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is t 











Aham pi gaiUhakAraUam potto vibvdhagocaram.-^XLn. I. x. 


TRtJBNER & CO., 67 and 69, LUDGATE HILL. 

. 1876. 
(All rightt rutrvtd.) 

0TBPH1M Amnx An> loirf, pumtus, nmaerwowD, 








The Pali language is one of the Prakrits, or Aryan vernaculars of ancient India.^ 
It was spoken in the sixth century before Christ, and has therefore been a dead language 
for considerably over two thousand years. I see no reason to reject the Buddhist tra- 
dition that Pali was the dialect of Magadha,^ and that it was the language in which 
Gautama Buddha preached.^ Originally a mere pro^ncial idiom, the Magadhese 
tongue was raised by the genius of a great reformer to the dignity of a classic language,' 
and is regarded by Buddhists with the same feelings of veneration with which a Jew of 
the present day looks upon the language of the Pentateuch. A language is generally 
what its literature makes it. Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that the 
Magadhese would have been distinguished from the many other vernaculars of Hin- 
dostan, except perhaps by an inherent grace and strength which make it a sort of 
Tuscan among the Prakrits. The existing Pali literature is of great extent and im- 
portance; it is valuable alike to the philologist, the historian, the student of folklore. 

^ The trae or geographical name of the Pali language is 
liftgadht, * Magadhese language/ or MagadhahhSsft, ' lan- 
guage ol the Hagadha people/ The word plUi in Sanskrit 
means 'fine, row, seriee/ and hy the South Buddhista is 
eztanded to mean the series of hooks which form the text 
of the Buddhist Scriptures. Thence it comes to mean the 
text of the scriptures as opposed to the commentaries, 
and at last any text, or even portion of a text, of either 
scriptures or commentaries. PAlihh&8& therefore means 
'language of the texts,' which of course is equiyalent to 
saying ' Magadht language.' The term p&li in the sense 
of sacred text is ancient enough, hut the expression P&li- 
bh&sft is of modem introduction, and Mdgadhi is the only 
name used in the old South Buddhist texts for the sacred 
language of Buddhism. The English use of the word PtUi 
is derived from the Sinhalese, who use it exactly as we do. 

s This tradition is generally dismissed in a very summary 
manner, on the ground that Pali does not possess the 
phonetic characteristics of Vararuchi's M&gadht. It is 
eorions to see those who are so ready to discredit one tra- 
dition accept without examination another tradition resting 
on eridence not a tithe as good. For that Vararuchi's 
Mflgadh! was really a Magadha yemaoular is after all only 
a tradition like the Buddhist one. Consideiing the great 
interval that separates Gautama and Vararuchi, the dis- 

crepancy may he explained in a way that will suggest itself 
to tiiose who are familiar with the migrations of languages 
and the names of languages in historical times. Moreover 
the Magadha territory may have varied greatly in extent at 
different periods, and have included several chalects. One 
of the much-despised Buddhist traditions is that Ceylon 
was colonised from a district of Magadha called Lftla, 
which is evidently meant to be an outlying district, or at 
least not that in which Gautama preached. If then Pali 
and Sinhalese are both dialects of Magadha, we should 
expect them to resemble each other closely, while at the 
same time presenting dialectic differences. That this is 
actually the case I have shown in my 'Note on the Sinha- 
lese Lsmguage,' in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 
for 1874. So great are the straits to which those who 
deny the Magadhese origin of PaU are driven that Kern 
is compelled to declare PaU a literary manufacture. His 
argument that the Afoka edicts are not Pali, and that 
therefore Pali cannot be M&gadhi, rests on the assumption 
that the edicts are Mftgadhi. 

> A parallel will be found in the elevation of the dialect 
of Western Arabia through the influence of the Kuran. 
Muhammad did for Arabic what Gautama did for Maga- 
dhese. See also p. xiii for the influence of Dante's Divina 
Commedia upon the Italian language. 

, ••• 



and the student of comparatiye religion. A considerable portion of it is known to us 
in outline^ but only the merest fraction has as yet been published textually. It may 
broadly be classed under three heads: first the Buddhist Scriptures, which are the 
oldest Buddhist writings extant ; secondly the commentaries of Buddhaghosha, which 
date only from the fifth century a.d., but are based upon records of great antiquity ; 
and thirdly, historical, grammatical and other works, varying in date from the second 
or third century to the present day. 

The Buddhist Scriptures are called Tripi^aka, '^ The Three Baskets or Treasuries," 
and are divided into Vinaya, Siitra and Abhidharma, or Discipline, Doctrine^ and 
Metaphysics. The Vinaya Pi^aka contains the laws and regulations of the Buddhist 
priesthood, and forms a great code of monastic discipline ; it is besides rich in history 
and folklore, and contributes innumerable details of the life and ministry of Gautama. 
The Siitra Pi^aka consists chiefly of sermons preached by Gautama, and in some in- 
stances by his apostles,^ but it also contains other matter, as the J&taka tales, the 
Niddesa attributed to the apostle AS&riputra, and Theragdthd, a collection of stanzas 
uttered on different occasions by eminent saints. In the Abhidharma we find metaphysics 
pressed into the service of religion : it introduces no new dogma, but discusses the various 
doctrines of Buddhism from a metaphysical point of view, employing a terminology of 
great wealth and precision.' The Three Baskets form a canon of Holy Writ, and are 
invested by the Buddhists with all the sanctity of a canon. They are reverenced as 
containing the Word of Buddha, and ai*e the ultimate appeal on all questions of belief 
and conduct. Owing to their great extent, estimated at eleven times that of our own 
Bible, they are able to treat in great detail of all the relations of life, and the doctrine 
they contain is consistent throughout and set forth with clearness and logical accuracy. 

Upon the important question of the origin of the Buddhist Canon much has been 
written, and the most conflicting opinions have been expressed. The time has hardly 
come for dogmatising on this subject, but the tendency of all recent discoveries is to con- 
firm the Buddhist traditions, which assign to the Canon a venerable antiquity. The 
Tripi^aka bears every mark of recension, and according to the Buddhist historians this 
recension dates from the 3rd General Council of Buddhism, held under the emperor 
A^ka in the year 309 before Christ.^ But even this is said to be a mere revival 

^ ThiB IB a free rendering, but most of tiie Siitras are 
expositionB of doctrine (see art. Suttam), 

3 E.g. the Sangiti Sdtra was preached by $&riputra. 

> See the specimen under Vinhdi^m. The Buddhist 
philosophy is of g^reat interest, and has anticipated an 
immense deal of modem speculation. Curiously enough 
Buddhism, like the Kantian philosophy, has four great 
Problems; they are the First Cause (Karma), the Super- 
natural, the Origin of Matter, and the* attributes of a 
Buddha (Man. B. 9). These four subjects Grautanw de- 
clared to be unthinkable {achinUy^a), and he forbade his 

priests to dwell upon them, lest they should lose their 

* In arguing against the historical reality of the three 
Councils Kern observes that the name K&l&^oka, ' Chrono- 
logical A^oka,' is in itself snspicious. But the Pali speUing 
with the Yedic I (see Diet.) proTes that K&la in this name 
means * black' or * dark-featured,' and so the argument falls 
to the ground. In answer to another argument of Kem*s 
I may point out that it is not more wonderful that two 
Afokas should hare held councils than that two Con- 
stantines should haye held councils. 



of the first recension which was made in bx. 543^ just after Gautama's death, when his 
words were fresh in the hearts and memories of his apostles.^ These high pretensions 
have drawn down, as was inevitable, the ridicule of many Western scholars,^ more than 
one of whom has held the Buddhist sacred books to be late compilations, scarcely even 
reflecting the teaching of Gautama. But the question has be^n placed on an entirely 
different footing since the discovery last year by General Cunningham of the Bharhut 
sculptures. These sculptures, which belong to the third century b.c, are illustrations in 
bas-relief of a great number of Buddhist scriptural subjects, and are accompanied by 
inscriptions in the Asoka character. Both iUustrations and inscriptions are, so far as 
they have been identified, in perfect accord with the Buddhist Scriptures as we now have 
them, and in one instance a whole sentence, containing a remarkable expression, which 


is probably a arra^ XeyofAevov^ is quoted firom the Vlnaya Pi^aka.' 

Next in importance to the Tripi^aka books are the Commentaries of Buddhaghosha, 
the history of which is a singular one. When the great missionary Mahendra went to 
Ceylon in b.c 307, he carried with him^ not only the Tripi/aka but the Arthakathft 

1 Mahavanaa states that the sacred books were handed 
down orally till the first century B.C., when they were 
eommitted to writing. This statement has been frequently 
p(»nted to as yitiating all the claims of the Tripitaka to 
real antiqnity. In 1870 I wrote to the Sinhalese priest 
8abh4ti to ask his views on this point, and receiTed from 
him a letter dated Nov. 25th of that year, from which I 
translate the following reply : " There is no Sinhalese or 
Pali book which tells us anything different from what is 
said in Mahayansa respecting the time at which they wrote 
the Tripitaka in books. Bnt my own opinion is that though 
all the doctrines of Buddhism and of the Tripitaka began 
to be written and used in books in the time of king Yatta- 
gamapi, it is not that the doctrines were not at all written 
before that time. It is said that in king Vattagstmani's 
time all the sacred books were systematically written down, 
bnt it is said nowhere whaterer that the doctrines had not 
been written at all before that period. We are told that 
at the first Council the pupils of the different Theras 
undertook to preserve their respectiye NikEyas by com- 
mitting them to memory. They may have done so for the 
most part, but such as were unequal to the task must have 
written down the words in books, and used them both 
privately and even publicly. It is probable that in process 
of time every one found it was difficult to get on in this 
way, and then in Yattagima^i's time they all assembled in 
consultation and publicly entered all the doctrines in books." 
Now the same difficult exists with regard to the trans- 
mission of the Yeda, and I will place side by side with the 
above extract a passage from Whitney's Oriental and Lin- 
golstiG Studies^ putting forward an hypothesis identical 
with Subhiiti's : ** Thus while oral tradition continued to 
be the exoteric practice, writing might still be resorted 
to esoterically; collections might be made and arranged, 
treatises composed, texts compared and studied, by the 
initiated, while the results were communicated to the 
■chooli by oral teaching, and memorized by the neophytes" 

(p. 87). See also Bothlingk's short essay in vol. iii. of the 
Melanges Asiatiques, where t^e same riew \b advanced. 

* YassQyeff says, " There can, it would seem, be no doubt 
that Q&kyamuni actually existed, but what his actions were, 
and wherein his teaching consUted, these are questions in 
dealing with which we cannot rely upon the assertions of 
Buddhists" (Buddldsmus, Germ. ed. p. 10). Elsewhere (p. 9) 
he says, " The Buddha appears less as a person than as a 
term or dogma." Itwould be unfair to press this unfortunate 
expression too far, but to those who are famiUar with the 
Pidi sacred books nothing is more striking than the intense 
personality of Gautama, as the way^in which he impresses 
his individuality on every detail of his system. A masterly 
defence of the antiquily of the Bud^ist canon will be 
found in Max Miiller's Preface to Buddhaghosha's Parables, 
pp. x-xxiv. 

* I allude to the bas-relief representing the purchase of 
the site of Jetavana and the presentation of the monastery 

to Buddha. The inscription is, JETAYANA ANABHA- 
forming part of the bas-relief is inscribed GANDHAKUTI- 
The Tripitaka account of the purchase and presentation of 
Jetavana is in the Gh^a Yagga of the Yinaya. It is un- 
fortunately not at present accessible to me, but a summary 
of it by Buddhaghosha will be found at p. 92 of Fausboll's 
newly published first volume of the J&taka, whence I ex- 
tract the following passages, — Tasmim samaye ANATHA- 
BENA a^tt^Hrasahirafifiakotthi KINITYA navakammam 
pa^thapesi, so maj jhe Dasabalassa GANDHAEUTIM kdr- 
esi . . Buddhapamukhassa saiighassa dammtti ADASI. For 
details see my letters in the Academy of Kov. 28, Dec. 6, 
and Dec. 12, 1874, and of May 1, 1875. 

* Buddhaghoshfk uses the expression dbhatu, which seems 
to imply that they were brought in vrriting, and this is 
confirmed by a Tiki quoted by Yljesinha, which usee the 



or Commentaries^ — a whole literature^ exegetical and historical, which had grown up 
around the Triple aka during the two centuries and a half that had elapsed since Gautama 
Buddha's death. After accomplishing his mission of converting the island to Buddhism, 
he proceeded to translate these commentaries from Pali into Sinhalese, and his Sinhalese 
version continued to exist in Ceylon for many centuries, while the Pali version disappeared. 
In the fifth century Mahendra's Sinhalese commentaries were retranslated into Pali 
by the famous divine Buddhaghosha, one of the most extraordinary men that Buddhism 
has produced, and this third version is the one we now possess, the Sinhalese original 
having in its turn disappeared.^ Buddhaghosha did not confine himself to translating 
Mahendra, but incorporated other old Sinhalese chronicles existing in his time, and 
added immense contributions, chiefly exegetical, of his own. Much of the matter his 
commentaries contain is as old as the Tripi/aka itself, while like the Tripi/aka they are 
rich in history and folklore, and abound in narratives which shed a flood of light on the 
social and moral condition of ancient India.^ 

The remaining Pali literature is of very varying interest. The mere titles of the 
books ancient and modem which it embraces would fill many pages, and it will be 
sufficient here to mention a few of the more noteworthy. IHirst in importance are the 
two famous histories Dtpavamsa and Mahavamsay the discovery of which made the name 
of TuRNoaa illustrious, and which are almost our only authentic sources for the history 
of India previous to the Christian era. Next in order of interest should undoubtedly be 
named the Milinda Panha, or Questions of Menander. Whatever be the origin of this 
remarkable work, there can be no doubt of its great antiquity, for it exhibits a familiarity 
with Greek names and places, and records a religious discussion between the Buddhist 
divine N&gasena and a 'Yona' king Milinda, who can be identified with certainty 
with the Bactrian king Menander.^ The latter lived towards the end of the second 
century b.c, and is stated by the Greek historians to have ruled over part of Hindustan. 
Buddhaghosha's Fisuddhi Magga or Path of Holiness is next deserving of mention. 
It may fairly be called an encyclopaedia of Buddhist doctrine, and is a truly great work, 
written in terse and lucid language, and showing a marvellous grasp of the subject. 
The Pali grammatical literature is very extensive, and centres around the famous gram- 
mar of Kachchdyana^ which is unquestionably the oldest Pali grammar we possess. 

word AnttviL in the same connection (see Vijesinba's 
article in the Jonmal of the Royal Asiatic Society, yol. y. 
N.8., p. 289, which containa the hest information we haye 
on tiie commentaries). 

^ The disappearance of the Sinhalese Commentaries ap- 
pears to me to be easily accounted for. The Malabar princee 
who inyaded Ceylon in the twelfth centory, and more than 
one of whom temporarily obtained soyereignty oyer the 
island, were the moet determined foes of Buddhism, and 
are stated to haye systematically effected the destmction of 
all the sacred books they conld lay hands on. Among these 
would be the Tripi^ka books, the Pali Commentaries of 

Buddhaghosha, and the Sinhalese Commentaries of Ma. 
hendra. The two first existed in Burmah, and were re- 
placed, as history tells us, from that country, while the 
Sinhalese Commentaries existed only in Ceylon, and once 
destroyed could not be replaced. All Ve can hope is that 
here and there a manuscript may haye escaped the de- 
structiye fury of the conquerors, and may yet come to light, 
like a new Codex Sinaiticus, in some secluded monastery. 

3 See art. Affhakathd. 

> They belong to the fourth and fifth oentories of the 
Christian era. 

^ See art. Tono. 


Ihoagli its exact date euatol at present be eioi ^pproxunatdy 6xed«^ Thore are 
probably as many as sixty or seraity standard grammatical works in Pi£, and minor 
ones even now firmn time to time issne fiom the natire {M^ss in Ceylon and Bormah, 
Dictionaries in oar sense of the term diere are none, bat in ^bkidkmm^/ipmltpikd we hare 
a Tocabnlary of noons of die highest andMHrity, compiled on the model of the Sanskrit 
Amarakosha by a learned Sinhalese priest of the twelfth centory. The PaB 7lkft% wbidi 
form qioite a fiteraftore in themsdres, are commentaries, dii^y ex^edcal, by diffinent 
anthers, and bdonging to ^ftrent periods. They are of uneqaal aathority, bat some of 
the more ancient ones contmn an immense deal that is valuable. They comment not 
only upcm die Tr^i/aka, but opon almost all the standard books, and the 7*&ft^s on the 
commentaries of Boddhaghosha are often of great utility in clearing up obscure passages 
in those writings. The Pali books on such subjects as prosody, rhetoric and medidne are 
mostly very modem, and formed upon Sanskrit models. Among doctrinal works may be 
specially mentioned Sdrasmgahoy a modem compUation very popular in Ceylon^ and ^bM^ 
dkammatihasakgaha^ a masterly analytds or compendium of the Abhidharma, by a modem 
Burmese scholar named Anuruddha Achftrya, whose work shows that the spirit of Buddha- 
ghosha is by no means extinct among his successcnrs in these laUor days of Buddhism. 

The Pali or southan version of the Buddhist Scriptures is the only genuine and 
original cme.' To a great pioneer of sdence, Brian H. Ho|>6son,^ is due the discovery 

1 Piofo i M ' Eggdiiig has sboirn that Munie of Each- 
di&Tnia'B nda are fonmd abnmt Torbatim in the Sanakrit 
i;nuiiMar K&tantra, and his fortheoming edition of thai 
work win probably throw mnch light upon the age of 

* See art FtiadiMM, p. 677 (a), note. 

s In an interesting preface to his Pali Gnanmar, Minajeff 
wjB (Fr. ed., p. zlii) Uiat «'tbe early Buddhist Uteratue, 
orally handed down, mnst have become modifi<^ according 
to the language of each country." He sapporta this new 
by quoting from the Yinaya Pi^aka a saying of Bnddhn 
tiiat ** the word of Baddha is to be understood by CTery 
one in his own dialect.*' Unfortunately the words thus 
tranalated baye an exactly opposite meaning. The passage 
is a Tory important one, and Mr. Hinayeff desenres the 
credit of baying first brought it to light, see bis Prati- 
mokaha Sdtra, p. zlii. The following is the correct trans* 
lation of the whole passage: "Two brothers (came to 
Gautama and said), 'Lord* at the present time there aro 
monks who baTo taken orders from Tarious tribes and 
castes and families, theee distort the word of Buddha from 
its own proper dialect; suppose, Lord, that we render the 
word of Buddha into Sanskrit' {oMumdtuo dropemm)" 
Here the comment says, « Ghkand09o drvpemo means, Let 
us adopt the practice of recitation in the Sanskrit language 
{SukkntabkdtA), like the Yedas." Buddha repUes, '* Priesti, 
the wotd of Buddha is not to be turned into Sanskrit, let 
him who so turns it be guilty of an offence : I command 
you, priesti, to leam the word of Buddha in its own 
dialect." The comment adds, '* Here its own dialect (takd 
tUndti) means the Maoabha tbbmacttlab as bpoun ny 

Bubdha" (see art. Kdmtti), In proof of his statement thai 
" the word of Buddha long remained oral and was trans- 
mitted from mouth to mouth to difKwent countries not in one 
particular dialect, but in several dialects simnltaneously,** 
Minayeff places side by side i^ number of stanias from 
MahiTastu, a North Buddhist Sanskrit text, and eor^ 
responding stansas from the Pali Canon. An examina- 
tion howcTer of the two texts makea it quite dear that the 
Hah&Tastu stanias aro merely clumsy translations of the 
Pali ones, made at a Tery late period by men who in some in« 
stances did not understand the expressions they were trans* 
lating. Thus unable to make anything of the pi^rely Pali 
word wNMi^Ac, the translator turns wmm m iA m m nm Aiaytfd, " let 
biip not be lustful,** into satatam na gacche (!) ; agaiu he 
adopts 9tift^ai«9u unaltered, and the exigencies of metro force 
him to admit such a monstrosity as ^UaTantasya (p. xxx). 
But the question was practically long ago set at rest when 
Bumouf in bii * Lotus de la Bonne Loi' printed a number 
of parallel passages from North and South Buddhist texta 
(p. 860) ; with regard to which I haro only to repeat what 
I have said under my art PaiUamiAidd^ " No one can doubt 
that one set are truialations of the other, and I haye diffi- 
culty in understanding how any one can belieTe the Pali to 
be a translation of tiie Sanskrit." See also the articles 
OpapAiiko, Bata^^td^ SukkAyo, mbitidpiio, FAdtu, Up^-- 
Mtho, Fdiim^kkAam, IMhipAdo, Upddi^^, At B. Lot 807 
we find the Pali P4dhi(a * shaken,' which is really from Tyath, 
adopted by the North Buddhist translators unaltered, under 
the idea of its being from yyadh. 

* Mr. Hodgson, who has lived to see a new edition of 
his Essays after a lapse of upwards of forty years since 



in Nepal of an extensive Buddhist literature in the Sanskrit language^ which at one 
time was generally considered to present Buddhism in its oldest form. This view is 
even now not without adherents of deserved reputation, but our increasing familiarity 
with South Buddhism is rapidly rendering universal the belief that the North Buddhist 
books have no claim to originality, but are partly translations or adaptations of the Pali 
sacred books, made several centuries after Gautama's time, and partly late outgrowths 
of Buddhism exhibiting that religion in an extraordinary state of corruption and travesty. 

Pali scholarship is a science of comparatively recent origin, and is the joint creation 
of two illustrious scholars, a Frenchman and a Dane. Burnouf has left us the splendid 
legacy of his ' Introduction k FHistoire du Bouddhisme,' and of his ' Lotus de la Bonne 
Loi,' and Fausboll, still in the meridian of life, is even now crowning his great services 
to Pali scholarship by an edition of the entire J&taka. Among the less eminent 
Palists the first place is due to the venerable Lassbn, and the next to Spibgbl, who 
shares with Burnouf and Lassen the gratitude felt towards a pioneer. Nor must I 
omit to record the name of Clough, for poor as his Pali Grammar appears to us now^ 
we must remember that it bears the date 1824, and as a grammar remained unsuperseded 
for more than thirty years. And to come to more recent labourers, I would venture 
especially to mention the services of that distinguished scholar Albrbcht Wbbbr, of 
Sbnart the first editor qf Kachchdyanay and of the younger Kuhn, the promise of 
whose early efforts has been amply fulfilled in his newly published treatise on Pali Gram- 
mar. The brilliant erudition of Max Muller has been devoted rather to Buddhism 
than to Pali philology, but in his ^Buddhaghosha's Parables' he has given a valuable 
contribution to this study, and one which I trust wiU not be his last. 

If we compare Pali with classical Sanskrit, we find that about two-fifths of the 
vocabulary consist of words identical in form with their Sanskrit equivalents, as ndga, 
Buddhay niddna. Nearly all the remaining words present a more or less late or cor- 
rupted form. The change is in some instances slight, as when sdtra becomes sutta or 
PrajApati becomes Pcydpati; but there are extreme cases in which the change is so 
great that the identity is not at first sight apparent.^ Words of the above two classes 
nearly exhaust the Pali vocabulary; but there remains a small though important re- 
siduum of forms distinctly older than classical Sanskrit, and found only in the oldest 
known Sanskrit, that of the Vedas.^ Nay, I do not feel sure that Pali does not retain 

their first appearance, may fairly be called the discoverer appearing at Jdt. p. 4, line 1, under the form hetuye), 

of Buddhist literature. His * Notices of the Languages, Ger. in -tvdnay as katvdna, mtvdna. The form imaasa^ 

Literature, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet' appeared in the Vedic imasya, as the gen. and dat. from ayam, 

1828, while Gogerly's essays began to appear in 1837, and Oonam^ gen. pi. from go^ is Vedic, and so is tim^m 

Csoma Eorosi's Analysis of the Dulva was printed in the (tri^slm), gen. pi. from tayo, Vid& is doubtless the Vedic 

Asiatic Besearches for 1836. vidus. In Pali diy, "the sky" (see Duw), is maflo. as in 

^ £.g. heffhds=9dhaBihktf pdrupatiss'prtvtLTO.iAf alla^ the Veda. Forms like yamdnuue^ kasAnuue, retain 

drdra, M/t«a=chatT&riih$at. the Vedic «, which in classical Sanskrit is softened to 

* The following are some of the Vedic forms in Pali. h (see Dham. p. 110). The imperf. akd from karoti is 

InfinitiTe in 'tave^ as neUive, kdta^e^ hetav$ (from bhd, the Vedic akat. Pali has the Vedic /. Kuham is the 



a few precious relics older than the most ancient Sanskrit^ and only to be explained 
through the allied Indo-Oermanic languages.^ 

It results from all this that Pali cannot be derived from Sanskrit ; both, though most 
intimately connected, being independent corruptions of the lost Aryan speech which is 
their common parent ; but that Pali is on the whole in a decidedly later stage than 
Sanskrit, and, to adopt a metaphor popularised by Max Muller, stands to it in the 
relation of a younger sister. If the proud boast that the Magadhese is the one primeval 
language fades in the light of comparative philology, Buddhists may console themselves 
with the thought that the teaching of Gautama confers upon it a greater lustre than 
it can derive fix>m any fancied antiquity.^ 

The parallel between Italian in its relation to Latin and Pali in its relation to 
Sanskrit, is striking enough to deserve special notice. In the thirteenth century* the 
literary language of Italy, the language of culture and science, was Latin, which however 
had long died out as the spoken tongue of cultivated society, and was probably reserved 
for the drama, and for occasions of state and ceremony. The spoken language of Italy 
was to be found in a number of provincial dialects, each with its own characteristics, 
the Piedmontese harsh, the Neapolitan nasal, the Tuscan soft and flowing. These 
dialects had long been rising in importance as Latin declined, the birth-time of a new 
literaiy language was imminent. Then came Dant«, and choosing for his immortal 
Commedia the finest and most cultivated of the vernaculars, raised it at once to the 
position of dignity which it still retains. Read Sanskrit for Latin, Magadhese for 
Tuscan, Gautama for Dante, and the Three Baskets for the Divina Commedia, and the 
parallel is complete. There is strong evidence that in Gautama's time Magadha was 
one of the most important centres of Hindu civilizatioif, and it is far from improbable 
that its language was the most esteemed of the Prakrits, just as the Tuscan was the 
most esteemed of the Italian vernaculars. Like Italian, Pali is at once flowing and 

Yedie kdha with added annsw^ (as in ehirasaathf kudd' 
chanamf etc.). It is nsoal to say that Pali has preserred 
the Vedic instr, in -ehhis, bnt this is not really the case, 
as in aU the conjugations we find in Pali that the instr. 
plural is assimilated to the abl. plural; and buddhehi 
both instr. and abl. is really the Sanslprit abl. plur. buddhe-* 

^ In the oldest Sanskrit we find the secondary (assimi- 
lated) form gurU| but in Pali we have paru, to account for 
which we must go to Greek and Latin, where we find $ap6s 
and pravii respectiYely (traces of the original a are found 
eten in Saxtskrit in the deriyatives garlyas, agaru, etc,). 
Again, I cannot help thinking that in the Pali opt. aasoy 
"let him be," we have a true archaic form, corresponding 
to the Greek cTi; for i<r(ri, and retaining the initial yowel of 
the root which is lost in the Sanskrit sy&t. Again, how is 
the remarkable form sabba-dhi^ ** everywhere," to be ex- 
plained ? and is not the Pali and Prakrit idha, which we 
find in the Zend, an older form than the Sanskrit iha P 

' The authorship of the well-known stanza asserting Pali 
to be the original language is still unknown. Tumour (Mah. 
xzvii) says it comes from Payoga Siddhi, a grammar of the 
fourteenth century ; but this is a mistake, for on examining 
a MS. of that work I find that the stanza is merely re- 
ferred to, the first p&da only being quoted. It may pos- 
sibly be in Moggalltna YylUcara^a, a twelfth-century work, 
but I am inclined to think it is yet older. I venture to 
quote it here : 

Sa Magadht mAlabhasd naxa yay' cldikappika 
Brahmano o* assutalapa sambuddha cdpi bhasare. 

Which means, « The Magadhese is the original language, 
in which men of former ages, and Brahma angels, and 
those who haye never heard speech, and supreme Buddhas 
speak" (assuldldpA^^aasuta-dlApdy yaya is instr.). Even 
Buddhaghosha (reminding one of Herodotus' story) says 
that a child brought up without hearing the human voice 
would instinctively speak Magadhi (Alw. I. cvii). 



sonorous : it is a characteristic of both languages that nearly every word ends in a 
vowel,^ and that all harsh conjunctions are softened down by assimilation, elision or 
crasis^ while on the other hand both lend themselves easily to the expression of sublime 


and vigorous thought.^ 

^ We have seen that historicaUy Pali was a vernacular or language of the people, 
and this is fiilly confirmed by internal evidence. A close examination of its grammar 
and vocabulary reveals all the distinctive peculiarities of a vernacular. At every turn 
we meet with words like atraja for Sanskrit fttmaja, vimamsd for mimftmsft,^ nisadd 
for drishad, jaldbu for jarftyu, pdrupana for prftvarana, makcLsa for ma^aka, aggini 
for agni, pinja for piccha, bhamu for bhr&, sumsumdra for ^^umftra, — vocables 
racy of the soil, and dear to the comparative philologist. Agun, the artificial 
regularity of Sanskrit sandhi finds no place in the free and easy prose of 
Magadha, and though sandhi is certainly used in Pali it is hardly more used 
than in Italian or English. Another well-known feature of a vernacular is the 
frequency of double forms, like dvddcLsa and bdrcisa < twelve,' msmi and ramsi 'ray,' 
pappoti and pdpundii ' to obtain.' Not uncommonly these divergencies are utilized to 
differentiate meaning, as in the case of annatra and annattha, the former meaning 
'except,' and the latter 'elsewhere,' while their Sanskrit ori^al anyatra has both 
meanings.^ Words in common use sometimes even appear under three or more forms, 
as when agni becomes aggi, aggini, gini, or sykna becomes sdna, so^a, sAna, svdna and 
suvdnaJ^ But by far the most striking evidence of the vernacular character of Pali is its 
wealth of idiom and colloquial expression. Sanskrit is essentially a formal and scientific 
language : poetry and the drama, science, philosophy and exegesis, take up almost the 
whole of its literature, leaving but a small space for the light narrative and conversa- 

^ The prinoipal exception in Pali is that a small pro- 
portion of words in eyery page end in anosw&ra, which 
howeyer is not a full consonant like k or d, and is called by 
Knhn a ' nasal yowel/ 

* Nothing can be grander in diction than the well-known 
passage of Tasso, " Chiama gli abitator delle eteme ombre/' 
etc. ; and compare with it the splendid lines, yMM hav$ 
pAtubhawuUi ihammd^ etc., or panndp^itddam druyha^ etc, 
(Dh. p. 6). It is strange that no one should haye pointed 
out the remarkable similarity of the latter passage to Lu- 
cretius' " suaye mari magno." I render it thus, " Climbing 
the terraced heights of wisdom, the wise man looks down 
upon the fools, serene he looks upon the toiling crowd, 
as one that stands upon a mountain looks down upon them 
that stand upon the plain." 

* Kern giyes these two words as proofs of his theory 
that Pali is an artificial language ; " It is obyious," he says, 
"that they are clumsy fabrications" (dat zulke woorden 
gefabriceerd zijn, en wel op zeer onhandige wijze, springt 
in 't oog.— Jaartelling der ZuideUjke Buddhisten, p. 15). 
The fact is that like the others I haye mentioned they are 
extremely interesting proyindal or rustic forms, yulgarisms 

ii you will, which could easily be paralleled from almost 
any language oriental or western. Atn^a has passed 
through a form dtnajaf and vimamsd is a case of consonant 
dissimilation, like takkola, kipiUa^ tuUdta, nisadd^ vUaeh^ 
phhikdf phdsulikdf tikichehhaiif and many others. As to 
appdbddha, it ii clear (as Bumouf has shown) that the 
reading apdb- of the inscription is one of the instances in 
which a single consonant is made to do duty for a double 
one: alpftbUdha *well,' \a as good an adjectiye as alpajfia 

^ Other examples of differentiation are, a$$a 'to him,' 
and imatta 'to this man;' ehai^ 'festiyal,' and kha^ 
'moment' (both b ksha^a) ; d^ 'command,' and annd 
'knowledge' (both=&jfia); attha 'thing,' and a(ta 'law- 
suit' (botiiBartha) ; satikhata 'composed,' and takkaU 
'Sanskrit;' pattaii 'to be,' and vaffati 'to behoye;' 
pavatteti ' to set going,' and pavaffiti ' to roll ;' amuka 
' this,' and asuka ' a certain ;' pabkavati ' to arise,' and 
pahoti 'to suffice,' etc. 

^ Again, ehat%tdda9a^ ehuddaia^ choddasa^chBtardai^tai; 
sw^df nu^df AtMaessnushft; bhaviaioti, h$uati^ hehitif 
(anu)bkoi$aii, (pa)kott4UisshhxviBhyniL 



tional writing which alone can make us acquamted with the inner life of an andent 
people. But with PaU the case is entirely different. Here a very large proportion of 
the literature consists of stories of Gautama's ministry among the people, of narratives 
and dialogues of the most varied description, of sermons addressed to all classes of men, 
and abounding in homely yet forcible illustrations drawn from the incidents of every- 
day life. Whole strata of Hindu life and character are opened up and explored which 
are hardly more than touched by Sanskrit literature, and the colloquial idiom of ancient 
Hindustan is for the first time revealed to us.^ 

The change which Pali has undergone relatively to Sanskrit, though considerable, 
is almost wholly confined to the vocabulary. And here the parallel between Pali and 
Italian stops short, for the latter, owing chiefly to foreign influence, has passed into an 
entirely new grammatical stage ; and even looking only at its vocabulary, it is decidedly 
in a more advanced stage of phonetic decay than Pali.^ The losses which Pali has 
undergone are by no means inconsiderable. Its alphabet is deficient in the vowels n» T^y 
li, and |t, the diphthongs ai and au, and the consonants 9, sh and visarga. The dual is 
lost in both declension and conjugation,' and two of the tenses (the Periphrastic Future 
and the Benedictive) are wanting. Some of the verbal roots are unrepresented in Pali, 
of others only traces remain, and a host of verbal forms have disappeared. A large 
number of nouns are also lost, and such agencies as assimilation, vowel-shortening and 

^ Even a cuTBory inspection of this dietionary will rereal 
imnunerable words, meanings and expressions unknown in 
Sanskrit. Among new words are : aai^ai^ikd 'association/ 
pMfndkdra ' a present/ kittaka ' bow mncb/ tampavaiikb * a 
friend,' vepmjffha * middle/ vwaehana 'synonym/ tiikh^ta 
'oTertomed/ aiina^{<i<Mti' certainly/ kathikd 'talk/ idkaeh- 
ehh& 'conversation/ tahaifpatd 'company/ anudUd 'inter- 
mediate direction/ wntaka 'belonging/ vUisdrrti 'to re- 
mind/ tappdya 'beneficial/ adrd^ya 'that sbonld be called 
to mind/ pdrami 'perfection/ tambahula 'many/ odakani^ 
£t« ' a deep pit/ pebhaaaa ' bullying/ upa44^ * half/ Mamatigi 
'possessed of/ ekamsa 'certainty/ and innumerable others. 
Sometimes it is a new combination of a preposition with a 
root, 98 pafisdmeti 'to put away/ nipt^ti 'to lie dWwn/ 
nibhedheti 'to pierce/ nifigmtoH 'to coyet/ upptnf4^i 'to 
ridicole/ pyaniikaroti 'to abolish/ paggharati 'to trickle/ 
poMkwpaiihUa 'imminent/ uyffuta 'busy/ optmdti 'to 
winnow.' Sometimes a root or noun is combined with a 
different preposition, to conyey the same meaning, as adhU 
•^|9ipdyA«sabhi-pr&ya, ni-'tsapa and fit-sfAasft-^raya and &- 
|Eiita,|Mi^'^/|sspari-p&ti, r4/dMf>4;Vi«sr&jftdhirftja, sack' 
MUkaroii (sdkshikri) « sakshHtkri, nibhuddha (niryuddha) 
■sniyaddha, nir^adbuda » nyarbuda (ni-arbuda), ni-gai^tha 
cs nir-grantha. Sometimes we have new derivatiyes of 
well-known roots, as vaeM from yach, ragd from raflj, ravd 
from m, dkd from HihtPitrittd from paritr&,9«rdMt from yiruh; 
or of well-known nouns, adjectiyes, etc., as veramai^i, vdritia^ 
pdrmntf orima, k^fkima, paktmdka^ P^^^P^W^t annaikatta, 
oiiappa^ wanatka^ daratka^ »abkadki, ddaop^a. Among idioms 
and familiar expressions unknown in Sani^t are : nimittam 
ga^kdli ' to fall in loye/ saiinaA na karQti ' to make no sign/ 

obkdsam karoti 'to drop a hint/ kk^ ckakUi 'my mouth 
waters' (Trenckner), mukkam oloketi 'to be a respecter of 
persons,' tffukam oloketi 'to look a person straight in the 
face,' kktram muooati ' the milk curdles,' ni((kiiam hkattam 
' dinner's ready/ wdtandym nimtmUti 'to inyite a person to 
dinner for next day,' kin U apkdtukam 'what's the matter 
with youP' kidisaM bkadde < how are you, madam P' earire 
adkimuekokati ' to possess a man' (of an eril spirit). Some- 
times the same word has a different meaning in Pali : thus 
kanksh in S. means 'to desire/ in Pali to 'doubt/ itaretara 
in S. means 'mutual/ in Pali 'any whateyer;' psftta in S. 
means 'eaten/ in Pali {ekkdta) 'hungry;' the cans. fr. 
adhiyas in S. means 'to cause to inhabit,' in Pali 'to con- 
sent;' s&magrt in S. means 'goods/ in Pali 'concord;' 
kakapeya in S. means 'shallow/ in Pali 'brimfull;' nik|i 
in S. means ' to iUtreat,' in Pali * to deceiye ;' pradh&nam in 
S. means 'chief thing/ in Pali 'effort' (oomp. also pa^i- 
dkdnam); ayamri? in S. means 'to touch/ in PaU 'to 
rerile;' niyftma in S. means 'restraint/ in Pali 'manner.' 
Sometimes a new meaning is added to the Sanskrit ones, as 
when panita means ' sayoury/ as well as ' exalted;' or when 
parigankdti means 'to explore/ as well as 'to embrace;' or 
when vikati means ' sort/ as well as ' change ;' or when obkdsa 
means 'hint,' as well as 'lustre;' or when df tii^^t means 
' to string' as well as ' to coyer.' 

9 Qrammarians haye amused themselyes by constructing 
long sentences to read either as Latin or Italian, and a 
specimen of this sort of exercise on the part of a Pali 
grammarian will be found at Alw. I. c. 

> Ubko 'both' is I think the only unquestionable relic in 
Pali of the Sansk. dual ; piiaro 'parents,' is a plural. 



the elimination of one out of two or more conjunct consonants has brought about a real 
impoyerishment of the Tocabulary.^ But all that Pali loses in one direction, it regains, 
and more than regains, in another. The dual and the two tenses are easily spared. If 
some roots are little used, others have sprung into unexpected importance. If many 
nouns are lost, their place is supplied by a greater number of new ones,^ while false 
analogy has brought into existence new verbal forms that may almost be reckoned by 
thousands,^ and latitude of phonetic change makes up for all the losses caused by 
assimilation and other causes.^ The softening or breaking up of groups of consonants, 
the dropping of final consonants, the absence of rigid rules of sandhi, the absence of 
sounds like ri> ^ and au, — all this gives to Pali a softness and flexibility for which we 
may gladly exchange the stately but harsh regularity of Sanskrit. 

To the above brief sketch I have only to add that, with the exception of a very few 
imported Dravidian nouns like chdti and chumbafay there is no foreign element in Pali.^ 
It is on the whole in the same inflectional stage as Sanskrit, and everything in its 
vocabulary, grammar and syntax can be expluned from the sister tongue.^ But at the 
same time it exhibits a remarkable elasticity, a power of enriching itself by throwing 
out new forms ; we may perhaps even detect in it adumbrations of a tendency to pass 
into a later phonetic stage. What Pali would have become had it run on unchecked in 
its course of decay and regeneration may be seen from the modem Sinhalese, which 
springs from an idiom closely allied to Pali, and has long passed into the analytical 
stage.' To a great extent Sinhalese may for practical purposes be viewed as a lineal 
descendant of Pali, and it has worked out a wh(de legion of grammatical forms the 
germs of which may oftien be detected in Pali, and which make it a rich, though as 
yet almost unexplored, philolo^cal mine.^ 

* See examples at p. xiy. 

* These two words I haye only met with in late texts. 
^ I must of conrse except an insignificant nnmher of forms 

like those mentioned at p. xiii, note I. I haye been obliged 
to leaye a considerable number of words unidentified in my 
dictionary, but as our knowledge increases the list will 
steadily diminish ; and if some words should finally remain 
unidentified (which is extremely probable) we must re* 
member the yemacular character of Pali, which would 
explain its possessing many undoubted Aryan words which 
haye not crept into Sanskrit literature. Thus the Pali 
name for white ant, upachikd, which lb almost certainly a 
deriyatiye of upachi, does not occur in Sanskrit, because, 
I suppose, the white ant does not happen to be mentioned 
in Sanskrit literature. The same argument applies to words 
like karavika, hachavara, ndlipaffa, od4dtif niyura, kakkArt^ 
kaka^aka, kaiihis$a,pukiva,jaloffi, ihm, kukkuha, kukuttk- 
aka, and many others. 

7 See p. i, note 2. 

^ See my *Note on the Sinhalese Language' in Joum. 
Roy. As. Soo. 1874. I shall not go into the subject further 
here, as I hope shortly to' resume my * Notes.' A careful 
study of Sinhalese affords a complete answer to the argu- 
ments of those who hold Pali to be a * fabricated' language. 

^ Here are a few of the many examples of two or more 
different Sanskrit words assnmiTig the same form in Pali. 
Do»a sdyesha and dosha, o^/Aaaush^a and osh^ha, ahoai 
aor. from hu and from bhCl, diUhassdY\Bh\& and diishta, 
ruArAAA=yriksha and rflksha, a^fasat^, artha and &rta, 
yA^ya^ft = ksh&yati and dhy&yati, n^A^^AAasachchha and 
iriksha, vassati ssjtaah&ii and yft^yate, ratanaBtntnA and 
ratni, mtM^tftArd smudrikft and mfidhyikd, Aortaskayi and 
kapi, y«yyoajyftyas and jeya, bhusa = huaA and bhri^a, 
anndta^Stjfikia and ajUii&ypaUa =pattra, pr&pta and p&tra, 
fa/^Aas^Astra, ^astra and s&rtha, appamatta ss titpBrnAtrs, 
and apramatta, khipati^to sneeze' from kshfy, and khipati 
*to throw' from kship. 

* See examples at p. xy, note 1. 

>' Sometimes the older or regular form only is in use, as 
gacehati, disnUif dassati, hhavati (or hoH), Sometimes the 
regular form is lost and its place supplied by an irregular 
one due to false analogy, as paehiuati oompu«d with pak- 
shyatL But in innumerable cases regular and irregular 
forms oo-exist, to the great enrichment of the language, as 
dakkhati and pauiatatiy dcQJA and dadeyya. How much 
poetry gains from double yerbal forms may be seen from 
the use of kayird and kare at Dh. y» i^^Jahe and jaheyya 
at y. %2\Jine vadjeyya at y. 103. 


It now only remains for me to express my thanks to the friends who have lent me 
their help and encouragement in my studies, and first of all to Dr. Host, to whom 
I have dedicated this work, and but for whom I should never have written a line. 
I am proud to be able to call myself the pupil and friend of that eminent Palist Mr. 
v. Fausbott. Towards another Dane, Mr. V. Trenckner, a ripe and graceful Pali 
scholar, I shall ever entertain feelings of gratitude and respect: from the perusal of 
no single work do I remember to have derived greater advantage at an early period of 
my studies than from Ids masterly edition of the first chapter of Milinda Panhay the 
manuscript of which (still I regret to say unpublished) was in my hands for several 
months. I owe a debt of gratitude to my friend Mr. N. Triibner for his enterprise in 
undertaking the publication of my Dictionary at a time when its success was, to say the 
least, uncertfun ; and to my friend Mr. Stephen Austin for the ready zeal with which he 
has all along seconded my efforts to carry the work quickly and satisfactorily through 
the press. From three Sinhalese Buddhists I have received valuable contributions in 
the shape of letters replying to questions on points of scholarship and interpretation. 
They are, first the priest Dhamm&r&ma of Y&trftmull6, whose premature death in 
January, 1872, deprived the Buddhist Church of one of its brightest ornaments ; next 
the priest Subhiiti of Vaskaf^uvd, well known to European Palists as the able editor 
of Abhidhdnappadipikdi and lastly the Mudliar L. Comeille Vij^simha, a scholar 
of much learning and ori^nality. During the progress of this work I have received 
from almost all communities in Ceylon proofs of sympathy and appreciation, but from 
none more than the Buddhist clergy, a generous and enlightened body of men, towards 
whom I am under many and deep obligations. 



{I omit thow Unm which are identical in Sanekrit and Pali,) 

Abhidharma = Abhidhammo. 
Abhijfid = MhHmd. 
A^aiksha ^ Aukhom 
Aqoka = Asoko. 
Alambana = Aramma^^m. 
Amfita ^ Amaio, 
Arhat ^ Arahd, 
Arhattva = Arahattam. 
Arthakathd = Afthakaihd. 
Arya = Ariyo, Ayyo. 
Aryasatya = Ariyoiaccam. 
Bodhisattva ^ Bodhitatto, 
Bodhyanga =: Bqjjhango. 
Boddhagfaosha = Buddhaghoaa, 
Cakrab£Ia ^ Cakkavdfam, 
^ikyamuni = Sakyamufii} 
^driputra = Sdriputto, 
9^ana = Sdsanam. 
Ghaitya = Cetiyam. 
9ikBhdpada= Sikkhdpadam, 

^rama^a = SamajM, 

Cr4vaka = Sdvako, 

^rotiipanna := Sotdpanno, 

^rnti = SuH. 

Dharma = Dhammo, 

Dharmacakra = J)hammacakkam. 

Dbyina = Jhdnam. 

Drishti =: DitthL 

Garafa = Garulo, 

Gaatama= Crotamo, 

Gnm = Gam, 

Jfi4oa = f^dfMth, 

K&qyapa = Kaaapo, 

KMqoka, = Kdfdsako, 

Kalpa := Kappo 

Kama ^si Katnnunh* 

Karmaatb&na ^ Kammafthdnam. 

Kannav4kya =: Kkmrnavdcd. 

Kleqas Jn/tffo. 

I For the abflurdity of speaking of 

Laksha^a = LakkhavLom. 
Madhyamadeqa = Majjhimadeto, 
Mahendra = Mahindo. 
Mantra ^ Manto. 
M&rga := Maggo, 
Mleccha = MUakkho, 
Naishkramya = Nekkhammam* 
Naksbatra = Nakkhattam, 
Nirgrantha = Niga^fho. 
Nirv^a = Nibbdnam, 
Nirvfiti = Nibbuti. 
Pradhdna = Padhdnafh* 
Prajnd = Pamd, 
Prasenajit = Pasenadu 
Prdtimoksha = Pdtimokkho. 
Pratisamvid •= Patiattmbhidd, 
Pratyeka = Paeceko. 
Preta = Peto. 
P|ithagjana = Puthujjano, 
Pudgala ^ Puggalo, 
Ponya = Pumo. 
Ratna = Ratanam, 
^ddhi = IddhL 
Ifita = Utu. 
Samskdra ^ Sankhdro. 
Safijni = Stmhd. 
Sattva = Satto. 
Skandba ^ Khandho, 
Smf iti = SatL 
Sndtaka = Nahdtako. 
Sparqa = Phauo, 
Stbavira = Thero. 
8t6pa =: Th^po. 
Siitra = Suttam. 
Tirthjvkzzi Titthiyo. 
Tripifaka = Tipitakam, 
Trisb^d =s Taithd 
Var^a = Fdnno. 
Vijfi&na = Finhdftam, 
Vimok8ba= Fimokho. 
Yavana= Yono. 

Gantama Buddha as * ^^kyamnni' see tat Sdkiyo. 


(Thnt lUU are far from exhauatioe.J 

Angels — Brahmalokoy Devahko, Devaputto, Devoid, 

Devo, Mahdifrahmd, Mdro, OpapdHho, Sakko, 

Apostle — Anubuddhoy Mahdsdvako, 
Brahmin — Brdhmano, Samano. 
Buddha — Bhagavd, Bodhi, BodhtMtto, Buddho, 

GotamOy Kappo, MahdpurUo, ObhdsOf Pdramitd, 

Sdkiyo, Sayambh^ Sugato, Vddo, Vesdrajjam, 
Buddhism — Sdsanarh, Fibhajati, 
Cardinal Truths — ArtytLsaccam, 
Caste^iSamafio, Vannom 
Charity— 2><fniim» Mettd. 

Clergy — Bkikkhu, Cfano, Samano, Sangho, Thero, 
Cosmogony and G^graphy — Cakkavdfam, Himavd, 

KappOf Lokadhdtu, Loko, Mahddipo, Majjhima-' 

deso, Meru, OkdnUoko, Paribhandam, Yono, 

Creed — SaravMm. 

Devil — AdhimuceaH, Mdro, end of art. Finndfiam, 
Ecstatic Meditation — Arammafuim, Jhdnam, Kam* 

matthdnarh, Kannaih, Nirodho, Samddhi,FUe»o. 
Faith— Piuddo, PasidaH, Saddhd, SarafMih. 
(General Councils — Sangaho, SangUi. 
Heaven — BrahmalokOf Devaloko, Saggo, 
Hell — ApdyOf Narako, Nirayo, 
JSeresy and False Doctrine — Ditthi, Pdsando, Sd' 

ffumham, Silabbatam, TUthiyo, Fibhavo (2), 

Hierarchy of Sentient Existence — Bhavaggam, Kd' 

maloko, Ndgo, Peto, Puggalo, Sattaloko, Saitd' 

Hindu Terms with new or altered meaning — Brahmd, 

Brdhmano, Mdro, Nahdiako, Purindado, Sakko 

(Indra), Tom, Upaniid, Vafabhdmukham, Ve- 

dagd, Yogakkhemo. 
Hymn — Parittarh, Uddnaih. 
Impermanence — Aniccatd, Anicco, Nibbdnam (1st 

col.), Sankhdro (p. 454, a), Yoniio, 
Laymen — Updsako. 

Meditation— /So/i, Satipafthdnath. 

Metaphysics — ArammafMtn, Ayatanam, Dhdtu, (7o- 
caro, Indriyam, Khandho, Ndmardpaih, Patthd- 
nam, Rdpam, Sankhdro, Vvindnam, Yamakam. 

MirBcle—Iddhi, Pdtihdriyam. 

Monastic State and Discipline— 2>A«tong-afft, Kam- 
mavdcd, Mdnattam, Nii$aggiyo, Ninayo, Pab- 
bajjd, Pathmkmko, Pdrdfiko, ParivejMth, PdO- 
mokkham, Puggalo, SdmwAaih, Sanghddisemt, 
Sakghakammam, Sangho, Upasampadd, Upo- 
saiho, UppabbajaH, Vauo, Fihdro, Fhtayo. 

Moral Merit — Kamtna^, KuhUo. 

Moral Practice, Piety, Abnegation 7— -<^«Aiiilgi Abo, 
Dhammo, Ndtho, Nekkhammam, Pdramitd, 
Pufmo, Silaih, 

mryi^A-^I^dnam\ NibbdH, NibbuH, Nibbuto, Pa- 

Ordination — Pabbajfd, Upasampadd, 

Origin of Evil — Paticcoiamuppddo. 

Parable — Upamd, 

Pali Language — Mdgadho, Nirutti, Pdli, 

Prayer — Pa^idhi, Pattkand, 

Predestination — UpanUsayo. 

Pride— FtdArf. 

Prophecy — Vydkarawun. 

Saints — Arahd, Ariyo, Sdvako. 

Salvation — Nissaraftam, Nittharanam, SarafLam. 

Sanctification or Conversion — Arahd, Arahattath, 
Maggo, Nibbdnam (p. 268, b), Phalath, Puthu- 
jjano, Sakaddgdmi, Sdmamiam, Samatho, Sath' 
yqfanarh, Upanmayo. 

Scriptures — Abhidhammo, Nikdyo, Nirutti, Pdli, 
Sangiti, Suttath, T^itakam, Finm^o. 

Sin, Desire, Attachment — Apatti, Asavo, Kdmo, £1- 
le90, Mdro, Micchattam, Nharanam, Ogho, 
' Samyqfanam, TafJid, 

Sunday — Uposatho. 

Supererogation — Patti, 

Transmigration — Bhavo, Gati, Khandho, PafisaU' 
dhi, Sathsdro, Faftwh (p. 557, b,). 


abl. = ablatire. 

ace. = accasative. 

adj. = adjective. 

ady. =s adverb. 

aor. = aorist. 

art = article. 

Atm. =: itmane. 

aftb. = aftbakatUL 

cans. ^ caasative. 

comp. ^ compare. 

comparat. = comparative. 

eond. = condiUonaL 

dat. = dative. 

desid. ^ desiderative. 

f. wr fem. = feminine. 

li^. = following. 

fr. := from 

freq. = frequentative. 

lut ^ fatare. 

gen. = gfenitiveJ 

ger. = gertind. 

gram. = grammar. 

Fmper., Imperat. = Imperative. 

imp. = imperfect. 

Ind. Off. = India Office. 

inded. =: indeclinable. 

inf. = infinitive. 

inetr. s= instmmental. 

lit = literally. 

loc. = locative. 

m. w masc. = mascallne. 

n. or neat = neater. 

nom. =: nominative. 

nam. = numeral. 

opt = optative. 

Par. = parasmaL 

part ^ particle. 

pass. = passive. 

pers. = person. 

p.f.p. = participle of the (atare 

pi. w plar. = plaral. 
p.p.p.= participle of the perfect 

passive, = participle present 
prep. = preposition, 
pres. = present 
pret = preterite, 
q.v. ^ quod vide. 
S. = Sutta, or when followed 

by Devan%ar( characters = 

Bansk. = Sanskrit 
sep. = separate, separately, 
sing. s= singular, 
voc. =: vocative. 

Words ending in O are to be considered as masculine nouns, and words ending In AA as neuter 
nouns, unless it be otherwise stated. 

Nouns, adjectives and participles are given in the nominative case, verbs in the third person singular 
of the present tense. 

The N^ri words in brackets are the Sanskrit equivalents, the crude base being given in the case of 
nouns and adjectives, and the root in the case of verbs. 


The numeral foUotvinff the name of the hook refere to thepage^ except in the eaee of Abhidhdnappadipikdy where U refere to 
the etanza. Thue Dh. 12 meane the 12tli page of Dhammapadaf while Ab. 36 meane the 35th etanza ofAbhidhdnappadipikd, 

Ab. — ^Abhidhdnappadlpikd, edited by Waska^uw^ 

Sabbtiti. Colombo, 1863. 
Alw. I. — An Introduction to Kachchayana's Ghram- 

mar of the Pdli language. By James D'Alwis. 

Colombo, 1863. 
Alw. N. — ^Baddhist Nirvana. By James D'Alwis. 

Colombo, 1861. 
Att. — ^The Attanagala-vansa. By James D'Alwis. 

Colombo, 1866. 
B^.— B^l&vatdro. Colombo, 1869. 
B. Int. — Introduction k I'Histoire du Bouddhisme 

Indieo. Par. E. Burnouf. Paris, 1844. 
B. Lot. — ^Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi. Par. E. Bur- 
nouf. Paris, 1852. 
Br. J. S.— Brahma J^a Sutta (MS.). 
Br. J. S. A.— Brahma Jdia Sutta Atthakathd (MS.). 
Q. Or. — ^A Compendious Pali Grammar. By the 

Rev. Benjamin Clough. Colombo, 1824. 
Das.— The Dasaratha-J&taka. Edited by V. Fans- 

bdll. Copenhagen, 1871. 
Dh. — ^Dhammapadam. Edited by V. Fausbdll. 

Copenhagen, 1855. 

E. Mon. — ^Eastern Monachism. By R. Spence 
Hardy. London, 1860. 

F. J&t.— Five Jdtakas. Edited by V. FausbdU. 

Copenhagen, 1861. 
Qog. Ev. — ^The Evidences and Doctrines of the 

Christian Religion. By the Rev. D. Oogerly. 

Part I. On Buddhism. Colombo, 1862. 
Jdt. — ^The J&taka, together with its Commentary. 

By V. FausbdU. London, 1875. 
Kb.— Khuddakap^tha. Edited by R. C. Childers. 

Journal Roy. As. Soc., 1869. 
Kamm. — Kammav^ya. Edited by F. Spiegel. 

Bonn, 1841. 

Kuhn, K. Sp. — KacdLyann Specimen. Edited by 

E. Kuhn. Halle, 1869. 
Mah. — ^The Mahawanso. Edited by the Hon. Oeorge 

Tumour, Esq. Colombo, 1837. 
Mil. P.— MUinda Paiiha. 
Par. S. — Mahdparinibbdna Sutta (MS.). [I hope 

to edit this text with its commentary in the 

course of next year, see the first 32 pages iu 


the Journal Royal As. Soc. 1874, Part I]. 

Par. S. A. — Mahdparinibbdna Sutta A^thakathd 

P4t. — Prdtimoksha S6tra. Edited by J. Minayeff. 
St. Petersburg, 1869. 

Ras. — Anecdota Palica. Rasav&hi^f, Uraga Sutta. 
Edited by Dr. F. Spiegel. Leipzig, 1845. 

Ratth. S.— Rattbapdla Sutta (MS.). 

Sdm. S. — Samannaphala Sutta (MS.). 

Sdm. S. A.--Sdmafifiaphala Sutta Atthakatha(MS.). 

Sang. S.--Sang(ti Sutta (MS.). 

Sen. K. — Kaccdyanappakaranam. Edited by Emile 
Senart. Journal Asiatique, Mars — ^Avril, 187lt 
and Mai — Juln, 1871. [Those who have the 
separate edition, in order to find a reference 
must deduct 202 from the figures given in this 
dictionary if the number be over 360, or 192 if 
under 360.] 

Sig. S.— 8igdlov4da Sutta (MS.). 

Subh. — ^Vaska4uve Subhdti Terunn&ns^ (his letters 
to me are referred to).* 

Ten J.— Ten J&takas. Edited by V. Fausbdll. 
Copenhagen, 1872. 

Vij. — Vijesinha Mudliar (his letters to me are re- 
ferred to).* 

Y&tr.— The late Y&trdmull6 Dhamm&r&ma Terun- 
n&Ds^ (his letters to me are referred to).* 

* In the seoond part of my dictionary (from p. 277) I have adopted the plan of acknowledging each separate con- 
tribation of these three correspondents by adding their names in brackets, so that the rekder will be able to judge for 
himself exactly how far I am indebted to them. The contributions of Dhamm&rttma are few, owing to the early cessa- 
tion of our correspondence; those of Snbhiiti are numerous and are scattered over the whole of the volume; those of 
Vijesiaha are confined to the second part. 



^a ^ i X i ^1 ^u ^d ije ^o 
Hk 19 kh ifg ^gh wn 

Z t ^th W4 ^4h W9 

Ift ^th ^d vdh ^ n 

^ y T r Hi ^ V 

H 8 f h 35 1 • m 

Pall has not, like Sanskrit, a character of its own, but in each of the countries in which it is the 
sacred language of the inhabitants, that is to say Ceylon, Birma, and Siam, it is written in the character 
of that country.* Hence it is usual in Europe to print Pali texts in the Roman character, which possesses 
the advantages of clearness and simplicity, and, compared with the Devan&garl, is inexpensive to print. 
The few attempts that have been made by European scholars to adopt the Devanftgari for Pali printed 
texts have been decided failures, and it is unlikely that they will be repeated. The transliteration of Pali 
fortunately presents fewer difficulties than that of Sanskrit. The system I have used in the Dictionary is, 
with a few modifications, that of FausboU.f 

These letters are pronounced as in Sanskrit. At the present time anusvAra is pronounced in Ceylon 
and Birma exactly like the English and German ng in * hang.' Thus ^ is pronounced ' ahang,' not 
as in Sanskrit < aham.' That this was the ancient Magadhese pronunciation is most probable, as the 
labial nasal at the end of a word has a strong tendency to pass into the guttural nasal, compare for 
instance the Latin meum with the French man. 

In the above scheme of transliteration it must be remembered that c is pronounced like our ch in 
' church,' and fi like the Spanish fi, or the English ni in ' minion.' [In the Preface the ordinary 
English practice of rendering ^ by ch is followed.] The aspirated letters are strictly speaking double or 
conjunct letters, being pronounced like the simple letter immediately followed by h. So much is this 
the case that a Sanskrit th or dh is sometimes broken up in Pali into tab or dab, e.g. nUdahati from 
ni-dh^ and in Sinhalese we have even such forms as daham = dharma. It is a mistake to say that 
the lingual \ and 4 are pronounced like our t and d ; the fact is that our t is about midway between the 
Sanskrit fl and "7, if anything approximating, in my judgment, rather to the former than the latter. 

In this dictionary the circumflex over a long vowel is only used to express crasis, e.g. dammtti = 
dammi Ui, tddhUH = iddhu iti, ndkdn = na akdsi. Elision is marked in the European way, as eken' ^no = 
ekena iSao. The hyphen is used to indicate the vowel hiatus, e.g. vdka-usirddU to avoid the misapprehen- 
sion that might result from writing vdkautirddi. 

♦ It must, howerer, be remembered that theee alphabets horizontal line. This, however, does not improve matters, 

are all modiflcations of the Deran&gari, and have the same as the horizontal line is required for prosody, and it is now 

parentage; I have used the Devaaligarl in the above table, universally agreed that in transliterating Sanskrit (and 

t Mr. Fausboll has lately become conscious of the mis- consequently Pali) the doping line should be reserved for 

take he made in' adopting a sloping line to mark the long accent, the horizontal for prosody, and the circumflex for 

Towels, and in bis last two works has exchanged it for the long vowels. 


A-» and before a vowel AN-, a negative particle, 
used only as an Inseparable prefix [^{ and 
^p(^(]. CSompounded with nouns and adjectives : 
A'pmttam puUam iva dcaroH, he treats like a son 
one who is not his son (Alw. I. 15) ; Acehariyo 
a-Tiffakena vatthdumh rdgo, dyeing of doth by 
one who is not a dyer is wonderful (Q. Gr. 146) ; 
A'kdlOf wrong time; A-maggo^ wrong way; 
A'dofjidenaf not by punishment ; An-abhiraH, dis- 
satisfaction ; A-ppamddo, diligence; An-appako, 
abundant; utf -^^^o, sonless ; ^-^am, light. With 
participles and the gerund : AMccham, not desir- 
ing ; A'tui^fMiUot not hearing ; A^bhdsamdnOf not 
speaking; A-ffhitOy not standing; Ahnam kihei 
§mSmam a-kaivd^ having done no other good 
work (Dh. 90). With an infinitive : An-dharitum 
not to bring (Dh. 242). With a finite verb : An- 
dgamU he did not come (Mah. 40) ; An^hineyya^ 
should not bring (Pat 4). With adverbs : A-Bokimt 
repeatedly. With compound words : Kihci add" 
fukdmo^ unwilling to give anything (Dh. 89). 
Compounds are frequently formed by joining a 
noun, adjective, or participle to the same word 
with the n^pative a prefixed; Maggdmaggassa 
kovido, knowing the right and the wrong way 
(Dh. 72) ; Ptydpjriyatki viz. piya + appiya^ plea- 
sant and unpleasant (Dh. 38) ; Katdkatam^ done 
and not done (Dh. 10). Compounds of this sort 
must be distinguished from such compounds as 
phaldphaldni, " various kinds of fruits " (F. Jit 4), 
soMvardta^kvarOf "great and small restraint." 

A (prep.). Until ; as far as [^. Ab. 1180. With 
abl. ji brahmalokd, as high as the Brahma 


heavens (Kuhn K.S. 23). Compounded with nouns : 
Apabbatam khettam, a field reaching to the 
mountain (CI. Gr. 87). Much used in combination 
with verbs and their derivatives. 

ABABAl£l, One of the high numerals, representing 
10,000,000", or 1 followed by seventy-seven ciphers. 
Ab. 475 ; B. Lot. 855 ; Man. B. 6. 

ABADDHAMUKHO (adj.). Foul-mouthed, scurri- 
lous [^Wf + ^^] • Ab. 735. 

ABADDHO (adj.), Not bound ; unmeaning, sense- 
less [H + Iff =5 1^]. Ab. 126 ; Pat. 89. 

ABADDHO (p»P'P»)f Fastened ; joined ; united, 
attached [^ + ^1"= ip^]. Dh. 120. Maf^ale 
sakale asso ekdbaddho adassi, tliere appeared one 
continuous horse throughout the whole ring 
(Mah. 142). 

ABADHIKO (adj.). Affected with illness, Ul, sick 

[^inmsr+f?i]. Dh.97,434. 

AbADHO, Illness, sickness, disease [^fpn^]* Ab. 

323; Dh. 25; Mah. 132. 
ABAJJHATI (pass.). To be bound, fettered, held 

fast [^ + W^=^^]. Dh. 177. 
ABAL AM, Weakness [H + im] • Dh. 420. 
ABALO (adj.). Weak [^ + IfW]. Dh. 6. Fem. 

abald, a woman (Ab. 230). 
ABBAH ATI, To take away, to remove [^ + Wl or 

#f ] . Aor. abbahi (Dh. 96). Ger. abbuyha (Dh. 

255). P.p.p. o^diS/Aa (Dh. 96). Kasito asim abb., 

to unsheath a sword. 
ABBAiyO (adj.), Unwounded [H -h Wtt]. Dh.23. 

See yanam. 
ABBATI, To go [H^]. CI. P. Verbs, 8. 





ABBHACIKKHATI, To accuse, to slander, to 
calumniate [^rfif + "^ + freq. 15(1] • -Sfrf bha- 
gavantam (ibbhdcikkhi, bring not an accusation 
against Buddha (Kamm. 31). Tucchena param 
abbhdcikkhantOf bearing false witness against his 
neighbour, lit, accusing another without a cause 
(Dh. 39i). Comp. AbbhakkMnam. 

ABBHAGAMANAA, Approaching, going to, visit- 
ing: [^rorpnTf ]• p^t, 95. 

ABBHAKAA, Talc [l^^]. Ab. 492. 

ABBHAKKHANAM, Accusation, slander, calumny 
[^^I^T*f]* Ab. 116 explains this word to 
mean "a groundless charge, such as. You owe 
me a hundred pieces of money." Dh. 25; Kamm. 
31. Comp. AbbhddkkhatL 

ABBH ARUTIKO (adj.), Uufrowning, genial [^ + 

^fgftz + ii]. 

ABBHAA, and ABBHO, A cloud; the sky, air, 
atmosphere [K^]. Ab. 45, 48 ; Dh. 31. 

ABBHANAM, Rehabilitation of a priest who has 
undergone Parivdsa, or penance for an expiable 
offence [^OfiT-l-^innif]. Pdt. zl, 74. Abbhdna 
is a contraction of abbhdyana ; compare Mogga- 
llana for Moggfall&yana. 

ABBH A J^J ANA A, Anointing [iRfSf + ^«[M^]. 

ABBHANTARAIV^, lnter\'a1, interior; a certain 
measure [^R^nf^]. Ab. 197, 771* Abbhantaram 
tegahanarhf thy heart is choked with sin (Dh. 70). 
Loc. abbhantare, within (Dh. 424). Nagarab- 
bhantare pati, alighted inside the city (Mah. 153). 
Sattdhabbhantare, within a week (Mah. 69). With 
gen. Imeaarh sattdnam abbkantare, within these 
beings (Dh. 195). 

ABBHANTARO (a4;.). Internal, inner [^pipfn:]. 

Mah. 154. 
ABBHANUMODANAlff, Rejoicing, thanksgiving, 

praise [^rfif + ^ + ^ + ^py]. Ab. 836. 

ABBHASO, Repetition, practice; reduplication 
[^n9T^]. See also Abkydao, 

ABBHATTHAM, Setting, declining, perishing 
[^rfn + ^Rf]- Abbhafthafk gacchatij to de- 
cline, to perish. Comp. Atthask, 

ABBHETI, To restore a priest who has been de- 
graded for an offence [^|^ + ^ + 1] . Pit. 68. 
Pot. abbheyya (Pat. 6) . P.f.p. ahbhetabbo (P&t. 74). 
P.p.p. abbhito (Pdt. 6). Comp. Abbhdnam. 

ABBHOKASIKO (at^.). Living in the open air, or 
in an open unsheltered space [^IPV^RITf^I^] • 

Abbhokdnkangamj ** precept enjoining a life in an 
open unsheltered space," one of the thirteen Dhu- 
tangas (B. Int. 309 ; £. Men. 134). 
ABBHOKASO, The open air; an open space 

ABBHOKKIRANAM, Covering, bedet^ug [^f^ 

ABBHUDlRITO(p.p.p.), Uttered [^([fij + ^ + 

ABBHUGGACCHATI, To approach; to go to 
meet; to ascend, to go up [^rf^ + ^37 + ^T*^]* 
Vehd»am abbhuggantvd, having risen into the air 
(Mah. 81). 

ABBHUGGATO {p^p^p. last). Having approached ; 
gone to meet ; ascended ['^fvf + ^9^ + ^TH = 
'^^^ ] . Cl. Gr. 12 ; Kuhn K.S. 13. 

ABBHUJJALANAlif, Spitting fira (a juggler's 
trick) [^ifif + ^f -f ^WR] . 

ABBHUTADHAMMO, and -MMAA, Mysterious 
or supernatural phenomenon or condition [^VV?f 
+ ^l|] . This is the name of one of the nine 
angas' or divisions of the Buddhist scriptures. It 
is said by Buddhaghosa to indude all discourses 
relating to wonderful and mysterious conditions, 
and l>eginning with the words, ** Priests, these 
four wonderful and mysterious conditions are in 
Ananda," and so forth : — Cattdro 'me bWekhmte 
acchariyd abbkutd dkammd Anande H ddinayap* 
pavaitd tabbepi acchaHyabbhutadhammapatUam^ 
yuttd suttantd. B. Int. 63 ; E. Mon. 172. 

ABBHUTO (adj\), Hidden, mysterious ; wonderful, 
portentous; astonished [IRT^]* Ab. 736; Mah. 
4, 108. Abbhuto dhammOf and abbhtUadhammot 
a wonder, portent, miracle. Abbhutatk vata bhOf a 
mysterious thing indeed. Nent. abbhuiaihf a 
wonder, a miracle (Mah. 117 ; Dh. 97). 

ABBH UTO, The Marvellous (one of the Ndfyarasas) ; 
a gambler's stake [^VV?f] • Abbhutatk karMy to 
lay a wager. Ab. 102, 632, 1023. 

ABBOCCHINNO {adj.\ Unbroken [^ + ft + ^■^ 

+ tiW=ftFf]- 

ABBUDAA, One of thehigti numerals, 10,000,000^, 
or 1 followed by fifty-six ciphers ; a canker, stain, 
sore [^V^]- Ab. 475 ; B. Lot. 857. 

ABBUTO {adj.\ Undisciplined. Dh. 47- The ety- 
mology of this word presents some difficulty. 
Buddhaghosa refers it to vrata (see Dh. 379), and 
if he is right we must suppose the a has been 
changed to tf, as in sammuH for Sanskr. sammati. 




Bnt FausbdU, with great probability, eonsiden it 
to be a + vfita. Compare nMutthi = sa + vf Isbti. 

ABHA (/.), Splendoar, radiance, light [WHT]- 
Ah. 64 ; B. Lot. 836. Rqfaidbho, with a silver 
sheen (Mah. 68). 

ABHABBATA(/.),Non4iabmty; Inability [^ITin 
+ ?n]* Abhabbatd diithapadtusa vuttd, the in- 
ability to ooneeal a sin of one who has seen Nirv^^a 
has been declared (Khud. 9). 

ABHABBO {a^\). Not liable ; unable {^ + in= 
Wj. With dat. AbhtMo parihdndyaf not liable to 

fidl away from holiness (Dh. 6). With inf. Puruo 
MUacchinno abhahbo jifAtum^ a man whose head is 
cot off is unable to live (Kamm. 9). Mhabbu^ 
ppatHkOy not liable to arise (Bh. 195). There are 
five Abhdbbatthdnas or " points of non-liability," 
▼iz. sins that an Arah6 cannot commit, killings 
stealing, etc 

ABHAKARO^ The sun [^Rin + ^] - Ab. 63. 

ABHARAI^AA, Ornament, decoration [^|4(^l|f]. 
Ab. 283 ; Dh. 233 ; Mah. 245. 

ABHASANAA, Silence [^ + ^n^HT]. Ab. 429. 

ABHASSARO {adj.). Shining, radiant [^ + V^- 
^T^. The Abhoisard devd, or Radiant gods> are 
the inhabitants of one of the Brahma heavens 
(see Brahmaloko). Dh. 36; B. Intr. 611 ; Man. 
B. 26. Abhaataraloko, the world or heaven of 
the Radiant gods (Dh. 353). 

ABH ATI, To shme [^ + Hi] • Dh- ®. 

ABH ATO (p^p^-). Brought, carried, conveyed [^- 

)|n=l|]. Ab. 749; F. J&t. 55 ; Mah. 89. 
ABHAVO^ Decrease, decay, misfortune [^ + ^^]. 
ABHAVO, Non-existence; absence [H + ^TR]. 

Ab. 1103. jitdpdbhdvo, absence of sunshine (Ab. 

953). Mahenyd abhdvd, from his not having a 

queen (Mah. 54). Abhdvam gaeekvHf to come to 

nothing, perish (Dh. 102). 

ABH A YA (/.), The phint Terminalia Citrina [19 + 

Hirj- Ab.569. 
ABHAYAlil, Safety ; protection horn danger [^ + 

im]. Mah. 3, 249; Dh. 56. Abhayappaito, 

secure (B. Lot, 403). 

ABHAYO, («&•.), Fearless [^ + ^. Dh, 46. 

ABHIBHASATI, To speak to, address [^Vflf + 
9ini]. Kuhn K.S. 33. 

ABHIBHA8IT0(p.p.p.),I]lnmined[^rfiT + H^CI- 
Mah. 108. 

ABHIBHAVANAA, Overcoming, vanquishing 
[^WfifH^«r]. Dh.407. 

ABHIBH AVATI, To overcome ; to attain, to master ; 
to surpass [irf^ + ISQ, Dh.409. Q^r.abMbhuyya 
(Dh. 58). Pass. obhibMyaH (Dh. 355). 

ABHIBH AVO, Being overcome, defeat [^rfHH^]> 

ABHIBHAYATANAA, Place or region of the van- 
quisher [lrf^^+ ^^Rnni]- There are eight of 
these "regions,*' representing eight stages of 
knowledge attained by the devout Buddhist (B. 
Lot. 826). 

ABHIBH U (tuff.). Overcoming, mastering, van- 
quishing, surpassing [^irfH+H]- CI- Or. 33; 
Dh. 255. "^ 

ABHIBHOTO (p-pP' o^At^Aaoaft), Overcome, over- 
powered, subdued, vanquished [^ifiT + Vp = Vf]* 
Nidddya abhibhdto, overpowered with sleep (Dh. 
401). GhammdbhibhdtOf overpowered by the heat 
(Mah. 3). 

ABHICCHA (/.), Desire, longing [^^f^ + 1^^^]. 

ABHIDHAMMIKO (a4/.). Connected with Abhi- 
dhamma ; versed in or studying the Abhidhamma 
[irfii-h^ + T^]. Cl.Gr.91. 

doctrine, transcendental doctrine, metaphysics 
[^rf^+ V^]- This is the name of the thund 
g^eat division of the Buddhist scriptures ; it im- 
plies metaphysical as opposed to moral doctrine 
(dhamma). The Abkidhammapitakaih, *' basket 
of transcendental doctrine," is the third section of 
the 'npitaka, and consists of the following seven 
books : DhammasaAga^ippakaranaifa ; Vibhanga- 
ppakara^am ; Dhdtukathdpakara^am ; Pnggala- 
pafifiattipakanqiam, or puggalapan^attipaki 
nam ; Kath^vatthupakara^am ; Yamakappaki 
^am; Pattbinappakara^am. B. Intr. 35, 437 and 
foU ; E. Mon. 167, 170 ; CI. Gr. 87. 

ABHIDHANAA, Name, appellation ; noun [^Vflf- 
Vm]. Ab. 114 ; Alw. I. viii. 

ABHIDHANAPPADIPIKA (/,), Lamp of nouns 
[^ifHWf + HffifM^l]- This is the name of a 
well-known vocabulary of P41i nouns, compiled on 
the model of Amarakosha by the grammarian 
MoggaU&na at the end of the 12th century (Alw. I. 
vi. and foil.). 

ABHIDHATABBO (adj.). That ought to be de- 
clared or named [^rfS^ + VT^IH^ = VT] • 




ABHIDHEYYO (adj.), To be declared, pointed out, 
denoted, meant [^ffif^l^ = VT] • Neuter abhi' 
dheyyath, name, appellation (Mah. 50). Abhi- 
dheyyalingiko, adjective, viz. having^ the gender 
denoted by the noun it agrees with (Ab. 84^). Ab. 

ABHIDHlYATI (pass.). To be declared, to be 
pointed out [irfiT + \ft^= \j|T]- 

ABHIDOSO, Evening [^rfif^tw]. Ab. 63. 

ABHIGACCHATI, To go to, to approach [iffif + 
arn]. Mah. 107. 

ABH IG AM ANAM, Approaching [ ^Mp^^l^f* ! ] . Pa- 
raddrdbhiffamanamf adultery. 

ABHIGHATO, Striking, concussion [ ^nfiiMlfl] - 
Dh. 210. 

ABHIGlTO (p.p.p.), Bung or recited to [^|fH- 
irif^ = S|] . BuddhagdtlidAhigito ^mhi, Buddha has 
recited a stanza to me (Gog. Ev. 28). 

ABHIHANTI, To assail ; to strike [^ffl^ + J9Q, 
Ger. abhihanitvd (Dh. 279). 

ABHIHARATI, To bring to ; to acquire, to gain 
[^V^ + t\' ^^- 80 ; Dh. 298 ; Pdt. 78. 

ABHIHARO, Bringing, offering [ ^fiUjK ]. Ab. 
1128; Mah. 80; Pdt. 78. 

ABHIHATO (p.p.p. abMharati), Brought [^|rfl| + 
f7f=V]. Mah. 87. 

ABHIHITO (p-P'P'), Galled, named ; spoken, said 
[^rf*l + tl?l=VT]. Ab. 765 ; Alw. I. xiii. 

ABHIJANATI, To know^ to learn, to ascertain ; to 
perceive ; to admit, to acknowledge [^rf)^ + ^QT] • 
Abhijdndhi dttdcdram, ascertain his disposition 
(Mah. 246). P.p.p. abhinndto. Ger. abhinndya 
(Dh. 14, 30, 63), abhimd (see separ.), abh\fdnitvd 
(Dh. 435). 

ABHIJANO, Race, tribe, famUy [^if^QR]. Ab. 

ABHLJAPPANAA, Muttering spells, incantation 

ABHIJATI (/.),Origin, race, birth [^rf^ + ^nfl!] - 
ABHIJATIRO (adj.). Belonging to origin or race 

[^fil^lPi + *BK]« 8ukkdbhtjdtiko,of]puTe origin. 
ABHIJATO (p.p.p.), Well-born, noble ; learned, wise 

[^rfiWRf = ^. Ab. 1074. 

ABHIJJHA(/.),Govetousuess[irfiT^]- Ab.l63. 
ABHIJJHALO (adj.), Covetous [^fftiWr + ^J. 

CI. Gr. 93. 
ABHIKAMi (adj.). Desirous [^rfif + l»Tftr»CI • 

Mah. 130. 

ABHIKH YA (/.), Name ; beauty, splendour, glitter 

[^rfiT«5n]. Ab. 1062. 
ABHIKIRATI; To overwhelm, to cover [^rfH + 

«] . With i metri causa (Dh. 5). Inf. abhikiritufk 

(Dh. 182). 
ABHIKKAMATI, To go forward, to advance, to 

approach [^fif + 1p^]. Dh. 91. 
ABHIKKAMO, Advancing, advance [irfSoiVr]. 

Ab. 836 ; Dh. 318. 
ABHIKKANTO (p.p.p. abhikkamati). Advanced ; 

having approached [^rfH + WW ^ W(] • Ab. 

836 ; Khud. 4. 
ABHIKKANTO (p.p.p.)y Handsome, beautiful; 

excellent, good [^ff^ + VRI = ^ef(\» Ab. 836 ; 

Khud. 4. 
ABHIKKANTO (p.p.p.). Withered; exhausted 

[^rfH + WT^^^r^. Ab.836. 
ABHIKKHAIVAA (aifv.),Repeatedly [^RfV^OPCI 

Ab. 1137; Dh. 384. See also Abhi^ham. 
ABHILABHATI; To obtain, receive [^rfH + WH] 

ABHILAKKHITO (p.p.p.). Marked, characterized 

distinguished [l|f^l|f^=in^. 
ABHILAPO, Speaking to, talking [^Vf^WR] 

Anhamanndbhildpo, conversation (Mah. 261). 
ABHII^I (fli^.). Desirous [ ^f4{^|fi | <lj . Mah 

ABHILASO, Desire [^Vf^Wn]- Ab. 163. 
ABHILAVO, Cutting, reaping [^rfWT^] • Ab. 770 
ABHILEPANAM, Smearing; poUution [^l|fH + 

fine cans. + "^llf]. Alw. I. 106. 
ABHILITTO (p.p.p.)f Smeared; stained, polluted 

[^rfi?-hftrTT=ftrR]. Alw. 1. 107. 

ABHIMADDITO (p.p.p.). Crushed, trampled, over- 
thrown \y(fi{ + irf^= f^]- Mah. 50. 

ABHIMANGALAA, High fe8ti'val,solemnity [^VflT 
+ ^nr^]* ^^^' ^72 ; Dh. 246. 

ABHIMANO, Pride ; wisdom [^rfHVTm] . Ab. 860. 

ABHIMATTHATI, To grind, to crush [^rfn -f 
1(^}. Dh. 29, 330. 

ABHIMUDA(/.),Joy [^lft + ^3^]. Has. 7. 

ABHIMUKHO (adj.). Facing towards, opposite 
[mfi{4ll^] . Rohapdbhimukho agd went in the di- 
rection of R. (Mah. 130). PuratthimadUdbhimu^ 
kho, facing the East (Alw.Lxxl). Te i^ho abhimu-' 
khd ahesuth, they both met face to face. Loc. abhi* 
mukhe, opposite, in front of. With gen. Tassa 
bhikkhuno ab,, before the face of that priest 
(Dh. 195). 




ABHIMUKHYAA,Front,direction towards [^11^- 
^Hr]- Ab. 1178. 

ABHINADATI, To roar [^/fin + «r^]. Dh. 340. 

ABHINADETI (eaus. last), To fill with noise 
[^||^+ Wnr^rf^ = ^f7]- Abhxnddeti daddo" 
rani^ makes the mocmtain rebellow with his roar 
(F. JAt. 47). 

ABHINANDATI, To be pleased with, to approve of, 
to welcome, to rejoice at, to delight in [^rfii + 
ipr]. Dh. 14, 39. Te bhikkM bhagavato bhdsi- 

tarn abhinandumf those priests rejoiced at the 
words of Baddha (B. Lot. 434). 

ABHINAVO {adj.). Quite new; new [l^fSpT?]. 
Ab. 713. 

ABHINAYO, A dramatic representation [^riV^Rf] • 
Ab. 101. 

ABHINETI, To bring to, conduct to [irf^ + ^]. 

ABHIl^Aft (adv.). Repeatedly [^Vif^QR^. Ab. 
1137; Dh. 220, 288; Has. 33. See also MhU 

ABHINIBBATTATI, To be re-bom in another ex- 
istence [nfH + f^^+ ^?0- 

ABHINIBBATTI (/.), Re-birth in another exist- 
ence [^rfif + ft^f^]. Dh. 226. 

ABHINIBBATTO (p.p.p.abhinibbattaH)yRthorn in 
another existence [^rfiT + fifH^+ ^^= W?(^]. 
B. Lot. 542. 

ABHINlHARATI, To turn, to direct [^rfi| + 
fi|^+ f] . B. Lot. 806 ; Mah. 214. 

ABHINlHARO, Earnest wish or aspiration [lvf«T 
+ f^l?|(^+ T^^* Katdbhinihdro, having formed 
the resolution to become Buddha (Dh. 140, 267» 
320,844; Ras. 65). 

ABHINIKKHAMANAA, Going out, departing; 
retiring from the world, giving up the world to 
devote oneself to an ascetic life [^fflT +f)|^^l||] • 
Dh. 345 ; Alw. I. 77. 

ABHINIKKHAMATI, To go out, to depart [nfSf 
-I- 1in(^+ IP^* Yuddhdya abhrnikkhami, went 
forth to battie (Mah. 217). 

ABHINIKKHAMO, Going out ; retiring from the 
world to devote oneself to an ascetic life [^rfif + 
fmm]. B. Lot 334; Dh. 180, 277. 

ABHINILlYATI, To hide oneself, to lie hid [irfll 
+ fif4.^]. Mah. 203. 

ABHINlLO (wy.)y Very black [lrfl| + l^]. 
B. Lot 564. 

ABHINIMANTETI, To invite; to present with 
[1R^ + fff + WISQ • With instr. Mhininumte- 
yydma pi nam parikkhdreki, we would induce him 
to accept priestly requisites. 

ABHINIMMINAM, Creathig (see next). 

create, to cause to appear by supernatural power 
[irfif + 1%^+ ^]. Ger. abkinimmimtvd (Dh. 
143). Aor. abhinimmi (Dh. 315). 

ABHININNAMETI (cans.). To turn, to direct 

[^rfH + ft^+ TH] • B. Lot 866. 
ABHINIPAJJATI, To lie down [^|f3l + flf + 

1|^]. P&t 13, 105. 
ABHINIPPHADETI (com.). To effect, to accom- 

plish, to succeed [^rfH + ft^+'W]- Civaram 

abhinipphddeyya, should succeed in obtaining the 

robe (P&t 9). 
ABHINISlDATI, To sit down [^rfH + f«r + iTf] • 

Pdt 13, 105. 
ABHINIVESO, Adhering to; indinatiop to [^rfi|. 

ABHINIVISATI, To settie down ; to devote one- 
self to [^rfH+flf+t'nff]- Pdt66;B. Lot 

ABHI^S^A (/.), Higher knowledge, transcendent 
or supernatural knowledge or faculty [H(4|l|f]. 
There are five Abhififiis, or supernatural facul- 
ties possessed by Arahds : 1. Iddhividhd or iddhU 
ppabbhedOf 2. Dibbasotaih, 3. Parasia cetopari' 
yahdnam, or paracittavijdnanafky 4. Pvhbenivdsd- 
nussatindfMm, 5. Dlbbaedkkhu\ "the different 
magical powers, the divine ear, knowledge of the 
thoughts of others, knowledge of former existences, 
the divine eye.'' There are also six Abhififids 
(chafabhmnd or eha abhinSidyo), consbting of the 
five just enumerated, with the addition of Asava* 
kkhayakarandfuim, the knowledge which causes 
the destruction of human passion. B. Intr. 205 ; 
Lotus 820 and foil. ; E. Mon. 284 ; Dh. 182. 

ABHI^^A iger.\ Having known, become cogni- 
sant of [^fi|l(|€| = IQT] • This word is found 
in the frequently recurring phrase sayaih abhinHd 
sacchikatvd, "having himself known and seen 
face to face." Here abhifiM is a shortened form 
of the gerund abhififidya. Bumouf compares 
**patuankhd yaniio" for pafisankhdya yoniso. 
B. Lot. 468, 861 ; compare Dh. 415. 

ABHINNAKO (adj.). Not schismatic, ortiiodox 
[ir-ftiW = fH^-f if]. A1W.L65. 




ABHlMAl^Aft, Sign, token [^rfiniPr] • Ab. 55. 
ABHifMATO (p>p.p. abhijdndH), Known; well- 

known, distingoished, remarkable {^(fif -f HH! 

= ^]. Ab.724. 

ABHIMAYA, see Abhijdndti 

ABHlf^EYYO (a^\). That ought to be known, or 
that can be known ["HfiT + %V = 1|T] * ^^* ^^^» 

ABHINNO (adj.). Undivided ; not different, identi- 
cal [^ + fH?r=fiT^]. Abhinnaliiigi, of the 
same gender (Alw. I. vii.). 

ABHI^J^O (oif;.), Knowing, conversant with 
[^rfim]. Ab. 720; Mah. 116. 

ABHIPATTHETI, To desire, to long for, to pray for 
[^(fif-l-ll + ^^r^]. Khud, 14. P.p.p. abhipo' 

tthitOf fdshed for | desirable, charming (Mah. 55 ; 
Dh. 316). 
ABHIPlLITO {pp.p.), Oppressed, afflicted [^|f«T- 

ABHIPOJBTI, To offer, to present with [^vfvf + 
"^l]. With instr, AbhipAjetu rt^ena, let him 

hivest (the Bo tree) with his kingdom (Mah. 116). 
ABHIRADHETI (eoKt.), To content, to satisfy 

[lrfi? + TTVrfif=TTO]- Dh,149. 

ABHIRAjA (in.), a supreme king [^Vfif -f- in^p^ • 
R4fdbhir4fd, king of kings. 

ABHIRAMATI, To deUght in [^fif + T^C • ^^^ 
loc., Kutalapathe 'bhiratneyyaf should delight in 
the path of righteousness (Mah. 144). Kamm. 11 ; 

ABHIRAMMO (adj.). Delightful [irfiT + ^^9 = 
1^. Mah. 199. 

ABHIRAMO (114/.), Delightful [^ifil^TiT]. Mah. 

ABHIRATI (f), Delighting in, delight [irfil^flT] . 
Dh. 16. 

ABHIRATO (p.p.p. abhiramoH), Delighting in, 
devoted to [^Tfif^ = ^^i^. Dh. 180. 

ABHIRUCITO (p.p.p.)f Pleasing, agreeable, liked 
[^rf^^t^Rf == ^(^ ' Atttma ablwrudtakile, at 
the time he liked best (Dh. 422). F.Jdt56. 

ABHIRUHANAlii, Ascending, mounting [lgf)| + 
IQ + ^ni]. Dh. 155 ; Pdt 14. 

HATI, To ascend, to mount [^fi| + 1(f]i 
Rukkham abh., to climb a tree (Dh. 155). Ndvam 
abh., to go on board ship (B. Lot. 363). HaUhiik 
abh., to mount an elephant (Dh. 158). Dhammdm 

9anafk abh*, to ascend the pulpit (F. Jdt. 46). 

Pabbatatk abh., to ascend a mountain (Dh. 144). 

Pres. abhiruhoH (Dh. 235), obMHihaH (Dh. 57). 

Ger. abhiruyha (Dh. 158 ; Ras. 38), o^AtniAtM 

Dh. 402), abhiruhitvd (Dh. 402 ; B. Lot. 363), 

Abhiruyhitvd (Kuhn K. S. 25). P.p.p. abhir^ho 

(Dh. 129). 
ABHIROPO (a4j.\ Beautiful, handsome [^Cfl|- 

1^]. B. Lot 407 ; Dh. 395. 
ABHIRUTAM, Sound [H^l^^^. 
ABHISADDAHANAA, Finn faith or beUef (see 

ABHISADDAHATI, To have firm faith, to believe 

fuUy [irfll-f ^Sr^+W]. Alw, L 107. 
ABHISAJJATI; To be angry ; to scold, to be angrj 
^ [with ^ifil + ^] . Opt obhiMt^e (Dh. 72). 
ABHISAMAcARIKAA, Least duties, minor duties 

[^iftf-f ^RirnC + T'l]* I>1>1M. Inareli- 
gions sense this term is applied to the lesser duties 
of the devotee, as the Sekhiya precepts, the Upap* 
jjhdyavatta,etc. (Ab.431). AbhiMamdcdrikavatUnk 
or -Mam, the Ab. duties (Dh. 334). PI. abhuanU- 
edrikdni, the Ab, precepts, 
ABH IS AM A YO, Penetration, comprehension, dear 
understanding [^T^ + VTO]- Bh, 134. See 

ABHISAMBHUiyOTl, and -I^ATI, To obtahi 

[^Pfi? + ^R + ^]- a Lot 313. 

ABHISAMBODHI (/.), Perfect understanding, in- 

faUible knowledge [^«fH + ^Pl^+ Wtf^j- B. 
Lot 335. 

ABHISAMBUDDHO (p^^. neopi). Thoroughly 
understood, perfectiy known i enlightened, know- 
ing fully [^rfHH-^FFC + ^;^^H]» B. Lot 

ABHISAMBUJJHATI, To gain perfect knowledge 

of [lrf«T + «^+fH]- Aor. abhi9ambtyjhi 
(B. Lot 337). Part pr. abhUambudhdmo (Dh. 
9). Qer. 4ahitambt{jlfMivd (Dh. 820). 
ABHI6AMETI, To penetrate, comprehend, gain a 

full knowledge of [^Hfil + V^ 4- ^ + 1] • ^^• 
tfbhuamecea (Khud. 15). AbhimunetM, one who 

has guned a full knowledge of the truth (Pit 7^* 
ABHISAMMATO (pp.p.). Fully approved; hon- 
oured, prized [^irfi?+ Vlt+ 'HH^ ffC* Mah. 

ABHISAMPARAYO, Future state, futurity [^(f^ 

+ *rrR]. Dh. 175. 




ABHISAAYUTO {p.p.p.). Fitted out, equipped 

[trfif + irH + ^=^]. MBh.217. 
ABHISANDETI [eaus,\ To rain upon, to drench 
[^rfir+ ^^]- Sukhena abh., to fiU ^th joy. 
Comp. AbhUanno, 

ABHI8ANDHI (m.), Intention [^rflf^ffM]. Ab. 

ABHI8ANOO, Curse, imprecation [^rfif^]. Ab. 
759 (Mr.Trenclrner thinks there should be one«.) 

ABHISANKHARA^AA, Preparing, forming ; ef- 
fecting ; perfecting ; accumulation [^rfH + ^Bni[ 
+ W + ^1]. Ab. 832. 

ABHISANKHARO, Forming, effecting, perfecting; 
accumulation, collection ; accumulation of Karma, 
merit and demerit ; idea, conception, fancy [^iCfif 
+ ^Gf^irr^- Iddhdbhutmkhdraihabhiumkharoti, 
to effect an exercise of supernatural power. 
PabbajjdbhtBankhdro, fancy, idea, aspiration for 
the life of an ascetic (Alw. I. 92). B. Int. 504. 
See JMdrOf ^oHkhdro, 

ABHISANKHAROTI, To prepare, to form, to 
effect, to perfect [^rfif-f-^PC+ir]. P4t. 90. 
Aw.ahhistmkhdii. QtT.ahh%»ankharitvi{l>h.2SS). 

ABHISANKHATO (p.p.p. last). Prepared, formed ; 
well-made, perfected [lVfH + ^ + V1f= V]. 
Mah. 176. 

ABHISANNO {p.p.p.\ Rained on, drenched [^rfif 
+ IHiff = i|n^]. Sukhena abh., filled with joy. 
Comp. AbhUandeti. 

ABHISARIKA (/!), A woman who carries on an 
intrigue [ l lfi|^ i riHl] » Ab.232. 

ABHISAVANAA, Oozing, trickling, flowing [^^ 
+ ^n^]. 'S6e also Abhisiavana^. 

ABHISECANAA , Sprinkling ; inauguration of a 

Woff [^rfirt^nf]. Mah. 51. 

ABHISECBTI (eau9. abhUmeaii), To cause to be 
sprinkled, or inaugurated [^rfVT + ^ITErflf s= 
f%^]. Mdheritte 'bhUeeayiy installed her in the 
queenship (Mah. Izzxriii, 22). 

ABHI8EK0, sprinkling [^|f^^]. Mah. 169. 

ABHISlffCATI, To besprinkle, to inaugurate a 
king by sprinkling with sacred water [l^fiv + 
fil^]. Rajjena abk., to invest with royalty 
(Mah. 112; Has. 15). Dhammdmataratena tatk 
tMumeitvdy having sprinkled him with the nectar 
essence of the Law (Has. 19). Anomalous p.p.p. 
tAkiM&eito (Ras. 15). Db. 162. 

ABHISITTO (p.p.p. last). Besprinkled ; inaugur- 
ated ft king [^ -h Vm = t%^ . AmateiMhu 

siito 'm, as if sprinkled with nectar (Mah. 106). 
Mah. 10, 159. 

ABHISOBHITO (p4^.p.% Adorned, beautified, re- 
splendent [^nfil + ^iftfinf = ^11 ] . Mah. 27. 

ABHI8SANG0, Attachment [tl faMf] - Ab.873. 

ABHISSAVANAA, Flowing, dripping [^rfiT + 
^f^PQf] . See also AbhUaoanam. 

ABHISUQrOTf, To hear, to listen to [^rf^l + ^]- 

Alw. I. 36. 
ABHITAPPETI {cans.). To satisfy thoroughly 

ABHITATTO {p.p>p\\ Scorched [^rf5? + TfK]- 

ABHITHANAA, Crime, deadly sin [^rfi|+ VR] • 
There are six : mdtughdtot pitugkdto, arahauta^ 
ghdto, lohituppddOf ionghabhedo, annasatthu' 
uddesOf << Matricide, parricide, killing an Arhat, 
shedding the blood of a Buddha, causing divi- 
sions among the priesthood^ following other 
teachers " (Kb. 9, and see £. Mon. 37). 

ABHITO (advJ)f Near, in the presence of; on both 
Men [^r^i?re(^]. Ab. 1195. CI. Gr. 131. 

ABHITOSETI (cau»,\ To gratify, to reward [iVfiT 
+ ^^^^TfiT=l|R]. Mah. 256. 

<ABHITTHARATI,"to make haste [^rf^ + ?r^]- 
Dh. 21. 

ABHITTHAVATI, Topraise[l9f^ + ^]. Dh.l67. 

ABHITTHUTO (p.p.p. last). Praised [^rfH + ^ 
= 1^]. Dh. 118, 120. 

ABHIVADANAA, and -NA (/.), Respectful salu- 
tation [ lifil^ l ^il ]. Dh. 20. 

ABHIVADATI, To say, to declare [^|fll + ^]. 

ABHIVA9PHATI, To increase, to grow [^^fif + 
TO^]. Dh. 5, 60. P. pr. cans, abhivaddkento^ 
growing up (Mah. 136). « 

ABHI VADETI(cati#. abkivadoH), To salute respect- 
fully, to salute, to greet [^ifll +Tn[^VflT = ^] - 
With ace (Mah, 82, 167; Kb. 4). With loc. 
Bkikkkdtu abkivddentif they salute the priests 
(Kuhn K.S. 15). 

ABHIVANDANAA, Respectfiil salutation [^r^- 
^«^]. Ab. 426. 

ABHiVANDATI, To salute respectfully [irfil + 

ABHIVIJAYATI, and -JETI, To overcome, to con- 
quer [Util + ft + ftl]^ Ger. abkin^iya (B. 
Lot 581). 

ABHIVINAYO, Higher disdplhie, the subtleties or 
refinements of Vinaya [^|f5| + finRi]. 




ABHIVUDDHI (/.), Increase, growth, prosperity 
[^rf^ + ^^]* Mah. 36 ; Ras. 36. 

ABHIYACATI, To entreat, to ask, to request 
[^rfH+^TTiC]. Mah. 11. 

ABHI YATI, To approach ; to attack [^^^ + VJ] - 
Dh. 194. 

ABHIYOGO, Charge, accusation [^rf^lft^]. 

ABHOGO, Fulness, plenty; thought, reflection 
[^^Tiftir]- Ab. 1083; Pat. 78, 98. 

ABHUJl (/*.), Name of a tree, the Bhurja or Bhoj- 
patr [^+^ + 1]- Ab. 565. 

ABH UJATI, To bend, to turn in [^ -f IJ^] . Pa- 
llankam dbht{fati, to sit cross-legged. B. Lot. 334. 

ABHOTO (a<y,), That has not been, that is not; 
false ['^+ ^7T = ^ ] • ^bMtam mayd bhanitam, 
1 have said the thing that is not (Pat. 72). 
AbMtavddU speaking falsehood (Dh. 54). lustr. 
abMtena^ falsely (Dh. 340). 

ABHYASO, Repetition, practice [^RITR]. 

ABHYASO (a4;.), Near [invni]- Ab. 705; CI. 
Gr. 146. 

ABY-, for words beginning thus see AVY-. 

ACALO (adf.), Firm, steady, immoveable [^ + 
^4^]. Masc. acalo, a mountain (Ab.605). 

ACAM ANAA, Rinsing the mouth ; washing, cleans- 
ing [^tnTf^]- I>h- 103. See KumbhL 

ACAMO, Scum of boiling rice [^IHTFif] • Ab. 466. 

ACARATI, To live ; to act ; to perform ; to treat ; 
to practise [^ + ^T] • Satthdrd $addhim veri 
htttvd dcari, you acted in hostility to the Teacher 
(Dh. 147). Tathd dcaranto, while thus occupied 
(Mah. 76). Akiecam dcaratif commits a crime 
(Ab. 738), Achatiam chattam iva dcarati, he 
treats like a parasol wha^ is not a parasol (Alw. 
I. 15). Vdn\jjam dc., to trade. Dhammam dc, 
to conform to the Law (Alw. I. 15; Ras. 25). 
Tdya $amvd»am dearie cohabited with her (Mah. 
44). P.p.p. dcififto, 

ACARIYO, A teacher or master; a scholar, pro- 
fessor [^RT^p}]. Ab.410; Dh.97; Alw. I. ziv. 
PtMdcariyd^ ancient scholars (Kb. 21). Hatthd' 
eariyOf an elephant trainer (Dh. 400, 405), 

ACARO, Conduct, practice; right conduct, good 
manners [^iniTt]. Dh. 67, 259, 422. Pdpdcdro, 
leading a sinful life. 

ACCADAHATI, To put upon or over [^rf?f + ^ 
-h VT] • Ger. accddhdya. 

ACCADHANAI^, Putting upon [^rf?T + ^ + \|T 


ACCAGA, see AccetL 

ACCAGAMA, see Atigacehati, 

ACCAMBILO (adj.). Very sour [^rf1T'^ 

ACCANA (/.), Oflfering, worship [^J^ifT]. Ab.425. 

ACCANlYO, and -NIYYO, That ought to be of- 
fered, worthy of being offered [^nl^ift^] • Ras* 21. 

ACC ANT AM (adv.). Very, exceedingly [HIVIITI^]. 
Ab. 732. 

ACCANTO (adj.)f Exceeding, excessive; endless 
[lR?Qi9l]. Dh. 29. Neut. accantamf "the £nd- 
less,** i.e. Nirv&^a. 

ACCARADDHO (adj,)^ Very eager, very strenuous 

ACCASANNATTAM, Too great proximity [yiffi 

+ ^IWr^=^f + ?^]. Mah. 84. 
ACCASANNE (adv.). Too near [l|f?T + loc ^- 

ACC ATI, To offer, to make a religious offering; to 
honour, to revere ["W^]- CI. P. Verbs, 2, 20. 

ACCAYIKO, and ACCEKO (adj\). Irregular, acci- 
dental, unexpected, out of the usual course or time ; 
pressing, urgent [^RQ^ + 1[9]* B. Int 269,628. 
Accekacivaram, a robe presented to a priest not 
at the usual time (P4t. 11, 82). Accdyikam 
karanlyark, an unexpected necessity (P&t. 19). 
Mayham accdyikam n* atthiy I have no uigent 
business (Dh. 87). 

ACCAYO, Passing away, lapse (of time) ; death ; 
transgression, offence, sin [^mflf] . Ab. 404, 1117; 
Dh. 105, 153 ; Mah. 236. 2V{i]tam vaudnam acca- 
yena, at the end of three years (Alw. I. 92). Tad^ 
accaye, at his death (Mah. 208). Mam' aceayena, 
after my death. 

ACCETI, To pass beyond, to traverse ; to surpass ; 
to overcome, to conquer ; to pass away [^Vf?f -h ^]. 
Aor. accagd(Dh. 73). Muccum accetum, to over- 
come death (Mah. 253). P.p.p. aUto. 

ACCHADANAM, Covering, lid, curtain ; cloth, 
clothes [HT^^T^]- Ab.51,290, 1104; Mah. 206. 

ACCH ADETI, To put on [^ + ^^ ] . Kdidydni 
vatthdni acchddetvd, having put on the yellow 
robes (B. Lot. 863 ; Alw. I. 92). 

ACCHAMBHl (adj\). Undaunted, undismayed [^ 
+ Wd^ + 1[^- See Chambhati. 

ACCH ANNO (p.p.p. acchddeti). Covered, bidden 

[^ + W?r= ^]. Dh- 15 ; P^t. 87. 

ACCHARA (/.), A celestial nymph, a houri 
[^IW^^] • Ab.24; Dh.94; Mah. 157. 




ACCHARA (/.), A moment, the snapping of a finger, 
the twinkling of an eye [^n^^ Ab. 66. 

ACX)H ARI YO (adj.). Wonderful, marveUous, extra- 
ordinary; astonished [^WR|^]. Ab.7d6. Acchari- 
yam vata bho, oh wonderful ! Acchariyd vata bho 
Buddhaguf^ marvellous indeed are the attributes 
of a Boddha (Dh. 99). Neut acchariyam, a wonder 
or portent (Mali. 14). Sd parUd accAariyabbhu- 
iadttqfdtd akan, the hearts of that multitude 
were filled with wonder and amazement. 

ACCHATI, To stay, to remain, to settle down 
[^iraQ* Tufthi acchanti, they remain silent (F. 
Jit. 48). Aor. acchi (Dh. 158). Fut. acchiuaH. 

AGGHEKO {adj.\ Unskilful, ignorant, dumsy 

ACX)H£RO {adj.\ This is a contracted form of 
Aochariya ; it must have passed through an inter- 
mediate form acchayira. Dh. 371 ; Alw. I. zcvi. 

ACCHI (».). The eye [^f^]. Ab. 149. See also 

ACCHIDDO {adj.\ Uninjured, intact, perfect, fault- 
less [ir + tl^]. Dh. 41 ; B. Lot. 595. 

ACCHINDATI, To take away, to remove ; to re- 
move forcibly, to rob, plunder ["^ + f^C^]* ^^* 
104, 218; Pit. 11, 82. See ChindaH. 

ACCHINNO (p>p>p. hut). Taken away, removed ; 
robbed, stolen [^ -|- fq^= fiR]. Kuhn K. 8. 
23 ; P&t. 8, 78. 

ACCHO (adj.). Clear, transparent [^P^ • Ab. 670, 

ACCHO, A bear [^IT^]. Ab. 612, 1025 ; Mah. 22 ; 
Pat 71 ; Has. 19. 

ACCI (lift. f. and n.), A ray of light, a sunbeam ; 
flame [^f|and irf^]. Ab. 35, 1102. 

ACCIMA (m.), rire ["llf^in^. Ab. 34. 

ACCITO (p.p.p.). Revered, honoured [^J^. Ab. 
750, 841. 

ACCODATO (adj.). Very white [^ifif + ^W^JW 
= ^. PAt. 83. 

ACCOKKATTHO (o^;.). Very low, too low [^^fif + 

ACCUGGATO (o<^). Raised, elevated, lofty [^|f7! 

-f ^yif=iritl- Dh. 183. 
ACCUKKATTHO (adj.). Very high, too high [^|fif 

ACCU][iARO (adj.). Magnificent ["Vflf + ^?[nLl- 

Mah. 115. 
ACCUNHO (adj.). Very hot [^ffif + ^^]. 
ACCUTO (adj.), Inmovable; everlasting, eternal 

[^ + ^?T = ^]* Dh. 40, 365. Neut accn^mfc* 
the Eternal, viz. Nirv^a (Ab. 8). 

ACELAKO (adj.). Unclothed, naked [iff + ^ + 
1i]. Dh. 398. Masc. Acelako, a naked ascetic 
(Ab. 440; Dh. 240). 

ACETANO (at^.). Unconscious, insensible, sense- 
less [^ + ^im]- F. J^t. 2; B. Lot. 576. 

ACIKKHANAA, Telling, showing (see next). Pdt. 

ACIKKHATI, To tell, to announce ; to point out, 
to show [^ + freq.^r]. WlthdatMattnodcikkhi, 
informed the king (Mah. 133). Maggam dc, to 
show the way (Dh. 85). Tam attham dcikkhi, told 
him the matter (F. Jdt. 12). Dh. 157. 434 ; Mah« 
192, 220) ; Alw. I. 73 ; F. Jdt. 7. 

ACINATI, To heap up, to accumulate [^ + 1^] . 
Dh. 22 ; Mah. 124. 

ACINNO (p.p.p. dcarati), Practised, performed; 
8anctioned,enjoined [^|vf\lq = ^TT]* ^v* !• HI > 
P4t. xl. 

ACINTEYYO, and ACINTIYO (a<&*,). Beyond the 
reach of thought or reason, inconceivable, incom- 
prehensible, infinite [^ + f^«^+1[7 <u>d If]. 
Man. B. 456. Evam adntiyd buddhd buddha-' 
dhammd adntiyd adntiyetu patanndnath vipdko 
hoH adntiyo, thus the Buddhas are infinite, their 
doctrines are infinite, to those that believe therein 
infinite are the fruits of faith (Mah. 108). 

ACIRAPPABHA (/.), Lightning [^rf*IT + WTT]- 

ACIRAVATi (/.), Name of a river in India [^rf^ 
+ ^. Ab. 682 ; Dh. 210, 224, 400, 416; Kuhn 
K.S. 23. 

ACIRO (adj.), Short, brief [H + f^T] • ^^' ^^ciraih 
(adv.), soon , ere long (Dh . 8) . Instr. adrena (adv.), 
soon (Mah. 158). Adrfpabbajito, one who has 
not long been a Buddhist monk (Dh. 122). Adrd' 
pasampanno, lately ordained (Dh. 405). 

ACITO (p.p.p' ddnati), Heaped up, collected [l|f 
+ 1^ = t^]. Ab. 701 ; Mah. 21L 

ADA, see Daddti. 

ADANAA, Eating [iT^]. Ras. 20. 

AdANAI^, Taking, appropriating, seizing ; attach- 
ment, dining to the world, desire [^|^|9|] . Dh. 
16. Adinndddnam, taking what is not given. 

ADARA](flYO (a4;.),Estimable,deserving of respect 

['*I<<^*|]- Raa-7. 
ADARO, Esteem, regard ; respect ; interest, care, de- 
votion ; affection [W^[^ • Alw. I. z ; Mah. 222. 





ADA8I» see DaddH. 

ADAS0» Not a slave, a free man ; a fireedman [^ 
+ ^[re]. Ab.516. 

ADASO, A mirror [^inp|]. Ab.316; Mah.99»182. 

AD ASSANAJfir, Not seeing ; not meeting with ; dis- 
appearance ; not showing, concealment • [^ + 
^^]. Ab. 770; Dh. 9; Knhn K. S. 24, 32. 
Bdldnam adafMonam^ not associating with fools 
(Dh. 37). Apattiyd ad., concealment of a sin 
(Pat. 28, 92). 

ADATA (m.), One who takes [^n^HT]. 

ADATABBO (a4;.). That onght to be taken [^- 
I^TTFIl]. Kamm. 10 ; P&t. 16. 

Ad ATI and ADADATI, To take ; to receive ; to 
seize; to take away [W + ?T]- Pres. Atmane 
ddatte (Knhn K.S. 23). Inf. dddtum (CI. Or. 71). 
Chsr. dddya, Addya gacchatiy to carry off (Dh. 
51 ; Khud. 14). Inam dddya^ having contracted a 
loan. Anubandhitvd dddya, having pursued and 
caught him (Dh. 199). Rdjd bodhisattam dddya, 
theldng taking the Bodhisatta with him (F. Jdt. 
17). Amhdkam rucim dddya, acting in conformity 
¥rith our wishes (Pdt. 5). P.p.p. i^tmio. F.Jdt.2; 
Mah. 4; Dh. 10. See Adeti and Adiyatu 

AdAyI (adj.), Taking [^ -|- l^TftTl]. ^dinnd- 
ddyi, taking what is not given. 

ADDA (/.), Name of one of the Nakkhattas 
[WSM- Ab.58. 

ADDABBO {adj.). Immaterial, abstract [^ + 
1^]. Gl. Or. 85. 

ADDAKAA, Green ginger [^ITsf^]- Ab. 459. 

ADDAKKHI, ADDA8A, see Pauati. 

ADDHA (adv.). Truly, certainly, surely, evidently 
[^rVT]* Ab. 1140; Dh. 121, 384; Alw. 1.79. 
Addhd *yam idmaftero me ghare henoH sdmiko, 
this novice wiU certainly be master in my palace 
(Mah. 25). 

ADDHA (m.), A road; distance; time [in^P^. 
Ab. 06, 190, 995 ; B. Lot. 324. Ace addhdnam. 
Gen. addhano and addhuno. There are three 
Addhds or •< times," AtiiQ addhd andgaio addhd 
paoeuppanno addhd, "time past, time to come, 
time present." Dighaua addhano accayena, at 
the end of a long period (B. Lot. 329). Addha- 
kdlo, space and time (Kuhn K.S. 26). 

ADDHAGATO (a^\), One who has made a k)ng 
journey, advanced in years, aged [1W( + m = 

ADDHAGC (m.), A traveUer [^H^]- Ab. 347 ; 
D. 53. 

ADDHAMASO and AppH-, Half a month, a fort- 
night [^-f-^iTO]. Dh. 85, 125, 167, 231; 
Alw. I. 80 ; Mah. 11. Mdmd^hamdio, six weeks 

ADDHANAA, a road ; a long distance ; a long 
time. Tikis word is either addhA + ana, or it may 
be due to the false analogy of the ace. of addhd. 
Ab. 192, 1100 ; Dh. 86, 268. Addhdiutmaggo, a 
long road, a road between principal towns, a high 
road (Pdt 80). Digham addhdmm, a long time 

ADDHANIYO («(;.), Lasdng, gobgon, continuing 

ADDH ARATTO, Midnight [1R^ + JJ^] . Ab. 70. 

APPHATEYYO, and AppHATIYO {a4f.). Two 
and a half [H\| + ipfttT] . Ab.477,478 ; PAt. 15 ; 
Khud. 20. Addhateyydni pariJbbdjakaMidm, two 
hundred and fifty ascetics (Dh. 124). 

AP9HAYOGO, Name of a sort of house [^|^ + 
ijt^]. Ab. 209 ; Kamm. 19. Said to be a house 
shaped like a garafa bird. 

ADDHIKO (o4;.)» Journeying, travelling ["H^^ + 
f;i|]. Dh.280. 

ADDHO,and A^PHO (a<&'.), Half, halved [^]. 
Masc. addho or a4dho, a part (Ab. 53, 1039). 
Neut. addham or addhaih, a half (Ditto). Addha^ 
tefa$ahattho,thhteen and a half spans long (Kuhn 
K.S. 8). Ad^hatefasehi bhikkhutatehi saddhim, 
accompanied by thirteen hundred and fifty priests. 
Addhacando, the half moon. Addhayojanatk or 
addhayofanaik, half a yojana (Dh. 148, 235). 
Dasaddhaiatayojano, five hundred (lit. ten half 
hundred) yojanas in extent (Mah. 5). Tadaddhehi, 
with their halves (Mah. 41 and errat.). Pubbaddho, 
fore part (B. Lot. 569). 

APPHO (adi.). Wealthy, rich [^KV]. Ab. 725; 
Dh. 77, 203. See also ^dAyo. 

A9PHU9PH0 (adj.). Three and a half [^ + 
^]fl^. Ab.477; Cl.Gr. 95; Dh. 119. Addhu- 
ddhdni sahaudni, three thousand five hundred 
(Mah. 75). 

ADDI (m.), A mountain [^rf|[]. Ab. 605. 

ADDITO (pp.p.). Afflicted, oppressed [^rf^ss 
^l^cans.]. TYdAoyadeJito, oppressed with a three- 
fold danger (Mah. 3). 

ADDO (a<^'.), Wet, moist [^ITi^]. Ab. 753. 


(n ) 


ADESAKO {atff.\ Telling, informing [W^^]* 
Fern, ddenkd (Mah. 26). 

ADESO, Infonnation; direction, order, injanction 
[^l^l(]. Ab. 1166. In grammar Adesa means 
''substitute.* Thus in ty ^'a for te ajja the 
letter y is said to be the vya^ana idesa, or " con- 
Bonaot substitute"* for e ; and in nopeti for imi 
«j»eh, the letter o is the sara £desa, or "vowel 
substitute" for a + u (O. Or. 9, 10). 

ADETI^ To take; to seize; to receive; to obtain 
[^ + ^^=:^]. F.Jdt61. Sdrampmnd 
ddemti, the wise obtain substantial rewards (Mah. 
224). Ger.<filtya(Mah.82). Y^isam patiehi dtUya, 
receiving the juice in bowls (Mah. 167)« 

ADHAMAl^r^O, A debtor [^T^V^nS]. Ab. 470. 

ADHAMMIKO (ac{^*.), Irreligious, impious, wicked 
[^ + V^S + 1[^]- Alw. I. cxxiv ; Dh. 104. 

ADHAMMO, Wrong, injustice, unlawfulness ; folse 
doctrine; irreligion, impiety, unrighteousness 
[^ + \|^]. Gl. Or. 139 ; Dh. 44 ; Fit 62. Instr. 
adhammenOf unjustiy, unrighteously (Dh. 15). 

ADHAMO (a4/0> I^vrest, very low ; meanest, vile, 
Gontemptible; incomplete, imperfect [^I^HR], Ab. 
700, 1070. Narddhamo, vilest of men (Mah. 260 ; 
Ras. 35). PwrisddhatnOy a vile person (Dh. 14). 
jidkamo migqfdidHafkf the meanest of all animals 
(F. Jit 48). 

ADHARO {adj\). Lower, inferior [1R^]. Ab.930. 
Masc. adharo, the Up (Ab. 262, 030). 

ADHARO, a prop, support, stand ; a basin round 
the foot of a tree to retain water ; a receptacle ; in 
gnun. the locative relation [lllMI^J- Ab. 309, 
e77, 1011 ; Kuhn K. S. 30. Adhdrwalaymk^ a 
supporting' ring, a circular stand. 

ADH AROTTHO,The lower lip [^VSPCt^] • F jrdt.l2, 
ADHI (jir€p.),Above, over, superior to [ivf%|]* Ab. 
1177. Vnth loc. adhi detfesu Buddho, Buddha is 
above tbe gods (Kuhn K. S. 34; CI Or. 147). 
As the first part of compounded adjectives and 
adverbs, it sometimes means *' relative to," e.g. 
mdkitthi (adv.), relating to a woman. Adhi is 
much used in composition with verbs and their 
ADHIBHASATI, To addiess, to speak to [^rf^ + 
9ITW]. Aor. iu;AadA<M (Dh. 266 ; Khud. 4). 

ADHIBHAVANAlil, Subjection [^rf^ + inw]« 

Ab. 1177. 
ADHIBHC(m.),Lord,master,chief; king [^iflw]. 

I Ab.725. Jfii^tld%t»Ai$, king of beasts (F. Jit. 47). 
T^divddhibh^, chief of the gods (Ab. 19). 

ADHIBHCTO {p.p.p.)> Overcome, mastered [lf\f 
+ ^=^]. Dh.36D. 

ADHICCAKA (/.), Land or plateau on a mountain 
["Hf^rantT]. Ab.610. 

into existence without a cause. The etymology of 
the first part of this compound is doubtful. At 
first sight it would appear to represent a Sanskrit 
gerund lllflAI from the root ^, since Adhiccasam' 
uppannOf '' uncaused," is opposed to Paticcasam^ 
uppanno, ** sprung from a cause." But I think it 
more probable that the initial letter is the nega- 
tive ^, and that dhicca represents an anomalous 
gerund, or part. fut. pass. ^SM from the root ^, 
adkicca thus answering to the S. adhirya (com- 
pare dhacca with S. dhirya). The comment on 
Brahmajila Sutta throws no light on the etym- 
ology of AdhiccOf merely saying, " adhiccasamu' 
ppannan ti akdrafMsamuppannamy^wjless the use 
of the negative in the last word be considered a 
confirmation of the above suggested etymology. 
See Oc^rly^s translation of Brahmajdla Sutta, 
Joum. Ceylon As. Soc., 1846-1847, p. 45 ; also 
Qog. Ev. 39. 

ADHICITTAA, Lofty thought or contemplation, 
Sam^hi meditation [^rf^ + f^^]. Dh.34. See 

ADHIGACCHATI, To enter upon, to reach, to 
attain, to acquire [^lrfM + ^|V(]. Dh. 44, 66. 
Aor. ajjhagamd (Ras. 78). Inf. adhigantum (Dh. 
407). Ger. tidhigamma (Mah. 67). P.p.p. adhi- 
gato. Apt dibbeau kdmetu ratim so nddhigacchoH, 
he finds no pleasure even in celestial delights 
(Dh. 34). Te »dram nddhigacchanti, they never 
arrive at the truth (Dh. 2). Arahattam adh,, to 
attain Arhatohip (Ras. 67). 

ADHIGAMANAM, Obtaining, attainment, arriving 
at; attainment of Arahatta, final sanctification 
["VfUiHR^]. Dh. 342, 382, 4ia 

ADHIGAMO, Attainment ; study, reading [iRfV- 
ira]. Dh. 194, 358 ; Khud. 17 ; Fit. 29. 

ADHIGATO (p.p.p. adhigacehoH), Having attained 
or arrived at ; attained,acquired [IRflipnf = IfV^ . 
Kena mtdptMplutlam adhigatd, by virtue of what 
deed did she obtain s. ? (Dh. 177). Masc. adkigato, 
one who has attained Arahatta, an Arahd (Ab.435). 




ADHIGGAHlTO (p.p.p.). Taken ; occupied by, in 
the poBsesuon of [^rf%| + ^nft?r = lTV]* I^^' 
vaidya adhiggahiio, tenanted by a god (Dh» 77). 

ADHIKARAiyAlff, Relation, reference ; in gram, 
the Locative relation ; drcumstance, matter, thing, 
subject ; case, question, cause, subject of discus- 
sion^ matter of dispute, difficulty; cause, suit, 

trial [^fM^iC ' ^^- ^^> 1^^^ *> ^^^ ^' 7S. 
In grammar a word agreeing with another (in 

case, etc.), is said to be Bomdnddkikarafa or 
itdyddhikarafM therewith, viz, 'Mn a relation of 
agreement" (Q. Gr. 77 \ Alw. 1. 4, note). Kindd 
eva adh.f spme circumstance or other (Pdt. 99). 
Am&lakah & eva adh, hoH, and the case is a 
trumped up one (P4t. 4). VUdhhatk p^kkosd' 
petvd tarn adh, paficch^eHy sent for Visdkha 
and put the case in her hands (Dh. 328). Adhu 
karafMpasutOf touchy, disputatious (Dh. 392). 
Adhikara'^vitpaBamOf settling questions or diffi- 
culties that have arisen (Dh. 407). Adhikaranam 
v^pasameti, to settle a question or difficulty (Pit, 
61, 107)* Sutvd ^dhikara'j^m tarn, having heard 
the case (Mah. 16). Niharitvd 'dhikarafunh tam, 
having settled this question (Mah. 19). Nihatd' 
dhikarafut^, a decided case, a question that has 
been settled (Pdt. 16). Bhedanasamvattanikam 
adh.f a matter or cause tending to disunion (P6t 
5, 74). PamddddAikaraftd bhogajdni, loss of wealth 
caused by sloth. Buddhdnam hi uppianiMm 
adhikarafMfh tattdhato uttarini n'dgacchati, for 
difficulties (or troubles) which Buddhas meet with 
do not last beyond seven days (Dh. 170, and see 
line 11 ; compare also the passage quoted above 
from P&t.99). Ima^ tumhddhikarafuifh nopagaech- 
iitha, ye did not attend this trial (Mah. 28). Four 
sorts of Adhikara^a, or questions to be settied, are 
enumerated in the Vinaya, idz. vifMddhikdranaikf 
anuvddddhikarafMfh, dpattddhikarafMfhy kiccd" 
dhikarafiamf " questions of dispute, questions of 
censure, questions of misconduct, questions of 
duties" (P&t. 62, 63, 64, 72, 91). 
ADHIKARANA8AMATH0, Settling questions, or 
cases that have arisen [llf^^i^m + IPV^] • ^- 
timokkha enumerates seven Adhikaranasamaihd 
dhammd, or " rules for settling questions." These 
rules are as follows: Sammukhdvinayasamatho, 
gativinayoiamathOf amdfhavinaffagamathOf pati' 
fmatakarafta$amathOt yebhuyyasikdtamatho^ pd" 
piyyasikdtamathOf tifMoatthdrakasamatho (see 

each Sep.). E. Mon. 9 ; B. Intr. 303 ; Pdt. 24, 62, 

ADHIKARAJyl (/.), A smitii's anvU [ ^fi|^i< I + 

^. Ab. 527. 
ADHIKARIKO, An official, office-bearer [l|fV|4K 

-hf;i|]- Mah. 160. 
ADHIKARO, Offiee, authority ; function, act ; desire, 

resolves chapter, section [^|\|<i|^. Ab. 1004; 

Dh.94 ; B. Lot 312$ Mah. 1, 80, 180 ; Has. 63. 

ADHIKATARO (a^f.). Greater ; superior [iRfV- 

WrKl' Dh.257. 
ADHIKATO (pp'P-), A superintendent, overseer 

[lrfVlW=W]. Ab. 343, 496. 
ADHIKICGA (ger.). Referring to, relatbg to 

[^rf%rarw=w]. P4t73. 

ADHIRO (adj.), Exceeding, surpassing ; more than, 
better than, superior to [^flf^^]. Ab.712. Javd- 
dhiko ano, a horse of surpassing fleetness (Ab. 
370). With abl. Rdjagdhe tato adhikaik rata^ 
tunh ti^atthi, there is no precious thing In R^a- 
gahe surpassing this (Alw. I. 75). lithiyo ea 
tato adhikd, and a still greater number of women 
(Mah. 74). With gen. BodhUatto Bimbitdroita 
pa(icava$»ddhiko ahu, the Bodhlsatto was &ve years 
older than Bimbislura (Mah. 10). Vastam md- 
sadvayddhikaihy a year and two months (Mah. 209). 
SattddhikavUanakkhattd, twentynBCven Nakkh- 
attiLs (Ab. 60). Atthdraiddhikatk dtfisaiam, two 
hundred and eighteen (Alw. I. 104). Pafrndsd' 
dhikdmi pancQ jdtakaBoidnig five hundred and fifty 

ADHIKOTTA^A|ik> A choj^ing block, execu- 
tioner's block ["^rfv + 97]* 

ADHIMANO, Undue confidence, undue estimate of 
oneself [^l1%| + irPr]. Pit 3, 68. 

ADHIMATTaA (adv.). Exceedingly, excessively 

[^rfV + ifPl]. Dh.4?6. 

ADHIMATTO (adj.). Excessive [infV| + WrV]- 

Ab. 158 ; Dh. 79. 
ADH IMOKKHO, Steadfastness, determination ; 

certainty, confidence, faith [^Rf^ + ift^]. Ab. 

159; Man. B. 411. 

ADHIMUCCATI (poM.), To be inclined to, intent 
upon ; to be set upon, have confidence or fUth In ; 
to be resolved, determined [^|fv + ^^m^= 
^]. With ace. B. Lot 338. With instr. 
SaHre adhimuccati, to possess a man's body, sidd 
of M4ra or an evil spurit For instances of this 




possesion, see Dh. 100, 352, 353, 403. SattkaH 
adh,, to be intent on Baddha, to have iaith in 

ADHIMUTTI (/.), Inclination, disposition ; inten- 
tion, resolution, resolve, will; confidence, faith 
[^rfl| + ^fW]. Ab. 706 ; B. Intr. 288 ; B. Lot. 

ADHIMUTTO (p.p^.), Inclined, disposed, intent 
upon, resolved for, l>ent upon [^|f^ + mf:= 
^^. Dh. 41, 61, 411. CdgddhimuttOy heat on 
charity (Mah. 174). 

ADHINATHO, Lord, chief, governor [^|fM + 
ifTW]- Alw. I. 111. 

ADHlNO (ai(^'.),Subject,dependent,servile [^nfVlf] . 
Ah. 728. 

ADHIPACGAJfl, Sovereignty, . lordship, sapreme 
rule [ ^ i fimw] . Dh. 32, 342; Khnd. 14. 

ADHIPANNO (p.p.p.). Caught, seized; assailed 

ADHIPATEYYAA, Influence, rule, supremacy 
[^(MMHI + ItO] • There are three adhipateyyas 
or influences that induce men to follow virtue: 
AtUdhipateyyanh <' the influence of self," that is, 
self-respect or pride ; Lokddkipaieyyam^ ** the 
influence of the world," that is, dread of censure, 
and DhammidMpateyyaih^ " the inflyence of re- 
ligion,* or the love of virtoe for its own sake 
(Man. B. 483). Dh. 302. 

ADHIPATI (m.). Lord, chief, sovereign, master 

[^irfV^fn] . Ab. 31, 725 ; Kuhn K. S. 33 ; Dh. 90. 
ADHIPO, Lord, king, ruler, master ["^Vf^lXl] . Ab. 

31, 726. Caiudditdtutfn adkipd^ lords of the four 

quarters (Ab. 33). 
ADHIPPAYO, Intention, wish ; meaning ; thought 

[compare l|(i| III -<q]. Ab. 766 ; Dh. 392. Mah. 

104, 121, 252. 
ADHIPPETO (p.p.p.)f Meant ; intended ; desired 

[^if%| + l| + ll!=;=t]. Dh.90,383. 
ADHIRO ((M^'.),Confused,embarra8sed, timid,irre80- 

lute[^ + lff<]. Ab. 73L 

ADHIROHH^ (/.), A ladder [nfvlOfl^] - 
Ab. 210. 

ADHISAKKAEO, flopour, hospitality, festivity 
[^fW + iTWK]. Dh. 135. 

ADHISETI, To lie down upon ; to lie, to rest, to 
deep ; to inhabit [lRf%| + i|7) = if^]. Pres. also 
adkiwete (CI. Gr. 132). With ace. Pathamm adhu 
aettoHt will lie upon the ground (Dh. 8). 

ADHlTE and ADHIYATE, To read, to stody 

[^rfV + 1]' ^^^ K- 3- 13 1 CI. Or. 138. Aor. 

ajjhagdy he attained, acquired, learnt (Dh. 28 : 

Khud. 7); this is, however, possibly from a 

present ajjheti, which I have not met with. 

ADHITO (pari.4a$t). Learned, read ; having learned 

or read [^vn?f = tl- 

TI'^HATI, To stand on ; to stay, to remain 
firm in ; to inhabit ; to appoint, to fix ; to deter- 
mine, to resolve, to wiU, to command ; to devote 
oneself to ; to practise, to perform ; to undertake ; 
to be set upon, to fix the mind upon, dweU upon 
[^if^ + ^Tf] . Gdmatk adhititthqH^ to live in 
the village (CI. Gr. 132). Adhitthdndni fnmc 'eva 
adhifthdti, willed these five resolves (Mah. 108). 
Upasathangdni adhitthdya^ having resolved to 
keep the Uposatha precepto (Alw. I. 70). Canko" 
mdd(ni adhitfhahanto, practising perambulation 
and other duties (Ph. 327). Idam no pw&aik 
purUattabhdnopafildbhdya aamvaitai^H cittaik 
adhitfhahitvdf with their minds intent upon the 
thought. May this good work conduce to our being 
bom as men (Dh. 205). Kammantam adhittha* 
hinuUf they carried on their eyery-day business 
(Dh. 300). Etarh satim adkittheyya^ let him 
remain firm {n this state of mind (Khud. 10). 
Inf. adhitthdtum (Pdt. 48). Adj. adhifthdtabbo 
(P&t. 87). B. Lot 338; Mah. 38, 89; P4t. 76, 
102, 103 ; Dh. 98. 

ADHITrHANAA,R«sting-place; staying,stopping; 
appointing, fixing, appointment, order ; determina- 
tion, resolution, resolve [^fV9I*l]^ Ab. 10329 
1177 ; PAt. 77, 103. Mahd-adhitthdHath pmca- 
ham, Aye great resolves (Mah. 108). Lokddhifthd-' 
nam, the world's obstruction (Alw. 1. 100). Adhi' 
ffhdna, " steadfast resolution," is one of the P&- 
ramitds and one of the Iddhis (Man. B. 102, 500). 
Saftgfti Sutta enumerates four Adhitthdnas, viz., 
Pamddhifthdnath. Saccddhitthdnam, Cdgddhi' 
tthdnafh and Upasamddhitthdnam, 

FPm]- Mah. 34, 182. 

ADHITTHI (adv.), Relating to a woman, with 
reference to a woman ["^rfv + ^|t] • CI. Gr. 

ADHITTHITO (p.p.p. adhitthahoH), Appointed, 
fixed, determined, willed [^tVfVflnT = ^^] • ^^* 
103 ; Pdt. 81. 




appellation [^(f^ + '^^^]• Ab. 114; Dh. 197. 

ADHIVASANAft, Consent, assent; acceptance, 
[^HfV + caus. IfCt^+^PT]- Sattdham adhivd- 
sanom alattha, obtdned their acceptance of the 
invitation for a week (Mah. 174). Dh. 98. 

ADHIYASATI, To dweU in, to inhabit [^rfV + 
^^ . Gl. Gr. 132 ; Alw. I. xv. 

ADHIVASETI (caw. last). To consent, to assent, 
to comply with ; to l)ear with ; to accept ; to ap» 
prove, to favour, to receive fiivourably, to accept 
with resignation, to bear, to endare [^rfV + 
cans. ^4^ . Adhivdtehi me ajjatandya bhattam, 
consent to take your meal with me to-day (Dh. 98). 
AdModsayitvd Bhagavd tuphibhdvena, Bnddha 
having by his silence g^ven his consent (Mah. 6 ; 
B. Lot. 351 ; B. Intr. 250). Puna atthasu dinneiu 
adhivdsesi, eight more being presented he accepted 
them (Mah. 26). Brahmano ajfhesana^ adhivd- 
ietvdf having acceded to the request of Brahma 
(Dh. 119). Nddhivdseti, rejects it, will have no» 
thing to say to it (Ras. 87)* Vedanath ajjkavdsayi^ 
resigned himself to his last agony (B. Lot. 339). 
In formal conversation adhivdaetha is used in the 
sense of " allow me," " excuse me." Adhivdaetha 
hatipdham ddnaih tdva demi^ permit me to give 
away alms for a few days longer (Dh. 369). Bhante 
thokam adhivdaethdti ftatvd vegenagharamgantvd^ 
saying, Sir, excuse me for a moment, he ran home 
(Dh. 161) ; Dh. 241. 

ADHI VASO, Dwelling, residence ; consent, accept* 
ance [VfM^I^]* Ab. 958. 

ADHIVASO, Perfuming the person [Hfi|^l4l] > 
Ab. 958. 

ADHIVATTHO (p.p.p. adhivasoH), Dwelling, re* 
sldmg [^»f%J + H^]. Dh, 165, 341, 392, 

ADHO (adv, and prep,), Under, underneath ; below; 
down ; low down [^V^|^« Ab. 1156; Khud. 16; 
Kuhn K. S. 7. With abl. Adhard adho, below the 
lip, from the lips downwards (Ab. 262). 

ADHOBHAOO, The lower part [^IV^+ ^TRJ. 

Ab. 1166 ; Dh. 148. 
ADHOBHUVANAA, The lower region, P^tAla, the 

N4ga-world [^9Vl^W^]< Ab. 649. 
ADHOOAMi {adj.)f Going downwards, descending 

[^TTO, + Trf^ . P^t. 13. 
ADHOGAMO (adj.). Going downwards, descending 

[^l¥^+ ^* Ab. 38 ; Man. B. 400. 

ADHOMUKHO (a^\). Looking downwards, with 
the head bent down [^ra^+ ^]. Dh.241, 243. 

ADHOSAKHO (a4f.). Having the branches down- 
wards [l^^+HT^]. Dh. m. 

ADHOTHITO (adj.). Standing below, situated 
below [iraf(,+ flVlf=^rr]- when referring 
to a passage in a book it means "preceding" 
(Alw. L xvii). 

ADHUNA (adff.). Now, just now [^t^VTT]- Ab. 
1140. Adhund-'UppannOy just arisen (Dh. 367)* 

ADHUNAGATO (adj.). Just arrived, newly come 
[^I^WT + W^]- Adhundgato, a new comer 
(F. J4t. 6), a novice (Dh. 122). 

ADHOTO (p.p.p.)' Shaken [^IT^ =s ^ . Ab. 744. 

A9H YO (adj.). Belonging to a wealthy family, well 
bom, of good family [^HRR] • Ab. 833. SwAd^, 

ADI (m.). Banning, starting-point [Wfv]* Ab. 
715, 978. Loc. ddimhi and ddo (Ab. 1167 ; 01. Gr. 
27). Loc. pi. dd(8u, and frequently ddi»u (€1. Qr* 
27 ; Dh. 426). Taaaa vaggeau ailakkhandhawiggo 
ddi, of its divisions the S. is the first. Tairdyam 
ddi bhavaH idha pannaaaa bhikkhuno, now accord- 
ing to my commandment tlus is the first thing for 
a wise priest (Dh. 67). Adibhdto, initial, first 
(Ab. 417 ; Khud. 17). Adikammam, origination 
(Ab. 1162). Adivaaaaaaie, in the first century 
(Mah. 20). Satthuaa* ddippaveaamhi puram Rd^ 
jagaham yathd, as at the Teacher's first entry. into 
the city of R. (Mah. 240). Athddi, beginning with 
the word *' atha" (Alw. I. viii.). Adi is much used 
in a sense nearly equivalent to our " et*cetera ;" it 
then forms the latter part of a compound, which 
may be either a noun or an adjective. The fol- 
lowing examples will illustrate this use of Adi. 
Atnaccddayo aannipatantu, let the ministers of 
state and other offidals assemble (Alw, I. 74)> 
where tibe compound is a noun in the masc. plural. 
Sewl^mtitfhdnddini pahdya, resigning military 
commands and other emoluments (Alw. I. 78), 
where the compound is a noun in the neuter 
plural. Sdriputtamoggalldnddayo mahdadvakd, 
the apostles Sdriputta MoggalUna, etc (Alw. 1. 76), 
where the compound is an adjective in the masc. 
plural. So 'fi tvam ho ahan H ddhU vatvd, say- 
ing. Who are you ? Who am I ? and so forth (Dh. 
392) ; in this example the words ko*si-tvam-ko- 
ahan-ti-idini form a compound noun in the neuter 
plural. Dehi me dhara me H ddind nayena tfottuni 
na vatfati, it is not right to speak in such a way 




as €Hv6 me f Bring me t and bo on (Fit, 79) ; here 
tiie words dehi-nie-dhara-me-ti<4din4 form a com- 
poond adjective in Bgnemeat with naifena. Some- 
times the compound ending with idi is again oom- 
poanded with another word, as Amaccddipariimio, 
Bvmmnded hy his ministers and other officers 
(Alw. 1. 75). The phrase Adim katvd is nsed In the 
sense o#" beginning with/' ''from : " NdH poManna^ 
eittd Suddhodanamakdrdjdnam ddiik katvd oa- 
ndhknh his Idnsmen, from king Snddhodana 
downwardSy with joyM hearts bowed before hhn 
(Dh. 334, 417). Cdtummahdrdjikam diUfk katvd 
ffdoa mkmuHhabhavand pan* idath koldhalam 
agamdtis and the tumult spread from the Ci- 
tammah^r^ilca to the Akanittha lieavens (Dh. 
103), see also Dh. 209. 
JUOIBRAHM ACARI YAllil, Primary or fundamental 
morality, as opposed to the details of practice and 

»^"^ [^Vf^ + Wir + ^]- Ab. 431; Man. 

ADICGABANDHU (m.), Kmsman of the sun, a 
name of Buddha as a member of a fiunUy of the 
Solar race [^mf^ + ^]. Ab. 5; Dh. 75. 

ADICCAPATHO, The sky, the heavens [^Vf^ + 
Vm]' Ab.45; Dh. 32. 

iDIGCO, The sun [mf^]. Ab. 02; Dh. 09. 

iDIKO (a4;.),Beginning with; first^nitial ['fVf?[l|] . 
PhaUm p^fA ddikaih, attained the first phala, 
▼is. Sot^ttiphala (Mah. 72). Adika is generally 
used as a substitute for Adi in Its sense of 
<< et-cetera.'' SoAosMyaftM jraslajMifli^ii, the thou- 
sand Ja^las, Kassapa and the rest (Mah. 2). Sotd- 
paimddikd iekhd, the Sekhas beginning with the 
Sol^^paiina (Ab. 435). Alw. I. cvu. 

ADIMO (adf.). First, initial ["Vf^]. 

ADINAVO, Distress, suffering ; evil result or con- 
sequence; evil, guilt, sinfulness; disadvantage 
[^in(^«m]. Ab. 760; Alw. I. 100; Mah. 158. 
Ghardvd$e ddinavam dassetvd, pointing out the 
evUs of a woridly life (Dh. 403). Yakkhabkdve 
dd, katheivdf telling of the disadvantages of the 
state of behig a Yakkha (Dh. 305). Kdnuhunk 
dd^ the guUt of evil desires (Dh. 79). Sangiti 
Sutta enumerates ^ve Adhuwd doMana silavi^ 
paitijfdf *' evil consequences to the immoral man 
of his Immorality," loss of wealth, evil fame, etc. 

ADINN ADANAA, Taking what is not given, appro- 
prialioD,tliefl[^ 4- dinna (which see) + <IIU^|I|]. 
Khod. 9; £. Mon. 23; P6t. 3; B. Lot 444. 

ADINNADAyI (m.). One who takes what is not 
given, a thief [H -h dinna + Vl^lRl*C] • 

ADINNO (aeff.). Not given [see DinMo]. Dh. 44, 
73. ^(/tnnoAiH, a thief (Has. 23). 

ADIPPATI,To blaze, to bum, to glow [Hf + 1^^ • 
Oog. Ev. 15. 

ADISATI,To 8how,to point out, to tdl [ W + f^yQ - 
Mah. 24. Qer.ddi$$a (Fit. 77). 

ADITI (/.), The mother of the gods [irf^flf]. 
Ab. 83. 

ADITO (adv.), From the beginning ; first ["fllfl^- 
7f^] . Adito patfhdyaj from the beginning. Su' 
tvdna pavatthh »abbam ddito, having heard all 
the circumstances from the beginning (Mah. 239). 
Maya$k ddito *va Revatattheram upa»akkamimha, 
we went in the first instance to the Thera Rjsvata 
(Dh.300). Mah. 20, 100. 

ADITTHO (adj,\ Not seen, unseen [^ + ^ = 
\^. Dh. 301, 320 ; Alw. I. 75. 

ADITTO (p./>.p. ddippaH)i Blazing, burning [^- 
i(V^= :i(V^. Ab. 1075 ; Mah. 3 ; Dh. 90, 395. 

ADIYATI (pass, dddti), To take; to receive; to 
obtiun ; to take to heart, to attend to [^ + ^^Wl^ 
=r ;g^] . Adinnam dd,, to take what is not given. 
tosteal(Dh.44,73;Kamm. 10). Satthu vacanatk 
anddiyitvd, without listening to the Teacher's 
words (Dh. 145). Tesu'vacaiusd^ anddf^antesu^ 
when they would not mind what he said (Dh. 104). 
Aor. ddiffi (Dh. 304). Part. pr. ddiyamdno, ddi- 
yam, dtUyaMto, Khud. 8. 

ADO (a4f.). Eating, feeding on [^]. Ab. 407. 

Ado, a locative of Adi (a. Or. 27 ; Ab. 1107). 
Ado bhdsanatkj speaking at first (Ab. 123). 

' ADOSO, Not an offence,absence of guilt \^ + ^t^] . 
Mah. 157. 

ADOSO, Absence of hatred or anger [^ + i^]. 
Man. B. 413. 

ADUKKHAMASUKHA (/.), Indifference, insensi- 
bility, indifference to pain or pleasure [^ + '{•V 
+ ^ ^ ^9 , the m is euphonic] . Ab. 159. 

ADUA, see Amu. 

AGA, see EH. 

AOAGCH ATI, To come, to approach ; to arrive ; to 
return [yn -f 1|?^]. Fut. dg^missati (F. Jat. 9), 
dgacckissdti. Aor. dgamd, dgacchi^ dgami (Mah. 
IzxxWi. 171, 212). Inf. t^nttfiim (Mah. 89). Ger. 
^amma (see separ.), dgantvd (Mah. 194). Adj. 
dgammo. P.p.p. dgato. Uddesam dfocehttti^ to 
come into readings to be read (Kamm. 35 ; Pit. 3). 




AGADHO (adj.\ Bottomless, unfathomable [if + 

irra]- Ab. 669. 
AOADOy Medicine, drug*, medicament [^ + W<^]- 

Ab. 330 ; Has. 87. Agaddmaldkaikf medicinal A 

(Mah. 22). 
AOAHITO (p.p.p.)y Seized, held; pnlled [^ + 

lf^ = ^. Dh. 107. 
AGALU (».), Aloe wood, or Aquilaria Agallochum 

[igspi]. Ab. 302. See also ^^or». 
AGAMAKO (aty.). Without viUages, uninhabited 

[^+irro+ii]. Aiw. Lcvii. 

AGAMANAA, Coming*, arriving ; return ; approach 
[^HPRnr]. Mah. 205, 243; Dh. 203. Titrnhd^ 
kam dgamanamaggena, by the road yon came by 
(Dh. 123). 

AGAMETI (caus. dgwschati). To cause to come ; to 
communicate to, to impart ; to wait [^ + ^HTirRl 
= 919^]. Dh. 104,203. 

AGAmI (adj.). Coming; future [W + ^TTf«nC- 
Agdmikdlo, future time (Ab. 875). 

AgAMIKO (adj.)f Coming, approaching, next 

[^innflW]. Ab. 1104. 

AGAMMA (ger. dgacchoH), Having come to, having 
gone to ; having arrived ; having returned ; by 
means of; on account of; according to; for the 
sake of, on behalf of, for [^ + W^ = ^IH] • Okd 
anokam dg., having gone from home to solitude 
(Dh. 16). Pnram dg., having come to the city 
(Mah. 217)- N*etam sarofutm 4g,, not by means 
of this refuge (Dh. 34). Pa$iMam dg. koidya 
mviftho, touched with the whip for bdng slow 
(Dh. 310). Payogam dg. iogate dgame, according 
to their employment in the religious boolss ( Alw. I. 
viii.). MahdmaMndattherarndgamma vihdrarii kd» 
rayittha, built a vihara for the thera Maliinda 
(Mah. 102). Nunbarukkhena $addkim sannivd' 
aam dgamma, through contact with the Nimba tree 
(F. JiU 2). Has. 31 ; Mah. 82, 106. 

AGAMO, Coming, advent, arrival ; income, influx ; 
knowledge ; sacred book ; the Buddhist scriptures ; 
doctrine, religion [^IHRf]- Ab. 951; Dh. 358. 
Pekkhautd khattiydgamam^ awaiting the prince's 
arrival (Mah. 53). Buddhdgamamhi pat home, 
at the first visit of Buddha (Mah. 6). N* atthi 
pdpaM^ dgatno, no sin accrues therefrom. The 
four Nikdyas are also called Agamas, e.g., Di- 
ghdgamo, the Digha Nikdya. Sogate dgame, in 
the Buddhist scriptures (Alw. I. viii.). Ftnoy- 
ddi'tfkiUdganuak Jotayitvdna, caudng to shine 

the doctrine contained in the Vinaya, etc. (Mah- 
126). In grammar Agama means '' augment,* a 
consonant inserted or revived for euphony ; thus 
the V in tp^v-angika and the r in sabbM^'eva are 
said to be Agamas ; the n in bhimdaii is called 
NiggaMtdgamo (CI. Gr. 11 ; Alw. I. 19). B. Intr. 
49; Mah. 110. 

AGANDHAKO (adj.). Devoid of perfume [^ + 
IfUf + ^l]. Dh. 10. 

AGANTU (a^»)$ Coming, arriving ; occasional, ad- 
ventitious, incidental [^innn]. Ab.444. a guest 
(Ab. 424). 

AGANTUKO (a^.). Coming, arriving; adventitioos, 
incidental ; foreign [^|4|M + ^] . Aganiuko, a 
guest, a stranger. Agantuko bhikkhu, a stranger 
priest, one who is on a visit or living away from 
his own vih&ra (Mah. 176 ; Dh. 389, 397). Jgamtw^ 
kavattam, duties to be observed to a priest who 
comes as a guest (Dh. 229, 319). jigantukaddmuk, 
offerings to a priest who comes from a distance 
(Dh. 112). Agantukd upakfaleid, adventitious 

^ defilements (Dh. 91). 

AGARAA^ a house, a building; an apartment, a 
haU [^PTTT* "Wnr]- Ab, 205 ; Dh. 26. Agd- 
ram ejjkdvatoHy to live in a house, to live a house- 
holder's life (B. Lot. 581 ; Alw. I. 92). Agdra- 
majjhe, amid the cares of household life (Dh. 80). 
Abl. agdragmd, from home, leaving home (B. Lot 
863). Mdhdgdram, a spacious apartment (Mah. 
120). Bandhandgdrank, a prison. Amdgdro, 
houseless. C^oto^A^f ilrai&,a Uposatha hall. Agyd- 
gdra/ik, and aggiydgdraik, a building where sacred 
fire is kept. 

AGARAVO, Want of respect, disrespect, disregard 
[^ + T'^^] * Sangiti Sutta enumerates six Agi- 
ravas, disregard of Buddha, of the Law, etc 

AGARAVO (adj.), Disrespectful,di8regardhig [if + 
l|Y^] • With loc Satthari agdravo, disregarding 
the Teacher. 

AGARIKO, One who lives in a house, a householder, 
layman [^RTPC + T^]- Ab. 446; Pdt 106. 

AGARI YD, A householder, a layman [IVITIT + ^] * 
Dh. 136, 181 ; Alw. I. 75. Pubbe agdnyabhdto, 
formeriy when a layman. 

AGARU (o4/0> L>S^^ ^^^ heavy ; unimportant ; not 
disagreeable [^n\|- Ab. 929. Neut. agaru, 
Agallochum (Ab. 302, see also Again). 

AGATI (/.), Wrong course, evil course or state, 
misfortune [^ + ^rf7r]* AgoHgamtmoMf evil 




oounes (Mah. 129). Caiasio agati hitvd, escaping 
finom the four evil states (Mah. 242). The four 
Agatis are Chando^ doto^ moho, bhayatky lost, 
hatred, ignorance, and fear. 

AGATO (a4;.), Not gone to, not attained [^ + 
in|=l|i^. Dh.67. 

AGATO (P'P'p* dgacchaH)^ Having come; having 
arrived ; having returned ; having attained ; con- 
tained in, existing in, found in [inpnf =1|7^. 
Kaikam dgatd^ how did yon get here ? (Dh. 155). 
Idh* dgatoj when I retom (Mah. 110). Jlgata- 
maggo, the road one came by (Dh. 155, 156, 173, 
ld4). Assdsam dgato, comforted (Mah. 158). 
DetfoidnuggahdgtUdf having obtained the protec- 
tion of the god (Mah. 23). Agatasamatto, a 
monastery (CI. Or. 80). Agato *mhi, I have come 
(Mah. 103 ; Dh. 88). AgtU^ amha, we have come, 
viz. agatd amha (Mah. 103). Agaf attha, ye 
have come (Alw. 1. 74). Ayam dhammo suttdgato, 
this law contained in the Suttas (Pdt.l7). Kosamba^ 
kkandake dgataiuqfena, as we find in the K. (P&t. 
27). Nydse dgataauttasankhydni^ the numbers of 
the rules as they are given in the Ny^sa (Alw. I. 
104). Agatdgatd, people who keep coming up, 
the bystanders or spectators, all comers (Dh. 109, 
176,207). KuhnK.S.34. 

AOGABlJO (a4;0' Propagated by slips or cuttings 
[iRI+si^]- 1*he comment on Brahma Jdla 
Bntta mentions **Ana^jakam phanijjakam haru 
veram** as of this dass. 

AGGAHETI (co«t.). To seize, to take [^ + HJ- 
Yirf7T=lVf]- Mah. 23; Dh. 291. 

AGGAJO {adj,\ Firstborn, eldest [^RHl] • Aggajo^ 
elder brother (Ab. 254). 

AGOAIiO, AGGALAft, and AGGALA (/.), A 
wooden bolt or pin for fastening a door [^V^W] . 
Pit. 13. Ab.217. 

AGOAA, see Aggo, 

AOOAJif, House, hall, apartment. This word ap- 
pears to be a contracted form of Agdra^ the transi- 
tkm being Agdra^ Agara^ -^gra^ Agga, It is 
found only as the latter part of a compound. 
Upwathaggaihf Uposatha hall (Mah. 15, compare 
Upoealhig&ram). Bhattaggam, refectory (Mah. 
88). SoAfAMi^^af^ ticket haU (Mah. 101). Khur- 
aggatk,Umsare room (Mah. 103). Dhamnuuavan- 
aggad^t preaching house (Dh. 402). 

AOGAMAHESl (/), The chief wife of a king, 
queen oonwnrt [^RT+irff^^]. Dh. 160, 230, 

341; Has. 15. DH. 164, where a king has 

AGGANf^O (adj.)y Chief, leading, principal [^fH -f 
H]. Ab. 695; CI. Or. 90. 

AGGAPPATTO {adj,\ Haring attained perfection, 
reached the height [^RT + irnT= W^- -R*^- 
paggappattOf possessed of the perfection of beauty 
(Dh. 162). Mah. 245 ; Dh. 216. 

AGGASAVAKO, Chief disciple [mT + ^TPRl]. 
Every Buddha has two chief disciples ; those of 
Sakyamuni were Sdriputta and MoggaMna. Dh. 
112, 116, 125; Mah. 199; E. Mon. 226, 303; 
Man. B. 94 (note). Fern, aggofdmkd^ a chief 
female disciple. Each Buddha has two of these ; 
Sakyamuni's were Khemd and Uppalava^^i (Dh. 

AGGATA (/.), Superiority, height, perfection \yn 
+ ^]. Ab. 1168. Sakalagunaggaiam gato^ 
having attained the perfection of all virtues 
(Mah. 10). 

AGGATO (adv. and prep,). Before, in front of, in 
the presence of [^HnHCI- Ab. 1148, 1194. 

AGGE (adv.). Before, in front [^]. Dh. 224. 

AGGHAKO (a4;.). Having the value of, worth 
[^l|^+*m]. Kotidhanagghakath tayanaik, a 
couch worth a ko^i of treasure (Mah. 180). 

AGGHANAKO (adj.). Of the value of, costing, 
worth ["^n^+^inf + ^]* Satasahatsagghanakd 
dve kambald, two blankets worth a hundred thou- 
sand pieces (Dh. 29 1). Chaaaiasahauagghaf^akath 
bhikkhu»angha$8a «o add, he gave presents of the 
value of six hundred thousand pieces to the priests 
(Mah. 214). Pdt. 66 ; Mah. 160 ; Dh. 233, 237, 
239, 245, 250. 

AGGHAPETI (com. next). To get valued or ap- 
praised. Dh. 248 ; Alw. I. 75 ; Mah. 163. 

AGGHATI, To be worth, to cost [^V^l* ^^^t*^^ 
luu8aih agghanii, are worth a thousand ko^is 
(Mah. 195). Dh. 13, 248, 352. 

AGGHIYAlir, A respectful oblation [^|^]. Ab. 
424. Kusumagghiyani, an oblation of flowers 
(Mah. 99). 

AGGHO, and AGGHA A, Price, cost, value ; a mode 
of worship or reverence consisting in an oblation 
of rice, etc. [^]. Ab. 424, 1048. Kotidhan- 
agghd pallankd, couches worth a ko(i of treasure 
(Mah. 180). Mah. 160, 200. 

AGGI (m.), Fire ; sacrificial fire ; the deity of fire 
[^rf^] • Ab. 33. Gen. and dat. oggtM^ aggissa 





(CI. Gr. 26). Plur. aggiy aggayo^ aggiyo. Aggim 
karoti, to make a fire (F. Jit, 2). jiggihuttaih, 
sacrificial fire (Dh. 70). jiggihomo, offering of 
fire. Aggisdldf a room or hall in which a fire is 
kept (Dh. 302). Aggiydgdram and Agydgdrmk^ 
a building where the sacred fire is kept. Sangiti 
Sntta enumerates three sorts of fire : dhuneyyaggi, 
gahapataggi,and dakkhiv^eyyaggi. They are given 
somewhat differently at Afo. 419, as gdhapaecoy 
dhavanfyo, and dakkhifMggi. Aggi is used 
metaphorically in the sense of ** torment," '* con- 
suming evil/' " passion." There are three of these 
aggis, viz. rdgaggiy doioggi, mohaggi, lust, hate, 
error (Man. B. 495). There are also eleven Aggis 
thus enumerated in Sankhy^ha Praki^a: Rdgo, 
doio, mohOf jdH, jard, marajuimy toko, paridevOf 
dukkhamf domananam, updydmt, lust, hate, error, 
birth, decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
grief, despair. These are given at B. Liot. 332, 
with a slight alteration, damanassupdydsa being 
treated as one, and vyadhi, ** disease,* being in- 
serted after yari. See also Aggini and GknL 

AGGIKKHANDHO, Mass of fire, blazing or flam- 
ing fire [^rf^-h Wl|]. Used figuratively of a 
person of brilliancy and distinction (Dh. 243, 

AGGIMANTHO, Name of a plant, the Premna 
Spinosa \ytf^ + W^^]* Ab. 574. 

AGGINI («.), Fire [^11^], 

AGGO (iM^'Of First, foremost, chief, pre-eminent 
[1«^]. Ab. 005, 715, 84a Tefqfavaguftehi aggo, 
pre-eminent in the qualities of stateliness and 
speed (Mab. 137)* Me $dvakayugam aggam^ my 
two leading disciples (Dh. 124). Manmueau yam 
oggomf whatsoever men prize most (Has* 28). 
Fem. aggd, Pafyaggihuh aamatthdnmk aggd 
bhaoeyymk^ may I be the first of those who are 
able to tend (Dh. 252). Fituiyafin^nam aggo, 
chief of those who were versed in ih^ Yinaya 
(Mah. 13). Taamd aggo H tnUto^ therefiore he 
is called chief (Alw. I. zzviii.). — ^Mase. Aggo^ a 
chief (Alw. K. xvi. ; B. Lot. 576 ; E. Mon. 2).— 
Neut. Aggaikf point, top, extremity, summit; 
height ; front, forepart ; beginning ; sprout or bud 
of a tree or plant ; the first or best, the firstfruits 
(Ab. 593, 843). i^omfm' <^^ifb, I will give away 
the firstfruits (Mab. 167). — Compounds: Agga^ 
yodho, chief warrior (Mah. 133). Loke aggo- 
puggal9f the foreittost personage in the world 

(Dh. 313). Aggnpaffhdko, chief servitor (B. Lot. 
296). Aggaphalaik and phalaggathf the highest 
fruition, viz. Arahatta (Mah. 102). Dfpe agga- 
dhanuggaho, the best archer in the island (Mah. 
155). AggadhammOf highest condition, viz. Ara- 
hatta (Dh. 125, 126, 127). Yakkhiftiyd aggd- 
9ttnam aggedakam aggapiftdark dentin they give 
the yakkhipf the seat of honour, the first pre- 
sentation of water and of food (Dh. 403). Agga- 
pddOf the fore part of the foot (Dh. 340). Agga* 
namgutthamt tip of the tail (Dh. 192). Aggaoanda- 
nam, earliest salutation in the morning (Dh. 339). 
Aggaddnam, gift of firstfruits (Dh. 126, 127, 376). 
AggadakkMfteyyOy deserving to be presented with 
the firetfrnits (Dh. 340). Aggaioasam, firstfruits 
of tlie crop (Dh. 125). Aggakhdyikachdtake, 
during the famine in which men fed on sprouts 
(Mah. 195). Chinnaggdni H^dm, grass with the 
succulent tops gone (Dh. 105). Li^aggo, chief of 
the world (B. Lot 576). Sirkobhaggo^ at the 
height of prosperity and splendour (Mah. 245). 
Mpaggafky the perfection of beauty (Dh. 162). 
Sdkhaggam, the top of a branch (F. Jit. 12). 
Araggaikf point of an awl (Dh. 7l» 72). Hu' 
kkhaggarih top of a tree (Ab. 542). Kesaggam 
and ndlaggafhy the tip of a hair (Dh. 147, 295). 
KHMoggam^ tip of a blade of Kusa grass (Dh. 13). 
Ddyanaggam khtdaggam^ firstfruits of the reap- 
ing, firstfruits of the threshingwfloor (Dh. 126). See 

AGH AM; Evil, sin; grief, suffering [IR]. Ab. 
84,89,940; B. Lot. 834. 

AGHAlir, The sky, the air. Ab. 46, 940. 

AGHATANAA, Slaughter-house, shambles ; place 
of execution [ ^IM i a i * l ] - Ab. 521 ; P&t. 72. 

AGH ATO, Anger, lU-wiU, hatred, malice [WQT^] • 
Ab. 164; Dh. 156, 430. Aghdtath karoti, and 
dg. bandhati, to take a dislike to, conceive hatred 
against, bear ill-wiU against With loc Mayd 
taithari dghdto kaiOt I have borne ill-will towards 
the Teacher (Dh. 147). Dh. 143, 164, 178. Sangitl 
Sutta enumerates nine Aghdtavatih^mif or ** occa- 
sions of ill-will ;** a man bears ill-will saying, 
*' he did me an injury," or *' he does me an iiyury," 
etc Also nine AghdtapafUsinaydf or ^'repres- 
sions of ill-wilL" 

AGHATUKO {adj.\ Iiguring, hurting [^ + ^- 

AGHOSO (ac(/.), b gram, surd or hard consonants 




[^ + ^tlf]. The sard letters in Pfili are k, kh, 
Cf eA, f, ihj t, thf p, ph^ and «. 

AOILA YATI, To be tired, to ache [^ + 19] • 

AGO, A monntain ; a tree [^Rf]- Ab. 539, 1117. 

AObCARO, That which ought not to be gone to 
or frequented, wrong sphere, improper or sinfol 
place or object [^ + Wt^rT]* Brothels, taverns, 
etc, are agocard, or places to be avoided by the 
Buddhist priest (E. Mon. 71). Fegkfddibhede 
agoeare eoranto^ going after forbidden things, 
harlots, etc. (Dh. 335). Dh. 858, 396. 

AOU («.), Bin, g^ilt, o^noe, erime [Wnt]* Ab. 
84, 355, 1064. 

AOU^O, Bad quality, badness [^ + ^] . Dh. 242. 

AG YAGARAA, see Aggi. 

Aha, To say ; to speak ; to call ; to tell ; to say to 
[lVr(='llV]- l^is word is a perfect tense, no 
other tenses of AH being used. Only the drd 
pers. sing, and plur. are in general use. Aha has 
either a past or a pros, signification. Yo vd pi 
katvd na karwniti &4ha, and he who having done 
a thing says, I have not done it (Dh. 54). Plur. 
dkUy and dha^uu. Na tarn dafhafh bondhanwn 
dku dhiray wise men call not that a strong fetter 
(Dh. 62). TefC dhu pordfMf therefore have the 
ancients said (Dh. 87). Detfa amhdkam dete 
huddharatanam ndma uppamnan it dhathsu, they 
said. Your majesty, in our country there has i^ 
peared a treasure called Buddha (Alw. I. 97). 
Ahamm bkikkhaoo tarn ttarusarani, the priests 
said to the king (Mah. 238). Fdcetufk lekhakam 
dha, told the secretary to read it out (Mah. 196). 
Thero dha tarn kampakdraiwm, the thera told the 
cause of the earthquake (Mah. 88). Pathamarh 
gdiham dha, recited the first stanza (F. J4t. 7). 
Mah. 196, 205 ; Alw. I. 73 ; F. J4t. 17. 

AHAGGA, see AhanaH. 

Xame of a particular sort of bed or chair, one 
the legs of which can be easily removed by draw- 
ing out a pin. Ab. 310 ; P4t. 13, 86. See next. 

AHAGCO (adf,). To be brought forward, to be 
adduced ; removable. This is a part, fut. pass, 
fimn HRI with L It represents an anomalous 
Sanskrit form 4hfitya, and answers to the regular 
^o>na WIIIm* Akaccawdhdnena, by rule adduce- 
able in each case, by specific rule (Alw. I. vii.). 

AH AHA (intefy\), Alas ! Oh I [Hff]. Ab. 1201. 

AH AHAlk, One of the high numerals, 10,000,000^^ 
or 1 followed by seventy ciphers. Ab. 475 ; B. Liot. 

AHAA, a day [^rp(]- Ab. 67. Ekdhmm, one 
day. Dffiham, two days. THham, three days. 
Katipdham, a few days. Ikudham, ten days. 
GamandhaihfdtLy of departure (Mah. 177). Megha^ 
echanndkam, a dondy day (Ab. 50). Tadake, on 
that day. Atrdham, to«day (Ab. 1155). 

AHAlEl {pers,pron.\ I, myself [^lfH=lWI^]- 
Dh. 57. Ace mam, mamam (Dh. 1 ; Mah. 260). 
Inst, and abl. mayd (Dh. 82). Gen. and dat. mama, 
mamam, mayha$h, amham (Dh.239, 242 ; F. J4t. 9). 
Loc. mtnfi (Dh. 99). Plur. majfom, we (Dh. 2, 
135). Ace. amke, amhdkaih (F. J4t 19). Instr. 
and abl. amhehi (Mah. 150). Gen. and dat arnhd" 
kafh (Mah. 198; Dh. 240; F. J6t. 3). Loc 
amhesu. Very frequently me is substituted for 
certain cases of the sing., and «o for certain cases 
of the plural (see these words separately). The 
plur, is sometimes used for the ring, when kings 
or great men speak, e.g. Amke nmdhdya katken, 
you speak of me (F. J4t. 19). The initial a of 
aham is frequently elided or alnorbed by sandhi, 
e.g. Aggo *ka9h (E. Mon. 2). Fidd *kam (Dh. 63). 
Handdkatn=skandaaka^(Dh,S6y SacdkaHi = 
sace akam (Dh. 155). Tdidkam = idsaih dkam 
(CI. Gr. 14). Svdkam = so akam. 

