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2.0 d 

















■TO. XTC. : 





'* Thou, ^abd-ul-Kadir ! hast made it sweeter than Persian, 
The' the Pushto language was so bitter before." — iBiUBD-VL-I^ADXB, Khattak. 








J^>{i, ^'// 






presii)k:<t of the indiax council, 




ae 30 S 1 » K C T F LT X. X. Y D E IJ) I C -A. T 33 D 


II. G. RAVERTY, Captain 

3ltl» Rl-filMKNT, RoMnAY N. 1, 


The Royal Library, Windsor Castle. 

His Royal Highness the Prince Consort. 

His Grace the Duke of Manchester. 

The Right Honorable the Earl of Derby, K.G. 

The Right Honorable Lord Viscount Palmcrston, K.G. 

The Right Honorable John, Baron Elphinstone, G.C.B., K.C.H., etc. etc , late Governor of Bombay. 

The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of St. David's. 

Lord A. Vane Tempest, M.P. 

His Excellency M. Kowalewski, Minister of Public Instruction, for the Imperial Government of Russia. 

His Excellency Count Keilmansegge, for the Government of Hanover. 

His Excelleney C'Ount D'Apponyi, for the Imperial Government of Austria. 

His Excellency Count Bemstorf, for Che Government of Prussia. 

His Excellency Count Platen, for the Government of Sweden. 

His Excellency the Marquis D'Azeglio, for the Government of Sardinia. 

His Excellency Baron de Cetto, for the Government of Bavaria. 

His Excellency le Ministre de la Maison de TEmpereur. 

The Government of Spain. 

His Excellency M. Rogier, Belgian Minister of the Interior. 

The Royal Library, Copenhagen. 

The Honorable the Court of Directors of the East India Company. 

The (late) Honorable Mountstuart Elphinstone (formerly Envoy at the Court of Caubul). 

Bibliotheque Imperial, Paris. 

Major General Sir Henry Rawlinson, E.C.B., late Envoy to the Shah of Persia. 

Major General Sir Proby Thomas Cautley, E.C.B., Member of the Council of India. 

His Highness the Raja of Travancore. 

Lieutenant General W. Cullen, Madras Artillery, Resident in Travancore. 

The Nawwab Salar Jang, Minister of His Highness the Nizam of the Dahkan. 

The Right Honorable Sir Erskine Perry, Knt., M.P. 

The Honorable A. Murray, late Ambassador at the Court of Persia. 

The Royal Society of Literature. 

The Royal Geographical Society. 

The Library of the London Institution. 

University Library, Edinburgh. 

The Church Missionary Society, 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gosi)cl in Foreign Parts, 

The London Missionary Society. 

The Wesleyan Missionary Society. 

^The library, Presbyterian Missionary Society, New York. 

The Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburgh, through M. Bernhard Dorn, Phil. Doct. 


rniversity Library, Glasgow. 

The Rev. Dr. Bandinol, Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

J. Stuart Dalton, Esq., Librarian Free Public Library, Liverpool. 

Professor Monicr Williams (late Professor of Sanskrit, East India College, Ilaileybury), Cheltenham. 

Professor Max Miillor, All Souls* College, Oxford. 

Dr. Eeinhold Host, LL.D., Professor of Oriental Languages, St. Augustine*s College, Canterbury. 

Kev. Peter Daly, P.P., Galway. 

Messrs. Longman and Co., Paternoster Row, London. 

Messrs. J. H. and J. Parker, Oxford. 

Messrs. Triibner and Co., American Literary Agency, London. 

Messrs. Williams and Norgate, London, Edinburgh, and Leipzig. 

Messrs. A. Asher and Co., Berlin. 

Stephen Austin, Oriental Printer and Bookseller, Hertford. 


The Honorable the Government of Bombay. 

Colonel Walter Scott, Chief Engineer, Bombay Engineers, 

Colonel Haughton James, Commandant of Fortress of Ascergurh. 

Major W. H. R. Green, C.B., 19th Regt. Bombay N.I., Political Agent in Baluchistan. 

James Christie, Esq., Assistant Military Accountant General, Bombay. 

Commodore Ethersey (the late), Indian Navy. 

Assistant Surgeon J. P. Stratton, Esq., M.D., Civil Employ. 

The Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society. 

Arthur St. John Richardson, Esq., Bombay Civil Service. 

Captain P. A. Elphinstone, 18th Regt. Bombay N.I. 

Lieutenant J. Havelock, 6th Regt. Bombay N.I. 

Captain T. M. Baumgartner, H.M. 83rd Regt. Foot. 

Lieutenant E. J. CJieckley (the late), 19th Regt. Bombay N.I. 


The Honorable the Government of Madras. 

The Madras Literary Society. 

E. Story, Esq., Madras Civil Service. 

Lieutenant M. W. Carr, Quarter Master and Interpreter, 9th Regt. Madras N.I. 


The Government of the Panjab. 

Lieutenant Colonel A. Cunningham, Secretary to the Government of the North-west Provinces 

Captain Stuart Graham, Deputy Commissioner of Peshawar, for the District Courts. 

Lieutenant P. W. Powlett, Assistant Commissioner, Peshawar. 

Rev. Isidor Lowenthal, for the Afghan Mission. * 

Rev. R. Clark, for the Church Mission, Peshawar. 

Rev. Dr. Ernest Trumpp, Pefihawar. 

Lieutenant G. Short, Assistant Commissioner, HotI Mardan, Peghawar. 

Colonel H. B. Lumsden, C.B., Commandant Panjab Guide Corps. 


Lieutenant T. G. Kennedy^ Adjutant Panjab Guide Corps, Peshawar. 
George D. Westropp, Esq., Extra Assistant Commissioner, Kawul Pandec. 
Lieutenant Colonel W. T. Martin, Betired List, Peshawar. 
Mir Akbar ^ali. Director of Canals Office, Mahdupur, Gordaspiir. 

A. K, Blackall, Esq., Extra Assistant Commissioner, Mooltan. 
Lieutenant-Colonel G. W. Hamilton, Commissioner Mooltan Division. 
P. O'Brien, Esq., Canal Department, Mooltan. 

William Lloyd, -Esq., Gordaspiir. 

D. W. McLeod, Esq., B.C.S., C.B., Financial Commissioner for the Panjab. 

Captain N. W. Elphinstone, Deputy Commissioner. 

Captain J. E. Cracrofb, Deputy Commissioner. 

Frederick Cooper, Esq., B.C.S., C.B., Deputy Commissioner. 

Major J. B. Becher, C.B., Deputy Commissioner, Hazarah. 

Lieutenant W. F. Leicester, 3rd Begt. Sikh Infantry. 

Carapit Stephen, Esq., Extra Assistant Commissioner, PanipatJ. 

G. Barnes, Esq., B.C.S., C.B., Commissioner Cb-Sutlej States. 

Major J. "Wale, Brigade Major (the late), Peshawar. 

C. J. Luckstedt, Esq. 

Major W. A. Crommelin, C.B., Bengal Engineers. 

Major J. A. Wilson, Executive Engineer, Hazarah. 

Captain F. J. Davies, 58th Begt. Bengal N.I. 

Captain W. S. Oliphant, Bengal Engineers. 

Captain A. W. Gamett, Bengal Engineers, Kohatt. 

Captain J. Palladio Basevi, Bengal Engineers, Derajat. 

Captain Sir W. Hamilton, Bart, Bengal Artillery. 

Major-General John Nicholson (the late), Bengal Army, Deputy Commissioner, Derah Ismuaeil Kliuii. 

Captain C. J. Curtis, Commandant 6th Begt. Bengal Irregular Cavalry. 

Arthur Brandreth, Esq., B.C.S., Settlement Officer, Panjab. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Taylor, C.B., Bengal Engineers. 


The Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Captain W. Nassau Lees, LL.D., for the College of Fort William. 

Captain W. Nassau Lees, LL.D., for the Calcutta Madrasa. 

B. Gamble, Esq., M.D., H.M. 24th Begt. Foot. 
Lieutenant F. B. Norman, 14th Begt. Bengal N.I. 
Captain F. E. Smallpage, Bengal Artillery. 
Major C. Pattenson, 4th Begt. Bengal N.I. 
Captain H. A. Browne, 10th Begt. Bengal N.I. 
Lieutenant B. H. Price, Slst Begt Bengal N.I. 
Ensign E. A. Phillips (the late) 11th Begt. Bengal N.I. 
Professor Gryffith, Benares College. 

Captain G. W. McBamet (the late), 55th Begt. Bengal N.I. 
Major George 0. Jacob (the late) 1st Bengal Fusiliers. 






















^^I _ 



-^•^ *t^ ^A 

s^'i) -^^ i/y. 












185 30-3^ 

I jJjL palwand, etc. 

^^ palwanddf etc. 



comp. of s etc. 

corrap. of s etc. 


























'•^!>i j 











8.f. (2nd), 

s.m. (2nd). 



act. past. 

act. part. 







troU khwarral, or 

1 <rtfft fJiwarrai, verb 
) trans, or rasedal, etc 




rasedal, etc. 


j^ljJ batdny etc. 

baUdHf et<;. 























jp^ heyrr. 



s.f. (2nd), 

8.f, (3rd). 







Jjb^ jlj verb intranfi 

I. verb trans. 







rcajzey or rcagey, 

wajzaey or wagaey. 







s.m. (1st), 

s.f. PI. (3rd). 



B.m. (6th) 

s.m. (6th) PI. ,.,< ,%) 
















taar-masTia'ty etc. 

tsqr-nuishka'lf etc. 











s.m. (5th) 

s.m. (6th) 









It will generally be allowed, I imagine, that the position of the British with 
regard to the Afj^ans and their country, since the annexation of the Panjab — 
by which a large portion of Afj^anistan Proper, containing nearly two millions 
of inhabitants, came under our rule — demands that due attention shoidd be paid by 
the government officials to the language of the people over whom they are appointed 
as rulers and administrators. 

The late state of aflFairs in Persia^ and Central Asia, and the visit of our old 
antagonist, the Amir, Dost Muhammad Khan, Barakzi, to Pe^awer, appear like 
*^ coming events" that "cast their shadows before," and indicate the desire of the 
British Indian Government with regard to our future connection with the Af^an 
tribes, who look upon an alliance -with their former enemies with much less aver- 
sion than formerly. Indeed, they appear unquestionably inclined to become our 
friends ; and it will depend entirely on the temper and tact of the agents of the 
Government to bring about this most politic and desirable result. It is necessary, 
too, that we should not lose sight of the important events which must arise in 
Afi^anistan on the death of the Dost, now a very aged man, and the influence 
of those events upon our relations with Central Asia and its little known tribes. 

On all future occasions, however, if we desire to avoid the disasters that followed 
the failures and blunderings of Bumes and others, we must take care to avoid the 
mistake of employing any native go-betweens, in the shape of Hindu " Knights of 
the Lion and Sun," or Multani or Hindustani Afj^ans, who are a very different 
and far inferior race to the Afi^ans proper, who, indeed, hold them in the greatest 
contempt. The persons I refer to are never to be depended upon : they constantly 
intrigue for the purpose of making themselves necessary to us, and end in deceiving 
both sides— English and Afj^ans. But we can only free ourselves from dependence 
upon them, by sending as agents into the country men practically acquainted with 
the language spoken by the people, or, at least, with the language in general use at 
the Court of the ruler to which they may be accredited. This policy is so indis- 
pensable, that there are no circumstances under which a departure from it shoidd 
be permitted. 

The deplorable events of the last few years have shown, that we must, in future, 
draw largely on the Hill tribes of the north-west frontier of India to fill the ranks 




of the Indian army. When no dependence whatever ooidd be placed on the Native 
Ecgular or Irregular troops of Hindustan, and when regiment after regiment was 
mutinying or being disarmed, the Irregular Corps of the Derajat, the majority of 
which were chiefly, and some of them exclusively, — composed of Afj^ans, were 
staunch and faithful, and aided in disarming and destroying the mutineers. At 
Peshawer, one corps, standing side by side with the European troops, attacked the 
mutinous Sepoys of the late 55th N. I. ; and on the flight of the latter to the 
mountains of Suwat, it was detached, alone, to complete their destruction. The Ist 
Bombay Baludi Battalion, consisting chiefly of Afj^ans, proved equally reliable, 
nnd formed a portion of the storming columns at Delhi, along with the Panjab 
Guides and other Afj^an corps. 

It has, therefore, been proved, that dependence may be placed on Afj^an 
soldiers, especially when opposed to other races, or to different tribes of their own 
countrymen. And who that has ever seen the hardy and sturdy Afj^ans on their 
native hills, can, for a moment doubt that these men — ^who have on more than one 
occasion been themselves the conquerors of Hindustan, and who have ever been the 
best troops in the armies of other invaders — ^would, if organised and trained like 
the regular Native Ecgiments, and led by an equal number of European officers, 
be second to none but European troops, and more than a match for the soldiers erf 
every other Asiatic nation ? 

The Af|^an country, in many places, is poor; and the people— too proud to 
follow any other callings than those of arms, agricidture, or trade, and wanting 
land to cultivate, or a commerce large enough for their employment, have fre- 
(luently found it difficult to procure a subsistence. Hence, for centuries past, great 
numbers of Afj^ans, Pattans, or Eohilahs, as they are variously termed, have entered 
into the military service of other native States. The re-organization of the Bengal 
Aiiny, therefore, affords an opportunity, which should by no means be lost, of 
availing ourselves of the services of this- race. Henceforth we shoidd enlist Afghans, 
as well as Sikhs and Gurkahs, into every regiment ; or what woidd be better still, 
as tending to secure a praiseworthy emulation and rivalry, and, in case of accident, 
enabling us to employ one race against the other, and prevent combination— we 
shoidd form them into distinct corps, according to their nationality. Surely, in 
future, no dependence will be placed on the bloodthirsty and fenatical Musalman 
of India, or the mild-seeming but merciless and bigoted Brahmin and other Piirbiah 
castes. The atrocities they have so lately perpetrated make it impossible for us to 
trust in them ; but the Afj^ans are a different race.* 

• To give the Afghans their dne, although they did act treacherouBly towards us on the retreat from Eahul in 1842, yet 
wc were invaders of their country ; and, treating ns as such, they attacked and destroyed our force : hut the prisoners they took 
were safe, and the women and children were res^tod. This offers a very faTorable contrast, on the part of an uneivilixed 
race, to the demoniacal doings, at Delhi and KhanpQr, of those who for more than a century had heen eating our salt, and 
were considered to have adyanced a good way in the scale of ciyilization. 


Prom the interoourse with the Afj^an people, to which my researches into 
their language and literature during the last twelve or fourteen years have 
naturally led, I know that the Western Af^ans are desirous of cultivating our 
friendship, and would be glad to see a British force again located at Kandahar, 
were it only to deliver them from the grinding tyranny of Dost Muhammad 
E3ian, or rather of his sons ; or, at least, to restrain their oppression. The 
people look back with not a little regret to the time of our sojourn, when money 
flowed freely, and when, as they say, " a man could enjoy in security the fruits of 
his own industry." 

The faidt will have been entirely on our own part if the late golden opportunity 
has not been taken advantage of, and the foimdation of friendly intercourse laid 
upon a fibrm basis. But one great fact should be remembered in all our intercourse 
with the Afj^ans — ^that they are, in disposition and temper, not at all unlike 
Irishmen and Scottish Highlanders of a century or two ago : they may be led but 
are not to be driven ; and a bearish, overbearing manner, on the part of those who 
come into contact with them, whatever their rank or position may be, and however 
well it may answer with a tyranny- worshipping Panjabi and Hindustani idiosyn- 
crasy, will produce quite a contrary effect upon the free and independent sons of 
the mountains. 

The Afj^ans, being Simnis, or orthodox Muhammadans, are held in high esteem 
among the people of Islam ; but for the same reason they are the bitter and natural 
enemies of their Shisea neighbours, the Persians, who, with equally rancorous 
feeling, hate the Afj^ans, and have occasion to remember the conquest of their 
coimtry by the Ghalzi tribe in the former half of the last century. And, as wie all 
know that no enmity bums so fiercely as that of religious fanatics and schismatics, 
we may be certain there will be no danger of the Afj^an people throwing them- 
selves into the arms of the Mu^al, on any occasion, without very pressing reasons 
for taking such a course. Hatred on the part of the Afj^ans towards the Farangis, 
or rather towards the English, is of comparatively recent growth : Englishmen, or 
any other Europeans, could visit any part of Afghanistan, unattended and un- 
molested, as in the case of Vinge and Masson, before the fatal faux pas of the 
Bumes's, the Mohan Lais, and others ; whilst at present, in the twelfth year of the 
Panjab annexation, Europeans, if they venture to take an evening ride outside the 
bounds of the cantonments at Pe^awer and other border stations, unarmed and 
unattended, do so at the risk of their lives. 

The death of Dost Muhammad !^an, who has long since passed his seventieth 
year, is an event which cannot be far off. It will be the signal for dissensions that 
will, I fear, deluge Afghanistan with blood ; and in which, for the sake of our own 
safety, we may be compelled, as in the case of the Sikhs, to interfere. There- 
fore, in whatever light the question be viewed, the cultivation of the Pushto 


language is necessary. As a means of present intercommimication, and as a pre- 
paration for the future, it should be insisted upon by the British Government—" a 
monarchy of many kings, whose sceptre sways over the entire length and breadth 
of India, and the eegis of whose power casts its broad shadow over the whole East." * 

But there is another incentive to the cidtivation of Pushto. The Bussians have, 
for some time past, paid great attention to, and made great progress in, the study 
of the Afj^an language ; the Imperial Government having, as usual, been most 
liberal with its aid for that especial purpose,t and the Pui^to is now taught, as well 
as other Oriental tongues, at St. Petersburgh, although the Bussians do not hold 
an inch of land where it is spoken. The Bussian capital is, indeed, the only city 
in the world where the Af|^an language is made a branch of study. The British 
authorities in the Panjab, though ruling over a large portion of Afghanistan Proper, 
containing nearly two millions of people, to whom Pu^to is the mother tongue, 
have hitherto wholly neglected it. 

Let us turn, however, to the Bombay province of Sindh, with about half the 
number of inhabitants, and not yielding so great an amount of revenue as our 
Afj^an districts. There the Sindhian dialect is used in all the Civil Courts ; 
liberal premiums are given to officers and others, as an inducement to qualify them- 
selves and pass an examination in the language ; and officers in civil employ 
must pass before they are confirmed in their appointments, or considered eligible 
for promotion. Yet the Sindhian language has no literature in comparison with 
the Pu^to, and no aids beyond a short grammar by Wathen, published many 
years since, and another by Stack, who also prepared a vocabulary; but who, 
surprising to state, instead of using the Naskh character of the Arabic, in which 
Sindhian books are written, has adopted the Nagri character of the Sanskrit 
for both his works, probably because unacquainted with the Naskh. J If so much 
can be done in Sindh with such few appliances, surely much more may be effected 
beyond the Indus, now that the necessary aids for the acquirement of the Pu^to 
language are available, and its study and cidtivation merely require to be enforced 
by the authorities. 

A mission has for some time past been established at Peshawer to evangelize the 
Afj^ans, and may probably, in time — ^but very slowly, if we are to judge from the 
progress hitherto made, — do something to advance the study of the language ; but 
any great success cannot be expected until schools (which would be attended, I 

* *<The Kings op the East, and Expobition of thb Profhecies/' p. 155. 

t The present works have also shared in this liberality ; and I take this opportunity of respectftilly acknowledging the 
support of His Excellency M. Kowalewski, Minister of Public Instruction at St. Petersburg, and of Professor Bemhard Dom, 
of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 

X For a number of years past, a German missionary, who considers himself learned in Oriental lore (and himself only), 
has been employed upon a Sindhian Dictionary, which is not likely to be completed, I am told, the greater portion of the 
time having been devoted to disputes and discussions about determining the character to be used. One would haye fimded 
that the character in which its literature ia written would be the one to follow. 


have no doubt, even by persons beyond our frontier) are established for the express 
study of Pushto. Little real progress, however, will in any case be effected until 
the example is set on the part of Government, by the issue and enforcement of 
a general order, making it incumbent on all officers, whether civil or military, 
staff or regimental, holding appointments beyond the Indus, to qualify in the lan- 
guage of the people. A year's perseverance, to the extent of a few hours' study 
daily, with the helps now obtainable, ought to enable any person of ordinary abilities 
to acquire a decent knowledge of the Afj^an tongue. 

The plea for not enforcing the study of the Pu^to language hitherto, has been 
the want of guide books, without which the acquirement of such a language is 
certainly up-hill work ; and, imdoubtedly, requires more patience and persevering 
industry than the generaUty of people in India are endowed with. To remove this 
difficulty, I now submit the fruit of the labours of every spare moment— often 
snatched from the necessary hours of rest and repose — of my life during the last 
twelve years, in the shape of the present work ; together with a Text Book entitled 
" Gulshan-i-Eoh," or "The Flower-garden of Roh"— as the Afi^an country is 
termed by ancient writers — containing selections, in poetry and prose, from the 
writings of all the standard native authors, and from many rare MSS. not to be 
met with in the present day ; and a copious Grammar, the second edition of which, 
considerably improved and extended, is published with this Dictionary. These 
works will, I hope, prove useful to Officers in India, to the Orientalists of Europe 
and Asia, and to the Public generally to whom Oriental subjects are attractive, or 
who may feel interested in the Ban-i-Israil^ as the Afj^ans term themselves— the 
Lost Teibes of the House of Israel. The translation of the New Testament 
into Pushto, just completed previous to leaving India a few months back, and 
translations into English of a great number of the poems of celebrated authors, will 
probably close my studies ; for, after having devoted seventeen of the best years 
of my life, and expended much money in acquiring, more or less, a knowledge of 
nine Oriental languages, I find that the pursuit has never brought me advantage 
or advancement — in fact, nothing but the satisfaction which one derives from the 
habit of patient labour and the fact of knowing. 

As regards natives of India, and the Afj^ans themselves, no grammar exists 
in the Pu^to itself that could be available for them ; but this obstacle can be 
remedied. I have already offered to compile one from the Grammar I have just 
published, if such encouragement, as I might naturally expect to receive from the 
Indian or the British Government, be extended to me. 

B[aving thus set forth, and, I trust, proved, the imperative necessity of culti- 
vating and encom-aging the study of the Afj^an language, it will be, doubtless, 
expected that I shoidd offer some remarks on the Pu^to, and the family to which 
it belongs. 


** The gross errors of European writers on Asiatic literatore hare long conyinced me that no satisfactory account can be 
given of any nation with whose knguage we arc not perfectly acquainted." — Sir William JoxBa. 

Some Orientalists of the present day have endeavoured to make out that the 
Pushto language belongs to the Indian or Indu-Teutonio fiimily of tongues, 
because it contains some Sanskrit words, and because the Urdu or Hindiistani 
dialect bears, as it is affirmed, some resemblance in point of idiom. Some 
persons have even gone to such lengths as to assert that the Pushto is not a 
written language. They, however, are not to be recognized as authorities on 
such a subject. One of these assertions, contained in a note to a work entitled, 
" Caravan Journeys, and Wanderings in Persia, Afghanistan, etc.," by J. P. Ferrier, 
is worth quoting, — " There is some excuse for this irregularity in spelling Afghan 
words, the Pushto being merely a colloquial language^ * So much for Sir J. Login's 
authority on the matter, for the note in question is said to be fix)m his pien. It, 
however, seems to have been entirely overlooked by those who would prove the 
former theory, that the Pushto contains a fiu: greater number of Semitic, Zand, 
Pehlavi, Persian, and Turkish words, and bears much more simikrity to the modem 
Persian and the Semitic languages than to the hybrid dialect called Urduy the 
meaning of which Turkish word, signifying a camp or amy, in itself shows that it 
was formed in the camps of the Mughal invaders and their successors, whose legions, 
drawn from almost every country of the Asiatic continent, and some even from 
Africa, contained Murals, Persians, Afghans, Baluchis, Arabs, Georgians, Kurds, 
Turkomans, Kalmaks, and other Tartar tribes; Abyssinians, Ethiopians, and Negroes; 
together with Brahmans, Eajputs, Marattas, and other races of the peninsula of 
India. It was, consequently, a sort of olla-podrida^ containing words of each 
language, so as to meet the wants of the parties composing the motley and hetero- 
geneous armies of those who swayed the sceptre of India. In fact, the Urdu was 
formed much in the same manner as the lingua franca spoken on the shores of the 

It is certainly true that the Pu&to dialect has many words which are also to be 
met with in the Urdu ; but the whole of these, when not clearly traceable to the 

• Page 185. 


Sanskrit, I am inclined to consider-— at least until they can be satisfactorily proved 
to belong to some other original language—pure Pushto terms that have, in the 
same manner as Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, etc., and even Portuguese and Malayam 
words, been appropriated and adopted into the rekhtah or ^ scattered,' another term 
applied to the camp language of Hindiistan. 

That this should be the case is by no means astonishing, when we take into 
consideration the prominent part which, since the invasions of Mahmiid of Ghazni, 
in the twelfth century of our era, the Afj^ans have played upon the theatre of the 
Indian peninsida ; their constant and continual influx ; their conquests and per- 
manent settlements therein ; and the fact that their descendants, by intermarriage 
wilii the natives, are known as Hindustani Pattans, who still constitute a large 
portion of the Muhammadans of India, and who, almost exclusively, speak the Urdu 
language. To such an extent did these immigrations extend, that some tribes have 
long since totally disappeared from Afj^anistan, and their descendants now are only 
to be found in India itself. 

In some localities in India, however, the offspring of the Afghan settlers have 
preserved the Pushto language almost in its purity up to the present day, having, 
from the outset, continued to intermarry amongst themselves ; and in some parts 
of Bandalkand and in the territory of the Rampiir Nawwab, whole towns and 
villages may be found in which the Afj^an language is still almost exclusively 
spoken, and is the vehicle of general communication.* 

It does not appear, also, to have been taken into consideration that the Urdu 
is, comparatively, a very modem language, formed, so far as we can discover, as 
recently as the period of the foimdation of the kingdom of Delhi— where it has ever 
been, and still continues to be, most pure and cultivated— in the reign of the Emperor 
Akbar, at which time attention began to be paid to Indian literature ; and after 
whose accession, purely Muhammadan learning, derived from the Arabs, which 
had flourished in the preceding reigns, began to decline. I have in my possession 
Pushto works which were composed very many years before and during Akbar^s 
reign (from a.d. 1555 to 1604) ; whilst the earliest author who wrote in the Urdu 
dialect is the poet Wali, who flourished so recently as the middle of the seventeenth 
century— two himdred and thirty-seven years after ShayW^ Mali, Tusufri, in a.d. 
1417, wrote the ^* History of his tribe and their conquests in the Peshawer Valley, 
and in the Sama'h or Plain, on the northern bank of the Landdaey Sind or Kabul 
Eiver." This is the earliest work I have been able to discover ; but, of course, it must 
not for a moment be inferred that previous to this there was no Pu^to literature. 
On the contrary, Akhund Darwezah mentions in his work entitled ''Tazkirat-ul- 
Abarar," written in Persian, that in his time there was a celebrated book entitled 
jSj^ " The Pure," which had been in the possession of the Tusufris for some cen- 

• ELPHUiSToini's "Caubul." 


turics past, and was ever held in great veneration by the tribe. Another history in 
Puahto was written by Khan Kaju, Rarmizi, in the year 1494 a.d. ; and a himdred 
years before we meet with a single work in Urdii, Akhiind Darwezah, wrote 
his ^^Makhzan Pushto," in refutation of the tenets of the Eo^anian sect of 
schismatics, promulgated by its founder Bayazid Ansari, and contained in a 
work entitled ^^ E3iair-nl-By-an." In this very work the Akhiind refers to the 
Pushto authors who had preceded him ; and, therefore, it is plain that the Pushto 
had been in existence as a written language several centuries before the Urdu 
dialect was formed. That the Pu^to is a very ancient tongue cannot be doubted. 

Other dialects sprung up about the same time as the Urdu— the Guzarattl, and 
the languages of the Dakhan— which have largely drawn on Persian and Arabic, 
but without forming a new language. 

What has been chiefly urged with regard to the similarity of idiom between the 
two languages is, that the past tenses of transitive verbs, both Pushto and Urdu, 
are governed by the objective case ; but in the latter, together with the Maratti, 
Guzarattl, and other cognate dialects of the Sanskrit family, the particle J (n«)— in 
Sanskrit mr or in— proving their Indian origin, immediately follows, or is affixed to 
the nominative or noun denoting the agent^ which, if not the first or second personal 
pronoun, is inflected, if capable of inflection. The verb, however, is made to agree with 
the object in gender and number — quite contrary to the foregoing rule — ^provided the 
object be, as is most usual, in the nominative case. When, however, the object is 
placed in the oblique case, or is not a word but a member of the sentence, the verb 
must then he used invariablg in the third person masculine singtdar* There is, like- 
wise, but one form of personal pronoun in the Urdii. 

Pushto, on the other hand, has no such particle whatever as J ; and it has no 
less than four classes of pronouns — the two first, prefixed personal, that may or may 
not be used with the verbs ; and affixed personal, which have no meanings apart from 
the verbs, and correspond to the Semitic dialects, the Pehlavi, and modem Persian, 
and in which respect the Sindhian language also agrees. With regard to the two 
other classes of pronouns, one is used with the past tenses of transitive verbs in the 
active voice, to denote the agentj and has no signification separate from the verbs. 
With any other than transitives, the construction entirely changes, and the pronouns 
then point out the object or the possessive case. The other class is a mere pronominal 
affix, and is alone used, both with transitives and intransitives, to denote the obfeet 
in a sentence, and in the formation of the compound infinitives, of which there are 
several in Pu^to. 

The past tenses of Pu^to transitives, contrary to Urdii, must invariably agree 
with the object both in gender, number, and person, the agent being in the instru- 
mental case ; and to this rule there is no exception whatever. These rules again 

* See Shaxebfbab'b Hnn>u8TAjri Grammab," p. 44. 


hold good in regard to the imperfect tense in Puahto, which, according to the canons 
of the Semitic dialects, is a past tense, whilst in Urdu and the Hindu languages of 
its class, it is precisely contrary, for with it the particle J cannot be used. In all 
other instances than those mentioned, the verb, in Pushto, whether transitive or 
intransitive, is governed by the agent in the nominative. 

Pu^to, like the Arabic, Hebrew, and other dialects of the Semitic, together 
with the Pehlavi, Persian, Turkish, and Sindhian, has but two genders — ^the 
masculine and feminine. In the Pushto and Semitic languages the purely feminine 
nouns have a different termination, and others are formed from masculines by adding 
peculiar terminations. In this matter Urdu agrees in a measure ; but, save in the 
case of Arabic nouns adopted into Urdu, those affixes do not assimilate. The 
Pehlavi, Persian, and Turkish languages, again, have no difference in termination 
whatever for gender ; whilst, on the other hand, the Sanskrit family of languages, 
as well as the Zand, have a neuter gender as well. The Semitic, Sanskrit, and 
Zand have three numbers — singular, dual, and plural; whilst Pu^to, Pehlavi, 
Persian, Turkish, Sindhian, and Urdii or Hindustani have no dual. The feminine 
terminations in Pu^to are four : first— i (ha-i-khafi) olh (the same as the Arabic 
tiSam^ and the Hebrew and Chaldaik n ' A), which becomes ^ {M-i-maj-hul) or ey in 
the plural, and which may also be written in Pushto with simple (— ) fat-hdh or i ; 
second— 4^ i, which becomes ^ a^l in the plural ; third— j^ a\ which is both singular 
and plural; and fourth— 1 a, also singular and plural in the Eastern dialect, but 
takes v^j wi in the Western. These, in their construction, have no connection 
with Urdii. 

The Pushto pronouns bear no similarity whatever with those of the Sanskrit 
fEunily of languages, but they have a great affinity to those of the Semitic dialects, 
and to the Pehlavi, Persian, and Sindhian, which are aU applied and used in such 
a manner as to show a decided and undoubted affiliation between them. 

The Pu^to verbs are exceedingly irregular, and the infinitives, without excep- 
tion, terminate in either J, Jjj, or J^, which exhibit no similarity whatever to 
Sanskrit and its cognates, and are as wide apart from the Urdu infinitive termina- 
tion U as the West is from the East. 

I have only mentioned here the most glaring differences. A glance at my 
Grammar will show that, although Pushto bears a great and remarkable similarity 
to the Semitic and Iranian languages on numerous points, it is totally different in 
oonstruotion, and in idiom also, from any of the Indii-Sanskrit dialects. With the 
Sclavonic and Tartarian tongues I have no acquaintance, and therefore am unable 
to state whether any affibaity exists between them. The Circassian, in the matter 
of words, shows not the most remote resemblance. 

After mature consideration, I am inclined to conclude — ^from the great affinity 
I have shown to exist between the Pushto and the Semitic and Iranian dialects ; 



from the numerous traditions on the subject; from the Levitical customs still 
prevalent amongst the Afghans, after the lapse of twenty-five centuries from the 
Jewish captivity ; from their great and decided difference in feature from any 
other people ; from their stubbornness and treachery, even towards each other ; 
from their acuteness in matters of trade and their love of gain; and from the 
numerous proofs we possess of their having gradually advanced from the west of 
Asia, — that the Afghans are a remnant of the lost tribes of Israel. They have, 
as was inevitable, adopted numerous words and idioms from the languages spoken 
in the countries into which their Mranderings and sojoumings led them ; and the fact 
that these countries are, for the most part, mountainous, and inhabited by a variety 
of tribes continually separating into smaller clans, none of them, however, possessing 
facilities of communication with foreigners, will at once account for the peculiarities 
noticeable in the language. One link is, however, wanting to prove satis£Eiotorily 
their Israelitish descent, and that is — the proof that the Afghans bore Jewish names 
before they became converts to Islam. 

On the other hand again, the peculiarities of the Pushto verbs and pronouns, 
together with some other characteristics, would seem to indicate that it is a peculiar 
and very ancient original language, different from any other known tongue. But 
it must be considered that, even in these days of steam and electricity, Europeans— 
with the exception of the Eussians, who are far in advance of all others, andf 
foster instead of treating coldly such researches— are quite in the dark with regard 
to many countries, peoples, and languages of Central Asia, particularly with respect 
to those immediately north and east of the Panjab, on the slopes and in the valleys 
of the stupendous range of Hindu Kush,* and the more central parts of Afj^anistan. 
When these shall have been explored by Europeans, additional light may be 
thrown on the subject. It is highly probable, that many of the Jewish tribes, 
particidarly those dwelling in the eastern parts of Judea, after their return ft^m 
the land of the Pharoahs, by degrees, engrafted on and mixed up with their 
own,t many words and idioms of the dialects spoken in Palestine amongst the 
Ammonites, Moabites, and other aboriginals of the Promised Land, and which, 
probably, are the basis of the Pushto, mixed up with the dialects of the countries 
the Afj^ans passed through, and in which they tarried, in their wanderings, before 
they reached their present coimtry.J 

My humble opinion and convictions I have stated unreservedly : the decision 

« See my " Notes on KAFimsTAiTy and AccoTint of the SI'ah-fobh T&ibes/' ** Journal of the Aiiatic Society of Bengal," 
for 1869, p. 317. 

t In the same manner the Hindustani and MnltSnl Afghans of the prewnt day speak the language of their adopted 
country, and have lost their mother tongue. 

I When Cyrus gave them (the Jews) their liberty, with leare to go back into Judsea and rebuild the temple, they did 
not all return, nor at ons time. There was a great number that stayed at Babylon and in all places where they were settled ; 
and they that came back wore not all Jews : some few of the ten tribes joined themselyes to them, and yet they made but a 
small number altogether." — ^Abbb Fleubt's " Angxemt Ib&aslxtbs." 


of the point may be left for the learned of Europe, who will be able to bring to 
bear on it a profound knowledge of Hebrew and of other dead languages of 
Western Asia, necessary for the solution of such a question. * 

The difficulties that have hitherto existed, in the want of books available to 
all, both in India and in Europe, have now, I trust, been removed through my 
humble labours, the residt of which I submit, with due deference, to the learned 
Orientalist and to the Public generally. I woidd fain believe that I have rescued 
firom oblivion, and thrown considerable light upon, an ancient and imique language, 
which has not hitherto received the attention it deserves from Oriental scholars, 
and which has been also greatly neglected by the Afghans themselves, owing to 
the never-ceasing civil dissensions of which their country has been the theatre 
during the last eighty years ; but whose cultivation and study it is incumbent on 
the British Government, and on those interested in the preaching of the Gospel, 
to foster and promote by every means in their power. To the English Government 
I would say, that there is only one course open to them, if they desire not to leave 
a clear field to the Bussians in Central Asia, as they have hitherto done. 

It appears most astonishing that persons who have had no opportunity of becom- 
ing practically, and, too often, not even theoretically, acquainted with a language — 
who do not even know the correct prommciation of its letters ; and who are altogether 
ignorant whether it be a written or a colloquial tongue, — should venture to put forth 
their opinions— often very decidedly— with regard to its origin and its affinity to 
other tongues, of which they may be equally ignorant. Yet we often find such 
presumption (I can call it by no milder term), as in the case of a traveller, who, 
whatever his acquirements in Hebrew, was not, that I can discover, acquainted 
with Pu^to, or had ever seen a book in that language. I refer more particularly 
to the following extract from a little work entitled "The Afj^ans the Kings 
of the East," in which the author very pertinently remarks: ^^Dr. Wolflf does 
not tell us that he imderstood Pushto, and we presmne he did not, as we learn 
from Sir Alexander Bumes that ^the language of the Afj^ans is Persian, (!) but 
not the smooth and elegant tongue of Iran.' f It is on this language that Dr. 
Wolff is so decisive. A residence of thirty-four days in Afghanistan woidd not 
appear to afford time sufficient to make much acquaintance with a language, 
strange to all other nations, and confined to the most illiterate portion of a rude 
popidation." :{: 

* For other infonnataon respecting the Afn^Sns and the tradition of their descent, see the Inthoduction to the 

t Bj which absurd and incorrect statement, Bumes proTed himself to have been acquainted with neither the one nor the 
o&er of these languages. 

X I must, however, correct this last rery erroneous statement bj the author of '* The Af||^3ns the Sj'ngs of the East." 
Poshto is no more '* confined to the most illiterate portion of a rude population" than English itself. All Af^Sns speak 
Po^to, iHiich is their mother tongue ; and eyen in the families of the SadozT kings, and in the dwelling of the Amir, Dost 
Mu]|>ammad Ehfin, at the present day, Pushto is always spoken. Persian is only the official language of the country, as 
regards correspondence, as it was in India, until rery recently. ^ 


Dr. Wolff then proceeds to give specimens of Afj^an words, taken partly from 
the Afghans themselves, and partly from Elphinstone's '^ Caubul." In a foot-note he 
says, "j^l 4ight,'* is the only Hebrew word I found in the Afj^iui tongue'^ — 
every word of which we must presume he had heard without exception. Again ho 
says : ^' The construction of the Pushto Grammar (of which none then existed in 
any European language, and never did in Pushto itself) differs entirely from that of 
the Hebrew." These words would imply a complete acquaintance with Pushto 
(acquired without books or teachers, by instinct or by miracle, in the space of 
thirtf^'four days !). This is more than we would infer as to the former, since the 
specimens were, it seems, picked up in conversation with the Afj^ans themselves, 
or from Mr. Elphinstone's Vocabulary ! 

The above is ridiculous enough in all conscience ; but another instance, to 
which I must also refer, beats even this in absurdity. There is a work lately 
published, under the name of ^Barnes' Philological Grammar,' t as a help(?) to the 
grammars of all languages, in which Hindiistani or Urdu is quoted as Persian, and 
Persian as Hindiistani and Arabic, and vice versa ; and totally incorrect as to pro- 
nunciation in the most painful degree. I quote a few specimens at random. For 
example : pp. 68-69, referring to patronymics, the author states — 

" These compounds are found also in Celtic languages and in Persian, Hindoostanee, etc. 

Irish — Idim-dta, hand-god, i.e., teraph or household-god. 

Persian— ^Ywwton, fairy-land ; gulzar, rose -bed. 

Hindoostanee — niahan-burdar, standard-bearer ; ghorasal, horse-place, i.e., a stable." 

Now nishan-lardar is not Hindustani, it is piux) and unadulterated Persian ; 
nishan being the active participle of ^juJUj 'to mark, delineate, to fix in the 
ground,' etc., and harddr the active participle of ^^---'j^ 'to take up, to carry, 
to bear.' The other word put forth as Hindustani is pure Sanskrit, from ^Jt^^ 
'a horse,' and 7n?rT 'a place,' 

Again at p. 79 we find— 

" Hindoostanee — beetaw, son ; beetai, daughter." 

How it must affect the risible faculties of any one who has resided in India, to 
sec the state to which the author of ' A Help to the Grammars of all Languages ' has 
brought these unfortunate words ! A glance at any dictionary of the Hindustani 
language would have shown him that the pronunciation of l2-j, 'a son,' is be-ta or 
bey- fa (I give two systems of orthography), and^JLo, 'a daughter,' be-ti or bey-tee. 

Again at page 80 — 

*' Persian — sheer-i-nur, lion, a he-Kon. 

Hindoostanee — nur-gaoo, bull, he-bullock ; madah-gaoo, cow, she-bullock.'* 

*jy aor is pire, not liffht^ in the Po^to language. JiasL tA^ly too, applied to the BubdiTiBionB of a clan, is a Hehrsir 
word ifp^T]) ; and many others conld be named, 
t Smith, Soho Square, London, 1854. 


The Persian for lion is sher (with yd-i-maj-hui)^ not sheer ^ as in the work in question, 
which gives the sound of yd-i-nrnce-ruf^ equivalent to shtr^ which is the Persian for 
milk. J) with the vowel point -^ (short a) nar, not with -^ (short u) nur^ signifies 
'male,' 'masculine.' As regards the so-called Hindustani nur-gaoo^ nar is Persian 
and Sanskrit also, and jlf gdw (with wdw-umaj-hul^ not yaoo (equivalent to ya-u with 
wdW'%-ma(B'rlif) is Persian^ and ^ in Sanskrit. 

The foregoing will be sufficient, I should imagine, to show that persons should 
be sure they are right, before publishing their opinions, and wUl add force to the words 
of Baron William Humboldt with regard to researches into the affinity of languages — 
" If we would make ourselves acquainted with the relation between two languages, 
we ought to possess a thorough and profound knowledge of each of them. This is 
the principle dictated alike by common sense and by that precision acquired by the 
habit of scientific research. ... I only insist on it that we shoidd not prescribe 
to ourselves arbitrary limits, and imagine that we are forming our judgment on a 
firm basis while in reality it is insufficient." * 

These specimens will serve to show the utter foUy and loss of precious time in 
attempting to study Oriental languages, beyond the mere elements, at home, imless 
the teachers and professors employed have qualified themselves by study and 
residence in the countries where the languages they profess to teach are spoken. 

I must now mention the sources from whence the materials of the present work 
have been derived, and the assistants who have aided me in my labours. 

This work includes the result of my own researches during the last twelve years, 
together with the whole of the words contained in the very rare, though not extensive, 
lexicographical works existing on the Pushto language — the -ffiaja'ib-ul-Lu^at 
(* Curiosities of Language') of Nawwab Allah Tar Khan, of the Barech tribe, and the 
Ei'az-ul-Mahabbat (' Gardens of Friendship') by Nawwab Hafiz Mahabbat Khan, — 
both explained in Persian ; the whole of which have, whenever the slightest doubt 
or variation existed, been tested and compared, and submitted to learned Afj^ans, 
both in the eastern and western parts of Afghanistan, as well as to other persons 
of various tribes ; in fact, to all whose assistance I could command, and they have 
not been a few. 

During the whole time I had the valuable assistance of a Molawi of the Ghalzi 
tribe, located in central Afj^anistan in the district around Khelat-i-Ghalzi, and 
whose father was for some time KazI of the city of Kandahar, in which office the 
Molawi, who is better acquainted with Pushto, both theoretically and practically, 
than any other man I ever saw or heard of, assisted. His profound knowledge of 
Arabic — the foundation of all Muhammadan languages — and without which the situa- 
tion of K?izi in the western capital of Af gh anistan could not have been held, together 

• « 

Ak EaaAT on the bbst means of asce&taiking the Affinities qf Oriental Lanouaqes." 


with the fact of his possessing no mean poetical powers, rendered him peculiarly 
fitted for a task of this kind, in which many works had to be examined and collated. 
I also had for many years the valuable aid of a very clever old Akhundzadah 
of the Muhammadzi tribe, resident in the Pe^awer district, who is well acquainted 
with Arabic and with his mother tongue, and has resided at various times amongst 
almost every Afj^an tribe, particularly those of Bajawir, Panjkorah, Suwat, and 
Buner — the most northern portions of Afj^anistan — the population of which, at the 
present day, speak Pushto in its greatest purity, and display the peculiarities of 
their nation in more perfection than others of their race. The greater number of 
authors who have written in the Pushto language, indeed all who have obtained 
any celebrity, have belonged almost exclusively to the tribes inhabiting the districts 
round about the Peshawer valley. 

I have thus, with the native assistance referred to, been able to render all three 
works — the Dictionary, the Text-Book, and the Grammar— equally subservient to 
the study of both the Eastern and Western dialects, which diflfer only with regard to 
a few minor peculiarities, and certainly not more than the difference of locality might 
lead us to expect — the Eastern containing several pure Sanskrit terms, but generally 
used in poetry as a play on some other word — ^whilst the Western has more 
Pei-sian in proportion, and differs in the pronunciation of four letters, which in 
the latter have been softened down. These are: ^ Wnn (E.), shey (W.); CJ gaf 
(E.), ^ M^y (W-) ; J ^ey (E.), *. dzey (W.) ; and ^ jim (E.), j jzey (W.) 

The derivations of all words, which have been adopted from, or can be traced 
to, the Semitic, Iranian, or Sanskrit family of languages, have been generally shown. 
Another peculiar feature of this Dictionary — which the experience I have gained 
from the study of a number of Oriental languages has led me to adopt — is, that 
the plural form of each noun is given, together with the Class or Declension to 
which it belongs, as arranged in my Grammar of the Pushto language — a second 
and improved edition* of which has been issued, imiform in size and style with 
the present work, and with the Selections Prose and Poetical, before referred to, 
which forms a complete Text-Book of the Afj^an language and literature. 

The greatest difficulty in the path of the student in this language, is the con- 
jugations of the verbs, which are complex from their great irregularities, and the 
number of classes they resolve themselves into. To obviate this intricacy, the 
third persons masculine singular of the present, past, and future tenses; the 
imperative mood ; the active and past participles, also used as nouns and adjec- 
tives ; and the verbal nouns, which are of constant use, have been given under 
each infinitive, both according to the Eastern and Western pronunciation, where 

* The first edition wa« unfortanately published at Calcutta, and consequently allowance should be made for numerous 
typographical errors (although revised three times) of Indian presses, for everything Indian is just one century behind 
that which is European, in e?«ry respect. 


difference exists, except in a few instances of those verbs which are derived from 
adjectives, and whose conjugations are according to the same rules, one model 
serving for all. With this aid, and reference to the Grammar and the rules therein 
laid down, the conjugations will be found simple enough. 

The Arabic and Persian words of common use in the language at present, and 
those of constant occurrence in religious writings, and for which there are often no 
equivalents in Pushto, have been included in this work — ^indeed they could not 
well have been left out ; but, as the extent of the use of Arabic and Persian, 
depends on the taste and learning of the different authors, I should have greatly 
increased the bulk of the work without giving a corresponding advantage, if I had 
included all the words which may be used, in poetry in particular. The student, 
however, will be able to refer, if necessary, to the Dictionary of those languages 
for words of more rare occurrence. I have not alluded generally to the Hebrew 
and Chaldaik words, because the whole of their roots, so used, are common to the 
Arabic and other cognate dialects of the Semitic, from whence they have, in all 
probability, crept into Pushto, as in the languages of all Muhammadans, through the 
Muhammadan religion. 

The system of orthography adopted, and also used by Kichardson and Shakspear in 
their Persian and Arabic, and Hindustani Dictionaries, is that of Sir William Jones,* 
— ^than which there is no other nearly so capable of giving the correct sound of 
Oriental words, — ^together with other combinations according to the same rules, to 
suit the letters and soimds peculiar to the Pu^to, the whole of which will be foimd 
explained in the body of the work at the commencement of each letter, and which, 
with regard to ^ , > , and ^ , should bo particularly attended to, on account of the 
number of uses to which they are applicable. 

The short vowels are written as simple a, i, and w, which are equivalent in 
sound to short a in marine^ or the initial vowel in the word America ; short i in pin ; 
and short u in bull. The letters !, ^, and ^^, used as the long vowels, denominated 
4-Jjjyi^ {ma(B-ruf\ or * known, ^ are distinguished by a dash over them ; as 5 in the word 
father ; i in machine ; and U in rule. The two latter letters, when not preceded by 
either of the short vowels, are termed Jjfsr^ {maj-hul\ or * unknown,* and may then 
be considered consonants, and will be found written, the ^ as o in the word no or 
rose^ or ow in flow and blow ; and the v^ as ^ in hell^ in French le^ or ey in they 
or obey. The other modifications of the latter letter, peculiar to^ Pu^to, will be 
found in the body of the work under its proper head. 

When the initial letter \ has the mark ^ {madd) over • it, it then conveys the 
soimd of long a in dlh Another vowel peculiar to Pushto — and not to be found in 
any other Eastern language, that I am aware of — ^partaking of the sounds of short a 

* with the exception of the aotmd of Arabic f, which I haye written a with the vowels used with it, as giving a more 
correct definition of its sound. 


and i combined, but somowhat shortened, has been written ce^ as being the nearest 
possible approach to its true sound, which can only be perfectly acquired from an 
Afghan mouth. 

The initial capital letters before words, refer to the languages to which they 
belong ; thus, a Arabic, p Persian, h Hebrew, c Chaldaik, plv Pehlavi, s Sanskrit, 
o Greek, t Turkish. Words which are found in Urdu as well as in Pushto, and 
probably taken from the latter, have, for the reasons mentioned at page xv, been 
marked by way of distinction hi. Pure Pushto words are unmarked. 

The abbreviations for parts of speech and grammatical terms are those common 
to all Dictionaries. The letters W. and E., inserted in parentheses after words, refer 
respectively to the Western and Eastern pronunciation, and sometimes indicate that 
they are used exclusively in those two divisions of Afghanistan. 

The types peculiar to the Pushto alphabet have been cut expressly for this and 
the other works. 

H. G. R. 

London, 16th July, 1860. 




1 alif is the first letter of the Pushto, as also 
of the Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, and other 
oriental alphabets ; and its powers are pre- 
cisely the same as in those languages, with 
which the student of Pushto is supposed 
to be in some measure acquainted. The 
Afghan authors do not make much difference 
between \ and (-^i.), and they are oft^n inter- 
changed one for the other, particularly in 
the vocative case. According to the Arabian 
system of substituting letters for figures, 
known as the al^ady the letter \ stands for 
'one.' Placed between two nouns, as in the 
Persian, it denotes continuity, conjunction, or 
proximity ; as, }^\s^ rimyha-muyh, Face to 
face; i;^ \L,j^,wradzd'WradZy Every day. 

A u-?l ab, s.m. (9th) Father, master, possessor. 
Sing, and PI. See jlb 

P ^-/T di, s.m. (9th) Water; character, honor, 
reputation, lustre, etc. Sing, and PI. It is only 
used in composition ; as, c->jl ^ c->T db-o- 

T db'i- 

adab, Courtesy, politeness ; ^\^ 


kaiwdn, or c^L^- s-M db4-]kaiydt, The water 
of life or immortality; ^j ^JT db-rUy or 
1^^ c-jT db-m-e, The water of the face; 
reputation, renown, honor, lustre; or ^ j 
«-JT da makk db ; J^ 1-^T ^ be dba kawul, 
verb trans. To dishonor, to disgrace, to 
lower in the estimation of another ; IJT ^ 
fjj^ be dba kedal, verb intrans. To become 
dishonored or disgraced. 

\i\ aba, A word of endearment to a father. 

A \j\ ibd, s.f. (6th) Denial, refusal. (E.) Sing, and 
PI. (W.) PI. ^J^\i\ ibdwl, J^ M ibd kawul, 
verb trans. To refuse, to deny ; or Jj^)^ \i\ 
ibd rd'W^rral, 

A ioM abd'bakr, otJj^\ abU-bakr, s. prop. The 
name of the first Khallfah. 

A J-jM abd'bil, s.m. (2nd) The swallow. PL 
«)GJuj^' abdrbtlUnah. • 

A ^p^V^ abd'lkatl, s.m. (5th) The name of a 
sect of Muhammadans who maintain that the 
law and good works are of no avail. PI. 
^Li^M abdhati-dn. ,^g^Vj\ abdhata'i, s.f. 
(6th) A female of the above sect. Sing, and 
PI. Also called du:;».l)t abd-ttaHa'A. 




J^U aba-Mielf a.m. (6tli) The name of a tribe 
ofAfgh&ns. Sing, and PI. A^XAabdrl^la'h, 
s.f. (Srd) A female of the above. PI. ^ ey. 

p jbT ahady adj. Cultivated, populous, inhabited, 
prosperous, thriving ; (Fem.) *jIjT dbdda!h. 
Jju^ jbT dbad kedal, verb intrans. To be- 
come cultivated, inhabited, prosperous; jUT 
J^ dbdd kawul, verb trans. To cultivate, to 
people, to make or render prosperous. 

P v^v^^T dbddl, s.f. (Srd) or ^Jl jUT dbdddni, s.f. 
(Srd) Population, cultivation, abundance, 
prosperity. PI. ^ a\ See ^J^ and ^jbj 

^j\i\ abdrzl, sjn. (1st) PI. The name of a tribe 
of Afghans. ^^j[)\ abdrzaey, Sing. A male of 
the Aba-zl tribe. ^\\)\ abd-zaX s.f. (6th) A 
female of the above. Sing, and PL 

^Ji>JJ\ abdrsln, or Jlju^i Ul abd-slnd, s. prop. 
The Father of Rivers— the Afj^an name for 
the Indus (from a W 'father', and B ^^^ or 
jcmi^ 'a river'). 

A \jcj^ ibtidd, s.f. (6th) Beginning, conmience- 
ment. (E.) Sing, and PI. (W.) PI. c/^1jcj^ 
ibtiddrwl. Jj^ IjcjI ibtidd kawul, verb trans. 
To begin, to commence. 

A^i abtar, adj. Ruined, spoiled, worthless; 
dissolute, wanton (from^ destitute of a tail ; 
H THl cut short) ; (Fem.) ij:j\ abtaroHh ; 
^f j^y dbtar kanml, verb trans. To spoil, to 
ruin. Seeyjl 

^c^\ abtcun, s.f. (Srd) Worthlessness, wanton- 
ness. PI. ^ a!u 

A jjI ahad, s.m. (9th) Eternity, without end. 
Sing, and PL jj^ ^3 tah abada, 3j\ J tar 
abada,jy Joly tah abadapori, or i^jy^ pari, 
For ever and ever, to all eternity. 

Tj\jS\ dbddr, adj. Watery^ moist. 2. Glancing 
as a gem or sword. 8. Sharp, dazzling ; (Fem.) 
2^1jl'T dbddrcHK 

A J^J^^ ohdJdLy s.m. (5th) A saint, a devotee. 
PL ^11 Jjl abddldn. 

^\s)\ abddtiy s.m. (1st) PL The name of one 
of the great divisions or septs of the Af- 
ghans, of which Ahmad Shah, the first king 
of Afgh&nistftn, was the hereditary chieftain. 

^\jj^ abddlaey, Sing. A male of the above. 

^t Jut abddlaX s.f. (6th) A female of the tribe. 

Sing, and PL Also written ^Jb^\ and Jj^^, 

which see. 
A ^jj\ abadi or ^\j^\ abadan, adj. Eternal, 

without end. 
p^U^,s.m. (9th) Clouds. Sing.andPL See^j^^^ 

A.j\j)\ atrdr, adj. (s. PL a) Holy, just, pious. 

A ^\;i\ ibrdhlm, s. prop. The patriarch Abra- 
ham. 2. A man's name. 

V ^ji\ ab-rU, s.m. (5th) The eyebrow. PL ^^Vj/' 
ab-rU-^n. See ^^j 

p ^ji\ db-ru, s.m. (9th) Honour, reputation, 
character, renown, good name. Sing, and PL 
J^y jijf\ db-rU tchf/awul, verb trans. To 
disgrace, to dishonor, to take away one's 
character or reputation. J^j^ ^^ db^rU fvar- 
kanml, verb trans. To honor, to treat with 
respect or distinction. 

p ij)\ abra% s.f. (Srd) The outer cloth of a 
double garment. 2. A small shawl worn 
round the waist. PL ^ ey. 

^j\ ub-rraX s.f. (6th) Green vegetation at the 
bottom of pools or cisterns. Sing, and PL 

p jLuoT db'shdr, s.m. (2nd) A cascade, a cata- 
ract, a waterfall. PL ajj^^lioT db-shdrUnah. 

A fjA dbik, s.m. (5th) A runaway slave. PL 
^UjT dbikdn. dM\ dbika'h, s.f. (Srd) The 
feminine of the above. PL ^^j ^• 

A iL\ ib'ld^, s.m. (2nd) Informing, converging, 
aiming at, obtaining an end, causing to ar- 
rive, sending. PL djj&h] ib-ldghUnah. ^\ 
Jj^ ib'ldgh kawul, verb trans. To inform, to 
make aware of, to acquaint. 

Jj^ abl, adj. Bare, barefooted, unshod; (Fem.) 
«djl abla'h. ^^ ^\ ab-ley l^pey (E.), or 
^^4j ^\ ableyp^y (W.), Barefooted. See 

A j;1j^ ab'hk, adj. Piebald, black and white, 

party-coloured ; (Fem.) iAi\ ablakcHh. 
CS^\ ablak, adj. (Fem.) ii^j\ abla/ia' A, CormTP^^ 

tion of preceding. 
A ^L\ ablah, adj. Foolish, silly, a fool ; (Fenr^ .) 



A^\ ah-laha'h. ^\ alhlahl, s.f. (3rd) Fool- 
ishness, silliness, simplicity. PI. ^ a*u 

A fji^\ tb'lU, s. prop. The devil. 

A ^j)\ ibn, s.m. (9th) A son. Sing, and PI. 

P (jMyjJ db-nos, s.nx. (6th) Ebony. Sing, and PI. 
^^T db-nfua, adj. Made of ebony. 

Ay\ abu, s.m. (9th) Father. Sing, and PI. 
Used as a prefix to proper names ; as J^y\ 
abU'bair, The father-in-law of Muhammad, 
and his successor. 

p t— >b^T ab-o-tdb, or s^bT db-tdb, s.m. (2nd) 
Splendor, lustre, honor. PI. ^y\3j)\ db-o- 
tdbUnah, or iJj>^J db-tdbUnah. c-^li^T ^ 
J^ bey db-o-tdba kanml, verb trans. To dis- 
grace, to dishonor, to lower. 

P ^T dr-bi, or ^\ abi, adj. Watery, blue- 
coloured. 2. Moist, aqueous. 

^\ aba% A tide of endearment for a mother. 
See ^^Si 

A ci^UUi^a^jS. (PI. of ci^-wjj) Houses. 2. Verses. 

j^\ ablr, 8.m. (6th) corrup. oij^^) Ambergris. 

Sing, and PI. 
^^jA d-prln, interj. Bravo! well done! 2. 

s.m. (2nd) Praise, applause, approbation. PI. 

AiyjjjT d-prtnUnah. Jj^ crf^^ d-pfln wa-yal, 

verb trans. To praise, to applaud. See ^yT 

s^ALri' cprl-d%y B.m. (1st) PI. The name of a 
tribe of Afgh&ns who are the pest of the 
Peshflwer district. ^^J^yl aprl-daey^ Sing. 
A male of the above tribe. ^S*\>/' apri'da\ 
8.f. (6th) A female of the above. Sing, and 
PI. Also written fc/*X!y ^ 

s^^i\j^\ ci^pas Man^aX s.f. (6th) The game 
of cat and dog, tip-cat. Sing, and PI. 

i^^\ ip-lds, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of a (jJj\) 
Poverty, penury, indigence, bankruptcy. PI. 
ijyAA ip-lds&nah. 

i^i^\ ajhlat, adj. Low, obscene, dirty, filthy; 
(Fem.) isL\ -ap-lata'h. ^j^^ yj^\ ap-latey 
M^^barey, s.f. (3rd) PL Low or obscene lan- 

^jil orpUU^h, adj. Disturbed, troubled ; (Fem.) 
<[y1 a-pUUa'h, 

j\j\ it'bdr, son. (9th) Sunday. Sing, and PI. 

(^jj\ at-rany, s.m. (6th) The name of a plant 
used in dyeing. Sing, and PI. 

p (jIjT d^tash, s.m. (9th) Fire. Sing, and PI. 
Used only in composition, as ^^jU ^^T d-4ash 
bdzl, s.f. (3rd) Fire-works. PI. ^ a'i. ^1 
l::^^ d'tash parast, s.m. (5th) A worshipper 
of fire, a Gabr, one of the Magi, a Parsi. 
PL ,^1=^ (jiufT d'tash'parastdn, <fc;-y ^^T 
d-tash-parasta'h, s.f. (3rd) A female Gabr. 
PL ^2^ ^« fS^ji tAJ'^ d-tash-parastl, a.f. 
(3rd) The worship of fire. PL ^ a\ iju\ 
<0U- d-tasli ldkdna!hf s.f. (3rd) A fireplace; 
the part of a matchlock where the charge is 
placed. PL ^ ey, a^ ^J^jl d-tash kada*k, 
s.f. (3rd) A grate, a fireplace ; a temple of fiare- 
worshippers. PL ^^ ey. See jj\ 

p (JXuJT d'tashak, s.m. (9th) The venereal 
disease. Sing, and PL 

VjJ (jUT d'tash yJr, s.m. (6th) Tinder. Sing, 
and PL 

p ^<*tJT d-tashl, adj. Fiery, hot, irascible ; sen- 

<Uk^ ^J^\ drtas^l shlshcCh (W.) or J^tlWioHh 
(E.) s.f. (3rd) A burning glass. PL ^ ey, 
(p iJu^) 

A )o\ju\ iti'cedZf s.m. (9th) Admonition, ad- 
vice, admonishing, receiving admonition. 
Sing, and PL J^ )ff\ju\ iti-ad:^ kuwul, verb 
trans. To admonish, to advise. 

A jUj\ ittarfdky s.m. (2nd) Concord, agree- 
ment, agreeing, consenting. PL iUy liJi itta- 
faJcUnah. }ij^ jUjl <u pah iUa-fak sarah, 
By chance, accidentally ; or UUji ittarfakan. 
Jju^ jU7l ittorfdk kedal, verb intrans. To 
happen, to befal ; to be agreed. J^ jUjl 
ittorfdlc kawul, verb trans. To agree, to con- 
sent, to concur ; to conspire ; to happen. 

A ^^\ itta-^kl, adj. Accidental,^ casual, for- 
tuitous, 2. Agreeing, concurring. 

A \Jj\ at'jkd, adj. More, or most pious. 

A iLff itti'kd, B.f. (6th) Leaning against, re- 




clining upon, trusting to, confiding in. (E.) 
Sing, and PI. (W.) PI. ^^\ij\ itti-kawi. \ij\ 
J^ itti'kd kawul, verb trans. To trust to, to 
confide in. 

^jjj\ at'las, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of A ^jJJ?l), 
Satin. PL JJyJj\ at-lasUnah, 

J\atamj adj. (from <0l eight) The eighth ; (Fem.) 
&Xj\ atama'h. 

A fSAj\ it-mdm, s.m. (9th) Completing, perfect- 
ing, accomplishing. Sing, and PI. J ju^ a^\aj\ 
it-mdm kedal, verb intrans. To become per- 
fected, completed. J^ aUjI it-mdm kawuly 
verb trans. To complete, to perfect, to accom- 

J-^ (j^UjI ut-mdn-yhdy s.m. (6th) The name 
of a tribe of Afghans. Sing, and PI. ^J^\ 
iLj>^ ut-mdn JJ^ela'h, s.f, (3rd) A femde of 
the above. PI. ^ ey. 

^A. j^UjI ut-mdn-d^y s.m. (1st) PI. The name 
also given to the preceding Afghan tribe. 
^j^ j^UjI ut-rmn-dzaey y Sing. A male of the 
tribe. *&.. loUJ^ ut-mdn-dzaX s.f. (6th) A 

female of the above. Sing, and PI. 

jp\ a-tarm. s.m. (2nd) A kind of dance. PI. 
Aj^j3\ a-tarrnUnah. Also written ^Jj\ . j^\ 
Jj5^ a-tarrn wahal, or J^T ^' a-tavrn 
dchawuly verb trans. To dance the a-tarrn. 

B jly\ it-wdr, s.m. (9th) Sunday. Sing, and PI. 

(^jj\ a-tub, s.m. (2nd) A dish made firom flour, 
sugar, and butter. PI. ijy,y\ a-tubunah. 

j^yl ato-zl, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of an Af- 
ghan tribe, ^^jyl ato-zaey. Sing. A male of 
the tribe. ^y\ ato-za% s.f. (6th) A female 
of the above. Sing, and PI. 

<0'1 a-tahy adj. Eight; w\ ataniy The eighth; 
(Fem.) iUJl atamaHh. ^jj «01 a-tah-laSy 
Eighteen; ^^^i-^juUj <c1 Ortah-wlshty Twenty- 
eight; \J^ji*^ ^^ a-tah-dersh, Thirty-eight; 
l::^4j^ i3\ a-tah-taal^esht (W.) or trnl- 
weWit (E.) Forty-eight; ^^^ AjI a-tah- 
fln-dzoSy Fifty-eight; <fcu--l <G\ a-tah-shpe- 
tah, Sixty-eight ; \i^\^\ a-tah-aw-yd, Seventy- 
eight; Lj\ dj\ a-tahat-ydy Eighty-eight; aj\ 
,jr^ a-tah nawi, Ninety-eight. 

Lj\ at-ydy adj. Eighty; wUst at-ydyam. The 
eightieth ; (Fem.) ^IJl at-ydyama'h. 

Jljl a-tfa/, adj. Unemployed, out of place; 
(Fem.) iJljl OrUdla'h. 

CSi\ altaky s. prop. The name of a town on the 
Indus, the river Indus. (From hi {1SS\ hin- 
derance, bar, obstruction.) 

HI Jijl aU-kal, s.m. (2nd) Guess, conjecture, 
judgment. PI. ^^\ att-kalunah Jjliji a#- 
kalawuly verb trans. To guess, to conjecture, 
to judge, to think, to estimate. Pres. 4/^!^' 
aU-kalawl ; past if^'i^\ J wu-aU-kaldtvuk or 
^jKj^ J ^u-<itt'k<^^o ; fdt. i/^i^^ lO J «:m 
bah ait-kala?vl ; imp. ijlijl J wu-att-kalawaJt ; 
act. part. ,j^ji^^ ait-kalawUnkaey 01 ^^^^ 
att-kalawUnaey ; past part, ^jl^' aU-kala- 
wulaey ; verb. n. ^Ojlijl aU-kulawuna'h, 

<g\ atta'A, s.f. (3rd) A ball or reel of thread or 
cotton ; a hank or skein of thread or silk. PI. 
^ ey. Also written iJi\ aite-a'h and i^\ 
atteh-ahy which see. 

J[;^\ aUe-rdn, s.m. (2nd) A reel for winding 
silk, thread, cotton, etc. PI. <Oy|^l aUe- 

^}J^\ aUe-raly verb intrans. To trouble with in- 
digestion ; to make dyspeptic. Pres. t^j^\ 
aUe-rl ; past Sj^\ J wu aUe-rah ; fut. <u j 
^c^^ wu bah atte-H ; imp. *^\ J wu-atte- 
rah; act. part, ^jioj^l atterUnkaey or 
Lc^jt/^^ dtte-runaey 'y past part. ^^^^ «S^- 
ralaey ; verb. n. <0^^ aUe-rana'h. See (J^' 

^J^^ aUe-raheyy adj. (past part.) Undigested, 
crude, dyspeptic. 2. A person troubled with 
dyspepsia ; (Fem.) ^}J^\ aUe-rali. PI. (Masc. 
and Fem.) ^^ f. See ^j-^^ 

AJy-3^ aUe-rana'hy s.f. (3rd) Indigestion, dyspep- 

sia. PI. i°i 


See -ui^ 

i^\ aite-cHhy s.f. (3rd) A ball or ijeel of thread or 

cotton, a hank or skein of thread or silk. PI. 

i^ aUeh-a'hy s.f. (3rd) A ball or reel of thready 

etc. See preceding. PL ^^ ey. 
A iJLs\Jj\ isrbdty s.m. (2nd) Confirming, corrolx^ ^ 

rating. 2. Confirmation, proof, afltenatio^:^. 




PI. iUyUl k'bdtUnah. Jju^ ^lj\ i^-bat 
kedal OP J Ju-rf; CL?L}1 ^ joaA i^-bat rasedal, 
verb intranB. To become corroborated, con- 
firmed, proved. J^ lzjLj\ i^-bdt kawul or 
J^ c:^lJ\ Ai j»aA i§-6a^ rasawul, verb trans. 
To confirm, to corroborate, to prove. See 
j\jj etc. 

A J\ a^ar, s.m. (2nd) A mark, sign, trace, im- 
pression, effect. PI. <0^! a^arUnah. J^ iJl 
a$ar kawul, verb trans. To operate, to take 
effect, to make impression. 

ayl d§-ra'A, s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of B \jJ\), Asylum, 
defence, hope, trust, reliance, refuge, shelter, 
means of defence. PI. ^^ ey. 

di^\ uts-ka'h, s.f. (3rd) Dried grapes, raisins. 
PI. ^ ey. See i^^ 

Jji^^ ataarmaL verb trans. To level, to make 
level, to trim, to make even, to reduce or re- 
move inequalities in anything, to reduce to an 
even surface, to arrange, to place in order, to 
classify, to regulate, to assign places to. 2. To 
long stitch, to baste. 3. To tune, to harmonise, 
to attune, to arrange, to make even. Pres.^j^^l 
atsarml ; past *j3U»\ J wu-atsdrmah ; fut. 
^^j>^ <iu j 72?w bah atsarmi ; imp. ifj^\ J wu 
atsarrnah ; act. part. ^^Joj^^l atmrrnUnkaey 

or ^^J^ atsarmUnaey ; past part. jjJr^^ 
atsarmalaey ; verb. n. «0 j^I atsamiana'h. 

jdj;i.l atmyrnalaey, adj. (past part.) Basted, 

stitched. 2. Tuned, arranged, made even ; 
(Fem.) tir**^ atsarmaU. PI. (Masc. and 
Fem.)|C f. 

A sjL^\pA ijd-bat, s.m. (2nd) Consenting, an- 
swering, complying, compliance, consent. 
PI. <DyyU-\ ijd'batUnah. J^ ^-^^^^^ ija-bat 
kawul, verb trans. To answer, to comply, to 
consent to. 

A aj^pr^ ijdr-ra*h, s.f. (3rd) Hire, rent; income or 
privilege sold or let for a fixed sum. 2. A 
farm, a contract. PL. ^^ ey. j\j ij^\ ijd- 
ra'A-ddr, s.m. (5th) A farmer of land revenue, 
the holder of a monopoly or contract. PI. 
^\j\o ifj\>-\ ijd-ra'h'ddrdn. J^ *;^"^ ijorra'k 
kawul, verb trans. To hire, to rent. ^j\>-\ 

J'Vm-S. T ijd^a^h dMistal, verb trans. To take 
a contract or monopoly. 

A CL?jU-l ijd-zat, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of j^) 
Permission, leave, dispensation, sanction, 
order. PI. <L»yjU-l ijd-zatUnah. cl?jU-1 
Ji*uri-T ijd-zat dMistal, verb trans. To take 
leave, to take permission. Ji*i»^ ^^^"' ij^' 
zat-ghoBttal (E.), or ghoshtal (W.). verb 
trans. To ask leave, to request sanction or 
permission. J^^ uu?jU-l ijd-zat war-kawul, 
verb trans. To grant permission, to give sanc- 
tion or dispensation. 

A.jS^\ ajar, s.m. (2nd) Retribution, reward of 
good or bad actions ; hire, fare, fee. PI. 
4jjl^l ajarunah. J^^^' ^j^^ war-kawul, 
verb trans. To recompense, to reward. 

A ^zj.s>^\ uj-rat, s.m. (2nd) Wages, hire, reward. 
PI. ijyi.s>^\ vj-ratUnah. 

A J^l ajal, s.m. (2nd) The term of life, the 
hour of death ; fate, death. 2. A stated time, 
delay, respite. PI. i^^sA ajalunak. J^*-^ 
ifju^ ajdl rasldah, adj. Overtaken by fate. 
^JjJ ^^\ ajal nl-walacy, adj. Seized by fate, 
in the jaws of death. <)JLj J^l j da ajal 
pi'dfa'h, The cup of fate or destiny. 

A ^U^l ijmdce, s.f. (1st) (inf. iv of ^as>^) An 
assembly, senate, council, a crowd, collection ; 
amount,^ whole. PI. ^U5»^^ ijmdan. 

A JU5j-\ ij-mdl, s.m. (9th) (inf iv of J-«^) An 
abstract, synopsis. Sing, and PI. 

A ^JU^*-^ ij-mdli, adj. Abridged, compendious. 

A ^jwU5»-\ aj-nds, s. pi. of ^j**:^ , which see. 

A ^<-i5»-\ aj-nabi, adj. Foreign, strange, unknown 
(person). See ^^J^ 

<o^\ ajil'bah, s.f. (3rd) Wonder, astonishment, 
miracle, prodigy. PI. ^^ ey. See ^,ys^\ 

p .U-T drhdr, s.m. (6th) Pickles. Sing, and PI. 
\ uchat, adj. Raised, lifted, high, lofty; 
(Fem.) dz^\ uchataHi. ^\^ v::-^^ Uiitat- 
wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Height, altitude, elevation, 
loftiness. PI. J^^ wdU. Jju^ c:^^^ udiat 
kedal, verb intrans. To become raised or ele- 
vated, to become or grow high or lofty. 
J^ c:-s:>-l uijiat kawul, verb trans. To raise, 




to elevate, to render high or lofty. i>£^<>^\ 
J^ u^at nl'wal, verb trans. To hold up, to 
raise on high. See l::-a^j1 

ti^j^^ ucharlaetff s.m. (1st) The forehead, the 
brow. PI. y^ I. Bee ^^^ and y^sjj 

s^}^\ adiak'Zi or i^J^^ atsjokzi, s.m. (Ist) 
The name of an Afghfln tribe, k^}^^^ adtak- 
zaey or ^i^^^ ataakzaey, Sing. A male of 
the above tribe, ^j-^' ad^akza'l or ^1^-^^ 
atsakza% s.f. (6th) A female of the above. 
Sing, and PI. 

J^T dchawul, verb trans. To throw, to cast, 
to fling, to impel, to chuck, to fire off, to 
launch, to let fly, to discharge, to let off, etc. 
Pres. ij^^T d^awl; past *^U-\j wddidtvuh 
or jyU-|^ wd^dwo ; ftit. ^^^ <o \j wd bah 
^aml ; imp. 8^\^ ivddiaTcah ; act. part. 
^jioj^T dchawUnkaey or ^^y>^ ddkawU- 
naey ; past part. y^f>^ ddiawulaey ; verb. n. 
A)^T d^awuna'h. 

^^T ddtawulaey, adj. (past part.) Thrown, 
cast, impelled, let off, discharged, etc. ; (Fem.) 
J^T d^awuli. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^c i. 

^y>-^ u^-wulaey, s.m. (1st) The forehead, the 
brow. PL ^^ f. See ^^^ 

T ddiawunaey, adj. A child brought forth 
before its time; foetus, embryo; (Fem.) 
jo^T d^awuni. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^c i. 

A j^\ dfiad, s.m. (6th) Unity; an unit, one. 
Sing, and PI. 

cL^jI>.\ 4adi§, s.m. (6th) (PI. of vJ^J^) 
Traditions, (particularly) the sayings of Mu- 
hammad. Sing, and PI. 

A 4jIp-1 ihd'ta'h, s.f. (3rd) (inf. iv of ly-) An 
enclosure, a fence, a surrounding ; compass, 
circuit, etc. PI. ^ ey. Jj^ 4?U-^ ilidrta'h 
kawul, verb trans. To enclose, to fence, to 
surround, to besiege, to blockade, to invest. 
2. To comprehend. 

A (.^Lft-1 ah'bdbf s.m. (PI. of c^w».) Lovers, 
beloved friends. 

Aj\j:^\ ifi'tirdZf s.m. (9th) Taking care, ab- 
staining, abstinence, keeping from improper 
actions, forbearance, regimen, controlling one's 

passions. Sing, and PI. i}^ j\^^ i^-tirdz 
kawuly verb trans. To abstain, to forbear, to 
control one's passions. 

A A:jJ< ih-tildm, s.m. (9th) (inf. viii of J^) 
Dreaming ; nocturnal pollution. Sing, and PI. 
See Js^^Ji j^Jj^ and J/ Ikr^ ^J^^ 

A JUa>-^ ilk'timdl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of 
Ja^) Laying on a burden ; bearing, patience. 
2. Possibility, probability. PI. ej^Us^\ ilk- 

A ^l^:^^ ib'tiydj, s.m. (2nd) Necessity, want, 
need, indigence, exigence, occasion. PI. 
ij^\c^\ Hi-tiydjUnoA. 

A ^\^\ ih'tiydt, s.m. (2nd) Care, caution, cir- 
cumspection, foresight. PI. ^Uj^Ls^-f Uk-tiydt^ 

A f^f^S ih-rdm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. rv of mj>^) 
Act of forbidding; putting on a pilgrim's 
habit at a certain distance from Makka ; the 
cloak or mantle alluded to. PI. ^y\j^\ ih- 

A ^L^l ifL-^n, s.m. (2nd) Beneficence, bene- 
volence, favour, kindness, courtesy. PI. 
iOyL^l HksdnUnah. Jj^ ^Um^I ii^sdn 
kawuly verb trans. To confer favor or benefit, 
to oblige, to gratify. 

A f^\L>A ah'kdm, s.m. (6th) (PI. of S^) Orders, 
commands, decrees. Sing, and PI. 

A fjA^\ ah^mak, adj. Foolish, very ignorant; a 
blockhead, a dunce; (Fem.)<(AA»-^ aji-makali. 
^Ju^^\ aft-Tnaki, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ a'l; or 
jdlj fjA^\ aJi-malc wdlaey, s.m. (Ist) Stu- 
pidity, ignorance, doltishness. PI \\^ todrti, 
and i^^ (jA^\ aJt-mak'tob, s.m. (2nd). PI. 
<Gyy tob'Unah. 

A i}\f>'\ ah-wdl, s.m. (6th) PI. of JU.) Events, 
occurrences, state, account, condition^ cir- 
cumstances. Sing, and PL 

A J^t dfjHvaly adj. Squinting, one who squints 
or sees objects double ; (Fem.) ^ ^^ \ aJ^-wMh. 

A ^\ di^, inteij. An exclamation of joy or plear 
sure. Ah! How good! 2. An imitative 
soimd of coughing. ^T ^T aM dH, Well 
done 1 bravo 1 ^j^J dUM or tj^l u^^ 





dMM'&MM, and ^ ^T aM ^^> Oh ! alas ! 
sorrow I 

2f^U.l aMiSrfrahy a.m. (6th) Plastering, bedaub- 
ing; plaster, the plastering of a wall, etc. 
Sing, and PI. See Jr?^*"' 

J^UlT aJsh&rrna% 2nd pers. pi. of imp. of 
JiA«*c^T, ' Take you up,' ' seize you,' etc. It 
is not common. 

iLj\^\ aMrbar, s.m. (2nd) (PI. of^^-cL) News, 
intelligence, a newspaper. PI. ^j^UslI aM- 

vj:3A aJ^'-taTy s.m. (2nd) A star, a constella- 
tion. 2. Good fortune, good omen, horoscope. 
PI. 6^^j:^\ a^'tcurUnah. See page 1093. 

AjLcLs^^l iM-ti^cLr, s.m. (9th) Abridgment, 
abbreviation, brevity, contraction, cutting 
short. Sing, and PI. J^^L3i£;.\ iM-ti^dr 
kawul, verb trans. To abridge, to contract, to 

▲ tlxcL^ ifdi'tilatj s.m. (2nd) The act of mixing, 
mixture, concision ; commerce, intercourse, 
friendship. PI. ^^h>6^\ ifdk'tHdHnah. i^ib^l 
Jj^ iifA'tildt kawuly verb trans. To hold in- 

A uJlb^^ iJJi-tilaf, s.m. (2nd) Difference of 
opinion, opposition, discord, misunderstand- 
ing, breach, coolness. PL «Gy5lb^\ Udt-tildf' 
Unah. fj^ uJL^\ iM-tilaf kawul, verb 
trans. To quarrel, to differ in opinion. 

p d^j>A aMi'tahy adj. Caught, imprisoned, con- 
fined, involved (in calamity). 2. Castrated, 
J^ ito^T dkh'tah kawuly verb trans. To in- 
volve, to confine, to imprison. 2. To cas- 
trate. Jju^ <fc^T aM-^aA ^^^^, verb intrans. 
To become involved (in calamity, etc.), to be 
caught, imprisoned, confined. 2. To be cas- 

AjLris;.^ ifd^'tiydr, s.m, (2nd) Choice, appro- 
bation, authority, power, free-will, option. 
PI. ij^j\jis>^\ iJJt'tiydrUnah. J^jU^^WM- 
Uyar laral, verb trans. To have the option, 
to possess authority, power, free-will, etc. 
JjijUxi^-^ i^'tiyarawul, verb trans. To choose, 
to adopt, to appxyve of. 

A^T di^, adj. Last, latter. 2. s.m. (9th) 
The end, issue, termination. Sing, and PI. 
(Fem.) *^! dWrdh. \j^\ dMdran^ adv. 
Lastly, finally. Jju^^T dWr kedal, verb 
intrans. To finish, to terminate, to end. ^T 
J^ dMir kawtU, verb trans. To bring to an 
end, to terminate, to conclude. 

A >^\j^^ iJJi'rdjy s.m. (9th) Drawing forth, de- 
rivation; expulsion, evacuation. Sing, and 
PI. J^ Trlr*^^ iMi-rdj kawul, verb trans. To 
expel, to evacuate, to draw forth. See Jsw 

A ci^yi-T dkhirat, s.m. (9th) Futurity, a future 
state, the world to come. Sing, and PI. 
T^^ ^^ iv ^'^j^^ ^ ^ dMirat rwadz or 
wradz. The last, or judgment day. 

A j^-fi^TaM^rl, adj. Last, final, latter, extreme. 

A ^^j>-\ dkkirtn, adv. The last. See \^l 

JoL^T dMistal, verb trans. To take, to seize, 
to lay hold of, to gripe, to capture, to appre- 
hend, etc. Pres. ^J^'\ dl^ti; past c::,^^. fw ^^ 
iva-Jdiist ; iut. ^^JjL <o \^ wd hah Wx ; imp. 
idsLlj wdJJi'lah") act. part. ^jJoiyu**fiLT dMii^t- 
UakaeyoT ^j:u**s^ dkMstufiaey ; past part. 
^lrM.MjvT dMiistalaey or ^-ju**rwT dMdstaey ; 
verb. n. ^r..>^^T dfJiistaiva! h or <aauur»>T dWiS' 

Aii**^ T dMiistana'hy s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Seizing, 
taking, grasping, laying hold of, apprehend- 
ing. PI. ^ ey. <t-wur;-T ajdrntah, s.m. (6th) 
(verb, n.) Sing, and PI. 

^^^icLTaM^<, inteij. Alas! sorrow! well-a-day! 
also ^^/i^T ^j4*^T dyhl^'dMiWi and ^ ^T 

^^4^T ahh-shaey (W.) or dMi-l3iaey (E.) s.m. 

" (1st) A wife's brother, a sister's husband, a 
brother-in-law. PI. ^ ey. See ^^ 

p^^SU^l ahh-gar^ s.m. (2nd) A firebrand, a spark 
of fire. PL <U^^^\ aJdiryarUnah, See ii^/^ 

A ^j>i£>S ikA'lds, s.m. (2nd) Sincerity, fiieud- 
ship, affection, love. PL <)G^)L>.1 ilJh-ld^ilnah. 
iJis^\ <)d lah ik/f'ldsah or 'jjoiLi'l <d /oA e'M- 
Idsa or i^- ,jo^^ <o pah iM-lds sarah, adv. 
Sincerely, lovingly, affectionately. 

A jLl\ aM-/#, s.m. (6th) (PL of jU) Man- 






ners, disposition, virtues, morality. Sing, 
and PI. 

Pj^T aWiory s.m. (2nd) or (5th) A manger, a 
trough. 3. A stable, a stall. PI. <^jjy^T 
dM^orUnah or i^j^s^A dW^ordn. 

p ^y>-T dhhUny or juy>.T dliUndy s.m. (5th) An 
instructor, a teacher, a preceptor, a learned 
man. PI. ^^y>^ dkbUndn or ^J^Sty^A 
dTdiUnddn, *j|j3^T dl^Unzdddhy s.m. (5th) 
A tutor, a doctor, a master, a learned man. 
PI. ^J^S\^y>A dJJiUnzddagdn. 

Jj-j>-\ akherraly verb trans. To plaster, to be- 
smear, to overlay with plaster, to mend, etc. 
Pres. i^ja^^-^ aMfirrl ; past ^[^-^^ J ^u- 
ahherrah ; fut. v,^^-^! ^ j wu bah al^jern ; 
imp. ar^*j>^l J wxi-aWierrah) act. part.^jioj^jpji^l 
alJierrUnkaey or ^J-jj>jr?^l aJJierj^Unaey ; past 
part. ^jJjpji^l aJJierralaey \ verb. n. <0j-^^ 
alJierrana'h or «iU-\ aJdkdrrah, 

<*J-^! ayherrancHhy s.f. (3rd) Plastering, be- 
daubing ; plaster or plastering of a wall. PI. 
^^ dy. See if^U^l 

A Ijl arfa, s.f. (Gth) Performance, payment, die- 
cliarge, execution. 2. Blandishment, coquetry, 
(E.) Sing, and PI. (W.) PI. gj^ljl addwl. 
Jju^ \S\ add kedaly verb intrans. To be per- 
formed, fulfilled, executed. J^ \S\ add 
kaivuly verb trans. To perform, to fulfil, to 

A c->J^ adab, s.m. (2nd) Politeness, courtesy, 
good-breeding, respect. PI. «)J^j1 adabunah, 
J^ L^j\ adab kawuly verb trans. To respect, 
to behave politely, c— )jl <0 pah adab or <o 
^ c- >jl pah adab sarahy adv. Politely, with 
respect, courteously, becomingly. 

A j\;J1 id-rdr, s.m. (2nd) Flowing of milk. 2. 
Involuntary discharge of urine. 3. Munifi- 
cence, liberality. PI. ^^\jJ\ id-rdrUnah, 

A C^\j'^\ id-rdky s.m. (9th) Capacity, genius, 
understanding, comprehension. Sing, and PI. 
J^ cJljjl id-rdk kawuly verb trans. To com- 
prehend, to understand. 

s \l^jj\ adraky s.m. (Gth) Ginger in the undried 
state. Sing, and PL 

HI Jjj Jjf adal'badal, s.m. (2nd) Exchange, 
barter, chopping and changing; confiision. 
PI. lU^jj Jjl adal'badalUnoA. Jj^ Jj^ Jjl 
adcU-badal kawuly verb trans. To barter^ to 
exchange, to swop. 

A ^jT ddoMy s. prop. Adam, the first man, 2. 
A man's name, j^ ^jT ddam-H^Vy adj. 
Man-cater, man-devouring, cannibal ; (Fein.) 
}ij^ ajT ddam-M^ordh. jlj ^jT ddam-zdd 
or CL?|j A jT ddam-zdty Man, mankind ; 
(Fem.) :fj]j ajT ddam-zdda'h or ^Ij zata'k. 

p ^^T ddamaey, s.m. (1st) A man, a human 
being, an individual. PI. ^^ f. s.f* (6th) 
^jT ddamaX A woman, a female. Sing, 
and PI. See ^^ and ^kcr* 

A c:^wtjT ddml-yaty s.m. (2nd) Humanity, 
civility. PI. djf,^S\ ddml-yatUnah. See 

J^ ^ jT ddam-Jdiely s.m. (6th) The name of an 
Afghan tribe. 2. A man of the tribe. Sing, 
and PI. dLfl;. ^S\ ddam-J^la'h, s.f. (8rd) 
A female of the above. PI. ^ ey. 

A U jl ad-ndy adj. Inferior, mean, little, trivial, 
small, unimportant. (Masc. and Fem.) 

^jjjj\ adU'badUy adj. Much swollen, very figit. 
(Masc. and Fem.) 

i^j\ adey, A term of address or endearment to 
a mother ; mother I See ^\ 

p <U)jT ddlnahy s.f. (3rd) Friday, the sabbath 
of the Muhammadans. PI. ^ ey, See^lj! 

^d\ adaly s.f. (6th) A division of the lands of a 
village. Sing, and PI. 

A ^j\ azdriy s.m. (2nd) The summons to 
prayer (usually proclaimed from the minaret 
of a mosque). PI. tOyUl azdnUnah. ^ct\ 
Jj^ azdn wa-yaly verb trans. To repeat the 
call to prayer, to summon to prayer. 

A ^i\ izn, s.m. (2nd) Permission ; dismissal, 
dismission. PI. «oy jl izn-Unah. Jsma^I ^«il 
izndJJiistaly verb trans. To take leave or per- 
mission. Jj^j ^^^ izn war-kawul, verb 
trans. To permit, to dismiss, to order, to give 

<Gjj1 azu-kdh or di^j^ aziJirlcdhy s.f. (SrdT^ 






(corrup. of a J^i), Food, provisions. PI. ^^ ey. 

j\ avy s.m. (2nd) A fetter. PI. <Uj^l arUnah. 
See joj i^b and jl . 

p. ^\j\ aror-ba'hy s.f. (3rd) A wheeled-carriage, a 
gun-carriage, a cart, a tumbril. PL ^ ey, 

^y ardJ^f s.m. (2nd) A rivulet, a brook, a linn, 
a sluice, a gush or rush of water. PI. ijyiAj\ 

A. d^jl^l irordfU, s.m. (2nd) Wish, desire, in- 
clination. PI. djyj\j\ irddatUnah. See fol- 

A. 2f J)^< irorddhy s.f. (3rd) Wish, desire, incli- 
nation, purpose, design, plan. V\, ^ ey. 
JJ * jljl irdda'h laral, verb trans. To have or 
possess wish, desire, inclination, etc. J^ ij\J\ 
irdda'h kawuly verb trans. To form a design, 
to make an attempt, to design, to plan. 
Sl^J^T ards-tagi, s.f (3rd) Preparation, deco- 
ration, ornament, arrangement, refinement. 
PL ^ a' I. 

6z^^ drdS'tah, adj. Adorned, dressed, prepared, 
embellished, improved. ^\^ i:xJ\J\ drds-tah 
kawul, verb trans. To adorn, to decorate, to 

A C^\j\ a-rdkf s.m. (6th) The name of a tree from 
which tooth-pickers are made. Sing, and PL 

p 4^J\ drdrriy s.m. (2nd) Ease, rest, comfort, re- 
pose. PL ijy^^ drdmUnah, f^J\ ^ be drdrriy 
adj. Indisposed, ill at ease ; (Fern.) 6^\j\ ^ 
he drama h. m,\J\ Jj dil-drdm, A beloved 
object, as a son, etc. i^\J\ J j dil-drdmah, 
A sweetheart, a mistress. Jjo^ j^\J\ drdm 
mundal, verb trans. To recover, to obtain ease, 
rest, quiet, repose, etc. Jj^'jT drd/nedal, 
verb intrans. To be at ease, to become tranquil, 
quiet; to become comforted. Jy]j\ drdm- 
awul, verb trans. To rest, to repose, to take 
rest. J^ j^ (^]J\ drdm war-kawul, verb trans. 
To ease, to appease, to assuage, to relieve. 

P »\£^\J\ drdm-ffdh, s.m. (2nd) A resting-place, 

a bed-chamber. PL djyib^\J\ drdmgdhilr*ah. 

^\J\ drdna, adj. Slothful, idle; a lover of 

ease. (Masc. and fem.) 
p tAiV^ drfl-i^, B.m. (2nd) Omameut, embel- 

lishment, dressing, preparation ; equipage. 
PL iJyLi\J\ drdrlshUnah. 

P (^\j\ ard'% s.f (8rd) Adorning, embellishing. 
PL j^ aX 

A ^->^»i;' ar-bdb, s.m. (5th) Lords, possessors, 
masters (pi. of ^^). 2. The chief, or head 
man of a village or ^el amongst the Eastern 
Afghans. PL ^jVVj^ arbdbdn, 

j^j\ ur-bUZy s.m. (2nd) A muzzle of wood or 
leather for a dog, calf, etc., to prevent biting 
or drinking. 2. The muzzle. PL *3jj^j^ ^^- 
buzunah. See d^y^ and cJjy^> 

LL^j\ art, or arat, adj. Loose, open, wide, apart, 
free,unconfined; (Fem.) ^j\ arta^h^ovarata'h. 
^jjl^ LiJj\ arat-wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Looseness, 
openness, width, freedom. PL ^\^ wall. 
Jjujj\ arte-daly ovarate-dal, verb intrans. To 
become loosened, loose, open, relaxed, freed. 
Pres. \^t^j^ aratejzl (W.), or ^J^j\ arategl 
(E.) ; past <U» CJ^I arat shah^ or <U» j wu- 
shah ; fut. ^jL tj iJL^j\ arat bah shi, or J <u 
^Jii bah wu-shl; imp. 4J* l2Jj\ arat shah, 
or <Lii J wU'shah ; act. part. ^jjC^ Ju}jl orate- 
dunkaey, or ^^^j\ arate-dunaey ; past part. 
ci;>j\ arat, or ^g^ tJDj\ arat shawaey ; verb. n. 
<0 juj^^ aratedaiia'hf or 9S^j\ aratedah. 

Jy;! aratawuly verb trans. To disengage, to 
unloose, to relax, to untie, to open, to unbind, 
to render unconfined, to free, to set free. Pres, 
^^j^ aratawi) past. J (JL^J\ arat karCy or 
^ J rcvrkarr ; fut. ^^ ij llJj\ arat bah hrrt, 
or ^J i ij bah wU'krri; imp. gj tJDj\ 
arat krrah, or ij i wu-hrrah ; act. part. 

(jAjyj' aratawUnkaey f ox ^ji^j^ aratarvU- 
naey; past part. ^^ cl:>j\ aratkarraey; verb, 
n. ^yij\ aratarcuna'h, 
^j\ <U4» ISvpcHh artcHh, The first visit of a lover 
to the house of his betrothed (}iU ' foot-re-r 
laxed'); or a3;1 44J psha'h aratcHh (W.). 
J^ <iG;\ <U4» or <Uj Bipdh, or pshcih artah, 
Of aratcHh kawul, verb trans. To visit a be- 
trothed female (the lover). ^^-4» ^^ artey 
W^pey, or ^^^j oJ^l aratey pmey\ adj. Bow 
or bandy-legged, ^ocl^-kneed, 







Jjjl aratal, verb trans. To break wind, to fart. 
Pres. ,jj\ araCi, or i^jj\ arazi; past cj>jl^ 
wd-rat; fat. (jj\ ij ^ wu bah aratl, or t^jA 
arazl \ imp. }ijj\^ wdrTozah ; act. part, ^^ii^l 
aratUnkaey, or ^^^ aratUnaey; past part. 
"pjj^ aratalaey ; verb. n. W|;l aratana'A. 

^j\ artina*h, s.f. (3rd) A wife, a woman, a 
female. PI. ^^ ey. 

ic^j\ ar-tina'h, s.f. (3rd) PI. ^^ ey. Same as 
preceding. See <(s^ and <LjjjU. 

Jflj-^ Jj>-jl ar-jal-bafjal, adj. Entangled, en- 
trapped (as a bird in a net), noosed ; (Fem.) 
aIs^ J^^ (xr-jaX-har^aXdh. 

jj4*rLjT wrlSaM (E.), s.m. (2nd) A gasping or 
gaggling noise produced in the throat when 
crying violently or sobbing, a paroxysm or 
outburst of grief, convulsive weeping or sob- 
bing. PI. i^iy^^ dr1di,a1^'UnaK ^^/i*=>-jT 
Jj^ drMwM, kawul, verb trans., or jCj, \j3f^J\ 
drWialdi Jdikuly verb trans. To sob or cry con- 
vulsively or with violence. 

p ^jj\ ar-zdnf adj. Cheap, not dear, inexpen- 
sive; (Fem.) ij\jj\ ar-zdna'h, Jju^ ^\jj\ 
ar-zdn kedal, verb intrans. To become cheap, 
to lessen or grow less or low in price. ^\jj\ 
J^ ar^zdn kawulf verb trans. To cheapen, to 
make or render cheap or inexpensive. See 
aIjI, a1^, and J^ or Jjj. 

p S^jj\ ar-zdnl, s.f. (3rd) Cheapness, lowness of 
price. PI. ^ cHl. See Jjj. 

PjyjT dr-z% s.m. (9th) Wish, desire, hope, dis- 
tress, want. Sing, and PI. j^jjT dr-zU" 
mand, or ^ man; adj. Desirous, longing, 
wanting ; (Fem.) ^x^jj^T dr-zU-manda'h, or 
<L»^ mandh, J^ ^jT dr-zU laral^ verb trans. 
To have a wish, want, or hope, to require, to 

p i^Ai-^jjJjT ar-;2r«-wwwkfe, s.f. (3rd) Desire^ long- 
ing, hankering. PI. ^^ oHu 

J Juf jj! ar-zedaif verb intarans. To be worth, to 
fetch, to bring. Pres^ ^jijj\ ar^zejzl (W.), 
or ^^jj^ ar-zegx (E.) ; past *Ju[jj\ J imtrar- 
zedahy or JljJj' J fcu-ar-zeda ; fat. Ai J 
vcjjjl n?w iaA ar-zej^l, or ,<6 j^^ ar-zegl ; 

imp. *rijj^ J wvrwr-zejsLoh^ or ^J^^ J «?w- 
or-zegah ; act. part. ^J^j J^ j^^ ar-zedUnkaeyj 
or ^^^jj^ ar-zedanaey ; past part. ^^^^^^ 
ar-zedalaey; verb. n. *ijjjy^ ar^zedana'A, or 
*jjjj\ ar-zedah. 

^jj ar-Jzamaey, s m. (Ist) (W.), A gape, a 
yawn ; (E.) A belch, eructation. PI. ^c I. 
Jj^ vJ^J^ or-^awwz^ kawul, verb trans. 
To yawn, to gape. See l<*^^. 

v^j^ ar-Jzaey, s.m. (1st) (W.), A belch, eructa- 
tion. PI. ^^ !. Js^ ^^jj\ ar-J^aey ya^tal, 
or Jj^ kawul, verb trans. To belch. See ^\ 
and j-j3. 

A JLfl ir-55/, s.m. (9th) The act of sending, 
mission, remittance. Sing, and PI. J^ JU;^ 
irsdl kawul, verb trans. To send, to transmit, 
to remit, 

A jb^Ji aristu, s. prop. Aristotle. 

^J\ dr-saX s.f. (6th) (hi. ^j^) A mirror, a 
small mirror for the thumb worn by women. 
Sing, and PI. 

A t}\J^j\ ir-shdd, s.m. (2nd) Direction, command, 
order. PI. ij^Si!^j\ ir-skddUnaA. J^ J[JUj\ 
ir-shdd kawul, verb trans. To command, to 
order, to direct. 

A ^joj\ ars^, s.m. (9th) The earth, a portion of 
land. Sing, and PL 

•Xii^l ar-glmnd, s.m. (5th) A large knuckle-bone 
used in a game. PL ^l^Xiijl ar-ghundS/n. 
See JrsT and j^l ^i^. 

P ^^J^ ar-ghawdn, s.m. (6th) The name of a 
plant whose flowers are of a beautifal red 
colour. Sing, and PL Also written ^^Ji 

P vi|>4;^ ar-ghawdnl, adj. Of a red or purple 

^fy^ ur-ghilmaey, s.m. (1st) A male kid. PI. 
j^ f ; , w4;' ut-^ibmcLl, s.f. (6th) A female 
kid. Sing, and PL See ^^^. 

A ^J\ at-hdn, (of ^) Pillars, props, sup- 
ports. cuJjJ ^JiJ\ ar-kdn-i-danhlat, Nobles, 
grandees, ministers of state. 

