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Full text of "A Dictionary of music and musicians (A.D. 1450-1889): with ..., Volume 2"

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DIOTIONArff-.^;.-;!* 

- * ••• • 1 Z ••• • *• • • • • • 



^^ OP 



MUSIC AND MUSICIANS- 



^ ^ (A.D. 1450—1880) 



BY EMINENT WRITERS, ENGLISH AND FOREIGN. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND WOODCUTS. 



EBITKD BT 

GEORGE GROVE, D.C.L. 



IN THREE VOLUMES. 



VOL. II. 



; TJ In I ' ^ ^- '^^ \^ / UnJverslty of Clifornla 

nrtrinff 



MACMILLAN AND CO, 
1880. 

[TV Kighi of Tranflalion and Reproduction it reserted,^ 



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OXFORD: 

E. PIOKARD HALL, M.A., AND J. B. STAOT, 
PRINTERS TO THE UNTVBRSTTY. 



L^yi/O 



^ 






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^ 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTOKa 

Sir Julius Benedict . . . . . . . . . . . . B. ' 

Joseph Bennett, Esq. . . . . . . . . , . J. B. 

James B. Stbrndale-Bennbtt, Esq. .. .. .. .. J. R. S.-B. 

Dattd Baptie, Esq., Gla^ow . . . . . . . . . . D. B. 

Mbs. Walter Carr . . . . . . . . . . . . M. C. C. 

William Chappbll, Esq., F.S.A. .. .. .. .. W. C. 

Alexis CHrrrr, Esq. . . . : A. C. 

M. Gustave Chouquet, Keeper of the Museum of the Con- 
servatoire de Mufiique, Paris . . . . . . . . G. C. 

Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq., Barrister-at-Law . . . . A. D. C. 

Frederick Coeder, Esq., Mendelssohn Scholar, 1875-79 •• E. C. 

George Arthur Crawford, Major . . . . . . G. A. C. 

William H. Cummings, Esq W. H. C. 

W. G. CusiNS, Esq., Conductor of the Philharmonic Society; 

Master of the Music to the Queen . . . . . . W. G. C. 

Edward Dannreuther, Esq . . . . . . E. D. 

Hebr Paul David P. D. 

James W. Davison, Esq. J. W. D. 

Edward H. Donkin, Esq E. H. D. 

H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq. . . . . . . . . H. S. E. 

Henry Frederick Frost, Esq., Organist of the Chapel Royal, Savoy H. F. F. 

J. A. Fuller-Maitland, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . J. A. F.-M. 

Charles Allan Fyppe, Esq., Barrister-at-Law . . . . C. A. F. 

Dr. Franz Gehring, Vienna . . . . . . . . . . P. G. 

J. C. Grieftth, Esq, . . . , . . J. C. G. 

Rev. Thomas Helmore, Master of the Children of the Chapels Royal T. H. 

George Herbert, Esq. . . G. H. 

Dr. Ferdinand Hiller, Cologne H. 

A. J. HiPKiNS, Esq A. J. H. 

Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Organist to the Temple .. E. J. H. 

o nl ^^ "^"SIC LIBRARY 

J^yJ l^ J ^ University of California 



T. P. H. 


F.H. 


J.H. 


W. H. H. 


F.H.J. 


J.L. 


H. J. L. 


8. L. 


O. A. M. 


CM. 


A.M. 


J. M. 


F. A. M. 


RM. 


E. G. M. 



VI LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 

Rev. T. Percy Hudson .. .. 

Francis Hueffsr, Esq. 

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. 

William H. Husk, Esq., librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society 

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, Mass., U. S. A 

James Leckt, Esq. 

Henby J. Lincoln, Esq. 

Stanley Lucas, Esq., Secretary to the Philharmonic Society 

George Alexander Macfarren, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music 

in the University of Cambridge, &c., &c. 
Charles Mackeson, Esq., F.S.S. 
Herr a. Magzewski, Concert-director, Kaiserslautem 
Julian Marshall, Esq. 
Mrs. Julian Marshall 
RussEL Martineau, Esq. 

Edwin G. Monk, Esq., Mus. Doc., Organist of York Cathedral 
Sib Herbert S. Oaeeley, Mus. Doc., Professor of Music at the 

University of Edinburgh . . . . . . . . H. S. O. 

Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouselby, Bart., Mus. Doc, Professor 

of Music in the University of Oxford .. .. .. F. A.G. O. 

C. Hubert H. Pabby, Esq ; C. H. H. P. 

Hebb Ebnst Pauer . . . . . . . . . . . . P. 

Edward John Payne, Esq., Barrister-at-Law E. J. P. 

Rev. Hugh Pearson, Canon of Windsor . . . . . . H. P. 

Edward H. Pember, Esq., Q.C. E. H. P. 

Miss Phillimore . . . . . . . . . . . . C. M. P. 

Herr C. F. Pohl, Librarian to the Gesellschaft der Musik- 

freunde, Vienna . . . . . . . . . . . . C. P. P. 

William Pole, Esq., F.R.8., Mus. Doc W. P. 

Victor db Pontigny, Esq. . . . . . . , . . . V. de P. 

Ebbnezeb Pbout, Esq E. P. 

Rev. William Pulling . . . . . . . . . . W. Pg. 

Chables H. Purday, Esq C. H. P. 

Edward F. Rimbault, Esq., LL.D. E. F. R. 

LuiGi Ricci, Esq. . . L. R. 

W. S. Rockstro, Esq W. S. R. 



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LISL OF CONTRIBUTORS. vii 

W. Babclat Squire, Esq 

H. H. Statham, Esq. . . . . 

Sib Robert P. Stewart, Mus. Doc., Profeeeor of Music in Dublin 

University 

William H. Stone, Esq., M.B. 

Abthub Seymour Sullivan, Esq., Mus. Doc, Principal of the 

National Training School of Music 
Fbanrlin Taylor, Esq. 
Alexander W. Thayer, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste, 

Author of the Life of Beethoven 
Miss Bertha Thomas . . 

C. A. W. Troyte, Esq. 

Colonel H. "Ware, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 

Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse 

The Editor . . 



Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 
Oct. I, 1880. 



"W, 


, B. S. 


H. 


H. 8. 


K. 


P. 8. 


W 


.H.S. 


B. 




F. 


T. 


A. 


W. T. 


B. 


T. 


C.A.W.T. 


H.W. 


A. 


H. W. 


G. 





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DICTIONAR 



OP 




MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. 



IMPROPEBIA, le, 'The Reproaches.' A 
tenet of Antiphont and RetpoBset, forming part 
of Uie solemn Service, which, on the morning of 
Good Friday, it sabttituted lor the usual dcdly 
Mast of the R<nnan Ritual. 

Hie text of the Improperia, written partly in 
Latin, and partly in Gredc, is designed to iUus- 
trate the torrowful remonstrance of our Lord with 
His people, oonceming their ungrateful return for 
ihe Denefits He has bestowed upon them. Hie 
touching words in which these remonstrances 
are expressed were originally sung to well-known 
Plain Chaunt melodies, preserved in the Qraduale 
Rtmuxnmm, and still retained in veiy general use, 
both in England, and on the Continent : but, 
rinoe the Pontificate of Pope Pins IV, they 
have been invariably chaunted, in the Sistine 
du^, to some simjie, but exquisitely beautiful 
Favx bourdon$, to which they were adapted, by 
Palestrina, in the year 1560. Li depth of feeling, 
true pathos, and perfect adaptation of the music 
to the sense of the words, these wond^fiil Im- 
properia have never been exceeded, even hv 
Palestrina himself . We may well believe, indeea, 
that he alone could have succeeded in drawing, 
fnaatk the few simple chords which enter into 
Uieir construction, the profoundly . impressive 
effect they never hB. to produce ; an elSect so 
strictly in accordance wiUi that of the solemn 
CereDMmy with which they are associated that 
we can only hope to render the one intelligible 
by describing it in connexion with the other. 

A small Gradfix having been laid upon the 
Ahar Step, the Cleigy, firet» and afterwards the 
people, kneel down to kiss its Feet. While they 
are slowly i^proaching the Sanctuary, by two 
and two, for this purpose, the Imprcpena are 
song; veiy woftty, and witiiont any accompani- 
msDt whatever, by two Antiphonal Choirs, which 
answer each other, try turns, in Greek, and Latin, 
tometfanes in fall Uhorus, and sometimes em- 
ployiDg the Yoicee of a f^ leading GhoristerB 
▼0L.1i. 



only, on eithor side. After the last ' Reproach,' 
and the Response which follows it, the two Choirs 
unite in singing the first Verse of the Psalm, * Deus 
misereatur no^,' preceded, and followed^ by the 
Antiphon, ' Cruoem tuam adoramus.* The Hymn 
' Pange lingua * is then sung, entire, with the Verse, 
*Crux fidebs,* divided into two portions, which are 
sung, alternately, between the other Strophes. 
It is the dul^ of the Mattre de Ckapdle to take 
caro that this musio occupies exacUy the same 
time as the ceremony of ' Creeping to the Cross * 
(as it was formerly called, in England). Should 
there be but few people present, he is at liberty 
to omit any portion of it : should there be many, 
he may cause as much as he considers necessary 
to be sung over again.' In either case, when aU 
present Imve kis^ the Crucifix, the Candles on 
the Altar are lighted : a new Procession is formed : 
the Blessed Sacrament is carried, with great 
solemnity, finom the Chapel in which it has been 
reserved since the Mass of Hol^ Thursday, to 
the High Altar, the Choir singmg the Hymn, 
' VexiUa regis,' as they precede it on its way : and 
the Servioe called * The Mass of the Presanctified' 
then proceeds in accordance with directions con« 
tained in the Missal. 

No printed copy of the Improperia was issued, 
either by Palestrina himself or the assignees of 
his son, Igino. They were fifst published in 
London, by Dr. Bumey ; who, on the authority 
of a MS. presented to him by the Cavaliere 
Santarelli, inserted them, in the your 1771, in a 
work entitled ' La Musica della Settimana Santa,' 
which has now become very scarce. Alfieri also 
printed them among his Excerpta, published, 
at Rome, in 1840; and, in 1863, Dr. Proske 
included them in the fourth volume of his Mudca 



I lfendelMohn.i*lio. In the tmtIFSI. tms Bnieh hnpreiMd. bolh bf 
the imisle. and the Oeremony. lunenta. In his weD-kDcmn letter to 
Zeiter. that, the erowd not being Tery great, be had not an oppo»> 
tonlty of hearing the BMpoDMt repeated m often u he oould ha? a 



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2 IMPROPERIA. 

Ditfina. These three editions differ from each 
other very considerably. That of Proske, 




copied from the Altamps-Otthoboni MS. pre- 
serred in the Vatican Library, may frorly be 
assumed to represent the work exactly in the 
condition in which Palestrina left it: but the 
varied readings of Bumey (1771), 




are both valuable and interesting, as records of 
the abdlimenti used in the Pontifical Chapel at 
the time of their transcription. Bumey's version 
was reproduced, by Choron, among his examples 
of the Great Masters, in 1836; and again, in 
1 840, by Vincent Novello, in * The Music of Holy 
Week,* which is still in print. [W. S. R.] 

IMPROVISATlON.an equivalent term for Ex- 
TEMPOBB Plating or Extemporising. Moscheles 
has left a curious account of the way in which 
Mendelssohn and he used to amuse themselves 
by improvising d quatre mains, a feat already 
mentioned in respect to Beethoven and WoM 
under Extbmfobb. 'We often,* says he (Life, 
i. 274), * improvise together on his magnificent 
Erard, each of us trying to dart as quick as 
lightninf^ on the suggestions contained in the 
other's harmonies and to make fresh ones upon 
them. Then, if I bring in a theme out of his 
music, he immediately outs in with one out of 
mine ; then I retort, and then he, and so on cu2 
i^finUam, like two people at blind man's buff 
running against each other.' 

Nottebohm remarks in his 'Beethoveniana* 
(p. 54) that of all Beethoven's string quartets 
t^t in Gf minor (op. 131) has most the character 
of an Improvisation, but at the same time he 
quotes alterations from the sketohbooks (15 of 
one passage only) which show that the work was 
the very reverse of an impromptu, aijid the result 
of more than ordinary labour and vacillation, 
thus corroborating the remark made in the article 
on Beethoven in this Dictionary (p. 174 a) that 
the longer ^e worked at his phrases, the more 
apparently spontaneous did they become. [G.] 



INCLEDON. 

INCLEDON, Chablxs BEKJA]cnr,--the se- 
cond of which names he despised and seldom 
used, — was the son of a mediod practitioner at 
St. Kevem, Cornwall, where he was bom in 
1 763. At 8 years of age he was placed in the 
choir of Exeter Cathedral, where he received his 
early musical education, first frtmi Richard Lang- 
don and afterwards fix>m William Jackson. £i 
1779 he entered on board the Formidable, man- 
of-war, 98 guns, under Ci^t. (afterwards Rear- 
Admiral) Cleland. On the West India station 
he changed his ship for the Raisonable, 64 guns. 
Captain Lord Hervey. His voice had now be- 
come a fine tenor, and his singing attracted the 
attention of Admiral Pigot, commander of the 
fleet, who frequently sent for him to join himself 
and Admiral Hughes in the performance of ^eea 
and catches. Indedon returned to England in 
1783, when Admiral Pigot, Lord Mulgrave, and 
Ix)rd Hervey gave him letters of intn^uction to 
Sheridan and Colman. Failing to obtain an en- 
gagement frv>m either manager he joined Collins's 
company and made his first appearance at the 
Southampton Theatre in 1784 as Alphonso in 
Dr. Amold*s 'Castle of Andalusia.' In the 
next year he was engaged at the Bath Theatre, 
where he made his first appearance as Belville in 
Shield*s 'Rosina.' At Bath he attracted the 
attention of Rauzrini, who gave him instruction 
and introduced him at his concerts. In 1786 he 
made his first appearance in London at Vauxhall 
Grardens with great success, and during the next 
three years he was engaged there in the summer 
and at Bath in the winter. On Sept. 17, 1790, 
he made his first i4>pearanoe at Covent (jrarnen 
Theatre as Dermot m Shield*s *Poor Soldier,' 
and from that time for upwards of 30 years held 
a high position in public favour, singing not only 
at the theatre and VauxhaU, but al«> at con- 
certs, the Lenten oratorios, and the provincial 
music meetings. In 181 7 he visited America^ 
and made a tour through a considerable part of 
the United States, where he was received with 
great applause During the latter years of his 
life he travelled through the provinces under the 
style of ' The Wandering MeJodist^* and gave an 
entertainment which was received with much 
favour. Early in 18 a6 he went to Worcester for 
the purpose of giving his entertainment, where 
he was attacked by paralysis, which terminated 
his existence on Feb. 11. He wai^ buried at 
Hampstead, Middlesex. Indedon's voice and 
manner of dnging were thus described by a con- 
temporary: — 'He had a voice of uncommon 
power both in the natural and fiUaette. The 
former was from A to G, a compass of about 
fourteen notes ; the latter he could use from D 
to E or F, or about ten notes. His natural voic^ 
was full snd open, neither partaking of the reed 
nor the string, and sent forth without the smallest 
artifice ; and auch was its ductility that when he 
sung pianissimo it retained its original quality. 
His falsette was rich, sweet and brilliant, but 
totally unlike the other. He took it vrithout 
preparation, aocorcUng to circumstances either 
\ about D, 9, or F, or aetoending an octave, which 



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INCLEDON, 

was falB moBt frequent eostom ; lie ooald nee it 
with facility, and execute omaments of a certain 
deas with Tolubility and sweetnese. Hit shake 
VM good, and his intonation much more correct 
than is common to lingers so imperfectly edu- 
ostod. . . . He had a bold and manly manner of 
aingingy mixed however with considerable feeUng, 
which went to the hearts of his countrymen. He 
sang like a true Bngllshnian. . . . His forte was 
baOady and ballad not of the modem oast of 
whining or wanton aentimentS but the original 
manly enngetic strain of an earlier and better 
age of Knglinh poesy and English song-writing, 
sseh as 'Black-eyed Susan' and 'The Storm/ 
the bold and cheering hunting song, or the loye 
sng of 9iield, breathing the chaste and simple 
graoe €d genuine English melody.' All who had 
heard Indedon's singing of * The Storm * (which 
he sang in chaiacter as a sailor) were unanimous 
in proDonncing it unique, bodi as a vocal and an 
histrionic exhibition. Of the songs written ex- 
pressly for him it may suffice to mention ^iield*s 
'Heaving the lead' and * The Arethusa.^ 

Chablbs Yshanzio Ivolbdon, his eldest son, 
origmaDy engaged in agiiouHural pursuits, but 
ca Oct. 3» 1 829, appeared at Drury Lane Theatre 
aa Toang Meadows in * Love in a Village,' and 
shortly afterwards played Tom Tug in Dibdin's 
'Waterman.' Meeting however with but very 
moderate socoees he returned to his former 
avocation, and, it is believed, emigrated to one 
oftheocdoniea. [W.H.H.] 

INGANNO, t.e. Deception. Any iWse or 
deceptive Cadence, in which the Base proceeds, 
from the Dominant, to any other note than the 
Tonic: — 




[W.S.R.] 

INGLOTT, William, bom 1554, became or- 
gamut of Norwich GathedraL He was disttn- 
ganh«d for his skill as a performer on the organ 
and virginals. He died in Dec i6ai aged 67, 
and was buried Dec. 31 in the cathedral, where 
OD the west side of the southern pillar adjoining 
the entrance to the choir a painted monument to 
his memory was placed June 15, 1623. Nearly 
90 yean afterwards the monument, having 
beeome dilapidated, was restored at the expense 
of Dr. Croft. An engraving of it in its restored 
state is given in 'The Posthumoua Works of Sir 
ThomaB Browne,' 171a. [W.H.H.] 

DTITIAIA ABSOLUTE. Though it is not 
neesaaiy that a Plain Chaunt Melody should 
begin on the Final, Dominant, <»r even Mediant, 
of the Mode in whieh it is written, the choice of 
the fint note is not left entirely to ib» Composer*s 
dnoition. He can only be^ upon one of a 
aeriea of sounds, selected frun the Begular or 
> nSi «•• wrfOoB to ISU, dnxtef iMladoD'j ftbMMt te AflMriciL 



IN NOMINE, 9 

Conceded Modulations of the Scale in which he 
writes, and invariably occupying the first place 
in all Plain Chaimt Melodies referable to that 
Scale. These sounds are called Absolute Initials. 
Tl^eir number varies, in different Modes; no 
Tonality possessing lees than three, or more than 
six : and, among them, there are a few, which, 
though fieely permitted, by law, are, in practice, 
venr rarely used. 

in the following Table, the letters, enclosed in 
brackets^ denote the more unusual Initials : while 
thoee printed in Italics indicate that the sounds 
they represent are to be taken in the lower 
Octave, even though they should thus be brought 
beyond the normal bounds of the Mode, 

Mod* I. C, D. F. O. A. 

Mode n. A. C. D. F. [EJ 

Mode III, B. [P 1 G. C. 
Mode IV. C.D.E.P.£G.irAJ 
Mode V. P. A. C. 

Mode VI. P.[t\l[D.] 
ModeVlL G. [A IB. CD. 
Mode Vlir. C7. D. P. G. A. C, 
Mode IX. Q, A. C. D. B. 
Mode X. E. G. A. C. [B.] 

SfodaXn B.CCJD.G. 
fade XII.) G. A. B. C. [D J [EJ 
ode Xni. C. [D.] E. G. 
Mode XIV. [(?.] [A.] C. [D.l 
The selection of some of these souncb'may 
seem, at first right, a little arbitrary : but, in 
truth, it is sometimes very difficult to decide 
upon a suitable first note. This is particularly 
the case with regard to Antiphons, the first notes 
of which exercise a marked effect upon the Tones 
to which the oorresponding Psalms are sung. It 
will be remembered that the entire Antiphon ia 
always repeated, immediately after the Psalm. 
It follows, therefore, that, unless care be taken 
to bring the last note of the Ending of the Psafan 
Tone into true melodic correspondence with the 
first note of the Antiphon, forbidden intervals 
may arise. By a careful arrangement of the Abso- 
lute Initials, the earlier writers on Plain Chaunt 
did their best to reduce the danger of introducing^ 
such intervals to a minimum. [See AirriPHOir ; 

MODB8, THE S00LK8IASTI0AL.] [W. S. R.] 

INNIO. A word used by Beethoven during 
his Grerman fit (op. loi, ist movement; 109, 
last do.; lai h), and Schumann (op. la, *Dea 
Abends ' ; op. 24, No. 9 ; op. 56, Nos. a and 4, 
Manfi^ music, No. a, etc.) to convey an intensely 
personal, almost devotional, fhune of mind. [G.] 

IN NOMINE. A somewhat vagne name, 
bestowed, by old English writers, on a oertain 
kind of Motet, or Antiphon, c(»nposed to Latin 
words. It seems to have been used, in the first 
instance, for compositions the text of which began 
with the words in question, or in whioh t]u>se 
wOTds were brought prominently forward : suoh 
a» the Introit, 'In nomine Jesu'; the Psalm, 
' Deus, in nomine tuo' ; and other similar oases* 
But its signification certainly became more ex- 
tended : for Butler, writing in 1636, commenda 
< the In nonUnes of Parsons, Tye, and Tavemer,' 
just as we should commend the Madrigals of 
Weelkes, or Morley, or Gibbons. The name ia 
even employed for instrumental pieces. 



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4 IN NOMIOTl 

The term, In nomine, is also very reasonablj 
M>plied to a Fuguis, in which the solmiistion of 
the answer does not correspond with that of the 
subject, and which, therefore, is a fugue in name 
only. [See Hbzaohobd.] [W.S.B.] 

IN QUESTA TOMBA OSCURA. A song of 
Beethoven's for contralto, with P. F. accompani- 
ment, to words by Carpani, written probably at 
tiie invitation of the Countess von Rzewuska, and 
forming one of sixty-three oompositions to the 
same words by various musicians, professional and 
amateur. Among the most eminent of the con- 
tributors are Sab'eri, Sterkel, Cherubini, Asioli, 
Bighini, Zingarelli, Weigl, Dionis Weber, Toma- 
schek, Alois Forster, Paer, Eberl, Czemy. Zinga- 
i*elli sent ten versions with quartet accompani- 
ment. Ozemy's single setting occupied ii folio 
pages. Beethoven's was the last in the volume, 
and is the only one which has survived. The 
Allgemeine Musik. Zeitung for Oct. 19, 1808, 
in announcing the publication, prints two of the 
settings, by Salieri and Sterkel, and in Jan. 18 10, 
two more by Beichardt. For another joint^tock 
volume in which Beethoven took part, see Ya- 

TEBLANDISOHE KtJNSTLEBVEREIV. [6.] 

INSCRIPTION (Lat. InacripHo, lUlMoUo). 
A Motto, or Sign, or combination of both, placed 
at the beginning of a Canon, to indicat , more or 
less dearly, the manner of its Besolution. 

During tJie latter half of the 15th century, the 
founders of the Flemish School — ^by whom the 
more abstruse forms of Imitation were assidu- 
ouslv cultivated — seem chiefly to have aimed at 
rendering the solution of their Enimme, or Mnig- 
matical Canons, impossible. Some of their most 
extravagant conceits are presented in the shape 
of Crosses, Circles, Squares, Triangles, Bainbows, 
Chess-boards, Sun-dials, and other equally fiEui- 
tastic designs, without the addition of any due 
whatever to their hidden meanings, (See ex- 
amples in Hawkins, Hist. chap. 67.) But, more 
firequently, they are written in a single line — 
oUled, the Guides— h&sAadi by some old proverb, 
or well-known quotation from Holy Scripture, 
which, though ostensibly vouchsafed for the pur- 
pose of giving the student some Ettle insight into 
the secret of their construction, tends rather, as 
a general rule/ to increase his perplexity. H^- 
ings, such as these, are called Inscriptions: and so 
obscure is their occasional meaning, that even 
Glareanus calls one of them r^s <T<piyy6s aXpty/M, 

Foremost among the composers of these in- 

fsnious works, and high above them all, stands 
osqiiin des Pr^, the i^finement of whose scholar- 
ship is as clearly proved, by the grace of his 
MotHf as his quite exceptional genius is by the 
smooth flow of the Canons to which they are 
prefixed. In the second Agnus Dei of his ' Missa 
L'Ami baudichon,' he intimates that the Tenor 
is to be silent, by the pretty Inscription, 'Agnus 
secundum non est cum grege.' In another place, 
he veils the same meaning under the Greek 
proverb, fidrpaxot l« "Xfpvpw, in allusion to 
.^Hian's statement that the frogs on the Island 
of Seriphos do not croak. Other writers have 
oonten^ themsdves with ' Vox &udbu0 hssit.' 



INSCRIPTION. 

To shew that the second Voice is to begin at 
the end, and sing backwards, Hobrecht says, 
plainly enough, ' Ut prius, sed didtur retrograde.* 
Pierre de la Bue more sternly exdsims, 'Yade 
retro, Sathanas.' Another quaint old Composer ^ 
writes, 'Canit more Hebrseorum*; reforing to* 
the custom of reading Hebrew from right to left. 
Josquin sums up the whole matter in a single 
word — 'Cancriza,' ».«. walk like a crab. Equally 
terse is the motto prefixed to the third Agntui 
Dei in his 'Missa L'Omme arm^'; where the 
omission of all rests, in one of the parts, is in- 
dicated by the direction 'Clama ne cesses.' 
Sometimes he gives us a French motto, as in his 
' Missa de Beata Yirgine,' where * Yous jeunerez 
les quatre temps ' shews that one part is to wait 
four semibreves, before taking up the Subject — 
a direction whioh is less poetically expressed by 
another writer, in the words ' Fuga in epidii^)a8on« 
post duo tempora' — 'aOanon in the Oc^ve above, 
after two Semibreves.' 

Some of Hobrecht's Inscriptions are very ob- 
scure. ' Acddens potest ineese et abesse prseter 
subjeoti oorruptionem' implies that the part may 
be sung, or omitted, at will, without mjury to 
the musia ' Decimas reddo omnia quee possideo' 
shews that the (unwritten) Bass must sing » 
Tenth bdow the Discant. * Tu tenor cancriza, et 
per antifrasin canta' indicates that the Tenor is 
to sing backwards, and, with all the intervals 
inverted. Not less oracular is Mouton's *Duo 
adversi adverse in unum,' which means that two 
singers are to stand opposite eadi other, vrith the 
Canon between them, each reading it upmde down 
from the other's point of view — ^an arrangement 
which is also dictated by *Beepice me, ostende 
mihi faclem tuam.* More mysterious still is 
' Justitia et Pax osculatse sunt' — indicating that 
the two performers are to begin at opposite ends, 
and meet in the middle. 

When black notes are to be sung in the dme 
of white ones, we sometimes find 'Nigra sum, 
sed formosa*; or, *Noctem in diem vertere'; or, 
*Dum habetis lucem credite in luoem.' By 
*Crescit in duplum* (or 'triplum') we under- 
stand that the notes are to be sung in Double 
(or Triple) Augmentation. ^Tres dent aex 
voces' means, that each of the three written 
parts is to be doubled, in Canon, so as to f<»m a 
compodtion for six Yoices. 

The list of these hard sayings is interminable ; 
and the hardness of many of them is increased 
by the Signs of Mode, Time, and Prdation, with 
which they are sometimes accompanied. For 
instance, a Semicircle, a Semidrde with a Bar 
drawn iJirough it, and a Circle with a Point in 
the centre, would, if placed one above the other, 
at the beginning of a Stave, serve to indicate 
that one Yoice was to sing four Crotchets in a 
Bar, another, four Minims, and the third, three 
Semibreves. In the last Agnus Dd of Pierre de 
la Bue's ' Missa Lliomme arm^,' we find a com- 
bination of no less than four sudi Signs. 

Following the example of Palestrina, the great 
Composers of the *Grolden Age' cast all these 
pediuitrieB adde, and wrote their really beautiful 



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INSCRIPTION^. 

dooni m notation which any singer oould readily 
midtfrstand. Palestrinahimselfdelighis in making 
twoVoioes sing in Canon, while three or four 
odierB cany on the Sabject in dose Imitation, or 
. eomphcated Free Fngue ; as in the lovely second 
Agnus Dei of his 'Missa Brevis/ Imd many 
others, equally beautifiiL In all these oases, the 
Voices to which the Canon is committed are 
expected to sing firom a single part; but, the 
Inscriptifm pre&ed to that part is so plain, that 
tbey find no difficull^ whatever in doing so. 
TboB, 'Symphonizabis (Missa Brevis as above) 
indicates a Canon in the Unison. * Canon in 
Dispssoo* <ur ' Epidiapason,*^ a Canon in the 
Octave above, and so on. The sign, $, or 
•ome nmilar figure — called the Pre»a — indi- 
eates the nlaoe at which the second Voice is to 
bqgin; and a pause, ^, is placed over the note 
on wHch it ends. The two Vdces can, therefOTe, 
Bug just as easily firom a single part, as from two 
Mpsiate copies. 

In modem editions, the matter is still farther 
simplified, by writing out the Canon in full; 
tiio^h, in the best copies^ the Inscription is still 
cut&Uy retained. [W.S.IL] 

mSTTTUT, PRIX DE L', a prke of ao,ooo 
francs founded by Napoleon III. in 1859, in 
place of the ' Prix triennal ' instituted by the 
decree of April L855. By a second decree, of 
Dec aa, i860, it was enacted that from and 
after 1861 the prise should be^ biemiial, and 
AcM be awarded to such work or discovery, of 
the ten yean previous to the award, as should be 
deemed most honourable or useful to the nation, 
in the department of each of the five Academies 
of the Institute anocessively — ^1' Academic Fran- 
calae, rAcad^mie des Insoriptiens et Belles 
lettres, des Sciences, des Beaux-Arts, des Sdences 
monies et poUtiques. The first prize was ad- 
judged to M. Thiers, as the representative of 
the Academic Fran^aise, in 1861. In 1867 the 
torn of the Aoaddmie des Beaux Arts arrived, 
and the prise was then awarded to F^icien Da- 
vid, the only mumcisn who has obtained it, the 
award on the second occasion, 1877, having been 
made to a sculptor— M. Chapo. [Gk C] 

INSTRUMENT (Lat. Ituirumentmn, Ital. 
StronuMto), In general language, a tool, that 
bj means of whic^ work is done; hence, in music, 
in apparatus for producing musical sounds. Nu- 
HMroQs as are the various kinds of instruments 
in practical use at the present day, they form 
bat a small proportion of the inmiense number 
which have been invented and used from time 
to time. Out of nearly 340 different kinds 
>Mi^bioned in a list in Koch*s Musikalisehes 
l^xicM (art. 'Instrument*) only 67 are given 
M being in use at present, and some even of 
these are merely varieties of the same genus. 
Varioos causes have oontributed to the survival 
of certain instruments and the extinction of others. 
Qoshty of tone would of oourse be a powerfully 
opwating cause, and praoticableness in a mecham- 
«} sense would be scarcely less so ; but besides 
tfn^ the various ways of combining instruments in 
pvteuooe which prevailed at <Sfferent periods. 



INSTRUMENT. S 

had the effect of proving certidn of them to be 
unnecessary, and so indirectly tended to abolish 
them. Thus before the time of LuUy it was cus- 
tomary for the most part to combine instruments 
of the same class only, and we read of a ' Con- 
cert of Violins,* 'Concert of Flutes,* etc. ; this 
fact rendered necessary flutes of deeper compass 
than are now used, and accordingly we find 
tenor and bass flutee> extending downwards to 
F on the fourth line of the bass stave.^ So soon 
however as the combination of wind and stringed 
instruments was found to be preferable, the fedi>le 
bass of the flute would be insufficient and un- 
necessary, and the larger kinds of flutes naturally 
enough fcdl into disuse. 

All musical sounds are the result of atmo- 
spheric vibrations ; and sudi vibrations are excited 
either directly, by bbwing with suitable force 
and difiection into a tu^, or indirectly, by 
agitating an elastic body, such as a stretched 
string, whereby it is thrown into- a state of 
vibration, and communicates its own vibrations 
to the surrounding aiiu One ot other of these two 
is the acting principle of every musical instru- 
ment. On tracing the history of the two it does 
not appear that either is of earlier date than the 
other; indeed tradition with respect to both 
carries us back from history into myth and fable, 
the invention of the earliest form of stringed in- 
strument, the Lyre, being attributed to the god 
Mercury, who nnding the shell of a tortoise cast 
upon the bank of the Nile, discovered that the 
filaments of dried skin which were stretched across 
it produced musical sounds ; while the invention 
of the tibia or pipe — the earliest form of which 
is said to have oeen made (as its name implies) 
from the shank-bone of a crane — ^is variously 
ascribed to Pan, Apollo, Orpheus and others. 

To attempt to aescribe, however briefly, all 
the various kinds of instruments which have 
been in use frtMn the earliest ages to the present 
day, would extend this article for beyond its due 
Umits. It will only be possible to mention those 
which are still of practical importance, referring 
the reader for a fuller description to the articles 
under the headings of their various names, and for 
the earlier and now obsolete kinds to Hawkins's 
History' of Muric, which contains copious ex- 
tracts from the works of Blanchinus, Kircher, 
Lnsdnius, and others, iUustrated by wood-cuts. 

In all essential respects, instruments may be 
divided into three classes ; namely, wind instru- 
ments, the descendants of the pipe; stringed 
instruments, descended from the lyre ; and instru- 
ments of percussion. This classification, which 
is of considerable 'antiquity, is not entirely 
satisfoctory, as there are certain modem in- 
struments which can scarcely be classed under 
any one of its heads without confusion — ^for 
instance the Harmonium, which although played 
by wind, is not strictly a wind-instrument^ sinoe 

I Ito LnllT't bdlet * Le trtomidM de rMM»r.* Tlirli. I6BI, tlnn k a 
quartet at flutai, the Unntt pftrt of which U oolj poMible oo * btH 
flate. 

* Beprtnted hjr Norello end Oo. In Svob. Sro. IHB. 

s CeakMlonM. writing In the 6th eeotniy, gWes the Mine thfM dl- 
TUona, under tlw oemei M;laM<a« («w<UIto« todpfreKwiOMKa. 



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6 INSTRUMENT. 

its soimdf an produced not from pipes but firam 
elastic reeds. Nevertheless the old arrangement 
is sufficiently comprehensiye, and appears more 
practical than any other. 

I. Wind instruments (Ger. Bla$inttrwmenie ; 
Ital. Stratnenii da ffento ; Fr. InstrumenU d vent). 
These are of two kinds ; namely, those in whicli 
a separate pipe or need is provided for each note, 
and those in which the various notes are pro- 
duced from a single tube» either by varying its 
length, or b)r the action of the lip in blowing. 
In the first land the wind is provided by means 
of bellows, and is admitted to each individual 
pipe or reed by the action of a key. The in- 
struments of this kind are the Organ, Harmonium, 
€kmoertina> and Accordion. The only members 
of this class which dijffer from tiie others are the 
Syrinx or Pan's-pipes (which although it possesses 
« pipe for eadi sound has neither keys nor 
beUows, but is blown directly with the breath) 
and the Northumbrian and Irish Bagpipes, 
which are provided with bellows, but have their 
pipes pierced with holes, as in the flute. Wind- 
uisbruments which have but a single tube are 
made of either wood or metal (generally brass), 
and the various sounds of which they are capable 
are produced, in the case of two of the metal 
instruments — ^the Horn and Trumpet, — by simply 
altering the tension of the lips in blowing, 
while in the others and in the wood instruments 
this alteration is supplemented and assisted by 
▼aiying the length of the tube. In brass in- 
struments the length of the tube is altered in 
three different ways ; first, by means of a slide, 
•ne part of the tube being made to slip inside 
the other, after the manner of a telescope; 
secondly, by valves, which when pressed have 
the effect of adding a small piece or tube to the 
length of the circuit through which the wind 
passes ; and thirdly, by keys, which uncover holes 
in the tube, and so shorteoi the amount of tube 
which is available for the vibrating column of air. 
The brass instruments with slide are the Trom- 
bone * and Slide Trumpet ; those with valves are 
the Gcmet k pistons. Valve Horn, Valve Trumpet, 
Fliigelhoni or Valve Bugle, Saxhorn, Valve 
IVombone, Euphonium, Bombardon, Baas Tuba, 
and Contrabass Tuba ; while those vrith kejB are 
the Key-bugle or Kent Bugle and the Ophideide. 
All these are played with a cup-ehaped mouth- 
piece. Wood wind-instruments have the tube 
pierced with holes, which are covered by the 
fingers or by keys, and the uncovering of the holes 
shOTtens the amount of tube available (or vibration 
and so gives notes of higher pitch. Some of them 
receive the breath diroctly through a suitably 
shaped opening; these are the ^ute^ Piccolo 
(i.e. JlatOo pUxolo, a small flute), Fife, and the 
Flageolet and the toy 'tin whistle,* which two 
last are survivors of the now obsolete family of 
Jlutm d hea. In others the sound is produced 
from the vibrations of a split reed, which is 
either lingld and fixed in a fnm^ or mouthpiece, 
as in the (Sarinet and Basseth<Hii [see Clabimet], 

1 Vr. Ford's SlM*-Bora k hlgtdr ipokn «f Om ^ TMa). tmt H hM 



INSTRUMENT. 

or double, consisting of two reeds bound together 
so as to form a tube with the upper end flattened 
out, as in the Oboe, Cor Anglais or Oboe di 
Caocia, Bassoon, and Contrafiigotto or Double 
Bassoon. One wind-instrument of wood remains 
to be mentioned, the use of which is beooming 
rare, though it is still oocasionally met with 
in military bands. This is the Serpent, wbioh 
differs from all other wood instruments in having 
a cup-sh^>ed mouthpiece, similar to that of tbe 
trumpet. It is the only remaining member of a 
now extinct ftunily of German wood instruments 
called ^nken (Itel. Cometti), which were fior- 
merly much used in the Church service, and 
were in use as late as 1715 for playing obo r aka 
at the top of church towers.' 

a. Stringed Instruments (G«r. 8aiten4»9trU' 
merUe ; Itsl. Stromenti da oorde; Fr. IndrummU 
d corde$). In all these the sound is produced from 
stretched strings of either catgut, wire, or ooca- 
sionally silk, tiie naturally feeble resoaanoe of 
which is in all cases strengthened by a sound- 
board. As with the wind-instruments, some 
of these are provided with a separate string for 
each note, wmle in others the various sounds are 
obtained by shorteninff the strings, of which there 
are now never fewer uian three, by pressure with 
the fingers. Stretched strings are thrown into 
vibration in three different ways^friction, pluck- 
ing, and percussion. 

The mode of friction usually employed is that of 
a bow of horse-hair, strewn with powdered rosin 
(see Bow), and instruments so played are called 
'bowed instruments* (Ger. StreichinttrumenU), 
They are the Violin, Viola ot Tenor, Violoncelld, 
and Contrabasso or Double Bass ; and an humble 
though ancient member of the same family is 
occasionally met with in the Hurdy-gurdy, in 
which the firiotion is produced by the edge of a 
wooden wheel strewn with rosin and revolving 
underneath the strings. In this instrument the 
stopping or shortening of the strings is effected 
by means of a series of keys, which are pressed 
by the fingers of the left hand, while the right 
hand turns the wheel. [See HoRDT-GufiDT.] 

The instruments played by plucking are the 
Harp, in which each note has a separate string, 
and the Guitar, Mandoline, and Banjo, in whidi 
the strings are ' stopped* by pressure with the fin- 
gers upon a finger-board, provided with slightly- 
raised transverse bars, called frets. In the Cither 
or Zither, an instrument much used in Switzerland 
and the Tyrol, 4 of the 29 strings are capable of 
being stopped with the fingers, while the remaining 
2$ are plaved ' open,' giving but one sound each. 
In most of these instruments the pluiddng takes 
place with the tips of the fingers {pizziciUo), but 
m the Zither the thumb of the right hand is 
armed with a ring bearing a kind of metal claw. 
In the now obsolete Harpsichord and Spinet the 
strings were also played by plucking, eacn key be- 
ing provided with a small piece of quill or stiff 
leather. [Jack.] Only two stringed instruments 



> In M8S imi paMlahed to Fttrii ft 
OoriMts, pftr H. Lft|«aa«.' J. S.Bft«h 
ObiiNhOftatalM. 



Phftotaile It dnq partlM, poor kt 



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INSTRUMENT. 

«re played by peroiukion — the Pianoforte and tlie 
Dulcimer ; in. the former the strings are struck 
by hammers attached to the keys, and in the 
latter by two hammers held in the hands. 

3. Instrmnents of Percussion (Ger. Seklag* 
imairmmenU; Ital. StromenH per la percumcne; 
"Ft. Imiruments d perciurion). These are of two 

, kindly those whose chief use is to mark the 
riiyUun, uid which therefore need not, and in 
many eases do not, give a note of any definite 
pitch, and those wluch consist of a series of 
Tibnting bodies, each giving a definite note, so 
thai the whde instrument possesses a scale of 
greater or less extent. Of the instruments of 
fadfl ftnit e pitch, some are struck with drumsticks 
er other suitable implements; these are the Bass 
Drum, Side I>rum, Tambour de Provence, Gong 
er Tam-tam, and Triangle ; others, such as Cym- 
bals and Castagnettes, are used in pabs, and 
are plfl^y^ by s&iking them toffether ; and one, 
the Tambourine, or Tambour de Basque, is struck 
with the open hand. The instruments of per- 
cussion wluch give definite notes, and which 
are therefore musical rather than rhythmical, are 
the Kettle Drums (used in pairs, or more>. 
Glockenspiel (bells used in mifitary bands and 
oocasionaily with orchestra), and the Harmonica, 
eoDsisting of bars of either glass, steel, or wood, 
1 Wiling on two cords and struck with a hammer. 

4. There are still one or two instruments to be 
nentioned which are not easily classed in a^ of 
Ihe three categories just described. In the Har- 
numiam, Tfhich we have accepted as a wind- 
instrument^ the sound is really produced by the 
vibrations of metal springs, ctdled reeds, though 
tiieae vibrations are certainly excited and main- 
tained by the force of wind ; so also stretched 
•trings may be acted uwrn by wind, and of this 
the .£olian Harp is an illustration. [See .<£oliait 
Habp.] Hie instrument or organ of Mr. Baillie 
Hamilton, which is said to be a combination of 
toDffne and string, is not suffidentiy perfected to 
be described' here. 

Metal tongues or reeds may also be played 
by plucking, and this method is employed in 
the so-called Musical Box, in which a s^ies of 
■letal tongues are plucked by pins or studs fixed 
ba a revolving barrel. — ^Another instrument played 
by plucking, bnt possessing only a single reed or 
tongue, is the Jews-harp. In respect to the pro- 
dmiion of its various notes this instrument differs 
from all others. It is played by pressing the iron 
frame in wliich the reed is fixed against the teeth, 
and while the reed is in a state of vibration altering 
the form of the cavity of the mouth, by which 
means certain sounds of higher pitch than the 
\ fsndamental note may be produced, and simple 
melodies played. These higher sounds appear to 
be upper 'putial-tones* of the fundamental note 
of the leedf which are so strongly reinforced by 
the vibratioiis of the volume of air in the mouth 
as to overpow e r the fundamental tone, and leave 
ft just audible as a drone bass. — In the Hai^ 
toooiea proper, another mode of sound-production 
ft enqdt^red, the edges of glass bowls being rubbed 
fay a wetted finger^ [See HAEMonica.] 



iNTBEMEZZO. 7 

For ihuch of the information contained in this 
article the writer is indebted to Schilling ' Unl- 
versallexicon der Tonkunst.' [F.T.] 

INSTRUMENTATION, see Obohbstbatioit. 

INTERLUDE (CJerm. Zwiaehenapiel), A 
short Voluntary, played, by English Organists of 
the older School, between tiie verses of a Hymn, 
or Metrical Psabn. 

Fifty, or even thirty years ago, a good ex- 
tempore Interlude was regarded as no un&ir test 
of an Organist's ability. The late Mr. Thomas 
Adams had a peculiar talent for Ydtntaries of 
this kind : anc^ at S. Peter's, Walworth, John 
Purkis charmed his |iearers, at about the same 
period, with delightful littie efilisions which were 
irequentiy fue more interesting than the Hymns 
between the verses of which they were inter- 
p<^ted. Of late years, however, the Interiude 
has fallen so much into disuse that it is doubtful 
whether a good one Is now to be heard in any 
Church in England. 

In French Cathedrals, a long and elaborate 
Interlude is usually played, at v espers, between 
the verses of the Magmficat, as wedl as those Of 
the Hymn : and, at Notre Dame de Paris, S. 
Sulpice, and other Churches built on the same 
grand scale, where the Organ in the Choir is 
supplemented by a larger one at the western end 
of the Nave, a fine effect is sometimes produced 
by the alternate use of the two instruments; 
the smaller one being employed for the accompani- 
ment of the voices, while tiie hunger is reserved 
for the Interiudes alone. 

Interludes are played, in Crermany, not between 
the verses of the Chcnral, but between the separate 
lines of each verse — an arrangement, which, how- 
ever effective it may be in the hands of an 
accomplished Organist, is generally very much 
the reverse in those of a tyro. ^Good examples 
are to be found in Ch. H. Rink's ' XXIV Chorale,' 
op. 64, 1 804.) The delicious orchestral Interludes 
which embeUish the Choral, 'Cast .thy burthen 
upon the Lord,* in Mendelsohn's ' Elijah,' and 
those on a more extended scale in 'Nun dajiket * 
in the 'Lobgesang,' were evidently suggested by 
this c^d German custom ; while the grand craw 
of brass instruments, introduced between the lines 
of 'Sleepers, wake!' in the same composer's 
'S. Paul, illustrates, perhaps, the most striking 
effect which it has yet been made to produce. 
[See Chobalb.] 

For an explanation of the word Interlude, in 
its dramatic sense, see Iktebmszzo. [W. S. R.] 

INTERMEZZO (Fr. Intermide, Enir* Acte. 
Old. Eng. Enterlude), I. A dramatic entertain- 
ment, of liffht and pleashig character, introduced 
between vie Acts of a Tragedy, Comedy, or 
Grand Opera ; either for the purpose of affording 
an interval of rest to the performers of the 
principal piece ; of allowixig time for the pre- 
paration of a grand scenic effect ; or, of relieving 
the attention of the audience from the excessive 
strain demanded by a long serious performance. 

The history of the Intermezzo Dears a very 
important relation to that of the Opera ; more 



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s 



INTERMEZZO. 



especially to tbat of the Opera Baffin with the 
gntdual development of which it is very inti- 
mately connected. The origin of both may be 
traced back to a period of very remote antiquity. 
It is, indeed, difficult to point out any epoch, m 
the chronicles of Dramatic Art, in which the 
presence of the Intermezzo may not be detected, 
now in one form, and now in another. Its exact 
analogue is to be found in the ScUiras of the old 
Roman Comedy. In the Mysteries and Miracle 
Plays of the Middle Ages — those strange oon- 
necting-links between old things and new — it 
assumeid the form of a Hynm, or Carol, sung, 
either in chorus, or by the Angdo nwmo, to a 
sort of Chaunt which seems to haye been tradi- 
tionaL In a rare old work, by Macropedias, en- 
titled, < Bassarus. Fabulafeetiyissima^ (Utrecht, 
1553)* >ome yerses, adapted to a melody by no 
means remarkable for its festiye character, are 
^yen at the dose of eyery scene. And the 
popularity of the Tune is sufficiently proved 
by its persistent reiteration in other works of 
nearly smiilar date. 



:eto. 

These rude beginnings contrast strangely 
enough with the highly finuhed Intermezzi decen- 
nially presented in the course of the Passion-Play 
at Obier'Ammergan. But, the Passion-Play is 
known to have undergone many important im- 
provements, within a comparatively recent pe- 
riod ; and its oase is, in every way, so ezoeptiomil, 
that it is no easy task to determine its true posi- 
tion as a historioil landmark. 

Almost all the earlier Italian plays were 
relieved by Intermezzi. Many of these were 
simply Madrigals, sung by a greats or less 
number of voices, as occasion served. Some- 
times they were given in the form of a Chorus, 
with instrumental accompaniment. The most 
favourite style, perhaps, was that of a Song, or 
Canzonetta, sung, by a single performer, in the 
character of Orpheus. In no case was the sub- 
ject of these peiformancee connected, in any way, 
with that of the pieces between the Acts of 
which they were interpolated. Their construc- 
tion was extremely simple, and their importance 
relatively small. We first find them assuming 
grander proportions, at Florence, in the year 
1589, on the occasion of the Marriage of the 
Grand Duke Ferdinand, with Christine de 
Lorraine. To grace this ceremony, Giovanni 
Bardi, Conte di Yemio, produced a new Comedy, 
entitled VAmioo fido, yrith Intermezzi, d grand 
Bpectacle, prepared expressly for the festival, 
and presented with a degree of splendour hitherto 
unknown. For the fiiit of these, called 'The 
Harmony of the Spheres,* the poetry was written 
by Ottavio Rinuccini, and the music composed 
by Emilio del Cavaliere, and Cristofano Mal- 
vezzi. The second, also written by Rinuccini, 
and allied 'The Judgment of the Hamadryads,' 
was set to music by Luca Marenzio. For 



INTERMEZZO. 

the third, called *The Triumph of Apollo,' in* 
vented by Bardi, and written by ^^nuooiniy 
the music was composed, partly by Xiuca Ma- 
renzio, and partly, it is said, by the Conte di 
Vemio himself. The fourUi, entitled 'The 
Infernal Regions,* was written by Pietro Strozzi, 
and accompanied by sombre music, composed, 
by Giulio Cacdni, fisr Violins, Viole, Lutes, 
Lyres of all forms. Double Harps, Trombones, 
and * Organs of » Wood.' The fifth—* The Fable 
of Arion' — was written by Rinucdni, and set 
to music, by Cavaliere and Malvezzi. 

This grand performance naturally gave an 
extraordinary impulse to the progress of dramatic 
music. Within less than ten years, it was fol- 
lowed, in the same city, by the production of 
the first Opera Seria, at the Palazzo Corsi. 
Meanwhile, the Intermezzo steadily continued to 
advance in interest and importance. Guarini 
(1537-161 2) wrote Intermezzi to his own Pcutor 
Ftdo, in the form of simple Madrigals. In 1623, 
UAmorosa Iimoeensa was produced, at Bologna^ 
accompanied by Intermezzi delta Coronazione di 
ApoUot per Dafns eonvertita in Lauro, set to 
music by Ottavio Yemizzi. This work intro- 
duces us to a new and extremely important 
epoch in the history of the branch of Dramatic 
Art we are now considering. By d^prees, the 
Intermezzi were made to embody a uttle con- 
tinuous drama of their own. Their story— 
always quite unconnected with that of the 
principal piece — ^was more carefully elaborated 
than heretofore. Graduidly increasing in co- 
herence and interest, their disjointed mem- 
bers rapidly united themselves into a consistent 
and connected whole. And thus, in process of 
time, two distinct dramas were presented to the 
audience, in alternate Acts; the character of 
the Intermezzi being always a little lighter than 
that of the piece between the divisions of which 
they were played, and on that very account, per- 
haps, better fitted to win their way to public 
favour. The merry wit inseparable from the 
Neapolitan School undoubtedly did much for 
them ; and, before long, they began to enter into 
formidable rivalry wiSi the more serious pieces 
they were at first only intended to relieve. 
Their popularity spread so widely, that, in 
1723, a collection of them was printed, in two 
volumes, at Amsterdam ; and so lasting was it, 
that, to this day, a light Italian Operetta is 
frequently called an Intermezzo in Miuica. 

The next great change in the form of the 
Intermezzo, tiiough really no more than the 
natural consequence of those we have already 
described, was suflSciently imp<^tant, not only 
to mark the culminating point in its career, 
but to translate it, at once, to a n»here of Art 
little contemplated by those who first called it 
into existence. Already complete in itself all 
it now needed was independence : an exist- 
ence of its own, apart from that of the graver 
piece to which it owed its original raison ditre, 
ouch an existence was obtained for it, by the 
simple process of leaving the graver piece— 

lOrgauidtUgno* 



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INTERMEZZO. 

vliether Tragedy, Comedy, or Serious Opera— 
to depend upon its own reBonrceSy whue the 
Intermezzo, with its once disconnected links 
united in unbroken sequeiioe, was performed as 
a leparate work, in one Act. This resolution 
was effected chiefly by the genius of a young 
composer, whose untimely death, considered in 
relation to its influence upon the Lyric Drama, 
can never be sufficiently deplored. From be- 
ginning to end, the narrative of Pergolesi's Art- 
life is identified with the ultimate fate of the 
Intermezzo. His first important composition — 
a Sacred Drama, called 8an Oaglielmo d'Aqui- 
ttmia — was direnofied by Intermezzi, of a play- 
fbl character, introduced between its principal 
dxrinons. TTis greatest triumph — La Serva Pa- 
drtma — ^was, iiseif, an Intermezzo, pur et simple. 
This delightful work — ^the whole interest of which 
is centred in two characters, whose voices are 
aooompanied only by a stringed band — was first 
produced, in Italy, between the Acts of another 
piece, in the year 1734. Its success was un« 
Doonded. It soon found its way to every Capital 
in Europe ; and, everywhere but in France, was 
received with acclamation. The French, however, 
were slow to appreciate it at its true value. Its 
first performance in Paris, Oct. 4, 1746, was 
little short of a failure : but when, Aug. i, 17^2, 
h was played between the Acts of Lulli's Ads 
d Oakah^ it originated a feud between the 
'LuDistes' and the ' Boufibnnistes,* scarcely less 
bitter than that which raged, at a later period, 
between the rival followers of Gluck and Piccinni. 
National vanity forbade the recognition of the 
Italian style : national good taste forbade its 
rejection. Bonsseau, with characteristic im- 
Mtuodty, threw himself into the thick of the 
nay; fought desperately on the Italian side; 
dedared French Opera impossible ; and stulti- 
fied his own arguments by the immediate pro- 
duction of a French Intermide — the well-known 
Levin du VUlcbge, Long after this, the con- 
t ro v e rsy raged, with unabated fioy: but, in 
npite of the worst its enemies could do, La Serva 
Padrona exercised a salutary and lasting effect 
upon French dramatic music — indeed, upon 
dramatic music everywhere. In 1750 it met 
with an enthusiastic reception in England. Its 
incoesB was as lasting as it was brilliant : and, 
sfanost to our own day, it has kept its place upon 
the stage, not between the Acts of a Serious 
Opera, but as an independent piece; marking 
the critical period at which the history of the 
Intermezzo merges, permanently, into that of 
the Opera Bufb, ito legitimate heir. [See Ofeba 

BOPPA.] 

The anomalous character of this sweeping 
change becune at once apparent. It was as 
neoeasaiy as ever, that, on certain occasions, some 
•ort of entertainment should be given between 
the Acts of serious pieces. The Intermezzo hav- 
ing so far outgrown its original intention as to 
be utterly useless for this purpose, Bomething 
dse must needs be found to supply its place. 
The Dance was unanimously accepted as a sub- 
ititQte; and soon became excee^gly popular. 



INTEBMEZZO. ^ 

And &U8 arose a new species of Interlude, which 
at no time, perhaps, attained a greater degree 
of perfection, than under the ' Lumley Manage- 
ment' at Her Majesty*s Theatre, where, night 
after night, a BaUet Divertissement^ with Cerito, 
or Carlotta Grisi, for its principal attraction, was 
given between the Acts of a Grand Opera, sung 
by Grisi, Persiani, Rubini, Tamburini, and La- 
blache ; the long line of successes culminating in 
that memorable Pas de Quatre, which, danced 
by Taglioni, Fxumy Elsler, Carlotta Grisi, and 
Cerito, is still regarded as one of the greatest 
triumphs of Terpsichorean Art on record. 

Instrumental music is frequently played, in 
Grermanv, after the manner of an Ix&termezzo. 
The noble Entr'aotee composed by Beethoven, 
for Schiller's 'Bgmont,' by Schubert for *Itosa- 
munde,' and by Mendelssohn, for Shakspeare's 
''Midsummer Night's Dream,' are familiar to 
every one. These, of course, can only be pre- 
sented in association with the great works they 
were originally designed to illustrate. But, less 
appropriate musio, good enough of its kind, 
though intended for other purposes, was, at one 
time, by no means unoommon. We once heard 
Yieuztemps play a Violin Concerto between the 
Acts of an Opera^ at Leipzig, in the days when the 
Orchestra was under uie masterly direction of 
Ferdinand David : and, in the year 1845, Alboni 
(then unknown in England) sang several of her 
&vourite Songjs, in the same pretty little Theatre, 
between the Acts of a play. Such performances 
as these may, naturally enough, be repeated, 
at any time. But, with our present ideas of 
Art, anything like a revival of the Intermezzo, 
in its older form, would manifestly be impossible. 
We may learn much fix>m its history, which is 
both instructive, and entertaining : but, for all 
practical purposes, we must be content to leave 
it in the obscurity to which, since the production 
of La Serva Padrona, it has been not unprofit- 
aiblv consigned. 

II. The word is also used for a short movement, 
serving as a connecting-link between the larger 
divisions of a Sonata, Symphony, or other great 
work, whether instrumental, or vocal ; as in No. 
4 of Schumann's ' Faschiogsschwank aus Wien' 
(op. 26). The beautiful Intermezzo which, 
under the name of ' Introduzione,' lends so 
charming a grace to Beethoven's 'Waldstein 
Sonata' (op. 53) is said to be an after- thought, 
inserted in place of the well-known * Andante in 
F' (op. 35), which, after due consideration, the 
great Composer rejected, as too long for the 
position he originally intended it to occupy. The 
term is however used for larger movements : — 
as by Mendelssohn for the 3rd movement in his 
F minor Quartet (op. a), or for the 'grand 
adagio' which, under the name of 'Nachruf,' he 
specially composed in memory of his friend Bitz, 
and inserted m his Quintet, op. 18, in lieu of the 
previous Minuet (Letter, Feb. 21, 1832) ; or for 
the Entracte expressive of Hermia's search for 
Lysander in the Midsummer Night's Dream 
musio. The 2nd movement of Goetz's Symphony, 
virtually a Scherzo, is entitled Intermezzo. 



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10 



INTERMEZZO. 



Schmnaim and Brahms, again, hare bo& vied 
the word to denote independent pieces of small 
dimensions, the former in his * Opera 4' — six 
pieces usually consisting of a main tiieme and an 
Altemativo ; and the latter in his latest publi- 
cation (op. 76), eight pieces for the P.F., of which 
4 are Capriccios and 4 Intermezzi. [W.S.R.] 

INTERRUPTED CADENCE is a progres- 
sion which seems to tend towards the final Tonic 
chord of a perfect cadence through the usual 
Dominant harmony, but is abrupSy deflected; 
fto that the promised conclusion is deferred by the 
substitution of other harmony than that of the 
Tonic, afber the Dominant dhord which seemed 
to lead immediately to it. 

The form which is frequently quoted as typi- 
cal is that in which the chord of Uie tfubmediant 
or third below the Tonic is substituted for the 
final Tonic chord, as — 



instead of 



from which the principle will be readily grasped. 

In reality the number of different forms is 
only limited by the number of chords which can 
possibly succeed the Dominant chord, and it is 
not even necessary that the chord which follows 
it and makes the interruption shall be in the 
same key. 

Handel frequently used the Interrupted Ca- 
dence to make the final cadence of a movement 
stand out individually and prominently. The 
following example, which is made to serve this 
purpose, is from his Fugue in B minor from the 
set of Six for the Organ, and is very characteristic 
of him :^ 

^^^ ^ Adoffh 






It is interesting to compare this with the con- 
clusion of the last movement of Schumann*s 
Sonata for Pianoforte in G minor, where a veiy 
definite Interrupted Cadence is used for the 
same purpose of enforcing the final cadence of 
Ihe work by isolation, and the process is carried 
but in a thoroughly modem spirit and on an 
extended scale. The Interrupted Cadence itself 
is as follows : — 




INTERRUPTED CADENCSi. 

Bach frequently used Interrupted Cadences to 
prolong the conclusion of a work, and a form 
which seems to have been a great favourite with 
him is that in which the Tonic minor seventh 
succeeds the Dominant chord, thereby leading to 
a continuance and enforcement of the Tonic in 
the succession of chords at the conclusion. There 
are very remarkable and bteutiful examples of 
this in the Prelude in £b minor, No. 8, in the 
Wohltemperirte Clavier, the last — ^four bam from 
the end— being in the form above mentioned. Hie 
efibct of this form of the Interrupted Cadence is 
most powerful when the seventh is in the bass, 
and of this there is a veiy striking instance in 
his Cantata ' Jesu, der du meine S&eXt,* which ^ 
as follows :-*• 




Mozart uses the Interrupted Cadence m a 
similar manner to extend the movement or the 
section in which it occurs. As an example from, 
him, which presents yet another form, the fol- 
lowing from his Quartet in A, No. 5, may be 
taken: — 




Beethoven also uses Interrupted Cadences for 
similar purposes to the instances (quoted above ; 
but latteriy he employed them m a rnann^ 
which it is important to take note of as highly 
characteristic and conspicuous in modem music 
This is the use of them actually in place of a 
p^foct cadence, taking them as a fr^ starting 
point, by which means greater continuity is ob- 
tained. A well-known example is that at the 
end of the slow movement of the Appaasionata 



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INTEEBUPTED CADENCE. 

8o&ftt«) hy meaDB of which the two last moTe* 
iBMtB MO made continuous* Two very remark- 
able Mid numirtakeable instances occur also in 
the first moTsment of the Sonata in E (op. 109), 
one ef wlooh has already been quoted in tiie 
ar^de Cadbngi. Anotiier instance occurs in 
the Qutftet in A (op. 13a), where the 'working 
oat' oommenoes; the cadence of F major is 
iatflmipted at *, and the 'working out* com- 
mences in the next bar, proceeding immediately 
with modulation^ as follows >^ 



INTEBYAL. 



11 




Wagner hai made great use of this devioe, and 
hj it tecures at once the effect of a conclusion 
sad an uninterrupted flow of the music; the 
▼oice or voices having a form which has all the 
i^)pesrance of A taU (»denoe» and the instruments 
supplying a forcible Interrupted Cadence which 
kau on immediatdy and witiiout break to the 
■Qcoeeding action. An example which will prob- 
tbly be familiar is that at the conclusion of the 
chorus at the beginning of the 4th seene of the 
tnd act of Loh^igrin, where Ortruda suddenly 
itsfw forward and claims the right to precede 
£ltt into the cathedral. Another instance whidi 
iUostrates the principle very clearly is the fol- 
bwii^ from the 3rd scene of the ist act «f 
THrtan and Isolde :— 



■dr iMhtdM A-bea • t«aert 







Beethoven also made ocdwional use of this 
derice in Fidelio. One specially clear instance 
b in theFlniae of the Ust act, at the end of Don 
Femsndo's sentence to Leonora — 'Euch, edle 
^u, allein, euch ziemt es, ganz ihn zu befrei*n.' 
By Booh means as this, one scene is welded on 
to soother, and the action is relieved of that 
constant breach of continuity which resulted 
from the old manner of coming to a full dose 
»nd beginning again. [C.H.H.P.] 

INTEBYAL. The possible gradations of the 
pildi of musical sounds are infinite, but for the 
pupoees of the art certain relative distances of 
hai^t and lowness have to be definitely deter- 
niined and maintained. The sounds so chosen 
y* th e notes of the tvtstem, and the distances 
hfltwesn them are the Intervals. With different 
objects in view, di^rent intervals between th& 



sounds have been determined on, and various 
national scales present great diversities in this 
respect — for instance the ancient Gaelic and 
Chinese scales were constructed so as to avoid 
any intervals as small as a semitone ; while some 
nations have made use of quarter-tones, as we 
have good authority for fo^eving the Muezzins 
do in calling the &ithful to prayer, and the 
Dervishes in reciting their litanies. The inter- 
vals of the ancient Greek scales were calculated 
for the development of the resources of melody 
without hannony ; the intervals of modem scales 
on the other hand are calculated for the develop- 
ment of the resources of harmony, to whidi 
melody is so far subordinate that many diaracter* 
istic intervals of modem melody, and not un£re^ 
quently whole passages of melody (such as the 
whole first melodio phrase of Weber's Sonata in 
Ab), are based upon the use of consecutive notes 
of a single ohoni; and they are often hardhr 
imaginable on any other basis, or in a scale which 
has not been expressly modified for the purposes 
of harmony. Of the qualities of the different 
intervals which the various notes form with one 
another, different opinions have been entertained 
at different times ; the more important classifica- 
tions in^oh have been proposed by theorists im 
mediaeval and modem times are given in the 
article Habmokt. 

Hie modem scale-system is, as Helmholtz hai 
remarked, a product of artiitio invention* and 
the determinatiom of the intervals which separate 
the various notes took many centuries to arrive 
at. By the time of Bach it was clearly settled 
though not in general use, and Bach himself gave 
his most empluktic protest in favour of the equal 
temperament upon which it is based in his 
Wohltemperirte Clavier, and his judgment has 
had great influence on the development of modem 
music. According to this system, whioh is 
specially calculated for unlimited interdiange of 
keys, the semitones are nominally of equal dimen- 
sions, and each octave contains twelve of them. 
As a consequence the laiger intervals contiuned 
in the tempered octave are all to a certain 
extent out of tune. The fifth is a little less 
than the true fifth, and the fourth a little larger 
than the true fourth. The major thirds and 
sixths are considerably more than the true major 
thirds and sixths, and the minor thirds and 
sixths a good deal less than the true minor thirds 
and sixths. The minor seventh is a little larger 
than the minor seventh of the tme scale^ whioh 
is represented by the ratio 9 : 16, and is a mild 
dissonance; and this again is larger than the 
haimonic sub-minor seventh whioh is represented 
by the ratio 4:7; and this is so slight a dis- 
sonance that Helmholtz says it is often mere 
harmonious than the minor sixth. 

The nomenclature of intervals is unibrtunately 
in a somewhat confused state. The commonest 
system is to describe intervals which have two 
forms both alike consonant or diasonant as ' major ' 
and ' minor' in those two forma. Thus major and 
minor thirds and sixths are consonant, and major 
and minor sevenths and ninths are dissonant ; and 



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15 



INTERVAL. 



where they are oapshle ol further redaction ihey 
are called ' diminished,* as diminished thirds and 
sevenths ; and when of further enlargement as 
' augmented,* as augmented sixths. With inter- 
vals which have only one normal form the terms 
'major' and 'minor' are not used; thus fifths 
and fourths lose thebr consonant character on 
being eiUier enlarged or reduced bv & semitone, 
and in these forms they are called reroectiveiy 
' augmented ' and ' diminished * fifths and fourths. 
The intennJ of the augmented sixth is indif- 
ferently called 'superfluous* or 'extreme sharp' 
sixth; and the same terms are applied to the 
fifth ; the term 'fidse ' is also used for diminished 
in relation to the fifth and for augmented in 
relation to the fourth. 

The term * Imperfect* is used I& two senses in 
relation to Intervals. In the classification of 
Consonances it was common to divide them into 
perfect and imperfect, or perfect^ middle and 
inmerfeot; but as the classification varied at 
different times reference must be made for details 
to the article Habmoitt (vol. i. pp. 669-685). On 
the other hand, when an interval is commonly 
known in its normal condition as perfect, such as 
a fourth or a fifth, it is natural p» contra to speak 
of the interval which goes bv the same name^ 
but is less by a semitone, as ' imperfect.* 

For further details on the subject see Teh- 

PEBAMEKT. [C.H.H.P.] 

^ INTONATION (Lat. Intonatio). I. The 
initial phrase of a Plain Chaunt melody : usually 
sung, either by the Officiating Priest, alone, or, 
by one, two, or four leading Choristers. Some 
of the most important Intonations in general use 
are those proper to the Gregorian Tones. Though 
differing widely in character and expression, 
these venerable Chaunts are all constructed upon 
the same general principle, and all exhibit the 
same well-marked combmation of four distinct 
elements — ^the Intonation, the Reoiting^Note, the 
Mediation, and the Cadence. The first of these, 
with which alone we are now concerned, consists 
of a few simple notes, leading upward»— except 
in one peculiar and somewhat abnormal case — ^to 
the Dominant of the Psalm about to be sung, 
and thus connecting it with its proper Antiphon. 
[See Antiphon.] Now, as each Mode has a 
fixed Dominant upon wUch the greater part of 
every Psalm is recited, it follows, that each Tone 
must also have a fixed Intonation, to lead up to 
that note: and this principle is so far carried 
out that two Tones, having a common Reciting- 
Note, have generally, though not always, a 
common Intonation — as in the case of Tones I 
and VI, III and Vlll. This rule, however, is 
broken, in the case of Tone IV ; which, though 
its Reciting Note is identical with that of Tone I, 
has a peculiar Intonation of its own.^ Almost 
all the Tones have one form of Intonation for 
the Psalms, and another for the Canticles ; while 
Bome few add to these a third variation, which 

> Thooffh oonstnietad of slinll«r Interrak, Uw Inton&tlons of IVnim 
n and III arc not Identical. Bj no penntoriblo form of timnspotltion. 
eoald tha Q, A. of tbe latter be substUoted for the C. D. F of ttie 



INTONATION. 

is used only for the second part of the Introit. 
[See Iktboit.] The subjoined forms are taken 
from the editions of the Roman Yesperal, and 
Gradual, lately published at Ratisbon; in the 
former of whidi, the Intonation assigned to the 
Magnificat, in the Sixth Tone, varies widely 
from the more usual reading given in the Mechlin 
edition. The forms used for the Introit so nearly 
resemble those for the Canticles, that we have 
thought it necessary to give those of the Fourth 
and Sixth Tones oidy. 



T^mal. 



For the Frnlnis. 
Tone n. 



Tone in. 




Fortbe'HsgnUIost^ 
Tonet. TonelL 




For the Paalm *In Exltu Israd.' 
Irregolar or Peregrine Tone. 



Tone IV. 



FoK the Introit. 
ToneYL 



The Intonation is usuallv sung to the first 
verse, only, of each Psalm, but, to every verse 
of the Magnificat and Benedictus. When sung 
before the first verse only, whether of Psalm or 
Canticle, it is assigned either to the Officiating 
Priest, or to the two leading Choristers. Before 
the remaining verses of the Magnificat, and 
Benedictus, it is sung by the whole Choir. 

The opening phrases of the Antiphon, the anti- 
phonal portion of the Introit, the Gradual, and 
many oUier Plain Chaunt Anthems and Hymns, 
are also sung, as Intonations, either by a single 
Priesti or by one, two, or four leading Choristers. 



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INTONATION", 

The Gloria in exeelsi$, and Credo, Iiftve fixed 
IntonAtiQiis of their own, which maybe found in 
their pr<^>er places, in the Missal. 

It IB always interesting to observe the use 
made, by modem composers, of antient materials : 
and we shall find that some of the Intonations 
fpjnau in our examples, have been turned, by the 
greatest Masters of the modem School, to veir 
profitable nsea indeed. For instance, Handel^ 
m * The Lord gave the word,' firom * The Messiah,' 
uses the Intonation of the First Tone, transposed 
a fourth higher, with wonderful eflect — 




TiMlKnd gM« tlMwoidi 

▼hUe that of the Eighth (as sung to the Mag- 
nificat) has been employed, in a very striking 
manner, by Mendelssohn, in the 'Lobgesang' — 



etc 



We have selected these instances firom in- 
mmierable others, not only because the chief 
intoest of the works mentioned is centred in 
those few simple notes; but because, in both 
cases, the phrases in question are really used as 
Intonations — ^Le. as initial ph r as oo, given out in 
mnson, to be continued in harmonious chorus. 
Whether the composers were conscious of the 
Knuoe of the ideas they treated with such masterly 
power, is a question open to argument: but, 
there can be no doubt that John Sebastian Bach, 
when writing his great Mass in B minor, chose 
the opening subject of his magnificent Credo, 
nmnly because it was the Intonation assigned 
to the Credo in the Plain Ghauat Mass — 




That the effect with which Bach introduces this 
grand old subject was not lost upon Mendelssohn, 
is evident, firiom a passage in a letter written 
from Rome, by the last-named composer, to his 
fi^ends in Germany (April 4, 1831). 

II. The art of singing, or playing, correctly 
in tmie. Thus, we say that the intonation of 
Rich and such a performer is either true, or fiUse, 
as the case may be. For a detailed account of 
the conditions upon which perfect tune depends, 
Bse Tkhpjerambmt. [W. S. B.] 

INTONING. The practice of singing the 
evening phrase of a Psalm, Canticle, or other 
peoe of Ecclesiastical Music, not in full chorus, 
m, as a solo, or semi-chorus, asdgned either to 




INTRODU( 

a single Priest, or to one, 

Choristers. Tlie term is 

misapplied. For instance, 

told that the Litany, or 

was 'intoned* by some particular \ 

the word used shoi^ have been, in \ 

'sung/ and, in the other, 'monotoned.' 

INTRADA or ENTRATA. Ateri 
an opening movement, as by Beethoven 
introductory peoe of the ' Battle-Symphony * of 
his Battle of Vittoria, or for the first movement 
of the Serenade, op. 25. 'Intrade' is used by 
Mozart for the overture of his ' Bastion ' (K. 50) ; 
and 'Intrada o Concerto' by Bach for an in- 
dependent movement (Cat. No. 117). [See 
Entbbb a.] [G.] 

INTRODUCTION. The main purpose of an 
Introduction in music is either to summon the 
attention of the audience, or to lead their minds 
into the earnest and sober mood which is fittest 
for the appreciation of great thln^. The manner 
in which these purposes are accomplished varies 
greatly with the matter which is to follow. If 
that be light and gay any noise will answer the 
purpose, such as brUliant passages or loud chords ; 
out if it be serious it is manifest that the Intro- 
duction should either have proportionate inherent 
interest or such dignity of simplidty as cannot be 
mistaken for trivi^ty. It is interesting to note 
the manner in which this has been carried out by 
great masters, and the more important relations 
which seem to subsist between a movement and 
its Introduction in their works. 

In the first place there are many examples 
of simple signals to attention ; such as the 
single independent chord which opens Haydn's 
Quartet in Eb (Trautwein No. 33) ; the simple 
cadence which introduces liis Quartet in C, op. 73 
(Trautwein No. 16), and the group of chords with 
cadence which precedes the Quartet in Bb, op. 7a 
(Trautwein No. la). These have no other re- 
lation to the movement than that of giving notice 
that it is about to commence, and are appropriate 
enough to the dear and simple form of Uie Haydn 
Quartet. Similar examples are to be remarked 
in very different kinds of music ; as for instance 
at the oommencement of the Eroica Symphony, 
where the quiet soberness of the beginning of 
the movement seems to call fox some signfJ to 
attention, while its supreme interest from the 
very first seems to indicate that introductory 
elaboration would be out of place. In Chopin's 
Nocturne in B major, acain, it is not difficult to 
see the reason for the adoption of the two simple 
forte chords with which it is introduced ; since 
the conmiencement of the Nocturne proper is so 

Suiet and delicate that without some such signal 
le opening notes might be lost upon the au- 
dience ; whilst a more developed Introduction 
would clearly be disproportionate to the dimen- 
nons of the piece. 

In great orchestral works, such as symphonies, 
Haydn usually commences with a set and formal 
Introduction m a slow tempo, which marks the 
importance of the work, and by remaining so 
close to the principal key of the movement as 



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14 



INTRODUCTION, 



liardly ever to pan the limits of the Tonic and 
Dominant keys, aaaiits the andienoe to realioe 
the tonality. Mozart did not follow the example 
of Haydn in this respect, as many of his sym- 
phonies are without InteoductionBy— especially 
the well-known ones in G (Jupiter) and G minor. 
In quintets, quartets, sonatas, and such fonns of 
chamber-music he is also sparing of Introductions, 
but there is an example of some extent in the 
quintet for pianoforte and wind in £b (Kochel, 
453), in which the harmonic sucoessionB are 
simple, and there is a more celebrated one to the 
string quartet in 0, in which the harmonic b a s e s 
Taiy more freely than in other examples of that 
period which can be adduced, 

Beethoven b^gan fiiDm the first to follow up 
this point, and it is said that some pedants never 
forgave him for opening the Introduction to his 
Symphony in (No. i) with chords which appear 
not to belong to that key. The Symphony m D 
again (No. a) has a very important Introduction, 
in which there is free modulation, such as to Bb 
and F, and many passages and figures of great 
beauty and interest. In the Symphony in Bb 
the introductoiy Adagio is in the highest degree 
beautiful and unpressive^ and contains modula- 
tion even to the degree of an enharmonic change. 
In the Symphony in A the idea of the independ- 
ent Introduction culminates. It has a decidedly 
appreciable form and two definite subjects. It 
opens with great dignity and decision in A major, 
and passes thence to C, the key of the minor third 
above, in which a clear and beautiful second sub- 
ject is given ; after this the figures of the opening 
are resumed and a short transition is made back 
to the original key, passing on fix>m thence to F 
major, the key of the third below, in which the 
second subject again a|^>ear8. From this key 
the transition to £, the Dominant of the original 
key, is at the same time easy and natural and 
sufficiently interesting; and considerable stress 
being laid upon this note both by its continuance 
in the harmonies and its reiteration individually, 
it thoroughly prepares the definite commence- 
of the Vivace. 

In the above instances the Introdu^on is 
practically an independent movement, both as 
regards ihe substance and the dear division 
which is made between it and the succeeding 
movement by a full or half close. In many of 
his later works Beethoven made an important 
change in respect of the connection between the 
Introiuction and the movement introduced ; by 
abolishing the marked break of continuity, by 
the use of figures which are closely related in 
both, and by carrying the subject matter of the 
Introduction into the movement which follows. 

One of the clearest and most interesting ex- 
amples of his later treatment of the Introduction 
is in the first movement of the Sonata in £b, 
op. 81 a, in which the introductory Adagio opens 
with the text of the movement, which is con- 
stantly reiterated in the 'working out* of the 
Allegro, and yet more constafitiyand persistently 
and witii many transforma/tions in the lone and 
beautiful coda. H^instein has adopted the 



INTEODUCTION, 

same device in his Dramatic Symphony in D 
minor; in which also the first subject of the 
first movement proper is a transformed versioa. 
of the opening subject of the Introduction. 

In several of his later Quartets Beeihovea 
makes the most important material of the Intro- 
duction appear in the movement which follows 
it^ in different ways — as in the Quartet In £b» 
op. 1 27, and that in Bb, op. 130, and A, op. 152, 
in the last two of which the subjects of the 
Introduction and the first movement are very 
closely intermixed. In the £b Ooncerto also 
the Introduction reappears with certain varia- 
tions of detail in the latter part of the movement 
previous to the 'recapitulation* of the subject. 
In its intimate connection with the movement 
which follows it, the Introduction to the first move- 
ment of the 9th Syn^hony is most remarkaUe. 
It commences m^^steriously with the open fifUi of 
the Dominant, into which the first rhythms oi 
the first subject begin to drop, at first sparsely, 
like hints of what is to come, then closer and 
closer, and louder and louder, till the complete 
subject buxists-in in full grandeur vrith the Tonic 
ohoid. In this case the introductory form re- 
appears in the course of the movement, and also 
l»4efly in the discussion of the previous themea 
which immediately precedes the commencement 
of the vocal portion of the work. 

After Beethoven no composer has grasped the 
ideaof intimatelyconnectingthe Introduction with 
the work which it introduces more successfully 
than Schumann, and many of the examples in his 
woriu are highly interesting and beautiful. In 
the Symphony in G, for instance, a striking figure 
of the opening reappears in the first movement, in 
the scherzo, and in the last movement. In the 
Symphony In D, in which all the movements are 
closely connected, the introductory phrases are 
imported into the Romanze. where they occupy 
no unimportant position. In his Sonata in D 
minor, for violin and pianoforte, op. lai, the 
Introduction proposes in broad and clear outUnea 
the first subject oi the succeeding allegro, in 
which it is stated with greater elaboration. The 
Overture to Manfred affords another very inters 
esting specimen of Schumann*s treatment of the 
Introduction. It opens with three abn4>t chorda 
in quick tempo, after which a slow tempo is 
assumed, and out of a sad and mysterious com- 
mencement the diief subject of the Overture 
prcmer is made by degrees to emerge. An earlier 
anuogue to this is the Introduction to Bee- 
thoven*s £gmont Overture, in which one of the 
diief figures of the first subject of the overture 
seems to grow out of the latter part of the in- 
troduction. 

Of all forms of musical composition none are 
more frequently preceded by an Introduction 
than overtures; the two above mentioned, and 
such superb examples as those in tiie Overtures 
to Leonora Nos. a and 3, and to Coriolan, and 
such well-known ones as those to Weber's Der 
Freischtitz and Oberon, Schumann's Genoveva, 
and Mendels8ohn*8 Buy Bias, will serve to 
illustrate this fact. 



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inversion; 

•r the Inkerval eoiTiyet the operation, tmchan^ed, 
and aaaerts itself^ with eqtuJ force, in the Invendon. 
In whaterer positionthej may be taken* Consonant 
Intervals remain always ^consonant; Dissonant 
Intenrals, dissonant; sAd Perfect Intervals, per- 
fect. [See Intebval.] 

IV. A Chord is said to be Inverted, when any 
Bote, other than its Boot, is taken in the lowest part. 

Thus, if the Root of aCommon Chord be trans- 
posed £rom the lowest part, to one of the upper 
parts, and the Third placed in the Bass, thechange 
will produce the Chord of the 6-3. If the Fifth be 
nmilariy treated, the result of the transference will 
be the Chord of the 6-4. Hence, the Chord of the 
^5 is called the First Inversion of the Common 
Chord; and ^e Chofd dTthe 6-4, the Second. 

GommoB Fbvt Second 

Chord. InverdOfU Imranion. 



IONIAN MODE; 



if 




If the same process be applied to the Chord of 
the Seventh, we shall, by successively taking the 
llurd, fifth, and Seventh, in the Bass, obtain 
its three Invasions, the 6-5-3, ^^ 6-4-3, and the 
6.4-a. 

Second 
Inwskm. 



Cberdofthe 
Serenth 



Pint 
Invenioii. 



Third 
Inverdoii. 




I I I 

Chords, in their normal form, with the Root 
in the Bass, are called Fundamental Harmonies : 
those in which any other note occupies this 
position are called Derivative, or Inverted Chords. 
[See Habmokt.] 

V. A Pedal Foint (Point Morgue) is described 
as Inverted, when the sustained note, instead of 
being placed in the Bass, is transferred to an 
upper part, as in Mosart^s Pianoforte Fantasia in 
C minor (op. 11): — 




—or, to a middle one, as in the 
from Deh vieni, nan tardar, {Nozze d\ PigarOy) 
where the Inverted Pedal ia rastained l^ the 
Second Violins ^— 




> AMhonSh tha P«rfwt Wmrtb-^tbo InrenloB of the FwfBct Flfth- 
b damaL Vf OoBtraputtas. umms DIaeords. It oi4r Conns ui •v 
ywat ■ mp ll u ii to tbm senecri rtfe; rinet a k admitted to ba a 

0— .^^wtt aw a mlmH i m thawpwrpartaafaOhori. 

VOL. U. 



' In theed, and similar cases, the diaraeteristio 
note (whether sustained, or reiterated), forms no 
part of the Harmony, which remains wholly un- 
affected, either by its presence, or removal. [See 
Harmoitt.] [W. S. R.] 

IONIAN MODE (Lat. Modu$ Imieus, Modtu 
lantias). The Thirteenth— or, according to some 
writers, the Eleventh — of the Ecclesiastical 
Modes. [See Modes, thb Ecclesiastical.] 

The Final of the Ionian Mode is C. Its com- 
pass, in the Authentic form, extends upwards, 
from that note to its octave; and, as its semi- 
tones occur between the third and fourth, and the 
seventh and eighth degrees, its tonality corre» 
spends exactly with that of the major diatonic 
scale as used in modem music— a drcumstanoe 
which invests it with extraordinary interest, when 
considered in connexion with the history of mu- 
sical science. Its Dominant is G — another point 
of coincidence with the modem scale. Its Me- 
diant is E, and its Participant, D. Its Conceded 
Modulations are F, A, and B ; and its Absolute 
Initials C, E, G, and frequently, in polyphonic 
music, D. Its chief characteristioB, therefore, 
may be illustrated thus — 

Mods Xm (or XI). 
Fin. Part Med. Dom. 



The compass of the Plaffal, or Hypo-ionian 
Mode, lies a fourth lower than that of the Au- 
thentic form, ranging from G to G. The Domi- 
nant of this Mode is E, its Mediant^ A, and its 
Participant^ G. Its Conceded Modulations are 
D, F, imd the F below the initial G; and its 
Absolute Initials C, G, A^ and, in polyphonic 
music, very frequenUy D. 



Med. 



Mod«XIT(orXII). 

Pill. Dom, Part. 



It will be seen, that the semitones here fall 
betwera the third and fourth, and sixth and 
seventh degrees— exactly the position they occupy 
in the Authentic Mixolydian Mode : and, as Uie 
compass of these Modes is also identical, the one 
is often mistaken for the other, though the^ are 
as clearly distinguished, by their respective Fmals^ 
as the modem keys of £b, and Ff minor. 

Though not induded in the system set forth by 
St. Gregory, the Ionian and Hypo-ionian Modes 
are certainly as old as the 8th or 9th century : 
for, when the question of the number of Modes to 
be retained in use was submitted to the Emperor 
Charlemagne, he at first said that eight seemed 
to be enough, but afterwards authOTised the em- 
ployment of twelve, thus extending his indul- 
gence to all except the notoriously impure Locrian 
and Hypolocrian. Eight Modes have, indeed, 
been always comadered enough for the chaunting 
of the Psalms: hence, we find no Psalm Tones in 
eithw the Ionian or Hypo-Ionian Modes; though 



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Id 



IONIAN MODK 



other pteoes of Eoclemnstical Mnaio exist, m both. 
For instance, the fine Plain Chaont 'Missa in 
FestiB SolemnibuB* — ^better known, perhapB, in a 
hm pure form, as the ' Missa de Angelis — is in 
the Authentic Ionian Mode, throughout : and a 
particularly captivating Hypo-i«nian melody hae 
Deen preeenred to us, in the Paschal form of the 
Benwnsory ' In maniiB tnas, Domine,' as ^ven 
in the Mechlin Vesperal.^ 

A strong prejudice existed against the Ionian 
Mode, in mediaeval times, when the softness of 
its intervals gave so great ofifenoe, that it was 
oonmionly ciUled Modu» losctims. The early 
contrapuntists seem also to have regarded it with 
mve suspidon. It was only as Art advanced, 
tiiat the inexhaustible extent of its capabilities 
became gradually apparent. When first em- 
ployed in polyphonic music» the Authentic scale 
was usuallv transposed (for the greater conveni- 
ence of ordmary oombinatioBs of voices) with the 
customary Bb at the signature; in which con- 
dition it is often mistaken for the modem key of 
F. Palestrina delighted in using it, with this 
transposition, as the exponent of a certain tender 
grace, in the expression of which he has never 
been approached ; as in the ' Missa Brevis,* the 
Missa * Sterna Christi munera,* the delightful 
Motets, *Sicut cervus desiderat,' and 'Pueii 
Hebrsorum,* and innumerable other instances. 
Giovanni Cioce has also employed it in the Motet 
'Virtute magna* — known in England as ' Behold, 
I bring you glad tidings*: while in our own 
School, we find instances of its use in the im- 
perishable litUe Anthem, * Lord, for Thy tender 
mercy's sake,' and Gibbons's fine Service in F. 

The Hypo-ionian Mode is less firequently trans- 
posed, in writing, than the Authentic scale, though 
It is sometimesmund desirable to depress it a whole 
tone, in performance. This is the Mode sheeted, 
by Palestrina, for the Muta Papa MarceUi ; and 
1^ Orlando di Lasso, for his Motet, Cot^firma hoc, 
JJeu9 — both which compositions are erroneously 
described, in the latest German reprints, as in 
the Mixolydian Mode. 

The melody of the Old Hundredth Psalm, in its 
original form, is striody Hypo-ionian ; and is given 
in its true Mode, transposed, in the masterly 
setting, by John Dowland, printed in Ravens- 
croft's 'Book of Psalms' (Lond. i6ai). [See 
Htmn ; Old Hundbkdth Psalm.] [W. 8. R.] 

IPERMESTRA. An opera of Metastasio's 
which has proved very attractive to a long list 
of composers. The Dictionnaire Lyrique of 
Clement gives no less than i8 settings of it by 
Galuppi, Sar^ JommeUi, Hasne, Glock, and 
other eminent musicians. [G.] 

IPHIGfiNIE EN AIJLIDE, *trag^e-op^" 
In 5 acts ; words by the Bailli du Rollet, after 
Racine ; music by Gluck. Produced at the Aca- 
demic, Thursday, April 19, 1774. The nightly 
receipts at first were 5000 livres, a sum then 
nnh^tfd of. The sum taken on April 5, 1796, 
amounted, owing to the depreciation of the 

I In the lUtttboo Vai^ieml. this tuAo&y to ndoced. from the Four- 
tMntii. to the Slith Mode: and a liinllar reduction, from Mode XIII, 
to Mode V, to by no maauniiooiniaeD, In Plain Cbaaut OfBoe-Boolu. 



IRISH MUSIC. 

asdgnats^ to 274,900 livres. Up to Dee. 99, 
1824, it was played 428 times. [G.] 

IPHIGtolE EN TAURIDE, *trag^die 
lyrique ' in 4 acts ; words by Guillard, mosic by 
Gluck. Produced at the Acaddmie, Thursdsy, 
May 18, 1779. On June 6, 1796, the assignat 
of 100 livres oeing equal to only 10 centimes, the 
receipts were 1,071,350 livres— 1,071 livres 7 
sous. Up to June 5, 1829, it was played 408 
times. On Jan. 23, 1 781, the tragedy of the same 
name by Piccinni, words by Dubreufl, was pro* 
duced at the Academic and survived in all 34 
representations. On the first night, one of the 
actresses beinff obviously intoxicated, a spectat<^ 
cried out 'Iphig^nie en Tauridet alhms don<v 
c*est Iphig^nie en Champagne ! ' [G.] 

IRENE. An English version (or rather 
transformation) of Ck>unod's 'Reine de Sab%* 
by H. Famie ; produced, as a concert^ at the 
Crystal Palace, Aug. 12, 1865. [G.] 

IRISH MUSIC. Although it is not long since 
the opinion was generally entertained that Ireland 
had been sunk in barbarism until the English 
invasion, historical and antiquarian researches 
have established the £ftct that the island was in 
early times the seat of Christianized learning and 
a remarkable artistic civilization. Her music, 
however, and in particular her ancient school of 
Harp-playing, have from esjrly times been in high 
repute, having been lauded in the writings of 
Brompton, Giraldus Cambrensis. and John of 
Salisbury (i 2th cent.). The latter writes thus : 
* The attention of this people to musical instru- 
ments I find worthv of commendation, in which 
their skill is beyond comparison superior to that 
of any nation I have seen.' Fuller's words are 
equally strong: 'Tea, we might well think that 
all the concert of Christendom in this war [the 
Crusade conducted by Grodfrey of Boulogne] would 
have made no music, if the Irish Harp haid been 
wanting.' Fordun (13th cent), Clynn (14th 
cent.), PoEdore Virgil and Major (15th cent.), 
Yincenzo Galilei, Bacon, Spenser, Stanihurst, and 
Camden (i6th cent.), speak with equal wannth. 
Written music being however comparatively 
modem, no remains are existing, like the bean- 
tifiil Irish illuminated MSS. and examples of 
ornamental Celtic metal-work, which would sub- 
stantiate the praises of the above writers. 

Three Irish airs, extracted from Queen Elis^ 
beth*s Virginal Book, are given in vol. ii. p. 793 
of Mr. Chappell's ' Popular Music of the Olden 
Time* — (i) *The Ho-hoane' (Ochone), (a) an 
'Irish Dumpe,* and (3) 'CaUino Casturame.* 
They are all in 6-8 measure, and seem defi* 
dent in the characteristic features of Irish 
melody. To the latter air there is an allusion in 
Shakespeare, Henry Y, act iv. so. 4, where Pistol 
addresses a French soldier thus: — 'Quality! 
Calen o custure me I' — an expression which has 
greatly puzzled the critics. It is evidently an 
attempt to spell as pronounced the Irish phrase 
' Colleen, oge astore 1 ' — ^young drl, my treasure ! 

The earnest published (Sections of Iridi 
moaio are by Burke Thumoth (1720); by Neill 



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HUSH MXTSia 

of CliTui Church Yard, in the vidnity of the 
cathedral of that name in Dublin, a f^w years 
later; and by the son of Carolan in 1747. But 
these being for flute or yiolin, supply no idea of 
the polyphonio style of the music for the Irish 
Harp, an instrument with many strings of brass 
cr some other metal: the Harp preserved in 
IVinity Coll^re, Dublin (commonly but erro- 
neously called the Harp of Brian Bom), having 
30 strings ; that of Bobin Adair (an Irish chiei- 
tflui), preserved at HoUybrooke in 00. Wioklow, 
37 Btrmgs; and the Dallway Harp (1621), 53 
strings. [SeeHABP,vol.i.p.686a.] During the 
incessant wars which devastated the island in 
the 16th, 17th, and i8th centuries, the art of 
muso languished and decayed: there had indeed 
been many fomous performers upon the Harp, 
the national instrument had appeared on the 
coinage of Henry VUI, and had also been ap- 
pended to some Sfcate papers a.d. 1567 ; but the 
powera of the law had been brought to bear 
iqAm the minstrels who sympathised with the 
naUves, strugglii^at this time against the 
KngHsh BOwer. When the wars of Elizabeth, 
GkooKwd^ and William III ceased, the dis- 
traeted country had peace for a while. Soon 
afterwards the Hanoverian Succession was set- 
tled, and foreign musicians visited Ireland, and 
remaining there, introduced the music of other 
oountries ; the nobility and gentry too, abandon- 
ing their clannish customs, began to conform to 
the KngliHh model : and the Insh melodies went 
ootofmshion. 

Some of the celebrated harpers of the i6th and 
17th centuries were Rory Ihdl 0*Cahan (whom 
Sir W. Scott makes the teacher of Annot Lyle) ; 
Jdm and Harry Scott; Gerald 0*Daly (the 
composer of Aileefhii'Boon); Miles Beilly (bom 
1635); Thomas and William 0*Conallon (1640); 
Cornelius Lyons ; Carolan (1670) ; Denis Hemp- 
son (1695), who in 1745, when 50 years old, 
went to Scotland and played before Charles 
Sdwaid ; Charles B^e (171a) ; Dominic "MLxm- 
g*>^ (1715); Daniel Black (1715): Echlin Kane 
(1720), a pupil of Lyons, before named — Kane^ 
who traveUed abroad, also played for the Pre- 
tender, and was much caressed by the expatriated 
Irish in Spain and France; Thaddeus Elliot 
(1735); Owen Keenan (1735); Arthur O'Neill 
(1734)9 Charles Fanning (1736); and James 
Duncan, who having adopted the profession of 
a harper in order to obtain funds to carry on 
a law-suit in defence of his patrimony, was suc- 
cessful, and died in 1800, in the enjoyment of 
• handsome competence. 

Among efforts to arrest the decay of the 
Irish Harp School may be mentioned the ' Con- 
tentions of Bards ' held at Bruree, co. Limerick, 
1 730-50, under the presidency of the Rev. Charles 
Bunworth, himself a performer of merit ; a meet- 
ing of harpers at Granard, eo. Longford, or- 
ganized by an Irish gentleman, James Dungan 
of Copenhagen, in 1 781 ; and the assemblage of 
harpers at Belfast, 1793, when the promoters 
engaged the subsequently well-known collector, 
£dw. Bunting, to write down the mnsio as per^ 



tttlSH MUSIO. 



1» 



formed. From this arose Bunting^s three volumes 
of Irish Music, dating 1796, 1809, and 1840: 
accurate drawings, biographical notices, and some 
hundred airs have been left on record by Bunting, 
to whom indeed the subject owes whatever eluci- 
dation it has received. Ten performers firom dif- 
ferent parts of Ireland attended the meeting of 
1 793, and their instruments, tuning, and use of a 
oopioos Irish musical vocabulary agreed in a 
remarkable manner. The ccmipass of the Harps 
was from C below the ban stave to D above the 
treble one. llieir scale was sometimes C, but 
mostly that of G. Each string, each grace, each 
feature had a name peculiar to it. It was proved 
that the old harpers had played with their nails, 
not the fleshy tip of the fing^. They used other 
scales beside uiose above, but agreed that G 
major was the most ancient : in this lies * The 
Coolin' (temp. Heoiy VIII):—; 




One of the most striking of the Irish airs is 
that called Colleen dhas, etc., to which Moore's 
lines, ' The valley lay smiling,* are adapted : it 
lies on a scale from A to A, but with semitones 
between 3-3 and 6-7, as follows : — 




It was of course to be expected, that nngers, 
pipers, whistlers, or violinists, would not always 
adhere to the fixed semitones of a harp scale ; hence 
this air is sometimes corrupted, and its pathetio 
beauty impaired by the introduction of Of. 
This scale, it may be remarked, is that used for 
the Scottish pipes, where the upper G|| is howevet 
[uently false; such Scotch airs aa '« 



frequently 
Cope* are suitable to it. 
An example of the scale 



' J(^innie 



E to E, senutones between 2-3 and 5-6, is found 

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^ 



IRISH MUSIC; 



in the fine Irish air, ' Bemember Uie glories of 
Brian the Brave r 







fiere again, in carelees performance, Df may 
have been used instead of D||, once or twice. 
Very plaintive airs are foimd in the 4th scale 



D to D, semitones between 5*4 and 6-7. 
scale lies the air ' Weep on !' 



In this 




Moore seems to have noticed the psoulisr wail, 
thrice repeated, of the second strain, but to have 
been unaware of the true cause, when he says, 
'We find some melancholy note intrude — some 
minor third or fiat seventh, which throws its shade 
as it passes and makes even mirth interesting.' 

The bagpipe of Ireland is distinguished from 
the Soottisn pipes by being blown with bellows 
instead of the ^ mouth : from this cause, and the 
delicacy of its reeds, the tone is softer. Dr. Bur- 
ney remarked upon the perfection of the intervals 
of the Irish chanter (or melody-pipe), which he 
had never met with in the pipes of North 
Britain. The scale of the Irish bagpipe is 
from G below the treble stave to C abDve it, 
with all the semitones. The Irish instrument is 
also furnished with a sort of tenor hannony of 
chords: — 



The pipe of Scotland has nothing of this sort, 
and, as previously noticed, its scale is only nine 

1 Thk It tb« dktliiotlon between the M niette ud the OomemnM^ 
the Carnier Aiinmliis to tiM Sootob and the tatter to the Iriali Pipe. 



IRISH music: 

notes and' ik 'not very true in general. There 
generally are two drones in the Scottish pipe, 
A and its octave ; and three in the Irish instru* 
ment, generally middle C, tenor C, and violon- 
cello C. The ancient Irish bagpipe, like that 
of Scotland, was an instrument of shrill and 
warlike tone, by which, as Stanihurst telbi us, the 
natives were animated — as other people are by 
trumpets. The bagpipe, perhaps the oldest and 
most widely known instrument in the world, 
still subsists in Ireland ; the harp however is 
almost extinct: both have been in a great 
degree superseded by the violin and flute, which 
are cheaper, more readily repaired, and above 
all more portable : most of the ancient minstrels 
of Ireland found it necessary to maintain atten« 
dants to carry their harps. Of late years, during 
the Temperance movement and the various 
semi-militaiy organizations which have sprung 
up in Ireland, brass and reed bands have be^ 
come popular, and play through the streets of 
the towns ; the music produced by them is how- 
ever for the most part execrable. Choral classes 
are not popular throughout the country: they 
meet witii no £svour among the peasantry of the 
South and West. In the Eastern coast towns, 
like Dublin, Kingstown, Wicklow, and Wexford* 
choral music is not popular, and in the Northern 
town of Belfast, the only manufacturing com- 
munity in the island, we seek in vain for choral 
associations like those of Leeds, Bradford, etc., 
among the artisans, although oratorios are fairly 
supported by the middle class. 

Dismissing the bagpipe, ancient or improved, 
we find among ancient Insh wind-instruments the 
following: — (i) the Ben-Buabhill (pronounced 
Ben-Bu&l), a real horn, generally that of a wild 
ox or buffalo ; (a) the Buinnef a metal trumpet 
— the horn and trumpet players were assigned 
regular places in the £smous banqueting hiJl of 
Tara; (3) the Com, a large curved tube, pro- 
ducing sounds of great power ; (4) the Stoc, a 
smaller trumpet ; (5) the Sturgan, another small 
trumpet. It is singular that iJl these pipes w^e 
curved : no straight pipe, like an oboe or clarinet, 
having been found m Ireland. (6) Some large 
horns were discovered, of which the embouchure^ 
like that of the Ashantee trumpet, was at the side. 
Singular to say, the Irish possessed an instrument 
very similar to the Turkish crescent or * Jing^ng 
Johnny ' once used in the British army : it was 
called the 'Musical Branch,* and was adorned 
with numerous bells. There were single bells 
called dothra : the so-called erottds are merely 
sheep-bells of the 17th and i8th centuries. It 
should be remarked that the tympan was not a 
drum, as was formerly supposed, but a stringed 
instrument, and by the researches of the antiquary 
O'Curnr it is proved to have been played with a 
bow. Some oUier allusions to music are found in 
Irish MSS., viz. the aidtM, an union of all voioesy 
a vocal tuUi as it were : this was called eepoc in 
Scotland. The eertan was some sort of chirping 
sound by female singers : the dordfiansa, a war- 
like song accompanied by the clashing of spears 
after the Greek manner. An interesting example 



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IBISS Htmic. 

he Irish Cranan or drone ban, after the 
TriMm«¥r of the 'Ground' of Purcell's day, or of 
tlie Canon, ' Summer is icumen in.' The Cronan 
'vvaa softly sung by a ^Chorus, while the principal 
^v^yioe sustained the scdo. The following song (the 
siSr called ' Sallinderry ') refers to various rustic 
localities on the banks of the Bann and Lagan 
xdTers: — 

* *na iirelty tobe in Baninderry, 
*ns prettj to be at Ma^enaixL 
"Tis pretty to be at the Castle of Toome, 
'TIS pret^ to be at Aghalee,' etc. 

TTo an of which the Cronan softly furnished the 
*Och-hone! och-hone!* 



ttdsB Mtrsia 



» 



AI ^ IP^ I I ■ . I li^ t 1 :;=== 



pp 




— , Pt. r— 


. rr.j Jifffr cirf.ppij j^'j-if^ 




iU ' tp|j^ 


— .ij. J 


-r-3:-n=t=if' J. ij. Ti..: 1 






... ^., -p . 




Noi only have Irish airs been often claimed as 
Scottiah, as in the case of ' Limerick's lamenta- 
tioor' or 'Lochaber/ but the dose resemblance 
between some Irish and Scottish airs has led to 
confusion, and an attempt to generalize. Thus 
it has been quoted, as an unfailing characteristic of 
Irish as of Chinese melody, to omit the fourth and 
seyenth of the scale ; this is quite erroneous. In 
many Irish airs, like ' Fd mourn the hopes that 
leave me/ these Intenrab are wanting; in others 
they both exist : in some Irish airs the 4th and 7th 
are omitted in the first strain, and present in the 
second part of the air. Many canona have been 
laid down: Bunting, an excellent authority,, 
thought the emphatic presence of the submediant, 
or sixth of the scale, a never-fiiiling test of an Irish 
air ; bat this note is emphatic in the Scottish air 
'Auld lang syne,* and in many others which 
might be cited. An anonymous writer in a 
Dublin periodical, *The Examiner,* Aug. i8i6y 
seems to have remarked an interesting point of 
agreement in the structure of Irish melodies: 
'They are formed,' says the writer, ' of 4 strains 
of equal length : the first soft, pathetic, and sub- 
dued ; the second ascending in the scale, becomes 
more bold, energe^ and impassioned ; the third, 
a repetition of the second, is sometimes a little 
varied and more florid, and leads, generally by a 
g^raoefbl or melancholy passage, to the fourth, 

> Tbk tzplalM tht pMsicB AtMot tiie wQd otto Jn tlie Stoiy of 
OsDta (Ounpbell't Tate and Lacradt of Uw W. HlgUuMla, LU/7>. 



which is always a repetition of the first.^ To this 
model may be referred the pathetic ' Qramaohree* 
in Moore's lines *The Harp that once through 
Tara's Halls.» 



(jA" j i [iij[ii;l-^.'jj.lc l 




So also the fine marching tune^ ' Byrne of Bally- 




It has been noticed that many Irish tunes end 
upon the fifth of the key, such as that adapted 
to Moore*s song, ' Come, send round the wine I * 
Again, to conmience as in the next example, and 
reiterate the ending note of the strain, has bee|i 
described as the * narrative form * of Irish melody, 
e.g. * St. Senanus,' to Moore's lines, *0 haste and 
leave this sacred isle * : — 



and it has not failed to be remarked that Moore's 
fourth line, 'A female form I see,* in obliterating 
this peculiarity, does injustice to the melody by 
rendering the repetition impossible. 

A few words about the danoes of Ireland will 
xtot be out of place» These are (i) the Planxty, 
or Pleraca,. 6-8 time, with strains of unequal 
number of bars, (a) The Jig, or Rinnoe, with an 
equal number of bars, l^e Jig was, as its 
name implies, an imitation of the giga of Corelli 
and Qeminiani, both very popular in Ireland 
during the iSth century: of these there were 
(a) the Double Jig, (6) Single Jig, (c) Hop 
Jig,, and (jd) Moneen, or Green-sod Jig. (3) 
The 'Reel, similar to that of Scotland, of which 
it is the national dance. (4) The Hornpipe. 
(5) Set dances, chiefly by one dancer, and (6) The 
Coimtry dance. Many of the dances in 6*8 
measure were originally march tunes; for it is 
remarkable that the 'slow march,* as used by 
other nations, never prevailed among the Irish, 
whose battle music was frequently in the 6-8 
measure, with two accents in the bar. 

£very civil occupation in Ireland had also its 
appropriate music; thus milking the cows (an 
occupation in which the ancient Irish took pecu- 
liar delight), spinning, and ploughing, had each 
fits tune. 



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M IBISH BfUSIC. 

Saoh are h few of the oharaoteriBticB of a native 
minstrelsy seoond to none in the annals of abori- 
ginal art. But the lines of demarcation by which 
national peouliaritiea were preserved are being 
daily obliterated : steam has worked many won- 
ders, of whioh this is not the least ronarkable. 
Ireland at the present day diffars bat little from 
England, Wales, or Scotland. The tunes whisUed 
in we Irish streets are not the melodies to whioh 
Moore in 1808 supplied words, but ' The March 
of the Men of Harledi,* * Mandolinata,' and ' Stride 
la vampa ' from Verdi's 'Trovatore.* The terrible 
£unine of 1847, followed as it was by fever And 
a gigando emigration that laid whole districts 
waste, could not fiul to produce sweeping artistic 
as wdl as social changes. Much of the aatient 
music must have periuied with the population. 
Petrie*s volume jprobably represents the last 
comprehensive effort to collect the aboriginal 
strams of Irish music : although given to the 
world in 1855, it embraced the labours of many 
previous years. 

It remains but to notice the various collections 
of Irish music These 

L Bnrk* ThnmoUi, dr. 1780. 
2. IfMU of Ohrtsi^httroh Yud, 

ITU. 
a Banttof'i, Snt im* Mcond 

mot, third 1840. 
4. ftmndii Holdcn (alt«d hf Q«o. 

P«til«). 1806. 
a Moore, with Btweown. uid 

cabieqaeDtly Sir B. Bl- 

Bbop; ten 



a John M nlhollMMl «( BtUui, 

1810. 
7. 0. ThomMm (Beethorm'c ao 

eomptnlmentt), 1814. 
a f lt itlmom lAd John Sadth. 

18M. 
f . Hon. Geo. O'CtBaghsn wllh 



la ' The OHlnn* BMCuhM. 1840. 

U. Hornoutle. London. 1844. 

IS. 0*D«ljr. 'Poets and Poetry of 
Mnnster.' 18B8. 

Jt.4. PkirK IB oonneelloD ^th 
the 'Sodetrfor the Pre- 
-eerrstlon of Irish Muxic.' 
US& orthliT»lnableirork 
bat 1 ToL end part of a 
eecood appeared. 

14.VolIoj.lim. 

lA. Jo]roe.l87B. 

10. HoflJnMinn, 1877. 

Dance tnnee only. 

17. R. V. Lercy. 186B-7B. 

18. P. Hofhei. 1880. 




Of these^ few are reliable as authoritiea, save 
those of Petrie and Bunting, both honoured names 
in the annab of Irish music. It is to a Mr. 
Oeo. Thomson, of the Trustees* Office, Edin- 
burgh, who was much interested in national airs 
from 1702-1820, especially those of Scotland, and 
engaged Pleyel, Kozeluch, Haydn, Beethoven, 
Hummel, and Weber, as arrangers of them, that 
we owe the Irish music arranged by Beethoven 
between the yean 1810 and 1810. Among 16 
national airs, with variations, as due^ for violin 
(or flute) and piano {op, 105, 107), are 3 Irish 
melodies — * The last rose* (a very incorrect ver- 
sion of the air), 'While History's Muse,* and 
'O had we some bright Uttle isle.* Although 
interesting in their way, these little works of 
Beethoven are very inferior to his Vocal Collec- 
tions. Of these '12 Irish airs with accompani- 
ments of piano, vicdin, and cello ' (obbligato), were 
published in 1855 by Artaria & Co. of Vienna, as 
proprietors of Beethoven's MS. It is likely that 
Messrs. Power, owners of Moore's copyright 
lines, refused Mr. Thomson permission to pub- 
lish them along with Beethoven's arrangements, 
for in the new edition of Breitkopf & Hartel, 
of which they form No. 258, the melodies are 
adapted to verses (some comic, and of extreme 
vulgarity) by Joanna Baillie Mid others ; three 



ISAAO. 

are arranged aa vocal duets ; two have a chorml 
refrain. Another collection of 25 Irish airs forma 
No. 261 of Breitkopf & Hartel's edition ; they are 
arranged in similar form and are equal in ex- 
cellence ; some are found in Moore, others are 
of doubtful authenticity : of the air called ' Grarry- 
one,' Beethoven has different arrangements in 
each. That whoever furnished the great inu« 
sidan with the text of the airs must have been 
careless or incompetent, will be evident by a 
comparieea of the air 'Colleen dhas,' as found 
in No. 9 of Artaria's edition, with that already 
given in this article: not only is the scale 
destroyed and the air deprived of its pathetic 
peculiarity, but whole stndns are omitted alto- 
gether. (The air is here tnui^K)eed for the aako 
of comparison.) 



Some Irish airs among others arranged 1^ 
Beethoven, appear in No. 259 of Breitkopf ft 
Hartel's edition, and No. 26a consists of 20^ of 
them alone. [E.P.S.] 

IRON €HEST, THE. An English play with 
musio ; the words by G. Colman, jun., the music 
by Storaoe. Product «t Dniry Lane March 1 2, 
1796. A quintet from it, 'Five times by the 
taper^s light,' was a favourite until comparatively 
lately, and wiH be found in the * Musical Library.' 
The piece is based on Caleb Williams ; and the 
Advertisement to the reader contains the author's 
announcement that he was 'G. Colman the 
younger.* [G.] 

ISAAC, Heinbioh. The time and place of 
the birth <tf so great a man becomes of more 
than usual interest when upon its dedsiou de« 
pends his claim to be called Germany's first great 
composer. If he was reaUy a Grerman, which all 
historians and the evidence of his works lead ua 
to believe, it is certain that the beginning of the 
1 6th century foimd him the central figure of 
the fow musicians bis country could then num* 
ber. Neither Paul Hoffhaimer, the oiganist and 
composer, who, after a life of nearly ninety years 
(1449-1557) found his last resting-place at Salz* 
burff, nor Thomas Stoltzer, who, in his short time 
of thirty-six years made his name still more fa- 
mous, nor even Heinrich Finok with his lovely 
lieder and hymns,' — ^none of these were so great 
as Isaac They had much in common with him, 
and their names may be found side by side with 

1 Whldi, nerertheleia. aned to more the heart of hit royal narter 
the kliw of Folaod, who langhln«ly replied to the oompoeer's VBqoMl 
fof 10 InsniM of Mla>7— 

*Jk Uttle finch Crink) within lU oaie 
8loc> all the Tear, nor adts foringe,' 



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ISAAa 

Ilk in many books of Grenoan lied^, bat what- 
ever their genius may have been, they have not 
iiaiided down suoh monuments of greatness as 
exist in the works of Isaac In the higher forms 
of diurch composition they scarcely competed 
with him at all. 

According to one traditdon he was bom at 
Ptagae, and Ambros' devotes a charming page 
of his history to showing the Bohemian character 
of some of tiie subjects used by the composer in 
bis masses. He appears to have spent much of 
his time in Florencct and here he was sometimes 
called by ^e grand title * Airhigo Tedesco ' in 
•trange contrast to the modest, quaint * h. yzac/ 
it.wntli<w variation of his name. His position in 
Florence, and one date in his Ufe, is shown by a 
MS. said by Dr. J^mbault to have been in the 
library <^ Christ Church, Oxford, but of which 
we can find no trace there at present. In * The 
Musical World' (Aug. 39, 1844) Dr.Bimbault 
describes this M3. as containing the music com- 
posed in 1 488 by Henry Isaac for the religious 
drama, * San Giovanni e San Paolo,' written by 
Lorenso de' Medici for performance in his own 
fiunily. He also states that Isaac was the 
teacher of Loreuco's children, which fsct we 
presume he learnt from the same MS. M. F^tis 
shows (i) that he was stiU, or again in Florence 
many years after 1488, for Aaron speaks of being 
intimate with Joequin, Ofarecht and Isaac in 
that city, ajid Aaron could not have been twenty 
years old (Le. old enough for such friendship) 
until tiie year 1509 ; (a) that he was also at one 
time in the service of the Emperor Maximilian I, 
who reigned from 1486-1519 ; and (3) that he 
must have died some years before 1531, according 
to a note made upon a MS. of that date in the 
Munich Library, containing a work begun by 
him and finished by his pupU Senfl. 

Of Isaac's works, first in importance come 
93 masses, 10 printed, and 13 in MS. (i) The 
Librazy of the Lyceum at Bol(^^ has a copy 
of the ' Misse Heinrici Izac/ printed by Petrucd 
in 1506, containing 5 masses, 'Charge de deal,' 
' Miserioordias Domini,' ' Quant jay au cour,' ' La 
l^wgna,' 'Comme fenmie.' (2) Khaw's 'Opus 
deoem missarum 4 vooum' (Wittenberg, 1541) 
contains the a masses 'Canninum' and 'Une 
. Musque de Kscay.' (3) ' Liber quindecim mis- 
Mrum,' etc (Nuremberg^ Petreius, 1539) coi^ 
tains the mass, ' O preedara,' one of the most 
remarkable of the composer's works. It is com* 
posed on a subject of 4 notes reiterated without 
cessation throughout the mass. Some of the 
mnnbers, such as the '£t in terra pax' and the 
' Qui tollis,' have the character of slow move- 
mraits by the lengthening of the four notes over 
several bars, the simple accompaniments of the 
other parts being very beautiful. The subject is 
kept in the treble nearly throughout the mass, 
which is one of Isaac's peculiarities. It is pre- 
sented in various forms in the earlier movements, 
first announced in triple time, then in long notes 
with accompaniments in triple time, till in the 
Credo it bursts out Alia Breve, forming a ma- 



ISAAa 



2S 



jestio dimat. The Mass exists in score in the 
Berlin Library amongst the MS. materials col* 
lected by Soimleithuer for a history of music. 
A copy is also in the F^tis Library at Brussels 
(No. 1807). (4) Ott*s collection, 'Missse 13, 
vocum' (Nuremberg, 1539), contains two masses, 
'Salve nos,* and 'Firohlich Wesen/ One move- 
ment, * Plenl sunt,' fr^sm the latter, is scored in 
Sonnleithner's MS. 

The 13 MS. masses are mentioned by Ambros 
in his History of Music (iii. 386'i — in the Boyai 
Library at Vienna, eight — 'Missa Solenms,' 
Magne Deus, Paschalis, De Confessoribus, Domi- 
nicalis, De B. Virgine, and two De Martyribus, 
all in 4 parts ; and in the Munich Library, four 
6-part ones, — Viigo prudentissima, Solennis, De 
Apostolis, and one without name, and a 4-part 
one, ' De Apostolis? A MS. volume of Masses 
in Uie Burgundy Library at Brussels (No. 6438) 
contains the 'Virgo prudentissima' under the title 
' Missa de Assumptioije B. Y . M., heric ysac.' 

£itner*s Bibliographie der Musik^Sammelwerke 
(Berlin, 1877) mentions upwards of forty collec- 
tions between ^e years 1501 and 1564, which 
contain motets and pialma by Isaac. The Do- 
decachordon of Glarean contains five, three of 
which Bumey (ii. 531^4), Hawkins (ch. 70) and 
Forkel, have printed in their Histories, Bumey 
having copied them all in his note-books at the 
Britic£ Museum. WyrsuBg'e ' Liber selectarum 
cantionum,' etc. (Augsburg, 1530), oontsins five 
of the most important of Isaac's works of this 
class, amongst them two 6-part motets, ' Optima 
pastor* and ' Virgo prudentissima,' dedicated re- 
spectively to the Pope Leo X and the Emperor 
Maximilian I. An excellent MS. copy of this work 
exists in the F^tis Library at Brussels (No. i679)« 
Of Isaac's Ueder, Ott's collection of '115 guter 
newer liedlein' (Nurembeig, 1544) contains lo. 
One of them, ' Es het ein bawer ein tochterlein,' 
is given in score by Forkel in his History. This 
collection has latdy been reprinted by the G^ 
sellscbaft fUr Musikforsohung (liepmanssohn, 
Berlin). Forster's collectico, ' Ein auszug guter 
Teutscher liedlein' (Nuremberg, Petreius, 1539) 
contains four, and amongst them * Isbruck [Iims< 
bruck] ioh muss dich lassen,' the words said to 
have been written by the Emperor Maximilian. 
The melody was afterwards sung to the hymns, 
' O Wdt ioh muss dich lassen,' and ' Nun ruhen 
alle WMder,' and is one of the most beautiful of 
Qerman diOTales. It is introduced by Bach in the 
Passions-Musik (St. Matthew), in the scene of 
the Last Supper. (See 'Innsbruck' in Hymns 
Andent and Modem.) Whether Isaac actually 
composed the mdody, or only wrote the other parts 
to it, is doubtful, but it is remarkable that here, 
as in others of his works, the melody appears in 
the upper part, which was quite unusual in such 
compositions. It is in these Lieder that he 
shows his nationality. In them we have the 
music which the composer brought with him 
from his home, the trace of which is not lost in 
bis greater compositions, but blending itsdf with 
the new influences of an adopted country, and of 
Netherland companions, gives to his music » 



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u 



ISAAO. 



threefold thmcter, * % 008mop>olHaii trait* not to 
be found in the works of any other composer of 
the time (Ambros, ill. 38a). [J.E.S.-B.] 

ISABELLA. [See Girardeau.] 

ISHAM, JoHK, Mus. Bac., was for some years 
deputy oiganist for Dr. Croft. OnJan32,i7ii» 
)ie was elected organist of St. Anne's, Soho, on 
Croft's resignation. On July 17, 1713, he grad- 
uated as Bachelor of Music at Oxford, and on 
April 3, 1 718, was elected organist of St. An- 
drow*s, Holbom, with a stipend of £50 per 
annum, upon which he resigned his plaoe^at 
St. Anne'sy the vestry objecting to his holding 
both appointments. Shortly afterwards he was 
chosen organist of St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
^e composed some anthems, and joined with 
William Morley in publishin^^ a joint-collection 
of songSy Isham s two-part song in which, 'Bury 
delights my roving eye,' was very popular in its 
day, and is r^rinted h^ Hawkins in his History 
(c^ 168). He died m June 1736, and was 
buried on the lath ef that month in St. Mar- 
garet's church. [W.H.H.] 

ISOUABD, or ISOARD, NicoLO, usually 
known as Nicolo, bom !Pec. 6, 1775, at Malti^ 
where his &ther was a merchant and secretary 
of the * Massa Frumentaria,' or government 
storehouses. He was taken to Paris as & boy, 
and educated at the Institution Berthaud, a 
preparatory^ school for the engineers and artilleET. 
Much of nis time was tak^i up with the study 
of the pianoforte under Fin, but he passed a 
good examination for the navy. He was how- 
ever recalled before receiving his commission, 
and on his return to Malta in 1 790 was placed 
in a merchant's office. His pianoforte-playing 
made him welcome in society; and encouraged 
by this he went through a course of harmony 
withVella and Asopa^, and with Amendola 
of Palermo — where he passed several years 
as clerk to a merohant^and completed his studies 
rmder Sala and Guglielmi at Naples, where he 
was emfdoyed by a German banking firm. He 
BOW determined to become & composer, and aban- 
doning commerce, much against his father's wish, 
produced his ^t opera, ' L'awiso ai Maritati,* 
at Florence in 1795. After this date he called 
hims^ simply Nioolo, in order not tooompromise 
his fiEunily, and it was under this name that he 
made his reputation. From Florence he went 
to Leghorn, and composed 'Artaserse,' an 
opera seria^ which procured him the cross of 
San Donate of Malta. He succeeded Yincenzo 
AnfoBsi as organist of St. John of Jerusalem 
at Malta, and on the death of San Martino be- 
came maltre de chapelle to the Order, retaining 
both poets until the occupation of the island by 
the French (June 10-13, 1798). During these 
early years he acquired that fiicility which was 
afterwards one of lus most marked characteristics. 
There was not a branch of composition which he 
did not attempt, as a list of his works at this 
date will show: — 9 Cantatas; masses, psalms, 
and motets ; vocal pieces for concerts ; and 8 or 9 
operas wiu(^ it is not necessary to enumerate. 



'GendriUon' (Ffeb. 22. 181D): 'Ia 
VIetlme des Arte' (Feb. ?7), ulth 
BoM wad Berton; 'L* FMe da 
yniage' (Haich SI); *Le Billet di 
lotorle' (Sept U); 'Le Magteien 
MUS Hagie' (Nov. 4. 18U): 'LalO 
et Quinuilt' (Feb. 27, 1812): 'Le 
PrtDoe d« Oatmne' (March 4); 'I« 
Frtnc&to * Venlse' (Jane 14, 1813); 
'Le 81^ de M^^ree' (Feb. 12), 
iHth Cherablai. CUiA. and Botel- 
dleu ; ' Jooonde ' (Feb. 28) ; ' Jean- 
not et Colin' (Oct. 17.1814): 'Lcs 
denx Harts' (Mardi 18); and 
'L'oiM pour Tautre' Oi»j U, 



ISOtTAKD. 

At this time he was strongly urged t6 g^ to 
Paris. ^ On his arrival he found a useful friend 
in Bodolphe Kreutzer, and the two composed 
conjointly *Le petit Pacfe' (Feb. 14, 1800), and 
'Flapiinius. k Corinthe^ (Feb. a8, 1801). At 
the same time Delrieu re>wrote the librettos of 
two of his Italian operas, which were performed 
under their original titles, 'L*Impromptu d« 
Oampagne ' (June 30, 1800), and ' Le Tonnelier ^ 
(May 17, 1801). Isouard also made c(msider»J 
ble mark in society as a pianist. To his friend- 
ship with Hoffmann and Etienne he owed no* 
only sound advice, but a series of librettos upon 
which he was able to work with a certainty of 
success. Thus favoured by drcumstanoes, he 
produced in 16 years no less than 33 operas. 
The following list is in exact chronological order, 
which F^tis has not been careful to observe : — 

' La Stataa, ou te femtne aTare' 
(April 29) : ' Miohel Aufe ' (Dee. 11. 
letO; 'Les Confldenoes' (March 
30): 'Le Batoer et la ({alttaooe' 
(Jon* 17), iHth M Aral. Krentier. 
and Boleldlea : ' Le MMMdn Turo ' 
(Not. 19. 1806); 'Llntrtgue auz 
fBn«trea' (Feb. 94): 'Le Dinner 
de Oaroons' (April 24); 'La Buse 
inntUe'^dCaraO); 'L6onoe' (Not. 
18. 1806): 'U Prise de Fanaa' 
(Feb. 8): 'Idala' (Jul; 80, 1806); 
* Las Bendei-Toos booivac^ ' (May 
») : * Les Crteiolen ' (Dec. 10. 1807) ; 
'Un join- A Paris' (Ha? 91): 'd- 
marosa' (June 28. 1808); 'L'ln- 
trigw an S^raU' (April 25, 1808): 

To this long list must be added ' Aladin, on la 
Lampe merveilleuse,' which he did not live to 
finish, but which was completed by Benincori. 

Isouard had the gift of melody, and remark- 
able skill in disposing his voices so as to obtain 
the utmost effect. Instances of this are — the 
quintet in * Michel Ange,' quite Italian in its 
form; the ensemble and trio in the 'Rendez- 
vous bourgeois ' ; the (luartet in the 2nd act 
of 'Jooonde* ; the trio m the same opera, and 
that of the three sisters in 'Oendrillon'; thd 
finale in the 'Intrigue aux fen^tres'; the trio 
and the duet in ' Jeannot et Colin,* and man^ 
others. To these qualities must be added the ori- 
ginality and unadorned simplicity of his music, 
which gave it a kind of troubadour character. 
His later works, composed when Boieldieu was 
running him hard, are manifestly superior to 
the earlier ones, when he had no competitor. 
' Joconde,' the ^vourite romance in which will 
never be forgotten, far surpasses * Cendrillon,* 
though inferior to 'Jeannot and Colin,* which 
for finish, taste, sentiment, and charm of style 
will always be appreciated by musicians. 

Another of Isouard's good points is tiiat his 
comedy never degenerates into vulgarity. Iii 
£oileau*s words, this composer — 

' Diitiiigoa le naif dn plat et da bnlTon.* 
He strictly observed the proprieties of the stage, 
and thoroughly understcxxl the French public. 

1 FayoUe. In bis 'DIettonnaIre des Mnskdens.' states that Oaneral 
Vaubois took him to Paris as his priTate secretacr. bat a comparisoo 
of dates will show this to haTe been an Imposslbllltr. General 
VauboU was in command of the French at Malta, and with a par- 
rtson of 4.000 men maintained his position against the blocksdiog 
forces of the allies without and the Maltese themaelTes wlthhi. tot 
two Tears from 1798. Isouard, on the other hand, reached Paris with 
his fiuDily In 1790.^ FMs has npvotaoad thia •mm. - 



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ISOUABD. 

la bit own way he continued Gr^iry*B woirk, 
bat being no originator was edipted by Boiel- 
dien and afterwards by Auber. The suooesses 
of bis riral provoked mm beyond control, and 
when Boiddiea was elected by the Institut in 
1817 to snooeed M^ul in preference to him- 
self bis mortification was extreme. It was, per* 
bape, to drown the remembrance of this defeat, 
I and of the triumphs of his opponent, that, al- 
though a married man, he plunged into a 
course of dissipation which ruined his health 
and brought on consumption, from which he 
died in Paris, March 23, 1818. 

There is no biography of Isouard, nor indeed 
any sketch at all adequate. Several portraits have 
been published, but are of no artistic merit. From 
one of diem was executed in 1 853 the marble bust 
now in the foyer of the Op^ Comique. 

Isouard is little known in England. The only 
two of his pieces which appear to have been 
brought out on the London stage are ' Les Ren- 
dezvous bourgeois' (St. James's, Mav 14, 1849), 
and ' Joconde,* English version by Mr. Santley 
(Lyceum, Oct. 25, 1876). [G.C.I 

ISRAEL IN EGYPT, the fifth of Handel's 
19 1B»g^^«^ <Htitorio8. The present second part 
was composed first The autograph of it is headed 
'Moses Bong. Exodus Chap. 15. Introitus. 
Angefiangen Oct. i, 1738,' and at the end 'Fine 
Octob'. iij 1738, den i Novemb'. voUig geen- 
digt.' The presentfirstpartis headed '15 Octobi'. 
1738. Act y* a**.' Three pages were written 
and erased ; and on the fourth page begins the 
preeent opening recitative, headed ' Part y* 2 of. 
Exodus.' At the end of the Chorus ' And be- 
Ueved' stands 'Fine della Parte 2^ d'Exodus. 

{8^L78}'738* Theautog^phUinBuck. 
faglmm PaliM^ and the two parts are bound in 
their present order, not in that of composition. 

The title 'Israel in I^pt' appears in the an- 
nouncements of the first performance, which was 
on April 4, 1739. On April 1 1 it was performed 
again 'with alterations and additions.' Else- 
where it is announced that *the Oratorio will 
be shortened and intermixed with songs* — four 
in number. It was given a third time April 
1, 1740, with the Funeral Anthem as a first 
part, under the name of the 'Lamentation of 

^ the Israelites for the Death of Joseph.' 