AHAMAH AMIKA (/.), Conceit of superiority, arro- 

gance, egoism [^RfH + HfH + T*] • ^^' ^' 

AHAlifSU, see Aka. 

AHANATI, To strike ; to throw ; to beat, to pound ; 
to reach [^ + ^plj* Vdripittkiyamdkani,AtA\LtA 
it down upon the water (Mah. 175). Ger. dkanitvd 
(Mah. 167), dkacea (Mah. 45, 141). Akacca 
90 kkaggatalam ka^do, the arrow striking his 
sword-hilt (Mah. 156). Akacca krakmalokath^ 
reaching the Brahma heavens (Mah. 118). P.p.p. 
dkato. Cans, dkandpeti (Mah. 169). 

AHANKARO, Selfishness ; pride, arrogance [^- 

HTC]. Ab. 171,897. 

Ah ARANA A, Bringing ; acoomplishmg [^llf^lir] • 
Pit. 1 ; Khud. 27. 

Ah ARATI, To bring ; to fetch ; to take, to plunder ; 
to tell, to relate [^ -}- %\. Atitam dk., to re- 
late a story (F. Jit. 2, 8, 12). AkaramH madkuik 
duve, two of them procure the honey (Mah. 24). 
Jayam dk., to gain the victory (Dh. 286). Attkmk 
dk., to get at the meaning (Alw. I. cviii.). Ger. 




dharitvd (Mah. 175 ; Dh. 93» 179). Paes. dkttri- 
yati (Dh. 217). Caus. dhardpeti, to cause to be 
broaght (Mah. 169, 195), dhdreti, to eat P.p.p. 
dhafo. Mah. 22, 120, 122. 

Ah ARO (o4;.). Bringing [^fff^. Khnd.9. Bo- 
dhdharakuldnif the families who brought over the 
Bo tree (Mah. 120). 

AhARO, Food, nourishment ; cause [Hif (4j* Ab. 
856; Dh. 17, 282. There are four Ahdras or 
Nutriments: Kabalinkdro dhdro, PhasiOf Mono- 
taSicetandf Fmndftaihf ''material food, contact, 
thought, consciousness." Gogerly says of these : 
^'Ah&hL, the food of action, or bases; they are 
four, matter, touch, or contact (whether corporeal 
or mental), thought, and consciousness.'^ 

AHASI, see HaratL 

AHATAA, a new doth or garment, before it is 
washed [^ + f|f = fi^. Ab. 293. 

AHATO (p.p*p» dhanatt). Struck ; stamped [^fTflT 
^ Y^ • Ahatanh ketnarajatathf coined gold and 
silver (Ab. 903, 486). Ahataeitto, agitated 
(Pit. 72). 

AHAfO (pp'P- dharatt)y Brought, carried; ob- 
tained [^miV = 1] • Ab. 749 ; Mah. 169 ; P4t. 22. 

Ah AVANl YO (adj.). Sacrificial [ ^ifq i Htf = If] . 
Ahavanfyo aggi, sacrificial fire (Ab. 419). B. Intr. 
78. See Ahuueyyo* 

Ah AY O, War, batde [ Wflf] • Ab. 399. 

AhAYO, a trough or watering-place by a fountain 
or well [^nfl^]- Ab. 680. 

AHBSUft, see HoH. 

AHI (m.), A snake [^rff ] . Ab. 653 ; Kuhn EL S. 30. 

AHIGUIVTHIKO, A snake charmer [iffff + ^fi^ 
+ f;i|]. Ab. 656 (note). 

AHlftsA (/.), Not hurting, humanity, kindness 

[^ + flNT]. Dh.46,53. 
AHlASAKO (adj,), Not injuring others, harmless, 

humane [^ + Vtm] • I>h* 40. 
AHlASANAM,Not injuring others,humanity [^ + 

fl^nf]. Dh. 380. 
AHIiypATI, To roam, to wander [^ + f|pQ(]. 

Dh. 302 ; Mah. 260 ; F. Jdt. 45. 
AH IRIKA (/.)> Shamelessness [H + ]fhlT] - Man. 

B. 417. 
AHIRIKO (wff.), Shameless [^ + 'ftm] • I>h* 44. 
AHITAGOI (m.), One who offers sacred ^re [^ + 

tf?!=^ + ^]. Cl.Gr.80. 
AHITO (adj.), Bad, prejudicial [^ + tf7T= VT]. 

Dh. 30. Ahito, an enemy (Ab. 344). 

AHITUQ^IKO, A snake-charmer [^ffgfllfqi]. 
Ab. 656. 

AHO (titter;.). Oh I ah! alas! [^Ift]. Ab. 1149. 
AhoacchariyametantfOh wonderful is this ! (B.IiOt. 
340 ; Dh. 292). Aho buddhdnath mahdnubhdwUd^ 
oh the great power of the Buddhas I (Dh. 307). 
Aho pdpd, oh wicked woman! (Dh. 172). Aho 
andhabdh, good gracious, this misguided boy ! • . . 
(Alw. I. 102). Aho parUidkam 9attdnam JivUam, 
alas, how brief is the life of man ! (Dh. 227). With 
folL vaia : Aho vatdyam sdaafd, oh what a virtuous 
man is this ! (Dh. 408). Aho vata aham pi evardpo 
auam, oh that I also were like him ! (Dh. 359). 
Aho vata nam patteyydma, oh that I might see 
him ! (Dh. 165). Dh. 134, 279. 

AHORATTO, and AHORATTI (/.), A day and 
night [iVft^J^]- Ab. 74; Dh. 41, 69. 

AHOSI, AHU, AHUYA, see Hoti. 

AHU, see Aha. 

AHUDEYA, In the phrase Ahu^d'^va bhayath aku 
ehambhitattamf *' then indeed there was fear, there 
was consternation.* The d is euphonic 

AHUNEYYO (adj.), Sacrificial; worthy of ofiTer- 
ings, worshipful. This is another form of Aha- 
vanfyo. Alw. I. 78 ; oomp. B. Intr. 78. 

AJA (/.), A she-goat [IR^]. Ab. 502. 

AJ AOARO, A boa constrictor [^lipr(]* Ab. 651. 

AJALO (a^f.). Not stapid, not an idiot [^ -|- ^|^]. 

AjAnAMI, To perceive ; to understand ; to learn ; 
to know [^ + 1|T]* Anto dtusabhait^am aithtH 
tmhdn, he perceived that there was doth inside 
(Alw. I. 75). Yathd yaihd 'ham dhammam djd- 
ndmi, as far as I understand the doctrine (Alw. I. 
92 ; Fit, 16). Tana tarn citiam anhdya, having 
become acquainted with this resolve of his (Mah. 
90). Aor. amdn (Dh. 153). Oer. anndya (Dh. 
49, 73, 151). Inf. anndtufh. P.p.p. anSidto. 

AjANANAA, Knowing, understanding (see last). 

AjANEYYO, AjAnIYO (m^.). Of good race or 
breed [^^|i)i| and ^^HT] • Ab. 369 ; Man. B. 
376 ; B. Lot 289. PurUdJdneyyo, a man of noble 
birth (Dh. 347). AJdneyyavalavd, a thoroughbred 
mare (Dh. 242). Ajdniyd Hndhavd, throrough- 
bred Scinde horses (Dh* 57» 274). Audjdnfyo, 
assdjdniyyoy asi^dneyyo, a blood horse (Dh. 296^ 
347 ; CI. Or. 90). Hatthdjdneyyo, haith^fdnfyo, 
hatthi-ajdneyyo, an elephant of noble race (Dh. 
296, 347). Usabhdjdneyyo, a pedigree bull (Dh. 
296). See AJaSmo. 




AJASSaA, a portent of Datare (as an eaithqnake), 
an ominons occorrenoe [^ni^]* 

AJASSO {adj.). This is another form of JjMyo, 
with the same meaning. Compare djaSmavakmd 
(Dh. 240) with djdneyyaoaiavd (Dh. 242). ^o- 
fmaratkasaidiUf a hundred chariots drawn by 
thorooghbreds (Dh. 120 ; P&t. 80). See Puritd- 

AJAPALAKAA, The plant Gostas Spedosas [^Qlf 
+ 1|T1I + ^]- Ah. 303, 1120. 

AJATASATTU (m.), Name of a icing of Magadha, 
a contemporary and convert of Bnddha [^+ 
^TRf + 1I^- B. Lot 482; Man. B. 236, etc; 
£. Mon. 173 ; Dh. 143, etc. ; Mah. 10, 12, 185. 

AJATI, To go [1R9]. CI. P. Verbs, 2. 
AJELAKAA, and -KA (pL mtuc). Goats and 

sheep \yn + T[Hm]. CI. Or. 85. 
AJEYYO (adj.). Invincible, impregnable ["IT + %^ 

rrf^]. Khnd. 14. 
AJl (/i), A she-goat, see ^o. 
IJI (/), Battle, strife ["Wf^]- Ab. 390. 
AJIKA (/.), A she-goat (Pit. 81). Comp. Aj(. 
AJIMHO (adj.), Stndght ; straightforward, honest 

[^ + f^]* Ab. 708 ; Has. 35. 
AJINAA, The hide of an animal, especially of the 

bladt antelope [^rf^flf]. Ab. 442. 
AJINAPATTA (/.), A bat [irftif + W^] • Ab.646. 
AJINAPPAVEI^ (/.), A counterpane or rug made 

of skins sewn together [^(f^lf + H^llf^]. 
AJINASATI (/.), A garment of skins worn by an 

•»«tic[^lftnf + in^]. Dh. 70. 
AJINAYONI (m.), An antelope [irf^ + ^^tf^]- 

Ab. 617. 
AJIRAA, a court, a yard [irf^]. Ab. 218; 

Mah. 215. 
AJIVAKO, and AJlVAKO, One belonging to a 

Hindu sect of naked ascetics, a religious mendi- 
cant ["m^it^qpi and i|H|o]. B. Lot. 708, 777; 

Man. B. 184, 185 ; £. Mon. 179 ; Kuhn K. S. 34 ; 

Pit. xxvi ; Ab. 11 10 (and margin) ; Mah. 67 (where 

the India Office MS. has a-); Mah. Index and 

Glossary 1. Gough, in his Singh. Diet., gives 

both forms. 
AjIVANAA, Livelihood, subsistence [l||^l|i|]. 

Ab. 1017 ; Dh. 190. 

ArtVl («&•.), Living [^inftftiC- ^^'^' 
AjIVO, Livelihood, living, subsistence ; profession, 
oocapation; life, conduct [^IH^]- Ab. 445. 

Khett^ho, one whose profession Is husbandry 
(Ab. 447)- SuddhdfivOt one whose conduct is pure 
(Dh. 67)- Aiivttpdruuddhi, purity or propriety of 
conduct (E. Mon. 31). 

AJJA {adv.\ To-day; now [^RH]* Ab. 1155 ; Dh. 
58 ; Mah. 89 ; F. J4t. 56. Y6f^ ajjadivami, untQ 
this day (Mah. 195). Tad ajjdpi ca vattoH^ and 
this practice b kept up even at the present day 
(Mah. 249). AjjapabbajUagdnuu^ero^ a novice of 
a single day's standing (Alw. I. 76). 

AJJATAGGE {adv.)j From this day, henceforth 
\y^ + ^ with euphonic t]. Dh. 145, 331 ; 
Pdt. 17. 

AJJATANO {a^.)y Of to-day, of the present time, 
cotemporary, modem [H4|(1^]* Dh. 41, 191. 
Fem. ajjataui (viz. vibhatti), the aorist tense 

^ (Alw. I. 7). 

AjJAVAft, Rectitude [^iHNt]. CI. Gr. 98. 

AJJHABHASI, see AdMbhdsoH. 

AJJHACARATI, To practise, to perform ; to enjoin 
[^ + ^ + ^. P4t.xl,64. 

AJ JHACABO, Transgression, excess, offence ['Hf^ 
+ ^n^nr]* Ab. 430 ; P&t. 63. 

AJJHACIiyNO {p.p.p. ajjhdcaraH), Enjoined 

[^^11^14-^ + ^ = ^. P4t. xl. 

AJJHAGA, see Adhite. 

AJJHAGAMA, see AdhigacchaH. ^k • 

AJJHAGATO (P'P'P.), Having appmpched, come 
into the presence of [lRfM + ^ + inf=lW]- 
B. Lot. 396. 

AJJHAKKHO, A superintendent [^TSR]- Ab. 

AJJHAPANAJif, Instruction [ ^VIIMi i ] . 

AJJH APETI (catw.). To teach, to instruct [HWT- 
inrf7f=t]. Ab.411. 

AJJHAPANNO (p.p.p.), Fallen into, having in- 
curred or become guilty of [^^f^ + ^ + ^nr= 
m^]. Pdrdjikam dhammam ajjhdpanno^ having 
committed a P4r. offence (Pdt. 73, 94). 

AJ JHArAMO, a garden [lirfv + ^inCTf] • P&t. 

AJJHAROHO, Name of a fabulous sea monster 
[^rfV -h W^Ctf]. Ab. 673 ; Man. B. 13. 

AJJHAROPETI (com.). To cause to ascend, to 
raise ; to transfer, to apply [^rfM + ^IT + T^* 

AJJHASAYO, Intention, meaning, thought, inclin- 
ation, wish [^|f%r + iqnpr]- Ab. 766; Dh.261, 
365 ; Khud. 21. 




AJJHABETI, To lie or iwt upon [^rf^ -h ^ + 

AJJHATTAA (adv.), Rdai&Dg to the individoal, 
witiiifi ttie individiud, internally^ sobjectively 
^rf^ + ^WSPd. Ajjhattam vd hahUUM vd, 
witldn the individoal or eztemall j to him (Gog. 
£▼.46). B. Lot. 827. 

AJJHATTAA, IndiHdnal thought; an object of 
sense; an object fivr the mind to dweH upon, sphere 
or province of intent tfaooght [^HWRff^]- At 
Ab. 1040 Ajjbatta is expl«ned by '<sasant&na 
(S. svasaBt4na), visaya, gocara." Hie first of 
these words is said by Qoagh to mean ''the 
seat of tlM understanding, the place from which 
Aoogfats originate"; bat I am inclined to think 
that the tme meaning Is '' the tlioagfat, or reflec- 
tion, of the individoaL" The meaning " thoogfaty 
reflection'' is attribnted to sant6na by Gloogh in 
his Shhhalese Dictionary. Ajjbatta in verse 982 
of Piiammapada is explained by the comment 
** gocarajjhattasaukhM kammatthdnabhdoand," 
which may, perliaps, be rendered '' Karmasth4aa 
meditation, wliich consists in the application of the 
mind to an object of thooght." 

AJJHATTIKO {adj.), ReUting or belonging to the 
individnal or self, personal, internal, subjective 
[^UIIA + Xyi\ ' AjjhatHkaoatthUy object form- 
ing part of the body, as the flesh, the eyes, an 
arm, eto. Ajptattikaddnam, a personal or cor- 
poreal gift, e.g. the sacrifice of an eye or arm, as 
opposed to tiie sacrificeof external goods. AjjhaHi' 
kakaranam, personal or subjective instrument, e.g. 
the eye, as opposed to Bdhirakaranam, an external 
instrument, e.g. a sickle (CI. Gr, 133). B. Intr. 
501 ; Dh. 286, 379, 410. See Jyatananh. 

AJJHAVASATHO, a bouse, dwelling [^rf%r+ 

^inraw]- p^. 18. 

AJJHAVASATI, To inhabit, to dwell in [irfV + 
^-f 1f^. Saee agdram ajJhdvaMti, if he 
adopts a householder's life (B. Lot. 681). Alw. I, 
92 ; Dh. 80, P.p.p. ajjhdvuttho, 

AJJHAYO, Reading; a chapter, section [^^^TV]- 
Ab. 911. 

AJJHESANA (/.), Request, invitation, solldtotion 
[^IHhrar] • Ab. 4^ ; Dh. 119, 413. 

AJJHESATI, To request, to invite [^rf^ + 1^^ or 
jfj^. Dh.402. 

AJJHOGALHO (p^P-P-), Plunged, sunk, immersed 
[llfM + ^Pr + 'TO=Trf]. Gog.Ev. 14. 

AJJHOHARANAil, Bating [^|f«| + ^W -f- 

f^:^]. P^ 116. 
AJ JHOHARATI, To eat, to swaUow [irf^ + ^R 

+ 1]. F.Jat.7; Mah.214. 
AJJHOHARO, Eating, swaDowmg [^if^ + "VV + 

fPC]- P^ ll^> 110- 

AJJHOHATO (p^^. t^hohtaraH)^ Eaten, swal- 
lowed [^rf^+lR +1^-1- f]- Ab.767. 

AJJHOKA80,Theopenair,an openqmce [^|f^ + 
^4<II1|]- P^t. xxxL 

AJJHOSANAA, Bdng bent upon, application, 
cleaving to (see next). 

AJJHOSITO (p^.p.)» Bent iqpon, deaving to [^rfl| 
+ ^W + ftm=^]. E.Mon.282L 

AJJHOTTHARATI, To overwhdm, to overqpread 
[^rf^-h^R + ^J. Dh. Ill, 211, 225, 254. 

AJJHOTTHATO (p.p.p.2a«f). Overwhelmed [^|f^ 

-|-^IW + ^=^]- Dh. 193. 
AJJUKO, Name of a plant, the white Paryasa 

[5iril|]. Ab.579. 
AJJUNO, the tree Terminalia Arjuna [^rfw]* 

Ab. 562 ; Dh. 131. 
AJO, A he-goat [ini]. Ab.502. Fern, o/il and i;/i. 
AKA, see KarotL 

AKAD^HANAA, Drawing, attraction [^m?^]- 
AKAJ3DHATI, To draw towards, to drag ak>ng 

[^ + V^ I>b. 412; Kuhn K. S. 26. 
AKALIKO (adj.). Without delay, immediate [^ + 

^rrflra]. aiw. 1.77. 

AKALLAlfr, Disease, illness [^ + im]. Ab.323. 

AKALLO (atff.). Impossible [^ + im]. 

AfiLAliOyUnseasonableness, wrong time [^ -f IVTW] - 
Akdlo mdnavakOf this is not the time, young man* 
Akdlapupphdni, flowers out of season, forced 
(F, Jdt. 6 ; Mah.'89). Akdlaetvaratk, an extra or 
irregular robe, viz. one presented to a priest out 
of the usual time (Pdt. 7> 77). Loc. akdle, un- 
seasonably, at the wrong time, prematurely (F. Jilt, 
18, 49 ; Mah. 129). 

AKAMMAKO (a((;.). Intransitive (of verbs) 
[VI*!]. CI. Gr. 101. 

AKAMO {adj.\ UnwDlmg [^ + Wm'] . B. Lot. 863. 

AKANITTHO, and -TTHAKO («&'.), Greatest, 
highest ["H -h ^rf«r9]. The Akanitthd or Aka- 
nitthakd devd, the Sublime Gods, are the inhabi- 
tants of the sixteenth or highest of the R6pa^ 
brahmalokas. Their abode is called ^AMmif^Ao- 
bhatfanam. B. Intr. 184, 616 ; Man. B. 26; Dh. 
103, 244^ 362. 




AKANKHl (/.), DfAe, longing [^IW!^]- 

Ab. 103. 
AKANKHATI,To wish, to desire, to long for [^ + 

1i|V]. dkaftkkaik (Dh. 61), dkamkkam4no 

(Khad. 5). Ydom mmkmmtam 4kmmkkarif as big as 

yoa like (INi. 96). B.LoC342. 
AKAIJ^O (o^f .)» fVee from ka^a, vis. rice freed from 

the red coatiag wliich nnderlies the husks [^ + 

AKAPPIYO («4r>). UnsnitaUe, improper, wrong. 

See KKpptjfOm 
AKAPPO, Decent or elegant attire ; ornament, em- 

bdlishmcBt; disguise ["^mm]. Ah. 282; Alw. 

I. 61; nU.z,zlniL 
AKARATyAft, Not doing, omission, abstaining 

from [^ + ^V^V]* With gen. 8abbap6pa$9a oAr., 

abslidning from all sin (Dh. 33, 60). 
AKABAJyENA {adff.). Without caose, nnreasonably, 

nnjnsUy [^rar^^J. Dh. 243. 
AKARAlj^YO {adj.\ Not to be done, to be left 

«ndone, to be abstained frxun or aTuded [^ + 

^l^lH^]* Kamm. 11. 
AKARI, see AfoH. 
AKARIYO {mdj.\ That onght not to be done, that 

may not or cannot lie done [^+ ^vHTl* Nent 

rnkdrtyamj a wrong or improper action. Dh. 32 ; 

AKARO, A multitude; a mine [^VPi^]. Alw. I.rii. 

Qunimmk dlutro^ a mme of yirtaes (Mah.242, said 

of a king). 

AKARO, Hie Towel a [^ + ^nr] • Ab. 967. 

AkARO, The vowel 4 [^ + ^n<|- 

AkARO, Appearance, mien, countenance; form; 
ugn, token ; way, manner, means ; cause, reason, 
object^ purpose; a constitaent part of the body 
[WlilT]- Ab. 764, 961 ; Dh. 94, 216. Pobba- 
jU4k4r£, in the guise of devotees (Mah. 55). Si- 
gmrdkAro, looking like the ocean (Mah. 241). 
PtUamdkdn^ipattdf looking as if they would foil, 
m, ** having assumed the appearance of feUing." 
Haitkdkdrena vdrayi^ stopped them by a sign with 
his hand (Mah. 196). Chaitdkdramjinopain dhd^ 
rayoato, h<dding it umbrella-wise over Buddha 
(Mall. 5). KhMJjd hmivd toMta viearafMdram 
dma$e$$if feigning lameness mimicked bis way of 
walking (Dh. 178). Sabbdkdrena^ in every way 
(Alw. I. 79). SabbdMranumormiMy altogether 
lovely (Mah. 179). Yen* dkdrena .,.ten' dkdreuu, 
inasmuch as . . . dierefore (Alw. I. 76). 


labkamdhdrmk kmriMdmiy I will furnish hfan with 
the means of obtaining the kingdom (Dh. 156). 
Ayydnam gamtmdkdro pmndyaHf is the cause (or 
motive) of your journey known ? (Dh. 84). Ckmki 
dkdreki otAamia/t, he is tormented on ox aooovnts 
(Dh. 258). Chandovutt(muk rakkha ^dh dr eu m, for 
the sake of preserving rhythm and metre (Khud* 
21). There are thirty-two Ak4ras or constituent 
parts of the lM>dy — ^hair, nails, teeth* skin, etc 
(Khnd. 3 ; Dh. 165). 
AEASANANCAYATANAft, Realm of infinity of 

space [^Ipmi + ^inili + ^irWl]- Thlsls 
the name of the first of the Ar^pabrahmsMcas, 
so called because it is peopled by beings who have 
mastered the idea that space b infinite. B. Lot. 
811 ; Man. B. 26 ; E. Mon. 261, 262. 

AKASATTHO (a^'.)» Standmg «r staying in the 
sky; resting in space [^Ifni + ^]. Akdmftha- 
vimdmai^ a mansion in the skies; explained by 
Tumour to mean the Cfttummah^ur^ika heavens 
(Mah. 162, and comp. 103). 

AKASI, see £iiro^. 

AkASO, The sky, ur, heavens ; the open air ; space 
[^mrntl- Ab. 46. Jkdsena carmH^ to travel 
through the air (F. J^. 4 ; Dh. 154). Jkd$am 
pakkhandinauy they flew up into the lur (F. J4L 
17 ; Dh. 154 ; oomp. dkdse uppaiitvd, F. Jit, 4). 
jikdtanganatkf an open courtyard (F. J4t. 17). 
Akdtagangdy the celestial river (Ab. 27). Akd^ 
sadhdtu, space (Man. B. 399). AkdMatatam^ upper 
story, terrace on the top of a palace (Alw. I. 77 ; 
Dh. 154). Samhuddha$dMndkd90t the firmament 
of Buddha's truth (Mah. 37). 

AKATHANKATHI (adj\). Free from doubt (see 
Kathankatkd). Dh. 73. 

AKATAffSO (adj.). Ungrateful [^ + Wni]- 
F. J4t. 13. 

AKATAf^O (adj.). Knowing Nirvi^a, an epithet 
of anArahd[^rV7f+'V]. Dh. 18, 69. 

AKATASSUTA (/), Ingratitude [^WmH -h in]- 
F. J4t. 12. 

AKATO, and AKATO (at^'.), Not done, left un- 
done ; not made ; not artifidal, natural ; not cul- 
tivated, waste [iWni]- AkafapaMhdre, in a 
natoral cave (Dh. 268). AkafabkAmiihdgo, a bit 
of waste land. Neut. Akaiatky tiie Uncreate, or 
Eternal, viz. Nirvi^a (Ab. 7). Dh. 55, 224^ 

AKATVA, see jKoro^. 

AKHAljn^O (adj.), UnbToken,^intact, enture [^ + 




r]. P<i^a sUdni akhanddni katvd rakkha^ 

keep the five precepts unbroken (Dh. 193). Comp. 

AKHATAA, a natural pond or tank [^flg^^ss 

^9V(]. Ab. 680 (P61i Akdr^ and Glough g^ve 

AKHILO (a4;.), AU ; entire [^ + f^] . Ab. 702 ; 

Alw. I. xiii. AtthdraidkhUd, eighteen in all 

(Mah. 21). 
AKHU (lit.), A rat or mouse [^RT^]* Ab. 618. 

Akhubhuf^o^ a cat. 
AKHYA (/.), Name [^RmrT]- Ab. 114. MdhA- 

jetavandkhyo vikdro, the monastery named Mah4- 

jetavana (Alw. I. x.). Ab. 647 ; Alw. I. zv. 
AKHYATO (p.p^p^). Said, told, announced [Hf- 

Wni = WT] f Ab. 373, 756. Neut. dkhydtam, 

and dkhydtapadafkt a finite verb (CL Gr. 123). 

Comp. Akkhdto, 
AKHYAYIKA (/.), A tale, story, legend [W^QfT- 

f^pir]. Ab. 113. Comp. Akkkdyikd, 

AKIGGO (a4;.), That ought not to be done, wrong 
[^ + WW]. Dh.292. 

AKILASU (adj.), DUigent. Ab. 516. 

AKI^GA^Alir, Poverty, destitution ; nothingness, 
void [^Hfill^pfr]. CI. Gr. 97. 

AKIKGAMAYATANAA, the Realm of Nothing- 
ness [^ir4W«4 + ^ir^nni] • l^^s ^^ the name of 
the third of the Ardpabrah'malokas ; it is so called 
because it is peopled by beings who believe that 
nothing exists (n^atthi ktAci), B. Lot 811; 
Man. B. 26. 

AKI^GANO (wy.). Having nothing, poor, desti- 
tute [^rf^k^vr]. Ab. 739. At Dh. 16, 40, 71, it 
is explained to mean '*free from the Kificanas" 
(see Kificano). 

AKI^GI (adv.)y Not a little, much, considerably 
[^+ Ofcr^^» Akmd 9eyy0t much better 
(Dh. 70). 

AKII^O { Growded; confused, troubled 
[W4)^ = ^]- Ab. 720. Anagghattharaftd" 
ki^no, heaped mth priceless carpets (Mah. 157). 
Has. 26 ; Dh. 104, 105. 

AKIRATI, To scatter, to sprinkle [^ + «]. Pr. 

dkirati, dkirate (Dh. 55, 271, 397). 8Ue dkiti 
tankdranit threw rubbish on his head (Mah. 255). 

AKIRIYO(a4/0> Unpractical, useless, foolish [^ + 
f^t^] . Akiriyam vydkdn, gave me a nonsensical 

AKKAMAJyAA, Stepping upon, walking upon 
[^RmWH]. Dh.324. 

AKKAMATI, To step upon, mount upon, tread 
upon, walk upon [^ -f- W(] • Oivam akkamma 
eakkemtf having gone over its neck with his chariot 
wheel (Mah. 128). Uru^ akkamma pddena, having 
placed his foot on the other's thigh (Mah. 137)* 
Dh. 117, 163, 324. 

AKKANTO (P'P-p» laat)^ Stepped upon, mounted 
upon [WVT^ = IR] • ^^' W. 

AKKHADASSO, A judge [^TV + ^]- Ab. 341 ; 

AKKHADEVI (m.), A dicer, gambler [^r9 + 
^f^. Ab.531. 

AKKH ADHUTTO, A dicer, gambler \^[% + ^]* 
Ab. 531. 

AKKHAKO, The coUar-bone \yf% + ip] . Ab. 278. 
DdkkMfMkkhakadkdiUf the right collar-bone relic 
(Mah. 105). 

AKKHAft, An organ of sense; the eye [^V^]. 
Ab. 149, 893. Saha»9akkho^ thousand-eyed. See 

AKKHAl^A (/.), Lightning [% + ^Hf]. Ab. 48. 

AKKH ANAM, Telling ; recitation ; telling tales or 
legends [^|l||||«|]. i>0MiApArAiiia»^, tale-bearing, 
accusation (Ab. 1175). 

AKKHAJyO, Wrong moment or ooccasion, nnfisr 
vourable time [^ + ^^^]- Sangiti Sntta enu- 
merates nine Akkhatid asamayd brahmaearlyavd'' 
sdya^ " wrong times and seasons for leading a life 
of holiness'': these are when a man is born in a 
heU, as an animal, etc B. Lot. 835. 

AKKH ANTI (/.), lU-wiU, grudge, envy [^ + ^- 
fin]. Pit. 73, 100 ; Dh. 94. 

AKKHARAA, The Imperishable or Eternal, viz. 
Nirv&9a [^VtTC]- Ab. 7, 1063. 

AKKHARAlk, and AKKHARO, A letter of the 
alphabet [^mT]. Ab. 348, 1063 ; Dh. 63, 189 ; 
Kb. 21; Alw. I. xvii. Akkharapaddni^ letters 
and words (Alw. I. xvi). Akkhardni^ an epistle 
(Alw. I. 76). 

AKKHARAPPABHEDO, Distinction of letters, 
etymological science [^|^^ + intTJ • Explained 
to mean the (^iksha and NiruktL Alw. I. bdx, Ixx. 

AKKHARASAMAYO, Letters, reading and writing 

[^1^^ + ^RRT] • So pana akkharaiamayam na 

y<fiuf/i, now he was illiterate (Alw. I; 101> Khud.21. 

AKKHARASO (adv.). Letter by letter [^HTC + 
1[^]. Khud. 29. 




AKKHAtA («.), One who tells, repeats, or relates ; 
one who proclaims or preaches, a teacher ['W- 
mi^]. Dh.49. 

AKKHATAM, Fried grain [^n||f rr ^] . Ah. 483. 

AKKHATI, To ten, to relate, to announce, to pro- 
claim, to teach, to preach [HIT + Wr]* J>hammum 
tUtkkMbhagwfdt Buddha preached his Law to men. 

AKKHATO (p'p.p» ltut)j Told, related, announced, 
reported, proclaimed, preached ; called, named, 
denominated [H|nrni=3 Wf]- I>b* 48, 156; 
AIw. h iv. ; P6t. 1. See also Jkhydio. 

AKKHAYATA (/•), Imperishahleness, endlessness 
[^ + ^^ + W]. Dh.l41. 

AKKHAYATI (pau. akhhdH), To be proclaimed, 
to l)e r^orted [l||MNI^7^= IVT]. The phrase 
jiggam akhhdyati occurs frequently, with the 
meaning '' to lie deemed chief or superior,*' <' to 
exceL" Appamddo temtm dhammdnatk aggam 
okkh^atif diligence is the greatest of these quali- 
ties (Dh.l79). Ydvatd bhikkhave dhammd taHkhatd 
vd ataikhatd vd virdgo tetmk dkammdnatk aggam 
kkkMjfati^ priests, whatever things there be, ma- 
terial or abstract, the chief of them is Nirvd^a 
(Dh. 382). 
AKKHAyI (ai(/.). Telling, relating, announcing 

AKKHAYIKA (/.), A tale, story [^imnfiim] . 

See also Akhydytkd, 
AKKHAYO {adj.\ Undecaying, unfailing, endless 

AKKHI(ii.),Theeye[Hrf^]. Ab.l48. PLo^ikAC 
okkkM (Dh. 82, 89; Mah. 230). AkkMrogo, 
eye-disease, ophthalmia (Dh. 81). See also AochL 

AKKHIGAJiil,The eyelashes [Hf^ + 1(] . Ab. 269. 

AKKHIKO, A dice-player [H^f + 1^] . 01. Or. 92. 

AKKHO, A die ; the plant Terminalia Bellerica ; a 
weight equal to two and a half Miisalas ; the axle 
of a wheel [if^]. Ab. 375, 479, 532, 893 ; Dh. 

AKKHOHIIirl (/.), A complete army ; one of the 
high numerals = 10,000,009*, or 1 followed by 
forty-two ciphers [VlHff ^]* Ab. 384, 475; 
Mah. 157, 158. 

AKKBTY-, Hiis spelling is frequent in the Siihhalese 
MS8., but is incorrect ; for words beginning thus 
see AKHY-. 

AKKO,The sun ; tlie plant swallow-wort, or Asdepias 
Gigaatea [l«4l]. Ab. 63, 581, 1102. 

AKKOGCHI, see AkkornH. 

AKKODHANO {a^\). Not angry, not passionate, 
mUd [^ + WiVW]. Dh. 71, 186. 

AKKODHO, Freedom from wrath, mildness, con- 
cUiation [iff + W^] • I>h. 40. 

AKKOSANAA, Reviling, abusing ; curse, impreca- 
tion [^IHRtH^]- Ab. 759; Dh. 218. 

AKKOSATI, To abuse, to revile [^ + '^^} • Dh. 
340. akkotam (F. J&t. 13). Aor. akkoeehi 
(Dh. 1), akkan (Db. 100 ; Mah. 156). Cans. aor. 
akkoten (Mah. 246). 

AKKOSO, Abuse, reviling [^mTJtll]. Pit. 83; 
Ab. 899, 1093. Akkoiavacanehit with abusive 
words (Mah. 246). Akkoaam titikkkaii, endureth 
reproach (Dh. 71). 

AKOTAPETI (cau9.). See Fit. 8, where civaraik 
dkofdpeti appears to mean to smooth a rol)e by 
beating. G<^perly translates "to cause to be 
smoothed *' [^ + ^] . 

AKOTETI (caua.), To beat, to beat down [^ + 

AKULO (atff.). Crowded, confused ; troubled, per- 
plexed, distressed [^VPBpfT] • Dhajdkulo^ crowded 
with banners (Mah. 162). Migdkulo^ infested 
with wUd beasto (Has. 19). Ras. 7, 25. 

AKUIRGITO (pp.p.). Bent, curved [^1^^111=: 
BB]« B. Lot 612 (drooping eyelashes). 

AKUPPG (a4r'.)> Fixed, immovable, sure, certain 
[^ + ^flW = ^]- Dh.365. 

AKUSALADHATU (/.), Element of sin, sinfol 
principle [^^||<H + VT7|]- Hiere are three: 
kdmadhdiu, vy^q^ddadhdtu^ vihiitiuddhdiu, "lust, 
malice, cruelty." 

AKUSALAKAMMAM, EvU action, bad works, 
demerit, sin [^V^mW + ^i^Kj* Dh. 272. See 

AKUSALAKAMMAPATHG, Course or path of 
sinful action, sinful course [^fjniW + ^Iw^ -|- 
1|^]. There are ten : pdfMpdtOf adinndddna^ 
kdmeiu micchdedro^ muidvddo, piiUfid vdcd^pha^ 
mad vdedy 9a$nphappai^f abhijjhd^ vy^^Mo^ 
micehddifthi, « kUling, stealing, impurity, lying, 
slander, harsh language, frivolous taUc, oovetous- 
ness, malice, false doctrine.'' Dh. 91, 204. 

AKUSALAMOLAA, Root or principle of sin, evil 
principle [H^^fl -h^TH]* There are three: 
Mho, do90t moho, "desire, hate, ignorance." 
B. Lot 336. 

AKUSALASANRAPPO, Sinful resolve [^|«p|ir 
+ ^NRIT]* There are three : kdmaaankappo^ vyd" 





pddasankappOf viMnudsankappOf " lustful resolve, 
malevolent resolve, cruel resolve." 

AKUSALASAMa (/.), Sinful idea [^r«|raiir + 
ttlill]- There are three: kdma$anndt vydpd' 
dasarmd, mhinudsannd, '^lustful idea, malevolent 
idea, cruel idea." 

AKUSALA VITARKO, Sinful thought [iV^lfir + 
finTIi] . There are three : kdmavitdkko, vydpd- 
davitakkOf vihinudvitakko, *' lustful thought, ma- 
levolent thought, cruel thought." 

AKUSALO {a^\). Unskilled, unable; bad, evil, 
sinful, nnhealthfiil [^ + Vl(fl]. Sotuih akusalo, 
unable to hear (Ab. 734). Neut. akusala^ sin, 
evil, demerit (Ab. 84 ; Dh. 50). Akusalapatko, 
path of sin, sinful course (Mah. 144). AkusalO' 
kammmht evil Karma, demerit. Akutald dkammd^ 
evil things or conditions, ezplidned to mean kile^ 
sakamma (Kuhn K. S. 26 ; Alw. 1. 107). Man. B. 

AKUTOBHAYO (adj.), HaWng nothing to fear 
from any quarter, quite safe [^A^4|€|] . Dh. 35 ; 
Has. 29. 

ALABHO, Not getting; loss, detriment, injury 
[ir + WW]. F. JiU 11 ; Fit. 18, 61. 

ALABU, and LABU (f.\ A long gourd, a pumpkin 
[WHT^]* Both forms are given at Ab. 596 ; 
P&t. 87 has aldbu. Ldhurdn, a heap of pumpkins 
(Mah. 64). The Simhalese for pumpkin is Labu. 
There is another form Aldpu (neut.), which see. 

ALADDHA, see LabhaH. 

ALAGADDO, A snake, serpent [ira^] . Ab. 653. 
See Bdhtliugk and Roth, and Clough's Diet., 
where it is said to be " a water-snake.** 

ALAOGATA (/.), Detachment, freedom from attach- 
ment to the world, freedom from human passion 
[WW^ + in]. Dh.433. 

ALAHANAA, a place where the dead are burned, 
a cemetery [^T + ^TfW] • Ab. 405 ; Dh. 94, 359. 

ALAHUKO (adj\). Heavy [^ -h ITf -Ml] . Ab. 840. 

ALAJJl (wff.). Shameless, bold, rebellious [W + 
WW + ITC. Mah. 17,235. 

ALAKA (/.). The city of Kuvera [^fWrt] . Ab. 32. 

ALAK AMANDA (/.),The city of Kuvera [iRRi + 
JH^] . Ab. 32. 

ALAKKHl (/.), Bad luck, misfortune [^ + ip^]. 
Ab. 82. 

ALAKKO, A mad dog; name of a tree [WW4]- 
Ab. 519. 

ALAlif (adv.), Fit, able, adequate, sufficient ; hold I 

I enough! [^91Rt]- ^^- 1^^7> ^^^> ^^- ^^* 
Alam devote md etntayi, nay, devat^ do not 

repine (Dh. 364). Alam bho niiidaihOf nay, my 

friends, be seated. With dat Alam malh 

mallauOf a warrior is a matdi for a warrior (CI. 

Or. 136). Alam me buddho, Buddha sufficeth 

me (Kuhn K. S. 29). Alam antardyd/yat adequate 

to prevent (P&t 16 ; Kamm. 31). With dat and 

instr. Alam te idhavdiena, you have dwelt here 

long enough (P&t 6; CI. Or. 133). Alam me 

Muvanpetui, I have gold enough (O. Ch*. 136; 

Kuhn K. S. 29). With inf. Alatk upag^tUum, able 

to approach (Dh. 214). Alamariyandfiadaseanash, 

full knowledge of sublime wisdom (Pit. 3, 68). 

ALAMBANAJif, and -I^AA, Support ; an object of 
sense [f||l | IHi|] . Ab. 94, 443; B. Intr.449; 
Lot. 513. For the technical use of this word see 
the more usual form AramfMafusdi^ 

ALAMBARO, A drum ; pride,arn^^oe [^I4^^] • 
Ab. 144, 854. 

ALAMBATI, To lean upon ; to take hold of [iffj + 
W(W] . AlamMvd karam ra^ho, leaning on the 
king's arm (Mah. 25, 41). 

ALAMBO, Support; object of sense [flllil^]. 
Ah. 94. See Alambanatk, 

ALAMBUSA (/.), Name of a oertidn Apsaras or 
goddess [^Wnyrr] • Ab. 24. 

ALANAlif , A stake or post to which an elephant is 
tied [^nWR]. Ab.364. 

ALANKARANAA, Decoration [ H <<«q] . 

ALANKARO, Ornament, decoration ; trinkets, or- 
naments ; rhetorical figures, rhetoric [^Hl^l^]. 
Ab.283, 1195; Ras. 38. 

ALANKAROTI, To adorn, to embellish, to deco- 
rate [^linR( + V] • Aor. akmkari (Alw. I. xxxiv). 
Oer. alankaritvd (Dh. 78 ; Mah. 83), alankaivd 
(Mah. 249). Cm*. ahmkdreH 9nd akmkdr^^feH. 

ALANKATO (P'p'P< Uut\ Adorned, decorated, em- 

beUlshed[^r^^«nT^V]- Dh.26,95,247;Ras.l7. 

ALAPANAA, Speaking to, addressing; the voca- 
tive case [^ -h ^fipr]- CI. Or. 17. 

ALAPATI, To speak to, to address [Wr + WR]- 
Kuhn K. S. 33 ; Mah. 233. Oer. dlaphfa (Mah. 23). 

AlAPO, speaking to, addressing ; speech [^ITWni] • 
Ab. 123 ; Alw. I. cvi. 

ALAPU and LAPU {neut.\ A gourd, a pumpkin 
[^irirrj] . Dh. 27» 313 ; a. Or. 16. Comp. AUbu. 

AlARIKO, a cook [ ^KlfD l ^] . Ab. 464. 

ALARO {adj.\ Crooked [^KTir]- Ab. 709. 




ALASANDA (/.), Akzandria, a city in the Yona 

eoantry. Mah. 171 ; E. Mon. 300 ^ Man. B. 516. 
ness, sloth [^rm^]. Dfa. 49. 
ALASO (adj.)^ Idle, lazy, slothful^ languid [^91^]. 

Dh. 49, 233. 
ALATAA, a firebrand ["VfTnf]- Ab. 36. 
ALATTAKO, Lac, a red animal dye [^IRHmO- 

ALATTH A, see LabhatL 
ALATTO, Lac [iRHf]. 
ALAVAJLAKAA, a basin or trench round a tree to 

retain water [ MWlH^H^i + %\ . Ab. 1011. The 

reading should, perhaps, be A1-; both forms occur 

in Sanslcrit. 
ALAVI (/.), Name of a city in India [l|1d^]< 

Ab. 199; Ras. 83; Dh. 354. 
ALAVIKO {adf\). Dwelling in forests [^nZfW^]- 

ALAYO, Dwelling, house, abode 9 longing, desire, 

attadiment, lust [^mRT]- Ab. 163, 205, 1097 ; 

Dh. verse 411. Devdlayo, jbl Hindu temple (Ab. 

955). Jindlayo, a Buddhist temple (Mah. 259). 

Mah. 242. 
ALEKHO, a drawing, painting, picture [^IT + 

%I9]. Mah. 163. Taddlekham lekhayitvd^hBYing 

drawn a plan of U (Mah. 162). 

AfiH AKO^ and -KAM, A certain measure of capacity ; 

the stake or post to which an elephant is tied 

[^Vn^]. Ab. 364, 482, 484; Mah. 12a 
AU (m.), A bee [^rf^]. Ab. 636; Ras. 27. 
AU (/.), A woman's female friend ; a line ; a dike, 

an embankment [^mffl]. Ab. 189, 238, llOQ. 
ALI (»••)» A scorpion [^Qfflf]. Ab. 621., 
ALIKHATI, To draw» delineate [^ + f^]. 

ALIKO (adf.% Disagreeable,, unjdeasant; untrue, 

fiilM [^TlRml. Ab. 127, 1070. Neut. ^Hkath, 

falsehood (Dh. 47). 
ALIMPAPETI (caitf.). To cause to be anointed [^ 

+ Gaus.ff|l(]. P£t.lOa Also<f/tiitp«^(Dh.l77> 
ALINDO, a terrace or verandah outside a house 

[HflR^. Ab. 218, 997; Dh. 94; Mah. 215. 
ALINGANAA, An embrace [^Trf^l^] . Ab. 774. 
ALINOATI, To embrace, to enfold [^ + f%T]- 

Db. 403. P.p.p. dlingita. LatdHngUatdkhdhi, 

with branches entwined with creepers (Ras. 27). 
ALINGO, a small drum [HTfinr]. Ab. 143,263. 

AIJNO {adj.). Free from attachment or desire 

[^ + ^ftir=^]. Dh.44. 
ALLAPO, speaking to, talking [m^m]. See also 

ALLiNO (p-p'P*), Attached, adhering [Hf + iSt^ 

= ^fy]. Civaram kdyasmith allinam, robe ad- 
hering to the body. 
ALLIYATI, To be attached, to adhere, to be bent 

upon [^ + ^fVin|=lft]. B. Lot. 864; Pdt 

zxviii. I have also found alliyati, 
ALLO {adj,). Wet, moist. Ab. 753. AllacharOf 

with wet robes (Dh. 329). 
ALOBHO, Absence of covetousness or desire [^ + 

^ftn]- Man. B. 413. 
ALOKANAA, 8eeing,looking [ ^ | ^ ^* | ] . Ab.775. 
ALOKASANDHI (m.), A window [^rnitli + 

irf«9]. Ab. 217; Pdt. 13, 87. 
ALOKITAA, Looking at, regarding, seeing [^- 

ALOKO, Sights look; Uglit [^TTift^]- Ab. 37, 
1043 ; Dh. 183, 224. Alokath poHdanayi, again 
caUed forth the light of day (Mah. 6). Suriydloko^ 
the sun's light (Pdt. 1). 

ALOLAPETI {caiU8.\ To cause to be mixed or 
jumbled up together [l|T + ca^s.^^] . Alw. 1.103. 

ALOLETI (catw.). To mix ; to shake or stir together ; 
to jumble, to confuse ["^1+ ^t^^rRf=^lQ- 
Dh. 434 ; Pat. xvi. P.p.p. dlolito (Ab. 1022). 

ALOPO, a fragment, a bit,, a morsel ; a mouthful 
of rice or other food taken up with the hand, a 
lump or ball of food; plundering or harrying 
[^■flft^]. Ab. 486 ; Pit 22. 

ALULATI,To agitate, disturb, confuse [^ + ^^. 
Pdt. xvi. 

AMA (ai/«.), Mlth, present with, near [^RTT]* Ab. 
1136, 1199. 

Am A (tnf^*.), Indeed, truly, yes [^Iffll^. Ab. 1144. 
Atna mahdrdja atimukhard ndma, verily, great 
king, the garrulous (F. Jilt. 18)« Bkammiko 
tidma deva dhammikOf is he religious? Yes, your 
majesty, he is (Alw. 1. 73). Kitk pan' ettha dpatti" 
bhdvam tut jdndnti dma na Jdndmi, what, do you 
not know that this is sinful ? no, I was not aware 
of it (Dh. 103). Kamm. 3 ; Dh. 154. 

AMACCO, A companion ; a kingp's minister, a privy 
eouneiUor [^|?rnir]- Ab. 340 ^ F. Jdt. 16. Mittd- 
maccdf fHends and companions. 

AMADHURO (adj.). Sour, bitter [^4-if^]. 
F. J4t 2, & 




AMAGGO, Wrong way» wrong path [^ + TTNI]* 

Dh. 72. 
AMAJJ APO (adu). Not drinking strong drink, total 

abstinence [^ + HIT + ^] • Dh. 97. 
AMAKO (a4;.), Raw, uncooked [ITR + ^]. Dh. 

AMALAKO, and -Kl (/<?)».), and -KAA, Emblie 

myrobalan [ifT^^^l]. Ab. 509; Mah. 22. 
AMALO [odj.). Pore, clean, spotless, white [^ + 

ITir]. AIw. I. xvi. Nent^matoiii, talc (Ab. 492). 
AMANASIKARO, see Manankdro. 
AMANPO, The castor-oil plant [lITTV]- 
AMANAPO (adf.). Unpleasant, disagreeable [^ + 

vnrrR]. Dh. 172. 

AMANTA (interj.). Yes, certainly. O. Or. 75. 
AMANTANAA, GaUhig, speaking to, addressing 

^rnni9Rr]- Dh.428. 

AMANTETI, To address, to speak to; to call 
[^VT 4* 9f^] • Bodhisattam dmantetvd, address- 
ing the Bodhisatta (F. Jit. 7). Mah. 57 ; Dh. 98 ; 
Kuhn K. S. 28. 

AMANUSO {odj,)f Not human, Inhuman, demoni- 
acal; more than human, superhuman, celestial, 
spiritual [^ + 9n^J^]* Fem. amdi^usi. Mah. 
52 ; Dh. 67, 482. 

AMANUSSO, Not a human being, a demon or eril 
spirit, a Yakkha [^4* ^R^^]* AmanunaparU 
gahitd afavit a wood infested with evil spirits 
(Dh. 84, 264), Mah. 52. 

AMARAVAH (/.), Name of Indra's city [^m^T- 
inft]. Ab.2L 

AMARO, A deva or god [iRiR:]. Ab. 11. 

Am AS ANA]{[, Touching, handling [^ + 111(4- 
^IT]. Ab. 1164. 

AMATA (/.), Emblie myrobalan [^ + ^= ^]. 

AMATAA, The drink of the gods, nectar or am* 
brosia; Nirv&^a; water [^V^Tf]- Ab. 7, 25,975. 
AniatavMBotky a shower of nectar (Dh. 244). 
Amatendbhmtto 'va ahu haftho, he was filled with 
joy as if he had been sprinlded with nectar (Mah. 
106). Amafdbhiaeka sadiso, like a rain of nectar 
(B. Lot. 566 ; said of something that causes great 
pleasure). Dhammdmatorasena ta$k abhiaOieUvdt 
having sprinkled him with the nectar essence of 
the Law (Ras. 19). — ^As a name for Nirv^a ama- 
tark probably means "the Eternal," or "the 
Everlasting;" comp. Dhuvam, Anantam, Akkha- 
ram, Accutam, all epithets of Nirvd^a. Buddha- 

ghosa says that Nirv^ is caUed amata, because 
not being bom it does not decay or die (Dh. 179, 
290). Appamddo amatapadamf diligence in the 
way to Nirvi^a (Dh. 5). E. Mon. 292 ; Khud. 7 ; 
Dh. 67, 73, 407, 422, 43L See Nibbdtuuk. 

AMATA PO, One who drinks nectar, a deva or god 

[inj7T-i-ii]- Ab. n. 

AMATI, To go [W^2' ^- ^- Verbs, 9. 
AMATI (a4;.), FooUsh, mad [^ + irfH] • Mah. 10. 
AMATO {adj.). Eternal, everlasting [HHTf] • Khud. 

7. Amatam padatk, the eternal lot (Dh. 21). 
AMATTAld, A pitcher, vessel [iRnc]. Ab. 457. 
AMATTAJfJ^D (oeff,). Immoderate, intemperate 

[H+iTRT-l-ir]- Dh. 2. 
AMATTHO (p.p>p.)f Touched, handled ["^^ = 

^]. Dh. 248; Mah. 203. 

AMAvAbI, and AMAVASI (/.),The day of the new 

moon [VHI^I^j^]* Ab. 73. 
AMAYO, Sickness, iU-health [^VRfir]. Ab. 323. 
AMBA (/.), A mottier [^H^TJ- Ab. 244. See also 

AMBARAlfil, The sky; Gk»th [HI^T]- Ab. 45, 

290, 1061 ; Mah. 246. 
AMBATAKO, Tlie hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera 

[UTOTIW]. Ab.564; Dh.262. 
AMBATI, To go [^il^]. CL P. Verbs, 8. 
AMBAXTHA (/.), The plant C^ypea Hernandifolia 

[^OUrer]. Ab.582. 
AMBHO, A stone, a pebble. Ab. 605. 
AMBHO (intetj.), Oh I I say I Ab. 1139 ; Dh. 176. 

AMBHOJAJil, A lotus flower [^RffV^]. Alw. I. 111. 

AMBILO (adj.), Sour, acid [^m]- Mah. 195; 

Dh. 260. Masc amffilo, sourness, acidity (Ab. 

148, one of the six Rasas). 
AMBO, Hie mango tree, Mangifera Indica [^m]* 

Ab. 557. Ambarukkho, a mango tree (F. Jit. 2). 

Ambapakkath, a mango (F. J4t. 5). Atnbavanatk, 

a mango orchard. 
AMBU (n.), Water [^Rf]. Ab. 524, 661. 
AMBUDHARO, A doud [^ + \nC]- Ab. 47. 
AMBUDO, A doud [^VIJ^]. Ab. 47. 
AMBUJAKAR0,A pond or tank [1^^ + "^VIPiT]- 

Ab. 678. 
AMBUJINi (/.), A lotus-lake [WfH + fl^fem.]. 

Ab. 689. 
AMBUJAA, a lotus [ingV]. CI. Or. 45. 
AMBU JO, A fish [^Hg^]. Ab. 671. 




AMBUNIDHI (lit.). Sea, ocean [iTHlfwfV]- 
Alw. I. vii. 

AMES^FTAA, Repetition [in%fl7=l)^]. 
Ab. 106. 

AHHA, see Atthi. 

AMHADISO (adj.). Like us [mT^ + f1( + ^]. 
Mah. 30. 

AMHAft, AMHAKAA, AMHE, etc, see Ahofh. 

AMHAMAYO (a^\)f Made of stone, stony [^H^- 
91^]. Vajiram ff amhamayam nuifum, as the 
diamond pulverizes the flinty jewel (Dh, 29y a real 
or hard gem, such as only the diamond will cut). 

AMHI, see AithL 

AMILATO, The plant Globe Amaranth, or Gom* 
phrma Globosa [^ + Wl^ = ^] • Ab. 578. 

AMISAA, and -SO, Flesh, meat; food; object of 
enjoyment, bait, temptation, lust, desire [^|fim] . 
Ab. 280, 1104. AmuaddMah, material gifis (as 
Ibod, dothing, etc), opposed to dham$nQddwuh, 
religious gifts (Mah. 196). VantahkAmiao, one 
who has rejected the lusts or temptations of the 
world (Dh. 68). Amiaahetu, from interested 
motives (Pdt. 13), explained to mean ** with a view 
to obtain clothes, food, l>edding, honour, worsKiip, 
etc/* (Pit. 88). 

AMITO (aif^'.). Boundless, hnmense [^-f finf= 
MX]. Dh.231; Has. 25. 

AMITTO, An enetaiy [^ -f ^T^]- Ab. 344 ; Dh, 
12, 37, 158. 

AMMA (ooc next)f Mother I Daughter I Lady I 
Madam I Used by a son or daughter to a mother 
(Mah. Ill ; Dh. 300). By a father to his daughter 
(Dh. 159, 239). By a grandfather to his grand.* 
daughter (Dh. 231). By a brahmin to a young 
lady of rank (Dh, 233). By a merchant to a lady 
(Ras.38). Dh. 175. 

AMMA (/.), A mother l^mt]- Ab. 244. The 
usual vocative is amma (see last), but when accom- 
panied by bhati the form ammd appears to be 
used (see Kuhn's N6ma Kappa, p, 12). 
AMMAl^Alik, A canoe, a measure of capacity equal 
to eleven Dopas; a superficial measure equal to 
four Karfsas. Ab. 197, 484, 668, 1032 ; Mah. 174, 
175. I have not succeeded in tracing this word 
in Sanskrit, though I suspect it to represent a 
Saaskritic (Aryan) form ambana ; and it is singular 
that Wlnslow, in his Tamil Dictionary, gfives a 
word Ambana, one of the meanings of which is 
"a com measure." For the change of mb to 

mm compare drammofui =: Sansk. 41ambana, and 
amm&sSansk. amba. The modem Simhakse 
equivalent otammapa is amuj^ a word in constant 
use throughout the south and centre of Ceylon. 
The amu^a is the standard measure of paddy and 
other grains; it varies in different parts of the 
Island, but in the Colombo district is equal to 
about six bushels. The amu^a is also a superficial 
measure, containing as much ground as an amupa 
of gnun will sow; its extent varies, but in the 
central province of Ceylon it is reckoned at al>out 
two acres. 

AMO (adj.). Raw, uncooked [^ir«!]. Ab. 146. 

AMODANA (/.). Rejoidng [^ + «ft<pr]. 

AMODO, Pleasure, joy ; a strong perfume, fragrance 
[^Pnft^]. Ab. 87, 145, 1108. 

AMOHO, Absence of ignorance or error, correct 
knowledge [H + ^^t%] • Ab. 153 ; Alw. I. xvi. 

AAsO, a part, portion, share ; a period of time 
[^]. Ab. 485, 933, 1102. Caiutthanuo, a 
quarter. AtUadue, in past time (B. Lot. 649, 

AfiSO, and AASAA, The shoulder [^]. Ab. 
264; Dh.235. 

AAsU (m. and m), A thread ; a bit of thread ; a 
filament ; a ray, a sunbeam [^tV]« Ab, 64, 1121 ; 
P6t. 79. 

AASUKAA, Cloth, fine doth [^1^]. Ab. 290. 

AASUMAlI (m.), The sun [^ + intir<]- 

AMU, see Aau. 

AMUKHYO (a4;.). Not prindpal, secondary [^ 

AMUKO (adj.). This; that [^1^]. CI. Gr. 59. 
Gaccha kutfhino amukasia, go to yonder leper 
(Mah. 246). Amukanni^ okd$e rukkho weUto, 
in that open space there is a solitary tvee (Ras. 84). 
With foil, mdma it appears to have the same mean» 
ing as Aauko (which see) ; AmukaamUk ndma kule, 
in such and such a fiimily (P&t. 75, 80). Dh. 364. 

AMOLAKO (adj.). Unreal, unfounded, fidse; un- 
paid [^4-1J«r-fl|]. P&t. 4, 18, 72. Amd^ 
lakath kammam, unpaid labour (Mah. 163), Fern. 
amdlikd (P4t. 63). 

AMtfLHAYINAYO, see Flna^o. 

AMOLO (adj.). Without payment, unpidd [^ -f 
VQl]. AmdUnk kammam, unpaid labour (Mah. 

AMUTO (04;.), see Muto. 




AMUTRA (adv.). In that place, there ; in another 
world, in another state of ezistenoe, hereafter 
[^l^ff^]. Ab. 1148. Itosutffdnaamutrat^khdid, 
not repeating in that place what he has heard in 

AMUTTO (a^.), Not shot or darted [^ + ^= 
S^] . Neat, amuttafkf a non-missile weapon, as 
a knife or sword (Ah, 387). 

AMUTTO (p>p*p.). Dressed, accoutred for battle 
[^I|ff5gnr = ^]. Ab.378. 

AlSTA (/.), An order, a command ; authority [^IT1|T] • 
Ab. 354, 992 ; Dh. 141, 142, 161 ; Mah. 22, 24 ; 
AIw. I. 79. jipdkhettath or dfuthkhettath, field 
of authority, sphere over which authority extends. 

ANABHIJJHA (/.), Absence of covetousness or 
desire [^ + ^fil«MT]- 

ANABHIRADDHI (/.), Anger, wrath, rage [^ -f 

^irfH-fTTH]- Ab. 164. 

ANABHIRATI (/.), Dissatisfaction ; afBiction, sor- 
row [^ + ^f^Tfif] • PAt.xxxi. 

ANAGARIYAKO(a4;'.),Withoutamaster or teacher, 
self-taught [m-^inn^ + ^]. B. Lot. 337. 

ANAGARO, Bad conduct, bad manners [^-h 

ANAGCHARIYO (adj.), Not wonderful [^ + 

^m^]. Dh.323. 
ANAGGHO (a^;.). Not clear, turbid [H-h W^- 

ANADANO (adf.). Free from attachment or desire 

[^ + ^ + ?[Pr]. Dh. 63, 71, 72, 74. 
ANADARI YAA, Disregard, disrespect, unkindness 

ANADARO, Disregard, disrespect, contempt, eare- 
lessness, indifference [^ + ^Vr^^]> Ab. 172; 
Kuhn K. S. 29, 33. 

ANADARO (aeff,). Disrespectful ; careless, reckless, 

bold [^ + W?[T] - ^<^b- ^^ i P^^ ^^- 
ANADHIKO (atff.). Without additions or super- 
fluities, not redundant [^ -\- ^Wf^Tl] • Alw. 1. 65. 
ANADHIVARO, Without a superior,— an epithet of 

nDuddha[l| + ^irftl + ^. Ab. 2. 

ANADIYANTQ (adj.). Without minding, without 
attending (Ras. 83). See Adiyati* 

ANAGAMANAM, Not returning [^ + ^IPfm] • 
Khk pana tesam andgamanarh icchatha, would 
you like them not to come back ? (Dh. 154). 

ANAgAmI ^m,), One who does not return [^ + 
^(nrrfSr^]* This is the technical term for one 
who has entered the third of the four Maggas, or 

paths to Nirv^a. He is so called because he 
cannot again be bom in the world of men or of 
devas, but only in a Brahma world, from which 
he may attain Nirvi^a. B. Intr. 292, 293 ; £. 
Mon. 280, 281, 291. Fem. andgdnuni (Dh. 175). 
Five An&gamis are enumerated in Sangiti Sutta, 
antardparinihbdyi, upahaccaparinibbdyi, asankhd- 
raparinibbdyi, gatoAkhdraparinibbdjfi, uddhaikaoto 

ANAgAMIMAGGO, The path of one that does not 
return [l|<IMn(i|<|^+ iTT^]. This is the third 
of the Gatt&ro Magg^ or four patlis to Nirv^^A. 
E. Mon. 280, 281 ; Dh. 362, 426. See last. 

ANAgAMIPHALAA, Fruition of the state of 
An^ig^uni [lH«||J||(i|<|^ + lill]. This is the 
second or perfect stage of the path of Anfig^mi. 
The whole path is caUed andgdmimaggo, but it 
is subdivided into two stages, andgduumaggo and 
andgdmiphalam* It is not till he has reached the 
latter stage that the.An%4mf enjoys fiilly and in 
perfection the blessings the patti confers. £. Mon. 
28Q ; Dh. 162. 

ANAGARIKO, One who does not live in a house, 
an ascetic, a Buddhist priest [^ -|- ^RflT "^ TJ^ • 
Dh. 181. 

ANAGARIYA (/.), The houseless life of an ascetic, 
asceticism, the life of a Buddhist priest [compare 

^^mfX^I > ^ ^^^ ^] • Agdra»md auagdrhfam 
pabbt^ati, to leave the household Ufe for the ascetic 
life (B. Lot 410, 581^ 863 ; Alw. I. 92). 

ANAgARIYO (adj.). Not living in a house, house- 
less, homeless, recluse [^ -{^ ^RTT + ^]* ^^>uc. 
an ascetic, a Buddhist priest. AndgdnyabMoo, 
asceticism (Ras. 62). Andgdriyamum, a hermit 
sage (Dh. 228). Alw. I. 75, 76. 

ANAgARO (at^.)} Houseless, homeless [^ + 

^Utinr]* ^^* 7^> 7^" Andgdro, an ascetic, a 
Buddhist priest. 

ANAGATO (iM^*.), Not come, not arrived; future 
[^<||J|^] . Hatthisu andgatetu yeva, before the 
dephants have come (Dh. 156). Andgatampassam, 
foreseeing the future. Loc. andgate, in foture, 
hereafter (Mah. 161, 247). Mah. 220. 

ANAGGH ARC {a^f.), Priceless, invaluable [^ + 
IV^ + IK]. Mah. 180. ^ni^^AtA»» at Mah. 164. 

ANAGHO (adf.). Priceless, invaluable, inestimable, 
precious, costiy [^ -h ^Nl]- Alw. I. 75. 

ANAGHO (atjff.), Sinless, blameless, pure [^ + 




ANAhARO (adj.), Withoat food, fastlDg [^ + 

^nfTT]- Mah. 211. 
ANAKKHATO (adj.). Not described, ineffable 

["^ + ^nWRI = Wr]- An epitbel of Nirv^a 

(Dh. 39). 
ANAKKHIKO («(;.), Withoat eyes, sighfless 

[^-h^Pt^ + H]. Db.82. 
ANAKULO (adj.)f Untroubled, quiet, peaceful 

[^ + ^n^W] • Mah. 18 ; Khud. 5. 
ANALASO (adj.). Industrious, diligent [^ + 

ANALAYO (<Mf^*.)> Free from desire or attachment 
[^ + ^iniRr]- Dh. 281. Neat, andlayam, 
Nirviva (Ab. 6). 

ANALO, Fire [Him]. Ab. 33. 

ANAft, A cart ["^if^] . Ab. 373. 

ANAA, Inhaled air, inhalation, inspired breath 
[^IR]. Ab.39. 

ANAMATAGGO {adj.). This word is found in the 
frequently recurring phrase Anamatagge Miksdre 
taHuaranto. It probably represents the Sanskrit 
^ + ^ra|f + ip[|, so that the phrase would 
mean "revolving in a revolution of being (or 
metempsychosis) which does not end in Ntrvdna." 
See Dh. 82, 175, 336; Has. 22; Mah. 73, 98. 
Rogers, however, translates it, " in the countless 
existences that have no beginning" (Buddh. Par. 
p. 56f compared with Dh. 175). Tumour in the 
Index and Glossary to Mah. says *' without be- 
ginning or end.'' 

ANAMAYO (adj.). Free from illness, healthy 
[^ + ^inni]* Dh. 76. Neut. andmayam, 
health (Ab. 331 ; Kuhn K. S. 29). 

ANAMIKA (/.). The ring finger [^ U t Rl^iiO - 

ANANAA, The mouth [^IHR]. Ab. 260. 

ANAf^CA]£l, Infinity, immensity, boundlessness 
[mW^]- B. Lot. 811, 812. 

ANANDANAA, Friendly gpreeting, welcome [^- 
l|i^]. Ab. 760. 

ANANDO, Joy, delight, happiness ; name of a famous 
disdple of Buddha ; name of a fobulous sea-monster 
[in^n[]- Ab. 87, 436, 673; Man. B. 13, 227; Mah. 
134; Dh. 27, 107, 135, 139, 205, etc. 

ANANGAJyO (adj.). Free frvm lust or impurity, 

I»>«['ir + '1IYW]- B. Lot 865 ; Dh. 23, 42, 63. 
ANA^O (a4j.\ \Vlthoat another, alone [11 + 
Ifl^]. Dve gatiyo bhatfanii ana^nd, two courses 
only are open to him (B. Lot 581). P^t. 12. 

ANANO (adj.)y Free horn debt [^ + 1^]. 
Kamm. 5. 

ANANTARAM (adv.). Immediately after, next 
[^l| 1^4^41.]. Tas^ uppattikdldnantaram eva, 
immediately after his birth (Has. 16). Tadanan^ 
taram, forthwith (Mah. 233). With abl. Taio 
anantaraihy immediately afterwards. 

ANANTARIKO (adj.). Uninterrupted [^nfUTT -f 

jyn] . khud. 7. 

ANANTARO (adj.). Immediately following, next ; 
adjoining, next [K*|W!<]. F. Jit 46; Mah. 
233 ; Dh. 239, 402. Manussdnantare bhave devo 
ahasi, he was a deva in a birth immecUately fol- 
lowing a birth as man (Mah. 5). Thunhdka^ 
anantardsane nisinno bhikkhu, the priest sitting 
next you (Dh. 134). 

ANANTO (adj.). Endless, eternal; boundless, in- 
finite [H + ^nn] • B. Lot 515 ; Dh. 33 (and see 
€hcara)\ Man. B. 10. Anantamati, of infinite 
wisdom (Khud. 23). Masc. Ananto, name of the 
N%a king (Ab. 651). Neut. AnatUaih, the In- 
finite, i.e. Nirvina (Ab. 7)« 

ANANUCCHAVIKO (a^\). Unsuitable, unworthy, 
improper [^ H- ^ + Wf'T + ^] • Dh. 86, 114, 

ANANUSSUTO (adj.). Unheard [^ + 115 + ^ 

ANANYAM, Freedom from debt [^IT^]- 

AnAPANAM, Ordering, commanding. SeeAndpeH. 

AnApANAA, Inhaled and exhaled breath, inspira- 
tion and respiration [yfpH + ^RT^] • •^^- 1* 
88 ; £. Mon. 268, 269 ; Man. B. 150. 

ANAPATTI (adj.). Free from guilt, innocent 

ANAPATTIKO (adj.), Free from guilt [^ + 
^linrf^-l-H]. Pdt28. 

ANAPAyI (adj.). Not departing, lasting [^VWIH- 
f%n^]. Dh. L 

ANAPEKHI (at^\). Free from desire [^ + 1H^<^ 
f^mj. Dh.62,412. 

AnAPBTI (cau8. dneti). To cause to be brought, to 
send for [^] . Andpaiyitvd ndndpd§apdike, having 
caused men of various heretical creeds to be brought 
to him (Mah. 23). Te attano samipam dndpetvd, 
having caused them to be brought into my pre- 
sence (Alw. I. 76). Dh. 305 ; Mah. 223. Ger. 
dndpiya (Mah. 134). P.p.p. dndpito (Mah. 170). 

ACIAPETI (cans. ^dndH), To order, to command 
[^ + linRrtTr=in]- Ras.72;Dh.l76,243, 





291, 328; Alw. I. 79. With ace Jn^peH sami- 
pattkaih purisam, ordered an attendant who stood 
by (Mah. 246). With following imper. An^qtesi ca 
bhA/HUi mdreki pitaraih me H^ and the king gave 
the order, Put my &ther to death (Mah. 261). 
P.p.p. dnatto, 

ANAPPAR0(a4/.), Mnch, great^eonsiderable [^ + 
^T^ + ^]. Dh. 26 ; Khnd. 12 ; Mah. 69, 127. 

ANAPPO {adj,)y Much, great; numerous, many 
[^ + ^m]. Mah. 215 ; Has. 21. 

ANAPUCGHA, Without asking leave, without per- 
mission. P&t xxi. 106. As this word governs an 
ace. I am inclined to think that it may represent 
^+ ^ + Wflj comp. an^^mcchiM at Pit. 90. 
An^eeham (Pilt. 12, 87), if the reading be 
correct, is, no doubt, the part. pres. ss ^ + ^ -f- 

ANARATO (iwf/.), Ck>ntiBUBl [^ + m^Tf s ^l^] . 
Adv. andratam^ continually (Ab. 41). 

ANARIYAVOHARO, Unworthy practice [^+ 
^ir$ + ^iW^fTT]* ^ght are alluded to at Ab. 
122. The four Anariyavohiras are mtudvddo^ 
frisufMvdcdf iamphapptU^, pharutaffded, ** lying, 
slander, frivolous talk, harsh langfuage.* There 
are also two other sets of four each, '' saying you 
have seen a thing when you have not seen it,** etc 

ANARIYO, Not noble, not venerable; mean, dis- 
honourable, low [^ -h W^] • B. Lot 497. Masc 
anariyOf one who is not an Ariya, a Puthujjana 

ANARO, Not a man, other than human [^ + W^- 
Alw. I. vil. 

ANABAKA (/.), Fasting [^V«mni] • I>1^- 25, 305. 

ANASANAA, Fasting [iQ + mpT]. Ab. 1185. 

ANASAVO (odf.)f Free from human passion [see 
Asavo]. Masc. andtatfOf an Arahd (Mah. 167; 
Dh. 23). Neut. andsatfaOt, Nirv^a (Ab. 7). Fem. 
andsavd (Mah. 17). Dh. 17, 69. 

ANASSAVO (a4f.\ Disobedient [^ + ^irnnT]- 

ANATHAPI^PIKO, Feeder of the poor, surname 
of an eminent lay disciple of Buddha ; his name 
was Sudatta. B. Intr. 24 ; Ab. 437 ; Dh. 78, 107, 
165, etc. ; Man. B. 216. 

ANATHO, Helpless, forlorn, destitute [H + ifTV]- 
Mah. 104 ; Dh. 222. 

ANATI, To breathe, to live [^f9(] . d. P. Verbs, 4. 

ANATTA(m.), Not a self, not a soul [^ + ^VTinCI ' 
Gog. Ev. 45. 

ANATTADHINO (adj.). Not one's own master, 
dependent [^ -|- llT9ni+ IHSN]. 

ANATTAMANO (adj\). Displeased, discontented. 
See Attamano, B. Lot. 367 ; Ras. 17- 

ANATTHAKO (o^;.). Unmeaning, senseless, fool- 
ish [^nnN] . Dh. 285. Fem. muathikd (Ab. 

ANATTHO (adj.), FooUsh, vain [^R^]. Dh. 19. 

ANATTHO, Disadvantage, evil, misfortune ; injury 
[iV^f^]. Anatthakdrakoy anoHhakaro, injurious 
(F. Jdt. 1). AnatthasamkUOf mischievous, per- 
nicious (Pit 116). AnatthakarafUEmy hnrtfulnesi 
(F. J&t. 1). Anatthofh karoti or Anaithafh caraHf 
to injure. Attham kariasdmtti atuttthoA kari, 
saying, I will do good, he has done harm (Dh. 88). 
With dat. Ayaik me puttdtunh anattkam pi ka- 
reyya, this woman might do my sons a mischief 
(Dh. 303, and see 262). Dat anatthdya, to the 
prejudice of (Dh. 13, 26^). Dh. 46 ; Alw. I. 112. 

AJ^ATTI (/.), Command, injunction, ordinance 

[^iniTRT]. Alw. 1. 106. 
ANATTO (aiff.). Without individuality,nnreal [if + 

HlMi^. Dh. 49, where the comment explains 

it by << powerless.'' Man. B. 495 ; B. Intr. 462, 

Al^jTATTO (ppp» dndpeU), Commanded, enjoined 

[V + im=irT]- Mah. 76. 
ANATURO (adj.). Healthy [^ + ^TT^- ^^' 36. 
ANAVAJJATA (/.), Blamelessness [^PHnTITT]- 
ANAVAJJO (adj.). Blameless, harmless, not sinful 

[^ + "V^^]. Khud. 5 ; Dh. 259. 
ANAVARATA A(aift;.), Inoessantiy [ ^i | l | <flH = 

'^^. Ab. 41. 
ANAVASESO (a^j.). Without any remidning, all, 

every one, the whole [^ -h HC|i)l|] . Khud. 15 ; 

Ab. 786. 
ANAVASSAVO, Not flowing in, non-bifluz [% + 

iw + ^nr]. 

ANAVASSUTO, see Awuauto. 
ANAVATADVARATA (/.), Not closing the door 
against another, accessibility, openhandedness 

ANAVATATTO, see Anotatto. 
ANAVATTHITI (/.), Unsteadiness [^ + ^V>rfl|r- 

fW]. Ab. 1172. 
ANAVAYO (adj.), Perfectiy acquainted with, versed 

in [^ +^^9^0^17]. With loc. (Alw. I. Ixz). 
ANAVILO (adj.). Clear, pure; untroubled, serene 

[^ + ^»rt%«]. Dh. 15,73. 




An A YANAlily Bringing near ; escorting [l||i|€|i|] . 

Dh. 145. 
ANAYO, Sin, wrong; distress, misfbrtnne [iRVf^]. 

AnAYO, a net, a fisli-net [^VfllTBr]. Ab. 521 ; the 

reading is Anayo^ bot a MS. of Md AkMdi lias 

Al^CATI, To honoor [H^]. CL P. Verbs, 2. 
AQrpAJO (adj.), Oriparoas [^raPl]- Ab. 741. 

Masc. an^jo, a bird ; a fish (Ab. 024, 1079). 

Alf^AKAM, A bird's egg [^RV^i]. F. Jit. 49 ; 

Dh. 107, a25. 
AljrpAft, An egg; a testide [^VW]- Ab. 273, 

ANDH ABALO (adj,). Silly, stapid, dodng [ifa^ + 

Wnr]- I>h. 05 ; Alvr. T. 102. 
AMDHABHOTO (adjJ), BUnd, in darkness, unen- 

lightened [lii9 + l|W=^]- Dh. 32, 260, 337. 
ANDHAKARO, Darkness [^P^iinCI. Ab. 70; 

Dh. 27 ; Mah. 14. 
ANDHAKIYO (adj.). Belonging to the Andhra 

eoontry. Gl. Gr. 03. 
ANDH AKO (atff.). Belonging to the Andhra ooontry 

[^mi + 1«]. Alw. I. cvii, cviu ; Pit. viii. 

ANDH ANTAM Aft, and -MO, Thick darkness 
[^W + inWC]. Ab. 72; Alw. I. 107. 

ANDHO (adj.). Blind [^|il|] . Ab. 321 ; Dh. 86, 300- 

ANDU (m.), A chain [:iPf]. Dh. 411. 

ANDUKO, An elephant's foot chain [IP^]. Ab. 

Ain^OPAKAft, A roll of doth to serve as a stand 
for a vessd. Ab. 458. 

ANEJJAA, Immovability, impassibility. The 
Boddhist Sanskrit equivalent is Aniiyya, viz. ^ 
+ ^ + ^ (^* ^^ ^^)- Awdjappaito, '* im- 
movable," ** impassible," I find thas explained in a 
commentary, AnejjappaUo ti acale nirif^ane H 
vmtiatk koH, where anejja is distmctly referred to 
the P4U root iSj = Sanskrit INO. The latter 
part of the compound dmejjappatto represents the 
8. pr4pta. A X^ ><^yB» Nicealabhdvnui avo- 
tfkdiuuk dmeffappatH; here patH is the S. prdpti. 

ANBJO (a4j.\ Free firom desire. Dh. 73, 74. See 


ANEKADHA (ado:). In many ways [^il^Ml]- 

Mab. 27» 195. 
ANBKASO (adv.). In many ways [iRiN + 11^. 


ANEKAVIDHO (a4j.). Of many sorts, varioos 

[^liN + tWT]. Has. 26. 
ANEKO («^*.), Several, many; manifiild, various 

[^RiNl]. Mah. 1,170. 
ANELAMtJGO (a^j.). Not deaf and dumb [^ + 

ANENA, see Jyam. 

ANESANA (/.), Impropriety [% + l[q^]. Dh. 

ANESANO (adj.). That should not be sought or de- 
sired, improper [^+ 1(!^^]- ^^« 335. 

ANETI, To bring, to bring home ; to fetch, to pro- 
cure ; to carry, to convey \ySl + '^J . Kuimdfikaik 
dnema, let us engage a maidservant (Dh. 300). 
Sace vejjam daeudnn, if I send for the doctor 
(Dh. 93). PqfdpaHm dneudmi, 1 shall take to 
myself a wife (Dh. 199). Mukhapdfhena dnesutk, 
handed down by word of month (Mah. 207). Aor. 
dnayi (Mah. 3), dneH (Mah. 40). Oer. dnfya 
(Mah. 4 ; Alw. K. viii). P.p.p. Mto. 

ANOA (interf.). Indeed! Oh! [^fff]. Ab. 1139. 

ANGADAM, A bracdet [^1^^]. Ab. 287. 

ANG AH ARO, Gesticulation [yff + fTT] • Ab. 101. 

ANGAJATAA, Membrum virile [l|Y + ^rnr= 
lli^. Ab.273. 

ANGAM, A limb, a member ; the body ; a portion, 
division ; a means, a cause ; a requisite ; a qudity, 
attribute {Wf]- Ab. 278, 955; Has. 16. SaM- 
angatamMpdgato, possessed of every qualification 
(Mah. 11). jitfhoMgaiamanndgato, possessed of 
eight good qualities (B. Lot. 566). Imind ang^ena 
tamanudgato, endowed with this attribute (B. Lot. 
664, comp. Khud. 4). There are nine Angas 
(navang^ark), or divisions of the Buddhist scrip- 
tures according to subject matter ; they are tuttaah, 
geyyadi, veyydkarafMnk, gdihd, uddua$k, iiivutia- 
kam, jdtakatk, abbhutadhanunafk, vedaUask (see 
each separately). There is an art or sdeaoe named 
Angam, mentioned in Brahma J&la Sutta, which 
consists in predicting a person's career from the 
examination of hb limbs. 

ANGANA (/.), A woman [WPU]- Ab. 230. 
ANGAQf Aft, A court, a yard ; lust, impurity, sin 

[ifflV]. Ab. 218, 859; Mah. 151, 212. Ri- 

jangafMfk, palace court, jikdioagafutm, an open 

courtyard (F. J^. 17). 
ANGANUSArI<iii&'.), Pervading tiie Umbs [yif + 

^m|(\i(J . This is the name of one of the Viyus 





or airs contaiBed in the homan body (Ab. 30). | 
Hardy (who calls it angamang4nu9dr() states that 
it means a wind " that pervades the whole body, 
being; conveyed in vessels like veins, and iin]»artB 
the power by which the hand or foot or any other 
member is moved" (Man. B. 400). 

ANGARO, Charcoal ; live coals, embers [lH|f I ^] • 
Ab. 36 ; F. Jit. 56 ; Dh. 301, 325. Angdrama- 
fhsath, roast meat (Mah. 60). 

AJSGATI, To go [^]. CI. P. Verbs, 1. 

ANGAVIJJA (/.), One of the low arts enumerated 
in Brahma Jdla Sutta, pro^ostication of a per- 
son's future from the appearance of his body 

ANGAVIKKHEPO, Gesticulation ["Kf + f^^] . 
Ab. 101. 

ANGI (adj,), Having limbs ; having parts or divi- 
sions [^rf^f^* Kuhn K. S. 32. 

ANGlRASO, A name of Buddha; name of a 

9i8hi [^rf^nc^]- ^^- ^> ^^- 

ANGO, The name of a country, Bengal [^V^]> 
Ab. 185. 

ANGULAA, a finger's breadth, an inch [^VVIT]* 
Ab. 195 ; Dh. 319 ; Plit. 76. Atthangulo gqjjhti^ 
patto, a silver plate eight inches thick (Mah. 169). 

ANGULl (/.), A finger [ Wfft] . Ab. 266 ; AIw. I. 
100; Dh. 111. 

ANGULIKO {adj.\ Belonging to a finger ; an inch 
in length [^l^f^ll] . Mah. 166. 

ANGULIMUDDA (/.), A signet ring [WfW + 
ig^]. Ab. 287. 

ANGULlYAKA!il, A finger ring [^IVlf^IRl]. 
Ab. 286. 

ANGULYABHAIiA]$f A]M[,A finger ring [^VWflr + 
^HTHnCUr]. Ab. 286. 

ANGUTTARANIKAYO, Name of the fourth divi- 
sion of the Suttapifaka [^VJf + ^HTT + ft^tTRT] • 

ANGUTTHO, The thumb [W^]. Ab. 266; 
Mah. 218. 

-ANHO, and -AljrHO, Day [^]. A substitute for 
ahaihj "day," in the latter part of a few com- 
pounds, — pubbanhOf forenoon ; mqfjhanhoy noon ; 
aparaf^ho, afternoon; sdyanho, evening. The 
usual spelling of the manuscripts is -aftha, with 
the lingual 9, but the original spelling must have 
been -anha, for Payoga Siddhi g^ves pubbanha 
(Sanskrit p^rvdhnd)^ as an instance of h joined to 

a dental n. The influence of the false analogy of 

words like tai^hd, Isa^ha, etc., would easily aoooimt 

for the introduction of the 9 in later MSS. 
Al^I (/.), The pin of a wheel-axle, a lineh-pin ; a 

peg or pin [^llfV]* Ab. 374 ; P4t. 86. Rathda^ 

llneh-pin of a chariot (Mah. 217). 
ANIBBIDDHO(a4;.),Not traversed, not a thorooffa- 

fare[l| + firfhr = ii^. Ab. 202, 1008 ;P£t 

ANICCATA (/.), Impermanence, instability, mor- 

taHty, death [^ + flin + ||x]. Man. B. 4100; 

Mah. 10, 122, 126, 196, 262. 
ANICCHITO {adj.). Not desired, disliked, impleas- 

ing. Dh. 396. See lechito. 
ANICCO (<m(^'.), Not lasting, transitory, perishable 

[H + fW]- Dh. 49 ; Has. 24. NevtoftiMMfc, 

impermanence (Man. B. 495 ; Has. 24). 
ANIDASSANAA, The Unseen, vis. Nirv^a [^ 4- 

Pl^^'l]. Ab. 7. 

ANiGHO {adj,)y Free from suffering, uninjured, 
scatheless [^ + fligha, which see] . Dh. 52, 390. 

ANiKATTHO, One of the king's body guard, a life- 
guardsman [inft^ + V] • Ab. 342. 

ANiKO, and -KAM, An army, a host [^f^^^]. 
Ab. 381. Four anikas, or hosts, are mentioned as 
constituting an army — hatthdnikeahf haydn{ka$kf 
rathdnikath^pattdnikmh, the elephants, the eavalry, 
the chariots, the infantry (Ab. 383). 

ANILO, Wind [^RfifUr]. Ab. 37. AnilapfUho, iAit 
sky (Ab. 46). 

ANIMISO {adj.). Not whiking the eyes [^ + f^^ 
ft(^\. Animisalocanam, an unblenching gaae 
(Man. B. 181). Masc. animuo, a god (Ab. 12), a 
fish (Ab. 1044). 

ANIMITTO, see NlmittaHi. 

ANIPPHALO {adj.). Not frnitiess, not without re- 
ward [H + fifB;+ ^nr]' l>h. 175 ; Khud. U. 

ANISAMMAKArI {adj.). Acting inconsiderately 

or recklessly [H-fftlpir + WlfT^- Ab. 729, 
ANIS A ASO, Advantage, profit, good result, blessing, 
reward, merit [^ + fir+ l(^J- Ab. 767 ; P&t. 
75 ; Dh. 79, 230, 256. Appamdde dnimnhio^ the 
blessings of diligence (Dh. 182> Ydgdniaa»k90, 
the merit of giving gruel in charity (Mah. 229). 
Sangiti Sutta enumerates five Ani»aiik$d »(kwai§ 
sUeuampaddya, or blessings which accrue to the 
virtuous man from the practice of virtue. Tliese 
are wealth, good report, confidence in any com- 




puy, an untroaUed dealh» a happy state after 
ANISSAMANAKO (a^\)y Not envioos [^ + 1.^ 

ANI88AYO (mij\\ mtboat snpplies, barren, deso- 
late [^ + nksayo, wUcb eee]. Ab. 886. 

ANiTIKO (at(f.)f Free from distress or calamity 
["V + tt^+ ^] • Neat, anitikam, The Secare^ 
▼is. mrv^a (Ab. 7). 

ANITO (P'P'P^ dneti). Brought, conveyed [^RpftiT 
= ift]. Ab. 749 ; Db. 105, 193, 328. 

ANIYAMO, Uncertainty [^ + fiRR]. Ab. 949. 

ANIYATO (a4;.). Uncertain, doubtful [^ + f^^Hf 
= l(i^. Dh. 254; Mah. 200. The Vinaya 
enumerates two priestly sins called Amyatd dha- 
wumdy *' undetermined offences,* because it depends 
upon circumstances whether they are to be treated 
as F&dyika, Sanghddisesa, or Pdcittiya. £. Mon. 
9; Pit 7, 75; B. Intr. 302. 

AR JALI (m.). The hollow of the joined hands ; a 
r^pectful salutation performed by raising the 
joined hands to the forehead [^TSfftf] . Ab. 268. 
Af^faiim pagganhdti, or paggaheH, or karoti, to 
salute respectfully by raising the joined hands to 
the forehead (Alw. I. 97; Dh.97, 133; Mah. 112). 
Anjaliik pandmeiU to bend the joined hands 
towards a person in respectful salutation (Gog. 
Ev. 8). Aryidihammaim and mjalikaranarky re- 
spectful salutation (Dh. 97» 362). Ar^alikaratLiyOt 
deaenrbg of respectful salutation (Alw. I. 78). 

AS JANAlfir, A coUyrinm applied to the eyelashes to 

darken them [^ISnf] . Ab. 306 ; Mah. 22. 
ASJASAA, a road [comp. ^^^1]- Ab. 190; 

Mah. 150. SiwtS^iuamf the way of happiness 

(B. Lot. 332). 
AfijATI, To anoint, to smear [in|]. Imam bhe- 

tajjam onjdhi, rub in this medicament (Dh. 89). 

Cans. aSjdpeH (ditto). 
ANKITO {p'P^p^ Marked; adorned, furnished, 

supplied with [^||F]. Ab. 263; Khud. 31; 

Raa. 29. ^ 

ANKO, A mark ; the flank or side [^1^]* Ab. 55, 

276; 104a PKMaffiait^M'<fi%o, taking her chUd 

on to her hip (Dh. 363). 
AJnOLO, The plant Alangium Hexapetalum 

[^rifHf]. Ab.557. 
Al^KURO, A shoot, a sprout [^l|fT]- ^b- ^^^ 

Mah. 87; F. Jit. a Buddhaikuro^ a nascent 

Buddha, one who will some day be a Buddha 
(Dh. 117). 
ANKUSO, A hook to guide an elephant with 
[^inra]. Ab. 367. Ankuioggaho, an elephant 
driver, mahout (Dh. 58). 

ANKYO, A sort of tambourine [^1^]. Ab. 143. 

ANNA (/.), A mother. 

A^^A (/.), Knowledge; perfect knowledge, Ara- 
hattaphala [^miT]- Ab. 436 ; Dh. 11. 

AJ^ADA (adv.), At another time [iRr^]. 

ASWADATTHU (adv.), Surely, certainly, truly 
[iffJir^ + ^r^]. Ab. 1140 ; CI. Gr. 75 ; Mah. 72. 
Anhadatthu garaham labhati, assuredly he will be 
blamed (Dh. 234). Annadatthuharo, rapacious, 
viz., " sure to carry something away with him." 
Ahnadatthudaw, penetrating, viz. ''sure to see 

Af} J^ADISO (a(y.\ Different [^nOTfll] • 
ANNAA, Food ; boUed rice [^n^]. Ab. 465, 1103, 

1104. Annapdrntthf meat and drink (Khud. 11). 

Anndni madhurdni, sweetmeats (Mah. 170). 

Ai^^AMAf^f^Alil (adv.), Mutually, towards each 
other. Aima$nannam piy4, kind to each other 
(Dh. 76). Annamannam H^dravd viharantd, living 
full of respect towards each other. Ahnamamafh 
mukhdni oloketvd, looking in each other's faces 
(Dh. 300). Amiama^arli dbhogapaccavekkhano' 
rahitd, void of mutual reflection and consideration. 
Amamtmnaah kathayinuu, they said among them- 
selves (Dh. 233). See next. 

AS]^AMA:^0, Each other, one another [^nif + 
y with euphonic i^, the S. equivalent is 
[]. Fem. amiamami. Ace. Amuunanruuh 
apekkhitvd, looking at each other (Mah. 230); 
Awiamarmam aecayam desetvd khamdpetvd, 
having confessed their fault and become reconciled 
to each other (Dh. 105 ; comp. Mah. 205). Afma- 
mannissd (gen. fem.) ffajjapaticchddikdy conceal- 
ing each other's faults (P4t. 100). AAankdro 
^^namannasaa, mutual arrogance (Ab. 397). Anna' 
maSmakalaho, mutual strife (Dh. 103); Anna' 
man&ahitesinOp seeking each other's good (Mah. 
68). B. Lot. 532 ; Mah. 136, 261 ; Khud. 16. 
Comp. AnnoSmo, 

AJ^SAlfAA, Ignorance [^H-HTf]- Ab. 168; 
B. Lot. 649. With loc. Dukkhaiamudaye anndnam, 
ignorance of the origin of suffering (Gog. £v. 67). 

Af^l^ASATTHUUDDESO, Adopting another 




teacher [^R| + IfT^ + ^^^ll]* '^^^ ^ ®°^ ®^ 
the Abhifbdnas, and means leaving the religion of 
Buddha to join a heretical sect. Khud. 27 ; E. Mod. 
37. It should, perhaps, be written as two words, 
anSiasatthu uddego, as satthu may be either the 
genitiye sing, or the crude base. 

AJ^f^ASI, see Jjdndti. 

A^NATABBO (p./p. dJdndH), That ought to be 
known or learnt ["^ + HT^W = HT] • P^*- 
17. 02. 

AJS^ATAKO (adj,)f Unknown, unrecognizable 

[^ + 1|M = Vr + 1] • jinndtakavesenOf In 
disguise (Dh. 104, 265). 

Af^MTAKO (a((;.). Not related, not a kinsman 
["ir + ^1^. Dh. 176 ; Pit, 8 ; Mah. 79. Fem. 
anndtikd {Fit 8, 77). 

A^^ATAMO (adj.), One of several, a certahi 
[^T^TRf]. Declined like Sabbo (Ci. 6r. 52). 
Tesam armaiamo kutumbiko, of these a certain 
landed proprietor (Mah. 254). 

A^f^ATARO (adj.). One, a certain, some; some 
other, another [^RHnC]. Ab. 717. Declined 
like Sabbo (CI. Gh*. 52). ISf^fta^ (Mataraitk, one 
of three (Dh. 29). Da»annam anhatara^, one of 
ten (Dh. 25). A^katarannim brdhmaftakuie 
nibbattitvd, having been bom in a Brahman 
family (F. Jdt. 9). Atmataro puriso, a certain 
person (Alw. I. 72). AfiSiaiaro vd aSmaiaro vd, 
one or other, any one of several (Pat. 3). AnSio' 
taratmim kule, some family or other (B. Lot. 463). 
B. Lot. 378. 

ARMTAVESAVA (adj.). In disguise [mim + 
^ + ^]. Mah. 208. 

AJ^ATHA (adv.). In another way, differently, 
otherwise [^vllVIl] . F. J4t. 18. Annathdbhdvo, 
difference, contrariety (Ab. 776). 

AJfSATHATTA (adv.). Differently. Q. Or. 98. 

AJ}fifATI(m.), Not a relative [^rirrfW]- Mah. 79. 
AR J^ATO (p.p*P' 4/^^^)» Known, understood [IQ 

AS'SATO (adj.). Unknown, unrecognized, in dis- 
guise [^ + irnT= HT]. Mah. 43, 208. 

Af^f^ATO (adj.), Not related, not a kinsman [^ + 
9|i^. Mah. 79. Comp. Amidtako. 

A^f^ATRA (oi/o.), Without,ezcept,besides [^fi^lT]- 
With instr. Anhatra tena bhagavatd, except this 
Blessed one (B. Lot. 654). Amatra sanghasam' 
muHyd, except with the consent of the sangha 
(Kohn K. 8. 29). Na me §okam anSio nibbdpetum 

Mokkkitiati alkkatra taihdgaiena, none but Buddha 
can quench my sorrow (Dh. 308). With ablative : 
Amiatra pubbegihUamdrambhd, except when pre- 
viously prepared by a layman. See next. 

A J^ATTHA (adv.). Elsewhere ; in another case 
[^pSipi]. Aimatiha gacehoH, to go elsewhere 
(Mah. 17). Anhaitha vatif dwelt in another part 
of the country (Mah. 131). ASmattha dhdvimsu, 
they ran away (Mah. 43). Annattha tangahitam 
iuitaih annaitha akarinuu, they put in one place 
a siitra that belonged to another place (Alw. 1. 63). 
Dh. 170, 393. 

ASfiATVA, see Jjdndti. 

Af^jf AVADAKO (adj.). Talking irrelevantly, pre- 
varicating [^nir + ^n^ + ^]- ^^ ^% ^- 

AN^AVO, The sea, the ocean [^fl^]- Ab. 659 ; 

Mah. 25, 116. 
AMAYA, see 4fdndti, and Afmo. 
AMAYAMANO (adj.). Unrecognized [^ + "tVT- 

^nmr = nr] • Mah. 131. 

AI^O, Water [^]. Ab. 661. 

A^^O (atff.). Other; other than, different from 
[^Rl]. Ab.717. Declined like 5o66o (CI. Or. 52). 
PI. afme (Alw. I. xvii). Gen. and dat. pi. amiemnk 
(F. Jit. 6). Inst. fem. a&ndifa (Alw, I. cviii). 
Gen. and dat. fem. a^nind (Dh. 251). Aniio koci, 
any one else. Ko anno, who else? (B. Lot 
364). Afmo vd yo koci, or any one else whatso- 
ever (F. Jit. 19). Afmam abhdaamdno, without 
speaking of anything eke (B. Lot. 314). Anno — 
anno, one — another. Anna»mitk vattabbe anham 
eva vadati, when one thing b to be said he says 
quite a different one (Dh. 318, compare F. J&t. 8, 
and Dh. 14, 217). With abL Annafh na takkd 
ddtum me, I can g^ve thee nothing but myself 
(Mah. 230). Tato a^e, different from them (Dh. 
110, 170). Jangamd anno, not movable (Ab. 712). 

AMof^iJO (adj.). Mutual [^Rl^llV]- Ab. 1200. 
&%e Amamahno. 

ANOELAA, Being houseless ; freedom from attach- 
ment to the world [^ + ^t^] • Dh. 16. 

ANOMO (adj.). High, illustrious, lofty ["^ + '%^^\. 
Man. B. 160. Anomapa^no, of lofty wisdom (Dh. 
97). Anomadasii, name of one of the twenty-four 
Buddhas (Man. B. 96; Dh. 117, 131). 

ANOTATTO, and ANAVATATTO, Name of one 
of the seven great lakes [^ + ^^<1H == ^Pt]- 
Man. B. 16, 17 ; B. Intr. 171 ; Ruhn K.S. 23; Ab. 


( 37 ) 


1179 ; Mah. 27. An»tattadako, lake An. (Mah. 2). 

ANOlTAPPAft, Absence of fear of sinning, reck- 
lessness, hardness of heart (see Ottiqfpam). Man.B. 
418 ; B. Lot. 444. 

ANOTTAPPi (adj\)^ Reckless, fearless of sinning 

AMTAGGATO (;».p.p.). Gone into, being in, con- 
tained in [^niribi^ irCI- ^^* 7^ 

AI^TTAGUl^Alif, The mesentery ["fRiUV + ^Rir]- 
Khnd. 18. 

AI<rrAKIRIYA (/.), Bringmg to an end, potting an 
end to [iRf + fi|in]- Alw. I. 72; Dh. 124. 

ANTAKO, Death, Min [^Pffn] • Ab. 43 ; Dh. 9, 
61, 227. 

ANTALIKRHAA, The sky, the air [iRT^t^]. 
Ab. 45 ; Dh. 23, 295 ; Khnd. 6. 

ANTAlk, An intestine ; the bowels ["fRiHV] . Khud. 3. 
Fl. oMidmi, entrails (Dh. 114). 

ANTAA, see AtUo. 

ANTAMA80 (a(/ff.)» Even [^P!|Yf + 11^]. Yam 
kinei kafifnkmdhanam antanuuo iuttaiantumo' 
timky any sort of waistband, be it merely a string 
or thread. Antamam aitano sariram pi 9abbaik 
pdkiya gamiabbam,w^ mnst go, leaving everything 
behind ns, even oor very bodies (Dh. 153). Anta- 
wuuo thtmapdyino ddrahey nay, the very babes at 
the breast (Dh. 165). Antanuuo tifuualdkatkt 
even a blade of g^rass (Kamm. 10). Dh. 264 ; 

Pdt 1071. 

ANTARA (adv, and prep,). Within, between, among, 
in [^RIT] - As the first part of a comp. Antaro' 
vUM (/.), the middle of the street (Dh. 206, 212, 
338). Antavara$9afkf daring the rains. Antaro' 
gharatk paviffko, gone indoors (Dh. 122). Anta^ 
raghare, indoors (P&t. 11). See Anto (2). Comp. 
mmiaradhdyatif amtaravdaako, etc 

AMTARA {ode, and prep.). Between ; on the way 

iuUard, and thou canst not stop by the way (Dh. 
43). mth aoc Antard ca Rdjagaham antard ca 
NdUmdatkf between Rdj. and N&landa. With gen. 
2baMi pdcku^faechimadvdrdnam antard, between 
hs east and west gates (Dh. 100). Antardmagge, 
mi the road, by the way (Dh. 369, 414 ; Has. 40). 
MaifimMttaniard, between the gems and pearls 
(Mah. 164). Dh.201. 
ANTARABHOOIKO, This word appears to mean 
a vOlage headman, or a subordinate chieftain under 

a lung and within the sphere of his authority (see 
Alw. I. 79 and P&t. 66). Alwis's explanation 
(Intr. 90) would point to the meaning ''border 


ANTARADHANAA, Disappearance ; covering 
[^niT^tnf]- '^b. 51 ; Ras. 15. There are five 
Antaradhdnas or declensions of religion : Pafl' 
vedha-ant,t patipatti'Ont,, linga^ant,, dhdtn^ant,, 
panyatti'ont. (E. Mon. 427). 

ANTARADH APETI (eaua.). To cause to disappear ; 
to render invisible [^HUT "^ cans. ^Sff] . Mah. 137. 

ANTARADHAYATI (paae.). To vanish ; to hide 
oneself [^RT^ + VT]* With abl. Upajjh^d 
amtaradhdyati simo, the pupil hides himself from 
his master (Kuhn K. S. 24). Aor. antaradhdyaiha 
(Dh. 256), antaradhdyi (Dh. 98, 134 ; Mah. 78), 
autaradhdtfm (Mah. 112). 

ANTARAHITO (p.p.p.)t Vanished, disappearing, 
hidden [^iirff^= VT]- Mah. 166. Atha kho 
antarahiid devatd bkagavato droceii, then a heaven 
descended deity said to Buddha (Oog. Ev. 12). 
With loc BraknuUoke antarahito, quitting the 
Brahma world (Gog. Ev. 8, comp. Kuhn K. S. 24). 

ANTARAKAPPO, see Kappo. 

ANTARAlil, Interior, included space, midst ; inter- 
val ; opportunity ; instant ; difference, other ; pecu- 
liarity ; a hole ; an inner garment ; the heart or 
mind [infTCj. Ab. 292, 771, 802. Fananta- 
raemiHi, in the midst of the wood (Ras. 20). Yafo' 
naahndya antaramki, on the middle of a boundary 
line of a yojana long (Mah. 41). Bhikkkinuah 
antaranh paviritvd, having gone into the midst of 
the priests (F. J6t. 45). Dantantaragato, having 
got between my teeth (F. J6t. 13). Puritantaro' 
goto, gone among men (Pdt. 117). Me lomanta^ 
reeu, among my hairs (F. Jdt. 57). Dutiye vaua- 
eatantare, in the second century, lit. in the second 
interval of a hundred years (Alw. 1. 66). Etasmim 
. antare, in that brief interval. Tadantarath, at 
that instant,immediately (Mah. 90). Bkaoantaraih, 
another birth, a former existence (Mah. 245). 
Desantarafk, a foreign country. Samayantarath, 
foreign religious usages. Abkidkdnantardrambke, 
at the commencement of a different set of words 
(Alw. I. viii). Nqfjantaram, a certain river (Ab. 
1052). Bkantara^, a particular star (Ab. 931). 
Fedantaratky one of the Vedas (Ab. 839). G^no- 
gkena nirantarantaro gafto, the priesthood whose 
heart is filled with a multitude of virtues (Alw. 




I. vii). Ab. 802 attribates to antaram the mean- 
ing of hetu, "cause"; of this I have found no 
example. Dh. 217, 218 ; Fit. zvi. See Anto, 
Antare, Antara. 

ANTARANTARA (adv.). From time to time, at 
intervals [^HOT + ^VM^ ahl.] . F. Jdt 2 ; Mah. 
219 ; Dh. 191, 202. 

ANTARANTARE (adv.). From tune to time, at 
intervals [^HfTC + IVITC ^ocJ]. Mah. 229. 

ANTARANTARENA (adv.). In the intervals of, 
among, between [^^'ilTC + ^PinC instr.]. With 
gen. Dh. 106, 108, peiiiaps 223. 

ANTARAPARINIBBAyI (m.). Technical name for 
one of the ^ye sorts of An4gdmf (which see). 
Explained to mean one who dies and attains Nir- 
v^a before half the age he should have lived in 
a Brahma world is expired [^l||<^| + parinibbdyi, 
which see]. 

ANTARARATI, To run into danger [denom. 
^HHrrro]- Alw. I. 17. 

ANTARAVASAKO, An under-garment [^Plf^ + 
tfT^f^+ If]. Ab. 292. Ant. b one oi the three 
dvaras or garments worn by a Buddl&ist priest 
Eitel says, '^ a sort of waistcoat worn in place of a 
shirt by priests.'* E. Mon. 114 ; Kamm. 3. 


ANTARA YIKO (adj.). Causing an obstacle, imped- 
ing, injurious [^V|4,14 + 1[H]. Tas^ antard" 
yike Lambaka^fte garitvdna, remembering the 
Lambaka^^as who had stood in the way of his 
prosperity (Mah. 218). Circumstances wlii<^ dis- 
qualify a man for becoming a Buddhist priest (as 
disease, debt, etc.) are called ^n/or^^'Ar^ dkammd, 
** impediments " or " disqualifications* (Kamm. 5). 
The term is also applied to those sins which pre- 
vent the attainment of heaven or of final sanctifi- 
cation (B. I^Dt. 403 ; Kamm. 31 ; P6t. 10, 29, 92). 

ANTARAYO, Obstacle, prevention, hindrance ; 
danger, aeddent; end [V4f|4^|f|]. Ab. 765; 
B. Lot 403 ; Dh. 403. JULtantardydya. Ndlam 
antardydya, not sufficient to prevent (Pdt. 16). 
Saggamaggantardyo, an obstacle or barrier in the 
way to heaven (Mah. 158). With gen. Brdhmaco' 
fiyaua antardyo, a hindrance to a life of holiness 
(P6t. xxxi). Antardyena bkawtabbatk, an aoddent 
must have happened (Dh. 304). AiUardyavimo^ 
eanaih, release from the dangers that threaten 
life (Mah. 220, comp. 222). Jimtantardyo, death 
(Dh. 387). Antardyaih karoti, to put an impedi- 

ment in the way of. Cfmiuuia ctvaraldbkatk aniard' 
yam kar., prevent the sisterhood's receiving pre- 
sents of robes (Pdt 106). Saggatnokkhdnadi ami. 
kar., prevent the attainment of heaven and Nir- 
vana (P&t. 92). 

ANTARE (prep.). Between ; among ; during, wlille ; 
withm, in [loc IRT^]. With gen. YamakoMd- 
nam ant., between two Sal trees (B. Lot 342). 
DfHnnam Hftfunkjandnam ant., in the company of 
two or three persons (F. J6t. 8). Devamanuitd^ 
Maift ant., among gods and men. Pa^ukdbha- 
yaraSmo ca Abkayaua ea antare, between the 
reigns of Pa^fo^^^i^yA ^^'^ Abhaya (Mah. 67 ; 
comp. Has. 36). Tadantare, meantime (Mah. 82). 
Yojanantare, within the distance of «a yojana 
(Mah. 214). Sdkkaniare nilino, perched among 
the branches (Ras. 32). Bkamukamtore, lietween 
the eyebrows (B. Lot. 563). Dvdrantare, in tiie 
gateway (Dh. 307). Fitapa'ontare, in the fork of 
a tree (Dh. 155). Dh. 250, 256. 

ANTARENA (prep.). Between; except [^Ifl'^ll]. 
Ab. 1137, 1150. 

ANTARlPAM, An island [^RT^]- Ab. 664,909. 

ANTARITO (p.p.p.). Hidden [^Vllf^= <]• 

ANTARIYAA, An under gannent [HlllO^]* 

ANTAVAWO, A Ctidra [^im + ^]. Ab. 503. 

ANTEPURAM, Royal predncts, royal citadel or 
palace ; that part of the palace set apart for the 
royal ladies, harem, gyneoeum [m^«y4j* Ab. 
215, 538; Alw. 1. 72; Mah. 82; Dh. 175. At 
Dh. 162 and 291 antopuram. 

ANTEPURIKO (a^'.). Belonging to a royal gyne- 
oeum [^|l!|:irC + T^]- Mah. 110. 

ANTEVASI, A pupU [H ^^lfil^C - ^^* ^^> 
Alw. I. Ixix. Nakdpakantevds{, a bather*k appren- 

ANTEVA6IK0, Apupii ["inNr^ni^^^]- CI. 

Gr, 80 ; Dh. 271. Antevdeikavaitam, duties of a 
pupil to his icariya. 
ANTIKAA, Vicinity [lrfi|fl|]. Ab. 706. After 
verbs of motion the aecusative is used preposidon- 
ally in the sense of ** near to," ^'to" (with folL gen.) : 
TasM tasta bkikkhnno antikatk gantpd, going to- 
this priest and that (Pit. 91). Patte dynkkka- 
yanUkam, brought to death's door (Mah. 38). 
Sakam ydnam apesayi tadantikath, got his car- 
riage driven to her side (Mah. 61). SimHariy the 
locative is used in the sense of " near," ** with" t 




7\ulmmHke tnsidiiffd. Bitting down at his side 
(Mah. 29y eemp. 74). Vasam dearhfantike, livmgf 
with his teacher (Mah. 28). PuranHke, near the 
town (Mah. Ixzzvi). Abl. a$Uikd, from (Mah. 14 ; 
P6t.76). KahnK.S.7. 

AMTIMAKO (a<(;.), Final, last. Mah. 53. 

ANTIMO (a^\). Final, last [^rf^tnT]. Ab. 714 ; 
0h. 03 ; E. Men. 2. Tadontimo, the last of these 
(Mah. 9). Sdkkdram afUimam akdy paid the last 
boBonrs to the dead (Mah. 125). Abhayass* aniimo 
jmitOf Uie yonngest son of Abhaya (Mah. 142). 
AmHmoiiehQf last body or existence before annihi- 
latioB (B. Lot. 350). AntimasMrOy one who has 
been re-bom for tlie last time, an Arahd (Dh. 
63, 71); 

ANTlY0(a4;.),Fmal,last [^nm]. CI. Gr. 03. 

ANTO, and ANTAA, End; limit, boundary; 
prcndmity, side; destmction, death; lowest, in- 
ferior ; interior [^filT]. Ab. 404, 714, 791. Du- 
kkkoMf^ OMtam kariuatha^ ye will put an end to 
sorrow (Dh. 40, 07> Dhdtvanto, the final letter 
of a yerbal root. Nettanto^ the corner of the eye 
(Ab. 1116). Pafanio, the border of a garment 
(Ab. 1127). Kadd kammantdnam onto ptamd- 
ffUtoHt when will the end of our agricultural 
labonrs be (Dh. 141). Tv-anto, ending in tu (Alw. 
K. viii). M-auto, ending with m (Alw. I. xvii). 
O'd'^mtd sard atfha, the eight of which o is the 
last are vowels (Ditto). Ayam eko anto, this is 
one extreme of doctrine (Gog. Ev. 38). Aparanto, 
the future. Pubbanto, the past. Ekamantam, on 
one side (Khud. 4). Sdkhanto, having the branches 
for its limit (Ab. 548). Gangante, by the river- 
Me (Mah. 219). T^td ante, standing near 
(Mah. 3). Chattantalambikdy hanging from the 
edges of the parasol (Mah. 164). Gdmanto, the 
OBtsklrts of a village. Fanante, in the forest 
(Dh. 54). Ante, at the last, at the end (Dh. 414, 
Mah. 100). Haeeum accetum ante no iakkhinuu, 
ia the end were unable to overcome death (Mah. 
253). Antakkhurdni, the final letters (Dh. 414). 
Auiam idatk bhikkhave jUnhdnanh, this, priests, is 
the lowest of vocations. For the three Antas see 

ANTO, and ANTARA {adv. and j>rep.\ Within, in, 
inside [^VW!\]. Ab. 1150. Anto dussabhaftdam 
miiM, there is doth inside (Alw. 1. 75). Anto yeva 
n i v dte tvd, having confined him indoors (Mah. 254), 
Amio pe9aJk^tvd,eoMvtndng inwardly (Dh. 354). 

Anto thapetum ekath ddsim, they placed inside one 
slave-girl (Mah. 56). JSTo^ii parom aii/o, placing 
the city inside, i.e. including the eity within the 
boundary (Mah. 98). Anto nipanno, lying down 
inside (Dh. 224). Anto vppanno kileoamdro, the 
evil passions that arise within (Dh. 111). Bahi- 
aggi anto na pavetetabbo, the fire from outside 
is not to be brought indoors (Dh. 239). Anto 
pavuati, to enter (Dh. 250, 372). Anto vUanto, 
entering (Mah. 52). — With gen. Anto narindava'- 
tthussa, within the palace (Mah. 66). Anto 'va 
rdjavatthuisa, within the royal precincts (Mah. 82). 
Anto bahi ea nagaraua, inside and outside the 
city (Mah. 259). PokkharifAyd anto ea btM ea, 
inside and outside the tanl^ (Dh. 219). Anto aamd- 
pattiyd, during the exercise of samdpatti (Dh. 177). 
PhafUim attano bilast^ onto pavesetvd, having in- 
troduced his head into the hole (Mah. 243). Cha- 
I bbanfuhunh buddharaaminam anto paimntvd^Mivin^ 
come within the six-coloured rays of Buddha (Dh. 
266). Sambuddhdndya ontB *haih vanssdmi, I will 
dwell in the commandment of Buddha (Mah. 98). — 
With loc. Anto bandhiya bhittiyam, having em- 
bedded him in the wall (Mah. 261). Anto pari" 
kkhepe r^uyydnassa, within the boundary of the 
royal garden (Mah. 88). Anto nadiyam, on the 
river's bed (Dh. 224). Anto gandhakufiya^, 
within the scented chamber (Dh. 291). Anto viAdre 
dind, seeing her in the convent (Dh. 247). Anto 
vihdre vicari, walked up and down in the convent 
(Ditto). Anto edftiyam, behind the curtain (Dh. 
159, 328). — ^Anto is much used as the first part of 
a compound noun or adjective ; the following are 
examples: Anto-aggi, indoor or household fire 
(Dh. 239) ; Anto^vicimhi nibbatti, was I>om in 
the Avici hell (Dh. 148) ; Antobhdgo, interior (Ab. 
1166); Antobhdvo, indusion (Ab. 1163, 1182); 
Antodevatd, penates (Dh. 239); Antaradipakoih 
pavuifksu, they landed on an island (Db. 325); 
Antogahe, indoors (Db. 94) ; Antogahato niha* 
ritvd, having carried it out of the house (P^. 93) ; 
Antf^dmam pdtnn, entered the village (Dh. 82) ; 
Antogdmato ydgubhattddfni dhariivd, having 
brought broth, rice, etc., from the village (Dh. 
88) ; Antogehd niharitvd, having carried him out 
of the house (Dh. 94) ; Antogharam, interior of a 
house, indoors (Ab.862) ; Antaragharam paviffho, 
having gone indoors (Dh. 122) ; Antaraghare nikkh" 
ipeyya,sho\jld put away in the hou8e(P&t.l 1) ; Anto^ 




Jdlampavisanti, go into the net (Dh.337) ; Antajdio, 
a slave born in the house (Ab. 515) ; Antojetava* 
nam pavisitvd, having entered J. (Dh. 148) ; jinto* 
kucchi (f.\ the beUy (Ab. 862) ; Hatihino anUh- 
kucchiyam cankamanti, they walli up and down 
inside the elephant's belly (Dh. 158, oomp. 907) ; 
AntolittOy plastered inside (Pdt. 70) ; Antomajjh' 
antiko, the forenoon ; Antonagaram tamhddham^ 
the interior of the town is crowded (Dh. 232) ; 
Antonagaram pavisitvd, having gone into the 
town (Dh. 169) ; Antonivesanafk pdvisi^ went in- 
doors (Dh. 154) ; Antanivesane, indoors (Dh. 231); 
Antopavatiakilesd, evil passions arisen within the 
heart ; AniopavitfkOy having entered (Dh. 385) ; 
Antopokkhari^yaik bhariyatk nahdpetvd, having 
made his wife bathe in the tank (Dh. 219) ; AntO' 
ratthe, in the interior of the country (Pit. 107) ; 
Aniothitd manuitd, the men inside (Dh. 158) ; 
Ratatidni antothiidnif gems buried in the earth 
(Mah. 68) ; Imafk antova$HiHi, during this rainy 
season (Dh. 82) ; Dukkhena taik antowuMaih vU 
tindmetufh, passed that rainy season in sorrow 
(Dh. 105); Antovauam (adv,)^ during the rains 
(P6t. 107) ; Ten* ev" antaravatgena^ during this 
very rainy season (Dh. 142); Antovatthumhi^ 
within the royal precincts (Mah. 253) ; Antaravi' 
thhh olokayamdnOf looking down into the street 
(Dh. 206, 212) ; Antaravithiyan^ fhatvd, standing 
in the street (DIu 338). Compounds of this sort 
are sometimes agidn compounded with another 
word : Antogahdbhimukho, with his face towards 
the interior of the house (Dh. 95) ; Antovasseko' 
^voiam, one day during the rains (Mah. 110) ; 
Antavauabhdvena, because it was the rainy season 
(Dh. 105) ; Attano puttaua anUnuManayoggamy 
fit for his wife and child to sit in (Dh. 324). See 

antobhAvo, ANTOGHARAA, antojAto, 

ANTOTHITO, etc ; see last. 

ANTOGADHO {adj.). Contained in, being among 
[see Ogadha']. Ab. 742. MahMhdriydnam the- 
rdnam aniogadho annataro takkata^A koci mahd- 
therOfBome eminent thera acquainted with Sanskrit, 
belonging to the priests of the Mahivih&ra (B41. i). 
Sdsanapaftfie tank antogadkam karotiy encloses it 
in the letter. Dve aggatdvakd mdhdedvaketu 
antogadhd, the two chief disciples are included 
among the Mahis&vakas. 

ANTOKAPPO, see Kappo. 

ANU (adv, and prep.). After ; under ; less than ; for ; 
according to ; along ; again ; in consequence of 
[Wj]' Ab. 1174. Yad ettha main ana elyd, 
whatever there be here lor me (O. €hr. 131). 
Sddhu DetHtdaito mataram anu, Devadatta is 
kind to his mother (Ditto). Anu Sdriputtatk 
pamiavd bhikkhu, a priest inferior to S. in learn- 
ing (Ditto). SaccakUiyam anu pdvaeti, it rained 
according to his pious wish. Anu is much used 
in composition with nouns and verbs, eg. Anund» 
yakOf sub-chief; AnudUd, inferior direction, inter- 
mediate point of the compass ; AnuvatMuk (adb.)» 
yearly ; Sangiid anutangUd ca, rehearsed and re- 
rehearsed ; PabbqfUam anupabbajimiu, they em- 
braced asceticism in imitation of (or after) the 
ascetic. RukkhaHi rukkham anuvijjotate eando, 
the moon lights up tree after tree (CI. Or. 131). 
Nadvh anvavaaitd Bdrdfuui, Benares is situated 
on a river's bank (Ditto). Anupafipdfiyd, accord- 
ing to succession, by degrees (Dh. 869). 

ANU (adj.\ Small, minute ; subtle [^] . Ab. 705 ; 
Dh. 481. AfLU (m.), a measure equal to thirty-siz 
Param^us, an atom (Ab. 194). 

ANUBANDH ATI, To follow, to pursue ; to wait 
upon, minister to [^n+ V^}- Mah. 154, 166; 
Dh. 89, 158. Oor. anubandhitvdy anubandh^fa 
(Mah. 141, 228). P.p.p. anubaddko, following. 
P.p.p. cans, anubandhito, pursued (Has. 40). 

ANUBANDHO, Uninterrupted succession; conse- 
quence [ng^Hf]. Ab. 980; Alw. I. 1. 

ANUBHAVANAA, Partaking of, enjoyment (see 
next). Has. 15. 

ANUBHAVATI, and ANUBHOTl, To feel; to 
enjoy ; to partake of ; to obtain, receive [^|W + 
W]. Sukhafk dukkhafk an., to feel happiness, 

to fed sorrow (Dh. 293 ; F. Jit. 49). MahantaA 
yoiam anubhavanto, enjoying great fiune (Dh. 
191). AnubhoH (Dh. 149, 222 ; Pit 9 ; B. Lot 
836, 837). anubhavanto, anubkavamdno, 
anubhanto (Dh. 138, 293 ; Has. 26). Aor. anubhod 
(Mah. 67). Oer. anubhutvd (Has. 28 ; Mah. Izxxvi), 
anubhavitvd (Dh. 141). 

ANUBHAVAVA (a^\), Possessing power, gifted 
with supernatural power [^l^im + '^^l* ^^* 

ANUBHAVO, Dignity, authority; power, might, 
supernatural power, efficacy [^npTPT]* Anubhd- 
vatampanno, possessed of supernatural power 


( 41 ) 


(F.JitS). Alw. I. 79 ; F. Jdt 4, 5, 57. Rarely 
written oMubhdtfO (F. Jdt. 23 ; B. Lot. 340). 

ANUBROHETI (caua.). To cause to grow or in- 
crease ; to make mnch of, devote oneself to [^|W + 
^V cans.] . The exact meaning of the expression 
moekam omubHiheH is difficult to determine. At 
Dham. p. 270 the comment explains it vivekam 
Miheyya vaddheyya upasampajja vihareyya^ 
** should increase, augment sedusion, should live 
in the practise of it/' whence the phrase would 
seem to mean " devote oneself to sc^tude." At 
Dham. verse 75, FaushiHl translates "seoessum 
angety" but Max Miiller, "will strive after separa- 
tion from the world"; and the latter rendering 
seems to accord with the use of the phrase at 
Has. 25, ekoMtnim $amaye vivekam anubr^hento 
QTimdyatanam pdvUi, which we might expect to 
mean '^on one occasion yearning for solitude he 
entered the forest.** But at Mah. 30 we have eko 
'va Ahogangamhi paibate vihdn sattavasadni ot- 
vekam anubr^hayam, " he dwelt alone for seven 
years at the Ahoganga mountain, devoting him- 
self to seclusion**: here Tumour translates "in- 
dul^ng in pious meditation.** See Br&heti, 

ANUBODHO, Knowledge, understanduig [^- 
l^t^]. KuhnK.S.32. 

ANUBUDDHO, Under-Buddha, lesser Buddha, 
i^iostle [^ni + ^V]- 1*^B t^i™ ^ applied to 
Arahi followers of Buddha, such as Kassapa, 
Ananda, etc (Dh. 345). 

ANUCARATI, To wander about in, to haunt [^ 
+ ^^] • VyagghdnuearitOf infested with tigers 

(Dh. 300). 
ANUCARO, An attendant, companion ["HJ4|4^]. 

Ab. 380. Raftham adnucaratn, a country with its 

inhabitants (Dh. 52). 

ANCJCGH AVIKO (adj.). Suitable, fit, proper, appro- 
priate, worthy, conformable, proportionate [^^^ + 
l^f^+li]. Ab. 715. T<u{<iii«ccAamApo, appro- 
priate thereto (Dh. 277). Ramio an., he will suit 
the king (Dh. 158). KuUnucchavUcd, worthy of 
their illustrious descent (Mah. 68). Mah. 142, 
157. A form anMcehatnyo also occurs; and at 
Dli. 133 amMcehano. 

ANUDDAYA (/.). Compassion, mercy [^ + 

J^(\. Ab. 100; Dh. 178. 
ANUDDHAASBTI (eotct.). To vex, to harass 

[li^l44|lini = M^]. Pit. 4, 5, 18, 08, 72. 

ANUDDHATO {adj.). Not puffed up, calm, sub- 
dued [H + ^inT= fO- ^^- ^• 

ANUDHAMMO [^1^ + V^]. This word seems 
to mean "lesser or inferior dhamma.** In the 
phrase dhamma»9a anudhammo or dhammdnu- 
dhammo„ it is explained to be the catupirisuddhi- 
slla, the dhutangas, and other duties to be prac- 
tised previous to the attfunment of the nine 
lokuttara dhammas : navalokuttaradAammassa 
anwHipadhammark pubbabhdgapafipaddsahkhdtaih 
dibhedafk (Dh. 151, 378). Dhammana hoti anu" 
dhammacdri, he practises the lesser duties for the 
attainment of the highest state (Dh. 4). Anu^ 
dhammatd is used in the same sense at P&t. 75. 
Anudhamma is also used in P&timokkha in another 
sense, in the compound akatdnudhammOf ** one 
upon whom justice has not been executed," ** one 
who has not been punished,* where the comment 
explains anudhamma to mean *^ just punishment" 
(Pdt 17, 92). 

ANUDHAVATI, To run up to ; to pursue [l^^ + 
Vn^- Dh. 10 (where it perhaps means to run 
up and down, see Buddh. Parables, Ixxxl). Mah. 78. 

ANUDISA (/), An intermediate point of the com- 
pass [^ + f^HQ. Ab. 29. The four anuditd 
are north-west, north-east, south-west, south-east 
(Dh. 203, 255). Puratthimd anudUd, the south- 
east (Ras. 09). 

ANUDOTO, a person sent with another, a travelling 
companion [^flj + \T(]* Mah. 10 ; Dh. 203. 

ANUOAGGHATI, To follow; to accompany [IT^ 
+ ip^. Dh. 79, 89, 153, 200. Oer. anvgantvd 
(Dh. S4, 239). 

ANUOAMIKO (adj.). Following, accompanying 
[^ynni*l + ^]- -^nugduUko nidhi, a trea- 
sure that accompanies a man to the next world 
/Khud. 14). 

ANUGAl^H ATI, To favour, to protect [^ + Ifj^] . 

ANUGATI (/.), FoUowing [^I^iffil]. 

ANUGATO (P'P'P. anugacchati). Conformable to, 
following ; relating to,oonceming [ H |J4 Ifl = '^^^ - 
P6t 75 ; Ab. 1174. PtMenivdsdnugaiaih ndfut^, 
knowledge of former residences (Alw. I. xxxiv ; 
B. Lot. 821). 

ANUGGAHlTO (p.p.p. anugaj^hdH), Favoured 

ANUGGAHO, Favour, patronage ; help, assistance 




[^1^^]. Ab. 986. Toita anuggahmk Udtum^ 
to show kindnoM to him (Mah. 231). Mah. 11 ; 
Alw. I. z. 
ANUGOATO (atff,), Not gone np, not gone out 

ANUGIDDHO (p.p.p.), Greedy [^n|mr=^n|]- 
Kh. 15. 

ANUGIIS[ATI,To pennit (?) [^ + 9|] . Kuhn K. 8. 
28 ; CI. Gr. 136. * 

ANUGITI (/.), ParaUel passage (?) [^ + ^p^fil]. 
Alw. I. 100. 

ANUGO (adj.)^ Following; conforming to [^raif]- 
Alw. I. xiv. AnugOy a follower, retainer. Sattd^ 
maccoMatdnugOf with a retinae of ^ve hundred 
nobles (Mah. 47). TheramatdnugOt following the 
directions of the thera (Mah. 107). Thert^Htdd- 
nugo, followed in the thera's footsteps (Mah. 167). 

ANUJANAPETI {cans, next), To ask permission, 
to obtain the consent of. 

ANUJANATIj To grant, to permit, to consent to 
^V^ + HT] • Sace math uptyjhdyo anujdneyya, if 
my preceptor will allow me (Alw. I. 93). With 
ace. and dat. parinibbdium me ani{fdtUUha, permit 
me to attain nirv^a (Dh. 308). Aor. anunndsi 
(Mah. 175). Ger. anujdnitvd (Dh. 104). Dh. 
305, 141, 221 ; Alw. I. 103. 

ANUJIvI (m.), A servant, retainer [^ITW^ftf^P^] • 
Ab. 342. 

ANU JO (adj\). Younger, junior [^TJ^]- Anujo^ a 
younger brother (Ab. 254). 

ANUJU (adj»). Crooked, depraved, wicked [if + 
[^]. Ab.737. 

ANUKAppHANAlit, Referring back [^ + 
iPlllf]. FdgahafMm anukaddhanatiham, v& is 
introduced to refer you back to a former rule 
(Kuhn K. S. 30). 

ANUKAMPA (/,), Compassion, kindness [if^- 
^«Ht]* Ab. 160. Dat. Lokdnukampdya^ out of 
pity to the world (Kuhn K. S. 29). Anukampdya 

^ patijaggi, watched tenderly over her (Dh. 156). 

ANUKAMPAKO(ai^'.), Compassionate, kind [^- 
^Rqii]. Mah. 6, 11 ; Kh. 11. 

ANUKAMPANAA, Compassion [^gH^Ml f ] . Ab. 

ANUKAMPATI,Topity[^ + ^niO. Mah. 242. 
ANUKAMPi (adj.). Compassionate [^^llp^^lj. 

Mah. 231. 
ANUKANTATI, To cut [^ + Wj]. Dh. 65. 

ANUKARO (a4;.), Imitating [^I^J^]. 

ANUKARO, Imitation; resemblance [11^4 K]- 

Teta^ anukdrena, in imitation of them (Alw. 1. 64). 
ANUKIRIYAA, Imitation [19^ + V]- Dh* 1^- 
ANUKKAMO, Regular order, succession [H^||4|]* 

Ab. 429. Instr. anukkamenOf in due course 

(Mah. 81 ; Dh. 117). 
AI^UKO (adj.), Small, minute [^+9]. Kh. 15. 
ANUKULO (adj.), Suitable, agreeable [^l^pp]- 

Mah. 68. 
ANUKOLYAA, SuitabiUty, agreeableness [^- 

tf^']. Ab. 1147. 
ANULAPO, Tautology, repetition [^I^WHl]- Ab. 

ANULITTO(p.p.p.), Anointed [^|l|fflH = fW^- 

Has. 32. 
ANULOMAA (adv.). In dinsct order, with the 

grain, straight forward [^n + WtW^ • 
ANULOMAA, Direct order, succession [ira + 

lft«nCI- P6t zvui ; £• Mon. 261. 

ANULOMATO (adv.). In accordance with [H^- 
litTr + l!^. Kh.21. 

ANULOMETI, To be in accordance with [^l^fTt- 
9|1C]* Pit. xviii. 

ANUMANA A, Inference ; doubt, uncertainty [H^- 
iTPf]- Ab. 1191; Pdt xviii. Anumdnato, In- 

ANUMASATI, To touch [lir^ + ^pQ- 

ANUMATI (/.), Consent, assent, sanction, com- 
mand [^ipjTffTf]. Mah. 5, 235. 

ANUMATO {p.p.p.)y Approved ; agreeable to, be- 
loved [^4lim = Yn(J. Mah. 11, 15. 

ANUMATTO (a^.). Small, least [^ + iTTTr]- 
Dh. 50, 375, 386. 

ANUMODANA (/.), and -NAft, Rejoicing, satis- 
faction, approval, thanks (see next). Pdt. xv; 
Dh. 402. Anumodaiunk karoti, to express satis- 
faction or gratitude, to return thanks (F. Jat 52 ; 
Dh. 112, 126, 130, 134, 168). 

ANUMODATI, To approve, to receive with satisftMS- 
tion, to rejoice at, to express gratitude, to thank 
[1R^ + ^|^. Dh. 32 ;B. Lot. 566; Mah. 24, 26; 
P&t.74; Kb. 11. 

AIjfUATHOLO {a4j.). Small and great [lR1jf + 
mr]. Dh. 6, 47, 73, 196 ; B. Lot. 514. 

ANUNAKO (a4j.). Complete, not deficient [^ + 
^Hf + 9]- Ab. 702. Pattihi andnako, lully 
supplied with infontry (Mah. 155). 

ANUNASIKO (a^\). Nasal [^ q<nR|li] . P^ 





ANUNAYAKO, SntMOiief, Tioe-preBident [^ + 
i|Tl|l|]. £. Mod. 40. 

ANUNAYO, Eadeavoar to be friendly, oooitesyy 
eompUaaee, Owning [^mq]. Dh. 273. 

ANU^A (/.), PermiBBion» sanction [^VJfUT]* 
Ab. IIIO. Mdii^riiuki kdreM pabSajfdmvmarii, 
having obtained bis parents' permission to be a 
monk (Mah. 29). Bdfdnunndyoy by tbe Icing's 
permission or command (Mah. 66, 177)- 

ANUSSATO {p.p.p. anujdudti). Permitted ; sanc- 
tionedy ordained ["flW + mH = HT] • Anumidto 
*H tndi^HUUf have yon yonr parents' consent? 
(Kamm.5}. Kapphfabh^mi kira Cittana gdkapt^ 
Umo ammndtd^ a suitable bit of ground was granted 
to the householder Gitta (Dh. 207). P&t. 75 ; Dh. 
803,363; Alw. I. 72. 

ANDNO (a4/*)> ^tbne» complete, without deficiency 
[% + ^Pf]. Alw. I. 65. Chabba89diid animdm^ 
six full years (Mah. 218). 

ANUPABBAJATI, To give up the world after or 
in imitation of another [^HT + If + 11^] • P<Ma- 
fitam oHMpabbajimtHi they embraced the ascetic 
life hi imitation of the ascetic (Kuhn K. S. IS). 
AmmpobbajUdmaih^ of those who became priests 
firom his example (Mah. 84). 

ANUPAGCHINNO (adj.). Regular, unbroken, un- 
faitermpted [H + ^^ + Unr = ftp^] . Ab. 1174 ; 
Mah. 49. 

ANUPADA]A[ {ado.\ Immediately after, after, be- 

^11^^ [^^M^H]* ^^ S^' TkeroB^ anupadam 
agd^ followed in the thera's footsteps (Mah. 103). 
For a noun anrnpadttm^ meaning "that which 
follows a pada," ** a second pada," see P&t. 84. 

ANUPADANO, see UpdddM$h. 

ANUPAdAYA, see Vpdddya. 

ANUPADDAVO {adj,), Unhijnred, safe, intact 

^[^ + ^Wy^]. Dh.60. 

ANUPADIKO (04;.), Following in the foototeps of^ 
immediately following [ ^1 ^ M Hi ^] * ^1>*91. 

ANUPADI8ESO, see UpddUew. 


ANUPAOHATO, Not injuring, not hurting [^ + 
Hiranr]. Dh.34,d45. 

ANUPAKHAJJA, This word represents the Sans- 
krit iniRSPV' 1^^ seems to mean "having 
entered upon," "having occupied." Fit 12, 15, 

ANUPALETI (ctttw.). To observe, to maintain 

[ ^ ^MIil < lRl = in]- Mah. 128. 

ANUPAIilTTO (<M^'.), Untobited,unpoUuted [^ + 

^niflnT=1^- Dh.68,415. 
ANUPAMO (adj.), Incomparable [^ + ^^i!T]- 

Mah. 240. 
ANUPAPU^ATI, To reach, to attain [ifj + 11+ 

ANUPARIGAGGHATI, To walk round and round 

[^ + ^ + 1'l]- Dh. 251 ; Pdt 71. 
ANUPARIVATTO, Directed, turned [^ + X(f^ 

ANUPARIYATI, To walk round and round, to 
watch over [^ + trf^ + in]* Dh. 251; Mah. 

ANUPARODHO, Non-disturbance, not injuring 


ANUPASAMPANNO (adj\). Not ordahied [^ + 

^Sq^fiqifsrli;^. So puggalo anupaaampanno, 

that person^s ordination is invalid (Pit 17). Anu^ 

poiampannOf one not yet ordained, a sdma^era or 

novice (Man. B. 494). 
ANUPASSANA (/.), Looking at, contemplation 

(see next). Dh. 389 ; Man. B. 497. 
ANUPASSATI, To look at, to contemplate, to 

observe [H^ + ^pQ» Dh. 111. 
ANUPASSI (aty,), Looldng at, contemplating, ob- 

sendng [^+ ^1[ (see flj) + jyQ. Dh. 2, 

ANUPATATI, To follow ; to meet ^th ; to fly up 

to [^ + 1|^]. Dh. 40, 62, 372. P.p.p. iiii»- 

patHo (Dh. 53, 392). 
ANUPAVADAKO (a4f\). Not speakbg iU of (see 

next). B. Lot. 866. 
ANUPAVADO, Not speaking evil, not reviling 

[^ + ^q + ^T^]. Dh.34. 
ANUPAVISATI, To enter upon, to enter, to occupy 

[^ + T| + t^rHj- Dh. 228 ; P£t. 87, 95. P.p.p. 

anupavitfho, having entered (Dh. 320). 
ANUPAYO, Wrong means [^ + ^ITRT]. 
ANUPILITO (p'P'p.), Trodden upon, oppressed 

[^ + 4H%7T=4^]. Dh.l63. 
ANUPO (adj.). Watery [^1^]. Ab. 187, 813. 
ANUPPADAJJATI, To give in return [1I1J + 

Tl + ^]. P4t.ll. 
ANUPPADANAISI, Giving [iTS + TI + ^Pl]. 

Bhesajjdnam an., administering remedies. 
ANUPPADANIYO (adj.). That ought not to be 

produced [^ + ^ + tf^]. 

ANUPPADAtA (m.) [H^ + U+^J. This 




word appears to mean " one who enoouragfes/' or 
** one who incites.'' It occurs in the two phrases 
gamag'gdnam vd bhettd bhinndnaik vd tmuppaddtdf 
and bhinndnath vd $andhdid sahitdnam vd anuppO' 

ANUPPADINNO (p.j9.p.)> Omn, bestowed [^ + 
T|-f^=^]. Kh. 12. 

ANUPPADO, Not arising, non-appearance [W + 

ANUPPAi^l^AlTI (/.), Secondary or additional 
enactment [^f^ + TnTTfjT]- 

ANUPPANNO (adj\), Not arisen, not bom, not ap- 
pcai^ [^ + ^fH^ = ^7] • jinuppanne buddke, 
before Buddha was bom into the world (Dh. 120, 
160, 416). 

ANUPPATTO (p.p-p. anup^f^ti), Having arrived 
at; having attained [lIQHIH^ ^IHt]* Dh. 69, 
72, 73, 109 ; Alw. I. 93. Fayo anuppatto, grown 
old. Mithilam an.f having reached Mithild. 

ANUPPIYABHAI^ {adj.\ Saying pleasant things, 
flattering [^ + fl^ + ^+ 1[^. 

ANUPUBBAA, Regular succession, series [^ITV- 
^]. Ab.429. 

ANUPUBBENA {adv.\ In regular order, succes- 
sively, grradually, one by one, in due course [^^nf- 
^^] . Anupubbena vivarantOf opening them one 
by one (Alw. 1. 79). Anupubbena nitnbd vaddhkhsu, 
gradually the nimbas grew up (F. Jdt 6). Anti^ 
pubbena edrikath earamdno, wandering from place 
to place. Anupubbena vayappattOy in due time 
grew up. Dh. 43 ; Mah. 26, 88, 174. 

ANUPUBBi (/.), Regular succession, order, series 
[^irq^. Ab.429. 

ANUPUBBIKATHA (/.), Successive or regular 
narration [W^^jff+IWT]- Dh. 79, 116; 
Ras. 26 ; F. J&t. 25. 

ANUPUBBQ (a4/.). Regular, successive [^ir^J^. 
Anupuibakathd, regular narration (Mah. 130). 
Dasuttara Sutta enumerates nine Anupubbauirth' 
dhas, or *' successive destraction8,''the destraction 
of kdmasaSihd by the attainment of the first Jfa&na, 
the destruction of vitakka and viedro by the attain- 
ment of the second Jhdna, ete. There are also 
nine Anupubbavihdras or " successive states," the 
attainment successively of the four Jhdnas, the 
four Artipabrahmalokas, and of »anhdvedatfita~ 
nirodho, " extinction of consciousness and sensa- 

ANURADHA (/.), Name of one of the Nakkhattas 

or lunar mansions [^M^|^]. Ah. 69. 
ANURAjA (m.). Following king, successor [yn + 

ANURAKKHAQTA (/.)» and -^AlJE, Guarding, pre- 
serration [^ + ?:^1[]. Kb. 21 ; Dh. 223, 305. 

ANURAKKHATI, To guard, to preserve; to ob- 
serve [ini + '?C1^]* Dh.58; Kh. 16. Cdrittatk 
anurakkkUuriifto keep up an observance (Mah. 159). 

ANURAKKHl {adj.). Guarding, watching over 

ANURODHO, Compliance, satisfaction ['^nnclv]. 
Ab. 345 ; Dh. 283. 

ANURUDDHO, Name of a cousin and eminent 
apostle of Buddha [^^1^^ = ^^] . 

ANURUJJHATI {pan.). To approve, to be pleased 
[WJ+^^-f^. Dh.283. 

ANUROPAKO (04;.), Suitable [^^^1^+ H]- 

ANURCPAA (adv.). According to [ ^g^MH ]. 

ANURCPO (aty.), Suitable, conformable, proper 
[^1^1^]. Dh. 300. With gen. AifoOt drohako 
mama amurdpOf this rider suits me (Mah. 142). 
Tadamurdpena tdpavyanjanena, with the proper 
accompaniments of broth and curry (Dh. 401).' 

ANUSAAVAGCHARAA {adf}.\ Yearly ['«ir + 
<i^(^]. Dh. 120 ; Mah. 241, 242. 

ANUSANDHI (m.), Ck>nnection, application [KW 
+ ^IfV] • AnM9andMm ghafetiy to join the con- 
nection, i.e. to show the connection between the 
story related and the maxim it illustrates (Dh. 89, 
99, 277» 305). 

ANUSANGlTO {ppp.)^ Rehearsed again or sub- 
sequentiy [^ + ^t4hT= %]- 

ANUSArI (af(;.), Following [^*[f»f\nj ' 

ANUSARITO (p.p.p.)> ^%> running [^ + 
^]. Dh.410. 

ANUSARO, Followhig, conformity [l^JHIT]- 
Ab. 79. Instr. antudrena, according to. Sakke* 
tdnusdrena, according to appointment (Ras. 31). 
Dh. 126, 316. 

ANUSASAKO, A teacher, preceptor, mentor [W^ 
+ 1|7^+^|^]. Atthadhammdnutdgako, tem- 
poral and spiritual counsellor (F. J4t. 7t 16). 

ANUSASANAM, Instraction, admonition ; govern- 
ment [^ gm4i^] > Ab. 354; Mab. 6; P6t. 69, 
75. LankddipanuidBanam katvd, having governed 
Ceylon (Mah. 242). 

ANUSASATI, To teach, to instract ; to admonish ; 
to command ; to govern [^IV^ + 1(1^ • Mah. 9, 




5% 198 ; Dh. 14, 29, 326 ; P^. 66. Antudn tarn, 
gave bim his iostructions (Mah. 177)* 

ANUSAYO, Repentance; indinatlon, thought, de- 
ure [ifflpq^]. Ab. 853 ; Dh. 411 ; B. Lot. 685. 
There are seven Annsayas or inclinations, kdmard^ 
gdnu8ayo,pafig'kdnu9ayOfiUtfhdntuayOt vicikicchd' 
flmsoyo, mdndnM9ay0y bhavardg6ntuayOt amjjdnu' 

ANUSIKKHl {adj.), Stadyug, learning ["V^ff^- 
t^i(]. Dh.41. 

ANUSIKKHITABBO {adj.\ That onght to be 
Btadied [^ + fifNlf^ = Hf^] . 

ANUSrrTHI (/.), Admonition, command [^PT + 
firft]. Ah. 354. 

ANUSITTHO (p.p.p. anu9diaH\ Instructed, ad- 
monished, ordered [^HTflf? = ITT^l * ^^b* 73 ; 
Kamm. 5. 

ANUSOGATI,Tobewaa[irir+^pO. Dh. 323. 

ANUSSARATI, To remember, to call to mind 
\^n + V] • P-p. ofiKMoram, anustaranto, anuu^ 
artmdno (Dh. 65, 226 ; Mah. 195 ; Kb. 12). Adj. 
ammtiaraftiyo^ that ought to be remembered. 

ANU8SATI (/.), Recollection [^+ ^glTl]. Ab. 
158 ; B. Lot. 794. There are six AnussatitthdfiM 
or subjects to be recollected — BuddhdnussaH, 
dhammdn^f tildn,, idnghdn,, cdgdn., devatdnugaati, 
or Buddha, the Law, the Church, the duties of 
morality, charity, the gods (Dh. 346). 

ANUSSAVETI (com.). To cause to be heard ; to 
proclaim, to announce [^^^ + 4MI4i|R| = ^ • 

ANUSSAVIKO (a^f.). Traditional [ ^ i g^ftnj ^ 

ANUSSAVO, Report, tradition [^ + ^IPI]. Ab. 

ANU8SUK0 (adj.). Free from desire [^ + ^^9] . 
Dh. 36. At Dh. 352 onustukko, for which comp. 
Utiukkam and Appouukko. 

ANUSSUTO (p.p.i».). Heard [^1^^ = ^] . B.Lot. 

ANUSSUTO, At Dh. p. 71 this word is, no doubt, 
the equivalent of ^ + ^9^ + ^llf = l^ with the 

meaning of ** free from lust" (comp. dsava). But 

there is another reading anusaadaih, representing, 

I Boppoee, ^ -h ^ + ^^. 
ANUSCYATI (/HIM.), To be heard, to be reported 

[^ + ^=^. 
ANUTAKKETI, To consider, to bear in mind 

ANUTAPO, Repentance [^f^Jim]. Ab. 169. 

ANUTAPPATI (poM.), To suffer, to fed remorse, 
to repent [^H^ + 1^10^} = ^fl^. Dh. 12, 55. 

ANUTHERAA, Succession of elders, apostolic suc- 
cession [ll^ + ^BTPnc] • ^« ^^' ^• 

ANUTHERO, An inferior thera [lV^ + l|rf^]« 
Dh. 384, where it is opposed to mmffotthera, ** pre- 
siding priest." 

ANUTTARIYAA, Pre-eminence, supremacy [IV^- 
^fTC + If] . There are three Anuttariyas, deusand' 
nuttariyath, pafipaddnuttariyam, vimuttdnuttO' 
rtyam. There are also six, dasaandnuttariyamt 
Bavandn.f Iddhdn., tikkhdn., pdricariydn., anvaaatd" 
nuttariyanhy ** preeminence in insight, in learning, 

ANUTTARO {adj.). Inferior; unrivaUed, preemi- 
nent, incomparable, supreme [^ + ^^^^TC] • -^^* 
«94, 952 ; Dh. 5, 10 ; Kb. 9. 

ANUTTHAHANO {adj.\ Not exerting oneself, 
sluggish (see UtthahaH). Dh. 49. 

ANU7TIIA^^^>^<^^<>^®o^i^> inactivity, supine- 
ness [^ + ^<fm*l]- Dh. 43. 

ANUTTHUBHAA, The Anushtubh metre [K^- 
^]. Ab. 945. 

ANUTTHUNATI, To bewail [^ + ^fiQ. Dh. 
28, 323. 

ANUTTO {adj.), Not uttered, unexpressed ["%( + 

ANUVADATI, To blame, to censure [IVW + n]. 

PAt 63. 
ANU VADO, Blame,cen8ure, admonition [Vf|^|f] . 

Ab. 120 ; Pdt. 63. 
ANUVA8ATI, To inhabit [^ + ^^50- ^• 

Gr. 132. 
ANUVASSAKO {adj.), Yearly, annual l^ + 

^ + ^]. Mah. 66. 
ANUVASSAA {adv.). Yearly, annually [^W + 

^r^]. Mah. 53, 232, 237. 
ANUVATAM {adv.). In the direction of the wind, 

with the wind [irg + ^PT]. 
ANUVATTAKO, Follower, attendant, disciple [^IT 

+ ^r^]- Alw. L 55; Mah. 246; P&t. 5. 
ANUVATTANAft, Compliance [l»|frf^]. Ab. 

ANUVATTATI, To follow; to conform to; to 

attend upon, to associate with [yn + ^^]' ^b« 

335 ; Pdt. 27, 95. 
ANUVATTI (/.), Acting in conformity with [ITJ- 

^ftr]. Ab. 1174. 





ANUVATTi (adj.). Conforming to, obedient to, fol- 
lowing [Hjqn|i|J. Dh. 16.. 

ANUVICARATI, To wallc through [^ + f«T + 
^q^. Dh. 320. Cans. Monoid anuviedreti, goes 
over in his mind, studies. 

ANU VIGINTETI, To meditate upon \yn + 1^ + 
^;^. Dh.e6. 

ANUVIJJOTATI, To shine on in succession [^ 
+ f^ + ^]. Cl.Gr. 131. 

ANUVILOKETI, To take a view of [HlJ + f^ + 

ANUVITAKKETI, To reflect upon [^QW + fif + 

ANUVYAf^JANAlk, Minor characteristic [^ + 
iqqpl] . There are thirty-two Mahdpuri»alokkhO'' 
tMffM, or characteristics of a Buddha, and also 
' dghty Anuvym^andm^ or minor characteristics, 
such as a weli-ronnded form, well-proportioned 
members, the finger-nails smooth and copper- 
coloured, ete. Man. B. 369; B. Lot 583 and 
foU. ; Dh. 314, 315. 

ANUYOGi (a4;.). Devoted to, applying oneself to 

ANUYOGO, A question ; being addicted or devoted 
to, applying oneself to, practising, zeal, exerting 
oneself [^fWlJt^]. Ab. 115. Anuyogam daddH, 
to apply oneself to. Jdgariydnuyogo, practising 
watchftklness (Alw. I. zxxiv). Kb. 18. 

ANUYUf^JATI, To practise, to be addicted to, to 
devote oneself to, to be zealous, to exert oneself 
[^pf -f^^ll]. Buddhdnom sdiofuim anuyv^ja, 
devote yourself to the religion of the Buddhas 
(Alw. I. 92). Pomddom onuyut^anti, give them- 
selves up to sloth (Dh. 5, 6). Surdmerayaftd" 
nam onuyw\faHy is addicted to drink strong 
drink (Dh. 44). Mah. 141 ; Dh. 182, 319, 370, 
394. P.pres. of the pass, anuyn^fiyamdno, being 
questioned (Pdt. 86). 

ANUYUTTO {p.P'P. last), Addicted to, devoted to 
[^+^=^9^- y^^t^ Bcc. Fisdkadananafk 
anuyuttd viharanti, live addicted to worldly plea* 
sures (Kb. 18). Alw. I. 107; Dh. 358. 

ANVACAYO, Adding an object of secondary import, 
a function of the particle ca [^«^fH|€|] . Ab. 1187. 

(adv.). Every fortnight, twice a month [^^ -l- 
iNI + W[^]' Kamm. 35 ; P4t. 108 ; Dh. 153. 

ANVAGA, see AnveH. 

ANVAHATO (p^.p.). Struck, agitated [^ + 

+ fW=f^. Db.a 

ANVASSAVATI, To flow from, to result from 
[^ + "^ + ^1- B. Lot 471 ; Kuhn K. S. 24. 

ANVAVASITO (p.p.p.). Situated on or near [^ 
+ ^R + t%nf = fsr]. Cl.Gr. 131. 

ANVAYA, This word is a gerund from If^+lC^ 
formed on the false analogy of gerunds like 
-mdya from fl|. It seems to mean *< following 
upon," " in consequence of," ** after.** Dh. 120, 
205, 226, 268, 378, 403. 

ANVAYO, Ck>nnection ; race, lineage, fiunily ; suc- 
cession [^RBlir]. Ab.332. 

ANVESANA (/.), Search [^r^t^irr]. Ab. 428. 

ANVESATI, To seek ; to search [^^ + 1C$. Dh. 
255. P.p.p. antfento (Ab. 753). 

ANVETI, To foUow [^ + t}' Ndbbafuuh tniom 
amveti, poison does not affect him who has not a 
wound (Dh. 23). Aor. onvagd (Mah. 48, 155). 
Inf. anvetum (Dh. 204). 

ANVITO {p.p.p. last). Possessed of [^rfS^HT^ X\' 
KafidattoyanvUo, possessing three divisions (Alw. 

ANYAlfl, Being in debt [^BUT + ![]> 

APA {adv, and prep.). Away; from, away from 
\yn\' Ab. 1184. With abl. Apa Mdya dyoxH 
vdfdjd, the merchanto come from the hall (Kuhn 
K. S. 23 ; CI. Gr. 139). Used in composition witii 
verbs and their derivatives. 

APABBATO (adj.), Reaching to the mountain [^ 

-furHhr]- ci. Gr. 87. 

APABHATO (p.p>p-). Brought away [ygq + ^ + 

»f=^]. F. Jat.55. 
APACAYATI, To honour [yn + ^TT^]. Dh.288. 
APACAyI («&•.), Honouring [ HM^ l fiwJ ^ Dh. 

20, 185, 186. 
APACAYITO (p.p.p-), Honoured [VM^|f€|l| = 

f^]. Ab.750. 
APACAYO, Loss, decay ; honour,worship [l|l|f|€|] . 

Ab. 763, 1082. 
APACGAKKHO (adj.). Unseen, indefinite [^ + 

iniri^]- Ab. 716 ; Alw. I. 6. 
APACGAlir, Offspring [IR^W]. Ab. 240; Alw. I. 


APAcI (/), The Soutii [^RT^]. Ab. 29. 
APAGITI^ (/), Offering, worship; loss, decay 

[imMn]. Ab. 425, 1117. 
APACITO (p.p.p.), Honoured [V?f^=f^]. 

Ab. 750. 




APADA (/.), Misfortane, necessity [^HPI^. Ab. 

385 ; 743 ; Kb. 13. 
APADADATI, To take away [^R + ^]. CI. 

Or. 117. 
APADAKO {a^.\ Having no feet [^ + 1|T^ + ^] . 

APADANAA, Breaking off, removing; a deed, 
heroie action; a tale, a legend [^R + ^T^]- 
Ab. 943. In tbe sense of " deed" and " legend" 
the Sanskrit equivalent is ^fl|^|<|. Ap<uldnaih 
is the name of the thirteenth book of the Khudda- 
kanikiya ; it is a collection of tales of meritorious 
actions performed by Buddlias and eminent 
Arahds, as for instance Ananda, in former exist- 
ences (E. Mon. 170 ; B. Intr. 64, 437). 

APAdANAA, Taking away, removing; in gram, 
the ablative relation [lHmd|*l] . Knbn K. S. 23 ; 
a. Gr. 117. 

APADESO, Stating ; pretext, deception, stratagem ; 
cause [HM^^]. Ab. 860. 

ApADETI (eottt. dpajjati)^ To put into a certahi 
state ; to inflict [^mi^i|ff| = ^]* With two 
ace. Bah^ khuddake pdjui aanghdtam dpddeniOf 
inflicting destruction upon many minute creatures 
(P&t. xxviii). 

APADH ARAI^AA, Covering [m + VTT^] • 
Ab. 50. 

ApADI, see ApajjaH, 

APADISATI, To tell of, to show [lV^ + f|[ir]. 
Dh. 364. 

APADO, see Padam. 

APAGA (/.), A river [^Sim^]. Ab. 681. 

APAGACCH ATI, To go away, to depart from {ym 

+ 9n(]. With abl. Tamhd pdpapuggald apa* 

gaecheyya^ should depart from that sinful man 

(F. J^ 14). Aor. apdgami (Mah. 119), apagacchi 

(Dh. 299). Ger. apagantvd (Dh. 241). 

APAGAMO, Departure [iV^^^iT]. Ab. 764. 

APAGATO (p-p^p* apagaeehaH)^ Gone away from, 
departed [yr^ + ^Pf == ^^R^* Alw. I. 54. Apo' 
gaimfinSidnOf deprived of sense (Dh. 179). Apaga- 
takdfakatk vaithatk^ doth free from black specks. 

APAHARO, Taking away [^RVTT]* 

APAJITO (|».p.p.),Defeated (?) [^IR + fWf = ftl] • 

APAJJANAft, Entering, felling into {see neat). 

APAJJATI, To enter ; to fall into ; to undergo 
[in + 1|V]. Dh. 55. Sammoham dp.^ to fall 

into a swoon. Samvegam 4p«» to be grieved. 

Fisidsarii dp.^ to l)ecome confident (Dh. 48), Lopam 
dp.f to undergo elision. A^kdro U'4tam dp.^ a is 
changed to u. Apattim dp,, to fall into sin (Dh. 
103; Pdt. 69). Cakkhundriye iaikoaram dpajfati, 
brings the eye into subjection. Aor. dpddi (Dh. 48). 
Inf. dpajjitum (Ras. 16). Ger. dpajjiUfd (Dh. 
103; P&t. 3). P.p.p. dpanno. 

APAJJITA (m.). One who falls into, is guilty of. 
Formed from dpajjati on the analogy of such 
words as ^iflfH. 

APAKADPHATI, To remove, to put away [^p| + 
9^]. Dh. 209, 275. 

APAKKAMATI, To depart [l«1| + ^Pl]. With 
abl. Y^thd apakkamma, having left the herd 
(Dh. 106). Fihdramhd apakkamum, they aban- 
doned the monastery (Mah. 236). Mah. 44 ; Dh. 
143, 194 ; F. J4t. 13, 46. 

APAKKAMO, Departure ; retreat, flight [^PHPT]- 

APAKKO {adj.\ Unripe \^ + HW]. 

APALAPO, Keeping silence about, secrecy [^iiri|- 

APALOKANAA, (Hving notice of an intention; 
obtaining leave [^nf + fft^+^PT]* Apalo^ 
kanakammatk is the name of a Sanghakamma, 
or ecclesiastical ceremony, for obtaining the formal 
consent of the priests to a proposed course of 
action; first the permission of the Sangha or 
assembly of priests is obtained to introduce the 
proposal, then the proposal is formally announced 
to the assembly, and their assent three times 
asked for (P4t. 59). 

APALOKETI, To give notice of, to obtain consent 
or permission [^m + Wt^. Anapaloketvd 
bhikkhtuangham, without informing the priests of 
his intention (Dh. 105). Pdt. 61, 62, 97, 98, 108. 
Apalokitanif the Unseen, Nirvioia (Ab. 7). 

APAMAGGO, The plant Achyranthes Aspera 
[^nrRpI]- Ab.583. 

APAMARO, Epilepsy [m^TTT]- Ab. 325; 
Kamm. 4. See also Apasmdro, 

APANAA, Breathing out, respiration [^nTTf]* 

ApANAA, a place where people drink together, a 
tavern [HinrR]* Ab. 534 ; Dh. 299, 307. 

APANAMETI (cau9.). To remove, to carry off [^HT 

+ Tr«Rrfn=«nt]- Kh. 13. 

APANAYANAA, Removing [^Rilinr]. 
APANETI, To remove, to put away [liR + i(t]- 





Opt. apaneyya (F. Jdt. 12). Ger. apaniya (Mah. 
210), apanetvd (Dh. 107, 364 ; Alw. I. czziv). 
Ndgaddsakardjdnam apaneivd, having* deposed 
king Nligad&saka (Mah. 15). P.p.p. apanUo. 

APANGO, and -GAA, The outer corner of the eye ; 
a sectarial mark on the forehead [^Mljj*] • Ab. 
261, 1116. 

APANIDHETI, To hide away, to conceal [^HT + 
t^f + >arr]* P^^ 10- Cans. apanidkdpeH (ditto). 

APANIKO, a tradesman [^THHir + 1[^] • Ab. 469. 

APANITO {p»P'P' apaneti), Removed, put away 
[^R'fVff = ^]- Alw. I. 76. 

APAI^fJVAKO (adj.). Certain, tnie, absolute. Ab. 
698. jipafifuikam fhanam, real things, i.e. abso- 
lute truth as opposed to inductive reasonings 
(Man. B. 112). 

APAN]^fATTIKO (adj,). Not appearing, not exist- 
ing [^ + miTTT + T^] • Bh. 121,278. 

APAf^^O (adj.). Without wisdom, foolish [^ + 

HUT]- Dh.e7. 
APANNO {p^p'p. dpajjaii). Entered upon, fallen 

into; unfortunate [WPfl = ^7]- Ab. 743; 

P4t. 97* Pdrdjikam dpattim dpanno hotif he has 

committed a P. offence (Pdt. 68). Fivddam dpannd, 

having got into a dispute. ^dayi(/9anfio,unmerciful. 

Pardjayam 4panno,having suffered defeat (P&t.65). 

jipanno, having fallen into sin (Pdt. 3). Apanna^ 

8attdf a pregnant woman (Ab. 239). 
APANO, a bazaar or market, a shop [^innir]* 

Ab. 213; Mah. 25, 139, 213. 
APANUDATI, To remove, to dispel [^R + ^ + 

1}^]. Dh. 96. 
APARABHAGE (adv.). Afterwards, subsequently 

[^WT + ^TTT loc]. F. Jdt. 49; Dh. 78, 114, 

153, 310. Tato aparabhdge, thereafter (Dh. 421). 

Kassapassa bhagavato aparadhd^e, since the time 

of K. Buddha (B. Lot. 364). 
APARADDHO {p'p^p* aparajjhati). Having sinned, 

guUty[lBirrnr=KT^]. Dh. 148. 
APARADHO, Offence, guilt, crime, sin [^nT^T^]. 

Ab. 355 ; Dh. 378. 
APARAGOYANAlVf, Name of one of the four 

Mahidlpas or great continents [^HIT + 4^^!^] • 

Ab. 183 ; Man. B. 4, 449. 
APARAJITO (adj.), Unconquered [^ + t|TTt^ 

= ^] . Kb. 6. Fem. apardjitd, name of a plant 

(Ab. 584). 
APARAJJHANAM, Injury (tee next). 
APARAJJH ATI, To offend against ; to injure ; to 

sin [^R + Tn|]- ^>^^ ^^' (Kuhn K. S. 28). 

With loc (Dh. 149, 203, 374). 
APARAJJU (adv.). On the following day, next day 

[^Vq^^]- Ca. Gr. 69 ; Pdt. 89. 
APARAA (adv.). Moreover, further [HM4^I{J» 

Ath(lparam, and further. See Aparo. 
APARAA, Not the further bank, this* side [^+ 

T[p(]. Ab. 665 ; Dh. 69. 
APARANHO, The afternoon or evening [^TTnV] • 

Mah. 170. 
APARAl^AM, A name given to certain sorts of 

vegetables [ITT^ + ^m]. P^ 71, 72 ; Ab. 450. 

P&t. 87 mentions mugga, mdsa, tila, kulaitha, 

aldbu, kumbhapda, as of this class. 
APARANTO, The future, futurity [^R^ + "V^]. 
APARAPARAlil (adv.). On and on, successively; 

up and down, backwards and forwards [HM^HI4, 

+ WQ. Dh. 86, 172, 315, 320 ; Has. 26. 
APARAPARO (adj.). Following, successive [m- 

^^]. Apardpareeu divmeeu, on the succeeding 

days (Dh. 146). 
APARASELO, The western mountain behind which 

the sun sets [^fftf^ + 1^] . Ab. 606. 
APARIMAJ^O (adj.). Undefined, indefinite ; bound- 
less, immense [^ + M(Xi41I||] • Kh.l6 ; Alw. 1. 97. 
APARIMITO {adj.). Boundless, unmense [lV + 

lrf^finf=W]. Kb. 21. 
APARISESO (adj.). Without remainder [^ + 

Ml\i)M]* Ifne cattdro mahdbh&td apat%$eid 

ntrujjhanH, these four elements are destroyed 

without remainder (B. Lot. 514). 
APARITASSi (a^.). Undaunted [l| + trf^ + 

APARI YANTO (adj.). Boundless, unlimited ; indefi- 
nite [^ + irS^]. F. Jdt. 18, 19 ; Man. B. 492. 

APARO (adj.). Other; subsequent, following; 
western ["IRT] • I>eclined like Sabbo (CI. Gr. 52). 
Plur.a|Mir& (F. J&t. 52). Khipitvd aparam kap^am, 
having shot another arrow (Mah. 156). Aparo 
nayo, another way. Na hi dhammdparaik atthi, 
for there is nothing besides the Law (Ras. 17). 
Aparakdlamhi, in after times, subsequently (Alw.I. 
64, 65). Aparabhdge, subsequently (see separ.). 
Alw. 1. 97, 102 ; Kh. 20 ; Dh. 249. 

APASADETI (eaue.). To upbraid (?) [^[q + ^Tf]- 
Dh. 143, 263 ; Fit 20. 

APASAKKATI, To depart l^T + ^HJ • P^t. 20. 

APASAVYO (adj.). Right (not left) ; contrary [m 
+ ;ER|]. Ab. 719. 




APASMARO, E^Uepsy [iRll^nT]- Ab.326. See 
also Apam^ron 

APASSENAlfir, The followingr text occurs in San^d 
Satta, Catidn apaatendnh idh' dmuo bhikkhu 
wmikMy' ekam patisevaii sankhdy* ekatk adhivd" 
weti mmkh^ ekam paHwjjeH aankhay* ekam 
tmodeti. Here pafUevUahbo is explained to refer 
to tbe four paocayas, adhivdsetabbo to heat and cold, 
parivajjetahbo to dangeroas animals, and vinode- 
tabbo to lust, heresy, and other sins. I am dis- 
posed to think that apastenam represents ^|1| + 
^+ ^RPly and to mean '' that which should be 
observed or had recourse to." The comment says 
^MsteudnUi epauaydni (iRT^RT ?), and the TOtd 
i^foaedyitahbatthena apateaydni, 

APATHAM, No road, absence of a road [^HTW]* 
Ah. UK3. 

APATTADHIKARAJyAA, Question of guHt (see 

APATTAKO (atff.), Not having a bowl [^ + IHTW 
+ ^]. Pdt.xxvi. 

APATTHO {p.p.p.)y Laid aside, thrown away [^pi 
+ ^rar=:^. Dh.27. 

APATTI (f.\ OflTence, guilt, sin, crime [^IHlfn]. 
PMjikdpatH, and pdrdjikd dp., a Pdrdjika offence 
(Pdt.68). TA«//acco^4|9am*, a Thullaccaya offence. 
Apatti appears sometimes to be used adjectively in 
the sense of " guilty," e.g. yo pahb^eyya dpatH 
dukkaiataoy '* he who shall ordain such a one shall 
be guilty of dukkata** (Alw. I. 72), and andpatti 
bhikkhu pdrdjikaeaa dpatti dukkatassa, "the 
priest is not guilty of pdrdjika, he is guUty of 
dokkata.'' But in both these examples it is per- 
haps possible to take dpatti as a noun ('< there 
is the guilt of d.**). 

APATTIKKHANDHO, Group or class of offences 
['mMrn+ ^IP^]. There are seven classes of 
priestly offences, of different degrees of heinous- 
ness, viz. Pardjika, Sanghadisesa, Thullaccaya, 
Nlssagg^ PAdttiya, Dukkaja, DubbhAsita. 

APATTIKUSALATA (/.), SkiU in offences, i.e. 
skUl In determining to which dass an offence 
Wongs [^Rnif^ + ^flHr + TTT]. 

APAVADO, Blame, abuse [^Vmrr^]. Ah. 120. 

APAVACJGO, Completion; renunciation, abandon- 
ment; final deliverance, Nirvfiva [inW^]. Ab. 
8,896,910; B. Lot. 313. 

