua, IT. 8., C. aulfii'ri- 
cum uBtum, G. P.), CaSOi. The latter when 
mixed with water forms a paste which, on 
drying, sets into a hard mass, and is hence 
uaed far making plaster bandages, tplints, and 
jackets for keeping parts immobilized. An 
aqueous solution is used as a lest (U.S., B. P., 
G. P.). 0. inlpblde (Caleii aul'phidum, C. 
sulfura'tum), Cb8, mixed with a variable 
amount of e. sulphate, is the Sulphuisted lime 
(Call sulphura'ta. U. 3., Hepar calcis). given 
in cbronicskin disease and to prevent suppura- 
tion (particularly pustulation) ; dose, 0.1-0.4 
gr.(gr " "■ "" ■ 

Oal'celd. A new growth of the tooth-pulp. 
CalcnlouB (karfcew-lus). Of or produced 

by calculi ; as C. cystitis. 

Oalculna (kalk'yu-lue). [L. pebble, dim. 
of calx.] A concretion, usually bard and 
made up of mineral salts, occurring in an 
animal body. Orlitaxy calculi ( = Vealcal, 
contained in the bladder ; Renal, contained in 
the pelvis of the kidney) are composed of 
uric acid, calcium oxalate {Uulbrrry e., 
Semp-terd c), urates, calcium carbonate, cal- 
cium phosphate, ammonium and magnesium 
phosphate (triple phosphate), a miiture of 
calcium phosphate and triple phosphnte 
IFiitibUc), xanthine, cystine, blond-coagula 

IHamic c), fibrin, mixtures of soapy and 
itty subMance (urostealith), and indigo, 
Bll'lary calculi (frall-stones) contain choles- 
terin, nnually tnixMl with bile-pigment, mucus, 
and voriouB inorganic sails. Paneieat'tc caJ- 
cnll and Sal'lvary calctill consist largely of 
ealcinm carbonate miied with other inorganic 
saltaand withoreanicmatter. IntM'Uiiaieal' 
enli (enteroliths) are variously compounded of 
organicand inorganic matter. Dental calenll 
comprise the Sfrumal c. formed about the neck 
of a tooth, and derived fromexudatiran, and the 



topbi), ileposib.-d about thf juints nod 
tisBuea in gout, consist of EUHliuni urate. \^i- 
I'Uli aleooccur in the brain. lun)tB,noBe (rhmo- 
lith), lavhrymal passages, lungii, muscles, 
veins (phlcbolith), etc. A c. otleo contuina a 
Bucleat CormeA by a fortign body, a blood- 
ciot, etc. 8V.11PTOMS of PBleuli (especially if 
movabie): irriUUioaaadtiiJlammaltoa; e.g., 
runal calculi produce lumbar inin, pyelitis, 
pyuria, hematuria; vesieal calculi, uystitis^ 
pain in the penis, liasmaluria. Wlivti calculi 
are tightly lodged in a narrow passage tliey 
produce agouizing pain and fo'/ajiK (hepatic 
or biliary colic wbeo gall-stones pass through 
the bile-ducts; renal col ie whi;n renal calculi 
enter the un.'ter) and tigiu of obilnietioa 
(jaundice in ctH-sIoiibb; retention of urine in 

(lithotomy, lithotrity, nephrotomy, 

into the biliary passages); (2) lulfenti and 
antilithics, i^ents preventing the Tormation 

add and calcium-oiLalate calculi; benzoic 
acid in the triple-phosphate and fusible cal- 
culi ; oil of turpentine and ether in gall- 
slones); (3) in rcnol or hepBliccolic.ond'spof- 
moc/iM and amathetia (morphine liypodermi. 
call; ; chloroform and ether by inhalation; hot 
bath), and itimulanlt if the collapse la great. 

OUwidiila, (kal-en'dew-lah). [L.] A genus 
ofherbsoftheCompoaittt. C., U. a., the flow- 
ering herb of C. officina'Iis or marigold, of 
Kuropc, contains OftlMl'lItllln; is a stimulant 
and resulvent, used locally for ulcers, wounds, 
bruises, and purulent citilis, internally tocheck 
vomiting. Dose of Tinclu'ra caUivTiUa, U. 
8., 10 la (gm. 0.60). 

Cklvntnra (kal'en-lewr). [L. ealrntd'ra, 
fr. catirf, lo be hot.] Sunstroke. 

cm. The fleshy part of the back of the leg ; 
formed by the gastrocnemius and soteus. 

Cklliar'a buk. Yellow cinchona bark. 
xjka/lit«)._'lic«fl. fL] A cup. 

Be the Ot'licti of tht kidney, cup-like recesses 
of the pelvis of f-" '■■-'-- ' -■- -'-'-'- " - 
pyramids priyect. 

f the kidney, into which tlie 

CftUOBftl(ka-loh'sal). Of or near the corpus 
callosum; as C. fissure, and C. gyms (see 

OaUoa'lt?. [L. catUi/ita». fr. calliu.] A 
circumscribed thickening of the skin produced 
by hypertrophy of its homy layer. It is pro- 
duced by intermitlent pressure (as by shoes), 
friction, and heat, or chemical irritation. 
Treatment : discontinuance of ciciting cause ; 
removal by knife or caustics. 

OsUoiD-margliial (kal-loh"soh-mahr'jee- 
nal ). Between the callosum and [he marginal 
gyrus; as C.-m. fissure, C.-m. (callosal) gyrus. 
Sm Certbrum. 


(ka-loh'«um). [L.] Tbecorpusc. 
O&ll'iu. [L.1 1. SecCallotity. 2. The 6na 

plastic material exuded about and between the 
fragments of a broken bone, and accomplish- 
ing the repair of the fracture. C. consists of 
nnnulation tissue rendered firm by ossification. 
That portion thrown out by the medullary tis- 
sues, forming a, plug in the medullary canal, 
and by the periosteum, forming a sheath about 
the fragments, is the PrOTlslOIUl or EnatlMAll- 
Ingc: it keeps Ihc parts in place, and is moat 
abundant when irritation is caused by motion 
of the fragments. Psrmuiailt or DeflnltlTS a. 
is c. ex udcd between the opposed bone-suriaces: 
it appears laltT than the provisional c, and 
becomes converted into true bone, while the 
provisional c. is absorbed, 

CUmaUTe (kah'ma-tir). Sedative. 

Oal'omvl. [L. eatom'elai, fr. Or. talot, 
fair, -H melai, black, because white itself, al- 
though made fh>m and able to decompose 
black compounds,] Jlercurous chloride. See 

CftlorescMiea (kal"oh- res' ens). [F,. color, 
heat.] The conversion of non-luminoufl heat- 
rays into rays of higher njfraugibility (lumi- 
nous rays). 

Caloric (ka-lor'ik). [L. color, heat.] 1. 

;e all then 

Calorie (kal'or-ee). [F.,fr. L.Mtor,heat.] 
The amount of heat required to raise one kilo- 
gramme of water from 0° to 1° C. 

Calorific, CalorlfAdent (kal''or<e«-&y'- 
sheul). [L. calor, heat, + faeere, to make.] 
Heat-producing; as a C. centre in the brain. 

Calorim'eMr. [L. calor, heat -^ -Mtur,] 
An instrumeut for measuring the amounte of 
heat that bodies contain or absorb. 

Calnm'ba, Calnm'bo. The Jateorrhixa pal- 
mata, a climbing plant of the Meniapermacea; 
growing in Mozambique : also called Cofumba 
or Colombo. Its root, the Calumba, U. 8., 
Calumbs radii, B. P., Radix colom'bo,G. P., 
contains the bitter Colnm'bln, Ci>HttOi4, Co- 
Inia'blc acid, CnlltiOr, and the alkaloid Ber- 
bcrinc; is a bitter stomachic tonic, used in 
atonic dyspepsia, vomiting of teething and 
pregnancy, diarrho*, and dysentery ; dose, 
10-30 gr, (gm. 0.60-2.00). Bosnol Kxlradlum 
calamba fiu'idum, U. 9., 1-8 3 (gm, 4-30); 
Inftt'ium calumba. B. P.), 1-2 | (em. 30-60); 
Liquor ealumba eoaeentra' lu», B. P., 30-80 i"! 
(gm. 2-1); TInclu'ra calitmba. V. S.,B. P.), 
1-3 3 (bio- *S). AmatiCMH c, see Fratera. 

Oalvarla (kal-vay'rce-ah). [L.] The lop 
of the skull; skull-cap. 

OalTltlM(kal-vish'ee-eez). [L.] Baldnew; 

<Ml, V. 3., B. P. Pi. eal'ces or (2d def.) 
calx'es. [L.] 1. Lime. C. eUora'ta, U. 
S,. C. chlorina'ta, B. P., chlorinated lime. 0. 
■nlphnra'ta, V. S., B. P., see Calcium tul- 
phide. C. utla. C. tIvb, quieklimi 


OambodU (kam-boh'dee^h), OunbogU 
(kuu-boh'jee-ah). See Oamboge. 

Okm'M^ [L.] A box or compannieDt ; a 
chamber. 0. obten'ra, a box blackened on Ibe 
inwde, containing at one end a leuB for pro- 
jecting the ims^ of outside objectn, and at the 
other a screen for receiving the projection. 
When the screen is a pboCovraphic plate, the 
c. is a Pbotograpblc c. (often called simply 
" ' 0. In'cUlA, a prism so armnped -- '- 


Camp r»T«i. TfphuB; BO called because 
preTailing in oampe. 

Cunplioi. [L. eam'phora, TJ. 8., B. P., 
O. P.] 1. A concrete volatile oil, CitltiaO, 
derived from the wood of Cinnama'mum 
Camphora (Campbora officina'mm or C. lau- 
rel), aD East Asiatic tree of the LauraceEe. 
It forms wbite, toogh, crystalline cakes of 
peculiar aromatic odor and a cooling, pungent 
taste, Bubliming at all lemperauires ; inflam- 
mable; a atimulant, irritant, antispasmodic, 
and intoxicant - given in the typhoid state, 
neuralgia, headaclie, mania, genito-urinarj 
irritation, and aeiual excitement, and locally 

e<i)npAoTii'tum,G.P,, 3s5-2(gm.2^); Cera'- 
IwinaaiiphoTa, U. S.\ lAniiiien' tumeamphora, 
U. S., B. P. (ffleura camphora'tum, G. P.); 
lAnimen'tum camphora ammimialiim, B. P. 
(Linimentam ammonisto-camphora'tum, O, 
P.), containing 20-25 per cent, of ammunia- 
walcrj iinimm'fttm tapo'nii, U. 8., B. P. 
(Spir'itua saponalo-camphora'tus, G. P.), aa 
aromatized solation of c. (2-6 per cent.) and 
Map in alcohol (with 5 per cent, uf ammonia- 
water, O. P.) ; EmpUuiram fxucttm earn- 
plton^lum.O. P., a lead jtlaslercontaining I 

Ercent. of c, used asa discutient and stimu- 
it. C. also enters into the cooipoaitian of 
Mistura chlorofbrmi, Tinctura opii cam- 
tdioratlL {TiTidu'ra eamphoriB compoJila.S. 
P.), and various liniments. O.-naphtbOl 
{NaplUJiol-camphar), a mixture of c. 2 parts 
and naphtbol 1 part; an oily liquid used in 
scabies and other parasitic diseases. C. oil 
((yienm camphors), an oily liquid of cam- 
phoraceons odor and taste produced in the 
preparation of c, and cunsietinR of c. dissolved 
in a liqnid hydrocarbon. C.-piienol (Phtnol- 
tampKor), an oily liquid formed by mixing c, 
with 3 parts of 95 per cent, carbolic acid ; an- 
tlseptic, antipruritic, and local anssthetic, 
used ID wounds, herpes, furuncles, etc. C. 
•ftUo'rlMe {StUici/lattd c), a crystalline sub- 
rtanee osed In doaea of 1^ kt. (gm. 0.06-0.25) 
in dianfaiBB, and externally for lupus and 
nu>l HlAfm *M IL-OA *-^- «..,» ^;..*— »-.(. n - 


nally in skm disi „. -. 

(Cam'phora monobroma'tai U. S.), CioHu- 
BrOi, produced by the action of bromine ou 
campnur, is used as an antispasmodic and 
sedative in epilepsy, vesical irritability, de- 
lirium tremens, insomnia, and priapism ; dose. 
a-6 gr. (gm. 0.13-0.301. 3. A generic name 
for a substance resembling c; specifically, a 
concrete volatile substance, containing car- 
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen, obtained by dis- 
tillation from vegetable substances. The c's 
include many concrete vegetable oils. Artl- 
floikl 0., a substance, CisHig.IlCl, rueembling 
c, prepared bj treatmj; oil of turpeatiue with 
hydrochloric acid. Bomao c., Boniao e. oU, 
see Borneo e. 

CMiipluirkee<iiM(kam"foh-ray'Bhue). Like 
camphor; especially, having I he smell or taste 
of camphor. 

Oampboiate (biem'for-ayt). A salt of cam- 

S boric acid. Ammonium c. is a sedative; dose, 
gr. (gm. 0.2). 

Oamphorlc acid (kam-fnr'ik). [L. CKidum 
cav^hor'icum, Q. P.] An oxidation product, 
CioIIigOi, of camphor. Used in night-sweats 
of phthisis, and as an astrinjceut antiseptic in 
coryza, phsryugitis, and cystitis ; dose, 30 gr. 
(gm. 2.00). 

Compliyl alcoliol (kam'fil). [Camphor^ 
-yl.1 Bomeol ; Borneo camphor. 

Camplm'Mar. [L. campat. Geld, f -metn-.] 
See Perimtler. 

Canada balaam (or tnrpantliie). The oleo- 
resin of Abies balsamea. See Tarpentint. 

Canada Beabuia. See Erigenm. 

Canada pitch. See Filch. 

OMUdUn horio-iliaaaae. A contagious pus- 
tular eczema of hones. 

Can'adol. A volatile liquid consisting 
mainly of hexane, Csllii, produced by the 
distillatioD of petroleum. Used as a local 
anaathetio like rhigolone, 

Oanal'. [L.fand' /{<>.] A tubular passage ; 
a closed, relatively narrow channel. See Ali- 
meatary e.. Femoral c, etc., also Mealui, 

Canalletilns ()[an"a-lik'yu-lus). [L, dim. 
of canalU.I A little canal. CuiallcnU of 
bone, the small nutrient canals radiating 
from the Haversian canals. Cuuillanli U- 
crlma'les, the two tubes opening respectively 
on the upper and lower eyelid and emptying 
into the lachrymal sac. 

Oanalls (ka-uay'lis). [L.] Canal. C.*4- 
dncto'rloa, Huuter's canal. 0. len'niani, 
canal connecting the ductus cochlearis with 
the saccule. 

system of draining wounds in which (be akin 



over the latter is either perforated with drain- 
ase-holes or is invuRiiialed so on to form a 

BKin-liaed canal el lending to the bollomof the 

Ouicer (kan'sur). [L. ^ crab, froiu the 
clav-like veins radiutiDg fmm a c] A car- 
cinoma or malignant nvv/ growth composed 
mainly of epithelial cells; as formerly used, 
any malignant tumor. G.-celll, the epithe- 
lial cells forming! the essential part of c; 
sometimes suspended in a turbiiT juice ^C- 
Jnlce), sometimes agglomerated in sphencnl 
masses (C.-globM,C.-ueiU). The ehief vari- 
eties of c. are BplUte'IlRl e. (-^ epithelioma), 
special varieties of which are Chimney 
$weeper't c. (epithelioma of serotnm} and 
Clati-pipc or Siiutktr'i e. (epithelioma of lip); 
To'biilai c. or Ad'ntold 0. (eyliodrical epi' 

thelioma); and Alve'oUr c, car' 

Scirrhous (or Hard or Withering) 
rhous carcinoma; Hed'ollary (or Enoaph'k' 
loldor 80ft) c, enoephsloid carcinoma, or any 
malignatit brain-like tumor conaisting mainly 
of cells; Colloid c. (or Hncotll o.), colloid 
carcinoma ; Htlanot'lc o., a ct 
coma mode dark by pigment, 
Kqnat'lcns), Doma. 

CKioroid(kang'krovd). [CarKrum + -oid.] 
I. Keloid. 3. Epitheliomn, especially of the 
skin. 0. corpnaclea, the small waxy nodules 
characteristic of epithelioma of the skin. 

Cftnoioln (kang'kroh-in). The alexin of 
cancer; a substance used hypodermically for 

trees of the Canellaceie. The bark of C. alba, 
the while wood or wild cinnamon tree, is 
aromatic, gastric tonic, and stimulant ; dose, 
HMO gr. (gm. 0.65-2.50). 

Cuia-ing&r. Sugar (saccharose) derived 
from the sugar-cane (Saceharumoflioinarum). 
See Sugar, 

Cu>lUB(kay'neyDJ. [L. cant', 
dog.1 Of or pertaining to a dug ; like that 
whicli belongs to a dog. C. tootta, the third 
tooth from the front on each side. C. onaps, 
the pyramidal eusps of molar and bicuspid 
teeth. 0. eminsnoe, a ridge on the superior 
maxilla indicating the site of the socket of I he 
upper c. tooth. C. Ibssa, a depression posterior 
to thee. eminence. C. maaou (Cani'nus),the 
levator aoguli oris. 

Oaain'UOnn. Like a canine tooth. 

OullUwi (kun-ish'ee-eez). [L., fr. ednus, 
vhite.] Blanching of the hair. 

Oulter (kang'knr). A spreading sore; a 
phagedenic ulcerative process, especially about 
the mouth. TatCF-o., noma. 


OMUl'a. [L.,acane.1 A genua of plants of 
the Manuitacea. C. ed ulis of South America 
furnishes C. atajreli, which gives with boiling 
water a tenacious jelly. 

Cuiiikben« (kan'a-been). [Cannabit + 
-me.] A liquid hydrocarbon, CisHb, iFhicb 
with its hydride, CitHtt, forms oil of hemp. 

Cum'abln. [Cannai«» + -in.] The puri- 
fied resin of Indian hemp; also a glucoside 
obtained from an aqueous extract of hemp. 
The glueoside when precipitated by tannic 
acid ^rms the so-ealled 0. tMUUU (Cannabi'- 
num tann'icum). used as a sedative and hyp- 
notic ; dose, 8-15 gr. [gm. 0.6-1.0). 

GMUUlI>lne(kan'n-been). [Cannabit + -ine.} 
An alkaloid contained in Indian hemp. 

Cum&b'lnons. [Cannabii -I- -oiM.] A hyp- 
notic principle obtained from Indian hemp. 

Canu'abla. [L.] See Hemp. 

O&n'nou. See Cimon. 

Ouamltt (kan'yn-lahj. [L. dim. ofiMnRa.} 
A tube, especially one intended for introduc- 
tion into the body. II frequently contains a 
cutting or puncturing instrument which can 
lie projected from it and withdrawn at will 
(as in the trocar and c. used in drawing ofl* 
liquids from the body). Sec also Belloeq'te. 

Can'on. [F., fr. L. c, a rule.] The meta- 
earpal and metnlareil region in horses, cattle, 
ancl Bhe(!p. C. bone, the middle metatarsal or 
melacurpal bone in these animals. 

CanqnolUB pasta. A caustic paste for de- 
stroying epithelioma and lupus; made of dne 
and ammonium chlorides, each 2 parts, starch 
3, and water. 

Canterlnc ilijrtluii. A condition Id which 
a (bird sound is interpolated between the nor- 
mal heart sounds, and the rhythm is like that 
of a horse's canter. 

Cau'thal. Of or pertaining to the canthos ; 
as the C. ligament. 

Oantliar'ldal, OaUiar'idatri. tL.eanthar. 
idaiui.^ Containing or combined with can- 

Oantliar'ldate. A salt of cantharidic aeH. 
Polatiiam c. is used hypodermically in tu- 
berculosis; doae, 3-6Ttiof a3:5,O00 Bolution. 

Oantbarld'tcadd. Adibasicacid,CMHiiOs, 
formed by the union of cantharidia with water. 

Canthu'ldln. The vesicating principle of 
cnntharides; a crystalline substance, CitUiiOi. 
Given in lupun, tuitercuiosis.andcysliUs; doae, 

1 3 of a 1:100,000 solution. 

Canth aT'ldlim ■ Poisoning by cantfaaridea. 
See Poiioiui aiid Antidota. 

Can'tbam. PI. canthat'ides. [\^ ^ Gr. 
katuharit.'] A genus of beetles. C. vedcalo'- 
ria (I.ylta v<eicato'ria]. Spanish Qy,blistering 
beetle, of Southern Europe, is the 0., U. S., 
B. I". (Contharides. O.P.). Cantharidee are a 
gastro-intestinal irritant, and when absorbed 
produce excitation, irritation, or inflammation 





I taiMar'idi$, 


"[H.S;i, 1.25 per' cent. [B.V] ^l 

canthBTidnm, O. P., contaimni; 10 per oent.). 
iDdoSUofS-Som (gin.0.3a-l. 30), for chrome 
cntitis, aloDj of the bladder, atoaic amenor- 
rh<ea,uid chronic skin disesBes. Locally.can- 
tharidea produce vesicHtion, and are used fur 
blistera (q. v.). Preparations: Canthur'idal 
collo'dion (CalW diiim carUharida: tarn. U.S., 
O. P., Collodmm vesi'cajifl, B. P.); Cera' tun 
taiUhai'idu \]. H. (b:mpWtruQi eanthar'- 
idia, B. P^Emploa'tram cauthar'iduni onli- 
-a'rinni, Q. P., Emplas'trum canthar'idum 
~1 Qsu TetcriDa'rio, U. P., UtiKuen'tiim caa- 

kr'iduiil, a P., UnBuPntum canthnriduni 

pro naa veteriniino. G. P.): Oltam caal/iar- 
idaHum, G. P. ( UasuenHum eanihayidii, 
B. P.): Blistering fluid {Liqiior epitpa^ lieu*, 
B. P.); Aetflun canihar' idi), 1(. P. Di- 
luted, It servea aa a cnunter-irntaot, used in 
rheumAtiBm. b; noritis, chronic bronchitis, and 
pleurisy. Preparations ofthis sort: KmplaJ- 
tram pici* cajUharidatum, U. S.; Warinine 

S latter {Empla^tram ealrja' eient, B. P.); and 
'mplaitntm carUhai' idam perpti autn. G. P. 
Otwtluil'yala. [Canihat + Gv. liirii,^ looe- 
ening.] Canthotomy with division of the ex- 
ternal canthal ligament. 

by simple divUioa of the inteKument forming 
the outer canthus (Ptovlaion^ c), done as a 
Iem|>or>iry expedient when the palpebral slit is 
too tight, as in blepharospasm and acute bleu- 
norrhtsa, or too Bmall. as when tumors are to 
be removed; or by division and subsequent 
coiering of the raw surface with conjunctiva 
(OrtUnary o.), done for blepharophimosis and 
an bjloblepharon . 

OantHor'rhaph;. IGinthai + -rhapAy.J The 
act or operation of sewing the canthi or lida 

OuiUiot'OIIiy. {Canthui + ■tcmy.} Provis- 
ional canthopUsty. 

Oa'tliu. [L.-Gr. iontAoj.J The angle 
formed by the juactioa of the eyelids. 

OaniilA (kan'yu-lah). See Cannula. 

CaontcliDiie (koo-chook'). India-nibber, 
rubber, Rum-elastic ; a tough elastic su balance 
formed by the inspiasation of the milky juice 
"' '-IS tropical treesor shruba. Parari ' 

hydrocarbon, CioHii, soluble in ether, chloro- 
form, and carbon disulphide. Compounded 
with sulphur, it forms VaCeantitd rubber, 
which ia insoluble in these agents ; and vul- 
canized rubber, mixed with various eonatit- 
oents, forms Hard rubber or Ebonite. 

OApftcity (ka-poa'ee-tee). [L. caps' citu, fr. 
captrt, to take] Power of holding or con- 
taininj;; especially, the amount or volume of 
uiythiDg that a body can hold or contain. 
TlMrnuu e., the c. for absorbing hrst; the 
amount of heat (speeifio heat) which a body 
abaorbs in undergoing a rise of temperature 

of 1° C. Vital (or Sxtrama diilManUal 
Breathing) o., see under SetpinUion, 

Cap'lllary. (L. eapilU'rU, fr. capilhti, 
hair.] 1. Of or pertaining to a hair; having 
the thickness of a hair ; very slender ; ea aV. 
tube. a. llencc the minutest of the blood- 
vessels ; one of the minute vessels connecting 
the arterioles and the venules. The capillaries 
are composed of a single tubular layer of en- 
dothelial cells, throigh or between which the 
serum of die blood exudes, and the white 
corpuscles emigrate by diapedcsis. I. Per- 
taining to a fine hair-like vessel or tube ; eape- 
cially, in. of, or from a c, (2ddcf.),asC. luenior- 
rhage, C. pulsation, C. premure. C. forae, thi 
force which attracts (0. attraoUon) the par 
tides of a fluid to the side of a vessel whei 
they wet the latter, and repels them (C. rapnl- 
■lon) from it when the^r do not wet " ■ "■ 
called because eihihited inc. tubes. 0. 
chl'Uli bronchitis of the tiner broochiolea. 
0. dralnag*. drainage eflV-cted by c. attraction, 
as by wiapa of hair, catgut, etc., projecting from 
the wound. 

OapUlar'lty. Capillary force or action. 

Capped hook. See Hock. 

Cap'ltal opamtlOD. [L. caput, head.] An 
operation which iuvolvcs danger to life. 

OaplteU'nm. [L. = dim. of capul.] The 
prominence on the humerus, articulating with 
the radius. 

OapltDlnm (ka-pit'yu-lum). [L. dim. of 
caput.] A little head ; eapecially, a small ar- 
ticular bony prominence. 

Oap'rlc aold. [L. caper, goat, fVom the 
odor.] A monobasic crystalline fatly acid, 
CidHioOi. It forms aalta called Cap'ratei. 
The caprales of glj^ceryl are the Cap'rllll, of 

Oapro'lo add. [L. caper, goat, from the 
smell.J A monobasic fatty acid, I'tlliiOi ; an 
ill-smelling liquid. It forms salts called Oiip'- 
rOBtei. The caproaies of glyceryl are the 
Oap'rolns, of which glyceryl trlcaproale, 
CjtIi(C»[IiiOi)>, Tricaproin, or simply Cap- 
roio, occurs in bntt*r. 

Caproyl (ka-proh'il). [Caproic acid + -yl.J 
The univalent hydrocarbon, CsHu, corre- 
sponding to caproic acid ; hexyl. 

Caproylamlne (ka-proh"il-am'een). [Co- 
proyl i-amine,^ See Heiylamine. 

Oapryl'la aold. [Copier, goat (from the 
smell), +-yi ■(- -tc] A monofislo crystalline 
acid,CiHnOi,of sweat-likeodor. Itformssalti 
called Oap'rylatai. The caprrlates of gly- 
ceryl are the Oap'ryllna, of^whioh glyceijl 

Cap'alcnm. [L.] A genus of plants of 
the Solanaces; red or Cayenne pepper. The 
dried fruit of C. fastigia'tum (C. minimum, 
African or bird _pepper) is the C, U. S,, 
Capaici fructuB, B. P.; that of C. ann'uum 
(and the variety C. longum), pod-pepper, ii 



the FrnctuH cap'sici, G. P. C. is pnogenl and 
irritant; used as a countcr-irrilant io rheuma- 
liem and neuralgia, &b n KBr^le in diphtheria 
and tonsillitia, and intcmnllv in atonic df spep- 
Bia, delirium tremeng, and malarial frver; 
dose, 6-10 gr. (jfm. 0.35-0.65). Preparatioas 
and doses: Eilrai^lum capiiei fia,'\duin, V. 
8., 1-2 m (gm, 0,06-0,13); Oteorai'na capfici. 
U. 8., 1 Tl (gm. O.Ofl); TinetuWa capiiei, U. S., 
B. P., G.P,,5-20 "I (em. 0.3-1.25); Emplail- 
Iram eaptici, U. S.; Ungucnlum captici, B. P. 
Oap'iultx (kap'sew-lor). Pertaining to a 
capsule; forming a capsule^ ua C. liifameot. 
0. adTUiMinaiit, the operatiou of attaching a 
portion of Tenon's capsule in front of ila nat- 
ural position, HO as to draw further forward 
the insertion of au adjacent ocular muscle. 0. 
Utaract, an opacity sealed upon the capsule 


Oaptnl* (kap'sewl). [L, cap'mla, dim. 
of capia. boi.] 1. Primarily, a closed recep- 
tacle or compartment. 3. A shallow evapor- 
atine dish. 3. Ilence, a form of fructification 
in pUiQls conaialing of a dry, hollow ease en- 
closing seals, and formed b; the coalescence of 
seve nil carpels, 4. Ahollow pill of digestible 
nuterial, into which medicine can be intro- 
dnoed either for clisguising its taste or for pre- 
Tenting ita contact with the membrane of the 
tnouth or stomach. O&piula, G. P., include 
both gelatin c's and starch or flour wafers. B. 
A fibrouBor membranous hull investing a part, 
as C, of kiduev C, of spleen, C, of lens (see 
Ltnl); efipecially, a ligamentous structure 
completely enveloping a joint, as C. of the hip. 
Sxtemal c., Intsmal c, the layers of white 
fibres lyiu^ respectively eilemal and intemsl 
to the lenticular nucleus, Tlie internal c. con- 
tains fibres (Cap'sular fibres) connecting the 
motor and sensory areas of (he cerebral cortex 
with the pes cerebri, and forms one section of 
the great pedal tract (see Jirain), It com- 

Sises the /niiU limb lying lM:tM'ecn the cau- 
te and lenticular nuclei, the hiad limb be- 
tween the lenticular nucleus and optic thala- 
mus, and the tn«e (genu) at the junction of 
"letwolimlu, Bnprure'iiBl (or Atrabtl'lary) 
— e iSupr ' "-■•-•-»■"-- - "• — 

I c. m 

e Glii 

Oapmlotomsfkap'sew-loh-tohm). [-tome.] 
Ad instrument for peribrming Capsnlot'iHliy, 
i, e.,fDr incising the capsule of the crystalline 
lens (as in the extraction of cataract). 

Oap'nt. PI. cap'ita. [L.] Head, 0. coll, 
theciecum, 0. eontn, theeipanded extremity 
of the posterior horn of gray matter in the 
spinal cord ; occupied by the substantia gelat- 
inosa. 0. KftlUuac'iniB, the verumontannm 
a longitudinal ridge of mucous, muscular, and 
erectile tissue on the floor of the prostatic 
tirethra. 0. KMIa'lN, the appearance pro- 
duced by dilatation of the culan 
about the umbilicus, due to stasis ; 


absence of pressure at this spot. 

Caxaata. Mai de las pintos. 

Ckra'salkMi. See Chondnu. 

Oar'uiial. A brown substance, CiiBuOi, 
formed by heating sugar to about 200° C. 

Our'av&jr. The Camm Carvi. a plant of 
the Umbelliferffi indigenons to Europe and 
Asia. C, fruit (so-called C. seed, Carum, U.B., 
Car-ni fmrtua, B, P., Fnictus carvi, O. P.) 
contains a volatile di7 (O'leum can, U. 8,, 
O'learo car'ui, B. P., O'leum carvi, G, P.), 
consisting of the odoriess terpene, C^irMn«, 
CioHit. and the aromatic Carrol, CitHitO. On 
distillation with potaasa theoil furnishes Oar'- 
vacrol, CioIliiO. a liquid of tbe odor and taste 
of creosote. C. is aromatic and stimnlont; 
used as a carminatiTC in Qatnlent colic. Dose 
of oil, 1-10 "l (gm, O.OC-O.ebi ; ot Agaa ear'ni, 
B, P., 1 5 (gni.4). 

Ckrbun'io aold. [Carb^oic + anint + -iej 
A monobasic acid, CQiNOi ^ C0(NHi).OH. 
It is carbonic acid in which NUt replacei OB. 
It forms salts called Cai''baiiikt«B. Ethylear- 
bamale, urethane. 

OaTbamida (kohr'ba-meed). [Carb-tme 
acid + amide.] See Urea. 

Cftrbasot'ic ftcld, Cu'bai'oteto. [Carbo* 
+ caotc.^ See Picric acid and PicrvU. 

Car'blnol, [Carbon + -ol.] Methyl alcohol, 
CUi.OU ; also, generically, en^ alcohol (Guty 
or aromatic) formed by substituting for tbe 
hydrogen in the methyl radicle of c. one, two, 
or three hydrocarbons, producing respectively 
Primary. SecoTulary, and Tertiary e'l. 

Oar'bo. PI. earbo'nes. [L.] Charcoal. 

Carlioliydrate{kahr"boh-hey'drayt). [Otr- 
bon + hydrate,} A compound containing oar- 
Iran combined with oxygen and hydrogen in 
the proportion to form water. The term is 
generally reslHcted to bodies of this sort de- 
rived from thefatty series, but doefl not include 
the fiitty acids (e, jr., lactic acid). The main 
groups of c's are : (1 ) monoMUi'aurldH (]f/ti- 
coiea, hnotet, including dextrose, fructose, 
galactose, etc.), which have the formula Ci- 
iliiOi, and are cither aldehydes (a/do«e>) or 
ketones {iftoteg) at the hexatomic alcohols, 
manniie.dulcile, etc: (2) OlHc'clwrldM («■«■ 
charoan, biota, including cane-sugar, milk- 
sugar, maltose, etc), which have the formnla 
CiillnOii. and are diglucosic alcohols, formed 
by combining two molecules of a gluoosc and 
abstracting one molerule of water; (3) pOlj- 
sac'cbarldas (amyiome, including starch, dex- 
trin, glycogen, gum, rellulo»B, etc.), of the 
formula ?trelI]<iOi, and consisting of the an- 
hydrides of a polyglucosic alcohol. C's are 
also known containing in the molecule 3 atoms 
of carbon {iriotei, e. g., glyceroee, CiIIsOi), 
4 {ttlroM; e. g., erythrose,C<HsOi), 5 iwntotet, 
asarabinose, CilIioOi), 7 (A<p(<ww),8 (m4o»(), 
and 9 (nonotet). 



b; the dry dlBtlllatian of coal and other o 

Cic BDbfltances. C. &. formn colorlfsa. de- 
lescent cryBlalu, converted by the addition 
of 10 per cent, of irater into a clear liquid 
iAtidum earboticum tiav-efaiftutn. B. V,, G. 
P.). It IB a powerfnl disinfrptant and anti- 
wptic, employed in a 3 per cent, eolution 

applied id ipmy-to 
mentstion and decompoBition, lu in fetid bron- 
chitiB, whoopina-cough, and diphtheria. It is 
bIbd DBcd as a aisiaieetant for roomB, drains, 
etc.^ and for the instnimenla and hands in op- 
entiog. Pnre c. a. is an anscsthetio and caus- 
tic ; applied to Bmall tamorx and injeeted into 
tUEmoirhoidB and hydrocele. Internally e. a. 
is given in whixiping-couj!b, typhoid fever, 
and fennentative dyspepsia. Dose, 1-2 er. 

IeiD. 0.06-0.1.1). PreparatioDB : Aqua earoo- 
7-^1^ (! P . 5 ™r SolutlOO; 0/«- 

8. (Glyceri'num 
ppotiUrria actdi 
earboUei, B. P.. containing 1 gr, each ; TVocA- 
Uau acidi earhcliei^ B. P., each containing 1 

S.; Ungti^tum aeidi carboHci, contaiaioE 
percent. (U.8.)or4per cent. (B. P.). A 
adation in oil (Carbolized oil) and cotton, 
gsQK, or lint impregnated with c. a. are also 
ased as nirgical dresBings. C. a. unilea with 
b««ei, forming CftT'bOlAtol. 

OarboUie (kar'boh-le);z). To mix or im- 
pregnate with carbolic acid; as to C. gauxe. 

OftrtHtn. [L. carbS niiim, carbSntum, fr. 
earbo, charcoal.] 1. A non-metallic, solid, 
tetrad element; symbol, C; atomic weiitht, 
11.97. Itoccaisin the crystalline form aadia- 
mond and graphite, and in the amorphnua form 
aa coal, charcoal, and lampblack. It is the 
characteristic element of organic compounds, 
occarringin the hydrocariions and their deriva- 
tives, the carbohydrates, the alkaloids, and the 
proteids. With oxygen it forms C. monoxld*, 
CO, a poisonous gas, and 0. dloxtde, (TOi, a 
colorletH, ndorlesB gas, which combines with 
water to form carbonic acid. C, dinikle is 
fbrtned by the decomposition of the carbonates 
and carbonic acid, and is pTesent iu oil effer- 
veiciDE waters. C. dlinlpn'lda IC. bisulph'- 
ide), C8i (Carbo'nei disurphidiim, U. S., 
Carbo'nis bisul'phidum, B. P., Carboueum 
■nlfara'tam, G. P.), a colorless, volatile liquid, 
which is used as a counter-irritant and local 
anasthetic in neuralgia and in slight opera- 
tions, and also as a solvent. 0. nitride, CX, 
cyanceen. 0. tatrachloiide (chlorcarbon, 
letrs«hlonnelhane, Carbonci t«trachlo'ridum), 
CCIt, an oily liquid that can be used as an 
anieMhetlc. 3. Anything made of c; espe- 
cially^ the c. plate of a galvanic battery or an 
electric lamp. 

Oazbo-iupliUioUe kdd (kalir"boh-naf- 
thol'ik). [Carbon + juiphtkot.\ Oxynaph- 
tboic {or hydroiy-naphtnoie) acid, a crysial- 



Ou'bonata. [U carbS nat.] Asaltofcar- 
bonic acid. The c's comprine the Mormal (or 
Keutral) o'a, in which all the hydrogen of 
the carbonic acid is replaced; Acid C'l. or 
Bl-earbonat«i, in which only one-half of the 
hydrogen is replaced ; and Baale e'i, or Sub- 
urbonfttM, in which the oxide or hydroxide 
of a base is compounded with carbonic acid. 
The c'b are moetly nnstable, and,on account of 
the feeble acidity of carbonic acid, are mainly 
dependent for their properties upon those of 
the base with which the acid is combined. 

CarbOD'ic. Of or derived from carbon. 0. 
Mid, a dibasic acid, n.CO. = 0:C(OH).OH, 
or formic acid in which hydroxyl replaces hy- 
drogen ; known only in aqueous Bolulion (C'. 
wattr, AquB ac'idi carbon' ici, Soda-water), an 
acidulous lignid^ made by dissolving gaseous 

>n of the c. 

GurliOBiie. To char; to convert in part 

into charcoal. 

OBTboxyhamoglobin ( kahr-bakB"ee-hee- 
moh-gloh'bin), A compound of carbon mon- 
oxide with hemoglobin, formed in the blood 
in cases of poisoning by the former. It differs 
from oxyhiemoglobin in its absorption spec- 
trum and in its chemical stability, which pre- 
vents its replacement by oxygen. Owing to 
this &ct the rcepimtory function of the red 
corpuscles is abrogated. 

terized by marked conalitntional symptoms 
and the fomiation of an indurated, very pain- 
ful swelling produced by infiltrution and 
sloughing of the parts, C. usually occurs on 
the uack of the neck, back, and buttocks. 
The swelling is brawny and covered by tense, 
reddened akin, which afterward liecomes thin- 
ned and perforated by numerous orifices dis- 
charging siinious pDs which _emanates from 


,. _ _ and elderly 

people, especially those having dialwles, and 
in such case!' is often fslal. Treatment : stim- 
ulants, nutritious diet, quinine, tincture of 
chloride of iron, cold applications and mor- 
phine fur pain, poultices to accelerate sup- 
puration, and early incision to relieve leu- 

Okrelnoma (kahr-see-noh'mah). [L.] A 
cancer; a lonlignant new growth, composed 
essentially of ejiithelial cells, and developed 
from epithelial tissues (those derived from the 
eplblast and hypoblast). By some attributed 
to microbes (either Ascomycetesoc Soccharp- 

I),,./...;U,CjC " " " 



Dvcetes). C. FompriBes: 1. BpltIl«Uo'mi 
Epithelial cancer), formed primarily by i 

iwsrd growth of thi' squamouB or Burfaci 


«pillivliuiD or tlie nltin or luupous menibraue, 
proilucmK epithelial plugs or nesis Id the sub- 

junrth'o, lipn, nose, totigue, (esophagus, os 
uteri, aii<l anus, and forming nodules whtcli 
break dovu into spreailJnK ulrers. 3. Golnm- 
n»r (or OfUndrlCAl) «pltIi*Il<Hiw (Adenoid 
or Tabulur cancer. Malignant adenoma), oc- 

liver, consisting of columnar epithelial celts 
(gland^ells) arranged in gland-like tubes. S. 
Simple c. (C. simplex), found in glaailular 
organs (stomach, mammary gland, etc.), a hard 
tumor com posed of intercomiuunicating alveoli 
of conneelive tissue filled with maiw« of 
free epithelial cells, which hare no interstitial 
aubstaniv nor vesseh. Sclrrhona e. {Hard 
cancer, CIlTonlc c.) is a c. of this sort with 
excessive amount of stroma and scanty cell- 
contirnb), 4. Enceplulold (Aeate c, Medul- 
lary caticcr. Soft cvinccr), soft, brain-like 
tumors havmg the structure of scirrhus, but 
with less oonueetive-tissue stroma and more 

Un'itonn, or AlTe'oUr) c, a scirrhus or an 
encephaloid in which the cells have uuder' 
gone colloid dei^eneration. 6. 0. myxonuito'' 

formed int 

iicli the stroma has been 
ucous tissue. T. 0. eyUndro- 
. . ..which has undergone hyaline 
degcnerutiun, and in which the cell-masses 
form groups resembling cylindromata. Other 
varieties described are: Brec'Ule (orHmn'- 
•teld) 0., an encephaloid with numerous ves- 
sels in the stroma; aUnt-eaUed a. (C. gi- 
ganto-crtlala' re), one containing giant-cells ; 
LenUe'nUr e. (C. lentienla're), a variety of 
scirrhus of the skin in which numerous flat- 
tened papules or nodules are formed, which 
coalesce, form ing fungoid growths or lui^ in- 
durated sheets : Upo'mBtoas c, one contain- 
ing ranch fut; Kslwiot'lc C. [C. meluru/di-i), 
an encephaloid made black by pigment ; 0»'- 
twld C, a c. in which theie is a deposit of 
bone; Pnlta'ceoiu c. an encephaloid with 
thick-walled alveoli and putpy juice ; Tn'bar- 
Oubc. (r*. fuirro'(um),scirr&flusc.oftheskin, 
' " inj^ large projecting noilules. Ai ~ 

■a growth and by the detachmen 

sageii and infect the contiguous lymplialic 

5 lands and remoter parts. Kpithelioma is the 
_ Hwcst to develop and the least likely to pro- 

growths ; encephaloid grows very rapidly and 
la readily generaliwd. C PRonccua iMin, 
luemorrhage, and interference with Ainclions 
by pressure upon nerves, blood-vessels, and 
organs, and causes a peculiar cachexia, 
marked by pallor, yellowish skin, and emaci- 
"' ' t removed ladically, always 


OafcliMmaMtli (kar-Ke-Doh'nu-tus). [L- 
carcinomalffiaiJ] Of, pertaining to, or con- 
sisting of a carcinoma. 

Cud'MUOii. [L, cardamd'num.i The 
Elelta'ria Curdamo'mum. The fruit (Carda- 
inomum, U. S,, Cardamomi sem'ina, It. P., 
Fnictus cardamomi, O. P.) is a carmiuative 
and aromatic, used in colic and as a gastric 
tonic. Dose of Tintlu'ra cardJtmomi, U. 8., 
I 3(gm.4); Tinclu'ra cardamomi compu/ila, 
V. S., B. P., 1 3 (gm. 4): Palvitarumaficut. 
V. a. (Pulviscinnarao'mlcompos'itus, B. P.), 
10 gr. (gm. 0.6(1). In other preparations it 
enters as a Savoring agent and corrigent. 

Ourden'S ampuUtlOn. Amputation with a 
single rectangular flap : particularly, such an 
ainputatioo made at the knee, in which the 
femur is sawn througli at Ihc level of the con- 
dyles, and the cut surface is covered by the 
(anterior) flap, from which the patella has been 

Car'dlM. [L. cardi'actit, fr. Gr. kardia. 
heart.] Of or pertaining to the heart, a« C. 
nerves, C. plexus, C. impulse, C. disease ; due 
to the prcHenee of tlie heart, as C. percussion- 
duluess; originating in the heart or due to 
some condition of it. osC. murmurs, C. dropsy, 
C, kidney j situated near the heart or in a part 
adjoining it, as C. extremity end C. glands of 
the stomach 1 for or acting upon the heart, as 
C. sedative, C. tonic, 0. cycla, the penod 
from the be^nning of one huart-beat lo the 
beginning of another, comprising the systolic 
and diastolic sounds and the interval between 

OudUlsU {kard"ee-arjah). [Oirdio- 

usually to distention of the stomach. 

OaxdUtftz'la. [Aiaj^a.'i I ncoH^rdi nation 
oftbeheart-movemenls. Hence, Oardlktez'le, 
of, marked by, or due to c; as C. asystole. 

Car'dllUd. iL.cardina'lit,fr.eardi,tiiBgeA 
Of decisive or pnM.'mincnt importance, v. 
polnta, six points found in every compound 
dioptric system (e. g., the eye). They are — 
Anterior (or First) focal point (A)i Posterior 
(or SecDiid) focal point (B); Anterior nodal 
point (C); Posterior nodal point (D); Fii« 
principal point (E)r Second principal point 
(F). All rays parallel to the axis of Che sys- 
tem before refraction will, after refraction, 
converge lo A if impinging upon the system 
from t^hind, and will converge to U if im- 
pinging upon the system from in front. All 
rays directed toward O before refraction will 

Any ray whatever a tier refract ion, will, if pro- 
longed, intersect the plane of F (the plane pass- 
ing through F and jierpendicular to the axis), 
' hich will bear the same relation 


Oar'dlo-. [Gr. tardia, heart.] A prefix 
meaning at or relating to the heart. Cardlo- 
aor'tlc, pertaining to the heart aud aorta ; a« 
C.-a. inUrval (between the npei-heat and the 
arterial pulse). Oftrdlo-arte'rUl, pertaining 
to the heart and arteries. CarOlocala (kahr^- 
dee-oh-seel) [-»ir], a hernia of the heart. 
CaidlocaiLi«*li (-aen-tee'sial [Gr. ke/tieiii, 
a pricking], puncture of the heart, under- 
taken lo relieve engorgement of the cavities, 
or to iiyeet atimuloting agents. Oar'dlosnun 
[Gr. gramma, a writ! or], a Iraeing taken liya 
Car'dlofTapti (an inatniment for automatic, 
ally recording the movements of the heart). 
Oaraio-Iiep&VlC, of or between the heart 
and liver; as C.-h. triangle, the triangular 
area in the right nth costol inlerHpaee scpo- 
niting Ihe right heart from the upper border 
of the liver. OariUo-liilU1>'ltoTy, Inhitiiting 
4he action of the heart, as CM. nerva, pass- 
iilK tfl the heart through the pneumogastrie. 
Cardlom'etai, an appliance for meosunng the 
force of the heart's action, partieularlj as de- 
termined by the blood .preaau re. Oanllop'- 
IIU17, any affection of tlie heart. CardlO- 
phMW<kahr'dee-oh-fohn) [Gr.ji*OTi< sound], 
an iDstniment provided with a telephone for 
making audible the sound produced by Ihc 
contraction orUieheart-muscle. OardloplerU 
<-plee'jah) [Gr. plege, Btroke], paralyHis of the 
heart. OArdlo-pnennuiUe {.new-mat' ik), at 
or pertaining to the respiration, and due to 
the action of the heart. Oaralo-pDaiuno- 
papb (-new' moh-gmf) [Gr. pncumo^ breath, 
+ ^aphein, to write], an appliance for regii- 
tenng the variations in rcHpiralory movc- 
mentsproducedby theheart. OftrdlopnnatnTe 

i'pnn^chur), oariiiocenleiiis (especially bh per- 
>rmed on animals). Oardlorrbex'lt [Gr. 
rke-rit, a breaking], rupture of the heart. 
Oardltt-VAB'colaf. of or pertaining; to both 
heart and blood-vessels; due to lesion of tlie 
heart and vemels, as C.-v. vertigo. 

OwdltU(kahr.dey'tia,kahr-dee'tiB). [Wfit.] 
InSammatiou of the heart. 

Oardnna benadic'tm (kar'dew-as). The 
Centaurea t)enedicta. 

Car'dol. The oily, vesicating principle, 
CiiH»Oi, of the cashew-nut (nat of the Ana- 
cardium occidentale of tropical America). 

<]ariaa(ka'tve-kah). [L.] 1. AGg. 3. A 
geouB of tiees (see Papaya), 

OftllM (kay'ree-eez). Oen. earie'i. A dis- 
eaw of bone analogoui to ulceration of the soft 

Sirts. The bone becomes soRened. ^roui, 
iscoJored. and finally liquefied ; it is sur- 
rounded by fungous unhealthy granulations; 
it produces a chronic inflammation of the 
penostenm and adjoining 

ing a cold abaeess filled with cheesy or thin, 
VelT fetid liquid resembling pus, which tends 
ta bniTow through the soft parts, and usually 
. .i_. .._ c^..-, ^g^ which 


tyin ^.-^ 

yses. particularly the artieular ( 

(hip tnsease), in the short bones, ni those of 
the corpus and tarsus, and iu the rertebrte 
(Pott's disease). It may be caused by ininrr 
or by extension of inaammation from the soft 
parts (specially in conjunction with tubercu- 
lous infection), and occurs especially ia syphi- 
litic Bubjecu. Tbeatuent : general (cod- 
liver oil, syrup of iodide of iron, hypophoa- 
Shitea, nutritious diet, proper hygiene) ; local 
removal of bone and enuiulations by scraping, 
injections of niineroT acids to dissolve dead 
bone, and of disinfectants, such as potassium 
permanganate, to correct fetor). Dry c, rare- 
fying osteitis. Central c, c. in the i nterior of 
bone, forming a chronic bone-abscess. 

CATloni (kay'ree-us). Of, pertaining to, or 
aflected with caries. 

CarlabadMltfkahrli'bahd). Amixtnreof 
mineral salts obtaineil by evaporating the 
water of ('arlsbsd (Bohemia) mineral spring. 
ArtUcUl C. 1. (Sal caroli'num facti'tium, Q. 
P.), a niiiture of dried sodium sulphate 44 
parts, polassium sulphate 2, sodium chloride 
IB. and sodium bicarbonate 36; 69 parts of 
this, dissolved in 1,000 of water, make Artlfl- 

cUl Oarlibad water. 

Oar'mln. A red pigment derived from 
cochineal. It consists of Oarmlu'lo a«ld. 
CitUisOio, with 0. r*d. CiilliiOt. Used alone 
or combined with ammonia (Aiiunonla c.) as 
a slain in microscopy. 

Car'mlnatlve. [L. i 

from) wool.] Relieving flatulence and grip- 
ing; expelling wind Irom the stomach or 
bowels ; also a remedy thua acting. The c's 
are the aromatice, as ginger, cardamom, cinna- 
mon, peppenninl, etc.; and the alkalies and 
antacids, as sodinm bicarboaute, chalk, and 
lime-water (iu acid dyspepsia). 

Oar'nlcadd. [L.caro, flesh.] A substance, 
CioIIiiNiOs. giving many of the reactions of 

firoteids and identical with antipeptone; 
armed by the decomposition of camiterrin and 
occurring in musrles combined with phos- 
phorus as phosphocarnic acid. 

Oamlllcatloii(kahr"nee-fee-kay'Khun). [L. 
car-nijicdtid, fr. cara, flesh, + farere. to make.] 
Transformation into flesh or a substance re- 
sembling it. 
OamU'erT'lii. Acompoundconlaioini^phos 

Dose, 7 gr. (gm. 6.5) per diem. 

Gamine (kahr'neen). [L. airo, flesh, -H 
-int.] A crystalline leucomaine, C7lIsNiOt 
+ HiO, derived from meat-eittact, urine, and 
yeast; said to be si ightly poisonous. 

Oar'nogen. [L. caro, flesh, + -^en.] A 
mixture of fibrin with red bone-marrow ; used 
in wasting diseases. Dose, 2-i 3 (po. &-16I. 

Caro (koy'roh). PI. cor'nes. [L.] Flesh; 
muscle-tissue. 0. Inxa'rlaiu, "proud fleeh"; 
exuberant or fungous grannlatioiK. 



Cax'lM. A proteolytir, nmylolytio, wid 
milk-curdling ferment obtained Trom Caries 
Papaya. Used in dyapepsia; dose, 1-5 gr. 

(gra. 0.06-0.30). 

0»r<rt» (ka-roh't«h). [L.] Bee Carrot. 

Oarot'id. [L, cardflit, fr. Gr. jtarn«, pro- 
foond sleep ; a condition attributed in «omG 
way to the e. Brteries, perhaps because of the 
polsation of the latter id coma.] 1. The ar- 
tery (C artery) which, with branches of tbe 
sabclaviau, supplies the neck nnd head. See 
ArUries, Table of. 3. Of or pertaining to the 
e. artery ; containing the c. artery, as C. canal 
(of the temporal bone), C. Irianple! (auperinr 
and iaferior] af the neck ; supply log, surround- 
ing, or in relation with the c. artery, as ('. 
braneh of the large petrosal nerve, V, 

sealed upon the bifLircatioD of the .. 
tnberclfl. the anterior tubercle of the trans- 
veme proccsa of the 6th cervical vertebr*; so 
called because the c. nrtery can be compreflaed 
against it. 
CatoUiui pink. Spigelia. 

Car'pkl. Ih. earjia'lU.} Of or pertaining 
to the carpus; as C- joints, C- arteries. 

CmrphOlOgyfkahr-foroh-jee). [(ir.karphoi, 
thread, + legein. to pick.] The involunlary 
plucking or clutching movement of the fingeiB 
observed in conditions of great exhaustion. 

C*r"po-mMacar'pal. Common to, or con- 
necting carpus and metacarpus ; as C.-m. joint. 

Oftrpo-p«dal(kahT''poh-pee'dal). Common 
to carpus and foot ; as C.-p. contraetiim ( — 
spasmodic invenioD of the thumbs and great 
toes, observed in children with rickets). 

Car'pai. [L. = Gr. karpos.} The wrist; 
particular1y,tlie afisemblai^ of bonefl< scaphoid, 
semilunnr, cuneiform, pisiform, trapezium, 
trapezoid, os magnum, and unciform) forming 
the wrist. 

Cu'r^een, G. P. Irish moss. 

Carron oU. Lime liniment; so called be- 
cause used at the Carrou iron-works, Scot- 

Oar'rot. [L, enro'M.l TheDaucusCaro'la, 
a plant of the Umliellifcnc. C.-fntit (Carota, 
FructuB cnrotx) is a diuretic and stimulant, 
used in amenorrhtea, dropsy, and strangury ; 
dose, 30-^ gr. (gm. 2-4). C.-root is used to 
make stimulating poultices (or ulcers. 

Curtilage (bahr'tee-lej). [L.eaniln'po;f\. 
cartila'^nes.J Gristle; the firm^ elastic sub- 
«tance interposed between eontigunus joint- 
surAces, and assisting to form the lining 
walls of certain cavities (chest, isryni). I', is 
a variety of connective tissue consisting of con- 
nective-tissue cells (O.-celli, 0,-corpnialM) 
disposed in groups and imbedded in cavities 
(0.-iI&p«nl«s)in anearly homogeneous matrix. 

The matrix contains ehandrin, and is envel- 
oped by a connective-tissue lining (pmeion- 
dri-am). ' If the matrix contains little fibroos 
tissue, it forms the pearly-colored Hyaline 
«., which lines the articular eitremitiee of 
bones {Artirfular e.), forms the front wall of 
the thorax (Cotlal c, Entifona c). side and 
septum of the now, Thifroid, Cricoid, and 
Arj/tfnoid c'» of the larynx, and the rings of 
the trarhea, and constitutes the Temporary 
(OilliyUkK) c, out of or within which the 
long bones (hence called O.-bonea) are formed 
by a process of ossification. C. in which the 
matrix contains a large amaunt of white fibrous 
tissue is the very tough and elastic Flbro-car- 
tUage (FlbiOQS c), which comprises: 1. 
Talerarticular fibro-carti'lage, movable plates 
tyin^ between opposed joint«arGices, 2. Con- 
tifcting {Spongy, InUrot^ tout) Jibro-eartiiage, 
discs attaching contiguous bones (vertebne, 
pelvic bones) (« each other, forming jpncAon- 
drotti. 3. Circiimferen'tiat fibro-cartilage, 
" ' ig a rim about joint-cavities (Cotyloid 
■nt. Glenoid ligoment). A. Slrafifarm 
xrtilage, a layer lining a groove In bone, 
designed for the passa^ of a tendon. C. in 
whi^ the matrix contains yellow elastic tissue 
is Tellov (or Ketloulor) c, found in the epi- 
glottis, cornicula laryngis (C'< of Santo- 
reni), and Cun'eiform c's [C'l of Wriiberg) 
in the larynx, and the c. of the Eustachian 
tube, auricle, and auditory canal. OellnlAT 
(or Parencbym'atona) c, c. consisting almost 
wholly of cells; found in the chorda dorMlis 
of the embryo and any c. in the developmental 
stage. Permanent c, any c. which does not 
become oseiGed. 
OixtUagliians (kahr-lee-Itu'ce-nns). [L. 


(kar'ung-ku!). [L. earun'aila^nru.] Any little flesh-like projection. 
0. Of the eye, Lach'rymal c, the little 
rounded projection at the inner angle of the 
eye, consisting of a little island of cutaneous 
tissue bearing fine hairs. Hain'mUlMT c. 
(Caruncula mammilla' ris), the olfactory tri- 
gone. Kyrt'lTorm ca (Caruncnhc myrtifor* 
mes), little elevations, the remains of the 
hymen, surrounding the orifice of the vagina. 
Urs'tliral o., any small excrescence in the 
urethra; especially, a morbid, painM papil- 
lary growth at the orifice of the female urethra. 

Oax'Tkcrol [Cbrpf + aerid + -of], Car'Tene 
[Carvl + -ene}. Curl (kahr'vey), Oar'TOl 
iCarvi + -oQ. See Caraway. 

Caryenchyma (kar"ee-CDg'kee-mah). rCh- 
ryo- T Gr. en, in, + eheein, to ponr.] 'Ilie fluid 
part of a cell-nucleus. 

Oaryo- (ka'rre-oh-). [Gr. ianum, nut.J 
Prefix meaning nut or kernel, and in hislo- 
lo^csl terms nucleus. CuyiM^ome (ka'ree- 
oh-krohm) [Gr. ehruma, color], a nerve-cell, 
especially ot smoll siie, whose staining ele- 
ments are contained chiefly in the nuclena. 


Casts, Fatty, Waxy, Hyaline and Crystals of Uric Acid. ( Hare. ) 

Granular. (Hare.) 

/A * ^ <^ 

X. *«L 


•^< ^•;^| S^^- © ^J'i 

Ammonium Urate Crystals. (Hare.) 

Epithelial Cells. (Hare.) 

', kidney epithelium ; D, kidney epithel- 


s. tS 


OaiyoelBMla (■Ri-ntx^sa), OaryoUnaBli (-ki- 
Dce'sU) [caryo- + Gr. tinitii, moBemenl], 
indii«ct oell-divUioa ; cell-division in which 
the process begins in the chromstin of the 
nncleiu. The stages are: asgregntioD nf the 
chromatiD fibrils of the nucleua (also called 
Caryom'iltnnei) into a irreath form ; then itito 
a stellate figure lm«natler) disposed about a 
spindle-shaped mass of achromatin ; then into 
a double Mar Idi/uler) or amphituUr by (he 

Slitting in two of the separate loops forming 
e monaster and their recession to either pole 
of tbe achromatin spindle ; bisection of the 
cell, each half encloaiag one of the two nu- 
eleKr stars ; reanangement of the fibrils form- 
ing the star into a naclear network, no as to 
form a new nacleus. Oaryoolna'tle, Ouyo- 
Unst'lc, of, pertaining to or effected by 
caryocinesis. Caryal'ysiB [Gr. liuii, aloosen- 
in^, a degenerative change in a cell-nu- 
cleDS, marked by disappearance of the chro- 
matin. OafTOlft'lc, of or marked bj cary ol- 
7sia. OMTon'ltom*. [Gr. milai, filamect], 
see nnder CaTyociuait. CuTomltoiii (-niej- 
toh'ns), 0ax7omltot'lo [Gr. mftoa, filameDtl, 
see Carmcinttit, Cargodnetie. Ouyopbyl- 
iMi* (.fil'leen), OaiyopliTlli, G. P. (-fil'- 
ler), OaryopI^IUii (-fil'lin), Caryophylliu 
(•finqa) [Gr.pAu/ton,leaf]. seeCToiK. Cw-y- 
OpUam [Gr. platma, something formed], the 

Frotoplaam of the nuclens. Ckryorrbax'la 
Gr, rAerii, a niptnre], properly, rupture of 
a cell-nuclens or its envelope ; but applied 
to denote a degenerative process of a cell- 
unelens, in which the ehromatin under the 
inflnence of external agencies is deposited in 
excess npon the nuclear wall and framework 
IhyperehroTnatotit) , and undergoes also divi- 
sion and other changes. 

Oftun'tbrol. ICaseia + anthraz, coal.] A 
compound of casein ointment with extcnct of 
c««l-tar. Applied to tbe skin as a varnish. 

Ouea-bark. See Erylhraphlaum. 

Oucua (kahs-kah'rah; in Eug. kas-kar*- 
ah). [8p.] Bark, 0. amar'sA (^hitter 
bark), llotiduras bark, a bark tbe fluid ex- 
tract of which has been used in syphilis ; dose, 
20-eo ni (gm. l.25-t.(X)). 0. ■•gra'da, B. P. 
( = sacred bark; Rhamnus purshiana, U. 8.), 
the bark of Khamnus pumhia'na of Western 
North America ; a stimulant laxative and 
cathartic. Dose of Kttra^tum caacara tn- 
trada, B. P., 2-S gr. {gm. 0.1.1-0.50) : Ee- 
(roc'funt rhamai punhiana fltt'idum, U, S, 

tBitrac'tum cnscsne sagradic liouidi 
'.), 30 m. (gm. 2.00); 5>K'piM corns 
grada aroma^ictu, B. P., I 3 (gm- ^)- 

OMOUlU'a. [Sp.] The bark (C.-bark, 0., 
U. 6., B. P., Cortex cascarill'tB, G. P.) of 
Croton Elate' rta,ashrub of the EuphorbiacetE 
belongini^ to the Bahamas. C. contains a 
Tolatfleoil and a bitter principle, OaacMlU'tn; 
is aromatic and bitter ; a stimulant and tonic. 
Died in atonic, gastric, and intestinal dya- 
pepsi» and in the typhoid state | dose. 30 gr. 
Jem. 2). Dose of ErlTOiflum caiearilla, Q. 
P., gr. 10 (gm. 0,8) ; Infn'iam catcarilla, U. 

'ufpat catcartv ft 


8., B. P., 1 .3 (gm. 30) ; Tinetu'ra dutaritla, 
B. P., l-2 5(gm.4-8). 

Cascar'ln. A gluooside identical with 
frangulin, derived m>m Cascara sagrada. 

0«fMit« (kaj'zee-ayt). A compound of 
casein with a base. 

OAseatlon (kay-zee-ay'sbun). [L. cdied'ttd, 
fr. iki'gciM. cheese.] Conversion into cheese or 
a cheese-like material ; cheesy degeneration. 

Oaaalcacld(kay-zec'ik). (L.cdMiu, cheese. 
+ -ic.'\ Lactic acid ; formerly thought to be 
the toxic agent in poisoning by cheese. 

Oaaeln (kay'iee-in). (L. cd*«M, cheese, + 
-in.'\ 1. Of^most authors, caseinogen. 3. 
More properly, the body produced by the co- 
Bgulation of caseinogen through the action of 
the gastric juice or of the pancreatic ferment 
iPancrtalic c). and occurring in cheese. The 
first step in the process is the formation of 
Suiuble e. and of lacto-protein by the action of 
the ferment; the next is the precipitation of 
the soluble c, in the form of a curd (cODSiBt- 
ing probably of calcium caseate) by the cal- 
cium salts of the milk. Tes'«Ubl* e., a pro- 
leid resembling c. found in gluten. 

CMaliuiKsn(kn^"zee-in'oh-jen). [■gen.] A 
nucleoalbumin (tbrmcrly regarded as slkali- 
albumiu) contained in milk, and giving rise 
to casein on fermentation. The c. of cow's 
(not of human) milk contains a psendo-DU- 

{kay'zee-us). [h. cattffna.i 
Cheesy ; cheese-like in appearance or consist- 
ence; pertaining to or producing acheese-like 
substance, as C. dt^^eration. 

Cutava (ka<sah'vah). Manioc; Man'ihot 
utiliss'ima, a South Amerie^in, East Indian, 
and Africjm plant of the KuphorbiaceK. The 
dried and grated roots form 0. meal, and from 
Ihe juice and meal is derived C. •tuoll, 
which, dried on heated plates, constitutes 

Ouaa'Tian. See Gantrian. 

OuiU (kash'ah). [L.] I. A genus of 
trees of the Leguiuinosi fiirnishing senna and 
American senna. C. fls'tnU, U. S. (FnTglng 
-.), the fruit of C. Fis'tula of the East Indies; 

4 ,. „., . ....__ r, p_J 

le pulp (Cass'iffipulpa, B. P.) 
rt: dose, 1-12 % (gm. 4-50). 

and their 

barks, especially Chinese cinnamon (O.-b&rk, 
C. cionnmo'mea). O.-bUdB (Flnres cass'iic), 
the unripe fruit of several species of Cinnamo- 
mum. 0. eazyophylla'ta. the cinnamon-like 
bark of DicypeH'ium caryophy 11a' turn of Bra- 
lil. OUofcoilofChineac"'""-' 

upon the part ; as a C. of a bronchus. 
Banal e'l, more or less cylindrical bodies oc- 
curring in the urine, derived froDi'the loppf °^ 

loop* of 


-colomnar (renal) epithelium or of round 
«ell8 ; Hy'iilna c'a, made up of a traneluceiit. 
homogeneous, slightly refractive, and often but 
foiutlv risible, flexible, proteid material, un- 
alfecled b; acetic acid ; Waxy c'a, made up of 
translucent, bomogeneouB, very refractive and 
waxy, brittle, protfid matter, unaffected by 
acetic acid ; Orau'tilftr c'l. formed by the de- 
generation of hyaline or waxy c'a, dark and 
opaque bodies composed of eranular material 
■or covered with granular cells ; Patty o'B, con- 
sisting of epithelial,waxy, hyaline, or granular 
c'B filled with fat-alohulefl : Slood-c'a. consist- 
ing of coagulated fibrin enclosing blood -corpus- 
cdes, aud soluble in acetic acid ; Pui-c'a. con- 
sisting of fibrin containing many leucocytes ; 
Knooaa (or FUie) C'b, ribboos of mucus. 
C's are usually indicative of inflammalioD or 
hemorrhage in the rcoal tubules. 
Oastansa (kaa-tay'nee-ab). [L.] See 

OHtor. 1. The bearer (C. Fiber), a rodent 
mammal occurring in the northern part of 
Europe, Asia, and North America. 3. A sub- 
alanci.' (Oftato'rentn) of peculiar aromatic odor, 
con^sting of the dned preputial follicles and 
the contained secretion, derived from tiie 
beaver. Castoreum is a stimulant and anti- 
spasmodic; used io hysteria, colic and the 
typhoid stale ; dose, 10-^ gr. (gm. 0.65-4.00). 

Castor oU. [Olftim nVin:, V. S., B. P., 
O. P.] A filed oil expressed from the seeds of 
the Ric'inus commu'uis, a tree of the Euphor- 
biaccK growing in all warm countries. It 
■ 'istheglyceridcof Ricinole'ic (hydroxy- 

C. o. I 

peristalsis, producing purga- 
slight irritation, in 4--5 noura. 

h very siigiit 

food, and fermenting mucus In the intestines, 
espectatly when causing inflammation and 
'diarrh<eaj and as an occasional cathartic in 
the constipation of children. Its habitual use 
«auses constipation end hiemorrhoids ; dose, 
*-S 3 (gni. 15-30); of Mittu'raalei ricini, 
B. P., 1-2 J (gm.SO^). 
Ckatrstlon (kas-tray'shun), Renioral of 

OAta- (kat'ah). [Gr.iata.] Prefix meao- 

OAtalMl'le. Of, pertaining to, or endowed 
with calabolism. 

Oatab'ollam. [Qr. balleia, to throw.] See 

Oataotot'lc. (Gr. troUnn, lo strike.] Of 
t, pulse, marked by two or more distinct ex- 
panuons of the artery In the same beat, the 
leaser expansion or expansions occurring after 
the principal one (i. e., on the descending 
wave). A c. pulse is Oatadlcrot'lc when 
there is a single secondary expansion, Oktfttrl- 
crot'le when there are two. Hence, Oat*c'- 


rotUm {Caladii^ratimA, CalainWrotitm), th« 
stale of being c. (catadicrotic, catstrlcrotic). 
O&t'alepay. [Gr. katalfjtiit, fr, kalalnjn- 
baaein, lo seize upoa.J A functional aerroua 
disease characterized by abrupt attacks in 
which the muscles become rigidly fixed, bo 
that the attitude at the time of seizure ia re- 
tained indefinitely nnlcBs changed by passive 
motion, in which case the body remains indefi- 
nitely in the new attitude imparted lo it. The 

k (OatAlap'tlc attack) lasts from a few 

and pulse are slow, and sometimefl almost 

imperceptible. C. is chronic, and may be 
caused by hysteria, chronic cerebral disease, 
oroccur with epilepsy ; or it may be idiopathic. 
Treatment ; Ionics and iron, electricity, ergot, 
and the cold douche. 

O&talep'Uc. Of or marked by catalepsy. 

Catalep'told. [-oiJ.] Kesemhling catalepsy. 

Oktal'Tlis. [Gr. katalytit, dissolution.] 
Chemical transformation produced by a sub- 
stance which, although present in very small 
quantity, is able to decompose an indefinite 
amount of another substance. The action of 
the digestive ferments is an example of c. 

Oatalyt'lc. Effecting catalysis, as C. action, 
C.agenb; produced by catalysis, as C.decom- 

OatMiiMiU(-mee'oee'ah). [Gt.kalameniot, 

monthly, fr. kaia, iu the course of, -I- bmii, 
monlb.j The menses. Hence, Oatame'iilal, 
of or pertaining lo the c; menstmal. 

Oatapboraiil ('foh-ree'sls). [Gr. phortein, 
to carry.] The act of inducing absorption of 
medicines through (lie skin byBDDsmosuset up 
by means of on alternating galvanic current. 
Oat^liorat'lo, of or pertaining to c. 

Oatapbortc (-for'ik). 1. Carrying down; 
ofa galvanic current, carrying with it matters 
from anode to cathode. 3. Calaphoretic. 

Cat'&plRam. [L. atiaplaJ ma "Gi. kola, 
thoroughly, ■^ piowetB, lo shape.] Apoultice. 

Oat'araot. [L. talarada a waterfall, fr. 
kala^ down, + rhrgnnnai, to burst forth.] An 
opacity of the crystalline lens; so called b~ 
— "•— --ht to hi ■ 

e thought 

n exudate 

of the anterior capsule, i. 