Dr. Chrysander suggests that the adaptation 
of the Funeral Anthem as an introduction fol- 
lowed immediately on the completion of Moses' 
Song, and that *Act v* 2^* followed on that 
adaptation ; and it is cUfficult to resist the con- 

' conclusion that he is right, though beyond the 
words * Act y* 3*' and the addition of a short over- 
ture to the Funeral Anthem there is no positive 
evidence. The use of the word 'Act* prevents 
our taking ' Act the 2^ ' as ' second * in relation 
to ' Moses Song ' : it was second in order of com- 
position, but not in historic order, nor in order of 
performance — and 'Moses Sonf' contains the 
musical climax to the whole work. 

The first subsequent performance in England 
of the work ab cotnpoeedi without additions or 



ISTESSO TEMK>, L'. 



$$ 



omissions, was given by the Sacred Harmonio 

Society, Feb. 23, 1849. In Germany it was first 

performed in any shape by the Sing-Akademie 

of Berlin, Dec. 8, 1831. 

This oratorio is distinguished among those of 

Handel as much for its sustained grandeur as 

for the .great number of allusions to previoua. 

compositions, both of Handel's own and of other. 

musicians, that it contains. Those which have at 

present been recognised are as follow : — 

'Th^ loathed.' Shortened ftom Fogoe in A minor in 
hie own Six organ ftiAuee. 

* He spake the word.* The voice parts from a ^rmphony 
fbr doable oroheetra in Stradella^B Beronata. 1 

Hailstone Chorus. From Stradella's Serenata. 
'He smote all the firstborn.* From Fngne in A minoi^ 
in bis own Six organ Aiffnes. 

* But as for his people.^ From Stradella*s Serenata. , 

* Egypt was glad.' Almost note for note from an Organ 
canzona in D by Kerl.> 

* And believM the Lord.' From Stradella*s Serenata. 

' He is my God,* almost note for note from the opening 
of Erba*s Magnificat 

'The Lord is my strength.* From *Et exnltavit' in 
theMamificat. 

*The liord is a man of war.* From *Te etemnm Pa- 
trem * in Urio's Te Demn, and *Quia fecit' in Maimificat. 

* The depths have covered them.' From Magnificat. 

* Thy right hand.* From ditto, * Quia reepexit* 

* Thou sentest forth.* Almost note fbr note from ditto» 

* Fecit potentiam.* 

•Andwith the blast* From dUto, 'Depoeuit* 
*The earth swallow'd them.* Almost note for note 
from ' Siout erat* in ditto. 
*Thon in Thy mercy.* From ditto, * Esurientes.' 
*I will sing unto the Lord.* Bepeated fh>m beginning 
of Part n. 

Notwithstanding this astonishing numbto of 
adaptations great and small, so vast is the fusing 
power of Handel's genius, and also perhaps so 
full of &ith the attitude in which a great work 
6f established reputation is contemplated, that 
few bearers suspect the want of unity, and even 
Mendelssohn,' keen as -was his critical sense, 
while editing the • Israel ' for the Handel Society, 
never drops a hint of any anomaly or inconsistency 
in the style of any of the pieces. Mendelssohn 
wrote organ accompaniments to the songs and 
duets, though, strange to say, they have seldom 
been used in public in this country. 

As to the compiler of the words of ' Israel ' there 
is neither evidence nor tradition. It is therefore 
possible that they may have been selected by 
Handel himself. In the first part some of tbs 
words are taken frwn the Prayer-book version 
of the Psalms. In other cases the ordinary 
Authorised version has been adopted, but not 
exactly fbllowed. [G.] 

ISTESSO TEMPO, U, 'the same time.' a 
caution in cases of change of rhythm or time- 
signature. It may mean that the measure re- 
mains as before while the value of the note 
changes — as in the change from 9-16 to 6-16 in 
Beethoven*s Op. iii^ or from 3-4 to 6-8 in 

* Bagatelle,* Op. 119, No. 6 ; or that the measure 
changes while the note remains — as in Op. 126, 
No I ; or that neither note .nor measure change 
— as in Op. iii, 6-16 to ia-32, and Op. lao, 
Var. 3. Or that a former tempo is resumed, 
as in his Sonata, op. no — *L*istesso tempo di 
Arioso.' ' L'istetoo tempo della fuga.' [G.] 

» S«e U>e Analyse! of Uriot Te Drom and fitr den»'« Perenat*. bf 
Mr. Proui. In the MonOilj Mutlcal Beoord foe Nut. ud Oao. 1871. 
S Printed by Bawkliii. chai». 121* 



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t6 ITALIANA IN ALGIERI, L\ 

ITALIANA IN AL6IEBI, L*. An Italian 
oomic opera in acts ; words by AnelH, muiic by 
BoBBini. Prodaced at San Benedetto, Venice, in 
1813; at Paris, Feb. i, Y817; and in London, 
Jan. a;, 1819; in English, Deo. 30, 1844. [G.] 

ITALIAN SIXTH, THE, is the aogmented 
■ixth accompanied by tiie miyor third, as 

[C.H.H.PO 

IVANOFF, or IVANHOFF, Nicholas, bom 
in 1809, an Italianized Russian, appeared in 
England in the season of 1854. ^ pupil of 
E. Bianchi, he had a very beautiful tenor Toioe, 
<a chaste and simple style of singing, but little 
execution' (Lord Mount-Edgeombe). On the 
other hand, Mr. Chorley wrote, — * Nothing could 
be more delicious as to tone— more neat as to exe- 
oution. No such good Rodrigo in Otello has 
been heard since I have known the opera.:* and 
Moscheles, in his Diary, says, ' he attracted the 
public by his great flexibility of voice, but he 
displeased my German ear by osing his head- 
voice too frequently, particularly when singing 
Schubert's Serenade. His sickly, sentimentiJ 
style became so wearisome that some wag cir- 
culated a joke about him declaring that his real 
name was " Tve enough.*' * Sweet as were his 
voice and method of vocalisation, his acting and 
appearance on the stage were utterly nttll and 



JACK. 

Insfgnfficant ; 'In England, he was never teen 
to attempt to act ; subsequently, he essayed to 
do so in Italy, I have heard ; but, by that time, 
the voice had begun to perish ' (Chorley). He 
reappeared in London in 1835 and 37, but ho 
never fulfilled the promise of his first season, and 
soon retired. Wiui others of the Italian troupe 
he had taken part, but without effect, in the 
Festival at Westminster Abbey in 1 834. Ivanhoff 
is still living in retirement at Bdogna. [J. M.] 
IVES, Smoir, was a vicar choral of St. Paul's 
cathedral. In 1633 he was engaged, together 
with Henry and William Lawes, to compose the 
music for Shirley's masque, *The Triumph of 
Peace,' performed at Court by the gentlemen of 
the four Inns of Court on Candlemas day, 1633-4, 
for his share in which he received £100. Oa 
the suppression of choral service he became a 
singing master. His elegy on the death of 
WilliMn Lawes, * Lament and mourn,' appeared 
in separate parts at the end of H. and W. 
Lawes's * Choice Psidmes,' 1648. It is nven in 
score in J. S. Smith's ' Musica Antiqua. Many 
catches and rounds by Ives are printed in 
Hilton's « Catch that Catch can,' 165a, and Play- 
ford's * Musical Companion,' 1673 ; * Si Deus 
nobiscum,' 3 in i, is given in Hullah's ' Vooal 
Scores.' Sones by him are to be found in various 
collections. He died in the parish of Christ 
Church, Newgate 6treet,in i66a, (.W.H.H.] 



J. 



ir 



JACK (Fr. SavXertan; Ital. SaUardlo; Ger. 
Doeke, Springer), la the action of the 

harpsichord tribe of in- 
•truments the jack repre- 
sents the Plectrum. It is 
usually made of pear-tree, 
rests on the back end of 
the key-lever, and has a 
moveable tongue of holly 
working on a centre, and 
kept in its place by a bristle 
spring. A thorn or spike 
of crowquill projects at 
right angles from the tongue. 
On the key being depressed 
the jack is forced upwards^ 
and the quill is brought to 
the string, which it twangs 
in passing. The string is 
damped by the piece of 
doth above the tongue. 
When the key returns to ita 
level, the jack follows it 
and descends; and the quill 
then passes the string with- 
out resistance or noise. In 
some instruments a piece 
of hard leather is used in- 
stead of the quill. In cut- 

the quill or leather 




ting 



great attention is 



paid to the gradatton of elasticity which 
secures equality of tone. A row of jacks is 
maintained in perpendicular position by a rack ; 
and in harpsichords or clavecins which have 
more than one register, the racks are moved to 
or away firom the strings by means of stops 
adjusted by the hand ; a second rack then en- 
closing the lower part of the jack to secure its 
position upon the key. We have in the jack 
{ a very difi^rent means of producing tone to the 
tangent of the clavichord or the hammer of the 
pianoforte. The jack, in principle, is the plec- 
trum of the psaltery, adjusted to a key, as the 
tangent represents the bridge of the monochord 
and the pianofi>rte hammer the hammer of the 
duloinier. We do not exactly know when jack 
or tangent were introduced, but have no reason 
to think that the invention of either was earlier 
in date than the 14th century. By the middle 
of the 1 6th centiu-y the use of the clavecin in* 
struments with jacks had • become general in 
England, the Netherlands and France; and in 
Italy from whence they would seem to have 
travelled. They were used also in Germany, but 
the clavichord with its tangents asserted at least 
equal rights, and endured Sieve until Beethoven. 
The first years of the 18th century had witnessed 
in Florence the invention of the hammer-davier, 
the pianoforte; before the century was quits 
out the jack had everywhere ceded to the 



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JAOE« 

luHnzner. Altihough leather fbr the tongue of 
the jack haa been olaiined to have be^ the 
inyention of Pascal Taskin of Paris in the 
1 8th century (his much-talked-of 'peau de 
buffle'), it has been found in instruments of the 
l6th and 17th; and it may be that leather 
preceded the quill, the introduction of which 
Scaliger (i 484-1 550) enables us to nearly date. 
He says (Poetices, lib. i. cap. Ldii) that when he 
was a boy the names clavicjonbaland harpsichord 
had been appellations of tiie instrument vulgarly 
known as monochord, but that subsequently 
points of crowquiU had been added, from whidi 
points the same instrument had become known 
as spinet — ^posdUy from the Latin 'spina,' a 
thorn, though another and no lees probable 
d^vation of the name wiU be found under 
Spihzt, 

Shakspeare*s reference to the jack in one at 
his Sonnets is well-known and often quoted— 



JACJKSON. 



27 



<DoIfi 
Tokii 



ivT thoie jsoks that nimble leap 
the tender izMvaid <rf thy hand* ; 



but appears to mean the keys, which as the 
* sweet nngera* touoh them make 'dead wood more 
blest than living lips.* A nearer reference has 
been preserved by Bimbault (The Pianoforte, 
London, i860, p. 57) in a MS. note by Isaac 
Beed to a volume of old plays. Lord Oxford 
•aid to Queen Elizabeth, m covert allusion to 
Raleigh's &vour and the execution of Essex, 
<When jacks start up, heads go down.* [A. J.H.] 

JACKSON, John. One Jackson, who in 
1669 held the office of 'Instructor in Musick' 
at Ely Cathedral for three months, has been 
conjectured to be identical with the John Jack- 
son who early in 1676 was appointed nominally 
a vicar choial but in tact organist of WelLs 
Cathedral.^ His name is not found in the 
Chapter books after 1688, so that it is presumed 
that he died or resigned in that year. He com- 
posed some church music now almost wholly 
lost. An antliem, 'The Lord said unto mv 
Lord,* included in the Tudway Collection (HarJL 
H8. 7338) ; a Service in C, in the choir books 
of WeUs, and four chants in a contemporary 
MS. organ part in the library of the Sacred 
Harmonio Society are all his compositions that 
are to be found complete. The last-named MS. 
contains the organ parts of the Service in C and 
8 anthems, and in the choir books at Wells are 
^ some odd parts of an anthem and « single part 
of a Burial Service. [W.H.H.] 

JACKSON, WiLUAir, known as Jackson of 
Exeter, son of a grocer in that dty, was bom in 
May 1 730. He received a liberal education, and 
having disnlayed a strong partiality for music, 
was placed under John ^vester, organist of 
Exeter Cathedral, for instruction. In 1748 he 
removed to London and became a pupil of John 
Travers. On his return to Exeter he established 
himself as a teacher. In 17^5 he published a 
•et of * Twelve Songs,* 'whum were so simple. 



■ do not tpool^ An oriulft u tn 
la soeh tha etaftiin It to MRign to one of Ui« 
• pvfBCBMiM of the doty of oiBMilit. 



elegant, and original, that they inmiediat«Jy be- 
came popular uiroughout the kingdom.* He 
afterwards produced ' Six Sonatas for the Harpsi- 
chord,' * Elegies for three voices,' and a second 
set of * Twelve Songs.' These were followed by 
* Six Epigrams,' a third set of * Twelve Songs,' 
and a -setting of Warton's * Ode to Fancy.' In 
1 767 he composed the music for a dramatic piece 
called * Lvcioas,* altered from Milton's poem, on 
the oocasion of the death of Edward, Duke of 
York, brother of George III, and produced at 
Covent Grarden on Nov. 4, but never repeated* 
He next published 'Twelve Canzonets ror two 
voioes/ which were highly successful, and one of 
which, 'Time has not thinned my flowing 
hair,' enjoyed a long career of popularity. To 
these succeeded 'Eight Sonatas for the Harpsi- 
chord,* and 'Six Vocal Quartette.' In 1777 
Jackson received the appointments of sub- 
chanter, ovganist, lay vicar, and master of the 
choristers of Exeter Cathedral. In 1780 he 
composed the musio for General Burgoyne'a 
opera, * The Lord of the Manor,* which was pro- 
duced at Brury Lane, Deo 27, with great success* 
and kept possession of the stage for more than 
half a century, mainly owing to Jackson s musio. 
The beautiful song, ' Encompassed in an angel's 
frame,' is one of those gems which time can 
never affect. In 1782 Jackson published ' Thirty 
Letters on various subjects,* — three of them 
relating to musio» which were well received and 
in 1795 reached a third edition. 'The Meta- 
morphosis,* a oomic opera, of which Jackson was 
believed to be the author as well as, avowedly, 
the composer, was produced at Drury Lane, Deo* 
5, 1783, but performed only two or three times* 
In 1791 Jac^n published a pamphlet entitled 
' Ob8ervati(ms on the present State of Musio in 
London.' In 1798 he published 'Four Ages, 
together with Essnys on various subjects,' in- 
tended as additions to the ' Thirty Letters.' His 
other musical publications comprised a second 
set of 'Twelve Canzonets for two voices,' 'Twelve 
Pastorab,' a fourth set of 'Twelve Songs,* 
' Hymns in three parts,' and ' Six Madrigals.* 
His cathedral music was oolleoted and published 
many years after his death by James Paddon, 
organist of Exeter Cathedral. He died of dropsy, 
July I a, 1803. Jackson employed much of lus 
leisure time in painting landscapes in the style 
of his friend Gainsborough, in which he attained 
considerable skill. WUlst much of his musio 
charms by its simplicity, melodiousness, refine- 
ment and grace, tnere is also much that sinks 
into tameness and insipidity ; his church musio 
especially is exceedingly feeble. Notwithstanding 
this, 'Jackson in F' is even now popular in some 
quarters. [W.H.H.] 

JACKSON, William, known as Jackson of 
Masham, bom Jan. 9, 181 6, was son of a miller, 
and furnishes a good instance of the power of 
perseverance and devotion to an end. His passion 
for music developed itself at an early age, and his 
struggles in the pursuit of his beloved art read 
almost like a romance in humble life. He built 
I organs, learned to play almost every instrument 



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* JACKSOl^: 

wind and string, taught himself harmony and 
counterpoint from books, until at length, in 1852, 
when he had reached the mature age of 16, 
the lord of the manor of Maaham having pre- 
sented a finger organ to the church, Jackson was 
appointed orgamst with a stipend of £30. 
Tlurough the circulating library in Leeds, he 
was able to study the scores of Haydn, Mozart, 
Spohr and Mendelssohn. In 1839 he went into 
business at Masham as a tallow-chandler, and 
in the same year published an anthem, *Fot joy 
let fertile vidleys ring.' In 1840 the Hudders- 
fleld Glee Club awarded him their first prize for 
his glee, 'The sisters of the sea'; and in 184 1 
he composed for the Huddersfield Choral Society 
tiie 103rd Psalm for solo voices, chorus and 
orchestra. In 1845 he wrote an oratorio, *The 
Deliverance of Israel firom BabylOn,' and soon 
afterwards another entitled * Isaiah.* In 185 a 
he made music his profession and settled in 
Bradford, where, in partnership with William 
Winn, the bass singer, he entei^ into business 
as a musicseller, and became organist, first, of 
St. John's Church, and afterwards (in 1856) of 
Horton Lane Chapel. On Winn's quitting 
Bradford, Jackson succeeded him as conductor of 
the Choral Union (male voices only). He was 
ohorus-master at the Bradford festivals in 1853, 
56 and 59, and became conductor of the Festiv^ 
Choral Society on its establishment in 56% For 
the festival of 56 he again set the 1031^ PSalm, 
and for that of 59 composed 'The Year,' a 
cantata, the words selected by himself from 
various poets. He compiled and partly oomposed 
a set of psalm tunes, and harmonised 'The 
Bradford iSme Book,' compiled by Samuel Smith. 
Besides the works already mentioned, he com- 
posed a mass, a church service, anthems, glees, 
part-songs and songs, and wrote a Manual of 
Singing, which paraed through many editions. 
His last work was a cantata entitled * The Praise 
of Music' He died April 15th, 1866. His son, 
William, bom 1853, was bred to the profession 
of music, became oi^ganist of Momingside 
Church, Edinburgh, and died at Ripon, Sept. 10, 
1877. [W.H.H.] 

JACOB, Benjamin, bom in London in 1778, 
was at a very early age taught the rudiments of 
music by his fistther, an amateur violinist. When 

7 years old he reoeived lessons in singing frx>m 
Bobert Willoughby, a well-known chorus-singer, 
and became a chorister at Portland Chapel. At 

8 years of age he learned to play on tiie harp- 
sichord, and afterwards studied tiiat instrument 
and the organ under William Shrubsole, organist 
of SpaFieldsChapel, and Matthew Cooke, organist 
of St. George, ^oomsbury. At 10 years of age 
he became organist of Salem Cbc^l, Soho, and 
little more than a year afterwards was appointed 
organist of Carlisle Chapel, Kennington Lane. 
Towards the latter end of 1790 he removed to 
Bentinok Chapel, Lisson Green, where he re- 
mained imtil Dec. 1794, when the Rev. Rowland 
Hill invited him to assume the place of oiganist 
at Surrey ChapeL In 1 796 he studied hannony 
under Dr. Amiold. In 1 800 he conducted a series 



JACQMK. 

of oratorios, given under the direction of Bartle- 
man in Cross Street, Hatton Garden. As he 
advanced in years he became more and more 
distinguished as one of the best organists of hie 
time, and in 1808 began a series of perform- 
ances at Surrey Chi^, of airs, choruses, and 
fugues played upon the organ alone, without any 
interspersion of vocal pieces. In that and the 
following year Samuel Wesley addressed to him« 
as to a kindred spirit, a remarkable series of 
lettera on the works and genius of John Sebastian 
Bach. These letters were published in 1875 by 
Miss Eliza Wesley, the writer's daughter; the 
originals are now in the library of the Sacred 
Hiumonio Society. In 1809 Jacob gave an organ 
performance at Surrey Chapel in conjunction with 
Wesley, the two playii)g alternately the fugues 
of Bach and Handel and other pieces. In 1811, 
18 1 2 and 1 8 14 Jacob repeated the perfomianoes 
in conjunction with Dr. Crotch. As a conse- 
quence of hia high reputation he was frequently 
engaged to open new organs and to act as judge 
on' trials for vacant organists' seats. 

In Nov. 1823 he quitted Surrey Chapel fo^ the 
newly-erected diurch of St. John, Waterloo Road. 
This led to a dispute between him and the Rev. 
Rowland Hill, resulting in a paper war, in which 
the musician triumphed over the divine. The 
excitement of the controversy, however, proved 
too much for Jacob ; he was attacked by dispaae, 
which developed into puhnonaiy consumption* 
and terminated his existence Aug. 34, 1829. 
His compositions were not numerous, ccHosisting 
prindpiUly of psalm tunes and a few glees. The 
collection of tunes, with appropriate symphonies; 
set to a course of psahns, and published under 
the title of ' Nationibl Psalmody,' which he edited, 
is well known. [W. HJH.] 

JACQUARD, LioN Jean, eminent violon- 
cellist,, bom at Paris Nov. 3, 1826; studied 
at the Conservatoire,, where he obtained the 2nd 
prize for cello in 1842, and the ist prize in 1844* 
In 1876 he married Mile. Laure Bedel, a pianist 
of distinction, and at the end of 1877 sucoeeded 
Chevillard as professor of his instrument at the 
Conservatoire. Jacquard is eminently a classical 
player^ — a pure and noble style, good intonation, 
and great correctness : if he has a fault it is that 
he is somewhat cold, but his taste is always irre- 
proachable, and his sdaneea of chamber music are 
well attended by the best class of amateurs. He 
has composed some Fantasias for the cello, but it 
is as a virtuoso and a professor that he will be 
remembered. [G.C.J 

JACQUIN, VON. A Viennese family with 
which Mozart was on the most intimate and 
affectionate terms. The fisher, Johann Frant 
Freiherr von Jacquin, was a celebrated botanist^ 
whose house in the botanical garden was the 
great resort of the most intellectual and artistio 
society of Vienna ; the son Gk>ttfried, an accom- 
plished amateur with a fine bass voice, was a very 
intimate friend of Mozart's, and the recipient of 
some of his cleverest letters ; and the dau^ter 
Franziska was one of his best pupils (lifter, 
Jan. 14, 1787). For Gottfided he wrote the air 



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.-JACQUIN. * 

'Men^ t! lascio' (K5cliel 513X tod'foT the 
fMoily more than one channing little Canzonet 
for 2 sopranos and a bass, such as '£cco qu^ 
too ' or ' Due pupille amabili * (K. 436, 439). 
An air of Grottfrieasy ' lo ti lascio is to this day 
•often sung in concert rooms as Mozart*s. He 
took part in the fanny scene whioh gave rise to 
Mocart's comic 'Bandl Terzett * — 'Liebes Mandl, 
wo ists Bandl.* The lines which Grottfried wrote 
in Moeart*s Album — * True genius is impossible 
witbout heart; for no amount of intellect. alone 
or of imagination, no, nor of both together, can 
make genius. Love, love, love is the soul of 
genius— characterise him as fiuthftdly as those 
of bis &ther, written in the same book, do the 
<^ man of tact and science :— 
*Tibi,qiupoaBis 

Blandus auritas fidibos caooris 
Ducere qoercat, 
In amidtin teaseram.* [G.] 

JADASSOHN, Salomon, bom at Breslau 
Sept. 15, 1831. His years of study were passed 
partly at home under Hesse, Liistner and Brosig, 
partly at the Leipzig Gonservatorium (184$), 
partly at Weimar under Liszt, and again in 
1853, at Leipzig under Hauptnuum. Since that 
iim» he has resided in Leipzig, first as a teacher, 
tiien as the conductor of the Euterpe concerts, 
and lastly in the Gonservatorium as teacher of 
HarmcNiy, Counterpoint, Composition, and the 
Pianoforte. His compositions are varied and 
numerous (58, to May 1879). Among the most 
remarkable are Symphony No. 3, in D (op. 50) ; 
3 Serenades for Ordiestra (ops. 4a, 46, 47) ; a 
pieces for Chorus and Orchestra (ops. 54, 55) ; 
Serenade (op. 35) and Ballet-musio (op. 58), 
each for P.F. and each a series of canons ; songs, 
duets, etc. His facility in counterpoint is great, 
and his canons are boUi ingenious and effective. 
As a private teacher Jadassohn is highly 
-UwneT [G.] 

JADIN, Louts EmcAtniiL, son, nephew, and 
brother of musicians, bom Sept. ai, 1768, at 
Versaillee, where his father Jban, a violinist and 
oomposer, settled at the instigation of his brother 
G10BOB8, a performer on the bassoon attached to 
the chapeUe of Louis XV. As a child Louis 
showed great talent for music ; his father taught 
him the violin, and Hfillmandel the piano. After 
being ' page de la musique * to Louis XV I, he was 
in I ^9 appointed and aocompanyist, and in 1 791 
diief maestro al cembalo at the Th^tre de Mon- 
sieur, then in the Bue Feydeau. This post gave 
him the opportunity of producing 'Jooonde' 
(Sept. 14, 1790), a comic opera in 3 acts. Jadin*s 
indnstiy was extraordinary. Though fully en- 
gaged as composer, conductor, and teacher, he 
losi no opx>rtunity of i^pearing before the 
pabHo. He composed nuurches imd concerted 
pieees for the Garde Nationale ; patriotic songs 
and piices de eireonstanee such as ' Le Congris 
des Bois,' in oonjunction with others, 'L*Apo- 
ih^ose dn jeune Barra,' 'Le Si6ge de ThionviUe' 
(1793), 'Agricol Viola on le jeune h^ros de la 
Duianoe^* for the various fdtesof the Revolution ; 
and 38 operas for the Italiens, the l^^tres 



JlHNS. 



fi0 



Moli^re and Louvois, the Vari^t^s.'theAcad^mie, 
and chiefly the Feydeau. Of this mass of music, 
however, nothing Burvives but the titles of 
'Jooonde* and 'Mahomet II' (1803) familiar 
to us firom the operas of Isouard and BossinL 
This, does not necessarily imply that Jadin was 
without talent, but like many others his librettos 
were bad, and his music, though well written; 
was wanting in dramatic spirit, and in the style, 
life, passion and originality necessary for success. 
In fact his one quality was facility. 

In 1 80a he Buooeeded his brother as professor 
of the pianofnte at the Conservatoire, and was 
* Gouvemeur dee pages ' of the royal chapel firom 
the Bestoration to the Bevolution of 1830. He 
received the Legion of Honour in 1834. To the 
dose of his life he continued to produce romances, 
nocturnes, trios and quartets, string quintets, and 
other chamber-musio. Of Ms orchestral works, 
' La Bataille d* Austerlitz ' is the best known. He 
was one of the first to compose for two pianosi 
and was noted as the best aoccnnpanyist of his 
day. In private life he was a good talker, and 
fond of a joke. He died in Paris, April 1 1, 1 853. 

His brother Htaointhb, bom at VersailleB 
1769, a pupH of Hiillmandel*s, and a brilliant 
and charming pianist, played at the Concerts 
Feydeau in 1 796-97, and was a favourite with 
the publio up to his early death in i8oa. On 
the foundation of the Conservatoire he was ap- 
pointed professor of the pianoforte, but had 
barely time to form pupils, and both Louis Adam 
and Boieldieu excelled him as teachers. He 
composed much both for his instrument and 
the chamber ; 4 concertos and sonatas for a and 
4 hands for P. F. ; sonatas for P. F. and violin ; 
string trios and quartets, etc.; all now old- 
fashioned and forgotten. [G.C.] 

JAHNS, FfiiZDBiOH WiLHXLM, bom at Berlin 
Jan. a, 1809. His talent fbr music showed it- 
self early, and strongly ; but the first important 
event in his musical life was the first performance 
of Freischfltz (June 18, 1821), which not only 
aroused his enthusiasm for music, but made him 
an adherent of Weber for ever. After some hesi* 
tation between the theatre and the concert-room, 
he finally chose the latter, and became a singer 
and teacher of singing, in which capacity he was 
much sought for. In 1845 he founded a singing 
society, which he led for 25 years. In 1849 he 
was made * Konigliche Musikdirector ' ; in 1871 
'Professor '; and has since been decorated with 
the orders of Baden, Saxony, Bavaria, and Han- 
over. He has composed and arranged much for 
the piano, but the work by which he will live 
fbr posterity is his Thematic Catalogue of Weber*B 
works (*C. M. vonW. in seinen Werken,* 187 1), 
founded on Kochers Catalogue of Mozart, but 
much extended in limits beyond that excellent 
work. It is in fact a repertory of all that concerns 
the material part of those compositions, including 
elaborate information on the MSS., editions, per- 
formances, Weber's handwriting, etc. etc.— a large 
vol. of 500 pages. The library whioh he formed 
in the oourse oi this work, is one of the sights of 
Berlin. [G.] 



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JAELt, 



JAELU Altrid, piaaofbrte pUyer, bom 
Maroh 5, 1833, at Trieste. Began his career at 
1 1 yean old as a prodigy, and seems to have ac- 
quired his great skill by constant perfcmnanoe in 
public. In 1844 he was brought to Moscheles 
mi Vienna, who calls him a Wunderknabe. In 
l8ii5 and 6 he resided in Brussels, next in Paris, 
ana then, after the Bevolution of 1848, went to 
America for some years. In 1854 he returned to 
Europe. In 1863 he played at the Musical 
Union, and on June 35, 186^ at the Philharmonic 
Society; and since that date has divided his time 
between the Continent and England. 

In 1866 Mr. Jaell married Miss Trautmann, a 
{^anist of ability. His published works consist of 
transcriptions, potpourris, and other salon pieces. 
He has always shown himself anxious to bring 
finrward new compositions ; and played the con- 
certos of Brahms uid of Raff «t the Philharmonic, 
At a time when they were unknown to that 
audience. [G.] 

JAHN, Otto, the biographer of Mozart, a dis- 
tinguished philologist, archaeologist) and writer on 
art and music, bom June 16, 1 813, at Kiel ; studied 
at Eliel, Leipzig, and Berlin, took his degree in 
1831, visited Copenhagen, Paris!, SwitzerUmd and 
ItiJy, in 39 settled in Kiel, in 4 3 became professor 
of archeology and philology at Grei&walde, and in 
47 director of the archaeological Museum at Leip- 
zig, was dismissed for poetical reasons during 
the troubles of 1 848-49, and in 55 settled at Bonn 
as professor of classical philology and archseology, 
and director of the university art-museum. 
Here he remained till 1869, when he retired 
during his last illness to Gottingen, and died 
on Sept. 9. Jahn wrote important books on 
all the subjects of which he was master, but 
his musical works alone concern us. Fcffemoet 
among these its his *W. A. Mosart' (Leipzig, 
Breitkopf & Hartel, 4 vols, 1856-59, 3nd ed. 
3 vols, 1867, with portraits Mid iacsimiles). His 

Eicture of the great composer is scarcely less 
iteresting and valuable than his description of 
the state of music during the period immediatdy 
preceding Mozurt, whue the new £sots pro- 
duced, the new light thrown on old ones, and the 
thoroufl;h knowledge of the subject evinced 
throughout, all combine to place the work at the 
bead of musical biogn^hies.^ 

Jalm intended to treat Haydn and Beethoven 
on the same scale, and had begun to collect 
materials, but these projects were stopped by his 
death*. Jahn also published an essav on Men* 
deU»ohn*s * Paubis ' (Kiel 1843) ; and an accu- 
rate comparative edition, with preface, of Beetho- 
ven's 'Leonore' (Fidelio) for P.F. (B. & H. 
Leipzig 1 851). For the 'Grenzboten* he wrote 
two spirited reports of the Lower Khine Musical 

1 Vor tiM VnglUh reader thk adnlnble book folllm flpon the tn- 
qnent intorpolatton of lone digreMtons on the riie «nd progre* of 
Tftriout aactkms of music, which, thoagji most valuable in themaelres. 
Interrupt the nairatlTe and would be more eonrenlentlj ^aoed In an 
Appendix. It* Index also leaves much to be desired. [G.] 

> Tbe materials oollected for Haydn went to Herr 0. F. Fohl. and 
those for Beethoven to Mr. Thajrer. and are being emplojwl bj those 
writers In their blocraphles of the two eompoears. Mr. Fohl was deaig- 
aated bJ Jahn as his su c cessor In the biogtaphy of Haydn. [G.] 



JANIEWICZ, 

Festivals of 1855-56; an article on the oottwlete 
edition of Beethoven's works, full of souikd cri- 
ticism and biographical information; and two 
controversial articles on Beriioz and Wagner. 
These and other contributions of the same kind 
were published as 'Gesammelte Auisatze ttber 
Musik* (Leipzig 1868). His four o(^ections of 
original songs (3 and 4 from Groth's ' Quickbom,* 
Breitkopf & Hartel), also evince the possessioa 
of that remarkable combination of a highly culti- 
vated sense of beautv with scientific attainments, 
which places him in the first rank among writers on 
music. K5chel*s Catalogue of Mozart is withgreat 
appropriateness dedicated to Jahn. [C. F.P.] 

JAHRBtJCHER FUR MUSIKALISCME 
WISSENCHAFT — ' Year-books of musical 
science.* A publication due to the remarkable 
energy and interest of Dr. Chrysander, bv whom 
it is edited and published, through Breitkopf & 
HarteL Two volumes have appeared. For pains 
and ability the papers leave nothing to be de- 
sired, but the severe polemic spirit which is occa- 
sionally manifested is much to be regretted. 



L I86S. L Bound, and S. Tem- 
perament, both by Hanptmann 
OT-M). %, Tlnetor^ 'DUBnl- 
torlnm.* bf H. BeUennann (56- 
114). 4. TIm LImborg Chronicle, 
and German Volksgasai« In Mth 
cent. (115-148). &. The Bnins- 
vrkk-WdUsnbattel Band and 
Opera. 16th-18th cent. a<7-S86). 
6. Henry Carey and God save the 
EbmCUn-wn. 7. HalMlersOlsna- 
partto8aul(406■4K). a Beetho- 
ven's oonneetloa frith Blrdhall and 
Btumpf(4a»-40B). 

n.lM7. 9.'Da8LeebelmerUe- 
derbu«h.BebftderArsO«Banisandl. 
TOO Conrad Paumann '—a dtaaip- 



analysis of a 
on of SOI 



German MS. ooUeotlOD of songs of 
the Uth eent^ and a MS. book of 
oigan pieces of the same date, with 
fluMlmlles, woodonta, and ynrj nu- 
merous examples— In all 04 pages, 
by P. W. Arnold and B. Belleiw 
Buum. 10. J. a Baob and IHede- 



mann Baoh In Halle (285.4tf). 11. 
Mendelssohn's Oigan-paxt to Is- 
rael In Egypt W»-vn» li. Ba- 
▼lews:— Bebi " '^ 



tory of Mu>le (28M00) ; Wssipaaft 
Bhythm and History 9i ' ~ 
Mn^ (800-810)1 ~ 
'Scrlptonimder 
serlem' and 'L'art barmoolqaa' 
(810-S14)( Waekereagel on the 
German 'Klrdtenlled' (814-aBS): 
Rommel's ' GebtUche VoBuUedec ' 
(8S8-8M); Rtflgel's LlturHoal Xn- 
sio (834-887): LIIlenoron'sHlstorkal 
VolksUeder (S27-82S): Thayer's 
Ohrottologleal List of BeetboTen*s 
Works (S2MS0): Bitter's Life of 
J. 8. Bach (880-888): Bndhart'a 
History of the Opera at Munich 
(SSM85): Koch's Musical Laxtooa. 
edited by Dommer <SS6) ; Krdger'a 
Bystem of Mnslo (SSS). 18. LM of 
Uie Choral Sodetles and Coooart 
InstltutloBS ef Germang and Swttn- 
erland (887-874). fQ- 1 

JAMES, John, an organist in the first half 
of the 1 8th century, noted for his skill in extem- 
poraneousperformance. After oflBciating for several 
years as a deputy he obtained the post of organ- 
ist of St. Olave, Southwark, which he resigned in 
1738 for that of St. Geoige in the East, Mid- 
dlesex. He died in 1745. His published com- 
positions consist of a few songs and organ pieces 
only. [W.H.H.] 

JAMES, W. K., A .flaaiiat; pudU of Charles 
Nicholson, was author of a wohl entitled *A 
Word or two on the Flute,' published in i8a6, in 
which he treats of the various kinds of flutes, an- 
cient and modem, their particular qualities, etc., 
and gives critical notices of the style of playing 
of the most eminent English and foreign per- 
formers on tbe instrument. [W.H.H.] 

JANlKWlCZ,' Felix, violinist, a Polish gen^ 
tleman, bom at Wilna 1762. He went to 
Vienna in 1 783 or 4 to see Haydn and Mozart^ 
and hear their works conducted by themselvee. 

t As the latter J In Polish has the sound of I or T. ba altered tba 
speU ng of his name to Tanlewks, In ocdar that In England It might 
be pronounced oonecUy. 



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JANIEWIGZ« 

He htA neaify made anangementa to study 
eompontion under Haydn, when a PoUsh piin- 
eem offered to take him to Italy ; and he availed 
jtimif^lf of her protection in onler to hear the 
beii violiniatB of the period, such as Nardini, 
Pngnani and others, as well as the best singers. 
After 5 years in Italy he went to Paris, and 
appeared at the Ck>noerts Spiritoels and Oljmn- 
piens. Madame de Grenlis procured him a pension 
firoDS the Duo d'Orl^ans as a musician on the 
estahljshment of Mademoiselle d'Qrl^ans, but 
on the reduction of the expenses of the Duke's 
court in 1790 he left Paris. In 1792 he came 
to London, and made his d^dt in February 
at Salomon's Concerts. He also appeared at 
Bauzzini*s Bath oonoerts, yidted Ireland several 
times, and for many years conducted the sub- 
soription concerts at I^verpool and Manchester. 
In 1800 he married Miss Breeze, a Liverpool 
lady. He was one of the 30 members who 
originally formed the London Philharmonic So- 
ciety, and was one of the leaders of the orchestra 
in its first season. In 1815 he settled in Edin- 
bnrgfa, took leave of the public at a fiurewell 
coooert in 1829, and died in that city in 1848. 

His style was pure, wann, and full of feeling; 
with that great execution in octaves which La 
Motte first introduced into England. Besides 
thisj, he was an excellent conductor. Parke in 
Ins Musical Memoirs, and G. F. Graham in his 
account of the Edinburgh Musical Festival in 
18 1 5, speak of the el^^nt and finished execution 
of his Concertos. Some of these were published 
in Paris ; but he considered his best work to be 
a set of 3 Trios for a Violins and Bass, published 
in London. (V . de P.] 

JANITSCH AREN, i. e. Janissaries. A term 
used by the Gennans for what they also call 
Torkish music — the triangle, cymbals, and big 
drum (see Nos. 3 and 7 of the Finale of the 
Chond Symphony). The Janissaries were abol- 
ished in 1825. llieir band is said to have con- 
tained 2 large and 3 small oboes and i piccolo 
flutei, all of very shrill character ; i large and 
3 small kettle-drums, i big and 5 small long 
drams, 3 cymbals, and a triui^^es. [G.J 

JANNACONI or JANACCONI, Giuseppe, 
bcHrn, probably in Rome, 1741, learnt music and 
singing from Binaldini, G. Carpani and Pisari, 
under whom, and through the special study of 
Palestrina, he perfected himself m the methods 
and traditions of the Roman school. In 181 1, 
on the retirem^it of Zinsarelli, he became Maes- 
tro di Oapella at S.Peter^s, a poet which he held 
during the rest of his lifo* He died firom the 
•fleets of an apo{4ectic stroke, March 16, 1816, 
and was buried in the church of S. Simone e 
Giuda. A Requiem by his scholar Basili was 
sung far him on the a^rd. Baini was his pupil 
from 1 802, and the frie^dship thus begun lasted till 
the day of his death. Baini closed his eyes, and all 
that we know of Janaoconi is from his affectionate 
remembrance as embodied in his great work on 
Palestrina. — It is strange that one who is said 
to have been so highly esteemed at home should 
be so little known abroad. His name does not 



JANNEQIJIir. 



dl 



appear in the Cataloffue of the Sacred Harmonic 
Society, or the Euing library, Glasgow, and 
the only published piece of music by lum which 
the writer has been able to find is a motet 
in the and part of Mr. Hullah's Part Musicy 
'The voice of joy and health,' adapted firom 
a * Leeitaniini in Domino^* the autograph of 
which, with that of a Kyrie for a choirs, formed 

Srt of the excellent Library founded by Mr, 
ullak for the use of his claises at St. Martin's 
HalL This motet may not be more original than 
the words to which it is set, but it is full of 
spirit, and vocal to the last degree. Janaoconi 
was a voluminous writer; especially was he noted 
for his works for 2, 3 and 4 choirs. The catalogue 
of the Lamdsbeig Library at Rome does not 
exhibit his name, but ^mtini's collection of 
MSS. contained a mass and 4 other pieces, for 
4 voices ; 14 masses, varying f^m 8 to 2 voioesy 
some with instrmnents ; 42 psalms, and a quan- 
tity of motets and other pieces for service^ 
some with accoii^>animent, some without, and for 
various numbers of voices. A MS. volume of 6 
masses and a psalm forms No. 181 1 in the F^tis 
library at Brussels ; the other pieces named at 
the foot of F^tis's artide in the Biographic seem 
to have disappeared. [G.] 

JANNEQUIN, Clement, composer of the 
1 6th century, by tradition a Frenchman, and one 
of the most distmgmshed followers, if not actually 
a pupil, of Josquin Despr^ There is no musician 
of the time of whose life we know less. Ko 
mention is made of his holding any court ap« 
pdntment or of his being connected with any 
diurch. We may perhaps guess that, like many 
other urtists, he went in early life to Rome, and 
was attached to the Papal Chapel ; for some of his 
MS. masses are said to be still preserved there^ 
while thcT are unknown elsewhere. But he 
must soon nave abandoned writing for the church, 
for amcmg hb published wor^ two masses, 
* L'aveogle Dieu * and ' La Bataille,* and a single 
motet ^Congregati sunt>' seem almost nothing by 
the nde of more than 200 secular compositions. 
Later in life, it is true, he writes again with 
sacred words, but in a far different style, setting 
to music 82 psalms of David, and 'The ProverlM 
of Solomon' (ttlon la veriti H^braiqus), leading 
us to conjecture that he may have beoome, like 
Goudimel, a convert to the reformed church, as 
F^tis thinks, or that he had never been a Chris- 
tian at all, but was of Jewish origin and had 
only written a few msonos as the inevitable trials 
of his contrapuntal skill. But apart firom these 
vague speculations, it is certain that Jannequin 
tr<xl a very different path frt>m his contempora- 
ries. Practically confining himself to secular 
music, he exhibited oreat originality in the choioe 
and treatment of hu subjects. He was the fol- 
lower of Gombert in the art of writing descriptive 
music, and made it his speciality. Among his 
works of this class are * La Bataolle,' written to 
commemorate and describe the battle of Marig- 
nan, fought between the French and Swiss in 
I5i.'>» to which composition Bumey has directed 
particular attention in his Histo^, and which he 



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t^ 



jankequin; 



has copied in his Musical Extracts '(Bnl Mas. 
Add. M8S. 11,588), 'Le chant des Oysoaox/ *Le 
caquet des Femmes/ 'La chasse de li^vre, Le 
ebant du Roesignol,* and one containing imita- 
tions of the street cries of Paris — ' Yonlez ouyr 
les cris de Paris.* To those who woold know how 
far it may be possible to reproduce these com* 
positions at ^e present day, it will be a fact of 
interest that the first three of them were sung in 
Paris in 1828 under the direction of M. Choron 
and * produced a surprising effect.* The Bataille 
was simg by pupils of the Conservatoire in a 
course of historical lectures by M. Bourgault 
Ducoudray, Dec. 26, 1878. 

A second edition of some of Jannequin*s works 
was published in Paris (according to F^tis) in 
the year 1559. and the composer must have been 
living at that time, for they were 'reveuz et 
oorrigex par lui meme.' 

In the same year, according to the same 
Authority, Jannequin published his music to 
83 psalms, with a dedication to the Queen 
of France, in which he speaks of his poverty 
and age. Old indeed he must have been, for 
the year after, 1560, Bonsard the poet, an 
amateur of music and intimately connected with 
the musicians of his time, in writing a preface 
for a book of chansons published by lie Roy 
& Ballard at Paris, speaJcs of Jannequin witi^ 
reverence enough as one of Josquin's celebrated 
disciples, but evidently regards him as a com- 
poser of a bygone age. [J. R.S.-B.] 

JANOTHA, Nathalie, pianoforte player, bom 
at Warsaw, June 8, 1856 ; taught music by her 
father, professor at the Conservatorium. there ; 
first appeared in public, in her native town, in 
the latter part of 1867 ; studied under Professor 
Budorff. at the Impcoial Hochschule of Berlin, 
and under Madame Schumann. She made her 
first appearance at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, 
Jan. I, 1874, and in England at the Saturday 
Popular Ck>noert, April 13 of the same year. At 
the Crystal Palace Saturday Ccmcerts she ap- 
peared Dec. 7, 1878, and at Uie Philharmonic 
m March ao, 1879. [Q.] 

JANSA, Leopold, violinist and composer, 
was bom in 1797 at Wildenschwert in Bohemia. 
Although showing great fondness for music, and 
playinff the violin from his earliest childhood, he 
entered the University of Vienna in 181 7 to 
study law according to the wish of his &ther. 
He very soon however gave up the law and 
devoted himself entirely to music. After a few 
years he appeared successfully as a violinist in 
public: in 1824 became member of the Im- 
perial Band, and in 1834 Conductor of Music at 
the University of Vienna. Jansa, though a 
good player and sound musician was not a great 
virtuoso. In 1849 he lost his appointment in 
Vienna for having assisted at a concert in Lon- 
don for the benefit of the Hungarian Political 
Refugees. Henceforth he remained in London, 
and soon gained a good position as a teacher of 
the violin. After about ao years he returned to 
Vienna, received a pension from the Emperor, 
And died in 1875. 



.' JEBB. 

' The ihost eminent of his pupils is Madame 
Korman-Kerada. Jansa publisned a consider- 
able number of works for the violin:— 4 con- 
certos; a concertante fiir a violins; Violin 
Duets; 8 string-Quartets, etc. — all written in 
a fluent musici^ike style, but with no daim 
to originality. His duets are much valued by 
all violin- teachers. [PI>^3 

J ARNO WICK— whose real name, as he wrote 
it in Clement*s Album, was Giovanni Marie 
Giomovichj, though commonly given as abov^^^ 
was one of the endnent violin pUyers of the last 
century; bom at Palermo 1745, and a scholar 
of the fiunous LoUi. He made his cUbut in 
Paris in 1770 at one of the Concerts Spirituels, 
and for some years was all the rage in thai 
capitaL Owing to some misbehaviour he left 
Paris in 1779 and entered the band of the King 
of Prussia, but his disputes with Duport drove 
him thence in 1783. He then visited Austria, 
Poland, Russia, and Sweden, and in 179 1 arrived 
in London, where he gave his first concert on 
May 4. He had great success here, both as 
player and conductor. His insolence and conceit 
seem to have been unbounded, and to have 
brought him into disastrous collision with Viotti, 
a fax greater artist than himself, and with J. B. 
Cramer — who went the length of calling him 
out, a chidlenge which Jamowick would not 
accept — and even led him to some gross mis- 
conduct in the presence of the King and Duke of 
York. He died in Petersbuig in 1804 — ^it is said 
during a game of billiards. From the testimony 
of Kelly, Dittersdorf, and other musicians, it is 
not difficult to gather the characteristics of 
Jamowick^s playing. His tone was fine, though 
not strong ; he played with accuracy and fini^ 
and alwavs well in tune. His bow-hand was 
light, and there was a grace and spirit about 
the n^ole performance, and an absence of effort^ 
which put the hearer quite at ease. These 
qualities are not the highest, but they are highly 
desirable, and they seem to have been, poss^sed 
in large measure by Jamovdck. In mind and 
morals he was a true pupil of Lolli. [G.] 

JAY, John, Mus. Doc., bora in Essex, Nov. 
a7, 1770, after receiving rudimentary instruction 
from John Hindmarah, violinist^ and Francis 
Phillips, violoncelUst, was sent to the continent 
to complete his education. He became an ex- 
cellent violinist. He returned to England in 
1800, settled in London, and established himself 
as a teacher. He graduated as Mus. Bac. at 
Oxford in 1809, and Mus. Doc. at Cambridge 
in 181 1, and was an honorary member of the 
Royal Academy of Music. He published several 
compositions for the pianoforte. His eldest 
daughter was a harpist and his second a pianist. 
His son, John, is a good violinist. Dr. Jay died 
in London, Sept. 17, 1849. [W.H.H.] 

JEAN DE PARIS. Operacomique in a 
acts ; music by Boieldieu. Produced at the 
Theatre Feydeau April 4, 181 a. [G.3 

JEBB, Rev. John, D, D., formerly Preben- 
dary in IrtTneriok Cathedral, now Canon of Here- 



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JEBB. 

f ford and Rector of Peteratow, Herofordehire, 
an able writer on choral service. His works in- 
(dade 'Three Lectures on the Cathedral Service 
of the United Church of England and Ireland,' 
delivered at Leeds in 1841 and published in 
that year; 'The Choral Service of the United 
Churdi of England and Ireland, being an In- 
quiry into the Liturgical System of the Cathe- 
dral and Collegiate foundations of the Anglican 
Communion/ 8vo. 1843 ; 'The Choral Eesponses 
and Litanies of the United Church of England 
and Ireland,* a vols. foL 1847-57 (an inter- 
esting and valuable collection) ; and * Catalogue 
of Ancient Choir Books at St. Peter*s College, 
Cambridge.' He edited Thos. Caustun's ' Yenite 
eznltemus and Communion Service.' [W.H.H.] 

JEFFRIES, GsoBOB, steward to Lord Hatton, 
of Kirby, Northamptonshire (where he had lands 
of his own), and organist to Charles I. at Oxford 
In 1643, composed many anthems and motets, 
both "RugliwH and Latin, still extant in MS. 
Several are in the Aldrich collection at Christ 
Church, Oxford, and nearly <»ie hundred — eighty 
of them in the composer's autograph— are in 
the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. His 
■on Chbiotophib, student of Christ Church, was 
a good organist [W.H.H.] 

JEFFRIES, Stephen, bom i66o. was a chor- 
ister of Salisbury Cathedral under Michael Wise. 
In 1680 he was appointed oi^ganist of Gloucester 
CaihedraL He composed a peculiar melody for 
the cathedral chimes, printed in Hawkins* His- 
tofy, chap. 160. He died in 171 a. [W.H.H.] 

JEITTELES, Alois. [See Liedkbkreis.] 

JENKINS, John, bom at Maidstone in 1592, 
became a musician in early life. He was 
patronised by two Norfolk gentlemen, Bering 
and Hamon L*£strange, and resided in the 
^punily of the latter for a great portion of his life. 
He was a performer on the lute and lyra-viol 
and other bowed instruments, and one of the 
musicians to Charles I and Charles U. He was 
a voluminous composer of Fancies, some for 
▼iols and others for the organ ; he also produced 
pome light pieces which he called 'Rants.* Of 
these 'The Mitter Rant,' an especial favourite, 
was printed in Playford's 'Mustek's Hand- 
maid, 1678, and other publications of the period. 
Two others by him, * The Fleece Tavem Rant,' 
and 'The Peterborough Rant,' are in Playford's 
'Apollo's Banquet,' 1690. Another popular 
piece by him was ' The Lady Katherine Audley's 
Bells, Of, The Five Bell Consort,' first printed in 
PUyford's 'Courtly Masquing Ayres,' 1662. 
His vocal compositions comprise an Elegy on the 
death of William Lawes, printed at the end of 
H,andW.Lawe8"ChoicePsahns,'i648; 'Theo- 
phOa, or. Love's Sacrifice; a Divine Poem by 
£[dward] B[enlowe] Esq., several parts thereof 
•et to fit aires by Mr. J. Jenkins,' 165a; two 
rounds, «A boat, a boat>' and 'Come, pretty 
maidens,' in Hilton's * Catch that catch can,' 
1652 ; some songs etc. in 'Select Ayres and Dia- 
logues,* 1659; <^ *'^^^ Musical Companion,' 
167a; and some anthemf. He published in 1660 



•JEPHTHAH. 



S3 



' Twelve Sonatas for two Violins and a Base with 
a Thorough Base for the Organ or Theorbo' 
(reprinted at Amsterdam, 1664), the first of the 
kind produced by an Englishman. His numerous 
* Fancies ' were never pnnted. Many MS. copies 
of them however exist, a large number being at 
Christ Church, Oxford. J. S. Smith included 
many of Jenkins's compositions (amongst them 
'The Mitter Rant* and • Lady Audley's Bells') 
in his ' Musica Antiqua.' Jenkins resided during 
the latter years of his life in the family of Sir 
Philip Wodehouse, Bart., at Kimberley, Norfolk, 
where he died Oct. 27, 1678. He was buried 
Oct. 29 in Kimberley Church. [W.H.H.] 

JENNT BELL, an op^ra comique in 3 acts ; 
w<»ds by Scribe, music by Auber. Produced at 
the Op^ra Comique June 2, 1855. ^^ scene 
is laid in England and the characters are English, 
and the airs of God save the King and Rule 
Britannia are introduced. [G.] 

JENSEN, Adolfh, composer, bom Jan. la, 
1837, at Konigsberg, was a pupil of Ehlert and 
F. Marpurg. In 1856 he visited Russia, but 
returned the next year to Germany, and was for 
a short time Capellmeister at Posen. He then 
paid a two years visit to Copenhagen, where he 
became intimate with Gade. i860 to 66 were 
spent in his native place, and to this time a 
large proportion of nis works (op. 6-33) are 
due. From 1866 to 68 he was attached to 
Tausig's school as teacher of the piano, and 
finoe that time resided on account of his health 
at Gratz and other places in South Germany. 
He died at Baden Baden, Jan. a4, 1879. 

Jensen was an enthusiast for Schumann, and 
for some months before Schumann's death was 
in close correspondence with him. He has pub- 
lished various pieces«6a opp.in all — 'The Journey 
to Emmaus,' for Orchestra ; ' Nonnengesang,' for 
Women's Choras, Horn, Haip, and Piano ; two 
liederoyclus, 'Dolorosa' and 'Erotikon*; and 
many oUier songs ; Sonatas and smaller pieces for 
Piano, which take high rank in his own country, 
and are much belov^ by those who know them 
here. His genius is essentially that of a song- 
writer — fiill of delicate tender feeling, but with 
no great heights or depths. [G.] 

JEPHTHAH. I. Handel's last oratorio. His 
blindness came on during its composition and 
delayed it. It was begun Jan. 21, and finished 
Aug. 30, 1 751. The words were by Dr. Morell. 
Produced at Covent Garden Feb. 26, i*j^. It 
was revived by the Sacred Harmonic Socielgr 
April 7, 1 84 1. 2. * Jefte in Masfa' (Jephtban 
at Mizpeh) was the title of a short oratorio by 
Semplice, set by Barthelemon at Florence in 
1770; pcoformed there, in Rome — ^where a chorus 
finom it even penetrated to the Pope's chapel, 
and procured the composer two gold medals — and 
in London in x 779 and 8a. A copy of it is in the 
Sacred Harmonic Society's Library. 3. Jephtha 
and his Daughter. An oratorio in a parts ; the 
words adapt^ from the Bible, the music by C. 
Reinthaler. Produced in England by Mr. HuUah 
at St. Mark's HaU April 16, 1856. [G.] 



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84 



JEBUSALEM. 



JEBUSALEM i. Grand open in 4 acts; 
music by Verdi, the words by Boyer and Waez ; 
being a French adaptation of I LombardL Pro- 
duced at the Academic Nov. 26, 1847. a. A 
Sacred Oratorio in 3 parts ; the words selected 
from, the Bible by W. ^uicroft Holmes, the music 
by H. H. Pierson. Produced at Norwich Festiyal 
Sept. 33, 185a. [G.] 

JESSONDA. A grand German opera in 3 
acts; the plot from 'La Veuve de 'Malabar.* 
Words by Edouard Gehe, musio by Spohr. Pro- 
duced at Gassel July 38, 1823 ; in London, at 
St. James's theatre (^German company), June 18, 
1840; in Italian, at Govent Garden, Aug. 6, 
1853. [»•] 

JEUNE HENRI, LE. Op&»-aimique in 2 
acta ; libretto by BouiUy, musio by M^ul. Pro- 
duced at the Th^tre Favart May i, 1 797. The 
overture has always been a fiAVOurite in France. 
The piece was damned, but the overture was re- 
demanded on the fall of the curtain, having been 
already encored at the commencement. [G.] 

JEUX D*ANCHES. The French name for 
the Beed Stops of an Organ. [W. S. B.] 

JE WSHABP, possibly a corruption of Jaw's- 
haip. In French it is called Guimbarde, and 
in German Maul-4rommelt Mund-harmaniea, or 
Brummdsen (i.e. buzzing-iron). In the High- 
lands, where it is much used, it is called Tromp. 
This simple instrument consists of an elastic 
steel tongue, rivetted at one end to a frame of 
brass or iron, similar in form to certain pocket 
corkscrews, of which the screw turns up on a 
hinge. The free end of the tongue is b^t out- 
wards, at a right angle, so as to allow the finger 
to strike it when the instrument is placed to Uie 
mouth, and firmly supported by the pressure of 
the frame against the teeth. 

A column of air may vibrate by redprocadon 
with a body whose vibrations are isochronous 
with its own, or when the number of its vibra- 
tions are any multiple of those of the original 
sounding body. On this law depends the expla- 
nation of the production of sounds by the Jew's- 
harp. The vibraticm of the tongue itself cor- 
responds with a very low sound ; but the cavity 
of the mouth is capable of various alterations ; 
and when the number of vibrations of the con- 
tained volume of air is any multiple of the origi- 
nal vibrations of the tongue, a sound is produoed 
corresponding to the modification of the oral 
cavity. Thus, if the primitive sound of the 
tongue is C, the series of reciprocated sounds 
would be C, E, G, Bb, C, D, E, F, G, etc., and 
by using two or more instruments in different 
keys, a complete scale may be obtained, and 
extremely original and beautiful effects produced. 

The elucidation of this subject is due to the 
ingenious researches of Professor Wheatstone, 
which may be found in the ' Quarterly Journal 
of Science, Literature, and Art,' for the year 
1838, 1st part» of whidi the above is a oondraised 
account. 

A soldier of Frederick the Great of Prussia^ so 

1 Sm SpohTi Selbstblognphle. IL 1«. 



JOACHIM. 

channed the king by his performance on two jewV 
harps that he gave him his dischaige, together 
with a present of money, and he subsequently 
amassed, a fortune by playing at concerts. 

In 1837 and 1838 Charles Eulenstein appeared 
in London [Edlbnstein] and by usiiig 16 jew's- 
harps produced extraordinary effects. [V. de P.] 

JOACHIM, Joseph, the greatest of living 
violin-players, was bom at Kittsee, a village 
near Pressbuig, June 38, 1831. He began to 
play the violin at five years of age, and showing 
great ability he was soon placed under Szervao« 
sinsky, then leader of the opera-band at Pesth. 
When only seven years <dd, he played a duet in 
public with his master with great success. In 
1838 he became a pupil of Boehm in Vienna, 
and in 1843 went to Leipzig, then, under 
Mendelssohn's guidance, at the xenith of ita 
musical reputation. On his arrival at Leipzig 
as a boy of twelve, he proved himself already an 
accomplished vioUnist, and very soon made his 
first public i^pearance in a Concert of Madame 
Viaidot's, Aug. 10, 1843, when he played a 
Bondo of de B^ot a; Mendelssohn, who at onoe 
recognised and warmly welcomed the boy's ex- 
ceptional talent^ himself accompanying at the 
piano. On the i6th of the following November 
he appeared at the Grewandhaus Concert in 
Emst^s fantasia on Otello; and a year later 
(Nov. 25, 1844) took part in a performance at 
the Gewandhaus of Maurer's Concertante for 
four violins with Ernst, Bazzini and David* 
all very much his seniors. The wish of hia 
parents, and his own earnest disposition, pre- 
vented his entering at once on the career of 
a virtuoso. For several years Joachim remamed 
at Leipzig, continuing his musical studies under 
Mendelssohn's poweriul influence, and studying 
with David most of those classical works for the 
violin — ^the Concertos of Mendelssohn, Beethoven 
and Spohr, Bach's Solos, etc. — which still con- 
stitute the staple of his r^ipertoire. At the same 
time his general education was carefully attended 
to, and it may truly be said, that Joachim's 
character both as a musician and as a man was 
developed and directed for life during the years 
which he spent at Leipzig. He already evinced 
that thorough uprightness, that firmness of 
character and earnestness of purpose, and that 
intense dislike of all that is superficial or untrue 
in art, which have made him not only an artist 
of the first rank, but, in a sense, a great moral 
power in the musical life of our days. 

Joachim remained at Leipzig till October 
1850, for some time side by side with David 
as leader of the Grewandhaus orchestra, but also 
from time to time travelling and playing with 
ever-increasing success in Germany and Eng- 
land. On the strong reoommenda^on of Men- 
delssohn he visited London for the first time as 
early as 1844, and at the 5th Philharmonic Con- 
cert (May 27) played Beethoven's Concerto (for 
the 4th time only at those concerts) with great suo- 
oess. His first actual public appearance in this 
country was at a benefit concert of Mr. Bunn's 
at Druzy Lane on March 38. After this he 



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JOACHIM. 

repeated his visiti to England in 184^, 49, 53, 
58, 59, 63, and ever since. His annual appear- 
ance at the Monday Popular, the Crystal Palaoe, 
and other concerts in London and the principal 
prorincial towns has become a reg:ular feature 
of the musical life in England. His continued 
success as a solo- and quartet-player, extending 
novr over a period of more than thirW years, is 
probably without parallel. Since the foundation 
of Uie Monday Popular Concerts he has been 
the principal violinist of those excellentconcerts, 
which have perhaps done more than any other 
musical institution in England towards popu- 
larising that highest branch of the art— classical 
ohaml^r-music. 

In 1849 Joachim accepted th& post of Leader 
of the Grand-Duke's band at Weimar, where 
liszt) who had already abandoned his career as 
a virtuoso, had setded and was conducting 
operas and concerts. His stay in Weimar was 
not however of long duration. To one who had 
grown up under the influence of Mendelssohn, 
and in bis feeling for music and art in general 
was much in sympathy with Schumann, the 
revolutionary tendencies of the Weimar school 
could have but a passing attraction* In 1854 
he accepted the post of Conductor of Concerts 
and S(^yiolinist to the King of Hanover, 
which he retained till 1866. During his stay 
at Hanover (June 10, 1863) hemarri^ Amalia 
WdsSy the celebrated contralto singer. [See 
Wbiss.] In 1868 he went to Berlin as head 
of a newly established department of the Boyal 
Academy of Arts — the- 'Hochschule fiir ausii- 
bende Tonkunst' (High School for Musical Exe- 
ca&m, — as distinct from composition, for which 
there was already a department in existence). 
Joachim entered heart and soul into the arduous 
task of organising and starting this new in- 
stitution, which under his energy and devotion 
not <mly soon exhibited its vitality, but in a very 
few years rivalled, and in some respects even 
exoeUed, similar older institutions. Up to this 
period Joachim had been a teacher mainly by 
his example, henceforth he is to be surrounded 
by a host of actual pupils, to whom, with a 
disinterestedness beyond praise, he imparts the 
results of his experience, and into whom he 
instils that spirit of manly and unselfish devotion 
to art which, in conjunction with his great 
natural gifts, really contains the secret of his 
kog-continued success. In his present sphere 
of action Joachim's beneficent influence, en- 
couraging what is true and earnest, and dis- 
regarding, and, if necessary, opposing what is 
emptj, mean, and superficial m music, can 
hardfy be too highly estimated. It will readily 
be believed that in addition to the universal 
admiration of the musical world numerous marks 
of distinction, orders of knighthood from Ger- 
man and other sovereign princes, and honorary de- 
grees have been conferred on Joachim. From 
the University of Cambridge he received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Music on the 8th 
March, 1877. No artist ever sought less after 
such things, no artist better deserved them. 



JOCONDB. 



85 



As to his style of playing, perhaps nothing 
more to the point can be said, than that his in- 
terpretations of Beethoven*s Concerto and great 
Quartets and of Baoh's' Solo Sonatas are uni- 
versally recognised as models, and that his style 
of playing appears especially adapted to render 
compositions of the purest and most elevated 
style. A master of technique, surpassed by no 
one, he now uses his powers of execution ex- 
clusively for the Interpretation of the best 
music. If in latter years his strict adherence 
to this practice and consequent exclusion of all 
virtuoBo-pieoes has resulted lit a certain limita- 
tion of repertoire, it must still be granted that 
that repertoire is after all richer than that of 
almost any other eminent violinist, comprising 
as it does the Concertos of Bach, Beel^oven, 
Mendelssohn, four or five of Spohr's, Viotti's 
22nd, his own Hungarian, Bach's Solos, the a 
romances of Beethoven, and in addition the 
whole range of classical chamber-music, to which 
we may now add the Concerto of Brahms, 
played for the first time in England at the 
Crystal Palace Feb. 22, 1879, and given by him 
at the Philharmonic on Miurch 6 and 20. 

Purity of style, without pedantry ; fidelity of 
interpretation combined with a powerful indivi- 
duality — such are the main characteristics of 
Joachim the violinist and the musician. 

As a composer Joachim is essentially a follower 
of Schumann. Most of his works are of a 
grave, melancholic character, — all of them, it 
need hardly be said, are earnest in purpose and 
aim at the ideal. Undoubtedly his most im- 
portant and most successful work is the Hun- 
garian Concerto (op. 11), a creation of real 
grandeur, built up In noble symphonic propor- 
tions, which will hold its place in the first rank 
of masterpieces for the violin. The following is 
a list of his published compositions :— 

Opk 1. Andaotino and AHegro 

SebenoM (VloUn 

OrohMtn). 
9, 8 'Btdcke (Bomanze. Fan- 

talslostflok. FrOhllDgs 

fiuita^' for VioUn and 

Flaoo. 
a Oonoerto (O mtnor) * In 

einem Satie* for VIoUn 

and Orohestra. 
4 Orertare to ' Hamlet,* for 

OrehMtra. 
Bb 8 Stdcke (Llndenransehon, 

Abendglooken. Ballade) 

for YioUn and Piano. 
9. Hebrew Melodies, for Viola 

aodPfano. 
lA. Variatlona on an original 

Theme for Vkda 

Pianow 

JOAN OF ABC. A grand historical opera 
in 3 acts ; the words by Mr. Bunn, the music 
by Balfe. Produced at Drury Lane Nov. 30, 
1837. [G.] 

JOANNA MARIA. [See Galua.] 

JOCONDE, ou Lbs Coubeubb d'Aventubi. 
Op^ra-comique in 3 acts; libretto by Etienne, 
music by Isouard. Produced at the Theatre 
Feydeau Feb. 28, 1 814; in English, by Carl 
Bose (Santleys translation), Lyceum, Oct. 25, 

1876/ ^_ [a.] 



QPb 11. Hungarian Concerto tat 
VloUn end Ordieftra. 
IS: Nottomo in A. for Vtolln 

and amaU Orchestra. 
18. Orerture, in commemora- 
tion of Kleist the poet— 
for Orchestra. 
14 Soena der Marfo (from 
Schiller's unflnlibed play 
of Demetrius), for Con- 
tralto Solo and Or- 
chestra. 
Two Marches. In and D. 
with Trios. 
NJJ. Op. «. 7, 8, Orertures to 
Demetrius. Henrj the IVth. and a 
Flay of Ooni's reoectirdy, are 
stUllaMS. 



[P.D.] 



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86 



JOHN THE BAPTIST, ST. 



JOHN THE BAPTIST, ST. An oratario in 
a parts ; the text selected from the Bible by Dr. 
£. G. Monk; the music by G. A. Maofiurren. 
Produced at Bristol Festival Oct. 23, 1873. [G.] 

JOHNSON, Edwabd, Mus. Bac., graduated 
at Cambridge 1594, and was one of the ten 
composers who hiumonised the tunes for Este's 
* Whole Booke of Psalms/ 1593. He contributed 
the madrigal, *Come, blessed bhrd!' to 'The 
Triumphes of Oriana/ 1601. Another madrigal 
by him, * Ah, silly John,* is preserved in MS. in 
the library of tiie Sacred Harmonic Society. 
Nothing is known of his biography. [W. H. H.] 

JOHNSON, Robert, an ecclesiastic who 
flourished in the middle of the i6th century, 
was composer of motets, part-songs and virginal 
pieces. Bumey says ' He was one of the first of 
our church composers who disposed their parts 
with intelligence and design. In writing upon 
a plainsong (moving in slow notes of equal 
length), wUch was so much practised in those 
times, he discovers considerable art and ingenuity, 
as also in the manner of treating subjects of fugue 
and imitation.' His part-song 'Defiled is my 
nanle ' is printed in the Appendix to Hawkins's 
History ; and his motet, ' Sabbatum Maria,' and 
an Almain from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book 
in Bumey's History. Two of his motets are 
contained in Add. MSS. 5059 and 11,586, 
British Museum. He was the composer of the 
part-song *Tye the mare, Tom boy,' the words 
of which are printed in Bitson's ' Ancient Songs, 

Another Bobebt Johnson, a lutenist and 
composer, possibly a relative of the above-named, 
was in January 1573-4 a retainer in the house- 
hold of Sir Thomas Kytaon, of Hengrave Hall, 
Suffblk. In April 1575, being still in Sir 
Thomas's service, he assisted at the grand enter- 
tainment given by the Earl of Leicester to Queen 
Elizabeth at Kenilworth. He subsequently came 
to London, but at what precise date cannot be 
ascertained, and became a composer for the 
theatres. In 1610 he composed the music for 
Middleton's tragi-oomedy, 'The Witch,' printed 
in Bimbault's ' Ancient Vocal Music of England.' 
In 161 1 he was in the service of Prince Henry, 
at an annual salary of JS40. In 161 a he composed 
music for Shakspere's 'Tempest,' and in 161 7 
songs for Beaumont and Fletcher s * Valentinian' 
and 'The Mad Lover.' (See Add. MS. 11,608, 
Brit. Mus.) In 162 1 he wrote music for Ben 
Jonson's ' Masque of the Gipsies,* some of the 
songs of which are contained in a MS. volume 
in the Music School, Oxford. He was one of the 
contributors to Leighton's 'Teares or Lament- 
adons,' 16 14. A l^autiful ballad by him, 'As 
I walked forth one summer^s day,' is also printed 
in Rimbauh's ' Andent Vocal Mudc of Ei^land.' 
His name occurs Dec. ao, 1625, in a privy seal 
exempting the Eling's musicians from payment 
of subsidies. [W.H.H.] 

JOMMELLI, Nioooi:.5, ia the most conspicuous 
name in the long list of eminent composers who 
^uring the first half of the i8th centory .were 



JOMMELLI. 

the ontoome and ornament of that Neapolitan 
school which had become fiunous under Alesn- 
andro Scarlatti. It was a period of transition in 
mudcal art all over Italy. It witnessed the 
abandonment of the old Gregorian modes in 
favour of modem tonality. Counterpoint itself, 
while pursued as ardently as ever, and still 
recognised as the orthodox form of expression for 
musical thought, was assuming to that thought 
a new and different relation. Ideas were sub- 
jected to its conditions, but it no longer con- 
stituted their very essence. The distinctive 
tendency of all modem Art towards individual - 
isation was everywhere making itself felt, and 
each successive composer strove more and more 
after dramatic trathfulness as a primary object, 
while at the same time there was educated in 
the schools of Italy a race of great singers to 
whom individual expression was a very condition 
of existence. Pure contrapuntal Art — strictly im- 
personal in its nature, in that, while each part 
is in itself complete, all are equally subordinate 
to the whole, was being supplanted by a new 
order of things. In the music destined to convey 
and to arouse personal emotions one melodious 
idea predominates, to which all the rest, however 
important, is more or less subservient and ac- 
cessory. Nor is harmony, then, the final result 
of the superimposition of layer on layer of inde- 
pendent parts, but the counterpoint is contrived 
by the subdivision and varied time-apportionment 
of the harmony, and partakes of the nature of 
a decoration rather than a texture — the work is 
in fresco and not in mosaic. 

To the greatest minds alone it belongs to 
unite with intuition that consummate art which 
makes scholastic device serve the ends of fiemcy, 
and, while imparting form to the inspirations of 
genius, receives from them the stamp of origin- 
ality. In the long chain connecting Palestrma, 
in whose works contrapuntal art found its purest 
development, with Mozart, who blended imagin- 
ation with sdence as no one had done before him, 
one of the last links was Jommelli. Gifted with » 
vein of melody tender and elegiac in its character, 
with great sensibility, fiistidious taste, and a sense 
of effect in advance of any of his Italian contem- 
poraries, he started in the new path of dramatic 
composition opened up by Scarlatti, Peigolesi, 
and Leo, at the point where those masters left 
off, and canied the art of expression to the highest 
pitch that> in Italy, it attained up to the time of 
Mozart. 

Bom at A versa, near Naples, Sept. 11, 171 4> 
his first musical teaching was given him by 
a canon named Mozzillo. At sixteen he en- 
tered the Coflservatorio of San Onofrio as the 
pupil of Durante, but was transferred to that 
of La Pietk de' Turchini, where he learned 
vocal music from Prato and Mancini, and com- 
position from Feo and Leo. It was the boast 
of these schools that young musicians on leaving 
them were adepts in all the processes of counter- 
point and every kind of scholastic exercise, but 
it seems that a spedal training at Rome was 
judged necessary to fit Jommelli for writing 



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JOMMELLI. 

church music, the chief object he ia said at that 
time to have had in view. However this may 
have been, his first works were ballets, in which 
no indication of genius was discernible. He 
next tried his hand on cantatas, a style of com- 
position &r better suited to his especial gifts, 
and with so much success that Leo, on hearing 
one of these pieces performed by a lady, a 
pupil of Jommelli*s, exclaimed in rapture, 'A 
short time, madam, and this young man will be 
the wonder and the admiration of Europe 1' 
The young composer himself had less fidth in his 
own powers. According to the notice of his life 
by Picoinni, he so much dreaded the verdict of the 
public that his first opera, 'L^£rrore Amoroso,' 
was represented (at Naples, in 1737) under the 
name of an obscure musician called Valentino ; 
the work, however, met with so encouraging 
a reception that he ventured to give the next, 
'Odoardo,* under his own name. 

In 1740 he was summoned to Kome, where he 
was protected by the Cardinal Duke of York, 
and where his two operas *I1 Ricimero' and 
'L'Astianatte' were pix>duced. Thence he pro- 
ceeded to Bologna, where he wrote 'Ezio.' 
Doling his sojourn there he visited that celebrity 
of mnsical learning, the Padre Martini, presenting 
himself as a pupil desirous of instruction. To 
test his acquirements, a fugue subject was pre- 
sented to him, and on his proceeding to treat it 
with the greatest hcUMj, * Who are you, then ?* 
asked the Padre; 'are you making game of 
me? It is I, methinks, who should learn of 
you.' 'My name is JommeUi,' returned the 
composer, ' and I am the maestro who is to write 
the next opera for the theatre of this town.' In 
later years JommeUi was wont to affirm that he 
had jnofited not a little by his subsequent inter- 
ooorse with MartinL 

After superintending the production of some 
Impoartant works at Bologna and Bome, Jommelli 
returned to Naples, where his opera 'Eumene' 
was ^ven at the San Carlo with immense success. 
A like triumph awaited him at Venice, where 
his 'Merope' aroused such enthusiasm that the 
Council of Ten i^pointed him director of the 
Scuda degl' Incurabili, a circumstance which 
led to his beginning at last to write that sacred 
mocic which had been the object of his early 
ambiticm, and was to become one chief source 
of his '£une. Among hb compositions of the 
kind at this time was a 'Laudate' for double 
dkcir of eight voices, whidi, though once cele- 
hiated, appears never to have been printed. In 
1745 ^® ^^ ^^^ *^ Vienna, where he wrote 
Boocessively 'Achille in Sciro' and *Didone.' 
Here he formed with the poet Metastasio an 
intimate acquaintan c e. Metastasio entertained 
the highest opinion of his genius, and was also 
able to give him much nseful advice on matters 
of dramatic expression and effect. Sometimes 
the accomplished friends amused themselves by 
exchanging rMes ; Jommelli, who wrote his native 
language with fluency and elegance, becoming 
the poet, and his verses being set to music by 
Metastasio. 



JOMMELLI. 



87 



Prom Vienna, in 1748, he went agiun to 
Rome, where he produocHl * Artaserse.* He found 
an influential admirer and patron in Cardinal 
Albani, thanks to whose good offices he was, in 
1749, appointed coadjutor of Bencini, chapel- 
master of St. Peter's. He quitted this post in 1 754 
to become chapel-master to the Duke of Wur- 
temberg at Stuttgart, where he remained in the 
enjoyment of uninterrupted prosperity for more 
than fifteen years. Through the mumficenoe of 
his duke he Uved in easy drcumstances, with all 
the surroundings most congenial to his cultivated 
and refined taste, and with every facility for 
hearing his music performed. Here he produced 
a number of operas, an oratorio of the Passion, and 
a requiem for the Duchess of Wurtemberg. In 
these works (rerman influence becomes apparent 
in a distinct modification of his style. The 
harmony is more fully developed, the use of 
modulanon freer and more frequent, while the 
orchestral part assumes a greater importance, 
and the instrumentation is weightier and more 
varied than in his former works. There is no 
doubt that this union of styles gave strength to 
his music, which, though never lacking sweetness 
and refinement, was characterised by dignity 
rather than force. It added to the estimation in 
which he was held among the Germans, but was 
not equally acceptable to Italians when, his fiftme 
and fortune being consolidated, he returned to 
pass his remaining years among his own country- 
men. The fickle Neapolitans had foigotten thdr 
former fftvourite, nor did the specimens of his 
later style reconquer their suflrages. . ' The opera 
here is by Jommelli,' wrote Mozart from Naples 
in 1770. <It is beAutlfiil, but the style is too 
elevated, as well as too antique, for the theatre.* 
The rapid spread of the taste for light opera had 
accusUmied the public to seek for gratification 
in mere melody and vocal display, wUle richness 
of harmony or orchestral colouring were looked 
on rather as a blemish by hearers impatient 
of the slightest thing calculated to divert their 
attention froin the *tune.' 'Armida,' written 
for the San Carlo Theatre in 1771, and one of 
Jommelli's best operas, was condemned as heavy, 
ineffective, and deficient in melody. * H Demo- 
foonte' (1772) and 'L'Ifigenia in Aulide' (1773) 
were ill executed, and were fEulures. 

The composer had retired, with his family, to 
Aversa> where he Uved in an opulent semi- 
retirement, seldom quitting his home except to 
go in spring to I'lnfrascata di Napoli, or in 
autumn to Pietra bianca, pleasant country resorts 
near Naples. He received at this time a com- 
mission from the King of Portugal to compose 
two operas and a cantata. But his old sus- 
ceptibility to public opinion asserted itself now, 
and the failure of his later works so plunged 
him in melancholy as to bring on an attack of 
apoplexy. On his recovery he wrote a cantata 
to celebrate the birth of an heir to the crown 
of Naples, and shortly after, the Miserere for 
two voices (to the Italian version by Mattel) 
which is, perhaps, his most famous work. This 
was his * swan's song' ; it was hardly concluded 



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88 



JOMMELU. 



when he died at KapleB, aged 60, Aug. 28, 

1774. 

JommeUi was of amiable dispodtioii, and had 
the polished manners of a man of the world. 
Good looking in his youth, he became corpulent 
in middle age. Bumey, who saw him at Naples 
in 1770, says he was not unlike JSandel, a like- 
ness which cannot be traced in any portraits of 
him that are extant. The catalogue of his works 
contains compositions of all kinds, comprising 
nearly fifty operas and four oratoriosi, besides 
masses, cantatas, and a great quantity of church 
music. As a contrapuntist he was accomplished 
rather than profound, and his unaccompanied 
choral music will not bear comparison with the 
works of some of his predecessors more nearly 
allied to the Boman school. His Miserere for 
five voices, in G minor (included in BochHtz's 
collection), contains great beauties, the long 
diminuendo at the dose, espedally, being a 
ohanning effect. But the work is unequal, and 
the scholarBhip, though elegant and ingenious, 
occasionally makes itself too much felt. 

His ideas have, for the most part, a tinge of 
mild gravity, and it is not surprising that he 
£[uled in ballets and other works of a light 
nature. Yet he has left an opera huffa, * Don 
Jastullo,* which shows that he was not devoid 
of a certain sedate humour. This opera is 
remarkable (as are others of his) for the free em- 
ployment of accompanied recitative. Jonmielli 
was one of the earhest cconposers who perceived 
the great dramatic capabilities of this mode of 
expression, which has, in recent times, received 
such wide development. He saw the absurdity, 
too, of the conventional Da Capo in airs consist- 
ing of two strains or movements, by which the 
sympathy of the hearer, worked up to a pitch 
during the second (usually Allegro) movement, is 
speedily cooled by ^e necessity for recommencing 
the Andante and going all through it again. 
He would not comply with this custom except 
where it happened to suit his purpose, but aimed 
at sustaining and heightening the interest from the 
outset of a piece till its close^ — anticipating by 
this innovation one of Gluck*s greatest reforms. 

His invention seems to have required the 
stimulus of words, for his purely instrumental 
compositions, such as overtures, are singularly 
dry and unsugsestive. Yet he had a more keen 
appreciation of the orchestra than any contem- 
orary Italian writer, as is evinced in his scores 
varied combinations of instruments, by oh- 

goto accompaniments to several airs, and by 
occasional attempts at such tone-painting as the 
part written for horns con sordini in the air 
'Teneri affetti miei' in 'Attilio Eegolo.' In 
his Stuttgart compositions the orchestra becomes 
still more prominent, and is dialogued with the 
vocal parts in a beautiful manner. The Requiem 
contains much pathetic and exquisite music ; but 
intensity is wanting where words of subfime or 
terrible import have to be conveyed. In this 
work and the 'Passion* is to be found a great 
deal that is closely allied to composition of a 
similar kind by Mozart, and to the earlier master 



by V 
lliga 



JONAS. 

is due the credit of much which ofUn passes 
as the sole invention of Mozart, because it ia 
known only through the medium of his works. 
A comparison between the two is most interesting, 
showing, as it does, how much of Mozart's musical 
phraseology was, so to speak, current coin at the 
time when he lived. — The Miserere which was 
Jommelli*8 last production seems in some respects 
a concession to Italian taste, which possibly 
accounts for the comparatively great degree of 
subsequent popularity it enjoyed, and suggests 
the thought that, had its composer been spared 
a few more years, his style might once more 
have been insensibly modified by his surroundings. 
It possesses, indeed, much of the sympathetic 
chitfm that attaches to his other works, but the 
vocal parts are so florid as to be sometimes 
unsuitable to the character of the words. 

He cannot, however, be said to have courted 
popularity by writing for the vulgar taste. 
Among contemporary composeis of his own 
school and counUy, he is pre-eminent for purity 
and nobility of thou^t, and for simple, pathetic 
expression. His genius was refined and noble, 
but limited. He expressed himself truthfully 
while he had anythmg to express, but where 
his nature fell short there his art fell short 
also, and, failing spontaneity, its place had 
to be supplied by introspection and analysis. 
His sacred music depicts personal sentiment as 
much as do his operas, and whereas a mass by 
Palestrina is a solemn act of public worship, 
a mass by JommeUi is the expression of the 
devotion, the r^)entance or the aspiration of an 
individual. 

The following works of Jommelli*s have been 
republished in modem times, and are now ac- 
cessible :— 

Salmo (Miserere). 4 voices and orchestra 
(Breitkopf & Hartel). 

Yictimae paschali. 5 voices, score (Schott). 

Lux etema. 4 voices (Berlin, Schlesinger). 

Hoeanna filio, and In Monte Olivete. 4 
voices (Berlin, Schlesinger). 

Eequiem, for S.A.T.B. Accompaniment ar- 
ranged for P.F. by Clasing (Cranz). 

Many other pieces of his are, however, included, 
wholly or in part, in miscellaneous cdlections, 
such as LatroWs Sacred Music, the FitzwiUiam 
Music, Choron's 'Journal de Chant,' Rochlitz*s 
'Collection de Morceaux de Chant,' and Geva^t's 
'Les Gloires de I'ltaUe,' etc. [F. A.M.] 

JONAS, £mils, one of the younger rivals 
of Offenbach in opera-bouffe, born of Jewish 
parents March 5, 1827, entered the Conserva- 
toire Oct. 2^, 41, fcook second prize for harmony 
1846, tbnd first ditto 47, and obtained the second 
' grand prix' for his 'Antonio' in 49. His d^ut 
at the Uieatre was in Oct. 55 with 'Le Duel de 
Benjamin' in one act. lliis was followed by 
*La Parade' (Aug. 2, 56); *Le Roi boit' (Apr. 
57); ' Les petits Prodiges * (Nov. 19, 57); 'Job 
et son chien ' (Feb. 6, 63) ; * Le Manoir des La- 
renardi^ ' (Sept. 29, 64) ; and ' Avant la noce * 
(March 24, 65) — all at Ihe Bouffes Parisiens. 
Then, at other theatres, came 'Les deux Alio- 



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JONAS. 

qmns* (Deo. 29, 65) ; 'Le Canard k trtna bees* 
(Feb. 6, 69). Many of bis pieces have been 
giveQ in London, snch as 'Terrible Hymen' at 
Govont Garden, Dec. 36, 66; *The Two Har- 
leqnina' (by A'Beckett) at the Gkdety, Dea ai, 
^ ; and ' Le C&nard,' aUo at the Gaiety, July 
38, 71. This led to his composing an operetta 
in 3 acts to an 'English libretto by Mr. A. 
Thampson, called * Cinderella the younger/ pro- 
duced at the Gaiety Sept. a5> 71, and reproduced 
in Paris as * Javotte* at the Th^tre Lyrique, 
Dec 32 foUowuig. 

M. Jonas was professor of Solfeggio at the 
GoDsaratoire from 1847 to 66, and pro£9SSor of 
Hsimony for military bands from 1859 to 70. 
He is also director il the music at the Portu- 
gnew synagogue, in connection with which he 
published in 1854 a collection of Hebrew tunes. 
He has also been bandmaster of one of the 
legions of the Garde Nationale, and sinoe the 
Exposition of 67 has organised the competitions 
of militaiy bands at the Palais de Tindustrie, 
whereby he has obtained many foreign decora- 
tions. Since ' Javotte/ M. Jonas h^ brought 
OQt no piece of importance. [G.] 

JONES, Edwabd, was bom at a farm house 
called Henblas, — ^L«. Old Mansion, — Llanderfel, 
Merbnethshire, on Easter Sunday, 1752. His 
hfhat taught him and another son to play on 
the Welsh harp, and other sons on bowed in- 
struments, so that the family formed a complete 
stiing band. Edward soon attained to great 
profidflDcy on his instrmnent. About 1775 he 
came to London, and in 1783 was appointed 
hard to the Prince of Wales. In 1786 he pub- 
Uahed 'Musical and Poetical Belicks of the 
Welsh Bards, with a General History of the 
Bards and Druids, and a Dissertation on the 
Musical Instruments of the Aboriginal Britons '; 
a woik of learning and reeewch. Another 
e^tion appeared in 1794, and in 1803 a second 
volume cf the work was issued under the title of 
'Hie Bardic Museum.' Jones had prepared a 
third Tolume, a portion only of which was pub- 
lished at his death, the remainder being issued 
subsequently. The Uiree volumes together con- 
tain 325 Welsh airs. Besides this, he compiled 
and edited * Lyric Airs ; consisting of Specimens 
of Greek, Albanian, Walachian, Turkish, Ara- 
bian, Persian, Chinese, and Moorish National 
Songs and Melodies ; with ... a few Ezplana- 
tocy Notes on the Figures and Movements 
of the Modem Greek Dances, and a short 
Dissertation on the Origin of the Ancient Greek 
Music,' 1804; 'The Minstrel's Serenades'; 
"JDarpsichore's Banquet, a Selection of Spanish, 
Maltese, Busaian, Armenian, Hindostan, Eng- 
Erii, Gorman, French and Swiss Airs*; 'The 
Musical Miscellany, chiefly selected from emi- 
nent composers' ; ' Musical Bemams of Handel, 
Badi, Abel, etc ' ; 'Choice Collection of Italian 
Songs'; 'The Mumcal Portfolio, consisting of 
Kngtish, Scotch, Irish, and other favourite 
Airs'; 'Popular Cheshire Melodies'; 'Mu- 
noal Trifles calculated for Beginners on the 
Harp* ; and ' The Musical Bouquet, or Popular 



JONES. 



89 



Songs and Ballads.' Besides his professional 
pursuits Jones filled a situation in the Office of 
Itobee at St. James's Palace. He collected an 
extensive library of scarce and curious books, 
part of which, to the value of about £300, he sold, 
in the latter part of his life, and the remainder 
was dispersed by auction after his death, realising 
about £800. He died, as he was bom, on Easter 
Day, April 18, 1834. [W.H.H.] 

JONES, John, organist of the Middle Temple 
Nov. 34, 1749; ^^ ^^^ Charterhouse (following 
Dr. Pepusch) July 3, 1753 ; and of St. Paul's 
Cathedral Dec. 35, 1755. He died, in possession 
of these three seats, Feb. 1 7, 1 796. He published 
'Sixty Chants Single and Double' (1785) in 
the vulgar florid taste of that time. One of 
these was sung at George III.'s state visit to 
S. Paul's April 33, 1789, and at many of the 
annual meetings of the Charity Children. At 
that of 1 79 1 i^ydn heard it, and noted it in his 
diary as follows (with a material improvement 
in the taste of the fourth line) : — 




'No music has for a long time affected me so much 
as this innocent and reverential strain.' [G.] 

JONES, Bev, William, known as 'Jones 
of Nayhmd,' bom at Lowick, Northampton- 
shire, July 30, 1736, and educated at the 
Charter House and at University College, Ox- 
ford. He included music in his studies and 
became very proficient in it. In 1764 he was 
presented to the vicarage of Bethersden, Kent, 
and subsequently became Rector of Pluckley in 
the same county, which he exchan^[ed for the 
Bectory of Paston, Northamptonshire. He is 
said to have been presented to the Perpetual 
Curacy of Nayland, Suffolk, in 1776, but his 
name does not occur in the registers until 1784. 
In Jan. 1784 he published 'A Treatise on the 
Ar t of Music,' which gained him considerable 
reputation. In March, 1789, he published by 
subscription his Op. ii, ' Ten Church Pieces for 
the O^an, with Four Anthems in score [a 
psalm tune^ and a double chant], composed for 
the use of the Church of Nayland in Suffolk, 
and published for its benefit.' In 1798 he be- 
came Bector of Hollingboume, Kent. He was 
the author of many Iheologiod, philosophical, 
and miscellaneous works. He died at Nayland, 
Jan. 6, 1800, and was buried in the vestiy of 
the church on Jan. 14. A second edition of his 
Treatise on Music was published at Sudbury 
in 1837. [W.H.H.] 

JONES, BoBEBT, Mus. Bac., a celebrated 
lutenist, published in 1601 'The Rrst Booke of 
Ayres,'— one of the pieces in which, ' Farewell 
deere love ' (alluded to by Shakspere in ' Twelfth 
Night'), is printed in score in J. S. Smith's 
'Musica Antiqna,' — and 'The Second Booke of 



> Now knownM B. BtophMi'i. 



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40 



JONES. 



Songs and Ayres, set out to tbe Late, the Bas^ 
VioU the playne way, or the Base by tableture 
after the leero &shion*; a Bong from which— 
'My love bound me with a kisse,* is likewise 
given in 'Musica Antiqua.' He contributed 
the madrigal, *Faire Oriana, seeming to wink 
at folly,' to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' pub- 
lished in the same year. In 1607 he published 
'The First Set of Madrigals of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 
parts, for Viols and Voices, or for Voices alone, 
or as you please,' and in 1608 'Ultimum Vale, 
or the Third Book of Ayres of 1 , 2, and 4 Voyces.* 
In 1609 appeared *A Musicall Dreame, or the 
Fourth Booke of Ayres; The first part is for 
the Lute, two voyoes and the Viole de Gambo : 
The second part is for the Lute, the Viole and 
four voices to sing : The third part is for one 
voyce alone, or to the Lute, the Base Viole, or 
to both if you please, whereof two are Italian 
Ayres/ In 1611 he published *The Muse's 
Gardin for delight, or tne Fift Booke of Ayres 
only for the Lute, the basse Violl and the 
Voyce.' He contributed three pieces to Leigh- 
ton s 'Teares or Lamentacions ' published in 
161 4. In 1616 Jones, in conjunction with 
Philip Rossetor, Philip Kingman and Ralph 
Reeve, obtained a privy seal for a patent author- 
ising ihem to erect a dieatre, for the use of the 
Children of the Revels to the Queen, within the 
precinct of Blackfriars, near Puddle Wharf, on 
the site of a house oocupied by Jones. But the 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen were opposed to the 
scheme, and procured from the Privy Council an 
order prohibiting the building being so applied, 
and by their influence Jones and his fellows were 
compelled to dismantle their house and surrender 
their patent. [W. H. H.] 

JOSEPH. I. 'Joseph and his Brethren.' 
The 8th of Handel's English oratorios; the 
words by James Miller, the music composed in 
August 1743. Produced at Covent Garden 
March 2, 1744* ^* Op^ra-comique in 3 acts; 
libretto by Duval, music by M^ul. Produced 
at the Th^tre Feydeau Feb. 17, 1807. Chiefly 
known by the romance of Joseph, * A peine au 
sortir de I'enfance' ('Ere in&ncy's bud') and a 
prayer for male voices, 'Dieu d'Israel.' The 
romance of Benjamin, 'Ah lorsque la Mort,' 
is given in the Alusioal Library, ii. 142. 3. An 
oratorio in 2 parts ; the words selected firom the 
Bible by Dr. E. G. Monk ; the music by G. A. 
Mao&rren. Produced at the Leeds Festival 
Sept. 21, 1877. [G.] 

JOSHUA. The 14th of Handel's English 
oratorios; words by Dr. Morell. The music was 
begun on July 19 and finished Aug. 19, 1747, 
and the work was produced at Covent Garden 
theatre March 9, 1748. The chorus, 'The na- 
tions tremble,' is said to have afifected Haydn 
extremely when he heard it at the Antient 
Concerts.' 'See, the oonquering hero comes' is 
originally in Joshua, and was transferred to 
Judas. The oratorio was revived by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society June 19, 1839. [G.] 

1 Ai»peDdlz to Shield's ' iDtrodnctloo to narmooy.' 



JOSQUIN. 

JOSQUIN, ormorestrictly JOSSE,DESPR&, 
-^latinised into JoDOCUS a Pratis, and 
Italianised into Giusquino— one of the greatest 
masters of the Netherland scliool, the successor 
of Ockenheim as its representative, and the 
immediate predecessor in musical history of 
Lassus and Palestrina, was bom about tbe 
middle of the 15th century, pi^obably at or near 
St. Quentin in Hainault. In the collegiate church 
of that town, according to Claude H^mer^, the 
'arte canendl clarissimus in&ntulus' began his 
promising career. Here, perhaps, the little 
chorister would get his pet name Jossekin, 
which clung to him through life, and in its 
Latin form Josquinus gives us the title by 
which as a composer he always has and always 
will be known. His real name, however, 1^ 
pears in his epitaph and in a legal document 
discovered by M. Delzaut at Cond^. 

Of the rest of Josquin's early life we know 
that he was for some time chapel-master at 
St. Quentin, and also that he was received as 
a pupil by Ockenheim, who, himself the greatest 
living composer, was gathering round him such 
disciples as he thought worthy the trust of cairy- 
ing on his labours after him. We can scarcely 
be wrong in assuming that Josquin stayed witJ^ 
Ockenheim for some years. Long and patient 
labour could alone make him fiuniliar with all 
the subtleties of that master's art, and that he 
had thoroughly learnt all that Ockenheim could 
teach him before he came to Rome is apparent 
from his earlier compositions. Had he written 
nothing else these works by themselves would 
have entitled him to a name as great as Ids 
master's. 

Exactly 400 years ago we find Josquin at the 
Papal court of Sixtus IV (i 471 -1484) already 
regarded as the most rising musician of the day, 
rapidly gaining the proud position of being the 
greatest composer which the modem world had 
yet produced, and making that position so secure, 
that fot upwards of sixty years his title remained 
undisputed. Agricola, Brumel, Gombert, Clemens 
non Papa, Genet, Isaac, Goudimel, Morales, 
these are only a few of the names of the great 
musicians who flourished in this period, and yet 
where are they, when Baini thus describes the 
state of music in Europe before the advent of 

Palestrina? ' Jusquino des Pres Tidolo 

dell' Europa Si canta il solo Jusquino in 

Italia, il solo Jusquino in Francia, il solo Jus- 
quino in Germania, nelle Flandre, in Unffheriay 
in Boemia, nelle Spagne, il solo Jusquino. 

Though Josquin's stay at Rome was not a 
long one, the firuits of his labours there, in the 
form of several MS. masses, are still preserved and 
jealously guarded from curious eyes in the library 
of the Sistine chapel. 

It is almost impossible to decide at what times 
of his life Josquin paid visits to, or received 
appointments at the respective courts of Hercules 
or Ferrara, Lorenzo of Florence, Louis XIT of 
France or the emperor Maximilian I. It is cer- 
tain that all these princes were in their turn 
his patrons. For the first he wrote his mass 



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JOSQUIN. 

'HerctileB dox ^Ferrarue,' and his Miserere. 
AaroD tellB us bow Josqoin, Obrecht, Isaac, and 
Agricola were his intimate friends in Florence. 
Yariona anecdotes are told of his stay at the 
French court. How he was anxious to obtain 
promotion from the king, but when the courtier 
to whom he applied for help always put him off 
with the answer 'Lascia fare mi/ weary of 



JOSQUIN. 



41 



by Petmoci. The most beautiM of them are 
the ' La sol & re mi,' the ' Ad fugam ' and the 
' De Beata Virgine/ The first of these, if we 
credit the story of its origin, would be composed 
after the year 1498, when Louis XII ascended 
the throne. Two other masses, * Pange Lingua ' 
and * Da pacem,' not included in the above books 
are probably of' sk still later date. These 5 
waiting Josquin composed a mass on the sul^rmasses are those in which Josquin shows the 



i«ct La, Bol, fa« re, mi, repeated over and over 
again in mimicry of the oft-repeated answer, and 
how the idea pleased the king's fancy so much 
tiiat he at once promised Josquin a church bene- 
fice. How Louis nevertheless foigot his promise 
uid Josqtdn ventured to refiresh the royal memory 
with the motets 'Portio mea non est in terra 
viventiam ' and ' Memor esto verbi tui.' Lastly, 
how Louis XII, admiring music from the respect- 
ful distance of complete ignorance, desired the 
great compofier to write something expressly for 
him, and how Josquin wrote a canon, in aocom* 
paniment to which the 'Vox regis' sustained 
throughout a single note.' Whether Louis ever 
did give the promised benefice to Josquin is un- 
certain, though the motet 'Bonitatem fecisti cum 
servo tno' is generally supposed to have been a 
tiumk-offering for such an appointment. But we 
have proof thai the last years o6^he composer's 
life were spent in the enjoymen^f church pre- 
fennent at Cond^. He had probably passed from 
the service of Louis to that of Maximilian, who 
became possessed of the Netherlands in 1 5 1 5, and 
may have presented Josquin with this poBition 
of r e tir ement. Of his death at this place, a MS. 
at lille gives the evidence in a copy of his 
epitaph, in the choir at Cond^, as follows : — 

Ghy gist sire Josm Despres 

Prevoet de Cheens fat jadis 

FtiflB Dleu poor lee Trepassez qui leur doSe son 

paradis 

TrepMsa Tan 1521 le 27 d'Aourt 

Spes mea semper foisti 

Joeqmn's printed compositions consist of 19 
masses, about 50 secular pieces, and upwards of 
150 motets with sacred words, a complete list 
of ihem being given in Eitner's ' Bibliographic 
der Musik-Sammelwerke' (Berlin, 1877). Seve- 
ral composers of the same period have left more 
published works, but Glarean tells us that Jos- 
quin was very critical about his own compositions, 
and sometimes kept them back for years before 
he allowed their performance. Some evidence 
of the spread of his music is afforded by the 
fact mentioned by Bumey (Hist. ii. 489) that 
Henry the VIII/s' music book at Cambridge 
contains some of it, and that Anne Bole3m had 
collected and learned many of his pieces during 
her residence in France. 

Of the 19 masses, 17 were printed in 3 books 

> la thboMM tht tenor shiK* tht mlieet. 
Be ut re at re Cft ml r«. 
Om f o m U In thCM lylUbles eorreapoixUiiK idth thoM in the words 
'Hercoles dtu Ferrarie.' 

* Wbetber tbe klag wss &ble to muter this stanple ftchlereinent. 
•r wlieiber. Ulw BcoMl-for jibom Hendeteiohii wrote a BiinlUr 
ptrt In the 'Son uid Btnu^er '— h« proved * quite unable to catch 
the note, thmiffa Mown and whispered to hhn from ererr side,' we 
•reaettoM. Tbs cuon Itaalf la given by BawUna, ohaj>. 70. 



greatest advance on the school of his master. 

Among the finest of the motets we may 
mention the settings of the genealogies in the 
first chapters of St. Matthew and St. Luke, a 
5 -part ' Miserere,' and the 4-part psalms * Planxit 
autem David' (the lament for Saul and Jonathan) 
and * Absolon fili mi.' Some of the masses and 
many of the motets exist in MS. score, with 
modem notation, in the F^tis library at Brussels. 
In their original form they can be found in all 
the great libraries of Europe. 

Of the secular works, the most important col- 
lection is in the 7th book of Susato's songs pub- 
liehed in 1545, which contains '24 pieces by 
Josquin. Here we find the beautiful dirge written 
on Uie death of Ockenheim, which is alsQ printed 
in score by Bumey in his History. 

It must however be borne in mind, that in 
distinguishing works of these old composers, we 
are o^n more attracted by some historical inte- 
rest, some quaintness in the choice of the text, 
or some peculiarity in the musical notation, than 
by the features of the music itself, and when we 
do try to separate one piece of music from the 
other we are naturally led at first to admire 
most whatever comes nearest to our modem 
ideas (those pieces for instance written in the 
modes most like our own keys), and to be disap- 
pointed when a mass or motet, which we know 
by tradition to be a masterpiece, fails to move 
us, and to lay it aside with the explanation that 
it is only a dry contrapuntal work. But it is 
not fair to study the music of this period simply 
to find out how much our modem schools owe to 
it. When Bumey calls Josquin 'The father 
of modem harmony' he does not perhaps give 
the title of which the composer would himself be 
proudest, 'for there are musicians alive now,* 
says Doni in his Musical Dialogues, *who, if 
Josquin were to return to this world would make 
him cross himself.' We must regard these 
Netherland masters, not only in their relation- 
ship to succeeding venerations, but as the chief 
lights of a school of religious music which had 
at that time reached so complete a form that 
any further »^nx)gress without an entire revolu- 
tion seemed unpossible ; a school of church musio 
which, were we. to consider alone the enormous 
demands it made on the industry and intellect of 
its followers, would excite our reverence, but 
which, when we consider the wonderful hold it 
had on popular feeling throughout Europe for 
nearly a centiuy, kindles in us the hope that we 
may not be too &r separated by our modem 
ideas from the possibility of onoe again being 
moved by the fire of its genius. If the absence 
of a satisfactory modem school of church music 



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42 



JOSQUIN. 



has already been acknowledged by many, and a 
widespread movement exists in Germany to 
recall the old music to the service of the Catholic 
chorch, then we may indeed hope to gain a more 
intimate knowledge of Joequin and his followers, 
than by groping about libraries, copying MSS. or 
reading theoretical treatises. Fortunately the 
study of counterpoint is hardly a more necessary 
condition of appreciating the music of Josquin, 
than it is ii. the case of Bach. But the ear will 
have to accustom itself to many extracHrdinary 
combinations of sounds, meagre harmonies, un- 
satisfactory cadences, final chords which seem to 
have lost aU character, before any of these works 
can be thoroughly enjoyed. In the meantime, 
and till we may possibly hear them performed 
again in the churches for which they are written, 
there is much |>lea8ure to be derived from the 
private study of them ; and a real love for them, 
even with an imperfect understanding, grows 
up in us very quicldy. 

The reasons which the council of the church 
gave for suddenly abandoning the works of Jos- 
quin*s school were not founded on any want of 
admiration for their musical effect. One obj ection 
was the fact of the melodies which the composers 
took for their canto fermo being secular, and the 
voice to which it was assigned singing the secular 
words, while the other voices sang uie words of 
the mass. The other objection was that the 
excessively florid style in which the parts were 
often written made the words of so little import- 
ance that it was often impossible to trace their 
existence. The first objection was not a strong 
one, for the church had sanctioned the use of the 
secular melodies as the foundation of masses for 
more than a century, and some of the melodies 
had become almost hallowed to their purpose. 
The singing of the secular words mignt have 
been ei^y given up without forsaking the 
music. 

But the second objection was stronger; for 
though Josquin began, and his followers, Gom- 
bert especially, tried still more, to give expres- 
sion to the general sense of the text, still we 
find often a few syllables scattered over a page 
to do service for a host of notes, as if the notes 
were everything and the words nothing. Still as 
the first objection applies entirely to the masses, 
BO the second also applies to them much more 
than to the motets, and it is Inr these latter 
works, we venture to think, that their composers 
will be known, if their music is destined to live 
again. 

Apart however firom all considerations of the 
vitality of the school which he represents, of 
the reason of its downfall or the chances of 
its revival, * Josquin deserves to be dassed as 
one of the greatest musical geniuses of any 
period.' (Kiesewetter*B Historv of Music.) For* 
tune favoured him in appointing the time of his 
birth. He was the first composer who came 
into the world with the matenals of his work 
thoroughly prepared for him. Masses written 
with counterpoint had been taken to Home from 
the Netherlands towards the end of the 14th 



JOTA. 

century, and Du&y, who was a singer in the 
Papal chapel in 1580 (or exactly 100 years 
before Josquin held the same position), was a 
contrapuntist of sufiKcient importance to be quoted 
as an authority by theoretic^ writers of a much 
later date, and whose art though simple was 
sufficiently perfect to suggest that he too must 
have had predecessors to prepare his way. But 
we cannot regard musicians from the time of 
Dufay to that of Ookenheim as composers in the 
sense that Josquin was one. Their genius was 
expended on the invention of counterpoint, which 
Josquin was the first to employ as a means to a 
higher end. They were but pilgrims to a pro- 
mised land, which they may have seen from a&r ; 
but Josquin was the first who was to be allowed 
to eater it. ' In Josquin,' says Ambros (whose 
knowledge of and admiration for the old music 
surpasses that of any modem historian), * we have 
the first musician who creates a genial impres- 
sion.' 

(in another sense, a very practical one, Josquin 
stands first on the list of composers. He is 
the oldest writer whose woriu are preserved to 
us, if not entire, at least in such quantities as 
adequately to represent his powers. The inven- 
tion of printing music by moveable types, which 
gave such a wonderful impetus to publication, 
dates from 1498, the very time when Josquin was 
at the height of his power; and it is a testimony 
to the superiority of his music over that of his 
predecessors, that though Ockenheim is supposed 
to have been still living at the beginning of the 
1 6th century, and perhaps as late as 151 2, the 
publishers thought fit to print very few of his 
compositions, whilst few collections were issued 
to which Josquin did not largely contribute. 

Gommer, in his * O)llectio Operum Musicorum 
Batavorum' (Berlin, Trautwein), has printed 
1 2 motets and two chansons. 

Bodilitz in his 'Sammlung* (&}hotts) gives 
a hymn,(^u pauperum refugium 'J portions of 
a mass; and a motet, ' Misericoraias Domini,' 
all for A voices. Choron, in his ' Collection 
gen^rale, gives his Stabat Mater k 5 ; and 
Hawkins (chap. 72) a motet, h\ '0 Jesu fill.' 
The 1 1 large volumes of Bumey's Musical Ex- 
tracts (Add. MSS. 11,581-91) contain many and 
valuable compositions of Josquin's. 

In Van der Straeten's * La Musique aux Pays- 
Bas' (Brussels, 1867) a portrait of Josquin is 
reproduced from a book published by Peter 
Opmeere at Antwerp in 1591. It seems to have 
been copied from a picture originally existing in 
the Brussels cathedral, and thence probably came 
the tradition that Josquin was buried there. 
Opmeere accompanies the portrait with the fol- 
lowing words: 'Conspicitur Josquinus depictus 
Bruxellis in D. Gudulae [ecclesift], in tabula arse 
dextrse ante chorum honest& sane fade ac blandis 
oculis.' [J.R.S.-B.] 

♦-irOTA (proitounced Hota, with a strong gut- 
tural aspirate). One of the most characteristic of 
the North Spanish national dances. It is a kind 
of waltz, always in three-time, but with much 
more freedom in the dancing than is customary 



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JOTA, 

m waltzes. ' It is danced,* says % 'traveller, ' in 
couples, each pair being quite independent of the 
rest. The respectiye partners £Ebce each other; 
^ guitar twangs, the spectators accompany, with 
a whining, nasal drawling refirain, and 'clapping 
of hands. You put your arm round your partner's 
waist for a few bars, take a waltz round, stop, 
and give her a fling round under your raised arm. 
Then the two of yon dance, backward and for- 
ward, across and back, whirl round and chassez, 
and do some nautch-wallah-ing, accompanying 
yourselves with castanets or snapping of fii^^ers 
and thumbs. The steps are a matter of your 
own particular invention, the more oiUr^ the 
better ; and you repeat and go on till one of you 
tires ont.' Every province in the North has its 
own Jota, the tune and style of which have ex- 
isted from time immemorial. Thus there is a 
Jota Aragonesa and a Jota Navarra, quite dif- 
fSsrent in melody and accompaniment, but always 
in three-time. Of the former, a better example 
could hardly be given than that which forms the 
chief subject of Glinka*s orchestral overture or 
piece 'Jota Aragoneee.' 



JUBILATE. 



43 




Of the Jota Navarra, an equally good and 
simple specimen is to be found in the second part 
of Sarasate's Spanish Dances (op. aa). 




rprfpii^^^^^^l^At'ii^ 



The Jota is much played in the North of Spain, 
and wherever it is heiyrd a dance is sure to be 
the instant result. [G-.] 



> Mfljor Campion. * On Foot In Spain,' 1879. p.lffr. 
SIhbb quite OriantaL 



JOULE, Benjamin St. John Baptist, bom 
at Salford, Nov. 8, 1817, studied the violin 
under Richard Cudmore, and the organ, singing, 
and theory, under Joseph John Harris. From 
May 8, 1846, to March 20, 1853, he was organist 
and choir-master at Holy Trinity Church, Hulme, 
and from April 28, 1849, ^ Oct. 3, 1852, also 
held a similar position at St. Margaret's, Whalley 
Bange, Manchester. Since March 27, 1853, he 
has been honorary organist of St. Peter's Church, 
Manchester. He is also President of the Man- 
chester Vocal Society, and author or compiler 
of * The Hymns and Canticles pointed for Cliknt- 
ing,' 1847 ; • Directorium Chori Anglicanum,* 
1 849 ; a very comprehensive ' Collection of Words 
of Anthems,' 1859; a pointed Psalter; and other 
works connected with choral service, several of 
which have reached many editions. He has also 
lectured on Church Music, and been a con- 
tributor to various periodioUs. He was music 
critic to * The Manchester Courier* from 1850 to 
1870. [W.H.H.] 

JUBILATE— ^e first word of the Vulgate ver- 
sion — ^is the Psalm (looth) which is given as an 
alternative to the Benedictus, to follow the second 
lesson in the morning service of the Anglican 
Church. The ancient custom of the church was 
to read lessons and psalms alternately, and 
psalms so used were called responsories. The 
Jubilate was q)ecially used in this manner in the 
offices of Salisbury and York, so its adoption in 
the reformed service was only a perpetuation of 
ancient custom in the churches of England. 
Amalarius also (a.d. 820) speaks of it as used 
in Lauds apart from its ordinary occurrence in 
the order of the Psalms. Nevertheless it did 
not appear in Cranmer*s Prayer-book of 1549* 
but was added in the revised edition which was 
made in the reign of Edward VI, 155a. Con- 
sequently there is no chant given for it in Mar- 
beck's first adaptation of ancient chants to the 
Englii^ service called 'The Book of Common 
Praier Noted,' which was published in 1550. 

It is curious that the Jubilate is much oftener 
used than the Benedictus, which is looked upon 
quite as the exception. One of the most dis- 
tinguished clerical writers on the choral service of 
the church, Mr. Jebb^has observed that the Bene- 
dictus is so infinitely preferable in every respect 
that it is impossible to attribute the preference 
which is given to the Jubilate to any other motive 
than its being shorter. In confirmation of this 
view it is interesting to note that while the en- 
thusiaetm of the Reformation was still hot, the 
great musicians of that time, Tallis, Byrd, and 
Farrant, diose the incomparably more beautiful 
and more appropriate, but longer, Benedictus; 
but when that enthusiasm was worn away hardly 
anything but the shorter Jubilate is to be met 
with. If we take for instance the most famous 
collections of the ancient services of the church 
in their order, we find three settings of the Jubi- 
late in Barnard's collection, eight in Boyce's, and 
no less than fifteen in Arnold^. 

Handel set the Jubilate for the thanksgiving 
service which was held after the Peace of 



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44 



JUBILATE. 



Utrecht, which was concluded March 31, 1 71 3. 
MendelBBohn alBO set the Fsalm, but not for 
liturgical use. [C. H. H. P.] 

JUBILEE OVERTURE, THE (in E), by C. 
M. von Weber ; composed for the festival held at 
Dresden in commemoration of the 50th anniver- 
sary of the accession of Frederick Augustus I. of 
Saxony ; op. 59. The autograph is djkted Dres- 
den, Sept. II, 1818, and the first performance 
was at the Court Theatre on Sept. 20. The over- 
ture winds up with 'God save the King.' Weber 
had written a Jubel cantata for the occasion, 
but it was put aside, and the overture— an en- 
tirely independent work — performed instead. [G.] 

JUDAS M ACCABiEUS. The 1 2th of Han- 
del's English oratorios, written by command of 
the Prince of Wales. Handel himself is said to 
have suggested the subject {h propos to the Duke 
of Cumberland's victories in Scotland) to Dr. 
Morell, who made the libretto. The music was 
begun July 9, and completed Aug. 11, 1746, and 
it was produced at Covent Garden April i, 1747. 
It has always been a favourite. ' See, the con- 
quering hero comes' was transferred to Judas 
from Joshua. The air * Wise men flattering/ and 
the chorus *Sion now' — were introduced several 
years after the production of the oratorio, and 
the latter is said to have been one of the last 
pieces composed by Handel. [G.] 

JUDITH. I. An oratorio; words by W. Hug- 
gins, music by Defesch. Produced in London 
1733. 3. An oratorio by Dr. Ame (his 2nd); 
the words selected and adapted by Isaac Bickei^ 
staff. Produced at the Lock Hospital Chapel 
Feb. 29, 1764. 3. A * biblical cantata' in 3 
scenes ; words selected from the Bible by Chorley, 
music by H. Leslie. Composed for Birmingham 
Festival, and first performed Sept. 1858 ; also at 
St. Martin's Hall March 8, 59. [G.] 

JUrVE, LA. Opera in 5 acts; words by 
Scribe, music by Hal^vy. Produced at the 
Academic Feb. 23, 1835. In England by the 
Brussels troupe at Drury Lane in French July 29, 
1846 ; in Italian, 'La Ebrea,' at Covent Garden 
July 25. 1850. [G.] 

JULLIEN (originaUy JULIEN), Louis An- 
TOINE, was bom at Sisteron, Basses Alpes, April 
23, 1 81 2. Hia father was a bandmaster, and the 
boy was thus familiar with instruments and music 
from his cradle. At 21 he went to Paris and 
entered the counterpoint class of Le Carpentier 
at the Conservatoire, Oct. 26, 1833. Composition, 
however, and not counterpoint was his object, 
and after a year's trial he quitted Le (Carpentier 
for Hal^vy, Dec. 16, 1834, but with no greater 
success ; he refused to do the exercises, and in- 
sisted on presenting the Professor with dances as 
specimens of 'composition' — not perhaps quite to 
Hal^vy's annoyance if it be true, as it used to 
be said, that the waltz *Rosita,' which became 
the rage in Paris as Jullien's, was written by 
his master. He did not obtain a single men- 
tion at the Conservatoire, and at the beginning 
of 1836 finally left it, and soon after appeared 
before the public as the conductor of concerts of 



JULLIEN. 

dance music at the Jardin Turc. The 'Hugue- 
nots' was just then in all the flush of its great 
success, and one of Jullien's first quadrilles was 
made upon the motif 9 of that opera, the announce- 
ment of which, as quoted by M. F^tis, is exactly 
in the style with which Londoners afterwaids 
became familiar. To this enterprise he joined 
the establishment of a musical paper. No wonder 
that he was unsuccessful. In June 1838 he 
became insolvent, and had to leave Paris. His 
first appearance in London seems to have been as 
conductor, jointly with Eliason, of shilling ' Con- 
certs d'£t<^ * at Drury Lane theatre, which opened 
June 8, 1 840, with an orchestra of 98, and ohoms 
of 26. On the i8th of the following January he 
conducted * Concerts d'hiver ' at the same theatre, 
with a band of 90 and chorus of 80. These were 
followed by * Concerts de Soci^t^ ' at the En^sh 
Opera House, Lyceum, Feb. 7 to Mar. 18, 1842, 
comprising Bossini's Stabat for the first time 
in England. On Dec. 2, 42, began his ' annual 
series of concerts' at the English Opera House, 
and he thenceforward continued them season after 
season, at the close of the year, now at one theatre, 
and now at another, till the Farewell series in 
1859. ' His aim,' in his own words, ' was always to 
popularise music,' and the means he adopted for 
so doing were — the largest band ; the very best 
performers, both solo and orchestral; and the 
most attractive pieces. His programmes con- 
tained a certain amount of classical music — 
though at the beginning hardly so much as that 
given by some of his predecessors, who announced 
a whole symphony on each evening. This 
was probably too much for a shilling audi- 
ence in the then state of musical taste, and 
Jullien's single movements and weaker doses just 
hit the mark. Later on in his career he gave 
whole symphonies, and even two on one evening. 
No doubt this judicious moderation did good, and 
should always be remembered to his credit, or that 
of his advisers. But the characteristic features 
of Jullien's concerts were, first, his Monster 
Quadrille, and secondly himself. He provided 
a firesh quadrille for each season, and it was 
usually in close connexion with the event of the 
day. The ' Allied Armies Quadrille ' during the 
Crimean war, 1854 ; the ' Indian Quadrille, and 
Havelock's Mardi,* during the Mutiny, 1857 ; 
the 'English Quadrille'; the 'French ditto'; 
and so on. These were written by himself, 
and though then considered noisy were always 
rhythmic^, melodious, and effective. In some 
of them as many as six military bands were 
added to the inmiense permanent orchestra. In 
front of this 'mass of executive ability,' *the 
Mons' — to adopt the name bestowed on him by 
Punch, whose cartoons have preserved his image 
with the greatest exactness — with coat thrown 
widely open, white waistcoat, elaborately em- 
broidered shirtfront, wristbands of extravagant 
length turned back over his cuffo, a wealth of 
black hair, and a black moustache— itself » 
startling novelty — wielded his baton, encouraged 
his forces, repressed the turbulence of his audience 
with indescribable gravity and magnificence, went 



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JULLIEN. 

throngli all the pantomime of the British Army 
or Navy Qoadrille, seized a violin or piccolo at 
Ihe moment of climax, and at l&st sank exhausted 
into his gorgeous velvet chair. All pieces of 
BeeUioven*8 were conducted with a jewelled 
baton, and in a paii of clean kid gloves, handed 
him at the moment on a silver salver. 

Not only did he obtain the best players for his 
band, but his aolo artistee were all of the highest 
daa. Ernst, Sivori Bottesini, Wieniawski. Sain- 
ton; ArabeUa Groddard, Marie Pleyel, Charles 
Hall^, Vivier; Sims Reeves, Pischek, and many 
others, have all played or sung, some of them for 
the first time in England, under Jullien*s baton. 
In &ct he acted on the belief that if you give 
Uie public what is good, and give it with judg- 
mei^ the public wiU be attracted and will pay. 
And there is no doubt that for many years his 
income from his Promenade Concerts was very 
large. His harvest was not confined to London, 
bat after his month at Drury Lane, Covent Gar- 
den, or Her Majesty's, he carried off his whole 
company of players and singers through the pro- 
vinces, incIudii^T Scotland and even Ireland, and 
moved about there for several weeks — a task at 
tiiat time beset with impediments to locomotion 
which it is now difi&cult to realise. If he had but 
confined himself to the one enterprise, and exer- 
dsed a proper economy and control over that ! 
But Uus was impossible. He had started a shop 
soon after his arrival, first in Maddox Street and 
then in Regent Street, for the sale of his music. 
In 1S47 he took Drmry Lane theatre on lease, 
with the view of playing English operas. Mr. 6ye 
was engaged as manager, and M. Berlioz as ^con- 
doctor, with a host of other ofBcials, including 
Sir Henry Bishop as ' inspector-superintendent at 
reheaisals,' and a splendid band and chorus. The 
house opened on Dec. 6, with a version of ' Lucia,' 
in which Sims Reeves made his d^but, and which 
WM followed by Balfe*s < Maid of Honour,' ' Linda,' 
and ' Figaro.' ' All departments,' says a contem- 
poniy ^ article by one who knew him well, ' were 
managed on the most lavish scale; orchestra, 
^cms, principal singers, officers before and be- 
hind the curtain, vying with each other in effi- 
ciency and also in expensiveness. The result 
might have been anticipated. The spectdation 
was a fiEulure, and though his shop was sold for 
£8000 to meet the emergency, M. Jullien was 
bankrupt' (April 21, 1848). He left the court 
however with honour, and, nothing daunted, soon 
afterwards essayed another and st^ more hazard- 
cos oiterprise. In May 1849 he announced a 
'Oonoert monstre and Congr^ musical,' 'six 
gnmd musical fdtes,' with '400 instrumentalists, 
S <&Blanct choruses, and 3 distinct military bands.' 
The first two took place at Exeter Hall on June 
1 and 15, and a third at the Surrey Zoological 
Gatdans on July 20. The programme of the first 
dflwa rv oM quotation. It was in 3 parts :—i. Da- 
vid's ode-sinfonie ' Le Desert' — Sims Reeves solo 
tenor. 2. Mendelssohn's Scotch Symphony. 3. A 

* An ^fa^i«*ng aeeoant of Beriioi's early anthualAim, and Its gndoal 
ttapocBttoa. will b« knmA Id hb ^ CMtatpoixUiMM iaedlM' (1S7B), 
tattBnzxKTtozlir. 

s *Madcal Worid.' MMoh ai. 180a 



JULLIEN. 



45 



miscellaneous concert, with Anna Thillon, Jetty 
Treffis, Miss Dolby, Braham, Pischek, Dreyachoeck, 
Molique,etc.,etc. This projecttoo,ifwemay judge 
from its sudden abandonment, ended disastrously. 
In 1852 he wrote the opera of 'Pietro il Grande,' 
and brought it out on the most magnificent scale 
at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, on 
Aug. 17, at his own cost. The piece was an 
entire ^ilure, and after five performances was 
withdrawn, leaving Jullien a loser of some thou- 
sands of pounds. Shortly after this he visited 
America and remained there till June 28, 1854. 
On his return he resumed the regular routine of 
his metropolitan and provincial concerts. But 
misfortunes pursued him. On March 5, 1856, 
Covent Garden theatre was burnt to the ground, 
and the whole of his music — in other words, his 
entire stock in trade — ^was destroyed ; an irrepar- 
able loss, since his quadrilles and other original 
pieces were in MS. In 1857 he became involved 
in the Royal Surrey Gardens Company, and lost 
between JS5000 and £6000. This enabled him 
to add to his achievements by conducting ora- 
torios, but the loss, the protracted worry and 
excitement att^ding the winding up of the Com- 
pany, and the involved state of .his own afiairs, 
which had been notoriously in disorder fi>r some 
years and were approaching a crisis, must have 
told severely on him. The next season was 
his last in this country. He gave a series of 
Farewell Concerts at the usual date — this time 
at the Lyceum, with a band reduced to 60 — 
made a Farewell provincial tour, and then, pro- 
bably forced thither by pecuniary reasons, went 
to Paris. There on the 2nd of May, 1859, he was 
arrested for debt and put in prison at Clichy, 
but on the 22nd of the following month was 
brought up before the court, heard, and liberated 
with temporary protection. Early in March fol- 
lowing an advertisement appeared in the papers 
headed 'Jullien Fund,' stating that he was in a 
lunatic asylum near Paris, and appealing to the 
pubHc on his behalf. Scarcely however was the 
advertisement in type when the news arrived of 
his death on March 14, i860. 

No one at all in the same category with Jullien, 
at least in our time, has occupied anything like 
the same high position in public favour. 'His 
name was a household word and his face and 
figure household shapes, during a period of nearly 
20 years.' Whatever the changes in his fortune his 
popularity never waned or varied. * Your house,* 
says Lord Beaconsfield in 'Tancred, describing the 
most fisbvourable conditions for ball-giving conceiv- 
able in 1846, — 'your house might be decorated 
like a Russian palace, you might have Jullien pre- 
siding over your orchestra, and a banquet worthy 
of the Romans.' And similar allusions were made 
every day in the periodicals. And why so ? Be- 
cause, with much obvious charlatanism, what Jul- 
lien aimed at was good, and what he aimed at he 
did thoroughly weU. He was a public amuser, but 
he was also a public reformer. ' By his firequent 
performances of the music of Mozart, Beethoven, 
Mendelssohn, and other great masters, and by the 
• Book I. obitp 7. 



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46 



JULLIEN. 



ooDBtant engagement of the most eminent per- 
formers, be elicited at first the unconscious atten- 
tion, and then the enthusiastic appreciation, of the 
vast multitudes that besieged nis concerts, and 
that not merely in London but all over the pro- 
vinces of Great Britain and Ireland. This will 
probably tend to preserve his memory among ns 
even more than his unrivalled energy and talent, 
or his unprecedented zeal and liberality as a public 
entertainer. To J ullien moreover is attributable in 
a large measure the immense improvement which 
our orchestras have made during the last ao years, 
he having been the means not only of bringing 
over some of the greatest foreign instrumentalists, 
but of discovering and nurturing the promise of 
many £nglish p^ormers^ who through the pub- 
licity he placed at their disposal, no less than 
through their own industry and ability, have 
since attained acknowledged ' eminence.* [G.] 
JULLDEN'S MILITARY JOURNAL, a 
periodical repertoire of music arranged for a mili- 
tary band, consisting of dances, marches, selections 
from operas, oratorios, symphonies, etc. It was 
started by Jullien in the year 1847, but in 1857 
came into the hands of Messrs. Boosey & Co., by 
whom it is published every alternate month as 
'Boosts Supplementary Journal,* to distinguish 
it firom 'Boosts Military Journal,' a monthly 
repertoire of a similar kind started by Charles 



EALEBBENNEB. 

Boos^ the eminent bandmaster In 1846, and 

Sublished by Messrs. Boosey since 1850. [See 
IlLITABT JOUBNALS.] [G.] 

JtJNGSTE GERICHT DAS, i.e, the Last 
Judgment. Spohr*s first oratorio. Written for 
and produced at the Festival at Erfurt Aug. 15, 
181 a, in honour of Napoleon I. It was not suc- 
cessful; but Spohr's naif account of the per- 
formance, and of his own predilection for it,' iB 
highly amusing. It is an entirely different work 
from * Die letzten Dings,* known in England as 
The Last Judgment. [G.] 

JUPITER. A sobriquet bestowed— whether 
by J. B. Cramer or not is uncertain — on Mozart's 
49th and last Symphony in C major (K<>chel« 
551), and now to some extent classical, since 
even the conservative Mendelssohn uses it in 
his letter of March 7, 1845. The symphony is 

a noted in Mozart's autograph catalogue, with 
le date Aug. 10, 1788. The autograph is on 
oblong paper, 91 pages of 12 staves each, and 
belongs to Julius Andr^, Frankfort. Mendels- 
sohn was the first to notice the fact that a 
fjAvourite passage near the close of the Andante 
was an afterthought. (See the letter above 
quoted.) The symphony was published as a 
P. F. duet by Breitkopf & Hartel, with the 
Finale of the Quintet in C (composed 1787) 
substituted for its own last movement. [G.] 