APAVAHATI, To carry away [^n? + to]. 

APAVAJJANAlif , Giving away, giving up, sacri- 
ficing [^nT+^+^R]. Ab.420. 
APAVARA]yA]!if,Covering,concealing [lfl|€||^|||]. 
APAVIDDHO (p.p./>.)» Thrown away, discarded 

[^nTftir=iirH]- Dh.62,392. 

APAYANAM, Going away [^nWHl]. 
APAYATO {pp.p.). Fallen away, departed [^M^M 

= ^], Alw. I. vii. 
APAYIKO, One suffering in an Apdya [^TTRT + 

JJ$]. B. Lot. 310. 
APAYO, Going away, departure; disappearance, 
loss; misfortune, ruin [^n^TRr]- PiydpdyOylwB 
of what is dear to us (Dh. 38). Cha bhogdnatk 
apdyamukhdnif six means of dissipating wealth. 
ApdyoMahdyOy a spendthrift or debauchee com- 
panion. There are four Apdyas, " states of suffer- 
ing or punishment ''; they are naraka (hell), 
tiracchdna (animals), the peiiUoka and the asura' 
loka, Catubbidho apdyaloko^ the four worlds of 
suffering (Dh. 209). Kb. 9 ; B. Lot. 806. 
APEKHA, and APEKKHA (/.), Desire, lon^ng, 
affection, care, regard [^|^^]. Dh. 62, 412; 
P&t. 89. Nirapekkho, regardless (Dh. 2S5). 
APEKKHATI, To regard, to mind ; to look for, to 
expect; to look at [^R + t[^- Jivitam ana- 
pekkhitvd, regardless of my life (Mah. 197). P.p. 
apekkhamdno (Pdt. 89), apekkhanto (Mah. 64). 
Mah. 196, 230. 
APETI, To go away ["^q + t^]. With abl. Gdmd 
apenti, they leave the village (Kuhn K. S. 23). 
Imper. 2nd pers. sing, apehi (Dh. 107). 
APETO (ppp. kut)f Having departed ; free from, 
deprived of [^|^= ^. With abl. Methunaamd 
apeto, having departed from fornication. With 
instr. Apeto damaeaccena, void of temperance and 
truth (Dh. 2). Apetavmnd^y senseless (Dh. 8). 
Dh. 18. 
APHALO (a4/.)fWithout fruit, unproductive, barren, 

unprofitable [^ + J3n\ - Ab. 541 ; Dh. 10. 

APHASU (n.), and APHASUKAA, Discomfort, 

uneasiness, ailment, sickness (see Phdau), P&t. 18 ; 

Dh. 81, 84, 89, 95, 166. Aphdtum karoH (with 

gen.), to annoy (Pit. 107). 

API, and PI (part,). Also ; even ; though ; merely 

[^Im] • Ab. 1 183. Pahdya rqjjam api ndtitanghe, 

leaving my kingdom and my friends (Has. 21). 

Aham pi gamiudmi, I will go too (Dh. 79). Pubbe 

pif in a former existence also (F. Jit. 16). Vdfdjo 

pi tarn pahdya pakkdmif and the merchant left him 





and went his way (F. Jdt. 16). Dassdmi ongam 
api jUntan ca, I will g^ve both life and limb 
(Has. 16). Yasapadbajanam pi ca, and also Yasa's 
embracing the ascetic life (Mah. 180). Api — api, 
both — and (Dh. 23 1). Sihcati pi sincdpeti pi, both 
sprinkles and causes to sprinkle (P4t. 74). Pancdpi 
ie mahdtherd therdrittkddayo pi ca, both the five 
great elders and the elders of whom Ariftha was 
the first (Mah. 126), Pakkdni pi apakkdni pi, 
both ripe and unripe. Api dibbetu kdmesu raiim 
90 nddkigacchaH, even in celestial pleasures he 
finds no happiness (Dh. 34). Api cakkavatHrdjd, 
even a universal monarch (Alw. 1. 76). Dtuakkh" 
attum ffijdtdpi khopana takim vijdtd viya amha^ 
tayabband heva hoti, though she has borne ten 
children she is as young looking as if she had 
been but once a mother (Dh. 233). Eko pi nd* 
sakkhi, not even one was able (F. Jit. 5). Ekava^ 
canam pi kathetum na iakkoti, is unable to say a 
single word (F. Jit. 8). So sdsanatsa ddyddo hoti 
no ddyako api, he becomes a kinsman, not a mere 
benefactor, of Religion (Mah. 36). Te taiyo pi 
uddhari, pulled them out all three (Has. 30). 
Jdnanto pi na sakkd ti rdjdnam dha, though he 
knew it, he said to the king, I cannot identify it 
(Mah. 177). Bandhdgdranivdsena dukkhitam pi 
narddhipam dukkhdpetum, to afflict the monarch 
already suffering from his imprisonment (Mah. 
260). Uparajjam Mahindana ddtukdmo pi, though 
anidous to confer the viceroyalty on Mahinda 
(Mah. 36). Eva sante pi, in spite of this (F. Jit. 7). 
Ma kaddcipi, never at all (Mah. 158). Api is some- 
times a particle of interrogation^ e.g. Api bhante 
pifLdaih dlabhamdnojigacchddukkhenapili^ attha. 
Lord, not receiving alms are you suffering from 
hunger ? (Dh. 353) ; Ap* dmuo amhdkam tafthd' 
ram Jdndsi, Pray, sir, do yon know our teacher ? 
(Pdt. xxvi). With foil, nu kho expresses an em- 
phatic interrogation : Api nu kho koci upaddavo 
atthi. Pray, have you any cause of distress ? (Dh. 
154) ; Jdtinirodhd api nu khoJardmarafUNkparmd'' 
yetha no A' etam bhante, tell me, after the cessa- 
tion of birth could decay and death exist ? Cer- 
tainly not. Lord. Api ca khopana, however, never- 
theless (F. Jit. 9). With foil, ndma, Api ndma, 
perhaps (Ab.1191). Api ndma evariipopi rakkhaso, 
dhammam jdneyya, perhaps even a rakkhasa like 
this might be acquainted with the Law (Ras. 21). 
— When followed by a word beginning with a 

vowel, Api sometimes becomes App (Sansk. apy), 
e.g. app-'Cva-ndma, " perhaps." The initial a of 
Api is sometimes absorbed by sandhi, as ajjdpi = 
ajia api, cdpi = ca api, n^ = na api. The final 
i is sometimes elided, as sabbe p' etc = sabbe pi ete 
(Mah. 253), tatrdp* dnfh=ztatra api dtifh. The 
mutilated form Pi owes its origin to the frequent 
elision of the initial a in sach cases as fnanutto 'pi, 
vd *pi, 9abbe *pi. Thb elision was so frequent that 
Pi came to be looked upon as a perfect vocable, 
and thus we have such forms as dutiyam pi, iti pi, 
tint pi, in which an initial a is ignored. It is equally 
correct to write manu$80 'pi, vd 'pi, etc, or manuito 
pi, vd pi, etc, but the latter forms are the more 
convenient. See Pi, 

APlDHANAlil, Covering, concealment ; a cover, a 
lid [^fMMI* l ] » Ah. 51. See also Pidhdnam. 

APO, Water [^ini: = ^n(J . Ab. 661 ; B. Lot. 514. 
Retains its form in composition, as ^^)odhdtu, ^^Hh' 
koiifuim, etc. 

APPABADHATTA A, Freedom from illness [^T^ 

APPABADHO, Slight illness, tolerable health 
[^IHT + ^inrra]- This word, though literally 
meaning " slight illness," is used in the sense of 
" good health" (<y»pdbddhatd ti arogatd). Anandofk 
appdbddhaik pucchati, asks A. about his good 
health, viz. asks if he is in good health (B. Lot. 

APPAbADHO (a4f.), In good health (see last). 

Alw. I. 108. 
APPABHAVO, Fewness, paucity [mT-f ^TTV]. 

Kb. 21. 
APPABHIKKHUKO {adj.). Containing few priests 

[^l^ + fH^ + ^]. AJW.L92. 

APPABHOGATTA]fi[,Poverty[^RlSI + 7^ + ^]. 

APPABODHATI, I have met with this word only 
at verse 143 of Dhammapada, in a phrase the 
exact meaning of which it is difficult to determine — 
yo nindam appabodhati asio bhadro kaadm iva, 
Fausl)dll takes appabodhati as the equivalent of 
^ + H^ImHIj ^^^ renders the sentence *' who 
does not excite (g^ves no occasion for) blame, as 
a spirited horse does not need the whip.'' Dr. 
Weber refers it to IR^ + ^ftVfW? Aiid compares 
the analogous compounds alpa-man and bahu- 
man ; in this case the line might mean '< he does 
not resent (lit makes little of, acquiesces in) 
reproof, as the spirited horse does not resent the 




whip but answers to it'' Subh6ti is of opinion 
that i^^ is tlie prep, opa witli the consonant 
doobled metri causft, and this seems to l>e in agree- 
ment with the comment, which says nindom apa- 
haranio buJjhafiH appabodhati. The comment 
eWdently understands it in the sense of "wards 
off reproof," sees his error in time to amend it, and 
so averts the threatened reproof {uppannam 
nimdatk)^ just as a spirited horse does not wait 
for the strolce to fall, but as soon as the whip is 
raised starts forward, and thereby renders the blow 
unnecessary {atiani patamdnam kasam apaharati 
attani patitum na deity " arrests the whip in its 
fidl, and does not suffer it to reach him "), 

APPACGAYA (adv.). Without a cause [^ + 
irVRT abl.]. 

APPACCAYO, Mistrust, heartburning, discontent 

APPADHANO (adj.). Secondary, subordinate [^ + 

l|^n«r]. Ah. 787. 
APPADlPO (adj.). Without a lamp [^ + H^]. 

P4t. 105. 
APPADUTTHO (a4;.),Undepraved, innocent [IR + 

APPAGABBHO (o^/.), Free from boldness or impu- 
dence, retiring, modest [^ + inrer]. Dh. 44; 
Kb. 16. 

APPAHARITO (adj.). Having little grass, free 
from grass [^9^ + ^(\c|J. Pat 13. 

APPAKIGGO (adj.). Having few duties, free from 
care [^p?l| + W5]- Kb. 16. 

APPAKO (adj.). Few, litUe, trifling ["H^ + ^J. 
Dh. 16, 381. 

APPALABHO (a^f.). Receiving little [^V^ + 
Wnr]- Dh. 06, 220. 

APPAMADO, Vigilance, carefulness, thoughtful- 
nesB, earnestness, zeal ; diligence, haste, despatch 
[^ + IVTIT^]- Dh. 6 ; Kb. 6 ; Mah. 132, 261. 

APPAMAI^ABHO (adj.). Of infinite splendour 
[^nnm + ^IRTr]* The Appamdfulbkd devd «re 
the inhabitants of the fifth Brahmaloka (B. Intr. 
611 ; Man. B. 26). 

APPAMAl^ASUBHO (adj.). Of infinite beauty (or 
parity ?) [^Unm = ^9^] • '^^ Appamdnamthkd 
devd are the inhabitants of the eighth Brahma- 
loka (B. Intr. 612 ; Man. B. 26). 

APPAMAf^f^A (/), This is one of the Buddhist 
technical terms. There are four Appamafifi^, 
oonsistiDg in an unlimited or perfect exercise of 

the qualities of friendliness, compassion, goodwUl, 
and equanimity (mettd, karui^, muditd, upekhd; 
comp. Ab. 782 with E. Mon. 249). Appamafilii 
represents the S. ^l|4||l|| + JJ^, and I think it is 
properly an adjective appamamo in the feminine 
gender in agreement with the feminines mettd, 
karuftd, etc. 

APPAMAlf^f^ATI, To underrate, to despise [^|^ + 
TPlJ. Dh. 22. 

APPAMANO (adj.), Unlimited, boundless, infinite, 

innumerable [^ + in?TQr]- ^- ^^* ^^> Mah. 
APPAM ARISO, The plant Amaranthns Polygamus 

[^W^ + ^nft^]. Ab.694. 

APPAMATTAKO (adj.). Little, slight, trifling 
[^rai + ^rnr + ^]. Dh. 407 ; Kuhn K. 8.26. 

APPAMATTO (adj.). Little, slight, moderate [^|^ 
+ irn]. Dh. 11. 

APPAMATTO (adj.), \agilant, careful, thoughtful, 
heedful, earnest, zealous, strenuous, diligent, quick, 
active [^ + ITTPIT + ^Tf]- Appamatto hohi, 
make haste to work out your salvation (Has. 26 ; 
comp. Mah. 20, Dh. 81, 176, 176). Rakkhatha 
appamattd, guard them vigilantly (Kh. 6). With 
loc. Sadatthe appatnatto tato bhava, therefore 
strive earnestly for thy spiritual good (Mah. 12 ; 
B. Lot. 296). Dh. 6, 6 ; F. Jdt. 11 ; B. Lot. 630. 

APPAMEYYO (adj.). Unlimited, boundless, hinu- 
merable [^Kl)€| = in]« Mah. 242. 

APP ANA (/l). Thought, reasoning, resolve [iRIir]. 
Ab. 166 ; Dh. 376 ; E. Mon. 266. 

APPANi (aty.). Inanimate [^ + Hlf^inO- ^^^" 
K. S. 29. 

APPANIHITO (adj.). Free frt>m longing or desire 

[^ + Trfiirffnn[=W]- Dh. 281,282 ("free from 

rdga and the other pa^idhis"^. 
APPAS ADDO (atff.) , Free from noise, quiet ; making 

little noise [^|^ + 1P^]- ^^^' ^^ i P^^ ^l- 
APPASADO, Dissatisfaction [^4-iraT^]. Ab. 

APPASANNO (adj.). Dissatisfied, discontented ; not 

having faith, unbelieving ["^ + HtlH = ll^]- 

Dh. 169 ; Pdt. ziv. 
APPASATTHO (adj.). Bad, inferior [^ -|- THTW 

APPASATTHO (a4;.),With a small caravan, having 

few attendants [IT^ + ^QTHS] • I>b. 22, 294. 
APPASSADO (a4;.),Insipid ['^l^ + ^rn^].Db.34. 
APPABSUTO (adj.), Having learnt little, possessing 




small knowledge, unlearned, ignorant [^n^ + 
^= ^]. Db. 28 ; Pdt. xiv. 

APPATANKO, Light ailment, freedom from bodily 
suffering or fatigue [^T^ + ^HHTSf] • B- ^^ 
427. Appdtanko is also an adjective meaning 
*' free from suffering.^ Gomp. Appdb^dho, 

APPATARO (adj.). Fewer, less [^^rai + lfT]- 
Alw. I. 93. Appataram^lo, cheaper (Db. 250). 

APPATHAMO (adj.). Not first [^+ H^RT]- Ab. 

APPATIBAHIYO (adj.). Not to be put away or 

averted (see Pa^<lA0^). Dh. 223. 
APPATIBHAYO (adj.). Free from danger, safe 

APPATIHATO (adj.). Meeting with no obstacle, 
unopposed [^ + nfif + ^ = fC . Appatiha- 
tarn HdfLom, unlimited knowledge (B. Lot. 344, 


APPATIROPO (adj.). Unsuitable, improper [IR + 
Hfir^]. Dh.293. 

APPATISAliiryEDANO (adj.). Inaccessible to sen- 

sation [H -|- nft + ^j^^]. 
APPATISANDHIKO (adj.). That cannot be re- 

united [^ + nfir + ^BffV + ^] • Kamm. 10. 
APPATISSO (adj.). Disobedient, rebellious [^ + 

HfTT + ^?]* Some M8S. read appatisao. 
APPATlTO (adj.). Dissatisfied, angry [^ + initif 

+ 13. Pdt. 4,5, 72. 
APPATTO (adj.). Not obtained ; not having arrived ; 

not having obtained [^ + ITTH^^^inO- Dh. 

48, 196 ; F. Jit. 50. 
APPAVARITO (adj.). Uninvited [^ + T|-|-in- 

f^ + ^]. Pit. 11. 

APPAYUKO(ii4;.),8hortlived \ym + W^ + ^]. 

Dh. 143. 
APPEKAGCE, This is, I think, api ekacce, and 

should therefore be written App ekacee. 

APPESAKKHO (adj.), Having little power or 
majesty [^P5CT + f^J + ^WWT]. Lit. " he who 
is named lord of little,'' or " he who has the name 
of a little lord." See B. Intr. 239. 

APPETI (caus.), To fit, to fasten; to deliver, to 
hand over, to assign [^t$€|f7l==^]. Tegam 
rajjam appesi, made over his kingdom to them 
(Mah. 63). Paigduvdsadevam Lankdrajfena appa" 
yum, they invested P. with the sovereignty of 
Ceylon (Mah. 54). Appetvd r^asandesam, having 
delivered the royal message (Mah. HI). Kumd' 

ragenaa^ appetvd, assigning the task to prince 
Sena (Mah. 267). Kdtuih nagaram t^payi, gave 
orders to build a citadel (Mah. 254). Samddhim 
appeti, to indulge in Sam&dhi meditation (Mah. 

APPEVA (adv.). Perhaps [trftT + tPT] - Ab. 1158 ; 
Has. 34. 

APPEVANAMA (adff.). Perhaps [lrfq + TCT + 
Wm]. Ab. 1158; Alw. L 93; Pit. 4; Ras. 17. 
Appevandma janatdya hitdya ettka, surely it 
would be for the good of the people (Alw. I. 112). 

APPHO7A (/.), Name of a sort of jasmine [^Vreift- 
^]. Ab. 575. 

APPHUTO (adj.). This word appears to be a p.p.p. 
of pharati compounded with the negative a, and 
probably means ** not pervaded,'' " not penetrated." 
The MSS. also read apphuto. B. Lot. 649. 

APPICCHATA(/.)>C;ontontment, frugality [IR^ + 
f^i^T + m]. Dh. 302, 372. 

APPICGHO (adj.). Wanting little, contented^ frugal 
[^re»+T^]- Dh. 72, 302. 372. 

APPITO {p.p.p. appeH), Fastened [^|f5v=lB]. 
Mah. 179. Appito at Pit. 11 is explained to mean 
« tWck." 

APPIYO {adj.). Not dear, not beloved ; not pleasant, 
disagreeable ; unfriendly, unkind, inimical [^ + 
flRT] . Dh. 14, 140, 149 ; Ab. 735. Appiyo, an 
enemy (Kb. 13). Appiyam, unkindness, hostility 
(Mah. 246). 

APPlYO (adj.). Less [^wft^BO- 

APPO {aty.). Little, moderate, slight, few [mi]- 
Ab. 704. Appaih pumakammam, a small act of 
virtue (B. Lot. 340). Appdni pupphdni, few 
flowers (Dh. 253). Appo taggdya gacchoH, few 
go to heaven (Dh. 32). Appena bahum ieehoHf 
wants much in return for little. Appabhogo, poor. 
^jj9pa/Kmno,having little wisdom, fooUsh (F. Jdt.ll). 

APPODAKO (adf.). Having little water [^T^ + 
^nj]. Dh. 241. Appodake tote, when the 
torrent was nearly dry (Ras. 90). 

APPOSSURKATA (/.), Reluctance, hesitation; 
inaction, rest (see next). Dh. 119 ; B. Lot 408. 

APPOSSUKKO (a^.). Having little desire fbr 
exertion, having little zeal, reluctant to act ; liring 
a life of ease or enjoyment, inactive, resting from 
work, taking one's ease \yp^ + ^MIH]* Dh. 
59, 104, 108, 141, 143, 407. 

APPOfHETI, To snap the fingers (dap the hands) 




in token of pleasare [W^n(tZ^Tf9T=^^R[]' 
Midi. 162. 

APUCCHANAA, Salatation, adieo (see next). 

APUCCHATI, To take leave of, to bid adien $ to 
ask leave [^ + inF]* Pffttacivarapatiggaho' 
{MNit ^^mecki, asked to be allowed to take the 
priesf B IniwI and robe (Dh. 107). ApucehUabbo^ 
wlioee leave ongbt to h% asked, or who on§fht to 
be taken leave of (Db. 79). F. Jdt. 9 ; Mah. 29 ; 
Dh. 11% 211, 266. 

APU5^AA, Demerit, sin [^ + t|^]. Ah. 84; 
Ras. 84 ; Mah. 239. Apwmaldbko, acquisition of 
demerit (Dh. 65). 

APCPO, Acake[irjp]. Ah. 483. 

ApORATI, To be filled, to increase [^ + ^]. 

APUTHUJJANO, see Pttihujifano. 

APUTTAKATTAlSr, Not having a son, childless- 
ness [^+5^WH^W]. Mah. 46. 

APUTTAKO (adj.), Sonless [^ + 3^^] • ^b. 77, 
232,416. Fem. <9m^/iAMf (Dh. 219). 

APUTTO (ocfrO, Sonless [iff + ^]. Mah. 124. 

ArA (/.), An awl [^RTTT]- Ab. 528 ; Dh. 71, 72. 

ARA(aifir.),Faroff [iRI^TIt]* Ab. 1167; Dh. 380, 
With abl. ^rd $0 dtaoakkhayd^ he is fiu* from the 
extinction of passion (Dh. 45). 

ARABBHA {ger, drabhoH), Beginning witii, from ; 
coneeming, with reference to ; with a view to, for 
['WT'V = THI * ^^^ &<^ Mdlam dr,, hegimAng 
Iram the root (Ab. 548). Idtm tatthd mpakkho' 
9evhk dr, katkesi^ this the Teacher related concern- 
ing a traitor (F. Jdt. 1). BMkkhd dr, ptMatta^, 
ordained for priests only. Dh. 77 ^ 313, 327. 

ARABHAPETI (oom. next). To cause to be com- 
menced or undertaken. Mah. 26, 103. 

ARABHATI, To begin ; to undertake ; to attempt ; 
to exert oneself ; to obtain |yy exertion [^ -h T^' 
Vdeetum drabhi, began to read (Alw. I. 80). 
Maamnd yuddham drabkUh, I have begun the 
conflict with death (Mah. 194). R(yd tarn dud- 
petmm drabM, the king took steps to have her 
brott^t to him (Mah. 223). Anto pamriiwm 
if«6AI, attempted to enter (Mah. 244). Mahdthd^ 
pattham drabki, set to work to build the Mahi- 
th6pa (Mah. 169). DhdiU'-aropanaithdya drabhi^ 
attempted to take down the relic (Mah. 107). 
jirmbhmthat rouse yourselves (B. Lot. 530). Ftri- 
y«fc dr.9 to make an effort (Alw. 1. 107 ; Dh. 289). 
Ffrhfmk drabhato dafhatk^ to one who makes a 
strenuous effort (Dh. 21). FipoBtaMath dr.y to 

attain vipassani (Mah. 32). Ger. drabkUvd 
(Mah. 32), drabbha (see sep.). Kb. 23 ; Dh. 249 ; 
Mah. 172, 175. P.p.p. draddko. 

ARAGARI (adj.)t Living far from sin, leading a 
virtuous life [W^CF^-h ^TrfT'C* 

ARADDHO {p.p.p. dra6haH)y Having begun ; striv- 
ing, exerting oneself [^|p^^=: 1^]. 8o rola- 
nam mcinitum draddhOy he liegan to look fat a 
treasure (Alw. I. 75). Araddhamriy^f making 
an effort, strenuous (Dh. 2, 200). Accdraddko, too 

ARADDHO {p*P'P')t Accomplished, won, provided 

ARADHANAA, Satisfying, propitiating; winning, 

accomplishing [W^TV^]> 
ArADHETI (cow.), To propitiate, to conciliate, to 

make favour with ; to win, to attain, to accomplish 

[lR|<l>j|*lRl = 'TrHj' I>karan(patim drddha- 
yantd^ enjoying the favour of their sovereign (Mah. 
Ixxxix). Dh. 50, 81, 327, 383 ; P4t. 68 ; Mah. 2. 
P.p.p. drddkito. 

ARADHO [UnCnV]- Clough (Or. 136) translates 
drddho me raSAo (or rdjdmam) by <* my request is 
to the king," and in his Simhalese Dictionary he 
gives to Arddkana the meaning of "request, 
invitation." But at Kuhn K. S. Ar^dha appears 
to be an adjective, drddko me (or mam) rdjd, which 
Kuhn translates ** the Idng is propitious to me." 

ARAGGAA, The pomt of an awl [WKH + mi]- 
Dh. 71, 72. 

ARAHA, and ARAHAA (m.), A venerable person, 
a holy man, a saint ; one who has attained final 
sanctification, an Arhat [^1^^] • Aoc arakamtadi 
(Dh. 74). Gen. and dat arakato (Kb. 2). Plur. 
arakanto (Dh. 18, 240 ; Mah. 104). Ace plur. 
arakante (Dh. 240). Gen. and dat plur. arakatatk 
(Dh. 30). There are two sorts of Arah^ tiie 
arakattamaggaftko and the arakattapkalaffko; 
the latter is entirely free from human passion 
(kkindsavo, vitardgo\ he is said to have attained 
Nirv&^a (viz. kile§apaFitiibbdma or tipddiaeeami' 
bdna)^ and when he dies he cpases to exist (at- 
tains kkandkaparinibbdna or anupddUesanMdna). 
By the word Arahd standing alone the Arahatta- 
phalaftha is generally intended. Ab. 10 ; E. 
Mon. 6, 280-288, 290 ; Man. B. 38, 39 ; B. 
Intr. 294 ; B. Lot 287, 520 ; Dh. 83. Arah£ 
properly means only ** a venerable man," and at 
Dh. 240 we find it applied by a non-Buddhist to 




Acelakas or oaked ascetics. Of the two nomina- 
tives Araham is no doabt the primitive one, re- 
tidning as it does the form of a present participle 
from arahati ; arahd follows the analogy of tnahd. 
It is possible that araham is used exclusively as 
an adjective, and arahd as a noun, but I have not 
suffident data to determine this with certainty 
(see jirahant). See Maggo. 

ARAH ADDHAJO, The robes or dress of a Buddhist 
priest [^Rl|ll(+ M^]- Ab. 296. 

ARAHAA (m.), Worthy, venerable, sanctified, holy 
[^n(^]- Thb nominative occurs in the well- 
known formula, Itipiw hhagavd ardhanh sammd' 
gambuddho tfijjdcarafuuampanno, etc. (Alw. 1. 77)- 
In the formula Namo tana bhagatfaio arahato 
sammdsambuddhassa we have the dative. In both 
cases araharii seems to be used adjectively. See 

ARAHATA(/.),Worthine8s [^ + m]. CI. Or. 97. 

ARAHATI, To deserve; to be worthy of; to be 
able ; to be fit ; to honour [in] . Na 90 kdadvam 
arahatif he is not worthy of the yellow robe 
(Dh. 2). Imdni me 8ahayo *rahate, my friend u 
worthy of these jewels (Mah. 69). Ime mama 
§ar(re upayogam na arahantit these are not fit 
for use upon my body, i.e. too good for me to use 
(Dh. 291). Kumbham arahati^ is equal to a 
kumbha (Gl. Gr. 91). Ko tarn nindituni arahati, 
who would dare to reprove him (Dh. 41). Tasmd 
*yath Damifdaanne vdsetum n* eva arahati, there- 
fore he is by no means the man to cause to dwell 
among Tamuls, i.e. he is too good to dwell among 
them (Mah. 139). 7\>am 'eoam vicaritutk tia 
arahasi, you ought not to go about thus (Dh. 309). 
CI. Gr. 136. 

ARAHATTAI!^, State of being an Arah^ Arhat- 
ship, final sanctification [^n|i||[+ Ff]. Ab. 436. 
The last of the four Maggas is called arahatta' 
maggo, subdivided into arahaitamaggo and ara- 
hattaphalarii, *' the path of Arhatship and the 
fruition of Arhatship." The latter is idendeal 
with Kilesaparinibb&na or Up^isesanibb&na (see 
Maggo and Nibbdnath). Arahattappatto, having 
attained Arhatship (Dh. 273 ; Mah. 103). Ara- 
hattappatti, attainment of Arhatship. Dh. 195^ 
273, 411, 421. 

ARAHATTAMAGGATTHO, One who is walking 
in the path of Arhatship [^mi^+ ^ + VfT^ + 

ARAB ATTAPHALATTHO, One who is in the fuU 

fruition of Arhatship [^n{^ + ^ + ^V^ + ^]- 

ARAHITO (p.p.p. arahati). Revered [irf|lf=: 
^]. Ab.750. 

ARAHO {adj.). Deserving, worthy, fit, worth [nf]. 
With ace Satthaghdtam no *rahd, not fit to be 
lopped with a weapon^ viz. too precious to be 
lopped (Mah. 111). With gen. Buddhabhdn- 
ta$9drahdni, suited to the word of Buddha (Alw. 
I. vii). Daf^akammdraho, worthy of punish- 
ment (Mah. 28). Mantusdraho, fit for human 
habitation (Mah. 4). Samandraho, suited to 
priests, sacerdotal (Mah. 212). Bodhitthdndrahd 
mahi, a spot worthy to be the site of the Bo tree 
(Mah. 89). Sankhamuttam BataMhaBaadvayd" 
rahath, chanks and pearls worth two lacs 
(Mah. 53). 

ARAJIKO (adj.). Without a king ["H + TT^ + 
jyi]. Mah. 54. 

ARAELA (adv.* and prep.). Far off, from alar 
[^l^lll^]. Ab. 1157. Dievd tarn drakd, see- 
ing her from a distance (Mah. 43). Asddhugafk' 
saggam drakd parivajjiya, flying far from assoda^ 
tion with evildoers (Mah. 238). With abl. Arakd 
imaimd dhammauinayd, far from this Doctrine and 
Discipline (Kuhn K. S. 7» also with ace. and instr.). 

ARAKATTAA, Being far from [^in:^R9^+ ?|]. 

ARAKKHEYYO (adj.). That ought to be guarded 
[^4.7^-j-l{^]. There are three Tathdga- 
taua drakkheyydni enumerated in Sangfti Sutta. 
The text is as follows, Parieuddhakdyaiamdcdro 
dvuio tathdgato n' atthi tathdgataua kdyadueea' 
ritam yam tathdgato rakkheyya md me idam paro 
tAndsiti: parisuddhavacifamdcdro . . . vacidticca' 
ritath . . . afmd^ti : parituddhamanoiamdcdro . . . 
manoducearitam . . • ahndtiiti, *' the conduct of 
Buddha is pure in action ; there is not in Buddha 
any wrong conduct in action which he should 
guard, saying. Let not my enemy know this ; the 
conduct of Buddha is pure, in word," etc etc. 

ARAKKHATI, To guard, to protect [^ + T^]. 
P.p.p. drakkhito (Mah. 170). 

ARAKKHIKO, a guard, a keeper, a policeman 
[WTfW^l- Dh. 158,219. 

ARAKKHO, Guard, protection [^inCV]- Arakkha- 
devatd, tutelar gods (Dh. 103). Fidhdya tattha 
drakkham, posting a guard there (Mah. 160). 
Mah. 18, 241. 




ARAK0TO,and-TAM,Bni8ft [^ITT^]- Ab.482. 

ARAA (adv,). Speedily, presently ['W^i^] • Ab. 40. 

ARAMBHANAA, CommeDoement [W^^mi]- 
Mab. 163. 

ARAMBHO, Commencement; exertion^ effort ; mis- 
diiefy injury [^IT^ill]. Ab. 852. T^^^fdrambho, 
oommenoement of the tbi!ipa (Mab. 174). Andram' 
hhoy free from mischief or danger (P&t. 4). There 
are ei^ht Arambhawitth(mij *' matters or occasions 
for exertion, or for making an effort," viz. when a 
priest has a dnty to perform, when he has per- 
formed a dnty, when he has a jonmey to make, 
when he has made a journey, etc 

ARAMIKO, One employed about the g^unds of a 
Buddhist temple, a temple servant, g^ardener, etc 
[^IRJif + 1;^]. Mab. 239; Pit 9, 68. 

ARAMMANAM, That on which anything rests or 
dwells, a support, stay, basis, ground, cause, ma- 
terial, object ; an object of sense ; a thought, an 
idea [^|^I4|«|]. Ab. 94, 1132. The six Aram- 
mana», or objects of sense, are rApam, saddo, 
gandhoy ratOf phauo^ dhammo^ ''form, sound, 
odour, taste, contact and ideas*; they are thus 
identical with the Bdhira Ayatanas, and are the 
objects of the six Ajjhattika Ayatanas or Senses 
(Ab. 94). Arammana is also used in a more re- 
stricted sense, " the object or material of the mind 
or of thought," << thoughts," << ideas.'' At Man. 
B. 468, Hardy defines Ar. as ** thoughts that pro- 
ceed from contact with sensible objects in the mind" 
(see also p. 500). Gough in his Simhalese Diet, 
defines Ar. as "being affected, reflection, thought; 
the subject of thought, that which occupies the 
mind.* — Ex. Itthdrammane mdnasam vinajjetvd, 
allowing the mind to dwell on a pleasing object 
(Dh. 111). CUtiah ndnC etark ndndramma^tu 
digJutrattank cdrikam carantam^ that mind of his 
long wandering in many channels of thought (Dh. 
405 : comp. in the same page p^^disu drammo' 
{MMfy dwelling on sinfol and unworthy thoughts). 
7V$am hi dibbapaiibhdgdni jri drammapini Mttath 
edlehuh na sakkonti, for even the most divinely 
attractive fancies cannot tempt their mind from 
its ascetic calmness (Dh. 284). Ime tafthdsotd 
eakkhmdvdrddhuuh wuena sabbesu r^pddUu dram- 
wuufetu iovanatOt these currents of desire, from 
flowing by means of the eye, the ear, etc., through 
all the (six) channels of Form, Sound, etc. (Dh. 
410). Nirodhatk drammafta^ kaivd^ making an- 

nihilation its aim (Dh.381). SkdrammaftOf having 
one (or the same) object (Dh. 90), AfthaHthtdya 
drammaf^su kammam karonto, exercising himself 
in the tliirty-eight subjects of meditation (Dh. 
422) . Tarn drammafunk kaivd tfiharantdnam, who 
live with their minds set on this object (Dh. 282). 
Arammafunh gafthati or gaheti is a phrase used 
in connection with Kamma^th^a meditation : it 
means to obtain or lay hold of an idea, a topic, a 
thought, upon which the mind is brought to dwell 
with intense force until supernatural illumination 
is obtained. Thus we read, at Dh. 195, that a 
certain priest, who had made strenuous but un- 
availing efforts to attain Arhatship, happened to 
see a gpreat fire break forth in the forest. He 
hastily climbed a bare hill, and while seated 
watching the conflagration, grasped this thought 
with his mind. As this fire advances, consuming 
in its progress all foel great and small, even so I 
should advance, consuming with the fire of the 
knowledge conferred by the Ariyamagga aU ob- 
stacles great and small. Here, then, we have an 
dramma^^a, or subject for Kammat^hina medita- 
tion : another will be found at Dh. 210, where a 
priest sitting by a torrent side watches the bubbles 
of foam, and fixes his mind upon the idea. As 
these bubbles are formed and burst, so the human 
body is l>om and perishes. For this subject comp. 
Hardy's account of the Kasi^a meditation, E. Mon. 
p. 252 and foil. The primitive form Alambanam 
also occurs. In the modem Simhalese Prdkfit 
aramuftu karafutvd (^^IHRiinl ^) i^^^^b " to re- 
solve," «<to mtend." B. Intr. 449; B. Lot. 831 ; 
Dh. 121, 200, 273, 350. 
ArAMO, Pleasure ; a pleasure garden, a park ; the 
gardens or wooded enclosure surrounding a Bud- 
dhist temple ; a vih4ra, a Buddhist monastery or 

temple ["^nTT^l- ^^^ ^i ^' ^^ ^^i K^- ^> 
Mab. 67, 225, 234 ; Dh. 209. 

ARANALAA, Sour gruel [W^^mi]- Ab. 460. 

ARAIjTl (m. and /.), Wood for kindling fire by at- 
trition [ITC^]- Ab. 419. 

ARASJARO, A water-jar [nftRST]- Ab. 456. 

ARA^AKO (adj.), Belonging to the forest, situated 
in the forest [W^^Rl]* AraMako vihdrot a 
forest hermitage (Dh. 85). Arannako, one who 
lives in the forest, a reduse (Dh. 144). AraSma^ 
kangam is one of the thirteen Dhutangas, and en- 
joins living in a forest. It is possible that drmmi' 




kanfom may be also a correct form. Glongh gives 

dranmkanga under Teles Dh&tdnga in his Pic- 

tiomiry, and I find 6riMikaiwUiam (" duties of an 

eremite priest ") in a MS. of Sankfaylo'tha Prakcu^ 
AR AM Aft, A forest, a wood [^R:^] . Ab. 686 ; 

Dh. 18. 
ARA&^KUl (/.), A large forest [ ^<<KH<n ]' 

Ab. 636. 
ARATI (/.), Dislike; discontent; abstinence from 

[^ + Tt^]. Dh. 74; Ab. 783; B. Lot 443. 
ARATI (m.). An enemy [^ -f- TTfn] • Ah. 844. 
ARATI (/.), Leaving off, cessation, abstinence 

[^IT^ITT] . Ab. 160 ; Kb. 6 ; Kuhn K. S. 26. 
ARAVINDAlk, A lotos [^Rf^]- Ab. 684. 
ArAVO, Sound, noise [^RTTTW]- Ab. 128. 
ARE (inter;.). Here! I say! Sirrah! [l|^. Ab. 

1139; Dh. 169, 168, 299. 
ARI (i9t.). An enemy [WfTl* Ab. 344. 
ARINDAMO (a«(/.), Victorious [^»f(^]. 
ARISAM, Hemorrhoids [^nf^. Ab. 327. 
ARISSAA, ^hishlp [^1$]. Mno bhdvo driua^ 

(CI. Gr. 97). 
ARITTAA, a rudder [^if^Tl] . Ab. 667 ; Mah. 120. 
ARITTHAA, Buttermilk or whey ; bad symptoms, 

signs of approaching death ; good luck ; bad luck 

i^lfXt]' Ab.822. 

ARITTHO, The soap-berry plant, ^apindus Sapo- 
naria ; the Nimba-tree ; a crow ; a sort of spurituous 
liquor [^rft?] . Ab. 666, 670, 638, 822. 

ARIYADHANAJ!ir, Noble or sublime treasure 
[^in$ + ^PT] • There are seven, saddhddhanamt 
sQadhanmh, htHdhanam,ottappadh(numf nUadha- 
nafkf cdgadhanam, pannddhanam, " faith, a moral 
life, modesty, fear of sin, learning, self-denial, 

ARIYAKO {adj,\ Aryan as opposed to Milakkha 
[IRP^] . Anariydko, non-Aryan, as Tamul, etc 
(Pdt. xliii). 

ARI YAMAGGO, Sublime path, viz. Arahattamagga; 
see £. Mon. 280, 281, 294 ; Dli. 196. [^ir$ + 

ARIYAPHALAft, Sublime fruition, viz. Arahatta- 
phala [ W^ + ^Pr] . Db. 180, 334. 

ARIYAPUGGALO, Holy personage, i.e. one who 
is in one of the four Paths or four Fruitions, see 
-^nyo[W^-f IJTW]. The eight Ariyapuggalas 
are, SotdpaiHmaggaffho, Sot^^HUtiphalaffho, 
8akad4gdmimaggapfho, Sakad^^dmiphalattho, 

AndgdmimaggaffhOf Audgdmiphalaffho, Aro' 
hattamaggatt^i Anihattaphdlaftho, 

ARIYASACCAM, Sublime truth [^ir$ + ^ra]« 
The cattdri ariytuaecdni, or " four g^reat truths,'' 
are four theses upon which the whole doctrine of 
Buddha Is based ; they are, dukkha^ mriyatacemkf 
dukkhasamttdayam ariyaaaecam, dukkhamro' 
dhaih ariyasaccarih dukkhamirodhagdmmi pafu 
padd anyoioecaiht "suffering, the cause of suf- 
fering, the cessation of suffering, the path leading 
to the cessation of suffering." They are also some- 
times briefly expressed thus, dukkhatkteammdt^, 
nirodhoj maggo* Stated in full the four truths 
are as follows : — ^Firstly, that exbtence is snflSer- 
ing ; secondly, that human passion {tafM, desire) 
is the cause of continued existence ; thirdly, that 
by the destruction of human passion existence 
may be brought to an end; fourthly, that by a 
life of holiness the destruction of human passion 
may be attained. The Magga or Paf ipadi of the 
last truth is the Ariyo Afthangiko Mag^ (see 
Atthtmgiko). B. Lot. 617 ; Man. B. 496 ; Kb. 8 ; 
Kuhn R. S. 32; Dh. 36, 346, 347. 

ARIYASAVAKO, Holy disdple [W^ + lTFPl]. 
The Ariyas&vakas are the disdples of Buddha 
who are walking in the Four Paths^ Sotdpannas, 
Sakad^mins, etc Dh. 79, 206, 240 ; Bas. 39. 

ARI YAVAlilSO, Noble famUy [^|f^ + ^ . Mah. 
227* Sangiti Sutta mentions four Ariyavamsas, to 
which belong respectively the recluse who is con- 
tented with the robes presented to him, the re- 
cluse who is contented with the food presented to 
him, the reduse who is contented with tbe bed- 
ding presented to him, the reduse who deligfatB 
in meditation. 

ARIYAVASO, Noble or holy state [^int + ^1^]. 
Ten are enumerated in Sangiti Sutta, — the state 
of being free from the five bad qualities (jemr- 
eaigani), of bdng possessed of the six good qnali- 
Hes (chafangam), etc. 

ARIYAVOHARO, Noble or honourable practice 
[lirH+ «9^niT]« There are four, mmiMdd 
veramaf^if piau^^avdodya o., phamuandediya o., 
eamphappaldpd v., '* abstinence from lying, from 
slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk." 
There are also two other sets of four each, ** saying 
you have not seen when you have not seen, saying 
you have not heard when you have not heard,'' etc 
Qovoft, Anoriyawkdro, Seealso^r%fo(2). 




ARI YO (a4^*-)> Honoarable, respectable, venerable ; 
noble ; excellent, eminent ; boly, sanctified [^^^n$] - 
Ab. 696. Ariydya jdHyd jdtOf bom of an bonoar- 
able fomily. Imind ariyena tUakkhandhena sa- 
wumrndgato, endowed with tbis sublime assemblage 
of virtues. Ariyabh&nd at Dh. v. 236 is explained 
to mean the fky^ Saddh4v4sas. At Dh. v. 208 we 
have driymki with the long a of the Sanskrit re- 
vived metri caosa. Dh. 48. 

ARIYOy A venerable or holy man, a saint ; one who 
has entered on the Four Paths, a converted man ; 
one wholias attained final sanctification,an Arahi; a 
Brahman ; an Arya or Aryan [ W$] • As a technical 
term for one walking in the Four Paths the word 
Ariya indndes Bnddhas, PaccekaBnddhas, Arahds, 
Anig&mins, Sakad£g4mins and Sotdpannas. These 
are collectively designated by the plaral Ariyd^ 
« the saints," « the elect," <' the righteous," which 
includes the whole Buddhist hierarchy (Ab. 1002 ; 
B. Intr. 290, 291 ; B. Lot. 520, 866 ; Dh. 5, 37, 
180). The plural Ariyd is sometimes restricted to 
Arah^B (including Bnddhas and PaooekaBuddhas), 
as at Dh. v. 79, and 164. Ariyo is sometimes used 
synonymously with Arah& ( Ab. 435). Ariydpavddo, 
speaking evil of the saints (Pdt. 92). Ariyavohdro, 
the vernacular, speech of the Aryans (Alw. I. cvii). 

AROGAPETI (cans,), To cause to be announced; 
to announce [^ + cans. ^^^- F. J4t. 6 ; Dh. 

AROCETI (com.), To tell, to announce, to declare 

[^+ 0'*l*in! = '^^]« With ace Rdjdnam 
evam drocaydki, thus address the king. With dat. 
Arocaydmi tw, I tell you (Kuhn K. 8. 28). With 
dat. and aoc. BhtigQvato kdlam drocetif informed 
Buddha that it was time (B. Lot. 362). Ranfid 
mttiatdBonatk drocesi, delivered the king's message 
(Alw. 1. 79). Geham gantvd drocenuh, went home 
and brought the news (F. Jdt. 15). P.p.p. drocitOf 
declared. Bhatiakdle drocite, when dinner was 
annoonoed (Mah. 7)* Ras. 73. 

AROGO {odjJ), Free from sickness, healthy [^ + 
^tlf]. Kaio arogo, cured (Mah. 244). Aroga- 
bkdvo, health (Dh. 206). 

AROGYAA, Health [^ft^] • Ab. 331 ; Dh. 37, 

AROHA (/.% An elegant woman [VlOlO* 
AROHAKO, a rider [W<^]- Mah. 142. 
AROHAJ^TAliil, Ascent, ascending; a ladder, stairs 
[V^f|||]. Ab.216. Sukhen*drohafMtthdy a, to 

facilitate the ascent (Mah. 132). Pabbatdrohafuukf 
ascending the mountain (Mah. 103). 

AROHAJ^flYO (adj.). Fit for mounting [WT^- 
<JV^]. Arohaniyo ndgo, riding elephant (Dh. 

AROHO, Arider; ascent; length [VI Of]* Ab. 
295. Hatthdroho, an elephant rider. AssdrohOf 
a horseman. Rathdroho, a chariot rider (Ab. 376). 
Svdroho, easily mounted up to, of moderate height 
(Mah. 112). 

AROPANAIVT, Raising ; establishing (see next). 

AROPETI (cans, druhati), To cause to ascend, to 
raise, to lift up to or upon ; to put ; to establish, 
to set on foot, to introduce ; to transfer, to render, 
to turn into [VlOM^n! = ^]- Ndvam dr., to 
put on board ship. Etadaggam dr., to raise to 
the chief place. Rupam dropetvd tnahdrathanif 
having put the image into his state chariot (Mah. 
248). Attano pitthim dropetvd, having mounted 
him on his back (Dh. 149). Tvlath dropetvd, 
putting them into the balance (Dh. 380). With 
two ace. Sataaahauddhikd nava kotiyo $akate 
dropetvd, putting nine ko^is and a hundred thou- 
sand into carts (Dh. 248, 249). Fihdram Cetiya^ 
girim theram dropayi, established the thera in the 
G. vihdra (Mah. 76). Tepitakam Buddhavacanaih 
tantim dropento, when fixing the text of the Tipi- 
faka word of Buddha (Alw. I. v). BuddhavacO' 
nam ekandaso dropema, let us turn (translate) the 
word of Buddha into chandas (Pat. xlii). Vddam 
dr., to found a religious sect, to create a schism 
(Pdt. v). Tau^ eva dotam dropetvd, fixing the 
guilt upon liim (Dh. 263). Assa moho dropetabbo, 
lie should be convicted of folly (P&t. 18). Dh. 176, 
194, 220, 239. P.p.p. dropito. 

ARU (n.), A wound [^^H^^] • Arukdyo, this mass 
of corruption (Dh. 27). 

ARUHATI, and AROHATI, To ascend, to mount, 
to go up into \yn + ^n] . Assaih dr., to mount 

a horse (Mah. 142). Rathath dr., to mount a 
chariot (F. Jit. 10). Pahbatam dr., to climb a 
mountiun (Ras. 24). Ndvath dr., to go on board 
ship (F. Jdt. 4). Ndvam pun* druhi, re-embarked 
(Mah. 46). Fut. drohissati (Mah. 40). Imper. 
2nd pers. droha (Mah. 142 : yhdrohatha, Mah. 81). drohanto. Qer. druyha, druhitvd^ druyhitvd 
(F. J4t. 4; Mah. 142; Dh. 199). 
ARCLHO {p*p'P* last). Having ascended ; having 





put; put; rendered, traoBferred ['^mRt^^fl* 
Asidrdlho^ on horseback (Mah. 151). Rathdrdput^ 
having mounted his chariot (Mah. 203). Ar&fho 
tarn mahindharam, having climbed that mountain 
(Mah. 167). UpdhandrUfhOf wearing slippers (P&t 
23). JHsio Mongittyo drUPiadhammam, the doc- 
trines introduced into the three Rehearsals (Pdt. 
85). Po^Aa^irf^/Ao, put into boolcs. Finayapifake 
tantim (fni/Acf, having fixed the text of the Yinaya- 
pifaka (Alw. I. vi). 

ARUNO (adj.), Light red; dark red [^R^HT]. Ab. 

ARUNO, Tbe dawn ; the sun [^TC^]* Ab. 980; 
Alw. 1. 76. Arunuggamanam, dawn, sunrise (Dh. 
81, 106). 

ARCPABHAVO, Formless existence, existence in 
the Ardpabrahmaloka (see Bbavo). 

ARCPABRAHMALOKO,Formle8s Brahmaheaven 
[^in^ + W9T + Wt^] • There are four heavens 
peopled by formless or incorporeal Brahmas. Their 
names are Akdsdnahedyatanam, Finhdnancdtfoia-' 
Main, ^ki&caSiSuhfatanath, NevasanSidndsanhdyata- 
nam (see each sep.). Their inhabitants are called 
respectfvely Akdsdnt^cdyaianiipagd devd, Firmd- 
fmcdyatan^ipagd devd, AkmccmndyatanApagd 
devdwiA Nevasmm&ndsmindyatan^pagd devd: they 
have no bodily form, but are mere effulgences en- 
dowed with intelligence. B. Lot. 811 ; E. Mon. 
308; Man. B. 26. The four Formless Brahma 
heavens are called collectively ArUpabrahmalokOf 
'* the Formless Brahma World.'' 

AROPADHATU, see Dhdtu. 

AROPAA, Absence of form [^ + ^^]. B. Lot. 807. 

AROpAVACARO (adj.). Belonging to the Ar(i- 
pabrahmaloka [^IRg^ + HI|t|4^]. 

ARCpAVACARO, Realm or world of Formless- 
ness, the Ariipabrahmaloka [^in[!!Cr+ imf|'4,]. 
Man. B. 3, 423. 

ARCpI {atff.)f Formless, incorporeal, immaterial 

[^r^-hl[<]. Dh.90. 

ARCPO (atff.), Without form, incorporeal, immate- 
rial [^ + ^^] • ^^^ ari^^am, Nirvd^a ( Ab. 6). 

ARUPPO {adj.\ Formless, incorporeal, belonging 
to the Artipabrahmaloka (^I^ll| + If]. 

ARU YHA, see AruhaH. ^ 

AsA (/.), Desire, longing [^ITIH] • Ab. 162 ; Dh. 73, 
431 ; P^t. 75, 114. FoKtdso, free from lust (Dh. 18). 

ASABBHO (adj,)^ Improper, wrong, sinful [^ + 
H)9]. Dh. 14. 

ASABHO (wy.). Belonging to a bull, taorine 

ASACGO (atff.). Untrue, false [^ -f ^m] • Ab. 127, 
1176. Neut. asaccathf falsehood. 

ASADDHAMMO, Evil state, sm; sexual inter- 
course, fornication [^ + ^pif + ^^j . Ab. 317 ; 
Kuhn K. S. 8. Asaddhammavaeatumf sinful lan- 
guage (P&t. 60). There are seven Asaddhammas, 
being devoid of faith, of shame, etc. 

ASADHARAI^O {adj.)f Uncommon, special, pecu- 
liar, unrivalled [^-|- 4J|MT^Q]< Alw. L x; 
Dh. 193. Asddhdrafuun a^sani, not shared with 
others (Kb. 14). 

ASADHU (a4;.). Bad, wicked [^ + Wf^] - F. J4t 
1 ; Dh. 30. 

AS AD ISO (adj.). Unexampled; incomparable [^ 
-h ^BTfll]. Alw. I. 76; Dh. 402. 

ASAJJA (g^'). Having approached, having at- 
tained [wcrpv=ir^]* 

AS AJJHAYO, Non-repetition [^ + Iflimi^l] . Dh. 

ASAJJO (m^*.), Attainable [linn^ = ^]. Ab. 

ASAKiA (adv.). More than once, repeatedly [^ + 
^ryO- Ab. 1137. 

ASAKYAPUTTIYO, Not a son of Sakya, not a 
true disciple of Buddha [i^ + ^SfnV + ^^ + ^] • 
Kamm. 9. 

AsALH A, and -HO, Name of a month (June-July), 
and of a Nakkhatta [l||l(|C]- According to Ab. 
75 the name of the month is both maec and fem. 
According to Ab. 59 the name of the lunar man- 
sion is masc., Pubtdsdfho and Uttardidfho being 
the 18th and 19th lunar mansions. At Mah. 12, 

103, AsdfM (iRrrrft). 

ASAMANO (adj.), Unequal, dissimikr [1^ + 

^^TTR]. Dh. 53. 
ASAMAYO, Wrong time (see Akkhano). 

ASAMCICCA, see Asancicca. 

ASAMO (adj.). Uneven, unequal ; unequalled, peer- 
less [^ + ^W] . CI. Or. 81. 

ASAMVASO (o4/*)> Deprived of co-rosidenoe, ex- 
pelled from the priesthood [^ + ^hlTV]- Kb. 29; 
P&t. 3, 65 ; E. Mon. 8. 

ASAAVUTO (ad;.), Unrestrained, intemperate 
[^-f^t^ = ^]. Dh.2. 

ASANAA, Shooting; an arrow [iRPf]. Ab.d89, 


(59 ) 


ASANAM, Eatfng; food [iVipi]. Ab. 466, 1004. 

The four Asanas are khajjmm^ bhqjjam, leyyam^ 

peyytak (Ab. 406). 
ASANAA, Sitting; a seat [W9*l]- Ab. 311, 765, 

1099 ; Mah. 39 ; Dh. 3?2 ; B. Lot. 305. The 

withers of an elephant (Ab. 363). 

ASAACICGA (acfv.), Inadvertently, unintentionally 
[^ + <rt^nW=t^]. Mah. 128; Dh. 103. 
Also written tuamdcca^ 

ASANDI (/I), A long or easy chair [^Mf«tf]. 
Ab. 311. 

AS ANOO {adj.)y Detached,free» absolute [% -f 'Wf] - 
B. Lot. 344. 

ASANGO, Attachment [^^nry]. 

ASANI (m.), and ASANi (/.), Indra's thunderbolt 
E^ni^]* Ab. 24. A9miipdta9addo 'va, like the 
noise of a fiiUing thunderbolt (Mah. 143 ; comp. 
Dh. 219). Asani my a gajfanto^ roaring like 
thunder (Mah. 152). 

ASANKA (y.). Fear, apprehension, anxiety, sus- 
picion, doubt [mi(4T]* I^- 3^ 

ASANKATI, To fear, to suspect^ to donbt [^ + 
H^. Dh.417. 

ASANKHATADHATU (/), The unconditioned or 
Immaterial element or principle, Nirv^^a [^ + 
*yf=f+VF5]. Ab.8. 

A8ANKHATO, see Sankhato. 

A8ANKHEYY0 (adji). Incalculable, inmimerable 
[^RMKT=^RT]* The neut. Atankheyyam is 
the highest of the numerals, and is equal to 
10,000,00a'^ or 1 followed by 140 ciphers (Ab. 
476; Man. B. 7; B. Lot. 852; Has. 72> Amm- 
kheyymk Is also a period of an asankheyya of years 
(Dli.79; Mah. 8). 

ASAltKHIY0(a4ir.),Innnmerable [^^tal + Vf]* 
Mah. 3. Asaukhiyd devd, innumerable devas (Mah. 
81X Ifdmdrdgambararit tumikhiyamy innumerable 
cloths of various dyes (Mah. 258). 

ASANBLI iadj,)y Apprehensive, anxious ['^llllfj^^ . 
Mah. 103. 

ASANKJTO (adj\)y Without hesitation or doubt, 
fearless [^ + Ki^pi=W]. Mah. 131,230; 
Has. 24. 

ASAHSASATTO (adj.). Unconscious [1R + ^hfT 
+ ^V|]» Th® Annmagattd devd are the inha- 
bitants of the eleventh Brahmaloka; they pass their 
existence in a state of total unconsciousness. E. 
Mon. 306 ; Man. B. 26; 103; B. Intr. 614. 

ABAflSATO {p^.)t Unrestrained, intemperate 
[II + 4r«nT= ^R]. Dh. 44, 54 ; Mah. 232. 

ASAJ^J^ {adj.), Unconsdons [% + ^JhVT + 1[^- 

ASANNO (p.p.p.), Near [^JTO?r= ;g^. Ab.705. 
AsannetmaraiWy dying (Mah. 132). Loc. dMnne, 
dsannamht, near. With gen. Cfantvdna tana 
dsanne, going close to him (Mah. 39). Lendian^ 
namhi, in the neighl>ourhood of the cave (Mah. 

ASANO, The tree Terminalia Alata Tomentosa 
[^TGR]. Ab. 563, 1004. 

ASANTASi (adj,). Free from fear [^ + ^^hmf + 
f[H]. Dh. 63. 

ASANTO (adj,). Not being, not existing ; absent ; 
false; bad, wicked [^4-?|p||[=lH[^]. Mayi 
asante, if I had not been present (Dh.352). Asatam 
h^H appiyo, he is a foe to evildoers (Dh. 14). Ace. 
atatam (Dh. 13), atantam (Dh. 268). Intr. aiatd 
(Dh. 66). Loc. oMti (Dh. 235), asante (Dh. 352). 
Loc. fem. asantiyd (P^. 2). Nom. plur. asanto 
(Dh. 53). Qen. and dat. plur. asatani (F. Jit 7). 

ASARO, Unreality, vanity, wortblessness [^ + 
f|f4^] . Aidre miramatif taking the real for the 
unreal (INi. 2). 

ASARO (adj,), Vain^ unsubstantial, unessential, un- 
real ["H + ^OnT]- Ab. 698. AadreM dhanehi, 
with perishable riches (Mah. 224). 

ASARO, A heavy shower [9|^|4j. Ab. 50. 

ASASSATIKO (adj.), Not eternal, finite [^ + ^- 

ASATA, ASATAfi, etc.^ see Aianio. 

AsATIRA (/.), A fly^s egg, nit (Ab. 645). Comp. 

Mdr&thi ^fTOrNV* 
ASATIYA, Heedlessly, unintentionally [H + »f7| 

instr.] Dh. 103w 
ASATTAA, Nonexistence [H + ^T^] • Ab. 1 103. 
ASATTHENA, Not by the sword, peacefully [^ + 

i;^ instr.] . B. Lot. 581 . 
ASATTI (/.), Attachment, desire [^+^rfl»]- 

Alw. I. 107. 
ASATTO (atff.). Free from attadiment or desire 

[^ + ^ni=^]. Dh.74, 433. 
ASATTO {p,p,p,), Attached, clinging; intent, at- 
tentive, diligent [irnHi = iT^] • Ab. 726, 816. 
ASAVAKKH A YO, Extinction or cessation of human 

passion, Arahatta [W^FV+ ^W]* I^* ^9 ^ ; 

E. Mon. 284; B. Lot. 795, 822. 
ASAVATI, To trickle, to flow [^ + '^]. 
AS A VO, DistUled spirit [^TT^rer] • Ab. 533, 822, 968. 


( 60) 


ASAVOy Oozing, scum ; misfortune ; human pas- 
sion, sin, corruption, depravity [^TT^Itf ^ often in- 
oorrectly written ^m^C^]- Ab.968; B. Lot. 288, 
822, 823 ; Dh. 17, 41, 45, 52, 279. Asava is 
synonymous with Kilesa. The three Asavas are 
kdmdsavo, bhavdaavOf amjjdsavo^ " the lust of the 
flesh, the love of existence, and the defilement of 
ignorance" (B. Lot. 823). The first of these is 
explained by pancaguniko rdgo, the second by 
"attachment to existence in the riipa and ahUpa 
worlds," and the third is the defilement arising 
from ignorance of the Four Great Truths (art^o- 
saccdni). There are also four Asavas, kdmdMvo, 
bhavdsavOf ditthdsavOf aviJljdsavo, sensual pleasure, 
existence, heresy and ignorance (£. Mon. 290; 
Man. B. 496). 

ASAYHO (adj.). Invincible [^ + ^9ir=^^]- 
Kuhn K. 8. 23. 

ASAYO, Meaning, intention, inclination ; depend- 
ence; support; abode, retreat, haunt [iTTBRf^ 
And f||<l|€|]. VUamdsayOy evil-disposed (Mah. 
122). J^s^iirayo, a tank (Ah. 677). Ab. 766, 936; 
Mah. 117; P4t. 71, 72, 

ASEGANO {adj.). Charming, captivating, bewitch- 
ing [^l%^f]. Ab. 697. 

ASEKHO, and ASEKKHO {adj.\ Belonging to an 
Asekha (see next). The dasa asekhd dhammd, or 
ten attributes of an Arahd, are asekhd sammd- 
ditthiy asekho sammdtankappOt asekhd sammd- 
vdcd, asekho satnmdkammanto, asekho sammd' 
djivo, asekho sammavdydmo, asekhd sammdsati, 
asekho sammdsamddhi, asekham sammdndpam, 
asekhd sammdvimutti," right views, right thoughts, 
right speech, right action, right living, right exer- 
tion, right recollection, right contemplation, right 
knowledge, right emancipation.'' 

ASEKHO, and ASERKHO, One who is no longer 
a Sekha, one who has nothing to learn, who is 
perfect in knowledge, an Arah^ [^ + ^^]- Ab. 
10 ; B. Intr. 322 ; B. Lot 295 ; Alw. I. 76. This 
term applies only to the Arahattaphalattha, the 
Arahattamaggatfha being a Sekha. 

ASESAKO {a4f.). All, entire [^ + ^ + ^] . Mah. 

ASESATO (adv.), Without omission, entirely 

[^n^r+<ra^]. Mah. 13,118. 

ASESITO (adj.). All [IRH- i^fiR! = t^]. B. 

Lot. 332. 
ASESO (adj.). All, every [^H-^]. Ab. 702; 

B. Lot. 514. BhikkhA asese sanmipdUsifi, assem- 
bled all the priests (Mah. 41). 
ASE VATI, To practise [^ + %^] . Dh. 202. 
ASEVi (adj.). Addicted to [Wf^^nC- Dh. 163. 
ASI (2nd pers. sing, atthi). Thou art. Alw. I. 38. 

The initial a is frequentiy elided, as goto *si (Dh. 

97), papto 'H (Dh. 24), adhiggahiio 'H (Ras. 21). 
ASI (m.), A sword [^f^]- Ab. 391; Mah. 154. 

jisieamma^, sword and shield. Asivaro, good 

As I (preterite drd sing, atthi), He was, it was, there 

was. Mah. 200 ; Ras. 7. 

ASI (/.), Blessing [^rrf^]. Ab. 872. 

ASl (/.), Fang of a snake [^TT^]- Ab. 655, 872. 

ASlLAKO (aiy.). Immoral, impious [^ -h iftW + 

If]. Mah. 216. 
ASILESA (/.), Name of a Nakkhatta [^1%^]. 

Ab. 58. 
ASIlfr, see Atthi. 
ASIJfrsA (/.) Wish, hope, benediction [^ + Ifl^ - 

Kuhn K. S. 29. 
ASIASANA (/.), Wish, hope, benediction (see last). 

Ab. 872. 
ASlASU, see Atthi. 
ASI^GATI, To sprinkle, to moisten, to anoint 

[^ + fW^Ji • Oer. dsincitvd (Dh. 82). 
ASINO (p.pres.). Sitting [^^T#ir= ^rWC]. Dh. 

41, 69 ; Ras. 28. 
ASIPUTTi (/.), A knife [^iflrg^]. Ab. 392. 
ASITABBO (a^.). To be eaten ["nr^TPQ^: ^nC 
ASITAA, and -TO, A sickle. Ab. 448, 1005. 
ASlTI (/.), Eighty [^niVfn]. AsiHputtd, eighty 

sons (Mah. 247). With foil. gen. Asiti sdvakdna^ 

eighty disciples (Ditto). 
ASITO (adj.), Black [^flm] • Ab. 96, 647» 1005. 
A8IT0 (p.p.p.). Eaten; enjoyed [l|fip| = ^n[J. 

Ab. 757, 1005. 
ASITTHO (p.p.p.). Wished, prayed for [WT + 

ftapg=irr^]. Ab. uoo. 

ASITTO (p.p.p. dsincati). Sprinkled; anointed 
[^ + ftrW + ftTfCI. Dh. 82; Mah. 124, 157. 

ASIVADO, Blessing [^ntll^+ ^T^]- 

ASlVISO, A snake [^VTlfH^]. Ab. 653; Kuhn 
K. S. 34. 

ASMA, We are (see Atthi). Alw. I. 37. 

ASMA, see Ayam. 

ASMA (m.), A stone [^Ml^* Ab. 605. Asma^ 
puppham, benzoin (Ab. 591). 

ASM ARl (/.), Name of a phint [^TTT^] • Ab. 558. 




A8HI» I un (see jittki). The a is frequendy elided, 
e.g. patto 'mU (Has. 16), hatacdkkhu 'tmi (Dh. 86). 
Dh. 63: F. J&t. 57; E. Mon. 2. 

ASMlft, see Ayath, 

ASMIMANO, Tlie pride that says I am, the pride 
ofMlf [^rf^=:m^+l?T«r]* AIw. N.94. 

ASO, Eating [^rn[]- Pdiardso, hreak&st. 

ASOKO (adjJ), Free from sorrow [mftv]- I>h. 
6 ; Kh. 6. Masc. imoAw, the shrub Jonesia Asoka 
(Ab. 573) ; name of a famous Indian king (£. Mon. 
177 ; Mah. 21, 22, etc). 

ASSA {opt. aithiy Ce me mm, if I thought, lit. 
if there was to me. Boam ana vacantyo^ he should 
be thus spoken to. PdfUmhi ee vano ndsta, if 
there be no wound in his hand (Dh. 23). 

AfiSA {fen, dot. nuuc. and neut. aya^)^ Of him, 
his ; to him, to it, etc. Aa^ajahitd bhavanti, are 
rejected by him (Kh. 9). Atk* ana jdnato^ but 
to him knowing (Dh. 69). Parikkhepo pan* aua, 
now its covering (F. Jdt. 6). Dh. 13, 25. The 
initial a is frequently elided, e.g. Amki *$8a ddao, 
I am his slave ; Idam pi *88a hoti Mlaemithy this 
also is part of his morality ; evam *sa (CI. Gr. 
14) ; hi'sta^ hi ana (Dh, 301). 

ASSA (/.), A mare [^^]. Ab. 371. 

AS8A, see Ay am, 

ASSAD ANA A, Tasting [^IMl<*l] ' Ab. 938. 

A8SADDH0 (a^.). Without faith, UQl>elieving ; 
not credulous [^ + ^RTT]- I>h. 18, 264. 

A88ADO, Tasting.enjoyment, happiness [l||l^|tt*] . 
Alw. 1. 106; Alw. N.36. 

ASSAKANl^O, One of the seven circles of rock that 
rarronnd Mem ; the tree Vatica Robusta [^TV + 
ipl]. Ab. 27, 562; Man. R 12$ B. Iiot 842. 

ASSAA, ASSAMA, see Atthi. 

AS8AMAN0, Not a Samara, not a true priest of 
Buddha [H + '^H^'] - Kamm. 9 ; Pat. 73. 

A8SAMARAK0, Oleander [^Rf + TTRTV] • Ab. 

A88AMEDH0, Name of a sacrifice,, the A^vamedha 

[^rar + ^l. Ab.413. 

ASSAMIKO (a<(^'.). Without a master or owner 
[11+ ^ff*!^ -f ^]- Dh.383. Andmikamvanhu, 
unclaimed property (Mah. 235). 

A8SAMO, and -MAM, A hermitage ; a religions 
order [^^HR]. Ab. 212, 928. There are four 
Assamas, or steps in the life of a Brahman, brah" 
wuieMygahaffhOf vdnapattko, bhikkhu, *' religious 
student, householder, hermit, mendicant" (Ab. 

409). Anamapadam, a hermitage (F. Jat. 4). 
Dh. 135. 

ASSARO, Not a vowel, a consonant [^ + ^nC]* 
Alw. I. xvii. 

ASSASATI, To inhale idr, to inspire, draw in the 
breath [^TT + ^VB^] • Anasanto panaaanto, pant- 
ing for breath ; sobbing (Dh. 401, 404). P.p.p. 

ASSASETl (caus. last). To refresh, to comfort, to 
encourage [^ + lErW^rf^=^^]* Andsento 
mahdjanam, comforting the people (Mah. 12). 
Andsento bhayatthe te, reassuring the terrified 
N&gas (Mah. 6). B. Lot. 376 ; Dh. 84*. 

ASSASO, Inhaled air, inhalation ; comfort, conso- 
lation [^^91^]. Ab. 1038; Mah. 158. Andn, 
or inhaled air, is one of the six Vayus (Ab. 39 ; 
Man. B. 400). Andsapandto, inhalation and ex- 
piration (B. Lot. 614 ; E. Mon. 266). 

ASSATARO, A mule ; name of a N^ [^raTTT]* 

Ab. 369, 652 ; Dh. 57. 
A8SATHA, see Atthi. 
ASSATTHO, The Bo tree, Flcus Religiosa [mR^] • 

Ab, 551, 1038. 
ASSATTHO (p.p'P* anasati). Encouraged, com- 
forted [^nnrer = ^ro^] . Ab. 1038 ; B. Lot. 376 ; 

Mah. 205. 
ASSAVANAA, Not hearing [^ + ^SRUT]. 
ASSAVO, Discharge, matter, pus [^IM^]- Ab. 

324, 1036. 
ASSAVO (adj.). Obedient [W^R] • Ab. 730, 1036. 
ASSAYUJO, Name of a Nakkhatta; name of a 

month, September-October [W^HJ^]* ^^* 

58, 75. 
ASSO, Comer, edge [iTSr]. Ab. 394, 1102. 
ASSO, A horse [V»]. Ab. 368, 1102; F. qwef, a 

mare (Ab. 371). Dh. 6, 17, 236. 
ASSOSI, see Sufoti. 

ASSU (».), A tear l^}. Ab. 260; Kh, 3; Dh. 
308; Mah. 116. Assumukho, with tearful face 
(Dh. 12 ; B. Lot. 863). 

ASSU (opt. Srdplur. atthi)^ Let them be. Dh. 13, 
269. Evam assu vacanfyd, let them be thus ad- 
dressed (P4t. 100). Ime chinnd anu^ let these be 
divided (P£t. 74). 

ASSU, Although the gprammarians give this particle 
with an initial a, I am disposed to believe that, it 
represents the S. fljf^, and ought, when written 
independently, to be «i. Kimm (CI. Gr. 10) Is 


( 62) 


undoabtedly fH f^X^f ^^^ ^^^^ w know that 
f^R may become su la IHLli, and at Alw. I. 106 

we have kinuu and kena siu in the same gdthIL 
In the phrase tayassu dhammd jahitd bhavauH 
(Kh. 9), tayassu is resolved by the gframmarians 
into iayo assu, ndth the final vowel of tayo elided 
before the initial vowel of omk ; but M r.Trenckner 
prefers to write tc^as 9U, making tayof the equiva- 
lent of the Sansk. l|in(^; I l>elieve he is right, 
and that the remaining su is the S. ^f7* -^i 
98U at Kuhn K. S. 33 is probably 5Vfi| tFT7« 
Ab. 1150 however gives a9$u^ and eaUs it an ex- 
pletive particle. 

ASSUTAVA (adj.). Not learned, ignorant ['ir + 
^TPnVf]- Alw. N. 72, 

ASSUTO (a4/.), Unheard [^4^ ^=^]* ^^' 
301. Anuidldpo^ one who has never heard qwech 
(Alw. I. cvii). 

ASU (m.), Breatii^ life [^]. Ab. 407, 04& 

ASU {pran.\ This; that [l|^ = K^]. Nom. 
masc and fem. am (CI. Gr. 58, 60). Neut* adum. 
Plor. masc. and f. amiS, amuyp. Pi. neat, omii, 
amiM. Itoc. sing,a«MfmAi(Kamm. 3). Qen. and 
dat.. pi, ami^MfJb, amMnam. The crude base in 
P^ is amu (oomp. Gl. Gr. 52 and 58, and at Ab. 
185 amudviccha, *' twelve of those"). Ab. 1088. 

ASU (adv.). Quickly [W^]. Ab. 40.; 

ASUBHO (adj.), Bad, ugly, disagreeable, nasty, 
disgusting, ofiensive [^ + ^1|] . Neut. agubhadt, 
nastiness, impurity, corruption. There are ten 
Asubhas or offensive objects (Dh. 111,4 13). Abu^ 
bhabhdvdnd and aaubhajhdnam, contemplation of 
the impurity of the body (E. Itfon. ^M)» Asubho- 
tamathpafilabhifkau, obtained an idea of impurity, 
realized how impure the body is (I>h. 127). 

ASUCI (a^.\ Impure [irH!^^|^]. Ab. 1024. 
Masc. atud, semen virile (Ab. 274, 1024). Atud" 
khddako, eatmg filth (Dh. 241). Dh. 102 i Kuhn 
K. S. 26 ; P&t. 74 

ASUDDHO (otyL), Impure [^ + ^=^]. 
PUito omcfciAo,. base-bora on the father's side 
(Alw. h xhr). 

ASURO (oiff.). Such a one [Am (2) -f* ^; the & 
equivalent is ^M^]. Axukatthdnam, such and 
such a place (Dh. 147> 200). Agukena katam, 
made by such a one (Dh. 362). Asukena me telath 
pakkam, so and so compounded an ointment for 
me(Dh. 82Q. Bdrdfuuitfont asukdya noma viihiyd 

aamkageke voBdmi, I live at Benares, in a street 
named so and so, at such and such a house (Ras. 
31). Asuko mahdtheroy some eminent thera or 
other (Bdl. 1). Amikathero ndma, such and sudi 
a priest (Dh. 372). Antkarog^assa ndma, for such 
and such a disease (Dh. 83). Anduu§a ndma sa- 
Idkabhaitath, tidcet food for the priest named so 
and so (Alw. I. 108). Aiukatmim ndma kdU 
maria»dmi, I shall die at such and such a time 
(Dh. 387). 

ASUA {preterite 3rrf plur. aithi). They were. 
Alw. I. 40 1 M ah. 24, 35. 

ASUI^ATI, and -NOTl, To hear, to listen to [^ 
-f^]. W\th dtit. AwfMnH Buddhaeea bkikkh^, 
the priests listen to Buddha (Kuhn K. & 28). 

ASURO, An Asura, a Titan or fallen angel [^TB^]. 
Ab. 14; Man. B. 46, 58. Aeurabhaeamafk, the 
Asura worid (Dh. 183). AeuHnda^ chief of the 
Asoras, a name of Rdbu and of Vepadtti (Dh. 183). 

ASUTTO (o^f .), Without seam ["H + ^] . Mah. 
22; Dh. 237. 

ATAKKITO (adj.), Unexpected [^R|fiilt=r If^]. 
Ab. 114a 

ATALAMPHA8S0 (adj.). Bottomless, anfttthom- 
able [^nwrenj]« Ab. 668. 

ATANDITO {adj.). Unwearied, unremitting [^^^ 
fl^]. Dh.54. 

ATANi (/.), Name of a part of a bedstead [^fSlf^]. 
Ab. 308 ; Pdt. 18, 88. 

ATANKO, Sicluess, affliction,, pain [^mi^]* Ab. 
323, 1045. 

ATAPANAlil, Sunshine} burning [^-^IVpini]- 
Dh. 382, 416. 

ATAPATTAA, a parasol [ WlH^r] . Ab. 357. 

AtApI (adj.). Ardent, zealous, strenuous, active 

ATAPO, Snnsbine, sunlight [^mn] • Ab. 37, 863. 

F(h( eoKtwm dtape khipi, put some paddy in the 

sun to dry (Mah. 128). 
AtAPCH Heat, burning \ ardour^ zeal, exertion, 

energy [1RI+ TITO]- Ab. 1136. 
ATAPPA A, Ardour, zeal, energy, exertion [^ + 

ITR + ^]- Ab. 156 ; Dh. 310. 
ATA8lfi:),Flax[^inrt¥]. Ab. 453. 
ATATAA, One of the high numerals, 10,000,000", 

or 1 followed by 84 ciphers. Ab. 475 ; Man. B. 6 ; 

B. Lot. 855. 
ATATAA, Generic name for drums covered with 

leather on one side [^inil1==1PCI* AtataMa-^ 




imkt drains oampletely covered with leather (Ab. 
ATATAyI (ffi.)» A felon, mnrderer, hlg^hiraymaa 

[^llUlftinJ- Ab.736. 

ATATl, To go l^fQ. CI. P. Verbs, 10. 

ATATI, To roam [W^- CI. P. Verbs, 10. 

ATA VI (/.), A forest ["WZ^] • Ab. 536 ; Mah. 44. 

ATHA (adv.). And; but; then; now ["l^]- Ab. 
1190 ; Alw. I. 2. Atha nam sakko evam dha^ and 
the Sakka said thus to him (F. J&t 2). Ath' eka- 
ifioaMin rdjdy now one day the king (Mah. 27). 
AtlC etam upagtmkamma, then approaching him 
(Mah. 243). Athimaccehi mantetvd, accordingly 
having consulted with his ministers (Mah. 53). 
Narindo *iha, the king one day (Mah. 157). Atha 
ngghoBoyi tanghoy then the assembly shouted 
forth (Mah. 252). Tadd—atha^ when — then 
(Dh. 49). Pathamam ^ atha, first — then 
(Dh. 29). Fanditvd gammdgambuddham ddito 
atha dhamman ea sanghan ca, having sainted 
Buddha first and then the Law and the Church. 
Atha kini kariuad, well but what do you mean 
to do (Dh. 93). Athdparafh, and further (see 
Aparath), Atha ea pana, but on the other hand 
(F. Jit. 11). Atha kho Uttaro mdnovo, and it 
eame to pass diat the youth Uttara (Alw. 1. Iziz). 
No h* etam bhante atha kho nam mapam eva 
abhUfddeyydmaf not so, lord, nay I should respect- 
fbUy salute him. 

ATHABBANAVEDO.The Atharva Veda [^^V^i^ 
+ %^^]. Alw. I. cxxiv. 

ATHAVA (adv.), Or [^IRT + TT]- I>h. 15, 25, 48. 

ATHENO, Not a thief, honest [^ + ^hf]* 

ATHO (adv,)j And ; also ; then {^F^] . Ab. 1 190 ; 
Dh. 28 ; Kb. 13. Sate^ atho dasa, a hundred and 
ten (Mah. 144). Atho Jdtikkhayatk potto, who 
also has attained the end of births (Dh. 75). Atho 
pi wakkaeea tunantu, let them also carefully listen 
(Kh. 6). 

ATI (ado, and prep,). Over ; beyond ; exceedingly ; 
too mndi [llfiT]. Ab. 1138, 1182. Much used 
in eompoaition. AUbahaio, very thick (Dh. 159 ; 
Alw. I. 76). AHbahnhhando, having too much 
prop e rty (Dh. 302). Atibakabhunji, very greedy 
(IHi.401). ^<iA«^Ao, exceeding gkd (Mah. 85). 
jtfKaMHiaramo,deUghtlal(Mah.87). Atimmkharo, 
restj garrnloas (F. J4t 18). AtUantike, too near 
(Mab. 64). Atieitalo, very cold (F. Jit. 57). 
AtUmndaro, very beandfnl (Alw. 1. 74). Atitaf^ho, 

very desirous (Ab. 729). Atitarupo, very young 

(Dh. 157). AtwitthdrUo, too ^fiuae (Mah. 1). 

Atioimhito, astounded. Atimstuto, renowned. 

Before a vowel ati in composition sometimes 

becomes aty, as in atyappo, bat generally oec, as 

in aoedraddho. 
ATIBAHU (a^'.)f Too much, too many, very nu- 
merous [irfif -f Hjr]. Dh. 174. 
ATIBALO {adj.). Very strong [^vf^T + W^f]- Mah. 

ATIBHAYATI, To be much afraid [^RfW + M^]* 

Mah. 78. 
ATIBHlTO (adf.). Much alarmed [lrf9!4- M^- 

^]. Mah. 17. 
ATICARATl, To transgress ; to commit adultery 

[^lft + ^]. Dh.205. ^ 

ATlCARl (adj.). Transgressing [ifftf^TPCl] • 

Fem. atiedrini, an adultress (Ab. 238 ; Dh. 371). 
ATICARIYA (/.), Adultery [^ifif + ^^]. 
ATICARO, Transgression, adultery [^rfTT^TT]* 

Dh. 371. 
ATICCHATHA (imperai. ^6nd pen. plnr.). This is 

the formula for civilly refusing alms to a bhikkhu. 

Mr. Trenckner refers the word to lRf7| + l[^» 

and renders it ** Go and beg farther on,* viz. Seek 

alms elsewhere. Dh. 241. 
ATICIBAYATI, To tarry long [^jft + f^TTTO]. 

Dh. 224. 
ATIDASSANO (adj.). Beyond ken, invisible [^rfH 

+ 1^^] . B. Lot. 515. 
ATIDHONACArI (a^\). This word is explained 

to mean " one who lives transgressing the Pacca- 

yasannissitasf la." The etymology of dhona is un« 

ATIDCRE (adv.). Very for, too far [irflT + ^ 

loc.] . Mah. 84. Nag^ard nitid^iraemim, not very 

far from a town (Ab. 536). 
ATIGACCH ATI, To overcome [lrf|| + 1|9^ . Aor. 

ATIGATO (p.p.p. last). Escaped from [^|fw + Wil 

= l|i^. Dh.428. 
ATIGO (adj.). Escaping from ; going beyond 

[^VflRf] • Pancaeangdtigo, escaped firom the five 

bonds (Dh. 66, 71). SUndtigo, versed in bounda- 
ries (Mah. 103). 
ATIHATTHAYATI, To cross on an elephant 

[^rfTTf^RT]- CI. Gr. Ill ; Alw. 1. 17. 
ATIKHI^O (<M&*.), Not harsh, gentle [^ + lA^Qf]. 

Ab. 1067. 




ATIKHlNO, The commentator renders edpdtikhind 
at Dh. verse 156 by '' shot from a bow," making 
atikhfftd a p.p.p. from f^ with '^tfjK, and under- 
standing sard. He says, ** As arrows shot from a 
bow flybg swiftly and falling to the ground, if 
there be none to picli: them up, become a prey to 
the white ant on the spot where they fell.'' Per- 
haps, however, the reading should be c<^ 'tikhffuif 
" worn out bows.** 

ATIKKAMANAJMf, Going beyond, passing [^rfH- 

inmrj- i>b. d4o. 

ATIKKAMATI, To escape from ; to go beyond, to 
pass, to cross ; to transg^ress ; to elapse ; to excel, 
to surpass [^HfTf + IR^* Sannqfanam sabbam 
atikkameyya^ let him free himself from all l>onds 
(Dh. 40). SekkhabMmim atikkamitvd, having 
passed the degree of S. (B. Lot. 297). Asankhey- 
yam atikkamitvd, passing over an Asankkheyya 
of years (Dh. 135). IndakhUam atikkameyya, 
should cross the threshold (P4t. 18). jinam atik' 
kamitum, to transgress his command (Dh. 142). 
Majjhimaydme atikkamante, while the middle 
watch was passing away (Dh. 83). Attha vassdni 
^tikkamufh, eight years elapsed (Mah. 15). Puthuj' 
jane atikkamitvd^ excelling ordinary men (Dh. 

ATIKKAMETI (catu. last). To go beyond, to ex- 
ceed [^rfirarriRrfn='li^]. Pat. 7. 10. 

ATIKKAMO, Passing away, transgression [^rf?|- 
1|[9!]. Ab. 776. Dukkhaisa atikkamo, the termi- 
nation of suffering (Dh. 35). Sattdhatikkame, 
after the lapse of a week (Mah. 119)- 

ATIKKANTO {p.p.p. atikkamati), PaAt; surpassing 
[^rf7f?irpfl = W(] • Pathamamdse atikkante, 
when the first month had elapsed (Dh. 81). Atik* 
kantamdnusako, superhuman (B. Lot. 866). Mah. 

ATIMAnI (adj.). Vainglorious, conceited [frfTf- 

ATIMAf^^ATI, To despise, to dislike ["HfTT + 

9P^. Dh. 66; Kb. 16. 
ATIMAPETI {cans.), To injure, to destroy [lRf?T + 

^rnRrfiT=^]. i>b.44. 

ATIMATTO {adj.). Exceeding, excessive [^i|f?f + 
Trnr] • Ab. 41. Attmattam (adv,), exceedingly. 

ATIMUTTAKO, Name of a tree [iMp l ljW^] . 
Ab. 555. 

ATIMUTTO, The creeper Gaertnera Racemosa 
[^ifif^]. Ab. 577. 

ATINAMETI (caui.). To cause to pass ; to let go 
by [^rfif + TRn»ftr= 'nQ. KdlathaHndmeuH, 
they spend the time (Dh. 227). 

ATINDRIYO (adj.), Beyond the reach of the senses 

[^rrftftrr]- Ab.716. 
ATIPATO (adv.). Very early [^rfif + HT^]. 
ATIPATO, Injuring, destruction; transgression 

[l^finmi]. Ab.776. 
ATIPPAGE (adv.). Too early [^rffl + 3|it] - Sandhi 

Kappa (rule 36) quotes Atippago kho tdva Sd^ 

vatthiyam pinddya earitwk, *'it is too early to 

b^ alms in Sdvatthi," and states that atippago is 

for atippage, 
ATIPPASATTHO (adj.). Very exceUent [^lfl|+ 

TnrW=:^]. Ab.918. 

ATIREKALABHO, Extra allowance [^rf?|^ + 
^rnr]. There is a general role that Buddhist 
monks are to dress in dirty rags, but flaxen or 
hempen garments, etc., are exceptions (atirekaU- 
bho). So again there is a rule that a monk b to 
live at the foot of a tree, but vihiras, etc, are 
exceptions. Kamm. 9. 

ATIREKATARO (adj.). More excessive, more 
abundant [^rf^f^ + ITC]. Dh. 308. Akkhhu 
atirekataram rujanti, my eyes hurt worse than 
ever (Dh. 89). 

ATIREKO (adj.). Exceeding, excessive [vOll^^]. 
lilam civaram atirekafh jdtam, this robe is now 
superfluous (Dh. 113). Atirekam ce hoti, if there 
is too much (Dh. 380). Pentapaf^f^dkdrato attre- 
kaih petUwh, to send a present surpassing that 
received (Alw. I. 75). Attrekadvaran^ an extra 
robe (Pdt 76). Atirekappamdfuim bhdioti, talks 
beyond measure (F. J4t.50). Attrekamdtam cird- 
yitvd, having tarried more than a month. Atire- 
kapddaih ddiyoH, takes more than a p^a 
(Kamm. 10). AtirekaviaaHvaggo, consisting of 
more than twenty priests (P&t. xl)^ 

ATIRITTAKO (aeff.). In excess, superfluous [^rfir- 
f?ni + H]. Mah. 49. 

ATIRITTO (P'P.p.), Exceeding, in excess, extra, 
superfluous [^rfTff^W = t^^ • -^.b. 712. Ana* 
tirittabhafanam appears to mean "fresh food": 
when a priest has eaten a meal at the house to 
which he has been invited he is not to begin again 
to eat fresh food, lit. ''food which is not the 
leavings of his meal*: Gogerly says, "food not 
part of the meal." Pit. xxxix, 14% 


( 65) 


ATIROCATI, To ontohine [irflf + T^] - Dh. 1 1 ; 

ATISAYAft, Very late in the e^ning [l|f?f + 

ATISAYO, Excess; excellence [iVfinEl^]. Ab. 

41, 761, 771- Instr. atisayena, exceedingly. 
ATISUNO, A mad dog [l|f?r + ^] . Ab. 519. 
ATISORATA (/.), Great heroism [irflf + ITT + 


ATlTAlffSO, Past time [infhT + ^]. B. Lot. 

649, e^. 

ATITHI (m.), A gaest, a stranger [^rfTTf^]- Ab. 

424 ; Kh. 13. 
ATITHOKO («&•.), Very little, too little [^rfif + 

ATlTO (p-p»p* acceti). Past, elapsed ; passed ; having 
transgressed [^||ft7r= \^» Atite tamhi »attdhe, 
when this weelc had passed (Mah. 114). Khaftd- 
Hid, those who allow the right moment to pass 
(Bh. 56). Sabbopamdtito, beyond all compari- 
son, incomparable (Kh. 23). Ekam dhammarh 
aiUo, having transgpressed a single commandment 
(Dh. 32). Loc. atite, formerly, once upon a time 
(F. J4t. 2, 21), in the past (B. Lot. 344). Neut 
mtdam, a tale or legend (F. Jit. 2, 21). 

ATITTO (a4;.), Unsated [^ + Tf^ = ^ . Dh. 9. 

ATlVA, and ATIVIYA (adv.). Very, exceedingly 
[infN]. Ab. 1138; Dh. 101; Kh. 27. Ativa 
dkmho, very fortunate (Mah. 200). Atimya gam- 
bhiro, exceedingly deep (Dh, 182). For the form 
ativiya comp. Viya. 

ATTVAKYAft, Bad language, abuse, opprobrious 
speech [irf?! + TTW]. Ab. 122; Dh. 67. 

ATIVASO {a^.). Subject to, in the power of [^Rf?| 
+ ^qnQ- I>h. 13. 

ATIVATTATI, To go beyond, to pass ; to over- 
come ; to transgress [lRf?f + ^] . Dh. 179, 320. 

ATI VELO (adj.). Unseasonable [ifffTT + iNiT] • F. 
iiX. 18. AHoelam {adv.), unseasonably (F. J6t. 49). 

ATIVI8A(/.),Nameofaplant [iVfirt^lIT]- Ab.586. 

ATIVIYA, see Ativa. 

ATIVUDDHO («&•.), Very old [ipfin-ljf = 

Y^* Ab.918. 
ATO {adv.). Hence; now; therefore; accordingly 

[mraG- a. Gr. 68 ; Kh. 21 ; Alw. I. xvi. 

Ato — yaio, because — therefore (Alw. I. vii). 
ATOJJAA, a musical instrument [ WftV = ^7] • 

Ab. 142. 

ATRA {adv.). Here [IT^]. Ab. 1155, 1161. See 
also Attha. 

ATRAJO, Offspring, son [^Hf^pv]. Ab. 210; F. 
J&t. 49 ; Mah. 15, 76, 228. Comp. Attajo. 

ATTA^ and ATUMA (m.), Self, body, person, in- 
dividuality; life, mind, soul; in a non-Buddhist 
sense the Param&tman or Universal Soul [HI4H*C] - 
Ab. 92, 861. Ace. attatii (Dh. 68 ; Has. 20), at- 
tdnaih (F. Jit. 18), dtumdnam. Instr. and abl. 
attand (Dh. 68). Oen. and dat. attano (Dh. 68 ; 
Alw. I. 76). Loc. attani (Ab. 808). Plur. attdno 
(CI. Gr. 21), dtumdno. Gen. and dat. plur. attd- 
nam, dtumdnam. Clough gives also the forms 
attena (instr. sing.), attasmd (abl.), atta9mith(}iic). 
— Ex. Attano sdmikassddd, bestowed it on her 
own husband (Mah. 253). Attano nyydne, in his 
own garden (F. Jit. 5). Ayam me attano attho, 
this is my own advantage. Attano attano visa^ 
yappadese, each within the limits of his own dis- 
trict (Alw. 1. 79). Attd hi kira duddamo, for self 
is difficult to tame (Dh. 29). Attano dsane yeva 
attdnam daueei, showed himself in his own seat. 
Attd hi attano n* atthi, he himself does not be- 
long to himself (Dh. 12). Rakkhitum eakam at* 
tdnam, to save his own life (Mah. 120). Sakattd-- 
nam eammanni, chose himself (Mah. 13). Apasei 
takam attdnam pakkhittatk Lohakumbhiyd, saw 
his own soul cast into hell (Mah. 17). Sucibhd" 
tena attand viharati, lives with a purified heart 
Fedand me attd, sensation constitutes my indi- 
viduality. Attd hi attano ndtho, for self is one's 
protector (Dh. 68). Attdnarh pariccajitvd, sacri- 
ficing my own life (F. Jit. 56). The histr. attand 
is sometimes used when we should expect the 
nominative, e.g. Attand attdnam tammanni, he 
himself (lit. by himself) chose himself (CI. Gr. 
134) ; Attand coday* attdnam, thyself rouse thy- 
self (Dh. 68); Attand marantd pi, even when 
themselves dying (Dh. 223). The base used in 
composition is atta or dtuma. Attadanto, self- 
subdued (Dh. 57). Attdhetu, for one's own sake 
(Dh. 15). Atumapddo, his own foot (Alw. I. xiii). 
Attasambhavo, proceeding from oneself. Atta- 
tamo, like oneself (F. Jit. 50). Attagutto, self- 
protected (Dh. 68). Attaldbho, one's own gain 
(Ab. 1168). See Atumd. 

ATTABHAvI {adj.). Having a body [iK^RrRr + 

ATTABHAVO, Person, self, individual, personality, 





body, form [^niT*( + mM] • Ab. 151 ; Man. B. 
439, 440; B. Lot. 411. DibbaUabhdvo, celestial 
shape (Has. 24). Aeehardsahassaparivdram at- 
tabhdvam olokettdy seeing himself sorronnded by 
a thousand nymphs (Dh. 94). Atiabhdvam iTt/o- 
hitvd, quitting his present form (Ras. 19). DuHye 
attabhdve, in your last existence before this (Mah. 
195). Anantarattadhdue, in her next existence 
(Dh. 402). Doltu attabhdvetu sllaua rakkkiiaiid, 
from having kept the precepts in two anterior 
births (Dh. 193). Attabhdvatk man^ayamdnd, 
adorning her person (Dh. 189). 

ATTADAiypO {adj.\ Usiog the stick or punish- 
ment ['^inT=13[T-f cp9]- Attadandeiu nib' 
buto, mild among the violent (Dh. 72). 

ATTADATTHO, One's own advantage or good 
[^l<W^ + "^V^i the d is euphonic] . Attadattham 
paratthena bahund pi na kdpaye^ let not a man 
forego his own spiritual good for that of another, 
however great (Dh. 30). CI. Gr. 11 ; Dh. 334. 
See also Attattho, 

ATTADHiNO (adj\). Independent [^niP( + 

ATTADHIPATEYYAA, see Adhipateyyam. 

ATTADUTIYO {adj.). With one companion [^. 
W^ + ft[tfN]- Dh. 146. 

ATTAHASO, a horse-laugh [^BffTO]. Ab. 175. 

ATTAJO {adj.). Proceeding from oneself; self- 
begotten [^)T9l^]. Dh. 29. Qom^. Atrajo. 

A7TAK0, Name of a Rishi. Ab. 109. 

AT7ALAK0, A watch tower [^TfTinV] • Ab. 204. 

ATTALO, A watch tower [HJTfl] • Oambhirapa- 
rikham pdkdraparikkhittam dvdraffdlayuttam, 
having a deep moat, surrounded with a wall, fitted 
with gates and towers (Dh. 201, comp. 397). 
Ab. 1126. 

ATTAMANATA (/.), Rapture, delight (see next). 
Ab. 87. 

ATTAMANO (adj.)^ RaipU delighted, joyful [^im 

=^+^nnCI- ^' ^^"^ ^» ^^» ^^- ^» 

Alw. I. 75. 
ATTANA, ATTANO, etc, see Aitd, 

ATTANIYO (adj\)t Belonging to oneself, own 

[^irar^+^]- Ab. 736, 808. 
ATTAJ^^C (adj.). Knowing oneself [^inni]- 
ATTANOPADAlil, A grammatical term meaning 
'' intransitive," and equivalent to the Sanskrit 
^t<M<IM<^' CI. Gr. 100 ; Alw. I. 2. 

ATTANTAPO (adf.\ Self-mortifying ['«imi(^+ 

ATTATO {adv.). According to the aitd or self 

['^m^Pl.+ ?f^* Rdpam attato $amanupai$aii, 
\ookB on Form as the soul (Alw. N. 72). 

ATTATTHO, One's own good, self interest [^- 
W^ + ^Ri] • See also Attadattho. 

ATTAVADO, Assertion of self or individoality 
[^1<il^ + TTT] • This is one of the four Up&- 
ddnas. Alabaster explains it by " the belief that 
I and mine exist" (Wheel of the Law, p. 239). 
For the Buddhist doctrine of the unreality of the 
Att& (Soul or Self) see Man. B. 388, 390, 396, 
424, etc ; Alw. N. 48; E. Mon. 289 ; B. Intr.264. 

ATTHA (2ne/ pera. plur, atthi). Ye are. Dh. 366. 
The initial a is sometimes elided, as nu *ttha = ss 
attha {¥. Jit. 8). 

ATTHA {adv.). Here [IR]. Ab. 1161. See also 

ATTHA {num.). Eight [l^fPO- ^^' ^^^f ^^• 
Oen. and dat. atthannam {Fit. 75 ; Dh. 311). 
Instr. and abl. af/AnAi. hoc affhaiu. AffhavitaH^ 
eight and twenty. 

ATTHACARIYA (/.), Wise or beneficial conduct 
[^A + H44l]* This is one of the four Sanga- 
havatthus ; Alwis renders it (Attanagaluvamsa 138) 
** fruitful conduct, acts productive of benefit, well- 
being in law." Alw. I. 81 ; B. Lot. 406. 

ATTHADASA {num.). Eighteen ['V7R[int]- 
Cl. Gr. 66. See also Atthdraga. 

ATTHADASSI (m.), Name of one of the twenty-four 
Buddhas [^ + ^f^«0- ^^- ^^7 ; Man. B. 95. 

ATTHADHA {adv.). Eightfold, hi eight ways 
[^reHT]. Ab.656. 

ATTHAGAMANAM, Setting (of the sun) ; de- 
struction [WQV![ + ^if^T^]- Ab. 896. Suriyan^ 
atthagamanarh, the going down of tiie sun. 

(of the sun) ; disappearance, perishing, destmo- 
tion, annihilation [^V^ + lfif]. 

ATTHAKAM, An octad, a collection of eight things 
[^TCTI]. Ab.479. 

ATTHAKARO {adj.). Beneficial, advantageous, 
useful [^ + ^ . P6t. 70. 

ATTHAKATHA (/.), Exposition of meaning, ex- 
planation, exegesis ; a commentary \yn + ^IWT] • 
B. Lot. 437; E. Mon. 171 $ Dh. 418; Mah. 207, 
261, 252, 253. The following is % list of tiM 
existing P^i Aftbakathds, or commentaries oo 




tfaB text of the TipitaJu : 8amaniapd$ddikd (oom- 
iiMiitary on the Vumya) ; KankhMtaraf^i (c. on 
Pitimokicha) ; 8wmamgalaM6tmi (c on Dighani- 
kiya) ; PrnpantrnMami (c on Majjjhimanikdya) ; 
8draithapp<M§iM{(c. on Samyuttanik^ya) ; Mano^ 
roikapArafd (c on AnguttaraniMya) ; Para$na' 
akmfoakd (c on KhnddakanildLya and Siittani- 
pita) ; Dhammt^padaffhakathd ; Paramatthadi- 
pami (c on Ud6aa, yiminavattha» Petavatthu, 
and Theragithi) ; Abhidhammatthad^MuU (c. on 
Itivnttaka) ; Jdtakaffhakaihd ; Saddkammapajjih- 
tUed (c on Niddeea) ; Saddhammappakdimi (c on 
FatiBambhidi) ; Fuuddhajanamlddni (c. on Apa- 
d£na) ; Madhuratihmnldtini (c. on Buddhavaihsa) ; 
Cariy^^nfakatthakaiki ; AtthaadUnl (c on Dham- 
maaangani) ; Sanunohamnodani (& on A^bhanga) ; 
PaHea^ptikarafMttkokaihd (c on the Fire Paka- 

ATTHAKKH AyI (a^.). Telling another what is for 
hbgood»giving good advice [^ + HH^ir^nJ* 

ATTHAft, Disappearance, destruction [^RT]. Ab. 
1154. Attham gncchati, or oHhangacchatij to 
set, to perish, to vanish (Dh. 41, 69, 365, 389, 
425). Atikameti, to set. See Attho (1). 

A'ITHAA (mfo.), For the salce or purpose of, on 
afioonat of, for [^rIv^. Dhamnuuavanattham 
gaeehamti, they go to hear the Law (Dh. 79). 
Jalmtthom gacehafUif they go to fetch water 
(Hah* 24). Cfuftnaitham vUstyjayi, sent him for 
the chunam (Mah. 219). Sanghakammaiiham 
bhamaBoHj it will be for the performance of sacer- 
dotal acts (Mah. 86). Patddatthani Dhammdto- 
luuia rdfmOf to please king D. (Mah. 35). Ta- 
drntthQikf on that account. KLmattham^ why? 
AtthaHham and hUatthafhy for the good of. 

ATTHAMETI, To set (of the sun) [^RR!( -h X\- 

ATTHAMITO (p.p4'. last), Set, gone down 
[^|^B9| + \Ji =s \] • Suriye muUthamite, before 
tanwt (Dh. 118, 319). 

ATTHAMO (ordatiM.), Eighth [ir8i!]. Mah. 10. 
Fern, afthamif the eighth day of a lunar half 
month (Mah. 249). 

ATTHAASO iadj.)y Octagonal [^fflJH; + ^]. 

ATTHAASU, see TitthaH. 

ATTHANA (/.), Request, begging [^j^hl]. 

ATTHANAlil, Wrong place [^ + WT^]- 

ATTH ANQACCH ATI, To set ; to perish, to vanish 
[IRPR + VLI- 8ee^«A«»(l). 

ATTHAlirGAM, Eight divisions or parts ; eight 

qualities [^Wt+^nT]' ^^' ^®^* -^ff^^f^^- 
tamvpdg'ato, possessed of eight divisions, eight- 
fold (Mah. 249;. Dh. 404). AtihangoMmannd^to, 
possessed of eight qualities (B. Lot. 566 ; Dh.314). 
ATTHANOAMO, see Atthagamo. 

ATTHANGASlLA A, The eightfold moral practice, 
the eight precepts [^IB'^ + ^I^ + ift^] • These 
are the first eight of the ten Sikkhdpadas. 

ATTHANGATO [p.p.p. atthangacehati). Set, dis- 
appeared [WQ9![ + ^T7f = Vm^ • A it hang-ate m- 
riye, when the sun had set (F. J&t. 46; Pdt. 13). 

ATTHANGIKO {adj\)y Having eight parts or divi- 
sions, eightfold [^V9^+ ^HF "^ T^] * l^he^W^o 
atthangiko maggo, or ''holy eightfold Path," is 
the way pointed out by Buddha for escape from 
the misery of existence (see Ariyasaecam). Briefly 
summed up it is A Virtuous Life. Its eight 
angas or divisions are sammdditthi, aamrndsau" 
kappo, sammdvdcdf sammdkammanto, sammd-dfivo, 
sammdvdydmo, tammdsati, samrndsarnddhi, *' right 
views, right thoughts, right speech, right actions, 
right living, right exertion, right recollection, right 
meditation." B. Lot. 519 ; Man. B. 498 ; Kb. 4 ; 
Dh. 35, 48, 388 ; Ab. 129. 

ATTHANGULO {adj\). Eight hiches long or thick 

[^ren.+ ^vpr]. Mah. i69. 

ATTHASGUPOSATHI (a4;.). Keeping the eight- 
fold Uposatha, viz. the Atthangasfla [^^V^T^ + 
^qifina + l^i^]. Mah. 230. 

ATTHAPADA]$I, and -DO, A chequered board for 
draughts, dice, etc [^TTR^] • Ab. 532 ; B. Lot 

ATTHARANAliir, A covering, a coverlet, a rug, a 
carpet [WRITW] • Ab, 312 ; Mah. 12, 87, 167 ; 
Alw. I. 93. Bhummattharatiamf a carpet. 

ATTHARAPETI {cau9, attharati), To cause to be 
spread. Mah. 12, 84, 87, 169, 213. 

ATTHARASA (num.). Eighteen [^Sl^tinJ- B. 

649; Mah. 256. Loc. atthdrasasu (Mah. 174; 

Alw. I. evil). See also Atthddasa. 
ATTHARASAMO (ard. num.). Eighteenth [^JCT- 

np^ -f it] . Mah. Ixxxvi. 
ATTHARATI, To spread, to lay out, to cover [l|f 

•f^]. Mah. 3; Dh.325; Pdt. 75. Attdnafh 

kalale attharitvd, stretching himself in the mud 

(Dh. 117). P.p.p. atthato. 
ATTHARO, Spreading [^TRTRj • P^ 75, 76, 1 14. 




ATTHASATTHAA, Ethics [^ + 1|T9I]. Ab. 

ATTHASO {adv.), According to the sense, accord- 
ing to the spirit as opposed to the letter [^R^ + 
inEC]. Kh.29. 

ATTHATO (adv.). According to the sense or mean- 
ing ; intelligently, sensibly [H^^4)J . Alw. I. cvii ; 
Dh. 90, 179, 365 ; Mah. 252. 

ATTHATO {p.p.p. attharaH), Spread, laid oat 
[^ + ^=]^]. P^t. 76, 76. 

ATTHATTHAft, For the good or advantage of 

ATTHAVAdI {adj.). Speaking sensibly or truth- 

ATTHAVIDHO {adj.). Eightfold [^re^+ ^IVT]. 

AITHAYA {adv.). For the good of; in order to, on 
account of, for the sake of, for [^I^TCT]. With 
gen. Tasg" atthdya, for his good (Mah. 231). 
Atthdya me bhawssati, it will be of use to me 
(Kb. 12). Atthdya hitdya sukhdya devamanund' 
nam, for the advantage, the welfare, the happi- 
ness of gods and men«, Buddhaasa atthdya jivitam 
pariccajdmi, for Buddha's sake I will lay down 
my life (Kuhn K. S. 28). Apanhdyamdnau^ 
atthdya rodanto, crying for something that does 
not exist (Dh. 96, comp. 129). Hitatthdya sukh' 
atthdya ca pdvdnam, for the welfare and happiness 
of men (Mah. 88). Ropanatthdya, for the pur- 
pose of sowing it (Mah. 87). Upavdnattheram 
unhodakatthdya pahini, sent Upavdna There for 
hot water (Dh. 434). Phaldphalatthdya vanath 
na pavUati, does not enter the forest to gather 
fruits (Dh. 155). Etadatthdya, on this account 
(Kb. 13). Kuhn K. S. 29 ; Mah. 103 ; Alw. 1. 76. 

ATT^^^A {adv.). On account of, by reason of 
[^f€| instr.]. Sabbarogdnam nivdsanatthdna- 
tthena roganidam, because it is the dwelling place 
of all diseases it is called nest of disease (Dh. 313). 
Dh. 90, 210, 311, 343, 383, 410. 

ATTHETI, To request [^]. CI. P. Verbs, 13. 

ATTHI, To be, to exist [^^]. The following is 
the conjugation : Present, 1. A»mi, amhi ; 2. an; 
3. atthi ; 4. asma, amha ; 5. attha ; 6. 9anti. 
Preterite, 1. Anm; 2. dn; 3. dn; 4. dHmha^ 5. 
dnttha; 6. dtum, dsimsu. Optative, '1, Assam; 
2. asaa ; 3. assa, nyd ; 4. assdma ; 5. assatha ; 6. 
assu, siyum. Imperative, 1. Asmi; 2. dhi\ 3. 
atthu ; 4. asma ; 5. attha ; 6. santu. Part, present 
Santo, samdno (see sep.). For some of these forms 

see Alw. I. 37, 39, 40.— Ex. Atthi paroloko, there 
is a future life. R^d ce atthi, if there is a king 
(Mah. 254). Anno buddho ndma »' atthi, there is 
no other Buddha (B. Lot. 366). Parihinam n* 
atthi, there has been nothing omitted (F. J4t 7). 
Tamdm samdgame dsum osiH bhikkhukoHyo, in 
that assembly there were eighty ko^is of priests 
(Mah. 35). Bhuttam atthi nu no, have I eaten 
anything (Mah. 158). Ativa dhahno so dti, he 
was very prosperous (Mah. 200). Aham ami 
dgato, I have come. Nikkhanf amha, we have 
come away (Dh. 161). Evam assu vacaniyd, they 
should be thus spoken to (Pdt. 100). Ce tumhe 
assatha dnandino, if ye were glad. Cattddlo ndma 
so siyd, he is probably a Ca^f^a (Mah. 24). Pos- 
session is frequently expressed by Atthi with the 
dative ; Kanitthabhdtd me atthi, I have a younger 
brother (Dh. 79) ; Santi te evaritpd dbddhd, have 
you got any such diseases as these? (Kamm. 4); 
Yassa mayi sineho atthi, he who has love for me 
(Dh. 333); Mama hinamam suvanftam attMy I 
have got gold and wrought gold (Pdt. 80) ; Paid' 
yato te mokkho n* atthi, you cannot escape by 
flight (Dh. 404). Atthi with the dative is some- 
times used in the sense of '* to think" (comp. the 
phrase et€ui ahosi) : iV' atthi paroloko ti iti ce me 
assa, if I thought there was a future life. The 
singular atthi is frequently used with a nomina- 
tive in the jdural: Puttd m' atthi, I have sons 
(Dh. 12). Sace pdnakd atthi, if there are insects 
(F. Jdt. 57). Ye keci pdf^abhdf atthi, whatever 
beings there be (Kb. 15). In some of the forms 
elision of the initial a sometimes takes place: 
patto *smi, I have obtained (Ras. 16) ; dgato 'mhi, 
I am come (Dh. 88; Has. 21) ; manussi 'mAt, I 
am a woman (Dh. 156) ; goto 'si, thou art gone 
(Dh. 97) ; nu *ttha s nu attha (F. J&t. 8) ; jdto 
'sim =jdto dsirh (Ras. 28) ; sadd *si *= sadd asL 
On the other hand, before some of the forms be- 
ginning with a, the final vowel {whether short or 
long) of the preceding word is frequently elided : 
tunh* assa = tut^hi assa (Kamm. 8) ; dgiti* attha 
;= dgatd attha (Dh. 235) ; nam' atthu ^^ name 
atthu (Kb. 22). 

ATTHI (n.), A bone ; a kernel or stone of a fruit ; 
a seed [lrf^]> Ab. 278; F. Jat. 12; Kb. 18. 
Kappdsatthi, a cotton seed (Dh. 301). Used of 
the stone of a mango (F. Jdt. 5). Dh. 27 ; F. Jdt. 16^ 

ATTHi {adj.). Desirous, wishing for [^rftlt]. 




8d$^m^jJotttnaithit aiudoas for the progperity of 
religion (Ifah. 10a). PdtavoHM, wishing for 
skill (Alw. I. vii). Atthi, a beggar (Ab. 740). 

ATTHIBHAVO, Being, existence [l|f%=^||^+ 
1||^]. Tasad atthibhdvath vd natthibhdvam vd 
Ma jdndnuh we Icnow not if she be alive or dead 
(Dh. 157). Tdya ianndya atthibhdvam jdnmdma^ 
by this sign we shall know we are there (Dh. 153). 

ATTHIKAM, A bone ; kernel, seed [^If^ + ^] • 
Ambatthikam^ mango-stone (Mah, 87) • 

ATTHIKO {adj.)y Connected with existence [^- 
t^fll]- Ye keel aithikavddam vadantif all who 
maintain the view that something exists. 

ATTHIKO (adf.), Desiroas of [irf^ + ^] . With 
instr. Ganthehi atthiko, wanting books. Seyyat" 
thikOf desiroas of final happiness (Alw. I. xvi). 
AtiMkd ga^hantUy let those who want them tak6 
them (Dh. 142). SdsanuJjotanatthikOf desirous of 
making religion prosper (Mah. 28). Mah. 24, 83, 
170, 250 ; P&t. 88. Atthiko, a pauper or beggar. 

ATrHIMli}jA(/.),Marrow[^rfl!r+^Rr9fT]- Kh.3. 
ATTHITA (/.), Being, enstenoe [i||f^=^l||^4. 

^]. Suriydlokassa atthitdyQf owing to there 

being daylight (Pdt. 1). 

ATTHITO (adj.), Not standing ; not staying [^ + 
f^|?f = ^TT] • Mah. Ixxxvi. 

ATTHITTA A, Existence [^Vf^ = ^IR^ + Iff] . 
Pdpaa^ atthittanatihittatk therath jmcchi, asked 
the thera if there was or was not gruilt (Mah. 41). 

ATTHO, Setting, disappearance, destruction; the 
western mountain behind which the sun sets 
[1^9]. Ab. 006, 785. 8ee Attham. 

ATTHO, ATTHO, and AfTO, Desire, want, need, 
oocarion ; cause, reason, purpose ; object, aim ; 
substance, object, thing; property, wealth; ad- 
vantage, gt>od, welfare; meaning, sense, signifi- 
cance [^]. Ab. 485, 785. With instr. Aggind 
wte aithot I want fire (F. Jit, 2). Mayhap hirah' 
nddM attho n*atihi, I do not want gold and such 
like treasures (Dh. 173, comp. 163). Atthe $amup' 
pamne, when occasion arises (Kb. 12). Atthamhi 
Jdiamki tukhd sahdyd, blessed are (Heuds in need 
(Db. 59). Taff aiihe boH mania santikam dga- 
eekdhiy if ever you are In trouble come to me (Has. 
81). JSim' atthenOf and ken* atthena, for what 
purpose, on what account (F. J&t. 10). UtiamaU 
ihom anuppatto, who has attained the highest end 
(Dh. 60). Attham hitvd piyaggdhi, forsaking the 
real aim of life and grasping at pleasure (Dh. 38). 

Itihaitho and iechitattho, desired object or aim 
(Ab. 727). Kin nu kho aham eamofuum Ootamafk 
puccheyyam ditfhadhamnUkam atiham vd »am» 
pardyikam vd, shall I question Buddha about tem- 
poral matters or spiritual, lit. things belong^ing to 
this world or to the next. Sakalatthasamavha' 
yadlpani, declaring the names of all things (Alw. 
I. ix.). Tarn attham pucchanto, inquiring about 
this matter (Dh. 434). So tam attham ddkkhi, 
he told him what was the matter (F. J&t. 12). 
Bhagavato etam attham droceyya$k, let me tell 
this thing to Buddha (Has. 83). Tam atthatk 
nivedayurh, they reported the circumstance (Mah. 
166). Tadattham dipanatthdya, to explain how 
this took place, lit. to relate the circumstances of 
this (Mah. 130). Etam atthavaMitk natvd, know- 
ing the force or significance of this thing (Dh. 51). 
Atthqfivitam, life and property (Ras. 63). Attho 
parihdyati, his substance is wasted. Atth^^Higamo, 
loss of property (Ab. 764). Sadattho, eakattho, 
attattho, attadattho, one's own good. Parattho, 
the good of others. Esanto cdpi attham, seeking 
also their welfare (Alw. I. 112). Atthatk karU' 
admtti anattham akari, thinking he would do a 
good action he has done a bad one (Dh. 88). 
Atthapadam, a profitable saying (Dh. 10). Attha* 
aamhito, beneficial. Atthakwtalo, skilled in seek- 
ing his own spiritual good (Kb. 15). Samdnattho 
synonymous. Samaayatthamhi, in the sense of 
doubt (Ab. 1158). Bhusatthe, in the sense of ex- 
cessive (Ab. 1162). OadraAhdnam rave attham 
kith jdndsi, do you know the meaning that lurks 
in the bray of asses (Mah. 250). Mahantam at" 
tham gahetvd titthati, possess vast significance 
(Dh. 179). Imasmim lake anmdito ndma natthtti 
attho, the meaning is that in this world no man 
escapes blame (Dh. 367), Tast^ attho, the mean- 
ing of it is as follows (Dh. 434). Atthabya^jana' 
sampanno, possessed of meaning and of letter (B. 
Lot. 330). Atthaih Id ndtho iara^m avoca na 
hyanjanam, for our Lord has declared salvation 
to be in the spirit and not in the letter (Kh. 21 ; 
comp. Dh. 123, and Alw. I. 63). Atthavaaena vd 
vyaf^anava$ena vd, according to the spirit or ac- 
cording to the letter (Alw. I. xxvili). Attho 
dhammo ca, appears sometimes to mean ** mean- 
ing and text of the Scriptures" (see Alw. I. 54, 
63, 66). But I think it may also mean *' things 
(phenomena) and doctrines," as in the phrase 


( 70) 


atthadhammdmuiatakOf ** temporal and spiritual 
oomiadlor'' (F. Jit 7). At Dh. v. 363 the oom- 
mentator evidently understands attha$k dkammon 
ea d^feti to mean ^^explains the meaning and the 
text," though In the first Instance he renders 
dhammam by desanddhammai^, which would ra- 
ther mean doctrines than text (see Bh. 90, line 2 
and foil.). At Alw. h IW RattoatihmhnajdndH 
raito dkammmh napoMoH Is translated, ''he who 
is actuated by lust Icnows not causes of things : 
pereeives not what is right." See Lotus 839. For 
the less common form Affha see Affhena and 
jifthakathd; Subhiiti quotes Dukkhana pifan' 
aftho semkhataftho mnidpatfho vipariudmattho, 
when aftho is the S. ^R^;. For the adverbial 
forms Atikam, Atthdya^ Affhena^ see separately. 
For Atio see separately. 

ATTHUy see Aithi, It may be used as an excla- 
mation, conveying the sense of reluctant acqui- 
escence, ''Let it be," "It cannot be helped" 
(Ab. 1151). 

ATTHUDDHARO, Exegesis, explanation [in} + 

^irnc]* Aiw. 1. 67. 

ATTO (p.p.p.). Thrown [lRr= l^jj. Ab. 744. 

ATTO, A watch tower [^]. Ab. 204, 1126. 

ATTO {adj.). Hurt, distressed, afflicted [ITTA], 
Ab. 1126. 

ATTO, A case, cause, lawsuit [^]. Ab. 1126. 
K&taftapar^fitamanuiad, some persons who had 
been defeated in a folse action at law (Dh. 220). 
Dubbinicchayam attath rnmccbinitffd, having 
settled a very difficult case. 

ATULO (adj.), Incomparable, admirable [^4- 
IJITT]- Dh. 41 ; Alw. L xHi. 

ATUAIA (m.), A rare form of Attd (which see). 
The nom. sing, dtumd, and plur. dium4mo irill be 
found under rules 138, 139 of Kacc&yana's N&ma 
Kappa. Comp. dtumapddot his own foot (Alw. I. 

ATURO (adj.), Ill, diseased; affected [W^]- 
Ab. 322; Dh. 27, 36. Rogdturo, diseased 
(Mah. 249). FafMrogdiuro, troubled with boils 
(Mah, 24). Sokdturo, afliicted (Mah. 12). 

ATYAPPO (atf^,), Very smaU [^rfTf + ^Wl]. 
Ab. 929. 

AVA {prep,). Away, off*; down [^^]. This is one 
of the twenty Upasaggas, and is much used in 
composition with verbs and their derivatives. It 
is very frequently In P61i contracted to o, e.g. 

otaraH ^ S. H^fl^Hl* In some cases, as oiw- 
bodho, the lull form only is found ; in others both 
forms are in use, as avadhi and odftt, avaidro and 
etdro ; but in the great minority of instances the 
p^p. a»a is in PiUI contracted to o. 

AVA-, For many words beginning thus see under 0-. 

AVABODHANAlfr, Instruction [ ^ q4tV |lf ] . 

AVABODHO, Full knowledge or understanding 

AVACA, see VaUi. 

AVACARATI, To go through, to traverse, to 
occupy, to make one's home [iTT + ^T]* . 

AVAOARO, Sphere, realm, home [m^^]. Kdmd- 
t>acaro, r4qtdvacaro, ardpdvacaro, the realm or 
world of Desire, of Form, and of Absence of 
Form (Man. B. 3), Rdpdvacarampdkaeittaihf 
thoughts which lead to birth in the world of Form 
(Man, B. 423). Kdmdvacaradeoaloko, a god- 
world belonging to the realm of Desire (Man. B.29). 
KdmdvaearakusaloM, meritorious works in the 
realm of Desire (Dh. 89). Atakkdvaearo dhammo^ 
doctrines not within the domain of thought, un- 
attainable by reasoning (Qog> £v. 6). Yogd' 
vacarakulaputto, a young man of family who lives 
In the practice of meditation (B. Lot. 354). jSaa/t- 
kdpaearo yeva kdtabbo, he should be kept close (or 
at home), viz. near the senior priests, or under 
the superintendence of his Upi^ihdya. The com- 
pounds kdmdvacaro, r^q^vacaro, ar^ipdcaeam are 
also used adjectively wilh the meaning of " belong- 
ing to the realm of Desire, of Form, of absence of 
Form," e.g. Akusald cetand kdmdvacard, sinful 
thoughts in the realm of Desire (Gog. Ev. 68). 
The word Avacara implies motion, action, lifo 
within certain limits or in a certain sphere. It 
partly coincides in meaning with (locara, but in 
the latter word the idea of motion or action is less 
prominent. I do not feel myself competent to 
decide whether Avacara is ever an adjective with 
the meaning of " having its sphere in," " X>elong- 
ing to.* Bumouf says that it is sometimes a noun 
and sometimes an adjective, but I think that in 
each of the examples he gives It may l>e treated as 
a noun, e.g. Antariksh&vacara might well be ren- 
dered " whose home or sphere is the sky." 

AVADARAISTAA, a spade or hoe [^RF^T^If]- 

Ab. 447. 
AVADHANAA, Attentu>n [mv|ir]. 


(71 ) 


AVADHARAIjTAA^ABcertaiDiiient; affirmation, env- 

pharis; restriction [ li^MI<<| ]> Ab. 1152, 1169. 
AVADHARETI (catw.)> To ascertain [^n + ^- 

<<|fi l = ^] . P.p.p. avadhdrito (Ab. 797). 
AVADHI (m.). Limit [^ITlfW]. Ab. 1082, 1193; 

Dh. 262. See also Odhu 
AVAQAN90, A protaberanoe on the cheelc (?) 

\^n + ^n9]- Naanagandakdrakaihbhunjissdmi 

Is expluned to mean, I will not staff out my cheeks 

by eating two monthfols at a time (Pit. 22 ; Pdt. 93 

adds " like a monkey "). 
AVAOAiyETI, To neglect, to disregard [^|1T + 

1|^]. P.p.p. mvaganito (Ab. 766). 
AVAGATO (P'P'P-)f Known, understood [^n^iRT = 

^^]. Ab.767. 
AVAOOO (adj.), Undassed [1R + ^ . This term 

b applied to those consonants which are not in the 

fiv« dasses (Gl. Or. 8). 
AVAH ANAlfr, Bringing [^ + ^ + ^R] • I»i- 

AyAHANAA, Getting a wife for a young man 

AYAHARAl^Alit, Taldng away, stealing [l^f- 

^^]. P6t06. 
AVAHARATI, To take away, to steal ; to draw 

down l^n + 1] • Dh. 100, 412. 
AVAHARO, Taking away [^mfT?;]- I>1>- ^3. 
AVAHATI, To bring [^ + ^f], Dh. 126, 198, 

AyAHO(ac^*.), Bringing, causing [^mf]- Sukhd- 

ffoko, bringing happiness (Dh. 7)- Mah. 263. 
AvAHO, Marriage [^IHITC]. Puttassa dvdha^ 

mumgaUak kartmtOf celebrating his son's wedding 

(Dh. 210). Dhitarmk dndhatthdya deti, gives 

her danghter in marriage (Mah. 49). 
AVAJAHATI, To leave, to abandtm \yn + fT]- 
AVAJAnATI, To despise [^r^+lVT]- Dh.294. 
AVAJATO Cp-P-pO» Base-born, bom of a mother 

lower in caste than her husband [^n+ WHf = 

V(]. Alw.l. 101. 
AVAJlYATI, and AYAJIYYATI (post.). To be 

conquered [^n + «fhn}= A]- Dh.33,342. 
AYAJJAA, BUme [^nW]. 
AYAJJANAA, Meditation [H+W^]- Dh.281, 

AYAJJATI, To reflect, to consider [^ + ^^« 

Dh. 340b 403. F. Jit. 63, 64. 
AYAJJSn (ooMt. last). To bend, to bdiae; to 

vpMl [^ + ^^can8.]. F. J&td. 

AYAJJHAYATI, To waste away, to perish [^ 

+ ^]. Dh. 322. 
AYAJJO (adj.). Not to be shunned, not forbidden, 

not wrong, harmless [^ + ^91$ = ^^. Dh. 56. 
AYAJJO (a(y.). Low, bad, inferior. Ab. 699. A 

rpikd says dvaditabbo ti dvajjo. 
AYAKAP9HATI, To drag down, to remove \yn 

AYAKAASO, Inferiority, abasement \yn + irf]. 

AYAKASO, see Okdw. 

AYAKKANTI (/.), Introduction, descending hito 

\yBn + 1R7^ + fif] . Qabbdvakkanti, conception, 

commencement of pregnancy. 
AYALAMBANAft, Han£^bg,depending from [^Pf- 

minr]. Ab.526. 

AYALEPO, Anointing ; pride [lV^%I|] . Ab. 1079. 

AYALI (/.), A row or range [^IW^]. Ab. 539. 

AYALITTO (p.p.p.). Smeared ['«^Tf^= ^^. 
At Pit. 70 ullitto and avalitto are explained to 
mean "plastered inside* and "plastered outside.** 

AYALOKETI, see OlokeH. 

AYAMANAA, Disrespect [^nHTPr]. Ab. 172. 

AYAMANETI (caw.). To despise [ ^< | 4HHIlfi l = 
WQ' P.p.p. aoaifMfntto (Ab. 756). 

AYAMSIRO (adj.). Head downwards, head fore- 
most [^WT^-f ftlT^]- Dh. 190; CI. Gr. 14. 

AYANADDHO, see Onaddho. 

AYANI (/.), The eartii [^rrfif]. Ab. 182. 

AYAii^^A (/.), Disrespect, contempt [HI)Hf], 

Ab. 172. 
AYAMATO (p.p.j9. amjdndH), Despised {yn* 

inn=Jft]' P6t.83. 
AYAfif^ITO (adj.). Despised. Ab. 756. 
AYANJJfO, Dispraise, blame, reproach [^ + ^R(]« 

Avap^vddo, blame (Ab. 120). Buddkaasa ooafi- 

tuif* bhdsaH, speaks evil of Buddha (B. Lot. 314, 

AYANTI (m. pi.). Name of a country and its people 

[infill]. Ab.184. ^ooM/iiw otAaro^ is living 

in the Avanti country (Alw. K. 92). 
AYANTIKO (a«y.), Belongfaig to the Avanti country 

['fWfilf -f H]. Mah. 16. 
AYAPURAIifAA, A key [i|i| + i(|i + ^4.^^11]. 

AYARANA]£|, Covering ; obstruction ; restraint, 

interdiction, prohibition [lim^lf]. Dh. 351; 

Ab. 1167. 
AYASANAA, see Oidnam. 


( 72) 


AVASANNO {P'p-P' oiidati). Depressed, languid 

[^WWre = ^^- Dh.383. 
AVASARATI, To go to [^n + «]. Yena Mithild 

tad avasarif went to Mithild. See Dh. 105. 

AVASARO, Opportunity, occasion; turn [H8|^'<|J. 
Ab. 770. 

AVASATHO, Dwelling-place, abode, house, dwell- 
ing [^IPilirir]- Ab. 206; Db. 185; P&t 14, 88, 
108. BhujagdvaaaihOf the N^a world (Alw. I. ix.). 

AVAS ATI, To dweU, to inhabit [^ + ip^] MUhU 
lath dvoiwh, dwelt at Mithild (Mah. 8). Mah. 17 ; 

AVASESETI (com.), To leave, to spare [^|^ + 

AVASESO, Remainder [1R^]. 

AVASESO {adj.\ Remaining [^n^]. Avasesd 
ta8anti, the rest are afraid (Dh. 296). Avasesatk 
Buddhavacanath, the rest of the word of Buddha. 

AvASIKO (adj,), Resident, in residence, living 
at home [^IT^TO + 1[1|] • jivdsiko bhikkhu, a 
resident priest, one staying at his own monastery 
(Dh. 88 ; Fit. 27). Avdnkavattmh, duties to be 
observed by a resident priest. 

AVASISSANAliil, Being left, remainder [^|^ + 
fir^+^R]. Ab. 167. 

AVASITO {P'P'P*\ Finished; determined, known, 
ascertained [^q^^RT = ^] . Ab. 963. 

AVASITTHO {p.p.p.). Remaining, left [^T^f^ 
= tl[^* Bahu avaiiffham^ much remains to 
be done (Dh. 323). Pit. 1. 

AVASO (adj.)f Unsubdued, independent ; powerless 
[^ + Wn]' Ab. 743 ; Mah. 10. 

AvASO, Residing, dwelling; a dwelling, a resi- 
dence; a monastery [^|^|^]. Ab. 206; Dh. 
13 ; Mah. 220 ; Pdt xl. 

AVASSAA(<m/9.), Certainly, surely [^HI^IIRI^]. Ab. 
1150. Awusaih yeva bhijjati, must inevitably 

AVASSAYO, Support, help, protection, refuge [ysn 
+ W9Rr]- Ra8.34; Mah. 195; Dh. 187,301,384. 

AVASSUTO (p.p.p.). Filled with desire, lustful 
{_^n + ^ + '^^= ^ : comp. dsavd]. Pit 94. 
Anavastuto, free from lust (Dh. 8). I have not 
found Avassuta in the sense of ''oozing, flowing," 
but Subhiiti quotes from a fikk avtusuto ti tinto 
kilinno; and at Dh. 201 anavauutacitto is ex- 
plained by rdgena atintaciUo, "having the mind 
unwetted by lust." 

AVA8U88ATI, To dry up [^m + ^] . CI. Gr. 13. 
AvATAKAlfil, A pit (see Avdto). Mah. 129. 

AVATA ASO, A crest ; an earring [Mmre] . Ab.870. 
AVATARO, AVATARATI etc., see Otdro etc 
AVATI, To protect [U^]. CI. P. Verbs, 18. 
AVATINli^O, see OtipfM. 

AVATO (P'P.p* dvufuiti). Covered, enveloped, 
shrouded [^irn=v]. Alw. N. 98. Andvapuh 

ndfMdastanathf unlimited insight. 
AvA^O, A hole in the ground, a pit [comp. ^Rf^J* 

Ab. 650, 931, 1125 ; Ras. 35 ; Dh. 191, 299. 
AVATTABBATA (/.), Ineffability [^ + ^IPV= 

^^+?n]. Dh.362. 
AVATTATI, To turn ; to return [^ + ^f'O- ^*** 

404. dvattamdno (B. Lot. 864). Ger. dvat* 

titvd (Mah. 250). 
AVATTATO {adv.). In circumference [W^ + 

71^] . Dh. 348. 
AVATTHA (/.), State, condition; time, period 

[^WWT]. Ab.ll27. 
AVATTHANAJSI, Standing-place; state; abiding 

AVATTHAPANAA, Fixing, settling [■l iqH I IMH] . 

AVATTHARATI, see OttharaH. 

AVATTHITI (/.), Abiding, steadiness [iwfillfif]. 
Ab. 1172. 

AVATTHITO (p.p.p.). Abiding, steady, firm [m^ 
flUnf = ^TT]* Anavatfhito, unsteady (Dh. 7). 

AVATTHO (a^\). Naked [^ + ^f^] . Ab. 734. 

AVATTI (adj.). Returning [Wq|fi|iC|. 

AVA'IT^, Turning ; a whirlpool ; circuit, circum- 
ference [IVTBT^]. Ab. 660 ; Mah. 213. Dakkhi- 
ndvatto, toming to the right. 

AVAYAVO, A limb, a member; a part [^n^n]. 
Ab. 278 ; Mah. 180. 

AVECCA, This is a gerund frt>m ^ li^th ^|lf, and 
appears to be used adverbially, but with what exact 
meaning I do not know, perhaps ** intelligently," 
"clearly," '* wisely." I leave it untranslated in 
the following quotations. Vydkaraf^ank avecea 
adhite H veyydkarafto, one who reads grammar 
is a grammarian (CI. Gr. 92). Ariyasaccdni 
avecca pauati, beholds the four great truths 
(Kb. 8). Buddhe aveccappaaddena 9amanndgato 
hoHy is endowed with faith In Buddha. Aham 
pana Buddhoidtane aveceappatannaisa kuUuia 
dhitdy I am the daughter of a family that has ftutfa 
in the religion of Buddha (Dh. 244). 


( 73) 


AVEKKH ATI, To look down apon ; to look at ; to 
consider ; to perceive ; to foresee ; to contemplate 
[^l^ + l^]- jiniceatam avekkhatef contem« 
plates impermanenoe (Mah. 10). Sdsanagaa pa- 
HttJtdnmk paccanteiu avekkhiya, foreseeing the 
cstaliUshment of religion in foreign countries 
(Mah. 71). Dh. 6, 10, 31 ; Mah. 132. 

AVEfiA (/.), A garland worn on the crown of the 
head. Ah. 308. 

AVEiyiKO (adj.). Free from contact, detached, in- 
dependent [^ + ^flf + '^], The atthdrasa dee- 
ftikd dkammd, or " eighteen independent states,* 
are explained at B. Lot 648 and foU. Eitel says 
they are " the distinguishing marks of a Buddha, 
who is detached from the imperfections which 
attach to the majority of mankind." 

AVERAA, FriendUness, mildness, kindness [^ + 
%^. Dh.2. 

AVERI (adj,)f Free from hatred, mild, peaceable 

[^+^f^. Dh.36,46. 

AVERO (adj.). Peaceable [^ + ^]. 

AVESANAft, A workshop; a dwelling; fury; 
entrance [irf%inf]- Ab. 212, 906. 

AVESIKO {adf.)f Entering, arriving, adventitious 
[^n^ + 1['l]- -<#w«A», a guest (Ab. 424). 

AVHA (/.), Name, appellation [^TIXT]- Ab. 114. 
TMpavhet in that which bears the name of Thdpa, 
viz. the Tbikp&r^a (Mah. 216). Buddkappi" 
ymfho yaHf the priest named Buddhappiya (Alw. 

I. XV). 

AVHANAA, CalUug, addressfaig [^11X1^]- Ab. 

AVHAYANAA, Invocation, summons [^|Jli|^]* 

AVHAYO, Name; calling, invocation [^ITm]* 
Ab. 114, 1111. MedaAkaravhayamahdyaHf the 
eminent elder named Medankara (Alw. I. xiii). 
KufutmWeo Dhdhuenanhayo, a landed proprietor 
named Dh&tusena (Mah. 264). Kkuddikd Kaku- 
dkavkojfd tfdpi, the lesser Kakudha tank (Mah. 88). 
UpMoikavht^ef in that which bears the name of 
Upoaalba, viz. the Uposatha hall (Mah. 216). 
Sirivhajfo, invocation of Siri. 

AVI (at.). A ram, a sheep [^rf^]- . Ab. 601. 

A VI (adv,)f Manifestiy^ In full view, close before the 
eyes [mf^nO* Ab. 1149, 1167. Jvim va yd- 
dhd rako, openly or in secret (Dh. 404). Com- 
pounded with the verbs bhawtti and karoH and 
their derivatives (see below). In Sangiti S. I find 
dvi cVvo rako ea^ 

AVIBHAVATI^ To become visible or manifest, to 
appear, to be evident [^iRm^H- ^]* Fut. dvi' 
bhauUaaH (F. Jit. 16 ; Dh. 267 ; Has. 7). 

AVIBHAVO, Appearance, manifestation [^ff^^l^ 

AViCI (m.). Name of one of the eight Narakas or 
heUs [^ + ^Ftf^] . Man. B. 26. Ab. 667 gives 
Avici (/em.), but the Sansk. equivalent is masc., 
and at Dh. 148, 340, we have the loc. avicimhL 

AVIDDASU (aty.). Ignorant (see Fiddagu). Dh. 

AVIDDHO (p./>.p.)» Thrown [^|ff?ff = 1811^ . 

Ab. 744. 
AVIDCRO (adj.). Not very far, near [^ + f^ + 

7^] . Ab. 706. Loc. avidinre, avid^ramhi, near. 

With gen. Lenaua avidAramhi, not far from the 

cave (Mah. 167). With abl. Tato avid^e, not far 

from that place (Dh. 166). F. J&t. 6 ; Kb. 16 ; 

Ras. 20, 22, 66. 
AVIOGAHO, The god of love [^ 4- t^Rff ] • Ab. 42. 
AVIHI]$[SA (/.), Mercy, humanity [^ + fir + 

AVIHO (a^'.). The Avihd devd are the inhabitanU 
of the twelfth Brahmaloka (B. Intr. 614 ; Man. B. 
26, 29). The meaning of Aviha is uncertain, 
perhaps ** making no effort," or " not thinking.** 
The S. equivalent is HR[Y* Avihesu nibbattitvd, 
having been bom in the Av^lha heaven, lit. among 
the Avrihas (Dh. 362). 

AVIJJA (/.), Ignorance, error [^ + f^UTT]- Ab. 

168, 1087 ; B. Intr. 473, 486, 488, 606, 607, 638 ; 

B. Lot. 823 ; Man. B. 392, 413, 432, 436, 496 ; 

E. Mon. 290, 296, 302. Avijjd is one of the Asavas, 

of the Oghas, of the Yogas, etc. 
AVIJJAMANO (adj.). Not existing, non-existent 

[^ + t'WrR = f^T^]- 

AVIKAROTI, To make manifest, to show, to ex- 
plain [111^1^+ V]. 1st pers. pres. dvikaronU 
(Kuhn K. 8. 29 ; Gi. Or. 137). P. pr. dmkaranto 
(Dh. 344). Oer. doikatvd (Mah. 206). Att. 196 
has p.p.p. dvikato with long i. 

AVIKATTA (m.). One who manifests [^rrPrat+ 

AVIKKHEPO,Equanimity,calmnesB [fJH- ft%q]. 

Ab. 166 ; B. Lot. 619. 
AVILAMBITO (a^f.). Speedy [«fqiiril|fl = 

Wrni]. Ab.40. 
AVILb(a4;.)> Turbid; stained ; agitated [iVTf^]- 





Ab. 069, 1106. AndvUoj pare, serene. Hatdnatik 
lohitdffilo, stained with the blood of the slain 
(Mah. 154). Dh. 105. 

AVINAYO, Wrong or false Yinaya; miscondact, 
sin [^ + f^PRf] • AmnayavddinOf followers of a 
false Yinaya (Mah. 234). Att 192. 

AYIMAJVAKO (adj.). Without inteUigenoe or 
consciousness, inanimate [^ + f^TUT^] - ^^* K* 
75. AvihndvMkafh dhanam, personal and landed 
property as opposed to live stock (Dh. 79). 

AYlMO (adj.). Ignorant, foolish, stupid [l| + 

t^]. Ab.72L 
AYIRATO (o<(/.)* Uninterrupted,conthiual [lif^T^ 

= "^1^^. Ab. 41. 
AYIRUDDHO (oiff.), Not contrary ; unobstructed, 

without difficulties, certain, absolute [^rf^T^ = 

1|;<(^. Ab. 698. 

AYIROLHO («(/.), Not grown [^ + ftn^ = 
^] . Avir^fhapakkho, unfledged (F. Jit. 49). 

AYISATI, To approach, to enter [^ + fini[]. 

Mah. 175; P&t. 119. 
AYISESENA (adv.% Not specially, generally [^ + 

f^^]. Pdtxl. 
AYITATHO (adj\), True [^ + fir + n^]. Ab. 

127. Neut. avitathani, truth (Ditto). 

AYITO, Guarded, protected. Ab. 754 (both MBS. 

read a-). 
AYOCA, see FattL 
AYUDHAA,and AYUDHAA.Aweapon [WT^]- 

Jvudham (Ab. 18, 44 ; F. Jit. 5, 15 ; Dh. 8, 202). 

Jyudham (Ab. 49 ; Ras. 20 ; Gl. Gr. 45 ; Mah. 

04, 152). Sangiti Sutta mentions three Avudhas, 

iutdfmdham, pavivekdvudkam, pamdvudham, 
AYU^ATI, and -lyOTI, To cover, to inclose ; to 

put a string through, to string [^ + ^] • Alw. I. 

20 ; F. J4t. 53. P.p.p. dvato, dvuto. 

AYUSO (indecL), Friend ! Sir I Brother ! This ad- 
dress is used by senior priests in speaking to priests 
of equal or inferior standing (Q. Gr. 70). Used 
in speaking to several persons : Em nu kho dmuo 
karissdma, brethren, what shall we do ? (Dh. 333). 
Used by priests to Updsakas or lay devotees 
(Dh. 105). By a priest to another priest (Dh. 103 ; 
Pat. 15). By an Acariya to his pupil (Pdt. xvi). 

AYUTO (p.p.p.), Covered, hedged, inclosed, sur- 
rounded ; strung [irTn= «]. Ab. 372, 746. 

AYYAKATO, and ABYAKATO (adj.). Undefined, 
unexplained [^RTTVIf^ V]* As an epithet of 

I Kamma it means ^'indefinite," ''neitber good nor 
bad." Man. B. 445. 
AYYApADO, and ABY-, Absence of desire to 
injure another person, absence of malice [^ + 

AYYAPAJJHO, and ABY.(a4;.), Free from sdrer- 
ing. This singular form is no doubt due to a oon« 
fusion between the roots ITHf^ and Xf^; its mean- 
ing shows that it represents a Sanskrit form ^iP^T- 
lfP9f' H^eat, avy^^Jf hath 'Sirvia^R (Ah, B). Alw. 
N. 135. 

AYYAPANNO (adj.), Free from desire to injure, 
free from malice [H^IMfl^IlT]- 

AYYASEKO (a^'.)f Charming, fascinating [^ + 
fir + ^ + t^]- Ab.697. 

AYYAYIBHAYO, Indeclinable compound, a gram- 
matical term [^c^lH^I^]* CI. €h*. 86. 

AYYAYENA (adv.), Without loss, safely [l| + 

AYYAYO (a^\). Unchangeable [^ + ts^']. Neat. 
amfayam, an indeclinable word, particle, adverb 
(Ab. p. 171, 181, V. 826, 957). 

AyACANAA, Request [^H-^TP^+^m]. Ab. 
790; P&t69. 

AyACATI, To ask, to request [i^T + VJ^J- With 
two ace. Aydcmm abhayash Jinatk, they asked 
Buddha for safety (Mah. 3). P.p.p. -^^feito, re- 

AYAft (prwi.). This [^RR = 1[^^. CI. Gr. 3a 
The following is the declension: Masc aytuk; 
ace. imam (Dh. 31) ; instr. auena, imind (Mah. 24 ; 
Dh. 808) ; gen. and dat ana, imasta (Dh. 288^ 
329) ; abl. a$md, imannd, imamhd (Dh. 39) ; loc 
asmim, imamtim, imamhi (Dh. 39, 199). Fern. 
apam (Dh. 64) ; aoc imaH^ (Dh. 304) ; instr. and 
abl. im^a; gen. and dat. aud, osMfyo, imU9$d, 
imasadya, imdya (Dh. 240, 315, 329) ; loc. omom, 
imiuanh, imdyank. Neut idarii (Dh. 66); ace 
idam, imam (Dh. 8, 247) ; rest like masc Flnr. 
masc nom. and ace. ime (Dh. 366) ; instr. and abL 
eJU, ime hi ; gen. and dat. esam, e$dnam, imeaam, 
imesdnath (Dh. 241) ; loc. em, imeeu (Dh. 306). 
Plur. fem. nom. and ace. imd, imdyo (Mah.lzzxviii ; 
Dh. 352); instr. and abl. imdhi; gen. and dat 
imdsam, imdgdnam ; loc. imdsu* Plur. neut. imdm 
(Dh. 27); rest like masc. — ^Ayam may be used 
either adjectively or substantively: Ay am vejjo, 
this physician (Dh. 89) ; Aymk iimrd pajd, this 




other folk (Dh. 19) ; A^fun ca oyoft ea dcdro^ such 
and sneli oonduct (Dh. 239) ; Mmim hke, in this 
wofld (Dh« 31) ; Idam maykiuh mdiu dethOf give 
thU to my mother (Dh. 2ip); Ime munstamH, 
tboM people will perish (Dh. 3S3) ; KoBt" imd»i, 
wlioee are these things ? (Dh. 392) ; Aitd dMccari" 
iatk, her nuseondiict (Dh. 371)* The initial a of 
Ayam is frequently elided or absorbed by sandhi : 
an^lflio 'yam (Dh* C3), mtedyam = taee ay am (Dh. 
329), apaM»uidyaini:=: appasstUo ayam (Dh, 28), 
iabrdyatk ^ taira mfaih (Dh. ^)t mydyath = me 
myam* The base nsed in composition is idam^ aa 
Idattayam, these three (Ab. 100). Idamaithe, in 
the sense of " this" (Ab. 1186). 

AYAM, Iron (see Ayo), 

AYAMATI, To draw, to stretch, to extend [^ + 
TQT^. P.p.p. dyaio, 

AyAMATO (adv.). In length [^TTTR + Tfit.]. 

AyAMO, Length [^TRTTR], Ab. 295. Safthiyo- 
jamdydmo, sixty yojanas long (Dh. 16). Aydmena, 
in length (Kb. 20). 

AYANAA, a road ; going, motion [^TOT^] • Ab. 191, 
1101. Uttardyanaitk, the half year in which the 
son Is north of the equator (Ab. 81). Dakkhipi' 
yoMotk, the half year in which the sun is south of 
the equator (Ab. 80). Mah. 251. 

AYASMA {adj.). Old, venerable [m<jm< W]. Gl. 
Gr. 94. Used, either adjectively or absolutely, as 
a respectful appellation of a Buddhist priest of 
some standing (E. Mon. 11). Junior priests are 
directed to address senior priests by this titie. So 
M dyoBmdf for this venerable man (Dh. 254, said 
of the Thera Qodhika). Fa«f' dyamato khamati, 
any priest who agrees to this (Kamm. 7). Ay at' 
md 2tsfo, the venerable Tissa (Kamm. 5). UddU 
ffkam kho dyatmanto niddnamf reverend brethren, 
the introduction has been read (Pit. 2). 

AYA80, m reputation, disgrace [H + ^TIl^]* 
See Taw. 

AYASO (aty.). Made of iron [l^T^re] • ^^' ^^S. 

AYATANAfi, Place, dwelling-place, abode, home, 
seat, rendezvous, haunt, receptacle, mine ; altar, 
shriae i place of ori^, source, fount, cause, 
origin [^n^niW]. Ab. 207, 801. TakkJuMa 
rmmmtdyyaffkdne dyatmnam kdretvd, having made 
a liome for the yaksha in a pleasant place (Dh. 
806). Ragdmuih dyatamathf hotbed of diseases. 
In the Buddhist metaphysical system the twelve 
Ayatanas are the six Organs of Sense and the six 

Objects of Sense. The former are called Cka 
Ajjhattikdni Ayatandni (or SaldytUatunh) "six 
internal senses or properties," and are as foUows : 
cakkhdyatana^f Mtdyatanaak, ghdndyatanatkfjiv' 
kdyatanam, kdydyatanath, mandyatanaik^ ''the 
eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the body (viz., the 
faculty of touch or feel), and the mind.'* The 
Cka Bdhirdni Ayatai^ni, " six external senses or 
properties,'' are H^dyatanaih, iadddyaianaihy gaa^ 
dhdyatanamt raMdyatanam, phofthabbdyatanamt 
dhammfyatanam, "form, sound, odour, taste, con- 
tact, and ideas" (B. Intr. 500, 501, 635 ; Man. B. 
403, 452). The ten Ay atanas are cakkhdyatanaikf 
ripdyaianamt iotdyatanathj tadddyaianamf ghd- 
ndyaianamf gandhdyutanaiih,j%vhdyaianaaht road' 
yatanam, kdydyatanam, phofthabbdyatana^ 

AYATI,Togo[lRrJ. CI. P. Verbs, 9. 

AYATI (/.), Futurity, the future ; length ; majesty 
[^ITRT^]* Ab. 86, 875 ; Mah. 8. Ayatibkavo, 
a foture birth (Dh. 148). The ace. ^atim seems 
to be used adverbially in the sense of " in future." 
AyaH is said also to be an adverb (Q. Or. 75). 

AyATI, To go ; to approach (with ace.) ; to return 
[^ + 1|X]« Imper. dydtu (Mah. 92). Aor. 
dydsi (Mah. 156). Andyantesu sabbesu, when all 
failed to return (Mah 48). No ee hattham mam* 
dydtiy\![ he does not fall into my hands (Mah. 246). 
Kuhn K. S. 23. 

AYATIKO {adj.). Future ^TRrfH + 1] • Kb. 10. 

AYATO (p.p.p. dyamati), Long [^17^71= ^Enill- 
Ab. 707 ; Pit. 11 ; B. Lot. 573, 589. Tiyojandyato, 
three yojanas long (Mah. 3). 

AYATTATA (/.), Dependence [^ITRni + TTT]- 

Ab. 898. 
AYATTO (P'P'P»)f Dependent, belonging to [^- 

T^f = VJQ' Ab. 728, 870 ; Mah. 23. 
AYO (m. and n.), and AYAM, Iron [^HT^] • Ab. 

493; a. Or. 47. Abl. ayaad (Dh. 43), ayato 

(Dh. 370). Ayokammaikf iron work (Mah. 152). 

Ayodvdram, iron gate (Ditto), 

AYO, Oain ; revenue; coming in, entrance [^VT^]> 
Ab. 356. Ayasddhako dyuttako, the tax-gatherer 
(Dh. 390). Udakast* dyamukham, channel for the 
water to enter by (into a lake). Aydpdyo, gain 
and loss. 

AYODHANAA, Battie [^n^ftlillf]. Ab. 399. 

AYOOOO, An iron-tipped pestie for husking paddy 
[^RPBl-f^W]. Ab.465. 



(76 ) 


AYOGHANO, A sledge-hammer [^ra^+^RT]. 
Ab. 526, 828. 

AYOGO, Wrong occupation, sinfol practice ; wrong 
occupation of the mind [^ + ^ft^]* ^^' ^» 
60, 187. 

AYO€K), Occupation [m|^J|]. Adhidtte dyogo^ 
dwelling on lofty thoughts (Dh. 34). 

AYOOULO, An iron baU [l^cftTi]. Mah. 152; 
Dh. 54. 

AYOMAYO (adj.), Made of iron ["91^^+^. 
Ab. 093. 

AYONISO, see Yoniso. 

AYU (n.). Life [^IT^]- Ab. 155. Finmfo ndma 
Buddhassa tdsanagsa 6yu, Vinaya is the life of 
Buddha's religion. Ayupariyotdne, when he died. 
(Ras. 36). Ayu va9»a9ata$ahas$am ahoHj he lived 
a hundred thousand years (Dh. 131). Instr. dyund 
(Dh. 288). Gen. dyuita (Mah.220),<^fio (Dh.l28). 

AYUDHAM, see Avudham, 

AYUKO {adj.\ Living [^irT^+ 1]. Dighdyuko, 
long-lived (Alw. I. 108). Kappdtfuko, whose life 
was a kalpa long (Mah. 27). Cattdlistuahtusdyuko, 
forty thousand years old (Dh. 129). Mah. 8. 

AYUSAlir, Duration of Ufe [^TT^]* Ab. dywdy 
during life, as long as life lasts (Kb. 16). 

AYUTO (p.p-p.). Endowed, furnished with [^TT^ 
= g]. Ras. 27. 

AYUITTAKO, An agent, manager, superintendent 
[^rr^ + ^] - Alw. I. 101 ; Dh. 128, 300. 

AYUTTO (adj.), Improper, wrong [^ + ^= 
^[^J. Dh. 107, 115, 305. 

AYUTTO, An agent, trustee, manager [^l^n^ 
ypQ' Mah. 59. 

AYYAKO, A grandfather; an ancestor ['^TRn]. 
Ab. 247; Ras. 72; Mah. 161. At Mah. 64 it 
means a maternal great unde. At Mah. 105 it is 
translated by Tumour, " the head of your family .* 
Fem. ayyakd, grandmother (Ab. 245), the 47th rule 
of Kaccayana's Ndma Kappa gives also ayyakdnL 
See also Ariyako, 

AYYO, A lord, chief, master; a Buddhist priest 
['^^TTEfJ. Ab. 725; Alw. I. xlv, lix. Dhammik- 
ayye khamdpaya, make amends to the orthodox 
priests (Mah. 18). Ayyaua no dinnd, we gave 
them to the Master, viz. Ananda (Dh. 174). It is 
used in addressing Buddhist priests, sometimes in 
conjunction with Bhante : Ayyassa kira akkhi vdto 
vijjhati, I hear the wind hurts your reverence's 
eyes (Dh. 82) ; Kim pana bhante ayyo imasmith 

fhdne ekako vasati, pray does your reverence live 
here alone ? (Dh. 153) ; Bhante kuhim ayydgaeek^ 
anti, lords, whither are ye going ? (Dh 81). Voc 
ayya, sir I my lord ! (Dh. 155). Voc fem. ayyd 
and ayye, madam I my lady 1 (Dh. 155, 169, 140^ 
where I think the reading should be ayye), Dh. 
87, 113, 154 ; P&t. 88. See also Ariyo. 


BABB A JO, A sort of coarse gprass [^^T^ni] - B. Lot. 

534 ; Gl. Gr. 84. 
BABBU (m.), A mungoose or ichneumon ; a cat 

[^]. Ab. 615, 1080. 

BADARA (/.), Cotton [ir^TT]- Ab. 589. 

BADARl (/.), The jujube tree [ ^^0] - Ab. 558. 

BADARO, The jujube fruit [^Sf;^]. Ab. 559. 

BADDHAlfr, A leathern thong or strap [^]. 

BADDHO (p.p.p* bandhati)j Bound; fixed; con- 
tinuous ; acquired, contracted [Wf = '^^^J • Ab. 
747 ; Dh. 57. Katthabaddham, a bundle of sticks 
(Dh. 202). Tayo mdte na nipajjiisdmtti te md" 
nasam baddhark, your mind is made up that you 
will not lie down for three months (Dh.82). Slmd^a 
baddhdya, when the boundary is fixed or conse- 
crated (Mah. 98). Baddhavero, one by whom 
hatred has been contracted, enraged, full of hatred 
(Mah. 259). Baddhaveram, hate, anger (Ab. 165, 
comp. Dh, 203). Sataemd baddho, bound in the 
sum of a hundred pieces (Gl. Gr. 142; perhaps 
'* imprisoned for a sum of 100 pieces," see Kuhn 
K. S. 26). Baddhardvam ravi, uttered oontinn- 
oiis cries. 

BADH A (/.), Annoyance, aflUction ; refutation, con- 
tradiction [^rrar]- Ab. 1097. 

BADHATI, To obstruct, to annoy, to afflict, to op- 
press [ifj^]. Dh.91. Caas. bddheti. Bhikkhnssa 
vdtdbddho bddheti, rheumatism troubles the priest. 
P.p.p. bddhito. Saw bddhito, the hunted hare (Dh. 
61, or perhaps ''the snared hare," from babh, 
see under bandh in Benfey's Diet.). 

BADHIRO (adj.). Deaf [irf%r<] . Ab.322 ; Dh. 217. 
BAH A (/.), The arm [WTfT] • Ab. 265 ; B. Lot. 306. 
BAHALATO (adv.). In thickness [^V^ + lf^]. 

AffhangtUo bahiUato, eight inches in tliickness 

(Mah. 169). 
BAH ALO (a^f.). Thick [^TVi] . Dh. 86 ; Alw. 1. 76. 

Caturqngulabahalo, four inches thick (Mah. 211). 

BAHATI, and BAHETI, To remove, to pot away. 


( V7) 


to reject [^Tf]- Ger. bdhUvd (Dh. 379), bdhetvd 
(Dh. 47). P.p.p. bdhito (Dh. 69). 

BAHI» and BAHiA (adv.), Ootwards, outside, out, 
tmt of doon [^1f^]. Ab. 1153. Bahi dlinde 
wipiiQj^ipedt laid him down outside the house in 
the verandah (Dh. 94). BdlnkammaniOy out of 
door work. NaroBatam bahi, a hundred men out- 
aide (Mah. 66). J^a^tfli khipati, throws outside 
(Mah. 137). Bahi gantum, to go out (Dh. 169). 
Bahigamaiiuakj going out of doors (Dh. 290). 
Bakigato, gone out (Dh. 300). Bahikarai^am, 
potting outside, removing, expelling (P&t. 2). Bo- 
kUUto, plastered outside (P&t. 70). Bahi thito, 
standing outside (Dh. 159). Bahi ahoH, it re- 
mained outside (Mah. 5). AfUo-aggi bahi na ni- 
karitahtOf the indoor fire must not l>e carried out 
of doors (Dh. 239). Te bhikkh^ bahi thapetvd, 
leaving the priests outside (Dh. 107). With abl. 
Nikkhamma nagard bahi, having gone out of the 
dty (Mah. 52) ; Dakkhifutdvdrato bahi, outside the 
south gate (Mah. 84). With gen. AtUo ea bahi 
ea nagara$$a. Inside and outside the town (Mah. 
2S9 ; eomp. Dh. 219). Bahigdme, outside the vil- 
lage (Dh. 228). Bahinagare, outside the town 
(Dh. 160, 204). BahiBdfLtyath fhatvd, standing 
outside the curtain (Dh. 159, comp. 245). Dh. 162, 
175, 336, 401. Comp. the use of Anto (2). 

BAHIDDHA (adv.). Outside [^ff^+ Vl]- Ab. 
1153; B. Lot. 566; Dh. 169. With abl. Ito ba- 
hiddhd, foreign to Buddhism (Kh. 26, comp. Dh. 
377, " foreign to my religion"). 

BAHIRA (adv.). From outside [^CTTIITTIC]* Ab. 
1153; Mah. 109. 

BAHIRAKO (adv.). External, foreign, heretical 
[^nr + l]- Wt. 116. 

BAHIRATO (adv.), FVom outside [^11111^0 • 1^^- 

BAHIRE (adv.). Outside, externally ; outside Bud- 
dhism [^TV 1^^-] - Sama'i^ n* atthi bdhire, there 
can be no true ^rama^a outside the pale of 
Buddhism (Dh. 45, 377 ; Alw. N. 85). ^tii 
abl. Ddrake yakkhanagard nisid^ya bdhire, 
having set the children down outside the dty of 
the yakkhas (Mah. 52). 

BAHIRO(a€^*.), External; foreign; non-Buddhist, 
heretical; external to the individual, objective 
[^^f^]. Ab.703. Bdhirafkparimajjad,i);k^€mU 
side thou makest clean (Dh. 70). The ace. bdhi' 
rvk seems to l>e an adverb, "outside" (Ab. 1153). 

Non-religrious arts and sciences are called bdhtra^ 
Batthdni as opposed to the stody of the Tipi(aka 
(Att. 191). 

BAHITO, see Bdhati. 

BAHU (adj.). Much; mftny; large, ample [^V]. 
Ab.703, 1072. ¥i.bahi,bahavo. Neut. pi. 6aAt{m 
(Mah. 126). Gen. and dat. pi. bahunnadi, bah^- 
nam (Dh. 81 ; F. Jdt. 47). Loc. pi. bah^uu, ba- 
hfuu (Dh. 90, 253). There seems to be a neut. 
nom. bahum (F. Jat. 13 ; Dh. 97, bahum dkana^ 
atthi). Bah^jand, many people (Kuhn. K. S. 25 ; 
Alw. I. 63). Bahum bhdsamdno, speaking much 
(Dh. 4). Bahufh ve »aranam yanti, they fly to 
many a refuge (Dh. 34). Tena te bahavo ahutk, 
therefore they became numerous (Mah. 207). 
Bahud eva rattim, the greater part of the night 
(for bi^ufh eva rattim). There appears to be an 
adverb bahum, ** much," « at great length" (Dh. 

BAHU (m.). The arm [WTV]- Ab. 265 ; Mah. 153, 

BAHUBBIHI, This is the equivalent of S. HVlRf^, 

and is the technical name for one sort of Samdsa 

(a. Or. 80). 

BAHUBHAJVI (adj.). Garrulous [^W + Vn^ + 

Xjfl]. F. Jit. 16, 49 ; Dh. 41. 
BAHUBHA^ITA (/.), Garrulousness [the last 

+ ^]. F. J&t. 16, 48. 
BAHUBHAVO, Quantity, multiplicity [^W + 

Vm']' Kh. 21. 
BAHUBHEDO (adj.). Multiform, various [l|y + 

^]. Ab. 720. 

BAHCDAKO (adj.). Holding much water [yf^ + 

^^]. Mah. 65. 
BAHUDHA (adv.). In many ways [^V^TT]- Mah, 

107, 158. Eko pi hutvd bahudhd hoti, from being 

one he becomes many. 
BAHUJAGARO (adj.). Keeping many vig^, very 

watehful [inr + VTPR:] • I>b. 6. 
BAHUJJANO, Most people, the multitude, the w(M*ld 

^^ -f Hlf] . Dh. 57. PL bahujjand, many people 

(Mah. 79). 
BAHUJO, a Khattiya [WTinil]- Ab. 335; Mah. 

BAHUKIGGO (adj.). Having many duties, very 

busy [mr + WW]- 
BAHUKO (adj.). Much ; many [^Ijr + H] . Tassa 

te bahukd pihayanti, many envy you (Dh. 392). 




Bahukttfh dhanam datvd, having given much trea- 

Mire (Mah. 51). Mab. 84, 228 ; Dh. 214, 285. 
BAHUUKAROTI, To increase, to extend [l|V^ 

+ V]- Dh. 374. 
BAHULlKATO (p.p^. last), Enlarged, increased, 

multiplied [iflNft + Wf] • 
BAHULLAM, Abundance [WHTW]. 
BAHULO {a^j")* Much, abundant; abounding in 

[^^m] . PdmeJJabahulo, filled with joy (Dh. 67). 

F. Jit, 8; Ab. 703. Fern, bakuld, cardamoms 

(Ab. 591). 
BAHULYAA, Abundance [wnnv]. Ab. 1153. 
BAHUMATO (o^/.). Esteemed, venerated [iRpr + 

THT =s fO • Mah. 8. 
BAhUMCLAA, The armpit [inV + W^]- Ab. 

BAHUNADIKO (mf/.), Recdving many rivers, an 

epithet of the ocean [^lir + ^T^ + ^]* 
BAHtTPAKARO (adj.), Very helpful, very useful 

[^nr + ifqnnr<l- K^hn k. s. 29 ; Dh. 119, 166, 

BAHUPPADO (114/.), Liberal, munificent [iVlT-f 
H^]. Ab.723. In Pirit I find diiA»jggeNi<fo<' many- 
footed" = ^V + Jfg, with doubled 1^. 

B Ah us AGCAA, Great learning [iRpr + ^ + If] • 
Kh. 5; Dh. 48. Buddhaghosa explains it by 
''having learnt the three Pi^akas" (Dh. 381). 
There can be no doubt that this word represents 
buhuaauta + ya ; the a is perhaps due to the analogy 
of mufiha»€tccamf where, however, #acea represents 
smfitya and not i^rutya. 

BAHUSO iadfi.). Greatly, abundandy [^f^nPCJ* 

BAHU8SUTATTAA,Leamedness, erudition \yaf 
+ ^11 + W]. Alw. I. luaiv. 

BAHUSSUTO {ad{f.\ Having great religions know- 
ledge, learned, erudite [iQf + ^1f a=^]» Dh. 
38; Mah. 85, 126; Pit 88. 

BAHUTARO {adj.\ Mora [if^lIT]- ^h- 1^3. 

Ydcakd pi bakutord na hontif there are not very 

many beggars. 
BAHUTTAA, Multitude [iflR^]. Mah. 39. 

BAHUTTHAlif (adv.). In many ways [UT-f W^]» 

CI. Gr. 98. 
BAHUVACANAA, In gram, the plural number 

l^W + I^T] . CI. Gr. 112. 
BAHUVARAKO, The tree Gordia Myxa [iQRrT- 

Xm]. Ab. 558. 

BAHUVIDHO (adj.). Various, multilbrm [iRpr + 

fSfVT]. Ab.7I7. 
BAHYO (a4f.), External [^Vft]- Ab. 1153. Sea 

BAJJHATI (pau. bamdhaH), To be bound ; to be 
imprisoned [^l^^s ^'P^]- ^^* bajjIUiwd (Dh. 

BAKO, A crane (the bird) [^]. Ab. 06; Alw. 
I. xxi ; Dh. 191. 

BAKUCI (/.), The plant Vemonia Aatbelminthica 

[^T^f^]* Ab. 586. 

BALAGGAft, Front of an army, troops in amy 
[ifW-h^'Rll]. Pitt. 15, 90. 

BALAkA (/.), A crane (bird) [ifWT^]. AK642; 
CL Gr. 37. 

BALAKAYO, An army [^H + WfV]. Mah. 62, 
150, 217; Alw. I. 79; Dh. 158, 162, 236, 308. 

BALAKKARO, Violence [^fHW f ^] , Ab. 400, 
1130; P&t82. 

BALAKO, a lH>y, a child ; the young of any animal 
[ifTirV]. Ab. 1003, 1118. 

BALAA, Strengtli, power, force ; an amy, troops, 
forces; bnlkiness [mr]- Ab. 350, 381, 398, 894; 
Dh.20; B.Lot427; Kh. 12; F. Jdt.5; Mah. 217. 
IkuahatthibtdOf having the strength of ten ele- 
phants (Mah. 140). Punnabalam, the forae or 
efficacy of morit (Man. B. 35). JSCAnn/iMo, having 
the strength of patience (Dh. 71). The four Balaa 
or Forces are virfyt^alatk, mfibakuht sanuUAi- 
bakakf paSuMalamf *' energy, recollection, con- 
templation, wisdom." The five Balas are taddkd' 
bakuh, vhiyabalatk, $atibalarii, tamddhiialam, 
pMMalam, ''fiaith, energy, recollection, con- 
templation, wisdom" (Man. B. 408). Tlie seven 
Balas are Baddhdbdlafh, viriyabalam, toMaianh 
hiribakuh, ottappadakukp tarnddkiMatk, panni' 
bdUun, ''faith, energy, recollection, shame, fear of 
sin, contemplation, wisdom." The ten Balas or 
forces belonging to a Buddha are tea kinds of 
knowledge, ihdndfhdmmdfM^, etc. (B. Ijot. 781 ; 
Man. B. 398). 

BALANlK0(ii4r.)[WW + ^nfhl]- The comment 
explains this word by khantibaldniko, meaning, 
I think, *'he to whom the strength of patience is 
like the strength of an army in array* (Dh. 71). 

BALATA (/.), Childhood [ifTir + IIT] * Ab. 260. 

BAlATAPO, The rays of the newly-risea sun 

BALATI, To live [^]. CI. P. Verbs, 17. 




BlLATTA A, ChUdhood [^J;m + 1^] • Ab. 250. 