^j^j^ ar-gamaey, s.m. (1st) A gape, a ya^rxi. 
PL ic f. See ti^jj^^ 







Sj\ wr-gaeyy s.m. (Ist) (E.) A belch, eractation. 
PI. ^ I. Jxwyj ^^j\ ar-gaey yastal, or J/ 
kawuly verb trans. To belch. See i^jj\* 

p ^^U;^ ar-man, a.m. (Snd) Sorrow, regret, long- 
ing. 2. Desire, wish, inclination. 3. Also 
used as an interjection, Alas ! sorrow ! PI. 
ijy)\^j\ar^mdnunah. ^^^ ^Ky^jSar-mankarvul^ 
verb trans. To regret, to sorrow. 2. To de- 
sire, to long after. 

A J^^j\ ar^maJi^ (of ^j) Spirits, souls. 

i3yj\ ar-wata'hj s.f. (3rd) A female, a woman, a 
wife. Vl.^ey. (t ci^jj^l). 

Jjj^T dr-rvedal, verb trans. To hear, to listen, 
to hearken. Pres. ^^jj dr-rvl ; past **X[^^|^ 
wdr-Tcedahy or J^jj^)^ wdr-weda; fut. ^ \^ 
i^jU wd hah rrcl ; imp. n^^^ wdr-wah ; act. 
part. ,J^^*^^jT dr-wedunkaey, or ^^ J^^jT dr- 
weduiiaey\ past part. ^>!jjj^jT dr-rcedalaey \ 
verb. n. ^jjj^jT dr-wedana! h, or **xjjyT ar- 
wedah. J^jyT dr-wawul^ verb trans, (caus.) 
To cause to hear, to make hear. Pres. c/^jj^T 
dr^ttami ; past 3j^jj^\j wdr-wdwuhy or ^^^J^^ 
Tvar-rcdwo ; fiit. i^^jj Ai ^^ w*a JaA rawawl, or 
i^^^jT <U J 7PW iaA ar-;ra;2;l; imp. a^^j^^ wdr- 
Tvawah; act. part. i^^^j>;T dr-warcunkdey ^ 
or ^^^j>;T dr-rcawunaey ; past part. ^jj^T 
dr-rva/vulaey ; verb. n. <J^jj»;T dr-wawum/i. 

a ij\ ara'/i, s.f. (3rd) A saw. PI. ^ey. v («;T). 

2f;l wraA, s.m. (6th) Clouds. Sing, and PI. See 

xj\ dra/i, s.f. (3rd) Foundation, basis. PI. ^^ ^. 
i^-^jl ar-Aatt, s.m. (2nd) A well with a Persian 

wheel for drawing water. PI. Jjji^j] ar/iaU- 

unah. Also ^j^jt which see. (hi. lI^O. 
s jj^l ar-liar, s.m. (6th) A species of pulse (Cy- 

tisus cajan). Sing, and PI. 
jiybj\ ar-haruy s.m. (6th) Same as preceding. 

Sing and PI. 
^:jbj\ ar-kanddf s.m. (6th) The Palma Christi, 

or castor-oil tree. Sing, and PI. ; or »,^:Jbj\ 

OT-handddh, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ ey. (s *LjO. 
m.J\ wr-yadzdh^ s.f. (3rd) A cloud. PI. ^ ey. 

See iJdj^S. 
jT firr, or j\ atr, B,m. (2nd) Hinderance, stop- 

P&g6, prevention. 2. Difficulty, embarrass- 
ment, perplexity, dUemma. S. A screen, 
shelter, concealment, protection. . 4. A fetter, 
a manacle. PI. aJ^jT dtrUnah, or iJj^ arr- 
Unah, 5. adj. Obstructed, hindered, stopped, 
clogged, embarrassed, perplexed. (Fem.) gji 
drra'h, or sj\ arra'A, Jr,M.rwTjT drr dJMstal^ 
verb trans. To lie in wait, to lie in ambush 
or concealment {Ut. 'to take concealment.') 
JjjjT drredal, verb intrans. To become ob- 
structed, hindered, stopped, checked, clogged, 
impeded. 2. To become embarrassed, per- 
plexed, to fall into a dilemma. 3. To be 
screened, protected, etc. Pres. i^jpij^ drrej^ 
(W.), or ^J^ drregl (E.) ; past ^ jT drr 
shah, or ij* J wu-shah ; fut. ^^ <iU jT drr 
bah shit or ^ J sj bah wurshl', imp. ^ jT 
drr s/iah, or aj;» J rvu-shah ; act. part, 
^jJo^jjjT drredUnhaey, or ,j3jJJjT drredu- 
naey ; past part. ^^^ jT azr shawaey ; verb, 
n. <CI jjjT drredana'hf or *J^jT drredah, J^j[ 
drrawul, verb trans. To impede, to hinder, to 
obstruct, to clog, check, retard, to oppose. 
2. To embarrass, to perplex, to place in a 
dilemma. Pres. ^^j[ drrawl; pastj^jT djr 
karr, or J I rcu-karr ; fut. ^^ Aj jT drr bah 
krn, or g^ j <o iaA ^zji^-^m ; imp. ^^ jT 
ayr krrahj or ij^ J ^rw-^rraA; act. part, 

past part. ^J^^ JT arr karraey ; verb. n. ^Uj .1 
drrawuna'h, (hi.JT). See 2fj^. 

j.jl arrJJit or orraMiy s.m. (2nd) The side, the 
armpit. PI. <i^^j^ arrM^Unahf or arrajdk- 
unah. See (.1^. ^jt <u ^jl a/rM Jo«^ 
arrMj or arraMi pah arraj^f Side by side, 
close to each other (as soldiers in their ranks, 

I»jl arraniy s.m. (2nd) A prop, a bar of wood jplaced 
against a door, a support, a pillar. PI. ^y*j^ 
arramUnah. Jj^ mj^ atram kawulf verb 
trans. To prop, to support. See a^ . 

^j^ arramaeyy s.m. (1st) (dim. of above) A 
small prop, a small bar of wood placed against 
a door or shutter. PI. ^ f . 





J^jjl arrawul, verb trana. To turn, to turn over, 
to capsize, to tilt over, to overturn or overset, 
to pervert. Pres. ^^j^^ atrawl; past if^\j\^ 
warrdtvuA, ot^^\j^^ wdfrdwo; fat. i^^j a; \^ 
wd hah rrwl ; imp. s^j^^ wdrrawah ; act. part. 
(J^JAi' a2ra?2?«?;i^a€y, ot^^^J^ arrawUnaey; 
past. part, ^^j^ arrawutaey ; verb. n. iUjj^ 

jjJjj^ arrawulaeyj adj. (past part.) Inverted, 
overturned, capsized, upside down, tilted over, 
perverted, turned; (Fem.) J^j^ arrawuli. 

PI. (masc. and fem.) ^ l ; i^^sa^ lJ^ju^ arra- 
wulaey ba/Jit, Inverted fortune, misfortune, 
bad luck. \^j^ ^^J^ arrawUll didrey, Con- 
fused or unsettled actions. 2. Improper or 
fruitless actions, s^jr^ ^^j^ arrawuli Mia- 
barey, Confased or incoherent words, or words 
spoken in anger. Jjjj^ i^ lOipdh arrawul 
(E.), or ^]^^ <uj p^ah arrawul (W.) To 
sit cross-legged, to mount on horseback. 

ij\ arra'hy s.f. (3rd) Obstacle, hindrance, im- 
pediment, stop, prevention. 2. A screen, 
shelter, concealment. 2. Adj. (fem. of jl), 
Impeded, obstructed, stopped, clogged, hin- 
dered. PI. ^ ey. 

jVjjI arretraX s.f. (6th) The small pieces of 
wood inserted between the ropes over a Persian 
wheel, and to which the earthen waterpots are 
fastened. Sing, and PI. 

^jJoj^ arrekaeyy s.m. (1st) A bar of wood for a 
door or gate, a pole, a prop, a support. 2. 
(W.) Perplexity, plague, diflSiculty, embar- 
rassment. PI. s^ ^. 

p jT dz, s.m. (2nd) Desire, love, passion, lust, 
avidity, avarice, covetousness. PI. <UjjjT 

p j^jT dzddf adj. Free, liberated. 2. Lonely, 
solitary ; (Fem.) 2fj|jT dzdddh, JjjjljT 
dzddedal, verb intrans. To be set free, 
manumitted, liberated, emancipated. 2. To 
become lonely. Jj*3\jT dzddawul, verb trans. 
To free, to liberate, to deliver, to set at liberty, 
to emancipate, to manumit. 

p jfjJjT dzddah, adj. Free, noble, independent. 

(Masc. and Fem.) ; PL ^l^jf jtjT dzddoAffdn ; 
(Fem.) pi. ^J^J\j\ dzddah-gdni. 

p t/fc^yl dzddoffl, or i^*>'jT azddl, 8.f. (8rd) 
freedom, independence, manumission, deliyer- 
ftnce, freedom, emancipation. PI. ^^ a'l. 

p j\j\ dzdr, s.m. (2nd) Sickness, disorder, dis- 
ease; trouble, affliction, injury. PL ijju])! 
dzdrUnaA. ^jy^j j\J\ dzdr rasatvul, verb 
trans. To injure, to adffict, to torture. J J^j^'jI 
dzdredal, or J*^ J^jl dzdr kedal, verb in- 
trans. To be injured, troubled, afflicted* j\J\ 
Jj^ dzdr kawuly or J^'jT dzdrawul, Y&rb 
trans. To afflict, to injure, to torture, to 

p ^j\)\ dzdrt, adj. Sick, diseased, afflicted, 
troubled. 2. A sick person. 

(JSjj\ tiZ'bak, s.m. (5th) The name of a tribe 
inhabiting the countries about Balkh. 2. A 
male of the tribe. PL ^\^j\ uz-bakdn. iij\\ 
az'baka'h, s.f. (3rd) A female of the above 
tribe. PL ^ ey. 

p h^jj\ dzur-dahf adj. Afflicted, sad, vexed, 
dispirited, displeased, weary. J*x^ >fc>^T 
dzur-dah kedal, verb trans. To become sad, 
dispirited, uneasy. J^ it^jj\ dzur-dah kanml, 
verb trans. To vex, to displease, to afflict. 
je^ i^jjK dzur-dah khdtir, or Jj gOjj\ 
dzur-dah dil, adj. Troubled in mind, dis- 
gusted, vexed; (Fem.) 8j^\s^ ijjjj dzur- 
doHh Midtira'h^ or a! J itctjjs dzurdah diUCh. 

^j\ az-ghaey^ s.m. (1st) A thorn. PL lj f. 
See K^js\ . 

^jl az-ghan, adj. Thorny, prickly ; (Fem.) 
<uijl az-ghana!h. See y^\ . 

A Jjl axal, s.m. (9th) Eternity, vrithout be- 
ginning. Sing, and PL jjI ^ Jj\ ajsat-o- 
abady Without beginning and witiiout end. 
^ Jj^ <)d lak azal nah, or Jjl iJ lah azala, 
From all eternity, ^jy^ or ^^ Jjl y tear 
azala pari or partf Etemally,'^to all eternity, 

p {Jj*A^J\ dz-md'lshy s.m. (2nd) Trial, proof, 
essay, examiqation, experiment. 2. Tempta- 
tion. PL rfjygjUjT az-TMClshUnah. tA!^)T 






Jjf az^md^lsh kawul, verb trans. To try, to 
prove, to essay, to examine. 

cl>%»jUjT az-mcHl^t (E.), or dzmoClsht (W.) 
Trial, essay, etc. PI. ijf^\^j\ dz-maH^t- 
Unah, or azma^shtitnah. Jj^ ls^^^jUjT 
dz-md'll^t, or a^-wa'i^^ kawtcl, verb trans. 
To try, to prove. See preceding. 

JjfUjT dz-^ma-yil, verb trans. To prove, to 
examine, to try, to investigate, to essay. 
2. To tempt. Pres. i^^J\ dz-mdryl; past 
<L> UjT J rcxi-az-ma-yah \ fiit. ^^)T ij ^ wu 
bah az-ma-yl ; imp. AiUjT J wu-dz-moryah ; 
act. part. ^j^ji^jT dz-mdyUnkaey, or ^jjjj ^jT 
dz-mdyunaey ; past part. ^jJjUjT a;2r-7wa- 
yaiaey \ verb n. <)^U;T dz-mdyanaJh, 

p ir j^T dz-mudahy adj. Tried, proved, examined ; 
experienced, veteran. J^ if Jj^T dz-mudah 
kawulf verb trans. To try, to prove, to ex- 
amine. J^ h^yji dz-mUdah'kdr^ adj. Ex- 
perienced in business ; (Fem.) ij^ i^yjj dz- 
mUdah-kdrd! K 

(Jiy*J\ dz-mo-yal, verb trans. (W.) To try, to 
prove, to examine, to essay. See JjUjT and 
change \ for ^ for inflexions. 

J-^jT dz-mayil, verb trans. See JjUjT . 

p Uj;*1 ajzdahd, s.m. (6th) A large snake, a 
dragon, a sea-serpent. Sing, and PI. 

8 c:jUj;M ajzdahdty s.m. (6th) The name of a 
mixed metal, bell-metal or brass. Sing, and 
PI. See c:.;ljp). 

1^^ ujzdf adj. Long, elongated, extended, stretched 
out, prolonged ; (Fem.) 6j\ ujzdah. See ^\ 
and Jj^j^ or ^J'.j^ 

J-i jT djzi-yil, verb trans. To incite, to stimu- 
late, to instigate, to set on, to provoke, to 
urge, to rouse, to pat on the back. Pres. 
^ T djzi'yl ; past sjji J wu-djzi-yah ; fut. 
^ ,T aj J WW bah djzi-yl ; imp. <u.T J wu 
djzi-yah ; act. part. ^jJl3^ ,T aj^-yunkaeyy or 
v^^/ ajzi-yunaey \^ past. part. ^^T djzi- 
ycdaey ; verb. n. <Cj.T ajzi-yana^h. See J--i^. 

(j*iT 05, s.m. (2nd) A horse. PI. iJ^T o^-wwaA; 
(W.)s.m. (5th) Pl.j^LT dS'dn\ J*x»Jj^ u^^ *1 
lah dsa kuzedal^y&th intrans. To dismount 

from a horse. J J^^^ ^jm\ ^ pah as spare- 
dal, verb intrans. To mount or get on horse- 

A (juUi as-ds, s.m. (9th) Foundation, basis; a 
pedestal. Sing, and PI. 

p ^LT dsdn, adj. Easy, convenient, facile, com- 
modious, not difficult; (Fem.) <oLT dsdna'h ; 
J ju^ ^LT dadn kedal, verb intrans. To be- 
come easy, facile, or convenient. Jj^ ^^LT 
dsdn kawul, verb, trans. To facilitate, to ex- 
pedite, to render easy or smooth. 

p JLi\J\ dsd'lsh, s.m. (2nd) Rest, ease, repose, 
tranquillity, quiet. PL AjytuLl dsd-lshUnah. 
Jj^ JLAJ\ dsd'lsh kawul, verb trans. To rest, 
to repose. 

A t-^L-i! aS'bdb, s.m. (2nd) (PL of c^-w.) 
Causes, motives, means. 2. Goods and chat- 
tels, furniture, stores, baggage. PL ^jy\^\ 

p J^wl is'pa^ol, s.m. (6th) The name of a 
plant — the flea-wort, a plant of the plantain 
family. Sing, and PL 

<U-jT dS'pah, s.f. (3rd) A mare. PL ^^ ey, 

JL^l as-pa'h, s.f. (3rd) The quinsy, suffocation, 
strangulation. 2. A kind of cutaneous disease, 
in which spots appear on the body, and the 
remedy for which is indigo. (W.) PL v^ ey. 
See jl:^ and <UuJb. 

p j\z^\ uS'tdd, s.m. (5th) A teacher, preceptor, 
master, artist. PL ^^ljli-i\ ustdddn, ss^\3^\ 
us-tdda'A, s.f. (3rd) A preceptress, a school- 
mistress. PL ^^ ey. 

p ,^jls-j\ tcS'tddl, s.f. (Ist) Teaching, instruc- 
tion, mastership, skill, art. PL ^^ a% 

ili^l us-tdZf s.m. (5th) A teacher, a master (cor- 
rup. of p jla-jl). PL y;l jli^l ustd^'dn. * JL^^ 
uS'tdzcCh, s.f. (3rd) A mistress, a preceptress. 
PL ^ ey, 

^g^li-J\ as-tdzaey, s.m. (Ist) A messenger, a 
legate, a delegate, an apostle, an umpire, a 
peace-maker, PL i^ I. See <^A^^1 and ^\^. 

^^^\ as-td(haey, s.m. (1st) A messenger, etc. 
See preceding. PL ^ l. See ^A.j:^\. 

p ^JcJ\ dstdn, s.m, (2nd) A threshold, an en- 





trance. PI. i^y\3J\ astdn&nah ; or si\sJ\ ds- 
tdnak, s.f. (3id). PL ^^ ey. 

p ^l^isnLjl tistul^wdn, s.m. (2nd) A bone> a 
stone or kernel in fruit. PI. 4jyi\^s^\ uatur 
Jdmdnunah. See ^ and ^0>* 

A l£ja^\ is-tidadf s.f. (6th) (inf. x of d^^j) 
Request, desire, application, invitation (E.) 
Sing, and PL (W.) Pi. ^Ic Ja-«1 is-ticUedwl. 

A j\jjcj^l is-tiisddd, s.m. (2nd) (inf. x of jj:) 
Readiness, proficiency ,eapacity, means, ability. 
PL <)L3jjljjii.rf\ is-tusdddunah. 

A \suc^\ is-timfdy s.f. (6tli) (inf. x of f£) Asking 
f(M^veness, deprecating. 2. Giving in one's 
resignation from office or duty. (E.) Sing, 
and PL ; (W.) PL ^^\sjc^\ is-tue/tlwl. 

A JUjcu-sI is-ti(Bmdl, s m. (2nd) (inf. x of J-«^) 
Custom, daily practice, exercise, use. PL 
^^Ujcurfl is-ticerndfUnah. J^ JUjcl-j1 is-tue- 
mdl kawul, verb trans. To use, to exercise. 

A JUja-jl iS'tuemdll, adj. Used, usual. 

A <iLjUi-j\ iS'tighd^a'hf s.f. (3rd) (inf. x of <^^) 
Asking for help, demanding justice, complain- 
ing. PL y^ey. J^ ^Ui^l iS'tifj^d^a'A kawul, 
verb trans. To complain, to demand justice. 

Aj[ijc^\ iS'ti^-fdr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. x of ^^^^i) 
Begging mercy, craving grace, asking forgive- 
ness. PL dj^j\AkLJi w-ttgh-fdrUnah. J^ijcJ\ 
J^ is-tigh-fdr kawul, verb trans. To deprecate, 
to crave mercy. 

A ^\ jkxLJ^a^'^agh-JirU'lldh, inteij, I entreat for- 
giveness of God I God forbid ! 

A Ujcl-»1 is-ti^nd, s.f. (Cth) (inf. x of Li) Con- 
tent, independence, exemption. 2. Adj. Con- 
tented, independent. (E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) 
PL fc^^Ujc-jl iS'tighndwi. 

A jL^b^al iS'tifsdr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. x of ^^) 
Inquiry, asking an explanation, interrogat- 
ing. PL ij^j\**J&^\ is-tifsdrUnah. Jj^ iLuis-jl 
iS'tifsdr kawul, verb trans. To enquire, to ask, 
to interrogate. 

A yj:^^\h^\ is'tijcdmat, s.m. (2nd) (inf. x of /XS^ 
Standing erect. 2* Rectitude, stability, in- 
tegrity, constancy. PL <Uy;^Ub-a\ is-tikd- 

A JL&L^l is-tijkbdl, 8.m. (2nd) (inf. x of ^jj) 
Meeting, encountering. 2. The ceremony of 
meeting and receiving a visitor. S. Fatority. 
PL ^jlLM..dl is-tijkbdlunah. 

A Ji£s^\ iS'tifcldl, s.m. (2nd) <inf. x of c;Jj) 
Absolute power, authority, sovereignty, inde- 
pendence, absoluteness, etc« PL ^^i3s^\ is- 

A ftUi^jl iS'tinuuB, s.f. (Ist) (inf. viii of ^a^) 
Hearing, listening, giving ear to. PL cUi..-^ 

Xj\jASi^\ is-timrdr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. x of .j^^) 
Continuation, perseverance, perpetuity. 2. 
The name of the continuative tense in gram- 
mar. PL 4j^\j4:xJ\ iS'timrdrUnaA. 

A ^j\fAs^\ iS'Umrdrl, adj. Continuative, per- 

Vj\fJ\ tiS'tuwdr, adj. Strong, firm, stable, power- 
ful, brave, resolute ; (Fem.) »j\^\ us-tumdra'h. 

}ijj:^\ aS'toza'h, s.f. (3rd) Residence, dwelling, 
habitation. PL ^^ ey, J^ iijj:^\ as-toza'h 
kawul, verb trans. To dwell, to reside. 

jj^yurf\ a^'todzaey, adj. (past part, from Jja-^l) 
Sent, dispatched. 2. A messenger, a legate, 
a party sent in place of another, a courier ; 
(Fem.) J^f^ a^'todn. PL (Masc. and Fem.) 
j^ I. See ,«^li-»l . 

tjf^ aS'toJzcCh, s.f. (3rd) Residence, etc. PL 
^ ey. See hjf>^\ and i^^\. 

d^y^\ as-tohcHh, s.f. (3rd) PL ^ ey. See fol- 

^f^\ aS'tognah, s.f. (3rd) Residence, dwelling, 
abode. 2. Tranquillity. PL ^ ey. A\ifuA 
J^ as-tognak kawul, verb trans. To dwell, 
to reside, to take up residence. 

iff^\ as-toga'A, s.f. (3rd) Residence, etc. PL 
v^ ^« J^ ^iS^l aS'toga*A kawul, verb trans. 
To dwell, to reside. See preceding words. 

J^T dstafvul, verb trans. To send, to depute, 
to dispatch, to forward, to transmit. Pres. 
(^y^JT dstawt; past ij\sJ\^ tvds-tdnmAp or 
^^^\^ TvdS'tdwo; frit. u[^ ^ )^ wd ba^^ 
stawl; imp. 2r^lj wds-tawaA; act. 
^^jyiJ\ dSrtawUnkaeyf or ^jy^ 





tawUnaey] past part. ^jJy^T ds-tawulaey, 
and ^j^y;JT ds-to^c^ ; verb n. 40j:;jr as- 

Ja " T dS'tedal, verb intrans. To dwell, to in- 
habit, to reside, to abide, to stay, to sojourn, 
to halt, etc. Pres. ^J^-:i-»T dS'teJzt (W.) or 
jiCji«aT ds-teffi (E.) ; past »s^pj\ ^ wu-dstedah, 
or Jui«jT J wurdsteda ; fiit. *,^r>2UrfT ij^wu bah 
astejzt, or ^J^'\ dstegl ; imp. 2n-i-»T J we^ 
dstejzah, or dSCjiJTj TZ^i^odto^aA; act. part. 
^Jujjur^-T dstedUnkaey, or ^^juiJT dstedu- 
naey ; past part. ^jJ ju:;JT dstedalaey ; verb, 
n. <Ujui*tfT dstedana'h, or 2fJui«^T dstedak. 
JyurfT ds-tawul, verb trans, (cans.). To make 
or cause to dwell or reside, to station, to locate, 
to halt, to cause or make to sojourn or stay. 
Pres. i/js<-»T dstarvl ; past ^jlaJT J wu-dstdwuh, 
or jjliJT J wu-dstdrvo ; fut. y^j^ <o J ;2?w 5aA 
dstawl ; imp. 2f^T J wu-dstawaA ; act. part. 
^JojyL-J dstarvUnkaey, or t^^j^ dsta- 
wunaey ; past part. ^jJ^T dstawulaey ; verb, 
n. djjLA dstawuna'h. See J Jui-*! . 

A jUr»l iS'kdk, s. prop. The patriarch Isaac. 

^ej3l^r»l is-hdkzl, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of an 
Afghan tribe; ^cJ3Ur»l is-lkdkzaey, Sing. A 
male of the above tribe ; t^l«-»l is-hdkzaX 
s.f. (6th) A female of the tribe. Sing, and PI. 

Aj\jJi is-rdr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of^) Conceal- 
ment, keeping secret. 2. Disclosure, reveal- 
ing of a secret. PI. ^i^\j^\ is^drUnak, 
JjL»j\jJi is-rdr sdtal, verb terns. To keep a 
secret. Jijjl^'^ is-rdr wa-yal, verb trans. 
To reveal a secret. 

A uJ]^\ is^df, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of uJ;--), 
Prodigality, abuse of wealth, dissipation, ex- 
travagance. PI ij^\j>J is-rdfUnah. f^\^\ 
Jj^ is-rdf kawul, verb trans. To dissipate, to 
act extravagantly, to abuse wealth. 

A J-iU-»^ is-rdfil, s. prop. The name of the angel 
who, it is said, will sound the last trump at 
the resurrection. 2. A seraph. 

o ^IJaJi us-ptrldb, 9.m. (2nd) An astrolabe. 

PL dj^}JaJi uS'turldbUnah. 
A Wa^\ isrUfdtj Ban. (2nd) (inf. iv of \dJ), Caus- 

ing to fall, procuring abortion, miscamage. 
PI. ^jb\jUi is-kdttlnaA. J^ tU^l is-kdt 
kawul, verb trans. To produce miscarriage, 
to cause abortion. See J^T ^JJf^\ . 

AjxS^\ iS'kandar, s. prop. Alexander the Great. 

A ijjxS^\ k'kandrld, s. prop. Alexandria. 

A fXJi iS'ldm, s.m. (9th) (inf, iv. of Jy^), The 
Muhammadan religion, orthodoxy. Sing, and 

A ft^\ ism. s.m. A name, a noun. PL 'U^t as- 
ma! a. j^U- ^^1 t5w-i;;awerf, Apriniitivenoun, 
^^^AMi^ mJ\ ism-i-yins, A generic noun. f^\ 
^U. ism-i-Jidliya'hf The present participle. 
vj^aJ.^ MiJ\ ism-i'^ifat, A concrete noxm, an ad- 
jective, jjkc ^\ ism-i'Ceadady A cardinal num- 
ber. jtLu*^ 0^\ ism-i-micshtak, An ordinal 
number. JAs j^\ ism-i^d'ceil, The agent, 
actor, or active participle. Jj«i^ d^J\ ism-i- 

r" ' 

mqfceul, The past participle. jXa^ ji»J\ ism-i- 
masdar, A verbal noun, etc. 

^^gjLiU-jl is-md-ceilzi, s.m. (1st) PL The name 
of an Afghan tribe ; ,J^U«»1 is-md-cBlUaey, 
Sing. A male of the above tribe ; 4^jLxU-»\ 
is-ind-cBilza^t, s.f. (6th) A female of the above. 
Sing, and PL (a J-^U«»\ is-md-cell, Ishmael 
the son of Abraham). 

p ^\aJ\ ds^mdn, s.m. (2nd) The sky, the heavens, 
the firmament. PL ^oyU-jT ds-mdn-Unah. 

p ci^T dsmdnl, adj. Heavenly, celestial, ceru- 
lean, azure. 

A ^^^^ is-ml, adj. Nominal, titular. See^^jJUy . 

yJ'asU, s.m. (9th) The sixth month of the Hinda 
year. The last month of the rainy season, 
(s ^jJ\). The Afghans in the vicinity of 
Pe^awer use the names of the Hinda months 
when speaking of, or referring to, agriculture. 
Sing, and PL 

p ^J^T dsudoffi, or ./ sJyJ] dsudak-ffi, s.f. 
^rd) Quiet, rest, content, tranquility. PL|V aX 

p gj^] dsUdak, adj. At rest, quiet, tranqml, satis- 
fied, contented. JU. s^^J dsudah Ikdt, adj. 
Affluent; in easy circumstances. 

^jL^l as-^elaey, s.m. (1st) A deep-drawn sigh, 
a cold sigh, a sob. 2. The sound uttered by 





a person when shivering from cold. PL ^c t. 
J^ ^da^l as-jvelaey karvul, verb trans. To 
sigh, to sob ; to tremble through cold, to utter 
a shivering sound when cold. Also ^jiL^^ 
as-welkaey, s.m. (Ist). PI. ^c !. 
^\ asl, adj. Unlucky, bad, inauspicious. 2. An 
unfortunate person. PI. ^\^\ asl-dn. (Fem.) 
^\ asaX Sing, and PI. (6th). 

^\ asaX s.f. (6th) Hoar-frost. Sing, and PI. 
p L-T drsiyd, s.f. (6th) A water-mill. PI. (W.) 
^^LJ\d-siydwt; (E.) Sing, and PL Seessjj). 
p 40L-»T a-siydna'A, s.f. (3rd) A whetstone. PL 

p c-*^-->T d-seb, s.m. (2nd) Misfortune (the con- 
sequence of a demon's shadow having fallen 
on one), trouble, calamity, damage. PL ^y^ 

A.j^\ a-sir, s.m. (5th) A prisoner, a captive. PL 
^j^\ a-strdn. ifj^\ a-slra'A, s.f. (3rd) A 
female captive or prisoner. PL^^^. Jjui^^l 
a-sir kedal, verb intrans. To become captive. 
J^ j^\ a-slr kawtil, verb trans. To take 

P j^\j^T d'Siyd-wdn, or ^^^-JT d-sewdn, s.m, 
(5th) A miller. PL ^j;U\jUrfT d-siyd-rvdndn, or 
^^ljl^--rfT d'Servdndn. 

p ^T dsA, s.m. (6th) Meat, victuals, viands, 
soup, broth, gruel, pottage, a kind of dish 
made from barley. Sing, and PL 

A CLif\Ji»\ iskd-rat, s.m. (2nd) Sign, wink, hint, 
signal, allusion. PL iJyj\JL\ ishd-ratUnah or 
2r,Ule^a-ra'^,s.f.(3rd). V\,^ey. J/ *^U,1 
ishd-rcHh karcul^ verb trans. To give a hint, 
to make a sign, signal, or allusion. 

A }\^\ ish'tibd'hf s.f. (3rd) Doubt, scruple, 
ambiguity. PL ^ ey. ^\^\ ish-tibdhl, 
adj. Suspicious, doubtftd. 

v^l^l ash'tardnl, s.m. (1st) PL The name of a 
tribe of Afghans; ^}/^l ash-tardnaey, Sing, 
A man or male of the tribe; ^\^\ ash- 
tardnaX B.f. (6th) A female of the above. 
Sing, and PL 

JLc^l isA'ti^dl, am. (2nd) (inf. viii of JiA), 

Occupation, employment, study, business. PL 
^jlliCLll isk'ti^dlUnoA. 

A^ji^l asA'toka^A, s.f. (3rd) Peace, concord, re- 
conciliation. PL ^J ey. See ^^:--T . 

A \fJL\ ish-tiAd, s.f. (6th) Appetite, desire. (£.) 
Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL sftW=-^' i^-HAdwl. 
See also J^^. 

A jlfJil i^A'tiAdr, s.m. (2nd) Publication, report, 
fame, divulging. PL Aj^j\fJ^\ isA-tiAarUnaA, 
J^jlfLiil isA-tiAdr karvul, verb trans. To 
publish, to divulge, to report, to spread abroad. 

p ^-i-lT dsAtl, s.f, (3rd) Peace, concord. 2. 
Amour, intrigue. PL ^\ ai. J^ l<-^T 
dsAtl karvul, verb trans. To make peace, to 
live in concord with. 

jUl^I isA'tiydJk, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of Jy^), 
Wish, desire, strong inclination. PL aj^\^\ 
isA'tiydkUnaA. J^ jW^^ ish'tiydjk laral, 
verb trans. To have a strong inclination, to 
desire, to wish. 
•JS--1 asA-rapaX s.f. (6th) (E.) The name of a 
gold coin in value from 17 to 20 rupees. 
Sing, and PL ; (W.) ^^^ as^-rapi, s.f. (3rd). 
PL ^fi (P ^>\). ' 

p izjLL\ dshuftagl, s.f. (3rd) Distraction, un- 
easiness, perturbation, misery. PL ^ aX 

p d:;A^T dshuf-taA, adj. Distracted, distressed, 
miserable, uneasy, disturbed. JU- izxL\ 
dsAuftaA-hdl, Distressed in circumstances, in 

p CJJ^\ asAk, s.m. (2nd) A tear. PL ij^\ 
asAkUnaA, See ^^ . 

^L^T dsA-nd'e, s.m. (5th) Anacquaintance, a 
lover, a friend. PL <^V^^ d^-nd^e-dn) 
^UmIT dsA-^ndyaHA, s.f. (3rd) A mistress, a 
sweetheart, a female friend. PL ^ ey. Also 
(p) li-lT dsAym, s.m. (6th) PL ^^bl^-lT &A- 

p (Jlx^T dsh-iMll, 8.f. (3rd) Acquaintanceship, 
intimacy, friendship. PL ^ aX ^}J ^Jli-lT 
dsA-m'l laral, verb trans. To have or hold 
acquaintanceship ; (Eng. verb intrans.) To be 
intimate, or on terms of intimacy. Jj^4jU<firf 






ask-noLl kawulf verb trans. To make acquaint- 
ance, to fonn intimacy. 
cJb^ ash-naghar^ 8. prop, The name of a town, 
consisting of three separate villages, in the 
Do-ftbah of Peshftwer, properly ^ cu-waJb 
hasht-nagar, Or the eight towns. 

p ^^T dshub, s.m. (2nd) Clamonr, tumult. 
2. Storm, tempest. 3. Terror. 4. Misfor- 
tune. PI. ijjiyiA dshubunah. Also written 

»jyJ^\ ask-Ura'A, s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of A if;^U), 
The first ten days of the month Muharram. 
PI. vj ey. 

J^T drshol, s.m. (2nd) Noise, tumult, disturb- 
ance, outcry, clamour, bustle. PI. ^O^^T 
orsholunah, J^ J>-»^ a-shol kawtil, verb 
trans. To raise or create a tumult, disturbance, 
outcry, etc. 

A L-!*\ ash-yd, s.m. (a PI. of ^) Things, efiects. 

p ij\JtA dMydruih, s.f. (3rd) A bird's nest. PI. 
^ ey. See aIU-. 

J*jit d/AcUf verb trans. (E.) To mix, to mingle 
(as flour and water for bread), to knead, to 
leaven, to excite fermentation. Pres. ^^Ji\ 
dghrgi\ past J^|^ wdrJ^al) fut. ^^ sj \j wd 
hah gKgx\ imp. ^\^ /po-^'^a^"; act. part. 
^>C^T dldiUnkaey, or y^y^ dJ^Uriaey ; past 
part.^jl4,T dJdialaey ; verb. n. <UijJ dlSiandh. 
See Jt^T. 

,JLj,T d/diaM, s.m. (1st) PI. (past part, of J^^T) 

A c-?Lar^\ as'hdb, (of c-^^>.U) Lords, mas- 
ters, companions, friends, apostles. 

A uJl^^ is-rdf, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of uJ-^) Ex- 
penditure, waste, prodigality. PI. ^j^\j^\ e^- 
rdfunaA. J^ uJl^l i^-rd/kawul, verb trans. 
To expend, to waste. 

A J^\ asl, s.m. (2nd) Root, origin, original, 
foundation, lineage. 2. Capital. PI. ^^\ 
asl'Unah. J^\ jj bad a^l, Of mean or bad 
lineage ; JJ\ vlC; Tiek a^l, Of good family 
or lineage. 

i^Lff a^l-i, adj. Original, radical, essential, 
genuine, noble. 

A J^\ a^U, adj. Well-bom, noble, genuine ; 
(Fem.) iL^\ a^lkCh. 

A t^\Jk2^\ i:^-tirdb, B.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of u-^) 
Agitation, perturbation, restlessness, distrac- 
tion, anguish, trouble, chagrin. PI. ^j)\^\ 

A c:.^\tl itd-aat, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of cjt). 
Obeying, submission, reverence, observance. 
J^ Liu^U?) itoHBat kawul, verb trans. To 
obey, to reverence. 

A uJl^l (^fj-rdfy s.m. (PI. of uJ^) Sides, skirts, 
districts, environs, confines. 

A JUtl afrfdl, s pi. (of Jit) Children. JU 
JULl J mydl-o-atjal, Wife and children, 

A ^\ ittiUus, s.f. (1st) (inf. viii of ^^) 
Notice, manifesting, declaring, information, 
knowledge. Jj^ cilti itttUue kawul, verb 
trans. To acquaint, to inform, to apprize. 

A ^jJ^\ atrlas, s.m. (2nd) Satin. PI. i^yJ^\ at- 

Aj<^\ at:^dr, s.m. (PL of j;^) Manners, be- 
haviours, ways, habits. 

A jl^l i^-^r, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of j^) Mani- 
festation, revelation, disclosure, publication, 
display, declaration. PI. ij^j\^\ i^-hdrUnah. 
^}^ J^\ iT^-hdr kanmly verb trans. To dis- 
close, to reveal, to notify, to declare. 

j\^\ ia-tibdr, s.m. (2nd) (inf viii of^) Con- 
fidence, trust, faith, belief, credit, reliance. 2. 
Taking as an example, reasoning by compari- 
son. PI 40jj^L»ic\ uB'ttbdrUnaJi. J^jl-2^' 
i(B'tibdr kawul, verb trans. To give credit to, 
to believe, to trust. 

A jUicl ue-tikdd, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of jAc) 
Confidence, faith, trust. PI. ^j jlfiicl UB-tiJkdd- 
Unak j\sG£\ Ji be UB-tikdda, Faithless. 

A ^5jUii:\ uB'timdM, adj. Trustworthy. 

A c-.'njs^I acB-jaby adj. More, or most wonderftd. 
2. Wondering, being astonished, causing sur- 
prise or admiration ; (Fem.) ^Us:^! acs-jaholK 

A ^^yf\ oiB^Ubah, s.m. (6th) Wonder, astonish- 
ment, miracle, prodigy. Sing, and PI. See 






A ^^y-^ a/B-rabf a.m. (6th) Wild wandering 
Arabs ; the Arabians who live in cities being 
called (-J»^. Sing, and PI. 

A ^^j^\ cuB-Tdbl, s.m. (5th) A wanderer, a vaga- 
bond. PL ^J<t^}js\ cuB-rdbxdn ; (Fern.) (6th) 
^A a!i. Sing, and PI. 

A ^]js\ UB-rd:^, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of ^jC') 
Aversion, avoiding, dislike, averseness. PI. 
ijyfi\j£>\ UB-TdT^Unah. 

A i^\j£\ ttB-rdf, s.m. (9th) Purgatory, a wall 
intervening between heaven and hell. Sing, 
and PI. 

Aj^jil icB'Zdz, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of iZJjc) 
Honouring, magnifying ; respect, honour, at- 
tention, esteem. PI. sj^j\jc\ icB-zdzUnak. 

A ka£\ cue-zam, adj. (compar. of iJac) Greater, 
greatest ; (Fem.) <ulafi^ cue-zamah. 

A in cuB'ld, or J^^, adj. Most high, supreme, 
high, sublime. 

p jUT d-ghJdZy s.m. (9th) Beginning, commence- 
ment. Sing, and PI. J^ J^T d-gf^dz karvul^ 
verb trans. To begin, to conmience. 

d J cl dgh-dtigh, s.m. (6th) Deception, deceit, 
craft, duplicity, cheat, trick, double dealing, 
cunning. Sing, and PI. Also written ijj i\ 
js\ aghary s.m. (9th) Fitting an arrow to the 
bow-string ready to shoot. Sing, and PI. 
J^^\ a-ghar kawul, verb trans. To fit or 
place an arrow to the bow preparatory to 

jj.^T dgfk'Zdkaey, s.m. (1st) A species of thorny 
plant. PI. ^^ I. 

jofiT dgh'Zan, adj. Thorny, prickly (as a thorn- 
tree, etc.) ; (Fem.) AjjiT dgh-zana'h. ^j^ ^Jc\ 
dghrzancHh wanoHh^ s.f. (3rd) A thorn-tree. 
PI. ^ ey. See ,^T. 

fcj^T dgh'Zaey, s.m. (1st) A thorn, a prickle. 
V\. ^i. See ^j\' 

J-£\ agka-jzal, verb trans. (W.) To mix, to 
mingle (as flour and water in making bread), 
to knead, to leaven, to excite fermentation. 
Pres. s^js\ agka-jzl ; past J-c \^ wd-ghajzal ; 
fut. ^^-i <U 1^ wd hah ghajzl ; imp. b^\* 

Kd-ghajzah ; act. part. ^Xljji\ aghajgUn- 
kaey, or ^^/-^ aghajzUntiey ; past part. jJj-i' 
aghajzati (PL) ; verb. n. 4jji\ a^ajzana'h. 
See J4T. 

Ji**»iT dghustal, verb trans. To dress, to clothe, 
to array, to attire, to apparel, to accoutre, to 
wrap up, to envelope. Pres. ^^x»iT cuj^undi ; 
past c:.^.ur1j wd-gkust ; fut. ^^Xii ij \^ wd 
bah g^undl; imp. sx^\^ wd-g^undah; act. 
part. ^jJoywwybiT dghustUnkaey, or ^ja^^iT 
dg^tistUnaey ; past part. ^^Jcu^iT a^tMto&(^ ; 
verb. n. i \.*\M*f\ dgkmtandh^ or ^^^SmxT 
< l".,«,M t\ dgfmstalaey , adj. (past part.) Dressed, 
attired, clothed, arrayed, accoutred, enveloped ; 
(Fem.) ^y^^^ dghusfaU. PL (Masc. and 
Fem.) j^ I. 

J^MMfT dghusta/vul, verb trans, (caus.) To cause 
to dress, attire, array, etc. ; to dress out, to 
decorate. Pres. t^jX^T dgAundawl ; past 
d^liM^lj wd-ghtistdwuh, or ji^liuui^j n?a-j^ttf- 
^a;r(7 ; fiit. ^^x^sj tj Tra bah ghundawi ; imp. 
i[^Xii\j wd-ghu7idawah ; act. part. ^jXiji^UMiT 
dghttstawUnkaey, or^jyjwuxT a^t^Miri^iaey ; 
past part. ^ji^uiT dgktistawulaey ; verb. n. 
dJ^jLyuil aghtistawuna'h. 

A wJji^ aghlab, adj. (compar. of l-JU) Supe- 
rior, stronger; adv. Most likely; (Fem.) 
dJiit aghlabcCh, 

<diT dghalahf adj. Pleasing, handsome, good- 
looking, agreeable. 2. s.f. (3rd) (W.) Assist- 
ing by one*s prayers (particularly a devotee). 
PL ^ ey. See Jil-j*. 

^jliT dgkalaey^ adj. Pleasing, agreeable, gratify- 

" ing. 2. Good, excellent, prime ; (Fem.) Jil 
aghali, PL (Masc. and Fem.) jc f . 

Ji^^T dghostalf verb trans. To dress, to clothe, 
to array, to accoutre, etc. J^^T dghosta- 
wul, verb trans, (caus.) To cause to dress, io 
deck out, etc. See J-.^rT and Jy,M*fT. 

iUi^^T dghqstandhy or ^^^a-wuiT dgkitstan, s.f. (3rd) 
(verb, n.), PL ^^ ^ ; s.m. (9th) Dress, cloth- 
ing, raiment, apparel, costume, habiliment, 
uniform, etc. Sing, and PL 






p (^^T dgho^j 8.m. (2nd) The embrace, the side, 
the space between the bosom and the arms. 2. 
An armful. PI. KiyJ^yA aghoshunah ; ^^ 
Jj^ aghosh kawul, or J^ 4^^ u^y^"^ ^^ P^^ 
aghosh k'tchey^ or kshey mrval, verb trans. To 
take in the arms, to embrace. 

A jLil agk-ydr, s.m. (5th) (PI. of^) Stranger, 
foreigner, a rival, an miknown person. PI. 
^IjLil agh-yaran. *jLil agh-ydr'ak, s.f. 
(3rd). V\.^ey. 

piS a-gherTy s.m. (2nd) Indigestion, flatulence, 
dyspepsia. PI. ^jj^^ a-gherrUnah, 

J^l a-gherral, verb trans. To trouble or afflict 
with indigestion or dyspepsia. Pres. c^^fil 
aghern ; past *j-x\ J wii-agherrah ; fut. <u J 
g?^l rvu hah agherrl ; imp. 2f--il J w?w- 
agherrah \ act. part, ^^joj -ji\ agherrUnkaey, 
or j^jij--il a^errUnaey ; past part. J^ j r< 
agherralaey ; verb. n. ^j-xl agkerranah. 

^^\ agherralaey, adj. Troubled with dys- 
pepsia, dyspeptic; (Fem.) J^l agherrali. 
PI. (Masc. and Fem.) 4^ ^. ' 

^^^1 agherraey, adj. Dyspeptic ; (Fem.) j^\ 
aghexri. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ I. "See 

A c:.^! a/a^, s.m. (2nd) Calamity, misfortune, 
wretchedness. PI. <)l3^T a/atHnah. ^jlfcj ij:^oT 
o/o^ Tvahalaey, Unfortunate, overtaken with 
calamity, wretched ; (Fem.) Jjb^ c:^T a/a^ 
Tvahali. PI. (Masc. and Fem.)^j^ u 

P c-^liiT df-tdb, s.m. (9th) The sun, sunshine. 
Sing; and PI. e^^^y c-^liiT df-tdb parast, 
A worshipper of the sim ; (Fem.) <tL-»^ t— jyT 
df-tdh parastoHh, 

p ^liiT df'tdhcCh, s.f. (3rd) An ewer, a kind of 
pitcher. PL ^ ey. See ji^J, 

p ^^liiT df'tab% adj. Solar, of the sun. 2. Faded, 

p ijliil uf-tddah, adj. (p. fallen, descended) 
Humble, meek. 

P jji^jl a/ro^, act. part, of ^^;S^4/S^ Illuminating, 
enlightening, kindling. Used only in compo- 
sition; a8,jjy\ ^^^.^ jahdn-afrozy Enlighten- 
ing the world. 

\J\ af-rd, s.m. (9th) The name of a demon. 
Sing, and PI. 

A tlyl \f-^dt, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of L^) Excess, 
superfluity, abundance. V\.i:i^\jMf-rdtunah, 

Vj^jjjfi dfndrgdr, s.m. (9th) The creator, 
Sing^and PI. 

p *J^^T df-^ndahf adj. Created, creature. 

v^jjyT df-TiMj s.m. (1st) PI. The name of a 
tribe of Af gh &ns. notorious robbers, the bug- 
bear of the Pe^fiwerls. v,^J^jiT af-rtdaeyy 
Sing. A male of the tribe. l^^^T df-rida'l, 
s.f. (6th) A female of the above. Sing, and 
PI. See fc/J^^T. 

p ^j;^T df-nn, or dforrln, s.m. (2nd) Praise, 
applause, acclamation. PI. ^yij!\ df-rlnUnah 
or dfannUnah. 2. interj. Bravo ! well done ! 
jjj^ ^jlji\ af-rin wa-yal, To praise, to ap- 

p iOLil af'Sdnah, s.f (3rd) A tale, story, ro- 
mance, fiction. PI. ^ ey, 

V jJ3\ af'Sar, s.m. (6th) A crown, a diadem. PI. 
^j^\ af'Sardn. 

p irj^l af'Surdah, adj. Frozen, withered, faded ; 
dispirited, dejected, melancholy, low-spirited. 
J J hCj^\ af'Surdah'dily adj. Faint-hearted, 
low-spirited, dejected. 

p ijMyui\ af-soSy s.m. (2nd) Sorrow, concern, 
regret, vexation. PI. &jy^yj^\ afsosilnah, 2. 
interj. Alas ! ah ! J^ \j^y^^ af-sos kawuly 
verb trans. To sigh, to regret, to mourn, to 
grieve, to lament, to bewail, to moan. Also 
written \ji4y^\ ap-808f etc. 

p ^y**i\ af'Suny s.m. (2nd) Incantation, a spell, 
enchantment, sorcery, fascination. PI. <oy^**J\ 
afsunUnah, J^ j^^' af-sUn kawul. To en- 
chant, to fascinate, to cast a spell over one. 
J ^y^\ af-sUngary s.m. (6th) An enchanter, 
a sorcerer. PI. ^Jgardn. aj fjy**i\ afsUn- 
gara'hf s.f. (3rd) A sorceress, an enchantress. 
PI. ^ ey, 

p ^luJl af'shdny pres. part, of j^jJluLil (used in 
comp.) Scattering, shedding, dispersing; as, 
^\J^\ J/ gul-afshdriy Strewing roses ; jj 
^llil zar-afshdn, Scattering gold. 






A J-flil af'T^al, adj. (compar. of J-^U) More or 
most eminent, pre-eminent. 2. A proper 
name ; (Fern.) ^Lait af^^aldh. 

J^\ af-ghdn, s.m. (6th) The name of a power- 
fiil nation inhabiting Afg^ftnistftn, Bupposed 
to be the descendants of the Lost Tribes. 3. 
An Afghan. 3. The name of the grandson of 
Malik Tftlat (Saul), king of Israel, from 
whom the Afghftns, called also Afgh^i^y 
claim descent. According to the Tazkirat-nl- 
Mulak, " the original meaning of the word 
Afgh&nah is fighJan^ a Persian word, which 
means complaint or lamentation, because Ma- 
lik Afghan, the ancestor of the Afgh&ns, was a 
cause of lamentation to the devil, the jinns, 
and mankind. From the constant use of the 
word, the vowel-point irr) kasrah wb& dropped, 
after which the other letters could not be 
sounded without the aid of a vowel, and aH/- 
i'Wasl was placed before the ^, and thus made 
afghanah'' See "Kemarks on the Afgh&n 
people and language : " Journal of Bengal 
Asiatic Society, vol. xxiii, page 560, and the 
Introduction to my Pu^to Grammar. PL 
^UUil afshanan. lUlul afghd,na'h, s.f (3rd) 
An Afghan female. PI. ^ ey. JUil afghanl, 
s.f. (3rd) The language of the Afghans, the 
Pu^to (W.), or Pulflito (E.). PL ^ a\ 2. 
adj. Of the Afghans, relating to the Afghans. 

A fjA\ ufuki 8 1^* (2nd) The horizon. 2. A tract 
or region of the earth. PL ^^fj\ ufukUnah, 
or, A PL jUT af&k. 

Vj\ii\ af-gar, adj. Wounded ; (Fem.) ^)ii\ of- 
garah, jlfil J j dilrafgdr, Heart-broken. 

A ^l^\ if'las, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of ^M) Pen- 
ury, poverty, indigence, bankruptcy. PL ^jJlil 

A ^^lil cLf-ldtUn^ B. prop. Plato. 

A cM af-Wi, 8.m. (6th) (PL of vlAi) The 
heavens, celestial orbs or spheres. Sing, and PL 

A -j4i\ if'tijy s.m. (9th) Paralysis. Sing, and 

PL See^ 
A ^y^\ af-yUn, s.m. (6th) Opium. Sing, and 
PL SeecJby. 

p %iy^\ af-yHni^ adj. An opium-eater, a sot. See 

^ ^\ and ^b^. 

A «.:>w«\i\ Hid^-maJty s.m. (2nd) (infl iv of #IJ) 
Besting, staying, abode, residence, dwelling. 
2. Being earnest in prayer or supplication, 
rising up and sitting down in prayer. PI. 
4jyL^1i1 iJkdrfnatUnaA. J^^ u:.^v«lj\ ikdrtnat 
kanml, verb trans. To rest, to stay, to abide, 
to dwell. 2. To rise up and sit down at 
prayer, to repeat prayers with earnestness ; or 
Jj^ uu-^lSt ikdrfnat waycU. 

A jlil iJk'bdl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of JJ) Pros- 
perity, good fortune, auspices. PL ^jSUil ik- 
balUnah. JCi^ J Lit ik-bdl-fnand, adj. Pros- 
perous, fortunate; (Fem.) »x^ JLit ik-bdlr 
tnanda h. 

A t jcjl ik-tidd, s.f. (inf. viii of iZJjJi) Imitation, 
following (E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^j\ jcit 
ik'tiddwl. Jj^ t jcjl ijk'tidd kawul, verb trans. 
To follow, to imitate. 

A (jwJjl ak-^las, adj. (comp. of (j^oi) Very or 
most holy, most sacred; (Fem.) ^jil aJk- 

Aj\^\ ik^dr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of ^ly) Confes- 
sion, avowal, affirmation, confirmation, agree- 
ment, attestation, assertion. PL ^jj]Ji\ ik-rarr 
Uriah, Jj^^l/' ik-rdr kawul, verb trans. To 
confess, to avow, to agree. d^\jj\ji\ ifc^dr 
ndma'h, s.f. (3rd) A bond, a contract, a written 
agreement. J J^^5/^ ik-rdredal, verb intrans. 
To become confessed, avowed, asserted, af- 
firmed. Jj *\^\ ik-rdrawul, verb trans. To 
confess, to avow, to agree to. 

A jj5/' dk^dn, s.m. (6th) (PL of ^^y) Equals, 
cotemporaries. Sing and PL 

A v-^1 a^-rab, adj. (comp. of c--^^) More 
or most near, nearer, nearest. 2. (Pu^to) 
Wretched, xmfortunate, wicked, miserable; 
(Fem.) ijji\ ak-rabcCh, 

A \ij\ ak'ribd, s.m (6th) (pi. of c-^y) Kin- 
dred, relations, friends, allies. Sing, and PL 

A f^\ ik-Hm, s.m. (2nd) Clime, region, country, 
climate. PL ^y^\ ik-timmaA. (a PL ^.JliI 





A (^\y\ alc-wam, s.m. (6th) (PL of pi) Tribes, 
people, nations, castes. Sing, and PL 

l^f orka^ s.m. (5th) An uncle, a paternal unde. 
PL ^^\ orkdgan. See » J, UU, and ^y. 

^ jS\ ak'bar, adj. (comp. o( j^) Greater, very 
great, greatest ; (Fern.) 9jJ\ ak-bara'A. 

A ji^\ ak'^ary adj. (comp. o{ j^) Most, very 
much, many^ much, frequent. 2. adv. Gener- 
ally, for the most part, firequently, mostly ; 
(Fem.) gji^\ ak-^wraHi. 

J\ ak-oTy s.m. (2nd) Giddiness, swinmiing of 
the head. PL ^^f\ aJi-arUnak. 

A /^^\ tk-rdm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. i v of m^) Honour- 
ing, complimenting, treating with attention; 
ceremony, veneration, respect. PL ^y\f\ 
ik-rdmUnah. J^^ J^^\ ih^dm kannd, verb 
trans. To honour, to venerate, to respect. 

A 2(\^\ ik-rdh, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of ifj) Aversion, 
abhorrence, detestation, horror, forcing against 
one's wilL PL ij^\^\ ik-rdhUnah, See cSf. 

A Mf\ ak-raMy adj. (comp. of f^^) MerciAil, 
very kind, bountiful, generous ; (Fem.) 6^^\ 

p y^^\ ak-nUn, adv. Now, at this time. 

j^ ^\ aka-4>aka, s.m. (6th) The name of a bird 
whose voice is imitated by these words : hence 
the name. 2. A play amongst children. Sing. 
and PL 

Ji^ ^\ ako-Mel, s.m. (6th) The name of an 
AfghSn tribe, a male of the tribe. Sing, and 
PL dL^ /I ako-Melah, s.f. (3rd) A female 
of the above. PL ^^ ey. 

j^\ okofT, s.m. (6th) A wabut. Sing, and PL 

1^ ako-rrdhy s. prop. The name of a town 
about half way between Attak and Pe^ftwer, 
the chief place of the Khattak tribe. 

\^^\ ako-rrdetfy s.m. (1st) Ked leather or 
morocco. PL ^ I. 

s^j^\ ai(hjn, s.m. (1st) PL The name of an 
A%h&n tribe. i^j^\ ako-zaey, Sing. A male 
of the above. i^Jj^' ako-zaX s.f. (6th) A fe- 
male of the above. Sing, and PL 

p i\f\ drgdh^ adj. Informed of, acquainted with. 

apprized; intelligent, aware, vigilant j or ^Ifl 
jc^ drffdk-fnand; (Fem.) 2^^;^ 9\f\ drffdh- 
vumddh. Jju^ *l^ d-gdJi kedal^ verb in- 
trans. To become aware of, to become apprized 
of. J^ *l^ drffdh kawul, verb trans. To ap- 
prize of, to make aware of. 

jf\ drffor, s.m. (2nd) A kind of perfume, aloe- 
wood (b.^\). PL ^jj^ d-gar-UnaK 

vj\ agar^ conj. If. See a^. 

J\ agar, s.m. (6th) A slave, a captive. PL ^J\ 
agardn. ifjf\ agar-a*A, s.f. (3rd) A female 
slave or captive. PL ^^ ey. See ^|^ and 

lUfc^ or i&^^y 

p ^J\ agar-dkihf conj. Although, though, not- 

^J\ ag-ramaeg, s.m. (1st) A yawn. It gape. 2* 
A belch, eructation. PL ^ l. J^ ^J^ <V' 
ramaeg kawul, verb trans. To belch, to yawn^ 
to gape. See ^jj^* 

^\ Organ, s.m. T5th) The name of a kind of 
lark (Alauda aggia. Buch.) V\. ^J^\ orgamn. 
(HI. ^0. 

4^'j^l ag^dfraX s.f. (6th) The head ropes for 
picketing a horse. Sing and PL (m.) 

P i^ drgah, adj. Informed. See *\^T. 

^ arga% s.f. (6th) The egg of any bird. Sing, 
and PL See U and ^^. 

JJi^t age-yil, verb trans. To chafe, to taunt, to 
irritate, to excite, to rouse, to twit, to play 
upon. 2. To sew up, to stop up (as the mouth 
of a sack) (W.) Pres. ^<--^^ oge-yl ; past 
i^\ J wvroge-yah ; fut. ^<^t ^ j wu bah 
age-yx ; imp. i^\ J wuroge-yah ; act. part. 
^yJ\ age-yUnkaeg, or ^yiJ\ age-yUwieg ; 
past part. ,ji--/l age-yalaey ; verb. n. Ai--^\ 

A JT dl, son. (6th) Children, family, race, pro- 
geny, ofbpring, dynasty. Sing, and PL |» Jf 
JT da ddam dl, The race of Adam. Si^\ JT 
dl aw'ldd, Ofepring, progeny, race. 

A 31 illd, adv. If not, if, besides, except, other- 
wise, else, but, unless ; or Jl ^ wo-ilU^. 

A c^ST d-ldt, s.m. (6th) (PL of k::J\) Tools, in- 
struments, utensils. 






Ji\ a-ldj, B.m. (5th) A comber or carder of cotton 
(corrup. of A. *JU.). PI. ^\^'i\ Orldjdn. ^'i\ 
orldja'A, s.f. (tird) A female who cards cotton. 

PI. v^ ey, 

^flj-31 a-ldjl, B.f. (3rd) An instrument for sepa- 
rating the cotton firom the seed. PI. ^V aX 
Jj^ jVT^^ a-%'t kawul, verb trans. To card or 
comb cotton. 

B i5>^J^ ildr^l, s.f. (3rd) Cardamoms. PI. Jg^ 
a\ See J-Jb. 

^lJII OrldsVl, adj. Absent, invisible, the invisible 

HI p\ aldro, s.m. (2nd) A bonfire. PI. aJj^\ 
cUorO-Unah. See ^jj. 

A ^<to]ll ife-Af, adj. Divine. 2. interj. Oh my God ! 

A isJli\ al-battah, adv. Certainly, indeed, posi- 
tively, really, absolutely. See aL«» ^. 

A (juJT ^&i^, s.m. (2nd) A tool, an instrument, 
apparatus, membrum virile, veretrum anima- 
lium. PI. ^jslT OrlatUnaA, or izSi] a-ldt (a). 

A WUl il-tija, s.f. (6th) (inf. viii of U) Fleeing 
to any one for protection, refuge, protection ; 
petition, entreaty, (E.) Sing, and PI. (W.) 
PI. v^jl^Ul il-tijdwl. 

A ci^Usll \l-tifat, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of u-^) 
Friendship, kindness, respect, regard, atten- 
tion, courtesy, PI. A3ylijJ\ ilrtifatUnah. 
Jj^ c:.?liJl il-tifat kawul, verb trans. To have 
regard or respect, to attend to, to show kind- 
ness, etc. 

A (jwUsH il'timds, s.m. (2nd) (inf. vin of j^-^J) 
Beseeching, petitioning, supplication, prayer, 
request. PI. jlJ^^UsII il'timdsUnaA. ^UiJl 
Jj^ il'timds kawul, verb trans. To beseech, to 
petition, J^ ^^Uall il-timds laral, verb trans. 
To have a desire, wish, request, etc. 

ijt\ uljdh, s.f. (3rd) Plunder, spoil, prey, booty, 
pillage. PL ^ ey. J^ iJi\ uljah kawul, verb 
trans. To plunder, to rob, to pillage. See jU. 

T ^\ il-dit, s.m. (5th) An ambassador, an 
envoy, a legate. V\. J^Ml-dildn. l^J^\ 
il'^l gar%, s.f. (3rd) The employment of an 
envoy or ambassador. PI. ^ a'l. 

A JlLl iU^, adv. Now, at present, just now. 

^\ u'las, s.m. (2nd) A large family, a clan, a 

tribe, a sept, a crowd. PI. ijyJi\ u'lasHnah. 

_ftL«* _mJ1 u'lasl spdrhl, A militia-man. ^^\ 

jL^ tOasl lashkar (W.), or laWuxr (E.J, A 

militia force, (t. (j^jJO. 

^^\ u^hsi, adj. Clannish, of or belonging to a 
tribe or family. 2. Militia. 

A (^Lffll aJr^iyd^, s.m. (9th) Complaint, com- 
plaining, demanding justice. 2. interj. Alas ! 
Sorrow I Sing, and PI. 

A bUJl al-fas^, s.m. (6th) PI. of lail) Words, 
sounds, terms. 

p^ i-fi» oMf be, s.f. (9th) The a, b, c ; the 
alphabet. Sing, and PI. 

A cu^t ul'fat, s.m. (2nd) Friendship, affection, 
attachment, kindness, intimacy, familiarity. 
PI. ^Jj:Ji^ ul-fatUnah, J^c:^f ulfai kawul, 
verb trans. To show affection towards or at- 
tachment. J^ i^s^\ ul'fat laral, verb trans. 
To have Mendship for, to have or hold in- 
timacy with. 

<tii!T drluftah, adj. Distracted, distressed, uneasy, 
disturbed, wretched, miserable, divided (cor- 
rup. ? of p iziJ^\). J Ju^ ^T dAuftah kedal, 
verb intrans. To become or grow distracted, 
wretched, miserable, etc. Jj^ isjS\ d-luftak 
kawul, verb trans. To make or render misera- 
ble, distracted, wretched, etc. 

C^\ aJrak, s.m. (5th) A boy, a youth to the 
period of puberty. PI. ^Ifll al'akdn. 2. adj. 
Small, yoxmg, youthful, juvenile ; (Fern.) d^\ 
al'OkoHh ; and s.f. (3rd) A young girl. PI. ^ 
ey. ^\^ CS^ cU'ak wdlaey, s.m. (1st) C!hild- 
hood, youth, smallness, etc. PI. ^y wdli. 
See CJh^. 

A aU\ allak, s. prop. God, the Almighty. aUI 

jJi\ allaku akbar, God is great. aU\ ^I aUak- 

allak, An interjection expressive of surprise 

and approbation, ^j aUI allak re, Oh my 

God ! My God I Good God ! 

^\i aUI allak'bdsh, s.m. (2nd) Salutation on 
meeting, greeting, shaking hands. PI. ^t 
<0^b aUak'bdsh'Unak. J/ Ja\i aUI aUah- 





bash kawul, verb trans. To greet, to salute, to 
shake hands on meeting. 

p ^Ul\ ahnds, s.m. (2nd) A diamond, adamant. 
PL <Uj^UH al^masUnah. ^Ull almd^, adj. 
Of diamond, of the colour of a diamond. 

T Jii Jf cUlam shallam, s.m. (6th) Trifling talk 
or business, toying, wickedness. Sing, and PI. 

^\ a-lu, s.m. (6th) A kind of plum. Sing, and 
PI. ^lijH a-ln-balu, A cherry. \j\sr^\ cdu 
boMio>ra, A kind of plum. 

^^\ al'Wdn, s.m. (2nd) A kind of cloth of a 
fine texture. PI. djy\^\ al-wdnUnaA. 

JJjlT dl'Watal, or cU-rmtal (W.) verb intrans. 
To fly, to pass through the air as a bird ; Pres. 
^^yT dlHwazl ; past d-'jl)^ ?vdl'7vat ; ftit \^ 
i^jji ^ wd bah Iwazt; imp. tj^\^ wdl^oazah) 
act. part. ^^^yjJT dl^atUnkaey, or ^jijf\ 
dt-watUnaey ; past part ^^^j^ dl^wcUalaey, 
or ^jlT dl^ataey ; verb. n. WjIT dl-wcUana'h, 
or asVjJT al-wdtah. See Jjjj/f . 
>-jH alu-ja'hf s.m. (6ih) A kind of plum very 
plentiAil at Pegh&wer. 

>jl\ (Uu^aJiy s.m. (6th) A kind of plum. 
Sing, and PI. See preceding. 

p jrjjTf dludah, adj. (past part, of ^jjTf) Stained, 
soiled^ besmeared, polluted, covert, etc. ^^ 
jrJjST M^^ dludah, Smeared or covered with 

,J&jj!T dludah'fft, s.f. (3rd) Contamination, de- 
filement, pollution, stain, foulness. PI. ^ a\ 

J^jJT dl-fvazawul (E.) or al-wtizanml (W.) verb 
trans, (cans.) To cause or make to fly, to put 
to flight. Pres. v/(^^T dl-wazawi ; past »^\)ji\^ 
wdlrwa^zdwuhfOT ^^j^\^rcdl'Wazd7vo; fut. <o \^ 
i^jjjji fed bah Iwazawl ; imp. }i^j^\^ wdl-wazor 
ftaii ; act. part. ^J-^jjjjj^T dl-wazawUnkaey, or 
^jj^yT dl^azawUnaey ; past part. ^jy^T a^ 
wazawtdaey ; verb. n. ^jfJjIT d^azamunalh, 

T ;jM^( tt-/i2«, s.m. (2nd) A large family, a clan, 
a tribe, a sept. PI. i4y^^\ ulUa-Unah. ^^\ 
u-lUsl, adj. Clannish, relating to a tribe or 
family. 2. Militia troops. See ^t. 

^J^\ Or-lU garda-gaOy s.m. (6th) A very large 
kind of plum, a nectarine. Sing and PI. 

Jjlf alu-^al, adj. All of a heap, head over heels, 
by the run, plump (as in falling) ; (Fem.) dljSt 
altirivalah. JJjiy Jjl' alu^vai pre-watai, 
verb intrans. To fall suddenly, to come down 
plump or by the run, to fall head over heels, 
or all of a heap, to topple. 

Jijji\ al-w(hyal, verb trans. To scorch, to roast, 
to parch with heat, etc. ; (met.) to perplex 
with grief, to aggrieve, to distress. Pres. 
^jijH al-Tvo-yl ; past ij^^\ J TVUrol^o^aA ; 
rat.jj[jj)\ ij ^ wu bah ai-wo-yl ; imp. ^jjH J 
wurdlrwo-yah ; act. part ^^^^j[^^ al-w(hyiliu 
haey, or ^j3^jjj< al-wchyUnaey ; past part. 
^^JjjijH c^chyalaey; verb. n. ^j^\ cU^o- 

^Jijjjll al^ihyalaey, adj. (past part.) Scorched, 
much burned, parched; afflicted, distressed, 
heart-scorched ; (Fem.) J^^jli al-wchyoR. PL 
(Masc. and Fem.) ^ I. 'See ^^jiy and t/jlL' 

^i^\ alawaey, adj. Roasted, burnt (particularly 
through grief, etc.) ; (Fem.) ji\ alawi. PL 
(Masc. and Fem.) ^^l. 

A di\ ilah, s.prop. (jK)d. \^\ ildh-d, Oh Gk>d I 
aUI ^l <dn /a e/a^ illallah, There is no other 
god than God. 

A aI^I il'hdm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of ^)- In- 
spiration, revelation. PL ^y\^\ il-hdmllnah. 
J ju^^l^t il'hdmedal, verb intrans. To become 
inspired. J^l^f il-hdmawul, or J^^ aI^I i/- 
hdm kawulf verb trans. To inspire, to make 

A ^u^l^t il'hdmiyah, s m. (6th) The namie of an 
antinomian sect. Sing, and PL 

uJl*«^l al-hany, s.m. (2nd) Ebullition or burst of 
grief, convulsive sobbing or weeping (gener- 
ally applied to males rather than females). 
PL ^ji!i^\ al-hang-Unah. J^ dJJ^Vfl^ al-ha/ng 
kawul, verb trans. To weep or sob with vio- 

A j^\ ilahi, adj. Divine. 2. interj. Oh (Jod I 

A J\ ih, prep. Up to, until. 

A ^jwwlJ\ ilyds, s. prop. The prophet Elias, said 
to be the grandson of Shem, son of Noah. 
^ji^U\ ilydS'Zl, s.m. (1st) PL The name of 





. an Afgh&n clan. i^j(j*^^\ ilyds-zaey, Sin^. 
A male of the above, ^^j ;j*iU\ ilyds-zaX 
8.f. (6th) A female of the above. Sing, and PI. 

vj>Jj d^f alit-patit, adj. Higgledy-piggledy, 
topsy-turvy. 2. s.m. (9th) Conftision, sub- 
version, transposition. Sing, and PI. 

yw^Jj ^j^\ atiH-pahU, adj. and 8.m. (9th). Sing, 
and PI. See preceding word. (hi. kJL^^ C^\). 

^1 anif s.m. (6th) (comp. of B. aT) The mango 
tree and its firuit. Sing, and PI. 

A Ul ammdf conj. But, moreover, however, never- 
theless. See jJ^. 

A CL>;U\ imdrat, s.m. (2nd) Government, office, 
dignity of ^^^ which see. PI. ^^U1 imd- 
ratUnah, • 

A hjWi ammdrah, adj. Imperious, headstrong, 
obstinate. HjWi ^jtJu fiafs-i-ammarah, Con- 
cupiscence, cupidity, lust. 

P (jmUI amds, s.m. (2nd) Swelling, a swelling. 
PL *^yA^\ amdsUnah, See c^^^- 

« jjjll a1 um-ul-walada! h, s f. (3rd) (in law sense) 
A female slave who has borne a child to her 
master {lit Mother of children). PI. ^ ey. 
See icj^jymi, 

A aUI imdm, s.m. (5th) A leader in religious 
matters, a prelate, a patriarch, a priest. 2. 
The large bead in a rosary, which remains 
fixed in the hand and not turned over in tell- 
ing the beads. PI. ^UUf imdmdn. 

A l::.^v«U\ imdnnit, s.m. (2nd) The office or dig- 
nity of an Imftm. PI. ^jl^\^\ imdm-atUnah. 

A A^UI imdmit/ah, s.m. (6th) Followers of the 
Imftm iEall, who consider him the rightful 
ImAm immediately after Muhammad. Sing. 
• and PI. 

A ^i^\ amdn, s.m. (2nd) Quarter, protection, 
safety, mercy, grace. PI. Ajy U\ amdnUnah. 
i^yi' jjUl amdn ^OihtcU (W.), or ghojdital 
(E.), verb trans. To demand quarter or protec- 
tion. J^ jy j^U^ mnidn war-kawul, verb trans. 
To give quarter, to grant mercy or protection. 

A j^UI imdn. See ^Uj'. 

A c:^Ul amd-nat, s.m. (2nd) Deposit, charge, 
anything given in trust. 2. Faith, religion. 

V\. ^j:jW\ amd-natUnah. j\ci\j:^\^\amdrnat'' 
ddr, s.m. (5th) A trustee, a guardian. 2. adj. 
Trusty, honest. PI. ^j\j c:^U< amdrnat* 
ddrdn; (Fem.) ij\j ^z^\^\ amd-nat-ddra'A. 
PI. vj ey. v^b c:^Ul amd-nat-ddri, 8.f. 
(3rd) Quardianship, agency, fiuthfiilness, trost, 
PI. 1^ at. J^4^ c;^Ut amd-nat ye^anml 
(W.), oryelAawul (E.), verb trans. To deposit, 
to leave in charge or trust, to intrust. <^.J Uf 
J^ v:;.^U^ amd-nat ]d^ydnaJt Aawul, verb 
trans. To embezzle anything left in one's 
charge, to be guilty of breach of trust. 

^jUf amdnl, adj. All, the whole, entire. 2. adv. 
Entirely, wholly. 

A ij\^\ amdnl. s.f. (3rd) Security. 2. C!harge, 
trust, deposit PI. ^^ a\ 

pjLtl amrhdr^ s.m. (2nd) A stack or rick of 
com, a granary, a grain store. PL ^j^^L^f 

Pj^-^1 am-hur^ s.m. (2nd) Pincers, forceps, 
tweezers. PL i^^jy^\ am-bUrUnoA. 

A fj:,^ ummatf s.m. (2nd) People, sect, a people 
of the same religion. PL Ajf^\ ummatUnaA. 

A ^^IficU^ im-tikdn, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of ^^^) 
Proof, trial, examination, experiment, tempta- 
tion. PL JLjyU^l im-tU^dnUnak. ^l^u«t 
JxwurwT im-tikdn dkbistcU, verb trans. To ex- 
amine, to try, to prove. J^ ^lacU\ m4ihdn 
kanrulf verb trans. To make experiment, to 
prove, to examine. 

A jl^\ im-tiydz, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of j^) 
Discrimination, distinction, discretion, sepa- 
ration. 2. Pre-eminence. 3. Qood breeding, 
ceremony. PL dj^j{;C>^\ im-tiydzilnak, jUiL^f 
J^ im-tiyd:: kaKul, verb trans. To discrimi- 
nate, to discern, to distinguish. 

p vJ*5^T dmadam, s.f. (3rd) (from ^x^l) Import, 
income, revenue, ways. PL Jc du 

kj^\ amr, s.m. (9th) An order, a conmiand. 2. 
The imperative mood in granmiar. 3. Affidr, 
transaction. Sing, and PL uJ^^^^ amM- 
macsrHf, A lawful or known order or com- 
mand, a self-evident duty. ^ ^y^ amr-o- 
nahi, Conmiand and prohibition. J^^^ <im^ 





kawul, or J^ji^ war-kawul, verb trans. To 
order, to command. 

A \j^\ um-rd, A.m. (5th) (PI. of^^-^O Nobles, 
grandees (generally), a noble; also ^^Jj^\ 
um-rdydn, or ^tfU^l um-rdgdn, 

8 CJ^\ cm-rat, s.m. (6th) The guava. Sing, 
and PL 

A 0^1 am-rad^ adj. Beardless, a handsome youth, 
cu^ jj^\ am-rad parastf A sodomite. 

s ^^^y\ am-rUt, s.m. (6th) A guava. Sing, 
and PL 

4<-/»l um-rraey, adj. Prior, former, previous, 
preceding, foremost ; (Fern.) ,^^\ um-rral. 
See ^^1, ^j^\, ^jandj^j^. 

L«^t am-sd, s.f. (6th) A staff, a stick, a bludgeon, 
a club. (E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^yL^\ 
am-mwt. See \^mAJb. 

^jLUl um-^alan, adj. Immature, crude, un- 
ready, imcooked, raw, unripe, embryonic ; 
(Fem.) <dL«/tl um-ghalaruih. J^T ^JjUI or 
JjlU>^ wm-^a&» ddkawul, or ghor-zawul, 
verb trans. To miscarry. 

A ^UUl im-kdn (inf. iv of ^^) s.m. (9th) Pos- 
sibility ; contingent existence. Sing, and PL 
fJJ f^\^\ im-kdn laral, verb trans. To have 
or possess possibility, (Elng. verb intrans.) to 
be possible. 

A ^\ amn, s.m. (6th) Security, safety. Sing, 
and PL J^ ^\ ij pah amn kawul, verb 
trans. To bring into safety or security. 

p is3^y%\ dm^Mitahy past part. Learned, taught. 
J^ iz^y%\ dmo^ak kawul, verb trans. To 
teach, to make learned. J ju^ ^s>:>^y\ dmjoldi- 
tah kedal, verb trans. To become taught. 

A ^\ ummt, or (W.) ammi, adj. Illiterate, un- 
learned, uneducated. 

p Ju^l umld, s.m. (2nd) Hope, expectation, trust, 
dependence. PL ^jJu^l umldunah. ^J ju^l 
umid laral, verb trans. To have or possess hope, 
trust, or expectation. J^ ju^t umld kawul, 
verb trans. To hope, to trust, to place reliance 
on, or dependence in. i^f j^ *^' umid war- 
hawuly verb trans. To give hope or expectation. 

P^\^ju^\ umld^dT, adj. Hopeful, hoping, ex- 


pecting. 2. s.m. (5th) An expectant, a de- 
pendant, a candidate. PL ^|;|^Ju^l umxd- 
wdrdn; (Fem.) 2[^^jju^\ umid-wdra7u 2. s.f. 
(3rd) A pregnant woman. PL ^^ ey. 

p j^^l^Ju^' umld-wdn, s.f. (3rd) .Expectation, 
hope, hopefiilness, dependence. PL jA aX 

Jij^\ Ormlr, s.m. (5th) A conmiander, a grandee, 
a nobleman, a lord. PL ^\^\ a-mirdn. See 

A P ^5;-^' ormlrdnaA, adj. Princely, lordly, be- 
fitting or worthy of a noble. 

ifj\jj^\ Orimr'Zddah, s.m. (5th) (Masc. and 
Fem.) Nobly-born, the son of a noble or. 
lord. V\.,J^c^jJ^\a^m^r-zddah-gdn)^J^QTa,) 
fj^*^\jj^\ Ormlr-zddah-gdni. 

A \^j^ armlrl, s.f. (3rd) Lordship, sway, the 
dignity of a noble. PL ^V a*l. 

A ^j^'\ d-min, adv. Amen, so be it. 

A ^j^\ Orfntn, adj. Constant, faithful, safe, 
guarded. 2. s.m. (5th) A trustee, a guardian, 
an imipire, an arbitrator, an inspector, an in- 
vestigator. PL ^^li-^\ a-mlndn ; (Fem.) <u-^^ 
ormncHh, s.f. (3rd). PL ^ ey. 

c-->y ^j^\ armln-tob, s.m. (2nd) Guardianship, 
trusteeship, the office of an arbitrator or um- 
pire. PL djyy tob-Unah. 

Ul a-ndf s.f. (6th) A grandmother, paternal or 
maternal. (E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^\j \ 
a-nd-wt, or s.f. (5th). PL ^J^\j\ a-nd-gdni, 
\j\ i^j^ warlah-a-wL, A great -grandmother. 
\j\ i^j^'i Id warlah-arndf A great-great-grand- 
mother. See Li. 

Vj\j\ q-ndr, s.m. (2nd) A pomegranate. PL 
<Oj|jU\ armrG/MLK 

p jL^ am-bdr, s.m. (2nd) A heap, a stack, a 
bam, a granary. PL ij^jK^^S am-bdrUnah. 

p jL«l am-bdz, s.m. (5th) A partner, an asso- 
ciate. PI. ^J^jL^\ am-bdzdn. »jL^\am-bdzaA, 
s.f. (3rd), pi. ^ ey. 

p u^L^\ am-bdzl, s.f. (3rd) Partnership, asso- 
ciation. PL Je a\ 

^\^\ an-bdlaX s.f. (6th) A howdah or seat 
placed on the back of an elephant or camel. 
Sing, and PL 






jyj\ an-bor, 8.m. (2nd) Pincers, forceps, pliers, 

tongs. PL ^^jyfj\ anr-bor-Unah. 
p irjj\ an-boh, s.m, (9th) A crowd, concourse, 

mob, multitude, throng. 2. Great quantity, 

abundance. Sing, and PI. 
^^\ annbohi, s.f. (3rd) A crowd, etc. PI. ^ a\ 

See preceding, and J^. 

A Uj\ an-biyd, s.m. (6th) (PI. of ^) Prophets. 

A c>->Ucil in-tiMidb, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of 
s^^r^) Selection, drawing out, election, choice. 
PI. ^^Udjl in-tilchdbunah. J^ c^lidi}! in- 
tijdi&b kawtU, verb trans. To select, to choose. 

AjlkJl in-ti:^dr, B.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of^) 
Expectation, looking out for, awaiting. PI. 
Ajj>jllai3l in-tizdrunah. J^ jUaail inrtizdr 
laral, verb trans. To have or possess expecta- 
tion. Jj^jUaij! inrtizdr katvul, vetb trans. 
To expect, to await. 

A J]asj\ ifirtizdm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of Ji;) 
Arrangement, disposition, order, management, 
administration, regularity. PI. ijy^iaoj\ in- 
tizdmUnah. J^ aUsix}! in-tizdm kawul, verb 
trans. To arrange, to regulate, to dispose. 

A JUii\ inrtijkdl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of Jij) 
Migration, transporting, transferring, passing 
from one to another, translation, conveyance, 
travelling ; departure, decease, dying. PL 
JL^jlU:;}! in-tikdlUnah. 

A |»Ui3l in-tikdm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. viii of ^) 
Revenge, retaliation. PL i>jy\Ssj\ in-tii:dm' 
unah. Jr.dMM>fwT m\£2j\ in-tijcdm dMistal, verb 
trans. To take revenge, to revenge. 

A Ifj! in-tiAd, s.f. (6th) (inf. Viii of ^) Termi- 
nation, end, extremity, sunmiit. (E.) Sing, 
and PL; (W.) PL cftlf^^ in-tiAdwh 2. adj. 
Finished, completed, terminated. 

^^\ anrtaaX s.f. (6th) Yam made of wool or 
pashm, worsted. Sing, and PL See ^^, 

p (^\sfr\ an-jdm, s.m. (2nd) End, termination, 
accomplishment. 2. Accident, vexation. PL 
ijyt\sfr\ anrjdmUnah. J^ A^^ amjdm kawul, 
or J^^ (♦^^^ *i P^^ anjdm rasawul, verb 
trans. To accomplish, to terminate, to bring 
to an end. 

p ^j^^\ an-juman, s.m. (2nd) An assembly, a 
meeting, a company. PL ^y,Ajafr\ an^ 
manUnah, See ^^/mLb^* 

J-ac^l in-jll, s. prop. The New Testament, the 

jjt and, s.m. (2nd) A period of 500 yean, an 
age. 2. Idea, thought, fancy, imagination. 
3. (b) a testicle. 4. An egg. PL ij^^\ and- 

pj\jJ^ an-ddz, s.m. (9th) Measure, measure- 
ment, valuation, weighing, conjecture, guess. 
Sing, and PL 2. s.m. (5th) (act. part, of 
jj:;r;.ljjO Throwing, casting, a thrower, a 
caster. PL ^|jljJl an-ddzdn. J^Jj^^ ftr- 
anddz, An archer. v^J^Jj^ j^ dr-anddzt, 
s.f. (3rd) Archery. PL ^^ aX 

V gj\jj\ an-ddzcCh, s.f. (3rd) Measure, measure- 
ment, dimension, weighing, valuation, guess ; 
manner, propriety ; time in music. PL A ey. 
^^f *j\jJ1 an-ddza'h kawul, verb trans. To 
measure, to weigh, to guess, to value. »j\jj\ 
J^ an-ddzoih nl-wal, verb trans. To take 
measurement, to compute. 

p A^ Jul an-ddm, s.m. (2nd) Body, stature, figure. 
PL ijy\^\ an-ddmUnah. ^il|3 a\jj\ an-ddm 
ni'hdnl, The private parts. 

<uU jJJl andar-pd-ycHh, s.f. (3rd) A ladder, steps, 
a staircase. PL ^ ey . See ^^y and CJlvy^U . 

jj^^jjl an-dror, or an-drUr, s.f. (5th) A husband's 
sister. PL jj^jj\ an-drandi, or \^jjjJj\ an- 
drandey. SeOjijj^jJ. 

d^ji^\ an-darkah, s.f. (3rd) A quilted coat, a 
vest, a doublet. PL ^ ey. (hi. l|^V). 

p (Jilxil an-dak, adj. Little, few, small ; (Fern.) 
^jjl an-dahoHh. 

p *^ Jul an-doh, s.m. (2nd) Grief, anxiety, trouble. 
PL ^Oyb^jJl an-dohunah. Jj^ ir^jjt anrdoh 
kawul, verb trans. To grieve. ^Jub^ ir^jJl an- 
doh wahalaey, adj. (past part.) Distressed, 
grieved ; (Fem.) Jjbj h^Sj^ anrdoh wakali. 
PL (Masc. and Fena.) ^ u ^t;jSj\ an-doh- 
gin, adj. Full of grief, sad, aflKcted ; {¥m.) 
ic^ 2rjjjl an-doh-gxndh. 

*jj\ in-dah, s.f. (3rd) A mouthful or sip of 






drink of any kind. 2. (W.) A gulph. PI. 

Hi^jJl andrher, s.m. (2nd) Misfortune, ca- 
lamity, injustice, violence, tumult, outrage. 
PI. Ajj^^jJl and'herUnah. • 

^jSflSj\ an-dejdi (E.) or tm^sh (W.), act. part, 
in compos, (from p ^^ju^jj!) Thinking, con- 
sidering, meditating. ^^ jJ 1 j^ j dUr-andeldi, 
or (W.) \Ji*i'^\ j^J dur-andesh, Provident, 
foreseeing, circumspect, wise, prudent ; (Fem.) 
<Uj Jul jj^J dUr-andeJ^a' h, or <l1j Jul j^J rftZr- 
andeska'h) or ^^.^..^Abjjjl an-defSiman^ or 
^^^-•yiujj\ an-deshman; (Fem.) ^-..^.ajjj! a«- 
deJSimana'hf or a.;^AjjJ1 an-deshmana!h, 

^LmJj jj\ an-deshncbh (W.), or an-deWind!h (E.), 
s.f. (3rd) Thought, meditation, concern, care, 
dread, fear, anxiety, suspicion. PL ^ ey. 
1^ %^\ an-Mo-MuirT, s.m. (5th) Name of a 
child's game. Pl.^ ^^\ an-ddo-TduBrr, 

y^^\ an-ddaey^ s.m. (1st) A package, a bundle, 
the half of a horse or camel load. PI. ^\, 
Seojl^, i^, ^j^9 ^^^ and c^Jox. 

i^ji^\ an-dderaey, s.m. (1st) A mat made from 
a peculiar kind of cane called (jrjf-^> which 
see. PI. ,c f. 
j>^jj\ an-zor, s.m. (2nd) Ornament, embellish- 
ment, impression, figure, flowers worked on 
anything, etc. PL ^^^^J^l an-zorUnah. 
J Jjjp^jJ\ an-zoredaly verb intrans. To become 
marked, impressed, embellished, etc. J;|^^ J^l 
an-zararvul, verb trans. To embellish, to or- 
nament, to mark. 

A J|jJ\ ifirzdl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of Jj>JJ) 
Causing to descend, emission, emissio seminis. 

" PL ^j^\Jj\ in-zdlunah, 

Vj^jjjjjjjl an-zorwaey, s.m. (1st) Ornament, em- 
bellishment, decoration, impression, mark, 
etc. PL ,c I. See i.jjL 



j^\ an-^qr, s.m. (2nd) Ornament, embellish- 
ment, impression, mark. PL ^jj^ \ an-^or- 
Unah. i}^ j^^ an-dzor kawul, verb trans. 
To ornament, to embellish, to mark. See^^ jJl . 

f^\ an-dzir, s.m. (6th) A fig. Sing, and PL 

A c^LjI an-sab, s.m. (6th) (PL of c^.mJ) Races, 
genealogies, lineages. Sing, and PL 

A jjLj\ in-8dn, s.m. (5th) Man, mankind, a 
human being. PL j^bLJ\ insdndn. ^LjI 
in-adna'h, s.f. (3rd) Woman kind. PL ^ ey. 

A iji-^LJl insdnlyat, s.m. (2nd) Humanity, 
human kindness, afiability, politeness, civility. 
PL 4jUj:lJLj1 inrsdmyatunah. See t^^ gr^. 

v,5^^\ an-siU, s.m. (6th) The name of a plant 
used in medicine. Sing, and PL 

A UjI in-shd, s.f. (6th) (inf. iv of Uj) Writing, 
composition, the belles lettres. (E.) Sing, 
and PL ; (W.) PL ^5^liJ\ inshdwl. 

A ^bo ^1 1- jj\ in shd allahu ta/iedld, God 
willing, please God. 

Ajlaj\ an-f^dr, s.m. (6th) (PL of^U) Assistants, 
aiders, auxiliaries, companions, etc. Sing, 
and PL 

A i^X^\ an-^drl, s.m. (5th) The name of a tribe 
of Arabs, a number of whom are to be found 
in Afgltftnistftn and the Panjftb. 2. The 
founder of the Roshftnlto sect — Bftyazld, was 
of the Ansftrl tribe. PL J^^J^\ an-sdndn. 
^jLaj\ an-sdraX s.f. (6th) A female of the 
above. Sing, and PL 

A i^laj\ in-sdf, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of l^Loj) 
Justice, equity, decision. PL ij^\^\ in- 
sdfanah. l,^ uJLaJ^ in-^d/talab, Seeking 
justice. J^ uJLw\ in-^df kuwul, verb trans. 
To judge, to administer justice, to decide. 
uJUul ^ be-inmf, adj. Unjust, iniquitous ; 
(Fem.) ^LiUu^ ^^ be-in^dfa'h. SLaj\ ^ be-in- 
soft, s.f. (3rd) lifijustice, iniquity. Pl.",^ aX 

A a\ju\ in-adm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of^) 
Benefaction, a present, a gift, a favour, a 
benefit. PL ij^\ju\ in-cedmUnah. j^ ^\xi\ 
J*^ in-adm war-kawul, verb trans. To confer 
a benefit or favour, to bestow a gift or present. 

A JLaAil in-Ji^dl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. vii of J^) 
Separation, division, settling, the decision of 
a case. PL ^jlLaiJl in-fi^dlunah, JLaiJl 
J i in-Jiml kawul, verb trans. To decide, to 

kJ^\ in-kdr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv otjj) Denial, 





refiisal, negation. PI. A^^jlCl in-kdrUnah. 
J^ jlCl ifhkdr kawul, verb trans. To deny, 
to refuse, to disallow. 

Sjl61 an-ffdr, s.m. (2nd) Embers, lighted coals. 
PL ijjj\ij\ anrffdrUnah. 

ij\ij\ an-gdzdhy s.f. (3rd) Echo, reverberation, 
symphony. PI. ^ ey. Jir;* *jl6l an-gdzah 
f^atal, verb intrais. To echo, to resound, to 
be sounded back. See *SjU 

P ^j;--Slil an-gabin, s.m. (6th) Honey. Sing, and 
PI. See j^. 

p (^^M..61 an-fftisht, s.m. (2nd) A finger. PI. 
ijyj^] an-ffusktUnah. UJ ci^JLSjI an^usht- 
numd, One who is pointed at, famous, no- 

p <uLu*SJil an-gushtdnoHhy s.f. (3rd) A ring (par- 
ticularly the one worn on the thumb), a 
thimble. PL ^ ey, 

Ju\ an-garTy s.m. (2nd) A building, a house con- 
taining many stories. PL <0j>j61 an-garrUnah, 

j^\ or ^^1 an-garm, s.m. (2nd) A court, an 
area, a yard, an enclosed space close to a 
house. PL ^^j^\ an-garmUnah, (s. ^0. 

PjjSSl an-gUr, s.m. (5th) A grape, grapes. Sing, 
and PL See^^. 

^^^1 an-gorraeg, sm. (1st) A small pome* 
granate. PL ^l. See ^j^^^ and cXj^ 

^^\ an-goldy s.f. (6th) A howl (as of a dog at 
night, or of a jackal). PL (W.) cftS^l an- 
goldwi ; (E.) Sing, and PL. J^ i^\ an-gold 
kawul, verb trans. To howl. See Li. 

^\ inga'h, s.f. (3rd) A female who accompanies 
and waits on a bride for a few days after 
marriage, generally a female relation. PL ^^ 
ey ; also written ii^j} In-ga'A. 

j\^\ an-gahdr, s.m. (5th) PL Qroaning, sigh- 
ing, moaning, crying out through pain; 
groans, moans. (j^j^\ an-gahdr kuwul, 
verb trans. To groan, to moan, to cry out. 
See jl^SSjb and ^^j^^ 

^^\ an-gaeg, s.m, (1st) The cheek. PL ^^ L 

See ^\. 
•61 an-gaX s.f. (6th) A game played by children 
— hide and seek— in which, one player, being 

^'out/' as the term is, seeks the others on their 
giving the word, which is termed Jac;. %jMj\ 
an-gdzah l^atal, verb intrans., which see* 

J^f an-gercU, verb trans. To think, to imagine, 
to fancy, to suppose, to conceive, to appre- 
hend. Pros. i^jiij\ an-gerl; past »j^^j fcdn- 
gerah ; fut. ^^j^ ij\^wd bah 'ngeri ; imp. 
^f^Xlj wdfhgerah; act. part. ,^^jfjifi^ o^- 
gerUnkaey or ^^^;-6i anrgerUnaey ; past part. 
^j4^\ athgeralaey; verb. n. IjjJj\ an-gera- 

pj->6\ an-gez, (act. part, of j:>sc^\, used in 
comp.) Exciting, rousing, causing ; an exciter ; 
(Fem.) »jjj\ an-geza'A. jX^ lisj JU-na'A 
angez, A mischief maker, an insurgent, a 
fomenter of disturbances, an incendiary; 
(Fem.) 9j^\ Ausj fit-ndh angeza'h. a:^ 
i^jjj\ fit-na! h angezl, s.f. (3rd) Seditiousness, 
disturbance, sedition, mischievousness. PL 

» a'l. 


s jcJt an-nand, s.m. (2nd) Happiness, joy, de- 
light, felicity, pleasure. PL 4jjjcJ^ an-nand- 

CJcJf an-mang, s.m. (6th) A pomegranate. Sing, 
and PL 

^g^^iJl an-naitgorraegy s.m. (Ist) (dimin. of 
preceding) A small pomegranate. PL ^c !. 

See c^yi^« 

^^jSjI an-nangaey^ s.m. (1st) The cheek, the side 
of the face. PL ^^ t. 

^\ amy, s.prop. The name borne by two 
women, the wives of Eamftl-bin-Osmftn, an 
Afghan chief, the one old, and the other 
young. They each bore him a son, whose 
descendants are known as Eaihran:as and 
Mashranzis from their respective mothers, — 
kashra*h being the Pu^to for an old woman, 
and mashrcHh for a young one. 

^y**^\ anisiln, s.m. (6th) The seed of the 
anise, aniseed (Pimpinella anisiim). Sing, 
and PL 

Jj3 \ armal, verb trans. ( W) To grind, to triturate, 
to powder, to bruise. Pres. ,^j\ arrm; past 
Jjil j wur-armal : fut. gr^\ sj^wu bah arrm ; 






imp. ifj\ J wu-<ifmaA: act. part, ^i^jj^ 
aamUnAaeyf or ^J-J»jy ^ armUnaetf ; past pc^. 
^^1 atrwdaey ; verb. n. rfjj}\ armana'h. 
See J^j^. 

J^l arrn-awul, verb trans. To pick, to gather, 
to collect, to reap, to glean ; to choose, to 
select, to pick out, to cull, etc. Pres. ^^ Jl 
arrn-arvl; past. Jjj^^J wu-arm-awul ; fat. 
cfti^' ^ ^ wu bah armruwl ; imp. ifj|il J wm- 
acrnawak ; act. part. ^J^jy^^ ajrauiwilnkaey, 
or ^Jjj[j5^^ arrnawUnaey ; past part. ^jJjiJl 
arrnawulaey; verb. n. iOjjy\ arrnawuna'A. 

^\ ao, adv. Yes. 2. inteij. Oh! hallo 1 used in 
calling or addressing a person. See yb and j. 

jl aw, or 0, conj. And, also. 

PjljT CMvdr, OT j\j\ a-wdr, s.m. (2nd) Injustice, 
tyranny. PI. <Ojy|^T d-wdrUna/i, or <0j^»|^\ 

jlj^ a-^vdr, s.m. (2nd) Plunder, spoil, prey, 
booty, pillage. PI. ^jj\j\ o-rvdrUnaA, j\Ji 
J^ orwdr Aawul, verb trans. To plunder, to 
pillage, to sack, to rob. See dJl. 

P 9j\jj\ d'WdraAy adj. Vagabond, wanderer, dis- 
solute. J ju^ zj\^ d-wdraA kedal, verb trans. 
To wander, to be distressed or miserable. 
J^ gj^y! d-TcdraA kawul, verb trans. To 
make a wanderer or vagabond, to expel, to 

P ^S^J^^ dwdraA-gxy s.f. (3rd) Wandering, the 
state of a wanderer, vagabondism, vagrancy. 




p jl^t d-7vdz, s.m. (2nd) Voice, sound, echo. PI. 
AJjjj^y d-wdzUnaA. JjJjl^T d^dz laral, 
verb trans. To have or possess a sound (gene- 
rally pleasant), to resound, to echo. J/ j\jT 
d'Wdz Aawul, verb trans. To raise the voice, 
to call out. 

p ij\yi d-wdza'A, s.f. (3rd) Fame, report, rumour. 
PI. j^ ey. 

A ^\yi drwdn, s.m. (2nd) Time, period, moment. 
PL d3y\y{ drwdnrUnaA, 

p if\y OHicdA, 8.m. (2nd) Echo, voice, sound, 
clamour. PI. <Oyb'jl OrWdA-UnaA ; or \^ a-fvd, 
s.f. (6th) Sing, and PI. See *jl6l. 

p ^\i^\ au'bdsh, s.m. (5th) A rake, a libertine, 
a debauched, a vagabond. 2. The mob, the 
canaille, the conmion, the meanest people. 
PI. ^L-bj' aur-bdskdn. sJL\j^\ aurbdska'A, s.f. 
(3rd) A vagabond woman, a quean, a whore. 
PI. ^ ey. 

p ,«-2*l;^' au-bdskl, s.f. (3rd) Dissipation, de- 
bauchery, dissoluteness, attending games and 
spectacles. PI. ^^ dx. « 

JU^l aa-bdl, s.m. (2nd) A crime, a fault. 2. 
Punishment for a crime. PI. Aijlbj^ ao-bdl- 
UnaA. (a JUj). J^ fj\)j\ aa-bdl yaUal, werh 
trans. To conmtiit a crime or fault (Ut to win, 
or gain a crime). ^>1^ Jl^j^ ao-bdlgaUalaey, 
adj. (past part.) A criminal, one who has 
conamitted a fault; (Fem.) J^yaUali. PI. 
(Masc. and Fem.) ^^l. 

HI ^^^j\ aob-dix, or ^jsfi^\ aap-cAl, s.m. (5th) 
A 'man clothed in mail, an armed man. PI. 
^La^j^ aob-^xdn, or ^Uaf;^^ aop-^xdn. 

^jj< aO'brrcil, s.f. (6th) The green plant which 
grows at the bottom of pools (Valisneria spi- 
ralis octandra). Sing, and PI. See^Ajl. 

ij^ oo-baA, s.f. (6th) Water. Sing, and PI. 

ij^\ oxhbdA, s.f. (3rd) A splint in the leg of a 
horse. PI. ^^ ey. 