K 



KALKBRENNER, FRiEDBicfH Wilhblm 
Michael, pianist and prolific composer for 
his instrument, was bom 1 788 near Berlin. 
His fftther, Christian Kalkbrenner, of Hebrew 
extraction and a 'musician of great ability, he- 
gan his training early. In 1798 he entered the 
Conservatoire at Paris, and left it, after four 
years of assiduous study, with a prize for piano- 
forte playing and composition. In 1 8 1 3 he played 
in public at Berlin and Vienna, heard Clementi, 
made Hummers acquaintance, and was intro- 
duced by Haydn to Albrechtsberger, from whom 
he had lessons in counterpoint. fVtnn 1814 to 
1823 he resided in London, much sought after as 
a player and fashionable teacher. In 1824 ^® 
settled in Paris as a member of the pianoforte- 
making firm of Pleyel & Co. In Paris too his 
success as a performer and teacher was very great ; 
he was a shrewd man of business and managed 
to amass quite a fortune. Madame Camille 
Pleyel was his beet pupil. When Chopin came 
to JParis in 1831, Kalkbrenner*s reputation was 
at its height: his compositions, mostly written 
for the market and now foigotten, were upon the 

1 'Tbt Musical World.' Mtrch M. 1860l 

* Beethoven indadet' Kalkbrenner (Vat«r)'wlth Sterkd and otiieT* 
of the 'old, dead oomposert.of the Emptra' In his denandatlon of 
Gottfried Weber's mistakes in regard to Mosart's Beqaiem. 'Be- 
quiescat in paee.* says he (letter. Feb. t, 1896>. He ivould hardlj 
have been eontent with so mild a sneer If he had known that Kalk- 
brenner bad 'arranged' Don Glorannl (that Is, had altered the mosle 
and interpolated treth pieces) for its ajipearanoe on tha Paris stage, 
6ept.l7.1«»(ieeLaJarte.ii.8R). [See LAflBffiTH.] 



desks of all dlUetanti, and his playing was up- 
held as a modeL Chopin, who was then only 
twenty -two years of age but had already written 
his two Concertos, the Etudes, op. 10, the first 
Scherzo and Ballade, etc., called on him and 
played his Coneerta in E minor, whereupon Elalk- 
prenner came forward with the astounding pro- 
posal that Chopin should bind himself to be his 
pupil for three years and thus imder his guidance 
become a good artist 1 Chopin took no lessons, 
but soothed Kalkbrenner by dedicating the Con- 
certo to him. In a letter dated Dec. 16, 183 1, 
Chopin speaks in high terms of Kalkbrenner*! 
technique, praises his charming equable touch 
and quiet self-possession, and says that Hers waa 
a zero comparod with 1dm. Still Chopin se^ns 
frt>m the first te have been of Mendelssohn's 
opinion, who said to him soon after, ' You had 
nothing to leam from Kalkbrenner; you play 
better than he does.' 

Kalkbrenner was a man of great vanity, and 
far from scrupulous as to the means by which 
he strove to enhance his reputation. The late 
Professor Marx used to tell a story how Kalk- 
brenner called on him in 1834 at Berlin, amdons 
to make a good impression, as the Professor was 
then editor of the new ' Berliner Mnsikzdtung * 
and an influential personage. The visitor in 
moving terms deplored the decay of the good old 
art of improvisation, sayhog that since Hummel 

*8eIbstblogi»phie,L10B. 



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XALEBBENNEB. 

had reiured he wm the only one who still 
caltiirated it in the true daiuical spirit. He 
opens the piano and improvises for a quarter 
of an hour with fluent fancy and great neatness, 
interweaving all manner of themes, even a little 
fugue, much to the Professor's edification. Next 
day a paroel of music just printed at Paris arrives 
£ar review. The Professor, greatly interested, 
mens the topmost piece — ^iS'usio Musica, par 
^ed. Kalkbrenner * : when lo and behold I he has 
yesterday's improvisation before him, fugue and 
all, note for note ! 

An instmotion-book with etudes belonging to 
it is the beet thing Kalkbrenner left. His 
attainments as a musician are shown in four 
pianoforte concertos, one for two pianos, a septet, 
sextet mmI quintet, and various sonatas ; all cor- 
rectly and well written for the instrument, but 
dun and trite, spite of the glitter of what was 
called A ' brilliant' style. 

Kalkbrenner died of cholera at Enghien near 
Pttiaon June lo, 1849. [E.D.] 

KALIilWOD A, JoH AKN Wknzeslaus, a violin 
player and popular composer, was bom at Prague 
March ai, 1800. From 1811 to 1817 he was 
a pnpil <^ the Conservatorium, and from i8i'7 to 
1823 a member of the orchestra of that town. 
Dmring » visit to Munich he was introduced to 
Prince Fiirstenberg, who took a lively interest 
in his talent and appointed him conductor of his 
private band at Donaueschingen, which post 
Kaltiwoda retained, in spite of various offers from 
more important places, f^ the rest of his pro- 
fesrionftl Hfe, till he retired on a pension in 1053. 
He died at Garlsruhe Deo. 3, 1866. 

KalHwoda, as a violinist, is regarded as one of 
the best representatives of the Prague sdiool 
under F. W. P1XI8. Without possessing veiy 
stirtling qualities of execution or style, his per- 
fbrmances showed a well-finished teclmique, a 
sjmpathetio but not large tone, and were alto- 
gether more remarkable for elegance and a certain 
pleasantness than for vigour or depth of feeling. 

As he travelled but little, his reputation 
mainly rests on his compositions. They consiBt 
of seven Symphonies — F minor (1826) ; Eb ; D 
minor ; C ; B minor (op. 106) ; G minor ; and 
F — Overtmree, Concertinos and other Solo-pieces 
ibr the violin and other orchestral instruments, 
especially the Clarinet, Quartets for stringed 
instruments, Yiolin-Duets, Pianoforte-pieoes, and 
a number of songs. Many of his works have 
alloyed for some time, and chiefly in amateur^ 
drdes, a considerable pcqralarity, and the Index 
of the Leipdg Allg. Mus. Zeitung shows a long 
Ibt of performances. The works are certainly 
not of umch importance in an artistic sense, and 
show little originality; but on the other hand, 
they are firee from laboured efforts and ambitious 
striving after startling ^ects, are written in 
a thoroughly mnsirianly, unpretentious, and un- 
affected style, easy to understand, pleasing and 
efiecttve. Their d^y is now over, but Schumann 
(in his 'Gesamm. Schriften/ iii 278) speaks of 
Kalliwoda's 5th Symphony with enthusiasm, and 
mentiffM the interesting fiwst that only a few 



KAPELLE. 



47 



years previously Kalliwoda had put himself under 
Tomasohek of Prague for improvement in some 
branches of counte^int in which he felt himself 
weak. Schumann further testified his esteem by 
dedicating his Intermezai (op. 4) ' al Sign.*Kalh- 
woda.' In the history of the music of the last 
50 years, Kalliwoda occupies as an orchestral 
composer a position somewhat analogous to On- 
slow s as a composer of ofaamber-musio. 

His son WiLHXLM, bom at Donaueschingen 
July 19, 1827, was thoroughly well brought up 
by his father, and was for a short time a pupil of 
Mendelssohn's at Leipzig in 1847, and of Haupt- 
mann's in 1848. He held various posts at 
Garlsruhe with credit to himself, but was com- 
pelled by ill health to forsake work. [T. D.] 

KANDLER, Fbanz Sales, a musical his- 
torian, to whom we owe an admirable condensa- 
tion of Baini*s Palestrina ; bom Aug. 23, I79a> 
at Kloster-Neuburg in Lower Austria. He 
belonged to the War Office^ and went as in- 
terpreter with the army to Venice and Naples 
in 181 7 and 1821. He died of cholera at Baden 
(Beethoven's Baden) Sept. 26, 1831. His two 
works are ' Cenni storioo-critici alia vita ed opere 
del ... G. Ad. Hasse ' (Venice, 1820; 2nd ed., 
Naples, 1820), and that above mentioned, 'Ueber 
das Leben und die Werke des . . . Palestrina,' 
etc This was published after Kandler's death 
by Kiesewetter (Leipzig, B. & H. 1834). [G.] 

KANKA, JoHANir von. Dr. juris, bom at 
Prague Nov. 10, 1772, is named here not for his 
music, though he published a Pianoforte Concerto, 
a Cantata, and compositions to Collin's War 
Songs, but for his warm attachment to Beethoven 
and for the eminent service he rendered him, 
since it was chiefly through his means that the 
dispute with the Kinsky lunily was abandoned 
ana an advantageous compromise effected. Kan- 
ka's &ther was, like himskf^ at once an eminent 
lawyer and a Uiorough musician, and his grand- 
fath^ had been equidly eminent as an architect. 
The family lived in Prague, and Beethoven was 
intimate with them in the early days of his 
residence in Austria. Kanka the younger wrote 
and e<Bted books on Austrian and Bohemian law, 
which were much esteemed by his profession 
(Thayer, ii. 9 ; iii. 290). He was Dean (181 5) 
and Rector (1820) of the University, and died 
fiill of years and honours, April 15, 1865. [G.] 

KAPELLE, a musical establishment, usually 
orchestraL Ilie word was formerly applied to 
the private band of a prince or other magnifioo, 
but is now used to denote any band. Thus at 
Berlin, the Kaiserliohe koniguche ELapelle (97 
musicians, called Kammermusiker) forms the 
regular orchestra of the Grand Opera, with two 
Kapellmeisters (Conductors), a Concertmeister 
(Leader or ist Violin), uid a Balletdirigent 
(Balletmaster). The orchestra of the Crystal 
Palace would in Germany be called the Kapelle, 
and Mr. Manns the Kapellmeister. 

The smallest Kapelle existing is probably that 
of the Duke of Sigmaringen, which consists of a 
pianoforte player and a sextet of strings. [G.] 



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48 



KARAJAN. 



KARAJAN, Thbodob Gbobo. Ritteb vow, 
Dr. juris, philologist and historiati, bom at Vienna 
Jan. 22, 1810 ; clerk (1841) and custoe (1854) in 
the court library, appointed vice-president (1851) 
and president (1859) ^^ ^^ Akademie der Wis- 
eenschaften ; received the order of Leopold in ' 
1870, and died April 28, 1873. His philological 
workB are numerous and important ; but his title 
to admission here is his pamphlet, ' J. Haydn in 
London, 1791 and 1792' (Vienna, Gerold, 1861). 
In addition to matter from the well-known pam- 
phlets of Dies and Griednger, it contains a num- 
ber of Haydn*s letters, chiefly from London and 
Estoras, to his finend Maria Anna von Grenzinger, 
the wife of Leopold Peter, Edler von Genzinger, 
an esteemed physician, with four ttom the lady 
herself. She played the piano well, and even 
composed. Haydn wrote several sonatas for her, 
and whenever he was in Vienna spent much of 
his time at her house, where a pleasant musical 
society was generally to be found. Karajan also 
furnished his friend Otto Jahn with valuable 
material for his book on Mozart. [C. F. P.] 

KEEBLE, John, was bom at Chichester in 
1 711 and was brought up as a chorister in the 
cathedral under Thomas Kelway. He after- 
wards became a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and was 
in 1737 appointed successor to Thomas Bosein- 
grave as organist of St. George*s, Hanover Square, 
allowing I^oseingrave one half of the salary until 
his deam in 1 750. Keeble was also oi^ganist at 
Kanelagh Gardens. In 1784 he published ' The 
Theory of Harmonics^ or, an Illustration of the 
Grecian Harmonica,* a work which attracted 
attention. He published five books of organ 
pieces, and, jointly with Kirkman, ' 40 Interludes 
to be played between the verses of the Psalms.' 
He was an excellent organist and able teacher. 
He died Dec. 24, 1786. [W. H. H.] 

KEISER, BsiNHARD, an eminent German 
opera-composer, bom 1673 nearWeissenfels, Leip- 
zig. He was grounded in music by his father, 
a sound church composer, and afterwards at- 
tended the Thomas-schule and the University of 
Leipzig, at the same time coming frequently be- 
fore the public at the many concerts renowned 
even then for their excellence. In 1692 he was 
commissioned to set a pastoral, ' Ismene,* for the 
court of Brunswick, and its success procured him 
the libretto of 'Basilius.' In 1694 he removed 
to Hamburg, and there remained for 40 years a 
favourite with the public. 'Irene* (1697) was 
the first of a series of 116 operas composed for 
the Hamburg theatre, each containing from 40 to 
50 airs, besides operas in collaboration with others, 
and sacred music. Keiser was luxurious and 
self-indulgent, and led an adventurous life, but 
without sacrificing his love of art or his taste 
for intellectual enjoyments. In 1 700 he opened 
a series of winter-concerts, which formed a re- 
markable combination of intellectual and sensual 
gratification ; the most accomplished virtuosi, the 
finest and b^-looking singers, a good orchestra, 
and carefully selected prognunmes, furnishing the 
former, and a banquet of choice viands and winee 



KEISER. 

the latter. In 1 703 he assumed the direction of 
the opera in conjunction with Drdsicke, but hiB 
partner absconded, and the whole burden fell 
upon the shoulders of Keiser. He proved equal 
to the emergency, for in one year (1709) he com- 
posed 8 opens, married the daughter of a Ham- 
burg patrician, and musician to the municipality 
'Oldenbui^/ and having completely reinstated 
his affairs, plunged into all his former extra- 
vagant indulgence. In 1 716 he resumed his con- 
certs; in 1722 visited Copenhagen and was 
appointed Capellmeister to the King of Denmark ; 
in 1728 was made Cantor and Canon of the 
cathedral, and again turned his attention to 
sacred music. He composed his last c^>era, 'Ciroe,* 
in 1 734, and died in 1 7 39. His wife and daughter 
are said to have been accomplished singers. 

Keiser exercised an important though not » 
permanent influence on German opera. The 
perfection to which at first he raised the opera 
at Hamburg, speedily degenerated into mere 
outward show and trivial if not vulgar farce, 
but the sensation he produced at first is described 
by his contemporaries as extraordinary. Mathe- 
son, who was not likely to exaggerate the suc- 
cesses of a rival, in his life-like picture of the 
musical condition of Hamburg, calls Keiser the 
first dramatic composer in the world, and says 
that no other music than that of ' dieeer galante 
Componist ' was either simg or listened to. Hia 
melodies were smooth and graceful, and fell upon 
the ear 'like charmed accents after the dull 
pedantries of the contrapuntists of the day.' 
That his melody was spontaneous his facility 
itself proves, imd he was the first who en* 
deavoured to convey the sentiment of the cha- 
racter in the music This was the secret of hit 
success, and it was by this that he enabled 
Grerman opera to hold its own against the dft- 
damation of the French, and the melody and 
fine singing of the Italians. In sacred music he 
shines chiefly in oratorio, which he treated dra- 
matically, but with an earnestness and dignity 
surprising in a man of his character. In judging 
Keiser in this department we must not forget 
that Baches Passions, and Handel*s Oratoriot 
were then not known, scarcely even composed ; 
yet notwithstanding his want of models, hia 
works compare frkvourably with the insiind sacred 
music of the latter half of the i8th century, 
produced under far greater advantages than were 
open to him. His sacred compositions include 
*Der fur die SUnde der Welt eemarterte und 
sterbende Jesus' ; ' Der verurtheilte und gekrea- 
zigte Jesus' (poem by Brookes of Hamburg) ; » 
Passion acooroing to St. Mark, said to be fine ; 
and other historical oratorios, motets, cantatas, 
and psalms. He published extracts from the two 
first named works, viz. 'Auserleeene Soliloquia' 
(1 714), and 'Selige Erlosungs-Gredanken' (1715); 
airs from various operas, cantatas for a single 
voice, and several vocal collections with various 
titles, such as 'Divertimenti serenissimi,' 'Kaiser- 
liche Friedenspost,* ' Musikalische Landlust,* etc. 
Important portions of his operas and sacred 
works have been published by Lindner, in his 



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KEISEB. 

'Ente stehende Deutsche Oper/ H. 3-1 j$ ; Beiss- 
maim, in his 'Allg. Geechichte der Mudk/ iii. 
54-73 and App. Nob. 7 and 8 ; and von Winter- 
ed in his ' Evangelische Kirchengesang/ vol. iii. 
Adam Hiller included an unaocompanied motet 
— 'Kindlich gross* — ^in his ' Vieretimmige Mo- 
tettoi,* etc. Tol. ii, and there is a fugue for 4 
Toioes, 'Gott ist offenbaret,' in the 'Auswahl 
▼orzuglicher musikwerke.' [A. M.] 

KJ^LEB Bl^LA, whose real name is Albert 
TOH KI^J.KB, was bom at Bartfeld in Hungary, 
Feb. 1 3, 1820. After attempting both the law and 
fanning he settled himself to music, and in 1845 
began regular study at Vienna under Schlesinger 
and Sechter, playing the fiddle in the band of the 
Theater-an-der-Wien at the same time. May 7, 
1854 he took the command of GungTs band in 
Berlin, and began his career as conductor, solo- 
player, and composer. After a few months in 
Beiiin he returned to Vienna, and succeeded to 
Lanner*s position at the head of that celebrated 
band. This again he left before long for an in&ntry 
regiment. As bandmaster to the latter he was 
cidled to Wiesbaden in 1863, and in 70 became 
Kapellmeister of the Kur orchestra there, a post 
which he resigned firom ill health in 1873. He 
■till resides in Wiesbaden, and celebrated his silver 
annivenary on May 7, 79. His works, which have 
readied op. 130, consist of overtures, dance music, 
and pieces for solo violin, all distinguished for 
ihowy brilliant style and clever orchestration. 
Amcmg the most popular are his Hofiiungssteme 
waits, Hurrah-Sturm galop, and Friedrioh-Karl 
march. [G.] 

KELLOGG, Claba Lodisk, though bom in 
Snmterville, South Carolina, in July 1842, is of 
northern extraction. Her mother had consider- 
able talent as a musician, and Clara was her only 
child. In 1856 they removed to New York, 
where she received the whole of her musical 
education. She made her first appearance there, 
at the Academy of Music (Opera), as Gilda in 
Bigdetto, in 1861, and sang that season 10 or la 
times. In 1867 (Nov. 2) f£e made her d^ut in 
London at Her Majesty's as Maigherita, sang 
oonstantlj, and was re-engaged for l£e next year. 
From 1808 to 1872 she was touring in the United 
States. On May 11, 1872, she re-appeared in 
London at Drury Lane, Her Majesty's Opera, as 
Linda, and sang during that season also as Gilda. 
On her return to the United States die continued 
to dng m Italian opera till 1874, when she 
ofganised an English troupe, herself superintend- 
ing the translation of the words, the raise en 
BO^ie, the training of the singers, and the re- 
hearsals of the chorus. Such was her devotion 
to the project, that in the winter of 74-75 she 
wmg no fewer than 1 25 ni^^ts. It is satisfs^ctory 
to near that the scheme was successful. Miss 
Kd]ogg*8 musical gifts are great. She is said to 
be fiuniltar with thirty-five operas. She has great 
oooadentiousnees as an artist, ardent enthusiasm, 
and a voice of great compass and purity. In 
ad^Utum to which she has a remarkable talent for 
b nsino sB and is never so happy as when she is 
doing a good or benevoleot aotioo. [G.] 

▼OL.II. 



KELLY. 



49 



KELLY, Michael, was bom in Dublin about 
1764, was taught singing by Passerini, Peretti, 
and St. Giorgio, and ultimately by Bauzzini, on 
whose advice his father sent him to Naples to 
study. Before quitting Dublin, however, a 
fortuitous circumstance led to his appearance on 
the stage as the Count in Piccinni*s 'Buona 
Figliuola,* and that asain. to his performing the 
hero in Michael Ame s 'Cymon,* and Lionel in 
'Lionel and Clarissa.* On May i, 1779, ^® 
quitted Dublin, and arrived in Naples May 30. 
He placed himself under the tuition of Finaroli, 
head of the Conservatorio of La Madonna di 
Loreto. He subsequently studied under Aprile, 
with whom he visited Palermo, and then went 
successively to Leghorn, Florence, Bologna, and 
Venice, ultimately reaching Vienna, where he 
was engaged at the Court theatre. There he 
remained four years, enjoying the intimate 
friendship of Mozart, who on the production of 
his 'Nozze di Figaro* allotted to Kelly (whose 
name he spells * Occhely ' in his MS. catalogue) 
the parts of Badlio and Don Curzio. P^ing 
anxious to visit England Kelly obtained leave 
of absence from the Emperor, and in Feb. 1 787 
quitted Vienna in company with Stephen Storace, 
his mother and sister--Signora Storace — and 
Attwood. He appeared at Drury Lane on April 
20, in his old part of Lionel, and continued 
there as first tenor until he quitted the stage. 
He also sang at the Concert of Ancient Music, 
the Handel performances in Westminster Abbey, 
and in the provinces. In 1789 he made his 
first appearance as a composer by the produo- 
tion of the music to two pieces called 'False 
Appearances' and 'Fashionable Friends,* and 
from that date till 1820 furnished the music 
for 62 dramatic pieces, besides writing a con* 
siderable number of Englirii, Italian ana French 
single songs, etc In 1 793 he was engaged at the 
King's Theatre, of which he was for many years 
acting manager. On Jan. i, 1802, he opened a 
music shop in Pall Mall adjoining the Opera 
House, but this promising speculation £Euled 
owing to his inattention, and in 181 1 he was 
made a bankrupt. He also engaged in the wine 
trade, and this circumstance, combined with 
the suspicion that some of Kelly*s compositions 
were derived from foreign sources, led Sheridan 
to propose that he should inscribe over his shop, 
^MichiEtel Kelly, Composer of Wines and Im- 
porter of Music* On Sept. 5, 181 1, at Dublin, 
^elly made his last appearance on the stage. 
In 1826 he published his ' Beminiscences ' in 
2 vols. 8vo. This entertaining work, which 
reached a second edition in the same year, was 
written by Theodore Hook from materials fur- 
nished by Kelly. Ito personal notices of Mozart 
are both interesting and important, and have 
been done justice to by Otto Jahn (2nd ed. ii. 
242, ete.) Kelly died at Maivate, Oct. 9, 1826. 
The following is a list of the pieces for which he 
composed the music : — 



* VUae AppearanoM' And *Fuh- 
lODAble FrieDdt.' ITW; 'A Friend 
In need.' ' The Lett of the Tkinaj.' 
* Hm CbSmaej Corner,' end 'TIm 



Oestle 8peetre.*ng7: 'Btne Beard.* 
The Oatlawn.* 'The OepCive of 
Splelbefg ' (with DntMlD.end ' An- 
reUo tad Mrvi'le.' nW: 'Fendel 



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KELLY. 



TtnMi' and 'Plarro/ 1799; 'Of try/ 'The Wood Demon (wHh Jf. 
•ee to-morrow.' *De Montfort.' P. Klnff). 'The House of Morrllle,' 
and 'The Indians.' 1800: 'Deaf /Adelffitha,' and 'Time's a teU- 
aad Damb.' ' AdKlmom the Out- tate.' 1807 ; ' The Jew of Mogadore,' 
law.' and * The Olpv Prince.' 1801 ; * The Africans,' and * Venonl,' 1808; 
* Urania.' ' Alsonah.' and ' A | ' The Foundling of the Forest ' and 
House to be soVL' 1802; 'The Hero I 'The Jubilee.' 1809; 'Onstarus 
of the North.' 'The Marriage Fro- |Ya8a' and a Ballet. IBIO; ' The 
mise.' and 'Lure laughs at lock- 1 Feasant Bar.' 'The Boyal Oak.' 
smiths.' 1^03; 'Cinderella.' 'The and 'One o'clock.' 1811; 'The Ab- 
Counterfelt,' ' The Hunter of the sent Apothecarr.* ' The Busslans.' 
Alps,' 'The Gay Decelrers,' ' The |* Polly.' 'The Uladnn.' and *Har- 
Bllnd Bargain,' and 'The land we loquin Huper,' 1813; 'The Be- 
live In.' 1801; 'The Honey Hoon,' morM,' 1814; 'The Tnlcnown 
*A Prior Claim.' and 'Youth. Guest.' 1810; 'The FaU of Taranto,' 
lore, and Follr.' 1805; ' We By by 1817; ' The Bride of Abydos.' 1818 ; 
Bight.' 'The Forty Thleres,* and 'Abudah.' 1819; and 'The lAdy 
'Adrian and Orllla,' 1806: 'The and the Devil,' IfflOi 
Toung Hussar,* ' Town and Good- I [W, H. H.l 

KELWAY, Joseph, » pnpil of Geminiani, 
was organist of St. Michaers, Comhill, which he 
resigned in 1756 on being appointed organist of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Flelds vice Weldon deceased. 
Upon the arrival of Queen Charlotte in England 
Kelway was appointed her instructor on the 
harpsichord. As a harpsichord player he was 
remarkable for neatness of touch and rapidity of 
execution, and for his ability in performing Scar- 
latti's pieces. As an organist he excelled in extem- 
poraneous performance, of which he was such a 
master as to attract the most eminent musicians 
in London (amongst them Handel) to the 
church in order to hear him. Bumey (iy. 665) 
characterises his playing as full of a * masterly 
wildnesa . . . bold, rapid, and fanciful.' His pub- 
lished harpsichord sonatas are very inferior to 
his extemporaneous effusions. He died in 1782. 

His elder brother, Thomas, was educated as a 
chorister in Chichester Cathedral, and succeeded 
John Beading as organist there in 1720. Seven 
services and nine anthems by him are contained 
in a MS. volume in the library of Chichester 
CathedraL His Evening Service in B minor is 
printed in Kimbault's 'Cathedral Music,' and 
two others in A minor and G minor are published 
by Novello. He died May 21, 1749. [W.H.H.] 

KEMBLE, Adblaide, younger daughter of 
Charles Kemble, the eminent actor, was bom in 
1 8 14 and educated for a concert singer. She 
appeared first in London and afterwanls at the 
York Festival in 1835, but with little success. 
She then went to Paris for improvement, and 
from thence in 1836 to Germany, and early in 
1839 to Italy. In that year she made her ap- 
pearance at La Fenice, Venice, as Norma with 
decided success. In 1840 she sang at Trieste, 
Milan, Padua, Bologna, and Mantua with in- 
creasing reputation. In 1841 she returned to 
England and appeared in an English version of 
'Norma' with marked success. In 1842 she 
sang in English versions of ' Le Nozze di Figaro,' 
'La Sonnambula,' ' Semiramide,' and ' H Matri- 
monio Segreto.' In 1843 she was married to 
Mr. Frederick U. Sartoris and retired finom the 
profession. In 1867 she published * A Week in 
a French Country House.' [W. H. H.] 

KEMP, Joseph, Mus. Doc., was bom in 
Exeter in 1778, and was placed as a chorister 
in the cathedral under William Jackson, with 
whom he continued as a pupil after quitting the 
choir. In 1802 he removed to Bristol on being 



KENT. 

appointed organist of the cathedral. In 1809 he 
resigned his appointment and settled in London. 
In 1808 he took the degree of Mus. Bac. at Cam- 
bridge, his exercise being a ' War Anthem, A 
sound of battle is in the land.' In 1 809 he was by 
special dispensation permitted to proceed Doctor 
of Music ; his exercise being an anthem entitled 
•The Crucifixion.' On Oct. 25, 1809, 'The 
Jubilee,' an occasional piece by him, was pro- 
duced at the Haymarket Theatre. In 18 10 a 
melodrama called ' The Siege of Isca [Exeterl, or. 
The Battles in the West,' written by Dr. Kemp, 
with music by himself and Domenico Corri, was 
produced at the theatre in Tottenham Street 
In the same year he lectured on his 'New 
System of Musical Education,' probably the first 
method propounded in England for teadiing 
music to numbers simultaneously. In 1814 ^® 
returned to Exeter, resided there till 181 8, then 
went to France, remained until 18 21, and again 
returned to Exeter. He died in London, May 
22, 1824. Dr. Kemp published an anthem, 
'I am Alpha and Omega' ; 'Twelve Psalmodical 
Melodies ; 'Twelve Songs'; 'Twenty Double 
Chants ' ; ' Musical Illustrations of the Beauties 
of Shakspeare ' ; ' Musical Illustrations of The 
Lady of the Lake ' ; ' The Vocal Magazine ' ; 
' The New System of Musical Education, Part 
I.' ; and numerous single glees, songs, duets, and 
trios. [W.H.H.] 

KENDALL, John, organist of the church of 
St. Marylebone, published in 1780 a book of 
organ pieces. [W.H.H.] 

KENT, James, bora at Winchester, March 
13, 1700, became a chorister of the cathedral 
there under Vaughan Bichardson, but was 
shortly afterwards removed to London and ox- 
tered as a chorister of the Chapel Royal under 
Dr. Croft. There he attracted the attention of 
the sub-dean, Rev. John Dolben, through whose 
influence he obtained, on leaving the cnoir, the 
post of organist of the parish church of Finedon, 
Northamptonshire, the seat of the Dolbms. 
He resigned his office at Finedon on obtaining 
the organistship of Trinity College, Cambridge^ 
which he held till 1737, when he succeeded John 
Bishop as oiganist of the Cathedral and College 
of Winchester. He married Elizabeth, daught^ 
of John Freeman, a singer at the theatre in the 
time of Purcell, afterwards a member of the 
choirs of the Chapel Royal, St. Paul's and West- 
minster, and who died Dec. 10. 1736. It was 
not until the decline of life that Kent could be 
induced to publish ; he then printed a volume 
containing 12 anthems. In 1774 he resigned 
his appointments in favour of Peter Fussell, 
and died at Winchester. May 6, 1776. After 
his death a volume containing a Morning and 
Evening Service and 8 Anthems by him was 
published under the editorship of Joseph Corfe. 
Kent assisted Dr. Boyce in the compilation of 
his ' Cathedral Music. His anthems have been 
extravagantly extolled by some, and decried by 
others ; in both cases unjustly. They are 
smooth and even productions, generally pleai- 



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KENT. 

log, bat rarely rising above mediocrity. His 
'Hear my Prayer* was at one time a great 
£ivoarite, but it is a poor composition. He bor- 
rowed f^reely firom Italian composers, without 
acknowledgment, as is shown by a volmne full of 
his notes in the possession of Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. 
LSee Bassani.] [W.H. H.] 

KENT BUGLE, or Royal Kent bugle, an 
improTement of the Key bugle, said to have been 
named in consequence of a performance upon it 
before H. B. H. the Duke of Kent by Halliday in 
Dublin, shortly after its invention. It had a 
complete chromatie scale from Bb below the 
treUe stave to G above, — ^but is now superseded 
by valve instruments. [G.] 

KEOLAJjniHE, OB, the unkarthlt bkidb. 
Grand opera in a acts ; words by Fitzball, music 
by Balfe. Produced at English Opera House 
March 9, 1841. [G.] 

KEPER, JoHK, of Hart Hall, Oxford, who 
graduated as M.A. Feb. 11, 1569, produced in 
1574 • Select Psalms in four parts.* [W.H.H.] 
KERAULOPHON (from /ctpa^kijs, a horn- 
blower, and ^a»^, a voice). An 8-feet Organ 
Manual Stop, of a reedy and pleasant quality of 
tone. It was invented by Messrs. Gray & 
Davison, and used by them for the first time m 
1843 in the organ they made for St. Paul's 
Church, Wilton Place. An example was intro- 
dnoed by the French firm of Ducroquet into 
their organ at St. Eustache, Paris, erected in 
1854. [E.J.H.] 

KERL, JoHAim Caspab^ celebrated organist* 
bom in 1628, aa is to be concluded from the Mor- 
toarium of the old Augustine church of Munich. 
Mattheeon's ' Ehrenpforte ' contains the only de- 
tails known of his life. He came early to Vienna* 
and learnt the organ from Valentin!, then organist, 
afterwards Capdilmeister to the Oourt, on whose 
r eco mm endation Ferdinand HI. sent him to Rome 
to study under Carissimi. In all probability he 
i^so learnt from Fre8C(A)aldi, possibly at the same 
time as his countryman Froberger. Having re- 
turned to Germany he entered the service of 
the Bavarian Elector on Feb. 22, 1656, and in 
that capacity was present at the coronation of 
JjBOfcld I. at Fnmkfurt (July 22, 1658), where 
be is said to have been presented by Schmelzer 
vice-Court-CapellmeistOT to the Emperor, and 
invited to improvise on a given theme in presence 
of the court. Some doubt is thrown on this by 
the fact that Schmelzer did not become vice- 
04>ellmelster till the 1st of Jan. 1671 ; but 
he may well have been in attendance on the 
Emperor at Frankfort, and at any rate KerPs 
reputation as an orgMiist dates firom the coro- 
nation. Kerl remained at Munich for 15 years. 
For the Italian singers there he oomposed a 
'Missa nigra* entirely written in black notes, 
and a duet for two castrati *0 bone Jesu,' 
the only accompaniment of which is a groimd 
bass paesini? tnrough all the keys. Besides 
oiba* church works, sonatas for a violins and 
a viol di gamba, and a 'Modulatio organica 

> SotTonKer1,Ma]IdIetIoDar*«M7. 



KEY. 



61 



super Magnificat' (Munich, 1686), Mattheson 
mentions toccatas, canzonas, ricercars, and ba- 
tailles of his composition for the organ. In 1673 
he threw up his poet and went to Vienna, where 
he subsisted by giving lessons at what was then 
a high scale of remuneration. When he re- 
turned to Munich is not known, but he died 
there on the 13th of Feb. 1693. His tomb, 
showing this date, was formerly in the Augustine 
church, but that is now the custom-house, and 
the tomb is no longer discoverable. His style is 
remarkable for the frequent introduction of dis- 
cords resolved in a new and unexpected manner, 
in which respect he is deservedly considered a 
predecessor of Sebastian Bach. He wrote the 
music of the operas 'Oronte,' 1657; *Erinto,' 
1661 ; and of the serenata in honour of the birth- 
day of the wife of the Elector (Nov. 6, 1661), 
* II pretensione del Sole.' One of his canzonas 
has been preserved to the world in a singular 
but most efficient way — owing to its insertion by 
Handel in 'Israel in Egypt ' to the words * Egypt 
was glad when they departed.' The only chwige 
made is that of the key, firom D minor to E minor. 
Hawkins gives the canzona inits original form in 
his HistOTy, chap. 12^. A toccata in C is riven 
in Pauer's « Alte Clavier musik ' vol. 3. [F. G.] 

KETTLE-DRUMS aie^copper or brass basins, 
with a skin or head that can be tuned to a true 
musical note. Used by cavalry and in orchestras. 
[Dbum, a, vol. i. p. 4036.] [V. de P.] 

KEY. A word of manifold signification. It 
means the scale or system in which modem 
music is written; the front ends of the lexers by 
which the piano, organ or harmonium are 
played ; the levers which cover or uncover the 
holes in such instruments as the flute and oboe ; 
lastly, an instruction book or 'Tutor.' English 
is the only language in which the one term has 
all these meanings. 

I. The systems of music which preceded the 
modem system, and were developed by degrees 
into it, were characterised by scaJes which not 
only differed from one another in pitch but also 
in the order of succession of the various inter- 
vals of which they were composed. In modem 
music the number of notes from which a scale 
can commence is increased by the more minute 
subdivision of each octave; but each of these 
notes is capable of being taken as the starting 
point of the same scale, that is to say of either 
the major or minor mode, which are the only two 
distinct scales recognised in modem music. This 
forms a strong point of contrast between the 
sjicient and modem styles. The old was a sys- 
tem of scales, which differed intrinsically, and 
thereby afforded fiatcilities for varying qualities 
of melodio expression ; the modem is essentially 
a system of keys, or relative transposition of 
identical scales, by which a totally distinct order 
of effects from the old style is obtained. 

The standard scale called the major mode is a 
series in which semitones occur between the third 
and fourth and between the seventh and eighth 
degrees counting from the lowest note, all the, 
other intervals being tones. It is obvious from 



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52 



KEY. 



the irregularity of this distribution that it is not 
possible for more than one key to be constructed 
of the same set of notes. In order to distinguish 
practically between one and another, one series is 
taken as the normal key and all the others are 
severally indicated by expressing the amount of 
difference between them and it. The normal key, 
which happens more by accident than design to 
begin on C, is constructed of what are called 
KatunJs, and all such notes in the entire system 
as do not occucr in this series are called AccidentaLs. 
In order to assimilate a series which starts from 
some other note to the series starting from C, it 
is necessary to indicate the notes alien to the 
scale of C, which will have to be «ubstituted 
for such notes in that scale as could not occur 
in the new series — ^in other words, to indicate the 
accidentals which will serve that purpose ^ and 
firom their number the musician at once recog- 
nises the note from which his series must start. 
This note therefore is called the Key-note, and 
the artificial series of notes resulting from the 
arrangement is called the Key. Thus to make a 
series of notes starting &om G relatively the same 
as those starting from G, the F immediately 
below 6 will have to be supplemented by an 
accidental which will give the necessary semi- 
tone between the seventh and eighth degrees of 
the scale. Similarly, D being relatively the same 
distance from G that G is fi:^m G, the same pro- 
cess will have to be gone through again to assimi- 
late the scale starting from D to that starting 
from G. So that each time a fifth higher is 
chosen for a key-note a fresh accidental or sharp 
has to be added immediately below that note, 
and the number of sharps can always be told by 
counting the number of fifths which it is necessary 
to go through to arrive at that note, beginning 
from the normal G. Thus G— G, G — D, D— A, 
A — E is the series of four fifths necessary to be 
gone tiirough in passing frxmi G to E, and the 
number of sharps in the key of E Ib therefore 
four. 

Conversely, if notes be chosen in a descending 
series of fifths, to present new key-notes it will be 
necessary to flatten the fourth note of the new 
key to bring the semitone between the third and 
fourth degrees ; and by adopting a similar process 
to that given above, the number of fiats necessary 
to assimilate the series for any new key-note can 
be told bv the number of fifths passed through in 
a descending series from the normal C. 

In the Minor Mode the most important and 
universal characteristic is the occurrence of the 
semitone between the second and third instead of 
between the third and fourth degrees of the scale, 
thereby making the interval ^tween the key- 
note and the third a minor third instead of a 
major one, frt>m which p^uliarity the term 
' minor * arises. In former days it was customary 
to distinguish the modes from one another by 
speaking of the key-note as having a greater or 
lesser third, as in Boyce's Collection of Cathedral 
Music, where the Services are described as in 
* the key of Bb with the greater third ' or in ' the 
key of D with the lesser third/ and bo forth. 



KEY. 

The modifications of the upper part of the scald 
which accompany this are so variable that no 
rule for the distribution of the intervals can be 
given. The opposite requirements of harmony 
and melody in relation to voices and instruments 
will not admit of any definite form being taken as 
the absolute standard of the minor mode ; hence 
the Signatures, or representative groups of aoci- 
dentab, which are given for the minor modes are 
really of the nature of a compromise, and are in 
each case the same as that of the major scale of 
the note a minor third above the key-note of the 
minor scale. Such scales are called relatives^ 
relative major and relative minor—because they 
contain the greatest number of notes in common. 
Thus A, the minor third below G, is taken as the 
normal key of the minor mode, and has no 
signature ; and similarly to the distribution of the 
major mode into keys, eacl^ new key-note which 
is taken a fifth higher will require a new sharp, 
and each new key-note a fifth lower will require 
a new flat. Thus E, the fifth above A, will have 
the signature of one sharp, corresponding to the 
key of the major scale of G ; and D, Qie fifth 
below A, will have one flat, corresponding to the 
key of tl^ major scale of F, and so on. The new 
sharp in the former case falls on the supertonic 
of the new key so as to bring the semitone 
between the second and third degrees of the 
scale, and the new flat in the latter case fidls on 
the submediant of the new key so as to bring a 
semitone between the. fifth and sixth degrees. 
The fact that these signatures for the minor 
mode are only approximations ia however ren- 
dered obvious by their &iling to provide for the 
leading note, which is a necessity in modem 
music, and requires to be expressly marked wher- 
ever it occurs, in contradiction to the signature. 

There is a very common opinion that the tone 
and effect of different keys is characteristic, and 
Beethoven himself has given some confirmation 
to it by several utterances to the point. Thus in 
one ^ place he writes * H moll schwarze Tonart,' i,e, 
B minor, a black key ; and, in speaking about 
^Klopstock, says that he is 'always Maestoso! 
Db major!' In a letter to Thomson' of Edin- 
burgh (Feb. 19, 181 3), speaking of two national 
songs sent him to airange, he says, ' You have 



written them in 






but as that key 



seemed to me unnatural, and so little consistent 
with the direction Amoroso that on the contrary it 
would change it into Barhare8Co{qvC&\i contraire il 
le changerait en Barbaresco), I have set the song 
in the suitable key.* This is singular, consider- 
ing his own compositions in the key of four flats, 
neither of which can justly be entitled barbaresco. 
Composersoertainly seem to have had predilections 
for particular keys, and to have cast movranents 
in particular styles in special keys. If the system 
of equal temperament were perfectly carried 
out, the difference would be less apparent than 

1 In a sketch for Cello SoDAta, op. 108. No. 8, quoted by KottetMhm. 
3 In a o»Tenatlon with BocbllU {fUt Freondo der TookunsL 
Ir. 856). 
saiTenbrThajer.iU.4L 



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KEY. 

it n; bnt with unequal temperament, or when 
the tuner does not distribute the tempering 
of the fifUiB with absolute equality in instru- 
ments of fixed intonation, there is necessarily 
a considerable difference between one key and 
another. With stringed instrtunents the sonority 
of the key is considerably affected by the number 
of open strings which occur in it, and their posi- 
tion as important notes of the scale. Berlioz has 
given a complete scheme of his views of the 
qualities of the keys for violins in his Traits 
d'lnstrumentation. With keyed instruments a 
good deal of the difference results firom the posi- 
tion of the hands and technical consid^utions 
resulting therefrom. A real difference also is 
obvious in keys which are a good deal removed 
from one another in pitch, though inasmuch as 
pitch is not constant this cannot apply to keys 
which are near.* [C.H.H.P.] 

n. KEY (Ft, Touehe; Ital. TaOo ; Ger. Taste) 
and KEYBOARD of keyed stringed instruments 
(Fr. CUivier; Ital. Tastaiura; Ger. Claviatur, 
Tattaiur.) A 'key* of a pianoforte er other 
masical instrument with a keyboard, is a lever, 
balanced see-saw fashion near its centre, upon 
a metal pin. It is usually of lime-tree, because 
that wood is little liable to warp. Besides the 
metal pin upon the balance rail of the keyframe, 
modem instruments have another metal pin for 
each key upon the front rail, to prevent too much 
lateral motion. A key is long or short according 
to its employment a» a 'natural' or 'sharp,' 
a2id wiU be referred to heve accordingly, although 
in practice a sharp is also a flat, and the written 
sharp or flat occasionally occurs upon a long key. 
Each natural is covered as far as it is visible 
with ivoty : and each sharp or raised key bears a 
block of ebony or other hard black wood. In old 
instruments the practice in this respect varied, 
as we shall show presently. In English alone' 
the name ' key' refers to the Latin Clavis, and 
possibly to the idea of unlocking sound transferred 
to the lever from, the early use of the word to 
express the written note. The Romance and 
Gmnan names are derived from 'touch.* 

A frame or, technically, a 'set ' of keys is a key- 
boardy or clavier according to the Fr^ch appel- 
lation. In German Klavier usually means the 
keyed stringed instrument itself, of any kind. 
Ths influence of the keyboard upon the develop- 
ment of modem music is as conspicuous as it has 
been important. To this day C major is ' natural ' 
on the keys, as it is in the corresponding notation. 
Other scales are formed by substituting accidental 
ihanps or flats for naturals both in notation and 
CB the keyed instrument, a fact which is evidence 
of tlie common origin and early growth together 
of the two. But the notation soon outgrew the 
fcejhoard. It has been remarked by Professor 
"Bxadey that the ingenuity of human inventions 
I been paralleled by the tenacity with which 
forms have been preserved. Although 



KEY. 



53 



> Bn a paper by Sebnmann. 'Charaktaristik der Tonarten,' In bla 
'flwtaiaiiHi BchrlfteD,' L UO. 

> IB French, however. Uie keys of a flnta or other wood wind Instro- 
■aalaiecalMdc^fc 



the number of keys within an octave of the key- 
board are quite inadequate to render the written 
notation of the four and twenty major and minor 
modes, or even of the semitones allied to the one 
that it was first mainly contrived for, no attempts 
to augment the number of keys in the octave or 
to change their familiar disposition have yet suc- 
ceeded. 1?he permanence of the width of the 
ectave again has been determined by the average 
span of the hand, and a Ruckers harpsichord of 
1614 measures but a small fraction of an indi 
less in the eight keys, than a Broadwood or 
Erard concert-grand piano of 1879. ^® ^^® 
stated under Clavichobd that we are with- 
out definite information as to the origin of the 
keyboard. We do not exactly know where it was 
introduced or when. What evidence we possess 
would place the date in the 14th century, and the 
locality^-though much more doubtfully — inornear 
Venice. The date nearly eynchronises with the 
invention of the clavichord and clavicembalo, and 
it is possible that it was introduced nearly simul- 
taneously into the organ, although which was 
first we cannot discover. There is reason to 
believe that the little portable organ or regal 
may at first have had a keyboard derived from 
the T-shaped keys of the Hurdt Gurdy. The 
first keyboard would be Diatonic, with fluctu- 
ating or simultaneous use of the Bb and B^ in 
the doubtful territory between the A and of 
the natural scale. But when the row of sharps 
was introduced, and whether at once or by de- 
grees, we do not know. They are doubtless 
due to the frequent necessity for transposition, 
and we find them complete in trustworthy 
pictorial representations of the 15th century. 
There is a painting by Mending in the Hospital 
of St. John at Bruges, from whence it has never 
been removed, dated 1479, wherein the keyboard 
of a regal is depicted exactly as we have it in 
the arrangement of the upper keys in twos and 
threes, though the upper keys are of the same 
light colour as the lower, and are placed farther 
back. 

The oldest keyed instrument we have seen 
with an undoubtedly original keyboard is a 
Spinet' in the museum of the Conservatoire at 
Paris, bearing the inscription * Fraiiciaci de 
PortalupU Veronen, opus, MDXXIII.' The 
compass is 4 octaves and a half tone (from E 
io F) and the natural notes are black with the 
sharps white. The oldest known in England is 
a similar instrument of the same compass in 
South Kensington Museum, the work of Anni- 
bale Rosso of Milan, dated 1555. As usual in 
Italy, the naturals are white and the sharps 
bl^k. The Flemings, especially the Ruckers, 
osciUated between black and ivory naturals. 
(We here correct the statement as to their prac- 
tice in CiAViOHORD, 367 a.) The clavichords of 
Germany and the clavecins of France which we 
have seen have had black naturals, as, according 
to Dr. Bumey, had those of Spain. Loosemore and 
the Haywards, in England, in the time of Charles 
II, used boxwood for naturals ; a clavichord of 

> Ko. 21fi of Cheuqaet's Catalogae (1875). 



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u 



KEY. 



4^ ootftvef axistiiig near Hanover in 1875 had 
the same — a due perhaps to its date. Keen and 
Slade in the time of Qaeen Anne, used ebony. 
Dr. Bumej writes that the Bitchoooks also had 
ivory naturals in their spinets, and two of Thomas 
Hitchcock's still existing have them. But one of 
John Hitchoock*s, dated 1630, said to have be- 
longed to the Princess Amdia, and now owned 
by Mr. W. Dale, has ebony naturals. All three 
have a strip of the colour of the naturals inserted 
in the ivory sharps, and have 5 octaves compass — 
from G to G, 61 keys ! This wide compass for 
that time— undoubtedly auth^itic — ^may be com- 
pared with the widest Kuckers to be mentioned 
further on. 

Under Clavichord we have collected what 
information is trustworthy of the earliest com- 
pass of the keyboards of that instrument. The 
Italian spinets of the i6th century were nearly 
always of 4 octaves and a -semitone, but divided 
into F and G instruments with the semitone £ or 
B^ as the lowest note. But this apparent E or B 
may from analogy with ■* short octave ' organs — 
at that time frequently made— have been tuned 
C or G, the fourth below the next lowest note.* 
Another question aiises whether the F or C thus 
obtained were not actually of the same absolute 
pitch (as near as pitch can be practically said to 
be absolute). We know from Arnold Schlick 
('Spiegel der Orgelmacher,' 1511; reprinted in 
'MonatshiftefurMusik-Greschichte,^ Berlin, 1869, 
p. 103) that F and O oigans were made on one 
measur^nent or pitch for the lowest pipe, and 
this may have been earned on in spinets, which 
would account for the old tradition of their being 
tuned ' in the fifth or the octave,* meaning that 
difference in the pitch which would arise from 
such a system. 

The Antwerp (Ruckers) harpsichords appear 
to have varied arbitrarily in the oompass of Uieir 
keyboutis. We have observed E— -C 45 aotes, 
0— C 49, B— D 62, O— E 53» C— F 54, G— D or 
A— E 56, G— E or G — F (without the lowest 
Gf) 58, F— F 61, and in two of Hans Ruckers (the 
eldest) F — G 63 notes. In some imrtainoftfl however 
these keyboards have been extended, even, as has 
been proved, by tiie makers themselves. 

The English seem to have early preferred a 
wide compass, as with the Hitchcocks, already 
referred to. Kirkman and Shudi in the next 
century, however, in their large harpsichords 
never went higher than F (9), although the 
latter, towards the end of hiis career, about 
1770, increased his scale downwards to the C (q). 
Here Kirkman did not follow him. Zumpe 
began making square pianos in London, about 
1766, with the G — F compass (omitting the 
lowest Gf)— nearly 5 octaves — but soon adopted 
tho R octaves, F — F (r), in which John Broad- 
wood, who reconstructed the square piano, fol- 
lowed him. The advances in oompass of Messrs. 
Broadwood and Sons* pianofortes are as follows. 
In 1793, to 5j octaves, F to C («). In 1796, 6 

1 Y«t PmetoHui dtetloetljr dowrlbes the HalberaUdt ongan. bnlH 
laSB. re-coMtnieted 1494. m luring the lowest note B!)-the toftle 
proceeding by •emltonet upwards, and we know the leotlment for the 
lesdfaig note had not thea been trolved. 



KEY. 

octaves, C to C (0 : this was the oompass of 
Beethoven*s Broadwood Grand, 1817. In 1804, 
6 octaves F to F (u). In 181 1, 6} octaves, C to 
F (v). In 1844 the treble G was attained, and in 
1852 the treble A. But before this the A — A 
7 -octave compass had been introduced by oth^ 
makers, and soon after became general. Even 
C appears in recent concert grands, and com* 
posers have written up to it ; fdso the deepest Cr, 
which was, by the way, in Broadwoods* Exhibi* 
tion grands of 1851. (See w, a*, y, z). Many 
however find a difficulty in distinguishing the 
highest notes, and at lea^t as many in dis- 
tinguishing the lowest, so that this extreme oom- 
pass is beyond accurate perception except to • 
very few. 



^1 


(r) 




4^^^jf^^ 


&^54^t^^ 


^ 8»i 


«:«- 


r • i/ 4- «J 

8va 8ra* 



9va 



<«0 ^ (^) f 







The invention of a 'symmetrical* keyboard, by 
which a uniform fingering for all scales, and a 
more perfect tuning, may be attained, is due to 
j Mr. Bosanquet,'of St. John's College, Oxford, who 
' has had ^ocistructed an enhannonic harmonium 
j Mrith one. In 'An Elementary Treatise on Mu- 
, sical Intervals and Temperament ' (Macmillan, 
1876), he has described this instrument — with 
passing reference to other new keyboards inde- 
pendently invented by Mr. Poole, and more 
recently by Mr. CoKn Brown. The fingering re* 
quired for Mr. Bosanquet's keyboard agrees with 
tJiat usual for the A major scale, and (lb. p. ao) 
' any passage, chorrl, or combination of any kind, 
has exactly the same form under the fingers, 
in whatever k«y it is played.* Here we have the 
simplicity of the Double Action harp and un- 
doubtedly a great saving in study. In Mr. 
Bosanquet^s harmonium the number of keys in 
an octave available for a system proceeding by 
perfect fifths is 53. But in the seven tiers of hia 
keyboard 'he has 84, for the purpose of facilitating 
the playing of a * round ' of keys. It is however 
pretty well agreed, even by acousticians, that the 
piano had best remain with thirteen keys in the 
octave, and with tuning according to ' equal tem- 
perament.* 

In Grermany a recent theory of the keyboard 
has sought not to disturb either the number of 
keys or the equal temperament. But an arrange- 
ment is proposed, almost identical with the 
'sequential keyboard* invented and practically 
tried in England by Mr. William A. B. Lunn 
under the name of Arthur Wallbridge in 1843, 
in which six lower and six upper keys are grouped 
instead of the historical and customary seven and 
five in the octave. This gives all the major scalei 



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KEY. 

in two fingermgB, accoiding as a lower ot upper 
key may be the keynote. The note C becomes a 
black key, and the thumb is more frequently used 
on the black keys than has been usually per- 
mitted with the old keyboard. The latest school 
of pianists, however, regard the black and white 
keys as on a level (see Preface to Dr. Hans von 
bAow^s Selection from Cramers Studies, 1868) 
and this has tended to modify opinions on the point. 
In 1876-7 the parttsans of the new German 
keyboard formed themselves into a society, with 
the view of settling the stUl more difficult and 
vexed question of the reconstruction of musical 
notation. Thus, discarding all signs for sharps 
and flats, the five lines of the stave and one 
ledger line below, correspond to six black finger- 
keys for C, D. E. Ff, Gf, A|, and the four 
spaces, including the two blanks one above and 
one below the stave, correspond to six white 
fingei^keys, Clf, Df, F, G, A, B. Each octave 
requires a repetition of the stave, and the parti- 
cular octave is indicated by a number. The 
keyboard and the stave consequently correspond 
exactly, black for black and white for white, 
while the one ledger line shews the break of the 
octave. And further the pitch for each note, 
and the exact interval between two notes, for 
equal temperament, is shewn by the notation as 
well as on the keyboard. The name of the 
association is ' Chroma-Verein des gleichstufigen 
Tonsystems.' It has published a journal, *I)ie 
Tonkunst' (Berlin, Stilke), edited by Albert 
Hahn, whose pamphlet, *Zur neuen Klaviatur* 
(Kunigsberg, 1875), with those of Vincent, 
'Die Neuklaviatur • (Malchin, 1875) and of 
Otto Quanz, * Zur Geschichte der neuen chroma- 
tiichen Klaviatur' (Berlin, 1877), are impor- 
tant contributions to the literature of the sub- 
ject. The inventor appears to have been K. B. 
Schumann, a physician at Bhinow in Branden- 
burg, who died in 1865, after great personal 
sacrifices ibr the promotion of his idea. The 
pianoforte maker of the society is Preuss of 
Berlin, who constructs the keyboard with G on a 
black key ; width of octave 14 centimetres,' (54 
inches nearly), and with radiating keys by which 
a tenth becomes as easy to span as an octave 
is at present. About sixteen other pianoforte 
makers are named, and public demonstrations 
have been given all over Germany. In this 
system much stress is laid upon C being no longer 
the privileged key. It will henceforth be no 
more 'natural' than its neighbours. Whether 
oar old keyboard be destined to yield to such a 
successor or not» there is very much beautiful 
piano musie of our own time, naturally contrived 
to fit the form of the hand to it, which it might 
be very difficult to graft upon another system 
even if it were more logically simple. 

Hie &ct that the fingering of the right hand 
upwards is frequently that of the left hand down- 
wards has led to the construction of a ' Piano h 
double claviers renvers^,' shown in the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878 by MM. Mangeot fr^res of 
that city. It is in fact two grand piimos, one 

1 Tba wldUi of 6of ttie pressat koyi. 



placed upon the ot! 

as the name indie 

as usual with the 

hand ; the higher h 

in the same positic 

played upon it pro 

notes running the 

always been the noi 

cumbersome contrii 

of similar passages 

other advantages, in playing extensions and avoid* 

ing the crossing of the hands, etc. [A. J.H.] 

IIL KEYS (Fr. Clefs; Ger. Klappe; Ital. 
Chiave). The name given to the levers on wind- 
instruments which serve the purpose of opening 
and closing certain of the sound-holes. They are 
divided into Open and Closed keys, according to 
the function which they perform. In the former 
case they stand normally above their respective 
holes, and are closed by the piessure of the 
finger ; whereas in the latter they close the hole 
until lifted by muscular action. The closed keys 
are levers of the first, the open keys usually of 
the third mechanical order. They serve the 
purpose of bringing distant orifices within the 
reach of the hand, and of covering apertures 
which are too large for the last phalanx of the 
finger. They are inferior to the finger in lacking 
the delicate sense of touch to which musical 
expression is in a great measure due. In the 
Bassoon therefore the sound-holes are bored 
obliquely in the substance of the wood so as to 
diminish the divergence of the fingers. Keys 
are applied to instruments of the Flute family, 
to Reeds, such as the Oboe and Glarinet, and 
to instruments with cupped mouthpieces, such 
as the Key Bugle and the Ophicleide, the name 
of which is a compound of the Greek words for 
Snake and Key. [Ophicleide.] In the original 
Serpent the holes themselves were closed by the 
pad of the finger, the tube being so curved as 
to bring them within reach. [Serpent.1 

The artistic arrangement of Keys on all classes 
of wind instruments is a recent development. 
Flutes, Oboes, Bassoons, and Clarinets, up to the 
beginning of the present century or even later, 
were almost devoid of them. The Bassoon bow- 
ever early possessed several in its bass joint for 
the production of the six lowest notes on its 
register, which far exceed the reach of the hand. 
In some earlier specimens, as stated in the article 
referred to, this mechanism was rudely preceded 
by plugs, requiring to be drawn out before per- 
formance and not easily replaced with the neces- 
sary rapidity. [See Bassoon.] 

The older Flutes, Clarinets, and Oboes only 
possess three or four keys at most, cut out of sheet 
metal, and closely resembling mustard-spoons. 
The intermediate tones, in this deficiency of 
keys, were produced by what are termed * cross- 
fingerings,' which consist essentially in closing 
one or two lower holes with the fingers, while 
leaving one intermediate open. A rude approxi- 
mation to a semitone was thus attained, but the 
note is usually of a dull and mufiled character. 
Boehm, in the flute named after him, entirely 



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66 



KEYS. 



diicarded the use of these ' cross-fiogered' notes. 
[See Flute.] 

Keys are now fiishioned in a far more artistic 
and convenient form, a distinction in shape being 
made between those which are open, and those 
normally closed ; so that the player may be 
assisted in performance by his instinctive sense 
of touch. [See Contbapagotto.] Besides the 
Bassoon, the Como di Bassetto affords a good 
example of this contrivance, the scale being 
carried down through four semitones by inter- 
locking keys, worked by the thumb of the right 
hand alone. [W.H.S.] 

KEY-BUGLE. An improrement of the ori- 
ginal bugle, which had no keys, and therefore 
could only yield certain restricted notes [see 
p. a8o] by the addition of keys. It is said to 
have been made by Logier. The Kent buolb 
is either a further improvement, or only another 
name for the same thing. [G.] 

KEY-NOTE. The note by which the key is 
named, and from which the scale commences : 
the Tonic. [See Key ; Tonic] 

KIEL, Fbiedeich, Jx>m Oct. 7, 1821, at 
Puderbach on the Lahn ; son of a schoolmaster, 
who taught him the pianoforte. At 14 he began 
the violin under Schulz, Concertmeister to Prince 
Carl von Wittgcnstein-Berleberg, and soon en- 
tered the band of the reigning Prince, who sent 
him first to Kummer at Coburg, and in 1843 to 
Dehn at Berlin. While there he received a 
salary from King Frederic William IV. His 
first compositions were for the pianoforte, 'Canons 
und Fugen ' op. i and 2 ; variations and fugue, 
op. 17; and several pieces for P. F. and cello, of 
which the ' Reisebilder ' are specially interesting. 
In 62 his Kequiem (op. 20), a very remarkable 
work, was performed by Stem*s Choral Society — 
also by the University Musical Society of Cam- 
bridge, May 21, 1878. In 66 he composed a 
' Missa Solemnis,' and in 74 an oratorio 'Christus.' 
He has been a member of the council of the 
Berlin Academic der KUnste since 1869, and is 
professor of composition in the Hochschule fiir 
Musik, in which capacity he is much esteemed. 
Kiel is one of the most distinguished living 
masters of counterpoint and fugue, and a.H such 
forms one of the race of musicians of whom the 
late Moritz Hauptmann may be considered the 
chief. His compositions are of the sound classi- 
cal school, tempered with a due regard for the 
best modem tendencies. [F.G.] 

KIESEWETTER, Raphael Georo, Edler 
yoN Wiesenbrunn (uncle to Ambros the histo- 
rian of music), Imperial councillor, and learned 
author on musical subjects, bom at Holleschau 
in Moravia, Aug. 29, 1773 ; settled in Vienna in 
1794. In 1816 he began to form a collection of 
scores of the old masters, and made his house a 
rendezvous for the first musicians of Vienna. 
There also during Advent, Lent, and Holy Week, 
a first-rate amateur choir performed the principal 
works of the old Italian composers, and of Bach, 
Handel, etc. He died Jan. i, 1850, at Baden 
(Beethoven's Baden) near Vienna., but was buried 



KIND. 

in the cemetery at Vienna, 'vor der Wahringer 
Linie.' He was ennobled for his services as an 
official in the Kriegsrath, taking his title from 
his estate. Innimierable societies elected him 
a member in acknowledgement of his services 
as a musician. He left his musical MSS. and 
his correspondence with musical men of lettei% 
to Alois Fuchs, and to the court library his in- 
valuable collection of scores, with the oondiUon 
that they should be kept together as the ' Fond 
Kiesewetter.* 

That he was a most prolific writer the follow- 
ing list of his printed works will show. 

1. *Dle Verdlenste der NIeder- ' touroes Obfd. 1MS>. 7. Teberdw 
Under am die Tonkuntt ' (reoeived Leben. uud dIeWerke Palestrim'v' 
the sold prlce-medAU Amsterdam a coodcMatlon of Balnl's work left 
182K). 2. 'Oescbichte der euro- unpublUlied bj Kandler; ediud 
palach-abendHodlicheiMUs 1st; un- with prefkce and remarks Obid. 
serer heutlgen Musik' (Breitkopf ISMX. 8. 'Der nenen Artrtoxme* 



A H&rtel, l&t, &)d ed. 18461. S. 
* Ueberdle Masikder Neugrieohen,' 
with remarks on ancient Egyptian 
and ancient Greek musie: S trea- 
tises Obid. 1828). 4. 'Outdo von 
Arezzo.' Ufe and works Obid. 1840). 
6. ' Scbickaale and Benchaflbnheit 



zemreate AuMtze' Obid. }f<*i\. 
9. ' Ueber die Octave des Fytbmgo- 
ras,' supplement to the preeeding 
(Vienna 1848). 10. 'Catalog oeber 
die Sammlong der Partltaren alter 
Musik.' etcl (A'lenna 1M7). with 
prebce and appendix ' Gallertedcr 



des WeltlichenGesanges,' from the alten Contrapanctisten.' a sclec- 
earl7 Middle Ages down to the dis- tion from their worlo, chronotc^ 
corerr of the dramatic style and cally arranged. A]*o aboot £0 
rise of opera (ibid. 1841). «. 'Die scattered articles In dllliercnt pe- 
Muslk der Anber,' from original ' riodicals. reriewi^ etc 

[C.F.P.] 
KIND, JoHANN Friedrich, author of the 
words of Der Freischiitz ; bom at Leipsic March 
4, 1 768 ; brought up to the law, but frequented 
the Thomas School of his own accord. He began 
to practise literature as early as 1800, and i^er 
much success with novels and tales, settled in 
1 8 14 at Dresden, became a Hofrath, and defi- 
nitely renounced the law for a literary life. 
Here Weber met him, at the house of von 
Nordstem. About Feb. 15, 181 7, Kind read 
to him his ' Vandyck^s Landleben,' which 
so pleased the composer that he at once con- 
sulted him as to an opera-book. The choice of 
a source fell on ApeVs ' Gespensterbuch * (Ghost 
Stories). Weber had several years before been 
attached to the story of the Freischiitz, and so 
entirely did his enUiusiasm communicate itself 
to Kind, that by the evening of Feb. 23, 
he had completed the first act of the opera. 
Freischiitz was the only important joint composi- 
tion of the two, but Jahns's catalogue contains 
II other pieces the words of which were sup- 
plied by Kind. The chief of these is the ' Jubel 
Cantata,* another cantata called 'Natur und 
Liebe,* 5 songs, a part-songs, and a chorus. 
Some of these were taken from operas of Kind's 
— ' Der Weinberg an der Elbe,' * Der Abend am 
Waldbrunnen,' and ' Das Nachtlager in Granada.* 
The last of these was set to music by Con- 
radin Kreutzer. Kind seems to have supplied 
Spanish materials for Precioea, and Web^ had 
two librettos by him — Alcindor, 1 819, and 
Der Cid, 182 1 — imder consideration, but Frei- 
schiitz is the one which Weber adopted in faU. 
Kind's *Holzdieb* (Wood -thief) was composed by 
Marschner in 1824. He died at Dresden June 
25, 1843, having for many years quite forsaken 
literature. He ia described by Weber^s son as 

> The scores left to the cotirt library. 



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KIND. 

ft small perBcm, with a great opinion of himself 
and a harsh voice, a vols of his works were 
pabUshed, Leipzig, i8ai. [6.] 

KING, Charles, Mus. Bac., bom at Bury 
St Edmunds in 1687, hecame a chorister of St. 
Paul's under Dr. Blow and Jeremiah Clark. 
He was next a supernumerary singer in the 
choir at the small annual stipend of £14. On 
July 1 2, 1 707, he graduated as Mus. Bac. at 
Oxford. On the death of Clark, whose sister 
he had married, he was appointed almoner and 
master of the choristers of St. Paul's. In 1708 
he became also organist of St. Benet Fink, Royal 
Exchange. On Oct. 31, 1730, he was admitted 
a vicar choral of St. Paul's. King composed 
several services and anthems, some of which are 
printed in Arnold's 'Cathedral Music,* and 
otiiers in Page's 'Harmonia Sacra* ; abd there* 
ire some in 3ie Tudway Collection (Harl. MSS. 
7341 and 7343). Although his compositions 
evince no originality they are vocal and not 
without spirit, they long continued in &equent 
use in choirs, and some of them, particularly his 
services in F and C, are still performed. They 
have justified the joke of Dr. Greene, that King 
was a serviceable man. Six of them in all are 
published by Novello, besides five anthems. 
Hawkins intimates that his inferiority was the 
result rather of indolence than want of ability. 
He died March 1 7, 1 748. [ W. H. H.] 

KING, Matthew Pkteb, bom in 1773, 
studied composition under Charles Frederick 
Horn. His first productions were ' Three Sona- 
tas for the Pianoforte,' 'Eight Songs and a 
Cantata,' and other Pianoforte Sonatas. In 
1796 he published 'Thorough Bass made easy 
to every capacity,' and in 1800 *A General 
Treatise on Music,* etc., a work of repute, with 
2nd edition 1809. Between 1804 and 1819 he 
composed several dramatic pieces, chiefly for the 
English Opera House, Lyceum. In 181 7 his 
oaratorio, 'The Intercessinn,' was produced at 
Covent Garden. One of the songs in it 'Must 
I leave thee. Paradise ? * (known as ' Eve's Lam- 
entation') became very popular, and long found 
a frequent place in programmes of sacred music. 
King was also the composer of several glees and 
of numerous pianoforte pieces. His dramatic 
pieces were 'Matrimony,* 1804; 'The Invisible 
Giii* 1806; 'False Alarms* (with Braham) ; 
'One o'clock, or The Wood Demon' (with 
Kdly); and 'Ella Rosenberg,* 1807; 'Up all 
ni^V 1809; 'Plots* and *0h this Love,' 
1810; 'The Americans* (with Braham), and 
'Timour the Tartar,' 181 1 ; and 'The Fisher- 
man's Hut' (with Davy), 18 19. He died in 
Jan. 1833. 

His son, C. M. King, published in 1826 some 
songs which were favourably received. [W. H. H.] 

KING, Robert, Mus. Bao., was one of the 
hand of music to William and Mary and Queen 
Ann e. He graduated at Cambridge in 1696. 
He was the composer of many songs pub- 
lished in * Choice Ayres, Songs and Dia- 
logues,* 1684; 'Comes Amoris,' 1687-93; 'The 



KING'S BAND OF MUSIC. 



57 



Banquet of M;usick,' 1688-92 ; 'The Gentle- 
man's Journal,' 1693-94; and 'Thesaurus Mu- 
sicus,' 1695-96. He composed the songs in 
Crowne*s comedy, 'Sir Courtly Nice,* v^hich 
were printed in *The Theater of Music,* Book 
ii, 1685. In 1690 he set Shadwell's Ode on 
St. Cecilia*B day, '0 Sacred Harmony.* In 
1693 he set an Ode 'on the Rt. Hon. John 
Cecil, Earl of Exeter, his birthday, being the 
21 of Sept.* commencing 'Once more *ti8 bom, 
the happy day,' the words by Peter Motteux. 
A collection of 24 songs by him entitled * Songs 
for One, Two, and Three voices, composed to a 
Thorough Basse for y® Organ or Harpsicord,* 
engraven on copper, was published by the elder 
Walsh. The date of his death has not been 
•ascertained. He was living in 17 11. [W.H.H.] 

KING, William, bom 1624, son of George 
King, organist of Winchester Cathedral, was ad- 
mitted a clerk of Magdalen Collie, Oxford, 
Oct. 18, 1648. He graduated as B.A. June 5, 
1649, and in 1650 was promoted to a chaplaincy 
at M^dalen College, which he held until Aug. 
25, 1654, when he became a probationer-fellow 
of All Souls' College. On Dec. 10, 1664, he was 
appointed successor to Pickover as organist of 
New College. He composed a service in Bb and 
some anthems, and in 1668 published at Oxford 
' Poems of Mr. Cowley [The Mistress] and others, 
composed into Songs and Ayres, with a Thorough 
Basse to the Theorbo, Harpsicon, or Basse Violl.* 
He died Nov. 17, 1680. [W.H.H.] 

KING CHARLES THE SECOND, a comic 
opera in 2 acts ; words adapted by Desmond 
Ryan fix>m a comedy of Howard Payne's; 
music by G. A. Macfarren. Produced at the 
Princess 8 Theatre, Oct. 27, 1849. Payne*s 
comedy had before been turned into a ballet- 
pantomime, ' Betty,* music by Ambroise Thomas, 
and produced at the Grand Op^ra, Paris, July 10, 
1846. [GO 

KING*S BAND OF MUSIC, THE. The 
custom of the kings of England to retain as part 
of their household a band of musicians, more or 
less numerous, is very ancient. We learn that 
Edward IV. had 13 minstrels, 'whereof some be 
trompets, some with shalmes and smalle pypes.' 
Henry VIII.'s band in 1526 consisted of 15 trum* 
pets, 3 lutes, 3 rebecks, 3 taborets, a harp, 2 
viols, 10 sackbuts, a fife, and 4 drumslades. In 
I53q his band was composed of 16 trumpets, 4 
lutes, 3 rebecks, 3 taborets, a harp, 2 viols, 9 
sackbuts, 2 drumslades, 3 minstrels, and a player 
on the virginals. Edws^ VI. in 1548 retained 
8 minstrels, a player on the virginals, 2 lutes, a 
harper, a bagpiper, a drumslade, a rebeck, 7 viols, 
4 sackbuts, a Welsh minstrel, and a flute player. 
Elizabeth's band in 1581 included trumpets, 
violins, flutes, and sackbuts, besides musicians 
whose instruments are not specified ; and 6 years 
later it consisted of 16 trumpets, lutes, harps, a 
bagpipe, 9 minstrels, 2 rebecks, 6 sackbuts, 8 
viols, and 3 players on the virginals. Charles I. 
in 1625 had in his pay 8 performers on the 
hautboys and sackbuts, 6 flutes, 6 recorders, 1 1 



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58 



KING'S BAND OP MUSIC. 



yiolinfl, 6 lutes, 4 vIoIb, i harp, and 1 5 * musiciani 
for the lute and voice,* exclusive of trumpeters, 
drummers, and lifers, Nicholas Laniere being 
mastef of the band; and in 1641 his band in- 
cluded 14 violins, 19 wind instruments, and 25 
'musicians for the waytes,' besides a Serjeant 
trumpeter and 18 trumpeters. Charles II. in 
1660 established, in imitation of Louis XIV. a 
band of 24 performers on violins, tenors and 
basses, popularly known as the ' four and twenty 
fiddlers. This band not only played while the 
king was at meals, but was even introduced into 
the royal chapel, anthems being composed with 
symphonies and ritomels between the vocal 
movements expressly for them. After the death 
of Charles the band was kept up, but somewhat 
changed in its composition ; it no longer con-, 
sisted exclusively of stringed instruments, but 
some of its members performed on wind instru- 
ments. It is now constituted so as to meet 
the requirements of modem music, and con- 
sists of thirty members. Formerly, besides 
its ordinary duties it was employed, together 
with the gentlemen and children of the Chapel 
Koyal, in the performance of the odes annuaJly 
comported for the king's birth -day and New 
Year s day ; but since the discontinuance of the 
production of such odes, its duties have been 
reduced to attendance on royal weddings and 
baptisms, and other state occasions. Tlie fol- 
lowing is the succession of the ' Masters of the 
Musick': — Davis Mell and George Hudson, 1660; 
Thomas Baltzar, t66i (?) ; John Banister, 1663; 
Thomas Purcell, 167a ; Dr. Nicholas Staggins, 
1682 ; John Eccles, 1705; Dr. Maurice Greene, 
1735 0) ; Dr. William Boyoe, 1755 ; John Stan- 
ley, 1779; Sir William Parsons, 1786; William 
Shield, 1817; Christian Kramer, 1829; Francois 
Crainer, 1834; George Frederick Anderson, 18^8; 
William George Cusins, 1870. Bobert Cambert 
and Louis Grabut are sometimes said to have 
held the office of Master of the Musick, but this 
is doubtful [W.H.H.] 

KING'S THEATRE, THE. In the early part 
ef the 1 8th century. Sir John Yanbrugh, the ar- 
chitect and dramatist, proposed to the performers 
at Lincoln^s Inn Fields Theatre to build them 
a new and splendid theatre in the Haymarket, 
and, his offer being accepted, he raised a sub- 
scription of £30,000 in sums of £100 each, in 
return for which every subscriber was to have 
a free admission for life. The undertaking was 
greatly promoted by the Kit-Cat Club, and the 
first stone of the Duilding, which was wholly 
from the designs of Yanbrugh, was laid in 1 704 
with great solemnity by the beautiful Countess 
of Sunderland (daughter of the great Duke of 
Marlborough), known as *The little Whig.' 
Congreve, the dramatist, was associated with 
Yanbrugh in the management, and the theatre 
was opened on April 9, 1 705, under the name of 
' The Queen's Theatre," which name was changed 
on the accession of George I. in 17 14 to * King's 
Theatre,* by which it continued to be called 
until the death of William IV. in 1837, since 
which it has been styled * Her Majesty's Theatre,* 



KINSKY. 

the reason for not resuming the name ' Que^i's 
Theatre' being that the theatre in Tottenham 
Street at the time bore that appellation. Yan- 
brugh 's erection, alUiough internally a splendid 
and imposing structure, was totally unfitted for 
its purpose, owing to the reverberations being so 
great as to make the spoken dialogue almost on- 
intelligible, and to necessitate extensive alterations 
in order to prevent them. In the comrse of a few 
yeuTB the house became the established home of 
Italian opera. In it the greater part of Handel's 
operas and nearly all Ms early oratorios wei^a 
first performed. On the evening of June 17, 
1789, the building was burned to the ground. 
It was rebuilt in 1 790 fr>om designs by Michael 
Novosielski, the lyre-shaped plan being then first 
adopted in England. When completed it was 
refused a licence for dramatic representations, 
\>ut a magistrates* licence being obtained it was 
opened with a concert and ballet on March 26, 
1791. [Seep. 710 rt.] A regular licence was how- 
ever soon afterwards granted. The interior of the 
theatre was the largest in England ; there were 
five tiers of boxes, exclusive of slips, and it was 
capable of containing nearly 3300 persons. It 
was admirably adapted for conveying sound. 
On the east side was a large and handsome 
concert-room, 95 feet long, 46 feet broad, and 35 
feet high, on a level with the principal tier of 
boxes. About 181 7 an important alteration 
was made in the exterior of the theatre by 
the erection of the colonnades on the north, 
south, and east sides, and the formation of the 
western arcade. The northern colonnade has 
since been removed. (There is a good descrip- 
tion of the pit, including the famous 'Fops* 
alley* in Limiley's * Reminiscences,* chap, vii.) 
The theatre was again destroyed by fire on 
Friday night» Dec. 6, 1867, It was rebuilt by- 
April 1869, but not opened until 1875. and then 
not for operatic performances, but for the exhi- 
bition of the preaching and singing of Messrs. 
Moody and Sankey, who occupied it for about 
three months, after which it remained closed 
until April 28, 1877, when '* ^^ re-opened as 
an opera house. No theatre, perhaps, has been 
under the management of so many different 
persons — Swiney, CoUier, Aaron Hill, Heidegger, 
Handel, the Earl of Middlesex, Signora Yenisei, 
Crawford, Yates, Gordon, Hon. J. Hobart, 
Brookes, O'Reilly, Le Texier, Sir John Gallini, 
Tranchard, Taylor, Goold, Waters, Ebers, Benelli, 
Laporte, Monck Mason, Lumley, E. T. Smith, 
and Mapleson, have by turns directed its affairs. 
To attempt only to name the compositions pro- 
duced there, and the eminent artists who have 
been their exponents, would extend this notice 
to an unreasonable length ; it would be, in fact, 
almost to write a history of the Italian opera in 
England. [W.H.H.] 

KINSKY, Pbincb Fehdinand Johann Ne- 
POMCK J08EPH, of Wchinitz and Tettau in 
Bohemia, was bom in the palace belonging to 
the family at Yienna, December 4, 1781, and 
was a boy of eleven when Beethoven came 
thither. His fiftther, Prince Jobeph, was one 



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KINSKY. 

of ihe gtefit nobles who at that date gave 
maaifial entertainments in their |)alaoe8 with full 
oKhestra, at which the greatest singers and 
instrumental performers, as well as rising com- 
posezs, displayed their powers. Young Kinsky 
had therefore the best possible opportunity to 
coltiTate his musical taste, and a few years 
later foamed one in the circle of young nobles 
who admired and appreciated Beethoven s music. 
By the death of his father, August it, 1798, he 
■Qoceeded to the estates, and, June 8, 1801, 
muried Caroline Maria, Baroness von Kerpen. 

His daim to a place in this Dictionary is that 
he was the principal subscriber to Beethoven^s 
azmuity (see ante, p. 1896). This matter was 
hardly settled when he was called to his estates 
to pr^»are for the second invasion of Bonaparte. 
He raised a battalion of soldiers, officered it 
from his own officials and dependente^ and led 
it— mider the title of the 'Archduke Charles 
Legion* — in the battles of Ratisbon, Aspem, 
and Wagram. One of the first checks which 
BoQ^arte ever received was at Aspem. Kinsky 
and his legion held a very critical positioA there, 
sod, by their steadiness and disregard of danger, 
ooakibuted materially to the success of the 
day. Archduke Charles happened to be witness 
of Kinsky *B conduct on that occasion, and gave 
him on Uie battle-field the Maria Theresa Cross. 
In the spring of 181 1 Kinsky accempanied the 
Emperor Francis to Dresden, on a visit to his 
daughter Marie Louise and her husband Napo- 
leon. The Saxon General von Vieth related, 
that on the presentation of Francises suite 
Kapoleon stepped up to Kinsky, took hold of 
the cross on the breast of his coat, and asked 
insultingly : ' £st-ce au Prince Kinsky <j^ ? ' 
' XoQ, 8be, o^est a la bataille d' Aspem,* was the 
reply. Napoleon moved on without a word. 
Ou November a, 181 2, Prince Ferdinand, while 
riding at Wetrus near Prague, hy the bursting 
of his saddle girths was thrown to the ground, 
and died on the 3rd,^ not having quite completed 
his 3i8t year. 

Ilie paragraph in p. 189 a of this work, on 
the effect of the Austrian finance-patent of 181 1 
upon Beethoven^s annuity, and his suit against 
the Kinsky estate, accords perfectly with all 
the authorities known at the time it was 
written. But these authorities, from Schindler 
do«ni, are in error. It is true that from and 
axtee March iSii, the bank notes (Banoozettel) 
then, in circulation were reduced in value to the 
rate of five for one in silvery and notes of 
redonption (Einlosungsscheine), -equal to silver, 
were issued in their place at that rate ; but the 
payment of contracts previoualy made. Bee* 
thoven's annuity included, was regulated by the 
depredation at the date of the contract. The 
date of the document conferring the annuity is 
March i, 1809, when the depreciation (decimally) 
was 2*48 ior one, and it follows that his income 
under the finance patent was reduced — not to one 
fifth, or 800 florins, as Schindler and his copyiiits 

I Hoc the ISth. M slfon In ToL L pw 189&, 



KIRCHEN CANTATEN. 



59 



unanimously state, but to 1613-90 florins. That 
is to say 

Kinsky, instead of 1800, paid 725'8ofl. 
Rudolph, „ „ 1500, „ 60484 
Lobkowitz, „ „ 700, „ 282*26 
1612*90 
The subscribers however continued to pay the 
annuity in fidl, regardless of the patent, and 
Budolph gave the necessary instruction to his 
agents in writing. Kinsky unfortunately neg- 
lected to do this, and thus, upon his untimely 
death, unwittingly deprived Beethoven of all 
legal claim to more than the above-named 725*80 
florins ; for the trustees of the estates had no 
power to add to that sum, being responsible to the 
Landrecht or high tribunal at Prague for their 
action. Beethoven, trusting to the equity of his 
claim, seems to have been so foolish as to instruct 
his advocate in Prague, Dr. Wolf, to enter a suit 
— which could have had no favourable issue. 
It was fortunate for him that the legal agent 
of the Kinsky estates (Verlassenschaftscurator), 
Dr. Johann Kanka, was a musician of consider- 
•able attainments, a great admirer of his music 
and on intimate terms with him during his first 
years in Vienna. On a visit to the capit^, Kanka 
discussed the matter with him; the suit was 
abandoned, and a compromise at last efi^ected — 
confirmed by the Landrecht, January 18, 1815 — 
by which 1 200 florins a year were secured to him, 
«nd arrears to the amount of 2479 florins, paid 
in cash, on March 26th, to his representative, 
Baron Joseph von Pasqualati. 

Beethoven's letters to Kanka (Life of Bee- 
thoven, iii. A pp. viii) and his dedication of op. 
94, ' An die Hoflfeung,* to the widowed Princess 
Kinsky, prove how well satisfied he was with 
the result. [A.W.T.] 

KIEBYE, Georob. was one of the ten com- 
posers who harmonised the tunes for * The Whole 
Booke of Psalmes,' published by Thomas Este in 
1592. In 1597 he put forth 'The First Set of 
Madrigahj to 4, 5, and 6 Voyces,' dedicated to 
the two daughters of Sir Robert Jermin, Knt., 
whom the composer terms his 'very good maister,' 
«nd containing 24 madrigals. Several other 
madrigals by Kirbye are extant in a nearly con- 
temporary MS. coUection, formed bv a W^iUiam 
Firmage, and now in the library of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, but unfortunately wanting the 
quintus and sextus parts. He contributed to ' The 
Triumphes of Oriana,' 1 601, the six -part madrigal 
''Bright Phc^busgreetes most cleerely. * [W. H. H.] 
KIRCHEN CANTATEN. The Kirchen Can- 
taten of the German Lutheran Church corre- 
sponded to a great extent with the Anglican 
anthems, but they were for the most part on a 
larger scale and had a band accompaniment as 
well as the organ, which is rardy the case with 
anthems. They were used on the great festivals of 
the Church and on festal occasions, such as wed- 
dings of great people. They flourished especially 
in the time immediately before and with Sebastian 
Bach, and it is with his name that they are chiefly 
associated, both for the prodigious number and 



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60 



KIRCHEN CANTATEN. 



the great beauty of many of the examples of this 
form of composition which he produced. 

Among his predecessors, his uncles Michael and 
Johann Christoph, and the great organist Buxte- 
hude, were composers of Cantatas of this kind, 
and Bach certainly adopted the fom^ of his own 
firom them at first, both as regards the distribution 
of the numbers and the words. With them as 
with him the words were sometimes complete 
religious songs, but they were also frequently 
taken from promiscuous sources, passages firom 
the Bible and verses from hymns and religious 
songs being strung together, with an underlying 
fixed idea to keep them bound into a complete 
whole. In some cases they are mystical, in others 
they are of a prayerful character, and of course 
many are hymns of praise. In many there is a 
clear dramatic element, and in this form the 
dialogue between Christ and the soul is not un- 
common, as in the well-known *Ich hatte viel 
Bekiimmemiss/ and in 'Gottes Zeit* and 'Selig 
ist der Mann,' of J. S. Bach. The treatment of 
the subject is often very beautiful apart from the 
diction, and expresses a tender touching kind of 
poetry of religion which is of the purest and most 
affecting character, and found in Bach's hands 
the most perfect possible expression in music. 

The dramatic element points to the relation- 
ship of the Kirchencantaten to the Italian Cantate 
di Camera, which formed an important section of 
the operatic department of music which had begun 
to be cultivated in Italy from the beginning of the 
1 7th century. In composing the earlier Cantatas, 
Buxtehude and Bach's uncles do not seem to 
have had this connection very clearly in view, 
neither does it appear obviously in the earlier 
examples of John Sebastian. But from the year 
171a Bach began writing music to Cantatas by a 
theologian and poet named Neumeister, a man of 
some importance in relation to church music; 
who wrote poems which he called Cantatas for all 
the great J^estivals and Sundays of the year, 
folloMring avowedly the dramatic manner of the 
Italians. Of Bach's contemporaries, Telemann 
preceded him slightly in setting these Cantatas, 
as a collection with his music was published in 
Gotha in 1 71 1. This part of the history of Can- 
tatas, which divides them into two periods in 
matter of form, is too elaborate to be treated here, 
but a very full account will be found in Spitta's 
Life of Bach, Part i, chap, iv, and Part iii, 
chap. iv. 

As regards the music, the form was extremely 
variable. In a great number of cases the work 
opened with a chorus, which in Bach's hands 
assumed gigantic proportions. This was followed 
by a series of recitatives, airs, ariosos, duets or 
other kinds of solo music, and in the greatest niunber 
of instances ended with a simple chorale. In 
some cases the work opens with an aria or duet, 
and at others there are several choruses inter- 
spersed in the work, and occasionally they form 
the bulk of the whole. In one somewhat singu- 
lar instance (viz. * Ich will den Kreuzstab geme 
tragen ') the Cantata consists of two long arias, 
and two recitatives, and an adagio, all for a bass 



KIBCHEB. 

voice, and ends with a chorale. It Is evident that 
the works were constructed with reference to tbe 
particular resources at the disposal of the composer 
for performance; and in this respect the band 
varied as much as the musical form of the work. 
Sometimes the oi;gan was accompanied by strings 
alone, at others by a considerable orchestra of 
strings, wood and brass. With developed re- 
sources the Cantata occasionally began both in 
the older and the later forms with an instrumental 
introduction which was called irrespectively a 
symphony or a sonata or sonatina, and evidently 
had some relationship to the instnmiental Senate 
di Chiesa which were common in Italy in the 
Roman Catholic Churches. This practice appears 
to have been more universal before Bach's time 
than appears firom his works, as instrumental in- 
troductions to Cantatas with him are the excep- 
tion. In such an astonishing number of examples 
as Bach produced it is inevitable that there 
should be some disparity in value. A considerable 
number are of the highest possible beauty and 
grandeur, and a few may not be in his happiest 
vein. But assuredly the wealth stored up in them 
which has yet to become known to the musical 
public is incalculable. Their uncompromising 
loftiness, and generally austere purity of style 
has hindered their universal popularity hitherto ; 
but as people learn to feel, as they ultimately must, 
how deeply expressive and healthily true that 
style is, the greater will be the earnest delight 
they will find in music, and the greater will be the 
fame of these imperishable monuments of Bach's 
genius. [C.H.H.P.] 

We take the opportunity to add the contents 
of the two volumes of Kirchencantaten pub- 
lished by the Bachgesellschaft since the issue of 
p. 1 30 of this work. 



1978. Twentr^hird jmx. 
(Issued Aug. 1876.) 

101. Nlmm Ton uns Heir. 

102. Herr, deliie Aug«n schen. 

103. Ihr werdet welueo und heu- 

len. 
IM. Du Hirte Israel. 
10ft. Herr.gelie ntoht ins Gericht. 

106. Gottes Zelt ist die allerbeste 

ZeiU 

107. Was wlllst dtt dick betrQ- 

ben. 
lOe. Ks tst ench goL 

109. Ich glaube lieber Herr. 

110. Vnser Mund set voll Lachens. 



U74. Tvfenty-foarUt year. 
(Issued Dec le76w> 

111. Was inein Gott wIIL 

112. DerHerrlfitmeingetreuerBirt. 
US. Herr Jesu Christ, do hOcfastor 

Gut. 

114. Acb. lleben Christen. 

115. Mache dich metn Geist bereft 
U6. Du Friedefdrst Herr Jen 

Christ. 

117. Bei Lob und Ebr. 

118. 0J«*5U Christ meln's Leben't 

Licht. 

119. Freiits Jerusalem, dem Herm. 
lao. Gott. num lobet dIch. 



KIRCH ER, Athanasius, learned Jesuit, bom 
May 2, 1602 (Mendel, with less probability, gives 
1 601), at Geisa near Fulda; early became a 
Jesuit, and taught mathematics and natural 
philosophy in the Jesuit College at Wiirzburg. 
About 1635 he was driven firom Germany by 
the Thirty Years' War, and went first to the 
house of his Order at Avignon, and thence to 
Rome, where he remained till his death Nov. 28, 
1680. He acquired a mass of information in all 
departments of knowledge, and wrote books on 
every conceivable subject. His great work 
* Musurgia universalis sive ars magna consoni et 
dissoni,' a vols. (Rome. 1650), translated into 
German by Andreas Hirsch (Hall in Swabia, 
1662) contains among much rubbish valuable 



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KIHGHEB. 

matter on tlie nature of sound and the theory 
of compoBition, with interesting examples from 
the insUiimental music of Frescobaldi, Froberger. 
and other composers of the 17th century. The 
second voL, on the music of the Greeks, is far 
frxnn trustworthy; indeed Meibomius (^Musici 
antiqui ') accuses Kiroher of having written it 
without consulting a single ancient Greek author- 
ity. His •Phonurgia* (Kempten 1673), trans- 
lad^d into Gennan by Agathon Cario (apparently 
a nom de plume) with the title ' Neue Hall- und 
Thon-kunst' (Nordlingen 1684), is an amplifica- 
ti<m of part of the * Musuigia,* and deals chiefly 
with acoustical instruments. In his ' Ars mag- 
neUca* (Rome 1641) he gives all the songs and 
airs then in use to cure the bite of the tarantula. 
His 'CEkiipus segyptiacus' (Rome 1652-54) 
treats of the musio contained in Egyptian 
hieroglyphics. t^-C^O 

KIRCHGESSNEB, Mabianka, performer on 
the glass harmonica, bom 1770 at Waghausel 
near Rastatt, Baden. An illness in her fourth 
year left her blind for life, but this misfortune 
was oQsnpensated by a delicate organisation for 
music. She learned the harmonica from Schmitt- 
bauer of Carlsruhe, and made numerous success- 
ful concert-tours. Mozart heard her in Vienna 
(1 79 1), and composed a quintet for her (Kochel 
617). In London Froschel made her a new in- 
■trument> which in future she always used. Here 
also she recovered a glimmering of sight under 
iftHiff^T treatment. Much as they admired her 
laying, musicians regretted that she £uled to 
bring out the true qualities of the harmonica 
throng a wrong method of execution. After 
living in retirement at Gohlis near Leipzig, she 
nnd^took another concert-tour, but fell iU and 
died at Schaffhausen, Dec. 9, 1808. [C.F.P.] 
KIRCHNEB, Thkodob, one of the most gifted 
of the living disciples of Schumann, a composer 
of ' genre pieces ' for the pianoforte, was bom 
1824 at Neukirchen near Chemnitz in Saxony, 
and got his musical training at the Censerva- 
torium of Leipsic. Having completed his school- 
ing he took the post of organist at Winterthur in 
Switzerland, which town in 1862 he left for 
Zurich^ where he acted as conductor and teacher. 
In 1875 he became director of the 'Musikschule' 
at W^nburg, but after a few months' experience 
he threw np that appointment and settled at 



KIRKMAN. 



61 



ir^s works extend to op. 42. Except a 
string quartet, op. 20, a '€redenkblatt,* a 'Sere- 
nade ' for piano, violin and violoncello, and a 
number of Lieder, they are aU written for piano- 
forte solo or k 4 mains, are mostly of small di- 
mensions, and put forth under suggestive titles 
such as Siohumann was wont to give to his lesser 

Ces. The stamp of Schumann's original mind 
maiked Kirchner*s work from the first; yet 
though sheltered under Schumann's cloak, many 
minor points of style and diction are Eiichner's 
own, and decidedly clever. At best, his pieces 
axe delicate and tender, frequently vigorous, now 
and then humorous and fantastic ; at worst, they 
droop under a taint of lachrymoee sentimentality. 



They are always carefully finished and well 
shapen, never redundant, rarely commonplace. 
Among his early publications, ' Albumblatter,' 
op. 9, became popular as played by Madame 
Schumann ; and among his later, ' Still und be- 
wegt,' op. 24, and particularly ' Kachtstlicke,' op. 
25, deserve attention. [E. D.] 

KIRKMAN. The name borne by a family of 
eminent harpsichord, and subsequenuy pianoforte 
makers. Jacob Kirdmiann (afterwards Elirkman) 
a German, came to England early in the last cen- 
tury, and worked for Tabel, a Flemish harpsichord 
maker, who had brought to London the traditions 
oftheBuckers of Antwerp. [See BucKERS.] An- 
other apprentice of Tabel's was Shudi, properly 
Tsohudiy who became Eirkman's rival, and 
founded the house of Broadwood. Tabel would 
have been quite' forgotten, but for these dis- 
tinguished pupils, and for the droll anecdote 
narrate*! by Dr. Bumey, of Kirkman's rapid 
courtship of Tabel's widow and securing with 
her the business and stock in trade. He pro- 
posed at breakfast-time, and married her (the 
marriage act being not then passed) before twelve 
o'clock, the same day, just one month after Tabel's 
demise. Jacob Kirkman carried on business at 
the sign of the King's Arms in Broad Street, 
Camaby Market, now No. 19 Broad Street, Soho; 
still owned by the present Kirkman firm. Dr. 
Bumey places the arrival of Jacob Kirkman in 
England in 1740, but that is manifestly too 
late, Shudi being then already established in 
business in Great Pulteney Street. There is no 
reason, however, to doubt the same generally ex- 
cellent authoritv that his death took place about 
1778, and that ne left nearly £200,000. 

Bumey, in Bees's Cyclopaedia, gives Jacob 
Kirkman*s harpsichords high praise, regarding 
them as more full in tone and durable than 
those of Shudi. These instruments retained 
certain features of the Antwerp model, as late 
as 1768, preserving Andr^ Buckers's key- 
board of G^F (nearly 5 octaves) with lowest 
G| wanting. This, as well as the retention of 
the rosette in the soundboard may be seen in 
Mr. Salaman's Kirkman harpsichord of that year, 
in which we find King David playing upon the 
harp, between the letters I and K. Dr. Bumey 
met with no harpsichords on the continent that 
could at all compare with those made in England 
by Jacob Kirkman, and his almost life-long com- 
petitor, Shudi. 

Jacob Kirkman having no children by his 
marriage, was succeeded by his nephew Abraham, 
whose son Joseph, the first Joseph Kirkman, 
followed him, and introduced the manufacture of 
the pianoforte into his workshop. His son, 
the second Joseph, died at the advanced age of 
87 in 1877, his second son Henry, to whom the 
business owes its present extension, having died 
some years before. The ware-rooms have long 
been in Soho Square. The business is carried on 
(1879) in trust for the present Mr. Joseph Kirk- 
man, the third in order of succession so named. 
A recent invention of this house is noticed \mder 
the head of Mblofiano. [A« J. H.] 



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62 



KIIIKBBRGSR. 



KlftNBERGER, Johahii Philipp, compoeer 
and writer on the theory of mtudo, bom April 
24, 1 73 1, at Saalfeld in Thuringia; learnt the 
rudiments of musio at home, the organ from 
Kellner of Grafenrode, and the violin from Meil 
of Sondershattsen. Gerber, court-organist there, 
taught him to play Bach*s fugues, and recom- 
mended him to Bach, whoreceiv^ him as his pupil. 
Several years were passed at Leipsic, in Poland, 
and at Lemberg. On his return to Germany he 
resumed the study of the violin under Zickler of 
Dresden, and in 1 751 entered the capelle of 
Frederic the Great at Berlin aa violinist. In 
1758 he became Capellmeister to Princess 
Amalie, and renuoned with her till his death 
after a long and painful illness July 27, 1783. 
During these 25 years he formed such pupils as 
Schulz, Fasch, and Zelter, and devoted his 
leisure to researches on the theory of music. 
Of his many books on the subject ' Die Kunst 
des reinen Satzes,* a vols. (Berlin 1774-76) 
alone is of permanent value. He also wrote all 
the articles on music in Sulzer's 'Theorie der 
schonen Kiinste * in which he warmly criticises 
Marpurg*s 'Kriti^che Briefe.* He prided him- 
self on the discovery that all music could be 
reduced to two fundamental chords, the triad 
and the chord of the seventh — which is obviously 
wrong ; and invented a new interval bearing the 
relation of 4 : 7 to the keynote and which he 
called I : — but neither of these have stood the 
test of time. Indeed in his own day the theory 
of the even temperament steadily gained ground. 
As a composer he had more fluency than genius ; 
his most interesting works are his fugues, remark- 
able for their correctness. In 1773-74 he edited 
a large collection of vocal compositions by Graun, 
who was a kind friend to him, and 'Psalmen 
und Gesange * by Leo (Leonhard) Hassler. The 
autograph scores of several motets and cantatas, 
and a quantity of fugues, clavier-sonatas, and 
similar works, are preserved in the Imperial 
library at Berlin. Kimberger was of a quarrel- 
some temper, and fond of laying down the law, 
which made him no favourite with his fellow 
m usicians. [F. G.] 

KISTNEB. One of the great music pub- 
lishing firms of Leipzig. The business was 
founded in 1823 by Pbobst, who was succeeded 
in 1 83 1 by Kail Friedrich Kistner, a man of 
some gifts for music and great business powers. 
The new name was not assumed till 1836. 
Kistner greatly improved the business and 
secured important works of Mendelssohn, Schu- 
mann, Chopin, Moscheles, Stemdale Bennett, 
etc. He died greatly esteemed, in 1844, and 
was succeeded by his son Julius, who followed in 
his father's steps with equal success. He added 
the names of Hiller, Taubert, and Kubinstein to 
the catalogue of the house, and will long be 
remembered by those who had to do with him 
for his kindness and liberality. He withdrew 
from the business in 1866 in fiekvour of Karl 
Friedrich Ludwig Gurckhaus — by whom the 
establishment is still carried on in its old style — 
and died May 13, 1868. | 



KITCHENER. 

Among the principal publications of the firm 
are found —Mendelssohn, Psalms 95 and 98 ; 
the Walpurgisnight ; Antigone; Overture Rviy 
Bias: a Sonatas P. F. and Cello, and 8 other 
numbers. Schumann, Overture, Scherzo, ^azid 
Finale; Rose PilgerfiUirt; Myrthen; Sonata for 
P.F. in F|; Bilder aus Osten; Spanisches 
Liederspiel and 11 more, including op. i and a. 
Chopin, P. F. Concerto £ minor ; Trio G minor ; 
I a Grandes Etudes and others. Gade's Erlking^ 
daughter. Kretschmer's Operas * Die Folkunger * 
and 'Henry the Lion.' Groetz*s Symphony. 
'Francesca di Rimini,' 'Taming of the ^irew/ 
and 137th Psalm. [G.3 

KIT, a tiny violin, which, before the genenikl 
introduction of pianofortes, was carried by danc- 
ing masters in their pockets. Hence the Frencli 
and German names for it were 'pochette' and 
* Taschengeige,* though pochette is also applied 
to an instrument of long and narrow form resem- 
bling a sourdine. It was usually about 16 inchetf 
long over all: the 
wo^cut shows 
its size relatively 
to that of the vio- 
lin. Sometimes, 
however, as in 
Nos. 61A and 66 
ofthe Special Ex- 
hibition of An- 
cient Musical In- 
struments, S.K. 
MuB. 187a, the 
neck was longer 
and broader, ibr 
convenience of 
fingering, which 
gave the Kit a 
disproportioned 
look. The instru- 
ment is now prac- 
tically obsolete. I 

The origin of 
the name has 
not yet been dis- 
covered.* In Florio (1598 and 161 1), Beaumont 
and Fletcher, Ben Jonson, and Drayton, it seems 
evident that it is used without reference to size, 
as a synonym for Crowd, Rebeck, or Pandora. 
Cotgrave (1611) defines it as 'a small Gitteme.' 
Grew, in 1681, speaks of *a dancing master's 
Kit,' and as dancing-master's Kits would natur- 
ally be smaller than other Kits, the name gra- 
dually adhered to them, as that of viol or violin 
did to the larger sizes. [G.] 

KITCHENER. William, M.D., the son of a 
coal merchant, from whom he inherited an ample 
fortune, was an accomplished amateur musician. 
He composed an operetta entitled ' Love among 
the Roses, or, The Master Key,' and was author 
of 'Obs^^ations on Vocal Music,' 1831, and 
editor of * The Loyal and National Songs of Eng. 
land,' 1833; 'The Sea Songs of England,' 1833; 

1 If Po4A«li< wen Ukltaliaairordtbe origin or fa woQld Dotbebtf 
toieek. 




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EITCHEKEB. 

and 'A Collection of the Vocal Mnsio in Shak- 
spere^s Plays.' He was also author of some 
eccentrically written but useful books, including 
'The Cooks Oracle,' 'The Traveller's Oracle/ 
'The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life/ 
•The Hous^eeper's Ledgar/ and 'The Economy 
of the Eyes.' Though an epicure, he was regular 
and even abstemious in his habits ; but while 
practising the precepts he gave to others, he was 
unable to prolong his own life beyond the age of 
50, and died suddenly Feb. 26, 1837. [W.H.H.] 
KITTEL. JoHAKN Christian, bom at Erfurt. 
Feb. 18, 1732, one of the last pupils of J. S. 
Bach, who hunself died July 28, 1 750. His first 
post was that of organist at lAngelsalza, which he 
left in 1756 for tl^t of the Pr^gerkirche at his 
native place. His pay was wretched, and had to 
be eked out by incessant and laborious giving of 
lessons. Even when nearly 70 he was forced to 
make a tour to Gottingen, Hanover, Hamburg, 
and Altona. In the latter place he staid for 
some time, to the delight of the musicians there, 
and published a book of tunes for the Schleswig- 
Hulstein Church (Neues Choralbuch, Altona 
I S03). Thence he crept home to Erfurt, where 
he died. May 9, 1809, in great poverty, but 
saved firom actual starvation by a soiall pension 
allowed him by Prince Primas of Dalberg. The 
fame of his playing was very great, but is hardly 
maintained by his works, which are not very 
important. The best are grand preludes for the 
organ in a books (Peters); six sonatas and a 
^*"t^»»*>- for the clavecin (Breitkopfs) ; and an 
organ school (Der angehende praktische Organist, 
in 3 books, 1 801-8 (Erfurt, Beyer; 3rd edition 
1 831). His papers were inherited by his great 
pupil, C. H. Rinck, one of many £Etmous organists 
w1m> perfected themselves under him. F^tis tells 
us — ^and we may accept the story as true, since 
he was intimate with Rinck — that Kittel had 
inherited a full-sized portrait of Bach, and that 
when satisfied with his pupils he drew the 
curtain, and allowed them a sight of the pic- 
ture, as the best reward he could afford them. 
It is a story quite in accordance with the devo- 
tion which Bach, is known to have inspired in 
those who had to do with him. [G.] 

KLAVIER-MUSIK. ALTE. The name of 
two collections of P. F. music. I. Edited by E. 
Pauer, and published by Senff, Leipzig :— 

Pk 9k Donaont, AUemande In D 



KLEMM. 



«8 



BendA, BoMita In O minor. 1 Flalntet, Dens If enneta, 

J. E. BMh. Fantetla and ' LEgrpUenne. U Poule. 

Fogao In F. Ft. 6. Byrd. Pneiodlum and C«r- 



Pt 4.J. C. r. BMh, BondMU 

Inc. 

J.Ch.BMh,8(msUinBb. 

B, Bameau, D«uz Glcnw «n 

BoDdeau, Le Bappel dea 

Olaeaaz, Let tendrea 



n'« Whtatla. 
Bull. The King's HuDtIi« 

JlSff. 
O.Gibb<ma,PnBladittmand 

Galllard. 
Arne. Sonata No. 8, In O. 



II. Edited by F. Roitzsch, published by Peters :— 



J. Krnst Baob, Fantalsle and Fngoe 

InF. 
Klrnberger. Praloda and Vofna In 



Cfmluor. 

ap.i.1 



1st eertoa. 
PL 1. Frescobaldl and Corramte, 



hallj. Sonata fn K nlo 
Porpora, S Fagaaik 
t. Galoppl. Sonata In D. 
Padn Itortlnl, Oftvott* 

aadBaneC 
Paradle«.8oaaift1nA. 
& KerU Toccata In C 
Ftobbcrsar. Tooeata In ▲ 

minor. 
Knhnaa. Snito In B minor. 
C Hanbeaoa, BoUa In A. 
■uflkt, Ooarante and S 

Maaetk 
naaK. Fonata In D. 
1. J. L. KretM. Fngne In F. 
MarpoTf, Preladinm and 

Caprteelo. 
Klnibeiver.OffiM.Oavotte. 
(Vjoniite. and ABegro tor 



Chambunnt{rei^ll«mand«, 

Oouraute, Barabande, 

and LaLonreuae. 

Gonperin. La Farorite. La 

tondra Kanutta^ Lft Ten»> 



Pt li A. Srariattl. Fngoe in F 
mint If. 
D.,8cariattl.»8tndlet. 
Duraot«, Study In A. 
i, Mnnehhauiier.ArlapaatOfw 
allavariata. 
W. Fr. Bacb. Oaprledo In 

Dndnor. 
Xberlln.PreInde and Fngna 
In A minor. 
8. BIcholraann. L* Gafllarda 
et La Tend re (Farabande 
and eigne) In 6. 



Baob. SolfBggfo In mln. 

Do., Sonau In F minor. 
Couperin, March In Ab. 

Do.. Lo B^veille-Matln in F. 
Bameau, Tambourin In B minor. 
D^ Soarlatti. AUagroln O minor. 



D. Scarlatti, SonaU In A. 
Do., The Cat's Fuitue, in G minor. 
Clemen tl. Toccata In Bb. 
Field. Bondo In B. 
Chemblnl, Fugue in 0. 
W. F. Bach. Sonau in D. 
Bberlln, Prelude and Fngue la 

B minor. 
Hissler. Fantaale In G minor. 
J. B. Crfmer. Toecatina In Ah. 

[G.] 

KLEIN, Bbbnhard, a German composer, 
bom at Cologne, where his father was a bass 
pbyer, March 6, 1793. His early life was 
passed in the disturbances of the French occupa- 
tion of the Rhine, but in 181 3 he found means 
to get to Paris, where Cherubini's advice, the 
hearing of fine performers, and the study of the 
library of the Conservatoire, advanced him 
greatly. On his return to the Bhine he con- 
ducted the performances in Cologne Cathedral, 
and profited by an acquaintance with Thibaut 
and his fine library at Heidelberg. His first 
important works were a Mass (18 16) and a 
Cantata on Schiller's 'Worte des Glaubens' 
(1817). In 1819 he was sent oflBcially to Berlin 
to make acquaintance with Zelter's system of 
teaching and to apply it in Cologne Cathedral. 
He however found it more profitable to remain 
in Berlin, where he became connected with the 
recently established School for Organists, and 
was made director of music in the University, 
and teacher of singing in the Hochschule. 
These occupations in no wise checked bis pro- 
ductivity. He composed a mass of sonatas and 
songs, an oratorio 'Job* (Leipzig, 1820), and a 
grand opera, 'Dido,' to Eellstab's text (1823). 
In 1823 he married, and went to Rome, where 
he passed a fine time in intercourse with Baini, 
and in copying firom the ancient treasures of 
music there. On his return to Berlin he com- 
posed an oratorio, ' Jephthah/ for the Cologne 
Festival, 1828, and another, 'David/ for Halle, 
1830.* In 1832, Sept. 9, he suddenly died. 
Besides the compositions already mentioned 
he left a Mass in D, a Paternoster for 
8 voices, a Magnificat and Respousoria for 6 do., 
an opera and an oratorio, both nearly finished, 
8 books of psalms, hymns, and motets for men's 
voices, and other pieces both sacred and secular. 
His vocal music was much used by singing 
societies after his death. Mr. Hullah has re- 
printed one of the 4-part psalms, ' Like as the 
hart,' in his excellent collection called 'Vocal 
Scores.' It is sweet, dignified, religious, music, 
very vocal in its phrases. [G.] 

KLEMM. This well-known Leipzig music- 
publishing firm, and circulating library, was 
founded in 182 1 by Carl August Klemm in the 

1 These two oratorloa are In the Ubratr of the Saored Barmonle 
Sodatjr. 



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64 



KLEMM. 



hoQse which it now occupies, known as the ' Hohe 
Lilie/ 14 in the Neumarkt. Klemm succeeded 
Wieck, the father of Madame Schumann, who 
had for some time carried on a musical lending 
library on the premises. In 1847 the house 
opened a branch at Chenmitz, and in 56 at Dres- 
den. The present proprietor is Christian Bern- 
hard Klemm. Among the oriffinal publications 
of the house are to be found tne names of J. S. 
Bach, Dotzauer, F. Abt, Dre^riohock, Mendels- 
sohn, Schumann (op. 34, 35). Lachner, F. Schnei- 
der, Julius Rietz, Miu'scb^er, etc. etc. [G] 

KLENGEL, August Alexander, bom Jan. 
39, 1784 at Dresden, son of a well-known 
portrait and landscape painter, first studied 
music with Milchmeyer, inventor of a piano 
which could produce 50 different qualities of 
tone (see Cramer*s * Magazin der Musik,* i. 10). 
In 1803 Clement! visited Dresden, and on his 
departure Klengel went with him as his pupil. 
The two separated on dementi's marriage in 
Berlin, but the young wife dying shortly after, 
they went together to Russia, where Klengel 
remained till 181 1. He then spent two years 
studying in Paris, returned to Dresden in 18 14, 
went to London in 1815, and in the following 
year was appointed Court-organist at Dresden, 
which remained his home till his death on Nov. 
32, 1853. During a visit to Paris in 1828 he 
formed a close friendship with Fdtis, who with 
other musicians was much interested in his 
pianoforte canons. Of these he published only 
' Les Avant-coureurs* (Paul, Dresden, 1841). 
After his death Hauptmann edited the 'Canons 
und Fugen' (Breitkopf & Hartel, 1854), with 
a preface, in which he says, ' Klengel was brought 
up on Sebastian Bach, and Imew his works 
thoroughly. It must not be supposed however 
that he was a mere imitator of Bach's manner ; it 
is truer to say that he expressed his own thoughts 
in the way in which Biach would have done it 
had he lived at the present day.' He left several, 
concertos, and many other works. His visit to 
London was commemorated by the composition 
of a Quintet for Piano and Strings for the Phil- 
harmonic Society, which was performed Feb. 36, 
1 8 16, he himself taking the pianoforte. There 
is a pleasant little sketch of him in a letter of 
Mendelssohn's to Eckert, Jan. 36, 1843. [F.G.] 

KLINDWORTH, Karl, one of the best 
of living musicians and pianists, whose reputa- 
tion is sure to last though it was slow to rise, 
was bom at Hanover on Sept. 35, 1830. In 
early youth he was an accomplished performer 
on the violin. "From his 17th to his 19^1 year 
he acted as conductor to a travelling opera 
troupe ; then he settled in Hanover and took to 
playing the piano and composing. In 1850 he 
went to Weimar to study pianoforte-playing 
under Liszt, and had Hans von BUlow, W. 
Mason, and Dyonis Pruckner as his fellow pupils. 
In 1854 he came to London, where he remained 
fourteen years, appearing in public at intervals 
as a pianist and conductor of orchestral concerts, 
but in the main living the quiet life of a student 
and teacher. He organised two series of three 



KLINGEMANN. 

chamber concerts in the spring of 1861 and 62, 
and a series of three orchestral and vocal concerts 
in the summer of 1861. The most remaricable 
compositions brought forward at the latter were 
Rubinstein's 'Ocean' Symphony; Gade's *Erl 
King's Daughter' ; Cherubini's Requiem, Na i ; 
Schumann's P. F. Concerto. They were well 
carried out, but met with the usual fate of such 
enterprises in London, and were discontinued for 
want of capital. Since 1868 Klindworth has 
occupied the post of professor of the pianoforte 
at the Conservatorium of Moscow. 

Foremost among the mass of good work done 
by Klindworth stand his pianoforte scores of 
Wagner's 'Der Ring des Nibelungen,' and his 
critical edition of Chopin ; the latter beyond all 
praise for rare insight into the text and minute 
care bestowed on the presentation of it ; the for- 
mer quite wonderful for the fidelity with which 
the transcript is contrived to reflect Wagner's 
complicated orchestration. His arrangement of 
Schubert's Symphony in C mi^or for two piano- 
fortes, and the four-hand arrangement of Tschal- 
kowsky's 'Po^me symphonique Franoesca da 
Rimini,' as also, amongst his original composi- 
tioDs, a very difficult and effective Polonaise- 
fantaisie for pianoforte, should be particularly 
mentioned. The manuscripts of a masterly re- 
scoring of Chopin's Concerto in F minor, and a 
condensation and orchestration of C. V. Alkan*s 
Concerto in G| minor (Etudes, op. 39), are well 
known to his friends. [E.D.] 

KLINGEMANN,' Cabl, bom at Limmer, 
Hanover, Dec. 3, 1798, was Secretary to the 
Hanoverian Legation in Berlin till 1828, when 
he was transferred to a similar position in 
London. He married, Aug. 10, 1845, the sister 
of Dr. Rosen the eminent Sanscrit scholar and 
Professor at University College, and was a man 
of great cultivation, considerable literary power, 
and a very rare judgment in music. Klingemann 
had been intimate with the Mendelssohns during 
his residence in Berlin, and when Felix came 
to London the friendship was warmly renewed. 
The famous- tour in Scotland — the origin of the 
Hebrides Overture, the Scotch Symphony, and so 
much else— was taken in company with Klinge- 
mann, and the journals, letters, and sketches were 
joint productions. (See Die Familie Mendels- 
sohn, 1. 3 1 4-394). Klingemann wrote the wordis 
for the Singspi^ or Operetta so well known in 
England as 'The Son and Stranger,' excepting 
in the case of the song no. 13, 'Die Blumen- 
glocken,' of which Mendelssohn wrote the words 
and Klingemann the music. The title '^joi- 
phonie-Cantate' for the Lobgesang was his. The 
Three Caprices (op. 33) are dedicated to him. 

The following of Mendelssohn's songs are set 
to Klingemann's words— op. 9, no. 5; op. 34, 
nos. 3 and 5 ; op. 47, nos. 5 and 6 ; op. 63, no. 4 ; 
op. 71, no. 3 ; op. 84, no. 2 ; op. 86, no. i. He 
also supplied a translation of Handel's Solomon 
for the occasion of the performance at Diisseldorf 
in 1835, when Mendelssohn wrote an organ part 
to the Oratorio. Six of his songs were- published 
by Breitkopfr. Klingemann s house was at 



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KLIN6EMANK. 

4t Hobart Place, Eaion Square. Mendelflsolm 
oAen staid there, and it was for long the resort 
of the German artists and liternrj men. He died 
in London, Sept. 25, 1863. For an affectionate 
notice of him see Hiller's * Tonleben,' ii. 95. [G.] 

KLOTZ, the name of a numerous family of 
Tiolin-makers, who lived at the little town of 
Mittenwald, in the Bavarian Alps, and founded 
a manufacture of stringed instruments which 
makes Mittenwald to this day only lees famous 
than Marknenkirchen in Saxony, and Mirecourt 
in the Voeges. A variety of the pine, locally 
known as the 'Hasel-fichte' (Bechstein calls it 
ti>e 'harte od^ n>ate Roth-tanne'), of delicate 
but strong and highly resonant fibre, flourishes 
in the Bavarian Alps. The abundance of this 
material, which the ingenious peasants of the 
neighbouring Ammer-thal use for wood>carving, 
led to the rise of the Mittenwald violin manu- 
&cture. For about two centuries there was held 
in the town a fiimous fiur, greatly firequented 
by Venetian and other traders. In 1679 ^^ 
fiur vraa removed to Botzen, and the Batten- 
walders attribute the rise of the violin industry 
to the distress which thereupon ensued. One 
Egidius Klotz had already made violins at 
Mittenwald. Tradition says that he learned 
the craft from Stainer at Absam. He is more 
likely to have learned it from seeing Stainer^s ' 
vi<J&s, which he imitated with success. His 
aoQ, Matthias or Matthew Klotz, followed in 
the same path. He travelled, however, into 
Italy, sojourning both at Florence and Cremona. 
Tradition reports him to have returned to Mit- 
tenwald about 1683, and to have at once begun 
to instruct many of the impoverished Mitten- 
walders in the mvstery of fiddle-making. The 
instruments found a ready sale. They were 
hawked about by the makeiv at the churches, 
castles, and monasteries of South Germany ; and 
Mittoiwald began to recover its prosperity. 
Most of the instruments of Matthias klotz date 
from 1670 to 1696. They are well built, on 
the model of Stainer, but poorly varnished. 
His son, Sebastian, surpassed him as a maker. 
His instruments, thouffh Stainer-like in appear- 
ance, are larger in size, of flatter model, and 
better designed : and his varnish is often of a 
good Italian quality. Another son of Matthias, 
named Joseph, still has a good reputation among 
the oonnoisaeurs of Grerman violins. 

Until about the middle of the last century, a 
^stinctive Grerman style prevailed in violins, of 
irineh the above-mentioned makers are the best 
exponents. In several towns of Italy there were 
Germana working in their own style side by side 
with Italian makers. Tecchler worked thus in 
Bome. Mann in Naples, and the three Gofnllers 
(Qottfiriedl) in Yenioe. Odd as it se^ns, it is cer- 
tain that there was a demand for Gkrman violins in 
Gromona itself Two Germans, named Pfretschner 
and Fricker, who made violins of their own ugly 
pattern, gained a subsistence there in the golden 
days of Stradivarius : and the famous Yeracini 
always used a German violin. But this compe- 
tition could not long endure. The superiority of 

VOL. II. 



^NECHT« 



9ft 



the Italian violin was established in the earlier 
half of the century : and wherever stringed in- 
struments were made, a conscious imitation of 
the Italian models began. It penetrated to 
Mittenwald, as it did to London and Paris. This 
stage of the art is represented by Geobo Klotz « 
whose fiddles date from 1750 to 1770. They.. 
have*lost their distinctive l^rolese cut, without 
gaining the true Italian style, and are covered 
with a thin brittle spirit varnish, laid upon a 
coat of size, which keeps the varnish from pene- 
trating the wood, and renders it opaque and 
perishable. Besides Geoige, we hear of Michael, 
Chables, and a second ^mius. Nine-tenths of 
the violins which pass in the world as 'Stainers' 
were made by the Klotz family and their fol* 
lowers. Dealers soon destroyed their tickets, 
and substituted spurious ones bearing the name, 
of Stainer: a process which the makers at 
length adopted on their own account. 

The Klotz violins are not without merit as 
regards sonority. Spohr recommends them, and 
an extraordinary story is told in Parkers * Musical 
Memoirs' of the vajue set upon cme belonging 
to Mr. Hay, the leader of the King's band. M. 
Miremont, of the Rue du Faubouig Poissonni^re, 
one of the best living violin-makers, scandalised 
the Parisian connoisseurs a few years ago by 
exhibiting several instruments built by him oa 
the Klotz modeL Strange to relate, their tone 
was of undeniable exoellenoe. [E. J. P.] 

KNAPP, William, deserves mention as the 
author of a L.M. psalm tune called ' Wareharo,' 
which was long a favourite in churches. He 
was bom 1698, was parish clerk of Poole, and 
died 1 768. He published ' New Church Melody* 
and 'A Set 01 New Psalms and Anthema.* 
'Wareham' is in both — in the former called 
' Blandford,* and in common time, in the latter 
in triple time. Another tune by him is given 
by Parr, 'Church of England Psalmody,' from 
whom and the present derk of Poole the above 
U^ctB are derived. [G.] 

KNAPTON, Philip, was bom at York in 
1788, and received his musical education at 
Cambridge from Dr. Hague. He then returned 
to York and followed his profession. He com- 
posed several overtures, pianoforte concertos, anct 
other orchestral works, besides arranging nume^ 
reus pieces for the pianoforte and harp. His 
song, ' There be none of Beauty's daughters,' was 
long in favour. He acted as one of the assistant 
conductors at the York Festivals of 1823, 1825, 
and 1828. He died June ao, 1833. [W. H.H.J 

KNECHT, Justin Heinbich, a musician of 
the last century, who, though^aow foigotten, was 
a oonsiderable person in laa day. He was bom 
Sept. 30, 1752, at Biberach in Suabia, received 
a good education, both musical and general 
(Boackh was one of his masters), and filled for 
some time the poet of professor of literature in 
his native town. By degrees he gravitated to 
music, and in 1807 became director of the opera 
and of the court concerts at Stuttgart; but 
ambition or ability failed him» and ia a couple of 



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KNECHt, 



yean he rested the post and returned to Bibe- 
rach, where he died Dec. ii, 1817, with a great 
reputation as organist, composer, and theoretician. 
In the last-named department he was an adherent 
of Yogler. The list of his productions as given 
by F^tis embraces 27 numbers of compositions, 
and 19 theoretical and didactic works. Two of 
these only have any interest for us, and that from 
an accidental cause. The first (Bossier, Spire) is a 
* Musical ^portrait of Nature, a grand symphony 
lor 2 violins, viola, and bass, a flutes, 2 oboes, 
bassoons, horns, trumpets, and drums ad lib., in 
which is expressed : — i. A beautiful country, the 
sun shining, gentle airs, and murmuring brooks ; 
birds twitter, a waterfall tumbles from the moun- 
tain, the shepherd plays his pipe, the shepherdess 
sings, and the lambs gambol around. 2. Sud- 
denly the sky darkens, an oppressive closeness 
pennades the air, black clouds gather, the wind 
rises, distant thunder is heard* and the storm 
approaches. 3. The tempest bursts in all its 
fiiry, the wind howls and the rain beats, the 
trees groan, and the streams rush furiously. 
4. The storm gradually goes off, the clouds dis* 
perse, and the sky clears. 5. Nature raises its 
jayfvii voice to heaven in songs of gratitude to 
the Creator' (a hymn with variations). The 
second (if it be not an arrangement of a portion 
of the preceding) is another attempt of the same 
kind — 'The Shepherds' pleasure interrupted by 
the Storm, a musical picture for the organ.* 
These are precisely the subjects which Beethoven 
has treated, and F^tis would have us believe 
that Knecht actually anticipated not only the 
general scheme of the Pastoral Symphony but 
some of its figures and passages. But this is not 
the case. The writer purchased the score and 
parts of Knecht's work at Otto Jahn's sale, and is 
able to say that beyond the tities the resemblances 
between the two works are obviously casual. 
Knecht's being in addition commonplace, entirely 
wanting in that * expression of emotions ' which 
Beethoven enforces, and endeavouring to depict 
the actual sights and sounds, which he depre- 
cates. [See Pabtobal Symphony.] * [G.] 
KNELL, the Passing Bell (Fr. La Cloche des 
Agoniiants ; Germ. Die Todtenglocke). A solemn 
cadence, tolled on the great Bdl of a Parish 
Church, to announce the death of a parishioner ; 
or, in accordance with old custom, to give 
warning of his approaching dissolution. To 
indicate the decease of a Man, or Boy, the Knell 
begins with three triple toUs, followed by a 
number of moderately quick single strokes corre- 
sponding to the age of the Departed. The Bell 
is then tolled, very slowly, for the accustomed 
time : and the Knell concludes, as it began, with 
three triple tolls, sometimes, but not always, 
preceded by a repetition of the single strokes 
denoting the age of the deceased person. 

1 Tii\» gires Uie Utle fncorrectly. It It ' Le Portnilt nraitoal de 1* 
Katura.' etc, not ' TablMo musioal.' He tlso gives Its dat« as * Leip- 
zig. 17A4.' It is really published at Bpire by Bossier. wlUi{no year; 
bat the date may Tery well be 1784. since the Usi on the back cod- 
tains the three early eonatas of Beethoren. which were published by 
Bowler In 17)9. But the oolnoklence Is cnrloui. Beethoren most hare 
teen fomUiar with Boesler's advertisement pase. on which his own flnt 
• Mi a m wart annottttced, and which comalmfcU the aboraparttoBlaia. 



KNELLER HALL. 

Tat a Woman, the Knell begins, and ^ds, 
with three double, instead of three triple toUa. 
In other respects, the formula is the same as 
tiiat used for a Man. 

Minute tolls denote the death of the Sovereign, 
or Heir Apparent to the Crown. [W. S. R.] 

KNELLER HALL, near Hounslow, Middle- 
sex, the ' Military School of Music,* for the edu- 
cation of bandsmen and bandmasters for the 
regiments of the British army. Until recently 
bandmasters in the British army were mostly 
civilians, with no g^uarantee for their competence 
for the post, and bandsmen were instructed and 
practised in a casual and often imperfect manner 
by each regiment for itself . A bandmaster formed 
no integral part of the corps, and could not 
be compelled to accompany it in case of war or 
foreign service ; and the iatus of bandsmen is 
even now so £Eur anomalous that in action their 
duty is to rescue the wounded under fire and 
take charge of them in hospital. Each band was 
formed on its own model, and played what kind 
of instruments, and at what pitch, it liked. In 
the Crimean war the evils of this state of things 
Mid the want of united systematic action were 
painfully apparent, and shortly afterwards, bj 
command of H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, 
Commander-in-Chief, a plan was drawn up and 
submitted to the officers of the army, to which 
they readily gave their assent and subscription. 
In pursuance of this plan Kneller Hall, a building 
on the site of the house of Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
the painter (formerly the Government establish- 
ment for training schoolmasters), was taken, and 
opened as a school on March 3, 1857, and a 
systematic course of instruction, with a staff of 
professors, begun, under the modest titie of the 
'Military Music Class,' Major (now Colonel) 
F. L. Whitmore, long known for a philanthropic 
interest and zesA in matters of music, being 
appointed Commandant, and reporting annually 
to the Adjutant Crenend of the Forces. The 
advantages of the plan proved so great that in 
1875 the institution was adopted by Government. 
Bandmasters are now *first-class staff-sergeants 
of the regiments to which they belong, and the 
musical department in each regiment consists of 
a bandmaster, a sergeant, a corporal, and 19 men 
(cavalry 14), besides boys as drummers and fifers. 

The educational staff at Kneller Hall now 
(1879) comprises professors of the following 
subjects — Theory, 'Clarinet (3), Oboe, Flute, 
Bassoon, Tenor Brass (a), Bass 'ditto, French 
Horn — and a schoolmaster from the Grovemment 
Normal School for general education. The first- 
class students act as assistants to the professors. 
The length of term is a years, the hours of 
musical instruction are 7 in summer, and 6 in 
winter daily. The number of pupils of all ages 
varies with circumstances. The average strength 
is about 50 non-commissioned officers, training 
for bandmasters, and forming the first class; 
and no privates, boys and adults, training for 

* Mr. lAnuns Is one of these three. 

> This post was formerly held by Mr. SnlllTao. ffttlMr of the €oai> 



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KNELLEB HALL. 

bindimeii, the seoond clii --160 in alL Lftds 
are admitted at 15. Adults are either outsiders 
orfonnerpapils, who, after having been bandsmen, 
dev^pe qualitiee fitting them for farther eda- 
cation as bandmasters. Both lads and men are 
taken into the school as vacancies occur, on the 
reoonmiendation of the commanding ofiBcers of the 
regiments. A supply of theformer is obtained from 
the Chelsea Hospital, the Royal Hibernian Mili- 
tary Sdiool, Dublin, the Metropolitan Poor Law 
Schools, etc General instruction is given by 
the Normal schoolmaster, and there is a noble 
dispel in which service is regularly performed. 

RngVTid is as yet the only country which has 
adopted a systematic method of educating bands- 
men and bandmasters, and the great improvement 
both in the mOTal conduct and the emcienoy of 
the men which has taken place since the founda* 
tkm of Kneller Hall cannot be too warmly wel- 
eomed. By Colonel Whitmore's efforts, and the 
enlightened sanction of H.K.H. the Commander- 
m^Saei, onifinrmity m instrmnents and in ^pitch 
has been obtained, and a general consolidation of 
the military mode of the country brought about 
▼hich is hi^y desirable. A bandmaster hasnow a 
recognised position in the army, and a fixed salary 
of ;Cioo a year in addition to his regimental pay. 
The cost of this salary is still borne by the private 
parses of the officers, which is the only important 
anomaly remaining to be rectified. [G.] 