BALATTHOy A royal messenger or peon, a palace 
senmnt. Mah. 218» 219, and see the Index and 

BALAyA(cM^'.), Strong [ifiriiQ]. BalavdjmrUo, 
a strong man (B. Lot. d06). Rogo bakatd ahoHy 
the disease gained strength (Dh. 98). Balatfovdto, 
a Strang wind (Dh. 111). BalavapUif exceeding 
joy (Alw. I. 80). Man. B. 494. Balavam (adv.), 
exeeedingly (Ab. 1138). Balaw^faccHaasamayet 
Tory eariy in the morning (Dh. 94). 

BALAVATARO (adj.). Stronger [iRTW^-h 1T^]. 

BIlAVATARO, Name of a weU-lmown Pill gram- 
nMT [mWf + ^WITT]- Alw. I. vi, xiv, xxxvi. 

BALEYYO (aifj')f Fit for a child ; soft [in%^]- 

BALiHO (ocff Ot Hard, severe, excessive {ynX] • Ab. 
41. BdfkMk (adv.), esceedmgly. Bdfkddukkha- 
nedamdf extreme suffering. Bdfhagildno, very ill 
(Dh. 97). 

BAIil (nft.). Religions offering, oblation ; royal re- 
venue, tax [^Vflr]. Ab. 355, 426, 897 ; Mah. ]«5, 
211 ; Kh. 6. Devatdbaliddnamy presentation of 
offerings to tiie devas (Mah. 89). 

BAU (adj.). Strong [ifflnt]. Dh. 49 ; Mah. 141. 
Maac hali, name of a dass of Asnras ( Ab. 14). 

BAUKAMMAft, Religions offering, offering of food 
to Bhdtas [lif% + ^qR$^. Mah. 52 ; Dh. 403. 

BAIjIMA (a4j.). Receiving offerings [^f^||l||]. 

BALIPUTTHO,Acrow[l|flr + ^=^]. Ab. 

BALI8IK0, A fisherman [^fllir + T^]« ^"b- 

BALISO, A fish-hoolL [^f^]. Ab. 074, 1025. 

BAUSO («(&'.), Young; ignorant [ifTfWSr]- Ab. 
721, 1078. 

BALIVADDO, An ox [ifflT^]. Ab. 495; Dh. 

BAliO (a4/.)» Young; ignorant, foolish [WTH]- 
Ab. 721, 923. Masc. bdlo, a chfld up to sixteen 
yeaics of age ; also an ignorant person, a fool. 
Bdlappabadka^ enlightening of the ignorant (Alw. 
I. xiv). Bdlantr^fo, the newly-risen sun (Mah. 
112). B41a is often used in the sense of ''one ig- 
norant of religion," " the unconverted man" (Dh. 

5, 11 ; Kh. 5; Ras. 35). Dh. 90. 


BALYAA,Childhood,youth; ignorance,folly[irm]- 
Ab. 250, 1079; Dh. 12. 

BANADHI (m.), A quiver [ifRif^l] . Ab. 389. 

BANDHAgARA]^, a prison [^^ + ^V^nT]. 
Mah. 200. 

BANDHAKI (/.), An unchaste woman [l|ll|4\]- 

BANDH ANAoARAM, A prison [^HR + ^PTK] • 

BANDHANAA, Binding ; bonds ; a fetter ; a band, 
ligature ; a snare, a trap ; the stalls of a leaf or 
flower 1^9^ . Ab. 354, 738, 948 ; Dh. 7, 01, 02. 
Unapancabandhano potto, a bowl with fewer than 
§ye ligatures (P4t. 10). Kdyabandhanam, a waist- 
band or girdle (Mah. 93). Pupphaba$ulha$uuh, 
stalk of a flower (Ab. 544). Pandupaldio bandha^ 
nt^Mtmutto, a sere leaf loosed from its stalk (Kamm. 
10). Oharaba$uihanam, wedlock, marriage. 

BANDHANi YO (a^f.). To be bound, fit to be bound 

[WCr^^] • CI. Gr. 93. 
BANDHAPETI (eaus. next). To cause to be bound ; 

to cause to be embanked (of a river). P6t. 108 ; 

Mah. 260 ; Dh. 351. 

BANDHATl, To bind ; to fasten ; to fix ; to em- 
bank ; to acquire, to get, to contract [^P9]. 
Ti^akaldpe bandhitvd, tying up bunches of grass 
(F. Jit, 9). Fafum bandhitvd, having bandaged 
the wound (Dh. 279). Pa^futm ta$$a dasante 
bandhi, attached the letter to the hem of his gar- 
ment (Alw. 1. 101). Fitdnam katvd bandhhfastened 
it up as a curtain (Dh. 291). Nadkh b,, to em- 
bank a river (Mah. 100). Gapam bandhati, col- 
lects a following (Pit 74). Satthari dghdtam 
bandhi, contracted hatred towards the Teacher 
(Dh. 104). Simam &., to fix a boundary (Mah. 98). 
Dh. 234, 247. Pass, btyjhatu P.p.p. baddho. 

BANDHAVO, A kinsman [ITP^]- Ab. 243. 

BANDHETI (cans, bandhati). To cause to be bound ; 
to bind, to fix, to tie, to fasten [^H^^fJI = ^iP^] • 
Mah. 142, 145, 152, 261. 

BANDHO, Binding; bonds; union; bandage [ipif]. 
Bandhamokkhath kdraiyi, opened the jails, lit. 
caused release from bonds (Mah. 214). Simd' 
bandho, fixing of a boundary (Mah. 100). Dh. 279. 

BANDHU(m.), A relative, a kinsman [l|i^]. Ab. 

BANDHUJiVO, and -VAKO, The plant Pentapetes 

Phoenioea [^ip^^ft^]. Ab. 576 ; B. Lot. 826. 
BANDHOKO, The plant Pentapetes Phcenicea 

[in^]. Ab. 575. 




BANDHURO (adj.), Uneveo, undalatiDg [ip^]. 

Att. 191. 
BANDHUMA (adj.). Having relatives [ipfiT^]. 

a. Gr. 24. 
BANO, An arrow ['^TUf]. Ab. 389. 
BAPPO, A tear [TH*?]- Ab. 260. 
BARANASEYYAKO (adj.), Belonging to Benares 

[Wnrr%^+^]. c1.Gr.90. 

BARAiyASi (/.). The city of Benares [TRTHrtft] • 
Ab. 199 ; F. J4t. 2, 5 ; Mah. 2. Bdrdtuuivdsi, an 
inhabitant of Benares (Dh. 114). 

BARASA (num.). Twelve [^[T^IPT]. CI. Gr. 66. 
See also Dvddaaa. 

BARIHAB^, A peacock's tall [iff]- Ab. 635. 

BARIHl (m.), A peacock [W^^. Ab. 634. 

BARIHISA A, Sacrificial grass [^f|^] . Ab. 602. 

BATTlAsA (»tt«ii. /.), Thirty-two [fl^lf^^^ ]. 
Ras. 26. See also Dvattimsa. 

BAVHAbADHO, Much sickness [^^ + ^mnV]- 
CI. Gr. 15. Also an adj. meaning ''having much 
sickness,'' << ha^ng bad health " (Gog. Ev. 31). 

BAVISATI (num. j.). Twenty-two [flfTPhTfiT]. 
CI. Gr. 96. 

BELU VO (adj.). Relating to the Vilva tree ; made 
of Vilva wood [^^]- Bh. 255. Masc. beluvo, 
the Vilva tree, ^gle Marmelos (Ab. 556). 

BHA (/.), Light, ray, splendour [HT]- Ab. 64. 

BHABBO (atfj.). Right, proper, good, well con- 
ducted ; future [^^ and YTT^]. Ab. 913, 1071 ; 
Dh. 175. 

BH ACCO, A servant, an attendant [WV] • Mah. 48. 

BH AD ANTO, A venerable man ; a Buddhist priest 
[i|?i|T] . R6pasiddhi says that Bhadanta is other- 
wise declined like PurUto, but that the voc. has 
the following forms, bhaddanta, bhante, bhadanta, 
bhaddante (Att. 12). The voc. bhadanta occurs 
at Mah. 79, and at Dh. 85 bhaddanta is probably 
a vocative. A voc. pi. bhadantd occurs at Mah. 
1 70. Agacchantu bhadantd, let the holy men come 
near (P&t. zzx). Bhadantdnam ravam tutvd, 
hearing the shout of the priests (Mah. 81). Ayaih 
bhadanf ambarukkho, lord ! this mango tree (Mah. 
79). For Bhante see sep. 

BHADDADARU (m.). The tree Pinus Deodora 

[H^+'^T^]- Ab.568. 
BHADDAKACCAnA (/.), A name of the wife of 
Siddhattha (Buddha). Ab. 336 ; Mah. 9. 

BH ADDAKO (adj.). Good, happy [^n*9] • Dh. 323. 

BHADDAKUMBHO, An auspidous vase, a jar with 

holy water [i|^ + ^] . Ab. 359. 
BHADDAMUTTAA, The grass Cyperus Rotundas 

[^ + ^]- Ab.599. 

BHADDAPADA (/.), Name of two Nakkhattas, 
Pubbabhaddapadd and Uttarabhaddapadd [H^~ 
Xr^]. Ab. 60. 

BHADDE (voc. f. bhaddo). My good woman I my 
dear ! Madam ! Dh. 89, 156, 206. 

BHADDO, and BHADRO (a^;.). Good, exoelleat, 
noble, worthy, pious ; fortunate, auspicious, happy, 
blest [iTJ^]* Neut. bhaddam, prosperity, happi- 
ness (Ab. 88), also a good deed (Dh. 22). Asm 
bhadro, a spirited horse (Dh. 26, 68). Bhadra- 
kammam, a good deed (Dh. 293). Bhi ttmrn 
bhadra Sumana, come excellent S. (Mah. 105). 
Bhaddayugam, a noble pair (Dh. 124). Bhadra- 
yobbanam, auspicious youth (Dh. 117; B. Lot. 
410). At Dh. 22 bhadda is opposed to p&pa. 
Bhaddam bhavato hotu, good luck to you I (Kuhn 
K. S. 10). Icchdmi bhaddath tassa, I wish well 
to him (Kuhn K. S. 28). Ab. 694, 1072; Dh. 

BHAGADHEYYAA, Lot, destiny [iTR + ^ = 
VT]- Ab. 90. 

BHAGAA, Power, majesty; fortune, prosperity; 
fame, glory ; virtue, merit ; desire, love ; puden- 
dum muliebre \V[^\. Ab. 273, 844. 

BHAGANDALA (/.), Fistula [l^pl^]. Ab. 328. 

BHAGAVA (adj.). Worshipful, venerable, blessed, 
holy [^Vf^llf]. Ab. 1098; B. Intr. 71 (note); 
CI. Gr. 24. This word is generally used as an 
epithet or name of a Buddha (Ab. 1), and in par- 
ticular of Sakyamuni (Ras. 15). Aomo tana Bka- 
gavato, praise be to him who is the Blessed (Kb. 2). 
Ekam tamayafh Bhagavd Sdvatthiyaik viharaH^ 
at one time the Blessed One dwelt at S. (Kh. 4). 
Buddhdnafk bhagavantdnam sattetu mahdkarufid 
okkamati, a great compassion for mortals arises in 
the blessed Buddhas (B. Lot. 376). BhagawUd 
vattaih, it was spoken by our Blessed Lord 
(Alw. I. xxi). 

BHAGAVA (adj.). Partaker of, having a share in 
[iTPr + ^^]. Dh.4. 

BHA(}GA (m* pi.). Name of a people and country 
[)n4]. Ab. 185. 

BHAGGAVO, A descendant of Bhflgu [^THN]- 

BHAGGO (p.p.p.bharyati). Broken [^^= ^i^]- 
Dh. 28 ; Ras. 20. 




BHAGI (o^*.), Partakings in ; underg^olng, raiFeriDg 
[^rrfSPCI- Ta$ia bkdgi bkavdm' ahaOi, thtreoil 
am a partaker (Has. 28). Kilamathassa bhdgi as9a, 
ahoold Buffer fatigae (Dh. 306). Dh. 161, 161 ; Gl. 
Or. 29. 

BHAGINEYYO, A sister's sod, nepliew [inf^T^] • 
Ab. 246 ; Dh. 85 ; Mah. SI, 69. 

BH AGINl (/.), A sister [i|^|^] . Ab. 248 ; B. Int. 
278. Used as a term of respect by a priest to a 
deiroot lady (Has. 40). 

BHAGIRATHI (/.), The Ganges [ifpfV^]. 
Ab. 68L 

BHAGIYO («((/.)> Connected with, oondndve to 
[ifPI + ^] • Occurs as the last part of several 
compoond words, as uddhambkdgiya^ hdHobhdgijfa, 
etc AnHabh4gij^^ iq[>peani to mean '* different" 


BHAGO, a portion, part, share; region, quarter, 
side; time; lot, destiny [iTR]. Ab. 90, 485, 
1 120. Kappasfa tatiyo bhdgo^ the third of a Kalpa 
(Gog. Er. 18). Tati^ uttare hhdge^ on the north 
side of it (Mah. 60). 2>aiUrAt{io bhdgo, the south 
(Biali. 12). AparobMge^ in aftertime, afterwards. 
Airflt^Ai^tf, at night Upartbhdge^thixvt. Paika- 
Mhdgo^ quarter of the globe (Dh. 295). jidho- 
bkdgo and keffhdbhdgo, lower part. AntobhdgOf 
interior. Tibhdgo, divided into three (Mah. 136). 
A portion, share, or ration of food, generally boiled 
rice (Mah. 136, 147 ; Kamm. 29). 

BHAGU (m.). Name of one of the ten l^ishis [H^]- 
Ab. 109. 

BHAGYAA, Fortune, lot, destiny; merit and de- 
merit acquired in former existences, Kamma 
[WnV]- Ab. 90, 892, 909, 1120. 

BHAJANAA, a vessel, bowl, jar ; dividing, distri- 
bocioD [ifnilf]. Ab. 467 ; Mah. 87. Suva^iiLa' 
bkdfamdmi, golden bowls (Mah. 44, 136). DhdtU" 
bk4fan&m^ distribution of relics. 

BHAjAPETI (eoiw. next). To cause to be dis- 
tributed. PAt 102. 

BHAJATI, To serve; to honour; to cultivate the 
•equaintanee of ; to be devoted to, to follow, to 
emlwaee; to obtain [i1B|[]. MUte bhajanu kal- 
y^ne, let him cultivate good fHends (Dh. 67). Yani 
ftak pmd e ttuk bhajati, whatever place he chooses 
§» his residence (Dh. 63). Dh. 14, 38. 

BHAJETI, To divide, to distribute [WT^- 

BHAJJAPETI (coat, next), To cause to be fried or 
bdud. Dh.176; P^ 106. 

BHAJJATI,Tt>fry, to roast, to bake [^f^]. CI. 
P. Verbs, 3 ; Pdt 106. P.p.p. bhaffho (Ab. 1076). 
P.p.p. cans, bhajjito (Ditto). 

BHAKARO, The sun [^TTWr]* 

BH AKKHAK0(a4/.), Voracious [1T^?«]. Ab.734. 

BHAKKHAI^AM, Eating, enjoying [^HTir]. Ab. 

BHAKKH£TI,Toeat; to devour; to feed upon; to 

enjoy [^in ] • (htmbam bhakkhayamdnOthrowting 

the jungle (Mah. 78). Aor. abhakhhayi (Mah. 128). 

P.p.p. bhakkhito (Ab. 767). Mah. 48, 74, 230. 
BH AKKHO {adj.\ Eating, feeding on \7S(%\ . PUU 

bhakkho, feasting on joy (Dh. 36). Lohitabhakkhop 

feeding on blood (F. JiU 13). 
BH AKKHO (adj\). Eatable, to be eaten [1^9 = 

^T^]. Bhakkho *n mama, you are my prey 

(Mah. 48). Neut. bhakkhath, food, prey (Has. 22) 
BHALLATAKO, and -Kl (/.), The marking nut 

plant, Semicarpus Anacardium [^f||^l|]. Ab 

661. Neut bhalldtakam, the nut (Ditto). 
BHALLT (/.), The marking nut plant [iflft] 

Ab. 661. 
BHA A, A star; a lunar asterism; a planet [l|] 

Ab.67. Loc. Me (Ab. 851). 

BHAMAKARO, A turner [isnT + VTT]- Ab.609 
BHAMAPETI (caiM. bhamati), To cause to revolve 

(Mah. 172). 
BHAMARO, A bee [^sRnG. Ab. 636 ; Dh. 10. 

BHAMATI, To whirl about, to revolve; to roam 
[ifi;^ . Aisd akkhini bhamhhiu, her eyes rolled 
(Dh. 316). P.p.p. bhanto. 

BH AMETI (cau8. last). To cause to revolve, to whirl 

[^fTEff^ = ^^T'^]* Bhametvd tisamatthake, 
whirling them over his head (Mah. 143). 

BHAMO, Whirling ; a lathe ; a watercourse, dndii 
[H^]. Ab. 660, 1121. 

BHAMU (m), An eyebrow. Ab. 269. Bhamu pro- 
bably represents the Sanskrit H^ If bhrd be 
pronounced carelessly a nasal is heard which might 
easily pass into m, while the r would he dropped, 
as is usual in P&li (comp. bh^, "an eyebrow*'). 

BHAMUKO, An eyebrow. Ab. 269; Dh. Ill ; 
B. Lot. 663. 

BHAI^AKO, Ajar [«rn9ii]- Ab. 466. 

BHANAKO (adj.). Reciting, saying, preacbbg 
[^rntH]* BAi^iaAco, a preacher (P&t. 88). Dha- 
mmabkdfMko, an expounder or preacher of the 
Scriptures (Mah. 246). DighabhifMko, one who 





makes the Digha Nlkdya his special stndy, ex- 
pounds it, preaches from it, a professor of the 
Digha Nik&ya (P&t. xv). In the same way Majjhi- 
mabhdfMkOj Jdtakahhdnako (P&t. xv). Sakuv^ 
mm\jtibhdnakOy sweet-voiced bird (Dh. 146). 
BHANAM, Saying, reciting [^TTO]. F. Jdt 18. 

BHANANAA, Telling, expounding [HIQ^]. Dh. 

BHANATI, To speak, to say, to tell, to recite, to 
preach [^]. R Jdt. 14, 19, 46 ; Dh. 47, 223. 
Therassa vacanam bhani, spoke the message of 
the elder (Mah. 105). Saccam b., to speak the 
truth (Dh. 40). Bhanantd ratanam suttam, reciting 
the Ratana Sutta (Mah. 249). Pass. bhannoH. 
P.p.p. bhafiito. Cans, bha^teti, bhaftdpeti (Alw. 
I. 16). See Bhane, 

BHAiyAVARAA, A recitation, a portion for recital 

[HnV + TfT]* ^^^ purposes of recitation the 
Tipitaka is divided into a certain number of Bhd- 
navdras or sections (see Dh. 35, 351). At Att. 
13 Alwis says that the whole Tipitaka contains 
matter equal to 2547 Bh&nav4ras. The Dfgha- 
nikdya contains 64 Bhdi^av&ras (Alw. I. v). 

BHAQ^AGABBHO, A store-room [H^ + ^]. 

Dh. 302. 
BH ANpAGARIKO, A treasurer ; a royal treasurer, 

one of the ministers of state [^|ll4|4||(\iK]. 

Mah. 231 ; Ab. 436. 

BRAND AKAA, a utensil, article, implement; 
goods, property [HTQ7 + ^]* Mah. 138^ 151; 
Dh. 234, 248. 

BHAI^DAKl (/.), The plant Solanum Melongena 
[^TI^rNit]- Ab. 688. 

BHANDAM, a utensil, article, implement ; goods, 
wares, property ; the stock-in-trade of a tradesman 
[^TPBI]. Ab. 921 ; Pdt. 81 ; Alw. I. 73. Tdni 
bhaiiddni ddrumayddini ndma honti, these articles 
are made of wood and other materials (Dh. 90). 
Mayarh hi vikkiniyabhandam, for we are chattels 
to be sold (Dh. 234). Parassa b, ganhdti, takes 
the property of another (Kb. 29). Atibahubhando, 
having too much property (Dh. 302). 

BHAJ^f^ANAlJI, QuarreUing, strife [^19^]. Ab. 

400 ; Dh. 104, 147. 
BHANPATI, To quarrel; to abuse [^fl^]. CI. 

P. Verbs, 11, 13. 

BHA]^pIKA (/*.), An article, utensil ; goods, wares, 
merchandise; a bundle [iffl^^]. Dh. 237; 

F. Jdt. 14 ; Alw. 1. 37« Aniobhaftdiikam mvneUvdf 
releasing the parcel it contained (Alw. I. 75). 
jibharaftdni omuhcitvd bhandikam kaivd, taking 
off his jewels and making a bundle of tliem (Dh. 
142). Uttardsange bhaisLdikam bandhitvd, tybg 
them up in a bundle in her doak (Dh. 247). Bluing* 
kdyam gahetvd, taking them in a bundle (Mah. 
167, here Tumour translates "in a jar'*). 
BHAN^IKO, The plant Pentapetes Phosnicea. Ab. 
575 (dough's edition has bhandikdy fern). 

BHAiypiLO, The tree Mimosa Sirisha [iff^RT]- 
Ab. 571. 

BHAJypU {adj.\ Oose shaven, bald. Ab. 321. 

BHANE, This is the Ist pers. sing. pres. Atmane, 
from bhafutti, and is used as an interjection, " I 
say,'* <' to l>e sure." It is a fiimiliar term of address, 
frequently used by a king to a subject. Kaham 
bhane tumhe ime divase na dimatha, why, where 
have you been all this time ? (Alw. 1. 74). Dukkw' 
raik bhaite brdhmaftena katam, I declare the brah- 
min has done a most difficult thing (Dh. 291). 
Handa bhane (Dh. 142). Dh. 223. 

BHANGO (a£[f .), Hempen [^H^f] . Nent. bhangam, 
hempen doth (Ab. 291). Ab. 1130 ; P&t. 76, 82 ; 
Kamm. 9. 

BHAnI (a^^*.). Speaking, talking [^THir + l^lJ* 
BahubhdpU talkative (F. Jdt. 16). Comp. SfiU- 
bhdtjti, Mandabhdni, MantabhdnL 

BHAJyiTO (p*p>p> bhanati). Spoken, said [HfHlTT^ 
W^l]' Ab. 755 ; Alw. I. 63 ; P&t xlvi, 72. 

BHA^JANAJVI, Breaking, fracture ; injuring, de- 
struction [^^«r]. Mah. 128. 

BHANJATI, To break, to crush, to destroy [in|]. 
Dh. 60, 249; F. Jit. 4, 15 ; Ras. 89. P.p.p. bhaggo. 

BHAJ^J^ATI (pais, bhaf^ati), To be spoken, told, 
preached. Alw. N. 23. 

BH ANTE, This is a conti-acted form of Bhadante. 
It is used as a reverential term of address, '* Lord," 
" Reverend sir," and is the proper address ot 
Buddha, of Buddhist priests, of fishis, tikpasas^ 
etc It is generally used absolutely, as BhanU 
ayam bhikkhu atibahubhan^Oi Master, tliis piiest 
has too much property (Dh. 303). Bhante kena 
te attho, lord, what are you in need of (F. JiL 2). 
It is sometimes used in conjunction with a noon 
in the voc case, e.g. Bhante Ndgasena, lord N4- 
gasena (Alw. I. xlii). It is also frequently used in 
conjunction with a noun in the nom. case^ e.g. 




Deaetu bhante Bhagavd dhammam, let the blessed 
lord preach the Law (Oog. £v. 8) ; Bhante ayyo 
MahdkaecdyanOt the venerable elder M. (Alw. I. 
92). Sundiu me bhante Mangho, let the venerable 
assembly hear me (Kamm. 1 ; B. Lot 435). 

BHANTO (p.p.p. bhamaH)y Whirling, rolling ; con- 
fused [%ffiff = %f|^. Ratho bhanto, a rolling 
chariot (Dh. 40). BhantacittOy perplexed. 

BHANU (m.), A ray of light; the sun [91T^]. Ah. 
63,64,1044; Alw. L xiii. 

Q. Or. 94. Masc. bhdnumd, the sun (Ab. 63), also 
fire (Ab. 34). 

BHARADVAJO, Name of one of. the ten ^ishis 
[ ^Kflil^] ' Ab. 109. See In. 

BHARAKO, A load [)|T?;^]. F. J&t. 14. 

BHARAIjrAM, Bearing, supporting, maintenance 
[iHTir]- Ab. 1053 ; Dh. 236. JDdrdbhara^m, 
maintaining a wife. 

BHARANi (/.), Name of the second Nakkhatta 
[if^ljY]. Ab. 58. 

BHARAPADATA (/.), Elephantiasis of the leg 

[«!n;+^T^+m]. Ab.sae. 

BH ARATA A, The Mah&bharata [if T^] • Ab. 1 1 1 . 
BHARATI, To bear, to support, to maintain, to 

Doorish [ij] . Das. 7. 
BHARATI, (/.), Speech [HTHft]. Ab. 106. 

BHARl (adj\\ Carrying, bearing [inf^'^]- Md- 
IdbhdH, wearing garlands (Dh. 98). 

BHARIKO, a porter [ifTf^li]. Ab. 514. 

BHARIKO (adj.)f Serious, gprievous [HTf^^]* 
Bhdrikan te katam kammathy you have done a 
grievous action (Mah. 18). See also Bhdriyo. 

BHARITO {adj.)y FiUed with [irf^]. Puppha- 
bhariio, full of flowers (Mah. 99). 

BHARI YA (/.), A wife [^TpJl] . Ab. 237 ; Dh. 78. 

BHARIYO((u(;.), Serious, grievous {comp.Bhdriko). 
Bkdrnfom vo bhikkhave katam, priests, you have 
done a grievous thing (Dh. 109). Dh. 86, 1 15, 200. 

BHARO (adj.). Supporting [H<] - Ydvajivam md- 
tdpeitibharo a8$am, as long as I live may I main- 
tain my parents (Dh. 185). 

BHAROj A load ; much, excessive [HT]* Ab. 1112. 

BUARO, A weight, a burden ; charge, duty, busi- 
ness; a weight of 2000 Palas [mK]- Ab. 481, 
933. Bhdravdho, a porter (Ab. 514). Ucchubhdro 
a load of sugar-canes (Pdt. xvi). Pakkabhdrena 
ndmitatkf bending with its burden of fruit (Mah. 

167). Ime ddrakd tava bhdrd, these children are 
your charges (Dh. 207)* Kukua* eva bhdrd bha~ 
veyydma, we should become burdensome to our 
family (Dh. 234). Mayham ev' eso bhdro md 
cintayittha, I will manage this business, do not 
be anxious (Dh. 339, lit. " this burden is mine "). 
Etam pativijjhiturh mayham bhdro, I undertake 
to make out the meaning (Dh. 123). Bahdhi duaei' 
lehi kathitakathdnam iahanam ndma tnayham 
bhdro, it is my duty to bear the reviling of many 
impious men (Dh. 170). Dh. 135, 189, 236. 

BH ASA (/.), Speech, language [i|T^] . Ab. 105 ; 
Mah. 253 ; Alw. I. iii. 

BHAsA (/.), Light, radiance [«rWr]- 

BH ASANAA, Lustre, radiance [ifTiR] . Ab. 899. 

BHASATI, To speak; to say; to address [VfT^]. 
Bhasam b., to speak a language (Alw. I. cvii). 
hud gdthd abhdsi, spoke these stanzas (Dh. 96). 
Dhammam b., to preach (Pat. iii). Bhdtatha 
rdjdnam, said to the king (Mah. 36). Ger. bhd- 
ntvd (Mah. 230), bhdtiya (Mah. 18, 82, 163). 
P.pres. bhdaamdno (Dh. 91). P.f.p. bhdntabbo. 
P.p.p. bhdsito. B. Lot. 455. 

BHASATI, To shine [lIT^]- Bhdsate $akalo dipo, 
the whole island shines (Mah. 178). 

BH ASETI {caus. last). To illuminate. B. Lot 576. 

BH ASITA (m.). One who speaks or utters [^TTf^] • 
With ace Samaggakaranidi vdcam bhdtitd hoti, 
he is one who speaks conciliatory words. 

BHASITO (p.p.p. bhdsati). Spoken ; told, stated ; 
spoken to, addressed [^nftlT]- Ab. 755. Neut. 
bhdsitam, speech, words, utterance (Ab. 105 ; Kb. 
6 ; Dh. 65). Gat^hitvd therabhdntatk, agreeing to 
what the thera said (Mah. 172). Buddhabhdntd 
dhammd, doctrines preached by Buddha (Ras. 17). 
Buddhabhdsitatk, the Word of Buddha (Alw. I. 
vii ; B. Lot. 840). 

BHASMAlff, Ashes [H^^PO- ^^- ^> ^^- ^^> 

354. Loc. bhaemani (Ab. 1135). 
BHASMlBHAVATI, To be reduced to ashes 

[iWft + ^]. Mah. 6. 
BHASMIKARA^AA, Reducing to ashes [^irf^ + 

^iX!^]. CI. Gr. 99. 
BHASO, a vulture [^Tra]. Ab. 645, 1049. 
BHASSAM, Talk [^TT^]. Mah. 18. 
BHASSARO (adj.). Shining, brilliant [iTreCT]- 

Ab. 733. 
BH ASS ATI, To fall [^aflT nud HJITJ. F. Jit. 53 

P.p.p. bhattho (Ah. 751)^ bhanito (Mah. 50). 




BHASTA (/.), A bellows [iren]- Ab. 526. 
BHASURO (aty,), Shining [iTrgT]. Ab. 733{ 

Mah. 179. 
BH AtA (m.)» A brother ; a cousin germane [^sTT^] • 

a. Gr. 53. Instr. bhdtard (Mah. 256)^ Gen. 

and dat. bkdtuno, hhdtuua (Mah. ixzzvii, 111). 

Ah\. bhdtard, hhaUto. Loc. ^Ai^art (l(h. 13). PI. 

bhdtaro, brothers (F. Jit. 9)f brother and sister 

(Ab. 250). Gen. and dat. pi. bhdt^am (Mab. 

128). The base in composition is bhdtu, e.g^ bhdtt^ 

kumdrako (Mah. 4) and bhdti, 
BH ATAKO, A servant^ hireling [^pPH] . Ab, 5 14. 

Bhatdkapuriso, a labourer (Att. 215). 
BHATI (/.), Support, maintenance; wages, hire 

[)jf7T]. Ab. 530, 1053 ; Mah. 208. Na me etdya 

dinnabhatiyd attho, I do not want her fee (Dh. 89). 

Bhatikammam labhitvd, having obtained work for 

which he was paid (Dh. 165). Bhatikammam 

akdrayi, had work done with paid labour (Mah. 

BHATI, To shine; to appear [HJ]. Alw. I. 43. 

Imper. bhdtu (Alw. I. xiii). 
BHATIKATTA A, State of being a brother [l^TTJ 

+ ^ + Fr]. Mah. 811. 
BHATIKQ, One who works for hire, a lalMurer 

[^|f^ + ^]. T>h, 165. Ddru^hatiko, a wood 

carrier (Mah. 209). 
BH ATIKO, a brother [in^ + ^] • Dh. 80, 126 ; 

Ab.244; F.Jdt.3; Mah. 21, 157. Com^. Bhdtuko. 
BHATO, A soldier [H?]f Ab. 376 ; Kamm. 5. 
BHAITA (m.), A husband [H^]. Ab. 24Q; Dh. 

162. Loc bhatiari (Ab. 97^). 

BHATTAGGAA, A refectory (see ^^^am, 2). Mah. 
88, 132; Dh. 104. Bhattaggavattam, duties to 
be observed by priests at jneals. 

BH ATTAKARO, a cool^ [^f|i + W[t] ' Ab. 464, 
BHATTAKICGAlir, Business of food, i.e. a meal 
[H<RI + W] • Nitthite bhattakicoamhi, when 
the repast was fwncluded (Mah. 82). Bhattakiccar 
tthdnafh, dining-room (Dh.291). Jfatabhattakicco, 
having endei) his mcaL 
BH ATTAINT, Food, boiled rice ; a meal [HW] - Ab. 
465. BAa^ofif/d, a refectory (Mah. 2^). Bhatta- 
kdlo, meal time (Mah.7). Matttmhutd bhattasmim, 
moderation in eating (Dh, 34). Sabbe tattha 
macchakacchapabhattd ahesufk, they there all 
became food for fishes and turtles (Dli. 224). 
Pdiardnibkattafh Mdyamdsabhattan ti dife bha- 

ttdniy there are two meals, the morning and the 
•vexing meal. 

BHATTHO {p,p.p, bhaaoH), Fallen [tfC= ^]. 
Ab. 751. 1076. 

BHATTHO (p.p.p. bhaJjaH), Fried, roasted [^lE^ 
^mQ. Ab. 463, 1076. 

BHATTI (/.), Division; service, devotion [ifflf]. 
Ab. 1055. 

BIf ATTUDDESAKO, One whose duty it is to regu- 
late the distribution of food to the priests [^HV + 
^r^ + ^]. Alw. I. 103; IHbt. 86. 

BHATUKO, a brother [ifn| + i|]. Mah. 128, 
255 ; P&t. zlii. Gomp. Bhdtika. 


9HAVABHAV0, Various births, repeated birth, 
existence under different forms successively, as 
deva, man, preta, ete^ [H^ + H^]* This is a 
eompoond like phaliphala. Bha^dbhave samtO' 
ranto, passing through various forms of existence. 

BH AVADIfTHI (/.)>Tlie heresy of believing matter 
and being to be everlasting [ifW+ ffC]* ^nip- 
Ab. 829. 

BHAVAGGAft, Culminating point of existence 
[^ + ^ra]- Man. B. 301. This term designates 
the highest of the Arupa worlds, viz. the Nevasa- 
fifiinl^afiMyatana heaven (see B. Lot, 309). Bha* 
vagga is often opposed to Aviciy the inhabitants 
of the Avid hell l>eing the lowest in the scale of 
the Buddl^st hierarchy, while the angels of the 
Nevasafifi&n4safifi&yatana heaven are the highest. 

BHAVAKKHAYO, Cessation of birth or existence, 
Arahatta or Nirvd^a [H^+^V^]- B. Lot. 350. 

BHAVAA (m.). Lord, Sir [H^Jp This is a 
re^ctful term of address, oflten used in the place 
of the second personal pronoun, but taking the 
verb in the third person. The following examples 
will illustrate its use : Jayqtu bhavafh mahdrdjd, 
he victorious, great king 1 lit. *' let the lord maha^ 
rajah conquer '' (Dh. 318). Bhaddam bhavato 
hotUy good luck to you (Sen. K. 329). jiddasdma 
kho fuayafh bhota^ bhaga^ffntam gacehanioMf 
we have seen the lord Bhagav& walking. Bke 
bhmito $amaiuibrdAma^t some reverend priests 
and brahmins. At Ras. 17 a king in addressing 
his ministers says, bhonto, '' my lords," or ''gentle- 
men." Ace. bhatfantam, bhotam, lust, bhavatd, 
bhotd, bhavantena. Gen. and dat. bhavato, bhoto, 
bhavantaasa, AbL bhavatd,bhotd, \oe.bho, bhonto. 
Plur. bhavanto, bhonto, bhavantd. Ace. pi. bhav* 




ante, bhante. Voc. pi. bkavantOf bhanto.^^There 
are three fem. forms, bhavaii, bhavaniiy and bhoti. 
Fern. pi. bhoUyo, The contracted vocative bhoti 
is Ireqaently used as a respectful term of address 
to women. Bhoti dhammasavanaiii gkosiiathi 
Madam, the charch call has sounded (Dh. 290). 
Used hy a prince to a female devotee (Mah. 48). 
By a brahmin to his wife (Dh. 93, 162). BhoH 
ayycj revered lady. For the use of BKq see the 
separate article. 

BH AVANA (/.), Produdngf, increasing, developing, 
being devoted to, realizing, attidning; earnest 
consideration, meditation [HT^^]* Sangiti 
Sntta mentions three Bhivan^, kdyabhdtfandf 
eUiabkdmmdt pmUbhdvand, . Hardy says there 
are five sorts of Bhdvan^ mettd, muditd, karuftd, " 
mpekhdf and 99ubha (comp. Appamanndy Mettd* 
bkiffond). E. Mon. 24a, 247, 266, 273, 276; 
Man. B. 33, 52, 150, 277, 312; Dh. 138, 180; 
If ah. 141 ; Alw. I. cxxlv. Comp. Bhdpetu 

BHAVANA A, Being, existence ; a house, dwelling, 
palace [19^^] • Ndgabkavanam, the N4ga world. 
7\uUabhavanamf the Tusita heaven. Ab. 206, 
1106; Dh, 118, 193, 224, 244, 304; Ras. 83; 
Alw. I. 77. 

BHAVANAlii, Consideration, reputation [itT^pf]* 
Dh. 13. 

BHAVANAMAYO, Consisting of or sprung from 
meditation [ifT^PfT + 7R|], Qog. Ev. 68. 

BHAVANETTI (/.), Desire, lust. Ab. 162 ; Alw. 

BHAVANlYO (adj.), Tbat ought to be, that must 
b« [^Wft^]- CI. Or. 115. 

BHAVANTA, etc., see Bhapafh. 

BHAVANTARA A, Another birth or existence, viz. 
either a previous or a subsequent one [vpf + 
^^Pir^]. Ab. 1148^ Bqddkavero bhavantare, 
who had been his enemy in a former existence 
(Mah. 245). 

BHAVANH, see Bhaoam. 

BUAVATI, and HOT!, To be ; to exist ; to become ; 
to take place; to befall; to behave [^]- Tassa 
gehe ffoyappatto dd$Q hoti^ in his house there is a 
grown-np slave (Alw. I. xlv). T^^a pannasdldya 
hmtthimaggo koti^ by his hut there is an elephant 
path (F. J&t. 2), Amhdkam uyydnapdlana santike 
kokU stay with my gardener (F. Jdt. 6). Ddtuth 
MtmaHho bhavUtati, will be able to give (F. Jdt. 3). 
Khad^tro ito KaUuigdmo hoti, how far from here 

is the village Kalasi ? (Alw. I. xlii). NUinno hoti, 
is seated. Abhuvinuu samdgatd, were assembled 
(Mah. 160). Ambalatthikapdsddo tassa majjhe 
thito ahu, the A. terrace stood in the midst thereof 
(Mah. 162). The fut. bhamuati is sometimes used 
idiomatically: Tumhehi dinnd bhavissanti, they 
must have been given by you (F. Jkt, 10) ; JIfato 
bhatnssatif he must be dead (Dh. 154) ; Esd p' ekd 
p^vaoikati bhapissati, that must be some sort of 
cake (Dh. 139) ; comp. F. J&t. 1 7. Rdjdno ahewm, 
became kings (Dh. 153), Purindadana Hld»anam 
u^ham ahait Indra's throne became hot (Ras. 19). 
Nirogo hutffdy having got well (F. Jit, 12). Mahd" 
nadi hutvdy turning into a river (F. Jitt, 3). Yadd 
punhakkhm/o hoti, when merit is exhausted, lit. 
when exhaustion of merit takes place (Eh. 13). 
Nekesam pd^takofinam dhamnMhiaamayo ahd, 
the conversion of many kofis of lieings took place 
(Mah, 3). Apassanto viya hutvd, behaving as if 
he did not see him (Dh. 241). With dat. "to 
serve to," "to cause *'; Atthdya me bhavissati, 
will be of use or service to me (Kb. 12) ; Ftttavi' 
ndsdya bhQV4$ti, leads to loss of wealth (Ras. 37). 
With gen. " to belong to " : Yaua bhamsHtti, to 
whom it belongs (P4t. 19) ; Kadd nu me bhaviuati. 
Oh when shall I possess ? (Att. 201). With gen. 
also " to befall *' : Th^ aniffhite yena marafiam 
OBsa he8sati, ere the shrine be completed death 
shall overtake him (Mah. 172; comp. Dh. 203). 
With loc. sometimes ^'to be occupied with" : Pan- 
capidhe oa te kduiagufie oitiam md bhavatu, and 
let not your thoughts be set on the ^ve kdmagunas 
(Ph. 421). With adverbs : Ekato bhaviudma, we 
shaU be together (Dh. 153) ; Tunht ahosi, was 
silent Tbe phrase etad ahoH with dat. is much 
used with the meaning of " he thought," lit. " it 
was to him;" the sentence is perhaps elliptical, 
the word cittam being understood. Atha kho 
tesam brdhm^pdnafh etad fihon, then those brah- 
mins thought thus, lit. to those brahmins this 
(thought) arose (Alw. I. Ixix). For further 
examples see Dh. 165, 199 ; Alw. 1. 100; Oog.Ev. 
8. At Dh. 353, we have a modification of this 
idiom, evam kir* assa qhoH, ^'thus he thought." 
The imperat. hotu is used in certain idiomatic 
phrases: Manused vd hontu tiracchdnd vd, no 
matter whether they be men or animals (F. Jdt. 
49) ; Tvam vd hohi tmno vd yo koci, be it thou or 
any one else (F. J&t. 19); Hotu nigga^hissdmi tarn. 






very well, Til rebuke him (Dh. 96). Yam hoH 
tarn hotu, be that as it may (F. J&t. 9). Yam vd 
tarn vd hotu, anyhow, in any case. Yathd vd tathd 
vd hotu, be it this way or be it that» anyhow. 
Bhavato bhaddam hotu, good lack to yon (Gl. €h*. 
137). Bhavati is sometimes compounded with a 
noun or adjective, of which the final vowel of the 
base has been changed to (, e.g. bhaxmibhavati, 
** to be reduced to ashes," mandibh6to, '* slackened." 
— The form hoti is of course a contraction of bha- 
vati (comp. anubhoti), and the disintegrated forms 
given at Alw. I. 48, 49, can all be easily traced 
to the root IJ. Thus ahu or ahud is the Sansk. 
^^Plj^l ahuvd is ^ni^, heuati is iff^rqfTT 
through the intermediate steps havissati, haissati; 
ahemm points to a 1st aor. form H^HIMm the 
transition being ahavisum, ahaisuni; hehitl is 
deduced from lif^f^f^ thus, bhavishyatl, havi- 
shyati, haisbyati, heshyati, hehiti; for the last 
step comp, ehiti :;= 1I]^f7T > hdhiti = lllXmHl 
(Dh. 369).— Imperf. abhavd, ahuvd (F. J&t. 7), 
2nd pers. plur. abhavattha, ahuvattha (Dh. 105). 
Imperf. Atm. 1st pers. plur. ahuvamha$e (F. Jdt. 13). 
Opt. bhave, bhaveyya, huveyya (Ab. 20; Dh. 422; 
Alw. I. 48). Imperat. bhavatu, hotu (Kb. 15). 
Ist Aor. ahon (Dh. 77 ; F. Jdt. 5), plur. ahesum 
(M ah. 182 ; F. Jdt. 6 ; Alw. I. 75) ; another form 
of the 1st Aor. is abhavi (Mah. 160). 2nd Aor. 
ahu, ahA (Mah. 17, 24, 25, 34, 35, 75 ; Dh. 308 ; 
B. Lot. 339 ; Alw. 1. 64), before a vowel sometimes 
ahud (see Ahudeva), plur. ahum (Mah. 58, 200, 
207)> 2ad pers. pi. ahumhd (Dh. 105). The 
future forms bhavUsati and heiaati are frequent 
(Mah. 18, 25, 157> 158), for some rarer forms see 
Alw. I. 47. Cond. abhaviami, ahavUsd (Dh. 203). 
Inf. bhavitum, hotum (Dh. 333 ; Pit. 68). Ger. 
hutvd, bhavitvd (F. Jdt. 3 ; Mah. 18). P. pres. 
honto (Dh. 200). Adj. bhavitabbo, hotabbo. Pass. 
bh^ati (Gl. Or. 120). P.p.p. bhdto. 

BHAVATl, see Bhavam. 

BHAVE, 1st pers. pres. Atm. from Bhavati; also 
drd pers. opt. Par. from Bhavati; also loc. sing, 
from Bhavo. 

BHAVETI (cans, bhavati). To cause to exist, to 
produce, to obtain ; to increase, to enlarge, to per- 
fect ; to be occupied with, to practise, to be versed 
in ; to develop the idea of, to dwell upon, to con- 
template [MT^RlfTf = W]. Pathamajjhdnam 
parittam bhdvetvd, having attained the lower 

degreeof thefirstJhina(Oog.Ev. 18). Buddha- 
bhdvam bhdvetvd &eva sacchikatvd ca^ havini; 
worked out and realized Buddhaship. KafAam 
dhammam vippahdya sukkam bhdvetha paf^dito, 
let him who is wise put away sin and grow in 
righteousness, lit. cause the holy state to increase 
(Dh. 16). BdgddidAsakam maggam bhdveti, at- 
tains the path which destroys lust and otlier 
sins (Alw. I. 33). Mettacittam bhdveti, develops 
charitable feelings. Evam pi sabbabh^eiu md- 
nasam bhdvaye aparimdnam, so let him cultivate 
boundless charity towards all beings (Kh. 16). 
Tarn cittam bhdveti, dwells on that thought Ma- 
ranasatim bhdvayimau, enlarged on the idea of 
death (Dh. 360). Aeubham bhdveti, realizes the 
idea of impurity, viz. attains asubhabh&vaiia 
(Dh. 63). Ptmca v-wttarV bhdvaye, let him de- 
velop ever more and more the five indriyas, viz. 
faith, energy, recollection, meditation, wisdom 
(Dh. 66, comp. v. 87)* See Dh. 382. 

BHAVl {adj.). Future [Wf^]- Ab. 1071; 
Mah. Ixxxvili. 

BHAVISSANTi (/.), The future tense, vlbhatti is 
understood [hPHWu]- Alw. I. 7. 

BHAVITABBO, and HOTABBO {adj,). That is 
or ought to be [Hf^HT^ = ^]* Used as an im- 
personal passive : Nanu appamattehi bhavitabbam, 
ought we not to be zealous ? (Dh, 81 ). Anhena pi 
Attadatthasadisen* eva bhavitabbam, others also 
should be like A. (Dh. 333). Dafidakam dad- 
petvd dkdae pakkantehi bhavitabbam, they most 
have made him take bold of the stick and have flown 
into the air (F. Jdt. 17). Vpajjhdyassa pacchdta- 
mavLcna hotabbam, he must be his teacher's atten- 
dant {Pit. xx). Dh. 407, 418, 419. 

BHAVITO {p.p.p. bhdveti). Increased, enlarged, 
perfected ; trained, practised ; occupied with, intent; 
attained; perfumed [irrf^^ = ^]- Ab. 307, 
1076. Yesani eambodhi-angetu aammd Httam 
subhdvitam, they whose mind is rightly versed in 
the branches of knowledge (Dh, 16) . Bhdvitattd, 
one whose soul is practised in religion (Dh« 20). 

BHAVO, Being, existence ; birth, origin ; renewed 
existence, Sams&ra; a birth or existence in the 
Buddhist sense; gain, increase, welfare [if^]. Ab. 
829. There are three Bhavas, kdmabhavo, rdpa- 
bhavo, ar&pabhavo, *' sensual existence, corporeal 




fnriittency, formless ezisteiioey'' that is, existence in 
the K^aloka, the R6pal<^a and the Ardpalolca 
respectively (see Loko). The three bhavas are 
collecdveiy termed hhavo^ "existence." BhavoMa 
pdragit, having passed throngh existence or Sam* 
sira, i.e, having attained Arahatta (Dh. 62). 
l^bhavahitakarOf benefactor of the three worlds 
(Mah. 20). Bhavesu eva laggd^ attached to the 
three modes of existence (Alw. N. 24). Atthtuno 
bkavo, an eighth birth (Kh. 8). Bhave bhave, in 
successive births (Dh. 409 ; B. Lot. 313). Bhavo 
ffibkavo, gain and loss (Dh. 50). Bhavena assa 
namdatiy rejoices at his prosperity. Man. B. 405 ; 
E. Mon. 290, 308; B. Int 493 ; B. Lot. 291 ; Dh. 
73, 413. Bhava is one of the links of the Pafi- 
ccasamnpp^da. It is one of the Asavas of the 
Esan^s, of the Tai^hds, of the Oghas, of the Yogas. 
BH AVO, Property, nature ; state, condition ; mean- 
ing, intention ; gesture ; amorous dalliance ; sub- 
stance, thing [^TR]. Ab. 177, 766, 807, 1087. 
Gambhfrabhdvo, profundity (B. Lot. 330). Make- 
Mhdvo, queen-consortship (Mah. 62). Tittdka- 
bhdvOj bitterness (F. Jdt. 6). Bhariydya ca puttd- 
nan ea arogabhdva^ pucchU asked after the health 
of his wife and children (Dh. 206). Yakkhabkdve 
ddfuavatk kathetvd, telling him of the evil of being 
a yakkba, lit. telling of the evil in the state of a 
yakkha (Dh. 305). Rathassa lahubhdvatthath^ 
to lighten the carriage, lit. for the sake of the light 
state of the carriage (Mah. 203). Majjabhdvmh 
oMunpatto, not having attained intoxicating pro- 
perties, Le. yet unfermented (P&t. xli). Sdsanadd- 
y6dabhdvam iceham, wishing to l>e a kinsman of 
religion, lit. wishing for the state of a kinsman to 
religioa (Mah. 36). FinieehayafthdHom ckadde- 
tabbabhdvam pil^ni, the police court had to be 
dosed, lit. reached the state of having to 1>e dosed. 
Bhiva as the last part of a compound is frequently 
vscd in constructions where we use the conjunction 
**^bai**i UdakoBta tattabhdvam jdnitvd, having 
ascertained that the water was boiling, lit. having 
ascertained the l>oiling state of the water (Dh. 106). 
gadrabhabhdvam hatvd, finding out that it 
an ass (F. Jdt. 15). Pamfthabhdoam addoia, 
saw that he had entered (Has. 19). Attano thita- 
bkdiHuh vd mMtnnabhdvam vd najdndH, he does not 
know whether he is standing or sitting ( Alw. 1. 80). 
Na nute puttena Maftakuftdaiind mayi numark 
pmMetvd aitano 9agge nibbattabhdvo kathito, did 

not your son M. tdl yon that having believed in 
me he had been bom in heaven ? lit. was not the 
fact of his having been bom in heaven after be- 
lieving in me told you by your son? (Dh. 98). 
Tdya tasaa attano sdmikabkdve akkhdte, the lact 
of his being her husband having l>een told by her 
(Dh. 156). F. J&t 9, 10 ; Dh. 94, 298, 434. 

BHAVYO (adj.)y Existing, being [1^9= IjJ. 

BHAYAA, Fear, fright; danger, calamity [iRT]. 
Ab. 166. Bhayadandvi and bhayadauhd, seeing 
danger, afraid (Dh. 6 ; Gl. Or. 40). Yadd dnbbhi^ 
kkharogddibhayafh dipamhi heisati, wherever 
there shall l>e calamity in the land, famine, plague, 
etc. (Mah. 249). N'aithijdgaraio bhayamyth»n 
is no danger to him that watches (Dh. 8). Gfam- 
hdbhayabhitOf afraid of l>dng blamed (Dh. 305). 
Mara^utbhayabhitOf terrified with the fear of death 
(F. 76t. 15 ; Dh. 155). Bhayabherawuk, fear and 
dismay (Mah. 72). 

BHAYANAKO (adj.). Frightful, horrible [HOT- 
If^]. Ab. 167* Yujjhamdno bhaydnako, dread- 
ful in fight (Mah. 154). Mah. 75 ; Ras. 20. Bha^ 
ydnako, the sentiment of terror, one of the ndfya^ 
rasas (Ab. 102). 

BHAYANKARO {adj.). Fearful, dreadful (l^^W^]. 

Ab. 167, 928, 989. 
BHAYATI, To fear, to be afraid of [ift]- With 

gen. Sabbe bhdyanti maceuno, all fear death (Dh. 

24). Aor. bh^ Md bhdyi, be not afraid (F. 

Jdt. 12). P.p.p. bhito. 
BHAYATTHO (adj.). In danger; terrified lVn+ 

^]. Mah. 3,6. 
BHEDAKO, One who breaks, one who causes dis* 

union [^^]. Pdt. 28. 
BHEDANAKO (adj.). Liable to be broken [^ipf 

+ 1|]. Pdt. 19 ; Alw. I. 64. 

BHEDANAlir, Breaking, division [^?^]. SarU 
rasaa bhedanam, maiming (Dh. 25). Silaaaa bhe^ 
danam, breach of a precept (Att. 202). 

BHEDETI (cans, bhindati). To break, to deave, to 
divide [^^[^8rfl!=.fii^]* Pp-P* bhedito (Ab. 

BHEDl(ai(;.), Breaking, cleaving [^f^i(J. Kh.22. 

BHEDO, Breaking ; rending ; division ; disunion ; 
breach, schism ; sort, kind [^]. Ab. 349, 759. 
KdyasM bhedd, after the dissolution of the body 
(Dh. 129 ; Mah. 201 ; B. Lot. 866). Silabhedo, 
breach of morality (Dh. 156). Futy-abhed^Uktfya, 





for the sake of not violathig metre (Bti. 7). ime* 
sam bkeddya, to ereale discord among these. 
SanghabhedOf caasing divisions among the priest- 

. hood. SUarogddibhedam phanumh vetUmatk, se- 
vere pain of different sorts, as headache, etc. (Dh. 
dOl). SattathkiobodhapakkhikadkamTnabhedo 
saddkammot saddhamma consisting of the thirty- 
seven hodhapakkhikadhammas (Dh. 201). Mafi' 
bkedo, a sort of gem (Ab. 907). Cka vhfvbkedd^ 
six kinds of wind (Ab. 38). Utubkedo, one of the 
seasons (Ab. 924). Alw. I. 64. 

BHEKO, A frog [^]. Ab. 675. 

BHERAiypO, A jackal [^^]. Ab. 615. 
BHEBAVO (adj.)y Fearfdl, terrible ^([^]. Ab. 

167. Neat, bkeravarii^ terror ( Ab. 166 ; Mah. 72). 

Dh. 130. 
BHERI (f), A ketUenlram, tomtom [f^]. Ab. 

143. Bhernfo vddentd, sounding tomtoms (F. 

JiL 15). Bkerim cardpeti, to proclaim by beat 

of drum, lit. to cause the tomtoms to be marched 

about (Alw. I. 74; Ras. 17, 18). 
BHESAJAJif, A medicine, drug [^im]- Ab. 380. 
BHESAJJAA, a medichie, drug [S^^m]. Ab. 

330 ; Mah. 38. Bkesajjarh yojeH or karoH^ to 
. compound a medicament (Dh. 89, 93 ; Mah. 243). 

Ekabhesajjen* eva akkkini pdkatikdtU ahetumf her 

eyes were cured with a single dose (Dh. 89). The 

&ve Bhesi^as are 9appi, nawmita, tela, tnadku, 

BHESAMO {adj.). Terrible [oomp. ^]. Ab. 167. 

BHEITA (m.). One who breaks [3^]. 
BHETVA, see BhindatL 

BHi (/.), Fear [^=t]- Ab. 731. 

BHIDA (/.), Difference, kind [fif^ . Ab. 451, 489. 

BHIJJANA]$[, Breaking up, dissolution. Dh. 359. 

BHIJJATI, see Bkindatu 

BHIJJO (adj.). To be broken [fl|V=DT^. 

BHIKKHA (/.), Begging; alms; begged food, 
boiled rice, food [^|^]. Ab. 759, 1112. Uita- 
rakuruto bhikkkam dkaritvd, having brought his 
repast from U. (Mah. 2.). Bhikkkam ga^hatha 

. me, receive your maintenance from me (Mah. 174). 
Mah. 213. 

BHIKKHACARIYA (/.), Going about for alms, 
going the rounds [fif^ -f ^n$T] • I'bis was one 
of the duties of the Buddhist priests, who were 
mendicant fnars. Dh. 392. 

BHIRKHAcARO, Going the nmads Ibr alms [tl^- 

^ + ^nt]- Dh. 81, 83, 132. 
BHIKKHATI, To ask for, to beg [f^^}. Bhu- 

kkhaie pare, begs of his neighbours (Dh. 47). 

BHIKKHU (in.), A begg;ar ; a mendicant friar ; a 
Buddhist priest [^Tf]- B. Int. 275; B. Lot. 
442; Ab. 415, 433; E. Mon. 11; Dh. 47. Ace 
bhikkhwk. Gen. and dat. bkikkhutio, bhikkhueia^ 
PL bMkkhavo, bhikkhA. Yoc. pi. bkikkhaw (P. 
J&t. 8 ; Dh. 255). 

BHIKKHUNi (/.), A female mendicant, a Buddhist 
nun or priestess [flTJ^ift] • £• Mon. 159 ; B. Int. 
278 ; Ab. 415 ; Mah. 35, 173. BhikkhunUangho, 
company of nuns, sisterhood (Dh. 314). Bhikkhm^ 
ndpaseayo, a nunnery (E^t. 13). 

BHIKKHUSANGHO, A company of priests ; the 
priests, the priesthood, the clergy [fH^ + ^Nl]* 
B. Lot. 435 ; B. Int. 282. At Mah. 150 the term 
is applied to %y% hundred priests. At F. Jdt. 45» 
to " a great number of priests." At Alw. I. z, it 
is used of the Ceylon clergy. Mdhdbhikkhueaigha, 
a great assembly of priests. 

BHiMO (a^\). Dreadful, horrible; cruel [ifVlf]* 
Ab. 1066. Bhimo, a Rakkhasa (CL Gr. 129). 
Neut. bhimam, horror (Ab. 167)9 

BHIMSANO (a^.). Dreadful, horrible [ifhRf]. 

Ab. 167; Mah.5,72, 15L 
BHIAsAPANAA, Terrifying, intimidation (see 

next). Pdt 47. 
BHIMSAPETI (com. bhdyati). To fri(^ten, to 

terrify [comp. )ff^^s=: iftj* P^ 15; Mah. 78. 
BHIASIKA (/), Terrifying, an alarm [oomp. 

^fhn]. Mah. 72. 

BHlNDANAtt, Breaking destroying (see next) 

BHINDATI, To break ; to break up, to injure, to 
destroy; to divide; to separate [fif^]. BMrndUvd 
dvdrask, breaking down a gate (Mah. 153). Bkeiva 
^hakofk, breaking the stake to which he was 
fastened (Mah. 217). PdfuitipdiddM pakkhipitffd 
tayo vede bkinditvd, breaking the three Vedas by 
introducing life-slaughter and other heresies (Alw. 
I. czxiv)^ BhindUvd miUaeangaham, altering the 
original recension (Alw. I. 63). Sanghmh b., to 
cause divisions among the priesthood (Dh. 332). 
8Uaik bhindoH, to break a precept (Dh. 156). 
Mah. 152, 261 ; Alw. I. 54.— Pass. bh^oH. Send 
bkyJiUha Ddmifi, the Tamul army gave way (Mah. 




154). Bhijjandne W^, as mornings was breaking 
(Mah. 249). Ihndhd bh., splits into two (Alw. 
I. 64). Pancadhd 6h,, is divided into seven sub- 
divisions (Has. 85). Sabbam pi sankhdragatam 
acauam yeva bh,, every living being assuredly 
perishes (Mah. 194). Sace hattho vd pddo vd bhij- 
Jeyyoy if a hand or foot were to be broken (Dh. 234). 
TofM akkhini bh\jjitvd agamamsuy his eyesight 
was destroyed and lost (Dh. 211, 82, 83). Bubbu- 
fam bh,, a bubble bursts. Angam bk., a precept 
is broken. Bijam bhijjitvd dH manddko, the egg 
having been hatched there was a frog (Mah. 245). 
P.p.p. bhinno. 

BHINDIVALO, A sort of spear [ fiifi^Ml^^] - 

BHINGARAJO, Name of a shrub, Eclipta Prostrata 
[^ + TT^]. Ab.695. 

BHINKARO, A golden vase [^^fK]- Ah. 359; 
Alw. K. 97 ; Mah. 70. 

BHINKO, A young elephant. Ab. 362. 

BHINNAKO (adj.). Schismatic [f^^IV] . Mah. 21. 

BHINNO (p.p.p. bhindaii). Broken ; divided ; dis- 
miited; separated; other, different; joined, con- 
nected. Ndffdya bhinndya, the ship having been 
wrecked (F. J&t. 4 ; Dh. 368). Bhinndnam san- 
dkdtdf a reconciler of those who are at variance. 
Bhinnalitigath, different genders (Gl. Gr. 84). 
BhinnavddOj a heresy or schism (Alw. I. 64). F. 
JiX. 17 ; CI. Gr. 139 ; Dh. 104. 

BHiRU {adj.)y Timid, afraid \yft\\ • Ab. 731, 1019. 
F. Bhiru, a timid or modest woman (Ab. 231, 1019). 

BHiRUKO (a4/.). Timid, afraid [)ft^]. Ab.731, 

1019 ; Dh. 154. 
BHIRUTA (/.),Timidity, dread [^Hm] • Att. 203. 
BHISAKKO, A physician [fifinij. Ab. 329. 
BHISAA, The film or fibres of the stalk of the water 

lily [fif^]. Ab. 687- Bhisapuppkam, a lotus 

flower (Ab. 685; Dh. 304 ; Ras, 77, 89). 
BHISI (/.), A mat, or mattrass [^p^]. Dh. 251 ; 

Fit. 12, 86, 87. 
BHlSlIiO (a4f\). Timid [ift + ifNl] • Ab. 731. 
BHlTIC/:),Fear[ifVfiT]. Ab. 166. 
BHiTO (p.p.p. bhdyaH), Frightened, afrud [if^ 

= ifV] • Mah. 198 ; Dh. 55. See Bhayam. 
BUilTI (/.), A wall of earth or masonry [flTpfT]. 

Ab.204; Mah. 261. 
BHiYO, and BHIYYO (adj.). More [ijjt^. Ab. 


BHiYO, and BHIYYO (adv.\ Again, further, be- 
sides ; repeatedly, frequently ; much [H]Q^]. 
Ab. 957. Bhiyyo tuttho, greatly delighted (Mah. 
36). Dh. 3, 55, 63, 102 ; Mah. Izxxix. Bkiyyo- 
bhdvOf abundance. 

more, exceedingly, abundantly [ira^B[^+dat. 
^mr]. Dh. 188, 340 ; O. Gr. 76, 137. 

BHO (interj.). Oh ! I say t Sir I Friend ! [ift 
and Ht^]- Ab. 1139. This is a familiar term 
of address, and is used to inferiors and equals. 
Ayam bko ko nu dipo. Pray, Sir, what island is 
this ? (Mah. 47). Imetam sUam chindatha bhoj 
here ! cut off their heads (Mah. 218). Passatha 
bko imam sariram, just look at this body (Dh. 127). 
Alam bko nisidatha, nay, my friends, be seated. 
Used by a king to his younger brother (Mah. 198). 
By a bird to a lion (F. Jat. 13). By a king to a 
peasant (Mah. 231). By a king to a rakkhasa 
(Ras. 21). By a king to his servants (Mah. 160, 
261). By a king to a Ndga-king (Mah. 27). See 
Bkovddi and Vata. 

BHOGAVA (adj.). Wealthy [^Mt>RR|[]. Ab. 1094 ; 
Mah. 60, 262. 

BHOGi (m.), A snake ; a village headman [Htf^^O * 
Ab. 653, 1094 ; Mah. 243 ; Alw. I. 79. 

BHOGlNl (/.), A royal concubine [Htf'WV]- 
Ab. 232. 

BHOGO, A snake's body ; a snake's expanded hood ; 
a fold; eating, enjoying; food; wealth [Yffr]* 
654, 859. Charabhoffo, the fold of a robe (Alw. 
I. 103). Parikkhipitvd bhogeM, encircling him 
with its folds (Mah. 255). Bhogaadld, boarding 
house (Mah. 248, comp. 245). YasabhogasamappitOf 
gifted with fame and wealth (Dh. 53). Bhatta' 
bhogo, eating rice (Mah. 231). Saha bhogena, 
with a dowry (Mah. Ixxxix). Bhogakkhandho, 
accumulation of property. PI. bhogd, riches (Dh. 
64,79). ^^^0^0, poor (Mah. 262). 

BHOJAKO, A village headman [ift^n]. Mah. 
142 ; Dh. 187. 

BHOJANAM, Food [ift^R]. Dh. 13. Bkojanamhi 
matte^u, moderate in eating (Dh. 2). Mahdbho' 
jano, a glutton (Dh. 401). Bhqjanasdld, an alms- 
house where food is distributed by the priests. 

BHOJANIYO (ca(;.), To be eaten [^t^^ifhr]. 
Neut. bhojaniyarh, soft or wet food (opposed to 
khddaniyam), as boiled rice or other grain, gruel, 





etc. Pdt. 89 says, ''rice, sour grael, soft cake, 
fish, meat." Comp. Bhoijam. Dh. 98, 231, 333. 

BHOJAPETI {caus. bhurijati). To feed, entertain. 
Mah. 23, 62. 

BHOJETI {cans, bhuf^att). To cause to eat, to feed ; 
to maintain; to entertain [lft^RrfH=H^- 
With two ace. Tarn hhojetvd varabhojanaiht 
having caused him to eat choice food (Mah. 152). 
Mah. 23, 49, 136, 261. Pass. bhofit/aH (Sen. 
K. 350). 

BHOJl (adj.). One who eats [^^f^P^]. Dh. 146. 

BHOJJO {adi.\ To he eaten, edible [ift^ = ^] . 
Rdjabhqjjdya jambuydf of the jambu to be eaten 
by the king (Mah. 229). The neut. bhajjath is 
used like bhqfanUfam, of soft or wet food (see 

BHONTO, BHOTi, see Bhavam. 

BHOTTA (in.), One who eats or enjoys [^JtfJ- 

BHOTTABBO (adj.). To be eaten [Htm]- 

BHOTTUM, see Bhuf^aH. 

BHOVADi (ill.), One who says Bho, a brahmin 
[Ht + ^nf^ ] • Ab. 408. This term is applied 
reproachfully by the Buddhists to the brahmins. 
Unconverted brahmins are always represented as 
saying bho Chtama to Buddha (e.g. see Dh. 98, 
349 ; Oog. £v. 31), and this must have been very 
displeasing to Buddhists, who in addressing their 
Master always used the reverential address bhante, 
** lord." Bho is a familiar term of address, and by 
using it to Buddha the brahmins implied that they 
considered themselves his equal or superior. The 
epithet bhovddi therefore implies arrogance or 
haughtiness, and at Dh. v. 396, Bhovddi ndma so 
hotiy might be translated freely ''he is called 
Arrogant." See Bho, 

BHtT (/.), The earth [^]. Ab. 182, 1069. Loc. 
bhuffi (Ab. 1052). Alw. I. ix. 

BHC (/.), An eyebrow [^]. Ab. 259, 876, 1059. 

BHCBHUJO, A king [^J^]- Ab. 334. 

BHODHARO, a mountain [^+ VT]- Ab. 605. 

BHUJA (/.), and BHU JO, The arm [^]. Ab. 
265. Parakkamabhujoy having a mighty arm 
(Alw. I. x). 
BHU J AGO, A snake [^^W]- Ab. 653 ; Alw. I. ix. 

BHUJANGAMO, A snake [^^A^lif]. Ab. 653; 

Mah. 72. 
BHUJANGO, A snake [^^]. Ab. 653; 

Mah. 6. 

BHCJAPATTO, The Bhojpatr tree, a kind of birch 
[^ + inr]- Ab. 665. 

BHUJASIRO, The shoidder E^ + fip^BG- 
Ab. 264 

BHUJISSO, A freed slave, a freedman ; a freemaB 
[^f^] . Ab. 616 ; Dh. 88 ; Kamm. 4. 

BHOMARO, Having stages or stories [^ + ^]. 
Latter part of a good many compound words, e.g. 
dvebhUmako, ^wo storied (Dh. 249), pahcabhimako, 
five storied (Mah. 226), sattabhdmako (Mah. 235), 
tibh^mako (Att. 138), dvibh^mako (ditto). See 
also Tebh^mako, ISni is found in Sanskrit at 
the end 'of some compounds as a substitute for 
vfif, oomp. in P^ navfobhUmo, having nine stories 
(Mah. 161). 

BHCMI (/.), The earth ; place ; stage, degree, state; 
the grround ; story of a house [^f^l]* Ab. 181, 
1098. Bh^mibhdgOf spot, place, area, district (Att 
8, 135). YakkhoiOHgdmabh^mi, the meeting plaoe 
of the Yakkhas (Mah. 3). Jdtabh6mi, buthplaoe. 
Bh^micdlo, earthquake (Mah. 108 ; Gog. Ev. 20). 
Apdnabhdmiy a tavern. Jayabh^mi, field of vic- 
tory (Mah. 156). Fdsabh^mif dwelling- phoe 
(Mah. 6). Ydvatikd ydnassa bh^mi ydnena gantvdt 
having driven as far as the ground was practicable 
for a chariot (Dh. 231). NavakoUhi bh^fuim 
ganhi, bought the site for nine kotis (Dh. 249). 
Bh^miyam pati, fell to the ground (Mah. 152). 
Bh^miyd utthahiriuu, came out of the ground 
(Dh . 88). Tasmim pdsddasetthasmim ahentm nava 
bh&miyo, in this noble palace there were nine stories 
(Mah. 163). Hetthdbh^i, ground floor (Dh. 250). 
Puthujjantuekkhabh^mim atikkamitvd, baring; 
risen above the degrees of puthtyjana and seldia 
(B. Lot. 297). Buddhabh^mi, supreme Baddha- 
ship (Kb. 14). Dantabhdmim pdpundti, attains 

• the condition of one who is self-controlled (Dh. 
400). Figuratively, the basis or groundwork of 
religious knowledge (B. Mon. 193). The three 
bhdmis or stages of being are Icdmdvacarabkimi, 
Hipdvacarabh^mi, ar^pdvacarabh^mu The six- 
teen Brahmalokas are classed in five bhdmis or 
stages ; the first three form the pafhamajfhdna' 
bh&miy ** stage or region of the first jhdna,'' the 
next three the dutiyajjhdnabh^mh the next three 
the t^tiyajjhdnabhdmi, the tenth and eleventh are 
called catutthajjhdnabhdmiy and the five last 
pancamddhdvdsabh^mi, Alw. 1. 93 ; Dh. 250, 267 ; 
Mah. 164, 166, 255. 




BH0MIKA(/.), A story or stage [l|finT]. JM- 
bkimiko, two-storied (Pdt. 87). TUbh&mikoy three- 
storied (Pit 87). See Catudh£miko. 

BH CMINIK), A king [l^ = XJ^] . Mah. 161. 

BHOMIPALO,Akiiig[^^+^TW]. Mah. 25. 
BHOMIPO, A king [^[|if + ^]. Ab. 334 ; Mah. 

BHUMMATTHARAJ^AA, a carpet [^ + V- 

^rCW]- Oh- ^74, 250; Mah. 82, 164. 
BHUMMAITHO (adj.). Standing on the ground. 


BHUMMO(ac(f.)> Terrestrial [^lar]* Bhummddevd, 
devas who inhabit this earth (Mah. 81). Mah. 166; 
Kh. 6. Bhumma is a name of the locative case. 

BHOnATHO, a king [^+ ^TRf]. Ab. 334. 

BHU^JANAJM[, Enjoying, eating (see next). Ab. 

BHUNJATI, To eat, to partake of, to enjoy; to 
possess, to govern [^pi^]. Mamsam bh,, to eat 
flesh (Has. 22). Bhqfanaih bh,, to partake of food 
(Dh. 13). Bhutvd dvdda$d vatsdniy having ruled 
for twelve years (Mah.253). Fut. bhokkhate (Das. 
7). Aor. bh^ji (Mah. 136, 255). Inf. bhottum 
(AIw. I. 14). Ger. bhutvd (F. J&t. 54 ; Ras. 22 ; 
Dh. 215). P.p.p. bhutio. Cans, bhojeti, bhuhjdpeti. 

BHUf^Jl (adj\), Eating [^= 1C<|. Dh. 401. 
BHCFAIiO, A king[l|^+ VilWi]* Ab.333; Alw. I. x. 
BHOPATI (m.), A king [^+lrf7r]. Ab. 333; 

Mah. 12, 150. 
BHOPO, a king [ygq]. Mah. 70, 108. 
BHORI (a4f»)t Much, many, abundant [Hf^* Ab. 

703, 1131. BMripanno, one whose wisdom is 

great, viz. Buddha (Ab. 2). 
BHORI (/.), Wisdom. Dh. 50 ; Ab. 153, J1131. 
BHORI (/.), The earth [^fij or ^^f^^. Ab. 

BHOSAC/.), Adornment [^^]. RdjabhAsdykinglj 

apparel (Mah. 218). 

BHUSAA, Chaff of corn [ipr]- Ab.453. OpundH 
pmtAd bhutam, winnows like chaff (Dh. 45). 

BHUSA A (adv.), Mach, exceedingly [H^Qi^] . Bhu- 
smm rmvit shouted vehemently (Mah. 203). Bhu' 
g^ipamattot very careless (Kh. 8). See Bktuo, 

BHOSANAlIk, Ornament [^[||nr]. Alw. I. x. 

BHDSJSTI, and BHOsAPETI, To adorn [^] 
Mah. 26, 218. P.p.p. bhMto (Mah. 63, 173, 182). 

BHUSO (adj\)y Much, excessive [)p(]. Ab. 41 ; 
Db. eO. See BhuMuk. 

BHOTADHARA (/.), The earth [^ + V<|. 

Ab. 182. 
BHOTAGAMO, Vegetation, as grass, plants, shrubs, 

trees [^ + ITRf ] - P^t. 12, 85 ; Dh. 364 ; Gog. 

Ev. 15. 
BHOTAPATI (lit.), Indra [lj?t + irfTf] . Ab. 19. 

BHOTAPO, A yakkha chief or king [^ + ^] . 
Mah. 49. 

BHOTAPUBBO (adj\\ That has been or existed 
before [^+ ^1]. Dh. 126. Abhitapubboy that 
has never existed before (Dh. 205). 

BHOTATTAA, State of being a bh6ta [^+ ?f]. 

BHOTAVAdI (adj\). Speaking according to facts, 

truthful [^4- ^Tf^n.]- 
BHOTAVEJJO, An exorcist (see next). 
BHCTAVUJA (/.), Knowledge of spirits or demons, 

exorcism [Wf + l^m]- Mah. 232. 
BH0TI(/.), Being, existence, birth ; welfare [^f^]. 

Ab. 1054. BMtabMHpardyanOf devoted to the 

welfare of living beings (Mah. 172). 

BHOTINAA, and -lyAKAlit, A fragrant grass, 
Andropogon Schoenanthos [H^^] * Ab. 602. 

BHDTO (P'P'P' bhavati). Been, become, being; 
gone, past, former; real, true, right [^|]^=^]- 
Ab. 788. BMto and bMtam, a living being ; a 
spirit; an evil spirit or demon;- vegetation, as 
trees, shrubs, grass; an Arhat; the five Khandhas. 
^—Kin nu kho katvd gihtbMto jhissdmif what 
shall I do for a living when I turn layman ? (Dh. 
199). BMid vd tambhavesi vd, born or seeking 
birth (Kh. 16). Manussabhdtd kim akdsi punnam, 
what good deed did you do when you were a human 
being? (Dh. 99). Manu9»abhdtdf human beings 
(F. J&t. 1). Bhutabhdvo, state of being past, 
anteriority (Ab. 1182). BMtd bhdmno ca bhdpd, 
past and present kings (Mah. Ixxxviii). Bh^takdh, 
time to speak the truth (Kamm. 4). PdfUibhdto, 
a living being (Kh. 15). KhatiiyabhdtOy bhdtO' 
khatthfOt one who is or was a Khattiya (CI. Gr. 78). 
Lankdlankdrabh^a^ Hemam^ikaceUyam, the H. 
cetiya which was the ornament of Ceylon (Mah. 
108). AsahdyabhAto, companionless (B. Lot. 332). 
SucibMtOy purified, pare. Pubbe agdriyabhdto, 
formerly when he was a layman. BMtd ( 
and bMtdnif living beings (Dh. 24, 72), also spirits 
whether good or bad (Kh. 6). Ab. 13 enumerates 
Bhdtas (masc.) among the demigods (gandha- 
bbas, yakkhas, etc.) Bh6ta is also stated to be a 




generic name for all beings below the Cdtumma- | 
b&rdjika gods. Clough in his Simh. Diet, grives 
the foil, meanings to Bh6ta, " a goblin, a ghost, a 
malignant spirit haunting cemeteries, larking in 
trees, animating carcases, and deluding or derour- 
ing human beings; a demigod of a particular 
class ; a tree, a plant, a shrub, a creeper, etc. ; a 
son, a child ; a name of Siva ; the I4th day of the 
dark half of a lunar month; an element • .; 
a living being ; figure, identity ; thought, percep- 
tion ; fact, matter of fact ; the real state of the 
case, or what has actually been; adj. evident, 
apparent, known ; been, become ; gone, past ; (in 
composition) like, resembling; obtained, got; 
proper, right ; true." For the elements see Mahd- 

BHUTTAVA (pret. participle). Having eaten [^- 
ir^^]. CI. Gr. 119. 

BHUlTAVl (flfij/.), Having eaten [^H-ftft]. 
CI. Gr. 119. 

BHUTTI (/.), Eating, enjoying [^[Rf]. Ah. 1103. 

BHUTTO {p4>p* bhttr{fati). Eaten ; possessed, used 
[^711=^1^]. BhuttapdtardsOf having break- 
fasted (Alw. 1. 73, 76 ; Dh. 401). Pattam bhuttam 
satthundy the bowl used by the Teacher (Mah. 105). 
Ab. 757 ; Dh. 54 ; Mah. 158. 

BHUTVA, see Bhutyatu 

BHUVANAft, The world [^pnr]. Ab. 186. 

BHUVI, see Bh6. 

BHOYATI, see Bhavati. 

BiBHACCHO {adj\). Loathsome, dreadful ; altered, 
disguised [^ftH^Or]- Ab. 1067. B(bhaccham, the 
horrible, is one of tiie N&tyarasas (Ab. 102). 

Bl J AGAMO, Collection of germs [^f^ + JH^] • 
The comment on Brahmajdia Sutta says that by 
this term are meant the five sorts of b(ja or germs, 
viz. m^labijam, khandhabijathy aggab\jamy phalu' 
b^jathy bijabijam : it adds, sabbam h'etam rukkhato 
viyojitam virdhanasamattham eva, "for each of 
these is able to gprow when separated from the tree." 
Gog. Ev. 15. 

Bl JAA, a germ ; a seed ; cause, origin ; pudendum 
l^tm]' Ab. 91, 273, 950. B/;a6(;V/m, seed germ. 
Bfjajdtdni, plants or vegetables (Gog. Ev. 55). 
BiJakoM, seed-pod (Ab. 687). Pakkhibijamy bird's 
e^g (Ab. 627). Bijapdroy the citron (Ab. 577). 
Manddkabfjafhy frog-spawn (Mah. 245). At Mah. 
87 a mango stone is called bija, Figrnratively 

Karma u called the bija, rix. seed or canse of ex* 
istenoe (Dh. 284 ; Kh. 10). Mah. 166; P&t 80. 

BILALAlir, A sort of salt. Ab. 461. 

BILALO, A cat [f^TITW]. Ab. 642, 1090. 

BILAld, A hole, a chasm [f^] . Ab. 649, 1092, 
1100; Mah. 243. Ndsikdbilatky orifice of the 
nostril (Mah. 245). 

BILAiar, A part, a bit [f^]. Ab. 1100. 

BILANGO, Sour gruel. Ab. 460. 

BILARO, A cat [ftTTt]- Ab. 615. Sec ako 

BILASO {adv.)y Bit by bit [t^+U^]- ^^' ^' 

BILLO, The tree-ffigle Marmelos [f^Rf]. Ab.65d. 

BIMB A (/.), A name of Yasodhard [finirT] • Ab. 336. 

BIMBIKA (/.), The plant Momordica Monadelpha 
[fTO + l[^]. Ab. 591, 920. 

BIMBISARO, Name of a king of Magadha, a con- 
vert of Buddha [f^H^ + ^T]- ^- ^^^ ^^' 
Alw. I. 72. 

BIMBO, and BIMBA]!^, Tlie disk of the sun or 
moon ; an image, a figure ; the fruit of Momordica 
Monadelpha [ftur] • Ab. 529, 920 ; Dh. 27, 232. 

BIMBOHANAM, A pUlow. Ab. 311 ; Dh. 261. 

BINDU (w.), A drop ; a spot ; a little circle or dot 
used as a symbol for Anusvdra ; one of the high 
numerals, 10,000,000', or 1 followed by 49 dphers 
[f^]. Ab. 129, 475, 600, 1115. 

BlRANAl£[, A fragrant grass, Andropogon Mnrica- 
tum [^Hr]. Ab. 601 ; Dh. 60 ; F. J4t. 9. 

BODDHUM, See Bujjhati. 

BODH AKARO, One whose duty it is to awaken a 
prince with music and song, a Vet^lika [^lV+ 
^R^. Ab. 396, 

BODHANAI^, Knowing, understanding [llW]- 
Alw. I. xvi. 

BODHANNEYO (adj\)y Explained by SabhAti to 
mean one who has attuned the degree of sotApatti, 
or any other of the Four Paths, a converted man 
[iJt^+lOT]' Clough says in his Simh. Diet 
" studious, acquiring knowledge, attentive to the 
particular study of Buddhism.** Dh. 230 ; Kb. 21. 

PAKKHI YO, and -IKO (adj\). Accessory to the 

Bodha or supreme knowledge [WtV ^^ Wtv^ "'" 
TVrf^n]. Thesattatinuabodhapakkhiyddhammd, 

or thirty-seven constituents of true knowledge, are 

the four Satipatth&nas, the four Sammappadhdnas, 

the four Iddhipddas, tlie five ludriyas, the ^y^ 


( 93) 


Balas, the seven Bojjhangfas, and the Ariyo Atfhan- 
giko Maggo (Att 57 ; Alw. I. 87 ; Man. B. 497). 
B0dhapakkhiyo (Alw. I. 77, 87 ; Dh. 180, 273). 
ilMtti^Mift^Ai^o (Dh. 201, 209). B. Lot. 430. 

BODHATI, This conjugation of the root ^ is 
little used in P&li, see Bujjhati. 

BODHETI (com. bujjhati). To inform ; to teach ; 
to cause to blossom [4tV|4f7t = W^\ Mafa. 41 ; 
CLGr. 127; Alw. I. 111. 

BODHI {m. and/.). The knowledge possessed by 
a Buddha, supreme or infinite knowledge, omni- 
sdence, the Troth ; Boddhahood ; the supernatural 
knowledge of an Arhat; a Bodhi tree ; a precept 
[^1f^]. Ab. 551, 805; B. Int. 77, 295, 388; 
E. Mon. 155 ; CI. Gr. 39 ; Mali. 86, 179. Bodhim 
paivd, having attained supreme knowledge or 
Bnddhahood (Mab. 10). Bodhito atthame vane, 
in the eighth year of his Buddhahood (Mah. 7). 
Paceekabodhi, the condition or knowledge of a 
Pacceka Buddha (Kb. 14). Bodhimdle, at the 
foot of the Bo tree (Mafa.2). — Each Buddha attains 
Bnddhahood seated under a tree, which from tliat 
time becomes a sacred object, and is called Bodhi' 
mkkko or " tree of Buddhahood," and idso simply 
BodkL C&kyamnni's Bo tree was an Assattha, or 
Ficns Religiosa, that of his predecessor Kassapa 
a Nigrodha or Indian fig. The tree under which 
pikyamuni attained Buddhaship no longer exists, 
but a branch or shoot from It was planted at Anu- 
ridhapnra in Ceylon in B.C. 288, and the tree 
grown from this still flourishes. At the present 
day every individual tree of the Assattha species is 
called a Bodhirukkha, and possesses a certain 
sanctity. In the grounds of every Buddhist temple 
or monastery there stands a Ficos Religiosa, 
around which is built a stone terrace a few feet 
high. The tree stands within a yard or inclosure 
which is kept carefuUy swept The Bo tree occu- 
pies in modem Buddhism the same position that 
tiie Cross occupies in Christianity ; it is not wor- 
shipped, but venerated as the symbol of Buddha's 
triumph, — According to Ab. 805, bodhi is fem. 
when it means knowledge, masc. when it means 
ordinance, and m. or f. when it means Bo tree. 
For bodhi'^tngOt see Bqjjhango, See Bodho and 
Makdbodhi. The word Bo is the Siihhalese cor- 
ruption of Bodhi. 

BODHIMALAKO, The sacred indosure In which a 
Bo tree stands [^Yf%f + IVT^Rl]- Ras. 38, 74. 

BODHIMANPALAA, The region surrounding the 
Bo tree under which C&kyamunl attained Buddha- 
ship, considered the most sacred spot in India 
[^tf^ + ^FHOnr]- Man.B. 4; Has. 39. 

BODHIMAI^O, The miraculous throne under the 
Bodhi tree upon which C^yamuni sat when he 
attained Buddhahood [WtfM + W^^ - B. Int. 
387; B. Lot. 349 ; Kb. 20 ; Mah. 250 ; Dh. 118, 
280. I infer from Alw. I. evil, that the term is 
also applied to the raised terrace built under the 
Bo tree, within the precincts of a Buddhist temple. 
This terrace Is, I presume, in imitation of C&lcya- 
muai's Bodhim anija. 

BODHIPAKKHIYO, See Bodhapakkhtyo. 

BODHISATTO, A being destined to attain Buddha- 
ship ['iftfV + HtA] - "^iB tei"°^ ^8 applied to a 
Buddha in his various states of existence previous 
to attaining Buddhahood. Thus Cikyamual was 
a Bodhisatta in the Dadhivahana J4taka when he 
was the wise counsellor, in the Javasaku^a birth 
when he was a bird, and so on (F. J4t. 30, 36). 
In his last existence when born as the son of king 
Suddhodana he was still a Bodhisatta, and con- 
tinued so until the age of 34, when he attained 
Buddhahood. Metteyya, the coming Buddha, is 
now a Bodhisatta in the Tusita heaven. Amhdkank 
Bodhisatto, our Bodhisatta, i.e. 9^yiunnni In a 
previous existence (Ras. 14). 

BODHO, Knowledge, wisdom, intelligence ; supreme 
knowledge, Buddhaship [^1v] • Ab. 944. Dat 
Bodhdyapaftidhim akd^ made a prayer for Buddha- 
ship (Mah. 1). B. Lot. 340. See Bodhi. 

constituent of Bodhi. There are seven Bojjhangas, 
or requisites for attaining the supreme knowledge 
of a Buddha, satisambqjjhango, dhammavicayas*, 
viriyas,, pitis., patsaddhis.y samddhis., upekhds,, 
** recollection, investigation, energy, joy, calm, con- 
templation, and equanimity." Bojjhanga and 
sambojjhanga are Identical in meaning. B. Lot. 
796 ; Man. B. 498 ; Kb. 4. 

BONDI (m.), The body. Ab. 151. This word 
points to a form if^f^from ^T^. Comp. Bundo. 

BRAHA {adj.). Large, great [^f«?[]. Ab. 700. 
Fem. brahati, name of a plant (Ab. 588). 

BRAHMA (m.), Mah&brahma; the Hindu Brahma; 
a Brahmin ; parents; a Brahma angel ; a Buddha ; 
an Arhat [if^p^. Ab. 408, 812. Tlie names at 
Ab. 5 belong to the Hindu god Brahma. 




Ace ^ahmdnoA, liutr,hrahmund,hvhmand(Dh* 
19, 41). Qen. and dat. brahmuno. FL brahmdito. 
There is also an adj. brahma, with the meaning 
<'be8t»""ezeellent/' Brahmatknidkhnapdlaiftim, 
guarded a noble treasure (Ten J. 97). BrakmO' 
cakhampavatteti, establishes the supremacy of his 
glorious law (see Dhamnuteakkofk), Brahmam «a- 
bbamutiMf^mkj his sublime omniscience. Brahma^ 
bMto, noble» excellent Comp. BrahmaghoiOf 
BrahmaviAdro. See Mah4brahmdf Brahmari^, 
Brahmaloko, The adjective brahma is I think 
declined brdhmo^ brahmd (f.), brahmam* 

BRAHM ABANDHU (m.), A Brahmin [Wip^ + 
^]. Ah. 408. 

BRAHMAGARl(a4;.)» A religious student ; celibate, 
chaste, holy [WVP^+^TTfT^]* ^b- ^^i ^^ ^• 

BRAHMACARIYAA, The duties or practice of a 
religions student; celibacy; chastity, parity; the 
life of holiness led by the sanctified ; living ac- 
cording to Buddha's precepts; charity or alms- 
giving ; the practice of the AppamaM&s [?n|pl. 
+ ^]. Ah. 782; Man. B. 482; B. Int. 141 ; 
Alw. I. 92; Db. 28, 56, 379. Brakmaeariyatk 
caraH, to live a religions life (Dh. 124 ; Alw. 1. 72). 
Brakmaeariyd (/.) at Rh. 6. 

BRAHMAGARIYAVA {adj.). Celibate, chaste, 

virtuous, holy [Wiprt + WW]. I>h. 47. 
BRAHMACARIYAVASO, Living as a religious 

student ; living a life in accordance with Buddha's 

low [irVnrt + ^m\* I>h. 121 ; B. Lot. 896. 
BRAHMAOHOSO, Either a voice like Mah4- 

brahma's, or a glorious voice [in|P( + ^4t^]- 

Has. 26 ; Ten J. 97. See Brahmd. 
BRAHMAJALAA, Name of a sermon of Buddha, 

the first of the Sutta Pifaka [ITIPC + ^Tm]* 
BRAHMAJO (adj.)y Sprung from Brahma (of a 

Brahmin) [inip^ + 11]. 

BRAHMAKAYIKO {adj.\ Belonging to the snite 
of Mahdbrahma [HIP^ + ^ITH + f|^] • The 
Brahmakdyikd devd are I believe the Inhabitants 
of the three lowest Rdpabrabmalokas. B. Int. 609. 

BRAHMALOKO, World or heaven of Brahma 
angels, Brahma world [Wint+ ^^ft^]* '^^ 
Brahmaloka is divided into the RApabrahmaloko 
*< world of corporeal Brahmas," and the ^rtf- 
pabrahmalokOf « world of formless Brahmas." 
Tlie Rdpabrahmaloka consists of sixteen heavens 
placed one abov« the other, and inhabited by 



Brahma devas or angels of different sorts. The 
Ardpabrahmaioka (see separate article) contains 
four heavens, and is placed immediately above the 
Rdpabrahmaloka. The following are the names 
of the inhabitants of the sixteen Rdpabrahmalokas, 
beginning with the lowest : Brahmapdri$qjjd devd, 
Brahmapurohiid detfd, Mahdbrdhmd devd, Parti* 
idbhd devd, ^ppamdpdbhd devd, AbhoMeard devd, 
Pariitasubhd devd, AppamdfMuubhd devd, Smbha^ 
kif^devd, Fehapphald devd, A»mna»atid devdf 
Avihd devd, Atappd devd, Sudastd devd, Sudaesf 
devd, AkatUffhd devd. Each of the sixteen iiea vens 
is called RdpabrahmaUko, ** a corporeal-Brahma 
heaven," or simply Brahmaloko, " a Brahma 
heaven " ; while the whole are called collectively 
Rdpabrahmaloko, ** the corporeal-Brahma worid, 
or simply Brahmaloko "the Brahma worid. 
The word Brahmaloko may therefore mean either 
one of the twenty Brahma heavens, or one of the 
sixteen Rdpabrahma heavens, or the twenty 
Brahma heavens collectively, or the sixteen R6pa- 
brahma heavens collectively. The Brahmas are 
a higher order of angels than tlie devas of tiie 
Devaloka, being free from k&maor sensual passions, 
and insensible to heat and cold. In some of the 
worlds they are self-resplendent, and have purely 
intellectual pleasures ; those of the Rdpabrahma- 
loka have a form or body, but those of the Arii- 
pabrahmaloka are mere effulgences or spirits with- 
out form. Man. B. 26, 43 ; Mah. 31, 81 ; Alw. I. 
xlii ; Dh. 103, 188, 329. See Sattaloko. 

BRAHMAM, The practice of austere devotion ; the 
Vedas [iflPl]. Alt. 812. Comp. Brahmd. 

BRAHMANAMAHASALO, a wealthy Brahmin 
[WTVW "^ 4ff mi^] • The qualification for a B. 
is said to be eight kofis of treasure, and a daily 
expenditure of ten amma^as (Ah. 338). Db. 348. 
See Mahdedh. 

BRAHMAJyl (/.), A Brahmin woman [iTIlN^]- 
Alw. I. xlv. 

BRAHMAf^f^ATA (/.), The state of being a Brah- 
min, Brahminhood [l||f|li||+ K\\. Dh. v. 332, 
but the comment explains it to mean dutiful con- 
duct towards Br&hma^as, i.e. Arhats. 

BRAHMAl^fO, A Brahmin; an Arhat [HTfrU]- 
Ab. 408. Though Buddha constantly spoke against 
the doctrines and pretensions of the Brahmins, he 
adopted the appellation Briihnuqia into his own 
system, using it to designate an Arhat, or one who 




has obt^ed final sanctification. Thas at Dh. 408 
the term is applied to Boddhas, Paccekabaddhas 
and Sdvakas (or Arab&s) ; and in the Brdhma^a 
Vagga of Dhammapada the true Brdhmana is siud 
to be the Arahd, or being in whom passion is ex- 
tingoisbed (see v. 420). — ^The Hindu brahmins are 
▼ery frequently referred to in the Buddhist scrip- 
tares, and entire discourses are devoted to their 
doctrines and practices. Buddha's attitude towards 
them as a caste was one of decided hostility, but he 
lost no opportunity of gaining oyer individuals by 
kindness and temperate argument, and he was 
able to reckon great numbers of them among his 
€onyert8. — Brdhmmg^addrikd, abrahmini lass (Alw. 
I. zlv). Db. d3, etc. ; Alw. I. Ixviii-lxxi, cxxiv. 
The spelling Brahmana is occasionally met with, 
espedally in Burma MSS., but Is incorrect. 

BRAHMAPAKKHIKO {adj.\ Belonging to the 
Brabminical party [?nni + ^TV + T^\ • Mah. 23. 

BRAHMAPARISAJJO {adj.\ Belonging to the 
retinae of Mab&brahma [Hff^+^TT^^]* The 
BrakmapdrtMajjd detfd are the inhabitants of the 
lowest Rdpabrahmaloka (see Brahmaloko). Man. 
B. 26 ; B. Int. 008, 600. 

BRAHMAPUROHITO, Minister or priest to Mahi- 
brahma [inp(^ + JjOf^^]' '^^ Brahmapuro^ 
hiid devd are the inhabitants of the lowest Rdpa- 
brahmaloka but one (see Brahmaloko). Man. B. 
26; B.Int609. 

BBAHMASSARO, The voice of Mahdbrahma 
[Hffl^ + ^r^]. B. Lot. 566. Also adj. '< having 
a voice like Mah&brahma's" (B. Lot 565, 566). 
Comp. Brahmaghoio* 

BRAHMATTAA, Brabmaship [^TIRV]. Bh. 134. 

BRAHMAVIHARO, Excellent or perfect state; 
life or abode in the Brahma world [UlR^-f 
ftfifp^ . This term is explained in the comments 
by stffkamhdro or anyavikdro, and generally 
means the exercise of the Appamafifiis, or perfect 
good wiU towards all beings. Kb. 16 ; Man. B. 
43, 505; Mah. 43; E. Mon. m See Fihdro. 

BRAVlTI, and BRCTI, To say ; to tell ; to call, 
to name [Vl. Brdhi mang^alam uttama^hf tell me 
the greatest blessing (Kb. 5). Tarn aham br(tmi 
irdhmapath, him I call a Brahmin (Dh. 69). 
FoMi pama etath hrM^ that which you speak of 
(Gog. Ev. 43). AmdH $o ^bravi, he said " Yes" 
(Mah. 31). Mam vacanam abravi, said these 

words (Mah. 110 ; Dh. 133). With dat. of the 
person spoken to, Tassa abruvif said to him (Mah. 
17, 46). With ace. of the person, Tarn abravif 
said to him (Mah. 32, 48, 81). With dat. of the 
person and ace. of the thing. Tarn attham r^ino 
'broH, told this matter to the king (Mah. ^). 
With two ace. Tarn rdjd idam abrutfit the king 
said this to him (Mah. 45). Pres. Par. Br^mi, 
bruii, brM and braviti, bHuna, br^tha, bra- 
vanti, Pres. Atm. Brave, br^se, bHite, br^mhe, 
brdvhe, bravante, Aor. abravi (Mah. 27, 52, 
59, 63, 77), abruvi (Alw. I. 29 ; Mah. 16, 24, 40, 
41, 78, 80). 

BROHETI (cau»,)f To increase, to augment, to de- 
velope, to perfect, to devote oneself to [49^f{1 = 
#|]. Dh. 50, 183, 270, 386. Comp. AnidfrAhetL 

BUBBULAKAA, a bubble [^g[^ + ^]. Dh. 

BUBBULAld, A bubble ; a blister, pimple [^T^]- 
Mah. 175, 213 ; Att. 10, 190. 

BUBHUKKHATI, To wish to eat, to be hungry 

[W^=W]- Alw. L 28. 
BUBHUKKHITO (adj.), Hungry [^i^f^]. 

Ab. 756. 

BUDDHABHAVO, State of a Buddha, Buddbahood 

[^ + W^]- Mah. 199. 
BUDDHABHCMI (/.), Degree or condition of a 

Buddha, Buddhaship [^ + Hf^l' ^^' ^^* 
BUDDHACAKKHU (n.). The eye of Buddha, Le. 

his omniscience [Wf + ^^^]* ^^' ^^- 
BUDDHADHAMMO, Condition or attribute of a 

Buddha [^ + V^]- Man. B. 87; Mah. 108. 

Eighteen Buddhadhammas are enumerated at 

Man. B. 381. 

BUDDHAQHOSO, An eminent Buddhist divine who 
flourished in the fourth century a.d. 

BUDDHAKAPPO, A kappa in which one or more 

Buddhas appear [WV + ^BV9T]* Ras. 15. 
BUDDHAKICCAA, That which has to be done by 

a Buddha, his duty or mission [WK 4* V!i|]- B. 

Lot. 335. Kaiabuddhakicco, having performed 

the duties of a Buddha. 

BUDDH ANKURO, An embryo Buddha,one destined 
to become a Buddha [v^ + ^f^^]- Dh. 117. 

BUDDH ANTARAJ£[, The period between the death 
of one Buddha and the appearance of another 

[WT + iraiT] • I^b- 1^» ^73 > ^^' B' 1^> ^^- 




BUDDHASASANAft, The oommandment or re- 
ligion of Buddha [^ + 1(T^R] . Dh. 66, 68 ; 
Att. 134. 

BUDDHATA (/.), Knowledge [^ + TTT]- 
Dh. 433. 

BUPPHATA (/.), Seniority, greater age [^4- 

m]. p^t. 87- 

Elder, senior [OT + ^]. Dh. 288. 

BUDDHATTAM, Buddhahood, [^4-?^]. 

BUDDHAVISAYO, The extent of Buddha's power 
or wisdom [yn^ + f^HRT] - Man. B. 9. 

BUDDHI (/.), Understanding, knowledge, intelli- 
gence [^flr]. Ah. 152, 1034; B. Int. 295; 
Dh. 226; Ras. 28. Mandabuddhi, foolish 
(Dh. 144). 

BUDDHIKO {adj.\ Having faith inBuddha [i|V + 
fre]. CI. Or. 91. 

BUDDHIMA {adj.\ Intelligent, wise [fflmilt]. 
CI. Gr. 24 ; Mab. 26. 

BUDDHO (P'P'P* hujjhati), Known, understood; 
possessing knowledge, enlightened, wise ; ex- 
panded, full-blown [^= 1[\{]. Ah. 229, 757» 
1643. Kim samafLO Gotamo buddho mayam pi 
buddhdj the ascetic Gotama is enlightened, and we 
are enlightened too (Dh. 338). Buddhambujam, 
full-blown lotus. Dh. 33, 71, 74. 

BUDDHO, A Buddha, a supreme Buddha ; Ootama 
Buddha or Sakyamuni [v^ ^ V^aJ^] . Ab. 1. A 
Buddha is a man possessed of infinite and infallible 
knowledge. He spends his life in preaching this 
knowledge to men under tlie name of Dhamma or 
the Truth. He thus becomes the Saviour of man- 
kind, for by knowing the Truth, and living a life 
in accordance with its precepts, men are redeemed 
from the misery of Samsdra or existence, and attain 
Nirvd^a, or the annihilation of being. The super- 
natural knowledge of a Buddha is earned by a long 
course of probation in countless existences, during 
which he practises in the most perfect manner 
such virtues as charity, self-sacrifice, and truth, 
and in so doing voluntarily and repeatedly under- 
goes the severest sufferings and privations. At his 
death the Buddha ceases to exist His religion 
continues to flourish for a certain period, aflter 
which it dies out, and in course of time a new 
Buddha appears who preaches anew the lost Truth, 
and once more enables men to save themselves 

from renewed existence. Innumerable Buddhas 
have already appeared, and of some of the last the 
names and a few other details are preserved. The 
present dispensation is that of Ootama Buddha, 
who was bom as a royal prince in the year 622 B.C., 
attained Buddhahood in 588, and died B.C. 543. 
The Buddha who will next appear is Metteyya 
Buddha. — Buddhdnarli sdsanam, the command- 
ment or religion of the Buddhas (Alw. I. 92; 
Dh. 33). Buddhapamukho bhikkhutangho, the 
priesthood with Buddha at their head (Dh. 250). 
Buddhapatimd, a statue of Buddha (Mah. 180). 
Piyadauibuddhakdle, under the dispensation of 
Piyadassi Buddha (B. Lot. 436). Pubbabuddhd, 
former Buddhas (Mah. 96). Buddhtuettho, glorious 
Buddha (Att. 135). Buddhaviro, mighty Buddha 
(Oog. Ev. 28). The following are the names of the 
twenty-four Buddhas who immediately preceded 
Ootama: Dipankaro, Kondaniio, Mangalo, Su' 
mano, Revato, Sabhito, Anomadani, Padumo, 
NdradOf Padumuttaro, Sumedho, Sujdto, Piym- 
daniy Atthadasii, Dhammadaui, Siddhattko, 
Tisso, Phus90, Fipasii, Sikhi, Veuabhd, Kaku- 
iandho, Kondgamano, Kastapo (Mah. xxxii, 1, 2 ; 
Dh. 116, 117 ; Man. B. 94 ; B. Lot. 335). 

BUl^DHO (p.p.p. vaddhati). Old, aged [^ = 
V^]. Pat. 87. Buddhapabbajito, became a 
monk in his old age (oomp. Mah. 11, " the dotard 
Subhadda"). Mah. 201. 

BUDDHUPPADO, Appearance or birth of a Buddha 
in the world \^ + "^n^TT^] . Dh. 397. 

BUDHO {adj.). Wise [^]. Ab.228, 1074; Mah. 
177 ; Sen. K. 200. 

BUJJHANAA, Knowing (see next). Dh. 269. 

BUJJHATI, To know, to perceive, to understand 
[1|^ = p|] . Dh. 25, 51 ; Alw. 1. 18, 19, 21. 
Imper. 2nd pers. bujjhassu (Dh. 117)- Aor. bujjki, 
Perf. bubodha (Att. 203). bujjhatUo (Dh. 
210). QtT. bujjhiiwi {C\. Qr. IW). Int boddhwk 
(Sen. K. 200), bodhUum, b^^'hitnm. Pass, btylfki- 
yaH (Alw. I. 17). 

BUNDIKABADDHO^ Name of a sort of bed. Ab. 
310; Pdt.86. 

BUNDO, The root of a tree Finfl . Ab. 549. 

BY-, For all words beginning thus see under VY-, 
which is the more correct spelling. 

Vyarijanamf Fydpanatk, Vy&ho, etc. 

( 97) 



CA(eay\),And; bat; even [^]. Ab. 1187. Divd 
00 ratiB ca, by day and by night (Kb. 6). Rdgah 
ca do§a» ea pahdya, forsaking lust and anger 
(Dh. 4). leehd mdno ea vaddhatU desire and 
pride grow stronger (Dh. 13). Saddhdya tilena 
ca viriifena ca, by faith and virtae and resolution 
(Dh. 26). Na ca khddi na ca pivi, neither ate nor 
drank (Mah. 45). Bhikkhuninmt c'eva updsakdnan 
ea mntikdf from both the nuns and the lay devo- 
tees (Dh. 314). Iti vatvd mahdrdjd katannA idam 
iha ca, having spoken thus the grateful king said 
this also (Mah. 157). Na casankamatipatisanda- 
kati ca, conception takes place without transmi- 
gration, lit. it both does not transmigrate and does 
receive existence (Gog. £v. 44). jima mahdrdja 
bhagavd »abbanM ti na ca bhagavato satatam «a- 
mitam ndfutdauanam paccupatthitam. Yes, great 
king, Buddha is omniscient, but B. does not at all 
times exercise his omniscience (Gog. Ev. 2). Na 
kko 90 bhikkhu panho evam pucchitabbo evan ca 
kho ao bhikkhu panho pucchitabbo, the question 
ODgbt not to be put as you have put it, but it 
oagbt to be put thus (B. Lot 514). Yassa & etam 
u»mucchmnam, but be in whom this is rooted out 
(Dh. 47). Saggamaggantardyo ca watthi te tena 
kammund, nay, you will not be prevented by that 
deed from obtaining heaven (Mah. 158). Aiha 
amaeed yadi cdyam nicchayo, weU if this be your 
determination, said his ministers (Att. 208). Tatsa 
utayhatk bhante etad ahoH ayaln ca ime»afh sama' 
fimbrdhmafidnam tabbabdlo, I thought to myself, 
well to be sure, this is the most foolish of all the 
priests and brahmins I have consulted. SumuM 
moyofw iena mahdsamafLcna upaddutd ca homa 
id am vo kappaU idam vo na kappatiU, we are well 
rid of this great Crama^a, why we are quite 
wearied with hearing him say, '* Yon may do this, 
yoQ may not do that." The vowel is often affected 
by aandhi : edkam^ca dhaiih (Dh. 88) ; ciyafk 
^ ea ayam (Dh. 19) ; c^ = ca api ; cdti =s ca t^ 
(P6t. 74 ; edhu ^caaku (Dh. 41) ; e'dgato (Dh. 
161); e'addhag^ (Dh. 192). 

CACCARAM, A place where four roads meet, a 
•qnare; a courtyard [^RT^]. Ab. 203, 218. 

CAGAVA (a^f.). Generous, liberal [HfR + ^^RlJ- 
Mah. 163. 

CAGI (atff.). Giving away, liberal [WlfiPl]- 

N*attki cdgi tayd $amo, there was no giver like 
thee (Mah. 36). 

CAGO, Abandoning, forsaking; resigning, sacri- 
ficing, giving away; self-sacrifice, liberality 
[^nr]. Ab. 420, 1129. 

CAJATI, To abandon ; to resign, to sacrifice, to give 
up, to give away [iQ^l]. Dh. 51; Mah. 213. 
Jivitam c, to sacrifice one's life (Dh. 224). Acca- 
janto, not rejecting. Pass, cajjati. P.p.p. eaito. 

CAJJANAA, Being abandoned, or given away 
(formed from Cajjati). 

GAKKALAKKHANAM, The figure of a wheel 
under the foot of Buddha [^rV + IV^lf] > Ab. 
781 ; Man. B. 367 ; B. Lot. ei6. 

CAKRAA, a wheel; a potter's wheel ; a circle; a 
discus, or sharp circular missile weapon ; an army ; 
a multitude ; a body of religious doctrine ; a region, 
tract, curcuit ; region, domain, sphere ; happy state, 
good fortune [^^]. Ab. 373, 381, 394, 781, 782; 
Dh. 1, 96 ; Mah. 128. There are four cakkas or 
h\esnDgB,paHrApade8aifdao, aappurintpauayo, attOf 
aamrndpa'addhi, pnbbekatapumatd, *' living in a 
suitable place, association with good men, right 
self-regulation, having done good works in a former 
existence." Iriydpathacakkam, the four successive 
positions, walking, standing, sitting, lying. Mayd 
patfattiiam cakkam, the religion established by me. 

CAKKAPADO, a cart, carriage [^nF + ^?T^]. 

Dh. 199. 
CAKRAPA^I (ffi.), Vishnu [^H + VTCpf] . Ab. 16. 

CAKKARATANAA, The magic wheel of a Gakka- 
vatti monarch, which rolls before him when he 
makes his royal progress from one continent to 
another [5^ + JJSf] . Ab. 781 ; Man. B. 127. 

CAKRAVAKO, The ruddy goose, Anas Casarca 
[^TlWra]. Ab.641. 

GAKKAVAliAlir, and -LAA, A world, a sphere 
[^imTZ» or ^nnrrH]- a Cakkav&]a is a vast 
circular plane covered with water, in the centre of 
which stands Mount Mem. Round Meru are the 
seven concentric circles of rock. Beyond these, on 
the north, east, south, and west, lie the four great 
continents, and the whole is bounded by the Cakka- 
v6]apabbata. Each Gakkav^A has its own sun and 
moon. The CakkavQas are scattered through space 
in infinite numbers. They are arranged in groaps 
of three, touching each other, the triangular space 
in the centre of each group lieing occupied by die 





Lokantarika hell. Man. B. 2 ; B. Lot. 842 ; Dh. 
94, 244 ; Mah. 114. The Simhalese form of this 
word is Sakwala. 

CAKKAVALAPABBATO, The lofty wall of moan- 
tains which encircles the Cakkavdla, forming the 
world's limit [^URTZ + vAH] • 

CAKKAVATTi (m.), A monarch; a universal 
monarch [^TR^rf?¥^. Ab. 335; Man. B. 126; 
B. Lot. 907; Kh. 14; Mah. 27. Cakkavattirtyd 
(Alw. I. 75, 76). There are three sorts of C, 
cakkavdlaeakkavatti, dipacakkavatt(, padesa^ 
cakkavattL The first rules over the four great 
continents, the second over one only, the third 
over a portion of one. 

CAKKAVHO, The ruddy goose. Anas Casarca 
[^Wr + ^^OTXT]. Ab.64L 

NAM, The organ of the eye, the sense of sight 
[^^+^^ira?nr]. Sen. K. 234, 235. See 

GAKKHU, and CAKKHUA, The eye; insight, 
perception ; supernatural insight or knowledge 
[^T^l^]. Ab. 149, 835. For the nominative form 
cakkhum, see Man. B. 399; Gog. Ev. 1, 47; 
CL Gr. 14 ; it is attributed by the grammarians to 
sandhi. Instr. cakkhund (Dh. 65, B. Lot. 866). 
The three Cakkhus are mamsacakkhv, dibba' 
cakkhUf pcmndcakkhu^ the natural eye, the divine 
eye, and the eye of wisdom. Cakkhuioiafhf the 
eye and the ear. See Pahcacakkhu. 

CAKKHUMA {adj,\ Having eyes or sight, seeing ; 

having supernatural insight or wisdom [f|VQ||l|^ . 

Ab. 1 ; Dh. 48. 
CAKKHUNDRIYAA, The organ of the eye, the 

faculty of sight, the vision [^^^+l[f^^]* 

Att 193. 
CAKKHUPATHO, Range or reach of vision 

^^^^ + 1^] . Cakkhupatham mjahati, or 

atikkamaiU to go out of sight (Dh. 95, 109, 340). 
CAKKHUVlf^^ANAlVr, Eye -consciousness, the 

faculty of vision [^T^^+ PlHIII^]* Man. B. 419. 
GAKKIKO, A sort of bard or encomiast [^|fi|l|]. 

Ah. 396. 
CAKORO, The Greek partridge [^V^JtT ] - ^^- ®^- 
CALAOALO (mj;.), Unsteady [^ITT^W]. Mah. 136. 
CALANAA, and GALANAA» Shaking, trembling 

\yC^n and WTIR] • Ab. 712 ; Dh. 232. 
CALANI (/.), A swift antelope [fTlPft]- Ab. 618. 

GALATI, To move, to shake, to tremble [^Tl(^]« 
Vdtd ealimsup winds began to blow (Dh. 155). 

GALETI (catu. last). To move, to shake [^- 
iinrf^=^W]* Pdnim c, to wave the hand. 
Sisam c, to nod. Dh. 192, 231, 284, 307 ; Mah. 
41, 160. 

GALITO (p.p.j9. calaH\ Trembling, shaking 
[iq[t^=^ir^]. Ab.744. 

GALO (adj.). Trembling, unsteady, uncertain, tran- 
sient [^ir]. Ab. 712 ; Mah. 200. 

GALO, A shaking [^TTW]- BMmicdlo, an earth- 
quake (Mah. 108). 

GAMARAlif , A Yak's tail used as a whisk to drive 
off flies, it is one of the insignia of royalty [^VT^F^]* 
Ab. 357. 

GAMARO, The Yak ox, or Bos Gronniens [^^T^- 
Ab. 619. 

GAMIKARAA, Gold [^Tif^PC]- Ab.488; Kh.23. 

GAMMAKARO, Though the equivalent of S. 
V|4{^|^ this word appears to mean a blacksmith 
or carpenter. Ab. 508 ; Pdt. 91. 

GAMMAM, Skin, hide; a shield [^F^. Ab.392, 
442, 1107. Loc eammani {Ah. 1109). Canuna^ 
pasibbakam, a blacksmith's bellows (Ab. 526). 

GAMPA (/.), Name of a town in India, the present 
Bhagulpore [^KTT] . Ab. 200. 

GAMPAKO, The champac tree, Michelia Ghampaca 
[^iq^]. Ab. 568 ; Att. 86. 

GAMPEYYAKO (adj.). Belonging to or inhabiting 
Gamp4 [^Tqj + 1[?T + 9] . Gl. Gr. 90. 

GAMPEYYO, The Ghampac tree [^ITT + ipj]. 
Ab. 568. 

GAMG (/.), An army [^]. Ab. 381. 

GAMCPATI (m.), A general, a oommander-in chief 
[^+ irfTf] . Ab. 340 ; Mah. 44, 64, 137, 204 

GAMURU (m.), A sort of deer [^T^]. Ab« 620. 

GAl^AKO, A chick-pea [^HRl]. Ab. 451. 
GA^GALATI, To move to and fro, to dance. Alw. 

GAl^GALO (atfj.). Wandering, moving to and fro, 

unsteady [^qT^]* Ab. 712, 1107. 
GANDABHAGA (/.), Name of a river in India 

[^raCHT^]. Ab.682. 

GANDAKO, An eye in a peacock's tail [^V^^^ll]. 

GANt)ALO, A Gba^f^a, or man of the lowest caste 

[^19T^]- Mah. 23. F. caf^^dK, a Gha^fala 

woman (Mah. 200). 


( 99) 


CANDANAft, and -NO» The sandal tree ; the sandal 

wood; unctuous and fragrant preparations made 

from sandal wood [^iq[«f] • Ab. 300 ; Dh. 10. 
CANDANIBLA (/.)• A dirty pool at the entrance of 

a Tillage. Ab. 683. 
CANDIKA (/.), Moonlight [^7fl[piX]. Ab. 54. 
CAIJirplKATO (adj\). Provoked, angry [^^^3^ + 

lRf=tr]. Wt. 108. 
CANDIMA (»».), The moon [^IJ^Tf^]. Ab. 52; 

Dh. 31, 38, 09 r Mah. 163. Candimaswriyd {pL\ 

the sun and moon (Dh. 367). 
CANDO, The moon [^^IJ^]. Ab. 51; Dh. 73. 

Candaauriyd (pL)f the sun and moon (Dh. 96). 

CamdamoHdalam^ the moon's disk (F. J&t. 58). 

CamdoffgdhOf eclipse of the moon. 
GAl^fpO (at(f')> Wrathful, passionate ; harsh, cruel ; 

fierce, savage, violent [^T9]- ^b- 711, 732; 

Dh. 142, 149,401. CandoMtark, a torrent (Dh.210). 

CANDODA YO, The risng of the moon [^pf^ + 
^Tff]. Mah. 70. 

CANOOTAKO, A casket. Ab. 317 ; Mah. 4, 106. 

CANKAMANAA, Walking up and down ; a covered 
walk or cloister [^I^VniT] . Ab. 2ia ; Mah. 101. 

CANKAMATI, To walk up and down [^|p^= 
11^]. Alw. I. 27; Dh. 88, 334 ; Mah. 38, 261. 
Cankamito (Mah. 101). Adj. Cankamanfyo, fit 
for walking (CI. Or. 93). 

GANKAMO, A covered walk, arcade, portico, cloister 
[^nPC + ^]. Ab. 213 ; Dh. 88, 334 ; Mah. 38. 

CAPALO (adj\\ Fickle, unsteady ; swift ["^TmrJ. 
Ab. 1075; Dh. 7o Capah, one who has unin- 
tentionally or thoughtlessly committed a crime 
(Ab. 738). 

CAPIKO, An archer [ifTIT + f^]' CI. Or. 91. 

CAPO, and CAPAA, A bow [^^T?]- Ab. 388; 
Dh. 28, 57. 

CARACARO, (adj\). Movable ['ITTR^I. Ab.711. 

CARAHI (adv.). Said at CI. Or. 75 to express con- 
sent, as " noWr therefore.* 

CARAKO (aty.). Walking about, wandlering [^- 
'Tjt\. FoMocdrako, a forester (F. Jdt. 5). 

CARAiyA A, The foot ; a fixed observance or practice ; 
good conduct [^^C^]. Ab. 277 ; Dh. 425. The 
fifteen Caracas, or good practices, are a moral life, 
gnardlng the senses, moderation in eating, watch- 
fulness, faith, shame, fear of sin, learning,, energy, 
reeoflection, wisdom and the four Jh^as (Alw. I. 

CARAPETI (cans, next). To cause to walk, to 
drive. Gdvo c, to drive cattle (Mah. 22). Bherm 
cardpeti, to cause the tomtoms to be beaten, to 
proclaim by beat of drum (Ras. 17» 32 ; Att. 214 ; 
Dh. 296 ; Mah. 154, 155). 

CARATI, To walk, to walk about, to wander; to 
act; to behave, to live [^^T]- Fipine caranto, 
walking in the forest (Ras. 20). Attano maraxM' 
pa^fuim dasante bandhitvd carati, goes about with 
his death-warrant fastened to his skirt (Alw. I. 
102). Sankhdya loke carati, walks circumspectly 
in the world (Dh. 47). Crdmath carati, walks 
about the village (CI. Or. 132). Gocaram caram, 
browsing (Mah. 120). Gocardya c, to go in quest 
of food (F. Jat. 17 ; Dh. 418). ' Pif^ddya c, to go 
for alms. Akdsena c, to walk in the air (F. J&t. 4). 
Careyya tena, let him walk with him (Dh. 12, 58). 
Bhikkkdcdram c.,. to go the rounds for alms. 
Brahmacariyam c, to practise the duties of a 
religious life (Alw. 1. 72, 92). Dhammam c, to per- 
form religious duties, to live a religious life (Dh. 31, 
80). Dh. 26 ; Kh. 16 ; Alw. I. xxi. P.p.p. Ctiiiio. 

CARl (adj.). Walking, living, acting [^itX*^]. 
Bdlasangatacdri, walking in the company of fools 
(Dh. 37). Pamattacdri, living a earless life 
(Dh. 59). Micchdcdri, acting wrongly. 

CARIKA {/.), Moving or walking about, wandering, 
roaming \^\ + 1[^] • Idam pure cittam acdri 
cdrikam yenicchakam, once this mind wandered 
as it listed (Dh. 58). Buddhist priests sometimes 
journeyed about from place to place, living by 
alms, and preaching to and exhorting the people : 
the phrase cdrikam c. is used of these journeys. 
Caram vajjitu cdrikam, making his alms-pilgri- 
mage in the V. country (Mah. 15). Caratha bhi' 
kkhave cdrikam, go forth, priests, on your journey 
(Dh. 119). Jambudipamhi vicantvdna cdrikaih, 
wandering from place to place in India (Mah. 12). 
Cdrikam carimsu Lankddipamhi, they traveUed 
over Ceylon (Mah. 56). Cdrikam pakkamati, and 
gacchati, to go forth on an alms-pilgrimage (Dh. 
249). Vihdracdrikam carantd, going from mo- 
nastery to monastery (Dh. 88). IIbs. 28 ;: Dh. 406. 

CARIMO (adj.), Last; subsequent ["^^IT]. Ab. 
715» 1200 ; Dh. 83. 

CARITAA, Action ; conduct, life ['^f^sr ^]. 
Ekaua caritam seyyo, the life of the solitary is 
best (Dh. 59). Duccaritam, bad conduct, sin. 
Mahdviracantdni, feats of prowess (Att. 190). 






CARITTAA, Practice, observance [^TfT^]- ^^- 
rittam anupdlayani, keeping up the customs of the 
country (Mab. 128, 159). Ubhatopdrumpanacd- 
rittath, the practice of covering both shoulders. 
Cdrittasilariif ** duties of performance,* opposed to 
vdrittasflitth, '* duties of avoidance" (Man. B. 492). 
Cdrittam dpajjati, to have intercourse with (Pdt.90). 

CARIYA (f,). Walking, roaming; observance, 
practice, conduct [^T^]* K&tacariyd, deceitful 
conduct (Ab. 983). Naggacariyd, going naked 
(Dh. 25). Dinacariyd, daily observance (E. Mon. 
24). Bhikkhdcariyd, going the rounds for alms 
(see Sep.). Cariyam bodhUattdnam danento, ex- 
emplifying in his Wn person the conduct of the 
Bodhisattas (Mah. 242). 

CARI YAPITAKAft, " Treasury of conduct,*' the 
name of the fifteenth book of Khuddakanikdya 
(E. Mon. 170). It contains a brief account of 
Buddha's meritorious actions when a Bodhisatta. 

CARO {adj.). Going, walking, moving [^^ . Ab. 

7119 1107. Udakathalacaro^ going in water and 

on land (Dh. 147). Saddhimcaro, a companion 

(Dh. 58). 
CARO, A spy [^TT]. Ab. 347, 1107. Carapuriso, 

a spy ^Dh. 158, 299). 

CARO, Walking, roaming; a spy [^PC]* Ab. 

1107. Bhikkhdcdro, walking about begging. 
CARU (m.). An oblation to the devas [^q\| . Ab. 418. 

CARU {adj,)f Agreeable, charming, beautiful [^n^ • 
Ab. 693. Cdrudauano, beautiful. Neut. cdrUy 
gold (Ab. 487, 1108). Mah. 8d, 115, 202. 

CASAKO, and -RAM, a drinking vessel [^qf^V] . 

Ab. 534. 
CATAKO, A sparrow [^Zli] . Ab. 643. 
CATAKO, a sort of cuckoo, Cuculus Melanoleucns 

[^PWI]* Ab.64L 
CATASSO, see Cattdro. 
CAtI if')f A chatty or earthenware vessel, a jar, 

waterpot. Mah. 163 ; Dh. 175 ; Att. 209. Comp. 

Tamul sddL 
CATTA(in.), One who resigns or gives away [int]- 

cattAlIsaA, cattArIsaA, -^ISA, -RISA, 

-XJSA, and -RisA (fim. num.\ Forty [^^ft- 
f?(^||;^]. Akkhard p^ddaya ekaeattdfdam, the 
letters beginning with a are forty-one (Alw. I. 
xvii). Cattdrisam vaudniy forty years (Mah. 128). 
Cattdfiia gdtkdyo, forty stanzas (Dh. 76). CatU" 
cattdUsafhdnamhif in forty-four places (Mah. 198). 

With gen. Katthavdhdnank eattdjiid, forty wood 
carts (Alw. N. 36). Mah. 162, 171, 250 ; B 
Lot. 565. 
CATTARO, and CATURO (mm.). Four [tmK 
and ace. ^W^l]* Masc nom. and aoc cattdro 
(F. Jat. 2), eaturo (Dh. 48 ; Ab. 78 ; Mah. 179) 
instr. and abL eatubbhi (Kb. 8 ; Mah. 131), (mMM 
(Kb. 9 ; Mah. 150) : gen. and dat. cattmnatk (Dh. 
383) : loc. eattuu, eatdtu (Dh. Ill ; Das. 42). Fern. 
eatoMo (Kb. 20 ; Dh. 292) : gen. and dat. cataua- 
nnam. Neut eattdn (Kb. 4 ; Dh. 55). CaitM 
cattdri hatvd, distrilmting them in fours (Dh. 292). 
The base in composition is catu, or sometimes 
before a vowel caiur, Caturammofuukt four am- 
ma^as (Ab. 995). Catmpaf^pdtOy fifty-four (Dh. 78). 
Catvpasimmhif on the four sides (Mah. 171> 179). 
Oa^ArArato, containing four kaUb (Kb. 23). CmHh- 
iobham, four usabhas (Alw. I. 79). 

CATTO (p4^.p. tajati\ Relinquished, sacrificed 
[iq^=^q^]. Ab. 754. CatUUdmappamigo^ 
freed from the bonds of desire (Mah. 215). 

CATU, see Cattdro. 

CATUBBAGGO, Assembhige of four things ["^^ 
+ ^Pl]* The name is given to the four objects 
of human pursuit, dAammo, kdmo, attho, mokkhof 
virtue, pleasure, wealth, Nirv^^ (Ab. 318). 

CATUBBIDHO (adj.), Fourfiad [^J^ + ftVT]. 

Dh. 91. Oatubbidho apdyo, the four states of 

punishment (Dh. 434). 
CATUBHAGO, Fourth part, quarter [^^1^ + 

^TR]- Dh. 20. 
CATUBHOMIKO (adj.). Having four stages 

\y^^ + ^f^m] . Catubhdmikaeittam, by this 

is meant kdrndvacaradttam^ rdpdvacaracittam, 

ar^pdvacaracittam^ lokuttaraciitamf thoughts in 

the World of Desire, etc. (Dh. 89.) 

CATUDDASA (num.). Fourteen [^^^^V^]- Dh. 
76 ; Mah. 8. See also Cuddtua and Coddoio. 

CATUDDASIKO (adj.). Belonging to the fourteenth 

day [^T^^ + 'l]- P^t-27. 
CATUDDASO (ai^.). Fourteenth [^ip^]. DJw- 

oamhi eatudda»e, on the fourteenth day (Mah. 170). 

Pakkhasia edtuddaoe, on the fourteenth day of the 

half-month (Pdt. 27). Pern. odtuddoBi, the four- 

teenth day of the half lunar mouth (Mah. 249 ; 

Pdt. 2 ; Dh. 404). 
CATUDDISAft, The four cardinal points [^T^ + 

^lQ> Sen. K. 234 ; Mah. 99, 182. See DM. 




CATUDDI80 (adj\y. Coming fram the Ibar quarters ; 

ruling the foor quarters {y(fj^ + fi^lt] • Mah.ldd. 
CATUDDVARAA, Four gales [^iT^ + l[1T]- 

Hah. aid. 
€ATUDIlA(MiEr.), In four parts, foarfold [^T^f^]. 

Ab. 4M^ IV tmiudhd ti^fh^ let them be of four 

sorts (Afo. M5). 
CATUJJATIGANDHO, Perfume of four sorts 

[^rj^ + HTfif + 'Wr]. The ciOuJIfdiigandhd 

are kwrnk um mih y^iwanapuppkam, iagarmky and 

tmrukkho (Ab. 147; B. Lot. 850). Dh. 824 has 

CATUKKAfty A place where four roads meet» a 

square ; a eoUeeHon of Ibar things [^^^]- Ab. 

903; Dh. 291. 
CATUKKAASAft, Four Icamsas (P6t. 103). 
CATUKKAl^Aliff, Four 4iomers [Y^+W|]* 

PI. eaMekamnem at the four comers (Mah. 182). 
CATUKKANNO, Heard only by two peo]^, secret 

counsel [^|{^ + l|n|]. Ab. 362. 
GATUKKO {€4j.)y Consisting of fear» Ibarlbid 

[^llPi]- Alw.1.80. 
CATUMAGGAft, Four paths [^[^+ VfT^]. Dh. 

399. See Maggo. 
CATUMISAA, Fourmonths \y(f[^ + ^Tnr]* 'The 

year was divided into three catum&sas or. periods 

9ikmr months eaeh, Ibrming Ae three seasons^ 

tiie cold, the rainy, and the hot (Ab. 78 ; Db. 387). 

Caiumdntky daring Ibur months (Mah. 210). Co* 

tmmdaena, in Ibur months (Mah. 150). Dh. 236,33a 
CATUMM AHABHCTIKO (a4f.)y Consisting of, or 

rdadng to, the four elements [^fH^ + V[f\ + 

CATUBIM AHArAJIKO (a4f.), Beion^ng to the 

lbfurgreatkings[frij^-f Ynrnm + T^]- The 
CitummahSrdjikd devd, are tLe inhabitants of tlie 

lowest of the six devalokas. It is called edtumma* 

hM^UcQ devaloko or c^kummahdrdjiikam bhuwa^ 

mmky and extends from the Yugandhara rocks 

to tiie Cakkavilapabbata, and is thus situated 

abofe Jambndlpa and the other three continents, 

but at a vast height. See Mahdrifd. Ab. 416 ; IMi. 

103; Man. B. 24; B. Int. 603. 

CATUMMUKHO (im^'.), Haidng four looes or fronts 
r^qj^ + ^^] . Mah. 162, 163 (of a palace). 

CATUNIKAYAKO (adj.). Versed in the four Ni- 

kiyuB[^T^ + fi|l|Tir+l]. Mah. 205. 
CATUPACCAYAM, The four requisites (see Pao- 
Myu). SampamnacatupaceayOf possessing the foor 

requidtes (Mah. 12). CatupacoajfofantotOf con* 

tentm'ent with the foor priestly requisites (Alw. I. 

78,88; Dh.422). 
CATUPARISAA, Four assemblies (see ParUd). 

Dh. 124, 303. 
CATUPARISUDDHISlLAtil, Four precepts of 

parity [^^ + 1?PC^-Mi^]. These are 

the same as the Catusamvartuilamf which see. Dh. 

115, 380, 422. 
CATUPPADO A quadruped [^J^+^l^]. Ab. 

620 ; Mah. 164, 179. 
CATUPPADO {adj.). Having four p4das [^J?^ -h 

HT^]. Pdt. xliv. 
CATURANQl (adj.). Consisting of four divisions 

[^T^+ ^fjf^]- Fem. caturangin( tend, an 

army of four hosts, viz. dephants, cavalry, chariots 

and infantry (Ab. 359; F. Jdt. 3; Dh. 141; 

Mah. 112). 
CATURANGULAA, Foor fingers or indies 

[^^ + ^HR]- Mah. 211. 
CATURANGULO {a^.). Measuring four fingers or 

inches [y[f[%+ ^IW]- P^- 76. 
CATURANTA (/) The eartii [^rf^:im]- 
CATURANTO (adj.). Lord of the earth, or of the 

four points. B. Lot. 481. 
CATURAPASSENO (adj.). Endowed with the four 

CATURA^TI (fern, num.), £ighty4bur [^- 
l^U^:] . Mah. 8, 26, ^1 ; Dh. 120. 

CATURASSO (adj.). Quadrangular, regular [^flj^ 
+ W^]- Alw. I. 80; F&U xliv. Cuturauako 

(Ab. 200). 
CATURO, see Oattdro. 

CATURO (adj.), SkilAil, dever [^T^Jt] • Ab. 721. 
CATUSACCAA, The fow truths, see Ariyaaaecam. 

Has. 26 ; Dh. 378. 
CATUSAI^VARASILAA, Four precepte of re- 

Btraint [^^TT^ + ^^ + if^] • These are also 

called CatupdritnddhuUafh. They Mepdtimokkka' 

samvarasUam, indriyastmtvarasdaih, djUfOpdri' 

mddhiaafhvaratttathj paeeajfosannmitaBamvara* 

Mam. E. Mon. 31 ; Dh. 422. 
CATUSATTHI (fom. num.), Sixty-fcuf \yC^ -♦- 

iff^]. Mah. 145. 
CATUTTHO (adj.), Ftortii [fT^]. P. J&t. 66 ; 

Dh. 66. Catutthqffkdnam, the fourth Jhina. 

Caiutthamw, a quarter or fourth part Fern. 

Catutthi, the dative case. 





CATUTTI ASATIMO (ii4;.>» Thirty-foorth. Mah. 

CATUVAGGO (adj\)y Consbting of four iadiviclaalB 

CATU ViSATI (fern, num.). Twenty-four ['flfTJ^ + 

f^hlfJIT]- Mah. 2, 10 ; P4t. 27 ; B. Lot. 335. 
GATUVlSATIMO (aty.). Twenty-fourth. Mah. 145. 

GAVANAKO (adj.), Disappearing [^^ + ti]. 
Dh. 183. 

CAVAN Alir, Disappearance, death [^V^] . Ab.404. 

CAVATI, To disappear, to vanish, to die,, to leave 
one world to be reborn in another [^]. Nidhi 
vd thdnd cavati, either the treasure vanishes from 
its place (Kh. 13). Ihmtabhavanato cavitvd, having 
left the Tusita heaven (Alw. 1. 77). Ito cavitvdna, 
having left this world (B. Lot. 313). P.p.p. cuto, 
fallen, vanished (Ab. 751). Vassena «q cuto^ he 
died within the year (Mah. 254). Sdsanaccuto, 
fallen away from religion. 

CAVETI (com. last), To cause to fall or depart 
from ; to cause to vanish from one world to be re- 
bom elsewhere [^|l|€|ni = V]. Brahmacariyd 
c, to cause to depart from the life of holiness 
(P&t. 4). Ko nu kho mam fhdnd cdwtukdmo, who 
is trying to bring me down from my celestial abode 
(Dh. 87). 

CAYO, A heap, a quantity, a bundle [^nV]- Ab. 
629, 1128. Ketacayo, a masa of hair (Ab. 257). 
Punnacaye, an accumulation of merit (Mah. 104). 

C£ (adv.). Even; if [^]. Ab. 1147. Alankaio 
pi ee hatihi, an dephant even whenm hjs trappings 
(Has. 17). With pres. Cejdndsi, if thou knowest 
(Ras. 21). With opt. Sace labhetha nipakafh 
tahdyath, if be should obtain a wise companion 
(Dh. 58). With cond. Se ee tarn ydnam alabhised 
agacchissd, if he had got that vehicle be would have 
gone (Alw. L 8). Acoro ce tfiseqjjenii, if he be not 
a thief they release him (Alw. 1. 99). Kasmd ti ce, 
if (it be asked) why (Alw. 1. 104). Dh. 1, 12, 51. 
Comp. Sace, Noee, Yance. 

CEIA]S§, Cloth; a garment [^]. Ab. 290; 

OELUKKHEPO, Throwing up or waving a cloth 
[%ir + ^f^n]. Mahdjano celukkhepam akdei, 
the multitude waved their dotbs (Alw. 1. 75). Ce^ 
lukkhepaeatehi, with hundreds of waving cloths 
(Mah. 99, 113). The upper cloth was taken off 
the shoulders for this purpose. 

CETAKO, A servant, a slave [^71|]. Ab. 514; 
Mah. 202, 235 ; F. Jdt. 17. 

GETANA (/.), Gonsdousness, sense, thought, in- 
tention [%7TTr]> Man. B. 405; Mali.41. There 
are six Getan&k&yas, Hipaeancetand, eaddae,, gam^ 
dhoi,, raiot., photthabbae., " oonsdousneas of form« 
of sound, of smeU, of taste, of touch i" or " thought 
caused by Ibrm, sound, ete.'* Acetone, unoonsdous, 

GETAFANAA, Purchase money (see next). P&t. 

GETAPETI (comb.). To collect, to get together. 
Civaram c^ seems to mean " to obtain a robe by 
subscription," **to purchase a robe with money 
collected for the purpose." Cetdpeti by its form 
should be a caus. from f^T?^» but its meaning 
points rather to f^f ; it is probably due to a oon- 
lusion between these two roots. P£t. 8, 37f 78, 103. 

GETASA, see CetiK 

GETASIKO (aefj.). Mental [%7Tflra]. Kdyikam 
pi ceiaeikam pi dukkham, physical and mental 
suffering (Dh. 91). Alw. I. 107. 

CETETI (emu.). To think [^IWf?r = f^]. 

GET! (m.\ Name of a people who inhabited Bnndd- 
cund [%f^]. Ab. 184. 

GETl (/;), A maid-oeihrant, a slave g^l [%^] . Ab. 
236^ Mah. 24. 

GE^IKA (f.), Amaid-servant,.a slave girl [^f^^Q . 
Mah. 25. 

GETI Y AA, a religious building or shrine, a temple ; 
a Th6pa or Buddhist relic-shrine ; a sacred tree ; 
a tomb [%n]. Ab. 207, 436, 955. Bukkhm- 
eetiyam, a tree shrine (Dh. 346). Mah. 6, 155 ; 
Kh. 13 ; B. Int. 74, 348, 630 ; Dh. 350. Cetyam 
(Dh. 34, 346) 

GETO (masc. and neut.), and GETAA, The mind, 
the heart, the thoughU [^7!^]. Ab. 152; Gl. 
Gr. 47. Fippaeannena eetaed, with serene mind 
(Mah. 170; Dh. 15). Kdyena vdcdya cetaed, in 
deed, word, or thought (Rh. 9). Cetepaeddo, faith 
(Dh. 350). Gen. cetaeo (Das. 37). 

GEJO, A servant, a slave [^Z]* 

GETOKHILO, Hardness of heart,, stubbornness 
[%7n(.4- ^Snr] • The ^ve Getokhilas are per- 
verse doubts and want of faith with regard to 
Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, and the 
Sikkhd, and peevish, ill-tempered conduct towards 


(103 ) 


fiAJljlAJSi, The first of these forms is the older. I 
am disposed to believe that pariya represents the 
S. ir4^ (oomp. ehUi = eshyati, nuQJhima =: ma- 
dhyama, etc), so thatportya KaApariydya (^T^'PT) 
might very well be nsed as synonyms. Paraasa 
eetopanyandvMm is one of the Abhififi&s and one of 
the Viji^ (see Alw. I. xzziy, B. Lot. 821), and 
means " knowledge of the aatnre of the heart or 
thoogfats of others/' whether they are lustful or 
pare, angry or friendly, etc. A comment g^ves 
to pariya the meaning of " distingaishing," pari" 
ydHH partyam paricchindatUi attho eetaaopari^ 
ymm cetopariyam, 

CHA, and CHAJL (aam.), Six [if^]- Oen- And ^^^ 
ekamnam (Dh. 3d7)« Instr. and abl. chahi (Dh. 
410). Loc. chtuu, Cha ajjhattikdfd dyatandnif 
rix internal senses (Kb. 4). CAa/ eva vtusdni, six 
years (Hah. 202). Chabbasadni, six years (Mah. 
218). Ckammdid, six months (Mah. 76). Chafa- 
bhmndf six Abhinn£s. Chaftmgamf six qualities. 
Chaddiidj six directions. 

CH ABBAOGIYO (aiff.). Consisting of six individuals 
[lT^+ir4 + ^]. The chabbaggiyd bhikkM 
were Anajiy Punabbasu^ and four other priests 
ootemporaries of Buddha. See Gogerly^s Laws of 
Che Buddhist Priesthood, Joum. Ceylon As. Soc 
1853, p. 129, where he says, " some of the six class 
priests (that is, a fraternity of six principal priests, 
who had many disciples adherents among the 
jmii<H> priests)." Dh. 378. 

CHABBAlifNO (adj.). Six-coloured [^ + ^1. 
Ckoibaf^ buddharoimiyo, the six-coloured rays 
of light emitted from Buddha's body (Dh. 206 ; 
Ras. 25 ; Mah. 108). See Tafifio. 

CHABBASSAA, Six years [^+ ^1$]. Mah. 10. 
CkiMaudm (Mah. 218, 224). 

CHABBIDHO {adj.). Sixfold [^+f^[VT]- 

CHABBISATI and CHABBlSA (fern, num.), 
Twenty-slx [^rf^llfw]. I>h. 76, 434. ChabH- 
9adivaad, twenty-six days (Mah. 102). 

CHABBlSATIMO (adj.). Twenty-sixth [l|^ + 
f^llRlH]- Mah. 161. 

CHADANAA, Covering, roof; a leaf [ip^]. Ab. 
218, 543 ; Dh. 135 ; Pdt 87. 

CHADANAtir, Covering [tB(n[^]- Ab. 51. 

CHAdAPETI, To cover, to enclose (comp. ChddeH). 
Mah. 4, 157. 

CHAP9AK0 {adj.), Throwhig away, removing 
(comp. Chaddeti), Ab. 508. 

CHADDAJir, Aroof [ipiir^]. Ab. 218. 

CHA^DANAJfl, Rejecting, see Chaddeti. 

CHADDANTO, Name of a mythical elephant ; name 
of one of the seven great lakes [^'^ + 7^] • Ab. 
361, 679 ; Mah. 22, 134 ; £. Mon? 178 ; Man. B. 
17. The lake is probably named from the elephant ; 
see Alabaster's Wheel of the Law, p. 305, where 
Chaddanta is said to be *' a king of elephants, who 
lives in a golden palace on the shores of the Hima- 
lajran lake Chatthan (Chaddanta), attended by 
eighty thousand ordinary elephants." 

CH APpAPETI, To cause to be removed (see next). 

CH AJ^PETI, To throw away, to remove, to abandon, 
to reject, to cast off; to set aside ; to leave out, to 
omit; to put, to place; to throw up, to vomit 
[^"e , ^F?]- Tath sutvd mam chadded, hearing 
the sound the bird dropped me (Dh. 155). ChaddeH 
veram, put away h is resentment (Mah. 1 53). Sam^ 
buddhasdsanani tumhe yadi chaddetha, if ye for* 
sake the commandment of Buddha (Mah. 135). 
Mahdvihdram ehaddetvd, having deserted the M. 
(Mah. 234). Finicchayaffhdnam chaddetabbo' 
bhdvaihpdpuj^i, the court of justice became deserted. 
Pdrupanam ehaddetvd, throwing off his robes 
(Dh. 303). Cakkapdde chaddewUi, will put the 
child in the cart (Dh. 199). Tarn pif^am cha- 
ddessati, will leave this morsel of food (Dh. 356). 
Ufiham lohitam chaddeti, vomited warm blood 
(Dh. 124). Alw. I. 63. P.p.p. Chaddito. 

CH ADDHA (oi^o.)* ^^ six ways [^^W]. Mah. 14. 

CHADDIKA (/.), Vomiting [C(f^liT]- Ab. 327. 

CHAPPITO {p.pp. ChaddeH), Thrown away, 
rejected ; abandoned, left. Dh. 115, 356. Mahd- 
vihdro nova mdse evam bhikkhdhi chaddito^ thus 
for nine months the Great Monastery was deserted 
by the monks (Mah. 237)- 

CH ADETI, To cover, to conceal ; to render invisible 

\^\\' ^^- ^ > ^^* ^^> ^^- P^- chddiyaH 
(Att. 198). P.p.p. channo, chddito. 

CHADI (».), A covering, roof [Wf^^]- Ab. 940. 

CHADITO (p.p.p. chddett), Covered, concealed 

[9lf^ = V"^] • Ab. 748 ; Mah. 82. Tamba- 

lohitthakdhi ehddito, roofed with copper and brass 

tiles (Mah. 164). 
CHADO, A cover; a leaf; a wing [^?[]. Ab. 





GHADVARAA, The six apertores or avenaesof the 

body [^^ + ^[1T] • "^^^ ®y®» ^^^ wne^ the earsy 
etc. (Alw. I. 78, 88 ; Dh. 410). 

GHADVARIKO .(a4;.)> Gonuected with the six 
apertures. Chadvdrikd taphd (Dh. 361, 400, 4d2> 

GHAJJO, Name of one of the notes of the Hindu 
gamut ["^^if]* Ah. 132. 

GHAKALAKO, A he-goat [^imi]. Ab. 509. 

GHARALO, A he-goat [^9^]. Ab. llll. 

GHAKAAy Dung, excrement [lIVlO* Ab. 274. 

GH AKANA A, The dung of animals [ifVRt] • Ab.276. 

GHAKKANNO, Heard only by three people, secret 
counsel. [^ + 91$ ] • Ab. 352. 

GHAKKHATTUA, Six times C^+Vn^]. 
Dh. 254. 

GHA{i, see Cha. 

GHAfiABHI^f^A (fern. pl.\ The six supematnral 

. facolties (see Abhvmd), 

CHAfiABHlMO (a4;.), Possessing the six super- 
natural faculties [tf^ + HfifUl] . Mah. 32. 

GHALAA, Fraud, stratagem, pretext, stumbling 
[HIT, comp. ^RR]- Ab. 1108. 

GHALANGAA, Six qualities [^^+9^]. The 
term Chafang^Mamafmdg^aio implies the subjuga- 
tion of the six senses, the six qualities being equa- 
nimity when an object is seen, when a sound is 
heard, etc: 

OHAMA (/.), The earth [^fin]- Ab. 181. Cka^ 
mdyam niMitvd, having sat on the ground (P&t.23). 

GHAMBHATl, To be alarmed, to tremble, to be 
paralyzed with fear. Mr. Trenckner, rightly I 
thinic, refers this verb to ^(W. Gomp. the next, 
and jicchawihhL 

GHAMBHITATTAA, Trembling, consternation, 
stupefaction [^fftinf + ^]. In the phrase ahud 
eva hhayaidi ahu ehambhitattamf ** there was fear, 
there was stupor." See Has. 20. 

GH AMMAS A A, Six months [if^+im] • Mah. 210. 

GHANDASO (adj\), Gonversant with the Vedas, a 
Brahmin [^T^^pTj- Ab. 408. 

GH ANDO, Wish, desire } intention ; will, resolve ; 
power; consent, approval [l^<^]* Ab. 162, 706> 
945. Taam gamauaehandam eva iaivdf finding 
they were quite determined to go (Dh. 84). Na 
tamhi ehandam kayirdtha, let him not desire it 
(Dh. 22; perhaps "let him not delight in it"). 
Chandajdto a$uikkhdte, resolved to attain ^rv&mt 
(Dh. 39). Saithu dhammade$andiya itppamna- 

chmnd9f having formed a wish to hear tiie Teadier's 
preaching (Dh. 314). Dhammikdmom kamwtduam^ 
chtmdam datvd^ having given his consent to code- 
siastical proceedings (P4t. 18). ChandapdrUuddJd^ 
consent or concurrence in the meeting being lield, 
and freedom from ecclesiastical censure (P4t. !)• 
Man. B. 411 ; Mah. 106 ; B. Lot. 649. 

GH ANDO (m. mi4 n.\ and GH ANDAA, TV Vedas ; 

poetical metre; metrics, prosody [l(^^]- Ab. 

417, 945. Loc ehandan (Ab. 847 ; Kh. 21). 
GHANDOVIGITI (/.), One of the Vedangas, piMody 

[W<[^+ftrf^fi!]- Ab.ll0. 
GHAJIOULAA, Six finger-breadtiis or IndMa 

[^+^RWW]- Mah. 211. 

GHANNAftrsee Cha. 

GHANNAVUTI (/em.num.), Ninety-six [l|lj^]. 
Mah. 26, 172, 194 ; Ab. 441. 

GHANNO, An ordinance. Ab. 834. 

GHANNO {p<p*p> chddeti), Gonoealed, seduded, 
private; covered; clothed; suitable, appropriate 
[W=Wf]- Ab. 353, 748, 834. Suechannam 
agdram^ a well-roofed house (Dh. 3). Megha^ 
cchanndhafk, a cloudy day (Ab. 50). 

GH AQfO, Festival [^TQT ] . Ab. 178 ; Mah. 49 ; Dh. 
149, 236, 247. Gomp. Khano. 

GHAPO, and GHAPAKO, The young of an animal ; 
a child [ifnV]* ^^' ^^* Hatthicch^, young 
elephant (Mah. 134). Suvacchdpo, young parrot 
(Alw. I. xiii). Sakufuicchd^, young bidr(Dh. 325). 

GHAPPADO, A bee [^^q^]. Ab. 636 ; Ras. 27. 
GHAPPAf^^ASA (fern, num.). Fifty-six [^^4^- 
' IfjQ. Mah. 8. 
GH ARATTAA, a period of six nights [^ + JJ^] . 

P6t. 6, 11, 74. 
GHARIKA (/.), Ashes [Tfft^]- Ab. 35 ; Mah. 

38 ; Oog. Ev. 16. 
GHATAKAA, Famine. Mah. 195, 225. See next. 

GHATO (adj.), Hungry, fambhed [^QTW^^^]- 
Ab. 756 ; Mah. 49 ; Dh. 166^ 202 ; Att 205. 

GHATTADHARO, Parasol bearer, one who holds 
the royal parasol over the king's head [^HT + 
V^]. Mah. 154. 

GHATTAA, a parasol or umbrella; the royal 
parasol or state canopy, one of the insignia of 
royalty ; royal dominion, sovereignty [9^] • Ab. 
357, 593, 1130. Chatiakdro^ a parasol maker 
(Mah. 193). A parasol or canopy over a Th6pa 
(Mah. 200, 201). ChaHaHhdya, to demand tiie 




toverdgnty (Mah. 203). Ekaechattadi, one do- 

minkm (see sep.). See Setacchattam, 
CHATTAft, A body, a corpse. Ab. 1130. 
CHATTAPA^O» Name of a tree [q[^+ TrS]. 

Ab. 556. 
CHATTHO (mfr.), Sixtb [^. Fem. chatthi, the 

genitive case (vb. vidhatti), Mah. 47. 
GHATTIJJteA, and CHATTlASATI (fem. num.), 

Thirty-dx [^^^f^ipt]. Mah. 8 ; Dh. fiO, 410 ; 

Ab. 194. 
CHATTlASATIM0(«4;.),Thirty^ixth. Mah. 224. 
CHATTI YATI, To treat as a parasol. Alw. I. 15. 
CHAVAKO, A corpse [J[^ + n]. Ab. 1130. 
CHAVI (/,), The skin [^f^]. Chavivaftno, the 

eolonr of the skin, the complexion (Dh. 122, 233, 

414). B. Lot. 568 ; Dh. 412. 
GHAVO, A corpse [j[q]. Ab.405, 1026 ; Mah. 249. 
GMAVO (adj\\ Vile [u^]. Ab. 1026. 
GHAYA (/;), Shade; a shadow; reflected image; 

splendour; pretext, fiction [^HTT]. Ab. 953. 

Siidj^a ehdydyoy in the cool shade (Mah. 177). 

Fyc^amaeeMsydya attham patibdhaH^ under the 

ttAaar of the letter does away with the true mean- 
ing (P&t. 61 ; Alw. I. 63). 
GHEGGHATI, see CkindaH. 
GHEDANAKO (adj.). That ought to be torn 

[^ifH + H]. Pit 19. 
GHEDANAM, Gutting, severing; destruction, loss, 

expenditure [^^]. Ab. 909. Chedanaik or 

dhmtaeckedaiuim, expense, waste (Dh. 93, 213). 
GHEDAPETI (com. ekmdoH), To cause to be cut 

off or cat down. Has. 83 ; Mah. 218. 
GHEDETI (com. chmdaH), To cause to be cut off 

[^i[lrf?l=:fi(^]. Mah. 128, 218; 227. 
GHEDO, Gutting, severing ; loss, destruction, waste 

[^^]. Sitacchedo, decapitation (Mah. 218). 

nkamaeehede, expense, waste (Dh. 93). Dh. 308. 
GHEJJO (adj.). That ought to be cut off [%V]. 

Pit 66 ; Ab. 737. 
GHEKO (adf.). Skilful, expert, clever [^]. Ab. 

731 ; Dh. 253, 337, 405. 
GHETVA» see CkmdatL 
GHIDDAH, A hole, an aperture, a rent, a gap; 

a defect [f^]. Ab. 649 ; Mah. 59 ; Dh. 169, m. 

Gomp. nddhackiddakof having an opening at the 

top (Dh. 169), JaiaeehddUacAiddako, having an 

q^ertnre nnder water (Mah. 59). 
GHIDDAVl (a4f.), FuU of boles [fi^ = ira(]- 


CHIDDITO (p.p.p.). Perforated [f|(f|pTs= fl^]. 
Ab. 748. 

GHIDDO (adj.). Perforated [fl|[^]. Dh. 81. 

GHIGGALAM, A hole. Ab. 650. 

CHIJJATl, see ChindaH. 

GHINDAPETI (caus. next), To cause to be cot off, 
or cot down. F. Jdt. 5, 8. 

CHINDATI, To cut; to cut off; to cot down; to 
interrupt, to stop ; to remove ; to destroy [f^7]* 
Vanam chindathay cut down the forest (Dh. 50). 
Kese ch., to cut the hair (B. I/ot. 864). Sisam ch., 
to cut off the head (F. Jdt. 4). M6lam ch., to cut 
out the root (Db. 60). Chinddmi tath iapbalakath, 
111 cut him down, shield and all (Mah. 154). 
Tarn palibodham chinditvd, having removed this 
obstacle. Chinda sotam, stop the stream (Dh. 69). 
Fiudsam acckinditvd, without interrupting their 
intimacy. Perf. ciccheda (Alw. I. 26). Aor. 
acchecchi (Dh. 413), chindi, acchintU (Mah. 39). 
Fut. checchaH (Dh. 63). Ger. chitvd (Dh. 79), 
chetvd (Dh. 9, 50, 62 ; Mah. 167), chinditvd.^ 
Pass, chijfati (Dh. 50). Aor. chijji (Dh. 340 ; 
Mah. 134). Ger. chijjitvd (Das. 8). P.p.p. chinno. 
P. fut. pass, chejjo. Gomp. Acchindati. 

GUINDETI (catu. last). To cause to be cut. Mah. 57. 

GHINNO (p.p.p. chindati). Gut off ; cut down ; 
interrupted, stopped, destroyed, removed [f^ff = 
f|(^]. Dh. 60. CAinnahirottappo, deprived of 
shame and fear of sin (Dh. 371). Chinniriydpatho, 
a cripple, lit. ''from whom the iriy&pathas are 
removed" (Ab. 319). 

CHUDDHO (adj.). Mean, contemptible [^s^]. 
Dh. 8, 202. 

GHUPANAA , Touching [^+ ^fR] . Pit. 94. 

CHUPATI, To touch [^]. Aor. cAiipt (Dh. 156). 
Acchupitvd, without touching (ditto). 

GHURIKA (/.), A knife [^ft^ifT] . Ab. 387, 392. 

GICGITAA; The splash of the sea, the bubbling of 
boiling water. Alw. I. 13 ; Man. B. 444. 

GIGGITAYATI, To splash, to hiss, to bubble 
Alw. I. 13. 

GIHANAA, a mark, a sign [f^] . Ab. 879, 1020, 
1064, 1105. See also Cinhatk. 

CIKIGCH ATI, To cure [fMfti^ffl = ftS^] • Alw 
I. 26. See TikicchaH. 

GIKKHALLAI^, Mud, swamp [f^T^9ir + ^] 
Ab. 663. 

GlNAPITTH A* , Red lead [^ftif + fipS = fV^J 





CiNARATTHAlft, China [^^ + ^T^]. 
CINATI, To heap up ; to collect, to gather [^] . 

Dh. 209, 380; Ras. 36. Caus. cindpeH (Mah. 

107, 223). P.p.p. cito. 
ClSCk (/.), The tamarind tree [fTOX] . Ab. 662. 

CINGULAKAlft, A mimic windmill made with 
palm leaves. 

CINHAM, A mark or sign [f^]. Ab. 65. Sec 

CIJ^NO {p-P'P- carat%)y Performed, practised 
[^f^=^]. F. Jdt. 11; Pat. 6; Dh. 126. 
CinvLam, a deed, a good deed (F. J4t. 13, 14). 

CINTA (/.), Thought, meditation [T^td|] . Ab. 
171 ; Dh. 384. 

CINTETI, To think; to think of; to devise; to 
mind, to regard [f^4fl]. Ko jdndti kirn p' esa 
karissatiH cintetvd, thinking to himself, " Who 
knows what this fellow will do?" (F. Jat. 12). 
Keumirath cintehi, think of Cashmere (Alw. I. xliii). 
Itthakattham cetiyassa rdjd dntesif the king has 
been thinking how to get bricks for the cetiya 
(Mah. 166). ^cin^a^t/va, disregarding (Mah. 168). 
Md cintayi, never mind, do not grieve (Dh. 84, 
156, 339, 364). F. Jdt. 4, 18 ; Mah. 165, 260 ; 

CINTITO (p.p.p. last). Thought, thought of 
[f^fJrtJl]. Alw. I. xliii; Dh. 301. Atnhehi 
cintitadntitath sabbam deti, gives us everything we 
think of (Dh. 165, 199). Neut. cintitam, thought 
(Mah. 165). 

CIPITO (adj.), Flattened, stumpy [T^ffqz] • Ras. 20. 

CIRAKRIYO (adj\). Dilatory [f^ + ftniT]- 
Ab. 727. 

CiRAM, Bark, fibre [^t<|. Ab. 985. 

CIRANTANO (adj\), Old, ancient [f^t^nf]- 
Ab. 713. 

CIRAPPABkUTI (adv,). Since long, « depuis long- 
temps " [f^ +1T^]. Mah. 69. 

CIRARATTAft (adv^, A long time [f^ + -^THl] • 
Dat. cirarattdya, for a long time (Ab. 1136). 
Cirarattapilito, long oppressed (B. Lot. 350). 

CIRASSAM (adv,). For a long time, long since. 
Dh. 135, 314; Ab. 1136. Cirassam parihinarh, 
long fallen into decay (Mah. Ixxxvii). Comp. 
eiraam tinder Giro, 

CIRASSUTO (adj.), Not heard of for a long time 
CIRATARO (a4^'.), Longer, slower [f^ + ^O- 

dratarauk («Mfe.)» a longer time, leas soon (Alw. 

I. xlli). Ciratarena (adv.), less soon (Dh. 12S). 
CIRATTHITI (/.), Lasting long, perpetaatioA 

[f^ + ^rflT]- Mah. 11. CirafthU-mkhmk 

dhammasBu, for the sake of the perpetnatioD of 

religion (Mah. 207). 
CIRATTHtTlKO (o^;.), Lasting, enduring, pei^ 

petual [PTK + ftrtn + ^]. 

CIRAYATI, To tarry [t^TW]. Dh. 234, 304. 

CiRl (/.) A cricket [^fr<^]. Ab. 646. 

CIRIKA (/.), A cricket [^lfV + WT]- Att. 209. 

CIRO (a<{;.)> Long, continued, lasting [f^VT] • Hie 
ace. eiraihy instr. cirena, dat. eirdya, gen. eirataoj 
are used adverbially. Ctranh, long, for a long 
time (Alw. I. z. ; Ab. 1136 ; Dh. 44). Cbraak 
jhantu no ndti, long may our kinsmen live (Rh. II). 
Cirena, after a long time (Ab. 1136 ; Alw. I. xHii). 
Cirdya, for a long time (Dh. 61). iVis eiras^ etm^ 
ere long, very soon (Dh. B13; Att. 196). tfa 
ciren* etm Jcdlena, ere long (Ras. 15). Cirappavdgi 
longexiled (Dh. 39). Cirdtito, long past (Ab. 1 194). 
Cirapabbajito, having long given up tlie world, a 
priest of some standing. 

CITA (/.), A funeral pile or pyre [f^RIT] • Ab. 405. 

CFTAKA (/.), A funeral pile [f^ + ^]. Mab. 

CITAKO, A funeral pUe [f^ + H]. Ab. 406; 
Mah. 125, 199. 

CITO (p.j».p. cindH), Heaped up, heaped or pressed 
together [t^)7f =:f^]. Mah. 38, 178. 

CITRAKATHi (adj.). Eloquent [t%rW + WT + 

CITRO, see Citto. 

CITTA (/.), Name of a Nakkhatta [t^RT]- Ab. 

•CIITABHOOO, Consciousness, sensitiveness [f^f^ 

+ 'WHt'r]- Ab. 169. 
CITTAGARAlft, A theatre (?) [f^ + ^J*n^]. 

Pdt. 107, 115. 
CITTAJO (adj.), Sprung from the heart, ineBti& 

[f^ + ^] . Man. B. 402. 
CITTAKA (/.), A woven woollen counterpane of 

many colours [t^^ + Wt] • Ab. 812. 
CITTAKAlir, A sectarial mark on Hbe fbrdiead 

[f^lfH]. Ab. 800. 
CUTTAKARO, a painter [f^^<i|ij . Ab. 508; 

Mah. 193. 
Crrr AKATO (adj.), Varl^^ted, painted [t%F^ + 

Wf = ir]. Dh.27. 


( 107 ) 


CnTAKKHJSPO, Madness [^nT + %l|]. Dfa- 

CITTAKO, Theplant Plumbago Zeylanica [f^^Hi] . 

Ab. 5B0. 
CITTAKDTO, Name of a mountain in Bundel- 

cand [1^ + ^]. Ab. 6D7. 
CITTALATA CfO> Name of one of Indra's gardens 

[t^ + Wn]. Ab.23. 

GITTAtir, A painting (see dtto). 

CITTAA, The heart ; the mind ; a thought, an idea ; 
will, intention [f%nf]. Ab. 152, 838. SaHrassa 
mte iuaranapana citta9$ay you are lord of my body 
bat not of my mind (Dh. 159). Cittakiriyd, opera- 
tion of the mind (Att. 107, 219). Cittam pasddeH, 
to have faith in, lit. to cause the heart to rejoice 
In (Mah. 70: with loc.). Cittappasddamattena, 
by faith alone (Mah. 177). Abhijdndhi cittdcdram, 
ascertain how bis mind is disposed (Mah. 246). 
TkeyyaeUtena, with thievish intent (Kb. 29). 
Santuffhacitta^hamng a contented mind ( Att.212). 
Najdndri cittam etaua, do not you see bis object ? 
(Mah. 260). Maeeheroeittdnam aahassam, a 
thoosand sordid thoughts. Rajjaldbhdya cktam 
pi ammppddetvdf without giving a thought to re- 
ceiving the kingdom (Att. 196). Ahaih bhUckkn* 
Bongham pariharwdmitti pdpokam cittam uppd" 
detvd^ having conceived the sinful thonght, *'I 
win. . .* (Dh. 149^ comp. 134). Upardjavadh" 
oHhdya jdtaeittd nirantaram, continually forming 
the project of assassinating the sub-king (Mah. 
130). SaddhivihMka upqjjhdyamhi pitueittam 
Mpatthapeuati^ the pupil shall look upon his master 
as a father, lit. ** entertain towards his master the 
Idea of father" (Pdt. zz). Gogerty says that as -a 
psydiological term ** citt^i,. thoughts, differ fi*om 
cetan&y which are thoughts on ezternal objects, 
whereas the dtt&n appear to be occupied with 
internal Impressions^ and are identical with the 
fifth khandha or consciousness*' (Friend, Oct. 1839, 
p. 68). B. Lot. 866 ; Dh. 3, ^ 66 ; Mah. 32 r 
Man. B. 40a 

CITTAH^ (/), Swooning [f^-i-^^]. 
Ab. 173. 

€HTAVI^aAMa, Madness [f^ + f^^f^T]* 


CIITETI,. T\» paint, to variegate [fT|.] • ^^b. 193. 
CITTlKARO, Consideration, respect [f^[^ + 

^nr]* ^^^« ^^* Comp. CittikaUh respected 

(Fit. 83). 

CITTO, Name of a month [^ or f^pr] . Ab. 75 ; 
Mah. 4. 

C3TTO, and CITRO {adj,). Shining; variegated, 
painted ; various ; beautiful ; wonderful [f^nC] • 
Ab. 99, 838. Fern, cittd, one of the Nakkhattas 
(Ab. 59). Neut. cittam, a picture or painting 
(Ab. 838). Etka passath* imam lokam cittaihf 
come behold this glittering world (Dh. 31). Manx- 
eitt<^ studded with jewels (Dh. 412). Ndndrata- 
nacUtOi spangled with various gems (Mah. 112). 
Katvd punndni citrdni, having performed manifold 
good works (Mah. 253, comp. 242). Citratanduld 
{f,)j name of a plant (Ab. 586). Citravijani, an 
ornamental fan (Dh. 168). Mah. 163. 

dVARAJft, The tattered dress of a mendicant ; the 
dress or robes of a Buddhist monk [^W?^]- 
£. Mon. 114. The three robes of the Buddhist 
priest (ticiuaram), are sanghdti, uttardsango and 

ClYATI (pa»8. cmdti), To be heaped up [^hl?J 

CODAKO, One who rebukes or ezhorts [^^?^] • 

CODANA (/.), Rousing, inciting ; rebuke, reproof; 
accusation, complaint [^7^]- Mah. 237; 
Kb. 21 ; Pat. 63, 89. 

CODANAVATTHU (n.). Ground or cause for accu- 
sation [^^^^1 + ^^] • There are three, having 
seen the offence committed, having heard of it, and 
suspecting it. 

CODAPETI (cau8,\ To cause to be rebuked, or 
urged. Pat. 72. 

CODDASA (num.). Fourteen ["^^^^*^^] . Cl. Gr. 
66. See also Ouddaaa; and Catuddasa, 

CODDASO(arf/V),Fourteenth [-^g^^] . Alw. I. zcvi, 

CODETl (cau9.)y To urge, to rouse, to ezhort; to 
rebuke, to reprove ^ to complain, to accuse; to 
draw a person's attention, to remind ; to speak to, 
to warn [Tj^^^fif = ^^] • Karundbalacodito, 
impelled by the force of mercy (Mah. 88). Codito, 
stung, nettled, ui^d to emulation (Mah. 251). 
Evam codito theroi the elder thus ezhorted (Mah. 
13). Pdt. 72 ; Dh. 68 ,* Kb. 21. Pass, codiyati 
(Pdt. 9, 63). 

COLA {m. plur,\ Name of a people [m\m|] . Cola^ 
desoy and Co/ara^^Aaf»,theColacountry(Mah. 128). 

COLIKO (adj,). Belonging to the Cola country 
[^^tW + T^]. Mah. 232. 

COLO, Cloth [^tl[]. Ab. 290 ; Pdt. 86 ; Mah. 219. 




CORBTI, To steal ['iftT^rfif = ^] • Alw. 1. 20. 

GORIKA (/.), Theft [^iR^l] . Ab. 622. Can- 

kam karoti, to commit theft or robbery (Alw. 1. 72). 

CORO, A thief, a robber, a bandit, an outlaw, a felon 
[^^]. Coragehamj jiul (Dh. 158). Fern, cari 
(P&t. 97). Ab. 522 ; Dh. 170 ; F. Jdt. 5 ; Kh. 13 ; 
Mah. 202, 235 ; Alw. I. 99. 

CUBUKAM, The chin [^[^]. Ab. 262. 