Vv^' o^-raA, adj. Foreign, strange, unacquainted. 
2. s.m. (6th) A stranger, a foreigner. Sing, 
and PI. 

p^ aw'tar, adj. Ruined, spoiled, worthless, des- 
titute of good qualities, disordered, wanton ; 
(Fem.) sjiji aw-tarcHA. i^fj^^ aw-tar Aawul, 
verb trwis. To ruin, to spoil, to render worth- 
less. See^l. 

jU^i au-tsdr, adj. Apparent, manifest, clear, 
evident, open; (Fem.) ifj\^\ aw-tsdra^A, 

A -.^1 atij, s.m. (2nd) Height, summit, the top. 
2. Dignity, preferment, promotion. 3. The 
higher apsis of a planet. PI. <0^^1 auj-UnaA. 

jU-^1 ilrjdrr, adj. Desolate, waste, ruinous, de- 
serted; (Fem.) 9^^^ U'jdrra'A. Jj^^-.! 
u-jdrredal, verb intrans. To become desolated, 
waste, or deserted. Pres. ^^jWj^ U^drrejzl 
(W.), or ^<^J^v' m^drregl (E.) ; past jUj\ 






^ u-jdrr shah, or ^ J wu-shah ; fut. jU-j^ 
^ <u U-jatr bah sAl, orJ^ j aj iaA wtirskl; 
imp. <Ui jl>jl U-jdrr shah, or ^ J wur-shoA ; 
act. part. lJ^jJ^j^^j^ U-jdrredUnkaey, or 
L?J*Mi^j' ^-j^vredUnaey ; past part. jl>-^^ 
W:;arr,or^^^J^-Jl U-jdrr: shawaey \ verb.n. 
^jjjl>-j\ U-jdrredaruih, 

Jii^j' ^-j^vrowulf verb trans. To desolate, to 
ruin, to lay waste, to depopulate. Pres. 
L^X^J^ H-jdrrawl ; past jf jU-^1 a^a^r Aarr, 
or^ J WM-^rr ; fut. (^ ^ jWj^ tZ^^arr JaA 
Am, or Lffjf^ ^, bah wu-km; imp. »S ^^^ 
U-jdrr krrahf or ifj i wu-ktrah ; act. part. 
\^3^J^^ ^-jarrawUnkaet/y or y^^x^^^ 
U'jdrrawUnaey ; past part. i^JJ^^^ U-jdrr 
karrey ; verb. n. i^^J^^ U-jdrr awunoH h. 

^d\j jlflTjl U-jdrr-Tcdlaeyy s.m. (1st) Desolation, 
ruin, waste, destruction. PI. J^j ^raft. 

4^l5»-j\ tZ;;aiTi, s.f. (3rd) Waste, aesolation. PI. 
^ a\ See preceding. 

^^^\ Ujaraey^ s.m. (1st) An entrail, a gut, 
the stomach. PI. ^^/r^^ Ujarl, The entrails, 
the guts, (hi -^^0. 

i^jl Uja'h, s.f. (3rd) (E.) GarKc, a leek. PI. 
^^5 ^. See ifj^\ and aS^I 

c:^%>.jl U'diat, adj. High, lofty; raised, lifl;ed; 
(Fem.) Jis^jt U'diata'h. ^\^ ^-^^-^j' U-chat- 
7vdlaey, s.m. (1st) Height, altitude, elevation, 
loftiness. PL ^^^ n:dll. Jju^ ^-^^-^^^ t^^a^ 
A^da/, verb intrans. To become raised or ele- 
vated, to become or grow high or lofty. 
J^ ^^::^^j\ U'diat kawul, verb trans. To 
raise, to elevate, to render high or lofty. 
J^ ♦^^^-^j^ ^'d^at nl-wal, verb trans. To 
hold up, to raise on high. See (^s-%>.l. 

v^^ ^^^ «-c^ey TpU'dkey, s.f. (3rd) PI. 
TwadSe, nonsense, absurdity, foolish talk, 

^bjl aw-ddUy s.m. (1st) PI. The name of an 

" Afghan tribe, the Abdfills. ^\o^\ aw-ddlaey, 
Sing. A male of the tribe, jl^^j^ aw-ddla'i, 
s.f. (6th) A female of the <m)e. Sing, and 
PI. Seejljjl. 

jj*»j^l aw-ddsy s.m. (2nd) Ablution (performed 

before prayer). It consists in first washing 
the hands, then the mouth insidei cleaning 
the teeth, then throwing vrater on the fore- 
head, washing the whole face, the arms, and 
lastly, the feet. PL i^J^J^t cao-dcMnah. 
J^ j^*>jl aw-das kawul, verb trans. To per- 
form the ablution for prayer (? P cu^ jjT). 

Jj^l U-dal, or (W.) a(hdal, verb trans. To weave, 
to plait, to braid, to mat. Pres. v/^^f U-wt, 
or (^^\ u-wl ; past j^f J wu-Ud; fut. ^^^\ ij J 
wu bah u-wl, or ^^^^ Urwl ; imp. h^^\ J wu 
U-rvah ; act. part. ^^ij«^^' U-dUnkaey, or ^j Jj' 
U-dUnaey; past part, ^dj^l U-dalaey; veri).n. 
djjj\ u-dana'A, See Ji>jj. 

2r Jjl U-da^/i, s.f. (3rd) The breath. 2. A charm, an 
incantation. PL ^ ey. J^ a» J^f it2-{20'A kawul, 
verb trans. To breathe on, to charm, to exor- 
cise, jlj 2fj^l UnkCh-ddr, adj. An exorcist, 
one who charms ; (Fem.) ifj\^ ii*i^\ U-da'k 
ddra'h. See }iOyb. 

)f^^\ U-dah, Asleep, sleeping, fast asleep, sound 
asleep, napping (Masc. and Fem.) J Ju^ ^^ 
U-dah kedal, verb intrans. To fall or go to 
sleep, to slumber, to drop asleep, to take a 
nap. J^ ifiij\ Urdah kanml, verb trans. To 
make sleep, to put to sleep, to put to bed. 
See iJji^ and ^juj. 
•Jji^l aoManaX s.f. (6th) (s l^j^^) A small 
veil or mantle worn by women. Sing, 
and PL 

j^\ aor, s.m. (2nd) Fire. PL ij^jy\ aor-^nak. 
(h ^*|N light). Jjufl j^l aor lagedal, or j^ 
J jjj aor baledal, verb intrans. To take fire. 
J^ j^\ aor loffawul, or J^ jj\ aor baiamd, 
verb trans. To set on fire. ^}}jj^ aor-latrU" 
ruiey, s.m. (1st) A poker of wood or iron. PL 
^l. See^^. 

A S^j^\ aw-rdd, s.m. (6th) (PL of J;j) Dafly re- 
hearsals, portions of the Kur'ftn fixed for 
reading at certain times, devotions, practices. 

^j^j^ ao-rdrahy s.m. (2nd) A brother's son, a 
nephew. PL ^^j^ ao-rarUnah. See ifj\jy 

\^^J^ J3^ aor-aorah'ka^yy sm. (1st) A firefly, 
a glow-worm. PL ^^ t, or ^9j^9 which see. 







^yjjl aor-buskey, B.f. (3rd) PI. Barley; (Sing.) 

^yj^\ aor-bUshah, A barleycorn. 
^uJyjjjl aor-basklna! h, s.f. (3rd) Barley-bread. 

PI. i^ etf. 
Jjj^^ aoT'bal, or Ur-bcU, 8.m. (2nd) The hair 

plaited on the temples of yonng women. PI. 

^^j}\ aor-balunak, or Ur-balUnah. See ^A^. 
^ji.^j^\ aor-ptisht (W.), or aor-puj^t (E.) a.m. 

(6th) A moth. Sing, and PI. 
^iij^\ ao-rah'kaey, a.m. (Ist) A firefly. PI. ^ 

I, See jjl . 
\^ijtJ^ a(?r-ii7rtZna€y, s.m. (1st) A poker of 

iron or wood. PI. ^ I, 
j^j^ aor-mejz (W.) or C^L^j^\ aor-meg (E.), 

s.m. (2nd) The neck, the throat. PI. ^Uj-^j^l 

aor-mejzunah^ or ij^L^j^\ aar-megUnan. See 

jf-^j} and C^^jy 
i^jj^\ aor'arrrvaey. s.m. (1st) A swaddling-cloth 

wrapped round an infimt. PI. ^^ l. See ,^^1 . 
j^j^\ cLO-ror, s.m. (2nd) A brother. PI. ^^^\ 

aor-Urma. or ^J^j^ aor-Urmah. See jj^^^. 
Jjjjp^T dw-rannU, verb trans, (cans.) To cause to 

hear. Pres. i^jy^ aw-rawt ; past »j\j^^^ wdw- 

rdTCfih ; fat. ^^^ ij Ij tea bah warawl ; imp. 

^^J3^3 w5;»-rawaA ; act. part. ^J^^jj^ J dw-ra- 

wUnkaet/y or ^j[jmT dw-rawUnaey ; past part. 

v^i>y o^JV^awulaey ; verb. n. <Ojj^T dw-ra- 

^^j^ ao-rUn, s.m. (2nd) The thigh. PI. ^y^j^\ 

ao-rUnUnah. See ^;|^^. 
3f^ij\ <?-raA, s.m. (6th) A cloud, clouds. Sing, and 

PL Seejj<, iAij^\ and ^jjj^. 
^Aj^< a(Hra% sS. (6th) The gums, the quick of 

the nails. Sing, and PI. 
^ij^\ a(Hraey, s.m. (1st) Mustard, mustard seed. 

PL ^c I. 
J jjjp^l dw-redcU, verb trans. To hear, to hearken, 

to listen, to attend. Pres. f^j^J dw-ri ; past 

i jjjj^j wdnnredaA, or ^j^\j wdw-reda ; fat. 

S^Ly ^. \j ^^ *^^ ^^ 5 ™P' i;/^ wdw-raA ; 
act. part, i^j J^j[/f dw-redunkaey, or ^^^„j^ 
dw-redHnaey ; past part. ^^o^jf/T dw-redcUaey; 
verb. n. ^sjj^ dnnredana'A. See J^y . 
J jj^^^ cuHredcUj verb trans. To rain, to drizzle. 

to pour with rain. Pres. ^j^\ ao-rl; past 
if^j^\ J wVrOCHredahy or jj^jl J wu-ao-reda ; 
fat. fc^jjl ij i rvu bah ao-ri ; imp. i^^l J tpw- 
ao-rah ; act. part. ^j^j*\|j[^^ achredunkaey, or 
jj3jjjj(^\ ao^edunaetf ] past part. jjJ*Xi;j^ ^w- 
redalaey ; verb. n. <0 jjjj' ao-redana'h, ^}^^ 
ao-rawulf verb trans. To make or cause to 
rain. Pres. ,^^^^1 acnrawl ; past *jlj^l J wm- 
ao-rdwuhy or j^|^j^ axHrdwo ; fut. c^jy^^ <o J 
;»w iaA achrawl ; imp. ir^jjl J rou-ao-rawah ; 
act. part, ^j^j^j^j^ ao-rawUnkaey, or y^^^j^ 
ao-rawUnaey ; past part, ^jj^^ a/Hrawulaey ; 
verb. n. aJjj^I acnrawuna'h. 
i^ij^i dw-redah, s.m. (6th) (verb, n.) Hearing, 
hearkening, listening, attending. Sing, and 
PL; or ^OjjjijT dw-redana'h, s.f (3rd). PL 

jlj^\ aor-yaz, s.f. (1st) A cloud. Vl.Jijy aor- 
yazi, or gjij^\ aor-yaza^h, s.f. (3rd).^ PL ^J 
ey. Seejijj or *ji^^. 

PL Id 1.^ eRW- 



J^,j^\ aoT-yadZy s.f. (1st) A cloud. ] 
yad^y or ^alj^ aor-yadzdhy s.f. (3fd). 
^^ ey. See preceding, and ^jj or ^oijy 

^j^\aor'-yaXfiS.{QWi). Sing, and PL See^^^y. 

j^^\ aoTTy s.m. (2nd) A tool used by weavers. 
PL <0^^1 aorrUnah. 

Jj^\ U-rral, verb trans. To bear, to carry, to 
remove, to transport, to carry over, to convey, 
to waft, etc. Particularly applied to objects 
inanimate. For inflexions see Jjj. 

jjJj^^ aorr-unbaey, or Urr-unbaey, adj. Prior, 
former, previous, preceding, foremost ; (Fern.) 
lS^J^ ^^tT'^^baX or ilrrunba*l. See^^j^, 
^j, v/j^l, and ^y. 

jji^y aorr-naey, or ^j3 y^^l aorrah-naey, s.m. 
(1st) A small size sheet or veil worn by 
women. PL ^ I. (hi. yJ^J)^*) 

lI^JU^' ^trtlhaey, adj. little, small, less, diminu- 
tive. 2. A term of endearment for a child, 
as "little one" or "wee thing," in English. 
PL ^^ I ; (Fem.) ^jj}\ UrrHhaX Sing, and 
PL ; or CJ^j^\ UtrUki. PL ^ i. See ^^^^ 
and ^^y 

Jj^^\ ao-franml, verb trans. (E.) To grind, to 







triturate, to pulverize, to reduce to powder, 
to grind into flour (as grain). See J^ Mj^\. 

ijj\ aorr-ak, a.m. (6th) Flour, meal. Sing, and 
PI. Also written at times \^\ aotr-a, zj^y\ 
J ju^ aorr-ah kedal^ verb intrans. To become 
turned into or reduced to flour or meal, to 
become triturated, J^ zj^^ aorr-ah kawul, 
verb trans. To grind to flour, to triturate, to 
make into meal, to pulverize. 

vJ'li^^ <^VI(^h-7iaey ^ s.m. (Ist) A small veil or 
sheet worn by women. PI. ^ t. See ^j^^* 

v^j^l aorraey, s.m. (1st) The summer season, 
the spring or summer harvest. PI. ^^ h See 
s^J-?^ and ^^j. 

J Jkjj^l aorredaly verb intrans. To be ground in a 
mill, to become triturated or pulverized. See 

LT^J^' ^^'^tr^kaeyj adj. Small, little, etc. ; 
(Jem.) {J^^j^^\ ao-rreki. V\.^u See^jj^^l 

CS^)^\ aoz-mak. See CJ^j^^* 

s^jj^ aojzrraey^ s.m. (1st) The stomach of an 
animal, the belly. PI. ^ l. See ^). 

^^j^ aojzrghUney^ s.f. (3rd) PI. Goat's hair. 

" Sing, not used. 

43.^1 Ujzd (W.) adj. Long, lengthy, extended, 
elongated, stretched out, prolonged. PI. j( J.^1 
Hjzd-ceh'y (Fem.) *j.jl Ujgda'h. PI. ^ ey. 
See j^! and 2rj^\. ^}^J^^^^ Ujzdedal, verb in- 
trans. To become or grow long, lengthy, ex- 
tended, or stretched out, to become prolonged 
or protracted. Pres. i^j,*ij^\ Ujzdejn ; past 
iJU JjK ujzd shah, or ^ j tvu-shah; fiit. 
v<^ <o iijj\ ujzd bah sht, or ^^ J <u bah tcu- 
shl ; imp. <cl 0,^1 Ujzd shan, or <U» J wu- 
shah ; act part. ^^^jO^^^' ajgdedUnkaey, or 
jjjj Ju Jj^l Ujzdeaunaey ; past part. J.^\ «^rf, 
or ^yL 4>.^1 Ujzd shawaey \ verb. n. iOjj»^^I 
ujzdedana'h. JjJ^j^ Ujzdawul, verb tnis. 
To make long or lengthy, to elongate, to 
draw or stretch out, to extend, to protract, to 
prolong, Pres. ^ij«^^^ Ujzdawl ; past j^ j.^\ 
ujzd karr, or ^^ J Trw-^arr ; fiit. ^J^ <o o.j\ 
t7j^rf bah krrt, or 4^ J <o bah wu^krti; imp. 

1/ ^^' ^M^ ^TToJi^ or ij jwu kfTcJi ; act. 
part. ^>^j^J^^' C^rfan?fln^a€y, or ^^j^^ 
UjzdawUnaey ; past part. ^J^ jji t^<^ 
kaxraey ; verb. n. <0j4>.jl Ujzdawuna! h. 

^Ij j.^1 Ujzdrfvdlaey, B.m. (Ist) Length, elon- 
gation, extension, prolongation, protraction. 
PI. 1\^ wall. See ^Ij j^\. 

<Ub«^ ^jjy\aojz-da*h mej^e^na*h, s.f. (3rd)Long 
pepper (piper longum). PI. ^^ ^. See ^Juj. 

^^1 ao-jzah, s.f. (3rd) (W.) The shoulder. PL 
^^ ey. See d^j\. 

»j^\ Ujza'h, s.f. (3rd) (W.) Garlic, a leek. PI. 
^^ ey. See *.yb and J^j\ or ^U 

^J,^^ aa-jzaey, s.m. (1st) A grain measure of 
seven seers or fourteen pounds (E.), or (W.) 
two seers or fourteen pounds. PI. ^^ i. 

jAi^l aO'jzaX s.f. (6th) (W.) A neck ring, a 
necklace. Sing, and PI. (E.) ^\ axhgcix. 

{jti^ aoSy adv. Now, at present, at this time, 
yet, still, hitherto, already, even now. Cj^^J 
tar aosa, or i^y, orj^ (j**^? ^^ aasapUri, 
or pUrl, As yet, so^ far, hitherto, up to the 
present time. ^j\ aos-an or ^^^j\ aaa-anaey, 
adj. Actual, existing, present, the present. 
2. The people of the present day ; (Fem.) 
^Urf^l aos-^na*h, or ^y^j^ aos-ana'i, 

HI (j^^t ati-sdn, s.m. (2nd) Sense, sensation ; 
presence of mind, courage. PI. ^yLsjf au- 
sdnUnah. ^jJJj ^Lij\ ausdn flalaey, adj. 
(past part.) Gone out of one's mind, beside 
one's self, demented, distracted ; (Fem.) ^m 
JJj an-san fkUi. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ f . 

i^^\ aos-^ana'hy s.f. (3rd) Iron. Also used as 
an adjective to qualify another noun, signify- 
ing. Iron-like, hard. PI. ^ ey. i^f^^^\ aos- 
panjdkarraey, s.m. (1st) ITie dross of iron left 
after melting. PI. jc f. 

<u^jf aos-plna'h, s.f. (3rd) Same as preceding. 
PI. ^ ey. 

p ch^^ uS'tdd, s.m. (5th) A teacher, a tutor, a 
master (tradesman). PI. ^U\x..»^l Us-taddn. 
ij\s^Ji US'tdda'h, s.f. (3rd) A tutoress. PI. 
^ ey. Also pronoxmced (corrup.) \i^J^ Us-td, 
PI. ^l|l::;<^^1 Us-tdydn. See 6\s^\ and j\zJi. 






jls*-»jl HS'tdz, s.m. (5th). PL ^^^ jla^^l us-tdzdn. 

^6\s^j\ US'tdza'h, B.f. (3rd). PI. ^ ey. Same 
as preceding. 

^j^li-aj^ aos-tddzaeyy adj. as s.m. (1st) A mes- 
senger, a legate^ an agent, a peace-maker, an 
umpire, an apostle. PI. jc I ; (Fem.) aIs-j^^ 
aoS'td^. PI. j^ f. See ^^li-»l. 

A k^^l aowsatj adj. Middle, middling, inter- 
vening. 2. s.m. (2nd) The middle, mean. 
3. Medium, mediocrity. PI. Aj^k-j^l aow- 
satUnah) (Fem). i^^\ aoW'Satcih, PI. ^ ey. 

^^\ aos-an, or ^^i-»j^ aos-anaey, adj. Actual, 
existing, present, the people of the present 
time ; recent, late ; (Fem.) <u-rfjl aos-ana'k, 
or ^^^^\ aos-anai. 2. Recently, lately, just 
now. jisL ^^\ dos-an Mvalk^ The people 
of the present day. See ^^^ . 

^^ dO'Sdey, s.m. (1st) An antelope, a gazelle, 
a small deer. PI. ^ %, ^^\ aosal, s.f. 
(6th) A doe, feminine of the above. Sing, 
and PI. See ^yb. 

Jju-jj^ aose'daly'verh intrans. To be, to exist, 
to dwell, to have being, to live. Pres. ^^\ 
aosi ; past i(S^^\ J wu-aose-dah, or Ju^^l j 
icu'ooseda ; fut. ^^ ^ iwu hah aosl ; imp, 
iLjjl aosak ; act. part. ^jX)^ ju-i^^ aose-dunkaey, 
or ^.s^j\ aose-dUnaey ; past part. ^Ju^^ 
aose-dalaey; verb, n. ajju-i^l aose-danak, or 
^ju«:^l oose-daA. J^jl aosa-wul, verb trans. 
To make or cause to dwell, remain, stay, 
exist, live, etc. Pres. ^y^^\ aosawl; past 
>^L*^1 J ^U'Ciosdwu/i, or •^\^^\ aosdwo ; fiit. 
i^^;^' ij ^wu bah aosawi ; imp. 2f^jl J 72?m- 
aosawah] act, part. ,J-^^^^' aosarcunkaey, 
or ^^^y aosawUnaey) past part. jjJ^j^ 
aosawulaey] verb.n. 4j^jl aosawuna'h, 

3 ju-rfjl aosedah, s.m. (6th) (verb, n.) Being, ex- 
isting, living, having being; dwelling, stay- 
ing, tarrying. Sing, and PI. ; or <GJu-»j1 
aosedaruih, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^^ 6y. 

^^^\ Hsk (W.), or «^ (E.), s.m. (6th) A camel, 
a dromedary, PI. ^\^^\ Ushdn, or ttJ3idn. 
<^,^^ U^'h, or U^a'h, s.f. (3rd) A female 
camel or dromedary. PI. ^^ 6y. 

^jl Ushbah (W.), of «^iaA (E.) s.m. (4th) A 
camel grazier. PL <uLi»jl Ushbdnah, or tz^- 
bdnah] or <U|»jl Uskpah, or uTdvpah. PL 
tUU^fjl Ushpdnahf or UjSipdnah. 

Ja-ji^T d-wushtal (W.), or drWulSital (E.), verb 
trans. To turn, to change, to alter, to deviate, 
to revolve, to change about. Pres. i^^T 
a-7«?2^m ; past cu^^ij Ij wd-rousht^ or vod-wufSit ; 
fat. 4^^ aj Ij ;»a AaA wm ; imp. Sj^\j wdrc- 
rrah ; act. part, ^j^^yi d-wu^tUnhaey, or 
d-wulditiinkaey ; or ^j^^ drwtishtunaeyy or 
d'wu/^tunaey ; past part. ^jJo^iy d-ivushtal" 
aey, or d-wulMalaey ; verb. n. <Us4»^T d-wu^t- 
anoHhy or d-wuBitancHh, 

i^^ ao'shxih (W.), or ao-Ba'h (E.) s.f. 
(3rd) A tear. PL <^jl ao-shey or achjchey, 
Tears. Jjuj^f ^jl a^o-sheyy or ao-^iey toe- 
yeduly verb intrans. To cry, to weep, to shed 
tears, to greet, to whimper. Jji^ j^jijl ao- 
shey^ or ao-lSiey toe-yawul, verb trans. To 
cause to weep or cry, to make shed tears. 
^J^ vVH»J^ (^'ihrnej/f or ax>'ldieney stargeyy 
Tearful eyes, eyes suffused with tears; also 
written ^Ji^ lV^-^' ao-Wkaney stargey, etc. 

^j\ aO'sivoLey (WT) or ao-^aey (E.) s.m. (1st) 

" A wife's brother, a sister's husband, a brother- 
in-law. PL ic !. See . ^-ikfi^L 

^jt aO'JM (E.) or a^^r(W.) s.m. (1st) PL 

" The mane of a horse. See Jb, i^jyl, and .^j 
or vl(]t3. 

A uJUji aU'Sdfy s.m. (6th) (PL of ujL^jj) Praises, 
endowments, qualities, qualifications. S. andP. 

A jll^j' aw'tdk, s.m. (2nd) A temporary dwell- 
ing, a lodging. 2. A tent, a dwelling. <Gy lL^j\ 


•• • 

^lijl aw-ghdUy s.m. (5th) An Afghan^ an in- 
habitant of Afghanistan. PL ^UUjl a/^?- 
ghdndn. iOlijl aw-ghdncCh^ s.f. (3rd) An 
Afghan female. PL ^J ey. See ^^Uil. 

jijl w^;cr, s.m. (5th) A walnut with a soft skin. 
Sing and PL Secj^l. 

A cylSjl aU'kdt, s.m. (6th) (PL of cs^j) Times, 
hours, circumstances. Sing, and PL 

^j^ Ugdy adj. (E.) Long, lengthy, extended, 







prolonged, protracted, elongated, stretched 
out; (Fern.) if^\ UgdoHh. J^J^^ Ugdedal, 
verb intrans. To become or grow long, lengthy, 
elongated, protracted, etc. J^J^l Ugdawul, 
verb trans. To make long or lengthy, to elon- 
gate, to extend, to protract, to prolong. For 
diflferent inflexions see under (W.) j.jl, and 
substitute tl/for^. 

^<jj^\ Ugdrwalaey, s.m. (Ist) (E.) Length, 
" elongation, extension, prolongation, protrac- 
tion. PI. A\^ wall. 

ij^ ao-grah, s.f. (3rd) The name of a dish of 
grain, generally wheat, boiled to pap. Vl.^eg, 

vJIj^I ug-rraly s.f. (3rd) An instalment, a fixed 
portion of the price of goods to be paid at cer- 
tain fixed periods. PI. ^^ a't. J^ ^1^ 
Ug-rrcCl kawul, verb trans. To collect instal- 
ments of money. 

ij^\ ug-rroHhy s.f. (3rd) A kind of gruel or pap 
generally made from wheat. PI. ^ ey. See 

*^! (HI \jk^\). 

^1 (w-gaJh, s.f. (3rd) (E.) The shoulder. PI. 


See *^j\. 

^1 U-gah, s.f.* (3rd) (E.) Garlic, a leek. PI. 
1^ ey. See )ij^ or Hj^, and <^jU 

^^ ao-gaeg, s.m. (1st) (E.) A dry measure 

"* containing seven seers or fourteen pounds. 
PI. 1^ f. See vjTj^^* 

^^^\ aO'ga% s.f. (6th) A collar, a neck ring, a 
necklace. Sing, and PI. 

A ^^\ ajv-wal, adj. First, best, principal, proper, 
fit. 2. Beginning; (Fem.) alj^ aw-wakCk, 
)l^l aW'Walan, adv. At first, in the first place, 
in the beginning. ^\ <d laA aw-rvala, or 
Aj Jjl al laA aw-wal nak, From the first, 
from the conmiencement or beginning. See 
^j , etc. ^j\ aw-Tvalnaey, or aw-lanaey, 
^j. Prior, former, previous, preceding, fore- 
most, antecedent, foregoing; (Fem.) »Jj' 
aw-walnaX or aw-lana'l. See c^^ y^jL3 

A JiJ^ aurldd, or arv-ldd, s.m. (6th) (PL of jJj) 
Children, descendants, progeny, issue. Sing, 
and PL 

^j\ ulrja'h, B.f. (3rd) Prey, spoil, plunder, 
booty, pillage. PL ^ eg. 2. Adj. Entangled, 
complicated, intricate, perplexed (hi ^'). 
J^ ^j\ illrja*h kawid, verb trans. To plunder, 
to pillage, to sack, to spoil. 2. To entangle, 
to perplex, to make or render intricate. ^J^^ 
Jju^ Ul-jaHi kedal, verb intrans. To become 
plundered or pillaged. 2. To become en- 
tangled or intricate. See dj^\, j\j\ and ^^^jf- 

Jljt ao-lal, verb trans. To wash, to cleanse, to 
purify. Pres. ^jl a(hli; past ^j\ ytttHUh 
lah ; fut. Jj\ aj j «7M hah ao-U ; imp. <t!j< J 
wu-aO'lah ; act. part. ^j^jSj^ a^hlUfAaey, or 
^^jl ao'lunaey ; past part. ^jjj< aoAaey, or 
^^jl aoAalaey\ verb. n. ^j\ ao-lan, or aJjI 
ao'lana'/i. See Jlj and JA^j. 

^jl a/2?-/fi, s.m. (6th) Molasses, treacle. Sing, 
and PL See uLi^. 

^^^^\ aw'lawaey, adj. Scorched (with grief), 
much burned, roasted, parched ; (Fem.)^^! 
aw'lawi. PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ f. 'See 
^<ji\ and Jj^^L 

aljl ao-lak, s.m. (5th) A flock of lambs kept 
separate from their mothers. PL ^j\ ao-ldn. 
See <Uj. 

A jJjl aw-fe, adi. (compar. of Jj) Better, best. 

A Ulj! au4iyd, s.m. (6th) (PL" of ^j) Friends, 

companions (particularly of the prophets). 

2. The saints, the apostles, the holy. Sing. 

and PL 
p^jl au-ldtar, adj. (compar. of a J^^l and vj) 

Best, better, the best; (Fem.) »^j\ athldr 

tava h, 
A ^jl arv-walln, adj. (PL of J^O The first, the 

former, the ancients ; (Fem.) ^j\ aw-nxUtna'h. 
Aj\ aam, adj. Unripe, raw, uncooked, crude; 

(Fem.) *Uj' aoma'h. (hi ^j\ flml. An ear of 

(unripe) com.) 
<Ujl ao-mah, s.m. (5th) The name of a plant 

which is flnely powdered and mixed with 

suns' to make it pungent ; also used in tan- 
ning leather. PL ^\^j\ ao-man, 
^j\ u-^am, adj. Seven. See /•jyL 
jjji*Lj^j! ao-mlsh'tiyaey, s.m. (1st) A seven 





months male child. PI. ^ I. ^^cJL^j\ ao- 
nush'tiya'l, a.f. (6th) A female child of seven 
months. Sing, and PL 

^j\ Unaey, adj. as s.m. (Ist) A talker of non- 
sense, a babbler, a twaddler, a long-tongue ; 
(Fem.) ^\ Urn. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^c l. 

s^jj< ao-rrnaey, s.m. (1st) A swaddling cloth 
wrapped round an infant. Pl«Vj^^- See^cJjjU 

i^j^^^ cuhwraey, s.m. (1st) A cloud. PI. ^c L 
See jfji^l. 

\^j^ dO'Ura'tf s.f. (6th) The gums, the quicks 
of the nails. Sing, and PI. See ^j^\ . 

^^^\ ao-waniy adj. The seventh ; (Fem.) <Ujj^\ 
ao-itamaHh, See i^. 

^33^ do-nah, adj. Seven. ^ nj^^ ao-wah-las, 
Seventeen, v^^l^jj i^^\ ao-Tvah-^lsht, Twenty- 
seven, ^ji*^ ^^ cuhwah-dershy Thirty-seven. 
ci-.^4JyL». }fj^\ (W-wah'UalrToeshty or tsal-rvekht, 
Forty-seven. u*'^^^ *Jt^' ao-rvah-pindzoSy 
Fifty-seven, «<"..*.;..l }tj^\ ao-wah-shpetahy Sixty- 
seven. \i^ i^^\ do-rvah'OO'ydf Seventy-seven. 
Lj\ »j^ ao-wah-ati-ydy Eighty-seven, y }ij^\ 
or ^y ao-wah-nawi, or nawl. Ninety-eight. 

^^\ cuhwi, s.m. (1st) PI. The mane of a horse, 
comb of a cock. See ^j\ and ui3^jU-. 

,j\ aw^ak, adj. Seven. See *^^U 

»^\ aoA, or Uh, inteij. Heigh oh ! oh dear I 

5j\ ao-7va'A, s.f. (3rd) A blister, a pustule, a 
pimple, a freckle, a small-pox mark, a small 
bladder or bubble on the water. PI. ^^ ey. 
See iS^jfi. 

^^ ao-eyy s.m. (2nd) A promise, a pledge, an 
oath, an agreement, a covenant. PI <0^^^ 
ao-ey-Unak. J J or J^ ^^j\ aihey kawul, or 
tarral, verb trans. To make a promise, to 
give a pledge, to enter into an agreement or 

\ ao-yd, adj. Seventy. ^jU^I (w-ydyam, The 
seventieth ; (Fem.) <UjIjj^ ao-ydyama^A. 
\jl^\ cace-zdndy adj. (corrup. of pJj[»jO Sus- 
pended, hanging, dangling; (Fem.) i^JJ^j^^jf 
nwe-zdndd'A. Jjulf ^\}t)^ mce-zand Aedal, 
>rerb intrans. To be suspended, to hang, 
to dangle. J^^ *^Jji^^ awe-zdnd ka/wul, verb 

trans. To suspend, to hang up, to make to 

^^\ ooe-naA, s.m. (6th) The white ant. Sing, 
and PI. 

P *T dA, s.m. (2nd) A sigh. PI. <OybT dA-HnaA. 
2. Inteij. Ah I alas I J^ >T dA AsAal (W.), 
or jCj, {\ dA Idikal (E.), To sigh. <UjibT nj^ 
sdrraA dA-UnaAy Cold or deep sighs. 

j^\ aAdrTt s.m. (9th) The name of the third 
solar month of the Hindas, June— July. Sing, 
and PI. (b "irnrre). See^l. 

jljJb\ iA'ddd, s.m. (2nd) Punishment, punition, 
chastisement, correction, infliction, retribu- 
tion, reward, requital. PI. <Ujjl»>Jbl iA-ddd- 
UnaA, (J^ J) J^JJbl iA-ddd war-kcuvul, verb 
trans. To punish, to requite, to chasten, to 
inflict punishment. 

Jb\ aAarr, s.m. (9th) The name of a Hindu 
month, June — July. Sing, and PI. See jUl . 

p ^JL^ dAistayi, s'.f. (3rd) Slowness, tardi- 
ness, delay, gentleness, softness. PI. ^ a'h 

p <tu*js>T dAistaAy adv. Gently, softly, slowly, 
tardy, slothful. J^ ttu*jbT dAistaA karoul, 
verb trans. To do anything slowly, gently, 
softly, or carefully. 

A Jjb\ ahly s.m. (2nd) People, consort, inhabit- 
ant, possessor; (in comp.) Possessed of, en- 
dowed with. PI. iU^Jbl aAlUnaA. i^\ Ja^ 
aA'lullaAy The people of God, darweshis, 
fakirs, etc. ^JuA Jj^l aAU-mdn, A believer. 
l::,^ ^^\ aAl-i-bait, People of the house, 
family (especially of the Prophet Muhammad). 
J J Jj^^ aAlri-dil, adj. Liberal, brave, gener- 
ous. ^^U; JjblaAW-jrawean, adj. Time-serving. 
Jifi Jjbl aAlri'Ceakly adj. Wise. Jlc Jj^^ aAl-i- 
(silm, adj. Scientific. <--;lii^ Jji\ aAl-i-kitdb, 
A learned man, a person of any religion re- 
vealed or contained in books. 

p ^T dAan, s.m. (9th) Iron. Sing, and PI. 
jf fj^ dAanyar, s.m. (5th) A smith, a black- 
smith. PI. ^\^ ^^T dAan-ffardn. \jj ^T 
dAan-rubd, s.f. (6th) The magnet or loadstone. 
(E.) Sing, and PI.) ; (W.) PI. ^^U, ^^T dAa?i- 
rubdwi. See JLi^-ijI. 






Vi^S:jb\ ahanff, B.m. (2nd) Intention, design, 
purpose. 2. Sound, noise. 3. Echo, sym- 
phony, melody. PI. iU^SuAT dhang-Unah. 
J^ C^;jb7 dhang kawul, verb trans. To de- 
sign, to project, to intend, to purport. 2. To 
sound, to echo. CiliAl <U <u CJlxtoT aAaw^ 
j9aA naA dhang, Willing or unwilling, nolens 

<cjhl dhtncih^ s.f. (3rd) A mirror, a looking- 
glass. PI. ^ ey. See <^jbT and i^JT. 

p^T fiAfl, s.m. (5th) A deer. PI. J<^ dhUan, 
See ^j^> JL^ jtb\ dhu-diashm, adj. Fawn- 
eyed, having eyes like a fawn ; (Fem.) y^T 
<u*L>- dhU'^ashma'h. 

,^j^\ aho-raey, s.m. (1st) Mustard seed ; also 
the plant. PI. j^^ f. J-J ^jy^^ ^ da ahorl 
tel, The oil extracted from mustard seed. 
See ^j^\.^ 

<UJb! dhlna'hf s.f. (3rd) A mirror, a looking- 
glass. V\. ^ eg. See 5;tjcjb and <u-jT. 

^^^ ai, interj. Used in calling to, or addressing ; 
Oh I Hollo ! the sign of the vocative case. 
See J. 

A LI agd, interj. 01 oh ! hollo I have a care 1 
look out ! mind ! 

p IjT dydy interj. Wonderful I strange I is it not? 
whether or not. Used to express doubt or 

Tj\i\ agdz, s. prop. The name of a favourite of 
Mahmtld of Ghaznl ; the name of a favourite 

A A^\j\ ax-ydnty s.m. (6th) (PI. of ^^) Days, 
times, season, weather. Sing, and PI. 

A LT^T dyaty s.m. (2nd) A sign, a mark, a verse 
or paragraph of the Kur'ftn contained between 
stops or marks. PI. ^f^ dyatUnah, or a PI. 
clibT dydt, 

A \sA tzd, s.f. (6th) (inf. iv of uuoiO Hurting, 
Injuring, harm, pain, trouble, vexation, dis- 
tress, affiction, torment, torture. (E.) Sing, 
and PI. ; (W.) PI. ,^j\i^Ji Izdwi. J^.^ 1 jj! 
Izd rasawul, verb trans. To injure, to pain, to 
distress, to torture, to torment, to affict. 

p ^j\ji\ l-rdn, 8. prop. Persia. . 

,J,\jj\ Irdnly adj. Persian, a Persian; (Fem.) 
^\jA l-rdnaX 

v^j^l aer-'craey, s.m. (1st) A long-tailed sheep, 
in contradistinction to the dumbdk, or fat-tailed 
species, the common sheep (male). PI. ^c F. 
\^j^} aer-jraX s.f. (6th) An ewe of the above 
breed. Sing, and PI. See^, gpj, *^JkjA* 
v/yj, s?r>, sar?*, ^J and ^^^. 

^j\ Irey, s.f. (3rd) PI. Ashes. Sing. nyS Ira'k, 
^^jA 4^ vJj-» satreypatrey l-rey, Cold ashes 
(fig.), cleared out, gone to the dogs, all gone 
save cold ashes to sit on ; a state of complete 
ruin and desolation. J,%,rf\.;g4>^ t^j\ fCj fC^ ij 
pah sarrey parrey l-rey K^endstal (E.), or 
Kshendstal (W.) verb intrans. To sit on cold 
ashes, to be in a state of utter helplessness 
and destitution. 

^j^ ae-xToey^ s.m. (1st.) A sheep, a ram. PI. 

y\jA ae-rraX s.f. (6th) An ewe. Sing, and PL 
See y^\. 

p j^l I'Zidf 8. prop. God, the Creator, i^^^y} 
hzidl, adj. Divine. 

jL*j\ I'Sdr, adj. Surrounded, enclosed, fenced, 
compassed, invested. 2. 8.m. (2nd) Embar- 
rassment, hesitation, demur, intricacy. 3. A 
fort, a castle, a fortification. PI. ^U^LjI 
l-sdrUfiaA ; (Fem.) ifj\^^ l-Mra'A. J ju^ ^LjI 
t'Sdr kedal, or J JJjU**j ' Isdredal, verb intrans. 
To become surrounded, compassed, invested, 
fenced. 2. To become perplexed or embar- 
rassed. J/ jLjI l-^dr kawtU, or J^jLjI 
t'Sdrawul, verb trans. To enclose, to surround, 
to invest. 2. To embarrass, to make to hesi- 
tate, to cause to demur, to perplex, to make 
intricate. See jLjb and J jj^Ljb and 4J^Lj^. 

Ji*mj1 aeS'tal, verb trans. To expel, to reject, to 
discharge, to cast out, to discard, to exclude, 
to put ofi", to put away, to throw out, to give 
vent to, to let fly, to remove, to free, etc. This 
infinitive is imperfect, and the greater number 
of its inflexions are taken from J«<b, which 
'see, as also J:^ yas-tal, the more corrects 
mode of orthography. 






[ij^\ aesh-na, s.f. (6th) Ebiillition, boiling, 
fusion, agitation, fennent, effervescence (as 
from heat, etc.) S. Excitement, passion, agi- 
tation, disquietude, vehemence, paroxysm, 
rage. PI, ,^j wu Jju^^ aeshe-dal, verb 
intrans. To boil, to boil over, to become agi- 
tated by heat. 2. To become excited, chafed, 
or disturbed. Pres. ^^^--u*Jl aeshe-jn (W.), 
or ^Xy^\ aeshe-gl (E.) ; past asJ^} j wu- 
aeshe-dah ; fat. i^r-Mj^ ^j ^ wu bah aeshe- 
jzly or ^»n^i} aeshe-gl) imp. 2r-JLj\ j wu- 
aeshe-jzah, or ii^\ J nu-aeshe-gah \ act. 
part. ^X}jJlJLj^ aeshe-dunkdeyy or jJ3jJu*Lj\ 
aeshe^Unaey ; past part.^ -^j^' aeske-dalaey ; 
verb. n. «Uju^\ aeshe-mnah, AaS^ aesha- 
^•w/, verb trans. To boil, to make hot, to 
cause ebullition, to excite by means of heat. 
2. To chafe, to fret, to disturb, to agitate. 
Pres. (^yt*i' aeshawl ; past }ij\JLi\ J wu-aeshd- 
wuhy or jyluo^ j wu-ae$hdrto ; fat. ^y^\ <o J 
ferw hah aeshawl ; imp. i^LjI J wvraeshawah ; 
act. part, ^j^ji^^ aeshawUnkaeyy or ^j3jy^[^ 
a^shawUnaey \ past part, ^dytol aeshan>ulaey\ 
verb. n. <OyLj' aeshawunah. See Luj, and 

J-^-^ and J^. 

J4j^ aeshal (W.), or aeWial (E.), verb trans. 
To place, to put, to set, to lay, to arrange, to 
dispose, to settle, etc. This infinitive is im- 
* perfect, and requires the aid of several other 
InfinitiveB, imperfect like itself, to complete 
it. Pres. ^Ci^ jz'di (W.), or ^^j^ g'dl (E.), 
(from J J, or Jjkf); past^-o^ ke-shoW.), or 
ke-^ (E.) (from Jys»-0, and J^4^ ke-shqd 
( W.), or he-md (E.) (from J J^) ; fat. 
^^j, <0 ,--5^ ^'^^ or Kshe hah jzdi, or 4^ j^ 
g*di (from J j^-j^i^) ; imp. *J. jz'dah, or * j^ 
^'d^A (from J J. or J Jkf), and *Jpj^ kejz-dah, 
or *jij^ keg-dah (from J'^y-^ or JjjLi') ; 
act. part. ^.0^1 asshUnka^yj or ae^Unkaey, 
OT^y^ aeshUnaeyy or ae^Unaey ; past part. 
^4j\ aeshaey, or aejffiaey] verb. n. <uaj^ 
aeshmdhy or aeWiandh. See J^^ . 

J j^4j1 aeshodal (W.), or aeJ3iodal (E.), To put, 
to place, to set, to lay, etc. This infinitive is 

imperfect. Act. part. ^j-^j*>^^ a^shodUnkaey 
or aeldhodUnkaey y or ^^j Jj^j' aeshodUnaey or 
aef^dUnaeg ; past part. ^ j^4jl aeshodalaey 
or aeMiodaldey ; verb. n. iUjj^jl a^shqdaTuih 
or ae/Siodanah, The other inflexions are taken 
from the preceding verbs. 

2fJ^4j\ a£shodah or aeI3^dah, s.m. (6th) (verb, 
n.) Placing, putting, setting; arrangement, 
settlement, disposition. Sing, and PI. 

J^l aeskawul or aeldiawuly verb trans. To put, 
to place, etc. Act. part. i>^j^4^^ aeshawUn' 
kaey or a^JchawUnkaey, or ^jj^j! aesharcU- 
naey or ae^awUnaeg ; past part, ^jJ^l 
a^eshawulaey or a^Mawulaey ; verb. n. ^Oj^jI 
aeshawundh or a^BiawuncHh. This verb is 
also imperfect, and uses the inflexions of 
those already mentioned. 

Jjl a^/ (W.) or ll (E.) adj. Tame, domestic, 
obedient, broken in, mild, gentle, opposite to 
wild ; (Fem.) 6^\ aeloHh or llcih. JjuLl 
aeledal or xledaly verb intrans. To become or 
grow tame, domestic, obedient, to become 
broken in. Pr. v^j^} aelejzl (W.) or ^Xb^ 
tl-egi (E.) ; past <Li' Jj^ ael or ll shah, or <Ll J 
wvrshah ; fat. ^^ <u Jjl ael or !/ 4aA ^?, 
or ^J^ J wU'shi] imp. <Ll Jjl o^r/or llshah, 
or <Ll J wU'shah ; act. part. ^^Xjj juL< a^&- 
dunhaey or tledunhaey, or ^j Ju!j\ aeledUnaey 
or lledunaey ; past part. Jjl a^/ or I/, or Jjl 
4^^-2» o^/ or llshawaey ; verb. n. <0 jJjI aeleda- 
TuCh or iledanoHh. or 2f jJjI aekdah or lledah. 
J^! aelawul or llawul, verb trans. To tame, 
to domesticate, to break in, to make obedient. 
Pres. 4^^^ aelawl or ifan?! ; past J? Jj^ o^/or 
t/ ^aoTj or^ J wxi'karr ; fat. (C^i? «u Jjl ae/ 
or !/ iaA ^m, or 4^ J <0 6aA ww-^rrf ; imp. 
^$ ^^iS ^^ or ilkrrah, or * J? J wu-krrah ; act. 
part, jjilij^l aelawUnkaey or ilawUnkaey, 
and ^;[^' aelawUnaey or f/a;ri?mi^; past 
part. 4^ Jjl 0^/ or !/ karraeg] verb. n. 
iG^j^ aelawuna^h or llawuruCh, 

t^'j Jd' ael-^dheg, or ll^rvdlaey, s.m. (1st) 
Tameness, domestication, obedience. PI. J|j 
Tra/t, or <UjuL1 aeledaria'hf or lledanah, s.f. 

ft* ^ 





(3rd) (verb, n.) Pl.^^^y; mdiixliSaeledah, 
or lledah, a.m. (6th) Sing, and PL Jji ael, 
a.m. (2nd) Tribe, sept, clan, family. PI. 
ij^\ aelunah. 

T jl>l I'ldkt B.m. (2nd) A summer station of 
the pastoral tribes of tlie West, in distinction 
to kish'ldk, the winter station. PI. <OylLl 
I'ldkUnaA. See jliJ. 

T ^<f^l f/-^f, s.m. (5th) An envoy, an ambas- 
sador, an agent, or attorney. PI. ^^l^^' H- 

T jULl xl-ghdr^ s.m. (2nd) An assault, an attack, 
an inroad, a foray, an invasion. PL <OjjULl 
U-ghdrUnah, J^jWlpI lUghdr kawul^ verb 
trans. To assault, to invade, to attack, to make 
an inroad on. 

yjjl llrtjihar, s.m. (2nd) PL i^^jiS^ xUghaninah. 
Same as preceding. 

«djl aelahy adj. Free, liberated, at large, unre- 
strained, unbridled, irresponsible. 2. Wan- 
dering, vagabond, dissolute (Masc. and Fem.). 
J^ i^\ ae-lah kawul, verb trans. To free, to 
release, to set at large ; to wander about, to 
make a wanderer or vagabond of. For other 
combinations of this word, see under 4b. 

A ^\aj\ t-mdn, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iv of ^1) Faith, 
belief, religion, conscience, credit. PL ^y Uj\ 
i-m&nunah. ^b ^UjI l-mdn-ddr, adj. Faithful, 
conscientious, honest, trusty, a believer; 
(Fem.) gj\j ^UjI l-mdn-ddrdh. ^j\^ ^Uj^ 
I'tnan-darl, s.f. (3rd) Faithfulness, conscien- 
tiousness, honesty, fidelity, trustiness. PL 

A ^^^1 ai-min, adj. More or most happy, fortu- 
nate, void of care, free; (Fem.) «u#j1 ai- 

^jAj\ aey-man, adj. Quiet, gentle, calm, inex- 
citable, sober, serene, patient, submissive, 
inoffensive, peaceful, pacific; (Fem.) ^u^jI 
aey-mana'k, J Ju^ ^jaj\ aey-man kedal, verb 
intrans. To become or grow calm, quiet, 
gentle ; to become appeased, soflened, molli- 
fied, calmed, pacified, etc. J^ ^^\ aey-man 
kawul, verb trans. To quiet, to appease, to 

mollify, to calm, to soothe, to hush, to tran- 

tc^lj cr*i' aey-wa»-«?d/a€y, B.m. (Ist) Calm- 
ness, quietness, tranquillity, peace of mind, 
composure, placidity, meekness, gentleness, 
patience, sobriety, sedateness. PL J^^ 

A <Uj1 ai-mahf s.f. (3rd) Land given as a reward 
or favour by a king or chief at a very low 
rent, a fief. PL ^^ ey, j\j ^uA cd-maA-ddr, 
A feoffee; (Fem.) aJ^J ^\ cd-maA-ddra^k. 
See i^ji^ and^j. 

*xj1 tn-da'h, s.f. (3rd) (W.) A gulph, a draught. 
2. A mouthful, a sip. PL ^ ey. See if jjL 

p *jjjT d'indaA, s.m. (6th) The future, coming. 
Sing, and PL 2. adv. In future, for the 

jj:j\ xn-zar, s.m. (6th) A fig. Sing, and PL 
djfj jyA J da in-zar wanaA, A fig-tree. See 

<u>l xna'h, s.f. (3rd) The liver, the heart, the 
vitals. PL ^ ey. See^^ . 

vijl^' a^-«?5j2ra^, adj. Alone, etc. See following 

^1^1 ae-wddzaey^ adj. Alone, single, solitary, 
insular, insulated, isolated, lone ; (Fem.) ±)^l 
ae-wddn. PL ,cL Jju^ i <^W^ ae-wddzaey 
kedal, verb intrans. To become isolated, lone, 
solitary. J^ L^^yi^ ae^wddzaey kanml, verb 
trans. To make or render lonely, single, soU- 
tary ; to insulate. See ^^'^• 

A ^^\ ai-yub, s. prop. The prophet Job. 2. The 
name for a man. 

^ji-r^yj^ ai-yub-zx, s.m. (1st) PL The name of 
an Afghan tribe. i^jiy\ ai-yubzaey, Sing. A 
male of the above tribe. %^,yi^ ai-yUbzaX 
s.f. (6th) A female of the above. Sing, 
and PL 

p ^^ d'in, s.m. (2nd) Regulation, institute, 
statute, rule, conmion law. PL aJ^xJT d'tn- 

p iUJT d'lnaA, s.f. (3rd) A mirror, a looking- 
glass. V\. 1^ ey. 




^ bey is the second letter of the Pushto, as 
well as of the Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian 
alphabets. In the Afghan language this letter 
is sometimes changed for j as in the Persian. 
-> ba, a particle, the sign of the future, the 
donbtfdl past, and the continuative tenses pf 
verbs. When not prefixed to a word, which 
is the most general form, it is written «u, which 
see. See also my Grammar. 

A t-^ bi, prep, (always prefixed to another 
word). By, with, from, near, on, into, in, for, 
towards, etc. 

p c-j ba, prep. Generally prefixed to another 
word, and when standing alone written «o, 
signifying. With, by, for, in, into, to, up to, 
on, upon. 

p b bd, prep. With, by. It is only used with a 
few Persian words such as ^UjJ \j ba xmdn, 
Religious, faithftd. <-=-^|^ Ij ba murUrtat, 
With kindness, etc. See <o the Pushto equiva- 
lent for this preposition. 

y U ba-U, s.m. (5th) A bracelet, an ornament for 
the wrist. PI. ^jl^lb bd'U-gdn, See ybb. 

A <^b baby s.m. (2nd) A door, a gate. 2. A 
chapter, section, or division of a book. 3. 
Subject, head, affair, point, matter, business, 
reason, manner, mode, species, sort. 4. p 
Fate, destiny, fortune, lot. PI. jjy L bdbUnah, 
c-^b lo <u pah da bdb, or ©4^ ^b \j <u paA 
dd bdb k/^ey, or k^ey. On this account, for 
this reason. 

tIjL bdbd, A term of endearment: Father! 

dad! sire! sir! child! Lb ^\>- jdn bdbd, 

The name of a celebrated devotee whose 

shrine is situated at Jabgarrah in Buner. See 

yb,/jlj, and^ 

k d-^b bdbat, s.m. (2nd) Account, head, article, 

item, affair, matter, business. PI. <0^lj 


^\i haharr, s.m. (6th) The name of an Afghan 

trftye. PI. ^^^^\, babarr-dn; (Fern.) (3rd) 

k »j^\j haharra^h. PI. a ey. 

^\i bdbkoy s.m. A term of endearment to a 
child. See ^sr . 

A Jjb bdbul, s. prop. Babel, the tower of Babel, 

^b bdbuy A term of endearment from a child to 
its father, or to a venerable man. ^^U- jjb 
bdbujdn, The name of a Pughto author, said 
to have been a converted Si'fih-posh Kftfir, 
who again relapsed. For specimen of his 
works, see Text Book. 

^^^b bdbu 21, s.m. (1st) PI. Name of a tribe 

of Afghans, vjjyb babu-zaey, Sing. A man 

of the above; (Fem.) (6th) i^^jyb bdbUza'i, 

A female of the above. Sing, and PI. 

pb bdbl, s.f. (3rd) A brother's wife. PI. ^al, 

^b bdbt, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of an Afghan 

" tribe. ^\i bdbaey, Sing. A man or male of 

the tribe, or s.m. (5th) PI. ^^lob bdbi-dn, 

»jb bd'ba^l, s.f. (6th) A female of the above. 

Sing, and PI. 

j^\i bdrtor, adj. (corrup. of p ^jI^) Bold, brave, 
courageous, valiant; (Fem.) 2^^b bd4ora^h, 
2. s.m. (5th) A species of falcon remarkable 
for its sharp sight. PI. ^jyi^, bdtordn. 
v^yb bd'tori, s.f. (3rd). Bravery, boldness, 
gallantry, heroism. Pl.^a*!. J^ sr^JiyV ^^" 
tonkanul, verb trans. To act with boldness 
or bravery, to shew courage or gallantry. 

jy\i bdtor, s.m. (2nd) The pupil of the eye. PL 
ajj^yb bdiorUnah, See ^^^ and Hj^, 

Sjyi\j bdtUrah, s.f. (3rd) Name of a poisonous 
plant, the thorn-apple (Datura fastuosa). PI. 
^ ey. (hi Ij^fUj.) 

^b bdtai, s.f. (6th) A wick, a match. Sing, 
and PI. 

^:^b bdUey-garrn, s.m. (5th) The egg-plant. 
PI. j^i-jb bditey-gcerrn. 

p —b bdj, s.m. (2nd) A tribute, a tax, a toll, 
impost, duty. PI. 4j^b bdj-unah. j\^ —b 
bdj ddr, s.m. A tax gatherer, a collector of 
tribute or revenue. »]/^^V ^^3 guxdr, A tax 
payer, one who pays tribute. J^jj ^V ^^j 
war kawul, verb trans. To pay tribute. 
jjs»-b bdjarca'cri »• prop. The country of Baja- 





warr, north west of Pe^awer. v,^j^V b^ 
jarvarrey, s.m. (1st) A native of Bfijawa^. 
PI, j^ f ; s.f. (6th) j^ a'L Sing, and PI. 

^1.4c;Ij bdJJmala!i, s.f. (6th) A small red eater- 
pillar produced in the rains, generally covered 
with hair. 2. The name of a bird wliich cries 
at night. Si^g. and PI. See ^jL^^aC 

P fc>b bad, s.m. (2nd) Wind, air, breeze, gale. PI. 
<Gjjb bddunah. j3jlT jU bad dhvataly verb 
trans. To blow as the wind {lit. to fly), jsr^ J 
jb da 5a^ar iod. The morning wind. ^JuS J 
jb tfa Aeifey 6arf, The west wind ; or j,y J 
jb <i^^^^ dan'war prervdtah bad, 4GU- .j3 J 
jb da nwar Mdtah bdd, The east wind, 
jb c-^ii5 J da kutb bdd. The north wind. 
jb J-f«j J t/a suhail bdd, The south wind ; or 
jb jLj J ^ nildo bdd, from nl/o^, the name 
of the Indus ; in Persian, nil db, or the blue 
water. CJljji jb bddA-farang , The pox. 
^y^ jb bdd pezi, s.f. (3rd) Absurdity, non- 
sense, vanity, unprofitableness, trash, stufi*, 
fiddle-faddle. PI. ^ a't. J^ ^^ jb bdd 
pezi karcul, verb trans, {lit. to sift the wind). 
To do anything absurd or unprofitable, jb 
^j^ bdd jarrai, s.f. (6th) Driving rain, 
wind and rain, drift. Sing, and PI. See 

jf^ (^ ^^ jf^ (irT- ^V^ barMd, adj. 
Given to the winds, thrown away, misapplied, 
lost, wasted, laid waste, ruined. JjuS" jb^ 
bar bdd kedal, verb intrans. To become ruined 
or laid waste. J^ jb j bar bdd karcul, verb 
trans. To ruin, to waste, to give to the winds. 
Jj^j jb bad wahal, verb trans. To strike as a 
hot pestilential wind. 

p |%\jb bdddm, s.m. An almond. PI. <U^ljb 
bdddmUnah. ^^ob bdddmi, adj. Almond- 

p jjb Jb bddbdn, s.m. (2nd) A sail, a vessel used 
to hold a lamp for the purpose of protecting 
it from the wind, a shade. PI. ^y bjb bdd- 
bdnUnah ; also ^^'job, which see. 

^^ jb bddpezl, s.f. (3rd) Absurdity, nonsense, 
vanity, trash, stufi*, fiddle-faddle, unprofitable- 
ness. PI. j^ at, J^ ^^ jb bdd pezl 

karcul, verb trans. To do anything absurd, 

nonsensical, or unprofitable, 
j^ jb bdd Mor, s.m. (6th) The rupture, hernia. 

(In Persian, a disease in horses, which causes 

the hair to fall off.) Sing, and PL 
C/||^ ob bdd Morak, s.m. (6th) The pox. 2. 

A running at the nose and eyes from cold. 

Sing, and PI. 3. s.m. (5th) A kind of hawk 

or kite. PI. ^^jy>- ob bdd M^orakdn. 
^j^i>- fc>b bdd M^Uri, s.f. (3rd) A disease to which 

horses are subject : they reftise their grain and 

fall off in condition. PI. y\ a i. 
P Cioj jb bdd rang, s.m. (6th) A kind of cu- 
cumber. Sing, and PI. 
jjjb bdd-rau, s.m. (2nd) A ventilator, a place to 

admit air, made in the walls of houses. PL 

iOj^jjb bdd'rauUnah. 
jjjb bddro, s.m. (9th) The second month of the 

rainy season — August, (hi ^*^\^)> 
p ^bl jb bddskdk, s.m. (5th) A king, a sovereign, 

a ruler, a potentate, a monarch. PL ^Ubi jb 

p <iL)Ubljb bddshdhdnak, adj. Imperial, royal. 

2. adv. Royally, princely, kingly. 
P cr^sfebl jb bddshdhat, s.m. (2nd) Royalty, em- 
pire, kingdom, government, dominion. PI 

Jj^b!;»jb bddshdliatUnak. 
p ^^bljb bddshdhi, adj. Royal, imperial, 

regal. 2. s.f. (3rd) Empire, reign, sway, 

sovereignty, dominion, oflice of a king. PI. 

s\ at. 
j^^jjb bdd-Kdn, s.m. (2nd) A sail, a shade or 

screen for a lamp. PL <oy \jjb bdd-tvdnUnah. 

See ^bjb. 
p j^j^b bddukaey, s.m. (1st) A gentle breeze, 

a light air, a cat's-paw. PL ^c f . 
p 3 jb bdddhy s.f. (3rd) Wine, spirit. PL A ey- 
\^ Sj bdd Iiarvd, s.m. (5th) A paper kite. PI. 

yj^\^ 4ib bad-karcd-gdn. See jb «xcl^. 
p t^jb bddi, adj. Flatulent, windy; whenappUed 

to a man, it means a useless good-for-nothing 

fellow, a poltroon. 
Jji^^b bddd-goly s.m. (2nd) A leading rein, a 

rope. PL ^jSyib bddd-golUnaJi. See Jyj . 




p^b haXy 8.m. (2nd) A load, a burden, fruit, time, 
once. VX.ij^harilTMJi. j\i^ji j\j bdr-barddr, 
Bearing a burthen, a porter, a carrier, a beast 
of burden, t^j^^^ji j^ bdr-barddri, s.f. (3rd) 
Means of conveyance, carriage, beasts of 
burden. PI. ^^ a*l. aA* ij^^j^, bdrddra'A 
Jdiadzdhy s.f. (3rd) A pregnant woman. PI. 

Si ^' ^J^' ^^' ^ beast of burden, carriage, 
fit for a load. Jo jjcjb hindu bar, A place 
where Hindas assemble, Hindastftn. 

Sjlj bar, s.m. (2nd) Time, occasion, a time. 
PI. <Ojj\j bdrUnah. Jo Jo bdr-bdr, adv. Re- 
peate(Uy, often. Beejj 

p ^J^j\j bdrdn, s.m. (2nd) Rain. PI. ijy\j\i bar- 
dnunah. ^Jo ^f**{ *> da psarh bdrdn. 
Spring rain or showers. J^ ^^J;V f^^^-o^n 
sal, A rainy year ; also J^ f^\Jo bdr-dn-kdL 
^Jo fjTjjj *> da tvo-rrl bdrdn, Rain which 
falls in the summer season injurious to the 
crops; also called «Uj wasa'h. ^\Jj l^j 
ran-gaey bdrdn, A sUght shower, driz5ing 
rain. ^Jo j^ garm bdrdn, Heavy rain, a 
heavy shower or fidl of rain. J*x»jj\ ^Jj\j or 
J jjjjl^ bdrdn ao-redal, or wo-redal, verb in- 
trans. To rain, to fall or pour as rain. ^JJo 

JjJJ^ ^^ J-?J-?-J A^rfiw a/Hrawul, or wo-rawul, 
verb trans. To make or cause to rain or pour. 
See Jj^^y* etc. 

p J,\Jo bdrdn-l, adj. Relating to or depending 
on rain, of rain. 

^\Jo bdrdnaX s.f. (6th) A coat or cloak for 
keeping off rain. Sing, and PI. 

b bdr^, s.f. (9th) The face, the cheek. 
Sing, and PI. 

b bdrM^U, s.m. (5th) (W.) The cheek, the 
side of the fiwe. PI. {J^y>'J<i bdr-JdvOgdn. 

ilJJo bdrak, s. prop. The name of one of the three 
sons of Zirak, the ancestor of the Bftrakzls, of 
which tribe Dost Muhammad Khan, the pre- 
sent ruler of E&bul, is the head and chief. 

^jf^Ji bdrak-zi, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of an 
Afj^ftn tribe. virC^V bcirak-zaey, Sing. A 
male of the tribe ; s.f. (6th) ^^ a% A female 
of the tribe. Sing, and PI. 

\jiSJo bdr-kash (W.) or bdr-kaJ^ (E.) adj. (past 
part.) Burden-bearing or drawing, such as 
carts, camels, carriers, etc. 2. Meek, humble ; 
(Fem.) i^ Jo bdr-Jtashcih, or bdr-kalOicHh. 
^^Jo bdr-kashl (W.) or bdr-kaWkl (E.) 
s.f. (3rd) Carrying loads, porterage, carrying, 
conveyance. PI. y\ a\ J^ lj^^jV ^^^' 
kasfd, or bdr-kaldil karoul, verb* trans. To 
carry a burden, to carry, to convey. (P^b 
tA^, etc.) 

p *l^b bdr-gcHh, s.f. (2nd) A court, a palace, a 
place of audience. PI. <0 Jb\/,b bdr-gdhunak, 

i^jjj^ bdrO'Zl, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of a 
^be of Afghans, ^jyj^i bdro-zaey. Sing. A 
male of the tribe ; s.f. (6th) \^j^Jo bdro-za't, 
A female of the above. Sing, and PI. 

Jjj^b bdrareul, verb trans. To load, to pack, to 
freight, to pack up. Pres. i^^Jo bdrawl ; past 
j^ Jo bdr karr, or j^ J wurkarr ; fiit. <o Jo 
^i bdr bah krrl, or ^^ J <o bah wvrkxfi ; 
imp. *j^ jb bdr hrrah) act. part, ^j^jjjb 
bdrawUnkaey, or ^^^Jo bdrawUnaey ; past 
part. fSf Jo bdr harraey ; verb. n. ^^Jo, 

Jjjb bdrareul, verb trans. To set by the ears, to 
incite, to instigate or animate to action (as a 
man or animal). 

p ^Jo bdroHh, s.f. (3rd) A fortification, defence, 
rampart, a ditch, palisade, an entrenchment, 
a breastwork. PI. ^ ey. See^^iL^ 

p ^Jo bdrey, adv. Once, one time ; at last, at 
length. See 2f^ 

A ^Jo bdn, act. part, of ]^, (h tTQ, Created) 
The Deity, the Creator, the First Cause, ^^^^b 
J^Uj bdrl ta'cedld. The Most High God. 

p ijjojj bdrlk, adj. Fine, slender, subtile, minute ; 
(Fem.) ^^Jo bdnka'h, J^ <*^jV ^orik 
karoul, verb trans. To make or render fine, 
slender, minute. 

p ^Sijo bdriki, s.f. (3rd) Fineness, niceness, 
subtilty, minuteness. PL ^^ al. J^ \^j^. 
bdrifd kawul, verb trans. To manifest or show 
subtilty, penetration, etc. 

B jb bdrr, s.m. (2nd) A volley of musketry. PI. 






4JjyU bdcrUfuiA. Jjlf jb idcr kawul, verb 
trans. To fire or giye a volley. 

pjl ^<^, s.m. (5th) A hawk, a falcon. PI. 
^|jb bdzdn. See 4i^U and ^^;!Mi»li 

Pjljb io^rar, s.m. (2n4) A market. PI. ^jjyl;^ 

p L^l;^ hdzdrgaey, s.m. (let) A small 
market. PI. ^^ f. 

p c£;|jV bazar '% adj. Belonging to the market, 
a market person. 

p A aJjIj bdzindah, s.m. (5th) (act. part. o{^^fit>^\j) 
A player, the proper name of a pigeon. PI. 
^\ijbjjj\j bdzindah-gdn. 

p jjL bdzU^ s.m. (5th) The side of a bedstead, the 
arm, the fold of a door. PL ,^^V bdzUgdn. 

p jcj jjU bdzu band, s.m. (3nd) An ornament 
worn on the arm, a bracelet. PI. ^jJcjj^Ij 

p j^jb id;?!, s.f. (3rd) Play, sport, game, a trick. 
PI. j^ a'l. J^ i^lj bdzl kawul, verb trans. 
To play, to sport, to make merry. Jjj ^^^jb 
id;?? w^t!C<^i or J^ (^jb id2:! gaUqi, verb 
trans. To win at play, to excel. 

jjjb id^wf, s. prop, (properly jjj>b Bftyazld), the 
name of the celebrated Derwegh \ the name 
of the fomider of the B>o^finifin sect, Bfiyazld 
Ansftrl ; called also Pir Tank, or the Saint of 

p^jb bdzxgar, s.m. (5th) A tumbler, one who 
exhibits feats of activity, a rope-dancer, ^jb 
bdzxgcer ; s.f. (3rd) »;Jjjb bdzlgardh, PI. ^ 
ey. See ^^^ 

p ^^/ij^, bdzlgari, s.f. (3rd) The art of a tumbler. 
PI. ^ aX 

^\i bds, sjn. (2nd) A necessary, a privy (8 
odour, smell). PI. <0^b bdsUnah. 

J-ab basal, verb trans. To reject, to expel, to dis- 
charge, to cast out, to discard, to exclude, to 
put oflf, to put aivay, to let fly, to remove, to 
free, to give vent to. This verb is imperfect, 
and is used to make up the tenses wanting in 
the verb^ l^^^^ &ii<l J^^' which are likewise 
imperfect. Pres. ^b bd»i ; fut. ^b <o J 
fvu bah bd8l ; imp. ^b J wu bd$ak. 

i^\j bdBa'A (E.) or ba^a'A (W.) s,f. (3rd) A 
sparrow-hawk. PL i^ ^ ; and ^^;s^\» bd^^, 
or bdmn, s.f. (5th). PI. ^Lh»^ bd^UUin, or 

A Jl^b bdtil, adj. (from Jla;) False, vain, absurd, 
futile, ineffectual, abolished ; (Fern). ^Upb 

A ^^b bdtin, s.m. (2nd) (from ^) The inward 
part, the inside, the internal, the heart, the 
mind. PI. ^^b bdtinAnah. 2. adj. Internal, 
hidden, concealed. 

A ,v^b bdtinl, adj. Internal, concealed. 

A ci^b bd'cekf 8*ni. (9th) (act. part, of ci-^* 
Productive) Cause, occasion, motive, reason, 
account, subject. Sing, and PL 

A j^b bd'aid, adj. Far, remote, very distant ; 
(Fem.) if jusb bd'aUddk. 

P ^b bdgh, s.m. (2nd) A garden, an orchard, a 
grove. PL <0^b bdghUwik. 

p ^Lsb bdghbdn, s.m. (6th) A gardener ; also 
written ^^<^b bd^vodn. PL ^U Lib bdghf^dMn. 

p v^Lcb bdghbdnx, s.f. (3rd) The science of gar- 
dening. PL ^^ a\ J/ t^UiV hd^-bdm 
kawul, verb trans. To carry on the business of 
a gardener. 

A J^\i bdghl, act. part, (from ^ or C^jUj) A 
mutineer, a traitor, a rebel. See ^b 

A vib bdia, part. act. (of Uj) R em a ining , per- 
manent, lasting, extant, eternal; (used sub- 
stantively), renmant, remainder, balance, ar- 
rear. j\j Jb bdU d&r. Owing a balance; 
(Fem.) yjb Jb bdlkl-ddrak. cpltJb b&i^, 
s.m. (6th) (PL of 4V) Remainders, balances, 

p cJb bdk, s.m. (9th) Fear, dr^, qare, anxiety, 
misgiving. Sing, and PL cJb ^ bey bdk. 
Without fear, etc. ; (Fem.) 4^ ^ bey hdka'k, 

HI j5o/b bag-ddoT, s.m. (2nd) A long rein by 
which horses are led. PL ^^^ilS^ baQ-idflr- 

/\j bdrgU, s.f. (5th) A bug-bear, a woman dressed 
up in a frightful manner to friglitoQ chil(brai 
when naughty. PL ^^^\i b^gHrgSm^ or 
vjl^^ bdgHrgdnl. 




^yii bdffO'laX B«f* (6th) Same ae preceding. 
Sing, and PL ; also ^^^ bagahla*u 

p iGUl ]b b&l&kidna'A, s.f. (3rd) An upper room, 
an upper etory, a balcony. PL ^ ey. 

ci^b bdUBt (E.) or boH^^ (W.) a.m. (2nd) 
(p v.£.-JLJb) A cuflhion, a pillow, a bolster. PL 
^^s^Jb bdUi^tUnah or bdU^tUTuiA. 

C^\j biM^aktak (W.) or bdUBtak (E.) B.m. 
(Sth) A small pad stuffed with cotton or rags, 
placed at the back of a buckler to protect the 
hand. PL ^l^c^JU boM^dkdn or baU/j^a- 

A {J\j bdli^, adj. (act. part, of o^) Reaching 
its end, consummate, arrived at the age of 
maturity; an adult; (Fem.) ^Ji\) baUghcih. 
See u;^^ 

^b baUxcrny s.m. (Sth) A kind of broth or hash. 
2. Fuel, firewood. PL jSllj baUBrm. 

p ^^b bUxn, s.m. (2nd) A pillow, a bolster. PL 
4U^b bdHnUnaA. 

p j*b iom, s.m. (2nd) An upper story, the ter- 
race or roof of a house. PL ^y^\j bdmUnah. 
Jjj^ m\j i^ lah bama Iwe-dal, verb trans. To 
fall from the roof of a house, to plump down, 
lb or ..««^b bdffdHirm. s.m. (5th) A Brfihman. 

PL ^^5/-^b bdmbatrndn ; s.f. (3rd) if^\j 

bdmbarma'h^ A female of the above. PL ^^ 
ey ; and jx^b or ^^b bdmarm. PL ^|j^b 
or ^Wb bdnusrmdn; and ^[^b or i^b 
hdmaaavalK s.f. (8rd). PL ^j ^. 

lb bamrbarrncC hy s.f. (3rd) A flame, a blaze 
with smoke. PL ^ ey. See i\^\^ and 4U«i. 

HI (Ji^bb &Sna^, s.m. (6th) Broad cloth. Sing. 
and PL See ci^bj 

jjb bandiy prep. Above, up, on, upon. Some- 
tunes written v/JJb bdndl. J^ jjb bdndi 
kawul, verb trans. To put or place on or upon, 
as a pot on the fire, etc. 

jF^b bdndddhy s.f. (3rd) A sheep-fold, a cattle 
pen. 2. A small village or hamlet, a few dwell- 
ings collected together. PL ^ ey. See J^ 

^^^MjOJb bdnddeBoey, 8.m. (1st) A wandering 
grazier or shepherd. Fl. ^^ f . 

p C&b bdfiff, fl.m. (2nd) Voice, crying out. 

sound, the voice of the mu'aczin calling the 
fidthful to prayer, the crowing of the cock. 
PL ^^b bdnyUnoA. ^Ju v^b bdng wa-yal, 
or J^ (^b bdny kawul, verb trans. To crow 
as a cock, to cry out with a loud voice, as the 
mu'azzin when calling to prayer. CJfj^ l5^^ 
bdnyl dkiry, A crowing cock, a cock kept for 
the purpose of crowing (generally white), to 
rouse people to prayer before daybreak. 

<Ub bdna'A, s.f. (3rd) Pretence, evasion, excuse, 
pretext, feint, contrivance, affectation. PL ^ 
ey (p «0l^). fjs^yi^\j bd-na!hgho^tal{yf.) 
or gholddal (E.) verb trans. To seek or search 
for a pretext, pretence, or evasion. J^ A3b 
bd-ndh kawulf verb trans. To put forward a 
pretext, or evasion ; to evade, to contrive. 

jjib bdrmo. s.m. (Sth) (W.) The eyelash. PL 
^l^y b bdrmo-gdn. (E.) 2^b, which see. 

sj\i or <gb bdrma'h. s.f. (3rd) (E.) An eyelash. 
PL vj ey. Also written ^b or gb. 

A J^jb bdwajud, adv. Excepting, nevertheless, 
notwithstanding, particularly, chiefly, espe- 

p j^b bdwar, s.m. (9th) Belief, faith, confidence, 
trust, credit. Sing, and PL (j^j3^ bd-^ar 
kawul, verb trans. To believe, to trust, to 
credit. J^ j^b bd-rcar laral, verb trans. To 
have or possess faith, confidence, or trust in. 
j^J^^- ^^'^^^f ^j* Faithful, trustworthy, cre- 

j^j\i bdw-sir, s.m. (6th) (corrup. of a j-— )y ) 
The piles, hemorrhoids. Sing, and PL 

s^b bdhar, adv. Without, outside, away. 2. 
Foreign. See ^5*xibfc> or jJbj. 

Jbb bdhu, s.m. (5th) An ornament for the arm 
or ankles. PL jjl^b bdhU-gdn. See jib 

»jjb bd'ldah, adv. Perhaps, possibly, may be. 
(p Jjb). 

zjj\j bdedahy adj. Necessary, suitable, fit, proper, 
meet, becoming. 2. adv. Necessarily, it be- 
hoveth. 2(jjb J5J dodrbdedah. Necessaries, 
or clothes and ornaments furnished to a bride 
by her father, outfit.' 

jLb bd'e-laly verb trans. To lose (at play), to 




be overcome, to forfeit by unsuccesflful Con- 


test ; pres. ^Jjb bd^e-ti ; past. ^\) bd'e-lo, oi 
i^^\) bae-Ioey, or abb bd'e-lah ; fut. <o ^^L 
jj ia-^ 6aA ft (W.) or ^ ij\jbd bah e-ll 
( E.) ; imp. ^L\j bae-lak ; act. part. ^j-C^b 
bae-lUnkaeyy or ^^V bd^e-lUnaey ; past part. 
v^^jU ba! e-lawaey y or ,jJLIj bd'e-lcUaey] verb, 
n. <uLb bae-lancHh. 

J^lj bd'e-lawulf verb trans, (cans.) To cause to 
lose, etc. ; pres. v/^V bd'e-lawl ; past, ^b 
bd'e-lo ; fiit. ^^^ <u U 6a 6aA ^-/an?! ; imp. 
a^\j bd^e-lawak; act. part. ^j-^j^V ^^'^" 
lawunkaey, or ^j^V bd^e-lawUnaey ; past, 
part. ^^^ bd'e-lawalaey, or Lg^b bd'e-la- 
waey ; verb. n. <0^1j bd'e-lawana'h, 

i^jij^i bd-yl zi, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of an 
Afghan tribe ; Sing. ^^ o^y, s.f. (6th) ^^ a'f . 
Sing, and PI. 

iLjU bd'i/l'kar, s.m. (6th) The name of a shrub, 
producing a fruit about the size of a currant, 
and &om which they make a kind of tooth- 
brush (Salvadora Persica). Sing, and PL 

j^ babar, adj. Hairy, bushy, shaggy, bearded, 
downy; (Fem.) Sj^ babarcHh. J*x>;-j ba- 
baredalj verb intrans. To become hairy, bushy, 
shaggy, ruffled (as a cat when ready to fight). 
Jj|^ babarawul^ verb trans. To render hairy, 
bushy, shaggy ; to bristle up. 

^cjJ-J babo zaet/y s.m. (1st) A fan, a ventilator. 2. 
A kind of fishing bird. PI. jc i. See i^j^, . 

^ baba-a% s.f. (6th) The name of a worm- 
seating bird. Sing, and PI. 

p {j:^ but, s.m. (5th) An idol, image, statue ; a 
beloved object, a mistress. PI. ^^Isj but-dn. 
vji^^y l::^ but parast, adj. An idolator, one 
who worships images; (Fem.) ss^jj u:.^ but 
parasta*h, i^^ji ^-^ *^^ parastt, s.f. (3rd) 
Idolatry. PI^^^ a'l. <0U. e:.^ but Mdna^k, 
s.f. (3rd) An idol temple. PI. ^^ ey; also 
2f j^ u:^ but kadah. 

Ls^ buty S.m. (2nd) One of the walls of a well 
with a Persian wheel, two of which support 
the cross beam. PI. ^Iw butdn. 

^laj batdn, s.m, (5th) The general name by 

which Afghftiui are known in India. PI. 
J6\sj batdndn; (Fem.) (3rd) ^\:j batdnak. 
V\. ^ey. See also ^1:j and the derivation 
and meaning of the word in the Introduction 
to my Grammar. 

p^ bcUar, adj. compar. (cont. of ^ jj) Very 
bad, worse ; (Fem.) jf^ baJUvrdh. 

{Jjcj batak, s.m. (2nd) An earthen or leathern 
vessel for containing water. PL ^^cj batoA- 
Unah, See also Szj 

A Jjij batuly s. prop. A pure virgin, t.e. Rlti- 
mah, the daughter of Muhammad and wife 
of iEall. 

<tej bata'h, s.f. (3rd) A heron. PI. ^ batey, 
ju batl, s.f. (3rd) Glue, starch, paste, a stiffen- 
ing for cloth, size. PI. ^^ a*u ^^ ^ bad 
ddakah, adj. Unworn or unwashed cloth (£/. 
full of size). See ^^ 

i^^ baU, s.m. (2nd) A large iron pan or cauldron 
for roasting grain, a furnace, a kiln. 2. Luck, 
prosperity, felicity. 3. The bark of a tree, 
bark, rind, peel, husk (B iRT or ^VV, wrap 
round or entwine). PI. <0j^ baUUnoA. See 
^.Gmu, i^^, and <Uf; 

d;ij baUa'k, s.f. (3rd) Husked or pounded barley. 
PI. ^ battey. 

>^ butsfi^'A, s.f. (3rd) A small bundle or 
parcel, a roll of clothes, (t djsH). PI. ^ ey, 

^jo^ batsaraey, s.m. (1st) A spark of fire. PI. ^c t . 

^jB^ batsar-kaey , s.m. (1st) A spark of fire. 
PI. ,^t. 

pjasT bqjiu, prep. With the exception, without, 
save, besides, except. 

JflsT bijal, s.f. (1st) A knuckle-bone with which 
a game is played. PL Ja^ byali, jU Ja^ 
bijalrbdz, s.m. (5th) A person who plays at 
the game of knuckle-bones; PL ^j\» Ja^ 
bijcU-bdzdn. »j\j Jasr bijal-bdza^A, s.f. (3rd). 
PL ^J ey. See eSi and jc^^ 

^^jcf^ bachraey, s.m. (1st) A young donkey. 
PL ^ I. Fem. (6th) ^^ a'f . Sing, and PL 

ij/j^. badioAaraey, s.m. (1st) The lash of a 
whip, the end of a sling— the slight part which 
is let go. PL 1^ I. Also v/jo^ 





r ba^U, A tenn of endeannent to a child. See 

s^J^yBf. badkUngarraetf, 8.m. (let) A very little 
child, or the young of an animal. PL ^ I ; 
8.f. (6th) y^ a'l. Sing, and PI. 

^f^, hadumaeyy a.m. (let) The lash of a whip. 
2. The slight end of a sling which is let go in 
throwing. 3. A band or ribbon for fastening 
the plaited ends of women's hair. PI. jc I. 
See i^^^ and ^^^^ 

p ^ja^ badiaeyy s.m. (Ist) An infant, a child, the 
yonng of any creature. PL LjJ ^\ s.f. (6th) 
^^a^ ba^\ Sing, and PL (p <^). 
*A c^loT bat^hd^, adj. (superl. of C^o^) A great 
disputer, controvertist, arguer ; (Fem.) ij\ar 

A JlsC bahdl, adj. Unaltered, happy ; in office, re- 
instated, restored; (Fem.) Jla^ioAa/a'A. J\ar 
J^ bahdl kawul, verb trans. To replace, to re- 
instate, to restore, tore-establish. ^\ar baf^ll, 
s.f. (3rd) Restoration, re-instalment. PL ,V a'l, 

A cl^aC bah^, s.m. (2nd) Inquiry, discussion, 
dispute, altercation, controversy, debate, ar- 
gument. PL <0y^ baft^Una'h. J^ tJ^-cac 
baJk^, kawtU, verb trans. To dispute, to argue, 
to debate. 

Aya^ baiar, s.m. (2nd) The ocean, the sea, a bay, 
a gulf. PL ^jjo^, bahrUnak. j ^J^ ^^^ 
<m barTy Ocean and land, water and land. 

i^ja^. bafj^rly adj. Of or relating to the sea, naval. 

p ^z^asT baJdUf s.m. (2nd) Fortune, luck, pros- 
perity, felicity. PL <Ojifiir baJ^tUnah. jjsic 
haJ^tapfoar^ adj. Fortunate, lucky; (Fem.) 
*jf^ baMtawura'h. k^^o^^ jj bad-baMt or 
kz^^jy tcr-baMtfBdj. Unfortunate, unlucky ; 
(Fem.) ds^ jj badrbaldkta! h or ic^j^ tor- 

p^LiiaT baJ^-yoTy s.m. (5th) The name of an 
A%hftn tribe. PL ^^jLiar baMit-ydrdn ; s.f. 
(3rd) ^U&aC baj^ywrdhy A female of the 
above. PL ^ ey. 2. adj. Fortunate, lucky ; 
(Fem.) ij^UiaC ba^t-ydra^h. 

Mjar baJ^dhy 8.f. (3rd) Share, portion, part, 
lot PL ^ey. See &^j (p \jkr). 

bd^ishf a.m. (2nd) (from p ^ju-lir) 
Share, portion, lot; forgiveness; imparting, 
bestowing. PL ^y^a^. baUishUncih. 

k; baMisjmhy s.m. (2nd) Gift, donation, dona- 
tive, grant, boon, reward, giving, beneficence, 
pardon, forgiveness, liberality, generosity, 

etc. PL^ 



{ji^'^, sdliib da bafdishisbj adj* Munificent, 
liberal, or generous person. J-f^kr ba^^al, 
verb trans. To give, to bestow, to grant. See 
J4J and <U4J (p^MMiT-^). 

A Jrkr buj^l, s.m. (9th) Avarice, stinginess, 
parsimony. Sing, and PL J^ Jar buM^l 
ka;nml, verb trans. To act parsimoniously, to 
manifest avarice. 

kr baMitmala\ s.f. (6th) A small insect with 
a red back and soft like velvet, a scarlet fly 
or lady-fly. Sing, and PL See also ^jU^b . 

A J-a^ baWj^ly s.m. (5th) A miser, a mggard. 
pi. ^5Lk: baj^lldn ; Fem. (6th) iOua^ iaM- 
lla'h. PL ^ ey, 

A ^Jujflkr JaMtfi, s.f. (3rd) Stinginess, niggardli- 
ness, parsimony, avarice. PL A oHl. 

p jj body adj. Evil, bad. (Fem.) ^rjj badaL 
J-tfl jj bad asl, adj. Low bom. j\J\ jj bad 
dwdz, adj. A bad voice, a bad name, ij^^oc; jj 
badba/c/^tf adj. Unlucky, unfortunate, wretched, 
rascally ; (Fem.) Jis^ jj bad baMitdk. jj 
-iflir bad ba]dit% s.f. (3rd) Misfortune, bad 
luck, adversity. PL ^^ oHl. ^y jj bad bi£ey 
adj. Fetid, foul, putrid. ^^ jj bad biCyi, 
s.f. (3rd) Fetor, stench, st^, putrescence. 
PL ^A a\ Jl>- J^ bad hdl, adj. In bad cir- 
cumstances, ill-conditioned, l^^ 'V ^^ 
Ikdll, s.f. (3rd) Badness of circumstances or 
condition. PL ^V a% v:: ^,»aes. jj bad J^a^laty 
adj. Bad in disposition, ill-disposed. ,^^ jj 
bad MtdCy adj. Of bad habits, ill-disposed, 
evil-minded. 2(ly^ jj bad Mdhy adj. Ill- 
wisher, malignant, malicious, malevolent, 
wishing evil. ^J^ jj bad Mio\ s.f. (3rd) 
Unmannerliness, ill-nature, badness of dispo- 
sition. PL y\ a\ Uj 2(Jj badcHh du'tedy 
s.f. (6th) A curse or imprecation. (E.) Sing. 





and PI. ; (W.) PI. grjW J du-'tedwl. Uj ijj 
J^ icMia'A du*ad kawul, Terb trans, of » jj <o 
J^jb Uj j9aA bada'A du'<3Bd yddanml, Terb 
txuns. To cnrse, to call down imprecations on. 
cL>U jj iac£ $dt, adj. Low bom, base, evil- 
minded, wicked, of bad breed, unprincipled, 
vicious, a villain. vjU jj bad sdtl, s.f. (8rd) 
Baseness, wickedness, vicionsness, villany. 
PI. ^^ a'f. CJijj JJ bad rang, adj. Of a bad 
colouif, of a bad kind. CJ^ jj bad saluk, 
adj. Ill-mannered, of bad conduct or mode, 
ill-behaved. ^/^ JJ bad salukl, s.f. (3rd) 
Misbehaviour, maltreatment, abuse. Pl.|Aa'f. 
c^;^ jj bad^Urat, adj. Ugly, ill-conditioned. 
(J;^ jj bad-^Urafi, s.f.(drd) lJgliness,uncome- 
liness. PI. ^^ a\ Jli jj badfal, adj. Ill- 
omened. ^M jj bad fsM, s.f. (3rd) Misfor- 
tune, an ill-omened business or affair. PI. ^ 
a'l. ^ytii ^^ J^ bad/ah nl-walaey, adj. 
(past part.) Ill-omened, unlucky ; (Fem.) 
J^ Jli JJ bad /all nl-wali. PI. (Masc. 
and Fem.) ^ I. J^ Jj bad kdr, adj. Sinful, 
wicked, an evil-doer, ^^^l^ jj bad kdrl, s.f. 
(3rd) Wickedness, vice, iniquity . PI. jVa't. jj 
f^\A^ bad ffumdn, adj. Suspicious, mistrustful, 
disaffected. (JU/ jj bad ffumdnt, s.f. (3rd) 
Suspicion, distrust, disaffection. PI. ^ a*l. 
^1^ JJ bad go'e, adj. Evil speaking, slander- 
ous, an evil speaker, slanderer, calumniator. 
(J^ jj bad go\ s.f. (3rd) Slander, calunmy, 
evil speaking,. PI. j^ a'f. u^j^ jj bad 
mazhab, adj. Sectarian, dissenter. ^\u jj 
bad mizdj, adj. Ill-tempered, sour, churlish. 
^^)j^ JJ badmizd^, s.f. (3rd) Sourness, churl- 
ishness, crossness. PI. |A a'f. s^ jj bad 
mazah, adj. Tasteless, vapid, insipid. , /^ jj 
bad mazagt, s.f. (3rd) Tastelessness, insi- 
pidity, vapidness. PI. ^ a*u ^U* jj bad 
mu*cBdmalaA, adj. Unfair in dealing. aU jj 
bcui ndm, adj. Infamous, ignominious, of bad 
repute. J^ ^U jj iarf nam kawul, verb 
trans. To asperse, calumniate, traduce, vilify, 
defame. ^\j jj bad ndml, s.f. (3rd) Infamy, 
scaDdal, disrepute, traducement, de&mation. 

vilifioation. PL ^ aX i^ ^Ma,» jj iad noffi, 
adj. Unfortunate, unlucky, adverse. ^^llJ jj 
Aai mmd*e, adj. IlUooking, ungracefhl, in- 
elegant, unsightly, unbecoming. ^JUi jj bad 
numd% s.f. (3rd) Ungracefulnees, inelegance, 
unsightliness. PL ^^ a^i. ^jjjj jj 6a^ i^* 
yataey, adj. Ill-disposed, malevolent, of bad in* 
tention, malicious. (Fem.) tji^ jj bad ni- 
ya^\ ^^&J JJ &dM( nl-yo/I, s.f. (Srd) lU-will, 
maliciousness, malevolence. PL |^ a'f. In 
forming the feminines of the preceding add i 
to the masculine. J^ jj b€ul fi^wat^ verb 
trans. To take amiss, to consider as inoppor- 
tune or unseasonable, imlucky, inauspicious, 
unpropitious, or imfortunate. 

py jj bad tar, adj. (compar.) Worse, bad. 
(Fem.) 1^ JJ bad tardh. Seeyu 

^U^jj badai^skdn, s. prop. The name of a 
country north of Hindu Kugh, and north- 
west of Pe^ftwer, fieanous for its ruby mines. 

Ajjj badr, s.f. (9th) The full moon. Sing, 
and PL 

^jj badar, s.m. (6th) The name of a tree, the 
white poplar. Sing, and PL 

jj^l^jj badarkdrrmX s.f. (6th) The name of a 
fruit which is very bitter. Sing, and PL 

d^Sf badraga'h, s.f. (3rd) An escort, a convoy, 
a guide, a guard. PL ^ ey. (a ^jJj). 

A ^jj bad-^ra'h, s.f. (Srd) A bag of money, a 
weight equal to ten thousand dirh^ois. PL ^^£jf. 

y^Si badraX s.f. (6th) The name of a small 
river near Panjtftr, in the Ytlsufel country. 
2. The name of a female. Sing, and PL 

c^ jj budri, s.f. (Srd) A trip, a stumble, a fisJl. 
2. (W.) Injury, damage, detriment, loss, in- 
jury ; anguish, affliction. PL ^ aX tj^ JJ 
J.^ bvdn Jd^warral, verb trans. To trip, to 
stumble. J Jo^ ^^Jj bud-ra'l tmmdal, verb 
trans. To sustain loss, injury, detriment. 

Ujj badtiad, s.f. (6th) An ill wish, imprecation, 
curse, malediction (corrup. of p jj and a U j). 
(E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.)PL sftUtjj baduad- 
wl ; also U J jj baddtusd. 

A l::.^jj bid-teat, s.m. (3nd) The introduction 





of change or noyelty in religion, innovation, 
heresy, achiam ; violence, oppreeaion, wrong. 
Pl.<Ujipjj bid-teatUnah. ^j!^^, bid-^doU^ adj. 
Tyrant, oppreaaor, tyrannical, oppreaaive. 

A J jj badcU, B.m» (2nd) Exchange, snbatitution, 
retaliation. PI. ^jIjj badalunah. 2. In ex- 
change for, on account of. J jj Jj\ adcU-ba- 
dul, a.m. (2nd) Exchange, barter, chopping and 
changing, confuaion. PI. <OjSjj ^}t^\ adcU bo- 
(kU-UndA. JjJjjbadaledal^YerhmtniiB. To 
be changed, to change, to alter, to vary, to in- 
vert, to reverae. Prea. ^^ -J jj badalejzt ( W.), or 
^XJjj badaiegl ; paat<iL2i J J jj badcUwu-siah, 
or ^ J Jj badal shah ; ftit. _^ <u J jj badcU 
bah shl, or ^ j <u J jj badcU bah wu-^t ; 
imp. ^ Jjj io^ ^a^, or 4^ J J jj badal 
wu shah ; act. part. ^jXijjJ jj badaledUnkaey, 
or ^jjjjj badalmUnaey ; paat part. Jjj 
4^^ iad<{/ ^awaey; verb. n. aJjJjj badaie- 
danah. JjIjj badalawul, verb trana. To 
change, to barter, to alter, to vary, to ahift, to 
diveraiiy, Prea. ^/jl jj badalawl ; paat it^ J jj 
badal hah, or ^ j Jjj ^a(2a/ tpu-hah ; fut. 
4^^ ^ Jjj badal bah htrt, or ^J j A; Jjj 
Ao^ bah wu^frl; imp. 2r^ Jjj badal hr^ah, 
or >/ J JjJ &ad!a/ nm-hf^^ah ; act. part. 
^jil3jj!jj badalawUnhaey, or ^jjS Jj badala- 
wMnaey; paat part, ^^ Jjj doda/^rro^y; 
verb. n. ^jljj badalawuna' h. 

^jj bad-laman, adj. Incontinent, unchaate, 
wanton, Ueentioua, rakiah; (Fern.) ^u^^Jju 

<! jj badala' h, a.f. (3rd) Tunea or worda which 

they aiug to moaical notes, aong, melody. 

PI. ^ ey. Jjj aJjj badala' h wa-yal, verb 

trana. To sing. 
P 4^jj badi, a.f. (3rd) (firom jj) Badneaa, wicked- 

nesa, evil, ill, miachief, injury, misfortune. 

PI. ^\ a'f. J^ v/Jj badi hawul, verb trans. 

To ain, to tranagre^a, to err, to do amiaa. 

^\ju Jj badi-ddr, a.m. (6th) A peraon who haa 

many enemiea. PI, ^^^JjJ^ badl-ddrdn; 

(Fern.) *;^ Jj JJ badk-dSrah. PI, ^J ey. J JJ Jj 

badedal, verb intraoa. To become spoiled or 

waate, miaerable, bad, ruined, injured, etc. 
Prea. i^j.*^ bade^l (W,) or ,<6*3j badept 
(E.) ; paat ^ jj bad shah ; fut. ^ ^u jj 
bad bah s^i ; imp. ^ J jj bad tvu-shah, or 
^ jj bad shah ; act. part, ^^ijjjjjj bade- 
dUnhaey, or ^jJj jj badedUnaey ; paat part. 
^^^ jj ioct ^an?aey ; verb. n. ^jjJj bcule- 
dana'h. J^jj badawul, varb trana. To apoil, 
to injure, corrupt, vitiate, ruin, mar, deaolate. 
Prea. 4/9 JJ badawl ; ipB&ijf jj &id Aazr, or 
jf i ^, bad wu-hatr ) ^t. ^^ iO jj io^ bah 
hfri, or gr/ J <4 *V *^ *^^ nm-hf^ri ; imp. 
ar^ jj 6a^ hf^rah, or 1^ J jj dad ae^t^AjToA ; 
act. part. ^^C^Jj badawUnhaey, or ^^j^S) 
badawUnaey ; paat^art. ^^ jj iod hatraey ; 
verb. n. ^jJj badawancHh. 

A ^Jj io^it^, adj. Wonderful, aurpriaing, mar- 
vellouB, atrange, aatoniahing. 

^1>) badda*e, adj. Chreat, important, dignified, 
aupreme ; (Fem.) ^1>j baddaydh. ^^^ 
badda-yl^ a.f. (3rd) Ghreatness, rank, dignity, 
importance. PI. ^^ a'!. Jj^ ^^'^j bad^a-yl 
hawul, verb trans. To show dignity or great- 
ness (8 \li). JIS^J baMa-yd^ s.m. (6th) The 
feathery flower of the ^^^ luJJiah — a reed or 
kind of gorse, which see. Sing, and PL 

3^ baddah, s.f. (3rd) A bribe, a douceur. 2. The 
upper hem of the drawers through which the 
string passes to fasten them round the loins 
with. Jr.M«.<>T 2fO^ badda'h dMistal, or t^ 
ih^^ ia^a'A MTvarral, verb trans. To re- 
ceive or take a bribe. 

A jjj bazr. s.m. (6th) Seed. Sing, and PI. 

J JJ baz yar, s.m. (5th) A husbandman. PI. 
/jj baz-ycer, 

J bar, s.m. (9th) A stroke of the moon aflFecting 
a wound, a stroke of the moon — moon-blast. 
Sing, and PI. ^jifcj j> bar-wahalaey, adj. 
Affected by a stroke of the moon. 

J bar, 8.m. (6th) The leaf of a carrot, of the 
f^tTnftrjftlg tree, and such like plants, the leaves 
of which are small and wiry. Sing, and PI. 

j> bar, adj. Victorious, triumphant ; (Fem.) bjj 





hardh. 2. (p) On, above, upon, up. ^f^ J. 
bar jpushtUn (W.) or bar puf^tUn (E.) The 
name given to the Afghan tribes who inhabit 
the western portions of Afghanistan — Kftbul, 
Kandahflr, Shorft'wak and Pidlln ; or Upper 
Afghans, in distinction to the Eastern Afghans, 
who are termed j^y;4j^ lar-pu^tUn ovpujch- 
tUn, or Lower Afghans. See under ^. t-J^^ 
bar farqf, The winning side, the successM 
side or party, ^y baraey, s.m. (1st) Win- 
ning, victory, triumph, success, getting the 
upper hand. 2. The leaf of the Chlnar or 
plane-tree. PI. j^ I. J Ju^^ bar kedal, verb 
intrans. To be mastered, overcome, or con- 
quered. J/j^ bar kawul, verb trans. To 
succeed, to accomplish, to triumph, to gain 
the ascendency, to bring about. 
j^j) bar-ser, adj. Apparent, clear, visible, obvi- 
ous, palpable, manifest, distinct ; (Fem.) 
Hj^ji bar-sera' h. Jju^^^-^ bar-ser kedal, 
verb intrans. To become apparent, clear, etc. 
^f j^j( bar-ser kawul, verb trans. To make 
manifest, clear, obvious, to show, to demon- 

Kji barr, adj. Just, holy, pious, dutiful. See 
j\ji\. 2. Dry land, a desert, jssr j j) barr- 
O'bahr, Land and sea. 

Vji}ji bardbar, adj. Abreast, even, level, uniform, 
alike, up to, opposite, equal, on a par, ade- 
quate, exact, accurate; (Fem.) sj\j) bard- 
bora' k, J*xjy5^ bardbaredal, verb intrans. 
To suit, to agree, to equal, Jj^}/ bardbara- 
Tvul, verb trans. To adjust, to accord, to as- 
similate, to match. 

p si^l/ bardbarl, s.f. (3rd) Equality, exactness, 
rivalry, competition, emulation. PI. jA a% 
J^ S^^l^J bardbarl kawul, verb trans. To op- 
pose, to resist, to withstand, to vie, to equal, 
to emulate, to rival. 

p fJD\j) bardt, s.m. (2nd) The fourteenth day of 
the month — ShafiB-ban, which is appropriated 
to the commemoration of deceased ancestors. 
2. A commission, an assignment, a warrant. 
PI. <^y|/ bardtUnah. izj)j} i..^ skab-i-bardt, 


The night of the day in question, tsj]^ 
J5u»*fi>-T bar-dt dMistal, verb trans. To re- 
ceive a warrant or assignment. J^ j^ izj\j3 
bar-dt war kawul, verb trans. To give an as- 
signment or warrant for money, etc. 

ij\ji bardyah, adv. Last or yesternight. ij|^ 
bardyx shpak. Last or yesternight. See 
. ^^ or a^ ^lio 

A ^\ji burdjc, s. prop. The ass on which Muham- 
mad is said to have passed from Jerusalem to 
heaven. 2. A horse, a steed. PL ^yj/ 

jj\j» brdlba'h, adj. (W.) Pregnant as a woman 
or animal. ^\j iJSji hrdlbdh wdlaey, s.m. 
(1st) Pregnancy, impregnation. PI. ^\j ftdti. 
JjuJ^^ brdlbedal, verb intrans. To become 
pregnant. J^)/ brdlbawul, verb trans^ To 
make pregnant, to get with young. See ^jJL. 

p j\jji bar-bdd, adj. Given to the winds, misap- 
plied, lost, thrown away, gone to the dogs, 
destroyed, laid waste, ruined; (Fem.) ^jb^ 
bar-bdda'k, Jju^ S^ji bar-bdd kedal, verb 
intrans. To be thrown away, misapplied, lost, 
etc. J^ j\ij) bar-bdd kawul, verb trans. To 
throw away, misapply, lose, waste, destroy. 

p c^fc>ljy bar-bddt, s.f. (3rd) Buin, waste, de- 
struction, misapplication. PI. ^A a*u 

cu^ ji bar-bast, s.m. (2nd) Goods, chattels, 
property, effects. PI. <OyLyyj^ bar-bastUnai. 