Anterior polar (or Pj/ram'idal) e,, and at the 
centre of the posltnor capsule, a Poittriar 
polar c, Lmtlc'iilBx c, an opacity of the 
lens proper. The Stationary (or PaitUl) 
lODtlcnliii c'a include : Cmlral c. on opac- 
ity in the centre of the lens^ Fii^i/orm r., a 
npindle'Shapcd opacity running from the an- 
terior back to the posterior pole; iVnctoM 
c. a series of dol-likc opacities variously dis- 
tributed ; Ptrinu'clcar (or Zon'atar or La- 
meltari c, a disc-like opacity surrounding 
the nucleus of the lens; Cortical c, a 
Blellale opacity in the anterior or posterior 
layers of the cortex. Frofratslvs (or Total) 




entire Icds; occura in 3 itaCBs: (I) Im'ma- 
tart e. (Uoripe c, CaWmcIa immato'ni), 
L'ompriBing Intip'itnt c. (Cataracla incip ■ 
ieoB), in whicb there are opaque secUira 
Hith interveoing clcer Bubstanw, aoil Cofo- 
racta intamt^ cent, \a viViwyi the lens swells, 
owing lo the presence of water, and beeomeB 
compleli^ly opaque. (2) Maturi! (oTBiiie)e. 
(Cataracta matu'ra), in which the opacity is 
eoniplele and Ihe leua separable from the 
eapaule. (li] Hypermalurt c. (Cutaratta hy- 
perrautu're), in which the lens breaks down, 
either Bhrinking inio a solid mam or becom- 
ing liquefied. In the latter case, if it has uo 
nncleuB, it forms a Fluid (or Jtilty) c; if it 
has a hard nucleus, it forms a Morgagn' ian 
c. A fluid c. may, by loss of water, tieconie 
reduced to a pellicle (jtfem'*ranou*c.). A 
hypermature c. may also become calcified 
(C'ataracla catca'rea), or by stretching of 
the zonula may become tremulous {C'ataraeta 
Irem'ula). Any c, with a luird nucleus is a 
Harde.; one with no nuoLms isafloAc. In 
orl^lll c. may be Congenital (all cases at pos- 

.r polar 

le lo injury ; Compliealed, 
aue lo Qisease oi oincr parts of the eye, 
Beal ulcers (anterior polar c), chorioidi 

come opaque^ Treatment : discission for soft, 
partial, or membranous c's; extrsction (with 
or without iridectomy) for ripe o's, 

Oktajfte'ton*. Afi^ted with cataract, as 
C. lens; of or pertaining lo cataract. 

CAtUTb'. [L. eatarrh'tu = Gr. iota, down, 
+ rkeein, to flow.] 1. Inflammation of An epi- 
thelial, anil particularly of a mucous BurTace, 
associated with a discharge which may consist 
eitherof scrum ISerotit c,], pus [Pn'ruleiU c), 
altered epithelial cells {Deiqaa-nuU' ise oi Epi- 
tMlial e.), or altered mucus (Jfucoiu c). 
ACBt« 0. begins with a dry stage, in which the 
epithelial surface is swollen, congested, and 
dry; this is followed by amoist8ta^,in which 
the aecretion is greater than usual, and con- 
tains a comparatively large number of leuco- 
cytes. Olironic c. is characterized by passi 

-,, eiudation into the sub- 
epithelial tisane consiisting of round cells, 
which proliferate, and may become traus- 

, 1 ^„<. .:..„ .ig,ug [Hyper- 

, charaetenzed 

hypenemia and t 

The Dew connective Ubbuc may afterwarti 
shrink (Atrophic or Scleronng ~'~ 
pAi*c «., in which the 

{ staie, . 


F«ma/c., vernal eonjunetivjlis. a. Ponularly, 
c. (especially, in the U. S., chronic c.) of we 

O&t'uUt*. [Gr. Atjtanai, toset.] A prod- 
uct of catabolism. 

OaUtonia (.toh'nee-ah), OaUt'ony. [Gr. 
lojua, n stretching, hecanse of the depression 
of tension, mental and physical.] A variety of 
inaanity in which periods of melancholia, ac- 
companied or followed by cataleploid rigiilitjr, 
alternate with periods of excitement and mania 
which are associated with delusions of exalted 
ehaj-acter and with a tendency lo talk and act 
in an affected or dramatic fashion, Kpilepti- 
form convulsionB are frequent. 

CfttatrlcioVIe, Cfttatrlc'rotUm. See under 

Oat«ct»i(kat'ee-kew). Of t\te\3.% Black 
c, a solid extract from the wood of Aca'- 
cia Caleohu, an East Indian tree of the 
LeguminosK. Of the B. P. Pale c. or gam- 
bir, an extract from Ihe Ie»*e« of Unca'- 
ria (Onroupe'ria) Qambir, an East Indian 
shrub of the Rubiacete. C. of the G. P. in- 
cludes both pale and black c. Both are as- 
tringent from the presence of the crystalline 
Cat'ecbla or OatwHu'lo KCld, CuHmO*^ 
5HiO. Used in diarrbisa, and locally for sore 
throat and spongy gums. Dose of Tineta'ra 
c, B. P., G. P., 13 (?m. 4); Tinclu'ra e. 
compo/ila, U. S., containing also cinnamon, 
1 3 (gra. 4); Palvit c. camvo^itnt, B. P., con- 
taining also kinu and rhalanj, 20-40 gr. 
{gm. 1.2,^2.60); TVocAiVcie., U.S. (TVocAtictis 
c, B. P.), lor 2 troches, 

Oataleetrot'oniu. iEtectric + Gr. tono*, 
■ " A Blute of heightened irrilability 
in a nerve in the neighborhood of 
uie negadve electrode while a galvanic cur- 
rent is passing. Uenoe, CaMlactroton'io, of 
or pertaining to c. 

Oat'gnt. [GW+ffu«,l The gut of various 
animals made into a coi^ ; used as a material 
for ligatures, sutures, and drains. Its ad- 
Tautages are its complete absorbabilily and 
the ease with which it can be rendered anti- 
septic or aseptic. 

Oatliar'alB. [Or. kathartie, fr. kalhairdn, 
to cleanse,] Purgation ; free evacuation of the 

OatliaT'tlij. [Gr. kathartikot, cleansing, IV. 
kathairein, lo cleanse.] Producing purgation 
or free discharge of fecal matter frum the 
bowels; also a remedy so acting. According 
to the severity of action, c's are divided Into— 
Ikzatlyai, which increase slighlly intestinal 
peristalsiB, and are very mild, including castor 
oil, the salines (ma^esium sulphate and ci- 
trate, potassium bitartnite, potassium and 
sodiuoi tartrate, sodium phosphate), sulphur, 
manna, figs, prunes, and other fruits; moder- 
ate pnrgatlTes, senna, rhubarb, alnes, jalap, 
podopbyllum, and the mercurials (calomel, 
blue pill 1 ; and draatlci, which are very pow- 
erful and harsh, including elaterinm, scam- 

mony, colocynth, gamboge, an^ craioiL oi 



The c'b are used to evacuate the bowels in 
■tip&tion and digestive troubles ; to pniduee a 
Qow of bile (cbOlaKOfUea, including the mer- 
curlals, podophyllum, rhubarb, aloes, jalap, 
■odium, phoBphalf] ; to produce a profound 
revulsive effect iii cerebr&l liiseHSes; or to re- 
liere dropsy by producing a profuse water; 
dischar^ (hydraKOguaa, including the salines 
— especially ma^esium sulphate and potas- 
sium bitartrate— ^lalerium, jalap, gauiboge. 
oolooynth, and acammony) . C. acid, an acid 
whose salts (OaUutr'tatei) constitnle the pur- 
gative principle of senna. Oomponiia a. pllli 
(Klnlee cathartics compos'ita!. U. S.). pilU 
containing eacli 1.25 gr. compound extract of 
colocynth. 1 gr. calomel, 0.5 gr. eitroct of 
jalap, and O.'agr. of mimbogo. Dose. 1-3 pills. 
▼agetkble o. piUi (Pilutx catbartiece vegcta'- 
biles, U. S.), pills containing eacb 1 gr. com- 
pound eitract of colocynth, 0.5 gr. each of ex- 
tract of hyoscy am us and extraet of jalap^ 0.25 
gr. each of extract of leptandra and resin of 
podophyllum and 0.3 gr. oil of peppermint. 

0&tlk'«Ur. [Gr. kathetir, fr. kathienat, to 
sound.] A hollow iDstrument for introduction 
into acanat of the body; especially, one de- 
signed for tlie injection or withdrawal of fluid 
or gas. Hale e., a long tube with a sharp bend 
for introduction into the male bladder. Fe- 
male G., a short tube slightly bent for intro- 
duction into the female bladder. Froitat'ic c, 
a urethral c. with short angular tip for passing 
an enlarged prostate. Enstach'lan e., a tube 
slightly curved for introduction through the 

...tothetympanum. FaQ'oiaIe.,a Eustachi 

c. introduced through the fauces. 0. fever, 
fever, usually preceded by a chill, following 
the passage of a c. inl« the uretlira. 

Oatli'eterlam, Oatlieteniatian(kath"et-ur- 
ey-iay'shun). The act of cathcteriziug. 

(ka-thoh'dal). Of or situated at 
tne oatnode. C. closure conlraclion forclonus, 
CCCl), C. cloture (eWnm (CCTe), C. opening 
eontraelion for clonus, COCl), C, oprning 
tetonu* (COTe^, clonic or tetanic contraction 
taking place in the muscles at the cathode 
when tbe circuit is closed or opened (broken). 
OaUt'ode. [Gr. kathado; the way down,] 
The negative pole or negative electrode of a 

galvanic haMery. C. rayt, the 

Eroperly the radiant energy prod . 

I skiagraphy. Hence, C. photoqraph (Ca- 

Uiod'ograpli), a diagram; Cauiog'rapIiT, 

Oaf Ion. [Gr. kation, that which descends.] 
In electrolysis, that one of the two electrolytes 

ielectrv-positive electrolyte) which accnmu- 
»l«s at the negative pole (cathode). 
Oat'Iln, Oatliug. A long, two-edged and 
sharp-polDted knife used in amputations. 

Oat'nep, Oat'nlp. The Nepeta Cata'ria, 
an aromatic plant of the Labiat« ; used as a 

.n which both visual lines naturally tend to 
lie below the horiiontal plane. 
Oatop'trtc. [Gr. katoptTon, mirror.] Of, 

Srtaining to, or performed by reflection. 0. 
Il, a method of examining the condition of 
the crystalline lens by observing the reBec- 
tions from its anterior and posterior surfccea, 
formerly used as a test for cataract. 

Catop'trlcB. The branch of physics treat- 
ing of the leflection of light. 

OatotroplJL (kat"oh.troh'pee^h}. [Or. 
koto, downward, + tropot, a turning.] A vis- 
iblepathologicol deflection of both eyes down- 

OatUa-tarcy. See Farcy. 

GatUe-placve. Averjjbtalfonnofhiemor- 
rhagic cedema occurring in stags, boars, cattle, 
and occasionally horses. Due to Bacillus 
bovisepticus. It occurs as Exanihanatom 
c.-p., marked by cutaneous oxlema and Pec- 
toral c.-jt., marked by pleuro-pneumonia, peri- 
carditis, etc. Both forms are usually aaso- 
ciated with hiemorrbagic enteritis. 

Cauda (kaw'dah). [L.] A tail. 0. eqnl'- 
na [ — horse's tail), the agglomerstion formed 
at the lower part of the spinal canal by the 
sacral and coccygeal nerves. 

Candad (kaw'dad). [Cauda + -ad.] To- 
ward the tail or tail-end. 

Caudal (kaw'dal). Of or belonging lo a 
tail ; as C. flerare, the curvature Ibrmed by 
the posterior end of the embryo. 

Caudate (li:aw'dayt}. [L. cauda'tut, fr. 
caudo,] Provided with a tail. 0. naoletu 
(Nu'cleus cauda'tus), the anterior portion of 

the smaller lobes of the liver. 

Oandex (kaw'deks). PI. cau'dices. [L.] 
Astern; as C. ^r'eiri, the stem of the cerebrum 
( = the crura cerebri). 

OanI (kawl). 1. Originally a veil or net 
for the head; hence, the amnion, especially 
when unruptured and enveloping the child's 
head at birth. 9. The omentum. 

Causal (kaw'zal). Of or pertaining to a 
cause ; directed toward the cause of a disease, 

Caaialfla (kaw-zal'jah). [Gr, kaatit, a 
burning, -I- -algia.^ An intense, localiied, 
burning pain occurring as a symptom of ner- 
vous disease. It is usually associated with 
glossy skin (q, v.). 

Oanae. [L. cauia.] That which produces 
or brings about any state or condition. The 
c's of disease are PrsdlipOBlng (or Contrlbnt- 

laa, includ' " 

liable to d 

/.uu, Cookie 

duectlv prodQce it). Exciting o's which exert 
their dTect directly before the developmcDt of 
the diaeaae are ImmedUt* (or fiUUiXy or 

8 occuiTiDg previous 

Ultlnuite). C'fl may bIbo be Looftl or Oonnl- 
tntlonal. That part of medicine Ireatiog of 

the c's of disease u called £hW(w. 

OauUo (kawa'tik). [L. am/ficuj ~ Gr. 
iaiuiitoi, fr. katein, to bum.] Burning, cor- 
rosive, penetretinf! mto and destroying ani- 
mal tissnesi a comnive or buroiDp agent. 
The prlnoii»l c's are the uiinenJ acida^ espe- 
cially nitric acid ; zlacia.] afetic and trichlor- 
acetic acids; phenol (carbolic acid); the stroag 
alkalies, as ammonia and its eolutioo (C. am- 
monia), potasss ^0. polaask), soda (0. sodat, 
and lime; chromium trioxide ^chromic acid); 
anenic trioxide (Hnenoua acid) ; silver ni- 
trate (Louare.) ; mercuric nitrate; zinc chlo- 
ride; bromine. C's may be applied in a liquid 
form (nitric acid, bromine) ; in a paste (Vi- 
enna c. = potassn vrithlime); in the form of 
OITOITE (0. arrows, couBiating especially of 
areeuic trioilde) introduced into the substance 
of the tinuesj or in pencils (0. points, at?U 
cana'tici. O. P.). 

CMitarant (kaw'tur-enl). Sec Vaiutic. 

Canterlutloii(kaw"tur-ej-zay'Bhun). The 
act of cauterizing. 

Oantcrlae (kaw'tur-eyz). To burn either 
by the application of a caiutlc or of heat. 

Canterr (kaw'tnr-ee). [Gr. kavtii-ion, a 
branding-iron.] 1. An agent applied for the 



of actual c. now used a 
Fkqttelln'i a.), i 

and QalTano-cantery, comprising Ordinary 
or Thermie Qalvano-eautery ( Voltaic thermo- 
eautery), in which the tiswies are seared with 
a metal wire or point heated by the pasBEBe 
Uitongh it of a galvanic current generated by 

rent passiug directly through them {electro- 
lyslB). BoUr c, c. bv meaas of the sun's 
rays concentrated with a bumiog glass or 
mirror. 3. The searing produced by c. 

Oawl (kay'val). Of, pertaining to or for 
the vena cava; as C. opening of diaphragm. 

OavMlry bone. Rider's bone ; a bone some- 
time* developed in riders in the tendon of the 
adductor magnus of the thigh. 

C»y«mom»(kaT"ur-noh'mab). ICaveraout 
+ -OIIUI.] A cavernous angioma. 

OftT'amona. [L. cavtriUfiiu, fr. cavtu, 
hollow.] 1. Containing caverns or lar^ 
reticular recesses : asC.nnus. 0. Uaina, tis- 
sue composed of numeroas communicating 


compartments formed by fibrous trabeonln 
and enclosing ereotite tissue (large, freely 
communicating venous pleiuses). C. body, 
see Corput cavemosiim. 0. tnmor, a tumor, 
especially an angioma (C. angioma}, consist- 
ing largely of c. tissue. 3. Of, pertaining to, 
or in relation with the c. sinus, as C.pUxtu 
(of the sympathetic) ; of pertainina to, or 
suppljringthe c. l)ody,as (7. Ttfrrcei of Uie sym- 
pathetic. I. Of, pertaining to, or dependent 
upon the presence of a cavern or cavity ; as 
C. rftle, C. respiration. See tables under Bdte 
and Rtipiration. 

OkT'ltftry. Forming cavities; as C. mycit'' 
(M ( ^ myelitis associated with the formation 
of cavities in the spinal cord). 

Cav'tty. [L. ea-vum. fr. eai'us, hollow.] A 

lH>dy or of one of its organs; as Cra'nial c, 
Thorac'ioc„Peritone'Blc., Pelvic c, C. of the 
bhidder, C. of the stomach, C. of the tym'- 

OaTom (kay'vum). [L.] A cavity; as C. 
tym-'pani, the cavity of the tympanum; C. 
pharyitgo-taryngea' U, the cavity of the pbar- 
yni and larynx. 0. Jtet'iU, the space formed 
when the fold of the peritoneum in frontof the 
bladder is lifted up by the distention of the 

Cayonua pepper. See Capticam, 

Oe. An abbreviation for cubic Centimetre. 

000, 0001. A symiml for cathodal closure 
contraction (or clonus). 

Ocm. Abbreviation for cubic centiisetre. 

Od. Symbol for cadmium. 

C«. Symbol for cerium. 

OebooeptwliM (see'^h-sef'a-lus). [Qr. 
kebot. monkey, -I- kiphalt, head.] A mon^r 
Kith the eyes close together and the nose de- 

Cedar (aee'dor). [Gr. *«Irw.] Properly 
the genus Cedms. but popularly appbed to 
other trees of the Conifene. Oil of o., a frag- 
rant oil obtained formerly from the c. of Leba- 
non (Ced'rus libanot'ica), but now from the 
Bed (or Virginia] c. (Junij)eruB Virginia' na) ; 
used as a clarifying agent m microscopy. 

-oele (-seel). [Gr. iiti, tumor or rupture 
(Ist and 2d de&.). kmtia, cavity (3d def.j.l 
A suffix denoting (1) a rupture or hernia; (3) 
a tumor or swelling, especially one of the scro- 
tum ; (3) a body-cavity, or specifically, a ven- 
tricle of the brain. 

C«U. [L. eellula, dim. of c<!'a, a smell com- 
partment.] 1. A more or lera closed space or 
minute recess, eapecially one communicating 
with a larger cavity or a free lu^ce. Air- 



ir recesses fanned 
~j — — , of a bronchiole. 

BtmiMl'aal c'«, Mutold c'i. BpbenoI'dU e'l, 
the series of small, communicnting eavities in 
the cancellous tissue of the ethmoid, mastoid 
process of the temporal bone, and iiody of the 
sphenoid. S. One of theehambera (QalTan'lo 
e.) containing the tlcmeuts and the fluids of 
a galvanic battery. Daniell'a c. Mari^Davy 
C, etc., see anier Hallerv. S. One of the minute. 
more or less specialLied masses of protoplasm 
of which organized bodies ere composed ; so 
called because originally thought lo be hollow 
chambers. C's vary in alis from 0.001 to 1 or 
more millimetres, the average being 0.005- 
0.100 millimetre. Very large c's, especially 
if containing many nuclei, are called Gianl 
c'». In alULiiB c's may be Flat {or Squamo«>) , 
Onlvm-'nar, Pgram' idal. Cabofdal, Sound 
(or Sphero'i<lal), fusiform (Spindle e.), or 
elongated into a fibre (Fibrc-c.). They may 
be either fixed or motile ( Wanderinff c), and 
in the latter case ma.T move by means nf 
pseudopodia (aa in leucocytes) or by flagella 


{Fla^tllatee.). A c. ithlch, whethcrnMvinic 
or fixed, has movable cilia is ctl'UtML C's 
arcalso designated accordiug to theirfonctlan, 
as MwMUt c'> (secreting mucin), Peptic e't 
(secreting pepsin — although what were once 
tims called do not aecrete pepsin) ; or accord- 
ing to their lituaUon, as VnUral c>, Partial 
c's {Border c'l), etc. A c. is oompMAd of a 
proteld substance (protoplasm), granular or 
reticular in structure, forming the C.-lMd7, 
CQciosiug a C.-nniileiii or separate mass nf 
protoplasm ; both cell-body ana nucleus, con- 
" lum of chromatin-fibrils snr- 
imstin. Sometimes the chro- 

condensed into a nueleolni within 

the nucleus, and sometimes the c.-body is 
thickened at its peripherv into a distinct wall 
(O.-wall). C's mnlfaply (1 ) by fission either 
preceded hy fission of tlie nucleus (Indirect c- 
aipi'sion. caryocinesis) or not {Direct e.-di- 
(2) bf formation of danghter c 

rounded by ei 

tion ol the orum. 


n IndUbrent (orBmbryonlc) o'l. small round c' 

.1 — J unall round c's form tubercle, g 


1. Bmliryonlc coniLectlTe-tlaaiia 

acter fiom Indifferent cells (c'si 

2. Leiiooayt«» (white biood-c's. war 


idering connecttve-tlBsue 
In Hammatoiy exudates. 
BTTtli'rOCTtfll (red biood-c's, and Che 

be derived). 
Fixed conneotlva-tlBBne c'l, stellate or splndle-shai 
in connective tissue (tendons, membrane 

Mesoblast Comprise; 

nd.orspindle-shapedc's, butlUlle removed Incbar- 

..1 1. .V. form sarcoma and myxoma. 

lymph and of adenoid tissue). 

_„_ . _, __ », In bone, dentin. 

ir In Hbroma. lipoma, osteoma, and 
b. BndoUiell*] (or BpitllBllOld) c'l, fiat c's llniiig the serous 

■med Into tibtvt. 


.ihesynovta. _ . 

and lymphatic sj-slem (heart, arteries, veins, 

" :^LLT, (onn endothelioma. 

the eloDgared nuclear fibres fonning In 

iplUades, 1>'mphailt 

0. Kiueie- 

ary muscle. P*tHou>dicallt, form 

imetlmes dilate c's lining the surface of the body and the alimentary, 
respiratory tracts (Including the tympanic uid lachrymal tiacls). PkTa- 

Celu ov the Epiblabt 

1. Spittaalial c's, i 

genito-urinanr, , . , 

oLooiCAU-v. form paplltoma and epithelioma. 

2. OUft-e'B, forming the supporting subalani 

the ependyma. Patholoqically, form ki^j^'b- 

3. Kervs-C't (A'euroni), rounded or pyramlilal tiodles with protoplasmic processes. 

DeOen' c'i) and tt 

re continued as tt 

,- — . irgans of special sense, coradst either of 

^ cochlea. Including outer and Innei rods, outer and Inner 
r glla-c's {CiofTOina), combined with peripheral neurons. 
lar or polyedtal c's (A) lining the lumen of glands that 
open upon epithelial surfaces, as the setiaceouB, cerumlnal, Budorinc, lachrymal, and sallvaiy 
glands, Ihe seereUng glands of the stomach, pancreas, liver {IlejuOic c's, liner e'l). Branner's 
glanda. renal tubules. leeticlcs. proslate, vulvo-veglnal glands; and (B) forming the parenchyma 
ol ductless glands. Patbouxiicallv, fonn adeiioma. carcinoma, and cylindrical epllbeUome. 
nooni c'l (Beaker c'i), goblet-shaped c's on muoous surfaces, cont^nlog mucin. 

hair c's. UlaudluB' . , 
6. QlandnUr (m Beeretlng) 

n epithelial surfi 

OelU(seriah). [L. -compartment.] The 
central portion of tne lateral ventricle. 

(Mloldls (seMoy'din). Collodion concen- 
trated by evaporation of its ether. It is used 
for imbedding microscopic objects preparatory 
to section-cutting. 

c (sel'yn-lar). 1. Composed of or 

ig hollow spaces, as C. tunie ( = loose 
■e tissue with lairge intenpaces). S. 

Containing many cells; composed mainly oC 

__,._ ._ « --;ifage " - " 

(Bel"yuh-lirew-ga1). [L. 



(Mesial Surface). 



ve) tissue: eapedally, purulent iDDum- 

)□ of the loose aubcutaneona connective 

I fLDiI fascia, and inflammntion of the 

eclive tissne iPelviee.). 

OeUnlo-cntaneoiu (sel "yu-loh-kew-tay '- 

nee-naj. Consiating of skin andoellular (Enb- 

cutaneouB areolar) tissue ; as C.-c. flaps. 

0aUiilol(I(sel'7u-loyd}. [G://«^o*e + -ol"rf.] 
Pyroxylin combined with camphor and other 
substances and rendered non ■inflammable by 
the addition of Bodium or ammonium phos- 

OeUnloM (sel'yu-lohs). [CelluU + tui.i 
A carbohydrate, (CtHii>Oj)ii, forming the 
framework of the cells of pianta. C, is a 
tiansparent, colorless, amorphous solid, iusol- 
able m water, alcohol, or ether; soluble in 
Enli>haric acid ; converted by sulphuric and 
nitric acids into gun-cotton (pyroiylin). C. 
occurs nearly pure in absorbent cotton. 

0«]OMmiu (Bee"Ioh-Boh'niaB). See Kelo- 

elements together; as Interfibrillarr c. 3, 
The bony layer covering the root of a tooth 
from the apei of the Ding to the point where 
the enamer ceases. 0. eorpntelM, osteogenic 
cells occupying the lacuiue of the c. 

C*iiMntom«(Bee-men-U>h'mah). [-oma.] A 
tumor composed of cement. 

OMit. Abbreviation for centigrade and cen- 

OuktMUTAft benedlc'ts ( gen"Caw-ree'ah ), 
rOr. ientanreiaa, from Kfitaurot, Centaur, 
becaose used by the Centaur Chiron.] The 
blessed thistle (Car'duos benedic'tus, Cnieua 
benedic'tus), a European plant of the Com- 
potitK. The herb <Herba ca/dui benedicti, 
G. P.) contains a bitter principle^ Cnicin. 
Used ID atonic dyBpepsia and hepatic conges- 
tion ; dote, laSO gr. (gm. 1-2). 

Oentaury (sen'tur-ee). [L. cenlau' rium =■ 
Gr. inWo«nrfon(Bee Cfcn/auren).] The Ery- 
tbne'a Cenlau'rium, also called European c, 
a Enrapean plant of the Gentianaceie. The 
herb (Herba centau'rii G. P.) is a bitter 
tonic. Amarlean c, Sabba'tia angula'ris, an 
American herb of the Gentianacete, is a bitter 
tonic, used in hot inftision as a diaphoretic. 

tL.ceatl^imiu. hundredth.] 

T <'' centigrade thermometer). 

, one the scale of which c 
between 0° (the freezing point) and 100° (the 
boiling point) of water. Abbreviated lo C. 
OAn'tlgTunme, OmUUtre (sen'tee-lee-tur), 
OentlmBtrB(Beu't*e-me«-tur),Bee WcigkU and 
Meatures, Table of. C«llUllor'mal, having 
iji^th of the normal strength; said of testsolu- 
tions containing ioalitre an amonni of reagent 
such that the replaceable hydrogen which the 
latter contains or can be made to contain by 
substitution = yjoth gramme. 

Mnt'nd. [Outre + -ad.} 1. Toward the 
centre; especially, directed toward (he centre 
orcentral plane ofthe body. 3. Ameasureof 
angular deviation, beioeO.S?" or the one hun- 
dredth part of an arc which is equal in length 
to the radius. Symbol, Cr. 

Oantral. 1. Of or pertainingto thecentrc; 
situated in or at the centre ; as C. canal of-the 
spinal cord, C. canal ofthe modiolus. 0. calls, 
the adelomorphous cells of the stomach ; so 
called because they lie in the centre of the 
gland-lobules. 0, coiiTOliitloti* (0. nrrl), the 
ascending fVontai {Atiierior c.) and ascending 
parietal {PoMeriorc.) convolutions, adjoining 
the 0. flsinr* ( C. taleui, fissure of Rolando). 
0. lobe, the island of Reil, because situBl«t 
within the substance ofthe brain. 0. ligunant 
of the spinal cord, the filum terminale. C. 
mrsll'tU, myelitis involving the gray matter 
in the centre of the spinal cord. 0. neTTOV* 
■yitMH, the brain and spinal cord (nerve-cen- 
tres) as opposed to the nerves or peripheral 
system. 0. system of artsrlBB, the arteries 
at the base of the brain supplying the ganglia 
in its centre. 3. Applied to the centre, or to 
the c. nervous system. 0. galTftnltttton, gal- 
vanization with the cathode upon the epigas- 
trium and the anode passed successively over 
(he forehead, cranium, neck, and spine. 3. 
Directed toward the a< . . ,-. 

of spinal ganglia. 

point about which the parts of a body at 
or less symmetrically disposed. 0. of gTa.Y- 
tty, the point through which the line of sup. 
port or line of suspension passes when a body, 
suspended or supported at one point only, re- 
mams balanced or in equilibrium. 3. Hence, 
the core of anything ; the or^n or region to 
which impulses from the periphery converge, 
and from which impulses radiate lo the peri- 
phery. Oennliial c, see Germiital. OMlfl- 
e&tlon-C, the point at which ossitication 1)e- 

S'ns in bone. The short bones have one c 
e long bones one for the shaft and 

for each extremity (epiphysis) and proc 
.. — ,_. .i._ ji_. _jnj irregular bone 

of the nen-ous system (M«rTB-c.) which 

1 of the B 


..o , -■ regalat« E _ 

mpulse {Motor c), or receives and appreci- 

tes a sensory one (BB"'"""™ " ' "' "»"""-• ■ 



■ensorr impitlse aod oonverta it into a motor 
onefRtflexc), oracts to inhibit the action of 
another c. or aome phyaiologlcal action (In- 
hlh'itoiT c. ). The «?8 (1) ofhiBhest onler are 
tlie C«T'tlcu c'l, of the cerebral eortei ; the 
Motor cortical o'l. comprising ihe c's for the 
initiation of voluntary movements, situated 
mainly in the ascending parielal and ascend- 
ing fl^ntal convolutions, and iucluding a 
number of distinct c's (Arm-c, Leg-e., Oro- 
lingual c. Facial c, Adducior and Abductor 
e'4 0/ iwal c'l, etc.) for the movemenrsof indi- 
vidual parts, and the 8pe«eh-a. (Broca't c), 
comprising several distinct c's in the Bccond 
and third left frontal convolutions, for the pro. 
duction of speech. The Benaory cortical e's 
include the An'dltory o., comprising several 
distinct c's, partly in both iiemispheres, but 
mainly in the left superior temporal convolu- 
tion, for Ihe conscious appreciation of sounds; 
Vla'iul c, in the left cuneua, lingual and fusi- 
form lobules, and angular gyrus, for the con- 
acious appreciation of objects seen; Word-o'i 

SAildilflry and Visual) = that port of the au- 
itory or visual c. coueemed with the apprecia- 
tion of word -symbols ; Ollkc'toiy c, probably 


up or generated in the lower c's are {II) the 
Asioclatlon c't. The lowerc's (Ill)include 
(1) the c's of origin (Snclal) of the various 
cerebral and spinalnerves, situated in the cen- 
tral (circum ventricular) gray matter of the 
brain and cord, and (2) the reflex and inhibi- 
tory c'a aimilarly located. These are Thor- 
mogail'la (for the generation of heat), prob- 
ably in caudate nucleus and in spinal coril ; 
TtMrmo-inlilb'ltory, for preventing the gener- 
ation of heat, »id to be in the gray matter 
near the Sylvian fissure and tuber cinereum; 
TliermDlyt'lc, for the dissipation of heat, in 
the tuber cinereum and Ined^llla ; Polypnot'lc 
(or PautliiB) O., in the tuber cinereum ; Vmo- 

ably), medulla, and Bi'Att«red through cord 
gudoriric, prodacinK diaphoresis, in cord, 
Baiplr'atory (including Espit'iaory c. and 

medulla; ConKUBS c, in medulla; Pn'p'lllaTy, 

producing contraction of the pupil (in corpus 
quadrigeminum ) or its dilatation ( Cll'lo-aiil- 
aalo. )in lower cervical cord; Daglntttlon 
medulla, producing movements of swallowing; 
c's probably in medulla, for accelerating and 

„ jjng by direct or reflei irritation ; 

Oardlo-lnMb'ltory o., in medulla, for inhib- 
iting the action of the heart ; Dtabet'lo c, in 
medulla, inlerferenee with which causes rapid 
conversion of glycogen into sugar, and conse- 
quent diabetes; a«nlt«l (l}«nlto-Biit'nal) o., 

and ejaculation of semen (SJac'ulatory a.)\ 
Vai'ical (TealcD-apl'nal) c, for maiDtaining 
tonic contraction of the sphincter vesicle, and 


being in the lumbar enlargement ; C fbr 
■pb&cter ani, maintaining tonic contraction 
of latter, Defflcatloii e., for producing peri- 
staltic action of sigmoid fleinre and relaiing 
sphincter, and 0. lor anal raSas, allin lumbar 
enlargement (hence called ljio-*pi'iial c'a) : 
Parturit'lose., for producing contraction of 
the uterus and expulaion of the fetus, ia the 
upper lumbar cord ; O'lfbrmniciiIU'TellazM, 
in various parts of cord (see JfQiex). 

Cantrlfojal [sen-trif yu-gal). [L.wii/niBt, 
centrT>,+/ti?(Te, to fly.] Directed away from 
the centre; peripheric; at C. current, C. im- 
pulse. 0. force, the force which urges a body 
when rotated to fly ofi"f>om the centre of rota- 
tion. G. machlns, a centrifuge. 

OentriroKalliatloii (sea-tree-few"ga-ley- 
zay'shun). The act of centrifiigalizing. 

CanlrlAigaUM (sen-trifew-gal-eyz). To 

subject to rapid rotation so as to separate the 

-'^d particles of a liquid (e. g., the blood) 

u the fluid portions by centrifugal force. 

^ Oentrtfoce (sen' tree- fewj). An 
'"- ""-'"nning eentriftigaliia'' — ■ 
hich tubes filled wii 
c.) and attached i 

Oantrlpetal (sen-trip'ee-tal). [L. centrum- 
centre, + petere, to seek.] Tending or directed 
toward the centre ; as a C. current C. force. 

ovum, having (he yolk concentrated in the 

Oonttopolar (sen"troh-poh'lar}. Applied 
above or to the central side of electrodes need 
in producing electrotonus ; as C. atimnlua. 

OentToaome (sen'troh-iohm). [Centre + 
Gr. lama, body.j 1. A structure in the 
spermatid near the nuclens. 3. A point in a 
neuron or other cell, about whicK the chroma- 
tic substance is concentrically gathered. 

Oentnim (sen'trum). [L.] 1. Centre. 0. 
OTa'la, the oval maaa of white substance ex- 
posed b^ carrying a horizontal section through 

0«pa (see'pah). [L.] Onion. See Allium. 

Cepbal- (sefal-). See Cephalo-. 

Oeph'al&d, [-od,] Toward the head. 

Oephalalgia (-al'jah). [-algia.'] Headache. 
0. apilap'tloa, migraine. 

CephaUimnatoinat -hee"mB-toh' mah ) . [Htt- 
maloma.} l.AawellingGtIedwith blood formed 

cele."] Hydrencephaloc^e. 

Oepli»Ui)[8ee-fal'il(). [L. Mpftaf i'ctu.] Of 
or pertaining to the head, as 0. tfrnpttmui; sit- 
nated at or including the head, aikCjIentre of 



the fetus, C. eilremiiy; cauBing the hrad (of 
the fetua) to prcsi^ut, us (,'. cfnioH; fitt«l lo 
the head (especiaDy of the fftus), aa U. fiirre 
ot ohstetrical forceps: of nlgniticaiiee for (and 
heDce operalnl upon for) dinordprsof Ihc head, 
as C. iieia of nnn. 0. index, the maximum 
breailth of the skull expressed as a perceotoge 
of the inaxiinDiii lei^gth. 

Oapbklo- (ntf a-loh). [Gr. tfpinlf, head]. 
A pri'tix meiiniiie of, or for the head. Oapha- 
locele (stfa-ioh-aeel) [-crlt (1st def.)], ft 
I L'oniprisitig luenineoii ' 

., j^'u'L 

myalKiu of the head muselex. Oeptudom'elu* 
[Gr. tatlct. limb], we Shmler,, Table of. 
CeptutlOUi'Mar, a deviro for determiniue the 
form and dimensions of the head. CepIlUOp'- 
%ga* [Gr. pegniinai, to festenj, a monster 
consisting of tffo individuals united by their 
hlsd<<, with faces looking in opposite dii 

^o-nucUdUn (-ra-kid'ee-an) [Gr. rhackU, 
epine], of or pertaining to the head and spine. 
OephAlot&oraoop'ftgns [Gr. pfgn-unat, to 
fasten], a double monster conHistin); of two 
individuals united by head and thorax. 
Ceph^ot'omy, (he operation of cultinR open 
the head of the felua in order to facililate de- 
livery. CBph'alatrlpay [Gr. trlbein. to 
cruBli], the operation of emsliins the head of 
the fetus in onler lo facilitate delivery ; per- 
formed with an instrument called Gapb'alo- 

0«n(Bee'mh). [L.] See ITax. 

Oaruut (ser'a-Bus). [L.] See Cherry. 

Cerate (see'rayt). [L. cerd'lum, ft. efra, 
wax.] A preparation for cxlvrnal applieatiOD. 
consisting of wax and a fat or oleo-reiUD in 
sueh proportion as to be softer than a plaster, 
and capable of being spread upon the shin 
without melting. Blmple c, {0. or Cenituni, 
U. S., (?eratum simplex, Unguen'tum eerae.G, 
P.), a mixture of wat, 3 parts, and lard (or 
olive oil, G. P.), 7 parts. 

CerkUn (ser'a-tin). See Ktraiin. 

Cenito- (ser'a-loh-), Oarato-eil'cold. Oer' 
ato-Blosa'ai. Cerklo-hr'al. See Kerato-, 
Kemlo-erieoid, etc. 

Oercomoou (sur-kom'oh-nas). {Gr.kerkot, 
tail, + maniu, unit.] A genus of microscopic 
animals (Flagellata). C. Aom'inif, paranitic 
in man, is said to cause diarrhtca und other 
symptoms. C. iiUatiaa' tit, frei]uent in the 
human intestine, is non-pathogenic. 

Cereb«Ukr (ser-ee-bel'lar). 1. Of or per- 
taining to the eerebellum, as C. arteries. 3. 
Leading to the cerebellum ; as Direcl 
forming ttie exte 
column of the c< 
cerebellum ; as C, 

Oent>eUa- (Ber"ee-bel'loh-). Prefix mean- 
ing cerebellar; as Oetelwllo-ol'iTatT, Oere- 
bello-ipl'iuil, connecting the cerebellum with 
the olivary body and spinal cord respectively. 


CerebeUnm(8er"ee-beriuni}. [L, = dim.of 

cerebruni.l The lilth' brain : Ihiit portion of 
the bruin situated behind llie eerebrum, and 
sitnnouiiting tlie fourth ventricle and pons. 
It consi^K of two henUipherM, one on each 
side, un<l a cetitrul portion (TSnuii, Median 
lobe^. Kythe great horixonlat fissure eneh 
hemisphere is dividiil Into an upper and loner 
segment. From iK'foro backward, the up- 
per surface of the vermis is ilivided by trans- 
verse fissures ( I'n-ceiitral, Postcentral, Pre- 
clival, Postclival) into the Liiigiila, C'enlTal 
lobe. Calnira. Ctirui, and C'lciimtii ; and by 
the same fissures the hemisphere is divided 
into the /VeHuiHm. and Ala (together form- 
ing the Quadrate loW), the Vrnlrat and Dor- 
talereteenlie /oA« (together forming the Semi- 
lunar lobe), and the Dorio-mpcrior lohr. 
On the under surface from before baekwaril, 
the vermis is divided by the Posttiodulnr, 
Prepyramidal and Postpyramldal fissiir.s 
into the Nodalt, Uvula, /Vramii/, and Dor- 
»at later; and the same fissune divide tlie 
hemispheic into the Ftoccubu (Subpedune- 
ular lobe, PneumogBHlric nodule), Amyg- 
dala, Digatlric lobe, and a segment cou- 
sisting of the SItnder lobe in front and the 
Dor»o-iaftrior lobe behind, separated by the 
Poslgracile fissure. The exterior atiftece of 
the c. is thrown into leaf-like folds (Folia); ita 
Interior is a white mass containing si-veral 
gray nuclei (Corpus dentatuni, Kmboliform 
nucleus. Nucleus globosus, Nuclens iasti((ii). 
The c. is conxacted by the Superior prduHelrt 
with the tettmentum of the cms and (after de- 
cussation of the peduncles) with (lie corpora 
Suadrigemina ; by the Jfiddle peduncht with 
le pims; and by the hifrrior pediine/rt 
(restes) with the medulla and the cerebetlnr 
tract of the cord. Sec also Brain. 

BeloL-= , r, 

brum ; as C. haemorrhage, 0. oniemia, <'. _. 
tericB. C. locaUiatlon, the locatiiation of 
various facullies in special parta of the cere- 
brum. S. Directed toward or in relation with 
the cerebrum ; as ihcC. surface of (he cranium. 
3. Derived from the cerebrum, as C. lager of 
Ihe reliiia {comprising all strata internal lo the 
outer nuclear layer). 4. Originating in or due 
to a lesion of the rcrcbnim, as C. paralysis, C. 
deaAiess. C. hemiannsthe'sia. 5. (!)f. pertain- 
ing to, or in relation with the c. arteries ; as 
the C. plcxua of the sympathetic. 

(ser"ee-h ray 'shun). The per- 
by the cerebrum ofits tbnctions. 

(ser-ec-brin). [Ccn-frniD. +-.-„.] 

A glucoside, r^oIliwXiOi], compounded of 
galactose and stearic acid, produced by the 
decomposition of protagon, and found in the 
brain, nerves, and spleen. S. Genericalty, any 
cerebroside, S. An extract made from brain 
tissue and used as a remedy in insanity. 

0«;ebroicopy{Ber"ee-bro9'koh.pee). ICcre- 

brum + -aeopy.i Determination^ the condi< 





tion of th« brain by inspection ; especially by 
inspection of the eye through the opbtholmo- 

Oerebtosa (set'ee-brohfl). [Cerebrum + -oae.) 
A sugar, CtHiiOt, regarded as identical with 
galactose, fonnd in the bn^n. 

OarBbrMida(ser'ee-broh-seyd). [Cerebrotci- 

the cerebrum and the cord. O.-a. Ilnld, the 
serous fluid filliiiK the ventricles of tbe brain, 
the central canalof the cord, and subarach- 
noid spaceB ; peculiar iu containing very little 
Kroteid matter and no fibrin (kotors nor fibrin 
Tment. C.-*. manlngltU, see Mtninpiti; 
O.'S. icleroala, multiple scleroais of the brain 
and cord. C.-a. i«cm«nt, that porUon of Ui« 
motor tract beginning in the cerebral cortex 
and ending in the anterior horns of gre.; mat- 
ter of the cord, 

Garebmm (ser'ee-brum). [L.} The great 

.- ,,-.. „ ,-_. brain or fore-brain ; the most anterior and 

coni; comprising both cerebrum and spinal largest division of the brvin. See fniin. 

Main Divibions (Lobes). 

The c. coubIsU of two hemlaphszea, Bcparaled BuperficlBllfbytbeZonjTJttuIfnaljbRire and, deeper 
in, connected by (he call(«um. Eacli bemisphere |Hemlcercbrum) presents on lis lateral lurface the 
CtnlraJ jiMure (tigaure of Knlandoj, separating tbu frontal and panatil lobes; aod tiieFimTt qf 
Sylaiui, sepanilinR the Mmporal lobe below from ihe frontal and puletal lobes above. Within the 
assure nf Sylvius and overlappd by the other lobes Is tbe Iniola (fslaod of Reil, Central lobei. On 
Its mesial aspect the o. presents the Blckle-shaped llmblo (iit FaJdform) lobe, sliirllng the callosum, 
and separaled from It by ttie Qiibnal fiai^re .- separated from the rrontal lobe labovej by the Oaliota- 
marginal ftmiiTc. from the parietal lobe ibehlndj by the PrenoKol fluurt, and from the temporal lobe 
(below) by the Vollalerai flaurr.. Behind tbe parietal and temporal lobes and. on Ihe mesial surface 
o( tbe c., wedged in between them, la the occipital lobe. 

Lateral shrtaci divided by tbe Preeenlral ftmre (puallel with the central flssure) into (1) the 

. 1 — 1 ^..1 — .!._ u. — .. ._- lupertor). Second {or Middle), and Third (or Infetior) 

Inferior /roulalfitiuret; and (2| th-" ' — • '■■•>—' — 

If Ihe central Assure. On tbe < - 

Frefranlal region compriidng I 

ftontmlgyrl, separated by thi ,,..., 

central, Ascending frontal) kjTum, In front of Ihe central Assure. On tbe orbital Bt;RFACK. thegyrl 
are tbe flraC. second, and third frontal (here called Snpra-orUtall gyrl, bounded bvthe OtAvwrv 
uod Supra-otbllatfimra. In the olfactory flssure lies tbe Olftictory lobe lortraot). On tbe HBBIAL 
suarAciaretbeltoTgliUd grnia In the prefrontal region and the Fufteentnl sttui, oppctite the 
central Sssuie. 

Paribtal Lobb. 

Latsral BCBrACi divided by the />itnipiiric(al;t»iir« Into (!) thaFo«toenta«l {FoMerlor central. 
Ascending parietal) kttiii, behind the central fissure; and (3) tbe Postpailelal region eomprlilDt 
the SnpartOT pamM gyriia, above the Inttaparletal Baure, tbe ■aprunarfbial grrvm, ma- 
tnunding the end ol the fissure of Sylvius, and the Ansular lyrtu behind. The i»eeen(n] and poat- 
central syrl tiwether fonn the Itolandic region, whicnbelow merves into the Operculum corerliw In 
the Insula. Tbe mesial biirfacb is the Preoiuwiu (Quadrate lobule), tftoatedu tbe poatp«rietalt«- 
glon, between the paiscential gyrus in front and the cuneus behind. 

OomtHlsei tour or five OyTlopenKInsulargyri). and is demarcated by the Obvilat fuwe. 

Occipital Lobb. 
On lATERAL SCHFACK three Occipital grri. The wedKe-shaped hbhal subvacs: Is the Omina 
(Triai^ulv lobule), lying behind the limbic lobe; separated from the parietal lobe above by the 
Paritio^KC^iitalJIaare, and from the temporal lobe below by tbe Chleorinejlnure. 
Temporal Lobb. 

I.ATKKAL auRTACE showB the Flist (oT Superior), BetHHid (or Utddle). and Third (or Interior) 
(empsral gyri. bounded by the ParaUrl (or First temporal), Semnd tamorat, and TMil tanpond 
«m™. On the basal and ubsial surfaces are, anteriorly, the BubcollalenU gynu {FusRona 
lobule) between the third temporal and the CoUaUi-al fiiruTt, and. posteriorly, the Snbcaloarln* 
gjrui (Lingual lobule) between the collateral and the Oalearine JIuwe. 

Limbic Lobe. 
Includes the Callosal gymi [Gyrus fornlcatus or Gyrus of corpus calloaum). above, aUrtlng tbe 
calloauDi ; and tbe Blppoaampal (or Uncinate) gyma (Qfrus hippocamiril, below, lying above the 
collateral fissure. The Hippocampai fimrc. containing tbe DantatB gyma, bounds the blppocampal 
gyrus above. 

Cereoll (Bec-ree'oh-ley). 0. P. [L. = wai I creases the force of the heart and raiBes the 
tapers.] Medicated bougies. See Bougie, blood-pressure ; used in cardiac disease, sexual 

0erena(3ee'ree-uB), [L.] A genus of plnnla "■'""st'"". «'id adynamic fevera. 
belonging to the Cnctaceie. C. grandiSo'rus CerevlBla (Ber"ee-vis'ee-ah). [L.] Beer. 
{,Night-olooming c, Cactus grandidonis) iu- I CererlslM reTmen'tam, beer-yeaA. 


a(«ee'riD). [Cira-¥-in.] Cerotic tcid. 
nm (see'ree-um). 

teroid discoTcred about , 

-f-iun.] A metallic element ; i^mbol. Ce; 
atomio wei|;ht, 141.2. It is quadrivalent, 
formiog Oe'rlc compounds, aod (apparently) 
trivileDt (but really quad rival ent), forming 
0«'r<nu eompotinds. o. ox'alAte (Cerii oi'- 
klaa, U. S., B. P., C. oial'icum), cerous oxa- 
late, Cei(CiOt)> + SUiO, a irblle. odorlesa, 
tastelera powder, used tn vomitine of preE- 
nanc^ and gastric irritability generally, cough, 
especially of reflei ori([iD, and migraine; dose, 
1~S gr. (gm. 0.06-0.50). 0. nltnta <('«rii 
nitras. cerous nitrate), Cej(NOi)« -I- 12UiO, 
used like the oxalate ; dose, same. 

OerotlaMla(«ee-rot'ik). {Cera.] Acrys- 
tallioe acid of the tatty series, CnHMOi, uon- 
taiaed in beeswei and Chinese wai. 

Oernmmfsee-roo'men). PLceni'mina. [L.I 
Ear-wax, a brown unctuous substance secreted 
mainl;r by sobaceous elands connected with 
the hain id the external auditory canal. The 
io-e«lled cemminal glands are a variety of 
sweat-glands, and do not »L<rrete C. If secreted 
in unusual quantity (a condition called Cem- 
mlno'sla), and especially if inspissated and 
hardened by drying, o. may canse deafiiefls and 
Unaitus by blocking up the eanai. It should 
then be removed. 

CemniliuJ (aee-roo'mee-nal), Oammlnoni 

II C. glands, C. secretion. See Ce 

OeniMa(Bee-roo'Bah). [L.] Lead carbonate. 

Cerrleal (sur'vee-kal). [L. eatricd'lii, fr. 
«n*i,neck.] 1. Of,pertaininHto, orsitualed 
Id the neck ; as C. spinal cortl, C. sympathetic, 
C. fascia. 0. uarrea, the 8 upper nerves de- 
rived from the spinal cord. The anterior 
branches of the upper 4 form the 0. plaxua 
(see Nervet, Tabic of). 3. Originating from 
the neck ; especially from a lesion situated in 
the spinal cord of the neck ; as C. paraplegia, 
a. Situated in or pertaining to the neck of an 
organ ^c. g., a tooth or the uterus); as C. en- 

Cervico- (sur'vee-koh.). [L. cen-ix. neck.] 
A prefix meaning of or pertaining to tlie neck 
or the cervix. OWTlco-lirft'cliJal, pertaining 
to or situateti in the neck and arm ; as C.-b. 
neuralgia. Cervlco-fa'aliU, of, pertainine \n, 
or sopplying the neck anil face ; as C.-f. ilivi- 
sion of the facial nerve. Cerrlco-ooclp'ltlJ, 
pertaining (o or situated in the neck and occi- 
pot; as C.-o. neuralgia. Oerrlco-vM'lcftl, 
pertaining to or connectini^ the cervix uten 
and the bladder ; as C.-v. fistula. 

CM^lx(Bur'vifc8). PI. oervi'ces. [L.] \. 
The neck. 3. The neek or conHHctea part of 
any arROn ; as C. u'teri, C. penis. 

Oeitodes (ses-tohdz). [L. cetUtda. fr. Gr. 
kaUM. girdle, + -otti.] A family of intestinal 
pamaites, inclnding the tapeworms and their 
larval forms (Echinoeoceus, Cysticercus). 

OMKcenm (see-lay'ahee-uDi). Spermaceti. 


Oeylon lore-moaUi. Psilosis. 

t of length, the 
eight, and the second the 

system of electn 
the centi metre i 
gramme the unit 

CluiCTet tflTor (chah'gres). Pernicious ma- 
larial fever occurring on the Chagres Wvcr in 
Colombia, South America. 

ObaUdon (ka-lay'zee-OD). [Gr. - hail- 
BtoDe.l A tumor of the lids formed by disten- 
tion of one of the Meibomian glands. 

ChalcDsla (kal-koh'sis). [Gr. ehalkot, 
brass, + ■oti!.'\ The impregnation of the tis- 
sues with particles of metallic copper. 

OhalicB calls (chal'iss). Beaker cells. 

Ch&llcoili (kBl"ee-ki>h'Bis). [Gr. ehalix, 
limestone, + -oni.j The condition in whii-h 
particles of siliceous material are deposited in 
the lungs. 

Olialk. An amorphous form of calcium 

and elsewhere in gout. Prencti C, talc. 

CHalybsate (ka.lib'ee-ct). [Gr. ehalupt, 
steel.] Of or containing iron; a remedy con- 
taining iron. 

Oliuiiber. IL. cam'tra.] A closed com- 
partment. O'l of tbo »y», the spaces in the 
eye containing the humors; IncliidiDg the 
Vlt'ieons e„ enclosing the vitreous, and the 
Aq'nMM c, enclosing the aqueous ; the latter 
coijiprining the Anterior c., in frontof the iris, 
and the Fostorior c, behind it. C't of tbe 
beart, the cavities of the auricles and ven- 
tricles. Pulp c., see Pu/p cavily. 

Oiuunomllo(kBm'oh-meyl). ih.chamomilFa 
" Gr. cAumn tmf (oil. earth-apple .1 1. TheAn'- 
themis no'bilis(Romuic.,£ngmllC., Chsmo- 
niilla roma'na). a European plant of the Com- 
pwitte. The flower-heads (An'themis. I'. S., 
Anthem'idis flores, B. P.) are a stimulant 
bitter tonic, used tor dyspepsia and in hot in- 
fusion as a diaphoretic, and locally in fomen- 
tations for tlie relief of pain. It contains a 
volatile nil (ff Iciim anlkem' fdit, B. P.. used 
as an antispasmodic in flatulence ; dose, 1-5 '"l 
{Rm. O.Ofl-0.30), Dose of C. Ifa (Infu'siim 
anthem'idis), 2 5 (gm. 60); Ejirniflam o«- 
ihfm'idit, B. P., 2-10 gr. {gm. O.l.'i-0.60). S. 
Tlie Matrica'ria chaninmiU'a (Qorman c, 
common c, ChamomiU'a vulga'ris), a Euro- 

Cn plant of the Cnmpnsiue. The flowcr- 
ds i Matrica'ria, 1'. S., F lores chanioiuiH'«, 
G. P.) are used like Itoman c. 
Gbunplgnoii ( shahm.peen-yon ). 



tnnshroom.] A chronic euppui 
miitioD of tli« spermatid voril ~ 
lowing ca«tnilioD in the horee. 

Chuiara(Hhaa^kur). [i'.c] The primary 
lesion of eyiiliihs- a muculur, pupulur, or 
ul<-era(ive lesion oi the ehin or miieouB luem- 
brune where tlie syphilitic virus hna unlereJ 
the body; atw call«l Trua, Hard, Infeetlns, 
or Hnntrrlui c. A c. (tfvelops a^er a period 
of incubation of from (en dayx to two muntiiH; 
U |muii1c8b; Tests upon an indurated " 

inouulat«d upon auothcrpijnu>n,pradui:e8 syph- 
ilis. The neigh Iraring lymph ntic glands be- 
come swollen and indurateil, but are not pain- 
ful and do not auppurnle (idiancrous buho). 
■Ill) symptoms of coualiliitionHl svphilis al- 
ways follow. Bon (or Hou-lnfeotmK or Blm- 
ple) c, chancroid. 

Ohwicroid(Bliang'kroydJ. {Chancrt + -m'd,] 
Biiiiple, soft, or non-iii feeling chancre; a dis- 
SBM priipugated niainty by venereal infection, 
and ehaructrriEed by the development of a 
Tiruleut uli-er {also called 0. or chancroidal 
nicer) situated usually upon the genitaU, and 
the Becretion ftom which Is contagious, but 
does not give rise to a conEtitntionaraft'ection. 
The lesion of c. is ori^uully a pustule which 
develops immediately after inoculation, rap- 
idly eularges, and then breaks down, Arming 
an ulcer with non-indu rated base, discharging 
pits. The lymphatic glands in the vicinity 
often are infected, becoming snollen and pain- 
ful (chancroidal bubo), and frequently sup- 
purate. The secretion of a c. or its bul>o is 
auto-inoculable, C. is said to be caused by 
Bnciltus utccria caucroai. 

Cbancroldal (shang-kroy'dal). Of or per- 
taining to a chancroid ; as C. ulcer, C. bulio. 

Oluuig* of life. See Menopaute. 

Cbap'plng. The production of superficial 
fissures in the skin, vspvcially when tlie latter 
has liveonie dry and harsh from exposure to 
Olid or loss of moisture. 

ClianHm(shahr-bon). [F. ^ charcoal.] See 

Cbar'ooal. Carbon, obtained by burning 
aniinalorvegetablemalter. Anlmol-c. (bune- 
bluck, ivory-lilack, Cnrlio aninia'lis, li. S., 
Carboom'iuni) is obtained by roasting Imnes; 

CiriGed. it fiintis Cnrbo aninia'lis punfica'tuH, 
. a. It Is used for renioviug from solutions 
coloring malti-rs, tannin, alkaloids, lime, anil 
variiHls metallic salts. Animal c. is also ob- 
tained from blooil, horns, and other animal 
matter. Tecetabla e., Tood o. (Carbo ligid, 
U. A., B, P., t'arbo ligni pulvera'tns, G. P., C. 
veKi-l*' hills), nblidned by the ineouiplete com- 
buKlionof wood, is a dcmlorant, absorbent, and 
ant ifcnnentnlive, used as u dentifrice and in- 
ternally in flatulent dyspetwia and in diarrhoea 
and dysentery: dose, 1 -II .^ (gm. <I-.S). It is 
applied asa poultice to foul ulcers. It is used 


in sewera, vaults, etc., as a deodorant and an 
abanrbent of gases, and as a filter for con- 
taminated water. 

CtUTcot'B artary of ceret>nil bamorrtiaca 
(sbahr-kohi). [t'AarciK, F. neurologist.] The 
lenticulo-slriate artery; often the site of rup- 
ture in apoplexy. 

CluTcot'B artbrop'athy (or Jalnt dls- 
«ase). A disease of the joints occurring in 
spinul disease, especially tabes; marked bj 
hritllcntss of the iJonwi, eicessive deposition w 
osseous matter, wasting of the articular ex- 
tremities, and, in extreme cases, dislocation. 

diarcot'i eryitali, Charcot-Haanuuui'a 

CTTBtall. Crystals of sperudiie phosphate 
found in the sputum " --■--■ --'- 

Charcot'! dlaaaaa. 1. Charcot's arthrop- 
athy. S. Multiple sclerosis. 

Cliarlas-Iaw(Bhahrlz). [CAaWu.F. scien- 
tist.] The law tluit the volume of a gas ia 
proportional to tiie absolute temperature, pro- 
vided the pressure remains constant. 

Charpte (atiahr-pee). [F.] See lAal. 

Charta (kahr'tah). [L.] See I\iper. 

Cliartula(kahr'tew.liib}. [Dim. of cAar/a.] 

Cbaiaalgnac'i tnb«Tcl« (shah-sen-yahks). 
[Ckaaiaignac, F. surgeon.] See Carotid (u- 

Cliaalmoogra, Obatilniivra (chawl-moo'- 
grah). A Malayautrce (tjynocardia odora'ta) 
of the Itiioccw. The fixed oil (0. oU), ex- 
pressed from the seeds (GynocardiEe semina), 
contains the crystalline Uynocardir acid, Cu- 
IImOi, and has been used internally and ex- 
tertially in leprosy^ rheumatism, syphilis, 
scabies and other skin diseases, and phthiua ; 
dose, 5 in. (gm. 0.30). 

tniaak'erbenT. See irin(tr-^efn(2ddef.). 

Clieck Ugamenta. Fibrciusbandsthatarrest 
the movement of a part after it has reached a 
certain point; ustheC.l. oriheo<2oii(ui('i"'oi;«u, 
C. 1. of the eye (attached to, and restraining 
the action of the exterior ocular muscles). 

Ohaak. The flaccid structure forming the 
side of the face and the outer wall of tlie buccal 
cavity. It is composed of tlie buccinator, mas- 
srtcr, platysma myoides, and zygomatic mus- 
cles, enclosed between a layer of skin exter- 
nally and mucous membrane internally. 0.- 
boua, the matar bone. 

CluaH. [L. ca'seai-X An article of food 
consisting of the coagulated casein of milk 
with a varying amount of butter. C. contains 
nitrosenous matter (H-13 per cent, in Neuf- 
chalel, 16 in Brie, W in lioquefort and Chester, 
2li-3:i in Dutch, GruyOrc. and Cheddar, and 44 
in skim and Parmcsun). salines (II.5-S.0 per 
cent.}, and fat (6 percent, in skim cheese, 16 
in Tarmesan, 2lKtU tii ordinary kinds, and 40 
in Xcufchatt'i). It has considerable nutritiva 
value, and the more friable kindsue useful aa 

I), o:I„XjOO<^IC 


ft digestive Blimulant. C. iplTUlniii, the Spir- 
illuDi tyrogeDum. 

01i««B7(chee'zee). {L.caMfffut.\ Caseous; 
leBembling che«sc ; dry ami tnimbly. 

OheUlUl (key-ley' lis, key-lee'lis). [Gr. 
cheiltn, lip, + -t'd'a.] Inflamniulioii of the lip. 
C. KlaJidiil&'rli, a chronie tuniefocliuti and 
induration of the lip associated with swelling 
of its Riands, 

r repair nf a deficient or absent lip by 

means of a piBBtic operation. 

Clk«ll- (keyr-), Olwlro- (key'roh-). [Gr. 
their, hand.] Prefix meaniUK of or in the 
hand. Also written, Vhir-, Cliiro-. CItel'- 
ragn [-u^ml.goutof theHagtr-jiiints. Ohel- 
Tomec'aly [Ur. mtgat {nitgal-], big], an 
enlargement more apparent than real, of the 
eitreuiities oceurring in syringomyelia and 
other conditions, antl aimulatiug acromegaly. 
-' ' ■ ' ■ ■ roll-like) [t!r. pom- 

Chair □•pomphoiyx (-P 

pkolujtj blister], a r1 

."linlei^TesiolesIc ., . ,. 
of the handa aod between Che fingers, and 
afterward develop into large bulla;. Cbel'- 
Toapum, writer's cramp. 

Oliakaa. The Myrtua Chekan. 

ObsUdontom (kel"ee-dob'nee-um). [L. ^ 
Gr. chtlidonion = swallow-wort, fr. chelidan. 
swallow.] A genua of the Papavorawic. The 
herb of C. mujuB, the greater celnudine, nf 
Europe, ia the 6., U. S.; it is acrid and nar- 
cotic, and contains a poiaonoua alkaloid, 
Cbal«r'ythiliia, n Don-poiaoDoua alkaloid, 

ClialUI'oiiiu*. CIieUdoD'tc a,eli, CtHiOs, Cbel- 
Idonln'tc (succinic) acid, and a bitter princi- 
ple, ChaUdozau'tblii. Used B£an irritant and 
cauntie ; also a hvdragngue cathartic, and 
cholagt^ue. Dose, lO-eu gr. (gm. 0.60-4.00). 

01i«lold(kee'loyd}. 3ee Keloid. 

Ctumletii (kem'ee-lcal). 1. Of or pertaining 
to chemistry ; of, pertaining to. or manifested 
by the subslances or forces of which chemistry 
treats, as C. action ; of, pertaining to, or eon- 
seqiieut upon the lavs and operations incident 
to the formation of oom_pound» [torn their ele- 
ments and la their diBintegratioD into the 
latter, as C. analysis, C decomposition, C re- 
action. G. kfflnlty, the force which binds 
atoms together to fbrm molecules. 0. for'mnla, 
0. eqnsilan, see Formula and Kguatioa. 0. 
InoompatlbUlty, incompatibility of medi- 
e to their reuelin^ upon each other 


. 0. ui'tidote. 

;ting by producing c. changes in 
the composition of the ti<uues. 3. A substance 
nsed in chemistry, especially for the produc- 
tion of a c. reaction ; a reagent. 

Ohemlco-oantMT (kem"ee-koh-kaw'tur-ee). 
Chemical galvano-cautery. See Cautery. 

Chtaolttrr (kem'is-tree). [Gr. chemeiA or 
ehimeia, infusion, fr. cheein, to pour.] That 

compounds formed from them, and of the laws 
governing the composition end disintegration 
of bodies. Analyt'lctJ c. deals with analysis, 
determination of the character, propor- 


, _ioffajiicc.'(IUJiariUo.)", with the 

chemical nature of Don-organized bodies (i. e., 
those which do not contain carbon); OrfUlla 
c, with organized bodies, i. e.,the carbon com- 

GHemotla (kee-moh'sis). [Gr.] SwelllDg 
and (edema of the ocular conjunctiva. 

Chamotactlc (kem"oh-tak'tikJ. Of or per- 
taining tochemotaxis; as C, action. 

Cbemotazls (kem"ob-lak'Bis}. iChemical 
+ Ur. toiU, arrangement.] The property poa- 
sessed by certain chemical substances (capeci- 
aily those generated by bacteria) of altrai'ting 
leucocytes (i'umd'iir c.) or repelling them (A'tff- 

cheniosis, as C. conjuu 

CllBlnotTOPUm(kee-mot'roh-pizm). [Chem- 
ical + Gr. trepos, a taminp.] The properly 
possessed by certain chemical substances, by 
virtue of which they either attract {Poittive c.) 
or repel {Xrgativf c.) molds or other micro-or- 
ganisms. Cf. Chemolaiis. 

Cli«iio-cliol»Uc Add (kee"noh-koh-larik). 
[Gr.citn, goose, + cAo(ahc.] Anacid,CiilI<tOt, 
extracted from goose's bile. 

CIi«iiopodlnm(kee"noh-poh'dee-um). [Gr. 
chin, goose, +ywIion, little foot.] A genua 
of the Cheuopodiacea>. The fruit of C am- 
brocioi'des, var, anthelminth'icum, is the C, 
U.S.,or wormseed ; used as a remedy for round 
worms; dose of volatile oil (Oleum chenopodii, 
U. S.), 5-10 ni (gro. 0.30-0.60). 

Cbvtrj. The fruit of the Prunus Cer'asus, 
a tree nf the Rosnceie ; also tlie tree itself. C. 
syrup {Sira'pai rrmiivruni^O, P.) ia used as a 
flavoring agent. O.-lanral, the Prunus Lauro- 
cer'asus.asmnll tree or shrub of Europe. The 
leaves(Laurocer'aai fol'ia, B.P.) fiimish on dis- 
tillation Aqua laUTocri'iui, II. P., which con- 
■-' " ■ per cent, of hydrncyanie acid, ar-" ■- 

wugh, gastralgia, and oihe 

B in doxes of 3ss-l (gm. 

Iiarkof IheWU<lc.(PrunuaBerot'ii. ., _ 

North America, is the Prunne virginia'na, U. 
S. (Prunus virginianie cortex, B. P.) ; it con- 
tains a bitter principle and hydrocyanic acid, 
and is used as a mild tonic and sedative, espe- 
cially in coughs and cardiac palpitation. Dose 
of Kilnu^tumpntni Virginia' na fin' idnm, U. 
S., a(M» m (gm. 2^) ; Infa'tum nruni" vir- 
ffliiia'niE,V.ti.,2 5 (gm. 60); Sym'put pnint 
uirgiaia'na, V. 8., B. P., 15 (gm. 4) ; Tine- 
lu' rapruni virpiniana,'B, P.,3s8-I (gm.2-4). 

Obeat. See Thorax. 

ChMt'ttUt. [Fr. L. caeta'n: 



fr. Rutana, ■ place in Pontui where the c. 
flourished.] Tbe CaMa'ne& Teso, a tree of 
the Cupulifene. The Icaveti (CaaU'iiea. U. 
S.) coulain tannin, and are astriiigent and 
■eantive. Used in whoopintccouKh, Diwe of 
Ettrae^tum tattanta fin idHm, U. S., 3>b~' 
(gTD. 2-4). HoTEa-c., Hee jEtciilu4. 

0ha7iie-Bt«1ui' braftthlng. [From Drs. 
Cheyne, who first observed it, and Sloia, who 
described it more fully.] A variety of breath- 
iuK, observed espMially in eoma, dae to pro- 
found involvemetit of the nervous eralres, in 
which the reflpiratiODB ihow penodioal varia- 
tions oeeurrini^ in a series of cycles. Id each 
cycle the respiratiouR gradually lensen in in- 
tensity, then cense rdtottether fbr from 5 to 40 
•econd)>, then recommence and gradually in- 
crease until they reach their acme, when they 
are dyBpiiceio iu cbaracler, then decline ajmin. 
In atypical cases the recommencemeut after 
the pause is sudden, not gradual. 

OhlAim (key'aim). [L. ekiatma, fr. Gr. 
ehi, a letter of tbe shape of x.] A crossing or 
decussation ; especially, tbe dccusaatiOD ofthe 
optic nerves (Oplic c, ChiasmaDp'ticum). 

CUclun-eliolBrA. A very infectious, fatal 
•eptictEmia, occurring in cliJckens, marked by 
apathy incrvssing to stupor, diarrhoea, pneu- 
monia, and hemorrhagic enteritis. Caused by 
Bacillns cholene gatlinarum. 

Cliloken-poz. Varicella; a contagions 
febrile disease, characlerized by tbe develop- 
ment upon the head and trunk of successive 
eropa of macules or papules, wbjch soon change 
into vesicles and then become cloudy and dry 
up. usually without producing cicatrices. The 
period of incubation is two weeks; tlie inva- 
■ion begins with malaise, chilliness, and slight 
fever; the disease lasts only two or three days, 
and runs a very mild course. It usually at- 
tacks cliildrcn. Treatment; rest and care in 
the diet. 

CblakaB-tnberonloili. A form of tul>er- 
culosis occurring in chickens, ducks, and 
other birds, nnd occasionally in men and cat- 
■'" " ' """ " 'isible to rabbiW, caused by 

1 also 



lymph-glands, and skin (rarely in the lungn), 
consist inainlyofenithelioid cells with but few 
giant cells or ly™P"oid cells, and oRen have a 
connective tissue capsule. 

OUgg'ar, Chlgo* (chig'oh). Tbe jigger or 
Mutd-Hca; the Pulcx (Rhinocop'non) pen'e- 
tnvns, a minute iuseot of the tropica, which 
penetrates the skin about the toes and causes 
painful cedema and suppuration. 

titis produced , . 

upon the toes or fingers, marked by erytb 

tons jiiitehes, accompanied by a sentaition of 
bumiii(;, itching, or tin^inK. Treatment 


Gblldb«d. The puerperal state. 
CUld-erowlns. Laryngismus stridulos. 
OUU aaltpetia. Sodium nitrate. 
OhUltiB, ohUoplaatr, etc. See CheUitU, 

CUll. [Fr. same root ta cool and eotd. L. 
rigor,'] A shaking or shivering; an attack 
consisting of a series of involunlary clonic con- 
tractions of most of the voluntary muscles, as- 
sociated with pallor or cyanosis of the skin 
and a sense of great cold. A e. forms the ini- 
tial symptom of pneumonia, of many of the 
eiantbeniata, of a paroxysm of malarial fever. 
and of other diseases. It in really a mild form 
of convulsion, and in children is frequently 
replaced by convalsions. 

dUmapMla (keT-raaf ee-lah). [L. = Gr. 
chtima. winter. + pMleein, to love.] A genua 
oftheEricaceK. C., U. 8.. is the leavesof C. 
umliella'ta (winter-green, prince's pine, pip- 
sissewa), a shrub of the north temperate zone ; 
eontaina tannin, a neutral principle, CU- 
mapli'llln, and arbutin ; irritant, diuretic, 
tonic, and astringent ; used in cystitis, nephri- 
tis, and scrofula. Dose of Etlriuftttm ehi- 
maphilafiu'idtim, U. S,, 1 3 (gm. i), 

Chlmney-a weeper'! cancer. Epithelioma 
of the scrotum. 

OUna (key'nah). [L.] Cinchona. 

OtLtneie anlae. Star anise. See Anite. 

dUueie clnnunon. See Cinnamon. 

CUuaae rlnciromi. Tinea trichophytlna 

Ohlnlnnm(l[i-ney'num). [L]. Qainine. 

Chin-jerk. A reflei consisting in an up- 
ward jerk of Che chin produced when a sharp 
lap is given to the leelh of the upper jaw. 

Chlnoldln (ki-nov'din). [L. chino'tdi'mim, 
fr, ch'in-lntim + •inJ.'\ QuinoLdine; a mixture 
of alkaloids occurring as a bv-product after 
the extraction of quinine, cinchonine. cincho- 
nidine, and other crystal! liable alkaloids from 
cinchona. Used as a substitute for quinine; 
dose, 10 gr. (gm. 0.60). 

CUnoIlns (kin'oh-leen). See Quinolinf. 

CUnone (ki-nobn'). See QuJnone. 

OUonyphe Oarterl (key-ou'ec-fee kahr'lur- 
' " igus said (erroneously) to cause 


Clm-, OUragra. See Cheir-. etc. 
Chlrata,U.S.,B. P.(key-ray'tah),ClilretU 

of the Gentianaceie growing in India. It con- 
tains a bitter principle, CUra'Un, CmHisOi} ; 
is a stomachic tonic and cbolagogue ; dose. 20 
gr. (gm. I.2.'i): of Eifraelum ehimlaSuiduni, 
V. »., ,?sfl-l (gm. 2-^); lnta'mm chiraKr, B. 
P., gss-1 (gm, I.'i-.IO); Liquor chiralascoacnt- 
Ira'ltu, B. P., .5«s-l (gm. 2-1); TiiuHu'ra ehi- 
ral<r, V. S.. B. P.. I 5 (gm. 4). 
Chlro-, Chlromegaly, etc., see Cheiro; et«. 

See Suroecy. , 


OUmitMl (ker-rur'jee-kal). Sargiral. 