CUCCO (/.), A radish [^]. Ab. 598. 

OCGUKAAf A nipple [^|;^]. Ab. 270. 

CUDDASA (num.), Fourteen [^j^^^i, ]. CI. Gr. 
66 ; Dh. 76, 205 ; Mah. 173, 204, 208. See also 
CatuddasOf and Coddaaa. 

CUDDASO (adj.), Fourteenth [^^IJ^]. Fern. 
cuddatit fourteenth day of the lunar half month 
(Mah. 118; Alw. I. xcvi). 

CC(<A (/.), A single lock of hair left on the crown 
of the shaven head ; a top-knot, the hair knotted 
up at the back of the head ; a crest, diadem [^VT] • 
Ab. 258, 864. Peacock's crest (Ab. 634). 

COlAMAI^I (m.), A jewel worn in a crest or diadem 
[fll + Vfftr]* Ab. 283 ; Mah. 203, 258. 

COLIKA (/.) Root of an elephant's ear [^|f^Rn]. 
Ab. 363. KatnttacAlikd (Dh. 401). 

CULLASlTI (fern, num.), Eighty-four (a contracted 
form of caturdsiti). 

CULLI (/.), A fire-place [^pft]. Ab. 455. 

CULLO, COLO, and COLO {adj.). Small [t|V]. 
Ab. 705, 1119. Cullajntd, and cAlapitd, a father's 
younger brother, an uncie (Dh. 162, 170, 216). 
Cullamdid, an aunt. C&laailam and cullasilam 
(see Silam), Cullupatthdko, and ciS/-, a page 
(Alw. I. 80; Dh. 140). C^lavaggo, name of one 
of the divisions of the Vinaya (E. Mon. 8, 168). 
The spelling e^la sometimes occurs, e.g. Dh. 126, 
140, 170, 238, and see the Index, at p. 456. 
CUMBAKO, A load-stone, magnet [^im]. 

Att. xjdi. 
roll of doth used as a stand for a vessel carried on 
the head; a coil, circlet, hoop; a stand, rest, 
support, pillow. Ab. 458. Pattarh pdrdpojfitvdna 
kdretvd vatthacumbatam ddpesi »abba»angha»9a, 
filling the vessel (with melons), and potting a cloth 
support under it, he handed it to all the priests 
(Mah. 215). Pupphacumbatakafk, a wreath or 
coil of flowers. Ekatk sUe cumbatakam katvd, 
having coiled one of the snakes upon his head like 

a cnmbataka (Dh. 143). See Att. zvi and foU., 

Mah. 229, 260, 259. 
CUMBATI, To kiss [^pi(]. Dh. 128. 
CUNDAKARO, a turner [^1^ + 1|n;] . Ab. 509, 

oomp. 1121. 
CUI^AKAA, Aromatic powder [^^ + ^]- 

Ab. 1021. 
CUl^AJil, Aromatic powder for the toilet [^^]- 

Ab. 1021. Cafiifafliac«|ifii(iii, sandal powder. Ifort- 

candanacunnam (Mah. 99). 

CUl^ETI, To grind, to crush, to pulverize [^^ - 
C%fif^tf)d tesam atthM, grinding their bones to 
powder (Mah. 143). Mah. 153. P.p.p. ew^nito 
(Mah. 169 ; Dh. 194). 

CUNIJI^O, Dusty powder; chunam or lime cement 
[Vl(]. Ab. 395, 1021. The chunam or quick 
lime mixed with betel for chewing (Mab. 219; 
P4t. 83). 

CUTI (/.), Disappearance, vanishing, death ; leaving 
one world to be bom in another [^^Vf{f ] • Dh. 74. 

CUTO, see Caoati. 

COTO, The mango tree, Mangifera Indica [^]- 

CUTCPAPATO, and CUTUPPATO, Vanishing and 
reappearance, leaving one world and being bom in 
another [^fif + ^^TTP! and ^Jf^TTf]- B. I4»t 
866 ; Dh. 118, 183. CutttpapditmAfMrn or aUup- 
pdtahdfuuh is one of the three Fijjd», and means 
the power of seeing by the dibbacakkhn beings 
leaving one world and being reborn in another. 


DABBAA, Object, thing; material, substance; a 
fit object; wealth, property; fuel [|p9]- Ab. 
486, 913. Mahdpihdrasia dahbdni, the materials 
of which the M. was built (Mah. 235, see Errata). 
Dabbamddatu, learned, expert (Ab. 229). 

DABBHO, Ku9a grass [;^]. Ab. 602, 1079. At 

F. Jit 57, 58, we have dabbatij^a. 
DABBI (/.), A spoon [^^]. Ab. 468, 1112; 

Dh. 12. DaWmukhadvijo, name of a bird ( Ab. 637). 
DABBI (/.), Name of a pUnt [^T^- Ab. 586. 
DADATI, DETI, and DAJ JATI, To give, to grant ; 

to give up ; to allow [i^] . ^gim d., to set fire to 

(Dh. 175). Yuddham d., to give batUe (F. Jit 6). 

Pahdram d., to strike (Mah. 50; Dh. 294). 

Phalam d., to bear fruit (F. Jit 6). Ovddam d., 

to admonish. JUntank me dehi, save my life (F. 




JiL 12). Maggam dehi rannOf make way for the 
Uiif^. Raihasta okd»aih dehi, make room for the 
earriage. Vipdkam </., to prodaoe results (Dh. 203). 
DaMMa dakkhtftam de$mh, assigning to him the 
Mmthem division (Mah. Ixzxvii). Diyyamdnam 
ma iedUt refosed the proffered reward (Mah. 150). 
Sddkukdraik d,, to applaud. Teaam mama v{;t- 
taii pavisUufk na dassdmif I wiU not allow them to 
enter my kingdom (Dh. 109, oomp. Dh. 238, 405). 
VAMkdmam denH^ they hand the prisoner over 
to the voh^kas (Alw. I. 90). — ^The following are 
the prineipal forms belonging to the root DA, 
many of them are highly irregular. Pres. Ist pers. 
dmmwd, daddmi, dettUt dajjdmi (Alw. I. 35, 38; 
Mah. 25, 48, 85)^ pl. damma (Alw. 1. 35) ; 3rd pers. 
daddiif deti, dajjaiL Opt. dajjd, dadeyyay dajjeyya 
(Dh. 40; Kh. 12; Alw. I. 38). Imperat. detu 
(F. J4t. 5); 2nd pers. dehiy daddhi (Mah. 48; 
F. JiL 12 ; Sen. K. 200) ; 2nd pers. pl. detha, 
daddiha (Dh. 231; Mah. 102). Fnt. da»9aH 
(Mah. 63, 231 ; Dh. 80). Fut Atm. Ist pers. 
danadk (Mah. 09). There are two aorist forms in 
common use, add (Mah. 23, 214), and addai (Dh. 
107; Mah. 103; F. J6t. 6); there appears also 
to be a form dadij but I have only met with it 
once, at Dh. 238 ; aor. 3rd pl. adum, adamsu 
(Mah. 6, 175 ; F. J&L 5). dadam, dadanto, 
dadamdao (Dh. 175, 292, 294). Ger. daiod, -ddya, 
daditvd. Inf. ddium (F. J6t. 3 ; Dh. 208). Pass. 
^ati, diyyaH (Alw. I. 39; Dh. 229). Pass, 
imperat. diyatu, diyyaiu (Dh. 229 ; CI. Or. 131). 
Pass. aor. dfyUtha (Dh. 237). Adj. ddtabbo, 
detfyo* P.p.p. <iifiiio. CaxL%.ddpetu Des, dicehaii. 
See sep. the forms Deti, IkQJatL 

DADDALLATI, To blaze, to shine brilliantly 
[WnWifif = W^]. Alw. I. 25 ; Das. 29. 

DADDARl (fit.), A sort of drum [comp. ^^]- 
Ab. 144. 

DADDARiKO, Asortof drum [^^[^if^]. Ab. 140. 

DADD ARO, Name of a mountain [^[^ ] • F. J6t. 

J>AP)>IIO iP'P'P' dahaii)fivLTni, scorched, consumed 
byfira[;(9^=;i[|]. Dh.25; Kh.28. Daddha- 
dlosM, day of cremation (Mah. 155). 

J^ADDV (m.), A kind of cutaneous eruption [^^]- 

DADDURO, A frog [^r^]. Ab. 675. 

DADHATI, and DAH ATI, To put, to hold, to bear 
[VT]. Alw. I. 25. Inf. dhdtum (Dh. 372). 
CUUuk dakaHf to fix the mind upon (with loc). 

DADHI («.), Milk curds [^f%|] • Ab. 501 ; F. Jdt. 
3, 5. Dadhimafidafhf whey (Ab. 500). 

DADO (adj.). Giving [7?] . Amatamdado, giving 
Nirvina. Sabbakdmadado, giving every wish. 

P Ah AKO (adj.). Setting on fire [ (^Tf^] • I>h. 301 . 
DAHANAM, Burning, consuming by fire [^Tpf]- 
Mah. 181. 

DAHANO, Fire [^ff]. Ab. 33. 

DAH ARO (adj.). Young [^f?:] . Ab. 253 ; Dh. 68 ; 
B. Lot. 410. 

DAHATI, To bum, to consume by fire ; to torment 
[^ ] . Dh. 13, 25, 195, 196, 261, 301 ; Mah. 38. 
Pass* dayhati, to be burnt, to be consumed, to be 
in torment (Dh. 66, 195, 422 ; Gog. £v. 52, 53). 
The usual spelling is dak-, I have met with dah' 
only at AU. 192, 208 : at Mah. 125 the Ind. Office 
MS. has daykati. 

DAHO, A lake [^] . Ab. 678 ; F. Jdt. 5 ; Mah. 2. 

DAHO, and ][>AH0, Burning, conflagration ; suffer- 
ing, torment, gfrief [^T^] • KUesaddho, the fire of 
the passions (B. Lot. 332). Jdtaddho, in anguish 
of mind (Mah. 40). 

DAJJA, see Daddti. 

DAJJATI, To give. According to Kaccdyana (Alw. 
I. 38), a root DAJJ may be substituted for DA 
throughout the whole conjogfation ; the examples 
given are dajjdmi and dajjeyya. Dajjdmi occurs 
at Mah. 48. The origin of this singular conjuga- 
tion is obscure. It is possibly due to the false 
analogy of the opt. dajjd, Sansk. ^^1?^. A pres. 
n^ is given by the Sansk. grammarians, but 
being a passive form (from the redupl. root 7^)f 
it can hardly be the source of dajjoH. I am 
inclined to think it possible that dajjati was 
originaUy a future (comp. the form dakkhinasi 
from '^S, which shows that the fot. dakkhati 
must have come to be used as a present). At 
Mah. 48 we find dajjdfni, where either a future or 
a present is required, and at Mah. 63^ in a parallel 
passage, we find dajjaih, which cannot be a present, 
but might be a fut. Atmane, unless we take it as 
the opt. 1st pers. from DA (^^^)- 

DAKAlJr, Water [^]. Ab.66L Dakarakkhaso, 
a water-sprite (Dh. 303, 304). Dakaaitalikam, 
the white water-lily (Ab. 689). 

DAKRHATA (/.), Skill [^^TOT]. 

DAKKHATI, see PassaH. 

DAKKHIl^rA if.), A g^ft ; a present to a Buddhist 




priest i an oflbringp toft petA [^f^l^]. Ab.066; 
Kh. 12. Addri iherdnam rdjd nihdradmkkhi^aai, 
the kiog^ made the priests a present of the mo- 
nastery (Mah. 103). 

DAKKHIl^AOOI (m.)* One sort of sacred fire, 
that which is taken from the domestic fire and 
placed to the south [^f^RT + ^irf^] • Ab. 419. 

DAKKHINAMBU, Same meaning as Ikikkhi^fk' 
dakam, which see [^^f^RT "^ ^Hj] • Mah. 165w 

DAKKHINAPATHO, The southern coantry [^f^- 
^ + '^Tir]- I>h- 3^7 ; Alw. I. 96. 

DAKKHIISATO {adm). On the south ; on the right 
hand [ ^f^U|fl^ ]> Mah. 86^ 206. 

DAKKHI9AVATTO, and -TTO {a^). Turning to 
the right [^f^-h^!^]. Dakkkif^vaHo 
nmkho a cbank or conch shell with its spiral turning 
to the right instead of the left : these shells from 
their ezeessiTO rarity were greatly prized, and used 
for the water of consecration at a king's inaugu- 
ration (Mah. 69). B. Lot. 632. 

DAKKHINAVISUDDHI (/.}, Purity of a gih 
[Tf^m + f^Ufl]. Sangiti 8. says there are 
four, when the offering is pure on the giver^ side 
and not the receiver's, when it is pore on the 
receiver's side only, when on neither side» when on 
both sides. Glovgh in his Diet, has ^ Dakshiyavi- 
Buddliiy% pure offerings, such as can only be 
offered to the priests on religioua occasions.'* See 
E. Mon. 80, and comp. 83. 

DAKKHII^AYANAA, The half of the year when 
tiie son moves to the south of th(fr equator [4[f^m- 
IV^]. Ab. 80. 

DAKKHI]^EYYO(mf^), Worthy of offerings [comp. 
;(f^#^]. Ab. 726;: Alw. I. 78; Mah. 10&; 
Kh. 7. Sangfiti & enumerates seven Puggmld 
dakJMfSLeyyd^ th» Mhhato^hdgammutto^ pmAdni' 
ffntf^to, ete. 

DAKKHI^JiAJlk, Kindness,. affhbiUty [^^if^]. 

DAKKHl]^ {adi\ Bight (dexter)^ soutiiem; 
dextorow [?^f^]. Ab. 986. DtkkUMkkhako^ 
the righl collar-bone (Mah. 105). DakkM^diid, 
th» sMth (Kh. 20). Dakkki^u^ubbd dimi, the 
BOHtb-east (Gl. Or. 82). AiAJIcAiiuK/vdriHn, south 
gate (Mah. 154). 

DAKKHINODAKAtt, Water of donation [^f^RTT 
+ ^i^^] • ** Water poured into the right hand of 
a priest Bs a ratification of an offering of value that 

has either been made or is yet to be made" (Glongh 
Simh. Diet). Mah. 86, 160 ; Dh. 244. 

DAKKHINTI, see PamUi. 

DAKKHO (ii4f.). Clever, skilful {j^]. Ab. 721. 

pAKO, and PAKAM^ A vegetaUe, a potherb 
[irni]. Ab.459. Comj^Sdka. 

DALAA,Aleaf [;a[W]. Ab. 543. 

DALETI (cone.), To splits to break [i|TVqTl| = 

DA)iH AYATI, To make firm lj[€% or J!€^» see 
B. and R.]. Alw. 1. 17. 

ing firm, strengthenings confirmation [^^ + 
1|^ and ^1^]. Ab. 790 ; Dh. 175, 369. 

DAliHO ip-P'P^)t Hard, firm, strong, o^oesdve 
[^=f|]. Ab. 41, 714; Dh. 60. Dafkam 
imndhmuuk, a strong fetter (Dh. 62). 3lmuud 
do^Amui, with* steadfast nsind (Kh. 8). Dafht^M- 
r&kkama^ making strenuous exertions (Dh. 5). 
Dmthamitto, a firm friend (Ab. 346). Dafkam 
{adv.), strongly^ firmly (Dh. 55 ; Has. 24). Datha- 
taroA (adv.), more firmly (Att. 210). 

DAL.IDDO, and DALIDDO («&*.), Poor, needy 
[^7] • ^' 739 ; Dh. 218, 243. 

DALIMO, The pomegranate tree [^if^Hl]. Ab. 570. 

DAMAKO, One who practises self-mortification by 
living on the remnants of offered food [^If + ^]. 

DAMAJMI, A rope, a strings a wreath [lpir>(]. 

Ab. 489. Pufiphaddnuukt a wreath of flowers 

(Mah. 198). ]»!. 283 ; F. J4t. 6. 
DAMANAM, Subduing [i^ni]. Mah. 118. 
DAMATHO, Self-control, seUM»mmand; subjof*- 

tion [ipnr]* Ab. 758; Alw. I. 93; Dh. 7- 
DAMBHO, Deceit [^]. Ab. 177. 
DAMETI {eami^ dammatC^, to tame, to snbdne, to 

overcome } to convince [^'4iC|ni=s ?i^]. Dh. 

15v 54, 273 ; B. Lot. 376. Dameium vaffaih I 

ought to convert him (Mah. 250). 
DAMIfiO, A Dravidian, a Tamul,. a Malabar 

[sTf^- Mah. 4, 127. Fem.daiii#r(Mah.2S3; 

Alw. I. evil). Damifabhdtd^ the Tamul language 

(Alw. I. cvii). 
DAMIL0(a4;.)^Dmvidian, Tamul [inf^]« l^^em. 

ddmifi (Mah. 154). 
DAMITO {p^p.p. dameti), Tamed^ subdued [<^fi|l| 

= ^]. Ab. 749. 
DAMMATI, and DAMYATI, To be tamed or 

subdued [^^]. Alw. 1. 18^ P.p.p. daaim. 


( 111) 


DAHHI, see DaddH. 

DAMMO (adj\). To be tamed [l^ = |^] . nam- 
mo, a steer, a youngs bollock (Ab. 496). Dh. 148, 
309; B. Lot 862; Alw. I. 77. 

DAMO, Setf-command, sabjagatioD of the senses, 
self-restraiiit, abstinence; long-suffering; punish- 
ment, discipline; temperance, sobriety [7if]- 
Ab. 349, 758^ 847; Dh. 2, 46; Kb. 13. 

PAASO, a gad-fly [^]. Ab. 645 ; O. Or. 83. 

DANA A, Purification [7^ from ^]. Ab. 1014. 

DANAft, Cutting or breaJung off [7^1 from ?T to 
cut]. Ab. 1014. 

DANAISI, (Hving; a gift, a donation; almsgiving, 
charity, liberality [^PT]. Ab. 420, 1014. Ovd- 
dad dna m, admonition. Baliddnam, giving offer- 
ings (Mah. 89). Ddnapati, a noble giver, one who 
gives much and keeps little, or gives the good and 
keeps the bad ; ddnatahfyo, one who gives away 
property similar to what he keeps ; ddnaddso, one 
who gives little and keeps much, a sordid giver 
(EL Hon. 81). The two diuias are dhamtnaddnam 
and dmisaddnamf gift of spiritual and gift of 
temporal blessings (Mah. 196; £. Mon. 196). 
Great virtue is attached by Buddhism to the 
practice of alms-giving. See Pdramitd, and 
Sangahavatihu. £. Mon. 79-90 ; Dh. 32 ; Kh. 13. 

DANAA, The fluid that flows from an elephant's 
temples when in rut [i^T^]. Ab. 1014, 1128. 

DANAMAYO {adj.)y Consisting of or connected with 
almsgiving [^T«r + ^W] . 

DAnARAHO (a4f.). Worthy of gifts [?[T>r+ ^]. 

DANASO];^>0 {adj.). Profusely liberal, munificent 

[ifPI + liY«]. Ab.723. 

DANAVATTH U (n.). Cause for giving ; object for a 
gift [^nW + ^^l- Sangfti S. enumerates ten 
motives for almsgiving, such as fear, gratitude, 
the hope of reward, etc. There are ten objects 
suitable for gifts, annam pdnath vattham ydnaih 
wUUdgmndhavilepanath geyydvasathapadipeyyam, 
food, drink, clothing, vehicles, flowers, perfomes, 
unguents, bedding, dwellings, lights (oomp. 
Ab. 4a&). 

DANAVO, An Asura [^(T^m]. Ab. 14, 83. 

DA^^^AKAMMAA, Atonement, penance, penal 
AsdpHne, ecclesiastical punishment [79 + 
1|4«(]. Mah. 28, 150, 201 ; Das. 4. 

DA^f^AKO, A stick, a staff [^pSH]- P- J^t. 4, 
1^18; Mah. 99; Dh. 106. 

DANpANlTI (/.), The scienoe of crimfaial justice 

[^IW + H^]- Ab.lia 
DANJPETI, To punish [^^1^] . 01. P. Verbs, 13. 
DANDHO {adj.\ Idle, slothful, slow, heavy, fbolish 

\inC\* Dh. 21, 124, 172. It is also explained by 

''Idmaka^jamma" (Dh. 292). 
DANpI (fit.). One who carries a staff, a mendioaiit 

[^h^^J- CI. Or. 94. 
DANpiKO, One who carries a staff [l^fi^li]. 

a. Or. 94. 
DANDIYO (a^\). Punishable [^mf]. JBMa$h 

da^kfo, amenable to a fine of a hundred pieces 

(Mah. 284). 
D AjypO, A staff, a pole ; a handle; a stalk or stem ; 

punishment, penalty; violence, cruelty [TV]* 

Ab. 349, 686, 1044. Sajfhuda^m wiaeehaHadt, 

a white umbrella with a silver handle (Mah. 164). 

Daftdam pafteti, or karotiy to inflict a punishment 

(Dh. 56 ; Alw. 99). Dafidadlpikd, a torch. Dh. 

24, 72 ; Mah. 234. 

DANI (adv.), Now [T^^tH^]. Dh. 42, 384; 

Kh. 28 ; F. Jat. 3. With the original final m 

revived for euphony : hmtda ddnim amdhaih. See 

also Jddnu 
DANTACCH ADO, The lip [^ + Xf^] . Ab. 930. 
DANTADHAVANO, The tree Acacia Catechu 

[ifm + W^W]. Ab.567. 
DANTAJO {a4f.). Dental [^+ IT]- The dental 

letters are t, th, d, dh, n, I, and « (CL Or. 2). 

DANTAKATTHAA, a tooth-brush, a piece of 

wood used for cleaning the teeth [Vl|f-f im] 

Ab. 442 ; Mah. 22. 
DANTAMAYO (a4f.). Made of ivory [^ + ^ 

Alw. I. 78 ; Mah. 242. 
DANTAPOJyO, A tooth-deaner [^ + in«f] 

Ab. 442 ; Pdt. 14. 
DANTASATHO, The lime or lemon [^i|f -h IRT] 

DANTA VARAN AA, The lip [^+^^W] 

DANTI (/.). Self-control [^Tf^]. Ab. 758. 

DANTi (m.), An elephant [^fifn(]- Ab. 360. 

DANTO, A tooth ; an elephant's tusk ; Ivory [i^]. 
Ab. 261 ; Kh. 18 ; Mah. 151, 210. DantakhaeUo, 
Inlaid with ivory. Dantavijani, an 'ivory fon 
(Mah. 164). Dantatlppam, art of carving on 
ivory (Mah. 242). 

DANTO (p*p.p. dmmmaift). Tamed, subdued ; trained. 




broken ; self-oontrolled, temperate [THfl = T^O* 
Ab. 749 ; B. Lot. 376 ; Db. 7, 26, 57. 

DANTOTTHAJO (adj\). Dental-labial, tbe letter 
« is 80 called [i^ + "ift? + ^]- CI. Gr. 2. 

DANU (/.), Name of tbe motber of tbe Asuras 

DANUPPATTI (/.), Re-birtb of an almsgiver 

according^ to bis wisb [^^^ + ^f^fWj • £• Mon. 

83. Tbere are eigbt d&nuppattis, re-birtb as a 

wealtby kbattiya, a wealtby brabmin, a wealtby 

boQsebolder, a Tusita angel, etc. 
DAPETI (caus. daddti), To cause to be g^ven 

[^TingrfH= ^]. Mab. 27, 135, 202 ; Db. 237. 

•^ggi"^ ddpeti, to cause fire to be applied, to set on 

fire (Db. 176, 299). 

DAPPANO, A mirror [^^]. Ab. 316. 

DAPPAVA (a4;.)» Proud ["^ + ^(WQ. Mab. 162. 

DAPPO, Pride [^]. Ab. 860. 

DARA, see Ddro. 

DARARO, An infant, a cbild, a boy, a son [TTT^l* 
Ab. 253; Alw. h zlv; Mab. 45 ; Db. 155. Chi- 
maddrakd^ tbe village cbildren (F. Jit 17). 

D AR ANAlil, Gleaidng [i[KW] • Ab. 393. 

D ARATHO, Oppression, suffering, pain [^ + ^] . 
Ab. 1111 ; Db. 425 ; Das. 33. Divddaratho, 
oppression caused by tbe beat of tbe sun. 

DARl (/.), A cave, a grotto [?[^]. Ab. 609. 

DARIKA (/.), A gurl, a young woman [^ifXmi]* 

Alw. I. zlv ; Mab. 222 ; Db. 223. 
DARITO (p.p.p.), Tom asunder f divided [^- 

f^=|]. Ab. 748. 

DARO, Fear; pain, suffering [^]. Ab. 1111; 
F. Das. 33. Mahddaro, anguisb (Mab. 261). 
In niddaro (Db. 37), and viiaddaro (Db. 69), 
dara is taken by tbe commentator in tbe sense of 
" suffering." 

DARO, and DArA (/.), A wife [l^]. Ab. 237. 
Sakena darena ea homi tuff ho, and remain content 
witb my own wife (Db. 97). Loc. sing, ddre 
(Ab. 1000). Loc pi. ddresu (Db. 62 ; bere it is 
possible tbat ddresu sbould be rendered " a wife," 
not ** wives,** comp. tbe Sansk. use of tbe word). 
Ddrddhara^fkf maintaining a wife. Putta-- 
ddram, wife and cbild (Kb. 5). Puttaddrd (plur, 
masc,)f wife and cbild, or wives and cbildren 
(Db. 412). 

DARU (n.). Wood [JJ^]. Ab. 548. PL ddr^i, 
firewood (F. Jdt. 2, 56). Ddruhatthi, a wooden 

elepbant (Db. 158). Patodaddr^ni, sticlcB to make 

a goad of (Mab. 167). 
DARUHALIDDA (/.), Name of a plant [^J^ + 

ff^yr]- Ab. 586. 
DARU JO (adj.). Made of wood [^J% + H] . Db. 02. 
DARUKAA, Wood, a log [^f^ + 1i]. Db. 392. 
DARUMAYO (adj.), Made of wood, woodoi 

[<^T^T9]* Db.90, 158. 
DARUNO (adj.), Harsb, severe ; terrible, dreadful 

[^rmr]- Ab. 167 ; Db. 25 ; Mab. 235. 
DASA (num.). Ten [^Ip^J . Instr. and abl. dasahL 

Gen. and dat. da»annam (Db. 25). Loc daaaau. 
DASA if.), Tbe skirt or border of a garment ; con- 
dition, state ; period, age [7^]. Ab. 294, 1127* 

DaidkanfM, tbe edge of tbe skirt (Db. 234). 

Oddtdni vatthdni dighadoidni, wbite garments 

witb long skirts. 
DASABALAA, Ten forces, see Balam. Man. B. 380. 
DASABALO, One wbo possesses tbe ten Balas, a 

Buddba [ <)[1PC + ^V^l - ^' ^' I>h. 84; CL 
Gr. 81 ; Mab. 11, 118. Kanapadasabalo, Kassapa 
Bttddba (Has. 24). 

DASADHA (adD.), In ten ways [^[^IVT]. Mab. 155. 

DASADHAMMAlk, Ten objects [[^ + V^]. 
According to Hardy tbese are tbe four Maggas, 
tbe four Phalas, Nirv&^a, and tbe Scriptures 
(E. Mon. 194). 

DASADISAft, Ten directions, see DUd. Att 1^. 

DASAHAM, Ten days [^[ip( + ^]. P4t. 10. 

D ASAMO (a4;.), Tentb [^l^f] . Mab. 67. Fern. 

dasami, tbe tentb day of tbe lunar half month 

(Mab. 117). 
PASANAA, Biting [^ipf]. 
DASANO, A tooth [^ipT]- Ab. 261. Datamm- 

cchadOf the lip (Ab. 262). 
DASANTO, Tbe border of tbe skirt [^ITT+^V^]- 

Alw. I. 101. 
DASASATANAYANO, Thousand-eyed, a name of 

Indra [(i[ipC. + ^ + 'RPf] • Ab. 19. 
DASASILAA, Tbe ten precepts or Sikkh^HP*<las 

PASATI, To take hold of with the teeth ; to bite 
. [^If ]• Mukhena d., to seize in the mouth (F. 

J&t. 3). Db. 223; Mab. 244; Has. 72; F. ja. 

17, 53. P.p.p. daffho. Caus. Da^^dakam kaedkO' 

pena dasd^tvd, having made the tortoise take the 

stick in bis mouth (F. J&t. 17). 
DASAVAGGO (adj.), Consisting of ten individuals 




[<^lfi(^ + ^Jf] . Datatfoggo Mmgho, a chapter of 

ten priests (Pdt. xl). <*^ 
DASAVYAA, Slavery, servitude. Ddtavyopagato, 

a servant or slave (Ab. 515). 
DASIDASAft, Maid-servants and man-servants 

DASO, A slave, a servant [TRV]* Ab. 514; Alw. 
I. zlv. Fern. dM, a female slave, a maid-servant 
(Ab. 236 ; Mah. 162). 
DASSAlMr, see Daddti. 

DASSANAM, Seeing^, sig^ht ; meeting or associating^ 
with ; opinion, doctrine, belief ; knowledge ; 
sotipatti, or the knowledge gained by one who is 
walking in the first path ; an eye ; showing, illus- 
trating [^[if^]. Ab. 161, 775, 888. Tesam 
dananam pi anicchantij disliking the very sight of 
them (Dh. 300). Ariyataccdna' dananam, dis- 
oemment of the sublime truths (Kb. 6). BhikkM' 
mam da$9anafk, the presence of the priests (Mah. 
150). Miechddastanaih, false doctrine (Dh. 306). 
Da$9andycpagaeehanto mdtu deviyd, goiag to see 
his princess-mother (Mah. 24). With ace. Tarn 
bhagavantam da&$andya, to see the Blessed one 
(Alw. 92, 93). Alw. I. xlv ; Dh. 37, 38, 48, 299. 
DASSANlYO, and -NEYYO {adj.\ Beautiful 
[^^lH^=^J. Alw. I. 74; B. Lot. 407; 
Dh. 314 ; Mah. 225, 235. 
DASSATI, see Daddti. 
DASSAVl {adjJ)f Seeing. BhayadassdvU seeing 

DA8SETI (cotct. pauaH), To show ; to point out ; 
to show oneself [^l(€|ff| = ^tJT^] . Ranho kumd' 
ram daatetum, they presented the prince to the 
king (Mah. 45). Mahdsattdbhimtikhe attdnam 
datten, presented himself before the Bodhisatta 
(Ras. 19). Asandni na da»seH, rendered the seats 
invisible (Mah. 31). Attdnam adoMetvd, without 
aOowing myself to be seen (Dh. 314). Paradd" 
rasevandyam dasam dastento, pointing out the 
sinfulness of adultery (Dh. 395). Naccagitam 
doMBoiyamdndj exhibiting her dancing and singing 
(Dh. 307). Sumane k&fe pddam dassesiy left an 
impression of his foot on Adam's Peak (Mah. 7). 
Smnakhapamoik dasn^itvd, comparing him to a 
dog, lit. pointing out his resembkinoe to a dog (Mah. 
227)* Da$9eH §onir6pena paricdrikayakkhinif a 
menial yakkhini showed herself under the form of 
a dog (Bfah. 48). GodhdHipena dauen lutldakam 
Skwnmadevaidf the devat4 of the spot presented 

himself to the huntsman under the form of an 
iguana (Mah. 166). F. Jdt. 419 ; Ras. 25 ; Mah. 
59, 162, 176 ; Dh. 15. 
DASSI^ DASSITHA, etc., see PassaH. 

DASSi (adj.)f Seeing; showing ['TnPt]- Digko' 

dassi, far-seeing (Dh. 219). Bhayadasti, seeing 

danger (Dh. 56). Vajjadaui, pointing out what 

is to be avoided (Dh. 14). Dh. 2. 
DASSITO {p^p^p. dassett). Shown, exhibited [l^f^ 

= T>l]- B. Lot. 310. 
DASSI VA (adj.)^ Having seen [^f^N^]- Bhaya-- 

dassivd, having seen danger (Dh. 6). 
DASSlYATI (pa98. dasseti). To be shown. Angn- 

liyd dassiyamdnd, being pointed at with the finger 

(Dh. 109). 
DAtA (f».), A giver [^[T<T] • Sen. K. 340. 
DATABBO (p/p. daddti). To be given, that must 

be given [7X71^= Tf]. Bhattavetanam dd' 

tabbam bhavissati, food and fees will have to be 

given him (Dh. 93). Mah. 220. 

DATHA (/.), A canine tooth, a tusk, a fang [^^i 
^l^l] . Ab. 261 ; B. Lot. 599. Tusk of an elephant 
(Mah. 152), of a Rakkhasa (Ras. 20). Sappaddfhd, 
fang of a snake (Ab. 655). 

DATH ADHATU (w.), Tooth relic [^TlfT + ^TT^] • 
An eye-tooth of Buddha brought from Kalinga in 
310 A.D. and enshrined by the reigning king 
Sirimeghava^^a : it is now at Kandy in Ceylon. 

DAXHI (adj.). Having tusks or fangs [^t^P^]* 
CI. Or. 29. 

DATO (p.p-p.\ Cut [^T7f = ^]- Ab. 752. 

DATTA*, a sickle [^nr]. Ab. 448 ; CI. Gr. 133. 

DATTHABBO (p/p. panaH), To be seen [ j^lg^ 
= '^ir]* Na kho pan' etam evam datthabbam, 
this matter must not be viewed thus (B. Lot. 402). 
Ayam panndkdro nagaramajjhe amaccddipari- 
vutena datthabbam, this present is to be examined 
by him in the midst of the city surrounded by his 
ministers and other officers (Alw. I. 74). Da- 
tthabbam, let it be known, it must be observed, 
or considered, or borne in mind (Kh. 21). 

DAr[THO (P'P.p- diasatt). Held or seized in the 
mouth or teeth ; bitten [7^ = ^1(^] • Dafthatthd- 
nato dax^dakam viMajjetvd, having let go the stick 
from the place he held it by, lit. from the bitten 
place (F. J4t. 17 ; Dh. 412). F. J&t. 42. 

DATTHUA, see Panaiu 

DATTI (/.), Offering \j^'\. 





DATTIMO (adj.), Received by donation [^f^4|]. 

DAJTU (adj.), Stupid. Ab.721. 

DATUM, DATVA, see DaddH. 

DATYCHO, a g:fillinule [^[T^]- Ab. 644. 

DAYANAM, Burning, heat. 

DAYATHU (m.). Burning, heat, inflammation 

[^^]- Ab 328. 
DAYO, Quick motion; sport, amusement [j^]* 

Ab. 176, 1126. Comp. Dfavo. 
DAYO, Burning, inflammation; a forest [^^]- 

Ab. 1126. 
DAYO, A forest [^T^] • Bdvaggi, a burning forest 

(Dfa. 195). See Ddyo. 
DAYA (/.), Mercy, compassion [^^|]. Ab. 160. 
DAYADO, A kinsman; an heir [^|€||^]. Ab. 

1046 ; Mah. 36 ; Kh. 13. Gondnam ddyddo, one 

who inherits oxen (Sen. K. 345). 
DA YAJ JAA, Inheritance ; dowry [^^feTT^] . Mah. 

51 ; Alw. I. xlv. 
DAYAKO (adj.), Giving, a giver, a benefactor 

[^T^n]. Fern. ddyikd(Dh. 252). Mah. 36, 176; 

Kh. 11; Dh.lOd. 
DAYALO (adj.), Compassionate, merciful [^"^QW]* 

Ab.727. 2>ayrf/ttA:o (Mah. 231). 
DAYANAA, Reaping [from ^]. Dh. 126. 
DAYAPANNO (ai^.), Compassionate [^^ + 

DAYAPARO (adj.). Compassionate C^^ + ITC]. 

Mah. 226. 
DAYATI, To give, to aUot ; to protect [^] . CI. 

P. Yerbs, 9. With gen. Telassa dayati, he allots 

oil (CI. Or. 145). Dh. 398. 
DAYATI, To give [^[T^]- Mah. 222. 
DAYHATI, see Pahatu 
DAYl (adj.). Giving [^Tf^]- Sen. K. 502. 
DAYITO (p.p./>. dayati), Beloved [^f^= ^i^]. 

Ab. 697. Fem. dayitd, a woman (Ab. 230). 
DAYO, A gift ; separate property of a wife [^TO]- 

Ab. 355, 898 ; Dh. 120. 
DAYO, A forest, a wood [^T^] . Ab. 536, 898. 
DEDDUBHO, An Amphisbsena, a kind of lizard 

without legs [^H^]- Ab. 651 ; Mah. 244. 
DEHANI (/.), A threshold [^f^rft]- Ab. 219. 
DEHI (m.). An animal, a creature [^f^P(^ ] • Ab. 93. 

DEHO, and DEHAM, The body [^]. Ab. 151. 
DehapaHtatthdne, on the place where his body fell, 
i.e. on the spot where he was killed (Mah. 155). 
Antimadehadhdrf, wearing his last body ; i.e. in 

his hist existence (B. Lot. 350). Alw. I. zxxiv ; 
Ras. 21 ; Mah. 178. 

DE^IMO, A kind of drum [f^rf^CHl]- Ab. 143; 
B. Lot. 478. 

DESAKO, A district [^ + li] . Mah. 61. 

DESARO (adj.). Showing, teaching, a teacher 
[%^S|9]. A priest confessing an offence to another 
is called desako (Pit. 27). Desako, a preacher 
(Mah. 196). Dhammadesako, one who teaches 
the Law (Ras. 18). 

DESANA (/.), Instruction; preaching; a sermon 
or discourse; showing [^^QWT]- Mah. 2, 173; 
B. Lot 436. Vatthudesimd, consecrating a site 
for a building (P4t. 4). 

DESAPETI, To cause to be pointed out P&t 72. 

DESETI (cau9.). To point out ; to teach ; to show; 
to preach; to expound; to confess [^^€|(ff = 
f^ir]. Fatthum d., to consecrate a site, viz. 
to mark it out with certain ceremonies (P&t 4, 71). 
Dhammam d., to preach the truth, to teach reli^on, 
to preach a sermon (Kh. 9; Ras. 22; Dh. 119). 
Kassa nu kho aham pathamam dhammam de^ 
seyyam, whom shall I first teach the truth (Dh. 
119). Suttam desetum, to preach the (Ratana) 
Sutta (Mah. 240). jinnamannam accayath deseivd 
having confessed their fault to each other (Dh. 105). 
Alw. I. Ixix. denyamdno (Dh. 125). 

DESIKO, One who shows or teaches [^fipi]- 
Maggadenko, a guide (Dh. 124, 158). 

DESITAVA (adj.). Having preached or tanght 
[tftnr-f-^^]. Cl.Gr.l26. 

DESITO (p-p-p> deseti), Shown, pointed out, taught, 
preached [^ftnT=tl[H.]* Dh. 50. 

DESlYO (adj.). Belonging to a country [^ij^]. 
ColadesUfo, belonging to the Cola country. 

DESO, A place; a region, a district; a country; 
a part, a side [^]. Ab. 186. Sabbadetesu, 
in all the provinces (Mah 35). Purd pubbuttare 
dese, on the north-east side of the dty (Mah. 166). 
8o deso sammajfitabbo, the place must be swept 
(Pat xx). 

DETI, To ^ve. Whether this form is the Sanskrit 
?^ from ?^, or whether it is due to the false 
analogy of detu, the imperat from DA, I am not 
able to determine. The present occurs very fre- 
quently (demi, deti, deti, dema, detha, denti), and 
I have met with a part. pres. dente (see Dh. 374). 
Detu belongs of course to daddti (which see). 





BEVA, see Devo. 

DEVADARU (».), The Deodar pine, Plnus Deodora 
[^ + ^1^]. Ab.668. 

DEVADATTO, A name used to denote a person in 
genera) ; name of a oonsin of Buddha who was his 
enemy and rival [^^f^^]. CI. Gr. 131. 

DSVADEVO, Angel of angels, highest of celestial 
beings, an epithet of Baddha [^If + ^] . Ah. 3 $ 

DEVADH AMMO (adj.)y Of celestial nature, godlike 
[^^ + ^t4]* Those are so caUed who are en- 
dowed with shame, fear of sinning, and piety 
(Dh. d04 ; Das. 41). 

DEVADHItA (/.), A female deva, a goddess or 

^g^ [^ + l[ff^]- ^^' 226, 364. Comp. 

DEVADUNDUBHI (w). Thunder [^ + ^ffH] • 
Brahmajdla S. Atthakathd says sukkhavaldha- 

DEVADOTO, a messenger from the gods [^ + 
^^j. This term is applied to the three devas 
who took the forms respectively of an old man, a 
leper and a corpse, to warn Siddhatta of the vanity 
of human pleasures (Man. B. 155). Dh. 117. 

DEVAKHATAKAI!^, A natural pond [^ + 
^Tif = 1BPC + ^]- Ab.680. 

D£ VAKUIAM, A (non-Buddhist) temple ; a family 
of royal blood C^+^W]. Mah. e7, 115. 

DEVAKUSUMAA, Cloves [^+ ^P|7T]. Ab.dOS. 

DEVALAYO, a Hindu temple l^+^inRr]. 
Mah. 237. 

DEVALOKO, The world of devas or angels, the 
god-world, heaven^ a deva heaven, a heaven, 
a god-world [^ + Wtf] • Ab. 10. There are 
six devalokas; Cdtummahdrdfikadevaloko, Td' 
v^HthMdetfolokOf Ydmadevaloko, Ttmtadevaloko^ 
Nimumdwaraiidevaloko, Paranimmitava»avatti' 
devaloko. Of these the first extends above the four 
Mah4dipas, from the Yugandhara rocks to the 
CakkaWyapabbata, the second is on the summit of 
Mount Mem, and the remaining four rise one over 
the other above Mem. Their inhabitants are 
caUed Cdiummakdrdjikd devd, Tdvaiimsd devd, 
ete. The devas of the devalokas are superhuman 
beings or angels, living a life of happiness exempt 
frvca the ilk of humanity, lliey are inferior to 
the Brahma angels, lieing subject to K&ma, or the 
pkasiims of sense. The six devalokas are called 

collectively devaloko or ^'heaven.* The term 
devaloko, "angel-world,'' is also applied to the 
six devalokas and the twenty brahmalokas col- 
lectively, and each of these twenty-six worlds is 
also called devaloko, ** a heaven'' (see Dh. 434). 
Devalokasiri, the bliss of heaven (Dh. 117). Man. 
B. 5, 24, 25 ; B. Int. 202, 603 and foU. ; Mah. 178 ; 
Kb. 14 ; Alw. I. cvii. 

DEVANAM, Sport ; custom ; desire to win ; praise 

[^^pr]. Ab. 880. 

DEVAPUTTO, A deva [^ + 3^1]. The in- 
habitants of the Devaloka are called devd, but the 
sing, devo occurs but very rarely. In its place 
devatd is used, or, if it is intended to particularize 
sex, devaputto and devadhitd. Devaputto therefore 
means simply a male deva, and devadhitd a female 
deva. At Mah. 182 the Tdvatimsa gods are called 
devaputtd, and at Gog. Ev. 28 the moon (candimd) 
is called devaputto. At Dh. 117 the term is 
applied to Vissakamma, the celestial architect, 
and at Dh. 94 the son of the Brahman Adinna- 
pubbaka is called d. when reborn in the Tdva- 
timsa heaven. 

DEVARAjA (m.), King of the devas, viz. Indra ; 

a deva-king [^ + Jj^] . Ab. 18 ; Dh. 163. 
DE VARAJ J AM, Sovereignty over the devas [^^ -j- 

TT^]' Kb. 14. 
DEVARO, A husband's brother, a brother-in-law 

[^^]. Ab.247. 

DEVASIKAA (adv.), DaUy [f^^R-f ^:^ + *^]- 
Dh. 95, 128, 212, 265. 

DEVATA (/), A deva, a celestial being, an angel, 
a deity [^^nn] • Ab.l2. This word has the same 
meaning as deva, and the sing, devo being little 
used, devatd, " a deva," generally takes its place 
(comp. Devaputto). At Dh. 99 a Tdvatimsa deva 
is called both devatd and devaputto (comp. Mah. 
178). Devatdhi upatthiyamdno, ministered to by 
the angels (Dh. 265). Devatdbali, offering to a deva 
(Mah. 89). Kuladevatdnam bhikkh^mam, to the 
priests who are the tutelar deities of our race (Mah. 
136). Chattamhi devatd, the deity who guarded 
the royal parasol (Mah. 165). Kb. 4. Rukkha- 
devatd, a tree* nymph (see Has. 83). Nagara^ 
devatdyo, guardian devas of a town (Kb. 28). 
Bhummd devatd, a deva who inhabits the earth 
or a particular spot (Mah. 166). 

DEVATApO, The grass Lipeocerds Serrata 




[^unnV]* Ab. 578. Cloagh hae devaidnda 
both in his diet, and in his edition of Abhidh&- 
DEVATAM, A deva [^IRT] . Ab. 12. 

DEVATIDEVO, The deva who is over all devas, 
i.e. Buddha [^4||f^^^] . Mah. 5 ; Dh. 148. 

DEVATTAA, Devaship [f^?^]. 

DEVATTH ANAlfr, A holy place, a cetiya ; celestial 

abode [^ -f WPf] • Dh. 349 ; F. Jdt. 58. 
DE VA YONI (ac(;.)»Of celestial origin [^ + ^tf^Tj • 

PI. devayoniyo, demigods (Ab. 13). 
DEVi (/.), a female deva, a nymph, a goddess, a 

queen [^4^]. Alw. I. 97; Dh. 99, 154; Mah. 

83 ; Das. 45. 
DEVINDO, King of the devas, Indra [^ + X'lC' 

Mah. 47. 
DEVITTAft, Queenship [^^R^]. Mah. 25. 
DEVIITHI (/.), A female deva, a goddess or 

nymph [^ -f ^] . Ab. 25. 

DEVO, A deva, a god, a celestial being, an angel ; 
a cloud; a king ; the sky, the air ; death [^^]. 
Ab. 11, 46, 47, 842. The devas or angels are 
superhuman beings of various classes or orders. 
The term is applied to the inhabitants of the 
twenty Brahmalokas and the six Devalokas (see 
Devaloko). But there are also devas who are 
tutelar deities to certain towns or families, some 
are tree nymphs, some reside in rocks or are the 
genii of a particular locality, others make their 
home in the air or the cloud (see Devatd), — Sa^ 
middkiaumano ndma devo, the deva named S. 
(Mah. 5). Devo uppalavan^, Vishnu (Mah. 47). 
Devamdnussd (pL), gods and men (Dh. 267; 
Kb. 14). Devdnam indo, king of the devas, viz. 
Indra (Has. 24 ; Dh. 185). Devakamd, a celestial 
nymph. Devo vassati, it r^ns, lit. '* the cloud, or 
the cloud deva rains" (Mah. 129). Devopatha- 
maydmam vasHtvd, rain having fallen during the 
first watch (Dh. 88). Devamdtiko deso, a district 
watered by rain (Ab. 188). Tarn devo payirupd- 
satu, let Your Majesty attend upon him. Voc. deva. 
Sire, Your Majesty. Sakkoma deva, we are able. 
Your Majesty (Alw. I. 73 ; F. Jdt. 6 ; Mah. 85). 
Man. B. 39-44. There are said to be three sorts 
of devas, sammutidevd, uppattidevd, visuddhidevd, 
kings, angels, arahds (Das. 45). 

DEYYADHAMMO, A gift, an offering [^ + 
^]. Dh. 132, 267, 434; B. Int. 42. 

DEYYO (adj\). To be ^ven [^=^]. Ncut. 
deyyani, an offering. Buddhadeyyam, an offering 
to Buddha (CI. Gr. 79). Brahmadeyywk^ a 
present made to a brahmin (F. J&t. 10). 

DHAJALO {adj,\ Adorned with flags [^qw + 
HT^]. Ab.733. 

DHAJAVA {adj.). Adorned with flags [^if^l^lll]- 
Ab. 733. 

DH AJl {adj.). Having flagd [^d^] • CH. Gr. 29. 
Fem. dhajini, an army (Ab. 381). 

DHAJO, A flag; a mark or symbol [M^]- Ab. 
397, 1064 ; Mah. 99. Tambapanniddhajd gwrd, 
teachers who are the standards of Ceylon (Alw. 
I. xv). 

DHAMAA, Light, splendour; dignity [^TTR^l* 

DHAMANl (/.), A vein ; anerve [Wrf*!]- Ab.279; 
Dh. 71. 

DHAMANO, A reed [VPT]- Ab. 601. 

DHAMATI, To blow [UTT]- Sankhask d., to blow 
a conch (Mah. 143, 154). Dhameti (F. Jdt. 15). 

DHAMMABHAN^AgARIKO, Treasurer of the 
Law, a name of Ananda \y[n + HPOTPTTf^^]- 
Ab. 436. 

DHAMMABHISAMAYO, Comprehension of the 
truth [\|^ + ^rf^ + ^RTOr] • This term means 
the attainment by an unconverted man of one 
of the four paths. Caturdaitiyd pdnaaahassdnaM 
dhammdbhUamayo ahoal, the conversion of eighty* 
four thousand beings took place (Dh. 130). B. Lot. 
432; E. Mon. 292; Mah. 3, 73; Dh. 144, 350; 
Kamm. 28. 

DH AMMACAKKAA, Dominion of the Law [yf^-^- 
^Sf%]. The well-known phrase dhammacakkam 
pavatteti is usually rendered " to turn the wheel 
of the Law," but that this was its original meaning 
I consider extremely improbable. Pavatteti (whUh, 
see) does not mean ** to turn " so much as '* to set 
going,* '< to set on foot," *'to establish,* **to 
begin,* ** to make,* and cakka is probably used 
in its sense of '' domain " or '* dominion." Thus 
dhammacakkam p. should be rendered by some 
such expression as "to inaugurate the reign of 
Religion," *' to set on foot the dominion of the 
Law.* It is most important to bear in mind that 
this famous phrase is used not of the whole period 
of Buddha's ministry, but only qfhUJirtt 9emumf 
in which he " began" or '' set on foot" his religion 
by imparting the knowledge of it to the ^\^ 
brahmins. Tumour's rendering is "proclaimed 




the sovereigpn supremacy of his faith" (Mah. 2» 
oomp. the Index and Glossary). In Buddhaghosa's 
comment on Brahmajdla Sutta, the word dhamma- 
cakka occurs in a different connexion ; when the 
priests inform king Ajdtasattu of their wish to 
hold a general council, he replies gddhu bhante, 
viMtatthd karaiha, mayham dftdcakkam tumhdkam 
dhmmmacakkam hotu, dtuipetha kim karomi, 
which I would translate as follows, <'It is well, 
venerable men, you may rely upon me, let mine 
be the domiun of temporal authority, yours the 
domain of reli^on, command me what to do.'* 
Dhammacakkappavatianaauttamf the sermon 
called " The Establishment of the Truth " (Mah. 
101, 74). Dhammacakkappavattitapadeio, the 
spot where the Law was first preached (Kh. 20). 
Man. B. 187 ; B. Lot. 299, 335, 387 ; Dh. 78, 119. 
In his Simh. Diet. Clough explains Dharmacakra 
as *' The laws contained in the whole of the sacred 
and moral discourses delivered by Buddha." 

DHAMMACAKKHU (a.). The eye of the Law 
[\9^ + ^W^^]* The following phrase is of 
firequent occurrence, Ttissa virajath vitamalam 
dhammacakkhuth udapddi yam kind samuda^ 
yndhammam sabbam tarn nirodhadhammaihf he 
received the pure and spotless Eye of the Law, 
(which is the knowledge) that whatsoever is in 
the condition of having an origin is also in the 
condition of having an end, i.e. that whatsoever is 
brought into existence must One day perish. 
JDkammacakkhum visodheti, to make dear the 
eye of the Law, i.e. to purify the mental insight so 
as to obtain the Icnowledge called dhammacakkhu 
(Mah. 73). 

DHAMMACARl (adj.), living according to the 

Law, virtuous [^H-^Tftl'l]. ^^' ^^> 126. 
Fem. dhammacdfini (CI. Gr. 40). 

DHAMMAGARIYA (/.), Religious life, piety 
[^+^^]. Kh.6. 

DHAMMACARO {adj.). Pious \y(ii + ^TT]- 

DHAMMADANAM, Gift of the Law, viz. imparting 
to others a knowledge of the Truth \yc^ + TTf ] • 
Dh. ei ; E. Mon. 196 ; P&t xxii. Dhammaddnam 
wuthoMtam H mUvd dmisaddnato, hearing that the 
gift of religion is a greater gift than the gift of alms 
(Mah. 196). 

DHAMMADASSi (m.). Name of one of the 
twenty-fiKir Buddhas \yp^ + ^f^|*t. ] - ^&^- 2. 

DHAMMADESANA (/), Religious teaching, a 

sermon, a discourse [^Ji| + ^ipTT] • Db- 305, 314 ; 
F. Jdt. 8 ; B. Lot. 436, 640. 

DHAMMADHAMMO, True and false doctrine 
[^iTn + ^^*f]. Dhammddhammesu kovido^ 
skilled in distinguishing true and false doctrine 
(Mah. 74 ; Alw. N. 62.) 

DHAMMADHARO (adj.). Versed in the Buddhist 
scriptures [\j|^ + ^sR^]. Dh. 46 ; Mah. 27. 


DHAMMAJIVI (adj.), Living according to the Law, 
living righteously [^snS + 'ftfiT^] • Dh. 5, 30. 

DHAMMAKATHA (/*.), A religious discourse, an 
exposition of the Scriptures ; conversation on re- 
ligious subjects [VY^ + ^v^]. Dh. 135, 231; 
Alw. I. 78 ; Pdt. xxii ; Mah. 196 ; Has. 26. At 
Dh. 366 it is opposed to abhidhammakathd, ex- 
position of metaphysical doctrine. 

DHAMMAKATHIRO, One who expounds the Law, 
one who has the gift of preaching \y^ + ^UTT + 
fTR]. Mah. 196; Dh. 259, 384; Pdt. xxii. 
Mahddhammakathiko, mighty in the scriptures 
(Dh. 405). At Pdt. xvi it is siud that to be an 
efficient dhammakathika a man shoidd be versed 
in Abbidhamma. 

DHAMMAKETU (m.), Standard of the Law [^ + 
%?]. DAammaketum ussdpeti, to raise the 
standard of the Law (B. Lot. 323). 

DHAMMAKKHANDHO, Branch of doctrine; 
division of the dhamma or scriptures [Vf + 
^Ifilf]. The l^pltaka is divided into eighty-four 
thousand dhammakkbandhas, " articles " or " sec- 
tions of the Law." They are divisions according 
to subject. Buddhagbosa as au illustration of 
the meaning of this term says that a Sutta or 
discourse dealing with one subject forms one dh., 
while a Sutta embracing several subjects forms 
several. Mah. 26 ; B. Int. 34 ; Att. 133. Saugiti S. 
also mentions four dhammakkbandhas or '* bodies 
of doctrine,* aUakkhandho, sarnddhikkhandho, 
panndkkhandho, vimuttikkhaudho. 

DHAMMA]£[, see Dhammo. 

DH AMMAMATAM, The nectar of the Law ["Cnl + 

^U^]. Mah, 74. 
DHAMMANi (m.), A rat-snake. Ah. 652. 
DHAMMANUDHAMMO, see Anudhammo. 
DH AMMAPADAJfif, A religious sentence ; name of 

one of the books of the Tipi^aka ; body or portion 




of Dhamma [^T^+^f^]* There are four 
Dhaminapadas, anabhijjMdhammapadamj avyd- 
pddadhammapadafhy sammd*atidhammapadam, 
sammd9amd4/iidhammapadam (Dh. 285). At Man. 
B. 4&7 Hardy gives another set of four. Dhamma' 
padam, " Religious Sentences," is the name of the 
second book of the Khuddakanik&ya (£. Mon. 169). 

DHAMMAPAKKHO, The side, canse, or party of 
true religion [^if -f V^]* Mah. 18. 

DH AMMARAJA (m.), King of Dhamma, Buddha; 
king of justice or righteousness [lal^ + TT^^'t.]* 
Ab. 3; Dh. 89; Mah. 7. At B. Lot. 581 the 
Cakkavattin is called dhammardjd, 

DHAMMARAMO, One who dwells in the Law 

[^ + ^IHTR]- ^b- ^' '^^ comment says 

nivdsanatthena samathavipassanddhammo drdmo 

assdti dhammdrdmo. 
DHAMMARASO, Taste or sweetness of the Law 

[V^ + I7Er]. Dh.64. 
DHAMMARATI (/.), Delight in the Law, pleasure 

caused by religion \y([^ + T^^- Dh. 64. 
DHAMMASABHA (/.), A religious meeting; a 

place of religious meeting \y(^ + ^RTT] • ^1^* 

300 ; F. Jat. 8, 46; Das. 21. 
DHAMMASALA (/.), Hall of Dhamma, a place 

where the Scriptures are read and expounded 

L^ + HTWr]. Att. 116. 
DHAMMASANAA, a pulpit, a seat in which a 

priest sat while preaching \y(i( + ^iR]* Dh. 

402 ; Mah. 13 ; F. J4t. 46. 

the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. £. Mon. 

170. See Sangavd. 
DHAMMASAVANAjfr, Hearing the Law, attend- 
ing the preaching of a sermon or exposition of 

religious doctrine \yi^ + ^qm]. Dhammagavo' 

nattham or 'fiatthdya, or -ndya gacchati, to go to 

a church service or sermon (Dh. 79, 336). Dh. 

ghosetij to sound the church call (Dh. 290, 402). 

DhammMavanaggam, a preaching hall or church 

(see Aggath), F. Jdt. 46 ; Kb. 5. 
DHAMMASENAPATI (m.), Captain of the Faith, 

a name of Sdriputta [yp^ -f %fT+ "RfH]* Ab. 

434 ; Dh. 135. 
DHAMMASSAmI (m.). Lord of Dhamma, Buddha 

[^ 4- ^rrfiPl]- Ab. 3 ; Dh. 104 ; Mah. 252. 
DHAMMATA (/.), Custom, habit ; nature [V^ + 

^]. Attano dhammatdyay spontaneously, in- 

taitively (Alw. I. cvu ; Dh. 301, 403). Dh. 147, 153. 

DHAMMATTHO (oi^*.), Just, righteoiu [\ri + 

^]. Dh.d9, 46. 
DHAMMA VAdI {adj.\ Speaking according to the 

Law, orthodox [V^ + ^Trf^]* I>h. 104; 

Mah. 17. 
DHAMMAVICAYO, Investigation of doctrine, 

religious research [^aT^ + f^'^lT]- This is one 

of the Bojjhangas (B. Lot. 798 ; Man. B. 498). 

DHAMMAVINAYO, Doctrine and Discipline [\n$ 
+ t^«rQ']- There is a twofold division of the 
contents of the T^pifaka into Vinaya and Dhamma, 
the latter including the Suttapifaka and Abhi- 
dhamma (Dh. 104). 

DHAMMAYATANAA, Ideas, thought, see Aya- 

DHAMMENA (adv.), Justly, righteously [V^]- 
Mah. 208, 237; F. Jat. 5; Dh. 373. Katham 
dhammena ifthakduppddessdmi, how can I without 
oppression obtain bricks ? (Mah. 165, comp. 39). 

DHAMMl (adj.\ Having the nature or quality of 
[^Sff^i^]. Vayadhammif subject to decay (Has. 
24 ; Att. clxxii). CI. Or. 29. 

DHAMMl, DHAMMIKATHA, see Dhammo, 2. 

DHAMMIKO (adj.). Religious; pious; orthodox; 
ecclesiastical [^£r[f^<QK]- Dhammikd isayo, holy 
sages (Alw. I. cxxiv). Dhammikayyd, orthodox 
priests (Mah. 18). Mah. 211 ; Alw. I. 73; Pdt 
18, 7^ ; Das. 10. 

DHAMMILLO, Braided hair [vf^]« Ab.257. 

DHAMMISSARATA (/.), Supremacy in religion, 
lordship of Dhamma \y^ + t,^<fl|] . Dh. 325. 

DHAMMO, and DHAMMAM, Nature, condition, 
quality, property, characteristic; function, practice, 
duty; object, thing, idea, phenomenon ; doctrine; 
law ; virtue, piety ; justice ; the law or Truth of 
Buddha; the Buddhist scriptures ; religion [^PR, 
and V^]. ^' 85, ^4, 784. The neuter 
dhammam is rare, I find it only at CI. Or. 51, 
where he says that dhamtna is masc. and neat., 
and at Dh. v. 82, dhammdni sutvd, " having Jieard 
religious truth or doctrines." Naradhammam- 
rahito, bereft of humanity. Khayadhammd vaya^ 
dhammd tukhd vedand, pleasurable sensation is in 
its nature perishable and transitory. Evamdhamwtd 
hi ydeand, for such is the nature of asking (F. J4t. 
11). Maricidhammo kdyo, the mirage-like body 
(Dh. 9). Marat^adhammo bhijjanadhammo, subject 
to death, subject to dissolution (Dh.360). Mucca" 




dkammo, having the nature of a man^ a mere 
mortal (Att. 199). Nibbdnadhammo, the nature of 
Nirvii^a (£. Mon. 294). Yam kihci iamudaya^ 
dkammam sabbam tarn nirodhadhammam, what- 
ever is in the condition of having^ an origin is in the 
condition of having an end (see Dhammacakkhu), 
Uifiko dhammOj the visible condition, the present 
state of thingrg, this world, this life (B. Lot. 370, 
oomp. Difthadhatnmo). Mittadhammo, friendship 
(F. Jit, 13). Sabbetu dkammesUf in all conditions, 
in all things (Dh. 63). Asekhd dhamfnd, attributes 
or properties of a perfected saint (see Asekho). 
Suddhadhammd, attributes of Buddha (Mah. 108). 
Sabbaua lokaua sadevakassa es' eva dhammo 
yadidam aniccam, impermanence is the property 
(or condition) of the whole world including the 
devaloka (Att. dzxii). The two dhammas, " con- 
ditions "or " qualities," are samatho and vipagsandf 
•aim and contemplation (Dh. 69, 196, 425). Virdgo 
seftko dhammdnarh, Arbatship is the best of con- 
ations or things (Dh. 48). Sabbe sankhatdsankha- 
tadkoMmd^ all things material and immaterial 
(oomp. Dh. 382). Aniccd dhammdj transitory 
things (Das. 9, of the eight lokadhammas). Cattdro 
dhammd dyu vanno tukham balam, four qualities 
or conditions, age, beauty, happiness and strength 
(Dh. 20). Ye keci kusald dhammd sabbe te 
tippamddamilakd, all good conditions or qualities 
have their origin in diligence (Dh. 179). Pdpako 
dkmmmOf sin (Sen. K. 322). Pdpakd dhammd, 
and akusald dhammd, evil states, evil ways, sin 
(Dh. 43, 371; Sen. K. 319, 322). Pdpadhammo, 
sinful, a sinner (Dh. 54). Pdrdjiko dhammo, a 
p. sin (Pdt. 95). Tayo dhammd jaMtd bhavanti 
eakkdyaditthi vicikicchitan ca silabbatah ca, three 
sins or states are cast off (Kh. 9). Hinam 
dkammam carati, to follow a low mode of life 
(Dh. 31). Dhammam sucaritath carati, to live a 
religious life (ditto). Ndtidhammo, pious duty to 
relatives (Kb. 12). Udake hdeadhammo, sport- 
ing in the water (Pdt. 15). Kalydnadhamvw, 
mtuons, excellent (Pdt. 4). Methuno dhammo, 
the practice of sexual intercourse. Vaaaladhammo, 
low conduct (Sen. K. 322). Bahunnam dukkha* 
dhammdnam purakkhato hoti, is exposed to many 
painfnl drcnmstances. Abhogapaccavekkhana^ 
rakUd ete dhammd, these organs (the stomach, 
liver, etc.) are void of reflection and consideration. 
Te dktt$mmd hetuppabhavd, those things which 

proceed from a cause (Att, cxxx). Dve dhammd 
bhdvetabbd dve d, parinneyyd dve d. pahdtabbd, 
two things to be increased, two things to be learnt, 
two things to be avoided. Acchariyd abbhutd 
dhammd, wonderful and miraculous phenomena. 
Kdyena photthabbam phusitvd manasd dhammam 
vinndya, having felt a sensation by the touch, 
having perceived an idea or phenomenon with the 
mind. Yadd have pdtubhavanti dhammd dtdpino 
jhdyino brdhmaiuusa, when the Verities dawn upon 
the striving, the meditating saint (Alw. N. 71)* 
Bvddhabhdsitd dhammd^ doctrines uttered by 
Buddha (Ras. 17; Mah. 25). Ariyappavedito 
(jAammo, the doctrine preached by holy men(Dh.l 5). 
Etaua dhammassa ananubodhd, from not under- 
standing this doctrine (of the Paficcasamuppdda). 
Tiiso sangitiyo drdfhadhammo, the doctrines or 
scripture rehearsed at the three Councils (P&t. 85). 
The doctrinal portions of the Tipitaica, viz. the 
Sutta and Abhidbamma, are called Dhamma in 
contradistinction to the Vinaya. Dhamma, '' doc- 
trine," is also opposed to Abhidbamma, ''meta- 
physical doctrine" (Dh. 366). Dhammavinayo, 
Doctrine and Discipline (Dh.l04). Ekam dhammam 
atitassa, in him who has broken one law (Dh. 32). 
Eia dhammo aanantano, this is an old law (Dh. 2). 
AdhikaratMuamathd dhammd, rules for settling 
difficulties. Cha dhammd, six rules or precepts, 
viz. the first six sikkhdpadas (Pdt. 117). ChannO' 
vutinam pdsav^ddnaih dhammdnam pavaram, 
superior to the doctrines of the ninety-six pdsa^^^ 
(Sen. K. 322). Satan ca dhammo najaram upeti, 
but the piety of the righteous suffers not decay 
(Dh. 28). Appamddo dhammesu, diligence in good 
works (Kb. 5). Dhammam carati, to walk 
righteously, to live a religious life (Dh. 80). 
Dhammam ndtivattati, does not transgress the 
bounds of virtue. Saccan ca dhammo ca, truth 
and righteousness (Dh. 46, 70). Dhammena, and 
8aha dhammena, justly, righteously (Dh. 373; 
B. Lot. 403). Asdhasena dhammena, with just 
judgment (Dh. 46). Passato dhammam uttamam, 
beholding the perfect Law (Dh. 21). Ciratthu 
tattham dhammassa, that the Faith may long 
endure. Adhammo dippati dhammo bdhiyati, false 
doctrine flourishes and true religion decays. 
Dhammam deseti, or bhanati, to preach the truth 
or the Scriptures (Pat. xxii ; Dh. 315). Dhammam 
su^dti, to hear the Scriptures expounded, to hear 




a sermon, to go to charch (Dh. 308, 966). Dhamma- 
idkacchd, religfioas conversation (Kb. 5). Three 
of the five Khandas, viz. Vedani, SaMd, and 
Sankhdra are collectively termed dhammd(plur,)f 
"mental faculties," and in the first verse of 
Dhammapada the commentator takes the word 
dhammd to mean those three faculties. But this 
interpretation appears forced and unnatural, and 
I look upon Dr. Max Mailer's translation, <<all 
that we are is the result of what we have thought," 
as the best possible rendering of the spirit of the 
phrase manopubbangamd dhammd. The meaning 
evidently is that a man's mental or physical 
''conditions" or "circumstances** are dependent 
on the state of his thoughts, or heart, or intentions. 
Thus, as the verse goes on to say, a man who 
speaks or acts from a bad heart will be in a con- 
dition of suffering or unhappiness. The illustrative 
stories of Gaklchup^a and Maftakunfalin in the 
commentary confirm this view, for Gakkhupala's 
blindness was the consequence of his having acted 
with evU intent, and Mattaku^falii^'B blissful state 
in the Tdvatimsa heaven resulted from his faith 
(manopasdda) in Buddha. B. Int. 41, 42 ; E. Mon. 
5, 167; Dh. 4, 16, 47, 49, 65, 67. 

DH AMMO (adj.), Religious [VTll] . Fern, dhammi. 
Dhammi kathd, a religious discourse or exposition. 
Instr. and loc dhammiyd kathdya (P4t. xxii). 
Dhammi kathd, is sometimes written as a com- 
pound with the i shortened, dhammikathd (Pit. 
xxii ; Dh. 107). 
DHAftSAKO (adj,). Destroying [vj^+ ^Wl]- 
DH AllKSETI (catw.). To fell ; to destroy [^^iFQ^^fn = 
'tift^]. Alw. I. 111. 

DHAlfirSi (adj,), Destroying, mischievous, hack' 
biting ['^fB^H^]. Db.44,d72. 

DHAASITO (p.p.p. dhamseti), Felled, fallen 

[^ftnT=^]. Ab.761. 
DHANA (/.), Fried barley [VTTT]. Ab. 463. 
DHANACGHEDO, Expense, waste [^iR + $^]. 

DHANAGAMO, Revenue [yif + ^QHRf]. Ab.356. 
DHANAKKlTO, A slave bought with money [^SR + 

lFhT=1lM. Ab.616. 
DH ANAIVI, Property, wealth, treasure, money [^PT] . 

Ab. 485. Dhanakotif ten millions of money (Mah. 

26, probably kahipa^as). KofisatasahanadhanO' 

pariecdgena, by an expenditure of treasure amount- 

ing to a hundred thousand ko^is (B. Lot 430). 
Saddhddhanoy rich in faith (Alw. I. xiii). The 
two dhanas are avimd^kadhaxuim and Mvimii- 
pakadhanam (Dh. 79). 

DHANAP^JANIf/.), Loss of wealth [^HT + Wtf^]- 

DH ANAVA (adj.). Wealthy [l^R^] . B. Lot. 313. 

DHANI(m.), Sound, noise [^^]. Ab. 119,128,899. 

DHANI (a^;.), Wealthy [\rf*R]. Ah. 725. 

DHANIKO, A lender, a creditor [^SrfvRf] - Ab. 470. 

DHANITAA, Sound, noise [vrf^=M^]. Ab. 
747 ; P4t. 29. 

DHANITTHA (/.), Name of one of the Nakkhatlu 
[Vf^rer]. Ab.60. 

DHANKO, A crow; a sort of crane [^^mV]- Ab. 
638, 1042. 

DHAf^f^AA, Grain, corn [lIRr]. Ab. 1007. 
Dhannakaraftatk, threshing (Ab. 927). The Mvm 
dhafiiias, or grains, are tdli, vihi, yavo, godhimo, 
kangUf varakOf kudrdso (Ab. 450 ; P&t 87). 
J DHA^^AMASO, A certain measure [^rn + 
W[W]' Ab. 195. 

DHAMaMBILAA, Sour rice-gruel [V1^+ 
^9[m]' Ab. 460. 

DH A^^O (adj.)y Fortunate, lucky [^n] . Ab. 722, 
1007 ; Mah. 134, 200. Dhmihalakkhanam, sign 
or mark of future good fortune (Mah. Ixxxviii). 

DHANU (».), A bow ; a measure of lengfth [V^^* 
Ab. 388, 811 ; Mah. 48. Dhanukaldpam, bow and 

DHANUGGAHO, An archer [V^+1Vf]- 
Mah. 155. 

DHARA (/.), The earth [VTT]. Ab. 181. 

DHARA (/.), A torrent, a stream; a shower; tb^ 
sharp edge of a cutting instrument [VTTT]* ^' 
50, 1095. Tikhifutdhdram Hnam, grass with sharp 
edges (Dh. 396). Dh. 81 ; Mah. 108. 

DHARADHARO, a cloud [VTTT + VT]- Ab- *?• 

DHAR AKD (adj.). Bearing [VH^IS] - Chattadhd- 
rakOf carrying a parasol (Mah. 180). 

DHARAmAISTAKO (aty.), Living ["CR^RTW- 
^ + l|i]. Dh. 241. 

DHARANAA, Bearing; a weight of ten ftiu 
[VTW]- Ab. 479. 

DH ARAI^r Aft, Preserving ; bearing in mind ; bear- 
ing, supporting [VT^^]- Ab. 1059; Dh. 90. 
SukhadhdrafUf, easy to be remembered (Mab. lj« 

DHARANI (/.), The earth [Vnd^]. Ab. 181. 
Dharanipati^ and dharafi(pdlo, a king (tf^ 
Ixxxviii, 85). Dharaf^(talam, the ground. 




DHARATI, To Hve [^]. Sace Mttkd dkareyya, 
if the Teacher were liying. Dharamd^ pi wgaie^ 
evea in Buddha's lifetime (Mah. 10, 36). Dha- 
ramio, living (Dh. 333 ; Mah. 222). 

DHARETI {cau8. last), To bear, to carry, to hold, 
to keep; towear; to possess; to restrain; to bear 
in mind, to know by heart [VI^4ni = ^J> 
Chmttaaik Tathdg-aUusa maithake dhdrayantOy 
holding a parasol over the Baddha's head (Dh. 133, 
eomp. Mah. 5). Devadattana tuvappachatiam 
dkdrwfaiet he holds a golden parasol over D. 
(Sen. K. 326). Ckattam dhdrayatit to raise the 
n>yal umbrella as a symbol of sovereignty (Mah. 
65b 104). Telapajjotmk dh., to hold a lamp. 
Sokam dhdretuih asakkontd, being unable to bear 
their sorrow (Das. 4). Puppham dh,, to wear a 
flower (Dh. 230). Fattha^ dh,, to wear clothes 
(Dh. 114). Pa/^aiJk d%., to carry a bowl (Pdt. 10). 
SQam dh., to keep the precepts (Att. 200). 
Swd d haadaamam dhdrehi, keep the commandment 
of Buddha (Dh. 82). Pancannam hatthinam balam 
dhdrenti, possess the strength of five elephants 
(Dh. 154). Updsaka^ tnam bhavam Gotamo 
dhdretu, let the lord €K>tama receive me as a 
disciple. Suvan^m me dhdrayate, he owes me 
gold (Sen. K.327). Manasd dh,, to bear in memory, 
to know by heart. Buddhaviieanani dhdrento, 
bearing in his heart the word of Buddha. IHfti 
pifakdmi dhdremi, I am versed in the three I^fakas 
(Dh. 384). Evaih dhdretha Jdtakam, so under- 
stood the J&taka (Dh. 417). JSmm etaah dhdra- 
ydmi, thus I receive your decision, thus I under- 
stand your wish (Kamm. 8; Pdt. 3). Kodham 
dh,, to restrain anger (Dh. 40). 

DHABI (adf.). Bearing; wearing; keeping In 
mind [^ff^i|J. No vesadhdrino, to one 
who wears our robe (Mah. 29). Pifakattatfa- 
dhdri, versed in the three Pitakas (Mah. 19). 
Mah. 118. 

DHARIYATI {pan, dhdreti). To be carried, worn, 
etc Alw. I. 75. 

DHARO (odj,). Bearing; wearing; possessing; 
keeping in mind, knowing by heart [^la|^]« Dhu' 
tadharo, keeping a dhutanga precept. Paita" 
pakkadharo, bearing leaves and fruit (Mah. 87). 
pMHwAii/adAaro, wearing sordid raiment Devo' 
rajJMiiidharo, possessing the splendour of celestial 
rule (Dh. 87). Ttpifakadharo, versed in the 
ITpitaka (Dh. 168). Dh.338. 

DHATAKI (/.), The shrub Grislea Tomentosa 
[VPnft]. Ah. 589. 

DHATARAinrHO, Name of one of the four 
Mahddgas; a sort of goose [V(f^T]|f]. Ab. 31, 
647; Man. B. 24. 

DHAtI '(/.). A nurse; a woman servant [\3rnft]- 
Ab. 244; Mah. 216 ; Dh. 328. 

DHATU (m. and f,). Primary or elementary sub- 
stance; principle, element, material; a property 
of a primary substance, as colour, taste, sound ; 
an organ of sense ; a bodily principle or humour 
of which there are three, phlegm, wind and bile ; 
a constituent of the body, as flesh, blood, bones ; 
the remains of a body after cremation ; a sacred 
relic; a fossil; a metal [VTI]]- Ab. 278, 817. 
The two dh^tus are tankhaiadhdtu and asankha- 
tadhdtu, the conditioned and the unconditioned, 
or the material and the immaterial. The three 
dhdtus are kdmadhdtu, r^tpadhdtu, ar^qnidhdtu, 
the element or region of Desire, of Form, and of 
absence of Form (B. Lot. 315, 516, 807). Another 
classification of three is rdpadhdtu, ardpadhdtu, 
nirodhadhdtu. Form, absence of Form, and Anni- 
hilation. A third is hinadhdtu, majfhimadhdtu, 
paftdadhdtu. The four dhdtus are pathavidhdtu, 
dpodhdtu, tejodhdtu, vdyodhdtu, the elemente of 
earth, water, fire and air (€rog. Ev. 59 ; £. Men. 
193 : they are the four Mahdbhdtas). The six dhatus 
BT^ pathavidhdtu, dpodhdtu, tejodhdtu, vdyodhdtu, 
dkdsadhdtu, vmndfuidhdtu, the elemente of earth, 
water, fire, far, space and intelligence (B. Int 496, 
497 ; B. Lot. 514). The eighteen dhdtns are cakkhu' 
dhdtu, Htpadhdtu, cakkhuvmhdnadhdtu,8otadhdtu, 
saddadhdtu, sotavmndnadhdtu, ghdnadhdtu, gan- 
dhadhdtu, ghdnavmndfMdhdtu, jivhddhdtu, raea- 
dhdtUfjivhdvinhdnadhdtu, kdyadhdtu, photthahba" 
dhdtu, kdyavnindfMdhdtu, manodhdtu, dhamma^ 
dhdtu, manovihhdnadhdtu, the eye, form, vision, the 
ear, sound, the hearing, the nose, odour, the smell, 
the tongue, flavour, the taste, the touch, contact, 
feeling, the mind, ideas or objecte, thought (B. 
Lot. 511; Man. B. 432; B. Int. 449).— The 
remains of Buddha's body after his cremation 
were called dhdtuyo, ** relics," they were distributed 
among different princes and preserved as sacred 
objects. The ddfhddhdtu, or tooth relic, is still 
venerated in Ceylon. The dakkhinakkhakadhdtu, 
or right collar-l)one of Buddha, was brought to 
Ceylon in the reign of Devdnam Piyatissa, and 



(122 ) 


enshrined in the Thikp^brdma D%oba. The term 
dh&tu is also used, more comprehensively, of any 
relic of Buddha ; in this sense there are three sorts 
of dhdtu, $dririkadhdtu, uddesikadhdtu, pdribhO' 
gikadhdtu (see Sep.). — PI. dhdtuyo (Dh. 909 ; Mah. 
104). Dhdtubhdjanath, distribution of Buddha's 
relics after his cremation. Dhdtukiccathy duties 
to be performed to do honour to a relic of Buddha 
(Mah. 11, 107). Dihbd sotadhdtu, the dibbasota, 
or divine hearing. Bhd'dhdtu, the verbal root 
BHC (Sen. K. 318). Comp. Kusaladhdtu, Aku- 
DHATUGABBHO, A relic-receptacle or shrine, the 
inner room of a Thdpa, in which the sacred relic 
was deposited [VT^ + ^]- Mah. 179, 211. 
In modem Simhalese the word Ddgaba applies to 
the whole Thdpa. 

book of the Abhidhamma [isTT^ -h ^RTT + 
iniT^]* B- Mon. 170. 

DHATURO (tf4/0> '^^ ^ord frequently occurs as 
the last part of a compound word with the mean- 
ing ** affected with.** Papduroffadhdtuko, ill with 
jaundice (F. Jit, 3). uinattamaituidhdtukof 
melancholy (Dh. 121). lltokath badhiradhdtuko, 
slightly deaf (Dh. 217). Dh. 177. 

DHATULOKO, World of dhdtus, the aggregate of 
the different elements [VTW + ^^<9] • B. Lot. 511; 
Das. 44. 

DHATUA, see Dadhdtu 

DHAVALO {adj.). White, glistening [JS^m]. 
Ab. 95 ; Gl. Gr. 126. 

DH AVANAA, Running, going ; washing [^(»rnnf] • 
Ab. 1087. Comp. Dhovanam, 

DHAVATI, To run, to go [VT^]. Mah. 63, 78. 

Bandhanam eva dhdvati, rushes back into bondage 

(Dh. 61). P.p.p. dhdvito, running (Dh. 234). 

Cans, dhdveti, to cause to run (Mah. 142). 
DHAVO, A husband ; the shrub Qrislea Tomentosa 

[If^r]. Ab. 240, 1041. 
DHENU (/.), A milch cow [^] . Ab. 498; Dh. 238. 
DHENUKA (/.), A milch cow [^^^]. Mah. 128. 
DHEVATO, Name of one of the notes of the Hindu 

gamut [^^nr]. Ab. 132. 
DHEYYAA, Realm, region [\)^=:^]. See 

Mdradheyyam, Maccudheyyatk, 

DHI, and DHl (interj.). Fie I Shame! Woe! 
[fijl^]. Ab. 1160, 1201 ; CI. Gr. 71. With foU. 

ace. Dhi brdhfnafuiua kantdranij shame on him 
that strikes a brahmin (Dh. 70). Dh. 340. 
DHl (/.), Knowledge, intellect [^]. Ab. 152. 

DHIMA (adj.), Wise [^f^Pir ] • Ab. 228 ; Mah. 253 ; 

Alw. I. xiii. 
DHIRATTAA, Fortitude [^|V^ -h ^]. Ab. 1059. 

DHIRO (im/;.). Wise ; resolute, firm, brave [^SV^]* 

Ab. 229, 1072 ; Kb. 14 ; Dh. 5, 46. 
DHlTA (/.), A daughter [l|ff1|]. Ab.241. Aoc 

dhitaram (Mah. 36). Inst, dhituyd (Mah. 54). 

Gen. and dat. dhiiu, dhiidya, dhituyd (Dh. 162 ; 

Mah. 34, 36, 259). Plur. dhM, dhUaro (Ab. 44 ; 
' Mah. Ixxxviii). Gen. and dat. pi. dhitdnam (Mah. 

Ixxxviii). Dh. 189, 193. Comp. DukUd. 
DHITI {f.)f Wisdom; fortitude, energy, courage 

[1^]. Ab. 1059. 
DHITIKA(/.), Adaughter [^ff^+^].Mah.236. 

DHITIMA (adj.). Courageous, firm [\|f?14(^]. 

Ab 1072. 
DHlVARO, A fisherman [v\^]. Ab. 670. 
DHlYATI, and DHIYYATI (pan. dadhdH), To be 

contained [^f^EHl = ^TT] • I>h. 197. 
DHORAYHO, A beast of burden, an ox [^ + 

^rrf + ^]- Ab. 496; Dh. 358. Dhwrayhatilo, 

patient, enduring (Dh. 38). 
DHOTO (p.p»p, dhovati). Washed, cleansed, dean 

[\ft^= VT^]. Dhoteti pddehi, with nnsoiled 

feet (Mah. 213). Comp. Yathddkoto. 

DHOVANAA, Washing [VPR]. Mah. 133. 

Comp. Dhdvanam, 
DHOVATI, To wash, to cleanse [VT^]- Mah. 

87, 210; Dh. 102. Pass. dhoviyaH (Dh. 102). 

Caus. dhovdpeti (Mah. 65). 
DHCLI (/.), Dust ["({f^]. Ab. 395. 
DHCMAKETU (m.), Fire; a comet [^+%g]. 

Ab. 34, 987. 
DHCMO, Smoke ; cremation of a dead body [^[^T]- 

Dhdmankho, fire (Ab. 34). Mama dhitmakdie 

dgantvd, returning at the time of my cremation 

(Das. 2). Dh. 354. 
DHCMYATO, The fork-tuled shrike [^IIITO]- 

Ab. 644. 
DHUNANAM, Shaking off. 
DHUNATI, To shake [^]. Alw. I. 20. 

DHCPATI, and DHCPAYATI, To fumigate; to 

spit smoke [^^ij- Mah. 72, 152. 
DH OPITO (p.p./>.), Suffering pain [^jfim] • Ab. 751. 
DHCPO, Incense [^. Ab. 958 ; Alw. I. 79. 




DHURANDHARO (adj\), Bearing a burden 
[^ti^lT] • Used metaphorically of a priest who 
is a supporter or pilhir of religion (Mah. 13, 36). 

DHURO, and DHURAA, A yoke; a burden; an 
office, charge, trust; a chief, leader; the front, 
the head [^]. Ab.375, 1004; Dh. 80, 91, 134, 
219. Dhure, in front (Dh. 173). Dhuravdhi, a 
beast of burden (Ab. 496). Dhuraeohattatk, the 
parasol or pinnacle surmounting a thtipa 
(Mah. 211). 

I>H0SARO(ai&-.),Grey[^jr^]. Ab. 96. 

DHUTANGAft, and DHCTANGAft, The thirteen 
Dhutangas are certain ascetic practices, the 
observance of which is meritorious in a Buddhist 
priest. It is not intended that all should be kept 
at the same time, but of course the more are kept 
the greater the merit. The word represents the 
Sanskrit J^ or ^ -|- ^|y, and is explained to 
mean '* precept by which the passions are shaken 
or queUed." The dhutangas are as follows, pamsu- 
MUkangamy tecivarikangamy piftdapdHkangafh, 
•apad^hMcdrikangam^ ekdsanikangam,pattapifidi' 
kmiffom, khalupacehdbhattikangam, dranha" 
kamganij rukkham^likangam, abdhokdsikangam, 
90»dmikang^am, yatAdnantkatikangam, nesajji- 
koMgmh (see each sep.). E. Mon. 9, 73, 97, 98, 99 ; 
B. Int. 304 and foil. Ndp€ s$a kind dhutangam 
atihi, and he does not keep a single dhuta precept 
(Dh. 229). Dh. 151, 348. 

DHUTO, and DHCTO (p.p.p. dhundii). Shaken; 
removed [^, ^=^]. Ab. 744. Dhuia- 
dMammo and dhiUagUfto are other names for 
dhntanga (Dh. 381, 407). Dhutavatam, practice 
of the dhutangas (Dh. 379, 429). 

DHUTTO (adj.). Fraudulent; a gamester [»|]. 
Ab. 531, m ; Dh. 127. 

DHUVATI, To go [^]. CI. P. Verbs, 18. 

DHUVO (adj\)t Firm, stable ; continual, permanent ; 
fixed, certain [^]. Ab. 41, 709, 893. Neut. 
dkuvaikj permanence, stability (Dh. 27), also 
NurvAna (Ab. 7). Marmuim ndma dhuvam, death 
b certain (Dh. 131). Dhuvanahdnamj constant 
bathing (Alw. I. 93). Dh^aydgu, continued dis- 
tribotion of rice gruel (Att cii). Dhuvavdsatthdya, 
for permanent occupation (Pdt. 87). Dhuvam 
(aifo.), firmly, constantly. Dhuvam appamatto, 
steadily diligent (F. JiU 11). 

DI-, see Dvi^ 

DIBBAGAKKHU (n.), Divine eye, supernatural 
vision [t^ + ^^^]- See Dh. 87. This is one 
of the six Abhiflii&s or supernatural faculties. It is 
the power of seeing all that is taking place in the 
whole universe, e.g. the death and re-birth of 
different beings in the different worlds or heavens, 
etc. E. Mon. 4, 284, 285 ; Man. B. 179 ; B. Lot. 
794, 821, 866 ; Dh. 87. 

DIBBAGAKKHUKG (iM&*.).Po8se8sing the heavenly 

«ye [1^ + ^^+ ^]- ^h. 142 ; Das. 43. 
DIBBAMAYG (adj.), Celestial [f^-j-ipy]. 

Dibbamayehi gandhamdlddihi pdjetvd, making 

offerings to him with heavenly perfumes and 

flowers (Ras. 24, 26). 
DIBBASGTAM, Divine ear, supernatural hearing 

[fipBTH-^ft^]. Gne of the six Abhifiiids, the 

faculty of hearing every sound in all the universe. 

E. Mon. 284 ; B. Lot. 821. 
DIBBATI, To play, to sport [f^]. Alw. I. 18, 

P.p.p. yi^^o. 

DIBBG (adj\), Celestial, heavenly, angelic, divine 
[f^^]. Dibbam sukham, celestial bliss, the 
pleasures of the devaloka (Mah. 195). Dibbd 
kdmdy celestial pleasures (Dh. 34). D'Mattabhdvo^ 
celestial shape, the form of a deva (Ras. 24). 
Dibbapupphdniy flowers used by the devas (Dh. 266). 
Dibbam cakkku, supernatural vision (Dh. 87, B. 
Lot. 866, see Dibbacakkhu). Dh. 42, 74. Masc. 
dibbo, a deva (Ab. 12). Devarajjam dibbesu, 
celestial rule among the angels (Kb. 14). 

DICCH ATI (desid. daddti), To wish to give, to give 

DICCHATI, To see [fll]. Alw. I. 42. The 

grammar Hisa refers this form to ** DISA 

DIDDHG (p.p.p.), Smeared [f^ = f^]. Ab. 

746. Diddho, a poisoned arrow (Ab. 390). 
DlDHITI (/.), Ray, light [;^^ftrf?f]. Ab. 64. 
DIGACCHA (/.), Another form of fighacchd (Dh. 

354, 355). 
DIGAMBARG {adj.). Naked [f^^WiJ . Ab. 734. 

DigambarOf a naked ascetic (Ab. 440). 
DIGGHIKA (/.), An oblong pond, a moat 

[^tf^NsT]. Ab.205. 
DiGHABHANAKG, see Bhdnako. 
DIGH ADASG (adj.). Having a long fringe or border 

DlGH ADASSi (adj\), Far-seeing, prophetic [^H 
^[f^]. Dh. 219 ; Mah. 172. 


( 124) 


DlGHAJlVl (a^'.), Long-Uved [^ + ^ftf^]. 
DIGHAKALAA (adv.). For a long time [^t^+ 

liTW]- Alw. I. X. 
DiGHAKO (adj.), Long [^H + ^]. ^o/ofo- 

hatthadighakOf sixteen palms in length (Mah. 141). 

DiGHANIKAYO, Long eoUection [^^H + 
f*1^|€|]. This is one of the divisions of the 
Baddhist Scriptures, it is the first book of the 
Suttapi^alca, and contfdns thirty-four Suttas (E. 
Mon. 168 ; Alw. I. v). 

DiGHAPITTHIKO, A snake [ift^ + ^ + jyi\ . 

Ab. 654. 
DiGH ARATTAA (adv.). For a long time [^H + 

^^^T^]. Kh. 12; Ras. 18, 21. 
DiGH ASO (adj.), In length, lengthways [^t^ + 

^[^]. €1. Gr. 142 ; Sen. K. 322. 
DIGHASUTTO (adj.). Slow, dUatory [:^ + 

;|^]. Ab. 727. 
DIGHATA (/.), Length [^Wfm]. Ab. 2»5. 
DiGH ATO (adv.), In length [^H + 71^] • Digkato 

wfasahatthd ahesum, in length they were of 

sixteen palms (Alw. I. 75). 
DiGHATTAft, Length [^V^]- Ab. 875. 
DiGHAVANTO, The tree Calosanthes Indica 

[;^+yil]. Ab.572. 

DIGHAYUKO (adj.). Living a long time, long-lived 

[^+^W^ + ^]. Dh.76, 143; Gog.Ev.3l; 

Alw. I. 108. 
DiGHO (adj.), Long [l(H]. Ab. 707. Dighd 

jdgarato ratti, the night is long to him who keeps 

vigil (Dh. 11). Digho saro, a long vowel (Alw. I. 

xvii). i>^^,aBnake(Ab.654; Ras. 31). Dh.73; 

Kh. 15. 
DIGU (hi.), a grammatical term, one of the Samdsas 

[tfl(af]. Cl.Gr. 78. 
DIGUGCHATI, Another form of JiguechaH 

(Dh. 420). 
DIGUNO (adj.). Two-fold, double, twice as many 

[t^ + ^] • ^^^' ^* 7^ ; ^^* ^^' Digu^ik 
karoti, to double (Dh. 291). 

DUO, see Dvyo. 

DIKKH A (/.), Sacrifice; worship, devotion [f|[^] - 

Ab. 1104. 

DINAKARO, The san [f^ + ^] • Ab. 62. 

DINAJik, Day [^[if]- Ab. 67. IHne dine^ every 
day (Mah. 22, 231). Sattadinath, a week (Mah. 69). 

DINAPATI (m.). The sun [f|pf + 1|f7f] • Ab. 63. 

DINDIBHO, Name of a bird [f^f^H'']- Ab. 643. 

DINNAdAyI (a^\), Takhig what is given, honest 

[dinna :s ^ -f- "Vn^rf^ ] • 

DINNO (p.p4f. daddH), GKven (Sansk. |^= ;^). 
Dimnasunko, one to whom tribute is given, a king 
(CL Gr. 81). Ma^d na dmnaptMmk ddnmk^ a 
gift never before given by me (F. J^ 56). Given 
in marriage (Mah. 5). Dinndm, gifts (Kh. 7). 
Sometimes followed by loc. of the recipient : Saigke 
dinnam muhappkalam, offerings bestowed on the 
priesthood have great reward (Sen. K. 349 ; oomp. 
Kh. 7). 

DiNO (P'P'P'), Poor, wreteiied [^^t^^f^]- 
Ab. 739. 

DIPADAKO (a4f.). Biped [fil -h Ifl^ + ^] . 

DlPADlPO, Lamp or light of the island, vis. of 
Ceylon [{^ + ^]. Mah. 102, 231. 

DIPADO, A biped ; a man [ff + If^]. Dh. 48 ; 
Has. 26. 

DIPADUTTAMO, Greatest of men^ Bnddha 
[fflpj^ -h ^nn?]. Ab. 1. 

DiPAKO, An island [|ft^ + M]^ Mah. 46 ; F. J4t. 
3 ; Att. xxviii. 

DiPAKO (adj.), Dlnminating; exponndhig, illas- 
trating; pnblishing [^^^Tfl|]. Dh. 285. DfyHidi- 
pako, enlightening the land (Mah. 88). Fem. 
dipikd (Alw. I. cxxiv). 

DIPANAM, Expounding, explaining, illustrating 
[^Alfff]. Tadattham dipanatthMfa, to explain 
this matter (Mah. 130). 

DiPANKARO, Name of one of the twenty-foar 
Baddhas [f^^^^i^]. Man. B. 94; Mah. 1. 

DlPANO(a4;'.), Explaining, prodaiming,mnstratin^ 
[7t^]- Suttaik ydgdmUmkiod^naiky a dia- 
oourse illustrating the merit of giving rice gmel 
in charity (Mah. 229). Fem. d(pa»L Sakalattka- 
samavhayadipani 'yam, this work sets farth the 
names of all objects (Alw. I. ix). 

DlPATTHO (a^j.). Staying in the island, living is 
Ceylon [|{^ + W]* Mah. 17L 

DlPAVAlftSO, Royal dynasty of Ceylon [i^ -h 
^|[]. This b the name of the oldest extant 
history of Ceylon in the P61i language. Alao 
accordmg to Tumour another name for the Ma* 
hivaihsa (Mah. 257). 

DiPETI (caua. dippati). To kindle ; to illomiaate ; 
to throw light on, to illustrate, to explain, to 
expound; to show, to point out, to announce, 
to declare, to publish [^MVfA^^^t^- 


( 125) 


wmymmm c^pa§ftoA, to p<^nt out the way of 
happiness (B. Lot. 332). Buddka^ddotid^a^wm^ 
dedared it to be Baddba's doctrine (Mah. 39). 
180 hkUUtha»9a dipesiy be pointed liiin oat to the 
peon (Mah. 176). D^tmm dipavamaatih to make 
poUie tfie D. (Mah. 257). Dh. 65, 115, 166, 179 ; 
Ahr. 1.54; Mah. 15, 124. 

DiPl (m.), A panther [^[tfiP(]. Ab. 372; Mah. 
82; F. Jit. 15. 

PiFl (#4^.), Teaching, prodaiming [T^ + ^]. 
Mah. 19. 

DIPIKA(/.). Alamp; atoreb [i^tftm]. Ab.795. 
A^mM^vOh^ a torch (Dh. 175). QeeD^foka. 

DiPrro (p.p.i». d^feti). Manifested, declared, etc. 

[^(tfim=l(V^. Mah. 262. 

DlPO, A car covered with a pantber^s sldn [comp. 
fq]. Ab.372. 

DlPO, A lamp [^ft^]. Ab. 316, 990. JXpatehnh, 
lamp M (Mah. 196). D^wndld^ row or festoon of 
lamps (Mah. 213). D^Muikhd^ flame of a lamp 
(Dh. 89). D^mmjdleH, to light a lamp (F. Jit 6). 
Baddha is eaUed at Mah. 11 dipo Masta, the light 
of the world. 

DlPO, and DiPAJft, An bland ; one of the foor oon- 
tinesCi ; a resting-^Uuse, shelter, reliige ; Xirv^a 
[^]. Ab. 6, 664, 872, 999. For the four 
continents see Mahddipo. Lamkdd^, the island of 
Ceykm (Mah. 196; Att 8). Suhhalese writers 
fineqnently nse the word Dfpa for the island of 
Ge^n, as being to them the island par excellence, 
eg. dipavdMi, an inhabitant of Ceylon (Mah. 267), 
d^ aggadhmmggaho, the first archer in the 
island (Mah. 155), dipabhd$d, the Simbalese 
language (Mah. 83 ; Ras. 7). Dh. 5, 42. 

DIPPATI, To shine; to be Ulustrious; to prosper 
[^^]. Alw. 1. xxix ; Kb. 20. P.p.p. ditto. 

DIftATT Alt, Two nights, or two days [f^ + TTW]* 
Fix. 12; Sen. K. 405. 

DISA (/.), A quarter, or point of the compass ; 
a region of the earth, a country, a foreign country 
[fn^, and f^[in] • 1^^ catudditdf or four cardinal 
points are pmratthimd dUd^ dakkhiftd dud, pacchU 
wU dud^ mttord dud, the east, the sooth, the west, 
the north (comp. Ab. 21). The ehaddud or six 
directions are the above four, with the addition of 
keffkimd disd and upariaui diid, the nadir and 
tiie leaith. The ten dls4s are these six, with the 
addition of the four anudisis or vidls4s, viz. 
pmbbuiU^d di$d, fiubbadakkhif^ diid, pacchi» 

mmUmrd disd, pacehimadakkki^ dud, the north- 
east, die south-east, the north-west, the south- 
west. Dudmitlhd, having lost their bearings 
(Att. 8). Sattkim bhikJcM dUdau pe$etvd, having 
sent sixty priests into different countries (Dh. 119). 
Agatd dUd, the yet unapproached region (Dh. 57). 
Sabbd dud sappurito pavdti, the fragrance of the 
righteous man pervades every place (Dh. 10). 
Dudvikkhittaeakkhund, with wandering eyes (Att. 
195). Obhdaenti disd sabbd, shedding light on 
every side (Dh. 99). 

DISABHAGO, a region, quarter [f^+iTPl]. 
Puratthhnadisdbkdge, on the east side (Mab. 173, 
comp. 179). Dakkhifuumim disdbhdge, on the 
south (Mah. 255). 

DISAGAJO, One of the elephants at the eight points 
[fnr+^ra] • Their names are Erdvafto, Punda^ 
riko, Vdmano, Kumudo, Anjano, Puppkadanto, 
Sabbabhummo, Suppatiko (Ab. 30). 

DIS AMPATI (fM.), A king [f^ + ^] . Ab. 334 ; 

Mab. 144. 
DISANTARAA,A foreign country [t^H[+ ^V^^T]* 
DISANTO, End of the earth, a great distance 

[f^+^Wf]. Att. 89. 
DISAPAMOKKHO [a^.). Eminent, famed far and 

wide. Pdt. XV ; F. Jdt. 32. See Pdmokkho. 
DISAVAsI (a4/')» Living in a foreign country or at 

a distance, foreign [f^V + ^Tf%^ ] • ^b. 88, 107. 
DlSAvASIKO {adj,). Laving in a foreign country 

[t^+^Tftk + ^]- Bh.lW, 115. 
DISO, An enemy [f^]. Ab. 345; Dh. 8, 29; 

Ras. 35. 
-DISO, Appearance, resemblance [iflf]* As the 

last part of a compound, see Khandhddiso, Arnhd" 

diso, Mddiso, Tddlso, etc. 
DISSAKO {a^.\ Visible [^H + If]. Dh. 96. 
DISSATI, DISVA, see PassaH. 
DlfTH^ "^^B is an exclamation expressive of joy. 

Thank heaven! [f^lVT]* Ab. 1151. 
DITTHADHAMMIKO (04;.), Belonging to this 

world, temporal [^ + lf^ + l[«l]. Ab. 85; 

Att 193. Opposed to Sampardyiko. 
DITTHADHAMMO, The visible condition, the 

present state of things, this world, this life, this 

state of existence \jfZ + ^i4] • Difthadhammo' 

nibbdnuvddo, holding the heretical doctrine that 

there can be extinction of suffering in the present 

state of existence, i.e. that there may be extinction 




of saiFering without extinctioii of being. Dittho' 
dhammasukhamhdrOf I think this phrase means 
« living a life of worldly ease" (Dh. 143). The 
diffhadhamma of each being is his present state 
with its surroondings. Thns the d. of a deva b 
his devaship and the devaloka, while a man's d. is 
this world. B. Lot. 370. 

DITTHADHAMMO (adj\), One who has seen the 

Truth [^4-^]. 
DITTHANTO, Example, illustration [f2 + ^Ri?l]. 

Ab. 115. Clough says that this term is especially 

applied to "the apologues introduced in the 


DITTHAPADO, One who has seen Nirvd^a, a 
Sotdpanna [^ + 1^] . Kb. 9. 

DITTHAPUBBO (ii4;.). Seen before; having 
formerly seen [^^ + n^]. Na ditthapubbo, and 
aditfhapnbboy never seen before (Dh. 141, 301). 
Therd ditthapubbd tathdgatam^ elders who had 
formerly seen Buddha (Mah. 19 ; Alw. I. 55). 

DITTHI (/.), Sight, view, the eye ; religious belief, 
doctrine ; false doctrine, heresy [ff^] • Ab. 161. 
Ditthi pdpikd, sinful views, false doctrine (Dh. 30). 
Diffhiviiuddhi, purity of doctrine (E. Mon. 193). 
Sanatddikd ditthi^ the heresies of which the Sassata 
heresy is the first, viz. the sixty-two heresies 
(Mah. 42). Dvdgatthi ditthiyo, and dvdiatihi 
difthigatdnif sixty-two heretical doctrines (these 
are enumerated in the Brahma J41a Sutta, see 
Man. B. 388 and Dh. 428). Ditthi, << heresy,'' is 
one of the Anusayas, of the Oghas, of the Yogas, 
of the Up4d4nas. 

DITTHO (p.p.p. poMati), Seen ; met with, found 
iJJi = ^] • Ab. 1078 ; F. Jit. 9. Gahakdraka 
dittho *H, 1 have found thee, O architect (Dh. 28). 
Jiuadiffhd t«/, saints by whom Buddha had been 

DITTHO (p.p.p.). Hateful, hostUe [f^=f|[^]. 
Diffho, an enemy (Ab. 345, 1078). 

DITTI (/.), Splendour, light [^tfH=^]. 

DITTO (p.p.p. dippati). Blazing, radiant [^fVK== 

;(t^. Ab. 1075. Dittaggiy flaming fire (Has. 20). 

DITTO {ppp\ Proud, arrogant [^=^pCI- 
Ab. 1075. 

DIVA(arf».), By day [f^pTT]. Ab. 1147 ; Mah. 160 ; 
Dh. 44, 52, 69; Kb. 6. Divdbhdgo, day-time 
(Mah. 255). Dwdvikdro, rest during the heat of 

the day (Mah. 89). Dwdtthdntak^ restbg-plaoe 

during the day (Dh. 198, 344, 389). Divddaratho^ 

oppression caused by the sun's heat. IHvdtappamf 

sleeping by day. 
DIVAPPHO, see Diyaddho. 
DIVAKARO, The sun [f^ -|- H^]. Ab. 62. 
DI VASABH AGO, Day-time ; time of day [f^^nT + 

irni]. Dh. 307 ; Kamm. 8. 
DIVASO, and -SAA, A day [fl[^nr]. Ab. 67. 

Loc. diva»e divtue, day after day, every day (Dh. 

258). Ekadivoiatk, one day (Mah. 27 ; F. J&t. 2). 

Diwuaua tikkhattuik, thrice a day (Mah. 212). 
DIVO, The sky, the heavens ; the devaloka, heaven 

[f^]. Ab. 10, 1119. DifMuk agdy went to the 

world of devas (Mah. 209). 
DIVOKO, A deva [fl[^A^]. Ab. 11. 
DIYAPPHO, and DIVAPPHO {a^.\ One and a 

half [fflpflnBI + ^]. Ab. 478; Sen. K. 407. 

DtyaddhMoiam, a hundred and fifty (Mah. 66). 

Dkfoddham iahastathj one thousand five hundred 

(Mah. 75). Diyaddhayqjantuatiko, a hundred 

and fifty yojanas long (Dh. 190). 
DlYATl, see DaddH. 
-DO (adj.), Giving [?]. Janatukhado, giving 

happiness to the people (Mah. 71). Madhudo, 

giving honey (Mah. 25). Nissayado (Ab. 410). 

See Abhayado, Kdmado. 
DOHALINl (/.), A pregnant woman [^i|fc(^]. 
DOHALO, The longing of a pregnant woman; 

desire, longing [^tl<^] • Ab. 163 ; Mah. 133, 134 ; 

Dh. 219. 
DOH ATI, To milk [^ ] . Gdvim d., to milk a oow. 

(Sen. K. 336). PI. duhanti (Sen. K. 333). Pass. 

duyhati. P.p.p. duddho. 
DOLA (/.), A swing ; a palanquin [ig^tWT] . 01- Or. 38. 
DOMANASSAlil, Dejection, gloom, melancholy, 

grief [^4$^4fl] . Yam dukkham cetasikam idam 

domanauam, mental suffering is called grief (Alw. 

I. 107). Das. 24. 
DOMANASSO (a^'.). Sorrowful, dejected. Das. 24. 
DOiNi (f.)t A trough ; a coffin ; a tub ; a dhoney, or 

trough-shaped canoe with an outrigger to steady it 

[sfNV]- Ab.668; Mah. 124; Dh.273. FkUiya 

dovki, body of a lute (Ab. 138). 
DONO, and DONAIVf, A dro^a, a measure of 

capacity = four Alhnkas [j^lir] . Ab. 482. Accord- 
ing to Clough the dro^a is equal to 7 lbs. 11 oz. 

Pofiadhdtu, a dro^a of relics (Mah. 97). Tandu* 

ladopOf a dro^a of rice (Dh. 401). Sen. K. 350. 


( 127 ) 


DOSAMD (adj.), SkUled,expert, wise [^+ %] • 

DOSINO (adj.), DoHnd ratti, is expUuDed to mean 
**dear, spotless Dight." 

DOSO(flrfp.). By night [;gfr^]. Ab. 1147. 

DOSO, Defect, blemish ; offence, guilt, sin, crime ; 
injury, damage [^f^] . Ab. 766, 1 125 ; Mah. 167. 
FdjjUam teki dosehi, freed from these defects 
(Mah. 1). Find dosena, though she was innocent 
(Mah. 259). Paraddrasevandya dosam dMsento, 
pointing out the sinfulness of adultery (Dh. 395). 
N'atthi ettha aihacammaua daso, this was no fault 
of the lion's skin (F. Jit. 16). Kulasamsatfha" 
d€$ena, for the offence of associating with the laity 
(Mah. 207). Tinadoso, spoilt with weeds (Dh. 64). 
Ih8ado8o, spoilt by hatred (ditto). Dosakkhayam 
patto, having obtained the destruction of sin, 
freed from human corruption (Mah. 20). 

DOSO, Anger, hatred [fflf]. Ab. 164, 1125; Dh. 
4, 36, 45, 66 ; Man. B. 417 ; E. Mon. 153. Doao 
is one of the Agatis, of the Aggis, of the Akusala- 

DOVACASSAM, Abnsiveness, unrullness f^'- 

DOVACASSATA (/.), Abnsiveness, unruliness 

DOVARIKO, A gatekeeper, warder, porter [^€|'|- 

f^], Ab. 341 ; Mah. 117, 218. 
DRAVO, Liquid [jr^]. Ab. 804, 960. Comp.Paw. 
DU-, see Dvir. 

'DV'f and before a vowel DUR-, A prefix implying 
badness, difficulty, etc. [^]. Ab. 1169. 

DUBBA (/.), The grass Panicum Dactylon [^f^lT]. 

DUBBACATTAft, Unruliness [f^^^ + Ff] • 
Mah. 39. 

DUBBACO («&'.), Abusive, unruly, violent [^+ 
^^^. Pdt.6. 

DUBBALAKO (adj.). Weak l^m + n] . Cakkhu^ 
dubMakd itth(, a woman with weak eyes (Dh. 89). 

DUBBALATTAft, Weakness [^W + ^] . Mah. 

DUBBALO(ai(;.),Weak[^+^r^]. Dh. 2. 
DUBBALYAft, Weakness [f^ + ^]. Pdt. 3,100. 
DUBBAiyiyO (adj.). Ill-favoured, ugly [^+ 
^r^. B. Lot, 866; FAt. 10, 16. 

DUBBHAGO (adj.). Unfortunate [f^+lfT]- 

DUBBHASITO (a^.), lU-spoken [^-h HTf*n! 
==Hl\]. P. Jat. 60. Dubbhdsiiam vaeanafh, 
wicked language (Mah. 11). 

DUBBHIKKHAM, Fariiine, want [f^-f-fiTTT]- 
Kb. 13. 

DUBBHIKKHO (adj.), lU provided with food 

DUBBlNlTO(ai(^'.), Miscreant, a scoundrel [f^-f 
t^lfhT=^]. Dh. 299. 

DUBBUTTHI (/.), Drought [^+ Hft]. Mah. 
91,229. Dubbutthikd (Mah. 230). 

DUCCARITO (ad;.), fll-conducted, bad [f?t+ 
^f^?f = ^]. Dh. 31. Neut. dtfccanVam, mis- 
conduct, sin (Ab. 84 ; Dh. 43). There are three 
duccaritas, or modes of sinning, kdyaduccarUam, 
vaciduccaritam, manoduccaritam, sins of deed, 
word and thought (Dh. 41, 42). 

DUCCHANNO (a^/.), Ill-covered, badly roofed 
[I^+^W=^]. Dh.3. 

DUDDAMO (a4;.). Difficult to tame [f^+^]. 

DUDDASO (a^'.). Difficult to see ; difficult to per- 
ceive or understand ; ugly [^5^+ f^]« Dh. 46, 
186 ; Gog. Ev. 6 ; Ab. 998. 

DUDDHO (p.p.p.). Milked [fJ^=f|]. Neut. 
duddham, milk (Ab. 500). 

DUDDINAM, A cloudy day [^+ f^]. Ab. 60. 

DUDDITTHO (adj.). Foolish, misguided [f^+ 
^=1^- Dh. 60. 

DUOGAHlTO (a^.). Badly grasped; deluded 
[fH + ^^ = ^]- I>h. 66 ; Mah. 17- 

DUOGAMO (a^j.). Difficult to pass, said of a bad 
road [f^+ V:^\. Ab. 192. 

DUGGANDHI (adj.), lU-smelling [^+ ^TP^l]. 

DUGGANDHO (adj.), lU-smelling, stinking [^ 
+ ipir]. Ab. 146 ; Dh. 102, 381. 

DUGGATI (/.), Distress, suffering, state of punish- 

™«*»* [f^+Tfif]- Ab. 656; Dh. 3, 66; B. 
Lot. 866. 

DUGGATO (adj.), Distressed, wretched, poor [^ 

+ ini == IJi^]- Ab. 739 ; B. Lot. 866 ; Mah. 197. 

DUGGO (adj.), Difficult to pass [^]. Duggo 

sanudro, the thorny road of transmigration (Dh. 

73). Duggam, a strong-hold (Ab. 360), a difficult 

road (Ab. 1107). Dh. 68. 
DUH ARO (adj.). Difficult to take away [^ + fT] • 
DUH AYATI, To injure [^] . With dat. DuhayaH 

disdnam megho, the storm spreads havoc in all 




directioDBy lit does harm to the varioiia regions 

(Sen. K. 327). 
DUHITA (/.), A daughter [fff^]. Ab. 241 ; 

Mab. 259. See also Dh(td. 
D U J J ANO, A bad man [ip[ + Iflf] . PL Duff and, 

bad men, the wicked (Sen. K. 327). 

DUJJARO (a<ff.). Not easy to wear out, imperishable 

[f^+'Ti:^]- Ab.840. 
DUJJl VAA, Hard to live, a hard life [^+ ^4t^] . 

Hirimatd dujjham, life is hard to the modest man 

(Dh. 44). 
DUJJIVIKA (/.), Hard Dfe [ipC+^l^ + 1[^]. 

Att. 206. 
DUJJiVITAM, Hard life, wretched life [^+ 

fftf^]. Wt.3. 
DURAA, a pair, two [f^]. 

DUKKARO {adj.\ Difficult [ip(+^]. Dh. 
30,291; Mah.242. 

DUKKATAA, and DUKKATAA, An offence, a 
sinful act, sin [^+inV = ir]. Ab. 84; Dh. 
55, 70; Gl. 6r. 119. There is a dass of priestly 
offences called dukkata, requiring confession and 

DUKKH AKKH A YO, Cessation of suffering,Nirv69a 

[i:« + ^^]. Ab.8. 

DUKKHAPETI, To cause to suffer, to afflict. 
Mah. 260. Gomp. Dukkheti, 

DUKKHAPPATT0(a4/.), Orieved> suffering [^:^ 

+ Trni=^pn^]. Ras.34. 

DUKKH ATA (/.), Suffering [^:^ + Jfj]. There 
are three sorts of D., dukkhadukkhatd, sankkdro' 
dukkhatd, viparindmadukkhatd (Alw. I. 108). 
Ghardvdsana d., the painfulness of a householder's 
life (Dh. 392). 

DUKKHl (a4;.). Sorrowful, snfferhig [^:^ + f^ . 
Das. 24. 

DUKKHITO (adj.), Afflicted, suffering, grieved ; 
side, ill; in difficulty or distress [^sf^RT]* 
Mahdvihdrandsamhi dukkhitd, grieved at the 
destruction of the Great Monastery (Mah. 236). 
Bandhdgdranwdiena dukkhito, suffering from his 
imprisonment (Mah. 260). Has. 32 ; Dh. 95, 359 ; 
Fit. 114. 

DUKKHlYATI (pai9.). To be afflicted [pass. 
^:^]. Dh. 258. 

DURKHO (at(f,), Painful, grievous, unpleasant, 
difficult [^:9]. Neut dukkham, pain, suffering, 
trouble (Ab. 89). Dukkho pdpaua uccayo, the 

accnmnlation of evil deeds is attended with mffiBr- 
ing (Dh. 22). AbhiramUuih dukkhaik, difficult 
to feel enjoyment (Dh. 392). Dukkhogadk^ 
difficult to ford; deep. Dukkha&amphatt^, rwij^ 
Duvidham dukkham kdytkm ea eetankaSi m, 
suffering is twofold, bodily and mental (Alw. 1. 107), 
Sokadukkham, the pains of sorrow (Das. 7)* £» 
te 9amma dukkham, friend, what ails you ? (F. J^ 
12). Hatthhuak me va9ena dukkhadt uppajjaH, I 
am sordy troubled by the dephants (F. J4t. 3). 
Dukkham icchati, to wish ill to (with dat, Kh. 16). 
Dukkhafk viharaH, to live ill at ease, or in sorroir 
(Dh. 104). jimhe dukkham ni»iddpetv4, makkg 
me sit in suffering (Dh. 159). Instr. dukkhena, with 
difficulty, painfully (Dh. 105). As a noun meaningf 
** pain " or '* sorrow,* dukkha appears to be ume- 
times masc. (Dh. v. 203, 221) ; and Mr. Fausboll 
tells me he has even met with a fem. form dukkki 
(dukkhdya kdyaci, "to any suffering*). Some- 
times written dukha metri causd, the analogy 
of iukha not being without its influence (Dfa. 15, 
34, 37, 53). Mah. 1, 2, 245 ; F. J&t 49; Alw. 1. 
100, 101, 106 ; Dh. 24, 28, 37, 49. 

DUKKH CPASAMO, Cessation or destruction of 
suffering [^:^ + 53inPT]. Dh. 35. 

DUKtTLAA, Fine cloth [ff^]- Ab. 291 ; Hah. 
139, 182 ; Att. zziv. 

DULLABHO (adj). Difficult to obtain, or to find, 
rare, few and far between [^pif^]* B. Lot 305, 
352 ; Dh. 29. 

DUMAITO (a4f.). Two, about two [ff+im]* 
Dutnattdni yofanatatdni, about two hosdred 
yojanas (Alw. I. xliii). 

DUMfiARIKA (/.), The opposite-leaved fig-tree. 
Ab. 572. 

DUMINDO, King of trees, monarch of the forest 

[I'^ + T^]- Mah. 117. 
DUMMANO (wff.). Sad [f?St+ W^}- Ab. 723; 

Dh. 256. 
DUMMATI (adj.). Foolish ; evil-minded, iridced 

[f^+ ^]» ^^- 31 ; Mah. 39, 235. 
DUMMEDHi (adj.), FooHsh [^ + %«l + i;^]- 

DUMMEDHO (a^f,), Foolish [^+ ^]. J>^ 1* 

25, 29, 64. 
DUMMOCAYO (adj.). Difficult to undo [m+ 

caus. ^^ + J(] . Dh. 412. 
DUMMUKHO (adj.). Foul-mouthed, scurriioas; 

8«d[l^+^]- Ab.735. 




DUMO, a tree [|p|]. Ab. 28, 540. 
DUMUPPALO, The plant Pterospermain Aoeri- 

foUam l^jR + ^3<qil] . Ab. 670. 
DUNDUBHI (m.), A ketde-dnmi [^^ffif]. Ab. 

143; Ras.27. 

DUNNAMAKAA,Hemorrhoids[^4T'm] • Ab.d27. 
DUMNAYATA (/.), Wrong drawing out, misunder- 
standing (?) [^+ VRr+ Wr] • Sen. K. 200. 
BUNNIGOAHO (oiff.), Difficult to restrain [^+ 

PnBTf]. Dh.7. 
PUMNIVATTHO (a^\% Wrongly or badly dressed 

(eee Nivattko). 
DUNNIVARAYO (a^f.). Difficult to hold back 

[^f*n#=3]. Db.7. 

DUPHA880 (adj.). Rough [^+ ^]. Ab. 967. 
Maac dupkasBo, name of a plant (Ab. 582). 

DUPPABBAJJAft, The hard life of a mendicant 

fri»[f^+lIlWr]. Dh.53. 
DUPPAMUf^CO (a^\). Difficult to loose [^+ 

11 + ^]- Dh.fl2. 
]>UPPAJ}i}0(a4/.),Fooli8h[^+ in|].Dh.20^. 
DUPPA8AH0 (a4f.). Difficult to master or excel 

DUPPATIMANTIYO (a^'.% Difficult to argue with 

DUPPATIPAJJO (a^f.). Difficult to walk in or 

fonow [7p(^+llf^ + 1R[ + ^]. Dh,390. 
DUPPATIVIJJHO (adj.). Difficult to penetrate or 

oomprehend [^^+ Tifif -f ^IT^ = «^] . 
DUPPAVESO (adj.), Difficult to enter [^+ 

H^lf]. Mah. 153. 
DUPPORO (a4f.). Difficult to fiU, or to fulfil 

[^[^]. Dh.392. 

DOrA, see D^. 

DURABHIRAMO (atf;.), Difficult to enjoy, irksome 

DURACCAYO (a^f.). Difficult to overcome [^+ 

mm]. Dh.W. 
DORAGAM! (a^.). Going far [fi: + ^rrfiPC]* 

Ab. 145. 

preadied or shown [^+'mn9rnT = WT]- 
8m. K. 224. 
DORAKKHO (ai^.)f Difficult to guard or watch 

DORAMAft, Absence of enjo3rment, irksomeness 

[f«C+T«r]. Dh. 16. 
DORANGAMO (a4;\). Going hr [^f^tlRf] . Dh. 7. 

DURANNAYO (adj.). Difficult to follow [f^+ 

^RRT]. Dh. 17. 
D UR ANUBODHO (adj.). Difficult of comprehension 

[1^+^ + ^]- Gog.Ev.6. 
DURASADO (a4/.), Difficult to approach or to equal 

[l^T^]- Alw.1.54. 
DORATO (adv.). From afar [f^l^fi, ]- DArato 

diivd, having seen him from afar (Mah. 246). 

D6rato *va dgato 'mhi, I have come from a very 

great distance (Dh. 153, comp. 39). 
DURATTAM, Two nights [ftf + TTf]- Sen. 

K. 405 Gomp. Dtrattatk. 
DURAvASO (o4;.), Disagreeable to live in [^+ 

DURITAM,Sin [^+^s=l[]. Ab.84; Ra8,7. 

DORO (adj.). Far, distant, remote [^] . Ab. 706. 
D^o pabbato, the "mountain is a long way off 
(Mah. 84). D&rajanapado, a distant country 
(Att. 205). Instr. dttrena, afiir. Abl. durd, from 
afar (Ab. 1157). Loc. d&re, afar (Dh. 53 ; Kb. 16). 

DURUTTO (adj.). Ill spoken ; abusive ; badly 
pronounced [^TO + ^H = ^H^] • P^t. 29, 59. 

DOSAKO (a^f.). Defiling; injuring, destroying 
[X!^]' B. Lot. 445 ; Pdt. 6, 72, 74. Rdffddi- 
d^ako, destroying lust and other passions (Alw. 

DDSANAA, Defilement [^{["^HT]. Ab. 1013. 

DOSBTI (caus. dussaU), To pollute; to spoil, to 
injure, to ruin [^[lE|I|f7! = ^]. Alw. 1.36,111; 
F. J&t. 15 ; Dh. 340 ; Pdt. 30^ 72. P.p.p. dMto. 
(Ab. 1077). 

DU8SAH0 (a^.). Insupportable, violent [^+ 
^]. Mah. 46. 

DUSSAft, Cloth. Ab. 290; Dh. 175, 236, 324; 

Alw. I. 75. Duuapitham, a chair covered with 

white doth in honour of a priest or great man 

(Mah. 82). 
DUSSATI, To offend, to wrong [^]. With gen. 

(Dh. 23, 26). Dh. 115. P.p.p. duttho. 
DUSSlLO (adj.). Immoral, wicked, impious [^^^4- 

iftml. Dh. 20, 54, 57 ; Mah. 158. 
DUSSILYAA, Wickedness, impiety [^+ 

lf^ + ^]. Dh.29,425. 
DUSSUTO (adj.). Imperfectly heard [^ + ^ = 

^]. Dh.217. 
DOTAKO, a messenger [^pra]. Fem. d&tikd 

(Pdt. 105). 
DOTE YYO(a<^'.),Suited to a messenger [^ + Jf^] . 







DOTI (/.), A female messenger [flft]. Ab. 236. 

DUTIYAKO(a4/.),8econd [ft[7ft^ + ^].Mah.210. 

DUTIYO (arf;.), Second [fipft^]. Fem. dutiyd, 
a wife (Ab. 237, 987), also the inflection of the 
accusative case (Gl. Gr. 17, vibhatti is understood). 
Dutiye atteUfhdve, in your last existence, viz. second 
from this (Mah. 195). Dutiyafk (adv,), a second 
time, agfain (Kb. 2). Dutiyantam ndmam, a noun 
in the accusative case. Dutiye dioase or duHya- 
divaae, next day (Mah. 31 ; Dh. 212). 

DCTO, a messenger, an emissary [^Tf]. Ab.347. 
D&takammam, doing errands (Dh. 181). Mah. 228. 

DUTTARO (a<&.), Hard to cross [f^+?TT]- 
Dh. 16. 

DUTTHO (p.p.p. dussati). Corrupt, wicked, de- 
praved ; bearing ill-wiU, angry [^=T'|]. 
Dutthd cetakd, wicked slaves (F. J4t. 17, comp. 
Dh. 168). Duffhaoora, you rascally thief I (Dh. 
299). At Dh. V. 399 the comment explains adutfho 
by akuddhamdnaso, Dh. 412 ; P^t. 6, 72. 

DUTTHU (adv.), Ill, badly [^-H ^]. Ab. 1164. 

DUTTHULLO (adj\), Wcked, lewd. Dutthulld 
dpatti, a grave offence (PAt. 16, 86). Pdt. 4, 12, 
18, 42, 69, 91 ; Ben. K. 396. Probably ^ + 

DUVARAlfir,Adoor \]SjX\. Mah. 203. See i>»<frafw. 

DUVE, see Dve. 

DU VIDHO {a^.). Two-fold, of two sorto [ft[ -h 

ftfVT]- Alw. I. 76. 
DUVUPASANTO {adj,\ lU-calmed, Imperfectly 

tranquiUized [^ -f- ^IHTRT = IR]. Sen. 

K. 224. 
DUYHATI, see DohaH. 
DVACATTAlISA {fern, num.), Forty-two [q[T- 

■«l«ir<?|cl^ ] . Mah. 250. 
DVADASA {num.). Twelve [{JT^^Pll- Mah. 171 ; 

Dh. 76. Gen. and dat. dvddasannath (Mah. 208). 

Nom. dvddasam (Mah. 8). 
DVADASAKARO (adj.). Having twelve aspects, 

twelve-fold [lB[T^ini + ^iRTT]- 
DVADASAMO (adj.). Twelfth. Mah. 257, 
DVANDAM, A couple [^f^. Ab. 628. 
DVANDO, Name of one of the Samdsas [l[^]» 

CI. Or. 77 ; Sen. K. 376. 
DVANGULAIVI, Two finger-breadths, two inches 

[fi[ + ^nf ] • I>vangulamatto, two inches long 

(B. Lot. 864). Dvangulakappo, the ** two-inch" 
rule, viz. a rule extending the allotted time for the 

morning meal to two inches of shadow after mid- 
day (Mah. 15 ; Alw. I. 53). 

DVAPARAlil, Name of one of the Yngas or great 
periods [^PTT]* ^^tn. B. 7. 

DVARABAHA (/.), Door-post [fl[lT + ^HT]. 
Ab.219; Kh. 11. 

DVARABANDHANAA, The terrace before a house 
[fl[7T + Ti'«W]. Ab.218. 

DVARAKOTTHAKO, The towers or batttementa 
of a town-gate ; a gfate [^[T^ + ^P^ + 9]* Ab. 
204; Dh.373; Mah. 6. 

DVARAA, a door, a gate ; an entrance, an aperture 
[{^]. Ab. 219, 1110. Ih)drapdlako, a door- 
keeper (Ab. 341). GtMdvdram, mouth of a care 
(F. Jdt. 47 ; Mah. 45). Ekmsm^ gdmadvdre, at 
the entrance of a village (F. J^t. 15). GharM^ 
ram, house door (F. Jilt. 52). The three dv^ 
or avenues of good or evil, are kdyadvdrmk, vaddvA- 
ram, manodvdram, the body, the speech, the mifld; 
or deed, word and thought (Man. B. 494). There 
are also six dvdras, which I think are the sii senses, 
the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the toncfa, 
the mind (see Dh. 265, 410 ; Man. B. 403; comp. 

DVARATTHO, A door-keeper, porter [^+ 
m]. Ab. 341. 

DVASATTHI (fem. num.), Sixty-two [^Wft]. 

Ab. 441 ; Alw. I. 104. Dudsaffhi difthiyo, the 

sixty-two heresies (see Dittfa). 
DVASlTI (fem. num.). Eighty-two [jJlW^]- 
DVATTIKKHATTUlSf (adv,\ Two or three times 

[^ + t^-»-W3WL]. Dh. 301 ; Mah. 252. 
DVATTlASA, and -SA, and -SATI (fem. mm), 

Thirty-two [^[if^hlpi;]- Dh. 221, 291; Mah. 8, 

26, 182. Dvattimedkdram, the thirty-two ooo- 

stituents of the body (Kh. 3, Dh. 166, see Jk^y 

See also Battimsa. 
DVATTIlJrSATIMO (acfr-.),Thirty.8eoond. Mah.aOO. 
DVAVlSATI and DVAVlSA (fem. num.), Tweoty- 

two [^(jf^llf^]. Mah. 8. See also BivisaH. 
DVAYO (adj.). Of two sorts, two [^]. Dh.®, 

123 ; Mah. 252 ; Sen. K. 263. Neut dtMOfo^ 

a pair, a couple. Mdsadvayam, two months (tf ah. 

209). Dvayam nigracchati. Incurs two things 

(F. Jdt. 11). 
DVE, and DUVE (num). Two [ftf]. Sen. K.2©. 

Instr. and abl. dvihi (F. Jdt. 9). Oen. and dat 

dmnnarii (F. Jii. Sy Loc do(m (Dh. 237> ^^ 




dmve see Mah. 8^ 127, 171, 254, Ab. 195 : gen. 

dmmnnmk (Sen. K. 263). I>ve tayo^ two or three 

(Dh. 372). Tbe bases used in composition are 

dm^^ di-, du- (see Dm-), dve^ (oomp. dvecattdlisa, 

dvenavuH, dvebhdve), dvd- (comp. dvavUati^ dvd- 

9affki), and bd- (comp. bdra$a, battwua, bdvUati). 

In words like dvenavuti and dvebkdvo^ dve- is 

probably doe to the false analogy of words like 

doebhUmako, dvepakkha, 
DVEBHAOO (adj.). Broken in two, sundered 

[tfl[ + inf + ^]. F. Jdt. 17 ; P4t 80. 
DVEBHAVO, Doubling [ft[ + ^TPr]- Sen. K. 

DVEBHCMAKO (adj.). Having two stories [fq[ + 

l|lf + ^]. Dh.240. 
DVEBH0TO(<i4f.)>I>onbled[t^ + ^] .Sen.K.444. 
DVEGATTAlISA (fim. num.). Forty-two (comp. 

DVEDHA (adv.% In two parts [^VT]- Dvedhd 

bhhimo, broken in two (F. JUt 17 ; Kamm. 10). 

Dvedhd pariaam kaivd, making his way through 

the crowd, lit dividing the crowd (Mah. 61). 

Dvedhdpaiho, a double or branching road (Dh. 50). 
DVEJJHAA, Duplicity [^]. Advejjho, without 

goQe, sincere. 
DVEKOrniASO {adj.\ Divided into two parts (see 

KofthdMo). Dh. 103 ; Pdt. 80. 
DVELHAKAA, Doubt [|t^+ ^]. Ab. 170. 
DVBNA VUn {/em. num.). Ninety-two [fl[PRf?T] • 

Dh. 127. 
DVEPAKKHO (adj.). Divided into two parties 

[flTf]. Dh. 103. 
DVI-, and DI-, and DU-, Two. This is the crude 

base otdve used in composition [f|[] . Comp. DvUa' 

k4U9iuk, DvUckhattum, Dirattani, DiguvLO, D\jo, 

Dipadako, Dumdho, Durattaih, Dukaik. For 

other bases not representing Sansk. f^, see Dve. 
DVIBH Ave, Doubling [f|[ + V[m\ • Ben. K. 4d4. 
DVIBHOMAKO (adj.). Two-storied [fg^ + i|if + 

li]. Att. 138. 
BVIGCHA, Twelve [f^ + If^]. Ab. 195. 
DVIDHA (adv.). In two ways, of two kinds [f^[^]. 

Sen. K. 414; Has. 7. Dcidhd bhyjaii, to be 

broken in two, to separate into two (Alw. I. 64 ; 

eomp. Mah. 217). Dmdhdthiio, double (Dh. 425). 
DVlH Alii, Two days [f^ + ^If^] • Dvlhatiham, 

two or three days (F. J4t. 4). 
DVIIIATTHO (a^.). Two cubits long [f^ + f^]. 


DVIJIVHO (adj.). Double-tongued; treacherous 

[f^ + t^OC- ^b* 1^^- Dtnjivho, a snake 
(Ab. 654). 

DVIJO (adj.). Twice bom ; oviparous ; proceeding 
from one cause [f^]. Ab. 1047; Man. B. 403. 

DVIJO, and DUO, A brahmin ; a bird ; a tooth 
[f^]. Ab. 261, 408, 416, 624, 1047. Dvifa- 
mahd»dlo, a wealthy brahmin (Ab. 339, see 
BrdhmafjMmahdidlo). Dijo, a brahmin (Mah. 31, 
62, 69). Dijapoto, a young bird (Mah. 128). 

DVlKAlif, Two, a pair [ft[^]. Sen. K. 412. Comp, 

DVIKKHATTUM, Twice [fa[ + irW^. Mah. 

212 ; Sen. K. 529. 
D VIPAfJCA, Ten [ffl[ + l|^l(^ ] . Mah. 259. 
DVIPO, An elephant [fip?]. Ab. 360. 
DVIRADO, An elephant [[f^+ '^]. Ab. 360. 

DVISAHASSAl^, Two thousand [f^ + ^n(^]. 

Has. 18. 
DVISATAJft, Two hundred [ft[ + lj?f]. Alw. 1. 104. 

DV1TTI-, Two or three [ft[ -f N] . P^t. 87. 
DVIYASlTI (fern, num.), Eighty-two [ft[-h 


EDHATI, To prosper, to increase. [l[>i(^]. Sukham 

edkati, prospers (Dh. 35). 
EDHO, Firewood [it^]. Ab. 36. 
EDI (adj.). Such \X!^ + VQ- Sen. K. 525. 
EDIKKHO and ERIKKHO (a^.). Such [l[^ + 

^]. Sen. K. 525, 526. 
EDISO and ERISO (adj.). Such [l[^ + ^]. 

Mah. 24, 133 ; Alw. I. 92 ; Pdt. 93 ; Sen. K. 525. 

EH I, Imperat. 2nd pers. sing, from EH. Also abl. 

and instr. plur. from Ayam. 
EHIPASSIKO (ae{j.). Inviting. Alw. I. 77. This 

compound is formed by adding the termination 

~1[^ to the imperatives ehi,pa8sa, " come and see." 
EHISAGATAVAdI (adj.). One who says *< Come 

and be welcome," a cordial friend [ehi + ^ynT = 

EHISI, EHITl, see EH. 

EJA (/.), Desire, lust. Ab. 162. Anejo, free from 

desire (Dh. 73, 74, 432). 
EKABADDHO (a^.)t Contiguous; continuous 

[iPI + ^HnW + W»«^]- Mah. 142. 
ERABH ATTAM, One meal a day [jf^ + HW] • 

Alw. I. 92. 




EKABHATTIKO (adj.). Having one meal a day 
[K]^ + HW + T^]- Alw. I. 92. Buddhist 
priests were forbidden to eat between noon and 
sunset, but, according to the comment on Brahma 
J^a, they might eat ten times between sonrise and 
noon and yet be ekdbhattika* 

EKACARIYA (/.), Walking alone, solitude [l[^ + 

^pIt]. Dh. 12. 
EKACARIYO {adj\). Having the same teacher 

[TCTH-^imr^]. Dh. 153. 
EKACARO {adj.). Walking alone, solitary \j[J% + 

^T]- I^h. 7. 
EKACCHANDO {adj.). Unanimous [lE^ + W^]- 

Dh. 298. 
EKACCHATTAA, a single dominion [1^1 + 

^g^]. Ekacchattam or ekacchattena karoti, to 

reduce under one dominion, to become sole 

sovereign of (Mah. 155, 159; Att. 200). See 

Chattam, and comp. Ekdtapattam, 

EKAGCO {adj.). One, a certain [l^IiTnC]- A^- ^l^* 
Ekacco kulaputto, a young man of family (Das. 
43, comp. Dh. 90). PI. ekacce. Rdjdno piekacce 
nindanti ekacce pasanuanti, kings however some 
blame and others praise (Dh. 367). P4t. 6. 

EKACITTO (adj.). Having the same thought, of 
one mind [ipi + f^pff]. Mah. 261. 

EKAGlVARO {adj.). Wearing a single garment 

[TPi + ^^]. Das. 39. 
EKADA (adv.). One day, once; on the same day 

[lle|{^]. Mah. 35, 254. 

EKADASA {num.), Eleven [HTVH^ll^] . Dh. 143 ; 
Sen. K. 405, 489 ; Mah. 144. 

EKADASAMO {oiff.), Eleventh [lE^IT^^]. CL 

Gr. 96 ; Mah. 71. 
EKADASi (/.), The eleventh day of the half month 

[lE^^lf^]- Ben. K. 402 ; O. Gr. 96. 
EKADESO, A part, a portion [m + ^] . Mah. 

128 ; Alw. 1. 63. Instr. ekadesena, partly, partially, 

briefly (Alw. I. 77 ; Dh. 213). 
EKADHA {adv.). In one way [ll]mVT]- 
EKADHITIKA (/.), An only daughter [l[!l + 

^f|[^ + ^]. Mah. 222. 
ERADIVASAA, One day, on a certain day [T[l + 

f^^ir] . F. Jdt. 17 ; Mah. 27 ; Dh. 212, 366. 
ERAGARIKO, A thief; a robber [^^RRTf^]* 

Ab. 522. 

EKAGGATA (/.), Tranquillity of the mind, abstrac- 

tion of the mind, contemplation [lljBfni-hlfT]* 
Ab. 155, 858; Man. B. 408; B. Lot 519. 

EKAGGO {adj.). Calm, tranquil \jm=' ^TBT]* Ab. 
1035. Ekagganidnaao, having a tranquil mind. 
According to Ab. 1035 ekaggo is also a noan 
meaning tranquillity or abstraction of the mind. 

EKAGHANO {adj.), SoUd [T[1 + ^CHf]. Dh. 15. 
EK AH AA, One day [jfj^ + ^ 4. 9^ ] . Mah. 17i 
Ekdham jhitaan, life for one day (Dh. 20). 

EKAHENA, In one day [in8tr.l{«| + ^|f ] . Mah. 150. 
EKAJALlBH AVATI, To become one mass of flaiM 

[TCT + ^^Tir + t+^- Gog.Ev. 16. 
EKAJJHAA {adv.). In the same place, in ooi* 

junction, together [lll||U|4(^]. P4t. zv, Ekajjkmk 

karoti, to unite (Mah. 135). 

EK AJJH ASAYATA (/.), Unanimity [l[^ + llf^ 

^inn»+wr]. Dh. 121. 

EKAJO {adj.). Proceeding from one cause [ll]W]- 
Man. B. 403. 

EKAkI {adj.). Alone, solitary [H^|pl*l ] • Ab. 718. 
Fern, ekdkini (Mah. 43). 

EKAKKH A]yE, At the same moment [l{li + loc 
^Hr]. Dh. 90, 155. 

EKAKKHATTUft {adv.). Once [ipi + V^]- 
Gl. Gr. 122 ; Sen. K. 529. 

EKAKKHl {adj.). One-eyed \jfj% 4- ^T + T^* 
Dh. 140. 

EKAKO {adj.). Alone, solitary [iftni]. Ab. 718; 
Dh. 108, 391 ; B. Lot. 332. 

EKAMANASO {a^.). Unanimous [^ + ifT^]. 
Mah. 46. 

EKAMANO (o4;.), Unanimous [lE^ + innLl- 
Alw. I. 112. 

EKAMANTAA, On one side, apart \jf% + ^PR + 
7^]. Ekamantam Hpfhati, to stand on one side 
of a person, at a short distance, in token of respect 
(Kh. 4). Ekamantam niMati, to seat oneBelf 
near a person (F. Jit. 2). Ekamantam iqMd, 
went to one side (Mah. 260). Att. 50. 

EKAMANTE, On one side [j/J^ + im ^]' 
Dh. 109. 

EKAMANTIKAA, On one side [m + ^PV + 
^[^] . Bhandufh netv* ekamantikam, having drawn 
Bha^^ii aside (Mah. 80). 

EKAMEKO {adj.). Each [ll]« + m]- Das. S5; 
Ras. 85. 

EKAMIDAHAA, see Idarii (2). 


(133 ) 


BKA As Aft» On one shoulder {jpn + ^] . Oocurs 
frequently in the phrase ekamsom vitardamgam 
haritvd^ having adjusted his upper robe so as to 
leave one shoulder bare, or so as to cover one 
shoulder, lit. ''having put his upper robe upon 
one shoulder.* Buddhist priests were required to 
leave one shoulder bare when they appeared in 
public At Gog. £v. 8 Mah&brahman when he 
approaches Buddha is represented as loosing his 
robe from one shoulder in token of respect. Ekam 
(sHakatk) ekaahtoih pdrupittfdf having put on one 
of the garments so as to cover one shoulder (Dh. 
168). Ekam (dsimaam) ekamsa^ karitvdf having 
put one snake over one shoulder (Dh. 143). 

EKAASIKO {adj.)j Certain [lE^ + ^ + 1[1|]. 
Das. 8. 

EKAMSO, This word is a compound of l[|i| and ^^ , 
but answers in meaning to the Sansk. Tpirnfl- 
As the first part of a compound it implies ** cer- 
tainty,* " absoluteness.* Ekamsavydkaraniyo 
panho, a question that can be answered with 
eertainty (see Man. B. 473). Instr. ekanuena, 
eertainly, necessarily (Dh. 302). Loc ekamse, 
certainly (Ab. 995, 1140). Ab. 1196. 

EKANINNADO (a4f.), FlUed with noise [jfj^ + 

EKANTO, and EKANTAA, One end, one side 
[|[]li + ^pi(f]. EkantalomU a woollen coverlet 
with a fringe at one end (Ab. 313). As the first 
part of a compound ekanta generally implies 
''completeness," "perfection.* Ekantasantugito^ 
perfectly happy (Dh. 418). Ekantaparipux^^f 
ekamtaparUuddho, alU^ther perfect, altogether 
pare (Alw. I. 92). Ekantabdlabkdvo, complete 
ignorance (Dh. 259). 

EKAPADI (/.), A path [ll!«qif^]. Ab. 192. 

HLAPPAHARENA, Unanimously, in unison, simul- 
taneously [instr. l[|^ + irYrQ« Sabbe ekappo' 
kdren^ eva setthim garahimiUy they all with one 
mouth blamed the set(hi (Dh. 240). Dh. 340. 

EKAPUTTO, and EKAPUTTAKO, An only son 
[lW + 3^*ndTyHH]. Dh.93;Kh.l6. 

EKARAJJAA, Sole sovereignty pt^iW] - ^^* 
21.22; Dh.32. 

EKARAMMANO {adj,). Having the same sub- 
stratum, basis or object [l[^ + 1||Q|I4|^] . Dh. 90. 

EKARASA (aam.). Eleven [mT^iP^]. Sen. K. 
406,489. See also ^^il<ua. 

EKARO, The letter e {ffJ^TK]' 

EKASANAJfr, Sitting apart or alone [l[^ + "VPTW] • 
Dh. 54. 

EKAsANIKANGAA, Precept enjoining eating at 
one sitting \jf^ + ^jngif + 1:^4- ^^] . This 
is one of the thirteen Dhutang^as. Hardy says, 
" The fifth of the Thirteen Ordinances is called 
Ek&sanikanga, from eka, one, and ^na, a seat. 
He who keeps this ordinance may not eat food in 
two or three different places ; he is to remain on 
one seat until he has finished his repast. When in 
the refectory he must look out for a proper seat, 
so that if a superior priest were to come in he may 
not have to rise in order to g^ve place to him. 
Cb61&baya, learned in the sacred books, spake 
thus : It is not proper to rise until the repast be 
finished ; if the priest has sat down, but not begun 
to eat, he may rise ; but if he has begun to eat he 
may not rise, and if it should be required of him 
to rise he may not sit down again to eat** (£. Mon. 
98, comp. 9). B. Int. 307. 

EKASEYYA {f,)y Sleeping or reclining alone or 
apart; a single couch [1[|^ + 1I^9|T]- l^h. 54; 
Alw. I. 92 (but here ektueyyam is perhaps an 
adjective agreeing with hrahmaeariyam^ and 
meaning "allowing only one couch''). 

EKASO (adv.). One by one [ll^l[4j^]« 

EKATAPATTAA, One dominion, lit. "one parasol* 
\JIJ% + W^M^] • Mah. 155. Comi^, Ekaeehattam. 

EKATO (alio.), Together ; on one side; apart, alone 
[ll^^H^]* Ekato gacchdma, let us go together 
(Dh. 87). Ekato bkaviudma, we shall be together 
(Dh. 153). Tena taddhim ekato aheium, joined 
themselves to him (Dh. 145). Sabbe huttfdna 
ekato. Having all assembled together (Mah. 216). 
Tehi ioddhim ekaio na nieidanti, will not sit 
together with them (Dh. 109). Ekato karoti, to 
put together, to collect (Mah. 140). Bahusu ekato 
gdmaghdtakddikammdni karontewywhen a number 
of men banded together commit crimes such as 
plundering a village (Dh. 90). Ekato vasantd, 
living together (F. Jdt. 52). Ekato pahbatapddo 
ekato nodi ekato paccantagdtMiko ahoriy on one 
side was the foot of a mountain, on one side a 
river, on one side a border-viUage (ditto). Eka' 
topanhattiy an enactment applying to one party 
in a criminal act. Ekatodaso, having a fringe on 
one side. 

EKATTAA, Unity [IJ^R^]. 


( 134) 

EKATTH ANAA, One place, the same place [jf^ + 
^IT^]* Skafthdne vasanti, they live together. 

EKA VACANAM, One word ; (in gfram.) the singular 
numher {JU^ + If^pf]. Ekavacanampikathetutk 
na sakkotij is unable to utter a single word (F. 
J4t. 8). Ekavacanena, as soon as they were 
spoken to, or at the first summons (Das. 4). 

EKAVATTHU (».)» One subject [m+^9]. 
Alw. I. 106. 

EKAVATTHUKO (adj.), Havmg the same ground 
or cause [l|t| + ^qf^ + 1|]. Dh. 90. 

EKAVIDHO (a^f.). Single [j^ + f^TVT]- 

EKAYANAM, The exact meaning of this word 
(B. ipiT^nf) I am not sure of. Clough in his 
Sinih. Diet says thatit means <* thewayof Nirvl^^t." 
At P&t. zvi we h&ye ekdyananuig^go, which perhaps 
means ''the only true road to salvation.'' At 
Mah. 251 Buddhaghosa, after studying the 
Buddhist Scriptures, says Ekdyano ayank maggo, 
which Turnonr renders " this is the sole road (to 

EKEKO (o4;0> One by one, each, severally [ll.%l]. 
Ekekath laddhikebhikkh^pakkatitvdnaf summon- 
ing the heterodox priests one by one (Mah. 42). 
Yodhe doHuiat^ ekeko esaiha, seek out each of you 
ten soldiers (Mah. 144). EkekdtU kmidni loma- 
Mipetu jdtdnif the hairs grow singly in the pores 
(B. Lot. 571). EkekakamaiOy successively (Mah. 
19, kamaio^lfm^r^). Fem. gen. ekekitsd 
(Mah. 163). Mah. 179. 

EKIBHAVO, SoUtude [lEtftiTRr]. Dh. 857, 407. 

EKO (€uHf.)t One, single; alone; a, a certain; 
the same; chief, pre-eminent, unique; general 
[m^]. Ah. 696, 717, 718, 850. Eko tumhesu, 
one of you (Mah. 28). Eken' ^no, deficient by 
one (Mah. Ixxxvii, comp. Ekdno). Eko pi ntf- 
sakkhi, not one was able (F. Jdt. 5). Ekam pi 
gdthatk vadehif speak but a single stanza (Has. 21). 
Ekabhikkham pi alabhitvd, not having received a 
single mess of boiled rice (Dh. 160). Ndham afifiam 
ekoModdam pi iamanupagsdmi, 1 do not know of 
any one other sound (Dh. 85). Ekavisati, one 
and twenty (Dh. 76). Ekapanndsam, fifty-one 
(Alw. I. 104). Ekatimsatimo, and ekatitfuo, 
thirty-first (Mah. 193 ; Has. 28). Ekapatte, on 
one side (Has. 28). Eko 'va, all alone (Mah. 39, 
194 ; B. Lot. 332). Eko care, let bim walk alone 
(Dh. 58). Eko ekdya raho nisajjatk kareyya, 
should sit secretly alone with her alone (Kamm. 37; 

comp. Pdt 105 purisena saddhhk eken* ekd), 
Ekaua earitam Boyyo, the life of the solitaiy is 
best (Dh. 59). Ekam updyam upadhdrenta, re- 
flecting on an expedient (F. J4t 16). Ekam 
amaecam petetit sent a minister (Mah. 39). Ek$ 
wyydnapdlo dgato, a gardener has come (F. Jit 6). 
Tasmifk kdle eko tfdnifo, at that time a certain 
merchant (F. Jdt. 14). Plur. eke, some men (Dh. 
23; Das. 6). Ekardpena, in the same form 
(Ab. 710). Ekakoldhalam ahotiy there was a 
general shout (F. Jdt 17). Pabbatam ekanddm 
karoH, fills the mountain with his roaring (F. J^ 
47, comp. ekqfdlibhdvati)* Fem. gen. and dat 
ekiud (Dh. 85, 402). 

EKODIBHAVO, The second Jhana is said to be 
cetaao ekodibhdvo, which Bumouf renders " unity 
of the mind" ; but that this is the true meaning ig 
very doubtful, as will be seen from the folL extract 
sent to me by the Thera Subhiliti, Eko ude^ 
ekodif vitakkauicdrehi atuyljhdrdfhattdaggo ietth» 
hutvd udettti aitko, seffho pi lake eko ti tmeeatL 
Athavd sampayuttadhamme udettti tuU, uftha- 
petiti attho, Seffhatthena eko ca to udi cdti eko^ 
samddhiti' etam adhivacafuuk. In accordance with 
this gloss I would be inclined to render ekodibhdM 
by " predominance" rather than by ** unity,'* bat 
I do not feel competent to give a decided opinion 
as to its meaning. 

EKUDDESO (ac{/.). Having the same teaching or 

studies [m -H ^^] • P^^- ^• 
EKCNAKO (a^\). Deficient by one [Tpi+^R + 

^]. Ekdnakath satarh, ninety-nine (Mah. 21). 
EKCNO (a^.). Deficient by one, minus one \jn + 

^Qflf]. EkdnavUam, ekdnavUati, nineteen (Mah. 

195). Ekdnavitatimo, nineteenth (Mah. 122). 

Ekdnatiriuo and ekdnatviuatimOf twenty-ninth 

(Mah. 174, 247). Ekdnasatam, ninety-nine (Mah. 

ELA (/.), Cardamoms [itlTTl- Ab. 591, 1010. 
El[iA (/.), Saliva. Ab. 281, 1010. 
EfiAOALO, The plant Cassia Tora [l[liri]* 

Ab. 694. 
ELAKO, A ram ; a wild goat [l^li]. Ab. 501, 

1123; Alw. I. 93; Sen. K. 367. Fem. eliki 

(Dh. 199). 
ELAKO, A threshold. Ab. 220, 1123. 
ELALUKAA, a kind of cucumber [l[l$r( + l]* 

Ab. 597. Dh. 193 has eldluka, and eldfuka. 
E(AA, Fault, sin [IR^]. Ab. 1010. 




EliAMCQO (<atff.). Deaf and dumb [id^]. 
Ab. 734. 

S(iIKA« see Bfako. 

EBTA, A proDominal base of which only two or three 
obUqoe eases occur. It has the meaning of " this," 
** it," referring to something that has been already 
mentioned. It is a subsUtnte for eiad^ as na is a 
a snbstitnte for ttui [l|]>f]* The cases I have met 
with are aoc entnk, and instr. enena. PuSmafk ce 
pmruQ kmfird kaifirdth* etunk puiu^fpunafkf if a 
man do a good work let him do it agiun and again 
(Dh. 23 ; oomp. 55). Das. 0. 

E^BYYO, A Idnd of antelope [jm + JfJ^] . Ab. 618. 

EI^O, A kind of antelope [JU^'] . Ab. 1050. Fern. 

eni (Ab. 618 ; B. Lot. 572). 
ERANPO, The castor oil plant [ip^V] • Ab. 566 ; 

Sen. K. 536. 
BRAVADO, Indra's elephant [^^nW]. Ab. 22, 

30; B. Lot. 637; Dh. 190. 
ERAVATO, The orange tree [^^T7?T]- Ab. 560* 
ERISO, see Edito. 
ESA, see Eso. 
ESAKO (adj.). Seeking [l[^+ "in]. Dh. 383. 

ESAA, ESANAA, ES(J, see ^yam. 

ESANA (/.), Wish, desire [1I;^IHT]. The three 
esanis are kdmesandf bhavesand, brahmacariye' 
itmdf desire for pleasure, for existence, for holiness. 

ESATI, To seek, to search, to desire, to strive to 
obtain [ip(^]* Yuddheesatha, try to get soldiers 
(Mah. 144). emmto (Alw. L 112), esdno 
(Dh.24; Das. 37). 

ESl (a4/0> Sticking, desiring [l[f^^]* Sukhesi, 
seeking good (Dh. 61). AimamamahiteginOf 
seeking each others good (Mah. 68). Kb. 16. 

ESIKA (/.), A pillar in front of a city gate. Ab« 

ESIKATTHAyI (adi.), SUble as a piUar [erika + 

inf^]- B. Lot 457. 
E80, and ESA (prM.), This, this one ; that [ll?T^] . 
K0 Mini' MO, who is this ? (F. Jit. 47). Nmipa' 
kdr9 e$a omhdkmk, this fellow is no use to ns 
(F. Jit. 3). E90 mahdrdfa bhagavd, that, great 
king, is Baddha. Sometimes pleonasticaUy joined 
to a personal pronoun, as esdham, I. Ace etam, 
laslr. etemm^ PL ete (Dh. 81). Gen. and dat. 
pi. eUsmk, eietdnarit (Dh. 90). Fem. e$d(Dh. 60). 
Aoe. fem. etam* Oen. and dat. fem. etind, etaud 
(Dh. 233). Intr. and abl. fom. pi. etdhi (Dh. 234). 

Gen. and dat. fem. pi. etdiam (Dh. 117). Nent. 
etmhj and before a vowel frequently eiad, Eiad 
avocoy etad o^rtim, said this (Dh. 124). For etad 
akoH, see Bhavaiu Kim etafk, what's this? 
(Mah. 59). N' etam tathd, it is not so (Mah. 198). 
No h' etanh certainly not (Sen. K. 205). The base 
in composition is etad> Etadatthdyat on this 
account (Kb. 19). 

ETABBO ( p/ip. eU), That ought to go [l^FV = \\ . 
Pit 74. 

ETAD, see Bw. 

ETADAGGAA, Chiefplace, pre-eminence, the chief, 
the best [ifT^ + mi]* The foil, examples will 
illustrate the use of this compound. Atha fMm 
Botthd etadaggam bhikkhave mama idvikdnath 
updsikdnam bahusiutdnam dhammakathxkdnam 
yadidam Khtyjuttard ti etadagge fhapetiy and 
Buddha gave her the precedence, saying. Priests, 
the chief of my female disdples who are learned 
in the scriptures and able to eicpound them is 
Khiyjuttara (Dh. 168« oomp. Alw. I. zzvii). 
Etadaggaffhdne fkapito, occupying an eminent 
position (Alw. I. xxix). Etadaggam pdricariyd' 
nam, the highest of services (Pit. 4). Etadagga-' 
sannikkhepo, placing in the foremost rauk. 
Yebhuyyena bhagavatd etadaggam dropUd, most 
of whom had been raised by Buddha to the chief 
place. Buddha frequently singled out one of his 
disciples as unrivalled in some branch of learn- 
ing or piety, and the person thus honoured was 
thenceforward looked up to as the highest authority 
in that particular branch. Thus Upili was ac- 
knowledged to be the greatest master of Vinaya or 
ecdestastical law, Kacciyana of exegesis, and so on. 

ETADISO, and ETARISO (o^;.). Such [ipiTfll]- 
Das. 36 ; Kb. 6 ; Pit xi. 

ETAlif , see Ew. 

ETARAHI (adv.). Now [l[l|ff ]. Ab. 1140; B. 
Lot 651; F.Jit.8; Dh. 4K 

ETE, ETESAlk, see Eta. 

ETI, To come ; to go ; to attain ; to undergo [l[]. 
Imperat etu (Mah. 254), 2nd pers. eki, 2nd pers. 
pi. etha (Dh. 31). Aor. agd (Mah. 204), pi. agum 
(Mah. 52, 234). Fut etsaH (Dh. 16, 66), ehiH 
(Mah. 40), 2nd pers. ehiri (Dh. 42, 66, 369). 3rd 
pers. pi. ehintU ento (Mah. 45, 134). — 
Pdfivdtam eti, goes against the wind (Dh. 10). 
Gabbhaaeyyam eti, to enter the womb (Kb. 16). 
Na catubhdgam eti, equals not the fourth part 




(Dh. 20). Pdram euanti, will reach the further 
shore (Dh. 16). Entaua piffhito, as he came 
behind him (Mah. 134). Yadi hattham me etiy 
if be falls into my hands (Mah. 246). Etha 
paasath* imam lokam cittaih, come behold this 
painted world (Dh. 31). Kh. 16. 

ETIHYAM, Oral tradition [$f?Tir]. Ab. 412. 

ETTAKO (iidj.), So great, so much, so many. 
Etiakam atikkantam, so much has elapsed (Pit. 1). 
Alam ettakena, that is enough, lit. " enough with 
so much" (Dh. 95). Ettakam evd hotu, let this 
suffice (Dh. 123). Rdjdnant taih vindsetum etHteivd 
kdlam ettakam^ having plotted the death of the 
king for ever so long (Mah. 246). Ettakatk me 
dhanam, this is all the treasure I possess (Mah. 
261). Mdtu eantdkam ettakam^ thus much is 
your mother's portion (Has. 72). Ettakd bhikkh^ 
henti, there are so many priests (Pit. 1). Fem. 
etHkd. EtHkd gdvo, so many cows (Dh. 238). 
Dh. 121. Gomp. the similarly formed adjectives 
Kittako, Tattakoy Yattako. See also Etto. 

ETTAVATA {adv.). So far, to that extent, there- 
abouts, thus [instr. I^^I^IH]. Ab. 1141 ; 01. Gr. 
76 ; Dh. 417. 

ETTHA {ado,). Here; herein; now. This adv. 
corresponds to S. ^QT^, Kaccdyana refers it to etad 
(Sen. K. 302). Ydvanf ettha samdgatd, as many 
as are assembled here (Dh. 60). Ettha dpatti, 
there is sin in doing this (Dh. 103). Yathd ca 
ettha evam saeiu pi, and as in this case so in the 
others also (Dh. 243). Tumhdkam ettha kith, 
what is that to you ? (F. J&t. 17). £im nu kho 
ettha kdrafunh, what is the reason of this (F. Jdt 
6). Etthdpi, in this grammar also (Sen. K. 202). 
Ayam hi ettha attho, for this is the meaning of 
the passage. Tm ^v* ettha patifmcchiudmi, I 
will now question you in turn (Sen. K. 215). 
Vakkhdmi ettha, I will now declare (Alw. I. zvi). 
Etthantare, within this period, during this interval 
(Pat. 67). For the termination comp. Taitha, 
Kattha, Attha, 

ETTO (ocf;.), So great, so much (comp. Ettako), 
Na eakkdpunnam eankhdtum tW ettam apt kenaci, 
no one is able to measure this his so great merit 
(Dh. 35, 350). 

ETTO {adv.). Hence [i;^ -f ft^J. CI. Gr. 68 ; 
Sen. K. 302. Etto gantvd, departing hence (Dh. 
156). Na ito vd etto vd honti, are not some in 
one place and some in another (Dh. 266). 

£VA« YEVA, and HEVA {adv.). Just, quite, even, 
only [ll]^]. Ab. 1152. Ajf eva, this very day 
(Mah. 36, Dh. 97). Etth* eva, in this very place 
(Mah. 89). Iddn 'eva, at this very time (F. J^ 
16). Tattakdn* eva pupphdui, the very same 
number of flowers (Mah. 86). Eko *va, quite 
alone (B. Lot 332; Mah. 194). Anandatheram 
ekam eva fhapetvd, witii the single exception of 
the thera Ananda (Dh. 213). Pathamam eva, 
fir8tofail(F.J4t.4). PitumatasdsanatknUvd'va, 
as soon as they heard their father was dead 
(Das. 4). Evath vadante yeva, while he was in 
the act of saj^ng these words (F. J^ 16). Atteu 
vanmafthdnam eva gatd, went straight home (Dh. 
240). Puna madhuro *va ahoei, again liecame as 
sweet as ever (F. JdL 8). Arinam eva, quite • 
different thing (ditto). Na bhikkhave Devadatt9 
iddW eva pubbe pi akatafmd yeva^ priests, not only 
now but in a former birth also was D. ungratefol 
(F. J&t. 12, comp. 16). Paldyati yeva, condnaes 
to flee (Dh. 158). So pufutppuna ydci yeva, he 
still kept on asking again and again (Dh. 126). 
Sakkd geham ajjhdvasanteh* eva punndni- kdtmk, 
even those who live at home can do good works 
(Dh. 80). Attasio 'va katdni, his own deeds 
(Dh. 10). Kaccdyanatherena eva, by Kaocajaiia 
thera himself (Alw. I. zxii). Aham eva, I myself 
(F. Jdt. 19). So puriso ddio *va hoti, that persoo 
is a slave also (Alw. I. xlv). Samakatk yeva, 
exactiy the same (Alw. I. xUii). Iddn* eva gone 
yddtufk na ynttam, it would not be proper to ask 
him for oxen just at this time (F. J&t 9). SatthoH 
dharamdne yeva, while the Teacher is still Unng 
(Dh. 333). Mutto bandhanam eva dhdvati, set 
free he flies back to his bonds (Dh. 61). Fdi 
kind katvd ganhissdm' eva, by some means or 
other I am sure to take him (Dh. 158). Addhi 
i^eva dafiddd ca, l>oth the poor and the rich 
(Das. 5). N'eva eoci na rodi, neither lamented or 
wept (Das. 3). The apocopated form 'va is ased 
only after a long vowel, generally o, as d&rato 'm 
pattiko *va. The form yeva is used after all vowels 
and fh, e.g. patthdya yeva (Dh. 106), p^fuudi 
yeva (F. Jdt. 18), eadied yeva (Dh. l5S),pitthii9 
yeva (Mah. 153), akatannd yeva (F. Jit 12), 
dharamdne yeva (Dh. 333), imaemhk yeva (Ras. 
19), tahim yeva (Mah. 156). The y is a euphonic 
addition. In the case of a word ending in m being 
followed by yeva, a further euphonic change some- 




tim«8 takes place, the my becoming ^n, e.g. 
mddkm neva (Db. 84), tan heva (Gl. Gr. 13 ; Sen. 
K. 215). For Heva see separate article. 

EVAM(aif0.),Tbus[li;8Ri;]. Ab. 1142, 1158,1186. 
Bvam hotu, so let it be (Mah. 110; Dh. 126). 
Md evam akattha, do not do this (Dh. 80, 84). 
Evmk ffodehi, say as follows (Alw. I. 93). Ce 
ihikkkuno etfoni hctij if a priest tbinlss thas {Fit, 
zzzi, see Bhavati ). Eva^ sante, and evam 9aH, 
Boch being the case, this being so, under these 
drcumstances (F. J^t 7 ; Dh. 84; Ras. 22 ; Mah. 
80 ; Alir. I. 101). Evam bhante. Yes, lord (comp. 
Dh. 105 evofH dvuso). Evam bho, yes, sir (B. 
Lot. 351). Evam pi, thus (Ab. 1143). Evm hi 
for etfam hi (Sen. K. 215 ; Alw. I. cviii). EvaHt 
*M for evatk atea (01. Or. 14 ; Sen. K. 221). 

EVAMADI {adj,\ Beginning thus, such and the HIce 
['5^IH+- ^|(<([]- Evamddhh ndgdnam anusdM- 
nam katvd, having given this and similar exhorta- 
tions to the n£gas(Sffah. 6). PaStcasatdn* evamddi 
mhdre kdreti, built these and other monasteries to 
the number of five hundred (Mah. 127). Evamd" 
dmd nayena, in this and similar ways. 

EVAMADIKO (ac(;.),This and the like [l(«RTf?[ + 
^] . Vthdre evamddike kdreivd, having built this 
and other temples (Mah. 131). Att. 195. 

EVAMAHARO (adj.). Living on such and such 

food [iPR + ^HfK]. 
EVAlilDHAMMO (adj.). Of such a nature, such 

[TPR + ^]. F.Jdt,lL 
EVAMEVA (adv.). In this very way, even thus 

{JH^ + HIT] • Mah. 240 ; Kb. 12 ; Alw. I. zliii. 
EVAMEVAM (adv.). In this very way, thus [id^ + 

H!^}. Ab. 1142 ; Dh. 319, 282. 
EVAMMAHANUBHAVO (adj.). Of such great 

power [H^ + TTfT + irjin^]. B. Lot. 836. 
EVAMNAMO (adj.). Having such and such a name 

EVAASASHI (atyj). Having this thought [l{^ + 

EVAMUCCO (adj.). Of such a height [l{^ + 

^V]. Mah. 222. 
EVAAvAdI (adj.). Saying thus, holding this 

doctrine [l(^7( + HXt^^O* ^* ^^* ^^ > Man. 

B. 196. 
EVAtilVADITA (/.), Saying thus, adherence to 

thk doctrine [ip^ + TTfi^ + WT]- 
EVAftVLDHO (adj.). Of such kind, such [KT^ + 

filVT]- Att. 202, 2n. 

EVAlifyiFAKO (adj.), Having such and such a 

result [n^+f^nrrai]. 

EVANOARUKO (adj.). Of such importance or 

value [Tf^f^ + ^ + 1] • ^^' 39, 
EVANGATIKO (adj.). Such, similar, analogous 

EVANGOTTO (at^.). Of such a family [ij^ + 

EVAf^HI, see Evam. 

EVANNAMAKO(a<^'.),So named [H;^ + ^THTIi]* 

EVAROPO (adj.). Such, of this sort [ipF^ + ^:g]. 
Evar&pd man( ditthd mdyd. I have seen a jewel 
of such a description (Mah. 168). Evar^po pi 
rakkhaw, even a rakkbasa like this (Ras. 21). 
Santi te evoHtpd dbddhd, have you any such diseases 
as these ? (Kamm. 4). Kb. 18 ; F. Jdt. 18 ; Dh. 
158, 280, 434. 

EVUMAA, Anomalous sandhi for evain imam (CI. 
Gr. 16), 


GABBHARAA, A cavern [^HXTl- Ab. 609, 1092. 

GABBHASAYO, The womb [J^A + ^inrVj- 

GABBHASEVYA (/.), The womb [ipl + 1[^]. 
Kb. 16. 