,^j)j} bar-barl, s.m. (6th) The leaf of the tama- 
risk tree, and the like. Sing, and Fl. 

p ]a)j) barbat, s.m. (2nd) A kind of harp op lute- 
PI. ^^ji bar-batUnak. See ,j-^jjrC ghajm^ 
wUnkaey, s.m. (1st) A harper. PI. |C f . 

^ji barbukdl, s.f. (6th) A whirlwind, a devil - 
See also ^yij, and ,J^^ 

i^ji barbanM, adj. NSed, bare, denuded^ un-* 
dressed, stripped, imclothed ; (Fem.) *^jg 
barbanddcHk. See also 0^^^ 

c^jry 0^ barbandd-tob, s.m. (2nd) or U3 ^^jg 
barbandd-tVd, s.f. (6th), ^\j ^ji barbandi-^ 
wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Nakedness, bareness, nudity^ 
undress. PI. ijj)ji tob-Unak, v/^Us ti^dfti, an^ 
^\j wdh. J^^i^ji barbandiedal, verb ia^ 





trans. To become naked, bare, or in a state 
of nakedness, nude, exposed. Pres. i^^^^i^ji 
barbandde^i(W .)OT^Jji^ji barbanddeyl(E.); 
past ^J^ ^^ji barbandd shah ; fut. J jj ^j 
Ja barba/ndd bah wti-shi, or J^ ij >:j^ bar- 
bandd bah shl ; imp. iJ^ J ^^y barbandd wu- 
shah, or dJU t^y barbandd shah ; act. part. 
^^ijjjjj^j) barbanMedUnkaey, or ^J^j J^O^^ 
barbanddeduna^ ; past part. y^yJ^ >:j^ bar- 
bandd shawaey \ verb.n. djs^^ji bar-bandde- 
danobhy or ajj^^ bar-banddedah. J[^«>iJ^ 
barbanddawul, verb trans. To divest, imcover, 
denude, strip, unclothe, undress, imrobe, dis- 
robe, doff. Pres. t^ji^y, barbanddawi ; past 
S^ i^j) barbanddwu-harr, orj^ i^ji barbandd 
Aarr, and s^ J ^^ barbanM wu-kah, or ^ji 
iS barbandd hah ; fut. i// J <4 0^ barbandd 
bah wu-hrrl, or gr^ jj o^ barbandd bah 
kjri ; imp. nj^ J ^^ barbandd wu-kjrahy or 
^ >ij/ barbanddkrrah ; act. part, ^^^^^.j 
barbanMawUnkaey, or ^c^jj^^^jy barbandda- 

wUnaey; past part. ^^P^ >^tH barbandd 
karraey ; verb. n. ^jt^^ji barbanddawana'h, 

p 8 b^ barpd, adj. Raised, set on foot, established, 
pitched, produced, commenced; also i^lj^ 
barpd* e; (Fem.) ^^l>^ bar-pdyah. Jju^ b^ 
&a/7>d ^{2a/, verb intrans. To be raised, etc. 
JjS^ U^ Jorpa kawulf verb trans. To raise, 
set on foot. 

3^ birtah, adv. After, behind, in the wake of, 
in the rear of; away, apart, aside, separate. 
J jui' iJj birtah hedal,Yerh intrans. To become 
separated, parted, detached, disunited. <0^ 
Jj^ birtah hanml, verb trans. To separate, dis- 
join, part, disunite, detach, disengage. See 
also ijj^ and ^Lj 

•4&^ bart^, adj. Clear, manifest, apparent, dis- 
tinct, visible, obvious ; (Fem.) ifj^^, bartaer- 
a% See t^^j. Jju^ r^i^ bar-tser hedal, 
verb intarans. To become clear, visible, obvious ; 
to appear, present itself, to meet, strike, or 
catch the eye. Jj^^^-aL^ bartser kawuly verb 
trans. To manifesti to show, to indicate, to 

disclose, to set forth, to present. See^^-w^ 
J^ and Ji^jt-^ji 
— ^ bar;, s.m. (2nd) The bark of a tree, which 
is very slight and often used as paper. PI. 
i^^j barjUnah. See i^;^*-j, j^j^*-^, and 

A ^j) burj, s.m. (2nd) A tower, a turret, bjustion. 

PI. ^^ji burj'Unah, 
^ji barjU, s.f. (5th) A whetstone, a hone. PI. 

^J^y^J 4«^*«2^^we, or ^ji bar-jl, s.f. (3rd) 

PI. y^ aX 
y>y barMo, s.f. (9th) The cheek, the side of the 

face. Sing, and PI.; or (W.) s.m. (5th) PI. 

f^^y>-j) barMw-gdn, 

^S-ji braMidh, s.f. (3rd) A share, portion, part. 
PI. y^j{ braMiey. See zjkr^ 

p c:---i*l J^ barddshtf s.m. (2nd) Endurance, pa- 
tience. PI. ^jJ^Siiji bar-ddshtUnah. ls^^Ij^ 
Jj^ barddsht kawul, verb trans. To endure, to 
have patience. 

p 2f J^ barddhy s.f. (3rd) A female slave, a cap- 
tive, a servant. PL ^ ey. See i^arij^ 

j^ji barser, adj. Clear, manifest, apparent, dis- 
tinct, visible, obvious ; (Fem.) i^ji bar-sera* h. 
^}d^ j^j) barser kedal, verb intrans. To be- 
come apparent. Jj^ j^y barser kan-ul, verb 
trans. To make apparent. See^^-eL^ 

^jti-^/, bar-seran, adj. Slight (as a flesh wound), 
trivial, trifling, puerile, light, frivolous, finical ; 
(Fem.) ijjf^j) bar-serandh. 

p A ^joj{ bar 'tar of y adj. Aside, apart, dismissed ; 
(Fem.) ^jOj{ bar-tarafcHh, J Ju^ ^j^ji ^^^' 
taraf kedaly verb intrans. To be dismissed, dis- 
charged, turned off, cast aside. J^ ^j^ji 
bar-taraf kawul, verb trans. To dismiss, dis- 
charge, turn off, CMhier. 

p sljOji bartarafl, s.f. (3rd) Dismission, dis- 
charge. PI. ^^ a'f . 

ujpt ji bar taraf y s.m. (2nd) The winning side, 
the upper side. PI. i^i^jo j^ bar-tarafUnxih. 
See^ and^ and t-J^t^ 

ij bra^y s.m. (2nd) Fold, plait, ply, stratum, 
layer. PI. ^^i^ braghUnah, 4^ <u i^ 






brcufh pah hragh^ Fold on fold, plait on plait, 
layer on layer ; also used expressive of multi- 
plication, as 6j yjj dwah hra^, Double, ^^ j 
iji drey bragh^ Treble. 

s^^^ji har-ghuUy s.m. (5th) A tom-cat. PI. 

^l^ij harghuWoLn \ i^J^j harghuUcHky s.f. (3rd) 

A female cat. PI. ^^ ey. See ^jiuj ^^^^ji, 

and c^^ 
^j barghoy s.m. (5th) A rod for boring the 

barrel of a gun, a cleaning rod. PI. ^^j 

yj^^ji barghuty s.m. (5th) A male cat. PI. 

^Ij^i^ barghuftdn. See also u^^%4/' ^*^* 
^y^ji barghoUaeyy s.m. (Ist) An earring. PI. 

,^ 2, or y^jfy^. barghwajzaeyy s.m. (1st) (W.) 

or jj^^ barghwagaeyy (E.) PI. j^ L 
^d^i^ bar-gholaeyy s.m. (1st) The lid of a pot, 

a cover. PI. ^ l, 

•o^i^ braghunaey y s.m. (1st) A male twin. PI. 

** Cjj ^ ; s.f. (6th) ^^fyi braghUnaly A female 
twin. Sing, and PI. 

Jjui^ braghedaly verb intrans. To become 
folded, plaited, stratified, doubled. Jy^ 
bragharvuly verb trans. To fold, to plait, to 
double, to make or render stratified. 

A ^ji barky s.m. (2nd) Lightning, electric fire. 
PI. ij^ji barkUnah. 

ijj burjca'hy s.f. (3rd) A dress or kind of veil 
with eye-holes, worn by women, and covering 
the whole body from head to foot (a j-j/). 
PI. ^ ey. See also <Ui!^ 

^y barakoHhy s.f. (3rd) A warm kind of cloth 
made from cameVs hair, and the peculiar wool 
called joa^i^wtnaA. PI. ^ eg, 

A l::-^ baraltaty s.m. (2nd) Blessing, abundance, 
prosperity, auspiciousness. PI. ^f^ji bara- 
katUnah, J^jj ^'^y. barakat war-kawuly 
or Jj^ ^^^j^. barakat kawuly verb trans. To 
bless, to prosper. 

^^ji bar kaJ3iy s.m. (5th) A puller of the strong 
bow, drawing to the head. PI. j^Ujf^ bar 

CJj bragy adj. Spotted, pie-bald, grizzled (as the 

hair). 2. A leper; (Fem.) ^ bragah. See 
^, CJji cl^, and^ 

p CJji bargy s.m. (2nd) A leaf. 2. Warlike 
apparatus, provision or necessaries for a 
journey. 3. Melody. PI. ij^j» bargUnah. 
J '^Jj ^J ^^9 rajzedaly verb trans. To fall, 
as the leaves from a tree. ^}^J C/j) barg 
rajzawuly verb trans. To scatter, to cause to 
fall, to disperse (as the wind in autumn), vl^ 
Jjjjji barg ghwarredaiy verb intrans. To 
bud, to unclose, to blow, to bloom. Jj^ji Ciji 
barg gkrcarrawuly verb trans. To cause or 
make to bud or bloom. 

p ifjj L^ barguzidahy adj. Chosen, selected, 

^^Jji bar-grrandly s.m. (1st) PL Embracing, 
hugging. JjS' ^^xjjjj bar-gxrandx kawtU, 
verb trans. To embrace, to hug, to cuddle. 
SeCjj i^j and */^ 

p f^^jMj) bar-gastawdn, s.m. (2nd) Trapping, 
armour, etc. for a horse. PL ^ytyu.^ bar- 

^f^j{ bargastawan, s.m. (2nd) The girth op 
surcingle of a horse, together with his armour. 
PL ijyj:>^ji bargastawanUnah. Also written 

^^Z^ji (P). 

^^^^j, bar-gwetty s. prop. The name of one of 
the great ancestors of the Khattak tribe of 

6^j3 bargcHhy s.f. (3rd) A rafter. PL ^ ey. 

^ji bragegy s.m. (1st) The leprosy. PL ^c t. 

J ju^ bragedaly verb intrans. To become griz- 
zled (as the hair), to become spotted (par- 
ticularly from leprosy). Jj^ bragawul, verb 
trans. To render grey or grizzled (as the hair), 
to spot (as leprosy). 

^ji branty s.m. (2nd) Power, strength, vigour, 

force. PL ^j^ bramUnah. Jj}iji ^ji ^ 
lah brama prewataly verb intrans. To become 
or grow powerless, weak, enfeebled, enervated, 
is^^ji bramtdhy s.f. (3rd) Seizing the persons of 
one village for the debts of the people of 





another, as a pledge, or as hostages for the 
payment. PI. ^ ey. See jJ^ 

HI JU^ barmaid, adj. Public, manifest, obvious, 
plain, palpable. Jju^ lUy barmaid kedal, 
verb intrans. To appear, to present itself, to be 
public, to manifest itself, to arise, etc. iU^ 
JjS' barmaid kawul, verb trans. To reveal, 
evince, disclose, discover, manifest. Jj^ JU^ 
bar-maid wa-yalfYerh trans. To speak plainly, 
or publicly. 

0^2^ barmandd, adj. Naked, denuded, bare, un- 
dressed, stripped, unclothed; (Fem.) *v>w^ 
barmandda^h. Jj^j^jw^ barmanMedalf verb 
intrans. To become naked, bare, nude, exposed. 
Pres. KJri^>:-^ji barmanMejzi (W.) or ^^^>w^ 
barmarMegl (E.) ; past <l1 J ^>w^ bannandd 
Tcu-shah, or jl^ v>w^ barwxmM shah ; fut. 
-2* j ^ v^i*^ barmxLndd bah wu-shl, or v>w^ 
^ ^ barmandd bah shi ; imp. (Ll J ^)w«y 

barmandd wu-shah, or <Ll ,>i^ barmandd 
shah ; act. part. <-Cj jj^>w«y barmanddedun- 
kaey, or ^jJj^^x^ barmanddedunaey ; past 
part. ^^^ <^^^ barmandd shawaey ; verb. n. 
<Gjj,>^:i^ barmanddedanah. See ,>:jy 

^1^ ,>i^ barman^ wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Naked- 
ness, bareness, nudity, undress ; also tX^^ 
<—? J bamumdd tab, s.m. (2nd) ; Lj a^^ j Jar- 
mandd ^d, s.f. (6th). PI. ^\^ wdli, ij^y to- 
bUnah, and i^l-J ^'am . See «>:j^, etc. 

Jj>:^ barmanddawul, verb trans. To divest, un- 
cover, denude, strip, unclothe, undress, im- 
robe, disrobe, doff. Pres. t^^i^i^y, barmandda- 
wi ; past J J 0^^^ barmandd wu-karTy or 
^ ^^^ji barmandd karr ; fut. ^jf J <o ^>a^ 
barmandd bah roti-krn, or ^^f^ <o ^j^^^ iar- 
mandd bah krrl ; imp. ij^ J t^^*^ barmandd 
wu-krrah, or 2(^ 0^^^ barmandd krrah ; 
act. part. {^^J3*>^^j! barfnanddawUnkaey, or 
\^3^^^^ji barmanddawilna£y ; past part. 
%^^:^ji barmandd karraey ; verb. n. <Oj0^x^^ 
barmanddawuna'h. See >:j^ etc. 

^L#^ barmah, s.f. (3rd) A kind of gimlet or borer 
worked with a string, an auger or centre-bit. 
Pl.iJ^. (HiU^) 

jj^ ^anrf, adj. White-eyed, staring, shameless, 
amorous. 2. Attentive, intent on; looking 
towards, regarding stedfastly ; (Fem.) njjji 
brandah. ^//^ s^*^>r^ brandey stargeyy s.f. 
(3rd) PI. Staring or wide-open eyes, gloating 

jjJ^ brandUy s. prop. The name of a river in 

JjjJ^ brandawul, verb trans. To frown, to 
scowl, to look at angrily. Pres. «^jJ^^ 
brandawi ; past *^l*xj^ J wu-branddwuhy or 
j^^l jj^ J wurbranddwo ; fut. s^^^j\ ^ j ^'w 
6aA brandawi ; imp. *j*xy J rcu-brandawah ; 
act. part. <-C3jy jj^ brandanilnkaey, or^jy jj^* 
brandarvUnaey ; past part. ,jJj*xi^ brandawul- 

aey ; verb. n. <^jJu/ brandawuna'h, 

^ji baranaey, adj, Stale, not fresh. 2. adv. 

Yester-night, last night. <U2» •J^ baranai 

^jt?aA,Lastnight. Seealso^^|^ and <ul ,i-ilSCrJ 

ifj^^ barorrahy s.f. (3rd) The name of an insect 

found in timber something similar to the 

bug — a sort of wood-louse — ^whose bite causes 

irritation for about a month, and from which 

a yellow matter is discharged. PI. ^ ey. 

8j^j brorra'h, s.f. (3rd) A kind of bread made 

from various sorts of grain. PI ^^ ey. See 

s^j^ji barwarrnaly s.f. (6th) Part of a Persian 
wheel : the socket in which the upright beam 
or axle turns. Sing, and PI. 

L^jj^ bar-waeyy adj. Adhesive, cohering, sticky, 
united, inseparable, or indivisible (particularly 
an importunate person), sticking like a leech, 
or like wax. 2. Importunate, plaguy, haunt- 
ing, etc. ; (Fem.) jy bar-wi. PI. (Masc. and 
Fem.) ^ t, Jj^'i^^ bar-waey kawuly verb 
trans. To stick to, to cleave or adhere to ; to 
importunate, to haunt, to bother. J Ju^ ^^jj^ 
bar-waey kedaly verb intrans. To cleave, to 
adhere, to hold to, to stick, to cling, etc. 

Aj^Ub^ burhdny s.m. (2nd) Demonstration, proof. 
PI. ^^\sbji burhdnUnah. 

J^ j^U. hji barah Ididn Miely s.m. (6th) The 
name of an Afghan tribe. 2. A male of the 





tribe. Sing, and PI. (Fern.) (3rd) .d-^;. ibeldh. 
PI. ^ ey. 

\y>- Sji bar all Idirca^ adj. The upper side. See^. 

*/ ^J, f>ara!h garra'h, B.f. (3rd) Embrace, inter- 
view, meeting, shaking hands. J^ aj ij 
bardh gaxraHh kawuly verb trans. To embrace, 
to hug. PI. ^ ey. See (^*xJj^ and j '<^ 

p m^bji barham, adj. Confused, entangled, spoiled. 
2. Angry, vexed, sullen; (Fem.) <UJb^ bar- 

Jju^iJb^ barhamedal, verb intrans. To be en- 
tangled, confused, spoiled, etc. J^-^J^ bar- 
hamawul, verb trans. To confuse, to entangle, 
to spoil. 

s ^j^Jbj brahman, s.m. (5th) A Brahman. PI. 
j^Lijy brahmandn. See -i-^b and j^^b 

^ji baraey, s.m. (1st) Victory, success, triumph. 
2. The leaf of the plane-tree. PI. ^ l, y^j 
Jjo^ baraey mundal, verb trans. To gain a 
victory, to triumph. J^ ^^^ baraey kawul, 
verb trans. To conquer, to overcome. ^cJ 
Jju^ baraey kedal, verb intrans. To be con- 
quered, overcome. 

c::^^ bret, s.m. (2nd) A mustache. PI. ^^j> 
bret'Unah. J^ J ci^^ bret drrawtd, or J^^l3 
td'Wawul, verb trans. To twist the moustaches, 
as a person when excited or enraged. 

jjy b'rld, s.m. (2nd) Attack, onset, charge, as- 
sault, sterm. PI. ^^Jjji b'ridunah. J^ jj^ 
b'rld kawul, verb trans. To attack, to assault, 
to charge. 

Jj^ burld, s.m. (9th) (p ^^„J) Separation, ab- 
sence. Sing, and PI. 

Ujfi/ bre-jzan, s.m. (2nd) The bleat of a goat or 
sheep. PI. ^J^riji bre-jzanUnah. J^ t^J-j^. 
brc'jzan kawul, verb trans. To bleat. 

^^,ji breB, (E.) or hresh (W.), s.m. (2nd) A 
twitch of pain, a twinge, a cramp, a spasm, a 
shoot. PI. i^y^fiji brejdi'imah, or bresh-unxih. 
J/ c/Hy^ fo*^^, or bresh kawul, verb trans. 
To affect with a sharp sudden pam, te twinge, 
to shoot. 

U^j^ breshna, (W.) or breBna (E.) s.f. (6th) 
Lustre, brightness, brilliancy, sheen, glow. 

(E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. v/^U-w^ bresh- 
nawl. Jju-iJ^ breshedai (W.) or brejdiedal 
(E.) verb intrans. To shine, glitter, gleam, 
glisten, brighten, twinkle. Pres. ^j^ji bre^l 
or bre/3ii ; past * Ju-jjy J wu-bre^edah or 
wu-breJchedaJi ; fiit. ,<-«*£ i^ ij ^ wu bah breshx 
or brefffii ; imp. <Uj^ J wu-breshcJi or ;rw- 
breJSiah ; act. part, ^jiu^ Ju^j^ breshedunka^ 
or brcWiedilnkaey, or ^^^Ju-aj^ breskedunaey 
ox brcWkedUnaey \ past part. ^Ju4jy breshe- 
dalaey or brelchedalaey ; verb. n. ^'jL^fj^ 
breshedanobh Q>t breWiedaruih, 

i^ySfiji, breshawul or breWiawul, verb trans. To 
illuminate, te irradiate, cast lustre upon, to 
cause te glitter. Pres. i^y^ji bresham. or 
brelchawx ; past »jUj^ J wu-breshd/nmh or 
breJchdwuh, orjyUjy J wu^breskdwoor bre^Or 
wo ; fut. kffy^ji ^jwu bah breshawl or 
brelUiawl ; imp. af^^ J wu-bre^iawah or 
brelUiawah ; act. part. y^^y^„j{ bre^awUn- 
kaey or bref^awUnka^y ; or jjJj^-H/ breshawHr 
naey or breBtawUruiey \ past part. ^j-H;J 
breshawulaey or breldiawulaey ; verb. n. ^y^^j, 
breshawuna'h or breWiawuruih. 

\j*i\j{ Vrrd8, s.m. (2nd) Vapour, heat, ex- 
halation, steam. PI. <C^|^ 6'rra^naA. See 

*>}|j barrdndddh, s.f. (3rd) A blaze of fire wittB- 
much smoke, a flame. PL ^ ^. See ju» ^ 

and ij^>5'<>. 
jj barr-batr, adv. Often, frequently, repeat>-^ 

edly, again and again, (b^^-j^). ^];ji^-=== 

barr-barr rdshah. Come constantly, com^ 

often — a compliment to a guest. 
•S^ J barrbukdl, or iwTrJfi^'t, s.f. (6th) K^ 
'^whirlwind, a devil. Sing, and PL See als^^ 

^^ and ^y^y 

j^i-jj brrastan, s.f. (1st) A coverlet, a quilt o^ 
counterpane. PL ^J^J bfrastatd. 

v^jji^ barrffarrandi,^B.m. (1st) PL Embrace^ ^ 
sfiJutation, greeting. See i^f*^^ and j ?i^ 
Jj^ v^jJjS^ barrgarrawR ka^wul, verb tran^ — 
To embrace, hug, cuddle, salute, greet. 

^c.6jj bafrangaey, s.m. (1st) The leathern straj^ 




used for fastening the chuming-staff. PI. ^ f . 

See j^^x^ and Cfj,j 

J J batrnaey, son. (Ist) The name of a tree. 




\jj bafrwd, a.m. (5th) A pimp, a cuckold, a 
wittol. PL ^^^jj! barrwagan. (hi U^). 

ij**3ji A*22W or b*fTU3, adj. Angry, wrati, irri- 
tated, nettled, exasperated, wild, ftirious, 
sayage ; (Fern.) <Uj^ VrrosaHh or VrrUsa'h. 
vj^!^ U**Xi b'rraS'Wdlaey, s.m. (Ist) Anger, 
wrath, rage, indignation, ftiry, resentment. 

yero intrans. To become or grow angry, en- 
raged, wrathful. J^-**^ Vrrosawui or Vrrus- 
oicul, verb trans. To make angry, to chafe, to 
put out of humour. 
s^J berraey, s.m. (Ist) A long-tailed sheep. 
PI. ^^ f ; s.f. (6th) ^J al. Sing, and PI. 
See also ^^j^, ^j^J, ^jj^, ^^^, ^^ 

^J^J barret^, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of a tribe 
of A^ftns. ijfe^ barretsaey, Sing. Amaleof 
the above, aar?^ bafretsa^h, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^^ ey, 

t?" eJii? barren diagh^ s.m. (2nd) A kind of 
whirligig. PI. ^^f^ ^jiji barren-dta^Unah. 
jj b€LZy%.m. (7th) A he-goat. PI. <0^ VzUnah. 
See also j^ and i^J^j 

p Vil^jj buzargy s.m. (5th) A saint, a religious 
instructor, an elder, an ancestor. 2. Great, re- 
verend, venerable. PI. ^W^ buzargdn. a^ 
buzargdhy s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ eg. See also 

^ J^^jji btizcarg-war, adj. Great, reverend. 2. 
An ancestor, an elder, a saint ; (Fem.) iij\/jji 

p Jjj) buzcargl, s.f. (3rd) Grandeur, greatness, 
eminence, exaltation. PI. ^ oHl. 

y^^ji buzghcdaeg^ s.m. (1st) A young shoot, as 
from an onion, etc., a young plant. PI. ^ f. 

j^ baz-goTf s.m. (5th) A husbandman, an agri- 
culturist (A^jj seed). PI. ^/y, baz-gardn. 
See ^UibJ 

1^^ baz-gari, 8.f. (3rd) Husbandry, agricul- 
ture. PI. y^ a*i. 

p aJj bazm, s.m. (2nd) An assembly, company, 
a banquet. PI. ^yji bazmUnah. 

^ bizoj s.m. and s.f. (5th) A monkey. PI. 
^^IS^ bizogdn ; (Fem.) PI. (Jl^ bizogdney. 

djf b'za'A, s.f. (3rd) The name of a bird, the ibis, 
or royal cerclew. (p sjy). 2. A she-goat. 
PI. ^^j) b'zey. 

ij) b'zak, adj. Tom, severed, separated, cut up, 
jointed, etc. J^ »J) Vzah kawul, verb trans. 
To tear, to sever, to cut up. See jJj 

p aji bazahf s.f. (3rd) A sin, a crime. PI. ^ eg, 

j^ iji bazdh-goTy s.m. (5th) A sinner, a criminal. 
PI. ^J^ sji baza h-gdrdn. Sj\f nji bazoHh- 
gdroHhy s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ eg, J^ zji bazah 
kawulj verb trans. To sin, to conoimit a crime 
or fault. 

*j? b'jzcihy s.f. (3rd) Slaughter, immolation, 
sacrifice. PI. ^ eg. See iji 

p ^^ ba^y adj. Enough, suflScient, plenty, abund- 
ance, too much, very much. J^ ^^ bas 
kawul, verb trans. To overpower, to bring to 
submission, to silence. 

a^ ^^ ba^ kah (imp.) Enough ! sufficient ! 
silence ! leave off! Also a J ^jmj bas krrah. 

A I^Lj bisdtj s.m. (2nd) What is spread out ; 
carpeting, bedding, a chess-board, a dice- 
board, expanse, surface. PI. ^^Lj bisdtilnah, 

iUiLgyj bisbdsa'h, s.f. (3rd) The name of a me- 
dicinal plant. PI. ^^ eg, 

A Jy4yywj bismil, adj. Sacrificed; an animal sacri- 
ficed ; (Fem.) aU^ Usndla'h, J^ J-««w^ 
bismil kanml, verb trans. To sacrifice. J-4ywyj 
J Ju^ bismil kedaly verb intrans. To be made a 
sacrifice of, to become sacrificed. 

A <d]f ^ bisnd'l'ldh, In the name of God. ^d!^^ 
J^ bismi-l'ldh kanml, verb trans. To begin, 
to commence. 

Lmj basi-gd, adj. Cultivated, peopled. J Ju^ Luj 
basi-gd kedal, verb intrans. To become peopled, 
cultivated, inhabited. J^ L^-j basi-gd kawul, 
verb trans. To cultivate, to make or render 
cultivated, to people. 

^l-yuj bashparr, adj. Entire, perfect, complete, 
whole, thorough ; (Fem.) gjJL) bashpatra'h. 





h ZjJUj bashpaxra*h bald, A great or com- 
plete misfortune or calamity. See gjy 

A^uJ bashar, s.m. (2n(l) Man, mankind, human 
being, mortals. PL <Ojyuj basharUnah, 

A ijjLj bas/iar-l, adj. Human, relating to man. 

dJiij baskkah, s.f. (3rd) A kind of potherb or 
greens growing wild. PI. ^ ey. 

,JjL> bashanjy s.m. (2nd) Character, reputation, 
renown, good name. PI. ij^s^tj bashanjUnah. 

<Jj::M»iJ buJchtanahy s.f. (3rd) (verb. n. of J Jui^^) 
A quagmire, a bog, a marsh. 2. Sticking, 
adhering (as mud). PI. ^ ey. See i»:c^y^. 
J Juxjj bukhtedal (E.) or bitshtedal (W.) verb 
intrans. To stick, adhere (as mud), cohere, 
hold, cleave to. Pres. ^?r-=^ bushtejzl (W.) 
or ^*:*^, bujchtegl (E.) ; past iJ^ J ^^^^-^^ 
bujcfit or bttsTit wu-shah, or ij^ cs^vAJ buJcfit or 
busht shah) fiit. ^ J <U c;^>4J 4w^^ or 
busht bah wu-shi, or ^J^ ^ **ii^v4J iwM^ or 
bu^t bah shl ; imp. i^ j «-::'^4J 6w^^ or 
btisTit wU'shah, or <l2;» l::,>v>;j bufffit or 6w^%^ 
^aA ; act. part. ^Juj Ju54^ bujffitedunkaey or 
bushtedunkaey, of ^jJus^j buKktedUnaey or 
bushtedunaey ; past part. j*:un»5j Jw^^ or ie^^, 
or jj^ c:-^ iw^^ or iw^^ shawaey ; verb. n. 
ii^ii-ou bujchtana'h or bushtandh, or <OJus.»w 
buJcktedana'h or bitshtedana'h. Jyusj buj^t- 
awul or bushtawulj verb trans. To cause 
to stick, to embed, to stick in. Pres. ^j^^, 
buBitawi or bushtam ; past ^ J <*s^^ 6w^^ 
or busht wu-kaxTy or ^ ts.*^ JwM^ or £e^^ 
^arr ; fut. ^^ <u ci^v^j bul^it or 5z^^ 6aA 
^m ; imp. i^ J '•^i*^ bulSit or 5w^^ 72?w- 
krrahf or *^ c:,^/ to^^ or bti^t kfrah ; 
act. part, ^^j^^m bu^tawUnkaey or bushta- 
wUnkaey, or ^^f^, buWitdnUnaey or bushta- 
wUnaey ; pasi part. 4^ c:,^» iwM^ or £2^^^ 
karraey ; verb. n. <0jS4J buISktamuTuih or 
bushtaicuncHh. See JjSmj»^ 

JlCjj bashakdl, s.m. (2nd) The rainy season, a 
rainy year (s JlCuu). PI. <0jHC4*j bashakdlr 
Unah. See Jl^^^ 

J4J ba^al, verb trans. (E.) To give, present, 
bestow, accord, confer, concede, consign. Pres. 

_4J bal^t ; past 4^»b J wu-bafAah ; fut. <o j 
^^4j ;z72^ ^oA ia^f ; imp. 44J J vm-baMah or 
^ ba^ah; act. part, ^^^y^ baWtUnkaey 


o^ bal^iilnaey ; past part. ^jJu^ b(il3wr 
' ; verb. n. <U4j baWiana'h. See (W.) Jf^-s^ 

<U4J baMaruih, s.f. (3rd) (B.) verb. n. A gift, 
donation, grant, boon, reward ; giving, be- 
stowing, beneficence, pardon, forgiveness, 
liberality, generosity. PI. ^ ey. 

iLji^ ba^lr, act. part, {bomj^) Seeing, be- 
holding, observing, penetration.* 

^j^^ ba^ir-man, adj. A beholder, an observer ; 
(Fem.) i:^ j^^ai ba^-mandh. 

A Lj baty s.f. (1st) A duck. PI. k) ba£i. See . ^i-Jb 

A ^Ji^ butldn, s.m. (9th) Falseness, vanity, abor- 
tion, the becoming of no effect. Sing, and PI. 

A (J^ ba^^^y s.m. (9th) Excitement, motive, 
cause. 2. Resurrection. Sing, and PL ci^j 
jJ^ J baxB^-o-nashr, 8.m. (9th) The resurrec- 
tion. Sing, and PL 

A jju ba'cedy adv. Afler, afterwards, subsequent. 
See ^Jl*J 

A j^^fi*j bacBT^y Liu ba^(B7^d, or ^c-^jo ba'(B!^£, 
adj. Some, certain ones, a few, several. See 
,^^, ^ and ^j 

A jiiou baceld, adj.^from j^) Far, distant, ab- 
sent, remote ; strange, improbable ; (Fem.) 
gs^ju baceida'h. 

CJJm Vghdrg, adj. Double, two-fold, duplex ^ 
(Fem.) iipQ Vghdrgdh. SeeC^ andd^i.^ 

ij^ baghdrdh, s.f. (3rd) A scream, a screeclB- ^ 
shriek, squall. PL ^^ ey. Jjbj ^J^, haghoTi 
Tvahal, verb trans. To squidl, to scream, t 

ycJo bagh'baghOy s.m. (5th) A bird of the sanA^^ 
piper breed frequenting the banks of rivers 
PL ^^tM bagh'baghogdn. 

jjJu bandar, s.m. (5th) A mallet, a hammer^' 
Vl.jjJu baghdcer. See ^ib<>. 

.yu baghwrjzy s.m. Return, retrogression, v^ " 
flexion. 2. Returning, coming back, retrcF^ 
grading. J J^ j^ baghaTj^-edaly verb intrant - 
To retmna, rebound, reflex, regrade. Pre^- 
t^Ajf^, ba^arjgejn ; past ^jj^i ha^csr^^ 





^oA ; ftit. ^ ^jj^. ba^arjz bah shl ; imp. 
dL& J jjk) bagharjz nm-shah, or ^J^ jjo bar 
gharjz shah ; act. part. ^>^^J^ j/V bagharjze- 
dUithaey, or ^^^.yo bagh^r^iduTULey ; past 
part, j^ iogAo^, OP ^y:» jJq bagharjz 
shawaey; verb. n. ^^aJo ba^^arjzedana!h. 

J«.yu baghqxjzxofoul^ verb tranfl. To return, to 
restore, render ; to cause to return, rebound, 
regrade. Pres. s/tjj/^ bagharjzawi\ past 
^ J jJo haghwrjz wu-kah or ^ J wu-karr^ 
or ^jjo ba^arjz kah or ^^ ^arr ; fut. 
•A^ <o jyb bagharjz bah kxfli or i^ J ^ jyv 
ba^iqrj^ bah nm-krri, ^J ^ jj^. bagharjz 
bah wu-kah, or it^ ^ jiyu bagmirjz bah kah ; 
imp. 4^ j .yu bagKarjz ww-kah or ^r^ J 
TvtiJttraJif or ^ .yb bagharjz kah or ^j^ 
krrah; act. part.^i^yij baghmjzaroUnkaey 
or (Jj|mj/^ iagAoTj^wi^Twt^ ; past part. .Ju 
^J^ baghqrjs^ kajraey; verb. n. <0^y«J ^a- 
gh arjzairouTUiHh* 

CJjo baghqrgy s.m. Return, retrogression, re- 
flexion. 2. Returning, coming back, retro- 
grading. 3. adj. Double, two-fold. Jju^ 
baghargedal^ verb intrans. Ta return, to come 
back ; and Jj^ bagharga/mul^ verb trans. 
To return, to make or cause to return. See 
preceding infinitive, aiid substitute \Li for « 

iijo bghqargdk^ s.f. (3rd) (fem. of uJ^) A valley 
betweai two mountains. 2. A woman who 
has brought forth twins. PI. ^ ey. 

^Jq baghqra£yy s.m. (1st) A pimp, cuckold, a 
term of abuse. PI. j^ ^ ; s.f. (6th) ^^yo bar 
g^LOTiily A mortar, vulva, a term of abuse. 
Sing, and PI. See ^y and v^Jo^ 

A ^/aib haghii 8.m. (9th) Malice, spite, resent- 
ment, revenge, hatred, hate. Sing, and PI. 

p Jjb baghali 8.m. (2nd) The armpit, the em- 
brace. PL aJ^ulj baghalilnah, ^j^ Jjo 
baghalgrri, s.f. (3rd) Embracing. PI. ^^ a% 
JL^ 4j^jfliif ba^aigvrl kawul, verb trans. 
To embrace. Jju sj^^gandah baghaiy A per- 
son having stinking armpits — a disease; (Fem.) 
jJib 9x:i gandah baghaUCh. 

4 ^u ba{0^ adj. Rebellious, mutinous. 

^ ji^. baghair, adv. Without, except, besides, 

^}i(J^, bak bak, s.m. (2nd) Nonsense, prattle, 
chat, garrulity. PI. ^yofji bak-bakunah, 
J^ ^}i^}i bak bak kawuly verb trans. To 
chatter, prattle, prate, twaddle. See uio dio 

A \sj bakcLy s.f. (6th) Duration, permanence, re- 
maining, eternity, immortality. (E.) Sing, 
and PI.; (W.) PI. ^jlw bakawl. J^ lib 
bakd laral, Terb trans. To last, endure, to 
have duration, permanence, or immortality. 

T <Ls^ buk'dia*h, s.f. (3rd) A small bundle, a 
parcel, a roll of clothes. PI. ^^ eg. See 

B Cji) bak, s.m. (2nd) Prattle, chat, garrulity, 
foolish talk. Vl.ij^bakuna'k J/uJouJj 
bak bak kawul, verb trans. To prattle, to 
chatter, to gabble. See j^jJ and J^ J?^ 

jjlij bakd-yarm, s.m. (6th) The name of a tree 
(Melia sempervirens). Sing, and PL (hi ^jjI^). 

sj>j\Lj bakdr-yairna'k, s.f. (3rd) The name of a 
tree or shrub (Melia sempervirens). PL ^^ 
eg. Bee^jjmd^^:^ 

vJJovJJo bah bak, s.m. Prattle, babble, foolish 
talk, clack, gabble, twaddle. PL ij^CSj 

v^ bakrdx, s.f. (6th) Flint, a flint. Sing, 
and PL 

^^ bagahldx, s.f. (6th) A woman dressed up 
to frighten naughty children, a bug-bear. 
Sing, and PL See ^b 

^jii bugUiey, s.m. (1st) An aigrette. 2. A stork, 
a bittern, a heron. PL ^ I. (s 51^). 

Jjuiij bugnedai, verb intrans. To shy, to start, 
to fear, to wince. Pres. i^^r^ bugnejzl (W.) 
or ,JljiSj bugnegl (E.) ; past. ^ Ju^Sj J wu- 
bugnedah ; fdt. sjt:^. ^. J ^^ bah bugnejzl, 
or ^^\iy ij 'ywu bah bugnegl ; imp. i>i^ jj 
wu-btignejzah, or <^;i!^) j wu-bugnegah] act. 
part, jjiuj ju-6 bvgnedUnkaeg , or ^jjjjuiij 
bugnmUnaey; past part, ^jui^ bugneda- 
laey; verb. n. <Ojui^ bugnedana'h. See also 





^}y^, btcffnanmlf verb trans. To cause to shy, 
start, fear, wince, etc. Pres. ^yi^, bugnarci ; 
past j[^L5j j wurbitgndwuh, or j^V:^ j wti-buff- 
ndwo ; fdt. ^/y^ ^j iwu bah bugnawl ; imp. 
5^i6 J wvrbugnawah \ act. part. ^>^jy^ i«y- 
nawUnkoLeyy or ^^y^, bugnawUnaey ; past 
part. jjJy^ bugnawulaey ; verb. n. ^y.^ iw^- 
nawuna'h. See Jy^y 

*i^ bagorroLh^ s.f. (3rd) Coagulated milk, a 
kind of cheese, the Persian kurut. V\. ^ey. 
See ci^y and cl^. Jj^^ «[j^ bagorrcHh 
z'do-ycdy verb trans. To grind, or prepare 
cheese, etc. by grinding. 

Jj bcely adj. Another, other, different, not the 
same. Sing, and PI. ; (Fem.) <0j bcddh. 
Pl.^ h(Bley, Jj Jj J<^/ b<Bl^ Various. 5b <0j 

bakbhpld, Another time. ^ Jj i^/ sar, The 
other end. L^ Jj i<^/ ^a6a, The day after 
to-morrow. ±j^ <0j 5^/«'A wradzj Next day. 
^ Jj bcel heyr^ Another time, etc. 

A Jj bal^ adv. Moreover, but, yet, however, 
upon which, thereupon, likewise, besides. 
See also ti^ 

Jj bal^ adj. Burnt, consumed, lighted, inflamed, 
set on fire ; (Fem.) <dj balaHh. Jj J^ jal 
baly Burnt up or consumed by fire (s). 

J JuL baledal, verb intrans. To bum, to kindle, 
to be consumed, to ignite, to take or catc^ 
fire. Pres. ^^ Jj balejzl (W.) or ^XL balegl 
(E.) ; past ^* J Jj bal wu-shah, or ^ Jj 
bal shah ; fut. ^ ^ ^Jj bal bah wvrshly or 
^ <0 Jj bal bah shx \ imp. ^J^ ^ Jj bal wu- 
shah, or <Li Jj bal shah ; act. pait. ^jiljj jjj 
baledunkaey, or <^j jJ^ baleduruiey ; past part. 
Jj 6a/, or ^^yt. Jj Ja/ ahawaey ; verb. n. 
^jjj baledana'h, 

— m 

J^ balawul, verb trans. To bum, to set on fire, 
to light up, enkindle, ignite. Pres. v/p^ 
balawl ; past^ J Jj balwurkarr, or ^ j Jj W 
wU'kah, otJ Jj 6a/ ^tt, ot d^ Jj bal kah ; 
fut. fc^ J ^, J^ 6a/ 6aA ;2?2^-^2T^, or ^jf ^ Jj 
6a/ bah krrt ; imp. ^ J J^ 6a/ wu-kxraJi, or 
<cf J Jj 6a/ wurkdh, or y^ Jj bal hjrah, or 
/^ Jj bal kah ; act. part, i^j^ balawUnkaey, 

or ^j^ baJawUnaey ; past part. ^^^ Jj 6a/ 
karraey ; verb. n. ^O^j balawuna'h. 

A Hj 6a/a, s.f. (6th) Trial, calamity, misfortune, 
accident, vengeance, evil, ill. (£.) Sing, and 
PI. ; (W.) PI. ^^j balawl. ^ L bala 
pasey (correctly ^^ ^j^j 5b), May calamity 
follow him or her. 6dj \j bald-zadah, adj. 
Overwhelmed with misfortune. ^^ h baldr 
hash (W.) or kdldi (E.), adj. Afflicted, sufferer. 
(Fem.) i^ \j bala-kasha^h, or haJduih. 

A \j bild, prep. Without, unless. cJSy h bild 
tarcakkufy Without delay, speedily. u^Ji» 1 
6i/a /;a/a6, Without asking, of one's own firee- 
will, uncalled. 

ijJL bldrbahy adj. Pregnant, as a woman or 
animal. See also a^<), nj^t and ^|^. 

J JljjJL bldrbedal, verb intrans. To become preg- 
nant, great with young. Pres. i^j^J^. blar- 
bejzey (W.) or ^^J^, blarbegey (E.) ; past 
aJ^ ^jjh bldrbah shwah, or HyJ^ j A^L 6/8r- 
6aA wu'shwah ; fut. ,<-5» j ^ <0;5b blSrbah bah 

wU'shl, or _J» iO <Uj)b bldrbah bah ^l ; imp. 
^ j <Oj)Lj bldrbah wu-skah, or 4J* ^jL 6/iS^ 
6aA ^aA ; act. part. i^S^^s^Jij bldrbedUnM, 
or (j»^ JuijJb bldrbedUni ; past part. A^ i/Sr- 
6aA^ or *-i ^Ib bldrbah shorn; verb. n. 
^JuJ;)Lj bldrbedana!h. 

Jyljh bldrbawul, verb trans. To render preg- 
nant, impregnate, bring with young, to ge*» 
with child. Pres. t^y^Ji^ bldrbawi ; past ^J^^ 
sJioT ^ji bldrbah wurkfrah, or Ajrralah, 
Xjf ^jh or iij bldrbah ktrah or kfraldk 
fut. ^j^ J <o iOjlb bldrbah bah wu-kfrt 
i^jf ij ^jjh bldrbah bah krrt ; imp. ^ J ^ 
bldrbah wu-krrah, or 2f^ djJL bldrbah ktsrah^ 
act. part. ^>^jyj5b bldrbawUnkaey, or ^jjjj^^l— • 
bldrbawUruiey ; past part. ^^ ^5b bldrba^^ 
karri; verb. n. <Uyj5b bldrbanmna*L 8^^ 
<U|^, etc. 

^d\^ <— ^il^ 6/^r6 wdlaey, s.m. (1st) PI. ^\j ^^ 
or(^y ^^J]b bldrb-tob, s.m. (2nd) Pregnane; 
impregnation. PI. <Oyy tobUnah. 

A 45b 6i/ag^, s.m. (2nd) Whatever is brought^ ^ 
a sufficiency, enough ; any vocable implying 





excellence, as purity, yirtue, etc. PI. ijy^h 

OkXilb balor^undd, a.m. (5th) Name of a fruit, 
and of which snuff-boxes are made (Cratseva 
or ^le marmelos). PI. ^^l^^j^JU bala- 
ghunddJoLn. See also cJlj J^ and J^ 

hJL bil-drmah. s.m. (9th) A low or faint groan, 
moan, plaint, etc. Sing, and PL Js^ Sj^h 
bil-drmah Motal^ verb intrans. To moan, to 
utter faint groans, as a person near death. 

^ Jj bal b€Bl, adj. Various, different, diversi- 
fied ; (Fern.) al^ dd^ bala' A bala'h. 

JjL huOml, (5th) A nightingale. PI. JLL 
bulbtOan; s.f. (3rd) .dub bulbula'k. PI. ^JuL 

p 4xb balady s.m. (5th) A guide, a conductor. 
PI. ^^jL baladdn; s.f. (3rd) 9jL balada'h- 
PI. ^ ey. 

Jj bal sar, s.m. (2nd) The other end, as of a 
plank, stick, etc. PI. dj^j^ Jj bml-^arUnah. 

L^ Jj b<Bl ^ab&, adj. To-morrow. 

cJUL buljMk, s.m. (2nd) Noise, clamour, up- 
roar, hubbub, din, hullaballoo. 2. The sound 
of grief or sorrow, wail, lamentation. PI. 
^jTUL btU-^jMk-ilnah. J^ cJUL buU^dk 
ianml, verb trans. To grieve, to lament, to 
bewail, to cry out, to groan audibly. 

A JiL bcU^^^am, s.m. (6th) Phlegm. 2. A run- 
ning at the nose firom cold. Sing, and PI. 

^ L<^. bcdghamif adj. Phlegmatic. 

^jL baljc^ s.m. (2nd) Lightning. See jy 

p iS^j baUahj adv. Moreover, but, nay. 

<Slb balgdh, s.f. (3rd) A clue, a trace, as of 
stolen property. PI. ^^^y. See^sSCLj. ii^j 
J jc^ balffdh mun-dal, verb trans. To obtain 
a clue or trace. 

Jb balal, verb trans. To call, to convoke, to 
sommon, dte, call for, invoke, invite, request 
to meet or come. Pres. ^y boll ; past a!U J 
wu-bdlah or Jb 5 WW bdla ; fut. ^Jy dj ^ wu 
bah boH ; imp. ^y» j wu bolah or ijy $^/aA ; 
act. part. i^^L; balUnkaey or o^ balunaey ; 
past part i^J^ balalaey; verb. n« ^uJlj 

jUL bilmdz, adj. Profane, unholy, irreligious ; 
(Fem.) 2[;Ub bilmdza'h. 

^jiUlj balmoffoey, adj. Saltless, insipid, tasteless, 
weak, vapid ; (Fem.) (JLiUL balmoffi or ,«-Si^ 
balmangey. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^c f. 

iVSS^j bai-mangah, adj. Saltless, unsavoury, in- 
sipid, vapid, tasteless, weak. See ^J^:^, 

p jjj buland or biland, adj. High, lofty, ele- 
vated, exalted, sublime, tall, loud; (Fem.) 
^rjjj bularukCh or bilanda'k, 

v^jjj bulandl or bilandi, s.f. (3rd) Height, a 
height, elevation, loftiness, eminence, loud- 
ness. PI. ^A a'f . 

p ^^j ia/i«?a, s.f (6th) Tumult, riot, sedition, 
insurrection ; confusion, disturbance, disobedi- 
ence ; a concourse, a crowd. (E.) Sing, and 
PI. ; (W.) PI. grjl^ balwawl. J/ IjL balrca 
karoulj verb trans. To create a riot or dis- 
turbance, to make or cause a tumult. 

*j!j baluts, s.m. (5th) A BelUch, the tribe of 
BelUchls. Pl.^l^^j balutsdn, ^^ balUtscCk, 
s.f. (3rd) A female of the BelUchl tribe. Pl.^^ ey. 

j^Lp-jIj balujl-an, s.m. (5th) PL Ignorant people ; 

Jj^ b'lodal, verb trans. To touch, to graze, to 
abrade, to come in contact. Pres. v/*>^ 
b'lodi ; past J^b j wu-Vlod ; fut. i^^^ ^, J 
^ wu bah Vlodx \ imp. * j^j J wu-Vlodah ; act. 
part. ,>^jJ»yj b'lodanhaey or ^^Jfc>^ A'fo- 
dUnaey] past part. ^jJ*>^ b*lodalaey; verb, 
n. iCJ^j b'lodana'h. 

fjMyj b'lo8, S.m. (2nd) Touch, contact, distress. 
PI. ijy^^^ VlosUnah. 

Jju^Jj b'losedal, verb trans. To afflict, to dis- 
tress ; to touch, to graze, to abrade, come in 
contact with. Pres. ^^y^. b*lo^; past 
Ju^^j j nm-b'laseda ; fut. i<-?;l^ ij ^ wu bah 
b'lasl ; imp. x-jJj J tpw-A w?5aA ; act. part. 
^>C;jju-*yj b'losedunkaey, or ^^Ju-^Ij i'fo- 
aedunaey ; past part. ^ Ju-j^j Vlosed^ilaey ; 
verb. n. ^ju-*^ b'losedana'h. 

iU ju-yL Vlosedana'h, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Touch, 
contact, abrasion, grazing, coming into con- 
tact. 2. Affliction ; trouble, PI. ^ ey. 





^\^ L^y^ f>'loS'Wdlaey, s.m. (let) Contact, 
touch, etc. PI. i\^ wdH. 

A ^9^ balut, 0.m. (6th) The oak-tree, an acorn, 

a chesnut. Sing, and PL 
A ijb bulUgh, B.m. (9th) Puberty, adolescence. 

Sing, and PI.; also c:^^ bulUghaty s.m. 

(2nd) PI. ^f^^ bula^atUnah. 
J^ balawul, verb trans. To light, bum, set on 

fire, kindle, ignite. See under Jj 
s^jfj^, bilUngarroLeyy s.m. (1st) A squirrel. See 

also fc^Ju^ PI. ^^ f. 
^ balaUy or ^^ balawUj s.m. (6th) A barber's 

hone. PI. j^W^ balau-ffdn, or ^WJjb bala- 

h ^ bala'h pld, s.f. (6th) Another time. (E.) 
' Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. ^^h ^±J b(Blah 

L^ Jj bcelcHh nvadz, or jlj^ Jj bcela'h wradz. 

Another day. 
^^ Jj bul hawas, adj. The father of desire, 

avaricious, parsimonious ; (Fem.) <Uiyb Jj 

-Jb Jj i^/ A^, adv. Another time. 
Jj ia/a*f, s.f. (6th) The eave or eaves of a 

house ; a pole to propel a boat ; the bolt or 

bar of a door (hi ^). Sing, and PI. 

JoJj baledaly verb intrans. To bum, to kindle, 
to ignite, to be consumed, to take fire. Se? 
under Jj 

Jj-Jj blejzdal, verb trans. To swaddle, to 
swathe (particularly infants). Pres. v/*3r-Aj 
blejzdi ; past *fc)-Jj j wu-blej^dah ; fem. ^ J 

v^jjjj wu bah blejzdi; imp. ^J-Jj J ;2;i^ 

blejzdah ; act. part. ^^^djAi blej^dunkaey, 

or ^j J-Jj blej^dunaey ; past. part. ^ j-Jj 

blejzdcUaey; verb. n. <Oj-Jj blejzdana'h. 

<U jJj blejzdand!hy s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Swathing, 

swaddling (an infant). PI. ^J ^y. 
2j^^ bambara'hy s.f. (3rd) A large red wasp or 

homet. PI. ^^ ^. 
^ Aesw, s.f. (Ist) Rival (wife), cotemporary 

wife ; one of two or more wives are b<Bns to 

each other. PL ^ bcsni. 

A Lj bind, s.f. (6th) Building, foundation^ an 
edifice. (E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^^b 
bindrvh JjlT Uj bind kawul, verb trans. To 
build, to found. 

HI c:^'1:j bandt, s.m. (6th) Woollen cloth, broad 
cloth. Sing, and PL (JW ban&H, adj. 

J«:j ban-baly s.m. (2nd) The beard of grain, the 
feathery tuft of gorse, etc. PL ^jL:j 6an- 

A u:^ ^in^, s.f. (1st) A daughter. PL y:^ binii. 

^ dan;, s.m. (6th) A chesnnt-tree, a chesnut. 
Sing, and PL See J<i Jj 

s ^ banj or banajy s.m. (2nd) Trade, traffic, 
merchandize, commerce. PL <0^^ ian^ 
Unah, or banajUnah, 

^^ banjaM, s.m. (6th) The name of a plant, 
the seed of which contains a sort of cow-itch. 
Sing, and PL 

^^acu banjaX s.f. (6th) The cassia tree. Sing, 
and PL 

p jcj bandy s.m. (2nd) A fitstening, imprison- 
ment, confinement, arrest, captivity, a knot, 
a bond, bandage, belt, roll, joint, knuckle. 
2. Twist in wrestling, a dodge, a ruse, an 
artifice, a wile. PL <Cj«x:j bandunah. 3. adj. 
Fastened, bound, shut, stopped ; (Fem.) af*xy 
bandah, J J joj band tarral, verb tranfl. 
To restrain an inundation with dykes. .^ 
jcj band band, Joint by joint. J^ jcj j^ 
band band nlwul, verb trans. To seize C 
rheumatism, etc.) all the joints. J^ «x:j 
band band kawul, verb trans. To disjmnt, 
separate joint from joint. 

^jcj banduMf s*ni« (Snd) A musket, a fire loc^ 
PL ijy>^SiJ banduJ^Unah. 

Vj «x:j bandar y s.m. (2nd) A city, port, harboc^ 
a trading town. PL ^ju^ bandarHnah. 

p fc^jJ^ bandariy adj. Relating to a seapc^- 

town. 2. A sort of chintz* 

T jjjj banduky s.m. (3nd) A musket, a 
lock. PL iOyjcj banduJpQnah* Bee ^ 
and j^jcj 






<u^ i^jf J^ 6an^ ^2T<^y mur^ak, a.m. (5th) 
A decoy bird. PL jjlir^ mwr^^w. 

p ^/xj bandofft, s.f. (3rd) Servitude, homage. 
PL |V a'f. Jj^ i/^ bandagl liawul, verb 
trans. To honour, serve, do homage, reverence, 
show fealty. 

^jXj ban-duH, 8.m..(2nd) A fire-lock, a musket. 
PL ^Lj^jjcj ban-duMunaA. See jjcj 

p irjcj bandahy s.m. (5th) A slave, a servant, a 
bondsman. Pl.^^l^arjcu bandaAffdn. i^J^ 
banda% s.f. (6th) A female slave, a female 
captive. Sing, and PL j^y ifs:j bandah 
parwar^ adj. Cherisher of servants (an ex- 
pression of respect to a superior) ; (Fem.) 
Sj^^ arjcj bandcHh parwara'h. \^j*u^ ^^ 
bandah parwari^ s.f. (3rd) Cherishing of ser- 
vants. PL jA a\ j\y arjcj bandah nawdz, 
adj. CJherisher of servants or dependants; 
(Fem.) ifj\y arjcj bandah-narcdzdh, 

p J»s^ bandah-fft, s.f. (3rd) Service, etc. PL 
iA a'f . See ^xj . 

p LSiW^jjj barid-o-bast, s.m. (2nd) Settlement, 
regulation, disposition, arrangement, economy, 
management, government. PL i^f^^x^ 
band^o-bastUnah. Jj^ <j:,w^a:j band-o-bast 
kawul, verb trans. To dispose, to arrange, to 
regulate, etc. 

p t^xj bandi, s.m. (5th) A slave, a captive, a 
prisoner. PL ^j^li*xu bandl-dn. 

8 ^^^J^ bandi'Wdn, s.m. (5th) Same as above. 
PL ^bl^Xi-} ia7i<6-7Pam« ; (Fem.) (3rd) 
^f^jcj bandiwdna^h, PL ^^ €y. 

iAxj banda% s.f. (6th) A belt or shoulder orna- 
ment worn by women and children. Sing. 
and PL 

^^^ ban-zaey, s.m. (Ist) The son of a husband 
by another wife who may be alive, a step-son. 
PL ^^j^J! banzl] s^j^ ban-zaX s.f. (6th) 
A daughter as above. Sing, and PL See 

p ^ * ^' * banff, s.m. (6th) Hemp (Cannabis sativa). 

2. An intoxicating potion made from the 

leaves of hemp. Sing, and PL 
JjSiy bangawuly verb trans. To taint, to corrupt, 

to make fly blown. Pres. 4^j^ bangarcl\ 
past. »jl^ J wurbangdwuh, or j^IsSj J 727e^-dan- 
^aw(? ; fem. t^^Sij <u J ww iaA bangarci ; imp. 
2»^ij J wu-bangawaJi ; act. part. ^jilij^Iij ian- 
ga/wUnkaeyy or ^j^oj banga7cunaey\ past, 
part. ^^, bangawulaey \ verb. n. aj^Iij 
bangawuTuih. See Jj»^^« 

^^^,j*ij bangash (W.) or bangalch (E.) s.m. (6th) 
The name of a tribe claiming Afgh&n descent, 
also the name of their district. 2. A male of 
the tribe. 4U«$jj bartga^shcHh, or bangalOia'hy 
s.f. (3j'd) A female of the above. PL ^^ ey. 

p ^^^ iawyl, s.m. (5th) One who is in the habit 
of intoxicating himself with bang. PL ^^Uij 
bangmn ; s.f. (6th) Sing, and PL ^ a\ 

yj banUi s. prop. A district in Afghanistan, west 
of Derah Ismsell Khan, whose inhabitants are 
called jj>-^ bunu^aey, s.m. (1st) PL j^ i ; 
(Fem.) (6th)j^a'i. Sing, and PL 

L yj bano, or ^ baniy s.m. (9th) (PL of ^^, 
H p), Sons, posterity. mS\ ^ banl ddam^ 
Sons of Adam, men. ^^\j^ ^ bam isrd-ll, 
The children of Israel, Israelites. ^^U- ^ 
banl jdn, Beings who inhabited the world 
before Adam, genii, fairies. 

^ banaX s.f. (6th) A bellows made firom the 
skin of a goat or sheep ; a wallet, a bag of 

^ leather. Sing, and PL 

A jLjj bunydd, s.m. (2nd) Foundation, basis, 
origin. PL ^Oj^^L^j bunyddUnah, JirL jLjj 
bunydd Jdkatal, verb intrans. To become anni- 
hilated, to become erased firom foundation. 
J-o*^ or jCfa jLiJ bunydd Wikal (E.) or kshal 
(W.) verb trans. To root out from the very 
foundation, to annihilate, to eradicate. 

j^ buner, s. prop. A district of Afghanistan, 
north-east from Pe^ftwer. 

Jlj^^ buner wdl, s.m. (6th) An inhabitant of 
Buner. Sing, and PL; (Fem.) (3rd) <J|^ 
wdkCh, PL \^^* 

jj or ^^ barm, s.m. (2nd) A forest, a wood 
(s '^^). PL ij^j^ barmUnah, 

dyj barmaka'hn s.f (3rd) A feather (dimin. of 
following). PL \^ey. 





*jj barma% s.f. (3rd) The strongest feather in 
a bird's wing, of which there are two. PI. 
^^:j barmey. 

wfflf^ij barme'chagh. s.m. (2nd) A kind of 
whirligig. PI. ijy^jj barme-chaghilnah. 

^A^ barma\ s.f. (6th) The name of a tree. 
Sing, and PI. 

<o^ barmrlah, s.m. (5th) A chandler, a huck- 
ster, a shopkeeper. (^^/J barm-lah-pdn 
(hi Jl^). 

i» y) bu, S.m. Smell, scent, odour, effluvium. 

^ bau, or bao, s.m. (2nd) A scare-crow, a buga- 
boo, a bogie, etc. to frighten children. PI. 
<0j^ bau-Unah, or bao-Undh ; also y^ ^Juc 

j^\y) bawdslr, s.m. (6th) The piles or hemorr- 
hoids (Pu^tOj^y\» bdrvslr). Sing, and PL 

A (jM^\y) bu-l-hawaa, adj. (com. of y Endowed 
with, and (j^yb Desire), Desirous, whimsical, 
capricious, a wavering or fickle person, a 
blockhead ; (Fem.) i^^\ji bu-l-hawasa'h, 

A ^y^\j) bu'l-hawasiy s.f. (3rd) Caprice, ca- 
priciousness, fickleness. PI. *4 a\ 

A j<-^Lj {j**yi^ji bU'l'hawas ndtdy s.f. (3rd) Ca- 
price, fickleness, capriciousness. PI ^ at. 

yj^yi but/d, s.f. (3rd) A gold coin, a ducat, 
value about ten shillings English, imported 
from Russia. PI. jV a\ 

Jljy botlal, verb trans. To take along, lead, 
conduct, convey, remove, transport, peculiar 
to animate objects. Pres. ^^jy bozi; past 
o;^ bot ; fut. ^j ij j) bo bah zl ; imp. nj^i 
bozah; act. part, ^jili^^ botlUnkaey, or 
^^yi botlunaey; verb. n. <uljy botlana'A, 
or ijy bota'h. The other inflections are want- 
ing, this infinitive being used to complete the 
conjugation of J^, which see. 

<0y botcHhy s.f. (3rd) Seizing the person of a 
villager and retaining him as a hostage or 
pledge for the debts of another, a custom 
amongst the Afghans. PI. ^ ey. See Ai^ 

^y botaey^ s.m. (Ist) A young camel. PI. 
^y boil ; s.f. (6th) -7^ botdx. Sing, and PI. 

v4^y i«tt, adj. Ill-tempered, crabbed, morose, 
surly, stem, sour-tempered ; (Fem.) ^^ butta'h. 

See (J^yi V^r^V** 

i^jy^ yj^yi butt ««2rf, S.m. (1st) PI. Bran, 

chaff. See also ,^jy^ i^^i 
^yi bUUaey, s.m. (1st) A bush, a shrub, a 

flower worked or painted on cloth or paper. 

PI. Jy buui, Drugs, medicine given to 

children after birth, (hi. I5y). 
^jCf^ butskaX s.f. (6th) The soft part of the 

ear or nose, the lobe of the ear. Sing, and 

PI. Also written ^t^ bu^% and ^^^ 
pUtsAaX and ^ ^^ pUtm'l. 

i^^ bujahy s.f. (3rd) A cork, a stopper. PI. 

^ ey. (hi.) 
p jy budy s.m. (9th) (verb. n. of f^*^y) Being, 

existence. Sing, and PI. 
*jy buda% s.f. (3rd) The woof of the web in 

weaving. PI. ^ ey. Also 2f Jjj 
,J^iy, buddd-yaeyy s.m. (1st) (s Ujj) An old 

decrepit man, an imbecile (used in a con- 
temptuous sense). PI. ^^ f. L^^yi budda- 

goLXy s.f. (6th) An old decrepit woman. Sing. 

and PI. 
j^ bawTy s.m. (6th) A leopard, a panther. Sing. 

and PI. See CJj\j^. 
jyi boTy adj. light grey or brown, a horse of 

that colour ; (Fem.) Sjji bordh. 
jy) bur, s.m. (6th) A carrot leaf, the leaf of the 

tamarisk tree. Sing, and PL ^^t^y,ji 2* 

adj. A man who has lost his child by death » 

(Fem.) ij^^ bUra'h. 
\jy) bcLwrd, s.m. (5th) A large black bee. 

^^\;y^ bawrdrffdn. 
^yijyi bor-bukdly s.f. (6th) A whirlwind, 
''de^. Sing, and PI. See ^Jj^ and ^jj 
i^jyi borjaly s.f. (1st) A house, home, hean 

halting-place, abode, resort. PI. Jsr^j? boijaJ^^ 
ijj^ bomahy s.m. (6th) Dredging, dried flo 

used to sprinkle meat or dough with. Sin; 

and PI. 
ijjyi borrmah. s.m, (6th) Dredging. See abov^ 

Sing, and PI. 
i^y bUra'h, adj. as s.f. (3rd) A woman who ht^ 





lost her child in its infancy. PI. ^ i^ bUrey. 

^^ b<mra% s.f. (6th) A gall, a com or bunion. 
Sing, and PI. See ^y^j and J^ 

ilj? it^rra'A, s.f. (3rd) Table land, flat mountain 
land. PI. ^ €y. See also zj^z^ 

i^y bUrraey, s.m. (Ist) The cog of a Persian 
wheel. PI. |C I. 

^g^J^ bUrraey, adj. One whose nose, lips, ears, or 
hand has been cut off; a vessel or cup with 
the lip broken off. 2. Broken, split, reft; 
(Fern.) jy bUrri. PI. (Masc. and Fern.) ^ I. 

*^y bUrra'i, s.f. (6th) A disorder, in which the 
intestinum rectum is prolapsed, generally 
amongst children (Prolapsus ani). Sing, and 

p ijj) bozcChy s.f. (3rd) The ibis or royal cerclew. 
PI. ^^ ey. See 2j^ 

p Zjf boza'h, s.f. (3rd) Anything which has un- 
dergone fermentation, such as wine, milk, etc. 
2. An intoxicating drink made firom the fer- 
mented milk of the cameh PI ^^ ey, 

**^ *^J}i ^^^ bandah, adj. Simple, foolish. 2. 
A simple, artless or harmless person, a sim- 

^jy, boztna*A, s.f. (3rd) Leather made from the 
skins of goat«, of a red colour ; morocco leather. 
PI. ^ ey. 

.y bojzy (W.) adj. Harsh (in sound), bass, 
hollow, sepulchral ; (Fem.) Hjyi bojzcCh. See 
M' ^^Mj^ bojz'^drraey, adj. as s.m. (Ist) 
A person having a harsh or hollow voice; 
(Fem.) l^Jjy bo^-^Mirri. PL (masc. and 
fem.) ^ I. 4^U ^^jj bo^ey gbp^trey, Sore- 
throat. See 2r^U 

i^^y bus, s.m. (6th) Bran, chaff. Sing, and PL 

«|U^ bU8drra*h, s.f. (3rd) A heap or stack of 
chopped straw {busah), used as food for cattle 
and mixed with mud for building purposes, 
covered over with a mud thatch (s ]^---*^). 
PL ^^ ey. 

p i^tu-j; bas-tdn, s.m. (2nd) A flower-garden. 
PL ijy\s^y bos-tdnUnah. 

<U24»y bolddandhj s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Sticking, 
cleaving, etc. (as in mud). 2. A quagmire, a 
bog, a marsh. PL ^ ey. See <U;4J 

JJu:^,J^ boWi-tedal (E.), or bo^-tedal (W.), 
verb intrans. To stick, adhere (as mud), co- 
here, hold, cleave to. Pres. ^c. i;*4|y bo^- 
tejzl (W.), or ^JLp^y bo^-tegl (E.) ; past 
^ J ^^^-^y bojdit or bosht wurshah, or 
^ i^^^W^ bo^t or bosht shah ; iut. li^mjijj 
^J^ J <o bo^t or bo^t bah wti-shl, or c:^^^^ 
_^ ^ bo^t or ^(7^^ ^oA Mf ; imp. ls.^>j 
aj^ J i(7^^ or ^^^^ wurshahy or ^ ls.^^ 
&^^^ or ^(7^^ shah; act. part, ^jio^jui^i^ 
bo^tedUnkaey ot boshtedilnkaey, or ^^ Ju:^»^ 
bolditedUnaey or boshtedunaey ; past part. 
vj:^^y i^^^ or ^^^^, or ^c^ i^^^^^j^ i(>^^ 
or 6(7^^ shawaey) verb. n. <u:^»j; bolSitanoih 
or bosTUana'h. See Jjuxuj 

J f^y bo^tawul or boshtawul, verb trans. To 
cause to stick, to embed, to stick in, to join, 
to glue, etc. Pres. i^f^yi boJ^tawl or 
boshtawl ; past ^ J ^£^^y boldit or bosht 
wU'karr or ii'j wu-hah, or ^ ^^^-^yi bofdit 
or bo^t kajT or 6^ kah ; ftit. 4^ ^ <^^=^^j; 
i^^^ or bo^t bah km or 4^ j <o ioA 
;pw-Am ; imp. sj J l::^^^ i<?^^ or bo^t 
wu'krrah or <L^ J wu-kah, or *^ «*2:-^j^ 
i^^^ or bo^t krrah or A^ ^oA; act. part. 
Li^JJ^y bolditawiJiAfikaey or boshta/wUnkaey, 
or ^^f^y boJ^tawUnaey or boshtawUnaey ; 
past part. ^^ i^^^-^y &(>^^ or ^e?^^ karra^y ; 
verb. n. ^c^y bolditarounalh or boshtanm- 
ndh. See Jja-fJ 

^^^ »*:>W»y i^>^^ or i^^^ wdlaey, s.m. (1st) PL 
^^j TPa/i : or l-j^ l::^^^; i(?^^ or J(?^^ f<?i, 
s.m. (2nd) Stickiness, tenacity. PL <Uj;y 

iy bughy s.m. (2nd) A wooden bowl, a cup or 

basin. PL ^^y bUghUnah. See ^^^ 
A jy itJA:, s.m. (9th) A trumpet, a clarion. 

Sing, and PL 
A ^^Jjj^ bU-kalamUn, s.m. (6th) Changing 

colour, a chamelion. Also {^y^y^ abU-kala- 

mUn. Sing, and PL 





ii^^ boka'hj B.f. (3rd) A leather or wooden 
bucket. PL ^ ey. 

^ji bokl, a.m. (Ist) PI. The name of a tribe of 

" Afghans. Sing. ^^ aey ; s.f. (6th) ^ aX Sing, 
and PI. 

^g^ bo-garaey, s.m. (1st) (W.) Land given to 
holy men flree of rent. PI. jc i. See ^j^ 

HI J^ bolj s.m. (2nd) Word, speech, talk. PI. 
<OjSy bolUnah. 

A Jjj bawliy s.f. (1st) PI. Urine. Jj^ J *j ia/r/i 
kawul, verb trans. To urinate. 

Jy bolar, s.m. (6th) The name of a tribe of 
Afghans. Sing, and PI. ; s.f. (3rd) sj^ 
bolara'h. PI. ^y bolarey. 

^y boljka'h, s.f. (3rd) A dress or kind of veil 
with eye-holes, worn by women, and covering 
the whole body from head to foot. PI. ^^ ey. 
See ijj) 

p Ajj bum, s.m. (5th) A native, home-bred person, 
one who has never been abroad. 2. A guide. 
3. An owl. 4, A coimtry. PI. ^^U^ bU- 
man. 5. s.m. (9th) Earth, ground. Sing, and 
PL ; (from 8 ^jji?). Also adj. Acquainted, 
familiar with (a road, place, etc.), habituated, 
used to ; (Fem.) ^^y bUma'h. ^y U nd-bum 
and <Uy U norbUma'h, Unacquainted, not 
accustomed, un-habituated. See ^^ and 

L^^ bUmia, s.m. and f. (5th) A guide, a con- 
ductor, a leader. PL ^^l^L^^ bUmla-ydn; 
Fem. PL ^l^L^y btLmid-gdni. 

B Juy bund,'' s.m. (2nd) A drop. PL <0j Ju^ 

s^^^y bon-saU, s.m. (2nd) Basis, root, founda- 
tion ; a term of reproach, as *J^ J j v^.%***3^ 
bon-saU di wu-MeJzaA, ' May thy foundation 
be destroyed, or rooted out ;* * May destruc- 
tion overtake thee.' PL <0j5^^ bonsaUUnaA. 
See i^Mijj^ 

i^^i bunga% s.f. (3rd) Black-mail, ransom. 
PL ^^ ey. 

J Ju3^ bonedal, verb intrans. To buzz or hum ; 
to swarm as flies. See J*x>Jy 

yy burm. s.m. (6th) A nose having no smell, a 

disease of the nose. 2. A person afflicted 
with this disease. 3. Bope used for bed- 
lacings. Sing, and PL 

jjy borm, s.m. (5th) Buzz, the hum or sound of 
flies or bees. Pl.j\jbjy bormahSr. 

Jjiji^ bormarvul. verb trans. To make a buzzing 
noise (as flies). 2. To taint, corrupt, putrefy, 
to make fly-blown. Pres. t^^yy barman^: 
past »^\^y J wu-barmaw^f or ji^)yy J fvu- 
bormd'WO ; fut. t^^yy ^ ^fvu bah borrnaml ; 
imp. imyy J wurborrnawah ; act. i^%si.^^ij^yy 
bormawUnkaey. or ^^y bormawUnaey: 
past part, ^jlj^^ bormawulaey ; verb. n. 
ij^yy barmawuna'h. See Jjij 

^jjyy barmawulaey. adj. (past part) Fly- 
blown, tainted, high, putrid; (Fem.) ^}^yy 
botmo^f^uR. PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ f.' 

J jj Jy bormedaL verb intrans. To buzz or hum 
as flies ; (fig.) To become fly-blown or tainted, 
to putrefy, corrupt. Pres. t^yjji bormejzl 
(W.), or ^Jy botmeyl (E.) ; past jjyy j 
wU'bormeda ; fut. k^yyy, ij/^wu bah barmefz^. 
or ^^yy ^ ^wu bah bormegi ; imp. *v^j? j 
wu'bormejzah : act. part. r^j*^yy, baas^ 
dUnkaey, or r^j*^yji botmedUnaey; psst 
pari* fj^^Hj^ oorrnedalaey \ verb. n. ^ J^jJ^f 

^yy borrnkaey, s.m. (1st) A buzzing sound, 
hum, whispering. PL ^ f. 

;Uy bijihdr, s.m. (9th) (p jl^) Spring, prime, 
bloom, elegance, delight. Sing, and PL 

s^j^y buhdraey, s.m. (1st) A weanling, 
animal newly weaned. PL ^^ f; (F< 
(6th) j^ a'f . Sing, and PL 

p ^y bu-e, s.m. (2nd) Smell, odour, scent. 
^yy bu-eUnah. 

JlJ ^y bu-e ilal, verb intrans. To smell 
stink. Jj^v bu-e-yawul, verb trans. To sm^ 
scent, snuff. Pres. i^yy bu-e-yatvl ; past 4^^^^ 
j^ J itZ-^ wti-karr, or ^ ^^j^ ifl-^ ka^r ; fa' - 

<s// J ^ <s/y *^"^ ^^ ^«-^2Ti, or ^jf ^ ^SS^ 
bu-e bah km ; imp. sj J i^y bUre tou-ktra^^^ 
or a J ^y bU-e krrah; act. part. ^^jj^y^. 
bu-e-ifcUnkaey , or ^jij[^^ ifl-^-wfliMwy ; pa^ 




part. 1^ fc^jj bUre harraey ; verb. n. ^jiy 

Hy. bo-yahy adj. Necessary, indifipensable, need- 
ful, meet, obligatory, binding, behoving. 2. 
adv. As in dnty bound, indispensably, neces- 
sarily, meetly, fitly, properly, ^j^ ^j^ 
karralciey bo-yah, It behoveth to be done, or 
Fit or necessary to be done, dj^t ^dj^ tva^al- 
aey b(hyah, Fit or necessary to be said, etc. 

^ bah, A particle, the sign of the future, the 
donbtfnl past, and the continnative tenses 
of the Pn^to verbs. When prefixed to a 
word, which it sometimes is, it is written as 
simple (1j See my Grammar. 

A l^j btihdf s.f. (6th) Price, value. (E.) Sing, 
and PL ; (W.) PI. ^^jl^ ba/idwu 

p jj\^ boAddur, adj. Brave, bold, valiant, 
courageous. 2. s.m. (5th) A hero, a cham- 
pion. PI. ^]j*y^ bahddurdn; (Fem.) (3rd) 
8jj\^ bahddura'h. PL |^ ey, 

^^^l^ bakdduraey, 8.m. (1st) A coward (Ut. a 
small hero). PL |^ i ; s.f. (6th) ^^ a% Sing, 
and PL 

p t^j*^^, bahddun, s.f. (3rd) Bravery, heroism. 
PL 1^ a*l. i^j^^ ^^ poh bakdduri, or dj 
ir' *^J*^^- P^ bahddun sarah, adv. Bravely, 
with bravery, valiantly. 

p^l^ bahdr, s.m. (9th) Spring, prime, bloom. 
Sing, and PL Also written jUy buhdr, 

p ^Ifj bahdna% s.f. (3rd) Pretence, evasion, 
contrivance, excuse, pretext, feint. PL ^\ ey. 
See also ^U. Jj^ ^\^ bahdna'h Aawul, verb 
trans. To make a pretext, evasion, excuse, etc. 

j\^ bihdrm, s.m. (2nd) or (5th) A colt. PL 
^jj}l|i bihdrmUnah^ or jjljil^ bihdrmdn: 
s.f. (Srd) jy l|j bthdrma^A. PL^^l|J bihdrmey. 
Also written ^\^ 

iuilfi bahdr^n^, adj. Valuable, high-priced, pre- 
cious, expensive. 

p ^^ bihbud, adj» Healthy, vigorous, perfect, 
in good order ; (Fem.) ^ J|^ bihbuda^h. 

4^«>j^ bihbiUUf B.f. (Srd) Health, vigour, good- 
neas, wel&re, well-being. 2. A large knife 
or dagger. PL ^ a'i. 

i^jjii> bahbozaey, s.m. (1st) A fan, a ventilator. 
2. A kind of fishing-bird. PL ^ l. See 

^^ Sr[i^* J^ ^JT^' bahbozaey wahal, verb 
trans. To fan, to ventilate, to cool. 

A^li^ buhtdn, s.m. (2nd) Calumny, fiedse impu- 
tation, aspersion, defiEunation. PL ^y\s>^ 
buhtdnUnah. Jj^ ^\x^^ buhtdn wa-yal, verb 
trans. To calumniate, to asperse, to de&me. 

V ^ bih'tar, adj. compar. Better, good, ex- 
cellent, well, preferable ; (Fem.) sj^) bih- 
lata A. 

p s4jr^, bih-tafiy s.f. (3rd) Advantage, welfare, 
improvement. PL jA oHl* 

j^ bahar, adv. Without, out, outside, abroad, 
away. Jju^ ^ bahar kedal, verb intrans. 
To come out, outside, or away. J)^^ bahar 
kawul, or Ji*^ j^ bahar ya^tal, verb trans. 
To put or cast out, or away. J-J ^ bahar 
lejzal (W.) or JiJ ^ b(zhar legal (E.) verb 
trans. To send out, or away. JJI ^ bahar 
Idrralj or Jb^ bahar t'lal, verb intrans. To 
go out, outside. Jl^^jjH bahar rd-flal, or 
J^]jji! IxduLrrd^'kUf verb intrans. To come 
out, to issue, to come forth. 

p ij^^ bahra'h, s.f. (3rd) Profit, gain, advantage. 
2. Quota, share, portion. 3. Fortune, pro- 
perty. PL 1^ ey. Xm^ 2r^ bahrdh mand, 
or jj »j^ bahra'h war, adj. Fortunate, blessed, 
prosperous, enjoying one's wish, happy; (Fem.) 
Xj^ ^ bahra*h^wara*h, or »x^ mandah. 2r^ 
{^\l bahrah ydb, adj. Prosperity, profited, 
gainer; (Fem.) l}\j Hj^ bahrah-ydba^h, 

p v^»Xi^^ bahrah-mandi, s.f. (3rd) Prosperity, 
happiness, profit. PL jV at. 

bj^ bahrih, adv. Once, one time, all at once. 
2. At last, at length, at least. See ^^j[) . 

fjM\jf) VharrdB, s.m. (2nd) Vapour, steam, ex- 
halation, heat, ^y^^jfi b'haf^rdsUnah. See 

p j\j^ bihzdd, s. prop. The name of Isfandiyftr, 
son of Ka^tfisib. The name also of a Prince 
of Bulgh&r, in the tale of Bahrftm Qur. 

p va^itif» bihisht, s.m. (2nd) Paradise, heaven. 
V\. ij fJL^bihishtQmh. See uu-«4^ and c;^'^.^^ 



fj bihi£a (W.) OP bihi^t (E.), a.m. (2nd) 
Paradise, heaven. PI. ^JM^i bihishtUruih, 
or bihi^tUnah ; ,^14^ bihi^ti, or bihi^tt ; 
adj. Celestial, of or relating to Paradise. See 

j^ or ^^^ bhaparm. or jiSlf» bhag(Brm. s.m. 
(5th) A fly. 

Jjl^ i^i?/, s. prop. The name of a brother of 
Mahmnd of Qhazni. 2. The name of an 
Emperor of Hindastfin. 

1^ borham, adv. (for p i^U), Together, one with 
another, one against another. 

iU|j haJmcHh^ s.f. (3rd) A boy's top. PI. ^ ey. 

(j-*^ bhus, s.m. (6th) Bran, husk, chaff. Sing, 
and PI. See also (ji«y (s (^/«^). 

J^ bahawul, verb trwis. To cause to flow, to 
glide, float, pass, drive. Pres. j^^ bahawi ; 
past ^^l^ J wurbahdwuh, or j^^l^ J wurbahdrvo ; 
fut. v/j^ ij ^wu bah bahawi ; imp. 2r^ J Trt^- 
bahawah ; act. part. ^^Jo .^ bahawUnkaey, or 
^ji^ bahawUnaey \ past part, ^♦f^ ia^ 
wulaey; verb.n. ijy^bahawuna*k. See Jju^ 

^jf baha% s.f. (6th) A well with steps to go 
down into. Sing, and PI. 

p ^^ bihl, s.m, (6th) A quince. Sing and PI. 
j3L^ bhedrrn, s.m. (2nd) A colt. PI. ^OjjL^ 
bhedrmUnah ; s.f. (»3rd) 2f|iL^ bhedrma'h. 
PI. *^l-^ bhedrmeu. Seeyl^ 

Jju^j bahedal, verb intrans. To flow, glide, 
float, run, pass, drive. Pres. v/**^ bahejzl 
(Ws), or ,J^, bahegl (E.) ; past yju^j j ;2?w- 
baheddh ; ftit. j^ y-^ tj ^ wu bah bahejzl^ or 
,X>f^ ij J wu bah bahegl ; imp. ir^ J ;27t<- 
bahejzahy or <i;$Lfj J wu-bahegah ; act. part. 
^j^j Ju^ bahedUnkaey or ^^ ju^ bahedUruiey; 

past part. l<J«\»^ bahedalaey ; verb. n. <il; Juf^ 

HI ^^ iaAfr, s.m. (2nd) The baggage and 

materiel of an army. 2. A crowd, a mob, a 

throng, a multitude. PI. <0j^ bahlrUnah. 
p j-j iey, prep. Without, out of. When prefixed 

to words it is equivalent to the English in, 



un, im, ir, dis, less, etc. cJT ^ bey ah, 
Without water, lustre, temper, dignity, etc. 
(See cJT), Jj^ CJ\ ^ bey dba kawul, verb 
trans. To dishonour, disgrace, lower in the 
estimation of another. ^T ^ bey db-rU, adj. 
Dishonourable, dishonoured, disgraced. ^ 
j^^T bey db-rU'l, s.f. (3rd), Disgrace, dis- 
honour. PI. ^ a'f. ^ ^ bey dbl, s.f. 
(3rd) Want of water, lustre, temper, etc. PI. 
^^ a'f , jUjI ^ bey ittifajc, adj. Disagreeing, 
discordant, at variance, janing. ci^^ ^^ 
bey ittifaJa, s.f. (3rd) Disagreement, discord, 
dissonance, discrepancy, discordance. PI. |^ 
a'f. Ji\ ^ bey a^ar, adj. Without impression, 

or effect, ineffectual. i^J\ ^ bey a^ari, s.f. 

(3rd) Inefliciency. PI. ^^ a\ Jp-^ ^ bey 

ajal, Untimely (death). I^L^^-^ ^ bey itttiydt^ 
adj. Incautious, improvident, imprudent, rash. 
_tL2»-\ ^ bey i^tiydfl, s.f. (3rd) Incautious- 
ness, imprudence, rashness, improvidence. PI. 
j^ a'l. jUsr^^ ^ bey ij^tiydr, adj. Without 
choice, involuntary. ^^JLoj^S ^ beyi^tiydf\i 

s.f. (3rd) Without choice or election, helplesB- 
ness. PI. ^ cix. c^ jf _; bey adab, adj. Rude, 
unmannerly, impudent, presumptuous, disre- 
spectftd. ^ jf ^ beyadabl, s.f, (3rd) BudenesSy 
disrespect, presimaptuousness. PI, ^\ a'f . ^ 
Aj\ bey drdm, adj. Restless, uneasy. ^«^|jT ^ 
bey drdml, s.f. (3rd) Restlessness, uneasiness* 
disquiet, disease. PI, ^^ a'f. s^l^l ^ d^r^ 
asbdb, adj. Without necessaries, ^wil 
bey asbdbl, s.f. (3rd) Want of goods or no 
saries. PI. ^^ a'f. jUic^ ^<; bey usHbdr, ad^ 
Of no credit or estiniation, not to be relied ot^ 
i^j\sA ^ bey iatibdrl, s.f. (3rd) Diacredi''^ 
distrust, dishonesty. PI, ^\ a'f. J^ jcxi 
bey UBtiddl, adj. Unequal, unequal. tJ^t^cxt 
bey uetiddk, s.f. (3rd) Unevenness, inequalii^^ 
PI. ^ a'f. S^KisS Ji bey uetifcdd, adj. Id' 
credulous, disbelieving. 4^ jl&xl ^ bey iat^' 
Jkadt, s.f. (3rd) Incredulity, disbelief. PL ^^ 
a'f. j\asx\ ^ bey i4stimdd, adj. Distmstftt}' 
diffident, not relying upon. 4/jUs^l ^ h^ 





iatimddi, bS. (3rd) Distrafitfulness^ diffidence, 
want of reliance. PI. ^^ a*u cl^UJI ^ bey 
iltifat, adj. Inattentive^ unkind, disregajrding. 
JUs» ^ bey Uti/cLn, s.f. (3rd) Want of re- 
gard, attention, or kindness ; disregard, inat- 
tention. PI. j^ aX ui^^ ^ bey ulfat, adj. 
Void of Mendship or attachment. ^aaJ^ ^ 
bey ulfaa, s.f. (3rd) The being void of friend- 
ship, affection, or attachment. PI. ^^ aX 
VfJ^ ^ bey intihd, adj. Boundless, infinite, 
endless, i^lf^^ ^^ bey intihdrt, s.f. (3rd) 
Boundlessness, infinity, endlessness. PI. ^ 
a'i. ifj\jj\ ^ bey and&zah, adj. Immoderate. 
4^LdJ^ ^ bey in^af, adj. Unjust, iniquitous. 
iiLul j-i bey in^aft, s.f. (3rd) Injustice, ini- 
quity. PI. j^ a'f. Jij\ ^ bey auldd, adj. 
Childless. ^Ji^\ ^' bey auldeti, s.f. (3rd) 
Childlessness. PI. ^^ a*h ^^Iwl ^ iey 
tman, adj. Without religion, infidel, with- 
out conscience, faithless, treacherous. ^ 
C<%eU bey bd-uBi, adj. Without reason. \> 
cJb *^ *^* ^h Fearless. ^\) ^ bey 
bdkt, 8.f. (3rd) Fearlessness, temerity. PI. 
^ a'f. j^ J JU ^ i^ ia/ (W par, adj. With- 
out power, impotent, helpless, j^ ^ JV ^^ 
i^y bdl aw pari, s.f. (3rd) Wealmess, help- 
lessness. PI. 1^ a'f. J J^ ^ i^ ia<to/, adj. 
Incomparable, inestimable, y _^ &^ ior, 
adj. Fmitiess, barren, y^ji ^ bey baroAat, 
adj. Luckless, adverse, unfortunate, xmlucky. 
U^ L^ ^ ^f *4i- Without power, without 
authority or command. ^^^ ^ bey bast, 
s.f. (3rd) Helplessness. PI. ^ a'f. \aj ^ 
iey bafcd^ §(^. Frail, perishable, not eternal, 
tnuoaitoiy. i^.^ j "^ t<^ ^^ &andf (?7r &a^^, 
adj. Unarranged, without order, unsettied (as 
a eoontry). ^, ^ bey baha, adj. Invaluable, 
beyond price. j\^ ^ bey buhar, adj. Out of 
aeaaon. ^j^, ^i hey bahrah, adj. In want, 
profitless, portionless, unfortunate, yi^ ^ li ^ 
hey pa aw sar, adj. Very wretched. ^^IjU j<j 
beypaydn, adj. Boundless, irj^ ^ bey par- 
dahf adj. Unveiled, immodest, openly. ^ 

^^I}^ i^ pardayl, s.f. (3rd) Openness, im- 
modesty. PI. j^ a'f. \mj ^^ bey parwd, adj. 
Fearless, intrepid, careless, unconcerned, 
without reflection, thoughtiess, at ease, inde- 
pendent: adv. Boldly, fearlessly. ^JVg^ ^ 
bey parworl, s.f. (3rd) Carelessness, Thought- 
lessness, unconcern, independence, tranquility, 
indifference. PI. ^V a'f. j^jj ^bey parhez, 
adj. Incontinent. ^^Jt^ji t^ bey parhezx, s.f. 
(3rd) Incontinence. PI. j^ a'f, ^ ^ bey 
par, adj. Wingless, helpless, j^ ^^ bey pan, 
s.f. (3rd) The being without wings, helpless- 
ness. PI. ^ a! I. ^ ^ beypUr, adj. Having 
no spiritual guide, vicious. c->l; ^-j iey ^ai, 
adj. Faint, powerless, restiess, uneasy, impa- 
tient. Ljj^ ^ i^ tabl, s.f. (3rd) Faintness, 
restiessness, uneasiness, impatience. PL ^^ a'f. 
j^\^ tP i^ ^o-^fr, adj. Ineffectual. J^U ^^ 
bey td'ammul, adj. Inconsiderate, rash, ex- 
temporary. ^^\i ^ bey taHammuU, s.f. (3rd) 
Inconsiderateness, indiscretion, rashness. PI. 
y^ a'f. L€-2*lai^j^ bey talkdshd, adj. Incon- 
siderate, rash. ^JCJ ^ i^ tadblr, adj. In- 
cautious, inconsiderate, imprudent, unwitting. 

L/!/ L^ *^ ^^^*' *^J' Fearless, intrepid. ^ 
fjlji^^bey tar(BalluJc, adj. Unconnected, uncon- 
cerned, independent. ,J)jw ^ bey toraalluJci, 
s.f. (3rd) Freedom from connexion or con- 
cern, independence. PI. ^ a'f. ^;--^ ^ 6^ 

talkslr, adj. Innocent, blameless, faultless. ^^ 
g?^--^ bey tak^lri, s.f. (3rd) Innocency, 
blamelessness. Pl.»5a'f. ^^ ^beytahcd, 
adj. Impious, incontinent, v— qII,^,? -j iey 
takalluf, adj. Without ceremony, frank. ^ 
^JK; 6ey takallufl, s.f. (3rd) The being wiUi- 
out ceremony, firankness. PI. ^ a'f. ^ 
jJJj be-talalaey, adj. Without weight, weigHt- 
less; unimportant, void of influence, (^l:^^ c^ 
iey ^afnano-f, s.f. Freedom from desire, con- 
tentment. PI. jA a'f. j-^ ^ i^ tomir, adj. 
Void of discrimination, indiscreet, silly. ^^ 
i^Ji^ bey tamlzl, s.f. (3rd) Want of discrimi- 
nation, indiscretion. PI. ^^ a'f. i^y i<^ 
bey tawaj;uhi, s.f. (3rd) Inattention, unkind- 






ness. PI. ^ a% ^y ^ bey tawakfctue, 
adj. Hopeless. cl^Lj ^^ bey ^abdt, adj. Un- 
stable, inconstant. ^Ui ^ i^ ^abdtl, s.f. 
(3rd) Instability, inconstancy. PI. ^ a*l. 
j^ L^. ^^ ^om^9 adj. Fruitless. ^jAj ^p 
bey $amarlj s.f. Fruitlessness. PI. y\ a'l, ^^ 
u-iU* be-tsafa, or 4jU» ^^ be-tsafah, adv. 
Suddenly, unawares, all at once, abruptly, 
unexpectedly. \p^ ^bey jd, adj. Ill-placed, 
misplaced, ill-timed, improper, inaccurate ; 
adv. Inopportunely, improperly. ^U- ^^ 
bey jdn, adj. Lifeless, dead, inanimate, faint. 
o;y>- ^ bey jut' at y adj. Cowardly, pusillani- 
mous. ^J/r v/^ beyjur'atl, s.f. (3rd) Want 
of courage, pusillanimity. PI . ^ a'!. ^^^ ^ 
bey jurm, adj. Faultless, innocent, l^j^ lW 
i^y jurmly s.f. (3rd) Innocence. PI. j^ a'l. 

j^ L^ *^ iy'^^* adj. Coward, timid, poor- 
spirited, pusillanimous. ^^^^ ,P beyjigan, 
s.f (3rd) Want of courage, poltroonery, spirit- 
lessness. PI. jV a*!. ^\^ ^ bey jarvdb. 
adj. Without answer, unable to" answer. ^ 

L<f^>=r bey jawdbl, s.f. (3rd) The being with- 
out answer. PI. ^^ a'f . 2r^U- ^^ iey dtdrah, ' 
adj. Without choice or remedy, helpless, poor. 
^U- ^ iey didraglf s.f. (3rd) Helpless- 
ness, n^essity. PI. j^ a'l. ^^ ^ bey 
dtUn^ adj. Incomparable, inscrutable" ^ 
^^^ bey djitgUn, adj. Incomprehensible, un- 
paralleled. JU- ^ bey half adj. Out of con- 
dition, ill-circumstanced, indisposed. JU. ^-j 
6^ i/^/t, s.f. (3rd) Badness of circumstances 
or condition. PI. ^ cHl. ^\^ ^ bey 
hijdb, adj. Unveiled. ^\^ ^-j bey Ikijdbl, 
s.f. (3rd) Appearing imvefled, immodesty. PI. 



j^ L^ bey liadd, adj. Boundless. 
^ bey ^arakat, adj. Immovable, ,-j 
^j^ *^ ha/rakan, s.f. (3rd) Want of mo- 
tion. PI. ^ cHx, si-^«^ ^ iey liurmatj 
adj. Disgrace. l<^j^ 15^ ^^ i^Mrma^, s.f. 
(3rd) Disgrace, ^honour. PI. ^^ a'f. ^^ 
bey IJLiss, adj. Insensible, senseless. _j 
b^ Ikisdb, adj. Countless, beyond cal- 

culation, immoderate, inconsistent. *^- ^ ^ 
^€y Ikisdbl, s.f. (3rd) Conntlesaness, immoder- 
ation, inconsistency. PI. ^^ a*i, vj;%4ij»> j 
&€y liikmatj adj. UnskilftQ. (^^^ ^ i^y 
l^wdss, adj. Out of one's senses, beside one's- 
self. ^^^ L^ ^^ Ikawdssi, s.f. (3rd) Dis- 
traction of mind, senselessness, insensibility. 
PI. i^a'f. L^ ^ i^ Aayd, adj. Shameless, 
immodest, impudent, barefaced. ^|Lft- ^ 
i^y l^ayd-t, s.f, (3rd) Shamelessness, bare- 
facedness, impudence, immodesty. PL ^ a'f . 
jlfiL j^ iey Mar, adj. Without anxiety, with- 
out thorns, without fear or solicitude. ^^U. ^ 
^U J ^€y M^^ ow man, adj. Houseless, des- 
titute. _9^ ^ &ey isbuUey, adj. Castrated, 

an eunuch. J^ ,^5^ ^ i^y MuU^ karctU, 
verb trans. To castrate, to geld. ^^*aL ^ J^y 
^abar^ adj. Without intelligence, senseless, 
incautious, careless, heedless, imprudent, un- 
informed, ignorant, stupid, unwitting. j 

bey Mcibart, s.f. (3rd) Imprudence, 
carelessness, heedlessness, stupidity. PI. ^^ 
a'l. <i«L^ j-j i^ l^rtaoA, or ^^>^ j^ % 
Miordiah, adj. Without money. i«a^;fl>- ^^ 
iey Mart^, or l<>^ <«; ^^ M^itj^I, s.f. 
(3rd) Want of pay or wages. PI. ^^ a'l. ^ 
ILsL iey ^i!a, adj. Unerring. ^LsL ^ 6ey 
^iatar, or 2r^k>. ^ i^y ^latrah^ adj. Free 
from danger, safe, fearless. ^\j^ ^ bes^ 
I^wdb, adj. Sleepless. ^J^^ ^ beyMn>dl^^ 
s.f. (3rd) Sleeplessness. Pl.^^a'f. JiJb\y>. 

bey M^dAish, Without inclination or spirL 
without pursuit, object, or hobby, j^ 

bey Mtldf adj. Beside oue's-self, out of one 
mind, enraptured, senseless, delirious. 
i^«jyL bey l^tldi, s.f. (3rd) The being besiJL'^ 
one's-self, alienation of mind, ecstacy, raptur^^ 
senselessness, delirium. PI. ^^ a'f . jj^ 

bey Wiimandy adj. Without flavour, insipi< 
tasteless. ^4^^ ^ *^ ^wandi, s.f. (3r<^ ^ 
Want of flavour, insipidity, tasteleesness. P^ • 
^ a!%. L^\y^ J jy^ ^ bey ibdr aw ifyvd^^ 
adj. Without inclination for sleep or food, res^' 





less. fj^y>^ ^, bey Mn?esh, adj. Friendless. 
J\j ^^ bey dad, Iniquity, injustice. 2. adj. 
Unjust, not doing justice, lawless. ^j\j ^ 
bey ddd-ffor, adj. An oppressor ; (Fern.) ^ 
b^Jij bey dddyara'h. ^^jb ^ bey ddd- 
ffort, 8.f. (3rd) Oppression. PI. ^ au ^ 
^j\j bey dddlf s.f. (3rd) Injustice, lawless- 
ness. PI. ^ a!u i\j ^ bey dagh, adj. 
Spotless, ^f J ^ bey danaJty adj. Gramless, 

seedless (as firuit). Ciljj ^ bey drang, adj. 
Without delay, jj^j ^ bey dareghy adj. 
Unsparing, ungrudging, liberal. 2. Pitiless, 
unmerciful, b j ls^w J ^^ i^y dlo^^ ^w pa, 
adj. (Haying neither hands nor feet), helpless, 
without power or authority, jf^^ ji bey 
ilastUr, adj. Ill-bred, unusual. Jg^J \) bey 
da(Ewd, adj. Free from claims. J j ^^ bey 
dil, adj. Heartless, dispirited, dejected, sad. 
^J*> ^ bey diti, s.f. (3rd) Heartlessness, de- 
jection. PI. ^^ a% A*> j^ bey dam, adj. 