KNIGHT, Joseph Philip, youngest son of 
the Rev. Francis Knight, D.D., was bom at the 
Vicarage, Bradford-on-Avon, July 36,. 181 a. 
His love for music began early, and at 16 he 
itadied humony and worough bass under Mr. 
Corfe. then organist of Bristol Cathedral. When 
about 20 Mr. Knight composed his first six songs, 
under the name of * Phibp Mortimer.' Among 
these were * Old Times,* sung by Henry Phillips, 
Knd 'Go, forget me,* which was much sung both 
here and in Germany. After this he used his 
own name, and in company with Haynes Bayly 
produced a number of highly popular songs, 
sffiong which the most fiamous were ' Of what is 
the old man thinking?* 'The Veteran,* *The 
Grecian Daughter,* and 'She wore a wreath of 
nnes.* He subsequently composed a song and 
a doet to words vrritten for him by Thomas 
Hoore— <The parting,* and' 'Let*s take this 
vorid as some wide scene.' In 1839 Mr. Knight 
Tidted the United States, "v^ere he remained 
two vesrs. To this time are due among other 
popular songs the once well-known 'Rocked in the 
cradle of ths deep,* sung with immense success 
by Braham, and 'Why onime4ii§ bells so merrilv.' 
On his return to England he produced ' Beautiral 
Venice,* ' Say what shall my- song be to-night,' 
utd ' The Dieam,' words by Uie Hon. MH.2^orton 
—all more or lees the rage in their day; Some 
yean afterwards Mr. Knight was ordained' by 
the late Bp. of Exeter to the charge of St. Agpes 
hi the SciUy Isles, where he resided two years. 
He then married and lived for some time abroad, 
doing very little in the way of composition, but 
A ms return to England he again took up his 
* A-4BB fSteitloot per Koond. 



KNYVETT. 



67 



others 'Peace, it is It' 



pen, and wrote 

* The lost Rose,* • The Watchman,' ' The Anchor,' 

and ' Queen of the silver bow,* all of which have 



enjoyed great popularity. His songs, duets^ andi 
trios, number m all not less than two hundi^d. 
He is a good organist, with an unusual gift for 
extemporising. [G.] 

KNYVETT, Chablbs, descended firom an 
ancient Norfolk femiily, was one of theprincipal 
alto sineers at the Commemoration of Handel in 
1784; he was also engaged at the Concert of 
Ancient Music. He was appointed a gentleman 
of the Chapel Boyal, Nov. 0, 1 786. In 1791 he, 
in conjuncUon with Samuel Harrison, established 
the VooAL C0NOEBT8, which they carried on 
until 1794. On July 25, 1 796, he was ^pointed 
an organist of the Chapel Boyal, and a few years 
later resiirned his former post. He died in 182a. 

His elder son, Charles, was bom 1773. He 
was placed for singing under Mr. (afknrwards 
Sir) William Parsons, and for the organ and 
piano under Samuel Webbe. In 1801 he joined 
his younger brother William, Greatorex, and 
Bartleman, in reviving the Vocal Concerts. In 
1802 he was chosen organist of St. George's, 
Hanover Square. Besi£s this he taught the 
pianoforte and thorough bass, and pubUiahed a 
Selection of Psalm Tunes, 1823. He died, after 
many years of retirement, Nov. 2, 1852. 

WiLUAM, the younger son of Charles the 
elder, was bom April 11, 1779. In 1788 he 
sang in the treble chorus at the Concert of 
Ancient Music, and in 1795 appeared there as 
principal alto. In 1797 he was appointed 
gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and soon after- 
wards a lay-vicar of Westminster. In 1802 he 
succeeded Dr. Arnold as one of the composers of 
the Chapel Royal. For upwards of 40 years he 
was principal alto at the best London concerts 
and all the provincial festivals, being greatly 
admired for the beauty of his voice and his 
finished style of singing, particularly in part 
music. CiJlcott*s glee * With sighs, sweet rose,' 
was composed exproesly for him. In 1832 he 
became conductor of the Concert of AjQcient 
Music, which office he resigned in 1840. He 
conducted the Birmingluun Festivals from 1834 
to 1 843, and the York Festival of 1 8 35 . He was 
the composer of several pleasing glees— one of 
which, * When the fair rose,* gained a prize at the 
Harmonic Sodety in i8oo---and some songs, and 
wrote anthems for the coronations of George IV. 
and Queen Victoria. He died Nov. 1 7, 1856. 

Dbbobah, second wife of William Knyvett, 
and niece of Mrs. Travis, one of the Lancashire 
chorus singers engaged at the Concert of Ancient 
Music, was bora at Shaw, near Oldham, Lanca- 
shire. In 1 813 she was placed in the chorus of 
the Concert of Ancient Music, the directors of 
which, finding her possessed of superior abilities, 
soon withdrew her from that position, took her 
as an articled pupil, and placed her under 
Greatorex. In 18 15 she appeared at the con- 
certs ais a principal singer wiu success. In 18 16 
she sang at the Derby Festival, in 1818 at 
Worcester, and in 1820 at Birmin^ianu From 

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KNYVETT. 



that time she was constantly in reqaeet, particn- 
larly as an oratorio singer, until 1843, when she 
retired. She died in Feb. 1876. [W.H. H.] 

KOCHEL. Dr. LuDWio, Rittsb von, learned 
musician and naturalist, bom Jan. 14, 1800, at 
Stein, near Krems on the Danube ; tutor to the 
sons of the Aichduke Earl (1828-42). From 
1850 to 1863 he lived at Salzburg, and from that 
time to his death, on June 3, 1877, at Vienna. 
His wgAl as a botanist and mineralogist does not 
concern us : as a musician he has immortalised 
his name by his 'Chronologisch-thematisches Ver« 
zeichniss' of all W. A. Mozart^s works, with an 
appendix of lost, doubtful, and spurious composi- 
tions (firdtkopf & Hartel, Leipzig 1862). As a 
precursor of that precious work a small pamphlet 
should be named, ' tjber den Umfang der musik- 
alischen Productivitat W. A. Mozarts' (Salzbui^ 
i862). The complete edition of Mozart*s works 
which Brdtkopf & Hartel are now publishing 
could scarcely have been made without his gener- 
ous cooperation. In 1832 von Kochel was made 
an Imperial Councillor, and in 42 he received the 
order of Leopold. Among his intimate friends was 
Otto Jahn, m whose work on Mozart he took an 
active interest. See Jahn's Mozart, md ed., p. xxxi. 
His private character was most estimable. [C.F.P.] 

KOHLEB. The name of an eminent fiunilycf 
military wind-instrument makers,, at present esta- 
blished at 35, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 
The founder of the family was JoBV K(iHL£B, a 
native of Volkenrode, a hamlet near Cassel. He 
came to England, acted as bandmaster to the 
liancashire volunteers, and in 1780 established 
himself as a musical instrument inaker at 87, St. 
James*8 Street. Having no children, he sent for 
his nephew, John KOhlsb, from Giermany, who 
succeeded to his business in 1801. The latter 
was appointed musical instrument maker to the 
Duke of York, then commandei^in-chief, and the 
Prince of Wales successively. He was succeeded 
by his only son, John Augustus, who removed 
the business to Henrietta Street, and died in 1 878. 
His inventions in brass instruments were many 
and successfiiL He first introduced the comet-h.- 

Siston or cornopean into this country, and, with 
lacfarlane, added the third valve to that instru- 
ment. His improved mute to the cornopean, 
with extra bell (1858), enabling the instrument 
to be played in a very low tone and perfectly in 
tune, IS well known. His triple slide trombones 
and patent levers were very remarkable improve- 
ments in their day. He obtained prize medals at 
the Exhibitions of 1 85 1 and62,andwa8&vourably 
mentioned in the Report .of the latter. The busi- 
ness is now carried on.by.his eldest son, Augustus 
Charles, who entered the firm in 1863. [6.] 

KOMPEL, August, a distinguished violinist, 
bom in 1831 at Briickenau. He is one of the 
best pupils of Spohr, and the quiet elegiac style 
of his master suits his talent precisely. His 
tone is not large but very pure and sympathetic, 
his execution &ultless. He was for a time mem- 
ber of the bands at Cassel and Hanover, and has 
been since 1867 leader of ^hat at AVeimar. [P*D.] 



KONTSKI. 

KOLLMANN, August Friedbich Earl, ona 
of a musical £Eunily, his &ther an organist and 
schoolmaster, his brother, George Chnstoph, an 
organist of great renown at Hamburg; was 
bom at Engelbostel, Hannover, in 1756, and 
thoroughly educated in music. He was selected 
to be (^pel-keeper and schoolmaster at the Ger- 
man Chapel, St. Jameses, London, and entered on 
his duties about 1782. In 1792 George III. 
presented a chamber organ to the chapel, which 
was played by KoUmann under the title of * derk * 
till his death in Nov. 1824. He was a person of 
much energy, and in 1809 during a large fire in 
the palace is said to have saved the dhapel by 
standing in the doorway and preventing the fire- 
men from entering it to destroy it. His works 
are numerous: — Essay on Practical Harmony, 
1796; do. on Practical Musical Composition, 
1799 ; Practical Guide to Thorough Base, 1801 ; 
Vindication of a passage in ditto, 1802; New 
Theoryof Musical Harmony, 1806; Second Prac- 
tical Guide to ThcNrough Bass, 1807 ; Quarterly 
Musical Register, 181 2— two numbers only; Re- 
marks on Logier, 1824 — (some of these went 
through two ecUtions); Analyzed Symphony, op. 3 ; 
First beginning on the P. F. op. 5, 1 796 ; Concerto 
for P.F. and Orchestra, op. 8 ; Melody of the looth 
Psalm, with 100 harmonies, op. 9 ; Twelve ana- 
lyzed Fugues, op. 10 ; Introduction to Modulation, 
op. II ; Rondo on the Chord of the Dim. 7th.. 
He is also said to have published an orchestral 
^mphony *The Shipwreck, or the Loss of the 
East Lidiaman Halsewell,' a piece of programme- 
music quite in the taste of the time; songs, 
sonatas, and an edition of Bach's Well-tempered 
Clavier. His son George August was a good 
organ-player, and on his fiither*s death succeeded 
to his post as organist. On his death, March 
19, '1845, his sister Johanna Sophia succeeded 
him; and on her death, in May 1849, the post 
was bestowed on Mr. F. Weber the present 
organist. [G.] 

KONTSKI, DE, a family of virtuosi, of which 
Chables, the eldest, bom at Warsaw in 1816, 
appeared as a pianist in public at the age of 
seven, but, like the majority of prodigies, did 
not fulfil the promises of childhood. He made 
his first studies in Warsaw and continued them • 
at Paris, where he settled as a teacher. 

Antoine, the second, bom at Cracow Oct. 2^, 
181 7, -a clever pianist, with great delicacy of 
ionoh and brilUancy of •execution, but a super- 
ficial musician, and composer of many ' pieces de 
salon,' of which the 'Re veil du Lion' {op, 115) 
is universally known. He has travelled a great 
deal and is now living in London. 

Stanislas, the third •brother, bom in 1820, 
pianist and pupil of Antoine, living at Peters- 
burg. 

Apollinaibe, a violinist, the voungest of the 
four brothers, was bom Oct. 23, 1825, at Warsaw. 
His first master was his elder brother Charles, 
himself a clever violinist and pupil of the Warsaw 
Conservatoire. He showed tne same precocity of 
talentasibo rest of his family, performing in public 
concerts at an age of not much over four years. 



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KbNTSKI. 

Later on he travelled a great dealy chiefly in 
Bossia, but ahio in France and Grermany, and 
made a certain lensation by his really excep- 
tiooal technical proficien<rjr, not unaccompanied 
by a certain amount of charlatanism. In 1857 
he is said (see Mendel) to have attracted the 
Attention of Paganini, then in Paris on his road 
back from England, and to have formed a friend- 
ship with the great virtuoso which resulted in 
hU receiving some lessons^ from him (an honour 
which he shared with Sivori) and ultimately be- 
oonuog heir to his violins and violin compositions. 
This however requires oonfirmatioii. In 185^ he 
WM appointed solo-violinist to the Emperor of 
RiiaBia» and in 1861 Director of the Warsaw Con* 
wrTatoire, which post he still retains. He played 
% solo at one of the Russian concerts ^ven in 
ocnmection with the Exhibition at Paris m 1878. 
His compositions (fantasias and the like) are 
musically unimportant. [P. D.] 

KOTZWARA, Franz, bom at Prague, was 
m Ireland in 1790, when he was engaged as 
tenor player in (rallini's orchestra at the King^s 
Theatre. On Sept. a, 1791 he hanged himself 
not in jest but in the greatest earnest, in a house 
of iUfiune in Vine Street, St. Martin's. He had 
been one of the band at the Handel Commemora- 
tion in the preceding May. Kotzwara was the 
satbor of the Battle of Prague^ a piece foff P. F. 
with violin and cello ad libitum, long a fiivourite-in 
London. Also of sonatas, serenades, and other 
pieces, some of them bearing as high an opus 
namber as 36, if F^tis may be believed. He was 
s clenrer, vagabond, dissipated creature. [G.] 

KO^ELUCH (Oerman Kotzeluoh), Johaivn 
A5T0K, Bohemian musician, bom Dec. 13, 1738, 
at Wellwam ; was Ch(Mrmaster first at Rakonitz 
sad then at Wellwam. Desirous of further in- 
ttroctioD he went to Phigue and Vienna, where 
be was kindly received by Gluck and Gassmann, 
Was appointed Choirmaster of the Kreuzherm 
diorch, Prague ; and on March 13, 1784, Capell- 
meister to &e Cathedral, which he retained tUl 
bis deaUi on March 3, 1 81 4. He composed 
chaich-musiCy operas, and oratorios, none of 
which have been published. Of much greater 
importance is hia cousin and pupil, 

Leopold, bom also in Wellwam in 1754, or 
According to some 1748. In 1765 he went to 
I^Bgue for his education, and tlrare composed 
a ballet, performed at the national theatre in 
J 77 If with so much success that it was followed 
in the course of the next six years by 24 ballets 
and 3 pantomimes. In 1778 he went to Vienna, 
and became the pianoforte master of the Arch- 
<hicheas Elizabeth and favourite teacher of the 
aristocracy. When Mozart resigned his post at 
Salzbmg (1781) the Ardibishop at once offered 
it with a rise of salary to Kozeluch, who declined 
it on the ground that he was doing better in 
Vieanft. To his friends however he held dif- 
ferent language — ' The Archbishop's conduct to- 
wards Mozart detenred me more than anything, 
far if he could let sudx a man as that leave him, 

^ lUa a eongbontad bf HuttBok. Ana dem CoMert^Ml. pw 12^ 



KRAFT. 



69 



what tTMtment should I have' been likely to 
meet with?* The respect here expressed was 
sadly at variance with his subsequent spiteful 
behaviour towards Mozart^ the original cause 
of which is said to have been Mozart*s reply to 
his reoMurk on a passage in a new quartet of 
Haydn*s — *I should not have written that so.' 
' Neither should I : but do you know why T 
because the idea would never have occurred to 
either of us.* This reproof Kozeluch never forgot. 
He used to say that the overture to 'Don 
Giovanni' was no doubt fine, but that it was 
full of faults ; and of that to ' Die Zauberflote,* 
' Well ! for once our good Mozart has tried to 
write like a learned man.' At the coronation of 
the Emperor Leopold II. at Prague (1791) even 
hia own countrymen the Bohemians were dis- 
gusted with hia behaviour to Mozart, who was 
in attendance as court composer. He never- 
theless succeeded him in his office (1792) with a 
salary of 1 500 gulden, and retained the post till 
his death on May 7, 181 1 (not 1814). His 
numerous compositions include 2 grand operas, 
' Judith * and ' Debora und Sisara ' ; an oratorio, 
'Moses in jEgypten'; many ballets, cantatas, 
about 30 symphonies, and much pianoforte music, 
at one time well known in England, but all now 
forgotten. His chief interest for us lies in his 
association with Mozart and Haydn. [F. G.] 

KRAFT, Anton, distinguished cellist, bom 
Dec. 30, 1752,' at Rokitzan near Pilsen in Bo- 
hemia, soti of a brewer and amateur, who had 
his son early taught music, especially the cello. 
He studied law at Pktigue, where he had finish- 
ing lessons from Werner, and Vienna, where 
Haydn secured hun for the chapel of Prince 
Esterhazy, which he entered on Jan. i, 1778. 
On the Prince's death in 1 790 he became cham- 
ber-musician to Prince Grassalkowitsch, and in 
1795 to Prince Lobkowitz, in whose service he 
died Aug. 28, 1820. Gn one of his concert- tours 
he was at Dresden in 1789, and with his son 
played before Duke Earl, and before the Elector 
the night after the court had been enchanted by 
Mozart. Both musicians were staying at the 
same hotel, so th^ arranged a quartet, the 
fourth part being taken by Teyber the organist.' 
Haydn valued Kraft for his power of expression, 
and for the purity of his intonation, and in all 
probabilitv composed (1781) his cello concerto 
(Andi€) n>r him. According to Schindler^ the 
celle part in Beethoven's triple concerto was also 
intended for Kraft. As he showed a talent for 
composition, Haydn offered to iastnict him, but 
Kraft taking up the new subject with such ardour 
as to neglect his instrament, Haydn would teach 
him no more, saying he alr^Kly knew enough for 
his purpose. He published 3 sonatas witii ac- 
compamment, op. i (Amsterdam, Hummel); 
3 sonatas, op. a (Andr^) ; 3 grand duos concerw 
tantes for violm and cello, op. 3, and ist oonoerto- 



* Thb to the date In the bApttsmal register, hot ITSt or 49. are 
nsually (Iven. 

s Mozart alM plajed with the KrafU Ms Trio In B (EBohel 512) ; lea 
Nuhl'B * Kozart-Brlere.' Mo. 2SI. N.B. No. S4« to wrong. 

« VoLL P.I47; Me atoo Thayer's' Beethoven.* ToL 11. p.m. 



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70 



JCRAFT. 



KBEBS. 



in 0, op. 4 (Breitkopf & Hartel) ; grand duos for 
3 cellos, op. 5 and 6 (Vienna, Steiner) ; and di- 
vertissement for cello with double bass (Peters). 
Kraft also played the baritone in Prince Ester- 
hazy's chamber musicj^ and composed several 
trios for 2 baritones and cello. His son and pupil 
NiooLAUS, bom Dec. 14, 1778, at Esterhaz, 
early became proficient on the cello, accompanied 
his father on his concert-tours (see above), and 
settled with him in Vienna in 1790. He played 
a concerto of his father^s at a concert of the 
Tonkiinstler-Societat in 1792, and was one of 
Prince £arl Idchnowsky's famous quartet party, 
who executed so many of Beethoven's works for 
the first time. The others were Schuppanzigh, 
Sina, and Franz Weiss, all young men.^ In 1 796 
he became chamber-musician to Prince Lob- 
kowitz, who sent him in 1801 to Berlin, for 
further study with Louis Duport. There he gave 
concerts, as well as at Leipzig, Dresden, Prague, 
and Vienna on his return journey. In 1809 he 
entered the orchestra of the court-opera, and the 
King of Wirtemberg hearing him in 18 14, at 
once engaged him for his chapel at Stuttgart. 
He undertook several more concert-tours (Hum- 
mel accompanied him in 18 18), but an accident 
to his hand obliged him to give up playing. He 
retired on a pension in 1834, and dded on May 18, 
1853. Among his pupils were Count Wilhorsky, 
Merk, Bimbach, Wranitzky's sons, and his own 
son Fbiedbich, bom in Vienna Feb. 12, 1807, 
entered the chapel at Stuttgart 1824. Among 
Kicolaus's excellent cello compositions may be 
specified — a fimtasia with quartet, op. i (Andrd) ; 
concertos, op. 3, 4 (Brdtkopfs), and 5 (Peters) ; 
sc^ne pastorale with orchestra, dedicated to the 
King of Wirtemberg, op. 9 (Peters) ; 8 diver- 
tissements progressives wi^ 2nd cello, op. 14 
(Andr^) ; 3 easy duos for 2 cellos, op. 15, and 3 
grand duos for ditto, op. 17 (Andr^). [C.F.P.] 

KKAKOVIAK, CRAOoyiAK, or Cbacovienne. 
A Polish dance, belonging to the district of 
Craoow. ' There are usually,' says an eye-witness, 
' a great many couples — as many as in an pnglish 
country dance. They shout while dancing, and 
occasionally the smart man of the party sings an 
impromptu couplet suited for the occasion — on 
birthdays, weddings, etc. The men also strike 
their heels together while dancing, which produces 
a metallic sound, as the heels are covered with iron.* 
The songs, which also share the name, ^are in- 
numerable and, as is natural, deeply tinged with 
melancholy. Under the name of Gracovienne 
the dance was brought into the theatre about 
the year 1840, and was made fkmous by Fanny 
ElBsler*s performance. The following is the tune 
to which she danced it ; but whether that is a 
real Krakoviak, or a mere imitation, the writer 
is unable to say :— 




V * For an ueedote on tbU \polnt tea 'Josef HaydD,' br 0. F. Pcdil. 
TOl. i. p. 282. 
' s See Thajrer's 'Beethoreo,' toL U. p. 2TS, 




It has been varied by Chopin (op. 14), Hen, 
WaUaoe, and others. [G.] 

KBEBS. A mubical &mi]y of our own tune. 
Karl August, the head, was the son of A. and 
Charlotte Miedcke, belonging to the company of 
the theatre at Nuremberg, where he was bom 
Jan. 16, 1804. The name of Krebs he obtained 
from the singer of that name at Stuttgart, who 
adopted him. His early studies were made under 
Schelble, and in 1825 under Seyfried at Vienna. 
In March 1827 he settled in Hamburg as head 
of the theatre, and there passed 23 active and 
useful years, till called to Dresden in 1850 as 
Kapellmeister to the court, a post which he filled 
with honour and advantage till 1871. Since 
that date he has conducted the orchestra in the 
Catholic chapel. His compositions are numerous 
and varied in kind — masses, operas ('Silva,* 
'Agnes*), a Te Deum, orchestral pieces, songs 
and pianoforte works, many of them much 
esteemed in Germany. In England, however, his 
name is known almost exclusively as the £ftther 
of Miss Mart Kbebs, the pianist, bom Dec. 5, 
1851, at Dresden. On the side of both father 
and mother (Abotsia Michaelsi, an operatic 
singer. of eminence, who married Ejrebs July 20, 
1850, and is still living) she inherited music, 
and like Mme. Schumann was happy in having 
a father who directed her studies with great 
judgment. Miss Krebs appeared in public at 
the early age of ii (Meissen, 1862), and has 
since that date been almost continually before 
the world. Her tours have embraced not only 
the whole of Germany and England, but Italy, 
France, Holland, and America. She played at 
the Gewandhaus first, Nov. 30, 1865. To this 
country she came in the previous year, and made 
an engagement with Mr. Gye for four seasom:, 
and her first appearance was at the Crystal Palace, 
April 30, 1804; at the Philharmonic April 20, 
1874; and at the Monday Popular Concerts 
Jan. 1 3, 1 875. At all these concerts Miss Krebs 
is often heard, though the ' Populars* enjoy more 
of her presence than any other. Her repertoire 
is large, and embraces all the acknowledged 
classi^, orchestral, chamber, and solo pieces, 
and others of such exceptional difficulty as Schu- 
mann's Toccata (op. 7), of which she has more 
than once given a very fine rendering. She is 
liked by all who know her, and we trust that she 
may long continue her visits to this country. [G. ] 

KREBS, JoHANN LuDWio, distinguished or- 
ganist, bom at Buttelstadt in Thuringia Oct. 10, 
1713. His fi»ther, Johann Tobias, himself an 
excellent organist^ for seven years walked every 



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KKEBS. 

week from Buttelstadt to Weimar, in order to 
take leseoDB from Walther, author of the Lexicon, 
who was oiganittt there, and from Sebastian Bach, 
it that time concertmeister at Weimar. He was 
afterwards appointed organist at Buttelstadt, 
where he died. He so thoroughly grounded his 
8on in music, that when in 1736 he went to the 
Thomas-Schule in Leipzig, he was abready suf- 
ficiently advanced to be at once admitted by Bach 
into the number of his special pupils. He enjoyed 
Bach's instruction for nine years (to 1 735), and 
rose to so high a place in his esteem, that he was 
appointed to play the clavier at the weekly prac- 
tices to which Bach gave the name of 'collegium 
moiicum.' Punning upon his pupil*s name and 
Mi own, the old Cantor was accustomed to say 
that *he was the best crab (Krebs) in all the 
brook (Bach).' At the dose of his philosophical 
studies at Leipzig he was appointed organist 
inooessively at Zwickau, Zeitz, and Altenbuig, 
where he remained from 1756 till his death in 
17S0. He was equally esteemed on the clavier 
and the organ, and in the latter capacity espe- 
cially deserves to be considered one of BacV s 
best pupils. His published compositions include 
' Klavier-Uebungen' (4 parts\ containing chorales 
with variations, fugues, and suites ; sonatas for 
davier, and for flute and clavier ; and trios for 
flute. Several of these have been reprinted in the 
collections of Komer and others. Among his 
unpublished works a Magnificat and 2 Sanc- 
tuses with orchestral accompaniments are highly 
■poken of He left two sons, both sound musi- 
cians and composers, though not of the emin^ice 
of their &ther. The eldest, Ehbenfbied Ghris- 
HAK Tbauoott, succeeded his &ther as Court- 
ocganist and Musik-director at Altenburg, and 
on his death was succeeded by his younger bro- 
ther. JOHANN Gk>TTFBI£D. [A.M.] 

KREISLERIANA, a set of 8 pieces for piano 
•olo, dedicated to Chopin and forming op. 16 of 
Schumann's works. Kreisler was uie Kapell- 
meister in Hoffmann's musical papers so much 
admired by Schumann. The pieces were written 
in 1838. after the Phantasie stticke (op. la) and 
NoveUetten (op. ai), and before the Arasbeske 
(op. 18).* They are full of energy, variety and 
character, and like the NoveUetten are cast in the 
so-called Lied and Rondo forms. Schumann has 
added to the title ' Phantasien fur das P. F.' The 
Kieisleriana were published by Haslinger of Yi* 
enoa shortly after Schumann's visit ( 1 858-9). [G.] 
KREISSLE VON HELLBORN, Hkinbioh, 
Dr. juris. Imperial finance-Secretary at Vienna, 
and Member of the Direction of the Gresellschaft 
der Musikfreunde, finds a place here for his Lives 
of Schubert, viz. * F. Schubert, eine biografische 
Skizze, von Heinrich von Kreissle' (small 8vo. 
Vienna, 1861 ), a preliminaiy sketch ; and ' Franz 
Schubert* (8vo. Vienna, (Jerold, 1865), a com- 
plete and exhaustive biography, with a portrait. 
The latter has been translated in full by Mr. 
Arthur Duke Coleridge, *The Life of Franz 
Schubert . . . with an Appendix by George Grove ' 



KRJBUTZEIL 



n 



(giving a thematic catalogue of the nine sym- 

ShonieSy and mentioning other works still in 
IS.), 3 vols., 8vo., London, Longmans, 1869. It 
has alio been condensed by Mr. £. Wilberforoe^ 
8vo., London, Allen, 1866. 

Kreissle died April 6, 1869, aged 66, much be- 
loved for his amiability and modesty, and for his 
devotion to the subject of his biography. [C.F.P.] 

KRENN, MiOHABL. Beethoven's body-ser- 
vant while he lived at his brother Johannes at 
Gneixendorf in the autumn of 1 8 26. Krenn was 
one of the three sons of the vine-dresser on the 
fiurm. The old man died in 1861, but the son 
survived him, and his story — to all appearance 
a natural and credible account — ^was drawn from 
him by Dr. Lorenz, who communicated it to the 
' Deutsche Musik-Zeitung' of Vienna for March 8, 
1863. It is a veiy curious and interesting account 
of the great master's habits and disposition a few 
months before his death (see voLi. p. 198 6 of this 
Dictionary). It has been made the subject of a 
lecture to the Schillerverein at Trieste by Mr. 
Thayer, 'Ein kritischer Beitrag,' etc. (^Berlin, 
W. Veber, 1877). [G.J 

KRETSCHMER, Edmund, organist and 
dramatic composer, bom Aug. 31, 1830, at 
Ostritz in Saxony, where his &ther the Rector 
of the school, gave him his early musical edu- 
cation; studied composition under Julius Otto, 
and the organ under Johann Schneider at Dres- 
den, where he became organist of the Catholic 
church in 1854 and to the court in 63. He founded 
several * (j^esangvereine,' and in 65 his composi- 
tion, 'Die Greisterschlacht,' sained the prize at 
the first German ' Sangerfest in Dresden. Three 
years later he took another prize in Brussels for 
a mass. His opera 'Die Folkunger,' in 5 acts, 
libretto by Mosenthal, was produ^ at Dresden 
June 1875. It was well received and had a 
considerable run, but has since disappeared ; nor 
does ' Heinrich der Loewe,' to his own libretto, ap- 
pear likely to meet with more permanent success, 
Themusiciscorrectandshowsboth taste and talent, 
but no invention or dramatic power. His vocal 
part- writing has little life ; and his duets, terzets, 
finales, etc., are too much like part-songs. [F.G.] 

KREUTZER, Conbadin, German composer, 
son of a miller, bom Nov. 22, 1782, at Moss- 
kirch in Baden ; chorister first in his native town, 
then at the Abbey of Zwiefalten, and afterwards 
at Scheussenried. In 1799 he went to Freiburg 
in Breisgau to study medicine, which he soon 
abandoned for music. The next 5 years he passed 
chiefly in Switzerland, as pianist, singer, and com- 
poser ; and in 1 804 arrived in Vienna. And there 
he took lessons from Albrechtsberger, and worked 
hard at composition, especiallv operas. His first 
opera was ' Conradin von Schwaben ' (Stuttgart 
181 2), and its success gained him the post of 
CapeUmeister to the King of WUrtemburg ; 
thence he went to Prince von Furstenberg at 
Donaueschingen ; but in 1822 returned to Vienna 
and produced ' Libussa.' At the Kiirthnerthor 
theatre he was CapeUmeister in 1825, 1829-32, 
and 1837-40. From 1833 to 40 he was conductor 



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72 



KREUTZEB. 



at the Jbsepli8tadt theatre, where he produced 
his two beat worka, 'Das Nachilager in Granada ' 
(1834) and a fairy opera 'Der Verschwender/ 
which have both kept the boards. At a later 
date he was appointed CapeUmeister at Cologne, 
and in 1843 condacted the 43rd Festival of the 
Lower Rlune. Thence he went to Paris, and in 
I846 back to Vienna. He accompanied his 
daughter, whom he had trained as a singer, to 
"BigAf and there died, Dec 14, 1849. 

Kreutzer composed numerous operas; inci- 
dental music to several plays and melodramas ; 
an oratorio, 'Die Sendung Mosis,* and other 
church- works ; chamber and pianoforte music; 
Lieder, and part-songs for men^s voices. Of all 
these, a list is given by F^tis, who speaks of a 
one-act drama ' Cordelia * as the most original of 
his works. The two operas already mentioned, 
and the part-songs alone have survived. In the 
latter, Kreutzer displays a flow of melody and 
good construction ; they are still standard works 
with all the German Li^ertafeln, and have taken 
ihe place of much weak sentimental rubbish. 
^ Der Tag des Herm,' ' Die Kapelle/ * Marznacht* 
and others are universal favourites, and models 
of that style of piece. Some of them are given in 
* Orpheus.' As a dramatic composer, his airs are 
bettor than his ensemble pieces, graceful but 
wanting in passion and force. His Lieder for a 
single voice, though vocal and full of melody, have 
disappeared before the more lyrical and expressive 
songs of Schubert and Schumann. [A. M.] 

EltEUTZER,^ BoDOLPHE, violinist and com- 
poser, bom at Versailles, Nov. 16, 1766. He 
studied first under his &ther, a musician, and 
according to F^tis had lessons on the violin from 
Stamitz, but he owed more to natural gifts than 
to instruction. He began to compose before he 
had learnt harmony, and was so good a player 
at 16, when his fother died, that through the in- 
tervention of Marie Antoinette, he was appointed 
first violin in the Chapelle du Roi. Here he had 
opportunities of hearing Mestrino and Viotti, 
and his execution improved rapidly. The further 
appointment of solo-violinist at the Th^tre Italien 
gave him the opportunity of producing an opera. 
'Jeanne d*Arc, 3 acts (May 10, 1790), was suc- 
eessful, and paved the way for ' Paul et Virginie' 
(Jan. 15, 1 791), which was still more so. 

The melo^es were simple and ft-esh, and the 
musical world went into raptures over the new 
effects of local colour, poor as they seem to us. 
The music of 'Lodoliska,' 3 acts (Aug. i, 1791), 
is not sufficiently interesting to counterbalance 
its tedious libretto, but the overture and the 
Tartar's March were for long favourites. During 
the Revolution Kreutzer was often suddenly 
called upon to compose opircu de circonstance, 
a task he executed with great fitcility. In 1796 
he produced ' Imogbne, ou la Gageure indiscrete,' 
a 3 -act comedy founded on a story of Boccaccio 
little fitted for music. At the same time he was 
composing the concertos for the violin, on which 
his fame now rests. After the peace of Campo 

> la Flruoe the name b Mid to hftTo been tnuiiiiiut«d into Kietaobe. 



KBEUTZEB. 

Formio (Oct. 17, 1797) he started on a concert- 
tour through Italy, Germany, and the Nether- 
lands ; the fire and individuality of hia playing, 
especially in his own compositions, exciting eveiy- 
where the greatest enthusiasm. 

In 1798 Kreutzer was in Vienna in the suite 
of Bemadotte (Thayer's 'Beethoven.' ii. ai), 
and we must presume that ifc was at this time 
that he acquired that friendship with Beethoven 
which resulted, 8 years later, in the dedication 
to him of the Sonata (op. 47) which will now 
be always known by his name— though he is 
^said never to have played it — and that be 
became * first vidin of the Academy of Arts and 
of the Imperial chamber-music' — ^titles which 
are attributed to him in the same dedication. He 
had been professor of the violin at the Conserva- 
toire from its foundation, and on his return to 
Paris he and Baillot drew up the famous ' M^thode 
de Violon* for the use of the students. He fire- 
quently plaved at concerts, his dvoa coneertantea 
with Bode being a special attraction. On Rode's 
departure to Russia in 1801, Kreutzer suc- 
ceeded him as first violin solo at the Op^ra, 
a post which again opened to him the career of 
a dramatic composer. * Astyanax,' 3 acts (April 
12, 1801) ; * Aristippe * (May 24, 1 808), the suc- 
cess of which was mainly due to Lays ; and * La 
Mort d'Abel ' (March 23, 1810), in 3 poor acts, 
reduced to two on its revival in 1823, were the 
best of a series of operas now forgotten. He also 
composed many highly successful ballets, such as 
'Paul et Viiginie* (June 24, 1806), revived in 
1826; 'Le Camaval de Venise* (Feb. 22, 1816), 
with Persuis ; and ' Clari * (June 19, 1820), the 
principal part in which was sustained by Bi- 
gottini. He was appointed 1st violin in the 
chapeUe of the First Consul in 1802, violin-tolo 
to the Emperor in 1806, maltre de la chapelle to 
Louis XVIII. in 181 5. and Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour in 1824, He became vice- 
conductor of the Acaddmie in 18 16, and con- 
ductor in chief from 1817 to 1824. A broken 
arm compelled him to give up playing, and he 
retired from the Conservatoire with the year 1 825. 
His last years were embittered by the decline of his 
influence and the impossibility of gaining a hear- 
ing for his last opera, ' Mathilde.* An apoplectic 
seizure affected his mind, but he lingered till 
June 6, 183T, when he died at Geneva. 

Besides hds 39 operas and ballets, all produced 
in Paris, he published 19 violin-concertos ; duos, 
and 2 symphonies ooncertantes, for 2 violins; 
dtudes and caprices for violin solo ; sonatas for 
violin and cdlo; 15 trios, and a sjrmphonie 
oonoertante for 2 violins and cello ; 15 string 
quartets ; and several airs with variations. 

Kreutzer's brother Auguste, bom at VersaiUea 
1781, was a member of the Chapelle de TEmpereur, 
and of the Chapelle du Boi (1804-30); and 
succeeded his brother at the Conservatoire, Jan. 
I, 182$, retaining the post till his death, at Paris 
Aug. 31, 1832. HisaonLEON,bominPari8i8i7y 



3 See Bertloz, ' Vorage/ 1. 964, for this and for an anaslnf afoeoont 
of Kreamr't dUBealiles orer Beethoven's Second Sjmpboni. 



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KREUTZEK. 

died at Vichy Oct. 6, 1868, was mndcal cntic 
(0 ' Ia QvK^SkiaDet' feuilUtonitte to the * Union/ 
and contributed a number of interesting articke 
to the 'Revue oontemporaine/ the 'Revue et 
Gaiette mnsicale/ and other periodicals. [G.C.] 
Bodolphe Kreutzer is the third, in (nrder of de- 
yelopment» of the four great representative masters 
of the classical Violin-School of Paris ; the other 
three being VioTTi, Rode, and Baillot. His style, 
such as we know it from his concertos, is on the 
whole more brilliant than Rode's, but less modem 
than BaiUotV Kreutzer did not require Beetho- 
Tas dedication to make his name immortal. 
His fame will always rest on his unsurpassed 
work of studies — '40 Etudes ou Caprices pour le 
Violon'; a work which has an almost unique 
pofition in the literature of violin-studies. It 
has been recognised and adopted as the basis of 
all solid execution on the violin by the masters 
of all schooLi— Frraich, German, or any other 
nationali^ — and has been publbhed in number- 
lea editions. In point of difficulty it ranks just 
below Rode's 24 Caprices, and is generally con- 
tidered as leading up to this second standard 
work of studies. Kreutzer's concertos afford ex- 
cellent material for the student, but are less 
mtoesting than those of Viotti and Rode, and, 
with the exception of the 19th, in D minor, are 
BOW hardly ever played in public. £P. D.] 

KREUTZER SONATA. The popular title in 
England of Beethoven's Sonata for piano and violin 
in A, op. 47, dedicated to * his finend R. Kreutzer.' 
Hie work was first played by Beethoven and 
Bridgetower at the Augarten at 8 a.m. May 17 
or 34, 1803. The finale had originally belonged 
^ op- 30, no. i^ but the first movement and the 
variations were only finished just in time, and 
the Utter had to be pUyed firom the autograph 
without reheamL In the opening Presto, at the 
pause in the 9th bar, Bridgetower introduced a 
Cadenza in imitation of that for the Piano in the 
iSth bar, fortunately to Beethoven's satisfaction 
(aee Thayer, ii. 230). He gives it as follows : — 



KROMMER. 



78 




The sonata was published in 1805, by Simrock 
and Traeg. before May 18. Bridgetower averred 
(Thayer, ii. 231) that it was origmally dedicated 
to him, and that the change was the result of 
a quarrel. Why Kreutzer was chosen is as yet 
a mystery. He was in Vienna with Bemadotte 
in 1 798, but no trace of his relations with Bee- 
thoven remains, though we may assume them to 
have been good, for Beethoven to designate him as 
his ^firiend.' It has been alleged as a reason 
that the second theme of the Presto is a phrase 
of Kreutzer's ; but this has not been substantiated. 
Certainly no such passage appears in Kreutzer's 
violin works. The dedication on the ist ed. stands 
' Sonata per il Pianoforte ed un Violino obligate, 
scritta in uno stilo molto concertante, quasi come 
d'un Concerto. Composta e dedicata al suo 
amioo R. Kreutzer, Membro del Conservatorio di 
Musica in Parigi, Prime Violino dell ' Academia 
delle *Arti, e della Camera Imperiale, per L. 
van Beethoven. Opera 47. A Bonn chez K. Sim- 
rock. 422.' In a notebook of Beethoven^s in the 
Imperial Library at Berlin, the second sentence 
appears * in uno stilo molto brillante.^ 

Some idea of its popularity in England may be 
formed from the fiict that it was played 44 times 
at the Monday Popular Concerts between 1854 
and 1878, the next place being held by the Septet 
(33 times) and the Bb Trio (24 times). [G.] 

KROLL, Franz, bom in 1820 at Bromberg ; 
began with medicine, but finally devoted himself 
to music under the guidance of liszt, whom he 
accompanied on some of his tours. He settled 
in Berlin, and was for some years a success- 
fid teacher. He edited the < Wohltemperirte 
Clavier' far the Bachgesellschaft (14th year, 
1864)— with a Preface contahung a list of MSS. 
and Editions, and an Appendix of Variations, a 
highly creditable work as regards care and ac- 
curacy in collation, which Spitta has selected for 
honourable mention (J. S. Rach, i. 773, note). 
He has also published editions of Bach's chromatic 
fantasia, Mozart's pianoforte fantasias, and other 
important compositions. He was a thorough mu- 
sician, and his style as a pianist was clear and 
eminentiy suggestive. He was a great sufferer 
for some years before his death, which took place 
May 28, 1877. IF.G.] 

KROMMER, Franz, violinist and composer, 
bom 1759 ^^ Kamenitz in Moravia; learned 
music from an imcle. then Choirmaster at Turas. 
From 1 7 to 25 he acted as organist, and composed 
much church music, still unpublished. He next 
entered the band of Count Stymm* at Simonthum 
in Hungary as violinist, and in two years waff 
promot^ to the Capellmeistership. Here he 
became acquainted with the works of Haydn 
and Mozart ; and composed his pieces for wind- 
instruments, which are of lastmg importance, 
and perceptibly influenced modem military music. 
After one or two n^ore changes he at length 
becaame Capellmeister to Prince Grassalkowitz, 
after whose death he lived comfortably in 

1 The fbct of Krentier boMlns these two'posU In Vieana Menu to 
linplj that be remained there lome time. 
* FMs and Mendel call him Ajrram by mlitake. 



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74 



KBOMMEB. 



YiemiAy enjoying a considerable reputation as 
a teacher and composer. The sinecure post of 
doorkeeper to the Emperor was conferred upon 
him, and in 1818 he succeeded Koieluch as 
Court GapeUmeister and Composer, in which 
capacity he accompanied the Emperor Francis 
to France and Italy. He died suddenly Jan. 8, 
1851, while composing a f>astoral mass. As a 
composer he was remarkable for produotiyeness, 
and for a clear and agreeable style, most ob- 
servable perhaps in his string-quartets and quin- 
tets, published at Vienna, C^enbach, and Paris. 
This made him a great favourite in Vienna at 
the dose of the century. Schubert however, who 
as a boy of eleven had to play his Symphonies 
in the band of the ' Convict,' U£ed to laugh at 
them, and preferred those of Kozeluch. Both 
are alike forgotten. Krommer also composed a 
number of quartets and quintets for flutes, be- 
sides the pieces for wind-instruments already 
mentioned. The only one of his church works 
printed is a mass in 4 parts with orchestra and 
organ (Andr^, Offenbach). Had he not been the 
contemporary of Ebtydu and Mozart he might 
have enjoyed more enduring popularity. [F. GL] 

KRUMMHORN (t. e. crooked-horn). Cro- 
mome, Cremona, Clarionet, Como-di-Bassetto. 
The various names given to an Organ Reed Stop 
of 8 feet size of tone. Modem English specimens, 
which are found under all the foregoing names 
except the first, are estimated in proportion as 
their sound resembles that of the orchestral Cla- 
rinet. The Cremonas in the organs built by 
Father Smith (1660) for the 'Whitehall Ban- 
queting House,' etc., and those by Harris in his 
instruments at St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill (1670), 
etc., were doubtless * voiced ' to imitate the fbrst- 
named and now obsolete crooked-horn. They 
were never intended to represent the violin, into 
the name of which its own had nevertheless been 
OOTrupted. The pipes are of metal, cylindrical 
in shape, short, and of narrow measure, the CC 
pipe being only about 4 ft. 6 in. in length, and 
1 1 in. in (Uameter. [E. J. H.] 

KRUMPHOLZ, JoHANN Baptist, celebrated 
harpist and composer, bom about 1 745 at Zlonitz 
near Prague ; son of a bandmaster in a French 
regiment, lived in Paris from his childhood, 
learning muric from his father. The first public 
mention of him is in the * Wiener Diarium ' for 
1773 ; he had played At a concert in the Burg- 
theater, and advertised for pupils on the pedal- 
harp. Firom Oct. 1773 to March 1 776 he was a 
member of Prince Esterhazy's chapel at Esterhaz, 
taking lessons from Haydn in composition, and 
already seeking after improvements m his instm* 
ment. He next started on a^concert-tour, play- 
ing at Leipzig on an -* organisirten Harfe.' He 
then settled in Paris, where he was highly es- 
teemed as a teacher and virtuoso. Nadermann 
built a harp from his specifications, to which 
attention was drawn by an article in the 'Journal 
de Paris ' (Feb. 8, 1 786), and which Krampholz 
described in a preface to his sonata, op. 14. His 
wife played some pieoes on it before the Academic, 
Krumpholz accompanying her on the violin, and 



KiiCKES. 

oft the ^ Pianoforte oontrebasse ' or ' C^vichord k 
marteau,' another instrument made by £rard 
from his specifications. The Academic expreMied 
their approval of the new haip in a letter to 
Kmmpholz (Nov. 3i, 1787). He drowned him- 
self in the Seine in 1 790 inmi grief at the infidelity 
and ingratitude of his wife. 

Gerber gives a list of his compositions, which 
are still of value. They comprise 6 grand con- 
certos, 33 sonatas with violin accompaniment, 
preludes, variations, duets for 2 harps, a quartet 
for harp and strings, and symphonies for harp and 
small orchestra, published in Paris and London. 

His wife, n^ Mbtbr, from ' Metz, eloped with 
a young man to London. She was even a finer 
player than her husband, making the instrument 
Boimd almost like an Eolian harp. In London 
she gave her first concert at Hanover Square 
Rooms, June 3, 1788,' and for many years ap- 
peared with great success at her own and Salo- 
mon's concerts, at the oratorios in Drury Lane, 
and at Haydn's benefit. She frequently played 
Dussek*s duos ooncertantes for harp and piano- 
forte with the composer. She is mentioi^ in 
1803, but after that appears to have retired into 
private life. 

Wbnzkl Krumpholz, brother of the former, 
bom in 1 750, became one of the first violins at 
the court-opera in Vienna in 1 796. His name is 
immortalised by his intimacy with Beethoven, 
who was very fond of him, though he used to call 
him in joke 'mein Narr,* my fool. According 
to Ries' he gave Beethoven some instmction on 
the violin in Vienna. Knunpholz was one of 
the first to recognise Beethoven's genius, and he 
inspired others with his own enthusiasm. Czemy 
mentions this in his Autobi(^^phy,^ and also 
that he introduced him to Beethoven, who ofi*ered 
of his own accord to give him lessons. Krump- 
holz also played the mandoline, and Beethoven 
seems to have intended writing a sonata for P. F. 
and mandoline for him.^ He died May 3, 181 7, 
aged 67, and Beethoven must have felt his death 
deeply, bince he composed on the following day 
the * Gesang der Monche * (from Schiller*s ' Wil- 
helm Tell'), for $ men's voices, *in commemora- 
tion of the sudden and unexpected death of our 
'Knunpholz.* Only two of his compositions have 
been printed — an ' Abendunterhaltung * for a 
single violin^ (dances, variations, a short andante, 
etc. ; Vienna and Pesth, Kunst & Tndustrie-Oomp^ 
toir) ; and ' Ein Viertelstunde fUr eine Violine,* 
dedicated to Schuppanzigh(Joh.Traeg). [C.F.P.] 

KtJCKEN, Friedrioh WiLHiUf, bom at 
Bleckede, Hanover, Nov. 16, 1810. His father, 
a country gentleman, was averse to the musical 
proclivities of his son, and the boy had to thank 
his brother-in-law, LUrss, musio-cfirector and or« 

1 Or LlAge. aooorrtlng to G«rber and Bdchaidt. 
s Not 1790, M oommonly stated. 

• 'Bioffraphtoche Nottien,' p. 119. 

« He callB Krumpholz 'an old man.* He wu then aboat BO. 

• ' Aatographiiche Sklzze,* hj Artaila. On Weiuel Knimpholx see 
also Thayer'* ' Beethoven.' toL U. p. 48; the oonfttsloD between the 
two brother* b rectlfled vol. UL p. 610. 

• Compare Nottebohm'* Thematic Cataloffne, p. 161. 

7 Czemjr took Na 1. a oootrBdanae. as the theme of hi* XX eoDeert 
variations for P.F. and rteHn. This. hU op. 1 (Btelner, 2editiona). la 
dedicated to KnunpboU-AflDa trait of gratltade. . 



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fftaist of Schwerin, for being allowed to follow 
bis bent^ whicb be did under Lurss and Aron 
in Scbwerin, and aa flute, viola, and violin 
player in tbe Duke*8 orcbettra tbere. His early 
oompoflttlons, * Aob wie wan moglicb dann * and 
others, became so popular tbat be was taken 
into the palace as tciuiher and player. But this 
did not satisfy him, and be made bis way to 
Berlin^ wbere, while studying hard at counter- 
point under Bimbach, be gradually composed the 
toQgs which rendered him so famous, and have 
made hia name a household word in his own 
and other countries. His opera, 'Die flucht 
nadi den Scbweiz' (the Flight to Switzerland) 
was produced at Berlin in 1839, and proved very 
Booeenful throughout Grermany. In 1 841 be went 
to Vienna to study under Secbter. In 1843 be 
condticted the great festival of male singers at 
St Gall and Appenzel. Thence be went to Paris, 
when, with characteristic zeal and desire to 
leam, be studied orchestration with Hal^vy, and 
wri^ng for the voice with Bordogni. His stay 
in P^fu lasted for 3! years ; thence he went to 
Stottgart, and brou^t out (April 21, 1847) ^ 
new opera, *Der I^atendent* (the Pretender), 
with the greatest success, which followed it to 
Hamburg and elsewhere in Germany. In 1 851 
he reoeii^ a call to Stuttgart as joint KapeU- 
nteister witb Lindpaintner, filling the place aJone 
after Undpaintner's death (Aug. 21, 1856) till 
1861, when be resigned. In 1863 be joined 
Abt and Berlioz as judges of a competition in 
Stnssburg, and bad an extraordinary reception. 
He compoaed sonatas for pianoforte and violin, 
piaaof<nte and cello, etc., but his immense popu- 
larity ^rang from his songs and duets, some of 
whid), sucb as * Das Stemelein * and ' O weine 
nicfat,' were extraordinarily beloved in their time. 
Almost exclusively however by amateurs and the 
minnm ; among musicians they foimd no fi»vour, 
and are alreEuly almost forgotten. They were also 
very popular in England (* Trab, trab,* * The Maid 
of Jndab,' ' The Swallows,* duet, etc.. etc.), and 
Kiicken bad an arrangement witb Messrs. Weasel 
& Co. for the exclusive publication of them. [G.] 
KtJHMSTEDT, Fbiedrich, bom at Oldis- 
leben, Saxe-Weimar, Deo. ao, 1809. His gift for 
nunc appeared very early and asserted itself 
against the resistance of his parents, so frequent 
in these cases. At length, when 19, he left tbe 
nrnveraity of Weimar and walked to Darmstadt 
(a dSstflmce of full 150 miles) to ask tbe advice of 
C. H. Rinck. The visit resulted in a course of 
three years instruction in theoretical and practical 
mosic under that great OTganist. At the end of 
that time be returned to his family and began to 
write. His career however was threatened by 
a paralysis of bis riebt band, from which he never 
reoorered, and which but for his perseverance 
and energy would have wrecked him. During 
Bereral years be remained almost without the 
means of subsistence, till in 1836 he obtained 
the post of musio-director and professor of the 
Semmar at Eisenach, with a pittance of £30 
per annum. This however was wealth to him : 
be manisd^ and the. day of bis wedding his 



KUHLAXT. 



75 



wife was snatched from him by a sudden 
stroke as they left the church. After a 
period of deep distress music came to bis relief 
and he began to compose. As he grew older 
and published bis excellent treatises and bis good 
music, he became &med as a teacher, and before 
bis death was in easier circumstances. He died 
in harness at Eisenach, Jan. 10, 1858. His works 
extend to op. 40. His oratorios, operas and 
symphonies are forgotten, but his fame rests on 
bis organ works — bis art of preluding, op. 6 
(Schotts); his Gradus ad Pamassum or intro- 
duction to the works of J. S. Bach, op. 4 i.ibid) ; 
bis Fantasia eroica, op. 29 (Erfurt., Komer) ; and 
many preludes, fugues, and other pieces for tbe 
organ, which are solid and effective compositions. 
He also published a treatise on harmony and 
modulation (Eisenach, Bomker, 1838). [G.] 

KXJFFEEATH, Hubert Ferdinand, one of 
six brothers, all musicians, bom June 10, 1808, 
at MtObeim, studied under Hartmann of Cologne, 
and Schneider of Dessau. He played a solo for 
the violin at the Dfisaddorf Festival of 1839 so 
much to the satisfaction of Mendelssohn, who was 
conducting, that he invited him to Leipzig. Ther^ 
he formed one of the brilliant class for conmosition 
whicb included Eckert, Verbu!st, and C. JE. Hors- 
ley. At Mendelssohn's suggestion be studied the 
pianoforte, and he also took lessons on tbe violin 
from David. In 1841 he became conductor of 
the Mannergesangve^in of Cologne, which has 
more than once visited England. In 1844 he 
settled in Brussels, and in 1872 became professor 
of composition at the Conservatoire, a post be 
still retains. He has published a symphony for 
full orchestra ; several concertos and other com- 
positions for tbe Piano, and some expressive 
Lieder. His daughter ANffONTE, a pupil of Stock- 
bauson's, was much applauded at the DUsseldorf 
Festival of 1878, for her fine soprano voice, and 
artistic singing. L^*^*] 

KUHLAU, Friedrich, a musician of some 
distinction in his day. He was bean of poor 
parents at Uelzen in Hanover, March 13, 1786, 
and bad the misfortune to lose an eye at an 
early age. The loss did not however quench his 
ardour for music. During a wandering life be 
contrived to leam tbe piano and the flute, and 
to acquire a solid foundation of harmony and 
composition. Germany was at that time under 
French rule, and to avoid tbe conscription be 
escaped to Copenhagen, wbere be became tbe 
first flute in the king's band. He then settled 
in Denmark, acquired a house in Lyngbye, near 
Copenhagen, to which be fetched his parents, 
composed half-a-dozen operas, was made pro- 
fessor of music and court composer, and en- 
joyed a very great popularity. In the autumn 
of 1825 he was at Vienna, and Seyfried^ has 
preserved a capital story of bis e:q)edition to 
Beethoven at Baden with a circle of choice 
friends, of the way in which the great composer 
dragged them at once into tbe open air, and of 
the jovial close of the day's proceedings. Kuhlau^ 

I Beethorens Stadtoo, Aotuog. p. 85. Bee alio Beethoren's Lettea 
(Noilly Mo. 866. ■ . 



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7^ 



KUHLAU. 



inspired by champagne and the presence of Bee- 
thoven, extemporised a canon, to which Beethoven 
responded on the spot, but thought it wise to 
replace his first attempt next morning by another, 
which is one reiterated joke on the name of his 
guest — 




iMi KOhlau nlcbt Imi 



KOhl Dlcbt lau 



and was accompanied by the fdUowing note : — 

BADKN, 3 September, 1925, 
I must confess that the champagne got too much Into 
my head last night, and has once more shewn me that 
it rather confuses my wits than assists them ; for thoush 
it is usuallv tasr eaovgh for me to give an answer on the 
spot, I declare I do not in the least recollect what I wrote 
last night Think sometimes of your most faithful 

BBETHOVSN. 

In 1830 Kuhlau suffered two irreparable losses 
— the destruction of the greater part of his 
manuscripts by fire, and the death of his parents. 
This double calamity affected his health, and he 
died at Lyngbye March 1 8, 1 83 2, leaving a mass of 
compositions, of which none will probably survive 
their author more than a very few years. [G.] 

KUHNAU, JoHANN, a very remarkable old 
musician. Cantor of Ldpzig, and one of the 
pillars of the German school of the clavier, bom 
at Geysing on the borders of Boheniia in April 
1667. As a boy he had a lovely voice and a 
strong turn for music. He was put to the 
Kreuzschule at Dresden, where he became a 
chorister under the quaint title of ' Eathsdiscan- 
tist,' and obtained regular instruction in music. 
On the breaking of his voice he worked the 
harder, and in addition to his music learned 
Italian. The plague in 1680 drove him home, 
but Geysing was no field for his talent, and he 
went to Zittau and woxked in the school, till 
the excellence of a motet which he wrote for 
the Bathswahl, or election of the town council, 
procured him the post of Cantor, with a salary 
on which he could study at leisure. He began 
by lecturing on French. His next move was to 
Leipzig, in 1682, whi^ther his fame had preceded 
him, and in that city of music he cast anchor for 
the rest of his life. In 1684 he succeeded 
Xiihnel as organist at St. Thomas's. At the 
same time he was studying law, and qualified 
himself for the rank of advocate. In 1 700 he 
was made musical director of the University and 
of the two principal churches, and then Cantor. 
After this no further rise was possible, and he 
died June 25, 1722, admired uid honoured as 
one of the greatest musicians and most learned 
men of his time. He left translations from 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, and French, and 
wrote satirical poetry of no common order. Of 
his musical works dke following are named : — 
' Jura circa musicos ecclesiasticos^Leipzig, 1 688); 
'Der musickalische Quacksalber ... in einer 



KULLAK. 

kurtzweiligen und angenehmen Historie ', . • 
beschrieben* (Dresden, 1700); 'Tractatus de 
tetraohordo* ; ' Introductio ad comi^bsitionexn ' ; 
and * Disputatio de triade* — the three last in MS. 
He wrote motets on chorales, and other sacred 
pieces ; but his clavier music is his glory, and he 
is the g^reatest figure among German composers 
for the clavier l^fore Bach, who obliterated all 
hi? predecessors. He was the inventor of the 
sonata as a piece in several movements, not 
dance-tunes — the first of which, 'Fine SonAta 
aus dem B,* in three movements, is found in his 
'Sieben Partien' (Leipzig, 1695"). He followed 
diis with 13 others — *Frische Clavier-Friichte, 
oder deben Sonaten* (Dresden and Leipzig, 
1696) ; 'Biblische Historien nebst Auslegung in 
sechs Sonaten'— the last a curious offspring of 
the musician and the divine, and a very ^iriy 
instance of Programme music. In addition to 
these he published 'Clavier-Ubung aus 14 Partien 
. . . bestehend* (Leipzig, 1689) — ^a oollectian of 
Suites, that is of dance-tunes. Becker has repub- 
lished two of Kuhnau's pieces in his 'Ausgew^te 
Tonstucke' ; and Pauer, who introduced several 
of them to the Fnglish public in his chronological • 
performances in 1862 and 63, has printed a Suite 
in his ' Alte Clavier musik * (Senff ) and a Sonata 
in his *Alte meister* (Breitkopf). [G.] 

KULLAK, Theodor, bom Sept. la, 1818 
(not 1820, as Fetis supposes), at Krotoschin in 
the province of Pbsen, where his father held the 
post of ' Landgerichts-sekretar.' He was first in- 
tended for the law, but preferred to devote him- 
self to music. He was a pupil of Hauck*s firom 
his nth year, having previously been under the 
tuition of Albert Agthe. In 1842 he became a 
pupil of Czemy, and in 1 846 was made Ho^ianist 
to the King of Prussia. He founded, in conjunc- 
tion with Stem an4 Marx, a Conservatorium at 
Berlin in 1851; and in 1855, in consequence of 
some disagreement with his fellow-workers, he 
started a new institution under the name of 
'Neue Akademie der Tonkunst' in the same 
city, where he himself continues to reside. He 
has devoted his attention principally to the 
'drawing-room' style of composition, and has 
published many transcriptions and arrangements 
for the piano, which are very popular. Of his 
original works the following are the most re- 
markable : — Grand concerto in C minor for piano 
and orchestra (op. 55) ; Trio for piano and strings 
(op. 77) ; Duos for piano and violin; Ballades, 
Boleros, etc., for piano solo; 'Les l^tincelles,' 
' Les Danaldes,* ' La Gazelle,' etc. ; also collec- 
tions of small pieces, such as 'Deux Portefeuilles 
de Musique,* * Kinderleben,* a sets of pieods Cop. 
81), 'Les Fleurs animdes.* Amons^ his later 
works may be mentioned fOndine (op. iia), 
'Concert-^tude' (op. 121). In 1877 he pub- 
lished a second edition of his ' Octave-school,* 
which is very valuable as an instruction book. 

His brother, Adolf Kullak, bom 1823, was 
a distinguished musical critic in Berlin, and 
wrote * Das Musikalisch-Schone* (Leipzig, 1 858)9 
and ' Aesthetik des Clavierspiels * (B^lin, 1861). 
He died in 186a at Berlin. [J.A.F.M.] 



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KUMMER. 

KXJBiMER, Fbiedrioh August, a great 
TH^oncelliBt, bom at Meiningen Aug. 5 1797. 
Hif father (an oboist) migrated to Dresden, 
where the lad learnt the cello under Dotzauer. 
It was his ambition to enter the King's band, 
but as there was then no vacancy for a cellist, 
he took up the oboe, and soon attained suck 
proficiency as to obtain the desired appoint- 
ment> in Nov. 1814. In 181 7 he again took 
up his (niginal instrument, and in time became 
known as the most accomplished virtuoso in 
Gormany. With the exception of occasional 
moaical tours, principally in Germany and Italy, 
his career has been confined to Dresden. In 
1864 he celdbrated the 50th anniversary of his 
appointment as a member of the Dresden 
orchestra, after which he retired on a pension, 
and was succeeded by F. Griltzmacher. He 
died at Dresden, May 32, 1879. Kummer]s 
tone was at once sweet and powerful, and his 
ooDunand ovor difficulties very great. His play- 
ing however was characterised in a remarkable 
degree by repose, and he is described as never 
having been excited even when playing the 
most passionate or difficult passages. Kumme^ 
has been a voluminous writer for his instrument. 
163 of his works have appeared in print, unong 
w^^ are Concertos, Fantasias, a good Violon- 
oeUo Sdiool, etc. He has also composed some 
200 entractes for the Dresden Theatre. Among 
his many distinguished pupils, Goltermann of 
Statteifft, and Cossmann of Wiesbaden may be 
namS. [T.P.H.] 

KUNST DER PUGE, DIE. This work of 
J. S. Badh's has been already mentioned under 
the head Abt of Fuous. It only remains to^ 
ad^ that since that time a good analysis of it' 
was read by Mr. James Higgs to the Musical 
Awxnatian, Feb. 5, 1877, and is publidied in 
tbdr Proceedings for 1876-77. [G.] 

KUNTZSCH, JOHANN GOTTPHIBD, One of 
those earnest, old-£Ashioned, somewhat pedantic, 
mosidans, to whom Germany owes so much; 
who are bom in the poorest ranks, raise them- 
selves by miheard-of efforts and self-denial, and 
die without leaving any permanent mark except 
the pupils whom they help to form. The ' £ac- 
calaoreus Kuntzsch was teacher of the orffan 
and davier at the Lyceum of Zwickau when 
Schmnann was a small boy, and it was by him 
tint the great composer was grounded in piano- 
&rte Ikying. Kuntzsch celebrated his jubilee 
at Zwickau in July 185 a, when Schumann wrote 
him a diarming letter^^ which his biographer 
Msmuu us was but one of many. Schiunann*8 
itedies fior the pedal piano-^6 pieces in canon- 
km (op. 56), composed in 1845 and published 
iai846-Hure dedicated to his old master, whose 
name is thus happily preserved from oblivion. 
Kimtzsch died at a great age in 1854. [G.] 

KUPSCH, Karl Gustav, demands a few 
lines as having been for a short time Schumann*s 
instroctor in the theory of musio' — apparently 
mthe latter part of 1830, after his accident to 

1 WMkleifSk7glr«lt,9.1& > Wusldeivskr. p. 97. 



KYRIE. 



7^ 



liis finger. Kupech was an average German il^ 
Kapellmeister, bom in Berlin, lived and worked 
there and in Leipzig and Dresden as teacher / 
composer and conductor, till 1838, when he 
settled in Rotterdam as Director of the Singing 
Academy, and one of the committee of the ' Eru- 
ditio musica' Society. In 1845 ^® retumed to 
Germany, became Director of the Theatre at 
Freiburg im Breisgau, and at Naumburg, where 
he died July 30, 1846. [G.] 

KYRIE (Gr. KiJptc iKajffoy ; Kyiie eleieon ; 
* Lord , have mercy* ). 

I.' Thai portion of the Ordinary of the Mass 
which immediately follows the Introit, and pre- 
cedes the Gloria in exceUu : and which, at High 
Mass, is sung by the Choir, while the Celebrant, 
supp<Mted by the Deacon and Subdeacon, is oc- 
cupied in incensing the Altar. 

The Kyrie, in common with all other choral 
portions of the Mass, was originally sung exclu- 
sively to Plain Chaunt melodies, such as those 
which are still preserved in the Roman Gradual, 
and still sung, with great effect, in many Conti- 
nental Cathedrals. One of these, the Kyrie of 
the Misia pro D^unctis, exhibited in the sub- 
joined example, in peculiarly interesting, not only 
from its own inherent b^uty, but, as will be 
presently shewn, from the use to which it was 
turned by Paleetrina, in the Sixteenth Century. 
Ton.VL 




When, after the invention of Figured Music, 
these venerable melodies were selected as thanes 
for the exercise of contrapimtal skill, the Kyrie 
'naturally assumed a prominent position in the 
polyphonic Mass; and at once took a definite 
form, the broad outlines of which passed, un- 
altered, through the vicissitudes of many chang- 
ing Schools. The oonstroction of the words led, , 
almost of necessity, to their separation into three , 
distinct movements. Some of the earlier contra- 
puntists delighted in moulding these into Canons, 
of maddening complexity. The great Masters of 
the Sixteenth Century preferred rather to treat 
them as short, but well-developed Real Fugrues, 
on three distinct subjects, the last of which was 
usually of a somewhat more animated character 
than the other two. Whether from a pious ap- 
preciation of the spirit of the words, or a desire 
to render the opening movement of the Mass as 
impressive as possible, these earnest writers never 
failed to treat the Kyrie with peculiar solemnity. 
In the hands of Palestrina, it frequently expresses 
itself in a wailing cry for mercy, the tender pa- 
thos of which transcends all power of description.. 



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78 



KYRIE. 



ThiB is pre-eminently the caee, in the KyrU of hig 
Missa irevis, a few ban of which have akeady 
been given, as an example, under the heading 
Hexaohord [vol. i. p. 735]. The same feding 
is distinctly perceptible throughout the Kyrie of 
the Missa JPapa Marcelli ; but associated, there, 
with a spirit of hopeful ccmfidenoe which at once 
stamps it as the nearest approach to a perfect 
ideal that has ever yet been r^ushed. More simple 
in construction, yet, scarcely less beautiful, is the 
opening movement of the same composer's Missa 
pro Defunetis, in which the Plain Chaunt Canto 
fermo given above is invested with a plaintive ten- 
derness which entirely conceals the consummate 
Art displayed in its contrapuntal treatment — 
Cantus Palbstrina. 



ifa^ 


«^ 


7-« 


-'_rj n gg 


=^ 


4^ 


Attut 


T^ 


4-^ 


. . . rl 


-s. 


• - - - e 


^•^ 1 

K, - . - . 

Tmorl. 

Mr, 1 1 


- rt - e 

.— 


• - • 


1 ^H 
- -le-I- 


■00 

etc 


*ni3i2 1 

Tenor 2. 

M^ — "' — ^ — 


■^ 


«— 

Ky - 


Ti-f^ 


'nl w g> — 

Kf-rl- 
Ba$tuf 




- 16 


^ 1^1 — 1- 
1- 


■on 


e - 
etc 


ffitTtl 1- 

s^gs^ 






■ ,^ 1" a. 1 


f-^ 



The effect of these pure vocal harmonies, when 
sung, as they are intended to be sung, in imme- 
diate contrast to the stem unisonous Plain Chaunt 
of the Introit, is one which, once heard, can never 
be forgotten. The maniisr of singing them, how- 
ever, requires careful consideration. One great 
difficulty arises from the^Bsct, that, in the oldpart- 
books, no indication whatever is given as to the 
way in which the words and music are to be 
fitted together: and modem editors differ so 
much in their ideas on the subject, that no two 
editions are found to correspond. The following 
phrase from the Kyrit of the Missa Papce Mar- 
eeUi only exhibits one instance of divergence out 
of a thousand. 

pALESTKIlfA. 



<9 



Kyrie. 



(As edited hj Proskb.) 





"^^ 


, - fp ^ , 




miih I — "• ^ 




1 — ^^^ 


-^^ — H 


^ <P ■ _ 1 ..^ 






R 



Kjr-rie e-W ------- md. 

(As edited by Lafaob.) 



Ky-rl-o e----le--I ion. 

In this case, La&ge is undoubtedly right in 
allotting a distinct note to each syllable of the 



KYRIE. 

w<»^ Ky-rv-t : but, nothing can justify his divi- 
sion of Uie penultimate semibreve into a dotted 
minim and crotchet. The second and third syl- 
lables of e4e-4rson can be perfectly enunciated, 
after the Italian manner, to a single note. In 
all such ca s e s, the conductor must use his own 
judgment as to the beet mode of procedure. 

Without pausing to trace the progress of the 
polyphonic Kyrie through the decadence of the 
School to which it owed its existence, or the rise 
of that which followed — a School in which instra« 
mental accompaniment first seriously asserted its 
claim to notice — we pass on to a period at 
which an entirely new phase of Art hail already 
attained its highest degree of perfection. The 
Kyrie of Bach's great Mass in B minor differs, 
toto ccdo, from its polyphonic predecessors. 
Though moulded in the old tri^Mtrtite form, its 
two stupendous Fugues, and the melodious and 
elaborately developed Duet which separates them, 
have nothing but that division in common with 
the grave slow movements of the older Masters, 
and are such, indeed, as Bach alone could ever 
have conceived. Too long for practical use, as 
a part of the CSiuidi Service, they unite in 
fanning a monument of artistic excellence, re- 
presenting a School, which, while it scorned to 
imitate anything which had gone before it, was 
able to defy the imitation of later composers. 

The Kyries of Haydn, and Mozart— legitimate 
descendants of those of Pergolesi, and Jomelli — 
abound with beauties of a ^oUy different order. 
The well-known opening of Haydn*s grand Missa 
Imperialis (in D minor) is a fiery Allegro, in 
which bright passages of semiquavers, and short 
but telling points of fugal imitation, are oon« 
trasted together with striking effect, but with 
very little trace of the expression which we 
should naturally expect in a petition for mercy. 
That of the favourite Mass commonly called 
' Mozart*s Twelfth' is too well known to need 
more than a passing allusion. Neither Beetho- 
ven, in his Missa Solemnis, nor Cherubini, in 
his great Mass in D minor, can be said to have 
struck out a new ideal ; though both infused into 
the Kyrie an amount of dramatic power previously 
unknown in Church Music. In the Kyries of 
Rossini, and Gounod, free use is made of the same 
forcible means of expression, notwithstanding the 
feigned return to an older style, in the Christe of 
the first -named composer's Mesu SolenneUe, 

In tracing the history of the Kyrie^ from its 
first appearance as a polyphonic composition, to 
the lat^ development of modem times, we find, 
that, apart from the idiosyncratic peculiarities of 
varying Schools, and individual composers, it has 
clothed itself in no more than three distinct ideal 
forms ; of which the first depends, for its efiect, 
upon the expression of devotional feeling, while 
the second appeals more strongly to the intelleot, 
and the third, to the power of human emotion. 
Each of these types may finirly lay claim to its 
own peculiar merits : but, if it be conceded that 
devotional feeling is the most necessary attribute 
of true Church Music, it is certain, tiiat, what- 
ever may be in store for the future, that particular 



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KYJRIE. 

aUnbate has never hitherto been reached, in its 
highest perfection, in the presence of instrumental 
aooompaniment. 

IL The Beeponse, * Lord have mercy npon us, 
aod incline our hearts to keep this law '; sung, in 
the Service of the Church of England, after the 
recitation of the Ten Commandments. 

As the custom of reciting the Commandments 
daring the Communion Service is of later date 
than the first Prayer Book of King Edward the 
Sixth, this Kesponse is not found in Merbecke's 
'Booke of Common Praier Noted,* which was 
first published in 1550 : in Plain Song Services, 
therefore, it is usually sung to the simple melody 
given- by Merbecke, to the older form of Kyrie 
used in the Mass. The manner of its treatment 
by the earlier composers of the polyphonic School 
was extremely simple, and digmlied: indeed, 



lABLACHE. 



79 



some of these Responses, as set by Tallis, (in the 
Dorian Mode,) Bird, Farrant, Gibbons, and other 
old English writers, are perfect little gems of 
artistic beauty. With such examples — and many 
excellent ones* of later date— within their reach, 
it is strange that Cathedral Organists should 
ever have countenanced the pernicious custom of 
'adapting' the words of the Kyrie to music 
which — however good in itself— was never in- 
tended to be sung to them. Not very long ago, 
the opening bars of a Chaconne, by Jomelli, 
were heard in almost every Church in which the 
Responses were chaunted : while, within the last 
few years, no Kyrie has been so popular as one 
* adapted * to a passage occurring in * Elijah,' and 
generally associated with a distribution of the 
voice parts which Mendelssohn would have con- 
demned a» utterly barbarous. [W. S. R.] 



L 



LA, ibe syllable used in solmisatibn for the 
sixth note in the scale, possibly derived by 
Guido firom the sixtJi line of the well- 
known hymn to S.^ John — * Xabii reatum.' It is 
oaed by the French and Italians as a synonym 
for A (the sixth note of the scale of C) — ' Sinfonie 
ea la de Beethoven,' and they speak of the 
second string of the violin as 'oorde en la J * La 
h^mol' is A flat. 

The number of vibrations per second for the 
A in the treble stave is — Paris diapason 435, 
London Philharmonic pitch 454. The A pro- 
posed by ihe Society of Arts, and actually in use 
(1879) »t H.M. Opera, 444 (eq. temp.) [G.] 

LABITZKY, J08EP, a well-known dance 
composer, bom July 4, 1802, at Schdnfeld, Eger, 
was grounded in music by Veit of Petschau ; in 
1S20 began the world as first violin in the band 
at Mazienbad, and in 182 1 removed to a similar 
position at Carlsbad. He then formed an orches- 
tra of his own, and made toumies in South Ger- 
many. FeeHng his deficiencies, he took a course 
of composition under Winter, in Munich, and in 
1827 published his first dances there. In 1835 
he lettled at Carlsbad as director of the band, 
making journeys from Petersburg on the one hand> 
to LcrkIoii on the other, and beooming every day 
m<Be &mous. He resides at CarlsbcMi, and has 
aefXKiated his son August with him as director. 
Hii second son, Wilhelm, an excellent violin 
pUyw, is settled at Toronto, Canada, and his 
dai^ter is a favourite singer at Frankfort. La- 
bitiiy's dances are full dt rhythm and spirit. 
Among his waltzes, the 'Sirenen,' 'Grenzboten,' 
*Annira,' ' Carlsbader,' and ' lichtensteiner,' are 
good. In galopt' he fiurly rivals Lanner and 
Stranss, though he has not the poetry of those 
two composers. [F. G.] 

LABLACHE, Luioi, was bom at Naples, Dec. 
^' ^794* His mother was Irish, and his &ther, 



Nicolas Lablache,. a merchant of Marseilles, had 
quitted that place in 1791 in consequence of the 
Revolution. But another Revolution, in 1799, 
overwhelmed him with ruin in his new country, 
and he died of chagrin^ His family was, however, 

?rotected by Joseph Buonaparte, and the young 
iuigi was placed in the ConservatoHo delta Pietit 
de" Turehini, afterwards called San Sehasiiano. He 
was now twelve years old. Gentilli taught him the 
elements of music, and Valesi instructed him in 
singing ; while, a.t the same time, he studied the 
violm and violoncello under other masters. His 
progress was not at first remarkable, for he was 
wanting in application and regidarity; but his 
aptitude was soon discovered by a singular inci- 
dent. One day acontrebaBsist was wanted for the 
orchestra of 8. Onoftio. Marcello-Perrino, who 
taughi^young Lablache the cello, said to him, * You 
play the cello very well : you can easily leam the 
double bassl' The boy had a dislike for that 
instrument, in spite of which he got the gamut of 
the double bass written out for him on a Tuesday, 
and on the following Friday executed his part 
with perfect accuracy. There is no doubt, in 
fact, that, had he not been so splendidly endowed 
as a singer, he might have been equally brilliant 
as a virtuoso on any other instrument that he 
chose (Escudier). At this period his boy's voice 
was a beautiful contralto, the last thing that he 
did with which was to sing, as it was just 
breaking, the solos in the Requiem of Mozart on 
the death of Haydn in 1809. He was then 15, 
and his efforts to sing to the end of the work left* 
him at last without power to produce a sound. 
Before many months were passed, however, he 
became possessed of a magnificent bass, which 
gradually increased in volume until, at the age 
of 20, it was the finest of the kind which can be 
remembered, with a compass of two octaves, from 
Eb below to £b above the bass stave. 
Continually dominated by the desire to appear 



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80 



LABLACHE. 



on the stage, the young Lablache made his escape 
from the Conservatorio no less than five times, 
and was as often brought back in disgrace. He 
engaged himself to sing at Salerno at 15 ducats 
a month (40 sous a day), and receiyed a month*s 
salary in advance ; but, remaining two days longer 
at Naples, he spent the money. As he could not, 
however, appear decently without luggage, he 
filled a portmanteau with sand, and set out. 
Two days later he was found at Salerno by the 
vice-president of the Conservatorio, while the 
Impresario seized the effects of the young truant 
in order to recoup himself the salary he had 
advanced, but found, to his horror, nothing in 
the portmanteau .... but what Lablache had 
put there ! (Escudier). To these escapades was 
due, however, the institution of a little theatre 
within the Conservatorio; and Lablache was 
satisfied for a time. A royal edict, meanwhile, 
forbade the Impresario of any theatre, under 
severe penalties, to engage a student of the Con- 
servatorio without special permission. 

Having at length completed his musical educa-, 
tion, Lablache was engaged at the San Carlino 
Theatre at Naples, as buffo Napolitano, in 181 2, 
though then only 18. He made his cUbui in 
•La Mollnara' of Fioravanti. A few months 
later, he married Teresa Pinotti, the daughter 
of an actor engaged at the theatre and one 
of the best -in I^y. This happy union ex- 
ercised a powerful and beneficial influence 
over the life of Lablache. Quickly seeing his 
genius and capacity for development far beyond 
the narrow sphere in which she found him, his 
young wife persuaded Lablache, not without 
difficulty, to quit the San Carlino, a theatre in 
which two performances a day were given, 
ruining completely within a year every voice 
but tlubt of her robust husband ; to re- commence 
serious study of singing, and to give up the 
patois in which he had hitherto sung and 
spoken. Accordingly, a year later, after a 
short engagement at Messina, he went as primo 
hasso cantante to the Opera at Palermo. His 
first appearance was in the * Ser Marc- Antonio ' 
of Pavesi, and his success was so great as to 
decide him to stay at Palermo for nearly five 
years. But it was impossible that he should 
remain there unknown ; and the administration 
of La Scala at Milan engaged him in 181 7, 
where he made his cUhut as Dandini in 'Cene- 
rentola/ with great success, due to his splendid 
acting and singing, and in spite of the provincial 
accent which still marred his pronunciation. Over 
the latter defect he soon triumphed, as he had over 
hb want of application a few years before. In fact, 
perhi4)s the most remarkable things about La- 
blache were the extent to which he succeeded in 
cultivating himself, and the stores of general know- 
ledge which he accumulated by his own unaided 
efforts. It is said that at Naples he had enjoyed 
the great advantage of the society and counsels of 
Madame Mericof&e, a banker's wife, known in 
Italy before her marriage as La Coltellini, but then 
quite imknown in England, though described as 
one of the finest artists belonging to the golden 



LABLACHE. 

age of Italian singing. To such influence ma 
this, and to that of his intelligent wife, Lablache 
perhaps owed some of the impulse which prompted 
him to continue to study when most singers oeaae 
to leam and content themselves with reaping" the 
harvest ; but much must have been due to his own 
desire for improvement. 

The opera 'Elisa e Claudio* was now (1821) 
written tor him by M»x»dante ; his position was 
made, and his reputation spread throughout Eu- 
rope. From Milan he went to Turin ; returned 
to Milan in 1833, then appeared at Venice, and 
in 1834 at Vienna, and adways with the same 
success. At the last city he received from the 
enthusiastic inhabitants a gold medal bearings a 
most flattering inscription. After twelve years 
absence he returned to Naples, with the title of 
singer in the chapel of Ferdinand L, and with an 
engagement at the San Carlo. Here he created a 
great sensation as Assar in ' Semiramide.' Two 
yeara later we find him at Parma, singing in fiel- 
Iini*s ' Zaira.' Although Ebers had endeavoured, 
aa early as 1833, to secure him for London, on 
the strength of his reputation as 'perhaps even 
excelling Zucchini,' Lablache did not tread the 
English boards till the season of 1830, when 
he made his d^ut on the 30th March in the 
'Matrimonio segreto.' Here, as elsewhere, his 
success was assured from the moment when he 
sang his first note, almost fr^m the first step 
he took upon the stage. It is indeed doubtful 
whether he was greater as a singer or as an 
actor. His head was noble, his figure very 
tall, and so atoning for his bulk, which became 
inmiense in later years: yet he never looked 
too tall on the stage. One of the boots of .La- 
blache would have made a small portmanteau ; 
' one oould have clad a child in one of his gloves ' 
(Chorley). His strength was enormous. As Xe- 
poreUo, he sometimes carried off under his ana, 
apparently without effort, the troublesome Ma- 
skto, represented by Giubilei, a man of the full 
height and weight of ordinary men ! Again, in 
an interval of tedious rehearsing, he was onoe 
seen on the stage to pick up with one hand a 
double bass that was standing in the orchestra, 
examine it at arm's length, and gently replace it 
where he had found it 1 The force of his voioe 
exceeded, when he chose, the tone of the instru- 
ments that accompanied it and the noise and 
clamour of the stage ; nothing drowned his por< 
teutons notes, which rang through the house like 
the booming of a great bell. On one occasion^ 
indeed, his wife is said to have been woke up by a 
sound, in the middle of the night, which she took 
for the tocsin announcing a fire, but which turned 
out to be nothing more than Lablache producixig 
in his sleep these bell-like sounds. It was during 
the great popularity of 'I Puritani,' when Grisi, 
accompanied by Lablache, was in the habit of 
singing the polacca thrice a week at the Opera* 
and frequency also at concerts. After performing 
his staccato part in the duet thrice within nine 
hours, Lablache was haunted by it even in his 
sleep. This power was wisely used by the great 
artist on the right occasions, and only the^— as 



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LABI.AC5E. 

tlie deaf' and angry Oeronimo, or M'Oroveso in 
'Norma'; bat at other times his voioe could 
'roar as sweetly as any sacking dove,' and he 
oould ose its accents for comic, humorous, tender, 
or sorrowful effects, with equal ease and mastery. 
Like Garrick, and other great artists, Lablache 
shone as much in comic as in tragic parts. No- 
thing could exceed his LeporeUo ; of that cha- 
racter he was doubtless the greatest known ex- 
ponent. But he had, at an earlier date, played'Don 
Giovanni. As GeronimOt the Podestd in* 1a Gaxza 
Ltdra,' again, in ' La Prova d'un' Opera Seria,' 
ag DandirU and the Barone di MorU^acone, he 
was equally unapproachable; while his Henry 
Vni. in ' Anna Bolena,' his Doge in ' Marino 
Fsiiero/ and Oroveao in ' Ncnrma,* were splendid 
examples of dignity and dramatic force. He 
appeared for the fbrst time in Paris, Nov. 4, 
1830, as Gtronimo in the ' Matrimonio Segreto,' 
and was there also recognised immediately as the 
first \Muao cantarUe of the day. He continued to 
ang in Paris and London for several years ; and, 
it may be mentioned that his terms were in 1828, 
for four months, 40,000 fn, (£1,600), with lodging 
and one benefit-night clear of all expenses, the 
<wn and his part in it to be chosen byhimself on 
tnat occasion, as also at his cUbtU. The modest 
snm named above, in no degree corresponding with 
the value of Lablache in an operatic company, 
was a few years later (1839) the price paid by 
li^Mrte to Robert, to whom Lablache was then 
engaged at Paris, for the mere cession of his 
services to the London Opera. 

In 1833 Lablache sang again at Naples, re- 
newing his triumphs in the ' Elisire d'amore ' and 
'DonPa<K{uale.' He returned to Paris in 1834, 
after which he continued to appear annually 
thoe and in London, singing in our provincial 
festivals as well as at the Opera, for many years. 
In 1852 he san^ at St. Petersburg with no less 
«clat than elsewhere. In London, near the dose 
of his career, at a time when most artists are 
liable ;to become dull and mechanical, he broke 
out into the personification of two beings as 
different from each other and from the types 
hitherto represented by him as Shakspere's Cali- 
ion and Scribe's Calmuck Oritzonko, m 'L'ifctoile 
du Kord,' with a vivacity, a profound stage- 
knowledge, and a versatility, which were as rare 
a§ thcjr were strongly marked (Chorley). But 
he had qualities as sterling as others which were 
^scinating. Whether in comic opera, in the 
chromatic music of Spohr, or in that of Pales- 
trina, he seemed equally at home. Let it be 
never forgotten that he sang (April 3, 1827) the 
hais solo part in Mozart's Requiem* after the 
death of Beethoven, as he had, when a child, 
rang the contralto part at the funeral of Haydn ; 
and let the former ^t be a sufficient answer to 
those who say he had no notes lower than A 
or 6. Be it recorded, at the same time, that 
he paid Barfoaja 200 guldens for the operatic 
singers engaged on that occasion. He was also 
ene of the 33 torch-bearers who surrounded the 
coffin of Beethoven at its interment. To him, 
igftin, Schubert dedicated his three Italian songs 



LAOHNER. 



81 



(op. 83), written to Metastado's words and com- 
posed in 1827, showing thus his appreciation of 
the powers of the great Italian. 

In. 1856, however, his health began to fail, 
and he was oblig^ in the following spring 
to drink the waters of Kissingen, where he was 
met and treated with honour by Alexander II. 
of Russia. Lablache received the medal and 
order given by the Emperor with the prophetic 
words, 'These will do to ornament my coffin.' 
After this he returned for a few days in August 
to his house at Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris ; but 
left it on the i8th, to try the effect of his native 
elimate at his villa at Posilipo. But the bright, 
brisk air was too keen for him, and he had to 
take refuge in Naples. The relief, however, 
served only to prolong his life a short while, and 
he died Jan. 33, 1858. His remains were brought 
to Paris, and buried at Maisons-Lafitte. 

Lablache had two sisters, the elder of whom 
became Marcheea de Bnuda, and the younger 
Abbess of Sessa. He had many children, among 
whom Frederidc, the eldest son, followed his 
father's steps, but not vidth the same suocess. 
The youngest is an officer in the French army. Of 
his daughters,, one married the great pianist, 
Thalberg. A Mithjode de chant, written by La- 
blache, was published chez Mme. Y** Canaux, at 
Paris; but it rather disappointed expectation. 

Lablache died, as he had lived, respected by 
every one who knew him for his honourable, 
upright probity, as he was admired for his mar- 
vellous and cultivated talents. [J. M.] 
He was the Queen's singing master, and the 
esteem and even affection which that intercourse 
engendered are expressed more than once in 
warm terms in her Majesty's published Diaries 
and Letters. 

LAC DES FlfcES, LE. Opera in 5 acts ; 
words by Scribe and Mdlesville, music by Auber. 
Produced at the Grand Opera April I, 1839. 
The overture alone has survived. , [G.] 

LACHNER, a prominent musical family of 
this century. The father was an organist at 
Rain, on the Lech, in Bavaria, very poor and 
with a very large family, but not the less a 
man of worth and character. He was twice 
married. One of the first family, Theodob, born 
1798, was a sound musician, but unambitious, 
who ended his career as organist at Munich, and 
chonu-master at the Court theatre. The second 
family were more remarkable. Of the daughters, 
Thekla, bom 1803, was recently organist of S. 
George's church, Augsburg, and Christians, bom 
1805, held the same post in her native place. 
Of the brothers, Fbanz was bom April 2, 1804. 
He was solidly educated in other things beside 
music, but music was his desire, and in 1822 he 
prevailed on his parents to let him go to Vienna. 
He put himself under Stadler and Sechter, and 
was constantly in Schubert's company, with whom 
he became very intimate. In 1826 he was made 
Vice-Kapellmeister of the Kamthnerthor theatre, 
and the next year, on the death of Weigl, prin- 
cipal Kapellmeisteor. He retained this post till 
1 834, and it was a time of great productivity. In 



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83 



LACUNEB. 



34 he went to Mannheim to conduct the opera 
tiiere, and in 36 advanced to the top of the 
ladder as Hofkapellmeister — ^in 1852 general 
muBio director — at Munich, and there remained 
till 1865, when he retired on a pennon. Lach- 
ner's writings are of prodigioua number and 
eKtent. An oratorio^ and a sacred cantata; 
4 operas ; requiems ; 3 grand masses ; Tarioua 
cantatas, oitr'aotes, and <^er pieces ; many large 
oempoeitions for male voices; 8 symphoniee-^ 
imiong them those in D minor (No. 3), in C minor 
{op, 5 a) — which won theprizeoffered by theCtesell- 
johaft der Musikfreande-- and in D (No. 6) , which 
Schumann finds twice M good as the prise one 
•—suites, overtures and serenades for orchestra, 
the oidiestration of Schubert's ' Song of Miriam' ; 
3 quartets; concertos for harp and bassoon; trios, 
duos, pianoforte pieces of all dimensions ; and a 
large number of vocal pieces for solo and several 
Toioes. All that industry, knowle<%e, tact, and 
musicianship can g^ve is here — if there were but 
a little more of the sacred fire ! No one can 
deny to Tachner the praise of conscientiousness 
and artistic character; he is deservedly esteemed 
by his countrymen almost as if he were an 
old classic, and holds a similar position in the 
South to that of Hiller in the North. The 
next brother, Ignaz, was bom in 1807, was 
brought up to music, and at I3 years okl was 
sent to the Gymnasium at Augsburg, where he is 
iud to have had no less a person than Napoleon 
III. (then C<mnt St. Leu) as a schoolfdlow. In 
1814 he joined his brother at Vienna, in 1835 
x'/as made Vice-Kapellmeister of the opera ; in 
1831 a Court music-director at Stuttgart, and in 
184 a rejoined his brother in a similar position at 
Munich. In 53 he took the conduct of the 
theatre at Hamburg, in 58 was made Court 
KapellmeiBter at Stockholm ; and in 61 settled 
down for good at Frankfort, where he fills many 
musical positions, and celebrated his 50th anni- 
versary on Oct. 18, 1875. He also has produced 
a long list of works — 3 operas ; several ballets, 
melodramas, etc., etc. ; with masses, symphonies, 
quartets, pianoforte works, and many songs, one 
of which — * tJberall Du ' — was very popular in its 
day. The third brother, ViNOEWZ, was bom 
July 19, 1811, and also brought up at the 
Augsburg Gymnasium. He bc^an by taking 
Ignaz/s place as organist in Vienna, and rose by 
the same course of goodness and indefatigable 
assiduity as his broUiers, to be Court Kapell- 
meister at Mannheim from 1836 till 73, when 
he retired on a pension. He was in London in 4a, 
conducting the German Company. His music to 
Turandot, his Prize song * In der Feme,* and other 
pieces, are £ftvourites with his countrymen. [G. ] 
LACHNITH, LUDWio Wkvzsl, bom July 7, 
1 746, at Prague, migrated to the service of the 
Duke at ZweibrUcken, and thence to Paris, 
where he made his d^ut at the Concert Spi- 
rituri as a horn player. He was a clever handy 
creature, who wrote not only quantities of all 
kinds of instrumental music, but at least four 

rM, and several pasUccios «id other pieces, 
most notable achievements however, were 



LACT. 

his adaptations of great operas, by way of making 
them pleasant to £e public, such as ' Les mys- 
t^res dlsis,* for whidi both libretto and music of 
the Magic Flute were ' arranged * into what M. 
F^tb aiXIm *a monstrous 'compOation* (Grand 
Opera, Aug. 20, 1801). No wonder that the 
piece was called 'Les mis^res d*ici,* and that 
Lachnith was styled 'le d^rangeur.' He was 
<dever also at woridng up ihe music of several 
composers into one piece, and torturing it to the 
expression of different words and sentiments 
frmn those to which it had originally been set — as 
' Le Laboureur Chinois, ' in which the music of 
'several celebrated composers* was 'arrange 
par M. Lachnitoh' (Feb. 5, 181 3). In these 
crimes he had an accomplice in the dder Kalk- 
brenner, who assisted him to ooncoct two ' Ora- 
torios hi action '-—Saul (April 6, 1803) and 
'The taking of Jericho* (April 11, 1805). We 
were as bad in England several years later, and 
many fine operas of Rossini, Auber, and quad- 
Weber were first made known to Londoners by 
much the same expedients as those of Lachnith, in 
the hands of T. P. Cooke, Lacy, and others. [G.] 

LACY, John, bass singer, bom in the last 
quarter of last centuiy, was a pupil of Rauzzini 
at Bath. After singing in London he went to 
Italy, where he became complete master of the 
Italian language and style of sini^ng. On his 
return he sang at concerts ana £e Lenten 
oratorios, but although he possessed an excep- 
tionally fine voice and sang admirably in various 
styles, circumstances prevented him from taking 
any prominent position. In 18 18 he accepted an 
engagement at Calcutta, and, accompanied by his 
wife, left England, to which he never returned. 
Had he renuuned here he would most probably 
have been appointed successor to Bartleman. 

Mas. Lact, his wife, was originally Miss 
Jackson, and appeared as a soprano singer at 
the Concert of Ancient Music, April 35, 1798. 
In 1 800 she became the wife of Francesco Bianchi, 
the composer, and in 1810 his widow. In 181 3 
she was married to Lacy, and sang as Mrs. 
Bianchi Lacy in 181 3, 13, and 14. She ' was the 
best representative of the great and simple style as 
delivered down by Mrs. Bates and Madame Mara, 
whilst her articulate delivery and pure pronuncia- 
tion of Italian, rendered her no less generally valu- 
able in other departments of the art. [W. H. H.] 

HACY, MiCHABL KoPHiNO, son of an EngUsh 
merchant, bom at Bilbao, July 19, 1 795 ; learned 
music from an early age, and made rapid pro- 
gress on the violin ; was at college at Bourdeaux 
For 18 months, and in 1803 was sent to Paris 
to finish his education, and attained to con* 
siderable skill as a linguist. Kreutzer was his 
principal instructor in musia About the end 
of 1804 he performed before Napoleon at the 
Tuileries. He was then known as *Le petit 
Espagnd.' He played in the principal Dutch 

1 See the tocxnmt bjr O. Jahn (If osut, and «d., IL 8B7). The umtHo 
flute and All the oomJc musto were omitted ; FtpMeoo mu turned 
Into a iih«pherd aaga ; while manj pieces were left out, other* were put 
In— ai for Inatanoe "Fin ch'an dal Tlno,' orranfi«4 lu a dm^ t Tha opera 
opened wHh Hoiart's finale, and tho dborder mast have been oem->, 
plete. And yet It ran 40 Dtghu 1 



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LAOr. 

towsi on hk way to Londcm, which he reached 
in Oct 1 805. He soon gave concerto at Hanover 
Square RaHna* under the lobriquet of 'The 
Yoaog Spaniard,' his name not being announced 
BBtil May, 1807, when an engraved portrait of 
him was publiahed. He next performed at 
Gatalanf 8 first concert in Dublin, and was after- 
wards SBflaged for Corri*8 concerto at Edinbureh 
at ao gumeas per night. A few yean Uter he 
quitted the musical for the theatrical profassion, 
and performed the principal genteel comedy 
parts at the theatres of Dublin, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, etc. In 1 81 8 he was appointed 
leader of the Liverpool concerto vice Yaniewicz, 
and at the end of 1830 returned to London 
and was engaged as leader of the ballet at the 
King's Theatre. Lacy adapted to the English 
itage both words and music of several popular 
oMns; and his adaptations display great skill, 
althoagh gross liberties were frequently taken 
with the original pieces, which can only be 
axcoaed by tl^ taste of the time. Among them 
are 'The Maid of Judah' from 'Ivanhoe,* t^e 
muic from ' Semiramide,' 1839; 'Cinderella,' 
the music from Rossini's 'Cenerentola,' * Armida,' 
'Maometto Secondo,' and 'Guillaume Tell,' 
1830; *Fra Diavolo/ 1831 ; and 'Robert le 
IMable.' under the title of 'The Fiend Father,' 
1833. Li 1833 he produced an oratorio entitled 
'Tie Israeliteff in Egypt,' a pasticcio from 
Hoasini's * Moe^ in Egitto,' and Handel's * Israel 
in Egypt,' which was performed with scenery, 
dreaees, imd personation. In 1839 he brought 
forward a r«ulaptation of Weber's ' Der IVei- 
schQtz,' introducing the whole of the mudc for 
the firat time. He rendered great assistance to 
Mr. Schcelcher in collecting the material for his 
' Life of Handel.' He died at Pentonville, Sept. 
20, 1867. [W.H.H.] 

LADY HENRIETTE. ou la sebvantb db 
Greknwioh. a ballet pantomine in 3 acto ; music 
by Flotow. BurgmtUler, and Deldevez. Pit)duoed 
at the Grand Opera Feb. i, 1844. Saint Georges, 
hjT whom the libretto was written, afterwards 
ertended it into an opera^ which was set by 
Flotow as Mabtba. [G. j 

LADY OF THE LAKE, THE. A cmtata 
in 3 parto; the text founded on Scott's poem by 
^i^toKa Macfarren, the music by Professor G. A. 
Mae&nren. Written fbr and produced at GMaogow 
Hew Public Hall Nor. 15, 1877. pS.] 

LlNDLER, Laitdebsb, or Landlxbisohs 
Tavz,' a national dance popular in Austria, 
Bavaria, Bohemia, and S^rria. It probably 
derives tto name from the Landel, a district in 
the vall^ of the "EnB, where the dance Is said 
to have had ito origin; but according to some 
aathoritiee the word simply means 'country 
dance,' i.e. a waltz danced in a country fashion. 
In fact the Litndler is a homely wahz, and only 
<Effers from the waltz in being danced more slowly. 
It is in 3-4 or 3-8 time, and consiBto of two 
parto of eight ban, each part being repeated two 
or more tnnes. Like most early dances, it oc- 
oasionaUy has a vocal acoon^paniment. Both 



LA FAGE. 



83 




Moaart (Eochel, Ko. 606) and Beethoven (Not- 
tebohm's Cat. p. 150, 151) have written genuine 
Landler, but the compositions under this name 
of Jensen, Raff, Reinecke, and other modem 
musicians, have little in common with the original 
dance. I^e following example is the first part 
of a Styrian Landler (Kohler, Volkstanze ; Bruns- 
wick, 1854). 






The little waits so weU known as 'Le D^sir,* 
usually attributed to Beethoven, though ideally 
composed by Schubert, is a Landler. To know 
what grace and beauty can be infused into this 
simple form one must hear Schubert's ' Wiener 
Damen -Landler ' or ' Belles Viennoises ' in their 
unsophisticated form, before they were treated 
byliszt. [W.B.S.] 

LA FAGE, Juste Adbien Lenoie de, bonk 
in Paris, March 28, 1801, grandson of the cele- 
brated architect Lenoir. After trying education 
for the church and the army, he settled to music 
as a pupil of Feme's for harmony and counter- 
point, devoting himself especially to the study of 
plain-chant. Peme recommended him to Cho* 
ron, who took him first as pupil, and then tfi 
r^p^titeur, or assistant-master. In 1828 he was 
sent by the government to Rome and studied for 
a year under Baini. While in Italy he produced 
a comic opera ' I Creditori,' but comic opera was 
not to be his road to distinction. On his return 
to Paris, in Dec. 1829, he was appointed maitre 
de chapelle of St. Etienne du Mont, where he 
substituted an organ (built by John Abbey) for 
the harsh out-of-tune serpent hitherto used to 
accompany the voices — an excellent innovation ! 
1833 to 36 he spent in Italy, and lost his wife 
and son. He returned to Paris, and there 
published the 'Manuel complet de Musique' 
(1836-38), the first chapters of which had been 
prepared by Choron; 'S^^iologie musicale'; 
'Miscellanies musicales' ; * Histoire g^n^rale de 
la musique,' and many biographical and critical 
articles collected frt>m pOTiooicals. He again 
visited Italy after the Revolution of 1848, and 
during this trip took copies of MSS. never before 
consulted. He also visited Germany and Spain^ 
and during the Exhibition of 185 1 made a short 
excursion to England. He then settled finally 
in Paris, and published the works which have 
placed him in the first rank of 'mwdcisto' — to 
use a favourite word of his own. Over-work as 
an author, and as editor in chief of ' Le Plain- 
Chant,' a periodical which he founded in 185Q, 
brought on a nervous affection, which ultimately 
led to his removal to the asylum for the insane 
at Charenton, where he died March 8, 1862. 

La Fage composed much music of many kinds, 
G2 

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^ 



LA FAGE. 



both vocal and instrumental, sacred and secular, 
but it is as a historian and didactic writer that 
his name will live. His 'Cours complet de 
Plain-Chant* (Paris 1855-56, 2 vols 8vo.) is 
a book of the first order, and fully justifies its 
title. It was succeeded by the ' Kouveau Traits 
de Plain- Chant romaiu/ ^th questions, an indis- 
pensable supplement to the former. His ' Histoire 
f^n^rale de la musique' (Paris 1844, 3 vols, 
vo., with an album of plates) is incomplete, 
treating only of Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, and 
Hebrew music, but it is a careful and con- 
scientious work, and has been largely used by 
P^tis. His learning and method appear con- 
spicuously in his ' Extraits du Catalogue critique 
et raisonn^ d^une petite bibliothbque musioale' 
(Bennes, undated, 1 20 pp. 8vo., xoo copies only), 
and in his ' Essais de Diphth^n^raphie musicale * 
(Paris, 1864, 2 vols. 8vo., one containing very 
curious musical examples). A perusal of these 
two books will amply corroborate every word we 
have said in praise of this erudite musician. He 
left a valuable library (the catalogue was pub- 
lished, Paris 1862, 8vo.), afterwards dispersed by 
auction ; but his unpublished works and materials 
are in the Biblioth^ue nationale, to which he 
bequeathed all his papers, with the MSS. of 
Choron and-Baini in his possession. [G.C.] 

LAFONT, Charles Philippe, an eminent vio- 
linist, was bom at Paris in 1781. F^tis relates 
that he got his first instruction on the violin 
from his mother, a sister of Bertheaume, a well- 
known violinist of that period, whom he also 
accompanied on his travels through Germany, 
performing successfully, when only eleven years 
of age, at Hambuiv, Oldenburg and other towns. 
On his return to Paris he continued his studies 
under Kreutzer ; and soon appeared at the 
Th^tre Feydeau, though not as a violinist, but 
as a singer of French ballads. After some time he 
again took up the violin, this time under the 
tuition of Boae, and soon proved himself a player 
of exceptional merit. Fitis credits him with a 
perfect intonation, a pure and mellow, though 
somewhat feeble tone, great powers of execution, 
and a remarkable chimn of expression. From 
1 801 to 1808 he travelled and played with great 
success in France, Belgium, Holland, Germany 
knd Russia. Ini 808 he was appointed Rode's suc- 
cessor as solo-violinist to the Emperor of Russia, 
a position in which he remained for six years. In 
1812 he had a public contest with Paganini at 
Milan. In 1815 he returned to Paris, and was 
appointed solo-vioUnist to Louis XVIII. In 1851 
he made a long tour with Henri Herz, the pianist, 
which occupied him till 1839, when his career was 
suddenly ended by a carriage accident in the south 
of France, through which he lost his life. 

Spohr in Ms Autobiography praises his fine 
tone, perfect intonation, energy and gracefulness, 
but deplores the absence of deep feeling, and 
accuses him of mannerism in phrasing. He also 
relates diat Lafont's repertoire was confined to a 
very few pieces, and that he would practise a 
concerto for years before venturing on it in 
public, — a method which, although leading to 



LAGUERRE. 

absolute mechanical perfection, appears absurd 
from an artistic or even musical point of view. 
Lafont's compositions for the violin are of no 
musical value ; they comprise seven Concertos, a 
number of Fantasias, Rondos, etc. He wrote 
a number of Duos concertants in conjunction 
with Kalkbrenner, Herz, etc. ; more than 200 
ballads (romances), which for a time were very 
popular ; and two operas. [P. D.] 

LAGARDE, a French basso, who sang the 
part of Farasmane in Handel's * Radamisto,* on 
the revival of that opera in Dec. 1720, with 
Senesino. It is not known who played Fatfumane 
at the former performances; perhaps Lagarde. 
He does not appear again in the casts. [J. M.] 

LAGUERRE, Jean, commonly called Jack, 
was the son of Louis Laguerre, the artist who 
painted the greater part of Yerrio's large picture 
m St. Bartholomew s Hospital, the ' I^l^urs of 
Hercules * in chiar*oscuro at Hampton Court, the 
staircase at Wilton, etc., and is immortalized by 
Pope in the line 

* Where sprawl the aainti of Verrlo and laguerre.* 

This painter came to England in 1683, and died 
in 1 72 1, his son Jean having, as it is supposed, 
been bom about 1700. The lad was instructed 
by his &ther for his own profession, and had 
already shown some ability ; but, having a talent 
for music, he took to the stage, where he met 
with fair success. It must be he whom we find, 
under the name of Mr. Ltgar, playing the part 
oi Melius in Camilla (revived), 1726, which had 
formerly (1706 and 8) been sung by Ramondon, 
a low tenor. Again, he is advertized {Daily 
Journal, March 13, 1731) as sustaining the 
added r6le of Corydan in * Acis and Galatea,* * for 
the benefit of jif. Rochetti, at Linooln*s Inn 
Theatre Royal, on Friday, 26th,' his name being 
spelled as in the cast of ' Camilla.* He died in 
London in 1748. 

Laguerre has been described as * a high fellow, 
a great humourist, wit, singer, player, caricatur- 
ist, mimic, and a good scene-painter; and, ac- 
cording to the notions of that merry age, known 
to everybody worth knowing.' He engraved 
a set of prints of < Hob in the Well,' which had 
a great sale, though indifierently executed ; but 
we also owe to his point an exceedingly clever 
etching, *The Stage Mutiny* (Br. Mus. Cat. 
1929), in which we have caricature-portraits of 
Colley aad Theo. abber (as Pistol), Highmore, 
Mrs. Wilks, Ellis, Griffin, Johnson, and others. 
Hogarth did not disdain to copy this interesting 
print, having used it on the show-doth in * South- 
wark Fair* (Br. Mus. Cat. i960). 

As a painter, Laguerre was the author of the 
portrait of Mary Tofts, not the singer but the 
pretended rabbit-breeder, engraved by J. Faber 
in mezzotint. He also painted the portrait of 
SpiUer for the SpilUr*s Bead tavern, as we learn 
from that actor*s epitaph, which begins thus : — 

' The butchers* wivoB tM in hysteric fits ; 
For, sure as they *re alive, poor Spiller 's dead ; 
But, thanks to Jack Laguerre, we've got his head.' 

[J.AL] 



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LAIDLAW. 

LAIDLAW, AiTKA RoBBNA/a lady whom 
Schmnaim distdngiuBhed by dedkating to her his 
Fantasiestticke (op. 13), was a Yorkshirewoman, 
bomat Bretton April 30, 1819, educated in Edin- 
baigh at the school of her aunt, and in music by 
Bobert M tiller, a pianoforte teacher there. Her 
&inily went to Konigsberg in 1830, and there her 
vocation was decided, she improved in playing 
rapidly, and in three or four years appeared in 
public at Berlin with great applause. In 34 she 
was in London studying under Herz, and played 
at Paganini s &rewell concert. In 36 she returned 
to Berlin, and after a lengthened tour through 
Prussia, Russia and Austria, returned in 1840 to 
London. It was during this last stay in G ermany 
that the Fautasiestucke were vmtten. [6.] 

LAJARTE, Th^dore de, one of the libra- 
risns of the Grand Opera, Paris (Acaddmie de 
Musique), author of a book for which every 
student of musical history must be grateful to 
him, viz. a Catalogue, historical, chronological 
and anecdotic, of the Musical Library of the 
Opera, etc., 2 vols, with 7 portraits — beautifully 
etched by Le Rat — and a view. It contains an 
Introduction, describing the library; a list, in 
order of production, of the 594 pieces which have 
been produced at the Opera between ' Pomone,' 
March 19, 1671, and 'Sylvia,* June 14, 1876, 
wi^ the names of the singers, remarks on the 
piece, its success or non- success, and often ex- 
tiacts from the libretto ; biographical notices of 
oomposers and librettists ; a supplementary list 
of 'ceuvres diverses,' comprising 49 operas, 
received but not produced, and of which the 
MSS. are preserved — and of other music en- 
graved and MS. ; and to complete, two indexes 
of titles and names. The work is admirably 
done, apparently with great accuracy, and is not 
only a boon to the reader but a striking evidence 
of tiie superior system under which these things 
are managed in Paris. [G.] 

LAJEUNESSE, the family name of Madlle. 
Mabie Emma Albani, who was bom in 185 1 of 
French Canadian parents, at Chambly, near 
Montreal, and is therefore an English subject. 
H^ father was a professor of the harp, and she 
began life in a musical atmosphere. At the age 
of five the family removed to Montreal, and 
MadUe. Lajeuneese entered the school of the 
Convent of the Sacre Coeur. Here she remained 
several years, with such instruction in singing 
aa Hui convent could afford, and she is said to 
have abandoned the idea of adopting a religious 
li& on the representation of the Superior of the 
convent, who discovered the great qualities of 
her pupil. 

In the year 1864 the family again removed, this 
time to Albany, the capital of the State of New 
York; and while pursuing her studies there 
Madlle. Lajeunesse sang in the choir of the Ca- 
tholic cathedra], and ^us attracted the notice 
not only of the public but of the Catholic bishop, 
who strongly urged M. Lajeunesse to take his 
daughter to Europe and place her under proper 
niasteiB for the development of so remarkable a 
tiklent. A concert was given in Albany to raise 



lalande: 



86 



the necessary funds, after which Madlle. La* 
ieunesse proceeded to Paris with her father. 
From Paris, after studying with Duprez for eight 
months, she went to La^perti at Milui, with 
whom dxQ remained for a considerable time. The 
relation between the master and his gifted pupil 
may be gathered by the &Gt tiiat his treatise on 
the Shake is dedicated to her. In 1 8 70 she made 
her d^but at Messina in theSonnambula, under the 
name of Albani, in memory of the city in which 
her resolution to become a singer was carried into 
effect. She then sang for a time at the Pergola, 
Florence. Her first appearance in London was 
at the Boyal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, on 
April 2, 1873. The beautiful qualities of her 
voice and the charm of her appearance were at 
once appreciated, and she grew in &vour during 
the whole of the season. Later in the year she 
made a very successful appearance at the Italian 
Opera of Paris. She then returned to Milan, 
and passed several months in hard study under 
her former master. 1873 saw her again at 
Covent Garden. In the autumn she sang at 
St. Petersburg, and between that and her next 
London season, re-visited America and sang 
once more in Uie cathedral at Albany. Since 
then Madlle. Albani has appeared regularly at 
Covent Garden, and is now one of the per- 
manent ornaments of that theatre. On Aug. 6, 
1878, she married Mr. Ernest Gye, who, since 
his father's death (Dec. 4, 1878), has been lessae 
of the theatre. It is sufficient to name her prin- 
ci|)al parts — Amina (Sonnambula), Margherita 
(Faust), Mignon, Ophelia, Elsa (Lohengrin), 
Lucia, Lin£t, Gilda (Kigoletto), Elisabetta 
(Tannhauser), to indicate the wide range of her 
vocal talent. Since 1872 she has sung every 
autumn at one or more of our great provincial 
festivals. Her voice is a light soprano of great 
beauty and very sympathetic quality, especially 
telling in the higher registers. She is in addition 
a fine pianoforte player. [H. S.E.] 

LALANDE, HENRIETTE-CLfilCENTINB Mfi- 

RIC, the daughter of Lamiraux-Lalande, the 
chief of a provincial operatic company, was born 
at Dunkerque in 1798. Having been taught 
music by her father, she soon developed a fresh 
and ringing voice, and was endowed with excel- 
lent memory and intelligence; but the only 
teaching she really had was in the music of the 
parts entrusted to her. She made her cUbut 
with success in 1814 at Naples : F^tis heard her, 
and admired her as an actress of op^ra comique, 
at Douai in the following year. She continued 
to sing till 1833, with equal success, in the prin- 
cipal towns of France, and was then engaged at 
the Gymnase DramoHque. at Paris, Ebers having 
made an unsuccessful attempt to engage her for 
London. Clever enough to perceive, however, 
after hearing the singers at the Italian Opera^ 
how utterly she was without the knowledge 
of the proper manner of producing her voice, 
she took lessons of Garcia, and maide her first 
appearance, April 3, 1833, in ' Les Folies amou- 
reuses,' a pasticcio arranged by Castil-Blaze. 
About this time she Isecame the wife of M. Mdrio, 



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«6 



UOANDE. 



a horn-pUyer at tbe Op^ra Comiqae. Bejecting 
the offer of an engagement at the latter theatre, 
on Garcia's adyioe, she went to Italy, and re- 
ceived additional teaching from Bonfichi and 
Banderali at Milan. A^er singing with in- 
creased ^lat at Venice, Mmiich, Bresda, Cre- 
mona, Venice (again), and other Italian cities, 
she at length appeared in London during the 
season of 1830. *She had been for six years 
reported to be one of tiiie best singers of Italy — 
much had been expected of her . . . She had been 
compared with the best of the best : but she 
arrived in England too late, and her place, more- 
over, had been filled by women of greater g^iius. 
She was a good musician, and sang with taste ; 
but her voice, a soprano, ere she came had con- 
tracted a hi^it of trembling, in those days a 
novdty (would it had always remained so !), to 
which E"g^i«»h ears were tii^ averse. She gave 
little satis&ctaon ' (Clhorley). Mme. M^rio sang, 
kowev«r, again in London in 183 1. In Paris she 
pleased no better in these latter years, and at 
length retired, in 1833, as it is said, to Spain ; 
since tiien no more has been heard of her. A bio- 
graphy, with a portrait, of Mme. M^ric-Lalande 
was published in the musical journal, Teatro 
deUa Fenicty Venice, 1836, i8mo. [J.M.] 

LALLA R(X)KH. Moore's poem has been 
the parent of several musical compositions. 

I. An opera, by G. £. Horn ; produced in 
Dublin in or about 1830. 2, A ditto by Felicien 
David. [See Lalla Roukh.] 3. A ditto in 3 
acts ; words by Rodenberg, music by Rubinstein ; 
produced at Dresden in March, 1 863. Hie name 
of the piece has since been changed to Feramors. 
4. Das Paradies und die Peri, by Schumann; and 
t^. Paradise and the Peri, a Fantasie-Ovcorture 
i)y Sterndale Bennett. For these two last see 
their own headings. [G.] 

LALLA ROUKH. Opera in, 3 acts, founded 
on Moore^s poem; words by Lucas and Carrd, 
music by Felicien David. Produced at the 
OpAra Comique May I3, 1862. [G.] 

LAMB, Benjamin, oxganist of Eton CoUege 
in the first quarter of the 1 8th century, and also 
verger of St. George^s C]!hi^>el, Windsor, wais the 
oomposer of some church music. An evening 
'Cantate' service and four anthems by him are 
in the Tudway collection (HarL MSS. 7341-4^). 
He was also a oomposer of songs. [W. H. H.] 

. LAMBERT, (tXORGe Jackbon, son of George 
Lambert, organist of Beverley Minster, was b<^ 
at Beverly in 1795. He studied under his 
fibtiier until he was sixteen, then in London 
under Samod Thomas Lyon, and finally became 
a pupil of Dr. Orotch. In 181 8 he succeeded 
liis &ther at Beverley. His compositions in- 
clude overtures, instrumental chamber music, 
organ fugues, pianoforte pieces, etc. In 1874 
ill health and deafiiess compelled him to relin* 
^uish his post and retire from active life. 

The two Lamberts suooessively held tiie office 
of organist of Beverley Minster for the long 
seriod of 96 years, the father for 40 and the son 
lor 56 years, and but for the latter's deafiiess 



LAMENTATKjNa 

would have held it for a century, a drcumstanoe 
probably unparalleled. [ W. H. H.] 

LAMENTATIONS (Lat. Zamentaliones Eie^ 
remice). On the Thursday, Friday, and Satur- 
day, in Holy Week, the three First Lessons ap- 
pomted, in the Roman Breviary, for the Office 
called TenebrcBf are taken from the Lamentations 
of Jeremiah ; and the extraordinary beauty of the 
music to which they are sung, in the Sistine 
Chapel, and other large Ghurches, contributes 
not a little to the impressive character of the 
Service. [See Tenebba.] 

It is impossible to ta-ace to its origin the Plain 
Chaunt melody to which the Lamentations were 
anciently adapted. The most celebrated version — 
though not, perhaps, the purest — is that printed 
by Guidetti, in his 'Directorium Chori,' in 1582, 
The best modem editions are those contained in 
the Mechlin 'Graduale,' and the Mechlin, and 
Ratisb(>n,'Officium Hebdomads Sanctse^ in which 
the Lessons are given, at full length, in Gr^orian 
notation, although the mlisic is r^dly no more 
than a simple Chaunt, in the Sixth Mode, re- 
peated, almost notatim, not only to each separate 
verse of the Sacred Text, but even to the prefatory 
'Incipit Lamentatio Jeremise Prophetas,' and the 
names of the Hebrew letters with whidi the 
several paragraphs are introduced. 



ri. Modus. 




Early in the i6th century, the use of the Plain 
Chaunt Lamentations was discontinued, in ^ 
Pontifical Chapel, to make room for a polyphonic 
setting, by Elziario Grenet — more conmionly 
known by his Italian cognomen, Carpentrasso— 
who held the appointment of Maestro di Capella, 
from 1515 to 1536. These compositions remained 
in constant use, till the year 1587, when Pope 
Sixtus y. ordained, that the First Lamentatioa 
for each day should be adapted to some kind of 
polyphonic music better fitted to express the 
mournful character of the words than that of 
Carpentraaso ; and, that the Second and Thixtl 
Lessons should be sung, by a single Soprano, to 
the old Plain Chaunt melody as revised by 
Guidetti. The disuse of Carpentrasso^s time- 
honoured harmonies gave great offence to the 
Choir : but, the Pope's command being absduie, 
Palestrina composed some music to the First 
Lamentation for Good Friday, in a manner so 
impressive, that all opposition was at once 
silenced ; and the Pope, himself, on leaving the 
Chapel, said, that he hoped, in the fc^wing 
year, to hear the other two First Lessons sui^ 
in exactly ^e same style. The expression of this 
wish was, of course, a command : and, so under* 
standing it, Palestrina produced, in January 
1588, a volume, oontaiiung a complete set of tiw 
nine Lamentations — three, for each of the three 
days — which were printed, the same year, by 
Alexander Gardanus, under the title of Lammin- 



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LAAfENTATIONS. 

tkruHmUber primuB, The work wm pre&ced by 
ft iormal dedication to ihe Supreme Pontiff, who» 
though he still adhered to his resolution of having 
the Second and Third Lessons sung always in 
Plain Chaunt, expressed great pleasure in accept- 
ing it : and, ^ ^i^> i^ was reprinted, at Venice, 
in 8vo., by Girolaino Scoto. 

More oomnlex in construction than the gzeat 
Composer's ' Lnproperiay' though infinitely less so 
thsn his Masses and Motets, these matchless 
'Lsmentations' are written, throughout^ in the 
devout and impressive style which produces so 
profound an effect in the first-named work, and 
always with marked attention to the mournful 
•pirit of the words. They do not, like the Plain 
Cfaaunt rendering, embrace the entire text : but, 
after a certain number of verses, pause on the 
final chord of a pndonged cadence, and then pass 
on to the Strophe, JerusaUnit JeruscUem, with 
which eabh of the nine Lessons concludes. In 
the single Lesson for Good Friday — which, though 
not induded in the original printed copy, is, un- 
doabtedly, the most beautiful of all — the opening 
Terses are sung by two Soprani, an Alto, and a 
Tenor; a Baas being added, in the concluding 
Strophe, with wonderful effect. A similar ar- 
rangement is followed in the third Lamentation 
for the same day : but the others are for four 
voices mdy, and most of them with a Tenor in the 
lowest place ; while in all« without exception, the 
introductory sentences, 'Incipit Lamentatio,' or, 
'De Lamentatione,' as weU as the names of the 
H^irew initial letters, are set to harmonies of 
infinite richness and b^uty^ — 



Feria FT la Parcueem, L§eth I. 



BAMEa^ATIONa 



67 




Since the death of Palestrina, the manner of 
singing the Lamentations in the Pontifical Chapel 
has undergone no very serious change. In ac- 
cordance with the injunction of Pope Sixtus V, 
the Second and Hiird Lessons for each day have 
always been sung^ in Plain Chaunt: generally, 
by a single Soprano; but, sometimes, by two, 
i of eoarae, nHhoot w a c o on a fnlu ien t . 



the perfection of whose unisonous 
has constantly caused it to be mistaken for that 
of a single Voice. Until the year 1640, the First 
Lesson for each day was sung from Palestrina's 
printed volume. In that year, the single unpub- 
lished Lesson for Good Fridav, composed in 1587, 
was restored to its placet, ana the use of the pub- 
lished one discontinued : while a new composition, 
by Gregorio Allegri, was substituted for Pales- 
trina's Lesson for Holy Saturday. The restoration 
of the MS. work can only be regarded as an 
inestimable gain. Allegri's work will not bear 
comparison with that wUch it displaced ; though 
it is a composition of the highest order of ment, 
abounding in beautiful combinations, and written 
with a true appreciation of the spirit of the text. 
It opens as follows : — 

Sabbato Saneto, Lectio I, 




It will be seen that Allegri has here not only 
adopted the tonality in wUch nearly all Pales- 
trina's Lamentations are written — the Thirteenth 
Mode, transposed — but has also insensibly fallen 
very much into the Great Master's method of 
treatment. Unhappily, the same praise cannot 
be awarded to another work, which he produced 
in 1 65 1, a few months only before his death, and 
which, though it bears but too plain traces of his 
falling discernment, was accepted by the College, 
as a nubrk of respect to the dying Composer, and 
retained in use until the Pontificate of Benedict 
XIII. This Pontiff inaugurated a radical change, 
by decreeing that the First Lessons should no 
longer be sung in this shortened form, but, with 
the entire text set to music. To meet his desire, 
three Lamentationi^ by modem writers, were 
submitted for approval, but unanimously rejected 
by the Collc^, who ccnnmissioned Giovanni feordi 
to add to the compositions of Palestrina and 
Allegri whatever was necessary to complete the 
text. Biordi was, perhaps, as well fitted as any 
man then living to undertake this difficult task : 
but it is to be regretted that he did not more 
carefully abstain fiom the use of certain forbidden 
intervals, and unlicensed chords. At the word, 
UurvmU, in the Lesson for Good Friday, he has 
maoe the first Soprano move a chromatic semi- 
tone, thereby producing, with the other parte, the 
chord of the Augmented Sixth. No doubt, his 
object in d<nng this was to intensify the ex- 
pression of the word : bit, neither the semitone, 
nor the chord, would have been tolerated by 



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86 



LAMENTATIONa 



Palesirina.^ Affam, in the Lesson for Holy Satur- 
day, he has used the dimimshed fourth in disjunct 
motion, and broken many other time-honoured 
rules. Nevertheless, his work — which is, in many 
respects, extremely good — was unhesitatingly ac- 
cepted, and retained in use till the year 173I1 
when Pope Clement XII. restored the Lamenta- 
ticms to their original shortened form. In this 
form they were suffered to remain, till 181^, 
when the indefatigable Baini restored Palestrina s 
printed Lamentation for the first day, retaining 
the MS. of 1587 for the second, and Allegri*s 
really beautiful composition for the third ; while 
the last-named oomposer*s inferior work was suf- 
fered to fall into disuse — an arrangement which 
left little to be desired, and which has not, we 
believe, been followed by any farther change. 

Besides the printed volume already mentioned, 
Palestrina composed two other entire sets x>f 
Lamentations, which, though written in his best 
and purest style, remuned, for two centuries and 
a haLf, impublished. One of them was prepared, 
as early as the year 1560, for the use of the 
Lateran Basilica, where the original MS. is still 
preserved. The other reaches us only through 
the medium of a MS. in the Altaemps Otthoboni 
collection, now in the Vatican Library. In the 
year 1842, Alfieri printed the three sets, entire, 
in the 4th volume of his RoLccolta di Mutica Sacra, 
together with the single Lajnentation for Good 
Fnday, to which he appended Biordi*s additional 
verses, without, however, pointing out the place 
where Paleetrina's work ends, and Biordi^s begins. 
The three single I^amentations, sung in the Pon- 
tifical Chapel, are given, with Bioidi^s now use- 
less additions, in a volume of the same editor*s 
Excerpta, published in 1840; and, without 
Biordi's verses, in Choron^s Collection da Pieces 
de Mutique Religieate, Botii these editions are 
now out of print, and difficult to obtain : but a 
fine reprint of the nine pieces contained in the 
original Lamentationum liber primus will be 
found in Proske's Mudca Divinat vol. iv. Mr. 
Capes, in his Selection from the works of Pales- 
tarina (Novello), has given the ist Lamentation 
in Coenft Domini, and the ist in Sabb. Sancto, 
from the 1st book (1588^, and has introduced 
between them the single Lesson for GUxkI Friday 
(1587) already mentioned. 

Though the Lamentations of Carpentrasso, Pa- 
lestrina, and Allegri, are the only ones that have 
ever been actually used in the Pontifical Chapel, 
many others have been produced by Composers 
of no small reputation. As early as the year 
1 506, Ottaviano dei Petrucd published, at Venice, 
two volumes, containing settings by Johannes 
Tinctoris, Ycaert, De Orto, Francesco (d*Ana) 
da Venezia, Johannes de Quadris, Agricola, Bar- 
tolomeo Tiomboncino, and Caspar and £numu8 
Lapicida. All these works were given te the 

1 Alfleri Y\Mn pabUsbed two edHions of thlt work ; and. In both, he 
hu iiuwrted BlonU't additional Terns, without Tonohtalhw any O^a— 
berond that affurded by internal evidence— to Indicate that tbejr are 
not the Benolne work of Palestrina himseli; We mention thbclrenra- 
atanoe, in order to Bhow the danser of tmstli^ in doulnftil eaaes, to 
the aathArity of any modem edition whaterer. Alfieri'* rolumee may. 
•ome day. lead to the belief that Palestrina permitted the aw of the 
ehromatk semltooe la hit Eoelealaitkal Dittlo! 



LAMPEBTI. 

world before that of Carpentrasso, which, witii 
many more of his compositions, was fint printed, 
at Avignon, by Johannes Channay, in 1533. But 
the richest collection extant is that entitled 
Piissimce ae aacratissimoi Lamentatione» Jertmice 
Propheta, printed, in Paris, by A. le Boy and 
Bobert Ballard, in 1557, and containing, besides 
Carpentrasso*s capo d'opera, some extremely fine 
examples by De la Bae, Fevin, Arohadelt, Festa^ 
and Claudin le Jeune. 

' Lamentations' by English Composers are ex- 
ceedingly rare : hence, quite an exceptional in- 
terest is attached to a set of six, for five Voices, by 
R. Whyte, discovered by Dean Aldrich, and pre- 
served, in MS., in the Library of Christ Church, 
Oxford. [See Whttb, Robem.] [W. S. E.] 

LAMPE, John Fbedebick, a native of Saxony, 
bom 1703, came to England about 1735, and 
was engaged as a bassoon-player at the Opera. 
In 1733 he composed the music Hot Carey's 
'Amelia.* In 1737 he published * A Plain and 
Compendious Method of teaching Thorough-Bass,' 
-etc., and also furnished the music for Carey's 
burlesque opera "* The Dragon of Wantley,' which 
met with remarkable success. It is an admirable 
example of the true burlesque, and is said to 
have been an espedal favourite of Handel's. In 
1738 he composed music for the sequel, 'Maigery ; 
or, A Worse Plague than the Dragon.^ In 1 740 
he published 'The Art of Musick,* and in 1741 
composed music for the masque of -'The Sham 
Conjuror.' In 1745 he composed * Pyramus and 
Thisbe, a mock opera, the words taken from 
Shakspeare.' Lampe was the composer of many 
single songs, several of which appeared in Col- 
lections, as 'Wit musically emb^sh^d, a Col- 
lection of Forty -two new English Ballads'; 
'The Ladies' Amusement* and 'Lyra Britan- 
nica.' Many songs by him were included in * The 
Vocal Musical Mask,' 'The Musical Miscellany,' 
etc. Lampe married Isabella, daughter of Charles 
Young, and sister of Mrs. Ame; she was a 
favourite singer^ both on the stage and in the 
concert -room. In 1748 he went to Dublin, and 
in 1750 to E<finburgh, wheae he died, July 35, 
1751, leaving behind him the reputation of 
an accomplished musician and excellent man. 
Charles Wesley often mentions him with great 
afiection, and wrote a hymn on bh death — * Tis 
done ! the Sovereign Will 's obeyed ! * 

Charles John Frbdeeick, his son, succeeded 
his grandfather, Charles Young, as organist of 
Allhallows, Barking, in 1758, aiid held the 
appointment until 1769. [W^.H.] 