GABBHAVAKKANTI (/.), Entrance of the em- 
bryo into the womb, commencement of pregnancy 
[ipl + H^4lTf^]* Sangiti S. enumerates four 
gabbh&vakkantis, or conditions of consciousness in 
which a being is conceived, carried in the womb, and 
bom. The following is the text of the first, Idh* 
dvuso ekacco asampajdno &eva mdtu kucchismim 
okkamati, atampqfdno mdtu kucchismim fhdti, 
sampajdno mdtu kucchismd nikkhamati; ayath 
pathamd gahbhdvakkanti* 

GABBHINi (/•), Pregnant, a pregnant woman 
[^rf^^] • Ab. 239 ; Mah. 23 ; Dh. 154. 

GABBHO, The womb; interior; an embryo, a 
fcetus ; a sprout ; an inner room, a doset, a private 
sitting room, a bedroom; the calyx of a flower 
[inl]. Ab. 214, 271, 943. Gabbhaih upapajjaH, 
to be born into the womb, to be bom as a man 
(Dh. 23). Ath* aua bhariydya kucchiyam gabbho 
patifthdsi, his wife conceived (Dh. 78, comp. 120). 
Qabbham labhati, andgaphdti, to become pregnant 
(Dh. 328 ; Das. 2). Gabbhapanhdro, a ceremony 
performed when a woman became pregnant (Dh. 



( 138) 


78, 120 ; Das. 2, 22). GabbhamtthdiUMii, chUd- 
birth (Db. 155). Gabbhakumdrako, tbe anborn 
infant (Mab. 58). Angdragabbhe patitsdmu will 
fall into tbe midst of tb« coals (F. Jdt. 56). SdlU 
gabbhOf sprout of newly-sown rice (Db. 126). 
Bh^migabbho, a subterranean cbamber (Mab. 238). 
Attano gabbham paomtvd dvdrampidhdya^ baving^ 
entered ber own cbamber and sbut tbe door (Alw. 
I. 102). Sirigabbho, royal cbamber or cabinet. 
Crabbhe nitinnOy seated in bis private room (Db. 
239). Gabbhasahauapafimandito pdtddo, a palace 
fumisbed witb a tbousand apartments (Db. 250). 

GABBHUPPATTI (/.), Conception [^ + 
^fMfil]* Tbere are nine modes of conception, 
see Man. B. 443. 

GABBITO («<(;.), Proud [^rffn]- Ab. 1075. 

GABBO, Pride [irf]. Ab. 171. 

GABHiRO (adj.). Deep [l^fV^. Ab. 669. See 
also Gambhiro, 

GACCHAPETI {caus. next), To cause to ^, to send. 
Pass, gacchdpkfati, to be sent. 

GACCH ATI, To go, to go to, to proceed ; to depart 
[9fl^]. Fihdrarh gantvdy baving gone to tbe 
monastery (Db. 88). Geham ganivd, baving gone 
bome (F. Jdt. 15). Satthu santikam gantvd, 
baving gone to tbe Teacber (Db. 128). BUgavmh 
^., to go to tbe chase (Mab. 33). Tesam upatthd- 
nam gacchantOy going to tbeir relief (F. Jdt. 2). 
Paraddram g,, to commit adultery. Panndsa 
yojandni gacchatif marcbes fifty yojanas (Db. 160). 
Bhaydgatiih g,, to live under tbe evil influence of 
fear (see Agati), Chandddivtuena agantvd, un- 
influenced by lust and tbe otber Agatis, lit. not 
going according to lust, ete. (Ten Jdt. 2). Go' 
cchante kdle, as time goes on, in course of time 
(Alw. I. cvii). Khayani g,, to perisb, to cease 
(Mab. 91). Sankhyam g., to be reckoned. ImaHi 
mdyetvd mamsani khdditvd pacchd gantum, to kill 
bim, eat bis flesb, and tben be off (F. Jdt. 4). 
Witb dat Saggdya g., to go to beaven (Db. 32) ; 
Crocardya ^., to go for food, to prowl for prey 
(Mab. 44). Witb instr. of tbe mode of proceeding : 
Nabhaad g,^ to go through tbe air (Mab. 48); 
Ndgena g*f to ride on an elephant. — Opt. gacche, 
gaccheyya (Db. 57 ; Sen. K. 465). Imperat. 2nd 
pers. gaecha, gacch&hif gama (F. Jdt. 6 ; Sen. K. 
450, 451,458). FntgamisaaH (F. Jdt 17; Mab. 150; 
Db. 121, 199, 290), gacehissati (Sen. K. 428, 464). 
Aor. agamd, gamd (Qeik, K. 42S, 432 ; Mab. 4, 48, 

76), agamdn (F. Jdt 10, 49 ; Dh. 290 ; Mab. 88), 
agamU garni (Dh. 219 ; Sen. K. 449, 465), agacM 
(Sen. K. 449), agacchin (Mab. 206). Gond. ago- 
mmdf agaechiMd(&en. K. 429, 465). P.^r, gaeehmk, 
gaechanio (Mab. 152 ; F. Jdt 4). Atm. gaceha- 
mdno (Mah. 1 16). Inf. ganttukf gandtum (Sen. K. 
603). Ger. gantvdt gantvdna, gamt^na, gamma 
(Mah. 87 ; Sen. K. 503). Pass, gamyate^gamfyati, 
gacchiyatit to be gone to, to be i^roached 
(CI. Gr. 131 ; Alw. I. 18, 29). P.f.p. gantabbo, 
gamitabboy gamaniyo, gammo. P.p.p* gato, 
gomito* CBXUi,gitHeH,gamdpeH,gacekdpetin The 
aorist 'gacchi is very frequently spelt "gancki in 
Suhbalese MSS., e.g. see Ras. 35 (aganchi), Dh. 
299 (iq»aganchi)f Mah. 5 {-apdganehi). In Mab. 
Tumour has generally misread it -gmfit e.g. 
dga^um at p. 119, dga^finuu at p. 141, agofifitmk 
p. 206. In one instance I find "gaecki in Mah., 
viz. at p. 236, line 4, where the India Office MS. 
reads n^dgacchL That the spelling -gakehi is a 
wrong one I have no doobt, though how it aitise it 
is difficult to say. See GhammatL 

GACCHO, A shmb [If^]. Ab. 540. Paduma- 
gacchOf a lotus plant (Dh. 191). T^lagaeekOf a 
cocoanut sapling (Mah. 140). 

GAD A (/.), A dub [Vf^]. Ab. 32, 394, 1099; 
Mah. 141, 153. 

GAD ATI, To speak [iT^]. 

GADDABH AI^PO, The tree Thespesia Popnlneoides 

[^rfirnv]- Ab.562. 

GADDHO, A vulture [^]. Ab. 637. Gomp. 
Gijjko and Giddho. 

GADHATI, To stand fast; to have a firm footing 
[irn^]. CI. p. Verbs, 4. Dhammavinaye gddhoH, 
stands fast in tbe Doctrine And the Disdpline. 
Ettha dpo ca pathavi ea tejo vdyo na gddhatiy 
here (In ^irvd^a) tbe four elements have no footing, 
i.e. do not exist (Alw. N. 39 ; B. Lot 515). 

GADHITO (adj.), Clinging to, desiring [l|V]. 

GADITO (pp.p. gadatt), Spoken, said [9rf^= 
ir^]. Ab. 132, 755. 

GADO, Disease [if^ . Ab. 323, 1099. 

GADRABHO, An ass [IT^]. Ab.502; F. Jdt 14. 

GAGANAA, The sky [9RR]. Ab. 45, 940; Dh. 

246. Gagatuim at Ab. 1119. 
GAGGARl (/.), A chum ; a blacksmith's bellows 

[oomp. jAk ] • ^' ^^> ^^* 
GAhAKO ia^\). Taking, receiving, holding 


( 189) 


[Vl^^]* jiddtagdhakd devd^ devas holding 
mirron (Mah. 182). Chattagdkako^ an umbrella- 
bearer (Mah. Ixsczvii). 

GAH Aft, and GAHO, A house [^]. Ab. 206, 
919 ; Db. 28. Gomp. Gharam. 

GAHANAft, see Gahano. 

GAHAl^Aft, Taking, receiving, holding, grasping, 
■ai'^g; acquiring, learning, mastering, com- 
prehension; clinging to the world, attachment, 
desire; an eclipse [iVflf]- Ab. 919. Ndma^ 
gmkmfmm^ receiving a name. GoAafiam Jetava' 
Muaa, the receiving of J. by Buddha (Mah. 180). 
(Jmmidaggakm^amt insertion or addition of the 
word ea (Sen. K. 234). OaAattoiit is used liJce 
Addmmk in the sense of "dingring to the world, 
attachment, desire," also '* wrong views, heresy*' 
(Dh. 110, 137, 398, 399, 413, 425, 434). 

GAHAJSn (/.X The belly; the internal fire pro- 
moting digestion [^l^lfV]* Ab. 271, 972. 

GAHANO (pdj»\ Impervious, tangled, impenetrable 
[if^Vf]. Ab. 719. Neut. gahanofk^ a jungle, 
fcreat, thidcet (Ab. 636). Dh. 70. 

GAHAPACGO, The sacred fire Irept up by a house- 
holder [l||f lldl]. Ab. 419. See Aggi. 

GiilAPAKO (adj.)^ Causing to take, distributing. 

Pit. 62. 
GAHAPANAft, Causing to take. 
GAHAPATI (m.), A householder, the head of a 

household, master of a house \jn + V^ii\ • P^t. 

8; Dh. 263. Fem. gahapatdni (CI. Gr. 41; 

P&l. 1 1). Gahapataggif the sacred fire maintdned 

by a householder (see Aggi), 
GAHAPATIKO, A householder [^fqtTT + V]- 

OAHAFATIMAHASALO, a wealthy householder 

[^f^+'ffT + ^rnC]- Ab. 339 says that tiie 
qnalificatloa for a G. is forty ko^is of treasure, and 
m daUy expenditure of ^y% amma^as of gold. At 
Dh. \20 gafuq^aHmahdBdra. 

G AHAPETI (caiw. gafthdii^ To cause to be taken ; 
to deliver to. Gdhdpetvdma dhdtuyo, causing the 
relics to be collected (Mah. 125). Gdkdpetvd 
rmimmdtd imdmif entrusting them with these predous 
things (Mah. 69). Dh. 78, 108, 158, 299, 434 ; 
lfah.aS9; F.JitlO. 

GAHA'fl'uO, One who lives in a house, a house- 
holder, a layman as opposed to a priest [^Y^]« 
Ab. 409, 446 ; Dh. 72, 100. 

GAH ATI, and GAHETI, To wade, to dive, to enter 
[Wtj]' Sen. K. 499; Mah. 41. Com. ogahi 
(Mah. 152). 

GAHETI, and GAHETI (cotw. ganhdti). To cause 
to take ; to indude, to embrace, to hold, to contain ; 
to take, to seize ; to obtain, to receive, to acquire, 
to buy ; 'to inform, to teach ; to undergo [4||f ^ifll 
= ^re]. Kdidgdram gdhayitvd, having caused 
the state hearse to be removed (Mah. 124). M^d-* 
nam satthu santikam gahetvd, taking the king to 
Buddha. Cfahetvd nnehake, teking with him his 
friends (Mah. 227). Avudhdni gahetvd, snatching 
up their weapons (F. J4t. 15). Bhikkhd gdhayUvd^ 
having caused the priests to be arrested (Mah. 232, 
216, comp. 204, yfha^gahetvd is rendered '< putting 
to death"). Cfocaram gahetvd^ having fed or 
browsed (Dh. 114, of depbants). Ekam yugaik 
attano gahetvd, keeping one pair for himself 
(Dh. 291). Imaik mayd gahetwk vattati, I must 
get possession of this (F. J&t. 4).' DoUki eataaa-' 
hanehi nekavatthdni gdhiya, having bought a 
gfreat numl)er of dothes with two lacs of money 
(Mah. 228). Upaddhadhdtuik gdhetvd, having 
taken half the relics (Mah. 125). Qdhayitvd 
amaccena, having assigned to a nobleman, lit. 
having caused to he taken by a nobleman (Mah. 
172). MtechdditthigahafMm gahetvd, laying 
hold of or embracing false doctrine (Dh. 137). 
Khayavayaka$nmatthdnam gahetvd, having ob- 
tained or learnt from Buddha the Kb. meditotion 
(Alw. I. xxi, comp. Dh. 210). Mahantam atthaih 
gahetvd, containing great significance (Dh. 179). 
Vinayavddi mayam rdja iti gdhiya, having in- 
formed him, O king, we profess the Vinaya (Mah. 
234). In prose the form gaheti is the usual one. 

GAHl (a^»). Taking, receiving, seizing, catching 
[4||(f ^^ ] * Baliggdhi, reodving offerings (Mah. 
129). Piyaggdhi, grasping at pleasure (Dh.38). 
Find pupphamphaiaggdM rukkho, a tree that gete 
ite fruit without flowers (Ab. 903). 

GAHITAKO («&•.), Accepted [^ftn + «l]. Das. 

GAHITO and GAHlTO (p.p.p. gaiihdti). Taken, 
received; held, kept; grasped, seized; cauglit, 
captured ; occupied, taken possession of [«ljin = 
VM] • Pacedmitto me gahito, my enemy is taken 
prisoner (Dh. 159). Cfahite dandake, the stick 
being hdd (F. Jdt. 18). Candiuid devaputto 
Rdhund asurindena gahito hoti, the god Cauda is 




seized or eclipsed by Rdhn tlie icing of the Asnras 
(Gog. Ev. 28). Gahitd pathavi ^tnehi^ these men 
are getting possession of the land (Mah. 82). 
Ettha ffyddhimarafuini pi gahitdn* eva honti, here 
disease and death are induded also (Dh. 369, oomp. 
281). Suggahito^ firmly grasped (F. J&t 18). 
JOuggdhitOf loosely or badly held (Dh. 55). The 
form gahito I have met with only in verse, 

GAHO {adj.). Taking, holding [Hl^ . Dhanuggaho, 
an archer. 

GAHO, Taking, receiving, seizing; a planet; a 
yakkha; a shark; a crocodile [iTf]- Ab« 762, 
919 ; Dh. 45, 375. The navagahd, or nine planets, 
are S^o, Candoy Angdro, BudhOt Jivo, 8ukko, 
AHfOf Rdhu, Ketu (Ab. 61 ; Man. B. 24). 

GAHO (adj.). Taking, holding, seizing [ITTV]' 
RoBtniggdho, holding the reins (Dh. 40). 

GAHO, Taking, acceptance; capture, seizure; 
holding ; a seizure or eclipse of a planet f one that 
seizes, a yakkha, a crocodile; idea, inclination; 
attachment, desire [^TTlf]. Ab. 762. Gdhato 
tattaraaame divase, on the seventeenth day after 
receiving it (Mah. 114). PyUanagaragdhatthaih, 
for seizing the town of V^jita (Mah. 151). Do^a- 
gdham gafJidH, to hold tight (GL Gr. 122). Jiva- 
gdham gafJidH, to take prisoner alive (Dh. 158). 
Yaasa ahan ti vd maman ti vd gdko n* atthi, in 
whom there is no clinging to the idea This is I 
or This is mine (Dh. 420). Dh, 11 1, 375, 413. 

GAJATA (/), A herd of elephants [iHt + TTT]- 
Ab. 362. 

GAJJANAM, Roaring, thundering [ifjilf]. Alw. 

. cui. 

GAJJATI, To roar; to thunder [^]. Megho 

gajjatif the clouds thunder (Mah. 72, comp. Dh. 

155). P.p.p. gajjito, a fnrions elephant (Ab. 362) ; 

neut. gajfUaihf thunder (Ab. 49). Dh. 159; 

Mah. 152. 
G A JO, An elephant [iHl] . Ab. 360. CU^'uttamo, 

a noble elephant (Mah. 152). 
GAKARO, The letter G. [if + ITT]- 
GALATI, To flow away ; to foil ; to vanish ; to eat 

[IIWQ. a. p. Verbs, 17. 
GALAVO, The treeSymplokos Raoemosa [^nmf]* 

GALO, The throat [^TW]- Ab. 263; F. J£t 12; 

Dh. 237. Oalandf{, the larynx or windpipe (Dh. 

265). Oalamattam jalaih ogdhetvd, entering the 

water up to his neck (Mah. 116). 

.GAfiOGi (/.), The shrub Coceulus GordifiiUiii 
[^1^^]. Ab. 581. In his Simh. Diet. Cknigh 
has ** Gal6ci, holy basil (ocymum sanctum), alw 
Terminalia Gitrina.'' 
GAMA, See GacchaH. 

GAMADHAMMO, Sexual intercourse, fornication 
[Hm + \pS[] . Ab, 317 ; GL Gr. 141. 

GAM AKO, A viUage [imPl] . Ab. 226 ; F. JiL 62. 

GAMANAA, Qomgi journey, march; departore; 
walk, life [ifVpf]. Ab. 395. Oamandgamanam, 
going and coming (Dh. 96, 114). Maydgamanam 
varam, it is right that I should go (Ras. 20]. 
Sekhena gamanam tahim na yuttan te, your gvingf 
there as a Sekha is not right (Mah. 12). Mbd- 
nagamano maggo, the way that leads to Nlrvi^a 
(Dh. 51). Saggana gamanarh, going to beaveo 
(Dh. 32). Pah(nagamanam, going on low erraods. 
Gamandham, day of departure (Mah. 177). Gamo' 
namaggo, way by which to depart (Dh. 150). 
Samitagamanam, a measured step (Dh. 234). 
AgatigaTnanaik, a sinful life (Das. 1, see Jgati), 
Agatigamane fhUo, subject to the four Agatis 
(Das. 21). 

GAMAJ^I (adj.), Ghief [Vmf^]. Ab. 6d5, 920. 
Masc gdmafti, a chief, a village headman (Ab. 920; 
Mah. 151). 

GAMANlYO (adj.). That ought to go; traosieot; 
accessible [iT^nf^]* P^t. 13; Kb. 14; Sen. 
K. 476. 

GAMAiylYO, An elephant or horse trainer 
[mWlf^]- Ab.368. 

GAMANTARAft, This word seems to mean the 
distance between a monastery and the oearest 
villagfe, or between two adjacent villages \VT^ + 
IRIin^]. P&t. xxxix, 16. Gdmantaram gaccM, 
seems to mean merely " to go as fiur as the village." 

GAMANTO,Borderoroutskirtsof a village [itT^-^ 

G AM APETI (cans. gacchoH ), To cause to go, to lesd. 

Mah. 260. Gomp. Cfameti, 
GAMATA (/.), A collection of villages [^n^PIT]* 

a. Gr. 96 ; Sen. K. 295. 
GAMBHIRATA (/.). Depth [IWBH + ^l' 

Dh. 119. 
GAMBHiRATO (adv.). In depth [wffK + ^l 

Pmcahaitham gambhiraio, five cubits 'm depth 

(Mah. 112). 
GAMBHiRO, and GABHiRO (adj.). Peep, an- 




fiitboniftble ; profound, abstrase ; foil of meaning or 
import. Important, weighty [l|lifV^ and ^IT^ftT]' 
Ab. 000. Rahado gambhiro, a deep lake (Dh, 15). 
CfmaMirag^kaaOf a deep or resonant voice (Mah. 
251). Cfambkin^MtSmo, one whose wisdom is pro- 
fovDd (Dh. 72; Kb. 8). Alw. N. 23. 

GAMETt and GAMETI (eaus. gueehoH), To cause 
to go, to send [J|K€|ni = l|i^]. Sen. K. 449, 
451, 453. With two ace. Purito purisam gdmam 
f^btuyatif the man sends a man to the viUage 
(Ben. K. 342). 

GAMf , see Gaechati, 

GAMl(ad;.),GoiDg ; leading to ; attaining [J||f4|^]. 
n pihayanti nerayxkd viya iaggagdmma^i, 
envy thee as those who are suffering in hell envy 
those who are going to heaven (Dh. 392). GdtnO' 
gimimaggOy the road leading to the village (Mah. 
24). Nibhdnagdmi dhammavaro, the glorious 
Truth that leads to Nirvd^a (Kb. 9). MandagdmU 
marching slowly. Akdsagdtni, going through the 
air (Ras. 38). Fern. gdminL Dukkhanirodha- 
gdmunipafipadd^ the step leading to the destruction 
of sorrow. Dh. 14, 35, 337 ; Mah. 43, 98, 111, 225. 

GAMIKO (adj\). Going, travelling [^T^ + K;^]. 
Ab. 424; Dh. 229, 247. Gamiko bhikkhu, a 
travelling priest, one away from his monastery 
(Sen. K. 489). 

GAMIKO (adj.), TraveUittg [iTTf^]. Mah. 202. 
GAMIKO, a villager, or perhaps a village head- 
man [infin]- Mah. 106. 
GAMISSATI, see GaecAati. 

GAMITABBO (p^.p.gaechaH\ That ought to go. 
Sen. K. 505tt 

GAHITO (p/jp. gaeehait)^ Gone. Das. 30; Sen. 

GAMlYATI, see Gaeehati. 

GAMMA, see Gaeehati. 

GAMMO (p'fp. gacchoH), Accessible, attainable 

[inir= Ifi^]. Ab. 745 ; Sen. K. 477. 
GAMMO (adj.)f Belon^ng to villages, rustic, pagan 

GAMO (adj.)t Going [ifif] . Adhogamo^ going down. 
Vddkamgamo^ ascending. 

OAMOy Going, jonmey, march [^RT]* Ab. 395, 
GAMO, a village ; a collection, a multitude [UTT]- 

Ab. 225, 1 107. GdnuwdMi, a viUager (F. Jdt. 15). 

G4maM0fako, a village headman (Dh. 187). A 

gdma may consist of so few as two or three or 

even one house (Pit 05). BijagdmOf collection of 

germs. BMtagdmo^ vegetation. 
GAAfCPAGARO, Outskirts or entrance of a village 

[Unr H- ^M-^K ]. Pdt. 05 ; Ras. 70 ; Dh. 100. 
GAMYATE, see Gaeehati. 

GAl^AKO, An accountant, treasurer ; an astrologer, 
one who calculates nativities [TinV] • Ab. 347 ; 
Mah. 09» 

GANAft, A song [iTHf]. Ab. 130. 

GANANA, and GAl^TANAM, Counting, calcuUition ; 
number [^HipTT]* Gai^nam aikkhati, to learn 
mathematics (Alw. 1. 100). Bhikkhuganand, the 
number of the priests (Pdt. 1, comp. Mah. 172). 
Sendgafumam kdretvd^ having caused the army to 
be numbered. Mayi manaih pasddeivd 9agge 
nibbattdnam gafumd n* atthi, the nnmber of those 
who having believed in me are bom in heaven is 
beyond computation, lit. there is no counting of 
them (Dh. 98). Ab. 845. 

GAiyANAPATHO, Range of calculation or counting 
[i|1|lf + ^IV] • Gafutnapatho^ vitivatto^ exceed- 
ing the bounds of computation, innumerable. 

GANAPETI, To cause to be counted. Dh. 223. 

GAJJf ASAJJHAYO, a repetitioYi by a number of 
priests in unison, a chorus [iRf + 4^m|i|]. 
Mah. 194, 198, 211. 

GAf^CHI, see Gaeehati. 

GAI^PAKO, A rhinoceros ; a sort of fish [?|1QIi]. 
Ab. 013, 672. 

GAIt^)AMBO, Name of a tree. Mah. 107 ; Kb. 21. 

GANDHABBO, A Gandharva or celestial musician 
[ifiCp^]. Ab. 13. Ab. 902 gives also the mean- 
ings " music," '' a musician," " a horse." Fem. 
gandhabbi (CI. Gr. 40). Gandhabbddhipo, lord 
of gandharvas, viz. Dhataraftha (Ab. 31). The 
Gandhabbas are a class of demigods {dewtyeni) 
who inhabit the Cdtummah^rdjika heaven, and 
are the special attendants of Dbatara^tha (Man, B. 
24, 43 ; Dh. 19, 74). 

GANDHAKUTI (/.). Perfumed chamber \ym + 
v;f^]. Any private chamber devoted to Buddha's 
use was called gandhakuti, but especially the 
room he always occupied at Sdvatthi* Ab. 211 ; 
Dh. 195, 222 ; Mah. 17 ; B. Lot. 305. 

GANDH AM AD ANO, Name of a mountain [ifi^ + 
iTR^if]. Ab. 007; Man. B. 15, 10. QteHimavd. 




OANDHANAlk, lojaring, destroying [ipiR]. 

GANDHARA (fn*pl.\ name of a people [^ip^TT]* 
Ab. 184 ; E. Mon. 300 ; Mah. 71, 72, 73. Gandkd^ 
raraffham, the GandhAra oonntry, Gandahar. 

GANDHARO, One of the notes of the Hinda gamut 

[TP^rrr]. Ab. 132. 

GANDHI, A substitote for gandho at the end of 
some oomponnds, e.g. duggmMH^ stinking; 
aurabhigandhi^ fragrant. 

GANDHIKO, A perfume seller [ifT^IRi]. CI. Gr. 
91 ; Sen. K. 391. 

GANDHO, Smell, odour; perfume, fragpranoe; 
fragrant substances, perfumes; a mere whiff or 
scent of thing, i.e. a very little of it [ipif]. Ab. 
1129. JlfaccA<i^aiu^Aain^A<^to<f, smelling a smell 
of fish (F. Jdt. 53). Gattdhagajo, a musk elephant, 
one supposed to emit a particular perfume (Ab. 
301). Gamdhatelam, scented oil (F. J&t 6). 
(jhmdhodakaiky and gandhudakaiikt scented water 
(F. Jdt. 8 ; Dh. 245 ; Mah. 180). Gandhtudto, 
sandal wood (Ab. 300). Oandhavdho, the wind 
(Ab. 38). Ckmdhamdld, perfumes and flowers 
(Mah. 170). Btnam gamdhqfdtdnam tilagandho 
ann^tarOf the perfume of holiness fisr surpasses 
these sorts of perfumes (Dh. 10). Chndko^ ** odour»* 
is one of the Ayatauas, Dh4tus, etc. 

GANDHO, The word gantho, ''bond'' or "book,* 
is very frequently spelt thus, see Sen K. 202, Alw. 
I. X, zzii, Dh. 80, 369, Buddhaghosa's Parables, 3, 
It is, I think, a corrupted spelling, and not a 
dialectic form. 

GANDO, Tlie cheek ; an elephant* s temples ; a boQ 
[inqr]- Ab. 202, 304, 1048; Kamm. 4. 

GAQq>ULO (a(&'.). Humpbacked [IR^]. Ab. 319. 

GAJ^UPPADO, a sort of worm [comp. W^^l^] • 
Ab. 075 (both editions have -tf/^-)* Clough 
in his Slmh. Diet has '' Qa^upddOf an earth 

GAI^IiTI, To count, to reckon ; to reck, to value, 
to regard [l|l|]. Dh. 4, 151 ; Mah. 59. Jghd- 
toin agafietvdf not caring about hatred (Dh. 164, 
comp. Kh. 21). 

GANGA (/.), The river Ganges; the celestud 
river, the MUky Way [111^]. Ab. 27, 681; 
Man. B. 17. 

GANGEYYO (a^\), Belonging to the Ganges 
[irn^^l • Sen. K. 388. Masc. gangeyyo^ a sort 
ofelephant(Ab. 361). 

GA^ANAliil, Takfaig, receiving, catching. Msh. 
123 ; Dh. 159, 366; Das. 44. 

GAl^f HAPETI {emu. next). To cause to be taken. 
AkdlaphmUmi gofiA^P^fi^* causing fruit to be 
gathered out of season (F. J4t. 6). 

GAJyHATI, To take; to receive, to accept ; to catch, 
to capture ; to arrest, to seize ; to buy ; to acquire, 
to obtain, to get possession of; to adopt ; to grasp 
with the mind, to perceive, to comprehend, to 
learn ; to approve, to agree to, to mind, to regard 
[^re]. Tnmhe gafhiivd^ taking yon with me 
(Mah. 194). Oocaram g., to take food (F. Jit 12 ; 
Mah. 43). Nivdtam g.^ to take up one's quarters 
(Dh. 232). Qabbham g.^ to become pregnant 
(Mah. 57). Cttrarii gatthisBdmi, 111 seize the robber 
(F. Jdt. 5). Chattam damilam aggahi^ took 
prisoner the Malabar named Ghatta (Mah. 150). 
Maccham ganhitum, to catch a fish (Alw. I. zjd). 
Pdlim v\fa tarn aggahumf received it (with the same 
veneration) as the Scriptures themselves (Mah. 
253). Efikam gafJdndmi^ 111 buy a goat (Dh. 
199). Navakofihi bhdmim eva gaphi, acquired 
the site for nine kofis of money (Dh. 219). 
Hatthika»tav(f^am vddento gafJidH^ captures them 
by playing on the elephant-charming flute (Dh. 
158). Mama vacanam na ga^himsu, they did not 
take my words to heart (Dh. 109). SopUu kaiham 
na gafJidtii he did not mind what his father said 
(Ten Jdt. 7). Crarihitvd therabhdntanh^ agreeing 
to what the thera said (Mah. 172). Mantiuk g^ 
to learn a mantra (Dh. 159). Sikkhtuk g., to 
receive instruction (Sen. K. 317)* €raf^ha pabbo' 
jaiam, adopt the ascetic life (Mah. 251). SUdmg^ 
to take upon oneself the sila duties (Dh. 81). 
Saf^ihdnwk tubham H gaphdHf receives the im- 
pression or lays hold of the idea that the form is 
beautiful (Dh. 111).— Aor. aggahi (Mah. 45, 57, 
150, 261), agaphi, gafihi (Dh. 101, 137, 232). 
Imperat. 2nd pers. ganhOf gofthdhi, Ftet. 
gaf^hinati (Dh. 199), Atm.^a2iAtMam(Mah. 111). 
Inf. gafihitufk (Dh. 101; F. Jdt 12). Ger. 
gafthitvd (Mah. 43, 194 ; F. J&t 4), gayha (Mah. 
110), ^afiAj^o (Mah. 170). ^aftAaa^o. Pass. 
gayhaii (Gl. Gr. 110). Pass, imperat. gaykatu 
(Att. 230). Pass. gayhamdno (Mah. 106). 
P.p.p. gahiio* Gaus. gaheti, gdheti, gafUk^H, 

Qklfl {adJJ)f Having a following, having many 
disciples [Wflp^]* Mah. 7. Masc. ^«!i^ a 




iBMiiar (Msh. 104). Ace. to Ab^ 613 gaf^i is a 
Dune of the gokaftfM^ or Ceylon elk» bat Cloagh 

OA^IKA (/.), A ooortezan [irflnT] • Ab. 233. 

QAIflTO (p»p>p* gafieH)^ Coantedy reckoned 
[^fl|IT=^]. Ab.710. 

GA^Oy A mnltitade, number, assemblage, troop, 
herd ; a chapter of priests ; the priesthood [iRf] • 
Ab. 689, 1060. DevaMamuuaguftd^ hosts of angels 
and men (Mah. 104). Bk9 gafuumd v^tpakaffhOf 
alone, lar away Irom the busy crowd (Dh. 105). 
GofMn* bimdhaHi gets together a foUowing (P6t. 
74). jiwtaceaga^f retinne of ministers. Crafuf- 
eor^, teacher of a troop of disciples. 8aga^ 
migmrdj^j the N4ga king with his retinae (Mah. 7). 
BMkkkumktam ^fia, the sisterhood or commanity 
of nans (Mah. 214). NAHgafi^t assemblage of re- 
latives, fismily drde (Mah. 76). MigagaitM^ herd of 
wild beasts (Ras. 27). Abhwandiya gafuim uita^ 
■MM, revering the excellent priesthood (Alw. I. xvi). 
Fm^adharapaSicawio ^afio, an assembly of five 
priests, one of whom Is versed in Vinaya (Alw. I. 
M). Cram^kcfamafk is '' food prepared for several 
priests as a joint meal'' (^^^O* FiMtigafut 6At- 
kkkmaamghoj an assembly of priests twenty in nnm- 
ber (P4t. 6). Appatarena gaftena upatampadam 
mu^dmeyym^ woald permit ordination by a smaller 
number Aan ten (Alw. I. 93). It will be seen 
from the above examples that Ga^ as applied to 
an assemblage of priests is, like Sangha, used in 
a wide and somewhat vagae sense, being applied 
alike to the whole priesthood, and to so small 
a number as five. The term ga^akammank^ ** an 
ecdesiastical act performed by a small chapter of 
priestSt'' is opposed to Mougkakommath ; I believe 
there can be little doubt that the quorum for a 
gayakamma is two or three priests only, while a 
saaghakamma may be performed by any number 
from four upwards (B, Lot. 437 ; P&t. xl). 

6ANTABB0 (pfy. gacchati), That ought to go 
[inifm = ip;] . Sen. K. 503. Neat, used im- 
penonally; Mojfd taitha gtmUMam^ I must go 
there (Ras. 19; Mah. Ill ; Dh. 153). 

GAMTHATl, and GANTHETI, To tie, to connect ; 
Id compose [l|^]> ifanfe ^oiUAtfmdk, composed 
tfsB Vedk hymns (Alw. I cudv). Oanthdpeti, to 
cause to be tied (Pit 74). 

eAtlTHI(M.),Ajoiot; a knot; a tie, bond [H^]- 
Ak 600. Pddag^t^, tibe footjohit, ancle (Ab. 

277). Chfitthipdyo, a snare (Ab. 520). Fedetu 
gaftfhiffhdndmt the knotty points in the Vedas 
(Mah. 29). Tliere is a plant called gaufhi (Mah. 
179). CL Gr. 27 ; Dh. 259, 372. 
GANTHO, A bond, a tie ; a literary composition, 
book [^pq]. Ab. 965, 1006. Ganthd tesam na 
ffyjantif they have no ties (Dh. 38, comp. 17). 
Ctanthadhuraih mpoMonddhuram, harden of study, 
harden of contemplation (Dh. 80). CkmthakdrOf 
a writer, an aothor (B&l. i). Cranthakdratiam, 
authorship (Ab. p. 182). Cfanthato atthatOf 
according to the text, according to the meaning 
(Mah. 252). The Kbnddakanikdya is also called 
KhuddakagatUho. Cfantha is very firequentiy 
written gandha (see GandhOf 2). 

GANTUlEl, GANTVA, see GaechaH. 

GARAHA (y.). Blame, reproof, contempt [^fl(T]* 

Ab. 121 ; Dh. 305. 
GARAHAlJirAA, Blame, contempt [^lll]. 

GARAHATI, To blame, to disparage, to despise 
[ire]. P.p.p. ^loroAito (Dh. 6). P.f.p. ^aroAi- 
tabbo (Sen. K. 577). 

GARAHl (adj.)f Censoring, despbing [if^pi^]* 

Dh. 87. 
GARALAft, The venom of a snake [^T^lf , ^TC?] * 

Ab. 655. 
GARAVATA, Respect (see next). 

GARAVO, Respect, reverence; weight, authority, 
importance [5'«r«-f^, oomp. ifV^]. With 
loc Sdmafiere gdratfo, respect for the novice 
(Dh. 403). Sanghagdravd^ out of reverence for 
the assembled priests (Mah. 196). There are six 
g^vas, respect for Buddha, for the Law, for the 
priesthood, for the sikkhd, for appamddo, for 
pa.<ini«^Ai^ (oomp. ^^aeo). B. Lot. 335; Kb. 
5 ; Mah. 7- In the compound ratanatiayagdravOf 
** reverencing the three gems," Mah. 127, gdrano 
is perhaps an adjective. 

GARAYHO (ii4;.). Contemptible, blamable, low, 
base, absurd [points to a form ^mi|}> comp. Ifl^] . 
Ab. 700, 735 ; CL Gr. 116; Sen. K. 477. 

GARU (o4/0. Heavy; large; weighty, important; 
venerable [^]. Ab. 701, 840. Qwrnm karoH^ 
to respect, to revere, to attach importance to. 
Tampiyakkkinuk garutk Aa/vif, reverencing even 
the yaUchhii (Dh. 403, oomp. Kb. 21). I have 
also met with a pros, garukar&ti. OarukatOf 
revered. Garmkdtabb09 deserring respect. Cram- 




kdrOf respect Cfarudasianamf respectful attention 
(Att 134). Cfarugabbhd, a pregnant woman (Ab. 
239). Crarubhaudam, property held in common 
by a community of priests, as lands, tanks, 
crockery, opposed to parikkkdro, "personal re- 
quisites" (Att. 142). At Mah. Ill occurs a neut. 
nominative garum ; bhdtuno vaeanam garvm, my 
brother's word is imperative (the Ind. Off. MS. 
reads gurum). In prosody a long syllable is 
called garu, ** heavy" (Kb. 21). See Guru. 

GARU (fn.)y A parent ; a teacher, a religious pre- 
ceptor [^]. Ab. 840; Sen. K. 615; Dh. 107. 
Lokaguru, teacher of the world, Buddha (Ab. 3). 
QarutthdnikOf holding the place of a teacher. 

GARU (m.), A bird's wing [ir^]. Ab. 627. 

GARUGABBH ATA (/.), Pregnancy [lj^-|- in| -h 
JP;]. Dh. 154. 

GARUKO (adj,). Heavy ; severe ; serious, grievous ; 
weighty, important [^nH]* Dando garuko^ 
heavy punishment (Dh. 55). Garuko dbddho^ 
severe illness (Dh. 25). Garukdni kammdniy im- 
portant ecclesiastical acts (P&t. 02). Garuko 
iokghabhedOf it is a grievous sin to create discord 
in the priesthood (Dh. 145 ; P6t.zzxi). In gram- 
mar a long syllable is called g, (Sen. K. 505). As 
the last part of a compound : Dhammagaruko, 
revering the Law (Dh. 87); NahdnagarukOf 
attaching great importance to bathing (Alw. I. 
93) ; Rdpagarukd esd, this woman thinks a grtat 
deal of her appearance (Dh. 315). 

GARULO, A Garu4a bird [^IREl]. Ab. 633; 
Sen. K. 335. The Gamlas are a gigantic race of 
birds, ever at war with the N%as (Man. B. 44). 

GATADDHI (a4/.)> ^^^ whose journey is ended, 
who has reached his destination [ifTf + '^R^Pt. + 
T^]* Figuratively, of an Arahd (Dh. 17). 

GATASATT0(a4;.),Lifeless [inT + ^6r^].Das.31. 

GATHA (/.), A verse or stanza [imTT]- Ab. 1090. 
This word generally means a Cloka or Anush^ubh 
stanza (comp. Dh. 82, 86^ 89, 95; F. Jdt 18). 
Catuppadd gdthd or catuppadikd gdthd^ a gdth4 of 
four half-lines, a complete 9loka (Ras. 18, ^. 
Gdihd or gdthaik is the fourth of the nine Angus, 
or divisions of the Scriptures according to subject- 
matter. It comprises Dhammapada, Therag^thd, 
TheHg6th&, and those portions of Suttanipdta 
which are unmixed verse, and do not bear the 
title of Stttta (B. Int. 53, 56, 57; B. Lot. 729; 

Alw. 1.61 ; E. Mon. 172). Gdihdpadmh, a stansa 
(Dh. 19). 

GATI (yi). Going, journey, march; course; refuge, 
resting-place, abode ; way of turning out, lesnlt, 
issue, consummation ; mode of re-birth after death, 
state of existence, future state, destiny ; re-birth, 
transmigration, existence; good state, safely, 
happiness; discretion, prudence, wisdom [l|f?|]. 
Ab. 395, 793. Dve gatiyo bhauMmti^ two coarBes 
or careers are open to Idm (B. Lot. 581). N'ev 
ta»8a gatim ndgatimjdndma, we know not whether 
he is in safety or not (Dh. 206). jittd hi atimio 
gati, for self is the refuge of self (Dh. 68). Qs^ 
9atisahito, endowed with ^scretion and intdligenoe 
(Alw. I. 112). There are five gatis or states of 
existence into which a being may be re-bom oa 
death, they are nirayo, tvracckdnaymUf pettwutofo, 
numuudf devdj hell, the brute creation, the preta- 
world, men and gods (B. Lot. 377; Dh. 282; 
Man. B. 37 ; at Alw. I. cvii we have mamMakk»t 
devalokOf instead of iimmiiim^ devd). The su gatis 
are the above with the addition of oiurttMikdyo 
(B. Lot. 309). Gati tesam duramnayd, their fiitore 
state cannot be seen, i.e. when they die they vt 
not reborn in another state, but attain Nirvifa 
or annihilation (Dh. 17). Yaua gaivk najdiumti 
devd gandhabbofHdiutidf whose Idture state none 
know of, i.e. he is not re-bom when he dies (Dh. 
74). Gativimuttoy freed from transmigratioo, le. 
having ceased to exist, having attained Nirvifs. 
Cittappasddamattena wgaie gaH uttdmd IMIMt 
by mere fiaith in Buddha the happiest state is 
obtained, i.e. re-birth in one of the deva worids 
(Mah. 177). SubhagaH, re-burth in a deva woiid 
(Mah. 158). GaHpd^kd, <' evil state after death," 
is explained by the commentator to be niraya 
** hell" (Dh. 55, 396). TdMoik updsUcdMk kdgvH 
ko lampardyoy what is the state of these devotees 
after death, what is theur future existence (Dh. 175). 
Caldealdyofk gatiyam hi pdfuno pumiena vpenU 
yathdrueitk gatvkj in this ever-changing existeaoe 
by good works men obtain after death the state of 
being they wish for (Mah. 136). 

GATIMA (a4;.). Having the power of mc^ 
[^rtW»nH]- Cl.Gr.24. 

GATO (ppp- gaechuH), Gone to, reached ; walldBg, 
going ; having come to, having attained ; directed 
to, devoted to, occupied with ; having entered, 
being in, being upon ; departed, gone, disappsBT^ 





[IHI ^ 1|V( ] . with ace. gdmaik goto, gone to 
the village (a. Gr. 79> With daLgdmasgagato, 
gone to the Tillage (Sen. K. 329). OdmagaU, 
gone to the village (CI. Gr. 79). UjJMgato, walking 
uprightly (Dh. 20). Yathdkammaih goto, passed 
mway aeeording to his deeds, viz. was reborn in 
that gatif or state of existence, which his deeds 
had merited (F. Jat. 8). ChUagaiaveldyaj when- 
ever he went there (Das. 90). Ten* dyoimatd 
gui^ataffhdne, at every place reached by the 
venerable man. Tkeraaa gamandhan ca gataffhd' 
SM» ea jMyOf having ascertained the day of the 
thera's intended joarney and his destination (Mah. 
177). J[%/9ifoe<^iMim^atoffui^^, the path trodden 
by Arahib (Dh. 102). TiMMvdpim gate taemim^ 
when he had gone to the Ussa tank (Mah. 216). 
FmddMm goto, grown up (Att. 202). Fyoiatuim 
gaiOf perished (F. J&t. 18). Yau^ indriydui sama- 
tkiok gaidmi, whose senses are stilled (Dh. 17). 
Ifeifdmam eetthatam gatOf having attained the 
sovereignty of the gods (Dh. 6). Sdkdlagu^gga^ 
tarn gatoy having attained the perfection of all 
virtues (Mah. 10). Parinitthitath goto, completed, 
accomplished (Mah. 2S3). Attano hatthagato, 
passed into his hands (F. J&t. 6). Buddhagatd 
9tUit thoaghts set on B. (Dh. 52). Panjaragaio, 
having entered the cage (Alw. I. xiii). Savana" 
gatam Mmk, like a thorn run into the ear (Att. 
193). Hattkikkhandhagatam eahoiaofk, a thousand 
pieces placed on the back of an elephant (Mah. 45). 
Smbkdgato parUagato, when in a court, when in 
an assembly. Mama vieayagaidmantued, the men 
who inhabit my realm (Att. 206). Qdmagata/ik 
armmagatam vd, stored in the village or in the 
ibrest. jiff hi paiitvdgatam^ the bone dropped and 
mi out (F. J^. 12). Gatamalo, spotless. Gata- 
hhrnyOf fearless (Mah. 159). Neut. gaiaHt, going, 

OATTAA, The body ; a limb [Vm']. Ab. 151, 901 ; 
Ras. 16; Dh. d04. Gattdni pariameatha, bathed 
his limbs (Mah. 33). 

GAVAJO, see Gavajfo. 

GAVAKKHO, A round window, air-hole, buUseye 
[ifWR]. Ab. 216, 948 ; Mah. 57. 

OAVAA, GAVAM, see Go. 

GAVAMPATI (m.). One who owns or herds cattle 

[^ + lfif]- Sen. K. 237. 
OAVASSAKAM^ Cows and horses [lfV+ W + 
11]. Sen. K. 237. 

GAVA YD, and GAVAJO, A species of ox, the Gayal 
or Bos GavsBus [9R^]. Ab. 616; Sen. K. 209. 

GAVELAKAA, Cows and sheep [^ + I[;i9] 

Sen. K. 237. 
GAyESAK0(a4;.), Seeking [9|^+ ^Vl|].Ras.l8 

GAVESANA (/.), Search [ifihr^]- Ab. 428. 
GAVESATI and GAVESETI, To seek [l|^] 

Mah. 45, 223 ; Dh. 121. GaveseaH at Dh. 27 

P.p.p. gavesito (Ab. 753). 
GAVESI (adj.), Seeking [if^f^] . Dh. 18, 44, 64 

GAVEYYO (a<y.), Belongmg to cattle [ift + Jljf] 

Sen. K. 388. 
GAvI (/.), A cow. Ab. 498 ; Dh. 238, 387 ; Sen. K 

236. PI. gdviyo (Dh. 238). See Go. 
GAVO, see Go. 
GAVUTAA, a measure of lengfth = the fourth part 

of a Yojana, a league [^HOfTf] • Ab. 196 ; Dh. 

148, 191 ; B. Lot. 486. Tigdvutaik, three leagues 

(Dh. 98). 
GAVYO (adj.). Bovine \ym\. 
GAYAKO, a singer, chorister [^rnni]- Ab. 902. 
GAYANAA, Singing [iTRPf]. Ab.902. 
GAYATI, To sing [It]. Alw. I. 41; Dh. 85; 

Pdt. xliv. P.p.p. gito. 
GA YATTi (/.), Name of a metre [ifT^nft] . Ab. 417. 
GAYHA, GAYHATI, see Gav>hdH. 
GAYHO (pjf'P' gafihdti). That can be taken, seized, 

grasped [^inir=^]- Indriyaggayho, per- 

ceptible to the senses (Ab. 716). 
GEDHO, Greed, desire (from ira). Kb. 16. 
GEHAA, and GEHO, A house [i)f ]. Ab. 207; 

Dh. 28 ; Mah. 241. Geham gaechati, to go home 

(F. Jdt. 15). 
GELAii^f^AlCr, Sickness, illness (abstract noun 

formed from GildiWy which see). Ab. 323. At 

Mah. 50 it is used for sea-sickness. 

GENPUKO, A ball to play with [i|l^] . Ab. 316. 

GERIKAA, Red chalk [Slf^]. Ab. 610, 817. 

GEYYAA, Mbced prose and verse [i|^=^]. 
Geyyank is one of the nine Angas, or divisions of 
the Tipifaka according to subject-matter or style. 
The term is applied to those Sottas which contain 
an admixture of verse (edbbaih sagdthakam eutta^ 
geyyam) ; I may instance the Sig61ovddasntta, in 
which at intervals the prose text of Buddha's 
exhortation Is repeated or paraphrased in verse. 
B. lut 52, 53 ; E. Mon. 172 ; Alw. I. 61. 

GHACCO (oi^.). To be destroyed [^Gim]- Dh. 45. 





GHAMMATI, To go. According to KacdtyaM 
(Sen. K. 458) a root GH AMM may be Babgtitated 
for im^ throughout the whole conjugation. The 
examples given in the vutti are the imper. forms 
ghammdmi, ghammdhi, ghammatu* I have not 
met with this conjugation elsewhere. 

GHAMMO, Heat; the hot season; sweat [^3Fl}]* 
Ab. 954 ; Mah. 3. Ghammajalam, sweat (Ab.l088). 

GH AlftSATI, To rub, to grmd [ot ] . CI. P. Verbs, 
16 ; Dh. 106. 

GHANACCHAYO (atff.). Deep-shaded, thickly 
wooded [^BPf + 1BfTTr]- Mah. 84. 

GH ANAM, The nose, the organ of smell [^Hlf] . 
Ab. 150 ; a. Gr. 44 ; Man. B. 399, 420. Ghdnam 
is always spelt with the dental it, at Dh. v. 360 all 

. three MSS. have ^^(fnefta. See Ayatanam, Dhdtu, 
Indriyanif Vmhdxtam. 

GHANASARO, Camphor [lf«f + ^TTT]- Ab. 305. 

GHAl^^Aft, Destruction [from fl^]. Dh.30,332. 

GHANO (adj,)y Firm, dense, solid, uninterrupted 
[^fif]. Ab. 707, 820. AtthangulaghatMf eight 
inches thick (Mah. 112). Meghavannapdsdne 
ghane, Meghava^na stones without a flaw (Mah. 
179, or is it ''dark-coloured"?). Man(hi gkano" 
nilehi, with dark-blue gems, i.e. sapphires (Mah. 
258). Ghanatamo, thick darkness (Ab. 72). 
Ghanakarakavassam, a heavy shower of hail (Dh. 
224). Ghanam ghan^pdkanam, thick shoes (Alw. 
I. 93). Ghand cAdyd, dense shade. Ghano and 
ghanam^ a doud (Ab. 47; Mah. 119). Ghano, 
an iron club (Ab. 820). Ghanam, a musical instru- 
ment played by striking, as a cymbal, tambourine, 
bell (Ab. 142, 820). 

GH ANOPALAA, HaU [^R + ^qif] • Ab. 50. 

GHANTA (/.), A bell [tHBrr]. Mah. 128, 164; 
Sen. K. 536. 

GHA^IKO, A ballad singer [^tPCTV]- Ab. 
396 (the reading is ghanthiko). 

GHARAGOLIKA (/.), A house lizard [;jf + 
9frf^9^]. Ab.^21. 

GH ARAKAft, A house [^ + If] . Mah. 23. 

GH ARAA, and GHARO, A house [^] . Ab. 206 ; 
Sen. K. 509. Jlgantvdna sakam gharam^ revisiting 
their old homes (Kb. 11). Sake ghare, at hone 
(Mah. 110; oomp. Alw. I. 75). Pafimdgharam 
bodkigharam, an image house, a bo-tree sanctuary 
(Mah. 235, 236). Gharadvdrofh, house door (Dh. 
241). Gharas^karo, domestic hog (Dh. 401). 
Gharoiappo, a rat-snake (Ab. 652). In the plur. 

Che maac. ghmrd b used. Ghard nin^ppakdrakdp 
buildings of various sorts (Mah. 235). Ammffhd^ 
ttamald ghard, sloth is the bane of a koiu^old 
(Dh. 43, eomp. the meaning of the ^ in Sansk.). 
Durdvd$d ghard, household life is irksome (Dh. 5S^ 
Te wtifafifHttieghmrabandhanenabamihUkmh when 
these young men were grown up thehr paceats got 
them married (Dh. 78). Gomp. Croham, 

GHARANI (/), A wife [ijfflfV]. Ab. S37. 
GHARAvASO, Living in a house or at home, life 

in the world, the householder's or layman's life as 

opposed to the life of an ascetic \Wf + ^Vf^fnTj- 

Dh. 153, 392, 403. 
GHASATI, To eat [tnC]. Alw. 1. 14. 
GHASMARO (adj.). Gluttonous [^^V^]. Ab. 734. 
GHASO, Eating, pasturing ; food, fodder ; meadow 

grass [tnV]. Ab. 465, 602, 1103 ; Att. 193. 

GHAfA (/.), Multitude, many ; junction [^TZT]- 

Ab. 630, 1 128. Hatthighatd, a troop of elephants 

(Ab. 362). 
GHATAKO {adj.). Killing, destroying, murdering, 

sacking [^Cfnni]* Pt^ff^A<f foAw, parricide (Mah. 

15). Gdmaghdtako, plundering villages (Dh. 90). 

Dipaghdtakd damifd, the Tamuls devastators of 

the island. Hamsaghdtako hhikkhu, a priest who 

had killed a hamsa (Dh. 415). 
GH ATAA, Ghee, or clarified butter [ot] . Ab. 499 ; 

Dh. 96 ; Mah. 196. 
GHATANAlJr, Junction [tT^lf]. Ab. 1128. 
GHATANAA, Slaughter [^TTTPT]. Ab. 403. 
GH ATANO {adj.). Destroying [^^FHl] . F. ghdt^ni 

(Mah. 158). 
GHAtAPETI {com. hanii), To cause to be slain. 

Dh. 224 ; Das. 2. 
GHAtAPETI {camt. next). To cause to be united, 

etc. (see Ghateti)* Alw. I. 35. 

GHAfATI, To endeavour, to strive, to exert oneself; 
to join, to adapt [^]. Dh. 210. Bhikkkdeari- 
ydya jMtavutHm ghafamio, devoting his life to 
mendicancy (Dh. 392). 

GHATETI (caiM.last), To join, to unite ; toendeavoor, 

to strive [^ZirfTf > ^TTOTft = ^RQ- Alir. 1.36 ; 
Dh. 195, 286. Kapdidnighatetvd^iiuUingtogfiiier 
again the two halves of the skull (Mah. 245). See 
GHATETI {cans. hanH), 1V> kill, to caase to kUl 

[^Prafn=f^]. I>h. 24, 72; Mah. 150; P. 
J&t. 18. 




GHATl(/.XAjar[^i^]. Ab.457- 
OHAH (adj.). Killing [^Tfif^]. Sen. K. 612. 
SmHugkdii, kiUiog his foes (Gl. Gr. 29). Bhdiu^ 
gMUmi, his brotlier's murderess (Mah. 2S0). 

GH ATIKA (/.), The sixtieth part of a day and night, 
twenty-four minutes [Mf^'^l] • Ab. 74 ; CI. Gr. ^. 
One of the games enumerated in Brahma J&la S. 
Is ghafikdy it is thus explained in the comment, 
gkatikd H vuceati dighadaftdakena roModan^O' 

GHATIKO {adj,). Mixed with clarified butter 
[^ifliNl]. a. Gr.89. 

GHATITO {p.p.p. ghdteH)y Slain [^enflfTT+ 1^] - 
Mah. ISa 

GHATlYANTAft, The rope and bucket of a well 
[^ + ^W]. Ab.624. 

GH ATO, A jar, a bowl \yri\ • Ab. 457 ; Dh. 250. 

GH ATO, Slaughter, destruction \y(XH\ - Ab. 403 ; 
Mah. 158, 218. 

GHATTANAA, Touching, knocking, rubbing, 
BbAking [Hflf]. Dh. 367 ; Mah. 157. 

GHATTEn, To touch ; to shake ; to speak spitefully 
to, to annoy; to join [^B|7]« Ghantaih gh,, to 
ring a bell (Mah. 128 ; Ind.'Off. MS. has ghaten). 
Ohmffento rdfakufidctUmt, grazing the king's 
earring (Mah. 156). BhikkM durattavacanehi 
ghaffeuto, annoying the priests with harsh words 
(Mt. 69). Nimittath ghafteHj joins the boundary 
(Mah. I0a).Dh.283, 351 . P.p.p.^Aa^.ei7o(Mah.lOO). 

GHATUKO(<M;^\),Mischieyons,destructiYe [^EHTpi] • 

Ab. 731. 
GHAVANIYO {adj.). Odorous. 
GHAYATI, T6 smell [TTT] - F- J&t. 53. 
GHEPPATI, T6 take \JPS(} . Alw. 1. 20 ; Sen. K.455. 

GHORO {adj.). Dreadful, terrible [wIT] - Ab. 167 ; 
Mah. 14. 

GHOSANA (/.), Sounding, proclaiming [^ft^lirr]- 
Ab. 117. 

GHOSANO {adj.), Soundmg [l^t^W]- ^n- K.473. 

GHOBAVA (a4^)> Sounding, sonant [V^l^^^^]. ^' 
The aooant letters are g, gh, n,J,Jh, n, e^a, ^ha, 
m d, dh^ %, b, hh, m, y, r, I, v, h, or the medi», 
the medi» aspiratB^ the nasals, and the liquids 
(Sen. K. 202). 

OHOSEn, and GHOSAPETI (eaw.). To shout, to 
pndalm [cans. ^[^]. Bhaitakdlam gho$dpeH, 
tia seCiq^ the call of refisedon, i.e. to proclaim that 
the meal Is ready (see Mah. 195). Dhdtupatitfhd' 

nam ghos^M, having proclaimed tl^at the relic 
was going to be enshrined (Mah. 107). Dhamma" 
moanam ghaaeii, to proclaim (shout) that the 
preaching is going to begin, to sound the church 
call (Dh. 290 ; Mah. 81). P.p.p. gharito, ghotdpito 
(Dh. 290 ; Mah. 81). 

GHOSO, Sound, noise ; rumour ; voice ; a village of 
herdsmen [^t^]. Ab. 128, 226, 1081. Samudda- 
gho90, the roaring of the sea. Ghowpi so tattha 
n' atthi, they have not even been heard of there 
(Alw. I. 76). 

GHOTAKO, A sort of horse [ift?^] • Ab. 370. 

GHUTTHO (p.p.p.). Shouted, proclaimed [^ = 
^ff^]. Pat. xvi. 

GIDDHi (adj.), Greedy [^fV^]. Fern, giddhini 
(Mah. 43). 

GIDDHO {atff.). Greedy [^, ^]. Ab. 729. 
Giddha appears to be also a noun, as at Sen. K. 
327 we have Idbhagiddhena, " through greed of 
gain.'' Comp. Gaddhe and Gijjho. 

GIHI (m.), A householder ; a layman as opposed to 
a priest [^f\|^] Ab. 446. Gihijand, laymen 
(Mah. 173). Hierassa gihikdle, when the thera 
was a layman (Dh. 199). GihibMto, being or 
having been a layman (Dh. 333). Gihibhdvo, state 
of being a layman (Dh. 411). 

GIJJHATi, To be greedy [^]. 

GIJJHO, A vulture. Ab. 637- Gyjhakdfo,*' The 
Vulture's 'Peak,'' name of a mountain near R&ja- 
gaha (Ab. 606 ; Dh. 365^ 427 ; B. Lot. 287). 
Gijjha probably represents the S. ^9, through 
an intermediate step gjidbya, the r passing into y ; 
the S. WSBf has perhaps created confusion. Comp. 
Craddho and CHddho., 

GILANAKO (adj.), m [Wl^ + ^]- Hah. 23. 

OILAl^ (p.p4f.). Sick, ill {JWm = ^] • Ab. 322. 
Neut. gildnam, illness. Bdfhogildno, seriously ill 
(Dh. 97). CfUdnamanee nipqjJUvd, having lain on 
the bed of uekuess* CHidnapaccayo, a medical 
requisite, i.e. drugs, or food adapted to sickness 
(E. Mon.81). Dfa.34L 

GILATI, To devour, to swaUow [v] . a. Gr. 129 ; 
Dh. 66, 421. P4).p. gilito (Ab. 757). 

GIMHANA]£r, The hot season. Ab. 78 ; P&t. 11, 15 ; 
Att^ 10. Gimhdaamd9e pathamatmim, in the first 
month of the hot season (Kb. 9). 

GIMHO, The hot season, summer [^ifV^]. Ab.80; 
Db. 51, 387. Gimhakdle, in the hot weather, in 




Bammer (Ras. 90). PL gimhd, the hot season 
See Utu. 
GINOAMAKAA, a sort of ornament. Ab. 289. 

OINI (in.), Fire [^rf^]. Ab. 34. Comp. jiggi and 

GI J^JAKA (/.), A tile, a brlek. Ab. 220. 

OIRA (/.), Voioe,utterance, speech [fiT^] . F. J&t.l8. 
GIRI (m.), A mountain [fiff^]. Ab. 006. Giri- 
kandard, a mountain cave (Dh. 191). 

GIRIKAI^I (/.), The plant Clitoria Ternatea 
[fi|(\Hlff] . Ab, 584, 

GIRIMALLIKA (/.), The plant Wrightia Anti- 
dysenterica [f3|(\ -f Hf^lll]. Ab. 573. 

GIRIMEKH ALO, Name of Mdra's elephant [firf^ 
+ ^^iWr] . Ab. 44 ; Man. B. 172. 

GiTAJil, Singing, a song, or hymn [lf^=^]. 
Ab. 130 ; Dh. 85 ; Mah. 213. Qitavdditam, vocal 
and instrumental music (Kb. 3)- ThuHtiiqngO' 
lagitehit with hymns of praise and joy (Mah. 99). 

GITIKA (/.), A song [4Vf?RIT]. Ab. 130. 

GiVA (/.), The neck, the throat; debt [^A^]- 
Ab. 263, 1129 ; F. Jit. 53 ; Mah. 48. 

GlVATTHI (n.), The collar-bone [^^ + ^9%]. 
Mah. 4. 

GIVEYYAA, a neck ornament, necklace [^^Tf]. 
Ab. 285. 

-GO, and -QU (adj.). Going ; being [if]. Only at 
the end of a compound word, e.g. Sildeethfathd' 
nagOf going to the site of the Sil&oetiya (Mah. 7), 
toyago, floating on the water (Mah. 63), addhag^^ 
going a journey. Comp. Anugo^ Atigo, HaitAago, 
Mtyjhago, Samipago, PdragA, 

GO (m. and/.), A bull, a bullock, an ox ; a cow (/.) ; 
the earth (/.). ; speech (/.) [ift]. Ab. 181, 495, 
498, 869. Go vajjho mya, like an oz led to the 
slaughter (Das. 35). Ace. gavam gdtmth^ gdvath. 
lustr. givena. Gen. and dat. gimuaa. Abl. gSvd, 
gavasmd. Loc gUve, gUvasmim. PI. giifo (Dh. 
4, 25). Instr. and abl. pi. gohi. Gen. and dat. pi. 
gunnam (Dh, 151), gawm (Ab. 496), gonath. 
Loc. pi. gaveau, gam. For these forms see Q. Gr. 
35 and Sen. K. 235-239. There is also in P41i a fem. 
gdvi, " cow " (Ab. 496 ; Dh. 238, 387). The bases 
used in composition are gava-, and go-, 

GOCARIYO (adj.), Brown, reddish. Fit. 9, 80. 

GOCARO, Pasture; food, prey; abode, resort; 
sphere, range, province; an object of sense, as 
form, sound [4)x|^]. Ab. 94; F. Jdt. 37. 

CrocorodAi^i, pasture ground. Goearatk coram, 
browsing (Mah. 120, of an dephant» comp. Dh. 
114). Gdffo pdeeti gocarmkj drives the cows to 
the pastures (Dh. 25). Qoeardya gtUe Hhe^ when 
the lion had gone to seek for prey (Mah. 44). 
€heardya earantd, seeking food (F. JiX, 17, of 
geese). Chi^hUvd gocarmh Mo^ the lion haviiig 
eaten his prey (Mah. 43, comp, Dh. 114). €iok 
uddhum4yi gocaram gafthHum na oakkoH, his 
throat swelled, he is unable to eat (F. Jit. 12, of a 
lion). Attano attano gocayaffhdne goearmk 
gahetvd, obtaining their food each in his own 
hnnting-sgrouod (F, Jdt. 52, the monkey goes to 
the forest, the jadud to the field-watcher's hnt, 
and so on). Migd Hfuigocard, doer that feed on 
gprass (Mah. 33). Qoearo as opposed to agocero 
means ''lawful resort," a place which a priest is 
allowed to frequent in quest of alms, as the houses 
of pious or philanthropic laymen (E. Mon. 71; 
Dh. 269). PdpdearhfogocarOf freqnenilng wicked 
teachers. Rdjagaham mahdgocaram appears to 
mean " Rijagaha is a place of great resort," or 
perhaps " a place of great food resonroes." A^'«- 
gaham gQcaragdmam katvd, making R. his place 
of resort for alms. Chcara is thai whereby any* 
thing is limited, wherein it abides, lives, moves, 
or expatiates, or upon which it operates, its sphere, 
domain, range, function, object, attributes. Tbos, 
Form is the goeara of the eye. Ideas or Knowledge 
the goeara of the mind, Omnisdenoe the ^oeors 
of Buddha's mind. The following are examples. 
Aham jd ganthakdrattaHi patto vibudhagocartuk, 
I also have achieved authorship, the appanage of 
the wise (Alw. I. x). Sukhumandfutgocard timHt 
that book which treats of abstruse knowledge. 
Te sdram nddhigacehanti micchdiankappagocmi, 
they never arrive at the tnith, for they follow vain 
thoughts, lit. false thoughts are their sphere 
(Dh. 2). Vtmohho yaasa gocaro, whose sphere 
is emancipation, i.e. Kle<;aDirvd9a or Arhatship 
(Dh. 17). ArUfdnaidi gocare raid, rejoicing in 
the life of the saints (Dh. 5, here goeara is applied 
to (he assemblage of all the attributes, qualities, 
and states which constitute Arhatship or ibal 
sanctification). Anantagocaro, whose sphere is 
the Infinite (Dh. 33, of a Buddha) ; here the com- 
ment says anantdrammafUMa sabbafmmiandfuttm 
voiena apariyantagocarark, ''whose domain or 
range is unlimited, by reason of his omnisdenoe. 




tiie materials of which are infinite," Oocara is 

allied in meaning to Awicara and to Arammai^, 
GOGCELAKO, A bnnch or daster, a duster of 

blossoms [^^4]- Ab. 545. 
GODH A {f-)y An iguana, a very large sort of lizard 

[Wt^] . Ab. 022 ; F^ J&t. 53 ; Mah. 106. 
GODHANAA, Property in cattle [ift + V^l^ 
GODHOMO, Wheat [lit^]. Ab. 450. 
GOOHATAKO, a oow*killer [ifV + ^TRra] • Sen. 

K. 501 ; Ph. 368. 

GOKAJ^O. A large spedes of deer, caUed dli in 
Ceylon; a span [^ + li^]. Ab. 267* 612 ( 
Mab. 141. 

GOKANTAKO, The hoof of an ox ; the plant Asfiera- 
canthaLongifolia [jHh i I^^] . Ab. 583 (aongb's 
edition has t). Bhinni kkard gokaftfakdhatd^ the 
groond is rongh, trampled by the feet of cattle 
(AJw. L 03, the comment says gunnam khnrehi 
aklumiabh^hniU 9am%tthUehi kapfakehi upahatdf 
"spoilt with sharp dods risen np from places 
trodden by the hoofs of cattle"). 

GOKHlRAlEr, Cow's mUk [^ + ^h;] • 01. Or. I2i. 

GOKULAA, a catfle-shed, a stable for cows [ift + 
^]. Ab. 190. 

GOLAKO, A ball or lump [lftW1«] . Ab. 1017r 

GOLIKO (a4/.). Prepared with molasses [ifVfl^]. 
Sen. K. 390. Cfpfiko, a sugar seUer (Sen. K. 391). 

GOLISO, Name of a plant [^ftf^T!* ^H^C]* 
Ab. 563 (Clough's edition has goligo). In his 
Sinih. Diet. Cloogh gives golisa and golika, 

GOfX), A ban [iftll]. Ab. 1088 ; Mah. 175. 

GOLOMi (/.), Name of sereral plants [J^^lf)]. 
Ab. 584 ( = vacd), 500 (white dtMd). 

GOMA (jw.), a cattle owner [ift^VHT]. Ab. 405. 

Fern. gomatU gamanti (Sen. K. 306). 
GOMAYO, and -YAA, Cowdung [iftiHT]- Ab. 

480. Sukkhdm gomaydnif dried cowdnng (Alw. 

GOMIKO, A catUe owner [iftflr^ + ^] • Ab. 405. 
GONAKO, A wooUen coverlet with a very long 

fleece. Ab. 312 ; B. Lot. 360, 370. A few MSS. 

read m but I think n is the right spdling. The 

comment on Brahma J&la S. says gonako H digha* 

/•wains tmahdkqjavOf caturangulddhikdni kira 

tmMta lomdnL 
GONANGULO, The blaclc-faced monkey [aft + 

VTTfi]- Ab.614. 
GONASO,Akjndoflargesnake [ift+lRBr]. Ab.651. 

QOTjlO, A bullock, an ox. Ab. 405; B. Lot 370; 

F. Jdt. 0, 32; Sen. K. 238. 
GOPAKHUMO (adj.). Having eydashes Uke a 

hdfer [iff + ^>nir>(.]- B. Lot 564. 
GOPAKO, A cowherd [ift^^]- Mah. 115. 
GOPAKO, One who guards or takes care of [fr. caus. 

9|t(^]. ir&0^a^cyEMiA(o, a fidd-wateber (F. Jdt 53). 

Hatthigopako, an dephanfs keeper (Ab. 367). 

Mangalavdhino gopako, the groom of the royal 

charger (Mah. 134). 
GOPANASi, The A shaped rafters of the roof of a 

but [TftinvF^] . Ab. 221 ; Mah. 245. Gopdna- 

givanko, as crooked as a g. rafter (Dh. 315). 
GOPATI (»!.), A buU [Jft + trfn]. Sen. K. 237. 

To guard, to keep, to protect [^p^ - Sen. K. 433 ; 

Dh. 56; Mah. 17, 260. P.p.p. gutto, gopito, 

gop^ito (Ab. 754). 
GOPO, A cowherd, a herdsman [ift^f]- Ab. 495 ; 

Dh. 4, 151. 
GOPPH AKO, The ande [l|^^ + ^] . Ab. 277, 864 ; 

Dh. 148, 266, 284. 
GOPPHO, The ande [l|^^] . Mah. 212. 
GOPURAA, a gate, a town gate ; the towers or 

battlemento over the gates of a fortified town, a 

wateh-tower [ift + Y^]. Ab. 204, 1065 ; Mah. 

152, 222 ; Alw. I. x. 
GOPURAfTHO (Mff.), Standing on the battlemente 

['ilTC + ^]- Mah. 152. 

GORAKKHA (/.), Cow-keephig [ift + X:^]- 
Ab.446; Kb. 11 ; Dh. 181. 

GORAKKHO, a cowherd [^ + T^]. 

GORASO, Produce of the cow [^ + ^] . Five 
are enumerated, khiram, dadhi, ghataiky takkam, 
navanitam, milk, curds, ghee, buttermilk, butter 
(Ab.501). Dh. 151,238. 

GORO (<i4;.), White [^]. Ab.05. 

GOSALA (/), A cow*stable [ift + ^TTfrr]- 

GOSAMIKO, a cattle owner [ijt + ^TlfiP^ + M] • 
Dh. 151. 

GOSANKHYO, A cowherd [ift + ^SNT]- Ab. 405. 

GOSISAA, a kind of sandal wood [iJt + lfH]. 
Ab. 301. 

GOTAMO (at^.)f Descended from or bdonging to 
Gotama, a Gantema or Gotomid [iftlTf ]- F^m. 
gotam{(Cl. Gr. 40).—Gdkyamuni is called Gaiamo 
Buddho, and tamafto Cfotamo (the ascetic of the 
Gantema family). The origin of the name is 
uncertidn. Bnmouf says, " He was called Crama^a 




Gantamay or the'Gotaimd Moetic, no doabt became 
Gaatama was the saeerdotal family name of the 
mUitaiy race of ^^ikyat, who behkg Kihattriyas had 
no ancestor or tutelar saint like the Brahmans, bat 
mighty as tlie Hindu law permits, have taken the 
name of the sage to whose fionily belonged their 
spiritual goide*(Intr. 155). dough says/'Gautama» 
the nameof Buddha, which he took from his teacher, 
a celebrated sage, and supposed by some to be the 
founder of the fiiyA philosophy" (t). It would 
i^pear that all the C4kyas of Kapilavastu bore 
the name of Gautama, so that the phrases Gotama 
Buddha and Samara Gotama merely indicated 
the family from which the Buddha sprang (see B. 
Int. 155, note). — Qotamo Buddho, Gautama 
Buddha (Mah. 2). Chfiamo ndma buddho^ a Buddha 
named Gaatama (Dh. 117, 135). €Mamo Buddho 
ndma uppajfiatati^ one named Gautama Buddha 
shall be bom (Dh. 190). Unconverted bridimine 
in addressing Buddha called him simply Gautama 
{bho Qaiama, see Bh&vddf). Buddha is sometimes 
spoken of by believers as bhaoam ChtamOf ** the 
venerable Gautama (see Bhavam), B. Lot. 883 ; 
Sen. K. 387; Gl. Gr. 134. 
GOTRABHC (m,), One who is in a fit state to 
receive sanctificatlon ; a priest [Wt^ + ^]. I am 
indebted to Sabh6ti for several extracts explanatory 
of tiik term. In its first sense It means ** one 
whose mind is in that state of strong Illumination 
which immediately brings alM>ut the attainment 
of sotipattimagga.'* Buddha's words are quoted 
as follows, kaiamo ea pn^ggdlo gotrabh& f yesam 
dhammdnam 9ammumtard ariymdhamma$»a ova* 
kkoMii hoH tehi dhammehi tammmdg^ato puggalo 
gotrabM^ ** who is the gotrabhd ? the man who is 
in possession of those conditions upon which 
the commencement of sanctification immediately 
ensues, he is the gotrabhd.^ Here the gotra is 
explained by the commentator to mean Arhatship, 
But gotrabhd may also mean simply a priest or 
monk, as appears fhMn the following words of 
Buddha, ihavi$B4tmH kho pan* Ananda andgaiath 
addhdnam goitrahhuno hdadvakaf^fhd dnt&Odpdpa^ 
dhammdt *<the day will come when priests who 
wear the yellow robe shall be vicious and sinners." 
Here gotra is said to mean ^ma^agotra, the 
family or liratemity of Buddhist monks. Hardy says, 
** The wisdom necessary for the reception of the 
paths is caUed gairabh^nd^ " (£. Mon. 281, 282). 

GOTTAli)[, Family, lineage; family name [ijtw]- 
Ab. 832, 1000; Dh. 70. Ootiena Goiamo, by 
family a Gotamid (CI. Gr. 134). Kauopo goitato 
jinot a Buddha whose fkmily name was KA^yaps 
(Mah. 03). 

GOTTHAlfir, A cattie-shed, cow-stable [iftv]. 
Ab. 190. 

GOVINDO, A cattle owner, a head herdsman 
[;^ftf^, or li\^]. Ab. 496; Sen. K. 237. 

GOYUTHAA, Aherdof cattie [^ + ^Qir] • Dh.203. 

4}0, see -Go. 

GUDAlEl, The anus [^] . Ab. 274. 

GUGGULU (n.). Bdellium, a fragrant gum [^JT^] . 

Ab. 657. 
GUHA (/.), A cave; the heart [^[^]. Ab. 009. 

Lion's den (Mah. 44; F. Jdt. 47). 
GUH ASAYO (a4;,), Whose seat is the heart [^JfT + 

J[^\ . Sidd of dtta^ ** the thoughts " (Dh. 7). 

GCHETI (cotM.), To conceal [^QPlfH <^^* ^1* 
Alw. I. 36. 

GULA (f,)f A pock, a pimple [^TWT]* 

GU^AKO; A ball [ipfli]. JHA^faA^o, a baU for 
playing with (Mah. 141). 

GULAPHALO, The tree Careya Arborea [^ + 
XSrn]' Ab. 554. 

GCLHO (pP'P')$ Secret, concealed [m=V!|]. 
Ab. 746. G(S/Aap«riM, a spy (Ab. 347). At Mah. 
71 devdnathpiyavacano gdfhandmo, is rendered by 
Tumour, ''bearing the profoundly significant title 
of Dev&nam Piya." 

QVlilKllil (/.), Game of bafl [l[liY + iAYT]. 
Oufikilafk kifati, to play at ball (Dh. 139). 

GU^O, Molasses, sugar ; a ball, a globe ; a ball or 
mouthful of food [ipi]. Ab. 462, 1088. Ayogal* 
and lohagufo, a ball of iron (Dh. 54, 66). Pmppha- 
gufo, a bunch of flowers, a bouquet (Dh. 172). 
Ldkhdgufo, a round lacquered box (Alw. I. 75). 
Gufayaniam, a sugar-mill (Mah. 208). Oa/o- 
tafidulo, sweetmeats (Mah. 248). €h»iapdoak9, a 
sweet cake. (htlapdadPMko^ a round stone (Mah. 
160). Qt^apif^, a lump of sugar (Dh. 281). 

GUMBAKO, Jungle [im -I- M] . Mah. 64. 

GUMBO, A bush, a thicket, brushwood, jungle; 
a multitude, quantity ; an array of troops [^Rl]" 
Ab. 550, 631, 861. Kaf^fakagumbo, a thorn- 
brake. Qumbatthdnaihy a jungly place (Mah. 64). 
Gumbo tipidhiam, a thicket of grass and such like 
(Ab. 454). F. J&t 52, 53, 54 ; Mah. 120. 



OUVAVl (a4f.), EzceUent, virtaons [^f^^Ht]. 

Alw. I. ziii ; Sen. K. 245. Fern, gufutvaii, gufut' 

OUNDA (/), The grwn Cyperiu PertemuB, or ito 

root [^^]. Ab. 509. 
OUVITO Cp4»^.)* Maltiplied [^|flini = ^] • Sen. 

QVfijA. (/.), The thrab Abras Precalorias ; the 
imaDest jeweller's weight, eqoal to a berry of the 
guSii shrab [fur] • Ab. 479, 585. 

OUiyi YO, and GU^ITTHO, Better, and best. Com- 
parative and superlative of gufuiod (Sen. K. 315). 

GUyO, A string ; a bow-stiing ; a time ; a quality, 
p ro per ty , diaracteristic ; good quality, merit, 
efficacy, virtue ; ezoellence, piety [^If] . Ab. 388, 
787, 787. MuitdgMfio, a string of pearls (Ab. 1116). 
Sattagu^f seven-fold (Mah. 152). Dasaguf^m^ 
tea times (Ab. 477). JH^fMtk raiandHam guftam 
pmkdaetvot proclaiming the virtues of the three 
gems (Dh. 309). Kaio gufuf, a good deed done 
(F. J4t. 14 ; oomp. Alw. I. 107). Gunabh^iaanOf 
haWng virtue for his ornament (Alw. I. z). 
Tefofavagu^, the qualities of dignity and speed 
(Mah. 137). Bmddktigund, the attributes of Buddha 
(Alw. I. 77). Gufuikiithdf eulogium, exposition 
of a person's good qualities. 

GU^HEn, To ensnare ; to cover [^pOTj . 

GUNTHIKO, see Ahiguf^fhiko, 

GURU (odJ.)t Heavy [^n] . Masc. guru, a teacher 
PL guraw. This form is rare, and I have not met 
with it In any undoubtedly ancient text. The 
nsnal form in P^ is garu, which see. The foil. 
are references for guru : Gl. Or. 80, 127 ; Alw. I. xv ; 

GURUVARO, Thursday [lp| + ^TTC]. 

GOTHAft, and GOTHO, Excrement [^]- Ab. 
274; Bas. 44; B. Lot. 384. One of the hells is 
called gifihanirayo (Dh. 408). 

GUm (/.), Keeping, guarding [9|f7]. Mah. 242. 
MmdrhfogutHj keep watch over the senses (Dh. 67). 

GUl*rO {p»p*p» gcpati). Preserved, protected; 
guarded, hidden [^=ft^. Ab. 746, 754. 
Imdrijfeiu guttadvdro^ keeping the door of the 
senses. Dhammana guito, protected by the Law 
(Db.46). Dh.7,56. 

OUTHAKO, A dass of demigods (devayimi) who 
aie attendants of Kuvera [^{V^]- Ab. 13. 

GU YHAtir, A secret; pudendum [^pP = ^]- 
Ab. 36% 1051 ; B. Let 572. 



HA, An emphatic particle, the Sanskrit 9, some- 
times used after Iti (which see). 
Hk (interj.), Ahl oh! alas I [fl]- Ab.ll59,120L 
H ADAYAGO (adj.). Going to the heart, vital [f^ 
+ ^]. Ab. 945. 

HADAYALC (ai&'.),Good-hearted, kind [fipOTV] • 
Ab. 722. 

HADAYAft, The heart; the mind; the breast 
[f^]. Ab. 152, 270. Hadayena phalUena 
kdlatk katvdf dying of a broken heart (Dh. 109, 
comp. Mah. 247). Hadayath mamt^ eu, the heart 
and mind (Das. 7). Karupfya kampitahadayo, 
his heart moved with compassion (Att 205). 
Hadayavatthu, the substance of the hearty the 
heart of flesh (Ab. 852 ; Man. B. 399). 

HADAYANGAMO {a^\). Going to the heart, 
touching, affectionate, kind [fl^^^lRf]. Ab. 125. 


HADAYl (adj.). Benevolent, kind [lll[f^]. 

Ab. 722. 
HAJJO (adj.). Dear, beloved, pleasant [TV]* 

HALAHALO, A sort of poison [fmfll]* Ab. 655 ; 

F. Jdt. 60. 
HALAA, This is another form of AlaiiL Halani 

ddni pakdiiiturk, no use to proclaim (Alw. N. 98 ; 

Gog. Ev. 6). €1. Gr. 74. 
HAL A A, A plough [fir]. Ab.449. Halapaddhati, 

a furrow (Ditto). 
H ALIDDA (f.)y Turmeric [f (\ ' ^ f ] • Comp. Ab. 586. 
H ALIDDO (a4;.), YeUow [fTf^] • Sen. K. 392. 
HALIDYABHO (atff.), Yellow [ffTif + 'WHT]. 

Ab. 97, 1008. 
HAMBHO (interf.). Here Isirrah ! [!|lt]. Ab.ll39. 

Hambho dubMniia, how now, you rascal ! (Dh. 299). 

Comp. AwtbJU, 
HAMMIYAlt A house [fi^]. Ab. 208 ; Kamm. 9. 
HAASIYATI (pai8.). To bristle [from f^]. Sen. 

HA](fSO, A goose, a swan [fV]* Ab.646; Dh. 17, 

32 ; F. Jdt. 16, 17. 
HANAM, Relinquishing, falling away from [^FV]' 

B. Lot. 791. 
HANANAA, Killiag, destroying; reqioving [fiR]. 

Ab. 403 ; Mah. 14. 




HANAPETI {emu. hanH), To cause to be killed. 

Sen. K. 436. 
HANATI» see Hanti. 
HANDA (intety.). Gome ! alas ! [fin]. Ab. 1193. 

Honda nath handtna, oome let us kill him (Alw. 

I. 72). Honda ca ddninunfafh bhanie gacchdma^ 

and now, lord, I depart Handdham hatacakkhu 

*9m, alas I I am blind (Dh. 86). 
H ANETI (caw. hanti). To cause to be killed. Sen. 

K. 436. 
HANI (/.), Abandonment ; loss, diminution, decay, 

deterioration [fTf^]. Ab. 1129; B. Lot« 649. 

Hdniih duvdna sattdnam, seeing^ that men were 

falling away from true religion (Mah. 207}- 

HA](}^ATI, see Hantu 

HANTA (m.). One who strikes or kills [fij[]. 
Dh. 70). 

HANTI, To strike, to beat j to kill, to murder ; to 
destroy, to put an end to, to remove [f^ ] • Pipdsam 
hanivd, having quenched my thirst (Has. 22). Bha^ 
yam sitam tatnam teMom hantvd, having removed 
their fear, cold and darkness (Mah. 3). Pres. 3rd 
sing, hanti (Bh. 13, 72, 332), perhaps also hanati 
(see Sen. K. 501, 502), pi. honanH (Dh. 64). 
Imperat. 2nd pers. pi. handma (Alw. 1. 72). Aor. 
ahani, hani, avadhi (Sen. K. 502). hananto 
(Has. 27). Inf. hantum, hanitum (Sen. K. 503). 
Ger. hantvd, hanitvd, hantvdna, hantdna (Dh. 52, 
390 ; Sen. K. 502). — Pass. hannatL Kur^aro 
dantesu hmhate, the elephant is kiUed for his 
tusks (Sen. K. 349). Pass, imperat. hmnatu, let 
him be killed. P.f.p. hantabbo, hamtabbo (Sen. 
K. 503 ;* Alw. I. 72). P.p.p. hato. Cans, hanetiy 
handpeti, ghdteti, ghdtdpeti. 

HANU(/.),Thejaw[f^]. Ab. 262. 

HANUTI, To conceal oneself [v]. With dat. 
Hanute mayhath eva, he hides from me(Sen.K.327). 

HAPETI (caus. Jahdti), To dismiss, to forego, to 
forsake ; to neglect ; to lose ; to omit [f IM^Pl = 
^]. Attadatthaik na hdpaye, let him not forego, 
or neglect, his own spiritual good (Dh. 30). ^Siei 
iihdpetvdy having omitted nothing (F. Jit. 13, 
comp. Mah. 214). 

HARAKO, One who takes [fT^]. P4t. 3, 87. 

Asante hdrake, if there be no one to carry it 

(Pdt. 10). 
HARAlS^Aft, Removal; taking; stealing [f^lll]- 

E. Mon« 283 ; Kb. 14. 

HARAPETI (caus. next). To cause to be removed. 
F. Jit. 8. 

HARATI, To carry, to convey, to bring ; to carry 
away, to remove; to take, to seize; to steal, to 
plunder ; to bring, to offer ; to charm [|[] . Kb. 13. 
Satthu santikafh haritvd, having brought it to the 
Teacher (Dh. 106). Bhayam vo dukkkm ea 
harisBdmi, I will remove your fear and suffering 
(Mah. 3). Imani pattfMik haritvd tassa dehi, take 
this letter and deliver it to him (Alw. I. 101). 
Harantd rdjino maitasM, captivating the mind of 
the king (Mah. Ixxzvii). Hareyya pdnifid visam, 
he might handle poison (Dh. 23). Dve hadud 
kacchapam dafidakena haranti, two geese are 
carrying along a tortoise with a stick (F. Jit. 17). 
Haranti ye balim, who bring you offerings (Kh. 6). 
Perf. jahdra (Sen. K. 445). Aor. ahdH (Dh. 1, 
101). Inf. hantum (Alw. I. 14). Ger. haritvd 
(Mah. 257). P.f.p. hoHtabbo (Pit. 67), hdr^o 
(P4t. 81). P.p.p. hato* Cans, hardpeti, hdretL 
Desid. jigi$h9otu 

HARE (%nterj.\ Here ! sirrah ! Ab. 1 139. Comp. Are. 

HARETI (caue. harati). To cause to be carried ; to 
take away, to remove [^fT^^Vfff^ll]* To$9a 
tarn bahubhdfiita^ hdretukdmo, wishing to put a 
stop to this talkativeness of his (F. Jat. 16). Mah. 
169 ; Dh. 220. 

H ARI (a^\). Green, yellow, tawny [ff?(] . Ab.97,869. 
See also Harito. 

HARI (m.). The colour green or yellow; gold; 
Vish^iu [fipC]. Ab. 16, 97, 487, 869. 

HARI (adj.% Handsome [fTfT]- Ab. 693. HdH, 
a beautiful woman (Has. 16). 

HARl(ad)'.),Taking, robbing ; captivating [|[|f\nj. 

Adinnahdri, a thief (Has. 23). Fern, hdrmi 

(Att. 192). 
HARICANDANAA, and -NO, YeUow sandal wood 

[Vfr + ^^]- Ab. 301 ; Dh. 95. 
HARII^IKO, a deer-hunter [ fltXHH^] * 
HARINO, A deer or antelope [ff^]. Ab. 617. 

HarifMkalanko, and harif^anko, the moon (Alw. 

I. c ; Att 191). 
HARlTAKi (/), and -KO, yellow myrobobm 

[T^^^Tn]. Ab. 569 ; Mah. 22. 
HARITALAJir, Yellow orpiment [vf^lfTV] 

Ab. 493. 
HARITATTAA, YeUowness [ff^ + ?qr]- 
HARITO (adj.i Green [fft^f, ff^]- Ab. 97, 


( 153 ) 


Wff 909, 1016. Hariio yavo, the green barley 

(F. Jit. 15). Hariidni ti^i, green grass (P4t. 

xziriii» oomp. Das. 31). Neut haritam, grass, 

greens (P^ 87). See Hari. 
HARIYO (pf.p. haraH), To be taken, removed, etc 

[inf=l]. Wt.81. 
HARO (adj.). Taking, seizing [f^], 
HARO, ^iva [fX]. Ab. 17. 
HARO, Tsking; a pearl necklace [fTT]- Ab.286, 

1119; Dh. 9i. Gomp. MuUdhdro. 

HASAMANAKO (adj.), Langhing, merry [ 
Atm.f^+H]. Mah.219. 

HASANAA, Laagfater [f^R]. Ab. 176; Dh. ICO. 

HASATI, To langh, to be merry [f^] . Mah. 219 ; 

Dh. 120. Aor. ha$i (F. Jdt. 4). Cans, hdseti. 

Tom me hdteti mdnatath, this rejoices my heart 

(Mah. 197). Tava mukham hdfaytundno, making 

yoor hee merry. 

HASITO (p4f.p. last). Smiling, laughing, merry 
[ffra=l^. Alw. I. dv. Nent Aantam, 
laughter, mirth (Ab. 175). Mahdharitam hasanto, 
laoghing a horse-laugh (Pdt 93). Dh. 120. 

HASO, Laughter ; mirth, joy [f^] . Ab. 87, 176 ; 
Dh. 27. Hdtadhammo, sporting, jesting (Pdt 16). 

HA880 (p/p. hoMit), Ridiculous [fT«= f^]. 
Mase. hasao, the Ridiculous, one of the N&tyarasas 
(Ab. 102). 

HlTABBO (p^.p. jahdH), That ought to be 
abmdoned [fnm = fr] • Sen. K. 477. 

HATAKAA, Gold [fnw]. Ab. 487; Ras. 33. 


HATAVAKASO (adf.). One who has removed all 
oecadons for good and evfl, said of an Arahd 

HATHO, Violenee, force, rapine [f^]. Ab. 400. 

HATO (p^.p. hamH), Killed, destroyed ; injured, 
qioat; removed, put an end to [f7T=f^]* 
Hatacakkku, whose sight is destroyed, blhid (Dh. 
86). Hmtaldbkofakkdrd, deprived of their gains 
and hoDonrs. Vdedya hato, ruined by his talk 
(F. Jit 16). Haidmwk IMtdvUa^ turbid with 
tile blood of the shdn (Mah. 154). Neut. hatmh, 
UOiDg, hartiog. Hatapahaia^ kilUng and 

BAfO (p^4f. AaraH), Seized ; carried away [fif = 
H]. ifa/MI^H^^iosaArafitfNaAafif, carried oir by the 
elqiliaot-bird (Db. 157). Dh. 209. 

HATTHACITTO (a^\). Joyful [f^+f^]. 
Ab. 723. 

Passed into a person's hands, in his power or 
possession, secure, certain [|pQr + inf=^Rt]. 
Cattdri pAaldtu htUthagatdn* eva karoti, makes 
the four fruitions his own (Dh. 228). F. Jdt. 6 ; 
Dh. 160, 184. 

HATTHAGO (adj'J), In one's power, in one's pos- 
session, secure [f?5| + if] . Att. 194. 

HATTHAKAMMAft, Manual labour [fV + 
^MJ' Dh. 126, 237. 

HATTHALOMO (adj.), AstonUhed ; overjoyed 
[l^ + ^ftft]. 

HATTHANIKAA, The elephants of an army, 
dephant-host [ff^ + W^] . Ab. 383. 

HATTHAPASO^ a measure of distance, generally 
two and a half hastas or cubits, but said some- 
times to mean a distance of twelve cubits [^^ + 
imr]- P^-2,98. 

HATTHAPPATTO (adj.). Come to hand, received, 
obtamed [f^+TITH=Hn(,]« 

HATTHAROHO, One who rides on an elephant, 
an elephant driver, mahout [^f^'^ + ^lOf 1* 

HATTHASSAlk, Elephants and horses [ff%f^+ 

HATTHATALAlir, The palm of the hand 

HATTHi (m.). An elephant [ff^]. Ab. 360. 
Fem. hatthM, a she-elephant (Ab. 362, 866; 
Dh. 105). HattMmaggo, an elephant-track (F. 
J&t. 2) ; HatthUot^do, elephant's trunk (Ab. 639). 
Hatthikkhandhoy an elephant's back or shoulders 
(Mah. 45). HatthUdld, elephant stable (Mah. 83). 
Hatthiydnam, a riding elephant. Hatthigopako, 
and hatthimef^do, an elephant's groom or keeper 
(Ab. 367). HatthippabhinnOf a furious elephant 
(Dh. 58). Hatthighaid, a herd or troop of elephants 
(Ab. 362). Gen. hatthtno (Dh. 157). PI. hatthi 
(F. J4t. 3). Nom. sing, sometimes hatthi. 

HATTHIKO (a4;.). Carried in the hand [f^ + 

^] . Sen. K. 390. 
HATTHILINGO, A sort of vulture with a bill like 

an elephant's trunk [ff^T^ + ft^f ] . Ab. 639 ; 

Dh. 154. 
HATTHINAKHO, A eoveied way covering the 

access to the gate of a town [^fflR^ + Iflff]. 



( 16^ ) 


Ab. 208 { I am not sare of the meaning, for the 
explanation is yipo hiUthakumbhamhipoHtfhito. 

HATTHINI, see HatthL 

HATTHINIKA (/.), A she-elephant for riding 

HATTHIPO. An elq^hanfs Iceeper or driver 
[ff^]- Afo..d07. 

HATTHO, The hand ; an elephant's tmnk ; name 
of a Nakkhatta ; a cnbit, the meaeare from the 
elbow to the tip of the little finger ; a qnantity 
[TV]- Ab. 69, 965, 266, 365, 031. Pattahatih^, 
bowl in hand. Gandhamdlddihatihdf with per- 
fumes, flowers, and other offerings in their hands 
(Dh. 79). Fifuihattho, holding a Inte (Mah. 180). 
Sattahattho, seven cubits long (Dh. 198). iSoAoMa- 
hattho, hundred-armed (Mah. 180). Kuahattho, 
. a tuft or mass of hair ( Ab. 257). Mdratta hattham 
gatOy fell into the power of Death. 

HA1TH0 {p.p^.\ BristUng; joyful, delighted 
[Y9=|[^]. HatfhalomOf having the hair of 
the body erect with joy or astonishment (Mah. 86). 
Atihattho, overjoyed (Mah. 85). Haffhatuffha- 
citto, with glad and joyful heart 

HAVAKO, One who sacrifices [from caus. ^]. 
Sen. K. 526. 

HAVANAM, Sacrifice [f^]. Sen. K. 524. 

HAVE (adv.), Indeed, certainly. Ab. 1140; Dh. 

19, 28, 32, 68, 126. 
HAVI (n.). An oblation, sacrifice; clarified butter 

[fftkl- Ab. 418, 1114. 
HAVO, A summons, challenge [^]. Ab. 762. 
0AVO, Coquetry, dalliaaoe [fl^]. Ab. 174. 
HAVYAft, ^ oblation [f^ = jr] . Ab. 418. 
HAYANAA, Diminution, decay (from Hdyati), 
HAYANIKAA, Cavalry [fff + IT^] . Ab. 383. 
HAYANO, a year [fT^Pl]. Ab. 81, 1124. 
HAYATI, see JahdH. 

HAYO, a horse [fl^] . Ab. 368, 1102 ; Mah. 68. 
HE (imtefj.), Oh t [^]. Ab. 1139, 1150. 
HEHITI, A fut. from BhavaH. 

HELA(/.), Sport, dalliance [%WT]. Ab. 174. 
HEMA]$f, Gold [tui^]. Ab. 487 ; Mah. 70, 90. 

HEMANTO, The cold season, winter [^Tfll]. 
Ab. 79 ; Mah. 2. This season begins from the 
dark half of Kattika, and lasts four months. It 
is subdivided into Hemanta and Sisira, of two 
months each* 

H£MO,A8oHofe^ihaBt[|i!]. Ab.36L 

HERAi^ii^IKO, A royal traasuier [ff^V + ![l]. 

HESA(/.), Neighing [^]. Ab. 119. 

HESITAM, Neighing [||flni]- >i«b- 142. 

HESSATI, see BhawtH. 

HETAM, In the phraseiVo A' etam bhamie, "cHiaiBly 

not, lord,* the ik is f|[, with tiie vowel elided 

before the initial vowel o{etam, 

HETHETI* To injure, to harass [f^] . Dh. 10, 288* 
HETI (/.), A weapon [ff^] . Ab. 385, 866. 

HETTH A (aifv.),Under,below,lowdown [HMWlQ* 
Ab.ll56. With gen. Udumbararukkhoisa hefpU, 
under the Udumbara tree (F. J&t. 3). With ahL 
Lohapdsddato hetthd, on the ground floor of the 
Lohap&sdda(Mah. 196). HetthdbMmi,grouDdfiMt 
(Dh. 250). Hetihdmaggatttttfam, the three lownt 
paths, i.e. Sotipattimagga and the two next (DIl 
421, comp. 261). Hetthdbkdgo, lower part, part 
below (Dh. 78). When used of a passage in a 
book it means '* before," *' previously.'' Hetthd 
ffutto, hetthdvutto. hetthdkathito, above mentioned 
(Dh. 369, 371, 380; F. J4t. 1, 20). 

HETTHATO {adv.\ Below, underneath [^nniT^ 
+ mC^] . Hefthaio paithdya, from below (Alw. I. 
76). With gen. Setaechattassa hetthato, under tlie 
white umbrella (Mah. 25). 

HETTHIMO (a^.% Lower, lowest ; last Hetthmi 
diidt the nadir. RukkhaiM hefthimatdkhd, the 
lowest branch of the tree (Dh. 157). HeithimakoH, 
the lower end (Dh. 261). Hetfhimagdthd, flie 
preceding stansas (Dh. 369). Kofimtth keftkim-' 
emtena $attukf at least a hundred Icofis (Ab. S37). 

HETU (m.). Cause ; reason, motive ; origin ; tlM 
reason or middle term of an inference [^H]* Ab. 
91, 972. Koimd hetund, from what motive ? wby? 
(Sen. K. 322). Kema hehmd, for what reason? 
why ? Ko hetu ho paccayOf what is the reaaen? 
what is the csase ? Het i ^ al atk , result or conse- 
quence of a cause. 

HETU (ado,\ On aoeount of, by reason ai; by mesDS 
of, forthesakeof [11^]. Wllh gen. iVa aMsMv 
na pmrama kefm, not for hb own sake nor for tlie 
sake of another (Dh. 15). JCiifa hetm^ on aoeowit 
of what? Talk kium heiu, why is this? (Alw. I. 
108). Ldbhahetu, for the sake of gain (Kb. 27). 
Tetam hetu UMdnuue, through whom we nodn 
gifts (Kb. 11). 

HETUJO (a4^), Pmluoed by a canse [f^+l]- 


( 165 ) 


Go^. Ev. 55; Man. & 441 ; E. Mod. 293; veg^ 
teUes an cBOed hetaja, as prodaeed from seeds. 

HETUKO (m{;.)> Having a cause ; caaeing, instm- 
^'^^ [f^Pl' 9^]- Ab. 104 ; Man. B. 494. 
Saag^dma mm^^Mllankahetuk^, a conflict on ac- 
eonnt of a jewelled coach (Mab. 4). 

HETUMl (mjf.). Having a cause [f^imij. GL 
Gr. 24. 

HETUPPABH AVO (adj\), Proceeding from a cause, 
having its origin in a pre-existing cause [^n + 
l|l|l|]. The hetu^pabhaod dhammd are explained 
to be the five khandhas (Att, cxxx; B. Lot 523; 
Man. B. 196). 

HETUSO {odo.). Causally, necessarily [^ -h "Q^] • 

HEVA (cufv.), Quite, just, even. Dh. 225. This is 
another form of ewi (which see). I have met with 
heva in three passages only, and in each the pre- 
ceding word ends in a vowel. The first i&pupphdni 
heva (Dh. 9), the second amhatayobband hew 
(Dh. 233), the third md heva (Dh. 403). The A is 
probably like the y in yeva, merely a euphonic 
addition, but comp. the next article. 

HEVAJfil, In the phrase md A' evam avaca, " say not 
so.* It is doubtless evam preceded by the particle f^. 
It is trae that Hevam occurs in the Dhaull inscrip- 
tions at the beginning of a sentence (comp. AIw. 
I. iv), bnt it is not safe to argue from the Pali of the 
Inscriptions to that of the sacred books. A phrase 
md k'evamf ** not so,* '* certainly not,* occurs at 
Qog. Ev. 39, and with this compare no h'etam (see 
HetaHk), and perhaps md h*ew (see last article). 

HETYO (pfy.Jahdii), To be abandoned [%^= 

fT]- Sen. K. 477. 
HI (pari*). For, because ; certainly, indeed ; alas ! 
[f|]. Ah. 1149, 1197. Na hi verena verdni 
wamumaati, for hate is not appeased by hate (Dh. 2). 
Futiam A^ etam bhagavatdf for thus it has been 
said by Buddha. Kasmd f evala hi attham dhari" 
iwk Mukhaik hati, why ? because by so doing it is 
easy to ascertain the meaning (Alw. I. cviii). 
Tema hi, very well then (Dh. 89, 158). Ke hi 
wdma naroj what man indeed ? (Mab. 259). KathtA 
M mdma, how indeed? It is sometimes used in 
giving a respect f ul refusal : iVa keppoH mahdrdja 
p^ hb dj e t mik tMytt hi no, (nay) great king, for we 
are not allowed to^ ordain women (Mah. 85, comp. 
80^ fine 5). Sometimes redundant ; Evam tathd' 
gaie yeoapaaddo hi mahapphalo (Mah. 175, comp. 
Ab. 1197). See Hetaik, Hevam. 

HILADATI, To be glad [l|Tf ]• 

HILADO, Pleasure [^TT^]. Att. 191. 

Hl^ilTO (p.p.p.)i Ashamed []fhT = }ft] • Ab. 747 ; 

Das. 44. 
HIMAGALO, The Himalaya mountain [ff[9T + 

iinEnir]. Ab. ooo. 

HIMAVA, and HIMAVANTO (<u^\), G<dd, snowy 
[ffTf^nC. JErtm€i«(f, Himalaya (Ab. 006). Uima-^ 
vanto pobbato, Himalaya (Dh. 53). Hhuavanto, 
or Himavantappadego, is a region of mystery or 
romance, the fairyland of the Buddhists. It forms 
the northern part of India, and contains the great 
mountain chain of Himalaya, with its principal 
peaks, Keldso, CittakAfo, QandhamddanOy S«- 
daseano, Kdfakiifo, It is overgrown with mighty 
forests, and contains seven vast lakes (fnahdsard), 
from one of which proceeds a river which is the 
fountain-head of the five principal rivers of India 
(mahdnadf). Himavanta is the resort of Pacceka- 
buddhas, Arhats, Devas, Rishis, Yakshas, etc., 
and of every species of wild animal; and teems 
with marvels of every description, as the wonder- 
ful Golden Gave (kancanaguhd), the great Jambu 
tree from which Jambudipa takes its name, and 
the Kesara lions whose roar may be heard for many 
leagues around. Man. B.- 15-19 ; F. Jdt. 2, 4, 12, 
16, 17; Dh. 116, 153,214; Das. 24; Alw. I.xxi; 
Mah. 22. 

HIMO(a4/.),Gold[f^]. Ab.l074. Neut. AtmaiA, 
frost, snow, dew (Ab. 56). Himagabbho, the 
reg^ns of dew and frost aloft in the air (Mab. 114, 
119; F. Jdt. 57). Himaravui (m.), the moon 
(Ab. 52). 

HIMSA (/.), Hurting, kUling [tt^]. Ab. 403. 
Hirhsdsilo, cruel, mischievous (Ab. 731). Cora* 
hiiksam karontOy having a criminal executed (Att. 
211). Hkheamano, wish to injure, malevolence 
(Dh. 70). 

HlftSANAlEr, Injuring, killing [fH^. Ab. 403. 
Yuddhaih hhiiksanafh aattahiduanam, a dreadful 
and bloody war (Mah. 93). Ahiduanaih, humanity 
(Dh. 380). 

HIASAPANAA, Injury. Ab. 1201. 

HIlftSATI, To hurt, to injure; to kill [f^]. 
Dh. 24, 48; Das. 6, 8. P.p.p. htmeito (Dh. 149). 

HlNAJAGGO (adf.), Of low fiunily, low-caste 
l^t^ + WTW] • Das. 42. 

HiNAKO (ad;,). Deprived of. Used at the end of 
a compound, as a substitute for AAio. 


(156 ) 


HINAPPA]SITATA(/.), Inferiority and saperioritf , 
goodness and badness [|ft^ + 3^^^9+711] • 
Gog. Ev. 31. 

HiNASlLAft, Keeping the moral precepts im- 
perfectly, <Mr from unworthy motives [^V^+ 
^ftw]. Man. B. 4d3. 

HINGULAKO, VermUion [ffWm + ^] • Alw. 1. 76. 

HINGULI (f».), Vermilion [flVf^]- ^<^- ^^' 

HINO (P'P'P" jahdti), Wasted, decayed ; low, bad, 
inferior; poor, wretched; forsaken; deprived 
[^=i|[T]. Ab. 699, 754. Hind jdti, low bath, 
low caste (Pdt 83). Hindpaf^itd, or h(nappan{tdf 
the low and the high, the wretched and the great 
(B. Lot. 866 ; Sen. K. 367). HfnatfirU/o, feeble (Dh. 
2,21). S»fiA/«to, deprived of hearing, deaf (Ab.322). 

HINTALO, a sort of palm [fip^TRr]- Ab. 604. 

Probably the marshy date-palm. 
HIRAJ^ffAA, Gold, bullion, treasure [ffT^]. 

Ab. 486^ 488, 1061. Hirafma^abbho, Mah&brahma 

(Ab. 15). Mah. 163. 
HIRl (/.), Shame, modesty; the shame which 

deters a man from sinning [^fV]- Ab. 158; Man. 

B. 413 ; Dh. 26 ; Das. 41. 

HIRImA (adj.). Modest [)f^7ri!(]. CI. Gr, 24. 
HIRIVERAA^ a perfume, Andropogon Schoenan- 
thus[3ft^]. Ab.591. 

and fear of sinning [3fV + otti^a] . Dh. 240, 303 ; 
Das. 39, 41 ; Alw. h xxxlv ; Man. B. 413. 

HITAKARO, A benefactor [ff?PI<|. Mah. 20; 
Sen. K. 470. 

HITO (p.p.p. dadhdti), fit, suitable; beneficial 
[1fW= VT]- StUtahito, adapted to the Suttas 
(Alw. I. xvi). Yafk ve hiiah ca sddhuh ca, that 
indeed which is salutaiy and good (Dh. 30). Masc 
hito, a friend or benefactor. SabbalokMto, bene- 
factor of all worlds (Mah. 14). Nent. hitaih, 
advantage, benefit, blessing, good. Parahitam 
attano hita^ ca, his neighbour's good and his own 
good (Mah. 208). JRtakdwo 'si me, you are my 
well-wisher (Dh. 97). Sabbahkahite rata, delight- 
ing in doing good to the whole world (Mah. 4). 
SabbalokahUaUhdya, for the good of the whole 
world (Mah. 14). Dat. hitdya, Tesath tarn bha^ 
waati digharattam hitdya sukhdya, this will be 
to them long for a good and a blessing (B. Lot. 
350, comp. Has. 18 ; Kb. 12 ; Sen. K. 328). Hitdya 
sabbapdninam, for the good of aU beings. 

HITVA, HlYATI, see JahdtL 
HlYATTANO (adj.), Of yesterday [iTW]- Fern. 
Myattani, the imperfect tense (Sen. K. 431). 

HlYO, and HIYYO (adv.). Yesterday [mCJ- Ab. 

1155; Dh. 227, 423; Mah. 2, 83. S^^ppahhwiO, 

since yesterday (Alw. I. 7). 
HOMO, An obhition [f^R]. Sen. K. 616. 
HORApATHAKO, An astrologer [ft^ + X|mQ. 

Mah. 220. 
HOTABBO, see Bhatdtabbo. 
HOTABBO (p/.p.Juhot(), That ought to be offered 

or sacrificed [ift^f^ = V] • Ab. 1 1 14. 
HOTI, see Bhavatt. 

HUINTKARO, Making a noise, roaring [iNT^- 
HURAHURAA (adv.). In various ezbtenoes, in 

successive births. This Is hurahuraik with 

lengthened a, VikephaldphalaH^, bhavdbhave. The 

comment explains it by bhave bhotfe, ''in birth 

after birth." 
HURAft (adv.). In the other world, in another birtii 

or existence [perhaps ^!n[]* ^^^ ^ huram vd, 

in this or another world, in this or another state 

of being (Kb. 7 ; Dh. 4, 409). 
HUSA (/.), A daughter-in-Uw [ij^]. Ab. 248. 

See also SufM, and Suftiad. 
H UTASO, Fire [jnfnfl • Ab. 35. 
HUTAVA (04;.), That has sacrificed [jnt + ^Hf ]. 

Sen. K. 483. 
HUTAVAHO, Fire [JHT + "WTf ]• Ab. 34. 
HUTAvI (a4f.). That has sacrificed [JTII + ^- 

f?n(^]. Sen. K. 483. 
HOTI (/.), Calling, challenge [^fn}- Ab. 762. 
HUTO (p.p.p.yi«Ao«), Sacrificed [jn! = »]. Sen. 

HUTTAA, Sacrifice [ftW]. Dh. 70. 


IBBHO (adj.). Wealthy [f^] . Ab. 725 ; B. Lot410. 
IBHO; An elephant [j^]. Ab. 360. Ibhai^haU 

(/.), a sort of long pepper (Ab. 583). 
ICC, see ItL 
ICCHA (/.), Wish, wiU, desh«, lust, oovetoasness 

ICCHAcARO, Wish, deshie, covetonsness, ambitiini 
[T^fT + 'TnC]- M"*^ 2; Dh. 274. Icekdcdre 
fhitoy being in a state of desire for worldly .gsin 
or fame (Dh. 264, 275). 

ICCHAPETI, To cause to desire. Pdt 78. 




lOCHATI^ To wish, to desire ; to approve, to lilce ; 
to endeavour to obtain, to seek [^4(ni = l[9» 
*n^ |^t||ri|=:in^. Yam icchati tatk vadekU 
yoa nay say what you lilLe (Db. 103). Yato 
itekdaU bhaddaik tanat since I wish well to him 
(Sen. BL 327). Attano tukham icchaH, endeavours 
to obtain pleasure for himself (Dh. 51; oomp. 
Kli. 16). Phalam iecham vanaamiihf seeldng 
fruits in the wood (Dh. 59). Na icehanti samaggd 
hkamttukf they refuse to be reconciled (Dh. 104). 
Aaieekmkt ameehanto, ameehamdno, aincchamd' 
mmkOf dislildng, refusing, unwilling (Dh. 104, 300 ; 
Das. 38). Aor. iccAt (Mah. 231). ¥ut. icchi8$atu ieehanh ieehamdno (F. Jdt. 3). P.p.p. icchito, 

ICCHITO {p.p.p. last). Wished, desh^ [tt^^]- 
IcMtam U vada, tell me what you want ( Att. 205). 
leehUieehUaffhdne^ wherever he likes (Dh. 407, 
oomp. 273). 

IDA, see Idka. 

TDAA (neut. aytak). This [l[^i^. Idam vadi, 
Bpoht as follows (Mah. 170). Idam satthd kathesi, 
this the Teacher said (F. Jit 1). Idam avoca 
ihagavdy this the Blessed one said. Futtam sabbam 
idam, all this has been said (Kb. 21). Tehi idan 
c^tdoji ea vuttd^ having been told so and so by them 
(Dh. 130). Idan ea idah ca kdreiBatiy will cause 
such and such things to be made. Idan ea vaia re, 
by die bye ! an exclamation when a thought sud- 
denly strikes one (Att. 106). See Ayam, 

IDAlir {adv.)f Here, now, even [l[?>^]> In the 
phrase Bkam iddham gamayam, "now I on a 
certain occasion,'* there can be little doubt that 
iddkam is this adverb followed by ahath: a 
comment indeed states positively eitha idan H 
fdpHamaitam ; but the vfitti on the twentieth rule 
of Kaoeiyana's Sandhikappa gives it as an example 
of the diange ot dh to d, resolving it into idka 
mkmm (Sen. K. 209 ; CI. Or. 10). Idam occurs in the 
words yadidam, tadidath, kUnkUuk, yathayidam, 
aeyyathUiam, It is possibly also the second part 
of uayitUidi in the phrase na^Adaih sukaram 
agdrwk qffhdwuatd, etc., but comp. Dh. 163, 
Use 15. 

IDANI (adv.). Now [I^^IiDh ]' ^°- ^- ^^- 
IddK^ eva, at this very time, at the present moment 
(F. J4t 8, 16). 

IDAPPACCAYA, From an assignable cause, from 
an ascertained cause [^[^9( + abl.lim^]. Atthi 

idappaeeayd jardmarajui^, does decay and death 
exist from an assignable cause ? Gomp. Gog. Ev. 6. 

ID ATTA YAfi, These three [XJ^ + ^^RT] • Ab. 100. 

IDDHI (/.), Prosperity, power, majesty; super- 
natural power, magical power, miraculous foculty; 
a miracle [^^]. B. Lot. 310, 818; Man. B. 
38, 500. There are ten iddhis, such as the power 
of passing through the air, of taking any form, of 
creating, or causing to appear (nimmdnam) any- 
thing that is required. Iddhi is the peculiar 
attribute of the Arahds, though It is also possessed 
by those who have practised Jhdna. Rdjiddhtid 
virdjanto, resplendent with royal majesty (Mah. 
245). Iddhihi nlya nimmUam, as if created by 
supernatural means (Mah. 242). Puthujfanikd 
iddhi, such supernatural power as an unconverted 
man may possess (Dh. 142, comp. Man. B. 315). 
IddhUo parikdyitvd, having fallen away from 
iddhi, having lost his ma^cal power (Dh. 143). 
Tarn iddhimupartydsodisvd, the sub-king having 
seen this miracle (Mah. 34) . Ndnappakdrd iddhiyo 
kaivd, having performed many miraculous acts 
(Dh. 299). Instr. iddhiyd, by supernatural power, 
miraculously (Dh. 35 ; Mah. 194). 

IDDHIMA (adj,), Possessed of supernatural power 
[^BfVH^]- Bas. 43 ; Dh. 249 ; Mah. 178. 

IDDHIMAYO (aty.). Created, or made to appear by 

supernatural power [^Vflf + ^^] • I^^- 1^' ^^^' 
IDDHIPADO, Constituent or basis of mag^c power 
[^^ + '^Ti|[]- There are four iddhip&das, 
which are means by wliich iddhi is attained. They 
are ehando, the will or determination to acquire 
iddhi, viriyariit, the necessary exertion or effort, 
cittam, thought, or the necessary preparation of 
the thoughts or heart, tdmanud, investigation. 
The full text is as follows, eaitdro iddhipddd, idh' 
dvuio bhikkhu chandaaamddhipadhdnammkhdra- 
samanndgaiask iddhipddam bhdveti, viriyaMmd' 
dhipadhdnaBankhdroMamanndgatath t. bkdveti, 
cUtasamMMpadhdnaBaMchdraiamanudgataih u 
bkdveti, vimadudeamddhipadhdnatankhdrasamam' 
ndgaiarh i. bkdveti (Sang. S.). Here padkdna Is 
no doubt used in its P^ sense of '' exertion," but 
the northern Buddhists, misunderstanding the 
word, have rendered it by H^m, ''abandonment,* 
and so made nonsense of the passage (See. B. Int. 
625 ; Lot. 310, 311 , 312). Att. 57 ; Man. B. 413, 
498 ; Alw. I. 77 ; Dh. 338. 
IDDHIPPABHEDO, The different sorts of magic 


( 168 ) 


power [^if^ + H^]. B^hoL 8»1$ Alw. I. 

zzziv. See Abhmdy and Vyjd* 
IDDHIPPATTO {adj.), Potiessed of miraealoos 

power [^B^ + 11111= ^ini]- Malu 79. 
IDDHIVWHA (/.), The varioos lorte of iddhi 

[^■flr + f*roT]. B^Man.284. 
mDHIVISAYO, Range, power, or extent of iddhi 
[^l^ + f^W^]- Ma«.ll.»;Dh.l38. 

IDHA (mIv.)» Here; hither; in thie world [l[f ]• 
Ah. 1161 ; Sen. K. 802. Idha vamti, lives here 
(F.J4t.4). /iMaM&o, Ihdng here (Pdt 0), Mhd- 
dkipatiy the lOTereign of Mb plaee (Mab. 49). 

. Jambtu^pd id^ dguid, we have oome hither from 
India (Mah. 78). Jdl^ dgtUo, when I return 
(Mah. 110). JUhdgamamamy going tlwre, arrival, 
return (Mah. 150; Dh. 241). Qirid^nm, tetmth 
idk* 4»ayit brooglit Giridf pa to tliese shoreo for 
them (Mah. 3). /<<&' eva loka$midh ^ thia very 
world (Dfa* U). Idhalaho, this worid. Idha vd 
ktirmh vdf in this or other worids, in this life or in 
another state of ezistenee (Dh. 4; Kh. 7). Idka 
9oeaH peeem toeaH^ he monms in tills world, he 

. monms in tlie next (Db. 8). Na hi verena verM 
sammanf idha haddcmMdi,fyt never In this world 
is wrath i^ipeased by wrath (Dh. 2). Saddkidha 
viUad^ pmriaama ttpfhadh folth, hers l>elow, is 
man's best treasnre (Sen. K. 2Q7> Soidhapamd^ 

. dam imayHMo oiAaro^ he passes tfaroogh tiiis life 
givennptosh>th(Alw.I.107). Idk' imue hhikkhu 
taHhari $agdravo mharoH, in this world, brefltfen, 
a priest lives reverondng the Teacher (in this and 

, dmilar instaness the Siihhalese sdiollasts explain 
idha by »/ Bvddhafdmiuiyehi, <«in this religion 
ofBoddha*^. /dfta is freqnenlly affected by sandhi, 
e.g.yo'<«ba=yo idha (Dh. 47), idhilgygmds=idha 
agamd (Mah* 165), idham dgato^^idha dgato 
(Bfah. 52, comp. 171), ida hhikkham s idha 

• hMkkhave (CL Or. II). See also !%«. 

IDHAO ATATTAA, Faet of having oome [l[f + 

IDHALOKO, This world, this state of existence 

[iCf + ^Vt^l- Opposed to paralako. Dh. 181, 

258, 874^ 482. 
IDHUMAA, Fbeweod [f«r]. Ab. 80. 
fDl (lu^*.), like dlis, sndi [l^f^. Sen. K. 525; 

IDIKKHO (adj.). Such [fx^]. Sen. K. 525, 526. 

Idikkhasamdgamo, soch an assemblage as this 

(Blah. 49). 

IDISAKO (oi^'.). Like this, sncfa [tX1(+«]«^ 

iDISOr and IRISO (adf.). Like m^ snch, of sodLs 

sort, BO great [l^flT]- ^^- K. 525; Dh.97, M; 

Mah. 27, 09, 79. /iMmn^ itoriMiA^ I will make it 

Ufce this (Mah. 175)^ 

IHA (ad9.)f Here [^]. Ab. 091, 1101 ; Sen. K. 
802; Has. 25. Iha fo ktualo, he who is skiHed 
In this book (Alw. I. ix). This form is rare, 
wte Idha, 

IhA (/.), Exertion, endeavoar [t](T]« Ab. 150. 

IHAIiOKIKO (adj.). Belonging to this world 
[TH^I + T*]. Ab.85. 

IHATI, Toendeavoor [^^]. 

IJJA (/.), Sacrifice [^JHTT]- Sen. K. 522. 

IJJATl, see Tajati. 

IJ JH ATI, To prosper, to sncoeed, to be acoomplisbed 
{yirsQ. Ra8.e2; Dh.434. 

IKKHANAlit, Sight, looking [t^ir]- Ab. 775. 

IKKHAJyiKO, A fortnne-teUer [t;;^f^]. Fein. 
'kd (Ab. 230). 

lEKH ATI, To look, to see [t^ • Neitena condom 
ikkhaie, he beholds the moon with his eye (GL 
Or. 133). P.p.p. ikkhito (Ab. 1078). 

IKKO, A bear [^^n]. Ab. 012, 1025. See also^icdb. 

ILLi (f.)f A. sort of weapon, a short one-edged sword 
[W]. Ab.392. 

IMA, IMAA, IME, etc, see Ayadu 

I]yAA,Debt['^ni]. Ab.47L I^diddiyaM"^ 
borrowed money. Ifuma pamokkho, release* from 
debt (Kh. 13). I^mdlad^ borrowed capital 
IlfOBdmiho, a lender, creditor. Ifftato sa-t{|tf bhikkkH 
moceai, released from debt the priests who were in 
debt (Mah. 227). 

I^AYIKO, a debtor, a borrower {^f^ + W9 + 
^]. Ab.470. 

INDADHANU («.), The rainbow [JJ^ + V^- 

IXDAGOPAKO, A sort of insect [Y;^n}1f^]' 
According to Bdhtiingk and Roth it is ** oodibeal, 
a red beetle ** (comp. Dh. 339). It is observable 
that they oome out of the ground after rain (Dh. 88). 

INDAJALIKO, a magician, juggler, ooi^afer 
[f,4(^^lff|li]* Ab. 512. 

INDAKHlLO, A threshold, a large shdb of stsae 
let into the ground at the entrance of alumie; a 
pillar in front of a dty gate [l[^ + 4Nl]* Ab. 
204,220, 1000; Dh. 18,298; Kh. 8; Pit. 18^ 93. 


( 169 ) 


INDAPATTAA, Name of a town [iC^^lRl]. Ab. 

»1 ; Dfa. 418. 
INDASALO^Nameofatree [JJI^ + ^fUl]. Ab.668. 
INDAVARU^ (/), Coloqnintida [l^^ + ^- 

^if^]. Ab.fi87. 
HiDAYAVO, The taeds of Wrigbtia AntidyBeDteiica 

[1:^ + ^. Ab.674. 
INDAYUDHAA, Tbe rainbow [T^ + HT^]. 

INDIIANA&, Firewood, fod [^p^lf]. Ab. 36. 
INDlVARAft, The blue water-lily; the Cassia 

Flstola [l[i^^]. Ab. 552, 688, 1003. 
INDO» Chief, lord ; a king ; Indra l\^ . Ab. 20, 

866, 1132. Demmda^ king of the devas, Indra 

(Iffah. 47). Sakko devAmm tadb, Sakka the king 

of Uie devas (Has. 22; Dh. 185). Indapaftrnd^ 

a statae of Indra (Dh. 194). Jlfan»/tn<2o, a king. 

Lankindo, king of Ceylon (Mah. 67). 
INDRI YAGOA YHO (adj.). Perceptible to the senses 

[1^^ + ^^11 = 111]. Ab.716. 
INDRI YAA, An organ of sense ; a power, faculty, 
Innctioo, organ; a moral quality; sense, perception, 
acquisition ; sex [l[fi[^]. Ab. 149, 807. There 
are three indriyas, which are three sorts of know- 
ledge or sense. Firstly, anaSmdtaSifiaudmtHndrP' 
poA ifm-'tmidt€ak nas$dmi iH indriyam), ''the 
sense which says, I wDl know what is not known ; " 
this isezpluned to mean sot&pattimagga. Secondly, 
UMimdrfyatk (see Anhd), ''sense of knowledge," 
explained to mean the stages from sotdpattimagga 
to arabattamagga. Thirdly, al^ndtdffindriyaik 
{mmdUMf eomp. hutdvf), '^ sense of having 
Iboroiighly known," explained to mean arahatta- 
phala or Arfaatship. The five indriyas or moral 
qoalltles (panemdriyaidt or pane' indnydni) are 
mufjikmdr^ariif vMyindfiifam, goHndnyamf tamd- 
dk imdv iff ut k , pa mti mdr iym h, faith, energy, recol- 
lectkni, eontemplatlon, wisdom (Att 58 ; Man. B. 
408 ; eonp. Bala^), Another set of five are the 
five of^gans of sense, cakkhundHyafkf taHndrhfam, 
gkdmtmdrfymdh jMimdHyadif kdyittdriymk^ the 
eye, tbe ear, the nose, the tongoe, tbe sense of 
toodi. A third set of five ara five teuHies or 
tulAhuhiyiahf dfMMmdriiym^ Boma" 
domoMOBt rnd r lf ikf tipekkkulriya^ 
Mifiering, joy, grief, iadifieroace. The six 
indrijas are, eakkkmubrifaikt mHmdriya^, ghd- 

mimdri^aikpjwhimdriymkf M^^mdnyafk, maminiH'9 
yam, the eye, ear, nose, tongae, tonch, mind (Man. 
B. 432, 439; Dh. Ill, 429). The twenty-two 
indrijras, or principles, ara cakkundriyamt soKa- 
driyatk, ghdmhubriyam, jvohindriyafk, kdyindri' 
yam, manindriyam, Uthmdriyaih, puritindHyam, 
JhUmdriyatk, tukhindriyatk, dukkhmdriyam, 90* 
manamndriyam, domanasrindriyam, tfpekkhmdri^ 
yam, saddkindnyaih, viriyindriyafk, aatutdriyanif 
$amddhindriyamfpainindnyaik, ananhdtam naatd* 
mi findriyam, anniudriyam, anndtdvindr^aih 
(see Ceylon Friend, Oct 1838 : I have copied the 
list from Visuddhl Magga). — Indriyavyayo, sub- 
jugation of the senses (Att 193). IndriyagmtH, 
keeping watch over the senses, self-restraint (Dh* 
^, 422). Indriyamkdro, perturbation of the senses, 
excitement, emotion (Das. 3). JndriydtuHkhhdvaMd, 
and Indriyahhdvand, cultivation or production of 
the five moral qualities (vie. aaddhd^ viriyadt, etc., 
see Alw. L Ixix). Tikhmindriy09 one whose organs 
of sense ara keen ; mudindriy^, one whose senses 
ara daU (B. Lot 305). Dh. 2, 122. 

INDRIYASAAVARO, Restraint or subjugation of 

the senses [l[^^ + ^NT]- B* Mon. 31 ; Dh. 

422. See Ca/tMOffiMratl/am. 
INDU (m.). The moon [l^]. Ab. 5L 
INGATI, To move [Xf]. CI. P. Verbs, 1. P.p.p. 

neut. ingitaih, gestara (Ab. 764, 981). See J^atu 
Ilf^GHA (interj.). Comet pray! Ab. 1157; CI. Gr. 

72 ; Alw. I. 92. Hkgha te gofiApetha, just have 

them counted (Dh. 223). I^ha twah mahdrdja 

KaUuigdmaih cMehi, be so good, great king, as 

to tiiink of K. (Alw. I. xlU). 
INGO, Gesture, sign [l[y]. Ab. 764. 
INGUDi (/.), The plant Terminalla Gatappa 

[Tf^]- Ab.565. 
IJ^JATI, To move, to be diaken [XWl' ^^^ 

nufno, unswerving, immovable (B. Lot 306). 

P.p.p. neut n^itam, movement, v acillatiott (Dh. 

45, 377). See higaH. 
IRETI (catM.), To cause to move, to shake ; to cause 

to utter [tTC^rf^f = 1^!^] • ^^"^ nereH attdnam, 

if you keep sOence, lit. dost not cause thyself to 

utter (Dh. 24, 297). 
iRIBTAft, Barren s^ ; a desert [tjF^]- Ab. 886. 
IRISO, see LUm. 
IRITO (p.^.p. irei(), Thrawn ; ntterad, spoken, said 

[i^=|^]. Ak 438, 744 ; Alw. L ziiL 




IRITVIJO, An officiating^ (Brahminical) priest 

[^BfWH]. Ab.414. 
IRIYA(/.), Movement, posture, deportment [|^?fT]« 

B. Int. 168. Santdya iriydjf asmhh paddxya^ 

pleased with him for his tranquil deportment 

(Mafa. 24). 

IRIYAPATHO, Way of deportment [f^ + V[^\. 
There are four iriy&pathas or postures, yiz. want- 
ing, standing, sitting, lying down. Catiuu iriydpar 
thesu viriyakartnuuarhrahito, devoid of energy in 
all the four positions^ viz. in all he does (Dh. 111). 
Iriy^pathe NdgMenassapaMitffdt pleased with the 
deportment of Nagasena. IrtydpaihoMampanno^ 
of decent deportment (B. Lot. 297). Iriydpathato 
tnuttam arahattam apdpufLi^ attained arhatship 
without any of the four usual postures ; by this is 
meant that Ananda at the moment of attaining 
sanctification was neither sitting, nor standing, 
nor wallsing, nor lying down, but in the act of 
placing himself on his couch ; I quote the following 
from Brahma J^ S. Affh., caiuririydpathavira- 
hitam therana arahattafk, tena imasmifk adsane 
"off^nno aninnno aithiio acankamanto ho 
bkikkhu arahattam patto" ti vutte '* Ananda' 
tthero' ti vattufk vaffati (B. Lot. 296, 297; 
Mah. 13). 

IRIYATO (adv,), After the manner of, according to 
the custom of [f^^ + mCl« Bhamarau^ iriyatOf 
after the manner of a bee. 

IRU (/.), The Rigveda [V^]- Ab. 108. 

IRUBBEDO, The Ji^igveda [^vS|?[] • Alw. L czziv. 

Is A (/.), The pole of a plough [kjfj] . Ab. 149. 

ISADHARO, Name of one of the KuUcalas, or con- 
centric circles of rock that surround Meru [^[^ + 
^. Ab. 26; Man. B. 12 ; B. Lot 846, 847. 

ISAKAA (adv.), A Uttte [t^+^]. Itakam 
khaf\fattd, from being slightly lame (Mah. 142). 

ISAKKARO (adj.). Easy to do [1^^ + 1IT] • ^n* 

ISA A (adv.), A litfle [^^lO- ^^- 1^^- ^'^^ 
pafidu, slightly yellow (Ab. 96). liadatthe, in 
the sense of «a little" (Ab. 1169). I»a$iayo=: 

t:^+in»(8en. K.484). 

ISI (m.), A ](tishi, a saint, a sage, a holy man, an 
anchorite [^rfif]. Ab. 433. The ten l^shis 
authors of the Vedic mantras are Affako, Vdmako, 
Vdmadevo, Ve»samUto, Yamataggi, Angirato, 
Bhdradwffo, Fdieffho, KoMtapo, Bhagu (Ab. 109 ; 

Alw. I. czziil). Maggo wppavedUo, the way 
taught by holy men (Dh. 60). Baddhas and 
arah^ ara caUed isi (Dh. 383). PL ui, Uay 
(Alw. L 54 ; Ab. 109). Oen. sing. Uina, iakno. 

ISIGILI (m.), Name of a mountain in Magadha 

[iBft-hf'lf^]- Ab. 606. 
ISIKA (/.), A roed [^ftm]. 
ISIPABBAJJA (/.), The life of an anchorite [^rflf 

+ mpirT]. laipabbajjaik pabbqfaii, to adopt the 

life of a holy recluse (F. Jdt 2 ; Dh. 116, 153). 
ISIFATANAA, Name of a place near Benares 

[^Wfir + imW]. B. Int. 157. 
ISO, and ISSO, A sort of bear. Ab. 612. 
ISO, Lord, master [f^]. Ab. 725. 
ISSA (/.), Envy, jealousy, iU-wUl [t^T]. Ab. 168; 

Dh. 264, 360 ; Man. B. 418. InaikhaHnuntana^ 

wero jealous of him (Mah. 139). 

ISS ARIYAA,and ISSERAA, Dommlon, supremacy 
[^;3|n}]« Ab. 844; Mah. 197; Dh. 13, 264,268; 
Kb. 14. For the form ineram, comp. Acchero. 

ISSARO, Lord, ruler, chief, king; Giva [f^^^]* 

Ab. 16, 725, 1094; Dh. 159. 
ISSASAA, a bow [1[C9T9]. Ab. 922. 
ISSASO, A bow ; an archer [l[C3rra] - Ab. 388, 922. 
ISSAYATI, To envy, to be jealous [t^]. With 

dat. THtthiyd iWHandnam i$$ti^anti, the heretics 

envy the priests of Buddha (Sen. K. 331). 
ISSERAA, see IttoHyaOi. 
ISSO, see Ito. 
ISSUKi (at^\). Envious, jealous [|^ + V + X'l]' 

Dh. 47. 
ITARATHA (adv.). In another way [ITT^VT]* 

Sen. K. 414. 
ITARATH ATTA (adv.). In another way [1[9FC1T + 

fV with abl. termination]. Sen. BL 415. 

ITARlTARO (adj.). One and another, this and 
that, any whatever, of all sorts [l[IT^ + Y^]* 
Ab. 1187- Itaritaradvarena 9aniuffho haO, is 
contented with any robes that he gets (viz. whether 
they be good or bad). Itaritarena, from what- 
ever cause (Dh. 59, 408). 

ITARO (atb\). Other; different [XKK]. Ab. 717, 
1069. Itarana Makdpdh ti ndmatk kari, the 
other he called M. (Dh. 78). Dve Hard gdtkd, 
the two remaining stanzas (F. JiA. 13, oomp. 53). 
Netaraua, to no other (Ras. 62). Duddoietaraik, 
the opposite of ugly, viz. beantifiil (Ab. 998). 
Oen. and dat. pi. itureiatk (Dh. 104). 




m, and 17, and before a vowel ICC (adv.)y Thus 
[l[f7f]. Ab. 1158, 1188. This particle is very 
esrtdnsivelj used in PAli, as in Sanskrit, in cases of 
indirect narration, or of enameration, or of quoting 
the words or thooghts of others; the foil, are 
examples. Mam mmdhtfya bhdtatiH natvd, per- 
ceiving that he spoke of him, lit perceiving thus 
'' He speaks of me '' (F. J^t. 19). SiAo H saSmdya, 
thinking it was a lion, lit. thinking thus '' It is a 
lion'(Fjr4t.l5). *'KukimydHkimetan''Hpucchh 
asked her, " Where are you going, what have you 
got diere? " (Mah. 59, comp. F. JiU 12). **Aggind 
fme aUko* H dha, he said, *' I want fire" (F. Jdt. 2). 
M^fatan ti vydnufa^ finding that it was silver 
(Mah. 167). Ambaphtdan tigutvd, hearing it was 
**u mango" (F. Jdt. 5). Na icehaUti natvdna, 
finding he was unwilling (Mah. 132). Tattha 
^ obhiitAarethdH" turitam turitam tigham tighath 
karejfydii attho^ here as regards the word abhitth€^ 
retka its meaning is, *' let him act very quickly, 
very speedily" (Dh. 292). Ettha ^•sahitan'' ti 
tepifaka$8a Buddkaoacanau^ etam ndmam, in this 
passage the word saAita is a name for the Buddhist 
scriptures (Dh. 150). "Ava" ico eiassa okdrd- 
deto hoHy the letter o becomes a substitute for ava 
(Sen. K. 224). Tasta Cullapdlo ti ndmam katvd, 
having called him CuUapdla (Dh. 78 ; comp. Ras. 
15). MahU^ntriMO ti vuccatt, is called <'a great 
man''(Dh.63). Jto^/oArArA^ t/t visra^o, known as 
<« The Red-eyed " (Mah. 230). Buddho H vaeane 
nttamaite, at the mere sound of the word *' Buddha" 
(Alw. I. 97)* J^udti fracanena, hearing himself 
addressed as <« Tissa" (Mah. 78). Hatthdjdneyyo 
matdfdnejfy^ u$abhdjdneyyo khipdsavo ti ime cattdro 
fkapetvdf setting aside these four, the high-bred 
dephaat, the high-bred horse, the high-bred bull, 
and the Arhat (Dh. 296). Sometimes in an 
ejcample like the last the noun preceding iti is in 
the same case as that which follows it, e.g. Tisaavhe 
Ndgudfpake iti cehasu vihdretu pakdran ca akd- 
rojfi^ at these six monasteries, the Tissa monas- 
tery, the N^gadipaka monastery, etc., he built an 
indoei pg wall (Mah. 227). Sometimes the verb 
of aayiiig, thinking, etc., is put first : Ten* dha 
kkmgmed ** mo^Hdnkmto loko" ti, therefore has 
Boddha said, "The world is shrouded by ignorance " 
(Alw. 1. 108) ; lAkhUvd **r4jadMtd'* ti, inscribing 
tliereoo the words '« A King's Daughter" (Mah. 
181); Ai!t4pe$i eoMt^^oHm **mdrehi pitaramme" 

ti, he ordered the commander-in-chief thus, " Put 
my father to death" (Mah. 261) ; Rdjdnampucchi 
•*kim" iti, the king asked him, << What is this?" 
(Mah. 157) ; R4f^ iti vicintayi " liddhd 'yam Mdma^ 
^ro me ghare heteati edmiko," the lung thopght 
thus, "This novice will certainly one day be 
master in my house" (Mah. 25). Frequently a 
participle " saying," ** thinking," etc, is under- 
stood: ** Udakabako" ti vicarati, goes about 
(saying) "Water-crane" (Alw. I. xzi); KaiUcki 
**uccdeane thero nieideyya no kho" ti, doubted 
whether the thera would sit on a high seat, lit. 
doubted (saying) thus, "I wonder if the thera 
would sit on a high seat (Mah. 82) ; " Tato pi 
adhikd sd" ti pabbiyjam yeva rocayi, he resolved 
on being admitted to the priesthood (saying), " It 
is superior to the other profession" (Mah. 36); 
" Sddhm"bhesajjafh9ammdahi, said " Very weU," 
and prescribed for her (Dh. 89, comp. 171» and 
F. Jdt. 12) ; Bhante Cakkhupdlatthero " canka- 
mdmUi'^bahupdnakemdreei, Lord, C. Thera think- 
ing he would walk up and down has killed a 
great many insects (Dh. 88). The following are 
instances of double quotation : Rdjd, *'gacchatha 
tumhdkam rdjdnam mama vacanena punappuna 
drogyam puechitvd ' rdjd tumhehi eaddhim mitta^ 
bhdtfam icehaUti ' vadathdti," dha, the king said to 
them, " Qo now, and having in my name repeatedly 
asked your king after his health, say to him, < Tlie 
king wishes for friendship with you'" (Alw. 1. 73) ; 
Bhikkhd dhaiksu theroMsa tase* dgamanakdra^m, 
***hohi bhante upatthambho kdtwh sdaanapag- 
gaham* iti vutte mahdr^a thero ehiti «o" t^, the 
priests told him what would induce the thera to 
come, (saying) " Great king, the thera will come 
if you say to him, ' Vouchsafe, venerable man, to 
be my support in restoring the faith'" (Mah. 40). 
Twice in Mah. I find iti placed within the sentence 
quoted : Ditthd piffhtti verino, saying, " We have 
seen the last of our enemy " (Mah. 261) ; " Paticca- 
kammam n*atthtti kilifthaih cetanam vind" thero 
bodheH rdjdnam, the thera informed the king, 
" There can he no guilt without a sinful intention " 
(Mah. 41). Sometimes iti may be rendered by 
"namely"; Sddhukifanaeattdham aattdhath dhd' 
tupdjanam ice addhamdsam khepetvd, having 
passed a whole fortnight, namely a week of solemn 
jobUee and a week of homage to the relics (Mah.l 1) ; 
Ta8ia tnrajafk vitamalath dhammacakkhnm uda* 



( 162 ) 


pddi yark kinci samudayadhammath iobban tani 
ntrodhadhamman H, he received the pure and 
spotless Eye of the Law, viz. the knowledge that 
whatsoever has an origin has also an end (see 
Dhammacakkhu), IH sometimes stands at the 
beginning of a new paragraph, bat it always refers 
to something that has gone before : thns at Mah. 
124 the writer, after enumerating the first temples 
buUt by the king, goes on to say, iti etdni kammdni 
so Lankindo pathame yeva vassamhi kdrdpesij 
" these works as above enumerated the king of 
Ceylon built in his very first year": again, at 
Has. 25 the author, after relating the story of king 
Dhammasodhaka, concludes thus, iti amitasirim 
vd jivitam vd pi santo na sumariya pasattha' 
dhammam evdnucaranti, " thus (i.e. as shown in 
the story just related) good men, forgetful of bound- 
less prosperity, or even of life, perform acts of 
distinguished piety" (com p. Mah. 144, 149, 234, 
etc., where a moral is drawn from the events of the 
king's reign). Sometimes two t^'s come together : 
*'puggaldnam visankhdragatdnan ti iti imam tivi' 
dham vivekam brdheyya/' the threefold seclusion 
thus described let a man cultivate (Dh. 270, oomp. 
B. Lot. 866) ; Atthiparaloko ti iti eemampucchoH, 
if you ask me thus, ''Is there another world ?**; 
Samano Crotamo sabbapdnahhtttdnukampi fjthara' 
ttti iti vd hi puthujjano vadeyya^ or for instance 
the worldly man would say, " The Samara Gkitama 
lives compassionate towards all beings"; jitthi 
idappaccayd jardmarafLan ti iti putfhena satd 
Ananda atthtti assa vacaniyam, Ananda, by a 
person asked this question, " Do decay and death 
proceed from an assignable cause?" the answer 
should be givezi, "They do." Iti is generally 
placed at the end of a book^ or of a chapter or 
section, to introduce the title : aham evdti kaccha- 
pajdtakamt • . " was I myself " The Kacchapa 
Jataka (F. Jdt. 19, comp. Dh. 99); nkkhitcMan ti 
bhikkhupdtimokkham nittkitam, . . must be learnt 
End of the Bhikkhupdtimokkha (Pat. 24). But it 
is sometimes omitted, see for instance Kb. 6, Ab. xi, 
BUI. 77. With foil, kho : Iti kho Ananda veda- 
nampaticca tanhdy verily, Ananda, desire is caused 
by sensation. With foil, api : Iti pi so bhagavd, 
behold the Blessed One (B. Lot. 861) ; tumhehi 
bh^tam bMitato patijdnitabbam iti p^etath bMtam 
itip^etam taccham atthi c*etam a$nhesu samvijjati 
ca pan* etam amhesu, you must recognize the trutli 

as truth, saying, This is true, this Is real, it is 
among us, it exists among us ; Tassa evam assa^ 
bherisaddo itipi, muiingasaddo tlipt, sankhapofta- 
nadeitdimasaddo iti pi ti, he should think thus, 
** 'Tis the sound of tomtoms, 'tis the sound of 
taboars, 'tis the sound of chanks and drums." 
Sometimes iti is followed by the particle Ao, with 
little or no addition to the meaning : Iti ha te 
ubho dcariyantevdsif thns (as above described) 
these two, the master and the pupil (for other 
instances see Dh. 214, G<^. Ev. 6). The foil, are 
instances of the various ways in which t^ and ti 
are affected by sandhi : ice dha = t^ dha (Mah. 59), 
tec evam = iti evam (Mah. 13, 159), ice anena ^ 
iti anena (Sen. K. 201), cdH = ca iti (Dh. 414), 
kvactti^=:kvaci iti (Sen. K. 207) » ujJugaiesM^= 
ujjugatesu iti (Dh. 288), itv evam = iti evam (Q. 
Or. 15), tv eva = ti eva (Dh. 93), ty ayam = H 
ay am (Alw. I. zl), f dha ^H dha (Mah. 25). IH 
sometimes remains unaltered before a vowel, or 
even elides the foil, vowel, e.g. H dha (Dh. 349), 
t^ 'ssa (Sen. K. 209, Dh. 290). For the form ^t 
comp. remarks at the end of article API. 

Iti (/.), Calamity, accident [|^]. Ab. 401. 

ITIHA, see Iti. 

ITIH A (/.), Oral tradition [^ + f + W] • Ab. 
412 ; Att. 7. 

ITIHASO, Legendary lore, tradition, history [l[fw- 
fT^]. Ab. Ill ; Alw. L Izx. 

ITIPI, see IH, 

ITIVUTTAKAlVr, This is the name of the fourth 
book of Khuddakanikdya [|[t^ + ^91i^^ '^^+ 
^]. It contains a hundred and ten stitras be- 
ginning with the words ''Thus hath Buddha 
spoken," vuttaih h^etam Bhagavatd ti ddinaya^ 
ppavattd dasuttarasatam suttantd itivuttakan H 
veditabbam. E. Mon. 169, 172; B. Int. 60; 
Alw. I. 61. 

ITI VUTTAM, A legend or tradition [\fi( + ^H = 
ir^]. Ab.943. 

ITO (p.p.p. eti). Gone [f;^ = 1^]. 

ITO {adv,)f Hence; from this world; from this 
time; ago; here [l[?|^]- KhnMro iio Kakh 
tigdmo hoHf how far is Kalasi from this place? 
(Alw. I. xlii). Ito c* ito ca vidhdvatit runs this 
way and that (F. Jdt. 4; Has. 29). Ito €^ Ho 
vibbhami, wandered hither and thither (Has. 19). 
Ito ti^fMth mdsdnafk aeeayena parinibbdyissdmi, 
at the end of three months from this time I shall 




attain NirW^a (Sea. K. 321). Ito ekanatmtikappe 
FipoMti ndma sammdsamhuddho loke uppajji^ 
ninety-one Isalpas agt> the snpreme Buddha named 
Yipattin was born into the world (Ditto). Ito 
m dd k mkt hereafter (Mah. 72). Ito patfAdy a, henee- 
fiutli (Ras.dO). Ito cutot having vanished from this 
world. Devalokam ito gatd^ gone from this world 
to heaven (Mah. 178). Ito tutvd na amutra 
mkkkdtdf not one who having heard a thing here 
repeats it there. Ito^-dyati^ from this time forth 
(Gl. Gr. 11; n is a f%phonic addition). 

]TrARO(ai(;.), Low, poor, mean [l[^^]. Ab.699; 
Dh. 210. 

riTHAGANDHO {adj.). Fragrant [l[? + ^Q^]. 

ITTHAGARAA, Women'sapartment, seraglio [-^ 
+ IRTT]- Ab. 215 ; Dh. 127. 

ITTHAKA (/.), A bride, a tile [f^qn]- Ab. 220 ; 
Mah. 152, 175. Ifthakawiddhaki, a bricklayer, 
a mason (Mah. 174, 223). Comp. Itfhikd. 

ITTHAKAMAYO {adj\). Made of bricks [X^Wl + 

TRT]. Sen. K. 401. 
ITTHAft (adv.), Thns [l^iTH]- Ab. 1158. 

riTHAA (adv.)y As one wishes [lCS9(=:i:^]. 

Ab. 4e0. 
ITTH AMBH tTTO (ii4;.),Sttch [jJffH^ + Wf = ^] . 

Ab. 1174. 
ITTHANNAMO (a^'.). Having snch and such a 

name, so and so [l[?i|9( + ^TrR^]- P^t. 1; 

Has. 70. 

riTHATTAA, The present condition, esdstence in 
tilts world [l[?^1^9 or ettha, + ^] . So tato cuto 
Uthattam dgato, haWng left that world and come 
to tluB worid (B. Lot. 481). Itthattabhdve thatvd, 
living in this world (Dh. 251). Ndparam itthattdya, 
I have done with this world, lit. there is no further 
need for this state of things (B. Lot. 480). 

ITTHI, and llTHl (/.), A woman ; a female [^] . 
To eompensatefor the additional syllable the final 
i is generally short, e.g. see Dh. 178, 205, 234, 
2B4, 316, 397. For iHhi see Ab. 230, Dh. 248, 336. 
ItihibkdvOf womanhood (Dh. 205). ItthipwnaOif 
ma&e and female, or masculine and feminine (Sen. 
K. 966, see i*K«ur). MAtAn'ecam, coitus (Mah. 48). 
Ittk^mrimsaddo, voices of men and women (Dh. 
3M). SMfflOtiii poneiwa/t/^AlAi, together with five 
hundred ladies (Mah. 85). 

ITTHIKA (/.), A woman [^ + 1|T]. Mah. 129. 

ITTHIKA (/.), A brick or tile [^[fB^] . Mah. 107. 
ItthikatMiddhaki, a bricklayer (Mah. 222). TambO' 
lohitthikdhi chddito, roofed with brazen tiles (Mah. 
164). Comp. Itthakd. 

ITTHILINGAA, Pudendum mnliebre; feminine 
gender [^ + fmf[] . Dh.204. 

ITTHINDRIYAM, The female principle or sex 
[^iV + ^ft^] • See Indriyam. 

ITTHIRATANAM, Beautiful or noble woman 
[^ + T^] . Dh. 205. Itthiratanath is one of 
the seven ratanas or treasures of the Cakkavattin 
(B. Lot. 581, it is his consort or empress, see Man. 
B. 127). 

ITTPHO (p.p.p. icchati), Desired, good [X^ = 1[^] . 
Ab. 697. Itthavipdko, desired or satisfactory result 
(Ab. 803). Itthattho, desired object, advantage 
(Ab. 727). AnitthOf unpleasant. Neut. ittham, 
a boon (Ab. 810). 

IVA, and VIYA, and VA (parf.), Like, as \jJ^y 
and Jf\ . Ayafk samano gihi viya dhdvati, that 
qrama^a is running like a layman (Dh. 235). 
jisunanto viya, as if he did not hear (Dh. 158). 
Kim mya, like what ? (Dh. 409). Md vo nalafk 
va 9&to 'va mdro bhaf^i punappunam, let not M&ra 
crush you again and again, as the torrent crushes 

* the reed (Dh. 60, 9oto *va^= soto eva). Iddhihi 
viya nimmitam, as if created by supernatural power 
(Mah. 242). Dukkho bdlehi tamvdto amitteneva 
sabbadd, living with fools, as with an enemy, is 
ever paininl (Dh. 37). With foil, evam : Phald- 
nam iva pakkdnam niccampapatandbkayam evam 
jdtdnam maccdnam niceam maranato bhayam, as 
ripe fruits are in constant danger of falling, so 
mortals are ever in danger of death (Das. 5). 
The form viya is either a metathesis of iva (via, 
viya), or we must suppose a transitional form 
yiva (like yeva for eva), of which viya is a 
metathesis; of these two views I incline to the 
latter. The foil, are instances of sandhi : puppham 
iva (Dh. 9), tV otatam = iva otatam (Dh. 29), 
aggtva =: aggi iva (Db.6), bandhusseva, kokildyeva 
= bandhu8aaiva, kokHdya iva (Sen. K. 207; F. Jit, 
49), v' amhamayam = va amhamayam (Dh. 29). 


JAGGANDHAKIYO (adj.), Gonnected with being 
bom blind [^fHipCf + kiya"]. Sen. K. 394. 

JAGGANDHO (adj.). Born blind [^rm'^El]. Sen. 


(164 ) 


JAGGO (adj.). Belonging to a family [wm]- I>b. 
70. H(n^facco, nihlnajacco, of low caste (Das. 42 ; 
Dh. 275). 

JAOARATI, To wake, to watoh [WT^]- P^pr. 
jdgaram (Db . 8, 1 1 ), jdgaramdno (Dh. 41). P.p.p. 
neat. y<f^iirt7am, waking, vigil. 

JAGARIYA(/.), Waking, watehing.vigil [UTIT^]- 
Ab. 768 ; Alw. I. zxxiv. 

JAGARO, Waking, vigil [^mTT]- Ab. 768. 
Bahujdgaro, very watchful (Dh. 6). 

JAGATi (/.), The earth; the floor of a terrace 
[^annf^]. Ab. 182, 997. Jagatipdlo, a king 
(Ab. 334). Jagatippadeso, region or country of 
the earth (Dh. 23, 295). 

JAGGATI, To watch [Wf^ ] . Dh.201. See JdgaratL 

JAGHANAM, The buttocks [^f^lf]. Ab. 272. 

JAHAPETI {eaM9, next), To canse to leave. 

J AH ATI, To leave, to forsake, to renounce [1(T]- 
Ras. 77 ; Dh. 17. HUvd kdme, forsaking lust 
(Dh. 16). Hanud tm pallalam hitvd, like swans 
who have left their lake (Dh. 17). Jimiafhj.^ to 
die (Dh. 95). To leave behind; to distance (Dh. 6). 
Opt. Jake (Dh. 40). Perf. jahdra (Sen. K. 445). 
Put dtm. jahwatk (Dh. 95). Ger. At^ (Dh. 6, 
86, 38 ; Mah. 2S),jahitvd (B. Lot 886 ; Dh. 277, 
432). Inf. yaAihim (Dh. 91). Pass. Aifya^i, to be 
lost, to diminish, to decay, to perish (Dh. 83). 
Pass. aor. ahdyatha. A pass. hfyoH is given at 
Sen. K. 459. P*p-Pi h(no (see sep.), jahito 
(Kh. 9). P.f.p. heifyo, hdiabbo. Cans. hii^H, 

JAHO (a^\), Iieaving [comp. H^^]* Sabb^uyaho, 
lea^ng all. 

JAJJARITO (adj\), Weakened [tf^Jlf^]. Dh.80. 

JALA (/.), A flame [STRTT]. Ab. 35, 872, 1102; 
Mah. 38, 108 ; Dh. 309. 

JALABU (n.). The womb [iRl^] • Ab. 239 (given 
as a synonym of gabbhdiayo), 

JALABUJO {adj,)f Bom from the womb, viviparoos 
[H^J^]. Ab. 741 ; Man. B. 441. 

JALACARO, A fish [W9 + ^ ] . Ab. 671. 

JALADAYAKO, a golden vase [iTV + i^nm]. 

Ab. 359. 
J ALADH Arc, a tank, a reservoir [im + W^tTT] * 

Ab. 677. 
JALADO, A rain-doud [9|ir<i[] • 
J ALA JO (adj.), Water-bom [^^ + H]. 

i]. Ab. 544. 

jALAKAft, A bud ; a net [ 

Mah. 179. 
JALALAYO, a reservoir, a lake [wm + 

Ab. 658. 
JALAM, Water [mr]. Ab.66L 

JALAA, a net; a web; a window or lattice; 
ticolation; a multitude, quantity, accamulafion ; 
intricacy; illusion [WTW]- Ab. 216, 631, 948. 
A fish-net (Ab. 521). A fowler's net (Dh. 82). A 
spider's web (Dh. 62). Ayojdlam, or UkajiUuk, 
an iron network (Mah. 169; Dh. 219). Sdkhdfd- 
lam, tangled branches (Ab. 947). Qirfjdlam, a 
chain of mountains (Alw. I. c). KnkkifUkqjdlatk, 
a row of bells (Dh. 191). Dukkhajdlaik, a series 
or accumulation of suffering's (Att. 197). Difthifd' 
lam^ a web of heresies. Bi Lot 573 ; Dh. 45, 375. 

JALANIDHI (m.). The ocean [W« + f)ff«V]. 

Ab. 659. 
JALAPETI (eaui. jalaH), To canse to be kindled. 

Mah. 220. 
JALASAYO, a tank, lake, reservoir [l|ir + 

^l[ir]. Ab. 677. 
JALASUTTI (/), A bivalve shell [mT + ^[f^]- 

Ab. 676. 
JALATI, To bum, to blaze, to glow, to shine 

[B^]. Alw. N. 36; Das. 2, 21, 39; Dh. 303; 

J A(>ATTAA, Dullness, stupidity [^HRV]- Ab. 1048. 

JAL ATTHO (adj.), Living in the water [^RT + W] • 

Mah. 6. 
JALETI (eau$. jalati), To kindle [«||f|<irj| = 

BEf^]. Dipam j., to light a lamp (F. J&L 6; 

Mah. 196). AggUhj., to light a fire (Dh. 153). 
JALIKA (/.), A coat of maU [wrf^W]- Ab.378. 
JALIKO (a4; Of Living by nets, a fisherman, a fowler 

[Wrf^]- Ab. 514, 670. Jdliko appears also to 

mean << netted," <* snared'' (Sen. K. 391 i CL Gr.91). 
JALINI (/.), Desire, lust [wrfM^]- Ab. 168; 

JA(X) (a4j:). Dull, stapid [^|^]. Ab. 721. 

JALOGI, Toddy, the yet nnfermented, or only partly 
fermented, juice of the palm. P4t. xli; Mah. 15. 
The etymology of this word I do not know. 

JALCKA (/.), A leech [W^]- Ab. 675. 

JAmAtA (m.), A daughter's husband, a son-in-law 

[^rrmg]. Ab. 247. 

JAMBAlI (/.), A dirty pool at the entrance to a 
village (see next). Ab. 684. 





JAMBALO, Mad [^nmir]. Ab.e03. 
JAMBAVAft, The fruit of the Jamba tree [WTm^] • 

Ab. 547. 
JAMBiRO, The lemon or lime tree [wfV^]- 

Ab. 6S3; Att. 86, 213. 
JAMBONADAft, see Jamh&Mdam. 
JAMBO (/.), The rose-apple tree, Eugenia Jarobu 

[^fW]. Ab. 547. Nent. jam^, the Jamba fruit 

(Ditto). Jambuphalatky a jamba frnit (Att. 197). 

JAMBUDIPO, Jambadvlpa, one of the foar Mahi- 
dfpas, it is the soathemmost, and includes India 
[in| + ^t^] - Oog. Ev. 19 ; Ab. 183 ; Man. B. 4. 
Wlieo opposed to SihaladipOy Jambadlpa means 
the eontinent of India (Has. 7 ; Mah. 58). Jamhu^ 
d^Htko (Mah. Izxxvii). 

JAMBUKO, A jadcal [Ulipi]. Ab. 615. 

[WTip[^»^mifn^]- Ab. 488; Dh. 41, 367,368; 
Att 211. 

JAMMAfi, Birth, appearance [iTVPl]* Man.B.2. 

JAMMO {iidj.). Reckless, worthless, low, con- 
temptible [WlUr]- Ab. 516, 729; F. J&t. 15; 
Att. 205. Fem . jammi, 

JANADHIPO,Aking[^r«r+'«fin]. Ab. 334. 

JANAKO (atff.), Producing, causing [ifira] . PaitU 
d^tmakOf cansing pleasure (Mah. 1). Janako, a 
fiUlier (Ab. 243). 

JANAKO (adj.\ Knowing (fr.jdndH). Sen. K. 525. 

J AN ALAYO, a maff&F' or temporary hail [^l|Vf + 

^niRr]. Ab.210. 
jANAtil { j6mdH\ Knowing, understanding ; 

wise; oonscionsly, inteotionally [^|l|iq^= 1|T]- 

GeD.«iddatj(fiiato(Dh.69). Pat. 16,87 ; Mah. 80. 
JANANAKO (cd;.), Knowing. Dh. 304. 
JANANAlil, Production, bring^g forth, causing 

[inra]- Bh.380. 
JANANAA, Knowing, understanding, learning, as- 
certaining (from KT)- Ab. 1173 ; Dh. 121, 140, 311. 
JANANi (/.), A mother [W^]. Ab.244. 
JANANO (a4^*.)t Plrodndng, bringing forth, causing 

[VIW]« 8en. K. 524 Fem.yoium/ (Mah. 10). 
JANAPADO, A country, province, district ; a people 

[W^ + 1V^]. Ab.l089; Mah.230; Alw.I.xlv. 
JANAFADO (o^'.). Living In the country, or in a 

tomtry [Wnnn[]' Dm. 38; Mah. 109, 170; 

Ate 204. 
JAnAPETI {eam$. JdndH), To cause to know, to 

ibow, io teach. Atidmamjdndpetffdf making him- 

self known, revealing himself as Indra (Dh. 192 ; 
oomp. F. J4t. 15, 47). Jdndpeudmi attdnafh, I'll 
let him know who I am (Mah. 246). Dh. 139, 159; 
Mah. 198. 

JANATA (/.), People, men, mankind [^ini?|T]* 
Mah. 109, 114; Alw. I. 112. 

JAnATI, To know, to g^n knowledge of; to com* 
prehend, to perceive ; to ascertain ; to recognize ; 
to be intelligent [1|T]* Yagsa gatim na jdnanti, 
whose next birth the gods know not (Dh. 74). 
Ajdniyay unawares (Mah. 244). Sabham pi bhd- 
Mathjdnantit they come to know the whole language 
(Alw. I. evil). KdrafMm jdnimsu, they learnt the 
cause (F. Jit. 6). Natvd parndfunh tvam yeva 
karohij find out the size yourself, and make it 
(Mah. 111). Samav^am Gotamamjdndki, find out 
about Buddha. Mam tandhdya bhd»at(H fiatvd, 
perceiving that he spoke of him (F. J6t. 19). 
Kdlam natvd, having ascertained the time (Mah. 
234). Udakassa tattabhdvaHi natvd, having ascer- 
tained that the water was boiling (Dh. 106). 
Tumhe jdndtha dkdtuyo, do you find out about 
relics (Mah. 104). Katagunaik ajdnanto, not 
acknowledging a good deed done (F. Jdt. 14). 
Mantetvdjdniisdmi, I'll consult with somebody and 
see about it (Dh. 82). Attdnatk oe phfamjmnd, if 
a man hold his life dear (Dh. 29). Pros. 4tm. 1st 
pen. jdne, I know (Mah. 251). Imperat. 2od 
pers. jdndhi (Dh. 44). Opt. jdmiyd, ja6fid,jdneyya 
(Sen. K. 447 ; Dh. 63 ; Has. 21). Fut. nastatU 
jdnissaU (Dh. 82, 141). Aor. aSmdH (Dh. 153), 
Jdni (Mah. 165 ; F. JUt. 6, 46). jdnam, 
jdnanto (Mah. 80, 126, 177 ; Dh. 425, see Jdnam). 
Ger. natvd, jdnitvd (F. Jdt. 53 ; Mah. 83 ; Dh. 85, 
S79), Jdniya (Mah. 133, 244). Inf. Mtum (Mah. 
260), jdnitufh (Dh. 188, 282). Pass. fidyaH (Sen. 
K. 461). Tambapanfitti fidyati. Is known as T. 
(Att. 7). Esdsoko ti ndyUtha, he was called Asoka 
(Mah. 35). P.p.p. hdto. P.f.p. ndtabbo, neyyo, 
jdnitabbo. Cans, fidpeti, Jdndpeti. An opt. 1st 
pers. pi. jdnemu for jdnetna, occurs pretty fre- 
quently in verse (see Gl. Gr. 12). Katkam Jdnemu 
tarn, how are we to know you ? (Dh. 96). Yathd 
jdnemu brdhmapam, so that we may know the true 
brahmin (Alw. N. 104). 

J ANAVADO, Scandal, gossip [^Hf + ^TT^] • Ab.l20. 

JANETI (cttus. jdyati). To bring forth, to produce, 
to beget, to cause, to give rise to [^l|€|f}| = ^V^]- 
Puttamjaneii, she brought forth a son (Mah. 130). 




Poiddam J., to caase pleasure (Mah. 1). Sanghe 
vivddamjanetiy Btirs up discord among the priest- 
hood. Mdnam janayiivd, recovering his self- 
confidence. Md ddni kodham janayittha, do not 
now let your angry passions rise (Mah. 72). Pass. 
janiyaiiy jannati. 

JANETrt (/.), A mother [inif^^]. Ab. ^244. 

JANGALO, A place overgrown with brushwood and 
thicket, a jungle [^Of^fW]. Ab. 183 (bh^hdgo 

JANGAMATI, To go about [^tlTRHt = ^V^] • Sen. 

JANGAM0(a4/.), Movable [^tlRT]. Ab. 711. 

JANGHA (/.), The leg [^I^]. The lower part 
of the leg from the knee to the ande (see Dh. 111). 
Janghamaggo, a foot-path (Ab. 191 ; Dh. 381). 
Janghdmattam khandpetvd, having dug down knee 
deep (Mah. 107). Dh. 237. 

JANI (/.), Loss, decay [^ITT^]* Ab. 763. Dha^ 
nafijdni, and dhanassa jdniy loss of wealth, im- 
poverishment (Dh. 301). Dh. 25. 

JANIKl (/.), A mother [nflRIT]' Ab. 244. 

JANIPATI (m.). Husband and wife [^ITfW + 1|f9f] • 

JANITA (m.), A father [nfif^]. Sen. K. 497. 

JANITABBO (pf.p.JdtfaH), That ought to be pro- 
duced [l|finnV= ^1^]- Sen. K. 497, 506. 

JANITABBO (p/p. jdndH), That ought to be 
known (Dh. 384). 

JANITO {p,p.p. janeti). Produced, caused. 

JAMA, see JdndH. 

JAf<^NATI (/MM«. Janeti), To be begotten or pro- 
duced. Bdl. 74. 

JAf^f^O (pf.p. jdyati)y To be produced [^m]. 
Bdl. 74 ; Gl. Gr. 144. 

JANNU, and JANU (n.). The knee [WT^] • Ab. 276. 
Ubhohi pdf^ijann^hi, with both hands and knees 
(Att. 8). Jdnumandalamf the knee-cap, the knee 
(Gog. Ev. 8; Pat. 117). Jdndhi fhattfd, placmg 
himself on his knees (Mah. 152). Dh. 237. 

JANNUKAA, The knee [;i|T^ + ^]. Mah. 156. 

Jannukehi patitvd, falling on his knees (Dh. 114). 

Jannukehi kari ffhdtu, let the elephant go down 

on his knees (Mah. 106). 
JANNUMATTO (adj.), Knee-deep [^«f + irPl]. 

Dh. 266 ; Ab. 742. 
JANNUTAGGHO (adj.). Knee-deep. Ab. 742. 

JANO,' A man, a person, a being, a creature ; men, 
people, the world; a number of people [^IW]- 
Ab. 93. Te dvejand, these two people (F. J^ 6). 
Dvinnam tifLfkamjandnath tmtarey in the company 
of two or three people (F. J&t 8). Taitka mm 
ramatf j€Mo, where the world finds no delight 
(Dh. 18). Ettake hdHftme pabbqfUe, when sncfa 
a number of my relatives have become ascetics 
(Dh.313). Dh. 16,44. 

JANTAGHARAA, a room in which a fir« is kept. 
At Ab. 214 it is ezphdned by aggisdld. At Mah. 
86 it is rendered by Tumour ** perambulation halL" 

JANTU (m.), A creature; an animal; a man, 
person [H^] . Ab. 93 ; Dh. 19, 20, 61, 63. 

JANU, see Jannu. 

JAPA (/.), The China rose [WH]- Ab. 580. 

JAPANAA, Whispering, muttering [^HPf]. 

JAPATI, To whisper, to mutter, to murmur [^^^* 

JAPPA (/.), Desire, lust. Alw. 1. 106, 107* 110. 

J APPANA A,, Speaking [iTOflf]. E. Mon. 71. 
Mantafappanamy muttering spells. 

JAPPATl, To speak, to mutter> to whisper [^1^]. 

Pdt. 105. 
JAPPITO (p.p.p. kst). Spoken, said, muttered 

[^iflffl!]- Ab. 755. 
J APPO, Words, speech [iRff] . Alw. N. 104. 

JARA (/.), Old age, decrepitude, decay [W^^]- 
Ab. 261 ; Dh. 25, 59 ; Alw. I. vii. 