Breathless, ^j ^ bey daml, s.f. Breath- 
lessness. PI. i^ a'h iUj ^ i^ dimdgA, 

adj. Ill-tempered, impatient, irritable, easily 
proToked. ^U J ^ i^y cSmo^f, s.f. (3rd) 
Ill-temper, irritability, impatience. PI. ^ a'f. 
\^j L5? *^ (fowa, adj. Incurable. jj:JjJ ^^ 
6^ dawlat, adj. Unfortunate. ^pJjfc) ^ bey 
dawlafi, s.f. (3rd) Bad luck. PI. ^^ a'f. ^ 
sji^JLSbJ bey dahshat, adj. Fearless. cu^l[J "^ 
i^ diydnat, adj. Irreligious, unjust, ^j ^ 
d^ dXfij adj. Irreligious. J^,) ^j bey ddcml, 

adj. Shapeless, ugly, uneducated, ill-bred, 
unpleasant. z\j ^ bey rah, adj. Erring, 
astray, dissolute, unprincipled. ^\j ^ bey 
rdkl, s.f. (3rd) Error, wandering, dissolute- 
ness. PI. ^ dCl. iJij ^ bey rtitbah, adj. 
Without dignity or raii, worthless. a>.j j^ 
Aey ra^m, adj. Merciless, cruel, t^^^^j ^c! 
bey rahma, s.f. (3rd) Ouelty. PI. ^^ aX "^ 
Ur^ A^ ras^d, adj. Without leave, ^^jj^ ^^ 
d^ ra'^, adj. t^ithout shame, shameless, in- 

human. ij,jj ^ bey rUA, s.f. (3rd) Shame- 
lessness, inhumanity. PI. ^ a\ ^ ^^ bey 

ri-ya, adj. Without guile, guileless, candid, 
sincere. ^JUj ^ bey riyd-l, s.f, (3rd) Sin- 
cerity, candour. " PI. ^^ a't. bj ^ s^j ^ 
bey raib ow ri-yd, adj. Without guile or de- 
ceit. ^Lu»jj ^ bey reshah, adj. Without fibre. 
{J^j ^ ^^ zabdn, adj. Mute, without lan- 
guage". JUj ^ bey zabdnl, s.f. (3rd) In- 
ability to speak," dumbness. PI. ^ cHu jj ^ 
bey zar, adj. Poor, helpless, jjj^ }^jt^, bey 

zan orv/arzand, adj. Without wife or children, 
J\jj ^ bey za-wdl, adj. Imperishable, im- 
changeable. j^ ^ bey zor, adj. W^eak, im- 
potent. Ujibj ^ bey zaArak, adj. Without 
gall or bile, patient, good-tempered, forbearing, 
indefatigable, shameless. cs-^i^J j v-^J ^<j 
i^ zeb ore ztnat, adj. Ugly and awk¥rard, in- 
elegant in dress and person, ^j ^^ bey ztn, 
adj. Unsaddled, ^li. ^ iey ^^n, adj. life- 
less, inanimate, faint, dead, ji^ ^ bey d^gar, 

adj. Coward, timid, poor-spirited. c^.y^ ^ 

bey sabab, adj. Causeless, j:^ ^ bey satr, 
adj. Unveiled, exposed, ^j:^ O bey satrt, 
s.f. (3rd) Unveiling, exposure, dishonour. PI . 
jA a'f. j^s^ ^ bey stargo, adj. Blind, with- 
out eyes. ^^^ ^ bey suM^n, adj. Taciturn. 
j^ ^ i^y Sdr, adj."Peerless, unequalled. y-» ^-j 
U J bey sar ow pd, adj. Impotent, destitute, 
very wretched. {IS^ ^ bey suluA, adj. Hi- 
behaved, wicked, sinful, a^ ^ bey sharm, 
adj. Shameless, impudent, immodest. ^ 
^^ i^ ^arml, s.f. (3rd) Impudence, 

shamelessness, immodesty. PI. ^A a'f. ^p 
jiyt^ bey ^2^^?i2r, adj. Ignorant, uninformed; a 
blockhead, i^jy^ ^^, bey shtuBUrl, s.f. (3rd) 
Ignorance, stupidity." PI. ^A a'f . v^^ikL ,-j 
^^ shqfakat, adj. Unkind, unmerciful, harsh. 
^^ ^ bey shakkah, adj. Doubtless, indu- 
bitable, certain. iJ^ j dCSi ^ &ey ^a^^ 
(?7r shubah, adj. Doubtless, indubitable, cer- 
tain, i^j^ ^ ^^ shugUn, adj. Ill-omened, 

unlucky. jUJ» ^^ i^y shumdr, adj. Count- 
less, numberless," much, j^ ^ bey ^abr, 
adj. Impatient, restless* ^j'-i^^^ i<i bey 





fabr-l, s.f. (3rd) Impatience, restlessneBs. PL 
iA aX fi^ ^ bey ^arfah, adj. Unprofitable. 

JU ^ bey ^cUdlky adj. lU-adviBed, headatrong. 
^ajU ^ &£y ifdbifoA, adj. Irregular, unlawful. 
sj^LX _> &^ i[^A:a^» adj. Powerless, weak. 
^iSlt -^ bey tdlkat'l, s.f. (3rd) Weakness. PI. 
^^ a!h j-j ^It bey tdUa, adj. Unlucky, un- 
fortunate. ^Jb j^ iey (arait, or^^k ^-j iey /Jawr, 
adj. Ill-mannered, unmannerly, uncivil, rude, 
awkward, i^jjt ^ bey taurt, s.f. Incivility, 
rudeness. PI. j^ a'L ^^ j iey tamcue, 
adj. Free flrom covetousness, disinterested. 
15*^ l5? ^^ tamcuBi, s.f. (3rd) Freedom from 
covetousness, disinterestedness. PI. ^^ oil. 
<zjj^ 15^ ^^ ^brat, adj. Unawed, not warned 
by example. Jj^ ^ ^^ ^arf/, adj. Unjust, 
lawless. (JL^jc ^^ bey (Btzzat, adj. Without 
honour, disgrace, ijjc ^ i^y ^^jz^a^, s.f. 
(3rd) Dishonour, disgrace. PI. ^ dl. ^ 

Jiii bey (BaJcl, adj. Stupid, ^iic ^ bey 
ceakU^ s.f. (3rd) Stupidity. PI. ^^ a'!. ^^ 
Jx bey (Bilm, adj. Without knowledge, igno- 
rant. J-«x ^^ iey ceamal, adj. Without 
practice, or execution. Cj-*^ ^ i^ ^aii, 
adj. Faultless, without blemish. «*s-oU ^ bey 

ghdyatf adj. Boundless. Joji. ^ bey ghwraT^y 
adj. Disinterested, impartial," independent, 
indifferent. ^jL ^ bey gharaTily s.f. (3rd) 

Disinterestedness, impartiality, indifference. 
PI. j^ a'f. (jiti J J-i ^ bey ghUl ow 

Shishshy adj. Without trouble or anxiety, 
without fraud or hatred. ^ ^ bey gham, 
adj. Without anxiety or trouble." j^ ^ bey 
ghauTy adj. Without consideration. cl>^ -j 
bey ghakraty adj. Without pride or emulation, 
spiritless, wanton, impudent, infamous, rude. 
^3/^^ \Ji *^ ghqxratly s.f. (3rd) Want of 
pride, emulation, or spirit ; disgrace. PI. jV 
a'L iJjli yj bey fSAdahy adj. Unprofitable, 
useless, vain. J^ ^ bey Jikr, adj. Thought- 
less, contented, tranquil. ^Ji ^ beyjikr-ly 
s.f. (3rd) Thoughtlessness, contentedness. PI. 
j^ a'i. ^ ^-} beyfahm, adj. Stupid, sense- 

less, j^^ ^ i^ fai^y adj. Unprofitable, 
possessing but not bestowing. ^^ ^, bey 
kdbUy adj. Unable, without, out of one's 
power, secure against surprise or attack. ^ 
ijkfli bey jfcd'Oidah, adj. Irreg^ular, ungram- 
matical, unarranged. j«3^ ^<; bey fcadr, adj. 
Worthless, unimportant. 4^ j5 ^^ i^ ^adrt, 
s.f. (3rd) Worthlessness, low estimation. PL 
4^ a*h j\^ ^ bey fcardr, adj. Inconstant, 
variable, unsettled, restless, out of patience, 
uneasy, anxious, distracted, t^j^ji ^ bey 
f:ardri, s.f. (3rd) Instability, inconstancy, 
variableness, restlessness, uneasiness, anxiety. 
PL j^ al. jyai ^ bey im^Ur, adj. Fault- 
less, innocent, without fail, entirely, com- 
pletely, ^jilj ^ bey JpaUeA, adj. Untinned. 
CL? J ^ bey kUwatf adj. Powerless, weak. ^ 
Jy ^ey i^at^/, adj. Faithless, perfidious. ^ 
(^Lj ^^y Atyo^, adj. Inconceivable, contrary 
to the conmion order of things, incomprehen- 
sible, immense, exorbitant. Jui ^ bey l^mdf 

adj. Unrestrained, irregular, dissolute, licen- 
tious. Ji ^ bey kdr, adj. Unemployed, ^ 

^j\^ bey kdrt, s.f. (3rd) Want of employment^ 
idleness. PL jj a'i. ^l^ ^ i^ Aom, adj^ 
Disappointed, ^j^ ^ bey kas, adj. Friend--^ 
less, forlorn. -*i^ ^ bey katH^ B.f. (3rd> 
Forlorn, friendless state, destitution. PL ^^ r_ 
OLX. ^jj^ ^ bey kqfanl, s.f. (3rd) The beinj^ 
buried without a shroud. PL ^i a'l. *tf ^ 
i^ yaA, adj. Untimely, unseasonably. ^ 
^^U/ bey yumdn, adj. Without doubt or bus — 
picion, doubtless. i\:J Ji bey yundh, adj«^ 

Innocent, guiltless, ^u/ ^ &^ yunai-l^ 
s.f. (3rd) Innocence, guiltlessness. PL Jc a*l^ 
(jmU ^ bey Ubds, adj. Naked, without cloth-^ 
ing. ^U ^ iey Ubdsi, s.f. (3rd) Naked-- 

ness. PL ^^ a'l. ^j^W ^ b^ li^ds^^ adj-^ 
Inattentive, indiscreet, unmannerly, t— qU ^ 
&ey /t<//, adj. Unkind, inelegant. ^JU ^ 
bey lufr/t, s.f. Unkindness. * PL ^J a'l. -r 
aUI] bey laydm, adj. Unbridled, licentious, in^^ 
temperate. lA^ ^ bey mdyoA, adj. WithouO 





funds or substance, poor. ^JSU ^ bey mar 
yagl^ s.f. (3rd) Poverty. PI. ^ a!%. Jll^ ^^ 
bey tfdidl, adj. Incomparable. Jjr^ _i ^ 
nuL^ally adj. Out of place ; adv. Improperly. 
^ ^ ^ mo^, adj. Without &ce, shameless, 
inhuman. clj>^ p &^ mt^^fiira^, adj. Un- 
kind, inhuman, cruel, unpolite, uncivil. _j 

ij^ bey mazoAf adj. 'Insipid, tasteless, dis- 
pleased. ,/^ ^ bey mazagxy s.f. (3rd) 
Insipidity, tastelessness ; coolness (between 
friends), disgust. PI. ^ a\ t<*^ ^ bey 
nujuetdy adj. Unmeaning, absurd, foolish, idle, 
vain. j^J^ ^ &^ majkdur, adj. Without 
authority, witiiout resource, poor, miserable. 
c:l^c>^ _i ^ miiiita/, adj. Independent, un- 
willing to incur obligation. s.,^^^y ^ bey 
m&fib, adj. Causeless, without reason. ^ 
f^y bey mausim, adj. Out of season, unscit- 
sonably. ^y ^ bey maukuB, adj. Out of 
season, out of place, unapt, inopportune, in- 
convenient, j^ _j bey ntiAr, adj. Unkind, 
unfriendly. ^^J^ ^^ bey mihr-t, s.f. (3rd) 

Unkindness. PI. ^^ a'i. f\j ^ &€y nam, adj. 
Without character or reputation, ioglorious. 
^^Uj J i»lJ ^ bey nam ow ni^^n, adj. With- 
out name or character, ^y^ yjt bey ndmUsl, 
a^f. (3rd) Disgrace, dishonour. PI. j^ a*!. ^ 
V,, ..j.ny ^ na^b, adj. Without portion or lot, 
unfortunate, frustrated. ^^^^ ^ bey na^ibl, 
s.f. (3rd) Misfortune. PI, ^^ a% j^ ^ 
bey nazlr, adj. Incomparable. ^Loaj _i £^ 

nuJk^dn, adj. Without loss or injury. c1A«j ^ 
b^ namak, adj. Saltless, insipid, ugly, ordi- 
nary. C^ ^ bey nang, adj. Shameless. ^ 

^^^U ^ dl^ ^ non^ 099 namUSy adj. With- 
out name or character. \y ^ bey nawd, adj. 
Without provisions or furniture, without pros- 
perity, indigent, destitute. ^\y ^ bey nawdX 
aS. (Srd) Indigence, beg^ry. PL ^ a'i, 
^jy v^ ^ nfbT'l, s.f. Absence or want of 
l^ht. PI. ^^ a'i. (j:-^l^ ^ &€y nihdyat, 
adj. Without bounds, endless. jLi _i £^ 
n^&r, adj. Wanting and asldng nothing, not 

in need, independent. t^J^ ^ bey niydzi, 
s.f. (3rd) Independence. PI. ^ a'i. i^^ ^ 
bey wajah, adj. Without cause or reason. _j 
^Jo^ bey watan, adj. Without a home, an exile, 
v/^j Kji ^^ «?ai5ant, s.f. (3rd) Exile, banish- 
ment. PI. ^ a*t. lij ^<j bey wq/a, adj. Faith- 
less, perfidious, treacherous, traitor, ungrateful, 
ingrate. ^\ij ^ bey waforl, s.f. (3rd) Infi- 
delity, faithlessness, ingratitude, treachery. PI. 
4^ a'l l::^^ ^ bey wakt, adj. Out of season, 
untimely, ill-timed, at an unusual time. _i 
yj bey wakr, adj. Without dignity or character, 
dishonourable, ^ji^ ^j bey wakr-i, s.f. Want 
of dignity. PI. ^^ a'i. c^^j ^ bey wukuf, 
adj. Ignorant, foolish, inexpert, stupid, block- 
head, vi^j ^ bey wukufi, s.f. (3rd) Ignor- 
ance, want of understanding, stupidity, folly, 
foolishness. PI. ^^ a% 4^^ ^ A^y weraey, 
adj. Fearless, bold, dauntless. JUib ^ i^ 
himdl, adj. Without compeer, unequalled. 
L::,>%AJb ^ &^ Aimmo/, adj. Pusillanimous, un- 
ambitious, humble, lazy, indolent. ^^uJb ^ 
i^y himmaH, s f. (3rd) Pusillanimity. PI. jA 
a'i. ^ ^^ i^ hunoTy adj, Unskilftd, un- 
skilled, ^jjb ^ bey hunart, s.f. (3rd) Un- 
skilfrdness. PI. ^^ a'i. ^ijSjb ^ &€y Aanydm, 
adj. Untimely. ^^^ ^ A^y hash, or ^yb ^^ 
^^ Ao^, or £^ ^^, adj. Senseless, stupefied, 
intoxicated, delirious, ^^y^ ^, bey koshi, 
or ^<4»yb ^ i^ ^^i, or iey ho^i, s.f. (Srd) 
Senselessness, stupidity, intoxication, delirium, 
stupefaction. PI. ^^ a't. ^ ^^ bey hets, adj. 
For nothing, without reason. ^^^ ^ bey 
yiraey, adj. Fearless, bold, dauntless. To form 
the feminine adjective add s a'h. 

L) bt-d, adv. Again, anew, afresh, repeatedly. 
Uj U aj pah bi-d bi-dy Ever and anon, time 
after time, oft-times, frequently, repeatedly. 

p ^ULj bayd-bdn, s.m. (2nd) A desert, a wilder- 
ness. PLijy\j\j bayd-bdnUnaA. ^J^^^ai bayd- 
bdnt, adj. Of the desert, wild. 

ijL) bid-ti, s.f. (3rd) Scissors, shears. PI. ^^ a'i. 

43;Lj bi-drtah, adv. Back, again, beyond, apart. 




asunder, away, aside. <Ui ^^Lj H-drtaA shah, 
Get away, avaxmt! J-1^]; ^j^ bl-drtah 
racial, verb intrans.. To return, to come 
back. J«^ J^jW ^-^^^^ ka9vul, verb trans. 
To put asunder, apart, aside, away. See ^J^ . 

<u-»Lj biyasta'h, s.f. (3rd) One of the two ropes 
which cover the water wheel of a Persian 
wheel, to which the water-pots are fastened. 
2. A rope in general, a cable, a line to hang 
clothes on. PL ^^ ey. 

A j^Lj baydT^f s.m. (9th) Whiteness, brightness ; 
adj. White, bright; (Fern.) jupLj hayaT^a'h. 

J jo^Lj bl-d-mundal, verb trans. To recover, ac- 
quire, get, gain, win, receive, retrieve, come 
in for, obtain, derive. Pres. ^yLj bl-d- 
mumz; past Sjy\j bi-d^mUnd; ftit. ij Lj 
^y bi-d bah muml ; imp. <u^Lj bl-d- 
murnah ; act. part. ,J^j J^^W bi-d-mUndUn' 
kaey, or ^jA3^W bl-d-mundUnaey ; past 
part. ^djy\fj bi-d-mUridalaey ; verb. n. 
<Oju^Lj bl-d-^UndanaWi. 

A ^\j baydn, s.m. (2nd) Explanation, relation, 
exposition. PI. <OyLo baydnUnah. ^Lo <u 
Jjujb -P^^ i«y5» rdrw^xral, verb trans. To re- 
late, expose, tell, explain, ^^f ^^Lj baydn 
kawuly or JyLo baydnarculy verb trans. To 

j^Lj it-an, s.m. (2nd) A colt, a foal, a filly. 
PI. Aj^Lj bl'dnUnah ; s.f. (3rd) ajLj bl-dndh. 
PI. JU bVdney. See jilfj or gl^. 

^ L5^ L5^ il il, or j^--j itii, s.f. (5th) A lady. 
PI. ^Lj--J il-ify5m. 

^j^^be-partey, adj. Excessive (eating), eating 
too much ; (Fern.) CJ>^ be-parti. PI. (Masc. 
and Fem.) ^ I. Jj^ ^^<3^ be-partey 
Jdiwarraly verb trans. To over-eat, to gorman- 

J--J bl'pal, s.m. (6th) Nameof afruit— Crataeva, 
or iSgle Marmelos. Sing, and PI. See also 
J^ cJtj and <>xclb. 

A uu^^ ^oi^, s.m. (2nd) A house, a temple, an 
edifice. 2. A couplet, a distich, a verse in 
poetry. PL Ajj5-j baitunah. aUI cs-^ baitu-lr 
lah, The House of God, the temple of Mekka. 

mJL,\ (j:^w bait'tU-iuxram, The Saered House, 

the temple of Mekka. JU)1 (jimj bait-^l^mdl, 
An escheat, property that fialls to the crown 
in failure of heirs. ^ «xSjt vju^ bait-ut-nui' 
kaddaSy The Sacred or Holy House, the 
temple of Jerusalem. 

B c;^ bet, s.m. <2nd) A cane, a rattan. PL 
ijj^^ bet'Unah. 

t,^^ baiU, s. prop. According to Ehfin Jehftn, 
Lndhl, (Mirftt-ul-Afagh&nah) the name of one 
of the sons of i£abd-ur-Ba£^ld, Pat&n, the 
great ancestor of the Afghfins, and the pro- 
genitor of the division called baij^l. Some 
authors contend that the son of .£abd-ur- 
Bashid referred to, was called Tabrl. See In- 
troduction to my Grammar; also ^ and 

baiUanl, or bai^nl, s.m. (1st) The name 
of a division of the A%h&i^B, of whom Batftn, 
referred to above, is the progenitor. PL ^^ 
aey ; s.f. (6th) ^ a\ Sing, and PL 

irJl^ bey'chdrma!h. s.f. (3rd) A bed, bedding, 
bed-clothes. PL ^^ ey. (hi. ^j^)* 

p ;^j beM, s.m. (2nd) Boot, origin, foundatioa. 

PL ^^fl^ beJJiUnah. 
ijjs>. ^^ bey M^ataey, s.m. (1st) An unseaso^^* 

able business or action. PL ^ i. 

p juj bed, s.m. (6th) A vriillow, a sort of 
Sing, and PL 

Pj^juj beddr, adj. Awake, watching, wakeft==3 
watchful, sleepless; (Fem.) »J\*^ beddra* 
Jjjj\juj beddredal, verb intrans. To 
to wake up, to become awake, to awaki 
from sleep. Jjj;^Jui beddrawul, verb 
To rouse firom sleep, to make to get up, 
awaken from sleep. 

g^^juj beddn, s.f. (3rd) Wakeftilness, watchfis==^ 
ness, waking. PL ^ dx. 

^juj be-dn, adv. The same, the very same, ths;.*^ 
very individual, etc., exactly, identical. 

j^juj bx-dahy adj. (W.) Asleep, sleeping, 
asleep, sound asleep, napping. J ju^ jrjuj 
da'h kedal, verb intrans. To fiill or go to sleej;^* 




to drop off to sleep, to slumber, to take a nap. 

J^ iF*w bl-da'A kaiwul, verb trans. To put to 

sleep, to put to bed, to make or cause to sleep. 

See gi}j\ and »jjj. 

^ beda'hy s.f. (3rd) A bundle of hay twisted 

at the time of cutting, the better to preserve 

it in winter. PL ^ju) bedey* 
syb «w bed hawahf s.m. A paper kite. PI. Jlj 

^JiibjSb bedrhawahgdn. See \yb jU. 
bjuj bedicLy s.f. (6th) A desert, a wilderness. 

(E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. fc/^ljJuj bedlawt. 
^j^ bi-yartah, adv. Back again, beyond, apart, 

asunder, away, aside. <Ui 43^ bi-yartah shah, 

inter). Get out! get away! avaunt! <0^ 

JJLil^ bi-yartah rdghrlcdy verb intrans. To 

return, to come back. J^ <U;-j bi-yartah 

kawul, verb trans. To put asimder, apart, aside, 

away. See also aJjLj. 
<^j^ bai^agh^ s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of p j^) A 

banner, an ensign, a standard. PI. <U^i^ 

p j^ beuraf:, s.m. (2nd) A standard, a flag, a 

banner, an ensign, colours. PI. <Oji^ bairak- 

Unah. See also iF<>:^. 
Jj^, or ^^ beyrarrn, s.m. (6th) A kind of 

grass. Sing, and PI. 
jj^ bey-rU, adj. Uncouth, rude, uncivilized ; 

(Fern.) 8^j^ bey-rUa^A. See c/j^. 
»;-j bira'A, s.f. (3rd) A fruit — the lote or jujube. 

PI. ^^ ey. See Sj^ s^ and sj^J- 
»eJ berra'h, s.f. (3rd) A raft, a float, (s Iv)- 

PI. ^^ q^. 
»^^^ berrcixy s.f. (6th) A boat, a ship. Sing. 

and PI. 
Jj-j bezal, verb trans. To dam, to fine-draw. 

Pres. i,^ iearf ; past 2j-j j wurbezak ; ftit. 

«^^ ij ^wu bah bezl ; imp. ijjjj J wu-bezah ; 

act. part, t^^j-^ bezUnkaey or ^jj-J bezUn- 

<iey\ past part. ^^Jj-J bezalaey; verb. n. 

4ij«j bezaruih. 
4i?^ ftir^?, s.m. (5th) A monkey. PI. ^^W^j-^ 4w^^- 

^d«; s.f. (6th) ^ il2r<?. PI. J^^ *^^- 

9Mi. Seeji, ^ and jjL&. 
^ jli-^ bezdr^ adj. Displeased, angry, out of 

humour, disgusted, (vulg.) sick ; (Fem.) ijSj^ 
bezdrcCh. J x^j\U) bezdr AecKo/, verb intrans. 
To become disgusted, displeased, (j^j]}^ 
bezdr kawul, verb trans. To displease, vex, 
etc. See alsojlj^^. 
p i^j]jt^ bezdrl, s.f. (3rd) Displeasure, disgfust, 
vexation, anger, ill-humour. PI. jV a*?. See 

8 cJL^ baisdMf s*ni. (9th) The first solar 
month of the BQndn year : April— May. The 
people of the Pe^awer valley, in matters re- 
ferring to agriculture, use the names of the 
Hindu months. Sing, and PI. 

^^L«*-j beyaataX s.f. (6th) A kind of coarse cloth. 
Sing, and PI. 

p Jjx^ besh, adj. More, most. 2. Good, proper, 
well : (Fem.) ^LwLj besha'h. . JLj beskh s.f. 
(3rd) Excess, surplus. PI. ^^ a*u 

p <Lu^ besha'h, s.f. (3rd) A forest. PI. ^^ ey. 

Aiuj baiaa'/i, s.f. (3rd) Buying and selling, com- 
merce. PI. ^ ey. i^\j ^ju) bauea'k ndmahf 
s.f. (3rd) A deed of sale. PI. t^ey. Jx^ ^u^ 
baicBa'h kedcdy verb intrans. To be sold. <u^ 
J^ baicecHh kawuly verb trans. To sell, to 
dispose of. J:um£wT ^u^ <0 j^a^ bai/Bcih dMas- 
taly verb trans. To purchase, to buy. <uU-j 
bakm-dnoHhy s.f. (3rd) Earnest money. PI. ^^ 
ey. (Corrup. of a ^)* 

A u^'^AJ baicedty s.m. (2nd) Homage, fealty. PI. 
a3^i«^ baueatUnah, Jj^ c::.*juj bai(Bat kawul, 
verb trans. To become the disciple of anyone, 
to pay homage. 

uX^ beyak, s.m. (5th) A kind of harpoon with 
five prongs, called by sailors " grains." PI. 
AjyLj beyakHnah. 

lijj begd, s.m. (2nd) The evening. PI. <Ojll^ 
begdunak. See also 2rld. 

HI jlij beygdVy s.m, (2nd) A person forced to 
work, or impressed, either with or without 
pay. PI. *ij^\io beygdrunah. J^ jlio ^ 
pah beygdr nl-wal, verb trans. To seize la- 
bourers by force, to press men for work. 

p ^Jj^, begdnagl, sX (3rd) Strangeness, the 
being foreign, not domestic. PI. ^^ a'l. 



AjlSlj beffanah, adj. Strange, foreign, nnknowB, 
uot domestic, not an acquaintance. 

d!^ beffdnaey, adj. Yeater, last, last padt, next 
before the present. S. Left, remaining &om 
the day before. PI. ,^ I. <u.l ,ji^ beffdna'i 
^pa'A, adr. Last night, yesternight. See 

jl^ be^ak, s. 

I. (2nd) The evening. PI. AJyhliLj 

B J^ bel,a.iD.. (6th)Thenameofafmit(CratceTa 
orj£gIe MarmeloB). S. A creeper, a climber. 
Sing, and PI. See also Jj.ilb, llJI] and J^ 

J^ beyai, adj. Separate, different, away, apart, 
aside, asunder, absent ; (Fern.) aLj beyala'h, 
J'i^ bet/cUedal, verb intrans. To become 
separated. Pres. i^jJ-J betfolej^ (W.), or 
^_/^_ beyoleyi (£.) ; past i^ J^ i^a/ £^(M, 
or <Ui j J^ beyat wu-sha& ; fnt. ^^^ u J-j 
^af AaA shl, or |<i J Aj haJt wa-§hl ; imp. 
A.1 J^ £^a/ ^a^, or iLl J J^ beyal wu-skah ; 
act. part. jjXjj jJ^ beycdedaiAaey or rv_siiS^_ 
beyaleduttaey ; past part. J*j beyal, or J-j 
^^^ beyal shanfoey ; verb. n. <jjmLj beyale- 

J^ beyolatvul, verb trans. To separate, to put 
away or asunder. Vrea. ^^^ beyalatvl ; past 
^ j J^ beyal wtt-kajr, or J J^ £^a^ ia^r ; 
gfjf j <J J-; Jcya/ ^A «;«-Airi, or J-j 
4/^ 4j ^<yaf £aA ^23^ ; imp. >^ j J^j beyal 
Tvurkx^h, or 1/ J-j £eya/ A^roA ; act. part, 
^f^j^^ dtytiZciK*iIn^i«^, or ^^j^ beyala- 
mmaey \ past part. ^ J-j i«yai hw^Toey \ 
verb. n. a)«L^ i<ya/an?una*A. 

j!Lj below, B.m. (5th) A hone, a sharpening stone. 
PI. i^^luj belawyan. See^^L^ 

i^fi^ beyaltUn, 8.m. (4th) Separation, disjunc- 
tion, absence. PI. J^U.^ beyaltanah. 

CJ^_ be-lak, s.m. (9nd) A gift, a present of 
clones, food, etc., sent by a bridegroom to 
the bride. S. A rival, a goardian, an enemy, 
a back-biter. PI. aJ^Xj be-lak-mah. 

djfLj belga'h, s.f. (3rd) Finding a clue to stolen 
property; a clue, trace, etc. PI. ^ ey. 
See iiSj 

jUL; belmdz, adj. Without prayer, pro&ne, ine- 

Ugious, unholy ; (Fern.) ij\*^ bebn&za'k. 

A^ bela'h, B.f. (3rd) An island, a delta. PI. ^ e^. 
<— .y a^ ijj i«y-maiS-tofi, B.m. (2nd) Immodesty, 

shamelesaness. PI. ijy,ji tobQ,nah. 
.fLj belho, B.m. (5th) A hone, a sharpening stone. 

PI. ij^}^, belhog&n. Seej]Lj 
. P w ^Tm, s.m. (3nd) Fear, terror, dread, danger. 

Fl. iJy*^, blmanah. 
pjlw blmSr, adj. Sick, indisposed, ill ; (Fern.) 

)jU^ bimSra'h. 
>Olck^U^ iimdr ^ifrnoA, s.f. (3rd) A hospital. 

PI. ^ ey. J<Ujl««J bim&redal, verb intnnf. 

To fall sick or ill, to become indisposed. 

JjjLw blm&rawtd, verb trans. To make ill 

or sick, to indispose. 
^jU^ bim&rl, s.f (3rd) Sickness, illness, di»- 

order, disease, distemper, PI. ^ a*!, 
tj^ i^Uo bimdrey ttaryey, s.f. (3rd) Pi. 

Sleepy or amorous eyes. 
i*r* jj bey moMah, adj. Uncouth, rude, nn- 

civiUaed. Bee jj-j 
A ^J^_ bain, prep. Between, betwixt. See ^ U 
F L^ bind, adj. (&om ^fUJ) Seeing, dear- 
sighted, having sight. 
^Ufj bvna'%,ti.t (3rd)9ig^t,eye-fiight, Pl.^u**' 
A tjt,\^\ ^^ bam-an-nat. Amongst men or maX^' 

i_^ki-j bain^, s.m. (2nd) A beam, a large pie*'* 

of timber. PI. Aij^>:^ bamsk&nak, 
ij^ ben-rak, adj. Plain, clear, distinct, simptX-^ 

unreserved (as speech), apparent, manife^*' 

distinctly, explicitly. 
h.r '^i.-.K^j ^jl bey wustsat, adj. Without oppc^*^ 

tunify, latitude, amplitude ; (Fern.) <Cju} ^^ 

J)^ blival, verb trans. To take along, condu<7^ 

lead, convey, remove, transport (peculiar ^^ 

animate objects). This infinitive is imperfect 

and takes many of its infiexions from Jlj^' 

already noticed. Pres. ^^\^ bia^ ; past t^Jfyi 

bot (from JIj^) ; fut. i^j *i ^ ^ bak z^ ' 





imp. sjLf bx-dyaJi ; act. part. <^j|^ itn?^n- 
Ao^y or ^^ysi blwUnaey; past part. ^^ 
^-7Z7a/aey ; verb. n. ij^ bt-wuna^L 

p ^^ bewa'hj s.f. (3rd) A widow. PI. ^ ey. 
See ^0^ 

A^ hc£h^ B.f. (3rd) Price, value, (a^) PL ^ ey. 

>'>gjj hehandd. See ^l^ 

p 2^0^ behudah, adj. Absxird, vain, foolish, idle, 
firoitless, unprofitable. 

^^J!f »jjf«j behudah yo-e, adj. At alker of non- 
sense, a babbler ; (Fern.) ^jjf ^^yiti behudah 
gthedh. f^jf '*^^, behudah go\ s.f. (3rd) 
Talking nonsense, nonsense, absurdity. PI. ^V 
a'l. i/^jfrf behudagl, s.f. (3rd) Absurdity, 
nonsense, vanity, unprofitableness. PI ^^ a'f . 

u /i^ is the third letter of the Pu^to and Per- 
sian alphabets, and has the same pronimcia- 
tion as English/?. It is interchangeable with 
cJ, as i:^ for <u:J, etc. It does not occur in 
eiUier the Arabic or Hebrew alphabets, but 
corr^pond9 with Sanskrit it. 

<^ pa, prep. By, with, for, for the sake of. 
When used combined with ^^ kshey or 

A^€y, it signifies in, into, within, etc. ; and 

^th «jjU bandi or a«aUj dapdsah, in, upon, 

above, over, etc. See aj. 

? Ij pa, B.m. (9th) The leg, the foot. Sing, and 

iPl See ^ or 4i{^. jcj U jt^a band, s.m. 

(Sad) A rope by which the hind feet of a 

lione are tied. PI. iUjjoj bandunah, 2. adj. 

Cloj^, fettered, bound; (Fern.) irjcj \j pa- 


^\tUo, past part, and adj. Remaining, left, 
leftl)ehind, residuary, unconsumed, surviving, 
^written CL>b paii. See Jb and <Jb- 
^^\patedal, verb intrans. To remain, be 
left behind, to survive, to remain unconsumed. 
^. 4/-jb pOUj^ (W.) ^JCjIj joa^^^i (E.) ; 
P^ C ^^li j9d^ MoA, or d^ y b pdto shah, 
*^ C j 4JU J9d^ wur^ah or <Ll J y U joa^t? 
'^SM; fat. JU or ^ j Aj yb patey or 

jt?eW{> ioA ?w<-Ml ; imp. ,Jb or <Ui ^ b pdtey 0^ 
pdto shah, or tjb or <Ui jybjt?a^ ot pdto 
wushah; act. part. ^jjuJb pdtedUnkaey, or 
^jjuJb pdtedunaey ; past part. Jb j»a%, 
or y b pdto, and ^^ji» ^Jb joa^^ shawaey, or 
^^^ yb jt?a^<? shawaey ; verb. n. Aj juJb jt?a^^- 
dana h, 

JjuLJb pdtekedal, verb intrans. To remain, to 
stay, jy vjb joa^ey kawul, verb trans. To 
stop, to stay, to keep back. See preceding. 

bb pdtd, s.f. (6th) The fdneral service (fix)m 
A i^\j) (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. ^^^bb 
pdtdwl. jy bb pdtd kawul, or Jj^ bb 
pdtd wa-yal, verb trans. To ofier up prayers 
for the dead, to perform the foneral service, 
to make an exordium. 

yb pdto, adj. and past part. Remaining, left, 
surviving, unconsumed, residuary, left behind. 
See CL^b and Jju3b 

yb pdtU, s.m. (5th) A small kind of caterpillar 
with a red back, and soft like velvet ; a scarlet 
fly, or lady-fly. 2. A bird which cries at 
night. PI. ^^y\i pdtU-gdn. See ,<Ua^ and 

Jy b pdtawul, verb trans. To cause or make to 
remain, to leave or cause to be left, to make 
or cause to stay, to keep back. Pres. c^yb 
pdtawl ; past s^ y b pdto kah, otJ ^\j pdtey 
karr ; fat. y b or ^^J dj ^b pdto or pdtey 
bah krrl ; imp. ^J^ yb pdto kah, or sj ^b 
pdtey krrah ; act. part. ^jJlijy b pdtawunkaey, 
or i^^yb pdtawUnaey ; past part, y b pdto, 
or y^ ^Jb pdtey karraey ; verb. n. <uy b 

sib pdtey, adj. and past part. Remaining, left, 
etc. See y b 

^b pdtaey, s.m. (1st) A dish of cooked peas or 
otiier kind of pulse. 2. Pulse, vetches. PI. 
ic %, See . c^ 

•jb pdUa% s.f (3rd) The piece of tape or 
leather fastened to the strings of a pellet bow 
for holding the ball ; the pan or cup of a 
sling for holding the stone. See ^^U- and 




J^b pdtsawul, verb tranB. To raise, awaken, 
erect, set upright, stir up, stimulate. Pres. 
4^^l> pdtsawl ; past »jU.U j wu^dtsawuh, 
or jjl^b j wU'patmwo ; fat. ^^^ ^ Ij j9a 
6a^ ^a72?t, or i^^^ dj ^ wu bah pdtscavl ; 
imp. tf^lj J wurpdtsaivah ; act. part. ^jCji^l^ 
pdtsawunkaey, or ^j|^b pdtsawUnaey ; past 
part. ^jJ^^ pdUawidaey\ verb. n. ^^Ij 

Jjuft.\j pdtsedal, verb intrans. To rise, arise, 
uprise, get up, to move from a recumbent 
to a sitting posture, to get up from a sitting 
posture. Pres. _&i.b pdt^ ; past Ju^U J wu- 
pdtseda; fut. ,X <o U jod ^oA ^, or <o J 
jLU 72?2^ &aA j9a^ ; imp. iA\j J wu-pdtaah ; 
act. part. ^^^jiX^\j^pdts€dilnk(iey, or ^j Ju^U 
pdtaedunaey ; past part. ^ ju^U pdt&edalaey ; 
verb. n. <Oju^\j pdUedana'h. 

i^\j pdkkah, adj. (PI.) Cooked things. See ^^ 
and i^ 

p ^\ jb pdddshy s.m. (2nd) Retaliation, recom- 
pense, retribution, reward, requital. PL^^IjU 

p *U» jU pddshdhy s.m. (5th) A king, sovereign. 
PI. ^UUijU pddshdhdn. See 2fU>jIj 

p _JhL^ jU pddshdhl, adj. Royal, regal, imperial. 
5. s.f. (3rd) Royalty, empire, reign, sove- 
reignty, kingdom. PL ^ a\ 

CJL>-jb pdr-dkang, s.m. (2nd) A ladder, steps, 
a staircase, a flight of steps. PI. <Oj^.^jU 
pdr-^angUnah. See ^Ayj 

^jiLo^U pour-^angaey y s.m. (1st) A small ladder 
or steps (dimin. of Cj^J^\ PI. ^^ I. See 

p ^^b joar^a'A, s.f. (3rd) A fragment, a piece, 
a scrap, a rag, cloth, clothing. 2. The launder 
or wooden trough that receives the water from 
the water-wheel of a Persian wheel. PI. ^ ey. 

8 ^j^^ pdraSy s.m. (9th) The philosopher's stone. 
Sing, and PI. 

p Lfb pdTBdy adj. Abstemious, watchfrd, chaste ; 
v^Ljb pdrsd% s.f. (3rd) Chastity, purity, ab- 
stinence, continence. PL ^ a\ 

^j\i pdrUy s.m. (5ih) A wooden rake or instru- 

ment for raking together. PL ^^jb pdru- 
Jjl^b pdrawuly verb trans. To set on or at (as a 
dog), to instigate, irritate, vex, excite, to set 
by the ears. Pres. i^ji^U pdrawl ; past a^J^ ^ 
wu-pdrdwuhy or j|^\jb J wu-pdrdwo ; fiit. dj ^ 
^3j\ '^^^ bah pdrawl ; imp. ^j^U J tvu-pdra- 
wah; act. part. ^}x;\ pdrawUnkaeyy o 
jjjjijl^b pdrawUnaey ; past part ^jj^b pdra 

wulaey ; verb. n. ^^J^ pdrawuna^h. See J 

and J^*;U 

p Sj\i pdroHhy s.f. (3rd) A strap, a slip, a bit, r ^ 

piece, a fragment. PL ^ ey. See y^b 
p g^U pdrxy part. Succeeding well, anythinj^^ 

which happens fortunately. 

J jjjU pdre-daly verb intrans. To become vexed i, 

excited, irritated, or instigated. Pres. i^jij^ 
pdrejzl (W.) or ^^J^^pci^efi (E.); past 

jjjU wurpdreda) fut. v/Wj^ ^ j tvu 

pdrejzly or i^jb dj ^ rvu bah pdregi ; im] 
5-jjU J wurpdrejzahy or ^jb J nm-pdregah 
act. part, i^j *\jjb pdredi^ihaey, op ^j^j«x^' 
pdredUnaey ; past. part. i^OJ^b pdredalaey 
verb. n. <0 jj^U pdredanah. 

J<j jb jt^arr &an;, s.m. (6th) The chestnut 
which bears fruit, a chestnut Sing, and P' 
See ^ 

j^U pdrrUy s.m. A snake-charmer, a juggler. 
Charming, juggling. PL ^^b pdfrU-ffdi 

Jjij patrawuly verb trans. To charm, 

*ib pdrra'hy s f. (3rd), A piece or portion of laa.- ^ 
left unploughed, or patches left unploughed ^^^ 
the time of ploughing a field. 2. A bad actiorr:^^ 
or aflFair. 3. A kind of rake. PL ^ ey. &eJ^^ 

^Jj pdtraey, s.m. (3rd) A hog-deer (Genn»-^ 
porcinus). PL ^^ I. 

ifj\j pd'Zah, s.m. (6th) Effect, operation (of 
dicine), impression, result, consequence, foioe^ 
execution, accomplishment. Sing, and 
JJ »j\j pd'Zah laral, verb trans. To hai^ 
effect, or impression (to be effective), tj^ 




J^pd-zoA kawul, verb trans. To operate, to 
ta^e efiect, to make impressioD. 
aCjI> pdzikak, adj. Clean, pure, chaste. See 

;jjwU pas, prep. Above, over, on, aloft, up, at, 
a-top, upwards. ^^j^\i j dapdaa, Upon, over, 
near, at the top, etc. 

C/**^ P^9 ^'^' (2nd) Anointing a camel with oil 
and lime as a remedy for mange. 2. The 
ointment or embrocation used. 3 . (f) Guarding, 
taking care of, respect, observance. PI. ejyjj 
pdsUnah. See ijJ^U 

^s^\j pdstoA, adj. (Masc. PI. of vj:.^y post) Soft, 
tender, mild. 2. Gentle, easy; (Fem.) At^ 
pasta*A. PI. fVs^ pastey. 

p ^\j porSuM^, s.m. (2nd) An answer, a reply. 
PL ij^atAi^ parSuMiUnah. 

J^U pdS'lawul, verb trans. To give in charge, 
to recommend to one's care, to consign, to 
intrust, to conmiit, to make over to, to give in 
trust. Pres. i^^U paslawl ; past a^^lLU J 
wu-pasldwuh, or jyL»U J wu-pasldwo ; fut. J 
4^j)l«U 4j 7!?t^ bah paslawl ; imp. »^lj J Tz^e^- 
p^larcah ; act. part. jJ-^^mLj^^ paslawunkaey 
or ^^ji^li p&slawUnaey ; past part. ^jJ^l^ 
paslawulaey ; verb, n <oyu-.lj paslarcurwHh, 

JjLli pdslawuna'h, s.f. (Srd) (verb, n.) Keep- 
ing, charge, care, trust, custody, protection, 
guarding, preserving. PI. ^^ g^. 
iVj p&sU, adj. Low-bom, mean, ignoble, ple- 
beian, vulgar, obscure. 
s^S V^\ P^ wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Partiality, re- 
gud, consideration, favoritism, leaning, guar- 
dianship. PL i\j wait. 
J>ib pdswdn, s.m. (Srd) A sentinel, a watch, 
a goard, a shepherd. PI. ^Lj1j-jL» pas- 

^y*\ pdswdnl, s.f. (Srd) Watch, guard, guard- 
iog, the duty of a guard, protection, keeping, 
^l* \^ at. jy ijl^b pdswdnl kawul, verb 
^. To keep watch, to guard, to protect. 
• *^\p^-na'A, s.f. (Srd) The heel of a door 
^h revolves in a socket instead of a hinge. 
^^- the heel). PL ^^ey. ojf Ai-t U pash-na'A- 

fford, s.m. (2nd) The socket in which the heel 
turns. PL ^j«>/ ^u^b pdsA-na^A-gardUnaA. 

^U pd^ or pd}^, s. prop. The name of the 
supposed seat of the Afghiln tribes, situate 
in the district of Btldah and the highlands 
of Kftseghar, in the WuzM country, and from 
which the words Paghto or PuSbto, and 
PusitUn or Pukhttln, are supposed to be 
derived. It is also written ^js^ pusk and puJ3i, 

P 2r jcxU pd-gAundoHh, s.f. (Srd), A roll of carded 
cotton. PL ^ ey. 

P cJb pdk, adj. Pure, clean, holy, innocent, 
spotless, inmiaculate, fair ; (Fem.) ii\i pdkcHh, 

^\^ cJU pdk daman, adj. Pure, chaste, inno- 
cent, holy in life, modest ; (Fem.) <u«b cJU 
pdk ddmana'h. ^\j pdkl, s.f. (Srd) Purity, 

chastity, innocence, spotlessness, fairness. 
PL jjj a I, 
J^ pdkawul, verb trans. To purify, cleanse, 
clear, wash, make clean. Pres. ^/^b pdkawl ; 
past J J c3U pdk wu-kafT, or J c^\j pdk 
kafT ; fot. ,^J <u cJlj pdk bah kfrt, or cJ[) 

^J J <u pdk baA wU'krrl ; imp. d^ J cJU 
pdk wu-krrah, or g^ cJb pdk krrah; act. 
part. jjJoji^b pdkawUnkaey, or ^jj/^ joa^- 
wUnaey ; past part, ^^j^ c3l> joa^ kajraey ; 
verb. n. <U^lj pdkawandh, 

J ju^b pdkedal, verb intrans. To become cleansed, 
purified, cleared, washed, made clean. Pres. 
^g-^b pdkejzl (W.), or i*^?^^ pdkegl (E.) ; 
past <L1 J cJb joa^ wU'skaJi, or <L1 cJU jt?a^ 
^aA ; ftit. ^ J «o c3b pak bah wu-sAl, or 
^^ <u cJlj /?a>i iaA ^^^ ; imp. <L^ j cJU pdk 
wU'shah, or <Ll cJU pdk sAaA; act. part. 
^Ju^ ju^lj pdkedunkaey, or ^^j Ju^lj pdkedUn- 
aey ; past part. c3U j9d^, or |^^ c3U j^a^ 
shawaey; verb. n. <0ju^1j pdkedana'h. 

p 2Fjj^U pdklzaA, adj. Clean, pure, chaste. ^jj-^U 
l:: J,.rtr;^ pdkizah Mui^lat, Of chaste habits or 
disposition. See <^jlj 

Jli J9a^, s.m. (2nd) Abstinence, continence, for- 
bearance. 2. An omen, augury, presage. 
S. Enchantment. PL ^jlb pdlUnah. JU 






J^T pal d^awul, or J^ Jlj pal ni-wul, 
verb tranB. To take an omen. 

<Ol^U pcU-kana'h, s.f. (3rd) A high roof. 2. A 
•window. PI. ^ ey. 

JJb palaly verb trana. To preserve, protect, rear, 
bring up, cherieh, nouriflh, educate, breed, 
patronize. Pres. ^JU pall \ past aJU J «?w- 
pdlah, or jU J wu-pala ; fiit. ^JU dj ^ wu 
bah pdU ; imp. <dU J wurpdldh ; act. part. 
Lc^^^ pdlUnkaeyt or ^^j5^ pdlunaey ; past 
part. (jAIb pdlalaey ; verb. n. ^b pdlana'h. 

vlJcJb pdlangy s.m. (2nd) A bed, a bedstead, a 
coverlet, a counterpane, (hi <*/-L), PI. 
<0^b pdlangUnah. See also C^vl^j 

^j4jj vliUb pdlang po$h (W.), orpof^ (E.), s.m, 
(2nd) A coverlet, a quilt, a counterpane, PI, 
ijy^y dlJoJIj pdlang-po^Unahf or pdlang- 

4xJU pdlandhy s.f. (3rd) (verb. n. of JJU) 
Bringing up, preserving, preservation, cherish- 
ing, rearing, breeding, nourishing, education. 
(b ^niTf). PI. ^ ey. 

*jj!li pdluda'h, s.f. (3rd) A kind of sloe. 2. A 
kind of sweetmeat. PI. ^^ ey. 

<Jb pdla'h, s.f. (3rd) A kind of plough-share. 
V\, ^ ey, SeejL*u*rf 

rt>v.M..>l> pdnshanba*h, s.f. Friday, (p ^.vuifsij). 
Pl.*^^ ey. 

dj\j pdna*h, s.f. (3rd) A wedge for splitting wood. 
2. A mode of torture. PI. ^^ ey. J^jj ^Ij 
pdna'h war-kawul^ verb trans. To split with a 
wedge. 2. To torture. 

^b pdrm. s.m. (2nd) The steep or scarped 
bank of a river, etc. PI. <Oj^\j pd/rmrUnah. 

*jilj pdrma'h. s.f. (3rd) The leaf of a tree or 
plant, the leaf of a book. PI. ^ ey. ^jy% J 
sji\i^ da mazart pdrma'A. A kiiid of aloe 
(Aloe perfoliata). 

B ^U pd'O, s.m. (2nd) A quarter, a fourth part. 
PI. djjj\j pd-O'Unah ; Pem. (3rd) ifj\j pdwa'h. 
PL ^^\i pdrcey. i^J ^ j\j pd-o kam drcaJi^ 
One and three-quca*ter8. jU lisi, pin^zah 
pdo, One and a quarter. 

P vjlj pd'e, s.m. (9th) The foot. 2. Termina- 

tion, end, extremity, summit. Sing, and PI. 
3. adj. Finished, completed, terminated. A\j 
jjj pd'e band, adj. Tied by the 1^, encum- 
bered, fettered, captivated, ^j:.^ A\j pd'e 
taMt, A royal residence, the seat of govera- 
ment. JU ^J^J pd*e mdl, adj. Trampled on, 
ruined, destroyed. Jj^ JU ^JU pd'e mdl 
kedal, verb intrans. To be ruined, trampled 
on, destroyed. J^ JU ^JlJ pd*e mdl Aasvul, 
verb trans. To ruin, destroy, tread under foot. 
vJU v^U pd'e mdUy s.f. (3rd) Destraction, 
ravage, ruin. PI. ^ a%. 

p (^l^U pd-ydb, adj. Within man's depth, ford- 
able, the depth of water. 2. A ford, the 
bottom. PI. <U^ljb pdrydbUnah; (Fem.) 
<ublj pd-ydba'h. 

p ^bb pdydn, s.m. (2nd) End, extremity, te^ 
mination, completion. PI. ^y b U pdydnUnah. 

jbb pd'e^dw, adj. Fordable, within man's depth, 
The depth of water ; (Fem.) *jbb pd'e-dsva'h 

2 , s.m, (2nd) A ford. PI. <Ojjbb pd'e-^LwUnak. 
yl>b poLe-hOy s.f. (5th) A lever for pounding or 

threshing grain. PI. ^^^b pd'e-ko-gam^ or 

jjli^b pd'e-kogdnu 
<djb pdHe-loHh, s.f. (3rd) An ornament for tike 

feet with bells. PI. ^ ey, 
2rJcjb pdryandahy adj. Durable, permanent^ 

petual, constant, firm, remaining, 
ui^b pd'e-nak, s.m. (2nd) The mounting 

the end of the scabbard of a sword> etc. 

<oyl:jb pd'e-nakunah. 
^b pd-ycHh, s.f. (3rd) A step. 2. Bank, dignit^^ 

3. Basis, foundation. PI. ^ ey. 

^|b pd\ s.f. (3rd) A halter. PI. ^^ a'f . 8^ 
^, ^and^^ 

J-d- ^^b pd'l Mfil, B.m. (6th) The name of ^ 
tribe of Afj^ftns. Sing, and PI. Fem, (Sr^^ 
aI^ ^^b pd'l Mifilalhy A female of the abov^- 
Pl. ^ ey. 

Jjuib pd'edalf verb intrans. To remain, \u^» 
endure, stand, survive, dwell, bide, stop* 
tarry, subsist. Pres. ^b pWyi ; past juSb J 
wurpWeda] fut. ^b ^ jnnc bahpWyi ; imf^- 
<ub J wu-pdryah ; act. part. ^^-Cij*xJb /^*^^ 





dUnkaey, or ^j JuSU pcCedUnaey ; past part. 
^s^j>a!edoUaey ; verb. n. ^^^^^^pa! edanalh. 

OjloU pd'edana% s.f. (Srd) (verb, n.) Perma- 
nence, endurance, preservation, stability, 
dwelling, stopping, tarrying. PI. ^^ ey. 

^Job <dLj pablah bandey, adj. Fold upon fold, 
piled up, folded (correctly i/Jolj <dj <o j^aA 
6a/lti^ bdndey). See also i/Job <d^j and 4Sy 

^^ jwiif, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of a tribe of 
A%hftns. <^^ pabaey, Sing. A male of the 
above. ' 2. The name of a large village 16 
miles east of Pe^fiwer, on the high road to 
Attak ; s.f. (6th) ^ pabd% A female of the 
above. Sing, and PL 

8 ijL^ pat, s.m. (2nd) Good name, honour, cha- 
racter, reputation. PL djyij patUnah. 

3^ pita-o, s.m. (2nd) Sunshine, a place exposed 
to the sun. PL <Ojjl;j pttorO-Unah. J^ jliu 
jntdr^ kawiU, or Js^\i.^ <U jlx» pitd-o tah 
k^kendstal, or kScndstal, verb trans. To bask 
in the sunshine. 

i^jij patraey, s.m. (1st) A clamp or binding of 
iron or brass, the boss of a shield, (s ini). 




8 <Jv."» patanff, s.m. (5th) A moth ; a paper 


kite. PL ^;lijj patangdn. See ^^l^^ j^ 

and njib jb 
,>sjpitJki'k, s.f. (Srd) Sedition, mutiny, mischief, 

perfidy, (a djzi). PL ^ ey. J^T ^ 

pitna'h dchawul, or J^ <JLiy pitnaHh kawul, 
verb trans. To create a mutiny, to get up a 
sedition. jJij\ J^pitna^h-anffez, A fermenter 
of disturbances, an incendiary, a mischief- 
»«ier; (Fern.) sjJij\ i^ pitna'h-angeza'h. 
\4}^\ iis^ pitna'h-angezlf s.f. (Srd) Sedition, 
wditiousness, mischievousness. PL ^ a\ 

rj w gw patarm. s.m. (2nd) The lower part 
of a spinning wheel. 2. A ferry, a passage 
*«w«8 a river. PL ^jij^^ paUatsmUnak. 

\jfipatUn, s.m. (2nd) The thigh of a man, 
wt, or bird. PL 43yjj patanUnah. See ^j 

^j^^p(UMra*A, B.t (&d) Unleavened bread. PL 

v^ paU, s m. (9th) Affected by a demon, a kind 
of delirium, demented. Sing, and PL ^.^ 
Jj-j paU nl-wal, verb trans. To seize a demon 
or evil spirit ; (Eng. verb intrans.) To become 

v-^j9a#, s.m. (2nd) The bark of a tree. PL 
<U^ paUUnah, 

^^ puU, adj. Concealed, hidden, out of sight, 
secret, clandestine. 2. Covered, closed, veiled, 
masked,Bcreened,shrouded,shaded,etc. ; (Fem.) 
<^5j puUa'h, i<^ j^ sar-puUa'h, s.f. (Srd) A 
virgin, a maiden (lit. head concealed). PL ^ 
ey. ^^ v^ puU'pinAam, adj. Totally hidden 
or concealed; (Fem).) <Ufj ^^j)uU'pinhama'A, 

L^'j v^ P^& ^cLlaey, s.m. (1st). PL Jlj wdll, 
or Lj y^ puU tl*d, s.f (6th) Concealment, 
secrecy, stealth, stealthiness, hiding. (E.) 
Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL gjU fl'dwi. See 

vjr^ilsj 1^^ puU paitdrmaey^ s.m. (1st), or 
v^^ v^ J^^# paUawtrnaey, s m. (Ist) A 
kind of game played by boys, something 
similar to hide and seek. PL ^c I. 

tV^ v^ puU-yanaX s.f, (6th) An ambush, an 
ambuscade, cover, lurking place. Sing, and 
PL J^ ^^ i^j^^ puU-yana!i kawul, verb, 
trans. To lie in ambush, to lurk, to lie in wait 
for. See ^^^ 

^ paUaM, adj. Tough, hard, homy. 2. Faded, 
decayed, effete, mellow, declining; (Fem.) 
<ti5i paUaM^'h, Jju.i*i paUaMiedal, verb 
intrans. To grow tough, hard, homy; to 
decay, to become faded, mellow, effete, etc. 
J^i^i paUaJ^wul, verb trans. To make or 
render hard, tough, or homy ; to cause decay, 
etc. jjJlj ^ paUaM'^dlaey, s.m. (1st) Hard- 
ness, stiffiiess, toughness; decay, decline, 
mellowness, etc PL ^\^ wdU. 

^jbU-j ^^ j9Mtf-«paAf, s.m.'^ (6th) A heavy-armed 
soldier (lit. a concealed or hidden soldier). PL 
^LjbL-9 ^j^ puU'Spdhtdn, 

(jfiJ puUawul, verb trans. To conceal, hide, 
secrete, cover, screen, veil, shroud, shade, 
ensconce, muflSe. ^^^jtwftam; past^^J,,^ 



puU wu-kafTy or J v^ P^U hafr\ fat. 
^jf J ^ v^ J^tf *^ ww-^Oi, or 4^ <o ^-^ 
/w# ioA Acrt ; imp. aj j ^^ jtwtf wu-hrrdhy 
or 2f^ v^ /^# ktrah) act. part. ,j^j>y 
puttawUnkaey^ or ^j^ puUatvutuiey; past 
part. ^^ 1,-^ jtw# karraey ; verb. n. iUjjj 

Jj>gs» puUedal, verb intrans. To be invifiible, 
hiddeiii or concealed, to lie hidden or con- 
cealed, to be covered, secreted, veiled, en- 
sconced, muflied, shrouded, etc. Pres, v/j-** 
puttejzl (W.), ,^^ir*i puUegl (E.) ; past ^^ 
^ J J^# nm-i^ah, or ^ ^^ ^^ ^oA ; fat. 

l5^ J ^ ^*«^ -P^- ^^ «?w-Mf , or ^^ <o ^-^ 
/wg 6aA ^! ; imp. ^ J ,^^ jw^^ tviirshah, 

or <L^ v^ j02<# shah ; act. part. ^j^^Ju^ 
puUedUnkaey, or ^jJu;;^ puUedUnaey; past 
part. 1,-^ jtwg, or i^^ ^^ puU ^awaey ; 
verb. n. ^jJusj puUedana'h. 

4iJu;p puUedana'h, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Conceal- 
ment, secrecy, stealth, stealthiness, hiding, 
concealing, shrouding, veiling, etc. Fl. ^^ey. 
See . -H. 1-^ and l-J l-^ 

iSj^ paUka'hy s.f. (Srd) A cloth worn round the 
waist, a girdle, (s U^). PL ^ ey. 
X:^^ paUkaey, s.m. (1st) A small turban. Fh^l. 
X;i paUiM, adv. Upon the very spot, in place, 

* properly placed. 2. The same, the very same, 
self-same, no other, identical, that very, etc. 

8^ paUU, s.m. (5th) A kind of woollen cloth, 
or blanket. PI. f^^jHJ paUQffdn. 

^J^y^ paUUskaey, adj. A few, some, lesB, a little, 
an indefinite quantity, a small portion, scanty, 
thinly scattered, hardly or scarcely any, PI. 
4^ ! ; (Fem.) Sing, and PI. ^ a'l. See ^j/l 

iSjn^ ^ paUo maheryah, inter). A term of im- 
precation, a malediction. See ^^^;*f« 

<^ paUah, s.f. (3rd) A sword belt, the cross belt 
of a soldier. PI. ^ ey. 

^paUaey, s.m. (1st) A field, a portion of land, 
an estate, a field sown or prepared for sowing. 
PI. 4^ I, 

^5^ pattaX s.f. (6th) The alphabet. 2. A bandage 
for a wound, a fillet. Sing, and PI. 



Hj^^ paUera'A, 8.f. (Srd) The upper or roof beam 
of a building. PI. ^^ ey. See ^/^^^ 

ji v^ P^U^ l<^rrn. 8.m. (2nd) A weaver^s beam. 
PI. ^jj^ ^ paUey-latn^tnak. See jij ^ 

^ pats, adj. Blunt, obtuse, dull, abrupt ; (Fem.) 
a^ patscCh. ^J ^ pafya'h jzaba% A blunt 
or abrupt word, or not plainly spoken. 

JjuAi pataedal, verb intrans. To grow or be- 
come blunt, dull, obtuse, abrupt, etc. JjAi 
patsawul, verb trans. To make or render 
blunt, dull, obtuse, abrupt. 

^Ij ^ pats w&laey, s.m. (1st) Bluntness, obtnse- 
ness, dullness, stupidity, abruptness. PI. Jlj 

LffJ^ patsdrmey. adj. Scarce, not plentifal, 
few, less, a litUe, a small portion, an indefinite 
quantity, thinly scattered, hardly or scarcely 
any, etc ; (Fem.) ^^J^ patsdfrmX 8c« 
^fij/j and ^/l 

iSAi pitS'kcCh, s.f. (3rd) A point, nib, spike, a 
cone, peak, comer, end, extremity. PI. A ey. 

^jilAi pits-kaey, s.m. (1st) (E.) Point, nib, cone, 
comer, end, extremity. PI. ^ I. See preceding. 

vjT^Aflfci patsarmey. adj. See v/|i^ 

d^^paja'h, s.f. (Srd) A brick-kiln, a fomace. 
PI. ij ey. 

8 slgj^ysf, padiwdrraX s.f. (6th) The heel ropes 

of a horse. Sing, and PI. See lAj^j^ 
i^jfsff padtaraey, s.m. (1st) A veil, a sheet, a 
mantle, generally made of chintz. PI. ^c f . 
See v^jjj and JA^^ 

d^^padka'h, s.f. (Srd) The orbicular dung of 
sheep, goats, deer, hares, etc. 2. The fret or 
agitation on the sur£EU^e of water fi*om a light 
air or breeze, ripple, undulation. PL ^^ ey. 
Jju^ <ifls^ padiaHh kedaly verb intrans. To 
ripple, to firet on the surface, to become agitated 
as water. J^ laf^padidh kawuly verb trans. 
To ripple, or cause to ripple, to agitate the 
surface of fluids. ^^^ ^^a^; padiey pa^ey, In 

-^ paM, B.m. (2nd) Scab, mange. PL ^jyk; 




^ poMf B.m. (5tli) The spit or hiss of a cat 
when making an attack. PL jlfac; paM^hdr. 
Jjbj f^ j9aM wahal, verb trans. To spit or 
make a hissing noise like a cat. 

^^fik; paj^pula, or ^Ouoc; paJ^ptUah^ adv. 
Spontaneously, of one's own accord or free 
will, voluntarily, of thine, his, or her own 
accord, of itself, etc. See J^ 

^csc pu^taglf s.f. (3rd) Maturity, ripeness, 
experience, expertness, the being cooked. PL 
S^ «'»• See ^\^ ^y^ 

p dsjasr"^ puMtoA, adj. Dressed (as victuals), 
baked, ripe; shrewd, knowing, expert, wise, 
firm, strong, solid. PL ^^16^ puldUagan. 

cJluMa^^ pcL^adk^ 8.m. (2nd) Affliction, distress, 
sorrow, grief, woe, solicitude, yearning, pining, 
inclination, care, anxiety. PL ^Uj^Luo:; j^aM- 
sakunah. See cJU;^ and cJl£ar« 

f}y\yH^^ paMsedal, verbintrans. To grieve, fret, 
pine, yearn, to be desirous, to have strong 
inclination. Pres. ^c..>».,^ paMseJzl (W.), or 

s^ p^i^Mseffl (E.) ; past » juA^ar; j wii- 
pa^sedah ; fut. y^.jui^ ij ^ wu bah paJJi- 

uj^f or jf;"'^^ ij ^wu bahpaMisegi ; imp. 
jKjiufV^y J wtppaj^jzahf or <^^jM.-^r; j 72?!^. 

pa^segah; act. part, ^^^j^x^y^^jk:; pakksedtm- 
kaey, or ^jj>ju..^ paMifiedUnaey ; past part. 
^j^^^^^^asT^ paMsedalaey; verb. n. <Oju-wu^ 

tj^^mocpaHsedana^h, s.f. (8rd) (verb, n.) Long- 
ing, hankering; solicitude, eagerness, anxiety, 
yearning, pining, grieving. PL ^j ^. See 

J)«*it pa^sawul, verb trans. To afflict, dis- 
tress, fret, vex, displease, annoy, irritate, 
•ggrieve, cross. Pres. ^^j-^yuij paMsawl; 
I«Bt h^Ljsi j nm-paMsdwuh, or jyU^ii J ;2?w- 
iP"&fi«^ ; ftit. i^y^ ^ ^fvu bah paMsawi ; 
imp. ny^ii j nm-paMsawah ; act. part. 
^^jl^«*ii pa^sawUnkaey, or ^j^^,^ j^aM- 
^•''finaey ; past part. ^J^y*^ paMsawulaey ; 

^ poMsa% 8.f. (3rd) The section or portion 

of a mud wall, ^the mud used for building 
purposes. PL \^ey. 

iUufc^ paMstah, adj. Anything melted, liquid, 

cJli^paMshdk, s.m. (2nd) Affliction, distress, 
sorrow, grief, woe ; solicitude, care, anxiety ; 
yearning, pining, inclination. PL ^/U*^ 
paMshdkUnah. See c3Lbsi and <Ujum^ 

li:i, paMmld, adj. Reconciled, pacified, made up, 
settled, arranged, accommodated, tranquilized, 
composed, hushed up, appeased, propitiated, 
conciliated. Jju^ lei papula kedal, verb 
intrans. To become reconciled, pacified, ap- 
peased, etc. J^ \si paMmld kawuly verb 
trans. To make peace, to pacify, to reconcile, 
conciliate, to restore harmony, to heal the 
breach, etc. c->^ lij paldmld, tob, s.m. 
(2nd) or ^\^ rvdlaey, s.m. (1st) Concord, 
reconciliation. PL <Oyy tobUndh and J\j 

^^^^ paJ^laey^ s.m. (1st) Preparation, ripe- 
ness, maturity, experience, dressing, cooking. 
PL ^ I, See L5^ia^ 

^^^^puMifllaey y s.m. (1st) The hooping cough. 
PL ^ X ; ^&o^^^^^^.ss:\jmMudaey Wal^alaey, 
PL j^ t. See also *jU Hj^ 

Ijii pa-ldmdf adj. Prior, previous, preceding, 
anterior, former. 2. adv. Prior to, before, 
previously, anteriorly, afore, ere, antecedently, 
ere now, before now. 

^\^ paJJiwdruieyy adj. Prior, preceding, first, 
former, ancient, old (as a friend), etc. PL ls I. 
(Fem.) Sing and PL ^ a\ 

JyfcJ paMwLwuly verb trans. To cook, dress, pre- 
pare, to ripen, mature, etc. Pres. ^/^ii 
paJakawi ; past ^^ J ^^ po^ wu-karr, or jS^ ^^ 
poJJi karr ; fiit. ^^ J <o ^^ po]^ bah wu- 
krrt, or ^^J aj ^^ poM bah krrl ; imp. ^^ 
sj J jp^M wU'krrah, or ^^ ^jj j9^M ^rr^ ; 
act. part. ^^Joj^ paJdmcilrlkaeyy or jj3j^ 
paMiawilnaey ; past part. ^^ ^^j jt?t>M katraey \ 
verb n. «0^ paMawuna'h, 

3^ paMold, adj. Peaceftil, reconciled, accom- 
modated, tranquilized. See )Uk; 

159 ji 

^■ijyii pc^teandaey, B.m. (let) A loop, a nooee, 
8 buttoD-hole. PI ^ {. See also «4>1j)j, 
*^^y t^i' ^j k^> ^^ \j^j^ 

4ii pa/^'h, adj. CFem.) Cooked, ripe. See ^jj. 

^iac; pteHaey, s.m. (let) A person or animal 
affected with the it«h, scab, ormange. S. adj. 
Mangy, scabby. PI. ^l; s.f. (6th) ^yi? 
pa^a'i. Sing, and PI. 

^joT pmU^, B.f. (3rd) PI. Scurf. Bee A 

Jjufij pa^edal, verb iutnuiB. To be dreued or 
cooked, to ripen, suppurate, boil, etc. Pres. 
t^j-ii paMeJgl (W.), or ,jL^ paMe^ (E.) ; 
past Am j ^y pol^ Ttn^^hik, or iLl ^y poih 
shah ; fat. ^_i i tj^ji pol^ hah wu-^i, or 
^ ij ^ po^ bah ^i ; imp. iZ j ^ jn)M 
nii^^oA, or A^ ^y ^^ ^aA; act. part. 
^XljiUcf paMedUnkaei/, or ^jji^ pak&e- 
dSnaejf ; past part, ^y ^M> or ^^^ ^ jtwM 
^amaef/; verb. n. •I'JOh^ pafshedana'h, or 
iji,^ pal^edah. 

J^ paMyal, s.m. (2nd) Gorering a person 
with bed-clothes to produce perspiration, 
sweating, Bweltering, administering anything 
hot to produce perepiration. PI. ii^^^pa&&- 
ytUanah. J^^ iJh^ pa^yal kawul, rerb 
trans. To sweat, to swelter, to cause perspira- 
tion. See also Jic^ and dlct-Lj 

Lc^^j J^ pa&^al wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Sweati- 
ness, perspiration. PI. ^\j wdh. See Jicu 

jjA) padod, adv. Like, in the same manner, 

similar, just as, as if, as it were, so to speak. 

See Jjj «j and Ojj 
F Jj Jj paetid, adj. Open, public, clear, evident, 

manifest, conspicuous, visible; (Fem.) t-^ia 

a^ padda'h, b.C (3rd) A species of willow. PI. 

J par, prep. On, upon, over, y pri, or ^^jt pre, 

On him, her, it, etc. See my Grammar, page 

48, paragraph 136, for an explanation of this 

preposition, (b VO- 

jt par, B.m. (3nd) The wing of a windmill, a 

O^ 160 

paddle, the broad board of a waterwheel, etc. 
(f A feather, a wing). PL <jj^ par-Unak. 

t»~\ji pard-^ah, B.m. (6th) A mercer, a dr^ier, 
a cloth-merchant. PI. ^IJ^I^ para-^ag^i. 
B.f. (6th) ^y^\ji parO^'l. Sing, and PI. 

Aji pard^, adj. (corrup. otvA^), Wide, ample, 
spacious, capacious, large; abundant, plend- 
fbl, cheap ; (Fem.) Ail^j pard^'A. ^)ji 
pardk&i, B,f. (3rd) Amplitude, spacioooiess, 
wideness ; cheapness, abundance. PI. ^ aX 
^}^ ^\jt pard^ kedal, verb intrans. To be- 
come plentifal, cheap, abundant, spadovs, 
wide,lai^. JJ ^\j}pardMkawui,veTbiiKia. 
To amplify, to widen, to make or render large 
or capacious, to cheapen, to make abundant. 

P i,ii^\ji pard-gandah, adj. Dispersed, scattered, 
distracted, ^■^y, parOrganda^, s.f. (3rd) 
Dispersion, distraction, PL ^ a'l. »xi\jt^ 
J/ parSrffatida'h kawul, verb trans. To dit- 
perse, to scatter. 

J^\jt^ prd^natal, verb trans. To open, unclose, 
unbar, unlock, to remove any ftstening and 
set open, to unfold, to separate parts that an 
close, to cut through, to split, divide, brealc, 
to clear or open (a street), to spread, expand, 
unstop, reveal, unclose, explain. Pres. ^^l/J 
prd-iia^i; past tj;-j)^ prO-nat; fat. tj i^ 
^^ prd bah na^ ; imp. iA^\j) prSrna^ia^ ', 
act, part. ^i^fii\jt^ prdnatenkaey, or ^vfi^\A 
prSrwUUtMey ; past part. jfiil^J prd^wita^' 
or ,J^\/^ prd-natalaey ; verb. n. iisj)ji pr^' 
luUatu^k, or fcyl^ prd-Tiatak. 

4:iil^ prd-natana'A, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Op^**' 
ness, looseness, expansion. 2. Opening, oV 
closing, unbarring, ete. PI. ^ ey ; or ^ 5^ 
prd-natah, B.m. (6th). Sing, and PI. 

i^j> pararir^h, B,m. (5th) A mercer, a dr^**'' 
a cloth-merchant. PI. ,J£^\j^ pardK-^/9^ 
</an ; B.f. (6th) jt*^. pardn-^a% A femaJ* 
of the above class. Sing, and PI. Bee t»-\/t' 

^\t j) pri bdndi, prep. On him, her, it, o*** 
See J and jJIj. 



fjLJfj} prat, adj. Absurd, vain, foolish, idle, fruit- 
less, unprofitable, delirious, rambling in one's 
talk, raving. 2. Distant, far, remote ; (Fem.) 

P ^--'Vs^ par-tdb, or c-^by j^ tir par-tab, s.m. 
(2nd) Bow-shot, the range of an arrow, musket, 
etc. PI. ^y\iji par'tdb'Unak. 

P JJjj par-tal, s.m. (2nd) A set of household 
utensils, furniture. 2. The baggage of a 
horseman carried on a bullock or pony. PI. 
^j]j^ par-taiUnah. 

P j7^ partaw, s.m. (2nd) light, rays, sunbeams, 
moonbeams. PI. <Uj^ partawunak. 

^J^yji P^'^tHr^^Lsh (W.), or partU-ghdldi (E.) (2nd) The string or fastening of a pair of 
drawers. PI. ijy^^ji partU-^dskUnah or 

vlJ^ partug, s.m. (2nd) Drawers, trowsers, 

PI. ^jS|^ partUgUnah. See dyji^ 

«3;i prata'hy adj. (Fem.) Absurd, vain, foolish, 

idle, fruitless, unprofitable. 2. Delirious, 

rambling in one's talk, raving. 3. Distant, 

for, remote, far off. a^ <C^ pratcHh pratoHh, 

Very fiar or remote. Jj^ *^ pratoHh wa-yal, 

Terb trans. To ramble in one's talk, to rave. 

^y, l^aeA, s.m. (5th) A sneeze. PI. J^j 

'''**^^*^^* J'N??^/ J^^^^^j verb intrans. 
To sneeze. J^^ pradiawul, verb trans. 
To make or cause to sneeze. See tJy and 

**|^ jwir-^atfa'f, s.f. (6th) A coping of 
tl^tch over a mud wall. 2. A hut with a 
'katched or wooden roof. Sing, and PI. See 

' f?l4 ;wr-dlai», s.m. (2nd) A lock of hair par- 
ticularly waving over the forehead, the tail of 
^iKnse used as a standard. PI. ^y^j{ par- 

' ^^ ji par-iAdna% s.f. (3rd) The place in an 
*ww where the feathers are inserted. PI. 

fSj ixxr-Mam, 8.m. (2nd) The tuft of the tail 
^^ >^ cow or ox. PI. *i M^ ^^ par-MafnUnaA. 



^S^J}^ parMioL*h, s.f (3rd) Dew. PI. ^ ey. 

P l::-^^1j^ jt?ar-flteM^, s.m. (2nd) (from^^^lj^) 
Performance, patronizing, relinquishment, pro- 
ceeding. PI. iOjisLlj^ parddJdktUnah. 

pjlj^ par-daz, s.m. (9th) (firom j:j^\jji) Per- 
formance, finishing, completing. 2. Finish, 
perfection. Sing, and PI. 

p 4^1j^ par-ddzi, s.f. (3rd) Performance. PI. 

S^ ^*^' 


p 2FJ^ parda'k, s.f. (3rd) A curtain, a screen, 
cover, veil; secrecy, privacy, modesty. PI. 
(^ ^' L/*'y *^ parddhposh (W.), ovparda'h 
pofch (E.), Keeping a secret, ^y * j^ par- 
da' h posht orpardahpoUhly s.f. '(3rd) Conceal- 
ment of a blemish, PI. ^ a'u j\^ ifjjj 
parda'h ddr, adj. Confidential ; (Fem.) djj) 
ifj\j parddh ddra'h, and s.f. (3rd) A female 
kept in strict privacy. PI. ^ ey. 

p ^j\i^ ifjj) parda'h ddrt, s.f. (3rd) Confidence, 
trust, dependence. PI. jV a*t, 

1^*^ pra-ddey, adj. Strange, a stranger. PI. 
j^j^ pra-dl; (Fem.) Sing, and PI. ^^J^ 
pra-daX Jju^ i^J^j pra-daey kedal, verb 
intrans. To become strange, shy, undomestic, 
foreign. Jj^ ^^J^ pra-daey kawul, verb 
trans. To make or render strange, shy, or 

VA P^^^^f ^y Proper, fitting, becoming, suit- 
able, agreeable, just, worthy, reasonable ; in- 
clined, partial to, longing, etc. 

^\j jjjj pirzo-Tvdlaey, or ^^^^jjr^^plrzo-Kdlaeyy 
s.m. (1st) Desire, inclination, leaning, bent, 
partiality, fancy, hankering, yearning ; worth, 
agreeability, suitableness, fitness, propriety. 
PI. ^^j rodU. 

J-?Jy pO'T-zaroul or pur-zawul (W.), verb trans. 
To throw as in wrestling, to prostrate, to over- 
turn, to overthrow. Pres. ur^jy par-zawl ; 
past »j\jjj^ j wu-par-zdwuh, or j^lj^ J wu-par- 
zdwo ; fut. 45jij/ <u J WW bah par-zawl ; imp. 

par-zawunkaey, or ^}^jj{ par-zawunaey ; 
past part. ^^jj{ par-zawulaey ; verb. n. 
^3jy po^'Xarcuruih, 






4jjjjy par-zawundh^ s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Throw- 
ing, overturning, proBtarating, overthrow, up- 
set, summerset. PI. ^ ey. 

JjJj^ par-zedal or pur-zedal, (W.) verb in- 
trans. To be thrown as in wrestling, to be 
prostrated, overturned, overthrown, overset. 
Pres. fc/vj^ par-zejzl (W.) or i/ijji^ p(^^' 
zegl (E.) ; past *J^J^ J wu-par-zedah ; fut. 

^J^Jji ^ J ^^^ *^^ par'zejzi, or ^jy^ a^ j 
WM bakparzeffi ; imp. * rij^^ J rcu-par-zejzahy 
or <^J^ j rcu-par-zegah ; act. part. jJ^jJ^JjJ 
par-zedUnkaeyy or j^j*>Jj/ par-zedUnaey \ 
past part. ^J^J^J par-zedcUaey \ verb. n. 
<)Li jjj^ par-zedancHhy or i^Jjjy par-zedah, 

^Vji pi^'^^^^'^f s.f. (3rd) Desire, wish, incli- 
nation, etc. PI. 1^ ^. Jj^ ihjjy pir-zawah 

kawul, verb trans. To desire, wish for, lean 
to, to fancy, long for, hanker after, yearn for, 
etc. See jj^ 

p c:-^ parast, part, (in compos.) Adorer, wor- 
shipper ; devoted to, attentive to. ci-^ Jmj\ 
dtash parast f A fire-worshipper, a Gabar of 
the sect of Abraham, Zoroaster, or the Magi. 
c:^w^ c:-^ but parast, An idolater, a wor- 
shipper of idols, ts.-^ \d^ JJiudd parast, 
A worshipper of God. \^^j j^ J^ud 
parast, A worshipper or admirer of one's-self, 
self-conceited, an egotist. 

p jl:;.^ paras-tar, s.m. (5th) A slave, an adorer. 
PI. (^\;^^ paras-tdrdn\ s.f. (3rd) ajt^y 
paraS'tdrah, feminine of the above. PI. ^ ey. 

p Jc^ji^ paristdn, s. prop. Fairy land. 

p iji:i^j}^ paraS'tish, s.m, (2nd) Worship, ado- 
ration. PI. ^j^u*i^jj paraS'tishUnah, 

p ^^J^ paras-ti, s.f. (3rd) (in compos.) Wor- 
ship, adoration. PL ^ a'l. 

P cA*-;j pur-sish, s.m. (2nd) Inquiry, interro- 
gation, questioning. PI. ^oyL^ pur-sish- 

JIL^ par-shakdl, s.m. (2nd) (E.) The rainy 
season, a rainy year (s Jl^). PI. <!J^ULiy 
j£jj par-ghaz, s.m. (2nd) A trembling which 

attacks a person at the commencement of an 

attack of the small-pox. PI. ^if-/^ P<^' 

Vj^j) pur-kdr, adj. Thick, stout, fat, coarse. 2. 

Well executed, artful, skilful, well-made; 

(Fem.) ij^ji pur hdrdh. 
^«^ par-kattaey, s.m. (Ist) A step-son, tiie 

son of a wife by a former husband. PI. v^^ i ; 

s.f. (6th) y^ji^ parkaSct% A step-daughter. 

See also ^j ^j) andjjjj 
^^j) pur-kaWi, part. Drawing a bow to the full 

extent of the arm, raising or stretching out 

the arm to full length. See also ^jSji 
^ J^ji par-gdr, s.m. (2nd) A pair of compasses. 

PI. <^jj;^ par-gdrUnah. 
p <u^ par-gana'h, s.f. (3rd) An inferior division 

of a country, and less than a «J^ ^i^iUs (zillah). 

PI. ^ ey. 
sj\ii^ji par lah bdndi, adj. Fold upon fold, 

folded, piled up. See jJU iLj and jjb ^l>j, 
¥^ji P^^ ?waM, adj. Fallen (on the &ce), upset, 

face downwards ; (Fem.) dJs^jj par-inal^'k 

See also -^^ 
\jjj par-nd, s.f. (6th) Sleepiness, drowsineee, 

sluggishness, heaviness, listlessness, languid- 

ness, nodding, dozing. (E.) Sing, and PI.; 

(W.) PI. ^^\jj)^ par-ndwl. ,^a-* i^j^jw*^ 

ndwarrey stargey, adj. Sleepy, dirowsy, or 

heavy-eyed. Jj^ U^ par-nd w'rral, verb 

trans, {lit, to be carried away by sleep), To 

nod fix)m sleepiness, to doze, to slumber, ^ 

fall asleep, to take a nap, etc. 
^J3^ji P^^'^^ Tv'^ey, adj. Sleepy, drowiiy* 

heavy, slu^ish, heavy-eyed ; (Fem.) j^ \jji 

par-nd w'rri, PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^c'l. 
-tf^j pranj, s.m. (5th) A sneeze. PI. j\^^yi 

pranjaAdr. See — .^ 
^jasT^ pran-jaey, s.m. (Ist) A sneeze. PI. ^^ ^' 

See preceding. 
AiX^j pran-jedai, verb intrans. To snee^ 

Pres. ^jft^Tji pran-jej^l (W.) or ^/-^/' 
pran-jegl (E.); past Juaf^ J rvtb-pran-jed^ '* 

fut. ^<-*3r^ ij ^ wu bah pran^j^, or ^ } 
y^/t^j^ ^f^u bah pranjegl ; imp. ar-jar^ jft^' 





pran-je^aA, or ^^^^sf^ J wurpran-jegdh ; act. 

pran-jedunaey ; past part, ^djuasT^ jwan- 

Jedalaey ; verb. n. ^ Juar^ pran-jechna* h, 
Ajjuasr^ pran^edana^A, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) 

Sneezing. PL ,^ ^. 
J^ajr^ pran-janml, verb trans. To make or cause 

to sneeze. Pres. s^f^j pran-ja-wl; past. 

iFjla^j j wurpran-jdwuhf or jjla^ J w;m- 

pran-jdwo] fut, s^jflf^/j ^ i wu baA pran- 
jam \ imp. *>af:y J ^t^pran^awaA ; act. part. 

^^J^flJ^ pran-jawUnAaey, or ^^f^fj^ pran- 
jcmUnaey ; past part. icJ.^^!Oi pran-jawulaey ; 

verb. n. ^f^y pran-jawuna! A. 
^ji P^^rm. s.m. (6th) Milk which has turned 

sour from heat or by long keeping. Sing. 

and PI. 
jj^j paro, s.m. (6th) A hot wind. Sing, and PI. 
pVj^joaiwpa, s.f. (6th) Care, anxiety, concern. 2. 

Fear, terror. 8. Inclination, affection, desire. 

4. Quiet, repose. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) 

PI. v,^)^ par-wdwt. 
P jVj^ par-fvdz, s.m. (2nd) Flight, flying. PI. 

^V^ld P^^-^^^^^A' See JJjll 
p ^\^ par-^dnoffi, s.f. (3rd) Command, 

order, permission. PI. ^\ a!l. 
p Ai\|;j pcar-wdna! Af s.f. (3rd) An order, a pass, 
a license, leave, command, a precept, a war- 
mt. PI. ^ ey. 
Oj^^jwf, past part, of JJ^tjj, Fallen, dropped, 
descended. PI. <c;]^ prdtaA\ (Fem.) Aj^ 
F«te^A. PI. ^y^ pratey. 
^j^^par-warf adj. (act. part, of ^<^y) A 
Potion, protector, nourisher ; (Fem.) *^^ joar- 

^ }^j^^ po^f^-^ordagSr (from 4^*^^^) s. prop. 

Att epiihet of the deity, a nourisher of all. 
' '*i[)4 par-wardoAf adj. Bred, reared, brought 

% nourished. 
' u^f^j) par^-wari^, 8.m. (2nd) Fostering, 

'^^^^iiiiduneiit^ maintenance, support, suste- 

'^•^ PI. Jijyi^j^;)^ par-fvari^UnaA. 
^^, pQT'Waral^ verb trans. To nourish, to 

loiter, to feed, to educate, to take care of, to 

bring up. Pres. i/^^ par-warl ; past Hjt^^ J 
7vu-par-rvaraA ; fut. ^^^ ij ^wu baA par- 
warl ; imp. 2f;^ J Tcurpar-TcaraA ; act. part, 

v>^JUJ;i pf^^-^orWi^^ f or ^^^jijijJ joar- 
warunaey; past part. ^^jj;j par-waralaey ; 
verb. n. <Ojjy par-warandA. 

J3/ P^orr, s.m. (2nd) (W.) Chaff or J(?t>5a of 
wheat and barley straw. PI. ^^j^y prarr- 
UnaA ; or gj^j)^ pro-rra^A, s.f. (3rd) PI. ^^ ey. 

J^ (jwj^ par-OS kdl, Last year (s Jl^). 

JjL/ J^^^-^^w^j verb trans. To set on or at (as a 
dog), to instigate, irritate, vex, excite. Pres. 
sAj/ p(^Tfo^^^ ) past i^\ji^ j Tvu-pard-TVuA, or 
j^]^ J wu-pard-wo) fut. ^^^^ ij ^ wu bah 
par arm, ; imp. ^^ J wu-parawaA ; act. part. 
L5^J>2;i P<^'^0rwunka^^ or jjjjj^ j^am- 
wUnaey ; past part. ^^ parawulaey \ verb, 
n. <0^ para-wunciA, See Jj^U and J^^fjlj 

^V pororwuna'Af s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Instigat- 
ing, exciting, instigation, vexation. PI. ^ ey, 

^3j P^^l^ly verb trans. To sell, vend, dispose 
of, to retail. Pres. ^^ pro-ti ; past Jjj^j j 
rou-prO'la^ or dlji^ J rcu-pro-laA ; fnt.^lj^ <u J 
WW baA prO'ti ; imp. <J^ j wu-pro-laAy or 

4jL;i P^^^^ '9 *^^' P^* Ls^^l;i P'^O'lunkaey, 
or liijljj^ pro-lUruiey ; past part. ,J-1J|/ jort?- 
lalaey, or ^^ pro-laey ; verb. n. ^^g^ jor^- 
lanoHA, See JyU^*- 

*^jy P^O'lana^A, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Selling, 
vending, retailing; sale, vent. PI. ^^ ^. 

Jjj^ pro-wuly verb trans. To aeU, vend, dispose 
of, retail. Pres. t/j^^ pro-wt ; past ir^^ J 
wu-pro-Tvah ; fut. V|ft[j;J ij ^wu bah pro-wi ; 
imp. ijj^ J wu-pro-waAy or *^^ pro-wah ; 
act. part, ^^jjji;^ pro-wUnkaey, or ^^^j>|;i 
jyro-wunaey ; past part. ^jJj^ pro-^ulaeyy or 
S&|;i P'^0'Waey\ verb. n. dj^t^j^pro-wuna'h. 
See J^jb 

^Jj;i P^o-wundAy s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Selling, 
vending, disposing ; sale, vent, disposal. PI. 

^^ par-tin, adv. Yesterday. Also written ^^^^U 

^jj^ par-Unaey, adj. Tester, last, last past, 





next before the present (with reference to time 
only.) PI. ij^ I ; (Fern.) Sing, and PI. ^^ 
par-UnoHx. ^LJi -V^ par-Una'l shpa'h, Yester 
night {i.e. the nignt before the last, the MuBal- 
m&ns accounting the night before the day). 
See ^14^ 

p *jjjy par-wlZf 8. prop. The name of a prince, 
the lover of Shinn, celebrated in romance. 

p ^Ji^y^pcar^l^9 (9th) The Pleiades. Sing, 
and PI, See also vi^ and t^j^ (Jr^ 

iji para'hf s.f. (3rd) The broad board of a 
water wheel. 2. Standing or moving in 
a line, row, or rank, a line ; row, rank, file. 
3. Dispersing in search of a thing, or as 
soldiers at open order. PI. \^ ey. njdj 
JJj pah paroHh t*lal, verb intrans. To move 
along in a line or open rank (as soldiers, 
etc.). J*x>jJ *;i ^ pah para! h daredcUy verb 
intrans. To stand in a line, rank, or row. 
Jju^ *^ parcHh kedaJ, verb intrans. To form 
in a line or row, to become dispersed as soldiers. 
J^ iji^ parah kawul, or J^ tarral, verb 
trans. To form into a line, to make or cause 
to stand in a row or file. 

jU^ par-hdr, s.m. (2nd) A wound, a blow, a 
stroke, the act of striking or beating PI. 

^Jj^ji p(^r''harUnah. (s inTT) ^j J^j^ 
par'hdrjzcm, or ^j>' ^U^ par-hdr jan, adj. 
Wounded, maimed, mutilated, hurt, injured ; 
(Fem.) ^J Jjby^ paV'har jzaruihy etc. jU^ 
^l5»- par-hdr jaley, adj. Wounded, hurt, etc. 
^ J^j{ par-hdr jzaUf ^ J^jt^ par-hdr jan^ 
or JjuS' Jlsj- jU^ par-hdr jalaey^ kedal^ 
verb intrans. To become wounded, hurt, 
bruised, etc. J^ s:V J^ji par-hdr Jzan^ etc., 
karcul, verb trans. To wound, hurt, maim. 
jbji^par-har, s.m. (2nd) A wound, a blow, a 
stroke. See preceding. PI, Ajjjbj par- 

Jji^i parah-wul, verb trans. To irritate, to vex, 
to instigate, to excite. See Jjj 

rj-jb^ par-hezy s.m. (2nd) Abstinence, forbear- 
ance, continence, abstaining, or keeping aloof, 
control of the passions, caution, sobriety. 

PI. ^jjj-jy par-hezUnak. J^ j-jh^ par- 
hez kawtd, verb trans. To conto)l one's pas- 
sions, to abstain, to keep aloof. 

p ^]}^ji^ par-hezdnahf adj. Fit for a person 
under a regimen. 

Tj\^^j) par-hezffdr, adj« Abstinent, continent, 

abstemious, sober; (Fem.) jr^l^^-^Jb^ par- 
p v^tfj-J^ par-hezffdrl, s.f. (3rd) Abstinence, 
control of the passions. PI. 1^ a'l. 

p 1^^ pari, s.f. (3rd) A fairy. PI. ^y^ para*l ; 
or ^jj para% s.f. (6th). Sing, and PI. 

jL^^j i^jj pari rul^dr, or ^^^j i^jJ pari rU'e, 
or Jll/i ^^j) pari-m^dl, adj. Fairy-ftced, 
angelic ; (Fem.) »jL^j rui^sdra'A, etc. 

Jjj J pre-dal, verb intrans. To discontinue, to 
relinquish, to cease, to leave ofi*, to* drop, to 
desist, etc. Corrup. of J*M^, which see. 

J j-j^ prejz-dal (W.), or J J^jJ preg-dal (E.) 
verb, trans. To discontinue, cease, desist, leave 
off, drop, lay aside, give over, give up, hsTe 
done with, relinquish, discard, dismiss, desert, 
forsake, abandon, renounce, forswear. Pres. 
s^^ji^ jt?r^-(ft, or k/**6^ prep-dl; part 
jyijy pre-shod (W,), otpre-^iod (E.), (firom 
J J^^) ; fut. ^J djj v^ pre bah jzdl, ot 
^^ <o v^^ pre bah gdX \ imp. **3v;j prej^ 
dahy or * J^^ preg-dah ; act. part, ^^^jj-i-iyi 
pre-ihowUnkaeg, or pre-JAowUnmey ; ^^ 
iSJ^ji P^^'^^^^^^^^9 ^^ pre-lAowUnaeSf * 
past part, ^^^^ji^pre^a^haeg, otpre-yaMaeJf » 
verb. n. <0^^ pre-shmoufuihy or pre-^^ 
round h. See J^4^y &nd iJ^^^^ 

p ^J^jn^ pare-shdn, adj. Dispersed, perplexed/ 
confused, troubled, amazed ; dishevelled, di^ 
ordered, deranged; (Fem.) ^IIj^ paS'^ 

P J^ (^^^ pare-qhdn Ikdl, adj. Distressed i^ 
condition. ^}J^ ^\JLiji^pare-si4n Aedal,\eTb 
intrans. To be dispersed, or perplexed, et^' 
J^ J^ji pare-shdn kawtd, verb trans. ^^ 
disperse, confuse, disorder, etc. 

vjlu*j>^ pareshdnxy s.f. (3rd) Sleepiness, drov^'^' 





nesB, nodding, dozing. 2. (p) Distraction, per- 
plexity, dispersion, derangement. PI. Jc a!t. 
{J'^yrlji pre-JSiodal (E.), or jpre-shqial (W.), 
Terb trans. To discontinue, cease, desist, leave 
off, give over, relinquish^ forsake, abandon, 
renounce, forswear, etc. Pres. (wanting — 
pres. of J-Vj^*^ prejzrdalf or J«>SS^ preg-dal 
used instead); past ^^^^ pre-Btod] fut. 
(wanting — ^ftit. of J^MjJ used instead) ; imp. 
(wanting — same as preceding) ; act. part. 
^-Ljjyj^^ pre-^dUnkaeyy or pre-shodUn- 

kaey^ or ^^'^yHji pre-^dUncLey^ or pre- 

shodiinaey ; past part, (wanting — that of 

cJ-^^ji pre-yaBuxl, or pre^ashal^ used) ; 

verb, n. <0Jj4j^ pre-JSkodanahy or pre- 


i}yf^j{ pre-shvcU (W.), OTpre-^wdl (E.), verb 

tnms. To discontinue, cease, desist, abandon, 

renounce, etc. Past j4Jjj pre-shOf or pre- 

^ ; act. part. ^^Joj^4j^ pre-shawilnkaey , or 

pre-ISuircilnkaey y or ^^j>-W^ pre-shaivUnaey, 

or pre-^awUnaey ; verb. n. ^y^jt pre- 

^Tcana*h, or pre-^wana'A. The remaining 

inflexions are wanting, and are taken from 

the verbs j4>-ijj pre-yashal^ or preyaJSialy 

and J^^ri^ prejz-dal (W.), or J J^^ /^r^?^- 

(W (E.), which see. 

J/ijj pre-karmly verb trans. To cut, sever, 

divide, sub-divide, cut off. Pres. ^^„ji pre- 

^x ; past i^ ^j» pre-kah ; fat. l^ <u ^^ 

f^e-bak kd, or ^ <o ^^ pre-bah tn ; imp. 

w'Pfin^o^y, or ^^^^^ pre-kawUnaey ; past 
W. v^j^/ pre-karraey ; verb. n. ^^^j^ 

Jr* t^?/i^ pre-karrey sh'wcdf verb pass. To be 
H severed, divided, cut off. See J^ 

J-*^;} preg-dcU (W.), verb trans. To abandon, 
bounce, etc. See J^^r-i^ and Jj^^ 

J^yj pre-imshtalf verb trans. To dwell, to 
'^, to inhabit, to sojourn, to stay, to rest. 

H fr-yotv, B.m. (5th) Following, a follower. 

j^^ji P^x^'^^^f adj. Fairy-like; (Fem.) *j'j£y 
parl'Wdra! h. See 4,^ 

^j|^^ pre-^dn, s.m. (2nd) The after-birth, or 
placenta. PI. ^jyUj^ pre-wdnUnah (hi 
^^). 2. Adj. (corrup. of p j^'^}/) Much, 
great in quantity or amount, many in num- 
ber, abundant, copious, sufficient, opulent ; 
(Fem.) ^\^„ji pre-wdncHK 

(Jlj/^y pre-wdm, s.f. (3rd) Abundance, suffi- 
ciency, opulence, copiousness. PI. ^^ a*t. 

iSiylj{ pre-watal, verb intrans. To fall, come 
down, drop, drop down, dismoxmt, alight, 
tumble, to light on, come by chance, to come 
(as fortune or calamity), to fall in (as an am- 
buscade), etc. Pres. grjjiy pre-w'zl) past 
Li^^yjj pre-wot; fut. ^j^ <o 4^ pre bah 
w'zl] imp. gjyjjj^pre-w^zaA; act.part.^jJoy^y 
pre-Tvatunkaey, ^y^j^ pre-watUnaey ; past 
part, ^y^ji pre-watalaey, or ^^^ pre- 
Tvatey; verb. n. <^ji^ pre-watana^A, or 
^)^ J pre-wdtaA. 

^Wji P^^'^^t<^^t s.m. (6th) Sing, and PI., or 
d^jj j/?r^-wa^a7ia'A,s.f.(3rd)(verb.n.)Descent, 
fall, drop, downfall, tumble, descension, slip, 
falling, dropping, slipping, etc. PI. ^^ ey, 

J:i-»^y pre-wastal, verb trans. To throw, cast, 
fling, propel, project, chuck, hurl, dart, dis- 
charge, etc. Tliis infinitive is imperfect, and 
has no present or future tenses or imperative 
mood, the whole of which are taken from 
J^ljy pre-bdsal, which in the same manner 
has no past tenses or past participles, so the 
one makes up the other. Past (ji^-^-j^y pre- 
wast ; act. part, ^^^j^^j^^ pre-wastUnkaey, 
or ^j^)i,j{ pre-wastUnaey \ past part. 
Li"^>W jt?r^-;2?a5^a/a€y ; verb. n. <ui*jjjy 
pre-Tcastanahy or ^^i-»^^^ pre-wdstaA. 

^^y^ji pre-wdstaAf s.m. (6th) Sing, and PI. ; or 
^Us-j^^ pre-wastandAf s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) 
Propulsion, push, throw, toss, shy, projection, 
discharge; throwing, darting, flinging, dis- 
charging. V\, ^ey, 

Ja^^jj^ pre-nlndzal, verb trans. To wash, 
lave, purify. See JaHj 





^c«-*-j^ pre-yastcU, verb trans. To throw, propel, 
fling, dart, cast, project, discharge, hurl, 
chuck, etc. This verb, like J=--tL;i P^^' 
tcastal, is imperfect, and takes the present, 
future, and imperative from J->ljy pre-bdsal, 
which see. Past c:^m**-j^ pre-yast ; act. part. 
jjJljji-yyyjj^ pre^astiinkaey, or ^jJ^s**^^ pre- 
ijastHnaey ; past part. ^j^s^M^y^pre-yastalaey ; 
verb. n. ^'■-■mmj^ pre-yastana'A, or Ai-»Lj^ 

^^"niji pre-ycLstah, s.m. (6th) Sing, and PI. ; or 
<ui*^^ pre-yastana'hf s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Pro- 
pulsion, push, throw, toss, discharge, projec- 
tion, etc. PI. ^j ey. See ^^i-»'^^ and Ai^.^^^ 

J-}*-j^ pre^ashcd (W.), or pre-yaWwl (E.), 
verb trans. To discontinue, cease, desist, leave 
off, drop, lay aside, give over, relinquish, 
abandon, etc. This is another of the imper- 
fect verbs. It has no present, past, future, 
nor imperative, which are taken from J^r-jy 
prejzrdal and J^y pre-ihwal^ which see. 
Act. part. i^^-8*-i^ pre-ya^Unkaey or pre- 
ya^Unkaey, or ^jJ^-j^j^ pre-^adhunaey or 
pre-yaldtHnaey \ past part, ^ji-t^y jf>r^- 
yashalaey or pre-ya^cUaey^ or jj4«jy jf>r^- 
yashaey or pre-yaJAaey ; verb. n. <Uie^^ jE?r^- 
yashana^h or pre-yaJ^anah. 

«U4mj^ pre-yaihaTUjih or pre-ya^ana'hf s.f. 
(3rd) (verb, n.) Relinquishment, abandonment, 
desertion, discontinuance, dropping, abandon- 
ing, etc. PI. ^^ 6y. 

jjj /?^rr> adj. Conquered, ruined, beaten, over- 
come. 2. A gambling house. 3. The losing 
side. (Fem.) ij^j pcBzia^h. See j^ 

Jju^^ pcerr-kedaly verb in trans. To be over- 
come, conquered, foiled, worsted, beaten, etc. 