Ollltliw(kit'een). [Gr. cfttt™, shirt. + -JM-I 
A colorl«ea horn^ BUbatanRe, CieHnNiOio, oc- 
«nrring in conibmalinn with 1 to 4 mnlecules 
at water of crvBtalliiatioo, and forminK the 
•olid framework of the shells or the Crustaoea 
•nd the titemal envelope of npiden, worms, 
beetles, etc. Hence CMt'lnoui, of, pertaining 
to, or eoDtainine c. 

Chlttam'bBxk. Coscara mgrada. 

CIilTM (cheyvi). [L, cepa, onion.] The 
Allium Schmnoprasum. 

aitloamia(hloh-az'inah). lQt.,fT.chlotaein, 
to have a greenish hue.] 1. An affection in 
which irregular patches of yellowish or brown- 
ish pigment (liver-spots) form upon the akin. 
Due to external irritation (pressure, friction. 
heat, rubefacients, traumatisin) ; to changes in 
internal organs, especially the genitals [C. 
titerl'nnm, pigmentation of pret^iaucy) ; or to 
tuberculous, syphilitic, malarial, or canoerouB 
cachexia (0. caCttaoUco'ram). Treatment: 
removal of cause; applicatii>ns of corrosive 
sublimate, ammonialed mercury, acetic acid. 
hydrochloric acid, borax. 3. Tinea versi- 

Ohlor- (klanr-). [Gr. chlorot, green.] 1. 
Prefix meaning green. 2. A prefix meaning 
containing chltinne that has l^n substituted 
for another element or a radicle. 

OblorAcatlo*«ia (kloh-ra-see'tik). An 

[Acrdumtrichlorace'ticum.G. P.],CiHCIiOi, 
Are known. All are caustic liqaids, used as 
escharotics. Triehlontcetic actd is also used 
as a test for albumin, which it precipitates 
while it does not precipitate albumoses. 

OUoral (kloh'ral). tCA'or- +o/-dehyde.] 
Tricblor-iUdehyde ; aldehyde in which 3 atoms 
of chlorine replace hydrogen ; CiHCIsO. C. 
(or Anhy'dTonB c. ] is a oolorless. oily liquid, 
of pungent odor and irrilnting taste. Com- 
bined with water, it forms 0. hydrate (the 
C, U. S., C. hydrBs. B. P., Chlo'ralum hy- 
dra'tum, G. P.), C.HrisO.IIiO, a erystal- 
Itne deliquescent substance, of aromatic odor 
and acrid taste. It readily decomposes into 
ebloroform and is used in making a pure chlo- 
roform (0. cbloioronn). Locally it is an ir- 
ritant and antiwptic ; internally it produces 
sleep, preceded by a stn|^ of '' ' 

in of the force of the 

^ I. In sinjjle doses it 

may produce death from syncope ; in repeated 
doses, chronic poisoning (ate Chtoralitm). 
Used as a hypnotic, anodyne, and antispas- 
modic in insomnia, delirium tremens, labor, 
tetanus, strychnine- poisoning, puerperal and 
other convulsions, chnrcn, rabies, larynxismus 
stridulus, cough, asthma, and hicenugh; lo- 
cally in neuralgia, and as an application to 
onhealthj ulcers and fetid surfaces ; and to 
prevent the decomposilion of animal tismea 
and liquids (e. g., the urine). Dose, 10-30 gr. 


(gm. 0.60-2.00). Sgni'pa* c, B. P., < 
10 gr. ofe. hydrate in thefluldracbm. Km/i-u. 
(C. butyricum, Croton-o., trichlorbutyralde- 
hydej, botyl aldehyde in which 3 atoms of 
cnioHne replace hydrogen; CiHtCltO; an 
oily, puD gent-smelling liquid. Its hydrate, 
Bntyl-c. hydiata, Droton-c. bydrata (Butyl- 
chloral hydras, B. P.), CiIItCliO.HiO, is a 
crystalline substance of pungent odor, used 
like c. hydrate; dose, 15 gr. (gra. 1). 
OUoralftmlde (kloh-raVa-mced, kloh-ral'- 

(OH) (NH.CIIO), a crystalline suhsUnce co 

founded of chloral and formamide. It yn a 
ypnotic, which is not apt to produce cardiac 
depression. Dose, 15-60 gr. (gm. 1-4). 

CUOTal-unma'nla. A crystalline com- 
pound, used as a hypnotic and analgesic ; dose, 
16-30gr. (gm. 1-2). 

OhlonluitlpyTine (kloh"ral-ao-lee-pey'- 
r«en, kloh"ral-an-tip'ur-een). SeeByjmal. 

Obloial-eaffeliie(-karee-een). Aeompound 
of chloral and caffeine, used in rheumatism. 

Obloralfonnainlda (kloh"ral-fawrm'a- 
meed, -fiiwrm'a-mid). Chioralamide. 

Otaoraltmlde (kloh-ral'i-meed, kloh-ral'i- 
mid). {Chloral + -imidB.] A substance, CCIa- 
CHNII, formed from chloral by substitutinK 
the radicle NU for oxygen. Odorless and 

IflBtelesa ; used instead of c 

dose, 10-30 gr. (gm 

OUomiim(kloh'ra-lizm). A condition of 
cbronicpoisoiiingproduced by chloral. Symp- 
toms: mental aberration, excitability, in- 
somnia, in co-ordination, dyspniea. cardiac 
depression, and various cutaneous eruptions. 

Ohloralnae (kloh'ra-lohs), A compound of 
chloral and glucose, used as a sedative and 
hypnotic; dose, 3-12 gr. (gm. 0.2-0.8). 

Cliloralnin(kloh'ral-um). 9^ Chloral. 0. 
amlda'tum, C. tbnnamlda'ttun, chioralamide, 
C. bydra'ttuu, chloral hydrate. 

ChloraluratlLanB (kloh"ral-ew-reth'ayn). 
{Chloral + urtthant.^ See Ural. 

CIi1orMnld«(kloh'ra-meed). Chioralamide. 

CtilorMlMlllla(kloh"ran-ee'mee-ah). Chlo- 

Cblomte(kloh'rayt). [L.ehlr/ra>.'\ Analt 
of chloric acid. PotasBlnm c. ( Potass' ii chlo- 
ras. U. 8., B. P., Ka'lium chlo'ricum, G. P.), 
KClOi, and Sodium c. I^o'dii chloraa, U. H.), 
NaClOs, arc strung oxidiiing agents, used in 

fetid ulcers, locally and internally'; dose,'5-30 
gr. (gm. O..'i0-2.00). 

Ohlonted(klah'ray-led). Bee Chlorinalrd. 

Cbloretona (kloh'ree-lohn). A local anies- 

thetic aud hypnotic; used in (he vomiting of 
sea-sicknesa and of pregnancy, and locally in 
wnuuds and burns. Dose, 6-20 gr. (gm. 0.40- 

chloral hydrate ; 

OhlortiydTate (klawr-hey'drayt). [Chlor- 
V hydrogen + -ate.] A hydrochloride. i 


01ilorli;dTic (klawr-hej'drik). [Chlor- 
hydrogen + -ic] Il;drocriloric. 

Chloric fkloh'rik). [L. cklffrieiu.l Ci 
laiiiing chlorine, especially as a trivalent 
radicle. 0. add, a monobaaic acid, HClOi, 
the salta of which are the rhioratvs. C. Mhar, 
a strong solution of clilorofonn in aleohol. 

CUorlde (kloh'rpyd, kloh'rid). [-trf<. L. 
ehla'ridum chlorure turn.] A compound of 
an element or a radiele with chlorine. 

OlilorUitted(kloh'ree-nay-ted). [L.a/ord' 
tat, chlnrlTM'tat.'] ConUining chlorine, es 
pecialirln loose cheniicaJ comfiiuHtiDn or ij 
varying amount. 0. lima (CaU clilora'ta 
U. S., Calx chlorina'ta, B. P., Calca'riL 
ehlora'la, G. P.) sl^ed lirae whicli has been 
treated with chlorine. It contains calcium 
hypochlorite and other compounds, gives ofl' 
chlorine on expoaure to the air, and acta as ( 
disinfecting anil bleaching agent. A 10 pei 
cent, solution, Liquor calcia chterina'ta, B. P.. 
is also used. C, bo<Ia, a mixture of sodium 
chloride and sodium hypochlorite, the aque- 
oiiB solution of which (Lalwrraque's solution, 
Liquor toda ehlora'la, V. S., Liquor sods 
chforina'tie, B. P.) is applied as a disinfircl- 
ant, deodorant and stimulant to unhealthy, 
fetid, and indolent ulcers. 

OtUortna (kloh'reen). [Gr. chloros, gKen- 
Isli, fmin its color. L. chtffrum, (j. P., 
ehliirl'avm.'] A nou-metallie element; a yel- 
lowish heavy gam, of siifTocaling odor : go. er 
2.45 : aloraic weight, XiA; syiubol, CI. It is 
usually nnivaleiil. It combines directly with 
elenients and hasic raiiicles to form chlorides 
(ineludinK hydrochloric acid), ami with oxy- 
gen and hydrogen to fbrm hypochlorouB, 
chlorous, chloric, and perchloric acids. It 
also replaces hydroBcn or otlier radicles in 
very many couipoiinds, forming tlic Clilor- or 
Chloro-compounds. It has a strong affinity 
for hfdrogeu, decomposing water in order to 
combine with the liydrugen of (he latter and 
thus liiieralinK oxygen, which combines with 
any onpmie sulwlanees prvKnt. C. is hence a 
powerful irritant poison to both large and 
small ort[Bnisms, and is used for disinfecting 
and fumignliiig rooms and as a bleaching 

3^nt. It iseithcrapplitil under the form of 
ilorinnted lime or of a suturateit aqiicoua so- 
lulion (0.-w»tor, Aqii« e/ilaH, U. S., Aqua 
chlorata, G. P.), or is gi-ncrated bv decom- 
posing common salt (sodium chloride) with 
sulphuric acid. 

Chlorite (kloh'reyt). iChlorlne + -He. L. 
ch/ih-U.} A salt of chlorous Held. 
Chloro- (kloh'roh-). fk* C/i/or-, 


Chlorodyne (klo'roh-deyn). [t'A/oro-form 
+ anodyne.^ A pali'nt unndyne medicine, 
corresponding to tinelura chloroftormi et mor- 
phina^cumpiisila. B.P..containiiigclitorororm, i 
morphine, hydrocyanic aciil, and, according 
to some, cannabis indica; dose, 6-10 "l (gm 
0.30-0.65). * I 


Chlo'roftmn. [C/ilor- +farn-ic. L. chlo- 
ro/oi'mum, V. 8., B. P., chldro/o/miam, Q. 
P.] A liquid, ClICls, produced by the action 
of chlorinated lime upon alcohol or by the 
decomposition of acetone (AcBtone c.) or of 
chlorvl (Ohloral c). C. of the pharmaco- 
pu'ias contains a little absolute alcohol. Pure 
c. is a limpid, verj; volatile liquid, of agree- 
able odor and burning taste ; locally, produc- 
ing irritation, and hypodermieally, puin fol- 
lowed by local anesthesia and by sleep. In- 
hated, It causes eicilenienl, muscular ngidily, 
and vascular distention, lollowed by uucod- 
seioiisness, eencrul antesthesia, and coniplcle 
muscular relaxation. It may produce death 
from eyncope or asphyxia, syncope lieing sad- 
den and without warning. UsedbyiuhaTalioD 
as a general Bnicsllietic in operations, and as an 
antispasmodic and anodyne in labor, uuer- 
penil convulsions, biliary and renal colic, te- 
tanus, and si i^ch nine-poisoning. Locally, 
used as an apphiration in neuralgia, headache, 
rheumatiim, and toothache, either alone or as 
the liniment (iinimen'iuin e/iloroformi, V, S., 
B. P.). Internally, used in colic, gastralgia, 
and hysteria, and, in aqueous solution, as a 
vehicle for medicines. Dose of Aqua chloro- 
/o™i>,U.S., 1-2 3 (gm. 4-8); A'mii/BiimcA/oro- 
formi, U.S., 1 3 (gm. 30); Sptr'itat chlor<h 
formi, U. 8., B.T"., 30 ^n. (gm. 2); Tinctarn 
ehloToformi el moTphiHiecompiulita, B.P., con- 
taining I per cent, of morphine hydrochloride 
with hydrocyanic acid and cannabis indica, 
S-16 "l (gm. 0.3-1.0}. C. is used as a aolvent 
for gnttv-percha. 

Chloronu (kloh-roh'mah). [Chlor- (1)4- 
■onta.] A niuignant tumor of pea-green color 
originating in the periosteum of the fiice and 
cranium. It resembles sarcoma. Symplomi, 
those of leuciemia or psendo-tcueaimiB. 
Oblorophane (kloh'roh-fayn). ICA/ar- (1) 
Gr.phaiHrin, to show.l The greenish pig- 
lent (chromophane) in the cones of the retina. 
Chloroplft (kloh-roh'pee-ah), Ohlorop'ala. 
[C/ilor- (1)+ Gr. np»t'». sight, or root on-, denot- 
ing vision.] The condition in which all ob- 
jects looked at appear green. 

OlUoroali (kloh-roh'sis). [CA/oro-[l) + 
o«i'».] Grecn-siekne™ ; a variety ofanKmia, 
n which without changes in the plasr - "'■- 

'ular debility, perverted appetite and im- 

S aired digestion, palpi tuition, amenorrhrea, 
ysnienorrhiea, uervnug iliHtiirbances, and al- 
'ion of temper. ('. iisinilly runs a favor- 
courwe; certain cases that are obstinate 
and of serious prognosis are ascribed to a con- 
genital narrowing of the aorta. Treatment; 
open-nir exercise ; plain, nutritious diet ' iron 
(pill of the carbonate, or Hlaud's pills), hitter 
tnnies. and, if the™ is constipation, aloea. 
SBypUan o., ankylostomiasis. 

ChloroUe (kloh-rot'ik). Of, pertaining to, 
or affected with chlorosis, 
OUorOTia (kloh'rus). [CT/on 



ContuDing chlorinu combined with oxygen in 
lew proportioD tbiui the clilnriu coiapoujiits. 
0. kcid, llCIOi, a munobaaic at^iil forming 
the cblorites. 

OhlmrpltenAl (klawr-fee'nol). Phenol in 
which chlorine replaces hydrogea ; <«IIc 
CI.OH. One variety, Para-c., a crystallines 
Bubstani^. Is used us a caustie in lupus and 
tuherruloua laryngilJH. Bee also Trichlor- 

CUorBal'Dl. Sato] in which chlorine re- 
places hydrogen ; used lilce solol. 

OUomm (kloh'rum). [L.] See Chlonim. 

Cliloraret<l[lah'n>o-ret}. IL. chldrurC turn.] 
A chloride. 

OUo'ryl. A mixture of melhyl and ethyl 
chlorides; used as u local aniesthetic. 

CItouiB (koh'a-nee). [L. ^ Gr. choanal', 
ftinnvts.] The posterior nares. 

O)ioccil«t«(chok'oh-let), [L.eliiKola'la.] A 
'« luade of ground cacao mixed with sugar 


other ingredients. It is UHed 

oevera^, huTing nutritious and slightly 
lulaut properties, and as a vehicle fur qui- 
'. and other uiedicincB. 

increased intracranial 

Choi- (kol-, koht-), OboU- (koh'lee). [Gr. 
eholot, choti, bile.] A preliK meaning bile. 

CbolHmU (koh-lee'mec-«h). [Ur. hainta, 
blood.] A eonditinn in which the L-onsliUicnts 
of the bile accumuUle in the blood. 

in(j the »e. 

remedy increoBing liile secrvliiin. The chief 
' ~"e calomel, podophyllum, aloes, rhubarb. 

lAagiitit.\ Inflammation o 

CItolMyulii (koh"lee-Bey'a«nin). [Gr. 
kuaaroi, blue.] Itilicyunin. 

Cltol«c7>tls (koh"lee-si«'tiBl. [Or. hmh, 
bladder.] The gall-bludiler. IlcJice Choi*- 
eyital'gia, biliary colic; CIiol«C7itee't«my. 
■ u of the gall-bladder; Choleoyat- " 

■■- -' - -' L-ffecling a 

_. ...n thegall- 

e: Chnleoyitt'tli, iuHaniDiation 
of Che gall-bladder; Choleorito-iiolcit'omr, 
incision into the gall-lilndder and colon simul- 
taneously; CttolMyattw'tomy. the operation 
of eflec^ting a permanent coiuinuniciilinn lie- 
tween the gall-bladder and the exterior of the 
bod; ; ObolscyiMt'omy, incision into the 

Cliolftdoelio- (koh-led'oh-koh-). Of or per- 
(Aining ia the bile-duct (Ductus choledo- 


chus}. dioledoclio-duodanot'tomy, Oholedo- 
cho-anteros'tomy, and Cholsdaclios'tomy, 

the operation of eOWting a permanent com- 
munication between the Inle-ductand theduo- 
denum, the small intestine generally, and the 

while still in the bile-duct. Otaoledochot'- 
omy, incision into Ihe bile-duct. 

Cholftdocliiu (koh-led'oh-kus). [Gr. dochi, 
reeeplBcle,] Conveying bile ; as Ductus c. 

Cbolelc acid (koh-lee'ik). 1. Taurocholic 
acid. a. An acid, CkIIuUi, obtained frooi 

OboleUUUaiU (-lilh"ee-By'8is). [Lithuitii.y 
A conitition In which calculi (gall-stoneB) are 
formed or lodge in the gall-bladderand biliary 
passages, and so produce biliary eolic. 

dtoleUthot'omy. [jy/JWomp.] Removal 
of a gall-stone through an incision into the 
biliary passages. 

CbolaUthot'ilpiy.Otiolellthot'rlty. [Litho- 
trijisp, lilAolHlp.] Crushing of a gall-stone to 

ChOlBH ^kol'ur-ah). [Gr., from cholm, 
bile.] An infections cpideniic disease (also 
called AaUUo, BpldMo'lo, and Kallg'iuuit 
c). chunicleriied by profuse fluid evacua- 
tions, resembling rice-water, from the bowels, 
supprewion of urine, cramps, and profound 
prostration. The con tug ion of c. is con- 
tained in the evacuations from the bowels, 
these being most virulent after standing from 
1 to 3 days, and is usually conveyed in 
(he drinking-water. It cousista of the C. 
aplilll'nsi (Spirillum cholcnc) found in the 
stools (see Splritltim). C, after a stage 
of incubation of a few hours to A days, fol- 
lowed or not by a period of malaise or pre- 
monitory diarrho™ lasting from 1 to 3 days, 
begins with pnifuae diarrhica soon accom- 
panied by vomiting, the matlvrs vomited end 
aisi-harged by the bowels being at firat the 
..... ._ ^ ii^g alimentary canal, then the 

li(|uid ; this is followed by extreme 
v.',.D].n \ulgid stage}, with very painful gen- 
eral cramps, shrivelling, coldness, and lividity 
of the skin, suppression of urine and bile, sub- 
normal axillary temperature ; then in 12 to 30 
hours the stnge of reaction, marked by rise of 
temperature aliove the normal, return of the 
pulse, renewal of the secretion of perspiration, 
urine, and bile, and gra'lual eonsolidation of 
the motions. It is very fatal, death occurring 
trom exhanstion, ur with coma and convul- 
sions, or from pulmonary congestion. Treat- 
ment; arrest of premonitory diarrhiEa by 
astringents (chalk, kino); hot bottles, hot- 
water or vapor lialhs, intravenous saline in- 
jeclions, or tannic-acid enlcroclysms in the 
algid stage; a>tringcnts, lime-water, bismuth, 
diuretics, and luniliar counter-irritation to 

C remote urinary secretion in the reactive stage, 
poradlo o., with similar symptoms, is pro- 
duced hy Spirillum Massauah and other 
Spirilla. 0. morbus, 0. nostTM [SlmpU or 
Summer or Europtan or Engliih c), aiait*. 


tamn, Mused usuallv by iniproppr fa 

pecially unripe tiiiit), and marked by . _ 

ing, crampx, ntid waKry diarrhcea. Treat- 

thate) to remove offending material, followed 
y satringi>nt8 (chalk, kinn, Wd ai-etale, and 
opium): change of diet. C. InAu'tnm, a se- 
vere form of c. morbus occurring in young 
children, as a result of improper fooil, (eethinj!. 

bacl*ria (Kacilliia ooli, Baciliua ProteuB)- 

Cholaralc ^kol-ur-ay'ik). Of, pertaining to, 
or occurring in eholera. 

Oholeri-psp'toiie. AtoxalbumingGDeraled 
In culturra of Spirillum cholene. 

Clialari-ml. Sec Indol reaelion. 
OIialerA-taxoslobilUn (-tok")Hih - glob'yu- 
lin), CholWA-toxopip'tOU*. Tnxalbumins 
generated in cultures of Spirillum cholcne. 

ObalerUOnn (kni-er'ee-fawrni). ^L. forma, 

CDolerlne (kol-ur-een'). [Dim. of cholera.i 
1. A light form of eholem or o diecaee reaem- 
btiii^ cholern. but nut serious in symptoms or 
import. 3. The initial atage of cholera. 

Cliol«rold(korur-oyd). [-vid.i Cbolera-like. 
(koh-le8"lee-a-toh' mah). 
a.\ 1. A cystic 

iChole- + Gr. <<™r, fat^ H 

conglomerate of epithelial cells produced in 
tbe middle eer by Inuiaformation of the mucous 
membrane into skin in which dermatitis and 
proliferation occur. 

in (koh-les'Iui^in). Whole- + Or. 

■ubslance, r»Ilu.O[I, found in bile, gall' 

Cbolavsrdlu (koh"lee-ver'din). lL.mridU, 
green,] llilicyanin. 

OtioUcacid(koh'lik). 1. Cholaic acid. t. 
Glycocholic acid. 

OIloUlM (koli'leen). An oilv base (lenco- 
niaine),CiH,sN()j = N(rn.)>(0»)(Clh.ClIt.- 
OII), fbund in hog's bile, bmin-tisaue (hence 
called neurinc), yolk of egg, and the Agnricus 
muacariiis ( - amanitine). It is one of the 
components of lecithin. 

Cbolodlnlcftcld(kol"oh-diD'ik). A deriva- 
tive, CjiHssOi, of cbolio acid. 

Cbololdanlo fteld (kol-oy-dan'ik). A de- 
rivative, CiillitOi, of cholie acid. 


OhOloUth (kol'ob-liUi}. [Gr. lilhot, atone.] 
A biliary calculus. 

ChoInrU (koh-lew'ree-ah). The aecretion 
of bile, bile acids, or bile pigments in the urine. 

Chondral (koo'dral), (Gr.cSondrw, carti- 
lage,] or ^rtaining to, or formed by carti- 
lage ; as C. joint 


Ohondrin (kon'drin). [Gr. cAondi™, carti- 
lage, + -in.] AKelatin-like,priiteidanbstance 
obtained from cartilage by boiling 1 now re- 
garded as a mixture of gelatin and mucin. 

Ctiondrltlt (kon -drey 'tis, kon-dree'tis). 
[Chandra- \- -itit.'\ InQammation of eartilage. 

Chondro- (kon'droh-). [Gr. chondrot, car- 
tilage.] A prefix meaning of or pertaining to 
rartilage. CIlcili'dTO-blaat [Gr. blatlot, 
sprout], a formative cell which developa into 
cartilage. Cbondro-oot'tal [L. eoila, rib], 
of or between cartilages and ribs; as C-e.-nr- 
tiealalion (i, e,, the joint between the ribs and 
die intervertebral cartilages). Chondrody- 
BtTOpblA litalla (-dia-troli'fee-ah fee-tsy'lia) 
[dyilropky), a condition allied to ricketa, 
marked by arrest or defect of formation of car- 
tilage in fetal life. Cbondrogan (kon'droh- 
jen) [-genl, the organic base of the cartilage 
matni; a mixture of collagen and Tnucinoida 
^vipg rise (<t cbondrin on boiling. ObondTO- 
glots'ni [Gr. glnsia, tongue], a muscle, re- 
garded aa part of the hyoglnssiia running from 
tlie amall eomu of the bvoid hone to the tongue. 
Cbondroltlo a.cld (-oh-it'ik). chondroitin -sul- 
phuric acid : a subetanre. CieHtiNSOr. occurs 
ring in cartilage and produced by the decom- 
position of chondromiicoid. dlODdra'tOli, k 
gummy monobasic acid. fialliiNOn, produced 
along with sulphuric acid by the decompou- 
tion of CbondrolUn-aiUpbiiTlc (choudroitic) 
acid. Ohondronut (-oh'niah) [-oma]. a. new 
growth consisting of cartilage. CliondTomii' 
cold (-mew'koyd), a substance obtained from 
cartilnge consisting nf a proteid combined with 
chondroitic acid. Ohondro-myzonut (-mik- 
soh'mah), a iny;ioma produced by mucoua 
degeneration of a chondroma, Cbondropbyta 
(kon'droh-feyt) [Gr. phiitan, plant], an out- 
growth of cartilage at tbe articular end of % 
bi>ne. Choudroporoslt (-poh-roh'sis) [Gr. 
poro», passage], rarefaction of cartilage due lo 
nlisorption ; e. g., that which occurs in tlie 
process of ossification. Obon'dnwln, a mono- 
basic gummy acid. CnlliiNOn. acting ss » 
stmng reducing ngenl, proiluci'd by the hy- 
dration of chondroitin. Obondro-ftei'iial, 
of or between the costal eBrtilage'Bndsteniiim; 
as C.-s. articulation. Cbon'drotoina [-fomf], 
an instrument for dividing cartilage. Ctaon- 
drot'omy, di»iection of cartilage. 

Cbondmi {kon'drus). [Gr. chondroa, car- 
tilage.] See Iriih mon. 

Chi>part'aampiitaUOD(Bb(ih-pahrz). {Cko- 
pari, ¥. surgeon.] A disarticulation through 
the middle of the tarsna. in which the cal- 
cancuiu and astragalus are retained. 

Cbord* (kftwr'dab). [L. = Gr. cAanie.) A 


«on] or bkDd. 0. dorMtlU, Cbe notochord, a 
tube composed of embryonic cells formed from 
the Diesablast, If ing in the embryo nenr the 
aidcof the Bubseqnently developed Bpinal cord. 
0. MOlva, see Saiiva. 0. tendin'M, ime of 
the lendinons cords coDnecCine the free mar- 
gins and Tcntrieular EarfHCVHof the milral and 
tricuspid vulves with the walla of the ven- 
tricles. 0. tjrm'puil. sec Kervei. Tabic of. 
0. voutll*. one of the vocal cords, 0. Tll- 
lli'll, ODe of many fibrous bands spanniDg the 
inferior angle of the superior loDgitudiDal 

ObordM (ka\rr-dw'). IChorda.'] A com- 

Slication of gonorriirea Id vhich the penis 
nringerecWoo becomes bent libe a bow with 
it* concovity downward, and is very painful. 
Due to plastic exudation along the urethra, 
preventing distention of this part during erec- 
tion, or to muscnlarspasra. Treatment: cam- 
phor, opium, lupalin. hot fomentetionB. 

ChordltU (Itawr-dey'tia, bawr-dee'tis). 
{Chorda [voealit) + -ilit.\ Inflaraniation of 
the vocal cords (also colled C. toea'lit). 0. 
tnbwo'ta, c. with the formation of nodules 
(tinjrer'i iMKJu'ei) and white opofities upon the 
vocal eoids ; occurring in singers. 

Chorea (koh-ree'ah). [L. ^Gr. ehorrid. 
dance.] Baint Vitus' dance; an acute, in- 
fcctiooB or toxic nervous disease also called 0. 
mlaor, or Bydanluuii'a o., cbaracteriEed b; 
iBTOlautory, and usually disorderly and pur- 
poaclcM, clonic spasms of the Toluatary 
muBclea, occurriug in paroxysms. C. occurs 
cepeciallyiD children and most often in girls ; 
It is oAen herediiary; and articular rheuma- 
tism, scarlet fever, seiual disturbances and 
pregiuuicy piedispoee to it. Fright, emotional 
oisturtNuiM;, and reflex irritation are exciting 
causes. It ts sometimes epidemic, then being 
propagated by force of imitation. The move- 
ments are irregular, jerking, and violent, and 
fncreASed by attempts at repreffiion or volun- 
tary movement^ and by the direction of the 
patient's attention to them. They may be 
rnientl, partial, or nnilateral (Amn'cAoreo). 
Uental depttadonand irritability, impairment 
of memory and intellectual power often occur, 
and hallucinations and mania may eiist. C. 
lasts from 6 weeks to 6 mouths, and olten re- 
eun. Pn^noaie S!'"^ '" i''"'"'' >'! nncom- 

Slicaled cases. Treatment : regulation of 
iet, removal ot all sources of reQei irritation 
and mental excitement (school- work), iron 
fbr anamia, arsenic, and xinc sulphale, 0. 
»f tbe Mb, bippus. Blvo'trlcal o., ((} of 
Henoob {SeTUtth* e.), a disease referable to 

rnnodic ticorto myoclonus; (2)of Dubini, 
Wni'i diteaie, a disease endemic in l>)m- 
bardy, in which there are suddeu contractions, 
•Dch u are produced by an electric shock, be- 

e Doing in one arm and spreading over whole 
■dy. Unsclee atrophy, and disease is often 
fotal. (3) Of Bergeron {Bergeron'e c). a 
diseaK not related to c; marked by violent 
rhythmical spasm, but running a benign 
course. Fibrillary o., a condition marked by 
Bbrillary coDtractions of various muscles ; 


e, extremely 

Ive degenera- 
ex ; always herraitary, 
life, and marked by 

., see under Habit, 
chronic disensc, due (_ 
tion of the cerebral corU 

developing in mature . . .^ 

irregular, progressively increasiug, choreic 
movementa, he.'<ilBting speech, and gradually 
increasing dementia. Byster'lcal o. , a disease 
resembling c. but of hysterical origin, in which 
either (a) extensive and regular co-ordinated 
movements are kept up continuously for a long 
time (0. major), or (h) (he patient performs 
pprBiBlfnt rhythmical movements, e. g.. those 
of hammering ^Mairiatorj/ c.), rotation {Bo- 
tJUory c). dancing {tiiitlatoryc.), etc. (EbyUl- 
micalc). Many of these cases of rhythmical 
spasm, however, arc due to tic and not to 
hyslena. See Tic c. PrB-hBmlpls'glc C 
choreiform movements occurrinK a short time 
previous to the development of heniiple^a in 
the muscles about to be paralyiedt rost- 
bsmlpla'glc 0., chorcoid movements occurring 
in partly paralyzed muscles utUr hemiplegia 
as the paralysis is disappearing. Bacondu^ 
a., choreoid movements due to gross organic 
lesion of the brain. BenUs c, choreoid spasm 
due to degenerative changes taking place io 
the aged. Tie a., rhythmical spasm due to 
the neurosis tic; more or less akin to some 
physiological act, and denoted according to its 
site as Laryn'gtal c. Diaphragmatic e., Qa- 
lie'tttatory c, SaFtatory c, etc. See Lar]/tigtal 
tic, etc. (under Tic). 

Olioreal (koh-r«e'al), Cborelc (koh-ree'ik). 
Of or pertaining to chorea ; uected with 
chorea, as C patient. 

Oherelfgrm (koh-ree'i-fawrm), Otioraold 
(koh'ree-oyd). (L. forma, shape, or -aid.} 
Keaembling chorea or any of its symptoms. 

Oborlo-oapUUxla (koh"ree-ob-kBP-ee-la7'- 
.ja). [L, ^ chorioid i- eapillaru.} The inner 
of the three vascular layers of the choiioid. 

consisting!^ a network of capillary t 

Deciduoma malignum 

Oltorlold (kob'ree-o^d). [L. ehorlai'dnu^ 
Gr. ehorioeidei = ehonon + -tnd.] Resembling 
tbechorion.especially in vascularity. 0. mem- 
brane (or simply C), the posterior segment of 
the uvea, or middle tunic of the eye. It is 
composed largely of blood-vessels, and isdeeplj 
pigmented. Its function is to nourish the re- 
tina and lens. 0. plexns, a very vascular 
fringe-like membrane formed by the projection 
of the pia mater into the interior of the lateral, 

i^rKciiui, derived from Che internal carotid, 
and the Poiterior, from the basilar). Theo. 
plexuses secrete the ccrebro-spinal fluid. 

CtLorloldal (koh"rec-oy'dal]. Of or per- 
taining (o tbe chorioid ; as C. atrophy. 0. fll- 
■tire, C. clelt, see under Oplic vtsicU. 

Obeileideiamla (koh"ree-oyd-ee-ree'me*- 


«.] Absence of the 

ah). IGr.rremii 
OhorlDldltlB (koh"ree-oy.(Iey'tis, -d 

[-iViJ.] Inflammation of the chnriniij. 

nd&tlve c. c. oMsnciated with the rormalion of 
patches of cxudntion in the chorioid, which on 
resorplion leave a trophic nnd pigmented spots. 
The exudate may lie in the extreme anterior 
part of the chorioid (61 anterior), in the 
macula lutea (C centra'lU), or scntlered pen- 
eraliy over the fundus {C. diafBiiaa'la). 
Areolar c, c. in which black spots that nftcr- 
wnrd become decoloHznl, devtlop near the 
moculn and gradually push out toward the 
peripliery. C, ia due to syphilis aud other 
geueral diseases, anil produces diminislied and 
Eomctinies distorted visiou (mctsniorphnpsia, 
photoiBJn). Treatment: removal of cnusaldis- 
ease; iodiiles and mercurials as ulHiorWnIs; 
diaphoretics (pilocarpine, smlium Balicylote); 

Woo-lUttiuB from the mastoid in recer" 

Snp'pnratlTe e, ia marked by icdei , 

congestion of lids, conjunctiva, cornea, and 
iris, the pruience of an e^iudate behind the 
lens, and great pain. It is due to infection 
from injury, or from a disease of the noniea, 
or to metastasis in pf«mia. meningitis, etc. 
(MeUulatic c). The eyeball cither atrophies 
or becomes perforated and evnonatea its con- 
tents. Treatment; moist, warm compreases; 
incision of eyeball if perforation is imminent. 
CbOrtOIUt (koh"ree-oh'mah). [Chorion + 
-oma.J Decidaoma lualignnm. 

Olkorlon(koh'ree-on). (Gr.] 1. Thestruc- 
ture formed by the outer portion of the allau- 
tois after (he latter has grown in between the 
amaion and vitelline niembrane and enve1ope<l 
the ovum. At first it ie vaitcular, and covered 
all over with vascular tufla (Chorionic villi ; 
hence ShkCKV c. ). SubsequenUy the tntls at- 
rophy except at one s^t. where they form the 
placenta. 3. The conum or true skin. 

CllorlOllle (koh"ree-on'ik). Of or pertain- 
ing to the chorion; OS the C. villi, 
dtarlonltls (koh"ree-oh-ney'tiji. .nee'tis). 

f-ilit.l Literally, inflammation of the chorion 
corium); scleroderma. 

01iorlo-r*tliMl (kob"rec-oh-ret'ee-nal). Of 
or pertaining to both chorioid and retina. 

Chorlo -retlnltlE ( koh" ' ree-oh.rel"ee- nev' tis, 
-nee'tis). [Chnrioid + rilina-\--iti4.\ Inflam- 
mation of the chorioid and retina. 

Oliorold, Ghoroldltli (koh'rovd, koh-roy- 
dey-lis). 8ee Chorioid. C/iorioldilU. 

ChoroniMila (koh"roh<may'nec-ah). [Gr. 
thonu, dance, + ?naitid, madness.] i^ Banc 
iijff mania. 

Chrlitlaon'i fttrmnla. Sec Trapp'» formula, 

OliTOiiia(kroh'Diah). PI. eh ro' mala. [Gr.] 

ObTomttUc (kroh-mat'ik), [Chr6ma.\ 1. 
Colored ; giving rise to color ; as C. al>erration 
{sKK Aherraiion). 0. ■nbitance. C. gruiulea, 
the granular portion of the oell-body which 
colors deeply with stains. Chemically distinct 


from the similarly acting chromatin of the 
eel I -nucleus, i. Of or pertaining to chro- 
matin ; as C. fibres. 

ChronMUn (kroh'ma-tin). [Chroma + -in .^ 
The network pervading the substance of the 
cell-nueleuB, so called because deeply colored 
by staining agents. It contains iron. 

Obromato- (kroh'nia-toh-). [PAnmto.] 
Prefix meaning of or pertaining to color or 
chromatin. OllTomstoguila (-jcn'ik ), pro- 
ducing color or pigment; a term including 
ChromopnrovK, ChTOmophoroii*. and Porn- 
eiramophorout, ChronMtoI'yiis [Gr. ituli, 
a loosening]. disintegration and solution of the 
chromatin or the chromatic substance of a cell. 
ObronwtOlTt'lc. of or pi'rtaining to chroma- 
tolynis. OtuwuLtom'ster. a varietv of oph- 
thalmometer used for examining the color- 
CtamaAtophnt (kroh'ma-Uih-fil). 

philic. Chrvnutophore (kroh-raat'oh-fiiwr) 
[Gr. phorrrin, to carry], a large caudal* cell 
projecting into the rete and thought to carry 
into the latter the pigment derived from the 
blood. Obroiiuitop'sU [Gr. oprii, sight], the 
morbid slate in which all objectn appear col- 
ored. ChrOQUltoiia (-loh'ais) [-onV]. pigmen- 
tation ; an affection (especially of the skin) 
marked by pigmentation. 

Cbromlcli*d (kroh'mee-scyzd). Treated 
with chromic acid ; as C. catgut (i. c, catmit 
soaked in a 1 :-inOO solution of chromic acid to 
make it less absorbent). 

CtiTOinldTMla(kroh"mid-roh'sis). [ChrSma 
+ Gr. h'ldrfuis, sweating.] The excretion of 
colorwl sweat; a condition due to suhstanres 
ingested, as copper (green sweat), iodine, and 
fish; to jaundice (yellow sweats ; orto uterine 
derangement and nervous excitement. Treat- 
ment; attention to general health: use of 
stimulating applications to skin. 
Chromium (kroh'mee-tim). [Chroma (on 
■count of the color of many of the com- 
pounds) +.iuni.] A crvslnlline metallic ele- 
ment: symbol. Cr; atomic weight, 62.4. 0. 

trlox'lda (or Ohromlc anby'drldBl. Cr.fH, 
usnally known as chromic acid (.Vidnm 
chro'micum, U, S.. B. P., O. P.), is a red 
crystalline Bubstancc nsed as a caustic. Ugiior 
mfidi tAro'mici, B. P„ is a solution of 1 part 
of c. trioxiile in 3 parts hv volume of water. 
True ahromlc acid is IltTrOt. a dibasic acid 
whose salts arc the 01iro'm&t«B. Por/utinm 
riromale, KiCrOi (yellow chromate of potas- 
siuml.isHSeii asa reagent. Lead e. (Clurom«- 
yellow), Pl>rrO(, is a pigment. DicbTomlo 
»cW, IIiTriOT, IS n dibasic acid forming the 
dichromates (or bichromalra), Pitlattium di- 
ehroimue (Potawi'ii bichro-mas, U. S.. Ka'- 
Hum dichro'micum. O. P.), KiCnOi, is 
used OS an alterative and caustic, as an 
oxidizing agent, and in batter; finlda, and in 
gastric ulcer and dyspepaia; dose, gr. 0,08 



(gm. O.OOC). r. niso entere Into the compoei- 
tioD of eertaiu ulunw (Clirom«'alam*). 

Chromo- (kroli'iiioh-]. See Chromata-. 
Cliromoc7t«(troh'raoh-Kevt) [Gr. into*, (^111. 
acolored or piameQled cell; e. g., a red blood. 
corpuscle. CliTOino«7tom«taT (-se7-tora'ee- 
tur), sn apparatua for meaauriaB tneamouiit of 
colorinK matter (hfcmoglobiri) in the red 

capable of giving rise to a pigment. CIiTOino- 
S«nlo (-jen^ik), chronialogenic. Ohiomom'- 
•ter, an apparutus for pcrtbrming chromom- 
elry (specificallf a cliromocytomet«r]. Cbro- 
mouiM'rlO, of or pertaining to chroaiometir. 
OIlromoin'Miy [Or. metron, measure], the 
measorement of colore; particulsrl;. the proc- 
ess of determining by the tint of a substance 
the amonnt of pigment contained in it. 
OIiroinop'«rDiu (L, parere. to prodace], 
prodncinn pigment only aa ao eicrementitioua 
■abstaace ; as Chromoparoua bacteria. Cliro- 
mopli*n» (kroh'moh-ftjn) [Gr. yftai 


matophile. CIiromoplioroni(kroh-n] 

diTomopbTioilB (.fey-toh'sis) [Gr. phuton, 
phut, + -<j*t>]. tinea veraicolor. Cfiro'mo- 
plaim [Or. flatma, something formed], the 
readily Btaining nel--«ork of a re]l-aucleuB. 
Ohromo-pTDteld (-proh' tee-id), see Praltid. 

readily Btaining nel--«ork of a re]l-aucleu 

Ohromo-pTDteld (-proh' tee-id), "" " 

Ohromop'sift, see Chromiuopria. 

Chronic (kron'ik). [ 
<Mt, time.] I^astingalong time or indefinitely; 
tlnggish in course ; not acute. 

Ohronlelty (kroh-nis'ee-tee). The state of 
being chronic. 

OhronogrAph (kron'oh-jtrsf). [Gr.eAranot, 

for n 

It naually consists of a tuning-fork 
wnoae vibrations are registered automstici " 
on a moving slip of paper. 


CliryHZOl)ls (kris"a-n>h'bin). [Or. chru- 
ttot, golden, and araroba, L. cArjfiordM'num, 
U. 8., B. P., G. P.] A yellow crystalline sub- 
stance derived fh>ni araroba. Irritant and 
pnrfptive ; ased locally and internally in 
DBonasis and other skin diseases, Ungvmtum 
chrytarobfiti contains 6 (U. S.) or 4 (B. P.) 
per cent. 0. ft0«tatM, see Uurobin and Leni- 
rebin. Crude □., araroba. Oxidised c, a 
blackish powder used like c., but less active. 

QuTtoplualc Add (kris"oh-fan'ik). [Qr. 
fArusfM, golden, -I- phainatAai, to appear.] 
Ayellow crystalline acid, Cl(HioOi=- CnHi- 
qninone, occurring in senna and rhobsrb, and 
produced by the oxidation of chrysarobin. 

ChToatek'a •ymptomi. Spasm of the facial 
muscles prodni^ by striking the motor point 
of the fiicial nerve ; observed in tetany. 

curie (key]}. [Gr. ek^loi, jnice.] The 


milky liquid, consisting of lymph miied with 
emulsified fat, found in the lacteals aTter a 
meal containing fiit. The fat is in the form of 
globules, and also of extremely minute par- 
ticles which exhibit the Brownian movement 
(Holeenlar l»tU of c). The fat is derived 
from the food in the intestines. The c. passes 
into the venous system by way of the thoracia 
duct and becomes mixed with the blood. 

Chyllfarons (key-lifur-us). [L. ferre, to 
carry.] Transporting chyle; as C. vessels 
I = the lacteals). 

Ohyllllcatlon (key''Iee-fee-kay'shun). [L. 
fatfere, to make.] Chylopoieais. 

Chylocele (kev'loh-seel). [-^le (2).] An 
accumulation of milky liquid in the tunica 

OhylopDlesla (key"loh-poy-ee'si8). [ 
eein, to make.] The production or formation 
of chyle. Hence, (ni7lopoi«Uo (key"loh.poy- 

Ghrlniia (key.lew'ree-ah), [Gr. auron. 
nrine.] A condition in which the nrine is 
milky from the presence of &t. One variety, 
usuaRy fatal, is dne to the presence of Filaria 
sanguinis hominis. See ftiaria. 

Chyme (keym). [Or. chumei, a juice.] 
The ^ayish. thick, acid liquid into which the 
food is transformed by gastric digestion. It 
consists of a solution ofproteids and salts con- 
taining liquefied lat and suspended particles 
and lamps of undigested matter. 

OhymUtcaUon {ker"mee-fee-kay'shnn). 
{Chyme -i L. Jacere, to make.] The prodnc- 

>r formation of chyme. 

shrinking of: 

; depending opon t 
:, as (j. ectropion. 

formed by overgrowth of the connective tissue 
of the c. This overarowth may invade parte 
itside the limits of the c, thus forming n 

OlMLtTliaUDii (sik"a-trey-iay'8hun). The 
■t nr process of heating by means of a ctca- 
especially,theheaIingof a wound or ul- 

cer by the formation of an epidi 
over its gnnulations. 
OloDtlna(Bee-kew'leen). [L. «i«u<a, coniam.] 



CUlkry (Bil'ee-er-e«). [L. cim'rii fr. fi7- 
iuBi.] 1. Of, pertaining to, or bearing the 

erelashes; OS C. border of the lids. 0. mtuels 
(Mue'culuB cilia'ria). a name sometimeB ap- 
plied to the palpebral portion of the or- 
bicularia pali>ebrarum (see also O., 3d def.). 
9, Of, pertaining t«. Or performed by cilia ; aa 
C. movement. 3. Resembling the eyeloahea; 
hair-like or fringe-like. 0. body, the mid por- 
tion of the uvea or pigmentarv coat of the eye. 
Composed of the C. mnicla (Ciliaris), proiect- 
ine backward from the inner aspect of the 
scwro-cometil junction ; the C. procattsi, 
about 70 TBBcular, fringe-like processes ar- 

of tissue, in front of the ora serrata, givinga 
tachment to the c. processes and muscle. The 
c. muscle consiats of three seta of fibres^ longi- 
tudinal {Bructe't tmiMcle), radial, and circular 

■ '■ '*' by their contraction 

See AccomnUHLaion. 

^ theaqueous. *. Of or 

pertaioiDg to the c. bod y aa C.reif«ni; sup- 
plying the c. body, ~- — ' — '" " 

'~~ig and short), C 

glion); aSectiDL , ..., 

..; near or in relation with the c. body, 

C. loiutof theiris. C. llKMUftnt, the ligament 
attaching Ibe iris to the comeo-sclera. 

0111»ted(»iree-ayled). ProvidedwithoiUa 
orfinevibratile processes resembling eye lashes; 
asC.eell. C. epitlielial cells {0. eplthe'Unmj 
found lining the resjjiratory tract (iioee, 

(long and short), C oanif'ttHk (— nphthalm 
ganglion); aSectiDK the c, veaseU, aa C. inji 

iaryni, bronchi, Eustachfantube'), Falloppia 
tube, upper portion of the uterus, and ventri- 
cles of the brain. The cilia are in constant 
motion, and always in the same direction, so 
as to sweep foreign bodies, mucus, etc., from 
within outward. 

OUlo-ipliuU centrs (si1"ee-oh-spef'nal). 
[CV/ion/ ganglion + ipinaL] See Cenlre. 

OlUlun (sil'ee-nm). [L.] 1. An eyelash. 
2. A vlbiatile iHah-hke process attached to s 
cell (then called Ciliated cell; see Cilialrd). 

Clmex (se/meks). [L.] Acanthia. 

of the ItanuDculacew. The rhizome and root- 
lets of C. raeemo'sa <C. serpenla'ria), black 
snukeroot, black cohosh, an herb of North 
America, are the 0., U. S. (CimirirugEc 
rhizo'ma,B. P.), nsed in chorea, articular and 
muscular rheumatism, amenorrhcca, and 
uterine eODgestion. Dose, 20 gr. (gm, 1.25): of 
Eitrarftum dmief' t. a .. 

0.60); Eslradtum ,_ 

(Eitraetum eimiclfugie liqui _ _ 

m (gm. 2); TiMtu'ra eimicifuga, U. n., u. 

P., 1 3 (gm. *). 

OlmleUnxln {8ini"ee-aif yu-jin). Principle 
derived from citniciniga. Antispasmodic, 
oiytoxie, used like cimicifuga ; dose, 1-2 gr. 
(gm. 0.06-0.13). 

omcliOiM (sin-koh'nah). [Fr. theConnless 
Chirtrhim, wife of the viceroy of PeruJ A 
genoB of South American trees of the Rubi- 

i, U. S., 10 gr. (gm. 
IB liquidum, B. P.), 30 


aeeffi. C.-bark, or Peruvian bBrk(C., U. S., Cor- 
tex chine, G. P.), is the bark of any species 
coBtaJning 5 [L'. S.] or 3.5 [G. P.] per cent, of 
alkaloids and 3.5 per cent, of quinine [U. B.J. 
It includes : Tallow e.-bu^ (Caliaay'a bark, 
C. flava. Cincho'nte flava cortex, Cortex chiuie 
calisaVij. from C. Calisay-a; Pals o.-HMll (C. 
pal'lida. Cortex chinse fuscus), from C. offi- 
cina'lis and C. micrantha ; Red C.-Duk (C. 
rubra, U. S., Cinebo'nie raW cortex, B. P., 
Corle;[ china ruber, the variety especially 
directed in the B, P. andG. P.), from C.sucei- 
m'bra. C. contains a number of alkaloids (O. 
baasi), the most important being quinine, 
quinidine, einchonine, and cinchonidinej also 
quinicacid, CiHiiOt.quino' vie acid, CiiHnOt; 
aglucoaide. quino'vin, CnHuOa, cinchotannic 
acid, and C.-red. CuUgtOn. C. isa bitter tonic, 
antiseptic, and antipyretic, used as an antipy- 
retic, especially in malarial fever, and as a tonic 
in conditions of depression of every sort. See 
OuiniTM. DoseofEifrac'fwnittiieAonai, U.S. 
(Extrac'tum chime spirituo' sum, G. P.), 10-30 
gr. (gm. 0.60-2.00) ; Extnu:tn,m china aijvi/- 
nini, G. P., 10-30 jrr. (gm. 0.60-2.00); Eztrru^- 
meiiichimafiii,' tdum.V . S. (Extrac'tnti" ■"■■>- 

chona liij'nidom, B. i.), 30 "l (gm. 2); In- 
fu'ntm ctnehona, V. S. (InAi'aam cincnonn 
-'■-^ — B.P' " ' "•■ 

'■ 5 (gm. 60); Tindv-ni . . 
KfTinotura chine, _G. P.(, 

ac'idum. L. 

ehona, V. £>.,■•- ». 

1 SlRni' ^)l ""'^'"^'^'"**<™'m™po»''''ii 15 
S., B. P. (tinctu'ra chine eomposita, G. P., 
Jluibam's tincture, containing red c, orange- 
peel, and serpentina [and gentian and cinna- 
mon, G. P.]), 1 3 (gm, 4). 
Ciachoiildla (sin'lcoh-nid'ee-ah). dnchonl- 

in cinchona. C. liydrobronilde, blennostaa- 
ine. C. iKlptiata (Cinchonidi'nie sulphas, 
U. S.. Cinchonidi'num sulfu'rioam), (Ci.Hb- 
NiU)i.lIiSO( + GHiO, a bitter, white, crystal- 
line salt, is used like quinine and in the same 
doses = 6-20 gr. (gm. 0.30-1.25) aa an anti- 

Clnchonlna (sin'koh-neen). A white, bitter- 
ish crystalline alkaloid, Ci.HhNiO, derived 
from cinchona. C. (Cinchoni'na, U. S., cin- 
chu'nia, einchoni'num) and its anlplmte 
(Cinchoni'uEe sulphas, U. S., Cincboni'num 
Bulfu'rieum), (CnHjiNiOjj.IhSOt + 2HiO, 
are used like quinine in nearly doable doses — 
1(M0 gr. (gro. 0.00-2.30). 0. lodoinl'plMU 
(C. her'spalbile), antiseptol. 

GlnohoniBm (sin'koh-nizm}. The condition 

E reduced bj an overdose of cinchona or its al- 
aloida. Symptoms : headache, dea&ess, tin- 
nitus, suffusion of the eyes, and Other evidence* 
of cerebral congestion. It may produce per- 
manent amaurosis and deafness (due to hem- 
orrhage into the labyrinth). Treatment: bro- 
mides, hydrobromic acid. 

n-koh-lan'ik). See 



*• fMllns (uDgt'yur). [L. Anetara, 
girdle, from cingere, t« gird.T Tbe BenutioD 
«r a ginjle tied about the boa; ; occorring in 
diseaaea of the spinal cord. 

OiiLaTe»(gin-ee'ree-ah). [=L.for«abifanfta 
«inerca»giB7 flubstance,] The gray matter 
of the nervans syitem. 

Clnsitliini (aing'sev-lam). [L. ^^ girdle, ft. 
emgere, to ^ird.] That part of the gyraa for- 
nicatna which adjoins the corpus calloaum. 
Dental c, the rounded projeotioDB of enamel 
an tbe palatal aspect of the neck of a looth. 

Olmutbar (aiD'na-bahr), [L. eiwaaVari: 
Or, i»»7ktfcari.] Red sulphide of mercury. 

Clnmailito (atn'na-mayt). A salt of cin- 
namicacid. Beraylc.,ciaav.rae\n\ Oinnamyl 
e., Btyracin ; Sodium c, bctol, 
^Olnwuneiii (sin-nam'ee-in). Benzyl cinno- 
mate, dHTOt-CrHi. an oily liquid cootaioed 
in the balaams of Pern and Tolu. 

Clnnamene (sin'no-meen). [CtniKiin-yl + 
-en«,] Styrol; a colorlera fragrant liquid, 
CbHi = CtHs(CH.CHj), fouod in styrai. 

ooliol (Stvryl alcohol, Styrone), a oryrtalli 

bodj, C»Il>.OH, produced by decomposing aty. 

racin; au antiseptic, used in 1 percent, solution. 

CiAuamon (ain'oa-moo). [F. Gr. tirma- 
momon.} The inner bark of several species 
of Cinnamo'roura, a tree of the Ijknracese. C. 
comprises Ceylon a. (Cinnamo'mum leylan'- 
icum, U. 8., Cianamo'mi cortei, B. P.), 
from Cinnamomum leylanicum of Ceylon ; 
1. (Cinnamomum Cassia, U. S., Cor- 
li, G. P.), or cassia-bark, from 
^,^nnBmomum CaBS-ia {Cinnamo'mum aro- 
mat'icnm) of China.and SalgOn c. (Cinnamo- 
mum saigon'icum, U. S.), from an nndeter- 
mioed species. It containe an aromatic volatile 
oil {Cyleum cinnamo'mi, U. S., 8. P., G. P.), 
that ftora Chinese c. (Oil of Cassia, the oil of 
the D. S. and (i. P.) being darker and denser 
than that of Ceylon c. (the oil of the B. P.). 
Both kinds consist chiefly of oiunamic alde- 
hyde. C. is used as a llaToring agent, car- 
minaUve, and stimulant, and the oil by inha- 
latiOD in tabercaloaia. Dose of oil, 1-2 '"l 
(gm, 0.06-0.13) ; of A^ua HnnaToomi, U. 8., 
B. P., G. P., 1-4 3 (pm, 4-lSj i SptVtIu* «n- 
natoffmi, U. 9., B. P., coutainiDg 10 per cent, 
-of oil, 10-20 "l {gm. 0.60-1.251; TineluWacin- 

iWm, U. S.. B. P., G. P., 1 3 (gm. 4) ; 

ru'pu4einruime/mi G. P.. l-Z 3 (gm, 4-8)j 
_ .tint oromaf' tciM, U. S. (Pulvis cinnamo'mi 
oorapoa-itus, B. P.), 10-30 gr. (gm. 0.66-2.00); 
Ertrai/lumaroinaficumfiii'idum, U. B.,30 tn. 
•(gm. 2) ; TiTKiaWa aromaeica, G. P., 1 3 


OnnunTl (sin'oa-milj. [rvl-i 1- The 
radicle, CtHi, irfcinnamic alcoliol. C. nnno- 
naU, styracin. a. The radicle, CtHiO, of 
minnainio acid. 



OlToliUit* (gur'iin-aytj. ,_. _ , 

Harked by^ ring-like lesions ; as C. reUnltu, 
Herpes ciroinatus. 

Circle (sur'kul). FL. «<r'«uiut, dim. of e^ 
etu, a racing track.] A 

port of which is equally disi , , 

the centre, C. of EAUer, a c. of small arteries 
{OircKlat artfrii/nu HalSeri) l^ing ii 

, , , liar set of vessels si 

the circumference of the iris. Laiierc. of tlia 
Iris {Circalut i'ridii minor), a set of vessels 
in the iris surrounding thepupi!. 0. of Willi* 
(Otrcuftu arleriotua or Circufiu), the anasto- 
mosing loop of vessels formed at Che base of the 
brain by the anterior cerebral and anterior com- 
municating arteries in front, the two posterior 
cerebral and the termination of the basilar be- 
hind, and tbe internal carotid and the posterior 
commnnicating on each side. DUTa'aloii e., 

Cifcnlt (surk'yut). [L. etreu'itui, a going 
about, = cireum + ire, to p),l A path whiofi 
returns upon itself : particularly, such a path 
consisting of conducting material through 
which a galvanic current IS made to pasB (Oai- 
vart'ic e.). The c. is Open (or Broken or In- 
terrupted) when there is a break in its con- 
tinuity preventing the passage of the current ; 
OlosM, when it is continuous and the current 
passes through it. Short c., a c. formed be- 
tween Che two branches of another c. at some 
point short of the terminals, so that thecurront 
Mils to reach the latter ; also a c. formed within 
the battery-cell, tbe current passing from ainc 
to collecting plate and from plate directly back 

Circular (sur'kew-lar). [L. ctrcujd'rw.] 
Shaped likeacircle; as C>iniu(of the brain), 
C. nnuj(orthe iris); performed in a cirele. as 
C. amptiialion, O.lnianity, insanity in which 
there are alternate stages of melancholia and 

OirenlkUng proteid. See Floating proUii. 

CtrculAtlon (sur"kew -lay' shun). A going 
or flowing in a circle or circuit; pasaagealong 
a track which returns upon itself; as tbe C. 
of the blood. The c, of the blood takes place 
in three systems: 1, The Syitem'le c, in 
which the blood, starting in the left auricle, 
passes successively into Che left ventricle, aorta, 
and arteries (Arta'rlal □.), capillaries (Capil- 
lary c), veins (Ve'aoni c), and ven» cavs 
to right auricle. 2. Portal, in which the 
blooa from tbe gastro-intesCiual tract (which 
has reached the latter through the systemic 
arteries and passed through tbe capillaries) in 
carried through the portal vein to the liver, 
there through a second set of capillarieSi the 
hepatic vein, and inferior vena cava to the 
right auricle. 3. Pnlmonarye., Fnlmon'tec, 
Letter c, in which the blood through 
the right auricle, right ventricle, pulmo- 
nary artery, pulmonary capillaii^, and pnl- 


Iil0liai7 vein to the left auricle. FatU C, th« 
c. in the fetuB, in nhich the blood passei 
from the placenta Burcewrively through the um- 
bilical veip, the inferior veaa cava (which it 
reaches partlj directi; through the ilnvCus 
TCDoauB, maiol; after paaaing through the 
liver), right auricle, foramen ovale, left auri- 
cle, left ventricle, aorta, arteries of bead and 
api>er extrpmitics. superior vena cava, right 
auricle, right ventricle, pulmoasi? iirterj-, 
ductus arterioxus (except a email part which 
reaches the lunga and is returned to the left 
auricle by Che pulmonary veins), descending 
aorta, and nmbilical arteries (all except a 
■mall part tc the lower extremities and vis- 
cera, which is returned through inferior vena 
cava), and thus back to placenta. Oollat'eral 
0., see Collaleral. 

Olroulitoiry (sur'kew-la-toh-ree]. Oforper- 
taining io the circulation ; as C. diseases. 

(Hrciim (sur'kum). [L.^l About; nsed as 
a prefix forwordsof L.oriein. OlTCDina'ttAl, 
atrauttheanus. Clrctunbtu'bar, about the rye- 
ball. Olrciunctalon(-sizh'un) [L. ciVgudicmio 
= circa<a + ccedere, to cut] , the removal of the 

Srepufc : performed as a relisions rite by the 
eWB and Mohammedans, aud done ann;icBllf 
forphimoBia, and reflex irritation due to elon- 
gation ortightnessof the prepuce, Olrcnmcln- 
■lon (-klew'ihun) [L. eirrumWii'rid = rirciim 
+ claKdere, to shut], comprtssion of an artery 
by a wire loop passed about it and about a pin 
placed beneath it. Clranmcor'uaal, about 
the cornea. Clrcninductlon (-dnk'shun) [L. 
dactrt, to lead], a kind of movement in which 
a member (such as the arm, tbiah, or head] 
describee tlie surface of a cone whose apex is 
at the joint ; produced by the succeeeive per- 
formance of flexion, abduction, extension, and 
adduction. Olr'otunllAZ [L. circv,mkfr'ut = 
ct'rcum -l-fitcUre, to turn], winding aiiout ; as 
Circum/Uj aruriet (winding about the arm, 
thigh, and haunch), CiTenmfiex tirrvt, (of the 
shoulder), Circiimfifx mmcU (rircnmfleius 
pala'ti or Tensor veil, winding about the pal- 
Me). OlTcninfarMitUl (-fur-cn'shel). forming 
a oircainferenoe; as Cireumfrrentinl cartilage 
which surrounds the rim of joint-cavities and 
servestodcepenthem, Clicntiuin'cl«ar. about 
the nucleus. OUrdunoc'nlax, alioiit Ibe eye. 
OlrcmnTall'ftt* [L. nullum, wall], walled 
about; surrounded by a raised eilKe: as Ci r- 
eamvallale papilla:, large papillie at the back 
of the tongue, each seated in a cup-shaped pit. 
OlTcnmvu'eulu, about the vessels. 

See Compuliory move- 

Oirrlioili (si-roh'sii). [L. = Or. tirrhiitii, 
fr, kirrkoi, tawny^ on aceonnt of (he yellow 
color of the liver in c] 1. A. disease of the 


liver (0. of the Utst, C. hep'olis), in wbieb 
there is prolileration of the interstitial connect- 
ive tissue, which afterward ahrinksj producing' 
atrophy and degeneration of the intervening 
liver parenchyma. Alooliol'lc c, due to pro- 
longed use of alcohol (gin-drinker's liver), com- 

le envelops groupa of lobules, and 
(he liver is hard, usually reduced in size, and 
has an irregular nodular surface ; (6) C'nitob^- 
ular c. (Uypcrtmph'ic c), in which the new 
connective tiseue envelops single lobules, and 
the liver is enlarged, while its sur&ce and cut 
surfiice are smooth. This varietf includes 
Bifiary c, in which there are plexuses of new- 
formed oil e-du eta in the new connective Ubbuc. 
KaU'rUl e. is very like the alcoholic in patho- 
logical features, BypUUt'lc e. comprises (a) 
single or multiple gummata which by their 
cicatrization produce lobulated deformity of 
the liver; (i)diiruse interstitial hepatitis with 
a uniformly enlarged pale liver, in which Ihe 
connective tissue is everywhere much in- 
creased. C. has also becnascribed to gout and 
to the presence of gall-atonea (Cal'cliions o.). 
ptg'mantary c, the pigmented liver of bronie 
diabetes. C. is a chronic, incurable disease, 
the chief symptoms of which are those of por- 
tal stasis (ascites, especially in multilobular c, 
gastric or intestinal hsmorrhage, gastric and 
inlcslinal dyspepsia, diarrhiea, hemorrhoids) 
with jaundice [especially in hypertrophic c.), 
emaciation, pallor, and lomofslrength. Treat- 
ment : abstinence from alcohol ; nutritions, 
non-stimulating diet; bitter tonics ; diuretics, 
mild purgatives, diaphoretics (especially hot 
baths), and paracentesis fortbeascites: potas- 
sium iodide; sodium phosphate. 1. Intorati- 
lial inflammation (Cmrhot'te InflMnsuiUoii) 
"' ag c. of thelungB, C. of Ihekid- 

connective tissue with subsequent contmction 
by which the actively ftinctional elements of 
the organ are gradnally pressed upon and de- 
stroyed. The chief symptoms are those pro- 
duced by this destruction. 

ClrrHotia (si-rot'ik). AOectod with cir- 
rhoais, as C. liver; exhibiting the cbaikcten 
of cirrhosis, as C. inflammation. 

ClatST^M. [L.] 

I space filled 

filled with 

le arachnoid (<7. 

cerebro-epinal Bnid beneath tl ,„. 

orC.ttiiiaraiTAnoi'iiea'H*) or between its layers 
(£7. arac/inoidta' Hi) . 

CltnU (aifrayt). [«(r-ic -1- -ate. L, cit- 
rat.'] A salt of citric acid. The c's are in 
general diuretic, diaphoretic, and antacid. 

Olt'rttna. A class of terpenes, boiling at 
about 175° C, derived fk«ai species of Otnii. 




Olfrtc uld (CTi-niB + ^e). A tribwic 
crystallioe scid (Ac'idum cit'rimm, V- S-> ^• 
P., G. P.), CHK>T + H.O = C.Ht.lOII)(C0.- 
OH)i + HiO, fonod in lemona and other mur 
fruits. It ia used either alane or in the form 
of lemou-juioe or lime-juice as a preventive 
ftgainst scurvy, in rheumatism aod catarrhal 
jaundice, as a cooling drlok in fevers, an in- 

Sredient in efTerveBcing dnuixhts, and a 
inretic ; dose, 6-30 gr. (gm. 0.3-2.0). 

OltrlDS olntmeiit (sit'reen). [L. unffiun'- 
tarn ciln'num ^ lemon -colored oiatment.] 
Ointmeat of mercury nitrttte. 

Oltromyaai (ait-rooi'ee-acez). [Citric + Gr. 
mutfa, fungus.] A ^dus of Fun^. species of 
which convert augnr into citric oeid. 

01tro-pIiOBplMt«(sit"roh-rus'foyt). Acorn- 
pound or mixture of a citrate and a phos- 

Oltro-pjrropItoipItAt* (Bit"'rob-pey^rDh- 
fos'fayt). A compound or mixture of a citrate 
and a pyrophosphate. 

» (Bif m 

the . „ .- 

citron, shaddock, lime, ana bergamot. 

01. Symbol for chlorine. 

Olad'othiiX. [Gr. jtiodiii, branch. +tAn'z, 
hair,] A genus of Schizomycetes consistinfj of 
apparently branclied, septate Ulanients with 
verr delicate sheath. 0. ftstsrol'dai, t^trepto- 
thni Eppingeri. C. diettot'ottui. found in 
impure water. 0. Fter'itarl. Streptothrii 
Fterateri. C.Uqna&'clnii, Streplothriialba. 
C. ooIirK'Mft, found in water containing fer- 
rous carbonate, which it oxidizes to ferric hy- 
drate, thus cauaing depoBition of iron. 

Olunp. An appliance forcompressingapart, 
particularly for the prevention of hsmorrbage. 

OUlp. Gonorrhoia. 

ClapMac* (klafa-poh-tahzh), ClapoMnwin 
(klah-poht-mon). [F.] Succussian. 

COaiai-italii. A nievus. 

OUrtljr (kla'ree-fey). (L. cMnw, clear, + 
/aifere, to moke.] 1. To remove auspended 
impurities by precipitation, decantation, or 
othermeans. 1. Of microscopic preparations. 
to render trsnaparent by treatment with Bome 
agent like glycerin, oil of cloves, oil of berga- 
mot, oil of origanum, oil of cedar, or xylol, 

OUxke'* colvms. [Lockhart Clarke, Eng. 
nenrologiBt.) See Spinal cord. 

Claamatocyta (klan'ma-toh-Beyt). lOr. 
klatma, fragment. + kalot, cell,] A lai^ 
blanched cell which lends to break up into 
Bmall particles; occurring in connective tisane. 

Olftap-knlfe rigidity. A condition in which 
a limb is in a stale of spastic extenainn, and. 
although HUpple when flexed, yet when ex- 
tended suddenly springs into a atate of extreme 
extension, like a knife-blade. 

Olaa'totlirlx. [Gr.itfiutoi, broken in pieces, 
+ Ikrix, hair.] Trichorrhexis nodosa. 

Olandiofttlon (klB«"dee-kay'9huo). [L. 
elauditatU,} Umping. 


Olandlui' oall*. Conoidal cells lying in 
rowB outside of the external ciliated celb in 
the organ of Corti. 

Clanitrophobla (kIaw"atroh-fali'l>ee-ab}. 
[L, ctaiiitrum, bolt, + Gr. phobai, Uat.) A 
morbid dread of being shut In a narrow place, 
as in a lane between high walla. 

OlaiutTiim(klaw'strum), [L.-^ bolt, bar.] 
A Blender strip of gray matter in the brain, 
lying externally to the lenticular nncleus 
and separated from it by the external capsule. 

OUTa (klay'vah). [L, = olub.] The pos- 
terior pyramid of the medulla. See Medulla. 

Olavieeps (ktay'vee-sepa), [L. c/dnu. nail, 
+ cap u(, bead.] Agcnns of Fungi. C. purpu'- 
rea. found in the grain of various eeteals, pro- 
duces Hpores which secrete a saccharine sub- 
slance and give rise to a mycelium which is 
trunaformed into a homy maaa (aclemtium) 
that replaces the grain and constitutes ergot. 
See Krgol. 

Olavlde (klav'ee-kul). [L. elavitfula = 
dim. of cldBit, key.] The collar-bone ; a flat 
bone curved like the letter /, articulating with 
the slcrnnm internally and the scapula exter- 
nally. It Berves to protect the shoulder-joint 
and to broaden the suriiicea of attachment for 
the muscles of the neck and chest. 

Clavicular (kla-vik'yu-lar). (L. clavicu- 
/ar'u.] Of, pertaining to, or near the clav- 
icle; as the C. nerve (of the cervical plexua). 
0. reflon, the space on the chest correspond- 
ing to the clavicle. 

ClaTl-pee'toral. Attached to the clavicle 
and covering the pectoralit minor; as C.-p. 

CUtu (klay'vua). [L.^nail.) 1. A 
Btmcture resembling a nail or niike. C. bya- 
t«T'leni, the sensation of a nail being driven 
into the lop of tlie bead ; a common symptom 
in hysteria. C. ••eall'nii*, ergot of rye, 3. 
A com : a local callosity produced by thick- 


D, which forms a conical 

fricliou ; when occurring between the Iocs, it 
forma a soft com. the parts being then kept 
macerated by moisture, and inflammation often 
developing beneath the c. 0. sypbUlt'lea*, a 
homy tlatlened elevation imbedded in the hand 
or foot, attributed to syphilis. Treatment of 
coma: protection from pretwure; removal of 
cause; removal by caustics (acetic acid, tri- 
chloracetic acid, aalicylic acid} or the knife. 
S. In the pi., davl, cloves. 

Olaw-hand. The main-en-grilfe ; the talon- 
like appearanceof the hand produced by ulnar 
paralyais and progressive muscular Blropby. 
The first phalanges are over-extended, the 
second and third flexed, and the lumbricalei 
and interossei atrophy, giving tbehandaakin- 
and-bone appearance. 

Olaw-to*. Deformity consistinglD incurva- 
tion of the toes. 

01a»TacB nnolani. The segmentation nn- 

,-../«, b,Goo»^lc 

Olttt. AfiMDre.especiallyoDe occurring in 
embr;oDicdeTelapnient. Tli'eeiala'B, c's be- 
tween the TiBcer&l ftrchex, the first (betweer 

the nuuvlibular and hvoid arch) beinx the 
Hyomarulib' iitaT or Hjfoid c, the aecond the 
Huobran'chial (First bran'chial), and the 

Oltorlotdftl c, see 

othera tbeKran'cAi 
under Opiie vaicU. 

Cleft palate. A coageDital defect conaiit- 
ing in a fissure extending throjgii the middle 
of the K>(1 palale, through the hard palate, 
or both. It prevents the shutting off of the 
cavity of the mouth from that of the Dose, 
and so causes difficulty in suction {in (he in- 
fant), mastication and deglutition (food pass- 
ing up into the nostrils), and nrticulatioQ. 
Treatment: refreahiug edges of cleft and 
uniting them (stapliylorrliaphy, uranoplasty); 
closure by a plate (obturator). 

Oleptonuuila (klep"toh-mah'nee-ah). [Gt 

s impulse 

-iety of 

01«TS7iiun'i Bor* tbToat. Granular phar' 

CUmaetaric (kley-mak'tur-ik). [L. cR- 
maeter -^ Gr. ihmatter, round of a ladder ; 
anntu cCimacier' icBi.} A c hi leal age in life: 
a period at which special changcii are supposed 
to occur ; also called Cllmantft'rium. The c'a 
J g^ jjip most 

onuj meaBiruaiiou/, lue uieuupHuw 

»caltedtheC.),and theOrand o., 
age of 63. 