JARAGGAVO, An old ox [^BT^IPT]. Ab. 496; 
Das. 31. 

JARAMARAI^AA, Old age and death, decay and 
death [^l^+^RT^]. B.Int 491. Jjardma- 
rafUf, exempt from old age and death (Das. 24). 

JARATA (/.), Old age, decrepitude [^1^+ m]- 

Ab. 251 ; Man. B. 400. 
JArI (/.), An adulteress [^IT^]. Ab. 238. 
JARO, Fever [^5«rT]- Ab. 329. 
JARO, a lover, a paramour [^TTT]. Ab. 240. 
JA^A (/.), Matted hair worn by oertidn ascetics; 

the tangled branches of bkmboos and other trees; 

desire, lust [WSl] • Ab. 162, 267, 947 ; Dh. 26, 70. 
JATABHDMI (/.), Buthphice [^^TH + ^]. 

Mah. 46; Alw. I. xliii. 
JATADHARO, An ascetic wearing clotted hair 

[^IZT-h^T]- Ab.440. 
JATAKAA, Birth, nativity ; a birth or existence in 
the Buddhist sense ; a jdtaka, or story of one of 
the former births of Buddha [^SfTTTl] • Jdtahm 




is dw tenth book of Khnddakanikiya, and contains 
^m hundred and fifty " jiUakas/' or tales of the 
former burths of Buddha. These tales, which are 
placed in the mouth of Buddha, all contain a moral, 
a warning, or an example, and in each the Bodbi- 
satta plays the best and most prominent part. 
Jitmkmk is also one of the nine Angas, or divisions 
of the Bnddliist scriptures according to subject, it 
indndes the five hundred and fifty J&takas. — Jdia- 
Mm 00 iaiih* eva dmm, there also were depicted 
j^takas, visE. illustrations of the jdtaka stories (Mah. 
164). Devadaiiamdrabbhabhdiitduisabbdnijdia' 
Mm, all the j4takas told about Devadatta, viz. all 
in which D. is represented as playing a part, e.g. 
the Javasaknnajitalca, in which D. was the un- 
grateful lion (Dh. 139, see F. J&t. 12). PanwUd- 
dkikdmi pmeajdtakoiatdni^ ^ym hundred and fifty 
jitnkas. B. Int. 61 ; E. Mon. 170 ; Man. B. 98 
and fiilL ; Alw. I. 61 ; Mah. 74. 

JATAA, see Jdio. 

JAtAPACCA (/.), A woman who has brought forth 

adifld [^rnr+irra]. Ab.235. 

JATAR0PAA, Gold [WRT + ^F?]- Ab. 487. 

JATASSARO, a natural pond, alake [iTRf + ^] . 
Mah. 65 ; Dh. 114. 

JATAVEDO, Fire [irnr^^]. Ab.33. 
JATHARO, The beUy [IRPC]. Att. 204. 

JATI (/.), Birth ; a birth or existence in the Buddhist 
sense, re-birth, renewed existence ; lineage, family, 
caste ; sort, kind, variety [^TTtTT]. Ab. 90, 792. 
Jitf/f, ''birth,** is one of the links of thepaftceoMun- 
f^^pddo (B.Int.492). Atitdsujdtdu, in former births 
(Kh.aO). JdHdhammo, subject to re-birth. Jdtijard, 
birth and old age (Dh. 43, 61, 62). Khi^jdti, 
birth is at an end, i.e. having attained arhatshlp I 
shall not be re-bom when I die (eomp, jdtikkhayo), 
Jdtijdtiyamy In each successive birth (Att. 229). 
JiHg^ttdm mivedayi, narrated to him her birth and 
lineage (Mah. 44). Jdtim osm jigucchantd, de- 
spising bis birth (F. Jdt 48). FUamwusoiaHko 
jdihfdt a hundred and twenty years old. lit. having 
a bnndred and twenty years from his birth. JdH^ 
M u m p am nO f high-born, of high caste (Das. 42). 
AiAIm^^H, low birth, low caste. Ta/ZyVr^, a species 
of creeper (Ab. 1030). Chforasga jdtim dastetvd, 
having shown the particular description of robe 
required (Vit. 76). MuU^jdH ca aftha id, and the 
above-mentioned eight sorts of pearl (Mah. 69). 

As the first part of a compound jdti sometimes 
means '' genuine," ''natural." Jdiima^ a real gem, 
or a gem of good water. Jdtihmgulakaik, real ver- 
milion (Alw. I. 76). Muddikdnam jdtiraso, the 
natural juice of the grape (P&t. 90). Instr. jdtijfdt 
Jaecd (Alw. N. 104, 108). 

JAtI and JATI (/l), The g^at-flowered jasmine 
[Wnf^]* Ab.576. ./if^ptt/ipAifftt, jasmine flowers 
(Mah. 86), 

J ATI {adj\)y Wearing matted hiur [^ifZ^]. 

JATIKIYO (adj.). This word is WTf^T. with the 
termination -kiya, and appears to mean "con- 
genital." Sen. K. 394. 

JATIKKHAYO, Cessation of existence by the attain- 
ment of Arahatta [HTflT + ^^] - I>h. 75, 434. 

JATIKO, and JATI YO (adj.). Belonging to a family, 
or species, having a particular nature or particular 
habits [^IVrfn + ^> <^nd ^] . Samdnajdtiko, of the 
same caste or species (Dh. 233). Manussajdtiyo, 
belonging to the human race, a human being (Sen. 
K. 394). Hatthijdtiyo, belonging to the elephant 
tribe (Ditto). DubbalqfdHko, weak (Das. 42). Suci^ 
Jdtiko Mo, the lion is a clean beast. AUuaJdtikd 
amhdkam dhitd, our daughter is of a languid dis- 
position (Dh. 233). Dubbacajdtiko, abusive (PAt. 5). 
Oog. Ev. 8, 11. 

JATIKOSO, Nutmeg [^ITnft + ^ftJQ' Ab. 304. 

JATILOy An ascetic wearing long matted hair 
[^rfZW] . Ab. 440 ; Dh. 119 ; Mah. 2. 

JATIMA (adj.). High-bom ; of good quality [HT- 
f7nVi9(]. Mah 86. 

J ATI MAYO (adj.). Caused by birth or species, con- 
genital [irrf?! + WV]' 

JATIPHALAA, Anutmeg [^nflT + lilT]. Ab.304. 

JATISSARO (o^"). One who remembers his former 
existences [WTfH + W^ ] • I^h. 226. 

JATISUMANA (/.), The great-flowered jasmine 
[mrfil + ^ + ^T^] . Ab. 676 ; Mah. 173. 

JATIYO, see JdHko. 

JATO (p-p^P' Jdyati), Bom, produced; caused; 
arisen, sprang up, grown ; become, being ; taken 
place, happened [fTHT = ^P(:]* Neut Jdtaik^ 
kind, sort, class, multitude (Ab. 630, 1077). AH- 
ydyajdthfdjdto, bom of a noble fiimily. Tava Jdtt^ 
nagarom, the city you were bom in (Alw. I. xlli). 
JdtabMmi, birthplace. Tatthdham Jdto, there I 
was bom (Alw. I. xliii). KhuJJdJdtd, bom hump- 
backed (Dh. 178). Andhojdto^ become blind (Dh. 





89). Tu^ijdto, become silent (F. Jdt. 47). Ft- 
kdhjdtOf evening has set in, it is late. Lake eka^ 
Maifhiyd arahoHtetujdtetu, when there were sixty- 
one Arhats in the world (Dh. 119). NadUotejdto 
nalo, a reed g^rown in a river stream (Dh. 409, 
oomp. 00). Hetfhd pddatalesu cakkdnijdtdni, on 
the soles of his feet there are cakras (B. Lot. 575). 
Rakkhitavanasapdo ndmajdtOf came to be named 
R. (Dh. 106). Tava iuariye jdte, when you attain 
royalty, lit. when royalty has arisen to you (Mah. 
222). Atthamhi jdtamki, when occasion arises 
(Dh. 59). Chandajdto anakkhdte, longing for the 
Ineffable, lit in whom a longing has arisen (Dh. 
39). Ussdhajdto, emulous (Mah. 51). TassdjdtO' 
kutdhalo, having conceived an ardent passion for- 
her, lit. in whom passion had arisen (Mah. 57). 
At(va Jdtapdmaffo, greatly delighted (Mah. 14). 
Bhayavegena Jdialomahanuo, his hair bristling 
with terror (Att. 205). Jdto macco, a mortal (Dh. 10 ; 
Das. 5). Adhamo migajdtdnam, the lowest of ani- 
mals (F. Jdt. 48). Sabhdni bijqfdtdni, aU l^inds of 
germs (Gog. Ev. 55). Ndndvidhena dhdrajdtetu^ 
with various kinds of food (Att. 206). 

JATTU (ii.). The collar-bone [^]- Ab. 264. 

JATU (n.), Lac [;^]. Ab. 305. 

JATU {adv,)y Surely, certainly [^n^]. Ab. 1140. 
PtMeveri ayamjdtu, this is surely an enemy in a 
former existence (Mah. 246). Najdtu, nevermore. 
Na hijdtu gdbhkaieyyampunar eti, verily he shall 
never again enter the womb (Kb. 16). 

JATUKA(/.),Abat[ir7JliT]. Ab. 646. 

JATUMAYO (a4f.). Made of lac, hicquered [iqj + 
Vre]. Sen. K. 401. 

JAVADHIKO, Afleet horse, aracer [9|lf + ^Vftm] . 
Ab. 370. 

JAVANIKA (/.), A curtain [^firf^]- Ab. 298. 

JAVANO («&".), Quick, fleet [iRflf]. Ab. 379. 
MtacJavanOf a racer (Ab. 370). 

JAY ATI, To hasten, to hurry, to run [^] . Dh. 234. 

JAVO, Speed [^. Ab. 40; Mah. 137. Instr. 
javena, with haste, speedily (Dh. 161, 234). 

JAyA (/.), A wife [irrin]. Ab. 237. 

JAYAGGAHO (adj.), Yictorious [m^ + Iff]. 

JAYAMPATI (, Husband and wife. Ab. 242. 
Comp*DvejMfampatikd,9L married couple(Dh.325). 

JAYANAA, Yictory [W9«|]. Ab. 761. 

J AYAPANAA, Drink of a victorious warrior [^^ 
+ m^]* Ab.398. TayodivMe Jay apdnam pirn, 
kept wassail for three days (Dh. 158). 

JAyAPATI (m.pL), Husband and wife [imi + 

irflf]. Ab.242. 
JAYASUMANAA, The plant Pentapetes Phttnieea 

[1^ + 1 + 'HWC]- Ab.575. 

JAYATI, and JETI, and JINATI, To conquer, to 

defeat, to win, to surpass, to exceed [f^j* Jayahg 

mahdrdjd, let the great Idng he victorion8(F. J4t. 9). 

Sabbaddnam dhammaddtuahjindtit the gift of tibe 

Law surpasses all other gifts (Dh. 64). Pres. 

jayaH, jeti, jindH (Sen. K. 440, 463). Opt. jeyya, 

jme,jineyya(Dh, 19, 286). Aor. ajeai, ajimi (Dh. 1). jay am, jayantOy jifumio (Dh. 36, 354). Ger. 

jetvdJitvdJiHiivd(Dh.S2,»56,286J33S; Mah.194). 

Inf. jetum, jinitum ( Ab. 880 ; Sen. K. 521). P.f.p. 

j^yyo, jetabbo, jimtabbo. P.p.p. jUo, 

JAYATI, To be born, to be produced, to grow, to 
spring up, to arise [^n(J • Affha onkmrdjdyiikaM^ 
eight shoots sprouted forth (Mah. 119). Puma 
bhedo ajdyatha, again a division took place (Alw. 
I. 64). Pemam ta$mim qjdyatka, affection far 
him arose in his breast (Mah. 24). Pres, jdyati, 
jdyate (Sen. K. 442; Das. 6; Dh. 13, 35, 50). 
OpLjdyetha (Dh. 11). Aor. qfani (Sen. K. 497)^ 
jdyi (Mah. 119), ajifyisi (Mah. 18, 20, 21), qfdyatka 
(Mah. 24, 164 ; Alw. I. 64). jdyamdno 
(Dh. 153). P.f.p. janitabbOfjanno. P.p.p. jdto, 

JAYl {a^»)t Victorious [9|f%P^]. Alw. I. x. 

JAYIKA (/.), Wife [imrr + T*T]. Mah. 82. 

JAYO, Victory, conquest, defeating [^Rf] • Ab. 40% 
761. Jayanddo, shout of victory, piean (Mah. 156). 

JE (interf.), Ohl Ab. 1139. 

JEGUCCHO (adj.). Contemptible, loathsome (from 
Jigucchd). Mah. 43. 

JENADATTI (m.), Son of Jinadatta [1I|V| + ^^ 
+ 1[]. Sen. K. 388. 

JETA (m.), A conqueror [%g]- €1. Gr. 31. 

JETABBO (pf.p.jayaH), To be conquered [%1pV 
+ ft|]. Ab. 379, 1022. 

JETAVANAJif, Name of a famous monastery at 
Sdvatthi, long the residence of Buddha, for whom 
it was built by Andthapi^^il^ i QAme of a monas- 
tery at Anurddhapura in Ceylon. Man. B. 218 ; 
Mah. 236, 239. 

JETI, JETVA, See JayaH. 

JETTHA (/.), Name of one of the lunar mansions 
[#«T]. Ab.59. 

JETTHAKO (atfj.). Chief, first, eldest [#B + ^i]* 
Jeffhakaidpato, the eldest a8oetic(F. J^t. 2). Masc 


(169 ) 


Jeftkah^ a chief, leader. Odm^'effkako, a yillage 
iMadoian ( Ab. 920). Cm^efihtJco^ a robber chief 
(Dh. 90> HMh^etthako and jetthakahatthU 
the leader of a herd of elephanto (Dh. 114, 157). 
Mkiftdtrnvoiokauaik DaMakatiherafeithakam, a 
thonsaDd arhats of whom Dasaka Thera was the 
senior (Mah. 29). Fern. Jeff hikd (Das. 1 ; Dh. 188, 

JETTHAMOLO, The month Jyaishtha [ J|9T + 

^]. Mah. 153; Dh. 351. 
JETTHO (adj.). Chief, first, best; eldest [^]. 

Ab. 254, 694, 918. Jeffhaputto, eldest son. 

Jeftko bhdtd, and JeifhabkM, eldest brother (F. 

Jit. 2 ; Kh. 13). Jefthacofuddlo, the headman of 

the Can4&U TiUage (Mah. 24). Masc. jeftko, a 

chiei; the eldest. 71Hs$a$aiajeffhay senior ]Mipil 

of three hundred (Mah. 28). 
JETTHO, Name of a month [4?]. Ab. 75, 918. 
JBTUTTARAA, Name of a town. Ab. 201. 
JEYYO (ii4;.). Better ; elder [Wrt^]. Ab. 1022. 
JBYYO (pjlp. jtnfoH), To be conquered [%^= 

Hi]. Ab. 379, 1022. 
JHAJJHARI (/.), Name of a plant. Ab. 598. 

JHALLIKA(/.), A cricket [f^lflnT]. Ab. 646. 

JH AMO (pp.p.jkdyaH), Consumed, burnt [^T^ ^ 
%]. Dh. 175,299. 

JHANAtir, Meditation, contemplation; religious 
meditation or abstraction of the mind, mystic or 
abstract meditation, ecstasy, trance [^^TW]. 
Ab. 171. Jh^a is a religions exerdse productive 
of the highest spiritual advantage, leading after 
death to re-birth in one of the Bralima heavens. 
Mid forming the principal means of entrance into 
the four PMbs. The four Jh&nas are four stages 
o# mystic meditation, whereby the believer's 
saind is purged from all earthly emotions, and 
detached as it were from the body, which remains 
ploaged in a profound trance. The priest desirous 
of practising Jliana retires to some secluded 
•pot, seats himself crosslegged, and shutting 
«at the world, concentrates his mind upon a 
single thought GhraduaUy his soul becomes filled 
with a supernatural ecstasy and serenity, while 
hb mind still reasons upon and investigates the 
nabject dMwen for contemplation ; this is the first 
Jhiaa. 8tiU fixing his thoughts upon the same 
sabject, he Aea frees his mind from reasoning 
and iavestigation, while the ecstasy and serenity 
remaiii, and this is the second Jh4na. Next, his 

thoughts still fixed as beforo, he divests himself 
of ecstasy, and attains the third Jbdna, which is 
a state of tranquil serenity. Lastly, be passes 
to the fourth Jh4na, in which the mind, exalted 
and purified, is indifferent to all emotions, alike 
of pleasure and of pain. The foil, is the full text 
of the four Jhibas : Idh' dvuso bhikkhu viviec^ eva 
kdmehi vivieca akutalehi dhammehi Mamtakkam 
aaviedram tnvekajampitUukhathpafkamt^kdnam 
upoMampajja viharati;viiakkavicdrdtum vupoiomd 
ajjhattam sampasddanam cetoMO ekotUbhdvam avt- 
iakkaik avicdraih aamddhijam p{tisukham duti' 
yajjhdnam upatamptQJa viharaii; pUiyd ca virdgd 
upekkako ca viharati saio tampqfdfio tukhan ea 
kdyeiM patiia^vedeti pan tarn ariyd deikkhanti 
upekkako iatimd sukkavikdri ti tatiyajfkdnam 
upasamptyja vikarati; 9ukka$M ca pakdnd du* 
kkkaua ea pakdnd pubbe ca aomanauadomana- 
udnam attkagamd addukkkatk aaukkam upekkd" 
tatipdrisuddkim catutikajfkdnam upaaamptyja 
vikarati. They are summarized thus : Fitakka' 
vicdrapititukkekaggatdaakitam paikamajjkdnarii, 
piUtukkekaggaididkiiam daHyiyjkdmuk, aukke- 
kaggatdiakitam toHyajjkdnarhf upekkekaggaid' 
sakitath catuttkajjkdnafk. Each of the first three 
Jh6nas is subdivided into three, the inferim*, the 
medial, and the perfect contemplation (patka" 
mqffkdnam parittathf pafkanutjjkdnam mqffki' 
math, pafkamajjkdnam papitam, duHyqjjkdtiam 
parittafkf and so on). Those who have exereised 
Jhina are reborn after death in one of the first 
eleven R6pa Brahma heavens, the particular heaven 
being determined by the degree of Jhiaa, attained. 
Those who have only reached the initial contempla- 
tion of the first Jhina are reborn in the Brahma- 
piirisajja heaven, the medial contemplation of the 
same Jhdna secures admission totheBrahmapuro- 
hita heaven, while the perfect contemplation is an 
introduction to the Mah&brahma heaven. Thus 
the three lowest Rdpabrahmalokas are peopled 
by those who have attained the first Jhdna. The 
next three are peopled by those who have attained 
the second Jhdna, th€ next three by those who have 
attained the third Jh4na, and the tenth and eleventh 
(Vehapphala and Asafifiasatta) by those who have 
attained the fourth Jhina. The remaining five 
R6pabrahmaloka8 are peopled by those who 
have entered the third Path (An^mimagga, see 
Bkdmi). The attainment of the fourth Jh^a 





gives the power of working miracles (iddhi). Five 
Jlidnas are fireqaently mentioned; they are thus 
summarized : VitakkavicdrapitiaukhekaggatdM-' 
hitam pathamajjhdnam^ vicdrapitUukhekaggatd' 
iahitath dutiyajjhdnam, pitisukhekaggatdaahitam 
tatiyajjhdnam, sukhekaggatdiahitam catuttha- 
It will be seen that they differ in no essential re- 
spect from the four Jh&nas, but are merely a more 
gradual attainment of the same mystic state, the 
ori^nal second Jh&na being separated into two 
stages. — ParihlnajhdnOj one who has fallen away 
from Jh&na,that is who has been prematurely roused 
from the state of mental absorption while practising 
this rite (Dh. 254). Jhdndbhifmdf supernatural 
power or Iddhi obtained by the exercise of Jh&na 
(Dh. 1 16). Caiukkapaneakajhdndnif the four and 
the %Ye Jh4nas (Alw. I. 80). Jhdnam nibbattetU 
to produce or enter upon mystic meditation (Dh. 
254). Dh. 67 ; B. Lot. 800-819 ; E. Mon. 261, 270 ; 
Gog. Ev. 18 ; see also the admirable accounts in 
Alabaster's Wheel of the Law, 192-195, and in 
Hardy's Legends and Theories of the Buddhists, 
178-180. See ArammafUitn, BrahmatokOyKasmam^ 
Samdpatti, Kammatthdnam, 

JHAPANAliif, Conflagration, consumption (see next). 

JHAPETI (caus. Jhdyati), To cause to be burnt, to 
bum, to consume [comp. the caus. forms ^M^lPl 
&n^ MlM^Rl g^ven by B. and R. under ^ and 
f^] . BrdhmafM pana nam jhdpetvd^ the brahmin 
having had the cremation performed (Dh. 94). 
Satire jdld utthahitvd matfualohitafh jhdpen, a 
flame breaking forth within his body, consumed 
his flesh and blood (Dh. 309). Sen. K. 338 ; Dh. 
354 ; Mah. 155, 198, 199, 210, 249. 

JHASA (/.), The shrub Uraria' Lagopodioides 
[imr]. Ab.588. 

JHA8ATI, To hurt [U^]. CI. P. Verbs, 16. 

JHASO, A fish [H^]. Ab. 671. 

JH AfALO, The tree Bignonia Suaveolens [iJTZlf] • 
Al). 563. 

JHAVUKO, The tree Tamarix Indica [IJT^]* 
Ab. 561. 

JHAYATI, To be burning, to burn, to consume ; to 
waste away [^] . Sdmavatigekam jhdyatiy S4ma- 
vati's house is on fire (Db. 176). Ji^nakoncd va 
jkdyanti khinamacche 'va pallale, they perish like 
old herons in a lake without fish (Dh. 28). Aor. 
jhdyi^ fnt. Jkdyissati, ger. jhdyiM (Dh. 177). 

V.^T,jhdyanto (Dh.l75), jhdyamdno (Gog. Ev. 53). 
Gehe jhdyamdne jhdyimsUf while the house was 
burning they practised Jh&na (Dh. 177i there is a 
play upon the words). V.p,^.jhdmo. Cau8.jA4pefi. 

JHAVATI, To meditate, to contemplate, to practise 
Jh4na or mystic meditation [IVJ]* Dh.66. 
Jhdyam (Dh. e7),jhdyanto (Dh. 6, 71). 

JHAYl (aty,). Thoughtful, meditating, practisiDf 

Jhdna [iBEn + T^ * ^^* ^' ^> ^' ^' '^- 
-JI, and -DI, and -JITO (adj.), Victorions [-^]. 
Sangdmaji, and $angdmajii0, victorious in fight 
(Dh.286). Jf(tfrq;i, conqueror of Mte. Patena^^ 
TY^lff^R^. Ranefito, victonous in battle (Ab.398). 
JIGHACCHA if.), Hunger [t^T^mTT]. Ab. 408; 

Dh. 37. 
JIGHACCHATI, To wish to eat, to be hungry 

[f^RIWfif = ^WC]. Sen. K- 434. P.p.p.yj- 
ghacchito, hungry (Ab. 756). 

JIGHAMO (at^.). Last; lowest; bferior, vile 
[iRrar]. Ab. 715, 1069. 

JIGIldSATI, To wish, to take. This desideratife 
would at first siglit appear to be Sansk. fofln^fil 
from '^ (comp. bkinuana ^ if^^n) i ^°^ ^^ ^ 
very distinctly referred by Kaccdyana to |[(AaratM 
gim 96, see Sen. K. 449) ; so that we must either 
identify it with f^f^^fH* ^^ suppose that a con- 
fusion has taken place between the two verbs. 
Alw. K. 14, 26, 28 ; Sen. K. 434, 445 ; CI. Or. lU. 

JIGOCCHA (/.), Disgust, dislike, loathing, cob- 

JIGUCCHANAA, Dislike, contempt [^f^^]* 
Ab. 1200. 

JIGUCCHATI, To dislike, to loathe, to despise 
[^T^^TO- Sen. K. 433 ; Dh. 373. At 
Mah. 43, devena deviyd edpi lajjdy' dnjigwehitd 
means I think, " she was disliked by the king and 
queen out of very shame.*' 

JIMHO (adj.). Crooked, oblique [fm^]. Ab.709. 
Jimhamdnaso, intriguing (Mah. 236). 

JiMOTO, A cloud [^aft^]. Ab. 47. 

JINALAYO, a Buddhist temple [1lv«r + ^ira^]' 
Mah. 259. 

JINATI, see Jayati. 

JINERITO (a^.). Uttered by Buddha [fim+ 
^fKjf(\ ' Dhammojinerito, the truth preached by 
Buddha (Has. 16). Jineritanayena, according to 
the teacliing of Buddha (Alw. I. xvi). 

JIMTABBO (pf,p.jindH), To be conquered (see 
JayaH). Dh. 101. 




JifijUKO, The Oo^d fthnib. Ab. 585. 

JI^AKO (adj.). Old, aged ; worn out, dilapidated 
[lik^ + ^]* Jhn^oko, an old man (Ab. 254). 
Jn^nak^mi gehdmi, dilapidated hoases (Db. 236). 
Mah. 220, 221 ; Alw. N. 120. 

J'DfNO{p.pp.jirati\ Old, aged; worn out, decayed, 
dil^iidated [^f^ = V]. J^tfifMy an old man 
(Ab. 254). Jii^fMva»anatk, old clothes (Ab. 203). 
Av4ae jifi^ pafwmkharit repaired dilapidated 
monaftteriea (Blab. 221). Dh. 28. 

JINO(a4;.),yietorion8[f^]. Sen. K. 484. Jino, 
a Baddba (Ab. 4). Ndrado Jino, the Bnddha 
N^nda (Mah. 1). Ootama Bnddha (Mah. 0, 22). 
No fimo, our Bnddha, the Bnddha of onr era, i,e. 
Gotama (Mah. 1, 0). Jinoidtanmh, the law or 
religion of Bnddha (Mah. 25, 71). JIudndya, ac- 
cording to the commands of Bnddha (Mah. 08). 
Jimapmito, a son or disdple of Bnddha, a pions 
Baddhist monk (Alw. I. M). Jiuaeokkam, the 
aatliority, or dispensation, or era of Buddha. 

JlRANAlir, Growing old, decay. Ab. 763 ; Dh. 316. 

JlRATI, and JIYYATI, and JlYATI, To grow 
<dd; to decay, to wear out; to be digested [H]. 
Cahkh4nd jirantU my eyes are worn out (Dh. 83). 
F'aithdm J(ranHf clothes wear out. BalitMddo 
JiraH, tbe ox grows old (Dh. 28). Pres. jhati 
(Dh. 366; Sen. K. 460), JfyaH (Dh. 179), jkfyati 
(Dh. 170, 383 ; Sen. K. 460). Imperat. Jiratu 
(Mah. 135). Jiram (a« Gr. 25), jiramdno 
(Dh. 310). 

JITI(/.), Victory [ftrt?!]. Ab. 76K 

JlTlNDRIYO, One whose senses are subdned, a 

Bi6hiorArhat[QnT + Tf^]- CUGr.80. 
JITO {P'Pp. jayati). Conquered, defeated, subdned 

[ftn|=: f%]. Sen. K. 385 ; Dh. ^ 10. See -JL 
jrlVAGAHAtir iadth). Taken alive [ ^im i fH ]- 

JUfogdhatk gafkhdH, to take prisoner alive (Mah. 

217)« Jhagdhafk gdhdpeti, to cause to l>e taken 

prisoner alive (Dh. 158 ; Mah. 250). 
JlVAKOyName of a certain medicinal herb [^fV^ni] • 

JlVAli^, see Jho and JhatL 

JIVANAA, Subsistence, livelihood, living [^1^]. 

Ab. 188,445; Dh. 385. 
JlYAf^JlVO, A kind of pheasant [^JM^ft^]. Ab. 

025; B. Lot 630. 
JPTANIt, and JiVATi (/), A certain medicinal 

l»lMit [lA^ni^]. Ab.504. 

JiVASUMANAtt, The China rose {wft^ + ^ + 
ipf^]. Ab. 580, there is a various readingyayo- 

Jl VATi, To live ; to maintain oneself, to get one's 
living [^i^]. Tarn bahum yam pijivari, 'tis a 
great thing that you are alive (F. J&t. 13). Hantvd 
Jhanty elaktu&karamigapdkkhino, get their living 
by the slaughter of sheep, pigs, deer and fowls 
(Ab.513).,y/t;amiiM». Jiva^ 
mdnakadamba, the live kadamba tree (Mah. 100). 
Jivamdnamhi bhdiari, in the lifetime of his brother 
(Mah. 250). Opt. j(ve (Dh. 20). The imperat. 
jiva, '* may you live," or as we should say " God 
bless you," was said when a person sneezed. 

JIVHA (/:), The tongue [ftf^T]. Ab. 150; Dh. 
12, 65 ; Man. B. 300. Jivhd is one of the Ayatanas, 
Dhatus, Indriyas ; see also Fmndftam, 

JIvI (adf.). Living [^Pl^iJ. DhammajM, living 
according to the law, righteous (Dh.30). DighajM, 

JiVIKA {/.), Life, livelihood, means of subsistence 
[^f^^l]* -Ah. 445; Dh. 142. Kankammefia 
jhikam kappeH, got his living by tilling the g^round 
(F. Jdt. 14, comp. Dh. 181). 

JiVITAKKHAYO, End of life, death [^fVf^ + 
^V^] . Jhitdkkhayatk pdpundti, to g^et killed, to 
meet with one's death (F. Jdt. 18; Dh. 104, 155). 

JlVITA*, Life [^JVPm]. Ab. 155; Dh. 20. 
JlvUam me dehi, save my life (F. Jit. 12). Sahd- 
ytusa jhntaddnam daisdmi, I will save my friend's 
life. Jiviiam labkhnha, our lives have been saved, 
lit. we have received back our lives (Has. 30). 

JIVITINDRIYAA, Principle of life, life, vitality 

[9ftftW + jfiXyi]' M*n- ^ 300, 408, 461 ; 
Dh. 373. 
JIVO (a4;.). Living [ffV^]. Mas. j(oo, and neot 
jham, a creature, a being; life (Ab. 03, 1103). 

JIYA, and JYA (/.), A bow-string [WfT]. Ab. 
388, 787. Jiydsaddam akd, twanged his bow- 
string (Mah. 78). Jiydmuttadhanu, a bow nn- 
strung (Mah. 217). Dh. 172. 

JIYATI, JIYYATI, see Jiratu 

-JO (a^-\ Born, produced, proceeding from, caused 
by [-^] • Suddhavamsajo, l)om of a pure lineage 
(Mah. 1 ). Sihabdhunarindajo, son of King Siha- 
bihu (Mah. 47). Singdrabhdvajd kriyd, actions 
caused by being in love (Ab. 174). Pupphajo rajo, 
the dost that comes from flowers (Ab. 545, pollen). 




Comp. A^ajoy Atrafo, Cittajo, Dmjoy EkaJQ^ 
Kamtnajo, etc. 
JOTAKO (a4;.), lUaminatingf, giviog lustre to, il- 
lastrating, explaining [^m]. Mah.71. Fein. 

JOTALATI (caus.Jotati), To illuminate [^Ifqlfl 

= ^]. Alw.1. 16; Sen.K.4d6. SeeJotayaiL 
JOTANAHL, illumination [^i^^fflf]. SdMonajoianam 

It' atthif religion gains no glory (Mah. 137). 

F'arasdsanajotano Lankdd(po, Ceylon illuminated 

by our glorious rell^on. 

J0TAN0(a4;.), Illuminating [iJYTnr]- Sen.K.47d. 

JOT ATI, To shine [^^ ^J^]- 

JOTAYATI, and JOTETI (caw. last), To cause to 
shine ; to illumine ; to glorify, to exalt [Wt^^fif* 
Qi^Tf^fTf = V?^, W(^] • So idsanamjotayiuatif 
he will restore the splendour of religion (Mah. 133). 
Dhamme Jotetvd, throwing light on doctrines 
(Dh.278). Mah. 126, 138, 150. Comp. Jotalati. 

JOTI (lA. and ».), Light; fire; a star or constellation 
[^iftfiWC, ^tRWC]. Ab. 33, 67. 884. Jotith 
tamddahaH, to make a fire. Ace to Ab. 884 JoH 
is masc. when it means " fire," and n^ut. when it 
means ''light" or "star." Jotipdadf^^ a burning- 
glass (made of crystal). 

JOTIKA, see Joiako. 

JOTIPATHO, The sky [O^tfTf^ + ^W] • Mah. 13. 
JOTIRASO, A oertun jewel, haying the power of 
conferring every wish [l^lfV^]* ^b* l^l* 

JOTISATTHAA, Astronomy [^VYfinC+irnST]- 
Ab. 110. 

JUHANAA, Offering, sacrifice (from next). 

JUHOTI, To sacrifice [y]. Sen. K. 445. P.p.p. 
huto, P.f.p. hotabbo, 

JUNH A (/.), Moonlight ; a moon-lit night [nfl?^] . 
Ab. 54, 69, 91 7. Juf^hapakkho, the moon-lit half 
of the month. 

JDTAA, and JOTO, Gambling, dicing [«1|=: 
f|[^] . Ab. 531 ; Dh. 286. J^takdro, a gambler ^ 
(Ab. 531). SeeDibbaH. 

JUTI (/.), Splendour, ray [^fff]. Ab. 54, 64. 

JUTIKARO {wy.), BriUiant [^igfjH + m^. 

J UTIM A (a4f.), BrUliant [^f^FR^] . Sen. K. 400 ; 

Dh. 16. 
JUTINDHARO, Light giver [^+ ^. Dh. 

JYA, see Jiyd. 


KA, see Ko. 

K ABALINKARO (iH^'.), Made into balls or moiitli. 
fills [VfW -h ^ITT]* According to the aoilogy 
of words like dafhUcarafut^ one would expect 
kttbalikdrOf and I am informed by 6nbh6ti diat 
this form is actually foand in some Burmab IfSS. 
Kabalmkdro dhdro Is a term for the ordinary 
material food which we take Into our bodies (see 
Abiro, and Man. B. 499). Dh. 28L 

KABALO, and -LAft, A mouthfol, a morMl, m 
much curry and rice or other food as is taken op 
with the hand and put into the month at once; 
food [VfW]. Ab. 466; Pit 22. HattkiM 
gafM kabtUdnif the elephant refoaed his food 
(Mah. 121 ; comp. Dh. 57). 

KABARO (dM&'O, Mized,oonfu8ed,variegated[^n^* 
KabaraechdyOf giving scanty shade (Dh. 222). 
KabaramofUf the masiragalla stone (Ab. 402). 

KABBAKARAI^AA, Making poems or ballads 

[m^ + WKM]^ 

KABBAKARO, a poet [f|T^ + WTK\* ^- ^^* 
KACAVARO, Sweepings, dust, rubbish. Ab. 224; 

Dh. 271. 
KAGCATI, To shine [W^J- Alw. I. zxiz. 
KACCAYANO, and KAOCANO, Nameof aiaoiou 

grammarian, author of the P&li grammar called 

Kacedyan^ipakara^^ttm [l||M|4|i|]. Alw. Lvi, 

ziv, zzi, zziz, 103 ; Sen. K. 387. 
KAGCAYANO (a4;\). Belonging to fiacdiyana 

[^VnOl^nf + ^]* Kaecdyanaik vydkarafj^^ 

K.'s grammar. 
KAGGHA (/.), A girdle; a girth ; the end of the 

loin-doth tucked into the waistband ; aaiodosore, 

aroom[lVin, ^[^n]- Ab. 365, 813. E^eekam 

boHdhitvdy girding np his loins (Dh. 284)« See 

KAGGHAKO, The tree Gedrela Toona [^^('l'^]- 
KAGGHANTARAA, a king^s private room or 

cabhiet[irfT + 'VWR:]- Ab. 215. 
KAGGHAPO, A tortoise [imptl]. Ab. 674. 
KAGGHO, The armpit; the end of the loindotfa; 

a spreading creeper; grass, weeds [liW]« ^^' 

264, 813. See Kacchd. 
KAGGHO, and KAGGHAA, Marshy land [1^* 

Ab. 187» 813. 
KAGGHU (/.), The scab [H^]. Ab. S27i 





KACCI {miemg^, part.)t Perhaps, rarely [^fffn|[» 
tee ^17]. Ab. Hd9, 1151. Kaeei mam 9amma 
Jhmkm nm odiced, I hope, good Jivaka, yoa are 
BoC deeeiving me. Kaeci nm bhoto kunUathf I 
hope, surt, yoa are well (Das, 25, oomp. Mah. 85). 
Kaeei *ttha parkuddkd^ are ye pure in this matter ? 
(Pit. 2, 08). 

KACO, a ^oeons earth or clay osed in making glass; 
glass; ophthalmia [WT^]- Ab. 910. 

KAGO, and KAJO, The strings of a balance or of 
a carrying pole ; a ** pingo ** or carrying pole, viz. 
a pole placed over one shoulder with a rope fiastened 
Co each end, to which a burden is attached; as 
modi of anything as a man can carry in a pingo, 
a man's load [W1^» ^n^]- Ab, 919. Aw&tattO' 
dake kdfe aith? dmnwk dine tHne, they brought 
every day dght men's loads of A. water (Mah. 22, 
eomp. 27, in both cases the Ind. Off. MS. has kdca). 
Ab. 929 has kdea, while 525 has kdja. 

KADA (adv.). When ? at what time ? [^V^] . Ab. 
1161 ; Dh. 98; Alw. I. zxi ; Sen. K. 311. 

KADAGI (adv,)f At some time, sometimes ; perhaps 
[lR[T + t^V^- Ab. 1146; Gog. Ev. 15; Mah. 
234. Kaddd mueeatif is sometimes liberated, may 
peiliape be liberated (Alw. I. 108). With opt, 
Kadiei jdmeyya, may perhaps know, Vtnd 
Mmghema dhdroA m4 bhuf{feiha kaddei pi, never 
once eat food without sharing it with the priest- 
hood (Mah. )58). 

KADAlJ (/•), The plantain w banana tree, Musa 

8a]Hentum ; a flag; a kind of antelope [l|^^]- 

Ab. 397, 589, 986; Mah. 99. Kadalimigo, the 

K. aatetope (Ab. 620). 
KADALIKA (/.), The plantain tree [^^flR^l]. 

Alt. 198. 
KADAMBAKAA, Abundance, plenty [lp^1i|l|]. 

KADAMBAKO, The tree Naodea Gadamba 

[^npn]. Att.86. 
KADAMBO, The tree Nandea Gadamba; quantity, 

abQadanee [if?^]. Ab. 561, 1092; Mah. 100. 

Madambapmpphavalli appears to be a sort of thorny 

creeper (Mah. 153). 
KADAMBO, Akindofgoose[lir^]. Ab.644. 
KADANNAA, Bad fi)od [1P[I|]. Sen. K. 380. 
KADARIYO («&'.), Avarldous, stingy, miserly 

[mpi]. Ab. 739 : Dh. 32, 40. 
KADARO, The white Mimosa [H^]. Ab. 567. 

KADASANAA, Bad food [^-f ^Vipi]. Sen. 

KADDAMEYYO (adj.). Muddy [l|^ + JU(]. 
Sen. K. 388. 

KADDAMO, Mud [m^]. Ab. 663; Dh. 18; 
Mah. 107. 

KA^QHANAA, Resigning, rejecting [iil(li]. 
Jina88a kaddhanam, Buddha's self-denial in fore« 
going Nirvd^a until he attained Buddhaship 
(Mah. 75). 

KA^DHATl, To draw, to drag [V^]. 
haddham (Mah. 137). Gomp, dkaddhati, apa- 
kaddhati, anukaddhanam, nikkaddhati, samd" 
kaddhoH, sankaddhati, upakaddhati, ukkaddhati. 

KAHAA (adv.). Where? whither? Ab. 1160. 
Kaham ekaputtaka, where art thou, my only son ? 
(Dh. 05). Kaham lacchdmi dhdtuyo, where can 
I obtain rdics ? (Mah. 122). Gomp. Kakim. 

KAhAPANIKO (adj.). Worth a kahdpa^a \mk[' 

KAHAPANO, and -^AA, A certain wdght; a 
certain coin [ *||Mmn] . Ab. 481 ; Sen. K. 350 ; 
Dh. 346. We learn from Vkt. 80 that the coin 
called kakdpana was either of copper, of silver, or 
of gold. It was no doubt originally a karshipaya 
weight of one of these metals, and would there- 
fore vary greatly in value according to the metal 
it was made of. There was a copper kahipa^a 
which was probably worth about a penny (see B. 
Int. 508, Mah. 15). But the context sometimes 
shows that a gold coin is meant (e.g. see Dh. 34, 
Mah. 157)* In such phrases as Mtam me dhdra- 
yaii, *'you owe one a hundred pieces," hatihi' 
kkhandhe sahassam thapetvd, " putting a thousand 
pieces on the back of an elephant," the gold 
kahdpa^a is probably meant. 

KAHATI, see Karotu 

KAJJALAft, Asortof collyrium [ipOfW]. Ab.306. 

KAJO, see Kdco. 

KAKAGO, A saw; the plant Gapparis Aphylla 

[IT^W]. Ab. 528, 580. 
KAKALI (/.), A soft sound in music [^mNft]- 

Ab. 137. 
KAKAiyiKA (/.), A very small coin, a farthing 

[^ITfSlfllW]. Dh. 235, 333. 
KAKAJVTAKO, A chamdeon. Ab. 623. 

KAKAPAKKHO, a tuft of hair left on the shaved 
beadof achildorboy [lill| + l|^]. Ab. 267. 




KAKASORO, One who is as bold as a crow, a shame- 
less or impudent fellow [^TPR + HT] * ^^* ^ 

KAKATALIYO (adj\), Inconsiderate, aeeidental 
[WnWff^]. Ab. 740. 

KA£LATINDUKO, A sort of ebony, Diospyros To- 
mentosa [lVT^lf?|v^^]- Ab. 560. 

KAKI (/.), A hen crow [ifT^]. F. J£t. 49. 

KAKKARETI, To express disgust [ifP^+caus-V]- 

• F. ja.7,29]. 

KAKKArI (/.), A Icind of cucumber. Ab. 597. 

KAKKASO (adj.). Rough; hard; cruel [^«^]. 
Ab. 985 ; Dh. 72. 

KAKKATAKO, A crab [^pisi;]. Ab. 67& 
KAKKHAL0(a4;'.), Hard, solid ; rough ; harsh, cruel 
[nrs] . Ab. 714 ; Dh. 203 ; Mah. 233. 

KAKRO, Sediment; paste [q(^]. Ab.927. J^la- 
kakkOf a paste of ground sesame* 

KAKO, a crow [l|Tl|]. Ab. 638w Fern. kdkL 

KAKODUMBARIKA (/.), The opposite-leaved fig- 
tree, Ficus Qpposilifolia [^f^l + ^^'^^+ XV] • 
Ab. 572. 

KAKOLO, a raven [^n^it?r]- Ab. 639. 

KAKOLCKAA, Crows and owls [iRni + ^(^]. 
Sen. K. 306. 

KAKU (hi.). The hump of the Indian bull [^igS^]. 
Ab. 497. 

KAKUDHO, The hump of the Indian bull » an 
ensign or symbol of royalty ; the tree Terminalia 
Arjuna [HTJ^, ^^]- Ab. 497, 662, 879. 
Kahu^phalaniy kabubha fruit (Mah. 68). For 
the insignia of royalty see Rdjakakudhabhaf^atk. 

KAKUSANDHO, Name of one of the twenty-four 
Buddhas [^Ji^ + ^TOT] • Mah. 2 ; Man. B. 95 ; 
Dh. 117, 129, 344. 

KAKUTO, A pigeon or dove. Ab. 636. 

KALA (/.), A part, a fraction ; the sixteenth part 
of the moon^s disk \ a mechanical or elegant art ; 
a division of time [^(Wr] • Ab.53,875. PfMdya 
SdripttttoMia ft' agghanH tt^asam kahmy, they do 
not equal the sixteenth part of Siriputta's wisdom 
(Gomp. Dh. 13). Kaldkosallafh, skill fai the arts 
(Att. 114, sixty-four are spoken of, carpentery, 
cookery, architecture, jewelry, farriery, acting, 
dancing, music, medicine, poetry, rhetoric, gram- 
mar, prosody, astronomy, etc.). 

KAlA (/.), The plant Ipomcea Turpethnm [wm]* 
Ab. 690. 

KAfiABHO, AyoQngeIephaiit[^(fRT> ^TCH]- Ab. 

362. Hatthikala^ha (Dh. 105). 
KA^AGARU (».), Black Agallochnm [^irTW + 

^ip|]. Ab. 302. 
KAIiAHAMSO, The K&damba goo8e[^nir + ^]- 

Ab. 644. 
KALAHO, Quarrel, strife, battle [iRf ] • Ab. 400 ; 

Mah. 62; Dh. 103. 
KAfAKA (/.), A sqniriel [^IPiT]. Ab. 622. 
KALAKALO, A confused noise> buUabaloo [^IH- 

1|9]. Ab. 130. 
RAliAKAf^JAKO, A sort of Preta [l|Timr+ 1|]. 

Man. B. 59, 105. See Peta. 
K ALAKAIST^I (jfl). Adversity ; adversity personified* 

the goddess of advefsity [^IMiWiTj* Ab. 82. 

Kdfakai^^akufo, bird of ill omen. It is applied 

to women as a reproachful epithet^like our ** hag,* 

<< witch" (Dh. 241, 340). 
KALAKANTHAKQ, a gallinule [iRTlRinT^]. 

Ab. 644. 
KAL AK ATO (adj,). Dead [^nW4- VIT = V] • Kh. 

11; Dh. 153; Alw. I. xlii. 

KALAKIRI YA (/.), Death [l|nf + f^IRn] • Ab. 
404 ; Dh. 138, 336 ; Das. 30. 

KALAKKHANDHO, A sort of ebony, Diospyros 
EUnbryopteris [wnr+^IREr]« Ab. 560. 

RALAKO, a black grain in rice ; a black speck 
[^iPim]* Pit. 80. Suddhavatthani apagoia- 
kdfakam, white doth free from black specks. 

RALAR 0T^> Name of one of the Himalayan peaks ; 
a sort of poison [WTW + WZj*^ Ab. 607, 656; 
Man. B. 16* 

RALALAA, and -LO, The embryo Immediately after 
eonception [imv]* Ab. 239* 

RALALAA, Mud. Ab. 662 ; Dh. 117 ; Pat. 70. 

RAliALONA A, A sort of dark-coloured salt [inn 
+ W^Wr]- Ab.461. 

RALAMBARO, Name of a potherb [l|irim]- 
Ab. 698. 

RALANDARO, A squirrel [IMHIR]. Ab. 622. 

RALANDO, A squurrel. Mah. 249. Comp. last. 

RALANRO, Spot, mark, blemish, rust; defamatioik 
[^W|f]. Ab. 55, 1089. Fi$akalanko, plague- 
spot (Att 2). 

RALANTARAA, Lapse of time^ interval of time» 

period [nrwr+^nifT]- 

RAlANURALAM {ado.). From time to time [HTV 
+ ^ + ^B|Wr]. Dh.203. 


( 175) 


KAjLANUSArI (m.), A dark fragrant sandal wood 

RA(«APAKKH0, The dark half of a month, that 
in which the moon is waning [^TW + V[^]' 

KAIjAPAKO, a string or row, e.g. of pearls 
[^WnWl]. Mah. 179. 

KALAPARIYANTA8lLA]£r, TViking npon oneself 
the 8Qa precepts for a definite terminable period, 
as a day, or a month [l|Tir+l|^ + lf1ir]- 
Mnn. B. 492. 

KAI«ApI (m.), A peacock [iprrftpO- Ab. 634. 

KALAPO, a handle ; a hunch, a tuft ; a peacock's 
tall; a row, string, multitude; a quiver [if^rnT]. 
Ab. 389, 631, (135, 863. TifUikaldpo, a tuft of 
grass (F. Jii. 9). Muttdkaldpo, a string of pearls 
(Alt 911). Dh.211. 

KAX^ARO (ff4f-)> 'Tawny, tan-coloured [ifVlT]* 

KALA80, and «8l (/.), and -SAft, A waterpot, a 

cop [^Vint]- Ab. 457; CI. Gr. 52. 
KA^jASOKO, Name of an Indian monarch who 

reigned from 453 to 425 B.C., and was a supporter 

of the Buddhist religion. In his reign the second 

Qeneral Council was held [^mi + ^Vlft^]* 

Mah. 15, 19, 21. 
KAfjASUTTO, Name of one of the eight Narakas 

or hells [liTl| + ^]. Ab. 657; Man. B. 26. 
KAlATIPATTI (/.), The conditional tense [^nW 

+ ^filMHrt]. Sen. K. 429, 
KALATO, see Kdlo. 

KALATTAA, a wife [if^nT]. Ab. 237. 

KALAVA (04^.), Long, lasting [l«T?Rin]. 

KALAVADI (adj.). Speaking at the right time or 

appropriately [HTW + Wrt^'O- 
KAI^AVAKO, Name of a sort of elephant. 

Ab. 361. 
KALAVAI^AA, a very little salt [^ + W^mf]. 

Sen. K. 380. Clough says '* bad salt, insufficient 

in strragth " (Gr. 87). 
KALAVINKO, A sparrow [^Rrf^np]. Ab. 643 
KAfiAYASAliil, Iron [lITWRnr]. Ah. 493. 
KALAY0» a chick pea [IRTHT]. Ab. 451. 
KALAYUTTO, see Kdlo. 
KALE, see Kdlo. 
KALEBARA A, A body, a corpse [^RNT] . Ab. 

151 ; Mah. 137. Matdnaik kalebara^, bodies of 

dmd men (Mah. 230). 
KALENA, see Kdlo. 

KALI (m.). Sin, demerit, depravity ; name of one of 
the Yugas [lif^]. Ab. 1106 gives to ktdi the 
meanings pdpa and purdjayai I am in doubt 
whether the latter means simply "defeat," or 
whether it implies " losing at play," or ** a losing 
throw,* viz. a die with a low number upon it (comp. 
the difficult passage at Dh. v. 252, the true meaning 
of which has still to be determined). Alwis throws 
doubts on kali ever meaning " a die " or ** an un- 
lucky die" (Alw. N. 84). Kalisambhavo bhavo, 
existence the fount of sin. (Alw. I. vii). iV' atthi 
dosasamo kali, there is no sin like hatred (Db.36). 

KALIKA (/.), A flower bud [l^r^mST]. Ab. 544. 

KALI KO (adj.). Belonging to time [iVll^nV] • P^t. 

89, 116. 
KALILO (adj.), Choked, imperWoos, impenetrable 

r^ftrir]. Ab.719. 

KALIMA(a<i;.), Sinful [liflRni!]. O. Gr. 24. 

KALINGA (m,pL), Name of a people and country 

on the Coromandel coast [^ITf^nf » ^rf^nf]* ^^' 
184. Kdlikgaraiiham, the K. country (Db. 417). 
Kdlwgo, a K. prince (Ditto). 

KALINGARO, Chaff. Ab. 453. At Dh. v. 41 we 
find a neut. kalingaram, which appears from the 
comment to mean a log or faggot. Professor Weber 
refers it to fi|f^M» ^^^ see Kiltn\jo. Kalinga* 
ra$8a tuvaph ma&ne, a fig for you (Sen. K. 268). 

KALINGO,The fork-tailed shrike [iffwf] • Ab.644. 

KALIRO, The top sprout of a plant or tree, e.g. 
the "coconut cabbage," which is an article of 
food [llftt]. Ah. 549, 593 ; P4t 81. 

KALI YAA, a dark sandal wood from which a per- 
fume is made [^lnR^] • Ah. 302 (comp. Dh. 232). 

KALIYUGAA, see Yugam. 

KALLAHARAA, The white water-lily [1|Q(TT]* 

KALLAJ^O, see KalydfM. 

KALLATI, To sound indistbcdy [^]. CI. P. 
Verbs, 18. 

KALLO, and KALYO (a^\). Healthy; ready, pre- 
pared; skilful; possible [^m]* Ah. 331, 983; 
Sen. K. 518. Kallam nu tena tad abhimanditufk^ 
would it be possible for him to enjoy it ? KdUaeUto^ 
with a mind pliant or prepared to receive the truth. 
KallacUtatd, readiness to receive the truth. Neut. 
kalla^, dawn (Ab. 68). Adv. kallaih, at dawn 

^ (CI. Gr. 74). 

KALLOLO, AbiUow[infNr]. Ah. 662. 




K ALO (a4;.)> Low, soft, indistinct [l|fr] - Ab. 137. 

BLALO, Time ; riglit time, due season ; meal time ; 
death [inw]- Ab, 404, 1082. Gacchante kdle, 
as time goes on, in coarse of time (Alw. L cvii, 
74). Uttarakdlo, future time (Ab. 86). Kdl- 
addhdnanif time and distance (Sen. K. 342, see 
Addhdnam). Ettakam kdlam^ all this time (Dh. 
193 ; Mah. 246). Toimitk kdle^ and tena kdlena, 
at that time (F. Jdt 16 ; Sen. K. 339). Ptifha- 
mamahdiangitikdle, at the time of the first great 
rehearsal. Dhammam ntnanto kd^anh vUindmetif 
spends his time in hearing the Law. KdlaytUta, 
timely, appropriate (F. Jdt. 19; kdlayuttafk at 
Alw. I. 92 seems to be an adv. meaning ** for a 
time, temporarily "). Attano vaeanakdle appatte\ 
when the time for him to speak has not come (F. 
J6t. 50). Yuddhakdlam apekkhanto, waiting for 
the right time to begin the campiugn (Mah. 64), 
Kdle akdle vd, in season or out of season (F. Jdt. 
50). Kdladdnathf a gift given at a particular 
season (E. Mon. 82). Kdlena kdlam, from time 
to time (Dh.l 53 ; Alw.N.36). KdloM^ eva utthdya, 
having risen betimes (P&t. xx). Loc. kdle and 
instr. kdlenOf at the right time, in due season, in 
due course (Mah. 23, 46, 70, 126; Kb. 5). The 
loc kdle at the end of a compound may often be 
rendered by ** when " : Attano carakdle, when he 
was a robber, lit. at his time of being a robber 
(Mah. 209) ; Tassa daharakdle^ when he was an 
infant, in his infancy (Ras. J2j Alw. I. cvii) ; Ta»9a 
hahigatakdle^ when he was gone out (Dh. 300) ; 
for other examples of this construction see Dh. 93, 
05, 176, 199, Das. 3. Mayd laddhakdlatopatthdya, 
ever since I got it, lit. from the time it was obtained 
by me (Dh. 199). Vpardjaua pabbajjdkdUtto pa^ 
bhuHf ever since the sul>-king embraced the ascetic 
life (Mah. 36). Kdlam droeeti, and bhattakdlam 
drocetif to give notice that a meal Is ready, to 
announce a meal (B. Lot. 362 ; Mah. 7). Dinner 
seems to have been announced by merely saying 
kdh, " it is dinner-time.'' Kdkak g^hoieti, to sound 
the call of refection, to proclaim in a loud voice 
that the priests' meal b ready (M^h. 167» 195). 
Dhammauavanakdiam or dhammakdla^ ghoteti^ 
to sound the church call, to proclaim that it is 
time to hear the Law (Mah. 81). Kdlatk karoti, 
to die (F. J4t. 2; Dh. 95; Alw. L xlv). Kdla- 
kiriydf death. Kdlakato, dead (perhaps also kdlam 
kato or kdloAkato, see Das. 20). 

KiliO (a4f.), Kack, dark blue, dark [l|Tir]. Ab. 
96. Fem. kdfi, kdfd. Kdfapakkha, the dsik or 
moonless fortnight of the month (Ab. 74). Kfs- 
kokilo, the black cuckoo (F. J4t. 49). SSm kd/mk 
uddhu nttddwaf^9u»m, pray is it blade, or is it bbe^ 
or some other bright colour ? (Dh.l93). Frequentlj 
spelt kdla; for kdfa see Dh. 102 {kdpyakkMff), 
118, 146, 232 (kdliya), 340 (kdfaka^fd), Ab. 308, 
461, 644, 657; at Mah. 15, 19, 21, the Ind. Off. 
MS. reads Kdfd»oka, 

KALUSIYAA, Pollution, obscuration [ifm]. 
Att 192. 

KALUSO (a4f.). Polluted, turbid, impure [^Vfl]. 
Ab. 669. Neut. kalusaii, impurity, sin (Ab. 1106 ; 
Alw. I. 111). 

RALYAQ^O, and KALLA^O {adj.), Fortmate, 
blest, happy ; beautiful, charming, pleasant; good, 
virtuous [^mnV] • Ab. 694, 1074 ; Sen. K. 618. 
Neut kalyd^th, a virtuous action, virtue, a beaatf 
or charm (Ab. 88 ; Dh. 21). Thepmcakalydf^ 
or five feminine charms, are kegaka^fdi^mk, 
mariuak*, affhik., chavik,, vayak,, fine hair, led 
lips, pearly teeth, a blooming complexion, and 
youth (Dh.232 ; Man.B.221). Md maH^ (^msms/v 
kind avacuttha kalydfuith vd pdpakam vd, do not, 
sirs, say anything to me, good or bad (Pit 5)t 
Kalyd^ mitto, and kalyd^mUto, a good com- 
panion, a virtuous friend (Db. 14, 67, 272, exphdned 
by tappHrUa). KalydfMmitto sometimes has the 
technical or semi-technical meaning of ** spirltoal 
counsellor " (see B. Int. 284). Thus the Inmmm- 
tfhdnaddyaka is called kalydfutmitto; and 1 find 
the foU. quoted as Buddha's words, mamam Ai 
Ananda kalydfMmittam dgamma jdtidhammd 
BottdjdHyd parimuccantif ** for by coming to me 
as their spiritual guide, Ananda, beings snbjed to 
re-birth are released from re-birth." 

RALYATA (/.), State of being ready [ifH + TVT]' 
Cittakalyatdj pliancy of the heart, readiness of 
the heart to receive the truth (Ten J&t 16). 

KAA, see Ko. 

KAA, Water; the head [l«]. Ab. 661, 119B (1^ 
may be used as an indeclinable). 

RAMABH AVO, Sensual existence, i.e. existeiMe is 
the Kdmaloka or world of sense [ifHY + ^J' 
The eleven K&mabhavas are existence or birth is 
the eleven Kdmalokas (Man. B. 445 ; E. Moa. M). 

KAMACCHANDO, Wish for sensual eigoyBent 
[l|T9f + l(V]* See Nivard^jum* 


(177 ) 


KAMAIX), and KAMADADO (oc^*.), Giving what 
is wished for, giving pleasure [VRn[]- Sabba- 
UmmdOf and gabbakdmadado, giving every wish 
(Alw. L X ; Kh. 14). Kdmado, the wish-conferring 
monarch (Mah. 116). Voc. fem. kdmade^ charm- 
ing woman I (Mah. 51). 

KAMAGUNO, Quality or constituent of sensual 
pleasure [^n^+^W]* Th% pmiea kdmagufuij 
or five pleasures of sense, are pleasurable sights, 
sounds, odoors, tastes, and contacts (B. Lot 371). 
Dh.06,228,421,433. The text iBptmcakdmag^fids 
eakkkMtmmeyyd Hipd itthd kantd mandpdpiyar^tpd 
kdmdpasamhitd rajaniyd^ totavmheyyd saddd itfhd^ 
and so on. 

KAMAJO(adj.)y Proceeding from or caused by desire 

KAMAKAMO (adj.)f Fond or desirous of sensual 
pleasure \Wf^ + ^ffi?] • I>h. 15. 

KAMAKO (a^'.)f Desirous [jfj^ + 1«] . Ddtukd- 
makot wishing to g^ve (Mah. 259). 

KAMALAJ£l,Alotus[inm]. Ab.685. Kamald- 
MmOf Brahman (Ah. 15). 

KAMALOKO, World of sense, or sensnal pleasure 
[l|Ii|+l^^]* There are eleven Kdmalokas, 
viz. the six Devalokas, manuisalokOf the world of 
men, owroloAao, the world of Asuras, peialoko, 
the world of Pretas, tiraecAdnayotUf the animal 
kingdom, and nirayo, hell. The term kdmaloko, 
"the Worid of Sense,'' is also applied to these 
eleven worlds collectively. See Loko, Kdmo. 

KAMAM (adv,)f At pleasure, voluntarily ; certainly, 
indeed [^rn^tl- Ab. 469, 826, 1140, 1196. 

KAMAIJfpALU (m. and n.), Waterpot used by 
ascetics [Vna^g]- Ah. 443. 

KAMANGAMO (a4;.). Going as one lists [ITR + 

KAMANIYO ipf.p. kdmayati\ Beautiful [ipfHV«r 

KAMANO {a4j.\ Lustful [vm] • Ah. 730. 

KAMATA (/), Deshrousness [^ITR + WT] • P^t79. 

KAMATO (lufo.). Successively, respectively [l|Rf- 
^nQ. Ah. 60, 513. Bkekakamato, each in turn 
(Mah. 19). 

KAMATTAA, Desirousness [iTRRBf]- Mah. 24. 

KAmAVACARO (adj.). Belonging to the K&maloka, 
within die domain of sensual pleasure [^rnf + 
im^^]. Man. B. 3, 445. The kdmdvacara- 
demUokd are the six Devalokas, as opposed to the 
Brahmalokas in which there is no kima. 

KAMAYATI, To love, to desire [flff(]. Aor. akd^ 
mayi (Mah. 133, 200). kdmayamdno, kdma» 
yanto (Dh. 275). P.p.p. Aronto. F.f .p. kamaniyo. 

KAMAYITA (m.). Lustful [^TRf^]. Ab. 730. 

KAMBALO, and -LABii, A blanket; a woollen 
garment [^Hi^]. Ab. 291, 298; Mah. 194. 
Kambalo, name of a N4ga (Ab. 652). 

KAMBOJA (m.p/.), Name of a country (Cambodia), 
and its inhabitants [l|4^^]. Ab. 185. 

KAMBU (fit. and n.), A shell, a conch ; a bracelet ; 
gold [W^]. Ab. 487, e76, 966. 

KAMBUGI VA (/.), A neck marked with three Unes 
or folds like a shell, considered indicative of 
exalted fortune [^PV + ift^] • Ab. 263. 

KAMBUGI V0(a4/.), Having a kambugivd, prosper- 
ous, fortunate. Das. 12. 

KAMENA (adv,)f By degrees ; successively, in due 
course [l||%lir]« Mah. 10, 87. 

KAMI (adj.), Lustful [l«Tf«f]- Ab. 730. 

KAmI (acff.\ Desirous [iCTf^nO* ^em, kdmini. 
Tena Banivdsakdmini, desirous of living with him 
(Mah. 210). Kdmmiy a charming woman (Ab. 231). 

KAMITA (m.). Lustful, wanton [jlfR^] • Ab. 730. 

KAMMADHARAYO, a grammatical term, one of 
the Samdsas [^4v|l4^^] • 3®°- K* 3^« 

KAMMAJO (adj.), Caused by Karma [W^ + W]- 
All sentient beings are Kammaja (see Kammani), 

ELAMMAKARAKO, a workman; a labourer [ll^- 

UTT + ^l- Mah. 177. 

KAMMAKARO, A hired labourer, a servant [^1^- 
IIR:] . Ab. 514 ; Dh. 129, 236 ; F. Jit. 3. 

KAMMAKARO, a hired labourer, a servant [l|9|- 
l|T^]. Sen. K. 468. 

KAMMAld, Doing, action, work, labour, business ; 
a deed, act, action, operation ; a religious or eccle- 
siastical act ; moral merit. Karma [^Vh^ ] • Ab. 
757. Imegam andkamahallakdnam etam kammam, 
this is those stupid old people's doing (Dh. 300). 
Patitd if asm kamtnund, delighted at his exploit 
(Mah. 45). Dind kamman tarn abbhutam, be- 
holding this wonderful feat (Mah. 141). Kas$ako 
kammand hoti sippiko hoH kammand . . riffd pi 
koti kammand, a man is a husbandman by reason 
of his husbandry, an artisan by reason of his craft, 
a king by virtue of his royal function (Alw. N. 108). 
Aritthandmakdmaccam tasmim kamme niyojiya, 
having appointed the minister named Arittha for 
this mission or business (Mah. 110). Attano 
kammtf kubbdno, minding his own business (Dh • 





30). Kamma^ karcH, to work» to laboar (Dh. 
dOO, 422). Kammini akaruik, were hard at work 
(Mah. 162). Kammakarapaihf work, service, 
laboor (comp. kamtnakaro). Hatthakamntam^ 
manual labour (Dh. 126, 237). Kammdni dra- 
bhdpetvd, having caused the works to be com- 
menced (Mah. 103). KuM kammdni cUrdni 
dukkardniy having executed many difficult works 
of art (Mah. 242). Ayokammam^ ironwork (Mah. 
152). Sudhdkammam, chunam work (Mah. 259). 
Fejjakammam karoti, to practise as a physician 
(Dh. 89). Balikammam, making offerings to 
spirits (Mah. 52). Kammam is aa ecclesiastical 
term, meaning an act, or function, or ceremony 
performed by a chapter of priests. These kammas 
are of two sorts, gafuikammaihf an act performed 
by two or three priests, and sangkakamimafhy an 
act performed by four, five, ten, or twenty priests. 
Thus we have uposatkakammam^ the act of general 
confesnon, upasampaddkammam^ the rite of wdi- 
aation, fMhdne^mmamj apalokanakammathf and 
many others (see P4t. zl, 59 and foil.). Bee Kam- 
maudcd, Dhammikdnaih kammdnam chandaih 
daivdf having given his consent to orthodox eocle- 
siastieal acts (P&t. 18). KammappattOf attending 
the ceremony (Piit. 2). As a reiigious technical 
term tile word kammam is of great importance, 
the doctrine of Kamma, or the efficacy of good 
and bad works, being inseparably botmd up with 
that of transmigrration or renewed existence. Every 
being who is not immediately qualified for Nirvd^a 
by tiie attainment of Arhatship is necessarily re- 
born after death in another world, and what that 
worid is, and his state therein, depends on his 
kamma or actions in previous existences. Broadly 
stated the doctrine is that the present condition of 
every sentient befaig is determined by the aggregate 
of its actions in previous states of existence. Some- 
times a good or bad action meets witii its appro- 
priate reward immediately and in the same exist- 
ence, sometimes in the next existence, but its 
oonsequenocs may be indefinitely delayed, and an 
•etieu performed countless ages ago may be work- 
ing for a man's good or evil at this moment. 
Works are of three sorts, kmalakammam, good 
works or Merit, akusalakammam, evil deeds or 
Demerit, and avydkatakammam^ indeterminate or 
neutral aetioos, i^. such as are neither meritorious 
nor demeritorious, and tiierefore have no influence 

on the ftiture state of their agent. The actioM 
of a being are the cause of its re-birth, and con- 
sequently of its continued existence, and hence 
the whole existing universe of sentient beings has 
its origin in Kamma. The cessation of existence 
can only be obtained by the destruction of its 
cause, Kamma. And this destruction is effected by 
Sanctification, viz. entrance into the four Paths, 
and especially the fourth, Arhatship, after entrance 
into which Kamma is immediately and wholly 
extinguished, the Arhat when he dies ceasing to 
exist (see Maggo), It will be seen from the above 
that Kamma has at least three shades of meaning: 
first it is merely an action good or bad ; then the 
effect of that action, the merit or demerit whidi 
lives on after the action has been performed ; lastly, 
viewed as an abstraction, it becomes a potent Canse 
or Energy, whereby the multitudinous l^eings that 
peof^e the universe are brought into existence. 
Sangiti 8. enumerates four Kammas, kammusm 
kafikam ka^havipdkom, kammam sukkam tmkkm- 
vipdkamy kammam kafUtasukkam kafJiasukkavi" 
pdkoih, kammam akafikatk aaukkanh akmnhor 
tukkavipdkam^ bad actions which have a bad 
result, good actions which have a good resolt, 
mixed actions which have a mixed resolt, neutral 
actions which have no result. Deeds are of three 
sorts, kdydkammam or action, vadkammam or 
speech, manokammaik or thought; all three 
originate in cetand or the will<Man. B. 266, 267). 
There are eleven sorts of Kamma or moral aaerit, 
difthadhammanfedanfyakamftMmf Karma mani- 
festing itself in this life, uppqjjavedaufyakammuim. 
Karma manifesting itself in the next existence, 
apardpanyavedaniyakammam^ Karma manifest- 
ing itself at a period subsequent to the next ex- 
istence, ytMsannakammaihi upapifakakammaikf 
upatthambhakakammam, etc (Man.B.447). It is to 
be noted that Kamma, under tiie name c£sankk^^ 
is one of the links of the Pafiocasamupp^ida. 
Sentient beings are called Kammaja, being, as 
we have seen, produced or caused by Karma 
(Gog. Ev. 55 ; E. Mon. 293 ; Man. B. 441). The 
f<dl. examples illustrate the use of kammam in its 
religions sense. Kammabalam^ efficacy of worics, 
force of Karma or merit (Gog. Ev. 30). P^po- 
kammarkf pdpakam kammam^ a sinful action, sin, 
demeritorious Karma, demerit (Dh. 89; Kh. 9; 
Alw. N. 120). P^M kammdni, evil deeds. 



•infti] ftctioDS (Dh. ^, 54 ; Alw. N. 121). Pufma- 
kmmMtmh, a good deed, a virtuoas aclioD, meiitori- 
ous Karma, merit (Dh. 127, 138). Anavajjdni 
ktmmdm^ blameless deeds (Kh. 5). Ditvd kamma-' 
vUmddkim atUuw^ beholding the purity of bis own 
deeds, of the goodness of his Karma (Dh. 3). Sehi 
kmtmmeki dmmmedh^ aggidaddho va tappaH^ the 
Ibol is tortnred by his own deeds as if he were 
•eordied with fire (Dh. 25). SMkammdmnaytmti 
dmggatim, bis own actions drag him to hell (Dh. 
43). Pubdakammoiky and pubbe kataih kammam, 
a deed done in a former existence (Dh. 300) . Ktumd 
mmdko j6to H aitaimd katakammawuena, why did 
he lieoome blind ? on account of a (sinAil) deed he 
had committed (Dh. 89). Mh' und kammqfavdtd 
emUmm^ then storms caased by her Karma raged 
aroond her, viz. by iMsing exposed to these storms 
she was expiating some sin committed in a former 
existence (Dh. 155). A Baddhist who has passed 
tiiroagh misfortune or suffering looks upon it as 
so much gain, as he has thus worked out mo mueh 
Iff the evil Karma accumulated in bis former exist- 
ences. Kammand vaitaii loko kammand ftattati 
pafd^ through Karma the world of sentient beings 
exists, from Karma all creatures derive their 
existence (Alw. N. 108). Saitd kammaddyddd, 
beings are the heirs of Karma, that is, a man'is 
actions leave behind them a legacy of weal or woe 
(Go|^. Ev. 32). KammamsayOf range, domain, or 
power of K., said to be intelligible to Buddhas 
only (Man. B. 8). S^inaA pmrdftask navan n* 
mitki oamkkavatkf their Karma of former births 
is destroyed, no new Karma is produced (Kh. 10). 
The consequence or result of an action is called 
vipdko or phalam. Sandifthiko v^niko *yaA iaasa 
kamauuoa dipUo, this was the retribution for that 
crime manifested even in this life (Mah. 262). Idha 
kammamodaneaa peeea tfipdkamodanenay in this 
world by rejoicing in his good works, in the next 
worid by rejoicing in their reward (Dh. 138). E. 
Men. 5, 6; 301 ; Man. B. 445-449 (also consult 
the index); Wheel of the Iiaw, 45-52; Qog. 
Bv. dO-37; Kh. 27, 88. In g^m. kammam is 
tiie name of tlie accusative relation (see KdrakaA). 
Hie Ml. are some of the cases. Instr. kammand, 
k ammu nd^ kammena (Mab.45, 158; Alw. N. 108, 
121). Ckn. and dat. kammmno, kammaoaa (Mah. 
982; P6t. 2). Loc kammani (Ab. 758). PI. 
kwm m d mif kammeki, katmndnafk, kamtHetu, 

KAMMA^IYO, and KAMMAi^KO (adj.). Work- 
able, malleable ; fit for work, pliant, ready, alert, 
active [l|4v]. B. Lot. 865 ; Dh. 197. 

KAMMAJ^f^ATA (/.), Adaptability, pliancy, readi- 
ness. Man. B. 399, 403, 417. 

KAMMANTO, Business, work, occupation, craft, 
profession [ifpffjllf]. Paficehannakammanto, one 
who keeps bis deeds secret, a dissembler (Alw. N. 
120). Andkuld kammantd, a peaceful vocation 
(Kh. 5). Especially used of husbandry or agri- 
culture, as the profession par excellence. Kam' 
fiMntam uggahetvd ghordvdsam vasa, learn farm- 
ing and live at home (Dh. 140). Na kammante 
oicdretiy neglects his farm duties (Das. 30). 

KAMMAPATHO, Course, or means of action 
[^pq^ -f ^9^]* The three means by which 
actions can be performed, and consequently merit 
and demerit acquired, are kdyo, vdcd, mono, the 
body, the speech, the mind (Dh. 50, 383, comp. 
the three Kammas). See Aktualakammapaiho, 

KAMMARO, A blacksmith, a smith [fnhr]- ^^^ 
509; Dh. 43 (of a ulversmith). Kammdrasdld, 

kammdrakttlath, a forge (Mah. 22). 

KAMMASO, Dirt, stain, guilt [^raPl]. 

KAMMASO (adj\\ Variegated, spotted [^nRT^]. 

KAMMASSAKO (o4^), Havmg Karma for his 
portion, having his own individual Karma [IIPS^ 
4- l^l|]. Das. 9; Gog. Ev. 32. 

KAMMATTHANA A, Basis of action [m^ + 
^ITlf]. This term is applied to certain relig^us 
exercises or meditations, by means of which 
Samddhi, Jhina and the four Paths are attained. 
Each of these is based on a certain formula or 
rite, also called kammaffhdnam. Alabaster says, 
^ Kammatth6na is one of the modes of Buddhist 
meditation,, and may be called analytical medita- 
tion. He who exercises it fixes his mind on any 
one element, and reflects on it in all its conditions 
and changes, until, so far as that element is con- 
cerned, he sees that k is only unstable, grievous, 
and illusory. To aid this kind of meditation 
there are formulas, some people ineorrectiy call 
them prayers, in which a list of the elements is 
repeated ** (Wheel of the Law, 204). The forty 
Kammafthdnas I find thus enumerated in Visuddhi 
Magga: tair* imdni cattdfisa kammafthdndm, 



data kasifUt, dasa tuubhd, data anuuatiyoy cattdro 
hrahmamhdrdy cattdro druppd, ekd ionnd, ekam 
vavatthdnan ti. For the Kasi^as see sep. article. 
The ten Asubhas are given as follows: uddhu- 
mdtakam, vinUakantt vipubbakuth, mcchiddakaiky 
vikkhdyitakam, vikkhittakam, hatavikkhittakam^ 
lohitakam, pufavakam, atthikam. The ten Ana- 
Bsatis are buddhdnussatif dhammdnunati, saAghd- 
nussati, sildnusiatif cdgdnustatif devatdnusaati, 
maraf^ati, kdyagatd satif dndpdnasati, upaaamd' 
nuuati. The four Brahmavih&ras are mettd^ 
karufuiy muditd, upekkhd. The four Aruppas are 
dkdsdnancdyatanam, vihndfuihcdyatanamt dkm^ 
canhdyatanaHi, nevasarmdndse^mdyatanath. The 
Sa&fii is dhdre patikkdloiafmdf and the Vavatthdna 
is catudhdtuvavatthdnath. Ten of the forty 
Kamma^^h&nas, viz. the two last and eig^ht of the 
Anussatb [kdyagatd tati and dndpdtuuati beings 
excepted), are productive of Upacdra, the re- 
mainder are productive of Appand. See E. Mon. 
267* 269, for a full account of the dndpdnaioti- 
kammatfhdnanh which exercise consists in fixing 
the mind intently on one's own breathing in con- 
nexion with certain set subjects of reflection (six- 
teen in number). The atubhakammatthdndth Is 
described at E. Mon. 268, and consists in con- 
templation of the impurity of the body as illus- 
trated by the sight of a putrefying corpse. Hardy 
mentions four karmasthdnas, which he says are 
meditations on Buddha, kindness, evil desire, and 
death (E. Mon. 25, 26, 28). Other karmasthdnas 
are sometimes mentioned, as khayavaydkamm' 
afthdnam, meditation on decay and death (Alw. 
I. xxi; Dh. 80), sunhatdkammaffhdnaHt (Dh. 
316), vedandpariggahakakammatthdnam (Dh. 
175). The formula for karmasthdna, and in- 
structions for practising the rite, are obtained 
from the dcariya or spiritual teacher, who in this 
capacity is called kammatthdnaddyako, and must 
be a kalydftamittOf viz. either he must be walking 
in one of the four Paths, or if he be a puthnjjana 
he must be of eminent piety and learning. The 
person who obtains karmasthdna from his dcariya 
is said kammafthdnaih gaheti or ttggaheti, *'to 
receive " or *' to learn it." — Ex. Satthu santike 
kammatthdnam gahetvd, having obtained in- 
struction in karmasthdna from the Teacher (Dh. 
Id5, 210, 328). Tathdgatena dinnam dhdtu- 
kamma ffk dmam , the Dhdtu karmasthdna given him 

by Buddha (Dh. 125, this must be the catudhd- 
tuvavatthdnam), Kammaffhdnam add then pabU- 
jetvd yathdrdhadi bhdvanaih anuyid^anto adrena 
mahdmati wtdpattiphalam potto, the elder haviJig 
admitted him to the priesthood duly taaglit him 
karmasthdna, and devoting himself to its realiza- 
tion the high-minded youth ere long attained tlie 
sanctification of the first Path (Mah. 32). IH pi 
90 bhagavd 9ammd$ambuddho ti ddikam buddh&' 
dhammammghdnuiiatikamnuiffhdiutm niftkdptt 
having gone through the formulas of meditatioD oa 
Buddha, his Law and his Church, beginning with 
the formula " Behold the Blessed One eodoved 
with true and supreme knowledge'' (Dh. 346). 
Kammatthdnam me kathethdti ath* atia tatthi 
ydva arahattd kammatthdnam kathen, ^'teadi 
me karmasthdna," and Buddha taught him the 
karmasthdna rites up to Arhatship, viz. taogfat 
him all the rites by which mystic meditation it 
produced, up to the highest and most difficult of 
all, the successful exercise of which results in the 
attainment of Arhatship (Dh. 80, comp. 195). Jfs- 
ticikammatthdnaik bhdvento, exercisug minge- 
meditation, i.e. meditating on the resemblance of 
the body to a mirage (Dh. 210). KammoHlihm 
onnytAjaH, to practise k. (Dh. 394). Kamnudtkd' 
nam manaHkaroti, to devote oneself to k. (Dh. 175| 
oomp. 422). Kammatthdne kammam karm^, 
exercising himself in k. (Dh. 422).— From all the 
above it will be seen that kammaffhdnam is a term 
of wide dgnificance, embracinf^ a succession of rites 
and exercises, which form the basis or frame-work 
of all those modes of mysdc meditation by mev» 
of which sanctification is attained. Thus, to give 
an instance, the first Jhdna is a »tate, the ten 
Asubhas with kdyagatd sati, are the kammat|hina, 
« rite," or " pracdce," by which that state is at- 
tuned. E. Mon. 252-273; Alw. I. xxi, 88; Bh. 

151, 333. See Jlrammafunk. 

tising karmasthdna [li^VHI + T^J * ^^' ^^^' 
KAMMAVACA (/.),• An ecdeshistical vote or re- 
solution [JK^ + ^n^]- This is the name for 
the proceedings at a kamma or ecclesiastical act, 
by which some question is decided by vote. 
Thus a novice is admitted to priestly orders by a 
kammavdcd, or vote of a chapter of priests ; after 
ordination the priest is invested with the three 
robes by a k. ; the name adopted for bun is ^ 




proved by » k., and bo on. The foU. specimen of 
n kjunmaWLed I take from Brahma Jila S. Affha- 
kalhi : SufuUu me dtnuo sangho, yadi sanghassa 
paitakaUatk tangho imM panca bhikkhusatdni 
mrnmamneyya Rdjagahe vasBam wuantddhamnum 
ea mmayim ea mntgdyitutk na annehi bhikkMhi 
Rdjagahe wutam vatitabban Hj esd natti : suttdtu 
me imuo eanghe, imdni panea bhikkhusatdni 
eammamnati Rdjagahe • • vaHtiMan H, yasg* 
^oimaio khamati imesam pancannaih bkikkhth' 
eaidmam iommuti Rdjagahe . . vasitabban H to 
imnh^ ofM, yaua na kkhamati so bhdseyya: 
eammtttdui eaighena imdni pahea bhikkhusatdni 
Rdjagahe vassam vasantd dhammah ca vinayan 
sangdyitum na aSmehi bhikkhdhi Rdjagahe 
m ffositabban f ti : khamati sanghassa tasmd 
iufA(: evam etam dhdraydmif ** Let the assembly 
hear me, if all is ready for taking the vote let the 
assembly dedde whether these ^ye hundred priests 
ahall spend the rainy season at Rdjagaha and re- 
hearse the Doctrine and Discipline, and whether 
all other priests shall be precluded from passing 
the rainy season at lUyagaha, snch is the resolution 
I have to propose. Let the assembly hear me, the 
motion is that these five hundred priests shall, 
etc ; those who are in favonr of the motion are to 
keep silence, those who are against it are to speak. 
(I now proceed to put the question) Does the 
aaaembly decide that these five hundred priests 
•hall spend the ndny season at lUj^aha and 
rehearse the Doctrine and Discipline, and that no 
other priests shall be allowed to pass the rainy 
leason at Rdjagaba ? The assembly approves the 
resolution, it therefore keeps silence, so I under- 
stand yoar wish.* The above form is used at 
all Kammavdc^, see Kamm. 6, 7^ Ras, 68, 69. 
Kammavdeom karoti^ or sdveti^ to hold a k., to 
propose a resolution (Pdt. 30). A Kammavici is 
ai two sorts, Hattidutiydf where the question is 
pat to the assembly once, as in that g^ven above, 
and natticatutthd, where the question is put three 
times, as in the ordination service. 
KAMMAVACAA, Collection of Kammavddls. This 
b the name of a well known Buddhist manual, 
containing forms for various kammavic^. The 
first chapter contains the ordination service, and 
has been pobllshed by Spiegel under the name of 
Kammav^yam (Bonn, 1841). The second and 
third chapters g^ve the form for investing a priest 

with the ticivara, and for settling the boundaries 
of a site for holding Uposathas : they will be found 
at Ras. 68-71. There are four other chapters. 
E. Mon. 44, 207, 283. 
KAMMI (adj,), Acting, working [lif?$^. Pdpa- 
kamm(, a sinner (Dh. 23). 

KAMMIKO (ad/.). Working [^^ + 1:^]. R4fa'' 
kammikdf king's servants (Mah. 175, 176). F^anO' 
kammikapuriso, a man working in the forest, a 
woodman (Dh. 304). The termination 'ika be- 
longs no doubt to the whole compound. 

KAMMUNA, see Kammam. 

KAMO, Order, step, succession, method [1|RT]« 
Ab. 429. F^a^isakkamo, pedigree (Mah. Ixxxviii). 
Atthavaftftandhkamo, method of interpreting the 
meaning. Tantikkamam kand anokkamitvd, 
without violating any Pali idiom. See Kamena. 

KAMO, Wish, desire; desired object; the god of 
love, Kdma or Cupid ; sensual desires or pleasures, 
pleasure, passion, lust [^^iT^] - Ab. 42, 163. As 
the latter part of a compound kdma is generally 
used in the sense of desiring: dhammakdmo, 
wishing for the Law (Sen. K. 468); kdmakdmo, 
wishing for pleasure (Dh. 15) ; Crotamassa dassana- 
kdmo, wishing to see Buddha. The m of an in- 
finitive is dropped in a compound of this sort: 
jivitukdmo, wishing to live (Dh, 22); ddtukdmo, 
wishing to give; kattukdmo, wishing to make; 
vattukdmo, anxious to say (F. JiL 17); bhur^fitU" 
kdmd, (fern.) wishing to eat (Mah. 133). The 
compound akdmakdmo is a dvandva, meaning 
"unwilling and williDg,** viz, ** hesitating " (B. 
Lot. 863). Kdmado, giving pleasure. Sabbakd" 
madado, giving everything that is wished for, 
gratifying every desire (Rh. 14). PI. kdmd, 
pleasures of sense, desires, lusts (Dh. 16, 34), 
The world of sentient beings is divided into 
Kdmaloka, Rtipaloka, and Ardpaloka. Of these 
the lowest is kdmaloko, " the world of sense,*' viz. 
the region in which Ktoa or sensual pleasure pre- 
vails, its occupants being subject to the pleasures 
and pains which result from the gratification of 
the senses. It extends from Avici, the lowest of 
the hells, to the I^ranimmitavasavatti Devaloka, 
and thus embraces eleven Lekas (see Kdmahko), 
The five Kdmas (pa^cakdmam) are the lust of the 
eye, of the ear, etc., *^ modes of evil desire that 
are connected with the five senses" (Man. B. 445, 
E. Mon. 15, comp Kdmagufui). K&ma is divided 


( 182 ) 


into vatttrnkdmo and Jdletakdmo; the former is 
explmned to mean pleasurable sights, sounds, 
odours, tastes and contacts, and property or 
wealth of all sorts^ while the latter means desire, 
attachment, lust, passion (Man. B. 445 ; E. Hon. 
31, 271; Dh. 361, 404). Kdmardg^ sensual 
pleasure (Alw. N. 121). Kdmadhdtu, element of 
desire or sensual pleasure (B. Int. 004 ; Ah. 820). 
See DhdtUf AkuwaladhdtUf Atavo, Bhan^ Aafi<f, 
Ogho^ Yogo, Vpdddnam, 
KAMPANAA, Shaking [ipqir]. Ab.712;Mah.41. 

KAMPATI, To shake, to tremble [^H^]. Yama 
dttam na kampoH^ whose soul is unshaken (Kb. 6). 
Akamfiittha mahdmahtf the earth quaked(Mah.86). 
Ito e^ ito ea kampamdno vidhdvaHf runs trembling 
in every direction (F. J&t. 4). Cans, kampeii^ to 
cause to tremble, to shake (Oog. Bv. 20). P.p.p. 
kampUo, trembling, shaken (Ab. 744 ; Gog. Ev.aO). 
Karufidya kampiiahadayo^ his heart moved with 
compassion (Att. 20Bi» 210). 

IlAMPO, Trembling, agitation [111^] • MahOcampo, 
puthuvtkampe^ pafhavtkampo, an earthquake 
(Mah. 41, 173). 

KAMSAKOTA]$k, Counterfeit metal [itmR + ^] • 
Explained in Brahma Jdla & Af^h. to mean pass- 
ing off gilt vessels as gold. 

KAASANXLAA, Blue vitriol [^^Tlg + «{Vir]. 

KAASATALO, a gong [*Rjr -h mH]. Dh. 207 ; 

Att. 135. 
KAASATHALAISI, a bronze dish or plate [itT^ 

KAASO, Metal ; bronze ; a gong ; a bowl to eat from 
[4T^9 4ra]- Ab. 457» 905. Kamto upahat^^ 
a broken gong (Dh. 124, 297i the passage means 
that if the rim of a gong is broken off, the flat 
plate which remains when laid down is not reso- 
nant)« KamMopdtt, a bronze bowl (Mah. 15, 
Tumour says '' golden '^), 

KAASO, a coin worth four Kahdpa^^ [ vi] • Ab. 
g05;Pdt 103, 104. 

KAMUKO^ The Areca palm [H;^]. Ab. 564, 

KAMUKO (a4f.\ Desirous [«ir^]. Ab. 730. 

KAMUPAPATTI (/.), Sensual existence [l||T«f + 
^Yflff^] . There are three Ics., the first includes 
mankind and the four lowest devalokas, the second 
is the Nimm&narati heaven, and the third the 
Paranimmitavasavatti heaven. 

KAMYATA (/.), Deshre [WnVHf]- Kattukamfatd, 
intentkm (Dh. 362; Has. 63). Bhi^ffokamyatd^ 
greediness (Pit. 22). 

KANAKAA, Gold [l|«ra]. Ab. 487; Mah. 61. 
Kanakarfimdnaihi a golden mansion (Dh. 04). 

KAN ANAA, a forest, a grove [ifflflf ] . Ab. 536 ; 
Mah. 50. 

KAIj^ATI, To sound [ip^]. CL P. Verbs, 11. 

KANAYO, A sort of spear [ V^> ^RITQ] - Ab. 394. 

KAf^CANAA, Gold [l|TVW]. Ab. 487 ; Mah. 2ia 

KAi^GI, see KocL 

KAf^GUKl (i».). An attendant on the women's 
apartments [^Bnf^p^. Ab. 342. 

KAJf CUKITO {adj.\ Having the hair bristling with 
joy [ifftW]. Att. 32, 105. 

KA5^CUK0, a jacket; the skin or slough of a 
snake ; a coat of mail ; a case, sheath, covering, 
envek>pe [^1^]. Ab. 204, 655, 962. SUdkancuko, 
a stone casing (Mah. 201), XasM kancukacetiyam, 
a dagoba encasing the first (Mah. 4). Kdriya 
kancukafh suddhavatthehi, having caused a cover- 
ing of fine cloth to be made for the digoba (Mah. 
103). Mah. 213. 

KANPARA, a tendon [^raTCt]. Ab. 270. 

KANDARl (/.), and KANDARO, A cave, a grotto 
[IF^]. Ab. 600. 

KANDATI, To cry, to wail, to weep [W^]- I>1>- 
66, 95; Mah. 124. 

KANDHARA, The neck [liHrTT]- Ab. 263. 

KANDITAA, Wailing, crying [Hf^^V^^]- 
Ab. 165. 

KANDO, A bulb [^Ri^]. Ab. 540. 

KAISrpO, and KAN^Alil, The part of a plant from 
one joint to another ; a stalk; an arrow; a section 
or chapter of a book ; a part, a portion, a piece ; 
opportunity, season [ifp^] • Ab. 389, 453, 885 ; 
Mah. 143. Kapdlakati^o, a bit of potsherd (Dh. 
301). PHvakafida^, a piece of cake (Dh. 140). 
Sukkhakaddamakandehi, with lumps of dried 
mud (Mah. 107). Kafidappahdro, an arrow-shot. 
DhammoMmgapiyd kdti kapdam to AtthaMinwh 
he wrote the chapter called Atthas41ini on the 
Dhammasanga^ (Mah. 251). BhUkandOt the 
chapter about the earth (Alw. I. ix). 

KAl^U (/.), The itch [^^]. Ab. 326. 
RANDUKO, A ball to play with [ipfm] . Ab. 316. 
KANPUTI (/.), Itching [Wl^]. Ab. 326. 
KAI^UVANAA, Itching [li^^l^pr]. Ab.326. 




KAVPUVATI,To8cratdi[l«l|lT]. Q.P.Verbs^lS. 
KA^CyA (/.), ItchiDg [H^^T]. Ab. 326. 
KA^BU (». and/.), An elephant [^1^]. Ab. 

866; Db. 162. 
KA](nSRUKA (/.), A female elephant [^i^:^^]. 

KANGU (/.), Panick seed, Panicnm Italicam, a sort of 

mDlet [l|^] . Ab. 451, 452, 571, 1055 ; Mah. 195. 
KA^AVANTA (/.), The plant Bignonia Saave- 

olens [V^ + 79]- Ab. 559. 
KAQTH AVATTANI (m.), Fire [ amq^< | . Ab.34. 

KANHAYANO, and KAI^HANO, Oflfspring of 
Krishna [li|C^|<|<|]. Ben. K. 387. 

KAl^HI (mi.), Offspring of Kfish^a [^ITf^lS]. Sen. 

KAlJirHO (adj.), Blaek ; dark ; smful [iTCq]. Ab. 
96» 1000. Masc kanho, Krishna, an incarnation 
of Vlshnn (Ab. 16), also Mdra or death (Ab. 43). 
Neot. kafiham, sin (Ab. 84). Kanho dhammo, 
aitt (Dh. 16). Kafthakamtnam, sinful action, de- 
meritorious Karma, Kafthapakkho, the moonless 
fortnight of the month. Fern, kafthd. 

KAiyiKA (/.), The plant Premna Spinosa ; an ear- 
ornament [l|flJ4T]. Ab.574. See also JTanntA^if. 

KANIKARO, The tree Pterospermnm Aoerifolium 

[^VfiWTT]. Ab. 570 ; Dh. 233 ; B. Lot. 8^. 
KANINIKA (/.), The pupil of the eye [^rftf^nTT] - 

KANTITHAKA, and -IKA (/.), A younger sister 

[^PlHl^l]* Mah. 5, 85, Ixxxviii. 
KANTrfHO (a4^'.). Smallest, very small ; youngest 

[^mf^lVl- Ab.929. Kontfifttf, younger brother, 

or son (Ab. 254 ; Dh. 305 ; Mah. 199 ; F. Jdt. 5). 

Kmntiho bhdtd, kaniftkabhdtdf younger brother 

(Mnb. Izzzvii ; Db. 79). Fern. kanUthdy the Utde 

linger (Ab. 266). 
KANIYO(o4^'.), Less, smallest; younger [^Pf^lf^]. 

Ab. 254, 929. Fem. katUyasi (Mah. Ixxziz). 

Rarely written km^yo, comp. S. lAuH^M^ (Sen. 

K. 314). 
KAfJjIKAA, and KAAJIVAA, Sour rice-gruel 

[^rfara-] Ab. 460; Dh. 113, 196, 233. 
KANKAJNAtt, An ornament, a bracelet [^i^pn]- 

KA&KATO, MaU [^ifj^]. Ab. 377. 
KANKHA(/.), Doubt [VT^]- Ab. 170; Mah. 

IM^ 199; £. Mon. 193; Ras. 21; Dh. 26. 

Kamkkdfkdmamf a doubtful point, a doubt There 

are three kankkds, or doubts, viz. doubts about 
the past, the present, and the future. 

KA^KH ATI, To doubt [WW] . Mah. 62. 

KANKO, A heron [^]. Ab. 643. 

KA^^A (/.), A young woman, a girl, a viigin 
[HfiirT]. Ab.231. 

KAI^IVADHARO, a steersman, pilot [^R^IITT]- 
Ab. 666. 

KANNAJALCkA (/.), A centipede [^ + 
ira^]. Ab. 622. 

KAI^A JAPO, A tale-bearer, informer [^ +^9V] • 
Ab. 737. 

KANNAMUNPO, Name of one of the Mah^saras 
[^ + ^^]* Ab. 679 ; F. J4t. 5 ; Man. B. 17. 

KAQ^IKA(y.), An ear-ornament, earring ; the peri- 
carp of the lotus ; the peak or dome of a hut or 
pagoda [«|ff||f^]. Ab. 219, 284, 687, 875. 
KannikdrukkhOf a log to make a house-peak from 
(Dh. 188). Kanpikdmaftdalam bhinditvd, break- 
ing through the circular peak of the house (Dh. 
299). Kaftftikdbaddhdni sdligisdni, heads of grow- 
ing rice tied together in sheaves (Dh. 126, oomp. 
200). Comp. Kaftikd. 

KANiyO, The ear ; a rudder ; a comer, edge [Wl(]. 
Ab. 150, 1120. KaftfMp^iro, kaf^nabh^f kanf^U' 
mbh^anam, kannavethanam, an ear-ornament, 
earring (Ab. 284, 875). Ka^^Mm^daHiy the root 
of the ear, the ear. Kax^nanUile jappati, to 
whisper in the ear (P&t. 112). KunfUijappakef 
one who whispers into a person's ear (Pit. 
62). Kanvu^appanaiky whispering into the ear. 
Kaf^futjapOt a tale-bearer. Caiukkannesu^ at the 
four corners (Mah. 182). Sdnika/ijUftam uMckipitvd, 
lifting up the comer of the curtain (Dh. 159). 
Sanghdtikaitfto, hem of a garment (Pit. 95). 
Da^dka^no^ edge or hem of the skirt (Dh. 234). 

KANO, The fine red powder which adheres to the 
grain of rice beneath the husk ; a particle, bit, 
atom [imf] . Ab. 454^ 705, 1047- 

KANO {adj,)j One-eyed, blind of one eye [^IHir]* 
With instr. Akkhtnd kdftOf blind of one eye (Sen. 
K.339). Dh.30L 

KAl^TAKITO (o^;.). Having the hair Mstling with 

joy [^S^ftRf]- 

KAJJiTTAKO, and KAIJ^UAKO, A thorn; an 
enemy ; horripilation ; an obstacle, pest, nuisance 
[iPCni]. Ab. 366,612,912; A1W.L66. Ka^t- 
akagumbo, a thorn-brake. Ka^fbakatdkhd, thorny 




branches (Das. 21). Lakkaik vigatakanfakam 
kdretvd, having rid Ceylon of her pests (Mah. 
Ixxxvii). Jinasdscmakantakd, enemies of Baddhism 
(Mah. 232). For ka^thaka see Ras. 19, Das. 21, 
B. Lot. 576, Ab. 893. 
KAI^TfAKURAI^pO, The plant Barleria Cristata 

KANTANAA, Gutting ; spinning [V^tHT] • Ab. 954. 

KANTARO, a forest, a wilderness ; a difficult road 
[^KT^nrr]* Ab. 192, 1197. Samsdrakantdro, 
the thorny path of transmigration (Ras. 27)* 
Kantdraddhdnamaggo, a long and difficult road 
(comp. Dh. 86). 

KANTATI, To cut [W^]. Dh. 307; P&t. 107. 
P.p.p. kantito. 

KANTATI, To spin [V7^] . Mah. 48. 

KANTHAJO (a4^'.), Guttural [iflTW]. The 
guttural letters are a, Ar, kh, g, gh, n and h 
(a. Gr. 2). 

KANTHA (/.), Patched doth [IRTT]- I>h- 1^- 

KANTHAKO, see Kanfako. 

KANTHO, The neck, the throat [^117] . Ab. 263. 
Kanthabhdad, a necklace (Ab. 285). Kdtdvaka^tho^ 
whose neck is covered with the yellow robe, viz. 
wearing the yellow robe (Dh. 54). Kaftthandlam, 
the wind-pipe (Att. 106, 216). 

KANTI (/.), Beauty ; wish, pleasure [l|lfi|l]. Ab. 

54, 762, 1056. 
KANTITO (p.p.p. kantaii). Gut. Ab. 752. 

KANTO {p>p-p> kdmmfaH\ Loved ; beautiful, charm- 
ing, delightful, ag^reeable [^fp|f = ^||^. Ab. 
693, 948. KantOy a husband (Ab. 240), a favourite 
(Ab. 948). Fern, kantd, a beloved or charming 
woman (Ab. 230). Hatthikantavlnd, an elephant- 
charming lute (Dh. 154). Hatthikantamanto, a 
spell for charming elephants (Ditto). Bahujana' 
kantd vdcd, speech that g^ves pleasure to many. 

KAPALAA, and -LO, and KAPALLAlfil, The 
skuU, or either half of the skull; a potsherd 
[^mrV]. Ab. 279, 946; Dh. 301. Kapdldni 
ghatetvdnOf having re-united the two halves of the 
skull (Mah. 245). For kapalla see Dh. 148, 196. 

KAPAl^I (m.), A miserable man, a pauper [IT- 
X|f^p(J . Kapa^iddhtkavanibbakd^ paupers, way- 
farers and I>eggar8 (Mah. 240; Dh. 131, see 

KAPANO {adj,\ Miserable, afflicted, poor ; miserly 
[Vmr]- Ab. 739, 821 ; Mah. 221. 

KAPATO, and -TAtt, Fraud, hypocrisy [iqj]. 

Rdjakapato, impostor king. 
KAPEYYO (a4;.). Belonging to apes [l|l^]. 

Sen. K. 388. 
KAPI(m.), A monkey [^rfq]- Ab.614. See also JM. 
KAPIKAGGHU (/.), The plant Mucuna Pmritoi 

[^ifrni^]. Ab.582. 
KAPILO(ac(;.), Reddish [^rfqir]- Ab.98. Fern. 

kapildf name of two plants (Ab. 571 nauapi^ 

Ab. 590, re^ukd). 
KAPILAVATTHIKO {adj.\ Belonging to Kapils- 

vastu. Sen. K. 390. 
KAPILAVATTHU (ti.)* '^^ ^wn of KapUavasto, 

the birthplace of G&kyamuni [^fMfil^V]. Ab. 

200 ; B. Int. 143. ' 
KAPISlSO, This word is explained at Ab. 217 bj 

aggafatthambho, and is rendered " the bolt or 

bar of a door.* But the S. ^BlfqifH is Tendered 

by B. and R. << coping of a wall*' (mauersims). 
KAPlTANO, The tree Thespesia Popohieoida 

[HRfhTf]. Ab.562. 
KAPITrHO,The tree Feronia Elephantnni[^rfinv]. 

Ab. 551 ; Mah. 169. See also Kavifiho. 
KAPOLO, The cheek [^iqt^]. Ab. 202. 
KAPOSI (m.). The elbow [ipvtfir]- ^^.265. 
KAPOTAKO (adj.). Grey, white [Hrfrt + ^J. 

KAPOTO, A pigeon, a dove [^TOtH]. Ab. (98. 

From Ab. 984 it would seem to mean some other 

bird also. 
KAPOTO (ai{f\). Belonging to pigeons [^TRt^]- 
KAPPABINDU (m.), A black spot which Boddhist 

priests are instructed to attach to a new robe to 

disfigure it [iPV + f^P^. Ab.799; P^B2,91. 
KAPPAKKHAYO, That period of the kalpa wfaes 

the process of destruction is going on, a ttukoafU 

(see Kappo) {WK + ^n]« Ab. 82. 
K APPAKO, A barber ; one who prepares or mskei 

[^ran]- Ab. 508; Dh. 117, 214; Mah. 170. 
KAPPANA (/.), Preparing, making; thought 

[^I^V^] • Ab. 1 13, 954. 
KAPPANAA, Gutting ; caparisoning an elephant or 

horse; making [H^Cflf]. Ab. 966. Sihatejffi^ 

kappanam, lying on the right side like a lioo. 
KAPPANIYO (od/.). To be thought or believed 

KAPPANO, The trappings of an elephant [^Wnfl- 





KAPPAPETI (cow. AM^f9Mid)» To cause to be capari- 
soned or made ready. 

KAPPARO, The sknU [li^Tl* ^b- ^« 

K APPARO, The elbow [f]^] . Ab. 966 ; Dh. 237. 

KAPPARUKKHO, A celestial tree yielding all 
wishes, it grows in Indra's heaven [^nV + 7^1* 
Ab.28; Man.B. 14. 

KAPPASIKO (a^\). Made of cotton [m i JlfijH] - 
Ab. 297; Kamm. 9; Pit 76. 

KAPPAsI (/.), and KAPPASO, Cotton [^T^]- 
Ab. 689. Kappdiatthiy a cotton seed (Dh. 301). 

KAPPATI, To be fitting, aUowable, right, proper 
[m]. Mah.16,86. With ^t. Ida^ vo kappoH, 
this is permissible to yon, yon may do this. 

KAPPATO, Soiled or tattered doth, rags [^rfz]- 
Ab. 293. 

KAPPAYUKO (adj\\ Whose age is a kalpa, living 
akaIpa[^raT+in^ + l|]. Mah. 27. 

KAPPETI (com. ki^fpati). To arrange, to make, to 
establish, to enter upon ; to think, to imagine ; to 
cut [^KN^Ol+U^* Fdsafk or tamvdio^ Ar., 
to take np one's abode, to dwell, to live (F. Jit, 2 ; 
Mah. 37, 121 ; Dh. 120). Seyyatk k., to lie, to 
sleep (Mah. 49). Sihiueyytak k,, to lie on the 
right side like a lion (B. Lot. 342). I9$erafh 
ktqtpoj^mt established their supremacy (Mah. 264). 
JHoMMrtnk kappen^ took his noon-day rest (Mah. 
121). NUaifam k., to sit (P6t 7). Ddnavaffaik 
ik., to establish continual almsgiving. Kanm kaivd 
JMkam k^fpento, gaining a livelihood by plough- 
ing (F. Jit. 9, eomp. Dh. 114). KappenU mMtta- 
pkalakawh slashing at the falling shield (Mah. 164, 
eomp. Dh. 211). P.p.p. kappito, 

KAPPTKO {a^.\ Thinking, reasoning [fr. |n]. 

KAPPIKO (^4^*.), Belonging to a Kalpa [^Rir 4- 
\J^» ^diktqfpikot belonging to former Kalpas 
(Alw. I. crii, the termination belongs to the whole 

KAPPITO (p^P'P' kappeH\ Caparisoned, made 
raady; cot,cntoff [^iffRTf]. Ab. 366. KappUa^ 
kemmawu^ with hair and l>eard shorn, 

KAPPlYATI {pan. koppeit)^ To be thought or 
imagined. B. Lot. 326. 

KAPPIYO (pfy. kii^fpaH)y Right, proper, suitoble, 
i^ipropriate, acceptable, agreeable [in^V] • Kappi" 
yaMtei, a suitable site (Dh. 267). Datvdna 
ktppigmm bhafi^aik^ giving them suitable presents 
(Mah. 214» eomp. Kb. 11). Charam kappiif 

a rol>e presented duly, or in the proper manner 
and at the right time (P&t. 9). Kappdki^^^am^ 
what is right and what is not. 

KAPPO {adj.). Fit, suitoble, worthy ; nearly equal 
to, rivalling, resembling, like ["^nTi and perhaps 
iprar]- Ab. 742, 799. Kappdkappem kovido, 
skilled in distinguishing suitable and unsuitoble 
things (Mah. 86). PhaldtU Buddhakappdnit fruits 
worthy of B. Satthukappo, like the Teacher him- 
self (Mah. 124 ; Alw. I. 64). I have followed 
Ab. 799 in making kappa in the sense of sadua 
an adjective, but see B. and R. ^RTs % 6, and 
eomp. bMmikappoy a suitable site (Att. 134). 

KAPPO, Time; a short time, moment; precept, 
rule, ordinance ; the rules concerning rites, one of 
theVedangas; practice, usage, mode ; alternative, 
permission ; a chapter or section of a lMM>k ; thought ; 
all, the whole; a vast period, age, cyde [^w]. 
Ab. 110, 799. Nieeatk kappam, always. Atthi 
kappo nipajfUufkt there is a brief space to lie 
down. Mifitakappo, mode of life (Dh. 394). 
Kappati dvamgulakiqtpOf the two-inch alternative 
is allowable, that is permission is granted to extend 
the allotted time for the mid-day meal to two 
inches of the sun's shadow after noon (Mah. 16 ; 
P&t zxxiz). jiti&aira kappd^ without leave (Pdt. 
97). Kevalakappath Jetavanathf the whole of 
Jetevana (Kb. 4). Kt^fpo may mean a Kappabindn 
(Ab. 799, P6l 91). The term Kappa is given to 
certain vast periods or cydes of time, of which 
there are three, mahdkappo^ asankheyyakappo or 
oionkhyakappOf and antarakt^ifpo. All the Gakka- 
v^as are subject to an alternate process of de- 
struction and renovation, and a Mah&kappa is the 
period which elapses from the commencement of 
the destruction of a Cakkav^a to ito complete 
restoration. Each Mak£kappa is subdivided Into 
four Asankheyyakappas, called iothvatto, Mamva- 
ffatfhdyi, vivafp>9 and pivaftaffhdyL In the first 
the destruction (by fire, water or wind) l>egins and 
is accomplished, the Cakkav^a being resolved 
into ito native demento,. or consumed so that 
nothing remains; in the second this stote of void 
or chaos continues; in the third the process of 
renovation begins and is completed, and the fourth 
is a period of continuance. After the end of the 
fourth period the dissolution recommences as 
before, and so this alternate process of destruction 
and renovation goes on to all eternity. Each 





Asankheyyakappa oontains twenty Antarakappas, 
an Antarakappa hang the interval that elapses 
while the age of man increases from ten years to 
an asankheyya, and then decreases agiun to ten 
years; this period is of immense duration, see 
Yugam. A Kappa is either nMakappOf in which 
there is no Baddha, or aiuhnakappo or buddko' 
kappOf in which one or more Buddhas appear. 
There are five softs of Asufi£a1cappa» tdrakappo 
in which one Buddha appears, maftdakappo in 
which two appear, narakappo in which three 
appear, tdramaftdakappo in which four appear, 
and bhaddakappo or mahdbhaddakappo in which 
five appear. The present kappa is a Bhadda- 
kappa ; of its ^y^ Buddhas four have appeared, 
viz. KaktuandhOy Kondgamano^ Kauapo, and 
Gotamo (G&kyamuni), the fifth Metieyyo has yet 
to appear. By the word Kappa standinj^ alone a 
Mah&kappa is meant. The interval of time which 
elapses between one Buddhakappa and the next 
varies from one Mahiluippa to so vast a number 
as an asankheyya of Mah&Icappas. The names 
of the last twenty-seven Buddlias are preserved. 
Of these the four first, TafJumkaro, MedAankaro, 
Saraf^ankaro, and D1pankaro,heiong6d to a 8ira- 
ma94AkBppA the date of which was four asan- 
kheyyas of Mahikappas plus a hundred thousand 
Mah^appas ago. Dipankara, the last of these 
four, was the first of the twenty-four Buddhas 
(see Buddho). Since his kappa there have been 
eleven Buddbakappas, the present one l>eing the 
eleventh. The interval between Dipankara's kappa 
and the next Buddhakappa was one asankheyya 
of Mahdkappas (Suiifiakappas). Twenty-nine 
Sufifiakappas elapsed between the present kappa 
and the last Buddhakappa, which was a Ma^fi^- 
kappa of two Buddhas, Sikhi and VeuabM. — 
KappiuatasaAatsddhikdni cattdri oiankheyydniy 
four asankheyyas of kappas plus a hundred thou- 
sand (Db. 7d). Ekatimse ito kappe, in the thirty- 
first kappa from this time (Ras. 28). Ito dve 
uavutikappe, ninety-two kappas ago (Dh. 137). 
Man. B. 1, 5-8, 28-35, 94-97; Bh. 116, 126, 267; 
Mah. zxviii, xxxii, saxiii, 86 ; Ras. 15 ; B. Lot. 

KAPPORO, and -RAlk, Camphor [^r^J. Ab.305. 

KAPUPPHAA, Few flowers, or bad flowers [^-h 

KAPURISO, a bad man [ifT^^] . Sea. K. 380. 

KARA(/.),AjaU[lfnT]. Ab. 407. 
KARABHO, The metacarpus, the hand from the 

wrist to the root of the fingers ; a camel [W^]« 

Ab. 266, 502. 
KARABHCsA (/.), A bracelet or bangle [l^+ 

IftTf]. Ab.286. 
KARAOOAA, The tip of an elephaaf a trunk [^ 

+ ^Rr]. Ab.d65. 
KARAHACI (adv.), Somedmes [irff + 1^. 

Kaddci karukad, sometimes and on some occssknis 

(Alw. T. 108). 
KARAHATAA, a bulbous root [W^CfTZ]- Ak 

KARAJO, A finger-naa [l|^W]- Ab. 268. 
KARAKA (/.), and -KG, Hail [l|T^]. Ab. M, 

1012. Karakavatsatk, a shower of hail (Dh. 281). 

KARAKAA, Tbe relation of noun and verb in s 
sentence, construction, case-relation [l|T^]. 
There are six: apdddnank the ablative relstioi, 
sampadduam dative, okdio locative, karoMoik ia« 
stmmental, kammam accusative, $dmi genitiTe. 
These are KaccHyaaa's terms (see Sen. K. 317- 
351) ; some grammarians call the ace uptiffu, 
the abl. niaakka, the loc bhumma. Kdrakak^tp^t 
chapter on case-relation or syntax (Sen. K. 361). 

KARAKO, A waterpot; the pomegranate tree 
[WK^]* Ab. 570, 1012. 

KARAKO (adj,)t Making, doing, causing [iflT^]* 
Cfahakdrako, house-builder, architect (Db. 28). 
Hattkakammakdrakd manut^df manual lal)oarerk 
MahdsangiHkdrakdy those who held the great re- 
hearsal (Alw. I. 64). Fem. kMki{mL. I77t 2a> 
KdrakOf a doer, agent, author. Ktuakuta kM$ 
puggtdOf a man who is a doer of good worla 
(Dh. 138). Dhammam wtvd kdrakapuggdU, neo 
who having heard the truth act in acoordasoe 
therewith (Dh. 151> 

KARAMADDO, The shrub Carissa Caraadss [^ 
XJ(^. Ab.578. 

KARAMARO, A prisoner [oomp. H<I||X^. Ab. 
407. Karamardnito, a servant or slave tako 
prisoner in war (Ab. 515). 

KARANA (/.), Agony, torture [^fTTWT]- Ab.407. 

KARANA (adv.). On account of, for tbe salce of 
[^T<mi^]- With gen. IgsarhfOMa k., for Ac 
sake of obtaining the kingdom. Jfumdatthera- 
kdraftd, on account of the thera Ananda (Mab. 11» 
oomp. 48). Kftkkdraftd, on what acoouat? 




KABAffAAp Making; d<Ang; action; instrnment; 
the b«dy ; an organ of sense [W^^IIT]* Ab. 901. 
Kmrnid l mml akammakanmutthf doing riglit and 
wrong actions (Dh. 99). Th^paua karanam, 
bonding the Bagoba (Mah. 107). Itthakdkaratuuhy 
brickHnaking (Ditto). OkdiokarufMnh malting 
nMun. j^bkimahakara^ik, renovation. EdrafUnh 
is the name of tlie instramentai relation (see 
KArakam)^ See Karafio. 

KARANAA^ Motive, cause, reason^ means ; thing, 
matter, caae, events substance ; destruction [^- 
X;i|]. Ab. 91, 1127. Ein nu kho kdranant^ 
what can be the reason ? (Dh. 213). Xin nu kho 
4itkm kirapam, what can l>e the cause of this ? 
(F. JiL 6). nm* dgOHumakirafLam, the object 
of her coming there (Mah. 121). Aparmn pi 
MrsfMiA attki, and 1 have another reason besides 
(Dli* 234). Teua kdrafunoj for this reason, on 
tbis aceonnt (Dh. 39% comp. 396, 407). Kena 
UnafiMa, on what account ? (Dh. 349> Ndhatk 
mmenm kdrapena gatd^ this was my sole object in 
gofaig (Dh. 842, comp. 235). InuKh kdrafuuh 
sJciUH did not tdl me this matter (Dh. 212). 
Brdkmtm^ ekan te kdrofkmh kaihemiy Brahmin, 
I have somewhat to tell thee (Dh. 103). Tathd 
kdra^mh pariyeritabbam, then the matter is to be 
investigated. Kdrafum te ^dtam dgamane mayd, 
jomr case became Icnown to me as I aj^roached 
(Mah. 248). DmkJ^akilfat^dni, painful circum- 
stances (Dh. 395). Eh^fpam eva imatk kdranath 
dkkkeifyuj would soon teach him this ttiing (Dh. 
400). AkdrofUh unieasonable^ groundless. For 
ahL kdrmii^f see separate article. 

KARAlirpAKO, A box [H^jlQIi]. AIw. 1. 74 ;. 
F.J4t.5; Mah. 161. 

KARAJSTVAVCX a sort of Aick [lR?r9I|]. 
Ab« 696L 

XABA^PO^ and -QAft, A basket,, a wicker-work 
b«z [1VCV]- Ab. 317; Mah. 268. 

KARAli^IKO (o4f.\ Investigating,, judging [ifT- 
^flfll^].. Ab. 726. One of' the guardians of 
kdl is caUed kdra^iko; *' tho judge "^ (Ab. 068). 

KABAIJ^O {p^iLp. karoH), That ought to be done 
or made [iC^fH^^V]* Ab. 772. UMho 
farsi^ps, elfort must be made (Kamm. ^. Atyo" 
Ukmrmpfy9^ to whom salutation should be made, 
teerving salutation (Alw. I. 78). N*aUhi ku$a^ 
idkwmleki kammeM karoMiiya^ there is no use 
la doing gqod or bad actions.. Neat. Apara{il^ift> 

that which ought to be done, duty. Sangho' 
karanfydni karotiy to perform ecdesiastical duties 
(Dh. 348). Cattdri karattiydni cattdri akaraniydni^ 
four things to be done, four things to be avoided 
(Kamm. 8). 

KARAf^JO, The plant Pongamia Glabra [^^T^]- 

KARAQTO (a4f.), Making, causing [li^^ir]. So- 
maggikarafLOy causing reconciliation (Mah. 6). 
Fem. -fi/. 

KARANO, see KaroH. 

KARANTAKlPHALO, The Jack-tree or bread- 
fruit tree, Artocarpus Integrifolia. Ab. 569. 

KARAPALIKA {f.\ A wooden sword, a cudgel 

[^IR?nftraT]. Ab.392. 
KARAPANAJdr, Causing to be made. Dh. 2&0. 
KARAPETI {eaus. karoti), To cause to be made or 

done. Dh. 242 ; Sen. K. 436, 467. P.p.p. kdrdpito 

(Mah. 158). 
KAR APUTO, The cavity formed by joining the bent 

pahns of the hands [l|^ + n;] . Ab. 268 (same 

meaning as m^ali). 
KARASAKHA (/.), A finger [^ + UTOT]. 

KARAVELLO, The plant Momordica Charantia 

Hn^%ir]. Ab. 696. 
KARAVlKO, The Indian cuckoo ; name of one of 

the Kuliicalas. Ab. 26, 626 ; B. Lot. 565, 566. 

See Kuratfiko, 
KARAViRO, Oleander or Nerium Odorum [^ 

-^[TfhQ. Ab.577. 

KARAVO, see Kdru. 

KAREJ^U (m. and/.). An elephant [if^]. Ab. 
866 (note). See Kof^eru. 

KARERI (ill.). The tree Gapparis Trifoliate. Ab.553. 

KARETI {eati9i, karoti)^ To cause to be done 
or made, to make, to perform [UTTC^fTf = 
ir] . Sen. K. 467. Rqffath k.y to reign, to rule 
(Alw. I. 73 ; F. J&t. 16). Abhmekam kdretvd, 
having caused himself to be inaugurated king 
(F. Jdt. Sy, Yoggaik k.f to make fit (F. Jit. 9). 
PaHmdya akdrayi manifh taih nayanmh, caused 
this jewel to be made into the eye of a statue 
(Mah. 2^). Sippugganham akdrayh taught him 
accomplishments (Mah. 60). Kdrayamiho, caus- 
ing to be made for himself (P&t. 4). Pdrdfikena 
dhammena kdretabbo, is to be treated according 
to P. rule, convicted of a P. offence (P4t. 7). With 




two aoc. SapatAafk yakkhim akdraiyiy caused the 
y. to make an oath, made her swear (Mah. 49). 
With ace. and instr. TSmnaodyehi kdriya kancw" 
kanif having caused a casing to be made by the 
tailors (Mah. 193). With ace. and gen, SopurUo 
toMsa purUatsa hammafh kdretif this man causes 
that man to perform an action (Sen. K. 335). 
Imperat, 2nd. pers* kdraya (Mah. 198). Ger. 
kdretvdf kdriya (Mah. 11). P.p.p. kdrito, 
KARl (m,). An elephant [^if^^. Mah. 106. 
KARl (a4f.). Doing, acting [^llf^^. PdpakM, 

a sinner (Dh. 3). Dh. 52; Sen. K. 512. 
KARIKA (f.)f Work, action; a memorial verse, 
a metrical explanation [l||(\l||]. Ah. 1105. 
Dukkarakdrikath katvd, having performed difBicult 
deeds (Alw. I. 77). See also under Kdrako, 
KARiRO, The plant Capparis Aphylla [H^ i ^ ]. 

Ab. 580. 
KARISAA, Excrement [^p(^]. Ab. 274, 995. 
KARISAM, a superficial measure ^ four Amma^as. 

Ab. 197, 995; Mah. 61, 106; Dh. 135. 
KARISAPAISfO, A kdrshdpa^a [^R^trqUT]- Ab. 

481. See Kahdpafto, 
KARISSAA, see JKaro^ 

KARITO (p.p>p* kdreti). Caused to be made or done, 

made, constructed, performed [^Trf^TI ^ V]* 

Alw. I. x; Dh. 78. Kim me raffena kdritena, 

what's the use of my reigning ? (Dh. 406). Neut. 

kdritafht the causal form of the verb (Sen. K. 436). 

KARIYA, see Kdreti. 

KARIYA, KARlYATI, see Karoti. 

KARIYO (p.f.p. karoti). That ought to or can be 

done [lir$]. Ab. 1037. 
KARO, The hand ; an elephant's trunk ; tax, toll, 
revenue ; a ray of light [^] . Ab. 64, 265, 365, 
1047. Karam gaphdH, to collect the revenue 
(Mah. Ixxxvii). Dakkhiftam karam add, offered 
his right arm (Mah. 41). Karatii ramo dlamHtvd, 
holding the king's hand (Mah. 41, oomp. 25). 
KARO (adj,\ Making, causing, doing [l|^] . Only 
as the latter part of a compound : Punnakaro, 
doing good works (Mah, 132) ; dukkaro, difficult ; 
hitakaro, a benefactor (Mah. 20) ; paaddtuamve^a- 
karo, causing pleasure and pain (Mah. 1); dnauda^ 
karo, causing joy (Mah. 12) ; bhedakaro, causing 
discord; panhaiua aniakaro, one who answers 
satisfactorily questions put to him. Comp. Bhay^ 
ankarOf DinakarOf Madhukaro, Nitdkaro^ Sukaro, 
Kicci^arOf etc 

KARO, Making, action ; a prison ; the tree Gaathima 
Parviflorum ; a song of praise [?nT]' Oantko' 
kdro, book-making (Alw. I. x). See JhaMro, 
AUmkdro, Balakkdro, Sddhukdro. Kdro U UMd 
after letters to form their name : ahbv, the letter 
a; dkdrOf the letter d; kakdrddayo, the letters k 
and the rest (Sen. K. 201) ; okdrukdrd, the letters 
o and « (Sen. K. 208). Ab. 1011 ; Dh. 274. 
KARO (adj\). Making [Wtt] • I^kakdro, a coach- 
maker. Bkattakdrot a cook. See Andhakin, 
Cafnmakdro, Cittakdro, Suvaf^fMkdro, etc 
KAROTI, To act; to do; to cause; to cause to 
become* to render, to make; to perform [v]* 
Bhdsati vd karoti vd, speaks or acts (Dh. 1). 
Tathd katvd, having done so, having acted dios 
(Dh. 156). Md evatk akattha, do not do so (Dh. 
80). JOfM kaiffd, having done what? by what 
means ? Yath kind katvd, by some means or other 
(Dh. 156). Aham pi k&dd ena kariisdmi, I too 
wiU do sometiiing or other (Dh. 106). Iddni hm 
karomi, what am I to do now ? (Dh. 157)* Kmd 
akatvd, having done nothing, without doug say- 
thing (Alw. I. 99). Yatkd mam na mMieaH tatki 
kdtufk vaffatif I must manage that he does not 
dismiss me (Dh. 156). Yathd so ndgacehoH taikd 
kariisdmif 111 take care he does not come Diu 
dioatk yon iam kayird, whatsoever an enemj woald 
do to an enemy (Dh. 8). iVii te labbhd kind kdtmkf 
it is not allowed to do anything to them (Alw. I. 
72). Ktijk vo bhante hatthi fdm karonii, pn)r> 
rir, what do the elephants do to you ? (Dh. 154)> 
ffatake viya akdd, treated them like rdstives 
(Dh.240). TeaitanodvardnildikkaritwiiUj'^h^ 
will they do with their own dothes? (Dh. 174). 
Tesam andgamanam kariitimi. 111 prevent their 
coming back, lit. I will cause their non-retom 
(Dh.l54). ^ikiirtyayimaA;A<f<fam, without csoflog 
human suffering (Mah. 215). Lomahamiom &t 
to cause amaxement (Mah. 107). Karoti to tM 
attdnam yathd nam icchati dUo, he makes bio* 
self what his enemy would wish him to be (Dh. 
29). Katvdna mahemmSihadvalimy hwi^^^ 
S. his queen (Mah. 46). Ratham Ar., to baUd s 
chariot. Bhamamuffkim A., to convert into a 
handful of ashes (Dh. 354). Tatkdrdpam wit(^ 
kdtufkf to make such a man one's fiieod (Alw* I* 
75). Dafham k. bandhanam, makes the M^ 
strong (Dh. 63). Ujnm k., to make straight 
(Dh.7). Uf^hamk.,toheat(F.Jit57)' Noggtm 




k^ to strip naked (Mah. 961). Vyydnam ramapU 
fmA akMy rendered the garden delightinl (F. 
Jat. 6). Panuum 9amam katod, making the 
earth smooth (Dh. 154). Khettam dve kotthtke 
kaivd^ haring divided the field into two» lit. made 
it into two portions (Dh. 126). Hatthagataih k., 
to make one's own (Dh. 228). Fltadsam k.^ to 
make friends with (F. Jdt. 17). Aggim k., to 
make a fire (F. JiL 2). Fahdram k., to trade 
(F. JiL 14). KoBim k,, to till the ground (F. 
Jit. 9). jiffofh Ar.« to go to law, to bring an 
action. Kumici dlayam akatvd, not feeling desire 
§or anything (Dh. 281). Akatvd ratim akkharesu, 
not delighting in syllables (Kh. 21). Sitam A;., 
to smile (F. Jdt. 10). Kdlamk,, to die. Mdnasam 
k,f to resolve (Mah. 76). Okdsam A;., to make 
room for. Partbhogam k,^ to use (Dh. 106). 
Paecmggwnanam Ap., to go to meet (Dh. 231). 
Smauminam k,, to pay honour to (Mah, 241). 
Sakkdrmk k,, to entertain hospitably. Anunnani 
k^ to permit. Mettam karoH, to show friendship 
to (Kh. 6). Iddhiyo k,, to work miracles (Dh. 
299). SUahhedam k., to commit a breach of 
morality (Dh. 156). ScdgtHm k,, to hold a re- 
hearsal (Mah 11). Sdkaechaik k,y to converse 
(Dh. 121). Naraih kurute vasath, gets a man 
into his power (Dh. 9). Dandam k,, to inflict 
ponishment (Alw. I. 99). DivdviAdram k,, to 
take one's midday rest. Abbhuiam k., to make 
a bety lay a wager. Ktdakam k.^ to quarrel. 
Pttfidkhk orpatthanam Ar., to make an aspiration 
fiir, to pray Ibr. Saddam k,, to make a noise, to 
shout. Pmmdni k., to do good actions. Kammam 
Ie., to do a deed, to perform an action. Pavattim 
k., to establish (Mah. 88). Fanuatthitim k., to 
establbh one's- dynasty. Upamam Ar., to make a 
eomparison (Dh. 24). Opammafh Ar., to give 
a simile or illnstration (Alw. I. xlii). Sokath Ar., 
to mourn (Dh. 900). FWyam or diappafh k., to 
make an effort, to exert oneself (Mah. 13 ; Dh. 310). 
Tmddkam A:., to fight, to make war (Mah. 153). 
PmH^foghdiam akatvd, without mentioning life- 
skoghter (Alw. I. cxxiv). Attano ghare akdsi, 
kept tliem in his own house (Alw. 1. 75). Hatihe 
kmiivdj having placed it in his hand. Fdme 
kmdffkkk kaivd, placing his sister on hb left side 
(Mah. 44). PofifMNii Mcehamge katvd, having put 
the letter in the fold of her dress (Dh. ^1). Bahi 
ik kmriadmh IH pat him outside (Dh. 94). 

Ekato k.y to put together (Mah. 140). PunUo A;., 
to put in front (Mah. 233). Dvedhd Ar., to divide. 
Armattha A;., to put elsewhere (Alw. 1. 63). Tato 
amacce katvdna, next in order posting the ministers 
of stote (Mah. 233). Manasi karoH or tnanaaU 
karvHy to attend to (Mah. 158, Dh. 401). PuHd 
vd ^lanam vd toMiith samaye kim eva karimmiif 
when that time comes what good will sons and 
riches do to you ? (Dh. 258). Jimtena kvik 
kariudmi, what is the use of living? lit. what 
shall I do with life? Karoti is sometimes com* 
pounded with a noun or adj., the short a of the 
nominal base being first ehanged to i : dafhikaroH, 
to make firm ; bhasmikaroti, to reduce to ashes ; 
andthikaroH, to render helpless (Att. 207) ; ca^U 
karoti, to provoke. The present tense of karoti 
is as follows: karmni, karoti, karoti, karoma, 
karotha, karonti, Pres. dtm. 3rd pers. kurute 
(Dh. 9, 39; Mah. 219; Sen. K. 462), kubbati, 
kubbate (Sen. K. 463), pi. ku^anti. Opt. kayird 
(Dh. 8, 10, 19; Mah. 244; Das. 6), kayirdtha 
(Dh. 5, 22, 55 ; Kh. 14), hUfbsiha, kare (Dh. 8, 
Sen. K. 466), kareyya (F. Jit 2; Sen. K. 465). 
Imperat 2nd pers. kuru (Mah. 18, 61), karohi 
(Dh.42); 3rd pers. karotuf 2nd pers. pi. karotha 
(Sen. K. 436); 3rd pers. pi. karontu. Fut. 
kariinaH (Sen. K. 428; Dh. 156; F. J4t. 12). 
There is also a contracted form of the fut. of 
which the 1st. pers. is kdhdmi, 2nd kdhati, kdhisi, 
3rd kdhati, kdhiti, 1st pi. kdhdma (Sen. K. 452; 
Dh. 28, 123, 322; Mah. 49). Aor. akdd (this is 
the usual form in prose. Sen. K. 455, F. Jdt. 6, 
Mah. 72, pi. akdwm), akd (Mah. 23, 37, pL 
akanuu, 2nd pers. pi. akattha), akari (Sen. 
K. 455, F. Jdt. 13, Mah. 13, 72, Dh. 129, pU 
akaruihi akarinuu), Aor. 1st pers.. pi. with itm* 
term, akaramhase (F. Jdt. 13). Inf. kattuni, 
kdtum (Sen. K. 512), kdtave (Mah. 217, Sen. K. 
485, 5Q3). Ger. katvd, katvdna, kattdna, kdtdua, 
karUvd, kariya (Sen. K. 486, 503, 510, 51% Mah. 
194, 215 akariya, comp. Att. 214 abhimukhi" 
kariya). kubbam (Dh. 10; F. Jdt. 13), 
kubbanto (Sen. K. 433 ; Mah 244), karonto (Dh. 
21), karam (Dh. 25, Mah. 137, dat. karato), 
karamdno, kurumdno, kardno, kubbdno. Part, 
fut. karissam (€1. Or. 120). Pass, karfyati, 
kariyyati, kayyati, kariyati, kayirati (Sen. K. 
437, 438). Pass. aor. kariyittha (Sen. K. 502). kariyamdno, kariyyamdno, kayiramduo. 


(190 ) 


. being done or made (Att 190 ; Alw. I. xzi ; I>h* 
261; B. Lot. 717). P.f.p. karapfyo, kattabdo, 
kdtabbot kiecOf kdrijfo, kaytro^ kajf^a. P.p.p. 
Amfo. — ^Althoogfa the grammarians appear to treat 
kayiraii as an active form (see CI. Gr. 110 ; Alw. 
L 20, 41 ; Sen. K. 441, 403^ there can be little 
donbt that it is really a passive. I have met with 
the pres. twice elsewhere than in the grammars, 
and in both eases it is used as a passive. The 
first instance is at Dh. 980, yehi tank hmfiroH^ 

. '< by whom this is done ;" the second is at P^ 90, 
makkhikamadkund pi kayirati^ "it is also made 
from honey.** Gomp. also at Sen. K. 333^ Yena 
vd kayiraie tarn karanumi, ** and that by means 
of which anything is done is caUed the in- 
strument." The part, pies* k^kf%ramiH& ooeors 
frequently, and always as a passive^ e.g« mahdih^ 
kayiramdnef while the Biab&thdpa was being built 
(Mah. 177)^ KayhraH is a metathesis of karfyoH 
or kariyati^ The opt* kayWd is a metathesis of 
the Sansk. ^^HYf^> through the foil, steps, kurydt, 
karydt, kariy^ kayiriu In tlie opt. kayitdtha the 
'4ka probably represents the final -l^of 9^1!^. 
There is nothing in Mi usage to prevent the 
imperat. 2nd sing, kayirdhiy given at Sen. K. 441, 
from being a passive. The p.f4>. kayir^ is a 
metathesis of Iff^. The pass. kayyaH is a con- 
traction of Acariyafi through an intermediate form 
karyati. In kayyOf S. Wt^» assimilation has 
taken piaceb 

KARU (nu\ An artisan [^m]. Ab. 504; Sen^ 
K. 614. PI. kdfatfo. Five are enumerated at 
Ab. 605v taet^ako^, tantavdyoi nija^o, nahd^Uo^ 


KARUKO, An arUsan [1R^1|[|. Sen. K. 474. 

KARUNA (jiC), Compassion, mercy [^nilX] - ^'^ 
100. Karuvuibhdvandy exercising the meditation 
of pity or sympathy,, fixing the mind intently on 
the idea of human suffering and the wish to relieve 
it (B. IMon. 246; Man. B. 417). Karufuikaroy a 
mine of mercy (Alw. I. vii). See AppamanAd^ 
Kammaffhdnam. Comp. KaruniK 

K ARUyAvA (oitf.). Merciful [Hm W H^ ]. Alw. 

I. xiii. 
KARU]!^IK0 {adj.y, Compassioiuite^ mercifbl [igf- 

^figH]. Ab.7a7. 
KARUMaA, CompassioQ [l|ni«]> Ab. 100; 

IMi. ai9. 

KARUi}fiATA(/.X Compasshmateaess [ 

J[(\. Mah. 243. 
KARUl^O, lliat which moves eompassion, the 

pathetic, pathos [l|^]. Ab. 102. See £iinifuL 

KASA(/.), A whip [^nn]- Ab. 370; Dh. 26; 

Mah. 269. 
KASA&0,AplougfaBhartt[Vi:9]. Ab.448. 
KASAA, see Kdao. 
KASAMADDO, The plant Cassia Sophora [HT- 

^Rl^. Ab. 69a 
KASAMBU («.)> Sweepings, rubbish. Ab. 224 

KASAPETI (com. next)» To cause to be ploughed. 

Dh. 141. 
KASATI, To plough, to tiH the ground [V^]. kasanto (Mah. 96). Imperat. 6tm. Ist. pers. 

pi. kasdmoBe (F. Jat. 10, 32). Pqi^p. kafthoy katito. 

When VV means " to draw,'* its present in Pali is 

kaddhatit and its p.p.p. kaddhiio. 
KASATI, To shine [^rnQ[]- 

KASAYlTO(a4f.). Stiuned[ipnf^]- Att 193. 
KASAYO, and KASAVO (my.). Having an as- 

tringent taste; fragrant [^|C[Xlf]. Dh. 200. 

Masc and neat, astringent taste (Ab. 148) ; the 

colour red or reddish yellow ; astringent juice (Ab. 

000) ; stain^ impurity,, depravity^ sin (Dh. 2, 116). 

KAsAYO, and KASAVO (oc^), Reddish yellow, 
yellow [^milf] • Kdadydni watthdnif the yellow 
robes(B.l4>t8^;Alw.I.92). Sdidvam vaUkmk, 
the yellow robe (Dh« 2). Nent. kdt^am and 
kdidvatkf the yellow robes of a Buddhist priest 
or monk (Ab. 296; Dh. 64). Kdtdvam or kMymm 
labkoH or ddiyaH, to assume the yeUow robe, to 
become a monk (Dh. 114; Mah. 38; oomp. Dh. 
112). Kdidwdni or kd$dyM nUfdietiy to wear the 
yeUow robes (Dh. 128; Mah. 24). SMtymwrno, 
wearing the yellow robe (Mah. 110). JCMso- 
pajfoto, glittering with yeHow robes (Mah. 73, 79). 
Kdsd^dni apanetnd, having tiirown off the robes 
(Dh. 86). 

KASERU (m. and ».), Name of a Mad of grass 
[^nKJ. Ab.l010. 

KASl(jC), Ploughing, agri€oltwrB[sf^]. Ab.446; 
Kb. 11. KaWmAMcre^ to plough, to till thfi ground 
(F. Jdt 9). Koiikammafky tilling, agricdHnre (F. 
M.9, 14; Alw. Lxxix). 

KAsI (*)t The name of a people ami ooontry 
[l|Tfl[]. Ab.l86. jriiitr4/i<,kingofBii^(INi. 
400). KMrafthadh the country or kingdoia of 




Ehfi (Dm. 99; F.JiL%S, 9). Kdtdu, in the K^i 
eiNuitTy(lfah.29). Benareg was the capital of the 

KASIKO («&'.), BeIoiig:ing to the Kll^i oountry 
[^nrfin]* KMkamwOiharii, Benares e]oth(ph. 
261, eomp. £. Mon« 165). 

KASmA (m.), A hvsbaDdmaiiy cultivator [vf^ + 
JIWQ* O. Gr. 24. 

KASINO (a^\). An entire [Viqr]. Ab. 702. 

KASU^O, and -NAM, This is the name for one of 
the divisions of the Karmasthdna, and is a process 
hy means of which mystic meditation may be 
iDdneed. There are ten sorts of Kasina, pathavt' 
IrMtfMfln, ^kmtifjutthy tefokoiinathf vdyektmpatkf 
mOakarifMAf pHaktuifMm^ lohitakasi^amt oddttt- 
kmn^atky dlokakatifuinh pttricchinndkdsakanfMmf 
earth, water, fire, wind, blae, yellow, red, white, 
li^ht^ and the sky seen throngh a narrow aperture 
(£. Mon. 252). The word km^ is the Sansk. 
limf , and this rite is I think so named liecanse 
in practising it the mind is wholly absorbed or 
CDgrossed in one predominant idea on which it is 
iafently fixed. In PafhavikaHfta a circle (kari^O' 
wuipdula) a fisw inches in diameter moulded of 
earth or day is placed upon a low frame. Seated 
at a short distance the priest must fix his eyes 
■poB the circle, and concentrate his mind upon the 
idea of the element of earth, inwardly repeating 
its various names, and dwelling on the thought 
tibat the partides of his own body are composed 
of this element. He most continue this exercise 
until his mind attains a state of absorption or 
mesmeric trance, when Nimitta will be produced, 
the drcie being seen when the eyes are closed as 
deariy as when they are open (see Nlmittam), 
In Apokat^ut the object contemplated is a bowl 
lull of water, in jilokaka$ifui a circle of light 
tiinvwn upon a wnll, in ParicchinndkdsakaHfka 
a portioa of slcy seen through a hole in the roof 
of a hnL In Nilakasina some object of a blue 
eolour is used, as a piece of blue cloth, or some 
blue ilowers, or a blue drcle painted on a wall ; 
and so with the remaining Kasi^as. Bangfti S. 
enumerates ten Kasi^^yatanas, pafhavtkasiftatk, 
4pelr., tefok^f vdyok,^ nUak., pi$ak,f lohitak., 
eiUmk., dMkak., v^nd^akoHf^nt. E. Mon. 252 
and kXL ; Man. B. 10; Dh. 131, 270. See JTam- 

KASIRO (adf\)f Ftoinfbl, gricfvous, miserable [ W] . 

Das. d4. Neut. kanraikf trouble, distress (Ab. 

89). Kiuirena, with difficulty (AIw. 1. 92). See 

also Kiccho, 
KASrrO (p.p.p. kMaH\ Ploughed. Ab. 1040. 
KASMIRAJAA, Saffron [^ l l^lfii^] . Ab. a03. 

KASMiRO, Cashmere [^liT^lftT]- ^b- ^^S ^v- 
I. xlii. Kaamhagmndhdrd, (pL) Cashmere and 
Candahar (Mah. 73). 

KABO, and KASAJJT, The gfrass Saccharum Spon- 
taneum [imt]- Ab. 601, 1125. 

KASO, Cough [^IT^]. Ab. 329, 1125. 

KASSA, KASSACI, see Ko, Koci. 

KASSAKO, A husbandman, farmer, cultivator 
[irNll]. Ab.447; t^.J^t. 14. 

KASS APO, Name of one of the twenty-four Buddhas, 
the last before Gotama ; name of a famous disdple 
of Buddha, presidentof the first Mah&sangiti ; name 
ofa9ishi[^irntR]- Ab.109; Mah. 2, 12. See/«;. 

KASU {f,\ A hole in the gfround, a pit ; a multitude 
[^IJ. Ab. 050, 1125. Loc. AM^yom (Ab. 684). 

KATABBO, see Kattabbo. 

KATABHINIhARO (adj.). Having formed the re- 
solution to become a Buddha [^gnf + abhinihdra\. 
See Abhinlhdrot and Man. B. 92. 

KATABHISEKO {adj.\ Whose inauguration cere- 
mony has been performed [unT + ^^H^^]- 
Rdjd katdbhiieko, the anointed king (Mah. 159). 

KATACCHU (iM.), A spoon. Ab.458. Kafacehu- 
mattath bhattajhy a mere spoonful of boiled rice 
(Dh. 352) . Katacehubhikkhd appears to mean food 
ladled into a priest's bowl when he calls at a house 
for alms (Dh. 229). 

KA'f AHA]!%, and KATAHAKAA, A jar, vase, 
flower-pot [^VTrV^ lldlf^J • ^^h. 90, 108, 111. 

KATAH ATTHO {Qdj.\ Skilful [WIT + 1^] • Ab. 
720 ; Dh. 223 ; Mah. 150. 

KANAKA A, and -KO, A bracelet ; the side of a 
mountain [liZli] . Ab. 285, 608. Pdddkatakmk, 
a foot-bangle. 

KATARATO (oi;^'.), Wrought and nnwrought; 
done and not done [ifTT + "ITlRf] • Ab. 486. Na 
paresath katdkaiam, not other people's sins of 
commission and omission (Dh. 10). 

KATAKO {adj.\ Artificud, feigned [mm]. Ab. 

KATAKO, The nut plant, Strychnos Potatorum, the 
seed of which is used to dear water [l|Rn(]. 
Ab. 1036. 

^ I 




KATAMAlI (m.)» The tree Cassia Fistula [oomp. 
inrVfTW]* Ab. 662, 

KATAMO (a4f.\ What? which? [inHT]- Sata- 
math g'antkadhuram, which (of the two) is the 
ganthadhara? (Dh. 80). Katamo devaloko *bh^ 
rammo, which of the six devalolcos is the most 
delightful? (Mah, 199). Katame data dhammd 
bhdvetabbd, what are the ten things that ought to 
be increased? 

KATAf^JALI (adj.). Saluting respectfully [Vff + 
^rerf^]. Mah. 112. See^%'a/t*. 

EATASrStJ (adj.). Grateful [CWH] . Mah. 167,161. 

KATAlWf UTA (/.), Gratitude [innWT] • P. J^t. 
18; Kb. 6. 

KATAPUJ^ATA (/.), State of having done good 
works, meiitoriousness [IHT^V + Iff] • Kb. 6, 14^ 

KATARO (a4;.). What? which? [lilTC]. Katarani 
dvuiopifakam pathamam $ang&ydma, which of the 
three pi^akas shall we rehearse first ? Atthdraaatu 
bhdsdiu katarabhdadya kathemi, which of the 
eighteen languages shall I speak in ? (Alw. I. cvii). 
Kataranagarato dga^ attha, from what town do you 
come ? (Db. 234). Gen. fern, katariud (Dh. 172). 

KATATTAft, Fact of having been done or made 

[WI + W]. 
KAT Ayk(preteriteparMciplefnm karoH\ Having 
. done or made [Q|fll|lf1 ] . 

KATAVAKASO (iu{;.)»' Having obtained an op- 
portunity, having received permission [l|lf + 

KATA V£, see JTaro^f. 

KATAVEDl (adj.). Grateful [VH^If^. Das. 44. 

KATAvI (preterite participle from karoti). Having 
done or made [uni + fW^- CI. Gr. 146. 

KATHA (/.), Speech, discourse ; conversation, dis- 

. cussion; a story, tale, account [^IVT]* Ab. 113. 
Tana kathdya niiBoko kutvd, comforted by what 
he said (Dh. 06). JSace mdtu katham pathamam 
iupdti. If he hears his mother speak first (Alw. I. 
cvii). Dhammi kathd, a religious discourse or 
sermon (see also Dhammakathd). jiwupubbikathd, 
discourse or exposition of a succession of subjects 
(dditakathd aUakathd, saggakathd, see Dh. 79, 
this formula is of frequent occurrence). THftftam 
khattiydnaih kathd udapddi, a discussion arose 
between the three noblemen (Dh. 141). Edya 
kathdya, conversing on what subject? (F. J&t. 8). 
Satthu gufu»kaiham kathentd, talking about the 
Teacher's goodness (Dh. 314). Kathd *va kd. 

who can describe ? Ut. what description can there 
be? With loc. Idhmd^tatthataAghana kd kaiki 
*va idhdgame, what description can he adequate lo 
the case of the arrival of the dergy bdonging to 
Ceylon? (Mah. 171, oomp. 160, 164)« K$tU- 
maggo, account, narrative, history (Has. 66). 
KATHALO, A potsherd or fragments of brolKB 
p</ttery; gravel [^IT?^?]* B. Lot 384, 576; 
Dh. 322 ; Ab. 026. 

RATH AA (adv.). How ? [^T^] . Ab. 1139 ; Sen. 
K. 416. Kathaih dgatd, how did you get here? 
(Dh. 156). Kathan nu tdkhaik ga/khiuaik, him 
then can I obtain a branch ? (Mah. Ill, oomp. 
168, 166). Mokkho uMabhayd kathatk, haw cio 
there be a release from all dangers ? (Att. 194). 
Katham hi ndma likhitaeoram pabbdfettOHU, I 
should like to know how they can ordain a pro- 
diumed thief (Alw. I. 72). Katham karituri, 
how will yon work ? i.e. how much work wiU yoo 
do ? (Mah. 174). Unhodakam patiyddeH kstkm, 
he gets the hot water ready, and how does he eet 
about it ? (Dh. 106). 

KATH ANAA, Saying, talking, conversing, reladflf 
[W^l- Ab. 1168; Dh. 136, 234. 

KATH ANA]!B[,One of the high numerals,10,000,000^^ 
or 1 followed by 126 ciphers (see Sankhyd). Ab. 
476 ; Sen. K. 413. 

KATHAf^CI (adv.). Scarcely, with difficulty [^^1^ 

KATHANKATHA (/.), Doubt [fipom WW + 

H^. Ab. 170; Db. 432; Has. 80. Ftg^ 

kathankatho, whose doubts are dispelled. Comp. 

akathankathi, free from doubt, = ^ + W^NVT 

+ l[ij^ (Dh. 73). 

KATH APETI (cau».). To cause to be said ; to cnie 
to be told, to learn [fr. ^]. DhammakaikMm 
kathdpenm, I have caused sermons to be presdied 
(Mah. 106). Tikkhattum kathdpetvd, hsTisf 
made them repeat it thrice (Alw. I. 07)> K^' 
matphdnath kathdpeudmi, I wiU get myself tsnght 
K. (Dh. 106). Tarn tarn bhdiam kathdpetoi 
ugga^hi, learnt such and such a language bf 
hearing it spoken (Alw. I. evil). 

KATHAVATTHU (n.). Subject of discourse [WT 

+ ^^]- Dh. 258, 407- There are ten, whkh 

Snbhdti tells me are appieehakaihd, taniMff^t 

pavivekak., a$amsaggak., viriydrambhak.t •»*■" 

kathd, tamddhik., pMdk., mmmttik., ndfttdam' 




mmHuMd. The list g^iAiii Wade's Diet, of 
Weodhigm mlMititates ddnakathd for mrt^iram' 

of diseossiODy book of controverted points [^IWT + 
W^ + H^iTW]* ^^^ ^ ^^® name of one of the 
boolu of tlie Abhtdhamma. It was composed hj 
Hie apoetie Moggalipnttatissa, and delivered by 
bim at die third Mahdsangiti (Mah. 42; Alw. N. 
18). It contains a thousand sdtras, half of which 
deal with points of Buddhist doctrine, and half 
with non-Buddhist doctrines. Sometimes written 
kaihdmOihiippakatrapa (Mah. 42). £. Mon. 170. 

KATHETI, To say, to speak, to tell, to recite, to 
•arrate, to repeat, to preach, to teach, to talk, to 
converse, to speak to, to speak of, to mean [iVff]. 
J\umiA kaihente^ when he was talking (F. Jdt. 
16). Ttuaum kathente ktUhenU yeva^ as he 
continoed to speak (Dfa. 97). Ekavacanam pi 
katkeium^ to utter a single word (F. J4t. 8). 
MmtmrabkMya katkemif in what language shall 
I speak ? (Alw. I. cvit). Kmci na katke$satit you 
will not say anything (F. JiU 17). Kim katketi, 
what b this yon say ? what do you mean ? (Dh. 
80). Te vejjaua kaikayithiu, they told it to the 
doctor (Dh.82). Devad^asuttam katken, preached 
the D. discourse (Mah. 83). Kammatthdnam me 
katketka, teach me k. (Dh. 80). Mkidhammd, 
or abkidhamatam, or abkidkammena katkayamH^ 
they preach from the A., they preach the A. (Sen. 
K. 322).'. katkayamdno, saying, speak- 
ing. Pass. kaikfyoH, katkyati (Ab. 09, 980; 
Alw. I. viii). kathiyamdno (Dh. 179). 
P.p.p. kaikito. 

KATHi {a4f.). Speaking [liirr + ^<C|. CUra- 
kmikU eloquent. DkammakatkU a preacher. 

KATHIKA (/.), Talk, parley, a pact or agreement 
[Vt+17iT]« I>b« 405. Kathikmk karM, to 
eome to terms, to make an agreement (Alw. 1. 74 ; 
Dh. 122,123). Often written ^olUbir. 

KATHIKO (o4;.). Speaking, preachug [^rf^]. 
Kaikiko makd, a great preacher (Mah. 83). 
Dkmmmmktitkik09 a preacher (Mah. SSI, and 
see Sep.). 

KATHINO (mdj.y. Hard, solid; severe, difficult 
[l|f3^]« Ab. 714. llie term kafkinani is ap- 
plied to a robe made Ibr a Buddhist priest in the 
eoRTM of a single day and night. This gift is 
considered highly meritorious. Sometimes the 

whole process of making the robe from the raw 
cotton is gone through in a single day. The 
Katbina must be formally presented by the donor 
before a chapter of at least fire priests (£. Mon. 121; 
Att. 142). KatMnaduuam, cloth for the Kathina. 
KatkinadvardiU, K. robes (Att. 227). Pit. 106. 

KATHITO (p.p.p. katkeH)j Spoken, said, related, 
told ; spoken of, meant [^rfWTT = ^V^] • ^^' ^' 

KATHITO (p.p.p.)y Boiled, hrnhng [from ^f%\. 
Ab. 743 ; Mah. 152. 

KATHlYATI, KATHYATI, see Katheti. 

KATI (interr. pran^ How many? [l|f?T]- Kati 
dkvrdni^ how many burdens ? (Dh. 80). KaHhi 
iriydpatkekif in how many positions? (Dh. 81). 
KativauOf how many years old ? (Dh. 405). Kati" 
vidko, of how many sorts ? 

KATI (/)> The small <^ the back, the hip, the 
waist [iifz] • Ab. 272 ; Mah. 137. Tdva katito, 
as high as the waist (Dh. 148). KafiiutUuh, a 
rope round the waist. 

KATIGI, Few, some [^rfTff^T] - Dandhd dcariyd 
bah A pafidiid ndma katiei eva koniif the foolish 
teachers are many, the wise are few indeed (Dh. 124). 

KATIKA, see Kathikd. 

KATIPAH AA, a few days [iCf^nRT + ^] • Kati- 
pdkenOf in a few days (Mah. 107). Katipdken' 
eva, in a very few days (Dh. 121, 198). Kat^kath 
fMuiivd, having lived with him a few days 
(F. J4t. 5). Katipdkassa aeeayena, or kat^* 
kaceayena, after a few days (Mah. 50). 

KATIPAYO (aeff.), A few, some, several [l|f?n|lV]. 
Katipayd tkerd, several priests (Mah.39). Mah. 144. 

KATO, and KATO (pp.p. kareti)y Made; done; 
composed ; performed [ TffIT = V] * Katdni akatdni, 
things done and things left undone (Dh. 10). Ka^ 
ecdyanakato yoffo, the rules were composed by K. 
(Alw. I. 104). Pardneki kaio p* ego, the history 
compiled by the ancients (Mah. 1). Mam* eva 
kaia^k, this is my doing (Dh. 13). TambalO' 
kddihi katOi made of copper and other metals 
(P4t 80). Hattkind kaiamag^go, the passage 
made by the elephant (Mah. 153). Tt^d kata- 
pof^naadldya, in the hut built by yon (Dh. 88). 
Kaiakamwuim, a deed done (Dh. 99, 308). CittO" 
katOf variegated (Dh. 27). Sambddkikato, crowded 
(Alw. I. X, for the long i in this and similar com- 
pounds see the article Karoii), Kata as the first 
part of a compound forms numerous adjectives, 
e.g. kataeiitOf variegated (Dh. 312) ; katakicco, 





haying fblfiUed all his duties (Mah. 43); kaia- 
buddhakiccOf having^ fulfilled the duties of a 
Buddha; katabhattakiccOf having finished his 
meal (Dh. 96, 403) ; mkatasakkdrOf very hospit- 
ably entertfdned, lit. for whom hospitality was 
well performed (Mah. 56) ; katatang'aho, assisted 
or relieved (Mah. 219) ; katasang^aho Updlithero, 
the elder Up^ by whom the convocation was held 
(Mah. 29) ; kattymmno, meritorious, lit. by whom 
good deeds have been done (Dh. 3, 39); kata- 
nicchayo, having decided, lit. by whom a decision 
had been made (Mah. 161, 172) ; comp. Katm^dli^ 
KatdbhUeko, Katdvakdto, etc. See Kato (2). 

KAfO, Matting, a mat made of rushes sown to- 
gether; the temples of an elephant; pudendum 
muliebre [yft] . Ab. 364, 465, 997 ; Dh. 187. 

KATO = inT, Made, done (Ah. 997). This form 
of kato I have only met with in the compounds 
akata, dukkata, tukata, pariyantakafa* 

KATOPAKARO (ai{/.). Having had a service done 
for one, assisted [int + ^M^K] . Att. 214. 

KATTA (m.). An agent, doer, maker [^1^]. Loc. 
kattari. PL kattdro. Base in comp. kattU'. In 
gram, a name of the active voice (Sen. K. 443). 

KATTABBO, and KATABBO (pf.p. karoH), That 
ought to be done or made, that can be done [l^A^ 
s= it] • Sen. K. 512 ; F. J4t. 52. Jdtena maccena 
kaitabbafk kuiolafk bahum^ much good may be 
done by a mortal man (Dh. 10). Th{q^ kattahbam 
niffhitofky the work which was to be performed at 
the th6pa is completed (Mah. 193). Ettakd ramo 
kattabbakiccam karniha^ so many of yon per- 
form the duties that ought to be performed for the 
king (Dh. 236). Iddni *S9a kattabbam jdmstdmi, 
now I shall be able to pay him out, lit. I shall 
know what to do to him (Dh. 169, comp. on the 
same page Gotaniasta ca kattabbam karusdmi, I 
shall have my revenge on O.). Kattahbayuttakath 
vaUaikf duties proper to be performed (Dh. 84). 
Kkn n% kdtabba^ what is to be done ? (Mah. 153, 
243). Appamddo kdtabbo pufniakamme, you must 
be zealous in good works (Mah. 132). Kdtabbaih 
paftsankharafMikf repairs must be made (Mah.220). 

KATTARETI, To be loose, flaccid, weak [probably 
a denominative from nezt]« 

KATTARO, A weak or decrepit man, an old man 
[from ^iHI]. Kattarayaffhi^ the walking stick 
of a mendicant or ascetic (Ab. 443 ; Mah. 245, 
the Ind. Off. MS. reads kattara-). 

KATTHA (adv.), Where? whither? wherein? [^]. 

Ab. 1160; B. Lot. 514. Kattha gamiMtdma, 

whither shall we go ? (Dh. 170). Kattha dmnam, 

bestowed upon whom ? (Dh. 434). Katthogadk&, 

belonging to what, living where ? Comp. Knira 

and Kuttha, 
KATTHACI (adv.\ Anywhere; somewhere, in some 

places, in some cases, ever [Vf + t^T^]* Sace 

katthaci gamiigati, if he goes anywhere (Db. 156). 
- Yattha katthaci mkarantd pi, wherever they may 

be living (Dh. 281). Yattha katthaeid m, 

whithersoever (Dh. 198). Kb. 16. 
K A^TH AKO, Name of a sort of reed. Dh. 30, 332. 
KA'TTH Alif ,A piece of wood, a stick ; a jungle[i|T9]. 

Ab. 548, 1040 ; F. JiU 18 ; Alw. N. 36. Kaftkahd^ 

rako, one who ooUects sticks for firewood (Att 217). 

Katfhamjh^ti, he burns firewood (O. Gr. 130). 

KatthoMsa tuvam mmine, a ^g for you ! (Sea.K.332). 
KATTHAMAYO (iu{;.), Made of wood [^n-\- 

iRT]. Sen. K. 401. 
KATTHANA (/.), Praise or boastiug [^^]. 

Ab. 118. 
KATTHATI, To praise, to boast {%^]. CI. P. 

Verbs, 12. 
KATTHISSAl^, A silken coverlet embroidered with 

gems. Ab. 315. 
KATTHO (adj.\ Miserable, bad [i^]. Neot 

kattham, misery (Ab. 1040). 
KATTHO (pp.p. kaaati). Ploughed [ir9=lR]. 

Ab. 1040. Comp. Kittham. 
KATTH0RIKA(/.), Musk [^Tlgf^]. Ab.303. 
KATTIKA (/.), Name of a Nakkhatta [vfw]- 

Ab. 58. 
KATTIKEYYO, The god of war [^iTfS%9]- 

Sen. K. 388. 
KATTIKO, Name of a month [^VTf^]- Ab.75. 

The months Kattika and Assayiga are called n- 

spectiveiy pacchimakattiko and pubb(^eattiko(Ah, 

76). Mah. 239 (pubbakattikarndto). 
KATTU, see Kattd, Kdmo. 
KATTUlir, see KarotL 

KATU (m.), A sacrifice, oblation [H^]. Ab. 413. 
KATU (adj.), Harsh, sharp, severe ; wrong [l|^* 

Ab. 976. Masc. kapi, pungent or acrid taste. 
KATUKO (a4;.). Harsh, severe; pungent, acrid 

[l|^]. Ab. 148; Dh. 260. Katukapphdn, 

Having bitter fruit (Dh. 12 ; F. J^ 7). KatM 

vded, harsh words. Fem. katukd, black hellebon 

(Ab. 582). 




KATUKAROHINl (/.), Black heUebore [li^- 

^OflE^]- Ab. 682. 
KAVAGO, MaU [^PV^]. Ab.d77. 
KAVANDHO, aad -DHAM, A headless trunk, es- 

pedaUy one retaining the power of motion [ippil] . 

Ab. 406 ; Att 218. 
KAVATAKO, and -KAA; and KAVATO, and 

"fASi, A door ; a trap-door ; a window [^mZ^ 

111117] • Mah. 57» 217 ; Bb. 372 ; Fit. 75, 87. 
KAVERl (/.), The Ganvery river in India [lIT^^]- 

Ab. 683. 
KAVEYYAA, Poetry [^if^ + IPT]- 
KAVI(ffi.), A monkey [lifq]. Ab. 1106. See also 

KAVI (a4f.). Wise [lif^]. Ab. 228. Masc. kani, 

a wise man (Ab. 1106), also a poet. There are 

Hour sorts of poets, cintdkamf sutakaoi, atihakavi, 

pttHUkdfutkavi, the poet of imagination or fiction, 

the poet of tradition, the poet of real life, the im- 

KAYITTHAPHALIKO (adj.). Belonging to the 

froit of Feronia Elephantnm [^fMc^ + ^^i^ + 

^]. Sen. K. 302. 
KAVITTHO, The tree Feronia Elephantnm [;i- 

fffiiV]. Ab. 661. See also Kapittho. 
KAYABANDHANAA, a waist-band, girdle [ifT^ 
-h ^«|ir]. Ab. 439; Mah. 93; Dh. 389. A k. 

is one of the articles of dress of a Buddhist priest. 
KAYAGATO (adj.). Referring to the body {yfpB( 

+ inf=l|;^. Sec5o«. 
KAYAKKAYAA, Trading, commerce [iBIRf + 

H^]. Kb. 11. 
KAYANUPASSANA, see Satipafthdno. 
KAYAVIKKAYIKO, A trader [tf^ + t^UPT + 

jyi\. Ab. 409. 
KAYIKO,andKAYIKO,Abayer[lrffn, mfini]. 

Ab. 470. 
KAYIRO (ti4f.), Boday, corporeal [lirf^]. Kd- 

ftkmk cetadkam d»khhaik, physical and mental 

■ofeing (Dh. 91). Comp. Brahmdkdyiko. 
KAYIRAMANAKO (ac^\). Being made. Mah. 237. 

This word is kayinsmdma, the pass. part. pros. 

firom karQH, with the suffix -l|. 
KAYIRATI, see JToroh*. 
KAYIRO {fhf^p. karoH), That ought to be done 

[l|I^= V]« Bfa. 66. Comp. Kdriyo, Kayyo. 
KAYO, Purchase [W]* Kayamkkayo, barter, 

trade (Pit. 10). 

KAYO, The body; a collection, multitude [VHT]- 
Ab. 161, 630, 1084 ; Dh. 8. Addhakdyo, the upper 
part of the body (B. Lot. 669). Mak^janakdyo, 
the entire populace. Dve janakdyd, two groups 
or sets of people (Dh. 98). Sendkdyo, an armjr 
(Mah. 161). Balakdyo, a body of troops. Patha^ 
vikdyo dpokdyo, the aggregate or element of earth, 
of water. Buddho H varam aparimdnaih kdyaih 
na sakkd parimdftam kdtuth, I cannot fathom this 
wonderful, this immeasurable entity called Buddha 
(Alw. 1. 97). Kdyaua bhedd, after the dissolution 
of the body (Dh. 26). Arukdyo, mass of cor- 
ruption (Dh. 27). When opposed to vdcd and ceto^ 
kdya may be rendered by ** deed." Kdyena vdc&if 
uda cetasd vd, by deed, word, or thought (Kh. 9 ; 
Dh. 70; Man. B. 266, and comp. Ducearitom). 
Kdyena tamvaro, restraint in actions (Dh. 66). 
Santakdyo aantavdco, one who is tranquil in action 
and in speech (Dh. 68). Kdyakammafk, action as 
opposed to words (Dh. 379). P^t. 78 says there 
are two sorts of abhin{hdra or offering, viz. kdyd- 
bhinihdro when the g^fts are actually brought to 
the person for whom they are Intended, and vdcd' 
bhinihdro when they are only offered or promised. 
There are two Kdyas or aggregates which united 
make up the sentient being, ndtnakdyo and r^o- 
kdyo; the latter is the r6pakkhandha or organized 
body, the former the aggregate of the other four 
khandhas. At Dh. v. 269 the comment explains 
kdya by ndmakdya, so that dhammam kdyena 
passaH would mean, "dwells on the Truth with 
all his mental faculties " (see Dh. 378). Kdya is 
sometimes used to mean the sense of touch or 
feeling, that sense being inherent in every part of 
the body, e.g. jivhdya rasank sdyati kdyena pho- 
fthabbath phusati, "tastes a flavour with his 
tongue, feels a contact or sensation with his body" 
(see Man. B. 399, Jyatanatit, Indriyafk, FUmd'' 
ftam). For Kdyabhdoand see SoHpafthdno. 

KAYYATI, see KaroH. 

KAYYO (p/.p. karoH), That can or ought to be 
done [l|J^:= V]. Sen. K. 620. Comp. Kdriyo, 
Kayiro. For the form comp. ayya s= %\^. 

KE, KEGI, see Kb, Koci. 

KEDARO, and -RAA, A cultivated field, especially 
one irrigated [%<l^]. Ab. 447; Mah. 266 
(keddre akd)m 

KEHAA, An anomalous sandhi for ki^h ahafk 
(CI. Gr. 16). 


( 196 ) 


KBHI, see Ko. 

K£KA(/.), Theerjr^f thepeaoodi; [%IT]- Ab. 119. 
KEKARO (adf.), Squintiiij^ [%V^]- Ab. 320. 
K£Kl (m.), A peacock [^f^P^. Ab. «34. 
KELA80y Name df a mountafai in India [%innr]- 

Ab. 607; Dh. 158; Man. B. 15. See Himood. 
KELI (/l), Amvisementy sport; amorovs sport 

[i^]. Mah. 140; Bfa. 100, 358. Kefi at Ab. 

176 and Dh. 192. 
££NA, see Ko. 

KENIPATO, a rvdder [%fMrnr]. Ab. 007. 
KERAVAir, The white escolent water-lily [%^]. 
KESAGGAlfr, The tip of a hab [^-f-^nr]. 

Dh. 147. 
KESAlfir, see Ko. 

KESAPASO, A tuft or mass of hair [^HT + V^JC- 

Ab. 904. 
KESARAlir, The filament of a lotus or other plant; 

the mane of a lion or horse [%1|^ • Ab. 080. 

Kesaras{hOf a maned lion (Ten J. 11). Pdt. Ill ; 

Man. B. 18. 
KESARl (m.), A maned lion^ a lion ]]%nif^C^]« 

Ab. Oil. Kesarivikkamo, having the strength of 

a lion (Alw. I. x). 
KESARO, The filament of a lotus or other plant; 

the tree Rottleria Tinctoria ; the plant Mimusops 

Eleogi [%inC]. Ab. 550, 572, 080. 
KESAVO, A name of Vishnu [%1(^]. Ab. 10. 
KESO, Hair [%V]. Ab. 250. Kesamauu, the 

hair and beard (B. Lot 803 ; Dh. 134). 
KESU, see Ko. 
KETAKi (/.), The tree Pandaaus Odoratissimns 

[^7f4t]* Ab. 004; Mah. 204. 
KETANAA, a sign or device on a banner; a banner; 

a dwelling or house [%^ni]« Ab. 397, 1098. 
KETAVAA, Oamblingj fraud, deceit [%9T^]. Ab. 

177, 631. 
KETU (m.\ A siga by which an object may be 

recognized; a banner [%^]. Ab> 397, 1195. 