J/ j^ p(^rT'ka'^^li verb trans. To overcome, to 
conquer, foil, worst, beat, subdue, reduce, dis- 
comfit, etc. 

jIxJ P^TI-^hy 8-ni. A razor strop. See also JjJ 

lA-^ \J^xi P^^^ P^^> ^*^* ^^^^) ^ ^^ ^*^' 
PI. (^l-i-J 1^1^ prrdnplshdn; s.f. (3rd) ^^^ 

^ ;?2Tan plsha'A. PI. ^<^ ^|^ ;>£r<Iw 

/?!^ey. See JLj ^^j^ 

(^1^ ptrdng^ B.m. (oth) A tiger, a panther. 

PI. (^^IjJ px£dngdn \ s.f. (3rd) Afi\^ jpowiy- 

a'A. PI. ,^5ii VCCdngey. 
^^/yuo ^— ^Iri -P^T®^ jtn^, s.m. (5th) A wild or 

tiger cat. PI. ^^U*-j viili}^ prrdny plshdn; 

s.f. (3rd) ^L^ <^lii PtT^^ ptsha*A. PI. 

<U\j^ ^IH P^nr^wa'A TVUfTdna*A, s.f. (3rd) (fi/. 
loss and gain), Hazard, venture, gambling, 
betting, wagering, etc. PI. ,^ ey. See^ 

^jw^^ patr-pUSf s.m. (2nd) The lungs, the 
heart, liver, and lights of an animal. PI. 
^j-j^jj pa'CE-pusUnah. See ^^L 

^Uy3|j paxr-tUghdlSi^ s.m. (2nd) The fastening 
or string of a pair of drawers. PI. ^y^^j^ 

cl5^ pafs^'tuk, s.m. (2nd) Trowsers, drawers. 
PI. ^^yji parr-tukUnaA. See also Cij3^ 

xjj) parr-doih, s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of p ifj^) A 
curtain, a screen, a cover, a veil ; secrecy, 
privacy, modesty. PI. ^ ey. 

^y^j^ pdfX'Soh^ s.m. (2nd) A swelling ; swell- 
ing. PL ^yy^A parr-sobUnah, Also s-'^^^ 
pdrrsob. <-->^ parr-sob^ or Jj^ ^y^^^ 
pdfr-sob kawul, verb trans. To swell, to in- 
crease in size, to cause to expand, dilate, or 
increase. Also Jju.^^ parrsecUzl, verb 
intrans. To swell, expand, enlarge, gather, 
fill out, dilate. Pres. t^j^^Jl pafTse^ 
(W.), or ^^^j^ pafs^seyi (E.) ; past ju.^ J 
wu-pafTScda; fut. i^j-^j^ ^j ^nm bahpatr* 
sejzlf or ^J^j^ dj j wu bah patr-segl ; imp. 
^r-s^j^ J wurpa'ct-sej^ahf or *^^s^j^ J ^^^^ 
parr-segah ; act. part. ^jiLjjJu-*^ />«ir- 
scdUnkaey^ or ^j ju^ parr-sedUnaey ; past 
part. ^i.\j Mt^ pa'cr-sedalaey ; verb. n. 
jjs^jpafx^edana'A or 2Fju«a^ joa73^5e(2tiA. 
J>-jlJ pafT'Sarcul, verb trans. To make swell, 
to increase the size, bulk, dimensions of, to 
cause to rise, dilate, expand. Pres. ^^y^j^ 
paxr-sawl ; past *j^|j J wurpa'cr'Sdwuh^ or 
jj^Ljj J wu-paf^sdwo ; fut. i^j-^ *^ J ''^ 
bah pa'Cfsawl ; imp. ^^«4|J J tvu-paf^r-sawah; 
act. part. ^^Jofj^.«jpj jt^atr-'Min^i^nAaey, or 




^jj-j|j pafT-sawUnaey ; past part, ^^^j^ 
pafT-sawulaey ; verb. n. <0^jj parrsa- 

^^y^jd P^tT-^^^^^^f s.f. (Srd) (verb, n.) 
Causing to swell, rise, dilate, or expand. 
PI. ^ ey. 

XrJui^ parrsedana' h, s.f. (Srd) (verb, n.) or 
2FJu-j£ parr-secUtA, s.m. (6th) Sing, and PI. 
Swelling, distension, expansion, enlargement, 
increase of size, amplification. PI. ^ ey, 

^j^^j^parrsedalaey, adj. (past part.) Swelled, 
expanded, inflated; (Fern.) J»\r-»|j pajr- 
sedati, PI. (Masc. and Fem.) j^ u 

^^ parrak, s.m. (2nd) A razor strop. See 
^\j>. PL ^yjf parrakUnaA. 

cii^ parrak, s.m. (2nd) Agitation, palpitation, 
heaving, flutter, flurry, twitter, tremor, pant- 
ing, trepidation, wince, going pit-a-pat, etc. 
PI. ^J^jf^ parrak'UTiah. 

Jju^ parrakedal, verb intrans. To flutter, 

throb, palpitate, wince, writhe from pain, etc. 

Pres. i/j^j^ parrakej^ (W.), or ^^^j^^ 

pafToAeffi (E.) ; past Ju^ J wu-parrakeda ; 

fiit ^r^j^ ij ^ wu bah parra^jzh or <o J 

^J4j, ^^ ^^^ parrakegl ; imp. ^N-^ J w«^- 

farraieJzaA, or ^^i!-^ J wuparrakegah\ act. 

pwt. ^^Jojju^ parraJiedilnkaey, or ^jj^ju^ 

jnrrakedilnaey ; past part. ^ J^-(|J patrak- 
dalaey ; verb. n. ^ J^Xj patrakedana'A. See 
*» i^ cl^ and J Jui> 
ofj^parraAawul, verb trans. To agitate, cou- 
rse, disturb, perturb, flutter, ruffle, dis- 
order, throw into confiision. Pres. ^^^ 
P^rakan>i ; past y^l^ j wti-pafrakdwuA, or 
jj'^jj j n?M pofTokdwo ; fut. ^5^ ^ ^ wu 
^parraAawi ; imp. *jl^ J wu-pafs^akawaA ; 
wtpart. ^^Jojj^ parrakawunAaey, or ^^^ji 
P^rrakamUnaey ; past part, ^j^ parrak" 
^''^ttlaey ; verb. n. *Jjl^ parrakawuna'A. See 

^'/jj pofraiawuna'A, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Agi- 
tuting, convulsing, fluttering, perturbing, 
*«orfering, etc. PI. ^^. 

Mtf^CJ^ pafscak MffcaxraX^ verb trans. To 


flutter, to tremble, to become agitated (Eng. 
verb intrans.) See Jjl^ 

CSj^ parrkf s.m. (2nd) A crowd, a throng, a 
press, a mob, a horde, a posse, a body, a 
tribe, a gang, a knot, a crew, a swarm, a 
shoal, a bevy, a flock, a herd, a drove, a 
corps, a troop, a squad, a company, a squadron, 
etc. etc. PI. <0j^ parrkunah. Ci^ wl^ 
parrk'parrkj or C^ <o vJLi|^ parrkpaAparrky 
In bodies, in knots, in droves, etc. 

jj.^ parrkaey, s.m. (1st) The leg from the 
ankle to the knee. PI. ^^ I, 

'^j^parr maMi, adj. Fallen (on the face), upset, 
face downwards ; (Fem.)4i^joarT;wa/^7<. 
See ^y^ and ^j^. Jjy^^ jj^^^ parr 
mayh pre-watal, verb intrans. To fall on the 
face, to upset, to fall with the face down- 
wards. L5*^ parr-maldia^y, adj. Upset, 

Jjjjy L5^ji pO'TT'^'i^Mi^^ pre-Tvatal, verb 
intrans.To fall on the face. 

Ciojj prrang, s.m. (5th) Cry, whine, whimper, 
PI. j^jj prrangaAdr. Jjb^ ^*^ji prrany 
rcahal, verb trans. To cry, to whine. 

C&jj prrangy s.m. (9th) The leprosy. Sing, 
and PI. ^>6jj prrangaey, s.m. (1st) A leper. 
PI. ^ %. ^j^jj prranga\ s.f. (6th) A female 
leper. Sing, and PI. See tl^ and ^^**-j 

^Jhiy) pa'crU'kaey, s.m. (1st) A strip, a fillet, a 

" band, a ribbon, a small piece of rope, a shred, 
bit, a driblet, a tatter. PI. j^ ?. ,^jj ^/jlri 
parrU'H parrU-kl, In shreds, in tatters. 

JjUi -P^22*^^^^> verb trans. To charm by breath- 
ing or blowing on, to juggle. Pres. ^>Vjj 
parrawi ; past ir^l^^ J wu-parrdwuh, or ^^j^ J 
wu-parrdwo; fut. jjtjj^ ij ^wu baApairram ; 
imp. 2fj^ J wU'parrawaA ; act, part. ^jJujjj^ 
parrawUnkaey, or j^j>jjjj parrawunaey ; past 
part, ^^j^ parrawulaey ; verb. n. <^jjJ 

^jj pa^rrU-naeg, s.m. (1st) A veil, a sheet, a 
mantle worn by women. PI. ^^ !. See also 

^Jff- and Ji V 
2r^ pmrroLA, s.f. (Srd) Losing at play, failure, 

repulse, defeat, fall, discomfiture ; a losing 




game. PI. ^^ ey. JjJT *|j pcBtra^h drrarvul, 
verb trans. To discomfit, to make to fail. 

ijbj parr-ha'A, s.f. (3rd) A shoe, a slipper. PL 
^jj parr-hey. See <UjVj and d^^ 

^ijj parraey, s.m. (1st) A cord, a small rope, a 
line, a thread, a string in general. PL ^ I. 
See ^^^, ^, and ^J^\^ 

Jjij jj pdz wahal, verb trans. To squeeze out, to 
squash, to mash, to soften, to crush, to beat 
into a pulp. 

*jj pazcHh, s.f. (3rd) The nose. PL ^^ pazey, 
ijj icj>' ddtah'pazdhy or aj^ aJj plana'h 
paza'h, or 2^ ^L2j pita'h pazdh^ A flat or 
broad nose; ^^ '^^-^ ^^^^ pazaey, etc. A 
person with a broad or flat nose, flat nosed ; 
(Fem.)jj &:l>- chita'h pazi, etc. PL (Masc. 
and Fern.) ^^ i. See ijy^ 

JjuiJ^ *ji P<^^^ wlnedal, verb intrans. To fall 
a bleeding (the nose). J^j ^ pazcCh win- 
ajvulf verb trans. To cause or make the nose 
tobleed, to give one a bloody nose. 

j^ pas, adv. After, behind ; at length, then, 
therefore, finally. ^^ i^J da^ahpas, After 
that. ^^ U <o joaA md pasty After me, etc. 
^^ \j rd past, After me, or us. ^^ ^ J (far 
pasiy After thee, or you. ^j^ jj war j^ow, 
Afl^er him, etc. or them. 

^^ pceSf s.m. (5th) A dumb fart. PL jlfw-j 
pcBsahdr, J^T (j-*^ jd^ks ddiawul, verb trans. 
To break wind, 

o^Lywj joowa^, s.m. (2nd) (from a jLJ) Depra- 
vity, iniquity, wickedness, mischief. 2. Vio- 
lence, war, sedition, rebellion. PL <uyLyj 
pasdtunah. Jj^ cijLj jooaS^ kawulf verb 
trans. To make mischief, to rebel, to create 

J^ l5*^ lH, P^ pdsey kawul, verb trans. To 
whisper in the ear, to address in a low voice. 

^Lmj p^8dn, s.m. (2nd) A sharpening stone, a 
grinding stone, on which swords are sharp- 
ened (s ft^, Grind or reduce to powder). PL 
iUyL«j p^sdn-UnaA. 

p i^L^'^^uj past, adj. Low, abject, lower, below ; 
(Fern.) 4&W pasta* A, 

PL 1^ f . See ^-^jj and ^-^ 

pastanaA, adv. Aiter, subsequently, since, 
behind, at the tail of, in the rear of. Ais^^ 
JjjjU- pastanaA jdr-watal, verb intrans. To 
retire, to turn back, to recede, to withdraw. 

yu*j paS'tu, s.m. (5th> An inner room with but 
one entrance. PL ^jWJa-*fc> pas-4ilffdn. 

^yjwMj paS'tUnaey, 8.m. (1st) The name of a 
tree. PL ^^ I. 

dtuMj pasta* A, adj. (Fem. of vi-^jj) Soft, tender, 
supple, ductile. 2. Afl;er, subsequently. PI 

p Aiw pista*A, s.f. (3rd) A pistachio nut. PL ij^qf- 

p j;*yj joow-^, s.f. (8rd) Inferiority, lownesfi, 
meanness. PL ^\ a'l. 

Jjk-iw pastedalf verb intrans. To become cr 
grow soft, tender, supple, ductile, yieldiiig» 
gentle, tractable. J>i*^ pastawul, verb tra»B; 
To make or render soft, tender, ductile, jid^' 
ing, etc. Also written Jju^-*^ posedal 9Si^ 
^}y>^y posawuL See cu^^ 

cJli***i pas'l^dkf s.m. (2nd) Sorrow, grirf, difl 
tress, woe, affliction. PL A3/U-**i pas-M^ 
UnaA. See c3L*£k; 

p ifjjy>^ j^ joflw Murda'A, s.f. (3rd) LeavinfiSC 
renmants, relics, reftise, offiJs. PL ^^ ey. 

JLi^ pasMa'A, s.f, (3rd) A clod of mud used i> 
building walls, not quite so soft as the uaO* 
mud used for mortar. PL ^^i^ pas-J^ey* 

^d^ psar-laey, or pasaT-laey^ s.m. (Ist) Tk« 
spring. PL ^ f . See also ^J;--» 

p ^j ^ pas rau, s.m. (6th) A follower. 2- A 
dependant. 3. Train, equipage. PL ^jj 4^ 
joa3 rawa/i; s.f. (3rd) h^ ^j**j pas^awa^ 
PL ^J €y. 4^jj^ ^^ pas rawi, s.f. (Srd) Fol- 
lowing. PL ^^ a*t. 

jCJ pcBsAaX s.f. (6th) A dumb fart. Sing. •»* 
PL ^jCJ iJj\j or Ai;\^ J {fa kar-^akf (^ 
kdr-gnaA pmkaX s.f. (6th) A smdl 6**" 
water shell, a snail's shell (Jit. ' A crow's fert*).* 
Sing, and PL See ^VTj^ 

p jcmm«j pasand, s.m. (9th) Choice, approbation' 
Sing, and PL 2, adj. or part. ApprovA 


gratefal, approying, choosing ; (Fern.) sx^ 
pasandah, ,x,4uj J j dilpasand, adj. Agree- 
able, grateftd to the heart. jj.«uj ^Js^ J^akk 
pasandf adj. Approving what is just and right. 
Jjj jjwywj pasandredalj verb intrans. To be ap- 
proved or chosen, to please, to like, to prefer. 
Pres. i^rJ*^^ pasandej^ (W.), or ^Jj jjmuj 
pasandegl (E.) ; past ^ J Xow pasand wu- 
MaA, or ^ jcyuu pasand shah ; fiit. tX««uj 
-^ <o pasand bah ski, or ^^ J <o iaA n?w- 
shl ; imp. ^ J jjmmj pasand wu-skah, or 
^ jcyyuj pasand shah ; act. part. ^jil)j jj jjlmj 
pasandedUnhaey or L^^«3jjaMj pasandedun- 
aey ; -past part. |^^ jcyyuj pasand skawacy ; 
verb.n. ^jjjcmuj pasandedanah, 

Jjj>',,..j pasand-awul, verb trans. To approve, 
like, be pleased with, to commend, to choose. 
Pres. ^^^.^:yybJ pasandawi; past a^ J jjmuj 
pasand wu-kah ot jf ^wu karr, or j;i^ 4Xi*uj 

pasand kah or J karr; fiit. kS \ ^, ^^^^"^^ 
pasand bah wu-ki or ^^J ^ i«A wu-krrl, 
or ^-i^ ^ jjumj pasand bah hi or i^ <u 
6aA Am; imp. a^J jcyuu pasand wu-kah 
OT 9J J wU'hfrah, or <iL^ »xi-a*j pasand hah or 
jf^ Arr^^; ^t. part. i^j^J^^ pasand- 
awUnhaey, or l^j[^ojmmj pasandawUnaey ; past 
part, ^ij? ^yywj pasand karr aey \ verb. n. 
4j^jkiMj pasandamandh. 
p irjjjc^ pasandidahy adj. Chosen, approved 

of, choice, liked, agreed to. 

jy^ psoTy s.m. (2nd) Breadth, latitude, broad- 
ness. V\. i:i^jy»^ psorUnah. j^jyuj psorawar, 
adj. Broad, wide; (Fem.) ^jj^***J psorawardk, 

J^ />W, s.m. (2nd) A necklace or belt of 
gold or silver coins worn by women. PI. 
jJfjLuj p'saiunahy or ij^yui p'solunak. 

Jj||^ p'solawuly verb trans. To deck (with 
jewels), to bedeck, to ornament, to adorn, to 
decorate, to gamish, to bedizen, to embellish, 
to trick out, etc. Pres. gr^^ p'solarol ; past 

JFpt^ J WU^*SOldWUk; fot. Lif^y^J ijiwu 

bahp'solawl ; imp. m^^mj ^wu-p'solawak ; act. 
part ^jijjj^yMj^ p'soUmUnkaey or ^^)y**i 



psolawUnaey ; past part. jjJjJ^ p'solawul- 
aey ; verb. n. <0j!^ p^solawunah. 

^^yui^p'solawulaey, adj. (past part.) decked out, 
bedecked, adorned, ornamented, decorated, 
bedizened, tricked out, embellished; (Fem.) 
J/r^ p'solawuli. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ ?. 

^^ psunaey, s.m. (1st) An ambush, an am- 
buscade, a lurking place, a cover. PI. jc L 

J:ujL--4»^ ^^^ sAr*i H ^^'* J^^^^^ kshey, or 
A^6y kshenastal, or kjffiendstaly verb trans. 
To lie in ambush. See ^^i^ g^ 

<Uj josaA, s.m. (2nd) The general name for 
goats and sheep. PI. a3^ psUnak. See Hji, 

<^-uwJ paslnak, adj. Late (sown) as a field, last, 
posterior, (p ^J^i^). See Ai-^ 

{Jij^ p<B$kf s.m. (5th) A blacksmith. 2. Forcing 
the air out of a bag or bladder. PI. ^^lij 

(jij (jAk> pash-pask, Words used in calling a cat. 

p ^J:-^AJ pu^ty s.m. (2nd) The back. 2. Pro- 
genitors, ancestry. 3. The reservoir of a 
karez. 4. A prop, a second, an assistant. 
PI. ijjJLj pusktunak, i^^jSjj sj cuJLj pusht 
bak pusht, From generation to generation. 
2. Back to back. See jAj-j 

izJli^ pasktah, A word used in driving away 
a cat. 

P^riMj puskti, s.f. (3rd) Support, a prop. 2. 
Alliance, aid. PI. ^^ a\ Jj^ ^jJ^^ puskti 
hawul, verb trans. To assist, to" second, to 
aid, to support. ^ l^-^mj puskt-fflr, An 
aider, a seconder, a support; (Fem.) ts^vlj 
ij^ pusht-glrd! h, 

^jJ^ psharlaey, s.m. (1st) A kid or lamb when 
about a year old. V\. ^x\ s.f. (6th) ^>J/wLj 

psharlaX A female kid or lamb as above. 

Sing, and PI. 
uXu^ pishak, s.m. (2nd) A kind of ringworm. 

2. A vulture. PI. ^^^ pishahlnah. See 

^^£s^, .^^, and cJUo 
^liLuo pash'kdlaey, s.m. (Ist) Hay. PI. j^ f . 
p Jmj^ pashm, s.m. (2nd) Fur, hair, wool. PI. 

ijy^jli pashm-Unah, 
p ^c-^-uo paskm-l, adj. Woollen, hairy. 





V ^^4J^ pash-minak, adj. Woollen, woollen 

y^ pisho, s.m. and f. (5th) A cat. PI. ^%^^ 

pisho-gm ; Fern. pi. iS^y*^^ pisho-gdnl. See 

P\,^\ij\jpiTdnffdn; s.f. {3TA)i£>\j^yS^^pL^o 
prrdngcbhy A female wild cat. PI. ^ ey. 
See also yij ^J^j^ 

,^^:>^yLipisho]^u% s.m. (Gth) The name of the 
seed or berry of a tree made into necklaces 
for cattle. Sing, and PI. 

^J^yij pishon-garraey, s.m. (Ist) A male 
kitten. PI. ^ I ; s.f. (6th) ^^ a'f. Sing, 
and PI. 

^JJ^ pashak or piskak, and ^j^^ pashey or 
pishey, A word used in driving away a cat. 

^^ju*j pishacyy s.m. (1st) A he cat. PI. ^ l. 
^c*^ piskl ; s.f. (5th) A she cat. PI. j^U^^j 
pishidniy or (JLij pishldnl ; and ^^^ pishai, 
s.f. (6th). Sing.'and PI. 

licu^j puldttun-M^ (E.) or pushtun-Mid (W.), 
or i^icuMfj puJSitun-J^wd or pushtun-M^d, 
s.f (6th) The Afghan country, Afghanistan 
(from jjSmw Afghan and Ul or 1^ side, quarter, 
locaHty) (E.), Sing, and PI. ; (W.), PI. ^^jUl 
Midwi, or u^j'^ Mwa/2?!. 

^jjl^ j^;a4J pu/Sktun-wdlaet/ or pvJhtun-wdlaey, 

** s.m. (1st) The manners and customs of the 
Afj^an tribes, the Afghan code. PI. A\^ 
rvdli. Also ^j ^ji^ pu^tun-^uli or je?2^- 
tun-wuli, s.f, (3rd). PI. ^^ at; and ^jX«w 
4^y/ puJ^tun-galwi or pushtun-galwiy s.f. 
(8rd). PI. ^^ a'!. 

jS4j puJ^to (E.), ot pushto (W.), Qt pashtOy s.f. 
(9th) The language of the Afghan tribes, the 
Afghan language. Sing, and PI. 

^jj^ puJffitawargah (E.) or pti^tawargah 
(W.) and palMcmargcih or pashtawargdhj 
s.f. (3rd) A kidney. PI. ^^ g^. 

jjj^xAj pu/ffitUn (E.) or ptcshtUn (W.), sm. 
(4th) An Afghan, one whose language is the 
Pu^to or PuKhto. PL ^la4j puWitdnah or 
pusktdnahy <u:>4j puKktanoih or pushtaruiUhy 

s.f. (3rd). An Afghan female. PI. ^ ^. 
^^S4j y bar-pu^Sitiln or bar-pu^Un, The 
Upper or Higher Afghans, theWestem Afghans, 
or all those inhabiting the country west of 
the Khaiber Pass. ^f>^ J Uxr^us^Un or 
lar-puHhtUn, The Lower or Eastern AfgbfiBS, 
those east of the Khaiber. 

^z^ puBtaJh (E.) or pu^ta'A (W.), si (8rd) 
AUtUehill. Pl.^^. (Pd^> 

j:^^ puMtdi (E.) or pushtd!% (W.), s.f. (6th) 
^A rib, the ribs. Sing, and PI. 
JU5J puWitl (E.) or pusha (W.), s.f. (8rd) 
Inquiry, search, quest, pursuit, scrutinyi in- 
vestigation, examination. PI. ^ a\ 

JjuXiij puJch'tedal (E.) or pu^-tedal (W.), 
verb trans. To ask, inquire, question, iaterro- 
gate, require an answer, etc. Pres. ^A-rj 
puJchtl or pttshti ; past Jur^o J wu-pu^UiA 
or wU'pushtcda ; fut. l<-4^ i^'^wfi bahpu&^ 
or pttshti ; imp. ^ta^j J wtirpu^tah or w^- 
pushtak \ act. part, ^^ijjj^^c^^pujj^ted&n^ 
or pushtedunkaeyy or ^^ Jua^j pufffttedun^ 
or pti^tedUnaey ; past part. ^ jua^j puB^ 
dalaey or pu^tedalaey, or vjju54j puf^tedr 
aey or puJhtedaey] verb. n. ^js^a^ puf^ 
dana'h or pushteda/nolhy or <i;.r.4J pulBita»AA 
or pusktanoHhy or jfJu::^j puj^tedah OTpu^' 

ij juXAj pufSitedana'A (E.) ovpti^tedana'h (V.)> 
and <us4J puTMancCh or puJhtancihy 8.f. (Sp^^ • 
(verb, n.) Inquiry, search, quest, purwrf** 
scrutiny, interrogation, examination, askingf 
questioning. PI. ^J ^ ; or i^ Jus^j puW^i^ 
or pusktedah, 8.m. (6th). Sing, and PL 

^^ paWto-ya'hy s.f. (3rd) The act of namiJ* 
orthography, the manner of forming wflP^ 
with letters, spelling. PI. ,J ^. See ate^ 

^ jD^'A (E.) oTpshdh (W.), B.f. (3rd) lleftofc 
a foot-mark, a track. PL ,^4J /?^ky otfi^' 
i3j\ 4t4j jD^a'A or^a'A (2.) or j^^a'A fl*^^ 
(W.), s.f. (3rd) (Ut. 'foot released') Thefil^ 
visit of the lover to the house of his betrotha^* 
PI. ^ ey. ^^j ^ d(4J pihdhpak rikdh.^y 




, waiting, foot in stirrup. J-j ^^aj 
yabcU, adj, Bare-footed. See ^ 
9a/^imdn (E.) or pacinian (W.), adj. 
at, sorrji abashed, disgraced, ashamed, 
ant; (Fern.) jjU;^ paWamwnci h or 
%ana*h. Jju^ i:;W*W paWilman or 
lan ^^id^, verb intrans. To repent, to 
ished, to be sorry, etc. J^ ^U-^j 
%an or pastaman karcul, verb trans. To 
to make ashamed, disgrace. (p^U^). 
9a^Ii9ia72l (E.) or pashimdnl (W.), s.f. 
Disgrace, regret, sorrow, penitence, re- 
ce, shame. PI. ^ a\ 
hldkf s.f. (3rd) A maiden, a virgin. 
ey. See <&1jw 

tr, s.m. (5th) A beggar, a mendicant. 
^ paJardrif s.f. (3rd) ijJj pakirdHi, 

, s.m. (9th) Opportunity, suitable or 
time, turn, juncture, crisis, chance, 
k of time. Sing, and PL Jy» Ik^ uJo 
atd ^wal^ or J Ju^ kedal, verb intrans. 
lost (as an opportunity, opening, 
i), etc. 

ir, or jl^ <o pah kdr^ adj. Of use, useful, 
lable, helping, conducive, available, 
re, eflfectual. J^J^ j^ ^ P<^^ kdr 
verb intrans. To be usefiil, servdce- 
!onducive, available, etc. J^ J^ <u 
wr kawulf verb trans. To use, to em- 
to hold, to turn to account, to make 
)Bt of. 

', s.m. (5th) Poverty, the practice of 
r or derwe^. PI. ^^^^ pakrunah. 

i/, verb trans. To chuck into the mouth 
he palm of the hand, as grain, meal, 
Pres. ,^ paki ; past cJlj j wu-paka, 
J j wurpdkdh ; fut. Jo ^ ^ wu bah 
imp. aC J wii^kah ; act. part. ^J-^^^ 
^0^, or ^ji^o pakunaey\ past part. 
nkalaey ; verb. n. <u^ pakanah. See 

(-&}'{/ 8.f. (6tb) The name of a small 

state north of Attak. Jlj *!X> pak-lcUl redly 
s.m. (5th) an inhabitant or native of Pak-la*l. 
Sing and PI. ; s.f (3rd) djij -lij jmk-lcil- 
wdlah, PI. ^1^ *!Jo pak'lcii ridley. 
^ pako, adj. Astonished, confounded, amazed, 
wondering ; (Masc. and Fern.) J^ ^ pako 

sh'rcal, or Jju^ kedaly verb, intrans. To be- 
come astonished, amazed. J^^o pako karcul, 
verb trans. To confound, to astonish, to make 

^ pakahf s.f (3rd) A small quantity sufficient 
for one throw with the hand into the mouth, 
as Orientals take physic. PI. ^ ey, 

Jj^^ 6isi pakoHh rcahaly verb trans. To chuck 
into the mouth from the palm of the hand, as 
ffrain, meal, etc. See Jij and <u^ 

^jjSj pag-rralf s.f (6th) A turband. Sing, and 

"""pi. (hi ^}j\ 

j^ pagarm, s.m. (9th) The name of the eleventh 
month of the Hinda year, — February-March, 
(ui ^^l^). Sing, and PI. 

Jj pal, s.m. (4th) A mill-stone, a potter's wheel. 
2. The foot of man or beast, a pace, a step, a 
footstep. 3. A truck, a small wooden wheel. 
PI. Aj^ plunah. 

8 Jj paly s.m. (9th) A moment, the twinkling 

of an eye, a short space of time. Sing, and 
p J^ puly S.m. (2nd) A bridge, an embankment. 

PI. Aj^ pulunah. 

Jj pcely adj. Exempted, absolved, exonerated, 
acquitted, pardoned, let off, forgiven, passed 
over. Fem. <0j pcelah. See J^ 

h pldy s.f. (6th) A journey, tour, passage from 
one place to another, trip, excursion, ramble, 
jaunt. 2. One time, one turn, a moment, 
time, period. PL gr^L pldrcl (W.); (E.) 
Sing, and PL J^ 5b pld karvul, verb trans. 
To journey, to travel, to go on a journey. 
5b x^ yaroijUh pl^y adv. Once, one time. 

^ pldr, s.m. (2nd) A father. PL <0jj;5b pldr- 
Unah, or (W.) ^^J^^ plar-unah. Ujjlb pldr- 
tt% s.f, (6th) Paternity, fatherliness.'' (E.) 





Sing, and PI.; (W.) PI. i^yuj ildrfvl; and 
i^y^ji> pldr-ffalivi, s.f. (Srd) PI. ^^ a!l. 

^j^Jij pldr-marraey , adj. as a.m. (let) A child 
who has lost its father, an orphan; (Fern.) 
X*jH pldr-marri. PI. (Masc. and Fern.) ^^f. 
See iU.1 

jJL pldla'h, s.f. (3rd) Bice-straw. PI. ^h 

ijh paldfrncCh, s.f. (3rd) Water brought in skins 
from a distance, a load of water. PI. ^ ey. 

p ^ puldOy a.m. (2nd) A dish made of flesh, 
rice, raisins, etc. PI. ^j^l> pulao-Unah. 
A» palUan, s.f. (1st) A regiment, a battalion 
of soldiers. PL ^jjj palUani. 

J^ palaUal, verb'trans. To twist, to distort, to 
bend, to involve, to wind, to coil, to screw, 
to envelope, etc. 2. To look for, seek, search, 
inquire, to look out for, trace, investigate, 
pursue. Pres. ^^jIj palattl ; past ^^ J 7vu 
paldUah ; fiit. ^-^Ij ^ J w:m bah palattl ; imp. 
i^ i rvu palaitah ; act. part. ,j^j5^ palaU- 
unkaeyy or ^ji^ palaUunaey; past part. 
^>i^ palaUalaey ; verb. n. ^u^ij palattana'k, 
*ijjj plar-gana'if s.f. (6th) The relations or 
fwnUy of one's father, paternal relations. 
Sing, and PI. See ^jy 

c^^oJj palagkaty adv. Quickly, sharply, swiftly, 
speedily, apace. Also written ls^ <0 pah 

p (JjCJj palak or pilaky s.m. (2nd) The eyelid ; 
a moment, an instant. PI. ^^^ palakunah 
ov pilakUnaA. 

uJl^ palkf s.m. (2nd) A sledge-hammer. PI. 
<oylb pcelkunah. See CS^^ 

i^\^ Jj pal gwdBiOLk (E.), or pal-gwdMh 
(W.), s.f. (3rd) A loop, a noose, the heel 
ropes to picket a horse by. PI. ^^ ^. See 
also ^Lc ^^^, i^gMjyf, and f^jjja^ 

^A) palma'hy s.f. (3rd) Falsehood, false pre- 
tences, slander, calumny, deception, untruth. 
PI. ^ ey, jy <uL palmdh kawuly verb, 
trans. To make false pretences, to practice 
deception, to tell lies. See jy 

^ plan, adj. Broad, wide, extensive, spacious ; 

(Fem.) <lJj plana* k, ^\j J^^ plan wdlaey, 
s.m. (1st) Breadth, width, extension, space, 
latitude. PI. J|^ wall. 
Jjuib plan-edal, verb intrans. To widen, to 
extend, to grow wide, to outspread, to dilate, 
to expand, to become wide. Pres. 4/i-il{ 
plan-ejzl (W.), or ^J^^ plan-^gl (E.) ; past. 
^J^ Jb plan shah, or <ti J ^^ plan wu-^ai; 
fut. ^ <u Jij plan bah shi, or J^ j ^. Ji 
plan bah wu-shl ; imp. ^ J Jb plan m- 
shah ; act. part. ^>io>j JuJj pUmedUnkaey^ or 
(J^ juJj planedilnaey ; past part. Jb ploHf or 

S?y* c^ P^^ shawaey; verb. n. A)jJj 
planedana*h, or ^JuJlj planedaA, 

JyJj plan-awul, verb trans. To render broai 
or wide, to widen, to extend, to outspread. 
Pres. 4^^ planawl ; past J J^^ plan kat! 
or <^ hah, or i^ ^ Jb plan wti-kah or ^ 3 
wu'karr ; fut. ^^ <u ^ jo/lan JaA ^m ^' 
^ <u iaA A^, or s4^ ^ Ajjij plan ft^ 
WM-Am or ^i" j <u iaA ww-^ ; imp. ii ^^^ 
/?faw ^A or ij krrah, or i^ ^ Jb plan iV^ 
hah or ij j ww-ArraA ; act. part. ^^)y^ 
planarcunkaey , or ^^jt^ planawUfiaey ; p»* 
part, v^ ^jJj jo/iaw karraey ; verb. n. ^^^^ 

•jjj plan-dar, s.m. (2nd) A step-father. I^ 
^jj^ jjj plan-ddmnah. See ^^^^ 

*^ planddcHh, s.f. (3rd) A load for the h©«< 
a bundle carried on the head. PI. ^ ey. 0^ 
LT^,^ and HiXJ 

s (.ifclj palang, s.m. (5th) A bed, a bedste* 
PI. ^liJj paiangdn, or s.m. (2nd). I** 
^j^luL palangUnah. See Cioi^^ 

^ j!7a/aw, s.m. (2nd) The hem or border O^ ^ 
garment ; side, margin, border, edge, xett^ 
PI. ^j^ palauUnah (hi jb paili). 

^^^^ pul^dMah (E.), or pul^wd^ah (W^'» 
s.f. (3rd) A loop, a noose ; the heel-ropes ^ 
picketing a horse. PI. ^^ ey. See i^S^M^ 
^^ys, iJ^\jL, d4»^, and ^^^^ 

j^ jpfor, s.m. (6th) Buying and aeOing; f0^ 
disposal. Sing, and PI. 

Jjjb plaral, yerb trans. To sell, to diapoi^ ^ 





to vend, to retail. Pres. i^j^ plarl; past 
J^j J fvu plara, or jr^jL J w?m plorah ; fiit. 
s?-;^ ^ j n?M teA jofori ; imp. if^jL J n;w- 
plorahy or i;^ plcrah ; act. part, i^jy^ 
plor-Unkaey, or jj3jyjL plor-Unaey ; past paoi;. 
^j^^ ploralaey i verb. n. ^j^ plararuCh. 

See also JJj^, J^^, and Jjj^ 

^Ld|^ paiU^hy 8.f. (3rd) The name of a thorny 
tree nsed for fael only. PI. ^ ey. ^ ^ 
^^ £&( ^ra palu-sey, The mountain 
species of the tree, which attains a large 
size, and from which charcoal is made. 

4LljL paloska'h, s.f. (3rd) A ray of light, as of 
the sun, a lamp, etc. PI. ^ ey. 

44»jb pulmasha!h (W.), or pulwafduCh (E.) s.f. 
(3rd) A loop, a noose, a button-hole ; the heel 
ropes of a horse. PI. ^ ey. See ^\j!j, 
<il2iLc, etc. 

J^ pulawul, verb trans. To let off, to let go, 
to forgive, to remit, to pass over, to absolve, 
to dispense with, to exempt, to acquit, to set 
aside, to give dispensation, Pres. ^^ put- 
(uvl; past J Jj pal kafr, or J J nm-karr; 
fiit. ^jf ^ Jj pal bah krri, or i^J J <u baA 
wurkrri ; imp. zj^ Jj peel krrah, or tj j wu- 
krrah ; act. part. ^V-^jj^ pulawunkaey, or 
^^^ ptdawUnaey; past part, ^g^ J^ je?^/ 
karraey ; verb. n. ^0^ pularvuna'k. See J^ 

OJjb pal^anddt adj. Foolish, silly, senseless, 
imbecile, weak-minded, half-witted ; (Fem.) 
ijjjb paJrwandah. c^y JJjL pal-wand-tob, 
8.nL (2nd) Stupidity, poverty of intellect, 
silliness, imbecility. PI. ^yy tob-Uruih, or 
^^jJ^ pal-fvandt, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^^ a'l. 

J juijL plonedal, verb intrans. and Jy^ j9/{?n- 
oirtr/, verb trans. See J«su^ 

aL pala'A, s.f. (3rd) A tendon, sinew, a nerve. 
2. (p) The basin of a balance, a scale, the cup 
of a mill, the sole of the foot, etc. 3. (p) 
The shutter or fold of a door. 4. One of a 
pair, one side or part of anything. 5. 
Margin, side, brink (hi). PI. ^ ey. 

^jy i\j pala'h pari 9 adj. Shut, closed, shut 
ftat as a door, window, etc.; joined, con- 

nected, united. Jju^ ^jy A» palah porl 
kedal, verb intrans. To become shut or closed 
(as a door), to unite, to become joined or 
connected, Jj^ ^jy t^ palah porl kawul, 
verb trans. To shut, shut up, close, put to, 
join, imite, connect, etc. See ^jy <0y 

^ pala% s.f. (6th) A spoke, or the spokes of 
a wheel. Sing, and PI. 

^jjj palaey^ s.m. (Ist) A pod, the seed vessel of 
beans, peas, and such like plants, PI. ^ 7. 
See iji^ 

^^palaeyy adj. On foot. ^Jj Jit d! lah ceakla 
palaeyf adj. Foolish, void of understanding, 
weak in intellect; (Fem.) J-j pali. PI. 
(Masc, and Fem.) ^x. 

P u:--vJj patitf adj. Unclean, polluted, impure, 
defiled; (Fem.) 6c^ pallia' h, ^^s^Ajpatit- 
edal, verb intrans. To become polluted, im- 
pure, defiled, etc. Pres. f^j^pA>^ patit-ejzi 

(W.), or L^S^ysJ^ patit-egi (E.) ; past ci-^L 
<l2) patit shah, or ^ J i^^Jj patit wu-shah ; 

ftit. ^JL Aj vj:.^ paht bah shl, or ^ 
,^ J palit bah wu-shl ; imp. ^J^ c:-^ patit 
shah, or ^ J cu^ patit wu-shah ; act. part. 
^^^j*x^p^^patit'edunka€y, or ^^s^cJ^paltt- 
edunaey ; past part. ^^^ (^>^Jj patit-sharc- 
a€y\ verb. n. i^j^^pJ^ patitedana'h. 

JyuL patitawul, verb trans. To defile, to pol- 
lute, to render impure. Pres, ^ji-b pa- 
lltam ; past jf i^^Jl> joafi^ ^azr or i^ hah, 
OT J ^ ui^Jij joa/i^ wU'katr or J;^ J ttw- 
AaA ; ftit. f^J <u cr^vjb jpaft^ bah krri or i' 
^i, or ^J^ J ^ LT-^j patit bah wu-hrrl or 
^ J <u iaA n?w-^ ; imp. 2f^ LS>>Jb jE?a^^ 
krrah or j;^ ^A, or sj i LS-^-b jt^oo^ «?m- 
^rraA or j;^ J wu-kah ; act. part, ^j^^yjj 
palitawUnhaey, or ^^yuL patitawUnaey ; 
past part. ^J^f ls-^j joaft^ karraey ; verb. n. 
^^iJj patitawuna'h. 

p^juL paliti, s.f. (3rd) Uncleanness, impurity, 
foulness. PI. ^V a'l. 

^ ^^paley tarm. s.m. (2nd) A weaver's beam. 
PI, aJjj^ ^ jpo/ey tocc^noA. See jj ^ 

p jJj j9a/!^, adj. Impure, unclean, de^ed. 



polluted; (Fern.) yj>,gJ j paUda'h, See 
' \^^^y etc. 
p c/OuL palidl, or ^^Jij palUl, s.f. (3rd) Pollu- 

tioiii impurity^ uncleanlineBS, defilement, etc. 

PI. 1^ ai. 
aj pam, 8.m. (2nd) Scab, itch, mange, scurf. 

PI. i^y^ pamufiah. 
JLssa^ pam-badiaHiy s.f. (3rd) The stalk of the 

cotton plant, generally used for fuel. PI. ^ 
ey. See t^, ^-w4j 

^^ pamariy adf. Scabby, mangy, scurfy, itchy ; 
(Fern.) <u^ pamana'h, t-jy ^^-^j paman tob, 
s.m. (2nd) PI. «Oyy tobunah ; or ^^^ ^^ 
paman-wdldey, s.m. (1st) Scabbiness, mangi- 
ness, scurfiness, the quality of being scabby. 
PI. ^\^ wall. 

Jju:»-«j pamafiedal, verb intrans.To become 
scabby, mangy, scurfy, to become inocu- 
lated with the scab or itch. Pres. ^^ ^ ;4^ 
pamanej^i (W.), or ^^J^t^ pamanegl (E.) ; 
past <C» ^^ paman shah, or ^ J ^^^ paman 
wU'skah ; fut. ^A iO ^j-^^j paman bah sht, or 
L5^ J ^ cT*^ Jt?a>;wiw iaA wu-shi] imp. ^^ 
<Ui paman skahy or <lJ* J ^j^ paman wu- 
shah ; act. part, ^jiljjjui^ pamanedUnkaey, or 
^jj^jui^ pamanedunaey ; past part, ^j^ or 
S^>-^ ^^ paman shawaey; verb. n. <Oju.;^j 
pamanedana'h, or »Ju:^j pamanedah. 

J^^ pomanawul, verb trans. To inoculate with 
the scab,itch,or mange. Pres.ij|^iA;^a»wfwa?ri ; 
past ^ ^^^ paman karr or j;^ ^a^, or^S^ J ^^ 
paman wvrkarr or A^ J wurkah ; fiit. <u ^^ 
^i paman bah krrl or ^ ij bah kl^ or <u ,j^ 
^^ J paman bah wu-hrrl or ^^ J <o iaA ww- 
^I ; imp. Sj^ ^^ paman krrdh or ii kahy or 
^ J er*^ paman wu-krrah or j;^ J wu-kah ; act. 
part. ^j-i!^^y»^ pamanawUnkaeyy or ^J-Jj^-*^ 
pamanawUnaey ; past part. ^^ ^j-i^ paman 
karraey ; verb. n. ^y*^ pamanawuna^h, 

V A-^ pumba'hy s.f. (3rd) Cotton. PI. ^J ^. 
See <u:j 

^ <-^ pumbey ^U, s.f. (5th) A cotton pod. 
PI? ^J^^ tcf^ pumbey diU^dni, Bee tli3l^ 

jj^ paman, adj. Scabby, itchy, mangy, scurfy, 
etc. ; (FemO ^jaj pamana'h. See aj 

^ lc^ P<^^^ dl% fi*f* (Sth) A cotton pod. 
PL ^li^ t«^ pamey chUgSm, 

p »Uj pandh, s.f. (9th) Aid, assistance, shade, 
shelter, protection, asylum, support. Sing, 
and PI. 

J^ \ij pand kawul, verb trans. To aid, to back, 
to shade, to stand by. JjJ \:j pand mml, 
verb trans. To take shelter, to seek aid, 
shelter, protection, or support. Jj^ Uj pm 
w'rraly ^^^b trans. To shade, to screen, to 
shun, to avoid. 

p iUj pambah, s.f, (3rd) Cotton. PI. ^ q> 
See also <u«j 

p ^j-*ij pumbaX adj. Made of cotton. 

^b -^ jpaw; jE?a't?, s.m. (5th) One of the two 
grand divisions of the Abdftll tribe, the de- 
scendants of Nor, Khokai, and M&kou, eons 
of Abdal, and Is'h&k and Jkdl, the two yoiiBg^ 
sons of his eldest son ..£saa. The other iB 
known as the Zirak division, from whom the 
Suddozis are descended. See Introducti^ 
to my Pushto Grammar, pp. 12, 13. The 
word is used both Sing, and PI. ; 8.f. (3rf) 
»j\j ^ panj pdwa^h, A female of the above. 
PI. ^^jlj Jj panjpdwey. 

s^^ -^ panj pale, s.m. (6th). Sing, and ^^\ 
See preceding word ; s.f. (3rd) ^b ^ p^ 
porya'h. PL -yU ^ p^iypd^ey. 

ijssx)^ pinj-ra^h, s.f. (3rd) A cage. PI. ,J ^* 

(s ]/=cu). 
^yXkC -fO panj ghaldiaey, s.m. (Ist) A 




See bjj 

^jilflcu panjakaey, s.m. (1st) The cross-bar 3^^ 
rating the strings of a pellet-bow. PI. l£ '• 

p iiacu panja% s.f. (3rd) A hand with the ^ 
fingers, a claw, the clutch, the grasp, a p^* 
PI. ^ ey. 

jcj pand, s.m. (2nd) Science, skill, sagaciV' 
art, stratagem, cunning. 2. Distance, ^ 
moteness, famess. 3. (p) Advice, coutt^' 
admonition. PI. iOjJcj pandUTtah. JxmsX ^ 
pand dMoital, verb trans. To take advie^^ 




take counsel. Jj^j «s^ /^am^ war-kawul, 
verb trans. To give advice^ to admonish. 
x) pand, s.m. (2nd) Going, departing ; march- 
ing, decamping. PI. ^^jjj pandrunah. 
Jj^ jcj pand kawulf verb trans. To go, to 
depart, to decamp, to march. 
Lj jLxy pand-tia, B.f. (6th) ArtMness, cunning ; 
skilfulness, sagaciousness. (E.) Sing, and 
PI. ; (W.) PI. ^jLj fiorwl. 
p 4^li jcj pand ndmah, s.f. (3rd) A book con- 
veying advice. PI. ^ ey, 
p^ljjj pin-ddr, s.m. (2nd) Thought, imagina- 
tion, opinion, notion. 2. Self-conceit, pride, 
arrogance. PI. djjj\x^ pinddrUnah. 
Aj\^ pun-dcLna'hf s.f. (3rd) Cotton seed. PI. 

vj ey. (p aj^ J duj). 
(J^xj pan-duky s.m. (6th) A bud, a rose-bud. 

Sing, and PI. 
^x^^ pimdaX s.f. (6th) The heel. 2. The steel 
or iron haft of a spear or lance. Sing, and PI. 
*y panM, s.m. (2nd-) A load for the head. PI. 

^^ panddUnah. 
"P, jksndd, s.m. (2nd) A body, a band, detach- 
ment, party, gang, knot, troop, squad, etc. 
2. A swelling, a protuberance, a bump, an 
cxcreBcence. 3. Vulva. PI. f^^^^ pcendddiu 
^, jmdAy s.m. (2nd) A flint, a flint and steel. 

^ ^^^ ptmMUnah. See ^ 
^JP^OkM, adj. Corpulent, stout, fat, bloated, pot- 
WKed, pufl^, dumpy, pursy, squabby, blowzy. 
2. Bin. (5th) A fat person. PL ^^^ pundddn ; 
••t (3rd) %^ pundda'h. PI. x^^^ punddey, 
Jjkjijcj punddedalf verb intrans. To become 
^ger, to expand, swell, fill out, dilate, to 
Wher flesh, to out-grow. Pres. i.^^)^ 
f^^fidde^l (W.), OP sJk'>^i P^^^^S'^ (E.); 
M iL& 0^ pundd shah, or ^ j <>:j pundd 
^^ah ; fiit. ^J^ ^ >x> pundd bah shl, or 
^ j Ai 0^ pundd bah rcu-shl ; imp. <Ll <>:j 
V^*^ shah, or ^ J 0^ pundd wu-shah ; act. 
M. ^^^Ju[Ol:J pund^Unkaey, or ^p^^<>^ 
'^f't^eeiSTta^ ; past part. >x» pundd, or ,^ 
4}^pMiMB Maipcuy ; verb. n. ^ jj,>:j pundde- 
^% Jjjiij pumMawul, verb trans. To 

render larger, to expand, distend, inflate, puff, 
etc. Pres. i^^^ punddawl ; pastjf ^^ punM 
karr or i^ hah, ovj J ,>ij pundd wu-karr or 
^ J «?M-^aA; ftit. 4^ ^ ,>ij pundd bah krrl 
or ^ aj iaA ^I, or ^jf j <i^ >)^ pundd bah 
rcu-krrl or ^ j «u AaA wm-^Z; imp. ^j 
2f^ pundd krrdh or <^ ^aA, or 2r^ J ^J^ 
pundd wurkrrah or a^ J wu-kah ; act. part. 
^Xj^^Ouij punddawiinka£y, or iJJj^'^^ 
punddawUimey ; past part. ^^^ ,>ij pundd 
karraey j verb. n. iij^,>ij punddawunxih, 

tl^>- ^1^ panMdn> diarg, s.m. (5th) A game 
fowl, a fowl of a large breed. PL J^j>- ^'^^ 
pandddro <jiargdn\ s.f. (3rd) ^L^.^ j1„>ui-j 
pandddw char go! h, or *k^ ^s^j't^^J pandddrc- 
a7ia'h chargah. The hen bird of the above. 
PL ^\^ pandddw or ^j>^ sA?'*^ pandd- 
dwaney chargey, 

^U ,>x» pandd ghdlaey, s.m. (1st) A plain 
outside a village, where the whole of the cattle 
assemble when going out and on returning 
from the grazing-ground. PL ^U ^)jj pandd 

A\^ ^ jianM'Kdlaey , s.m. (1st) Stoutness, 
corpulence, plumpness, obesity, embonpoint. 
PL ^Ij wdtu 

cr^«>^ l>(^^(Mos, s.m. (5th) A ball for playing 
with. PL j^l-»j,>ij panddosdn. 

^^L^^^ panddoska^y, s.m, (lst)(dimin. of pre- 
ceding) A small ball for playing with. PI. 

^ji'j^ panddukaey, s.m. (1st) A small bundle 

for the head. PL j^ t. 
^^^ panddotl, s.f. (3rd) A share or portion 

of a crop of cotton, the perquisite of females 

who gather it in. PL ^ a\ 
xj J^^ panddol garah, s.f. (3rd) A female 

who gathers cotton; lit,, 'a shareholder of 

cotton' (from the preceding word). PL ^ ey 

See^Uuis^ lIXII^ 
t^'^ panddah, s.f. (3rd) A small load for the 

head. PL ^ cy. See >-j 
j^,>;j panddaX s. f. (6th) The heel. Sing, and PL 

See ^^Joj and ^j^ 


J-i ■ 


As^ pindzah, adj. Five. See 

Li ^L^ pindzah bind, 8.£ (6th) The five founda- 
tions of religion — the recital of the belief; 
prayer ; fasting ; pilgrimage to Mekka ; and 
giving of ahns. (a Uj). (E.) Sing, and PI. ; 
(W.) PI. ^?^Uj binawl. 

^jJi^ *arj pindzah kaXanaey, adj. Five years 
old ; (Fern.) ^^ &ari pindzah kalanaX 

^ i^&ri pindzah las, adj. Fifteen, us^^j ^^a^i 
pin^ah wlsht, Twenty-five. ^J^^ ^^-^H 
pin^ah dersh, Thirty-five. c:.>m»j>^ dJri 
pin^ah tsalweJAt or tmlweshty Forty-five. 

ijMjBH,pindzoSy adj. Fifty. {j*i^ari lari pindzah 
pindzqs, Fifty-five, <>,.r.j;.Ci ^-A^ pindzah 
shpetahy Sixty-five. lj^\ iieri pindzah ao yd. 
Seventy-five. Ljl iAri pin^ah aUyd, Eighty- 
five. ^^ lAsri pindaah nawi, Ninety-five. 

^ pangoHhy s.f. (8rd) Stock-in-trade, capital, 
ftinds, means, reserve, relay, supply, hoard, 
savings. PL ^ ey. 

^»fj pinham, adj. Concealed, hidden, secret; 
(Fem.) <Ufj pinhama'h. *fj ^^ putt pin- 
ham, Entirely or wholly concealed or hidden. 
See ^-^. (p jjlf»j). 

^j^ panaey, s.m. (1st) A kind of grass from 

** which brooms are made (Andropogon muri- 
catum). PI. f^ I. 

^^ pant, s.m. PI. (1st) The name of a tribe of 
Afghans (Rl'ftz-ul-Muhabbat). ^jjj panaey. 
Sing. A male of the tribe, ^^jiu panaX s.f. 
(6th) A female of the above. Sing, and PI. 

p^-ij pavHr, s.m. (6th) Cheese. Sing, and PL 
tj\^ j0^ panlr md-ya^h, s.f. (3rd) Rennet. 
PL ^ ey. See ^y^ 

^xi P<^TTnd!h, s.f. (3rd) A shoe, a slipper. PL 
^ ey. See aa^, ^^, d^/, ^, j\j^^, 
^j^yt And aS^I^ 

t,^ parml. s.m. (1st). PL The name given 
to one of the numerous subdivisions of the 
Afgh&ns, in which the Sftfl and OadtLn tribes, 
as also the Khatftnls. are included. ^Jjo 
parmaey. Sing. A male of the above, j^^ 
parma\ s.f. (6th) A female of the above. 
Sing, and PL See ^ 

py pU, adj. Light, smooth, slight 2. 
Inquiry, searching, running abon 
and PL Jj^ ^ j clX? tak-o-pU kt 
trans. To enquire diligently, to ruE 
search of anything. 

y pU, s m. (9th) A pufi*, a blast, act * 
ing, inflating, blowing, etc. Sing 
See Cjy 

&ijji pUpakalh, s.f (3rd) A bump, a s 
protuberance. PL ^ ey. See ^j*jl 

s^ J^^ popal-zi, s.m. (Ist) PL The ni 
Afghan tribe, the descendants of I 
of Zirak, son of ^au, son of Ma 
the progenitor of the Abdalls. E 
Duram monarchy this tribe fimi 
Wuzirs or Prime Ministers, as a 
right, being the next in rank to the 
the royal tribe. Sing. i^J J^^ p(^ 
male of the above, ^^jij^^^ pop 
(6th) A female of the above. Sing. 

f^y po-taey, s.m. (1st) A mound, a 
bluflf, a heap of earth. PL jc I. 

i^y)^ poU, S.m. (2nd) Crust, skin, b 
shelli hide. 2. Disagreement, em 
^4j«j poUUnah, 

Ls^^yi poUtiskaey, adj. A little ; sms 
few, scanty ; seldom, some, less 
cl^H.5jj poUuski, PL (Masc. and I 

i^jy^ ij^jy^ puU sUrrl, s.m. (1st) 

. chaff. See u^j*-> ^j^jy 

^y pUUaey, adj. A little, small, 8< 
scanty, seldom, some, less, etc.; (F 
pU^. PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^ I. 
pUWL pUftl, In pieces, in fragments, 
in crumbs, etc. See ^^J^y 

^4^y pHtsakaX s.f (6th) The lobe i 
Sing, and PL See ^^bL^ and ^j^ 

^^iaL^ poUaka% s.f (6th) A mushroc 

and PL 
A^ poUfCh, s.f. (3rd) Cheese, coagul 

PL ^ ey. 
^y pUtsaX s.f. (6th) The lobe o 

Sing, and PL See ^y 





^ p^jl, s.£ (3rd) Weeding a field, thinning 
the lower branches of a tree that it may 
acquire strength. PI ^ a\ Jj^ {^y^ P'^fi 
kan^ul, verb trans. To thin, to weed. 
p ^^ pUdi, adj. Absurd, of no moment or con- 
sequence, useless, nonsense, nonsensical, in- 
judicious; (Fern.) tojj pUdtcHh Jj^ — ^ 
pUdi wa^cdf verb trans. To speak foolishly, 
to make absurd or foolish remarks. 
Pj^^^ jE?t(^y(?, Talking nonsense, a speaker 

of nonsense, or absurdity. 

p ^^ ^^ pudi gdey s.f. (3rd) Nonsense, ab- 

BUidity, folly, rigmarole, inconsistency. PL 

a*l. Jj^ 1^^ — ^ pUdi-go'e kawul, verb trans. 

To talk absurdly or inconsistently. 

f^y^poMy &dj* Gooked, dressed (as victuals), 

ripe. 2. Shrewd, knowing, expert, wise, 

firm, strong. PI. i^\i paldiak ; (Fem.) t^ 

fo&a'h. Vl.^^kipaMey. See Jjuas^and Jjik; 

Jj^j p&Muley, s.f. (3rd) PI. The hooping 

td^^pada'h, s.f. (3rd) The woof of the web in 

weaving. PI. ^ ey. See jb and iJy 
^ Wjj pOrdahf adj. Rotten, decayed, tainted, 
spoiled, worm-eaten, mildewed, crumbling. 
J/ ijy pQrdah kawulf verb trans. To render 
w make rotten, to destroy, to deteriorate, to 
^onrapt. Jju^ *Jy pU-dah kedal, verb in- 
**«». To turn or grow rotten, to decay, to 
Vfl, to crumble away. ^\^ yj^ pu-dah 
•tttty, s.m, (Ist) Decay, rottenness, deteri- 
^''rtion, fidling to pieces. PI. J\j w?a^. 
4jiwr, son. (2nd) A loan, a debt, an advance, 
^' PL ^j;;^; parUnah. Ja***:^T jjj joar 
wto/, verb trans. To borrow, to raise 
^"^oney on loan, i^fj^j^ por war-kawul, 
▼erb trans. To lend, to advance money, j^ 
^por mkal (E.), or J-s^ j^ por Kshal 
^•) verb trans. To collect the amount of a 
Wit, to recover a loan. 
^P^, adv. To, as £ur as, near, up to, close to, 
®. untQ, during, whilst ; over, on that side, 
*^ond, across, opposite. 2. part. Shutting 
^ ^, pifflrdng with a spear, stabbing ; 

anointing, putting coUyrium into the eyes, 
colouring the hands with henna; rubbing 
dirty hands on one. J^ j^ port kawul, verb 
trans. To apply, to close, to attach, to join, 
to lay, to put, to place, to plant, to set, to 
shut, to connect, to fasten, to spread, to 
plaster, to employ, to engage, to use, to im- 
pute, to report anything, such as malice or 
scandal. J^^jjJ pori watalf verb intrans. 
To pass over,''or cross a river, to ferry, j^ 
Jj^j pori wahal, verb trans. To push, toim- 
pel, to thrust, to drive away, to force, j^ 
Ji^ port yastal, verb trans. To ferry,' to 
carry or transport over a river, brook, etc. 
2. To lend, to advance, to accommodate with 
money. Also written ^j^ port, 
L?J jy pori jzanaey, adj. (past part.) Expelled, 

driven away, ejected; (Fem.) ^j jy pori- 
jzani, PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ f. (E.) 

ci^ J!A P^^'j^^^ ) (Fem.) ^^ j^ pori- 
ja7ii, " PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^l. 
j^\ jy pori aori, adv. Right through, through 
and through, from one end or surface to an- 
other, here and there, hither and thither. 

Also jy, b JH P^^ ^^ P^^' M jH P^^ 
wori, and i^j^^ c?;y pori wort. Ji jy^ pori 

aori, or Jjj jy \j jy pori ra pori watal, 

verb intrans. To pierce, to enter as a pointed 
instrument, to penetrate, to enter, j^ jy peri 
aori, or J:u*j jy \j jy pori rd pori ^yastal, 
verb trans. To pierce, to transfix, to perforate, 
to transpierce, to impale, to spear, to stick, to 
spit, to penetrate, to permeate, etc. 

ijjy portahy adv. and prep. Above, on, upon, 
up, over, a-top, etc. 2. adj. More, greater, 
greater in quantity. J Ju^ <0^y portah kedal, 
verb intrans. To ascend, to rise, mount, arise, 
uprise, get up, climb, clamber, scale, escalade. 
J^ ijjy portah kawul, verb trans. To raise, 
elevate, lift, upraise, erect, hoist, weigh, exalt, 
set up, etc, 

Jji^y porawul, verb trans. To borrow, to raise 
money on loan. Pres. ^^jj^y porawl ; past 






^ j9 P^^ ^^ ^^ ^ i JH P^ rct/hkah, or 
jf J A P^^ ^^ ^^ Jf ) jyi P^ wurkafT ; fiit. 
L^ ^* J)i P^ *^^ ^> or ^^ j <0 bah rvu-M ; 
imp. ^ jy>^por kah or <^ J wttrkak, or ^S jyi^ 
por krrah or ifj ^ ?vunkrrah ; act. part. 

LS^^yi P^^^^^^^ or ^^y^ porarvunaey ; 
past part. i^Jjy^ por kairaey ; verb. n. ^yjy 

ijijjuy porawurraey, adj. as 8.m. (1st) A creditor, 
a lender, a dun, a debtor ; (Fern.) jt^y par- 
awurri, PI. (Masc. and Fern.) ^c^f. 

Sjy pur ah, adj. Full, complete, entire, exact, 
perfect, sufficient, just, total, ripe, (s l^y). 
Jju^ }ijy pUrah kedcU, verb intrans. To be 
completed, ended, fulfilled, perfected, to become 
full. J^ ijy^ purah kavoul, verb trans. To fill, 
finish, end, perfect, accomplish, fulfil, perform, 
execute, terminate, bring to pass, etc. 

Li^l? r^y pUrah wdlaej/y s.m. (1st) Completion, 
accomplishment, fulfilment, finish, termina- 
tion, execution. PI. Jl^ wdti. 

s^jy porl, adv. To, as far as, near,etc. See ^jj . 

^J3^ ^jH P^ ^^ ^^ ^JH b ^Jii P^^ ^^ P^^'^> 
Right through, etc. See j^\ jy 

\jj \4jy^porljzanaey, adj. (past'part.) Expelled, 

" driven away, ejected. See also ^j jy and 

jy porr, adj. Half grown, or near puberty (as 
a boy or girl), nearly ripe (as fruit), half 
dressed or cooked (as meat); (Fem.) y^y 

jy pawrr, s.m. (2nd) A rope for fastening the 
feet of a cow or other animal. PI. ^^jy 
pawtrUTiaA, See also if^Cj 

v^^ pawrraX s.f. (6th) A flight of steps, a 
staircase, steps, a ladder. Sing, and PI. See 
f»U jjJl and viioij>-jb or ^^t^j^ 
sjy poza*A, s.f. (3rd) The nose of a man or 
beast. PI. ^^ ey. ajy^ <tu>- dieixih pozdh, 
or }ijy isj pitah poza'A, A flat or broad nose. 
4)^ <^:-^ ^it^ozaey, or ^jy l::^ pit- 
pozaey, A person having a flat or broad nose ; 
(Fem.) jy is^ Mta*h-pozt, or jy <tej jnta*k 
pozi, A^female with a flat or broad nose. PI. 

(Masc. and Fem.) ^^L tjjy i^ landda*hp(h 
za'k, s.f. (3rd) A short nose. PI. ^^* 0^ 
^jy landd pozaey , A short-noeed person; 
(Fem.) j^ 0^ landd pozi. ^^ i^ jy poz 
pre kaireyy With the nose cut, cut-noaed, s 
term of abuse. 

S^Jiy P^^^y ^•^* ^^^ ^ small mat. PI. y I 
See lSJ,^^ andjfi>^ 

jy pajz, s.m. (2nd) (W.) The act of blowing, a 
pufi*, a blast, blowing up a fire, etc. 2. Squirt- 
ing water on a flower with the mouth io 
freshen it, or on clothes by washermen or 
women before folding them, sprinUing. 3. 
A bellows. PI. ^juy pUjz-Unah. See also 
^y and Jjbj jj 

Jjbj ,^ pujz rcahal, verb trans. To squirt or 
sprinkle water, etc. 

(jwy pos, adj. Soft, tender, supple, ductile, ei«y, 
gentle, tractable, yielding, bending, fS&Ji 
etc. PI. dLjl> pasa'h ; (Fem.) i^y po9cik, 
PI. ^y posey ; or ^>^:^^y post, adj. 8ofti 
tender, etc. PI. ^te-^U pdstaA ; (Fem.) ^ 
postaA. PI. ^V*^yi postey. 

p ij:^^y post, s.m. (2nd) Crust, shell, Bkin,hid^i 
bark, etc. 2. Poppy-head or capsule. Pl* 
^y^y postUnaA, 

^ ^ypost KshaX (W.) or jCji ii^-jjj^ 
Mkal (E.), To bark, to sheU, to strip of «!*» 
to unskin. 

^^ia-*^ postahaey, s.m. (Ist) Skin, hide, «»' 
tanned leather, crust, bark, peel, rind, *• 
PI. j^ X. See ^S^!^ Mid ^-^ 

p ^^y^ postl, s.m. (5th) One who intoiio>*** 
himself with infusion of poppy-heads, a tot^ • 
lazy indolent person. PI. ^^^^P^y posM^' 

Jjui-iy postedal, verb intrans. To grow or b^ 
come soft, tender, supple, easy, gentle, trie*' 
able. Jjs^^ postawul, verb trans. To bmJ^ 
or render soft, tender, ductile, tractable, gtfifi^ 

p ^JiP>^y postin, s.m. (2nd) A for cloak or corf* 
a sheepskin coat or vest. PL ijy^Aay pM^ 
UnaA, or s.m. (5th) PI. ^\i>fi^y posfMHu 

JL»y postal, verb trans. To clodie, array, ^^^ 
robe, dress, attire, wrap up, eoveri enwAxff^' 


' Lk 


JLi^ paS'H ; past J^y^ i wurposla, or 
\ wu^ashh] ftit. yj^y^ ^^ ^ wu bah 
^P* J^^ j wU'posla, or id.«)^ J n^t^- 
; act. part, ^jio^y pos-lUnkaey, or 
|j poS'lunaey; past part. jj-L»y jo^5- 
or -Ji-iy poslalaey; verb. n. 4LJurf^ 

i pascU tob, a.m. (2nd) PI. ^G^y ^t?i- 
OT U J-ijj posal fid, 8.f.(6th). (E.) Sing. 
. (W.) PI. i^^Uj tl-<L7ti ; or ^jJlj J<^^ 
vdlaey, s.m. (1st) Qothing, dressing, 
f, the act of being clothed. PL Jl^ waft. 
i, interj. Take care, have a care, look 


% (W.), or poM (E.) s.m. (2nd) (p 
Covering, clothed in, wearing, dressed ; 
clothing, apparel. PI. «0^jj poshunah 
li^taA, ^y \j pdrposh otpapoJ^, Shoes, 
8, covering for the feet, ^y j^ sabz 
)T sabz poldij adj. Cllothed in green. 
«^ posh oipoW^ kawuly verb trans. To 
prepare, or fabricate, as clothes. 
w^ak or poWidk, s.m. (2nd) Vest- 
dress, attire, habit, garments, clothes, 
it, accoutrements. PI. t^p^y posh- 
\ OTpo^dkUnah. 

>^ish (W.), QtpoT3d]3i (E.) s.m. (from 
tty) Dress, wear, garments, vestment, 
ig. PI. ^y^f^y poshishUnah ovpofihi}^' 

ma% s.f. (6th) A rib, the ribs. Sing. 
1. See ^^^ 

%al (E.) oxposhal (W.) verb trans. To 
n, to roof, to screen, to shelter, to array, 
he, to attire, to wrap up. 2. To hide, to 
), etc. 3. To solace, to console, to cheer 
ef or calamity. Pres. y^y^ poJM or 
; past 4i{»jj J wurpoJffiah or rcii-poshah ; 
i^yliywu baJi poJM or poskl ; imp. 
I wttrpoJSuih or rcu-poshah ; act. part. 
^ji pofSkUnkaetf or poshULnkaey, or ^y^y^ 
way or poshilTiaey ; past part, jjl^*^ 
tey or poshaUiey ; verb. n. <Uf»y poWi- 

iS^y po^edakotpoJSiedahyd^]. Concealed, hid- 
den, dressed, clothed, secret. 2. adv. Secretly. 
Jj^ a^ti^y poshedah or poWiedah kawul, verb 
trans. To clothe, dress, conceal, hide, secrete. 

^Lcy po^-kChf s.f. (3rd) The thin excrement 
of kids, lambs, etc., before it assumes the 
orbicular shape. PI. ^ ey. See ^li\^ 

\lSy^ pUk^ s.m. (2nd) A puff, a blast, the act of 
blowing. PI. i^fy pukunah. See also jj 
and Jy^ 

Jiy pukal, verb trans. To blow, to blow out, to 
blow up (as a fire), to inflate, to breathe upon, 
to blow away. Pres. ^y^ pU-kl ; past i^y^ 
pu-kah, or iiy^ J wu-pU-kak ; fut. ^y Aj j 
Tvu bah puki ; imp. iiy^ J wu-pU-kah, or <^^ 
pU'kah] act. part, ^^^^y pukunkaey, or 
^^y pUkUnacy ; past part, tjif^ pukalaey ; 
verb. n. i:Sy pUlumcHh. Seey 

{^j^y pukarrnaly s.f. (6th) A bladder. Sing, 
"and PI. Seci^4=^^-^ 

^^^y pukawaly verb trans. To blow, to blow 
out, to blow up (as a fire), to inflate, to breathe 
upon, to blow away. Pres. ^^^y pukam ; 
past n^y J KU'pUkdrvuhy or j^l(^ J ^*w- 
pukawo ; fut. ^^y ^ J ww iaA pUkam ; 
imp. if^y puharvah, or «^^ J wu-pUkawah ; 
act. part. ^jXij^^j pUkawunkaey, or r^j^^y 
pUkaTvUnaey ] past part. ^jJ^^ pUkawulaey) 
verb. n. <G^y pukawunah. See J^y 

^yj^pUkaeyf s.m. (1st) A puff, a blast ; inflating. 

" blowing. PI. j^ ?. See^ 

CL^ joeZy, s.m. (2nd) The act of blowing, a puff, 
a blast, blowing up a fire, etc. 2. Squirting 
water on a flower with the mouth to freshen 
it, or on clothes by washermen or women 
before folding them, sprinkling. 3, A bellows. 
PI. ^^y pUgUnah. Jjbj or J^ CJy pUg 
kawuly or wahaly verb trans. To puff, to blow, 
to blow up. 2. To squirt water, etc. See 

p Jy pulf S.m. (2nd) or (5th) An aqueduct, a 
trough, a gutter, a scupper, a launder, etc. 



PI. dj^y^ pulunah, or ^y^ pUldn. See jlLj 

J^ jt?«/, s.m. (2nd) A film over the eye. PI. 

^^y pUlUnaL See J^ 
Jll^ polad, s.m. (6th) The finest kind of steel. 

Sing, and PI. See Siy 
uXJj^ pU-laky s.m. (2nd) A kind of double 

wedge for fastening the iron ploughshare to the 

frame of a plough. PI. <0^^ pU-lakUnah. 
j^ypUla'h, s.f. (3rd) A small embankment of 

earth in a field for the purpose of regulating 

the irrigation. PI. ^^ ey. 
4^ P^'^^f S'Di. (6th) Parched or roasted grain. 

Sing, and PI. J^ siy pulah kawulf verb 

trans. To parch or roast grain. 
^y pUn, s.m. (9th) The scab or mange. Sing. 

arid PL See ^ and -«j 
x^y)^ pUndaWi, s.f. '(Srd) The heel. 2. Urging 

a horse by kicking him with the heels. PI. 

^ ey. Jjbj ssjy pUnda'h rcahal, verb trans. 

To urge a horse by kicking him with the 

heels. Also written jJy pUnda, 
^^^y^punddaX s.f. (6th) 'The heel, the heels. 

Sing, and PI. Jjb^ s^*^^ pUnddal rvahal, 

verb trans. To urge a horse by striking liim 

with the heels. See preceding. 

y^ \:)^^P^^ ^> ^j- ^^^® hundred. See^ ^.sri 

^y puna!hf s.f. (3rd) Small rain, drizzle, mist, 
sprinkling. 2. Sprinkling water by the mouth. 
PI. oj^ pUney. Sec CJy 

^i^^ P^^TB^X s.f. (6th) A roll of cotton for 
spinning from. Sing, and PI. 

Jit^ pO'Wul, verb trans. To graze, to browse, 
to crop. This infinitive is imperfect, and 
takes some of its tenses from JjLj Pres. 
(JLj pia-yl ; past j^ J wu-po-^U ; fiit. <u J 
^JLJ wu bahptd-yl; imp. AjLj J wu-pld-yak, 
or <uU pJd-yak ; act. part, i^j^^ po-rtUn- 
kaey or ^jj^jij^ po-wUnaeyy or ^j^^Lj pxor- 
yUnkaey or ^ji^Uj pld'yUnaey; past part. 
lcIji^ po-wulaey or jjJj^ pid-yalaey ; verb, 
n. JJjy porcaruCh or ^i^li^^ po-widna'h, 

zy poky adj. Intelligent, knowing, learned, wise ; 
(Fern.) A^y poka'h. mjJ xy poh-wipoh or 

2y <G iy pok nak poh, Whether or no 
ingly or unknowingly, etc. 

jjUy pO'kdndy adj. (W.) Wise, int 
learned, clever; (Fem.) ifjjUy p(hi 
See ay 

Jby^ pUliarTy s.m. (2nd) A large mat. F 
puharrUnah. See ^^y 

jby poharr, adj. Foolish, stupid, un< 
simple. 2. Slovenly, careless of d] 
cleanliness. (niJJb^). (Fem.)ijib^/w? 

^j^A po^^VT(^i adj. as s.m. (1st) (c 

jby) A foolish, stupid, uncivilized, o 

person. 2. A sloven, one carelea 

person. PI. j^ 7; (Fem.) y^j^^^ pc 

Sing and PL 

Jy>y pohawul, verb trans. To inform, 
acquaint, apprize, make known, sigi 
plain, set forth, etc. Pres. x^^yi , 
past i[jU^ j wU'pohdwuh, or jjUj 
pohdwo ; fiit. v/y^y ^j ^ wu bah ^ 
imp. yjby J wu-pohawah ; act. part. 
pohawunkaeyy or .jj^y^^ pohawuruju 
part. jjJy^y po/iawulaey ] verb, n 

ijby poha'h, s.f. (3rd) Intellect, unders 
comprehension, reason, sense, capacii 
ligence, conception, judgment, etc. 
€y. JjuAy pohedal, verb intrans. 1 
to be informed, to have perception of 
cognizance of, to examine. Pres. 
pohejzl (W.), or ^*S^^ pohegl (E 
3JuJ^y j wU'pokedah ; fut. 4,;^p->^ 
AaA pohejzl, or ^cS^-^y ^ J ^*w ^^ 
imp. ^^--J^y J wu-pohejzak, or a$L>j 
pohegah ; act. part, i^^ J^^ /?^A^i 
or jj3^ JuJb^ pohedunaey ; past part. 
pohedalaey ; verb. n. ^JuJ^^ pohedan 

ijd^y pohedana!hf s.f. (3rd) (verb, n 
prehension, intellect ; imderstanding, 
bending, etc. PL ^ ey. See <Uhjj 

p <uy po-yaHh, s.f. (3rd) A canter, a han« 

PI- v^y, ;>^-y^- J/ ^y, ;?^yaA *aii 

trans. To canter, to gallop. 
^ jtwiA, prep. By, with, cipon, on, al 





meanB, in company, etc. 2. For, for the 
sake of, on account of. Lj Lj <u pah bl-d 
ii-d, ady. Again and again, constantly, fre- 
qaently, often. 

O pah or l^ poAd, interj. Pooh ! pooh I a word 
used to express contempt. 

f\^ paAdr, s.m. (2nd) A division of time, a 
period of three hours. PI. <)U>jj V poMrOmxih, 

,^\|j paMrra% s.f. (6th) A hog-deer (Cervus 

porcinosX Sing, and PI. 
Bj^ pahar, s.m. (2nd) A division of time, a 
Watch or three hours. PI. ij^j^ paharunah, 
jF^ pakra'hy s.f. (8rd) A watch, a sentinel. 
2. Tour of watch. PI. ^ ey. J^ Hj^ pakrcHh 
kawul, verb trans. To watch, (b ]^). 
j\ii i;lj paAra'h ddr, s.m. (5th) A watchman, a 
Benidnel. PI. jj|;'fc> 2j^ pahra'h ddrdn, 
^^ pcJirrraX s.f. (6th) A kind of stool or 
chair made after the fashion of a bedstead. 
Sing, and PI. See ^V^-j 
cJ <j pah laghaty adv. Quickly, sharply, 
swiftly, speedily, apace, u;^ j^^ <0 pah 
«wt laghat^ Very quickly. See tdso c:.lxL 
^^ phvJrWdrraey ^ s.m. (1st) A white rose. 

f y')l^ pahlawdn, s.m. (5th) A hero, a cham- 
pion, a wrestler. PI. ^^U\^ pahlawdndn. 

'4'^ p^^hlawdnt, s.f. (3rd) Heroism, the 
btiainess of a champion. PI. ^^ a'l. 

•«» pahm, B.m. (2nd) Understanding, intellect, 
Jnind, sense, capacity, intelligence. PI. ij^ 
t^kmonah. See ^ 

dj4f{ pahmawul, verb trans. To inform, impart, 
•cqaamt, etc. Pres. ^^y^ pahmawl; past 
*}Ufj j nm-pahmdwuh, or jjl-«^ J /2?w- 
/''fc'ifiw?^? ; ftit. LifyHi ^ J WW i«A pahmawl ; 
^p. *y*|j J nm-pahmawah ; act. part. i^^;^ 
P^^^ifMwIlnhaey, or L|^^yH-i pahrrumunaey ; 
M part. ^^yHj pahmawulaey; verb. n. 

^)4|i pahmanvufuih. 

Vj\ii ^ pahan ddr, adj. Broad, wide, ample. 

^^ Jx^hoTtah, adj. More, greater, greater in 
quantity. 2. adv. and prep. Above, on, upon, 
up, a top, etc. See under <0;y 

i^ paha'hy s.f. (3rd) A plaster, a pledget. PI. 

J^Lfj phelawul, verb trans. To spread, to open, 
to imfold, to stretch, to diffuse, to disperse, 
to scatter, to propagate, to extend, to deploy, 
etc. Pres. t^^^ phelawl ; past a^^^ J wu- 
pheldwuh ; fut. i/^Ljf» <o J wu bah phelawl ; 
imp. 8^^ J wu'phelawah ; act. part. ,J-^^^!^ 
phelawUnkaey, or ^^^^1^ phelawUnaey ; past 
part. ^^W phelawulaey; verb. n. ^^L^ 

Jjul^ pheledalf verb trans. To spread, to ex- 
tend itself in length or breadth, to become 
dispersed, scattered, diffused, to open, to ex- 
pand, etc. Pres. Lfyi^^^ phelejzl (W.), or 
,Xi-^ phelegi (E.)'; past »JuL^ J wu- 
pkeleduh ; fut. tc^^lj^j ij ^ wu bah phelejzl, 
or ^^^O-^^ ;?^/^^*f ; imp. y^A-^^ j wu-phek- 
jzah, or <i^iJu(j phelegah; act. part. ^jiujjuL^ 
pheledunkaey, or ^^ JuL^ pheledunaey ; past 
part, jd juLf^ pheledalaey ; verb. n. <0 jJu^ 

B ^jj /?a*i, s.f. (6th) Milk, the juice of plants. 

Sing and PI. See ^^ ^ and >J^ 

p ^ pay, s.m. (2nd) The %ot, the tendon 
6i the foot, a sinew ; footing, basis, founda- 
tion, track, trace. 2. A ford, a ferry, a place 
in a river or other water that may be passed 
by wading. PI. <0^ pay-Unah. 

i^^\ ^ pay aO'bah, Water within one's depth, 
or "that is fordable by wading. 

J^ ^ pay kawul, verb trans. To ham-string, 
to cut off a tree close to the ground. 

JxJ L5i T^^y w'rraly verb trans. To know, to 
understand, to catch at a meaning, hint, etc. 

p j^ pat, adv. Behind, after, following in pm*- 

suit. ^ j^L^ P^^ ^^ P^^y (^) ^^ u5i '^ P^^ 
pai, One after the other, successively. ^ 

Jjb^ pai wahal, verb trans. To dig, as a piece 





of a ditch in successiye portionSi finishing one 
before commencing the other. 

<U.Lj jn-dtsaJhy s.f. (3rd) Bread made from a 
kind of millet. PI. ^ ey. 

idfi^Lj pl-aMikCh, B.f. (3rd) A piece of cloth 
added to the sleeye or collar of a dress, a collar, 
a cnff. 2. Exhaling the steam of herbs, etc. ; 
sweating, sweltering, administering anything 
hot to produce perspiration, covering a per- 
son with bed clothes to produce perspiration. 
PI. ^ ey. 

J^ <diLj pi-dMilcCh kawul, verb trans. To 
sweat, to swelter, to cause perspiration. See 
J-iiand Ji^j 

F 2pjLj px-adahy s.m. (5th) A footman, one on 
foot, a foot soldier. PI. j^tfjLi px-adorgan. 
2. adj. On foot, b ir jLj pl-ddah pa, adv. 
A-foot, on foot ; also ^Jlj ar jLj pi-ddah pd'e. 
See also ^Jj 

*^Xj pl-dtTma*h, s.f. (3rd) A brace for tighten- 
ing the tape of a bedstead. 2. The crupper of 
a saddle for a horse, or the pack-saddle of a 
bullock. 3. The rope or strap placed on a 
spinning wheel. PI. ^^ ey. See i^ 

r jU pl'dz, s.m. (6th) An onion. Sing, and PI. 

^XjLj pl-dzakaey, s.m. (Ist) (dimin. of jLj) 
A wild onion, a squill. PI. jc l. 

2fjLj pl'dzdhy s.f. (3rd) Miscarrying, dropping 
her yoimg as an animal. 2. Splitting, divid- 
ing. PI. ^ ey. J^ 2(jLj pi'dzdh karvul, 
verb trans. To miscarry. 

p ^U pl'dldhy s.f. (3rd) A cup, a glass ; the 
pan or fire-pan of a musket. PI. ^ ey. See 
s^j^ and ^jJj^ 

^V--j pepna'if s.f. (6th) A sort of frock or shift 
worn by young women. Sing, and PI. See 
^j,>i^and Jo^ 

^^uj paifi, s.f. (3rd) Cooked peas or other kind 
of pulse. PI. ^^^^paxtdl. See ^jlj 

,^^^ pe% s.m. (2nd) A load for the head, a 
burden. PI. <0^ peUUnah. 

^j^^ pettaey, s.m. (1st) A load, a burden, a 
weight. PI. j^ u 

Jdbi pefsal, verb trans. To endure, to suffer, to 


sustaini to bear (as grief or sorrow). Pies. 
^joai pet^ ; past ^Asi J fvu-petsoA ; ftit. 
^^sfi ^ J n72^ bdA peM ; imp. ^Lobi J wu- 
petsah; act. part, ^jij^^ petaUnka^, or 
^jflbi petsUnaey ; past part. ^dA;i peUr 
alaey ; verb. n. <u^ petsana'h. 

petmna'h, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Enduring, 
suffering, sustaining, or bearing grief. PI. ^eg. 

^^i-*^^ pga-maM^aey , adj. Haudsome, beard- 
less, smooth - faced ; (Fem.) 
maMi. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ I 

{^^3 i!*^ jo<2?'a-?«aM-wa/aey, s.m. (1st) Bewl- 
lessness, handsomeness, youthftdness, jm- 
nility. PI. ^^ wall. See -ir* ^ 

p -1^ jD^^, s.m. (2nd) Twist, revolution; a coil, j 
a plait, a fold, a screw. 2. Perplexity, «m- 
biguity, difficulty, trouble, deceit, complki- 
tion, etc. PL ^y^^ pedtUndh. 

p ^^ ^^ pe^ pedi, OT ^^j^^^peAkr 

pedif adj. Coil within coil, entangled, com- 
plex, intricate. ^}^ -jj^ peA kawtd, vab 
trans. To deceive, to trick, to complicate. 
2. To grapple, to seize in wrestling. 

c-^l3 -fu pe^ tab, or (^\j j ^ pedk'048if 
s.m. (2nd). Perplexity, folds, twisting la* 
twining, contortion, knots, restlessness, dBBH, 
suspense. PI. <0^l3 j ^ pe^-o-tabUnah. 

p cUL^uj pediak, s.m. (2nd) A ball, skdHt 
or clew of thread. 2. The reel or bottom (» 
which thread is wound. PI. ^^^^^^u pe^^ 
Unah. J 

p>fi;.j -^j»^^-e?-^w, adj. Twist within twWf 

curly, curling locks ; (Fem.) US^ j ^ p^ 
O'Tdiamdh. Jj^ pe^al, verb trans. ^ ■ 
twist, to involve, to contort, to wind. ?*«•• 
j^y^ j^^cfel; past <Jii^ j tvU'pe^ak; fe** ^ 
j^^:^ ij\wu bah pedd; imp. Aas^ jii<*' 
pediah ; act. part. ^>^>?^ pe^Unkaeg, (f 
^^a^ pedkUnaey ; past part. ^ji«Vi l**^^ 
a/oey ; verb. n. Ai^cu pediandh. 
y^g^yfu pe^wdfraX s.f. (6ih) The heel Wpc^ 
of a horse. Sing, and PI. See ^^j^jof 





•yfu pe^ikna*A, e.f. (3rd) Ascent, me, eteep- 
nees, elevation. PL ^ ey. 
rVW jw^«»WMy, B.m. (Iflt) Ascent, etc. PI. 
1^ 1. See preceding. 

Ucu peM&tra*A, B.f. (3rd) The dung of yonng 
goats, sheep, etc., before it assumes the orbi- 
cular shape. PI. ^ ey. 
Stxj paiM^, s.m. (2nd). PI. ^jiisxj paiMal- 
MnaA. See ^L) etc. 
Ijui p€udd, adj. Bom, created, produced, ex- 
hibited, discoyered, invented. J^ \ juj joowte 
kawul, verb trans. To produce, to discover, to 
breed, to find, to form, to create, to get, earn, 
gain, invent, procure. Jju^ Ijuj paidd 
iedal, verb intrans. To be bom, to be created, 
to be found, eamed, or produced, j^j Ijuj 
paidd-fvdr, s.m. (2nd) Produce of a field, 
froit, profit of trade. PI. ^Ojj^j Ijw paida- 
^Ijlo paida-l^ (W.), or paidd-lM (E.), s.m. 
Clnd) Birth, creation, production, earnings, 
podnce, profit. PI. iO^Ijuj paida-lshUnah, 
ai paidd-iMUnah. (p (^Iju^) 
c^Jjuj pcudd-tSt, or paida-Mt, s.m. (2nd) 
Gteition, production, birth, etc. PI. aJ^l^j t juj 
todA-ij^UnaA or paidd-l^tUnoA. 
;i(jwr,8.m. (2nd) Turning, turn, retum, change, 
■ttHttder, curvature. PI. ^j)^^ perUnah 
taj-<j). Jj^ j-^ JP^ Wiwa'craly verb trans, 
'o torn, to wind, to change, meander. ^ 
iifj)Per war kanml, verb trans. To change, 
toihcr, avert, convert, divert, drive round, to 
Ground. See^ 

^Af^> ^•™* (^^) ^ old man, a saint, a 
■piritaal guide. PI. ^!^ plran. 
^Af^9 B.m. (9fh) Monday. Sing, and PI. 

'o^'jsj pairaAan, s.m. (2nd) A long robe, a 
Aiit or shift. PI. ^yJb]^ pairdAanUnaA. 

4ff| j'^^'ocri a4J* Liufge, stout, &t, gross, 
Wfpolent. Sing, and PI.; (Fem.) 2f^ 
f^^H^a'A. V\.i^jj0>i perarrejf. See<UJU>-, 
^, ,4^, and ^. ^1^ ^^^ /^^aor- 
•tiftjf, Bjn. (Ist). Pl» j'j ^o/i; orj^ 

peratT'tob, s.m. (2nd) Corpulence, 
stoutness, grossness, obesity. PI. ^yiy^ 

p i^fc>|j w plr-zddaA, s.m. (5th) The descendant or 
son of a saint or spiritual guide. PI. ^^^}j j-j 
plrzddagdn) s.f. (3rd) j^jlj ^ plrzdda% 
The daughter of a saint, etc. Sing, and PI. 

XJjH /?er-z(?, adj. Proper, fitting, becoming, 
competent, corresponding, suitable, agree- 
able, just, worthy, reasonable, ^jj jjj^ 
per-zo laral, verb trans. To consider as suit- 
able or fitting, to have a desire or wish to 
bestow anything on another. 

«CjjJ^ per-zowyana'A, s.f. (3rd) Fitness, suit- 
ableness, reasonableness, justness, worth, de- 
sire, wish, inclination, leaning, bent, fancy, 
hankering, partiality, longing. PI. ^ ey ; 
also ^Ij jjj^ perzo-fvdlaey, s.m, (1st). PI. 
^\j wall. Seejj^ 

J^ jt?I-ra/, verb trans. To purchase, to buy. 
See Jjj^^ 

Pj^ pai-rau, s.m. (5th) (act. part.) Following, 
a follower, a pursuer, PI. jj\«|;-i pairraudn. 

O^LrH per-rcdn, s.m. (2nd) (W.) The after-birth 
or placenta, (hi ^^^). PI* ^y^^jtti P^' 
wdnUnah. See ,j\ji^ 

V ^^jfj pai-ram, s.f. (3rd) Following, imitation, 
prosecution, pursuit, investigation. PI. ^^ 
a!u J«^ c%-^ pcil'fo^i kawul, verb trans. 
To follow, to follow up, to prosecute, to 
pursue, to investigate. 

Jjjj^ plrawdaly verb trans. To buy, to pur- 
chase. Pres. c?;-j pin] past J^ J tpw- 
pirawda or yjjj^-j J rcu-pirawdaA, or J^j J 
wvrpira or 2r^ J rvu-piraA (firom J^) ; ftit. 
^c-*; <o J 7z?w iaA jDin ; imp. ij^ j wu-plraA^ 
or :r^ jDlraA ; act. part. ^jiojJj^ plrawd- 
UnAaey, or ^j^^^ pxrawdunaey \ past part. 
^jj^ ptrawdcUaey; verb. n. <Ot>j^ jplr- 
arcdanolA, See also J^-j 

vVxrfi P^runey, s.f. (3rd) PL The Pleiades. 

See c^jyx-i JU4^ 
P ^^^ pm, B.f. (3rd) Old age. 2. The busi- 



neas of a samt or spiritual guide. PI. ^^ a*i. 



^g^ peraey, B.m. (Ist) A demon^ an evil spirit, 
one of the genii, PL y^^\ B.f. (6th) ^^^ 
pera'l. A female of the above. Sing, aod PL 

L^Vjiii /^^^-^'wwjy, B.m. (Ist) A person pos- 
sessed of a devil or evil spirit. PL jc i ; s.f. 
(6th) ^^ a'l. Sing, and PL 

j/j perr, adj. Fat, stout, gross, obese; thick, 
large, etc. ; (Fem.) if-jj perrdh. See also 

(J^Ij x?i P^TI rcalaeyy s.m. (1st). PL ^^ waM ; 
* or c-jr^ -jj perr-toby s.m. (2nd) Corpulence, 
stoutness, grossness, obesity, thickness, am- 
plitude, bulk. PL ij^y tob'Unah. See also 

xjjj pirr-zoHhy s.f. (3rd) A detached hill or 
mound separated from the higher range. PL 
^ ey. See 2r^ and (^0^ 

Sj^ perrah, s.f. (3rd) A globular mass of 
leaven prepared for baking. 2. A kind of 
sweetmeat made from milk and sugar. PL 

ijspj perrcHly s.f. (6th) A stool, a chair made 
after the fashion of a bedstead. 2. A genera- 
tion of progenitors. Sing, and PL <u ,Jr-j 
jV -J perroLi pah perra% From generation to 
generation. See ^^^ (s ^}i^)* 

Pjlj-j paizdVy B.m. (2nd) A slipper, a shoe. PL 

^-vl/?i poi^orUnah, See njj, ^ri* ^^^' 

^|-j pezaly verb trans. To fine-draw, to dam. 
Pres. ^g^ pezx ; past *j-j j wu-pezah ; fiit. 
(^^ i^ywu hah pezl ; imp. 2rj^ J wu-pezah ; 
act. part. ^jXj^Uj pezUnkaey or ^j3^ Jt>^- 
zunaey ; past part, ^^ij-j pezalaey\ verb. n. 
«Oj-j pezanoiK See cdso ^Jj-j 

j^Jj-j pezalcLcyy adj. (past part.) Darned, fine- 
drawn, repaired; (Fem.) Jj-j pezalL PL 
(MaBC. and Fem.) j^ I. See /Jj-j 

u'jjj-^ P^^o,n, B.m. (2nd) A nose-ring, an orna- 
ment for the nose; a rope or ring inserted 
in a bullock's nose. PL ^y^j^^ pezrvdnUnah. 

L<^'jlr?i pezwdnaetfy s.m. (Ist) A bullock with 

the nose bored for a ring or bridle, a 
with a bridle or ring in the nose. P 
B.f. (6th) ^ CLi, Sing, and PL 

*|-j peza'h, s.f. (3rd) The peak of a m( 
apex, summit, top, crest, brow, or 
PL ^ ey. 

^i^ pezaey^ adj. Withered, faded, d 
shrivelled ; (Fem.) ^^ pezdl. Jj 
pezaey kcdal^ verb intrans. To fade, to 
decay, etc. See i^^U^ and a\j^ 

,Aj-j pai'ZaX s.f. (6th) Spelling with th 
points, syllabling. Sing, and PL J 
paizdl karculy verb trans. To syllable. 

JjutH pejzandaly verb trans. To diflti 
to recognize by recollection, remea 
representation or description, to kno^ 
familiar with, to be no stranger to, 
^5Jj-i pejzani ; past jjV*-j J nm-j. 
or * JuJ-J J wu-pejzdndah ; fut. ^ytf^ 
bah pejzani ; imp. <0 i.j J wu-pejzam 
part. ^^iujJJji pejzandunkaey , or • 
pejzandUnaey ; past part. i^*^J-i f 
alaey ; verb. n. ^UiXJt-j pejzandan 
*jjlt-j pejzdndah. 

*juUo pejzdndah, s.m. (6th) Sing, ai 
or <OjJtjj pejzandana'hy s.f. (3rd) (v 
Recognition, knowledge, cognizance^ 
iarity, understanding, comprehensioB 
knowing, understanding, recognizing 

(^^ *^yti P^jzand galwly s.f. (3rd) A< 
ance, knowledge, understanding. PI 
Also written ^J/ JJ^ pejz(md gak 
y\ a'l. See preceding. 

^jyM-j peSy s.m. (5th) Leprosy, also a lep 
(3rd) <t***-j pesa'hy A female leper. P 
^^m^ pe»i, adj. Leprous. See C^. 

4c^"L*-j pJsdrmaey^ s.m. (1st) Some 
little, a small quantity, a barley-corn, 

<Ua-j paisa'hy B.f. (3rd) The name of a 
coin. PL ^ ey. (hi U«-j). 

P cA-i P^shy adj. Before, in front, a<] 
2. The vowel point (-^). 4/*3cj (jS 
iamfi, s.f. (Srd) Foresight, timely ; 



tion. PI. j^ a*t. ^ jj^fcjj pesh bin, adj. Pru- 
dent, provident, wise, ^^i^j ^JL^ pesh bint, s.f. 
(3rd) Prudence, foresight. Pl.^a'l <0U- lAuo 
j»e^ Mana'h, s.f. (3rd) A tent or other baggage 
sent on before. PI. ^^ ey. ls^^j J!Lj pesh 
dost, adj. Anticipathig, being beforehand, 
surpassing. ,^jS-jJ (jm-j pesh dastl, s.f. (3rd) 
The being beforehand, anticipation, excelling, 
surpassing, aggression. PI. ^ a't. />« i JSj^ 
^^ roj, adj. Early (as fruit, grain, etc.) 
j^^^^ pesh rau, adj. A precursor, a leader. 
2. B.m. (2nd) Fear, doubt, suspense. PI. 
^W U*^ pesh-rauunah. ^^j ^JL^ pesh rarvi, 
s.f. (3rd) The act of preceding. PI. ^\ a*h 
A^J cA?i P^'^ kabza'h, s.f. (3rd) A kind of 
dagger. PI. ^ ey. lyLo peshrca, s.m. 
(5th) A leader, a precursor. PI ^^MyLo 

? ^{jii^ peshdn, adj. Before, in front, advanced. 
ijy>^ -oLuLl-j peshdnah JdiUruih, s.f. (3rd) An 
inner or back room, W ^ey. See ^umj 

PjJLl-j peshdnl, s.f. (3rd) The forehead, the 
brow. PI. ^ aX See ^y>-^ 

'BjJL^^ pesh'tar, adv. Before, prior, sooner, for- 
merly, heretofore, ago ; (Fem.) ijiJ^j pesh- 

Pj^i**^ pesh Mor, adj. A person who Uves on 
credit, or on advance of wages ; (Fem.) 
Sjysf^ pesh ]ihoT(ih, 

^j^^^ pesh Mum, s.f. (3rd) (p) The living 
on credit. 2. A small quantity of grain 
taken by the farmer for present use before 
the threshing of the crop. PI. /^ cHl. 
^XbLo peshahxy s.f. (3rd) An advance of money 
or wages. PL ^ a'f . 

s^ lAt^ P^^ ^ma€;y, s.m. (1st) The meal 
before the morning during the fast of the 
Bamazfin. PI. ^ f. 

^^/u-j pesh manaey^ or ^^/i» jjIlo pesh 
namaey, s.m. (1st). See preceding. PI. jc t. 


jjMMj peshawar, s.m. (5th) An artificer, a 
workman, an artizan. PI. ^^jy^ peshor 
-^fowrdn. s.f. (3rd) tjy^^ peshawara'h, A 
^oik-woman, etc. PI. ^ ey. See j^ iJl^^ 

p <U*-j peshah, s.f. (3rd) Trade, profession, cus- 
tom, habit, practice. PI. ^^ ey. 
j^ iJ^^ peshah-war, s.m. (5th) An artificer, a 
workman, etc. PI. ^j^ <Lu»-j peshah-rcardn. 
s.f. (3rd) ij^ JuJLo peshah'Warah. PI. ^ ey. 
*iuy p'lshal, s.f. (6th) A small nose ring. 
2. A caterpillar in general. Sing, and PL 
*juL>j Hj^ babarah plshal, A palmer-worm. 

JjuM*-j peshedaly verb intrans. To close itself 
(as a door or woimd), to unite or coalesce. Pres. 
iCpJLjj peshejzl (W.), or ^^uJL^^ peshegl 
(E.) ; past <d J ^JL^ pesh wu-shah, or \JL^ 
<Lii pesh shah \ fut. j<-2» <0 j^m-o jo^^ ia^ shx, 

or ,^ J <u bah n-u-shi ; imp. <Ll (ja^-j jo^^/ 
. ^/^A, or <lSi J nU'shah ; act. part. ^jiu^Juu..,^ 

peshedunkaey, or ^j3jA-.A-j peshcdunaey ; 
past part. (^^>!L-j jt?^^/, or ^yt> (jLo Jt?e9/^ 
sha7caey\ x^Th.xi, ijsjl*^ pcshedana'h. 
JyL-j peshan'tdy verb trans. To shut, to close, 
to fasten, to place. Pres. c^yt*-j pesham ; 
past <i^ (^^^ pesh hah, ^ [J^^ P^sh karr, 
or <^^ J yJL^^ pesh wu-kah, or ^^ J ^^Ik-j jt?^^ 
rcu-harr ; fut. ,<^ <^ (J^ j^^^ ^^^ ^> or 

v/ j ^ lAh, ;^^^M *«^ ^*«^-'^^> or ^j?/ dj Ju^^ 
pesh bah krfiy or j.^ J <u ^^iLjj jt?e^ bah 
wU'krrl ; imp. <:^ ^ji^ jp<?^ /;a/^, or <^^ j w;w- 
kah, or ijf ^Ji*^^pesh hrrah, or if^J wu-krrah ; 
act. part. ^^iu^yLo peshan:itnka£y, or ^^y^^ 
or peshaKuiiaey ; past part, j.^ jjSujj jt?e5^ 
karraey ; verb. n. <uyu> peshawunah. 
^j4*^ jp^^ (E.), or jt?t*^ (W.), adj. Before, in 
front, advanced ; (Fem.) <u«j pelJiah, or 

j.^U*-j peWidrcar (E.), or pe^dwar(W.), s. prop. 
The name of a city and district west of the 
Indus. (J »jW-J pe^idrvaraey, OTpeshdwaraey, 
s.m. (1st) A native of Peshfiwar. PL ^ ?. 
s.f. (6th) j^^^W-j peldidvcarcLX or peshdwara'l, 
A woman of Peshawar. Sing, and PL 

^jiS ^jXt^ pcM-ka/ch (E.), or pesh-kash (W.). 
s.m. (2nd) A present, a tribute, a gift. PL 
ijys^ ^jif^ pelSi kaMunahy or pesh kashUnah. 