OUmatology (kIey"ina-tol'oh.jee), [Or. 
tltBta, climate, + -toffj/.\ The science of cli- 
mate, especially with reference to its medical 
aspects, llcnee, CUmatolog'lcal, of or per- 
taining to c. ; Cllmatolo'glat, one versed in c. 

Cllmato-tlieraventlci (klry"ma-loh-ther.a- 
pew'tiks). CUmato-thar'apy. Treatment by 
remoTal toa suitable climate. 

OUn'lc. [Clinieal.] 1. Abedsideteaching; 
ademonntrationofche symptoms and treatment 
of disease by the exhibition of living subjects. 
S. A place where such demonslratioiis are per- 
formed ; a dispensary specially adapted for 

Clln'lcal. [Gr. tfiniios, fr. tlljie, bed.J Of 
or [lertaining to the bedsideor to a clinic, as 
C. itulruetion; used at the bedside or in viMt- 
ing patient*, as a C. ihemomcler. 

CUnooapIialiu (klin"oh-sef-a-1uE]. (Gr. 
tUnein, to make to slope, + itp/iate, head.] 
Brachycephalua produced by premature syn- 
ostosis of the parietal with the temporal or 
sphenoid bone. 


mbling the posts of a 

ii of the pelvis 


(klii"ee-om'ee-tur). [Gr. kluU, 

benditig, + -meter,] An apparatus f( 

tiring the ansle which the axis '" 
makes with the spinal column. 

ClltondBCtomy (klit"or-id-ek'tab-mee). 
[■ereomv.] Excision of the clitoris. Donefor 
nymphomania, or when the clitoris is supposed 
to be a source of reflex irritation . 

CUt'orli. PI, clitor-idea. [L. = Gr. tlei- 
torii.] The erectile or^wi in the female, eor- 
responding to the penis in the male. It is a 
small imperforate mass of erectile tissue pro- 
jecting from between the labia minora above 
the orifice of the urinary meatus. It is com- 
posed of two corpora cavernosa, connected with 
the pubic bone I>y two crura and a suspensory 
ligament, and supplied with erector muscles 
(erectores ctitoridis). C. crllM, paroxysms 
of sexual excitetoent occurring in women ill 
the initial stages of tabes. 

CllTni (kle/vus). [L. -^ope.] The s«- 

; of the 

a between the a< 

Cloaca (kloh-a/kah). fL. a sewer.] 1. 
A fistula in bone leading down to a cavity 
containing a seqnefitrum. 9. The common 
cavity (Cloa'calcaTlty) farmed intheembrro 
during the first month by the anus and tbe 
uro-gcnital tract. 

Clon'le. [Gr. kloniiai, ti. klanot (see 
Cloniu).] Consisting of alternate coDtiao- 
tiona and relaxations ; as C. spasm. 

ClOBUl (kloh'nus). [Or. klonot, violent, 
irregular motion.] A clonic spasm ; a spasm 
consisting of alternate rapidly-repeated con- 
tractions and relaxations. AnUa- (or Foot*, 
or IMreal) □., see Anklt. Flnger-c, the pat- 
mar reflex. Toa-o., Vrltt-O., see Toe, Writl, 

Cloqaat'B canal (kloh-kayi). The canal 
in the vitreous which in the fetus lodges the 
hyaloid artery, in the adult a lymph-channel. 

Cloae. Of a battery -current or circnit, to 
make continuons by the interposition of a con- 
ductor at some spot where the current was in- 

OlOBtrld'lum. A genua of Bacteria now re- 
ferred to Itacillus. 

Olot. [Akiotoc/od. L. eod^ufum.] 1. A' 
body farmed by the spoaianeous solidiSoa- 
tion (clotting, coagulation) of an organised 
liquid, aa blood or lymph. A BlOOd'C. is 
composed of fibrin (usually mixed with blood- 
corpuscles] which is prodnced by the aotioa 
of fibrin ferment on the fibrinogen of the 
blood. A c. is formed spontaneously in the 
vessels when roughened or diseased (produc- 
ing the Lam'tnated a., filling the cavity of 
aneurysms and the vegetations on the vMVei 
of the heart), and outside of the veasels when- 
ever the blood comes into contact with the ds- 
Bues or tbe air. C's are theeflicient agent ia 
tbe arrrst of hemorrhage, being formed by tbe 
solidification of the bl<rad both within the ves- 
sel (Internal o.)and without it (Bxtaraalo.). 
Beart-c, a c. due to sluggishness of the circu- 
lation, formed within the heart eitjier before 


death (Anta-morteme.) oraftenrard (FOat- 
mortam c.}- 9- To nixlergo coagulation. 

dothM-Ioiua. See Lotttt. 

Olondr awelUns- See uuder Degeneration. 

Clore. [L. elaimi. a nail.] The aoex- 
panded flower of " " " " ' " 'la 

(CarTophyll'ns an 

tree of the Mj :is, 

U. S., Caryopl ,'i, 

O. P.) 

a volatile oil, 3., 

B. P.. Clenra t ch 

conBietH Urf^ly ed 

with a sesquiter] le, 

Light nil of c^t). ix- 

terQftllyin tooth ly 

as a carminative and Bavoring ingredient. 
Do«! of Oil, 2-511 (gm. 0.13-0.30); of TnMttm 
taryophyiei, B. P., 4 3 (fin. 15). Oil of c'a 
is alio Qsed to clarify microscopic aectiona, 
preparatory to mouDtiDg. 

dore-Uteli, OloTS-UtoIi knot. A knot 
uaed especially for making firm traction (as 
inredncJDgdiBlocBtlonof tiietliumb}; aomade 
that the greater the traction tbe tighter the 
knot becomes. 

Olorafi avscnatliig apparatui. [Clover, 
an Engliflhiurgeon.] An apparatus for evoca- 
•ting fragments of stone from the bladder. It 
eoiunslsof a catheter whiph is iotroduced into 
tbe bladder and is in communication with ares- 
erroir filled with warm water, which is alter- 
nately expelled and sacked in again by the 
compression and ralaiation of • rubber bag 
attached to the reservoir. 

OlOTBl'B ethsT-lnlialer. An ether-inhaler 
eonsistiniiof a cylindrical frame to fit over the 
fiu«, filled with loosely-opposed layers of por- 
ana cloth, upon which ether is poured. 

the foot iHdiR>laced with relation to the leg. It 
comprises; 1. Faa Tams, Talipes varun, in 
which theinnersideof the foot is raised and the 
sole looks inward. It is always associated with 

congenital) of the tibialis anticus. tibial), 
posticus, flexor longus digitomm, and mnsctea 
of the tendo Achillia. 3. Pal Talgna, Talipes 
valgus, in which the outer side of the foot ia 
tsised and the ?ole looks outward. It is often 
combined with fiattpning of the areh of the 
foot fTalipes, or Pas, plaao-Talgns), and 
sometimes with elevation of the toes (Talipes, 
or Pai. CAlcaaoa-Tilcui). Itisduetocon- 
ttwitureof thcperoneimuscles. S. Paaaqnl'- 
nna. Talipes equi'nus, in which the heel is 
raised by contracture of the tendo Aehillia: 
due nsually to i^hortening of the latter from 
injury or to infantile paralyais affecting the 
antagonietic muscles. It is very often asso- 
ciated with pes varus. *■ Pai calca'nana. 
Talipes calca neus, elevation of the toes so 
that the patient walks on the heel ; often due 
to infantile paralysiH of the TDUwles of the 
tendo Achillts. t. Pea pUnni. Flal-faoi. in 
which the arch of the instep is abnormally 


flat or absent ; due to long-continued standing 
in heayy people, or to forced positions of the 
foot. Often associated with pes valgus. 6. Faa 
MTUa. OT Ifnllouf foot, in which, from contrac- 
ture of tbe plantar fascia, the plantar arch is 
excessively nigh. The treatment of e.-f is 
by the exercise of the weakened muBclea ; 
their reinforcement by elastic hands: tenot- 
omy of tlie contractnred parts, combined in 
some cases with excision of bony obstructions, 
and either preceded or followed by the appli- 
cation of apparatus ; tonics. 

Olnli-luJid. A deformity in which the 
hand is placed in an unnatural position by 
muscular traction. It is Bomeliraea congenital, 
but more usually due to accident or disease 
aflecting the nerves or muscles. The most 
~ nmon variety is that in which the hand ia 
ongly flexed and adducted. Treatment: 
ooval of cause; administration of Ionics; 

Clyatar. [L. elysma or eljiHer, ft. Or, 
iluiein, to wash.] An enema. 

Cm. An abbreviation for centimetre. 

Onlcna bauadlctna (ney'kua ben-eanjik'- 
tus). Centaarea benedicts. 

OnlOoiii (ney-doh'sis). [Gr. tntdi, nettle, 
+ -o*t».] Urticaria. 

Oo, Symbol of cobalt, 

Ooagtilata (koh-og'yu-layt). 1. To clot ; to 
undergo coagulation ; as Blood c's. 3. To ren- 
der clotted ; to cause to undergo coagulation ; 
as to C. by boiling. 

Caaffnl&tlon (hoh-ag"yu-lay'shnn). [L. 
eoaguldtio, fr. roaguliim = ctim, together, + 
agere, to drive.] 1. A spontaneous solidify- 
ing (elotting) of an animal liquid, such aa 
blood, lymph, muBcle-plasma, or milk ; due to 
by ferment action of a soluble 

t (fibril 

jrinoaen, myosinogen, 

loluble proteid (fibrin, 

in). See Fiftrtn, (3i»fl'», etc. 3. 

caseini^en) ii 

myosin, caseii... ... . ., , _. 

The precipitation of a proleid from lis solu- 
tion by boiling or treatment with chemical 
agents, forming a flocculent or coherent A^ 
■pORit (Omf^ultUedprotrid). Coagulated pro- 
teida are insoluble in nearlj all reagents ex- 
cept strong acids and alkalies and proteolytic 
ferments, e. g., those of the gastric and pancre- 
atic juices. O.-nacroilli coagulative necrosis. 

Coacnlatlva (koh-ag'yu-le-tiv]. Of or 
marked by coagulation ; as C. proeessea, 0. 
nacroilH, gangrene or necrosis attended with 
coainilation of the tissues or fluids. The for- 
mation of thrombi is an example, 

CoBcnlnm (knh-eg'yu-lum). [L.] A clot. 

Coal'OU. Petroleum. 

Coal-tar. [L. pix carbonii.'] A tar-like, 
yisoid liquid obtained os a by-nrodact in 
making illuminating gas from coal. Treated 
by heating it is the Pir carbo' nit prapara,' ta, 
B, P., a solution of which in Ti ntrts oralrohol 
ia the Liquor meit carbonii, B. P, By distilla- 
tion it fiimishes O.-t. all, from which benKeDa. 




toliMDe, BniliDe, naphthaline, quinolene, and 
niMly other orgtinic compounds are derived. 

Oo«»Ution(koh-ap-tftj'«limi). IL.coaplAre 
to fit together.] A fitting together of disuaited 
pATts wich OK the fragments of a bone. 0. 
■pUnU, small, thin niliDts placed all about a 
limb at the Bite of a fracture bo as to produce 
c. of the fragioenta. 

OOKTOtfttion (koh"Hhrk-l«j'ahDii). [L. CD- 
ardd' tid = cum, together^ + urcture, to make 
tight.] Astftte of conatnction, contraction, or 

OMtne. Not fine; presenting marked char- 
acters, or such as are obvious to the unaided 
■enses ; not molecular Dur microficopio in char- 
acter ; as C. leaions. O. dlMaaa, one char- 
acterised by G. (or macroscopic) lesions. 

cobalt (koh'bawlt). [G. KobaU.) A me- 
tallic element; sp. gr. S.5^.7 : atomic weight, 
68.6; symbol, Co. Tetrad or lieiad, tike iron. 
C. nltnt*, Cd(N09)i + 6II90, and C. and 
■odlnni mtrlto, Co)(NOi)>.6NaNOi + UiO, 

--e effecU of bite by the snake; 

aud inoculation with c. venom is said to cure 
leprosy and elephantiosiB, 

Ooea (koh'kah). The Erythroiyloo Coca, 
a South American sbnib of the Erythroiyla- 
cea. The leaves (C. V. S., Cocee folia B. P.) 
coutain Cocatann'lc acid and two alkaloids, 
hygrine and cocaine (erythroxyline). They 
are said to have a marked effect in relieving 
hunger and thirst and enabling the user to 
withstand fiitigue. Dose of Kilra^lum coca 
Ait'idam, II. 8. (Extrac'tum coca: liq'uidum, 
%, P,).13(gm.4). 

Cocaine (koh'kay-een). A crystalline al- 
kaloid, CiilItiNOi, obtained from coca. 0. 
hrdTOcUorlda <C'. muriate, Cocai'ns hy- 
drochlo'ras, U. S., Cocainie liTdrochloridum, 
B. P., Cocai'num bydrochlo'rioum, G. P.), 
CitHiiNOi.UCI, and other salts (G. hydro- 
bromldc, CiTlItiNOt.llBr, 0. bcuoatc, O. 
aleat«, etc.), applied t« mucous membranes or 
beneath the sltin, produce local 

. .. col aniesthesia, especially _.. 

the eye, nnse, throat, reelum. and urelhra, in 
all painful conditions of these partH and in 
operations or manipulations performed upon 
ttiem ; hypodermicnlly in mmor operations in 
all parts uf the body ; in the none to reduce 
swelling, OS in coryia; and internally to re- 
lieve nausea and gnstnc irritability. Dose of 
hydrochloride, 0.2-0.5 gr. (gm. 0.01,'Hi.O:(0) ; 
strength for local application, 2 to 10 per cent., 
accordinf; to the delicacy and absorbent power 
of the port to which it is applied. C. discs 
(Lamell'a cocai'na, IJ. P.) contain each gr. 


0.02 ; and Injtctio cocaina hypodernvea, B. P., 
oontiuns 10 per cent, of c. hydrochloride. The 
habitual use of c. (C. habit, Ooca'inUm) 
produces rapid deterioration of the moral teoae 
and various nervoos symptoms. 

Oooalnlie (koh'kay-ee-neyi). To render 
anssthelic by means of cocame. Hence, Co- 
cainlxa'tion, the act of cocainiiing. 

Oocalnomanla ( koh-kay "i n-oh-may' nee-ab ) . 
[Gr. mantd, madness.] Addiction to the ma 
of cocaine, so great as to amount to insanity. 
Hence, Cocaincma'nlac, a victim of c. 

Coed (kok-aey). PI. of Coccus. 

Cocddlal (kok-sid'ee-al). Of or 
by a eoccidium ; as C. infection. 

OocciaioiU(kok-sid"ee-oh'Bis}. [-o*ft.] The 
disease produced by eoccidium, 

Oocddluia (^kot-sid'ee-um). A genus of 
microscopic animals of the Sporoioa. C ovi- 
for'tae 33-10 mmm. long by 15-28 hroad, occurs 
in labtiitH, and other species are found in man, 
cats, dogs, cattle, and birds, lodged in the 
epithelial cells of the biliary passages and less 
oftenortheintestine, kidney, ureter, and other 
parts. The atfected epithelium proliferates 
forniingnodulea.which were former!); regarded 
as cancerous. These produce impairment of 
function and sometimes death, which may 
occur under the guise of an acute infection. 

Ooeoobacterla (kok"oh - bak- lee^ree-ah). 

SGr. kokkot, berry, + bacteria.'] Baclena in 
be widest aeuse, including both rod forma and 


CoceogaDOUB (kok-koj'ee 
Producnl by cocci (micrococci). 

Cocaulus (kok'yu-lus). [L.] A genus of 
the MenispermaceK. C. palma'tna is the 
jHteorrhiia palma'Ia, furnishing calumba. 0. 

•:. .L. . '-tapanici' ■ "- ■ 

■ I fumisl 

■tibero'ini ii 

„ ^iculata, the 

fruit of which (C. In'illcnil furnishes picro- 
toiin. 0. toilf'cnu is said to be one of the 
plantJi entering into the composition of curare. 

Coc'cna. [L.] [Gr. kokko; berry.] 1. A 
genus of insects, one species of which (C 
cadi) produces cochineal (0., U. S., B. P.). 
See also Ktmet. 3. A micrococcus. 

Coccygeal (kok-sij'ee-al), Ooocygaao (kok- 
sij'ce-an). Of. pertaining to. or in the n«gh- 
borhood of the eoccyi ; as C. nerve, C. artery, 
C. gland (Luschka's glandj, a small mass of 
tissue, apparently vascular in nature, lying in 
front of the coccyi near ila tip, 

Coccygani (kok-sij'ee-us). [L.] A muscle 
closing in the back part of the outlet of the 
pelvis and serving to lift the ooccyi. 

Ooeoygodynla (kok"see-goh-din'ee-ah). 
tCoMJJc + Gr.odun*. pain.] Paroxysmal pain 
in the region of thecoccyi. U isdueeitherto 
neuralgia, to rheumatism, or to disease or in- 
jury (especially fracture) of the eoecyi. In 
the latter case there is great pain from defeca- 
tion or any cause producing motion of the 
bone, and the coccyn frequently has to be sepa- 
rated from its muscular connections, or even 
removed altogether. , 



Ooecyx (kok'nks). Ft. coccy'^. {Or. 
tetiiiix. a cnckoo.] The Hm«ll conical booe, 
also called ot coajigii, forming the inferior ex- 
tremity of th« Bpinat column. 

CoeUs-Olilna dlarrlitBt. PailMks. 

CocIUiwU (koch'ee-neel), [L. eoe'iMW, U. S.. 
B. P.] The Coccus cacti, an intiect of the 
Hemiptera found upon Tarioua speciee of Cac- 
taces. It fornii t, brilliant red coloring nuitter 
oootaining carmin (q. v.), and is used »M a 
colorinR material, an mdicntor (turniDa violet 

-h afiuOi ' ' ^^ --=-- -"-• 

, P., TtL 6-15 

fia. Done of Tinelv,' 
gm. 0.3-1.0). 
Oocblal«c(l[oh'chin). Elepbautiiuiii 

,p_n for the appi 

ditory perceptioQB; so called from ita raem- 
blance in shape to a anail-sheil. 

00olU»»r{kok'lee-ar), iL.eoehUa'rU.^ Of. 
pertsiniDg to, or mpplyiag the cochlea ; aa C. 
Artery, C, nerve. 0. oanal, tbe Bcala media, 
die spinal canal lying betwcfo the TOembrane 
of BeiBsoer and the membmna bssilariB; or, 
Bccordiag to others, onlv that portion of the 
scala media lying above the memonuia (ectoria, 
the portion below the latter bdog called the 
C. duet (Ductus cochlea'ris). 

Ooclil»ar(kok'lee-ahr). [L.l A spoon. C. 
magnam.ti tablespoon ; C. midiiiia, a desaert- 
•poon ; C. mi'niu, alea-spooD. 

CocblwrU (kok-lee-ay'ree-ah). [L.] A 

rtuB of herbs of the Crucifene. The herb of 
olileliuilla, or Kurvv-grsBa, Herba cochlea'- 
rlK, G. P.. is bitter and punijent, and yields a 
volatile oil resembling oil of mustard. It is a 

■timulant and -*-' — '■- ' ■ ' ' 

ula, and int 

— ,. . r+fc . . . 

Spoon-ahaped ; asC.processof temporal bone. 

OoeUltla (kok-ley'tie, kok-lee'tis). iCoeh- 
Ua + -itit.'] Inflammation of the cochlea. 

OOCl. Symbol for cathodal opening clonus, 

C»eoa, (koh'koh). The ground seed of 
Theobroma Cacao. 


^umV'a ei^mriline'itikaloid7cliH.'iN6)-r 
HiO,ormethyl-morpbme, derived from opium. 
Like morphine in action, but not so narcotic 
and is weaker. Used in eiccsuve cough and 
in diabetes mellitua. Dose of c. or of C. phoi- 
phata (Cudeinee pbosphits, B. P., Codei'num 
phospho'ricum, G. P.). which is much more 
soluble in water, m. BS-1 (gm. O.03-O.06)i of 
Sym'put coddna.a. P., 5 m-2 (gm. 2-8). 

Ood-llTer OU. [L. t/leum morrh'na, V. S. 
B. P., o'ieumjre'Dr.-i aiiil-i G. V.] A flie< 
oil obtained from the Gadus Morrb'ua, or cod 
fish, and related species of Ssh. It consists of 
olein and other glyceridea with very 

and variable amounts of iodine, bromine, 
phosphorus, Bu]}>hur, and biliary matten, 
with morrhuic acid, and about 0.2 per cent, of 
it is composed of the ptomaines butvlamine, 
amy! amine, heiylamine, dihydrolutidine, 
aselline, and morrhuine. Given inlemallj and 
by inunction, it increases the number of red 
blood-corpuscles and the body-weight. Used 
in scrofula, especially when associated with 
iLargement of the slandB, catarrhal 

pulmonary em^physemai rickets; chronic rheu- 
matism ; syphilis 1 aoEmia and marasmus, 
especially in children, Dofle, 2-4 g (gm. 8-16). 

at which a physical process is carried on. 0. 
of absorption, a number showing the volume 
of a gas absorbed by a unit volume of a liquid 
at 0° C. and 760 mm. pressure. 0. of condne- 
tlvity, a number showing the amount of heat 
that will pass in a unit Of time through a unit 
thickness of substance, when the difierence in 

1° C. 6. of expuulon, a 

ciprocal of the thicknea Jei 

passing through it to one-tenth of ita original 
value. The ratio iabiorption ratio) between 
this number and the amount of light-absorbing 
Bnl>stance contained in the Bolulion is constant 
for any given subBtance, Isoton'io C, see 
Iiotomc. C. of partaga (pahr-tahch) t^Ji 
the ratio between tbe amount of acid ah- 
stracled by ether from an atiueons solution of 
the acid and tbe amount which remains in so- 
lution. Symbol, c". C. of vlaooilty, a num- 
ber indicating the degree of viscoHity of the 
blood when circulating in tbe venels. 

-0(Ble (-seel), -onlla (■see'Iec-ah). [Qr. 
kailia. belly.] See -Mie (3). 

C<ellac (see'lec-ak). [Gr. koilia, bell^.] 
Of, pertaining to, contained in, or supplying 
the abdomen, C. azil. the truuk given Off by 
the abdominal aorta, and dividing almost im- 
mediately into the gajatric, splenic, and hepatic 
arteries ; surrounded by tlie 0. gangllA form- 
ing the 0. plaxni (of the sympathetic). 0. 
Easilon, C. flax, chronic dysentery or chronic 
enteric diarrhoea. 

OnUectomy (8ee"lee-ek'toh-mce). [Qr. 
koilia. belly, +-£c/i»Rjr.] Removal of an ab- 
dominal organ either b^ laparotomy or 
through the vagina {PotUnor c). 

CallohyaMreotomy (iice"lee-ob-his-tnr-ek'- 
toh-mee), 0(eUoIiyat«rat'omy. [Gr. koilia, 
belly.] Laparo-byBterectomy, laparo-hysler*- 

OMloma (see'lohm). [Or. kailot, hollow.] 
The general body-cavity in the embryo, lying 
between the splaiichnopleure and somato- 
pleure ; subsequently difierentialed into_ the 
pentoneaJ, pleural, and pericardial cavities. 

Cnnnmi csTebralli (see-neVrus •^'T**- 


bnir'lia). [Gr. ioituM, in common, +<>tini, 
tail.] The larva of the TebqU CosDurus) oc- 
. curnag io the braioB of Bheep. 

OoerolT«ftirea(lcoh-ur'«v). The force that 
causes a permanent magnet to retain its mag- 


I, eoff'ta.] The berries 
of the Coer''ea arab'ica. a plant of the Rubia- 
cete ({rowing in most tropical conntriea. It 
contains abont 1 per cent, of caffeine, to which 
its properties are due. See Caffeine, Its in- 
fusion IB used ttfl a beverage and in poisoning 
by alcohoi and opium. 

Ooffalniui, G. P. (kof-ee-er'nom). [L.] See 

Ooffar-duu. Sheet vulcanite used in den- 
tistry to keep teelli from moisture. 

OoSln-bons. The secoail phalanx in the 

Ooffln-Jolst. The second iDterphalangeiJ 
joint of the horse ; the joint within the hoof. 

Cognao (kohn-yahk). [F.] See Brand]/. 

Oog-wlMel retplratlon. See £upt>tUui», 
TiibU 0/ AUeratiom of. 

which keeps the particles of the same liod; 
anited and thus enables the body to maintain 
its shape. The degree to which c. acts de- 
termines the tenacity of a body. C. is 
marked in solids, wanting in liquids, and in 
gases is negative, i. e., is replaced by a force 
which tends to drive the particles away from 
each otiier. 0. &gtir«, a figure formed by a 

the oil may sometimes be determined. 

Cobniialiii'i Mwu (kohn'heymi). [Oohn- 
htim, G. pathologist.] See Area. 

Oolm'i Ilqtlld. A mixture of 1 part each of 
-n tartrate and ashes of yeast in 100 

Cotiabate (koh'hoh-bBvt). [LowLat. coho- 
bd're, probably tr. Arabic] To re-distil a 
distitlate, the fatter being mixed either with 

liquid for bacteria. 

lotate (koh'l . . . .. 
, probably (r. Arabic] To re-distil a 
he falter being mixed either w"" 
1 left by the firac distillatioo 
with new material of the 


(from which the oil has beeu removed) being 
poured back upon the original material and 

Cohosb (koh'hosh). A uame given to cim- 
icifiiga and other plants. 

Coil. Anything, especially a wire, wound 
in a spiral or in a series of loops. Indnc'Uon 
c, a fanuinic apparatus consisting of a coarse 
wire (Primary e.) through which a galvanic 
current passes, and in so doing induces a 
&radic currant in a. very long c. of fine wire 
(fleooadaryc.) placed parallel to the primary 
o. BntunkoTtr c, a very powerful induction 
Letter's c, a set of metallic lubes through 

which hot or cold water c 

I be made to 

Coln-tatt. A test for pneumothorax, made 
by auscultating while a silver coin is struck 
against another coin that is placed upon the 
cheat. A ringing metallic sound is heard 
whenever the slethosoope is placed over a part 
distended with air, 

Ooltiu (koh'ce-tns). [L.] Sexual inler- 

Ooko. Sec FTambaaia. 

Cola (koh'loh). A genus of African trees of 
the Stercuiiaccn. C. acumina'ts furnishes the 
c.-Dut, which contains a glucoside, Oo'lanln, 
compounded of caffeine and glucose. A stimu- 
lant, aphrodisiac, and heart tonic, and used in 
migraine. Doae of colanin, 3 gr. (gm. 0.20). 

Oolatlon (koh-lay'shnn]. 
The act or process of straining. 

Colatnr* (koh'la-tewr). [L. eotatSra, tr. 
coldre^ to strain.] A liquid obtained by 

ColcUoliM (korkee-seen). An alkaloid, 
CitHiiNOe, obtained from colchicara and used 
like the latter ; dose, gr. 0.01-0.03 <gm. 0.0008- 

Colchlciim(kol'kee-kum). [L., fr.Or.fot 
-■ - ^ ofAsiabytheBtftck 

Sea,wherelivcd Uedeathesorceress.] Ageii — 
ofplantsoftbeLiliaces. Thecorm (Colchici 
radix, U. S., Colchici cormus, B. P.) and the 
seed (Colchici semen, U. 8., Colchici sem'ina, 
B. P., Sem'ina colchici, G. P.) of C. autumDa'le 
contun the bitter alkaloid Col'etiloliia, act 
as local irritants, emetics, and cathartics, and 
in largedosen as irritant poisons; used in gout 
and in affections (pharyngitis, tonsillitis) in 
which a gouty or rhenniatic element enters. 
Dose of ExlToiftKm eolehid, B. P., = inspis- 
sated juice of c, and Exlraclnm colchici to- 
di'cii, U. S, (= acetic extract of c), gr. ss 
(gm. 0.03); E/iraMiim eolehiei radi'dt fia'- 
rtum, U.S., Z-ain(gm. 0.10-0.50); EitTaetum 
colchici tem'iniffi^idum. V. S., 2-8 ^ (gm. 
0.10-0.50); Tinfttt'ra colchici ifm'inii, U, S., 
Tinctu'ra colcliici sem'inum, B. P., Tinctura 
colchici, G. P., 10-30 ni (gm. 0.60-2.(10); 

C. (70° F.). C. eraun, ointment of rose- 
water. C. pack, a sheet soaked with c. water 
in which a patient is wrapped for reducing 

temperature, relieving pain. etc. S. Lacking 
the feeling of warmth or suffering from the 
absence of warmth. 3. Unattended by heat 
on the surface or obvious inflammatory signs. 
0. abscess, a chronic abscess or collection of 
broken-down matter unassociated with evi- 
dences of active inflammation ; due to disease 
(especially tuberculous) of glands and bone. 
C. sweat, sweat aaaocint^d with coldness and 
pallor of the akin; produced by coutracUon 



of the muBcIcs of the corium, which drive the 
■watt toward the Burfkce and the blood ava; 
tmm it. 4. Any iKDte rheumatic, □ en raltpc, 
or inflammatory disorder attributed (o chilhns 
of the body; especially, an acute catarrh of 
the respiratory tract bo produced. 0. lOro, 
herpes facialis. 

Oold-bloodad. Of animals, having the tem- 
perature ot the body not much in exceas of 
tbe medium in which the; live. 

Colectomy (koh-lek'loh-mee). [Cn/on t- -<c- 
tomy.'i Eicisionof a part ot the colon . 

Cot'lc. iL.e6fiem (Istdef.); cSfica (2d 
def.); fr. Gr. t«o», colon.] 1, Of orpertaiu- 
ing to the colon ; as tbe C aTteriei [Ckil'ica 
dextra, Col'ica me'dia, Col'ica sinis'tra). C. 

pleautt of the -l...- - ■ 

paroxysmal pnin 
lention of the ii 
paroxysmal abdominal pain. 
(IntMttlUd C.) is due lu the easeouB fernifnta- 
tion of food from intestinal indigestion {Sob'ur- 
m/e.), accumulation of feceH(6'i«r'ci)ra(c.},etc. 
Treatment: (^arminatircs; mild rounler- irri- 
tation (spice-bag, turp^liue stupes) over the 
abdomen; antiFpasmodics ; castor oil or mU(- 
nilphate to remove undigeEted food; 

severe pain and B«s»oiat£d symptoms due to 

Grtial occlusion of the vermiform appendix. 
«4 C. IPainter'i e., Dewmihire e.. Col'ica 
Scto'nnm, Col'ica salumi'na), a very severe 
rm of intestinal c, associated with obstinate 
constipation, produced bj stony of the inles- 
""'■ — " '" lead-poisoning. Treatment 


opium for the pain ; magnesinmsulphatecom. 
biDcd with sulfuric acid ; alum. Hapat'lc 
(orBlllMT) c, Benmlc, the extremely violent 

bile-duct or ureter. Treatment: marphi 

chloroform for pain ; belladonna and hotbatbs. 
O'tarisa C, paroiysinal pain over the uteraa, 
due to mcDstroation (Hen'itnutl a.) or Co for- 
eign substances in Uie cavity of tbe uterus. 
TreatmeDt : hot fomentations, antispasmodic*. 

OoUtl* (koh.ley'tis, kob.lee'tis). [Goton-H 
-ifi(.] Inflammation of the colon. 

Collacea (kol'la-jen). [Gr. koUa, glue, + 
-ffm.] The organio substance of bones and 
connective tissue and also fonnd In cartilage, 
and yielding gelatin when boiled; ossein. 

ColUpH(koMaps'). [L. coJ/ap'n", fr. >»'■ 
iobi, to fitll m.] 1. Afsilingin.especiallyof 
the walls of a hollow organ, in 0. of tha 
lung the latter becomes solidified, tough, and 
deprived of air : due to accumulation of fluid 
or gas in the pleara, to interference with re*- 
pinitinn. as by occlusion of a bronchos, and 
to persistence of the fetal condition of noo-cx- 
pansionof the lung (utclectanB). 9, Extreme 
and usually sudden prostration of the vital 
powers, due to injury or discnse. Symptoms: 
pallor and coldness of the surfxce which is 
covered with a cold sweat ; feeble, often irregu- 
lar, pulse; sighing, shallow respiration ; great 


iting, and hiccough. If recovery takes 
pmce, the reaction is generally excessive, the 
pulse and temperature rising above the nor- 
mal, and symptoms of cerebral congestion 
often occurring. Treatment; obsolute rest, 
lowering of head, a^plicntion of heat and 
cautious administration of stimulants. Sec 
also Syncopt, Shock, and Hamorrtiage. 

Collar-bone. See Clavicle. 

OoUarg'olnm. [Cotl-mi -t- arp-entum.] Sol- 
uble silver. 

Oollat'eral. [L. eollatcra'lii = eum. with, 
+ latin, side.] 1. On or from the side ; subor- 
dinate. >. A paraxon. 0. drcnltitloa, a 
circulation earned on through an anastomosis 
between the lateral oflshootaof a main vascular 
trunk; ordinarily insignificant, but in case of 
obliteration or injury of the main trunk ad- 
equate to convey the current to parts which 
otherwise would be cut oS from their supply. 
0. flssnre (Fissnra collateral is), the fissure 
separating the subcollatenJ and bippocampal 
gyri on the metal snrfitce of the eerebrum. 

Collecting plate. In a galvanic battery- 
cell, tbe plate at which tbe hydrogen or other 
elements of decomposition collect. It is the 
electro-negative element; i. e., the one (made 
of copper, carbon, or platinnm) upon which 
the battery-Ouid exerts little or no action. 

Collecting tabea. The straight nriniferous 
tubules of the kidney. 

Oollei' fludK. The superficial perineal 

Oollei' frMtnie{kol'eez). lYnmCollu.t, 
Dublin surgeon who deaciibed it.I Fracture 
of the lower end of the radius, with dorsal dis- 
placement of the lower fragment. 

Oollea' Uw. The bet that a ayphilitio in- 
ftnt does not convey syphilis to its nursing 
mother, bnt doea so to another woman acting 

OoUienlna (koMik'vuh-lus). [L. -little 
hill.] An eminence. C. ■amtoa'Ui, the ca- 
put gBltinaginis. 0. lupeTlor, one of the an- 
terior, and C. InfeTlor, one of the posterior 
corpora quadrigemina. 

OoIUdlna (kol'lee-deen). [G. koHa. glue.] 
An alkaloid. CiHiiN ; an oily liquid of pecu- 
liar odor, obtained in the diati list ion of coal- 
tar and of aldehyde {At dehydt'C.). Two 
ptomaines isomeric with c. are known. 

ColUsr'B pbthl'alB. Fneumonoconiosis. 

CoUlqnatlTB(kol-lik'wa-tiv). \L.eolliauart, 
to melt, = evm, loeelher, + liquidMt, fluid.] 
Uelting; causing dissolution of the body or 
emacintion by withdrawing an excess of liquid, 
as C. neealt, C. diarrhaa. O.-neorOBlB, necro- 
sis of tissues, associated with their liquefaction, 

Oollodlon (kol-loh'dee-on). [L. collffdium, 
V. S., B. P., G. P., fr. Gr. kolla, glue, -I- -aid (see 





nearl]' colorlen liqaid, which eraporatu to 
form a smootli, coDtractile film. C. *ad Pl«z'- 

lUe a. (SluUoc, Collodium flei'Ue, U. S., 
B. P., Collodium elas'ticuin, made by adding 
Canada turpentine and castor oil) are uned a» 
a protective and constriuging covering for 
wounde, abiasiana, ulcere, cutoQeou* eruptiona 
and inSammations, and inflammatory mell- 
ings. Flexible c. forma a lees contractile film 
and conatringea less. BtrpUc C. (Styptic col- 
loid, Collodinm atyp'ticum, U. S.) contains 20 
per cent, of tannic acid, and la uaed as an 
astringent appiicatioD. OanUukT'ldAted or 
BUit«rliis e. (Collodium cantharida'tnm, U. 
8., a. p., Collodium Tcsi'cana, B. P.) ia tued 

OoU'old. [Or. kolla, glne + -aid.] 1. Olntt- 
like. 0. daganeraUon, a form of d^enera- 
tion in which cells are tranaformed in a gelal' 
inooB or glue-like homi^neous mass. This 
or the aimilar mucous degeneration occurs in 
the cells filling the alveoli of cancer (C. c&n- 
«w). in the corium of the skin, forming little, 
yellowiah, translucent papules (0. mlflnm), 

._j _= :.. .^ f, py^ 3 ff^ __,-.: 

■iouB gelat- 
inous material ; particularly, in chemietry, an 
un crystal lizable aubalance which does not 
readily unde^o dialyeis. Btyptlo o., styptic 

CoUo'nu. [-ama.] A colloid cancer. 

OoUMylln (kol.lok'aee-lin). [Or. iolla. 
fttae, zulaa, wo<i>d,-l--i'n.] Soluble gun-cotlon ; 
the variety of pyroxylin soluble in ether. 

m. tL.]_ Neck; as C./em'on<, neck 

■of the femur, C. u'tcri, neck of the 

CoUntory (kol'yu-toh-ree). [L. coUtUS- 

Wum fr. turn, together, + iutrt, to wash.] A 

mouth- wash. 
OoUyrinin (kol-lir-ee-nm). (L. = Gr. kot- 

lurioH.] An eve-waeh ; a medicated applica- 

tiOD, usually a lotion, designed for the cyea, 
Oolobonu (kol"ob-boh'mah). [Gr. iolo- 

boma, mutilation.] A gap or fissure, usually 

oaneeaital, in any part of the eye or in the 



Oolocyntli (kol'oh-ainth). Tlie Citrull'us 
Colocyn'this, a plant of the Cucurbitaceie of 
Africa and Aaia. The fruit (Colocyn'lhia, U. 
8., Fmctuscoloeyn'lhidia, O. P.. bitter apple) 
—'-■18 an amorphous bitter pnnciple, Colo- 
In. Thepulp(Colacyn'thidispulpa B. 
. ., -. the fruit m the active part; it ie a hy- 
dragogue anit cliolago^ue cathartic, and in 
ovemose an irritant poison. Dose of Coloeyn- 
thia, gr. 0.2-0.8 {gm. O.OI-O.W); Eilnuftuin 
eoloeya'lhidii U. 8.. G. P., gr. as-2 {gm.O.aV 
-0.13); Extracrtam colocynlhtdit compo/itan, 
V. S., B. P. (containing also aloes, Bcomroony, 


tainiog ftloea, scammony, and oil of (joves), 
5-10 gr. (gm. O.3O-0.60); Pitula coUevnihidit 
ct hyotey ami, B. P. (— compound pill of c, 3 

Srts + extract of hyoacyamua 1 part) , 6-10 n-. 
m. 0.30-0.60); Tinetu'raeoloeyMhidii.Q.P., 
6-15 m (gm. 0.30-1.00). 

Cologn*-WAt«r (ko-lohn'J. [L. ipit'iliit 
odord'tudi] An alcoholic Bolation of varioiu 
lVagi»Dt volatile oils ; oaed as a perfume. 

Oolom'bo, G. P. See Calumta. 

Colon (koh'lon). [Gr. ioten or kolori.} 
That part of the large intestine extending 
from the CBCum to the rectum. It comprises 
the AiccTidiTig c, running vertically up from 
the right iliac fossa to the under sarfbce of 
the liver; the 7Vanmwr« c, ei tending trans- 
versely across the upper part of the abdomen ; 
the l}aeendinf e., descending vertically from 
tJie lower border of t)ie spleen ; the Stffmoid 
fitxan, aitualcd In the Idt iliac fossa. The 
junction of the ascending and transverse c. is 
the Hepatic jUiun ! that Of the transverse and 
deacendingc.,the5j)jn>)c;lezur<. O.bMllllu, 

or pertaining to 

Coloptiony (kol'oh-foh-nee). [L. co/opA^- 
nt'um. O. P., — tir. iolophonia, fr. Colopnm in 
Ionia.] See Sotin. 

OoloptoilB ( kohl"op- toh'eis ). [J^tofft.] 
Prolapse of the colon. See Entertrptoiit. 

Color (kul'ur). [L. ■:,] A Unt or hue 
neither white, black, nor a mixture of the 
two; a tint representing a part of the eolar 
spectrum, or a mixture of several parts such 
ae do not by their combination produce white 
li^ht, Complemeatary e's. two c's which 
mixed together produce white light ; e. g., red 
and bluish-green, orange and ety-blue, yellow 
and violet-blue, giwniBh.ycllow and violet, 
and green and pink. Oonnulon c, a tint 
which appeare the eame as another to a color- 
blind 1 — — - 

:. which produt 

more other sensations. The primary c's of 
Newton are Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, 
Indigo, Violet; of lielroholtr and Young, 
Red, Green, Violet; of HerinK, Red, Green, 
Blue, Yellow. See also Color-ilindnea. 

Oalor-bUndBeas. Blindness for one or 
more kinds nf color. According to the Yoting- 
Heimhoiti theory , it is due to the absence or 
feilure to act of one or two of the three per- 
cipient elements in the retina, each of which 
is sensitive for one of the primary colors (red, 

?reen, violet), thus producing Bed-bUndnaai 
the moat common form), Oreen-bllnditoiB, 
or TiOlet-blindnesB. According to ifmnir, it 

isdue ■ 

or two of the three prim 

assimilation and UisttsaL ._. 

action of light give us the sensations of red 


and green, bine and yellow, block and vhile. 
If tne red-gr««i snbstance is absent, there i~ 
Ktd-creui bIlndn«M ( >^ red-blind new -, 

freen-blindnemof Young-Helmholti) J if the 
lae-yellov substance is absent, there is Bins- 
Tellow bllndn»» ; if both are abwnt, there 

are apt to be confused b7 the color-bliL-, 

telling him to place together all that are alike. 

Oolorim'aMr. lOalor + -taeitr.) An instru- 
ment for measuring colon ; expecially, one for 
determining the tint of the bltwd, and ao esti- 
mating its richness in hEemoglobtu. 

ColorlmaVrlc. DeterminatiTeoftheamount 
of color; performed b? determining the amount 
of color; as C, analysis. 

Oolor-lsdex. See Blood-quotienl. 

Ooloa'tomy. [Gr. lUtma, mouth.] The act 
of making a permaneDt opening in the colon. 

OolOB'tnun. [L] The first milk secreted 
after deliTe^. It coDlains a large amount of 
proteide and large roand granular cells (C- 

Colotomy(koh-lot'oh-mee). [Colon + -umi/.i 
Incision into the colon. It is usually done for 
making an artificial anus (colostomy). It is 
either made by an inoiaion in the loin, where 
the gut is not covered with peritoneum (Lnm- 
bar c, Amussat's method], or by Laparo-c., 
when the incision is made either in the ingninul 
region (Is'snlnal o., Littre's method) or in 
the anterior median line, and the peritoneum is 
Decessarily divided. 

0olpenr7nt«r(korpew-rin-tnr). [GT.iuilpof, 
vagina, and tarunein, to distend.] An appa- 
ratus for dilating the vagina. 

Oolpltla (kol-pey'tis, -pee'tia). [CbJpo- + 
■itU.i Inflammation of the vagina; vaginitis. 

Oolpo- (kol'poh-J. [Or. kolpot, vagina.] A 
prefix meaning of, pertaining to, or in the 
vagina. Oolpocela (kol'poh-seel), a hernial 

frotmsion of the vagina. ColpoclelalB 
■kley'sis) [Gr. kMrit. closure], closure 
of the vagina by operation. Colpocyitocele 
(-sis'toh-seel), a prolapse of the bladder into 
the vagina. CoIpobystaTec'tomy, removal of 
the uterus through the vagina. Golpobyiter- 
Ot^ony, incision into the uterus through the 

,_^ _. .jmbined with ._ 

gina. Oolpomyomotomy (-mey"< 
mee}, ColpomyOtomT (-mey-ot oh-u..^,, ..;- 
movat of a myoma of the uterus through the 
vuina. OolpoparlnaorrhaTliT (-pei"ee-nee- 
Oi'i-fee), perineorrhaphy performed by de- 
nuding and applying sutures to the posterior 
wait of the vagina. Corpoplaaty, thereatora- 
tion or repair uf deficienciL-s in the vsginn by 
operation. Oolpoptoila ( -op-toh'ais) [Gr. 
ptotU, falling], prolapse of the vagina. Ool- 
porrhaphy (^por'a-fce) [-rAupAti] , denudation 
and suturing of any part of the vaginal wall, 
BO ■■ to narrow the vasiaa. Colpot'omy, in- 
cisioD into or through the anterior or poalerior 
vaginal wall (Atttenor or Piatrrior cotpotomy) . 
OaH'B-lOot. The Tussilago Farfara. 


Oolt'i-taU. The Erigeron canadensis. 
OoInm'blcaalCI, Oalnm'bln, Oolnm'bo. See 


Oolumella (koVyn-mel'sh). [L. dim. of 
cotutnna.'] A little column or pillar. 0. 
codli'laB, the modiolus of the cochlea. 0. 
nasi, the colnmna nasi. 

OolnmaUar (kol"yu-mel'Br). Rllar-like. 
0. formation, the coalescence of the ossicles 
of the middle ear inlo one bony mass. 

lage of vertebne formiog the spine or back- 
bone. C'softhaiplnal cord (including the C. 
of Burdock, a of Clarkt, C. of Goli. C. of 
Tumi), the c's of white matter or, according 
to the G. A. 8. of gray matter in the cord. See 
Sptnnl conf . SUnder {or ICapiTatori/] c, see 
Mcdalta, C's Of tlie TMCiua (Columns vagi- 
nie), the anterior and posterior longitudinal 
ridges on the mucous membrane of (be vagina. 
C'l Of tba OKtomal abdominal ring, the fVee 
borders of the aponenrosis of the external 
oblique, bounding the eilemal abdominal 
ring. C's Of BertlU ( Cortical c'al, see Sidney. 
Fat-c'a, of tlie skin (Colum'nie adipo'siel, 
pillars of adipose tissue extending obliquely 
upward from the subcutaneous connective tis- 
sue to the sweat-glands and hair-follicles. 
Mnaole-D., see Mutcle. 

Ooltun'na. [L.] See Column, 0. adtpo'ia, 
see Fal-column, under Column. 0. Ckr'nsa, 
one of the muscular columns projecting from 
the inner sur&ce of the ventricle of the heart 
and including the Colnm'na (or Mus'cuD) 
papUla'rss, which have a free extremity to 
which are attached the chordie tendineiB. 0. 
nait, the free edge of the septum of the nose. 
ColmnnB Tagl'ntB, see under Column. 

Ooliun'iiar. Shaped like a pillar; as C. 
cells, C. epithelium. 0. layer, of the reUaa, 
the layer of rods and cones. 

Coma (koh'mah). [Gr. iBnta, letbargy.] A 
condition of profound stupor, due to over- 
whelming of the nervous systj^m b^ poison, 
injury, or disease. C. TlgU, a condition due to 
profound prostration of the nervous system, in 
which the patient, although in a state of apathy 
and stupor, remains wakeful and more or less 
conscious all Ihe time. 

OomatOM(koh'ma-tohs). 1. Oforpertain- 
ing to coma; as C. symptoms. 3. Affected 
with coma. 

Combining eapftotty. Quanti valence, 

Oonblnlng wslgbt. The relative weight 
(compared with that of hydrogen, which is re- 
garded as 1) of that definite quantity of an 
element which can enter inlo combination with 
other elements. It is some simple multiple or 
fraction of the atomic weight. 

Combns'Uo, [L., fVom combiirffrt, to bum.] 
A burn. 



chemica1_ ohaDg:e, especially oxidation, cod- 
duct«d with BO much energy oa to produce heat 
and light. 
Comeilo(ki>iii'ee-doh}. PI. comedo' D' 

afterward by inunetions of sulphur or mercury, 
Conl«i (koh'meei). PI. com'ites. [L.] 
Accompanying ; a campauion ; eapccially, an 
artery accompanyine certain nerve-trunks (e. 
g., C. aervi itehia^tBf., C. nr.nn phrtn'id). or 
a pair of veins ( Vtn/a com' ita) accompanying 

Oom'ltant. [L. com'itdm,] Accompanying. 
0. Biialut, 0, het«TDptiorlk, squint or hetero- 
phoria in which one eye, although deviated, 
moves in conjunction with the other and at the 
same rate, bo that tlie amount of deflection re- 
mains the same in all parts of the field of 

Oaniiiia-bB«Ultia. The Spirillum cholera; 
BO called on accouut of its shape, 

Oomnui-tTkCt. A comoia-shaped tract ex- 
tending along the middle of the anterior third 
of the postero-eilernal column of the spinal 
cord. It is often affected with a deacendiug 
degeneration (CommK-itutpeddegenerftUon), 
especially in tabes. 

Commen'iU. [L. am, together, -1- menm, 
table.] An organism living upon or within 
aDother, but deriving its nislenance from with- 

from the 

OommliinUd (kom'mee-new-ted). [L. eim^ 
min'&'lu* = eum, together. + minaere. to les- 
sen.] Broken into small pieces. C. (tftCtuiA, 
a fracture in which the bone is broken into 
several pieces. 

Oommlnntlon (kon/'mee-new'shun). The 
act or process of reducing to fragments; the 
■tate of^bcing broken to piecea. 

OonmilSBIiri (kom "mis-sew' rah). [L.] See 
Commietiire. 0. hrevlB. the posterior part of 
the inferior vermiform process of the cerebel- 
lum ; 0. ilmplex, a amull lobe on the posterior 
part of tlie superior vermiform process. 

ConmUBBOrKl (kom"mis-8ew'raI). 1. Act- 
ing as a commissore ; connecting two laterally 
symmetrical parts, especially of the nervous 

<5. ophthalmoplegia. 

CommlBBiire (kom'mis-sewr). [L. comma- 
ni'ra=cum, toHethori+matei-e, to send.] 1. The 
line or angle of junction between two similar 
intersecting Huriaces; as the C. of the eye-lids, 
C. of the hps, C. of the vulva. 3. A band of 
nervous tissue connecting two parts of the ner- 
vous system on opposite sides of the median 
line. The c's of the cerebmni are ; The cor- 
pus calloBum, the fornix, and the Anlerior e., 
bridging the front part, and the Foaerior c, 
bridging the back part of the tliird ventricle. 
The ifidii/e (or Soft) c. is a mass of gray mat- 


ter, and not a c. Optic e., the chiasm. Pot- 
terior (or Inferior) optic e., Gudden't e.. Arc- 
uate c, the band of Bhres not caouecled with 
the optic nerves, crossing behind the chiasm 
and running in the optic tracts to the internal 
iteniculatebody. Sa,periorc.,3teyRert'te.,»<:. 
formed by fibres springing from thefloorofthe 
tbird ventricle and passing through the optic 
tracts to the pes of the cnts. The chief c. of 
the careballnm is the middle peduncle. The 
c's of the eord are the A'lttrinr whilt C. (An- 
terior c, White c. Ventral c.) and the An- 
terior gray c. (Ventral gray o.) in front of 
the central canal, and the Poiterior gray c. 
(Dorsal c.) behind it. 

moh'shee-oh). (L.-fr-eom- 
"^ Concuviion. 

ir up.] 

Commnnleaiu (kom-mew'nee-kanz). [L.] 
Communicating; especially, a communicating 
nerve, as C. noiii or C. hypogloai ( joining the 
cervical plexus and descendens noni), C. pero- 
tufi (jflining the externa! popliteal and short 
saphenous nerves), ora communicating artery, 
as C Ift/fi/ii ( = the posteriorcommimicating 

Commu'ninlitinK. [h.cammu'nicdru.^ Con- 
necting; joining into one ; completing an arch 
or circle; as C. arttritt (including Anterior 
and Posterior c. of brain, C. of doraa'lis pedis, 
C. of ulnar artery) and C. Dei*ves (sec Cmnnis- 

Commiinlt(kom-mew'nis). [L.} Common 
shared by several (as Flei"-" a;™..~i_.™i , . 
drugs or plants, c 


(kom"mew-ta/tor). [L. c 
■change.] A device for revi 

muidre, to interchange.] i 
ing the direction of a galva 
OompMit'. Dense ; having the separate 

Krts closely aggregated; as the C. tissue of 
ne {see Bont). 

OomparAtive UMtomT. Anatomr hariag 
for its special object a comparison of the tiaauei 
and or^ns of different animals. 

Oom'petuktlng enrxsnt. An electric cur- 
rent used to neutralize and so meaatire the in- 
tensity of a muBolc-current. 

Oompauatlou (kom"pen-say'shan). [L. 
eompinta'tio = cum, tajjetlier, + peniare, to 
weigh.] The act of making good ; eBpecialiy,* 
making good or equalisation of the cSecti of an 
excess, diminution, or irregularity of fiinc- 
tional activity. 

Oom'peii*ator. An apparatus for regulating 
ajid Dieaauriiig a compensating current. 

Oompen'satory. [L, comprntai^ria*, bal- 
ancing,] Producing compensation; making 
up for or neutralizing the effecW of a diseased 
condition' as 6'. hypertropKy of the heart in 

Complaman'tai. [L. complimenla'riu* " 
cum, together. -I- pllre, to fill J Filling up, 
supplying a deficiency, completing. 0. lUr. 
see ReapiTotion. 0. BpACO, the space at the 
lower border of the lung, where in expiration 
the two layers of pleura »— ' ' "■--' 

leura ore i|{ contact, but 



Oomplemaii'tuy. Complemeiita]. C. ool- 

C. of iTintitoiiu, Bee Syndrome, 

Oomplex'TU. [L.} A cnmplicalcd part 
<eapeciflJlT a maiicie); one of the muscles of 
tiie Deck (SM Miuclet, Table of). 

Oom'pllOAt*. [L. cmnjilica' re = eitm, io- 
filler, -(- pJicdre, to fold.] To reader more 
intricale or iavolred ; pnrticulorly, to modify 
by introducmg additional features not part of 
the regular or originoi course; as albuminuria 
compUcating pregnane;, pneumonia compli- 
calea by pleurisy, 

Compllga'tion. [L. eomplicS Ho.'] Any- 
thing that complicates; especially^ a diseaM 
or irinptom occurring in connectioD with a 
morbid proceaa and altering ita characler, 
although not a Decenary or naual accompnDi- 

CompotiUoii Of t>rcai. The anrnmation 
of two or more forces acting in tiie same or in 
different directions, so aa to find one force (the 
reaallaot) which shall equal them in the effect 

Oom'poTlluL 1. Hade up of aereral parts 
or ingredients : not aimple; aa C. licorice 
powder. 0. uU^BUtlam, aatigmatism com- 
bined with myopia or hypermetropia. 0. cyl- 
liidor, 0. eyUiMrlcal leni, a lens having one 
■urftce a cylinder and the other spherical, 
0. dlaloeatlon, 0. fractDre, a dislocation or 
fracture Id which there is an open wound lead- 
ing down to the luxated or broken bone, 0. 
BUKnet, see Magnet. 0. mloroicopa, see 
MicroKopt. a. A substance made up of two 
or more other substaDces; especi ally, in chem- 
istry, a substance formed by the chemical union 
of two or more elements. Includes: Addition 
e., formed by the direct union of two or more 
elements ore's; CondensaUon o., formed by 
the union of two substancee with the loss 
of one or more molecules; BablUtnUon c, 
formed by the replacement of one or more ele- 
mentfl in a molecule by other elements. C'b 
are further said to be Saturated or Oni«tn- 
ratad according aa the combiniD^^ capaciti«a of 
all the elementi of the c. are satisfied or not. 
In the latter case thee, is capable of taking up 
■till other atoms. 

Com'pma. A piece of cloth or similar 
material for the application of jtreaaare to a 
wooDd. Orftdnatad c, a dressiog composed 
of aseries of superimposed c's iDcreasiDg grail- 
oally in sixefrom the point of application out- 
ward^ used for applying ciDaiderable pressure 
to a limited area. 

Compretilon (kom-preBh'un). [T,. com- 
prti^io, fr. comprimere, to squeeie together.] 
The act of squeezing together or squeeiing 
tijiht; also the state of being squeezed or 
preaaed tightl^r. C.either by thefineers (Dlc'- 
nal c.) or by instruments (Initnimaii'tal a.) 


Is used to check hiemorrhage and to cure 
aneurysm, fl. Of tlia brain, a condition in 
which the brain is squeend by tumors, ab- 
ecesaea, depreaged fractures, or effused blood 
or pus ; evidenced by coma with stertorous 
breathing, slow and full pulse, insensitive ODd 
ofteu irregular pupils, and paralysis (es 

cially bemi^leeia) of the opposite side. C it 

■ *ly paroplegi , 

injury and bT 
loss of control of rectum and bladder, with 

"iy produced, is evidenced by 
paralyais (especially par ' ■ ■ 
disturbances below the si 

symploma of myelitis (C. -myelitis). 

Oonproaa'or. 1. An instrument for per- 
forming compresMon, especially of an artery or 
aneurysm. 3. A muscle which compresses a 
part. See MuieUi, Table o/. 

(Jompnl'sory moTomoiita. Forced co-or- 
dinated movements, such as those of tambling 
aud rolling, produced by iqjury of the nerve- 

Conarlnm (koh-nay'ree-um). [Gr. kSnar- 
ion = a little cone.] The pineal gland. 

Concave (kon'fcayT). [L. cc 

---;r, + ™pi«, hollow.] ] 

nrface, having its central portion de- 

v.] Hollowed ont; 

W periphery ; as a C. lens. 
VOX ( kon-k^' voh-koo' veks). 

pressed belov 


other, but with the convexity greater than the 
concavity, Cf. Co7iveio-eoncave. 

Coneenttato (kon-sen'trayt). [L, <nim, to- 
cher, + cenlmm. centre.] Of solutions, to 
increase in strength by lessening the amount 
of the menstruum (especially by evaporating). 

Ooncentiic (kon-sen'trik). [L. eoncen'lri- 
ctu = cunt, together, — crntram, centre.] Hav- 
ing a common centre ; progressing out from or 
in toward the centre equally in all directions, 
as C. hypertrnphy or C. dilatation (of the 
heart), 0. limitation of the visual held. 

Ooncaptlon (kon-sep'shun ). [L. coneep'Hd, 
fr. coneipere, to take up.] The act of conceiv- 
of being impregnated ; effecttxl when 
'---in has come into contact with 

and t^ilized the < 

Ooneba (kon'kah). [L.] 1. A shell: 
especiallyi in pharmacy, an oyster-shell, used 
as a source of calcium carboualc. Cf. Tata. 
9. The cavity at the bottom of the external 
ear, bounded by the antihclii behind and the 
tragus in fWint. O. labyrln'tU. the cochlea. 
0. na'rlnm, one of the turbinated bones. 

Oanoblilllie(koD'hee-neen). See Quitudine. 

Ooneboicope (kon^koh-skohp). \Ooneka 
nd'rivm + Gr. liopeein, to view.] A slender 
tube containing a small mirror inserted in a 
slit, designed for examining various portions 
of the nasal mucous membrane. 

Concbotomo (kong'kob-tohni). [QmcAa 
ndnum + Gr. (einnein^ to cut.] A forceps for 

cutting the tnrbioaled bodice 



Ooneom'ltuit. [L. eoneom! Ham = cum, 
irith, -f coma, companion.] Comitant. 

Oon'cord. [L. cum, together, + cor, heart.] 
A combinatiOD of two or more musical notes 
which harmonize with each otlier, 

Ooncre'tlon. See Calculut, 

Concnislon (kan-kuah'an). IL. e&aetu'tiS 
ft, cimcuure, to shake ■ commo'/to.] A violent 
Bhalcing or shock: the diaturbuice effected 
in a part (especially of the nervous system) 
by the mere shock of a blow or other injury, 
apart from any lesioD discovenible by inspec- 
• — Many casfs of c. are probably those of 
'on or other structural lesion of the 
t system. C. Df the brain (C< 

cer'ebri), the condition produced by violent 
~)luwa upon the head or great shocks tron*- 
ditled throuKh the body ; marked by 

partial loss of consciousness, pallor, nausea, 
vomitine, feeble pulse, and shallow respira- 
tiou, with somelimea ioroluntary evacuation 
of feces and urine. Otlen followed by evi- 
dences of inflammation or by permanent ver- 
tigo, headache, or mental impairment. Trent- 
ment : absolute rest in supine position, 
cautious application of heat to the surtiice ; 
in stage of reaction, cold, elevation of the 
head, and sedatives (bromidifl). 0. of tHe 
labyrinth, a condition marked by deafness, 
and sometimes by tinnitus and vertigo, pro- 
near it. 0. of the retina (Comi 

b ther 

e of 

blows upon the eye. 6. of the tplual 
or Bptnilc., a condition produced by heavy 
blows and shocks aCTectinj^ the cord, and 
especially by railway injuries (Railway- 
spine). Symptoms mainly functional, includ- 
ing muscular enfeeblement and atrophy, 
pains in the back and limbs, dyaiesthe«ice, an- 
resthesiffi, loss of sexual power, mental dis- 
turbance, and deterioration of eencral health ; 
these often not coming on until a long lime 
after the injury. MeningitiB and myelitis 
(O.-myall'tls) may also, alihougli rarely, fol- 
low. Treatment, symptomatic. 

Condensation eompouBd. See Compound. 

Oanden'Hr. 1. An apparatus by means of 
which a large quantity of electricity is stored 
a small surface, a. A device for condens- 

Condnot'lns plAto. See Collecting plate. 

Condnotlon (kon-duk'shnn). [L. condiuf- 
lid, fr. conducerr, to carry along with.] A 
carrying or conveying ; especially, the convey- 
ance of heat, sound, or electricity from one 
place to another along the substance of inter- 
vening medium (conductor) which does not 
itself change its position. Ae'rlal a., see Air- 
condtulion. Bone- (or Tlatae-) c, see Bone- 
conduction. O.-apba'aia, amnesic aphasia: 
■0 called because referred to an interruption of 


the c. of nervons currents between the motor 
and sensory centres. 

OondnctlT'lty. Ability to conduct or con- 
vey. Coefflclent of c., see Coefficient, 

Oondao'tor. That which conducts or con- 
veys: especially, a substance which, like the 
metals, readily eondnots heot or electricity. 

Oondoraa'co. A name given to various 
shrubby vines, especially to the Gonol'obos 
Conduran'go, a Peruvian climbing shrub of 
the Asclepiadr — "- >— '- '"— — - '■- 
P.) is 

matlsm, and neuralgia. . . . _ 
fi<i-idum, G. P., S50 m. (gm. 0.60-2.00); 
Vinume., G. P., 1 3 (gm. i). 

Oon'dylu. Of, pertaining to, or near a 
condyle; as the Anltrior and Paalerior e. 
foramina of the occipital bone. 

OoadylarthTDsla (koD"dil-ahr-throh'Bis). 
JGr. koadulaij knuckle^ + aHhroiii, a joint- 
in^.] An articulation id which (as in the 
wnst) an ovoid bony prominence is lodged In 
an elliptical joint-cavity. 

Condyle (kon'deyl). [Or. iondu^oi, knuck- 
le.] A knuckle-like, rounded prominence of 
bone ; as the e's at the lower end of the 
humerus and femur, at the upper extremity 
of the mandible, and on the occipital bone on 
either side of the foramen magnum. 

Condyloid (kon'dee-loyd). [Oondgle+-oiH.'\ 
1. Knuckle-shaped ; as the C. procon of the 
inferior maxillary bone. C. artionlSitlon, 
condylarthrosis. 9. Condylar. 

GondTlOma(k on "dee-lob' mah). [GT.kondu- 
l- ' ickle, + -oma.] Any large, flat, pap- 
u jwth occurring about the mucous sur- 

d especially of the anus and vulva ; 

e ly, the large, moiet, flat papules of the 

Bi ry stage of syphilis (C. Latunl) and the 

p wart (G. actunina'ttun, see Warl). 

1 ;nt: internal use of mercury ; local ap- 
plications of calomel and bismuth, or eauteri- 
lation with nitrate of mercury or nitrate of 
wlver. C. tnbeuta'nenm, moUuscum epi- 

Cone of llcllt. The triangular light-reflex 
seen on (he membraua tympani, eitending 
downward and forward from the umlio. 

Oonss (of tli« ntlna), Oone-bipoUn, 
Gone visual oells. See Retina. 

ConfecUon (kon-fek'shunj. [L. cnnftlfUS, 
fr. cimficrre, to put together.] A mixture of a 
medicinal substance with sugar, honey, or 
synip ; n term including the preparations also 
known as electuaries and conservea. 

ConfecUooeT*' dlseaae. Disorganisation of 
the nails from dipping the haudsin hot syrups. 

Confine (kon-fevn'). [L. cum, together, -t- 
pnit, limit.] 1. To shut m, lock up, restrain ; 
as to C. the bowels. 3. Of a woman, to bring 
to her conenement : to subject to the processes 
of tabor and parturition. 

Confine'ment. The period of childbirth, 
during which a woman is confined tt> the 
house; also childbirth itself. 



CMi'llaaiiM. The state of being confluent. 
OonflnMUflliraiun ( kon' flew-euz si n' e w-u m ) . 

[L. = the flowing together of the sinusea.] 

Con'lltlMlt. [L. con'jlu«iu, flowing together ; 
eoH/erlui.] Flow iog tocher; coale«cmg into 
one moss ; associated with the coalearence of 
the separate lesions into one mass, as C. small- 
pox. 0. arttonla'tiDn, a defect of speech in 
which the syllables are run together. 

CooADBtaUon (koQ"fraa-tB;'Bhun]. [L. 
cum, together, +/ron*, fbrehead.l The act of 
bringing two patients face to &cc with one 
•Dotner, in order to establiBh the identity in 
character or origin of a disease affecting both. 

OcniAulOB>l(kon-few'zhun-al). Marked by 
ooDfHtsiou of mind ; as C. insanity. 

Oonmilan' color. See Color. 

GongelatlDn (lE.on"jee-lay'shiin). {L.eonat- 
li'lio, fr. amgeldit, to freeze.1 Freezing ; also 
a AtMt-bite, or lesion of the akin producwl by 
fiveiing. At the time of exposure the sarface 
is white, cold, and insensitive; soon after, 
reaction takes place, with the formation of 
erytheoiatotui paCchea, vesicles, bullee, ulcers, 
or gangrene. Treatment: careful friction (in 
the cola to prevent too great reaction), protec- 
tion irom air and pressure, applicatiou of cam- 
phor, chloroform. Dalsam of Peru, and acids; 
antiseptic dressings for ulcers. 

Conganltml (kon-jen'ee-tal). [L.amgen'ilut, 
fr. cum, with.and pi'irni, to be bom.] Dating 
from before birth: acquired io intra-aterine 
"fe: as a C. dislocation. C. deformity C. 
rphllis. C. tiamla, see Hernia, 0. hy'dro- 
e Bydroctle. 

OonxesMd (kon-ies'ted]. Unnaturally fnll 
of blood; engorged; hypenemic. 

ConceaUon (koo-jeet'shun). [h.c(mgatio, 
fr. congerere, to pile up.] Eioessive accumu- 
lation of blood in a part ; engorgement ; hyper- 
emia. It is either Active (or Fluiionary), i. 
c., produced by an active dilatation of the 
veasela, such as that set up by reflei: irritatiou 
(blushing, the flush of f^ver, the c. attending 
morbid proliferation ] : orFaMlTe.duetodisteu- 
tion ot the vessels from obstructioo to the flow 
of blood (especially in cardiac disease) or from 
loss of tone in the vessel-walls. ^postKt'le 
«., a form of passive c. occurring in depend- 
ent parts of the body when (he circulation is 
too feeble to carry the blood up against the 
force of gravitation. A FHyilDlOgloal c. 
takes place in secreting glands during the 
period of their functional activity. The 
STXPTOMS of c. are : redness and increased 
heat and turgidity of the part; increase of 
functional activity if the c. is raodernle ; per- 
version or abrogation of function when the 
e. is excessive. Thus in 0. of tlia brain there 
are headache, vertigo, mental excitement, 
delirium, or coma (congestive apoplexy) with 
foloess and great pulsation of the cervical 
vessels, and the symptoms are aggravated 
by lowering the head. In C. of the oord 
there arc aching pains, tingling, and cramps 


e*le, s 

inthelin , _ .. .., .,_ 

loms aggravated by recumbent posture. 
0. of the Inngt there are dyspnrea, cough 
with watery or hloody expectoration, and 
crepitant r4les with some dulness over the 
lung. In 0. of tbe liver there are pain, ten- 
derness, and enlargement of the liver, and 
often slight jaundice. In 0. of the Uduar 
the urine is scanty and contains albumin, casts, 
and blood. The trratment of c. is mainly 
causal, being directed a^nst the cardiac dis- 
ease or other cause of obstruction. Other 
means are: eouDter-irrilation and the local 
abstraction of blood (wet cups, leeches) ; der- 
ivation (dry cups ; hot footbath in cerebral 
c.); elevation of congested parts (especially 
in cerebral c, and hypostatic c. of lungs) ; 
vascular conslringing agents in active c. (ergot 
in cerebral and spinal c). 

Congsitive (kon-jea'tiv). Of, associated 
with, or produced by congestion. 

Oanglui (kon'jee-us). [L.] A gallon. 

OonglomerKM gluids ( kon-glom'ar-et ). 
[L. cum, together. + glomrrore, to heap.] 
Glands composed of several lobules bound 
together by a com mon investing sheath. 

Oonglntia (koo-glew'tin). [L. cum, to- 
gether, + gliUindre, to glue.] A proteid sub- 
' ' ' ' d lupines. 

found in almonds ai 

OonglnUiiAtloii (kon-glew"tee-nay'shun). 

,L. congtmindrf, to glue together.] The ag- 

gregatinn of blood plates together to form a 

Oongo-rftd. A pigment use- _ _ 

ential test for acids. Paper stained with i 
is turned blue by a very small amount of 
hydrochloric acid, but not by a very dilute 
solution of lactic iicid. 

Conical oomea. See EenUoconut. 

Conldloipore ( koh-uid'ee-oh-BpohrJ, Oo- 
nld'lmn. [(it. konidian.a particle of dust, -f 
fjiore.] A spore of one of the molds. 

Oonilne, Conlns (koh-ney'een, koh'neen). 

ri num.] A volatile 

lii C6H,o(C.H,)N, or 

{I fromeonium. Its 

; tr, has been used 

h' asthma, sciatica, 

w r. 0.03-0.08 (^gm, 

0.' ,. ,., ptomaine obtained 

from human bodies, identified with cadaverine. 
Oonlnm (koh-ney'um). [Gr. tmrion.] A 
genus of plants of tlie Umbellifera. The 
leaves (Coni'i fo'lia, B. P., Herba coni'i, O. 
P.) and the fruit (0., L'. S., Coni'i fructus, B. 
P.) of C. macula'tum or poison-hemlock c 

is of 

the peripher.. 
lysis of respiratioi 
C. is u ' 

niiflu'idara, U, 8., 2-6 m (gin. 0,13-0.40); 



Oonl rkioiiloil (koh'nej Tu-keir-loIi'BeT}. 
[L.] The coDical muset formed of con- 
ToluUd tubea, canMitutiog the globus m^or 
of tbeepididymu. 

Oon'Jnffftl. Occaning ai k result of atar- 
ringe; commnnicatei] from husband to nife, 
or vice versa; as C. dinbetes. 

OoiL'Jncata. [L. cmyuga'Ctu, fnim cum, to- 
gether, + jagam. yoke.] Connected; linked 
lotcethcr by Bome laff, so as to be mutuslly 
intenlepeudeut. C. devUUon, deviation of 
botli eyes simaltsneously to the right, left, 
ip, or donn ; observed iu apoplexy and other 

Conditiona. Due to paralyHis {€', paralf/iU) 
C. ipatm) of one of the asaociBted 


I, and dependent upon le- 

C. fOcl, tTO foci of a lens oi 

urmiiruciK, the other. 0. dlunaterofpelvii. 
the antero-poBtcrior (sacra-pubic) diameter of 
thesaperiorstrait of the pelvis. C. inlplutte. 
see SiitpKatt. 

GoDjiuieUTk [kon"jangk-tci''vah). [L. ^ 
membranae. = joining membrane, fr. co'tjune- 
tivat, joining together.] The mucous mem. 
brane covering the inner surface of the lids and 
the eyeball. It consists of the Fsl'pabTtU o. 
attached to the lids ; the Bulbar (or Oo'ular) 
0. covering the anterior surface of the eyeball 
as far as the cornea (where it termiaatcB in a 
free edge, the lAmhxu of the e.)\ and the 
loose, flexible Ratrotaiaal fold connecting the 
two. C. cor'neM, see Cornea. 