Ciomp. DhammakehL^ Bh^maketu, 
KETUBHAM, One of the aoiences in which Brah- 
mins are said to be versed, explained thus, kefubhmi 

ti kappavikappo kavfnam ttpokdr&ya »atikam (Alw. 

I. Ixx.). Ab. 112. The S. appears to be %|[9f (see 

B. and R. aad consp. B. int. 297). See Ftkappo. 
KETUMALA (/.), A lambent flame 4^oted as 

resting on tfie bead of Boddfaa, and answering to 

our halo [%^ + 7f TWT] • B. Lot. 009 ; Mab. 27. 

KBVALAKAPPO (atff.), AH, whole, eollM [%n 
-h^WT]. Kb. 4. 

KEVALl (m.). One who has whofly gone throngh 
or mastered, one who is accomplished [^^fMI^. 
With gen. BrmhmM:arfya$$a ft., ose who has fally 
gone through all the duties of a life of hoUneBS, 
an Arhat. With lo& Taitha kevaUmo MflMye, 
•coomplisbed in this knowledge (Alw. N*. 104). 

KEVALO («^.), Only, mere, alone, ezdusive ; aO, 
entire, whole, complete [%ITlf]. Ab. 786. Adv. 
keifolatk, only, merely. Kevalam finM^ummk^ 
the pure word of Buddha (Alw. I. 00). Bvam 
etoMsa kevalas$m dukkhakkhamdKaua smutHftiya 
hMt such is the ori^n of this whole assemblagt 
of sufferings (Alw. N. 30). Neut. kevaUak, 
Nlrv^a (Ab. 8, meaning, according to D'Alwis, 
<<tfae only way of sahration,** see Ahr. N. 136). 
NtL kevoM ea, nor is this alL Nb kewdak ea 
imam eva Mam pi, and not this one only but 
aaotlier also. Kevalatk gmtakam etm labkmH^ 
gets nothing but blame (Dh. 234). JamMkhmyo 
kevaUaHh Ihere is nothing bat destinetion of the 
people (Mah. 137). Kemdatk tAttammdafya hkm- 
vatif it only leads to the destruction of prqierty 
(Ras. 37). TvaHt kevakuk demtdhmnme jdmdti 
yeva, you content yourself with merely knowing 
what the d.s are (Dh. 305). Nu kenmlam rdgo *v 
sabbakUeadj and not Inst only but all the etiier 
passions (Dh. 138). 

KEVATPO' A firiusnuan [%inf] • Ab. ^70 ; liih, 

KEYCRAA^, a bracelet or bangle worn on the arm 
[%^]. Ab.287. 

RHACITO (i9.p.p.). Inlaid [>9f^]. Mah. M3. 
Stufafinakhaeita^pipkatkj a diair inlaid vn€b gold 
(Mah. 112). 

KHADARO, One who eats [^TT^] • Df>- ^i* 

KH AD ANA A, Eating; food [^9T^]- P&^ ^i- 

KHABANIYO (pf.p. k^kddati), That4san be chewvd 
or crunched [lOI*^^!!] . Neat, khdthmiyiuh, dry 
or solid food, opposed to iA^antyam. KMtbmij^mk 
hhofoMiiyam, ^food hard and soft,* is (ho nsfaal 
prose equivalent of kkajjaifh^tak (Dh. 98). 

KHADATI^ To eat, to chew, to gnaw [«Qrn|]. TTo 
corrode, to rust (Dh. 43). Of ealfii^ flerfi (F. JilL 
4, 12), Jamba fruSt (Mah. 299), IvoUed eggs (Dh. 
32i). Cms. klMeU^ to eat, to gawr (Ras. 20). 
PdwakA udartwk twua khddvytak, woms gnawed 
his entrails (Mah. 243). P.p.p. 1^4^^ito, Arft^o. 




KHADIRO, Hie tree Acada Gatecba [isf^]- 

KHADITA {in.). One who eaU [VT^ + ^]- 
KHADITABBAKO (adj.), EataMe [^ST?( + m 

-h.l«]. Ilh.3S5. 

KRADTrO(p.p.p.khddaH),EtiUak{Wt^9(]^ Ab. 

n^7. See Kkdyito. 
KHAGGO, A sword; a rhinoceros [VV]- Ab. 

891 9 613y KM. Khag^avisdno, a rhinoceros (Ab. 

613). KhaggatttUtOi, hat of a sword (Mah. 1S8)« 

B. LoC.864; Mah. 153. 
KHAGO, A bird [iqi|]. Ab. 624. • 
KHAJJA» see Kho. 
KHAJJABHOJJAlft, FmmI hard and soft, varloos 

kinds of food [«PV + lf)V]. Kb. 11; Mah. 

26, 92. D'MeM khajjabht^jeM, with cdestial 

food (Mah. 7). KhtySabhtiJJmka$k{Wt.%fl). 
KHAJJAKAA, same meaning as khajjaik, F. J£t. 

46; IMi. 98S, 3^, 403; Mah. 281. 
KHAJJATI (pan. khdtdait), Tb be eaten [^mill]. 
KHAJJO (p./p. khddoH), That eaa be chewed 

[ISTW]- The term khaffam is used of solid or 

drj food, as caites, biscuits, fruit, meat. Comp« 

KkidoMhfo, Khddatt. 
KHAJJU (/.}, Itching, scratching [^Q^ . Ab. 326. 

KHAJJCRl (/.), The wild date palm tree, Phosnix 
Sylvestris [^r^[^]. Ab. 603. 

KUALAGGAA, FirstfruiU of the threshiBg-floor 

[^W+^nr]. Dh. 126. 
KHALAA, a threshing-floon See Khalo. 

KHALATI, To stumble, to fall [^^[j. 

KHAliNO,aBd*NA]ft,The bitof abridle [^nfV<r]' 

KHAUTAM, Stumbling, £aU; error, fialhig^ fiuilt, 

[«f^]. Ab. 1108; Db. 271, 375. 
KHALLATO («4^.), Bald [^T^fTX]. Ab. 321. 

KHALO («4f.),Mischievo«8, vile [m]. Ab.927. 

KHALO, A threshing-floor I oil-^mke, paste [W^]* 
Ab. 454, 967. IToiteiAJMo, a Msh of flesh. Dh. 
196, 166. Also neat In the sense of tibreshing«fleor. 

KHALOPi (/.), A pot Ab.4M. 

KHALU (mdj.). Indeed, tmlf [^]. Ab. IIM. 
I m4j ^m kkmim bkmecd me gahitd ««, my servants 
ninal tordj have l)een selied by this woman (Mah. 
48,eiNnp.648). 8amapo^^aluMo€htam6dakmr0 
• iww rfn s ^ verily the ascetic Gautama being then a 
ymmg omd (B. Let 410, 663). See £»•. For 
MOmh^meokdUkmitik&igaik see PacMlbh&Mk^. 

KH ALU^KO, A sort of horse. Ab.370. 

KHAlil, The air, the sky [^]. Ab. 45. hoc khe 
(Ab. 1061). 

KHAMA, see JTAmm. 

KH AMANAA, Patience, forbearance [^|«^ -f ^fif] . 
Ab. 161. 

KHAMANO(fN{^'.), Patient, forbearing[lfR[+ 1p|]. 
Ab. 732. 

KHAMAPETI (mm. next). To beg pardon of some 
one, to propitiate him ; to forgive ; to cause to lieg 
pardon [eomp. the use of ^H^fll]. Th^ik 
piiUcaHkmm katvd khamdpehif make atonenwnt by 
restoring the dagoba(Mah.l20). Pmoehd»€nghmk 
kkmmdpeitdj later having made his peaoe with the 
priesthood (Mah. 201, comp. 18; Dh. 84). Kho- 
mdpito tw Boithd^ have you olitained tlie Teacher's 
forgiveness ? (Dh. 105). Rdjdnaik to kkmm^^i, 
he forgave the king (Mah. 236). ASAmmMm^ 
khumdpaif^amt broi^ht about a asutual reconcilia- 
tion (Mah. 205). 

ft U AMATI, To endure, to have patience ; to forgive ; 
to l)e able; to be permitted; to be approved, to 
approve or commend itself [^^I'ft]. Kkama m€ 
tatk mam* aoeayamp forgive me this my sin (Mah. 
236). Etam na kkhamati tamamipamtumf it Is 
not right to take this view. Yathd te khameyya 
iathd vydkareyydHt answer as you think right 
Tast^ imdnipanca vatth&ni khamanti to saldkam 
gafihatUf let any one who is in favour of these five 
proposals take a ticket, lit to whom these five 
proposals approve themselves (Dh. 145, comp. 
Kamm. 7, and see Kammavdcd). P.f.p. khamitabbo 
(Dh. 244). P.p.p. khanto. 

EH AMBHAKATO (a4/.), Having one or both hands 
resting on the hip [probably ^R^+ ^ + Wf]- 
P4t 21, 03. 

KH AMO(atff,), Patient, enduring, forgiving; durable; 
suitable, fovourable, able [ifif]. Ab. 804, 1001. 
Vtm. kkmmd, patience, forlMaranoe (Ab. 161), tiie 
earth (Ab. 964, comp. Ckamd). Owidakkhamo, 
attendingto admonition, teachable (Dh. 384). ^a- 
conoAciMMRo^ meek (Att. 134). AddkdB^kMkamo, 
lasting n long time. 

KHAXALAYO, see JhthtOie. 

KHANAPETI (com. next). To cause to be dogs to 
canse to l»e interred. Pokkkaraflhk M., to have 
« pond dug (Dh. 180). Ndbh^tpawtdpetu dodtBta 
khamdptttud, having liuried tliem in pits' walM-deep 
(Dh. 886, 176). Mah. 65. 




KHANATI,Todig,todigap[^«l^. TAiOaftkdnatk 
khanitvd, having dug down the high ground (Dh. 
273). Ta^ihdya m^lam khanatha, dig up the root 
of lust (Dh. 00, oomp. 44). Inf. khaniutk, kho' 
nitum; p.f.p. khantabbo^ khamtobbo (Sen. K.603). 
P.p.p. khato. Sometimes written khaftati, pro- 
bably from the false analogy of words like khafMf 
or by confusion with the root ^fl|(^» e.g. see Dh. 44 
(one MS. has n), 60» 409 ; P&t. 12. Pass. khaSmatL 
Cans, khdneti (Mah. 169), khandpeti. 

KHAN9AKHAN9A]£|, and .JV^IKAA, In pieces 

[99" + WV ^^th lengthened a» comp. pkald' 

phdla], Khapdldkhaf^am kdrdpeti, to reduce to 

fragmenU (Dh. 300, oomp. 176). Khaf^ddkhafid' 

ikaik kofteii, to tear into shreds (Dh. 174). 

KHANpANAft, Dividing, breaking [^qram]. 
Ab. 943, 1014. 

KHAJSrpAPHULLO (adj.). Broken [^[^ + ^]. 
KhafidaphtUUqHifUaikkharafuimf repuring dilapi- 
dations. Sikkhdyapaddnipanca akhaf^daphulldni 
iamddiyanu^ take upon yourself the five moral 
precepts whole and unbroken (Dh. 97). 

KH AI^npETI, To divide, to break [^TOT ] • Mah. 22. 

RHANDHADISO {adj,\ Like the skandhas [^|ri^ 
+ W]- I>^J-36. 

KHANDHAKAlit, see Vinayo. 

KHANDHAVARO, a stockade; a fortified camp ; 
an army [IJK^I^I^]. Ab. 198. Khandhdvdram 
nivdieti and niveaetif to encamp, to entrench one- 
self, to make a fortified camp. Khandhdvdrafk 
bandhati appears to mean to halt or to settle down 
temporarily in a place (Dh. 265 ; Ten J. 24). 

KHANDHIKO (luj;.), Carried on the shoulders 
[^iP« + ^]- Sen. K. 390. 

KHANDHO, The god Skanda [W^]* Ab. 13 
(possibly a wrong reading for khando^ but botii 
editions have -dA, and also Glough's diet). 

KHANDHO, The shoulders; the trunk of a tree; 
a multitude, quantity ; one of the five elements of 
lM»ng [^ir>^]. Ab. 264, 548, 630, 851. HatthU 
kkhandhOf the back of an elephant (Mah. 38, 45 ; 
Ras. 17). NlMdpiya iam kha$U^, the elephant 
placing the king on his back (Mah. 217). Of a 
lion's back (Mah. 44). Rukkhakkhamdho^ the 
trunk of a tree (Dh. 165). Tdldnatk khandhd, 
the trunks of palmyra trees (Mah. 141, comp. 113). 
Dukkhakkhamdhoy aggregation of sufiTerings (Al w. 
N. 36). PmnakkhoMdho, accumulation of merit 

(Att 195). TamokkhoHdhema dvufd, shrooded 
in thick darkness (Alw. N. 98). Makatd tejo^ 
kkhandhena, by this vast accumulation of beat 
Mahnntam bhogakkhandhadi pahdya, leaving be- 
hind him a great store of wealth. MafxkkkaM$t 
a magic jewel (F. Jit. 3). Khandha is one of the 
technical terms of the Buddhist philosophy. There 
are five khandhas, '^elements or attributesof being,' 
r6pakkhandho, vedandkkhandhoy 9mmdkkha$u0i$, 
Mnkhdrakkhandho, vwndndkkhandho. They an 
also called rdpupdddnakhhandhoy vedauupdddno' 
kkhandho, sa^updddnakkkandhOf Monkhdmpdddp 
nakkhandho, vimdfMpdddnakkkandho (see l^ 
ddnam). Separately they are riq^m, vedni, 
BoSindf sonkkdrd (p/.), vmndfHtmy or Form, Sensa- 
tion, Perception, Discrimination, Gonsdooneii. 
For a full description of each khandha see tbe 
sep. BT^des lU^Mkkhandhot Vedandkkk«M»,f^ 
Khandha in this connexion probably means onllee- 
tion or aggregate, for Rdpakkhandha, or the 
organized body, is an assemblage of twenty-eight 
elements and properties, and VififiApaklihandha 
has no less than eighty-nine subdivisions, and 
Sankh&ra fifty-five. The ^v% khandhas embnue 
aU the essential properties of every sentient beug: 
some beings possess them less completely tfaas 
others, and the inhabitants of the four Ardpa- 
brahmalokas do not possess tbe first khandha 
(r6pa) at all. When a man dies the khandhas 
of which he is constituted perish, but by the force 
of his Kamma a new set of khandhas instantly 
starts into existence, and a new being appears m 
another world, who though possessing different 
khandhas and a different form is in reality identieal 
with the man just passed away, because his Ksmma 
is the same. Kamma then is the link that pre- 
serves the identity of a being through all the 
oountiess changes which it undergoes in its prognsi 
through Saiiistoi. Though the khandhas perish 
at death there is practically no break in the line 
of organized existence, for the formation of the 
new khandhas follows instantaneously, and with- 
out appreciable interval, upon the dissolation of 
the old. When by the attainment of Arbatship 
Kamma has been destroyed the potentiality for 
re-birth conveyed by Kamma ceases, and (he 
death of the Arhat is the annihilation not merely 
of his khandhas but of his existence. Fei^i, 
MoSmd and ioAkhdrd are coUectivdy tenne^^ 


(199 ) 


' (Dh. 90; Alw. N. 70).— 
AtUd kkamdhd, former existences (Dh. 413). 
Kkamdkwfattatkt continniDg or renewal of the 
kbaadbasy i.e. oontinned existence (Dh. 278). 
Kkmmdkaparmibbdnam, annihilation of being (Dh. 
350). Kkandhdnarii udayavyt^ath, the formation 
and ditsolation of the khandhas, viz. the successive 
revolations of re-birtfa and death (Dh. 67). Man. 
B. 388, 304, and foil. ; B. Int. 475, 406, 511, and 
Ml., 634; Dh. 36, 354, 422. 
KHAI^PICOAA, State of being broken [igflSnt 

KHAQf9^ i^^')* Broken, fragmentary, imperfect 
[^rV]- Khai^adtaiUOj having broken teeth 
(Dh. 315). Khaf^o, lamp sogar (Ab. 462). 
hkofido and kkat^am, a fragment, piece, part 
(Ab. 53). MattikdkhaftdOy a lump of day (Ab. 
447). Cammakhaf^f a strip of skin, a rug 
(Mah. 3 ; Pit. 87). Pdetmakhafi^o, eastern division 
(Mah. 137). Dtnkhofidmhf in two parts, broken 
in two (Mah. 141). 

KH ANETI, see KhamatL 

KH ANITTl (/.), A spade or hoe [iSrfvRr] . Ab. 447. 

KHlNITTIKO, One who digs [lafiR + 1^9] • 

KHAf^JANO, Awagtoa[^n5nf]. Ab. 643. 

KHAflJARlTO, A wagtaU [ W^t?] - Ab. 643. 

KHAfiJATTAft, Lameness [^i^ + 1^]. Mah.142. 

KHA<IJO(a4/.),Lame[inr]. Ab. 320. Pddena 
kkmjoy lame of one foot. 

KHAf^ATI, see KhanatL 

KHANO, A moment; a brief measure of time; 
leisure; right moment, opportunity [^|1ir]* Ab. 
€6^ 865. Khoftena dgantvd, coming in a moment 
(Db. 87). Tamkhafunkt and taHkhafte^ that instent, 
at ooee, instantly. Tatmiih kha^, at that moment, 
at ODce, thereupon (F. Jdt. 10; Dh. 87, 155). 
NMaiiakkha^f at the moment he was re-bom 
(Dh. 153). Kka$te khafte, from time to time, as 
opportunity offers (Dh. 43). Dullabhd khafM' 
mimpattiy it is difficult to find an opportunity 
(B. Lot 305). KhoftdtitOy one who has let the 
right moment pass (Dh. 56). For ArAofia/ayo, 
khm^amuhuUOf and for kha^M as a measure of 
time see Muhuito* 

KHANTABBO, see KhanaH. 

KHANn (/), Patience, longsuffering, forliearance, 
eadnranee [^Vlf^]- Ab. 161 ; Dh. 34. Khantir 
haUf whose strength is patience, strong in en- 

durance (Dh. 71). KhamH is one of the P&ramit&s 
(Man. B. 102). 

KHANTIMA {a^\). Patient, forbearing [l|Tf^- 
WfQ* Ab. 732. 

KHANTO (p4>4>' khatnati\ Patien^ enduring [ifpif 
=:^^^]. Ab. 732. 

KHANU, and KHAJ^U (m. and «.), The stump of 
a tree [from ^p(^ or perhaps ^Rff]. Ab. 540. 
Khdnumatthake patitvd, having fallen on to a 
stomp of a tree (Dh. 107). B. Lot. 576 ; Sen. K. 530. 

KHANUKO, and -KAft, The stump of a tree 
[khdnu + ^]. Khdnuke laggeH, tied to a post. 
Khinnka appears also to mean something much 
smaller than the stump of a tree, as a splinter or 
thorn, for at Ten J. 24 an elephant is represented 
as treading on a khadirakhdnukOf *'acacia splinter,* 
which runs into his foot and has to be extracted 
with an instrument. Often written khd^uka. 

KHANUMA(aiiy.), Having stumps [khdHU^-jp^. 

CI. Gr. 24. 
KHARADI YA (/.), A proper name. Sen. K. 227. 
KH ARAKO, Alkali, potash, soda ; a bud ; name of 

a tree [^TT^]- Ab. 544, 568, 1116. Gomp. 

Dh. 260 khdriko. 
KHARAI^AA, Pouring, flowing [W^]* 
KHARATI, To flow, to stream \^[^- 
KHArI (/.), A measure of grain containing about 

three bushels [^[T^]. Ab. 483. 
KH ARO (im(^*.), Solid; sharp; severe; hoarse; rough, 

harsh [W^* Ab. 711. Masc. kharoy an ass 

(Ab. 502), a saw (Ab. 067). Khard vedimd, acute 

pains (F. Jdt. 12; Has. 23). Khard swihd, solid 

cement (Mah. 160). 
KHARO {adj.). Salty, alkaline [l|T^. Khdrd 

mattikd, saline earth (Ab. 182). Masc. khdrOf 

alkali, potash, lye (Ab. 1134). 

KHATAKO, The fist [WPi]' Ab. 268, 1031. 

KH ATAlki, A pond or tenk [^QPT = ^^PO • Ab.677 ; 

Dh. 316. 
KHATI (/.), Digging, excavating [from ^99|Q. 

Sen. K. 408. 
KHATO (p.p.p. khanaH)f Dug, excavated. Sen. K. 

KHATTA (m.), A door-keeper ; a charioteer [^^^]. 

Ab. 1005. 
KHATTAft,Akshatriya[lT^]. Ab. 335. 

KHATTIYAMAHASALO, a wealthy kshatrtya 
[^f^ + lffT-f ¥Jt]. Ab.337;Dh.233. To 


( 200 ) 


be a mahiJBflii a kbattiya most potiefiB al leaal a 
hundred kofis of treasure, and hia daily empcndi- 
ture must be twenty ammaijias of kah&pa^ae. 

KHATTIYO, A kshatriya, or man belonging to 
tlie warrior caste, a prince, nobleman [^(f^nf]« 
Ab. 335. Morkfd khattiyd, (lie Maurya princes 
(Mah, 21). Sannaddko khatt^fo tapoH, the 
warrior shines in bis armour (Dh. 09). Rdjd 
kkaitiyo, a ksfaatriya king (Dh. 62). Fem. 
khatt^d, kkaitiydni, a ksbatriya lady or princess 
(Ab.236; Mah. 61> 

-KHATTUA, This is an adverb forming multlpli- 
eative numerals [1R^^- Bkakkhattmm, once. 
Dvikkhattwk, twice. SattakkkaihuhfUevtiatxmts. 
Solasdkkhattuitkf sixteen times. Sattaaakauo' 
kkhmthuk, seven thousand times (Dh. 174). 

KHAYATI (pan,). To be known, to be seen, to 
appear [||||€|B = WT] • Sabdatattdnath khdyaH^ 
is visible to all men (Db. 214). Naeea$Uamaifdr9 
viya khdyatif looks like a dancing peacock (Dh. 
237). V.p.khydU. 

KHAYIKO, Eating [iQTf^ + ^] . jiggakkd^ 
kaekdtake^ In the famine in whidi men ate sprouts 
(Mah. 195, the term, -ka belongs to aggdkhdyi). 

KnkYTTO{p.p.p.kkddaH\^0ilisi^\Tfft^'\' P^ 

78. Comp. last. 

KH AYO,An abode ; diminution, loss, decay ; phthisis) 
end, destruction [^f^}. Ab. 207> 323, 763; 
Mah. 137 ; Dh. 63, 69, 72, 75. Pm^ndkkkt^o^ 
exhaustion of merit (Kb. 13). TafiA^nam khago^ 
cessation or extinction of desire (Dh. 28). Ay^ 
kkhayOf oessatioo of life, death. £%eyamiyaiii, 
decay and death, perishableness (Dh. 80). 

KHEDANAlif, SulTering [%^]. 

KHEDO, Afflictkm, suffering, weariness [%i^]. 

Ab. 1159; Mah. 215, 248. 
KHEfX), Saliva, phlegm [%S]. Ab. 281 ; Kb. 3; 

Dh. 102, 142, 34». 
KHEMI (adj.). Safe, tranquU [^fi^Cl. Kb. 15; 

KHEMO (adj,)f Safe, secure, prosperous, peaceful 

[%9|] . Ab. 88. Saraftam khema^ a sure refuge 

(Dh. 34). Neut. khemam, safety, well-beiag, 

happiness (Ab. 1037)» also K^rv^i^a (Ab. 8). 

Khenu^ipatto, secure (B. Lot. 403). 

KHEPAKO (oc^*.). Throwing, letting iUl [^IRl]. 
Pit. 22. KkepakOf a darter, an archer (Ab. 922). 

KHEPANAA^ Throwing [%inr]. Ab. 1078. 

KHBPETI (eauM. kkipoH), To tkrow ; to spend, to 
P«M [^M^ni = f^^- ShhbMlem khepetvd, 
having thrwmi off all lusts (Dh. 184). jiddhm- 
mdMtk khepetvdf having ^ent half a month 
(Mah. II). Tattkm divoMotk kkepetvd, having 
spent the day there (Dh. 117). Dewdokd de^a* 
lokam saduarantd dveuaouH kappe kkepemm^ 
they passed ninety-two kalpas transmigrating 
' from one heaven to another (Dh. 129X 

KHEPO, Throwing ; abuse, contempt, blame [%1|]* 
Ab. 121, 107a Catakkhepa, madness (Dh. 25). 

KHETAKAft , A shield [%Zqi] . Ab. 392. 

KHETTAjIVO, a husbandman, farmer, culthrator 

[%^ + ^linflk]- Ab. 447. 
KHETTAA, Landed property; a cultivated field; 
a wife; the body; place, region, domain; extent 
[%ir]* Ab. 880; Dh. 64. EhetU^>dlOy and 
khettagopdlOf and khettarakkhako, one who 
watches a field to ward off depredations by^thieves, 
animals, etc. (F. Jit 15, 53). Sdl^vakhettdm^ 
fields of bin paddy and barley (F. J&t 15). There 
are three Buddhakkbettas, '* regions of a Buddha,* 
fnMoydkkhettadi, df^dkhettafk^JdUkkheiiam. The 
first is tiie region to whkh Buddha's omniadencs 
extends, and is co-extensive with the material 
universe as it includes an infinite number of 
Gakkavilas, Hie second is the regi<m to which 
Buddha's authority extends, it includes a hnndred 
thousand kofis of Cakkav&las. The third is said 
by Hardy to indnde " the systems, ten thousand 
in number, in which a Buddha may be born 
(between the birth in which he becomes a claimant 
for the Buddhaship or a Bodhisat, and the birA 
in which he attains the supremacy), or in whidi 
the appearance of a Buddha is known, and to 
which the power of pirit or priestly exorcism ex- 
tends ^ (Man. B. 2, comp. 143 ; B. Lot. 363). 

KHipigiA (/), Play, sport [ifhTT]- Ab. 176; 
Mah. 66 and err. ; Dh. 326. See also KQd. 

KHIJJATI, To be afflicted [f9^]. O. P. Verbs, 6. 

KHILAJATO (a4f.), Sulky, discontented, obstinate 

[flBH + Wm='*'Tj- P^t- W- Comp. Cet^- 

KHILlBHOTO (adj.). Stubborn [f^ni^+^]. 
KHILO, Stubbomnessy obstinacy; waste or £slisw 

land [t^]. 

KHlL0,Apin,astake[4yir]. Ab. 1115; Mah. 172. 
See also KUo, and oomp. IndakMflo. 




KHINABI J0» Whose germ of existence has withered, 

whose Ksrma is exbaasted, an Arhat [^^^Vlll + 

4bl]. Kh. 10. 
KHl^APUNABBHAVO, One for whom re-birth 

has come to an end, an Arhat [^tW + VfT + 

Vn']' AIw. N. 108. 
KHINASAVO, One in whom hnrnan passion is 

exttttct, an Arhat [^ftw + "^inRr]* Ab. 10; 

Dh. 16, 74. 
KHINNO (p^^. khijjoH), Tired, distressed [p^ 

= f^]. Ab.84L 
KHINO (p4f. khhfaH)f Decreased, decayed, come 

to an end, ceased, died out [^iftllf = f^] • Khinam 

pmrdnaMf their old (Karma) is exhausted (Kh. 10). 

Kkftidjdiit re-birth is at an end. Khipamacche 

paUaUj in a lake where the fish have perished 

(Dh. 28). 
KHIPANA A, Throwing [f^+ ^Pf] • Ab. 1004. 
KHIPATI, To throw; to discharge, to shoot [t^^- 

Saram kh^, he shot an arrow (Mah. 45). Bahim 

kkipoH, pitches them outside (Mah. 137). Aor. 

khipi (Dh. 193). P.p.p. khitto, Caus. khepetx{wtt 

Sep.), kh^tdpeH (Mah. 124, 211, 262; Dh. 341). 

KHIPATI, To sneeze [f^lj, 1<^, ^. ^]. 
Aor. kk^ (Ten J. 19). P.p.p. khijnto. Lioe. 
absolate khtpite^ when a person sneezes (Ten J. 
19). Cans, khipdpeti (Ten J. 21). 

KHIPITAKAlfir, A sneeze. Ten J. 19. 

KHIPPO (a4^'.), Quidc, speedy [f^]. Ab. 40. 
Adv. khippam and khippam eva, speedily, soon, 
directly (Dh. 12, 25, 42, 51 ; Mah. 121). Khippa^ 
Uarmk (adv.), more quickly (F. Jdt 50). 

KHiRAft, MUk [^H]- Ab. 500. Khiratdgaro, 
tiie Milk Oeean (Mah. 240). Khiramukho ddrako, 
a milk-fiued boy (Dh. 353). 

KHlRAI^AVO, The mythical ocean of milk [^{V?^ 

+ ^rtw]- Ab.669. 
KHiRAPAKO (adj.). Drinking milk [^^^^ + ^] . 

KkirtqHtko vacehOf a sucking calf (Dh. 50). 

KHIRIKA (/.), A sort of date tree [lf^fT:i|T]- 

KHiRODAKAft, and KHiRODO, Water from the 

MilkOeean [lftT + ^<^uid^]. F.Jdt28; 

Ras. 33. 
KHITO (p4t.p.)f Exhausted [f^ssf^]. 
KHrrro (p.p.p. khtpaH), Thrown ; darted [f^ 

^fW^« Rattikhittd iord^ arrows shot in the 

night (Dh. 53). Dh. 7 ; Mah. 137, 152. 

KHiYANAlCf, Being angry, complaining, murmur- 
ing. P&t. 18. Khfyanaka (Pdt. 12). 

KBIYATI (pa»8,)t To decrease, to waste away, to 
be exhausted, to come to an end; to be angrry, 
to murmur, to complain, to make a fuss [^lft?|^ 
= f^]. Mah. 138; Alw. I. 72; Pdt. xxviii 
(manuud khfyanti^ people are annoyed). Imperat. 
khfyatu (Dh. 383). Opt. khiyetha (B. Lot. 314> 
Aor. Ar^^ytVMa (Mah. 62). P.p.p. ArA/|to. Khtyyati 
at P4t. xxviif . 

KHO {adv.\ Indeed [H^]. Em kho dafham karoH 
bandhanathf ho indeed makes strong the bond 
(Dh. 63). Sace kho Updli samane$u Sakyaputtu 
yesu pabbqfeyya evam kho Updli amhdkaih acca' 
yena aukham Jiveyya^ supposing U. were to be- 
come an ascetic in the S. fraternity then indeed 
at our death he would live happily (Alw. I. 101). 
Buddhasdaanaddyddo hoti kho uuidUOf tell me, 
can a man like myself become a relative of religion ? 
(Mah. 36). Ye ca kho^ but those indeed who . . 
(Dh. 16). Tena khopana samayenOf now at that 
time . . (Alw. I. Ixix ; Alw. N. 103). Na kho pan* 
etam Ananda evam datthahbaih, nay, Ananda, 
the matter is not to be viewed thus (B. Lot. 402). 
Atha kho tesam brdhmafUinam etad ahosi^ and 
those brahmins thought thus (Alw. I. Ixix, oomp. 
Kh. 4). Kuhim nu kho, I wonder where (Dh. 193, 
oomp. 163). iOtt nu kho karissdmi, what shall I 
do ? (Dh. 175). Very frequently used as the second 
or third word of a sentence, without any special 
meaning, or where we should use the conjunction 
" and " : Ekamantam niainnd kho te bhikkhd bha* 
gavantam etad avocum, and seated on one side 
those priests thus addressed Buddha (Dh. 175, 
comp. Kh. 4); N*eva kho asakkhi BhdradvdjOf 
and neither was Bh. able (Alw. N. 103) ; Ay ark 
kho samafw Cfotatno, this ascetic Ootama (Alw. 
I. Ixix); Ayam kho brahmafta pariydyo, this, 
brahmin, is the way (Alw. N. 35). Kh* ajja == 
kho ajja ; khv asaa = kho asga (Sen. K. 208) ; 
khv e»a = kho eia (Alw. N. 34). See also Khalu. 

KHOBHETI {caus,). To shake, to agitate, to stir 
up [l^^^fVl = ^^] • SakaUyambudipam kho' 
bhetvdf after rousing all India with his eloquence 
(Db.405). F.Jdt.51. 

KHOMO (a4;.), Flaxen [Vt^V] • Ab. 297. Neut. 
khomafht linen, a linen garment (Ah. 291 ; 
Kamm. 9). 

KH0N90 (adj.). Lame [^ftl]. Ab. 320. 



( 202 ) 


KHOPANA, see Kho. 

KHUDA (/.), Hunger [^Vl] • Ab. 468 ; Has. 35. 

KHUDDAGHAI^IKA (/.), A fringe of beUs used 
as an ornament [Vj^Vini^4l]« Ab. 286 (tbe 
spelling is "ftthikd^ which reading Is found in 
some M8S.). 

KHUDDAJANTU (m.), and -NTUKO, A small 
animal, as an insect, worm [^7+^nn]* Ab. 
494 ; Sen. K. 365. 

KHUDDAKO {adj\\ SmaU [^spv]. Dh. 266, 
Sujano khuddakOf good men are few (Ras. 35). 
Fem. khuddikd (Mah. 88). Khuddakapdtho, 
name of one of the books of Khuddakanikdya 
(Kh. 16). For Khuddakanikdyo see Nikdyo. 

RHUDDAA, Honey [^^]. Ab. 494, 821. 

KHUDDANUKHUDDAKO (adj\), Small and 
trifling [^ + ^-f^ + H]. Ab.431. By 
khudddnukhuddakdni iUckhdpaddni are no doubt 
meant the minor details of canonical law, precepts 
not invplving questions of fundamental morality 
(Pat xxxvii, 17, 102). 

KHUDDO (adj,)f Small; low, vile, poor, mean, 
miserly, miserable [^^]« Ab. 704, 739, 821; 
Kh. 15. KhuddoMnkhOf a small shell (Ab. 676), 
Khuddoidkhd, a twig (Dh. 111). Fem. khuddd, 
a bee (Ab. 645, 821). 

KHUDITO (pp.p.). Hungry [^[fWT]. Ab. 756. 

KHUJJO (adj.). Hump-backed, crooked [^[^]* 
Ab.319. Fem. ;tAti£;Vf (Dh. 159, 177). Pitthiyd 
(ifutr.) khttjjo, crook-backed (Sen. K, 399). 

KHULUKHULUKARAK0(a4;.), Making a scrap- 
ing noise. 

KHUPPIPASA (/.), Hunger and thirst [^+ 
ftRTOT]. B. Lot. 443. 

KH UPPIPASITO (adj.), Hungry and thirsty [^f?g- 
irrf^] • Man. B. 458 (the reading khuppipdsika 
is perhaps correct). 

KHURAGGAlif, Hall of tonsure, a room in which 
the heads of Buddhist priests are shaved [WQ -|- 
^prnC > ^^ '^gS^''^ • Mah. 24, 103. 

KHURAKO, Name of a tree [^{^]. Ab. 561 
(same as tilaka). 

KHURAPPO, An arrow with a horse-shoe head 
[^fni]. Ab. 389. 

KHURATI, To cut, to scratch [if^, ^]. CI. P. 
Verbs, 7. 

KHURO, A razor; a sharp blade [^[^]. Alw. I. 



KHURO, The hoof of a horse or ox [^||^. Ak 

371 ; Mah. 218. 
KHV, see Kho. 

KHYA (/.), Indication, sign [Wi]- itiiUAgi 
sign of the feminine (Sen. K. 228, 229), 

KHYATO (petf. part. khdyati\ Known, funaos 

[l|rnf=^fT]. Ab. 724, 936. 
KIBBIDHANAlfir, Rules of kfit affixes [V?^+ 

f^nrpr]. Sen. K. 479. 

KIBBISAft, Fault, demerit, sin [flrf^]. Ab. 

84, 1062 ; Alw. I. xiU. 
KiCAKO, A sort of bamboo, Arundo Karka [ijjt- 

KIGCADHIKARANAM, a question or case that 
arises in connexion with the perfonoanoe of 
ecclesiastical duties or rites [V!V + 'Hf^K^C* 
Pdt. 64, see Adhtkaroftam. 

KICCAKARO {adj.)y Performing services or doties 
[1RII + ^. Pit. 79. 

KICCAKIGCANI {, Dnties great and small, 
all sorts of duties [VHC + W ^^^h lengthened a]. 
Dh.13,265. ThisisacompouadlikepAale^pAn^i. 

KIGGHO (^4;.), Difficult, troublesome, wearisome, 
laborious, painful [V^f]* Ab. 89; Dh. 33. 
Neut. kicchatk, pain, trouble. Ace kieekm, 
instr. kicchenOf and abl. kicchd, with great troobk, 
with difficulty (Sen. K. 323 ; Alw. 1. 92 ; Dh. 114). 
Akicehena, without trouble (Mah. 89). 

KIGGO (pfp* karoti). That ought to be made or 
done [W]* T^mhehi kiccam dtappam, yoa 
yourself must make an effort (Dh. 49). Twh hi 
kiceam tad apaviddhani, for what ought to be 
done is neglected (Dh. 52). Neut. kieeoMj woi%, 
duty, service, business, need (Ab. 772). Kteem 
me atthif I have something to do (Db. 8(Q* 
Amhdkam ekatk kiceam atthi, I am very bosj 
(Dh. 93). Kieoe gamuppanne, when need ariaei 
(Kh.12). Tavatathdrdpekiece$ath\{jwidM^ 
meet with a similar acddent, lit. if such a need 
should arise to yon (Has. 30). With instr. JtfiqfM 
rqjjena kiecafh it' atthi, I do not want the kmgdom 
(Dh. 341). Gamauakhcam «' atthi, there's do 
occasion to go (Dh. 219). Padfyfaktccani n* att^ 
there's no need of a lamp (Fit. 1). Tiiditm 
pdpena mama yatthignhapakicca^ n' atthi, I 
have no business to be holding a staff with a sioaer 
like you (Dh. 86). IV atthi mayham tumhiM 
samaftdnam upasankamanakiocanh I don't want 



( 203 ) 


to be maniiig after yoor priests, lit there is not 
to me any need for the approaching of your priests. 
Sabbaiika kiece, in every part of the work (Mah. 
1<I9). jittano kiccenGf on some business of his 
(Att 813). Kattabbakiecum mcdretvd, having 
performed all the necessary duties of hospitality 
(Alw. I. 79). AkormhoBe te ktccam, we have 
done thee a service (F. Jit. 12). Lankddipaua 
kieeeam wU pamajji^ be unremitting In serving 
Ceylon (Mah. 105). JPubbakiccaA, preliminary 
ImtlDess (Pit. 1). Buddhakicctak, the duties or 
mitdon of a Boddha, Dhdiuldecamt ceremonies 
pertbrmed in honour of a sacred relic Petakiocaihy 
daties to departed relatives (Dh,206, oomp. Kh.ll). 
SaHmkitcadtf performliig the last duties to the 
body of a dead person (Das. 3, Dh. 222). Jfd- 
hamskieeatk, cremation ceremony. Katakicco, 
one who has performed his duties or mission 

KlDl (mdj:), l4ke what? [#fl[]. Sen. K. 525. 

KlDIKKHO(a4;.), Like what? of what sort? [^. 
^]. Sen. K. 525. 

KiDISO, and KiRISO (adj.). Like what ? of what 
Mit? [4tfir]. Sen. K. 525. SOath ndma 
kkUmuh, whafs sfla like? (Dh. 193). Kidisam? 
jfmk 9gha iMkikirtUiy what sort of island? one 
that the flood does not overwhelm (Db. 182), 
Ki^mm hkadde, how are yon, madam? (Dh, 89, 
eomp.82). Fem, ^Ic/m^ (Dh. 314), Mah. 27, 243. 

kIkIC/.), The blue jay [fulfil]. Ah. 643. 

KILA (adv.), It is said, they say [f^iir]. Supine 
kUa evam dka, they say he said this in a dream 
(Alw. L 6, 7). See the usual form Kira. 

Kl(iA (/J), Sport, amusement, play [l£V^]. Ab. 

176. 5iAaA;/M lion's gambols (F. Jdt. 47). Kifd- 
gnfako, a play-ball (Mah. 141). Qulakild, playing 
at ban (139). Kifdmandala^ playground (Dh. 
928). Klfd'Upaoimam, a pleasure grove, a park 
(Pit. 115). JalaMfd, an aquatic iestival(Mah, 218), 
T^iaaavdpiMakdkifd, a great aquatic festival at the 
Itea lake (Mah. 159). See also Khid^d, 

KILAMANAft, Fatigue [«l^+ ^«l|]. Ab. 761. 
KILAMATHO, Fatigue [VTTIT]- Ab.761 ; Dh.3Q6. 
KILAMATI, To be tired, worn out, troubled, ez* 

hMwted [ir«^]. Dh. 78, 154; Alw, 1. 101. Cans, 

kUamdpetL P.p.p. MhmUk. 
Klt^ANAM, Playing, sport [ffhPT] • Tenam kifa- 

mskdle^ while they were sporting (F. J&t. 47). 

Kifanuyydnaih, pleasure grounds (P^ 115). 
Gomp, SddhuMfanafk, Pathsukifanam, 

KILAf^JO, A mat, matting [f^llf^]. Ab. 455 ; 
Mah. 212 ; Alw. I. 78. 

KILANTO (P'P.p. kilamati). Wearied, exhausted 
[WT^ = WC- Mag^gakilanto, tired with his 
journey (Dh. 21Q), Ndvdkilantadehattd, from 
their bodies being exhausted with the sea-voyage 
(Mah. 217). Ufihe kilante. In this exhausting 
heat (Mah. 103), Mah, 132. 

KILASO, a cutaneous complaint, dry leprosy 
[f^KWra]- Kamm. 4. KUdso ti na bhijjanakaik 
na paggharav^akam padumapundarlkavanparh 
kuttham yena gunnam viya sabalam sarirarii hoti, 

KILATI, To play, to sport [ijt^]. Sihakifam 
kifimsu, gambolled as lions will (F. Jdt. 47). 
Migatyam ktlitum agd, went forth to enjoy the 
sport q( the chase (Mah. 78). Tassa ekadheuath 
mahdnadiyamjdlakarandtike kilantassa, one day 
as he was amusing himself by throwing nets in 
the great river (F. Jdt, 5). k(famdno (Dh. 
281 ; Mah. 141). P.p.p. neut. k(fUam, sport (Ab. 
176). Salilakifitam, a water festival (Mah. 78). 

KILESO, Sin, depravity, corruption, human passion, 
moral defilement, lust [llrar]* The ten Kilesas, 
or evil passions, are lobho, dosa, moho, mdno, ditthi, 
vieikicchd, thinaA, uddhaccam, ahirikd, anottO' 
ppam, desire, hate, ignorance, vanity, heresy, 
doubt, sloth, arrogance, shamelessness, hardness 
of heart (B. Lot. 444, comp. Man. B. 417, 418). 
Kle^a or moral depravity being the cause of sinful 
actions is therefore primarily the cause of re-birth 
or continued existence. Arhatship consists in the 
annihUation of Kle^a (El Mon. 281, 288, 290). 
The five Kilesas are probably lobha, doso, moho, 
mdno, uddhaecam. At Dh. v. 88 the commentator 
explains cittaklesd by the five nlvara^as. Kiletd" 
turo, love-sick (Ten J. 51). For kilesakdmo see 
Kdmo, Dh. 138,227,278,350,432. ^t^Kmcanam. 

KILINNO {p.p.p.). Wet [ft|W -f ftjTf] . Ab. 753. 

KILISSATI, To suffer, to be injured ; to be depraved 
[ftjni^]. Na kilitaeyya, let him not allow him- 
self to be disgraced (Dh. 29, 326). Vatthdni 
kilUsanti, one's clothes get dirty, P.p.p, kiltttho. 

KILITAA, see KifoH. 

KlUTO (|i.p.p.), Bound [^iVf^=:«iVir]. Ab.747. 

KILITTHO (p.p.p. kilissati), Afflicted, suffering; 
depraved, sinful, polluted, vicious; soUed, dirty* 


( 204 ) 


contradictory [ftJT^^fin^]. Ab. 125. Kammo' 
kilifthaHit evil actionSf demerit (Dli. 3). Kilitthd 
cetand, sinfal intention (Mali. 41)» Subbageham 
kilittham karontd, dirtying the whole hoose (Dh. 
300). Kilifthagattena, with unwashed limbs 
(Dh. 304). 
KiLO, A pin, a stake [4tir] • Ab. 374, 449. See 

KILOMAKAA, This word is Vlfip^ + If; it is 
explained by Visuddbi Magga in the following 
words, kilomakesu paticchannakilomakam hada^ 
yan ca vakkah ca parivdretpd appaticchannakp' 
lomakaih sakalasarire camnuissa hetthato mamsam 
pariyonandhitvd thitam^ which appear to mean 
'' Of the two k.B the innermost k. surrounds the 
heart and kidneys, the outer k» envelops the flesh 
below the skin throughout the whole body-" From 
this it would appear to indiciite some membrane, 
as the pleura. 
KlA {adv.\ Why? Pray! What I \f^'\. This 
word must not be confounded with him the neut. 
sing, from Aw, for the use of which see under JjTo. 
Ab. 049, 1138, 1139. mm dgato '#», why are 
you come ? (Mah. 103). Na kifissanti kim bhikkhd^ 
why should not monks amuse themselves ? (Mah. 
33). EMh evam vadesif why do you say that? 
(Dh. 159). Icchdlobhasamdpanno samano kim 
bhavitsatit can a man be a Crama^a who is full 
of lust and covetousness ? (Dh. 47)* JS^im Anando 
na ppahoti, what I is Ananda not qualified ? Kim 
vo bhante hatthi kim karontij pray, sir, what do 
the elephants do to you ? (Dh. |54). Roiuppddena 
ta»t^ eva kiik pdremi manoraiham^ can I fulfil my 
wish by getting angry with him? (Mah. 261). 
Gadrabhdnam rave attham k(m Jdndii, what ! do 
you know the hidden meaning in the bray of an 
ass? (Mah. 250). Kim ayam mahdrdjd gaha- 
paiiko viya dhdvatiy why there's a king running 
like an ordinary householder! (Dh. 234). Samma 
Sujdta kith ummattako Vt, why, friend Sujdta, are 
you mad ! (Das. 31). Kim mahdrdjfa aviuamitvd 
dgato 'i(H dma bhante^ V^^l* great king, did yon 
come here without having any rest? Yes, lord 
(Dh. 401). Kim kdfam, is it black? (Dh. 193). 
JOfft tast* eva dinnam mahapphalam amhdkam 
pi dinnatk mahapphalam eva, of course alms given 
to him have a great reward, and alms given to us 
have a great reward also (Dh. 338). Kim bhante 
natthukammam katam, well, sir, did you use my 

remedy? (Dh. 83). With firfl. poiMi.- Xlikpana 
vaftnafk bhdtittha, did you really praise? (Dh.395); 
M[Im pana $o tumhehi mdrento difthOf oome 1 did 
you see him kill them ? (Dh. 88) ; MOm pana 
Rdjagdhe tato adhikam ratanam n* atthi^ let me 
see, is there no treasure in R. greater than this? 
(Alw. I. 75) ; Kim pana pauan bhacee me bhoH 
tvarn^ pnty, madam, do you see my servants? 
(Mah. 48) ; Kim pan* ettha apattibhdvam najdndti, 
do not you know tliere is sin in doing this ? (Dh. 
103). M^tb foil, nu : Kin nu hho rogo na vipa- 
tanto, how is it the disease is not cored ? Kin «s 
'ma *va samafUyo, of course these are pious nons 
(P&t. 99 ; Sen. K. 206 ; oomp. the example from 
Dh. 338 given above). See Kinti, Kitkau, Kimuta, 

KIMANQA (adv.). Far m«re [fip( + Wf]- 

KIMAPI (adv.). Far more [fv^ + ^rfq] • G^ttm 
ca kimapi bhafiiinn ea na eakkoti, and he is on* 
able to walk, much less to speak (Att 206). 

KIMATTHAA (adv.). On account of what? why? 
[fMid. Mah. 159; F. J&t. 54; Dh. 05, 248; 
Sen. K. 260. 

EIMATTHO, What need? {f^+^iri]- Kim^ 
attho me (dat.) Buddhena, what do I want with 
Buddha? (Sen. K. 330). See Ko. 

KIMI (m.), A worm^ an insect [vf^C]- Ab. 623. 

KIMIJO(adj.), Produced by a worm $ silken [V^Hl] • 
Ab. 298. 

KI]£|NAM0, and KINNAMO (adj.). Having what 
name ? [f^|9( + WRnO* Kimndmo *H, what is 
your name ? (Kamm. ^). 

KIlilNIMITTO (adj.). Having what mark? \fmf^ 

H-flftni]- Has. 67. 
RIMPACCAYA, By means of what? [fiil^ + 

KIMPAMAiyO, (a^j.). How large ? of what dimen- 
sions ? [ftR^ + TWrW]' Mah. 111. 

KIMPURISO, A dass of demigods in the service 
of Kuvera [flF[ + ^J^tW]- Ab. 45. 

KIASA^HANO (a^.). Having what shape? 

KlASU (adv.). How? [f^ + 1^]- Ab. 1139. 

KlASU (neut. pran.). What? [fii«( + ^1^]* 
Kim eddha oUtam purisaua tettham, what is a 
man's best treasure on earth? (Sen. K. 207» 
IdmsHdha^ikimeuidha). J^m en ta$aa mahab^ 
bhayam, what is its great fear ? (Alw. 1. 106). 


( 205 ) 


KlASUKO, The tree Botea Froudosa [f^t^]. 

KIMU (adv.). How mach more! [1^i9( + B]» 

GLGr. 7a 
KIMUTA (adv,). How much more ! [fi^i + "^H]- 

Ab. 1138; Att. 192. 
KIAVADANH (/.}, Report, mmour [fifcW^pfV]. 
KIAvAdI (adj.). Saying what? holding what 

^^^^^^^^^ [1^ + ^^Tf^[^- Mah.42. 

KIMYATHA (adv.). How ? [f^ + jpn]' 

KI^ATI, To bay [ij^]. Sen. K. 440. Oer. ki^itvd 
(M ah. 223). 

KI&CANAJily Aoythingy somethings moral defile- 
mentt siBy dinging to the world, attachment 
[(i|^l|]r Ye$aM no n* atthi kihcanam, we who 
have nothing, or perhaps '' we who are free from 
attachment to the world" (Dh. 36, comp. the 
sfamras at Dh. 175, 308, where kUicana appears 
to have its secondary and technical meaning). 
Tlie three Kificanas are rdgo ki&cananh daso 
kmeamamt maho kmcanark. Kilicana is some- 
times explained by palibodko, ''obstacles to re- 
ligloos perfection." Under the term may be 
indnded any of the Kilesas, as rdgo, doao, moho, 
tm^d, 9dtheyyam. Dh. 71, 428, 433, I have also 
met with a masc. k&cano. 

KlfiCAPI (adv^. However much, although [f^tf^TT 
+ ^Vfll]. K&cdpi te honti bhusappamattd, how- 
ever mnch they are tempted (Kh. 8). Aytah 
djfotmd Anando kmcdpi aekho, the venerable 
Ananda though only a sekha. VHth foil, pana : 
n hi l^edpi *' dethdH'* ayddtvd 'va gharadvdre 
HffkanH atthato pana ydcanti yeva, for although 
they stand at the house door without begging 
and saying ** give me,* yet in reality they do beg 
(Dh. 365) ; Idaah k^edjd hetfhd vuttam eva upd^ 
rnkkoMaapanapunappuna dafMcara^ttham idhdpi 
Satthdrd gahUaik, although this has been said 
above yet to confirm the devout hearer again and 
again it is introduced by the Teacher in this place 
also (Dh. 300). Dh. 148, 235, 243 ; Kh. 9. 
KlfiCETI, To crush, to trample, d. P. Verbs, 2. 
Kli^CI (ado.), A Utde, rather [f%f^] . Ab. 1148. 
fHielniMaa^ reddish (Ab. 07). With the original 
iaal d restored for euphony : jKi^ctd dnako, some- 
what deficient (Ab. 742). For the pronoun Armct, 
** something, anything," see Koci. 
KliJCIDESO, This word appears to be fi||f%^ + 
^, aod to mean ''a trifling matter" (Pdt. 5). 

KIJ^CIKKH Aft, A small thhig, any trifle. Alw. N. 

120. AmUakittcikkhahetu, for the sake of some 

trifling gain. 
Klf^CIMATTAft, A Uttle, some trifle [f^HpSf^ + 

VfT^]. Mah.200; Pdt. 11. 
Ki:(^JAKKHO, A filament, especially of the lotus 

[f^iB^]* Ab. 086. K^akkhapdsd^ appean 

to be some sort of marble or other ornamental 

stone (Mah^ 213). 
KINKARANA (adv.). On account of what? why ? 

[ftn^+WnTTR^]- Dh. 83, 106, 158. 
KINKARA^I YAft, Business, job [fi|V^+ ^ni^ 

= W]. 
KINKARO, and KINKARO, A servant [flnR:]. 
Ab. 514. Sahakinkaro, attended by his servants 
(Mah. 180). See Patmdvi. 

KINKII^ (/.), A small beU [ftrf^pif^] . Ab. 286 ; 
Mah. 179. 

KINKI^IKAft, and -KG, A smaU beU [ftrf^l'- 
fW%\. Sen. K. 391 ; Mah. 163. KtiMfdkajdlan^, 
a row or fringe of tinkling bells (Dh.191 ; Mah.162). 

KINKIRATO, Name of a plant [fltftl^ ffl ] - Ab. 

KI]yNAft, Ferment, yeast [fSpQT]. Ab. 533. 
KINNAMO, see JShhndmo. 
KINNARO, A clasp of demigods in the service of 

Ruvere [f^liT^]* Ab. 45. Fem. kinnaH, a 

nymph (Mah. 37). 
KINNIMITTO (adj.). Having what mark? [flp^+ 

KINNU, see Ko, and Kim. 

KINTI (adv.). How ? Pray I [f^ + jfi(] . EhUi 
nam mdreyyan H cintento, thinking *' How can I 
make away with him?" (Alw. I. 101). MSmH 
tumhdkam raffhaiik subMkkham, pray is your 
country fertile ? (Alw. I. 97). For the pron. Idtk 
followed by t^ see Ko. 

KIPILLO, An ant [f^rfNl]. Mah. 249. 

KIPILI^IKO, An ant [finfif^] . Dh. 224 ; Alw. 
N. 104 ; Sen. K. 366, 

KIRA (adv.). They say ; 'tis said [f^]- Ab. 1199. 
Kuntakinnarhfd aaddhim ta^vdsam kappayi kira, 
tradition says that he cohabited with a nymph 
(Mah. 37; comp, Dh. 106). Pubbe kira iayo 
dnim bhdtaro, we are told that in a former exist- 
ence there wero three brothen (Mah. 24), lio 
kira ekaiimtaHme ke^tpe Sikhi ndma Mtnmdiom'' 
buddho, we all know that in the thirty-first kappa 


( 206 ) 


from the present one a fiapreme Buddha named 
Sikhi . . (Ra^. 25). Saithd kira Sdvatthim gato, 
they say the Teacher is gone to S« (Dh. 109). 
Ayyassa kira akhhi vdto vyjhati, I hear the wind 
harts your reverence's eyes (Dh. 82). Attd hi 
kira duddamoy for self is proverbially difficult to 
sabdae (Dh. 29). Na nu hmci kira tenajitatkf 
did I hear that man say he had won something? 
(Dh. 291). Te kira sakufUi pancanna^ hatthhutm 
halam dhdrenH^ these birds are said to possess the 
strength of five elephants (Dh. 154). In deliver- 
ing a message from another persona Bhagavd 
Monu^gd kira hontdH dve vdre peaeivdf Buddha 
having twioe sent to say that they were to make 
up their qnarrel (Dh. 104); Toam eiutm kira 
ghdtehi idam devivaco iti vaivdnOf having said» 
** You are to kill this ohild» those are the qneen's 
commands * (Mah. 216). See Kila, 

KIRA^O, A ray of light [f^Kyt] • Ab. 64. 

KIRATO, a man of a tribe of ont-caste hillmen or 
aborigines [f4^|l|]. Ah. 617; Alw. I. evil. 
Khujjamdnumakirdtddayo are mentioned as in the 
retinae of a king. 

KIRlTO, and -TAA, A diadem [^r(t7]- Ab.283« 

KIRI YA (/.), and KIRI YAA, Action, performance, 
work, deed [t^CTt]* Ab. p. 103, line 10 firom 
bottom; Ah. 877; Sen. R. 522. Mdiugdmat»a 
mya kiriyd^ a woman-like proceeding (Dh, 159). 
Diivdna iasta kirkfam, beholding this feat of his. 
Dukkhasta aniakiriydya, for putting an end to 
suiTering (Alw. 1. 72). Sdtaccakiriyd, perseverance 
(Dh. 80). Cittakiriydf operations of the mind, 
MangalakiriyaditHuam, a day on which festival 
is held (Dh. 288). See also Kr^d, 

RiRO, A parrot [41t]- 

KISALAYAA,Asproat,aslioot[t(|rainif], AbJS43« 

KISMIGI, see Koei. 

KISO (adj,), Thin, emadated; small, poor, mean 
[fOni]. Ab. 704 ; Dh. 71 ; B. I^ot. 569 ; Mah. 33, 
Ktsakalandaka, a tiny squirrel (Att. 202), 

KI80RO,Acolt[f)nft<|, Ab.d69. 

KISSA, see JTo. 

KIT, and KITO, A grammatical term, a kfit affix ; 
a word frnmed with a kfit affix [^R^]* Sen. K. 
514. Kite tuHoiaiaih, a hundred rules of kfit 
affixes (Alw. 1. 104). S^takappo^ chapter on the 
kfit affixes (Sen. K. 468). mtapaeeayd^ kfit 
affixes. KibbOhdnaak^ rules of kfit affixes (Sen. 

' KITAKO, A word formed with a kfit affix [V^+ 
I], a. Gr, 112, 

KITAVO, A gambler; a cheat, a rogae [f^Rn]. 
Ab. 031 ; Dh. 45, 376. 

KiTO {p.p.p. kipdH)» Bought [lf^ = lft]. Ab. 

KiTO, A worm, an insect [4tz]. Ab. 623; Alw. 
N. 104. 

KITTAKO (aeff.). How much? how great? how 
many ? J^ttakaik thdmatk, what extent of ooontry ? 
(Mah. 81). MmnMdnam kiitakam ^yvM, what 
is the length of men's lives ? (Dh. 226). Mattakam 
dhoMttht how much treasure ? (Dh. 235). MGita- 
kehi ie bhikkh^hi aitho, how many priests do you 
wish me to bring ? (Dh. 113). Mah. 26. Gomp. 

KITTANAtt, Mention, report [4V#ir]« 

KITTAVATA (adv.), How far? to what extent? 
in how many ways? Ab. 1141. Formed on die 
fldse analogy of ettdvatd, 

KITTBTI, To proclidm, to celebrate, to publish, to 
announce, to propound, to call [^p^]* Mahdtfi" 
bhaikgo ti kiiteHfd, calling it the Mah&vibfaanga. 
Tana kammam kiiiayantd^ publislung the news 
of his feat (Mah. 141). P.p.p. kittiio (Ras. 69). 

RIlTHAlfl, Growing com, the crop on the ground 

[)re=iff^]. Ab.45a, 

KITTI (/.), Fame, renown ; rumour, report [4tfl] • 

Ab. 117; Alw. I. X, 107. 
KITTIMA (adj\), Renowned [4)f^4ri|(J . Sen. K. 

KITTlMO(iM&\), Artiadal, laotitioqs, Aase[vf^]. 

Ab. 1036. 
KITTISADDO, Fame, reputation [4\f$ + ip^]- 

Kaiydfto kittiioddo, good fame (Sen. K. 342> 

P^poAw kittisaddo, evil report, ill &me. 

KlVA (adv.). How? how much? [f^RSni|]- Ab. 
1141. Ydva Mvah co, however much (Dh. 348). 
S^ddre (hcJ), at what distance, how &r off? 
(Dh, 232). As first part of a compound forms 
a few adjectives : Khaddra ita Kalangdmo koti, 
how distant is K. from this place? (Alw. I. xlil). 
Kivamahantam mama edkkaiyugaiik karisMan, how 
big wiil you make my pMr of wheels? (Dh. 96). 

KO (interr.pronJ), Who? which ? what? of what sort? 
[f^i'l]- Ace. katk. Instr. ketta. Qen. and dat. 
kaua. AhL katmd, hockatmim, Fem.kd. Fern, 
instr. kdya (F. J&t 8). Neut kim. Gen. and dat 


( 207 ) 


neat. ku9a. Flar. ke, Qen. and dat. pK ketaih. 
Instr. and abL pL kehu Loc» pL kem. Neat. pi. 
kdmL Ko*9i,whoKrtyimf(hm.kd*n,DhA59,l93). 
Kopama tvam^ who are yoa ? (Dh. 192). Kojdndti 
tnmjf eta kariuatif who knows what this fellow will 
do? (F. JiL 12). Ko cirataram ho aigkataram, 
whidi of the two (is bom) later, which sooner ? ( Alw. 
I. xlii). Ke ete mravamti^ who are these screaming ? 
(Dh. IM). Ko dukkaro, which of the two is the 
more difficult ? (Mah. 41). Kath drmbbha, about 
whom?(Dh.77). KttkdnMha^ulHmtwhtLi} Taih 
ho mdma na jdkeyya^ who could fful to reei^ize 
him ? Ko ndma tvatk^ who art thou ? (Dh. 96). 
Ko ndma ie upiyjhdyoy who is your spiritual master? 
(Kamm. 5 ; comp. Dh. 134). Kd itdm* esd mdtugd- 
auMM v^fa Jariydj what a woman-like proceeding ! 
(Dh. 159). Kv atthOf and lampayojanomy what is 
the use or meaning of ? (Sen. K. 202, 478, followed 
by instr.). JTiin aAf^pu^noifi, what good deed have 
you done ? (Dh.99). N* dvahoH kan ndmdnattham^ 
what evil does it not produce f viz. it produces much 
evil (Att 193). ZMaVm fitiFiclo20Apo,bywbati8the 
world shrouded ? (Alw. 1. 106). JKim, what is this ? 
(Mah. 157). Kim idam, what is this ? (Dh. 300). 
idawi khk, why is thb ? why so ? (Dh. 160). Kim 
eimk or kidt ndma etadif why is this ? what is the 
meaning of this ? how is this ? (Mah. 156 ; F. J&t. 
49, 57)» Kim pana nu kko etadi^ now what on 
earth can It be ? (Alw. 1. 101). Ayaik te brdhmano 
kirn hoH, what is this brahmin to you ? (F. Jdt 
10). TamhdkaA etiha Artm, what's that to you ? 
(F. J4t. 17). Kim te dukkham, what is your ail- 
ment? (F. JiX. 12). Piiund vindeitam kim kirn 
eva^ what were the several acts of destruction 
committed by my father? (Mah. 238). Khattiyd 
kim agghamHt what are kshatriyas worth ? (Dh. 
352). Iddm kim karomiy now what am I to do? 
(Dh. 157). Em nu kdtabbadi, what is to be done ? 
(Mah. 153, 2i3). Km nu kko koHudma^ what 
shall we do ? (Dh. 333). JHrn kaivd, having done 
what, by what means? (F. J&t. 17). Oeke kidk 
karieedmit what can I do at home? i.e. it is no 
iiseUvingathome(Dh.313). Pordnabkummatth" 
aroKidmi kidi kariesanii, what do they do with the 
old carpets? (Dh. 174). With bstr.: Jititena 
kim kariudmif what is the use of my living? 
BUakeki kim kariteatka^ what will you do with 
an these? (Dh. 174). Kin nu kho peeemi^ what 
shall I send ? (Alw. I. 75). Kin nu kko ettha 

kdra^^mk^ what is the cause of this? (F. J&t 6). 
Kaeea imdni, whose are these things ? (Dh. 302). 
Kena mittam^ by whom was it said? (Alw. I. jxi). 
EASia phalam ndm* etam, what is this the fruit of? 
(F. J&t. 5). Kena te attko, what are you in want 
of 7 (F. Jit. 2). KHua ketu, on account of what ? 
why ? Kena hetund, and kaemd ketund, on what 
account ? why ? The gen. neut Antfa, instr. kena, 
and abl. kaamd, are used adverbially In the sense 
of '* why ? " KUea pana tkero eken* ^nuak akdH^ 
now why did tbe elder omit one? Kiua vimd 
aitdnam upatdpayey why should the wise man 
distress himself? (Das. 5) ; Ken* ambo kafuka^ 
ppkalo, why has the mango bitter fruit ? (F. JAt. 7) ; 
Tvadi kendti kieo^ why are you thin ? (Mah. 33) ; 
Kaimd mad^puechaHf why do you ask me? (Dh. 
98) ; Kaemd evani karosi, why do you do so ? (Dh. 
333); Kaamd pana tvam bkikkhu baAubkaftdo 
JdtOf how is it, priest, that you have got so much 
property ? (Das. 88). The neut. kid^ with instr. 
is used in the sense of ** what is the use of? '* the 
person being in the dat. case : Kim me eamof^ 
bkdvena, what is the use of my being a monk ? 
(Dh. 199) ; Kim me ghardedaena^ what is the use 
of my living at home ? lit. what have I with living 
at home ? (Dh. 79, comp. 153 Mn no gk,) ; Kith 
me jimtena^ what is the use of my liWng? I am 
sick of life (Dh, 353) ; Km tejafdki, what have 
yon to do with matted hair? (Dh. 70); Kim me 
rqjjena kdritena^ what is the use of my reigning ? 
(Dh. 406, comp. Ras. 18) ; JOm bkaocehi piva 
nahdya^ never mind your servants, drink and bathe 
(Mah. 48) ; Kim bahund, what is the use of (saying) 
much ? why say more ? enough has been said, in 
short (comp. Att. 191 kim iha bakund). Kint is 
sometimes followed pleonastically by tit'.' Gnti 
mannanti no ime^ what are these meditating against 
us ? (Mah. 153) ; Kinti katvd eaapatito, how came 
he to fall ? (F. Jit 17 ) oomp. Ten J. 52). For 
the adv. kith see sep. article. The base kidi forms 
the first part of compound nouns, adjectives, and 
adverbs, as kimpurieOf kidkaro, kimattko, kim» 
pamdfUff kidmdmOf kimattkam, kinkdrafidg kidi^ 
dokafo, what sort of longing? (Dh. 219); ko nu 
kd$o kimdnando, what laughter can there lie, what 
joy? (Dh. 27); kidMr&ni, what sort of logs? 
(Dh. 324) ; kimobkdeo ndm* eeo, what is that light ? 
(Dh. 95) ; kinkalako ndm* eta, what is that dis* 
turbance about ? (Dh. 352). 


( 208 ) 


KOCCH AA, a oomb (Pit. 82) ; some sort of seat 
or coach, explained at Ab. 311 by bhaddapitha, 
from P6t. 86 it would appear to be made of wicker 
or matting. 

KOGI, and before a vowel often KOCID (prim.)^ 
Any, some \fWf{^ + f^TT] • Ace. kanci. Instr. 
kenacu Dat* and gen. kastaci* Lioc. ka$mici, 
PI. keci, Abl. and instr. p1« keMci, Fern, kdci, 
Neut« kind. Neat, loc kismi<n (Dh. 13), kuminci. 
Neat. pi. kdnici. Ma* idha koci pdviri, let nobody 
enter here (Alw. I. 79). HiHniiedho puriso koci 
lokoindm vijfaH, is there in this world any man 
restrained by shame ? (Dh. 26). Koeid eva ffijjath 
is there any body at all ? (Dh. 310). Kenaeid etm 
karanfyenOf on some basiness or other (Alw. I. 
Ixiz, Gomp. Dh. 203). Jand keci, some of the 
people (Mah. 198). Keci, some people. Kehici 
vutte, it being said by some people. Katsaci 
vacanafk tuivdj having heard some one or other 
speak (F. J6t. 18). Kanci adiavd^ not seeing any- 
body (Ten J. 2). Tai^ eko Hudhavo puruam kanci 
n* drohitufk add, there was a horse of his who 
allowed nobody to monnt him (Mah. 142). Neat. 
k^ici, Kmci bhayam, any danger (Att. 206). 
ESMndndd eva adhikara^, at some circnmstance 
or other (Pit 99). Kmci vattukdmo, wishing to 
say something (F. JiU 18). Aham pi k^icid eva 
karitedmif I too will do something or other (Dh. 
106). Kinei laddham ghare no, did yoa receive 
anything at my honse? (Mah. 31). So kind na 
pativadaHt he makes no reply (Das. 31). Kanad 
kiAd avaivd, without saying anything to anybody 
(Dh. 221, oomp. F. Jdt. 17). Kim etan H vutte 
na kiSidti vadaH, being asked *< What is this ? '' 
he replies " Nothing.'' Na ki^d atthi, there is 
nothing (Kb. 7). For Yo kod see Yo. 

KODANpAft, A bow [lit?[V] • Ab. 338. 

KODHANO {adj.), Angry, passionate [lllVir]. 
Ab. 732. 

KODHETl (cane, kujjhati). To make angry \y^- 

KODHO, Anger, wrath [wtV] • Ab. 164 ; Dh. 40. 

KOHAJ^Aft, Hypocrisy, deceit [^f^ + ^]. 

KOJAVO, A goats' hair coverlet of fine workman- 
ship. Ab. 312 ; P&t 87. 

KOKANADA A, The red lotas [^Vt^iWi^] • Ab. 688. 

KOKASAKO, The red lotas. Ab. 686. 

KOKILO, The Indian cuckoo [l«tf^] - Ab. 633. 
Fem. 'Id (F. Jdt. 49). 

KOKO, A wolf [^fA]. Ab. 61ff. 

KOI/AH ALO, and -LAA, Uproar, tumult, shouting, 
screaming [^itWTfW]. Ab. 130 ; Dh. 103; Mah. 
165. Ekakoldhalam ahu, there was one universal 
uproar (Mah. 113; F. J&t. 17). A hundred 
thousand years before the commencement of a 
Sanivaftakappa a deva traverses all the cakkavdas 
that are to be destroyed, proclaiming with a load 
voice the coming destruction. This shout of warn- 
ing is called kappakoUhalaik. There are four 
other koUhalas or warnings, cakkavattikoldkalam 
a hundred years before the birth of a universal 
monarch, bnddhakoldhalafk, a thousand years 
before the birth of a Buddha, moMgalakoldhalam 
twelve years before Buddha preaches the Mangala- 
sutta, and moneyyakoildhtdam '* seven years before 
Buddha explains the moneyyapafipatti or ordi- 
nances of the rahats " (Man. B. 30). 

KOLAKAM, Black pepper; a particular perfume 
[*rtWl]. Ab. 304, 469. 

KOLAA, and KOLO, The jujube fruit [^itW]. 
Ab. 559 ; Dh. 351. 

ROLAMBO, A pot. Ab. 456. 

KOLAVALLi (/.), A sort of pepper, Piper Chaba 
['itmrtPV]. Ab.583. 

KOLG YYO {a4j.). Of noble famOy [^{V%V] • Sen. 

KOLl (/.), The jujube tree [Wt^] • Ab. 558. 

KOLITO, A name of the apostle Moggallina [ijt- 
ftr?T]. Ab. 435 ; B. Int 391 ; Dh. 120. 

KOMALO (iMJ;.), Sojft [litiTW]. Ab. 716. JKoM- 
lagattatd, softness of the limbs (B. Lot. 591). 

KOMARABHACCO, a proper name [gft4|K4l(l|] . 

B. Lot. 449. 
KOMUDi (/.), Moonlight; the day of full moon hi 

the month Kattika[lf)^^]. Ab. 54; Dh.39L 

KOiyAOAMANO, Name of one of the twenty-foor 
Buddhas. Man. B. 96 ; Mah. 2 ; Dh. 117, 129, 344. 

KOIjf AKO, A comer [ijtlir + ^]. Mah. 241. 
KONAMO (adj.). Having what name? [formed 

anomalously from ko followed by the indedinable 

ndma, see under Ko], Putto kondmo, what is his 

son's name ? (Dh. 234, 235). 
KOf^CO, and KOffCk (/.), A heron [lA^]. Ab. 

641 ; Dh. 28. 
KONDAi^f^O, Name of one of the twenty-four 

Buddhas [^tTUrffl]. Man. B. 94; Dh. 117; 

Mah. 1. 


( 209 ) 


KO]^Oy A corner or angle; a bow or qaill for a 
musical instrument ; the point of a sword [iJtQ] • 
Ab. 144, 3W, 867, 871. rUdnacatukonamhi, at 
the four corners of the curtain (Mah. 179). 

KOPETI (catu, kuppati). To make angry, to annoy, 
to offend ; to disturb, to spoil, to throw into con- 
fusion [ij^M€|f?T + ^I't^]. Dasardjadhamme 
akopento, practising the ten royal virtues, lit. 
sot contravening them (Dh. 416). Kammam na 
iupenti, do not spoil the proceedings (Pdt. 30). 
Db. 108 ; Mah. 237. 

KOPI (oij;.). Wrathful [litfirilj. Ab. 732. 

KOPlNAM, Pudenda ; a doth to cover them ; im- 
proper act [iftlftlf] . Ab. 986 ; Dh. 398. 

KOPO, Anger, Ul temper [^]. Ab. 164; Dh. 
9&L Kopam karoH^ to be angry, to show ill- 
temper (Dh. 271). 

KORAKO, and -KAA, A flower bud [iVtXTl]. 

KOSAJJAA, Indolence, sloth [ifNftv]. Dh. 43, 
370, 371. 

KOSALA (nt^/.). Name of a country and its people 
[^iNra]- Ab. 184. Kosalardjd, the king of 
Kosala (Dh. 231, 340). Kosalaratfham, the K. 
country (Dh. 277). E. Mon. 300. 

KOSALLAM, Skill, proficiency, knowledge, mastery 
[^lfh(9]- Sen. K. 200. Akkharakosallam, 
thorough knowledge of the letters (Sen. K. 200). 
The three Kosallas are dyakosallathf apdya^ 
kotalkuky updyakosallam, knowledge of what is 
advantageous, knowledge of what is injurious, 
knowledge of expedients, or how to act under 
given circumstances. The ten Appanakosallas are 
certain proprieties to be observed when the en- 
deavour is made to obtain sam&dhi (£. Mon. 257). 

KOSAIiO {a^.), Belonging to Kosala [^[^9^ -f-^] . 

KOSAMBAKO (a^\). Belonging to the Kau^dmba 

«wn«>7 ['ihrnir + ^]. Dh. 103, 109. 

KOSAMBi (/.), Name of the capital of the Kau- 

^imba country [ifhTH^^]- Ab. 200 ; Dh. 103, 

142, 153, 399. 
KOSAPHALAA, Bdellium, a fragrant gum [yfm 

-hHir]- Ab 304. 
KOSEYYO (adj\). Made of silk [ift^J^] . Ab. 298. 

Neot. ko9eyyamy silken stuff or doth (Ab. 291, 

315 ; Kamm. 9). 

£0*81, see Ko. 

KOSi (/.\ The sheath of a sword [ijt^] . Ab. 391 . 

KOSIKO,. Bdellium, a fragrant gum [iftflpi]. 

Ab. 657. 
ROSINARAKO {a^j.), Bdonging to Kusindrd. €1. 

Or. 90. 
KOSIYO {adj.). Silken \y^ + ^]. Ab. 315. 

KOSIYO, Indra; an owl [iftftpi]. Ab. 20, 638, 

KOSO, A shout, a call ; a measure of length = five 

hundred bow-lengths, or about six or seven hundred 

yards [iftll]. Ab. 197, 811. 
KOSO, and KOSAM, A sheath ; a bud ; treasure ; 

a testide [^lftl|]. Ab. 273, 486, 811. Sakotam 

rajjam, a wealthy kingdom (Att.212). Kosdrakkho, 

the guardian of a treasure (Mah. 13). Avkdakoio, 

an egg-shdl. 

KOSOHITO {adj,\ Sheathed, hidden [^1^11 + 
^^nfff^= VT]- B. Lot. 572; Mah. 137. See 

KOTARAVANAA, Proper name [iftZTTTO]. 
Sen. K. 418 (given as an instance of the lengthen- 
ing of a vowel). 

KOTARO, and -R Afi, The hollow of a tree [^ihz<] . 
Ab. 548 ; Att 194. 

KOTI (/.)» Point, tip, end, extremity ; top, summit, 
height; eminence, excess; ten millions [ijtfz]* 
Ab. 474, 871. Asikofi, the point of a sword 
(Mah. 63). Ttusa ubho kotiyo daHtvd, seizing 
with their beaks the two ends of the stick (F. Jit. 
17, comp. 12, and Dh. 85). HefthimakoHyd, at 
the lower end or extremity (Dh. 261, 287). Purimd 
or pubbd koti, the beginning (Alw. N. 21). Neka- 
koti (adj.), numbering many kofis (Mah. 158). 
Channavutikotiyo (a^.) bhikkhd, ninety-six ko^is 
of priests (Mah. 194). Channavutidhanakopi, 
ninety-six kofis of treasure (Mah. 26). 

KOTILLAM, Crookedness, deceitfulness [4tfZV] • 

Ab: 859. 
KOTIPPAKOTI (/.)> One of the high numerals, 

a koti of prakofis, viz. 10,000,000^ or 1 followed 

by twenty-one ciphers [ifstfiT + Ti + ^itfif] • Ab. 

474; Ras. 18; Sen. K. 413. See Sankhyd. 

KOTIPPATTO (adj,). Having reached the end or 
summit, having fully accomplished or attained; 
perfectly attained, perfect [^itfZ+imr= W(J- 
With gen. Sdvakapdramindftatsa kofippatto, having 
perfectly acquired the knowledge given by the 
pdramit^ (Dh. 134). Catubbidhapaftdiccakofip' 
patto, having attained eminence in the four ac- 



(210 ) 


complishmenU of a pundit (Att 23). . Ddnapd* 
ramim kotippattam katvd, having carried to 
perfection the virtue of charity (Att. 57f comp. 
214). Kofippattapamodo, excessive joy (Att. 190). 

KOTTARO (adj,\ Breakings catting [^ + ^]- 

Sildkottako, a stone-cutter or mason. 
KOTTANAA, Pounding, cutting (from kottett). 

KiYirVAPETl (caus. next), To cause to be pounded. 

Vit 105. 
KOTTETI, To strike, to break, to pound, to cut 

[1R] . Tundenu koffetvdy pecking him with her 

beak (F. Jdt. 49). Sayam eva 9uvannam kottetvd, 
himself beating out the gold (Dh. 93, comp. 309). 
Vihi k,f to pound paddy (rice) to rid it of the 
husk (Dh. 141, comp. Pdt. 105). Kottetvd ludreivd, 
having smitten them and killed them (Dh. 301, 
224). Ayadandena kottitakanuatdlath mya^ like 
a gong struck with an iron rod (Alw. N. 35). 
KottayUvd mahdvanath, having felled the forest 
(Mah. 140). Dh. 174 ; Mah. 175. 

KOTTH AGARAM, a store-room, store-house [ifn 
+ ^VlPrnC] * Kotthdgdran ti Hvldham kotfhd' 
gdraffi, dhanak. dhannak. vatthukotfhdgdrafhf 
storehouses are of three sorts, treasuries, granaries, 
warehouses. Ratanakofthdgdrdni, jewel stores 
(Das. 24, comp. Dh. 131). Dussakotthdgdratela' 
kotfhdgdrdniy linen and oil closets (Dh. 175, 
comp. 236). 

KOTTHAQARIKO, A treasurer or storehouse 
keeper [4l8l4l< + l^i] • I>b. 128. 

KOTTH AKO, A room ; a store-room [ljt9 + ^]- 
NahdnakotthakOf a bath-house. Dodrakotfhako, 
the battlemented chambers over a city gate, a 
battlement, rampart, portico (Mah. 154, 164). 

KOTTH AA, a granary [ijt?]- Ab. 458. See 
also Kotiho, 

KOTTHASAYO (a4;.). Contained in the intestines 
[ljt9 -^ ^|im] . This is the name of one of the 
Vdyus or airs in the human body (Ab. 39; Man. 
B. 400). 

KOTTH ASO, A part, a portion, a share; portion, lot, 
destiny. Ab. 485 ; Dh. 103, 126, 261 ; Kh. 31. 

KOTTHO, A granary ; a storeroom ; the abdomen ; 
a room, a closet [ijtv]. Ab. 271, 862; Dh. 141,351. 

KOTrHU(ffi.), A jackal [Wtf]* Ab. 615. Also 

KOTTIMO (adj.). Smoothed, beaten (P) [^f^pf]. 

KoffimasuvaftfUi^f beaten gold (Dh. 260). 

I KOTTIMO, and -MAlEl, A floor or pavement made 
of pounded stones [^[f?lf]* Mah. 169. 

KOTT^ (^'')f Breaking [^]. Pdad^utkoffo, a 

KOTOHALAAk, see KuHhalmh. 

KOTUMBARAM, A sort of doth. Ab. 291. 

KOVIDO (adj.). Knowing, acquainted with, skilled, 
wise [^it^l^] . Ab. 228. With loc. Pucchdn 
kovido, skilled In putting questions (Mah. 19). Witii 
gen, Maggdmaggassa kovido, who knows the right 
way and the wrong (Dh. 72). Fem. koffidd (Mah. 
132). Dh.63. 

KOVILARO, a sort of ebony, Banhinia Variegata; 
a tree in the Devaloka [^ftf^T^TC]' Ab. 97, 
552 ; Dh. 189. 

KRIYA (/.), Action, act, performance [fl|l|T]* 
Ab. 174, 877, p. 103. Kriy^Mdam, a verb. See 
Kiriyd. For kriydcUtam see VmndfioA. 

KU (/.), The earth \j$f\. Dh. 181. 

KU-, A pronominal base found in the interrogatives 
kuto, kutra, kuttha, kva, kuham, kuhidi, kudd" 
canam; and as the former part of several com- 
pounds, implying inferiority or wickedness, e.g. 
kupuriso, a bad man, kunnadi, an insig^nificant 
river, kuditthi, false views, heresy. 

KUBBANO (part pre». from karoH), Doing, making 
[f^]- Dh.39,362. 

KUBBARO, The pole of a carriage [^nT] - Ab. 

KUBBATI, see KaroH. 

KUBUDDHI(a4/.), Weak-minded, fooUsh[^rjflr]. 
Mah. 208. 

KUGCH A (/.), Blame, contempt [^?OT] . Ab. 121. 

KUCGHANAA, Contempt [^TCR]- Ab. 1171. 

KUCGHI (m. and/.). The belly ; the womb ; cavity, 
hollow ; interior [<Sf^] • Ab. 271* - Kueckirogo, 
an internal complaint (Mah. 243; Dh. 215). 
Kuechipdro, belly-full (Dh. 1 13). Kucchi^jiram, 
an inner court (Mah. 215). Loc. kueehi$muh 
(Alw. 1. 77), kucchfyam (Dh. 324). Abl. kucchito 
(Dh. 207). 


Ab. 699. 
KUGGHITTHO (a€(f.). Contained in the abdomen 

[sf^ + ^]. This is the name of one of the 

Vdyus or vital airs in the human body (Ab. 39; 

Man. B. 400). 
KUCO, The female breast [ipr]- Ab. 270. 




KUDAGANAA (adv.)y Ever, sometime* [^RTTH- 
Wpi]' Ab. 1161 ; Sen. K. 901. iVo kuddeanam 
and md kmddeoHam, never (Dh. 2, 38). 

KUDARO, A bad wife [^ + ^TT]* ^^n. K. 380. 

KUBASO, Abad servant [9 + ^TO]. Sen. K. 380. 

KUDDALIKO, One who digs with a liaddlUa 

KVDDALAA, and -LO, A spade [^TW] • Kuddd- 
Iddikmithdf with spades or similar tools in their 
bands (Dh. 187). Bb. 186,409. 

KUPPAft, A wall [^pcr]. Ab. 204 ; Kb. 11. 

KUDDHO (/'.p.p. kujjhati). Angry, incensed, in- 
dignant [^ = ^] . Ab. 1077 ; Mah. 15, 154. 

KUDITTHI (/.), Scepticism, unbelief, heresy [^ + 
fflr]. Att9; Mah. 129. 

KUDROSO, A sort of grain. Ab. 450. 

KUJpUBO, A measure of capacity equal to a fourth 
of a pattha [^pl^] . Ab. 482. 

KUPUMALO, An opening bud [^^^HPr] . Ab. 544. 

KUGANDHI (adj.), Ul-smelling [if + ^rf^]. 

KUOEH AA, a bad house [^ + ^] . Sen. K. 380. 

KUHAKO (adj.), Deceitful, cheating [^fl|]. Ab. 

KUHAA (adv.). When ? whither ? [^]. Sen. K. 

310. Comp. Kaham, Kuhim. 
KUHANA (/.), Deceit, hypocrisy [^f^] . Ab. 983. 
KUHANO (adj.). Deceitful, hypocritical [^ff]. 

KUHARAA, a hole, a cavity [^1<|. Ab. 649. 

KUHETI, To deceive [^]. 

KUHlft(a<fo.), Where? whither? [^]. Ab.ll60; 

Sen. K. 310. Kt^im vasaH, where does he live? 

(Dh. 123). Kukitk gaeekanti, where are they 

g^iag? (Dh. 79, 114). AJw. I. xUi; Mah. 206; 

Dh. 163, 192. See Kukam. 
KUmflCANAA (adv.). Anywhere, somewhere [in 

+ ^n]. Ab. 1160 ; Sen. K. 310. 
KUHINCI (adv^. Anywhere ; to any place [S^ + 

1^]. Dh.33, 114. 
KUJJHATI, To be angry [^^] . Pres. with 4tm. 

term, kujjhate (Sen. K. 438), 2nd pers. sing. 

kmjJJM (F. J&t. 25). Opt. hujjheyya (1%. 40). 

Am.kuJJhi. Q^T.kuJJhitvd{JA9Xi.2ld&\ Dh.218). 

With dat. TaM»a md kujfka, be not angry with 

him (Sen. K. 327). 
KUJOt A tree [ip]. Ab. 54a 
KUKKU (ft.), A measure of length, a hattha or 

cabit Ab.268. 

KUKKUCCAKO (a^\), Remorseful, sensitive {ytt- 

WW-fUl]. Pit. 99. 
KUKKUCGAA, Misconduct ; remorse ; doubt ; 

moroseness, querulousness, restlessness [^tlTVl]. 

Ab. 169; Dh. 416; Man. B. 418; Pdt. 17, 18. 

Hatthakukhueeam pddakukkuccam, impropriety 

or misbehaviour with the hands and feet. 
KURKUGGAYATI (dewm. from la$t). To feel 

KUKKUHO, An osprey. Ab. 640. 

KUKKULO, Hot ashes, embers. Ab. 36. 

KUKKURO, A dog [^fK|. Ab. 518. 

KUKKUTO, A cock []gi^]. Ab. 640. Fem. 
kukkuti, a hen (Gl. Or. 40). At Mah. 57 kukku- 
tayantaka is rendered " an iron ladder.'' 

KUKUTTHAKO, A sort of bird. Ab. 626. 

KULAGALO, Principal mountain [^^-h ^V^^^]- 
This is the name given to the seven vast concentric 
circles of rock or mountain which surround Mount 
Mem. Their names are Yugandharo, Isadharo, 
Karaviko, Sudassano, Nemindharo, Vinatako, ^f- 
sakanno, Yugandhara being the nearest to Mem 
(Ab. 26,27; B. Lot. 842 ; Man. B. 12). 

KULAJO (adj.). Of good family [BpTV]. Ab. 1074. 

KULAKO (a(ff.). Of good family [^l|i]. 

KULALO, A bird of the falcon tribe. Ab. 637. 

KULALO, a potter [^WTtTJ. Ab. 507. 

KULAIMT, A flock, herd, multitude ; family; species; 
a house, a building ; lineage ; good family, nobility 
[^]. Ab. 332, 632, 1060. 6a;a^tt/(fni, differ- 
ent species of elephants (Ab. 361). Kulaputto or 
kuladdrako, a young man of good family, " fils de 
famille " (B. Lot. 322 ; Alw. 1. 78 ; at Mah. 75 and 
Dh. 354 kuladdriko). Kuladhitd and kuladdrikd, 
a young lady of good family (Mah. 75 ; Dh. 233). 
Kulapdlikd, a lady of rank (Ab. 234). Kulagharam 
and kulageham, a gentleman's house or family (Dh. 
226; 371 ; Ras. 26). Attano kulagharam, the house 
of her own family (Dh. 222). Samdnakulajdto, of 
equal rank (Mah. 51). Kassakakule nibbattitvd, 
having been born in a cultivator's family (F. Jdt. 
14 ; comp. Das. 6). Amaecakulam, a nobleman's 
family (F. Jkt. 16)» Brdhmanakulam, a brahmin 
family (F. Jdt. 9^). Parihfnam kulam patittka' 
pemtdmi, I will relieve my distressed family (Ditto). 
Kuletu ananugiddho, not showing greed in the 
families he frequents for alms (Kb. 15). Para- 
kulesu, in the families of other people, in neigh- 




boars* bouses (Db. 13, 264). Kulasaiiuafihadosena, 
for tbe offence of associating witb tbe laity (Mab. 
207, lit. *' witb families," Buddbist priests being 
forbidden to live witb boasebolders). Rdjakulam, 
a palace (see sep.). Gokulam, a cow-stable. JTom- 
mdrakulark, a forge. KuladhammOf customs pecu- 
liar to particular families or castes (Man. B. 494). 
Kuladevatdy a deva wbo is tbe guardian of a par- 
ticular family (Att.88). Mahdhulathf a great fiimily. 
Khattiyam kulam, a ksbatriya family. 

KOLAA, a slope, a bank [^]. Ab. 660, 664; 
CI. Gr. 44. 

KULAfA {f.)t An uncbaste woman [^nV^]* Ab. 

KULATTHO, A kind of vetcb, Dolicbos Uniflorus 

[iprw]- Pit. 87. 

KULAVA (adj.). Belonging to a bigb family [^- 

IRTilt]. CI. Or. 24. 
RULAVAKAM, a nest [^WRT + ^]- Ab. 627 ; 

F. J&t. 49. 

KULIKO (adj.). Belonging to a family [ifflTV]. 
Kafipakakuliko, belonging to a barber's family (tbe 
term, belongs to the whole compound). 

KULINAKO, a tborough-bred horse [^R^h^Plf]- 

KUIiINO (adj.). Belonging to a family ; of good or 
noble family [^pf^lf]. Ab.333. Nicdkulinouccd- 
kuUno, of low birth, of high birth (Gog. Ev. 31, the 
term, here belongs to tbe whole compound). Jand 
kulfndiobbe, all tbe respectable inhabitants (Mab. 

KULiRO, A crab [^f^f^]. Ab. 675. 

KULI80, and -SAM, Indra's thunderbolt [nf^]. 
Ab. 24. 

KULITTHI (/.), A woman of good family, a lady, 
noblewoman [yn + ''^f^l • Ab. 234. 

KULLO, A winnowing basket; a raft [<V9l]- Ab. 
455, 665. 

K VL CPARO, and KULOPAGO, One who associates 
much witb a family, a family friend, a confidant [^If 
+ ^ipr]. Sen. K. 209; Mah. 177, 233. Raja- 
kul&pako, a royal favourite. 

KUMARARO, A child, a youth ; a royal infant or 
youth, a prince [44| | Aji\ . Gabbhakumdrako, the 
unborn infant prince (Mah.58). Alw. I. cvii ; Mah. 
4, 23. Fern, kumdrikd, a girl, a young woman, a 
princess (Ab. 231 ; Db. 300, 352 ; Mah. Ixxzviii). 

RUMARO, A child, a youth ; a young prince ; Skanda, 

the god of war [^iTHG • ^^'* ^^' ^^> ^^ > ^<^^- 
23 ; B. Lot. 300. 

RUMBH ARAA, The mast of a ship [^^m] • Ab. 


RUMBH ARARO, a potter [^pir + WJ] - Sen. R. 
468. Kumbhakdrako at Db. 193. 

RUMBHAIi^>0, A class of supernatural beings or 
demons, attendants on Virili]haka ; name of a plant 
[^S^rrar]- Ab. 13, 597, 1030; Man. B. 24, 46; 
B. Int. 600 ; Dh. 194 ; P&t. 87. Kumbhanda$dmi, 
Virfilhaka (Ab. 31). Kumbhandako at Mab. 72. 

RUMBHATHCNAM, A sort of dnim or simOar 
musical instrument. Ab. 140. 

RUMBHI (f.), A pot ; name of a plant ^ kumudikd 
[M$^]. Ab. 456, 564. Acdmakumbhi, a vessel 
used for doacal purposes (Mab. 164). 

KUMBHIRO (adj.). Containing a kumbba measure 
[^ + T^] • Sen. R. 391, 392 ; O. Gr. 91. 

RUMBHiLO, A crocodile or aUigator [^pl^. 
Ab. 674 ; Db. 375. 

RUMBH O, A waterpot, a pitcher, a vessel ; one of 
the frontal globes of an elephant which swell in the 
rutting season ; a measure of capacity equal to ten 
amma^as [^IpH]. Ab. 363, 483, 853 ; Dh. 8. Sap- 
pikumbhasatam, a hundred hogsheads of clarified 
butter (Mah. 38). Kumbhaddsi, a prostitute (Dh. 

RUMINAA, a funnel-shaped basket fish-net. Ab. 

RUMMASO, Sour gruel [^^fWR]- Ab. 1048. 

RUMMO, A tortoise [mA]. Ab. 674. 

RUMUDAA, The white esculent water-lily; one of 
tbe high numerals, 10,000,000^', or 1 followed by 
105 ciphers [^f^] • Ab. 476, 688 ; Db. 50. See 

RUMUDIRA (/.), Name of a plant [^f^f^]. 
Ab, 564. 

RUMUDO, see Disdgqfo. 

RUNALO, The Indian cuckoo (koktia) ; name of one 
of the Mahdsaras [WQTW]- Ab. 633, 679; Man. 
B. 17. 

RUNAPO, and -PAlSi, A corpse [^piR] . Ab. 405 ; 
Dh. 316. 

RU^CANADO,and RO^CANADO, The roaHngor 
trumpeting of an elephant. Ab. 119. Kuncanddam 
or kmcanddath karoti, to trumpet (Mah. 106 ; Att. 
135 ; Ten J. 29). At Mah. 152 kohcatk karotu 




KU5rGIKA (/.), A key [ijfftriT]. Ab. 222, 901. 

KmieikMvaram and kuheikdcchiddam, a keyhole 

(Ab.222; Dh. 298). 
KVSCITO (p.p,p.). Bent, crooked [l^f^n = ^] • 

Ab. 267, 709. 
KUNPAKO, The red powder which adheres to the 

grain of rice under the husk. Ab. 454. 
KUNPALAA, a ring, an earring, an ear ornament 

[^fl9W]. Ab. 284 ; Dh. 02, 93, 412; Mah. 195. 
KUNDALI (adj\). Having rings [^UffMl^lJ- ^*'- 

93. Masc kundalU a snake (Att. 194). 
KUNDAA, The many-flowered jasmine, Jasminum 

Moltiflonim [^p^]. Ab. 678. 
KU^A A, A jar, a waterpot [ifV] . Ab. 456. 
KUl^ATI, To heat [^ngr]. CI. P. Verbs, 11. 
KUNPIKA (/.), The waterpot of an ascetic [^ 

f^BTlT]. Ab. 443; Dh. 122; Mah. 47. 
KUl^rpO, An iguana or ichneumon (godhd) [^p9] . 

KUiyi (adjJ)t Having a crooked limb [^f^]. Ab. 

320. With instr. Hatthena Awfii, having a crooked 

hand (Sen. K. 339). 
KUf}JARO, An elephant [^^TT] . Ab.300 ; Dh. 57. 

Sometimes as the last part of a compound used in 

the sense of eminent, e.g. muniku^fardf eminent 

sages (Alw. I. vii, see Ab. 696). 
KVSjO, and KUSjaA, A place overgrown with 

creeping plants [^9]. Ab. 609. 
KUNKUMAAy SaTron, Crocus Sativus [W^]- 

Ab. 147, 308. ^ 

KUNKUMO (o^r.). Dyed with saffron [ W^ + IT] • 

Sen. K. 392. "*' 

KUNNADi (/.), A very small river, an InsigniBcant 

•tream [^ + ^^]. Sen. K. 318 ; Gog. Ev, 15. 

KUNTALO, Hair [Vinr]. Ab. 256. 
KUNTANI (/), A TOriew (kofica). Ab. 641. 
KUNTHO, A sort of ant [ipw] . Alw. N. 104, 111; 

Sen. K. 366 ; Mah. 249. 
KUNTHO (a<(;.). Slow, lazy [^p^]. Ab.729. Kup- 

thapado auo, a slow-footed horse (Dh. 184). 
KUNTO, A lanc« or spear [ipf] . Ab. 394 ; Mah. 

150, 159, 160 (a sceptre ?). 
K0PAKO, The mast of a ship [^l|?i] . Ab. 666. 
KUPITO (p'p'P. kuppati). Angry, enraged, excited 

[l^fi|7f=:^I(J. Dh. 128, 166, 303; Mah. 260. 

With loc. 8abrahmacdr(9u kupito, angry with his 

K0PO, A pit; a well; the mast of a ship [V?]. 

Ab. 931. K^ma^&hOf a frog in a well, used 

figuratively of a man of confined ideas (CI. Gr. 80). 
Lomak^ipOy a pore of the skin. Ndvdya Mtpaya^ 
fthikdf the mast of a vessel (Mah. 120). Vacca' 
k&poj a cesspool (Alw. 1. 101). 

KUPPAl^, Any metal except gold or silver, as copper, 
zinc, etc. [ V9] . Ab. 486. 

KUPPANAM, Being angry (from next). Khippai^ 
kuppanasiH, whose nature it is to be easily infuri- 
ated (Mah. 243). 

KUPPATI, To be angry ; to be disturbed, shaken, 
agitated, thrown into confusion [ V(J * Oer. kup^ 
pitvd(J)h.lG9l). (AU.2a2). P.p.p. 
kupito, Kammavded na kuppatiy the k. is not dis- 
turbed (P&t. 30). Cans, kopeti, Comp. Akuppo. 

KUPURISO, A bad man \y^ + ^^] . Sen. K. 380. 

KUPUTTO, A bad son [^ + ^] . Sen. K. 380. 

KCRAA, Boiled rice [^]. Ab.465. Sen. K. 539 
has k(tro. 

KURANpAKO, A sort of Amaranth [^^^^]. 
Ab. 579. 

KURANGO, An antelope [^p:^]. Ab. 619. See 

KURARO, A sea-eagle or osprey [^f^] . Ab. 640. 

KURAVlKG, A fine- voiced bird, probably the Indian 
cuckoo. Mah. 22 ; B. Lot. 566. See Karaviko. 

KURU, Imperat. 2nd pers. sing, from Karoti. 

KURC (m.pQ, Name of a people [^\]. Ab. 184. 
Kururattham (Dh. 162, 416). Loc kur^ttUy among 
the Kurus, in the Kuru country. 

KURUMANG, from karoH^ formed upon 

KURUNDl (/.), Name of one of the three great 
collections of atthakathd or commentaries on the 
Tipitaka. P£t. vii, viii. 

KURUNGG, A sort of deer. Dh. 147, 331. See 

KURDRG {adj,). Cruel; hard, severo; formidable 
\y^. Ab.928. 

KURUTE, see KaroH. 

KURUVINDG, A ruby [^f^f^]. Mah. 166. 
Perhaps cinnabar is meant at Mah. 169. 

KUSA (/.), A rein, bridle [^pfT]. Ab. 371. 

KUSAGGAA, The tip of a blade of Ku^a grass 
[^ + ^Hr]- Bh. 13 ; Att. 198. 

KUSALAKAMMAPATHG, Way of virtuous action 
or merit [^IJW + l^'l. -f ^W] • There are ten, 
pdndtipdtd veranuifkiy adinndfldndtferamanif kdmetu 
micchdcdrd veramaf^if muadvddd verama^U ptntfuf- 
ya vdcdtfa veramapi, pharuadya vdcdya veramapU 




aamphappaldpd veramani^ anabhfjffhd, avyt^ntdoy 
sammdditthi, " refraining' from killing, from steal- 
ing, from imparity, from lying, from slander, from 
harsh language, from frivolous talk, freedom from 
covetousness and from malice, and orthodoxy" 
(Ras. 15). 

KdSAIiAKUSALAld, Good and had [^ppr + 
^raifOr] - KuMldkusalakammamf doing good and 
doing evil, merit and demerit (Dh. 99). 

KUSALATA (/.), SkiU, knowledge [^IPHIIT]. 
jipattiku9alatd ^l^ttivufthdnakusalatd, skill in 
discerning what is sinful, and skill in discerning 
what leads to sin. 

KUSALATTAA,akilfalness[lf^f9+^]. Dh.23L 
KUSALl (adj.), Prosperous ; meritorious [B^fffilJ . 

Gl. Or. 29. 
KUSALO (adj.), Skilful, expert, clever ; lucky, happy, 
prosperous; good, right, virtuous, meritork»as 
[^PPTl* ^^^ '^^ ; Dh. 9 ; Kh. 15. Ce iamanu- 
bhdsiyamdno iampatinUmjjeyya iccetam kusalath, 
if being admonished he forsake it, well and good 
(P&t. 5). With gen. kusalo naccagitana, skilled 
in dancing and singing (CI. Gr. 145, also loc., see 
Sen. K. 345). Aedrakusah, skilled in right conduct 
(Dh.67, comp. Att.212). Fdcd ktuald, appropriate, 
happy, well-timed speech (P. Jit. 18). Kusalaik 
kammaih, and kmtalakammamf good actions, meri- 
torious Karma (Dh. 96 ; Man • B« 445 ; E. Mon. 5 ; 
see Kammath). Neut. kutalafky health (Ah. 331), 
luck, happiness, good fortune (Ah. 803), a good 
action, good works, merit, meritorious Karma (Dh. 
10, 33, 345 ; Ab. 85). Kusalakirijfd, doing good 
actions. With dat. kutalam bhavato kotu, health 
to you t good luek to you ! (Sen. K. 329). There 
are three Kusaladhiltus, '< elements of goodness 
or merit,'* they are nekkhammadhdht, avydpdda' 
dhdtu, avihimsddhdtu, 8eIf<%abnegation, benevo-t 
lence, humanity. The three Kusalamdias, ** roots 
of goodness, or groundwork of merit,'' are alobho, 
adotOf amoho, freedom from eovetousness, from 
anger, and from ignorance. The three Kusala- 
sa&Ms, or meritorious ideas, are nekkhammasannd, 
avydpddaaaimd, avihinudsaSmd. The three Kusala- 
vi takkas, or meritorious thoughts, are nekkhamma^ 
vitakko, avyd^Maffitakko, avihinudmtakko. The 
three Kusalasanluippas, or meritorious resolves, are 
nekkhamfuoiankappoi avydpddasankappo, avihifh" 
»d»ankappo. The dasakusalam and daMakuMla^ 
kammdui appear to be identical with the ten PufinO' 

kiriyavatihw (Att. 56, 200, 204, 212). JSTsmM 
eetand, virtuous or meritorious thoughts (Gog. Ef. 
68). Kusalaciitam, virtuous or meritorioiu state 
of mind (Man. B. 448, see Lehttiaro). jKmo^ 
vipdko, the good result or reward of a good action 
(see Kammafhy Kuaalampdko (adj.), having a 
good result or reward. Kusalardii, accomiilatioo 
of merit. 

KUSESAYAA, a water-lily or lotus [^^ihlit]* 

KUSI (ft.). One of the four cross seams of the robe 
of a Buddhist priest. Ab. 296. 

KUSINARA (/.), A town in India, the capital of 
the Mallas [the Sansk. name is ^fllMi ^ 
^ffll^^r^]- Ab. 201 ; B. Int 85. It was at 
K. that Buddha died (Man. B. 343; Mah. 11). 

KUSlTQ (adj\), Slothful, Inert, indolent [^4^]. 
Dh. 2, 21, 49, 289, 383. There are eight Kusita- 
vatthus, ''occasions of indolence," viz. when a 
priest has a duty to perform, when he has pe^ 
formed a duty, when he has a journey to malEe, 
when he has made a journey, when he has 
failed to obtain food in alms, when he has ob- 
tained food in alms, when he Is attacked by iUness, 
when he is recovering from an Illness : in each of 
these cases the slothful man lies down and rests 
Instead of exerting himself (comp. the Anunbhsp 

KUSO, A blade of grass ; the sacrifidal grass, Poa 
Cynosuroides [^]. Ab. 602, lQSf9i Dh. 55. 

KUSSUBBHAlfir, A smaU pond, a puddle [^pPl]- 
Gog. Ev. 15. Comp. Sobbham, 

KUSOliO, A granary [^^j- Ab. 458. 

KUSUMAlfir, A flower; the menses [^^]* ^^• 
545, 1105$ Mah. 68. 

KUSUMBHAA, Safflower, Carthamus TiDCtorins 

KUTADHARIKA(/.), a maid-servant, lit "she who 
carries the water-jar" \yKZ + V(t\41l]* Ab.236. 

KOTAGARAlir, Any room or bmlding with apealtcd 
roof or pinnacles, a pagoda ; a room at the top of 
a house or palace, a l>elvedere, attic ; a faneral 
hearse or pile, a state funeral hearse, a catafiilqae 
[^ + ^innT]- Mah. 124, 12ft 155, 162, 163. 

KUTAJO, The plant Wrightia Antidysentcriea 
[^fZir]. Ab. 573. 

KGTAKA A, A heap, a mound ; a peak [l|Z + ^]« 
Ab. 224 ; Mah. 4. 




KVTANNAfAA, The plant Cypenis Rotnudns 
[^ZIR]- Ab.692. 

KOTASIMBALI (/.), A variety of the silk-cotton 
*«»[^+WlFt]- Ab.5e5. 

K0TA88O, A vidons horse [ifZ + ^Rl] • Lit. ** a 
deeeptiTe horse,' evidently meaning a showy hand- 
MMBe horse with a vicious temper (Ten J. 43). 

KOTATTHO («4f.), Continuing unaltered, nn- 
dMBgeable, permanent [^RV]* Ab. 710. 

KOTATTO* a fidse suit or action at law, one sup- 
ported by false or frivolous evidence [W^ + ^hI] • 
Kifmffakdrako, one who brings a false suit against 
nBoClier(TenJ.2), KAtaftapeo'djitamanuMsd, some 
men who had been defeated in a false sui) (Dh.220). 

KUTETTH A, = kuto ettha. 

KUTHARI (/.), An axe [^fST^]- Ab. 3»3, 

KUTHO, and KUTH AA, A wooUen bUinket [ij^] . 
Ab. 365, 10S3. 

KUTi (y^)> A house ; a house of a single room, a 
hat, cabbi, tent, shed [^^]. Ab. 207. Khetta- 
ffopakaata kufi^a^ in the hut of a field- watcher 
(F. Jit, 53). Gandhakuf{, chamber of perfumes. 
roeemieuiU a privy. Sen. K. 338 ; Att. 218. 

KUTIKA (/.), A hut or tent [^gfz^]. Chatia- 
kutikd, an umbrella-tent (Pit. xzxii). 

KUTILO (adj.). Crooked ; shifty, deceitful [^fZfT] • 
Ab. 700. 

KUTIMBAA, see Kufumbam. 

KUIIRAA, a box, a kennel [ ^j)< ]. Att. 104. 

KUTO(adv.)t Whence? how? much less [^<T^]. 
Sen. K. 300. Kuto dgato *si tvam, whence comest 
thoQ ? (Sen. K. 300 ; Db. 153). Kuto vo anabhirati, 
whence your dissatisfaction? why are you not 
satisfied? (Att. 134). AnattasambMto mano kuto 
atid bhamttoH^ how can the mind be the self when 
it springrs from that which is not self? (Oog. Ev. 
48). Kuto vd pana taua uttaritaram, bow indeed 
can there be a greater? (Alw. I. 108). Ghoiopi 
•D »' atthi dauanam pana kuto, we have not even 
beard of it, much less seen it (Alw. I. 76). jittd 
At aitamo n'atthi kuto puttd kuto dhanam, bis 
own self does not belong to him, much less sons 
and wealth (Ph. 12, oomp. 38). 

KUTO, and KUTAA , A waterpot [^] . Ab. 457. 

KOTO, and KOTAA, Top, summit, peak ; a heap, 
a mass, a multitude ; a sledge-hammer ; a trap ; 
deceit, deception, falsity, fraud ; a part of a plough 
[1|^]. Ab. 177» 210, 526, 608, 828. Gahak^fam, 
the peak or pinnacle of a house (Db. 28). Pabha^ 

tdnam k&fdni, mountain-tops (Mah. 72). Panca" 
yojanasatikdni k^tdni, peaks five hundred yojanas 
in height (Gog. Ev. 16). As the latter part of a 
compound forms the names of several mountains, 
as Giifhak^fo, " The Vulture's Peak," Kdfak^fOf 
** The Black Peak." Kdtehi dhandpetvd, causing 
tbem to be pounded with sledge-hammers (Mah. 
160, comp. 22). Tuldk&fam kafksakifath mdna* 
kdtam, a false balance, counterfeit metal, false 
measures (see next). 

KOTO (adj.), False, fraudulent, lying [^RZ]. K^- 
taaakkhi, a false witness (Dh. 100). Kdfatto, a 
false action at law. KUtapapnanif a forged letter 
(Das. 2). KUtasgo, a vicious horse (see sep.). 

KUTOCI (adv.\ From any place [^^-f f^]- 

KUTRA (orfi;.). Where ? [lyar]. Ab. 1160. Kutra 
ndma, I wonder where (Att. 212). See also Kuttha 
and Kattha. 

KUTTAKAlfr, A woollen carpet. Ab. 314. 

KUTTHA (adv,). Where? [^]. Ab. 1160. 

KUTTHAA, Leprosy ; the plant Costus Speciosns 
[^]. Ab. 303, 320, 502, 1120. 

KUTTHi (•»•). A leper [^fho. Mah. 246. 

KITTTIMO (adj.). Artificial [l^]. Sen. K. 528. 
See also Kittimo. 

desire, passion ; vehemence, violence ; exdtement, 
tumult [^^J^T' ^^^]- Ab. 173; Mah. 52, 
57,176; Db.207. 

KUTUMBAA, and KUTIMBAA, FamUy; family 
property, family estates, wealth [^Z1i|] • Alw. I. 
08; Mah. 141. 

KUTUMBi (m.). The head of a family; a landed pro- 
prietor, a man of property [94^*ll * ^^^» ^^< 

KUTUMBIKO, and KUTIMBIKO, Same meaning 

<» Ifts^ [^f^f^l • ^^- 77y 126 ; Mah. 141, 254 ; 

F. Jdt. 52. 
KU VALAYA A, The water-lily [fq^RT] . Ab. 688. 
KUVAM (adv.). Where ? [gr] . 
KUVEI^I (/.), A funnel-shaped wicker basket for 

catching fish [^l^ljt]. Ab. 521. 
KUVERO, A name of Vessava^a [1^%^] . Ab. 32. 
KVA (adv.). Where? whither? [g?]. Ab. 1160. 
KVACI (adv.). Somewhere; sometimes, in some 

cases; in some places [V + ^T?]- Mah. 1; 

Sen. K. 220. 
KVATTHO, What need of? [m + IR^]. See J&. 

With instr. Raisa ice anena kv attho, what is 

meant by Rassa? (Sen. K. 201). 





LABBHA (indecL), Allowable, possible [^RQ]. 
Das. 37 ; CI. Or. 72. With inf. Idam na labbhd 
evam kdium, the thing cannot be done in that way 
(Dh. 212). Na te labbhd kihci kdtum, it is not 
permitted to do anything to them (Alw. I. 72). 
Comp. Labbho, Yot the origin of this form see 

LABBHANEYYO {adj.\ Obtainable. 

LABBHATI {pasB. labhati). To be taken, to be re- 
ceived, to be obtained ; to be permitted [^^P^ = 
^] . Mah. 177 ; Kb. 14 ; F. Jdt. 13. Labbhate 
(Sen. K. 442). Mayd vutto missakamaggo na 
labbhati, the mixed course I spoke about is in- 
admissible (Pdt. xvi). 

LABBHO (p/p. labhatt), Obtunable, attainable ; 
proper, right, suitable, admissible [^pif = Ip^]. 
Ab. 1086. Anannalabbho, not obtainable by others 
(Att. 190). Comp. Labbhd. 

LABHA, see Ldbho, 

LABH AGGAM, Highest gain [HPf + ^fir] • Dh. 

121, 305. 
LABHANAM, Taking, receiving, acquisition [^- 

Hif]. Dh. 129, 156. 

LABH ATI, To obtain, to get, to acquire; to meet with, 
to find ; to receive ; to take ; to obtain permission, 
to be allowed ; to receive an opportunity, to get a 
chance, to be able [^R^]. Laddhd aamattha- 
purUe, taking with him competent men (Mah. 220). 
J^tthant l.f to reach port (Mah. 69). Acariyam /., 
to find a teacher (Dh. 121). Kdtdvam /•, to assume 
the yellow robe (Dh. 114). So rdjd deviyd tassd 
ekarh alabhi dhUaram, the king had a daughter 
by this queen (Mah. 43, comp. Dh. 78; puttam /., 
** to g^ve birth to a son,* may also be said of a 
woman). Nivdsam /., to receive an asylum (Mah. 
209). Pdjani Ly to receive honour (F. J6t. 7). 
Ahdram /., to take food. Sukham L, to obtain 
happiness (Dh. 24). F'acanam L, to get a word 
said to one (Dh. 155 ; comp. Mah. 31). Crabbhaih L, 
to conceive, Sace labhetha nipaka^i sahdyarhf 
if he obtain a prudent friend (Dh. 58). Pabbajjd 
laddhum vattati, the ascetic life ought to be adopted, 
or asceticism is the right thing to take up (Dh. 121). 
Pun' idikkhasamdgamo na gakkd laddhum^ such an 
assemblage cannot be met with again (Mah. 49). 
Anrio koei daffhum na labhati, nobody else gets 
permission to see him (Alw. I. 80). Pabbajitum 

Mace lacehdmit if I am allowed to enter the priest- 
hood (Mah. 110). Gehd bahi nikkhamUum ala^ 
bhanto, not being allowed to go out of the house 
(Dh.401). With dat. Labheyydma • . satfandya, may 
we be allowed to bear (Dh. 107). Sukhena Mfittuh 
labhiMduUj I shall be able to sleep in peace (Dh. 
176). Saithdram datthuth na labhimha^ we were 
not able to have an interview with the Teacher 
(Dh. 105).— Pres*dtm. Idbhate (Dh. 24). Imperat. 
labhatu. Opt labheyya. OpUitm. labhetha. Fut. 
laechaH (Dh. 96, 324 ; Mah. 104, 122^ labhiuaH 
(Sen. K. 464; Dh. 121, 129, 130). Aor. alaHha 
(Sen. K. 457, Mah. 31, Alw. I. 93, Dh. 240; \at 
pers. alattham, 2nd alattha), alabhi^ labhi (Mah. 
31, 209, Alw. 1. 80 ; 1st pers. labhim). Cond. olo- 
bhissd (Sen. K. 429 ; Dh. 292). Inf. laddhum (Dh. 
114,160). Qer. laddhd (Kh.S; MBh.2dO),laddh4hia 
(Mah. 69), labhitvd (Dh. 160 ; Has. 19). Aladdhd^ 
not having obtained (Dh. 28). labhanto, la^ 
bhamdno (Dh. 108, 130 ; F. Jdt. 7). Pass. labbh4tH^ 
labbhate (see sep.). P.f.p. laddhabbo, labbho. P.p.p. 

LABHI {adj.\ Possessed of [mifil^ . VpoMampor- 
ddldbhiy an ordained priest (the termination belongs 
to the whole compound). 

LABHO, Receiving, getting, acquisition, obtaioing, 

taking; gain, receipts [irn?]' Dh. 14, 37, 48. lA- 
bhoBokkdrot gain and honour (Dh. 143, 298). Deva' 
dattassa kdadvaldbho, D.'s assumption of the yellow 
robe (Dh. 112). ApufinaldbhOf acquisition of de- 
merit, guilt (Dh. 55). Appaldbho (adj,)^ whose 
gains are small (Dh. 66). Sanghasa* uppanualdbhij 
the gains of the priesthood, i.e. charitable gifta 
(Mah.87). CivaraldbhOf receiving a robe (Pit. 
106). A dat. Idbhd (for Idbhdya, comp. patisankhif 
abhinhd) is used adverbially with foil, genitive : 
Ldbhd vata no, this is for our advantage (Dh. 149) ; 
Ldbhd vata me, this is all gain to me (Dh. 126) ; 
Ldbhd vata me yam mama santikam 9ammd»am^ 
buddho unhodakassa atthdya sarakampahini, how 
fortunate I am in that the supreme Buddha has 
sent a vessel to my humble house for hot water 
(Dh. 434) ; oomp. the similar use of atthdya, e.^. 
atthdya me bhavissati. 

LABU, A pumpkin [WT^] • ^^ Aldbu. 
LABUJO, The tree Artocarpus Lacucha [comp. 

iQTf?]. Ab.570. 
LACCHATI, see Labhati. 




LADDHA, ger. from labhati= S. IH^; also nom. 
pi. maac or wag, fern, from laddho. 

LADDHABBO (p./p. labhaH), That ought to he 
Roeived or obtained [wpom = Wl(] . Dh. 218, 
264; Ab. 1096. 

lAADDBAKO(adj\), Delightfol, pleasing [ira^+^j . 

LADDHI (/.), Religioas belief; wrong views, heresy 
[irfS^]- Ab.l61. TaaaladdhiydnisBdrabhdmm 
kaihetvdf pointing out the shallowness of his views 
(Dh. 136). Pit. vii ; Dh. 104, 350. 

LADDHIKO (oiff.). Heretical, schismatic [^Q^ + 
9] . Laddhikd bhikkM^ schismatic priests (Mah. 
42). At Dh. 350 the term, belongs to the whole 

LADDHO(p.p.p. labhati). Taken, obtained, received 
[W39=1R(]. Ab.57d. Kmciladdham^Ai^yovL 
receive anything? (Mah. 31). Kannd laddhdy a 
damsel has been found (Mah. 62). Laddhd ddni 
pi ewd (upamd), now I have found the illustration 
I sought (F. J^t 49). Udakarakkhasena laddho, 
tenanted by a water-sprite (Dh. 304, of a pond). 
LaddhaJayOf victorious, lit. by whom victory was 
obtained (Mah. 157, 226). Laddhabdlo, having 
obtained reinforcements (Mah. 61). Sukhan H 
laddhoiidmam^ having obtained the name of bliss- 
ful" (Dh. 421). Laddhdpiuampado, having re- 
ceived ordination (Dh. 416). 

LADDHUtt, see LabhaH. 

LAG6APETI {catu. next). To cause to be hung up. 
Mah. 201, 211. 

LAGGATI, and LAOATI, To adhere, to sticic fast, 
to bang from [Wf]- Ekam ambapakkam Jdle 
^ggh a mango fruit stuck in the net (F. J4t. 5). 
jitfki gale laggij a bone stuck in his throat 
(F. J&t. 12). P.p.p. lagito, laggo. 

LAGGfiTT, and LAGETI (cans, last). To fasten, 
to tie, to hang up. With loc. Sutton ca teaam 
hmtthetM lagettd^ and having tied threads to their 
arms (Mah. 48). Khdnuke laggeH, tied to a post. 
Tdmi dbkqrafUiui rukkhe laggetvd, having hung 
the ornaments up to a tree (Dh. 142, comp. 247). 

LAGGO (P'P'P* laggati). Attached, tied, adhering, 
\W^ = Wn(] - LaggakesOf matted hair (Dh. 947). 
With loc Tasmim laggd hutvdj adhering thereto 
(Dh. 410). Alaggoeittatdf detachment of mind, 

LAOIT0(p.p.p. laggaH\ Adhering [i^rf'nT= W(\ • 

LAGULO, A dub, a mallet [IT^]- Ab. 392. 

LAHU (ffc?/.), Light; quick; vain ; frivolous, flighty; 
trifling, insignificant ; beautiful, delightful [W9] - 
Ab. 710, 929; Dh. 7; Sen. K. 201. 

LAHU, and LAHUA (ae^o.), Quickly; surely, cer- 
tainly [^^re]. Ab. 40, 1144. Lahum esiati, it 
wiU sail quickly (Dh. 66). Lahum (Mah. 16, 39, 
52, 168). 

LAHUKO (adj.). Light; trifling [^+ ^]. La- 
hukdni kammdni, less important acts (P&t. 62). 

LAHUTA (/.), Lightness, buoyancy [^raTTT]- 
Man. B. 399, 416. 

LAHUTTHANAM, BodOy vigour [^ + ^TTT^] • 
B. Lot. 427. 

LAJJA (/.), Shame, modesty, timidity [f!|9J||]. 
Ab. 158; Dh. 335. Instr. lajjdya, out of shame 
(Mah. 43). 

LA J J ANAJif, Being ashamed [^UJJ+^pf] . Das. 43. 

LAJJATI, To be ashamed [W^]. With abl. of 
the thing ashamed of: Lqjjitd ye na lajjare, those 
who are not ashamed of what is shameful (Dh. 56). 
P.f.p. neut. laj/itabbo, that of which one should 
be ashamed, shameful (Dh. 398). Cans, lajfdpeti, 
lajjetiy to cause to be ashamed, to put to the blush 
(Dh. 194, 335). 

LAJJI (a<y.). Feeling shame, modest, quiet, well- 
conducted [W^irr + JjQ' Fem. lajjin( (Pit. 99). 

LAJJITO (adj.). Ashamed; shameful [^|f%iRf]. 
Ab. 747; F. Jdt. 47; Dh. 56. 

LAJO, and LAJA (/.), Fried grain, parched corn 
[WRT]. Ab. 463,1 133 (^'(fftf); Mah. 260. Ldja- 
pupphdni appear to be the flowers of Dalberg^a 

LAKARO, The letter L [W + tTTT]- 

LAKARO, A part of a ship. Ab. 668. 

LAKHA (f.), Lac, an animal dye [WT^] • Ab. 305. 

LAKKH AA, a mark ; a target ; a lac or 100,000 
[H^]. Ab. 55, 390, 474, 1020. 

LARKHANAM, Mark, sign, symptom, character- 
istic ; attribute, property, nature, quality ; a defini- 
tion; a grammatical rule ; a lucky mark, a personal 
characteristic from which good fortune may be pre- 
dicted ; the art of fortune telling [W^Ql] . Ab. 55, 
178, 1113. jingalakkhanapdthako, a fortune-teller, 
lit. one who reads the bodily marks or lineaments 
(Att. 190). Dvattimsalakkhan^peto, possessed of 
the thirty-two characteristics (Mah. 27» see Mahd* 
puriso). jikinfuivaralakkhafto, his person crowded 
with the principal characteristics of a great man 





(vara as opposed to the annvyalijanalakkha^as). 
There are three lakkha^as {tilukkhanam), or pro- 
perties of all existing things, aniccamt dukkham, 
anattam, impermanence, suffering, unreality (Man. 
B. 495 ; Dh. 229). Itthilakkhandnlj characteristiGS 
of female beauty (Mah. 223). Dhmmalakkha^" 
sampanno, possessing personal characteristics in- 
dicative of future good fortune (Mah. Ixxzviii). The 
essential property of a thing is called lakkha^a, e.g. 
the property of pafhavidhdtu or earth is kakkha- 
lattam " solidity," that of dpodhdtu or water is 
paggharanam ''fluidity," that of dkdsadhdtu or 
space is asamphutthafh ''intangibility," that of 
sofind or sense is sanjdnanam " perception," that 
of maranam is cuH " disappearance." Satiosm^ 
ggalakkhano pamddo, sloth, the characteristic or 
evidence of which is indifference (Dh. 334, comp. 
311). According to Pat. xii to be a vinayadharo 
a man must possess three lakkhanas or qualifica- 
tions, he must be thoroughly versed in the contents 
of the Vinaya Pifaka, he must be a steadfast ob- 
server of the Vinaya precepts, and he must have 
thoroughly mastered* the dcariyaparampard. At 
Dh. 103 a br^man woman is represented as versed 
salakkhanamantdnam tinnath veddnam "in the 
three Vedas and the laksha^amantras " ; the latter 
appear to be memorial verses enumerating the out- 
ward sig^s by which character or fortune may be 
known or predicted; on the same page will be 
found a pddalakkhauamanio, or githi describing 
the different sorts of footprints left by men of dif- 
ferent characters. Stualakkkaf^am, the figure of 
a hare (F. J&t. 58). See Mangalo, Manto. 

LAKKHANA^f^C (adj.). Knowing signs, skUled 
in predicting a man's fiiture from the marks on 
his person [fl^lQV]- Mah. Ixxxviii. 

LAKKHANi YO (adj.), Distinguished, characterized 

LAKKHAJ^J^O (adj.). Auspicious, beautiful [W- 
^^]. Lakkhamd ratti, a beautiful evening. 

LAKKHETI, To mark, to characteriie, to dis- 
tinguish, to discern [W^]« Pass, lakkhfyati, lakkhiyamdno. Dullakkhiyamdnavew, 
in disguise, lit. having a dress which is not easily 
recognized (Att. 212). 

LAKRHI (/.), Prosperity, splendour, beauty, royal 
power; Lakshmi, the goddess, of prosperity [?if- 
"^j. Ab. 82, 385, 906. B4jalakkhU royal 

LAKRHITO (p.p.p. lakhkeH)^ Disdngniriied, 
marked; renowned [wf^1l]« Mah. 60. 

LAKUNTAKO, A dwarf. Ab. 319. Lalm^M^ 
sarirattam, dwarfish stature (Mah. 140). 

LALA (/.), Saliva [WTWT]- Ab. 281. 

LALANA (/.), A woman [WlRT]- Ab. 331. 

L Ala NAM, Dalliance, sport [WTll^]- Att. 193. 

frQnt= inij- Mah. 198 ; Das. 35. 

LALASA (/), Ardent desiro [WnraTJ- Ab. 163. 

LALATAA, The forehead [iraTZj- Ab. 864; 

B. Lot. 004 ; Has. 20. See also NaUtani. 
LALATf, To sport, to dally \W^}» P.p.p. Udito^ 

sporting, beautiful (Att. 191). Neut. lalitam, 

daUiance (Ab. 174). 
LAMAKO (adj.). Low, inferior, vile. Ab. 699; 

F. Jit. 15 ; Dh. 409. Ldmakataro, viler (Dh. 392). 

LAMBAKANNO (adj.). Having hanging ears, or 
ears with long lobes [^MI^IQ] . Name of a family 
in Ceylon (Mah. 228; Att. 11). 

LAMB ATI, To droop, to fall ; to hang down, to be 
suspended [?|1V^]* Mah. 198. Akdie lamba- 
tndndni, hanging in the fur (Mah. 199). .Cans. 
lambdpeti, to cause to be suspended (Mah. 128, 211). 

LAMBIKO (adj.). Hanging, suspended [iifi^^+ 

^]. Mah. 164, 179. 
LAMBITO (p.P'p» lambati). Suspended, hanging* 

downwards [Q(i4|^]. Mah. 179. 
LAMBO (oiifj.), Pendulous, long, large [^Hif]- 
LAJ^CH ANAB^, A mark ; the seal of a letter [WT- 

^Qflf ] . Ab. 55. Lanchanam chinditvd, hmviag 

broken the seal (AIw. I. 79). 
LAf^CHATI, and LAJ^CHETI, To seal [W^. 

Patitfhdpitamattikam sdsanaih r^amudddya ^- 

chanto, sealing an edict with the royal seal after 

the wax, lit. clay, has been affixed (Dh. 89). Alw. 

I. 74 ; Das. 24. 
LA^CHO, A mark, an imprint [^9^V+ ^]> 
LAj^CO, a present; a douceur, a bribe [^Rf]* 

Laneoih daddti, to give a bribe (Dh. 169, 171, 176, 

188). Lanea9k gdheti or labhati, to take bribes 

(Das.25 ; Dh.220). lAmcaddnam, bribery ( Ab.8a4). 
LAIVPAM, The dung of animals [WV] • I>b. 154, 

LANOALl (/.), Name of a plant [WHFliVi- Ab. 

LANOHATI, To disregard ; to jump over, to step 

over lW(\' Dh. 211 ; Cl. P. Verbs, 1. 




LANGHETI, To Jamp over; to lift np [WV]- 

I^mghojfiitdna pdkdrath, leaping over the wall 

(Mah. 153). Chattam langheH, raised the royal 

amhrella, viz. began to reign (Mah. 242). 
LANGI (/.), A bolt or bar. Ab. 217. 
LANKA (/.), Ceylon [Hyr]- Mah. 3. 
IiANKADlPATTH0(a4/.), Living in Ceylon [IT^- 

fhr + W]- Mah. 3. 
LANKAdIPO, and .PAA, Island of Ceylon [H^ 

+ ^]. Mah. 2,3,67. 
I4ANKIKO (114;.), Bdonging to Ceylon [H^ + 

\J^' Lankikd (p/.). The Simhalese people, the 

Singhalese (Alw. I. 112). 
LANKINDO, KUig of Ceylon [irifT+ X^l - Mah. 

LANKISSARO, King of Ceylon [^^ + t?VT]- 

Mah. Ixxzvi. 
LAPAKO, This appears to mean one who fawns or 

IntrigaeSy the explanation is IdbJuuakkdratthikd 

kmtvd lofxmfHi lapakd [ir^+ ^Tf]. 
LAPANAJO, A tooth [inPf + ^] • Ab. 261. 
LAPANA A, Speaking ; the month \Wf^\ • Ab. 260. 
LAPAPETI (oottf. next), To cause to talk or beg. 

Db. 275. 
LAPATI, To talk, to prattle, to matter, to whine, 

to lament \W(]. Das. 7, 31 ; Dh. 275. 
LAPAYATI, To talk, to prattle, to whine, to beg. 

Dh. 15, 275. 
LAPAYATI, see LdveH. 

LAPITAII^, Talk ; voice [Wpnt = iptl • ^^- ^^^* 

LAPO, a sort of quail, Perdix Chinensis [^m* 
VR]- Ab. 639. 

LAPU, see Aldpu. 

LASAHAA, Dancing [wnm]- Ab. 100. 

LASATI, To shine ; to sport [H^] . Att. 210. 

LASi (/X Bruns (P). Db. 146. 

LASIKA (/.), Ttie fluid which lubricates the joints 
[Hftrar]. Kb. 18. I find the foil, in Visuddhi 
Magga, ladki atfMtandhfnaik tMha^fanakiccaik 
wddkmfmndnd attHtaiastrndhUu fhitdy ** lasikd is 
foond in the hundred and eighty Joints, serving 
the purpose of their lubrication." 

LASUNAtt, Gariic [ir^]. Ab. 596. 

LATA (/.), A creeping plant, a creeper ; a branch 
[iniT]- Ab. 542, 550, 1083 ; Dh. 60. 

LATI, To take [mt] - B. Lot. 368. 

LATTAKAA, Lac, a red animal dye [HHm]. 
Dh. 190. 

LATTHI, and LATTHIKA (/.), A staff, a stick ; 
an offshoot, a plant [^rf^» 'ClfS^l]* Dh. 199; 
Mah. 120. See Yatthi, Comp. Madhulatthikd. 

LAfUKIKA (/), The diminutive Indian quail, 
Perdix Chinensis [1T^^ + 1[^]* Ab. 639; 
Dh. 104. 

LAVAKO, a reaper [^n^ni]- Ben. K. 512, 525; 
Mah. 61. 

LAVANAI^, Cutting, reaping [iTOHT]. Sen. K. 
524; Ab. 770. 

L A VANAM, Salt [^f^Hr] . Ab. 460, 461. See also 

LAVANGAA, Cloves [WOTf]- Ab. 303. 

LAVANO (adj,), Reaping [W^]- Sen. K. 524. 

LAVETI (cans, lundti), To cut, to reap [WPRrfH 
:= ft]* Alw. 1.41. Mah. 61 has Idpayati^ which 
is probably a dialectic variety of Idvayati (the 
Ind. Off. MS. has the same reading). 

LAVITTAlft, A sickle [frf^]. Ab. 448. 

LAVO, Cutting, reaping; a small piece, a chip, a 
very little ; a drop [W^]. Ab. 705, 770, 1096. 

LAYATI, To reap [fr. igj. Das. 31. 

LA YO, A brief measure of time (see Muhutto) ; equal 
time in music and dancing [W^] . Ab. 66, 137. 

LEDPU (9A.), A dod of earth [%^]. Ab. 447; 

LEHATI,Tolick[fl!rf]- P.p.p.W/Ao. V.t^.leyyo, 

LEKHA (/.), A line, a streak, a scratch [iNt]. 
Ab. 263, 1098. Candalekhd^ the crescent moon 
(Dh. 246). Pancalekhdya likhitapotthakam, a 
manuscript written with five lines on each page. 
Lekhd dkaddhati, To draw lines (Das. 24). See 

LEKHAKO, A scribe, a secretary [%^nil]* Ab. 
348 ; Mah. 195. 

LEKHANAM, Writing; a letter [%^R]. Sild- 
lekhatiam, a rock-inscription. 

LEKHETI (cans, likhati)^ To write, to deUneate 
[lrtWfif=ftW]. Mah. 162. 

LEKHO, Writing, manuscript, inscription ; a letter, 
epistle; a drawing, delineation [%^]- Ab. 992, 
1098. Lekharh tattha avdcayi, read the inscription 
upon it (Mah. 162). Dve lekhd, two epistles. 
Lekhe sutvd, having heard the despatches read 
(Mah. 34). Lekhafh vinajjayi, despatched a letter 
(Mah. 53, 203). Lekhatk »ikkhati, to learn writ- 
ing (Alw. 1. 100). PI. lekhd, writing (Pdt. 83, 84). 
See Lekhd, 


( 220 ) 


LEKH YA A, Writing [%Q|=:tl|l|]. Ab. 1098. 

LENAA, a eave, a rock cavera, asylum, retreat, 
refuge ; Nirv&^a [H^pf] . Ab. 6, 609 ; Alw. N. 
131 ; Mah. 167. Pihitadvdravdtapdnalene tfiAar* 
antOf living in a hermitage with the door and 
window closed (Dh. 325). A rock cell (Mah. 103). 

LEPANAA, Smearing, plastering [%^^] . Sudhd- 
mattikalepano, coated with cement and mortar 
(Dh. 251, comp. 27). 

LEPO, Plastering; plaster, mortar [%17]. Ab. 
1052; Pdt.70. 

LEPYAM, Plastering, modelling in clay [%W]. 
Ab. 523, 1006. 

LESO, A bit, an atom, a little [HiT]- Ab. 705. 

LESO, A trick, a stratagem. Ab. 1108 ; Mah. 150. 

LEYYO (pf.p. lehati). To be licked, or lapped, or 
sipped [%V = fin|]- Neut. leyyarh, mucilag- 
inous food (Ab. 466). 

LIGCHAVI (m.), Proper name of a race of Indian 
princes, also called Vajji [fW^^f^]. Ab. 336; 
B. Int. 530 ; Dh. 360. 

likhanaA, Writing [firair]. 

LIKH APETI (cans, next), To cause to be written ; 
to cause to be cut. Mah. 207. Tassa kesafk 
likhdpetvd, having caused his head to be shaved 
(Mah. 130). Karaftdake likhdpetvdf having got 
some boxes turned (Alw. I. 74). 

LIKHATI, To scratch, to scrape ; to write, to in- 
scribe [f^ra[] • Papfut^ l^ to write a letter (Alw. 
I. 101). Buddhagune Ukhitvd, having written 
down the virtues of Buddha (Alw. I. 77) • Mah. 
204. Gaus. lekheti, likhil^etu 

LIKHITAKO (adj.\ Written [ftrf^nm] . Ukhi- 
tako coro, a proclaimed thief (Alw. I. 72). 

LIRHITO (p.p.p. likhaH), Scratched; erased; 
written, inscribed [fwf^m = flf^ ] • lAkhitd' 
khilakibbisOf from whom all sin has been eradi- 
cated, lit. scraped off (Alw. I. xiii). lAkhitacoro, 
a proclaimed thief (Alw. I. 72). 

LIKKHA (/.), A measure of weight = 1296 A^us 

[ftnrr]. Ab. 195. 

LIKOCAKO, The plant Alangium Hexapetalnm. 
Ab. 557. 

LIKUCO, A sort of breadfruit, Artocarpus Lacucha 
[fW^^]. Ab. 670. 

LiL A (/.), Play, sport, dalliance [#irT] • Ab. 1 74. 

LiLH A (/I), Ease, grace, playfulness, facility, adroit- 
ness, skill, proficiency, mastery [^F^ = flf^]. 
This word is explained by vildsa, Samadagandha" 

tindhurato gamanalifhd, the graeefbl or sportive 
gait of the musk-elephant when his temples exude 
ichor (Att. 191 ). Attano issariyal^hdya pmcekaHt 
he asks the question in the very wantonness of 
power. Suriral{thada8sanam^ exhibiting her 
graceful gestures (Dh. 307 of a nautch gtrl^ 
Ra&no mangaldhatthi alakkato javamdno na jo- 
bhati wh^afuUifhdya gacchonto *va aobbatif a king's 
state elephant with all his trappings on does not 
look well trotting, he looks best when stepping 
with an elephant's native grace and dignity (Dh. 
234). At Dh. 146 the wicked Devadatta is repre- 
sented as saying, dve agga9dt>ake ubhatu pauetu 
niiiddpetvd buddhalifhdya dhamnuuh deseudmi, 
** 111 make my two chief disciples sit down one on 
each side of me, and 111 preach the Xiaw with all 
the fluent mastery of a Buddha.'* Ajja Buddha 
vism/am Buddhalilham pfusiudma, this day we 
shall see the Buddha's power, this day we shall 
behold his easy triumph (Dh. 98, comp. 307» the 
idea is that of playing with the adversary's ail- 
ments, answering them with perfect ease). 

LIMPANAA, Smearing, plastering. Dh. 306. 

LIMPATI, To smear, to daub, to plaster, to stain 
[fln^]. Bhittim /., to plaster a wall (Dh. 174). 
Pass, lippati, Yo na lippati kdmeiu^ he who does 
not ding to pleasure (Dh. 71)* P.p.p. liito. Cans. 
limpdpeti, limpetu Kdyam limpetvd cbdrikathf 
having smeared ashes on his body. P.p.p. cans. 
limpito, Suvaftftena limpitOf coated with gold, gilt. 

LINGAM, A mark, sig^, characteristic ; pudendum ; 
gender, sex ; nominal theme or crude base [f^nTJ* 
Ab. 273, 910. PurUalingam itthilingafk^ physical 
characteristics of the male and female sex (Dh. 
206). In grammar the three genders wepuUingaM, 
itthiUngariif napu^akalitkgam, masculine, femi- 
nine and neuter. Ungavipalldio, diange of gender 
(Dh.286). J!>A<fto/t^am, verbal roots and nominal 
themes (Sen. R. 433). 

LINGAVA (adj.), Having marks or characteristics 
[t^i^ + ^WQ ' Paribb<yakalingavd, in the guise 
of a devotee (Mah. 54). 

LINQl (<«(/•)> Having gender [fljlf^ilj. Abhinmar 
ling{, of the same gender (Alw. L vii, the termi- 
nation belongs to the whole compound). 

LiNO (p.p. Kyati), Attached, adhering; inherent, 
hidden [wt^=?ft]* JAnattho, hidden or re- 
condite meaning. AKno, free from attachment or 
worldliness (Dh. 44). 




UPI (/.}, A letter of the alphabet; writing [twfll]. 

Ab. 1063. Lipikdro, h sen\^ (Ah. MS). 
UPPATI» see Umpati. 

LITTO (p.p.p. limpatt)y Smeared, plastered [flTK 

= flnC|. Ab. 746, 958. 
LlYATI, To adhere [^]. P.p. lino. 

liOBHANlYO {adj,\ Connected with covetousness 
[^4|4)€|] . Lobhanfyehi dhammehi suddho, free 
from oovetons affections (Sen. K. 324). 

LOBHO, Covetousness, desire, cupidity, greed 
[iftH]- Dkanalobho, lust of wealth (Has. 18). 
Dh. 44, 47; Man. B. 417. Lobha is one of the 
AknsalamiUas, or sinful principles in the heart 
from which spring demerit or sin. 

LOGANAM, The eye [wt'^]- Ab. 149, 

LODDO, The tree Symplocos Racemosa [^t^]. 

LOHAOULO, An iron or metal ball [wtf + ^]- 

LOHAJAA, Brass, bronze [^ij^f^]. Mah. 259. 

LOHAKARARO, A blaclcsmith [^^ + 1HT^]- 

Ab. 509. Also lohakdro. 
liOHAKUMBHl (/I), An iron cauldron ; name of 

m lake in heU [WtC + ^pftj- Ab. 658; Mah. 

LOH AA, Agallochum [^tV] . Ab. 302. See Uho. 
LOH APriTHO, A heron [wf^ + 5^] • Ab. 643. 
LOHITAKO (adj.). Red [wtffTm]- Ubhato 

IMtaMpadMnani, a red pillow at each end of a 

coQch (a loznry forbidden to a bbikkhu). 

LOHITANKO, A ruby [^tffTT = ^l|f] • Ab. 491 ; 

Mah. 69 ; Pat. 79 ; Alw. I. 75. 
LOHITAPAJ^Tl {adj.). Red-handed, bloody, murder- 

oos, destroying life whether animal or human 

L0HIT0(ii4f.),Red[?ftff^]- Ab. 1028. Masc. 

UMio, the colour red (Ab. 95). Neut lohitam, 

blood (Ab. 280). Lohitanadi, a river of blood 

(Dh. 224). Galalohiiam, his throat's blood (Mah. 

846, as we say '< heart's blood "). 
LOHITUPPADAKO, One who has committed the 

crime of shedding the blood of a Buddha (see 

next). Fit. 28. 
LOHITUPPADO, The crime of wounding a supreme 

Bttddha so as to draw blood [wtffpn' + ^fM I ^] • 

See AbhUMmam. Comp. Dh. 279. 
LOHO,andIiOHAA, Iron ; copper, brass ; any metal 

[Wtf]- Ab. 493, 820, 905; CI. Gr. 45. LoAn- 

r^pdni fhapdpesi duve, set up two hrazen images 
(Mah. 236). Lohamayo patfo, a brazen or copper 
plate (Mah. 143). Tan^aloham, copper (Mah. 
164 ; Pdt. 80). Lohapdsddo, the Brazen Palace, 
lit. metal palace, is the name of a famous monastery 
at Anurddhapura in Ceylon, built by King Dottha- 
gdma^i about 150 years before Christ ; it was roofed 
with brass or copper tiles. 

LOKADHAMMATA (/.), The vicissitudes of life, 
the vanity of worldly things [wtV + ^9<^ + TTt] • 
Mah. 261. 

LOK ADH AMMO, Worldly condition [wt^ + ^] • 
There are eight conditions to which man is subject 
in this world, viz. Idbho, aldbho, yaw, ayaso, pas^ 
amsd, nindd, tukham, dukkham, gain, loss, fame, 
dishonour, praise, blame, happiness, suffering 
(Kb. 6, 20). Das. 9. 

LOKADHATU (/.). A world or sphere [^iffn + 
V[XH\ . This word is another name for a Cakkavdla, 
it probably means constituent or unit of the uni- 
verse, the whole material universe consisting of 
a vast number of these spheres. A thousand 
cakkavdlas are called aahassilokadhdtu or c^lalo^ 
kadhdtu ; one million cakkavdlas are called dvisa^ 
hassttokadhdtu or majfhimalokadhdtu ; a million 
million of cakkavdlas are called tisahasailokadhdtu 
or mahdsahanilokadhdtu (Man. B. 8). DasoBa^ 
hassalokadhdtu, ten thousand worlds. B. Int. 594 ; 
K Lot. 717. 

LOKADHIPATEYYAlif, Influence of the world 
[^t^i + ddhipateyya^ . By this is meant the 
influence on a man's conduct of the opinion of the 
world, which produces ottappam or fear of sinning 
(Das. 41, 43). Man. B. 493. 

LOKAGARU (m.)> Teacher of the world, an epithet 

of Buddha or of any Buddha [wt^ + 1S%\ • Ab. 3. 
LOKAGGO, Chief of the worid, i.e. Buddha [if^ 

+ ^ro]. B. Lot. 576. 
LOKAKKHAYIKA, See AkkMyikd and Ukd- 

LOKAMISAIVr, Temptation of the world, pleasures 

of sense [^j^i + ^Tlf^] • Dh. 68 ; Ten J. 8. 
LOKANATHO, Protector or saviour of the world, 

an epithet of Buddha [WtV + ^TRT]* Ab. 2; 

Mah. 11. 
LOKANTARIKO {adj.). Belonging to the tokm- 

taram, or space between three spheres (see Cakko" 

vdlam) [ihm'^^Rr^'^IC^]- Lokantarikanirayo, 


( 222 ) 


the L. hell, a place of punishmeiit sltaated in the 
lokantara, It is partly inhabited by pretas (Mah. 
209 ; Man. B. 27, 47, 48 ; B. Int. 81 ; B. Lot. 631, 

LOKAPALO, Guardian of the world [wtir+ ^mi] • 
This term is applied to several devas, as Sakka 
(Indra), Yama, Varuna, The (bar Mah&HLjas are 
lokaplLlas. Att. 81 ; B. Int 003. 

LOKAyiDC(a«gf.), Knowing the universe [ift^ -{- 
fV9[\ • A common epithet of a Buddha (Alw. 1. 77). 

LOKAYATAA, Controversy on fabulous or absurd 
points, casuistry [lVtWR[?r] • B. Lot. 409 ; Alw. 
I. Ixx, Ixxi. This word is explained to be wtaf^a- 
satthofk (Ab. 1 12). I find the following in Brahma 
Jtia S. Aftb., lokdkkh4yikd H ayam loko kena 
nimmito atukena ndma nimmiio kdko seio afMnam 
aetitttd baldkd rattd lohitana rattaitd H evatn" 
ddikd lok^atavitaftddtalk^akathd, '' 'Who made 
the world? the world was made by so and so. 
Crows are white because their bones are white, 
cranes are red because their blood is red.' To 
these and similar controversies, discussions, and 
conversations the term lokakkhdyikd is applied." 

LOKBSP, Brahman [if^i -I; t;]);]. Ab. 15. 

LOKIYO {(^»)9 Common, popular ; worldly, earthly, 
temporal [in^]« Lokiyacchando, common pro- 
sody as opposed to vedic (Kb. 23). Lokiyama-' 
hyamOf every-day people, the world, the mass of 
mankind, the unconverted as opposed to Ariyas 
(Dh. 256, 287, 288, 430). Be% Lokuttaro. 

LOKO, The universe ;. a world ; the world ; the in- 
habitants of a world or region ; mankind ; a being, 
a creature [Wt^]- Ab. 93, 186, 1041. Lokam 
dukkhd pamocetum, to redeem the world from 
suffering (Mah. 1). Lokassa saggamaggabhd' 
vanatthdyoy that men may learn the way to heaven 
(Alw. I. cxxiv). Loko 'yam pifito, the people of 
this country are oppressed (Mah. 165). Mahdra- 
kkhUatherafk Yonalokam apeaayi, sent the thera 
M. to the Yona people or country (Mah. 71). 
Ltmkdloko, the people of Ceylon (Mah. 121). Koci 
lokagmirk viJfaH, is there any man in the world who 
. • (Dh. 26). SaHkhdradukkhatdya loko anupddU 
setdya nibbdnadhdtuyd mnccaiif from the suffering 
of existence a being is released by that Nirv&na in 
which no trace of existence remains (Alw. 1. 108). 
Pafhavilokafk pdleti, the earth supports mankind. 
Ayam lokoparalokot this world and the next world, 
this life and the next life (Das. 45 ; Dh. 31, 43). 

Idhalokot this woiid, this life, this state of east* 
ence. By p^rdloko is meant any worid wliedier 
good or bad to which a man goes after deatL 
Naraleko, the world of men (Midi. 43). BrsAsw- 
loko, the world of brahmas, the Brahma heavens 
(Mah. 1 18). Petaloko^ the Prata world (Dh. 129). 
LokamtayOf the extent of the universe (Miui.B.9)» 
The three great divisions of the existiag luheree 
are gattaloko, mnkhdraloko, okdsaloko (see each 
Sep.). Kdmaloko, rdpaloko, arUpaloko, the worids 
of Sense, of Form, and of absence of Form, an 
subdivisions of the World of Sentient Being (see 
Sattaloko and JHlokam). For the thirtf-ooe lokas 
see Sattaloko. Other dassifieations are given, as 
kiletalokOf bhavaloko, mdriyaloko, the world of sb, 
the world of existence, the world or aggregate of 
properties of sentient beings (Alw. 1. 106) ; AAoa- 
dhahko, dyaianaloko, dhdttdoko, the world of the 
skandhas, of the dyatanas, of the dhdtus (Das. 44). 
The loc loke is frequently used in the sense of 
"in the world, among men, commonly." Ym 
kind yitthafk va kutam va lake yajeiha, whatso- 
ever sacrifice or offering a man offers in the world 
(Dh. 20). Loke adinnam dtUyati, takes in this 
world what is not g^iven to him (Dh. 44, 73, 97) 
comp. 60). Seffho loke eko H tmecoH, one who u 
chief is called Eka. Santo sappurigd loke dew- 
dhammd ti vuceare, good and righteous men are 
called devadhamma (Das. 41). 

LOKUTTARO («&'.), Transcending the worid, 
supernatural, spiritual [Wt'l + ^MT]' ^^ 
lokiyalakuttaradhammd, all conditions or dimgs 
temporal and spiritual (Dh. 180, comp. 194). Hie 
nava lokuttard dhammd, or nine transcendent ooa- 
ditions, are the four Maggas, the four Phalas,aBd 
Nirv&^a (Dh. 180, 361). The aftha lohdtanJ»' 
talampdkacittdni are thoughts in the four Maggas 
and the four Phalas {MtdpatHmaggadttaik, m^- 
ddgdtmmaggadttam, and so on). Man. B. 445, 
493 ; Dh. 310. 

LOLATA (/.), Longing, eagerness [^^tW+WfJ* 
Has. 18, 28. 

L0L0(a4;.), Tremulous; desirous, longing ; greedy; 
unsteady, agitated [WtV]- Ab. 712, 729, 988» 
1066, 1075. 

L0LUP0(o4;.), Desirous, covetous, greedy [iflf'J?]- 
Ab. 729. 

LOMAH A]$[SANAA, Horripilation or briatUng of 
the haur'of the body caused by astonishment or 


( 223 ) 


fearordeligbt[^ft'l^ + f^]. Ab. 175,912; 
Mah. 107. 
LOMAHAMSANO (adj.). Causing horripilation^ 
astoaBdiBg, stupendous [Wt^l^lT] • Of an earth- 
quake (Mah. 108). Of the wonderful efficacy of 
meritorious Karma (B. Lot. 340). 

IX>MAHAMSO,HorripUation[^ftlT^+Tt]- '^^'^ 
J. 50. 

liOMAHATTHAjATO (adj\\ Having the hair of 

the body erect with wonder or fear, terrified, 

astounded, thunderstruck [wt'ni, + V? = ^ + 

LOMAM, The haur of the body [^ItpO- ^^• 
259 ; Kh. 18. Lomak^qM, a pore of the skin (F. 
J^ 57 ; Alw. 1. 80). Hafthalomo, having the hair 
of the body erect with joy or wonder (Mah. 86). 

lOMABO (tuff.). Hairy [ift^nr]> Lomasapd^ko, 
a caterpillar (Ah. 023). 

liOMl (adj,). Having hair [wtT^t. + Ttl- 

JJO^AA, Salt [Uraur]- Ab. 400; Mah. 15. See 
also Lavanarh. 

IX)NIKO (adj.). Relating to salt, having a salt taste 

[^nnfiw]- Dh.2eo. 

liOPO, Cutdng off; in gram, elision, apocope [I^IT] . 
Koaei Icpo hoH, sometimes elision takes place. 
L&pam pappaii, undergoes elision (Sen. K. 205). 

LUDDAKO, A huntsman, a sportsman [^3fn]- 
Ab. 518, 1106; Dh. 203; Mah. 166; Ci. Gr. 84. 
MgahMako, a deer-stalker (Has. 25). Sakujta" 
Imddako, a fowler (Dh. 376). 

LUDDHO (p^p^p.), Greedy, covetous [^ip>7= ^] • 
Ab. 720. Masc luddke, a huntsman (Ab. 1106). 

LUDDO (adj.). Cruel, murderous [^3Sr=:^)^]. 
hmddakammam, a barbarous deed. Ludddni 
kmraii, to kill prey (F. Jit. 13). Luddo, a hunts- 
man, sportsman (Ab. 1038; Mah. 166; Dh. 410; 
Das. 24). 

LOKHO (a^.). Rough; unpleasant; hard, harsh 
[^^, ^T^]- I^kho hMbhdgo, a rugged piece 
of ground ( Ab. 183). L&khajivikam jivati, to live 
» hard lUe (Dh. 373). Used of food Ukha means 
"bitter/' "unpleasant," as opposed to paftfta, 
« sweet,'' " nice " (Dh. 145, 214, 374, 375). 

LULAYO, a buffalo [^WRT]- Ab. 616. 

LUNATI,Tocnt,toreap[^]. Sen. K. 440. Pass. 
%a#t. P.p.p. Ihuf. Cans. Idveti. 

lAJ^CATl, To puU up or out [^]. Pit. 119; 
Mab. 140. 

LCNO (p.p4f. ItmdH), Cut, reaped [ifif = ^]. 

LUPANAft, Cutting off [^+ IR]. 
LUPYATI (pas8,). To be elided [^PQ9= ^f^. 
LOTA (/.), and LCTIKA (/.), A spider [^WT» and 

^fd^ll]- Ab. ^1. 
LUTTO (p.p. lupyati), Cut off, elided [^ = ^H] . 

Sen. K. 206. 
LO YATI (pan.), To be cut or reaped [^^ = ^] • 

Sen. K. 524. 


MA (m.), The moon [TTreO- Ab. 52. 

MA (prohilniive parHcle), Not, do not [-9(1] • With 
imperat. Md khdda, do not eat (Mah.230) ; Md evanli 
karotha, do not do so (Dh. 109) ; Md gacchdhi, do 
not go (Alw. 1. 7) ; Vanam chindatha md rukkham, 
cut down the forest, not the tree (Dh. 50). With 
aor. Md voca, do not say (Dh. 24) ; Md *pddi, do 
not obtain (Dh. 48) ; Kka^o ve md vpaccagd, let 
not an opportunity escape (Dh. 56) ; Md evam kari^ 
do not do so (comp. md evam akattha, Dh. 80). 
With opt. Md bhunjetha, let him not eat (Mah. 
158); Md ddkkheyydsi, do not point out; Md 
pamddam anuyunjetha, let him not be slothful 
(Dh. 6). With imperf. Md h* evam avaea, say not 
so. Without expressed verb : Md h' evatkbhante^ 
not so, lord; uilam bhikkhave md bhaftdanmh, 
enough priests, no quarrelling (Dh. 104). 

MACCHA (/.), Good soil [^^m]' Sen. K. 522. 

MACCHABANDHO, A fisherman [^R^ + ^l^]- 
Ab. 670. 

MACCHARO, a fish [iR9^]. Dh. 192. 

MACCHAI^rpI (/.)» Inspissated juice of the sugar- 
cane [4f djl njl] . Ab. 462. 

MACCHARAYATI, To be envious [denom. from 

MACCHARl (atff.). Envious, niggardly [4|(^(\i|^]. 

Dh. 47. 
MACCHARIYAJfir, and MACCHERAlfil, Avarice, 

niggardliness, selfishness, envy, churlishness [9fT~ 

7^]. Db. 43, 290, 371 ; Man. B. 418. 
MACCHARO (adj.). Niggardly, envious, grudging 

[44c^<^]. Sen. K. 51 7* Neut maccharam, 

avarice, etc (Ab. 168). 
MACCHIKO, A fisherman [Tflf^Rl]- Ab. 670. 
MACCHO, A fish [7^9]- Ab. 671 ; Alw. I. zxi; 

F. Jdt 53. 
M ACCO (p./p. maraH), Mortal [iRii = ;^] . Macco, 

a man, a mortal (Das. 6 ; Ab, 227 ; Dh. 10). 
MACCO (a^\). Maternal [^TT^ + ^]. 


( 224 ) 


MAGGU (m.), Death; Yama [^J?$. Ab. 404. 
Maccurdjdf Yama (Dh. 9, 31). MaccuytMham^ 
conflict with death, the last death-strnggle (Mah. 
194). Niyato maccu, death is inevitable (Dh. 156). 
Gen. maccuno (Dh. 5), maecuisa (Dh. 277). 

MACCUDHE YYAM, The realm of Death [l^ + 
^^=: VTJ- Dy this term is meant all sentient 
existence as opposed to Nirvd^a or the annihila- 
tion of being (Dh. 16, 197, 277) ; the realm of 
death Is the region in which death holds sway, viz. 
the sattalolca with its three stages of kdmabkava, 
Hipabhaua, and ar6pabhava (tebhAmakavatfa), 

MADANAA, Delighting ; cloves [ITTT^]. 

MADANI YO (adj.). Intoxicating [^R^m^] • Sen. 
K. 395. 

MADANO, Kdma, the g^ of love; the plant 
Vanguiera Spinosa [iRpf]. Ab. 42, 567, 1131. 
Madantuaro, Cupid's dart (Att. 192). 

MADDA (m.plur,), Name of a country and its in- 
habitonts [^]. Ab. 185. 

MADDALO, A sort of drum [?f;|ir]- Ab. 144. 

MADDANAA, Rubbing, grinding, crushing, tramp- 
ling [W<^]- Ab. 769. Arimaddanoy one who 
destroys his enemies (Mah. 2). Dh. 187. 

MADDATI, To rub; to compress, to crush, to 
trample, to destroy [^RTJ* Party antesu jdlom 
maddantOf drawing together the net at the sides. 
At Mah. 225, mahdvihdrasimath madditvd, pro- 
bably means ** encroaching on (lit. compressing) 
the boundary of the M.," the Ind. Off. MS. reads 
^math 80, Kanfakam m., to tread on a thorn 
(Sen. K. 335). Maddanto Damife, defeating the 
Tamuls (Mah. 4, comp. 165). Muddikapphaldni 
m., to press grapes (Pdt. 90). Vddam m., to 
refute, crush, or stamp out a heresy (Mah. 227 ; 
P^. vi ; Alw. 1. 55). Caus. madddpeti and maddeti, 
Hatthind madddpeti, to cause a criminal to be 
trampled to death by elephants (Dh. 187). Ma- 
hdhatthihi maddayi, caused (the stones) to be 
trampled down by huge elephants (Mah. 169). 

M ADD A VO {a^.\ Flaccid, withered [ifT^] . Dh. 
fl7 ; Mah. 181. Maddavant, mildness. 

MADHU (adj.). Sweet; pleasant, nice [lt^]« Ab. 
1067 ; Dh. 13. Neut. tnadhu, wine made from the 
blossoms of Bassia Latifolia (Ab. 533 ; Dh. 275), 
the nectar of flowers (Ab. 545), honey (Mah. 2, 22 
nutdhdwt), Madhuvdftijo, a honey-seller (Mah. 25). 
Makkhikdmadhu, bee honey (Fit, 90). Madhu" 
makkhikd, a bee (Mah. 22). 

MADHUBBATO, A honey bee [iV^ + ^ . Ab. 

MADHUCCHITTHAA, Wax[9T^^B^]. Ab.491. 

MADHUDDUMO, The tree Bassia Latifolia [iV^ 

+ |pr]. Ab.554. 
MADHUKARO, A bee [9!^^]. Ab. 636. 
MADHUKAR0(a4/.), Sweet [9!^^]. AM<2a- 

madhukaragitikd, the beguiling song of the hunter 

(Att. 198). 
MADHUKO(a4;.),Sweet[Yr^]. Masc iMi2ft«Ao, 

a bard or panegjrrlst (Ab. 396), Bassia Latifolit 

(Ab. 554). Neut. tnadhukariiy liquorice (Ab. 587). 
MADHULATTHIKA (/.), Liquorice [^ + 

^iftrilT]. Ab. 587. 
MADHULlHO, A bee [Yr^f ]. Ab. 636. 

MADHUMEH0,Diabetes[7TV+^]. P&t.83,84. 
MADH UFO, A bee [^ + 1|] . Ab. 636. 

MADH URAKO, The Jivaka plant [iT^f^H] . Ab. 

MADHURASA (/), A grape ; the plant Sanseveria 

Roxburghiana [^ + ^] . Ab. 581, 687. 
MADHURASSARO, A sweet voice [91^+ ^]* 

Has. 26; Dh. 402. Also adj. " sweet-vdoed ** 

(Mah. 22). 
MADHURATTAlir, Sweetness \J(^ + ?V]. 
MADHURO (adj.). Sweet; agreeable [^R^]. 

JInndni madhurdni, savoury food (Mah. 170). 

Madhuram tassa bhdntam, his speech is sweet 

(Dh. 65). Masc madhuro, sweetness (Ab. 148). 

Madhuraraso, sweet taste (Dh. 260). Fem. Jfo- 

dhurd, name of a town in India (Sen. K. 321). 

The catumadhuram, or four sweet foods, are, I 

think, navanitam, madhu,phdfLitam, telam, prieits 

are allowed to eat these after midday (Dh. 165). 
MADHURO (a^',). Belonging to the town of 

Madhurd [IH^]- Ben. K. 392, 393. 
MADHVASAVO, Wine made from the flowen of 

Ba8siaLatifoUa[7T^+imr9]. Ab. 533; Pit. IN). 

MAdI (atff.), Like me [WrfV ] • Sen. K. 525. 

MADIRA (/.), Spirituous liquor [ *ir<<l] - Ab. 
533. Rajjanrimadird, the intoxicating draught 
of kingly power (Att. 199). 

MADISO, and MARISO (adj,). Like me, snch as I 
[ifTfH]- Sen.K.525;Das.7;Mah.36. MdOm 
buddho, a Buddha like me (Dh. 109). Mdditi 
khujjd ndma honti, are people like me to be called 
hunchbacks ? (Dh. 159). 

MADlYO (adj.). Mine [TT^]. 


( 225 ) 


MADOy IntosdcBfion ; pride ; enjoyuenC ; the jaioe 
Ihftt flows from an elephant's temples when in nit 
[in^]. Ab.964, 1128; Mah.21fi; Dh.275. Surd^ 
fmmdmmatio^ intoxicated (Dh. 307)^ Na mad&ya 
ikdreHf he does not eat for sensual enjoyment. 
The tiiree madas are drogyamado, yobbanamado^ 
jMmado, the pride or intoxication of health, of 
yoatb» of bhth. EApatHod^, vamty (Dh. 315). 

MADO, Pride [TTT^]. Ah. 764. 

MAGADHA (m.pL), Name of a people and country, 
Soothem Behar [jftl^']. Ab. 184; Alw. I. iii. 
I^>c Magytdhetu, among the Magadhas, in the 
Magadha country (Mah. 2). Magadhabhdsd, the 
Magadha language, Pdll (Kh. 23). Magadhar<i' 
ttham^ the Magadha country (Dh. 186). 

MAGADHAKO, MAGADHIKO {adj.). Belonging 
to Magadha [TTPHni, ^TRlftTi]. CI. Gr. 90, 
92; Sen. K. 390. Mdgadhikd bhdsd, the FHh 
language (Alw. I. cvii). PL masc. rndgadhikd, 
the Magadha people (Kh. 22). 

MAGADHO (<ii(/.). Belonging to Magadha [Tfpra] • 
JB4^ Jf^fiuMo, the King of Magadha. Mdgadhi 
bkdad, the Mil huiguage (Alw. I. iii, cvii). Masc 
mdgadko, a bard or panegyrist (Ab. 396, 503 said 
to be the olfsprbg of a G^dra by a Kshatriya 
woman). Fern. mdgadh(, a kind of jasmine (Ab. 
676), also long pepper (Ab. 583). Fern, also 
mdgadkd (Mah. 253). 

MAGASIRAA, Name of a Nakkhatta[mrfilT^]- 

MAGASIRO, and MAGGA8IR0,Name of a month 

[^l4fl(0* ^^ 76; Sen. K. 392; Mah. 70, 

MAGAVIKO, a deer-stalker, huntsman, sportsman 
[iprWC+T^]. Ab.513. 

MAGGAMAGGO, The right and the wrong way 
[irrt + ^mr^]. Dh. 72, 429. By maggd- 
wiaggan dma da utt Ha is meant the knowledge of 
what does and what does not lead to the attain- 
ment of the four Maggas (Man. B. 193). 

MAGGANA (/.)> and -NAA, Tracing out, research 
[wNhr]. Ab.774. 

MAGGATI, and MAGGETI, To trace out, to seek 
[^RTI ] • P.p.p. maggilo (Ab. 763). 

KAGGATTHO (adj.). Walking in one of the Four 
P^^b* [^rnfi + Hr]- see SotdpaHtmaggattho, 
S ak m d dgdmimaggafiho, etc 

VAGGIKO, A traveUer [TfTf^l. Dh. 153. 

MAGGO, Trace, track ; road, path, course, passage ; 
urethra [KT^. Ab. 190, 921 ; Mah. 206. Sakata- 
maggo, a carriage road (Ab.191). Janghamaggo, 
a footpath (Ditto). Vanamaggo, a jungle path. 
Maggo gantabbo hoti, a journey has to be performed* 
f^Uayojanasato maggo, a journey of twenty thou- 
sand yojanas (Dh.81). Maggakilanto, wearied with 
the journey (Dh. 210). Saggamaggo, the way to 
heaven (Alw. I. cxxiv). Mokhhamaggo, the way to 
Nirv^a. Haithind kaiamaggo, the passage forced 
by the elephant (Mah. 153, through the city wall). 
NfHpavenimaggo, customs and usages (Alw. I. 
1 12). Katkdmaggo, narrative, exposition, history. 
VUthdramaggaiksamdxayitvd, condensing detailed 
accounts. Fisuddhimaggo, The Path of Holiness, 
name of a fiimons theological work (comp. Dh. 49). 
For the ariyo atthangikamaggo see Atthangiko; it 
is sometimes called simply maggo, ** the Path,* e.g. 
^c^g^ ndfum, "knowledge of the Path," and see 
Ariyaiaccam. Rdgddid^ako maggo, the path 
that destroys lust and the other evil passions, i.e. 
the Ariya Atfh. Magga (Alw. 1. 33). The cattdro