LAMPERTI, Fbancesoq, teacher x>f singing. 
Bom at Savona 181 3. His father was an ad- 
vocate, and his mother a prima- donna of con* 
siderable repute. As a child he showed great 
talent for music, and was placed under Pietra 
Rizzi of Lodi. In 1830 he entered the Conaer- 
vatorio at Milan, And there studied the piano- 
forte and harmony under Sommaruga d'Appiano 
and Pietro Ray. Devoting himself afterwards 
to the teaching of singing, ne became associated 
with Masini in the direction of the Teatro 
Filodrammatico at Lodi. Selecting many of the 



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LAMPERTL 

mratbere of his oompany from ihe natives of the 
sttRoandiiig ooimiry, he educated and brought 
out at his theatre many famous singers, such as 
La Tiberini, whose reputation otherwise would 
neTer have extended beyond their native village. 

Attracted by their suooess pupils flocked to 
him from Bergamo, Milan, and other parts of 
Europe, and he there trained many of the most 
distinguished <^)eratic vocalists; amongst whom 
may be named Jeanne-Sophie Lowe, Cruvelli, 
Grua, Brambilla, Hayes, Artdt, Tiberini, La 
Grange, and others equally distinguished. Ap- 
pointed in 18^0 by the Austrian government 
professor of smging to the Conservatorio at 
Milan, he brought out amongst others Angelica 
Moro, Paganini, Galli, lUsarelli, An^eri, 
Peralta^, and as private pupils, Albaai, Stdtz, 
Waldmann, Aldighieri, Campanini, Vialletti, 
Derevis, Mariani, Palermi, £verardi, and Shake- 
speare. After twenty -five years service he retired 
from the Conservatorio upon a pensiom in 1875, 
and now devotee himself entirely to private pupils. 

A friend of Rubini and Pasta, and associated 
with the great singers of the past, Lamperti 
fiiUows the method of the old Italiim school of 
singing, instituted by Farinelli and taught by Cres* 
oentini, Velluti, Miut^esi, and Romani. JBasing 
his teaching upon the study of respiration, the 
taking and retention of the breath by means of 
the abdominal muscles alone, and the just emis- 
sion of the voice, he thoroughly grounds his pupils 
in the production of pure tone. His memory 
and his intuition are alike remarkable, and en- 
able him to adapt to each of his pupils such 
readings of the music and jeadenzas as are war- 
ranted by the traditions of the greatest singers 
and are best adapted to their powers. Mme. 
Albani, writing in L875 of his published treatise 
on singing, says : ' To say that I appreciate the 
work, it is sufficient for me to state that I am a 
pimil of the Maestro Lamperti, and that I owe 
to nim and to his method the true art of singing, 
00 little known in these days.* 

He is Commendatore and Cavaliere of the 
order oi the Crown of Italy, and a member of 
many academies and foreign orders. He is the 
author of several series of vocal studies and of a 
treatiM on the art of singing (Ricordi & Co.), 
which has been translated into English by one of 
hia pupils. [Jr.C.G.] 

LANCERS* QUADRILI^, THE, a square 
dance, for 8 or 16 couples. It would appear 
to have been the invention of Joseph Habt in 
1819, according to the title-page of his original 
editaco, published in i Sao. * Les Lanciers, a 
second set of Quadrilles for the Piano Ferte, with 
entirely new figures, as danced by the Nobility 
and Gentry at Tenby in the summer of 1819. 
Compoeed and most respectfuUy dedicated to 
Lady and the Misses Beechy by Joseph Hart. 
London, for the Author, Whitaker & Co., 75 St. 
Paul's Churchyard.* The dance consisted of 5 
figures — La Rose. La Lodoiska, La Dorset, Les 
Lanci^s, and L'Etoile, danced to Airs by Spa- 
gnotetti, by Kreutzer, from the B^var's Opera 
('If the heart of a man'), by Jamewicz, and 



LANGf. 



Sd 



by Horn ('Pretty Maiden,' from ihe Haunted 
Tower) respectively. Another version was pub* 
lished by Duval of Dublin about the same time. 
In this the names of the figures and the music 
remain substantially the same, though in the 
figures themselves there is considerable alteration. 
Hart's figures, with a slight difference or two, 
are still danced, L'Etoile being now called Les 
Visites, and Les Lanciers danoeid last. Whether 
Hart or Duval was the real inventor is un- 
certam. [W.B.8.] 

LANDOLFI, Carlo Fkrdinando (Lan- 
DULPHUS), a reputable violin-maker of Milan, 
where he lived in the Street of St. Margaret, 
i75o~'7^* He lived in an age when it had be* 
come expedient to copy rather than to invent. 
He occasionallv copied Joseph Guamerius so 
cleverly as to deceive experienced judges : and 
many of his works consequently cut a figure in the 
world even above their high intrinsic merits. Lan- 
dolfi's patterns, in the midst of much excellence, 
exhibit that occasional fidtering which too surely 
betrays the copyist ; and his varnish is less soli(^ 
and possesses more of the quality known as 
' sugariness,' than the makers of the golden a^e. 
Often it is thin and hard, especially when yellow 
in colour. Many red instruments nowever exist, 
which are covered with a highly transparent 
varnish : and these are the favourites. The Lan- 
dolfi violoncellos are especially striking in quality 
and appearance, and are in greater demand than 
the violins. Oood speciiik3iis realise from ^£30 to 
£50 : common and undersized ones may be bought 
cheaper. [E.J.P] 

LANDSBERG, Ludwio, a German musician, 
native of Breslau^ who went to Rome and re- 
mained there for 24 years, teaching the piano 
imd amassing a wonderful collection of music, 
both printed and MS. On his death, at Rome 
May 6, 1858, his library was taken, part to 
Berlin and part to Breslan, and a catologue of 
the ancient portion was printed (Berlin, 1859, . 
imprim^ chez Ernest Etthn) — whether the whole 
or a part, does not appear. It contains composi- 
tions by more than 150 musicians of the old 
Italian and Flemish schools, down to Casali. 
M. F^tis, however, who had received a MS. 
catalogue of the collection from Landsberg during 
his life, insists upon the fact that many of the 
most important works have disappeared. The 
catalogue itself does not appear to be any longer in 
the F^tis Library, which is now at Brussels. [G.] 

LANG. A family of German musicians origin- 
ally from Mannheim, but settling at Munich, 
and mentioned here for the sake of Josephine 
Lang (the second of that name), bom Mar. 14, 
1 81 5, a young lady of very remarkable musical 
gifcs and personality, who attracted the notice of 
Mendelssohn when he passed through Munich in 
1830 and 31. There is an enthusiastic account 
of 'die kleine Lang' in his letter of Oct. 6, 31 ; 
in writing to Barmann (July 7 and Sept. 27, 1834) 
he enquires for her, and in a letter seven years 
later (Dec. 15, 41) to Professor Kostlin of Tubin- 
gen, who had just married her, he shows how 



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JJlSCL 



deeply lier Image had impressed itself on his 
■usoeptible heart. She has published several 
books of songs (up to op. 58), which from the 
reviews in the AUg. mus. Zeitung, appear to be 
full of imagination, and weU worthy of the warm 
sraise bestowed on them by Mendelssohn in the . 
letters just mentioned. Hiller tells the story of 
her life at length in his Tonleben (ii. 116), and 
•elects her songs, op. 1 2 Mid 14, as the best. Con- 
nected with the same £unily at an earlier date 
was Rbgina ItAVQ, a singer whose name was 
originally Hitzelberg, bom at Wttnsburg 1786, 
educated at Munich by Winter, Cannabich, aad 
Vpgel, and became chamber singer at the Bava- 
rian Court. When Napoleon I. was at Munich 
in 1806 she sang before him in Winter^s ' Inter- 
rupted Sacrifioe ' and Mozart^s ' Don Giovanni/ 
and so pleased him that he is said to have urged 
her to come to Paris (Mendel). She however re- 
mained in Munich, and married Theobald Lang, 
a violinist in the Court band. In i8x 2 or 13 she 
was at Vienna, and Beethoven wrote in her album 
ft song 'An die Geliebte,* to Stellas words, ' O dass 
Ich du* vom stilleAuge.Vhich was published about 
1840 in a collection called ' Das singende Deutsch- 
landL* It is his second version of the song — the 
former one being dated by himself December 1 8 1 1 , 
and having been published in 181 4. See Notte- 
bohm's Thematic Cat of Beethoven, p. 1 83. [G .] 

LANGDON, RioflABD, Mus. Bao., son of 
Rev. Tobias Laugdon, priest vicar of Exeter 
'Cathedral, gvadual^ as Mus. Bao. at Oxford in 
1 7^1 . About 1 770 he received the appointments 
4)i organist and sub-chanter of Exeter Cathedral, 
but resigned them in 1777 upcm being choeen 
organist of Bristol Cathedral. He quittwl Bristol 
in 1 782 to become organist of Armagh Cathedral, 
which he resigned in 1 794. In 1 7 74 he published 
* Divine Harmony, a Colleotlon, in score, of 
Psalms and Anthems.' His published com- 
positions include 'Twelve Glees,' two books of 
songs, and some canzonets. Two glees and a 
catch by him are contained in Warren's ' Vocal 
Harmony.* He died Sept. 1805. Langdon in F 
is still a &vourite double chant. [W. H. H.] 

LANGE. a fiunily intimatd^y connected with 
Mozart, inasmuch as his wife's sister, Aloysia 
Webor, in 1780 married the famous Joseph 
Lange, an actor, who held the same rank in 
Germany that Garrick did in England and 
Lekain in France. Mozart's marriage to her 
younger sister, Constanz, took plaoe Aug. 4, 
1 783. Lange w9A bom at WUrzbui^, 1 75i» ^'od 
died at Vienna in 1 8 2 7. Aloysia was a very great 
singer; her voice wanted power, but was sud to 
be * the sweetest ever heard * (Jahn, ii. 18). Its 
compass was extraordinary, from B below the 
stave to A on the sixth space above it ; as may 
be seen from the songs wnich Mozart wrote for 
her — the part of ' the Queen of Night ' in the 
Zauberflote, and several detached bravura airs. 
She died in 1830. Mozart was for a time vio- 
lently in love with her. [Webeb.] [G.] 

LANGSAM, i. e, slow, the Grerman equivalent 
ior Adagio. 'Jiangsam und sehnsuchtsvoU ' 10 



IiAKIEEE. 

Beethoven^s direction to the tiiird movement of 
the Sonata op. loi, equivalent to Adagio etm 
moUo di sentimerUo, S^ also the opening eoiig 
of the Liederkreis, op. 98. Schumann empk>y8 it 
habitually ; see the fint movement of his Synir 
phony in E b. [G.] 

LANGSHAW, Johk, was employed aboot 
1 76 1, under the direction of John Christof^ier 
Smith, in setting music upon tiie barrek of an 
organ, of much larger size than had been thereto- 
fore used for barrels, then being constructed &r 
the Earl of Bute, which he did ' in so masterly 
a manner that the offset was equal to Uiat 
produced by the most finished player.* In 177a 
ke became organist of the parish church of 
Lancaster, and died in 1 798. 

His s(m, John, was born in London in I7^3i 
in 1779 became a pupil of Charles Wesley, and 
in 1798 succeeded his father as oiganist at 
Lancaster. He composed many hymns, diaats, 
organ voluntaries, pianoforte ooncertos, songs 
and duets, and made numerous arrangements for 
the pianoforte. [W.H.H.] 

LANIERE, Nicholas, was the son of Jerome 
Laniere, an Italian musician, who, together with 
Nicholas Laniere, probably his brother, settled 
in England, and in 15 71 were musicians to Queen 
Elizabeth. The date of his birth is not known, 
but it was probably about 1590. His name fint 
appears as singer and composer in the masque 
performed at court on the marriage of Carr, Eari 
of Somerset, and Lady Frances Howard in 1614, 
the first song in which, ' Bring away the sacred 
tree* (reprinted in Smith's 'Musica Antiqua'), 
was composed by him. His skill as a sin^ if 
alluded to in some lines addressed by Hemck to 
Henry Lawes. He composed the music for Ben 
Jonson's masque presented at the house of Lord 
Hay for the entertainment of Baron de Tour, the 
French Ambassador. 00 Saturday, Feb. 2 a, 1617. 
*in stylo recitativo,' being the &Bt introdoctioB 
of recitative into an English composition. He 
also sang in the pieoe and painted the scenery 
for it. He next composed the music for Jonson's 
maaque, 'The Vision of Delight,* performed at 
court at Christmas, 161 7. Laniere cultivated the 
arts of painting and engraving as well as that of 
music, and his judgment was so much esteemed, 
thai he was sent by Charles I. to Italy to pur- 
chase pictures in 1625, and again in 1627 to 
negodate for the purchase of the Duke of 
Mantua's ocdlection. One of those pictures was 

* Mercury instructiBg Cupid,' by Correggio. now 
in the National Gallery. He was i^tpointed 

* Master of the King's Musick,* at an annual 
salary of £200, by patent dated July 11, 1626. 
In 1636 Charles I. granted to Laniere and 
oUiers a diarter, based upon one of Edward IV., 
inoorporadng them under the style of 'The 
Miursnal, Wardens, and Cominality of the Arte 
and Science of Musick in Westminster,' and 
giving them power to control and regulate ail 
matters connected with music, and of thia body 
Laniere was appointed the first Marshal. At 
the foil of Charles, Laniere lost his court ap- 
pointmentsy but was reinstated in them on 



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IAKI£!RE. 

^ aooenion of duurlee II., and ihe Corpon^ 
tioo of Moaiciaiis was revived. The date of his 
death is tmkiiown; he was living in 1665, but 
dead in Jao. 1670, when Capt. Cooke's name 
sf^ears as Marshai of the Corporation. He com- 
posed a funeral hymn on Charles I., a pastoral 
raxm the fairth of Prince Charles, and New 
Yearns Songs for 1663 and 1665. Songs and 
oiher pieces bj him are contained in 'Select 
Mnsicall Ayras and Dialogues,' 1653 and 1659; 
'The Musical Companion/ 1667 ; * The Treasury 
of HosiGk,* 1669 ; and ' Choice Ayres and Songs,' 
hsok ir, 1685. Several songB and dialogues by 
him are in the British Museum, Add. MSa 
11,608. Vandyc^ painted Laniere*s portrait for 
Charles L Another portrait is in the Music 
Sdiod at Oxfbed, to whidi it was presented by 
Laniere himsftlf. The Laniere fumSly was very 
nameroas, and several of its mambsrs were court 
mnsknans ib the 1 7th century. [W. H. H.] 

LANNER, Joseph, b<»n at Vienna, April 
12, 1801 ; son of a glove-maker; earlv showed 
s tident for music, taught himself the violin, and 
by means of theoretical books learned to com- 
pos^ Next came the desire to conduct an 
ofdieBtra ; and in the meantime he got together 
a quartet party, in which the viola was taken by 
Strauss, ms subsequent rival. Th^ played 
po^HHuris from £ftvourite operas, marches, etc., 
aoiDged by Lanaer. He next composed waltzes 
and IMadler, first for a small, then for a full 
achestra, and performed them in public* His 
poptdari^ increased rapidly, and important 
pboas OK amusement eagerly competed for his 
■errioes. He also appeared in moat of the 
provincial -capitals> but declined all mvitations 
abroad. He conducted the dance music in the 
laigt and small Redoutensaal, and also that at 
the court balls, alternately with Strauss. As 
a mark of distinction he was appointed Capell- 
master of the and Biirger-regiment. When thus 
at the height of nrosperity he died, April 1 4, 1 84 3 ; 
and was buried in the churchyard of Dobling, 
near Vienna. A memorial tablet was placed on 
the house in which he was bom. May 15, 1879.* 

Lanner may be considered the founder of our 
present dance-music. His galcms, quadrilles, 
pdka^ and marches, but en>eciaily his waltzes 
and Liindler, bear traces 01 the frank, genial 
diiposition which made him so beloved. All his 
"voiles, from op. I. (' Neue Wiener Landler ') to 
his swan-song ('Die Schcmbrunner *) are pene- 
trated with the warm national life of Vienna. 
The titles often contain allusions to contempo- 
laoeous events and customs, and thus have an 
historical interest. His printed works amount 
to aoS, and he left others unpublished. The 
Allowing numbers are dedicated to crowned 
heads, and distinguished persons— op. 74, 81, 85, 
91,101,110-12,115-16, lao, 138, i3i-32> ^38 
(* Victoria- Walzer ' dedicated to Queen Victoria), 
143.146,155,161-63. The* Troubadour- Walzer/ 
op. 197, are dedicated to Donizetti, and tiie 
*Norwegische Arabesken/ op. 145, to Ole BuH. 

* Owtaf to a cnrloq* error In the «Dtif of Ills iMptlsm, hlc jnne 
vu for toot overlooked In tbe Vetister. 



LAPOETB. 



n 



Diabelll published op. 1-15 ; HasKnger 16-33, 
and 170-308; Mechetti 33-169. 

Of LaCnner's three children, August, bom 1834 
in Vienna, a young man of great promise, fcd^ 
lowed his Other's profession, but died Sept. 37, 
1855. Kathabina, bora in Vienna 1831, is 
a well-known dancer, who since her d^ut at 
the court opera in Vienna in 1845, has appeared 
at all the important theatres in Europe. She 
has also written several admired ballets, and in 
1858 formed a children's ballet in Hambiurg, 
which gave 46 performances in Paris with great 
success. At a later date she was engaged ako at 
the Italian Opera in England. [C. F. P.] 

LAPOBTE, PiEREE Fban^ois, an eminent 
French comedian, came to London as a member 
and jdnt manager of a company who, in January 
1834, conmienoed performing French plays at 
the theatre in Tottenham Street. On Nov. 18, 
1836, he appeared on the English stage, as a 
member of the Drury Lane company, as Sosia in 
Dryden's * Amphitry<m,' and afterwards played a 
variety of parts, mostly original, and amongst 
them Wormwood in ' llie Lottery Ticket.* He 
next joined the Haymarket company, in which 
he first appeared June 15, 1837. In 1838 he 
became manager of the King's Theatre, and 
continued such until 1831. In 1833 he was 
lessee of Covent (Wden Theatre, and actor as 
well as manager, but was compelled to retire, 
mth heavy loss, before the end of tlie season. 
In 1833 he resumed the management of the 
King's Theatre, and retained it until his death, 
which occurred at his chateau near Paris, Sept. 
35, 1841. A notable feature of his last season 
was the ' Tamburini Bow/ a disturbance of thA 
performance oocasi<»ed by the admirers of Tam- 
burini, who resented his non- engagement for 
that season, and by their tumultuous proceedings 
far two or three evenings forced the manager to 
yield to their wishes. Another curious feature 
of this year was the re-appearance of Laporte in 
his original capacity as an actor, with Rachel, on 
three nights of her first London season. Laporte 
first in^oduced to the English public, amongst 
other operas, Bossini's 'ComteOry' and 'Assedio 
di Conuto'; Bellini's 'Pirata,' • Sonnambula^* 
'Norma' and 'Puritan!'; Doniaetti's 'Anna 
Bolena,' and Costa's 'Malek Adel': and amongst 
singers, Sontag, Meric Lalande, Persian!, Aa- 
sandri, Albertazzi, Pisaroni, Donzelli, David jun^ 
Ivanoff, Mario; and, above all, the fSunouif 
qvartet who so long held supremacy on the opera 
stage, Grisi, Bubini, Tamburini^ and Lablache. 
Though his dilatory and unbusinesslike habits 
ruined his management, Laporte was not with- 
out good qualities. Amongst others his tact and 
coolness were great, and many of his hon$ moto 
were cunent at the time. When Cerito returned 
the tieket of a box on the upper tier with the 
remark that she was much too young to be 
exalted to the skies before her time, Laporte — 
having already given a box on the same tier to 
Taglioni — repli^ that he * had done his best, but 
that perhaps he had been wrong in placing her on 
the same levd with MdUe. Taglioni.' [W.H.H.] 



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LARGE. 



LARGE (Lat. Maxima, Old Eng. MojHm), 
The longest note used in measured music In 
ancient MSS., the Large appears as an oblong 
black note, corresponding with the Double-Long 
described in the Jrs Cantua Meneurahilu of 
Franco of Cologne. Fcanchinus Grafforins, writing 
in 1496, figures it as an oblong white note, with a 
tail descending on the right hand side; which form 
it has retained, unchan^dd, to the present day.^ 

Id ancient In printed Perfect Imperfect 

MSS. books. Lar^eRest. Large Rest. 



In the Great Mode Perfect, the Large is equal 
to three Longs : in the Great Mode Imperfect, to 
two. [See Mode.] The Rest for the Perfect 
Laige stretches, in a double line, across three 
spaces ; that for the Imperfect Lazge, across two. 

In Polyphonic Music, the final note is always 
written as a Large : and, in that position, its 
length is sometimes Indefinitely prolonged, in the 
Canto fermOf while the other voices are elaborat- 
ing a florid cadence. In Plain Chaunt. the Large 
— or, rather, in that case, the Double-Long — is 
sometimes, but not very frequently, used, to indi- 
cate the Redting-Note. [W. S. R.] 

LARGHETTO, partaking of the broad style 
of Largo, but about the same pace with Andante. 
Well-known instances of its use are the slow 
movements in Beethoven's and Symphony and 
Violin Concerto. [G.] 

- LARGO, i.e. broad, an Italian term meaning 
a slow, broad, dignified style. Handel employs 
it often, as in the Messiah in ' Behold the Lamb 
of Gk)d,* * He was despised,' and * Surely.' Haydn 
uses it for the Introduction and first Chorus 
in the ' Creation,' as well as in the Introduction 
to the 3rd Part. Beethoven employs it only in 
P. F. works, and it is enough to mention some .of 
the instances to show what grandeur and deep 
feeling he conveyed by this term, — op. 7 ; op. 10, 
no. 3 ; op. 37 ; op. 70, no. i ; op. 106. He often ac- 
companies it with pa8i*ionato, or some other term 
denoting intense expression. In the works of Men- 
delssohn the term probably does not once occur. 

The term Largamente has recently come into 
use to denote breadth of style without change 
of tempo. Largo implies a slow pace, but the 
very varying metjronome marks applied to it show 
conclusively that style and not pace is its princi- 
pal intention. [G.] 

LARIGOT (from an old French word, Varigot, 
for a small flute or flageolet, now obsolete), the 
old name for a rank of small opeu metal pipes, 
the longest of which is only i^ ft. speaking-length. 
Its pitch is a fifth above that of the fifteenth, an 
octave above the twelfth, and a nineteenth above 
the unison. It is first met with, in English 
oigans, in those made by Harris, who pissed 
many years in France, and who placed one in his 

> In modem reprinti, th« tall b sometimes made to avcend ; but It 
U tndtopenwble that it should be on the right hand side. See In- 
numerable examples in Froetce's JTmhto Divmeu 



LASSEN. 

instrument in St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill, erected 
in 1670. [E.J.H.] 

LAROCHE, James, better known as Jemmy 
Laroch, or Laroohe, was a popular singer in 
London, though probably French by origin or 
birth, at the end of the 1 7th and beginning of 
the 1 8th centuries. He played, as a boy, the 
part of Cupid in Motteux's * Loves of Mars and 
Venus,' set to music by Ecdee and Finger, in 
which the part of Venus was played by Mrs. 
Bracegirdle, in 16^. He was, therefore, bom 
probably about io8o-a. His portrait appears 
on a very rare print, called * The Raree Show. 
Sung by Jemmy Laroch in the Musical Interlude 
for Uie Peace, with the Tune Set to Musick for the 
Violin. Ingraved Printed Culred and Sold by. 
Sutton NichoUs next door to the Jack, etc. Lon- 
don,' fol. It was afterwards published by Samuel 
Lyne. There are 33 verses beginning * O Raree 
Show, O Brave Show' below the engraving, 
which represents Laroche with the show on a 
stool, exhibiting it to a group of children ; and 
at foot is the music. The Peace of Utrecht wa*» 
signed in April, 1713, and this interlude was 
played in celebration of it, at the Theatre in 
Little Lincoln's Inn Fields, the music being 
written by John Eocles. The portrait of La- 
roche was also engraved by M. Laroon in his 
* Cries of London.' [J. M.] 

LAROON, J., a foreigner who sang in opera 
in the first years of the last century in LondoiU 
and was, perhaps, the son of M. Laroon, the 
artist (bom at the Hague 1653, died 1705), who 
engraved the * Cries of London,' etc. J. Laroon 
played, among other parts, that of Sylvander 
(tenor) in * The Temple of Love,' by G. F. Sag- 
gione (1706), not (as Bumey incorrectly says) 
byGreber. [See Gallia.] [J.M.] 

LASSEN, Eduard, though a native of Copen- 
hagen, where he was born April 13, 1830, is vir- 
tu^ly a Belgian musician, since he was taken to 
Brussels when only 3, entered the Conservatoire 
there at 1 2, in 1844 took the first prize as P. F. 
player, in 47 the same for harmony, and soon 
afterward the second prize for composition. His 
successes, which were many, were crowned by 
the great Grovemment prize, which was adjudged 
to him in 185 1, after which he started on a length- 
ened tour through Grermany and Italy. Dis- 
appointed in his hopes of getting his 5 -act opera, 
' I^ Roi Edgard ' performed at Brussels, he betook 
himself to Weimar, where in 57 it was produced 
under the care of Liszt, with great success. A 
second, * Frauenlob,' and a third, 'Der Ge&ngene.' 
were equally fortunate. When Liszt retired 
from Weimar, Lassen took his place, and had 
the satisfaction to produce ' Tristan and Isolde ' 
in 1874, at a time when no other theatre but 
Munich had dared to do so. He th«« published 
a Symphony in D, a Beethoven overture, and a 
Festival ditto, music to Sophocles' (Edipus, to 
Hebbers Nibelungen, and Goethe's Faust, Parts 
I and a, a Fest-Cantate, a Te Deum, a large 
number of songs, and other pieces. His latest 
work is a set of 6 songs (op. 67). [G.] 



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LASSERRE. 

LASSBRRE, Jules, eminent yiolonoellist, was 
bom at TVu-bes July 39, 1838, entered the Paris 
Oomerratoire in i S5 2, where he gained the second 
priae in 1853 and the first prize in 1855. When 
the popalar concerts of rasdeloup were first 
•tarted, iie was appointed solo violoncellist ; he 
has also played with great success in the prin- 
cioal towns of France. During 1859 he was solo 
cellist at the Ck>uri of Madrid, and travelled 
through Spain. In 1869 he came to reside per- 
manently in England, since which time he has 
played principal violoncello under Sir Michael 
Co^ and at the Musical Union. Lasserre has 
written various compositions both for his own 
instrument and for the violin — Etudes, Fantasies, 
Bomanoes, Tarantelles, Transcriptions, a violon- 
ceUo ' Method,' etc., etc. [T.P.H.] 

LASSIJS, Orlando di, bom at Mons in the first 
half of tiie i6th century. His real name was 
probably Delattre, but the form de Lassus seems 
to have been constantly used in Mons at the 
time, and was not his own invention. He had no 
fixed mode of writing his name, and in the prefaces 
to the first four volumes of the 'Patrocinium 
Mosioee,* signs himself difierently each time, — 
Oriandus de Lasso, Orlandus di Lasso, Orlandus 
di Lassus, and Orlandus Lassus ; and again in the 
' Lectiones Hiob,' 1582, Orlando de Lasso. In the 
French editions we usually find the name Orlando 
de Lassus, and so it appears on the statue in his 
native town. Adrian Le Roy, however, in some 
of the Paris editions, by way perhaps of Latin- 
izing the de, calls him Orlandus Lassusius. ^ 

lie two works usually referred to for his early 
life are Vincliant's 'Annals of ^Hainauh' ; and 
a notice by Van Quickelberg in 1565, in the 
'Heroum Proeopographia,* a biographical die- 
ti<»ary compiled by Pantaloon. Yinohant, under 
tiie year 1 520, writes as follows : — 

' Oriami dit La$m9 wai bom in the towB of Mons, in 
fbe tune year that Charles V was proclaimed Emperor 
u Aiz-la-Ctaapelle [1&20) .... He was bom in the Bue 
de Ooiilaade near the paseaoe leading from the Block 
Heal> He was chorister in the church of S. Nicolas > in 

I ■ T%9 orisfnsl MS. b now In th« Mons llbimiy. The author llTed 
krtveea ISBO and 163& 

> 'A IImm de la natooo porUnl I'enielfne d« k noire teste.' 
DdsMlte fin hla Life of Lauot. Valenciennes, 1838) thinks 'the Black 
Heal ' was situated In the Roe Grande, No. 92. Conutfnff the number 
of boasH batwcen the 'Folds de fer' (town vrHghlnt-house) and the 
'Msfaan de la noire t«te ' In the old records of the town, he found It to 
cwrsspend with the distance trom the former bulldlnv- Moreover 
S«.« bore. In O^motte's thne. the sign of a hefanet. which he thinks 
sdght. la oUteo time, hare been painted black to Imitate Iron, and 
tftMlwfe been called the' noire t«te.' He goes on to say. but without 
ttttbv hk authority, that this house. Mo. 92. had formerij a passage 
liiBst Into the Boe de grande Gulr- 
kade drfterwards and now Bue de* 
OiliilBi) between the hmuf Kos. ff7 
Ada. If to. It must haTe been a house 
rf liBportanee. wltti ba<* premises 
WUchht behhid the whole lentrth nf 
tbsBwdesOapoebu. No*. 07 and ce 
sit at present 0978) \Tge new houses, 
«Hk a pasMge betwaen them leadhik 
tgIo.K,a private house behtod the 
RTwi. If this paaoage marks the site 
•f Ikt origittal 'Issue' spolCMi of by 
ThckSBi. tfara the bouse In which 

!«■» was bom may have been situated on one side of it, at the 
eoTMr of the Bue de Oantlmpr^ Curiously enough. Matthieu. In his 
Ufa of TsMui, «ys tiiat an Isabeau de Lassus lived In the Rue de 
Chatlaprd. Qnartier Ouirlaode. which adds to the probability that 
t hOMs sttuated at the eomer of the two streea may have been 

> Tbe churdi of St. Nicolas was burnt down in the 17th century, and 
rMaaed by the present boBdlag. 



lassus; 



9a 




the Bue de Havteeq. After his father was condemned for 
fining false moner etc the said Orland, who was called 
Boland de Lattre, changed his name to Orland de Lassus, 
left the country, and went to Italy with Ferdinand do 
Gonzague.' 

Van Quickelberg* dates his birth ten years 
later: — 

'Orlandus was bom at Mons in Hainault in the year 
1530. At 7 years old he began his education, and a year 
and a half later took to music, which he soon understood. 
The beauty of his roice attracted so much attention, that 
he was thrice stolen fh>m the school where he lived with 
the other choristers. Twice his good parents sought and 
found him, but the third time he consented to remain 
with Ferdinand Oonzague viceroy of Sicily, at that time 
commander of the emperor's forces at St Dizier. The 
war over, he went with that prince first to SicOy, and 
then to Milan. After 6 years his voice broke, and at the 
age of 18 Gonstantin Gastriotto took him to Naples, where 
he lived for 3 years with the Marguis of Terza. Thence 
to Rome, where he was the guest of the archbishop of Flo- 
rence for 6 months, at the end of which time he was ap- 
pointed director of -the choir in the church of S. Giovanni 
m Laterano, by liar the most celebrated in Rome .... 
Two yeara afterwards he vMted England and France with 
Jolins Geesar Branoaocio, a nobleman and an amateur 
musician. Returning to his native land, he resided in 
Antwerp for two years, whence he wascalled to Munich 
by Albert of Bavaria in 1667. 

It is difficult to decide between the two birth- 
dates 1520 and 1530. Baini places the Roman 
appointment in 154 1, Van Quickelberg in 1551. 
lliat Lassus left Rome about 1553. as Van 
Quickelberg says, is also to be inferred from the 
preface to his first Antwerp publication (May 13, 
1555), where he speaks of his removal from the 
one city to the other as if recent. Assuming 
that his life in Rome lasted either a years or 1 2, 
we may ask whether it is likely that one of the 
most industrious and prolific composers in the 
whole history of music, should obtain so high a 
position as early as 1541, without being known 
to us as a composer till '1555; or is it, on the 
contrary, more likely that a reputation which 
seems to have been European by the time he 
went to Munich (1557), could have been gained, 
without some early and long career as a composer 
of works which may yet be Ijring undiscovered in 
some Italian church or library. 

Vinchant alludes to Lassus' father having been 
condemned as a coiner of fiUse money. Matthieu* 
has worked hard to refute this, and his examina- 
tion of the criminal records of Mons casts great 
improbability on the story. At the same time, 
and from the same sources, he has brought to 
light other namesakes of the composer, who if 

* Van Quickelberg. whose own biography appears In Pantaleon't 
book, was born at Antwerp In 1009, and practised as a physician at the 
oourt of Munich, while Laaeus was chief mutldan there. We must 
glre great weight to an account written by a contemporary and com- 
patriot, and under the e.ves of the composer hlmselC The date IfiSO Is 
no printer^ error, as Delmotte s«isgaits. for the account speaks of 
Lassus a* a child at the siege of 8.Dliler. which took place In the year 
1544. Therefore Van Quickelberg must have meant to ray 1030. Just 
ait certainly as Vinchant emphasises his date lAflO bj a reference to the 
coronation of the emperor. Judging simply by the authority of the 
statements, we should certainly give the preference to Van Quickel- 
berg : but VInchant's date is supported by *o many other considera- 
tions that we thbik Delmotte. Fetis. and Ambros are right In preferring 
It, though It Is premature to adopt It absolutely. These dates may be 
more important than at llrst sight appears. If some one undertakes a 
comparison of the Influence of Laanu and Falestrina on the history of 

j music 

> According to Dehn. an edltkm of motets, dated in46. b In the 
library ai Bologna. This statement requires some oonflmiatkm. The 
M88. catalogues of the Italian libraries, in Dehn's puveMlon, some of 
which are in the F^tls library at Brussels, are not likely to be entirely 
free from error. 

• Bulaud d« Lattre par Adolphe Matthieu. Qand (no datoX 



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they belonged to his fikmil j, did little credit to it, 
and need not be mentioned here. It would be 
more interesting to find some tie between Orlando 
and two other contemporary composers, Olivier 
Belatre, and Claude Petit Jean Delattre, the 
second a man of considerable eminence. 

Of Lassiis* education,^ alter he left Mons, we 
know nothing, bat his first compositions show him 
following the steps of his countrymen, Willaert, 
Verdelot, Arcadelt, and Rore, in the Venetian 
school of madrigal writing ; his first book of ma- 
drigals (^5) being published in Venice soon 
after he had him^lf left Italy and settled in 
Antwerp. This book in its time went through 
many editions, but copies of it are scarce now, 
and none of its a 2 pieces have been published in 
modem notation. 

The visit to England mnst have taken place 
about 1554. We have been unable to find any 
account of the nobleman whom Orlando accom- 
panied, but many of his family had been dig- 
nitaries of the church of Rome, and by him 
Orlando was probably introduced to Cardinal Pole, 
in whose honour he wrote music to the words 

* Te speotant Begiaalde poll, tibi ndera rideat, 

Exultant montes, penonat Ooeanos, 
Anglia dum plaudit quod fkustoB oxoutls IgbeS 
EUois et laehriaiaa ex adaniante soo.* 

This was published in 1556, and the incident* 
to which it refers could not have taken place 
before 1554, so it gives an additional clue to the 
time of the composer*s visit to this country, cor- 
roborating the statement of Van Quickelberg. 
It is carious that in the year 1554, a Don Pedit) 
di Lasso attended the marriage of Philip and 
Mary in England as ambassador from Ferdmand, 
King of the Romans. 

By the end of 1554, Orlando fs probably 
settled at Antwerp, for in ' the Italian pre- 
face to a book of madrigals and motets' printed 
in that city (May 13, 1555), he speaks of their 
having been composed there since his return from 
Rome. * There, says Van Quickelberg, ' he re- 
mained two years, in the society of men of rank 
and culture, rousing in them a taste for music, and 
in return gaining their love and respect.' The 
book referred to contains 18 Italian canzones, 6 
French chansons, and 6 motets 'k la nouvelle 
composition d'aucuns d^talie.' Of the Italian 
ones 5 are published by Van Maldeghem.^ This 
is our first introduction to the great composer, 
and we get over it with little fonnality. If Ot- 
lando ever wrote any masses for his composer*a 
diploma; if the old tune ' I'omme arm^/ was tor- 
tc^ed by any fresh contrapuntal devices of his 
pen, it is plain that he left sach tasks behind him 
when he gave up school, and * roused the musical 
taste* of his Antweip friends by music which 
errs, if at all, on the side of simplicity. We pass 
with regret from the graceful 'Madonna ma 
pietk' and the almost melodious * La cortesia,' to 
the Latin motets — 3 sacred, 2 secular^-in the 
same volume. One of the latter is the 'Alma 
nemes * which Bumey gives in his History (iii. 
317), pointing out the modulation on the words 

>Ti«M>rliMeaL 10«»AaD^ BnueBetUT^ 



LASSUS. 

< nbvniftque lAeloe,' as a striking dXMDpId of .Ihe 
chromatic passages of the school in which lamM 
and Rore were educated. Bumey oouplea tb« two 
together, and regards Lassus ohi^y as a secatar 
composer. He seems to know but little of the 
great sacred works of his later life^ and likens 
him to a 'dwarf upon stilts* by the side of 
Palestrina. But though th's onfortiraata Com- 
parison has brottirht the great "Rugliffh historian 
into disgrace with F^tis and Ambros, still Bur* 
Aey*8 remarics on Lassus* early works are rerj 
interesting and certainly not unfair. It is only 
strange that» knowing and thinking so little of 
Lassus, he should have compared him to Palea- 
trina at aU. 

The other woric bdonging to this period (Ant- 
werp 1556) is the first bo^ of mo tets ■ la noe. 
^ 5, and 5 nos. k 6. Here the composer recog^ 
nisee the importance of his first publication of 
serious music, by opening it with an ode to the 
Muses, 'Delitise Phoebi,' k 5, in which the setting 
of the words ' Sustine Lassum,* is the principal 
feature. Other interesting numbers are the 
* Gustate, videte,* which will be referred to again 
when we follow Lassus to Munich, the motet 
*Te spectant Reginalde poli/ and 'Heroum so- 
boles, in honour of Charles V, the second being 
in the strict imitative style, the last in simpler 
and more massive harmony (k 6), as if designed 
for a large chorus at some public ceremoniaL 

The sacred numbers, such as the ' Mirabile mys- 
terium * — an anthem, we suppose for Christmas 
day — show no signs of any secular tendency or 
Venetian influence. They are as hard to our 
ears as any music of the Joaquin period, nej 
give us our first insight into Orlando*s church 
work, and it is interesting to find him drawing so 
distinct a line between compositions for the church 
and the world, and not, as Bumey implies, too 
much petted in society and at oourt, to be grave 
and earnest in his religious music. We have a 
good example here that the contrary is the case. 
The Muses and Cardinal Pole are much too seii- 
ous subjects to be in the slightest degree trifled 
with, and the Ode to Charles V . alone exhibits any 
orighiaHty of treatment. 

On the strength of a reputation as a oompOBer 
both for the chamber and the church, and of a 
popularity amongst men of rank and talent, 
gained as much by his character and di^Mwition 
and liberal education, as by his musical powen» 
he was invited by Albert V., Duke of Bavaria, in 
1556 or 1557, to come to Munich as director of 
his chamb^ music. Albert was not only the 
kind patron of Lassus, but seems to have exercised 
considerable influence on the direction of his 
genius. He was bom in 1527, was a great 
patron of the arts, founded the royal library at ! 
Munich, acquired oonsideraUe fiune as an athlete, 
and was a man of the strictest religious prin-i 
ciples, the effect of which was not confined to his j 
£Eunily, but extended to his people by severe laws 
against immorality of every kind. Of the exact 
state of music at Munich when Lassus first 
reached it, we cannot speak precisely. The head 
of the chapel, Ludovioo d'Asero, or Ludwig 



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LASSUa 

Jk»BK, was a diatnigaiihed composer in his time, 
but a SBgle 'Fusa' is all that has been left to 
m} Being an old man, he would probably have 
retired in ^vour of LaisnSy as be did a few years 
later, but it was thought better for the new comer 
to acquire tibe language of the country before 
undertaking so reepoDBible a post, and he was 
dMiefiare appointed a chamber nrasician. He 
86008 to have settled at onoe into his new posi- 
tun, for the next year (1558) he married Beirin& 
Weckinger, a maid of honour at the court. The 
marriage proved a very happy one, and Van 
Qniekeibe]^ speaks of the children. Whom he 
most have known at a very early age (1565), as 
* eiflgantisflimi.' At any rate they (Sd very well 
afterwards. The Ibur sons, Fermnand, Ernest, 
Rudfdph and Jean, all became musicians, and 
the two daughters were married — c»ie of them, 
Bagina, to the Seigneur d'Ach, one of the court 
paintera. 

In his subardinate poskion Lassus did not 
puUish nroch, though, as the next paragraph 
ftbows, he wrote continually. The next two or 
three years produced a second book of ai macU 
ligals (k 5), and a book of chansons (k 4, 5, 6), 
the latter containing the 5-part chanson ' Su- 
Hime on jour,' to which Bumey refers in his 
Hiitory (iii. 262), as well as a 6-part setting of 
the ' IStyre, tu patulss,' which is quite simple in 
eflfeet, and has a very beautiful last movement. 
We observe at once the great care which Orlando 
fakes of the quantities of the Latin words. 

In the year 1562 Daser is allowed to retire 
OB his full salary, and 

'TliB Dake seeing ttiat Master Oitando had by this time 
ksrst fbe Isngaage, and gained the good will and love of 
aU, bv the propriety and gentlenees of his beharionr, and 
that Ml oompositions (in number infinite) were uni- 
▼enaBj Uked, without loss of time elected him master of 
the chapeL to the evident pleasure of alL And, indeed, 
with all las distinguished colleagues, he lived so quietly 
aoA peacefoDy, that aU were forced to love him, to re- 
spect him in Ms pceee&oe, and to praise him in bis ab- 



LASSU8, 



W 



Ftom tills time Lassos appears principally as 
aoomposer for the church, and it is worth re- 
markiiig that in this same year the subject of 
moaie waa discussed by the Council of Trent, and 
s resohition passed to reform some of the glaring 
de&ets in the style of chnrdi composition. Las- 
sos' great worlu, being of a subsequent date, 
sfe as sBtiraly free from the vagaries of his pre- 
doeftofH aa are the later woxka of Palestrma. 
Idas JoBQunr.] 

Tile new chapel-master, in the June of the 
■as year, prints bis first book of entirely sacred 
smfe-^'SacnB cantiones, k 5' (25 nos.), of which 
* VoiA in hortam' has been pubUshed by * Com- 
■sTf 'Angalns ad pastoree* by 'Eochlitz, and 
^'BtutHeam Dommum' by ^Proske. 

But H was not alone as a church composer 
tfMt Laasus was anzioos at once to assert his new 
position. He soon showed special qualifications 
as sODdoctor of the choir. 'One great quality,* 

> Sec the Buae In Bliicr'sBlMfcgniMe (Berlin, 1877). pt. 224. 

* Sasica facrm. x. 47 (Trautwelo^ 

> anaaliiiV QewgBtOcke, t. 1ft (BelKitt). 

• Itsilca IMTlna, IL JOO OSattobon. Uiat. 



says Massimo Trojano,' 'was the firmness and 
genius he evinced when the choir were singing, 
giving the time with such steadiness and force, 
that, like warriors taking courage at the sound 
of the trumpet, the expert singers Deeded no 
other orders than the expression of that powerful 
and vigorous countenance to animate their 
sweetly sounding voices*' The portrait whieh we 
here give, and which is now engraved for the 
first time, has been photograplMd * from the 
magnificent manuscript copy of Lassus^s musio 
to the Penitential Psalms, which forms one of 
the ornaments of the Royal State Library at Mu- 
nich. The inscription round the outside of the 
oval is * In ^corde prudentis requiesdt sapientia 
et indoctos quoeque erudiet. Pro. xiiii.,' showing 
in how favourable and honourable a b'ght a great 
musician was regarded in the 1 6th century. 



In the autumn Lsssns mnst have gone to 
Venice, taking his new 'Cantiones' with him j 
for though Gardane does not print them till 1565, 
the preface to his edition is signed by the com- 
poser, and dated * Venetiis I562 die i. Nov.' 
He iJso left behind him a third set of 1 3 mad- 
rigals, published there m the following year. 
Van Quickelberg also speaks of a visit to Ant- 
werp about this time ; and the publications for 
the year 1 564 — two books of chansons, one printed 
in that dty, the other at Louvain — corroborate 

> DiMonI delli triomphl, etc.. nelle nofze dell' tUxOMMlmo daca 
aaellelmo. eto., da If ai^rtmo Trojaoo (Hotuieo, Bern, Iflffi). 

« The Editor desires to expresn his special th&nks to Profearor 
Halm, the Director of the Royal State LIbrai?. for the prompt klnd- 
naae with which he granted permlmton and gave everj fiMlUtr fur the 
photoffraphing of the portrait. Another portrait from the same MB., on 
a smaller scale. taW leiifrth and In a long gown, is lithographed and 
given lo Delmotte's Life of Lamns. 

7 Thus rendered in the Donor Version— ' In the heart of the pmdent 
resteth wisdom, and It shall instruct all the Ignorant.' The artist haa 
incorrectlj written * in doctoe.' 



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lASSUS. 



^e statement. The ist book (k 4) contains 27 
short pieces of a humorous character, many of 
which are given by Van Maldeghem in his 
' Tr^sor Musical.' The music is admirably adapted 
to the words, notwithstanding the fact that in 
later times it was considered equally well suited to 
sacred words, or at least published with them, an 
ordeal to which many of his earlier secular com- 
positions were subjected. The reason and result 
of these journeys are thus given by Massimo 
Trojano :— 

* The Duke eeeing that hia predecessor's ch^[>el was fkr 
beneath his ovm ideal, sent messages and letters, with 
gifts and promises through all Europe, to select learned 
musical artists, and singers with fine voices and experi- 
ence. And it came to pass in a short time, that he had 
collected as great a company of virtuosi as he could pos- 
sibly obtain, chosen flrom aU the musiciuis in Germany 
snd other countries by his compoaer, the exoellemt Or- 
lando di Lasso.* 

. Of these musicians, upwards of 90 in number, 
the same author mentions more than 30 by name. 
Among them Antonio Morari, the head of the 
orchestra, Gioseppe da Lucca and Ivo da Vento, 
organists, Francesco da Lucca and Simone Gallo, 
both instrumentalists. Giovanne da Lochenburg, 
a great flEtvourite and companion of the Duke's, 
and Antonio Gosuino, were all composers, some 
of whose works still exist.' The singing of the 
choir was of the highest order, balanced with the 
greatest nicety, and able to keep in tune through 
the longest compositions. The Duke treated 
them so kindly, and their life was made so 
pleasant, that, as Massimo Trojano says, * had 
the heavenly choir been suddenly dismissed, they 
would straightway have nsade for the court of 
Munich, there to find peace and retirement.' 

For general puiposes the wind and brass in- 
struments seem to have been kept separate fix)m 
the strings. The former accompanied the mass 
on Sundays and festivals. In the chamber music 
all took part in turn. At a banquet, the wind 
instruments would play during the earlier courses, 
then till dinner was finished the strings, with 
Antonio Morari as their conductor, and at 
dessert Orlando would direct the choir, some- 
times singing quartets and trios with picked 
voices, a kind of music of which the Duke was so 
fond, that he would leave the table to listen 
more attentively to * the much-loved strains.* He 
and all his family were intensely fond of music, 
and made a point of attending the musical mass 
every day. They took a keen interest in Lassus* 
work, and the Duke and his son William were 
continually sending him materials and suggestions 
for new compositions. The manuscript of the 
music to the 'Penitential Psalms,' already 
noticed, remains to this day a witness of the 
reverence with which the Duke treated the 
composer's work. 

These 7 psalms were composed, at the Duke's 
suggestion, before the year 1565, the date of the 
first volume of the MS., but were not published 
till some years after. The music is in 5 parts, 
one, and sometimes two separate movements for 
each verse. The last movement, *Sicut erat,' 

* S«e thMC Dames In Eltner's BSbliosrapble. 



LASSUS. 

always in 6 parts. Duets, Trios, and Quartets 
appear for various combinations of voices. The 
length of the Psalms is considerable, and though 
no reliance can be placed on modem ideas of 
their tempts the longer ones would probably 
occupy nearly an hour in performance. 

* When we think,' says Ambros, * of the princi- 
pal works of the 1 6th century, these Psalms and 
Falestrina's Missa Papse Marcelli always come 
first to our * minds.' One reason fw this is, 
perhaps, that these works have each a little story 
attached to them which has made them easy to 
remember and talk about. It is not true that 
Lassus composed the 'Penitential Psalms' to 
soothe the remorse of Charles IX, after the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, but it is more than 
probable, that they were sung before that un- 
happy monarch, and his musical sense most 
indeed have been dtdl, if he found no consolation, 
and hope expressed in them. This is no every- 
day music, which may charm at all seasons or in 
all moods; but there are times when we find 
ourselves forgetting the antique forms of ex- 
pression, pawing the strange combinations of 
sounds, almost losing ourselves, in a new-found 
^rave delight, till the last few movements of the 
Fsalm — always of a more vigorous charact^ — gra- 
dually recall us as firom a beautifhl dream wMch 
* waking we can scarce remember.* Is this in- 
definite impression created by the music due to 
our imperfect appreciation of a style and com- 
position so remote, or is it caused by the actual 
nature of the music itself, which thus proves its 
inherent fitness for the service of religion I 80 
unobtrusive is its character, that we can fancy 
the worshippers hearing it by the hour, passive 
rather than active listeners, with no thought of 
the human mind that fashioned its form. Yet 
the art is there, for there is no monotony in the 
sequence of the movements. Every variety that 
can be naturally obtained by changes of key, 
contrasted effects of repose and activity, <xr dis- 
tribution of voices, are here; but these ohangee 
are so quietly and naturally introduced, and 
the startling contrasts, now called * dramatdc,' so 
entirely avoided, that the composer's part seems 
only to have been, to deliver faithfully a divine 
message, without attracting notice to lumselt 

The production of such a masterpiece at an 
early date in his Munich life, seems to point 
clearly, through all the contested dates of birth, 
positions or appointments, to some earlier career 
of the composen To obtain a style at once great 
and solemn, natural and eas}% it seems ^dmoet 
indispensable that Lassus had occupied for seve- 
ral years the post to which Baini says he was' 
first appointed in 1541, had spent these years in 
writing the great cumbrous works which had- 
been the fasMon of his predecessors, and then, 
like Palestrina — whom, if he really lived at Rome 
all this time, he must have known — gradually ac- i 
quired the less artificial style, by which his Later, 
works are characterised. 

In the years 1565-66 Lassus adds 3 more 
volumes of 'Sacne Cantiones' (several numbers 



> Oeschlchte, UL 3 



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LASSUS. 

of which are scored by Conuner), and the ftrat 
•et of • Sacne lectiones, 9 ex^ropheU Job.' The 
first editions of these »U hail from Yenice, per- 
haps because Jean de Berg of Nuremberg, who 
had published the ist volume, had died in the 
meanwhile. His successor Gerlach, however, 
publishes an edition of them in 1567, as well as 
a collection of 24 Magnificats. In the hotter the 
alternate veraes only are composed — a contra- 
puntal treatment of the appointed church melo- 
<ii«« — the other verses being probably sung or 
intoned to the same mdodies in their simple form. 
The year 1568 is ftill of interest. In February 
the I>uke William marries the Prinoeas Renata 
of Lorraine ; there is a Uuge gathering of dia- 
tinguiahed guests at Munich, and music has a 
prominent place in the fortnight's festivities. 
Anoqg the works composed specially for the 
•ecasion was a *TeDeum' (^6), and three masses 
(i 6, 7, and 8 respectively), also two motets 
'Gratia sola Dei' and 'Quid trepidas, quid musa 
times ? • But here we must stop, for though it 
has a real interest to read how ' their Highnesses 
and Excellencies and the Duchess Anna attended 
by Madame Dorothea returned home greatly 
plearad with the sweet and delightful mass they 
had heard,' and to follow all the occunences of 
14 consecutive days of Orlando's life, still we 
ranst refer the curious reader to the pages of 
Masdmo Trojano, and can only stop to mention 
^lat, towards the end of the time, he was the 
life and soul of an impromptu play suggested by 
the Duke, in which he not onlv acted one of the 
principal parts, but introduced various pieces of 
moric on the stage with the aid of a band of 
picked singers. 

In the same year we have two most important 
publicatiooa : (i) ' Seleotissimffi Cantiones h 6 
et pluribos' and (3) the same ^ 5 et 4. The 
firrt book opens with a massive work in 4 move- 
ments, * Jesa nostra redemptio,' in the grand 
^oomy style of the old masters, followed by 
■hflrter and simpler pieces, such as the prayw in 
the garden of Gethsemane, Math a melodious 
prdnide on the words *In monte Oliveti oravit ad 
patnna.' followed by a nmple strain of devotional 
miuio carrying the hearer quietly and expres- 
^^ely, but not dramatically, through the Saviour's 
agflogr And resignation. The volume is not con- 
fiasd to religious music. There are some pieces 
witlt ieenlar words, such as an ode to Albert ' Quo 
pnp(BBs £acunde nepoe Atlantis,' but there are 
ate floooe coital drinking songs, and the 'Jam 
huii orto sidere,' with its and part ' Qui ponit 
a^iiam inFalemo/ is a fine specimen of a part-song 
fior two thcin singing alternately, a kind of music 
■Bib in vogue at the time, the introduction of 
vUph is said to be due to Adrian WiUaert. 
XIm other volume is confined to music ^ 5 and 
L ^ 4, «nd is {HToportioQately simple. Gommer has 
^iriirtgd 8 or 9 of the sacred numbers in score, 
aad th^ are not diffici^t either to understand or 
to ^preciate. Amo^g the secular pieces there 
n a oomic setting of tiui psalm 'Super flumina 
Babn^onis,' each letter and syllable beiqg sung 
■eparately as in a spelling Iwigo :— 
TOL. n. 



LASSUS. 



97 




Ita per fhi 



at which rate it takes two long movements to 
get through the first verse. This might well be 
a parody on the absurd way in which the older 
masters mutilated thear words. But there are 
beautiful as well as curious numbers among the 
secular part-songs in this book, and the ' Forte 
soporifera ad Baias dormivit in umbra, blandus 
Ainor etc. ' is one of the quaintest and prettiest 
songs that we have come across in the old musio 
world. In this book is also a very characteristiG^ 
though rather complicated and vocally difficult 
setting of the well-known song of Walter Mapes 
—if ^Walter Mapes* it be— 'Si bene perpendi, 
causae sunt quinque bibendi.' Dean AlcUich may 
have taken the words from this very book (for he 
had a library of Lassus' works) when he made 
his well-known translation : 

' If an be true that I dothfak, 
There are five reasom we should drink : 
Good wine, a friend, or being diy, 
Or le«t you should b© by and by. 
Or any other reason wliy.' 



In a subsequent edition of the same ' Cantiones' 
appears another portion of the same work, 
' Fertur in oonviviis,' k 4, in five movements set 
to music full of character and effective contrasts.' 
The music was so much liked that other words 
were twice set to it, once in a French edition 
which aimed at rendering the chansons 'hon- 
nestes et chrestiennes ' to the words 'Tristis 
ut Euridicen Orpheus ab orco' — though how the 
adapter succeeded in his object by the change is 
not very apparent ; and again a second time 
after his death in the edition of his works by his 
son, to the stupid words * Volo nunquam,' which 
aimed at turning it into a temperance aonfr by 
the insertion of a negative in each sentiment of 
the original. The old edition has fortunately 
survived, and the words of the last two verses, bo- 
ginning ' Mihi est propositimi,' are stUl used for 
their original purpose. These spirited words, of 
which Orlando vras evidently so fond, and to the 
quantities of which he paid such carefiil regard, 
seem to have inspired him with a marked rhythm 
and sense of accent, which is very exceptional in 
works of the time. 

In the year 1560, Adam Berg, the court pub- 
lisher at Munich, brings out ' Cantiones aliquot 
k 5,' containing 14 numbers, and a books of 
'Sacrse Cantiones,' partly new, are issued at 
Louvain. The year 1570 is more productive, 23 
new Cautiones k 6 ; 2 books of chansons con- 
taining 18 new ones; and a book of 29 madri- 
gals, published in Munich, Louvain and Veuice 
respectively; while France is represented by 
an important edition of chansons — 'Mellange 

1 Boms doobt hM lately been thrcmn on the authonhip of these 
words. 

3 In what colleotkm this long made Its Jbnt appearanee ta not 
known. 



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LASSUS. 



d8 



•d^Orlande de Laasus* — often quoted but contain- 
ing little new matter. At the close of the year, 
at the diet of Spires, the Emperor grants letters 
of nobility to Lassus.^ At the time this honour 
was conferred upon 1dm, Lassus was probably on 
his way to the court of France, where we find him 
during the greater part of the year 1571. Some 
circumstances of his stay there may be gathered 
from the * Primus liber modulorum a 5/ published 
by Adrian Le Roy, in whose house he lodged 
during the visit (Paris, August 1571). The pub- 
lisher's dedication to Charles IX. states that — 

'When Orlando di Iasbub lately entered yonrpreeenoe. 
to kias your hand, and modestly and deferentially greet 
• -r — _»-j_, . _ ._ ""^^honour 

ortoHtT 
nothing of the right royal gifta which yon have beatowea 



yonr majeety, I ntw, plainly as eyes can see, the honour 
you were conferring on music and musicians. For to saT 
nothing of the right royal gifts which yon have bestowea 
on Orluido— the look, the countenance, the words with 
which you greeted him on his arrival (and this I was not 
the only one to notice) were such, that he may truly boast 
of your having shown to few strangers presented to you 
this year, the same honour, courted and kindness you 
showed him. And even I, Adrian, your subject and'rpyal 
printer, did not fail to share with him some of that cour- 
tesy and consideration on your part For inasmuch as I 
accompanied him into your presence, (because he was 
my guest,) You. seeing me constantly by his side all the 
time we were in your court, asked me more than onoe 
about music,* etc., etc 

Bonsard, the French poet, also speaks of the 
special welcome with which the King received 
the composer. Delmotte suggests that the visit 
to Paris may have had to do with a new Academy 
of music, for the erection of which Charles had 
issued letters-patent in November 1 5 70. Several 
editions of Orlando*s former works were issued at 
Paris during his stay there with Le Roy, but the 
only new work of the year he does not design for 
his newly made French friends. He sends it 
home to his kind master Duke Albert, and thus 
addresses him (May 1871) : — * When I reached 
Paris, the city which I had so long, and so ardently 
wished to see, I determined to do nothing, untU 
T had first sent to you from this, the capital of 
France, some proof of my gratitude.* 

This book was the 'Moduli quinis vocibus.* 
which however was written at Munich before 
his departure, and only published at Paris. His 
travels naturally interrupted his composition, and 
there is nothing ready to print in the next year 
(1572) but another set of 15 German songs. 

Once again settled in Munich, Lassus is soon 
at work, Adam Berg is busy providing 'specially 
large and entirely new type,' the Dukes are fuU 
of grand ideas to bring nonour on themselves, 
and make the most of their renowned ChapeF 
master, and July 1573 sees the result in the issue^ 
of the ist volume of the ' Patrodnium Musices.* 
[See Berg, Adam.] The work was undertaken 
on the responsibility of Duke William, and a 
portrait of that handsome prince, afterwards 

1 A fscslmUe copy of this gnuit b kept In Uie Bru«eU llbranr (BIbL 
de Bourvogne. 14.4061. The part tef«rrli« to the co«t of armn U worth 
nuntlng : — ' LIneaautem lllacandlda mu argentes. qua medium scutlq. 
areata conatitult, ordlne recto contbteat trla signa muslca. aureo 
cttlurt) tlocta, quorum primum DIetU vulgo noncupatum. quod^«mo|. 
lleiidM vocis ndltium est, dextram. alterum Tero. Q durum iciUcet 
ilnlstram inios partem, tertlam autem rldellcet b moUe centrum 
dypel occupet' Deknotte, In copylns this in his book, has substituted 
the word 'becarre' fbr the sign Q. which Is curious, because the In 
terest ol the quotation centres round a symbol which appears in the 
compcser's oeat of arms, but seldom appears in his music. He gen- 
era.iT contradicted his flaU with sharps, and rt«« perso. 



LASSUS. 

known as 'William the Pious,' appears as a 
frontispiece. 

The originators of this publication appear to 
have intended to continue the series until it be- 
came a selecUon of all the best music necessary 
for the services of the church. Orlando, in the 
prefiftce to the ist volume, hints at the work 
Doing undertaken in emulation of the service 
lately rendered to the church by Philip of Spain 
in bringing out a new ^edition of the Scriptures, 
and sp^iks half apologetically of the ist volume 
(which contains only motets'), as if it scarcely 
came up to the object of the publication. 
The books might almost be called ' scores,' the 
separate parts appearing together on the two 
opposite pages. Few publications of this kind 
had as yet appeared. The music takes up a great 
deal more space than it would if printed in sepa- 
rate part-books, and on this account, as well as by 
reason of the magnificent type, the volumes hold 
less than many a smaller and less pretentious 
edition. The series stops short in 1576, and of 
the second series ( 1 589 - 1 590) Orlando contributes 
only the ist volume. With the exception of the 
*VigiliaB Mortuorum* in the 4th volume — 
whidi had already appeared in 1565 under the 
title 'Lectiones ex propheta Job,' — and some of 
the Magnificats in vol. 5, all the contents of the 
volumes appear for the first time. 

The.2nd volume * is dedicated (Jan. i, 1574) 
to75regory XIII ; and it is no doubt in return for 
this mark of respect that Orlando receives from 
the Pope on April 7 the knighthood of the Golden 
Spur. The 4th volume contains an interesting 
setting of the ' Passion ' according to St. Matthew, 
in 41 very short movements, part of the narrative 
being recited by the priest, and the character 
parts sung as trios or duets. 

In the year 1574 Lassus started on another 
journey to Paris. Whether the French King had 
invited him for a time to his court, or whether 
Lassus actually accepted a permanent position 
there, we do not know, but whatever the object 
of the journey, it was frustrated by the death of 
Charles (May 30), and Lassus hearing of this 
when he had reached Frankfort, returned at onoe 
to Munich. 

The year 1576, besides finishing the ist series 
of^ie ' Patrocinium Musices,' sees the publica- 
)f the 3rd part of the 'Teutsche lieder,' 

intaining a 2 nos., and the 'Thresor de musique,* 

collection of 103 chansons, most of which had 

m. printed in the Mellange (1570), but appear 
with new words to satisfy Hie growing 
fbr psalm-singing in France. 1577 brings 
all work of interest, a set of 24 cantiones 
(^'2), 119 being vocal duets, and the other 12 for 
indjbruments. The stvle of music is precisely the 
same in both cases, the absence of words in the 
latter 12 alone making any difference; and this 
proves, if there be any doubt on other grounds, 
that the notice frequent on title pages of this 

> Tlie 80-<aned ' Antwerp Polyglot Bible.' published In Itm-Ti at Um 
expense of Philip. I 

> In the original ediUen the Beeond mass In roL II. Is printed wttk 
Its wrong title. It should be Mlaaa super ' Scaroo di dogUa,' as tL 
appears in snbaequeut edUIons. 




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LASSUS. 

period, '^>t for viols and vojoee,' did not mean 
that the ToiceB and inBtnunents were to perform 
them together, though this they undoubtedly did 
at times, but that the music of the chansons and 
motets formed the principal repertoire of the 
instromentalists, and that they converted them 
into ' songs without words ' with the concurrence 
of the composer. What other kinds of music the 
instrumentalists at Munich performed, it does 
not come within our province to discusi^ since 
Lassus took no part in the direction of it. The 
duets having apparently found &vour, Orlando 
goes on to publish a set of trios for voices or 
mstruments, and as if this was a new and special 
idea, the first one is set to the words ' Hsbc quse 
ter triplici,' and the book dedicated to the three 
Bakes, WiUiam, Ferdinand and Ernest.. The most 
important publication of the year is *■ MisssB variis 
ooDcentibus omatse,* a set of 1 8 masses, of which 
13 are new, printed ieit Paris by Le Boy, in: score. 
During the years 1578-80 we know of no 
important pubUcations. The illness of Duke 
Albert,, and his death (Oct. 1579), are probably 
sufficicait to account for this. He had done a 
last act of kindness to Lassus in the previous 
April by gparanteeing his sailary (400 florins) 
for life. We like to think that the new set of 
•VigiliaB Mortuorum' — to the words of Job as 
befOTe — were Lassus* tribute to the memory of 
his master. They were published a year or two 
after the Duke's death as having been recently 
oompoeed. They are more beautiful than the 
esriier set, in proportion as they are simpler ; 
and BO simple are they, that in them human 
skill; seems to have beien thrust aside, as out of 



LASSUS. 



99 




ul.fl.cM • - nm ftot qoldap'po- niter - n e - 

XlA A A An A )i9tlll 



place for their purpose. Such music as this 
might Handel have had in his mind, when he 
wrote to the words ' Since by man came death.' 

Passing on to the year 1581 we find a 'Liber 
Missorum,* printed hj Gerlach, containing 4 new 



these Gbmmer has printed one on 
the tune ' La, la, Maistre Pierre. To the same 
date belongs a < Libro De Yillanelle, Moresche, 
et altre Canzoni* (k 4, 5, 8), firam Paris, con- 
taining 33 numbers. 

There is much new music ready for 158a, and 
on the 1st of January Orlando dedicates a book 
to the biBhop of Wiirtzburg, containing the 2nd 
set of * Lectiones ex libris Hiob,* already referred 
to, and 1 1 new ' motets. At the end of the book, 
and' without connexion with its other contents, a 
short tuneful setting of the curious words 

' Oaid fiiciee, fa/Am Veneris onm Teneria ant^ 
Ke Bedeaa aed eaa, ne pereaa per eaa.* 

Then again, on Feb. i, 'jampridem summft 
diligenti& compodtum,' 26 Sacres cantiones & 5 ; 
of which however we only know the last; a 
beautiful setting of the hymn to John the Bap- 
tist, 'Ut queant laxis,' Uie tenor singing the 




TFtqne-ant la • xls Bo-ton-a . . . rs fib • 



AA 




8ol-Te pol - la - tis La-bi • Is re - a • 





fg ^ — tr- 


8 - ^z^z^^^a 


r *r 11 "1 

ct« Jo • an • - DM 8*0 - • cte Jo - an - - DM. 


-fOU— 


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* These are all Iring in modern score and ready for puUleation la 
tbe FiUs Ubrarj at Brussels. 



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66oglc 



100 



LAJ3SUS. 



notes of the acale with their namei. ftnd the other 
parts taking up the remaining words of each line, 
the music very interesting as a ^)ecimen of an 
old treatment of the sciJe, though scarcely so 
old-fashioned as might be expected. The next 
month, March, brings a set of Motets {h, 6), 
'singulari authoris industrial/ for voices or in- 
Btruments. These books which follow so closely 
on each other are not collections of old work, but, 
as we learn from the title-pages, had all been 
recently oovkpoeed. The last set exists also in 
modem notation in the Brussels libnuy among 
many such scores, prepared by the "* singular in- 
dustry* of another native of Mons^ M. F^ds, 
who was appointed by the Belgian ffovemment 
to bring out a complete edition of his fellow- 
townsman's works, but was stopped by death 
from canyinff out one more of the many great 
tasks be had accomplished and was intending 
to accomplish. 

The successful adaptation of German words to 
some of Orlando^s earlier French chansons leads 
him in the following year, 1583, to write 33 
original ones to sacred and secular Grerman woi^ 

* ^ue teutsche Lieder, geistlich und weltlich* — 
Bhori pieces of great beauty in 4>part counterpoint. 
Several of them have been printed by Cknnmer. 
The most important publication of 1584 is the 

* Penitential Psalms.' This is the work we have 
already spoken of under the year 1565. 

A violent st^m occurred at Munich on the 
Thursday of the Fdte-Dieu in this year, and the 
Duke gave orders that the customary procession 
round the town from the church of St. Peter should 
be confined to the interior of the building. But 
no sooner had the head of the procession reached 
the porch of the church, and the choir was heard 
singing the first notes of Lassus* motet ' Gustate, 
videte,' than a sudden lull occurred in the stenn, 
and the ceremony was performed as usual. This 
was looked upon as a miracle, uid the peeple ef 
Munich ' in their pious enthusiasm looked upon 
Lassus as a divine being.' Afterwards, whenever 
fine weaUitf was an object, this motet was chosen. 
1585 brings a new set of madrigads k 5, and a 
book oontaixung besides motets the -'Hieremie 
prophetaB Lamentationes.* Besides these we have 
a volume of 'Cantica sacra' (34 nos.), and another 
of 'Saone cantiones* (33 nos.), both, according 
to the title-pages, recently composed. The first 
contains a setting of the ' Pater noster/ k 6, and 
an ode to Duke Ernest, Archbishop of Ck>logne, 
and the latter a 'Stabat mater* for. two 4-part 
choirs singing alternate verses. 

For some years back, all the editions bear on 
the frontispiece some testimony to the wonderful 
industry of Uie composer. 1586 seems to bring 
the first warning of declining strength. It is 
a blank as far as publications are concerned, and 
the opening of 1587 brings with it the gift from 
Duke William of a country house at Geising on 
the Anmier, probably as a place of occasional 
retirement. Then he comes back to work, and 
in gratitude, no doubt, for better health, on 
April 15 dedicates 23 new madrigals to the 
court physician. Dr. Meriuann. In August 1^ new 



LASSUa 

volume of the'PatrooiniumMusioes'appears, con- 
taining 13 magnificats. Two masses, a ' Locutui 
Sum' an4 'B^tus qui intelligit,* bear the same 
date. Towards the dose of the year Orlando it 
begging for rest tram his arduous duties ss 
chapel-master. Portions of the Duke's decree in 
answer to this request are interesting. 

'The good and loyal lervioM of our well-beloved snd 
foithAiI serrant Orland de Lmsob, .... lead en to 
show our favonr and gratitnde to him, by allowing hii 
honourable retirement from his duties aa mawter of our 
ohMtel, seeinff that such duties are too onerous for him, 
and we permit bim to pass some portion of eadi year at 

Geising with his &mily In consideration of this his 

appointments will be redneed 200 florins annually 

But, <m the other hand, we appoint his son Ferdinand ss 
a member of our chapel at a salary of 200 florins, and at 
the same time to his other son, Buoolph, who has recently 
humbly asked our permission to marry, we grant his re- 
quest and confer upon him the place of organist with a 
salary of 200 florins, on condition that he undertake the 
education in singing and composition of the young gen- 
tlemen of the oboir.^ 

The composer does not seem to have been satis- 
fied with tlus arrangement, and again returns to 
his post. In 1588, in conjunction with his son 
Ruddph, he brings out 50 'Teutsche Psalmen.* 
Commer prints the 25 nos. contributed by Or- 
lando— ^md very beautiful and interesting they 
ftre — 3 part hymns, the melody occuring, aooording 
to his ^cy, in either of the 3 parts. 

The volume of the ' Patrodnium Musices* for 
1598 contains 6 masses, the last number being 
the * Missa pro defrmctis,' which we may consider 
the last important publication of his life. Its 
lovely opening is an inspiration which finds no 
parallel in any other of his compositions that we 
have seen. As his end approaches, he has here 




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LASsna 

ottf iA thow glim)p8e8 into tb» conmig: world of 
nosie which Amlm>8 (Gesohidite, fiu 356) traoes 
in othen of his works. It is howeTor only in 
the first page or two that we find the maeic so 
astonishingly near oar own idea of the opening 
of a Reqnidm. 

And here his lifbTs work seems to end ; in the 
nett ydnme of the 'Patrocinimn Musices' we find 
ofhfir namee^azkd nothing bears Orlando's but 12 
Genmui part-songs. Then an utter blank. The 
firaah effort to work had completely prostrated 
him, but death did not come at once to his 
retiet His wife Begina finds him one day so 
in that he £uls to recognise her. The Princess 
Mauniliana sends Dr. Mermann, at once, and 
tWe is a temporary recovery, but the mind is 
fitfll at fikult. 'Cheerful and happy no longer/ 
says Begina, 'he has become gloomy and sp^tks 
oidy of death.' Promises of the Duke*s further 
boimty have no effisct upon his spirits. He even 
writes to his patron, complaining that he has never 
carried out his father Albert's intentions towards 
him, and it needs all that Begina and the Prinr 
cesB MaxmiHana can do to soften the effeci of 
this act. He died at Munich in June 1594. 
This date is taken firom a letter written after- 
wards bjr his wife. The two publications * La- 
grime di S. Pietro,* signed May 34, 1594, and 
'Cantiones Saone' (Feast of S. Michael, 1594), 
may imply that his death did not take place 
tQl 1595, and that he had so far temporarily 
recorded as to take an interest in the publication 
of some old works, or perhaps even to write new 
oxMs ; but it is natural to prefer the date given by 
Mi wife, in which case we must suppose these 
works to have been edited by other hands. He 
was buried in the cemetery of the Franciscans 
at Munich. When the monastery was destroyed, 
the monument which had been erected over his 
grave was removed, and kept in the possession of 
a private fiunily. It was set up in the present 
century in the garden of the 'Academic des 
Beaux Arts,* at Munich. Many more details of 
all these things are given by Ddmotte, to whom 
we refer the reader. 

After Orlando's death his sons edited many of 
his works. Thus Budolph the organist edited 
'Proi^etse Sibyllarum (k 4) chromatico more ' in 
1600, and Ferdinand the chapel-master printed 
4 of his own Magnificats with 5 of his mther's 
in 1602. In 1 604 th^ together issued ' Magnum 
opoi musioum O. de Lasso,' by which work they 
Iwve immortalised themselves, preserviufi^ in 6 
Toloroes of a moderate size, most clearly and 
beautifully printed, no less than 516 sacred and 
aecaUr motets. The addition of bars is all that 
ii required to give the work a completely modem 
form. Dehn is said to have transcribed fche 
whole of it. Ferdinand, the elder brother, died 
ia 1609 at about 50 years of age, leaving several 
children, one of whom, also called Ferdinand, 
was sent to Italy for his musical education, and 
was afterwards Chapel-master to duke Maxi- 
Boiliux I. Budolph, after his brother's death, 
vfited *<> MiasB poethonue O. di Lasso' (161 o) 
ud 100 MagnifinOi (i6i9}> ^'^'^ ^ ^Imbi 




This 



hrttiefto uiipublished. Th»4 
Budolph were all eminfirft con _ 
that when the King of Swede^ t 
phus, entered Mundoh in 1632, be^v 
at hiis house and ordered compositlQn^ 

We have mentioned the principal work 
lished by Lassus in hid lifetima or edited 
wards by his sons. Counted in separate nu 
Eitner^ brings theii^ total to ovei 1300. 
does not include mmy detached pieces published 
in collections of muslo by various compoperv. 
Again, the unpublished MSS. are very numerond. 
When all these are counted, theaaarea and secular 
works are said to amount to about 1600 and 800 
respectively, the chief items being 51 masses, 
about 1200 sacred motets and cantiones, 370 
chansons, and over 230 madrigals. Of such 
works as haw appeared in modem notation by 
the laboura of Oommep, ProskO) Dehn, Van 
Maldeghem, etc., we. may say roughly that they 
represent about an eighth, pari of the composer's 
complete works^ 

Lassus was the last great If etherland master. 
His native land for aoo years had been aa 

E 'eminent in. music as Gbnnany has been in 
ter times. Italy, a seeond home to every great 
Belgian musknan since the time of Dufay, was 
at length to receive the Mwaird fbr her hospitality, 
and to produce a oomposer to compete with the 
proudest of them. Josquin and Orlando were 
to find their equal itt the Italian pupil of their 
countiyman Gk)udim«L 

Paleetrina is often said to have overturned the 
whole fabric of existing church music in a few 
days by writing some simple masses for Pope 
Marcellus. For the truth of this story we refer 
the reader to the article on Palestrina. It 
serves- well enough as a legend to illustrate 
the reformation which music had been under- 
going since Josquin's time. The simpler church 
music did not indeed take the place of the older 
and more elaborate forms of the Josquin period 
at a few strokes of Palestrina's pen. Even m the 
writings of Josquin himself the art can be seen 
gradually clearing itself from meaningless and 
grotesque diificulties ; and there were plenty of 
good composers, two very great onee,Grombert and 
Clement, coming between Josquin and Lassus or 
Palestrina. The simplicity of Lassus' church 
music as early as 1565 shows that the story of 
the causes of Palestrina's revolution must not be 
accepted too literally. The Belgian brought up in 
Italy, and the Italian pupil of a Belgian, were by no 
means so widely separated as their too eager friends 
sometimes try to prove them. Bide by side in 
art, they laboured alike to carry on the work of 
the great Josquin, and Ynake the mighty contra- 
puntal means at their disposal more and more 
subservient to expressional beauty. It seems 
that the simple forms of expression which Lassus 
and Palestrina were so often content to use, 
owed something to the influence of secular music, 
even though the composers may not have been 
conscious of drawing curectly from such a source. 

> VenafctaniM cl«r gadnuictoii Wtita too O. de Imms (TmnivelD. 
ISM^ 



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102 



/iiASSUS, 



• I J&^Jl<B( 's^foB^r infl^ienoe; acting on the two 

• •*iBi£ei&iA is't* i)e3(»ifiSd;«r« think, in the history 

of the religious movements of the time. Palestrina 
lived in Rome at a time when zealous Catholics 
were engaged in vigorous internal reforms as 
a defence against the march of Protestantism; 
Lassus too was at a court the first in Europe to 
throw in its lot with this counter-reformation. 
The music of the two composers breathes a 
reality of conviction and an earnestness which is 
made necessary by the soul-stirring spirit of the 
time. To Lassus, it is said, strong offers were 
made by the court of Saxony to induce him to 
come over to the work of the Protestant Church. 
Fortunately for the -art he remained true to his 
convictions, and was spared from being ^)oilt, as 
many of his fellow-oountiymen were, by devoting 
themselves to those slender forms of composition 
which were thought suitable to the reformed 
religion. 

l4Stfsus himself saw no violent break separating 
his music from that of his predecessors, as we 
may infer from the list of composers whose works 
were performed in ^e Munich chapel. In that 
list the name of Josquin appears in capital 
letters, for it meant then what the name of Bach 
means now ; and Lassus, with his softer and more 
modem grace, lookod up with reverence and 
imitated, as well as his own individuality would 
allow him, the unbending beauty of the glorious 
old contrapuntist in the same way as Mendelssohn 
in later times looked up to and longed to imitate 
the Cantor of the Thomas-schule. 

Orlando spent his life in Germany, then by no 
means the most musical country or the one most 
likely to keep his memory alive. Palestrina, 
whose life of suffering and poverty contrasts 
stronglv with Orlando's affluence and position, 
had at least the good fortune to plant his works 
in the very spot where, if they took root at all, 
time would make the least ravages on them. The 
name and works of Palestrina have never ceased 
to live in the Eternal City ; and while the name of 
Lassus is little known among musical amateurs, 
every one is acquainted wiUi the works of his 
contemporary. How much is really known of 
Palestrina's music we do not venture to question, 
but the more the better for Lassus. As soon as 
the world reallv becomes familiar with the 
music of the Italian, the next step will lead to 
the equally interesting and beautiful works of 
the Netherlander. Then by degrees we may 
hope for glimpses into that still more remote 
period when the art of counterpoint, in the hands 
of Josquin, first b^;an to have a living infiuence 
_jm the souls of men. [J. B. S.-B.] 

LAST JUDGMENT, THE. The English 
version, by Prof. Taylor, of Spohr's oratorio 
'Die letzten Dinge.* Produced at Norwich Fes- 
tival Sept. 24, 1830. Given by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, July 11, 1838, also July 33, 
1847, Spohr conducting. [G.] 

LATROBE, Rev. Christian Ignatius, eldest 
son of Rev. Benjamin Latrobe, superintendent 
of the congregations of the United (Moravian) 
Brethren in England, was bom at Fulnec, Leeds, 



LATROBE. 

Yorkshire, Feb. la, 1758. In 1771 he went to 
the college of the United Brethren at Niesky, 
Upper Lusatia, returned to England in 1784, 
took orders in the same church, became secretaiy 
to the Society for the Furtherance of the GrospeC 
and in 1795 was appointed secretaiy to the 
Unity of the Brethren in England. Although 
Latrobe never followed music as a profession he 
cultivated it assiduously from an eariy age. His 
earlier compositions were chiefly instrumental; 
three of his sonatas, having met with the ap- 
proval of Haydn, were pubfished and dedicated 
to him. His other published oompositions in- 
clude Lord Roscommon's translation of the 'Dies 
I^/ 1^799; 'The Dawn of Gloiry.' 1803; Anthem 
for the Jubilee of George III., 1809 ; Anthems, 
by various composers, 181 1 ; Original Anthems, 
1823; 'Te Deum, performed in York Cathedral'; 
* Miserere, Ps. .51 * ; and * Six Airs on serious 
subjects, words by Cowper and Hannah More.' 
He edited the first English edition of the Mora- 
vian Hjrmn Tunes. But his most important 
publication was his * Selection of Sacred Music 
from the works of the most eminent composers 
of Germany and Italy,' 6 vols. 1806-25, through 
the medium of which many fine modem compo- 
sitions were first introduced to the notice of the 
British public. He died at Fairfield, near Liver- 
pool, May 6, 1836. 

Rev. John Antes Latrobe, M.A., his son, 
bom ii^ London in 1791, became organist at 
Liverpool, and was composer of several anthems. 
He took orders in the Church of England, and 
was incumbent of St. Thomas's, Kendal, and hon- 
orary canon of Carlisle. He was author of * The 
Music of the Church xx>nBidered in its various 
branches, Congregational and Choral,' London, 
1 83 1. He died at Gloucester Nov. 19, 1878. 

The following are the contents of Latrobe's 
valuable Selection, arranged alphabetically. The 
pieces are all in vocal score, with compressed ac- 
companiments ; some to the original text, some 
to translated words. 



Aboc Stabat Kater. >T. from 
St&bftt. I 

Albertl.D. Salve Bedemptor, 0.— 
Salve. 
Do. O God, be not far. A.— Do. 
Do. O Jesu. Balvator! C— Do. 
Astorga. O quam tristia, T.— 8ta- 
bat. 
Da Quls est homo, D.— Da 
Do. Blessed (be the power, CL— 

Do. 
Da Fae me penit«ntam, D.- 

Do. 
Da Becordare. A.— Da 
Da Cum Mttam. C— Da 
Baoh. C. P. E. O come, let as 
worahip, 0.— Anthem. 
Da O Lord, hide not. A.—' Is- 
raelites.' 
Da He opened the rook, C— Da 
Bananl. Sanctas 0.— Requiem. 

Do. Becordare, 0. A 8.~Da 
Boocberini. Fac ut portem. A.— 
Stabat. 
Do. BUbat Mater. A.-Da 
Da B«cordare, T.— Do. 
Do. Infammatu!^ A.— Do. 
Borri, R Laadamus Te. A.— Mass. 
Da Domlne.T.— Da 



Boril, B. QaoDlam, T. from Mass. 

Da ChrUtaC— Da 
Brassettl. Praise the Lord, a— 

Confitebor. 
Cafaro, P. BUbat Mater, D.AC.— 

BUbat. 
Caldara. Benedlctua, T.— Mass. 
Da Et Incamatus, A.— Da 
Da Agnus, D.— Da 
Da Et Incarnatus. C— Mass. 
Do. Cruciflxus, D.— Da 
Da Et resurrexlt. C— Da 
Do. Agnus, C— Da 
Clampl, F. Omj God. A.-Mtae- 
rere. 
Da Ecca enim. D.— Da 
Da Cor muudum. D.— Da 
DanzL Salve Bedemptor, C— Ealv«. 

Da Agnus Dei, O.—Masa. 
Durante. 1 will call, A. — La- 
menUtia 
Da O remember, 0.— Do. 
Da Omnis populua, 0.— Service 

for Pawlon Week. 
Da Quaerens me. D.— Requiem 
Da Agnus, C— Litany. 
Fifllcl. Or che b nate. D.— Oratorio. 
OaluppL Baero horrore, D.— Ora- 
toria 



* A.-Aria: D.-Dnet: T.-Tenetto; Q.-^oartet; Qa.-Qalntet i 
C.-Coro: Gh.-Cborale; M.-Moiet; Ot-Offertorium: 8.-«Ua 



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LATROBK 



LAtJDA STON. 



103 



Qaid nun miser. 0. 
Iron Boioieoi. 
Cb^ Dv profuiuUs» O.-'Dc Pro* 

D.-EO- 



Do. Pie Jem. C— Do. 
GfMBk TeDeiim,C.^^eDeam. 
Da T0 sleriosas C-Do. 
Do. T« B«x glorlM, C— Da 
Do. To ad Ifberandam, A.'Do. 
Dft, To od dexteram. C—Do. 
Dok Te ergo qumamus, D.— Do. 
Do. ItreccC— Do. 
Do. DIrntre Domlue, A.'Do. 
Do. OZk}o.nuu-k.C.— TodJesu. 
Da Be wms despl««d. O.—Do. 
Da Tboa hast brought me, C.- 

Do. 
Do, eii«toJehonih,a— Do. 
Da Aatooish'd Seraphim. R.— 

Do. 
IK Woep. Israel. Oh.— Da 
Da Behold a« here. a-Da 
Da BehoM the Lamb of God. 



Da Be was desplMd. 0.— Da 
Do. God. my stmi«th, D.— Da 
Da Bl«« the Lord. A.-Da 
Da Let a* run. C— Da 
Ito. In wncs of J07. Ch.— Da 
Da Bow down. A-— Da 
HlMr. Against thee only, C- 

Xberere. 
Hasae. Inapiro O Dens. C— Au- 
gust loa 
Da Laodate oqbII Palrem. C- 

Da 
Da Utl ftirentfbus. A.— Da 
Da Jem mc« pax. D.— Magda- 

koa. 
Da O portenta. A.— Da 
Da Jlea tormenta. A.— Do. 
Da Adteclamamu9,A.— Salve. 
Da ghre thanks. C— Caduta. 
Da Floche solvo. A.— Da 
Da Blow the sacred trumpet. 

CL-Da 

Da Laoda.Qii. AC— Pellegrini. 
Da Vtra IbntP, A.— Do. 
Da D'Aspri legati. A. -Da 
Di Benti U nwr. A.-Da 
Da Pellegrino e I'uomo.O.— Da 
Da Defende populum, C— Olu- 

•epperic. 
Da Die qiueso, A-— Da 
Da Plebes inepie coosUJa, a— 

Da 
Da Agnus Del. D.—Lltanj. 
Da Lord, save thy people, A 

-Depositiono. 
Da Bex tr emen djB. a * A.— 



Da Miserere mel Deus. C— 

MlKrere. 

Hudn. J. Tu dl grazta. C- 



Da Padre eelesto. —Da 

Da Krrle. C.-Ma»sNaL hi W. 

Da Gk>rla.C.— Da 

Da Et lucamatus. Oj— Da 

Da Baoctus. C— Da 

Da Qui tollls. A. A C.-1 

Xa n. in C. 
Da Gforia. C-Mass Ka HI. In D. 
Da It Incamatos. A. A C.— Da 
Da Qooniam. A.— If ass Na V. 
Da Cum aancta CL— Da 
Da It Incamatns. & A D.— Da 
Da Agnus. A.— Da 
Da Kyrie. C -Mass NaVH. In O. 
Da It tneamatus.aAQn.-Da 
Da Banettts. C— Da 
Da Benedictus, Q.-DQ. 
Da Saoetos. C-Masft NaTUI. 

Da Benedlctui, A.— Da 
Da Agnus Dei. C.— Da 
Da Krrie.C.-MaasNaXn. 
Da Btabat Mater. C-Stabat. 
Da ThUt sttum. A.-Da 
Da QdI est homa O.-Da 
Da Pro peecatls. A.— Da 
Da Flammfai orcl. A.— Da 
Da Fac me erucc. A.— Da 
Da Quaodo corpus, a— Da 
Da BatT«Bc4emptor.a-fialT«. 
Da Ptou d'ao lafclkc. a- 
TohtaL 



Haydn. J. Koo pan&lf A. (hMB 

Tobla. 
Do. O di to nostre, 0.— Da 
Da My soul shall cry. Q,-Mo- 

tetta 
Hvydn. M. Lord, grant us thy. Ch.- 

8enrke for Country Church. 
Da O fUU of all, Ch.-Da 
Da WhUe conscious, Ch.— Da 
Da Blest Jesus, gracious, Ch.— 

Da 
X>a O Love, all lore excelling. 

Ch.-Da 
Da While with ber flagrant, 

Ch.-Do. 
Da Worship, honour, Ch.— Da 
Da TenebrsB, G.— Tenebrm, 
Da Sanctus, C— Bequiem. 
Da Agnus. C— Da 
Da Oro supplejc, C— Da 
Do. Lauda 8ion. Q.— Litany. 
HnmmeL Holy. Holy. 0.-Masa 
JomellL Rex tremendw. D.— Be- 

qnlem. 
Da Kyrie. D.-3la«s. 
Da Agnus, D.— Da 
Lea Dal nuvoloao monte. A.— 

axiena. 
Da Dal tuo sogllo. D.— Da 
Da Christus fiaotns est. 6w— 

Verse. 
Da O Jesu, A.— Salre. 
LottL Qui tollls. a-Masa. 
Da Gloria. C-Da 
Da Et in terra. Qu.— Da 
Da Miserere mel, C— Miserere. 
Marcella Bave, O sate, D. — 

Psalms. 
MorarL Agnus Del, T.— Mass. 
Moriari. Cum sancta C— Da 
Mozaru Beoordare. Q.— Requiem. 
Da Sanctuv C.-Mass Na L 
Da Benedictus, Q.— Da 
Do. Agnus. A.— Do. 
Do. Gloria. C.-Mass Ka H 
Da Benedictus, Q.—lIassNalIL 
Do. Agnus. C— Da 
Da Agnus. D.— Mass Na VL 
Da Bless the Lord (Kyrie), D. 

-MassNaX. 
Do. Benedictus. A. A GL— Da 
Da Agnus. C.— Da 
Da Benedictus, Q.— Mass Na XI. 
Da O God, when thou i4>pear- 

est, C— Motetto I. XL 
Da Ne pulrls, C— Da 
Do. Kyrie, D.— Litany I. 
Da Jesu Domine, A.— Da 
Da Jesu Christe.D.— Litany n. 
Da Verbum cara C— Da 
Da Enter into his gates. A.— Da 
Da Kyrie, C— Da 
Da Agnus. D.— Da 
Da Tho' by threatening storms. 

A.-I>aTidda 
Kaumann. ChristcT.— MassNaL 
Da Kyrie, a— Da 
Da Kt incamatus. D.— Da 
Da Agnus*. D.— Da 
Da Quoolam. D.— Mass Na II. 
Da Cum sancto, C— Da 
Da Benedictus, D. A C— Da 
Da Agnus. C.— Da 
Da Qui tollls. GL-Mass Nam. 
Da Et Incamatus. A.— Da 
Da Baoctus, C— Da 
Da Etlncamatus, A.— MaasNa 

rv. 

Da Agnus.D.AC— Da 

Da Lauda Slon, C — Offerto- 
rinm. 

Da Le porte a noL Q,— Pelle- 
grini. 

Da O ye kindreds, a— Psalm 
xctI. 
Negri Qui sedes. A.— Mara. 
Neukomm. Bex tremendn, C— 
Bequiem. 

Da Banctus, D.— Da 
P^rgoIesL Kyrie. D.-Grand Mass 

Da Gloria. D.— Da 

Da Landamus. D.— Da 

Da Gratlas, C.-Da 

Da Domine. D.— Da 

Do. Qui tolUs. C.-Da 

Da Qnonlam. A.— Da 

Da Cum Bancta C— Da 

Da Hear my prayer. D.—BaWe. 

Da Ad te susplramus, 0.— Da 



Pergoletf. O Jesa Salvator. D. Salratore. RecevItPutor.Cfretti 
Besponsoria 
Da In monte OllTeta C— Da 
Bartl. Miserere. D.-Miserere. 

Da Amrllus, T.— Da 
BerinL O fsllaces, A.-Motetta 

Da Bom In medio. A.— Da 
filroli. Praise the Lord. D.-MI»- 

erere. 
Buldell. Orueiflxns, D.— Mass. 
Telemann. Mercy. Judgment, A. 

— Orat. Pasalon. 
TOrck. Hearenly Branch. D. - 

Chrlstm. Oratoria 
Vogler. Agnus Del, C— Bequlrm. 
Winter. O quam tristls. C. A Q.— 
Btabat Mater. 
Da Quando corpus, 0.— Da 
Da Quid sum miser. A.— Re- 
quiem. 
Wolf. Balnta and Angels. C. — 
Funeral Anthem. 
Da The Prince of Life, D.— 



fromSftlTe. 
Da Aspprges. C— Mberere L 
Da Bedde mlhi. D.-Da 
Da Domine labia. A.— Da IL 
Da Quonlam si voIuIssm. 0.~ 

Da 
Da Baorlllclum Deo. T.— Do. 
RIccL Recordare. A.--Dles Irak 
Bighinl. Qui tollls, C— Mass. 
Da Benedictus. Q.— Do. 
Da O Lord, who shall not, Q. 
—Gems. lib. 
Bolle. In thee, O Lord. 0.— Death' 
ofAbd. 
Da Out of the deep. A.— Da 
Do. Great God. to Thee, C— 

Thirza. 
Da O Lord, most holy. D.— Do. 
Babbatini. God be merclftil, T. A 
C— Dixit Dominos. 
Da In my distress. D.— Da 
Do. Dominus a dextris. A.— Do. 
Bala. Qui tollls. A.-Ma<is. 
Balratore. Tenebne, a— Teaebraok N. N. Tantum erga D.— Chorale. 

[W.H.H.] 
LAUB, Ferdinand, one of the most re- 
markable violin-players of our day, was bom 
Jan. 19, 1832, at Prague, where his £ftther was 
a musician. His talent shewed itself very early ; 
at six he mastered Variations by De Beriot, 
and at nine performed regularly in public. At 
eleven he attracted the notice of Berlioz and 
Ernst, and shortly after was taken up by the 
Grand Duke Stephen, and by him sent to Vienna 
in 1847. After this he visited Paris, and, in 
1 85 1, London, where he played at the Musical 
Union, and, in 1853 succeeded Joachim at Wei- 
mar. Two years later wo find him at Berlin as 
Kammervirtuos and Concertmeister of the Court 
band, and leader of quartet-concerts of his own. 
At length, after considerable wandering, he 
settled at Moscow in z866 as head Professor 
of the Violin in the Conservatorium, and first 
violin at the Musikgesellschaft, with great 
liberty of action. But Russia did not agree 
with him, and the state of his health compelled 
him in 1874 ^ ^^^ ^^ baths at Elarlsbad. 
The benefit however was but temporary, and on 
March 17, 1875, he died of a disordered liver, at 
Gries, nea^ Botzen, in the TyroL Laub was cer- 
tainly one of the greatest violin- virtuoBos of recent 
times. He had a fine and very powerful tone 
and a brilliant technique, and played with much 
feeling and passion. His repertoire was very 
large, comprising all the important dassioal works 
and a great many modem compositions. His fre- 
quent performances of Joachim's Hungarian Con- 
certo deserve special mention. He had also much 
success as a quartet-player, but his style, espe- 
cially in latter years, has not unjustly been re- 
proached with mannerism and a tendency to 
exaggeration. [P. D.] 

LAUDA SION. The name of a Sequence, 
sung, at High Mass, on the Feast of Corpus 
Christi, between the Gradual — Oculi omnium — 
and the Gospel for the Day. [See Seqdentia.] 

The text of the Lauda Sion, written, about 
the year 1 261, by S. Thomas Aquinas, has always 
been regarded as a masterpiece of mediaeval 
scholarship; and differs, in at least one very 
important point, fipom the four other Sequences 
still retained in use by the Roman Church. Not 
only does the rhythmic swing of its rhymed 



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104 



LAUDA SIOl^. 



Trochaic Dimeters — strengthened by the intro- 
duction of a lai^ proportion of Spondees — stamp 
it, at once, with the character of a glorious 
Hymn of Praiae ; but it serves, also, as a vehicle 
for the exposition of some of the most abstruse 
problems of dogmatic Thec^ogy, which are every' 
where defined with an exactness as close as that 
shown in the statements of the * At ha nas i an 
Creed.* And, strange to say, some of the verses 
which exhibit this lucidity of definition in the 
most marked degree, are precisely those in 
which ihe swing of the metre seems least en- 
cumbered by extianeoQs trammels. [See Mbtbe ; 
Pbosb.] 

This jubilant swhig is finely brought out by 
the Plidn Chaunt to which the Sequence is 
adapted — a fiery Melody, in Modes Vll and 
VIII combined, exhibiting considerable variety 
of treatment and expression, and, In all proba- 
bility, ooeeval with the text c^ the Sequence 
itself. Several readings of this Melody are ex- 
tant, all agreeing in general contour, though 
differing in a few unimportant details. ^H^ 
purest version is probably that revised by the 
editors of the new Ratisbon Gradual; though 
the Mechlin form contains some passages which 
are, at leant, entitled to careful consideration, 
more especially those in which the necessity for 
the introduction of a B b is avoided by a ligature 
extending to C. 




pM-io-rem. 


In hjiniiU et 


OU-tl.CilL iMdk 

saf . 11 . diL Qaem In 




1 ^ <g f^«< ^1 









the-mftspe-cl • a • 



- - lis, Fa-nbTl-Tutet Tl-te-li^ 
• IB, TuiiM9 fratnuDdu>o-de-n«, 




- dl - e pio-po - nl - tur. 

- turn noQ EBB-bl - gi - tur. 



The entire Melody is divided, like the portion 
we have selected as our example, into short 
strains, consisting of three, or more lines, accord- 
ing to the requirements of the metre : and the 
whole concludes with an Amen, AUeluia, of un- 
usual beauty. 

The poetry of the Lauda Sion has been many 
times subjected to polyphonic treatment of a very 
high order. Palestrina has left us two settings 
of the Sequence for eight voices, arranged in a 
double Choir, and a shorter one for four. The 
first, and best known, was printed, in 1575, by 
Alex. Gardanus, in the Third Book of Motets for 
5, bf and 8 Voices ; and is one of the earliest 
examples of that peculiar combination of two 
Choirs, consisting of unequally balanced Voices, 
which Palestrina has made so justly famous — the 
Voices selected being, in this case, Cantus I Lud 



LAtTBA SlON. 

n, AltuB, an^ Bassus, in the first Choir, and 
AltuB, Tenor I and II, and Bassus, in the second. 
Its s^le is, in many respects, analogous to that 
of the celebrated Stubat Mater. As in that giest 
work, several of the verses— from Bone PatUfr, 
to In terra vwenHum, inclusive — are written in 
IViple MeasUto. But — as may be seen from the 
following example — the Lauda Sion is idso re- 
noarkable iot its close adherence, as a general 
rule, to the Plain Chaunt Mdody. 




A reprint of this beautiful composition will be 
found in vol. iii. <»f the complete editicm of 
Palestrina's works now in course of publication 
by Messrs. Breitkopf 8c Hartel of Leipzig. The 
other 8-part setting, in Triple Measure uurough- 
out, hitherto known only through the medium 
of a MS. in the Library of the CoUegio Romano, 
at Rome, has been recently published in voL viL 
of the same series. 

Mendelssohn has also chosen the text of the 
Lauda Sion as the framework of a delightful 
Cantata, for four Solo Voices, Chorus, and 
Orchestra, composed in 1846, and first performed, 
in that year, at Li^re, on the Feast of Corpus 
Christi (June 11). lliough less elaborate in 
form than the 'Lobgesang* and some of its 
fellow cantatas, this fine production is strikingly 
characteristic of its author's best style. It would 
be difficult to find a happier example of his 
treatment of the Arioso than that exhibited in 
Caro 6ibu8, In Sit laut plena every phrase 
dictated by the Soprano solo is immeoiately 
repeated in chorus, in a way whidi forcibly 



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LAUDA StON. 

reminds ns of ihe well-known moyement, * The 
^emy dumieih/ from * Hear my prayer.' In Docti 
ioaiSf a fragment of the Plain Chaunt is treated 
after the manner of a Chorale, — but changed 
from the Eighth into the Tenth Mode, and, there- 
fof^ kiTest^ ¥nth a totally new character. In 
Swi^ uRitB the dramatic element is introduced, 
with almost startling effect : and the whole con- 
elodes with a noble Chorus, adapted to the words 
Bone Potior, and the concluding yersee of the 
Hymn. The student will find it interesting to 
compare th» essentially modem adaptation of 
the text with the purely ecclesiastical treatment 
adopted by Palestrina. [W. S. R.] 

LAUM SPIRITUALI. A name given to 
certain collections of Devotional Music, compiled 
for the use of the ' Laudisti ' — a Religious Con- 
fraternity, instituted, at Florence, 'in the year 
1310, and afterwards held in great estimation by 
S. Charles Borromeo, and S. Philip Neri. 

The poetiy of the 'Laudi' — some ancient 
specimens of which are attributed, by Crescen- 
tmi, to S. Francis of Assisi — was originally 
vritt^ entirely in Italian, and bears no trace of 
daaaical derivation. The music to which it is 
adapted — inclining rather to the character of the 
Sacred Caftzonet, than to that of the regular 
Hymn — was, at first, unisonous, and extremely 
ample ; though, after a time, the Laudisti culti- 
vated part singing with extraordinary success. 

A highly interesting MS. volume, once be- 
Vmgbg to a company of ' Laudisti/ enrolled, in 
the year 1336, at the Chiesa d*Ogni Santi, at 
Florence, is now preserved in the Magliabeochi 
library : and, firom this. Dr. Bumey (Hist. ii. 328) 
quotes a very beautiful example — ' Alia Trinitk 
beata' — whidi, of late years, has become popular 
in Uiis country, though, in all the English edi- 
tions we have seen, the melody is sadly muti- 
ISpted, and strikingly inferior in character to the 
original reading. The earliest printed collection 
is dated 1485. This, however, would seem to 
have been either unknown to, or unrecognised 
by, the disciples of S. PhiHp Neri : for, in 1565, 
Oovannl Animaccia, who acted as his Maestro 
diCapella, published a volume entitled ' II primo 
Hbio delle Laudi,* followed by a ' Secondo libro/ 
of more advanced character, in 1570. These 
Sacred Songs, which formed the germ of the per- 
inrnances afterwards called Omtorios, became 
so popular among the youths who flocked to 
S. Philip for instruction, that, in 1588 — seventeen 
yean after the death of the saintly Animuccia 
—P. Soto thought it desirable to edit a third 
Tolmne, containing unacknowledged works, for 
three and four Voices, by some of the greatest 
Composers of the age. In 1 589, the same zealous 
editor published an amended reprint of the three 
rdmnes, consolidated into one; succeeded, in 
'59if by a fourth volume, dedicated to the 
Duchessad'Aquasparta. Serafino Razzi published 
a large collection, in 160S, and many others 
followed — ^fur, at this period, almost every largH 
^wn, and even many an important parish, had 
it« own Company of Laudisti, who sang the 
poetry of Lorenzo de* Medici, Poliziano, Puld, 



LAUTERBACir. 



105 



Bembo, Ludovioo Martelli, GiambeUari, Filicaia, 
and other celebrated writers, with undiminished 
interest, though, as time progressed, the charac- 
ter of the music sensibly deteriorated. 

In the year 1 770, Dr. Bumey heard theCompany 
of Laudisti attached to the Church of S. Maria 
Maddalena de* Pazsi, in Florence, sin^ with ex- 
cellent effect, in some street Processions, as well 
as in some of the Churches, f^m a book then 
just published for their use : and, however true 
it may be that part-singing in Italy is not what 
it was some centuries ago, representatives of 
the Confraternity are said to he still in exist- 
ence, striving to do their best in a more modem 
style. [W.S.R.] 

LAUDS (Lat. Latides), The name given to 
that division of the Canonical Hours which 
immediately follows Matins. 

The Office of Lauds opens, according to the 
Ritual of tlie Western Church, with the series of 
Vendcles and Responses beginning, 'Deus in 
adjutorium meum intende,* followed by seven 
Psalms and A Canticle, sung, in five (Uvisions, 
with five proper Antiphons. These are succeeded 
by the 'Capitulum' (or 'Little Chapter'); the 
Hymn for the Day, with its proper Yersicle and 
Response; and the 'Benedictus, which, with its 
Antiphon, is sung while the Officiating Priest 
and his Ministers are engaged in incensing the 
Altar. The Service then concludes with the 
Collect, or Collects, for the Day ; the Commemo- 
rations (as at Vespers); and the 'Antiphon of 
the Blessed Virgin proper for the Season. 

On certain Festivals, the Antiphons, at Lauds, 
are doubled, as at Matins : and, like Matins, the 
Office is usually sung *by anticipation.' The 
Plain Chaunt Music adapted to it will be found 
in the ' Antiphonarium Romanum," and the 
' Directorium Chori.' [See Matins ; Antiphon.] 

In the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI, 
the name of ' Mattins* is given to the combined 
Offices of Matins, and Lauds. [W. S. R.] 

LAUTERBACH, Johann Chbistoph, dis- 
tinguished violinist, was bom July 34, 1832, at 
Cuhnbach in Bavaria. His education he re- 
ceived at the school and gynmasium of Wiirz- 
burg. where he also learnt music from Bratsch 
and Prof. Frohlich. In 1850 he entered the 
Conservatoire at Brussels as pupil of De Beriot 
and F^tis, in 1851 received the gold medal, 
and during L^nard's absence took his place as 
Professor of the Violin. In 1853 he became 
Concertmeister and Professor of the Violin at 
the Conservatorium of Munich ;*in i860, on the 
death of Lipinski, was appointed second Con- 
certmeister of the royal band at Dresden, and in 
1873 succeeded to lie first place. Since 1861 
he has also held the post of principal teacher of 
the violin in the Conservatorium of Dresden, 
with great and increasing renown. He has tra- 
velled much and always with success. He spent 
the seasons of 1864 and 65 in England, appear- 
ing at the Philharmonic on May 2 of the 
former, and May 15 of the latter year, and 

E laying also at the Musical Union. In Paris 
e played at the last concert at the Tuileries 



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100 



LAUTteEBACH. 



before the war ; and received from the Emperor 
Napoleon a gold snuff-box set with diamonds. 
He is decorated with many orders both of North 
and South Germany. In the summer of 1876 he 
met with a serious mountain accident in Switzer- 
land, by which several of his companions were 
killed and he himself severely wounided. He has 
however completely recovered. Lauterbach's style 
unites the best peculiarities of the Belgian school, 
great polish and elegance, with the breadth of 
tone and earnestness of the Germans. [B*I^-] 

LAVENU, Louis Henrt, aon of a flautist 
and music-seller, bom in London in 181 8. He 
was a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, 
where he studied composition under Bochsa and 
Potter. Before leaving the Academy he was 
engaged as a violoncellist at the Opera and the 
Westminster Abbey Festival of 1834. He was 
also in business as a music-seller in partnership 
with his stepfather, Nicholas Mori, the eminent 
violinist, after whose death, in 1839, he continued 
the business alone for a few years. During this 
time he published a few songs and short piano- 
forte pieces composed by himself. His opera 
* Loretta, a Tale of Seville,* words by Bunn, was 
produced at Drury Lane Nov. 9, 1846, with 
success. Dissatisfied with his position, Lavenu 
emigrated to Australia, obtained the post of 
director of the music at the Sydney Theatre, 
and died at Sydney, Aug. i, 1859. [W.H.H.] 

LAVIGNE, Antoine Joseph, bom at Be- 
Ban9on March 23, 18 16, received his early 
musical education from his father, a musician in 
an infantry regiment. On Jan. 24, 1 830, he was 
admitted a pupil of the Conservatoire at Paris, 
where he studied the oboe under Vogt, but was 
obliged to leave on May 3, 1835, on account of 
his father's raiment being ordered from Paris. 
He re^iumed his position on Oct. 17, 1836, and 
obtained the first prize in 1837. He was for 
several years principal oboe at the Theatre 
Italien at Paris. In 1841 he came to England, 
and appeared as oboe soloist at the Promenade 
Concerts at Drury Lane, and has now for some 
years been a member of Mr. Charles Halle's 
orchestra at Manchester. He addressed himself 
with great earnestness to applying to the oboe 
the system of keys which Boehm had contrived 
for the flute, and devoted several years to per- 
fecting the iuMtrument. This admirable player 
has great execution and feeling ; biit what be 
is most remarkable for is his power and length 
of breath, which by some secret known to 
himself enables him to give the longest phrases 
without breaking them. [W. H. H.] 

LAWES, Henry, son of William Lawes, was 
bom at Dinton, Wiltshire, probably in Dec. 
1595, as he was baptized Jan. i, 1595-6. He 
received his musical education from Giovanni 
Coperario. On Jan. i, 1625-6 he was sworn 
in as epistler of the Chapel Koyal, and on Nov. 
3 following, one of the gentlemen, and afterwards 
became clerk of the cheque. In 1633 he joined 
his brother William and Simon Ives in com- 
posing the music for Shirley's masque, 'The 



LAWES. 

Triumphs of Peace,' and in the same year 
furnished music for Thomas Carew's masque, 
' Coslum Britannicum,' performed at Court, Feb. 
18, 1633-4. In 1634 he composed the songs for 
Milton's masque, * Comus,* produced at Ludlow 
Castle on Michaelmas night, in that year, Lawes 
performing the part of the Attendant Spirit. 
(Both Hawkins and Bumey have printed ' Sweet 
Echo,' one of the songs in ' Comus.' The whole 
of the songs are in the British Museum, Add. 
MS. 1 1,5 1 8.) It is probable that the friendship 
between Milton and Lawes had its origin in 
Comus. 



Henry Lawes taught music to Lady Alice 
Egerton — *The Lady * of the masque. In 1637 
appeared 'A Paraphrase vpon the Psalmes of 
David. By G[eorgeJ S[andy8j. Set to new Tunes 
for private Devotion. And a thorow Base, for 
Voice or Instrument. By Henry Lawes ' ; and in 
1648 * Choice Psalmes put into Musick for Three 
Voices .... Composed by Henry and William 
Lawes, Brothers and Servants to His Majestic. 
With divers Elegies set in Musick by several 
friends, upon the death of William Lawes. And 
at the end of the Thorough Base ' are added nine' 
Canons of Three and Four Voices made by William 
Lawes.' A copper^plate portrait of Charles I, 
believed to be the last published in his life time, 
accompanies each part, and amongst the com- 
mendatory verses prefixed to the work is the 
sonnet, addressed by Milton to Henry Lawes in 
Feb. 1645-6, commencing * Harry, whose tuneful 
and well measured song. Lawes composed the 
songs in the plays and poems of William Cart- 
wright, and the Christmas songs in Herrick's 
• Hesperides.' In 1653 he published * Ayres and 
Dialogues for One, Two and Three Voyces,' with 
his portrait, frx>m which the above is taken, 
finely engraved by Faithome, on the title. 
This was received with such &vour as to in- 
duce him to issue two other books with the 



1 The work b In Mparato parts. 



aBwUyten. 



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LAWBS, 

mad title in 1655 and 1656. In 1656 he was 
ei^paged with Capt. Henry Ckwke, Dr. Charles 
Cohittn and Geoige Hadson in providing the 
mmio for Davenant*8 'First Day's Entertain- 
meat of Mnmok at BuUand House.* On the 
Restoration in 1660 Lawes was reinstated in his 
Coort appointments. He composed the anthem 
' Zadok the Priest,' for the coronation of Charles 
n. He died Oct. ai, 1662, and was buried Oct. 
35 in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Many 
of his songs are to be found in ' Select MusicaU 
Ayres and Dialogues,* 1652, 1653 And 1659, and 
• the Treasury of Musick,* 1669. 

Heniy Lawes was highly esteemed by his con- 
temporaries, both as a composer and performer. 
Milton praises him in both capacities, and 
Herrick in an epigram places him on a level 
vith some of the most renowned singers and 
players of his time; but later writers have 
urmed a lower estimate of his a'biliiies as a com- 
poea'. Barney declares his productions to be 
'languid and insipid,' and equally devoid of 
lesming and genius'; «nd Hawluns speaks of 
bis music as deficient in melody and 'neither 
Tentative nor air, but in so precise a -medium 
between both that a name is wanting for it.* 
But both appear to judge from a false point of 
^ew. It was not Lawes's object to produce 
mdody in the popular sense of -the word, but to 
et 'words with just note and aocent,' to make 
the prosody of his text his principal cate ; and it 
vat doubtless that quality which induced all the 
best poetical writers of his day, from Milton and 
Waller downwards, to desire that their verses 
ihoold be set by him. To effect his object <he 
employed a kind of 'aiia parlante,' a style of 
c<mposition which, if expressively sung, would 
caude as much gratification to the cultivated 
bearer as the most ear-catching melody would to 
tbe untrained listener. Lawes was careful in the 
cboice of words, and the words of his songs 
wmld form a very pleasing volume of lyric poetry. 
Hawkins says that notwithstanding Lawes * was 
a senrant of the church, he contributed nothing 
to the increase of its stores*; but, besides the 
torooation anthem before mentioned, there are 
(<« were) in an old choir book of the Chapel 
Hnyal fragments of 8 or 10 anthems by him, 
and the words of several of his anthems are given 
in CUflford's 'Divine Services and Anthems,* 
1664. -A. portrait of Henry Lawes is in the Music 
Bcbool, Oxford. 

JoHJi Lawes, a brother of Henry, was a lay 
Ticar of Westminster Abbey, He died in Jan. 
1654-5, and was buried in the Abbey cloisters. 

Riv. Thomas Lawes, commonly but errone- 
BQsly stated to be the fitther, but probably >the 
Bsie, of William and Henry Lawes, was a vicar 
ibfical of Salisbury Cathedral. He died Nov. 7, 
^^, and was buried in the north transept of 
IbcathedraL 

WiLLiAK Lawes, elder brother of Henry, 
noeived musical instruction from Coperario at 
{be expense of the Earl of Hertford. He became 
i membra- of the choir of Chichester Cathedral, 
rbich he quitted in 1603, on being appointed a 



liAYS. 



107 



gentleman of the Chapel Royal. He was sworn 
in Jan. i, 1602-^. In 161 1 he resigned his 
place in favour of Ezekiel Waad, a lay vicar of 
Westminster Abbey, but on Oct. i following was 
re-admitted ' without paie.* He was also one of 
the musicians in ordinary to Charles I. In 1633 
he composed part of ihe music for Shirley*s 
'Triumphs of Peace.* An anthem by him is 
printed in Boyce*s Cathedral Music ; songs and 
other vocal compositions in 'Select MusicaU 
Ayres and Dialogues,' 1653 and 1659, '^Atch 
that catch can,* 1052, 'The Treasury of Musick,* 
1669, and 'Choice Psalms/ 1648; and some of 
his instrumental music in 'Dourtly Masquing 
Ayres,' 166a. The autograph MSS. of his 
music for several Court masques are preserved 
in the Music School, Oxford. 'The Royal Con- 
sort' for viols and some 'Airs' for violin and 
bass are in the British Museum, Add. MS. 
10,445, >and some of his vocal music is in Add. 
MS. 11,608. On the breaking out of the Civil 
War he joined the Royalist army and was made 
a commissary by Lord Gerrard, to exempt him 
from danger, but his active spirit disdaining that 
security, he was killed by a stray shot during 
the siege of Chester, 1645. [W. H.H.] 

LAY. A Proven9al word, originally prob- 
ably Celtic, meaning at first a sound or noise, 
and then a song, especially the ■ tune, as the 
quotations from Spenser, Milton and Dryden 
in Johnson*s Dictionary prove. Beyond this 
general sense the term luts no application to 
music. The German ' Lied * is anotiier form of 
the word. [G.] 

LAY VPCAR OT LAY CLERK, a singer in 
Cathedral Choirs. [See Vicar Choral.] 

LAYS, FRANyois, « famous French singer, 
whose real name was Lay, born Feb. 14, 1758, 
at La Barthe de Nest^ in Gasoony. He learned 
music in the monastery of Guaraison, but before 
he was 20 his fame as a singer had spread, and 
in April 1779 ^^ found himself at Paris to be 
tried for the Grand Opera. His name first 
appears in Lajarte's catalogue of first repre- 
sentations, as Pdtrarque, in a ' pastoral h^olque' 
by CandeiUe, called * Laure et P^trarque,* July 
a, 1 780, and is spelt Lais. His next ^ mention 
is in the * Iphig^nie en Tauride * of Piccinni, 
Jan. 23, 1781, where he has the rfile of a cory- 
phde. After that he appears frequently in com- 
pany with MadUe. Saint-Hub^ti, a famous 
soprano of that day. He was also attached to 
the concerts of Marie Antoinette, and to the 
Concert Spirituel. He was a poor actor, unless 
in parts specially written for him; but the 
i^lendour of his voice made up for everything, 
and he preserved it .so well as to remain in the 
company of the Grand Opera till October 1822. 
Lays was a violent politician on the popular 
side,, which did not please his colleagues, and 
some quarrels arose in consequence, but with no 
further result than to cause him to write a 

1 The rMe of the * Seignenr blenfalMuit ' Is said by TH\% to have becD 
written for him. but his name does not appear la the company at the 
flnt performance of that piece. 



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108 



LAYS, 



pAinphlety and to force him, after the gih Ther- 
mid<nr, to appear in parts diBtasteful to him, and 
to sing before the Bourbons after the Restoration. 
He was professor of singing at the Conservatoire 
from 1795 to 1799, when he retired from the 
post; and finom 1819 to 1836 held the same 
office in the 'tiScol^ royale de ohant et de d^ 
damation.* He had been principal singer in the 
chapel of Napoleon from 1 801 till the fihU of the 
Emperor, but was cashiered by Louis XVIII. 
After leaving the ficole he retired to Ingrande 
near Angers, where he died March 30, 1831. 
We have said that he was not a good actor, but 
F^tis pronounces him not even a good singer, say- 
ing that his taste was poor, and Uiat he had sevend 
bad tricks ; but he had warmth and animation, 
and the beauty of his voice so flEtr atoned for all, 
that for a long time no opera could be successful 
in which he had not a part. [G.] 

LAZARUS, Henrt, a native of Xx>ndon, 
commenced the study of the clarinet when a 
boy imder Blizard, bandmaster of the Royal 
Military Asylum, Chelsea, and continued it 
tmder Charles Godfrey, sen., bandmaster of the 
Coldstream Guards. After fulfilling engage- 
ments in various theatrical and other orchestras 
he was, in 1 8.:i8, appointed as second to Willman 
at the Sacred Harmonic Society. On the death 
of Willman in 1840 Lazarus succeeded him as 
principal darinet at the Opera and all the 
principal concerts, festivals, etc. in London and 
the provinces, a position he has since retained 
with great and ever-increasing reputation. In 
both orchestral and solo playing the beauty 
and richnoiis of his tone, his exceUent phrasing, 
and his neat and expressive execution, are alike 
admired. He attributes his present high re- 
putation mainly to the excellent advice he has 
during his cweer received from Sir Michael 
Costa. He has been a professor of his instrument 
at the Royal Academy of Music since 1854, and 
at the Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, 
near Hounslow, since 1858. [W.H.H.] 

LAZZARIN I, Gustavo, was bom (as some 
biographers say)" at Padua, or (according to 
others) at Verona, about 1765. His cUbtit was 
made at Lucca in 1 789, in ZingarelU's * Ifigenia 
in Aulide,* with great ^clat. In the two follow- 
ing years he app^red in London, singing both in 
serious and comic operas, such as iiertoni's 
* Quinto Fabio ' and the ' Locanda' of Paisiello, 
fn the former with Pacchierotti, but taking the 
principal r6le in the latter. Lord Mount-Edg- 
cumbe thought him ' a very pleasing singer with 
a sweet tenor voice.' During the Carnival of 
1794 he sang at Milan, with Grassini and Mar- 
ches!, in ZingarelU's ' Artaserse ' and the ' Demo- 
foonte ' of Portogallo, and bore the comparison 
inevitably made between him and those great 
singers. He sang there again in 1 795, and once 
more in 1 798, appearing on the latter occasion in 
Cimarosa's ' Orazzi * and Zingarelli's ' Meleagro,* 
with Riccardi and Crescentini. In 1801 he was 
one of the Opera Buffa troupe at Paris, where he 
was again heard to advantage by Lord Mount- 
Edgcumbe (1802), singing in company with La 



LEADIKO KOTE. 

SfHnasacohi and Getigi Bellec. But hla voioe 
had now lost much of its freshness, though the 
great style remained. LazArini published two 
volumes of Italiui airs, and a Pastoral, both at 
Paris (Carli). His portrait was engraved there 
by NitAt Dufrdne, an operate singer. [J. M.] 

LEACH^ Jambs, bom at Rochdale, Yorkshire, 
in 1 763, was a tenor singer and hymn-tune writer. 
He published a ' New ^tt of Hymns and Psalm 
TimoB etc/ (Preston, London 1789);. and a 
*^ Second Sett ' of the same, probably about 1 794. 
Hia tunes are found in several of the American 
collections, as the Easy Instructor (Albany, Kew 
York 1798), the Bridgewater Collection (^Boston 
1802). The David Companion or Methodist 
Standard (Baltimore, 18 10) contains 48 of his 
pieces. For more details see a letter signed 
G.A.C. in the Musical Times for April 1878, 
p. 226. In the Rev. H. Parr's * Church of Eng- 
land Psalmody ' will be found Moimt Pleasant, 
Oldham, and Smyrna, by him, which used to be 
favourites in certain congregations. Leach died 
in 1797. . [G.] 

LEAD, TO, in fugues or imitative music is to 
go off first with a point or subject, which is 
afterwards taken up by the other parts succes- 
sively. Thus in the Amen Chorus in the Mes- 
siah the bass Meads,* the tenor taking up the 
subject at the 6th bar, the alto at the loth, and 
so on. In the separate voice parts the fact is 
often stated (* Tenors lead,* etc.), that the singers 
may be on their guard, and the part is then said 
* to have the lead.* [G.] 

LEADER. The chief of the first violins is the 
leader of the orchestra, the Coneertmmter of the 
Germans, and Cfief cfcUtaque of the French. He 
is close to the conductor's left hand. The posi- 
tion is a most important one, as the animation and 
'attack' of the band depend in great measure 
on the leader. The great precision and force of 
the Gewandhaus orchestra, for instance, is said to 
have been mainly due to David being for so long 
at the head of them. [G.J 

LEADING NOTE (Fr. NoU sensible \ Germ. 
Leitton). In modem music it is absolutely in- 
dispensable for all harmonic progressions to have 
an appreciable connection with a tonic or key- 
note, and various lines converge to indicate that 
note with clearness ; amcmg these an important 
place is occupied by the L^tding Note, which is 
the note immediately below the keynote, and 
separated from it by the smallest interval in 
the system, namely a semitone. Helmh(dtz has 
pointed out that in actual relationship to the 
tonic it is the most remote of all the notes in the 
scale, since the supertonic, which also appears to 
be very remote, at least comes nearer in being 
the fifth to the dominant, while the leading note 
is only the third. For this reason, and lUso from 
its not being capable of standing as a root note 
to any essential diatonic chord in the key, it 
seems to have no status of its own, but to exist 
mainly as preparatory to the tonic note, for which, 
by reason of its close proximity, it seems to pre- 
pacre the mind when it is heard ; and the mdodic 



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LEAPING NOTE. 

tendency to lead up to the most important note 
in Uie scale is the origin of its name. 

In many scales, both of dviBsed and barbarons 
peoples, it has found no plaoe. In most of the 
medieval ecdesiaBtical scales, as in the Greek ^ 
scales from which they were derived, the note 
immediately below the tonic was separated irou 
it by the interval of a whde tone, and therefore 
had none of the character of a leading note ; but 
M the feeling for tonality gained ground in the 
middle ages hand in hand with the appreciation 
of bsnnonic combinations, the use of the leading 
maid, which is so vital to its comprehension, 
became more common. Ecclesiastics looked upon 
this tampering with the august scales of antiquity 
with disfavour, and Pope John XXII passed an 
edict against it in 1322 ; oonsequently the acci- 
dental which indicated it was omitted in the 
writt^i music : but the feeling of musicians was 
in many cases too strong to be suppressed, and it 
seems that the performers habitually sang it 
wherever the sense of the context demanded it, 
nor do we learn that the ecclesiastics inter- 
fered with the practice as long as the musicians 
did not let the world see as well as hear what 
they were doing. Notwithstanding this common 
practice of poformers, the scales maintained Uieir 
integrity in many respects, and there resulted 
a curious ambiguity, which is veiy characteristic 
of medieval music, in th^ frequent interchange 
of the notes a tone and a semitone below the 
tonic. Musicians were long beguiled by the 
feeling that the true scales should have the note 
below the tonic removed from it by the interval 
ef a tone, luid that it was taking a fiberty and 
pandering to human weakness to sharpen it ; 
uid the clear realisation of those principles of 
tonicity up(m which modem music is based was 
considerably retarded thereby, so that works both 
vocal and instrumental are characterised by 
& vagueness of key-relationship, which the use 
of the leading note alone can remove, till far on 
into the seventeenth century; by the time of 
Bach and Handel however the ancient scales had 
heen fused into the major and minor modes of the 
modem system, and the leading note assumed 
the office it has ever since occupied. The gradual 
realisation of the importance of the leading note 
tnd the influence it had upon the development 
of modem music is teaced in the article Har- 
vorr, and reference may also be made to chap, 
xiv of the Third Part of Helmholte's great work 
on *The Sensations of Tone,' ete. [C.H.H.P.] 
liEBHAFT, i. e. lively, the German equivalent 
for Vinace, Beethoven uses it> during his tempo- 
iMy preference for Grorman terms, in Sonata 
op. ici, where we find the two directions * Etwas 
lebhaft ' ete. and ' Ijebhaft, marsckmassig,' which 
u exactly equivalent to 'Vivace h la marcia.' 
Schmoann uses it constantly ; ' Ausserst lebhaft ' 
tt VwaeisHmo, [G.] 

LEBRUN, FRANCnaoA, the daughter o( Danzi 
we ridonoellist, was bom at Mannheim in 1 756. 
Endowed by nature with a voice remarkable 
we for its purity and extent, ranging as high 
* F m alt without difi&oulty, sh^ improved her 



LEBRUN. 



109 



natural advantages by careful study, and became 
one of the best singers that Germany has pro- 
duced. She made her first appearance ( 1 7 7 1) when 
scarcely 16 years old, and charmed the court : in 
the next year she was engaged at the Mannheim 
0|>era. F^tis says that in 1775 she bec^ftme the 
wife of Lebrun the oboist, whom she accom- 
panied to Italy, sin^g first at Milan (1778) in 
Salieri's *£uropa riconosciuta.* The Milanese 
were delighted with her clear and beautiful voice 
•and easy vocalisation, in spite of the intrigues of 
La Balducoi, the prima donna of La Scala, who 
endeavoured to set them against her young rival. 
This account must, however, be corrected ; for, 
whereas F^tis says that she only came to Eng- 
land in J 78 1, there is no doubt that she was 
here five years earlier, then unmarried, arriving 
>with Boncaglia, with whom she sang in Sac- 
chini's * Greso.' ' Though her name was Italian 
[called in the cast, Francesea Bami, Virtuosa di 
Camera di S.A.S. TElettore Palatine], she was 
a German, and had never been in Italy. She was 
young, well-looking, had a voice of uncommon 
dlearaess and compass, capable of the most aston- 
ishing execution, and was an excellent musician. 
Yet her performance was considered unsatisfac- 
tory, being too much aUa Tedencka, and more like 
that of an instrument than of a human voice. 
She soon after married M. Lebrun, an eminent 
player on the hautbois, which confirmed her in 
the bravura style, as she was in the habit of 
singing songs with an obbligato accompaniment 
for that instrument, in which the difficulties per- 
formed by both were quite astonishing, each 
seeming to vie with the other which could go 
highest and execute the most rapid divisions. 
After performing in ' Erifile,* also by Sacchini, 
and oUier operas, she left England after one 
season, but was re-engaged for the next but one ' 
(Lord Mount-Edgcmnl^). It is therefore clear 
that she did not marry Lebrun until after 1 777. 
She reappeared in London as Mme. Lebmn in 
1779, b^ing again the prima donna for serious 
opera, and continued with Pacchierotti to sing in 
London for two or three seasons ; she then went 
away, * nor was her place ever well filled during 
the remainder of Pacchierotti's stay ' (Idem.). 