OonlODCUTltll (kon-jungk"tee-vey'tia,' 

-Vee-tiB). [-.dV] loflammatlonof theconjunc- 
tiva. Acnte cattUTlutl e. (Catarrhal ophthal- 
mia), c. marked by redness and Bwelling of 
lids, mucn-purulent exudation, lachrjmatioo, 
photophobia. Clironlc oattUThal e. (Cotiges- 
tioD of the conjunctiva), c. marked by lachry- 
maiion and buruine aud itchini; of the eyes 
with but few objective signs. FoIUc'nlar c, 
an acute or chronic catarrhal c, vrith follicleii 
composed of adenoid tissue in the conjunctiva. 
Oroniiaiu (or Kem'ltruiotu and Dlpbtber- 
lUe) c, violent forms, attended with the 
formation of a superficial (oroopoua) or deep 
(diphtheritic) false rarmbrane upon the con- 
junctiva. OonorrlKB'al c. (C. blennorrho'ica 
acuta. Gonorrhtoal ophthalmia), a very violent 
infective c, with profuse purulent discharge, 
greatswellingof the lids, and chemosis. caused 
bv gonorrhcEol iofectiou of the eye. Bleimor- 
rbn'a (or OphtbuI'Diia) neoDato'nun, a va- 
riety of gonorrhteal c. occurring in new-born 
infiuita. -Traeho'matonB c. (Tracho'ma, 
Oranular e., granular lids), a chronic infec- 
tious form associated with the formation of 
granulations composed of adenoid tisane and 


papillary hypertrophies, and producing dis- 
tortion of the lidB, trichiasis, and panniu. 
Dlplitliarlal c, a severe infectious, usually 
membranous c, produced by diphtherial in- 
fection, and atleuded with infiltration and 
necrosis. Pblyctsn'iilar o. {C. iympkafica, 
C. eczemaio'ia), c. associated with the for- 
mation of phlyctenules or pointed efflores- 
cences upon the conjunctiva and cornea, con- 
sisting of a mass of exudation surmounted by 
an ulcer. Sxantliem'atonB c. c. occurring 
in measles, small-pox. acne rosacea, etc. Vsr- 
nal a., a form recurring each spring and con- 
tinuing during the hot weather, marked by 
photophobia, itching, and redness of the eye, 
with broad flattened papillie on the tarsal con- 
junctiva, gelatinous nodules on the bulbar 
conjunctiva, and circumcorneal infiltration. 
Treatment of c: in great evfelling with 
■ ' ipresaes (hot c 

-- „ ), antiseptic in . 

, jublimatc 1:6000, boncacid), 

blood-lettinR, canthoplastyj in profuse secre- 
tion with relaxed conjunctiva, brushing with 
silver nitrate 2 per cent.; in phlyctenular c^ 
inspersions of calomel or yellow-oxide-of- 
mercury ointment; in chronic forms, colly ria 
of line sulphate (4-1 per cent.), alum, tannic 
acid, and Ixiric acid ; in trachoma, sulphatc- 
of-^»pper stick and expression of granules. 

Oonnsctive Ubiub. The tissue which serves 
to bind together, support, and move the glan- 
dular and lining elements of the body. It 
forms the csacutial part of all organs derived 
from the mesobiaat (lione, muscle, fascia, fot, 
cartilage, serous membranes, blood- and lymph- 
vessels) aud the interstitial substance or franie- 
work of the other organs (except of the oen- 
Iral nervous system). It consists of a ground 
substance (while fibres, yellow elastic fibres), 
often aggregated into sheets or bundles, and 
cells (O.-t. eeUa) which are either round and 
movable ( tVandenagcelli, leucocytes) or fixed 
(FSred c.-t. cell; endothelial cells). Tumors 
arising from the mcsoblast assume the type of 
c. t., and are hence called O.-t. tumorB (lo- 
ci uding fibroma, myxoma, lipoma, chondroma, 
osteoma, angioma, myoma, and sarcoma). 

Conoid (koh'noyd). [Qr. h'ltua, cone, + 
•aid.'] Conical ; as the C. ligament. 

ConaeDBusI (kon-scns'ew-al). [L. cimem- 
»ud'/t»=^cuin, together, + jeiwu*, feeling.] Ex- 
cited by a renex Btimulus^ particularly by one 
which originates from direct excitation of a 
fellow-organ ; as C. reaction of the pupil (pro- 
duced in one eye by the application of light, 
etc., to the other). 

OonBerraUoil of enargy. See Energy. 

Can'sBTTS. A preparation consistiug of 
vegetable substances preserved with dry sugar. 

- „ . . ing. O.batWry. C. OBll, 

see BaUery. 0. current, see CurretU. 

Oon'Btlp&tOd. In a state of constipation, ai 
C. bowels; characterized by constipation, bb 
C. habit. Oan'rtlpBt«, to render c. 



OonsUpAUon (kon"elee-pa;'BhuD). [L. eon- 
■ttipi'Hd = cum, together, + itlpare, to Crowd.] 
A Male in which tnc bowels are evacuated in- 
/reqaently or with diffiouity. 

OouUtiiU<m(koii"Bt«e-tew'Bhun). [L.con- 
tiitu'tio, fr.cura, together, + lUituere, to place.] 
1. A state or mode of being; the general 
make-up or plan upon which anylninK ia 
built; an the C.ora8u>)Slance. Epidemic c. (of 
thealmosphere)3ee(^iiiflnic). 3. Astateor 
habit of the body: etipeciallf, a alate which 
repreaenta the permanent outcome of all the 
furmatiTe agencies Chat have acted upon the 
body, and which impresiies a upecial eharatler 
upon the way in which the body performn its 
functiOLH; asNeuroliee. 

OonatltntlonsI (koii"B(ee-lcw'ahun'al). 1. 
or, pertaining to, or indicating the constitu- 
tionof ahody; naC.rormulH. 3. Of, affecting, 
or dependent upon the whole body or its stale 
of being ' not local ; general ; as C. eauaea, C. 
disease, C. aywptomB, C. treatment. 

Oonftrlc'tor. [L,] l. An appliance for 
aqneeiing or compressing ; as an Artery-c. 3. 
Amosclewhichcompresses, Hee Miucltt.TabU 

ip'Uon. [L. ctm*ump' tio, Tt. contnm' ■ 
ere, to nse up.] 1. A nuing up. 3. A waat- 
ins away ; especially, a wasting disease 
(phthiBla), of the lungs or a tuhercalons dis- 
ease of other organs, as C. of the bowels. 

Oontaet-brMkar. A device for breaking a 
galvanic circuit. 

OontaHDn (kon-lay'jun). [L. amla'gia^ 
eun, together, + langm, to touch.) 1. The 
cummanication of disease from one person to 
another Uirough contact or proximity. 3. 
The aj:ency by which such communication ia 
effect^ ; conCagium. 

Coikt«<10Blt7 {kon-tay"jee-oa'ee-tee). Cou- 
tagionsness; the degree to which a disease is 

by contagion, as C. dj 

Oontaglum (kon-tay'jee-um). [L.] The 
vims or morbid principle which effects con- 
tagion, or the trensfer of a disease from one 
perwn to another. 

Oontlrnlty (kon"(ee-gewee-tee). (L. 

qa'ilat — cura, together, +biniier<, to touch.] 
The state of being in contact. Solution of o., 
the separation of two parts normally in con- 

ing bone. 

Otm'tiuence. [L. coniinen' lia — ciim, to- 
gether + (mere, to hold.] Self-restraint; re- 
straint within the bounds of moderation, par- 
ticalarly in sexual intercourse. 

Cantlnnad currant. A galvanic current. 

Oantlnnad farer. A fever in which there 
are no absolute intermissions. Blmple 0. f., 
a fever occurring especially in children, with- 
out a specific canse and without deftnite local 


lesion ; lasUng one or two days only {Ephtm'- 
erat fever) or a week or more. 

Oontlnnltr (kon"tin-cw'ee-tee). The state 
of being continuous or uninterrupted. Boln- 
Uoik of c., a break or breach, such as a wound 
or ulcer separating two parts which were for- 
merly in unbroken connection. AmpaUtlon 
'~ ~ amputation producing a solution of 

■ (i. e., carried through Ih ' 
through a joint). 


C. suture, (. 

Contoraion (kon-lawr'zbun). [L. cum, to- 
gether, + lorgiiere, to twisl.] Rotation of the 
eyea such that the vertical meridians of the 
two comcK tip toward each other by their ■ 
upper ends. 

CoutrutUaCkon-trak'til). Abletocontract 
or to become smaller, aa C. fibre ; of or effect- 
ing contraction, as C. force. 

' ; also the property by virtue ol 

OontntcUon (kon-trak'shun). [L.eontrSif- 
tid, fr. coTitTahere, to draw together.] A draw- 
ing together or drawing up, as of a muscle ; 
a shrinking or shortening, as Cicatricial c. 
■nacnlar c'B are either Tonic [or Tatan'le), 
when the muscle remains rigidly contracted 
for some length of time ; or Closla, when the 
muscle alternately contracla and relaxes. 
Dupnytran'i o. {C. of palmar tueia,), see 
Dupvytren'i e. Front-tap c, a c. of the calf- 
rouaclea produced when the latter are made 
tense by pressing up the foot and the moscles 
on the front of the leg are tapped. Hyotat'le 
0., a generic name fur the tendon reSexea. 
Fftradoz'leal e., a slow, otlen prolonged tonic 
c. taking place in a muscle when its origin is 
approiimated to its insertion by passive 

Oontractnra (kon-trak'tewr). A condition 
of permanent contraction and ripdity, espe- 
cially of a muscle. Baientlftl a.,B]ienBuni- 
malc, tetany. 

Oontta-lndlOA'Uoii. Any sign, symptom, 
or circumstance which opposes the carrying 
out of a lineof treatment tlwt might otherwiae 
seem applicable. 

Oontik-lftt'eral mnicle. A mnscle whose 
action is associated with the action of muscles 
on the other side of the body; e. g.,theBlemo- 
mestnid, which, when the arm of the other 
side is used, turns the head to the other side. 

Contre'COUp (kon-tr'-koo). [F. — eounler- 
stroke.} A shock or concussion produced in a 
part in consequence of a force applied at some 
remote poiut ; e. g., the shock developed at the 
base of tlie skull and producing a fracture there 
(Fracture by c.-o.) when the top of the head 


injare by pounding or bf Btriking with > blunt 

>r attended w 

n-tewzd'). Bruised ; madebj 
ffitb bruiaJDg, na C. wonad. 
. n-tew'ihun). [L. eon/u'mo, fr. 
contKudrrf, to bttil.l 1. A bruisingor pound- 
ing; in pharmacy, theaet of beatingorpound- 
ing loRether. S. A bruiBe ; oniQJuryalttnded 
wilh diBorganiiatlon of the sulycutaiieous lis- 
luee and ecchf moHiH, produced by a blow or 
a blunt inBtrument. 

COniU (koh'nuB). [L. ^ Gr. kanot.] A 
cone ; the wedge-Bhaped posterior Btaphylonia 
(myopic i-reeoEul) often found ailjoining tlie 
optic disc in myopia. O. artarlo'aiu, the con- 
ical summit of the right ventricle of the heart. 
from which the pulmonary artery rises. C. 
elaa'Uona, the cone-ahaped lower portion of 
the Bubmucons membrane of the larynx, ei- 
tending from the vocal cords to the cricoid 
cartiliu{c. C. madnllOi'Tla <or siuipl}' C. ), the 
conical inferior eitremity of the spinal cord 
terminating below in the Slum terminale. 

OaiiT>laiCBtLea(kon"val-es')iens). \lj.con- 


The recovery of beolth after dlseaae. 

Oonvalla'Tla. A genus of plants of the 
Liliweie, The rhitome (C, II. S.) of C. 
maja'lis, or lily of the valley, contains a bitter 
gincoside, ConTAll&ma'rlii, CnlliiOii. and an 
acrid pHnciple, ConnOU'rln, CMlItiOii. C. 
is a heart tonic, and secondarily a diuretic ; 
uaedaaaaubnitutefoTdigitalia inlieart di sease . 
Dow of Eilnuflum coneallarim fiu'idum, V. 
S„ 15-30 m (gm. 1-2) ; Convallamarin, gr. SB-l 
(gm. 0.03-0.06). 

OoiiTectloii (kon-vek'ihun). [L. eonveif lio, 
fr. cum, along with, + where, to bear.] The 
transmiBsion of heat or electricity hy (he con- 
tinual movement of healed or electrified par. 
tictca avay from the source of energy and 
their replacement by other particles not yet 
heated or electrified. Liquids atiil gases are 
usually healed by c.; the heat being applied 
below, the particles of sna or fluid at the bot. 
torn become hot, and hence lighter than the 
others, and ascend, while the colder, heavier 
particles above descend lo take their place. 

OonTeTsenca (kon-vwr'jena). The act of 
converging or of being directed toward a com- 
mon point ; also the degree of approximation 
of two lines as meaaured by the angle formed 
by their intersection ; as C. of the visual axes. 
C. of the eyes is held lo be governed bv a 
special nerve-centre (C, eentra). The im- 
pulses emanating from this centre may be 
excessive (C. ascaia), deficient (C. InaulB- 
clancy), or absent (C. pu^Iyili). In Ihe 
former case there are produced eaophoria and 
convergent squint, in tne latter case eiophoria 
and divergent squint : bulh conditions leudiiig 
to increase as the object looked at is brought 
near the eves. C. naftr-point, the nearest 
point to which the two eyes cau be made to 
converge. 0. r«UitlOii, the conlmction of the 
pupil taking place when the eyes converge. 


CanTergant (kon-vur'ient). [L. roncer'- 
gena.'\ Converging; (ending lo come together 
or intersect at a common point; associaled 
with or producing convergence, especially of 
the eyes, as C. strabia'mus. 

Caii'v«x. [L. eonvex'vt = eum, together, + 
vtkere, (o carry.] Bulged out; of a surface. 

protruding further (han the 
periphery ; as a C. lens, llence, COnTM'tty, 
(I) a bulging out or rounded projection ; (2) 

Convex on one surface and ( 

other, but witb the concavity greater than the 
convexity. Cf. Concavo-convei. 

gynu.1 A twist or coil ; particularly, an ele- 
valal portion of the cerebral corlex lying be- 
tween two fissures ; a gyrus. See Ctrebrvin. 

ConTOlTnlln (kon-vol'vew-lin). [Conro/m- 
/lu (or Ipumoia) Purga, from which jalap is 
obtained. ^■ -in.] See under Jalap. 

OODTnl'aUit. Producing convulsions; an 
agent producing convulsions. 

CoiiTiilBlDn (kon-vurshuu). [L. roniml'tto, 
ti. amvellere, to throw into spasms.} An in- 
voluntary simultaneous contraction or aeriea 
of contractionH of aeveral volunlary muscles i 
aapafim; a fit. According to the cbarftcter of 
the muscular contniclions, c's are deugnated 
»M Oonic, Tonic, €hori;'ic,Epilept'ifnrm, etc.; 
occording to their OMue, as Hyster'ical (see 
Hytleria), Puer'peral, and Cne'mic (see 
Eclamptta). etc. The term cramp denotes B 
c. usually tetanic, limited to one or a very 
few musides ■ tpatta may affect one muscle or 
...... . ., ^,g 

_ _ general in meaning, ancl 

may relate either to the attack itself or to tlie 
muscular eontraclion which is its main symp- 
tom ; rctamptia denoles the disease of which 
the e. is an evidence. InhnUIe c's, rtt 
Eclamptia. Mlmlc c, spasm of the facial 

Oonvnl'ilTe. Attended withconvulaionsor 
spasms; having the character of a convulsion : 

Oa-«T'itliutt« erunpa. ^esComputtorymote- 

OO-onUnaUou ( koh-awr"dee-nay'shnn). 

[L. cnordina' tin, fr. cam, together. + onW, 
order.] The harmonious adjustment of a 
series of related functions, and especially of 
a set of related muscular rooveroeiits, to one 
another, so that all combine without interftr- 
ence to produce a definite result. 

CopUba, U. S., B. P. (koh-pay'bah), Oo- 
paiTA (koh-pay'vah). An oteo-recin derived 
from various species of Copaif 'era, a genus of 
South American trees of (he Leguminoan; 
also called Balaam of c. (Bal'samum copaiva:, 
G. P.). It is a yellowish, viscid, bitter liquid 
consifting of a resin combined with a volatile 
(n7(U'leumcopBibK, U, S.. B.P.), isamarked 




dlaretic, and is ueed in the subacute and 
chronic stages of gonorrhisa, cjatitis, pyelitis, 
and broDchitiB, and in drops;', especially nf 
hepatic origin. DoBes: Of c. and Oil of c, 
10-20 "l (gm. 0.60-1,25); of Maaa copaiba. 
U. S., 10-15 gr. (gm. 0.60-1.00). 

Ooplopla (kop"ee-oh'pee-ah). [Gr. kopia, 
exhaustion, +op». Bight,] Asthenopia. 

ip'par. [L, ciCprum, fr. a» cm>'riam = 
jrae hraat,'] A reddish, malleable and due- 

le. bivalent, metallic element; atomic weight, 
63.18; symbol, Cu. 0. ac'etatfl (Cupri aco"- 
taa. Cuprum aee'ticum), Cu(CiniOi)i r HjO, 
forms green crystals; used chiefly as an as- 
tringeat in a Halation of 2 to 10 parts per 1000 
in conjunctivitis and gonorrhiea ; inltmally 
in chronic skin diseases and anfeniia: dose, 
0.2-1.0 gr. (gm, 0.01-0.06). C. subac'etate, 
verdigns (Cupri subace'tas), Cu{CuO)[Ci- 
H>Oi)i, is used as a atimulant and escharotic 
for ulcers, warts, and condylomata. 0. nitrate 
(Cnpri mtras), Cu[NO>)i + 311,0, is used 
like the sulphate. C. snlpliBta [Capri sul- 

fhas, U. 8., B. P., Cuprum suifu'ricum, G. 
., Cuprum Bulfu'rioum crndum, Q. P., blue 
vitriol, blue stone), CuSOi 4- :iHiO, forms blue 
efflorescent crystalB, astringent and irritant ; 
Dsed aa an emetic in poiBoniDg, especially by 
phosphorus; dose, 5-7 gr. [gm. 0.30-0.50); 
as an astringent in diarrhiEo. er. 0.2-1.0 (gm. 
O.Olo-O.OGS) ; in dr^, scalr skm diseBBes, 0.1 
gr. (gm. 0.006) ; locally in the Bolid form to 
trachomatous lids and nabby granulations, in 
solutions of 3 to 5 parts per 1000 in gleet, 
leuoorrhrea. chronic conjunctivitis, pharyn- 
gitis, and stomatitis, and in solutions of 1 to 4 
per cent, as an enema in dysentery. A mix- 
ture of 16 parts each of c. fluiphate. alum, and 
potassium nitrate with 1 part each of atum 
and camphor is the Alu'm&iated o. (Cuprum 
alumina turn, Q. P., lapis divi'nus), used as 
an astringent, especially in chronic conjunc- 
tivitia. Ammouuted c. (Cnpnim ammonia'- 
tnm, C. ammonio-»Mi[yAni«}, Cu(NH«)»SOi + 
HiO, is used locally like c. sulphate, and in- 
ternally in epilepsy, neuralgia, and chorea; 
dose, gr, BH-3 (gm. 0.03-0.20). C. sulpl 
with the addition of potassium and sodi 


1 (gm. 0.03-0.20). C. sulphate 

lition of potassium and sodium 

tartrate and soda forms FoIiUng'i lolntlon 

(Solu'tio cupri tariar'ici natrona'la, G. P.), 

used as a test for gli .-.....• 

Cop'iMraa. [F. amperoie = L. cupri roia, 
rose of copper.] Iron (ferrous) sulphate. 

Ooppar-TLOi*. Acne rosacea. 

CoprMtnlA (kop-ree'mee-ah). [Or. toptm, 
dung. -*- haima, blood.] Poisoning of the blood 
by principles derived from retained feces. 

tJop'ro-. [Gr. t:oprot, dung.] Prefii mean- 
ing dung or filth, OoDrolaila ^lay'lee-ah) 
[Gr. lalerin, to talk], obscenity of speech ; 
especially, the meaningless ohscenitj' in- 
dulged in by the insane, Cop'rollth i-ljlh], 
a concretion in the intestines, especially one 
consisting of hardened feces. Copropha<7 
(kop-rof a-jee) [Gr. phagein, to eat], the 
practice of eating dang ; a symptom met with 

In insane patients. Oopros'ti 
a stoppage], retardation in I 
feces along the intestine ; fecal impaction. 

[L.] A genus of the Ranuncnla- 
ce». The C, trifo'lia or gold-thread was for- 
merly used as a simple bitter. It contains the 
alkaloids berberine and Oop'tlne. 

Hence, Copnlatory (kop'yuh-la-toh- 

ree), subserving c; as Copulatory organs. 

Oor(kawr). PI. coi'da. [L,] Heart. 0. 
bDTi'niun, a greatly hypertrophied heart. 0. 
blrau'tnm, C. tomanu'snm ( ^ hairy or 
shaggy heart), a heart shaggy from the pres- 
ence of exudate on its periearaial surface. 

Ooraco- (kor'a-koh-). Of or pertaining to 
the coracoid process. O.-acTo'ml&l, 0,-br«- 
chia'lli, C-alavic'alU', C-bu'meral, at- 
tached respectively to the coracoid process 
and the acromion, arm^ clavicle, or humerus: 
as C.-acromial, C. -clavicular, and C, 'humeral 
ligaments, C.-brachialis muscle. 

Cor'acoid. [Gr. korax, crow. - -oid.] 1. 
Shaped like a crow's beakj as 0. procfttot 
the scapula. 3. Of. pertaining to, or attached 
to the c, process ; as the C, Kgameni. 

Oor'ftlUn. [Fr. coral, on acconut of its nA 
color.] A coloring matter containing rosolic 
acid ; used as an indicator. Bed c, pteonin. 

Cord. [L. chorda, Gr. ekorde.] Any elon- 
gated, rounded, band-like body' when use<l 
without qualification, the spinal c. and the 
umbilical c. [q. v.). See also Spermalie c. 
and Vocal c, 

OordlAl [kawr'ial). [I,, cordid'lit. fr. cor, 
heart.] 1, Stimulating the heart; exhilarat- 
ing; invigorating. 3. A medicine possessing 
exhilarating properties ; particularly, a sweet- 
ened alcoholic beverage conlnining a volatile 

Cor'dlceps. [L. cor, heart, + caput head.] 
A genus of Fungi various species of which oc- 
cur on graiu and in caterpillars, destroying 

CordUOmi (kawr'dee-fawrm). [L. eor, 
heart, -I- /onna, shape.] Heart-abapeJ ; as the 
C, teridon of the diaphragm. 

Core (kor-ee). [Gr. iorj.] The pupil. 
Hence, Coracto'plk [Gr, ei, out, + topa*, 
place] , displacement or abnormal situation of 
the pupit ; Corsdill'yili Idialptii], irido- 
dialysis; Corel'ysl* FGr. iuiM, a loosening], 
the act of detaching adhesions formed between 
the iris and adjacent t>art8 ; Coremarpbo'ili, 
Cor'eplMtr [Gr. morphocin, to form, orplat- 
sej'n to fashion], the operation of making an 
artificial pupil ; Coreom'eter l-metcr], an ap- 
paratus for measuring the width of the pupil, 

Corluid«T (koh"ree-an'dur). [I., ciirian'- 
drum.] The Coriandmm sati' vum, an Asiatic 
and European plant of the Urabellifers. The 
fniit nlaocjillpH O. fCnriBr'dnim. II. 8.. Cor- 

fruit, also called 0. (Cor..u u.uu,, ^.,^., ^«.- 
ian'dci fructus, B. P.), contoina a volatile ait 
(O'leum eoriaudri, U. S., B. P.J. ilted Bs a 


m, U.S. Oor- 
._3 a volatile " 
:. P.J. 4i»ed B , 

carminative and SavorinjEiagTedieDt. Doeeof 

mriDinativeaiid navonngii 
)il. 1-5 m (gm. 0.0«-0.30). 

_ . ..V Skin. Theterm 

Btricted to the reticular layer of the c, and i: 
also used for the basement membrane and layer 

of oonnectiTe tissue underlying the ~ " 


COTiD. A plant-tuber; a BabterraDeoos 
tnberoufl stem. 

Com. [Fr. same root as grain and kenul.'] 
1. See Clavui (2d def.). 3. Any variety of 

Eiin used for food; in the United States, 
dian c. or maiM (the Zea Mays and its grain ) . 
Indian c, ground, fumiehee C. (or Indian] 
niACl, which Fontaina starch (C. starcli), and 
baked into cakes, forms C. bread, which con- 
tAiDB a much larger amount of fatty matter 
than vbealen bread. C. ergot, 0. imut, see 
Uitilago. C. allk (Stig'mala ma'ydia, Zt*., 
U.S.),thesilkorlusselsofZeaMaye; used as 
a diuretic in lithsemia, vesical catarrh, and 
other urinary disorders. See Zea. 

soidal cap. set in the sclera like 
crystal in its cose, and consists from before 
backward of— (I) a layer of epithelium (pro- 
perly a continuation of the conjuoctiva ^ 
cai^'uneHva cottuib) ; (3) the structureless, 
£inmtan'$ mfmbrant; (3) a ilroma consisting 
of conuective-tissne cells, intercellular sul^ 
stance, and lymph-spaces; (4) the homo- 
geneous membrane of Deacanel; (5) a layer 
of endothetial cells. Layer I is the Coigunc- 
tival portion of the c; layerB 2 and 3 the 
Scleral portion ; layers 4 and 5 the Uveal por- 
tion. G. mncDld, a variety of mucoid ob- 
tained from the c. 

Oor'ue^. Of or pertaining to the cornea; 
as C. opacity. 

ComBma(kawr-nee-ey'tis,.ee'tiB). [Oantea 
+ -itU.] See EenUitU. 

OornM-iolera (kawr"nee-oh-sklee'rah ). 
The cornea and sclera together considered as 

Oomeona (ka«r"nee-us). tL. cor'nnu, fr. 
cornu, horn.] Homy. O. Iftyar of the skin 
(Slra'tnm cor'neuni), the outermost layer of 
the epidermis. 

Cornlcnlnm (kawr-nik'yu-lum). [L. dim. 
of comu.'i A little horn. C. laiTIi gll, the 
cartilage of Santorini ; a cartilaginous nodule 
surmounting the arytenoid cnrtilage. 

CornUy(kBwr'nee-fey]. [L. eornii, horn, -f- 
Jactrt, to make.] To transform into homy 
tissue. ComUlca'tlon, the act of coraifying, 
or slate of t>eing coroified. 

Com-italk dlBOMe. A disease of cattle due 
to a Bacillus apparently identical with Bacil- 
lus leie; marked by violent enteritis leading 
to septicemia, or by broncho- pneumonia. 


Oor'ntl. Gen. eoi'nua, eoi'na. [L.] 1. 
A horn. 0. cDta'oenin, 0. Imnui'itnm, a 
homy eicresoence growing from the akin, 
especially of the face. C. oarrl, sCag's-hom, 
hart's-hom, used as a source of ammonia. 3. 
A hom-shaped prmection. The principal 
comua are (1 ) the Greater and Lesser comua 
of the Uyold bone; (2) the Comoa of the 

cocoyian^"^ ,».....=... 

Inferior c( 

terior. Middle, and Posterior 'comua 
irv cavities) of the lateral yentilele, 

die one (Descending c.) containing tb*' 

C. Ammo'nis or hippocampus; and (6) th 

OornnAl (kawr'new-al). Of or pertaining 
to the comna of ttie cord ; aa C. myeli'tii ( = 
poliomyelitis anterior). 

C. flor'ida is used as a bitter U 
tringent in gastric disorders and malarial fever. 
Dose, 15 gr. (gm. 1) ; of Extraif lume.fiu' idum, 
13 (gni.4). 

Cornntina (kawr-new'teen). [Secaleromu- 
(iim — horned rye, i. e., ergot.] An alkaloid 
derived from ergot. C. cltrato is used in 
uterine hsemorrhage and atony and in sperma- 
torrhiBtt; dose, gr. AHV (gm- 0.003-fl.0O6). 

Corona (koh-roh'nah). [L.] Aorown. 0. 
glandls, the rounded projecting border of the 
glans penis. C. TwUa'ta, the fibres radiating 
npwara from the crus cerebri and the ganglia 
of the base of the brain to the cortex. C. 
Ven'srli, an emotion appearing in the form 
of a circle upon Uie forehead in syphilis. 

Cor'onal. [L. rwma'K*.] 1. Crown- 
shaped; crowning or capping a part; as C. 
nitvre, the suture between the frontal and the 
parietal bones. 3. Of or pertaining Co the 
corona radiata or to the crown ofa tooth. 

Coronary (kor'oh-ner-ee). VL. corona' riut, 
fr, forano.l Encircling ; as C. ortorlM (en- 
circling the heart and the lips). 0. liga- 
ments (of the liver and knee-joint). 9. Of, 
pertaiDing to, or in relation with the C. ar- 
teries; as C. plezniei (of liie sympathetic). 
0. ilnuB, a channel which returns the blocKl 
from the substance of the heart to the right 
auricle. It is guarded by the 0. valTe, and 
has emptying into it the 0. Toln. 

Cor'onet. The upper part of a horse's hoof 
at its junction with the skin. 

Coionold(kor'oh-noyd). [L. corono, crown, 
+ -oid.'] Crown-shaped; as the Cpriicroofihe 
interior maxillary none and the nlna. 0. 
fOMa, the depiession in the humerus into 
which the C, process of the nlna is received. 

Cor'pns. PI. cor'pora. [L.l See Body. 
The term is used for body in all its senses; 
e. g., C. uteri, body of the utems; Pedic'nlus 
cor'poria, body-louse; C. aUe'nnm, foreign 
body. The chief analomical parts to which 
it is applied are; O. al'blcmiu,, one of two 


■null pTotubenuic«8 nf white mnlter situated 
in front of the anterior perforated space at 
the base of the braio ; Oor'pora (unylA'sea 

(ks uiider_ Amf/loftoiu) ; C. Irui'tU (see 

mas! of vhite substance lying nt the bottom 
of the loD^ludinal firaure. onti composed of 
transverse fibres connecting the two hemi- 
spheres of the braiu ; 0. caTemo'snm (oUtor'' 

iSla, 1 

e of t' 

. rad-libe i 

B of 

ereotilc tissue which together form the clito- 
ris one] the upper part of the penis; C. cllla'- 
M, the ciliary body ( =ciliai7 processes + 
ciliary muKle) ; 0. denta'tmn, 0. aentlcnli'- 
tum, a lamina of eray matter in the white 
matter of the c«rebelluro ; C. denbi'tum oll'- 
▼a, an ovoid lamina of frray matter in the 
alivnry body ; 0. Bmbrla'tnm. a tflangiilar 
DlMsof white matter in the middle comu of 
the lateral ventricle, repreaentinK the edjie of 
the pm^erior pillar of the fornix ; 0. genlc- 
■la,'tnm (axtw'Biun and InUr'Bnm), one of 
two muses of gray matter lying, respectively, 
on the ontaide and inside of the optic thala- 
iDus: O. hishmorla'iiam. the vertical septum 
<niedL«8tionm) of the testis; C. In'tenm, a 
yellow body formed in the ovary at the site of 
a Graafian follicle which has discharged its 
ovnm. If im pronation has taken place, the 
c. lalenm enlarges and losla for ten months 
(C. tttitaTii of preaaaiuiy, Tnie e. luteum); 
otherwise it soon detrenerates and disappears 
within two months (C. luletim of mmilrua- 
lion. Falte c. ;<ti<um); 0. Luy'ail, the c. Hub- 
thalamicum ; C. Ollva'n, see Olivary body; 0. 
plnMi'le, the pineal body; 0. pyramldale, the 
pjiamid of the medulla; C. qnadztgBm'lntun, 
either one nf four eminences of gray matter 
separated by a crucial depression, situated be- 
hini) the third ventricle ; C. rssttfor'ms. see 
Jtatiforia body; 0. rbomboldft'le, the c. 
dentatumaf the cerebellum ; 0. sponglo'siim, 
the rod-shaped muss of erectile tissue occupy- 
ing the lower part of the penis and lodging 
the urethra: 0. rtria'tnni, a mass of gmy 
matter on the flofir of the lateral ventricle, 
consisting of an intraventricular portion (can- 
daU nueUat) separated by a band of white 
fibres (the ■inttrnal captvl') from the extni- 
ventricnlar portion {tenticalar nutleiie), 
which it'«elf is separated from the cortex 
(island of Reil) by the external capsule ; 0. 
aulrtli ■! am 'Icwn, a nucleus of gray matter in 
the te<;meDtDm of the crus cerebri ; 0. trtipa- 
Mld'anm, see Trapetian (2); 0. trltto'enm, 
a small cartilage on the hind edge of the 
lateral thyroid ligament; 0. vlt'ienm, the 
vitreous humor (see l^itrtout) ; C. woUDft'- 
nnm, the Wolffian body (see Wolffian). 

Corpniele(kawr'piui'l). [L.a)rpu^culum= 
dim.ofcorpuf.] A little body ; aparticle; an 
anatomical element. The name is applied to ; 
1. Freely moving cells, usuollv suspended ina 
liquid, including the An£ bfood-c^a (sec Slood); 
the Whilr blofid-c't. Lymph c'l. Saliwiry c't, 
Muco'i* c't. and Pai c'a. varieties of leuco- 
cytes found ID the Ivmph, salivary secretion, 
mucus, and pus; Lymphoid c'l, wandering 

probably pi 
especially i 

in the millt-serum, form milk ; CoMtrum-c'i 
[C'a of Donnf:), granular cells found in colos- 
trum. 3. The llzed, spiudle-shaped and 
branching varietiea of con nee tive-l issue cells, 
as those fbund in ordinary conncctiTe-tissue 
{ConnKlive-Haae c't), in bone (Bont-c't), ce- 
ment (Ctmeiit-c'i), cartilage [CaTtilast^'t), 
tlic comes {CWneal e't), muscles [MutcU-c't). 
tendons (7(mdo»-t'i),etc. 3. Bodies eonnectai 

with tbetennlnalexpuiiioiuof Uieseiuory 
nerTM, as: Pacin'ian c'l (C't of Vaier), 
ovoid, laminated bodies surrounding the ter- 
mination of certain nerves in the skin and 
mesentery and corpora cavernosa ; Tactile c't 
(Touch-cU. C'of Meismrr. C'tof Wagner), 
rounded aggregations of connective tissue cells 

>/ Kroute; Tn»lt-c'», the taste-buds or flask- 
shaped bodies found in the tongue. 4. Various 
■moUibafply-deBiiedtMdlM, as^n'u/otdc'j, 
Amyln' ceoiLt c't(fieeAtaytateofit); Sfalpighian 
c't of the kidney, Malpighian c's of the spleen 
(Splenic c't), see Kidney and Spleen, 

ttorpnscntax ( kawr-pus' kew-lar ) . PertuU' 
ing to or consisting of corpuscles or a cor- 
puscle ; as C. elements. 

jent). IL. corr' igeru.] An ingredient added 
to a prescription to moderate or counteract the 
disagreeable action of the principal ingredient. 

CoiT'lKUi'i pnlie. [Sir D. Com'gan, who 
first described it.] Bee Palie. 

s for inspection 

which cat awaj' the n 
ing only the impor*- 
( C . -preparatlOBS ] . 

OoTTOalve (kor-roh'siv). [L. eorroil'vui,] 
Producing corrosion ; asaC. poison. O.snb'- 
Unutta, mercuric chloride. 

OormgatOT (kor"roo-gay'tur). [L. = mm, 
together, I rvgare, to wnnkle.] A muscle 
which wrinkles; as the C. tvpercien, the 
muscle which wrinkles the eyebrow. 

Cor'sloui hTsr. A varictv of malarial fever 
occurring in the lowlands of Corsica, 

Cortex. PI. cot'tices. [L.] 1. The bark 
of a tree ; the rind of a fruit. C. anlifehrfli; 
cinchona- bark. a. The outer layers of an or- 
gan, especially when distinct in structure from 

--.,- - K MI, ut uliKiimmiH 

from the cortex, especially of the brain ; as C. 
centres, C. fibres. C. epltept// ( = .locksonian 
epilepsy). 0. oatafoct, opacity of the cortex 
of the crystalline lens. ^ - i 



Oortlao-pedtmaiilu ( kawi"lee-koh-pep- 
duDgk'fu-lnr). Of, pertainiaic to, coanect- 
ing. or origioating in the cortvi of Ihe brain 
and the t'erebral palunclcB. 

CoTtlco-ipliua (kawr"t<?e'knh-spe;'i»l). 
1. PpHaiDiag to or connecting the fortex of 
the brain nnil the Bpiiml cord ; as C.-t.fibrt*. 
S. Of or afTvcIiag tlie C.-s. fibrvs; as C.-t. type 
of paralyHiH. 

Oortl'i trcb, OoTtl's o&n&l, Cortl'i coda, 
etc. (kawr'tcei). See /Jo r. 


0. oonUisloiA aqno'mm, see Slrangttt. 0. 
<ad«mataia, n wrous minetiuies mieralnr; iu- 
filtration of tlie iDfcnorond middle turbinate*. 

Oa*in«tle (koi-mct'ik). [Gr. toinifhiiM, fr. 
Jb<Mnto(, adorn lufnt.] Btsutifying ; embellish- 
ing; a substauce ukiI for beautifying the 
complexion. 0. oparAtlon, an operation dune 
aolely for improving the nppenranee. 

OoanoUn (knz'iuob-lin), OoimollnB (knz'- 
moh-Ieen). [(Wm-elic I- oZ-eum.) A traile 
name for vaoclin. 

Oof'ta. [L.] Rib. 

Cm'tftl. [I.. eMlnHt. tr. coMa, rib.] Of or 
pertaining tu the ribs ; as C. cartilages. 

CMtlfBTOiu. [L. coila + frrrt. to carry.] 
Carrying or bearing riljB ; aa C. verlcbrre. 

Oortlvfl(kawB'iiv). [L.foiM(ij)drf, to crowd 
together.] Const i pa ted. 

CMtlTNieii (kaws'liT-nis). Canatipation. 

OOitO- (kos'tiih-, kawB'loh-). [L. carta, 
rib.] or or pertuininir to the rilw. Ootto- 
anil llii'ircartilaees; as C.-e. joint. Costo-elk- 
Tlc'uUr. of or Moqioiik to the clavicle and 
ribs; UH C.'C. joint. CostO-OOl'lO, eonnecling 
theriliBand colon, as C.-c. ligament. Coito- 
eor'acold, liclonging to tlie nl>.i and coracoid 
process ; as C.hs. fascia, Ca*ti>-liife'rlor, per- 
taining to or performeil by tlic! lower ribs ; aa 
C.-i, respimtinn. Ooito-iter'aal, belonglngto 
ribs and etemDm ; aa C.-s. joint. Ooito-in- 
pe'rlor, pertaining to or perfornicd by [he 
upperrib»; on C.-a. respiration. Coi'toMme, 
a knife for dividing (be costal eartilnges in 
autojKties. Coito-truis'ver(«. pertuinmg to 
the ribs and tranarerae processes of the verte- 
iitx] as C.-t. joinla. OoBtci-TM'Mbral, per- 
taining to the ribs and vertebne; as C.-v. 
joinlH. Ooito-xl'phold, connecting the ribs 
and xiphoid cartilage ; as C.-x. ligament. 

{ram npiuiii. 0. hydToelilorld*, stjpticin. 

OMo (koh'tnb). Ooto-bftTk. An acrid, aro- 
matic liark derived from a Bolivian tree. It 

contains a nnngent crystalline principle, Co'- 
toln, CnllisO*. and is used in coinquative 
diarrhteu and nweiita. Dose of Krlnitrlam e, 
fiaHiUm, 3-lo "l [gni. O.aH.OO). 

Cott'lnK'B operation. An operation for in- 
growing toe-nail, consisting in a slicing ofiTof 


tbe side of the toe down to and including the 
ingrown edge of the uall. 

Oon'on. [L. ffOM^/'' turn.] The hair of the 
seedsof different species of Gossjuium, a genu* 
of herbs and shrubs of the Malvaeea; : also 
c*lled Collflu-wool (Lana gossyp'ii). C. de- 
prived of fat and thus rendered capable of ab- 
sorbing water ia AbsortMnt c. (fiosayp'ium 
purifica'tura, U. S., B. P. [G. depura^tum, 
Jj. P.]). C. IS used as a protective dresaine for 
burns, scalds, hlistcn and other lesions of the 
skin, and aa an aseptic and compressive dren- 
Ing for operation wounds of all kinds. Ab- 
sorbent c. IS also used to soak up dischRrgea, 
and aa a vehicle for the local application of 
medicinal aKenls; hence useii fortamponsand 
to arm applicators with, and as a substitute 
for sponncfi. C. may also be permanently im- 
pregnatal with vanoua medicinal agents, u 
salicylic acid (Sftli'eyUMd c), boric acid 
(WrAtoa e.}, loitoform (lod'ofdnn c.}, and 
iron or iron and alum (Hnmo'abtUc C). 
Qim-c., Collodlon-c, see Pyrorylin. 

Cottonrootbark. [L.poMJrp'i'irorfi'CTjeor- ■ 
(fj-, U. S.) The bark of the root of various 
species of Gossypium. Oxytocic, and uacd in 
nmenorrhixa and d^smcnon-ha'a. Dose of 
E.clrac'litm goayp'i\ TodVcit fiu'iduta, U. S., 

. -A oil ex- 
species of 
Gossypium ; used aa H baaia for liniments. 

Cotton wool. See Cotton. 

OotmxnJuB' nerve (tob-tew' 
erty. D. C'ol>tg«o, an Italian anatomist of eigh- 
teenth century.] The naso-polatine nerve. 

Cotyledon(kot"ee-lee'don). IGr.kotulidZn, 
a cup-like depression.] One of the projections 
formed oftheenlnr^f villi of the fetal portion 

!■ JPpg; 

of the placenta which dip into the cavities of 
the maternal placenta. 

Ootylold (kot'ee-loyd). [Gr. kotuli, a hoi- 
low vessel, 4- -m'i.l 1. Cup-shaped. C.VKritj, 

fits. 3. Of, pertaining to, or in relation 
with the c. cavity. C. notch, a notch on the 
inner side of the c. cavity, converted into a 
foramen (C. foTk'men) by the transverse li^ 
ment. 0. Ugament, the fibro-cartilage encir- 
cling the acetabulum. 

Concli-BrKaa. Triticum. 

Conchlng, An operation for cataracL per- 
formed by introducing a needle through the 
sclera into the lens and luxaUng the latter into 
theboltomof the vitreous. 

Oonglilkawf). A forcible, explodveeipttl- 
sion of air through the glottis. It is caused 
eilher by direct Irritation, oa by the inhalation 
of irritant powders or vapors, or the presence 
of foreign Wii'S, mucus, etc., in the air-paa- 
sages; or by reflex irritation (Etflazo.) start- 

{Eare., Slomackc, Tooth c); and in any caseia 
set up by impulses conveyed from a centre (0.- 


cantn) in thp medulU. C. m^ be associated 
witli free discharge of mucas (Molrt o.),or be 
Dry. Winter a. , chronic bronchilis associaled 
vitb c, imd revurriDg every winter. 

Coulomb (koo-lomb'). [C, aF-iihysicist.] 
A wel>er; the quantity of electricity trana- 
niUeil in one second by an electro-molive force 
of one volt aj^iost a resistance of one ohm. It 
prodacesacurrent of one ampere. 

CoonuLTln (koo'mar-inl. The crystalline, 
odorifenms principle, CtHtOi, of Toukn beans, 
oielilatiis, and otiier plants. 

Conn'ter. [L. contra, against.] Against, 
■I against, opposite. '" * .—/-.— 

.: ,. :_ oppogj 

J the foro 

the points to which the two opposing fore 
are applied. ConiLtor-irr'ltUit, an agent fi 
perform iiig CDUuMr-lrrlta'tlon, or irriutic 

fje ""' "" ""'" 

other spot liavinK ti 

munication with the . . . 

or wet cups, nibe&icieiits (mustard, pepper, 
iodine, silver nitrate, tur^ntiue), epispaatics 
(canthnrides), or escharotics (caustics, actual 
cautery, moxa), according to the intensity of 
the etiect desired ' useful in colic, neuralgia, 
headache, nieningitin, pleurisy, peritonitis, 
arthritis, and synovitis. Coniiter-opeiiliig, 
an opening mode opposite another, e. g., to 
farilit^itc the drainage of a woundM^avity. 
Conn'tOT-piUie'ttiTe, a puncture made op- 
posite another, as the wound of exit made by a 
knife in transfixing a part. Ootmter-ataln, 
a pigment used lo stain portions of a specimen 
left unstained by another pigment used at the 
•ame time. 

OonpdaaolaU (kood'ao-lay'). [F.] Sua- 
stroke; insolation. 
Counei. See Menta. 
Conrt-pluter. Taffeta spread with a solu- 
tion of isinglass; use<l as an adhesive plaster 
for holding dressings in place and covering 
small wounds. 
CoasMt. See Caao. 

Oorer-glMi. A little slip of the very thi 
glass used iu covering microscopic preparations 
moualeil on a slide. 
Covbase (kow'htg). See MtKwna. 
Cowperltls (kow-pur-ey'tiH,-ee'tiB). [-1(1*.] 
InflamuiQtion of Cowper's glands. 

Cowper'* glands. {Coirper. English anat- 
omist of sevenlccnth century.] Two glands 
situated beneath the membranous urethra *-* 

tween (he layers of the deep perineal fascia 

and opening by separa'-" '-- "-'■■■"—-■ 

portion of Uie urethra 

le bulbous 

Cow-pox. Vaccinia. 

Cos'a. [L.l Hip. C. Tar*, deformily in 
which the neck of the femur is bowed outward. 

Coxalsla (knk-sal'jah). CoHtU (kok-sey'- 
tls, kok-sce'tis). [L. coxa, hip. + -atgia or 
-iW«.] Literally, hip-pain or hip-inflamma- 
tioQ; hip disease (q. v-V 


Coxo-fsm'oial joint, [L. coxa, hip, + ft- 
mur, thigh.] The bip-joiiil. 

0. P. An abbreviation for chemically pure. 

Cr. Symbol for chromium, 

Crab-lonse. The variety of louse (Phthi- 
rius inguiiialis) infesting the pubic region. 

Crab's -eyes. Crab- stones. Calcareous con- 
cretions eonlained in the stomach of the craw- 
fish ; formerly used internally. 

Cracked-motal rssonance, Oraokod-pot 
■onBd. See Raonance. 

Cradle (kray'dnl). A (tame for supporting 
the bed-clothcB and thus preventing them from 
coming inio contact with the body. 

Craft palsy. Paralysis arising from condi- 
tions incident to the patient's occupation. 

Cramp. A painful, convulsive contraction 
of a muscle ; a spasm ; also a disease marked 
by spasm of the voluntary muscles. Co-ordi- 
nate c'8, see Compultory movement: mtor- 
mlttaut c tetany. Professional c, pain- 
ful spasm of the muscles of the hand, forearm, 

c, Pianitt'i c, ViolinUfi c, 'Telegrapher'* c. 

Cramp-bark. See Vifnimum. 

Ciane's-blU. See Geraniam. 

Cranial (kray'uee-al). 1. Of, pertaining 
to, or contained in the cranium; as C. bones, 
C. nerves. C. fracture. C. reJIei. a reflex 
(e g the pupillary reflex), the afferent and 
elTcrent paths of which are along Uic c. nerves. 
a. Adjoining or in relation with the cranium 
or its cavity; as C. wall (roof) of the tym- 

Craniectomy (l!ray"nee-ek'tflh-mee). JPrfi- 
nittiB + -ecUmy^ The excisionof a portion of 
the sknll. C. with the excision oT a long, 
narrow strip of bone (Linear e., Linear cra- 
niotomy] is done in cases of a premature osMfi- 
cation of sutures that produces arrest of de- 
velopment, niierocephalua, and idiocy. 

Cranio- [kray'nee-oh-). [Gr, kraniim, 
skull.] A prefix meaning of or pertaining to 
a skull. Cranlo-an'ral, of or pertaining to 
the cranium and ear, or to conditions of the 
cranial cavity originating in the ear ; ss C.-a. 
surgery. Cranio -cerebral {■ser'ce-bral), of or 
pertaining to the skull and cerebrum. Cra'- 
nloclast [Or. klaein. to break in nieces], an 
instrument for performing Cra'nloclastr, 
i. e., for crushing the fetal head ; especially, 
a crushing foreeps, one blade of which ia 
intiwiiiced within the skull. Cranlology 
(-ol'ob-jee), the branch of anatomy describing 
skulls. Oranlom'eter, an apparatus for per- 
forming Craniom'etry. or the measurement 
of the dimensions and figure of the skull. 
Cranlop'agtiB [Gr. pfgnunai, to fasfenl, 
cephalopagus. (JranlOBCMsls -os'krs-is) [Gr. 
ickitii, a splitting], congeniUl fissure of 
the skull cither alone or combined with 
fissure of the spine (CranlorrliacMB'oliisla). 

■ ^-- ' -iiy'beez) [M6«], defective os- 

ikull, produciiw; shinning, in 
■ XiOOglC 


■pota; due to rickets or syphilis. CruLlot'- 
Omy, incisioD into the cranium : especiitlty, the 
operation of openins the Tetal head and diain- 
tcKrating the brain U> Ikcilitate delivery. 
Linear craniotomy, craniectomy. Cranio- 
trmpui'le, of, pertAiniDg to, or by way of the 
dLull and tympaDum ; as C-t. conduction of 

OnuUnni (kra/j 
nUm.] aeiSiuil. 

■ [L., fr. cnunu, thick.] 

a species of Pilaria. 

OrMUn of MrUr. PotaBaium bitartnte. 

Or«uot« (krw'a-solit). See Crauote. 

Ore»tlne (kree'n-teen). [Gr. kreaa, flesh, 
+ -in*.] A colorless, crynta)line base, CtHt- 
HiOifUiO, found in muscle-Juice. 

OEsatiiilne (kree-at'ee-neen). [Gr, kreai, 
flesh, + -in + -I'Tie.] A crystalline base, C.Ht- 
NiO, fnrnied bf the dehydration of creatine. 
Several isomeric varieties are known, one oo- 
carrinn in musctc-juice and another in urine. 

Orwl*'BmeUiOd(kr»y'davi). [Credf. G.nb- 
■tetriciau.] 1. The method of delivenns the 

Slacenta by expression, i, e., by snueeiinit the 
mdua uteri with the hnuds. 3. The method 
of preventing ophthalmia neonatomm by dis- 
infection of the vagina during p'lrtiirition and 
the instillation ofaSpt^rcent. solution of silver 
nitrate into the infont's eyes immediately afler 

OMdi's ointment, Ciedt'a iUtot. See 

Cromas'ter. PI. cremaste'res. [Gr. kre- 
tnaeiii, to suspend.] A muscle serving to re- 
tract the testis. It consists uf a scries of loops 
ooverine the spermutic cord and united by 
connective tissue into a layer (Cremaitor'lc 
flucU). It is really compomd of fibres de- 
tached trnm the internal ol)lique musde and 
carried down in the descent of the testis. 

Oromaaterlo (kree-mss-ter'ik). Of or per- 
tainintc to the cremasler: as C, fascia (see 
Crenuuter)^ C. artery. C. nllei, retraction 
of the testicle produced by i^imolating the 
■kin on the inner side of the thigh. 

Oramor tart&rl (kree'mawr tahr'tar-ey). 
Potassium bitartrate. 

Cren'othriz. [L. ^ Gr. iriae, spring, + 
Ihrij:, hair.] A genus of Sehizamycetes, the 
mem bers of which are coiuposed of cocci which 
are enveloped in zodglixa and develop into 


unbranched Glaments with distinct sheath, 
which afterward split into large cocci or goni- 
dia. C. poly^pora, found in aqueducts often 
in great quantities, gives water a bad taste. 

CrMlln Ikree'oh-lin). A B;;rup^ black 
liquid produced bj the dry distillation of a 
variety of anthracite coal, and containing & 
number of compounds of the aromatic series. 
A powerful antiseptic, used for surgical dress- 
ings and for vaginal injections in [tBJ-turition ; 
in 0.5 to 2.0 per cent, solution in otorrha>a, 
pharyngitis, rhinitis, keratitis, blepharitis, 
and cystitis; and internally in gastric and 
intestinal disorders attended vith fermenta- 
tive changes ; dose. 5-15 "I (gat. 0.30-1.00). 

Oreoaol (kree'oh-sol). 1. A compound, 
C^ioOi, oocurnof; in creosote. I. Anutrin- 
gent powder consisting of tannic acid mixed 
with the phenols of creosote. Recommended 
locally and inleroally in laryngitis. 

B. P., trtSiotant, G. P.] A colorless, oily 
liquid, of peculiar odor and burning taste, pro- 
duced by the distillation of wood-tar, C. con- 
sists of Ctb'oioI, aHioOi. gnaiacol, CtHbOi, 
phlorolj CkHioO, and other compounds of the 
aromatic series. It boils between 200° and 
220° C, A powerful irritant,^ coagulating al- 
bumin ; in large doses an irritant poison. 
Used as a caustic application to vaiia and 
condylomata; a stimulant lo unhealthy and 
fetid ulcers ; an analKceic application in tooth- 
ache and for bums and ebinilnins ; by inhala- 
tion in bronchitis and pulmonary tubercu- 
losis ' internally to arrest vomiting; and in- 
ternally and hypodermically in tuberculosis. 
Dose, I-IU Tl (gm, O.0B-0.U.5), Preparations : 
Agua creoioli,V.S.,i}oae, 1-4 3 (Kni.4-15); 
Sltitu'ra creoioti, B. P., 1 J (gm. 30); Pilala: 
krtototi, G. P. (each containing 0,% gm.); 
[7uffunt'(am crtototi, B. P. 0. urbonkta 
(Creosotal), a syrupy liquid formed by com- 
bining c. with carbonic acid ; used like c. and 
milder in action. Dose, 1-3 3 (gm. 4-12) per 
diem. 0. pliospliate (Phosphotal) and 0. 
tannatfl (Tanosal) are also used like c. Ooal- 
tar e,, impure carbolic acid; often substi- 
tuted for true c. 

Ctap'itant. JL. crm'itdm.) Crackling; 
as C, rdlf (sec Xdlu, Table of). 

Crapltatlon [ k rep" ee-tay' shun). A crack- 
ling ; a crackling sound ; the sound of crepi- 
tus and of the crepitant r&le. 

Crep'ltna. [L.] Crackling orcrepitatlon ; 
the sound produced b^ one or more crepitant 
rS-les; also the grating sensation, with or 
without a crackling sound, produced by rub- 
bing two rough surfaces together, as the frag- 
ments in a fracture (Bony 0.) or the rougli 
mosses of exudate in the sheath of a tendon. 
Falae o., Joint c. tlie grating sensation im- 

Sarted by the roughenefl or dry synovial sur- 
ices of joints. 0. r«diiz, c. due to the re- 


0rMttol(kree'8B-]o]). iCre^ol + Mnlal.] A 
oompDund of creul and Mlic][1ic acid, used 
like salol aa an inteotinal aDUeeptic and in 
rheamatism. Dose, 15-30 gr. (gm. 1-2). 

OTMunllu (krec-sam'een). A mixture of 
equal parts of ethyiene-diamiae and trit^resol. 
A BtroQg, unirri luting antiBvptic. Used in 
form of 'J^ per cent. soTation, irfaich ii api^ied 
inEtren^hof 5-30:1000a9an antiKptic and 
1 : 1000 m eciema, dermatitis, sycosis, and 

OnsMiit (kn^cnl). [L. cracetu. grow- 
ing.] Anything shaped like the new moon. 
MalkTlkl e., see under Platiaodiiim malaria. 
Hyop'ie 0., aee Coiuu, 

OrssouLtli) (kree-aen'tik). Shaped like a 

Craaln (kree'sin). A brcwo liquid contAin- 
ing 25 per uent. of cre«ol and & of sodium 
ereaoiyl-acetale. Antiacjitic, used in solutions 
of i-1 percent, in operations and of 3 per cent, 
■a a spray. 

Oraaol (kree'aoi). A suhatanae, dnsO ~ 
C^U((CHi).OH, or methyl-phenol. Three iMi- 
meric varieties exist: Orlho-crftol and Para- 
eruol, cryatalline solids, and Mel'i-craol, a 
liquid. A liquid mixture of all three varietiea, 
occurrinfi iu coal-tar and crude carbolic ncid 
ii THcraol (Cre'aolum crudum, U. P.l, uB,-d 
asan&Dtiseptic. Liquor cri! loli tapona liii,G. 
P., a mixture of equal parts of tricresol and 
potash soap; Aqua crteol'ica.Q. P., a 5 per 
cent. solulioD of tricresol. C.-Auytol, a solu- 
tion of metacresol in any tin. used in erysipelas. 
C. blmratti, bismuth cresylate. 

OTMt. [L. crista.} A pmjecting rid^, 
wpecially one surmouuting a l>'ine or forming 
its principal border; as ProiLUIa.,anaQt4'ro- 

Cmor ridge on the inner surikce of (be 
talbone; Internal and Bzt«Tiud occipltfti 


internal and external occipital prutuhoranc 


Hftial c, formed by the junction of Iht ._ 
temal bnrdera of the nasal bones; Tnr'l>l- 
njtted c'* of the palate and superior maxillary 
bones; C. Of tha lUum and 0. of the pubet, 
lurmoDnting the ilium und pubes; Tlb'lal o.. 
the sharp anterior border of the tibia. 

of its hydroxy I- 
CtBayl'lC Add. Cresol. 
CraU (kree'tah). [L.] Clialk. See Ckl- 

Cretin (kree'tin). A person sufteriDg from 
Ore'tinlim, a disease of congenital origin 
characterized by premature ossificatinn of the 
bones, particularly those at the base of the 
sknil, and associated with dwarfing of the 
body, mental hebetude and imbecility, hroad- 
eoing and flattening of the face with enlarge- 
ment of lips and tongue, carious tepth, lordosis, 
and subnormal temperature. Eniii-mic in the 

Alps, where it ia associated with goitre ; tpor- 
adie elsewhere, being then due to congenital 
absence or functional incapacity of thyroid. 

In aporadic cases, thyroid feeding is efficacious. 

Cretmoid (kree'tee-noyd). [Cre(tn + -^fd.] 
Bnembling cretinism or its symptoms. 

OteUnoua (kree'tee-nus). Of or pertaining 
to a cretin ; of or affected with cieboiam. 

CrlVntte. £L. erihr&'lui, fr. eribmn, 
aicTc] Pitted with sieve-like depressions. 

Orlbnt'tlon. A pittinic or tendering crib- 
rate; theatate of beiDgcribrate. 

Grlb'rUarm. [L. crlbrifoj' mit - erilnm, 
sieve. +/oriaa, shapej Sieve-like; pitied 
with perforations ; aa C. plait of Che ethmoid ; 
C. faicia (covering the saphenous opening). 

IMco-aiyt«iiotd (krey"koh-a-rit'ee-noyd). 
Pertaining to or connecting the cricoid and cartiiagea ; as C.-a. ligainnil. C.-O. 
niuet't (Cilco-kr7t»iiold'eu« later»'lia, et 

raid c: 
C-t. n 
Crlniun (krey'num). [L.] A genus of 

plants of the Amarvllidaceir. The bulbous 
root (rrini radix) of C. asiat'icum of ladia la 
used like aquill. 

OriaiS (krey'ais). PI. crises. [Gr. kHiii, 
fr. trineiH, to separate.] 1. A sudden and 
deciiled allemtiou in the course of a disease, 
whether for better or for worse; especially, 
such a change when markiuE Che abrupt ter- 
mination of a disease ; as the C. of pnenmonia 
or nf typhus fever. Vf. Lyiii. 3. A paroxys- 
mal, usually very painful, disturliance of the 

of diarrbom ([nUitinal c, 
nrlum {It'tlat t.). bladder ( Ve^it^l s.), and 
un-thra [Uriflhral e.). or along the ureter 
(JVepArorgirr.j.-attacka of sexual excitement 
in women (CIH'oHtc.) ; paroxysmal laryngeal 
spasm { Ijirtfji' gial c.) or coughing and dys- 

rntea (Bron'ehial c); attacks of palpi. . 
Cardiace.); attacks of apoplexy, hemiplegia, 
orconvulsionB {Cer'ttrrat'c). 

Orii'ta. [[..] See Creit. 0. un'itlea. a 
ridge on (he inner side of each ampulla nf the 
membranous aemicirculur canals of the ear, 
covered with auditory cells. C. lUaUor'mlB, a 
horizontal ridge separating the macula cribmaa 
superior above from the macula cribrosa media 
and inferior below. C. Kalll, the triangular 
vertical riilge rising from the cribriform plate 
of Hie ethninid hone. 0. hal'id*, the ridge 
just above the external auditory meatus, roark- 
init Ibo beginning nf the helix. C. U'tt, crest 
if the ilium. 0. UgUMntl ■plrm'lit, a t^dge 

n (he s( 



the ligankentum spinite. C. publi, crest of the 
pub«B. C. RalBB'oarl, o ridge in the pi-lvis nt 

the Teneatra rotunda, forming tlie out«r bound- 
ary of tlie recesauB ank'rior. 0. apln&'nmi, 
0. tympao'lOA, riilgee upon the anterior arm 
of the annul nH tympanicun, the former a1>ove, 
the latter btjlow. the spinaanterior. O.iplra'- 
lll, a ridRC-tilce BweiUnK of periosteum on the 
superior surfaeenf the lamina spiralis ossea. 
0. tes'ininl* tym'panl, a ridge running along 
the roof of the tympnnum ; continned aa the 
0. togmlnlB maatold'sl, upon the roof of the 
mastoid nntrum. C. Ub'lM, cre«t of tibia. 
C. T«ltlb'nU, a riilin' on the floor of the vesti- 
bule, separating the reressua hemisphiericuB 
from the reeessus hcmiulliptieus. 

Ollt'lcal. Of or portaining to a crisin; in- 
dicative of a sudden and decided change in the 
course of a diueafv ; as C. sweats. 

CToaUns oentre. A eenire in the brain 
of a frog which causes hioi to croak when 

Oiocated (kroh'kay-tcd). [L. croca'tas, (r. 
crociu, BOtTron.] Conlainine saffron ; aa C. 
tincture of opium ( — wine ofopium). 

Orocii»(kroh'kus). [M See Saffron. 

Crookei' tnbai. [William Crookrs, Eag. 
physicist.] Sec GdssUr'i tabt». 

Croiiad. [L. (rriHMu'fw*.] Decnsiiating ; 
situBti?<J partly on one side and partly on 
another; of two Niuol prisms, so placed 
that light polarized by passing through one 
will not pass through the other; of a dia- 
easeJ slate, ossociutoil with a lesion or with 
evidenees of ilisvnse on the opposite side 
of the body. C. unblro'pU. impaired sight 
and concentric contraction of the visual field 
in one eye caused by a lesion of the cere- 
bral hemisphere of the other side; probably 
due to ilineusu atTectiiig the angular and sa- 
pramargiual convolutions. G. ftUBatlia'aU, 
aniEslliesia of one side of the face and of the 
opposite side of the body ; due to lesion in the 
upper part of the pons. C. dlpIo'plA, sec 
Diplopia. C. hemlple'gla, 0. parUyala, 
hemiplegia of one aide with paralysia of a 
cntniat nerve on the other, C. laoB, a lens 
having front and back surfaces of different 
-curvature. 0. r«fl«z, see K'fifx. 

OroiB-eye. See Sqainl. 

Crot'alUi. [CroUttat horridua, the rmttle- 
anake.) The poisonous proleid of rattlesnake 

ClOt'cbat. A hook mounted on a long 
shank ; inserted into llie head of the fetus atler 
perforation or into its boily after dcciipi 

withdraw either part (rom the 

Croton (kroh'ton). fien. crolo'nia. [L.] 
A genus of trees of the Kuphorbioccie. The 
bark of C. Klutc'ria is eascurilla. C. philip- 

En'ac is the Mallolus philippensis, furnishing 
mala. The seeda (C. seeds) of C. Tix'linm 
of India and the East Indies furnish a filed 
yellow or brownish oil, C. oil (tfleum tig'lii, 

*' " "■' .rntn'nis H P (i PI- anowpr- 


ful irritant, used locallyaaapustnlaUng coun- 
ter-irritant in meningitis, bronchitis, neural- 
gia, and rheumatism, and internally as adnis- 
tic, hydrsgogue cathartic in obstinate consti- 
pation from torpor of the bowels, lead eoltc. 
and nervous disturbances, and as B revulsive 
in uremic and apoplectic coma. Dose, 1 in. 
(gm.0.06). Preparation: £tiiim«n'(umcrato'- 

B. P. 

K under CJltoroi. 

C. (Falaa c), acute catarrhal laryngitis ._ 
children. Spaamod'lc c. laryn^smua sirid- 
■em'bruiaiia c., laryngitis, whether 

^athed by the patient ; 
Cronpoui (kroo'pus). [h. crUpff lu.'X Of 
or pertaining to croup; associated with the 
formation of a false membrane like that of 
membranous croup; as C. tonsillitis. Clnflam- 
matloUi inflammation whether diphtheria] or 
not, associated with the formation of a Buper- 
fieial, readily removable membrane. Cf. Dtph- 
ihtriiic. C. pnenmo'nla, acute lobar pneo- 

Oroupy (kroo'pee). Croup-like; havingthe 
characlcre of croup ; as a C. cough. 

Crown. [L.coru'oa.] 1. That part of the 
tooth projeeling above the gam. 3. The cii^ 
cular or conical, cutting part of a treTJiine. 

CnicUl [kroo'shee-al. kroo'shal). [L. era- 
eifftii. fr. crux, a erosa.] Cross-shapeil, ai a 
C. incision; intersecting in (hefurmofacrOM, 
OS C. ligaments (of the knee). 

Cmclftwin (kroo'see-fewrm). [L. eruetflir'- 
mii = entx, cross, + forma, shape.] Crwo- 
shaped ; formed of two lines inleraecting at 
right angles; as the C. (or tranaverae) liga- 
ment of the atlo-aioid joint. 

Cmde. [L. era' dim.] Saw; undigested; 
of ores or other mineral eompounda, unworked, 
not refined or purified. 

r (kro 

vr). PI. . 

[L.] A 


is,B. P., (i. P.); apower- 

blood-clot containing red blood-corpuaclea. 

OrnrMna (kroo-ree'us). tL.,fr.ern«, thigh.] 
SeeMiucla, Table of. 

Onatl. [L. frurd'tU, fr. cru».] 1. Of or 
in the leg (or, less properly, the thigh); oa C. 
muscles, C. nerve, C spasm. 0. tieh, Pon- 

Crt's ligament. Deap c. urch, a thickened 
nd of fibres arching over the front of the 
c. sheath. 0. OMWl, the femorel canal. C. 
■beaUi, the sheath of the C. (or li-moral) vei- 
aala. 3. Of or pertaining to the cms cerebri. 
Cnia. PI. cra'ra. [L.] 1, The leg from knee 
toankle. 3. Alcg; one ofa pairof diverging 
structures forming a real or apparent support 
to a part. C. oer'ebri (or simply C), one of 
a pair of cylindrical bands of fibres connect- 
ing the medulla and pons with the cerebiQin,, 


pero-sphenoid&l lobes, aud fibre 
"■ •*■" ~°.uclale nacleQB; aud of a dorsal par 
inal fibre 

.__ and fourth _., 

nucleUB, Bubslaolia nifsra. and ciirpuH sub- 
thai am icum). Omra of ths fomli, th« two 
pairs of arches rnrmed by the birurcatinit ood 
curved lUiterior and posterior entremiliea of 
the fornix. Omrmof tha dla[ibrairm, the two 
vertical tendinous and fleshy Btruetu res con- 
necting the lumhnr verti'bnc with the dia- 
phragm. Crnxa of UiB penis, Cni» of tha 
cIltartB, a pair of fibrous bands, each of which 
attaches one of the corporu cuvemosai t« the 
ramus of the pubes. 

Cmso-creatliilne ( kroa"soh-kree-at'ee- 
neen). [Qr. ehruto,, gol-i. + cr'aliuinf.: A 
leuoomaine, CsHsNtO, closely related to crea- 
tinine, and oblKined from musculur tissue in 
the form of golden-yellow crystals. 

Cmat. (L. crueta.'] An outer layer of any 
sort; especially, a solid mass produced by the 
thickening and drying of pathological ejiu- 
dut«H or secretions upon the skin. Ullk 0- 
(Cmsta lac' tea), seborrhica of the scalp orcur- 
ring in infants and due to eczema; also the 
eciema itself. 

Crat'ta. [L.] 1. A crust: as C. lac'tea 
(^milk crust). 0. petro'ia, the cement of a 
tooth. 3. The pea or anterior part of the crus 
cerebri. See under Cnu. 

Omteli paralyala. Paralysis, especially of 
the musculo-spiral nerve, due to the pressure 
of a cruteb in the axilla. 

CmTsUIilor'B pAialyalt (krue-vay-yayz). 
Progressive muscular atrophy, described by 
Cruveilhier, F. surgeon, in 1^3. 

CiT. A sudden loud, and nsuolly shrill, 
vocal sound. Bpllep'tlc c, the c. like the 
roar of a beast made by an epileptic at llie 
onset of a paroxysm. Hydioceplutl'lo c, u 
aintfle loud, involuntary c. uttered by pHticnts 
dunug the |ieriod of iuvasion of acute tuber- 
colons meningitis. 

OTT»aUi«Bla (krey"es-lhee'ihah). 

0rralge8lA(krey"al-iee'>:ee-ahl. [Gi.truai, 
cold, -I- nfiTO*. pain.] Pain produced by the 
application of cold- 

CrylUK eentie. A centre (lying in the 
rabbit between the optic thalaDiiin and corpus 
stnatnm), puncture of which causes the ani- 
mal to utter a peculiar cry. 

application of intense cold; especially, the 
application of solid carbon dioxide to the 
ipiKOStrium (0 stimulate the appetite in ' 

Oryohy'drate. [Qr. kruot, cold, + kt/draU.J 
K salt vhich contains water of crystoUiuition 
it very low temperatures only. 

Crypt (kriplj. [L. erypla, fr. Gr. truplein, 
o hide.] A hidden or covered recess ; a tub- 
liar depression upon ft miicona surface, as the 
v's of the tonsils. C's of Ueberkiihn, ihe 
limple fiillicles or tubular depressions of the 
small and large intestines. C'l of HorsAgnl. 
little pockets in the niucou.B surface of the 
rectum, sometimes the seat of disease and fis- 
tula. DMlUl C. see Dtntal. 

Crypto- (krip'toh). [Gr.irapfHn.tohide.] 
A preflx meaning hidden or obscure. Orypto- 
coplMlna (-sef a-lus) [Gr. ktphali, head], a 
mnnstrr in which the head is inconspicuous 
orcoiiceiiled. Crjrptococ'cni, a sort nf Micro- 
coccus. 3-4 mmm. in diameter and oroid or 
pointed, found in African farcy. Cryp- 
MK«uoni (-toj'ec-nus). of hidden or not ob- 
CrvploeenOHS luberculnsis. 

this deformity. OryptorcMdl-awr'kidl.Cryp- 
torchla (-nvrr'kis) [Gr. orchit, testicle], a 
man whose testicles are undescended Iconcealed 
in Uie abdomen). 

0ryrt»l(kri8'tal). iGr. trattallotjT.krttot, 
fl-nst.] A body having a regular, character- 
istic, and definiic geometricHl form wiiich is 
Ihe sponltineous outcome of the action of nal- 
nral ferces upon the substance. Rock-c. often 
called simply Cacolorless.lransparent variety 
of quartz, soiiietinies usi'd for spectacle ilasees. 
BIo«d o'«, Tolctunaim's o's, see Hamin. 

CryB'talliii. A variety of globulin derived 
from the crystalline lens. Two varieties, Al- 
pha-r. and Jietu-c., are known. 

Cryalamiia{krya'ta-leyn, kris'ta-Iin). [L. 
cryalalli'ntu.] Composed of or like crystals 
or crystal <rock-cryai»l). O- Humor, C. lona. 

Oryvtalllia'tlDii. The formation of crys- 
tals. Alcohol of c. Water ofo., one or more 
molecules of alcohol or of wat«r which, when 
associated with a molecule of a substance, 
cause the latter to assumea definite crystalline 

OTjB'taUold. [-oii.] 1. Resembling a 
crvstal. 3- A substance either cryslalline It- 
self or resembling a crystalline substance in 
(be rea<liiiess with which it undergoes dialysis. 

Ca. Symbol for desium. 

Cn. Symlwl for copper. 