(P yJiS \J^\ 




jy^ P^I^iawar (E.), otpeskawar (W.), 8. prop. 
The city and district of Peghftwar. Seej^Lj^ 

^jy^ pelcharvaraey, OTpeshawaraey^ A.m. (let) 
A native of Peghftwar. PI. ^^ f. s.f. (Gth) 
^^ a!l. Sing, and PI. 

Jj4«j peJSiawul (E.), op peshawul (W.), verb 
trans. To cause or make to meet, or encounter, 
to introduce, to conduct and make known, to 
bring to be acquainted, to bring into notice, 
to import. Vve^, ^y^ pe}3ia7vl,OTpesharvl\ 
V^tJ ^ji^^ peWi or pesh katr, or J ^ wic- 
ka^rr ; fut. ,^J aj ^j^^ pel3i or pesh bah Arrt, 
or isf } ^, bah wu-krri; imp. *^ ^j^^ pelih 
or pesh krrah or 2r^ J wu-hrrah ; act. part. 
jjJuji^4mj peldiawil'nkaey or peshawUnkaey, or 
^j^4mj peldtawUnaey or pesharoUnaey ; past 
part. jilj-eA-j pelOiawulaey or pesharculaey ; 
verb. n. <0^4mj pelSiawuncHh or peshawunoHh. 

y^^pelOiey (e7), orpesheyiyf.), s.f. (3rd) PI. 
Ridicule, burlesque, caricature, mockery. 
J^ j<4-i V^W^^J 0^ pcshey kawtil, verb trans. 
To mock, to mimic, to ape, to personate, to 
counterfeit, to caricature, to burlesque, to 
ridicule, to vex, to provoke. 

JjlmJmJ peWiedal (E.), or peshedal (W.), verb 
intrans. To meet, to encounter, to have inter- 
view with, etc. Pres. i^^^^^peshej^ (W.), or 
j^^^*4mj peldiegl (E.) ; past Uj^ ^^o*^ pesh or 
jtii?^ ^aA, or 4U1 J ^j4*^ jp^ orpeJSi wu-shah ; 
fiit. j-A <u ^j^^ pesh orpelSi hah shi, or ^^x^^ 
15** J *4 P^^ orpeM bah wu-shl ; imp. ^^^4^ 
^ pesh or peldi shah, or <U» J ^^4*^ jp^^ or 
pe^ Tvu-shaJi ; act. part, ^jio^ ju^i^ jo^^e- 
dunkaey orpeWiedunkaeyy or ^^s^^,^ peshe- 
dUnaey or pe^edUnaey ; past psurt. ^^^ ^^^ 
joe^ or jt?^^ shawaey ; verb. n. <0 iXm^ pe^e- 
dana'h OTpeNiedana!h. 

p aIuj paigham^ or aiLj paighamy s.m. (2nd) A 
message, an injunction. PI. tjy%\juipmgham' 
Unah, or ^y^ paighamUnah. 

p^^Uji paighdm-boTf or j^aju} paigham-bary 
s.m. (5th) A messenger. 2. A prophet. PI. 
^I^Uj paighcmbaran, or ^^^f'^JLo paigham- 

p v,^^;^l^ paighdmbariy or i^j^^^ pcag^ 
s.f. (3rd) Mission (especially) as a p 
PI. j^ a'7. 

<d««j pegh'ldhy s.f. (3rd) A virgin, a s 
maiden, a damsel. PI. ^ (?y. See ^Lu ] 

and Jjj- or Jajr 

j^^, Peghor, s.m. (2nd) Calumny, s 

railing, reproach, opprobrious language 

PI. ^yjf^ peghor-Unah. (P j^H or * 
i^f j^jf^ peghor war-kawul, verb twi 

reproach, to abuse, to rail at, to calm 

to slander. 
2^Lj pai'karrcHhy s.f. (3rd) An anklet, 1 

an ornament, a fetter. PI. l^J^ jwrf-' 

Fetters, manacles. 
jLj paykaiy s.m. (2nd) A rope or line u 

hanging clothes on. PI. ^^i^ payki 

See i^ and ^^ and <^<>^ 
^yLj pekarcaey, s.m. (1st) A ribbon op b 

fastening plaits of women's hair. P 

See L^*— J and c/^a^ 
p J-j j9l/, S.m. (5th) A male elephant. I 

jyi^w. s.f. (3rd) <d-j plUih, A female el< 

PI. 1^ ^. See JfU 
cl>Lj peMty s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of a « 

Fraud, deceit, artifice, subterfiige, imp 

PI. ^yLj pe-ldt-Unah. 
p LLj ptl-pd, adj. Afflicted with elepha 

2. 's.f. (6th) Elephantiasis. (E.) Sui^ 

PI. ; (W.) PI. ^^\±J pil-pdwl. 

p id-j pelaJh, s.f. (3rd) The baU (X 
which the silkworm forms round itsel 

p ,jU-j pcumdn, s.m. (2nd) A promise, 
ment, confirmation, asseveration, an oat 
^UyU^j paimdnUnah, Jj^ c;^*^ J 
kawul, or J J j^U-j paimdn tazral 
trans. To m^e an agreement, to pi 
to give an asseveration, to make or t 

p <0U^ pamdndhy s.f. (3rd) A goblet, a 
dry measure. PI. i^U^ paimdney. 
J^ paimdnah kawul, yerh tnnB. Tom 



^^U^ paimdreshf 8.m. (2nd) (verb. n. of 
p ^OyA^), Measure, limit. PI. ^Gyt^jU^ 


j*^ ^>J P^*^ f«aM^wy, adj. Handflome, beard- 
less, smoothfaced. PI. ^Js^ *j pa!l maMn ; 
(Fern.) dLi^ *j joa't ma^a'h. PI. ^^ ^. 

^jp^^ ^^p(i%maMtoby s.m. (2nd) Beardless- 
nesSy handsomeness, yonthftdness, juvenility. 
M. djyfii^ ^ ji?a'f maMtobnnah ; or (W.) 
^1j /K^ j»ga-fwaM-w5fa€y, s.m. (Ist) PI. 

t-sfi pin^h, adj. Five. See ^kari 
\gj pi-nal, verb trans. To chuck into the month 
Qrom the palm of the hand, as grain, medicine, 
rtc Pres. j^i-j pint ; past «Uo j Tvu-plnah, 
r ^i*J J fourplna ; fut. ^^i-j ij ^wu bah plnl ; 
ti^P* ^ J ^Urpinah] act. part, ^jio^ 
yf^vfln^a^, or ^J^y-j plnUnaey; past part, 
c-li-j piTialaey ; verb. n. <Ui-o pinanah. Sec 
ACj andi"^ ^ 

'*i^l>1nd!h, s.f. (3rd) A wooden bowl or trough 
tor making dough in. 2. A piece, a patch. 
^'^ey. SeeuiiL:. 

J«>)5j pew-dal, verb trans. To string, to file, to 
|«it on a line, to spit, to pierce, to thrust 
'tamgh. Pres. t^o^ perv-dl; past ^^^J 
^^t^pmd ; fut. k^^y^i <0 J TTM bak pcw-dl ; 
Bttp. iJ^ j rvu^percdah ; act. part. ^jil3^ J^ 
ffiKi-unkaey, or ^j3jJ»^ pewd-Hjiaey \ past 
Prt. ^fc>^ pervdalaey; verb. n. <0j^ 

. \^^P^dalaey, adj. (past part.) Strung, filed, 

•pitted, pierced, thrust through ; (Fem.) J J*-j 

I PffodaU. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ I. 

' 'jji^pa'i-^ara*h, adj. as s.f. (3rd) Giving much 

"rilk (as a cow, etc.) PI. ^j ey. See <);iJ 

'^s-^ijjj paiwast, s.m. (2nd) Junction, con- 

^ttkm, Mendship. 2. Touching, joining, a 

y^ PI. ^^j^ paiwaBtUna'h. See uu^ 

'^^^^ pamastafi, s.f. (3rd) Junction, 

PWrimity, contiguity, closeness, adhesion, 

•Wnnent. PL ^^ a^i. J/ ^J-^yi^^ P^^' 

^>%l /(oiPtt/, verb trans. To form attach- 

ikMDt, to make or cause closeness or junction. 

j^^jjj paiwastUn, s.m. (6th) Junction, con- 
nexion, friendship, attachment, closeness. 
Sing, and PI. 

P <tiL4j^ pamasta/i, adj. Joined, contiguous, 
attached; adv. Always, continually. <u^j^ 
jjjj\ paiwoBtah abrU, adj. Whose eyebrows 
join above the nose. J JuS" ^a^j^j paiwastah 
kedal, or Jjl-i--»^-*j paiwastedal, verb in- 
trans. To join, fasten, tie, bind, connect, 
attach. Pres. s^g-^^j-J pairvastejzt (W.), or 
^JLuj^ pairvastcffi (E.) ; past ^ ^^:^j^ pcii- 
Tvastah shahy or <Li J rcurshah ; fiit. ^ ^^s^^ 
j^ pai?vastah bah shl, or ^^ J <o iaA tpu- 
^i ; imp. <Ui <i:i^^ paiwastah shah, or ^^ j 
wU'shah ; act. part, ^jju^jua-j^ paiwaste- 
du7ihaey, or ^ji^*>-s-*»^ paiwastedanaey ; past 
part, jj^ <'^2-»^ paiwastah shawaey ; verb, 
n. <Ojui-j^ paiwastcdandhy or j^y;-y-J />ai- 
wastun, J^ ^^:^j;y paiwastah kawul, verb 
trans. To join, to fasten, to bind, to connect, 
to attach. 

p jjy^ paiwa7id, s.m. (2nd) (part, from ^Ji*^^) , 
Joining, attaching, connecting, linking, junc- 
tion, conjunction, addition, connexion, rela- 
tionship. 2. A joint, a patch, a join, a graft, 
a bud, a scion. PI. <OjjJ^ paiwandunah, 
^}S ^yj paiwand kawul, verb trans. To graft, 
to inoculate (as a tree). 2. To join, to patch. 

^ Lii P^ huch, s.m. (Gth) A tree of the pine 
family. Sing, and PI. 

^o--J peyawaey, s.m. (Ist) A kind of ribbon or 
band for fastening the ends of the plaits of 
hair of young girls and women, generally 
made of various colours. The plainer bands 
worn by elderly females are called (^^ PI. 
.^^^peyaw'i. See ^^ and ^//L 

tCj The fourth letter of the Pushto and Per- 
sian alphabets, is the third of the Arabic, and 
pronounced ta. It stands for 400 according 
to the Arabic ahjad, or appropriation of the 
letters to represent numbers. In conformity 





with the rules of the latter language also, when 
prefixed to a noun, it may be the Mn»&\ *\j, 
denoting an oath ; as <0J l7, By Qod. 
<j:j ta, or ej tah, The second personal pronoun 
of the Pu^to language. With transitive 
verbs in the past tenses, and in the oblique 
cases, it becomes changed to l7 td. See my 
Grammar, page 32. 
p \j (a, adv. To, until, as far as, whilst, as long 
as, even to, in order that, to the end that, in 
such a manner that, 
b td, s.f. (6th) A fold, a plait, a ply, a sheet of 
paper, etc. 2. A noise, a sound. (E.) Sing, 
and PI. ; (W.) PL ^^\j tdwl. See also <0 . 
\j g^ yawah td, adj. Simple, single, singular, 
unique, b ,^jO dwey td. Double, two-fold, 
b (^J drey td, Triple, three-fold, etc. 
P (^tf tdh, s.m. (2nd) Heat, light, splendour. 
2. Power, strength, endurance. 3. Eage, 
fury. 4. Burning, inflaming, illuminating. 
PI. <U^lj tdbunah. j\^ l^\j tab ddr, adj. 
Bright, luminous. 2. Twisted ; (Fem.) c-;b* 
*^1j tdb-ddra'h. See jlJ 
p ^\j tdbd7i, adj. (from ^b) Resplendent, 
splendid, glittering, burning, refulgent ; 
(Fem.) ^\j\3 tdbdna-k. 
p ^^ c— >b tab ddn, s.m. (2nd) A lattice, a sky- 
light. PI. <uyb L^\j tdb'ddnUnah. 
p j^li***jlJ tdbistdn, s.m (2nd) The hot season, 
sunmier. PI. <U^l:u*jl; tdbistdnUnah, See 
4/J^' and ^^j 
A ^b tdbuB, s.m. (5th) (act. part, from j-J) 
A dependant, a follower, a subject. PI. ^^UjIj 
tdbia-dn. <ujIj td-bice'A, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^^ ey. 
p *jcjI; tdbindah, s.m. (5th) Shining, a giver of 

light. PI. ^^l^jcjl; tdbindagdn. 
A c:jyb tdbut, s.m. (2nd) A coffin, a bier. 2. 
The ark of the covenant, presented by God 
to Adam. PI. <Oy^lJ tdbutunaL 
^\j tdbin, s.m. (5th) A dependant, a follower, 
a subject, (a ^b). PI. ^^^U-jIj tdbindn. 
^b tdbindh, s.f. (3rd) A female follower or 
dependant. PI. ^ ey. 
vj<j\i tdtdr, s.m. (9th) The name of a country, 


Tartary. 2. A Tartar, a native i 
Sing, and PI. 

:j\j td'tang, s.m. (2nd) The girth 
2. The name of a Durrah or va 
Kohistan of Kabul. PI. ^^\j ta 
A -Jb td-^lr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii i 
making an impression, operatioi 
tion. PI. <Ojj -Jb td^lrunah. (a P 
tdj, s.m. (2nd) A crown, a 
tiai'a, a crest, the comb of a bird. 
p {JSjjsT ^\j tdj'baMish, adj. (used as 
tive) An emperor, a giver of king( 
^1j tdj ddr, s.m. (5th) One wl 
crown, a king, a prince. PI. ^^ 
ddrd?i; s.f. (3rd) ifj\j -.b tdj di 
p (^^/>- ^b tdj'i-Miarus, s.m. (6th) 
of a cock. 2. The cockscomb flo\ 
an thus, or Celosia). Sing, and PI 
A^b tdjir, s.m. (5th) (part. act. < 
A trader, a merchant. PI. j^J/r^ 
tl^lj tajik, s.m. (5th) A name app 
scendants of Arabs, numbers of wl 
about the chief towns of W. AfghfiB 
^l^b tdjikdn. ii^\i tdjikdh, 
A female of the above. PI. ^ ey. 

b tdhht, s.m. (2nd) Plunde 
assault, attack, inroad, invasion, 
a gallop, a foray. PI. <U^d-lJ t 
J^ j*::-.^£;^Ij tdhht kannil, verb tra 
tack, to assault, to invade, to ravag 
to gallop. 

J^JO c:..^^- tdkht tdrdj, s.m. (9t] 
and plunder, depredation, devastati 
and PI. J/ ^J3 tr-^^r;.!; tdkht td 
verb trans. To ruin, to depopulate. 
^U tdJMr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii • 
Delay, procrastination, impedim 
ijtij^\j tdM^runah. J^ ^r^ 
kawul, verb trans. To delay, pro 
postpone, retard. 

L-^jlJ tdMb, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii 
Correction, chastisement, amendi 

p l:: 





dpline, eradition. PI. ^y^jcfj tddibUnah. 
J^ S^*^^ ^^^ ^aww/, verb trans. To in- 
Btmct, to correct, to chastise. 
Pjb ^r, s.m. (2nd) A thread, a lace, a yam, 
the string of a musical instrument, the warp 
or threads placed lengthwise in weaving a 
piece of cloth. PI. <0^l; tarUnah, 
J^j\2 tar tar, otj\j <u^l; tar pah tar, adj. Dis- 
persed, scattered, dishevelled, streaming, loose 
(as the hair). 
?-j-\;lj taraj, s.m. (2nd) Plunder, devastation. 
jPl. ij^\j\j tdrdjunak. J^ ^\Xj taraj 
Jk^fciUf verb trans. To plunder, to spoil. 
. -V» 4j jb tdr pah tdrarvul, verb trans. To 
cJiisperse, to scatter, to spread, to distribute; 
t^> perplex, to confiise, to derange, to dis- 
ax-«3er, to distract, to perturb. Secjl; <u jlj 
CJ^^ tdrik, s.m. (5th) (act. part, of dSj) 
UeJiving, deserting. 2. A deserter. PL ^^l^U 
m^Htan ; s.f. (3rd) d^j\j tainkah. PI. ^ ey, 
Uoi^ C/^'J tdr'ik'ud'dunydy adj. Abandoning 
ttie world, sober, chaste. 2. An anchoret, a 
^ ta-m, s.m. (5th) A black partridge. PL 

\;^^j\i tdrUgdn. 
Ji;\j iorawulj verb trans. To disperse, to spread, 
fo scatter, etc. 
j ^^b tar'iMiy s.m. (2nd) Date, epoch, era, day 
rfa month. 2. Annals, history. PL aj^ar.'j 

^h^P tdrlMr rcdr, adv. Daily, at stated 

* '^jlJ tank, adj. Dark, obscure ; (Fem.) 
*^J:i tdrUa'h. 
'yWjljf tdrlki, s.f. (3rd) Darkness, obscurity, 

^m. PL J a'l. See ^.L? and ajl> .1; 
> %, s.m. (2nd) A gang of robbers, a band, 
* company. 2. Plunder, spoil, robbery, PL 
^JU^" tdrrUnah ; or cJjjt? tdrrdk, s.m. (2nd). 
^/!i^ f^tr^^nah. JjjJyi jb' tdrrpre- 
*«W, verb intrans. To fall on in a gang, to 
M on as brigands, to attack. J3 tdrr or 
J/cJljU turrdk kawul, verb trans. To 
Plonder, to spoil. See jlj 

ir^lj tdrr ah, adj. Ruined, spoiled, poor, wretched, 
distressed, abject. 

i^lj ^am, s.m. (Ist) PL Clapping the hands to 
express approbation, and to keep time in 
music, (s ?TT^). 

jl^ tdz^ s.m. (5th) A species of edible locust 
produced in the autumn. They alight on 
trees in swarms, and are captured by smoking 
them from beneath. PL ^^ tdzdn, 

cl5jU tazik, s.m. (5th) A Tajik. PL ^p 
tdzikdn ; s.f. (3rd) ^j\j tdzikah. PL A r?/. 
See vK^U- 

V hj^ tdzahy adj. Fresh, new, young, green, 
tender. 2. Fat. 3. Happy, pleased. ajIj 
Jju^ tdzah kedaly verb intrans. To increase, 
to flourish, to be in good case. J^ nj^ tdzah 
kanitl, verb trans. To renew, to refresh, to 
recreate, ^b* tdzagi, s.f. (3rd) Freshness, 
newness, greenness. 2. Fatness, plumpness. 
3. Pleasure, happiness. PL lJ a'l. 

p 2fjlj <u iij\j tdzah pah tdzah, adj. Fresh and 

p ^Oljjlj tdzi-ydncHh, s.f. (3rd) A whip, a scourge. 
PL ^Vj'^ tdzi-ydncy, Ja^ ajUjlj tdzi' 
ydndh wahal, verb trans. To whip, to scourge. 

p j^lj tdzl, s.m. (5th) A greyhound. PL j^lj ;lj* 
tdz'i-dn. ^j\j tdzal, s.f. (Gth) A greyhound 
bitch. Smg. and PL 

p ^jJj tdSy s.m. (2nd) A brass cup or vessel. 
PL ^^Jc tdsunah. See ^jf$ 

Ai^-Lcb* tdssiif, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of L-i-»0 Pining, 
lamenting, grief, regret, remorse, sighing, be- 
moaning, broodingoverafiliction.PL<oy^lj7ac^- 
sttfunah. Jj^ L-iL»b* tdssuf hhrcarral, verb 
trans. To grieve, to lament, to pine, to regret. 

yj<j tdso, The plural form of the second personal 
pronoun, ye or you. It may also be written 
(jkwb* tdm, ,^1; td^'i, and ^^b tdsL See my 
Grammar, page 32. 

ail? tdghah, s.m. (Gth) The name of a tree, the 
elm or poplar, pieces of which are strung to- 
gether and hung round horses' necks to avert 
the evil eye. Sing, and PL 





p ifcJb td/tah, s.f. (8pd) A kind of rilk, taffeta. 

Pl.i^ey. See iOjb 
p cJU ^aA:, B.m. (2nd) A vine, the branch of any 
tree growing or trained like a vine. PL djj^t? 
tdkunah ; or s.m. (5th) PI. ^\^ tdkdn, 
c)\j tdA, B.m. (2nd) A precipice, the steep side 
of a mountain pass. PI. aJj^lj tdkHnah. 

cJU tdk, adj. (corrup. of a jlL) Odd, single, 
unique ; (Fern.) i£\j tdkdh, 

A ju^tf tdkid, B.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^\) Con- 
firmation, emphasis. 2, Injunction, ascer- 
taining, superintendence. PI. <O^JuAj /a^Ic?- 
unah. Jj^ ju^l; ^a^Irf kawul, verb trans. To 
urge, insist, enjoin, to press. 

A i^Ju^lJ tdkidl, adj. Emphatic, decided, dog- 

H Jb ^a/, s.m. (2nd) Beating time in music by- 
striking or slapping the fingers or hands to- 
gether. PI. iUjSlJ tdlunah. J^ JlJ tdl 
kawul, verb trans. To chime, to beat or clap 
the hands, to keep time. 

iU tdld,, s.f. (6th) Plunder, spoil, sack, booty, 
prey, devastation, destruction, ravage, waste, 
pillage. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PL ^.'i\j 
tdldwl. fj^ Vyj tdld kawul, verb trans. To 
ravage, to plunder, to sack, to pillage, to lay 
waste, to devastate. See 4^1; and ^^Xb 

p u-j^b tdldh, or yi\i tdldc, s.m. (2nd) A pond, 
a tank, a reservoir. PL <U^^lj tdldbUmh, or 
iGji^^b tdldoUnah. Seej^U 

^^t; tdldsh, 8. prop. The name of a district 
north-west of Pesh&war. 

p fji\j tdldn, B.m. (2nd) Plunder, spoil, pillage, 
sack, booty, prey, devastation, ravage, waste, 
destruction. PL <0yl!l5 tdldnUnah. See jjb 
and <id\j 

5jJl3 tdlanda'k, s.f. (3rd) Thunder, thundering. 
PL ^ ey. See liJ 

B^\j tdlu, s.m. (5th) The palate, the ridge or 
slit in the roof of the mouth. PL ^W^Ij^ 
tdlUgdn. See ^^ 

lOU tdla'hf fl.f. (3rd) Plunder, spoil, booty, 
sack, prey, devastation, ravage, waste, pillage, 

destruction. PL ^ ey. Jj^ 41; tdlaA kamd, 
verb trans. To ravage, to plunder, to Back, to 
pillage, to lay waste. See also Yb and ^11; 

41; tdla'h, B.f. (3rd) A kind of delicate short 
grass which grows only in the spring months. 
PL ^ ey. 

^l; idiocy, s.m. An iron or brass plate. PI. ^l" 
tdti. (bJV). 

A ^l; tdmm, adj. (act. part, of ^^UJ) Perfect, 
entire, complete, full. 

B i^\j tdmba'k, s.f. (3rd) Copper. PL ^\j 

A J^ljf taammul, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of J^D 
Meditation, reflection, consideration, heflitft- 
tion, purpose. PL Lj^\J ta^ammulimk. 
^^f J^U taammul kawul, verb trans. To 
consider, to reflect, to meditate. 

B ^U tan, s.m. (2nd) A tune, a key note 
music, ^yb tdnUnah. 

B <u3lj tdnhdk, s.f. (3rd) Copper. PL ^ 
See <u«b 

4jjjl3 tdiidoyh, s.f. (3rd) A kind of vegetibL^ 
greens. PL ij ^. See -J^j-* 

»jjl; tdyidcHh, adj. Green, fresh, verdant, floarifl**' 
ing, recently grown. 

p i:i^\i tdnista'h, s.f. (3rd) The warp in wer^* 
ing. V\. ^^^\j tdnistey. See^4^ 

Ciol? tdng, s.m. (2nd) The girth of a saddle, • 
band, a brace. PL ij^\j tdnffUnoA. 

»j\j tdTTna^/i, s.f. (3rd) A police etation, • 
picquet, a guard. PL ^J ey, 

p jb tao, s.m . (2nd) Heat, warmth. 2. (b) Pk»- 
sion, rage, anger. 3. Twist, contortifl** 
4. Strength, power. PL ^^^\j t^o-W^- 
^\j <u pah tao, or Xj^^^^ ^o pah td'o WoMf 
adv. Quickly, swiftly, speedily, apace. J*>4>^ 
tdwedal, verb trans. To tfrtst, to writhe^ *• 
become distorted or contorted. Prea. s&O 
tdwe^i (W.), or ^^b tdweyl (E.) ; P^^ 
^ jb fa'{> ^aA, or ^:, j jU ^'tf wu-d^ » 
fut.^ aj ^l; ^5'<? 4eiA ^J, or ^ j *; J^ 
ww-i^i ; imp. ^ j\j ^aV MoA, or A^ j 
^flA ; act. part. ^jij^^\j t^ihedUnakaef, i 
^^ jj^lf td*(hedunaey ; past part. ^^ ^ 




tdo sAawaey; verb. n. ^jj^\j td!(h€dana'A. 
Also Jj^ jt td'o M/ivarral, verb trans. 
Jj^t? ta'a-awiU, verb trans. To twist, to writhe, 
to wind, to encircle, to weave, to unite, to 
Bcrew as the keys of a musical instrument. 
Preo- L^}j^ tdwarcl ; past i^ ^\3 td'o kahy or 
dJ^J wU'kah^ OT jf j\j tao karr, oTj^lrcur 
karr; fut. ^ ^, J^ tcCo bah ki, or ^jf j 40 
bah nni'hl, "or f^J <o jlj tao bah krrlt or 
^J j ij bah fcurkirl ; imp. i^ JG tao kah, or 
d^ J wti-kahy or ^/jIj' ^'^ A/raA, or ij i rvu- 
krroA; act. part, ^^^jyylj' tdwawiinkaey, or 
^jl^lj tdwatvunaey ; past part. ^J^ jlj ^a't? 
karraeff ; verb. n. ^OjyU td'o-waroandh. Also 
Jj^jpj jly ^a'£> n?ar kawuly verb trans. 

p ^^^l; ^a;ra», s.m. (2nd) Retaliation, recom- 
pense, amends. 2. Debt. 3. Fine, mulct. 
4. Injury, loss. PI. ij^\JG tamanunah. 
i}*^ {^^^^ tdwdn kedaly verb trans. To sus- 
tain injury or loss, to lose. JuuclT ^\^^ 
tdwdn dM^tcU, verb trans. To amerce, to 
mulct, to fine. ^}^J^ ^^ tdwdn roar-kawul, 
verb trans. To give compensation, to make 
amends, to pay a fine. 

AJ^l; tatttdh, s.f. (3rd) Taffeta, a kind of cloth. 
PL ^ ey. See <tijlJ 

▲ ;j«jIj td'ua^ s.m. (5th) A peacock. PI. ^Ljl? 

^j^l; td^Mn, s.m. (5th) The plague (a ^jcU?). 
PL ^y^^^ td-tvUnUnah. 

^jjU td-wUnaey, s.m. (1st) The plague. See 
preeeding. PI. ^ i, 

iSSsJ^^ tdmhtak, s.m. (2nd) A kind of ornament 
of silver in the shape of an almond, etc., con- 
taining a talisman or charm, worn by females. 
PL ij^zi^\j tdm-takunah. 

Jj^lj ^a-9rl/, s.m. (2nd) Gliange, transfer, re- 
turn, trusts (corrup. of a Ji^a^). PL <0^^l; 

A J»j3 td-wil, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of JjU Ex- 
planation, elucidation, interpretation, para- 
plirase* PL ^jI^Ij td^ilunah. Jj^ Jjjb 
tA-niU kanmlf verb trans. To elucidate, to ex- 

p *l; tdh, s.f. (1st) A plait, a fold, a ply; multi- 
plicity, perplexity, confusion. PL »\j tdhi. 
See U and aj 
^l; tdhar, s.m. (5th) The name of a clan of the 
Ghalzls. PL ^jib\j tdhardn, ij^tf tdhara'h, 
s.f. (3rd). PL ^ ey. 

A i-^lj td'lb, adj. (act. part, of Ajy ) Repentant, 
penitent ; (Fem.) <Lj17 td-lba'h. 

L---J tab, s.m. (2nd), An antidote, a sedative, a 
fomentation, a poultice, an embrocation. PL 
<0^ tabunah, J-J tabal, verb trans. To 
foment, to poultice, to apply an embrocation 
or antidote. Pres. ^ tabl; past <ol3 J wu- 
tdbah ; fut. ^ <u J wu bah tabl ; imp. <cJ J 
wU'tabah; act. peart. ^jX)^ tabunkaey, or 
jd^ tabUnaey ; past part, ^jlj tabalaey ; 

verb. n. di-J tabana'h. Secj^lj 
PjLf ^aiar, s.m. (2nd) Race, tribe, family, 

people, nation. PL <0^lJ tabdrUnah. See 

p *Ij ^aiaA, adj. Abject, ruined, spoiled, wretched; 

bad, wicked, depraved. JU. «lj tabdh hdl, 

adj. Ruined, wretehed, spoiled. JjuS^ *l-J 

tabdh hedal, verb intrans. To become ruined, 

abject, wretched, etc. J^ *lj tabdh kawul, 

verb trans. To ruin, to spoil, to make wretched. 
p^U? tabdhi, s.f. (3rd) Ruin, wreck, perdition, 

depravity, wickedness. PL ^^ a*h 
j^^flcU tab'Jan, adj. Feverish, a person labouring 

imder fever ; (Fem.) ^us:;; tabjanah. See ^ 
^JcU tabaj^aey, s.m. (Ist) The pelvis, the 

abdomen, the pubes. 2. An iron dish for 

baking cakes on. PL j^ !. 
A JjbJ tabaddul, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of Jj^), 

Alteration, change, difference, transposition. 

PL <UjSjcJ tabaddalunah, 
A JjJcJ ^aJcS/, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of Jjj), 

Alteration, change, difference, transposition. 

PL ^^Ju; tabdXlUnah. Jju^ ck'V ^o^eft/ 

^flfc/, verb intrans. To change, to alter, to 

differ. J^^ Jj^^ tabdll kawul, verb trans. 

To alter, to change, to transpose. See 

JjJjj and Jjlj^ 
p^ tabar, s.m. (2nd) An axe, a hatchet. PL 


^iijfj tabaranah. ^jijj^ tabarzin, s.m. (5th) 

A horseman's battle axe. PI. ^^JjfJ tabar- 

zlndn; or s.m. (2nd). PI. ^yij j^ tabar- 

A \j^ tabarrdf s.f. (6th) Being absent, remote, 

or at a distance. 2. Being acquitted, cleared, 

or absolved. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. 

v^jl^ tabarrd/vh 
A ijj^ tabarruk, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of ^^S), 

Benediction, congratulation. PI. LjSj^ 

^g-J tubraey, s.m. (1st) The head of an arrow. 

PI. ^^7. See^^y 
A ^^^ tabassuniy s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of -maj), A 

smile. Pl.<Uj-4uuA-J tabassum-unah, ^^ M-yr^fd- 

basmm katvul, verb trans. To smile. Sec JL^ . 
A .hjuIj «--J taba4-tabiatn, s.m. (PI.) The 

friends of the friends of Muhammad. S(;e 

^ tabak, or ^; tabakh, s.m. (2nd) A disease 
in cattle, a running at the nose, the glanders. 
PI. iJyu^ tabakUnahy or ^^s:^ tabakhUnah, 

6jj tabdk, s.f. (3rd) Fever, heat. PL ^ tabcy. 
See ^jsf^ J^ <UJf tabcHh nucul^ verb trans. 
To take a fever. <lJ ^^^jj z'yarrdl taba'k, 
or «Lj i^J ij^^ 7vdrdh garcy tabdk, A tertian 
fever. Also A-J <Ujj J dre-yamdh tabcCh, and 
6j^ dji^sih yakah tabdh. <lJ 2f^ sarrali 
tabdh, An ague. a-J ijJt» shabardh tabdh, 
«LJ ^ fo toiaV/, or a-J ^(Cj-jl Hchakdl tabdk, 
A burning fever. <)lJ ^^i;^ skdnvdi tabdk, 
A burning fever with a pain in the liver. 
A-J »jjj <UJb hamah rozcHh tabdh, or <LJ *j1 J 
dderdh tabdh, A quotidian fever. 
j-J toia'f, s.f. (6th) An earthen plate or dish 
for baking cakes on. Sing, and PI. See also 

•^. - 

tap tap, A word or words used to make 
a dog go into a hole, (t l--J j*.^). 

tcep, s.m .(2nd) (W.) A mole, a wart. PI. 
ijy^ tcep-Unah. l^ ^y tor-tcep, A black 
mole. ^jjJ tor-tcopaeyy adj. Marked with 
a black mole ; (Fem.) l-^ ^y tor-tcppL PI. 
(Masc. and Fem.) ^^ f." 

8 (^tJ tapds, s.m. (2nd) Toil, labour, 
enquiry. PI. dj^Lj tapdsUnah. J 
^flr/?(W kan-ul, verb trans. To search 
make enquiry, to toil. 

p cJLj tapdk, s.m. (2nd) Affection, est 
gard, love, ardour, zeal. PI. ^^^ 
Unah, J^ cJU3 ^ajya^ /ara/, verb ti 
regard, to esteem, to love, to have ; 

juLj tapdnd, pres. part. Palpitating, \ 
hot or warm (coiTup. of p ^^LJ from ^ 

Ihj taprrd, s.f. (6th) A wooden instnmK 
by potters for tiipping. (E.) Sing a 
(W.) PI. ^^\jP taprrdm. See \jJi 

jJjLj tapakj s.m. (2nd) The sound of i 
iOyLj tupakwiak. 

J-J tapal, verb trans. To heap, to pile, 
to amass, to accumulate . Pres. ^ 
past <o U J wU'tdpah ; fut . ^ «o J /tm^ 
imp. <U5 J wu-tapali ; act.** part, ^jilj 
iifikaey, or ^jJ^ tapunaey ; past pa 
tapalaey ; verb. n. <u-j tapandh. 
duJ tapalaey, adj. (past part.) Heaped u 
amassed, accumulated ; (Fem.) JuJ 
PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ i. 

Iji-o taprrRd, s.f. (6th) A wooden ins 
used by potters for tapping. (E.) Si 
PI. ; (W.) PI. ^^j^ taprrndrvi. S< 

j^ ^a/;ar, s.m. (2nd) A kind of om 
stomacher worn by young women. PI 

(j^y^ tapdvs, s.m. (2nd) Search, invesi 
examination, labour (corrup. of Aj^^aa: 
ijy^y^ tapdasunak. See ^^Lj 

iUj tapdk, s.f. (3rd) A division, a district, i 
award, a tribe, a clan. PL ^ tapey. 

^ tapaey, s.m. (1st) A wart, a mole oi 

** the face. PL j^ i. ^ j^ tor tq 
black mole. See a^ ; " 

tat, adj. Thick, dense, close, compac 

set ; lisping. PL ^yi3 tatUnah. Se 

JjuiJ tatedal, verb intrans. To gro^ 

thick, close, or compact, as leaves, co 

etc. Pres. ^j^ tatejzi (W.), or X 



past iJt iz^ tat skaA, or <U0 J wu-shah ; 

^ ^ 4^:^ tat ball shi, or 

^^ J ^ AaA 

; ; imp. ^ c:^ tat shah, or <l1 j ww- 
act. past ^jJo^ju:^ tatedanhaey, or 
J tatedUnaey; past part, lh^ to^, or 
s^ to< shawaey; verb. n. <Ojuij ^a^^- 
! or 5Jui3 tatedah. 

^ to/ walaey, s.m. (1st) Thickness, 
Less, closeness, compactness. PI. jc x, 
amtd, verb trans. To make dense or 
to bring together, to thicken, Pres. 
tatawi ; past jf v.::^ tat karr, or J ^ 
rr ; fut. ^ &j ls^ tat bah ki, or 
<0 ia/< rcu'hly and t<j^ aj c:^' to/ bah 
)r (,^J <u ia/i 7cu-krri\ imp. ^i^c:^ 
'.A, or ij krrahy and i^^ J v.^^ to/ ww- 
)r if^ J 7VU'krrah ; act. part, ^jiojiyij 
Inkaey, or ^j^^ tatawunaey ; past 
^^ v::^ to/ karraey ; verb. n. <0^ 

irewy, s.m. (Ist) Porphyry. PI. ^ I. 
irraey, adj. Lisping, speaking imper- 
2. One who lisps. Fern. ^ a 7. See 

immdhy s.f. (3rd) An appendix, supple- 
continuation. PI. ^^ Q^. 
f/ca'A, s.f. (3rd) A turtle dove, a ring 

PI. ^ ey, 
% adj. (Fem. of v^u^), Thick, dense, 
UJt. 4,^;;^ ^ tatey khabarcy, Lisping 
. ^j^\ <tJ tata'h aoredzj A tliick or 

? tijdrat, s.m. (2nd) Commerce, trade, 
sr tydratunah, 

tajdnmz, s.m. (2nd) (inf. vi of j^), 
ling, passing, transgressing, surpassing, 
J, deviating, offending. PI. ^Ojjj^lar 
uzUnah, Jj^ J^^F^ tajdwuz kawul, 
trans. To offend, to transgress, to depart. 
' tajdrhul, A.m. (2nd) (inf. vi of Jf>-), 
nded ignorance, connivance, apathy, in- 
aice. PI. lO^lflcr tajd-hulunah. JaIs^ 
i^^hul kanml, verb, trans. To pretend, 
bet Ignorance. 

A <u^ tajriba^h, s.f. (3rd) (inf. ii of ^-^), 
Experiment, trial, proof, experience, assay, 
probation. PI. ^^ ey. Ji ijjs^ tajribdh 
kdVy adj. Expert, experienced, conversant in ; 
(Fem.) 2f^l^ <^^J/f^ tajribah kdrah, ^J^ ^J^ 
tajriba'h kdrly s.f. (3rd) Experience, expert- 
ness, etc. PI. ^^ at. J^ ^J^ tajribah 
kawul, verb trans. To experience, to try, to 
make trial of. 

A ^M y^ taja^sus, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of {j**^). 

Spying, exploring, search, enquiry, investiga- 
tion, inquisitiveness. PI. <0^*A*xu3r tajassus- 
Unah. A J^ ^^.,...y^ tajassus kawul, verb 
trans. To explore, to investigate, to pry into. 

A Asf tajalhih, s.f. (3rd) PI. ^^ ^ ; or ^laf 

tajalUy s.f. (3rd) (inf. v of 5L>-), Splendour, 
brilliancy, lustre, clearness. PI. iV a'!. 

Aj^jTsT tajwxz, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of J^), 
Approbation, permission. 2. Inquiring into, 
examining, investigation, considering. 3. Con- 
trivance, scheme, plan ; sentence, judgment, 
detennination, trial. PI. ^^f^f^ tajwlzunah, 
Jji" Jj^asT tajwlz kawul, verb trans. To in- 
vestigate, to examine, to enquire into, to sen- 
tence, to plan, to contrive. 

8 ^ tach, adj. Void, empty. 2. Contemptible, 
worthless, despicable ; (Fem.) ^^ tadidh, 

^ tick, s.m. (2nd) The sheath or scabbard of a 
sword, dagger, etc. PI. ^fsf ttdt-Unah. 

A w::^^ taht, s.m. (2nd) The inferior part, be- 
low, under. 2. Subjection, possession. PI. 
iij^xssr tahtunak. 

^jijisT tahnr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^), Writ- 
ing correctly, writing, description. 2. Writ- 
ten, dated. PI. ^x;l/^ tahnrUnah, jij=^ 
Jjuf tahnr kedal, verb intrans. To be writ- 
ten. ^^ yjs^ tahnr kawul, verb trans. To 
write, to describe. 

A ^^;--Ma^ tahstn, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^jm*^), 
Approbation, applause, acclamation. PL 
djy^m^ tc^slnUnak. Jj^ ijit***^ taimn 

kawul, verb trans. To praise, to applaud, to 
A X^^aar tahszl, S.m. (2nd) (inf« ii of Jt-^a^)* 





OtBin, profit, attamment, learning, acquifiition. 
PI. iUjLiAac^ taJi^llUnah. J^ J^'oa^ tafi^ll 
kawul, verb trans. To acquire, to gain, to 
learn, to collect. 

^M^aaT taft^llMvy a.m. (5th) A collector, a 
tax-gatherer. PL ^J^SL^asa^ tak^llddrdn. 

P (^j\jLk0aa^ tah^lldarl, s.f. (3rd) Collectorship, 
tax-gathering. PI. ^^ a!u 

A aiasT tulifahf B.f. (3rd) A curiosity, a rarity, 
a present. PI. ^^iar (Mlifey. 2. adj. Rare, 
excellent, uncommon, admirable ; nice, choice, 
beautiful, odd, singular. 

A (j^3ar tajikik, adj. Authentic, ascertained, 
apparent, indubitable, adv. Truly, indeed. 
3. s.m. (2nd) Exactness, precision, verifica- 
tion, trial. PI. dj •5-A*r toJildkUnah. aJ^ 
Jj^ talkktk kawul, verb trans. To ascertain, 
to investigate, to inspect. 

A ci^lLifls T takkljkdt, s.m. (PI. of Jl-ia^), In- 
vestigations, inquiries. Pl.AjyUuAar^a^^l^a^ 
tZ;2a^. J^ cjlLjiar takkifcdt kawul, verb 
trans. To investigate, to inquire into. 

A J-4ac^ tahammul, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of J-*^), 
Patience, endurance, long-suffering, resigna- 
tion, forbearance, peace, meekness, humility. 
PI. ij^j^ taJkammulUnak, J^ J^^^s^ ta^am- 
mul kawul, verb trans. To endure, forbear, 
bear, be patient. 

A Jjjar tafiwtl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of J^), 
Change, transfer. 2. Trust, charges, cash in 
charge. PI. ^^y^ talkwUUnah. 

Aj\j]jys^ talkwilddr, s.m. (5th) A treasurer, a 
cash-keeper. PI. f^\J\Aiyxr taJiwlldardn. 

P gf;l*xL[^flir tafiwilddri, s.f. (3rd) The business 
of a cash-keeper. PI. ^ a%. 

P c:--*^ taM:t, s.m. (2nd) A throne. PI ^jj:J^ 
ta^Unak. ^^J^ l:l^ taMit nishln, A king, 
a ruler. izJ:^ b c:-^ ta^t yd ta^tah, 
Either a throne or a bier (spoken on entering 
on a desperate enterprise). " Death or vic- 
tory," "a Peerage or Westminster Abbey," 
etc. jil^c:.^ tajdvt-gdk, s.m. (2nd) A me- 
tropolis, the capital of a country, the seat of 
government, Fl. ^jJil^cu^ taiht-^dhunah. 

p isJ^ taibtcCk, s.f. (3rd) A plank, a board, ft 
stool, a bench, a bier, a sheet of paper. PI. 

s.f. (3rd) Wainscot, boarding. PI. j^ aX 
^^ ^sJi? tukita'h po^ or pof^, s.m. (2nd) 
A stage, a platform, a wooden floor. PL 
ijy^y)^ po^Unah orpoJdiUnah. 

p 0^ isJ:? taldttah-nard, s.m. (2nd) Back- 
gammon. PI. <UjJ^ <ti^ tai^taA-^nard&nah, 

CJ^ t'M^ff, B.m. (2nd) The armpit. H. 
^^js^ t'Miargilnah. 

^js^ t^MiaTga£y, s.m. (1st) A gusset in the 
armpit of a dress. PI. ^c f . 

^ taMia^z, s.f. (1st) An adze, a carpenter's 
tool. PI. ^ taf^a4^. 8eejni»y 

A i^a.J,iP' taJdtflf, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^Js) 
Making light, aUeviatuig. 2. AlleviatUHif 
abatement, relief, remission, mitigation. PL 
^fJ^ ta^funah. J/ ^.JJ^ toMj/lf 
kawul, verb trans. To alleviate, to remit, U> 
assuage, to abate. Also Jj^jj u-ajA^ ta^^i/ 
war kawul, or Ji-j.^ ujLii^ ial^^f ghclStf^^ 
or ghoshtdl, verb trans. To reqnest abatemen 
relief, or remission. 

A jhAir' taWXfc, s.m. (2nd) (inf. n of jU 
Forming well, completing, creating. P 
aj^aJls^ ta^UkUnah. 

p ^ tuM/m, s.m. (2nd) Seed, sperm. PI 
^^•^ ^i^M^t^naA. jj 1^ tul^m-i bad, iidj 
Low-bred, ^^lac^ ^ tuM^-i rl^Mn, Bjn^ 
(6th) The seed of the sweet basil, etc^ 
Sing, and PI. ^j^ ^i* tu^m rezi, s.f. (8rd-J 
Sowing, casting seed. PI. ^J^ a% i^g^ 
Jj^ tuk&m rezl kawul, verb trans. To 
^l^ ^ tul^'i kdliU, s.m. (9th) The seed 
lettuce. Sing, and PL ^^la^ ^ tutifiHr-- 
katdn, 8.m. (6th) Linseed. Sing, and PL 

^ ^ taM: maWi, interj. fie ! for shamel 

A^Lj-«^ taM^Mum, adv, (firom ^^^^6^) By guetf^ 
by conjecture, 2. Nearly, about 

PiUi:' tuifyna'h, s.f. (3rd) Origin, prindpl^ 
2. (a) Indigestion. PI. ^ ey. 

Jy^ taMnawul, verb trana. To tieklei t:^ 




Ae. Pres. c^yxk^ tajd^nawl ; past ^r^l:^ J 

^^bSiM^iTtfA, orj^UaTj n't^toM^TZ'^; Alt. 
r ijj fvu boA taMnawl ; imp. iry^ J 
^M'tan^aA; act. part, ^jio^yxkr ^aM- 
nkciey, or ^^y^ taM^nawUnaey ; past 
^y^ toMnawulaey; verb. n. Aj^irir 
uifvuna'A. See J^a^ 
iMnawuna'A, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Tickling, 
ting. PI. j^ ^. 

takAnedal, verb intrans. To feci tickling 
dilation. Pres. ^^c^jiac? taMnejzi (W.) 

SLifikr taWmegl (E.); past ^rjuifSirJ 7272^- 
lecJeiA ; fut. (Cpjirk" ij jTvu bah (aM^jzl, 
-jiflT i^^'yftu bah taMinegl ; imp. »Tir^ J 
'J^nejzah, or ii^:^ \ rcxi-tayhnegah ; 
part. ^jJL)j JljV ns^ takknedunkaeyf or 
b-jiar tahhmdilnaey ; past part. ^ juiasr 

edalaey ; verb, n. <Uj>.>var tahhnedancHh, 

tlJiawul^ verb trans. To tickle, to titil- 
Pres. (^^=i^ taJJia^tl ; past *j^ j wj«^- 
^-«?mA, or ^jU:^ J TcU'tuMcL-n^o ; fut. <u J 
' w?w AoA tal£anji ; imp. ^^Jr J ;rw- 
:n?a^ ; act. part, ^jio^^ar taj^7mnkaey, 
Jjj^fls? taWhfiiwunaey ; past part. ^y=^ 
iwulaey ; verb. n. ^O^ar tdJJiamunah. 
ia'h, s.f. (3r(i) Tickling, titillation. PI. 
taM^* J*^^*^ takhedalj verb intrans. 
ckle, to titillate, to feel titQlation. Pres. 
y tal^jzl (W.) or ^J^ taMiegl (E.) ; 

■* ** M 

iJu^ J rcU'taJ^edah ; fiit. i^^T;-:?*^ <^ J 
flA taMiejzly or ^X^ ^Li iwu bah taJJiegl ; 

iN-*ar' J TVti^taMeJzaA, or <^x^ J yyw- 
yah ; act. part. ^iL;^ ju^ talitcdunkaey ^ 
j)^Jui^ ta^iedunaeg) past part, ^jjju^ 
edalaey; verb. n. iGju^ tajdiedand! h. 
al^iaey, s.m. (1st) Tickling, titillation. 
ij^ I. See ^ 

AJ tadarukf s.m. (2nd) (inf. vi of cJjS) 
«ration, remedy, an expedient, precaution, 
ritton, preparation. 2. Chastisement, re- 
iKon. Pi. dLi^^jo tadarukUnaL cl/,\jJ 

^fliten^A kawulj verb trans. To provide 

against, to make preparation, to take precau- 
tion, to chastise, to redress. 

A^ Jo tadblr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of^ j) Delibera- 
tion, counsel, contrivance, expedient, opinion, 
advice. S. Arrangement, order, management, 
policy, prudence. PI. ^jj^Jo tadbvntnah. 
J^^jj tadblr kawul, verb trans. To con- 
trive, to deliberate, to counsel. 

A ^JJ tadfljy s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of — ;j) Grada- 
tion, scale. PI. A3^fljr;Jo tadrljunah. 

3 tar, adv. and prep. To, imtil, as far as, as 

long as, even to, in order that, to the end 

that. This word is generally followed by 

J^ or ^j^^ ; thus .^ Jul y tar abada pari. 

To all eternity. ^^1 y tar acsa, or i^^ J» 
^jy» tar aosa port, Yet, hitherto, tiU, as yet, 
so far. jy) <Lij J tar daghah port, or kJ^J 

jf tar dey pari, So far, as far as this. aK^ 
jyj tar kalah pari, Till when? how long? 

ij^J tar hamahy or j^ ^Sj tar kama port, 

How far? to where? j^ ijcbji tar hagkah 

pari, As far as that. 
J tar, prep. From, of, than, by, with, etc. In 

the oblique cases it becomes Ji tri. See 

Grammar, page 48. 
t^\ji tardp, s.m. (2nd) A leap, a jump, a bound, a 

spring. Vl.ijy^JitardpUnak. See l^JJ trap. 
c^lj trdU, s.m. (2nd) A kind of whip, a goad. 

PI. ej^\j trattUnah. 
^Lj traUah, s.f. (3rd) An edging or piping 

added to a dress. PI. ^^ ey. 
Xj^J tararrah, s.f. (3rd) Stony or gravelly 

ground ; a pebble, a piece of stone. PI. ^ eg. 
p .jlj tardzu, s.m. (5th) A scale, a balance. 

PI. ^J^Jj\p tarazUgdn. jj]^ Jy tol tardzU, 

The sign Libra. 
ij\ji tardzdh, s.f. (3rd) A slice, a bit, a piece, 

a shred, a ribbon. PL v^ ^. Jju^ ^jj/ 

tardzdh kedal, verb intrans. To become split, 

splintered, torn to shreds or ribbons. J^ ij\j» 

tardzdh karvul, verb trans. To tear in shreds, 

to cut to pieces, to slice, to splinter, 
p J^Ji tardsh, s.m. (2nd) (part, of ^Ju-:»}^) 




Cutting, forming, shaping. 2. A cutter, 
carver. 3. Shape, cut, form, fashion. PI. 
^jJi»\j) tardshUnah. JJ*!/ tardskal, verb 
trans. To pare, to clip, to prune, etc. Pres. 
^j^\p tardshi ; past<Ui|^ J wu-tardshah ; fut. 
^\^ ij ^ wu bah tardshi ; imp. <Li»L5 J 7VU' 
tardshah ; act. part. ^jJIj^l^ tardshunkacy , 
0T^yJ^\y tardskUnaey; past part. ^^-L-)/ 
fardshalaty ; verb. n. <uAly tardshanah. 

p dJ^\^ tardsha'h, s.f. (3rd) A shaving, a paring, 
a splinter, a chip, a shred, a scrap. PI. ^^ ^. 
See }ij\ji 

c\ji tardgky s.m. (2nd) A twist, a coil, a plait, 
a fold. PI. <0^\^ tardghuyiah, 

cJy trdky s.m. (2nd) A crack, a split, a fissure, 
a breach, a rent, a slit. 2. The noise of a 
thing cracking or splitting, (a cJJ^j). PI. 
<Uj^|^ trdkunah. 

V dj\j) tardna'hy s.f. (3rd) Modulation, harmony, 
voice, song, melody, symphony, quaver, trill, 
etc. PI. ^^ ey, Jjj ij\ji tardnah nayal^ 
verb trans. To sing, to modulate. 

^^J tardweyy s.f. (3rd) PI. A prayer for the 
month of Ramazan, consisting of twenty 
genuflexions repeated at bed-time. 

A l::-^^ turbat, s.m. (2nd) A tomb, a monu- 
ment, a sepulchre. PI. ^^y turbatunah, 

A jj^ turbid or tarbttdy s.m. (2nd) A purgative 
root brought from India — turbith (Convolvulus 
turpethum). PI. 4j^Jj^ turbidiinah or tar- 

jyiji turbur, s.m. (2nd) A father's brother's son, 
a cousin. PI. ^^^.y turbUrunah. See i\ji 

c$^ jy^J^ turbur galwi, s.f. (3rd) PI. ^^ a'f, 
or ^Ij jyiji turbur rcdUiey, s.m. (1st) Ne- 
potism, fondness for nephews, favoritism, or 
undue fondness for nephews, or other rela- 
tives. 2. Enmity to relations also, very com- 
mon amongst the Afj^ftns. PI. Jl^ wdU. 

A cs-w^ tarbiyaty s.m. (2nd) (inf. \\ of ^J) 
Education, instruction, tuition, breeding, 
bringing up, correction. PL ^f>^J tarbiyat- 
unah. J^ ^^i^'-^y tarbiyat kanmly verb trans. 
To instruct, to educate, to bring up. 

L^jj trap, s.m. (6th) A leap, a jump, 
a bound, a caper, a vault. Sing, 
and s.m. (*5th) The sound produced 
son jumping, etc., thump, bump, jo 
dowse, etc. PI. J^^ trapahdr. 
trap nahaly verb trans. To jump, i 
bound, to spring. 

J jujy trapcdaly verb intrans. To jum 
to bound, to spring, etc. Pres. ^^ 
ej^ (W.), or ^S^Ji trapcgt (E.) ; pa 
wU'trapedahy or Juj^ J ivu-trapeda 
\^j^i ^2^w bah trapejziy or ^J^^ f 
trapegl ; imp. *;-->j/ J wu-trapejzaA, 
rcu'trapcgah ; act. part. ^^iLjjjc--. 
dunkacyy or ^^J^ri^ trapeduna4!y \ 
^Jlj J trapedalaey) verb. n. «<jjl 

^s^y trapedana'hy s.f. (3rd) (verb, 
ing, leaping, bounding, springing, 
vaulting, etc. PI. ^ ey, 

Jyy trapawuU verb trans. To mak< 
to jump, bound, spring, ^Xo,, Pi 
trapawi ; past «^^y3 J fvu-trapd^ 
jl^b J rvu-trapdivo ; fut. »^^^ <u 
trapartx ; imp. *^y J wu-trapai 
part. <JLJ^^ J traparcunkaeyy o 
trapawunaey ; past part, ^^y tra^ 
verb. n. <Dyy traparcunah, 

i^Ji turp or iarpy s.m. (5th) A ra 
^b J turpdn or tarpdn, 

(^jj tarpuchah or tuipuchahy s.f. (3 
"ish leaf. PI. v^ cy; or (W.) s. 
Sing, and PI. See also ^y 

Jlj J traplaly verb trans. To leap, t 
run with swiftness, to vault. Pi 
traph ; past ^Jj traploy or i^Ji J «: 

ftit. ^^/ *V j ^'^ ^^^ trapti ; 
trapldh ; act. part. ^jJo^y ^r^/i 
L?-^y traplUnaey ; past part. ^ 
lula£y) verb. n. ^uLy traplandh. 

djp trapa'hy s.f. (3rd) A jump, a leap 
a spring, a vault. PI. ^^ ^. See 
uJojy, CSs^y and J6j 

^pjf trapaeyy s.m. (1st) A foot-fall. 




of the feet of either man or animal in walking 
or rmming. PI. ^^ t. 

c-^li^ tar-tdbf a.m. (2nd) Sorrow, regret, re- 
pining, lamenting, deploring. PI. ^^^J 
tar-tdbunah. J^ ^^y tar-tdb kawul, verb 
trans. To regret, to deplore, to rue, to bewail. 
s^JJi tartarraey^ s.m. (Ist) A stammerer, a 
lisper, one who speaks imperfectly. 2. Stam- 
mering, lisping. 3. The name of a bird. PI. 
s^jji ttxrtarri. 

^ J tar talo, adv. Always, ever, continually, 
perpetually, constantly. See ajjy Jj 

A y^^J tartlb, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of i--^) 
Ammgement, disposition, method, order. PI. 
^yf^jj tar^bUnah. J^ ^^J tartlb kawul, 
verb trans. To order, to arrange, to com- 
pose, etc. 

Vil^^^T^ tar-tezak^ s.m. (6th) A cress, water 
cresses. Sing, and PI. See i^j^ 

^Jip traUal, verb trans. To scold, to reprimand, 
to treat harshly or disrespectAilly, to taunt. 
2. To drive away, to turn adrift, to bundle 
out, to drive from one's door. Pres. ^Jy 
traUl ; past ii^Ji J wu-trdUaAf or ^\p trdka; 
ftit. JJ <u J wu bah tram ; imp. d}jj j tvu- 
traMah ; act. part, y^yiji traUurikaey^ or 
k^^J ^^Wdnaey\ past part. ,j-ij/ traUalaey ; 
verb. n. ijip troMana^h, See Jj; 

A ^J^^*^J» tarfumdn, s.m. (5th) An interpreter. 
^UUfljy tatjumdndn. 

A AA5fy toTJumdhy s.f. (3rd) Translation, in- 
terpretation. PI. ^ ey, J^ <U5^y tarjumcHh 
kanmly verb trans. To translate, to interpret. 

A 0^^Ji toTfihf s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of r^j) Gain- 
ing a superiority, pre-eminence, excellence, 
preference. PI. <U^as]^y tarjlttUnah. 'fiPry 
^f tarjUi karouly verb trans. To prefer, to 
show preference for. J^ 'f^J^ tarjxli laral, 
verb trans. To surpass, to excel, to have or 
hold superiority. 

^Ji tra^, s.m. (2nd) The armpit, the embrace. 
PL ^fS^J tra^Unah. See CJ^ 

p ^^^J tari^n, s.m. (5th) Free, exempted 
from tribute or taxes. 2. The herb dragon's- 

wort. 3. A tribe of Turks. PI. ^l^Uy 
i^J} tarJJia'h, s.f (3rd) The herb dragon*s-wort, 
or wormwood. PI. ^ ey, Sj^ <L>y tarihak 
kakora'hf s.f (3rd) The bitter apple, the colo- 
cynth. PI. ^^ ^. See also ^J>y^j^ and 

^£5-y tar']di(ily s.f. (6th) A wild shnib that 
bears a flower like -chamomile (Chrysan- 
themum). Sing, and PI. See ,€=-**-! 

Jjur;^^ tnkhedal, verb intrans. To grow or be- 
come bitter, nauseous, or unpalatable. J^y 
triMiawulf verb trans. To make or render 
bitter, nauseous, or impalatable. See ^j^ 

AkiJJ taraddud, s.m. (2nd) (inf ii of J,) Ai)pli- 
cation, labour, investigation. 2. Irresolu- 
tion, indecision, hesitation, wavering, debat- 
ing, etc. PI. 4jjjj^ taraddudUnah, J^ jj^* 
taraddud karvul, verb trans. To labour, to 
show application, etc. 

jji tarzy s.m. (2nd) Form, maimer, (a \^), 
PI. 6jy\p tarzunah, 

p i^j*»J tarSy s.m. (2nd) Fear, terror, dread, (ii) 
Compassion PI. ijy^Ji tarsiinah. See i-^ 

p Ly tarsdy s.m. (5th) A pagan, an infidel, a 
fire-worshipper, a Christian. PI. ^J^^yy-'-' 
tar say an, 

p ^l-y tarsdn, adj. (act. part, of j^Ju*^^') Fear- 
ful, timid ; (Fern.) <ijLy tarsdnak, 

P cJlj ^j^J tars ndk, adj. Timid, cowardly, 
terrified; (Fem.)<^^l3 ^j^ tars-tidkah, 

i^j^/ tar-saraey, s.m. (1st) A head-stall for a 
horse. PI. ^c f. 

^^J^J^ tar-sarl, s.m. (1st) PI. Freckles, small 
yellowdsh spots on the skin of the face, etc. 
Sing, not used, ^sr^ ^jj^J^ tar-sarl majihaey ; 
adj. Freckled, having a face full of freckles ; 
( Fern . ) ^ \^j^J tar-sarl maldA, J Ju^ j-^rj/ 
tar-sarl kedaU verb intrans . To become freckl ed . 
J^ s^y tar-sari kaivtily verb trans. To 

p ^3 turshy adj. Sour acid, harsh. 2. Gruff", 
ill-tempered, crabbed ; (Fem.) iJ^j^ turshoHh, 
^V \J^J tiirsh rfiV, adj. Cynical, morose, 





Biirly, stem, hard-favoured, gruff, ugly; 
(Fern.) dj^j ^jj tursh ru'ea'h. ^^j yjij 
tursh rU-yt, B.f. (3rd) Moroseness, stemnesB, 
gruffnesB, ugliness. PI. ^V a't. 

r ^j-ij-j turshl, B.f. (3pd) Soumess, acidity, 
harslmcBB. PI. ^ a'7. 

j^Jj tarfihaZf s.f. (Ist) An adze. 2. A gore or 
piece of cloth for enlarging a vest, the pieces 
in a vest cut transversely or diagonally. PI. 
j^Ji tarjchazL See ^Ji 

bj^Ji tarWtazdh, s.f. (3rd) The same as the 
preceding. PL ^ ey. See iAi^Ji 

^Jj tarshadz or tarWiadz^ s.f. (1st) An adze. 
2. A gore, a gusset. PI. ^*^ tar-shadzi or 
tar-j^atjzi. See <twLJ and ^^ Also written 
j^ji tarfchaz or tar.shaz,\\hiQ\i see. 

A 1.-^^ J targlnhy s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^^^J) 
Incitement, instigation, temptation, stimula- 
tion. PI. ijy^^ji targhxhUnah. J^ **r'*-4/ 
tar(/hib karvtd, verb trans. To incite, to ex- 
cite, to set agog, to tempt, to entice, to 

A Sy tarakkt, s.f. (3rd) (inf. v of ^j) Promo- 
tion, preferment, advancement, elevation. 2. 
Increase, improvement ; making progress in 
learning, proficiency. PL ^^ at. J^jj ^Ji 
tarakkl rear kawul, verb trans. To promote, 
to advance, to elevate, to increase. 

r CSy turky s.m. (5th) A Turk, a soldier. A 
word used by poets to express beautifid youth. 
PL JS^J turkan. i^J turkcHhy s.f. (3rd) 
A mistress. PL ^ ey. 

A cJfi tark, s.m. (2nd) Abandoning, abdication, 
deserting, leaving, omission, abandonment. 
PL <^^y tarkUnah. J^ CJy tark kawuly 
verb trans. To leave, to forsake, to give up, 
to desert, to resign, to omit, to cease, etc. 

cl^ tark, s.m. (2nd) A split, a crack, a cleft. 
2. The noise made in splitting. 3. A dis- 
ease in the hoofs of horses, mules, asses, etc. ; 
sand-crack. PL ^^J tarkunak, 

dO trak, s.m. (2nd) The opening of a bud or 
sprout ; a shoot, a sprout. 2. A blow with a 
hammer or any hard substance, a stroke, a 

tap, a knocks a rap, a pat, a hit, etc. 3. The 
Bound of footsteps on hard ground. PL ij^j 
trakUnaJi. Jjbj C^Ji trak wahal, verb traoB. 
To slioot out, to sprout, to open as a bad. 
Jju^ traAedal, verb intrans. To be stmck, 
liit, knocked, tapped, etc. Pres. iSj^J 
trakejzl (W.), or y^^Ji trakegl (E.); piiBt 
jiju^ J wu'trakedah, or j^Ji J nm-traJteda) 
fiit. s^j^Ji ^ i fvu bah trakejzl, or ^JL^J 
tra/uyl ; imp. *p?(;3 J rvu-trakeJzaAy or ^Jj 
nU'trakegah ; act. part. ^^^^^J trak- 
dUnkacy, or ^jJu^ trakedUnaey ; past part 
^Jl-^ trakedalaey\ verb. n. ^Ju^ 

<OJu^ trakcdandh, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Strik- 
ing, thumping, tapping, hitting, rapping, etc. 
PL ^ ey. 

^^Ji trakawul, verb trans. To strike, to knock, 
to tap, to hit, to smite, etc. Pres. y^f/ 
trakarcl ; past i^Ji J wu-traidwuA, OT^^y j 
rvU'trakdtco ; fut. c/j^ ij iwu boA trakanti i 
imp. ^^Jj J Ttvr-trakawah ; act. part, y^yfj^ 
trakanUnkaeyy or y^^fy traJiawUnacy\ pa^* 
part, ^fy traJtawulaey ; verb. n. ^f^ 
trakarcundh. See i^Si 

J\^jj tarkdrm. s.m. (5th) A carpenter. Pl- 
^y^y tarkarrndn. (Panjabi). 

^Jj tar hash (W.), or tar kaI3i (E.), SJO-- 
(2nd) A quiver for arrows. PI. ijy^y Uf^ 
kaMUnahy or tarkakhUruik. (p ^Ju^J) 

^J^y tarkaldcmh a.m. (1st) PL The name of 
an Afghan tribe. s^J^J tarkalda^ai^* 
Sing. A man of the Tarkalarrnl tribe. %^^^ 
tarkaldrmdi, s.f. (6th) A female of theabor^* 
Sing, and PL 

A 4ji tarkdh, s.f. (3rd) What is left, the eflteW 
of a deceased person, a legacy. PL ^ qr. 

p ^Ji turkx, adj. The Turkish language. 

A L^f tarklb (2nd) (inf. ii of u^), Fon^» 
fashion, mechanism, make, cement, compo*^' 
tion. PL iJy^J^ tarklbunah. J^ Uy^jT^ 
tar/db kawul, verb trans. To form, to fashifl^^ 
to organize. 

^V*^ tary-mdl, s.f. (6th) A dark night, ani|^ 




withoot moonlight. 2. Darkness. Sing, and 
PI. See^y 
Aiy tarla'h, 8.1 (Srd) A other's brother's 
daughter, a cousin. PI. ^ ey. See also 

^J turum, B.m. (2nd) A stallion kept particularly 
for breeding purposes. PL ^*yj» turumUnah. 
Also s.m. (5th) PL j^Uy turuman. 

^u#p taramna'h, s.f. (3rd) A bog, a quagmire, 
wet or damp ground. PL ^ ey. See also 
*^ , ^us+y , and d^l 
-^ ^y tar-mey tar-mey, adj. Dispersed, 
acatteredy dishevelled, streaming, ^ji ^J 
Jju^ tar-mey tar-mey kedal, verb intrans. 
To become dispersed, scattered, dispelled, 
scattered to the winds. J^ ^J ^y tar- 
mey tar-mey kawul, verb trans. To disperse, 
to dispel, to dishevel, to scatter to the winds. 
jli^ tamao^ 8.m. (2nd) A trough, a gutter, a 
flcnpper, a launder, an aqueduct. PL i^^^J 
tar-ndO'Undh. See J^ and ^ 

A ^^ turunj, s.m. (5th) The citron. PL ^Urp 
turuf^an ; or s.m. (6th). Sing and PL 

^Ji taranj, s.m. (6th) The name of several 
plants of the species Euphorbia, Asclepias, and 
the like, containing a mUkj juice. Sing. 
and PL 

tarcuyubln, s.m. (6th) Manna, pro- 

duced from the Hedysarum Alhagi. Sing. 
and PL See ^^j/j^^ 

I tras^Uidey, s.m. (1st) A twisted skein 
of silk or thread. Fl. ^u 
'ff^f trcagaey^ s.m. (1st) Same as preceding. 


^Ji tran^, adj. Slight, thin, spare, delicate, 
emaciated ; (Fem.) j^y trandza'h . J JuA^y 
trandzedal, verb trans. To become emaciated, 
thin, s%ht, or spare. Pres. ^j^A^J^ trance- 
j^ (W.), or ^^SbjAy trandzegx (E.); past 
» JuiAiy J wurtrandzedah^ or dJ> ^J trandz 
^kP^ \ fot* ^r^J^ J^ j fvu bah tran^ejzl, 
or ^jlLa^Ji ij ^ wu bah trandzegi ; imp. 

*jf^y j ^f'o^^^^iifi^ds^jS!^^ or 4^ J J tou- 
tranisegak ; act. part. . ^XJiJudir^ J trance- 

dunkaey, or ^^^ J^y trandzedunaey ; past 
part. ^s^jJ trandzedalaey ; verb. n. 
ijs^Jj trandzedanah. 
ij tamak, a. prop. The name of a river to 
the south of Rfindahfir. 

dLaL^y trankutsahy s.f. (Srd) A sling. PL ^ 
ey. See <uiys:^ and ^ji^Ls^ 

\jjjji (rang, s.m. (5th) Twang, intonation, the 
sound of the strings of a musical instrument, 
etc. Pl.jl^y trangdhar. J JuSly trangeda/, 
verb intrans. To twang, to intonate, to sound 
as the strings of a musical instrument. Pres. 
Lfy^ji trangejzl (W.), or ^cSy^y trangegx 
(E.); past *Ju6y j fvu-trangedah ; fut. 
i^r^Ji <b J Tvu bah trangejziy or ^ J 
^JIjSjJ rcU'bah trangegx ; imp. »j^Ji J 
wurtrangejzah^ or ^i^J J wu-trangegah ; 
act. part. ^jJljjJuilJp trangedunhaey, or 
^jjuSuy trangedUnaey ; past part. ^JjuSlj^ 
trangedalaey ; verb. n. <G JuSli^ trangedana'h. 

Jj6y trangarvul, verb trans. To make sound, 
or twang. Pres. i/^y trangawl ; past 
3jl6y J Tcu-trangdwuh, or jj^Lijy J ttv- 
trangarto ; fut. i/j6^ <b J n?w 4aA trangavn ; 
imp. iyi^Ji J wU'trangawah ; act. part. 
Li^JI^-/ ^raw^a«7flnA£wy, or y^^^y tranga- 
wUnaey ; past part, ^^y tranganmlaey ; 
verb. n. *3^y trang around! h. See viio^ 

ily trangarr, s.m. (2nd) A net used for carry- 
ing grass, straw, etc. PL ^^J^y trangarr- 

^y trOy adv. Then, at that time, afterwards, 
continually, at the same time, at length, there- 
fore, for as much, for that, consequently. 

p ijlj^y tar-o-tdzahy adj. Green, fresh, cheerful. 

^ ^j^jy tar-O'tdzagl, s.f. (3rd) Greenness, 
newness, freshness. PL ^ at. 

v^^^y troU, s.m. (2nd) Loss, defect, deficiency, 
detriment, injury, damage, blemish, prejudice, 
etc. PL <0^jj/ troUUnah. Jj^ ^^^r* ^^^ 
M^arral, or Jju-*; rasedal, verb trans, verb 
intrans. To sustain loss, etc. 

dijjj troUa'A, s.f. (Srd) Loss, deficiency, detri- 
ment. PL ^^ ey. Bee ^j^^ 



j^Ji tror, s.f. (5th) A father's or mother's sister, 
an aunt. PI. ci^jjj/ trordney. Also i^j^Ji 
troTcy, PI. (J^^^ trorey-gdm. 

y^^y^ tarorraly s.f. (6th) A fox. Sing, and PI. 

^j^J tarojzmal, s.f. (Gth) A moonless or dark 
night, the opposite of moonlight. Sing, 
and PI. 

^jiy tarukah, s.f. (3rd) A kind of sorrel. PI. 

^•Ji tarUkaey or ^^^J^ tamUkaey, s.m. (1st) 

** A kind of sorrel. PI. ^ i, 
^S^Ji ^ysi^jarvgd tarukdeyy s.m. (1st) A species 
of sorrel, with a root similar to a potato, and 
of mountain growth. PI. ^c !. See preceding 

,J^ tanvacy or turwaeyy s.m. (Ist) Turpeth, an 
Indian plant which has a cathartic power, the 
Ipomcea turpethum. PI. ^ i, 

^Jj trahy s.m. (2nd) A paternal or maternal 
uncle. PI. ijyp trunak. See ^\ 

p bj tarahy s.f. (3rd) A cucumber. 2. Pottage, 
greens, garden herbs. PI. ^ cy. 

iji tarakj s.f. (3rd) Fear, dismay, awe, alarm, 
timidity. PI. ^ ey. See ^yb^ and ^^jj 

Jjub^ tarhedal, verb in trans. To take alarm, 
to start, to wince, to cower, to be afraid, to 
be terrified, to become frightened, to be dis- 
turbed or agitated, to fly in terror. This is 
almost peculiar to animals. Pres. ^j^J^ 
tarliejzi (W.), or ,^5^^ tarhegi (E.) ; past 
i^ JuJb^ J wu'tarheddh, or s^J J wu-tarfieda ; 
fiit. i^j^Ji ij i wu bah tarhejzt, or ^ J 
^j^y ^vu bah tarhegi ; imp. ij^J» J ^*w- 
tarhejzah, or ^^^^J J wu-tarhegah ; act. part. 
^jJlj^JUb^ tarhedUnkaeyy or ^j^^JuJ^^ tar- 
hedunaey ; past part. ^j^J tar/iedalaey ; 
verb. n. ^jj^Ji tarhedanobh, 

Jyy tarharcul, verb trans. To alarm, to terrify, 
to frighten, to disturb, to agitate, to cause to 
start, etc. (peculiar to animals.) Pres. i^^y 
tarliawx ; past is^Ji J wu-tarhdwuhy or jyU^ J 
wU'tarhdwo ; fiit. s^^J ij ^wu bah tarharci ; 
imp. i^Ji J wU'tarhawah ; act. part, ^^^^f 
tarhawunkaeyy or ^^yy tarhawUnaey ; past 

part, ^y^ tarha/roulaey ; verb, n. ^j 

^Uy tirhao, s.m. (2nd) The third part of 

Ugaey containing eight «lr«. PI. 4jyU^ i 

hdoUnah. See ^^ 
i/bjj tarhara'h, s.f. (3rd) Fear, dismay, tin 

dity, awe, alarm, etc, PI. ^ ey. 
j^y tar-hUry adj. Timid, fearftd, nervous, dif 

dent, overawed, dismayed ; (Fern.) tjf^j to 

p s4f tarty s.f. (3rd) Moisture, freshness, wat< 

(in opposition to dry land). PI. ^ aX ! 

adv. By water. ^J Jj^ shakar tariy Be 

sugar. See ^j^ 
^ J traeyy s.m. "(1st) A kind of cucumber (0 

cumis utilissimus). 2. A mountain strea 

or rivulet, brought from one mountain to a 

other for the purposes of irrigation. PL ^ 
^J tar a I, adv. (Clandestinely, in secret, tind 

the rose, confidentially, comprehenrivel 

tacitly. (8 ^y and ^). Ji^ ^ ^^f* 

tar a' I rva-yal, verb trans. To speak clandi 

tinely, etc. jJl^ ^ tara'l walaey, s.m. (h 

Secrecy, etc. PI. s^ f . 
^jji tn or y tri (from the prep.y ), From hi 
" her, it, that, etc. See my Granunar, page 4 

para. 136, and^ 
cJby tarydk, s.m. (6th) Opium, an sntiA 

for poisonous snake bites, (a jby liryii 

Sing, and PI. 

A ^y tarij, adj. Violent (as wind), strong 
powerful (as a man) ; (Fern.) ^sfZj tarij^ 

JrJ trlM, a4j- Bitter, nauseous. PL J 
tarMiceh ; (Fem.) t^y tarM^a'L PL ^ 
tarWiey, ^y i^J^ tnldi'tob, s.m. CJn 
PI. tobunah ; or Us ^J triMk ^, 8.f. (6 
(E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^ «** 
and ^\^ ^J triMk-^oiaey, s.m. (Ist) Bitl 
ness, nauseousness. PL ^^ wdM. J.V' 
tnMedal, verb intrans. To become Wtto 
nauseous, ^ykrj trlM^^wul, verb trans, 
jnake or render bitter or nanseouB. 
<r^3 trlMaey, a.m. (let) The gall, bladd 



bitterness, 2. Anger, bitterness of 
rancour, malignity. PI. ^^l. ^^aC/ 
lisiaey laral, yerb trans. To bear malice 
rt one, to regard with malignity, to re- 
with bitterness, to be rancorous, or 
a towards. 

, adj. Sour, acid, tart, crabbed, rough. 
ji toTTvah; (Fern.) a^Ji tarwa'h. PI. 
Uiaivey. itf^ jiy trtw-maMc^, adj. 
se, snrly, stem, hard-favoured, gruff, 
cynical ; (Fem.) ^ yjt trxrc-maMd. 
[asc. and Fem.) ^i, Jj^^ tnwedal, 
ntrans. To grow or become sour, tart, 
id, etc. J^^y trlwawul, verb trans. 
ke or render sour, tart, crabbed. 
3 triW'tob, s.m. (2nd). PI. <Oyy tob- 
; or ^1^ ^jj triW'Tvdlaey, s.m. (Ist). 
\\j wan ; and Lj ^y trlw-tl'd, s.f. (6th) 
less, acidity, tartness, crabbedness, stem- 
moroseness, gruffiiess, ugliness, rough- 
(E.) Sing, and PI.; (W.) PI. ^^Li 

•yoAy A word used to drive sheep. 
Tdza'h, s.f. (3rd) A slice, a piece, a bit, 
I piece. PI. ^^ ey. See »j\j) 
uk, 8.m. (5th) A tap, rap, pat, a knock, 
\ stroke with anything hard, as on a door, 
?\.j\^\j tfTdka-hdr. j\ji J\^ tfrdk- 
c, A tapping, knocking, or rapping, jly 
j||3 trrdk-trrdk kawul^ or Jjb^ jl^ 
\ fvahalf verb trans. To tap, to knock. 
See j^- 

'trdkaX s.f. (6th) A cloth worn between 
egs, a langotie. Sing, and PI. See 

itrd7iAa% s.f. (3rd) A blister, a pustule, 
ible. PI. ^^ ey. See ^S\JJ 
rap, s.m. (5th) Bump, thump, haste, 
r. 2. Bustle, noise. Pl.^l^ J trrapahdr. 
T^)* J*^a^ trrapedal, verb intrans. 
amp, to thump. 2. To flutter, to flounce, 
Ipitate, to writhe, to be agitated, to wrig- 
to toss, to spring, to bound, to jump, to 
Vtes. s^j^^ trrapejzl (W.), or t^SCojP 

tfrapeffl (E.) ; past *Juj J J nm-t'crapedah, or 
jujjj J wU'tfrapeda ; fiit, i/r-ijp <^ J ^«* bah 
ttrapejztf or ^J^^jp trrapegl ; imp. *-jjj> J 
wu'tt][apejzahf or <^ jj' J wu-tfrapegah ; act. 
part, j^jljjjuj^ trrapedUnkaey^ or ^^^i 
trrapedUnaey ; past. part, ^ju^ J ttrape- 
dalaey ; verb. n. <U Ju^y tzrapedanah. See 

J^j7 trrapawul, verb trans. To flutter, to agi- 
tate, to cause to flounce, to cause to writhe or 
wriggle, to cause to spring, jump, or bound. 
Pres. u5^jP trrapawl ; past ^r^b^ J wu-ttrap- 
dwuhy or j|«lj »3 J wu-trrapdwo ; flit, aj j 
«^^j^ WW iaA ^rropawi; imp. *jj J J ww- 
trrapawah; act. part, ^jjoij^ J trrapawUn- 
kaeyy or ^^j^^ trrapawUnaey \ past part. 
\S^yij^ ^?T«jt?awu&wy ; verb. n. ^^^^jjJ trrapa- 

jj trrak, s.m, (5th) A tap, rap, pat, knock, a 
slight sound. PI. ^l^^ trrakahdr, Jjbj j^ 
^^raAr wa/ial, verb trans. To tap, to pat, to 

J J tarral, verb trans. To bind, to fasten, to 
attach, to make fast, to secure, to tie, to 
pinion, to strap, to laah, to gird, to affix, etc. 
Pres. ^jj tarri ; past a^ J wu-tdrrah ; fiit. 
f^J ij J 7VU bah tarri ; imp. nJ J wu-tarrah ; 
act. part. ,j-^jjJ taxrUnka^ey, or ^5^3 to^r- 
Unaey; past part. ^jJ^j tarralaey; verb. n. 
<0y tarrana'h, or ^^^^^ ^{Z^T^w- 

/«J torram, adj. Lukewarm, warm as milk 
from the cow, tepid ; (Fem.) <U|3 tarramcHh, 

^^J tarrUn, s.m. (9th) (verb. n. of J^) Bind- 
ing, fastening, attaching, securing, lashing, 
girding, affixing. 2. A compact, contract, 
agreement, bargain, covenant, treaty. Sing, 
and PI. J^ ^^J tarrUn hawul, verb trans. 
To covenant, to contract, to bargain, to agree 
for, to treat, to negociate, to come to terms. 
See sj and <Ojj 

sJ tarra'k, s.f. (3rd) A compact, covenant, con- 
tract, agreement, bargain, treaty. PI. ^%p 
tarrey. See preceding. 

y^ tatraey, s.m. (1st) Lisping, speaking im- 



perfecdj. 2. One who lispe. Pl» ^^ ? ; fl.f« 
(6th) j^ ^acra'f. Sing, and PL See g?^, 
4,^p|3p, *;3 and t^j^^ 

A tlPjJ tazalzul, (2nd) (inf. ii of ^j) 
Commotion^ agitation, trepidation. 2. An 
earthquake. PL ^^jJp tazaizulunah. 

^ tU'Zan, adj. Poornspirited, cowardly, faint- 
hearted, base, craven, dastard; (Fern.) <OjJ 
tUrjtana'A. ^ji\^ ^ tu-zan w&laey, s.m. 
(Ist) Cowardliness, supineness, baseness, 
dastardliness, spiritlessness. PL J^j wdtl. 

J^jijjp tazfvlr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii otj^j) Impos- 
ture, fraud, deceit, deception, stratagem, lie. 
PL <^|;ij)y3 tazwlrHnah. 

A ^j^ taz'in, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of v::-^j) 
Decoration, ornament ; honour, jewel ; dress- 
ing one's-self. PL ^y^Ji taa^xnUnah. 

,JJ tajzaey, adj. Thirsty ; (Fem.) J tajzi. PL 

(Masc. and Fem.) ^cL J i\S i^S tajzaey kedal, 
verb intrans. To become thirsty. J^ ^J 
tajzaey kawul, verb trans. To make thirsty. 
See iiX>3 
A /#i^t^AM3 tasblli, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ,^, He 

praised) The act of praising God. 2. A rosary, 
a chaplet of beads. PL <O^^UmJ tasblftilnah. 
See jumJ and <u^3 
jluaJ tasba'h, s.f. (3rd) The bead of a rosary. 
PL ^^^ tashey, A rosary, a chaplet of beads, 
(corrup. of A .^v^). 

J^T ^^5f-*J to^i^ dfrawul, verb trans. To tell 

one's beads ; also Jj^ ^^r**^ tasb^ wayal, 
verb trans. See above. 
4UuJ t€upa'h, s.f. (3rd). PL ^ e^. See above. 

jif^i^ tasM^, »«ni. (2nd) (inf. ii of^^ir*) Impri- 
soning, taking a stronghold or fortress, sub- 
duing, capturing ; capture, subjection, subju- 
gation. PL ^jj^^i^ tas^lruruih. jt^^ 
Jju^ tailor kedal, verb intrans. To become 
captured, subdued, or subjugated. J^j^ii^ 
tas^xr kawul, verb trans. To captivate, to 
capture, to subdue, to subjugate, to conquer. 

A ^^;Xm3 tasktn, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^^^) Gon- 
fiolation, comfort, pacifying, assuaging, sooth- 

ing, appeasing. PL <0^VjC»u3 ta 
J^ j^ ^j;-^ ta^n war Aawul, vi 
To sooth, to comfort, to solace, to 
sustain, to encourage, to supports 

A ^Juu3 taaain, s.f. (3rd) PL ^ a*i ; 
tasalla, s.f. (6th) (inf. v of ^1^ o 
was quiet), Gonsolation, comfort, sol 
^^^!LJ tasalldwu J Ju^ (U^ ^^>^ 
verb intrans. To be consoled or c 
Jj^ jUumS tasalUi kawul, verb trans, 
fort, to console, to assure, to anim 
J^ jj ^^^ tasalla war kawul, verl 

A ^j\ 3 tasRm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of 

render, resignation, cession. 2. Si 
homage, obeisance, health, securi 
<G^4JuJ tasUmUnah. (PL A {Zj\a 
Umdt). Jju^ ^J...i..3 ^o^/tm ^{2fz/, 
trans. To be resigned or committee 
Jj^ tashm kawul, verb trans. To i 
surrender, to cede, to conmiit, to i 
make obeisance, to do homage. 

p ^UmJ tasmcHh, s.f. (3rd) A thong, a 
leather. PL ^^ ^. 

^jao ^flwA, adj. &npty, void, devoid, h 
sense or ideas, foolish, useless. \ 
only, unmixed. 3. adv. Merely, onl 
simply; (Fem.) <LuJ tasha'h. ^^ 
task pah tasha, or j^ <u ^jW ^a^ 
or j^ ^j2J ^flwA tor, Completely Oi 
empty, void, or useless. (j^S \Ji^ 
Empty handed, c-?^ (j2J tash-toh, d 
PL <^^y tobUnah) or ^Ij ^jiJ te^ 
s.m. (1st) PL ^^ wall ; or L3 JL3 \ 

s.f. (6th) Emptiness, voidness, us< 
foolishness, ignorance, etc. (E.) E 
PL ; (W.) PL fc^jlJ tVawl. 

J jud£J tashedal, verb intrans. To beconc 
void, useless. Pres. t^j^ tashej^ 
^JLJ^ tashegl (E.) ; past ^ ^Juj tc 

or <U» J (jm3 ^o^ wU'shah ; fiit. ^ 
^^ bah shl, or ^^ J ^ &iA TZ^t^^ 
<L& ^;mJ tash skak, or A.^ J (jmj to^ 9 
act. part, ^^iljj Jm&J tas^Unka^, or 



tashedUnaey; past part. ^ to^, or ^^^ ^ 
ta^ sicuvaey ; verb. n. ^UjlJU tashedandh. 
JytJ ta^anml, verb trans. To empty, to make 
void or destitate, to pour out contents, to 
waste. Pres. i/ytJ tashawi; past ^ ^Jt3 
ta§h kah Of J katr, or <s^ j ^ tosh wvrkaljL 
OT jf j fcurkatr ; fat. ^ ^ (^ ^a^ ioA ^, 
or 4^^ ^ bah ifrt, of ^^ J ^ ^^ to^ boA 
nm-ki, or 4^ J ^ ^oA n^t^-^m ; imp. ^ ^jij 
^o^ AoA, or 9J kfToh, or <s^ J ^jl3 to^ wu- 
AaA, OT gj j wurkfTnh ; act. part, ^jjo^jyu 
tof&oirfiii^a^, or ^j^tJ tas^awutuiey ; past 
part. 4^^ ^^ ^So^ kazraey ; verb. n. ^ytJ 

A JUf^ tas^bih, B.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of jlm&) A 
simile, comparison, allegory, metaphor. PI, 
^^lj>A>3 to^^UfinoA. <UguJ i-J^ karf'i" 
taghbiA, Adverb of similitude. J^ dL--JtJ 
ta^bth laralf verb trans. To hold or have 
comparison, to be like, equal, or similar. 
iJ^ ^mmamZ tushinh kawulf verb trans. To com- 
pare, to contrast, to place side by side, to 
draw a parallel. 

p cs-JLJ tasht, 8.m. (2nd) A large flat vessel or 
ewer, a wash-hand basin. PI. A}y..^j tasht- 

^UA^ tadiMana% s.f. (3rd) The pan of a gun 
OP matchlock. PI. ^ ey. See ^UU^^ and 

. * 7 

A ^^,a»«*^ iashJiii^y s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of ^^^^i-^) 
Djgtingniflhing perfectly, ascertainment, valu- 
ation, assessment. PI. ^Uy^i;;.^?^ tashM^Hnah. 
JjS ua^fS^ ta^JM^ kawul, verb trans. To 
ascertain, assess, value, appraise. 

A JJJ^ ta^dad, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of Ol&) 
Consolidating, corroboration. 2. Putting the 
orthographical mark tas^did (•) over letters, 
denoting that the letter should be doubled. 3. 
The name of the character itself. P1.^^jjJu£J 

A i^j^ tasArii^, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of ^jJL) 
Esqplanation, declaration. 2. Anatomy. PI. 
djya^jJSU tashfihianah. 

A ^Ai tadfiff 0-1^ (^d) (inf. 11 of i^J^) 

Honouring, exalting. 2. Investing with a 
robe of honour. PI. i^yjjL^ tashnfilnah. 

A (ICCU tash/ak, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of CSJ^) 
Creating doubt. PI. <Oj<j(.Aj tashklkUnah, 
CJ>^Xiiil ^U ma;^!-i-^a^^^, The Doubtfal 
Past Tense in Granmiar. 

A {jUiyJ^ tashwtsh, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of ^^y*) 
Anxiety, grief, disquietude, alarm, apprehen- 
sion, distraction. 2. Confasion. Pl.vUyLjyLj 

A dfuJ tashahhudy s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of CDjlf^) 
Making a profession of religious sentiments, 
avowing belief in the unity of the Deity, and 
the mission of Mujiammad. PI. ^j4\fuJ ta- 

A^^-fuo tashhtr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of iz:>j^) 
Proclaiming, publishing, reciting in public. 
2. Marking a criminal, public exposure on an 
ass. PI. Jjjij^i^ tdshhlrUnah. JjJ^^^;*fuJ 
tashhir mundal, verb trans. To be publicly 
exposed on an ass. J^^^-»fuJ tashhir kawul, 
verb trans. To proclaim, to publish, to expose 
on an ass as a punishment. 

^jmo tashaey, s.m. (Ist) The side, the space be- 
tween the lower ribs and the hips ; the hypo- 
chondria. PL j^ f . 

jjS^J tashtan (W.) or taWitan (E.), s.m. (5th) 
A lord, master, possessor, owner, proprietor. 
PI. ^Uii^J tashtarmt or taWttaimn. <U^J 
tashtana'h or taJ^tana'h, s.f. (3rd) A mis- 
tress, a lady, a proprietress. PI. ^^ ey. See 

- -. i 

Jju54J tasktedal (W.) or tajffitedal (E.) verb 
intrans. To flee, to fly, to escape, to decamp, 
to bolt, to run away. Pres. ,^y^J tasfUl or 
ta^tl ; past ^r jus^J j wu-taJhtedah or wu- 
taJchtedah. or Ju&oJ • wu-tas7iteda or wu- 
ta^teda; fut. ^^s^J i} ^ wu bah tashtx 
or ^a^^! ; imp. as^j J wurtashtah or ;2?m- 
talditah ; act. part, ^jiuj Jus^J tashtedUnkaey 
or taJSitedUnkaeyf or ^^jua4J ta^htedUnaey 
or taJSitedUnaey ; past part. ^ jui^j ta^te- 
dalaey or ta^tedalaey ; verb. n. ^ Jux^J 
tashtedana'h or taJ^tedaruih, 


Jy;4J tasXtawul or taj^tcmul, verb trans. To 
put to flight, to cause to flee or fly, to cause 
to bolt, to run away with, to elope with. 
Pres. ^^julJ tasktawl or ta/3itawx ; past 
if^\id»3 j wu-tashtawuh or wu-talSitdwuh, or 
j^\:^J J wu-tashtawo or wu-taJSitdwo ; fut. 
i^f^ ^ J wu bah tdshtawl or tufSitawl ; 
imp. ^y^J J wU'tashtawah or taJchtawaJi ; 
act. part, ^^^^y^j tashtawunkaey or ^a/7^^- 

awUnkaet/t or ^^jy^o ta^tawUnaey or ^aX^^ 
awUnaey ; past part. ,jJy^J tashtawulaey or 
talditawulaey \ verb. n. ^Ojs-ijJ tasktarcuncCh 
or tdlditawuncHh. 
J-;J ^'^/ (W.) or f'^a/ (E.) verb intrans. To 
fly from, to decamp, to retreat, to retire, to 
move off". Pres. ^^^J ^6%i or t'13a\ past 
j^ J wU'tish or wu-tiJS^ ; fut. ^^^J <o J ;i'W 

JaA t*shl or if'^^! ; imp. i^ J wu-fskah or 
TvU't^l^ah) act. part. ^jXi^ fshunkaey or 

fj^unkaeyy or ^^ fshunaey or flSkUnaey ; 
past part. ^jl-sJ fshalaey or t'Wtalaey \ verb, 
n. iUcuj fshana'h or t'WiaruCh. See JjuXiiJ 
anQ /jjywiMjMw, etc. 

J^aJ fshawul or fJSiawuly verb trans. To put 
to flight, to make or cause to retire, to send 
to the right about. See also JyusJ and ^}f^ 

A jJuaj tasadduk, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of jJu^) 
Giving alms. 2. Sacrificing, sacrifice, de- 
voting. PL dL3yju33 ta^addukUnah, ^x^ 
Jju^ ta^adduk kedal, verb intrans. To be- 
come devoted, sacrificed. J^ J*x-33 ^0.50^- 
duk kawul, verb trans. To devote, to sacrifice. 

A fLjJu33 tasdue, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of c Ju^) The 
headache. 2. Affliction, trouble, annoyance, 
vexation, toil, perplexity. PI. ijyux^ tas- 
dxceUnah. \^fj^ ti*^^-^ ta^diae war kawul, 
verb trans. To trouble, vex, tease, harass, 
plague, annoy. J^ td^^^-^ ta^duB kawul, 
verb trans. To take trouble. 

A (Ji^^ ta^dllk, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of jXa) 
Verifying, attesting, verification, appeal, ac- 
knowledging as true. PI. iU^Ju23 ta^dlk- 
Unah. Jou^ j;jJ^ ta^dli; kedal, verb in- 

trans. To become attested or verified. 
J^ ta^dlk kawul, verb trans. To al 
verify, to acknowledge as true. J^ ^ 
ta^dik war kawul, verb trans. To ( 
testation or verification. 

A uJ^ ta^arruf, s.m. (2nd) (inf, V 0: 
Possession, use, sway. 2. Expenditt 
posal, embezzlement, extravagance. PI 
ta^amifanak. J^ i^j^ ta^arruf 
verb trans. To expend, to appropriate 
own use, to embezzle, to occupy. 

A L,PjV.fl3 ta^nlf, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii oi 
Invention, composition, writing of 
PI. <U^fl«-Mnj ta^nifUnah, Jj^ cQj;»tf 
kawul, verb trans. To compose, to 

Aj^^ ta^awwur, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of 
Imagination, contemplation, medital 
flection, fancy, idea, conception, precou 
PI. Jj^j^ ta^awwurUnah, Jj^j^ 
wur kawul, verb trans. To imagine, t 
to conceive. 

A i^yoj tasawwtif, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v 
The theology of the Stifis, mystics, i 
contemplation. PI. <oy^-fij tasawnm, 

A^jiy^ ta^wir, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of c 
picture, a portrait, an image. PL 
taswlrUnak* JJLj»^^^ ta^wlr Jdihal^ 
kshal, verb trans. To draw, to pair 

A J^Uj ta/Bdld, adj. (from ^) Moi 
iJJ\ J^Uj tacBdla'llak, The Most Hig 

a^^--jO iaceblr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of^) 1 
tion, interpretation (particularly of ( 
attribute, quality. PL <Uj --ju tcuB\ 
Jj^j^^ tacebir wayal, or J^ kaa/v 
trans. To interpret, to explain. ^jiLi 
tacebir wayunkaey, or ^^^^f Ran 
s.m. (1st) An interpreter of dreams ; 
cliO jjj wayUnki, or CSs>^^ kawUn 
(Masc. and Fem.) ^ I, 

A t-.vs*' tac^ub, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of 
Admiration, astonishment, wonder, 
ment, surprise, wondering. PL <U •- 





jubOnah. Jj^ S^^^ tduejjub kanml or JJ 
harcU, verb trans. To wonder, to admire^ to 
be filled with admiration or astonishment. 
J-^ tcuBjil, B.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of J^) 
Agility, haste, despatch, expedition. PI. 
^jLjk*^ taiBJilUnah. J^ J*^ tcuejll kawul, 
verb trans. To make haste, to hasten, to ex- 

Uxi3 tcueddoL, s.f. (6th) (inf. v of ^j^) Extor- 
tion, oppression, wrong, injury, tyranny, 
violence, cruelty. PI. (^j4^J^ tcuedddwu 
J^ i^Juo tacedda kawul, verb trans. To op- 
pxesB, to extort, to injure, to tyrannize over. 
^ij/o taarif, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of uJ/i) 
Elzplanation, description. 2. Praise, praising. 
pl. i^^jf^ tcuBnfunah. Jj^ <^y^ tcuBnf 
fuM9ctU, verb trans. To praise, to laud, to extol. 
^^fijyO t(UBrt/t, adj. Commendable, notable, 
worthy of praise. 

jlJiC taazir, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of jjc>) 
Punishment, correction, reproof, censure, re- 
primand. PI. ^yjiy^ tcuezlrUnah, (J^jijf^ 
• tcuRtv' kawul, verb trans. To punish, to cor- 
rect, to reprimand. 

^J-1m3 taanl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of Jkr) 
Abandoning, neglecting. 2. Vacation. PI. 
ij^aiO tcuBtilUnah. J^ Jjia^J tcuBtll kawuly 
V€rf) trans. To neglect, to abandon. 
^ftt«3 taazim, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of Jic) 
werence, respect, honour, treating with 
ccranony and respect, honoring, gentility, 
politeness, PI. ijyJajC tace:^lmUnah, (J^^ 
^ftaazlm kawul, verb trans. To honor, to 
J^erence, to show respect. Jjj^ ^jhtl tcueztm 
•^, verb trans. To present one's respects. 
^{^taallulk, B.m. (2nd) (inf. v of jlx) Re- 
'•fenship, connection, concern, dependence, 
•PPertauung, possession, property. 2. Com^ 
'^^wce, correspondence. 3. A lordship, a 

• ^mn. PI. ^y\xj tcuBUukUnah. Jj^ jLo 
' ^^^k kawul, verb trans. To make connection 

• ^lendence, to hold commerce or corres- 
'^^ce. J^ ji«3 tcuslluk laral, verb trans. 

• 'o appertain, to depend, to belong. 

A JLaLo icuBllul^a'hf s.f. (3rd) Connection, relation- 
ship. 2. Possession of land, fee, manor, lord- 
ship. PI. ^ ey. 

A JjO tacellum, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of As) Learn- 
ing, knowledge, being taught. 2. Study. PI. 
ijyAsC ttueUumUnah. 

A aJjo tcuelim, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of Jo:) Teach- 
ing, instruction, tuition. PI. <G^-«JjO tcuBUm- 
Unah. J^ jjjo tacetim kawul, verb trans. 
To teach, to instruct. 

A j^jut:^ tcuBmlr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of -4x) 
Building, structure, repairing. Making a 
place habitable and populous. PI. sj^j^^Aft^ 
tcuBmlruyiah. ^J^ j^^aju ta^emir karvul, verb 
trans. To bmld, to repair, to construct. 