She sang in 1 785 at Munich, after which she 
returned to Italy, achieving the same brilliant 
success at Venice and Naples as elsewhere. In 
1788 and 1789 she appeared at Munich in Mo- 
zart's *Idomeneo,' Pniti's 'Armida,' and the 
' Castor and Pollux ' of Vogler. She started for 
Berlin in Dec. j 790 to fulfil an engagement, but 
on her arrival lest her husband, and herself died 
May 14, 1791. 

Mme. Lebrun, beside being a great singer, 
was an accomplished pianiste, and composed well 
for that instrument. She published at Ofien- 
bach (1783) some sonatas with violin accom- 
paniment, and some trios for piano, violin, and 
ceUo, which contain pretty melodies and are 
written with fckoility. 

Of her two daughters, the elder, Sophie, better 
known as Mme. ' Dulcken, was born in London 
1 Ka^^baconfiiHip(MwUtitheU^uUgt«oftlttti^]^ 



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LEBRUN. 



June ao, 1781, and became celebrated as a 
pianiste. She was remarkable for quick and true 
feeling, as well as a good style of execution, and 
made successful concert tours through France, 
Italy, and Grermany. On April 18, 1799, she 
married Dulcken, a famous maker of pianos at 
Munich. She composed, but never published, 
some sonatas and other pieces for the piano. 

RosiNE, her younger sister, was- bOTn at Mu- 
nich, April 13, 1785. She was at first taught 
by Streicher for thepiano, but afterwards studied 
singing under h^ unclb, Danzi, the Kapellmeister. 
She nutde a successful Mut ; but, haying mar- 
ried Stenzsch, an actor of the Court Theatre, 
Nov. 30, 1801, gave up the opera to play in 
oomedy> in whi(£ she displayed a fair amount 
of talent. [J.M.] 

UkCLAIR^ Jban-Marib, Tatn^ (so called to 
distinguish him from his brother Antoine^Remi), 
an eminent violin-player,, and composer for his 
instrument, was bom at Lyons in 1697. Al- 
though his father was a member of the ro^ 
band, he began his public life not as a musician 
but as a dancer at the Kouen theatre. Later on 
he went to Turin, as ballet master, where SoMis 
was so much pleased with some ballet-music of 
his, that he induced him to take up the vioHn, 
which up to this time he had cultivated as a 
secondary pursuit only, and to place himself under 
his tuition for two years. At the end of tiiat 
period Semis declared that he had nothing more 
to teach him. Nevertheless L^lair appears to 
have continued his studies for a considerable time 
before going to Paris in 1 729. In Paris his suc- 
cess was never great ; whether from want of 
ambition and a retiring disposition, or, as has 
been suggested, owing to the jealousy of the vio- 
linists of the French school, we have no means 
of deciding. As a fact we know that L^lair, 
although he can hardly have had a worthy rival 
among the players of that time, got nothing 
better than the insignificant post of ripieno- 
violinist at the Opera. During this period 
he studied composition under Charon. In 173 1 
he became a member of the royal band^ but 
owing to a dispute with Guignon as to the 
leadership of the 2nd violins, cave up his post 
again, and soon also retired m>m the Opera. 
For the rest of his life he appears to have been 
excluedvely occupied with the composition and 
publication of his works and with teaching. He 
was already an old man when he made a journey 
to Holland, for the sole purpose of hearing and 
meeting Locatelli, of whose powers as a violinist 
he, led by the ex^aordinary and novel difficulties 
presented in the caprices of that artist, had 
probably formed a great idea. On Oct. 2 2, 1 764, 
soon after his return from Holland, he was 
assassinated late at night close to the door of 
his own house. Neither motive nor author of 
the crime have ever been discovered. 

Owing to the merit of his compositions for the 
violin, L^clair occupies a prominent place among 
the great classical masters of tiiat instrument. As 
to lus powers as a performer we have but the in- 
direct evidence of the difficulties presented in his 



LECOOQ. 

compositions. These are very oonaidemble ; and, 
barnng Locatelli's eccentricities, greater than jkh j 
that we find in the works of his predecessora or 
contemporaries. He very freely employs— in fact 
not seldom writes whole movements in— double- 
stops ; and altogether, even according to the 
modem standard of technique, his music is 
exacting both for the left hand and the bow. 
As a composer, judging him after his best 
works, L^clair must 1^ accorded the first place 
among French writers for the violin. It has 
been justly remarked, that a great deal of what 
he wrote is antiquated ; but much remains that 
is truly charming^ He is no mere imitator of 
the Italians, but there is a distinct individuality 
inr many of his movements ; and also a definite 
nations Frendi element. On the whole, grace- 
fulness and vivacity are more prominent than 
depth ef feeling; his frequent employment of 
double-stops, already mentioned, giving much 
richness and brilliancy of sound. 

The two Sonatas of his, edited by Ferd. David 
(Hohe Schule des Vfolinspiels), are good ex- 
amples of his- higher powers, especbJIy the 
pathetic one, sumamed ' Le tombeau.' On the 
other hand a Saraband and- Tambourin, often 
played with great success by Joachim and others, 
are good specimens of his lively style. This is a 
list of his works, as appended to lus op. i a : — 

OpiJ. Sonatas for yloHn with a 

baM. (1st book.) 
2. Sonataa, (Sod book.) 
8. Sonatas for 9 vtolins. 
4. Sonatas en trio. 
b. Sonatas fur rloUn with baas. 

CM book.) 
8. Trios (eseUoi). S vIoUm aod 



7. Concertl grossL 



Op. 8. Trios. Oontlnoatlon of 
09.& 
•.Sonatas. MthbookJ 

10. Concertl rrossL. 

11. Glauciu et Scylla. Operm. 

12. Sonatas for 8 tIoUdu Cind 
bookj 

IS. Oveaturu and sonataa ea 

trios. 
U. Sonate posthmne. 



As a rule his works were engraved by his 
wife, who, up to 1750, was a singer at the 
Op^ra. [P. I).] 

LECOCQ, Cbarcbs, bora in Paris, June 3, 
1832 ; entOTed the Cbnservatoire in 49, and in 
50 obtMned the first prize for harmony and ac- 
companiment. He took the second prize for 
fugue in Hal^vy's class in 1852, and at the 
same time greatly distinguished himself in the 
organ class. After this however he obtained no 
further scholastic distinctions, and either because 
he tired of Hal^vy*s want of method, or because 
he was anxious to come before the public, left 
the Conservatoire towards the dose of i854« He 
found the usual difficulty in obtaining access to 
the stage, and would probably have haA to wait 
a long time, but for a competition for an operetta 
opened by Offenbach in 1 856. He was bracketed 
with Bizet, and * Le Docteur Miracle * was pro- 
duced at the Bouffes Parisiens April 8, 1857. The 
operetta was evidently the work of a clever 
musician, who understood how to write for the 
voice. Notwithstanding this good beginning the 
small theatres still closed their doors to him, 
and Lecocq was driven to teaching for a 
livelihood. He then tried a different line, 
publishing in conjunction with Besozzi a collec- 
tion of sacred songs for women*s voices called 
'La Chapelle au Couvent' (1865) — less incon- 
gmous when we remember that he was a good 



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LECOCQ. 

(ffguiist; but the stage was irresistible, and 
« little one-act piece 'Le Baiser k la Porte' 
(1864) was followed by 'Les Ondines au Cham- 
P«gne' (1865), 'Le Myosotis' (i866>, * Le 
Cabaret de Bampooneau' (1867), and 'Fleur de 
Th^/ 3 acts (1868). This last piece was a bril- 
fiant Bucoees. Lecooq at last found himself 
established with the public, and produced in 
rapid sooceesion 'L* Amour et son carquois/ 
2 acts (1868); 'Gandolfo' and 'Le Rajah de 
Mysore/ both in one act (1869); *Le beau 
Bonois,* I act (1870) ; ' Le Barbier de TVouville' 
and 'Le Testament de M. de Crac/ both in 
I act (1871); 'SauYons la caisse/ i act, and 
*LesCent "Vierges,' 3 acts (1872); *La Fille de 
Mme. Angot,' 3 acts (1873) ^ which ran for 500 
nights consecutively; 'Les *Pr^ St. Grervais' 
and 'Girofl^^Girofla' both in 3 acts (1874); 
'Les Jumeaux de fiergame,' i act, and * Le 
Pompon/ 3 acts (1875); La petite Mari^/ 3 
acts (1876) ; ' Kedki ' and ' La Marjolaine/ both 
in 3 acts (1877) ; * I^e petit Due* and * Camargo/ 
both in 3 acts (1878) ; and finally *La petite 
Mademoiselle,' 3 acts (1879). To this long list 
most be added detached songs and other trifles 
thrown off by his rapid and untiring pen. 
Leoocq has profited by the fidse system mo- 
mentarily IB the ascendant among French 
mosiciaBB. Our learned composers, encouraged 
by tome of the managers, overload their operas 
with orchestral writing and substitute the lyric 
for the dramatic element — to the ruin of French 
op^ comique. But Lecocq realizes that what 
the pablic really like are light, gay, sparkling 
melodies. His aim has been to dethrone Offen- 
bach, and as he has the advantage of writing 
correctly, he has had little trouble in attaining 
a popnlarity even greater than that formerly 
po sses s ed by the composer of ' Orph^ aux £n- 
fers.' His style is not a very elevated one, and 
makes no demand on the poetry or the intellect 
of the composer ; but it requires tact, ease, free- 
dom, and above all, animation. These qualities 
are conspicuous in Lecocq*s operettas, which have 
become universally popular, owing to the life, briot 
and easy gaiety which pervade them. [G. C] 
LEDGER LINES are the short lines drawn 
above and below the staff for those notes which 
exceed its limits. The origin of the term is not 
known. It is {nroposed to derive it from the 
French Uger, light, or from the Latin legere, to 
read, or as if it were equivalent to layer — ^addi- 
tional lines bud on above or below ; but neither 
of these is quite satisfiM^ry. The term came 
into use about the year 1 700 (see Mr. G. J. Evans 
in the Musical Times for June 1879). In French 
they are called * lignes postichee/ or ' snppl^men- 
taires ' ; and in German • hil&linien/ or * neben- 
linien,' A, C. etc. being said to be * durch den 
Kop^» and B, D, etc. 'durch den Hals'— 'ein, 
*weii drei, gestrichene/ etc. [G.] 



LEEVES. 



Ill 



' In UMdon. kt Si. JaBM't TbMtn (rnnofa). JanB 21. 73. 
> Ditto. %t St. JaoMt't TlMfttre (French), Maj 17. 73: At Boj»l 
nOhaimonk Tbaitre (EngUA. Bjtod), Oct. 4. 7S. 

* Ditto, at Criterhm Thmtn (EoffUsh. Been). Mot. SB. 74. 

* Ditto. At Open ComkitM (Frracbj. Jane 6. 74; »t Bojtl FhlllMr 
■<«leThcMiv (CogUsh), Oct. S. 74. 



LEE, Alexandeb, son of Harry Lee, a pugi- 
list and landlord of the Anti-GiJlican tavern. 
Shire Lane, Temple Bar, was bom in 1802. 
When a boy he entered the service of Lord 
Barrymore as ' tiger,* being the first of the class 
of servants known by that name ; but on the 
discovery that he had a fine voice and a natural 
taste for music, he was withdrawn from that 
position and placed under a master for instruc- 
tion. In 1825 he appeared as a tenor singer at 
the Dublin theatre, and in 18 26 in London at 
the Haymarket theatre, and soon afterwards 
commenced business as a music-seller in the 
Quadrant. In 1829, with Melrose, the tenor 
singer, and John Kemble Chapman, he entered 
upon the management of the Tottenham Street 
llieatre, and gave performances of popular Eng- 
lish operas. Lee seceded in 1830 and became 
lessee of Dniry Lane Theatre. He was soon 
afterwards joined by Capt. Polhill, but at the 
end of the season he withdrew, leaving Polhill 
sole manager. In 1831 he undertook the man- 
agement of the Lenten oratorios at both Drury 
Lane and Covent Garden. In 1832 he was com- 
poser and music director at the Strand Theatre, 
and in 1845 the same at the Olympic. Lee 
composed the music for several dramatic pieces, 
amongst which were 'The Sublime and Beauti- 
ful,' and 'The Invincibles/ 1828; 'The Nymph 
of the Grotto' and 'The Witness/ 1829 ; 'The 
Devil's Brother * (principally from Auber's 'Fra 
Diavolo') and "The Legion of Honour,' 1831 ; 
'Waverley* (with G. Stansbury), 1832; 'Love 
in a Cottage,' *Good Husbands make good 
Wives,' 'Sold for a Song,' and *Auld Kobin 
Gray,' the last composed about 1838 but not 
performed until 1858. He was also composer of 
many songs and ballads, highly popular in their 
day ('Away, away to the mountain's brow/ 
'Come where the aspens quiver/ 'The Macgre- 
ffors' Gathering,' etc.) and author of a 'Vocal 
Tutor.' Lee married Mrs. Waylett, the popular 
singer and actress, whose death (April 19, 1851) 
so serioudy affected him that he died the 8th of 
the following October. [W. H. H.] 

LEEDS MUSICAL FESTIVAL. The first 
of these meetings took place in 1858, Sept. 7-10, 
in the new Town Hall, after the opening of that 
building by the Queen— conductor, Sir (then 
Professor) Stemdale Bennett, whose May Queen 
was performed (Sept. 8) for the first time. They 
are now triennial. The second was held in 1874, 
Oct 14-17 ; and the third in 1877, Sept. 19-22, 
Mac&rren's ' Joseph/ first performed on the 
a 1st; conductor, on both occasions. Sir Michael 
Costa. The proceeds of the festivals go to the 
hospitals of the Town. [G.] 

LEEVES, Rev, William, bom 1748, became 
in 1779 rector of Wrington, Somerset, the birth- 
place of John Locke, the philosopher. He com- 
posed much sacred miisic, but will be remembered 
only as the author of Uie air of ' Auld Robin 
Gray' (words by Lady Anne Barnard, bom 
Lindsay of Balcarres) written in 1770. but not 
known as his before 1 81 a. He died at Wrington, 
May35,i8a8. [W.H.H.] 



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in 



lef]6bubb-w£ly. 



LEFftBUREW^LY, Louis James Alfred, 
bom in Paris Nov. 13, 181 7, son of Antoine 
Jjef^bvre, ox^nist and oompoeer, who took the 
name of Lef^ure.W%, and died 1831. He 
learned his notes before the alphabet, and as 
soon as he could speak showed a marvellous 
aptitude for music. At eight he was his father's 
deputy at the organ, accompanying the plain- 
song and playing Aott pieces. Though only 
15 when his father died, he was appointed 
his successor at St. Boch Uirough the influence 
of Queen Marie Am^ie. Feeling the need of 
solid study, he entered the Conservatoire in 1832, 
and obtained the second prizes for pianoforte and 
Organ in 1834, and the first for both in the fol- 
lowing year. He th^i took lessons in counter- 
point from Hal^vy, and in composition from 
Berton, but, not satisfied with these professors, 
studied privately with Adolphe Adam, and with 
S^jan, the organist, who initiated him in the art 
of improvising and in the management of the 
stops. He tokl the author of this article that he 
owed much to both these men, widely different 
as they were, and he often sought their advice 
lifter he had left the Gonservatoire in order to 
marry. To support his young family he took 
to teaching, and composed a qui^tity of piano- 
forte pieces, some of which were popular at 
the time. But it is as an (»f^anist that he 
will be remembered. His improvisations were 
marvellous, and from the piquancy of his har- 
monies, the unexpectedness of his combinations, 
the fertility of lus imagination, and the chaim 
which pervaded all he did, he might justly 
be called the Auber of the oigan. The great 
popularity in France of the free-reed instruments 
of Debain and Mustel is largely owing to him ; 
indeed, the efiects he produced on the instru- 
ments of the harmonium xdass were really aston- 
ishing. Endowed with immense powers of 
work, LefiH^ure-W^ly aittempted all branches of 
composition—chamber music; symphonies for full 
orchestra ; masses ; an op^ra-comique in 3 acts, 
'Les Recruteurs' (Dec. 13, 1861); etc. Among 
his best works are his 'Cantiaues,' a remarkable 
* O Salutaris,' his ' Offertqires, many of his fan- 
tasias for harmonium, and his organ-pieces. He 
received the Legion of Honour in 1850, being at 
the time oi^ganist of the Madeleine, where be 
was from 1847 to 1858. After this he had for 
some time no r^ular post, but in 1863 accepted 
the organ of St. Sulpice, so long hdd with suo- 
oess by his friend and master S^jan. Here he 
remained till his death, which took place, <^ 
consumption, in Paris on Dec 31,1 869. [G. C] 

LEFFLER, Adam, bom in 1808, son of 
James Henry Lefiler. bassoon player and or- 
ganist of St. Katherine's Hospital by the Tower, 
the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy, and 
Streatham Chapel, who died suddenly in the 
street in 1819 — was soon after his father*s death 
admitted a chorister of Westminster Abbey. 
On attaining manhood he was endowed with a 
bass voice of exceptionally fine quality and ex- 
tensive compass, from B below the stave to G 
above it, — and a natural gift for idngin^. He 



first attracted noUoe in Ootober 1829 at a Fes- 
tival at Exeter, when the casual absence of 
another performer gave him the opportunity of 
appearing as a principal singer. He acquitted 
himself so satisfactorily that be was inmiediatel j 
i^pointed a deputy at Westminster Abbey, and 
shortly afterwards took and maintained a good 
position on the English operatic stage and in the 
concert room. But for a constitutional careless- 
ness and n^lect of close study he might, with 
his natural and acquired qualifications, have oc- 
cupied the highest place in his profession. He 
died of apoplexy, March 38, 1857. ^W.H.H.] 
LEGATO (Ital.. sometimes written ligatoi 
Ger. gebunden ; Ft. U^), * connected ' ; the sound 
of each note of a phrase being sustained until the 
next is heard. In singing, a legato passage is 
vocalised upon a single vowel, on stringed instru- 
ments it is played by a single stroke <^ the bow, 
and on the pianoforte or organ by keeping each 
finger upon its key until the exact moment of 
striking the next. On wind instruments .with 
holes or keys, a legato passage is played in one 
breath, the notes being produced by opening or 
stop|Hng the hdes : but a wind instrument on 
which tiie different sounds are produced by the 
action of the lips alone, as the horn, trumpet, 
etc., is incapable of making a true legato, except 
in the rare cases in which one of tiie notes of the 
phrase is produced by stopping ^e bell of the 
instrument with the hand, as in the following 
example from the Sdierzo oi Beethoven's 7th 
Symphony— 



Horn, 




The sign of legato is a curved line drawn above 
or beneath the notes. Li music for wind or 
stringed instruments the curve covers as many- 
notes as are to be played with a single breath, or 
a sin^e stroke of the bow ; thus — 

BsBTHovnr. Symphony No. 6. 
Flute. , 




BsKTHovsir. Symphony No. 9. 



CeUi ^ Baui. 



In vocal music the same sign is often used, as in 
^ande^s chorus, *And he shall purify,* but it is 
not necessary, since the oranposer can always en- 
sure a legato by giving a single syllable to the 
whole passage, and it is in &ct frequently omitted, 
as in the air ' Every valley.* 

In pianoforte music, sJl passages which are 
without any mark are played legato, inasmuch 
as the notes are not detached ; the curved line is 
therefore used more for the sake of giving a 
finished appearance to the passage than firom any 
practical necessity. KeveithelesB, passages are 



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liBGATO. 

MiMtimec met with in which it appears to have 
ft special feignificance, and to indicate a particu- 
krij smooth manner of pUying, the keys being 
struck lets sharply than usual, and with slightly 
incressed pressure* Such a passage oocurs in the 
Allegro of Beethoven^s Sonata in Ab, op. 26, in 
whidi the quavers alone are marked legato, the 
seauquavers being left without any marl^ thus — 



f1.^]gJ^ l J?^^J3T3 | J^W 




The same plan is followed on each recurrence of 
tbe phrase throughout the movement, and since 
this regularity can scarcely have been accidental, 
it appears to indicate a corresponding variety of 
touch. 

lastead of the sign, the word legato is scnne- 
tines written under the passage, as in Bee- 
thoven's Bagatelle, Op. 119, No. 8, or Variation 
No. 30 of Op. I ao. When the word is employed 
it g^enecaUy refers to the character of the whole 
moremait rather than to a single passage. 

In playing legato passages wholly or partly 
foQDded upon broken chords, some masters have 
taught that the principal notes of the harmony 
diould be sustained a little longer than their 
vrittoD length. Thus Hummel, in his Piano- 
forte School, gives the following passages (and 
many others) with the intimation that the notes 
marked with an asterisk are to be sustained some* 
vfaat longer than written, ' on account of the better 
oonnexion*— 



J,EORBN«fL Ul 

Chopio, TalM, Op. 64, No. S, Original Edition, 




m 






- ete. 




"n^ method of playing parages, which is some- 
times called UgattMimOt would doubtless add to 
the richness of the effect, especially upon the light- 
toned pianofortes of Hummel's day, but it is not 
neoeasuy on modem instrumento, the tone of 
whidi is so much fuller. Nevertheless it is some- 
^imes of service, particularly in certain passages 
bf Oumin, which without it are apt to sound 
^uin. In Klindworth*s new edition of Chopin 
the editor has added a second stem, indioatii^: a 
greater value, to such notes as require sustain- 
ing, and a comparison of his version with the 
<*^[iiial edition will at once show the intended 
^ect; for example^ 

▼OL. li I 



An example of legatissimo touch, in which tha 
notes are written of their full value, may be 
found in No. 5, Bk. ii. of Cramer's Studies. 

The opposite of legato is stoccoto— detached 
[see Staccato], but there is an intermediate touch 
Detween legato and staccato, in which the notes^ 
though not connected, are separated by a barely 
perceptible break. When this effect is intended 
the passage is marked non legato. An example 
occurs in the first movement of Beethoven's 
Sonata in C minor. Op. iii, in the passage im- 
mediately following the first appearance of the 
short Adagio phrase. [F, T.] 

LEGGIEIlO(Ital., also Leggieramente), lightly. 
The word is usually applied to a rapid passage, 
and in pianoforte playing indicates an absence of 
pressure, the keys being struck with only suffi- 
cient force to produce the sound. Leggiero pass- 
ages are usuijly, though not invariably, piano, 
and they may be either legato or staccato; if 
the former the fingers must move vet^ freely 
and strike the keys with a considerable amount 
of percussion to ensure distinctness, but with the 
slightest possible amount of force. Examples of 
le^to passages marked leggieramenie are found 
in the 25th variation of Beethoven's Op. 1 20, and 
in the finale of Mendelssohn's Concerto in O 
minor (which also contains the unusual como 
bination of foiie with leggiero); and of staccato 
single notes and chords in the finale of Mendels- 
sohn's Concerto in D minor. 

On stringed instruments leggiero passages are 
as a rule played by diminishing the pressure of 
the bow upon the strings, but the word generally 
refers rather to the character of the movement 
than to any particular manner of bowing. The 
Scherzo of Beethoven's Quartet in E b, Op. 74, is 
marked leggiermente, although it begins Jforte, 
and the same indication is given fer the 2nd 
variation of the Andante in the Kreutser Sonata^ 
which is piano throughout. [F. T.J 

LEGRENZI, GiovANNT, composer and con- 
ductor, bom about 1625 at Clusone near Ber- 
gamo; in which town he learned music, and 
received his first appointment, that of organ- 
ist to the church of St. Maria Maggiore. He 
next became maestro di oapella of the church of 
the Spirito Santo at Ferrara, where he sdll was 
in i6iS4. When Krieger, Capellmeister to the 
Duke of Weissenfels, visited Venice in 1672, he 
found Legrenzi settled there as director of the 
Conservatorio dei Mendicanti. In 1 685 he also 
became maestro di capella of St. Mark's, and 
exercised both functions till his death in July 
1690. He entirely reorguiised the (nnchestrib ii 



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114 



i;£GKEKZL 



8t. Miuk\ aagmentiiig it to 34 performen, thus 
disposed — 8 violins, ii violette, a viole da brae- 
do, a ylole da gamba, i violone, 4 theorbos, 
a comets, i baMoon, and 3 trombones. He 
composed industriously, and left specimens of 
his skill in most departments of music* motets, 
masses, psalms, instrumental music of various 
kinds, and 17 operas, of which the most re- 
markable are 'Achille in Scyro,' his first 
(1664); *La Divisione del Mondo' (1675); *I 
due Gesari* (1683) mentioned in the Paris 
<Meroure Galant' (March 1683); and 'Perti- 
nace' (1684), his last. They were nearly all 
produced in Venice. like Scarlatti, and other 
composers of his time, he did not attempt to 
bamish the comic element from his serious 
operas. One of his orchestral compositions is in 
7 real parts, and all are important. His best 
pupils were Lotti and Gasparini. 

LegTenzi*8 name will be handed down to pos- 
terity by Bach and Handel, both of whom have 
treated subjects from his works, the former in 
an organ fugue in G minor on a 'Hiema Le- 
grenzianum elaboratum cum subjecto pedaliter' 
(Griepenkerl & Boitsch,^ iv. No. 6); and the 
latter in the phrase ' To thy dark servant light 
and life afford,* in the Chorus 'O first-created 
beam' from Samson. This is taken firom a motet 
of Legrenzi, ' Del Intret in conspectu,' of which 
a copy in Handel's handwriting is to be found 
among the MSS. at Buckinghun Palace (Chry- 
Sander, ' Hilndel ' i. 1 79). [F. G.] 

LEIDESDORF, Max Josef, a musician and 
music -seller of Vienna^ who appears to have 
lived there from about 1804 to 1837, and then 
to have left it for Florence, where he died 
Sept. a6, 1839. He will go down to posterity 
embalmed in a little note ' of Beethoven s, appar- 
ently written at the earlier of the two dates just 
given above, sending Bies for some easy 4-hand 
pieces — ' and better still let him have them for 
nothing' — bennining with a pun on his name 
— ' Dorf des Leides ! ' and ending ' Beethoven 
minimus.' Leidesdorf was one of those who 
signed the address to Beethoven in 1834, pray- 
ing him to produce the Ninth Symphony and the 
Mass in D, and to write a second opera. [See 
p. 1966.] [G.] 

LEIGHTON, Sib William, Knight, one of 
the band of Grentlemen Pensioners of Elizabeth 
and James I, published in 1614 * The Teares or 
Lamentacions of a SorrowfvU Soule; Gompibsed 
with Musicall Ayres and Songs both for Voyces 
and Divers Instruments.' The work consists of 
54 metrical psalms and hymns, 17 of which are 
for 4 voices, with accompaniments, in tableture, 
for the lute, bandora and cittern; and 13 for 4 
voices and 2a for 5 voices without accompani- 
ment. The nrst 8 pieces are of Leighton's own 
composition, and the rest were contributed by the 
following composers: — Dr. John Bull, William 
Byide, John Ooperario, John Dowland, Alfonso 

1 Thh In the ftifM aboqt th« autograph of which MendelMohn 
trrltM. Jane is, UBk MaSoftheMUMToLltafiitueooaiuhtootby 
toralil. 

« Kohl, litefi BMtborw'i. No. 89^ 



LEIPZIG. 

Ferrabosco, Thomas Ford, Orlando Gibbons^ 
Nathaniel Giles, Edmond Hooper, Robert John- 
son, Robert Jones, Robert Kindersley, Thomas 
Lupo, John Milton, Martin Pearson, Frsnda 
Pilkington, Timolphus Thopul (a pseudonym), 
John Ward, Thomas Weelkes and John Wilbye. 
From the dedication to Prince Charles we learn 
that the collection was compiled while tb» 
worthy knight was — unjustly, as he alleges — 
incarcerated for debt. He had in the preceding 
year published the poetry alone in a duodecimo 
volume. [W.H.H.] 

LEIPZIG (i.e, the place of Lime-trees), in 
Saxony, on the junction of the Pleisse and the 
Elster, 1 35,000 inhabitants, has for a long time 
been the most musical place in North Germany. 
When RochlitE visited Beethoven ' at Vienna in 
1 8a a, the first thing which the great oompoeer 
did was to praise Leipzig and its music — * If I 
had nothing to read but the mere dry lists of 
what they do, I should read them with pleasure. 
Such intelligence! such liberality!' Tlie main 
ostensible causes of this pre-eminence have been 
(i) the long existence of the St. Thomas school 
as a musical institution with a first-class musician 
as its Cantor; (a) the Gewandhaus concerts; 
(3) the presence of the great music-publishing 
house of Breitkopfs, almost equal in importance 
to a public institution; (4) the existence for 
fifty years of the principal musical periodical 
of the country — the 'Allgemeine musikalische 
Zeitung' ; (5) in our own times, the long 
residence there of Mendelssohn, and the found- 
ation by him c^ the Conservatorium, with its 
solid and brilliant staff of professors—a centre, 
for many years, of the musical life not only of 
Grermany, but of other countries ; and lastly (6) 
several very remarkable private musical insti- 
tutions. 

I. The piomas-tehule, or School of St. Thomas, 
is an ancient public school of the same nature as 
our cathedral and foundation grammar-sdiools, 
but with the special feature that about 60 of the 
boys are taught music, who are called A lumni, 
and are under the charge of a Cantor, forming 
the ' Thomaner-Chor.' This body is divided into 
4 choirs, with a Prefect at the head of each, and 
serve the Churches of St. Thomas, St. Nicholas, 
St Peter, and the Neukirohe or New-Chuix^h. 
On Sundays the first choir joins the town orchestra 
for the morning service at St. Thomas or St. 
Nicholas ; and on Saturday afternoons at 1.30 
the whole four choirs unite in a performance 
under the direction of the Cantor. The boys are 
remarkable for the readiness and correctness with 
which they sing the most diificult music at sight. 
The Caktob, in German towns and villages, 
corresponds to the Precentor oi leader of the 
choir in English cathedrals and churches, 
and the Cantor of the St. Thomas School at 
Leipzig has for long been acknowledged as the 
head and representative of them all. For more 
than two centuries the ofllce has been filled by 
very distinguished musicians, as will be seen 



\ 



'FQr nvonda der TMdnmit,' iv. M. 



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LEIPZIG. 

from tlw IbUowing list, tiken from Mendel's 
CooTenKtiona-Lexicon der Tonkunet : — 



£EIT-MOTiF. 



n5 



rrtan ... 1489 ,8efautkn Kn&pflBr . . 

■tfttanottdt . . . mo Johum Schelte . . . 

I«t«t(Oatm. » . . 'JobannKuhoM . . . 

GeoiSalQiMr .... 1519-90 Joh. SebMtlui Buh . 

*■ "" . lfl51-86 CottlobBuMr . . . 

. ]fi3e-lO Job. Vtiedrich DolM . 

U^B .... 1540--tt Job. Adam Hlllar . . 

FLUIDS . . 1S«»-S1 A. Eberbanl MUler . 

flager . . . IfiSl-M Job. Gottfried Sehlebt 

Otto . . . IfiM-ei Cbristoph Tbeodor 

isOilrWai . . . U»4-iei5 Welnlig 

Hamoaim Scbefaa 161&-W Xorltz Hauptnutim . . 

~~ ' ' EnutFrtedrlebBlcfater 



IWT— 78 
W7»— ITOl 
1701—92 
1728-«0 
1780-06 



1789-1800 

18no-10 

181&-S9 



} 

2. The GiWAHDHAUS OoNCEBTS liave been 
alreaffy described under their own head. [See vol. 
i. p. 5926.3 Mendelssohn conducted them from Oct. 
4, 1835, ^ ^^ ®^ ^^ ^^ series 1843-43, when he 
wu compelled to leave Leipzig for Berlin, and 
they were then transferred to Ferdinand Hiller. 

3. For the grcAt publishing establi^ment of 
BBKXTK0P7 ft Habtbl, wo refer the reader to 
the former volume of this work [p. 272], merely 
addiof here, that since that article was written 
the emtion ci Mendelssohn has been o(»npleted ; 
that of Mozart (a trul^ immense undertaking) is 
progressing satisfactonly ; a complete edition of 
€3io|iin (in 14 vols.) is nearly finished ; and that 
sa entire edition of the works of Palestrina, both 
printed and MS., in continuation of that begun 
hy Witt, Banch, and Espagne, extending in aU 
to 39 folio vidumes, was announced by these in- 
defstigable publishers on January 37, 1879. ^ 
additian to these they began in 1878 a cheap 
edition of claasksal music, a collection of Libretti, 
and a publication of music paper and music MS. 
books. 

4. The 'Alloemuve xusiKAUsoHEZjEiruNO," 
or 'General Musical 'Hmes,' was begun by the 
firm just mentioned in 1798, on October 3 of 
which year the first number was published. It 
VBs in 4to; 8 pages weekly, numbered in 16 
OQlamns, to which were added occasionally pieces 
of music in type (and admirable type too), oopper- 
l^tes, and advertisement sheets. Each volume 
had a portrait as . frontispieoe. With 18 10 the 
v^dmnes began with the beginning of the year. 
13ie Zeitong contained artidee on musical subjects 
of a& kinds, biographical notices, reviews of new 
piooes, reports m>m foreign to^nis, etc. etc., and 
thoo^ seriously defective in many points, was an 
koest and good attempt at a musical poriodicaL 
Amaog the editors were Bochlitz (i 798-1818), 
fbk (1837-41), Hauptmann (1843), Lobe 
(1846-^). With the 5oih voL (for 1848) the 
intseriea came to an end. There is an excellent 
lodsK in 3 parts. Since that date the 2^itung 
&SS been continued by Bieter-Biedermann under 

I fttloas editors, of whom the most considerable is 
Dr.dirysander. 

! 5. The idea and the foundation of the Conbeb- 
I Tatobium were entirely due to Mendelssohn, by 
I vhom the King of Saxony was induced to allow 
I a sum of 30,000 thalers, bequeathed by a certain 
: HbfkriegBrath Bltimner ' for the purposes of art 
and sdeoce,' to be devoted to the establishment 
of a 'sdid musical academy at Leipzig.' The 
pcrmisBigp was obtained in Nov. 1843, the ne- 



cessary accommodation was granted by the cor- 
poration of the town in t£e Gewandhaus — a 
large block of buildings containing two Halls, 
a library, and many oUier rooms — and the Con- 
servatorium was opened on April i, 1843. 
Mendelssohn was the first chief, and the 
teachers were : — harmony and counterpoint^ 
Hauptmann ; composition and pianoforte, Men- 
delasohn and Schumann; violin, Ferdinand 
David ; singing, Pohlenz ; organ, Becker. There 
were ten scholarships, and the fees for the 
ordinary pupils were 75 thalers per annum. In 
1846, at Mendelssohn's urgent entreaty, Mos- 
cheles left his London practice, and became 
professor of the pianoforte at the modest salary 
of £1 30 ; and at that date the staff also embraced 
Grade, Phudy, Brendel, Richter (afterwards 
Gantor), and others whose names have become 
insepansbly attached to the Conservatorium. 
The management of the institution is in the 
hands of a board of directors chosen from the 
principal inhabitants of the town, and not nro-' 
fessional musicians. The first name inscribed 
in the list of pupils is Theodor Eirchner, and it 
is followed by those of Otto Goldschmidt, Bargiel» 
Grimm, Norman, etc. Amongst Englishmen are 
found J. F. Bamett^ Sullivan, Walter Baohe, 
Franklin Taylor, etc., and the American names 
include Dannreuther, Willis, Mills, Paine, and 
others. 

6. Of the private institutions we may men- 
tion: — (i) the 'Biedelsche Verein,* a choral 
society founded in 1854 by Carl Biedel, its con- 
ductor, and renowned throughout Qermany for its 
performances of sacred music of aU periods, firom 
Palestrina and Schtttz down to Brahms and 
Lisst. (2) The * Euterpe/ an orchestral concert 
society, which, though its performances cannot 
come into competition with those of the Gewand- 
haus, is yet of importance as representing a more 
progressive element in music than prevails in 
the exclusively dasrical programmes of the older 
institution. The names of Berlioz, Liszt, Bafi^ 
Bubinstein and others, appear prominently in the 
concerts of the Euterpe, v erhulst, Bronsart, and 
other eminent musicians, have been its conductors. 
(3) The 'PauluB,'an academical ch^al society 
of male voices, deserves mention as one of the 
best of its kind in Germany. [G.] 

LEIT-MOTIF, i,e. 'ffmding theme.' The 
principle of 'Leit-motive is so simple and ob* 
vious that it would seem strange that they 
have so lately found recognition in music, 
were it not remembered that music in general 
has progressed but slowly towards a sufficiently 
logical condition to admit of their employment. 
They consist of fisnires or short passages of 
melody of marked <maracter which illustrate, or 
as it were label, certain personages, situations, or 
abstract ideas which occur prmninently in the 
course of a story or drama of which the music is 
the counterpart ; and when these situations recur, 
or the personages come forward in the course of 
the action, or even when the personage or idea is 
implied or referred to, the figure which consti- 
tutes the leit-motif is heard* 



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ur 



liErr-MOTiF, 



Their employment obviously presupposes unity 
sod oontinuity in the wcnrks in which they occur. 
!For as long as it is necessary to condescend to 
the indolence or low standard of artistic percep- 
tion of audiences by cutting up large musical 
works into short incongruous sections of tunes, 
qongs. rondos, and so rorth, figures illustraticg 
inherent peculiarities of situation and character 
which play a part throughout the continuous 
action of the piece are hanuy available. Musical 
dramatic works of the old order are indeed for 
the most part of the nature of an ' entertain- 
ment^* and do not admit of analysis as complete 
and logical works of art in which music and 
action are co-ordinate. But when it becomes ap* 
parent that music can express most perfectly the 
emotional condition resulting from the action of 
impressive outward circumstanoes on the mind, 
the true basis of dramatic music is reached ; and 
by restricting it purely to the representation of 
that invsard sense which belongs to the highest 
realisation of the dramatic situations, the princi- 
ple of oontinuity becomes as inevitable in the 
music as in the action itself, and by the very 
same law of artistic congruity the ' leit-motive * 
raring into prominence. For it stands to reason 
that where the music really expresses and illus- 
trates the action as it progresses, the salient 
features of the stoiv must have siedient points 
of music, more marked in melody and rhythm 
than thc^ portions which accompany subordi- 
liate passages in the play ; and moreover when 
these salient points are connected with ideas 
which have a common origin, as in the same 
personage or the same situation or idea, these 
salient points of music will probably acquire a 
recognisable similarity of melody and rhythm, 
and thus become ' leit-motive«' 
. Thus, judging from a purely theoretical point 
of view, they seem to be inevitable wherever 
there is perfect adsfptation of music to dramatic 
action. But there is another important con- 
pideration on the practical side, which is the 
powerful assistance which they give to the 
Itttention of the audience, by drawing them on 
from point to point where they might otherwise 
lose their way. Moreover they act in some 
ways as a musical commentary and index to 
situations in the story, and sometimes enable a 
ptr greater depth of pregnant meaning to be con- 
veyed, by suggesting associations with other 
jpoints of the story which might otherwise slip 
the notice of the audience. And lastly, judged 
from the purely musical point of view, they 
occupy the position in the dramatic forms of 
music which ' subjects* do in pure instrumental 
forms of composition, and their recurrence helps 
greatly towards tiiat tmity of impression which it 
is most necessary to attain in works of high art. 

As a matter of fact 'leit-motive* are not 
always identical in statement and restatement ; 
but as the characters and situations to which 
they are appropriate vary in their surrounding 
drcurostances in the progress of the action, bo 
will the 'leit-motive* themselves be analogously 
modified. From this springs the application of 



LEIT-MOTIF. 

▼ariatiosi and ' transfonnation of themes' t<» 
dramatic music; but it is necessaiy that ihm 
treatment of the figures and melodies should be 
generally more easily recognisable than they need 
to be in abstract instrumental music. 

Leit-motive are perfectly adapted to instra^ 
mental music in the form known as ' programme 
music,* which implies a story, or some definite 
series of ideas; and it is probable that the 
earliest distinct recognition of the principle in 
question is in the Symphonic Fantastique of 
Berlioz (written before 1830), where what he 
calls an ' id^ fixe * is used in the manner of a 
leit-motif. The * id^ fixe * itself is as follows : — 




It seems hardly necessary to point to Wagner's 
works as containing the most remarkable ex- 
amples of 'leit-motive,* as it is with his name 
that they are chiefly associated. In his earlier 
works there are but suggestions of the principle, 
but in the later works, as in Tristan and the 
Niblung series, they are worked upinto a most 
elaborate and consistent system. The following 
examples will serve to illustrate some of the 
most characteristic of his * leit-motive * and hia 
use of them. 

The curse which is sttacheft to the Rheingold 
ring is a very important feature in the develop* 
ment of the story of the Trilogy, and its ' leiU 
motif,* which consequently is of frequent oc- 
currence, is terribly gloomy and impressive. Its 
first appearance is singularly apt, as it is the 
form in which Alberich the Niblung first de- 
claims the curse when the ring is reft firom him 
by Wotan, as follows :— 




Among Uie frequent reappearances of this 
motif, two may be taken as highly charac- 
teristic. One is towards the end of the Rhein- 
gold, where Fafher kills his brother giant Fasolt 
for the possession of the rin^, and the leit-motif 



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IJETT-MOTOT. 

}iflbig httad, mnindB the hearers of th6 d<Mm 
proDoanoed on the poaeessors of the ring by 
Alberich. 

A yet more pregnant instance is in the Gotter- 
dimmemng, the Uist of the series. When Sieg- 
fried comes to the Hall of the Gibichungs on the 
Rhine, with the ring in his possession, having 
obtained it by slaying Fafher, who had taken 
the form of a dragon to preserve it, the first per- 
son to greet him is Hagen, the son of Alberich^ 
who looks to compass Si^fned^s death, and re- 
gain the ring for the KiUmigs by that means. 
As Hagen says 'Heil Siegfried, theurer Heidi' 
the greeting is belied by the ominous sound of 
the kit-motif of the corse,, which thos foretells 
the catastrophe in the sequel of which Hagen is 
the instrument and Sieg&ied the victim, and 
lends a deep and weird interest to the situation. 
Si^firied himself has * motive * assigned to him 
in different circumstances and relations. For in- 
itance, the following figure^ which he blows on 
(he silver horn made for him by Mime, is the 
one which most frequently announces his coming. 
It impliee his youthful and light-hearted state 
before he had developed into the mature and 
experienced hero» 



This figure is frequently subjected to oonsider- 
sble development, and to one important trans- 
fixmation, which appears, for instance, in the 
death march as follows : — 



JLEPTMOTm 



iir 



, Q ti . — 


. — !& 


fcfc 




, fe>. 


SB 




9 


mH-'ii 


3 


^ 


ffiNJ^JJ.J-l 


F 4"--'nj# 


m- 


hti 




i^: 






te 


r^-J — ■ 


uT^IBIJ 


\mm 


V ' 


"4- 


•J-- H 


7^J. 


TTJ-- 


^ 


^•t^ 


t-j- 


i 




•J-r 


iJ^i 





Tn his character as mature hero he is notified by 
the following noble figure. 



vhieh occurs as above in the last act of the 
WalkOre, when Wotan has laid Brttnnhilde to 
aleep on the ' Felsenhohe,' with a wall of fire 
sround her; and the sounding of the motif 
impliM that Siegfried is the hero who shall pass 
through the fire and waken Briinnhilde to be his 
bride. A happy instance of its recurrence is 
when, in the first act of Siegfried, the youthful 
hero tells how he had looked into the brook and 
saw his own image reflected there. 

In the above examples the marked character 
of the figure lies chiefly in their melody. There 
are othm which are marked chiefly by rhythm, 
as the persistent motif of Mime imitating the 
riiyUumo succession of blows on an anvil*- 



which points to his occupation as a smith. This 
motif occurs in connection with the rattling 
blows of the hammers of the Niblung smiths 
underground, at the end of the second scene of 
the Rbeingold, and thus shows its derivation* 

Other 'motive' again are chiefly conspicuous 
by reason of impressive and original progressions 
of harmony. Of this kind ihf,t of the Tamhelm 
is a good example. It occurs as follows, where 
Alberich first tests the power of the helm at the 
beginning of the third scene of the Rheingold :— 




Another instance where a strongly marked 
melodic figure is conjoined with an equally strik- 
ing progression of harmony, is the ' death motif 
in Tristan and Isolde, which first appears in the 
second scene, where Isolde sings as fellows : — 
/ .^ P 




A figure which it is difficult to characterise, 
but which has a marvellous fascination, is the 
motif of the love-potion in Tristan and Isolde. 




The love-potion is the key to the whole story, 
and tEerefere the musical portion of the wo k 
appropriately commences with its leit-motif. 
Among the numerous examples of its recurrenci 
one is particularly interesting. When King 
Marke has discovered the passionate love which 
existed between Tristan and Isolde he is smitten 
with bitter sorrow that Tristan, whom he had so 



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118 



LEIT-MOTIF. 



loved and trosted, should have so betrayed lilm, 
and appeak to Tristan himself. Then as Tristan 
slowly answers him themotif is heard, and, without 
its being so expressed (for Tristan does not excuse 
himself), conyeys the impression that Tristan 
and Isolde are not to blame, but are the victims 
of the love-potion they had unwittingly shured. 

Among more important contemporary com- 
poeers, Professor Mac&rren has made use of the 
device in his cantata 'The Lady of the Lake/ 
and to a certain extent in his oratorio 'Joseph.* 
The following characteristic examples from tiie 
cantata will illustrate his mode of employing the 
device. In a soliloquy in the earlier part of the 
work Fitz-James reran to Dooglas, and sings 
the following figure : — 



DonflM b tlM thema 

This recurs appropriatdy when Douglas refers to 
himself and his daughter as all that remained of 
his clan, under the type of the Bleeding Heart, 
which was their badge. 
Boderick Dhu*s motif is as follows i^- 



This is hanpily used in the accompaniment to 
the vocal phrase in which he appeals to Douglas 
to grant him Ellen for his wife, as follows : — 




The prophecy of Brian the Seer is enunciated 
as follows : — 




and this is reintroduced when the Chorus describes 
how Red Murdoch is slain by Fitz-James, and 
dearly implies that he is the first foeman whose 
life is taken, and that the victory in the strife 
between Roderick and Fitz- James will rest with 
the latter in fulfilment of the prophecy. It also 
recurs when Fitz-James warns Roderick that 
Murdoch is dead and that therefore the prophecy 
is against him. 

I^or to contemporary composers, though sub- 
sequent to the idde fixt of Berlioz, a few hints 
of the spirit of leit-motive may be found in 
various quarters: for instance, in Meyerbeer^s 
' Prophfete,' when the prophet in the early part of 
the work speaks of the dream of future splendour 
in store for him, the first strain of the processional 
march is heard. Again, the system of giving a 



LB JEUNE. 

particular instrumental tone to the aooompani- 
ment of particular characters which is clearly 
analogous, is notable in the string accompani- 
ment of Christ's words in Bach*s 'Passion, and 
in the sounding of the trombones when the Com- 
mendatore appears in * Don Giovanni,' and the 
adoption of a similar quality of tone or definite 
phrase as the aocompamment to special utterances 
of Elijah in Mendelssohn's oratorio, and to the 
appearance of Don Quixote in his opera of 
Camacho's Hochzeit (1825). [C.H.H.P.] 

LE JEUNE, Claude, or Claudin, bom at 
Valenciennes probably about 1530, for we first 
find his name as a composer in 1554. The only 
part of his life of which we have any record 
was spent in Paris. Thus in 158 1 he attended 
the marriage of Henry Ill's favourite the Due de 
Joyeuse, and noted the magical effect of his own 
music,^ About this time also, Leroy printed 
5 vols.' of chansons (2k 4), 39 of them by Le Jeune, 
and the publisher, himself a first-rate musician, 
seems to have valued them highly, placing the 
author bv the side of Lassus, and filling the last 
a vols, with their works alone. Still the Hugue- 
not composer met with slender encouragement 
for many years, and there is a pathetic story of 
his attempted flight at the siege of Paris in 1 588, 
when bowed down by the weight of his un- 
published MSS., he was caught by the Catholic 
soldiers, and would have seen his treasures c<Hn- 
mitted to the flames, but for the timely aid of 
Mauduit, a Catholic musician, who saved the 
books and aided the escape of his brother artist. 

Better times came late in life. In Henty IV a 
reign, Leroy printed ' Recueil de plusieurs chan- 
s<ms et airs nouveaux,' par CI. le J. (Paris 1 594), 
and in 1508 Haultin, at La Rochelle, the 'Do- 
decacorde, i a psalms written according to Qla- 
rean's i a Churdi modes. On the title-page of the 
latter we see for ihefird time * compositeur de la 
musique de la chamlnre du roy,' so perhaps the per- 
mission to print such a work, and the possibuity 
of holding the appointment, was a result of the 
Edict of Nantes in the same year. In any case 
the appointment was quite a recent one, and 
Le Jeune did not long enjov it, for the next pub- 
lication, ' Le Printemps ' (aedicated to our lung 
James I *), was posthumous, and on the 4th page 
an ode M>pears * Sur la musique du defunct Sieor 
CL le J., the second stanza of which begins thus, 

' Le Jeune a fidot en ea TieUene, 
Ge qn^un bien fptye jeoneeae, 
ITatueroit avoir enterpria.' 

The 6th page contains a general essay on 
music, claiming for Le Jeune the honour of uniting 
ancient rhythm to modem harmony. * Le Pfin- 
temps' contains 33 chansons with ' vers mesures,* 

1 The tXorj goat that an oflloer was k> excited by an air <tf the com- 
poaer's that he cried out, with oath^ that he must attack some one. 
and was only padfled when the character of the strain was altered. 
Whatever truth there may be In the story, the effect was mora 
probably produced by some martial rhythm In the music than by any 
superior Intelllgenoe which Claude possessed In the use of the modes, 
to which it is attributed by the narrator. 

> The lasts of 85 ?oIs. of chansons published between the years 1S69 
andiner. 

* See Hawkins's History (Chap. 110). The copy we hare «een had 
the first page torn out, on wbldi this dedication probably appcarvd, 
and the words ' roy ' and 'majesty* exmsed oo the second. 



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LEJEUNB. 

figilowwl by longer settmgB of 'veri rimez.' 
Amcmgit the latter is Jannequin*B 'Chant de 
TAloaette' (k 4) with a 5th par^ added by 
Le Jeime, ' Le chant du Bosaignol in 6 nos./ 
'Ma mignonne in 8 nos./ and a Sestine {k 5) 
'DutrktHyver.' 

The prefacee give no full explanation of ' vers 
mesures.' On p. 6 we read that * the wonderful 
eflReota [nrodaoed by ancient music, as described in 
the fables of Orpheus and Amphion, had been 
lost by the modem Masters of Harmony, that 
Le Jeune was the first to see that the absence of 
Rhythm accounted for this loss; that he had 
unearthed this poor Rhythm, and by uniting it 
to Harmony, had given the soul to the body; 
that * Le Piintemps* was to be an example of 
this new kind of music, but on account of its 
novelty, might fiul to please at first. 

The editor next tells us (p. 7) that M. Baif ^ 
and M. Le Jeune had meant to print the words 
with Boitable iq)elling and without superfluous 
letters, and to make tiie scanning as dear in the 
French poetry as it would be in Latin. But that 
he (the editor) had been advised to abandon this 
as too great a novelty. We are therefore left un- 
certain aa to the method which the authors meant 
to employ, and have little to guide us as to the 
mtar{n«tation of such a passage as this (the bars 
dnum and quavers joined as m original) : — 

Vokar 1« rerd * bewi mfty ooD*Ti-Tant i tout souUs 

We have, however, above the ode 'Sur la 
musiqne mesur^ de CL le J.* on p. 3 of this same 
book a scheme of the quantities of the 4 lines in 
each stanza. The first line of this scheme being 
-w — v»v — —WW —WW-; the corresponding line 
of the ode would then be accented 

I Ibints mfkzl | c\Bdm dfi 06 1 temps cl I pAr Ite & | cOn 
grtrCldoQa. 

and any music set to this would take the same 
accents. And so we might suppose that by some 
suitable directions as to the scanning of the words 
he might intend the above passage to be sung 
thus— 



LE JEUNE. 



119 




using the bars in the original as a mere division 
of the lines in the poem, where there should 
always be a pause and the measure completed. 
I9 any case this is only an adaptation to French 
nrasic of what had been already done by Lassus 
and others in using the metres of Latin verses, 
though their efforts at Rhythm may have been 
aeeidental, while Le Jeune had a set purpose. 
It is interesting, at least, to see the importance 
of Rhythm being recognised, and some attempt 
at a notation to express it. It also seems dear 
ham what is said in the prefiuse, of making the 



French lines like the Latin, that the authors saw 
the impetus which the Latin odes had given to 
music in this direction. 

The music (k 5) to the Psalms (Paris 1 607) was 
apparently not reprinted, being doubtless cast in 
the shade by the more important setting (^4and 5 ) 
of Marot and Beza's Psalms, printed at La Ito- 
cheUd by Haultin, and dedicated by Cecile Le 
Jeune,* m pursuance of the composer's expressed 
wishes, to the Duke of Bouillon, a great Protestant 
champion. This work, on which Le Jeune*s great 
reputation entirdy rests, went through many 
editions in France, found its way into Germany 
with the translation of Lobwasser, and except in 
Switzerland, was soon used universally in all 
Calvinistio churches. 'It went through more 
editions, perhaps, than any musical work since 
the invention of ^ printing.' The mdodies in the 
Tenor are the same as £ose used bv Goudimel, 
ai^d earlier still by Guillaume Franc.^ The other 
parts are written in simple counterpoint, note 
against note. The simplicity of the style, and 
its consequent fitness for congregational use, was 
not the onlvcauso of its supplanting earlier works 
of the kind. There is real beauty in the music, 
which modem critics do not cease to recognise* 
'Claude LeJeune,'saysBumey, speaking spedally 
of this work, ' was doubtless a great master of 
harmony.* Ambroe finds 'the discant so me- 
lodious that it might be mistaken for the prindpal 
« part.' ' These psidms,* thinks F^tis, ' are better 
written than Goudimd*s.' * 

Other posthumous publications are the 'Airs h 
3, 4, 5, 6 (Paris, Ballard, 1608), and a collection 
of 36 chansons, 3 on each of the 1 2 modes, under 
the title * Octonaires de la vanity et inconstanoe 
du monde' (id. 16 10). 

Lastly, in 161 2, Louis Mardo, Le Jeune's 
nephew, published a 2nd book of Meslanges, in 
which, judging from the miscellaneous contents, 
he must have collected all that he could still find 
of his undoes works, French chansons h 4, 5, 8, 
canons, psalms, a magnificat, a fimtaisie, Latin 
motets, and Italian maidrigals. 

In the higher branches of composition Le Jeune 
never met with great success. The Belgian and 
Italian masters would not look at his writings.'' 
Bumey regarded him as a man of study and 
labour, rather than of genius and &cility, but this 
judgment was only passed on some of his very 
earliest works." F^tis, on the other hand, con- 
sidered him naturally gifted, but without the 
education of a great master; and this opinion 
seems to be borne out by the success of his simpler, 
and the failure of his more daborate works. 

s All doabtM to La JeaDe being ft Ikmily name Mems to ba dispelled 
Ij the aister*! algnature u ftbore. 

• Barney's HiMorr. lit 40. 

« The belief which at one time existed in Xn^and that Le Jeune was 
the author of the melody of the 'Old lOOth Fsalm.' and which gains 
some support fhmi the ?agne terms In wh cb Bumey <liL 47) speaks of 
it. has no foundation in fact It is now well known that that melody 
flnt appeared In Ben's Genevan Psalter of 1S64. [Bee Old Huk- 

DBCDTH.] 

A Geschlohte der Musflc. UL 844. 

• Biographle, v. 2fll. 

1 Hersenne, Harm. UniT. It. 197. and Barney ill. 97S. 

• Kzoept a canon, tbe piitoes of Le Jeune's in Dr. Bumey*s MB. note- 
books are aoMHig the oomposw's first publications in U64. 



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120 



LB JEIJKE. 



Le Jeune is generaUy regarded m aFrenc h mg n, 
though his b&thpUoe did not become part of 
France till 1677. It would however be no great 
honour to be called the chief musician of an 
ungrateful country, which suflfered Jannequin In 
his old age to bewail his poverty, which had 
killed poor Goudimel, and could now only boast of 
a decaying and firivolous school. It is more to his 
honour to remember him as the composer of one 
little book which was destined, after his death, 
to carry God^s music to tiie hearts of thousands 
in many lands. [J.R.S.-B.] 

LEMMENS, Nicolas Jacqttss, was bom Jan. 
3, 1823, at Zoerie-Parwys, Westerloo, Belgium, 
where his fkther was echervin and organist. His 
career was attached to the organ from the first. 
At 1 1 years of age he was put under Van der 
Broeck, organist at Dieste. In 1839 he entered 
the Ck)nservatoire at Brussels, but soon left it 
owing to the illness of his &ther, and was absent 
for a couple of years. In the interval he suc- 
ceeded his former master at Dieste, but fortu- 
nately gave this up and returned to the Conser- 
vatoire at the end of 41. There he became the 
pupil of F^tis and was noted for the ardour and 
devotion with which he worked. He took the 2nd 
prize for composition in 44 and the first in 45, as 
well as the first for organ playing. In 46 he 
went at the government expense to Breslau, and 
remained there a year studying the organ under 
A. Hesse, who sent him back at the end of that 
time, with a testimonial to the effect that ' he 
played Bach as well as he himself did.' In 1 849 
ne became professor of his instrument at the 
Conservatoire, and M. F^tis, as the head of the 
establirimient, bears strong testimony to the vast 
improvement which followed this appointment, 
and the new spirit which it inftised through the 
country ; and gives a list of his pupils too long 
to be quoted here. Though distinguished as 
a pianist^ it is with the organ that his name 
will remain connected. In 1857 M. Lemmens 
married Miss Sherrington, and since that time 
has resided much in England. His great work 
is his Ecole d'oz^ue, which has been adopted bv 
the Conservatoires at Paris, Brussels, Madrid, 
etc. He has also published Sonatas, Offertoires 
etc. for the organ, and has been engaged for 
■twenty years on a Method for accompanying 
Gregorian Chants, which is now on the eve 
of publication. On Jan. i, 1879, he opened a 
college at Malines, under the patronage of the 
Belgian clergy, for training Catholic organists 
and choirmasters, which is already largely at- 
tended. Madame Lemmens, n^ Sherrington, was 
bom at Preston, where her family had resided 
for several generations, Oct. 4, 1 834. Her mother 
was a musician. In 1838 they migrated to 
Botterdam, and there Miss Sherrington studied 
under Verhulst. In 52 she entered the Brussels 
Conservatoire, and took first prizes for singing 
and declamation. On April 7, 1856, she made 
htr first appearance in Ix)ndon, and soon rose 
to the position of leading English soprano, both 
in sacred and secular music, a position which 
she has maintained ever since. In 1865 she 



LENZ. 

i^peared on the Engtisb and in 1867 on tii^ 
Italian operatic stage, and her operas embrace 
Bobin Hood, AmW Witch, Helvellyn, Afri- 
oaine, Korma, Huguenots, Roberto, Don Gio- 
vanni, Domino Noir, Fra Diavolo, Marta, etc.. 
etc. [See Sherrington.] [G.J 

LENTO, i,e. 'slow,* implies a pace and style 
similar to a slow Andante. Beethoven rai^y 
uses it. One example is in his last Quartet 
op* 155* LoQto assai. Mendelssohn employs it 
for the introduction to his Buy Bias overture, 
but he chiefly uses it, like ' con moto,' as a quali- 
fication for other tempos — as Andante lento 
(Elijah No. i, and Op. 35, No. 5), Adagio non 
lento (Op. 31, No. 3), Adagio e lento (Op. 87, 
No. 3). [G.3 

LENTON, John, one of the band of music of 
William and Mary and of Queen Anne, in 1693 
published 'The Gentleman's Diversion, or the 
Violin explained,* with some airs composed by 
himself and others at the end. A second edition* 
with an appendix, and the airs omitted, appeared 
in 1 70a, umler the title of ' The Useful Ins^ctor 
on the Violin.' It is ivmarkable that in neither 
edition is there any mention of ' shifting,' and the 
scale given reaches but to C on the second ledger 
line above the stave. About 1694, in conjunc- 
tion with Thomas Toilet, he publi^ed 'A OmBork 
of Musick in three parts.' Lenton composed the 
overtures and act tunes to the following plays : — 
• Venice preserved,' 1685 ; ' The Ambitious Step- 
mother,' 1700; * Tamburlain,* 170a ; *The Fair 
Penitent,' 1703; 'Liberty asserted' and *Abra 
Muley,' 1704. Songs by him are in several of i 
the collections of the period, and other vocal ! 

fieces in 'The Pleasant Musical Companion.* 
le contributed to D'Urfey's 'Third Collection 
of New Songs,' and revised the tunes for the 
earlier editions of his ' PlUs to purge Melancholy.' 
The date of his death has not been ascertained. 
He was living in 171 1. [W.H.H.] 

LENZ, WiLHELM YON, Kusnau councillor at 
St. Petersburg, and author of * Beethoven et ses 
trois styles' (a vols. Petersburg, 1852), in which 
the idea originally suggested by F(^tis, that 
Beethoven's works may be divided into three 
separate epochs, has been carried out to ita 
utmost limits. This was followed bv * Beethoven. 
Eine Kunststudie,' in 6 vols., 1. — iiL Cassel 
1855, 6 ; iv. — vi. Hamburg i860. This is an 
entirely different work from the foregoing, and 
though often extravagant in expression, has a 
certain value from the enthusiasm of the writer 
and the unwearied manner in which he has col* 
lected facts of all kinds about Beethoven's works. 
It contains a Life, an Essay on Beethoven's style, 
a detailed analysis of every one of his works in 
order, with various Lists and Catalogues not 
without use to the student, though in regard te 
the chronology of Beethoven's works, the minute 
investigations of Thayer and Nottebohm have 
superseded many of Lenz's conclusions. He also 
published* DiegrossenPianofortevirtuosenunserer 
Zeit' (Berlin, 1872), a collection of articles on 
liszt^ Chopin, Tausig, Henselt, and many other 



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ptat ftrtists, from peraonal knowledge, well 
tnuulAted in the Monthly Mosioal Rwoid for 
1878. [F.G.] 

UtoOADIE. Alyrical dx'ama in 3 acts^founded 
on a story of Cervantes ; words by Scribe and M^- 
lesville, music by Aubcir. Produced at the Op^ra 
Gomique Nov. 4, 1834. It is the subject of a 
curions invective by Mendelssohn in hu boyish 
letters from Paris (see Groethe and Mendelssohn, 
pp. 44, 45). It had however a great popularity, 
and by Apr. 1825 had had 5a representations. [G.] 

LEO, Lbonabdo, one of the most celebrated of 
NeapolitAn composers, was bom in 1694 at Sui 
Vito degli Schiavi, in the kingdom of Naples. 
His muscal studies were pursu^l at the Conser- 
vatorioof la Pieti^ de' Tunshini, in Naples, under 
Alessandro Scarlatti and Fago (H Tarentino); 
besides which it is said (in a notice of his life by 
Girdamo Chlgi, ohi^master of St. John La- 
teran) that he learned oounterpoint of Pitoni, at 
Kome. After his return to Naples he was ap- 
pointed second master in the Conservatorio of la 
Pietk ; in 1716 was named oif^anist of the royal 
diapel, and the following year was elected to the 

Est ot chapel-master m the church of Santa 
aria della Solitaria. His first serious opera, 
'Sofonisbe,' was produced in 1719, and met 
with great success. Not many years after this 
he qdtted the Conservatorio of la Pietk for that 
of Ssn Onofrio, to which he remained attached 
tin the end of his life. He was perhaps the most 
eminent professor of his time, and the list of his 
pupils includes many distinguished composers, 
anKing whom may especially be named Jommelli 
and Piodnni. But he was not satisfied, as was 
Durante his contempcmtry, with the rdle of a 
pedagogue. 'Sofonisbe* was succeeded by 
neariy fifty other operas and dramatic cantatas, 
ooupicuous among which is ' Demofoonte,* in 
which the great singer Caffiu-elli made Ids first 
appearance, and which contains an air, Misero 
PargoleUo, quoted hrf Piccinni, in a short bio- 
gr^hioal sketch of his master, as pre-eminent 
ftmoDg all Leo's compositions for beauty and 
dramatic expression. Mention should aLao be 
made of *L*01impiade,' two pieoes in which 
acquired a lasting popularity — ^the duet 'Ne* 
giomi tuoi felici,' and the air 'Non so donde 
^ene,* both remarkable for melodious charm. 

His compositions for the church are very 
nmnerous, amounting to nearly a hundred. The 
chief of these are, the oratorio 'Santa Elena al 
Odivario' ; the * Ave maris stella,' for a soprano 
voice, two violins, vida, and oigan ; the Mass in 
D for five voices, written for tiie church of San 
Omoomo degli Span! at Rome ; and the <Mise- 
tere' for a double choir of eight voices. This 
oeM)rated Miserere was comp(Med in 1743, uod 
was the work of a few days. It was written for 
tiie^ Duke of Savoy, who on hearing it» was so 
delighted as to heap presents upon the composer, 
grantinff him at the same time a pension of a 
hundred ounces of silver. Leo was overpowered 
W this munificence, and regarded his acceptance 
<n H m tantamount to a renunciation of all pso- 



'LEO. 



i2i 



perfcy tn his own work, so that when, on his 
return to Naples from Turin, his pupils petitioned 
for a copy of the score, he thought himself bound 
in honour to refuse them. One of them however, 
having found out where the manuscript was kept, 
contrived to possess himself of it ; he divided it 
among his companions, and, between them all, 
it was so speedily copied as to be restored to its 
place before Leo had had time to perceive its 
absence. It was rehearsed in secret, and in a 
few days the students invited the unsuspecting 
maestro to hear the performance of a new work^ 
when to his astonishment his own ' Miserere ' was 
executed in his presence. His first impulse wad 
one of resentment, but this feeling quickly gave 
way to emotion aroused by the enthusiasm of 
the young students, and the end of it was that 
he caused them to repeat the entire piece, so 
that he might himself add the finishing touches 
to their pedbrmance. 

He (Ud not long enjoy his pension. The 
Marquis de Yillarosa, to whose remiiusoenoes of 
the Neapolitan composers subsequent biographers 
are indeoted for many interesting details, says 
that he was engaged in writing the opera 'La 
finta Frascatana ' when he was struck down by 
apoplexy. He was found with his head resting 
on his davichord, the score before him open at 
the bvffo air ' Voi par che gite.' He was appa- 
rently asleep, but he was dead. This was in 
1746. 

In the bright constellation of Nei^politan com- 
posers Leo shines as a brilliant star. To a com* 
plete command of science and of the art of vocal 
writing he united freshness and originality of 
thought, and perhaps in no ccnnposer are the 
germs of modem fancy so happily blent with the 
purity and dignity of the old Boman writers. 
His ideas, if not sublime, are noble; always 
sound and healthy ; occasionally tender, but with 
no tinge of sentimentality. They did not tran- 
scend the limits of contemporary form ; his art 
was therefore adequate to give them that perfect 
expression which is in itself beautifuL It is 
impossible not to feel in all his music themaster^s 
joy in his power over his materials; and the 
satisfaction afforded by a study of his works ii 
mainly based on a perception of this even 
balance between thought and expression, showing 
as. it does, the extent, while it defines the limits, 
of his sphere as a composer. He was not tor- 
mented, like his pupil Jommelli, by the unequal 
conflict between prophetic glimpses of new phases 
of art» far beyond the power of his own limited 
genius to grasp or realise, and a science too 
superficial to do justice to ancient forms. What 
Leo thought) he could express. 

By his tonality he belongs essentially to the 
modems. His harmonies are for the most part 
lucid and simple, yet there is a certain unoon* 
ventionalxty in their treatment, while occasionally 
(as may be seen in the ' Miserere ') chromatic pro- 
gressions occur, quite startling in their effect. That 
his simplicity was the result of consummate art 
is shown by the purity of his part-writing. The 
Chorua of Pilgrimst ' Di quantapena h frutta»' firora 



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122 



LEO. 



the oratorio of 'Santa Elena alCalvario* it a good ' 
instance of a pleasing idea absolutely inseparable 
from contrapuntal farm ; shapely and coherent as 
a whole, it most be unravelled before the close- 
ness and complexity of its texture can be appre* . 
dated. His fugues are compact and massive, and | 
full of contrivance which is always subordinated i 
to unity of effect. It is only necessary to compare ! 
the contrapuntal movement which fnms a Coda 
to the double-fugued 'Amen* chorus in Leo*8 
'Sicut erat,' from the 'Dixit* in D (see 'Fitz- 
william Music'), with the fugue on the 'Osanna* 
in Jommelli^s Requiem, the subjects in which 
are very similar —to see how the science which 
to one man was lui implement or a weapon. In the 
hand of the other was no more than a crutch. 

Besides his lai^ger works, Leo left a great 
number of instrumental compositions ; concertos, 
fugues, toccatas ; several isolated vocal airs with 
orchestral accompaniment; vocal duets and trios; 
finally, six books o[ solfeggi and two of partimenti 
or figured basses, for the use of the students of 
San Onofrio. 

Li person he was of middle height, with a 
bronzed complexion, keen eye andurdent temper- 
ament. His activity and industry were indefatig- 
able ; he was wont to pass great part of the night 
in work, and his energies never seemed to flag. 
Although uniformly genial and urbane, the pre- 
vailing tone of his mind was serious. He appre- 
ciated his own music, and loved it^ but he was 
ever ready to perceive merit in others, and to do 
full justice to the compositions of his rivals. An 
enthusiast in every branch of his art, he was not 
only a great composer and a great teacher, but 
an excellent organist and a virtuoso on the 
violoncello, being indeed one of the first musicians 
to introduce this instrument into Italy. His 
powers of mind remained undiminished to the 
end, and he died in harness, universally re- 
gretted and long remembered. 

The following compositions of Leo are published, 
and accessible. 

I loth Psahn (Dixit Dominus), for SS. A T. B., 
with solos. Halle (Kilmmel). 

Do. for S., T., B., with Orchestra. Berlin 
(Trautwein &, Co.). 

50th Psahn (Miserere), SS., AA., TT., BB. 
Berlin (B. Bock). The same, edited by Choron 
(Paris, Leduc). 

Others, and portions of others, are included in 
' Cecilia,* a monthly periodical of church music, 
ancient and modem, by E. and R. van Malde- 
ffhem (Brussels, Heusner), in Latrobe*s Sacred 
Music, and Eochlitz's 'Collection.* A Dixit 
Dominus for 8 voices and orchestra has been 
edited (1879) by Mr. C. V. Stanford from the 
autograph in the Fitzwilliam Library (Novello). 
Copious extracts from this and others are printed 
in Novello's * Fitzwilliam Music* [see vol. i. 
pp. 530, 531]. [P.A.M.] 

LEOLINE. The English name of 'L*Ame en 
Peine,* a ballet fuitasUque in a acts ; words by 
Sfunt Georges, music by Flotow. j^oduced at 
the Grand Opera May 29, 1846. The English 
version was by Maddox and G. linleyi and the 



LEONORE PBOHASKJL 

piece was produced at the Prinoeai's theatre 
Oxford Street, Oct. 16. 1848. [G.] 

LfiONORE, OU L'AMOUR CONJUGAL, 
an op^ra-oomique in 2 acts; words by Bouilly^ 
music by Gaveaux. Produced at Uie Op&tk 
Comique Feb. 19, 1798. The book was trans- 
lated into Italian, composed by Paer, and 
produced at Dresden Oct. 3, 1804. It was also 
translated into German bv Jos. Sonnleithner 
(late in 1 804), and composed by Beethoven. The 
story of the transformations and performanoea 
of Uie opera in its three shapes is given under 
FiDELio (vol. i. p. 519a) ; and it only remains 
to add that it was proposed to bring it out at 
Prague in May 1807, and that Beethoven, with 
that view, wrote the overture known as * Leonore 
No. I* (op. 138). The proposal however was 
not carried out, and the overture remained, 
probably unperformed, till after his death.^ It 
was Beethoven*s wish from first to last that 
the opera should be called 'Leonore* ; and his 
edition of the pianoforte score, published by 
Breitkopfr in Oct. 1810, is entitled 'Leonore. oper 
in zwey Au(zugen von L. van Beethoven.' On all 
other occasions he was overruled by the Manage- 
ment of the theatre, and the opera has always 
been announced as Fidelio, probably to avoid 
oonfiudon with Paer*s opera. For the whole 
evidence see 'Leonore oder Fidelio?* in Otto 
Jahn*s Geeamm. Schriften, p. 236, and Thayer*8 
Chron. Verzeichniss, p. 61. 

It may be well here to give a list of the 
overtures to the opera in the order of their 
composition. 



ntla. 


Date and OooMfcm. 


Date or DobUea- 
tionofScors. 


Leonore No. 2, 
Inc. 


open, Nov. 80, 1806. 


Breitlcopr 1842 
and 1864. 


Leonore No. 8, 
inc. 


For production of 
S9, 18U6. 


Breitkopfl828. 


Leonore No. 1, 
inC(op.l88). 


For a perfonnsnoe of 

in May 1807. wliidi 
never came off. 


UaiUnger 1832. 


Fidelio, In E. 


For Uie second and 
final revision of tlie 
opera: first plajed 
Slay 26. 1814. 


BTeikkopfl864. 



[G.] 
LEONORE 'PROHASKA, a romantic tra- 
gedy by Friedrich Duncker, for which Beethoven 
in the autumn of 181 4 composed a soldiers* chorus 
for men*s voices unaccompanied; a romanoe with 
harp accompaniment; and a melodram with har- 
monica, besides scoring the march in his Sonata 
op. a6. The melodram has been already printed in 
this Dictionary. [Vol. i. p. 663.] The opening 
bars of the two others are given by Thayer^ 
Chron. Verzeichniss, No. 187. llie march is trans- 
posed into B minor,* and scored for a flutes, 
2 clarinets, 4 horns, and either strings or brass 
instruments — it seems uncertain which. (See the 
account in Thayer, iii. 317.) The autograph 

1 Nottebohm, 'Beethorenlana.* 

s Mr. Nottebohm glret H * Eleonore.* 

SA'bladiker'aoooniliiftoBeethoTsn. [esev«Ll.fwMla4 



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LEONORE PBOHASKA. 

II in poatessioii of Mr. Adolpb Miiller of Vieniut. 
Dr. Soimleithner — no mean anthority — ^believed 
that Beethoven had also written an oyertore 
and entr*acte for the piece. For some reason 
or other the play was not performed. [G.] 

LEEOY, OP LE ROY, Adbikw, was a singer, 
lateolayer, and composer, but will be remem- 
bflred as one of the most celebrated musio printers 
of the 1 6th century, when printers were also 
pablishers. Of the reasons of his taking to 
printing we have no account. He worked wiUi 
the types of Le B^ (out in 1540), as Attaignant 
had done before him with those of Hautin. 
F^ states that he worked by himself for some 
time, but cites no evidence. In 1551 Le Boy 
maoied the dster of R. Ballard, who was abneady 
occupying himself with music printing, and was 
attached to the court ; they joined partnership 
and obtained a patent, dated Feb. 16, 1552, as 
sole printers of music to Henri II. In 1571 
he received Orlando Lasso as his gpiest, and 
published a volume of ' moduli* for him, with 
a dedication to Charles IX, which has already 
been t|uoted in this volume. [Seep. 98a]. Leroys 
name disappears from the publications of the firm 
in 1589, and it may thus far be inferred that he 
died then. His Instruction book for the Lute, 
1557, was translated into English in two (Af- 
ferent versions, one by Alford, London 1568, 
and one by 'F. K. Gentleman* (lb. 1574). A 
second work of his was a short and easy instruc- 
tion-book for the 'Guiteme,' or guitar (1578) ; 
and a third is a book of ' airs de cour* for the 
late 1 57 1, in the dedication of which he says 
that such airs were formerly known as ' voix' de 
^e.' Besides these the firm published, between 



LES8EL. 



12s 



1551 and 1568, ao books of 'Chansons* for 

[G 



voices. 



1 

LE8CHETITZKT, Theodob, a distinguished 
pfMiisty bom of Polish parents in 1831. He 
attracted notice in Vienna by his pianoforte 
playing in 1845. He was for some time a pro- 
«or at the Conservatorium of St. Petersburg, 
from which appointment he has retired, and now 
lives in Vienna. His compositions chiefly con- 
nst of morceauz de salon for the piano. He 
made his d^ut in England at the Musical 
Umoo concerts in 1864, playing in the Schumann 
Quintet, and solos of his own composition, and 
has frequently since then appeared at the same 
concerts. Madame Annette Eusipoff was for some 
time his pupU. [J. A. F. M.] 

LESLIE, Heitbt David, bom in London, 
June 18, 1822, commenced his musical education 
nnder Chariee Lucas in 1838. For several years 
he played the violoncello at the Sacred Harmonic 
Society and elsewhere. In 1847, on the formation 
of the Amateur Musical Society, he was appointed 
iti honorary secretary, and continued so until 
1855, when he became its conductor, which post 
he retained until the dissolution of the Society 
^1861.^ In 1855 he foraaed the well-known 
^^hoir which bears his name, which numbers aoo 
▼woes, is noted for its refined performance of 

JJI«r thb not be ttM odgin of FoMbrOb, a pleoe OMda up of eoiw 



motets, madrigals, and other unaccompanied part 
music, and in 1878 gained the first prize in the 
International competition of choirs at Paris. In 
1863 he was appointed conductor of the Hereford- 
shire Philharmonic Society, an amateur body at 
Hereford. In 1864 he became principal of the 
National College of Music, an institution formed 
on the principle of the foreign conservatoires, 
which, however, not receiving adequate support, 
was dissolved in a few years. In 1874 ^^ becamo 
the director and oonductor of the Guild of 
Amateur Musicians. Henry Leslie's first pub- 
lished composition— a Te Deum and Jubilate in 
D — appeared in 1846. He has since (nroduced 
a Symphony in F, 1847 ; a festival anthem, 
'Let God arise,* for solo voices, chorus and 
orchestra, 1849; overture, 'The Templar,* 1853 ; 
Immanuel,' oratorio, 1853 ; ' Romance, or, Bold 
Dick Turpin,* operetta, 1857 ; ' Judith,* oratorio, 
produced at Birmingham Festival, 1858 ; * Holy- 
rood,' cantata, i860 ; * The Daughter of the Isles,* 
cantata, 1861; 'Ida,' opera, 1864; besides 
instrumental chamber music, antheins, songs, 
duets, trios, pianoforte pieces, and a large num« 
ber of part songs and madrigals composed for his 
choir. In addition to a wide range of madri- 
gals, motets, and unaccompanied music of all 
ages and countries, the following are among the 
larger works which have been performed by this 
excellent choir: — Bach's motets for 8 voices; 
Samuel Weidey's ditto for ditto ; Mendelssohn's 
Psalms and motets, and his Antigone and (Edi- 
pus; Gounod's motets and Messe Solennelle; 
Carissimi's Jonah; Tallis*8 Forty -part song; 
Bouigault Ducoudray's Symphonic religieuse (un- 
aocompanied). [W.H.H.] 

LESSEL, Fbanz, one of Haydn's three 
favourite pupils, bom about 1 780, at Pulawy on 
the VistiUa, in Poland ; his father, a pupU of 
Adam Hiller and Dittersdorf, being Musik- 
director at the neighbouring castle of Prince 
Czartoryski. In 1797 he came to Vienna to 
study medicine, but the love of music proved 
a great distraction. Haydn eventually took 
him as a pupil, a service he repaid by tending 
him till his death with the care and devotion of 
a son. In 18 10 he returned to Poland, and lived 
with the Czartoryski frmily, occupied entirely 
with music. After the Revolution of 1830 had 
driven his patrons into exile, Lessel led a life of 
great viciBsitude, but being a man of varied culti- 
vation fdways managed to maintain himself, 
though often reduced to great straits. In 1837 
he was superseded in his post as principal of the 
gymnasium at Petrikan on the borders of Silesia, 
and feeling a presentiment of approaching death, 
he compcMod his requiem, and shortly after 
(March 1839) expired of the disease commonly 
called a broken heart. He left songs, chamber 
music, and symphonies ; also church music, spe- 
cially indicating gifts of no common order. Among 
his effects were some autographs of Haydn pre- 
sented by himself. Some of his works were 
published by Artaria, Weigl, and Breitkopf 8c 
Hartel, among them beinff, 3 sonatas for P. F. 
(op. a) dedicated to Hayoti ; fantasia for P. F. 



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121 



IiESSEL. 



<op. 8), dedicated to dementi ; anotW &ntadA 
<«>i;. 13) dedicated to Cecily Beidale, etc. Lea- 
flel's life was a romantic one. He was believed 
to be the love-child of a lady of rank. Mystery 
albo enveloped the birth of his first love, Cecily 
Beidale, and he discovered that she was his 
sister only just in time to prevent his marrying 
her. One of his masses — 'Zum Cacilientag' — 
was composed in all the fervour of this first 
passion. [C.F.P.] 

LESSON* or LEQON, a name which was 
used from the beginning of the 17th century 
to the close of the i8th, to denote pieces fbr 
the harpsichord and other keyed instruments. 
It was applied to the separate pieces which 
in their collected form made up a Suite. The 
origin of the name seems to be that these pieces 
served an educational purpose, illustrating dif- 
ferent styles of playing, and being often arranged 
in order of difficulty.. This is borne out by 
the fiict tiiat Domenioo Scarlatti*s ' 42 Lessons 
for the Harpsichordf edited by Mr. Roseingrave * 
are in the original edition called 'Essercizi — 
XXX. Sonatas per Gravioembalo/ though they 
have little of the educational elioment Sn 
them, and by the following extract from Sir 
John Hawkinses History of Music (chap. 148 ; 
he uses the word 'lessons' for 'suites of lessons') : 
* In lessons for the harpsichord and virginal 
the airs were made to follow in a certain order, 
that is to say, the slowest or most grave first, 
and the rest in succession, according as they 
deviated frx>m that character, by which rule the 
Jig generally stood hut. In general the Gal- 
Hfutl followed the Pa van, the fint being a grave, 
the other a sprightly air ; but this rule was not 
without exoeptioD: In a manuscript collection 
of lessons composed by Bird, formerly belonging 
to a lad^ Neville, who it is supposed was a 
scholar of his, is a lesson of a very extraordinary 
kind, as it seems intended to give the history of 
a military engagement. The following are- the 
names of the several airs in order as th^ occur : 
*• The Marche before the battell. The Souldiers 
Spmmons, The Marche of foote^men. The Marche 
of horse-men : Now folowethe the Trumpets, the 
Bagpipe and the Drone, the Flute and the 
Drome, the Marche to the Fighte, Here the 
battells be joyned^ The Retreate, Now folowethe 
a Galliarde for the victory.'* There is also in 
the same collection a lesson called the Carman's 
Whistle.* Kameau's Lessons for the Harpsichord, 
op. 2 and 3, are not arranged in order of 
difficulty, but are connected by the relation of 
, their keys. In the case of Handel's 3 Lemons, 
the first consists of a Prelude and air with varia- 
tions in Bb, the second of a Minuet in G 
minor, and the third of a Chaconne in G 
major ; so they may be presumed to be intended 
for consecutive performance. The 'Suites de 
Pi^s pour le Clavedn,* in 2 Books, were called 
'Lessons* in the first edition, but in the later 
editions this name was discarded for that which 
they now bear. 

An analogous word to this is ' Etude,' which 
.from origiiuJly meaning a special form o£ ex- 



LESUEXTB. 

erdse, lias in many casgs come to be applied to 
pieces in which the educational purpose is com- 
pletely lost sight of. [See Etudes.] Althocwrh 
in general the name was applied to pieces mr 
the harpsichord alone, yet it was sometimes used 
for concerted chamber music, as in the ' Firste 
Booke of consort lessons, made by divers ex- 
quisite authors, for six Instruments to play 
together, viz. the Treble Lute, the Pandora, the 
Citterme, the Base VioU, the Flute and the 
Treble -VioU, collected by Thomas Morley, and 
now newly corrected and enlaiged' (London 
161 1 ), and in Mathias Vento's ' Lessons fbr the 
Harpsichord with accompaniment of Flute and 
\r,olin.' [J.A.F.M.] 

LESTOOQ. Opera in 4 acts ; words by Scribe^ 
music by Auber. Produced at the Op^ra Comique 
May 24, 1834. It was produced in English al 
Covent Garden Feb. ai, 1835, as 'Lestocq, or the 
Fete of the Hennitage.* [6.] 

LESUEUR, Jean FBAN9018, grandnephew of 
the celebrated painter Eustache Lesueur, bom 
Jan. 15,1 763, in the village of Drucat-Pleasiel. near 
Abbeville. He became a chorister at Abbeville 
at 7. At 14 he vrent to the college at Amiens, 
but two years later broke ofiF his studies to 
become, first, maltre de musique at the cathedral 
of S^z, and then sous-maitre at the church 
of the Innocents in Paris. Here he obtained 
some instruction in harmony from the Abbj 
Boze, but it was not any systematic course of 
study, so much as his diorough knowledge of 
plain-song, and deep study, that made him the 
profound and original musician he afterwards 
became. His imagination was too active, and 
his desire of distinction too keen, to allow him 
to remain long in a subordinate position; he 
l^erefore accepted in 178 1 the appointment of 
mattre de musique at the cathedral of Dijon, 
whence after two years he removed to Le Mans, 
and then to Tours. In 1 784 he came to Paris 
to superintend the performance of some of his 
motets at the Concert Spirituel, and was re- 
appointed to the Holy Innocents as head-master 
of the choristers.. He now mixed with the fore- 
most musicians of the fVench school, and with 
Saochini, who gave him good advice on the art 
ef composition, and urgdi him to write for the 
stage. In 1786 he competed for the musical 
directorship of Notre Dame, which he obtained, 
and immediately entered upon his duties. He 
was allowed by the chapter to engage a fnll 
orchestra, and tiius was able to give magnificent 
performances of motets and 'messes solennelles.* 
His idea was to excite the imagination and pro- 
duce devotional feeling by means of dramatic 
efiects and a picturesque and imitative style, 
and he even went so fiur as to precede one of his 
masses by a regular overture, exactly as if it had 
been an opera. Crowds were attracted by this 
novel kind of sacred music, and his masses were 
nicknamed the 'Beggars* Opera* ('L'Opte des 
Gueux *). This success soon aroused opposition, 
and a violent anonymous attack was made upon 
him, under pretext of a reply to his pamphlet 
'Essai de musique sacr^e, ou musique motive 



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LRSUEUB. 

•t m^odiqne dout 1* f6te de Noel' (17S7). 
LeBoeur's rejoinder wm another pamphlet, ' Ex- 
pos^ d*ane moaiqae une, imitative et particuli^re 
k chaqne aolemut^* (Paris, H^riBsant, 1787), in 
which he gives a detailed Bketch of an appro- 
priate mu^ad service for Christmas, and states 
expressly that his aim was to make sacred music 
' dramatic and descriptive.* Meantime the chapter, 
finding that his* projects had involved them in 
heavy expense, cnrtailed the orchestra, while at 
the same time strong pressure was put upon him 
by the Archbishop to take orders. He willingly 
ssBomed the title of Abb^, but declined the 
priesthood, especially as he was composing an 
opera, * T^^maque, which he was anxious to 
produce. Finding his reduced orchestra inade- 
quate for his mames he resigned, upon which an 
infieauous libel was issued, accusing him, the 
most upright of men, of having been dismissed 
for fraud. Completely worn out, he retired in 
the autumn of 1788 to the country house of a 
friend, and here he passed nearly four years of 
repose and happiness. On the death of his friend 
in 1793 he returned to Paris invigorated and 
refreshed in mind, and composed a series of 3-act 
operas-r'lA Caverne* (Feb. 15, 1793). 'Paul et 
Viiginie' (Jan. 13, 1794), and 'T^^maque' 
(May IT, 1796), aJl produced at the Feydeau. 
The brilliant success of ' La Caveme ' procured 
his appointment as professor in the ' ]^le de la 
Gaide Nationale* (Nov^ 21, 1793), and he was 
also nominated one of the inspectors of instruction 
at the Conservatoire frx>m its foundation in 1795. 
In Uus capacity he took part with M^hul, Grossec, 
Catel, and Langl^, in drawing up the ' Principes 
^^mentaires de musique * and the * Solf^ges du 
CoDservatoire.* He was then looking forward 
to the production of two ajperw which had been 
aooq[»ted by the Academic ; and when these were 
set aside in favour of Catel*s 'Semiramis' 'Jiis 
indignation knew ao bounds, and he vehemently 
attacked not only his colleague, but the diisector 
of tiie Conservatoire, Catel s avowed patron. His 
pamphlet, ' Projet d*un plan g^^ral de Tinstruc* 
tion musicala en -France * (Paris, an IX, anony- 
mous), raised a storm, and Lesueur received his 
diimiisal from the Conservatoire on Sept. 23, 
1803. Having a fiunily to support, the loss of 
Us salary crippled him seventy, and he was 
only saved frcnn utter indigence by his appoint- 
ment in March 1804 jw maltre ae chapelle to 
the First Consul, «n the recommendation of 
Paisiello, who retired on account of his health. 
As the occupant of the post most coveted by 
mnsicians in France, Lesueur had no difficulty 
in securing the representation of * Ossian, ou les 
Bardes' (5 acts, July jo, 1804). The piece 
inaugurated the new title of the theatre as 
'Acad^mie Imperiale.' Its success was extra- 
ordinary, and the Emperor, an ardent admirer 
of Celtic poems, rewarded the composer with the 
Legion of Honour, and presented him with a gold 
sni^-box inscribod ' L'Smpereur des Fran^ais k 
Tauteur dee Bardee,* intended also as an acknow- 
ledgement for a Te Deum and a masrperformed 
at Noke Dame on the occasion of his coronation 



LESUEUR. 



125 



(Dec. a, 1804). During the next five yearrf 
Lesueur undertook no work of greater import* 
anoe than a share in Persuis^s interm^e * L'ln- 
auguration du Temple de la Victoire* (Jan. a, 
1807), and in the same composer's 3-act opera 
'Le Triomphe de Trajan' (Oct. 33, 1807), oon^ 
taining the well-known * marche solennelle* ; but 
en March 21, 1809, he produced 'La Mort 
d*Adam et son Apoth^ose in 3 acts — the ori« 
ginal cause of his quarrel with the manage* 
ment of the Acad^ie and the Conservatoire. 
The scenery and decorations of the new opera 
excited the greatest admiration ; when compli- 
mented on his work, Degotti the scene-painter 
replied quite seriously, < Yes, it certainly is the 
most beautiful paradise you ever saw in your 
life, or ever will see.' 

In 1 81 3 Lesueur succeeded Gr^try at the 
Lastitut; and after the Bestoration became, in 
spite of his long veneration for Napoleon, sur* 
intendant and composer of the chapel of Louis 
XVin. On Januajry i, 18 18, he was appointed 
professor of com^position at the Conservatoire, 
a post which he retained till his death. His 
lectures were largely Attended, and very inter* 
esting from the brilliant remarks with which 
he interspersed them. Of his pupils no less 
than 13 gained the <prix de Rome' — namely. 
Bourgeois, Ermel, Paris, Guiraud, Hector Ber- 
lioz, Eugene Provost, Ambroise Thomas (whom 
he called his ' note sensible,* or leading note, on 
account of his extreme nervousness), Elwart, 
Ernest Boulanger, Besezzi, Xavier Boisselot 
(who married one of his three daughters), and, 
last but not least, Gounod. Lesueur also wrote 
'Notice sur la M^op^, la Rhythmop^ et les 
grands caract^res de la musique andenne,' pub* 
lished with Gail's French translation of Anacreon 
(Paris, 1793). Ancient Greek music was a 
favourite subject with him, and he would with 
perfect seriousness expound how one mode tended 
to licence, and another to virtue ; unfortunately 
however some wag in the class would occasionally 
mislead his ear by inverting the order of succes- 
sion in the chords, and uiub betray him intp 
taking the licentious for the virtuous mode, and 
vice versa.* 

Lesueur died in Paris on Oct. 6, 1837, 
at a patriarchal age, and in universal respect; 
even Berlioz loved and honoured him to the last 
(see cbi^ters vi. and xx. of his M6moires), He 
left 3 operas which had never becm performed. 
*Tyrt^' 3 acts, composed in 1794 ; * Artaxeroe/ 
3 acts, accepted by the Op^ra in i8oi ; and 
'Alexandre 2b Babylone,' of which the score has 
been engraved, and considerable portions per* 
formed at the Conservatoire concerts. Of his 
numerous oratorios, masses, motets, etc., the fol* 
lowing have been published :--'L'Oratorio ou 
Messe de Noel*; 3 messes solennelles ; a low mass 
with 'Domine Salvum'; 3 'Oratorios pour le 
couronnement des princes souverains'; 3 Te 
Deums ; 3 * Oratorios de la Passion* ; 3 ' Domine 
Salvum'; i Stabat; the oratorios 'Debora/ 



t This Is MJd to have been a fitvourite i 



ntwtUi Ooanod M 



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129 



LESUEUB.. 



<RaoheV 'Rath et No^mi/ 'Rath et Booz*; a 
cantata for the marriage of the Emperor Napo- 
leon; a motet for the baptism of Uie King of 
Home; a Pri^re for the Emperor on airs of 
Languedoc; an 'O Salutaris'; several ptudms 
and motets, among which must be specified a 
' Super flumina Babylonis.* 

The 5 operas previously mentioned, and all 
this sacred music, furnish ample materials for 
forming an estimate of Lesueur^s genius. His 
most marked characteristic is a grand simplicity. 
No musician ever contrived to extract more firom 
common chords, or to impart greater solemnity 
to his choruses and ensembles ; but in his boldest 
flights, and most original effects of colour, the 
ear is struck by antiquated passages which stamp 
the composer as belonging to a pass^ school. 
'His biblical characters are set before us with 
traits and colours so natural as to make one 
forget the poverty of the conception, the antique 
Ita^an phrases, the childish simplicity of the 
^orchestration.* By another critic he was said 
to have taken the theatre into the church and 
the church into the theatre. Thus, looking at 
the matter from a purely musical point of view, 
it is impossible to consider Lesueur the equal ojf 
his contemporaries M^hul and Cherubim ; though 
the novelties he introduced derive a special in- 
terest from the fihct that he was the master of 
Hector BerUoz. [G.C.] 

LETZTEN DINGE, DIE, Le, 'the Last 
Things/ an oratorio in 2 parts ; text by Roohlitz, 
music by Spohr. Composed in the autumn of 
1825, and produced in the Lutheran church, 
Cassel, on 'Good Friday 1826. In England it 
is known as The Last Judgment. This oratorio 
must not be confounded with *Das jtingste 
Gericht,' an earlier and less successful work. [G.] 

LEUTGEB, or LEITGEB, Josef, a horn 
player to whom Mozart was much attached. 
?rhey became acquainted in Salzburg, where 
Leutgeb was one of the band, and on Mozart^s 
arrival in Vienna he found him settled there, in 
the Altlerchenfeld no. 32, keeping a cheese- 
monger's shop and playing the horn. Mozart 
wrote 4 Concertos for him (Kochel 412, 417, 
447' 495)* ^ Quintet (407), which he calls ' das 
Leitgebische,* and probably a Hondo (371). 
This shows that he must have been a good 
player. There must also have been something 
attractive about him, for with no one does Mozart 
appear to have played so many tricks. When 
Leutgeb called to aak how his pieces were getting 
on Mozart would cover the floor with loose leaves 
of scores and parts of symphonies and concertos, 
which Leutgeb must pick up and arrange in 
exact order, while the composer was writing at 
his desk as fast as his pen could travel. On one 
occasion he was made to crouch down behind the 
Btove till Mozart had finished. The margins of 
the Concertos are covered with droll remarks — 
* W. A. Mozart has taken pity on Leutgeb, ass, 
ox, and fool, at Vienna, Mar. 2 7, 1 783, etc.' The 
liom part is full of jokes — *■ Go it. Signer Aaino ' 

1 Berlloc ' Mimolxw.' ohapw ii. 

> 8m ilie Moount in Spohr's Belbftblognphk, tt. lU 



L*HOMME ABM£. 

— < take alittle breath*— 'wretched pig*— * thank 
God here 's the end ' — and much more of the like. 
One of the pieces is written in coloured inks, 
black, red, green, and blue, alternately. Such, 
were Mozart's boyish romping ways! Leutgeb 
throve on his cheese and his horn, and died 
richer than his great friend, Feb. 27,1811.' [G.] 

LEVEBIDGE, Biohard, a singer noted for 
his deep and powerful bass voice, was bom in 
1670. BUs name appears as one of the singera 
in Dr. Blow's Te Deum and Jubilate for St. 
Cecilia's day 1695. He sang in the Anglo-Italiaii 
operas, 'Arsinoe,* *CamilUi,* 'Bosamond,' and 
*Thomyris,* at Drury Lane theatre from 1705 
to 1 707. In 1 708 he was engaged at the Queen's 
Theatre and sang in * The Temple of Love,' etc, 
and in Handel's ' Faithful Shepherd' (* II PastOT 
Fido') on its production in 1712. He subse- 
quently transferred his services to Bich, and 
sang in the masques and pantomimes at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields and Covent Grarden for nearly 30 
years. His voice remained imimpaired so long, 
that in 1 730, when 60 years old, he ofiered, for 
a wager of 100 guineas, to sing a bass song with 
any man in En^and. About 1726 he opened » 
coffee-house in Tavistock Street, Covent Garden. 
In 1609 he composed part of the music for ' The 
Island Princen, or, The Generous Portuguese,* 
and in 1 716 the music for * Pyramus and Thiabe,* 
a comic masque, compiled by him from * A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream.' Li 1727 he published 
his songs, vnth the music, in two small 8vo. vols. 
Many others were published singly. In his old 
age he was maintained by an annual snbecriptioQ 
among his friends, promoted by a city physician. 
He died Mardi sa, 1758. lliere is a good en- 
graved portrait of liim by Pether, from a painting 
by Fryer. [W.H.HO 

L'HOMME ABM£, Love Abm^, or Lomxb 
ABici. I. Hie name of an old French Chamon, 
the melody of which was adopted, Iw some of the 
Great Masters of the 15th and loth centuries, 
as the Canto fbrmo of a certain kind of Mass — 
called the ' Missa L'Homme arm^ ' — ^which they 
embellished with the most learned and elaborate 
devices their ingenuity could suggest. 

The origin of the song has given rise to much 
q>eculation. P. Martini calls it a ' Canzone Pro- 
venzale.' Bumey (who, however, did not know 
the words) Is incUned to believe it identical with 
the famous < Cantilena Bolandi,' andently sungv 
by an armed Champion, at the head of the Fremm 
army, when it advanced to battle. Baini con- 
fesses his inability to decide the question : but 
points out, that the only relique of this poetry 
which remains to us — a fragment preserved in 
the * Proportionale Musices ' of Tinctor — makes 
no mention of Boland, and is not written in the 
Provenfal dialect.* 

'Lome, lome, lome arm^ 
Et Bobinet tu in*M 
La mori donn^, 
Qiiand tu fen vas.* 

> 8m Jahn't Vonrt. ted ed.. 11. 28. 

4 No toon InfonnatloD Is i^rea by Lo<io1b. 'Mdodlai pcpaltlm,* 
Paris, urn 



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L^OMME ARMfi. 

The Melody — an inteiestiiig example of the nm 
of the Seventh Mode— usually appears, either in 
Perfect Time, or the Greater Prolation. Though 
simple, it lacks neither grace, nor spirit. As 
might have been predicted, slight differences are 
observed in the Cantifermi of tiie various Masses 
£nmded upon it ; but, they so fetr correspond, that 
the reading adopted by Palestrina may be safely 
accepted as the normal form. We therefore sub- 
join its several clauses, reduced to modem notation, 
and tnmsposed into the treble det 



L'HOMMB ABMlg. 



127 




^ 



Upon this unpretending theme, or on frag- 
ments of it, Masses were written, by Guglielmo 
da Fay, Antonio Busnoys, Begis, Francois Caron, 
Joannes Tmctor, Philippon di Bruges, La Fage, 
(or Faugues,) De Orto, Yaoqueras, Monsieur mon 
Compare, at least three anonymous composers 
who flourished between the years 1484 and 151 3, 
Antonio Brumel, Josquin des Pr^s, Pierre de la 
Roe, (Petrus Platensis,) Pipelare, Mathurin 
Fofestyn, Cristofano Morales, Palestrina, and 
even Carissimi — a host of talented Composers, 
who aU seem to have considered it a point of 
hfxiour to exceed, as &r as in them lay, the 
fertility of invention displayed by their most 
learned predecessors, and whose works, therefore, 
not only embody greater marvels of contrapuntal 
skill than any o3ier series preserved to us, but 
also serve as a most useful record of the gradual 
advancement of Art. 

The Masses of Du Fay, and Busnoys, and 
their successors, K^gis, and Caron, are written 
m tlM hard and laU>iured style peculiar to the 
earlier Polyphonic Schools, with no attempt at 
ex:gremoji^ but, with an amount of earnest so- 
briety which was not imitated by some of their 
followers, who launched into every extravagance 
that could possibly be substituted for the prompt- 
ing of natural genius. Josquin, however, while 
infinitely surpassing his predecessors in in- 
genuity, brought true genius also into the field ; 
and, in his two Masses on the &vourite subject 
—one for four Voices, and the other for five — 
has shewn that freedom of style is not altogether 
inconsistent with science. The Fugues, Canons, 
Proportions, and other clever devices with which 
these works are filled, exceed in complexity any 
thing previously attempted; and many of them are 



strikingly effective and beautiful — ^none more so, 
perhaps, than the third Agnus Dei of the Mass 
in four parts ; a very celebrated movement known 
as * Clama ne cesses,* from the * Inscription * ap- 
pended to the Superius, (or upper part), for the 
purpose of indicating that the notes are to be 
sung continuously, without any rests between 
them. In this movement, the Superius sings the 
Canto fermo entirely in Longs and Breves, while 
the other three Voices are woven together, in 
Canon, and Close Fugue, with inexhaustible 
contrivance, and excellent effect. In the second 
movement of the Sanctus — the 'Pleni sunt' — for 
three voices, the subject is equally distributed 
between the several parts, and treated with a 
melodious freedom more characteristic of the 
Master than of the age in which he lived. It 
was printed by Bumey in his History, ii. 495. 

It might well have been supposed that these 
triumphs of ingenuity would have terrified the 
successors of Josquin into silence : but this was 
by no means the case. Even his contemporaries, 
I^erre de la Bue, Brumel, Pipelare, and Fdrestyn, 
ventured to enter the lists with him ; and, at a 
later period, two very fine Masses, for four And 
five Voices, were founded on the old Tune by 
Morales, who laudably made ingenuity give 
place to euphony, whenever the interest of his 
composition seemed to demand the sacrifice. It 
was, however, reserved for Palestrina to prove 
the possibility, not of sacrificing the one quality 
for the sake of the other, but of using lus im- 
mense learning solely as a means of producing 
the purest and most beautiful effects. iJis Miwa 
*L* Homme Arm^,* for five voices, first printed in 
1570, abounds in such abstruse combinations of 
Mode, Time, and Prolation, and other rhythmic 
and constructional complexities, that Zacconi — 
writing in 1592, two years before the great 
C!ompo86r's death — devotes many pages of his 
Prattica di Mutiea to an elaborate analvbis of 
its most difficult ' Proportions,' accompamed by 
a reprint of the Kyrie, the Chrwte, the second 
KyHe^ the first movement of the Gloria, the 
Osanna, and the Agnus Dni, with minute di- 
rections for scoring these, and other movements, 
from the separate parts. The necessity for 
some such directions will be understood, when 
we explain, that, apart frx>m its more easily intel- 
ligible complications, the Mass is so constructed 
that it may be sung either in triple or in common 
time; and, that the original edition of 1570 is 
actually printed in the former, and that pub- 
lished at Venice, in 1599, in the latter. Dr, 
Bumey scored all the movements we have men- 
tioned, -in accordance with Zaoconi*s precepts; 
and his MS. copy (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 11,581) 
bears ample traces of the trouble the process cost 
him : for Zaoooni's reprint is not free ih>m clerical 
errors, which oiur learned historian has always 
carefully corrected. The first Kyrie, in which 
the opening clause of the Canto fermo is given 
to the Tenor in notes three times as long as 
those employed in the other parts, is a oonception 
of infinite beauty, and shows traces of the Ck>m- 
poser of the ' Missa Papae Marcelli* in every bar. 



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138 Ii*HOMMB ABM& 

In the edition of 1570 it Btaads in triple time; 
und, in order to make it correspond with that of 
1599, it is necessary to transcribe^ and re-bar it, 
pladng foor minims in a measure, instead of 
six: when it will be found, not only that the 
number of bars comes right in the end, but, that 
every important cadence falls as exactly into the 
place demanded for it by the riiythm of the piece 
as it does in the orig^iiuU copy. It is said that 
Palestrina himself confided this curious secret to 
one of his disdples, who, five years after his 
death, superintended the publication of the Vene- 
tian edition. If it be asked, why, after having 
crushed the vain pedants of his day by the 
< Missa Papae Maroelli,* the * Priocepe Musicae * 
should, himself, have condescended to invent 
conceits as quaint as theirs, we can only state 
our conviction, that he felt bound, in honour, 
not only to shew how easily he coidd beat them 
with their own weapons, but to compel those 
very weapons to minister to his own intense 
religious fervour, and passionate love of artistic 
))eauty. For examples of the music our space 
compels us to refer the student to Dr. Bumey's 
M9. ab^eady mentioned. 

The last ' Missa L^Homme Arm6 * of any im- 
portance is that written, for twelve Voices, by 
Carissinu : this, however, can scarcely be con- 
sidered as a fiur example of the style ; for, long 
before its production, the laws of Counterpoint 
had ceased to command either the obedience, or 
the respect, indispensable to success in the Poly- 
phonic Schools of Art. 

The original and excenively rare editions of 
Jo8quin*s two Masses, and that by Pierre de la 
Bue, are preserved in the Library of the British 
Museum, together with Zaoconi*s excerpts from 
Palestrina, and Dr. Bumey*s MS. score, which 
will be found among his 'Musical Extracts.* 
Kone of these works, we believe, have ever been 
published in a modem form. 

II. The title is also attached to another melody, 
quite distinct from the foregoing — a French 
Dance Tune, said to date from the 15th century, 
and printed, with sacred words, by Jan Fruytiers, 
in his * EccUeicuAicuit published, at Antwerp, 
1565. The Tune, as there given, is as follows : — 




It will be seen, that, though strictly Dorian in 
its tonality, this interesting melody exceeds the 
compass of the First Mode by two degrees. The 
regularity of its phrasing savours rather of the 
1 6th than the 15th century. Possibly Fruytiers 
may have modified it, to suit his own purposes. 
Ins t ano eSy however, are not wanting, of very 



UBRETTO. 

regular phrases, in veiy antient mdodies : as, for 
instance, in the delightful little Romance, *Vau* 
trier par la maiinie,' by Thibaut, King of Navarre 
(ob. 1354), quoted by Dr. Bumey, ii. p. 300, the 
rhythm of which is scarcely less distinctly marked 
than that of Fruytiers* adaptation. [W. a R.] 
LIBRETTO is the diminutive form of the 
Italian word Itbro, and therefore literally means 
'little book.' But this original significance it 
has lost, and the term is used in Italian, as w^ 
as in other languages, in the technical sense of 
book of an opera. Its form and essential difiTer- 
ence from spoken comedy or tntgedy will best 
be explained by a short historic survey of its 
origin and development. In the most primi- 
tive form of opera, as it arose in Florence in 
the 16th century, that difierence was compara* 
tively trifling, the libretto in those dm oomdsting 
maimy of spoken dialogue with a few interspersed 
songs and choral pieces. But the rapid rise of 
music and the simultaneous decline of poetry in 
Italy soon changed matters. Certain muacai 
forms, such as the aria and the various species oC 
concertied music, were bodily transferred to the 
opera, and the poet had to adapt his plot to the 
exigencies of the superior art. Thus ne was ob> 
liged not only to provide primo uomo and prima 
d^ma with a befitting duet in a o(mvenient place, 
but other characters had also to be introduced to 
complete the quartet or the sestet, as the case 
might be, and, in addition to this, the chorus 
had to come in at the end of the act to do duty 
in the inevitable finale. However legitimate 
these demands may appear to the musician, it is 
obvious that they are fatal to dramatic oon- 
sistencT, and thus the poet, and unfortunatdy 
the public also, had to submit to the inevitable, 
the former by penning and the latter by serenely 
accepting the specimens of operatic poetry with 
which we are a^ but too well acquainted. The 
most perfect indifierenoe to the dramatic part of 
the entertainment can alone explain the favour 
with which such profoundly inane productions 
as 'Emani,* or *Un Ballo in Maschera' as 
transmogrified by the Italian censorship, are 
received by En^^h audiences. That this con- 
dition of things should in its turn detrimentally 
react on music is not a matter for surprise; 
for singers naturally would take little trouble 
to pronounce words which nobody cared to Ustea 
to, and with the proper declamation of the wocds 
intelligent musical phrasing is inseparably con* 
nected. In the Italian school, where vocalisation 
was carried to the highest pitch of perfection, 
the libretto accordine^ly sank to the lowest leveL 
In France, on the other hand, where the declam- 
atory principle prevailed, and where dramatic 
instinct is part of the character of the nation, a 
certain regard for story and dialogue was never 
lost, and the libretti of Lully's and RameauX 
and after them of Gluck's operas, share the dassic 
dignity, although not the genius, of Comeille and 
Racine. In the same sense the marvellous skill 
and tavoir faire of the contemporary French 
stage is equally represented in the lyrical drama, 
in more than one instance supplied by the 1 



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LIBRETTO. 

hutig, Th6 same cannot be said of Gem' any, 
where few dramatistB of repute have condeeoended 
to ooH>perate with the masioian, and where, till 
quite lately, even the finest dramatic subjects 
(e.^. Beethoven's Fidelio) were defiiboed by the 
execrable doggrel believed to be particularly 
suitable for Operatic purposes. In all these 
reepeots a deep ehange has been wrought by 
Wagner's reform. In that great poet and greater 
musician the two faculties are inseparably 
blraded, and in his work therefore the reci- 
procity between music and poetry may be 
studied in its most perfect form. His own words 
on the subject will be of interest. ' In Bienzi,* 
he says, 'my only purpose was to write an opera» 
and thinking only of this opera, I took my sub- 
ject as I found it ready made in another man's 
finished production. . . . With the Flying Duiek- 
MOR, I entered upon a new course, by becoming 
the artistic interpreter of a subject which was 
given to me only in the simple, crude form of 
a popular tale. From this time I became^ with 
regard to all my dramatic works, first of all a 
fod ; and only in the ultimate completion of the 
poem was my fiACulty as a munaon restored to 
me. But as a poet I was again from the be- 
ginning conscious of my power of eamreesing 
musuadly the import of my subjects. This power 
I had exsTcised to sudi a degree, that I was 
perfectly certain of my ability of applyii^ it 
to the realiaation of my poetical purpose, and 
therefbre was at much greater liberty to form 
my dramatic schemes according to their poeti- 
cs! necessities, than if I had conoeiyed them 
fitna the beginning with a view to musical 
treatment.' 

Hie result of this freedom of workmanship is 
easOy discoverable in Wagner's later musio- 
drunas, such as 'Tristan' or *The Valkyrie.* 
They are to i^ intents and purposes dramatic 
poems foil of beauty and interest^ quite apart 
from the aid of musical composition. For the 
latter, indeed, they appear at first sight un- 
sd^>ted, and he must be a bold man who would 
think of resetting the ' Niblunff' Trilogy, as Bos- 
nni reset the ' Barber of SeviUe' after Paisiello. 
The ordinary characteristics of the libretto, such 
as the aria^ or the duet, as distinguished firom 
the dialogue, have enUrely disappeared, and 
slongwith these have gone tiiose curious reitera- 
tions by various persona of the same sentence, 
with a corresponding change only of thepersonal 
prcMMHin. In this and other respects Wagner's 
musio'dramaB must be considered by them- 
wlves, and the strict imitation of their form in 
oidinary libretti, written for ordinary musicians, 
would be simply &tal. At the same time his 
w<sk has been of great influence on the struc- 
ture of tLe dramatic poem in modem op^a. 
Musiciang nave become more critical in their 
<^ioe of subjects, and tiie lilnrettists accordingly 
'i^^''^ careful in providing th^n, especially as the 
nsinral aense of the public also seems to be 
awakening from its \oDig slumber. It is indeed 
a significant fact that the three most successful 
operas of recent years, Gounod's 'Faust,* Biset's 



LEBBETTO' 



129 



'Carmen,* and GoeU's 'The Tambg of the 
Shrew,' are all founded on stories of intense 
human interest, more or less deverlj adapted to 
operatic purposes. It is true that in France and 
Qermany the dramatic interest was never at so 
low an ebb as in Italy or in this eountry. 
Numerous operas might be named which owe 
their permanent suocess to a bright and sparkling 
libretto, and others in which uie genius of the 
musician has been weighed down 1^ the dulness 
of the operatic bard; 'Martha,' 'Fra Diavolo,' 
and 'Le PostiUon de Longjumeau,' belong to 
the former class; 'Cosi fan Tutte,' 'La de- 
menza di Tito,' and 'Euryanthe,' nicknamed 
' Ennuyaate' by the despairing 'composer, to the 
latter. It is also a significant fact that by far 
the finest music Bossini ever wrote occurs in 
the 'Barber,' and in 'William Tell,' and that 
'Faust' remains Gounod's unsurpassed master- 
piece, the inspiration of the composers being in 
each case distinctly traceable to the dramatie 
basis of thefr musia Instances of a similar 
kind from the works even of the most ' absolute* 
muucians night be multiplied ad Wntvm, The 
lesson thus taught has indeed been fully fecog- 
nised by the best ^somposers. Beethoven was 
unable to fix upon a, second subject after Fidelio ; 
and Mendelssohn, in spite of incessant attempts, 
found only one to satisfy his demands; and that, 
alas! too late for completion. The libretto of 
his unfinished opera 'Loreley,' by Emanuel 
Geibel the well-known poet, was afterwards set 
by Max Bruch, and perrormed with considerable 
success. The importance of the libretto for the 
artistic as well as the popular success of an opera 
is therefore beyond dispute, and modem con^ 
posers cannot be too careful in their choice. To 
assist them in that choice, or to lay down the law 
with regard to the construction of a model libretto, 
the present writer does not feel qualified. A few 
distinctive features may however be pointed out. 
In addition to the human interest and the truth 
of passion which a libretto must share with every 
dramatie poem, there ought to be a strong infusion 
of the lyrKal element, not to be mistaken for the 
tendency towards ' singing a song' too rampant 
anrangst tenors and soprani. The dramatic and 
the lyrical motives ought on the contrary to be 
perfectly blended, and even in ordinary dialogue 
a certain elevation of sentiment sufiident to ac- 
count fox the sung instead of the spoken word 
should be maintained. This again implies 
certain restrictions with regard to the choice of 
subject. One need not shiure Wagner's absolute 
preference for mythical subject-matter to perceive 
that the scene of an opera ought to be as £u* as 
possible removed firom the platitudes of oommon 
life, barring, of course, tiie comic opera, in 
which the contrast between the idealism of 
music and the realities of every-day existence 
may be turned to excellent account. With re- 
gard to the observance of musical form opinions 
of course will differ widely ; but that the poet 
ought to some extent to ooinorm to the musidan's 
demands no reasonable person will deny. The 
% Wtbar^ Life, bar lilB ton* H sis. 
K 



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180 



lilBBETTO. 



CMe ofWagner, as we have Already said, k tmiqae 
in history, and in ordinary drcumBtanees muaic 
and poetry in the opera co-exist by means of a 
compromise ; but this compromise ought to pro- 
ceed from mutual love, not from mere t<deration. 
In other wordv the poet should undoubtedly 
supply opportunities for musical display^ both of 
a vocal and an orchestral kind, but no finale, or 
march, or wedding chorus, ought to interfere 
with the economy of the drama. Ta state such 
a problem is of course eaner than to solve it, but 
even the mere statement of the difficulty may 
not be entirely without use. 

Before concluding this notice, it is desirable 
to mention the names of a few of the more oele- 
brated librettists. The most fiehmous amongst 
them is Metastasio (1698-1782), the author of 
'La Semiramide reoonnosciuta,' 'II BePastore,* 
and ' U Trionfo di delia^* amongst whose musical 
collaborators were the most celebrated masters of 
the 1 8th century. [Metastasio.] Calzabigi de- 
serves mention as the author of * Orfeo,' and other 
works of G^uck*s Viennese period, the French 
collaborator of the master being Le Bailli du 
BoUet. Amongst more modem Italian libret- 
tists it must suffice to name Felice Bomano, the 
friend and artistic companion of Bellini. The 
&ther of French librettists was the Abb^ Perrin, 
who broke the supreme rule of the hexameter by 
writing what he terms 'paroles de musique ou 
des vers k chanter,' and who in conjunction with 
Cambert produced the first French (^>era properly^ 
so called ('La Pastorale,* first performed in 
1659). Quinault was the poetic assistant of 
Limy. In modem France the name of Scribe 
towers above his rivals; Barbier, Meilhac and 
Hal^vy supply the contemporary market. Sar- 
dou also has tried his hand at lyrical drama, 
but without much success. The fieuliure of the 
English version of * Piccolino ' at Her Majesty's 
Theatre in 1879 was due at least as much to 
Sardou*s libretto as to Guiraud's music. In 
Germany, Goethe and Wieland appear amongst 
aspirants to lyrical honours, but vrithout success. 
Of the professional librettists in that country 
none deserves mention. In connection with so- 
called * English openk' the names of Gay, the 
author of me 'Beggar's Opera,* and, in modem 
times, of Alfred Bunn and of Edward Fitzball, 
both fertile librettists, ought to be mentioned 
To the latter belongs the merit of having by one 
of his pieces supphed Heine, and through him 
Wagner, with the idea of a dramatised ' Flying 
Dutchman.* Mr. PlAnch^, the author of Weber's 
' Obertm,' also must not be forcotten. Mr. W. S. 
Gilbert's witty comediettas, ^v^ch Mr. Sullivan 
has fitted to such charming and graceful tunes, 
can be called libretti only bi a modified sense. 

A few words should be added with regard to the 
libretto of the Oratorio and theOantata. ^£sthetic 
philosophers have called the oratorio a musical 
epic, and, in spite of its dramatic form, there is 
a good deal of tmth in this definition ; for, not 
onl^ does the nanration take the plaoe of the 
action on the stsge, but the descriptive parts, 
generally assigned Uy the chorus, allow of greater 



LICENSE. 

breadth and variety of treatment than is possible In 
the opera. A reference to the chortises in ' Israel 
in Egypt' and other works by Handel will be 
sufficient to illustrate the point. In accordance 
with this principle, what has been urged above 
with regard to uie operatic libretto w^ have to 
be somewhat modified. But here also terse dic- 
tion and a rapid development of events should in 
all cases be msLsted upon. The matter is con- 
siderably simplified where the words have been 
selected from Scripture, fer here sublimity of 
subject and of dictien is at once secured. Handel's 
'Messiah* and 'Ltrael* — which also contain his 
finest music— Mendelssohn*^ 'St Paul,* 'Elijah,' 
and 'Hymn of Praise,* owe their libretti to this 
source. Haydn*s 'Creation * is based on the Bible 
and Milton, though the source is difficult to 
recognise under the double translation which it 
has undergone. Gray's 'Acis and Galatea,' Mil- 
ton's 'Allegro* and * Penseroso,* Dryden's 'Alex- 
ander's Feast.* and Pope's 'St. Cecilia]s Ode' 
have a literary value of their own ; but in other 
cases Handd has been lees happy ; and some ter- 
rible couplets might be quoted fitmi the works of 
his collaborators Morell and Humphreys. The 
transition from the oratorio proper to the cantata, 
or 'Worldly Oratorio' as the Germans quaintly 
call it, is made by LisEt*s ' St. Elizabetii.* The 
libretto by Otto Boquette, although not without 
good points, is upon the whole tedious, and can- 
not be reo(Hnmended as a modeL Better is 
Schumann*s * Paradise and the Peri,* which may 
stand as a specimen of the cantata proper. Its 
libretto is essentially founded on Moore's tale, 
the ensemble of Peris moddng the heavoily 
aspirations of their sister was inserted by the 
composer himself. The story has been skilfully, 
arranged, but there is the drawback that the 
dramatic battle-scene occurs in the first part, 
while the quieter, though psychologically more 
elevated motives, are assigned to ^e later por- 
tions. The impression of ap. anti-dimax is Uiua 
inevitable. [E.H.] 

LICENSE. (It. JAeenzia; Germ. Licenz; 
Ft. Lieenee), As long as any art has the capa- 
city fer development and expansion, trae genius 
and dogmatism are constantly at war. The in- 
herent disposition of the mind to stereotype 
into formmas conclusions drawn from, the od- 
servation of an insufficient number of isolttted 
instances, is probably the result of much bitter 
experience of the finiits of human carelessnees 
and stupidity ; against which the instincts <^ the 
race impel them to guard for the future by 
preparing temporary leading-strings for the 
unwise, to keep them frt>m frSling and dragging 
others wil^ them into the mire of error. Vp to 
a certain point even genius must have leadings 
strings, and these must needs be made of the 
best materials at hand till better be found. 
Hie laws cannot be made on principles whose 
bases are out of the ken of the wisest law-makers ; 
and genius, like ordinary intellect, must needs be 
amenable at first to such laws as preceding 
masters have been able to formulate from the 
sum: total of their experience. The trouble begins 



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LICENSE. 

^rbea loineihiiig ib found whidi Is l>ey6nd the 
range of the observation vrhioh served as the 
hMisfor a law, and seems therefore to contravene 
H; for many men so readily mistake their habits 
tat absolnte truth that when they are shown a 
novelty which pnnoos their point of realisation 
and is out of the beaten track, they condemn it 
at onoe as heresy, and use the utmost of their 
power to prevent its disseminatioQ ;. and where 
they find themselves unable to stem^ the tide 
through the acknowledged greatness of the genius 
who haM originated it, or t&ou^ the aoceptanoe 
of its principle becoming general, they excuse 
themselves and stigmatize what they mistrust by 
calling it a license. 

A license, then, is the breaking of a. more or 
less arbitrary law in such respects as it is de- 
fective and its basis unsound and insufficient; 
and it is by such means that the greater part of 
expansion in musical art has been made. An 
iinsbtible impulse drives genius forth into the 
paths of i^>eoulation ; and when a discovery is 
made it frequently h^ypens that a law is broken, 
and the pedants proclaim a license. But the 
license, being an accurate generalisation, holds its 
place in the art, and the laws have to be modified 
to meet ii, and ultimately men either forget that 
it was ever called a license or stand in amaze- 
ment at the stupidity of their predecessors ; while 
it must be confessed that tbey assuredlv would 
not have been any wiser if they had been in 
their places. 

The history of music is- fiill from end to* end 
with examples — ^from De Muris in the fourteenth 
century bewailing in bitter terms the experiments 
in new oonoord% to the purists of Monteverde*s 
time condemning his use of the dominant seventh 
without preparation, on to the vexation of the 
cootemporaneB of Mozart at the extravagant 
opening of the G major Quartet, and the amaze- 
ment of many at Beethoven's beginning his 
first Symi^ony (in G) with a chord ostensibly in 
F major. Ev^en at the present day Bach's compli- 
cated use of accidentius is a stumblinffblock to 
many, who fianoy he breaks laws against fidse 
rdations; while in reality this law, like that 
against ooDseoutive fifths, is only the particular 
fonnnla covering a deeper law which Bach had 
the power to &thom without waiting for its ex- 
pression. So again with the tesolution of dis- 
eotds ; the old formulas were mere statements of 
the oommoneet practices of the older composers, 
and did not attempt to strike at the root of the 
matter : so we find even Haydn taking, license in 
this direction in relation to the li^ts of his 
time; while Bitch's resolutions are ofben inex- 
plioahle even at the present day as fiir as the 
accepted- princi pl es of resolution will go, because 
theorists nave hardly got fiur enough yet to see 
dearly what he saw and expressed so long a^. 
At the present day, however, the increase of uie 
McumqJated results of observation' and analvsis, 
joined with a. more philosophical spirit, tends to 
produce a more and more accurate determination 
of the real.lawB of art, and by the systematisationi 
<^ these into » more oongruouB and connected 



UCHNOWSKY. 



181 



theory, a nearer approach is made to what is 
universally true, and so less room is left for 
those speculative experiments of genius which 
the denseness of mere pedants has been content 
to brand as licenses. 

This progress explains the fliot that the term 
' license Is not so srequently heard in- relation to 
music as it formerly was: but there is still pJenty of 
room for theorists to invent &lse hypotheses ; and 
the apparently growing deshre of many scientists 
to f<»oe upon artLsts as final the results of the 
most elementary disooveries in* relation to the 
material of the art^ will still afford genius the 
opportunity of asserting the strength of its con- 
victions by taking, so-called licenses,, and will 
likewise afford dogmatists further opportunity of 
making themselves ridiculous to posterity by 
eondenming the truths thus discovered. 

There is just one last consideration. Liber- 
tines are unfortunatdy to be met with in the aH 
world as well as elsewhere, and the licenses they 
take too frequently deserve the bitter language 
of the enraged pedant. There is no need to stay 
to consider their experiments, for they will not 
take long to die of inanition. It onlv remains to 
remind the too hasty enthusiast that to take 
licenses with safety for the art is not the part of 
every ready believer in himself; but only of 
those in whom the h^hest talents are conjoined 
with unflagging pati^ice and earnest labour; 
who pass £ough the perfect realisation of the 
laws they find in force at first, and by learning to 
feel thoroughly the basis on which they rest^ and 
the principles of their application by other great 
masters, finally arrive at that point where they 
can see ^e truths which lie beyond the formal 
expression of the law, and wluch ^e rest of 
humanity only caU licenses for the nonce because 
their eyes are not dear enough nor their spirits 
bright enough to leap to the point which the in- 
spiration- of genius has achieved. 

Beethoven appears to have used the tenn 
* Hcenze' in relation to construction with reference 
to the fugue in Bb in opus io6. It is difficult 
to indicate predseW in what particular the 
licenses consist. Ae case is similar to the 
sonatas which he called ' quasi Fantasia,' merely 
indicating that in them he had not restricted 
himself dosdy to the laws of form as accepted in 
his time, but had enlarged the bounds according 
to hi» own feelings. [G.H.H.P.] 

LIGHFILD, HsNBT, was the composer of 
'The first Set of Madr^^als of 5 parts, apt both 
for Yiols and Yoyoes,' printed in 161 3 and re- 
printed in 1 614, and oontaining ao madrigals. 
Nothing is known of his biography. [W. H. H.] 

LIGHNOWSKY, Ca&l, Fttrst (Prince), by 
Russian patent issued January 30, 1773; bom 
1758, died April 15, 1814; was desoended from 
an old Polisa family whose estatea were so 
situated thaty after the partition of Poland, it 
owed allegiance to all three of the plunderers. 
The prindpal seat of Prince Garl was Sohloes 
Griits, near Troppau in Silesia; but Yienna 
was his usual place of reeidenoe. He daima 

K2- 



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1S2 



uchnowsky; 



a place !ii this work m the pupil and tiend of 
Mourt and the Msoenae of Beethoven. 

Headers of Barney's 'Masioal Toar* will 
remember his eulogies of the Coxmt&n Thmi- 
Klosterle, so celebrated for her beaaty, intellect 
and culture, whose disregard for mere form gave 
her the reputation of eooentricitj, but whose 
house and fiunily had charms that attracted even 
the Empever Jos^h and his brothers thither on 
the fooUng of fri^dly visitora. Of her taste in 
music it is sufficient to say that she was a pro- 
found admirer of the compositions of both the 
young Mozart «nd the yoimg Beethoven, at a 
time when such appreciation was by no means 
universaL Her aaughters — Georg Forster's 
* Three Graces* — ^were worthy of their mother. 
Elisabeth married Rasoumow^ ; Christine, born 
July a6, 1765, married, November 21, 1788, Lioh- 
nowsky ; and the third the English Lord Gi:dlford. 
Schonirald, a Viennese, writes in 1796, of Ladv 
'Gilfort' as a guitar player of very high rank 
«nd a singer of uncommon ezoellenee ; and of 
Princess l^chnowsky as ' a ttrong musician who 
plays the pianoforte with feeling and expression.' 

lichnowsky, without pretending to rival the 
great magnates Esterhazy, Lobkowitx, and their 
peers, in maintaining a complete ' chapel ' of vocal 
and instrumental music, had within five years 
after his marriage his regular Friday quartet of 
youthful virtuosos, Sohig[>panzigh, Sina, Weiss, 
and Krafts all of whom beeame famous, and 
also gave musical entertainments on a scale 
Tequiring a full on^estra. 