Cabeb (kew'beb). [L. eHb?ba,V. 8.. 
cilbfba: friielii», B. P., ctihefttr, G. P.] The 
unripe fruitofCuhe'baofficiria'Iis (Piper Cu- 
lie'hn), a climbing shrub of the Piperacen; in- 
digenous to Java. C. contains a volatile r-" 

«/)euQi cuhe'bc, V. ».. B. P., O'leum mbeba'- 
ram conBininK of CBb«b'ai«, CaUu), 0. 
fmIb, theanuirphoaiCalMb'leuU, CulIiiOt. 
piperiDC, and the crfiiUlline OalMb'ln, Cm- 
Ili^>i. It in a local irrilaat and nJmDlant 

bcba'rum, O. P.), 5-30 "t (bid. 0.35-2.00); 
Eitrae'lum eutnha fia-'idum, U. S., 10-30 tn. 
(am. 0.5I>-2,00) ; Tiadu'ra cabtba, U. 8., B. 
P., 1 3 (gm. *); Troehi^d cabtlta, U. 8, (con- 
lainin^ gr. m ot oleoreflin}. one or more in 
chronic ph«ryngitij or laryDgitin. 

OoMto* (keir'bee-tiu]. [L.] The famrm. 

Onbald (kew'boyd), OabOldAl (kew-boy'- 
dal), [Ur. tuboj, cube, + -auj.] Shaped like 
■ cube. 0. bone, a bone on the outer aide of 
the tana* between the on calcis and the foarth 
and fifth metntaraal bone*. 

Oaoft(koo'kab). ikti Coca. 

Oncnllaila (kew-kewl-lay'ru). [^ cowl 
(mtuvle).] The Irapeziui. 

Oucwnber, •qnlrtmc. Bee ElaleriiiM. 

Onl-da-tae (kuelHl'aahk). [F.] A blind 
pouch ; a uc with the end closed. DotlsiM' 
O.-d-a., lee Douglat' Pouch. 

Oolax (kew'leka). PI. co'licen. A genas 
of Iniwcla, including Ihe mosquito (C. Mcn- 
qui'l«) and gnat (<'. pi'piens). 




OnlUTaUon. The act of nnltivating or of 
waking cultures (a» of bacteria). Fractional 
o., c. in which a Hinall portion of n culture, 
that eontaina a variHy of bacteria, in utilized 
for forminj^ a new culture, and a muall portion 
of thin aicain for fonning a new one. and so on 
until finally a pure culture is obtained. 

Onltnna (kul'tew-ral). Of, pertaining to, 
or by means of cultures. 

Onltnre (kul'tewr), [L. fuAu' coUrt. 
to cultivate.] Cultivation; the act or process 
of cultivatinif : sninething produced by culti- 
vation, especially a medium containing bac- 
teria whoDc conditions of growth have lieen 
artificially raodifieil. C'a may l>c made in 
lloiiids (bnitb. bouillon, a Holution of various 
■altfl) or on potato*-*, solidilied blood-serum, 
gelatin, glycerin-gt' latin, and agar. Gelatin 
and agar used for c'b can be spread out in a 
Ihin aheet bypourinit the medium while still 
liquid upon a gloiM plate (PUte o.), or by 
placing In a lest-tu lie which is rapidly revolved 
and at once cooled in ice (Boll c). In either 
case the bai-leria may be miited with the 
medium while liquid; or after Ihe medium 
has hardened may be sowed in ntrcaks, traced 
on theaurfaechythepoiut ofa needle (Streak 
o., Slant c, Smear c, Stirface e.) ; or lie de- 
veloped alouft a furrow miide by plunging a 
needle obliquely into the medium (Needle o., 

'SO- Coodaimogo. 

(kew'nee-et). [L. eatfa^ttu, fr. 

cuneiu, weilge.l Wedge-ahaped. C. Cueie'- 
nlna, C. ItaUc'BlBB, see Fatcicultu, F»»ie- 
aitu. C. lab*, the caneoi. C- aa'cLena, tbe 
c. fancicnlus in the upper part of iti course, in 
which it poosista largely of gi*y matter. 

CvBeUorm (kev'nee-i-Eiwrm). [L. ckiwi- 
for'inU = citneiu i forma, shape.] Wedge- 
shaped ; as C boiut (of tbe carpus and tarsus) , 
C. cariilage, tbe elongated cartilage lying 
alondde the aryteno-epiglottideao fotii. 

OouMt-ctibald (kew"Dee-oh- kew'boyd). 
Connecting the cnneilbrm and eaboid bonca; 
as C.-c. ligaments. 

Ounen* (keWnee-Ds). (I^- wedge.] Tlie 
wcdge^haped lobule on Ibe meaial aspect of 
the brain, between the calcsrine and p*rato- 
occipil*l fiMORa. 

OmilOBliu (kew-nik'jn-lna). [L. — hole.] 
The burrow made by the female ilch-mile in 

Ow. 1. A drinking-Tonel ; in mediclue, 
a veasetof glaasor nibber in which the air can 

c_j ,..:.! — , — .1 '-cation of heat 

c. after com- 
„. ._ applied to the 

an aspirating effect upon tbe 
subjacent parts, which are thus dra — '"'" 

b:r the c. the latter is calleil a Vet C-; other- 
wise it is a Dry c. Wet c'b are uEwd to with- 
draw small amonnts of blond ; Dry c'b, to pro- 
duce local derivation, particularly in inflam. 
matiun, conj^'Stion, and cedema of the tlioracie 
and aMomiual viscera. 3. Any cup-ahaped 
organ, Oa'ular o., Ihe flaBk-shaped organ 
in tbe embryo, which develops into Ihe eye 
Pbyalolog'lMl c, the deprca^on occurring 
physiologically in the optic disc, S, Toapply 
c'b to ; OS to C. tbe chest. 

Onpola (kew'poh-lah), [lt.,fr. L. cupuia. 
a little tub,) The summit of the cochlea, in- 
eluding the last half turn of the spiral canal. 

Cupping. 1. The act of applying cups; 
either with the abstraction of blood ( Wet c.) 
or without it {Dry c), S, The formation ofa 
cup or circular depression ; aa C. of the optic 

Ouprlo (kew'prik). OnpTOua (kew'prus). 
Onpnun (kew'pnim). See Copper, 
Cnpro-IlMmol(kew"prah-hee'miil). Acom- 

Cund of li^mol and copper uwd in tubercu- 
iJB and nervous diseases. Doae, 1-3 gr. (gm. 

Onraro, Onnul (kew-rah'ree). A resinnid 
eitreet obtained from South Ameriea, consist- 
ing of a miiLturc of vegetable principles. It 
contains the crystalline alkaloid OolViB*. 


CioHitN, and painlyies the peripheiHl ei- 
tremitiea of the motor nerres, producing death 
by HunlTsiB of reapiratioii. Used in tetanos 
andrabiesand in phjaiolt^ical eiperimente. 
JioBe, gr. fj-i (zm. 0.006-0.010) ; of curarine, 
P- A-A (gm- 0.001-0.005). 
A thickeniDR of th 
gament in the norae. i 

OuToaa pnrcaiia. The Jatropha Curcas. 

CnroninA (kar'kew-mah), Oureiualii (kur*- 
kew-min). See Turmeric and Zedoary. 

of the milk. 

Onlw. [L. cum, care.] I. L special sys- 
tematic couree of treatment ; as Grape-c., 
Movement-c. S. The complete removal of a 
diBcaae and its effect. 3. A remedy capable 
of completely removing a disease and its con- 
BeqoeDces ; as a C. for syphilis. 

Cnrsttaxa (kev-refej). The act of apply- 
ing a curette. 

Cnretta (kew-ref ). [F.] 1. An instrument 
ftir removing BubHtances or growths by a pro- 
cess of Bcrapine, or of combined cutting and 
sciapiDg. 9. To apply a c. to a part. 

CimttBiiiant(kew-ret'ment). See CurfWafff. 

OuTT'ent. [L. cwrrem, running, fr. cnrrere, 
to ruD.] That which Sows; a stream; espe- 
cially, a stream of electricity, or electricity in 
the act of transmission along a conductor, i. c, 
manifesting its enererat successive points of a 
conductor (also cnJled Blectrlc o.). Oal- 
Tan'lo c, Volta'lc c, an electric c. produced 
by chemical decomposition, as in a galvanic 
battery (hcocealso culled Batiery-c). It Con- 
tinues as long as the chemical decomposition 
lastsandthecoaduclorJainlacIpUnd it preserves 
the same direction ; hence called Continaedc. 
It is also called a CaiMani c, although this 
term is often restricted specifically to a con- 
tinued c. produced by a constant battery. 
Fand'lc 0. (ludacAd c., AlUraating c. Inler- 
rupCed e., Seeondary e.j the c, induced in the 
secondary coil of a tared ic machine bythesuc- 
ctssive making and breaking of the circuit in 
the primary coil through which a galvanic c. 
{PnnuiTy or iTutiicing c.) is passing' or gen- 
erated by the revolution of a coil of wire be- 
tween the poles of a magnet (niagne to-electric 
machine). The c. here is rcver««l with every 
interruption and renewal of the primary c. in 
the firat case, or with every half revolutiou 
in the second case. A c. nisscd through the 
bod; may be Ascending orOantrlp«'UJ, when 
the positive electrode is upon the uerve and 
the negative near the nerve-centre, so that the 
c. passes toward the latter : Dascendlng or 
CeDtTlTilKKl, when the c. is made to pass 
from the nerve-centre; Btablle, when both 
electrodes are kept stationary ; LabUa, wheo 
one or both are moved about. C'l of Teat, 
0'» Of action, electric c'a taking place io a 
muscle while respectively at rest and in a 
slate of contraction. O.-brMilnr, a device for 


breaking and making a galvanic current^ a 
rheolome. C.-raTeraer, a devicefor reveremg 
the direction of a galvanic current: a com- 
mutator. O.-tolectoi, a device for bringing 
into the galvanic circuit auy desired number 
of cells ID the battery or for bringing into 
the faradic cireuit either the primary or sec- 
ondary current. 

Onrtobnuim'i iplrkU (koorsh'mahns). 
ICunehtaann, G. pathologist.] CoagulatM 
masses, aasuming the form of spiral filaments, 
found in bronchioles in asthma, capillary 
bronchitis, and broncho-pneumonia. 

Cnrvktiirs of tplna. See PoU'i dUeatt. 

Onrra of Cami (kay'rus). An a 

the anlero 

pubis J and a 

outlet of the pelvis. 

Ouioo'a ipaoulnin. A vaginal speenlum 
consisting of two blades hinged together and 
separable by a screw, 

Oniii. [L. ciLtpit. point.] A triangular or 
pointed prominence ; especially, one of the 

pointed segments forming a valve of the heart, 

andoneofther -'--" ■- - -'~ 


I^he projections upon the crown of a 
Otu'pld. I. Cuspidate. S. The canine 

Ona'pldata. [L. eu^'<j^'fuj.] Furnished 
with a single cusp ; as C. (or canine) tooth. 

Ous'ao. [L. c, U. 8., B. P., fiora hue, 0. 

P.] The female inflorescence (flowers and 

tops) of Brayera anthelmin'thica. an Ahys- 

einian tree of the Rosacese. Contains an acrid 

ill, Brayrrin (Kosin), CiiHwOio. Used t. 


_ gm. 8- . , 
jfuWiim, U.S., 2-35 (gm. 8-12). 
(kew-tny'nce-us), (L. cutd'- 
nem. ir. rutit. skin,] 1, Of or pertaining to 
the skin ; as C. nerves, C. amestheaia, C. in- 
flammation. 3. Originating in the skin or 
produced by action upon or through the skin ; 
as C. medication, C. respiration, C, asthma. 
C. leflax, a reflex produced by stimulation of 
the skin or superficial parts ; see Erfiex. 

Ontliila(kew'tee-kal), JL.futtVWa.dlm.of 
c\Uii.] The epidermis, buun'slc, Bantale. 
(CMticula dentia), a tough, structureless m 
' investing ti *" ' " 

nei of the tooth. 

shun). The act^or procee 
Ontia (kew'tis). Gen. 

[L.] The 

HEin ; eBpeciaiif , ine irue sjtjn, or corium (alSO 
called C. vera). 0. anaerl'na, gooseflesh ; a 
temporary erection of the hairs of the skin pro- 
duced by a contraction of the arreclores pili 
set up by fear, cold, etc. C. pan'dtila, derma- 
tolysis. C. t«nta eturon'ica, sclerodenna. C. 
taita'eea, general seborrbtea. 0. onetito'ia, 
CntliectOT(kew' tee-sek-tor). [L. cults, skin, 



-t- leeSre, to cnt.] An inBtrnment for cutting 
off or cutting ialo tbe ekin. 

Cotol (kew'lol). [Cutt>.] A compound of 
aluminum nilh Imric and tannic acids; used 
ajs an astringent and uitiiteptic in Bkia-diEtaaeB. 

Onvler'i ilnniM (ordncti) (kue-Tc«-aji). 
ICavier, the P. natumliBt.] Two renous ca- 
nals, one on either side, formed in the embryo 
by the confluence of the four primitive venous 
trunks. The right sinus persials as the supe- 
rior vena cAva. 

Cy. Symbol for cyanogen . 

OyaoAlcohol <sey"an-al'koh-ho1], Oyanhy- 
dlln (sey"an-hey'driD). An alcohol ia nhich 
cyanogen replaces the hydrogen of the alcohol- 

Oy&ulde (aef'a-neyd). [Oi/a>i-oger\ + -ide. 
L. cyan' ilium, eyanure' tum^ A compound of 
cyanogen with a base. All the soluble c's are 
powerful poisons, acting like hy<lrocyanic acid. 
C. dreiitng, 0. gftUM, antiseptic dresdags 
made with mercury and zinc c, 

Cyano- (sey'a-noh-l. [Gr. iuniico), blue.l 
A prefix meaning (1) blue: (2) conlaining 
cyanogen as a substituted radicle. 

CDunds.] A univalent radicle, CN, found i 
ydrocyauio acid and other cyanides. 
CruuipAthy (9ey"a-nop'a-thce). [Cyaru 
l_\) + -pathy.] Cyi 
genital cyanosis due 

condition in which all otyecta seen look blue, 
CytuiMla (-oh'sis). Blueness or lividity of 
the body due tc insufficient oiygenation of 
the blood. Hence, CyanoMiI (se^'a-nozd), 
Oyanotlc (8ey"a-not'ik), affected with c. 

CyclB(Bey'kul). [Gr. iui/o*, circle.] One 
of a number of successively repeated periods, 
at the end of each one of which the phenomena 
present at its beginning start in anew and re- 
peat themselves ; as Oirdiac c. 


OyollC (sey'klik), [L. q/i^ lictit.] Occur- 
ring in cycles, as C. alhumniuria ; Tollowing 
the same round over and over again ; repeat- 
ing the same phenomena many times in suc- 
cession, or always pursuing the same definite 
round ; as the C. coarii of a disease. 

ciliary body. It is usually associated with 
iritis (see Irido-cyclHU). Sunple o., a chronic 
affection charactcrixe<l by deposits npon the 
posterior wall of the cornea and into the vit- 
reous, without marked exiemal signs of in- 
flammatioa or alteration in the iris or pupil. 


having two eyes in the centre of the forehead, 
eitlier close together or fused into one. 

Oyclophoria, (8ey"kloh-foh'ree-aL). [Gr. 
kaklta, circle, +pftorerin, to tend.] A con- 
dition in which tbe vertical meridians of the 
two comete lend to become divergent or conver- 
gent instead of parallel. 

Cyclopia (eey-kloh'pee-ah). The state of a 

0]r(!lopl«gl& (sey^'kloh-plee'jah). [Qr. 
kaklai, circle, -)■ pirge, a stroke.] Paralysis of 
the ciliary rouscle. Symptoms : loss of power 
of accommudation : great blurring of vision 
for near points, with restoration of clear sight 
by the use of a convei glass. Hence, Cy<^- 
pls'gie, producing c; an agent produtong c. 

Cyclops (sey'klops). [Gr.iTii/op*, a myth- 
ical one-eyed monster: fr. kukloi, circle, + 
opa, eye.] A monster having only one fnlly- 
developM eye, which is placed io tbe centre 

developtfl eye, v 
of the forehead. 

Cydotomy (sey-klot'oh-mec). [Or. kaklot, 
circle, -I- -Mmy.] Division of the ciliary mus- 
cle ; an operation done for glaucoma. 

Cyllndar (ail'in-dur). [Gr. twlindrot, tt, 
ktdinddn, to roll.] A body shaped like a 
round column ; particularly, a cylindrical lens 
and a cylindrical cast, .dif* c, a ueumion. 

Cyllnilrlcal (Bi-Iiu'drce-kal). Shaped tike 
a cylinder ; made from a section of a cylinder, 
as aC. lens (see Ijtne). 

l^mbl..^ „_ 

and often taperingor constricted. 

Cyllndroms (sil"in-droh'mah). {Cylindtr 
+ -oma.l A tumor found about the flice, and 
particularly in the orbit, characterized by the 
presence of hyaline massea which are spher- 
ical or have the form of club-shaped irregu- 
larly branching cylinders. It is probably 
Rroducv<l by the degeneration of on epithe- 
oma, which has extended along a network of 
lymphatic paEisages. 

Cyllndnuia (8il"iu-droo'ree-ah). The dis- 
charge of cylinders (casts) with lie urine. 

Cymbocephaly (sim"boh<sef a-lee). [Gr. 
kuiabe. boat, + kfplialf. head.] The stale of 
being Cyint>ocepli'BlDiis, or having a boat- 
shaped skull. 

CySHIClie (si-nang'kee). [Gr. kunagehe = 
tiwin, doe, -^ agcbeia. to choke.] Any affec- 
tion of the throat associated with attacks of 
suffocation. 0. ■nbUncna'Us, angina Ludo- 
vici. 0. tonillla'tla, parenchymatous tonsil- 

self transformed into a dog. 



Oynlo ipaBin (un'ik). [Gr. tanitiu, per- 
taining to a dog.] See Sardonic langh, 

07iinTMil<;*cld(Bm"ew-ren'ik). ipT.tudn, 
dog, + wiTOB, urine.] A cryBtairine acid, 
CMHitNiOt + 2HiO, found in dog's urine. 

iphofie, fr. ku- 
^ , .., . reoftheepine 

of any sort; particularly, beckwurd curvature 
pniduoing thedeforniity of a hunchback. Cy- 
phatlc (Bcy-fut'ik ), of or affected with c. 

OyprlpMllimi (Bip"ree-pee'dee-uiii). [Gr. 
Kv,prii, Venus, +pe<, foot.] Lady's alipper; 
B genae of orchids. The rhizome and rootlets 
Of the North American speciiiS, C. cubes' cena 
and C. parriflo'rum, are the 0., IT. S.: used in 
chorea, epilepsy, and hyattria. Dose, 15 gr. 
(gm. I); of Ertroc'luHi cypTipedH, 15 gr. 
(gm. 1); of EMradlam cypripaiii fla'idam, 
U.S., 16ni(gin. 1). 

CyrtOKTApIi (Bur'toh-grsf). [Gr. hirlot, 
coDvex, + -graph-l A cyrtomeler. 

Oyrtom«t«r (sor-tom'ee-tur). [Gr. ku.rim, 
convex, + •mtter.\ Au instrumtnt for de- 
termining the exact shape of curved parts of 
the Ixkly, particularly the head and chest. 
Tllion'l e.. an appliance for indicating on 
the exterior of the head the situation and di- 
rection of the central fissure. 

Cyst (gist). [Gr, kiuilU, a bladder.] An 
abnormal growCli consisting of a cavity closed 
in on all sides by a distinct wall and contain- 
ing a liquid or semi-liquid Bubstance. C's are 
prodncfld by a dilatation of a pre-existing 
cavity (Dilaiation-c.), ss the pleura, perito- 
nenm, ventricles of brain (hydrocephalus); 
retention of secretion through stoppage of a 
glandular duct (RtUntxon-cij; formation of a 
capsule about a foreign body, an exudate, or 
eitravasated blood {Etlravata' tt'on-c, Blood- 
c, Advent-ifiaug c. Falee c); degeneration 
and liquebction of the interior of a tumor. 
C'b may be conganital, and then often contain 
skin, hair, teelh, etc. {Dermaidc), In struc- 
Inr* c's either consist of a single cavity 
{SimpU or Unilo<fntaTC,) or of several (Com- 
pound c, Mitltilod ular c). A compound c. 
■onietimea consists of one large c, (mrent c.) 
enclosing several small ones {Daaghtrr c'a) 
which have been formed by secondary growth. 
C's are aim named from their sltnaHOn ( (hnj'- 
rian c, JUabu'miaa c, etc.), or from their 
contents (Colloid c, Hi/dalid e., Maeous c, 
Sartgnin' tout c, Seba'ceoiu c, Milk-c, etc.). 

Nenralgia of Uie urinary bladder, marked by 
paroxysms of pain at the neck of the bladder 
and derire for frequent micturition. 

Oratlc (sis'tik). [L. ein'ti'ciut.] 1. Of, per- 
taining to. or having the structure of a cyst, 
as C. tumor; forming or asHociated with the 
formatinn of cysts, as C. sarcoma, C. dt^nera- 
lion. %. Of or pertaining to a bladder, espe- 


cially the urinary bladder (e. g.. C. arttria) 
or the gall'bladder (e. g., C. dutt, C, piu-us of 
the sympathetic). 

Oystlcerciu (9i8"tee-sar'kus). [Gr. Iitiili», 
bladder, + irrtos, tail.] The larval form 

^01^) of the TKnia. 0. bOTls, the larva of 
Ilia niediocanellalil, causine measles of 
beef. C. eellnlo'sM, the larval form of Tienia 
Solium, causing ineaKlcs of pork; found in 
man in the brain, eve, liver, and other organs, 
to which it is carried by the blood -current after 
introduction into the stomach with the foud. 

OyBtlo(rt«iny(aia"tee-kot'oh-mee). [-tomy.] 
Incision into the cystic duct. 

Cystlno (sis'teen). [Gr. itiuttV, bladder, -I- 
■inc] A crystalline subsiance, CiH,NO.S (or 
CiHsNSOi. according to some), occurring in 
the urine. Very rarely it forms soft wax-like 
calcnii (G. esl'otill). 

CTsUnnrla (si8"tin-ew'ree-ah). The dis- 
charge of cystine or cysline-calculi in the urine. 

CraUtis (sis-tcy'tis, sis-tee'tisf. [CyiCa- + 
-tVu.] InSammatioii of the urinary bladder. 
Due most often to Bacillus coli. Bacillus ty- 
phosus. Bacillus aerogcnes. and Bacillus 
Proteus; sometimes to Micrococcus gonor- 
■hiEffi. Micrococcus ureiB, Staphyloc 

ign b ,__ 

id changes i 
the urine imparting to it an irritant quality, 
is marked by burning pain in the bladder, 
pain in the perineum and urethra, and fre- 
quent, painful micturition. The urine con- 
ijiins tenacious mucus. Treatment: removal 
of cause, hot sitz-buth or fomenlutions to 

Subcs, leeches to perineum and bypogastrium, 
iluent alkaline drinks, codeine, lupulin. and 
in persistent cases washing out of iJadtler and 
cystotomy. CrOupouB and Diphtheritic C, 
marked by the presence of a false membrane, 
is due to diphtherial infection or to very strong 
irritants. Symptoms and treatment same as 
catarrhal c. CbronlC C. due to a contiunance 
of the same causes as those pitxlucing acute c, 
has similar but milder symptoms combined 
with progressive depreciation of the health, 
leading to death from exhaustion or from in- 
volvement of the kidneys. The urine, which 
is insufficiently evacuated, decomposes and 
Iiecomes alkaline and full of pus and mucus. 
Treatment: removal of cause, aniiseptica, diu- 
retics (buchu, copaiba, salol), guniacol, oil of 
sandal wood, Canada and Peruvian balsams, 
washing out of bladder with hot water and 
antiseptics (boric ocid, boras, silver nitrate), 
cystotomy to secure permanent drainage. 
OyBtltomB(sis'tee-tohm). [Gr. itiMfif, blad- 


t for 

Oysto- (sis'toh-). [Gr. -huffs, bladder.] A 
prefix meaning (1) of, pertaining to, or com- 
posed of a cyst; cystic i (2) of or pertaining 
to a sac or bladder, especially the urinary 
bladder. Oyito - aoano'ina, cystadenoma. 

0, Google 

COlM'tOmr [cotoit I -ilomy], the mahini; of 
an Hrtifirial ramtDunicatinii lietw«^a the culon 
and bladder; done for exstrophy. C7Bto- 
ftbronu (-fey-broK'niahJ. a fibroiil which has 
undersonc eyslk ileKpneration. OyatoiA (sih'- 
tijyd) r-ojV(]. likettcystor bladdery producing 
a i;yM-lik<? Hvpllinjc; ax Cysloid ciealrimtion. 
07ltoilM<Hi.-'-li>h'iiiah) [-om<i].iioy«rictuiiior, 
a cyiit. Cystomrzoma (-niik-soh'mahj, a 
myxoma whirh has cleicFncnileil hi as to form 
cp1«. OyatonenralgUf-new-mrjnhj.Dearal- 
);iaof Iho hladilctr, Cystaparal'ysla, paralysiii 
ufthc blaiUler. Cyit'opcxr [ 
lis],thi;attoohiiie»t or miphorinKof the blad- 

' " " i; doneforcystocelc. 

oeraphy of the ii ' 
r of the bladder. OyB'topUaty, theperfoi 
c operation upon tl 

ploiii, a ^llintc] , prolapse ot the 

dertoasupnipubK'inciHioD; done for cyntoci 
C^BtopboioK rftpby, phutoeraphy of the Id 

a») [Gr 

_.nibnuie of Ihe .- 

urethra, 07*to-pr*Iltt* ('pey"«e-ley'ti9,-lee' 
tin), cystitiH combined with pyelitis. Oyrtor- 
ilimsla('n^'cF'Bbj [•rAairu>]^iemorrhage from 
the bladder. CyttOTTlMM (-rce'ah) [-rluxd], 
achronic eyiitiiia. CyEtoaBrcomal'sahr-koh - 
inah), a narcoma which has degeueraCed so as 
to form a cyst. Oyi'toicopa (-icope), an in- 
itnimeiit for rendering visible the interior of 
the bladder. Cystoicop'lc, of or by a cysto- 
scope or cyaliwcopy. Oyitoa'oopy, examina- 
tion of the bladder with the cyatoticope. Oys'- 
tOfpaim, iipiiani of the bladder, Cya'totome 
[.(onwj.aninstrqment for incising the bladder; 
alio one for iDcisiug the anterior capsule in the 
" --'---It (see Cyttitomf), Cyt- 

. . . :tion of Btone O'tholomy); performeil 
either above the pubes (iSiiprnfiubtc), through 
the perineum (iVn'neo/, including both median 

and lateral perineal cystotomy), or through 
the rectum (Rectal). 
Cyit-worm. A cyBtioercus. 

Oyto- (Bey'toh-). (Gr. leulot, cell.] A pre- 
fix meanins cell. Cytoltlutama (-hliEB-tee'- 
mah) [(ir. blatiima, sprout}, a substance sup- 
posed to give rise to cells ; particularly, the 
homogeneous intercellular sabittance out of 
which cells were supposed to be developed. 
CyMd« (sey'lohil) [(jr. ddot litcncas] a 
non-nucleated cell. CrtogeilMU (•jeo'ee-sis), 
the formation ur development of cells. 03rto- 
KMiMle (-jee-net'lc), of or pertaining to 
cytogenesis ; due to &ulty cylogennii. 

tniel, producing "- 

_ 111 (-gloh'bin) [s,,.. 
mbling nuclein, found h 
'■ prevents 
. - , twrtaining . 

jylologj. Cytology ^-lol'oh-jecH-fow]. the 
branch of science relating to the structure and 
functions of cellH, _ Cytom'etar, an appa- 
ratus for enumerating cells, especially the 
cells or corpuscles of blood, lympb, and milk. 
Cytomltoma (-tom'ee-lohm) [Gr. bhTm, 
thread], one of the fibrils of the oell-body. 
Oytopuiam {sey'toh-plazm) [(ir. platma, 
Bomething formed], cell-prot-iplasm, especially 
that of the cell-body, fiytoryeetai (■oh-rik'- 
teezj [Gr. onutcin, to dig] a nucleated 
motile organism allied to Amceba, ■ species of 
which, C. vari'ula, is found in the interior of 
the epithelial cells in variolous vesiclea. 
Cjtoilut (aey'loh-Beeu), a crystalline base, 
CiilI»Ni>Oi + 5HiO, produced by the decom- 
position of adenylic acid. CTtoioon (-loh'on) 
[Or. Toon. an animal], an animal paraaite liv- 
ing within a cell ; specifically, a gentu mada 
to comprise all the parasites of the red blood- 
corpuselca. Cgloirmn malaria, see I>re- 
panidium. Ftatmodium, Hirmoprotait. 



D. Abbreviation for dexter, and dioptry. 
d-. AbbreviatioD for (1) dextro- {e. g., d- 

Slucose = dexlro-Klucose); (2) for deerees ol 
evintion (e. g-, 1° means a deviation of 1° pro- 
duced by B priam. 

Dmtf- (dftli'ree-). DaclTO- (dat'ree-oh-). 
[Gr. datra, tear]. A prefix meau in e pertain - 
ing to teara, lachrvmal. Dacryadaiutu, Dae- 
ryo-MlvniUi (.ad"ee-ney'tia, -nee'tlB) (odeu + 
-I'm], ioflammation of the lachrymal eland, 
DaerrocraUtlB (-sis-tey'lis, -Bis-tee'tis) (ey' 
^^) + ^■(l■.], inflammation of the lachryn 
hoc; particular!;, an acute Huppurative 
Hammalion of ita Bubmucoux connectire tiaai 
mariied bjr the suddcD development of a pa 
fUl, phlegmononB Bweiling, which ruptures 
BpoDtaneoUBl; with the discharge of^ pus, 
UBoally an intercurrent affection ia chronic 
dacryoc^atoblennurrtiraa. Treatment: hotap- 

SlicatioDBieari;^ incision; treatment of can ' 
iseose. Chronic dacrj/oevtlitii, dacryocy: 

blennorrhrai. DacTyocyitltonis (-sig' i 

tohm) [c]/Ko- (2) + -(omfl, an instrument foi 
incising lachrymal atriclures. DAcryocyito- 
blMUiDrTtamt (-Bis"'toh-blen"oh-ree'ahl 
[cStttD- {2) + blennorrkaa], bleniiorr 
the lachrymal aac; chronic catarrhal 

mation of the mucous membrane of the , 

to etriotnre of the nasal duct and conaequenl 
stagnation and decompOHition of the ' 
Symptoms: epiphora, disteution of the 
a muco-pumlent or clear liquid ; int 
attacks of acute suppuration. Tieati 
rigation with antiseptic solutions ; dilatation 
or division of strict ■ . •■ . 

titeratioQ of sac b' 

DM'rrollUt [-lilh', 

rymal passages. Dac'ryops [Gr. op; eye] 
cyst filled with clear liquid, due to the i 
tention of one of the ducts of the lachrymal 
gland with tears. 

DMtyllUi (dak" tee-ley' tis -lee'lis). FGr. 
daktulon, finger, 4- ■ilit.'\ Inflammation of the 
structures of the finger. 

Didana. African lethargy. 

Damonomanift (dee-n]oh"noh-nuiy'nee-ah). 
[Or. daitniin, spint, + mania, madness,] A 
form of insanity in which the subject believes 
himself to he possessed by a devil. 

thatantm (dawl'ton-izm). [J. Dalton, the 
Eng. chemiBt. vbo suffered from it and dc 
scribed it.] Color-hlindnrss. 

Dalton'i Iftwi (dawl'tunz). [John Datton, 
Eng. chemist {1766-1844).] 1. The law that 
the tension of a gas in a confined space is the 
same whether the latter contains other gases 
or not ; and that the tension of a mixture of 
gases io a confined space is equal to the sum 
of the tensions of each las tatien separately, 
a. The law (also called latB of reciprocal pro- 
portion)) that the proportion in which two 

le with the same third element. 9. The 

)ft m lana (dah"mee-ah'nah). The leaves of 
tain Mexican plants (Tur'neramicrophyll'a 

, iG. 

P.] A resin ohtained from 

Dammar'a orienta'lis, Sho'r* , 

Sho'rea spleti'dida. Used as an ingredient in 
plasters, and a solution in chloroform or ben- 
Ecne (D. Tantlsb, D. lac) is used for mount- 
ing microscopic objects. 
Dance, Saint Tltna'. See Chorea. 

Dancing manlft. A variety of mental aber- 
ration, prohahly hysterical, iu which the 
Eatient is irrcsistiblif impelled to dance. It 
as occurred in epidemics, especially at periods 
of great emotional excitement. 

DuLdellOn (dan'dee-ley-on). [F. dcnt-de- 
lioa, lion's tooth.] The Taraz'acum Dens- 
leonis (Tarai'acum officina'le), an herb of the 
CompositiE. The root (Tarax'acum, U. 8., 
Taraxaci radix, 1!. P.), or root and leaves 
( Kadij tarai'aci cum herba, O. P. ) contain a 
hitter principle, 7'arax' doin, and are a diuretic 


B. P., G. P. 10 gr. (gm. 
0.60); Ertmc'tvm tarasf aci fiit' iduvt , U. S. 
(Extractum taraxaci liquidum, B. PJ, 1 Z 
(gm. 4) ; Sucait tarai'aei, B. P., 1-2 3 Igm. 

Dui'druff. [Welsh ton, crust, + Anglo- 
Saxon drof, dirty.] The light semes (brroed 
upon the scalp in seborrhosa. 

Dandy leret. See Denffae. 

DanlsUa- battMiy, DuleUi' ceU. [Prof. 
Danielts of I^jndon, who invented it.] See 
under Batlery. 

Daphne (dnf'nce}. [Gr. rfopAiir, laurel.] 
See Mezcrcmn. 

DarlM'B dliea** (dah-ree-ayz). iDarier, 
F. physician, who described a casein 1889.] 
Keratosis follicularis. 

DarkacheirlUcli'i nnclena. A collection 
of gray matter at the front end of the oculo- 
motor nucleus ; by many regarded as connected 
with the latter. 

Dar'tog. [Gr. = flayed, fr. derein, to flay.] 

The subculaueous lR}rer of the scrotum ; com- 



posed of loose, reddiah, vascular 

Dix'troni. [F. dartnux, fr. dartre, letter.] 
Of or pertaining to certain skin diseases (in- 
■cludiiig eciemn, psurittsie, and pityrimia) 
which are regarded as of constitutional origin. 
S. dlatll'aiiB (rheumic dialhesis), the eonsti- 
tutioDBl state pn.>disposing to these diseases. 

Datur«(da-tew'rah). [L., fr, Arabic] A 

Stius of soljLnaceous plants. D. Strainoniuvi 
rDulieastraniotiium ; Z). n^iaof Indiais used 
like stramonium. 

Datnrlne (da-lew' reen). HyoscTamJne de- 
rived from Datura Stramonium. 

Danona (daw'kus). [L.] See Carrol. 

Dftnghtw-CBll, Dftiiglil«r-er«t- A cell or 
cyst developed out of or in the interior of 
another cell or cyst. 

Dar~l>UiiiliLasa. Inability to sec well in 
the day light ; nyctalopia. 

Be- (dee.). [L.] A prefii conveying the 
ideaof HepaniliOD, removal, or deprivation. 

Deaf-mntlun (deT-mew'lizni). Tlieslateof 
being both deaf and dumb ; especially, the 
condition In which congenital or acquired 
deafnesa prevents the acquisition of the power 
of speech. 

DeaflieBB (def'nesa). The stale of being deaf 
or dull of heariDg. D. may be due to changes 
in the eitemal or middle car, in the internal 
ear or auditory nerve (Labyrln'thlna d., N«r- 
Tona d.), or in the brain (Cer'abial d.). A 
special variety of Ihe latter h Cor'Ucal d., 
which includes both absolute d. and the con- 
dition called Hind- (or Pay'cbleal or Sou'- 
■ory) d<i in which soundsare heard. but, owing 
Ut impairment of tbc auditory centre in the 
cortex of the superior led temporo-sphenoidal 
convotution. they convey no meaning to the 
mind. WonJ-d.. a variety of minded., in which 
■polcen words, though heard, convey no idea 
of Uie objects they represent. Boller-makar'a 
d., diseaae of the middle, and, according lo 
some, also of the internal ear, produced hy 
working in machine-shops ; thought to be due 

.,_. ^-1, and characterized 

*n the 

Daatll. A complete and permanent cessa- 
tion of functional activity. D. may alleet the 
whole boily (Syatani'la or Sonut'to d.}, or a 
comparatively large part of it (Local d., mor- 
tification, gangrene, necrosis), or its cellular 
elements (Holec'nlu; d.). The last-named 
may be pathological, as in ulceration ; or 
physiological, as in the processes of eicretion 
andexfonation of effete tissue-elemeutfl. Black 
d., a very fatal epidemic of bubonic plague 
devastating Europe in the Middle Ages. 

Death-rate. The ratio between the total 
number of those affected with a disease and 
the number that die from it; also the ratio 
between the total number of persons living and 

DeboTa's mnnbrana (d'bohvz). [Deboc 

a F. histol(»:iBt.1 Alsyerof conDcctivB-tissue 
cells lying just beneath the epitlielium of the 
bronchial :-•"':—' — J — '• 

intestinal, and cystic m 

WeighU and Ateatare), Table of, 
Dacald^ (dee-kal'see-fty). To deprive of 
calcium or of its salts; as to I>. bone. 
SecaJ'TMit. [L.] Making bald; as Por- 

rigo decaivs 

Daeantatlon (dee"kan-tay'shun). 
caniation = dt- + Old F. cant, edge,] 
of pouring a liquid gradually out of a vessel so 
as to separate it from the sediment which it 


Deckpltatloii. [L. di+ caput, hvad.i The 
act of beheading; especially, the removal of 
the fetal head in order to facilitate delivery. 

Deur'. A gradual deterioration, decline, 
or disintegration leading M ultimate dissolu- 

DeddtUi (dce^sid'ew-abj. [L., fr. dfciiTatu, 
falling off, because it is ultimately shed.] 
The bypertrophied mucous membrane of the 
uterus in pregnaucy. It comprises the D. 
vera, lining the uterine wall, the D.ierot'liut. 
between the placenta and uterine wall, and 
the D. raflaz'a, enveloping the felus, 

Becldaal (dee-sid'ew-al). Of or pertaining 
(o thedecidua ; as D. celts. 

Decldtioma(dee-Md"ewH)h'mBh). [Dicidaa 
+ -oma.] A new growth resembling the de- 
cidua, found in the uterus ; especially, a very 
— '- ■ rapidly fatal tumor (i>, malig- 

niim), which produo __ 

and viscera, and intermittent distharge of 
blood and ffetid masses of the growth from the 
uterus. Treatment: early iiyaterectomy. 

DeddnoiiB (dee-aid' ew-us). [L. dicid'tiut, 
fr. rfffi'rfere, to fall off.] Falling off ; shed or 
destined to be shed ; not permanent, u. teatll, 
the first or milk teeth. 

Declgraiti]ne(des'ec-gncm),DeoUltra (des'- 
ee-lee-lur), Declmater (dea'ee-mee-tur). [L. 
drrem, ten,] See Weight! and Mcatnret, Table 

Daolnonnal (deB"ee-nawr' mal ) . [L. dtcem, 
ten, + norma/.] One-teotb of the normal ; aa 
D. lohuion, a (eat-solutton, one-tenth the 
strength of a normal solution (see JViirma/). 

DecllIl&Uoil(d(k"lcc-nay'shun). [h.deeli- 
jin't[n = rf«- -I- riinon;, to bend.] 1, 'Theangle 
which a freely-suspended magnetic needle 
makes wilh the honzontel plane. 3. A con- 
dition in which the eye, when in Ihe primary 
posilion, undergoes an anomalous rotation 
about its antero-posterior axis, bo that ite ver- 
tical meridian gets to lie to the temporal side 
{Posilivt d.) or to the nasal side {Negativt d.) 
of it« proper position. 

DecUua (dee-kleyn' ) . Progrraaive decreaae, 
asof adisease; aprogreeaive&ilureof strength 
and vitality. 



DmUts (aee-klev'vee). [L.= slope.] The 
■loping portion of the monticnlue. 

DecooUon (dee-kok'lhun). [L. decodtum 
= de- + Mt<]u«rr, tocook.] A preparation made 
by boiling a medicinal substanoe in water and 
■training. Doee of all d's, 2 fl. oi. (gm. 

]>»oolorftUon(de«-kul"ur-By'Bhan). [i><- + 
color.] Deprivation of color. 

]>M)ompoiiUoB (dee-kom"pob-EiBh'un). 
[De- -i eompotilion.l 1. The reduction of a 
componnd body into its coQstituenta (also 
called Chem'ical d.)j aa the D. of water, a. 
Decay or diBiDlearation, especiaUy when at- 
tended with putienctioD. 

DecompraHlon Jde^'tom-preah'un). {De- 
+ compration.'] Tlie remoyBl of eitreme pres- 
sure; subjection to a pressure (especially an 
atmoephenc preesare) lesa tlian that pre- 
viouBly undergone; aa D. aeddtn)» ( = acci- 
deots due to sudden reduction of atmospheric 
presmre. ax in caieaon disease). 

DecDT'tlcate. \_De- + L. corltx, bark.] To 
peel J to deprive of bark, rind, or cortex ; to 
deprive of an investing pyogenic membrune 
(as to D. the lung io case of empyema]. 

DMTep'ltata. [L.dfcrtpiid'reA Tocrackle; 
to ejplode with a crackling sound. 

IMOQblttu (dee-kew'bee-tua), [L., fr. di- 
«miii«r«, to lie.] 1. The wayof lying iu bed ; 
the attitude assumed wbeu recumbent. D. 
PkTklytll, paralysis due to pressure upon a 
nerve from lying long in one positioD. t. A 
bed-sore. D. ftcn'tua, a bed-sore produced 
rapidly and vitb but (dight exciting caases in 
various organic nervoua diseases. 

Decnis'At«. To cross in the form of an X. 

DMuaaatlon (dee" kus-say' shun}. [L. dtcu*- 
td'lio, fr. decumit {= decrmatta), a coin of the 
value of 10 asses on which was marked an x.] 
The crO«ing of two similBr and related parts 
at an acute angle so as to fbrm an x-shaped 
fienre ; as I), of the optic nerves. D, of pyra- 
nuda, or Infsrior pyrun'ldal d., the d, 
formed at the lower part of the anterior sur- 
&CC of the medulla by tbe librea of tbe crossed 
pyramidal tracts of cord which " ■' 


-U the opposite aide. 

d., Supa'rloi pyram'ldal d., Ibc d. formed 
front of the central canal of the medulla by 
fibres rising from the nucleus gracilis and 
nucleus cuneatus. 

Deer-plafna. See CaUle-plaaa^. 

Dafacatlon (def'ee-kay'shun), \lj.difaea'- 
tio — de- + faea, feces.] The act of expelling 
the feces from tbe bowel. It is effected by 
the inhibition of the centre in the lumbar cord 
which normally maintains the contraction of 
the njhincter ani. The sphincter is thus re- 
laxed, the process being assisted by the con- 
tmction of the levator nni. The anus being 
thus opened, the compression of the abdomi- 
nal viscera by the abdominal muscles and 
diaphragm expels tbe feces. 


SsfanilTe protald. An alexin. 

DcTaraiil. [L. dif erhu = dt- ■\- ftrre, to 
bear.] 1. Carrying off; as the D. duct ( Vat 
deftrciu). a. Of or pertaining to tbe vasdeF 
erena ; as the D. arteries. 

I>«farTBBcenoB (def'ur.yes'ens), ^L. de/er- 
racere, to cease boUing.] The subsidence ol 

Saflbrlnate (dee-fc/bree-nayt). [De- + 
fibrin,] To deprive of fibrin, 

a lens of pi 
e., without blu 
of the object 1< 

Daflnltlon. 1. Tbe clearness and distinct- 
ness of an object viewed with a microscope OT 
telescope, a. The defining power of a lens. 

De&nltlva (dee-fin'ee-tiv). [L. defiiiUVrmM 
— dt- 1/Tnu, end.l Final; lasting; not tem- 
porary ; oa D. callus. 

Deflft|Tftt« ( def la-gray t). [L. diflagrffTe.] 
To undergo or subject to defiagration. 

Dsflacratioii (def"la-g ray' shun). Sudden 
combustion or volatiliuition with tbe evolu- 
tion of sparks ; crackling or slight explosion 
under tlie action of beat. 

Daflu'riom CApUIo'raiii. [L.] Alopecia. 

DeOnzlon (dee-fluk'shun). IL. dejtuj^tu.} 
Down -flow ; discharge. 

DBfor'mliig. lL.df/or^mdm^dt-+/orma, 
shape.] Causing conspicuous alteration of 
shape ; as D. osteitis, D. arthritis. 

Dagauerata (dee-jen'ur-et). Affccled with 
degeneration (1st def.); also one so affected. 

Degenera'tlon. [L. digcntra'tio ^ de- -y 
gcner, anceslor.] 1. A lowering of the phys- 
ical, mental, or moral qualities of an indi- 
vidual below the standard of his race or of his 
ancestry, a. The conversion of a tissue from 
a higher to a lower or less functionally active 
form, either by a chemical transformation of 
the tissue itself (True d.) or by tbe depoaition 
of abnormal matters in its substance without 
alleration of the latter (Infiltration). The In- 
flltratlonaara called Fally, Calea' rtaut. Urat'- 

. .. , Lmyloiil 

, jr between thetissne- 

elementa. The Tme d's comprise Cloudy 
tacllinq (or Albv'minova or Granular or 
Parenckym' oJovt d.), in which the cells, espe- 
cially of tbe heart, liver, and kidney in infec- 

swollrn and altered through imbibition 
of water, in ledeniB and inflammolion ; Fatiy 
d., doe to obstrucliou of the circulation 
and marked by a transformation of the tis- 
sue-elements into (granular fat; Ca'ttmtt d. 
(Cheesy d.. Caseation), affecting especially 

collections of p 

ind tubereulous deposits 


■hich are cooTprted into dr7, pulrenileiit, 
chtetf manes ; M"'"ai d., in which the proto- 
plaxin of Ihe ri-Un ur iDterceltular substaim is 
coDTcrtcd into a Eflatinoas liquid containing 
mucin ; Valloid d., in which there is a eimilar 
trannfunnatlon, but id which uo mucin in 
prewnt; H^/alinr -/ which fibrous hvaiiuc 
maltrriat is runnc<l at tlic eiptniKof the lis- 
Kuea; Sfltmtic d,. a iip«cial form of hynlinc 

parlicularly the inlima ofaiit 
filtren a fallj d. (W&llA'rlMl A. . , 

occur* in all portioim which have been de- 
prived of their connection with the trophic 
centre*. This d. in called aacendliig when it 
uffectn the portion of the nervc'trsct Ijine be- 
tween Ihe aite of the lesion and the higher ccn' 
trea: and dMcandUut when it aflectx the portion 
of the tract lyinjc on the peripheral aide of the 
lesion. Thej>re«eiiceof aecondary d. is shown 
by a lou of laraclic and mlvanlc excitabilitv. 
Huv Rnulioa of drgeHrrnlion. Oray d. of the 
spinal cord, tahcH durHaiis. 

Dai^eratlT* (dee-Jen' ur-ativ). 1. Of, 
pertaminR Ia, or chnraclcrized hy degenera- 
tion i as J), fihanjfs. I), proeessu*. 8. Pniducc<l 
by oraHKociated with dcKeneratioo. D. nen- 
lUffiK, S. tic, neuralfcia, or tic occurring in 
conjunction with degeneration of the central 


DeglnUtlon <dvg"lcw.tis 
gtillrr, to swallow.] The act or lii 
RwallowinE. Id the flrat lUf e of d. the food 
which liai been inasticated in collecled Into a 
maun by the tongue and niuw^lc* of the check, 
and then in carrFnl back againtit tlie hard pnl- 
Dte and into the fuucMi by Ihe tongue, which is 
elevated and earned forward hy the hyo-gloHsi. 
In tlie lecond t%ag» Ihe tongue is drawn up 
and baek liy the siylo-gloHNi, the poBterior 
arched of the palate are approximated by Ihe 
contraction of the Htylo-glusiii, and the soft 
palate in lined up and nuule lenw (by Ihe leva- 
tor veli and lennor veil), no that the food 
ctm pons neither liacic through the fitucen into 
the mouth nor up into tlie posterior naren. 
The pharyni and larynx arc Ihen elevated and 
the lornicr dilated by the xtylo-pharyngciin, 
Btylo-hyoiilen*, thyro.hyoideus. (lenio-hyoid. 
en", mylo-hyoideuB, and digastric, and Ihe 
epiglotlin is cloned. The food elides over the 
cpiftlottin into the unpcr part of Ihe pharynx, 
and is then uarriei] down to the ccsopliagiis by 
the mtcccnaivc contraction of the middle and 
inferior constrielom. In the tblrd sM^ Ihe 
food is carried through the n-Hophagun by peri- 
nlallir ' — ■■ — 

DeUaoena* (dec-hiH'senH). f L. drhitr-mi 
fr. deh-.frrrr. to Bnp<-.] The fornialion oi 
gap or finnure in n part, 

Itsbiimajilied Tlrna (ilee-hew'ma-neyT 
Vaccine virus altered by retrovaccinution. 

Daliydrate (dee-hey'drayt). [/><■■ i ' 
hadnr, waler.l To deprive of water or 

form water. Hence, IMlvdratlOB, the act of 
Daitan- calls (dey'terz). I. Gliacells. S. 

Certain cell* connected with the cells of Cortl 
in Ihe inner ear. 

Daltera' nnclaiu. The eitemal aaditory 

Daltan' vrocaaiM. The branching proc- 
e»ies of a multipolar nerve-cell. 

DUac'U. FL. drjhrrt, to throw down.) 
Uatleni panwd by the bowels. 

Dejec'tlon. The passage of matter by Ihe 
bowels ; also the mailer so passed. 

DBljj]llnatlOii(dee-lam"ii>-nay'Ehun). [lif- 
: L. famiiui. plale.] A splitting off; a cleav- 
age into layers. 

Delhi boUldel'liee). i^ Oriental lore. 

D«IlS&U0B(del"ee<gay'9hun). [L. diliga'- 
tio, a binding fast.] The act of tying any- 
thing, especially an artery or vein. 

DaUmltktion <dee<liin"cc-tay'shan). IDf- 
->■ L. llmf^, boundary.] The act or process of 
setting bounds to or checking the progress of. 

SeUqnaieant (del" ee-kwes' sent). iL.dfli- 

laneounly through the araorptio 
from the air ; said of crystals. 

DallT'lMtt, IXUrilkelMit (dce-lir"ee-bv'< 
sbent). [I., /acere. to make.] Causing de- 
lirium; an agent causing deliriam. 

DellT'lnin. [L.rfe/irdrr.toplonghcrooked. 
fr. de- + /iro, the ridge between two ftirrows.J 
1. A condilion of mental eicitement with 
perversion of ideas, dela^ona, and rambling, 

■oice (Hntteniig d.)— a 
form especially common in conditions of prns- 
tralion in fevers. D. tre'mani, or Aleobol'lo 
d., a state due to the prolonged use of alco- 
holic beverages, marked by d, with halludna- 
tiona of night and hearing (the objects per- 
ceived being usually of a repnlsivc chamcler, 
like inneetn, reptiles, etc.), tremor of the mun- 
eles, and insomnia. It is often a fatal compli- 
cation of ii^uries in drunkordn. Treatment of 

himself; siedutivea ( 

Ecj'aiDine, cannabis indica, morphine); t«vui- 
sives (cathartics, hot foot-batfis, blisters to 
nape of neck); stimnlauts carefully given 
when d. is due to weakness or to sudden with- 
drawal of custom ary stimulant. 3. Any per- 
sistent delusion ; as D. of negation, D. gramli- 
osum (see Delvtion), 

Dalltaacmica (dcl"ee-t*fi'sens). [L. dilitn- 
ctrf, to lie hid.] A sudden and complete dis- 
Hppcanince of an inflammation before it has 
had time to produce ntractural lesions. 

DAUT'ar. [Dt- + L. nbrrSrr, to set free.] 
To fifccor relieve; especially, loijellevei 


child. Leas properly it is applied to tlie part 
taken swaj, inatena of to the penon froin 
Thorn it is tnlien ; as in the (Mpressioni " 

tile fetus, the placenta, the crystal line lens (iu 
the extraction of cataract). 

DallT'erj. The act of delivering or of free- 
ing : eapecially, tlie act of freciag the mother 

from the contcnla of the Di 

. : also, less c< 

}f the pli 

IMomorpIioiu (ilee"loh-mawr'fu8). [Or. 
dilot, evident, + morp&e, form.] Ilaviag a 
distinct ou Hi lie. D. C0lll, lar^, granular He- 
creting cells ^und in the glands of the stom- 
ach, especially those of the cardiac entremity. 
Also caLed octd celU, because believed to se- 
crete tiie acid of the gastric juice. 

I>«llililiilus (dcl'So-een), Delpblaliw (del'- 
fis-een), IMpbln'Inm, DelpUnoldlnefderfin- 
oy'deen). See Slaphifogria. 

DAl'tOld. [Ur. delta + -aid.] 1. Shaped 
like the Gr. tetter Delta; triangular; as the 
D, ligajiumi (iotenial lateral ligHmcnt of an- 
kle), D. matcU (Deltol'dena) of the shoulder. 
3. Of or deiiigned for the d, muscle; aD. im- 
pTtmion of the liumcrua. 

]>«Ituiloil (dee-lew'zhun). [L.dUUdtrt, to 
mock, — rfe- -I- ludxii, gaoie.] A false sensory 
image which does not appear false to the one 
perceiving it ; a mental imprcBsioii which leads 
i„ i.„i.„^.. .!.„. I.- ._,_ heare, or otherwise 

'e that he _ 

perceives things which „-_ ... 

present to his senses. A d. dilfurs from i 
sion (q. v.), which Is recognized 

the I 

. . _.. .Ilusion IB 

mply ad. of the senses (i. e., a false sensory 
image, whether recognized as true or false by 
the patient), while a d. is a false idea or judg- 
ment^ an erroneous conception of the relations 
of things and actions, whether they are objects 
of the senses or not. The d. may relate to the 
body or its members, which are regarded as 
sbseot (D. of nsgatlon), excessive in size 
(Il4crainanl'aaal d.), or too small (D. of Ul- 
tlenaii, Hlcromani'acal d.); or the patient 
may regard himself ea constantly pursued and 
tormented (S. of peneention) ; or may en- 
tertain exagEerated ideas of his own importance 
(D. Of srandeur, Delirium grandiosam). See 
also Hullacinatiim. 

Valnaionja (dec-IeVzhun-al). Of, pertain- 
ing to, or marked by delusions. 

Danuf'neUM. \De- ^ magnet.l Todeprive 
of magnetism ; to render non-magnetic. 

DMnarea'tioD, Line of. See Lint. 
DaoMnt (dee'ment). One affected with de- 

DemantliL (dee-men' shee-ah). [l,.^dt- + 
neiu, mind.] A tbrm of insanity^ usually ac- 

?uired, which is mainly oharac ten r^d by great 
npairment of the int«llcetual powers, mem- 
ory, and will. It nia7bePTtinMy,oroccurasa 
result of another form of insanity (SecondUT 
d.), or as the result of senile dc^neration 


(B«iiU« d.). I>. cboTa'lck, Iluntington'i 
chorea. Puolyt'lc d., general paresis. 

iwm'l- [F. = L. dimidiui, half, fr. dt», 
twice, and mediin, half.] A prefix to words 
of P. end L. origin, meaning half, 

DunUttu* cam (deni'ee-lewn). [i>«nf- + 
lana moon.:i Cells shaped like a half moon 
found in various glands. 

IMm'odax. [L. = Gr. drmoi, fiit, + dii, 
insect.] A genus of Arachnida (mites). D. 
follicalo' rum, the pimple-mile, a species 0.2- 
0.4 mm. in leugtb, found io the sebaceous fol- 
licles of most human beings after infancy. 
Causes no trouble in man, Tint in dogs and 
other animals produces irritation and loss of 
hair (follicular mange). 

DemOK'iaptir. [Gr. donoa, people, -I- graph- 
ei'n, to wrile.J A description of races and peo- 
ples and their characteristics. 

Demonl'aeal i 
See Damonomania. 

DemorvUnliatlDn ( dee-maw r'Tee-ney-za/- 
shun). il>t- ~ morphine.] The process of 
freeing one from tlie morphine habit by with- 
drawing the supply of morphine. 

Demulcent (dec-mul'sent). lUdemiifchu 
= de- + malctre, to stroke.] Acting aa a local 
sedative; soothing and rendering less irritable 
an abraded, inflamed, or tender surface: also 
a remedy so acting. The term is usually re- 
stricted to bland, slippery liquids which act 
to coat, protect, and lubricate the affected 
part. The chief d'a arc glyceriu and Ihe 
glyceriles, starch paste, and mixtures or in- 
fusions made from Iceland and Irish moss, 
gum arable, trae)u»nth, sassafras, slippery 
elm, flaxseed, and licorice. 

Denaxcotlied (dee-nahr'koh-teyzd). [L. 
dfiiarcnliid' luf.'i 1. UepHvedof narcoticprop- 
erties. S. Of opium, deprived of narcotine. 

Dendraz'on. [Gr. dendron, tree, +(uon.] 
A neuron whose axon almost immediately 
divides into tree- like branches. 

Dan'diit*. (Gr. dendritft, pertaining to • 
tree.] One of the protoplasmic processes of a 
neuron, other than the axon. 

Dsndrlt'lc- [Gr. dtudriliko$, ft. dendron, 
tree.] 1. Tree-Hke; hranching like a tree; 
marked by branching lesions, as D. kcratitii- 
9. Of or pertaining to a dendrite, 

Bon'dron. [Gr. ^ tree.] See Dendrite. 

Denpie (den^gay). (Fr. Sp, d, = prudery, 
and also fr. the Eng. dandy; both, on account 
of the constrained attitude produced by the 

Cn in the joints.] Break-bone fever, dandy 
er; on acute, epidemic^ contagious disease 
characterized by a peculiar cutaneous erup- 
tion and painful inflammatory swellings of 
the joints. The invasion is usually sudden, 
with high fever, heatlachc, general pains 
and marked pain in the joints, and muscular 
prostration. The symptoms increase for a 
couple of days, then abate somewhat, and on 
the third or fourth day increase again, with 
the development of an erythematous and 




■ relapse soon takvs piai:i>, and tbis may be 
followed by several others. Prognosis is good, 
ooniplete recovery laking place afl*r aome 
weeks. Treatment, symptomatic. 

nitrogeD. Henee, Dsnltrlfloft'tloii, the act of 

Dans (deni), PI. den'las. [L,] See Hm(A. 

l>Mi*lni'et«r. [L. dfiuus, thick, + -nKfer.] 
An instniiaent for determiniDg densities; a 

Sen'slty. [L. dfn'tilat, fr. demiu, thick.] 
1. The degree of compactness or closeness of 
oggregatioa of the paKicles of a body, espe- 
ciBlly as measured by a comparison of its 
weight with that of an e^ual volume of 
another sabstaoce whose weight is regarded 
as unity; specific gravity, a. Of electricity, 
the amount present upon a given surface dur- 

Dm'Ul. [L. dattSlU, fr. den,.] 1. Of or 

'—'-'-- ■- the teeth or to structures that 

— ji with the teeth ; as D. Brteries, 
u. iK^rvca, D. canal, D. follicle, D. fbr' inula. 
D. arcb, the CDrvei> formed by the edges of the 
fnmt teeth in both jaws. "O. cord, the epi- 
thelial bud from which an enamel organ is 
formed. D. crypt, the bony apace occupied 
by a developing tooth. S. an^e, an appa- 
ratus employed fint in dental and allerwardin 
general surgery, working by means of a treadle 
which imparts a very rapid rotary movement 
to a bar to which burs, drills, or other instru- 
ments can be attached. D. loUlcle. D. tac'- 
enliu, a developing tooth with the (ibrousand 
vascular sac surroundiDg it. D. lig'anMDt, 
that portion of the periciementum which em- 
braces the neck of a tooth. D. papill'a, the 
papilla of uiesoblast from which the tooth- 
pulp develops. 3. A consonant sound, such 
as I, d, and Ih, made mainly with the teeth. 

D. cOllTDlntlon, 

lution lying in the D. (hipponimpul) 
of the cerebrum ; its convoluted free edge, pro- 
jecting into the descending comu of the lateral 
ventricle, is the D. tktcla (Fas'cia dcnta'la). 

DsutlcnUta (den-tik'vu-Ict). [L. deiUim- 
la'tv*. fi-. denliettliu,a little tflotli.] Finely 
dentate or notched. D. 1)04y, see Corpat den- 

DanUllCAtloii (den" tee-fec-kay' shnn ) . [L. 
dfBi ^-/acere, to make.] The formation of 

. to bear.] nvdacing or 
containing teeth ; as a D. cyst. 

Ssn'UB. !Ditu + ■>».] The brittle eub- 
stance resembliug bone forming the main part 
of a tooth. It consists of an organic sul>stra- 
tum infiltrated with lime-saJts, is much 
harder than bone, and is permeated by nu- 
merous branching, spiral canaliculi which 
radiate from the pulpM*vity, and contain the 

frocessesof spheroidal connective-tissue cells 
D,-c«Ub) which line the palp-cavity. 8«o- 
ondiry d., irregular depomtsafd. in thepulp- 

Seiitln-oi'twild. A tumor madeup of den- 
tin and bone. 

DMitlat. A practitioner who devotes him- 
self to the diseases of the teeth. 

Iten'tUtry. The surgery And tberapeutics 
of the teeth. 

BMiUtloti (deu-tiah'un). The act or process 
of teething: the eruptian of the teeth, includ- 
ing both the temporary teeth {PHmary d.. 
Milt d.) and the permanent teeth iSfiond- 

ilentnre (den'tewr). An artitcial tooth or 
■et of teeth. 

Banndatloii (dee" new -day* shun). [Dt- + 
L. nut^uf, bare.] TheactoftMtring ; especially, 
the act of depriving a mucous or cutaneous 
surface of its epithelial covering. 

Sanntrltloii (dee"new-trlsh'an). IDe- + 
niUriltQit.'} A withdrawal or counteraction of 
nutrition ; a deprivation of nourisliment pro- 
duced by excessive waste, leading to atrophy 
and disintegration of the tissues. 

I>«obstnieiit (dee-ob'stroo-ent). {L.deob'- 
ilrueni = de- + ohUraert, to block up.] Re- 
moving obstructing matters; aperient; also a 
remedy so acting ; an aperient. 

Dsodorut (dee-oh'doh-rent). [De-^odor.'] 
Destroying or masking oQVnsive odor; also a 
remedy so acting. 

Dsodorlied (dec-oh'doh-reyzd). \l,.deedo- 
Ta'luti] Deprived of odor. 

D»arsiim(dce-awr'sum). [L.] Downward. 
Dsotsnmdne'tion [L. diicerr, to lead], move- 
ment of a part (especially the eye) downward. 
Daoiaumver'gena [L. rfrgrrr, to incline], 
tending downward, as Strabis'mus deorsum- 
Tergcns. DeoraumTer'alon [L.Kermo, a turn- 
ing], equal movement of both eyes downward. 

Daozlda'UoD. Thcactofdeprivingofcheni- 
ically combined oxygen ; reduction. 

Deox'ldliB [De- + ondize.] To deprive of 
oliemicalty combined oxygen ; to reduce. 

DaoxygenaHon (dee-ok"Bee-jee-nBy'shnn). 
The act or process of depriving of oxygen. 



t>«pllatlo (dep''ee-Wahee-oh). {L.-de 
+ piltu,taii.i The &njDB out of the hair. 

ic, calcium Bidphate, barii 

t>«pl*t« (dee-pleet'). (L. depli'rt^tU- + 
plire, to fill.] To relieve the body or a part 
of it of some of it« fluid ; to empty ; also to 
redaoe in stren^h b; excessive evacnatioDa or 
by extreme demands upon the vital powen. 

Depl«tlDD(dee-ptee'Ehiin), The act of empty- 


particularly by bleeding; also the b 

DBpalArisatton (dee-poh"lar-cy-zay'Bbun). 
The act or process of depolarizing. 

I>n>aUrli«(dee-pph'1ar-eyz). [De-+poU.'] 
To deprive of polarity ; to reduce lo ii noD- 
p<^riied state; as to D. light. 

I>«paUTli«r(dee-poh'lar-ej-Eur). See under 

PepoUrtring (dee-poh'lar-ey-zing). Serving 
lo depolarize. D. a«ant, a depola ' " 

■eistajice greater than thntuf the 
portioo of the body included in the circuit. 
Tfaeneutralpoiutin the circuit is thus thrown 
entirely outside of the body and the latti^r is 
subjected soli'ly to the action of the other 
electrode and of the battery-pole connected 
Kith it. 

Dapraaa'ant. An agent irhich depresses 
the force of the heart's action and the vital 
'i general. The principal d's are 

tnim vinde, tobacco, and 

dieii. D's produce diaphortsia and muscular 
relaxation, and are used in sthenic inflamma- 
tions, especialiy iu the early stage, and some- 
times in conditions of spasm. 

Depraiieil (dce-preet'). Lowered; carried 
below the uanal level ; associated with depres- 
sion ; as D. fracture of the skull. 

DepTasiion (dee-presh'un). ^L. dfprcu^ io. 
tt. dfprimere, lo push down.] 1. A pushing 
down or lowering below the usual level ; as 
D. 0/ tkt bone of the skull. D. of cataract, 
"J Coiuhing. 3. Lowering — ' '-- '' 



l>aprass'lTe. Prodncing depreralon or loss 

of physiological irritability ; as D. lesions. 

D«pr«BIO-motOI (dee ■ preffi"oh - moh' (or ) . 
[Depreit + motor.] Causing a towering or 
abatement of motion ; retarding motion, as 
D.-m. nervet; also an agent acting to retard or 
IcaMO motion ; a sedative or depreasaot. 

.. AniDBtmmentorappllance 
1 a part, as Vo^iiujl d. (used 
>r pusliing down the wall of the vagina ii 

using a Sims Bpecuium), Tongue-d.; a muscla 
which lowers a part, as D. alte nasi, etc. (Sc« 
MiiKlfs, Table of.) a. An agent which low- 
CIS the activity of a part, as a Cardiac d.; a 
nerve which inhibits or restrains {tinctional 
activity, as D. nerve of the heart. 

Daptumtad (dep'yn- ray-ted). [L. drpitra'- 
tiu.] Purified, cleansed. 

MpnratlTa (dee-pew'ra-tiv). Purifting, 

Da B. An abbreviation for reaction of de- 
IMiadal'phnl. [Or. dtrt, neck, -I- adelphoi, 

brother,] See MontUri, Table of. 

Darby aUre neck, Goitre. 

DeranoapluiluB (der"cn-sef a-lus). [Gr. 
dere, neck, + tnctphalon.'\ See MentUn, 
Tablt of 

Darlratloii (der"ee-vay'shun). [h.dirlvff- 
fjo^de. -l-TiDiu, bank.] The act or process of 
withdrawing the blood or its constituents from 
the seat of diieaBe to a distant part. 

DariVatlve. Producing derivation; with- 
drawing blood from the seat of disease ; also 
an agent, as a sinapism or cup, so acting. 

Danna (dur'mah). PI. der'mata. [Gr. 
denaa, skin.] The true akin otcorium. 

Dermal (dur'mal). Of or pertaining to the 
skin : composed of skin, as D. layer of the 
membrana tymponi, 

Darmalgla (dur-mal'jah). Dcrmatalgia. 

Dermatagra (dur-mat'a-grah), [Drmuito- 
+ Gr. agra, seizure.] See Pellagra. 

Darmatalxla (dur"ma-tal'jah). {BervuUo- 
+ -alaia.'] Pain localized in the skin and un- 
asBociated with structural disease of the latter ; 
usually reflei or symptomatic of some aflection 
of the nervous system. 

DannatitU(dur"uia-tey'tis. ■tee'tis). i-itit.] 
Inflamnitttinn of the skin ; due to injury {I>. 
traumal'iea); the local action of chemical or 
other irritanlH, as poison ivy {D. rcnena'la); 
the action of heat (D. cator' ■iea, D. ambtuiio'- 
nit, D. eombuttiii'nit sunburn) or cold (/>. 
tongelatio'nit, chilblain, frost-bile), or of 
Roeiitjfen rays l,i-ray d.); or the action of 
medicines internally administered {D, mtdira- 
Tnento'ta), enpecially bromine and the bro- 
mides, iodine snd the iixlides, arsenic, chloral, 
copaiba, quinine, salicylic acid, and opium. 
D. eontnslfOT'mlB, erythema nodosum. D. 
■pldBm'iea, an epidemic, apparently conta- 
gious, often fatal, disease, marked by papules 
or blotches which soon become confluent, form- 
ing a crimson, desquamating surface, either 
dry or moist, and associated with itehing, 
burning, and pain. Albuminuria cammon. 
Probably a form of d. exfoliativa. D. Brythe- 
mato'sa, erythema. D. axfoliatl'Ta, a dis- 
ease, in which the skin either generally or in 
ci ream scribed patches becomes reddened and 
covered with scales which afterward exfdli-'- 



Associated with fever sod other constitutional 
aymptoiuB; oflea fotal. D. exfoUatl'va epl- 
dem'ioft, d. epidemica. D., Ftmgoid, mycosis 
fuDeoides. I>. suiBTsno'sft, d. aHsoeiaCed 

witn gaJigrenp, as in Raynaud's disease ; espc' 
ci^ly, a disease {D. gangmnoia mnl'liplex) 
marked by multiple foci of gHDgrene ia tlie 
skin, occurHns either in iufSnts (nfum as a 
complication of varicella) (D. gangraiima iii- 
fan'lam) or in adults [in diabetes, etc.). D. 

gUadala'rli tTjXibemMo'te., lupus erythe- 
luatoBua. D. hsrp«tlfoT'mli (D. multlfor'- 
mU), a rare, fmjuently fatal associated 
with fever and multiform cutaneous lesions of 
a K^nerally herpetic type attended with pru- 
ritusand burning. D., Ualleiiuit papllliry, 
Paget's diKB8c. D. papUla'rla eaplUl'Ul, a 
rare disease of the scalp, in which there are 
minute elevations of the aur&ce with inter- 
mediate puatules, produced by inflammation 
of the «kin and subjacent tissue, and lenainat- 
ine in cicatricial circumscribed elevations like 
a keloid. D. rspena, a spreading d. following 
slight Injuries and otlen lasting for months; 
ascribed to peripheral neuritis and secondary 
infection. D. uborTho'lca, eczema aebor- 

Il«rm»to-(dur'ma-tob-). [Gr. dermo, akin.] 
Oforpertaimngtothenkin. Dor'niatol [-0/], 
basic ^llat« of bismuth, a substance resem- 
bling iodoform in appearand, but deatituti! of 
oilnr and irritant properties; used externally 
in wounds, ulcers, and inHamniatinna of mu- 
cous membranes, and iulernnlly in diarrbcea, 
etc. DernMtologloal (-loj'ce-kal), of or per- 
tain! na to dermatology. DBrmatolOflat (-tol'- 
oh-iist), one skilled m Dermalologr (-lol'oh- 

Sn. or tiie science of skin -diseases, DemiA- 
VjaiB [Gr. larit, a loosening], a circnm- 
scribed hypertrophy of the skin and subjacent 
connective tissue, causing the skin Co hang in 
louse folds. Der'matome [-loTar]. an instru- 
ment for incising the skin. Dertuktomyeoili 
(-mey-koh'sis), a skin disease caused by a 
fungus, OB Dennatoinyeotii fiieu'ta ( = fiivus), 
Dermatamycotii fiirfara'cea (= tinea versi- 
color), Dermalomycaai* lontit ram (^ tinea 
tonsurans). Dermatomyoiiu (-mer-oli'mah), 
myoma oflhe skin. DBnni,to-mri)Bltii (-mey- 
oh-sey'lis, -sce'tis], inflammation of Hie skin 
and muscles; priinary multiple myositis. 
Dermatonenroala (-ncw-roh'sis), a neurosis of 
the skin. Dsr'matDplaity. the restoration by 

elastic operation of skin that has been lost. 
ermatoBcleroilB (-sklce-roh'sis), scieroder- 
mia. DiTinatoBlB {.toh'sis) [-om], skin-dis- 
en9C. Dermalotis Kaposi, seroderma pigmen- 
tosum. DermatOMwn (-zoh'on) [Gr. looa, 
animal], an animal parasite living in the sub- 
stance of tlie skin. Cf. Epiioon. Danoato- 
■oonosns (-loh-on'oh-Bus) [Gr. iiion, animal, + 
notai, disease], skin-disease produced by a 

Dei'mic. [Dennn -^ -fc] Pertaining to or 
mode of skin or dermis ; dermal. D. layer of 
the membrana Cympani, properly the middle 
or connective-! issue layer, but often applied to 
the epidermal layer. 