His relations to the Prussian court compelled 
him occasionally to i^pear there; and he thus 
found opportunity to give Mosart— only two years 
his semor — a practioJ and substantial proof of 
his affection, by inviting him, in those days of 
tedious and expensive travelling, to join him on 
one of these oceasions free of expense. Thb was 
the journey in the spring of 1 789, during which 
the King ef IVussia offered lifozart the then 
noblest musical position in Germany, but which 
a kind word from the Emperor, after his return, 
led him to reject without securing an eouivalent. 
There seems to be no doubt that Idchnowsky, 
deeply moved by the distressing condition of 
liis teacher and friend, had taken him to 
Berlin in the hepe of improving his circum* 
stances, and that the King's offer was partly due 
to his influence. Two and. a half years later 
poor Mozart was dead, leaving a void in the 
Lichnowsky-Thun circle which Siere was no one 
to fill. Another two years and youii^ Beethoven 
had come from Bonn. 

The relations between him and the Lichnow- 
cikyB are sufficiently indicated in the article 
BEErHovEN ; but a euirent error must be ixxr- 
rected ; namely, that the breach caused by the 
quarrel at Gratz in 1806 was finaL Lichnowsky 
lived in a large house over the Schotten gate- 
both house and gate disappeared long since — and 
in the storey below mm- dwelt Beethoven*s 
friends, the Erdodys. The Sdiotten and Molker 
bastions were contiguous, and the Pasqualati 
Jiottse, on the latter, was io the same row with 



LIEBUCH GEDACT. 

that' of lichnowsky, though a few dcort away 
firam it. This then was the reason whj 
Beethoven was content to live in rooms in the 
fourth storey, looking to the cold north, and 
without a durect ray of the sun. He remained 
there from 1804 to 1807, and then removed into 
rooms provided him by the Countess Erdody. 

An outbreak with the Countess led hhn to 
remove to the other side of the city, where he 
passed the years 1809 and 1810. Meantime, so 
complete a reconciliation had taken place be- 
tween him and both Lichnowsky and the 
Countess Erdody, that in 181 1 he went again 
to Griitz, and on his return once more to<^ his 
old lodg^g in the Pasqualati house, where he 
remain^ until the death of lichnowslnr. ^ It 
was during these last j^ears that S chi n d ler re- 
cords the fluent visits of the prinoe to the 
composer. 

ElowABD Mabia, son and successor of Prinoe 
Cari (bom Sept. 19, 1789, died Jan. i, 1845, at 
Munich), di^gmshed himself as an agrioul* 
turist, but more as a man of letters. He stands 
high in Austrian literature as a national anti- 
quarian, especially for his great 'History of 
tbe House of Habsburg.* 

L10HNOW8KT, Count Mobttz, a younger brother 
of Prince Carl, was one of that smaU circle of 
most intimate friends of Beethoven, frUthful to 
the last. He was probably that Count lich- 
nowiricy who published (1708) ' VH Yariatioiis 
for P.F. on Nel cor jtit/ After the death 
of his first wife he beoune deeply attached to 
the opera-singer. Mile. Stammer ; but not until 
after the death of Prince Carl, when their 
daughter had already passed the stage of im- 
fanoy, were they able to marn^. It is in rda- 
tion to this attadmient that Beethoven is said 
to have written the Sonata in E minor, op' 90. 
[See voL i. p. «o6 h.] [A. W. T.] 

LIEBUCH GEDACT (<.«. gedeckt), literallj 
'sweet-toned covered or closed* pipe, l^iis 
class of orpan stop is a variety of the old quite- 
stopped Diapason or Gedact. It was invented 
by the elder Schulze, of Paulinzelle near Erfurt, 
and was first brought imder notice in England 
in his ocgan in the Great Exhibition of 1851. 
It is made either of i6-feet tone (Ideblich 
Bourdon), 8-feet (lieblich Gedact), or 4-feet 
(lieblich Flote). The pipes are made 5 or 6 
mzes narrower than the Gedact, but are more 
copiously winded, and the mouths cut up higher. 
The tone therefore is nearly or quite as strong as 
that of the Gedact, though not so friU, yet 

1 R«lolMidl, imdM' data Kov. Sa I808» ivtHm: 'BmUmtoi lodgM 
with a Hangarten Coaatam ErMdj, who oecnplw the troai part of 
the huge home, hut he bai bnkm completely with Prinoe Llaluiow» 
■ky, who liret In the npper part of the hooee. and with wbom ha tor 
tome yean radded. Daring the ten yean 180(-14. then, Beetbotett 
moeed from the Faeqoalatt hooee onoe only, bat then for thneyvan; 
at the end of that period he departed ftnallj. When thenfora Itiea 
(writing avowedly from heanay) ttatet ' be ramoved from U i«reral 
timaa. and FaMioalail lald "lite lodging than not be let. Beethoven 
wmeomewaln.'"bewae6rldentlymlitafonned.a«leaMlBpart; but 
hto error bai been adopted and made the moet of In all btographlet and 
biographical tketebea of Beethoven ibioe IfflS. The new lodging In 1814 
wae In the lower itonr of the BartcMteln hooM. on the aaiM baetkm. 
He retained It but one year: for. on the departure of the KrdOdyifkom 
Vienna In 181B. there wai no hidnoemont to rematai, and B e Kbonn 
mofad awiv from tte MUkar Baitel nerer to retpia. 



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JJE^UCE GEDACT. 

Mgliier aiul sfredtor. When the thretf storii, 
16, S, and 4 feet are grouped together on the 
fame numual their effect is very h^utifuL The 
late Edmund Scholse oombined them in this 
inanner in the ohoir organ at the Ten^e Church 
b i860, also in his fine organ at I>onca8ter(i 86a). 
Lewis adopted the same pUn at Bipon Catiiedral, 
and it has been still more recently followed by 
Willis at Salisbury Cathedral [E. J.H/| 

LIED, a German poem intended for singing ; 
by no means identical with the French ckans<m, 
crthe Italian camone. All three terms are in 
&ct untranslateaUe, from the essentially na- 
tional oharaotOT of the ideas embodied in each 
fiirm ; the German Lied being perhaps ^e most 
fiuthfol reflection of the national sentiment. A 
Gennan looking at nature in her infinite variety 
of moods is almost irresistibly impelled to utter 
his thoughts in song. Certain aspects of nature 
appeal with peculiar fbroe to the German mind — 
•ach, for instance, as the forest, the waste, the 
fiJl of rain, the murmur of the brook, the raging 
of the tempest ; and connected with these certain 
ether objeotiye idesj^ such as the hunter in the 
fofeet, the lonely bird, or the clouds stretching 
over the landsci^, the house shelterinff from 
wind and rain, the mill-wheels turned by the 
farook, etc Sudi are the topica of the secular 
lied, which hare been embodied by Goethe, 
SduUer, Heine, and a hundred smaller poets, 
in in^)erishable lyrics, perfectly suited for music. 
Those of the sacred laed are, trust in God, the 
hope of fntore blessedness and union, and other 
nl%knis sentiments, etc. There are Volkslieder,^ 
that is to say, Lieder whose origin is lost in ob- 
senrity, of both kinds. The development of in* 
stnmiental music during the earlier half of the 
Ust oentuzy having provided other means of 
ex pr es si on for such feelings besides song, the 
Volkslied has graduailv disappeared, giving place 
to the Kunstlied, of wnich uie accompaniment is 
sa important feature. This new form, naturalised 
by Haydn, Mozart, Reichardt,. Schultz, Himmel, 
Beethoven, Oonradin Ereutzer, and C. M. von 
Weber, attained in the hands of Franz Schubert to 
that extension and perfection of expression which 
makes it so dear to the German nation. Since his 
time the accompaniment haa constantly assiuned 
greater prominence, so that the original fbim has 
nearly <usappeared, the musical treatment being 
sveiything, and the poetry comparatively of less 
tnoment. Schumann may b» considco^d the 
moneer in this direcdcm, and after him follow 
£rahms and Kobert Franz. With the two last 
composers the accompaniment, as rich in melody 
AS it is in harmony and modulation, more than 
divides attention with the words. 

The best works on the subject are Dr. Schnei- 
dw's 'Geschichte des Liedee,* 3 vds. (Leipzig, 
'^^3-^5)y foil of detail; Lindner's 'Geschichte 
desBeotsohen Liedes im XVIII Jahrhundert' 



LIED-FOESC 



138 



Ji tef* ufttrtmiatelj no equivalent word for VoUuUed. 

We hmm Um tlilnc. ttaoagh of • very dlOlBreDt kind from that of 
Oenaur. twt haw no term to wpraee the whole kind. Mr. Obsp- 
ptlfg gnat work on KngUah Volkxlleder Is entitled ' The Ballad 
Litefatota and Topolar Unite of the OMen Time.' 'Popular.' how 
trer.taMaoirafeqiiiredadiKlafBt meaning of Itt own. 



(Leipaigl 1871); and Sohnr^a ^Hlstoiie du 
lied/ [See Soto.] [^-O.] 

LIED-FORM. The term LTedfbnn has un- 
fortunately been used by difibrent writers with 
different sigmfieations ; and th» vagueness which 
results, conjoined with the fact tiiat the term is 
not happily chosen, renders it doubtful whether 
it had not better be entirely abandoned. 

Some people use it merely to define any slight 
pleoe wmch consists mainly of a simple melody 
simply accompanied, in which sense it would 
be perfectly Shdapted to many of Mendelssohn's 
Lieder olme Worte, and mnumerable other 
pieces of that eiass of small compositions for the 
pianoforte by various authors, as well as to songs. 
On the other hand, some writers have en- 
deavoured to indicate by the term a form of 
construction, in the same sense as they would 
speak of the forms of the movements of Sonatas. 
For the diffusion of this view Herr Bemhard 
Biarx appears to be responsible^ and his definition 
will be best given in his own terms. 

In the fourth section of the fifth dividon of 
his ' Allgemeine Musiklehre* he writes as follows : 
'Under this name of lied-fbrm we group all such 
pieces of music as have ene single main idea, 
which is presented either in-one developed section, 
or as a period (with first and second phrase), or 
even as a period divided into first and second 
similar parts,, or into first, second, and third 
parts (in wUch case the last is generallv a 
repetition of the first). It is possible in lied-^m 
to have even two such- complete forms aggregated 
into one piece ;^ but then they occur without 
close oonneotion or interweaving with one an- 
other, perhaps with the two- parts twice or three 
times repeated ; in which case the seoond group 
will be called a Trio, and the third the second 
Trio, and be treated as a second independent 
piece. For the sake of contrast, such Trios will 
often be in another key, or in other key relation- 
ship, such as minor corresponding to major, and 
major to minor, of the same key, etc., return 
being afterwards made to the fint portion and 
the original key to make the piece complete. 
* In this Lied' form are cast most of the Lieder 
which are intended to be sung, dances, marches, 
many Etudes, introductions,' etc. 

In the third section of the fourth division of 
his ' Lehre von des Musikalisdien Komposition,* 
Marx further gives formulas, or types, of the 
harmonic distribution of this kind of composi" 
tion; and in the earlier part of the second 
voliune (Bk. 3) of the same work he discusses 
the details of tiie structure at length. 

To this classification there appear te be twe 
main objections. The first is- the choice of the 
distinctive name ' Lied * for a form which com- 
prises dances, marches, and other alien forms 
of music. Were there nothing else to say against 
it, it would certainly jar against our sense of 
fitness to have to speak of the funeral march in 
the Eroica Symphony, or the Scherzo of the oth 
Symphony, or even of fiir less conspicuously auen 
examples, such as the Waltz in the Freyschiitz, or 
a Minuet of Haydn oar Mozart, as in ' lied-form.' 



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IH 



LIED-FOKM. 



The ather objectimi to ihe diunifioatloii ia its 
Taguenees when fennolated in 4iach an empirical 
way; but in order to understand fully botn this 
objection and itbe former it will be neceeaary to 
go lomewhat'deeper into the matter. 

In every artistic whole there must be balance 
and propoxtion. In musical works this is chiefly 
obtamed by the grouping of hazmonies. An 
artistic whole may be obtained in one hey by 
throwing stress first upon one harmonic centre^ 
passing firam that to one which represents an 
opposite phase, and then passing back to the 
original again. In the article Harmont it 
has been pointed out that the hannonies of the 
Tonic and the Dominant represent the most com- 
plete opposition of phase in the diatonic soriee of 
any key; the jnost perfect simple balance is 
therefore to be found in their Alternation. For 
example, the first fifteen bars of the Trio in the 
Scherzo of Beethoyen*8 Symphony in A form 
a complete artistic whole of themselyes. There 
are six bars of Tonio harmony and one of 
Dominant forming the first group, and then 
six of Dominant harmony followed by one of 
Tonic harmony iorming the second group. The 
balance is perfect, and the form the simplest in 
all music ; and it might reasonably be caUed the 
' simple primary fc«m.* It is tQ be found in the 
most diverse quarters, such as single chuits of 
the Anglican Church, sailor^s hom^pee, German 
popular waltzes and liindler, and the trivial 
snatches of tunes in a French opera^bouffe. The 
manner of obtaining the balance is however not 
necessarily restricted to the above orders for it 
is quite equally common to find each of the two 
groups containing a balance in themselves of 
Tonic and Dominant harmony. In that case 

the balance is obtained thus— CGC t G 6, 

instead of G G GO as in the former instai^e ; 
but the principle which underlies them is the 
same, ana justifies their being classed together. 
The subsidiary harmonies which are associated 
with these main groups are independent, but 
are most effective when they converge so as 
to direct attention to them. When greater 
extension is required, tiie balance is found 
between key and key; each key being s»rerally 
distinguished by analtemation of harmonic roota^ 
so as to be severally complete when they are to 
be a prominent part of the form. Subsidiary 
transitions occur jnuoh as the subsidiary har- 
monies in the preceding class, and must be 
re^^arded in the same light. The identity of 
prmciple in these two classes is obvious, since in 
both alike it consists of taking a definite point to 
start from, and marking it dearly.; then passing 
to another point, whidi will afford the needed 
contrast, and returning to the original to con- 
clude. But as in the Utter class the process b 
complicated by the changes of key, it may best 
be distinguished from the former as * complex 
primary form.* 

It is not necessary to enter into details on the 
subject of the extent, treatment and distribution 



UED-FOBM. 

of the keys ; neither is it possible, nnoe the prin- 
ciple when put upon this broad basis admits ci 
very great variefy, as indeed it is desurable that 
it snould. But to guard against misapprehension, 
it may be as well to point out afew of the broadest 
facts. 

In the first place, the several^ sections which 
serve to mark the elements of form need not be 
distinct and independent pieces, though they most 
fr^uently Are so in the dd^ opera and oratorio 
songs, and in the minuets and trios, or marchss 
and trios, of instrumental music. In many ex- 
amples, especially such as are on a small scale^ 
tibere is no marked break in the continuity of the 
whole, the division at most amounting to nothiiig 
more 4Jban a cadence or haJf-dose and * double 
bar, and often to not even so much as that. With 
regard to the distribution of ideas, it may be said 
that the several sections are often characterised 
by totally independent subjects, espedally when 
the piece is on a large scale; but there are many 
exftm|)les, espedally in the form of themes for 
variations, when, notwithstanding a certain free- 
dom of modulation, the predominance oi one main 
idea is unl^oken. 

Professor Marx has called attenticm to the &et 
that this form is sometimes amplified by repe- 
tition 4 that is to say, when the return to the 
original key has been made to follow the oon- 
trasting.section or Trio, a treah d<^>arture is made, 
and another contrasting section or Trio is ^ven, 
after which follows the final return to the original 
key and idea. Examples of this occur in the 
Symphonies of Beethoven and Schumann, as well 
as in less important works ; and it is well to take 
note of the &ct that in this case the form under 
consideration shows its dose relationship to the 
Rondo form; for that form in the hands of eariy 
instrumental composers such as Kameau and 
Couperin was little else than the frequent repe- 
tition of a main idea in a prindpal key, inter- 
spersed with contrasting episodes, which in the 
present case answer to the Trios. 

The occurrence of Codas with this form is very 
common, but for the discussion of that pdnt 
reference must be made to the article under that 
head and to the artide Fobm. 

Finally, it will be well to return shortly to the 
consideration of the distinctive name of 'Lied* 
which has been given to this form. In the choice 
of it, its author was probably guided by a well- 
grounded opinion of the superior antiquity of song 
to other kmds of music, which led him to In- 
fer that the instrumental forms which he put 
under the same category were imitated firom the 
* Lieder.* But this is not by any means inevit- 
able. It will have been seen nom the above 
discussion that in this form the simplest means 
of arriving at artistic balance and proportion are 
made use of; and these would have been chosen 
by the instinct of the earliest composers of instru- 
mental music without any necessary knowledge 
that vocal music was cast in the same mould. 
And there is more than this. In son^ and other 
vocal music the hearer is so fiur guided by the 
sense of the words that a total impression of 



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UEIXFORM. 

oompbteoMs mmj be obtained even with very 
▼Bgoe Btractore in the mode; whereas in in- 
itrameDtel munc, unlets the fonn is dear and 
appreoiably defined, it ia impoesible for the moat 
intdligent hearer to realise the work as a 
whole, do that, in point of fiust» vocal music 
can do withoat a great deal of that which is 
rital to instrumental music; and therefore the 
Lied is just the member of the group which it is 
least satisfactory to take as the type : but as this 
form has been classified under that head, it has 
been necessary so to review it tnUy, in order that 
1 just estimation may be formed of its nature, 
and the reason for taking exception to the title. 
The hna itself is a very important one, but inas- 
much as it admits of great latitude in treatment, 
it appears that the only satisfactory means of 
dawfying it, or making it explicable, is by 
putting it on as broad a basis as possible, and giving 
It a distinctive title which shall have reference 
to its intrinsio constitution, and not to one of 
the many kinds of music which may, but need not 
necessarily, come within its scope. [C.H.H J*.] 

LEED OHNE WORTB, i.e. Song without 
words (Fr. Romance ecms paroles), Mendelssohn^s 
title for the pianoforte pieces which are more 
dosdy associated with lus name than any other 
of his ocunpodtions. The title exactly describes 
them. Ihey are just scmgs. lliev have no words, 
bat the meaning is none &e lees definite — ' I wish 
I were with you,* says he to his sister Fanny in 
wnding her from Munich' the earliest of these 
compositions which we possess — ' but as that is 
impossible, I have written a sons for you expres- 
live of my wishes and .thoughts . . . ^ and then 
follows a little pieoe of i6 Imuts lonff, which is as 
true a lied obne Worte as any m the whole 
collection. We know firom ^ letter of later * date 
than the above that he thought music much more 
definite than words, and there is no reason to 
doubt that theee 'lieder,* as he himself con- 
stantly calls them, have as exact and special 
an intention as those which were oomposed to 
poetiy, and that it is almost impossible to draw 
a Ime between the two.* He had two kinds of 
loogs, one with words, the other without. Tho 
jgeoes are not Nocturnes, or Transcripts, or Etudes. 
They contain no bravura ; everything is sdbordin- 
ited to the 'wish' or the * thought^ which filled 
the heart of the composer at the moment. 

The title first i^pears in a letter of Fanny 
Mendelssohn's, Dec. 8, i8a8, which implies that 
Felix had but recently b^gun to write such 
pieces. But the English equivalent was not 
■etded without difficulty. The day after his 
arrival in London, on April 34, 183s, he played 
the first six to Moscheles, and they are then 
^spoken of as 'Instrumental Lieder ftir Cla- 
vier.* On the autoeraph of the first -book, in 
Mr. Felix Moscheles possession, they are named 
* Six songs for the Pianoforte alone,* and this again 

* LMtm from Itely and Swttnrtaad. JoM li. 188& 

' lb SoMhv. Oot lA. UiL 

' The a«trtlM (0|k 6S) VM orlgtmny a LM ohM Wort* (lOL Oat 

< S« tlM TraaditloD of MoMhdM' Ufli. L «r. Cdt thto UMl tiM M- 




^odies^ , 

fe AstbopkAj 

Mr. $&ve% V 
tnuihMV ^ 



LIEDEREBI 

was afterwards changed to 
the Pianoforte,' under whid 
was published (for the authi 
(then in Dean Street), on 
registered at Stationers* HalL 
is given on the English copy, thoi 
no doubt that Mendelssohn arrauj^ 
every particular. The book appefured cohcdM^«£(ftr 
in Berlin, at Simrock*-s, as *Sechs Lied^<£Ai 
Worte, etc 'Op. 19.' Hie Oerman name after- 
wards became current in England, and was added 
to the English title-page. 

The last of the six sonn contained in the 
Tst book — 'In a Oondola, or * Venetianischea 
Gkmdellied' — is said to be the earliest of the six 
in point of date. Jjk Mendelssofan*s MS. catalogue 
it IS marked ' Venedig, i6th Oct., 1830, far Del- 
phine Sohauroth' — a distinguished musician of 
Munich, whom he had left only a few weeks 
before, and to whom he afterwards dedicated his 
first P.F, Concerto. An earlier one still is No. 2 
of Book 2, which was sent fVom Munich to his 
sister Fanny in a letter dated June a6, 1830. 

Strange as it may seem, the success of the 
Lieder ohne Worte was but slow in England. 
The books of Messrs. Novello 8c Co., for 1836, 
show that only 114 copies of Book i were sold in 
the first lour yearsl* Six books, each containing 
six songs, were published 4uring Mendelssohn's 
lifetime, numbered as op. 19, 30, 38, 53, 6a, and 
67, respectively; and a 7th and 8th (op. 85 and 
1 03) since his death. A few of them have titles, 
viz. the Gondola song alreadv mentioned ; another 
'VenetianisdhesGondellied, op. 30, no. 6 ; 'Duett,' 
op. 38, no. 6 ; • Volkslied,' op. 53, no. 5 ; a third 
'VenetianischesGrondellied,'and a 'FrfihlingsUed,' 
op. 6a, nos. 5 and 6. These titles are his own. 
Names have been given to some of the other songs. 
Thus op. 19, no. a, is called 'Jagerlied' or 
Hunting song; op. 6a, no. 3, 'Trauermarsch' or 
Funeral march ; op. 67, no. 3, < Spinnerlied ' or 
Spinning song: but these, appropriate or not, 
are unau^orised. [G.] 

LIEDEBKBEIS, LIEDERCYCLUS, or 
LIEDERREIHE. A oirole or series of songs, 
relating to the same object and fuming one piece 
of mu^ The first instance of the thing and the 
first use of the word Appears to be in Beethoven's 
op. 98, * An die feme Geliebte. Ein Liederkreis 
von Al Jeitteles.^ Fiir Gesang und Pianoforte 
. . . von L. van Beethoven.' This consists of six 
songs, was composed April <i8i6, and published 
in the following December. The word Lieder^ 
kreis appears first on the printed copy. Bee- 
thoven's title on the autograph is 'An die 
enfemte Geliebte, Seohs IJeder van Aloys 
Jeitteles,' etc. It was followed by Schubert's 
' Die schone MtQlerin, ein C)yolus von Liedem,' 
so songs, oomposed 1633, 4md published March 
i8a4. Schubert's two other series, the ' Winter- 

• Then $n two opus la, a let of six loags wltli wonk, uid a let of 
dz wlUiont M*i*n >i 

• ror thU fkoC I UB 4nd«bC«d to tha kladnen of Mr. Heniy 
LttUetoQ. the prwant head of the Ann. 

f Or the poet of these «hannli« ▼•»•■ llttte Infonaatloo can b« 
gleaaed. He waa born at Br&nn June M, 1794. to that when be wroto 
the Liederkreis he was barely SL Like many amateors of nuislc hit 
prtotlsad madMne. and he dlad at Us iMUre place AprU Uk USa 



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186 



UEDEBELBEIS. 



veise' and the ' Sohwanen-G^sang/ hav^ not got 
the special title. Schumann luhB left several 
liederkreifl — ^by Heine (op. 24) ; by Eichendorff 
(op. 59) ; * Dichteiiiebe, Liederoyklus* (op. 48) ; 
liederreihe yon J. Kemer (op, 3s); ' Frauenliebe 
nnd Leben* (op. 42). Of all tibiese Beethoven** 
most faithfully answers to the name. The songs 
change their tempo, but there is 00 break, and the 
motif of the first reappears m the last, and doses 
the circle. Thayer's conjecture (iii. 401) that in 
writing it Beethoven was inspired by Amalie von 
iBebald, whom he had met at Linz in 181 1, is 
not improbably correct. He was then 45 years 
old, an age at which love is apt to be dangerously 
permanent. [G.j 

UEDERSPIEL, a play with songs introduced 
into it, such songs being either weU known and 
favourite airs — Lieder — or, if original, oast in 
that form. It is the German equivalent of the 
French Vaudeville, and of such KngliBh pieces as 
the 'Beggar's Opera,' the *Wateraum,' etc. The 
thing and the name are both due to J. F. Reich- 
ardt, whose 'Lieb' und Treue* was the 'first 
liederspieL It was an attempt to bring back 
the musical stage of (Germany firom art&oe to 
natural sentiment. Rexohardt^s interesting ac- 
count of his experiment and the reasons which 
led to it, will be found in the Allg. mus. Zdt- 
ung, 1 801 (709-717). Strange and anomalous 
as such a thrusting of musio into the midst 
pf declamation may seem, the atteinpt was sue* 
cessful inQermany,asit had been in England fifty 
years before. The tunes could be reoo^iised and 
enjoyed without effixrt, and the Idederspiel had 
a long popularity. After Belchardt» Himmel, 
Lortzing, Eberwein, and a number of other 
oecond-dass writers composed Liederspiel which 
were very popular, and they even still are to be 
heard. — Mendelssohn often speaks of his * Heim- 
kehr' (* Son and Stranger*) as a Liederspiel, but 
that can only be by an extension of the phrase 
beyond its original meaning. [G.] 

LIEDERTAFEL, originally a society ef men, 
who met together on fix^ evenings for the prac- 
tice of vocal music in four parts, drinking forming 
part of the entertainment They arose during 
the political depression caused by Napoleon's 
rule m Germany ; and the first, consisting of 24 
members only, was founded by Zelter in Berlin, 
Dec. 28, 1808. Others soon followed at Frankfort 
and Leipzig, gradually relaxing the rules as to 
numbers. Bemhard EHein fbun<kd the * Jiinfferen 
Berliner liedertafel/ which aimed at a higher 
standard of art. lliese societies gave an im- 
mense in^)etu8 to men*s part-singing throughout 
Germany. Since the estaUishment of the M&nner- 
gesangvereine prowse (male singing sodetiee), 
the word liedertafel has come to mean a sodal 
gathering of the ' Verein,* i. e. a gathering of in- 
vited ladiea and gentlemen, at ^mnch. the mem- 
bers perform pieces previous^ learned. They 
are in £Ebct informal concerts, where the goeets 
move about, eat, drink, and talk as they please, 
provided they keep silenoe during the singing. 
The LiedertoiFdn of the large male singing so- 
deties of Vienna^ Munich^ and Cdogneiy are 



UGATURK 

pleasant and refined entertainments, not without 
a musical significance of their own. [F. G.] 

LIGATOSTIL (Ttal. 8tiU ligato), also called 
gebundener Stil, is the German term for what is 
called the strict style, as distinguished firom the 
firee style of musicad composition. Its chi^ 
characteristic lies not so much in the fact that 
the notes are seldom or never detached, as that 
all dissonances are strictly prepared by means of 
tied notes. [F. T.] 

LIGATURE (Lat. Ligatura ; Ital. LegcUura ; 
Fr. Liaiion), A passage of two or more notes, 
gung to a single syllable. [See Notatioit.] 

In antient music-books, Ligatures are not in- 
dicated, as now, by slurs : but the form of the 
notes themsdves is changed — sometimes^ in » 
very puzzling manner. 

Three kinds of Ligatures are used in Plain 
Chaunt. In the first, and simplest, the notes are 
merely placed very dose to each other, so as 
almost to touch, thus — 
Ex. I4 Writtm. Sut^, 



In the second, used only for two notes, ascend- 
ing, they are 'bonded* — that is to say, written 
one over the other; the lowest being always 
sung first-^ 
Ex.S. WriUm, 



In the third, used for two notes desoendingy 
they are joined together, so as to form an oblique 
figure, descending towards the right ; the upper 
end resting on the line or spaoe denoting the &rst 
and highest of the two notes, and the lower, on 
that denoting the seoond, and lowest, thus — 

EX.S. WriUm. Bung. 



In early times, the notes of Plain Chaunt were 
all of equal l^igth. When, after the invention 
of Measured Music (fiarUus menturMlU), the 
Large, Long, Breve^ and Semibreve, were 
brought into general use, a considerable modi- 
fication of the form and scope of the Ligature 
became necessary. Hence, we find Franco of 
Cologne, in the iith century, calling Ligatures 
beginning with a Breve, LigoUura eum proprU^ 
tcUe; those b^^inning with a Long, tine pro- 
pridcUe; those beginning with a Semibreve, 
eum oppogUa proprietcUe; those in which the 
last note is a I^ng, Ligatura per/edcB ; those in 
which the last note is a Breve, itnpeffeeta. 

In the Polyphonic Music of the 15th and 1 6th 
centuries, the form of the Ligatures varies 
greatly ; and is, neoessarilv, very complex, since 
it concerns the relative duration of the notes, 
as well as their difference in pitch. A cata- 
logue of the strange figures found in antient 
l&S. woukl be interesting only to the anti- 
quary: but, as an intimate acquaintance with 
toe more usual forms is absdutely indispensable 



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LIGATURE* 

to an who would learn how to More the* great 
oompositionB of the i6th oentury from the oii- 
ginad Part-books, we subjoin a few examples of 
those which the stadent is likely to find most 
generally useful. 

Two square white notes, in ligature, without 
tails, are generally sung as Breves: the rule 
holding good, whether the notes are separately 
formed, or joined together in an oblique figure ; 
ihua— 
Ex.4. WrU/oi, 



UGATURR 



187 




Some t imes, however, (but not always,) if the 
passage be a descending one, the notes are to be 
auDg as Longs ; or, the first mav be a Long, and 
the second, a Breve. But, this exoeption is a 
rare one ; and it is safer to assume that the strict 
rule is in force, unless the fitting together of the 
parts should prove the contrary. 
Bx.fiu WriOtn, Ami? (in » few mre omm)» 



Two square white notes, in ligature, with a 
tail dpsoending on the right side, are Longs, 
whether they ascend, or descend, and whether 
they are separately formed, or joined into a 
■ingle oblique figure. 
£x.«. WriUen, 




Two similar notes, with a tail desoendiog on 
the left side, are &«ves. 
Ex.7. Written, Bung. 



Two such notes, with a tail ascending on the 
left side, are Senubreves. 



Ex. 8. WriUtn, 



Bunff, 



Ligatures of two notes, with a tail ascending 
on the left side, and. another descending on the 
right, are to be sung — ^by a combination of Ex. 6 
anid 8 — as a Semibreve, followed by a Long (Ex. 9). 

WrUten. Omff. Ex. 10. WriUen, Bung. 



Ex.9. 



In Ligatures of more than two notes, all ex- 
cept the first two are most frequently treated as 
if they were not in ligature. Hius^ in Pales- 
trina*s Hymn, Ave Maris Stella, we find a Liga* 
ture of three square white notes, with a Wl 
aacending on the left, sung as two Semibreves, 
and aBreve : that is to say, the first two notes are 
treated aa in Ex. 8, while the third note retains 
its true length (Ex. 10). 

On this point, however, some early authorities 
differ considerably. For instance, Omithoparcus, 



writing in 151 7, tells us that (i) Every middle 
note, however shaped, or placed, is a Breve: 
(2) A Long may begin, or end, a Ligature, but 
can never be used in the middle of it ; (3) A 
Breve may be used either in the beginning, 
middle, or end of a Li^ture ; (4) A S^ibreve 
mav also be used in the beginning, middle, or 
end of a Ligature, if it have a tail ascending on 
the left. [See Micboloous, II.] 

Black square and lozenge-shaped notes, with- 
out tails, lose, when intermixed with white notes, 
one fourth of their value, whether they occur in 
ligature, or not. Thus, a black Semibreve is equal 
to three Crotchets only, or a dotted Minim — ^in 
which case it is always followed by a Crotchet ; 
as in Ex. 1 1 — 



Ex.11. WriUm, 



Ex.12. Written. 




But, a black Semibreve, following a black Breve, 
is shortened into a Minim, though the strict rule 
holds good with regard to the Breve (Ex. 1 3). 

There is often, indeed, a little uncertainty with 
regard to the degree in which a black note is to 
be shortened; more especially, when the same 
Ligature contains both black and white notes — 
as in the following examples from Palestrina. 

Ex.13. WrUten. 



Bung. 



'^ ^ ^^ '^ ^^ — ^ 



A very little experience will enable the student 
to discover the intention of such forms as these, 
at a glance. Though the three we have selected 
seem, at first sight, to offer unexpected complica- 
tions, it will be foimd, on closer examination, that 
the laws laid down with regard to Ex. 8, 10, 11, 
and 12, leave no doubt as to the correct solution 
of any one of them. Even when an oblique note is 
half white, and half black, it is only necessary to 
remember that each colour is subject to its own 
peculiar laws. 
Ex.14* WriiJUn, Bung, 



Cases, however, frequently occur, in which 
black notes are to be treated precisely as white 
ones. It is true, these passages are more oftcua 
found in single notes, than in Ligatures ; but it 
is difficult, sometimes, to understand why they 
should have been introduced at all. 

Sometimes, a Ligature is acoompanied by ona 
or more Points of Augmentation, the position of 
which clearly indicates the notes to which they 
are to be applied. 
Ex.16. Written. 



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188 



LIGATUTwE. 



ULUBUKLERO. 




In some old printed books, the last note of a 
Ligature is placed obliquely, in which case it is 
always to be sung as a Breve. 

The student -mil meet with innumerable other 
forms, more or less difficult to decypher : but^ 
those 'we have illustrated will be sufficient to 
guide him on his way, in all ordinary cases; and, in 
exceptional ones, he will find that long experience 
alone will be of service to him. [W.S. R.] 

LIGHT OF THE WORLD, THE. An ora- 
torio in two parts ; the words compiled from the 
Scriptures, the music by Arthur S. SuUivan. 
Written for the Birmingham FestiviJ, and first 
performed there Aug. 37, 1873. [G.] 

LILLIBURLERO. * The following rhymes,' 
says Dr. Percy, ' slight and insignificant as they 
may now seem, had once a more powerful effect 
than either the Philippics of Demosthenes or 
Cicero ; and contributcKi not a little towards the 
great revolution of 1688.' Bishop Burnet says : 
' A foolish ballad was made at that time, treat- 
ing the papists, and chiefly the Irish, in a very 
ri^culous manner, which had a burden said to 
be Irish words, 'Lero, lero, lilibuzlerQ,* that 
made an impression on the [king's] army, that 
cannot be imagined by those tb&t saw it not. 
The whole army, and at last the people both in 
city and country, were singing it perpetually. 
And perhaps never had so i£ght a thing so 
great an effect.* 

Henry Purcell, the composer of the tune, 
here receives no share of the credit, of which 
nine tenths, at least, belong to him. The song 
was first taken up by the army, because the tune 
was already familiar as a quick step to which 
the soldiers had been in the habit of marching. 
Then the catching air was repeated by others, 
and it has retained its popularity down to the 
present time. As the miurch and quick step 
have not been reprinted since 1686, although by 
Henry Puroell, it is well that, at last, they uiould 
reappear. The only extant copy of both is in 
The Delightful Companion: or^ Choice New 
Lessons for the Recorder or Flute, 2nd edition, 
1686, oblong quarto. As this Utile book is 
engraved upon plates, and not set up in types, 
as then more usual, and this march and quick 
step are on sheet F, in the middle of the book, 
we may reasonably assume that they were in* 
eluded in the first edition also, which cannot be 
less than a year or two earlier in date. 
March, 





The words are the merest doggrel. They refer 
to King James's having nominated to the lieu- 
tenancy of Ireland, in 1686, General Talbot, 
newly created Earl of Tyrconnel, who had recom- 
mended himself to his bigoted master by his 
arbitrary treatment of the I^testants in the pre- 
ceding year, when he was only lieutenant-general. 
One stanza assung to the tune may suffice. After 
that, the two lines of new words only are given. 

Hoi broder Teagoe, doet h^ar ds decree? 

LilUburhro butten a la. 
Sat we shall have a new depatie. 
lABSmrUro buHen a la. 
Lero Itroj liUi burUro, Uro Uro^ hvSen a 2a, 
Jsero hrOf UOi durlsM), Uro lero, huUtn a ku 
Ho ! by shaint Tybnm, it is de Talbote, 
And he will cut all de English troate. 
Don^ bj mv thool de En^sh do piaat, 
De law^ on dajre side, and Greiah knows what 
Bat if dispence do come from de pope, 
We'll hang Jfagna Oharta, and dem in a rope : 
For de good Talbot it made a lord. 
And with Inrave lads it coming aboard : 
Who all in France have takidn a gwaro 
Dat dey will have no protestant heir. 

Aral but whvdoee he stay behind? 

Hoi by my ahonl 'tis a protestant wind. 

But see, de Tyrconnel is now come ashore. 

And we shall have commissions gillore. 

And he dat will not go to mass 

^hall be torn oat, and look like an ass. 

Bat now de hereticks all go down. 

By Greish And shaint Patrick, de nation's oar own. 

Dare was an old prophesy found in a t 

'Ireland shall be rul'd by an ass, and ad 

And now dis prophesy is crane to pass. 

For Talbot's de dog, and Ja.. s is de ass. 

Such stuff as this would not have been toler- 
able without a good tune to carry it down. 
And yet Lord Wharton has had the entire 
credit : ' A late viceroy, who has so often boasted 
himself upon his talent for mischief, invention, 
lying, and for making a certain Lilliburlero 
song ; with which, if you will believe himself, he 
sung a deluded prince out of three kingdoms.* ^ 

^om this political beginning lilliburlero 

> A tnie rrlAtkm of tlM wTersl Facts and drcnmatsnoei of Um 
lnteiid«d Blot and Tunralt oa Queen lUzabetii's Mrtbdaj. Snl 
•dltlTlS. 



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LTLLIBURLERO. 

became a party tune in Ireland, eepecially afler 
'Dublin's Deliverance; or the Surrender of 
Drogheda/ beginning 

Froteitaiit boys, good tidinga I brings 
and ' Undaunted Londonderry/ oommencfng 

Protestant boys, both Taliant and stoat, 
bad been written to it. 

It baa long ago lost any party signification in 
England, but it was discontinued as a march in 
the second half of the last oentury, in order to 
avoid offence to our Irish soldiers of the Roman 
Catholic faith. 

The tune has been often referred to by drama- 
tists and by other writers, as by Shadwell and 
Vanbrugh in plajs, and by Sterne in Tristram 
Shandy. Pui^dl claims it as 'A new Irish 
tune* by 'Mr. Purcell* in the second part of 
Mu9ic*8 Handmaid, 1689, and in 1691 he used 
it as a ground-bass to tiie fifth piece in The 
Gordian Knot untyd. The first strain has been 
oommonly sung as a chorus in convivial parties : 

A veiy good song, and very well song, 
JoUy companions every one. 

And it is the tune to the nursery rhyme : 

There was an old woman toes'd np on a blanket 
Nine^-nine times as hi^ as the moon. 

A large number of other songs have been written 
to the air at various times. [W.O.] 

LILT (Verb and Noun), to sing, pip^ or play 
cheerfully, or, according to one authority, even 
sadly ; also, a gay tune. The term, which is of 
Scottish origin, but is used in Ireland, would 
seem to be ^rived firom the bagpipe, one variety 
of which is described in the ' Houlate * (an an- 
cient allegorical Scottish poem dating 1450), as 
the * liltpype.* Whenever, in the absence of a 
musical instrument to play for dancing, the Irish 
. peasant girls sing lively airs to the customary 
) syllables la-la-la, it is called ' lilting.' The classi- 
cal occurrence of the word is in the Scottish song, 
' The Flowers of the Forest,* a lament for the 
disastrous field of Hodden, where it is contrasted 
with a mournful tone : — 

!*▼• heard them liltin* at the ewe milkin% 

Tisssen a liltin* before dawn of day; 
Kow there's a moanin* on ilka green loanin*, 

The Flowers of the Forest are a* wede away. 

The Skene MS., ascribed (though not 'con- 
dusively) to the reign of James VI. of Scotland, 
contains mn Lilts : ' Ladie Rothemayeis ' (the air 
to the ballad of the Burning of Castle Frin- 
draught), ' Lady Laudians * (Lothian*s>, ' Ladie 
Casoillee* (the air of the ballad of Johnny Faa), 
Lesleis, Ademeis, and 6iloreich*8 lilts. We 
quote ' Ladie Oassilles' : — 



LINCJKE. 



189 




Mr. Dauney, editor of the Skene MS., supposes 
the Liltpipe to have been a shepherd^s pipe, not 
a bagpipe, and the Lilts to have sprung fix>m the 
pastoral districts of the LowUnds. [R. P. S.] 

LILY OF KILLARNEY. A grand opera in 
3 acts, founded on Boudcault's ' Colleen Bawn* ; 
the words by John Oxenford, the music by Jules 
Benedict. Produced at the Royal English Opera, 
Covent Garden, Feb. 8, i86a. [6.] 

LIMPUS, RiCHABD, organist, bom Sept. 10, 
1824, was a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, 
and organist successively of Brentford; of St. 
Andrew's, Undershaft ; and St. Michael's, Corn- 
hill. He oompoeed a good deal of minor music, 
but his claim to remembrance is as founder of 
the College of Organists, which owing to his seal 
and devotion was established in 1864. He was 
secretary to the College till his death, March 15, 
1875. [See Oboanists, Collbgb of.] [G.] 

UNCKE,' Joseph, eminent cellist and com- 
poser, bom June 8, 1783, at Trachenberg in 
Prus^an Silesia; learnt the violin from his 
&ther, a violinist in the chapel of Prince Hatz- 
feld, and the cello from Oswald. A mismanaged 
sprain of the right ancle left him lame for life.' 
At 10 he lost his parents, and was obliged to 
support himself by copying music, until in 1800 
he procured a place as violinist in the Domi- 
nican convent at Breslau. There he studied the 
organ and harmony under Hanisch, and also 
pursued the cello under Lose, after whose depar- 
ture he became first cellist at the theatre, of 
which C. M. von Weber was then Capellmeister. 
In 1808 he went to Vienna, and was engaged by 
Prince Rasoumowsky* for his private quartet- 
party, at the suggestion of Schuppanzigh. In 
that house, where Beethoven was supreme, he 
had the opportunity of playing the great com- 
poser's woncs under his own supervision.' Bee- 
thoven was much attached to Lincke, and 
continually caUs him 'Zunftmeister violoncello,* 
or some other droll name, in his letters. The 
Imperial library at Berlin* contains a comic 
canon in Beethoven*s writing on the names 
Brauohle and Lincke. 




> Sse MrCbsppelt^ otltklnia. *Ftopator MiMie.' p.tl4. 



-I- H- + LI • • ndke,Iinok«. 

The two Sonatas for P. F. and Cello (op. loa) 
were composed by Beethoven while he and 
Lincke were together at the Erdodys in 1815.'' 

Lincke played in SchuppanzigVs public quar^ 
tets, and Schuppanzigh in turn assisted Lincke 
at his farewell concert, when the programme 
consisted entirely of Beethoven's music, and the 

s Ha alwKji wrote hit nsnis thas. though It Is maaBj ipelled Link*. 

* Itis p«rhsp» In ftUadoD to this that Bernard writes. ' lincke hu 
only one fitult— that he Is crooked ' (kmmm). 

« Wetas plajed the viola, and the Prtnoe the second vloUn. 
s CkMnpare Thayer's Beethoven. lU. 49. 

• See Nohl's BeetboTen's Brtefe. 1667. p. 92, note. 
TEeeThajer.ULSe. 



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140 



LINCKB. 



|[reat composiar himself was present. His pTay- 
ing appears to have been remarkable for its 
humour, and he is said to have been peculiarly 
happy in expressing Beethoven^s characterisUo 
style, whence no doubt the master^s fondness 
for him.^ He then went to Gratz, and from 
thence to Pancovecz near Agram, the residence 
of Countess Erdody, as her chamber-virtuoso* 
where he remained a year and a half. In 
1818 he was engaged by Fi:eiherr von Braun 
as first cellist in the theatre ' an der Wien/ and 
in 183 1 played with Merk, the distinguished 
cellist, in the orchestra of the court-opera. He 
died on March 26, 1837. His compositions 
consist of concertos, variations, capriccios, etc., 
his first 3 works only ^variations) having been 
published. [C.F.P.] 

LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS THEATRE 
stood nearly in the centre of the south side of 
Lincoln's Inn fields, the principal entrance being 
in Portugal Street. It was erected by Christo- 
pher Ridi, and opened (after his death) in 17T4 
DV his son, John Kich, with Farquhar's comedy, 
'The Recruiting Officer.' Here Rich first in- 
troduced his pantomimes, a curious mixture of 
masque and harlequinade, in which he himself, 
under the name of Lun, performed the part of 
Harlequin. Galliard was his composer, and 
Pepusch his music director. [Galliard; Ps- 
PUSOH.] Here 'The Beggar's Opera' was first 
produced in 1727. [Beqoab's Opeba.] Rich 
removing in 1732 to the new theatre in Covent 
Garden, the house in Lincoln's Inn Fields was 
let for a variety of purposes. Here in 1734 
Italian operas were given, in opposition to Han- 
del's at the King's Theatre, with Porpora as 
composer and Senesino as principal singer ; and 
here, when Handel was compelled to quit the 
King's Theatre, he, in his turn, gave Italian 
operas, and also, occasionally, oratorio perform- 
ances. His ' Diyden's Ode on St. Cecilia's day' 
was first performed here in 1739, and in 1740 
his ' L' Allegro, H Pensieroeo, ed II Moderato,' 
his serenata ' Pamasso in Festa,' and his oper- 
etta 'Hymen.' Plays were occasionally per- 
formed here until 1756, when the building was 
converted into a bairack. It was afterwards 
occupied as Spode and Copeland's ' Salopian 
China Warehouse,' until it was taken down in 
1848 for the enlai^ment of the College of Sur- 
geons. This theatre must not be confounded 
with two others which previously stood near the 
same spot, viz. the Duke's Theatre, erected by 
Sir William Davenant in 1662, and occupied 
nntU 1671, when the companv removed to 
Dorset Cfarden Theatre, and the Theatre in 
Little Lincoln's Inn Fields, built upon the same 
site and opened in 1695 with Congreve's 'Love 
for Love,' and occupied until the company re- 
moved to the Queen's Theatre in 1 705, when it 
was abandoned. [Kino's Thxatbe.] [W.H.H]. 

LIND, Jbnnt, was bom at Stockholm Oct. 6, 
if^20 (not, as F^tis says, on Feb. 8). Count 
Puke, director of the Court Theatre, admitted 

lBeeUM'2?eMZeltKhrtfimrXiuIk.'in7.No.32, . I 



LIND. 

het to the school of singinff which is attached to 
that establishment, ai^ me received there her 
first lessons from a master named Beig. She 
made her dAut st the Opera in her native dty, 
in March 1838, as Agatha in Weber's «Frei- 
schtltz,' and played afterwards the principal r6le 
in 'Euryanthe,' Alice in * Robert le Diable,' and 
finally 'La Vestale,' all with brilliant success. 
In fact, 'she uphdd the Royal Theatre until 
June 1 841, when she went to Paris in hope of 
improvinig her st^le of singing.* There Manuel 
Gama gave her lessons, during a period of nine 
months, but 'she herself mainly contributed to 
the development of her naturally harsh and un- 
bending voice, by ever holding before herself the 
ideal which she had formed from a very early 
a^. She had been wont to sing to her mother ■ 
friends from her third year ; imd, even at that 
period, the intense feeling of melancholy, almost 
natural to all Swedes, which filled her young 
soul, gave to her voice an expression which drew 
tears from the listeners.' Meyerbeer, who hap- 
pened to be at Paris at the time, hearid her, was 
delighted, and foretold a brilliant future for the 
young singer. She obtained a hearing at the 
Opera in 1842, but no engagement mllowed. 
Naturally hurt at this, she is said to have deter* 
mined never to accept an engagement in Paris ; 
and, whether this be true or not. it is certain 
that, as late as March 1847, she declined an 
engagement at the Acad^nie Royale, for no other 
reason than that of ' affairei penonelles;' nor did 
she ever appear in Paris a^gain. 

Jenny Lmd now went to Berlin, in August i844« 
and for a time studied German. In September 
she returned to Stockholm, and took part in the 
fgtee at the crowning of King Oscar ; but re- 
turned to Berlin in October, and obtained an 
engagement at the Opera through the influence 
of Meyerbeer, who had written for her the 
principal r6U in his 'Feldlager in Schlesi^i,' 
afterwards remodelled as 'L'Etoile du Nwd.' 
She appeared first, December 15, as Norma, and 
was welcomed with enthusiasm ; and afterwards 
played, with equal success, her part in Meyerbeer's 
new opera. In the following April she sang at 
Hamburg, Cologne, and Coblentz. Aft^r this tour 
she returned again to Stockholm by way of Copen- 
hagen, and once more enjoyed a triumphant suc- 
cess. At the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, she made her 
first appearance Dec. 6, 1845. Engaged soon after 
for Vienna, she appeared there AprU 18, 1846. 

On May 4, 1847, Jenny Lind made her first 
appearance in London, at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
in ' Robert.' Moschelee had already met her in 
Berlin, and wrote thus (Jan. 10, 18J.5) of her 
performance in ' The Camp of Silesia, — ' Jenny 
Lind has &irly enchanted me ; she is unique in 
her way, ana her song with two concertante 
flutes is perhaps the most incredible feat in the 
way of bravura singing that can jpoasibly be 
heard . . . How lucky I was to find her at 
homet What a glorious singer she is, and so 
unpretentious withal 1 ' This character, though 
true to life, was, however, shamefully belied bv 
the management of the London Theatre, both 



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UND. ' 

befora and after her arrival. It Is cunous now 
to look back upon the artifices employed, the 
Btoriee of broken contracts (this not without 
soBie ibundaUon), of long dipIoinatio/Mmrparier^, 
special messengers, persuasion, hesitation, and 
vacillations, kept up during many months,— all 
in Older to excite the interest of the operatic 
pubUc. Not a stone was left untamed, not a 
trsit of the young singer's character, public or 
private, un-explotttf, by which sympathy, admira- 
tioQ, or even curiosity, might be aroused (see 
Lumley*s ' Beminiscences,* 1847). After appear- 
ing as the heroine of a novel (' The Home,' by 
luss Bremer), and the darling of the Opera at 
Stockholm, she was next described as entrancing 
the opera-goers of Berlin, — ^where indeed she was 
doubuess a welcome contrast to their ordinary 
pnsie datme ; and her praises had been sunff by 
the two great German composers, and haa not 
lost by translation. But, not content with 
lulsome praise founded on these ciroumstanoes, 
the paragraphists, inspired of course by those for 
whose interest the paragraphs were manufitctured, 
and assuredly without her knowledge or sanction, 
did not hesitate to speak in the most open way, — 
and as if in commendation of her as a singer, and 
above other singers, — of BiUe. Lind*s private 
virtues, and even of her charities. Singers have 
ever been charitable, generous, open-himded and 
open-hearted ; to their credit be it recorded : 
the exceptions have been few. With iheir private 
virtues critics have nought to do ; these should 
be sopposed to exist, unless the contrary be 
glaring^ apparent. The public was, however, 
persistdntly fed with these advertisements and 
inrasBed with further rumours of doubts and 
even disappointment in the early part of 1847, it 
being actually stated that the negodations had 
broken down, — all after the engagement had 
been signed and sealed ! 

The interest and excitement of ihe public at 
her first appearance was, therefore, extraordinary ; 
and no wonder that it was so. Yet her g^reat sing- 
ing in the part of ' Alice* disappointed none but 
a very few, and those were silenced by a tumul- 
tuous majoritv of idolaters. She oerUdnly sang 
the music qplendidly, and acted the part irre- 
proachably. The scene at the cross in Uie second 
act was in itself a complete study, so strongly 
ooBtrasted were the emotions she portrayed, — 
first .tenor, then childlike faith and confidence, — 
while die preserved, throughout* the innocent 
manner of Uie peasant girL 'From that first 
nionient till the end of tlu^t season, nothing else 
was tiiought about, nothing else talked about, 
but the new J (ice-— the new Sonnambula — ^the 
new Maria in Donizetti*s charming comic opera, 
—his best. Pages could be filled by describing 
the exc e s ses of m public Since the days when 
the worid fought for hours at the pit-door to see 
the seventh fvewellof Siddous, nothing had been 
seen in the least approaching the scenes at the 
entrance of the tiieatre when MUe. Lind sang. 
Prices rose to a fabulous height. In shcvi, the 
town, sacred and prdfane, went mad about "the 
Swedidi nightin^pOe'* ' (Ghodey). Ladies oon- 



LIND, 



141 



stantly sat on the sturs at the Opera, unable to 
penetrate further into the house. Her voice, 
which then at its very best showed some signs of 
early wear, was a soprano of bright, thrilling, 
and remarkably sympathetic quality, from D to 
D, with another note or two occasionally avail* 
able above the high D. The upper part of her 
register was rich and brilliant, and superior 
both in strength and purity to the lower. 
These two portions she managed, however, 
to unite in the most skilful way, moderating 
the power of her upper notes so as not to out- 
shine the lower. She had also a wonderfully 
developed 'lengUi of breath,* which enabled her 
to perform long and difficult passages with ease, 
and to fine down her tones to the softest pianis- 
simo, while still maintaining the quality un- 
varied. Her execution was very great, her shake 
trueand brilliant, her taste in ornament altogether 
original, and she usually invented her own ca- 
denze. In a song from ' Beatrice di Tenda,* she 
had a diromatic cadence ascending to E in alt, 
and descending to the note whence it had risen* 
which could scarcely be equalled for difficulty 
and perfection of execution. The following, sung 
by her at the end of * Ah ! non giunge,' was given 
to the present writer by an ear-witness : — 




In this comparatively simple eadema, the high 
D, G, £, though rapidly struck, were not given 
in the manner of a shake, but were positively 
marteUes, and produced an extraordinary effect. 
Another cadence, which, according to Moscheles, 
' electrified' them at the C^wandhaus, occurred 
three times in one of Chopin's Mazurkas ; — 




* What shall I say of Jenny Lind !* he writes 
again (1847) : ' I can find no words adequate to 
give you any real idea of the impression she has 
made. . . . This is no short4ived fit of pubUo 
enthusiasm. I wanted to know her off the stage 
as well as on; but, as she lives some distance 
from me, I asked her in a letter to fix upon 
an hour for me to calL Simple and uncere- 
monious as she is, she came the next day herself 
bringing her answer verbally. So mudi modesty 
and so much greatness united are seldom if ever 
to be met with; and, althou^^ her intiinate 
friend Mendelssohn had given me an insight 
into the noble qualities of her character, I was 
surprised to find them so apparent.' Again and 
again he speaks in the warmest terms of her, and 
subsequently of her and her husband together. 

Meanwhile MUe. lind maintained the mark 
which she had made in * Bobert,' by her import 



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142 



LIND. 



Bonation of the SonnanibuUi, A most effective 
character, — 'Lucia/ AdiiM, in <L*£liair/ * La 
Figlia del Begimento/ and, perhaps, altogether 
her best part> GitUia in Spontini^s 'Yestale.* 
In 1848 she returned to Her Majesty's Theatre, 
and added to these 'Lucia di Lammermoor* and 
<L*£lisir d'Amore/ In 1849 she announced 
her intention not to appear again on the stage, 
but so far modified this resolution as to sing at 
Her Majesty's Theatre in Mozart's 'flauto 
Magioo' arnuiged as a oonoerty without acting 
(Apidl 15); and still further by re-appearing in 
' La Sonnambula' (April 26) and 3 other operas. 
Her last appearance 'on any stage' took place 
in ' Roberto/ May 18, 1849. Henceforward she 
betook herself to the more congenial platform of 
the concert-room. How she sang there, many of 
the present generation can still remember, — ' the 
wild, queer, northern tunes brought here by 
her — her careful expression of some of Mozart s 
great airs — her mastery over sudi a piece of 
execution as the Bird song in Haydn s Crea- 
tion — and lastly, the grandeur of inspiration 
with which Uie '* Sanctus** of angels in Mendels- 
sohn's ** Elijah*' was led by her (the culminating 
point in that Oratorio). These are the triumphs 
which will stamp her name in the Golden Book 
of singers' (Chorley). On the other hand, the 
wondrous effect with which she sang a simple 
ballad, in the simplest possible manner, can never 
be forgotten by wose who ever heard it. After 
another season in London, and a visit to Ireland 
in 1848, Mile. Lind was engaged by Bamum, 
the American speculator, to make a tour of the 
United States. She arrived there in 1850, and 
remained for nearly two years, during part of 
the time unfettered by an engagement with any 
impre$ario, but accompanied by Mr., now Sir 
Julius, B^edict. The Americans, with their 
genius for appreciation and hospitality, welcomed 
her everywhere with firantio enthusiasm, and she 
made £20,000 in this progress. Here it was, in 
Boston, on Feb. 5, 185 a, that she married Mr. 
Otto Croldschmidt. [Goldsohmidt.] 

Returned to Europe, Mme. Gk>ld8ohmidt now 
travelled through Holland, and again visited 
Germany. In 1856 she came once more to 
England, and, until recent years, appeared fipe- 
quently in oratorios and concerts. 

It must be recorded that the whole of her 
American earnings was devoted to founding and 
endowing art-scholarships and other charities in 
her native Sweden; while, in England, the 
country of her adoption, among other charitiest 
she has given a whole hospital to liverpool and 
a wing of another to London. The scholarship 
founded in memory of her Mend Felix Mendels- 
Bohn also benefited laigely by her help and 
countenance ; and it may be said with truui that 
her generosity and her sympathy are never ap- 
pealed to in vain by those who have any just claims 
upon them. [MsNDELSseBir Sgholabship.] 

Madame Lind-Gk)ldschmidt now lives in Lon- 
don, respected imd admired by all who know 
her, the mother of a fiunily,. mixing in sodetv, 
but in no degree losing her vivid intenst m 



LINDLEY. 

muno. The Bach Choir, conducted by Mr. 
Goldschmidt, which has lately given the Eng- 
lish public the first opportunity of hearing in 
its entirety the B minor Mass or that composer* 
has profited in no small degree by the earefiil 
training bestowed on the female portion of the 
chorus by this great singer, and the enthusiasm 
inspired by her presence among them. [J.M.3 
LINDA DI CHAMOUNL Opera in 3 acts ; 
words by Rossi, music by Donizetti. Produced 
at the Kamthnerthor theatre, Vienna, May 19, 
184a; in Paris, Nov. 17, 184a; in London, at 
Her Majesty's, June 1843. [G.] 

LINDBLAD, Adolf Fbedbiok, bom near 
Stockholm in 1804. This Swedish composer 
passed several years of his early life in Berlin, 
and studied music there under Zelter. In 1835 
he returned to Stockholm and there resided, 
giving singing lessons and composing until his 
death in August 1878. 

lindblad has composed but little instrumental 
music ; a symphony in C which was given under 
Mendelssohn's direction at one of the Gewand- 
haus Concerts at Leipzig in November 1839, and 
a duo for pianoforte and violin (op. 9) are con- 
sidered the best, but they aim so little at effect 
and are so fiiU of the peculiar personality of their 
author that they can never be popular, and even 
his own coundimen are not familiar with them. 
It is his vocal compositions which have made 
him famous. He is eminently a national com- 
poser. He has published a laige^llection of 
songs for voice and piano to Swedish words, 
which are full of melody, grace, and originality. 
Written for the most part in the minor key, they 
are tinged with the melancholy which is charao- 
teristio of Swedish music. In such short songs 
as *The Song of the Daleoarlian maiden^' 
* Lament,' ' The wood by the Aaren lake,' etc., 
whose extreme simplicity is of the very essence 
of their charm, his success has been most con- 
spicuous. In longer and more elaborate songs, 
where the simplicity at which he aimed in his 
accompaniment has limited the variety of har- 
mony and figures, the effect is often marred by 
repetition and consequent monotony. Yet even 
in this class of work there are many beautiful 
exceptions, and ' A day in Spring,' ' A Summer's 
day/ and 'Autumn evening,' are specially worthy 
of mention. 

Jenny Und, who was Lindblad*s pupH, intro- 
duced his songs into Germany, and their rapidly 
acquired popularity earned for the author the 
title of * ^e Schubert of the North.' His only 
opera, 'Frondorome,' is scarcely known anywhere 
but several of his vocal duets, trios, and quartets 
have a considerable reputation in Sweden. 

An analysis of lindblad's Symphony will be 
found in the Allg. Mus. Zeitung for Oct. 33, 1839 
(comp. coL 937 of the same volume). There is a 
pleasant reference to him, honourable to both 
parties alike, in Mendelssohn's letter of Deo. aS, 
1833. [A.H.W.] 

LINDLEY, RoBSBTi, bom at Rotherham 
March 4, 1776^ showed so- early a predilectioii 



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UNDLEY. 

lor mneic that when he was about 5 yean of 
ago, his father, an amateur performer, commenced 
teaching him the violin, amd at 9 years of age, 
the violoncello also. He continued to practise 
the latter until he was 16, when Cervetto, hear- 
ing him play, encouraged him and undertook his 
gratuitoos instruction. He quitted Yorkshire 
and obtained an engagement at the Brighton 
theatre. In 1 794 he succeeded Sperati as prin- 
cipal violoncello at the Opera and all the princi- 
pal concerts, and retained undisputed possession 
of that podtion until his retirement in 1851. 
Iindley*8 tone was remarkable for its purity, 
richness^ mellowness and volume, and in tms 
Tesped he has probably never been equalled. 
His technique, for that date, was remarkable, 
and his accompaniment of recitative was perfec- 
tion. He composed several concertos and other 

I works for his instrument, but his composition was 
by no means equal to his execution. He died 
Jane 13, 1855. His daughter married John 
Bsraett the composer. 

His son, WiLLiAH, bora 1802, was also a 
violonoellist. He was a pupil of his father and 

I firat appeared in public in 1817 and soon took a 
position in all tne best orchestras. He gave 
great promise of future excellenoe, but was un- 
able to achieve any^prominence owing to extreme 
nervousness. He cUed at Manchester, Aug. la, 
1869. [W.H.H.] 

MNDPAINTNEE, Pkpbb Joseph vow, bom 
at Coblenz Deo. 8, 1 791, studied the violin, piano^ 

I and counterpoint at Augsburg, and subsequently 
appears to have received some instruodon at 
Munich £rom Winter. In 181 3 he accepted the 
post of Musik-directar at the Isarthor theatre in 
If onidi, and whilst so engaged completed his 
musical studies under Jos. Gratz, an excellent 
oontn^untist. In 1819 he was appointed Kapell- 

} meister to the Boyal Band at Stuttgart, and held 
that post until his death, which took place Aug. 
91, 1856, during a summer holiday at Nonnen- 
horn, on the Lake of Constance.. He was buried 
at Wasserburg. He died full of honours, a 
member of aihuost every nrasical institution of 
ihe Continent, and the. recipient of gifts from 
mai^ crowned heads — amongst others a medal 
from Queen Victoria^ in 184S, for the dedication 
of his oratorio of Abraham. 

By quiet and persistent labour he raised his 
band to the lev^ of the best in Grermany, and 
acquired a very high reputation. ' lindpaintner,* 
says Mendelssohn, describing a visit to Stuttgart 
in 1831, 'is in my belief the best conductor in 
Gennany ; it is as if he played the whole orches- 
tra with his baton alone ; and he is very Indus* 
triooB.' Of the many professional engagements 
offered him in other towns and foreign oountries, 

' he accepted but one, and that, in 1853, three 
ysuB before his death, was to conduct the New 
Philhannonic Concerts in London, at which his 
cantata The \^dow of Nain, his overtures to 
Faurt and the Vampyre, and others of his oom- 
positiocis were given with success, including the 
■ong of The Standard-bearer, at that time so 
popular, sung by Pisohdc He wrote a8 operat, 



LINLEY. 



143 



3 ballets, 5 melodramas and oratorios, several 
cantatas, 6 masses, a Stabat lidater, and above 50 
songs with pianoforte accompaniment. To these 
were added symphonies, overtures, concertos, fan- 
tasias, trios and quartets for different instruments. 
He rescored Judas Maccabseus, no doubt cleverly, 
and at the time it was said, well. Some of his 
symphonies, his operas 'DerVampyr* and 'Lich- 
tenstein,* his ballet ' Joko,* the overture to which 
is still heard at concerts, his music to Goethe's 
' Faust * and Sdiiller 's * Song of the Bell,' have been 
pronounced to be among the best of his works. 
And two of his songs^ 'The Standard-bearer* and 
'Boland,' created at the time a veritable furore. 

Though wanting in depth and originality Lind- 
paintner's compositions please by their clearness 
and brilliancy, melody and well-developed form ; 
and the hand of a clever and practised musician 
is everywhero visible in them. [A. H.W.] 

LINLEY, Fbakois, bom 1774 at Doncaster, 
blind from- his birth, studied music under Dr. 
Miller, and became an able organist. He wfts 
chosen organist of St. James's Chapel, Ponton- 
ville, and soon afterwards married a blind lady 
of considerable fortune. He purohased the 
business of Bland, the musicseller in Holbom, 
but his affairs becoming embarrassed, his wife 
parted from him and he went to America, where 
his playing and compositions were much admired. 
He returned to Englemd in 1 799 and died in Oct. 
1800. His works consist of songs, pianoforte 
and organ pieces, flute solos and duets, and an 
* Oigan Tutor.* His greatest amusement was to 
explore diurchyards and read the inscriptions on 
the tombstones by the sense of touch. [W.H. H.] 

LINLEY, Thomas, bom about 1735 at Wells, 
Somerset, commenced the study of music under 
Thomas Chilcot, organist of Bath Abbey church, 
and completed his education under Paradies. He 
established himself as a singing master at Bath, 
and for many years carried on the concerts there 
with great success. On the retirement of John 
Christopher Smith in 177^. Linley joined Stanley 
in the management of the oratorios at Drury 
Lane, and on the death of Stanley in 1 786 con- 
tinued them in partnership with ur, Arnold, to. 
1775, in conjunction wi^ his eldest son, Thomas, 
he composed and compiled the music for 'The 
Duenna,' by his son-in-law, Sheridan, which had 
tixe then unparalleled run of 75 nights in its first 
season. In 1 776 he purchased part of Garrick's 
share in Drury Lane, removed to London and un- 
diertook the management of the music of the 
theatre, for which he composed several pieces of 
merit. Linley died at his house in Soutnampton 
Street, Covent Garden, Nov. 19, 1795, and was 
buried in Wells CathedraL His dramatic pieces 
were 'The Duenna,* 1775; 'Selima and Azor* 
(chiefly from Gr^try, but containing the charming 
original melody, 'No flower that blows*), 1776 ; 
'The Camp,' 1778; 'The Carnival of Venice,' 
'The Gentle Shepherd,* and 'Ebbinson Crusoe,' 
1781; 'The Triumph of Mirth,' 1783; 'The 
Spanish Rivals,' 1784 ; 'The Strangers at home,' 
and 'Bichard Coeur do Uon' (fromGr^try), 1 786 ; 
and ^Love in the East/ 1788; besides the song 



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144 



LINLET. 



in 'The School for Scandal/ 1777, and aocom- 
panimenti to the songs in * The Beggar's Opera.* 
He also set such portions of Sheridan's Monody 
on the Death of Garrick, 1 779, as were intended to 
be sung. ' Six Elegies' for 3 voices, composed at 
Bath (much commended by Bumey), and * Twelve 
Ballads' were published in his lifetime. The 
posthumous worts of himself and his son, Thomas, 
which appeared a few years after his death, in a 
vols., consist of songs, cantatas, madrigals, and 
elegies, including the lovely 5-part madrigal by 
him, ' Let me, careless,' one of ike most graceful 
productions of its kind. As an English composer 
Lonley takes high rank. 

Eliza Ann, his eldest daughter, * The Maid of 
Bath,' bom 1754, received her musical education 
from her fiither, and appeared at an eariy age at 
the Bath oonoerts as a soprano singer with great 
success. In 1770 she simg at the oratorios in 
London and at Worcester Festival, and rose high 
in public favour. Li 1771 she sang at Hereford 
Festival, and in 1773 at Gloucester. In Mardi, 
1773, she became, under somewhat n>mantic cir- 
cumstances, the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 
and, after fulfilling engagements at Woroestw 
Festival and at Oxford, contracted before her 
marriage, she retired at the zenith of her popu- 
larity. Her voice was of extensive compass, and 
she sang with equal excellence in both the sus- 
tidned and florid styles. She died of consumpti<m 
at Bristol in 179a. 

Maby, his second daughter and pupil, also a 
favourite singer, sang with her sister at the 
oratorios, festivals, etc., and for a few years after- 
wards, untU her marriage with Richard Tiokell, 
commissioner of stamps. She died in July 1 787. 

Maria, his third daughter, was also a concert 
and oratorio singer. Shedied at Bath Sept. 5, 1 784, 
at an early age. Shortly before her death she 
raised herself in bed, and with momentary anima- 
tion sang part of Handel's air ' I know that my 
Redeemer liveth,' and then, exhausted with the 
effort, sank down and soon afterwards expired. 

Thomas, his eldest son, bom at Bath m 1756, 
displayed at an early age extraordinary skill on 
the violin, and at 8 years old perfcumed a ccm- 
certo in public. After studying with his father 
he was placed under Dr. Bcyoe. He then went 
to Florence and took lessons on the violin from 
Kardini, and whilst there became acquainted 
with Mozart, then about his own age, and a 
warm attachment sprang up between them ; when 
they parted they were each bathed in tears, and 
Mozart often afterwards spoke of linley wiUi the 
greatest affection. On returning to Eogland he 
became leader and solo -player at his father's 
concerts at Bath, and subsequentlv at the oratorios 
eta at Drury Lane. In 1773 be composed an 
anthem with orchestra ('Let God arise') for 
Worcester Festival. In 1775 he assisted his 
father in * The Duenna,' by writing the overture, 
three or four airs, a duet and a trio. He subse- 
quently composed a chorus and two songs for in- 
t^uction into ' The Tempest.' In 1 776 he pro- 
duced 'An Ode on the Witches and Fairies of 
Shakspere.' He also composed a short oratorio. 



LIPINSKL 

*The Song of Moses,' performed at Drufy Laae, 
and added accompaniments for wind instruments 
to the music in ' Macbeth.' He was unfortunately 
drowned, through the upsetting of a boat, whilst 
on a visit at the Duke of Ancaster's, Grimsthorpe, 
Lincolnshire, Aug. 7, 1778. The greater part of 
his miscellaneous compositions are contained in 
the a vols, of posthumous works above mentioned. 

Another son. Osias Thurstow, bom 1765, was 
also instmcted in music by the father. He en- 
tered the Church and obtained a living, which 
he resigned on being appointed. May 5, 18 16, 
a junior fellow and cHrganist of Dulwich CoU^ge, 
where he died March, 1831. 

William, his youngest son, bom about 1767 
and educated at St. Paul's and Harrow, learned 
music firom his father and Abel. Mr. Fox pro- 
cured for him a writership at Madras, and hm 
was subsequently paymastw at Yellore and sub- 
treasurer at Fort St. Greoige. He returned from 
India with a competence, and devoted his atten- 
tion to literature aAi music, composed many 
glees, published a set of songs, two sets of canzo- 
nets, and many detached pieces, edited *Shak- 
spore's Dramatic Songs/ a vols. fol. 1815-16, and 
wrote two comic operas, two novels, and several 
pieces of poetry. He died in 1835. [W.H.H.] 

LIPINSKI^ Kabl Joskph, eminent violinist 
of the modem school, bom Oct. 30 (or ac- 
cording to a family tradition Nov. 4), 1790, at 
Radzyn in Poland, son of a land-agent and 
amateur violinist, who taught him the elementi 
of fingering. Having outgrown this instmction 
he for a time took up the cello, on which he ad* 
vanced sufficiently to play Romberg's concertos. 
He soon however returned to the violin, and 
in 1810 became first Concertmeister, and then 
Gf4>ellmeister, of the theatre at heKnbesrg, Not 
being able to play the piano, he used to lead the 
rehearsals with his vioUn, and thus acquired 
that skill in part playing which was one of hia 
great characteristics as a virtuoso. In 1814 he 
resigned his poet, and gave himself up to private 
study. In 181 7 he went to Italy, chiefly in the 
hope of hearing Paganini. They met in Milan, and 
Paganini took a great fimcy to him, played with him 
daily, and even performed in public with him at 
two concerts (April 17 and 30, 181 8), a oiroum- 
stanoe which greatly increased Lipinski's reputa- 
tion. Towards the dose of the year Lipinski re- 
turned to Germany, but soon went back to Italy, 
attracted by the £une of an aged pupil of Tartini s. 
Dr. Mazzurana. Dissatisfied with Lipinski ■ 
rendering of one of Tartini's sonatas, but unable 
on account of his great age (90) to correct him 
by playing it hinuel^ A^kzzurana gave him a 
poem, which he had written to explain tiie 
master's intentions. With this aid Lipinski 
mastered the sonata, and in consequence endea- 
voured for the future to embody some poetical 
idea in his playing-^-the secret of his own suc- 
cess, and of tliat of many others who imitated 
him in this respect. In i8a9 Paganini and li- 
pinski met again in Warsaw, but unfortunately 
a rivalry was excited between them which de- 
■tioyed the old friendflhip. In 1835 and 36, in 



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UHKSKI. 

the coane of th lengthened muucal townUt, he 
viiited Leipric, then becoming the scene of much 
moskal actiyity owing to Mendelnohn*! settle- 
ment there ; and there he made the acquaint- 
ttce of Schumann, which resulted in the dedi- 
cfttion to him of tiie 'Gameval* (op. 9) which 
was composed in. 1834. In 1836 he visited 
England and played his military concerto at the 
Philhirmonic Ckmcert of April 35. In 1839 Lipin- 
ski became Conoertmeister at Ih^sden, where he 
entirelj reorganised the royal chapel, thus doing 
very much the same service to Dresden that 
HeUmesberger subsequently did to Vienna. He 
retired wi£ a pension in 1861, and died on 
December 16, of sudden paralysis of the lungs. 
At Urlow, his country house near Lemberg. 

His compositions (now forgotten) are numerous, 
ind his oonoertoe, fiuatasias, and variations, are 
valuable contributions to violin music. One of the 
best known was the ' Military Concerto, * which for 
yean was muoh played and was the object of the 
amlxtion of many a student of the vioUn. It is 
eren now occasionally heard in public. In con- 
jtmctioD with Zalewski, the Polish poet, he edited 
so interesting collection of Galidan ' Volkslieder ' 
with pianoforte accompaniments. [P*^*] 

The most promment qualities of lipuski's 
playing were a remarkably broad and powerful 
tone^ which he ascribed to his early studies on 
the oeQo; perfect intonation in double stops, 
octaves, etc.; and a warm enthusiastic indivi- 
duality. Bui the action of his right arm and 
wrist were somewhat heavy. He was an enthu- 
niBtie musician, and especially in his later years 
played Beethoven*s great quartets and Bach*s 
■doB in p refere n ce to everything else. [P. D.] 

IISBETH. The title of the French version 
of Mendel8Bohn*8 'Heimkehr ans der Fremde* ; < 
tnuulated hj J. Barbier, and produced at the 
Theatre Lyrique June 9, 1865. [G.] 

LISCHEN ET FRITZCHEN. Am operetta 
in I act ; words by Paul Dubois, music by Offen- 1 
badL Produced at Ems ; and reproduced at the 
Bcaffes-Parisiena, Paris, Jan. 5, 1B64 ; in London 
(French), at St. James's, June a, 1868. [G.] 

LISLET', JoHV, oontributeA a six-part mad- 
rigal— <Faire Citharea presents hir doves* — to 
'TheTriumphes of OriMia,* 1601, but no other 
composition by him has survived, nor is anything 
known of his biography. [W. H. H.] 

USZT, Fbanz, is one of the favourites of 
fertme^ and his success is perhaps unequalled, 
eotainly unsurpassed in the history of Art. At 
his first public appearance at Tienni^ Jan. i^ 
1823, liui geoioB was aeknowledged with an 
e&thusiaBm in which the whole musical republic, 
fiom Beethoven down to the obscurest dilettante, 
joined unanimously. His concert tours were so 
many triumphal progresses through a country 
wfaieh extended from Madrid to St. Petersburg, 
asd in whidi he was acknowledged as the king 
of pianists ; and the same sudbess accompanied all 
he undertook in life. When, tired of the shaliow 
^une of the virtuoso, he devoted himself to com- 
positien, he had, it is trae» at lint to eaoeuntet 

VOL.II. 



tiszr: 



lU 



the usual obstacles of popular in^fferenee and 
professional ill-wiU. But these were soon over« 
come by his energy, and Lisst is at present 
living to see his works admired by many and 
ignorad by none. As an orcheetcal conductor 
idso he added laurels te his wreath. 

Franz Liszt was V>m Oct. S3, 181 1, at 
Raiding, in Hungary, the son of Adam liszt, an 
official in the imperial service, and a musical 
amateur of sufficient attainment to instruct hii 
son in the rudiments of pianoforte-playing. At 
the age of ^ young liszt made his first appear- 
ance in public at Oedenburg with such success 
that several Hungarian noblemen guaranteed 
him sufficient means to continue his studies fut 
six years. For that purpose he went to Vienna, 
and took lessons from Czemy on the pianoforte 
and from Salieri and Randhartinger in com- 
position. The latter introduced the lad to his 
friend Fcanz Schubert His first appearance in 



print was probably in a -variation (the a4th) on 
a waltz of Diabelli's, one of co contributed bv 
the most eminent artists of the day, for which 
Beethoven, when asked for a single variation, 
wrote thirty-three (op. lao). The collection, 
entitled Vaterl&ndiBche Kttnstler-Verein, was 
published in June 1813. In tiie same year he 
proceeded to Paris, where it was hoped that 
his rapidly growing reputaition would gain him 
admission at the Conservatoire in spite of his 
foreign origin. ButOherubini refused to make 
an exception in his favour, and he continued his 
studies under ReScha and Paer. Shortly after- 
wards be also made his first serious attempt at 
composition, and an operetta in one act, called 
'Don Saaobe,* was produced at the AoMl^mie 
Royale, Get. 17, 1 8 25, and well received. Artistic 
tours to Switzerland and England, accompanied 
by brilliant success, occupy the period till the 
veaB. 1827, when liszt lost hia father and wal 

L 



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JilSZT. 



thrown on hUs own resouroes to provide for him* 
«elf and his mother. During his stav in Paris, 
where he settled for some years, he became ao- 
qoainted with the leaders of French literature, 
Victor Hugo, Lamartine and Georse Sand, the 
influence of whose works may be discovered in 
his compositions. For a time also he became 
an adherent of Saint-Simon, but soon reverted 
to the Catholic religion, to which, as an artiBt 
imd as a man, he has since adhered devoutly. 
In 1834 he beoune acquainted with the Countess 
J)*Agoult, better known by her literary name 
of Danid Stem, who for a long time remained 
attached to him and by whom he had three chil- 
dren. Two of these, a son and a daughter, the 
wife of M. Ollivier the French statesman, are 
dead. The third, Cosima, is the wife of Richard 
Wagner. The public ooncerts which Liszt gave 
during ihe latter part of his stay in Paris placed 
his dum to the first rank amongst pianists on 
A firm basis, and at last he was induced, much 
against his will, to adopt the career of a virtuoso 
proper. The interval from 1839 to 1847 Liszt 
spent in travelling almost incessantly firom one 
country to another, being everywhere received 
with an enthusiasm unequalled in the annals of 
Art. In Endand he played at the Philharmonic 
Concerts of May 21, 1837 (Concerto, Hummel), 
May II, 1840 (Conoertsttlck, Weber), and June 
8, 1840 (Kreutzer-sonata). Here alone his recep- 
tion seems to have been less wann than was ex- 
pected, and Liszt, with his usual generosity, at 
once undertook to bear the loss that might have 
fallen on his agent. Of this generosity numerous 
instances might be cited. The charitable pur- 
poses to which laszt^B genius has been made 
subservient are legion, and in this respect as 
well as in that of technical perfection he is 
unrivalled amongst virtuosL The disaster 
caused at Pesth by the inundation of the 
Danube (1837) was considerably alleviated by 
the princely sum — ^the result of several ooncerts 
—contributed by this artist; and when two 
Tears later a considerable sum had been col- 
lected for a statue to be erected to him at Pesth, 
he insisted upon the money being g^ven to a 
struggling youi^^ sculptor, whom he moreover 
assisted from his private means. The poor of 
KaidiDg also had cause to remember the visit 
paid b^ Lidzt to his native village about the 
same tmie. It is well known that Beethoven's 
monument at Bonn owed its existence, or at 
least its speedy completion, to Lisst*s liberality. 
When the subscriptions for the purpose began 
to fail, Liszt offerni to pay the biUanoe required 
from his own pocket, provided only that the 
choice of the sculptor should be left to him. 
From the beginning of the forties dates Liszt's 
more intimate connection with Weimar, where 
in 1849 he settled for the space of i a years. 
This staywas to be fruitful in more than one 
sense. When he dosed his career as a virtuoso, 
and accepted a permanent engagement as con- 
ductor of the Court Theatre at Weimar, he did 
•o with the distinct purpose of becoming the 
ndvocate of the rising musical generation^ bj 



LISZT. 

the perfonnanoe of such works as were written, 
regsjrdless of immediate suooess, and thereforo 
hi^ little chance of seeing the light of the stage. 
At short intervals eleven opema of living com- 
posers were either performed for the first time 
or revived on the Weimar stage. Amongst 
these may be counted such works as ZohenffHn, 
Tannh&uaer, and The FlyinglhUehman of Wag* 
ner, Beiwenuto Cellini by Berlioz, Schumann's 
GenovevOt and music to Byron's ^Manfred.' 
Schubert's Alfonso and EslreUa was also res- 
cued from oblivion by Liszt's exerticos. For 
a time it seemed as if this small provincial 
city were once more to be the artistic centre 
of Grennany, as it had been in the daja of 
Goethe, Sdiiller and Herder. From all sides 
musicians and amateurs flocked to Weimar, to 
witness the astonishing feats to which a nnall 
but excellent community of singers and instara- 
mentalists were inspired by the genius of th^ 
leader. In this vray was mrmed the nuoleos of 
a group of young and enthusiastic musicians, 
who, whatever may be thought of thefr aims and 
achievements, were and are at any rate insfured 
b^ perfect devotion to music and its poetical 
amis. It was, indeed, at these Weimar gatho^ 
inffs that the musicians who now form the so- 
called School of the Future, till then unknown 
to each other and divided locally and mentally, 
came first to a dear understuiding of their 
powers and aspirations. How much the personal 
fosdnation of Liszt contributed to this desired 
eflSBct need not be said. Amongst the numerous 
pupils on the pianoforte, to whom he at the same 
period opened the invaluable treasure of his 
teohnical experience, may be mentioned Hans 
yon Bnlow, the worthy disdple of such a maato*. 
But, in a still higher sense, the soil of 
Weimar, with its great traditions, was to prove 
a fidd of richest harvest. When, as earij as 
1842, Liszt undertook the direction of a oertun 
number of ooncerts every year at Weimar, his 
friend Duveiger wrote 'Cette place, qui oblige 
Liszt k sojourner trois mob de I'ann^e 2k Weimar, 
ddt marquer peut-6tre pour lui la transitioii de 
sa carri^ de virtuose 2k oelle de oomponteor.* 
This presage has been verified by a number of 
oompodtions which, whatever may be the final 1 
verdict on thefr merits, have at any rate done 
much to duddate some of the most important 
questions in Art. From these works of his 
mature years his eariy oompodtions, mostly for 
the pianoforte, ought to be distinguished. In 
the latter Liszt the virtuoso predominates over 
Liszt the composer. Not, for instance^ that his 
* transcriptions' of operatic mudo are without 
superior merits^ Every one of them shows the 
refined muddan, and for the development of 
pianoforte technique, eqiedally in rendering or- 
chestral effects, they are of the greatest injpQct- 
anoe. They also tend to prove liszt's cathoUd^ 
of taste; for all sdiools are equally represented in 
the list, and a selection from Wagner's 'Lohen- 
grin ' is found dde by dde with U^ Dead March 
from Donizetti's ' Don Sebastian.' To point out 
even tiie mos^ important vnong these sdectio n s 



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LISZT. 

tad amngements would far ezoeed the limits of 
this notice. More important are the original 
pieces for the pianoforte also belonging to this 
eariier epoch and collected nnder siidi nafnes as 
'Consolations* and <Ann^ de p^erinage,' but 
even in these, charming and interesting Si nuuDiy 
req>eot8 as they are, it would be difficult to 
discover the geims of Liszt's latw productiveness. 
The stage of preparation and imitation through 
idiich i3l young composers have to go, Liszt 
passed at uie piano and not at the desk. This 
is well pointed out in Wagner's pamphlet on the 
Symphonic Poems : — 

'He who has had frequent opportunities^' 
writes Wagner, ' particularly in a friendly oirde^ 
of hearing Idszt play — ^for instance, Beethoven — 
most have understood that this was not mere/ 
reproduction, but real production. The actual 
pomt of division between these two things is not 
so easQy determined as most people believe, but 
80 much I have ascertained beyond a doubty 
that» in order to reproduce Beethoven, one must 
be able to produce with him. It would be im- 
posnble to make this understood by those who 
have, in all their life, heard nothing but the 
ordinaiy pefformances and renderings by vir- 
tuosi cif Beethoven's works. Into the growtii 
and essence of such renderings I have, in the 
coarse of time, gained so sad an insight, that I 
prefer not to offend anvbody by expressiag 

Jielf more clearly. I ask, on the other band, 
who have heard, for instance, Beethoven's 
op. io6 or op. Ill (the two great sonatas in 
Bb and C) played by Liszt in a friendly circle, 
what they previously knew of those creations, 
and what they learned of them on those occa- 
sions! If this was reproduction, tiien surely it 
was worth a great deal more than all the sonatas 
rqsodudng Beethoven which are ^ produced ** by 
i. oor pianoforte composers in imitation of those 
imperfectly comprehended works. It was simplyf 
the peculiar mode of Liszt's development to do 
at the piano what others achieve with pen and 
ink ; aiul who can deny that even the greatest 
and most original master, in his first period, does 
nothing but reproduce t It ought to be added 
that during this reproductive epoch, the work 
even of the greatest genius never has the value 
and importance of the master works which it 
leproduces, its own value and importance being 
attained only by the manifestatiOB of distinct 
originality. It fculows that Liszt's activity during 
his first and reproductive period surpasses eivery- 
thing done by others under parallel circumstances. 
For he placed the value and importance of the 
works of his predecessors in the fullest light* and 
thus raised himself almost to the same height 
with the composers he reproduced.' 

These remarks at the same time will to a 
Isige extent account for the unique place which 
liszt holds amongst modem representatives of 
his instrument, and it will be unnecessary to say 
anything of the phenomenal teohaoque whid^ 
enabled him to oonoentrate his whole mincl on 
the intentions of the composer. 
Ttt weeks of Liait's mature periocl may be 



ZISZT. 



147 



most conveniently dassed under four lieadings. 
First : works for the pianoforte with and without 
orchestral accompaniments. The two Conoertos 
in £b and A, and the fifteen Hungarian Rhapeo* 
dies are the most important works of this group, 
the latter especially illustrating ihe strongly 
pronounced national element in liSzt. The repre- 
sentative works of the second or orchestral section 
of Liszt's works are the Faust Symphony in 
three tableaux, the Dante Symphony, and the 
twelve ' Symphonic Poems.' Of the latter a full 
list is given on p. 149 b. It is in these Symphonic 
Poems that Liszt's mastery over the orchestra as 
well as his daims to oiiginaUWarediiefly shown* 
It is true that the idea of 'Programme-Music,' 
such as we find it illustrated here, had been anti- 
cipated by Berlioz. Another important feature, 
the so-called ' leading-motive' (i. e. a theme repre- 
sentative of a character or idea, and therefore 
recurring- whenever that character or that idea 
comes into jnoininent action), liszt has adopted 
from Wagner. [Leit-motif.] At tiie same time 
these id^ appear in his music in a consider- 
ably modified form. Speaking, for instance, of 
Programme-Music, it is at once apparent that 
the significance of that term is understood in ft 
very different sense by Berlioz and by IAbzL 
Beriios, like a true Frenchman, is thinkmor of a 
distinct story or dramatio situation, of which he 
takes care to inform the reader by means of a 
commentary ; Liszt, on theodntcacy, emphasizes 
chiefly the pictorial and symbolic bearings of 
his theme, and in the first-nasMied respect espe- 
cially is perhaps unsurpassed bv modern sjin- 
phonists. Even where an event has become the 
motive of his symphonic poem, it is always from 
a single feature of a more or less musically -realis- 
able nature that he takes his suggestion, and 
from this he proceeds to the deeper significance 
of hia subject, without much regiurd for the inci- 
dents of the story. It is for this reason tihat, for 
example, in his Mazeppa he has chosen Victor 
Hugos somewhat pompous production as the 
groundwork of his music, in preference to Biron's 
more celebrated and more beautiful poem. Byron 
simply tells the story of Mazeppa s danger and 
rescue. In Victor Hugo the Polish youth, 
tied to 

* A Tartar of the Ukraine breed 
Who looked m thoufl^ the speed of thought 
Was in hlB limbs,' 

has become the representative of man ' Ud vivant 
$ur to eroup^fataUj G^ie, ardent cowriier' This 
symbolic meaning, for-fetohed though it may ap- 
pear in the poem, isof incalculable advantage to the 
musician. It gives sssthetic dignity to £e wild, 
rattling triplets which imitate we horse's gallop, 
and imparts a higher significance to the triumphal 
march which doses the piece. For as Mazeppa 
became Hetman of the Cossacks, even so is 
man gifted with genius destined for ultimate 
triumph: 

* Ghaqae pat que ta ikis semble oreuser ta tombe, 
Xhifln le temps arrive • . . U court, il tombe, 
£t se relive loL' 

A more elevated subject than the struggle and 

L2 



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final viotory of gmixm an artist oaimot well deeiie, 
and no famt can be found wHh Liazt, pixrcided 
always that the introduction of uctorial and 
peetic elements into music is thought to be peiv 
missible. Neither can the melodic means em- 
]dojed by him In rendering this subject be 
objected ta In the opening allegro agitato 
desoriptiye of Mazeppa'j ride, etrtrng accents and 
rapid rhythms naturally pveTail ; but, together 
wkh this merely external matter, there occurs an 
impressive theme (first announced by the basses 
and trombones), evidently representative o£ the 
hero himself, and for that reason repeated again 
and again throughout the piece. The second 
section, OMdante, which brings welcome rest after 
the breathless huny of the ailegm, is in its turn 
l«dieved by a brilhant march, with an original 
Cossack tune by way of trio, tiie abstract idea of 
triumphant genius being thus ingeniously iden- 
tified with Maseppa's success among 'Us tribus 
def Ukraine.* From these remarics Liszt's method, 
Applied with slight modification in all his sym* 
pnonic poems, is sufficiently clear ; but the difficult 
problem remains to be solved. How can these 
philosophic and pictorial idejus beccune the nucleus 
4>f a new musical form to supply the place of the 
old symphonic movement? Wagner asks the 
question * whether it is not more noble and more 
liberating for music to adopt its fimn from the 
conception of the Orpheus or Prometheus motive 
than from the dance or march ?* but he forgets 
that dance and march have a distinct and tangible 
relation to musical form, which neither Prome- 
theus and Orpheus, nor indeed any other character 
or abstract idetk, possess. The solution of this 
problem must be left to a futuro time, when it 
will also be possible to determine the permanent 
position of lisst's symphonic works in Uie hisUay 
of Art. 

The legend of St. Elizabeth^ a kind of oratorio, 
fiill of great beauty, but sadly weighed down by 
a tedious librotto, leads the way to the third 
flection — the Sacred compositions. Here the ^an 
Mcu8, the Misaa Chwralii, the Mass for small 
Toioes, and the oratorio Chridu$ are the chief 
works. The 15th Psalm, for tenor, chorus, and 
OTchestr%* may alro be mentioned. The accent- 
uation of the subjective or personal element^ 
combined as far as possible with a deep roverence 
for the old forms of church musii;, is the key- 
note of Liszt s sacred compositions. 
yWe finally come to a fourth division not 
KmtuBrU} sufficiently ^prooiated by Liszt*s critics 

jlh^\m Songs. It is hero perhaps that his in- 
tensity of foeHpg, embodied in melody pure and 
simple, finds its most perfect expression. Such 
nettings as those of Heine's *Du hist wie eine 
Blume,* OF Bedwitz^s ' £s muss ein wunderbares 
aein' aro conceiired in the true spirit of the 
Yolkslied. At other tim^s a greater liberty in 
ithe rhythmical phrasing of the music is warranted 
by the metro of the poem itself, a^ for instance, 
in Goethe's wonderful night song, 'Ueber alien 

\ Gipfeln ist BuhV the heavenly calm of which 
liszt has rendered by his wonderful haimonies 

* PwioniMd «IMi; BmIm's Miuul eoooNt In urn. 



JJ8ZT. 

In a nUmnw which alone would securo him a 
place amongst the great masters of German sonff. 
Particularly, the modulation from 6 major back 
into the original £ major at the dose of the 
piece is of surprising beauty. Less happy is the 
dramatic way in wUch such ballads as Heine's 
<Loreley' and Goethe's 'Konig in Thule' are 
treated. Hero the melody is sacrificed to the 
declamatory element, and tiiat declamation, espe^ 
dally in the last-named song, is not always 
faultless. Victor Hugo's ' Comment disaient-ils * 
is one of the most graceful songs amongst Liszt's 
worics, and in musical Uteraturo senertJly. 

The remaining foots of lasz^s lifo may be 
summed up in a few words. In 1859 he left his 
official position at the Opera in Weimar owing 
to the captious opposition piade to the productioD. 
of Cornelius's ' Barber of Bagdad,' at the Weimar 
theatre. Since that time 1^ has been living at 
intervals at Bome, Pesth, and Weimar, always 
surrounded by a cirde of pupiU and admirers, 
and always working for music and musicians in 
the iinftelfish and truly catholic spirit char^kcter- 
istic of Ms whole lifo. How much Liszt can be 
to a i^an and an artist is shown by what per- 
haps is the most important episode even in his 
interesting career — ^ms friendship with Wagn^. 
The latter's doquent words will give a better 
idea of Liszt's personal charactw than any less 
intimate friend could attempt to do. 

'I met liazt,* writes Wagner, 'for the first 
time during my earliest stay in Paris, at a 
period when I had renounced the hope, nay, 
even the wish, of a Paris reputation, and, in- 
deed, was in. a state of internal revdt against 
the artistic life which I found there. At our 
meeting he struck me as the most perfect contrast 
to my own bdng and situation. In this world, 
into which it had been my desire to fly from my 
narrow ciroumstanoes, Liszt had grown up, frtnoa 
his earliest age, so as to be the object of general 
love and acUniration, at a time when I was 
repuked l^ general coldness and want of sym- 
pathy. . . . Li consequence I looked upon him with 
suspidon. I had no opportunity of disclosing 
my being and working to him, and, therefore, the 
reception I met with on his part was altogether 
of a superficial kind, as was indeed natural 
in a man to whom every day the most divergent 
impressions claimed access. But I was not in 
a mood to look with unprejudioed eyes for the 
natural cause of his behaviour, which, though 
friendly and obliging in itsd^ could not but 
wound me in the Uien state of my mind. I never 
repeated my first call on Liszt, and without 
knowing or even wishing to know him, I vraa 
prone to look upon him as strange and adverse 
to my nature. My repeated expression of this 
feding was afterwards told to lum, just at the 
time when my 'Bienzi' at Dresden attracted 
general attention. He was surprised to find 
himself luiBunderstood with such vidence by 
a man whom he had soarcdy known, and whose 
acquaintance now seemed not without value to 
him. I am still moved when I rranember th^ 
repeated and eager attempts he made to chagage 



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LISZT. 

ihy opinion of him, even before he knew any | 
of my works. He acted not ^m any artistic 
sympathy, but led by the purely human wish of 
discontinuing a casual disharmony between him- 
self and another being ; perhaps he also felt an 
infinitely tender misgiving of having really hurt 
me unconsciously. He who knows the selfish- 
ness and terrible insensibility of our social life, 
and especially of the relations of modem 
artists to each other, cannot but be struck 
with wonder, nay, delight, by the treatment I 
experienced firom this extraordinazy man. ... At 
Weimar I saw him for the last time, when I was 
resting for a few days in Thuringia, uncertain 
whether the threatening prosecution would com- 
pel me to continue my flight firom C^ermany. 
llie very day when my personal danger became 
a certainty, I saw Liszt conducting a rehearsal 
of my ' Xannhauser,* and was astonished at 
recognising my second self in his achievement. 
What I had felt in inventing this music he felt 
in performing it : what I wanted to express in 
writing it down, he expressed in making it sound. 
Strange to say, through the love of Uiis rarest 
firiend, I gained, at the moment of becoming 
homelees, a real home for my art, which I had 
hitherto longed for and sought for always in the 
wrong place. ... At the end of my last stay at 
Paris, when ill, miserable, and despairing, I sat 
broo<Ung over my £ftte, my eye fell on the score of 
my " Lohengrin/* which I had totally forgotten. 
Suddenly I felt something like compassion that 
this music should never sound firom oJBT the death- 
pale paper. Two words I wrote to Liszt : his 
answer was, the news that preparations for the 
performance were being made on the largest scale 
that the limited means of Weimar would permit.. 
Eveiythinff that men and droumstances could do, 
was done, m order to make the work understood. 
. . . Errors and misconceptions impeded the de- 
tired success. What was to be done to supply 
what was wanted, so as to further the true un- 
derstanding on all sides, and with it the ultimate 
success of the work ? Liszt saw it at once, and 
did it. He gave to the public his own im- 
pression of the work in a manner the convincing 
eloquence and overpowering efficacy of which 
lemain unequalled. Success was his reward, and 
with this success he now approaches me, saying : 
** Bdidd we have come so far, now create us a 
new work, that we may go still further.** * 

In addition to the commentaries on Wagner^s 
works just referred to, Liszt has also written 
numerous detached articles and pamphlets, those 
on Bobert Franz, Chopin, and tne music of the 
Gipsies, being the most important. It ought to 
be added that the appreciation of Liszt's music 
in tins country is almost entirely due to the un- 
ceasmg efforts of his pupil, Mr. Walter Bache, 
at wlu)ee annual concerts many of his most 
important works have been produced. Others, 
ludi as *Mazeppa' and the 'Battle of the 
Huns,' were first heard in England at the Crystal 
Palace. 

The following is a catalogue of Liszt*s works, 
as eomplete as it has been possible to make it. 



MSZT. 



149 



It is compiled firom the recent edition of the 
thematic catalogue (Breitkopf & Hartel, No. 
'4>373)> published lists, and other available 
sources. 

L OBCEESTBAL W0BK8. 
L Oeioimai. iia 'GMdesmoiIgKiir': Bumo- 

1. Snnpbonto ga Dante's DlTinft rmka for oreh. *oU. and ehoruk 

ComiiMdU. oreh. and foMte Seoreuulpvta: alio forP.F.fi 

ehonu: dedrto WagMT. Lin- •nd4hand«. Schubertlu 

femo; 9L Purgmtorto; a Maignl- 

float. Soore and parta. BrAB.1 

Arr.forSPJi. 
a Bine Vaust-STupbonle to dni 

CharakterbndMn(naeh OoaCbeX 

•reh. and malecboraa: ded. to 

BerUot. LFauM; Sr QreCchen 

(also for P.F. 9 hands); & Me- 

phlstopbeles. Score snd parta; 

also for 8P.FS. Sehuberth. 
&• Zwd Bytooden aus Lenaa's 

Faust. 1. Dtt- nlehtlkbe Zog. 

S. Der Itex In der DorfMheoke 

(Mephisto-Walzer). Score and 

parta; also for P.F. 8 and 4 

hands. Sotmberth. 
^ Sjmphonlsdw Dtohtiii«en. L 

Oe qa'on enteod sur la mon- 

t^pie; 8. TasBO. Lamento e 

Trionfo: S. Les PnSludea; 4. 

Orpheos (also for organ) : S.Pro- 

■(etbeus; «. Maieppa: T. Fest- 

ftlSnge: & H^rolde huAbn; 9, 

Hungarla: K). Hamlet ; 11. Hon- 

nenschlaoht: 12. Me Ideale. 

Score and parta. also for 8P. Fs. 

and P.F. 4 hands. B.AH. 
B. Fest-Vonptei. for Schiller and 

Goethe FestlTal. Wdanr U07. 

Score. Rallbeiger. 
& Fest-Maraoh. for Goethe'v birth- 
day. Score and ports, i 

P.F.8and4hMMi& Sehuberth. 
7. Hnldiffunge-Msorsch. for acces- 
sion of Duke Carl of Saxe- 

Welmar Iffia Scorr; and for 

P.F. 2 bands. B.ftH. 
a. ' Vom-Fels zum Meer *: Patrio- 
tic mardi. Score and parta; 

also for P.F. 8 hands. 

singer, 
a Kdnstler Feti-Zuf ; for Schiller 

Festival 18B0. Score: and for 

P.F. 2 and 4 hands; Xahnt. 



a AaaANosMBirrs. 
11. Bchuberta' ICarchea. L op. 40 

No. S; & Trauer-: 3. Belter-; 4. 

Ungarlscher-Marsch. Soore and 

parts. FOrstner. 
B. Schubert's Smws for voloe and 

small oreh. LDleJungeMoone; 

a Oretohsn am ^nnrade; % 

Ued der Mgnon ; 4. BrlkOnl^ 

Score and parts. Forberg. 
la 'Die Allmacht,' hj Schubert. 

for tmor. men's chorus, and 

orchestra. Score and parta; and 

▼ocal soore. Sehuberth. 

14. H. ▼. Billow's Xasvrka-Fan- 
tasie (op. IS). Score and parts. 
Leuckart. 

15. Festmardi on themes by B. H. 
xn 8, Score : also for P Jf . 8 and 
4handB. S ehuber th. 

1& ITngariscfae Bhapsodlen, arr. 
bj Llsst and F. Doppler; 1. in 
F; 2. in D; a in D; 4. in D 
minor and O major ; a In E ; 
a Pester GamevaL— Score and 
parta: and for P.F. 4 hands. 
Sehuberth. 

17. Vngartscher Marach. for Coro- 
nation at Buda-Pesth, 1W7. 
Score: also for P.F. 2 and 4 
hands. Sehuberth. 

18. R&koczy-Marsch ; sjrmpbonlsch ■ 
bearbeltet. Soore and parta; 
also for P.F. 2, 4, and 8 hands. 
Sehuberth. 

la Ungarlscher Sturm - Marech. 
5ew arr. vm. Score and parta ; 
also for P.F. 2 and 4 hands. 
Schlesinger. 

k 'Ss^zat' und 'HTmnns' by 
Bfoi and KrkeL Soore and 
parta; also for P.F. B^oa- 
TOlgjfi. Pesth. 



TL FOB PIAXOFOBTB USD ORCHESTRA. 
I's 'Ruins of 



1. OaieisiAU 
H. (Concerto Vet hi B Sat. BeoM 

and parta ; also for t P* Fst 

Schlttilnger. 
S. Concerto No. 2, to A. SaofO 

and parta; alsa far f P. Fs. 

Sehott. 
Sa 'Todten-Tant;' Paru»hra8re» 

'Dies IrsB.' Score; also for I 

aad2P.Fs. BlegeL 

a AEkAJI«IMMT8. P.F.PBIM- 
CtPAUC. 

91 Fantada on themeefrom Bee* 



Athens.' 

Score : also for P. F. 2 and 4 

hands, and 2 P. Fs. SiegeL 

faFantade dber ungartsche Volks- 

melodlen. Soore and parts. 



Sa Sehubert's Fantasia in (op. 

10), sjmphonlsch bearbeltet. 

Score and parta ; alsofor2P,Fi. 

Sehrelber. 
7t. Weber's Polonaise (op. 72). 

Score and parts. Sch l esi n ger. 



m. FOR PIANOFORTB SOLO, 



1. OawiNAL. 

9S. Xtudes d'4xteution transocn- 
dante. 1. Preludio ; % a Pay- 
sage; 4. Maxeppa; 6. Feuz Fol- 
leta; a Vision; 7. Broica; & 
Wilde Jagd; a Blcordanza; 
10. U. Harmonies do solr; U. 
(niasse-nelge. B.ftH. 

2a TroU Grandes Etudes de Con- 
oert. 1. Oapriodo ; a 0i4n1ccfo, 
a Allegro aSMuoso. Klstn^. 

30. Ab-lrato. Etude da perfeo- 
fertlon. Schlesinger. 

SI. Zwd Ooncertetuden. for Le- 
bert and Stark's Klavlerschule. 
1. Waklesrauflchen ; a Qnomen- 



Sa Ave Maria for ditto. Traal- 

wein. 
sa Harmonies po^tiques at rtfU- 

gieuses. L Xnvocatfon ; 2. Ave 



Maria; a BtoMicHon de Dlea 
dans la solitude ; 4. Penste des 
Morta ) a Pater Noster ; a 
Hymne de I'enffant 4 son r^vdl ; 
7. Fun^rallles; 9. Mlaerere 
d'aprbs Palestrina ; 9. Andante 
lagrimoso; la Cantique d'A- 
mour. Kahnt. 
94. Ann^ de PAerlnage. Pre- 
miere Ann4e. Suisse. 1. Chapelle 
de GulUanme Tell : a Au lac <fo 
Wallenstadt; a Pastorale; 4. 
Aubordd'une source; aOrage; 
a Vall^ d'Obermann; 7. Eg- 
logue ; a Le Mai du Pays ; a 
Les Cloches de Gen«>Te (Noc- 
tumeX aKonde Ann^. Italic. 
1. I18pa«^do:ailPeoMroM>: 
a CansonetU di SelTator Ro«a ; 
44. Tre SonetU del Petrarca; 
7. Aprte une leetore de Dante. 



1 B. a H. =Bititiu>pf A BlrteL 



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YenedAflHspoH. 1. (3<MidoHar»:|7S. EMcied*«prteBoRlaiio. I^foo- 

tC»imme;8.Tar»ntoUe.8ch«itt. pfloaa. 
85. App«itloM. t Stf. »cbte-74.BuirfKherO«IoppTooBttlha- 

•Inger Paris. ko«r< Bchlodnger. 

as. Two Ballade*. Kistosr. 75. Zlgeoner-Polka de CcnradL 

87. Grand 0oocert-8cdo : alio ftwf Beiiloalngar. 

P. Ft. (OoDoerto iMthMfttn). 76. La Boman^toU Sdueiliiger. 



as. Oonaolatloiia,eKoa. B.AH. 
89. Beroauia. Hdnxe. 

40. Wdnen. KUgen. Sorgan. Zar 
gea : Prtludlam naoh J. 8. Bach. 
8ohlailns«r. 

41. l^atlon. 
Brfh't B minor MaM; also for 
Oi«an. Schteslngar. 

M. Fantaite «nd Page. 

B.A.O.H. Blegd. AlsoforOt^ 

can. Bchubertta. 
4Sr8ohenomMlllanch. Utolft 
44. Sonata In B minor. Dedicated 

CoBohumann. &*H. 
40. 8 Polonaises. SenC 

46. Manirka briUante. Senft 

47. Bhapsodle Kapagnole. FoDea 
d'Bspagne, and Jota Aiagonesa. 



77. Laier «nd Schwert (WeberX 

Sdileslnger. 
TB. Kl«gie.Iliemea by Prince Louis 

of Prussia. Bcbleslocer. 
70. God Save tbeQueen. Concert- 

'pufhTUie. Sdiuberth. 
80. Hasalten-LIed. Hofrndster. 

.LaManenialse. Sehnberth. 

S. Pasaprbasm. TlAKBCaiP- 
TIOMS. STC rSOH 0PIKA8. 

8S. La Flanotfe (Auber): Masanl- 
ello: La Juire; Boimambula; 
Honna ; Putttant (8) ; Benrenuto 



48. Trols Oaprioe-Yalses. L Valse 
de braroore ; S. T. mAancollque 
& V. de Ooncert. Icblaslnger. 

48. FeuIUes d' Album. Schott. 

0a Deux Fenllles d' Album. Schu- 
berth. 

ia. Grand Galop chromatlque. 
Also for 4 hands. Hofmeister. 

02. Valae Impromptu. Schuberth. 

03. 'MowMUl's Orab-Geldt.' Ta- 
bomky A Farsch. Pesth. 

D4. KMgie. Also for P. F.. Oello, 

Harp, and Harmonium. Kahnt. 
B6. and Higgle. Also for P.F.. V.. 

and Odlo. ILahnt. 
06. Ugendes. 1. St. Frmnfols 

d'Asslse : 2. St. Franfois de PauL 

BdzsavOIgyi. 
97. L'Hjmne du Pape ; also for 4 

hands. Bote A Bock. 
68. Via Cruds. 
88. Impromptu— Th^mea de Roa- 
- alnl et ^lonlinl. In I. 'Op. 8.' 



60. Oapriedo k la Turea sur des 

motib de Beethoren's Bulnes 

d'Athtaes. MeebettL 
6L Liebestraume— 8 Nottumoa. 

Klstner. 

62. Lld^e flxe-Andante amoroso 
d'apres une Mtflodle de Berliot. 
MeehettL 

63. Impromptu. tnF sharp. B.*H. 

64. Variation on a Waltz by Dla- 
betlL No. 24 In Vaterllndlscber 
KOnstlenrereln. I>iabeni(lS23).| 

65. * The Pianoforte '—SntesJahr- 
gang ; Paru I-Xn— 84 pieces by 
modem composers. Out of print. 

2. ABRAKOBMBirra. 

66. Orandes Btudes de Pagantnl. ^ .. „ 

6 Hos. (No. 3, U OampanellaX 9i._Vha.jmodiM Bongrolses. 



dl Lammermoor (1); Lucreti* 
Borgia (2); Faust (Gounod); 
Beine de Saba; Borneo et Ju- 
liette: Bobert le Dfable; Les 
HugnenoU; Le PropMte (8); 
L'Afifcaine (2): Step Jlonka 
(Mosonyi) : Don Otoranal : KOnig 
Alfml (Ball) (2); L Lembardl ; 
Trovatore; Kroaal; Mgolecto; 
Don Carlos; Riend: Der flle- 
gende HolUnder (2); TaniAiu- 
ser (8); Lehengria (4): TMstan 
und Isolde ; Melsteninear ; Btng 
des Nlebelungeo. 
88. Fantaisie de Braroura sur la 
OlocbMte dePagaaial. Sokral- 

84. Trols Moroeanx de Salon. 1. 
Fantaisie romantlque sur deux 
m^lodiM BUisies; 2. Bondeaa 
fantastique sur nn tb*me Bspaff- 
nol ; 8. Dlrertlasement sur una 
caratlne de Padnl. also for 4 
hands. Schleslnger. 

86. Paraphrase de la Marehe da 
DonlKtti (Abdul MedJld Khan); 
also Easier ed. Scblwinger. 

86. 'Jagdchor und Steyrer.' fh>m 
'Tony' (Dulu Kruest of Sax*. 
Oobuig'-Oocha). Klstner. 

87. Tsoherkesien - Marsch f^om 
OUnka's 'Busslan und Lud- 
miUa.' Also for 4 hands. Schu- 

88. 'Horhxelt-Marsch und Elfen- 
reigen ' from Mendeluohn's Mid- 
summer Night's Dream. B.ftH. 

89. Fest-Manch for Schiller cen- 
tenary (Meyvrbeer). Schkelnger. 

80. Fantatsles (2) sur des motifo 
des SoIki^ Busicales de Boaslnl. 
Schott. 
91. Trols Morfeaux Suissck. 1. 
Banz de Vadies : 2. Un Soir dans 
1ft Montague ; 8. Banz de Chdv- 
ns. Kahnt. 

4. Bbapsodibs, bto. 

lln 



KkU. 
67. Sedu (oTBan) Priludlen und 

Fugen Ton J. 8. Baeh, 2 parts. 

Peters. 
69. Bach's Orgelfantasie und Fuge 

in O minor : for Lebert t Stark's 

Klavlerachule. Trautwein. 

69. Dlrertissement k la hongrolse 
d'aprta F. Schubert. 3 parU; 
also Easier ed. Bchrelber. 

70. MIrsehe von F. Schubert. 1. 
Trauer-Marsoh; 2. 8. Belter- 
Marsch. Schrelber. | 

71. Soirees de Vienna. Yalses-oa- 



B ; 8 in Fsharp(also for4 hands, 
and easier ed.); 8tn B flat : 4 in 
E flat; 6 In E minor; 6 in D 
flat : 7 in D minor ; 8 (Taprlodo ; 
9 in £ flat; lOPreludlo; 11 in A 
minor ; 12 hi C sharp minor (also 
for P.P. and violin by Liszt and 
Joachim) ; 18 in A minor ; 14 in 
F minor; IS lUkoe^ March. 
Benirand Schleslnger. 

93. Marehe de BAkociy. Edttfon 
populalre. Klstner. 

94. Do. Symphonisch. Sdioberth. 

95. Heroischer- Marsch in unga- 
rtsdten Styl. Schlesinger. 



SlfSS!!^**'** Schubert. 9 parts.; 9g.ung»rigcherGcschwindmar8ch. 
wf^mti^hi, ««. vm^ TW^H ' f^^^^^^' Pressburg. 
72. Bunte Beihe TOT Ferd.DaTid. ^ EtoleHung und Ungarfacher 

1. Scherzo ; %_ Brinnerung ; 8. n^nch Ton Graf B. Sz^ch^nyl. 



Mazurka; 4. Tanz; 5. Kinder- 
lied; 6. Oapriedo; 7. Bolero 
8. El^e; 9. Marsch; lOw Toc- 
cata; 11. Gondellied; 12. Im 
Murm. ; 18. Romanae ; 14. Alle- 
gro; 15w Meouett; 16. Etude; 
17. Intermezzo; 18. Serenade 
19. Ungarlsch (2) ; 20. Tarantdle ; 
21. Impromptu ; 22. In russlcher 
Wd««: 83. Lied; 94. Capricdo. 
Klstner. 



BdzsarOlgyl. 

6. PABTmOMB Dl PUNO. 

98. Beethoven's Septet. Schuberth. 

98. Ntae Symphonies. B. A H. 

UO. Hummd's Septet. Schubert. 

101. Beritoz's 'Symphonic Fantas- 
tique.' Leuekart. Marehe des 
Pdlerins, from ' Harold In Italy.' 
Bieter-Biedermann. 'Danse des 
flylphes.' from 'La Damnation 



da Taost.' lUd. Orartures to 

'LesFranos^uffes.' Schott. 'Le 

Bel Lear.' 
108. BosrinPs Orertora to Gcdl- 

laume Tdl. 
KB. Weber's Jubdourerture and 

Overtures to Der FrdsehftUand 

Oberon. Schlednger. 
104. Wagner's Overture to Tanu- 



e. TBAmoBTPTioira or Tooal 



106. Bossfairs •CvSn» AniBMim 

and 'La Charit4.' Schott. 
106. Beethoven's Lleder. 6 ; Gelst- 

liche Lleder. 6; Ad41alde{ Llo- 

derkreis. B.ftH. 
Vn. Von BlUow's 'Tanto gantne.* 

Schlednger. 

108. Cfaophi's 'Six (Tbants Folo- 
nais.'op.74. Schlednger. 

109. Lleder. Dsssaaer.S; Franz. 
18; Lassen. 8; Menddssohn. 9; 
Schubert, 87 ; Bd>umann. B. and 
Clara. 14 ; Weber, Schlummer- 
lied. and ' Elnsam bin ich.' 

110. Meyerbeer's ' Le 



'Aotrafels.* 



111. Wtdborsky^ 
Fdistner. 

112. Allduja ek Are Maria d'Arc** 
delt ; No. 2 also fbr organ. 
Peters. 

118. A la cniapdie Slxtfaie. Mise- 
rere d'Allegri et Ave Verum d« 
Mozart ; also for 4 hands and for 
organ. Peters. 

114. Zwd Transeriptenem. 'Coih* 
fiitatis et Lacrymosa' aus Mck 
zart's Requiem. Slegd. 

115. Solr^ Italieones, sur des 
motlCi de Meroadante 6 Koa. 
Schott. 

116. NuUs A'M k Pausllippe, sur 
des motib de I'Album de Doni- 
zetti. 8 Nos. Schott. 

117. Canzone Napolitana. Meser. 

118. Faribolo Pastour. and Chan> 
sonduB^am. Schott. 

119. Olanes de Woroninoe. 8 Noa* 
Klstner. 

12a Deux Melodies Busses. Ar** 
besqoes. Oranz. 

121. UngarischeVolkslieder.SKoa. 
Tabonzky ft Parsch. 

128. Soirees muskales de Bosdnt. 
12 Nos.; also for 4 hands aod 
foraF.F.s. Schott. 

TV. 6. ABRANOBMEMTS FOB 9 PIANOFOBTES. 
ISS. Variations de (kmcert on IM. Beethoren's Ninth Symi^ionf, 
March In I Puritani (Hexam4-, Schott. 
ron). Schuberth. I 

V. PIANOFORTE AND VIOLIN. 
196. Epitbalam.; also for P.P., 1,128. Grand duo ooneertant nir 
hands. T4borszky*Parsch. i 'LeMarin.* Schott. 



■VI. FOR ORGAN 

12r. Andante rdigloso. Schuberth. 

128. Einldtung, Fuge und Mav 

niflcat. from Symphony ' Zu 

Dante's Divlna Commedla.' 

Schuberth. 

120. Ora pro noMs. Litand. K6mer. 

180. Fantasia und Fuge on the 
chorale In * Le FrophMe.' B. t H. 

181. Oriando dl Lasso's Beglna 
codU. Schubertb. 



OB HABM0N1T7M. 

182. Bach's Einldtung und Fuge. 
fh>m motet 'Ich hatte vid. 
BekOmmemiss.' Schuberth. 

183. Chopin's Praeludien. op. 98, 
Nos. 4 and 9. Schuberth. 

184. Ktrchliche Feet - Ouverture 
on 'Eln' teste Burg.' Ho&nds- 
ter. 

185. 'Der Guade Hell* (TBnnhaO- 



L MA88B8. PSALMR, AND OTBBB 
Sacbbd MCSIO. 

laS. Mlssasoleaob(Oraner). Fest- 
messe in D. Score and paru ; 
also vocal score, and for P.F. 4 
hands. Schuberth. 

1S7. Ungarische KrOoungs-Messe 
in B flat: Score and partk, and 
vocal score ; Offertorium and 
Benedictus, for P.F. 8 and 4 
hands. P.F. and vfoUn, organ, 
<»van and dolln. Schuberth. 

188. Mass In C minor, vrlth organ. 

198.'Mlssa (^oralis hi A minor, 
with organ. Kahnt. 

140. Bequlem. men's voices and 
organ. Kahnt. 

141. Neun Klrchen-Chor.Oeange, 
iflth organ. 1. Paler Noster ; 2. 
Ave Maria (also for P. F.) : 3. 
Salutaris; 4. Tantum ergo; 5. 
Ave Verum ; 6. Mihi autem ; 7. 
Ave Maris Stella, also for P. F. ; 
8. O Salutaris: 9. Libera me. 
Kahnt. 

142. Die Sdlgkdten. •Kahnt. 

143. Pater noster, for mixed chorus 
and organ. Kahnt. 

144. Pater Noster et Ave Maria, k 
4 and organ. B.AH. 

145. Psalms. 18th.l)*th(E.V.19thX 
2Srd. and larth. Kahnt. 

146. Christus 1st geboren; chorus 
and organ. Arr.forP.F. Bote 
A Bock. 

147. An den hdligen Franzlskus. 
men's voices, organ, trumpets 
and drums. T4borszkyAParsch. 

148. Hymne de I'Enfant k son 
r^veU, female chorus, organ and 
l^rp. TAborszky A Parsch. 

2. 0BAT0BI03. 

148. (Tbrtstus. Score, vocal score, 
and parts. Schuberth. 



rale,' No. 4. and 'Marsdi der 
bdligen drei KOnige.' No. S^ for 
instruments only ; also for P. F. 
8 and 4 hands. 'Tu es Petrns.* 
No. 8, for organ and for P.F. 
2 and 4 hands, as ' Hymne da 
Pape.' 
ISO. Die Legends von der beHlgen 
Elisabeth. Score, vocal soor^ 
and parts. Kahnt. ' Einldtung '; 
'Marsch der Kreuzritter' aod 
' Interludlum,' for P.F. 2 and 4 
hands ; ' Der Sturm,' In- P. F. i 



8. Cantatas and othkb 
Cbobal Mobio. 

151. Zur BSculsr-Feler Beethoveni, 
for chorus, soil, and orch. Score, 
vocal score, and parts. Kahnt. 

152. Choruses (6) to Hwder's ' Ent* 
fesMsltem Prometheus.' Score^ 
vocal score, and parts. Kahnt. 
Pastorale (Schnttterchor) for 
P.F. 2 and 4 hands. 

163. Fest-Albnm for Goethe cen- 
tenary (IMO). Fest-Maraoh; 1. 
Licht ! mehr Llcht ; % Wdmar's 
Todten ; 3. Ueber alien Glpfeln 
1st Bub; 4. Chor der Engel. 
Vocal score and parts. Schu- 
berth. 

154. Wartburg- Lleder. Einldt- 
ung and 6 Lleder. Vocal score. 
Kahnt. 

165. Die Glocken des Strassbnrger. 
MQnsters. Baritone solo, eboms 
and orch. Score, vocal score, 
and parts. Schuberth. 'Ezc^l- 
dor' (Prdude) for Organ, and 
P.F. 2 and 4 hands. 

156. Die heillge CAdlia. Mezzo- 
soprano, chorus, and orch.. or 
P. F., harp, and harmonium. 
Seore. vocal score, and parts. 



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-LITANY. 

fird variance, derived. There are, in troth, grave 
di£Beultie8 in the way of forming any decided 
opinion upon the lubject. Were the weaknem 
of an unpractised hand anywhere diflcemible in 
the counterpoint of the later oomposition, one 
mig)it well reject it at an ' arrangement*: but it 
would be absurd to luppoee that any Musician 
capable of deducing the five-part Response, * Good 
Lord, deliver us,* ^m that in four parts, would 
have condescended to build his work upon an- 
other nian*B foundation. 

From fhe i-part Litany. From the 6-part Litany. 



1 



The next Response, ' We beseech Thee to hear 
us, Good Lord,* presents a still more serious erax. 
The Camto fermo of this differs so widely from 
any known version of the Plain Chaunt melody 
that we are compelled to regard the entire 
Betponse as an original compo^tion. Now, so 
&r as the Cantut, and Baasut, are concerned, the 
two Litanies ccnrrespond, at this point, exactly : 
but, setting all prejudices aside, and admitting 
the third chord in the 'Clifford MS.' to be a 
manifest lapsus calami, we have no choice but to 
confess, that» with respect to the mean voices, the 
advantage lies entirely on the side of the five-part 
harmony. Surely, the writer of this could — and 
would — ^have composed a Treble and Bass for 
himself! 

Fromtbe'CliiroTdMS.' 




The di£Sculties we have pointed out with re- 
gard to these two Responses apply, with scarcely 
diminished farce, to all the rest : and, the more 
closely we investigate the internal evidence 
afforded by the double text, the more certainly 
■hall we be driven to the ox^ conclusion de^ 
ducible from it ; namely, that l!klli» has left us 
two Litanies, one for four voices, and the other 
for five^ both founded on the same Plain Chaunt, 
; sod hodi harmonised on the same Basses, though 
developed, in other respects, in accordance with 
the promptings of two totally distinct ideas. 



UVEBPOOL MUSICAL FESTIVALS. 158 

The four-part Litany has never, we believe, 
been published in a separate form. The best 
edition of that in five parts is, undoubtedly. 
Dr. Boyce*s ; though Messrs. Oliphant, and John 
Bishop, have done good service, in their respective 
reprints, by adapting, to the music of the Preces, 
those * latter Suffirages,' which, having no place 
in the First Prayei^Book of King Edward YI, 
were not set by any of the old Composers. Some 
later editions, in which an attempt has been 
made at 'restoration,' have, it is to be feared, 
only resulted in depraving the original text to a 
degree previously unknown. [W. 8. R.} 

LITOLFF, Henbt Charlbs, was bom in Lon- 
don Feb. 6, i8i8. His father, a French Alsttbian 
soldier taken prisoner by the English in the 
Peninsular War, had settled in I^ndon as a 
violinist after the declaration of peace, and had 
married an English woman. In the beginning of 
the year 183 1 Heniy Litolff was brought by his 
&ther to Moscheles, who on hearing the boy play 
was so much struck by his unusual talent, that 
he offered to take him gratis as a pupil; and 
under his generous care Litolff studied for several 
years. He made his first appearance (or one of 
his first) at Covent Garden Theatre July 34, 
183 a, as 'a pupil of Moscheles, I a years of age.* 
In his 1 7th year a marriage of whi(^ the parents 
disapproved obliged him to leave England and 
settle for a time in France. For several years 
after this event Litolff led a wandering Ufe, and 
during this period he visited Paris, Brussels, 
Leipzig, Prague, Dresden, Berlin.and Amsterdam, 
giving in these towns a series of very successful 
concerts. In 1851 he went to Brunswick, and 
undertook there the business of the late music- 
publisher Meyer. In i860 he transferred this 
business to his adopted son, Theodor Litolff, and 
he, in 1861, started the well-known 'Collection 
Litolff,* as a cheap and accurate edition of clas- 
sical music, which was among the earliest of the - 
many series of similar size and aim now existing. 
It opened with the sonatas of Beethoven, Mozart, 
and Haydn (vols. 1-4). Henry Litolff himself 
went to Paris, where he has since resided. 

As a pianist Litolff*s rank is high ; fire, passion, 
and brilliancy of execution were combined with 
thought and taste in his playing. Had it been 
also correct, it would have reached the highest 
excellence. In his works, however, there is great 
inequality ; beautiful and poetic ideas are often 
maired by repetition and a want of order, and 
knowing what the author*s true capacity is, the 
result is a feeling of disappointment. About 115 
of his works, including several operas, have been 
published. Among ue best of them may be 
reckoned some of his pianoforte pieces, such as 
the well-known ' Spinnlied,* a few of his overtures 
and his mophony-concertos, especially nos. 3,^ 4, 
and 5 ; the latter are remarkable for Uieir wealth 
of original ideas in harmony, melody, and rhythm, 
and for their beautiful instrumentation. [A.H.W.] 

LIVERPOOL MUSICAL FESTIVALS. 
These have not taken place with regularity. The 

1 rU7«d at Um Crrital r»lM«. hj Hr. Onm Barlager. Much S8. 1874. 



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154 LIVERPOOL MUSICAL MSTIVALS. 

first was held in 1784, the next in 1790, and the 
next in 1799. They were then suspended till 
1823, 1830, and 1836 (Oct. 4-7, Sir G. Smart 
condactor), when Mendelssohn's 'St. Paul' was 
performed for the second time, and for the first 
time in England. Up to this date the concerts 
had been held in churches, but the St. Greoige's 
Hall (Town Hall), having been erected in the 
meantime, and opened Sept. 1854, the next 
festival took place there in 1874, Sept 39-Oct. i 
^-conductor, Sir Julius Benedict. 

Liverpool has a Philharmonic Society, which 
was founded Jan. 10, 1840, and opened its hall 
Aug. a 7, 49. There are twelve concerts eveiy 
year, six before and six after Christmas. Sir 
Julius Benedict succeeded Mr. Alfred Mellon as 
conductor April 9, 67^ and has been conductor 
ever since. — ^The Liverpool Musical Society, 
which formerly gave oratorio concerts in St. 
Greoige^s Hall, has been extinct since 1877. — ^The 
St. George's Hall has a veiy fine organ by 
Willis, on which performances are given by Mr. 
W. T. Beet on Thursday evenings and Saturday 
afternoons and evenings.— Orchestral concerts 
are given by Mr. Charles Halle during the 
winter season in the Philharmonic Hall. [G.] 

LLOYD, Edward — son of Richard Lloyd, 
chorister, and afterwards assbtant lay vicar of 
Westminster Abbey, and assistant vicar choral of 
St. Paul's (bom March la, 181 3, died June 28, 
1853), and Louisa, sister of Dr. John Larkin 
Hopkins — was bom March 7, 1845, and received 
his early musical education in the choir of West- 
minster Abbey under James Turle. In 1 866 he 
obtained the appointment of tenor singer in the 
chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, which he 
resigned in 1867 on being appointed a Gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal, a post which he held about 
two years. He has since devoted himself en- 
tirely to concert singing. He made his first great 
success at Gloucester Festival, in 1871, in BimJi's 
St. Matthew Passion-music, and in 1874 won 
universal admiration by hb sinking of ' Love in 
her eyes sits pUying * at the Handel Festival at the 
Crystal Palace. He has since gained increased 
reputation as an oratorio and concert singer. 
His voice is a pure tenor of excellent quality, and 
his style musician-like and finished. [W.H.H.] 

LOBE, JoHANN Chbistian, musician, and 
writer on music of some eminence, was bom May 
30, 1 797, at Weimar, and owed his musical in- 
struction to the Grand Duchess Maria Paulowna. 
The flute was his instrament, and after perform- 
ing a solo at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, in 1 8 1 1 , he 
settled at his native place as second flute in the 
Duke's band. He has written five operas, be- 
sides overtures for the orchestra, P.F. quartets, 
and other compositions. But it is as a littera' 
tear that he is most interesting to us. He 
resigned his place at Weimar in 184a, and* in 
46 undertook the editing of the Allgem. mus. 
Zeitung of Leipzig, which he retained until the 
termination of that periodical in 48. In 1853 he 
began a publication called * Fliegende Blatter fUr 
Musik, of which about ao numbers were pub- 
lished ; he then edited the musical department of 



LOBKOWITZ. 

the Leipdg lUustrirter Zeitung, and made end« 
less contributions to other periodicals. His prin- 
dpal books, some of which have I4>peared fint in 
the periodicals, are ' Musikalische Briefe . . . von 
einer Wohlbekannten,' a vob, Leipzig, 185a; 
' Aus dem Leben eines Musiker' (lb. 59) ; a 
Catechism of Composition, and another of Musio 
(both have been translated) ; ' Consonanzen und 
Dissonanzen' (lb. 1870) ; Lehrbuch der mumk- 
alisohen Composition (4 vols. lb. 1851 to 67). 
To the amateur student these works are all 
valuable, because they treat of the science of 
music in a plain and untechnical way, and are 
full of intell%ence and good sense. The Musik- 
alische Briefe, a series of short sketches of the 
progress of music and of the characteristics of 
musicians, will be read with interest by many. 
Some conversations with Mendelssohn appear 
to be fiuthfully reported, and bring out some of 
his traits in a very amnsing manner. [G.^ 

LOBGESANG,kinbStmphonie-Caktatb. A 
well-known work of Mendelssohn's (op. 5 a), 
composed for the Gutenberg festival, and first 
performed at the church of S. Thomas, Leipzig, 
in the afternoon of June 35, 1840. The foroi of 
the work is no doubt due to Beethoven's 9th 
Symphony, and in Germany it is taken as the 
third of his published symphonies. It was 
performed the second time at Birmingham, 
Sept. 33, 1840 (Mendelssohn conducting) ; and 
after this performance was considerably altered 
throughout — including the addition of the 
entire scene of the Watchman — and published 
by BreitkopfiB early in 1 84 1 . First performances, 
as published — Leipzig, Dec. 3, 1840 ; London* 
Sacred Harmonic Society, March 10, 1843. The 
selection of the words was doubtless in great 
measure Mendelssohn's own. though the title 
' Symphonie-Cantate' was Klingemann's.* The 
English adaptation was made with his concur-^ 
rence by Mr. J. A. Novello, to whom, more of 
the English texts of Mendelssohn's works are 
due than is generally known. The phrase (a 
fibvourite one with Mendelssohn) with which the • 
symphony opens, and which forms the coda to 
ti^e entire work, is the Intonation to the and 
Tone for the Magnificat. [G.] 

LOBKOWITZ. A noble and distinguished 
Austrian familv, founded early in the 15th 
century, by Nicholas Chuzy von Ujezd, and 
deriving its name firom a place in Bohemia. The 
country seat of the family is at Raudnitz, near 
Theresienstadt, and its town residence is the well- 
known palace on the Lobkowitz-Platz, Vienna. 
Two princes of this race have been closely and 
honourably connected with music, i . Ferdinand 
Philip was bom at Prague April 17, 1734. By 
the death of his father and two elder brothers he 
became the head of the house before he was 15. 
Gluck was in his service, and was much aided 
in his early success by the assistance of the 
Prince. The two were present together at the 
coronation of Francis I. (Sept. a8. 1745) ; after 
which they went to London in company with the 

1 See XendelMolm't Letter, Nov. 18. IMO. 



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LOBKOWITZ. 

Duke ol Newcastle, who had represeniect the 
'R«gliB>i Oourt at the oorcmatioiu There * Lobko- 
witz 18 said to have lived in a house of the 
Ihike^B for two years, and it was daring this time 
that Glnck produced his operas at the King's 
Theatre, and appeared in public in the strange 
character of a*performer on the musical glasses. 
[See Gluck, vol. i. 6oi a ; Uabmonica, 66a a.] 
A story is told by Bumey of his having com- 
posed a symphony bar by bar alternately 
with Emanuel Bach. The feat was an absurd 
one, but it at least shows that he had oon- 
■idflrable practical knowledge of music. He 
died at Vienna, Jan. ii, 1784, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Josbf Frakk Maximilian, 
bom Deo. 7, 177a. This is the prince whose 
name is so familiar to us in connection with 
Beethoven. He seems, notwithstanding the 
temptations of his immense early wealth, to have 
been an exemplary character, with no vices, and 
with no fault but an inconsiderate eenerodty 
rising to prodigality, which ultimately provea 
hia ruin. He married Princess Marie Caroline 
Sohwarzenberg, Aug. a, 1792. His taste for 
music was an absorbing passion. He played 
both violin and cello, and had a splendid bass 
voice, which he cultivated thoroughly and with 
success. He maintained a complete establish- 
ment of orchestra, solo and chorus singers, with 
Wranitzky and Gartellieri at their head, for the 
performances of masses, oratorios, operas, sym- 
phonies, etc When Beethoven arrived at Vienna 
in Nov. 179a, Lobkowitz was twenty, and the 
two young men soon became extremely intimate. 
True, bevond the frequent mention of his name 
in Riess Becollections, there is not much 
definite proof of this*; but it is conclusively 
shown by the works dedicated to him by Bee- 
thoven ; for we must remember that the dedication 
of a work by this most independent of composers, 
was, in nineteen cases out of twenty, a proof of 
esteem and affection. The works are these — and 
excepting those inscribed with the name of the 
Archduke Rudolph they form the longest and 
most splendid liist of all his dedications : — 6 
Quartets, ot>. 18 (1801); Sinfonia Etoica, op. 55 
(1806) ; IMple Concerto, op. 56 (1807) ; the 
5th and 6th Symphonies — in C minor and Pas- 
torale (1809) — shared by Lobkowitz with 
Rasumowsky ; Quartet in £b, op. 74 (18 10) ; and 
the liederkreis, op. 98 (181 6). We must not sup- 
pose that the course of such a fneDdship as this be- 
tokens was always smooth ; the anecdote told on 
L167 of vol. i. of this work, shows that Prince 
bkowitz, like all the intimates of Beethoven, 
and other men of-genius, had occasionally a good 
deal to put up with. No doubt the Prince was a 
kind and generous friend to the composer. It 
was he who advised him to apply for the position 
of composer to the opera, and promoted two pro- 
fitable concerts for him in his own palace and 
with his own band in 1807. Two years later 
he joined Kinsky and the .Ajrohduke in subscrib- 

1 Oomp. Bmner. Bht. It. 4in. 

* BvetiMven nicluiMMs him 'Trtnot Fltzl Potxll*— Imt thon h» 
• •very one. 



LOCATELLL 



155 



!ng to Beethoven's annuity, contributing 700 
florins (paper) per annum. On Jan. i, 1807, an 
association of noblemen, with Lobkowitz at its 
head, took charge of the Court theatres, and 
during 1810, II, and I a, the Prince ha4 the sole 
directum of the opera. The anecdotes by eye- 
witnesses of his tact and generosity in this posi- 
tion are many, but we have no room for them 
here. Nor are others wanting to testify to his 
enlightened zeal in reference to other musicians 
beside Beethoven. He was one of the promoters 
and founders of the great * Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde ' in Vienna, and sang the bass 
solos at the second performance of Alexander's 
Feast, Dec. 3, 1813 [See Vol. I p. 591]. He 
had Haydn's 'Creation' translated into Bohe- 
mian, and performed it at Raudnitz. In addi- 
tion to his great expenditure on music, he, like 
Kinsky, raised, equipped, and maintained a body 
of riflemen durii^^r the campaign of 1809. At 
length came the depreciation in the Austrian 
currency, the bankruptcy of the Government, and 
the finance-patent of 181 1. Lobkowitz was 
unable to change his habits or reduce his ex- 
penditure, and in 181 3 his afiairs were put into 
the hands of trustees, and he left Vienna for the 
smaller spheres of Prague and Raudnitz. By 
the Finanoe-patent Beethoven's 700 florins were 
reduced to 380 flor. a6 kr. in Einlosungescheine 
— all that the trustees had power to pay. Bee- 
thoven was clamorous, and hb letters are full 
of complaints against the Prince — ^most unjust as 
it turned out, for early in 1815, through the 
Prince's own exertions the original amount was 
restored with arrears. Beethoven acknowledged 
this by the dedication of the Liederkreis. On 
Jan. 34, 181 6, the Princess Lobkowitz died, and 
in less than a year, on Dec. 16, 1816, was followed 
by her husband.' [A. W. T.] 

LOCATELLI, Pietro, a celebrated violinist, 
was bom — like Lolli and Piatti — at Bergamo 
in 1693, and was still very young when he 
became a pupil of Corelli at Rome. Very little 
is known of his life, but he appears to have 
travelled a good deal, and finally to have settled 
at Amsterdam, where he established regular 
public concerts, and died in 1 764. 

There can be no doubt that Locatelli was a 
great and original virtuoso. As a composer we 
must distinguish between a number of caprices 
and Etudes — which he evidently wrote merely 
for practice, to suit his exceptional powers of 
execution, and which have no musical value — and 
the sonatas and concertos, which contain very 
graceful and pHthetio movements, and certainly 
prove him to have been an excellent musician. 
In these serious works he certainly shows him- 
self as a worthy disciple of his great master. 
All the more striking is the contrast when we 
look at his caprices and Etudes. Here his sole 
aim appears to have been to endeavour to 
enlarge the powers of execution on the violin at 
any price, and no doubt in this respect he has 
succeeded only too well; for, not content with 

> For taller details of the Lobkowttt fiunny the reader !• referred to S 
paper br Ur. Thayer ia tbo Musical World of May 17. 2i ai. Itnsi 



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156 



LOCATELLL 



legitimately developing the natural reeomota of 
the instrument, he oversteps all reasonable limits, 
and aims at effects which, being advene to the 
very nature of the violin, are neither beautiful 
nor musical, but ludicrous and absurd. A 
striking example of this tendency of his is to 
be found in a caprice entitled, * he Labyrinth,' 
where the following arpeggio passages occur: — 



n^i:Alii-jA 




Opwi. Twelve coDoerUrroML An> 

•tenUm, I7!tl. 
S. SotuitM for flute. Amster- 

dwn, 17. 2. 
S. L'ftrte del vlollno. contain* 

ing 12 eonoerti vroHi and 

IMcaprioeflL ITSil. 
4. Bli oonoertOH. 1738. 
& Six ■onatM en trio. 1787. 



This savours strongly of charlatanism, and it 
is astonishing to find a direct pupil of Corelli 
one of the first to introduce such senseless feats 
of execution into the art of violin-pla3ring. 
Wasielewsky not unjustly speaks of him as the 
great-grandukther of our modem ' Finger-heroes * 
(Fingerhelden). 

Locatelli published ten different * works :-^ 

Opb e. six •ooatu fbr TloUn aolo. 
17S7. 

7. Sliconcertlaqoattro. 1741. 

& TrlOR. 2 Tlolloe and baM. 
1741. 

(I. L'arte dl nuora modulazi- 
one. Caprices eolgnia- 
tlquci. 
lOi Oontrasto armonlco: con- 
cetto* a qnattra. 

Modem editions of some of his Sonatas and 
Caprices have been issued by Witting, Alard, and 
David. His Sonata di Camera in G minor has 
lately been played at the Monday Popular Con- 
certs by Mme. Norman Neruda. [P. D.] 

LOCH ABER NO MORE, an air daimed both 
for Scotland and Ireland, of which some two or 
three versions are extant. The source of these 
is in S;x>tti8h minstrelsy called 'Lord Ronald 
(or, according to Sir W. Scott, Randal) my son.' 
The air in Ireland is known as ' Limerick's 
lamentation,' horn a tradition associating its 
plaintive melody with the events that followed 
the second capitulation of Limerick, in 1690, when 
at the embarkation of the Irish soldiery at Cork 
for France, their wives and children were forc- 
ibly separated from them under circumstanoes 
of unusual barbarity. The Scottish and Irish 
airs ar^ here compared. 

' Lord RonaM mj son* (tme ftnin only). 




1 From F^tls, 'BIobt. Unhrenella.' 



LOCHABEB NO MORE. 

* Limerick's LamMitation.* 




I — •■ ^m 




m 



jrc^' i reJ l T'gr i rrd'rjrs i 



The verses 'Farewell to Loohaber/ ending 
'And then 1*11 leave thee and Lochaber no 
more,' were written by Allan Ramsay. Bums 
recovered in Ayrshire two verses of the old 
ballad ' Lord Ronald,' in conjunction with this 
tune: he is recorded to have exclaimed, on 
hearinff Lochaber played on the harpsichord, 
' Oh, that *s a fine tune for a broken heart ! ' 

The Irish air lies in the fourth and last of the 
scales given in the article on Irish Music [vol. 
ii. p. 30 a], having its semitones between 3 and 4, 
6 and 7; it is also marked by traces of the 
narrative form characteristic of ancient Iri&h 
melody. In the Leyden MS., a Scottish relic of 
1690 or thereabouts, in tablature for the Lyra- 
Viol, a tune doeely allied to the above airs 
is given as 'King James' March to Jrland,^ 
James is known to have landed at Kinsale, 
March la, 1689. On comparison of the ver- 
sions, in bar 6 of the ist and bar 5 of the 2nd 
strain the Irish air appears to most advantage : 
the skip of a majcar ninth in Lochaber is most 
likely a cormption : it is certainly characteristic 
of neither Iridi nor Scottbh melody : Mr. Mooro 
(who is supported both bv Bunting and Holden 
in. claiming for Ireland this beautiful air) is in 
his prefiuses to the Irish Melodies rather severe 
upon the Scots for stealing not only Irieh airs, 
but Irish saints. 

An interesting example of the effect of 
' Lochaber no more ' is given by Robert NichoU. 
' During the expedition to Buenos Ayres, a High- 
land soldier while a prisoner in the hands of the 



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LOCHABSB NO MORE. 

SpanJardB, baling formed an attaclunent to 
a woman of the ooontry, and charmed by the 
easy Hfe which the tropical fertility of the soil 
enabled them to lead, had resolved to remain 
and settle in South America. When he im- 
parted this resolution to his comrade, the latter 
did not aigue with him, but, leading him to his 
tent, he placed him by his side, and sang him 
*' Lochaber no more/' The spell was on him, the 
tears came into his eyes, and wrapping his plaid 
around him, he murmured "Lochaber nae mair — 
I maun gai^ back — Na!** The songs of his 
childhood were ringing in his ears, and he left 
that land of ease and plenty for the naked rocks 
and sterile valleys of Badenoch, where, at the 
close of a life of toil and hardship, he might lay 
hia head in his mother's grave.* [R.P.S.J 

LOCK, Mattebw, bom at Exeter, was a 
^orister of the cathedral there under Edward 
Gibbons, and afterwards studied under Wake. 
He and Christopher Gibbons composed the music 
for Shirley's mMquei, ' Cupid and Death,' * repr&- 
aented at the Military Ground in Leicester Fields' 
before the Portuguese Ambassador, March 26, 
1653. In 1656 he published his ' little Consort 
of Three Parts' for viols or violins, composed, as 
he tells us, at the request of his old master and 
firiend, William Wake, for his scholars. He 
oomposed the music, ' for y* king's sagbutts and 
comets,' performed during the progress of Charles 
n from the Tower through the citv to Whitehall 
<m April aa, 1661, the day before his coronation, 
for which he received the appointment of Com- 
poser in Ordinary to the Eong. He composed 
sevoal anthems for the Chap^ Royal, and on 
April 1, 1666, produced there a Kyrie and Credo, 
in which he departed from the ordinary usage 
by composing different music to each response. 
Thid occasioned some opposition on the part of 
the choir, in consequence of which he puolished 
his composition, with an angry prefitce, on a 
folio sheet, under the title of * Modern CSiurch 
Music ; Pre- Accused, Censur'd, and Obstructed 
in its Performanoe before His Majesty, April i, 
1666. Vindicated by the Author, Matt. Look, 
Composer in Ordinary to His Miy'esty.' (Of this 
publication, now excessively rare, there is a cc^y 
ID the library of the Sacred Hannonic Society). 
To this period may probably be assigned the pro- 
duction of 13 anthems for 3 and 4 voices, all 
contained in the same autograph MS., which 
Roger North describes as 'Pudmee to musick in 
parts for the use of some vertuoso ladyes in the 
city.' Soon afterwards, having, it is supposed, 
become a convert to the Romish fitith, be was 
i4>pointed organist to the queen. He had in 
1664 compowd *the instrumental, vocal, and 
recitative music* for Sir Robert Stapvlton's tragi- 
comedy, ' The Stepmother,'* aad in 1670 renevi^ 
his connection with the theatre by ftumishing the 
instrumental music for Bryden and Davenanfs 
alteration of 'The Tempest,' the vwul music 
being supplied by Humfrey and Banister. In 
1673 Davenant's alteraticm of ' Macbeth,' with 
the songs and choruses from Middleton's* Witch' 
introdtroed, waa produced at the theatre in Dorset 



LOCK. 



15f 



€rarden ; and Downee, the promoter, in his ' Ros« 
oius Anglicanus,' 1706, expressly states that the 
vocal music was composed by Look. The very 
remarkable music then performed remained un- 
published until about the middle of the last 
century, when it appeared under the editorial 
care of Dr. Boyce, with Lock's name as composer, 
and as his it was long undisputedly accepted. 
But Downes's proved inaccuracy in some other 
things at length occasioned doubts of the correct- 
ness of his statement as to the authorship of the 
Macbeth music, and eventually Lock's right to it 
was denied and its composition claimed by some 
for Purcell, by others for Ecclee, and by others 
again for Leveridge. No positive proof however 
has been adduced in support of any one of these 
claims, and until such is forthcoming it would 
be premature to set aside the long standing tra- 
ditional attribution of the music to Lock. [See 
Macbeth Mdsio.] In 1673 Lock oomposed 
the music (with the exception of the act tunes, 
by Draghi) for Shad wells * Psyche,' which he 
published in 1675, under the title of 'The Ei^ 
lish Opera^' togeti^er with his 'Tempest' music, 
prefaced by some observations, written with his 
usual asperity, but curious as an exposition of 
his views of the proper form for opera. Tha 
work itself is constructed upon the model of 
Lully's operas. In 1673 an extraordinary con- 
troversy commenced between Lock and Thomas 
Salmon, who had published 'An Essay to the 
Advancement of Musick by casting away the 
perplexity of different cliffs and writing all sorts 
of musick in one universal character.' Lock at> 
tacked the work in 'Observations upon a late 
book entitled An Essay etc.,' written in a mo^ 
acrimonious and abusive tone, to which Salmon 
replied in ' A Vindication ' of his essay, bristling 
with scurrility, and Lock in 1673 retorted in 
'The Present Practice of Music vindicated &c. 
To which is added Duellum Musicum, by John 
Phillips [Milton's nephew]. Together with a 
Letter from John Playford to Mr. T. Salmon in 
confutation of his Essay,' which closed the dis- 
pute. Of its merits it is sufficient to observe 
that the old practice has continued in use to this 
day, whilst Salmon's proposed innovation was 
never accepted, and probaoly, but for the notice 
taken of it by Lock, would have long ago passed 
into oblivion. In 1673 Iiock publiihed a small 
treatise entitled ' Melothesia, or Certain General 
Rules for playing up<m a Continued Bass, with a 
choice Collection of Lessons for the Harpsichord or 
Organ of all sorts,* said to be the first of the kind 
published in England.^ His compoeitioiis were 
numerous and various. His anthem, * Lord, let 
me know mine end,' was printed by Boyce, and 
several other anthems exist in MS. in the Tudway 
collectien, the Fitzwilliam Museum, at West- 
minster Abbey, Ely, and ebewhere. Some an- 
thems and Latin hymns are in 'Cantica Sacr% 
and set,' 1674 ; some hymns in ' Harmonia Sacra,' 
1688 and 1 714; songs in *The Treasury of 

1 wmkm Penny's * Art of OomptMltlon. or. DIreettons to ptay ft 
TliorowBui'ls mentioned in OlATel't'OAtalogoe of Books printed I9 
Bnglmd since the Dreedftil Fire,* 1670, and In ft wtologiM of Bguf 
Flajford'% bnt no 0019 has been flrand. 



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16$ 



IX)CK. 



Masick,* 1669 ; 'Choice Ayres, Songs and Dia- 
logues/ 1676-84; and 'The Theater of Musio,* 
1687; and eight three-part vocal oompoflitionB 
by him (including ' Ne'er trouble thyself at the 
times or their turning/ reprinted in some modem 
collections) in 'The Musical Ck>mpanion/ 1667. 
Instrumental compositions by him are printed in 
'Courtly Masquing Ayres/ i66a; *Mugick*s 
Delight on the CiUiem/ 1666; 'Apollo's Ban- 
quet/ 1669; 'Musick*8 Handmaid/ 1678 (re- 
printed in J. S. Smith's 'Musioa Antiqua*); 
and Greeting's ' Pleasant Companion,* 1680. In 
several of ^ese is 'A Dance in the Play of 
Macbeth/ evidently written for an earlier version 
than Davenant's.^ The library of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society contains the autograph MS. of 
A ' Consort of ffoure Parts * for viob, containing 
six suites, each consisting of a £Euitasia, courante, 
ayre and saraband, which Roger North (1728) 
tells us was ' the last of the kind that hath been 
made.* Lock died in Aueust 1677. He is said 
to have been buried in the Savoy, but the fact 
cannot be verified, the ezistiiu^ registers extend- 
ing no further back than 1680. Purcell com- 
posed an elegy on his death, printed in ' Choice 
Ayres* etc., Book II, 1689. A portrait of him 
is in the Music School, Oxford. [W. H. H.] 

LOCKEY, Chables, son of Angel Lockey of 
Oxford, was admitted a chorister of Magdalen 
College, April i, 1828, and remained so until 
1836, when he went to Bath to study under 
Edward Harris. In 184 a he became a pupil of 
Sir George Smart and lay derk of St. 6eorge*8 
Chapel, Windsor. In 1843 he was appointed 
vicar choral of St. Paul's Cathedral. In 1846 he 
was engaged for the Birmingham Festival and 
allotted the tenor song 'Then shall the righteous,' 
in the first performance of ' Elijah.' On hearing 
him rehearse the song, Mendelssohn immediately 
requested him also to sing 'If with all your 
hearts,' which had before been assinied to another 
singer. ' A young EngUsh tenor/ says the com- 
poser,* 'sang the last air so very beautifully that 
I was oblig^ to collect mvself to prevent my 
being overcome, and to enable me to beat time 
steadily.' — In April 1848 Lockey was appointed 
a gentlemen of the Chapel Royal. He married 
May 24, 1853, Miss Martha Williams, contralto 
singer. In 1859 "^ affection of the throat 
deprived him of his voice and compelled his 
retirement. [ W. H. H.] 

LOCRIAN MODE (Lat. Modu$ LocHm, 
Modus BypercBoliua), The Eleventh Ecclesias- 
tical Mode: a tonality which can scarcely be 
said to have any real existence — as it is uni- 
versally discarded; in practice, on account of its 
false relation of Mi contra Fa — though, in theory, 
it necessarily takes its regular place in the series. 
[See Mi contra FA.] 

Theoretically, the Final of the Loorian Mode 
is B. Its compass, in the Authentic form, ranges 
between that note, and its octave above; and 

1 Pepn. who from Not. ^ 1664. to Dec S. 1088, mw 'Micbetli' per* 
formed seven timet, mentloni (April 1^ 1067; the ' nrietf of daadug 
•ud miulok ' in It. .^ 

SLett«rofA««.2Shl8tfL 



I/)DEB. 

its semitones lie between the first and second, 
and third and fourth degrees. Ite Dominant i> 
G, (F being inadmissible, by reason of its for- 
bidden relation with the FinaX) and its Mediant, 
D. Its Participants are E, and F ; its Conceded 
Modulations, C, and the A below the Final ; and 
its Absolute Initials, B, C, D, and G. 



Pin. 



Mode XL 
Med. Part. Pert. Dom. 



In its Plagal, or Hypolocrian form, (Mode XII,) 
its compass lies between F and the F above ; and 
its semitones fall between the fourth and fifth 
and the seventh and eighth degrees. Its Final 
is B; its Dominant^ E; and its Mediimt, D. 
Its Participants are G, and C; its Conceded 
Modulations, A, and the upper F ; and its Abso- 
lute Initials, G, A, B, C, D, and E. 



Put. 



ModeXU. 
Fin. Part. Med. Dom. 



It will be observed that the actual notes of 
Modes XI and XII correspond, exactly, with 
those of Modes IV and V. The reason why the 
two former are discarded, and the two latter held 
in good repute, is this. Mode lY, beinf Plagal, 
is subject to the 'Arithmetical Division ; i. e. it 
consists of a Perfect Fourth, placed below a 
Perfect Fifth. But, Mode XI is Anthentic ; and, 
by virtue of the ' Harmonic Division,' consists of 
a QuintafaUa^ placed below a Tntonu«— both <^ 
wUch intervals are forbidden, in Plain Chaunt. 
Again, Mode V, being Authentic, and therefore 
subject to the ' Harmonic Division,* resolves its^ 
into a Perfect Fifth, below a Perfect Fourth. 
But, Mode XII is Plagal ; and, under the 'Arith- 
metical Division,' exhibits a Tritonm^ below a 
QuintafaUa, [See Modes, the ecclesiastical.] 

A very few Plain Chaunt Melodies, and Poly- 
phonic Compositions, are sometimes referred to 
these rejected Modes: but, such cases are ex- 
ceedingly rare; and it wiU generally be found 
that l^ey are really derived, by transposition, 
from some other tonality. [W. S. R.] 

LODER, Edward James, son of John David 
Loder, bom at Bath, 1813, was in 1B26 sent 
to Fnmkfort to study music under Ferdinand 
Ries. He returned to England in 1828, and 
went back to Germany with the view of qualify- 
ing himself for the medical profession, but soon 
changed his mind and again placed himself 
under Ries. When he again came back to 
England he was commissioned by. Arnold to 
compose the music for ' Kouriahad,' an old drama 
of his to which he had added songs, ete., to con- 
vert it into an opera, for the opening of the new 
English Opera House, then building. The opera 
was produced in Jul^, 1834, and, notwithstand- 
ing very speneral adnuration of the music, proved 
unattractive owing to the poverty of the libretto. 



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LODER. 

In 1835 I'oder Bet Oxenfoid's 'IXee «f Death.* 
^e next entered into an engiigement with Dal- 
raaine & Co., the muiio publuhen, to furnish 
them with a new composition every week, in 
part p erform ance of which he produced' his 
'Twalv^ Sacred Songs,* dedicated to Stemdale 
Bennett. As it became necessary that some of 
the pieces produced under this arrangement 
should be heard in public, an opera entitled 
' Francis I,* was written to incorporate them and 
produced at Drury Lane in 1838. As might 
have been expected, so heterogeneous a com- 
pound met wiUi little success, aldiough one song, 
*The old house at home,' obtained a widespread 
popularity. His opera 'The Night Dancers,' 
ids finest work, was produced at the Princess's 
Theatre in 1846, revived there in 1850, and again 
at Corent Garden in i860. 'Puck,* a ballad 
opera» additions to 'The Sultan,* and 'The 
Young Guard,* were brought out at the Princess's 
in 1848. His cantata ' The Island of Calypso,* 
was written for the National Concerts at Her 
Majesty's Theatre in 1850, but, owing to their 
cessation, remained miperformed until given at 
the New Philharmonic Concerts in 185 1. * Ray- 
mond and Agnes,* an opera» was produced at 
Manchester in 1855. Besides these works Loder 
has written some string quartets and numerous 
iongs, of which ' The brave old oak,* and ' In- 
vocation to the deep' are well known. His 
compositions are distinguished by the melodious- 
nte of the parts and their skilful instnmienta- 
tion. He was for several years conductor at the 
Princess's Theatre, and aft^wards at Manchester, 
but although musically well qualified for the 
office his want of regular, business-like habits 
miiitated greatly against his success. About 
1856 he was attacked by cerebral disease, which 
long afflicted him, and prevented his resuming 
his old avocations. He died April 5, 1865. 

John Fawoett Lodeb, bom 181 a, an excellent 
viidinist and able orchestral leader, for many 
years resided at Bath and managed the concerts 
there. When Bath ceased to be a place of 
fiMhionable resort Loder removed to London, and 
on the retirement of Francis Cramer in 1845 
suooeeded him as leader at most of the best con- 
certs and festivals. He died April 16, 1853. Two 
other LoDEBS, John, a violinist, and William, 
a vidonoellist, both died several yean ago, as 
did the wife of the latter, formerly Emilt Wood- 
jATf, a good second sc^rano singer. [W. H. H.] 
LODEB, Eatb Fannt, only daughter of 
George Loder, bom at Bath, Aug. 31, i8a6, 
commenced playing the pianoforte when a mere 
child. In her lath year she became a pupil of 
Henry Field, and a year afterwards entmd the 
Boyil Academy of Music, where she studied the 
pianoforte under Mrs. AJiderson, and harmony 
and composition under CAiarles Lucas. At the 
sod of the first year of her studentship she ob- 
taiftad a king*s Scholarship. Early in 1840 she 
aoMred in public at her uncle's concerts at 
mmf And in March at ti^ Royal Academy con- 
o«||. In 1 84 1 she was re-elected king's sdiolar. 
^j||mtted the Academy in 1844, in which year 



XOEWB, 



159 



she played the Adagio and Rondo from Mendels- 
sohn's G minor Concerto in presence and to the 
satis&ction of the composer at Mrs. Anderson's 
concert at Her Majesty's Theatre. She was 
then appointed professor of harmony at the 
Academy^ She first appeared at the Philhar- 
monic Society March 15, 1847, when she played 
Weber's Concerto in £b, and in 1848 (May 29) 
her performance there of Mendelssohn's G minor 
Concerto received the unprecedented distinction 
of an encore. Her reputation was now confirmed, 
and her public performances frequent. In 185 1 
she was maniea to Mr. (now Sir) Henry Thomp* 
son, the eminent surgeon. On March 6, 1854, 
at the Philharmonic Concert, she made her last 
public appearance. She has composed an opera, 
an overture, two string quartets, two sonatas 
and some studies for the pianoforte, a sonata for 
pianoforte and violin, and several minor piano- 
forte pieces. [W.H.H.] 

LODOISKA. Comedy in 3 acts. i. Words 
by Fillette-Loreaux, music by Cherubini. Pro- 
duced at the Feydeau July 18, 1791. The 
overture is still occasionally played, a. Words 
by Dejaure (same story), music by R. Kreutzer. 
Produced at the Italiens Aug. i, 1791. L^.] 

LOEWE, J(«ANN Carl Gottfried, bom 
Not. 30, 1796, at Loebejuen, between Kothen 
and Halle, twelfth and youngest child of a Cantor 
and schoolmaster. Near his home were collieries 
employing 300 miners, and this underground 
world, so near in his boyish fimcy to the world 
of spirits, took powerful hold on his imagin- 
ation, to reappear later when he was composing 
'DerBergmann' (The Miner). His fother taught 
him music early, and his singing, especially his 
power of hitting the right note, havixiff attracted 
attention, he was offered in 1807 a place in the 
choir of Kothen. There he remained two years, 
hearing Pergolese's *Stabat Mater,' and other 
good music, and went thence to the Gynmasium 
of the Franke Institution at Halle. TOrk, the 
head of this, was director of the town choral 
society, and at the twelve annual concerts pro- 
duced much good music, although he had some 
curious notions, lor Loewe tells that he always 
omitted the introduction to the Finale of Bee- 
thoven's 1st Symphony {Hh&a. well known) as 
' ludicrous,' and for fear of making the audience 
laugh. Niemeyer, chancellor of the Gymnasium, 
was proud of tiie chcnr, and made them sizig to 
distinguished visitors, among others to Mme. 
de Stoel, who made Loewe a present^ and to 
King Jerome, who at Tttrk's instigation gave 
him an annuity of 300 thalers. This enabled 
him to devote himself entirely to music. He 
had already become a pianist by studying Bach's 
' Wohltemperirte Clavier,' «nd he now took 
daily lessons from Tttrk, and worked hard at 
Kimbeiger, Marpurg, and Forkel. He also 
learned French and Italian. Two of his songs 
of this date, *Clothar' and *Die Einsetzungs- 
worte des Abendmahls* (op. a)^ have survived. 
Meantime the war of 1812-13 broke out^ and 

> H« tAennida prlottd thiM MM* bj Btrdtr ind Ooethe u 
op.1. 



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160 



IiOEWB. 



Loewe haa left a graphic aooonnt of itt horron 
in his 'Selbfttbiographie' (edited by Bitter, 
Berlin 1870). TUrk died in 1814, and the 
flight of Kinff Jerome (Oct. 36, 181 3) deprived 
Loewe of hia income, but by the aid of Niemeyer 
he entered the university of Halle as a theo- 
logical student under Michaelis. Naae, Tilrk*s 
successor, (bunded a Singakademie like that of 
Zelter at Berlin. Loewe joined this, and thus 
became acquainted with his future wife, Julie 
von Jacob, a very gifted person, whom he 
married Sept. 7, 1821. In 1818 he composed 
his linst badlads, 'Edwaid,* and the *Erlking,* 
followed in 1834 (after his wife*s death) by 
•Der Wirthin TSchterlein,* which, by Marx's 
assistance, were printed. In 18 19 and ao he 
paid visits to Dresden, Weimar, and Jena, 
making the acquaintance of Weber, Hummel, 
and Goethe. In 1830 he was invited to Stettin, 
jmd having passed with credit through various 
tests, such as a musical ezehnse submitted to 
Zelter, and a trial sermon, was duly installed 
professor at the Gymnasium and Sendnary, and 
Cantor. In 1831 he became Musikdirector to 
the municipality, and organist of St. Jacobus. 
He made a considerable mark both as a con- 
ductor and professor ^ in Stettin and throughout 
Pomerania. In 1837 ^^ ^^ elected member of 
the Akademie of Berlin. He was a favourite 
with both Frederic William III. and IV., the 
latter being especially fond of his baUads. He 
travelled much, and was present at the Musical 
Festivab of Dusseldorf (1837) and Mayence (the 
Guttenbeig Ck>mmemoration), visiting Hamburg, 
LUbeck, and Bremen on the way. In 1844 he 
went to Vienna, and in 1847 ^ London. The 
Duchess of Cobuig had specially recommended 
him to the Prince Consort and Queen Adelaide ; 
he sang and played at Court, the Prince turning 
over his music ; and here he heard Jenny Lina 
for the first time ; but he left not the least trace 
of his presence behind him. In 1851 he went to 
Sweden and Norway, and in 57 to France. In 
1864 he had a singialar illness — a trance of six 
weeks* duration, and in 1866 the authorities of 
Stettin asked him to resign. After tfajs mortifi- 
cation — somewhat atoned for by the Kind's 
opportune bestowal of a higher grade of &e 
Oraer of the Red Eag^e than he had before 
enjoyed — he left Stettin for Kiel, where he 
quietly expired April 30, 1869, after another 
trance. His heart was buried near his oigan in 
St. Jacobus at Stettin. 

Carl Loewe was an industrious composer, as 
will be seen from the list of his music : — 5 operas, 
of which one only was performed — ' Die drei 
Wfinsche* (Theatre Royti, Berlin, 1834). Man- 
tins was the tenor; Spontini took unusual pains; 
the opera was a great success, and the Crown 
Prince presented £e composer with a gold medal. 
Oratorios — 'Die Feetseiten'; <Die Zerstorune 
Jeruiialems* (1839); 'Die sieben Schlafer'^ 

> Some nperhMBta in aeooitlei, «ondiieCei with Ms eellaacae 
OnasfMon. produced resnlu of real ralne. 

^ > Room of tbMe tbiM An In Um libmy of the SMni HMBonle 
flooietjr. 



LOEWB. 

('833); 'Die eheme Schlange* (1834); *Di« 
Apostel von Philippi (1835, for voices only); 
•Guttenberg' (1836) ; 'Palestrina* (1841); 'Huss* 
(1843); 'Hiob,* 'Der Meister von Avis,' 'Dtm 
StQinopfer des neuen Bundes,* ' Das hohe Lied 
Salomonis,' and 'Pdus Atella * (all between 
1848 and 60) ; 'Die Heilung des Blindgebomen' 
(1861); 'Johannes der Taufer' (63); and 'Die 
Auferweckung des Lazarus* (63). The three 
last, like < Die Apostel von Philippi,' were for 
voices onl^, without accompaniment, a species 
of composition peculiar to himself. His second 
wife and pupil, Auguste Lange of Konigsbeig; 
sang in his oratorios with himself. He published 
145 works with opus-numbers — symphonies, con- - 
certos, duets, and other pieces for P.F., but above 
all, ballads, in which he specially excelled, and 
in which he may be considered as the successor 
of Zumsteeg. His poetic feeling and power of 
musical expression give him a high rank among 
composers, although his music, like Beichardt's, 
has gone by for ever. He was the author of 
a 'C^esanglehre' (Stettin, 1836; 3id ed., 1834), 
and of ' Musikalischer Gottesdienst, Anwebung 
sum Kirchengesang und Orgelspiel' (1851, 4 
editions). The University <^ Greifswald con- 
ferred on him a Doctor's degree. Two of his 
songs are included in the ist volume of 'The 
Musical libraiy.' [F.G.] 

LOEWE, Johanna Sophis, dramatic singer, 
granddaughter of Friedrioh August Leopold 
Loewe (who died 1816 as director of the Ltlbeck 
theatre) and daughter of Ferdinand Loewe, all 
actor, was bom at Oldenburg in 1 815, and ac- 
companied her fibther to Mannheim, Frankfort, 
and Vienna, where he was engaged at the Bui^ 
Theater, through the influence of his sister, Julie 
Loewe, a celebrated actress. Here Soptde studied 
singing under Ciccimara and other good masters. 
Her d^ut as a concert-singer was so succ e s sful 
that she was at once engaged for the court opera, 
and first appeared on the stage in 1833 in a 
German version of Donizetti's * Otto mese in dua 
ore.' A contemporaiy report speaks of 'her 
voice as not powerful, but cultivated and svm- 
pathetic, her personal appearance prepossessing, 
and her acting as evincing dramatic ability mu^ 
above the common.' Towards the close of 1836 
she went to Berlin, where she created a faime 
as Isabella in ' Robert le Diable,' and was at 
once engaged at a high salarv, appearing at 

AmIvtA. in t\\tk * finnnantKnlA ' #vn A vvwil «8 



1837. In 1838 she was i^pointed chamber- 
singer to the king, but soon resigned, and tra- 
velled to London, Paris, and Italy. In London 
riie appeared at Covent Garden, May 13, 1841, 
in Bellini's ' Straniera,' but her success was only 
temporary. According to Chorley she had been 
pufibd as a new Grid, there being an idea that 
Grisi had lost her voice, and he says that the 
public were nievously disappointed ; but he 
allows that i^ was the bMt Elvira he had 
ever seen, and that her manner was sprightly^ 
graceful, and intelligent, her 'd^neanour unina- 
peaohable, and her costume superb ' as the Do> 
gareoain 'Maripo Fallen* (Mod. Gennaa MttRM» 



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." LOEWE. * 

1 210-213). She never retmrnecl to 'England! 
She &iled to obtain an engagement in Pans, 
and in 1845 sang again in B^lin, but coming 
just after Jenny Lind, was only moderately 
received. In 1848 she married Prince Lichten- 
Btein and retired. She died at Peeth, Nov. 29, 
1866. Her special characteristic was the sin- 
gular harmony between her bodily and mental 
gifts. In conversation she was witty and in- 
tellectual,' and as a singer had a great diversity 
of rdles, playing both Elvira and Donna Anna, 
Jessonda and Madeleine ('Postilion'), Lucrezia 
and Adine ('Elisir*). An admirable portrait 
of her was painted by Krttger, and engraved by 
Sachse of Berlin. 

Her niece and namesake, SoPHis Uwn, a 
soprano, daughter of the regisseur of the Ck>urt 
Theatre at Stuttgart, and pupil of Stockhausen, 
made her first appearance in London in 1871, 
and sang at the concerts for several seasons with 
success, till her marriage in 1877. [F. G.] 

LOGIER, JoHANK Bebnard, a descendant of 
a fimiily of French refugees, was bom in 17S0 
at Kuserslautem in the Palatinate, where his 
&ther and grandfather were organists. He re- 
ceived his early musical education from his 
&ther. After tiie death of his parents, and 
when about 10 years old, he came to England 
in the company of an English gentleman, with 
whom he redded for two years, and studied the 
flute and pianoforte. He then joined the band 
of a regiment commanded by the Marquis of 
Abercom, of which WiUman, fi^ther of the cele- 
brated clarinet player, was master, and with which 
he wait to IreJand. In 1796 he married Will- 
man's daughter, and engaged in composing for 
and instructing military bands and teaching the 
pianoforte. At the close of the war, his r^ment 
being disbanded, he became organist atWestport, 
Ireland. Whilst there he invented his machine 
for guiding the hands of learners on the piano- 
fbrte, and devised the system of instruction known 
by Ids name. [For an account of this machine 
tad system, and the controversy which raged on 
their introduction, see Chiboplast.] In 182 i 
the Prussian government sent Franz Stoepel to 
London to inquire into the merits of the system, 
tad the result was that Logier was invited to 
Bolin to superintend the promulgation of it in 
I^niflsia. He remained in Berlin three years, 
h&ng allowed an annual vacation of three months 
to visit England. In 1826, having acquired 
a competency by the sale of his chiroplast and 
elementary works, his very numerous classes, and 
the fees received for permission to use his in- 
vention and teaoh on his system, — it was asserted 
that he had received 100 fees of 100 guineas each 
forthatpurpose, — heretiredand settled in Ireland, 
ttear Dublin, where he died July 27, 1846. He 
<»mp08ed some sonatas and other pieces, besides 
iiisknig numerous arrangements finr the piano- 
fwte. He also composed an ode on the com- 
ntenoement of the 50th year of the reign of 
Geoige III., Oct. 1809, performed in Dublin. 
Bendes the publications connected with his chiro- 
plast, he was author of * A Complete Introduction 



10, HE comes: 



161 



to the Keyed Bugle,' of which instrument he is 
said to have been ^e inventor. [W.H.H.] 

LO, HE COMES WITH CLOUDS DE- 
SCENDINa, the first line of the hymn which is 
usually sung to the tune called Helmslet, or 
Olivebs. This tune claims a notice on ac- 
tx)unt of the various opinions that have been 
expressed respecting its origin. The story runs 
that Thomas Olivers, the friend of John Wesley, 
was attracted by a tune which he heard 
whistled in the street, and that from it he formed 
the melody to which were adapted the words of 
Cennick and Wesley's Advent hynm. The tune 
heard by Olivers is commonly said to have been 
a Hornpipe danced by Miss Oatley in the 'Crolden 
Pippin,' a burlesque by Kane O'Hara, but this 
seems inconsistent with chronology. The hymn- 
tune appeared first, as a melody only, in the 
second edition of Wesley's ' Select Hynms with 
Tunes annexed,* 1765, under the name of 
' Olivers,' and in the feUowing form : 




In 1769 an improved version, in three parts, 
was published by the Rev. Martin Madan in the 
Lock * Collection of Hymn and Psalm Tunes.* 
It is there called 'Hdmsley,' and under thai 
name became widely popular. 



f^jfjj'ji'j i n.^gji^ij.j'j-'^i 



Pia 




But at this time the * Golden Pippin* was not 
even in existence. O'Keeffe, who possessed the 
original MS., tells in his ' Recollections * that it 
was dated 1771. The burlesque, in three acts, 
was produced at Covent Garden in 1773: it 
failed at first, but obtained some success when 
altered and abridged. The source from whence 
* Olivers' was derived seems to have been a con- 
cert-room soAig commencing * Guardian * angels, 
now protect me/ the music of which probably 
originated in Dublin, where it was sung by a Mr. 
M^one, and no doubt also by Miss CkHey, who 

, under the title of 'The Formlten Jtymvh; hf4 
aome Teui befora, to a totally dUtoeut ftlr. 



* The Mme words 
been Ml bu Baodel. 



M 



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J62 



LO.HBCOMESI 



re^ed in the Irish Oftpital from 1763 to 1770. 
The melody of ' Guardian Angels* is aa fbUowa ; 




This melody was not in the 'Golden Pippin* as 
ongim^y written* bat (adapted to the words of 
the burlesque) was intz^od^ced into it in 1776 in 
the place of & song by Giordani, and was sung 
by Miss Gatley in the character of Juno. The 
published score of the * Gk>lden Pippin* does not 
contain anv hornpipe, but such a dance may 
have been mterpolated in the action of the piece. 
It will be noticed that the resemblance between 
* Olivers* and * Guardian angels* extends only to 
the first part of the tune, the second part being 
wholly different. On the other hand, the horn- 
pipe corresponds with the hymn-tune throughout, 
and with 'Helmsley* more doeely than with 
' Olivers.* In 1 765, when the Utter was pubb'shed. 
Miss Catley was in Ireland, and did not return to 
London until five years afterwards, and if the 
hornpipe was not of earlier date than the ' Golden 
Pippm,* it seems to follow that instead of the 
hymn-tune having been derived from the horn- 
pipe, the latter was actually constructed frt>m 
the hymn-tune, which by that time had become a 
gieat iavouritew [G.A.G.] 

LOHENGRIN. A romantic drama in 3 acts ; 
words and music by Richard Wagner. Composed 
in 1847, ^^^ produced at Weimar, under the 
direction of Liszt, Sept. 1850 ; in London, in 
Italian, at Govent Garden, May 8, 1875. [G.] 

LOLLI, Antonio, a celebrated violinist, 
bom at Beigamo about 1730. If it cannot be 
doubted that he was a most extraordinary per^ 
former, he appears certainly also to have been 
the type of an unmueical, empty-headed virtuoso, 
and in addition a complete fcK>l. 

Hardly anything is known of the earlier part 
of his life and career. It is however generally 
t f sumed that he was almost entirely self-taught. 
We know for certain that he was at Stutl^art 
in 1762 with Nardini. There he remained, at- 
tached to the court of the Duke of Wiirtemberg, 
till 1 773, ifvhen he went to St. Peterfiburg, whero 



LOMBARDI. 

he is iidd to have eajc^red the special favour of 
the Empress Katherine II. He remained in her 
service till 1 778. In 1 779 he came to Paris and 
played with great success at the Concert spiritueL 
After this he went to Spain, and in 1785 we find 
him in London, where however, according to 
Bumey, he appeared but seldom in public. He 
continued to travel, and we read of his aM>earanoe 
now at Palermo, now at Copenhagen ; then again 
at Vienua or Naples. He died in Siciljrin 1 802. 

According to all contemporaneous testimony 
Lolli was an extraordinary performer, but an 
indifferent musician. Schubart, the well-known 
Grerman poet and musician, who had many 
opportunities of hearing both him and Nardini, 
speaks with unmeasured praise of LoUi's feats 
of execution, the wondeiful ease and absolute 
certainty with which he plaved the most difficult 
double stops, octaves^ tenths, double-shakes in 
thirds and sixths, hannonics, etc. As to his 
having been a bad musician, or rather no musi- 
cian at all, the testimonies are equally unanim- 
ous. The Abb^ Bertini plainly states that Lolli 
could not keep time, could not read even easy 
music, and was unable to play an Adagio pro- 
perly. On one occasion, when asked to play an 
Adagio, he said : ' I am a native of Bergamo ; we 
are all bom fools at ^ Bergamo, — ^how shoiild I 
play a serious piece?' When in England, he 
almost broke down in a Quartet of Haydn which 
the Prince of Wales had asked him to play. 
If, with all these drawbacks as a musician, 
he nevertheless created wherever he played an 
immense sensation, we are all the mcnre com- 
pelled to believe that his powers of execution 
were of the most exceptional kind. 

He 18 described as a nandsome man. but a great 
dandy and charlatan, very extravagant, and a gam- 
bler. The Emperor Joseph II, himself a very fair 
musician, habitually called him 'muddle-headed 
Lolli' (der Faselhans). Bumey (Hist. iv. 680) 
writes that 'owing to the eccentricity of his 
style of composition and execution, he was re- 
garded as a madman by most of the audience. 
In his freaks nothing can be imagined so wild, 
difficult, grotesque, and even ridiculous as his 
compositions and performance.' True, Bumey 
adds, 'I am convinced' that in his lucid intervals 
he was in a serious style a very great, expressive, 
and admirable performer,' but it appears doubtful 
whether Bumev ever heard him in a 'lucid inter- 
val,' and there&re his 'conviction* is gratuitous. 
' His oompositions (Concertos and Sonatas for 
the violin), poor and insipid as they are, yet 
are said to have been his own producticms in 
a limited sense only. We are assured that he 
wrote a violin part only, and that this was 
corrected, funushed with accompaniments, and 
brought into shape, by another hand. [P. D.] 

LOMBARDI, I, ALLA PBIMA CBOOIATA. Italian 
opera in 4 acts; libretto by Solera, music by 
Verdi. Produced at the Scala, Milan, Feb. 11, 
1843; in London, at Her Majesty's, March 3, 
1846; and in Paris, Th^tre Italien, Jan. 10, 

1 In SIcDor AlfHdo Ptatti, BetsMM hM prodQoe4 a ripMl eon- 
tndlotloB to tbis ttateuaut. 



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LOMBABBL 

^863. A great part of the muslo was after- 
wards employed by Verdi in the opera of 
JZBUSALEIC [G.] 

LOMBABDY, School ow Music ow. [See 
MiLAir.] 

LONDON. The University of Londbn has 

* recently detennined to mnt the degrees of Mns, 
Bac. and Mas. Doc. under the fbllowihg regula- 
tions. Candidates for the Mus. Bao. degree must 
have passed the Matriculation Examination ten 
months before. For the degree itself there are 
two examinations. Tlie first, which is held in 
December, comprises the following subjects: — 
the relation between vftnrations and the pilch of 
sounds ; the nature of harmonics^ and* the simpler 
phenomena of stretched strmgs and compound 
sounds ; the theory of musi^ intervals, of the 
scales, and of consonance and dissonance ; the- 
history of music so for as it rebates to the growth 
of musical forms and rules. The second Mus. Bao. 
examination, held later in the same month, com- 
prises the fbUowmg subjects : — practical harmony;, 
counterpoint in five parts with canom and fuffue ; 
farm in musical composition; instrumentation; 
ananging for the piiuio firom an instrumental 
so(»e; a critical knowledge of the scores of certain 
standard works. Before admittance to this ex- 
amination the candidate must have submitted to 
the exam&ieiB a vocal composition by himself^ 
containing real five-part vocal countlBrpoint, with 
scoompaniment for a quintet strmg band. Tech- 
nical skill m performance is not part of the 
qoalificatibn for this degree : but a mark of merit 
is offered to candidates for play&g at sight from 
a five-part vocal score, or playing an* aoconq>ani* 
ment from a figured bass. 

For the Mus» Doc. there are a^ two examina- 
tions, both in December. Tlie subjects of the 
first are the foUowmg : — the phenomena of sound 
and sound-waves, and generally the h%her 
hranches of aoonstics ; temperament ; tiie scales 
of an natfons ; Greek and Church Modes ; history 
of measured music ; consonance and dissonance ; 
^leoiy of progressions; history and theory of 
hannony and counterpoint. The subjects of the 
Second Mus. Doc. examination comprise practf- 
csl hannony of the more advanced character; 
counterpoint in eight real parts, with canon, 
fugue, etc; treatment of voices in composition; 
hutrumentation &r full orchestra; general ac- 
quaintance with the works and character of the 
greatest composers, and a critical acquaintance 
with certain specified works. Before being ad* 
mitted to this examination the candidate must 
send in a vocal composition such as would occupy 
shout 40 minutes in performance, oontaihing 
eight-part vocal harmony and fugal counterpoint,. 

* portion for one or noore solo voices, and an 
overture in the form of the first movement of a 
<dasBical symphony. The above list of subjects 
is abbreviated fix>m the much longer oflicial list, 
to which reference fiw more exact details is 
recommended. The fee for each examination is 
^5— i.e. jeio in aU for each degree. [C.A.F.] 

J^ ngntettoniirvn dBtenBtocd on In Dec ISH. and fliit toted 
0900 In Dec ina. 



LONDON VIOUN-MAKERS. 168 

TiONDON SACRED HARMONIC SO- 
CIETY. THE. was formed on March 6, 1848, 
after the disiaissal of Mr. Surman from the post 
of conductor to tke Sacred Harmonic Society, 
The Rev. George Roberts was president, Mr. 
Surman conductor, and the affiurs of the society 
were managed by a oonmiittee. Six concerts were 
given in Exeter Hall during the year 1848, 
re8ultiittinialosBof£^94. The so-called society 
lingered en for some years, and gave its last 
ooncert on Dec^ aa, 1856 (Messiah). After this 
it seems to have ceased to exist. [G.] 

LONDON VIOUN-MAKERS. London hai 
probably been for centuries the seat of a manu« 
racture of stimged instruments. The popn- 
krity of the viol dhring the 16th and 17th 
centuries produced many makers of the instru- 
ment, among whom are found Jay, Smith, 
BoUes,. Ross, Addison, Shaw, Aldred, etc. Its 
design achnitted of littie variety, and the speci- 
mens whidi hme been poeserved have only an 
archseolegical interest. Of slight oonstruction^ 
and usually made of thin and £7 wood, most of 
the old viols have perished. Tha violin type, 
marked ( i) by a back curved lile the belly, instead 
of a fiat back ; by an increased vibration, pro* 
duoed (a) by sennd-holes laver in proportion, 
and with contrary flexures (y% and (3) by four 
strings instead of six, with a fixed tunmg by 
fifths, and greater thicknesses of wood, reached 
England finnn the continent in the middle of the 
seventeenth century.. Its marked superiority in 
aU respects soon drove the treble viol from the 
field : and a native school of violin-makers forth* 
with arose, who imitated the general character* 
istics of the new foreign model, though preserving 
to some extent the character of the vioL Hie 
new pattern, at fivst adopted for the smaller 
instruments, gradually extended itself to the 
larger ones. But viol-shaped tonors continued 
te«be made Ibng after this form had been aban- 
doned for the 'treble* viol, and the violin had 
taken its place : bass-viob were made still later ; 
and the viol double-bass, with its flat back and 
tuning by fourths, is even yet in use. 

1. Eablt Ekgsish School (1650 -1700). 
An independent school of violin-makers naturally 
arose in London by the application of the tra- 
ditions of viol-maldng to the construction of 
instruments ef the violin type. Connoisseurs 
have traced certain resemblances between these 
eariy fiddles and contemporary mstruments made 
on the continent. But tiie total result of an ex- 
amination of these works entities them to rank 
as a distinct school. Jacob Rannan, who dates 
from Blackman Street and the Bell Yard, South- 
wark (1641-1648), Christopher Wise (1656), 
Edwasd Pemberton (1660),. and Thomas Urqu- 
hart (1660), are fiimous names among these 
eariy makers. Their instruments, though of rude 
ungeometrical pattern, are usually covered with 
a fine varnish, and have a tone of good quality. 
Edward Pamphilon (1680-1690), who lived on 
London Bridge, became more famous. His in- 
struments still preserve a high reputation : and 
their resemblance to the Brescian school has givea 



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a« XONDON yrOLESr-MAKEBS: 

4186 among Parisian dealers to the practice, viSich 
4uui of late years made its way to England, of 
Jabelling them ' Caspar di Salo.' Few PamphUon 
Jabelsexist ; and nothing w^ persuade the Parisian 
oonnoisseur that these instruments are not verit- 
able relics of some pre-Oremonese Italian school. 
iN'otfaing, however, is more certain than that 
.they were made when the last of the Amatis 
-was an ancient man, and when the geometrical 

Extern was going out of fiishion in Italy itself, 
ike those of Joseph Guamerius, the works of 
Pamphilon are fashioned directly by hand, 
without the intervention of a model or mould. 
Often they are of stiff and graceless outline; 
jBometimes they show curves of bold and free 
.design, and are wrought out with scrupulous 
jcare and delicacy. In his more artistic moments, 
Pamphilon was fond of finishing the sound holes 
with a drawn-out curl, resembling the volute of 
.a scroll ; and the bottom curve of the sound-hole 
.runs out at something like a right angle to the 
axis of the fiddle, llie heads are too, small, a 
'fault which is shared by all the old English makers 
from Rayman to Banks: they are, however, 
•artistically shaped, and often de^ly scooped in 
.the volute. The works of Pamphilon are covered 
with fine yellow oil varnish, which presents a 
most attractive appearance. They are not diffi- 
cult to be met with: the writer has casually 
entered the shop of a country dealer, and found 
three excellent ones for sale at low prices. The 
tenors are small, but of a good tenor tone. No 
Pamphilon violoncello is known to exist. The 
.bass-viol, with flat back, was still in fashion. 
.Barak Norman (1688-1740), a maker of emi- 
nence only inferior to Pamphilon, followed the 
Italians in extending the violin type to the bass 
instrument, and producing the violoncello. It is 
evident from his works that he had seen foreign 
instruments. His earlv years were chiefly em- 
ployed in the construction of viols ; and his first 
productions of the violin kind show a resemblance 
to Urquhart. Gradually he produced tenors and 
violoncellos of the new model, on most of which 
his monoffram, elaborately wrought, is to be 
found. Norman became about 171 5 a partner 
with Nathaniel Cross at the 'Bass Yior in St. 
.Paul's Churchyard. His works are always in 
request among connoisseurs. That the Early 
English school had its offshoots in the country is 
proved by the works of Thomas Duke, of Oxford 
(1720). None of these makers were influenced 
by the pattern of Stainer, which ultimately dis- 
placed the old English type of violin, as com- 
pletely as the violin had displaced the vioL 

a. School op Stainkb-Coptists (i 700-1750). 
The bright and easily-produced tones yielded by 
the Stainer model, soon made it popular in Eng- 
land, and the London makers vied with each 
other in reproducing it. The first and best of 
the Stainer-copyists is Peter Wamsley, of the 
Golden Harp in Piccadilly (17 10-1734). The 
workmanship of Wamsley varies : like most of 
his successors, he made instruments of three or 
four qualities, probably at prices to correspond. 
JChe finer specimens of hia work, well finished. 



LONDON VIOLIN-HAKEES. 

and covered With a certain thick and brilliant r^ 
varnish, which he could make when he pleased, 
do high credit to the London schodi. He did 
not despise viol-making ; nor, on the other hand, 
did he confine himself to the imitation of Stainer. 
Both he and Thonuis Barrett, of the Harp and 
Crown in Piocadillv (i 710-1 730), tried their 
hands at free imitations of Stradivarius. Joseph 
Hare (i 720-1 736) did the same. Barrett was 
a more mechanical workman than Wamsley, 
and used a thin yellow varnish. Between 1 730 
and 1770 the majority of the violins produced 
in England were imitations of Stainer, some- 
what larger, and covered with a thin g^yish 
yellow varnish: one or two makers only used 
better varnish, of a brown or dullish red colour. 
Among the makers were Thomas Cross (1720), 
the partner of Barak Norman, who used a -h 
as a device : John Johnson of Cheapside (i 750^ 
1 760) : Thomas Smith, a capital maker of large 
solid instruments on the Stainer model, who suc- 
ceeded to the business of Wamsley at the ' Golden 
Harp* in Piccadilly (i 740-1 790), and Bobert 
Thompson, at the 'Bass Violin* in St. Paul's 
Churchyard (1749), where he was succeeded by 
his sons Charles and Samuel (i 770-1 780). To 
these may be added Edward Heeeom (1748); 
Edward Dickenson, at the Harp and Crown 
in the Strand; and John Norris and Kob^ 
Barnes (1760- 1800), who worked together in 
Great Windmill Street, and in Coventry Street, 
Piccadilly. William Forster also began with 
the Stainer pattern. [See Fobstbb, William]. 
3. School of Amati-Coftists. Foremost 
among these stands Benjamin Banks (1750- 
1795). He learnt the trade in the workshop 
of Wamsley ; and though he eariy migrated to 
Salisbury, where he spent the greater part of 
his life, belongs in all respects to the London 
school. He followed Danid Parker (i 740-1 785) 
in breaking the spell of Stainer, and seriously 
imitating the style of Nicholas Amati. Banks 
copied that maker with great fidelity. Though 
his violins are less in request, his tenors and 
basses, of which he made large numbers, are ex-* 
ceUent instruments, and produce good prices. 
He used a fine rich varnish, in several tints, 
yellow, red, and brown. His son Benjamin 
returned to London : two other sons, James and 
Henry, carried on his business at Salisbuiy, but 
at length migrated to Liverpool. Joseph Hill 
(1 760-1 780), at the 'Harp and Flute* in the Hay- 
market, and a fellow-apprentice with Banks in 
the shop of Wamsley, made solid instruments 
which are still in request, but adhered less 
strictly to the Amati model. Edward Aireton, 
another alumnus of Wamsley's, worked on this 
model. But the chief of the older Amati-oopy- 
ists is the celebrated Richard Duke of Holbom 
( 1 760-1 780). Duke's high reputation amongst 
English fiddlers is amply justified by his works, 
which must be carefidiy distinguished frxnn 
the myriad nondescripts to which his name 
has been nefariously affixed. 'When a really 
fine specimen of Duke,* says Mr. Hart, 'is 
once seen, it is not likely to be forgotten. As 



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LONDON. VlOLIN-ilAKEEa 

topita of Amati such ingtrtunentd ard scaroely 
surpassed, varnish, work and material being of 
the best descsription.' Duke, in obedience to 
a &Bhion« though a declining ' one, also copied 
Stainer, but, in Mr. Hart's opinion, less success- 
fully. His pupils, John and Edward Betts, 
fc^owed him in imitating Amati. The latter 
was the better workman. 'Each part,' says 
Bfr. Hart, *is faultless in finish ; but when riewed 
as a whole the result is too mechanicaL Never* 
theless, this maker takes rank with the foremost 
of the English copyists.' John Betts occupied a 
shop in the Royal Exchange, where his business 
was still carried on a few years since. The For- 
sters (see that article) fc^owed the prevailing 
fuhion, and copied not only Nicholas Amati, but 
Antonios and Hieronymus. 

4. Latcb imitators of thb Crimona School. 
We now reach a group of makers dating from 
about 1790 to 1840, and fosming the last and 
in some respects the best section of the London 
School. These makers forsook altogether the 
imitation of Stainer, occupied themselves less 
with that of Amati, and bddly passed on to 
Stndivarios and Joseph Guamerius. Lupot and 
others were doing the same in Paris. Kichard 
Tobin, John Furber, Charles Harris, Henrjr 
Lockey Hill, Samuel Gilkes, Bernard Fendt 
the elder (known as 'Old Barney*), and John 
Career, are among the best London makers of 
this period : and Vlncenzo Panormo, though of 
Italian extraction, really belongs to the same 
school Stradivarius was the chief model of 
^ese makers, and in reproducing his style they 
gave to the worid a host of valuable instruments. 
The elder Feudt is commonly accounted the best 
maker of violins since the golden age of Cre- 
mona, though the vote of the French connoisseur 
#oald be in favour of Lupot. Bernard Fendt the 
^onnger, and his brother Jacob, together with 
Joseph and George Panormo, sons of Vincenzo, 
continued this school in another generation, 
though with unequal success. The Kennedy 
fiunily (Alexander 1700-1786, John 1730-1816, 
Thomas 17S4-1870) were second-rate makers 
of the same school, The abolition of the import 
duty on foreign instruments, together with the 
accumulation of old instruments available for 
use and more sought for than new ones, ruined 
the Kn glitih violin manufacture. During the 
present century, Italian violins have poured 
mto England from all parts of Europe. Paris, 
to say nothing of Mirecourt and Neukirchen, 
affords an 'ample supply of new violins of every 
quality, at rates wmch drive from the field 
English labour, whether more or less skilled. A 
few makers only weathered the storm. Gilkes's 
son William Gilkes, and pupil John Hart, of 
Princes Street, as well as Simon Forster, miade 
instruments up to the time of their deaths : and 
ihere are still living two representatives of the 
old English school in the persons of William 
Ebsworth Hill of Wardour Street, best known 
as a dealer in Italian instruments, but in fact 
a violin-maker of no ordinary merit, and John 
Furber of Grafton Street, who still pursues the 



COl^GHIfRST; 



US 



old craft. Both are descended from violih-making 
fitniilies dating back to the b^inning of the last 
century. G^ige Hart, of Princes Street, son 
of John Hart, and author of a most useful work 
called ' The Violin, its famous makers and their 
imitators* (1875), is chiefly known as a dealer. 
A few French vi(^in-makers who have settled 
in London, among whom are Chanot and Boul- 
langier, bdong to the Parisian school. 

This list does not profess to exhaust the Lon- 
don makers of stringed instruments. But it 
includes the most famous and prolific among 
them : and it may be safely added that, taken in 
the mass, the instruments which have been pro-' 
duced in London are equal in general quality to 
those of any city nortii of the Alps, not excepting 
Paris itself. Until the time of Lupot, the English 
makers were unquestionably superior as a school 
to the French, though they were rivalled by the 
Dutch : and Lupot himsmf might have shrunk 
from a comparison with the beet works of Fendt 
and Panormo. Whether the art of violin-making 
ki England will ever recover tiie blow which it 
has received from Free Trade, remains to be 
seen. [E.J.P.] 

LONG (Lat. Lwiga, Ifotuia caudata), A note> 
intermediate in value between the Laige and the 
Breve. In Plain Chaunt, the Long appears as a 
square black note, with a tail which may eithei^ 
ascend, or descend, on either side. In Polyphonic 
Music, it is figured as a square white note, with 
a tail descending on the right. In this case, the 
position of the tail is important : for« though it is 
sometimes, in modem music, made to ascend, it 
can only be transferred to the left hand side in' 
ligatures, when it materially afiects the duration 
of the note. [See Ligature.] 



In Plain Clumnt. 



In Polyphonic Music. 



The Lonff represents one third of the Perfect 
Large, and half of the Imperfect. [See Laboe.1 
Its duration, in the Lesser Moda Perfect, is equal 
to that of three Breves: in the Lesser Mode. 
Imperfect, to that of tw«>. [See Mode.] Its cor- 
responding Rest is drawn, when Perfect, acroea 
throe spaces ; when Imperiect, across two only. 



Perfect Long Rest. 



Imperfect Long Rett. 



In Plain Chaunt, it is longer than the Breve, 
but not in any definite proportion, except iri 
Ligatures, where it represents a Breve and a 
half, or three Semibreves. Merbecke, in hia 
'Booke of Common Praier Noted* (1550) calls 
it a 'Close,' and uses it only at the end of a 
verse : but this restriction is not usual in Plain 
Chaunt Office-Books. [W. S.B.] 

LONGHITRST, John Albxandeb, bom in 
1809, studied under John Watson, musical 
director at Covent Garden, and on April 22, 
1820, came out at Covent Garden as the Page 
in Bishop's 'Henri Quatre,' and gained great 



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IM 



LONGHUBOT. 



popularity by bif nnging in tbe duet ' My pretty 
page/ with Miss Stemiens. During tnat and 
the next four yean Bishop oompoMd original 
parts for him in ' Montroie,* ' The Two Gentlemen 
of Veiona/ ' Maid Marian,' * Clari/ * The Beacon 
of Liberty/ and *Am You Like It,* besides ^ving 
him the boy's parts in 'The Miller and his Men/ 
' The Slave/ etc., which he had formerly written 
for Gladstanee and Bamett. Early in 1826 he 
was allotted the part of Puck in Weber's * Oberon,* 
then in preparation, butahortly afterwavd^, whilst 
in the middle of a popular biOlad, ' The Bobin's 
Petition/ his voioe suddenly broke, and he was 
compelled to relinquish singing. Weber men- 
tions the event in a letter to his wife, March 9, 
i8a6 : — ' The young fellow who was to have sung 
Puck has lost his voice, hxxt I have a charming 
girl, ^ who is very clever and ^sings capitally/ 
After a short time he became known as a teacher 
of singing and the pianoforte and excellent ao- 
oompanyist. He died in I £^5 aged 46. 

His younger broiber, William Hbnrt, Mus. 
Doc., bom in the parish of Lambeth, Oct. 6, 
1 8 19, was admitted a chorister of Canterbury 
Cathedral, Jan. 6, 1828, under Highmore Skeats, 
sen., having afterwards Stephen Elvey and 
Thomas Evance Jones as his masters. In 1836 
he was appointed lay clerk and asfdstant organist 
of the oathedraL On Jan. 26, 1873, he was 
chosen to succeed Jones as organist and master 
of the choristers. His doctor's degree was con- 
ferred on him by the Archbishop of ^Canterbury 
(Tait), Jan. 6, 1875. His compositions consist 
of anthems, services, songs, etc., and a MS. 
oratorio, * David and Absalom/ [W. H. H.] 

LOOSEMORE, Hefrx, Mus. Bao., was a 
chorister in one of the Cambridge colleges, after- 
wards lay clerk therc^ and organist of King's 
College. He graduated at Cambridge in 1640. 
In 1660 he was appointed organist of Exeter 
Cathedral. A service and anthems by him .-are 
in the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS, 7337, 7338) 
and at Ely, and two Latin litanies (in D sninor 
and G minor) are printed in Jebb's 'Choral 
Besponses and Litanies/ He died in 1667. 

His son, Gborob, Mus. Doc., was a chorister 
of King's College, Cambridge, imder his father, 
and in 1660 became organist ef Trinity College. 
He took his Doctor's decree at Cambridge in 1665. 
Anthems by him are in the Tudway collection 
(Harl. MS. 7339) and at Ely Cathedral. 

Another son, John, built the organ of Exeter 
Cathedral in 1665, <^cl died i68i« Parts of his 
work still remain in that organ. [W.H.H.] 

LORD OF THE ISLES, THE. A Dranmtic 
Cantata founded on Scott's poem ; the music by 
Henry Gadsby. Produced at Brighton Feb. 13, 
1879. [G.] 

LORELEY, DIE. An opera by'Geibel, upon 
the composition of which Mendelssohn was en- 
engaged at the time of his death (Nov. 4, 47). 
He had completed — as far as anything of his 

> Mia Harriet Came. afUrwaMs Mn. John Tlddaa. 
s ' D«in Andenken Felix MgadebiohD-Baitholdf ' (Hannorer.BOiD- 
18MX 



LOKTZING. 

' oould be said to be complete until it was pub- 
lished — the finale to the act in which the 
heroine, standing on the Loreley cliff, invokes the 
spirits of the Rhine. This number was first 
performed at Leiprig, and at the Birmingham 
Festival, Sept. 8, 185 a, to an English adaptation 
by Mr. Barthdomew, and was published as * Op. 
98, No. a 7 of the posthumous works.' In Oct. 
J 868 an Ave 'Maria (scene 3) for soprano solo 
and chorus, and late in 1 871 a Yintagen' Chorua 
(scene 4) were published, and portions of the 2nd 
and 7th scenes are more or less advanced towards 
completion. The Finale is frequently put on the 
stage in Germany. The opera has been since 
composed by Mml Bruch (produced at Ck)log]M 
in August 1864). 

a. The Loreley is the subject of an opera by 
F. Lachner, words by Molitor, produced at the 
Oovrt Theatre, Munich, in 1846. [G.] 

LORENZ, Fbakz, physician and writer, bom 
at Stein, Lower Austria, April 4, 1805 ; took 
his doctor's degree 1831, and is now residing in 
Wiener-Neust&dt. Like many other physicians, 
he has done much for music, and his publications 
are of special interest and value : — * In Sachen 
Mozart's ' (Vienna, 1 85 1 ), much praised by Kochel 
in his Mozart-Catologue (Preface, xvii.) ; ' Haydn, 
Mozart, and Beethoven's Kirobenmusik,' etc.; 
• W. A. Mosart alsClavier-Componist' (Breslau, 
1866); various accurate and inteseeting contri- 
butions on Mozart, Beethoven, and Haydn, to the 
Deutsche MusikZeitung, ^ 1861, 62 ; the Wiener 
Zeitung. * Aug. 5, 1850, Aug. 16, 1863.* It it 
to Dr. Lorenz tiblat we owe Krenn'a important 
account of Beethoven's last Autumn, and the 
other aneodotes and traits there ^ven. [See 
Krenn.] [C.F.P.] 

LORTZING, GusTAV AiiBEKT. cpera-coraposer, 
bom at Berlin, Oct. 23. 1803, .son of an actor. 
He studied for a time under Rungenhagen, but 
the wandering life entailed by his father s pro- 
fession made steady instruction an impossibility, 
and at 9 he was thrown i)pon his own resources, 
played the pianoforte, violin, and cello, studied 
the woiks of Albrechtsberger and others, and 
soon began to compose. At the same time, he 
habitui^y sung and acted on the stage, and thus 
secured a famUiarity with the practical require- 
ments of the boards which was of great advantage 
to him. In 1822 he went with his parents to 
Cologne, where he married before he was 20, and 
produced his first operetta 'Ali Pascha von 
Janina.' The company to which he belbnged 
served the theatres of Detmdd, Munster, and 
Osnabruck, in addition to that of Ck>logne, and 
at all these his opera was repeated. In 1833 
he was engaged as first tenor at the Stadttheater 
at Leipzig, and here he passed a happy and suc- 
cessful ID years. In 1837 he wrote and composed 
two comic operas, 'Die beiden Schtitzen' and 

> Thh wu perforaMd b LoDdoa Mrij In U8O onAer tlM out <ir Mr. 



< Mozart's Requiem OWl, No. SS. 48); Motarfs KlaTicNSooattn 
(do. 41. 42) : Monrt't Maanea (Itm Vo. 94. 9ft) : BeeUMxten at GnalxeiK 
dorf (do. 10) ; Baydn and his prinoelT patrona (do. 46. 47. 48). 

B Mozart's death. 

•Hajdna 



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LORTZING. 

*OaaT und Zimmermaim.' Both were snooeaBfuI, 
and the latter waa at once performed all over 
Germany. His next few works however fell flat, 
and it waa not till 1842 that his 'WUdichats,' 
arranged from Kotzebue's comedy, again aronaed 
the public. He then gave up acting, and in 1844 
was appointed GapeUmeiater of the tiieatre, a poet 
for which he was unfitted both by his easy dis- 
position and his defective education, and which 
he resigned in the following year. He next pro- 
duced ' Undine * (1845) with success at Hambuig 
and Leipzig, and 'Der Waffenschmidt * (1846) 
at Vienna, where he was for a short time Capell- 
meietor at the theatre ' an der Wien.' In 1849 
ihe suocesB of his ' Rdandsknappen ' at Leipzig, 
agun procured him the offer of the Gapellmeister- 
ship, but to his disappointment the negotiations 
fdl through, and Rietz was appointed. His life 
was now a hard one ; he travelled from place to 
place with his numerous family, earning a pre- 
carious existence now as an actor, now by con- 
ducting his own operas ; enduring at the same 
time the mortification of having his later operas 
rejected by all the more important theatres. In 
1850 he obtained the conductorship at the Fried- 
rich-Wilhdmstadt theatre in Berlin, where he 
had only farces and vaudevilles to direct ; but he 
was completely worn out, and died on the 21st of 
Jan. 1852. The public discovered its neglect 
too late, honoured his remains with a solemn 
funeral procession, and raised a subscription 
which placed his fiunily above want. He left an 
opern, 'Regina,' several overtures, incidental 
muaio for various plays, Lieder, and part songs, 
an unpublished. His operas are still stock-pieces 
at Uie comic theatres in Germany, and * Undine' 
18 frequently performed, although romantic sub- 
jects were not his forte. * Czaar und Zimmermann * 
was produced as ' Peter the Shipwright,' at the 
Gaiety theatre, London, as lately as April 17, 

As a composer Lortzing is remarkable for 
natundnesa. Instead of atraining after a deptli 
and subtlety beyond his powera, he wisely aima 
at expresaing natural and healthy aentimenta by 
^ooKDB of graceful and pleaaing music, and his 
keen sense of humour enables him to give an 
interest to commonplace situations. He was 
never able to free himself entirely from a alight 
Jfflaateurishness in the technical part of his work, 
but his ctHnpoeitions, though not belonging to the 
jughest branch of art, are good of their kind, and 
in spite of an occasional tendency to farcical ex- 
aggeration, are sound and artistic music [A. M.] 

I/)Tn, Aktonio, eminent compoeer, son of 
Matteo Lotti, a Venetian, CapeUmeiater to the 
then Catholic Court of ' Hanover ; bom probably 
m 1667, and posaiblv in Venice, ainoe he atylea 
himself • Veneto' on the title-page of hia book of 
'^*»<irigal» (1705)* and hia brother Pranoeaco 

tllt^'7*'* *»w k!ndne« of Dr. Kntner af Haoorer I Am able to m 
^l**, *J™"*«»t» •• to music or masieiuu at the Court of Uanover 
i^S!^H ^w**""*''^ n» DOW to be found there. The Be^tetor of the 
™«« Church u HMover eontalni. under Nor. 6, 187S. an entrj of 
li«i 7°l?' HIcronynma Domlnlou*. ton of Matthlu de Lottl* and 
Kt^if r^****^"*^ and under Nor. 9. 1873. of that of a daughter of 
Sitt c^^**- '^^ Kegtoier was befuu in May 1671, lo that It does 
'^••»r back tnoo^ for our Furpowj. [U.J 



Lom. 



i«r* 



was lawyer to tha Proeuratoti, a poet tenable 
only by a native. At any rate, hia early years 
were passed in Venice, and before he was i6 he 
produced an opera, * II Giustino,* to words by a 
nobleman, Nicolo Beregani. His maater was Le- 
grenzi, then Maestro dioapella to the Doge. Lotti 
entered the Doge's chi^l as a boy ; in 1687 jouied 
the 'Confraternity musicale di Santa Oedlia'; 
waa appointed. May 30, 1689, 'cantore di contra 
alto,' with a aalary of 100 ducata ; and Aug. 6, 
1690, became depu^ oiganiat, with an addition 
of 30 ducata. On May 3 1 , 1 69a, tha Proouratori 
of St. Markka unanimously elected him organist 
in place of PoUarolo, appointed vice maestro di 
oi^lla. As second organist he composed a book 
of Masses, for which he received 100 ducats July 
3 3, 1 698. On Aug. 1 7, 1 704, he suooeeded Spada 
as first organist, and retained the post forty years, 
receiving i>ermiasion in 1733 to employ as substi- 
tute his pupil Saratelli, who eventually suooeeded 
him. In 1 733 the Maeatro di capella, Antonio 
Biffi, died, and an eager competition for the vacant 
post enaued. Lotti'a chief rivala were Pollarolo. 
and Porpora, and at the firat election, March 8, 
1 733 (the dates throughout are frt)m State docu- 
mente), he obtained 6 votea out of 1 3. A majority 
being necesaary, the matter remained in auspense, 
and meantime Lotti waa authoriaed to call him- 
aelf Maeatro di oapeUa. Porpora retired before 
the aeoond election (April 3, 1736), but hia place 
was taken by a aoaroely lesa formidable compe- 
titor, Giovanni Porta. Lotti however reoeived 9 
votes, and thus obtained the post, with its salary 
of 400 ducats and an official residence. In the 
interim he composed his celebrated 'Miserere,' 
which supoaeded that of his master Legrenzi, and 
has been performed in St. Mark's on Maundy 
Thursday ever since. This was followed by a 
number of masses, hynms, and psalms, with organ 
accompaniment only, although his predeoessora 
had employed the orchestra. He also composed 1 7 
operas (for list see Fdtis), produced with success 
between the years 1693 and 1 71 7, at the theatres 
of S. Angelo, S. Cassiano, S. Giovann' Oriaoatomo, 
and SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Some of theae having 
attracted the attention of the Grown Prince of 
Saxony during hia stay in Venice (1713), he 
engaged Lotti to viait Dreaden, with a company 
of aingera, including Boachi and Peraonelli, both 
members of the chapel, and hia own wife, a 
Bologneae ainger named Santa Stella. The joint 
aahury of husband and wife was fixed at 3,100 
'doppii' (about £1600). The party set out 
on September 5, 17 17, having obtained special 
leave of absence from the Procuratori of St. 
Mark's — ' per fitrvi un opera.* In Dresden Lotti 
composed * Giove ed Argo,' ' Ascanio. owero gl' 
odi deluai del Sangue,' and *Teofane' with Pal- 
lavicini; intermezzi, and various other pieces^ 
including church works, among which may be 
specified the 8^>art 'Crucifixus* occurring in a 
' Gredo ' for 5 voices and instruments. The Pro- 
curatori ffave him one extension of leave, but 
in 1719 he was compelled to return or vacate 
his post; and accordingly le^ Dresden in Octo- 
ber in a travelling-caniage, which he ever after 



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TBS- 



LOTTL^ 



retuned tm a memorial of hit viBfi, and finally 
bequeathed to his wife. After his return he com- 
posed entirely for the church and chamber. 
Loiti died of a long and painful dropsy on Jan. 
Sf 1740, and was buried in the church of S. 
Geminiano, where his widow (who .died 1759 and 
was buried with him) erected a monument to his 
memory. It was destroyed with the church in 
1815. 

Besides the compositions already mentioned 
he wrote for Vienna an opera, 'Constantino/ 
overture by Fux (1716), and two oratorios, *I1 
Voto crudde ' ( 1 7 1 a), and * L* Umiltii ooronata * 
(17 1 4); for Venice, the oratorios 'Gioa, R^ di 
Giuda,' * Giuditta ' (printed by Poletti), and the 
celebrated madrigal *Spirto di 'Dio* for the 
Doge's espousal of the Adriatic, performed on 
the Buoent<»ro in 1736— a very effective com- 
position. His book of Madrigals (1705) dedi- 
cated to the Emperor Joseph I., contains the one 
in 5 parts, ' In una siepe ombrosa,' which Bonon- 
cim claimed in London as his own composition, 
and which led to his disgrace (see p. 650 a, note). 
Another is given as a model by Padre Martini in 
his 'Esemplare di contrappunto.* Nevertheless 
they were severely handled at the time in a 
' Lettera famigliare d'un aocademico filarmonico/ 
circulated in MS. anonymously, but attributed on 
!Fontana*s authority to Marcello, who had been 
a pupil of Lotti's. Many of his compositions are 
still m the King of Saxony's musical library, and 
Breitkopf & Hartel once possessed several of his 
MSS., as did also Dr. Bumey. 

Lotti*s rank among musicians is a high one, 
^m the fact that though the last representative 
of the old severe school, he used modern har- 
monies with freedom and grace. The expression 
and variety of his music struck even his con- 
temporaries, especially Hasse, when he was at 
Vexdce in 1727. Bumev, who heard his church 
music sung in Venice m 1770 (Tour, ii. 152) 
credits him with * grace and pathos,' and cha»o- 
terisee his choral music as both solenm and 
touching, and so capable of expression, though 
written in the old contrapuntal style, as to have 
affected him even to tears. Of his cantatas he 
says that they contain recitatives full of feeling 
(Hist. iv. 534). As a specimen of his writing for a 
single voice we may cite the fiEtvourite song ' Pur 
dioesti.* He was so afraid of overloading the 
voices that he never used orchestral accompani- 
ments in church music. There are wind instru- 
ments as well as the four strings in his Dresden 
operas, but not in those produo«i in Venice. 

Besides Saratelli and Maroello, Alberti, Baa- 
lani, Gasparini, and Galuppi were among his 
pupils. A motet of Lotti's, 'Blessed be Uiou,' and 
a madrigal, *A11 hail Britannia.' both for 4 voices, 
are given in Mr. Hullah's Part Music (ist ed.), 
and a fine Credo in C, also for 4 voices, in his 
Vocal Scores and Part Music (2nd ed.). Proske 
has a Mass of his (& 4) in Musica Divina, vol. i., 
and Bochlitc a Cruoitixus, k 6, and another k 8, 
and a Qui tdlis, It 4, in his Saromlung. There is 



1 A If 8. of thb ^ In th« Ubnjj of the Stcrod 
»o.l»W. " 



Sodetr. 



LOUIS^ FERDINAND. 

als6 a Eyrie in theAuswahl vorz. Musikwerto 
(Trautwein). Four Masses and a Requiem are in, 
Ltlck's Sammlupg, and various other pieces in ^e 
collections of SohleBinger, Moskowa, etc. [F.G.] 

LOTTINI, Antonio, the principal Italian 
basso in London in 1737 and 8. He sustained 
that part in Handel's ' Faramondo' in 1737, in 
his 'Serse,' and in the 'Conquista del V^o 
d'oro'ini738. [J.M.] 

LOUIS FERDINAND, Princb.— accurately 
Friedrich Christian Ludwig, — bom Nov. 18, 
1772, killed at the battle of Saalfeld, Oct. 13, 
1806, was the son of Prince August Ferdinand 
of Prussia, and therefore nephew of Frederick 
the Great and of Prince Henry (the patron of 
J. P. Salomon, and cousin of Firederick William 
II), the cello-player for whom Beethoven wrote 
his op. 5. His sister I»uise married Prince 
Radziwill, who composed the Faust music and to 
whom Beethoven dedicated the Overture op. 115. 
Louis Ferdinand thus belonged to a musical as 
well as a royal family, and he appears to haver 
been its brightest ornament on the score of natural 
gifts — his uncle the Great Frederick excepted— 
even down to our own time ; in music undoubtedly 
BO. He was kindly and generous in the highest 
degree, and free from all pride of rank ; energetic 
and enterprising, and as a soldier bold to teme- 
rity. In conversation he was brilliant^ in social 
intercourse delightful. On the point of morals 
his reputation was not good ; but one who knew 
him well, while admitting that, being prevented 
by his rank from making a marriage of affection, 
' he chose female friends with whom he lived in 
the most intimate relations,' asserts positively 
that 'he never seduced an innocent girl, or de- 
stroyed the peace of a happy marriage.' This, 
in tiie time of Frederick William II, was high 
praise. He was passionately fond of his two 
illegitimate children, and left them to the care 
of his sister. Princess Radziwill. That he very 
early entered the army was a matter of course, 
for no other career was open to a Prussian 
prince ; but that, amid all tiie distractions of a 
military life, no small part of which (i 792-1806) 
was spent in hard service, he shoidd have be- 
come a sound practical musician and composer 
proves his energy and perseverance no less than 
his talent ; but music was his passion, and in gar* 
risen or camp he had musicians with him and 
kept up his practice. He preferred English 
pianofortes, of which he is said to have purchased 
no less than thirteen. 

We find no account of his masters and early 
studies, nor any but vague notices of his rapid 
progress, until 1793. He was then with his 
regiment at Frankfort, and is reported to have 
aided a poor musician not only with his pone, but 
by a very fine performance of a sonata in a 
concert. Three years later, in 1796, Beethoven, 
then in Berlin, formed that opinion of his playing 
which he afterwards expressed to Ries (Biog, 
Not. p. 1 10), that> though the playing of Himmel — 
then among the most renowned of pianists— was 
elegant and pleasing, it was not to be compared 
to that of the Prinee. Ries alio (lb.) recordi 



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LOUIS ^PERDINAND, 

Saethoven's oomplimeni to him — ihat he' did not 
play at all like a king or a prince, but like a 
thorough wdid pianist. [See the article on Ddssbk 
£or an account of his relations with that great 
musician.] In 1804 he made a journey to Italy. 
In Bohemia he visited Prince Lobkowitz at his seat, 
Eaudnitz. We see no sufSdent reason to doubt 
the truth of an anecdote the scene of which lay 
then and there. Lobkowitz had purchased from 
Beethoven the recently composed Heroic Sym- 
phony, and had had it performed in his palace 
at Vienna. He consulted with Wranitzky, his 
Kapellmeister, as to a programme for the enter- 
taimnent of his guest. Wranitzky proposed the 
new symphony. Louis Ferdinand listened with 
the utmost interest, and at the close of the per- 
formance requested a repetition, which was of 
toorse granted. After supper, having to depart 
early the next morning, he besought the favour 
of a third performance, which was also granted. 

It was nnder the fresh impression of this 
music that Louis Ferdinand renewed his ac- 
quaintanoe with Beethoven. We have no par- 
ticnlars of the meeting. Ries (Biog. Not. p. 1 1 ) only 
relates, that an old ^ Countess, at the supper afW 
a musical entertainment, excluded Beethoven 
from the table set for the Prince and the nobility, 
at which the composer left the house in a rage. 
Some days later Louis Ferdinand gave a dinner, 
and the .Countess and Beethoven being among 
the guests, had their places next the Prince on 
either hand, a mark of distinction of which the 
composer always spoke with pleasure. A plea- 
sant token of their intercourse survives in the 
dedication to the Prince of the P. F. Concerto in 
C minor, which was first played in July 1804, 
and published in November. 

In the autumn of the next year (1805), the 
Prince being at Magdeburg on occasion of the 
militaiy manoeuvres, Spohr was invited to join 
them. 'I led,' says Spohr (Selbstbiog.), 'a 
strange, wild, stirring life, which for a short time 
thoroug^y suited my youthful tastes. Dussek 
and I were often dragged from our beds at six 
in the morning and cmled in dressing-gown and 
filippors to the Prinoe*s reception room, where he, 
often in shirt and drawers (owing to the extreme 
heat), was already at the pianoforte. The study 
and rehearsal of the music selected for thie 
evening often continued so long, that the hall 
was filled with ofiicers in stars and orders, 
with which the costume of the musicians con- 
trasted strangely enough. The Prince however 
never left off until eveiything had been studied to 
his satisfootion.' Louis Fer£nand's compositions, 
like his playing, were distinguished for boldness, 
splendour, and deep feeling; several of those 
which are in print were composed before the 
intercourse with Dussek had ripened his taste, 
and made him more fully master of his ideas. 
These he would ^adly have suppressed. The 
tHanoforte Quartet in F minor is considered to 
be his most perfect wcark. 

Ledebor's Hst of the published compositions 
(made 1861) is as follows : — 

«< JM «» OsaateH Tlun. M bu M«ulM«d--«tM dtod lose betira* 



LOUKB. 



l«t 



Op. 1. ^Intet for P.F. ud 
Btriogf , minor. 

2. Trio for P.F.. YioIIn. ud 
Cello. A b. 

& Do., do.. Eb. 

4. Andante, do^ Bb. 

0. Quartet for P. F.. Violin, 
Viola, and Oello.Eb. 

(L Do., do.. F minor. 

7. Fugue, 4 folx. for P.F. 
aolo. 

8. Moctumo for P.F., Flute, 
Viollu.OeUoobli8atl, and 
8 Horns ad Ub.. F. 



Opk 9. Hondo for P.F.. 2 Violins. 

Flute. S Clarinets, 2 

Boms, Viola, and Cellar 

B. 
» 10. Trio for P.F.. VloUn. and 

CeUo. Sb.. 
n IL LarKhett(lLvarlaUon^P.F.. 

with Violio. Viola, and 

Oello. obllff. 
M 12. Octet for P.F„ Clarinet. 8 

Horns. 2 Violins. 2 Cello*. 
., IS. Hondo for P.F. 
Also a 2nd Quintet for P.F. and 

Strliaffs. 

[A.W.T.] 

LOUUfi, Etiknitb, prot^g^ of Mile, de Guise, 
and music -master, in the second half of the 17 th 
century, is only known as the author of * Ele- 
ments ou Principes de Musique' (Paris 1696), 
at the close of which is an engraving and de* 
scription of his * Chronometre.* Louli^ was the 
first to attempt to indicate the exact tempo of 
a piece of music by means of an instrument 
beating the time. The one he invented took the 
minute as the unit, and went up to 7 a degree^ 
of rapidity ; but being six feet in height was too 
cumbrous for general use. Nevertheless tp 
LouUe belongs the merit of the idea which mor^ 
than a century later was carried into practice by 
Ma£LZEL. [G.C] 

LOURE. This word, whether derived from 
the Latin lura, a bag or purse, or the Danish 
luur, a shepherd's flute, or merely an alteration 
of the Old ifVench word outre with the article 
prefixed, Coutre — signified originally a kind of 
Dagpipe, conunon in many parts of France, but 
especially in Normandy. The peasants of Lower 
Normandy still call the stomach ' la loure,* just 
as those of Normandy and Poitou call an ' outre * 
or leathern wine-bottie, ' une v^ze.' Again, the 
Old French words * chfevre,* *ohevrie,* •chevrette,' 
were derived from cabreta in dog-latin, and 
' gogue* meant an inflated bag or bladder. Those 
circumstances seem to point to the conclusion 
that the names of all these instruments, 'ch^vre,' 
' chevrette,* * gogue,' * loure,* * vfeze,' 'saocomuse,* 
etc., refer to the wind-bag, ordinarily made of 
goat-skin; an argument strengthened by the 
English 'bagpipe ' and the Grerman 'Sackpfeife/ 
' Balgpfeife, ' Dudelsack,' etc. 

From its primary signification — a kind of bag* 
pipe inflated from the mouth — the word ' loure * 
came to mean an old dance, in slower rhythm 
than the gigue, generally in 6-4 time. As this 
was danced to the nasal tones of the * loure,* 
the term 'lour^* was gradually applied to any 
passage meant to be played in the style of the 
old bagpipe airs. Thus * lourer ' is to play legato 
with a slight emphasis on the first note of each 
group. The ' lour^ * style is chiefly met with in 
pastoral, rustic, and mountaineer music. 

As an' example we give the first strain of a 
Loure from Schubert's Die Tanzmusik. 




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170 



LOVATTIKI. 



LOVATTINI, GiovANJO, an Italian singer, 
celebrated for the most beautiful of tenor yoioes 
and for hia excellent acting. He sang in London 
(1767) in Piccinni'g ' Buona Figliuola,* very 
strongly cast with La Guadagni and Morigi 
Lo^attini continued to sing here fur ■evenJ 
veara, until the end of 1 774, according to Lord 
Mount-Edgcumbe ; but the present writer has 
only traced him as late as 1773, when he was 
singing in * La Schiava* of Picoinni and Gug- 
lielmi 8 * Virtuosa.' We have no record of his 
later career ; but in 1834 Lord Mount-Edgcumbe 
saw, ' in the pavement of a church at Bologna, a 
small square, inscribed with the three words, 
Qui giace Lovattini,* [J.M.] 

LOVE'S TRIUMPH. An opm» in 3 acts; 
words by J. R. Planch^, after * Le Portrait vivant,* 
music by W. Vincent Wallace. Produced at the 
Royal English Opera, Covent Garden, C^yne and 
Harrison) Nov. 3, 1862. [G.] 

LOWE, Edward, was a native of Salisbury and 
a chorister in the cathedral there under John 
Holmes, the organist. In 1630 he succeeded 
Dr. William Stonard as organist of Christ Church 
Cathedral, Oxford. In 1660 he was appointed 
one of the oiganists of the Chapel RoyaL In 
1661 he published at Oxford * A Short Direction 
for the performance of Cathedrall Service, pub- 
lished for the information of such as are ignorant 
of it and shall be called upon to officiate in 
Cathedral or Collegiate Churches where it hath 
formerly been in use, 'containing the notation of the 
Preces, Responses, Litany, etc., for ordinary days, 
and, under the title of ' Extraordinary Rehouses 
upon Feeti vails/ a version of Tallis's Responses and 
Litany, and also * Veni Creator,* harmonised for 4 
voices. In 1 663, on the resignation of Dr. Wilson, 
he was appointed Professor of Music at Oxford, 
having been deputy for some time before. In 166^ 
he published 'A Review' of his * Short Direction,* 
adapted to the then newly-revised Lituigy, and 
including also several chants and John Parsons*s 
Burial Service. This edition was eprinted by Dr. 
Rimbault in 1843, and by Dr. Jebb in his 'Choral 
Responses* in 1857. Low composed several an- 
thems, some of which are in the Tud way collection 
and at Ely Cathedral. He died at Oxford, July 1 1, 
1682, and was buried in the Divinity Chapel on 
the north side of the cathedral. [W. H. H.] 

LOWE, Thomas, favourite tenor singer, made 
his first appearance on any stage at Drury Lane, 
Sept. II, 1740, as Sir John Loverule in *The 
Devil to pay ' ; Oct. 1 7 he performed Macheath, 
and Dec. 30 had the distinction of being the 
original singer of Ame*6 beautiful songs, * Under 
the greenwood tree * and * Blow, blow, Uiou winter 
wind * in * As You Like It.' He was the original 
singer of the following parts in Handel's ora- 
torios ; — Priest of Dagon and Israelitish Man in 
* Samson,* 1 743 ; First Elder in * Susanna,* 1 743 ; 
Joshua, 1746; Zadok in 'Solomon,' 1749; ^^^ 
Septimius in 'Theodora,* 1750. In 1745 <^^ 
several subsequent years he sang at Vauxhall 
Gardens, and in 1 763 beeame lessee and manager 
of Mfjylebone Gardens, and continued so untU 



LUCCA. 

1 768, when an unsuoceOTfuI seasoii compelled him 
in Feb. 1769 to assign his interest in the place 
to trustees for the benefit of his creditors. His 
powers beginning to fiul he was compelled to 
accept engagements at f1nch*8 Grotto Garden, 
South wark, and similar places. In 1784 he was 
engaged at Sadlers* Wells. Lowe is said to have 
possessed a finer voice than Beard, but to have 
been inferior as musician and singer. [ W. H. H.] 
LUCAS, Charles, bom at Salisbury, July 38, 
1808, was a chorister in the cathedral under 
Arthur Thomas Corfe from 181 5 to 1823, when 
he became a pupil of the Royal Academy of 
Music, and studied the violoncello under Lindley, 
and harmony and composition under Lord and 
Dr. Crotch. He remained there for 7 years. In 
1830 he became a member of Queen Adelaide*s 
private band, and composer and arranger of music 
ibr it, and soon afterwards music preceptor to 
Prince George (now Duke) of Cambridge and the 
Princes of Saxe Weimar. In 1832 he succeeded 
Cipriani Potter as conductor at the Royal Academy 
of Music. He also became a member of the 
opera and other orchestras as a violoncellist. In 
1839 ^^ '^^ appointed organist of Hanover 
Chapel, Regent Street. He was for some time 
conductor of the Choral Harmonists' Society. 
On the retirement of Lindley he succeeded him. 
as principal violoncello at the opera, the pro- 
vincial festivals, etc. From 1850 to June 30, 
1865, he was a member of the music- publishing 
firm of Addison^ Hollier, & Lucas. In 1859 
he was appointed successor to Potter as Principai 
of the Royal Academy of Music, which office he 
held until July 1866, when ill health compelled 
him to relinquish it. His compositions include 
'The Regicide,' opera, 3 symphonies, strinff' 
quartets, anthems, songs, etc. He edited ' Esther^ 
for the Handel Society. He died March 30, 
1869. His son, Stanlbt Lucas, bom 1834, was 
Secretary to Leslie's Choir from its formatioQ to 
Oct. 1855 ; has been Secretary to the Royal 
Society of Musicians since 1861, and to the Phil- 
harmonic Society since 1866, and is otherwise 
much connected with music in London. [W.H.H.] 

LUCCA. In 1640 an Academy, that of the 
*Aoceei,' was founded at Lucca entirely for 
dramatic musical representation. [CM. P.] 

LUCCA, Pauliks, one of the most brilliant 
operatic artists of a brilliant epoch, is a native of 
Vienna. Her high musical gifts showed them- 
selves early, when, a mere child, she sang in the 
choir of the Karlskirche, in 1856. .One Sunday 
the principal singer was missing, and the yoong 
chorister put forward to supply her place in the 
solo of a mass of Mozart's, revealed a beauty of 
voice and charm of style that startled all present. 
She studied under Uschmann and Lewy, and 
her parents being in straitened circumstances, 
entered the chorus of the Opera at Vienna, 
which she quitted in 1 859 to come out at OlmQts. 
Just before leaving, it fell to her to lead the 
Bridesmaids' Chorus in the Freischtttx, her per- 
formance creatine a sensation that made Vienna 
oager to retain her ; but it was too late. Oa 

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LUCCA. 

Sept. 4, 1859, she made her d^but at Olmiitz as 
Elvira in * Ernani/ and there became a &vourite 
at once. lo March 1 860 she appeared at Prague 
as Valentine in ' The Huguenots,' and as Norma. 
The fame of a young singer of rare gifts, includ- 
ing the rarest of all, original genius, reached 
Meyerbeer in Berlin, then vainly seeking an 
artist to whom he could entrust the unconven* 
tional rdle of Selika in his yet unpublished 
*Africaine.' At his instigation Mile. Lucca was 
engaged for Berlin, where she first appeared in 
April 1 86 1, and soon roused an enthusiasm rarely 
equalled by any former singer. She studied the 
r6le of Selika and others under' Meyerbeer's per- 
sonal supervision. At Berlin she was engaged 
as Court singer for life ; and on July 18, 1863, 
made her first appearance in this country, at 
Covent Garden, in the part of Valentine, creating 
an extraordinary impression, which was further 
enhanced by her performance of Margherita, in 
'Faast>' during her second fleeting visit to our 
shores the following year. Li July 1865 the 
Africaine was produced at Covent Garden, and 
MUe. Lucca*8 impersonation of Selika must be 
ranked among the very highest achievements 
in the lyrical drama. She reappeared in London 
every season (excepting 69) up to 1873 ; and 
sang throiighout Germany with triumphant 
BUGoees, and at St. Petersburg, where she was 
received with the wildest enthusiasm. Her voice, 
a full soprano, with « compass of 2} octaves 
extending easily to C in alt, and sympathetic 
throughout, seemed capable of taking every gcade 
of expression ; and to her rare lyrical endowments 
she united one still rarer — a genius for represen- 
tation. In London, besides the parts specified 
above, she was heard mostly in Zerlina (Fca 
DiavoJo), Leonora (Favorita), and Cherubino; but 
Berim knew better the extent of a repertoire said 
to include over 56 rdles. Auber was so delighted 
with her singing of his music, that he presented 
her with the pen with which ' Fra Biavolo ' was 
written, in token of his admiration. Meyerbeer 
pronounced her a very David Garrick, and no 
wonder. To each impersonation she imparted a 
specifio individuality, presenting characters as 
directly opposed as Cherubino and Selika, 
Hal^vy*8 Juive and Nicolai's Merry Wife of 
Windsor, Wagner's £lsa, and Angela in the 
'Domino Noir,* with the same truth, natural ease, 
sod vivid originality ; whilst to colourless rdles, 
such as Agata in the FreischUts, she gave a 
distinct personality and charm. In 1873 she 
levered her connection with Berlin, and went to 
America, where she remained two years, on an 
operatic tour through the States. She returned 
to Europe in 1874, ^^ ^ang at all the chief cities 
of Germany, except Berlin. At Vienna, where 
she now resides, she has remained one of the 
chief attractions of each season. Besides starring 
c'&gAgements in Germany, she appeared in Brus- 
•bIs 1876. St. Petersburg and Moscow 1877, and 
Madrid 1878. At Vienna she has recently added 
^onna Anna, Carmen, and Madeleine in *Le 
Postilion,* to her list of successful parts. In 
1865 ^ married Baron Rahder. [B. T.] 




L©BECK. 

LUCCHESINA, Maria A: 
siNi, DBTTA LA, an Italian m< 
sang in London, 1737-39. In 
she played y^ofimonda in Handel' 
in the following year, beside other 
Arsamene, a male character, in * Serse' 
sang the music of David in 'Saul' on its HTsT/ 
production, Jan. 16, 1 7 39 . [J. M!j ** ' 

LUCIA DI LAMMERMOOR. Opera in 3 
acts; libretto by Cammarano, music by Doni- 
sBetti. Produced at Naples in 1835; in Paris, in 
4 acts (words by A. Royer and Waez't, at the 
Theatre de la Renaissance, Aug. 10, 1839, ^^^ 
the Acad^mie-royale Feb. 20, 1846; in London, 
at Her Majesty's, April 5, 1 838 ; in English, at 
Princess's theatre, Jan. 19, 1843. [G.] 

LUCID SILLA. A Dramma per musica, in 
3 acts; libretto by G. da Camera, music by 
Mozart. Produced at Milan Dec. 26, 1772— the 
last which he wrote for Italy, [G.] 

LUCREZIA BORGIA. Opera in 3 acts; 
libretto adapted by Roman! firom Victor Hugo's 
drama, music by Donizetti. Produced at La S(»tla, 
Milan, Spring, 1834; given at Th^tre Italien, 
Paris, Oct. 37, 1840. Victor Hpgo then stopped 
the performance, and the words were re* written 
under the title of ' La Rinegata.' In England it 
was produced (in 2 acts) at Her Majesty's theatre 
June 6, 1 839, for the d^ut of Mario ; in English, 
at Princess's theatre, Dec. 30, 1843. [G.] 

LtJBECK, Charles H., conductor and vio- 
linist, bom Feb. 11, 1799, at Alssen, near Dus- 
seldorf ; held the post of Kapellmeister at the 
Hague until his death, Feb. 11,1 866. His eldest 
son, Ebnst Heuwioh, a very distinguished pianist, 
was bom 1829, and first appeared in public at 
1 2 years of age, when he played Beethoven's , 
Eb Concerto. He made a tour to the United 
States, Mexico and Peru, which lasted from 1S49 
to 1 85 2. On his retum he was made Court pianist 
at the Hague. In 1855 he moved to Paris, 
where he principally resided untU driven from 
the city by the disturbances of the Conuuune, 
which gave a shock to his brain from which it 
never recovered. He became at length hopelessly 
insane, and died Sept. 17, 1876. He wrote only 
for piano. Among his compositions are the fol- 
lowing: — Berceuse in Ab, op. 13; Tarentelle; 
Polonaise, op. 14; 'Trilby the l^rite, IWv^rie 
caracteristique.' The two former wore chosen, 
by him for performance at the Philharmonic 
Concert May 7, i860, when he also played' 
Mendelssohns Concerto in G minor. In the 
same year he first appeared at the Musical Union. 
His playing was distinguished for brilliancy and 
technique. Berlioz says of him : ' Son talent est 
tout k fait extraordinaire, non seukment par nn 
m^canisme prodig^eux, mais par on style musical 
exoellent et irreprochable. Cost la verve unie k la 
raison, la force unie k la souplesse ; c'est brillant, 
p^ndtrant, et dlastique conome une lame d'^p^e.' 

His brother, Louis, bom 1832 at the Hague, 
was for some years teacher of the violoncello 
at the Leipzig Conservatorium, until about 1872, 
when h^ moved to Frankfort. [J . A. F. M.j 

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m 



LUISA MILtEB. 



LUtSA MILLER. Opera in 4 acts ; libretto 
(from Schiller's ' Cabale und Liebe*) by Camar- 
rano, muBic by Verdi. Produced at Naples 
December, 1849. Given in French at the Grand 
Opera, Paris, as * Louise Miller,' Feb. a, 1853 ; 
in English, at Sadlers* WeUs, June 3, and in 
Italian, at Her Majesty's, June 8, 1858 — both as 
•Luisa Miller.' [G.] 

LULLI, or LULLY, Jean Baptiste, the first 
French composer of a series of operas, son of Lo- 
renzo de' Lulli, a gentleman of Florence, and Gata- 
rina del Serta, was bom at or very near Florence 
in 1633, though the precise date is unknown, the 
certificate of his baptism not having been dis- 
covered. An old Franciscan monk gave the gifted 
but mischievous child some elementary instruc- 
tion, and taught him the guitar and the rudiments 
of music. The Chevalier de Guise took him to 
France, and having entered the service of Mile, de 
Montpensier — *Ia Grande Mademoiselle' — in 
the kitchen, Lully employed his leisure in learn- 
ing the songs of the day and playing them upon 
his violin. As his talent becsmae known he was 
promoted from the kitchen to the Princess's 
band, where hereon distanced the other violin* 
ists. Mademoiselle, having discovered that he 
had composed the air of a satirical song at her 
expense, promptly dismissed him ; but his name 
was sufficient to procure him a place in the 
King's band. Here some airs of his composition 
80 pleased Louis XIV that he established on 
purpose for him a new band, called 'les petits 
violons,* to distinguish it from the large band of 
24 violins. His new post enabled him to perfect 
himself as a solo-player, and gave him valuable 
practice as a conductor and composer far the 
orchestra. Baptiste, as he was then called, had 
common sense as well as ambition, and soon 
perceived that without deeper study he oould 
not make full use of his talents. To remedy his 
defective education he took lessons on the cla* 
^jrecin and in composition from the orgamists 
M^tru, Gigault, and Boberdel ; and at the same 
time lost no opportunity of ingratiating himself 
with men of rank, a useful process for which he 
had a special gift. He was soon chosen to com- 
pose the music for the court ballets, in which 
Louis XIV himself danced, and after the success 
of * Alcidiane' (1658), words by Benscrade, was 
commissioned to write the divertissements for 
* Sersfe,' an Italian opera by Cavalli, performed 
at the Louvre (Nov. 22, 1660) in honour of the 
King's recent marriage with Marie Th^r^se of 
Austria (June 9 previous), and, a year and a 
half later, the ballets for 'Ercole amante,' an- 
other opera by Cavalli, performed at the opening 
of the magnificent 'Salle de spectacles' at the 
Tuilleries (Feb. 7, 1662). It was by studying 
the works of this Venetian composer, and ob- 
serving his method, that Lully laid the founda- 
tion of his own individual style. In composing 
the divertissements for ' Le Manage forc^,' * Pour- 
oeaugnac,' and * Le Bourgeois G«ntilhomme,' he 
made good use of the feeling for rhythm which 
he had imbibed from CavaUi, and also endea- 
f oured to make his music express the life and 



LtJLLL 

variety of Molibre's situations uid characters. 
The exquisitely comic scene of the polygamy 
in 'M. de Pourceaugnac ' is in itself sufficient 
evidence of the point to which he had attained, 
and of the glorious friture which awaited him. 

From 1658 to 1671 — the year in which Moli^re 
produced his tragedy-ballet * Psyche * — Lully com^ 
posed no less than 30 ballets, all unpublished.^ 
These slight compositions, in which Lully took 
part with considerable success as dancer and 
comic actor, confirmed him in the favour of Louis 
XIV, who successively appointed him composer 
of his instrumental music, 'surintendant' of his 
chamber music, and in 1662 'maltre de musique' 
to the royal family. But neither these lucrative 
posts nor his constantly increasing reputation 
were sufficient to appease his insatiable ambition. 
With all his genius he posseg&ed neither honour 
nor morals, and would resort to any base ex- 
pedient to rid himself of a troublesome rival. 
His envy had been roused by the privilege con- 
ceded to the Abb^ Perrin (June 28, 1669) of 
creating an 'Academic de Musique,' and was 
still further excited by the success of Cambert'a 
operas 'Pomone,' and 'Les Peines et les Plaisirs 
de r Amour* (1671). With the astuteness of a 
courtier Lully took advantage of the squabbled 
of the numerous associ^-directeurs of the opera, 
and with the aid of Mme. de Montespan, pro- 
cured the transference of Perrin's patent to him- 
self (March 1671). Once master of a theatre, 
the man whom honest Boileau branded as a 
' coeur bas,' a * coquin t^ndbreux,' and a ' bouffon 
odieux,' proved his right to a phice in the first 
rank among artists, though as a man he could 
claim neither sympathy nor respect. In Hie 
poet QuinauH he was fortunate enough to dis- 
cover a coUdborateur of extraordinary merits and 
in conjunction witii him Lully in the space of 14 
years composed 20 operas or divertissements, of 
which the following is a list : — 

U Le Triomphe de rAmoor. 

BaUeW April 19. 1681. 
18. 7er*^ 6 acts. April 17. 16fi8. 
IS. Fha^n. 6actk April 27. 168S. 
14. Atnadk de Gaule. 6 acta. Jan. 

in. BoUnd. 5 acts. Feb. 8. 168& 
!«. It^lle tur la Pab. DlTeitlsBe- 
ment, 16%. 

17. L'Egloffue de Venainei. DI> 
vertlssement. 16BBw 

18. Le Temple de la Faiz. BaUef. 
Sept. 12. 1<8& 

19. Annlde et Renand. S acts. 
Feb. 15. 16M. 

20. Ads et Galat^. 8 acta. Sept. 

n.iwa. 

The variety of subjects in this list is sur- 
prising, but Lully was perfectly at home with all, 
passing easily firom lively and humorous divei^ 
tissements to scenes of heroism and pathos, firom 
picturesque and dramatic music to downright 
comedy, and treating all styles with equal power. 
He revolutionised the ballets de la oour, re- 
placing the slow and stately airs by lively alle- 
gros, as rapid as the pirouettes of the danseusee 

1 Fhnidor's predoos MS. coUecttoo in the library of the Paris Coa> 
serratolre de Mudque oonUliis the music of sereral of these dWcr> 
tlsMments. Oeller published that of *Le Mariage foni.' for P.F.. 
in 18B7; and that of 'Le Bourgeoa GeatUhomme ' bas reoeDtly bee^ 
, arranged fcr F.F. Qm)» 



1. Les FMes de I'Amour et de 

Baocbufr(pa9tloclo). 8 acta. 
NOV.1M67S. 

2. Cadmus et Hermlone. 6 acta. 

Feb, 1673. 

3. Alceste. acta. Jan. 2. 1674. 

4. Th^e. 6 acta. Jan. 11, 1675. 
6. Le CamavaL Masquerade 

(pasticcio). Oct. 17, 1675. 

6. Aiju 6 acts. Jan. 10. 1676. 

7. M*. 5 acts. Jan. 6, VfTI. 

8. Piych^. 5 acts. April9,lffn. 
t. Betl^rophon. S acts. Jan. 31, 

1679. 

10. Proserpine. 6 acta. Not. 19, 
1090. 



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JCULLn 

\rbMk he introdneed on the stage; to thd grdat 
delight of the spectaton. For the 'recitativo 
aeooo* of the Italians he substituted accompanied 
recitative, and in this veiy important part of 
French opera scrupulously oonfonued to the rules 
of prosody, and left modeU of correct and striking 
declamation. On the other hand, he made no 
attempt to vary the form of his airs, but slavishly 
cat them all after the fftshion set by Cavalli in his 
opeana, aod by Rossi, and Carissimi in their can- 
tatas. But although the * chanson h couplets/ the 
' sir-complain te* (or 'arioso' as we call it), and the 
'air dedam^* — afterwards brought to such per- 
fection by Gluck — unduly predominate in his 
works, that monotony of form is redeemed by a 
neatness of execution and a sweetness of expres- 
non worthy of all praise. He thoroughly under- 
stood the stage — witness the skill wi^ which he 
mtroduces his choruses ; had a true sense of pro- 
portion, and a strong feeling for the picturesque. 
The fact that his works are not forgotten, but 
are still republished, in spite of the progress of 
the lyric drama during the last aoo years, is suffi- 
cient proof of his genius. Not but that he has 
serious faults. His iustramentation, though often 
laboured, is poor, and his harmony not always 
correct : a great sameness of treatment disfigures 
his operas, and the same rhythm and the same 
eounterpolnt serve to illustrate the rage of Bo- 
land and the rocking of Charon's boat. Such 
fanlts are obvious to us; but they were easily 
passed over at such a period of musical revolution. 
It is a good maxim that in criticising works of 
art of a bygone age we should put them back in 
Iheir original frames ; and according to this rule 
we have no right to demand from the composer 
of 'Th^s^* 'Atys,' 'Isis,' 'Phaeton,' and 'Ar- 
mide* outbursts of passion or agitation which 
would have disturbed the solenm majesty of his 
royal master, and have outraged both stage pro- 
priety and the strict rules of court etiquette. 
The cliief business of the King's Surintcndant de 
la musique undoubtedly was to please his master, 
who detested brilliant passages and lively melo- 
dies; and making due allowance for these cir- 
cumstanoes we affirm that Lully*s operas exhibit 
the grace and charm of Italian melody and a 
constant adherence to that good taste which is 
the ruling spirit of French declamation. Such 
qualities as these will always be appreciated by 
impartial critics. 

Lolly was also successful in sacred music. 
Ballard published his motets for double choir in 
1684, and a certain number of his sacred pieces, 
copied by Philidor, exist in the libraries of Ver- 
lailles and of the Conservatoire. Mme. de Se- 
rign^*s admiration of his 'Miserere' and 'Li- 
bera' (Letter, May 6, 1672) is familiar to all. 
Equally well known^ the manner of his death. 
While conducting a Te Deum (Jan. 8, 1687) in 
honour of the King's recovery from a severe ill- 
ness, he accidentally struck his foot with the 
h&ton ; an abscess followed ; the quack in whose 
hands he placed himself proved incompetent, and 
lie died in his own house in the Rue de la Ville- 
VE?6que on Saturday, March 23. 



IIULIX 



U3 



As both'Surintendant d6 la fnuaique a&d secre- 
tary to Louis XIV, Lully was in high favour at 
court, and being extremely avaricious, used his 
opportunities to amass a huge fortune. At his 
death he left 4 houses, all in the best quarters of 
Paris, besides securities and appointments valued 
at 342,000 livres (about £14,000). His wife 
Madeleine, daughter of Lambert the singer, whom 
he married July 24, 1662, and by whom he had 
three sons and three daughters, shared his econo- 
mical tastes. For once laying aside their parsi- 
monious habits, his family erected to his memory 
a splendid monument surmounted by his bust, 
which still exists in the lefb-hand chapel of the 
church of the 'Petits P^ree,' near the Place 
des Yictoires. Cotton > was the sculptor, and 
the well-known Latin epitaph was composed by 
Santeul : — 

Perfida Inors, inimioa, audax, temeraria et excora, 
Crudeliaque, e cceca probris te absolvimus irtia, 
Kon de te querimur tua sint haec mnnia magna. 
Bed qoando per te po]>ali regiaque voluptaa, 
Kon ante auditis lapuit qui cantibos orbem 
LtJLLlCS eripitur, querimur modo surda fuistL 

'Lulli musicien,' a pamphlet to which both 
F^tis and the author of this article are greatly 
indebted, was chiefly compiled by the Provost 
d'Exmes from various articles written by S^nec^, 
de Fresneuse, and Titon du Tillet. There are 
many portraits of Lully, of which the best-known 
are those engraved by Edelinck, Thomas, St. 
Aubin (from the bust by Colignon), and Desro- 
chers. Mignard's portrait of him hiis been lost, 
and the full-length engraving by Bonnard, which 
forms the frontispiece to the score of * Psyche,' 
published by Fourcault, is now extremely scarce. 
Our engraving is copied fri>m Edelinck. 



LuUy's eldest son, Louis, bom in Paris Aug. 
4, 1664, died about 1715, composed with his bro- 
ther Jean Louis ' Z^phire et Flore,' 5 acts (168 8), 

1 Not Coatoo, u F^tU lutf called him. ^ 



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174 



LULU. 



revived in 1 71 5; by himself, 'Orpli^' (1690), a 
fikilure ; and with Marais, * Alcide/ 5 acts, buc- 
oeBflfullv produced in 1693, and revived as * La 
Mort dHercule* in 1705. as 'La Mort d'Alcide* 
in 1716, and again under its original title in 
1744. He also composed with Oolasse a 4-aot 
ballet, * Les Saiaons,' the memory of which has 
been preserved by one of J. B. Rousseau's satires ; 
and a cantata, ' Le Triomphe de la Baison,* per- 
formed at Fontainebleau in 1703. 

His brother, Jean Louis, third son of the 
great composer, and a musician of considerable 
promise, med in 1688, aged ai. His father a 
court appointments devolved on him, and on his 
death his brother became 'Surintendant* and 
'Compositeur de la chambre du roi/ to which 
posts he owed the slender reputation he suc- 
ceeded in acquiring. [G.C.] 

LUMBYE, Hans GHBisnAN, Danish com- 
poser of marches and dance-music, bom 1808 in 
Copenhagen. Like Strauss and Lanner he had 
an orchestra, which, when not travelling pro- 
fessionally, has been engaged since 1848 at the 
iHvoli near Copenhagen. Besides his many 
marches and dances ('Krolls Ballklange*; 'Bine 
Sonmieniacht in Banemark ' ; ' Der Traum des 
Savoyarden,* etc.), still popular, he composed an 
opera 'Die Hexenflote. On his retirement in 
1865, he was created a Kriegsrath. He died 
March 20, 1874. His sod Georo now enjoys 
nearly as great a popularity in Copenhagen as his 
father onoe did. [F. G.] 

LUMLEY, Benjamin, bom in i 8t a, was bred 
to the law, and in Nov. 1832 admitted a solicitor. 
Being concerned for Laporte he became mixed up 
with the affairs of the Opera, and on Li^rte s 
death in 1 841 was induced to become its manager. 
Pursuing a policy initiated by his predecessor, he 
gave prominence to the ballet to the neglect of 
the opera, and in a few years had so alienated 
his performers that at the end of the season of 
1840 nearly the whole of his principal singers, 
band, and chorus, seceded and joined the newly 
formed establishment at Covent Garden. The 
popuUrity of Jenny Lind sustained -him during 
the next three seasons; and after her retirement 
from the stage in 1849, ^^ return of Sontag to 
public life enabled hiim to maintain his position 
for a time, but afterwards the fortune of the 
house waned, until, at the end of the season of 
1852, the manager was compelled to dose the 
theatre imtil 1856, when the burning of Covent 
Garden induced him again to try his fortune. 
He struggled on for tiuree seasons, but at the 
end of 1858 was forced to submit. He produced 
during his period of management the following 
operas for the first time in England — Donizetti's 
'Figlia del Reffgimento,' *Don Pasquale,* 'Linda 
di Chamounix,^iid 'Favorita'; Verdi's 'Emani,' 

* Attila,* • Nabucco,' 'Traviata,' * Trovatore,' and 

* Magnadieri'; Costa's 'Don Carlos,' and Halevy's 

* Tempeeta' : and introduced, among others, the 
following singers — Jenny Lind, Tadolini, Frezzo- 
lini, Cruvelli, Parodi, Castellan, Johanna Wagner, 
Piccolomini, Tietjens, Gardoni, Calzolari, Fras- 
chiniy GiugUni, Fomasari, Bouconi, and Belletti. , 



LTJPOT. 

After his retirement he returned to fna original 
profession. In 1864 he published an account of 
his managerial oan»er, under the title of ' Remi- 
nisoenoet of the Opera* (Hurst and Blackett, 
1864). He died March 17. 1875. [W.H.H.] - 

LUPO, Thomas, violinist, was one of the 
musicians of James I. and afterwards entered the 
service of Prince Henry at a salary of ^£40 per 
annum. Li 1607 he assisted Dr. Campion in the 
composition of the music for his masque on the 
marriage of Lord Hayes. [See Campion.] On 
the death of Prince Henry he was retained by 
his brother Charies. In 1614 be contributed 
two piece* to Leighton's 'Teares or Lamenta- 
cions. In 1622, having ' by casual means fallen 
into decay,' he petition^ Prince Charles for an 
advance of £30 ' to satisfy his creditors,' which 
he obtained, as well as a further advance of £20 
on May 17 of the same year. He continued in 
Charlea's service aft^ his accession, and held his 
poet for many years. His name occurs in two 
warrants dated Dec. 20, 1625, and April 17, 1641, 
exempting the King's musicians fix>m payment 
of Bubsidiee. He composed anthems, madrigals, 
songs and fancies, some of which are preserved 
in the MSS. in the library of Christ Church, 
Oxford. Joseph Lupo^ probably a relative, was 
a composer of fancies, and author of commenda- 
tory verses prefixed to John Mimdy's ' Songs and 
Psalmes/ 1594. [W.H.H.] 

LUPOT, Nicolas^ the most famous of French 
violin-makers. The fieunily came from the village 
of Mireoourt in the Yoeges mountains, which has 
for three centuries or more been the seat of a 
violin manufacture. Jean Lupot, the great« 
grandfather of Nicolas, was a violin-maker 
here. His son Laubent, bom 1696, eetablidied 
himself in the trade at Lun^ville (i 751-1756) 
and Orleans (1756-1762). FRAN9013, son of 
Laurent, first worked with his father at Lun^ 
ville, and in 1 758 migrated to Stuttgart, where 
he remained for twelve years as fiddle-maker in 
ordinary to the Grand Duke of Wirtemboi^g. In 
1770 he returned, and settled at Orleans. He 
was the father of two sons, Nicolas, the 'French 
Stradivarius,' bom at Stuttgart in 1758, and 
FRAN901S, in his time a reputable bow-maker, 
bom at Orleans in 1774. Nicolas began his 
career early. We have good instruments made 
by him at Orleans (Rue d'HUers), before he had 
completed his twentieth year. These juvenile 
instruments are cheap in Paris at 500 francs. 

in 1 794 Nicolas Lupot removed to Paris and 
set up a shop in the Kue de Grammont (1798- 
1803). He afterwards removed to the Hue 
Croix des Petits Champs, where he made those 
famous copies of the great Italian makers on 
which his reputation'rests. Lupot wisely dropped 
all pretensiona to originality, and became the 
first of copyists. His &vourite pattern was 
the Stradivarius : his few copies of Guamerius 
violins are less successful. Many instnnnents are 
signed with his autograph. He made several 
quintets of two violins, two tenors, and bass, to 
which he sought to give a perfect unity of tone 
and appearance. These quinteta fetch fancy 



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LTTPOT. 

firioet : tmt Any Lapot violin dated ftom 1805 to 
1824 18 worth from 1000 to laoo francs. The 
violoneelloa are rarer : a handsome one is worth 
3000 francs, Nicolas Lopot ranked in his time 
M the first of lus trade in Europe. Spohr, who 
long played on one of his violms, reoommends 
him as a maker. His weakest point is his yar- 
nish. He employed several kinds : the. usual one 
is a thick and not very transparent oil varnish, 
which is sometimes badly dried, and presents 
a rough and lumpy appearance. Lupot died in 
1834. His business descended to his son-in-law, 
Charles FrancisGand: and the present well-known 
makers. Gand uid Bemardel, ai Rue Croix dee 
Petits Champs, correctly describe themselves as 
the 'Ancienne Maison Lupot, 1798.' Francois 
Lnpot, the bow-maker, and brother of Nicolas, 
mvented the ' coulisse,* or metal groove attached 
to the ' nut,' and carefully fitted to the stick, on 
which it works. He died in 1837, leaving as 
his successor Dominique Peccate, who ranks as 
the best bow-maker after Tourte. [E.J. P.] 

LURLINE. Grand legendary opera in 3 acts ; 
words by E. Fitzball, music by W. Vincent 
WsBace. Produced at the Boyal English Opera, 
Covent Garden, Feb. 33. i860. [G.] 

LUSINGANDO. or LUSINGHIERO. Uter- 
slly 'flattering' or 'coaxing,* whence its musical 
mA^nmy cooiee to be ' iu a soft tender manner,' 
rKembling Amoroso in character, except that the 
Utter is generally used at the beginning of move- 
ments, and the former as applying only to a short 
pssisge. Beethoven uses it m the Quartet, op. 
1 5 1 , in the slow movement (no. 4), where the entry 
of the second subject is marked 'Andante mode- 
nto e lusinghiero.* Lusingando is a very favour* 
ite directioQ of Weber'% occurring in the Piano 
Sonata op. 4, first movement, *tranquillo e lu- 
singando,' in L'invitation k la Yalse, where the 
coquettish second subject reappears pianissimo 
in C major, and in several other places. Chopin 
QMS it in the Rcmdo in F (in 3-4 time). [J.A.F.M.] 

LUSTIGEN WEIBER VON WINDSOR, 
DIE. An opera in 3 acts ; words from Shakspeare, 
by Moeenthal, music by Otto NicolaL Produced 
at Berlin in May 1849; in London, at Her 
Hsjesty*s (in Italian), as ' Falstaff,* May 3, 
i8^; and in Paris at the Th^tre Lyrique as 
'Les Joyeuses Commutes de Windsor,* May 35, 
^. The overture is the strongest part of the 
work. [G.] 

LUTE (Ft. Luth ; Ital. Iduto ; Germ. Laute ; 
Spuuah Laud; Port. Alaude), A lai^ge and 
beautiful stringed instrum^it with a long neck 
and fretted fingerboard; at one time much in 
nee, but now obsolete. In mediaeval Latin the 
lute is called TeUudo and the guitar Cithara, 
haOk inaccurate identifications of ancient Greek 
instruments of very different construction. [See 
Ltbe.] The lute is of Oriental origin, and its 
Arabic name AVud — from which its European 
names are derived by the omission of the initial 
vowel of the definite 'artkde Al, The Portu- 

> Inttw Mme mj XT-art. tbe oedar, twoasM In Enslbh Lart^ 



JiUTE. 



175 



guese Alaude alone retains it The lute became 
known throughout the West in the time of the I 
Crusades. We class the Russian Kobsa as a 
lute : while the Balalaika of the same country is 
of the guitar kind. As in the viol di gamba and 
violoncello, the formal difference between a lute 
and a guitar is to be found in the back, which in \ 
the lute is pear-shaped and in the guitar is flat. [ 
The lute is without ribs, which are essential to the 
framing of the guitar. [See Guitar.] 

The invention of stnnged instruments with 
fingerboards, or the neck serving as a finger- 
board, precedes the earliest histori^ monuments. 
The long-necked Egyptian Nefer was certainly 
depicted in the 4th dynasty; and wall-painting 
of the time of Moses, preserved in the British 
Museum, shows that it then had freta. We 
observe a similar instrument in Assyrian monu- 
ments, and the Hebrew Nebel has b