D*r'mls. PI. der'mefl, [L] The skin; 
especially, the true skin, or that portion which 
lies between the epidermis aud subcataneous 

DertnograpUim (dur-mi^ra-fizm), [Gr. 
derma + grapkein, to write.] A condition in 
which the mere contact of any indiflerent 
substance with tlie skin produces a raised 
colored mark often lasting for boura. Ilencc, 
Dennotrapb'lo, of or marked by d. 

Der'mold. f^Derma 4 -m'd.] Skin-like. D. 
cyBt, a congenitdil cyst containing skin, teeth, 
huiis, or other structures oflhe skin. 

Dar'moplaAty. Dermatoplasty. 

OermoBkel'etoa. The exoskeleton . 

I>erodyinnB(der-o<l'ee-mus). [Gr. ij«rr, neck, 
+ didiimoi, twin.] See Moiuters. Tobte of. 

DSBCemetltlB (deB"ee-inee-tej'ti9, ■tee'tis). 
[-1(18.] Inflammation of Descemet's mem- 
brane; an erroneous term for simple cyclitia. 

Daacemet'B membrans (dca-c-majs). 
\_lkiKtmtl, a F. invesliealor of the 18th cen- 
The sharply-defined, structurelcsa. 

D. hypotlOBsl, D. noiii, see Nerva, 
Table of. 

DcBcen'dlng. [L. dfMen'dfnt.'] Passing, 
tending, or ex tending downward. D. cnireirt, 
see Cnrriiit. D. dSEeaaratlon, see Dfotmra- 
tioa. D. tract, a ncrve-lracl, lesion of which 
is followed by d. degeneration taking place 

Des'lccant. Desiccating; a desiccating or 

^, enpecially from moisture normally 

Desmobaoterla (des* ' moh-bak-tee'ree-ah ) . 
(Gr. detmot, band, + bacl^rium.] A tribe of 
bacteria including llie straight filameutoua 

Desmog'raphy. [Gr. dttmot, band, -t- 
■qraphy.\ A treatise upon or description of 

BM'mold. [Gr. dr«no», band, -I- -oirf.] 1. 
Fibroid. 3. A very hard, tongh fibroid tumor. 

DABpaiiiAtlan (des" pew -may' shun). [L. 
ditpiiinart. to akim.] The act of removing 
froth from the surface of a liquid. 

DBBquamatlon (i)es"kwa-may'shun). {Dt- 
+ L. iqudma, scale.] The shedding of epi- 
thelial elements (especially those of the skin), 
either in fine bran-like scales (FnrfoTa'ceottB 
d.) or in large sheets (Mem'branouB d., I>. Is 

DeaqiuuiMtlTe (dec-skwam's-tiv). Asso- 
ciated with desquamation ; as D. nephritis. 
DMBert-spoon (dez'urt or dee-zoert'). A 



measure approximately equivalent to 2 fluid- 

D«»tm»ttiB(dea"til-lBy'tus). [L.] Distilled. 

DeitTue'tlT*. Pertaining In, produciiijc, or 
n.'taociated with deatructioD or loss of individ- 
uality and identity; as D. distillation. D. 

D«t«rfent (dee-tur'jent). [L. ditei^gfnt.} 

Datarmlnatloii of Mood. The aeeumula- 
tion of blood in a definite part of the body ; a 
"rush of blood " to a part. 

DBtnuor tulun (dec-troa'sor ew-rey'nee). 
[L. = the punher-down of the urine.] The 
foagitudioal muscular fibres of the bladder. 

Datronoatioii (d«e"trung-kay'shua|. IDe- 
+ L. irunciu, trunk.] Decapitation. 

DMtt- (dewt-), Dantero- (dew'tur-oh-). 
DentO- (dew-toh-). (Gr. deateroi, second.] 

A prefix denotins the second of 
eompounds, particulsrl; that one wruen uoii- 
tnine more of the element or radicle iudipated 
by the syllable following the prefix. Deu- 
t«ro-al'btimOBS, a vnriety of nibumose (q. v.) 
tnlubleindistilledwaterandinst rone solutions 
ofsodium chloride. DanterD-mya'slnoRe, an 
albumoseproduccd by thedifcestion of myosin. 
SenteTopatli'lc [Gr. palhein, to sutfer], of a 
disease, secondary to another disease. Beu- 
t«TOpro'Moa«, deulero-ulbumolv. See Albu- 
«ioK and Protfoar. DautobTo'nilde, that one 
of two bromides of the same base which con- 
tains more (usuiilly twice Bs much) bromine. 
Similar terms are DentocMo'rlde, D«uto- 
i'odlds (or Daatl'odldB), Dentoz'lde, and 
Dentoanl'plilds. Dentooi'trata, that one of 
two nitrates of the same base which contains 
more of the nitric acid radicle. A similar term 
is Dentosni'piiata. 

DflTlaUon (dce'Vee-ay'shun). [L.dciid'tio 
= d«- + via, way.] A turning off or to one 
side; avariation from thepropercourse. Oon- 
Jngata d., the deflection of two similar parts 
(e. g., both eyes) in the same direction at odcg. 
Ifln'imlun A., the smallest deQection of a ray 
□r light that can be produced by a fclven 

Srism. Pualytlc d., Sputlc d., BtTkDIi'mle 
., the d. of the eyein paralytic, spastic, and 
ordinary strabismus respectively: aneeting Ihe 

X'nting eye (and then called Primary li.) 
a the sound eye files, and affecting the 
Bomid eye (Secondary d.) when the squinting 
eye is made to perform fixation. 

DoTltalliB (dee-vey'ta-lcyi). [Oc- + L. 
vita, life.] To deprive of vitality, BevUaiiz- 
tag cotton^ cotton containing arsenical paste 
(Dn>i*aK«nppcu(<) used in devilaliiing nerves 

DoToniblro ooUo. Lead eolic. 

I>*w'l)Mry. See Blaetbtrry. 

DAtbbb' car'mliULtlT«. A preparution 
eonlaining magnesiam carbonate, tincture of 
asaf<etida, and tincture of opium (3 percent.). 

Dew-Up. The fold of hanging skin on the 
lower part of the neck of the ox. 

) Dl 

Dew-point. The temperature, varying ac- 
cording to the stale of tbe atmosphere, at 
which dew is deposited. 

DezlocaT'dlA. [Gr. derioi, on the right 
hand, + tardia^ heart,] The state in which 
the heart occupies the right instead of the left 
aide of the body. 

Dez'trad. [L. deiier, right, + -ad.] To- 
ward the right side. 

Sex'tran. llfeitroir.'] A carbohydrate, 
CtllieOt, resembling cellulose, contained in 
the envelopes of Streptococcus meseuterioides 
and in yeast. Derived from dextrose by ter- 
mentation (S. farmentaUon) , and converted 
into sugar by boiling with dilute acids. 

Dex'trln. IDeilro- + •ia.'i A carbohydrate 
fbrmed by llie action of dilute acids and ter- 
ments upon starch | rotating the plane of po- 
larization to the right, and ultimately con- 
verted into maltose by aciils or ferments. 
Varieties : Achroo-dczlrin, which is vincolored 
by iodine; Erytkro-dfitrin, which is colored 
red by iodine; and Malta- dextrin. All have 
the formula (C«HioOs)ii, the value of n vary. 
ing in the different kinds. Animal d., gly- 

DextTiua,BB (^deks'lrin'ays). [-o»e,] A fer- 
ment present in starch, which converia the 
latter into isomaltose. 

Dex'trlnlie. To convert into dextrin. 

Dez'tro-, [L.dexltr, right.} Prefix mean- 
ing (1) right; (3) in chemical terms, dextro- 
rolary, aa7>M(ro-j(/iic(t»<, JUitro-Uirtarie aeid. 
DextrocAT'dU, see Dexioeardia. Dextrodnc- 
tlon (-duk'shun) [L. dOcerr, to lead], move- 
ment of either one of the eyes to the right. 
Dextrogyre (dcka'troh-jeyr), Deitro-rotaxy 
(■roh'tur-ee) [Or. guroi, a turn, or L. rolaTi, to 
turn] , rotating the plane of polarization to the 
right. Dex'troae [-om], dextro-glucose (see 
Giucote). DextTOtoTslOn (-(nwr'zhnn) [L. 
torqulre, to twist], rotation of the vertical 
meridians of both comes to the right. Des- 
troveralon {-vur'shun) [L. verure, to turn], 
a simultaneous and equal movement of boUi 
eyes to (lie right. 

Dboble'i Itdk. Tinea cruris. 

Dl- (dey-). [Gr. di; twice.] A prefix in 
words of Gr. origin, meaning two or twice. 
Specifically, in chemical terms, when fol- 
lowed by the name of an element or nldicle 
with the affix -ic at -oitt. (1) denotes a com- 
pound containing in each molecule two atoms 
of the element or two molecules of the radicle. 
(a ) When followed by the name of an element 
or radicle succeeded by -idt, denotes a com- 
pound formed by combining a base with the 
element or mdicle in the proportion of two 
atoms of the element (or two molecules of the 
radicle) to one atom of the base or to a quan- 
tity of the latter which, in comparison with 
other similar compounds, is regarded as unity. 
Thus a Diehtoride is a compound of two atoms 
of chlorine either with one atom of a base or 
with such an amount of the base aa can just 
combine with one atom of chlori ne. ffimilsr 

DIA 1^ 

tenoB are Dibromidf^ Dikydroxide {or Diky- 
dratt), Diiodide, Dioxide, and Diiulphiat, 
containing reapectively two aloma of bromine, 
two molconles of hydroxy], tvro atoms of io- 
dine, etc. (S) When followed by the name of 
an Bcid-redicle witli -ate or -ite, denotes a salt 
containing t»o molecules of the acid -radicle. 
E. g., DtaceUUe, IXnitralt, IHtnlphaU, are 
salts containing reBpectiveljr two molecules of 
the radicles of acetic, nitric, and sulphario 
acida. {4) When followed by the names of 
two substances, denotes a compound formed 
by Buhstitutina two atoms or molecules of the 
Grst-named Bubstance for one or more atoms of 
some element (nsnally hj-dnwen) in the 
second-named Bubstance (e. g., dimelhyl-xati- 
IhitK is xanthine in which two molecules of 
methyl replace hydrogen), 

DU- (dey'ah-). [Gr.] A prefii, in words 
of Gr. origin, meaning through or across; 
throughout; between or apart. 

Dlftbetas (dey"a-bee'teei). [Gr. = dia- ( 
hiinn'n, to go.] An affection marked by oon- 
tinaous. eicesBirc eicrction of urine. D. mal- 
U'tns (Bacctuulna d., or simply D.), a disease 
in which an eiccBsivc amount of urine of high 
specific gravity and containing glucose ia 
Mcreled. As a temporary affection (glyco- 
turia) it may he due to hepatic congestion, 
he excessive use of surar I^AlimerUary glyeo- 
taria), to poisons {Toac glycottiria), to 
general diseases, or to disease or injun' of 
nervous system, especially puncture of the 
floor of the fourth ventricle. Ordinary 
d. is accompanied by voracious appetite, 
great thirst, and progressive emaciation and 
enfeeblemenl, and terminates fatally. In 
elderly people it may laat for yean without 
causing symptoms, and may disappear of it- 
self, ft ma^ give rise to furunculosis, gan- 
grene, retinitis, and cataract, and ia often 
complicnted with phthisis. Death nay occur 
Arom a peculiar form of coma {Diabrtic coma). 
Treatment; removal from diet of all starchy 
and saccharine foods and alcohol ; promotion 
of functiona of akin and bowels ; opium or 
codeine ; symptomatic treatment of complica' 
tiona. D. alter'naixt, d. alternating with 
gouty symptoms. ilriniiei(.,d. associated with 
pigmentation of all the sccreliug organa, and 
with Bclerosia of the liver and pancreas, ^n- 
ereat ic d.,d, due to destruction or degeneration 
of the pancreas; marked by its sudden devel- 
opment and rapidly fatal course which is at- 
tended with great weaknesa and emaciation 
and the discharge of fatty and nitriwenona 
matters in the feces. Treated by introduction 
of pancreas or pancreatic extract into the rec- 
tum or subeutaneously. D. Inslp'ldas, a dis- 
ease character! zed by the discharge of nn ex- 
cessive amount of pale limpid urine of very 
low specific gravitjr containing no siiDir. It 
occoiB as a complication of tuUerculosis, or 
idiopathicalty. The water alone of the urine 
may be increased (l/ydntria), or the solids 
also may he in excess (Polyuria). In the lat- 
a jtitif affect all the soli ' 


ia), . 

the nitrogenous principles 


alone [Aioturia), or the pboephates {Phot- 
piaitiria, Phosphatie d.). Symptoms; great 
uiirst, and in some cases voracious appetita 
and progreasive emaciation and loss of 
strength. In the latter set of cases death may 
occur from exhaustion ; in others the disease 

) bad effect upon the general condi- 
Trcatment maiiHy symptom " 
;t of valerian (2-8 3 a day). 

7 symptomatic, with 

, _ . .. 3. Producing diabetes; as D. 

puncture of the medulla. D. centra, the 
centre in the medulla, puncture of which pro- 
duces diabetes. 

DUbetln (dey-a-bee'tin). Trade name for 
levuloseuaed as a subatitute for ordinary sugar 
in diabetes. 

Sla1>etOBenlo (dey-a-bet"oh-jen'ik). 
[-jjenie.] Producing diabetes. 

Dlabatoganoiu (dey"a-bee-toj'ee-nu8). [-ge- 
noat.] Produced by diabetes. 

plabTOila (dey"a-broh'Bi«), [Gr. = dia- + 
Ariwjf, an eating.] Corrosion; especially, cor- 
rosion producing perforation. 

Dlftcela (dey'a-seel). Diaccele. 

Dlacatata (dey-as'ee-taTt). See Di- (3). 

DiMtatnrU (dey-as"ee-tew'ree-ah). rj>i- + 
acetic (■ Gr. ouron, urine,] The aecretlon of 
dlacatlc (aceto-acetic) *MA in the urine. 

DlftCbrlOB (dey-a-key'lon). [Gr. diachulon 
— made of juices.] I.ead plaster; also called 
Emplas'trum d, (album or simplex), Com- 
poiud (or Tellow) d. pikltor (Emplas'trum 
d. compos'itum), galbanum plaster. 0. Oint- 
ment ( Unan/n'tum d., U, S., G. P.), a mix- 
ture of lead piaster and olive oil. 

of the nature of a case ; B predication 
le nature of nu ailment basnl npon an 
lation. DlOtreii'tlftl d., the dislin- 

Suialiing of two allied diseases from each other 
y contrasting their symptoms. D. l»y ax- 
eltulon, d. by eliminating from consideration 
one disease aner another aa not accounting for 
the symptoms present, until finally one disease 
is letl which rnuKt be regarded as the cause of 
the latter, Phya'lCal d,, d. effected by objec- 
tive examination, as by mensuration, percus- 
sion, auscultation, ete. PaUtOlog'tcu d., d. 
of the structural and functional morbid con- 
ditions underl^in^ a diaeascd state. Be'glonkl 
d., d. made within a apecial region ; also to- 
pogmphicnl d, TopoBraph'lcal d., d. of the 
locality in which a leuon is situated. 



DUcnoatlc (def''iig-iicis'tik). Of, pertain- 
ing to, or BDbserving diagnoeiBj as D. Ejmp- 
loms. D. tube, see Otoicope (2d def.). 

DUfUOltlc&t* (dey"Bg-nM'tee-kBjt). To 
make the diagnoeis of; to predicate the ex- 
itteaoe of, aller eiaminatioii. 

a vessel with porous walla and immer- 

ting it in trater, when the mora difiiisible eub- 
Btancea p&sa through the walls. Sulixtances 
readily undergoing d. are called crystalloids; 
other Bobataoeea are called eolloids. ilenee, 
siftlysabla (deV'a-ley'xa-bul], susceptible of 
■mdersoing d.; Dlal'jBmta, a Bubstance sepa- 
rated from a miitnre by d.; Slalyved [dey'a- 
leyzd) [L. diatyta' tui\, subjected to or pre- 
pared by d.; ttulyter (dey'a-lej-zar), an ap. 
paistoa for performiug d. 

I>i«ma<ii«Uc(dey"a-inag-net'ik). {fii.dia- 
+ mag7ttl\c.'\ Repelled by a magnet. 

le(dey'aiD-een). {Di- + amine.'] See 
jtmiTie. DlumnQilk (dey-am"in-ew'ree-ah), 
(be excretion of d's in the urine. 

Dl&pMleala (dey"a-p«e-dee'siB). [Gr. diapf- 
ddein, to ooze through,^ The pnssaec of the 
coDleuts of a vessel bodily through the vessel- 
wall ; aa the D. of (he blood-corpuBcles. 

]M&pbuioa(iop«(dey"a-fon'oh-skohp). [Gi 
did- + pKaineithai, to appear, -I- -tcopt.] A . 
appliance for illuminating B cavity of the 

DlBphanoa'eopy, eiammatioo by the d. 

I>lal»llOMBlB(dcy"«-foh-ree'8i!i). [Gr.= Jta- 
+ phartein, to carry.] The fhw p ' 

DUpbonHc (dey"a-foh-ret'ik). Producing 
free perapiration ; an agent increasing perspi- 
ration. The d's comprise 8tlm'iUuii d's, 
which act by Blimutating the circulation in 
Ihe skin, and include the cold buth, alcohol, 
hot drinks, and the preparations of 


nauBeanlR and cardiac aedalives, i 
cac, tartar emetic, aconite, veni- 
jalforandi.andsalicylic acid. D's 
are usea in acute febrile diseases (especially 
tonsillitis, laryngitis, pneumonia, and rheo- 
matism), to reduce the temperature and ren- 
der the akin moist ; in hepatic and renal dis- 
ease, to relieve the dropsy by withdrawing 
water tVom the system and to promote the 
elimination of effete pro<luets; in detachment 

of the retina, to promote the absorption of the 
■ub-retiual liqnid, el«. 

Diaphragm (dey'a-fr«m). [Gi. diaphragma, 
fr. diaphratinn, to fence across.] 1. A par- 
tition forming a more or leas complete wall to 
a cavity ; especi ally, a shutter pierced with one 
or more apertures aud set before a lens so as to 
cut off part of the light from it. Iris d., a d. 
whose aperture can be contracted or enlarged 
like the pupi! of the eye. S. The great mus- 
culo- membranous septum between the thorax 
and abdomen. Sec Mtuele4, TabU of. D. phs- 
nom'tnon, the appearance on the ches^wall of 
a moving line indicative of the shilling posi- 
tion of the d. during respiration. 

Dl»plu:ftgm»tlc(dey"a-fnig-mat'ik)._ Of or 
pertaining to the diaphragm, as D. regiODf D. 

Snglion and D. plexus of the sympathetic, 
paralysis, D. spasm ; performed by the dia- 
phragm, as 1). respiration ; in the region of or 
through the diaphragm, as D. hernia. 

DlftpliUiaTtiia (dey-afthnr.een). [Gr. di- 
aphtMrtxn, to desfrov utterly.] Oiyquina- 
aeptol. A compound of oxyquinoline and 
oseptol. A yelfow powder; antiseptic and 
used in bums and ulcers. 

Maphtbol (de/af-thol). Quiaaacptol; a 
substance used internally as an antiseptic. 

DUpbysla (dey-af ee-sis). [gr. diaphutii 
= dia- + phutii, a growing.] The shall of a 

DUvopbysls (dey"a-poree<is). [Dia- + 
Gr. npopAuffl'g, outgrowth,] The tip of the 
transverse process of a vertebra. 

DlMTbcsA (dey-a-ree'ah). [Gr. diarrhoia 
— dia- + rheeiii, to flow.] A condition charac- 
lerized by loose and frequent evacuations of 
the bowels. D. may be due to irritant sub- 
stances, as undigested food, cathartic drugs, 
special kinds of drinking-water, or liactena ; 
to vaso-motor or other diaturbanee in the in- 
testine; or to inflammation of (be iulfBtinp, 
which may be simple or specific (tuberculouB). 
The matters evacuated may consist of the 
feces, undigested food (Llenter'ic a.), serous 
liquids CWatary or Baroas d.), or look like 
pai-Boup (as in typhoid fever) or rice-water 
(as in cholera). Treatment: removal of 
cause of irritation (e. g., of undigested food by 
castor oil, and regulation of diet), intestinalnn- 
tisepsistopreveut fermentative changes (naph- 
thaline, naphthol, salol, bismuth salicylate), 
regulation of digestive processes (pepsin, liy- 
drocbloric acid, ipecac, cholagogues), astrin- 
gents and sedatives (bismuth, chalk, lead 
acetate, opium, kino, catechu, krameria, sul- 
phuric acid, camphor, chloroform). D. albft, 
Oocbln-Chlna d. (Chrmiic d., Endrmie d.), 
psiloBis. Wbll« d. (of calves), scour. 

Slaicope (dey'a-skohp). \IHa-^ -teopf-l 
A plate of elasa pressed upon the skin so as (o 
squeeze the blood out of the area beneath and 
expose the anatomical changes apart from the 
phenomena of congestion. 



J (dey'a-8(By»). [{jr. iliiulatia, n 

standing apart, = dia- + itenai, to stand.] A 
ferioent cootained in malt, capable of convert- 
ing starch into dextrin end uibIIi>s« ; reall; n 
mixture of maltase and Kranulusc. Used in 
-mylaceoua djspcpda; dcse, 1-3 gr. (gni. 

'■- Taka^., <■ 

irotium or 
aaUmry d., ptjalin. 

Dlaatailc (dtj'"a-stav'zik). Of or pertain- 


DlMU»U(dey-aa'ta-sia). [Gr, = dio- + 1( j. 
nai, to stand.] The farcibli.' separation of an 
epiphysis from the bone to which it is attached. 

DUutaUc (dey"a-Btat'ik). Of or pertain- 
ing to diastase or to diastasis. 

DtulamatDmyelU <dey-s-stcin"a-U>h-iDey- 
ee'lee-ah). [Gr. ditulima, fissure {= dia- + 
ttinai, io stand), and mueloi, marrow.] Con- 
genital separation of the lateral halves of the 
spinal coni. 

Di&at«r(de7-as'tur). [Z)t- +] 
See CaTyociitetii. 

DlMtOleCdcy-as'toh-lee). [Gr. = dia- + »Wi- 
lein, to nrrange.] The period of passive dila- 
tation of the heart, during which its CHvilies 
become filled with blood. Thed. of the ven- 
tricles (often called simply D.) begins with 
the clcwnre of the semilunar valvi'S (second 
sound of heart}, and ends with the beginning 
of the ventricular systole (at or just before 
the beginuiDK of the first souQil). It lasts 
about O.R second, Tlic d, of the anriclrs ends 
alK)ut 0.1 second sooner, giving place to the 
auricular systole. 

Diastolic (dey"a-stol'iI(). Of, pertaining 
to, or synchronous with the diastole ; as the D. 
Bound (of the heart), D. murmurs. 

DlathsnnanonB (dey"a-thur'mB-nus). [Gr. 
dm- + (A<rmf, heiit.] Permeable by heat ; ad- 
mitting of the pusxage of heat-rays. DlA- 
Uei'mauay, the stale or property of being d. 

DUthnls (dey-alh'ee-sis), [Gr.-d;a- + 
tilheaai, to place.] A congenital condition of 
the system which render "' '' ■ ■ ■■ ■■ 
to certain diseases. Na 
diseased state which it engenders; as Gotity 
{or Anhrigie) d Rkeamat'icim Catarrh'al) 
a., Slrumoiu It. (favoring the development of 
seroRila, i. e., of tuberculosis), Hitmorrhagie 
d, (predisposing to haemorrhage iVom slight 
ea), Aneuru^mal d. (tending to the pro- 
Ion of mufti-'- ' " - 

JtAaimied. (pr 
and simitar ski 

ing two atoms of hydrogen replaceable by 
radicles, as D. aicoM, D. acid. 

IHUo-rQAcUoD (dey-az'oh). [Di- + oiMc] 
A reaction observed in measles, typhoid fever, 
erysipelas, and other diseases, in wliich the 


urine turns red on the additi 

lane-anlpbonlo add, CtUiXiSOi. 

DlbBele(dey-bay'sik). [Di+ba»e.) Doubly 
basic ; of a salt, containing two molecules or 
equivalents of a base, i.e., iormed from on acid 
by the substitutiou of two atoms of hydrogen ; 
01 an acid, containing two atoms of hydrogen 
replaceable by bases. See Acid and Salt. 

DlbnimgalUe acid ( dey"brohm-gal'ik ). 

Dlbromld* (dey-broh'meyd). See Di- (2). 

DlcUcic (dey-kol'sik). Containing two 
atoms of ealcitim in the molecule. 

Dlcopholui (dey-sef'a-lus). [Di- + Gr. 
kfphuii, licad.] 1, Having two heads. 3. A 
two-headed monsler, 

Dichloraoetlc acid (dey-kloh"ra-see'tik). 
See under Chloraceiie acid. 

Dlchloriae (dey-klob'reyd). Sec Di- (2). 

DlohroUm (dey'kroh-iim). [Di- + Gr. 
chroiiHn, to color.] The state of being 
IHchro'lc, or of having one color by trans- 
mitteil tight and another by reflected liglit^ or 
one color when light is passed through n thick 
and another when it is passed through a thin 

IHchTomate (dey-kroh'mayt), Dlduromlo 
add (itey-kroh'mik). See under CAromfunt. 


primary elevation by the D. notcli. 
Dlc'TOUsm. The state of being dici 
DldaoUe (dey-dak'tik)._ [Qt. didatkein. 

Dielectric (dey"ee-lek'trik). [Dia- + tlec- 
(Wf.l Of a boily, allowing electric action 
to lake place across it (i.e., by induction), but 
not conducting electricity ; insulatiug. 

Dlencepbalon (dey"eD-sefa-Ion). [I>ia--t- 
eiicfp/ial</n.'\ A general term for the commia- 
sural structures (chiasm, optic tracts, etc.), 
lyinf; at the base of the brain and in the mid- 

Di*t{dey'et). [Gr. diaila.) 
drink taken regularly from d __ 

ticularly, a specified amount of food and drink 
to be nllowed in a given case. A d, is named 
(1) according to the fOod which forms ita 
Btaplp, as Milt d., Meat d.. Ftih d VegetabU 

The food aud 
lit of food ai 

only, or of liquids and br«id : also railed 

Hfmon d.). Soft d-ioteemisoUiifboS), Solid d. 
(of solid food)- (2) according to the amonnt 
given, as Full d.. Qtntroxu d., Comnwa d., 


listing only of milk, broths, and tooat or 
jdlies); GtnUy d. (in whioh nilrogcnouB foods, 
such w meat, are r«seriI^l¥d, ana wines, expe- 
cittlly the sweet wines, and beera are prohib- 
ited); Jthruniat'ic d. (like gout; d., tape- 
cialif as regards restriction of wines and 
beers); Dial/et'ic d. (in which all saccharine 
Bod starcliy foods, iiitluding ordinary bread, 
nee, potatoes, many vegetubles, fruits, and 
Bweet wines, are prohibili^); Ba-nling d. (to 
reduce bt: fills, cream, saecharineaudstan-liy 
foods, with sweet wines and porter, iH'ing 
avoided}; Convale^cnU d. (any fortn of lisht, 
simple, and appetinng solid or liquid fbod). 

DlMarT (dej'e-ter-ee). A schemeof diet to 
be systematically followed out; A regular and 
fixed isle of diet. 

DlaUUc (dey"e-tct'ik). Of or pertaining 
to diet; effected by regulating the diet, as D. 
treatment. Hence, DletM'ici, the science of 
diet and its regulation. 

IHeUlTU]lllo«(dey-eth"iI-am'een). [/>)- + 
etkyl + amine.] A liquid base, Ciliii = 
N(CiIU}iIt, found in putrefying fixh, and 
prixluced by the action of a bacilluB found 
in poisonous sansageB. 

DlatliylHia-dluiilne ( der-eth"i-leen-dvy- 
am'een). [Di- + tlhylciit KHamiW.] Piper- 

Dlatl'l erlsei. Paroxysms of ecrerc pain 
otien associated with nausea and drawing sen' 
satioDS, occurring in esses of movable kidney. 

DllbrentUl (difflir-en'shat). Of, pertain- 
ing to, or indicative of dilfercnecs; serving to 
dilerentiate; as D. diagncnis, D. staining. 

DllbrentlaUon (dif"'fur-en"Bhee-ay'shuii), 
1. The act of differentiating or distinguishing 
one thing from another. S. The act or proc' 
e« of becoming distinct by the acquisition of 
individual characters. 

DUtnwUoii(dif-frBk'BbunJ. [/)i-*-+L./raF.- 
gert, to break,] The beudjng and breaking 
up into its components of a ray of white light 
which passes by the edge of an opaque body, 
e. ^., the edge of a fine line ruled on gloss. A 
series of parallel lines ruled on glaas forms a 
D. griitliig, and the ligbt passing by them is 
decomposed by d., forming a O. ■pectrrun, 

SllniMt* (dif-few'sayt). That part of a 
mixture of substances placed in a dialyser 
which diffuses through the membrane, 

DlSlLH (dif-fcw»'). Widespread; not def- 
initely limited; also, of on inflanimution, nf- 
fMing both the parenchyma and the iutrr- 
stitial tissue of an organ, as 1>. nephritis, 

DUTnw (dif-fewi'). 1. To spread or cause 
to spread in all directions. S. To pass through 
an animal membrane by osmosis, 

DiflllMd (dif-fewid' ). Scattered in every 
direction, as D. li|^t; not cireumscribed or 
sharply limited, as D. aneurysm. 

DllRulble (dif-few'iec-bul). Capable ofdif- 
fusing, dialysable ; spreading rapidly throu^ 
the body, as D. stim ulanls. 

ir (dif.few"ree-om'ee-tur). [-BK- 

tn-.l An apparatus formeaauriug the rate of 

I>lffluloil(dif-few'zhun). ll,.diffuadtrt,ia 
pour in different directions.] 1. The act of be- 
coming diffused or spread widely; as D. of 
gases, £>. of light. D.-clrde, the circle which 
an image of n point forms upon the retina 
when the latter is not at the focus of the 
dioptric system of the eye. The larscr the d.- 
rircle the greater the blurring of the image. 
The size of the d. -circle is greater in propor- 
tion to the dwrce of ametropia and the dia: 
eter of I" - - - ... 

animal n: 

u the inferior suriace of either 

temporal bone). 
DlgeatUlt (di-jest'ent). Assisting oi 
.!__ .1 — !._ . ^ remedy or age' "' 
digestive tonic. 

Dlgeation (di -jest' shun). [L. 
separate, — dis- + gerirt, to carry.] 1. The 
act or process of subjecting a body to pro. 
lonfted neat and niuinture so as to soAen and 
disjnl^rale it. 3. The series of processes 
by which food is converted into material fit 
for absorption by the blood and lymphatics 
and for assimilation by the body-cclla. P. 

formed by the teeth and the muscles of the 
buccal cavity comminutes and softens the 
food, which is moistened by tbe saliva. The 
latter converts the starehy elements of tbe 
food into sugar, mainly maltose (Skl'lTUT 
d.). The food is then swallowed (see Dtg- 
latilion) and carried into the stomach, where 
it is Buhjecled lo churning movements and 
the action of the gastric juice (Quitrlc d., 
FepUe d.). Tlie conversion of sUrch into 
sugor is arrested, the fills are melted, the pro- 
leids converted inlii peptones, milk is coagu- 
lated, muscular and other fibres are disinle- 
graleil, and tbe food-mass transformed into 

¥[ayish liquid pulp, like peu-»oup (cliyine). 
his pas.scs the pylorus and into Ine suuill in- 
tcsline, where it is subjected to the Hirtiou of 
the inti'Stinal juice, bile, and pancreatic juice 
(Iiit««'tliial d., including Fancraat'le d. and 
Bil'laryil.), Thefala are emulsified, and, in 
part.suponitiLiI; the remaining protcidaar 

rted into peptonex (with leuciiie,tyroslne,and 
-.her by-products); and starch is trannrnrnipil 
into maltose (with glucose, dextrin, et 

products); the retultliig milky liquid being 
the chyle. The bui-leria present in the intes- 
tine decompose the proleids into indol, phenol, 
ptomaines, and ullier substances, and cause 
fermcntatiie chauKCS in the carbohydrates 
(lactic-Hcid and butyric-acid (crmenlutions), 
giving rise lo hydrogen and carbon dioxide, 
liie sugars, Ihe pniteids, and the mineral salts 
(which do not undergo transformation) a ■ r ^ 


sorbed hj the blood-reiwta ; (he fittB are ab- 
sorbed by the Ltctenls, The undigested resi- 
due, with rarioui eicrementitioua products 
thrown into the bowel, constitulca the feces, 
which collect in the liuve intestine. In the 
l&tter a certain amount old. takes pi 
lose being decomposed, with the foi 

Digit (dij'it). [L. iHfitui.] A 1 
(Digitus mania) or toe {Ditfitiuptdii) 

Dlgltel (dij'ee-t&l). 1- Of or pertaiDiDg to 
the fingers or toes; a»D. arteries, " - - 

of the femur, D. MmVu [ = poate- 

11 of lateral ventricle of brain). 3. 

Performed with the finger ; bb D. compression 
of aneurysm, D, eiHminntion, D. eiploiation, 

Digitalis (dij"ee-tay'liB). [L., fr. digiliu, 
because of its fineer-shaped corolla.] A genoa 
of herbs of the Scrophulariaceie. Tlie leaves 
of D. purpu'rea or loi-glove, of Europe are 
theD., U. S. ('lia, B.P.,Foliad..Q. P.). 
They conlAin a bitter glucosidc, I>U1ta'Un 
<DigitaH'num), including French (or insolu- 
ble) and German (or soluble) digilalin ; Dls- 
Itoz'iii; and other principles, D. elcvatesthe 
blood-pressure, augments the force of the sys- 
tole and prolongs the diastole of the heart, 
and contrarts the arterioles. Indirectly it bcIb 
as a diuretic. In large doses it is a cardiac 
poison, arresting the heart in systole. Used as 
a heart tonic in heart disease with Mling com- 
pensation and cardiac weakness ' ly 
cause, and as s diuretic in dropsy, ee of 
renal origin. Dose, 1-2 gr, (gm. I I ; 
of the Ertnuftam d., U. S., f>.2^ gr. ( 1 1 
Retntc'tam d.fiaidam, U.S., 1-2 m J- 
0.13) ; Iiifu'tHm d,, V. S., B. P., 2 a. 
8-15) ; Tinctu'ra d., V. S., B. P., i„. .. ., „ 20 
mfgrn, 0.30-1.25); J>io«nWn,gr.0.0B-0.2fi(gm. 
O.003-O.015) ; Digiloziit, gr. 0.004-0.008. 

Diglt«Uoa (dij"ce-tay'Bhun}. [I>igit.'\ A 
finger-like process, especially of a muscle. 

DUydrate (dey-hey'drayt). [Di- + Aj/. 
rfni(e.] 1. See Di- (2). 3. A compound con- 
taining two molecules of water of crystatliza- 

I>UirdTstad(de^-he7'dray-ted). Containing 
or compounded with two molecules of water. 

DUl7dTlc (dey-hey'drib). Containing two 
atoms of hydrogen in the molecule. 

DUydrocaUldtng (dey-hey"droh-koriee- 
decn). [/>[- + hydrogen + cotfidine.] A base, 
CsHuS-CiIlLiS.II,. Anoilyliquidisomeric 
and perhaps identical with a ptomaine found 
in decomposed flesh and fish. 

DlbydroluUdliK ( dey-hey"droh -icw'l 

deen). [Di- + hydrogen + lulidine.^ An 
oily alkaline, caustic base, CiMiiN, found in 
cod-liTer oil. In small doses it reduces gen- 

«ral sensibility ; i u large doses it cs 

Dibydroxlde (deT"hey-drok'seyd) 
aide (dey-ey'oh-deyd). BeeJ>i-(2). 

.. . D. Of the heart, a conditi 

which the cavities of the heart are enlarged 
and the walls thin or deficient in contractile 

fQwer ; a condition occurring as a sequel to 
ypertrophy, when the compensating efforts 
made by the heart in valvular disease begin 
lo fail. Symptoms: tumultuous and feebls 
heart's action, aniemia, a tendency to syncope, 
general cedema and dropsy of tlie serous cav- 
ities, increosing dyspncea, progressive enfee- 
hlemcnt of physical and mental strength, and 
ultimately death. D. ol the Btom&ch, a con- 
dition occurring in chronic gastritis, in which, 
owing to distention of the stomach with ga< 
and weakening of its muscular coats, the organ 
becomes greatly and permanently enlarged. 
Sj^mploms: anoreiia, indigestion, vomiting, 
failure of nutrition, and consequent emacia- 
tion. Treatment: lavage and feeding through 

. . muscle or 

other structure serving to open an orifice, 
canal, or cavity. See Miuclee, Tabic of. 

DillpozMlUllll {dey-lip"oh-zan'thin). Wi- 
+ Gr. lipoi, fat, + lantlioa. yellow.] A yellow 
lipochrome with two absorption bands in its 
spectrum. Varieties are produced by various 

Dill. Tlie Peuced'annm (Ane'thum) gra- 
ve'olens. The fruit (Ane'thi fructus, B.P.) 

fumishesa volatile oil {0'?«(mane'(Ai,B. P.). 
D. is a carminative and stimulant used in 
colic. Dose: of Oil, 1-3 tI (gm. 0,06-0,20); 
of ^Suo anifihi. B. P,. gss (gro, 15). 

Dllnent (dil'ew-ent). [L. rfifuemj Di- 
luting; weakening the strength or eflect of; 
also an agent that dilutes or weakens. 

DUnt« (di-lcwf ). [L. dVuere (let def.) ; 
dllil'lnt (2d def.).] 1. To weaken by miiine 
with a relatively inert substance. 3. Diluted. 
Dilution (di-lew'shun). the act or process of 
diluting; the stale of lieing diluted. 

(dey-metli"il-am'ccn). [Pi- 
:.] A base, N(CIIi)iH = 
CiIIiN, produced by the decomposition of 
fish, gelatin, and yeasty and by the action of 
a bacillus found in poisonous sausages. It is 
n gas. condensing below 8° C. into a liquid. 

Dlmorphoai (dey-mawr'fus) . [ZX- -I- Gr. 
nuirphf, shape,] Occurring under two differ- 


I>lllltTate<de;-Dey'tra;0. See JH- (3). 

DUUtratwl (dey-nev'traT-led). [i>i- + nt- 

tratedA Compounded with or made froni" — 

See Pgroxyiir 

DtDnlQ (dey'on-in). Ethyl-morphine hy- 
drochloridp. Ci.HnN'O..Iia + H»0. Used to 
check coughinK and sb a reBpimtory sedatiTe. 
DoBC, gr. 0.25 (gm. 0.015). 

Dloptomatry (dey"op-loni'ee-tree). t^lop' 
trie + Gr, mrtron, meaaure.! Measurement of 
the refnctire coiiditioD of the eye. 

Dlaptoacopy (dey"op-tos'koh-pee). {Viop- 
trie + ■leopy.'] Heaau remeiit of tlie refractive 
state of the eye with the ophthalmoscope. 

IHo|rtT« (dey-ap'tnr). See J>ioptrj/. 

Dioptric (iley-op'lrilt). [(Jr. dioplrikoi = 
dia- + opi; root of opirtlhai, to Bee.] Refrac- 

iiig of refraction. 

IHoptrr (dey-op'lree). [Dioptric.'^ A re- 
fractive unit, ueing (he amount of refraelioD 

S reduced hy a lens or other refracting medi 
aring a priiieipul focal dixtancc of one me- 
ictre-lens); (he unit used in measuring 

glasses and the refractive states of the eye^ 
mbol, D. A lens of I D has a focal distance 
ctre, of 2 D (or of twice the refractive 
a focal distance of 0.5 metre, etc. 
1. (symbol, PD), a unit of prismatic 
], being n deflectiou of one centi- 
melrc produced at a dislaniv of one metre. 

DloiprTM(dcy"os-pey'ros). [Gr. = Jove's 
grain.] A genus of ebenaceous trees. The 
fruit of D. embryopteria of India (Diospyri 
fructuB) and D. Tir^iniana (persimmon) of 
America, is very astringent. 

Dioxide (dey.ok'«eyd). See ZK- (2). 
_ IHp. 1. See peelinaliaa (Ist def.). 3. A 

DlpllBllylainlii8(dey-fc«"nil-ara'een). [Bi- 
+ phenyl + ainine.^ A cryatalline sabstance, 
K(C4lIt)iH, used as a test for nitric acid (with 
which it Btnkes a blue color) and for chlorine. 

DlphUierU(difthcerceab) [Or.diphihtr. 

phMyni(PAaryn gaild Diphtherial pharyn- 
gi'tis, Diphtherial tj^nsiili'tiBj J laryni(£<irvn'- 
geala,. Diphtherial larynjti'tis, Meni'hranous 
croup), QoBe, eyelids (Diphtheria! oonjunc- 
tiri'tis), and vulva. The affected parts a— 
covered with white or ( — '"' --^-'- - - 
by a folae membrane w 


cial (eroiipoai membrane^ or in the severe 
cases deep and detached with difficulty {iHph' 
therilic membrane). The underlying tissues 
arc filled with a cellular eiadate, often so 
voluminous as to compress the vessels and thus 
prodoce aniemia and sloughing. These efTecls 
are due to a speciQc poison (D. tozln), pro- 
duced by the bacillue. The action of this 
toiin is very intense, but mainly local. The 
action of the bacilli favors the development of 
other bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, 
and pneumococci ) , producing soon a mixed 
infection leading to gencml sepsis (BepUc d.). 
D. is very contagious, and tends to spread from 

those produced by the swelling and subse- 
. nt sloughing; e.g., in the pharynit, dyspha- 
gia; in thelarynx, aphonia, stridulous respira- 

, ,-'ity 

and suppuration of the cornea. The genenu 
symptoms are anieinia, prostration (often ex- 
treme |, irregular but usually moderate fever, al- 
buminuria, and rarely delirium, D. lasts from 
a few days to a week or two. It is frequently 
fatal, death occurring from sstheuia or (in 

liar weakness or paralysis (DlphtharlAl 
parBl'yals), which is usually temporary in 
character, are frequent. Treatment of d.; in- 
jection of serum of immunize<l animalH (D. 
aiUiforin), especially before mixed infection 
has taken place ; supporting measares, local 
antiseptics and an tiph logistics. Bcaxlatliutl 
d., a disease, especially a membranous tonsil- 
itis, occurring in scarict fever and caused by 
streptococci. *"*»"»' d.. a generic term for 
true d. produced by Bacillus diphtherise in 
cats and guinea-pigs, and for afTections. more 
or less like true d., produced in birds, rab- 
bits, and calves by HacilluBdiphtheriie avium, 
Bacillus Jiphlheriffi columbarum, Bacillus 

DlpbUierlal (dif-thee'ree-al), DlpMIierla 
(dif-ther-ik). Of, pertaining to.or affected with 
true diphtheria, as D. infection, D. membrane ; 
produn^ by diphtheria or the Bacillus diph- 
theri*, as D. conjunctivitis, D. paralysis. 

IHplitlierlUa (dif"thur-lt'ik}. Of, pertain- 
ing to, or marked by the presence of a de<'ply 
penetrating, adherent false membrane, such as 
that formed in the severer rarietics of diph- 
theria and also in any very severe inflamma- 
tion, whether specific or not ; as D. inflamma- 
tion (see IHphllierilii), D. chancre, D. sore 

DlpHUierlUB (dif'thur-cy'tis, ■ec'tis). 
[-i7i«.] Diphtheritic inflammation ; inflam- 
mation, whether diphtherial Or not, associated 
with a diphtheritic membrane and with in- 
tense infiltration and necrosis of the subjacent 

Mphtharold (dif'thnr-oyd). [-ald.^ Like 
diphtheria; diphtheritic. , - . 

i:.,. ,o.:U,CjOO^Ic 


pAf Amwof , an a — . — 

taneoaa utl«raii(^ b]^ the same person of ti>u 
80UDdB diffvring in pitch. 

mplAcnilt (tlip"U-kev'sia). [Gr. diploo4. 
double, + atoii'in, to liear.) Tbe Btate in 
which one Hound is hcsnl as (iro. 

DlplagU (dey-plee'jah). [IS- -^ Gr. p/rpj, 
stroke.} A bilateral pttralysis; as I>. facia'lia, 
panUysis afleotiiig both sides of Ihe face. 

IHD'Io-. [Gr. diplooi, double.] A prefii 
meamng double. 

Dlplab&cterlnm (-balc-lee't«e-um). The 
Bneillua p«stis. 

SipIoblmt'Hc. [Gr. btatloi, sprout.] Con- 
Hsting of a double genu-la^er; as D. embryo. 

, _. ilpd and BCparated by only a 

short iulerval, so as to form an oval or oblong 
Ktructure. D. IntruMUnluls menlnglUdli, 
D. UncaoUtni ( [eapnulatus] , D. pnett- 
moulB). D. of pnannLonla Inhonaa. D. inb- 
flanu. see Micrococcui inlracellulaHi moiin- 
gitidii, ilicroeoecui lanccalatm, vtv. 

I»lpIoB(dip'loh-ec). [Gr.Jip/of, Told.] The 
layer of caneellous lUsue interposed between 
the two tables of a creaial bone. 

Dlploatlc (ilip"loh-et'ik). Of, pertaining 
to, or having the ehuractersof diploe. 

[Gr. miuloi, marrow.] The condition in 
which tliere ib a double spinal cord. 

DlplophoDla (•foh'nee-ah). [Gr. phonf, 
voice.] Diphthongia. 

Diplopia (di-ploh'pee-ah). [Gr. diplmu, 
double, -I- opni, night.] Double vision ; the 
eondition in which an object seen appears 
doable. Hanoc'ulaf d., in whieb one c^e 
sees objects double, is due t« irregular astig- 
matism, incipieut cataract, or any condition 
producing a. double pupil. Blnoc'nlat d., in 
which each eye sees singly, but both together 
fee double, is due to squint, pamlysis of tbe 
[irular muscles, heterophoria, displacement of 
Ihc eyeball, or any cause making Ihe axis of 
one eye deviate from the object of fixation. 
Binoculard. is Homon'yinoni whentheimage 
of tbe left eye ia on (he left side and vice 
versa, in which case the visual axes converge 
too greatly ; Hsteron'yinoni or OroiMd when 
llie image of the left eye is on the right side, 
in which ease Ihc visual axes are divermnt; 
and is Ver'tlCKl when one iniag<.' stands above 
Ihc other. X'crtical d. is called Richt, If the 
image corresponding to the right eye is tbe 
lower (indit'uting that the ri^ht eye itself is 
directed alwve the Ipfl); and in the contrary 
cose is called left. 

DlpoteMlc (dcy"pc>h-(«B'sik}. Containing 
two atoms of potassium in the molecule. 

Dlppal'i uilnul oil. [L. o'leiim anim&'le 
lUppem, fr. .1. C. Dippel (I71U, who first 
niMC it fmni blood.] A fetid oily liquid ob- 
tained by the dry distillation of animal mat- 


ter- bone oil. It contains pyridine, Intidfne, 
and many olber bases. 
DlppllV. A variety of palpation in which 

the finger-tips are pressed suddenly down 
sgaJoEt an organ, so as to displace liquid or 
other interposed substanccB and reveal the 
edge and surface of the organ. 

Dlpplns needla. A magnetic needle sus- 
pended BO as to move fteely in a vertical plane, 

DlproMipiu (dey"pros-oh'pu8). [Gr. pro- 
topon. Isce.] A monster having two faces. 

DlpMmuda (dip"soh-may'nee-ah). [Gr. 
dipta, thirst, + mnnia, madneaa.] Uocontrol- 
labte and insane desire for drink. 

Dlpygiu (dey-peygus). [Gr. pufi, but- 
tock.] A monster having two pelves. 

Dlrart'. [L. diridttit = dit- + rtgrre, to 
rule.] 1. In a straight line ; straight forward ; 
going straight (i. e., without decussation or in- 
lerruption) to its end, as the D.etrtbetCar 
tract and /'. pyram'idal tract of the cord. D. 
CDTTWit, a ^IvBuic current; also a galvanic 
current passing through a nerve from the Cen- 
tre toward tbe periphery. D. Illamliia,ti01l, 
illumination from straight in front. D. (in- 


means; not roundabout; txD.antipyra 
mtlhiHl of ophthalmoscopy (see Ophlh-. ... 
icopej. D. ipixk, an electric spark which 
passes through the patient's body directly 
from the electrodes (i. e., without the interven- 
tion of a Leyden jar). D. elMtrliatlon, elec- 
tritation of a muscle b^ applying one electrode 
to the muscle itself or its motor point, and the 
other lo an iodiflerent point. 

Dlree'tor. A grooved inslrumcnt along 
which a knife can be slid without injuring the 
parts beneath. 

IHsftoclurUle (dey-sak'ar-eyd). [Di- + 
latckaram.} See CarboliydraU. 

Diurttoolatloii (dis"ahr-tik-yu-la^8hun). 
[Dii- >- articu/alf.'i The acl of unjointingor 
severing jo ill (-connection ; amputation through 

Dtiaaaimilatloii (dis"'Bs-sir 
[Ws- + owiniiVdiroH.] The re 
lation; the process by which a suosiance is 
cast out and converted into waste matter. 

DUe. [L. diKUi, a quoit.] A round, flat, 
pla(e-like structure. Oer'nmwl d., tbe g- 

seof Bi 

OpUc d., the Sat 
terminal expansion oi tne optic nerve ui>on 
the retina. When inflamed and swollen with 
(edema, it constitutes Choted d. Oal'atllt d. 
( LarocUV, B. P.). a thin d. of gelatin varionslr 
medicated for introduction into the eye. 

DUcbarge. [Dii- + chargr.} 1. A letting 

forth. Betting free, or liberation ; especially, the 

liberation of electricity, or the poamge of eleo- 

trici(y from a highly eiectriGed (oVlen elec- 

i:.,. ,..:i„G00^fC 


ified boily. J>i>niB'(iw d., a d. of electric- 

iattcndea witli light, heal, and mechanical 
vta. a. Tci remove a chatve, as of electric- 
purtirulnrly with Kuddcn- 

ity from anythitie. pi 

iie«8 and force. Diat , — , _„ 

forproduciagad.ofetectricity. DltobAT'clng 
leuoiu, leaioDB atteodol with great and sud- 
den liberations of energy, 

Dlielsaloii (dis-Btzh'un). [L. dltcMii, fr. 
dltciiuUrt. to cut apart.] A cutting in two ; 
especially, division of a soft or mcmbrauouB 
cataract, cSeclcd by a nharp needle or very 
slender pointed knife which is pawed through 
the cornea and swept through the cataract. 

DUeomyoM (dis-kom'ee-seez). [Gr.ditkot, 
quoit, + m-ttka, lunguB.] See Miceococtui at- 

IMs'iHtrd. An awemblage of two or more 
sonnda which do not harmonizei also the 
component ioharmonioua sound produced by 
tht.' simultnneona production of two or more 
inharmonious tones. 

DlsCTflte (dis-Iireet'). \_L,. diser? tu* ^ dis- 
+ ctriure, to separate.] Composed of parts 
which remain separated, as a D. eruption; 
marked by d. lesions, as D. amall-poi. 

DU'oni. [L.] See Ditc. D. pTollg'emi, 
a granular xone formed by an accnmulalion of 
the cells of tbe membnna granulosa of the 
ovary about the ovum. 

DluQUeut (dis-kew'tee-enl). [L. diicti'- 
tiea>^dii- + quatere. to shake.] Scattering; 
cauBiag disappearaacc and resolution of mor- 
bid material ; also a remedy so acting. 

DlBdlacIut (disHley'a-klast). [Qr. dU, 
twice, + dia- + tiaein, to break.] The 
doubly-refracting segment of a muscle-Ebre. 

DU8M«(di.wei'). [DU- + «ut.] Any de- 
viation from lieaUli presenting Airly well- 
marked and regular symptoms and having 
a definite and characteristic eliolo^cal or 
pathological chamctcr. D. is a genenc term, 
usually restricted, however, to Ine more seri- 
ous perversious of health ; agcction has spe- 
cial reference to the part or organ which is at 
fault; ditordfr denotes derangement of func- 
tion, especially a transitory one ; illnai and 
tielnuM have special reference to the sensa- 
tions or syraptomB. and are npplied to the per- 
son suffering from the disease. D's are classed 
according to (A) njtture, as Corulilalional (or 
Oenerat or Syttem'ic). which originate in 
tome altered state of the whole system, and 
more or less affect the whole body ; and Local 
<or Top'ical), which originate in and remain 
confined to one part. (B) origin: as Idio- 

Sth'ic {or JVfnmry), when not due to other 
I; StiWJulary, when due to anollier d., and 
occurring either as a symptom (SjimpUymnt' ic 
d. ) or as a sequela ; and JnltrcuTp eat. or Com- 

§ Heating, when occurring along with another 
., whether due to it or not. (C) mode of 
oiitlll; as Zymo^iCj due to fermentative 
action (i. e., to morbid germs and their pto- 
maines) ; Sfptcific, due to a special character- 
istic morbific agency, whether lymotic 



(D) matliod of g»ne»Uon and tnuiamission 
as In/eCtioui d., CorUa! giutii d., etc. (E) 
•xcltuig canae ; as Occupation d't. due to 
the patient's mode of living: VemfTcal d't, 
due to sejual intercourse; Filth d't, due to 
dirt and overcrowding ; Mia*BUU'ic (or i\i(u'- 
dal or Mala-rial) #«,- FaroMl'ie d',. (F) 
nUiir* of tho dunge prodncsd, as Fum^- 
lional d., in which Cliere is alteration of func- 
tion without alteration of structure; JVuiri"- 
lional d., in whirh there is alteration of func- 
tion and nutrition without visible lesions 
although lesions loo minute to be seen prob- 
ably eiist ; Stnuftural d., in which there are 
changes of nlmcture visible with the micro- 
scope; and Organ'ic (or Coarte) d., in which 
there are lesions visible to the naked eye. (G) 
nature of the pttthologlcalproeatt; as Con- 
gei lived., Injiamm' atory d. IH) site of tHe 
iBtlon. as focal d., m which the lesion occu- 
pies a circumscribed spot ; Diueoi' inated d., 
in wliich there art; multiple circamscril>e4 
lesions; IMffute <t.,ia which llie lesion is 
uucircumscribed ; System d., in which the 
lesion occupies a nerve-tract, making u^ a 
special system ; FareTiehym' alout d., in which 
the parenchyma of an organ is affected ; In- 
trrslit'iiil d., in which the interstitial tissue of 
an organ is attacked, (1) organ or (et of 
organs affeetsd; as Respiratory d's Cir'cu- 
latory d's. Digestive (or Chylopoi'etic), As- 
sim'ilative, Hfematopoietic, Genilo-u'rinarr 
[Sci'ual), Locomo'tor, Nervous, and Psychic 
(or Mental) d's. (K)aonrie:as Acute, Sub- 
acute, and Chronic. Speolally-named <!'■ 
(L) are Addison's (Bronzed-skin d.), Base- 
dow's (or Grave's), etc., see AddUon'a d., etc. 

IMilnfect'. [Dii- + in/rct.] To free from poi- 
sonous or virulent bacteria and their products 
by desi roying the latter or rend eringtb em inert. 

DlslnlSct'ant. Rendering free from infec- 
tion ; an agent that serves to disinfect or to 
free from noxious bacteria and their products. 
The d's used for fillers, sewers, privies, etc., 
are dry earth, charcoal, quick lime, chlori- 
nated lime, slacked lime, and ferrous sul- 
phate; for infected apartments, sulphur diox- 
ide (prepared by burning sulphur), chlorine 
(generated by decomposingsalt with sulphuric 
acid or hy moistening chlorinated lime), and 
formaldehyde ; for clothes and utensils, dry or 
moist heat, carijolic acid, and corrosive sub- 
linialc; for the hands and for instruments, 
carbolic acid, corrosive sublimate, cresot, cre- 
olin, potassium permanganate. Cr. .^nlu«p(t'e. 
Aseptic, and Sltrilize, 

Dlslnfectloii jdia"in-fek'Bhun). The proc- 
ess of disinfecting ; the act of freeing from 
bacteria and their noxious products such as 
are likely to breed infection. 

DlilaeaUon (dJs"lah-kay'Bhun). [Dit- + 
L. locui, place. L. luxd'lio.'] A removal, 
usually sudden and violent, of a part from its 

Slace ; particularly, the removal of a bone 
'om its Joint-cavity and articular connections. 
D's are usually due lo injury (Tramnat'lcd.), 
sometimes to disease breaking up the joint 
(PaUiolog'leald.). They ma; occur in ut«~ 
l),,;/c..:U, Google 

OlSODtC 1 

(Istnt-D'terliiad., Consan'lMl d.). Accord- 
ing as (he part retains some or none of iU 
former eonnectiooa and relations tlie d. is 
classed at CompleM and as FartlaJ (incom- 
plete d.. Hubluiation). A d. ie CoinpUca,ted 
nhen associated with injury of yesgelsj nervea, 
or other important structures; and is either 
Simple (CliHed) or Componna (Open) accord- 
ing as there is or is not an open wound leading 
down to the distocnt^d part. A d. may, owiog 
to impairment of the articolar connections, 
tend lo recur often (Hftblt'oAl d.). Treat- 
ment : early reduction ; rest for part, with re- 

normally Keep it in place are much injured. 

DiMdio (^dey-Boh'dik). Containing two 
atoms of sodium in the molecule. 

Dla'pATSite. [L. diipara^ iw-diM- +parare, 
to make ready.] Separate; not occupying 
the same place, absolute or relative ; hence, of 
points of the two retinie, not situated alike, 
not identical. 

Dlapen'sarr. A place where treatment and 
medicines are given gratuitously. 

Diipen'iatory. A treatise upon medicines 
and tlie methods of compounding them : Par- 
ticularly, a syHtemtttic exposition of official 
drugs based upon a pharmacopiBia. 

Dtipene'. [L. dU- + ^>aroere, to strew.] 
To scatter; to destroy, as a tumor, hy scatter- 
ing or separating its component parts. 

IHaperalng leas. A concave lens ; so called 
because making lays that pass through it 
more divergent. 

DiBpenion (dis-pur'shun). A scattering 
apart ; especially, the separation from each 
otherof (he component raya of a beam of light 
by refraction or reflection. 

Dlaplnt (dey-spey'rah), tHaplrem (dev- 
■pey'rem). [ZK- + L. iplra, coil.) The double 
wreath formed in caryoclnesis by the nuclei 
aOer the formation of the Jiaster. 

ui reuiuviii^Eiuui H piaiTV, eHpei'iauy II 
place; dislocation. 3. Percolation. 
DlsmptlTe (dis-nip'tiv). [Dii- + L. rum- 

S;ri!, to break.) Tearing or breaking asunder. 
. dlichATge, see Ducharge. 

DUiact'. [L. dit- -i- tecare, to cut.) To cut 
apart or asunder; especially, te separate the 
organs or tissues in a dead or living subject so 
as to isolate any one part for observation. 

DUsee'tliiB. 1. Acting to separate or push 
asunder parts gcneral1:F contiguous; as a />. 
ane-arytm. 3. Pertaining to or intended for 
dissection; as a O.-room, i).-tBt>. 3. Pro- 
duced by dissection ; as a D,-wound, 

DlaMoUon (dis-sek'shun). Acuttingapart; 
especially, the csreful and systematic employ- 
ment of the knife to separate and isolate an- 
atomical structures. D. tnltercle, a tubercle 
upon the skin ascribed to infection got in dis- 
secting; often really due to tuberoulosis. 

DllMm'lluttAd. [L. di»tlmiiiSlti» = dU- + 

(see SettToai*), D. chorioiditis. 

DliBoclB,t>le ( dis-soh'sha-bnl ). Rettdil/ 
separable into component parts; alsoofsain- 

fle component, readily separable from its fel- 
>w components, as D. oxygen of htemoglobin. 
DlEaoelat* (dis-soh'shee-ayt). [DU--i-ij. 
loi^'ut, fellow.] 1. To separate or isolate; as to 
D, the tissues. 3. To resolve a mol ecu ie^ when 
in tlie gaseous state, into two or more simpler 
moleculesb^ theactionof heat. Dlitoda'tion, 
the act of dissociating or of being dissociated. 
DUiOlntlon (dis"soh-lew'shun). [L. di-MO- 
l&'tid = dit- + lolvere, to Icmnk.] A separation 
or sundering ; especially, the sepantion of t)i« 
sodI from the body ; death. 

t>l8iolTe(diE-zolv'). [L. diuof vere.1 1. To 
cause to melt away and disappear in a liquid ; 
as to D. sugar in water. 3. To undergo solu- 

l>ls«onuia«[dis'Boh-nens). [L.i2<*-+*iHiare, 
to sound.) See Diteord. 

Dla'Ml. [L. dllATe, to stand off fVoiD.} 
Itemote; farthest removed from the body or 
its centlal plane ; as D. end of a limb. 

DUtMn'por. A name applied lo various 
infections diseases in animals; particularly, 
a contagious catarrhal affection of f oung dogs 

SOtnui'ne d.) doe to a specific bacillns, and ft 
isease of dogs akin to typhoid fever and caused 
by bacilli resembling Bacillus typhosua. 
Bona d., strangles. 

IHatlelilul* (dis-tik"ee-sy'sis). [Gr. = di», 
twice, +tliekot, row.) A condition in which 
there are two rows of cilia, one or both of 
which are turned inward toward the eyeball. 

MaW. [L. dfuUtSre^de. + tniSrt, to 
drop.) To volatilize by heat and collect again 
the evaporated matters by cooling. 

Dii'tlllate. The product obtained by dis- 
tillation ; a substance which has been vapor- 
ized and rccondeused. 

DlitlllaUoii(dis"til-1ay'shun). Theactor 
process of distilling. Deatmctlvs d., d. at- 
tended with chemical decomposition, so that 
the distillate diflers chemically from any of 
the substances contained in the material dis- 
tilled. Fractional d., d. in which the tem- 
perature is gradually raised, so that the com- 
ponents of H mixture are distilled off sncces- 
sively in the order of their volatility, and can 
be thus collected separately. 

DiltlD«d{dtB-tild'). [h.dflUlS'ttM.'] Vm- 
duced or prepared W distillation; vaporiied 
and recondensed ; as D. water. 

DlBto-bnc'cal, DlatD-la'bUl, DlBto-Uii'- 
B^al. Distal and also directed toward the 
cheek (or ths lip, or the tongue); as Dlsto- 
buccal surface of a tooth. 

Dls'tODa, Sla'tomnm. [Di- -I- Gr. Oona, 
mouth.] A genus of trematodes. D. ht- 
pafieum products rot in sheep, and occurs 
in man in bile^ucts, portal veins, and in- 



testiaes. D. Btuki (D. craBsum), D. lancto- 
la'tuia, and other Bpeciwoctur rarely in the 
intestines; D. Rinfftri in the human Inng. 

DUtomUfdejr-stoh'oiee-ahl. [IH-+>tomaJ\ 
TheataW of having Ivo montbe. 

DlatOKluli ((ii»-tom"ee-Bj'sis). The can- 
ditioQ produced by the presence of any species 
of Di stoma in the body. 

mitonion (dis-tawr'Ehuu). [Dii- + L. 
lorqiiere, to twist.] The slate in which the 
upper ends of the vertical meridians of the two 
eyes diverge. 

DUtrMtton (dis-trak'shun). [Di>- + L. 
tractio, a drawing.] Tractiuo eiertt'd in such 
a way as to separnte (vo surfaces (es[>ecially 
two joint Bur&ces) normally in appositioD. 

DlinbrtltntMt (dey-nib'stea-lew-led). {Di- 
+ tuMituteA Having two atoms in the mole- 
cule replaced by other aloms or by radicles. 

DUttlpblda (der-Bul'feyd). See Di-. 

DIM bark. Bee AUUmia. 

DitUoMllosnic uld(dey-tfaey"oli-sal-ee-sit'- 
ik). [/>t- + Gr. (Anon, sulphur, ■*- Mtia/lie,} 
An acid, compoanded of uticylic acid and 
sulphur. Its salts (DlUHoaalla'yUtAB) in- 
clude Bitmulh ditbiosal icy late, or thioform: 
and Sodium dithioaalicylate (Sittal'on}, used 
in rheumatism. 

Dinr«idB (dey-ew'ree-eyd). [W-^urra.] 
A ureide formed by the replacement of hy- 
drogen in a double molecule of urea. 

DinrMll (dey"ew-ree' bib). [G: 
throagb, -^ oaTon, nriae.] A free "~ "~ 
flow of urine. 

DlnnUe (dey"ew-ret'ilt). 1. Producing 
an increased flow of urine. D. spadM, D. t«a 
(8pe'G[eadiuret'ice,G. P.], a mixture of equal 
parts of lovage-root, oDonis-root, lioorice, and 
juniper-berriea. 3. An agent that promotes 
the secretion of urine. Hocliui'leal d's are 
agents which,lilte water, increase tlie secretion 
of urine by washing out the urinary tubules. 
In mach the same way act the Ballne d't 
(■alt* of sodium, potassium, and lithium in 
small doses), which as they are absorbed carry 
water into the blood. The Indirect d's net by 
relieving renal congestion or compression and 
so facilitating the working of the kidney. 
They include Che application of cups and 
fomentations over the kidney, the removal of 
ascitic fluid pressing upon the kidney, etc. 
Other d's, including digitalis, belladonna, and 
squill, act by increasing the blood-pressure, 
and so forcing liquid through the tubules; 
and the Etlrn'olMit d's (canibarides, colchi- 
cum, juniper, turpentine) irritate the secreting 
elements of the kidnej;. The mechanical and 
indirect d's are used in acute nephritis with 
diminished urine : the saline d's for the re- 
moval of dropsy (for which purpose digitalis 
and squill are also employed), and for the di- 
lution of the concentrated and acid urine in 
febrile diseases and gonorrhcea ; the stimnlat- 
ing d's are sometimes used in chronic renal 
and cystic diseases. 


salicylate of tbeobro 

(gm. 1 

' used as a diuretic. Dose, 15 gr. 

Dlnrnmeldey-urn'ewl). [L, rftumui.daily.] 
A pill or other preparation designed to coDtain 
the total amount of luedioament to be taken 

DlTMge (dey-YUij'). [L. dirrrgerr ^ dit- 
+ vfrgerr, to tend.] To tend apart or away 
from ; to become separated more and more ; of 
the eyes, to be directed away from each other, 
so that the lines of sight separate more and 
more and thus intersect beyond the object 
looked at. 

DlTersence (dey-vur'jenB). The act or 

other when the eyes diverge. The atility of 
the eyes to perform d. may be eicessive (D. 
•XCBIB — producing one kind of exophoria) or 
insufficient (D. InaolDclMicy and D. paraljali 
— producing one kind of esophoria and cnn- 

I>iT«rgenI (dey-vur'jent), [L. rfitwr'ffeiis.l 
Diverging; in a state of divergence; marked 
hf divergence, as 2>. (juini {Strnbis'mus 
diver" gens). 

Diver'! parklyila. Caisson disease. 

DlvartlcnUr {dey"vur-tik'yu-lar). Of, per- 
taining to, or consisting of a diverticulum ; as 
D. hernia. 

Dlvertlenliun [dey"var-tik'yu-lum). [L. = 
dis- + virlirr, to tum.J A pouch or pocket 
leading off from a main cavity or tube ; as a 
D. of theiEsophagns. Produced either by pres- 
sure from within {Pnlrion d.) or traction from 
without (rrocd'tnid.)- 

Dlnilte Idey-vuls'}. [L, dlvtll'ere.l To 
foreibly pull apart or separate the sides of. 

Dimlalon (dey-vul'shun). The act of 
separating or pulling apart forcibly. An in- 
sinimeiit for performing d. in the urethra ia 
called a Dlrnl'sor. 

Dohell's solution (doh-belz'). A solution 
containing carbolic acid (2 grains), borax and 
sodium bicarhonnle (of each 2) grains), and 
glycerin, 30 HI, in each ounce; used as a spray 

DochmlnsdnMlaiiaUi (dok'mee-usdew-od"- 
ec-nay'lis). [L.] 9ee Ankylotlomiaiit. 

Dock. SeeRamrx. 

Dog'l bUI«. See Apoeffnuja. 

DogWIMd. See Gimut. 

DollctiocaptuUlc ( dol"ee-koh-see-brik ), 
DoUchocephaloui ( dor'ec-koh.sef a-lus ). 

£Gr. ilolichoi, long. + kephalf, head.] Lo> 
eaded ; having a cephalic index J><^ — "■ ■ 



mn'omftl. [Kr. <i.i/..«.(f, a JiMilile ™rtn>- 
DHto of lUHifiirxiuui Hull uuli-iuDi.J A slraro- 
piiiiuilHttr ul i-Htfiuoi Hiiit uiait«<*»iuu]. usrd u 
m ilusliiiit piiwiltr nml «x<^ipivut. 

Dondft ttdotu. [Arriiiui -- brolher-ulivr or 
rUiiKiiiJC uKvr.] A ilixiu*' w<-urriii|i io Afrir*. 
iiinrkitrby a l><>tD[}' awrhiUK willi iWp^ivabHl 
■luuifliiiiK u|H>ii lliv lowirr vilivuiilim. 


Dor'tal. lL.JofM'li».rT.durt,im.] 1. Of. 
pi'rtiiiiiiiia to. or nituHltil in iltc lim-k {<^ue- 
cinllv llif iHK-k oflli.- trunk). D. r*Bu. wn- 

tr.»rioii ..f th.-L 

hj- AlLiiiultitioii of th» *kiB _. 

var'tebTH, D. aarvM, thi' tlionicic vertrhm 
Btiil iKTViv. 1. I' poll lh« Imck w I). piHtilioo, 
|i. ,l,vu' l.itu». S. rpoii. 10, or diivrlcd 
(ownni Ihr bark of Ihp iHHly or (lie ilorsum nf 
a |Hirl (i-iium'ially (hr ilorsum ilii) : as 1). ills- 
loi'iiiioii iif the liip. Olli-ii UKil now in plxi^ 


IB n. II 

iHiiig a Ul 


■siiv'liK). [I..] 1. Dorsal. 
1. An artery siluatitt oil thr Iwrk of a part ; 
M I). peJi«, rto. Siw Ai-lrrift, Tublt af. 

Doralflexlm (iiBwr"i<it'.ttek'shun), [Dor- 
mm I fi'sioa.i A U'liiliiitc lowanl or upon 
till' Hiirsuiu; n* 1>. oft ho tovs ( WiidiDH of 
the X<x» lonrnnl (lie >lon<uui uf (hf fcw(). 

Donl-tplnil (i)Hwr"Brr-3pt'y'nal). \Dvr- 
lufH ■, pi Hill.] l\'rl<ilni>iK(oor<l<'rivrdfrou] 
(111- back anil spine ; as tlie l>.-8. veins. 

IMt'M-. [I.. itoi-iHiH.] A prrfii mfaninf; 
pi'HniuinK to ur (oniml tfie haek. Dorao-kn- 
t«'rlor. Dono-pOBte'rlor, havini; die baek 
tlirt^tol forwnnl. hitvinjt the hai'k ilirer(rd 
- ■■ - - --- -s of the re(u8. 


niigia. DOTBO-lnUrtnedlAM. ilorsnl 

riiir) and intfnneitiiite lictwi-eii the niiL 

the siile ; bb D.-i, ifwiirr of tlie cord. DoriO- 

l«t'Br»l.»ituokiionone!.i,ieoFthehf-' ' 

n-s D,-l. fraurf of thevonl. DOTM-. 

ill (potile- 
iiidilk' nnd 

ailjofoing the miilille line and in the liaek 
piirt; as /J.-m. roiiiiw" of theeonl. 

Dor'Mun. [I..] The bach (oflhc iKtdy) : 
al:u> the buck nf anyihinK; hb 1». il'ii. 

DoMS* (doh'wj). I. The determination 
and reKulalioiiof the proper dose nr quantity 
admiiii^erulof adruK orawnt ; aa the I), of 
elsctricily. S. Lcsn properly, the done itself. 

Dmb (cIoIih). ((ir. dotit, a sivin^.} The 
amount of n nulwlance or agent nd mi metered 
at onee or iu a nveu time. Kax'tmiun d., 
the greatiiit d. that I'an ordinarily lie Riven 
with safety; particularly, an officially pre- 
scribed liiuil, innrldnE tUe highest d. wnich a 
drugsist is alliiwed to put up, unless the fact 
that an excessive d. a required is expr 
specified in the prewriplion. 

Doilmatrlc (doh"sco-niet'rik). Pertai 


to dosimetry. t>. iTltwm. a system of medi- 
cine iu which miuute accurately meamred 
amounts of powerful drugs (especially the 
active principles) are given in repeated doB«a 
until their physiological effect is produced. 

DoalnwtiT <doh-8im'e«-tre«). [Don *■ Gr. 
mfiron, mcssurt;.] 1. The gauging of doses. 
3. The dosimetric syatem. 

Doublet (dub'let), A combinatioQ of two 
Icunra used as a simple microscope, or for the 
objective of a eompouDd microscope. 

Douche (doosh). [F.) A stream of liquid 
fklling or projected upon some pHrtof thebodj 
or into a cavity uf the latter {XomI d., Vu^\- 
miliL). Alr-d., politieriEalion. 

Dottclu'onl-da-Hic, Donglaa'poneb. The 
pouch of peritoneum dipping down below the 
posterior surfiife of the uterus, between the 
vagina and rectum. 

Donrlne (doo-reen). [F.] A specific con- 
tagious disea-te of hordes, marked by iiiflani- 
■nation of the genitals, Bwellin^of the lymph- 
glands, and paralysis of the hind limbs. 

DoTer'i powder. See Opium. 

Dortraa eminence (or hlUook) (dwah- 
yehn). IDoyfrr. F. naturalist (Ifttli cen- 
tury),] The prominence upon a muscular 
fibre 01 the point where a nerve-fibre enters it. 

DB. Symbol for reaction of degeneration. 

dr, Symbol for drachm (avoirdupois). 

Dnwlun (dnem). [L. drafhma ^ Gr. 
drachmf,] See iVeighti and Meaturei, Table 

DrAContUaU (dra-kon" tee-ay 'sis). [Gr. 
dmloiition, a little worm.] The condition 
produced by the Filaria medinensis. 

Dr«aonUtini fnUdttm (dra-kon' she«-um 
fet'i-e-duni). (LJ Skunk-cabbaEV, a plant 
of the Araces. flie root is used in doses of 
lO-L-O gr. (gm. 0.60-1.20) in hysteria, chorea, 
an<l a.slhma. 

DrKaunonliu (drs'kung'kew-lus). [L. — 

little dragon.] See f'ilaria. 

Dracon'a blood. A red resin (Itesi'na dra- 
co' nis) derived from the fruit of Itiemonorops 
((.'alumus) Draco, a palm of the Kasl Indies. 
l'se<t as a pigment, and sometimes as an aslxin- 
geut in djarrha-a. 

Drain. An npplinnee for carrying olf dis- 
charges or other matter from a wound or 


ipuruting c 

. ubes (D.-tnbea) of rubber or de- 
calcifiiit lione; by pleilgets of gauze, strands 
of catgut, horsehair, spun glass, or other mate- 
rial servinn to eoiiduet discharge by capillary 
action (Oap'lUary d.); nr by simple nrificea 
made at the niosl depi>ndenl part of the cBTity 
to be drained. Fttnnel-d., d. of cedematout 
tissue by means of glass funnels inserted into 
incisions. See also Canalizalioa. Tlinmtll 
d., d. iu which a perforated tabe_p 



pUtelr through the caritj nod dresuDgi, so 
that the cavity can b« periodically flushed out 
without distnrbing the dreningt. 

Dria'tlc. [Gr. dr&Uitoi, active, fr. draein, 
to do.] 1. Working thoroughly or severely : 
w D. cathartics. 3. A d. purge. See CatAar- 

IRancbt (drHt). [L. haiulat, potto.] A 
potion; ■ liquid medicine to be snalloired iD 
ft single duse. D. of BlTe'rlns, the potio Ri- 
veri, G. P., or solation of sodium citrate. 

D»P«iUd'liim. [Gr. drepani, sickle, fr. 
crescentie shape of organiflm.] A geiius of 
Hsmosporidia comprising Protozoa pa rasi tic 
Id the corpuscles of the frog and having a 
worm .likelocomotjon. 

DrMt'lBg. The mslerisl applied to a wound 
to protect it and promote its healing. 

Drop. [L. ouUa.] 1. A minute spherical 
portion of a liquid separated from a liquid 
mass ; especially, such a portion aeparaled by 
the force of gravity, as by dropping fW>m a 
bottle. A d, of water or a watery solution 
contains 1-1.25 "l ; of a wine or very dilute 
•Icohul, O.T-1,0 "i; of alroholic solutiuns 
(tinctures, spirits) and volatile oils, 0.4-0.0 
't ; of ether and ethereal tinctures, 0.3-0.4 rn.. 
The sia; of d'B, however, may vary widely 
troza these limits according to differences in 
the Biie and fulness of the bottle, etc. 3. A 
medicine given in d'n. BUulk d., vini^r of 
opium. S. In the pt,, a solid preparation in 
the form of little spheres or hemispheres ; as 
Chocohile d'a. See Troche. 

Dropped wriit. \^'ris^drop. 

Drop'alcal. Affected with dropsy ; engorged 
with serum. D. defenwatlon, see Drgrnfm- 

Drop'fj. (Fr. Gr.hydropi, fr. Auiior, water.] 
A collection of serum in a cavity of the liody, 

Krticuiarly in the cavity of the nbdoiuvn 
bdom'inal d.,OT ascites). D. is designated 
aocording to the organ, disease of which pro- 
dOMt It ( Oar'diac d., Hepalfic d.. Renal d.); 
or according to the part aSeoted, as D. of the 
amnion (hfdramnion), D. of the brain or 
head (hydrocephalus), D. of ike chetf (hydro- 

thoiBx). D. of the cellular lir- ' ' 

" 'onephr 


.._ c disease of India and 

the Mauritins, occurring among the natives 
only, and maned by j^neral anasarca, i^light 
fever, and great aniemia. Lasts from 3 to 12 
weeks. May be fetal from (edema of lungs, 
hydrothorax. or hi^art failure. 

Dmc. A medicinal substance; a sulistance 
introduced into the body to cure diuease, 
Dmm, Dnun-cftTlty. See Tynipttatim. 
Dnun-ltaad. The nienibrana tymponi. 
Snmkurd'i Itah. See Jieh, 
Drnse [droo'ze). [G.] Sre Slrangle». 
Dry. Not wet or moist ; ai'eomplislied with- 
out tlie use of liquidx. as D. treutment of 
wouuds ; unaccompanied by moisture or liquid 


exudation, as D. cough, D. gangrene, D. pleu- 
risy ; not associated with bleedinjj, as D. cup- 
ping. D. uriea, rarefying osteitis. 

DnkUatie (dcWal-is'lik). [L. duo, two.] 
Twofold, as D. origin of a disease ; of or hav- 
ing reference to the double nature of anything, 
as D. theory of Byphilis. 

Dnblnl'i diiMwe, Dubiul't cliorak (doo- 
been'eez). [7>ufrt>ti. an Italian physician 
who first described it.] Electrical chorea. 

Dubolslne (dew-boy'seen). Hyoscyamine 
or hyoecine obtained fl^m Duboi'sia myop- 
oroi'des, an arborescent shrub of Australia. 

Dn Boii-Kaymond'a key. An appliance 
by which an electric current can at will be 
sent either through the electrodes or through 

DncliMUie'i dlMAie (due.shenz). [Dueh- 
enne, F. neurologist.] 1. Labio-glosso-laryn- 
geal paralysis (also called DBchetms'i pki- 
•!;■!■). 3. Tabes. 

Dacheniie'* troear. A trocar for removing 
minute portions of deeply -si Inaled solid tissue 
for purposes of eiaminnlion. 

Duct. [L. dvcliia, fr. dueerf, to lead.] A 
passage with well-delined walls; eflpeeiall];, a 
psBsnge conveying the secretion or excretion 
ofagland (t!:xcre'^toryd.,Secre'taryd.). Sec 
Jlile-d., Thoracic d.. Slnuen't d., ftc. 

Dnctll'lty. The state of being duetile. 

DDct'leiB. Devoid of an eicretiiry duct ; 
as D. glands. 

DnctiU« (duk'lewl). A little duct; the 
terminal poriion of a duel, before it ends in 
the alveolus of a iiland, 

Duc'tuB. [L,] A duct or passage. See 
Duel. D. artorlo'lat, a channel in the fetus 
connecting the pulmonary artery with the 
descending aorta, D. audito'rlns, sea la media. 
D. ooch'tea, the louer portion of the scata 
media, containing the organ of Corti. D, 
cochlaa'iii, seals medln. D. Cnvl'erl, see 
Cavier'i ii«iuea. D. •ndolymplutt'lcm, a v- 
shaped canal serving to connect the utricle 
and saccule. D. parUymphaf tens, a canal 
lying in the aqueduct of the cochlea and con- 
necting the perilymphatic space of the obbcous 
labyrinth with the general cerebral lymph- 
space. D. mtt'nleiis, the canalis reuniens. D. 
ve&o'sni, one of the terminal branches of the 
umbilical vein connecting the latter with the 
inferior vera cava. 

Dnleunara (diilk"a-niay'rah). [L. dulcit, 
sweet. : a'nara». bitter.] See Biller-nceet. 

Dul'cln. [L. dulcif, sweet, + -11.] Sucrol. 

Diil'n«tt. See Retonanet (!}. 

Dumb ague. See Ague. 

Dummy. See under Bridge. 

Dnuham's lolntioa. A solution of peptone 
1 percent, and sodium chloride O.Ii per cent, 
in distilled water. I'sed in bacteriology, es- 
. pecially in making the indol test-. 



Dnodeiul (dew"oh-dee'Dal). [L. duodena'- 
lU.} Of, pertainiuK to, or sitDaled in the 

DnodenlUa (dew-od"ee-Qey'tis. -nee-ti»). 
[-tfi*.] laflninmation of (he duodenum. 

Dnod"eiio-«iit«TO«'Mmr. An opcrntion for 
connecting the cavit; of Uie duodenum with 
tliat of aaotber part of tlie small iDteetine. not 
naturally in relation witli it. 

Dnodenoitoour ( dew-od''ee-noa'toh-mee (■ 
t-ilomy.i The formalion of a permanent on- 
nee in the duodenum b; operation. 

Dnodeanm {ilew"oh-dee'nuin). [L. duodfnl, 
twelve eac^h, becnUBe 12 finser't breadth* in 
length.] The first portion oF the small intes- 
tine. It is about 9 inches in lea^h, and con- 
lalni the orifices of the pancreatic duct and 
the common bile-duct. 

DnOtal (dew-oh'tal). Guaiacol carbonate. 

DnpUcltu (dew-plia'ee-tas). PI. duplici- 
ta'tes. [L.l l.Adoubting. 3. A monstrusit; 
in which the cephalic (D. anterior) or the pel- 
vic eitreiuity (/>. poiieriorj is dooble. 

Dnpnytren't ampntatlon (due-pee-tranz). 
[Dupuylren. a ¥. Burgeon (1777-1835).] Lis- 
franc's amputation of the shoulder. Dupnr- 
tren'a contracUon. a peculiar contractured 
stale of the palm of the hand and the GnEers. 
it may be due to contraction of the pulmar 
fascia from truumatism (Falsa D. C. of some); 
or (o chronic inSammatorj hyperplasia begin- 
ning in the subcutaneous tissues of the palm. 

Dura, Dnra nutter (dew'rahmay'tur). [L. 
-^ bard mother.] The tough, firm membrane 
forming the outermost loose investment of the 
brain (Cfr'ebrai d. or simply D.) and spinal 
cord {Spinal d.). 

Dnit'lnc-powder. A fine povdcr free irom 
grit, dusted upon the skin. D,-p's consist of 
itarcli, flour, lycapodium, line oxide, zinc, 
lead, and mngntsium carbonates, zinc stearate, 
dolomol, bismuth suhnitrate, talc, and earth. 
Used as protectives, aatriugents, and abaorb- 
is irritation and inflammation. 

DtLtch liquid. Ethylene dichloride; so 
called because discovered hy four Dutch 


ki of hydrogen. 
Drnamlc, Drnamioal (dey-nam'ik, dey- 
nam'ee-kal). IGr. dwnamU, power.] Of or 
pertaining to active force ; manifbited actively 
or by motion ; as D, electricity, D. ene^y. 
Hence, Synam'icii the branch of mechanics 
relating to the laws governing matter when in 

DrnunliaUon (dey"Da-mey-tay'ihun). 
See Homieopalhy. 

Dynamo, Dynamo- electric machine (de/- 
ns-moli, dcy"na-mDh-ee-lek'trik). A magneto- 
electric machiae| an apparatus in which a 
very strong eiectnc current is generated by tlie 
revolution of a coil of wire between the poles 
of a horseshoe magnet. 


Dysunogenlo (dey"Da-moh-jeti'ik). [Gr. 

dunamu. power, + -genic."^ Cauung the de- 
velopment of power ; of or pertaining to the 
development of power; as D. Hymptoma. 

DynanioST&ph (dcy-Dam'oh-grEf ). [Gr. 
(funamu, power, + ffrapheiii,, to write.] A re- 
cording dynamometer; a dynamometer by 

Dynamometer (dey"na-mom'ee-tur). [Gr, 
dunamU, power, + -meUr,'\ An instrument 
for measurmg the force of muscular contiKC- 
tion. The ordinary d. conaiata of a apring 
which is squeezed in the patient's hand and 
which is connected with an index and dial in- 
dicating the degree of compressing force. 

Dyne (deyn). [Gr, dunomw. power.] The 
amount of force required to impel a maas 
weighing 1 gramme through I centimetre in I 

Dyt- (dis-). [Gr. dtu.] A prefix meaning 
difficult, painfull disagreeable. 

DyaacHraama (-a-kooz'mah),DyiMt(MU (-k- 
kcw'sis). [Or. aitouetn, tohear.l Aconditian 
in which discomfort is produced by Bounds of 
ordinary loudness. 

DytHttlieala(-e8-tlie«'zee-ah, -es-thee'shah). 
[Gr, aiV(ifst», perception.] 1. Impairment of 

.: — ^ . painful vibratory sensation 

. __.____,_.[„g^^g 

baa been 
removed, Andltory d., dysacasis. 

Dyaalhumoae (-al'hew-mohs). A variety 
of albumoBe. characterized by its insolubility 
in water and hydrochloric acid. 

Dysar'thrU. [Gr. arthroein, to join Ut- 
gether.] Impairment of articulation, due to 

iiaralysisof tlie muscles of phonation or to a 
Fslon of the cortical centre (situated in the 
of both central convolutions on the 

lell si^) governing the muscles of phonation. 
Hence, Dyiar'thrto, of, pertaining to, or 
marked by d. 

DyiMttmaU (-ahr-throh'sis). [Gr. arthro- 
tit, a joiDting.] 1. A deformity or malforma- 
tion of a joint. 3. Dysarthria. 

DyieliTOiiuttopila (-kroh" ma-top' see-ah). 
[Gr. c*roma, color, + i^pm,^gbt.] Irapcrfccl 
perception of colors ; incomplete color-blind- 

Dyicrula(-l(ra/zee-ah, -kray'ihah). [Or. 
tcTotii. a railing,] Abnormal oompoailioD of 
the blood and humors; a depraved slate of the 

caused by dysentery. 
Dysentery (dis'en-ter-ee). [Gr.enferffn, in- 
testine.] inflammation of the Urge intestine, 
marked hy frequent passages of blood and 
mucus, with rectal tenesmus and pain. It 
may be associated with ulceration of Uie lower 
part of the large intestine, and may be either 
acute or chronic. Due lo various microbes, 
and transmitted largely by vitiated water, 
Amca'Uo d.. produced by the Ajnteba dyaen- 



[B particularly in the tropica and U 

. .._ .._. .. jpics), pailwis, 

,__-- » d., d. caused by Bacillus dyscnteris 

li^uefacieDB, The large intestine is riddled 
widi Bmall ulcen and the intestinal contents 
are chocolate-colored and contain dob. Bed d. 
orrbagic d. of cattle pmduced by coccidia. 
Trbathbntops.: ip«cuc in lai^ single dose, 
followed by S-gr, dotius repeated every hour ; 
calomel; corroaiTC Bublimate; ice-wnter ene- 
uata in acat« d.; enemata of 2-10 per cent. 
■olntioni of ailTer nitrate when there are 

DraSXAplllA (•graf' ee-ah). [Or. grapkein, 
lo write.] A condition in wbicb aoy attempt 
at writing speedily causes pain and tatigne. 

DyaldrOBlt (-id-roh'sia). [Gr. hviroiit, 
■westing.] See Fomp/iolyx. 

I>7iUlla(.l»y;iee-Bh). [Gr. JaJen'n^totalk.] 
Impurment or interference with articulatiao, 
produced by anatomical abDormalitieg of the 
exlemal orgaosof speech ; called D. lingnalie, 
O. naaalis, etc., accordiog to the part at fault. 

DyalBila. [Gr. lezi,. diction.] A condi- 
tion in vhich any attempt at reading speedily 
cauHS pain and »tigue. 

DyalOSl* (-lob'jeB'ah). [Gr, logoi, under- 
standing.] Impaimient of the power of rea- 
sooing or of forming connected ideas. 

Dyalyitn (dis'lis-in). [Gr. /twu. a loosen- 
ing or dinolving.l Ad amarphous anhydride, 
CmHhO>, of cholalic acid, obtained by Creat- 
ing the latter with acids. 

Dy amaiiorr hMa( -men" o b ■ ree' ah] . [, 
month, + rhain, to Bow.] Difficult meustni- 
atioD, especially when attended with pain. 
Named according to its came, as Obstructive 
(or ifteluiiiical, due (o mechanical interfcr- 
«ace with the flow fW>m blood-clots, uterine 
displacements, etc.), Oongalivf (or Plelh'- 
orie, from congestion), InJiamBiotory (from 
inflammation); or according to the alM of the 
trouble, as l/terine, Va/^inal, Ova'rian; or 
from Borne aaiociated clrciunnanca, asifem'- 
branotu, in which membranous masses are ex- 
foliated from the uteras. 

Dyamlm'U. [Gr. miintethai, to imitate.] 
Impairment of the power of expressing 
thonghts by gestures. 

Dyaoimls (-o^mee-ah). [Gr. ome, smell.] 
Impurment of smell. 

Syapep'alft. [Gr. pepiit, digestion,] Im- 
pairment of digestion ongi oat ing either in the 
stomach (Oaatrle d.) or intestine (Intaittnal 
d.}, and doe either to acute or chronic catarrh 

of these organs, to lack of tone without obTloua 
inflammation (Atonic d.), or to reflex causea 
(Kaflex d., including Ovarian d., etc.). It 
may be associated with fermentation and ex- 
cessive formation of acids (F«Tmen'tatlTe d.. 
Add d.) and gas (FUVulent d.). 

Dyapep'Uc. Of or pertaining to dyspepsia, 
as D. symptoms I affected with dyspepsia; a 
person aflected with dyspepsia. 

Dyapep'tone. A substance produced in the 

of fibrin I formerly regarded 

' variety of peptone: 
ure of Ducleina and 

a peculiarly insoluble 
now known to l>e a 
anii album id. 

Dyaphagla (-fay'jah). [Gr. pha^ein, t« 
eat.] Difficulty in swallowins. Atonic (or 
Paralytic) d,, paralysis of Xae cesophagu*. 
SpatUo d., iBsopliagismus, 

Dyapliaala(-tay'zhah). [Gr-oAtuis, speech,] 
Difficulty of speech due to a milure to co^ir- 
dinate words with their ideas, or a failure to 
arrange them in proper grammatical or syD- 
tactical order, 

Dyapbonla (-foh'nee-ah ). [Gr. phoni, 
voice.] Impairment of vocal utterance. D. 
■paa'tlca, phonic spasm. 

Dyapbraala (-fmy'ihah). \0r. phratit, 
slatement,] Impairment of speech due lo lack 
of thought or to mental derangement. 

Dyapnna (disp-nee'ah). [Gr.pnor, breath.1 
Difficult or painful breathing: shortness of 
breath, Ueuoe, Dyipno'lc, aOected with or 
marked by d. 

Oyipniteoie (-proh'tee-ohs). Heteropro- 

Dyiapar'matlim. IGr.sperma, seed.] Im- 
pairment of the power of forming semen. 

Syitocla (-toh'see-ab), [Gr. lokoi, birth.] 
Difficult, impeded, or delayed parturition, 
characterized us Fetal orMatamal according 
as the cause of the difficulty lies in the fetus or 
in the mother. 

Dya'topy. [L. dyaUfpia — dyt- + Gr. toiios, 
place.] MolpoeitioD, 

Dyatrnphy (dis'troh-fee). [Gr. Iropkf, nour- 
ishment.] 1, A perversion of nulnlion or of 
trophic processes. 2. A type of nervous dis- 
ease [hIbo called Progremvt mtitcvlar d.) in- 
cluding a variety of affections, wbicb are 
liereditary or occur in fiimilies, develop in the 
first years of life, and are marked by pro- 
gressive enfeeblement and atrophy of the mu»- 
cles with little or no changes in Che central 
nervous system. Comprises I'seudo-hypcrtro- 
phie d. (see Parudo-kyptTiTophic), Idio- 
pathic d., etc. Hence, Dyttrepb'lc, of, or 
marked by, or due to d. 

Dyantla (-ew'ree-ab), ^Or. ouron, nrine.] 
Difficult or painful m-------- — 




E. [L.l SteEx-. 

Ear. [L. aurit.'] Tbe nrvan of huring. 
The Ez'tinul e. coDBiats of tbe cartilaginous 
and cut&neoaH«'nnaan<l (tie exiemal aiuiilory 
canal, the walls of which are partly cnrtilag- 
ioouB, partly bony. It is separated by a vibn- 

brane, Membrana lympani) from the middle 
ear. Tbe Hiddle e. (TympaiiDm, Drum) is 
contained iu a Kpecial cavity of the petrous 
part of tbe temporal bone. It contning the 

with (2) the I 

eatra ovolis on the inner wall of the middle e. 
Tbe cftTity of the middle e. consists of a large 
apace (alrium) below, communiuating through 
the Eustucbian tube with the naso-pharynx ; 
a BDiall space (altir) above, more or less shut 
off from the atrium and eonUininjc the body 
and short process of the incus and the hutd and 
neck of tbe malleus ; and tbe maitoid aiUru-m 
and ctUt, connected with tbe ntlic by a narrow 
passage (aditusj. The middle communicates 
with the inner e. (vestibule) by two aperturee, 
the fenutra Talanda. which is closed in by a 
vibratile membrane (Mfinhra'na tympani se- 
cundaria), and the ftntitra evalit, clo8e<l in 
by the foot-plate of the stapes. The Iniwr a., 
or Labyrinth, consiEls of the osseous vetHbule, 
contBiniDB two membraaous bags, the laccuie 
«nd utricle; the three tfmiclrcular ourauj 
eanati enclosing the semicircular mmbraiume 
ganali which spring from the otricic ; and the 
snail-sbnped fOfA/i^, The carilyorthe cochlea 
is divided by a lamina, partly bony ( lAminn 
spiralis), partly membranous (Mcrabraoa 
Msilaris). into two spiral canals, the Scala 
vestibnii commudicating below with the ves- 
tibule, and Scala tympani, communicating 
through tbe fenestra rotunda with the tym- 
panum ; and the former is again divided by 
the oblique membrane of Reissner into two 
canals, the lower of which ( Ductus cochlea ri a, 
Scala media) communicates inferiorlv with the 
saccule hy the canalis reuniens, and contains 
the organ 0/ Corti. The latter consists of a 
series of several tbonsand rods (Corti's rods, 
Corti's fibres) standing side by side upon the 
membrana basilaris. These nnls are arranged 
in two sets, an outer and an inner, which are 
inclined toward each other by their ttrv upper 
extremities like the sloping sides of a roof, 
forming an arch (Corti's arch) which cncloM's 
a triangular canal (Corti's canal). Outside 
the external row of rods are three or four rows 
of ciliotctl cells (external ciliated cells, Corti's 
cells). Corti's organ is eovereil in above by 
Corti'i membrane. The vestibule and other 

parts of the bony labyrinth are filled with a 

— formed by tbe membranou. 

labyrinth is filled with endolym^h. Sound- 
waves entering the external e. set in vibration 
the dram-membrane and tbe chain of ossicles, 
and this vibration, beinp transmitted through 
the fenestra ovalts, products waves !n the en- 
dolymph, the eSect of which is accentuated 
by the presence of movable calcareous particles 
lolulitht) contained in the nails of the mem- 
branous labyrinth. 

BatftClta. Pain in the ear from any.cause. 

Bcr-eoticli. Cotigh due to irritation sealed 
in tbe mr. 

Ekrth. 1. The soil or pulverulent mate- 
rial forming tbe substance uf the ground. E. 
has been used as an absorbent and protective 
in skin diseases. 9. Any amorphous, readily 
powdered mineral substance. Al'luilUB e'a, 
the group of minerals comprising magneaia, 
baryta, hme, and stronlia. 

Eutby (ur'thee). 1. Like earth, i. Of 
or pertaining to one of the alkaline earths or 
tbe metals contained in them ; as E, pbos- 
phatea ( = phosphates of calcium, magnesium. 

boil,] See Boiling. 

EbnmaUaii (eb"ur-nay'shun). [L. ebur. 
ivory.] The conversion of bone into a bant 
ivory-like mass, as in condensing osteitis. 

BclKil'ic. [Gr. etboliJtot - eh, out of, -I- 
balleiii.lo throw.] Producingor accelerating 
lahor; an agent that accelerates labor. The 
chief e. is ergot ; digitalis, quinine, savin, rue, 
and tansy are oncertain and much fteblcr in 

Bcbollne (ek'boh-leen). lEcbolie.l Anal- 
kaloid of ergot. 

Eeca&trle (ek-sen'trik). {Ei -I- centre.'] 1. 
Situated away from the centre, not performed 

pertrophy of a hollow organ with dilation of 
the cavity. 8. Situated at different distances 
from tlie centre, or not having n common cen- 
tre {not concentric) ; not directed equally 10- 
nanl the centre. B. UmttKUos or tbe flNdof 
TlalOn, a limitation more marked at some 
parts of the periphery than others. 

droiil (ck"knn-(iroh'sis). [Gr. fi; out. -<- 
ehondret, cartilage.] A tumor composed of 
and growing out fWin cartilage. 

EDObrmoilut (ek"kee-moh'mali), [Ecchy- 



<n of blood. 

Eoctiymasli (ek"kee-inoh'BiB). [Gr. egehi- 
md«i^tk.oat.+chamo>it,ooanaB.1 Tfifiei- 
travasalioD of blood beneath the bkid 

BcUnociweni (ec-km"oh-kak'uB). (Or. 
echltiot, hedgehop, + kokkot berry.] The 
larval form of the Ticnia Echmococcus, a 
tapeworm iufestine tbc Aog. It forms eysts 
(B. cyata) in (he liver, braiu, and other or- 
gans or mtm. 

Eelio, Amplior'lo. The amphoric voice 

EchokUiails (ek"oh-ki-nee'8iB). [Gr. echo 
echo, + kinitit, movement,] An nncontroll- 
able tendency to imitate gestures. 

EcUoUlltk (ek"oh-lay'lee-ah). [Gr. tckd, 
echo, + laleein, to babble.J Echo-Bpeecb ; 
echoinE repetition by u pstieot of wonis ad- 
dressed to him. 

Bcb'i fiatnU. An artificial communication 
made between the portal vein and vena cava. 

Bclkm'ptlk. (Gr. ek, out, -H tamprin. to 
Bhine. from the suddennesa of its develop- 
meat.] An attack of convulsions; morepar- 
ticularly, recurrent convulsions not directly 
dependent upon cerebral disease. Chief va- 
rietieB : In^nuatUe, due to reflex irritation 

S rickets, teething, worms), to fever, to ei- 
auBtion (as from diarrhica), and to tempo- 
rary cerebral congestion (as that produced by 
whooping-cough) ; Pner'poral, occurring at 
or after the end ofpr^'gnanry, and prot)ably 
due l« urvmin ; Vim'viic, due to unemia 
from suppresaion of urine. The convulsionB 
of e. are like those of epilepsy, but in infkutile 
e. may be limited to Blight ngidity or may be 
entirely clonic. Treatment: cauBal (treat- 
ment of rickets, etc.. in children, induction of 
labor in puerperal e.. diuretics and diaphor- 
etics in unEmie e.) ; symptomatic (hot baths, 
inhalation of chlorolorm, venesection during 
attack; large doseeof potassium bromidein 

Eoloo'tlo achool. [Gr. tkltkliko*, fr. rk. 
out, + legrin, \o pick.] A school of medicine 
which profenses to gather its teachings fVom 
what is nest in other schools of practice. 

Ecpbynut (ek-fey'niah). PI., ecphy'mata. 
[L. = Gr. **, out, +j)A«jMa, growth.] A pus- 
tule or protuberance. E. glob'nliu, a chronic 
contagious di!«ase occurring in Ireland, 

marked 1 ' ' ' 

Botlen and 

Bcruanr (aykrah-iur). [F.] Literally, 
a crusher: an instrument consisting of a chain 
or cord which ia looped aliout a part and then 
slowly tightened so as to force its way through 


ia absorbed in the fiieii , 

idea (usually religioua), so that be becomes 
□btiviouB of hia surroundings, and remains 
motionless with rapt aud joyous expression, 
while the breathine, circulation, and all vilal 
functions are greatly depressed. 
Eo'tol. [Gr. tktiu.'] Exlemal or exterior. 

tion; dilatation; aB,^ncuA*(=- dilatation 
of stomach), 
EctaVlc. Distended or diateaaibtei as E. 

EctHyma (ek-the/mah). [Gr. ei(Aiima = 
ek, out, + Ih-atin, to rusli.] An inflamioatory 
affection of the upper layer of tlie eorium 
marked by the formation of isolated pustules 
seated upon a bard base and eurroundeil by an 
inflammatory areola. E. may be acute or 
more often chronic ; occura usually on the ex- 
tremities and in dirty, unhealthy, or poorly 
nourished subjects, and ia often due to pam- 
sites. The pustules after discharging leave 
pigmented cicutricefi. B. lypliUlt'lciun, no 
eruption of large flat puatnles iii tertiary 
syphilis. Treatment of e.: removal of cuose, 
nutritioua diet, tonics (iron, quinine, potaa- 
aium chlorate, hypophusphiteB, cod-liver oil), 
alkaline and emollient hatha, anodyne lotiouB. 

Be 'to-. (Gr. ekUn, outside.} A prefix 
meaning outer, on the outside. 

EotOMT'dU. [Gr. kardia, heart.] A con- 
dition in which tiie heart isuire, i. e., covered 
only by skin and subcutaneous tissue. 

Ec'Udsnn. [Gr. derma, skin.] The outer 
layer of the primitive or two-layered embryo ; 
theepibtast. Hence Ectod«r'in»I, BctMer'- 
mlc, Eotodeimoi'iUl, of, orderi red from the e. 

BctogsDOQE(-oj'ee-nus). [-penoiu.] Capable 
of developing without the organism ; as E. 

■o'tomy. [Gr. rtlomf, a cutting out.] A 

, to fasten.] 

outside of the body. 

EcMpbyte (ek'toh-feyt ). [Gr. phulon, 
plant.] A vegetable ectoparasite. 

Ectopia (ek'toh'pee-ah). [Gr. ek, out of, + 
tnpot, place.] A displacement or malposition, 
particularly one of congenital origin. 

Ectop'lD. Out of the natural or normal 
place; as E. gestation. 

Bc'topl«am. [Gr. plarma, something fanh- 
ioned.] The outer portion of a cell-ptatiina ; 
the ecioFiirc. Hence, Ectoplatmat'lc, of o 

Ectoplu'tic. [Gr. pituseiu, to fashion 
Endowed with formative power, on the au 


Ec'toiftrc. [Gr. larx, body.] The outtr, 
more compacl, horaofteneous layer of the cell- 
body ID Amreute and the Gregarinida. 

Batoiooii(-zoh'oii). [Gr. iwn, animal.] An 
animal ectoparasite. 

BctromeUe (ek"troh-mee'lik). [Gr. etlro- 
ma, abortion. + meloi, limb.] Having abor- 
tive limbs; US E. fetus. 

Ectrom'sliui, A monster characterized bj 
defective developmeut of the limbs ; in a lim- 
ited sense, a moDslerin whom all the segments 
of a limb are 'slanted in equal degree. 

EdropliHi (ek-troh' pee-on). [Gr. ektropioa 
= ei, out, + trepan, to turn.] A luming out 
or eversion of the edge of a part, particularly 
of the eyelide. Also written Ectropitun. 

An inflammatory atfection of the ekin, char- 
acterized by exudation and infiltration into 
the substance of the latter,^ witli frequently a 

ableuess of its leaioiis. E. is generally 
able to some coDaUtntloiuU lUte (strumous 
diathesis; congenital pr«dis{>ositiou ; acquired 
feebleness due to malnutrition, rhenmatisia, 
gout, imperfect action of the kidneys, dis- 
ordered circulation; alterations of the blood, 

and moisture, . , 

plication of irritants (soaps, dyes, poisonous 
plants, mineral irritants), pressure, friction, 
and scratching. K. is often named from the 
parti affected, as E. oni, E. nati. E. barba^ 
etc. The leilona of e. are erythema {E. 
erylhrmal&eum), veaicles {E. voiailo'iium), 
pustules (£. puitiilo' avm) , or papules (£. 
papalo'tum); and any one of these varieties 
may be assoeiated with a reddened, swollen, 
hot, and moist skinfE. mad'idaiui, E. rubrum, 
Weepinff r.). In the subacute and chronic 
forms the snrtace may be covered with exfoli- 
ating Bcales(£.«}Ka mo' mm), and the hardened 
skin may crack open {E./Utum). In acute e. 
tlie evidences of inflammnlion are marked ; in 
chroniee.thesurelling. thickening, and indura- 
tion are pronounced and more or less permanent. 
ThetymptoiDlof e. are itching and burning, 
and, in the acute forms and in e. tissum, pain 
in acute e. alsc '■ ' "' 

f salines I : a nliph logistics (tartar emeti. 
and aconite) in very acute forms; tlie 
salicylates and alkalies in gouty and rheu- 
matic subjects; iron and bypophospliiles 
vhen there is angemia; and arsenic in the 


chronic forms. The loocl tTMitmeiit coasista 
in eteuTimtm of the su rface and the removal fri>lD 
it of crusts, surface exudates, and hairs, fol- 
lowed by applications. These latterin acntee. 
are emollient and protective, vii., alkaline Mid 
mucilaginous loti on B,en)ollient baths, leod-and- 
ojiium wash, solution of borax and alum, and 
mixtures containing zinc oxide and calamine ; 
dusting-jMwders ; ointmentsof rose-water, dnc 
oxide, Einc carbonate, and lead carbonate; and 
blond fixed oils. The Himulant and abiorb- 
ml agenU, used in chronic c, are hot baths, 
steam and medicated vapor baths, common 
soap, green soap, tar, oil of cade, naphthol, 
salphur, iehthyol, irritant oils (chaulmoogra 
oil), massage, and compression. Epldomlc o., 
dermatitis epidemica. E. epiioot'lcnm. foot- 
and-mouth disease. E. eiTolUtt'TTun, E. Bt- 
Un'ogun, dermatitis exfoliativa. S. hyp«r- 
tToph'lctun. mycosis fungoides. B. l)it«rtrl'- 
ED, intertrigo, B. marglna'tmn, a Severe form 
of e. occurring on the thighs, due to a conta- 
gious parasitic affection of the parts (see TVnea 
circiaatu), S. neurot'tcnm, linear nsvus. 
B. setKirrbo'lciim, collective name for pityri- 
asis, seborrhea, and related affections, regarded 
as nn e. or dermatitis. B. lOlA'tt, lichen trop- 
icus. B. tvhero'siuti, mycosis fungoides. 
Bcism'atoid. [-ouj,] Like eczema. 

Of, pertaining to, or affected 


.] A group of cells in the front part 
of the oculomotor nucleus ; by some regardo] 
as distinct from the latter. 

Brferent. [L. r^'erem = e, from, +/ei-re, 
to bear.] Conveying blood or other liquid! 
away from a part, as the E. vessels of an 
organ ; conveying impulses away from the 
nerve-centres, as E. nerves. 

Bfferreicent (ef 'fur-ves'ent). EfflttTStelnK 
(ef'fur-ves'sing). [L. effeTv^ehi4, aermyh'- 
Orm.i Bubbling; sparkling; giving ofl' bub- 
bles of gas. E. powder IPulvis acroph'orua. 
G. P.), a mixture of sodium bicarbonate 10 
parts, tartaric acid 9, snd sogar 19. BngUall •. 
powder (Pulvisaeroph' orus an' glicus, G. P.). 
a preparation consisting of two powders, one 
containing 2 gm. of sodium bicarbonate, the 
other 1.3 gm. of tartaric acid. 

BffleiiTaxe(ef-flur-ahzh). [F.] Tbemove- 
ments of stroking in massage. 

BnarMceiioe(cr'floh -res' sens). 1. The slate 
of being efflorescent. 2. An eruption. S. 
One of the lesions, such as a papule or pustule, 
couslituting an eruption. 

Bfflareaaent(ef'aah-re8'seut). [L-effidrh/- 
cint, blossoming out.] Of crystals, becoming 
covered with or converted into a whitiafi 
powder, owing lo spontaneous loss of water of 

Bfflu'Tliim. [L. - f , out, +fiiitre to flow.! 

An odoHferons exhalation, esp^^lly one m 


DoiioDH oharacter, B. pllo'mm, 
filling out of hair. 

> Jef-ftw'Ehim). [E + L. fundere, 

upon apart. 

B(«Bfai (ee-jes'tah]. TE + !•. gereTi_ 
bear.] Matt^ excreted; waite materials 
thrown out from the body, 

B«K- [L. osum.] The form of ovum de- 
posit^ by birds uidBonie other aoimalB, which 
IB hatched after eitrusioa from the body. An 
e. coDsista of an external shell (B.-ihaU) con- 
DstiDE largely of calcium carbonate with some 
animal matter; of an external glairy liquid 
envelope ( While o^ e.,Ovi albumen jconsiBting 
mainly of a solution of 20 per cent, of albu- 
min (B.-klbn'mln) in wat«r; and the yott 
<VitelluB, U. 8., Ovi vitell'oa), a yellowish 
globular inaes cootainiog 16 per cent, of pro- 
teids and 30 of fats. Mixed with glycerin 
{Glj/cgritnm viuUi, U. 8., Glyeonin) the yolk 
is used in making emuUionH. 

£cc-m«mbnui«. The membrane surround- 
ing an egg or an orum ; either formed by the 
latter itself (Primary c.-m.) or from neighbor- 
ing orgauB (Secondary e.-m.). 

Egyptian chloro'sli. Ankylostomiasis. 

EgyptUn opliUul'mU. See Ophthalmia, 

BUoWtiunor(ey'loyd). j:Gr.o7ri»,toeoil, 
-I- -oid.'l A tumor of the akin having a pecu- 
liar coiled arran^ment so as to look Tike con- 
volutions of the intefltinea. 

BJunlAtlon (ee-jak"yu-lav'sbun J. [L. 
ijacaldTii to cast ont,] A Buddea forcible act 
of expulsion ; aa E, of eemen. 

Blfcnlatorr (ee-jak'ju-la-toh-ree). Acting 
to ejaonlale or cast out. B. dnol, the duct 
conveying the Bemen into the prostatic urethra, 
formed by the union of the vas deferens and 
the duct of the seminal vesicle. 

the specific gravity of oils. 

o*. fugitive, yoktile.r tK 

ElBoptWfl (el"ee-op't«enJ. [Gr, «/ai"o», oil, 
+ Bfeno*. fugitive, volatile.] The more vola- 
tile constituent of a volatile oil ; usually a 

liquid hydrocarbon. See Oil. 

Bl»oiaochBnun(el"ee-oh-Bak'a-rum). [L. 
= Gr. elaiot, oil, +«a^Aaroii, sugar.} Oil- 
sugar ; a mixture of sugar and a volatile oil. 
The ElKosaechara of the O. P. are made of 50 
grammea of Bugar mixed with 1 gramme or 26 
drops of a volatile oil. 

BlM'Uc. [Qr. elaiUn. it. elaunein, to 
drive.] 1. Capable of being stretched to a 
considerable degree, and then tending to re- 
tract to the original dimenaians; as £. col- 
lodion. B. tliitte, a form of connective til- 
sue composed of e. vellow fibres ; often ar- 
ranged m nheets, aa in the B. membrans of 
the inner cost of the artery. Oiuu-b. (or sim- 


ply B.; Blai'tlca, U. S.), caoutehouc. 3. Of 
or by elasticity ; aa E. force, E. movement. 

BlMUoUifee-las'tee-siD). See Blatiin. 

ElastlcltT (ee"la8-tiE'ee-tee). The atale or 
quality of being elastic. 

Blas'tln. [ElaitU -f -t'n.] The essential 
constituent of yellow elastic tissue ; a yellow- 
ish substance, elastic when moist and brittle 
when dry, resembling the proleids in compo- 
sition and many reaotioaa. 

EXatsrluin, B. P. (eI"B-tee'ree-um). The 
sediments deposited from the juice of the fruit 
of the Ecball'ium Elate'rium, or squirting 
cucumber, of Southern Europe and Western 
Asia. It COD tains a neutral crystalline prin- 
ciple, EUVatin (Elateri'num, U. S., B. P.), 
C»Hi>06, and is a hydragogue cathartic, used 
as a powerful revulsive in cerebral congestion, 
end a prompt diuretic in dropsy, especially 
ascites. Dose, 0.07-0.15 gr. [gm. O.OIM-0.009): 
of Etaltrin, 0.03-0,08 gr. (gm. 0,002-^.006); Of 
Tntara'tio eiaterHni, U. 8., 0.5 gr. (gm. 0.03); 
of P^lvit elaleri'ni eompo/iitu, B, P., gr. 
S8-5 (gm. 0.03-0.30). 

Bl'bow. [=- bend of arm, fr. Teutonic ell 
forearm, + boga, bending.] 1. The bend of 
the arm; the region connecting the arm and 
forearm, B.-lofiit, see JoitUi, Table of. 3. 
Any part bent at an angle; aa theE, (or genu) 
of the posterior capsule. 

El'dar. TheSambu'cus nigralS, canaden'- 
siB),anundershrubof the Caprifoliacecc. The 
flowers (Sambucns, U, S., Sambuci flores, B. 
P., Florea sambuci, O. P.) contain a volatile 
oil, and are used as a dreaaing for wounds, 
ulcers, bums, haimun-hoidB, etc. Aqita som- 
buci, B. P., is used as a flavoring agent. 

ElecMUpana (el"ee-kam,payn'). TNew L. 
imila camod'na = L. inulo, e^ -H New L, 
campana, liell.] The Inula Helen'iura, a 

Slant of the CompoaitEe. The root (In'ula, U. 
., Radix helen'ii, G. P.) is a mild etimulant 
used in chronic bronchitis, dyapepaia, and 
amenorrhtea. See also Alantol. 

Eleo'trlo, Blac'trlcal. Of or perttuninf^ to 
electricity, as E. force, E, tenaion ; generating 
electricity, as E. machine ; chaif;^ with or 
uaed for the ad miniat ratio □ of electricity, as 
E, bath, E. brush, E. hand : produced by 
electricity, oa the E. aura, £. reactioo, E. 
spark. £. cboro'a, see under Chorea. 

Blectrlclty (ee"lek-triB'ee-tee), [Gr. elek- 
tron, amber, because generated by rubbing 
amber.] A form of force set into action by 
friction (Static e., FrloUonftl e., Franklin 
ism), chi ■ ' ■ .- . . 

by means of a neighboriog 
(iutA'ia 0.) or of a matfuet (Magnrto-e.). 
Meg'aUv* (or Bes'lnoni) a., that variety of 
static e. produced by rubbing sealing-wax 
with flannel, ur that variety of galvanic e. 
which affects the electroscope in the same way 
aa rubbed sealing-wax docs. " — "" — '"~ 

ijjhbonog galvfl 




ealTUiic e. which affecls the eleclroscop« in 
the same way rb tiaea rubbed with ailk does. 

Bleotmy (ee-lek'tiw-fey). To charge with 

Electriiatlon (ee-lek"trey-iay'9huiij. The 
act or proceBs of charging with electricity. 

Bl»c'tro-. Aprelix mcaniugeleetric. Slee- 
tr»-bl0l'0g7, a branch of Bcience treating 
of the development of electricity in the 
living body by vital or mechimical pTocewes. 
XlectEO-blOi'oovy [Gr. biot, life, + -Kopy}, 
the spplicnCiou of electricity to the mus- 
cleB to ascertain if life ih Btill preoent. ElM- 
tro-can'tary, cautery by means of electric- 
ity; gal rano-cau lory. BIsctro-cliam'litTy, 

[Gr. Awiiw, a way], the way by which elec- 
tricity pasBes in or out; a derice by meanB 
of which electricity is made to pan into or 
ont of the body; the terminal piccee at- 
tnchei) to the eondncling oonis of an eieclric 
battery. Sleetro-dlagno'ala, dmgnosin by 
meaoa of the reaction of mu-'clcs and nerres 
to electricity. Electrodynamom'eter. an 
apparatus for meaBuring the in tensity of the 

Blectfo-limnoitula (-hem. 

cautery. Bl*otrolyMr(ee-lck' 
instrument for reducing striclureB (eBpecially 
of the urethra) by electmlysiH. Eleetrol'yala 
[Gr.lutii, a looBening], chemical decompoBition 
decomposed by electricity. ElMtrolrt'lo. of 
or pertaining todcconipoeilioneflecteii by elec- 
tricity. Blaetro-maic'iMt, a temporary mag- 
net made out of a piece of Bofl iron bv passiiig 
an electric current through it. Sla«tto-ma«'- 
BatUm, mUEnetiBm proiluced by an ele<-lrie 
current. Dectro - nutaaaga (-imu-Bahih' ), 
moBBHgc eoudiinttl with electrieily. £leet- 
Tom'eter [-mrlfr], an instrument far measur- 
ing the force of clei'tric'lty (especially static 
electricity). Eleotro-moUTe nrM (-moh'- 
tiv), the force by virtue of which electricity 
tends to overcome the reBtslanec of a condor- 
tor and transfer its manifeslntions from one 

Eri of the latter to another. Symlml, E. M. F. 
•etro-neg'»UT«, electric and negative; as 
Elfclro-nrgiilivc balk, a niiMle of applying 
static electrieily in which the patient IB elec- 
trified from the negative jar of tlie static 
macliinc, Efectra-nrgatirr tlnarnl, that cle- 
ment which in the electrolysis of a compound 
Bi-eumulates at the positive pole of the battery. 
Bl«ctro-pattiOl'OB7> a siu<ly of the patho- 
logical action of eleclricily ; also of the ef- 
fects of ele<'trii'ity in dismsc. BlMtro-pIiti'- 
togTApb. a skiagram. Slectio-phyaloTonr. 

' the study of the action of electricity in health. 
. Blaatro-poa'lUva, electric and positive; 

as Eleeiro-pontive bath, a mode of apply- 
ing slutic electricity in which the patient is 
! electrified from the [WBitive jar of the static 
' machine. Eiectro-poiilire tltment, that ele- 
I ment which in the electrolysis of a compound 
I accumulates at the negative pole. Electro- 
I viojpaoai* l-prog-noh'sie), prognosis by the 
, iudieations atfonled by the application of 
I electricity. BlMtro-pone'tiirs, elertriiation 
j by needles passed into Ihedeplh of the tissues. 
I SlMt'roicopa [.tcopt], an instrument fordc- 
I termining the preoence and characterof static 
I electricity. BlectrovUt'lc, of or pertaining 
. to Btalic eli-ctricity ; as EleetrO'Btatic bath. 
Eleetro-atat'lei, the science of static elec- 
tricity. SlMtiO-auT'Kary, the application of 
' el«;tricity for surRii-al purpo»e«. Blactio- 
ther»pen'Uc*, Blactro-ther'apy, treatment 
' by electricity. Blsotro-thai'mal, combinine 
heat and elei'tricily ; as Klectro-thermal bath 
' (sec Bath). ElsotroKm'lc, of or pertaining 
to elecirotonuH. Blactrot'ona* [Gr. tomw, 
I tension], the altered irritability of a motor 
■ nerve produced by the passage through it of a 
I galvanic current. See AiteUctrolonm and 
Catclrtlrotonut. Bleot'TOions, oione or nas- 
' cent oxygen produced by (he electrolysis of 
I salt water ; supposeil to act as a ilisinfectant. 
Bl«atiury (ee-lek'tew-er-ee). [L. ilfetn^- 
rium — f + trgrrt, to pick.] A mixture of 
I powders with syrup, honey, or other sweet 
vehicle ; of the 0. P., a doughy or pultaceous 
mixture of solid with liquid or semi-liquid 
i substunces. Elfeluariiim apr^rimit. Electa- 
I an'um lenili'vum, confectin scnnte. 
j ElMdla (ee-lev'i-din). A Bubstance inter- 
1 mediate in character between protoplasm and 
I keratin found in the cella of the stratum 
I granulosum of the akin. 

Bl'«ment. [L.e/emen'lum.'] 1. One of the 
ultimate or primary conBtliuents of anything ; 
one of a number of parts, distinct in form or 
structure, of which anything is composed. 
I AnMom'loal a., Morpbolos'lcal •., TUsne- 
I e.. a cell, fibre, or other well-defined Btroe- 
I ture which, aggregated with si milar structures, 
forms the tissues and o^tana of the body. 

a«.rMtnB n qaa Ifiju-/^ H'm at a. ttattAirv. 

: .VuMle. B'l 

t bAttarr. 

jnxlaposition form the cwenlial parts oi 
tery ; especially, In a galvanic cell, the snb- 
slances which are immersed in the battery- 
fluid and form respectively the collecting and 
generating plates. 3. In cliemistry, a sub- 
stance which cannot !« resmlved into two or 
more other BulKitancea differing from each 
other essentially in their properties. 





Antlmonr (atiUum). 

(Copper iCupnim). 


Lead (Plumbum). 


WhUe ateltl; ip. gr., 2.67. Uelt> 

Crj'stalllne bluteh-whlto or Bnio^ 
■-- -■-— -iiiBoUd:sp.irt..6.7S-6.T0. 
bnllaat white best. 
cally v( ■ - 

: blaci[ uM; sp. gr., 4 _ . 

' {^le-rellow metal ; «p. gr.. 4.(Mi.0. 

Silrery-white lustrous metal; ap. 
Iir.. 2,1 ; melis at red heal. 

GnTUh-whlte crj'stBlUne M>Ud ; ap. 

Amcirphous or crystalline snlld : sp. 

' Reddlsh-hrovrn llmild o( irritant 
odor; ap. gr.. 3.11*7. BollBatsa". So- 
lidifles at — ai.fto. 

, Willie lustrous melal : sj>. gr., 8.8. 

I Melta at SiO'. Bolls at mu^. 

LuslniuB wlilte metal ; ap. gt., 1.88. 

! Yellow metal : sp. gr. 

Amorphous ichan:--' 
I (graphite, dlamnnd]. 

Metal resembling I 

.1) ; crystalline 

Liquefied at l.i' 

Hard cnslalllne , 
I Mills above 2000°. 

White metal of reddish tinge; sp. 

!r pressure of * 
le metal; sp. Br.,7.3. 

Lustrous re< 
I Uelta at 1330°. 
Gaslnsun-e. .. 
natlng from earth. 

(atwat). ; Ically Ini 
I IM. (') I Kot yet Isolated. 

inllqueSedalr, Chem- 

I im'.a 


Yellowish metal ; sp. gr.. e.M4. 
I Metallic solid ; not obtained pure. 
' nasnf Irritantodor. 
1 Blulsh-wblte metal. Melts at30°; 
I sp, gr., 5.B. 

I Lustrous yellow metal ; sp, gr., 1».3- 

19..^ Melii' at 1240". 
I Cliemlcally Inert. 
I Colorless, odorlcfs. Inflammable 

gas. Sniiillflcs at— HO°when under 
I n pressure of ft-W atmtwpheres. 
I »tlt sllverj'- white melal ; sp, gr,, 
, 7,S-7.4. Melis at 176". 

Bluish-black er\-Et>1s ol Irritant 
!nd<ir: so v J^ M(>lt< at 114°: 

lulls a1 

j above 2000° |alini»t th 
' When i«ire, sllve 

' Bee also Ptriedie raw. 





(WiTB MELTL-fo Awr. BonjHQ PoraM 


IN Decrres Crntigraiie.) 




gr., 1.741 MelBatredbeat. 





Huii. brtWe, graj-lih niet»l; sp. 
gr., 7,9B, Melts at w1iftehe«. 








II, IV, VI, 

ffllvery wWte melal; »p, gr., 8,6. 





Very Inert gu. occurring Id .tEooa- 


IV, VI. 



III. V. 


"'iCi ,»wa«. 

I, ni. V. 


Colori». taoulen. miorka gia. 




m. (T) 

..gji"" "^^""g btanutb. M«l« 





InM"" ™'^' '^ •^■' '^*"- 



11. IV. VI. 


UqueltwW -136= when under pra- 



11. IV, 


Luslroua sllTerv-ntiite metaj : ip. 
g^ll,4, MellB between 1500° and 



III, V. 


CryBtalline (colorlwB and black] or 
aS4, ''MelM»l44'M5°; ioffsSzW. 



11, IV. 


WhlIl!>hmeU>1;sp,gr„lH,4. Mells 
above 'iOOO". 



red heat. 



II, rv. 


White luMmus metal ; go. et.. 12,1. 
MelU above 20000. ■ "^ e . 





Lust rousvellowlsh-vrhlte metal: sp. 
Rr,.1.5'->. Melts al3S.5°; boUibelDvr 



11, iv,vi,vm. 


WhfTe metal ; ip. gt.. 12,28. Almot* 

glUclum (Silicon), 
ffllver (Argentum). 


Tin (Slannum). 

I II, IV. 
I II. IV, VI. 

I Not yet isolated, 
I AmorphousorcrjTtalUnereil.blacli 
I or gTBy Bollrt ; sp. rt.. 4,2»-4.S0. MelM 
»til7«; boilBatTOO". 
Amorphous or crj-stalllne solid ;;p. 
I gr.. 2.49. Melts at Tery high tempur- 

luswhllemetal; 8p,Kr„10,57. 
10tO° ; bolls at while hat. 

.v.,..rf I"' 

Lt red h-. 

solid; sp. gr., I.ll'i-Jci&r Melts at 
114,.^=; bolls at145''. 
Black powder. 

Hllyery-vbltc. lustrous, crj'stalllne 
Bul<8lance:sp. gT„e.2. Melts at490°- 

I Not Igolated. 

I Soft white metal: sp. gr.. U.S. 
Melts at 2W : boils at wHte heat 

Dark-gray m 

sp, gr,. ',2a- 

sp. gr., 5.3. 






IN Deorees Centiobade.) 






II. IV, VI. 




Hard gleel-gn)' metal; rp. gr.. 

Hard allveiT metal ; sp, gi.. 18.7. 
Silvery crj-stali ; sp. gr. , 5.6. 

MttalJlc solid : not obtalaed pure. 

Blulah-whlie lustrouB melal; sp. 

RT., fl.8-7.2. Melts at «0"; boUi at 

Elein«iit'«T7. Of or pertaining to an ele- 
ment; liaTinE the characters of an elemeDt; 
not rtsolTable into aimpler parts; as an E. 

SlMUl (el'ee-mee). A resinous lubstsnce 
obtained from Manila ; probably derived from 
the Cana'rium commu'ne. It contains a fra- 
Kiant volatile oU. An ointment is used as a 
drening for blisters and ulcers. 

BleptutntUaU (er"ee-fan"Cee-a/Bis, el"ee- 

chamcteriied by tliicfceuiii(t, uniui , __. 

colomlion. and SBeuring of the skin and great 
hypertrophy of the subcutaneous structures, 

iiroducing progressive and often enormous en- 
argement of the part. Uovement becomes 
painfnl or impOBsiSle. and tubercles or ulcer* 
may form in the a&ected skii 

-. The leg 

principally attacked. 
common in tropical climates, tapecially on 
the iea-coast. Treatment: in the early xtages 
hygienic and antiphlngietic measures, rest, and 
•oothiug Bjtplications; in the atOKC of hyper- 
trophy, stimulant npplicntions, frictiou, com- 
pression, ligation of the artery eupplj-iug the 
parts, nerve-stretching, and amputation. E. 

, Ofo 

affected with eleph 
Slepbant lev. Elephantiasis. 
El'eTfttor. An instrument for lifting up a 

EltmUul'tlon. [L. fnmind'rio =1 + /imm, 
threshold.] The act of extruding or expel- 
ling anything (especially waste products) 
from the body. 

Klil'lr. [L. f. or eKii/ium, fr. Arabic] 
A composite tincture or spirit; particularly, 
one containing only a small amount of active 
ingredients and mode palatable hy the addi- 
tion of sugar and aromntics. Acid e. of HaI- 
IW (£■. <«?irf«i7i JlnlfcH, E. ofHiriol). mix- 
tura sulfurica acida (see Sulphuric acid). 
AlomaUo «. (E. aromai't'cum), see Aromatic. 
Bitter e. {JH, ama'mni), sec Sitter. B. ad 

loDBun Tltam (K. i 
composita. B. b 

m) t 

lU'l, e. 

aurantiorum compositnm (see 
parator'lctim, camphorated tincture ol op- 
ium. B. robo'rani Wbltt'll, compound tinc- 
ture of cinchona. B. tala'tU, wine of rhu- 

El'kopUaty. See Hclcoplatty. 
Elm. A genus of trees (Ulmus) of the 
Urticacete. The inner bark of the "'" 

e. (Ulmus fulva) is the Ulmua ■ 
forms a mucilage {.Mvtilago ulmi, u. a.) 
with water, and is ui^ eitemallr and in- 
ternally as a demulcent in inBamed states of 
the skin and mucous tracts. 

Klutrl»tlon(ee-lew"'abon). nj.e/ii- 
triarr, to cleanse, = e + laere, to waeh.l The 
act {)f separating the heavier from the lighter 
particles of a mixture hy suspending the latter 
m water and decantinjj the Bnpcmatant liquid 
after the heavier particles subside. 

ElytTlUl (el"ee-trey'tiB, -tree'tis). [Gr. 
</Wron, sheath, -i--iti».\ Inflammation of the 

Bl'ytropUaty. [Gr. eluirott, sheath, + 
-plaily.} The repair of defects or removal of 
redundancies in the vagina by operation. 

ElytroptOSlB (ec-lifrop-toh'sifl). [Gr. elu- 
tron, sheath, -f- pioaie, a tailing.] Prolapse of 
the vagina. 

Elytror'rhaphy. [Gr, eliitroa, sheath, + 
-rhapku.] The act of sewing up the vagina, 
especially of sewing t<«etherthe sides of a fis- 
sure in the vaginal wall. 

,. obscess, E. pneu 

m). [L.] The condition in which men- 
has never occurred. 

Bmbed'. See Imbed. 

Embal'lo Add. An acid, C^ITkOi, derived 
from Krabrlia Itihes. an Knat Indian plant. It 
forms salts called Bm'beUtH. 

Bmbole (em'boh-lee). [Gr. ^ inroad — en, 
in, -I- balMn, to throw.] Tlie process of in- 
vaginntinn hy which the archcnieron is formed 
in the primitive embryo, 

Embol'le. Of, pertaining to, or produced 
by embolism ; as E. ot — 


Plugging of », vessel (especially an artsryj by 
a body broueht from some point remote trom 
tlie sile of olHtruclinn. Such B plug is called 
an Sm'bolon or Emttoltu. It may or may 
not eonlain infective matter (germs); in the 
latter case the Byniploms are simply those 
due to the temporary or permanent arrest of 
ciruiilaticin (loss of fuiietion, htemurrhage, 
atrophy, or Bangrene) ; in tlie former case 
symptoms of liical infection (suppuration) are 
supenul<leil. The emboli may be single or 
multiple, ani3 may consist of fibrin, &i (Fat 
•-), massesofbaeteria, or air-bubbles (Air e.)- 
BmboloUlla ( em-bol" oh-lay ' lee'ah ) , Bmbol- 
oplirk*lK(em-bol"oh-fi^y'zhab), [Gr. emboli, 
inroaii, + laleeia, to talk, or pkratii. speech.] 
Interpolation of meaningless words into a 

Bm'boliu. 1. See under EmboiUm. 3. 
See Emboli/ona nucleut, 

Embiocatloii (em"broh-kay'9hun). [New 
li. embrocd' tio — Gr. m, ini+ brechein, to wet.] 
The application, especially by hand, of a 
liquid to the surfiice of the body ; also a liquid 
BO applied. 

urdla (-kahr" dee-all) [Gr. iardia, heart], 
a state in which the heart beata like that of 
the fetus; the first and second sounds being 
both alike (i. e., short, sharp, and feeble), 
and Ihe diastole being shortened. Bmbryo- 
sesaUc (-jee-net'ik), Embiyogonlc (-jen'ik) 
[•genie], producing or developing into an e. 
EmbTyologleal (-fog'ee-kul), of or pertaining 
to embrvologj;. Bmbryolagltt (-ol'oh-jist), 
one skilled in embryology. Embryology 
(■ol'oh-jee) [-logy'], the science treating of Ihe 
development of thee. Embrj;onal {em-brey"- 
oh-nal), Embryon'lc, pertaining to or having 
the character of the c.; as Embryoiiie liitue, 
tissue fimnd in the v, and under certain condi- 
tions in the adult, eonsisting of small, round, 
nndiSerentialeil cells {Embryonic crlh). A'm- 
bryoaie area (onpor). see Arta. Bmbrrot'- 
omy [-tomy], (11 (he act of cutting up 
the fetus, performed with an instrument called 
an Em'bryotonu ; (2) gcuericully, any ma- 
nffiuvrc for reducing the aixe of the e. 

Bin'esl*. [Qr.] See Vomiliiig. 

EmM'le. Causing vomiting 1 an agent pro- 
ducing vomiting. Dlraet •'■ are those, such 
as zinc Hulphalc, yellow sulphate of mercury, 
cojipcr sulphate, alum, mustunl, whicii act l)y 
irritating the terminal fibres of Ihe pneumo- 
gastric in the stomach itself. Indirect e'a, 
including tartar emetic, ipecac, apomorpliine. 

r how introduced 


with undigested food (the direct e's 

used here wherever possible), and for expel- 
ling matter from t*"" "'" —""-"■■" '" —■'•'- 
bronchitis, croup, ai 
here l)eing ipecac, I 

low flulphalt -' 

assisted by 
lukewarm » 

Bm'etln. {Emelie + -in.] A resinoid ob- 
tained from and used like ipecac. Dose, as ex- 
pectorant, gr. 0,02-0.03 (gni. 0.001-0,002); aa 
emetic, gr. 0.12-0.25 (gm. 0.008-«.0I6). 

EmetlDe (em'ee-teen). [Emtlic + -tn;.] An 
alkaloid, CitUitXjOt, derived from and used 
like ipecac. Dose, as expectorant, gr. 0.01- 
0.02 (gm. 0.0005-0.0010); as emetic, gr. 0.06- 
0.12 (gm. 0.004-0.008). 

Bmeto-oathutlo (em"ev-toh-ka-lhahr'tik). 
At once emetic and cathartic. 

B. M. F. Abbreviation for electro-motive 

Bro'lnenee. [L. hninen' lia — e -(■ minert, 
to hang over.] A projection or jutting proc- 
ess, especially upon the surfiice of a bone ; aa 
the Canine e. (of the superior maxilla), /Van- 
fa/ e. (of the frontal bone), Parietal e. (of the 
Krietal bone), Jit'galar e, (of the occipital 
ue), Itio-peetin' eat t. (of the os pubis). 

'ee-nen'shee-ah). pj.] An 
B. artlonlft'ris, a rounded proc- 

of the tempoml bone. B. collat«ra'll«, an 
eminence between Ihe posterior and middle 
horns of the lateral ventricle, separating the 
hippocampus from the calcar. K. digita'Us, 
the calenr. B. Follopp'li, a ridge on the inner 
wall of the tympanum, indicating the situ- 
ation ofthefacialnerve. E. prraniid&'lls, the 
pyramid of the midille ear. B. Itylold'sk, a 
prominence on the posterior wall of the tym- 
panum. E. t«raB, the fnaciciilus teres. 

Bm'iitftrj vein. [L. em'iu^ rium = i, out, 
+ niiHere, tosend.J One of several small veins 
passing llirough the cranium and connecting 
tlie venous sinuses with ext«miil veins. 

'a-B"B)- [pr-.< 
ead.] Bnngii 

men, month, agogerin, to lead.] Bringing o: 
or restoring Ihe menstrual fiow ; an agent pro- 
moting normal lueiistruatiun. IHrvct «'■, in- 
cluding ergot, apiol, rue, tansy, and savine, 
act by directly stimulating the uterus. Indi- 
rect e'a act by relieving anaemia, constipation, 
or uterine congestion Whicii may He at the root 
of amenorrhiea, and include iron, aloes, and 
the applieaiioD of hot sitj-baths, mustard, and 
leeclics over the uterus. 

BmuMtropltt (em"mee-tmh'ppe-ah). [Gr. 
rmmttroi, in proper measure, + opt, eye.] The 
Slate in wiiii'li the eye, when Its acenmmoda- 
tion is relaxed, is accurately adjusted for 
parallel rays, so that, in case no opacities in 
"■" "" ~'"" distant olijecis form a sharp 

1 Ihe t 

iia. An 

r pi'ra 

pnsscKscd of e. is called Bmmetrop'le, and an 

emmetropic person is called an Bin'm«trope. 

BmmM'B operkUott. (T. A^ Emmn, an 


DiagEammatk Representation of a Human Embryo estimated as about Four Weeks old, 

showing Heart, Bloodvessels, Brain and Abdominal Viscera. 

( Modified from His.) 

lis. h«uisp1icrni ; Asl. optic stalk ; Zh, Inlcr-hraln ; Mh. uii<l-bratii : Js, i^llinius of hind-hraiii ; 
Cb. Cerebclluiii ; r>c, cilisry ganRliau; Rl, alfnctory lobc^ Rft. nasal pit; CC. nassetiaii ^nglion : 
Oo. RHiiglion of eudilory nerve ; Glx. auditory vesicle : GI, ganglion n[ glossopharyngeal nerve : Ctg. 
gaiiglfon of vagus nerve ; Hp. hypoglossal nerve ; CI, ganglion of first cervical nerve : OK, superior 
maxilla; UK, inferior maxilla ; I.g. tongue ; KK. laiynx: Sa. septum atrlotum ; Rv. aeplnm ventticu- 

Wolffian bodies: Ms. mesentery ; Dr, intestine ; CI, cloaca ; Ul, kidney proton; V, vtiitricLe; An. 






American f(yne«ol agist.] Thv operation of re- 
frvshiiig Ihe edgis Hnd eewing up a laceration 

B'mol. A niincral oblained from Perth- 
shire. Scotland, whith aoftena hard water, 
acts like a aoap, and removes homy and thiek- 
enrd epidermis. Used in chronic eczema and 

SmoIUent (ee-mol'yent ). [L. cmoirt^nt = «, 
out, + motlU, ioft.] Reudering soft and 
atnuoth : relieving irritation by meclianicaj 
means ; also a remedy so acting. The chief 
e's are starch, gelatin, gum arable, and the 
various uiucilaginous vegetables (Irish moss, 
Iceland moss, linseed, niamh mallow, slippery 
eliu), B. bath, a bath made with e's. See 

■e.] Pertaining to 
^; partieularly, u 

._ iiotiiin or feeling. B. In 

form of insanity in which tlie patiei 

tnaanlty, i 

BiiAitily dominated by a iiingib cuiuiji'u, autu 
as love, hole, fear, averaion, jealousy, home- 
sickness {E. Monoma'niaj: or by irresistible 
impulses, e. g., to commit theft (cleptomaiiia), 
arH>n (pyromania), or suicide; or by pro- 
found depression (melancholia, hypochon- 

Bmp. Abbreviation for emplastrum. 

Bm])hyBwna(em"fee-iee'n]ah). (Gr. emphii- 
tenia, fr. empkuiofin, to blow up,] A condi- 
tion in which the interspaces of the body, 
particularly those of the subcutaneous or sub- 
mucous connective tissue, are distended with 
gas. E. Of the lanni Pol'monurT •., ab- 
normal distention of the air-vesicles of the 
lungs, causing loss of elasticity, atrophy, and 
finally rupture of the vesiele-walU. Due to 
excessive respiratory effort, as in those who 
play upon wirid-inBtrumenlB or live in a rare- 

iis; tonics, especially 
cod-liver oil ; change of climate. 

Bmpli'le. One who is empirical or relies 
solely upon experience in the treatment of 
disease: bence, one who proctices without 
scientific knowledge ; a quack. 

SmplT'lcal. [Qr. ftnpHrikm = en, in. + 
peira, test.] Obtained or regulated solely by 
experience, and not by reason, as E. practice. 
B. for'nmli, see Formula. 

Emplaa'tmn. [L. = Gt. emplaitron = en, 
in, -I- platifin, to fashion.] See Plaster. 

BmprOsUiOt'ODOB. [Gr. = «n«Jr(W(A™, front, 
+ ftmoi, a stretching.] A condition produced 
by spasm of the abdominal muscles and flexors 
ofthesgine, in which the trunk is bent forward 
and rigid. 

Bmpiuft {em-pew'iab). [Gr. Eiap<»t*a, a 


certain hobgoblin.] A genus of Fungi. S. 
mutca, a species, whose spores germinate in 
Qies and destroy them. 

Bmp7«iiM(em"pey-ee'niah). [Gr. — m, in, 
+puoii, pUfl.J A condition characterised by 
an accumulation of pus in a natural cavity of 
the body : as K. of the frontal and maxillary 
sinuses, E. of the gall-bladder. B. Of tlM ebMt 
{or simply E.), a form of pleurisy in which 
suppuration takes place in the pleural cavity; 
usually chronic ana marked by dyspnrea, ir- 
regular fever, emaciation, and loss of Btren([th. 
Physical signs, those of pleurisy with effusion. 

pulsations iPaPialing e.). Treatment : i . 
ration, injection with antiseptics (methylene- 
blue), incision with drainage, resection of 
ribs (Estlunder's operation). 

Emulii^fee-mul'see-fey). lEmvU-ioa + I,. 
facerc, to make.) To convert into an emulaion. 

Bmnl'sln. [Emvlt-ion + -tn.] A proteid 
found in bitter almonds and various fiingi. In 
almonds emulaifits the oil, and converts the 
araygdalin into hydrocyanic acid. 

Emnlslon (ee-mul'ahun). [L. enui/rum, U. 
S., tmUCtiii, O. P., fr. emulgere, to milk.1 A 
liquid rendered milk); by the suspension in it 
of^linely-divided particles of fat. oil, or resin. 
Milk is a typical e. The G. P. distin^ishes 
two classes of e's — those made with oils and 
those made with seeds. EmuVtio limplex, Q. 
P., emulsum amygdolie {see Atnumd). 

Smune'tory. [L. emungert, to blow the 
nose.] An excretory struvtiire. 

Bn&m'al. [F. email, allied to Ger. tehmett, 
and (T. same root as tmelt.'] See Toolk. B.- 
natiiiU {E. membrane}, 'S. TOii, eee Toolh. B. 
orsan, an organ formed in the gums of the in- 
fant by a dome-shaped involution of the lower 

end of a plug of epider 

into the derma. 

BnantlobloiU (ee-nie_. _.„ __ __,. 

(Gr. enantiot, oppoailc. + bio>, life, + -o»i>.] 
'he condition in which organisms that live 
together interfere with each other's develoji- 
ment ; the opposite of lyjabion*. 

Bnartbroili (en"ahr-throh'BiB). [Gr. en, 
in, + arthroeit, a joining.] A ball-and-sockei 
joml. Bee Joint. 

Bncan'thls. (Gr. en, in, + eant/mt.'] A 
new growth affecting the lachrymal caruncle, 

BncaphtOAitlietila ( en-Bef"al-aa-lbee-ney'- 
ah, -tliee'uee-ah). [Enee^halon + atlheiila.} 
Weakness or feilure of brain power. 

Bnoepluillc (en"Bee-fiirik). [Encephalon.i 
Of, pertaining to, or originating in the biBin. 

BnoeplULlltit ( en-sef" a-ley* tis, -lee'tis ). 
lEneepKalon + -ilii.'} Inflammation of the 
brain; a condition usually fatal, marked by 
pain, fever, delirium, convulsions, and coma.