A jjyO tcuewlz, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of Jys) 
Having recourse to the Deity, asking protec- 
tion. 2. A charm, an amulet. PI. jl3jJj^ 

^ tagh, s.m. (2nd) A helmet. PI. ^yo tagh- 
Unah. See J^ 

jj tugh, s.m. (2nd) A flag, an ensign, a stand- 
ard, a banner. 2. A mark, a welt, a scar, 
etc. PI. djJo tugkunah. See i^ and <ujo 

p^Uj taghdr, s.m. (2nd) A tub, a bucket, a 
trough, a pail, a platter. PI. ij^j\xj taghar- 
Unah, See Liolj, 

P CSj\m3 tagharak, s.m. (2nd) The dropsy. PI. 
<0^U3 taghdrakUnak, 

p i^^Us tagharacy, s.m. (Ist) A large flat earthen 
dish. 2. A small tub or bucket, a small pail 
or platter. PI. ^ i. 

j^jUj taghdraey, adj. A glutton, a gormandizer ; 
(Fem.) t^jUj taghdral. 

A JiUj tafjkaful, s.m. (2nd) (inf. vi of L=Jii) 
Negligence, neglect, indifference, inattention, 
inadvertency. PI. JJ^liljiJ taghdfulUnah. 
J a^ JjUj taghdful kawul ^ verb trans. To neg- 
lect, to manifest negligence. 

p JiUj taghdfuUy s.f. (3rd). See JiUj PI. 


c-Jji3 taghallub, s.m. (2nd) Cheating, impo- 
sition, forgery, falsification, embezzlement. 
PI. ij^lkl taohallubUnah, , \S «^Jju taahallub 




kawul, verb tranB. To embezzle, to cheat, to 
&l8ify accounts, to impose on. 

A IaH ta^ma'A, s.f. (3rd) A mark, a welt, a 
scar, a blemish. PI. ^ ey. See xjy$ and 

A^^ tagiar, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of^) Alterna- 
tion, change. PI. ^^^^ tagtarUnah. 2. adj. 
Changed, altered, discharged, dismissed ; 
(Fem.) *^ tagh%ra*h, J^j^Jo taghlr karcul, 
verb trans. To remove, to dismiss, to change, 
to alter. Jjju3 j^^JtJ taghlr-o-tabdilf Change 
for better for worse. 

P uJ3 tufy s.m. (9th) Spittle, the sonnd of 
spitting. Sing, and PI. See ^ 

A cj^^liJ tafanmt, s.m. (2nd) (inf. vi of c:.;y) 
Distance, difference, distinction, disparity. 
PI. <0^^U3 tafawutHnah. 

A ^jAs?^ tafaJiliu^j s.m. (2nd) Investigation, in- 
quiry, search, disquisition. PI. ^Uj .rr ft-^ 
tafafihu^ilnah. See (jm^ 

A ^yj tafrika'h, s.f. (Sid) (inf. ii of j^) 
Separation, dispersion, distinction. PI. ^^ ^. 

A JLj^ tafnky s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of j^). See 
preceding. PI. ^^^ tafnkUnah. 

Jijt^^^ ttifslr, s.m. (!^d) (inf. ii of^^) Ex- 
planation, commentary, paraphrase, an inter- 
pretation. PI. ^jjj^u^ tafsirUnah. J^^jM.flj 
tafslr kawul, verb trans. To interpret, to 

A J-M^ taf^ily s.m.' (2nd) (inf. ii of JLai) Ex- 
planation, analysis, separation, division, de- 
tail. PI. ^^LMOftJ taf^UUnah. J^ Jtf*^ 
tqf^U kawul, verb trans. To explain, to detail, 
to separate. j\j J^-oiJ taf^U Tvdr, adv. Dis- 
tinctly, in detail. 

A J--^ taf^ll, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of J^) Ex- 
cellence, pre-eminence. PI. ^j^\,»^2 tafyil- 

A ijAi^ tafrclo^y s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^^) 
Resigning, committing to another, cession, 
confiding. PI. <0^-4j^ tafwx:^1lnah. u^^ 
J^ tafm^i kawul, verb trans. To commit, to 
confide, to resign. 

A Ula taffas^a, s.f. (6th) (inf. vi of ^) Dun- 

ning, exacting, exigence, urgency, 
tunity. PI. 4^^UU3 takaT^aacl^ ^ 
ta1(:d7^a kawtd, verb trans. To dun, 
JJ UlU taf:d^& laral, verb trans. ' 
distress or necessity {Ut. to hold oi 

A^ji3 takdir, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ll of ^* 
destiny, divine decree, lot, predes 
PI. <0|^j^ takdtrUnah. 

^jij^ talkrir, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of^) ] 
detail, recital, narration, confirmatic 
sition, confession. PI. ^jfjij^ tafi 
J^jIjA3 takrir kawul, verb trans, 1 
to recite, to avow. 

A |»:u**a3 takstm, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii 
Dividing, division, distributing, dist 
PI. <Oj4>j^>a5 tafcstmUnah. Jj^ ^^^ 
kawul, verb trans. To divide, to dista 
share, to part, to portion, to assort. 

A^;--^ takslr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of^.^! 
Fault, crime, offence, error. PI. 
tak^irunah. ^^fj^^a^ tak^tr kan 
trans. To commit a crime, fault, oi 
jlj^^-M^ tak^ir-ddr, adj. Blamable 
criminal, guilty, culpable; (Fem.) 

A JuUj takM, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of jI 
tion, forgery, counterfeiting. PI. 
takMuna'h, Jj^ juUs takUd kan 
trans. To imitate, to counterfeit, t< 
to ape. 

A p i^JuJij takhdi, adj. Imitated, forg 

A J^^iij takwa, s.f. (6th) Piety, the fea] 
abstinence. PI. i/^ J^^ takwdwi. ^ 
dhl-i'takwd, Pious, "God-fearing. 

A m tukka'h, s.f. (3rd) A blunt-headc 
an arrow with a round head. PI. |^ 
ijji (p IC) or ^i3). 

p tl^ tak (part, of ^^JuCj) Bunniuj 
y ^ tlXs tak-o^U, Searching or ex 
bustle. Jj^ ^ ^ CJ^ tak-O'pU kan 
trans. To search or examine carefull; 

(Ji^ tak, adv. Altogether, quite, entirely 





totally^ utterly^ thoroughly, out and out, out- 
right. ThiB word is only applicable with re- 
spect to colour ; thus, j^ cl^ tak tar^ Entirely 
or wholly black. ^^^^^ C^ tai spin, Quite 
or altogether white, etc. 

Xj^ takblr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of^) Re- 
peating the Musalmftn belief, and saying by 
way of exclamation on particular occasions, 
" God is great." PI. *^j;--X3 takbirUnah. 

^JiJ^ tahrSr, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of^) Alterca- 
tion, contention, dispute, wrangle, cavil, repe- 
tition, tautology. PI. ^^j\J^ takramnah. 
^^j\f^ takr&r kawtU, verb trans. To debate, 

to dispute, to argue, to wrangle, to cavil, to 


p ^j\^ tahrwn, adj. Importuning, seizing, 

fbxid of argument, wrangling. 2. A wrangler, 
^ carper, a caviller; (Fern.) ^ oil. 

%.A^ ^^okf^m, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of ^f) Honour, 
rcrvearence, respect PI. ^O^^^j^ takrimUnah. 
mi^ J M^ieuC taa^im-o-tcLkrim, Treating with 
Teverence and respect. 

ij|3 iakarra% B.f. (3rd) A flat smooth stone or 
pebble found in rivers, from the size of a 
walnut upwards. PI. ^ ey. See ir-j and 

*/3 te^QneiA, adj, Strong, active, healthy. 2r^ 
Jju^ iakfrah kedal, verb intrans. To become 
w grow strong, active, healthy. J^^ bj^ 
^Wtk kanml, verb trans. To make or render 
ilittig, active, or healthy. 

J^ tokaij s.m. (2nd) Endeavour, attempt, effort, 
My, application, study. PI. ij^ takaU 
*«i. Jj^ Jis takal kawul, verb trans. To 
^tjesvour, to att^npt, to essay, to make 
Art, to study. 

a/J Ci3 taJk4dstaey, adj . Active, quick, nimble, 
dfit, agile, smart, spirited; (Fern.) i^:^>Ji (Jj^ 
MiUL PI. (Masc. and Fem.) J f . 

*mii takhf, s.m. (2nd) (mf. ii of U^ 

fl««iiiony. 2. Trouble, difficulty, distress, 

^ooaveiiienee, ailment, affliction, annoyance. 

^ tiyJi^ taUifanah. J/ «.jLK3 taklif 

'^f verb tranB. To tabd the trouble. 

J^ J J u,QjK3 taklif war kawul, verb trans. 
To annoy, to molest, incommode, trouble. 

A 4JI3 taJna'h, s.f. (3rd) A pillow, a bolster. 
PI. ^^ ey. Jj^ iJL) toMoHh kawul, verb 
trans. To support, to encourage, J/j^ <^ 
takia'h war kawul, verb trans. To receive re- 
spectfully, ^i^ <lXj tdkuik kaldm, s.m. A 

cant word, an expletive. Jjbj <u^ toMa'h 
wahal, verb trans. To lean on, to bolster, to 

p CJb tag, s.m. (9th) Running, gait, pace, walk, 
motion. Sing, and PL Jj^ \^J^ tag kawul, 
verb trans. To run. 

Pyl6 ifa^a^fi, s.m. (9th) Bustle, search, toil, 
labour. Sing, and PI. Jj^ ^ISj tagorpu 
kawul, verb trans. To bustle, to search, to 
toil, to labour, j J j CiJs tag-o-daw, s.m. 
(9th) Bustle, etc. Sing, and PI. See (JiJ 

jJS tagaey, adj. (W.) Thirsty; (Fem.) {i6 
tagL PI. (Masc. and Fem.) j^ f. See ^^ J 

Jj tal, adv. Always, ever, perpetually, eternally, 
every day, etc., invariably, without excep- 
tion. ^OaS J3 tal tatalah, ^ i;3 J3 tal tah 
talah, ddj^ J3 tal tar talah, <d3 l3 J3 fa/ ta 
talah, or ih J ^ tal da talah. Always, at 
all times, ever, for ever and a day, for ever 
and ever, time without end, till doomsday, to 
the end of time, for evermore. 

A Jj tall, s.m. (2nd) A hill, a hillock, a mound, 
a heap. PI. lO Jj tallunak. 

8 Jj tal, s.m. (2nd) Bottom, the bottom of any- 
thing, the base, the foot, the sole. PI. Ajjlo 

A ipb taldsh, s.m. (2nd) Search, pursuit, quest, 
investigation. PI. <0^5b taldshUnah. ^h 
J*^ taldsh ka?vul, verb trans. To search, to 
seek for, to pursue. 

p^5b taldo, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of c-jSU) A pond, 

a reservoir of water. PI. ^j.^i taldo-Unah. 

SecjjU and »Jj^ 
A iz^jh taldwat, s.m. (2nd) Meditating, reading 

(particularly the Kur'ftn, as a devotional act). 

PL ^jji^ taldwatUnah. 




c^Jj talab, s.m. (2nd) Wages, salary, hire. PI. 
aj^Jj talabUnah^ (cormp. of a u^^). 

iL(rnU taltaky s.m. (2nd) A coverlet, a counter- 
pane. PI. ajycdj taltakUnah. 

V ^ talM, adj. Bitter, acrid, rancid ; (Fern.) 
^^ talMvoHh. See ^^ 

p ^J^ talMkaUy s.m. (6th) Parched wheat re- 
duced to meal and made into paste, which 
is generally taken on a journey. Sing, 
and PI. 

A i^jiij talafy s.m. (2nd) Ruin, destruction, loss. 
2. Prodigality, consumption, expense. PI. 
Jjylj talafunah. J^ uJb talafkawtU, verb 
trans. To ruin, to waste, to consume, to 
destroy. J Ju^ i^jilj talaf kedal, verb intrans. 
To be unfortunate, to meet with a loss, to be 
destroyed, wasted. 

A laib talaf uz, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of liu!) Utter- 
ance, expression, pronunciation. PI. aj^laib 
talaffuzUnah, J^ laib talaffuz hawuly verb 
trans. To utter, to pronounce. 

6^^ talaka'h, s.f. (3rd) A kind of snare or trap 
made from the horns or ribs of a cow, also of 
wood and iron, for catching birds, rats, etc., a 
gin, PI. ^ ey. (p CJ^S). 

Ji3 t'lal, verb intrans. To go, to depart, to set 
out, to quit, to retire, to leave a place, etc. 
This infinitive is irregular and imperfect. 
Pres. j^ ^1 ; pastjS ldrr\ fiit. ^A. <o bah 
d^y or ^J^ <o ji larr bah shl, or -i J ^J bah 
wu shl ; imp. <UL ^ah, ^ jt Idrr shah, or 
^ ji ^ wu latT shah; act. part. ^j-^Jj 
flUnAaey or i^Jj flunaey ; past part, ^jlb 
flalaey or ^jjj talaey ; verb. n. <0j ^'&tA or 
<lJj t'lana'h. 

«dj ^*foA, s.m. (6th) (verb, n.) Departure, exit, 
exodus, removal. 2. (joing, departing, setting 
out. Sing, and PI. 

Jb talal, verb trans. To weigh, to measure, to 
value, to rate, to estimate, to balance, to take 
into account. Pres. ij tah] past <dl3 J wu- 
tdlah ; fut. ^ ij ^ wu bah taU ; imp. <d3 
talah or <d3 J wu-talah ; act. part. ^^^ 

talunkaey or ^jLf taiunaey ; past pi 
talalaey; verb. n. rfJj talana'h. See 

^1^ talwdr, s.m. (2nd) Speed, swiftness,: 
fleetness, quickness, velocity, haste, 
tation. PI. <Oj^^yj talwdrUnah. 
talwdr Aawul, verb trans. To haste, 1 
to hasten, to make haste, to precipitate 
to accelerate, to expedite, to quick 
j\yj ij pah talwdr or ifj^J\^ Aj pa 
sarah, adv. Swiftly, speedily, full sp< 
dash, apace, head -long, post-hast( 
^jjjf talwdr ffrandaey, od}. Hasty, 
considerate, precipitate, reckless, d( 
(Fem.) ^$j^^ talwdr-grandi. P] 
and Fem.) ^ I. 

i^y^ talwdn, adj. Fast, speedy, swi 
quick, nimble, agile, expeditious, pre 

<uyj talwasa'h, s.f. (3rd) Commotion, 
ment, trouble, distraction, superstitioi 
choly. PI. ^ ey, JJ i^^ talwast 
verb trans. To become distracted 
have distraction), troubled, astonisl 
J^ <U»^ talwasah kawul, verb t 
astonish, to trouble, to distract, to 
commotion, (p i^\^). 

J^ tal'Wal, s.m. (6th) Quickness, i 
speed, dispatch, promptitude, haste^ 
tation ; hastiness, irascibility, rashnes 
turbation, restlessness. Sing, and I 
J^ talrwal kawulf verb trans. To 
promptitude, quickness, speed, rashi 
cipitation, etc. 

J^ talawul, verb trans. To fry. P 
talawl; past ijij j wu-taldwuh ox ^ 
taldwo ; fut. j^^J <0 J wtt bah taioA 
i^ J f^U'talawah ; act. part. ^^-Ci 
wuTikaey or ^j-5^^ talawUnaey; j 
^^ talawulaey ; verb. n. <0^ talc 

^jj^ tal-walaey, s.m. (1st) A small a 
son, one who acts with rashness or ] 
tion, a person of a quick or irascibL 
PI. jc I, J^ tal-walaX s.f. (6th] 
irascible female. Sing, and PL 

^^^3 talaey^ s.m. (1st) The sole of a 




bottom of anything, the hollow of the hand, 
as n^nch as may be contained in the hollow 
of the hand, the bottom of the sea. PI. ^c I. 

ajj tala'Af B.f. (3rd) A scale, a balance. PI. ^ 
ey. See J)J 

4\3 tala'k, s.f. (3rd) The sole of the foot. PI. 

^jU tila'l, B.f. (6ih) The shaft of an arrow, the 
stalks of com after separating the heads. 
Sing, and PI. 

fi3 tanif adv. A word added by way of emphasis 
to the adjective j^ tor, ' black or dark/ to 
express total or complete darkness, (s Km 
The third of the qualities incident to himianity, 
the tama gun, or property of darkness, from 
whence proceed folly, ignorance, mental dark- 
ness, and the like. 2. Gloom, darkness). 
a3jJ tor tarn, adj. Total or complete dark- 
ness. See ^^j^j^ or ^jj^ 

M^ tarn, s.m. '(2nd) Continuance, permanence, 
settledness, rest. PI. djyC tamUnah, 2, As 
adj. Staying, stopping, tarrying, holding, abid- 
ing, keeping. Fem. Sing. <Uj tamah ; PI. 
^%j tamey. J Ju^ ^ tarn kedal, verb intrans. 
. To keep one's footing, to stand fast, to take 
root, to remain, to tarry, to stay. Jj^ ^ 
tarn kawul, verb trans. To aid, to support, to 
prop ; to make or cause to stay. 

A LS1U3 tamasha, s.f. (6th) PI. ^^jLiUj tarn- 
ilskdwl, or «dU3 tamdsha'h, s.f. (3rd) An en- 
tertainment, show, a spectacle. 2. Sight, 
amusement, show. V\, ^ ey. Jj^ <Li»Uj 
ttimasha'h kawul, verb trans. To behold, to 
look at for amusement, to see, to take a walk, 
^-j ^U3 tamJSLskoHh bin, A spectator, a tra- 
veller, a pUgrim ; (Fem.) <Uji <U»Uj tama- 

•^Uj tamdku or j^V*^ tambdku, s.m. (6th) To- 
bacco. Sing, and PI. 

A /♦Us tam&m, adj. (from J) Entire, perfect, 
complete ; (Fem.) <uUj tamdma'h, 
1U3 tamdml, s.f. (3rd) Completion, end, ac- 
complishment, perfection. PI. ^ d'l. |*Uj 
i^y tamam'tob, s.m. (2nd) PI. ^yi^ tob- 

unah, or Lj ^Uj tamdm-fCd, s.f. (6th) (E.) 
Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI 4^jl-J tidrvl, or |*U3 
^\^ tamdm wdlaey^ s.m. (1st) Completeness, 
completion, accomplishment, the state of being 
complete, perfect state.-Pl. J^j wdti, J ju^Uj 
tamdmedal, verb intrans. To be finished, to be 
ended, to be perfected, to be completed, to be- 
come concluded. Pres. jC-j^Uj tamdmejzl 

(W.) or jX-^Uj tamdmegl (E.) ; past iJ^ |*U3 
tamdm shah, or <l1 J aUj tamdm rvu-shah ; 
fut. ^Jtt <L« ^\a3 tamdm bah shi, or ^^ j ij 

bah wU'Shl ; imp. <ti» aUj tamdm shah, or 
<L-i» 5 ^L«J tamdm wu-shah ; .act. part. 
^jJojJu^Uj tamumedUnkaey, or ^^Ju^Uj 

tamdmedunaey ) past part. ^yL ^Uj tamdm 
shawaey \ verb. n. <Oju^Uj tamdm^danah. 
J^Uj tam^dmawul, verb trans. To perfect, to 
complete, to finish, to end, to conclude. Pres. 
^5y«UJ tamdmawi ; past ^ ^Uj tamdm karr 
or ii kah, or i^ J ^Uj tamdm wu-karr or d^ i 
wu-kah ; fut. ^^ <o aUj tamdm bah krrl or 
^ <o 6aA ^I, or ^^ J ^ (♦Uj tamdm bah wu- 
Am or <^ j <o iaA Tyw-At ; imp. 2j^ ^Uj 

tamdm krrah or a^ J wu-krvah; act part. 
^jioj^Uj tamdmawunkaey or ^j^^^Uj ^aw- 

dma7vunaey ; past part. ^J^ ^Uj tamdm 
karraey ; verb. n. <0^UJ tamdmawuna' h. 

<^U3 tamdncha'h, s.f. (3rd) A pistol. PI. ^^ ^y. 

(comip. of JLcjrUlr). 
*il^ tambagdi, s.f. (6th) The leaf of a door or 
a window. Sing, and PI. See also <U4j 

J^ tambal, s.m. (2nd) A tambourine, a small 
drum. PI. JJ^i-M4j tambalunah, jb Juaj 
tambal bdz, s.m. (5th) A kettle-drum player. 
^1' c;l;V Jf^ tambal'bdzdn ; Fem. (3rd) 
2jjb J-M4J tambal bdzah. PI. ^^ <5y. See 
^^^C/ij,j, <X^jt), J-i4 and J^ (corrup. of 

A Ji?). 
lL^^^ tambUzak, s.m. (2nd) (W.), or s.m. 
(5th) The muzzle of anything, the mouth and 
nose of an animal. 2, A fastening for the 
mouth. 3. The bridge of the nose. PI. 
ij^jy^ tambuzakunah and ^jy^ tambu- 



zakan ; also w}^ tanbuzak. Ph ^jy^^ 
tanbUzakdn, etc. 

\^jyf^ tambUzaey, s.m. (1st) The bridge of the 
nose. PI. ^^ !. 

<U43 tamba^h, s.f. (Srd) The leaf of a door or 
window. PI. v^ ey. See ^jSS-^ 

<U4J tambah, s.f. (3rd) The prop of a door, etc. 
2. A party, a group, knot, or small body of 
people. PI. ^^ ey. ^^^ ^^^ tambey tambey, 
In parties, in bodies, in knots, party by party, 
etc. See ^ja^ ^JAi 

ijf^ tambezahy s.f. (3rd) The bridge of the 
nose, the muzzle. 2. A muzzle for an animal. 
PI. ^^ ey. See 2jj--i3 

\^jtt^ tambezey, s.m. (Ist) The bridge of the 
nose, the muzzle. PI. ^ i. See preceding 
word, and also cJj^fj^ and i^j^ 

j|^^ tamtarak, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of ^\JaA>) 
Grandeur, magnificence, pomp. PI. i^y\j:j^ 

A J-A-«3 iam^tl, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of Jl^) 
Comparison, similitude, allegory, parable, 
example, counterpart, fac-simile. PI. <J^^Ll4o 
tam^llUnah. Jjj J-1a5 tamsll wayal, verb 
trans. To allegorise, to speak by parable. 

A i^jjJb^^ tamr-i-hindiy s.m. (9th) The tama- 
rind. Sing, and PI. 

A lL.Cu4>3 tamassuky s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of lIXuu^) 
A note of hand, a bond, obligation, receipt. 
PI. ajylwMAj tamassukunah, 

A CJ^ tamalluky s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of (JXU) 
PI. ajyX^j tamallukunah. Jj^ cl,C4>l tamalluk 
karvul, verb trans. To cajole, flatter, caress. 

P jj-«j tuman, s.m. (2nd) Brotherhood, connexion. 
2. Bevy, crowd, troop, squadron, company, 
party, etc. PI. ^y^ tuTnanUnaL ^ja3 ^^ 
tuman tuman^ In parties, in bodies, in knots, 
party by party, troop by troop, etc. See <u«j 

A Ua5 tamanndy s.f. (6th) (inf. v of ^j^) Re- 
quest, wish, prayer, supplication, inclination, 
petition. PI. grj'^*^ tamanndwl, J^ l:^ 
tamannd larcU, verb trans. To be inclined, to 
have a request or supplication. J^ Ua5 

tamannd kawul, verb trans. To 
pray, to wish, to supplicate, to pet 

BYR ;^ tamoz, s.m. (2nd) The name 
A Syrian month — July. 2. Hei 
PI. ^jijy^ taTHOZunah, 

<Uj tamah, s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of a ^ 
greediness, ambition, avarice, c( 
PI. s^ ^. i}J ^^ tama'h laral, 
To be greedy, to have greedinew 
bilious, covetous. J^ <U3 tan 
verb trans. To covet, to desire, 
after, to lust after, etc. 

a Juf^J tamhld, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii 
rangement, settlement, introducti 
tion. PI. ajjjufO tamhldUnah. 

AJ--43 tamlZy s.m. (2nd) (forj---43, ii 
Discernment, judgment, discreti 
tion, sense. PI. ^^)^ tamlzUna. 
tarniz laral, verb trans. To hav< 
judgment, etc. J^j-^ tamiz , 
trans. To distinguish, to discern. 

p ^ tan, s.m. (2nd) The body, the ; 
<0^ tanunah. j^j)^ ^ tan parr^ 
of the body, self-indulgent ; (Fei 
tan-parwara^h. ^J3ji \J^ tan-p 
(3rd) Self-indulgence. 'Pl.j^a't. 
tan durust, adj. Healthy, vigoro 

s^jJ ^ tan-durusta^ h, 
durtcsti, s.f. (3rd) Health, vigour. 

J^ j!^ ^^y ^^^ ^^^ kawul, verb tr 

lij <U ^^ tan pah tana, s.f. (6th) S< 

tion, self-defence. PI. i/^^ ^ 

Ii3 tana, s.f. (6th) Thunder. (E.) Si 

(W.) PI. ^^ tandm. See 2rjJl 
^\u3 tandw, s.m. (2nd) The cord oi 

spinning-wheel, a line for hanging 

a line for measuring land. PI. ij^ 

Unah. See i:i^\^ 
J-jJ tanbal, s.m. (2nd) A small t 

PI. <JJ Jui3 tanbalUnah. See J-^O 
<u:o tanboHh, s.f. (3rd) A party, a kn 

a small body of people. 2. Th 




door. 3. The panel or leaf of a door or 
window. PI. ^^ ey. ^^^ ^^^ tanbey-tanbey, 
In knots, in groups, in smaU parties. See <u«3 

sji^ tanbeza'h, s.f. (3rd) The bridge of the 
nose, the muzzle. PI. ^^ ey. See *f--M«J 

^^j^ tanbezaey, s.m. (Ist) PI. ^^ z ; or CJ)^ 
tanbuzak, (2nd) The bridge of the nose. 
PI. ij^jy^ tanbuzakunah. See i/j--^ 

A ^-jJ tarJnh, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of <U) Admoni- 
tion, advice, animadversion, correction, pun- 
ishment. VX.ijy^^tanbihUnah. Jj^^^ 
ton^ war karmil, verb trans., or ^S 
tanbHh kawul, verb trans. To admonish, to 
punish, to correct. 

La:J tantand, s.f. (6th) Noise, vociferation, 
clamour. 2. Fame, rumour, pomp. 3. News, 
report. 4. Sound, resounding, echo, (corrup. 
of A JLikt). (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. 
4^^l:cu3 tantandrvi. 

P jcJ tund, adj. Active, quick, sharp, fast, swift, 
hot, spirited, fiirious, severe, acrid, pungent ; 
(Fem.) arjcj tunda'h. ,^yL d^ tund'Mo*e, 
adj. Irascible, of a fiery disposition, furious, 
passionate, firetfiil; (Fem.) ij^ jjj tund- 
MoWh. j^^ *x:3 tund Mo% s.f. (3rd) 
Irascibility, passion, ftuiousness, peevishness. 
PI. j^ a'f. ^\ij jcj ^MTirf zabdn, adj. Elo- 
quent, speaking rapidly, long-tongued. joJ 
^|j^ ^wmZ wiii'a;, adj. Hot-headed, passionate. 
Jju^ jcJ tund kedal, verb intrans. To be 
angry, to be displeased. J^ xj if^w^^; ^we^/, 
verb trans. To quicken, to make angry. 

tandoTy s.m. (2nd) Thunder, a thunderbolt, 
PI. ^jj^jcJ tandarUnah. Also 2r^ joJ tandara\ 
B.f. (3rd). PI. ^j ^. 

tindak, s.m. (2nd) A jump, a leap, a 
bound, a spring, a vault. PI. ^Uj^jcj tindak- 
Unah. See C/a;^ 

tandor, s.f. (1st) A father's brother's wife. 
PI. j^j^:^ tandari. See *iljjc3 

l^^jcJ tandur, s.m. (2nd) An oven. PI. lOj^^ jcj 
tandUrUnah. See^yJ 

iTp^jcJ tandUra'hy s.f. (3rd) A cascade, a water- 
M. PI. ^^q^. 

irjcJ tandaJh, s.f. (3rd) Thirst, thirstiness. PI. 

^^jjcJ tindoraey, s.m. (Ist) The bone or bridge 

of the nose, the cartilage of the nose. PI. jc 

I. See ij^ and ur^^J^ or i„^--*4j 
j^^jcj ta/ndwaeyy s.m. (1st) Gristle, cartilage ; 

the cartilage of the nose. PI. ^c !. See also 

Try V 

p i^JoJ ^WTerfi, s.f. (3rd) Activity, acrimony, im- 
petuosity, fierceness, sharpness. PI. ^ al. 

^^jcJ tandaeyf s.m. (1st) A suckling of an ani- 
mal, a babe, a young tree, a shoot, a sprout. 
2. The forehead. PI. ^^ I. s.f. (6th) Sing, 
and PI. y^ a!t. 

ir^lj jcj tund-yara'h, s.f. (3rd) A father's brother's 
wife, a paternal aunt. PI. ^^ ey. See j^*x:3 

J,^ tan-Mai y verb trans. To make, to form, to 
fashion, to prepare, to adapt, to arrange, to 
rectify, to put in order, to repair, to mend, to 
restore, etc. Pres. yj<^ tan-ddl; past i^\3 i 
wu-tan-ddah ; fut. <^^ ij^wu bah tan-ddl ; 
imp. Hi^ j wu'tan-ddah ; act. part. ^jJl3^>J 
tan-^Unkaey, or r^^i^ tan-ddunaey] past 
part.^^ tan-ddalaey) verb. n. <C}>:J tan- 

,^j jcJ tanzaraey, s.m. (1st) A grey partridge, 
PI. ic I. See 4-^,iio 



J tanista'hy s.f. (3rd) The web of a loom, a 

spider's web. PI. ^ ey. See also dz^\i 

^jilij tankaey, s.m. (Ist) A babe, a suckling of 

any animal, a young ox unfit for the plough, 

a young horse too young for the saddle, a colt. 

2. adj. Unripe, tender, immature, green. PI, 
j^ z. See c^*Xi3 

P vlioJ tungy s.m. (5th) A vessel with a long 
narrow neck. PI. ^J^ tungdn, 

P Cioo tanffy adj. Straight, narrow, tight, con- 
fined. 2. Scarce, wanting, scanty, barren. 

3. Distressed, pressed by want, dejected, sad ; 
(Fem.) d^ tangdh. J^ C^ tang dtashniy 
adj. Miserly, niggardly. ^\^ J^ Ci?:o 

tang-^askm wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Niggardli- 
ness, parsimony, miserliness, stinginess, ava- 
rice. PI. v^ I. L<^^^^ 


s.f. (3rd) Same as preceding. PI. jV a*f. 
JU- CioJ tang }idl, adj. Poor, distressed, 
straitened in circumstances, tj^ vliliJ twig 
Ikdll, s.f. (3rd) Poverty, distress, narrow cir- 
cumstances. PI. ^ a'l. ^Lf^ cLioj tang 
liatmlah, adj. Unable to keep anything secret, 
a blab, ci^wj (jXs ^a;?^ dast^ adj. Poor, dis- 
tressed; miserly, parsimonious, stingy, ava- 
ricious. ^^^ clioj tang dastl, s.f. (3rd) 
Poverty, distress, want. 2. Parsimony, ava- 
rice, niggardliness. PI. y\ a\ J J CXj 
fa/?^ rfi/, adj. Narrow-hearted, miserly, niggard, 
illiberal. ^^ tlioo ^a??y diti, s.f. (3rd) Nar- 
row-minded, or narrow-heartedness, stinginess, 
parsimony. PI. Jc a\ Jii^ C^ ^ pah 
tang rdghlal, verb intrans. To be distressed, 
incommoded, distracted, dejected, or exhausted. 
J^Cit'J tang kawul, verb trans. To straiten, 
to narrow, to tighten, to confine, to contract. 
See J^^ . Jju^ Ciii3 tang hedaly verb 
intrans. To be tightened, straitened, con- 
tracted, distressed, etc. See JjuSlij . Ciiij 
J^ tang nlwul, verb trans. To importune, to 
dun, to beset, to reduce to extremity, to 
straiten, to distress, to press for payment 
(as a creditor). 

4-jj3 cLioj tang tab, s.m. (2nd) PI. <0y^ tob- 
unah ; ^J\j vlioJ ^a/?y ndlaeyy s.m. (1st) PI. 
Jlj 7mTx ; or Ls cXj tang t'Cd, s.f. (Gth) 
Narrowness, closeness, tightness, distress, po- 
verty, want. (E.) Sing, and PI ; (W.) PI. 
i^jLo txdrcl. 

<Uil:j tangsahy s.f. (3rd) Distress, helplessness, 
poverty, distress, scarcity, famine. 2. Narrow- 
ness, tightness. PI. ^ ey. See L.^m5^vj and 

Lww^ tangsid, s.f. (Gth) Distress, helplessness, 
poverty, scarcity, famine. 2. Narrowness, 
tightness. See preceding. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; 
(W.) PI. i^Luiij tangsxdwi, 

J^^ tangawtd, verb trans. To tighten, to con- 
fine, io narrow, to contract. Pres. ^^ tang- 
ant; ^n&t J C^j tang katr ore ii hah, or 
^y Ciiij tang wukarr or ai^ J n-u-kah ; fut. 

^^ ij vlSlij tang bah krrt or ■/ ^ ^ 
OT ^ i ij CJ^ tang bah wu-ki or ^ 
bahn'U'krrl; imp. 2f^io tangan:ah, or 
if^ /awy /cjrah or <i^ Aa^, or ij J vUi 
KU'krrah or «ii^ J wu-kah ; act. paai;. ^ 
tangaKunkacy^ or ^•^ tangawuncLey 
part, jj^ CioJ /flw^ karracy \ verb. n. 
tanganundh. See Jji^ cLioj 

Jjui.j tangedal, verb intrans. To be tigl 
distressed, contracted, confined, incomii 
etc. Pres. c/r-^ tangejxl (W.), or , 
tangegl (E.);' past <Lii CiiiJ fa/i^ ^t 
<C» J clioj ^aw^ nU'shah ; fut. ^^ ^ 
tang bah shl or ^^ J «U JaA ?vu-shi ; 
^ lL^ tang shah, or ^ J CJij tan 
shah ; act. part. ^jJoj juSSo tangedUnka 
jj}j juS6o tangedunaey ; past part. C^ 
or ,^^ iiioj ^a/e^ shawacy ; verb. n. ^ 
tangcdanah. See Jju^ C^ 

p <ji6j tangah, s.f. (3rd) The trunk, stem, 
or stock of a tree. 2. The body or 
width of a garment. 3. The name of i 
about one-third of a rupee. PI, ^J ey. 

^jiSj tangaey, s.m. (1st) A pass, a gorge, 
between two mountains. PI. vc !. See 

p ^^^ tangl, s.f. (3rd) Tightness, narro^ 
slraitncss. 2. Poverty, distress, wan 
Parsimony, stinginess, avarice. PI. . 
See L^yi CJ^ etc. 

p jyo tanur, s.m. (4th) An oven, a stove, 
nace. PI. ^ij^ tandrah or JUj tandra. 
s.m. (2nd) PI. ^^t/J tanarunah. Seej^ 

p lf.5 tanhd, adj. Alone, singular, so" 
unique, single. 2. adv. Only, merely 
^\yl and J-^ 

p ^'^ ta?ihd"i, s.f. (3rd) Loneliness, so! 

privacy. PI. ^^ at. 

^]^^ tarrnd-kah, s.f. (3rd) A blister, a pi 
a bubble. PI. \^ey. J Ju^ ^^J^ tarrn 
kedal, verb intrans. To blister, to rise i 
tules or blisters. J^ ^li^ tarrnd-hcCh i 
verb trans. To blister, to raise bliste 
hurt, bum, or any violent action upon th( 

J^jJ tarrnakdr, s.m. (9th) Borax. Sing, a 




TB, a.m. (Sth) The roar of a lion, tiger, 
PI. j\j^j^ taumahdr. J^ j^^ tarrna- 
iawul, or JJJ^J^ tamiqrhdr laral, verb 
fi. To roar (as a Uon, etc.). See c-^ •i 
armau s.f. (6th) A string or tape with 
;h garments are fastened. Sing, and PI. 
>.m. (9th) Spittle. Sing, and PI. J/ y 
kcuvul, verb trans. To spit, y tU ia also 
I to express contempt. 
) tOf The sound of calling a dog. (sy y). 
^ tarvarlM, s.m. (2nd) (PI. of ^j\3) His- 
', histories, dates, annals. PI. <0^dsr^ly 

y tawdzuce, s.m. (2nd) (inf. vi of wJj) 
iiility, attention, civility, pretended kind- 
j, empty compliments. PI. ajyuply fa- 

tuicdn, s.m. (2nd) Power, strength, vigour, 
9, stamina, nerve, brute force. PI. <Oyly 
tnUnak, JjuJly timdiicdaly verb in trans. 
>e able, powerful, equal to, to be vigorous, 
ist, hardy, muscular, etc. Pres. c/^yly 
XMJzl (W.) or ^^^^y tuwdiicgl (E.) ;"past 
•^yj wU'tuwdnedah, or S-J^y J um-tuwdne- 
fut. v/t-j\j3 <o J WW iaA turvdnejzi, or <o J 
^i^^ w;m itfA tuwdnegi; imp. ifj-J^y J wu-tu- 
^jzahy or <i^ ly J nm-tundnegah ; act. part, 
wjjujly turcdneduiikaey, or j^jJ^l%3 ^2^- 
nedunaey ; past part. ^juJly tmvdneda- 
y;verb. n. <Ojuj^y turvdnedanah, or i(j^\y 

3 tufcdnarviil, verb trans. To strengthen, to 
4e strong, to in\'igorate, to confirm, to 
ablish, to animate, to encourage. Pres. 
^^jjituTcdnam; ip(iQtb^\j\jj l7V2i-tu?rd7idn'uk ; 
' 4/yly <u J ?2?M 6aA ^w/2;a;wzw7; imp. J 
^f nU'tuicdnarcah; act. part. ,^^^y'%5 
^inafcUn/iaey, or ^j^'y turvdnaivunaey ] 
*t part. ^>Jy|y tu7vd7iarculaet/ ) verb. n. 
p'j3 tuTcdnarvuna'k. 

y'ji ^tfn?a/2 fara/, verb trans. To have or 
^8688 power, strength, force, vigour, etc. 
1^ tuwdnd, adj. Powerful, strong, able, \d- 
^^% sturdy, energetic. 

p Jly tuwdnX s.f. (3rd) Power, ability; strength, 
force, nerve, stamina. PI. ^ at. 

i^jj tobj A particle affixed to nouns and adjec- 
tives, together with Lj , ^\^ etc., to denote 
state or quality, in the * same manner as 
English ness, 

gj)y tobrahy or tubrah, s.f. (3rd) A nose-bag 
for horses* grain, a beggar's wallet, a saddlq 
bag. PI. ^^j)^ tobrey or tubrey (hi \y,^» 

^y tobraeyy s.m. (1st) The head of an arrow 
or dart. PI. ,c L 

A <Juy tobcHhy s.f. (3rd) Penitence, conversion, 
contrition, repentance, remorse. PI. ^ ey. 
ijyi &jj} tobah tobah, interj. Tush ! fy ! fob ! 
for shame ! J^,^ tobagdVy adj. Penitent, con- 
trite, repentant, restrained by a vow ; (Fem.) 
«jl5o^ tobagdrah. J^ ij^ tobah kawxdy verb 
trans. To repent, to regret, to rue, to repine, 
to deplore. JiLj» <uy tobah Idikal (E.) or 
JLu*^ k\shal (W.) To repent, to deplore. See 

T t-^y topy s.m. (2ndy A cannon, a gun. PI. 
aJ^y topunak, ^^^y top-chl, s.m. (5th) A 
cannonier, an artilleryman. PI. ^^Usj^y top- 
chmn, J^'^^ <--y top hhald^awxdy J:i^j 
7vlshtaly <d-jj yclahy or jy^ <djl aelah karouly 
verb trans. To caimonade, to bombard, to fire 
upon, to discharge a cannon. 

^^by tu-pdriy s.ra. (2nd) (corrup. of a ^J^^) A 
hurricane, a stonn of wind and rain, an inun- 
dation. PI. iijy'jy tU'pdn-unah. 

CSjfj topak or mpahy s.m. (oth) A musket. 
PI. ^l^y topakdn or tupahdn. See ul^y 

iLsr^y topang-chahy s.f. (3rd) A pistol. PI. ^ 
eg. See ^j^-^y and <13^Uj 

A u:iy ^<7^, s*.m. (oth) A mulberry. PI. ^Ijy 
tilidn, ci^y jJU^ (»:r^5/^ ibrdhlm hhdm tuty 
A kind of mulberry, half white and half pur- 
ple. c:.;y <Olj ^^ bey ddnah tut. The seed- 
less mulberry. \:L:j}jy tor tut, The purple 
mulberry. CL^y j\j <Ul J ddnah ddr tuty The 
seedy mulberry. (Jl:^ W^i— * s'lmid tilt, The 
vermicelli mulberry. c:jy <L-» .^^aA ^27^, The 
royal mulberry. ^^-l^^JL^ Idshmishiy or \^J^^ 




vjuy marwdrl tut, The raisin, or pearl mul- 
HI Uy tota, B.m. (5th) A parrot. PI. J^}jf 

totd-ydn. See ^JJ 
^^^y totakaey, or \^J^fi totakaraeyy s.m. (Ist) 

A swallow. PI. ^ I ; (W.) ^y totaka% 

B.f. (6th) Sing, and PI. 
jjicjyf tutarikaey, s.m. (1st) A shaving, a chip, 

a clip, a filing, a fragment. PI. ^c L See 

also iJ^\j3 and ^J 
^vy ^^^h 8*f« (5th) A parrot. PI. ^jUSy tUfldn. 

PS Ljy totl-yd, s.f. (6th)Tutty,protoxydof zinc. 
(E.) Sing, and PI.) ; (W.) PI. ^fjUy) tofCdwu 
Ljy? JJ m/ ^(?fi.ya, s.f. (6th) Blue vitriol, 
sulphate of copper. \^^j^ sabz totl-yd, s.f. 
(6th) Green vitriol, or sulphate of iron. 

A i^yi tawajjuhy s.m, (2nd) (inf. v of <^-^) 
Countenancing, regarding, turning towards, 
undertaking a journey, attending to, attention, 
regard, tendency. 2. Kindness, favour, obli- 
gation. PI. i^y^y tawajjvh'Unah, i^^ 
Jj^ tawajjuh kawuly verb trans. To coun- 
tenance, to regard, to attend to, to show 
kindness to, to turn towards. 

A <up-y taujlhy s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of a^^) Call- 
ing one's attention, explaining, accounting for. 
2. Adjustment of accounts, assessment, a de- 
scription roll, a statement. PI. ij^;^^ tau- 
jlhUnah, J^ <^^ taujlh kawul, verb trans. 
To explain, to account for, to adjust, to assess. 

A Ou».y tauJkld, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of j^^) 
Unity ; believing in the unity of the Deity. 

PI. ^jju^y tatdndunah, 
i^y to-Mh s.m. (1st) The name of an Afj^an 
tribe. Sing. ^^^ toMiaeyy a male of the 

tribe, ^^y toIJia% s.f. (6th) A female, or 
females, of the tribe. Sing, and PI. 

4>j3 todf adj. Hot, warm, sultry, close ; (Fem.) 
^Jy todcCk, 

jdl^ jy tod-wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Heat, warmth, 
fervour, glow, temperature. PI. ^c f. J.>Jfc>y 
todedal, verb intrans. To grow warm or 
heated, to become close or sultry. Pres. 


jtfj Jj3 tadej^ (W.) or ^Ji^^ todegl (E.) ; past 
sj^ jyitod shah, or ^ J oy tod wi^shah ; fot. 
_^ A; oy tod bah ski or J^ J lO bah wu- 
ski ; imp. ij^ jy tod shah or ^ J rcurskah] 
act. part. ^^Xji^ jjjy todedankaey, or ^^jj jy 
todedunaey ; past part. 0^3 tod, or ^^^ dy 
tod skawaey; verb. n. ^jjjy todedofiah, or 
^jjJaJi todeddh, 

<b;-jjj tawdukha'h, or todUjAa'h, s.f. (3rd) 
Heat, warmth, fervour, glow, temperature, 
closeness, sultriness. PI. ^ ^. See under d^ 
^jp todukaey, adj. (dimin. of jy) Somewhat 
warm, hot, heated, close, sultry, etc. ; (Fem.) 
tl^jy toduki ; PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ \. 

J^ jy todawul, verb trans. To make hot, to heat, 
to warm. Pres. t/jO^ todawi ; past J^ jy 
^t?fl? ^atr or i^ kah, or ^ J jy ^ wu-karr 
or <i^ J wU'kah ; fdt. ^ <u j^ ^ewi ioA ^ or 
4^ <u iaA ^m, or ^^ J dj jy ^(?J doA «?t*- 
^ or ^S J <u iaA wU'krri ; imp. Sjf J^i tod 
hrrah or <i^ ^oA, or )f^ J jy ^(?rf ww-ArroA or 
^J WU'kah \ act. part. ^J-^jj^t^^ todawUn- 
kaey, or ^^^^3^ todawUnaey ; past part. J^ 
v^ ^t?rf karraey ; verb. n. <0j jy todawuna% 

j^ tor, s.m. (2nd) A net, a snare. 2. False ao • 
cusation, aspersion, slander, imputation. PI, « 
Ajj^j^ torUnah, or (W.) (5ih) ^Uy ^<?m». 

jyi tor, adj. Black, sable, swarthy, sombre, dart^ 
murky, (Fem.) ij^ torah. jfi.CS^ tak 
Coal black, entirely or wholly black, dark, 
ci^^j^ tor baMtf^y Unfortunate, unluok) — 
(Fem.) isjkTjy tor baMta% J^jj^ ^^=^ 
baJJitey, s.m. (1st) An unlucky or mifort^^^ 
nate person; (Fem.) \^^j^ tor baMti^ E^I. 
(M. and F.) ^ I. Ji\j ^ar jji tor ba^^ 
fvdlaey, a.m. (1st) Pl^,^^^ tvdtt; or^^icir^^^ 
tor baMiti, s.f. (3rd) lU-luck, bad fortune, 
versity, disaster, calamity. PI. ^^ cHl. See 
^j>a:r . ^ j^ tor tarn, s.m. (2nd) Total -^ 
complete darkness, j^ «^^ Uap tor, adj. Cor::^ 
pletely or totally black. y*^jji tor dm, s. 
(5th) A demon, a black demon. ^Li jy 
^a72, adj. Blackish, darkish, dusky. '^ j^ 
maMf adj. Black-faced, disgraced. 



i€T nuiHiaeiy^ 8.m. (1st) A baboon, a criminal, 
a culprit. PI. ^^^ f ; (Fern.) Sing, and PI. ^^ 
a'f . y^j^ ^ moM toraey, a.m. (Ist) A culprit, 
a disgraced person, a criminal ; (Fem.) j^ ^ 
fnoM'tari, PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^\ j^ 
to^^^ tar welSUahy s.m. (6th) The hair on the 
pub^. Sing, and PI. See *Jj. ^S j^ 
tar wdUiey, s.m. (1st) Blackness, darkness, 
dinginess, swarthiness, inkiness, etc. PI lq ^. 
J^ s^^ jy ^^ pHrey kawuly verb trans. To 
slander, to calumniate, to accuse falsely. 
Jjj .^ taredal, verb intrans. To blacken, to 
gfrow black, dark, murky, dingy, etc. Pres. 
i/^jf^ tore^l (W.), or ^^yi toregl (E.) ; 
past ^ j^ tar shah or <Ll j j)j3 tor wtirshah ; 
fat. ^^ ij jji tor bah shi or JL J <U bah 

fcU'shi ; imp. jl& j^fi tor shah or <iLi J wu- 
shah ; act. part, f^i^j'^jj^ toredUnkaey or 
{S^^*Hjy taredUnaey ; past part. ^^ tor OTjj} 
i^yt torshawaey; verb.n.djjjj^ toredana'h. 
Jj^ji^ torawul, verb trans. To blacken, to 
darken, to sully reputation, to make infa- 
mous, to cloud, to soil. Pres. v/jy^ torawl ; 
past J jji tor karr or i^ kah, or J j jj^ tor 
nm-karr or <x^ j wu-kah ; fdt. ^J <u .^ tor 
bah krri or ^ <o bah kl, or ^^^^ J <u j^ ^^ 
bah wurkrrlOT ^/j ^ ^^^ ^en^-^; imp.j^ 
«^ ^{>r ^rraA or i^ kaJi, or ij jj^ tor wu- 
kjrah or ^ J wu-kah ; act. part, ^^^^j^ 
tarawUnkaetf or ^^^j^ torawUnaey; past 

part v^^ ^^ tor karraey ; verb. n. ^^j^ 
toraamindh. ^..^ j^ ^(?r tap or l-^ j^ ^^r 
fla/?, s.m. (2nd) A black spot or mole. PL 
^^ tapUnah or ^^ UapUnah. See l^ . 
^ jfi tor tapaey or ^j-j j^ ^(w Uapaey, 
adj. Spotted, marked, scarred, v^^ j^ tor 
^hoajzaey (W.), or ^^^ j^ tor ghwagaey 
(£.), B.m. (1st) A person who wiU not take 
advice, a dolt, a ninny, a fool, a blockhead, 
etc. PI. j^ *; Fem. (3rd) ^j^j^ tor ghoa- 
^ dh or i^^ ghwagcHh. PI. ^J ey. ^jy^ 
torkaeyy 8.m. (Ist) Lamp-black, soot, smut ; 
smut or blight in com. PL j^ t, ,^ jy^ 

tor-gamaetfy s.m. (1st) Darkness, murkiness. 
PL ^ f . isj\^ sj^ tordh tl'ara% s.f. (3rd) 
Total or complete darkness, etc. PL ^^ ey. 
See M^ j^ 

j^ tor, s.m. (2nd) Fright, afl5ight, terror, horror, 
panic, fear, stampede. PL ^yjyi torUnah. 
See ajbji and tj^ . Jj^ jy^ tor Uvrcarral^ 
verb trans. To take flight, to be seized with 
panic, to be affected with stampede. Jjj .J 
tor-edaly verb intrans. To be seized with panic, 
to be seized with terror, etc. Pres. t.fji j%3 
tor'ejzl (W.) or ^Xj^ tor-egl (E.) ; past 
if^jyi j wurtoredah. or jjj^ j wti-toreda ; fut. 
ijjj^ I) ^ wu bah torejzl or ^J^jfi toregl ; 
imp. * rij^ j wU'torejzah or <^j^ tor eg ah ; 
act. part. tc^j»3jj^ toredUnkaey or jj3^*xji J 
toredunaey; past part. ^^J^^^ toredalaey; 
verb. n. <Ojjj^ toredandh. See JjUbJ. 
J^^ torawuly verb trans. To fiighten, to 
terrify, to strike with panic (particularly 
horses, and the like). Pres. ^S^jfi torawl ; 
past 2F^1^y J wtc-tordwuh or j^l^y J wu-tordwo ; 
fdt. t/;>^^ ^ y wu bah torawl ; imp. 25^^ j J 
wU'torawah \ act. part, ^^yyj^ torawUnkaey 
or ^>3^jj^ torawUnaey ; past part, j^jm^ 
torawulaey ; verb. n. <Ojjj^ torawuncHh. See 


^jf'J9 ^or-gharraet/y s.m. (1st) The arm fi'om 
the elbow to the shoulder. PL jc I. See 

jj^ j^ tor-lama^y, s.m. (1st) The name of an 
** animal that feeds on dead bodies. PL jc I. 
nj^ tora*h, s.f. A copper coin, in value about 

two pice, or one penny. PL ^^ ey. 
ij^ turah, s.f. A sword, a scimetar. PL ^^ ey, 

^jjyi tUrzan or ^^^jy^ tUr-yalaey, adj. A 

swordsman, warlike, a gallant soldier. 
UT Hj^ tora'h'dnd, s.f. (6th) The name of a 

blackbird with a club-tail. Also called CJj\i 
*$3 . Sing, and PL 
9^ Hjyi torah ghdrrdhy s.f. (3rd) The hooping 

cough. PL ^J 6y. See ^^^yi 
^j^ toraey, s.m. (1st) The spleen. 2. The 

pupil of the eye. PL fC u 



^ijy) tchraet/f adj. Simple, plain, tinmixed, pure ; 

(Fern.) jy tO'ri. PI. (Masc. and Fern.) ^^ l. 

ijj\ jy) ^t(Hri ao-ba'hf Plain, pure, or unadul- 
terated water. 
^jy^ tora% s.f. (6tli) The name of a vegetable. 

Sing, and PI. (hi ^^^ys). 
A ^^^ij^ tont or tauret (a 5U^, h ntlH), B.m. 

(2nd) The Pentateuch, the Old Testament. 

PI, ^yijyi torxtUnah, 
J.^ tojzal (W.) verb trans. To shave, to plane, 

to smooth, to furbish, to scour, to polish. 

See J/y 
p ^y tosan, s.m. (2nd) A horse, a high blooded 

or noble steed, a war-horse. PI. ijy^y 

jCM->y tO'Sand, adj. Dry, droughty, requiring 

much water (as land) ; (Fem.) t^^j^^j to- 

Pjjijuty tosh'ddn, s.m. (2nd) A pouch, a car- 
touch-box. PI. ()l}^< July tosh-ddn-Unah. See 

p uX-»y toshak, s.m. (2nd) A mattress, a coarse 
carpet for sitting on. PI. <oyLiiy toshakunah, 

p <Liy toshcHhy s.f. (3rd) Provision for a journey, 
necessaries, viaticum. PI. ^ ey. See <Uy 

p <uUw <Liy toshah }dkdna!hy s.f. (3rd) A ward- 
robe, a place where furniture is kept. PI. ^ 
ey. See AjU. Jii\j3 

^yj tosha'h (W.) or toJcho^h (E.), s.f. (3rd) 
Necessaries, provisions for a journey. PI. ^ 
fy. See <Lly 

iy to^, s.m. (2nd) A flag, a standard. PI. 
40y:y toghunah. See i^ and )i^:^ 

Jtif toghamy s.m. (2nd) A saddle cloth, a namad. 
PI. <U^Aiy toghamUnah, Also written Jxy 
toghal and ^U^y togkalunah, 

A j;-Jy ^A: or taufiky B.m. (2nd) (inf. ii of 
j;ij) Completion of one's wishes, the divine 
grace, the favour of God, prosperity. PI. 
^^Ajyi taufUcUnah. 

A ^y tawaJckucBf s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of cy^) 
Expectation, hope, desire, wish, trust, reli- 
ance. 2. Request. J^ ^y tawakjcuce laral, 

verb trans., or J^ jjy! tawakkUa 
verb trans. -To expect, to hope, to pit 
or reliance on. 

A uJiy tawakkufy s.m. (2nd) (inf. v c 
Delay, pause, hesitation, cessation, 
ness, patience. Jj^ w^y tawakkuf 
verb trans. To pause, to hesitate, to 
dally, to delay. 

<Gjj tokah, s.f. (3rd) A blunt arrow wit 
boys learn to shoot. V\. ^ey. See 

CJy tuk, s.m. (2nd) Spittle. PL d^/y < 
J^ CJp tuk kawul, verb trans. To sj 
J yyi tukawul or J^y ^wAo/, which s 

J^j3 tukal, verb trans. To spit. Pres. ^ 
past J^y j wu-tukal'y fut. ^^y <U J 
tiikl ; imp. <iLi^y J wu-tukah ; act. part. 
tukunkaey or ^/y tukunaey ; pa 
^J^y tukalaey ; verb. n. <c^y tukana 

also y 

A J^y tarcakkul, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of , 
liance, trust in God, faith, resign 
God's will. PI. <u^y tawakkulunoA 
J^ tarvakkul kawul or JJ larcd, va 
To have faith or reliance, to put trust 

jji'y tukaey, s.m. (Ist) Spittle. PI. ^ 
y' and (JJy 

Jiy ^^^a^ (E.) or J^y tojzal (W.) vei 
To shave, to plane, to smoothe, to p 
scour, to furbish. Pres. ^^ togl 
tojzl ; past d^ J rcU'togah or v£?y J i 
or iNy J 7vU'tojzah or jP J fvu-to^ 
^^Jy ^ J 7z?w iaA ^<?^I or i^jyj <o J 
^^! ; imp. d^ j rcu-togah or a(,y J 72?ft 
act. part. ^jJlj^y togunkaey or ^j-^j 
unkaeyy or ^^^ togunaey or ^j. 
unaey; past part. ,>liy togalaey < 
tojzalaey ; verb. n. <Liy togancHh 

A^ to-ga'h, s.f. (3rd) Method, way, 
wise, course. PI. ^^ 6y. <iSy <l^ <0 j 
to-gcbhy adv. How? in what manne 
what fashion ? 

jj.i^ to-gaey, s.m. (1st) Manner, way, 
course, fashion, practice. PI. jc i. 



Jy tolf a.m. (2nd) Weight, weighing, ponder- 
onsness, heaviness, etc. PI. d^^y tolUnah. 
i})} Jy tol laral, verb intrans. To weigh, to 
have weight, to sink by its own weight. J^ 
J^ tol kawtU, verb trans. To weigh, to ascer- 
tain the weight of a thing; also J^y toU 
ofvui, verb trans. To weigh, to examine by 
weight, to ascertain the weight of. Pres. 
^^y tolanl ; past ifjif J wt^toldwuh or 
yjHy J fvu-toldfvo; ftit. ^^^y tj ^ wu bah 
tolawi ; imp. tf^y J wu-tolawah ; act. part. 
■^ ^jjy tolawUniaey or ^^^^y tolawUnaey ; 
pmai part, ^^^y tolawulaey; verb. n. <0Jy 
^£?lawuna% See JJj 

I J tttf, a.m. (9th) A field of com, etc., almost 

r^^j for reaping or gathering. Sing, and PL 

S dfcal, adj. Equal in weight, equal, even, co- 

eqvial, on a par with, six of one and half-a-dozen 

a£" the other; (Fern.) siyi twala'h. JjuS' Jy 

trt^^U kedalf verb intrans. To be equal, to 

icB-Atch, to cope with, to amount to. J^ Jy 

tnf€d kawul, verb trans. To make or render 

equal, to balance, to adjust. 

AJSy» tuldnd, s.m. (2nd) The gait of a partridge, 

dipping along over any smooth surface, 

Stiding or sliding along. PL <l}j jJ^y tuldnd' 

*«aA. Ji3 jjjy «o pah tuland flat, verb 

n^tnms. To slip, to glide, to slide along (as 

^ ice), etc. See Jy 

<jl)3 tola^i^ B.f. (5th) A mattress, a quilted bed. 

H.^j^Wy tolorydfii. See Jl^J 
^ ^ftamaUud, s.m. (9th) (inf. v of jJ^) Birth, 
JUfivity ; adj. Bom, generated. Sing, and PL 
*P W»'A, s.f. (3rd) A denomination of weight 

•kout 12i mashas. PL ^ ey. (b Jy ). 
^ \^ t(hmdn, 8.m. (2nd) A myriad, ten thou- 
*>Dd. 2. A sum equal to 20 mpees, or about 
£2 English. PL ^OyUy tomdn-Unak. 
^ Um-fia'A, s.f. (3rd) Eennet, leaven, fer- 
^"^ The root, origin, principle, essence, 
*ri, foundation, etc. PL i^ ey. Also ^Li^y 
^""^WioA. PL ^ ey. See ^^^L-. and ^U 
S^^Hiuik,%S. (3rd) Same as preceding. Pl.,^ ey. 
W to»^%«li 0.m. (9th) Thread made from 

carded cotton ; cleaning or picking cotton or 
flax previous to giving it to the weaver. 
Sing, and PL J^ Ljy ton-hlyd kawul ^ 
verb trans. To card wool, cotton, or flax. 
(HI L«^ and l:^y). 

Ci^ J tawany, s.m. (2nd) A kind of basket with 
a cover for keeping clothes in, a kind of port- 
manteau. PL <D^y tawang-Unah, 

p Ciliy tuny or tuwany, s.m. (5th) A treasury, 
a store, a magazine. PL ^^l^y tUnydn or 
tuwany an. 

CJjf tuny, s.f. (1st) A young girl. PL cJj^j 
tunyi, Seej^ 

p^y tawanyaVy adj. Rich, wealthy, powerful. 
PL^jl^y tawanyardn ; s.f. (3rd) if/^yi tawan- 
yarafh. PL ^^^^ tawanyarey. 

p i^jifji tawan-yan, s.f. (3rd) Wealth, riches. 
PL ^ a\ 

^jiO^ tawan-yaey, s.m. (1st) A small basket or 
portmanteau. PL ^^ i. See CJjji 

JjJy tormcHl. s.f. (6th) A kind of box for keep- 
ing clothes in, which opens with a sliding 
cover like a paint box, a kind of casket. 
Sing, and PL 

j^^ to-harr, s.m. (2nd) The prickly pear tree, 
or cactus. PL ^^j^yi toharrUnah. 

i^yi to*e, past part. Spilt, scattered, dispersed, 
shed, overflowed, etc. ; (Fern.) ^y) tde-cHh, 

JjuJy tchyedaly verb intrans. To spill, to shed, 
to scatter, to disperse, to overflow, to sweat, 
to percolate, to roll, to well, etc. Pres. i^j^y^ 
to-yejzl (W.) or ^^^ to-yeyi (E.) ; past 
^ t/^ to'e shah or <Ll J wu-shah\ fut. ^^^ 
^jJ^ i) to*e bah shl or ^ J <u bah wu-shl ; 
imp. <L1 v^y to^e shah or A-1 J wu-shah ; act. 
part. ^jJljjjujy to-yedUnkaey or ^^'^y^ to- 
yedUnaey] past part. ^^^ to'e or i^yJ^ ^^yj 
tde shawaey\ verb. n. *JJu5>5 txhyedanclh. 

<0 JuJ^ to-yedandhy s.f. (3rd) Spilling, shedding, 
scattering, dispersing, overflowing, percolat- 
ing, welling. PL ^ ey. Jy^ to-yawul, 
verb trans. To spill, to shed, to scatter, to let 
fall, to disperse, to strew, to sprinkle,, to dif- 
fuse, to dispel. Pres. i^yiy^ tchyaavl; past 





j^ ^9 ^^'^ ^QT or ^ kahj or jf ^ ^ji to'e 

wu-AafT or i^ J wu-kah ; ftit, jc^ ij ^^^ to'^ 

Aa^ Aoi or jtf^ J ii ioA fou'k'oflt or 4^ sj ^^ 

to'e bah kah or 4^ ^ i) bah wurkak ; imp. 

tjf 4^yi to'e kfToh or ii^ ^oA, ov Ujf ^ ^^^ 

^(?'^ fin^-^tr^ or ii^ J wihkah) act. part. 

Ll^J>Ji>* to^oiroUnkaeyoT^^^^fi tO'yan>ilnaey; 

past part. 4^ ^^^ foey ^2?^^; v^fb* n- 

A3^y{ t(Hfamana*h. 
^H^ to-yawana! hy s.f. (2nd) (verb, n.) CauBing 

or making to diffuse, sprinkle, scatter, shed, 

etc. PI, ^ ey. 
^ tah^ The singular form of the 2nd personal 

pronoun, ^thou.' Inflected I3 tS,. PI. ^l3 

tGM or (jmU ^d^, and ^l3 ^S^ or (jmU /o^. 

a3^ arj ^t3^ A3 ^o^ Aartah zahdiaTtaJiy 

" Where thou, and where I ?" meaning that 

there is no similarity between us. See 

(JL> , and Grammar, page 32. 
p i3 tah, s.f. (Ist) A fold, a plait, a layer, a 

stratum. 2. The bottom, under, beneath. PI. 

iZ taM ; and i^ taha'h, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ 

tahey. See l3 
A3 tah ; (Fem.) ih t'la*h, (part, pres., and imp. 

tense of J)j flal, To go) Walking, going 

along ; or A3 A3 tah tah. 
pJU^ A3 ^oA-^o-i^, adj. Topsy-turyy, upside down. 

J^ HV J ^ toh^hbald kofvul, verb trans. To 

subvert, to overthrow, to turn upside down. 
H ^^ thdperra% s.f. (3rd) A slap, a box, a 

clout, a buffet. PI. ^ ey. See ^l^ 
A Jusf' tahc^ud, s.m. (2nd) (inf. v of Our*) A 

form of prayer said during the night. 2. 

Wakefolness. 3. Sleeping sound. PI. A^^iXsf^ 

A ^^^ai^ toAqjjt, part. (inf. v of ^) Spelling, 

naming the letters of a word. J^ lt^ ^^ 

Aoffl kanml, verb trans. To spell, ^cf' <— f^;^ 

ituHlf-i'tahc^f The letters of the alphabet. 

See ^, ^g;-i and ^^^^te* 
p a3U^ A3 tah ioidna'A, s.f. (3rd) A room under 

ground used in the hot season, a cellar, a 

vault. PI. ^2i ey. 
A Jj«>|3 tahdld, s.m. (2nd) (inf. 11 of jjb) Terri- 

fying, threatening, menace, threat. P 

A A^ tahrluia'h, s.f. (3rd) (iof. ▼ 
Ruin, perdition. 2. Constematia 
3. Pang, agony. PI. ^^ ey. 

A JJ43 ^oA/l/, s.m. (9th) (inf. 11 of Jj^! 
(Jod). Sing, and PI. JijJ^tal 
verb trans. To praise God. 

A uuv^fS thutnat, s.m. (2nd) Suspidoi 
calunmy, slander, false accusation, 
imputation. PI. A^yufS thumatUfiaA 
cu^^ tomat). J^ vjuv443 tkumat 
Jjj waycU, verb tiuns. To slander, 
to belie, to asperse, to traduce, to cf 
to slander. 

,ji^ tAunuUl, adj. Suspicious. 2. 
ious, calumniated. (Masc. and Fen 

JU^ tahndl, s.m. (2nd) The mounti 
end of the scabbard of a sword. 1 
tahndlUnoA. See vl^U and JUy« 

4i^ tahana*A, s.f. (8rd) Low or maish; 
PI. ij ey. 

p j^ tiAf, adj. Empty, void, vain. Ji 
paJUu tiAl kawul, verb trans. To a 
avoid, to refrain, to shun. ^U«: 
dxmaghi adj. Ignorant, vain, foolisb 
AfiUfc) dimagha'h. 

A ^ tahl-ydh, s.f. (3rd) (inf. 11 of il 
Preparation, provision, putting in oq 
J^ tahl-ydh kawul, verb trans. T< 
to make preparation, to put in order 

^ taey, s.m. (1st) A teat, a dug, the n 
woman's breast. PI. ^^ l. j^j^ 4 
wVar, A foster-brother, j^ ^ *^ ^ 
A foster-sister. 

PjljJ tai-ydr, adj. Beady, prepared, 
complete; (Fem.) ir^LJ tai-ywrdh. 
tai-yWredaly verb intrans. To prepa 
come ready, to mature, to make 
ready. Pres. i^jiJ^ tai-yare^ 
t/iji^ tai-y&reyl (E.); past 4j^j\ 
shah or A^ J wihshah ; fot. ^Ja A 
yor AaA Ml or ^ j ^ AoA wurs 
A^ jL3 toe-y^ ^oA or A^ j wur^ 



part ^>^j«>i^^ tai^Sredunkaey or ^^oj^Uj 
tat-ydredHna^ ; past part jLj tai-yar or jlj 
4^y& tod-ydr sAawaey ; verb. n. ^ jjjLs ^oi- 
ySr-edana'k ; s.f. (Srd) Preparatioiii maturity, 
becoming ready or prepared. PI. ^^ ey. 

JIj^Lj tai^drannil, verb trans. To prepare, to 
make ready, to get up, to arrange, to put in 
order, to provide, to equip, to fit up. Pres. 
4^^L3 tai-ydrawl ; past J j^ tai-yar karr 
orS J nm^karr ; fut. g?^ ij jLi tai-yar hah 
kfsfi or gr/ J *^ AflA nm-krn'y imp. */jl-«3 
toir^Sr kfToh or ^ ia^ or 2f^ j^^ tai-ydr 
wu-Jkrrah or ^ J wu-kah ; act. part. ^^JJ2^^ 
toi-ydraip^JftAa^y or ^j^Us tai-ydrawUnaey ; 
past part. 4^ jLj tai-yar kaxraey ; verb. n. 
4Jj^lJ tai-ydrawuna! h. 

^j^Lj tairydrawuna! h, s.f. (3rd) Making prepa- 
ration, getting ready, arranging. PI. ^ ey. 

Mj\^ fySra% s.f. (Srd) Darkness, obscurity, 
dusk, gloom, gloominess, want or absence of 
light. PI. ^ ey, uJl^ »j^ tordh iydroHh^ 
Total darkness, the palpable obscure, dark as 
firebus. See ^ j^ 

4C^Lj tat-ydri, s.f. (3rd) Readiness, preparation, 
provision, arrangement, disposal, training, 
maturation. PI. ^ a\ 

^2^^ tey-bUn or tai-bUn, s.m. (2nd) Purifying 
irith dean dust, before prayer, when no water 
is procurable. PI. ij ^ y^^ tey-bUnUnah. ^^ 
^^ tey-bUn or tai-btin tvahal, verb trans. To 
purify one's-self before prayer. See a a^ 
Jis^ te-4sal, verb trans. To pierce, to perforate, 
to transfix, to spear, to gore, to stab. 2. To 
stuff, to cram, to ram in. 3. To eat vora- 
doualy. Pres. ^^4-J te-t^ ; past ^^ J wu 
U-^ah ; fut. ^^^ li ^wu bah te^t^ ; imp. 
j^ J nm-te-t^s^ ; act. part, ^jiu^s^^ te- 
fyftnhaey or ^^a^ te-taUnaey; past part. 
* fa^ t&4Mlaey ; verb. n. juk^ te-tsana'h. 
te-tsana'h, s.f. (3rd) Perforating, transfix- 
ing, spearing, stabbing. PI. ^^ ey. See Jo^:^ 
wid J«a^ 

t«r, adj. Passed, gone by, done, accom- 
plished, spent (as time), over, lapsed, that 

has been; (Fem.) aj^ tera'h. ji{ ^j^ ter- 
o-ber. More or less. 2j^ Ji j^^ ter tar terah^ 
adj. Excessive, much, extravagant, outrage- 
ous, prodigious, tremendous. 

jif^ j^ ter-her, adj. Gone and passed, forgotten, 
out of date; (Fem.) Hj^ ^ij^ terd h-hercH h. 

^jf3 teraey, s.m. (1st) Excess, superiority, ma- 
jority, maximum, acme, transcendence. 2. 
Passing, going on, passing away, proceeding, 
advancing, going forward; progress, course, 
progression. 3. Excelling, surpassing, beating. 
PI. ^^ f. J^ y^j^ teraey kawul, verb trans. 
To surpass, to exceed, to excel, to beat. 

J Jj^ teredal, verb intrans. To pass, to pass away, 
to pass by, to precede, to proceed, to go on, to 
advance, to ascend, to surpass, to die. Pres. 
i^^ji^ terejzl (W.) or ^jt^ tereyi (E.); 
past ^j^ ter shah or LU J^ ter wthshah ; 
fut. J^ ^ji} ter bah shl or ^Ji» J ^ bah wu- 
shl ; imp. iJL j^ ter §hah or ^ J wurshah ; 
act. part. ^jJujjj^ teredUnkaey or ^^^ja^ 
teredUnaey ; past part. ^ ter or ^y^ j^ ter 
shawaey) verb. n. ^«^^ teredana'h. 

J^^ terawtd, verb trans. To pass over, to cross, 
• to cause to advance, to cause to proceed, etc. 
Pres. 4^j;-3 terawl] pastj^^ ter katr or 
J J wti-katr ; fut. i^jf ijj^ ter bah krri or 
4^ J <o bah wurhrn ; imp, */^ ter krrah 
OT sj ^ wu-krrah ; act. part, ^jiu^ (^^ ter- 
awUnkaey or ^^j^ terawUnaey ; past part. 
\^^j^ ter kaxraey ; verb.n. i^^ terawuruCh. 

Vjg5 tlr, s.m. (2nd) An arrow. PI. ij^ tlr- 
Unah. See^<*Lc. j\jj\^ tvr-andaz, s.m. 
(5th) An archer, a bowman. PI. ij<j^^\ j^i 
tir-anddzdn. See ^A-»5I ^<«*i« k/;'*^'^ 
tlr-anddzl, s.f. (3rd) Archery. PI. ^^ a*l. 
(j*ij j-J ^fr ras, A bow-shot, the range of an 
arrow; orc-jl;^^ tir-par-tdb, s.m. (2nd). PI. 
^yi^ji par-tdbUnah. {J**^j^ tlr hash or ^-J 
^ tlr-kaWh (E.), or *a^ (W.), s.m. v2nd) A 
loop-hole for arrows. V\.i:iy^j^tir-ka]3iiknah^ 
or kadhUnah. 

p^ fvTy s.m. (2nd) A beam, a ridge pole, a 
mast, the ridge pole of a plough. PL ^^ 



tirUnah ; or (5th) ^^\^ tfrdn. j^ ^^j^ J da 
pozey tlr, The bridge of the nose. ^ U» J 
da sha ttr oTjJ t^ j da m'ld tlr, The back 
or waist-bone, the spine. 

\^j^ ter saraet/j s.m. (1st) A freckle, a mole on 
the face. 2. A head-stall for a horse. PI. ^^ !. 

j^jfl^ ter^sU, adj. Three hundred. 

CjLj flrak, s.m. (2nd) The iron axle on which 
the stones of a mill turn or revolve. PI. 
^^ji^ tlrakunah. 

ifj^ te-rdhy adj. Sharp, keen, acute, fiery, 
sharpened. ^\^ «^ tera^h-walaey, s.m. (Ist) 
Sharpness, keenness, acuteness. PI. ^c I. 
Jjbj^ Hj^ tercHh kedaly verb intrans. To be- 
come sharp or keen, to become sharpened. 
J^ ij^ terdh kawul, verb trans. To sharpen, 
to give an edge to, to make keen, to whet. 

ifj^ teraA, adj. Beady for the male (as a cow, 
donkey, etc.) See <u«^ 

p 9j^ flrah, adj. Dark, obscure, turbid, sad. 
v£^.^ ijj tlr ah hdHttj adj. Unfortunate, un- 
lucky, y^ys^, 9jfj tlrah baMitl, s.f. (3rd) 
Misfortune, mishap, reverse. PI. y\ cHx. HjJ 
JiXjS^ tira^h kedal, Yerh intrans. To turn black, 
turbid, or obscure. ^^ ij^ txrcHh kawul, 
verb trans. To make black, turbid, obscure. 
^Ij ijj flra*hwdlaey, &.m.(l8i) Darkness, ob- 
scurity, turbidness. 2. Sadness. PI. Jl^ wdM. 

^i^ teraey, adj. Nine, or ij\jjj^ ter tar a-tah. 
See <0 

Jjj^ and Jj[^ See under^^ 

J:u*j^ ter-yastal, verb trans, to evade, to elude, 
to dodge, to quibble, to equivocate, to prevari- 
cate, to put off. 

pjjj tez, adj. Sharp, acute, hot, fiery, caustic, 
acrid, violent, swift, etc. ; (Fern.) *j-J teza*k. 
<*-.M J-J tez d4, s.m. (2nd) Nitric acid or aqua 
fortis. PI. <U^T dbunak, a^J-j tez/ahm,sdy 
Acute, intelligent, apt, quick of apprehension ; 
(Fem.) <Ufi J-j tez fahamoih. ^^/^ j-j tez 
fahmlf s.f. (Srd) Acumen, intelligence, acute- 
ness, aptness. PI. ^ a'l. ^j^ tezl, s.m. (1st) 
Sharpness, keenness, acrimony, pungency, 
swiftness, impetuosity. PI. ^^ a'f . 

jjj fiZf s.m. (2nd) a fart. PI. sjjj)^ 
, J^^T tlz dchawuLYBTh trans. Tc 
^j|j-J tiz-drataey, adj. A farter^ 
poltroon; (Fem.) (^j^jtP tlz-drat^ 
and Fem.) ^cf; or Jt^\jJ tlz-c 
(6th) Same as preceding. Pl.^^JjJ 
*^^]j-j tlz-dwatrna' h, s.f. (3rd). 

Jj-j tezai, verb trans. To run or 
horse), to urge. Pres. ^g^ tezl 
wu-tezah ; fut. i^^ dj ^ wu bah 
8jJ wu-tezah; act. part. f^^jj}it 
or ^4J-J tezUnaey; past. part. ^ 
verb. n. <Oj-j tezana*h. 

j^jjjji tezanda% s.f. (6th) A piece 
a running noose, a halter,' a hauj 
Sing, and PI. 

SjJ njzcHh (W.), s.f. (3rd) A flat k 
flat stone on which condiments 
PI. ^ ey. See itj 

p <Lui-J teshoHh, s.f. (3rd) An adze, \ 
used by carpenters. PI. y^ ^. 

a,M&^7 teshta'h(yf.) or tefchta^h (E.), s. 
throw, defeat, flight, decampment 
y^ey. ^^xc>^teshtedaloTte^ti 
trans. To flee, to decamp, to bolt, 
to elope. J^xAijj tesktawul or ^^> 
trans. To put to flight, to cause 
to run away or elope with. See ^ 

p ^-J te^, s.m. (2nd) A sword or s< 
young plant, a sprout, a shoot. P 
Unah. Jjbj wJ te^h Tvahal, vei 
smite with a sword. 2. To sp 
shoot (as a plant). 

te^na'h, s.f. (3rd) A sword, 
plate for baking cakes of bread o 
See ^^ 

\j fyak, adj. Distended, develo] 
expanded, stretched, drawn tight, 
dLj fyaka'h. JjuCj f yoked 
trans. To expand, to swell, to 
tended or stretched. J^-J t^yi 
trans. To distend, to expand, t 
draw tight, to develope, to infli 
nify. ^\^ cIXj fyak wdlae^ 




Ezpanaion, distenaion, spreadi extension, en- 
largement, dispanaion, etc. PI. ^1^ wdR. 

4Lj teka'h, B.f. (3rd) The sheath or scabbard of 
a sword, etc. PL |^ ey. 

^<iLj teiaey, 8.m. (1st) A scabbard, a sheath. 



4£j t^a*A (E.), s.f. (Srd) A round flat stone, a 
flat stone on which condiments are ground. 
PL 1^ ey. See XjJ 

HI J^ tel, son. (6^) Oil. Sing, and PL ,duj 
teiaey, s.m. (1st) An oilman. PL ^^ I. ^^Lj 
telaX B*£> (6th) The wife of an oilman. Sing. 
and PL 

PjUp (mdr, s.m. (2nd) Care, attention. 2. 
Begimen of the sick. 3. Infirmity, sickness, 
indisposition. PL <Oj^U«; ttrndrUnah, jU^ 
J^ (mar kawul, verb trans. To take care of, 
to tend, to foster, to attend to. 

A f^ tayammum, s.m. (2nd) Purifying one's- 
aelf before prayer with dust or sand, when 
water ianot procurable. "PI. 43y%>AJ» tayammum- 
IUumA. J>j ^i^ tayammum waAal, verb trans. 
To purify one'sHself, aa above. 

C^)^f:^ teiUnzaJk, s.m. (2nd) (W.) The bridge 
of the nose, the muzzle. PL ^«^;«.j^ ten- 
hmzak9mak. See d/j^jJ and 4c>mjJ 

f^jygsui tefirbUzaey, s.m. (1st) Same as preceding. 

pi.\^ i. 

h^^jk;.^ (tnrdorraey, s.m. (1st) The cartilage 
of the nose. PL ^^ f . 

j.^ ten-kaey, s.m. (1st) (W.) Same as pre- 
eeding. PL ^^ f . 

c^ findaA, s.m. (2nd) A jump, a leap, a 
boond, a spring, a vault. PL dij^*M^ fin- 
dakunah. J>^ iI/a;..? (indak tvoAal, verb 
trans. To jump, to leap, to bound, to vault, 
to spring. j2«i»U) vl/j^ ^ ^*^ (indak 
fah (tfklak z^^kdstal, verb intrans. To bound 
or jump along, to run along, now rising now 
fidling, as when pursued, to rush along, etc. 
U«; te^alf verb trans. To roast, to fry, to grill, 
to parch, to char, etc. Pres. ^«^ te-yi; 

te^ ; imp. duJ J wtht&yah ; act. part. 
^jCj^ te-yUnkaey, or ^^ te-yUnaey ; past 
part, ^^u^ te^alaey ; verb. n. i:^ te-yatuCh. 
u«J (e-yanaey, B.m. (1st) A &y, a broil, a grill, 
etc. Pl.^^i. 


past fw j wu-te-yah ; fot. _«J^ sj ^ ivu bah 

y^ Ue, The fifth letter of the Pu^to alphabet, 
and similar in sound to the Sanskrit Z. It 
is pronounced by reverting the tip of the 
tongue to the palate. There is no letter of 
this sound in any of the Semitic dialects. 

Hi^lj Udpo, s.m. (5th) An island. PL ^^^3 

iTj^lj Ud-porra^A, s.f. (Srd) A crutch, a stilt, a 
kind of wooden rake. 2. A washerman's 
board. PL ^^ ey. See $Jj 

\j^\i UdU, s.m. (2nd) Coxcombry, vanity, con- 
ceit, swagger, gasconade, puppyism, pertness, 
assumption. PL dj^jl} UdUUnak. 2. Canvas, 
sackcloth (hi). ^}^ yj^\i UdU kawul, verb 
trans. To show ofi*, to flaunt, to strut, to 
swagger, to flourish, to look big, to assume, 
to act the puppy. ^Ij UdU-l, s.m. (5th) A 
coxcomb, a puppy, a fop, a dandy, a spark, a 
swell, a beau, an exquisite, a jackanapes ; 
Fem. (3rd) -jlj UdUaX Sing, and PL See 
J^^ and ^j^^ 

c^^l} Ud-Uob, s.m. (2nd), Calmness, composure, 
tranquillity, rest, peace of mind, repose. PL 
^j»ji\i Ud'UobUnah. Jju^ ^ji^ Ud-Uob 
kedal, verb intrans. To be composed, to be 
tranquil in mind, etc. Jj^ <--^>lU Ud-Uob 
kanml, verb trans. To rest, to compose, to 
luU, to quiet, to tranquillize, to soothe, c^^l} 
J^ Ud-Uob ni-^nml, verb trans. To rest, to 
ti^e repose. 

^ji^ Ud-Uoba'A, s.f. (3rd) Caknness, etc. Same 
as preceding, which see. PL ^^ ey. 

^ji^ Ud-mka'A, s.f. (3rd) A kind of white edi- 
ble ground nut. PL ,^ ey. 

^\i Ud-UaX s.f. (6th) Lullaby. 2. The act of 
swinging, rocking, moving to and firo, vibrat- 
ing, oscillating. Sing, and PL Jjbj «}l] 
Ua^'l waAal, verb trans. To swing, to rock. 




to move to and firo, to yibratOi to oscillate. 
ihy^ ^ijlj UaUa'l ^watral, verb trans. To 
move to and firo, to wave, to yihratei to swing, 
to oscillate (yerb intrans. in English). 

fjJi Has, s.m. (2nd) A slight report or explo- 
sion firom a gun or musket containing a small 
charge only, a pop, a snap. PI. d;jyJi UdsUnaA. 

jlj Udk, s.m. (2nd) A discharge, a report, a 
crack, a slam, a bang, a clap, an explosion, a 
crash, a Imrst, a salvo. PI. ^y\i UafcUnah. 
Jjbj jlj Uak wahal, verb intrans. To explode, 
to crack, to burst, to go oflF, to slam, to utter 
a report with sudden violence. Jj^ jlj Udk 
kawul, verb trans. To explode, to discharge, 
to let off, to crack, to slam, to burst. See 
JS andj^ 

j^\) Udrkarr, 8.m, (5th) An old or decrepid man. 
PI. (^\j^\i Udkdrrdn ; (Fem.) nj^i Ud-kaira'h. 
PI. f^ ey. Also written y Ij Uorfcar. See 
J^ {bJ\^ ?). 

cJlj U^9 s.m. (2nd) The fruit or kernel of a 
tree (Crateeva, or i£gle marmelos), which is 
made into snuff-boxes, etc. 2. A discharge, 
explosion, burst, report. PI. ^^l] U^k-UnaA. 
See also J^ , J^ , and «xxcL 

^\i Ud'ku, s.m. (5th) One who takes whatever 
he can lay his hands on, and to whom nothing 
is amiss. PI. ^\^l] Udku-ffdn. ^\) Ud-ku, 
8.m. (9th) The name of a disease among buf- 
faloes. Sing, and PI. 2. adj. Assiduous, 
plodding, persevering, meddling, pushing, in- 
triguing ; (Fem.) ^j^lj Ud-Aawa'A. 

Jlj U^l, s.m. (2nd) A swing, ropes fastened to 
the branch of a tree as a swing. 2. The 
branch or bough of a tree. PI. <OjI\} Udl- 
UnaA, Jj^ J^ Sdl l^warral, verb trans. 
To swing, to dangle, to hang, to be pendent, 
to wave, to vibrate. Jjbj Jlj UdJ waAal, verb 
trans. To swing, to hang, to suspend, to move 
to and fro, to wave. Jl} ^^^^ j da budda'i 
Udl, son. (2nd) A rainbow, PI. ^jllj ttdlunaA. 
See ^\^ 9j^ imJi i^ 

4^1} ii^n-Ua'A, s.f. (3rd) Straw of the Jowar 
(Holcus 8orgum)f PI, ^ ^, 

CJj\i U&ng, 8.m. (Snd) A fixed peric 
space, spell, season. PL ^j&l} tf^ 

jjul} U^ngU, s.m. (5th) The name 
bearing a fruit like the apple in a; 
2. The name of the fruit. PI. ^ 

i£)\i ttdngdAy s.f. (3rd) The name o: 
of the above. PI. ,^ ey. 

^Ij Udn-gaX 8.f. (6th) The name c 
tree and fruit of the preceding, 
the branches of which sticks and 
made. Sing, and PI. See ^X^O 

j^ Uabar, s.m. (2nd) Family, horn 
eluding parents, children, and ser 
jG«^ Uabar-UnaA. 

jfi Uabar, s.f. (Ist) A wife. Pl.^ «a 

jf) UabafT, s.m. (2nd) Family,^etc. 
UabarrUnaA, See also jO^ 

^jiL} Uub'Aaey, s.m. (1st) A hole, a 
trench or ditch. PI. ^^ f . ^S^ ^ 
Uubki, adj. Up and down, irregnli 
iuU of hollows and irregularities. 

^jJuj Uublaey, s.m. (1st) A hole, a 
preceding. PI. ^ f. ^^ttu 
adj. See preceding. 

Uap, s.m. (5th) A sound, the sou 
thing coming into contact with any 
as the sound of a horse's feet on 
road, the closing of a book, etc. 2. 
a whack, a hit. Pl.jl^ Uapa-Adr. 
Uap kawul, verb trans. To beat, to 
baste, to whack, to smack, to belab* 
J^ L-^ Uap Uap Aarvuly verb tran 
the hands. 2. To chastise a child. 

Uap, s.m. (2nd) A wound, cut, in 
hurt. PI. <Uj-3 UapUnaJi. ^ i 
Wounded, hurt, scarred, injured. 
Uap-l Aawul, verb trans. To wound 
to hurt. 

Uap, adv. of emphasis, used with 
to denote intensity or emphasis ; ai 
entirely, totally, throughout, altog^ 
fectly, really, verily, truly, etc. 
Sing. ^ ^apa'A. PI. ^^ey: as, « 




pa^A Uogiara'k, B.t (3rd) Perfect poverty, 
Mplesflness, beggary, etc. PL ^^ ey, t^^ 
1,-^ Uap mUf adj. Entirely or perfectly 
erooked, bent, cnryed, etc. ; (Fern.) j^ <u] 
UapoCk mUa'h. ^J^i^J L^ U(^p dare-dor 
laey, adj. Wholly tired out, completely knocked 
up, thoroughly jaded or wearied, jj^ l^ 
Kop frUndf adj. Totally blind, blind as a bat. 
J2) ^-^ U^P ^orr, adj. Quite old or aged, as 
old as the hills. J^ l^ Uap Aarm. adj. Deaf 
as a post. C&j^ t^^ tfaj? ^^, adj. Dumb, 
mute as a fish. ^\^ t^^ tfop yira?}, adj. 
Very, or exceedingly dear. s\j^ i^^ Uap 
pmHrdh, adj. Totally lost, gone to the dogs. 
(J^ (^^ #ajE? h^anaeffy adj. Mad as a March 
hue. ^ji^jS (^^ ^J9 lu-gharranj adj. Smoked 
black, y^^i^ (^-^ S^ Fwedalaey, adj. En- 
tirely us^esB, fit for nothing, jjjl t^^ #ap 
teiMf, adj. Wet through, perfecUy soaked. 
jf c^ Uap-mofT, adj. Quite dead, dead as a 
door nail, jy l^ Uap mofr, adj. Perfectly 
satiated. ^^iX) c^ i^jt? m^-^, adj. 
Quite close, very near. ^^ t^^ ^op n^t^, 
•dj. Quite dry, entirely dried up, dry as a 
bcme. c^^ (^ ftap n^ajfe^ or ^jSJ wayey, 
adj. Hungry as a hunter. ^V^^ u^ tfajt? 
ivo-fiSii, adj. Totally deserted, ruined, desolate. 

i^*Hj^ *"^ ^^ n^^^-do/o^, adj. Frightened 
oat of one's wits, j^ t^^ #ap Aer, adj. 
Wholly forgottoi. 

f/^t^ tt^'^S^P^kT&^f 8-ni. (1st) The name 
of a game played by children. PI. ^^ f. 
J jj^ Uapar-edal, verb intrans. To totter along 
(as an aged person), to creep, to plod, to 
moYe slowly, to mince, to falter, to stagger, 
to lounge, to saunter. Pres. i^jj^ Uapar- 
ejff, (W.) or ^^jfi Uapar-effi (E.) ; past j 
90jj^ wurytapar-edah or jj^ j wurUapat' 
€ia\ fut. ^jj^ l{ ^ wu bah Uapar-ej^ or 
^^ ijy^nnibah Uapar^ ; imp. *^^ J 
jM^ttdgMT-^^oA or ^j^J tvu-Uapar-effah ; 
msLf$att.^jij^Jjj^ Uapar^anAaey or^j jj^ 
j(djMr-€KSna^ ; past part. ^ji^Hjti Uapar- 
^dlo/leuy; verb. n. ^^^j^ ttqpar-edaruC h. 

j^ UoptTt 8.m. (2nd) Sackcloth, canvas. PI. 
^Xct^ UO'prr^nah. 

^j,*^ Uapus, s.m. (5th) A kite, a bird of prey. 
PI. ^LmJ Uapus-dn. Fem. (Srd) <Umj Uapus- 
a*h. PI. ^J ^. See ^^ 

J-J Uapal, verb intrans. To loiter, to plod, to 
dally, to tarry, to procrastinate, to move 
along lazily. Pres. iA--3 Uape-jzl (W.) or 
^X-3 Uape-ffi (E.) ; Fut. i^j^^ ij ^ wu bah 
Uape-j^ or ^X-3 Uape-gl ; imp. ij-j-j J tpu- 
Uap-^zah or aSL.] Uap-egah ; act. part, ^j-^j^ 
UapUnkaey or ^^ UapUnaey; past pturt. 
^jLj Uapalaey; verb. n. ^b^j Uapancih. The 
other tenses are wanting. 

f^ #apa^ s.m. (5th) A kite, a bird of prey. 
PI. ^l^^ #aj9iZ^-an. Fem. (Srd) a^^ 
UapUtm'k PI. ^J ^. See ^^^ 

j^ Uapaet/y s.m. (1st) A black mole, a black 
spot on a sheep, goat, or other animal. PI. ^^ f . 
See (^^ and . ^ 

Uaty 8.m. (Snd) Boasting, conceit, vanity. 
PI. i^j^i UatUnaA; Fem. (Srd) Ag ftato'A. 
PI. ^J ^. ^:J Uataey, s.m. (1st) A boaster 
(&7. a farter), a coxcomb, a puppy, a beau, a 
fop, a swaggerer, a jackanapes, a poltroon. 
PI. ^ I. Fem. (6th). Sing, and PL ^ 
Uata'u y^^ Uatdwarm. s.m. (5th) Same 
as preceding. Pl.j}jli3 Uatdwarm; (Fem.) 
ifJ^\si Uatdwarma'A. PI. ^ ey. 

UiU, adj. Bent, bowed, crooked. 2. Help- 
less, distressed ; (Fem.) <W UiUa'A, See i,-^ 

v^jlrf UaUd-raey, s.m. (Ist) A sandpiper, the 
pewit. PI. ^^ f . See ^<^fi3 and i^\*-3 

^ ttattar, s.m. (2nd) The oreast. 2. The crown 
of the head. PI. ij^ UaUarUnaA. 

fii UaUU, s.m. (5th) A pony, a small horse (hi). 
2. The bridge of a fiddle. PI. ^\jrf UaUU-dn ; 
(Fem.) (Srd) sja UaUawa'A. PI. ^ ey. See 

^jrf UaUo-^aey, s.m. (1st) A sandpiper. PL 

^ !. See g?j\rf (b l;lf23). 
^ UaU-aX s.f. (6th) A screen, a matted shutter. 

^ing. andPL (hi. ^). 

Ji Ua^, s.m. (6th), A pop, a snap, a slight 



• •• 

report as from a gun lighUy charged. PI. 
j^^ Uadiahdr. See fjJi 
J UuMf ^'Toa, (5th) A cough, expectoration. PI. 
j\^ WuJ^har. J>j J Wu}^ wahaly verb 
trans. To cough, to expectorate. Also written 
^ ^Jduih^ s.f. (3rd). PL ^J ey ; and 
W^Miaey, s.m. (1st). PI. ^ I. J JuiJ ttui 
daly verb intrans. To cough. Pres. ^g--^ 
UuMe-jzi (W.), or ^XjcJ UuMe-ffi (E.) ; past 
2Fju^ J wU'UuM^dah, or Ju^ J rvu-ttukheda; 
fut. t,^^^**' ij^^wu bah UuM^'^l, or ,«iI-«5 <^ j 
WW ioA UuJ^-gl ; imp. ij^) wu-UuM^JzaA, 
or <i^$l>>i:^ J wu-WuMte-gah ; act. part. ^<iu^ Ju^ 
ftuMte-dilnkaey, or ^^juiJ Uuisb^-dUnaey ; 
past part. ^juiJ UuM^-dcUaey; verb. n. 
<0 juflb} UuMedana*A. See ,<c^yi and J Jus^-jJ 
J^^ Vbuyiawul, verb trans. To cause to cough 
or expectorate, to make cough. Pres. ^/^ 
#wM^jj-7i7t; past »j<s^ j fvU'Uui^wuA or 
jl^UrJ J we^ft^M^-^'^ ; fiit. i/^ ^ J wu bah 
UuMcHvl ; imp. s^ j wu-WuJ^wah ; act. 
part, f^^^y^ Wul^a-wUnkaeyy or ^•^ 
UuM^irfi^tlnaey ; past part. ijJj*' ftwM^ 
n-ulaey; verb. n. aJ^ ttuM^^-^unah. (hi 

Ci^). See J^j3 
^^Jl«:5 UuMjalaX s.f. (6th) A cap, a hat. Sing. 

and PI. 
^jii3 UuMalaey, s.f. PI. (3rd) The hooping 

cough. PI. j^ f. Also written ,jl«5 l<J^ 

'puMuxlaey ^uM^alaey. See also iJ^ and 

a^U 2[^^ 

^ ^uMa'h, s.f. (3rd) A cough. PI. ^J ey. 
See J and ^-iJ 

^^ UuMaey, s.m. (1st) A cough. PI. j^ L 

See preceding. 
Ji Uar, s.m. (5th) A fart. 2. A word applied to 
denote contempt, as in English, bosh, fudge, 
stuff, palaver, fiddlestick, fiddle ffuldle, hum- 
bug. PI. jUp Uara-har. ^ U^^ru, s.m. (5th) 
A farter, a humbug, a donkey, an ass, a 
twaddler. PI. f^%ji Uaru-ffdn. J*xj^ Uare- 
dal, verb intrans. To fart. ^JJ jUp U<^rahdr 
laral, verb trans. To twaddle, to humbug, to 
talk nonsensically. 

Jiji ^r-Uar, s.m. (2nd) Ghatteriii 
prattle, talkativeness. PI . i^jjjiji i 
i}^ jiji Uar-Uar kawul, verb tn 
ter, to gabble, to jabber. See^ 

^g^ Uaraey, s.m. (1st) A farter, a 
ass, a twaddler, a fool. PI. ^^ i 

jji Urak, s.m. (2nd) A blow, a bi 
discharge, an explosion, etc. PI 
UnaA. See jlj and j;} 

JjjyJ Uare-dal, verb intrans. Ti 
jabber, to gabble. Pres. f^j.Ji fl 
or ^J>iJi Uare-gl (E.) ; past *jj^ 
dak, or s^Ji J wU'Uareda\ fut. , 
bah Uare-jzl, or ^Jjj5 ij ^wu 
imp. njji j Tvu-Uare-Jzah, or 
Uare-gah ; act. part. ^^^^^^Ji t 
or tjj^»x;y5 Uare-dunaey ; past 
Uare-dalaey; verb. n. ajjj^J ftfl 

JJ ftflwr, s.m. (2nd) A pop, a sound 
ijjji UazUnah. See^ andj-j 

^jiti Uas, s.m. (2nd or 5th) A dum 
a slight soimd. PI. ^^ Uas-i 
Uasa-hdr. See -^ 

^yi ^j*^ Uas ttUs, s.m. (9th) The 
of fire-arms. 2. A brush, a sh 
mish, a fracas, a rumpus. 3. ' 
of a few shots between two pa] 
coming to a pitched battle. 6 
J/ U^^ L/**5 tta5-fttZ5 kawul, V( 
sldrmish, to get up or kick u 
quarrel, to wrangle, to fight. 

,Xu*5 Uaskl, or Uiskiy s.f. (3rd) L 
gishness, dullness, apathy, call 
y^ d}%, ^jXwwg Uaskaey, s.m. (Is* 
a dastard, a milksop, a cowai 
s.f. (6th) j^ al. Sing, and PI. 

t/**^ U**5 Uas^mas, adj. Apathetic, 
sluggish, dull ; (Fem.) ^u*} ^o^ 

5-3 #^» s.m. (2nd) The pupil of 
The jay (coracias bengalensis> 
UaghUnah, ^ ^^J^ shln-Uagi 
A blue jay. ,^5^=^ ^^ Uagheiy 
PI. (3rd) Staring eyes, a stare 
J jJ ^j^ yf3 <u pah Ua>gfio atari 





trans. To stare at, to gaze, to look at with a 
fixed look. 

w} Uq^, s.m. (5th) A creak, a croak, a sharp 
sound. PL jlfi} Uagha-har. 

fii HaghoT^ s.m. (2nd) A carpet or kind of cloth 
made from wool. 2. A piece of felt placed 
beneath the saddle. 3. An old rag, a clout. 
PL ^^/w W^'gh^xtWnaJi. 

^^ naghan^ s.m. (5th) A coward, a poltroon, a 
mean apathetic fellow, a milk-sop. PL ^ 

J|yi} Uqghawuly verb trans. To set the teeth on 
edge, to jar, to grate, to displease. Pres. ^fi 
#ajgia7rl ; past ar^Uj J vm-UaghJawuhy or j^Uj J 
wurUaghawo ; fut. ^^^ sjjwu bah Uaghawi ; 
imp. 9yii J wU'^xi^awaA ; act. part. ^<Ju^yO 
U^j^awiinAaey, OT^jj^y^i UaghawUnaey ; past 
P^^* L^y^ ^o^ia/iTu/ae^ ; verb. n. Ajycj 

J9 Uakf s.m. (5th) A blow, a slap, a smack, a 
bang, a whack, a squash, a thump, a punch, 
a yerk, etc. PL jl^ Uakahar. Jjb^ js S«A: 
wuhaly verb trans. To bump, to clash, to beat 
against, to crack. J^ j;} Uak karvul, verb 
trans. To thump, to baste, to dab, to hit, to 
dam, to whack, to butt, to rap, to pelt, to yerk, 
etc. See jlj and j^. 

iif^S ttakawul, verb trans. To blame, to censure, 
to rate, to reprove, to lecture, to scold, to up- 
braid, to accuse, to castigate, to reprobate, to 
calumniate. Pres. ^^^^ Uakawl ; past ij^ J 
nfUrUakdwuh, orj^^U} J wurUakawo ; fut. <o J 
4^^ nm bah Uakawl ; imp. ify) J wu-UaJka- 
waA; act. part. ^^^^^ UakorwUnkaey, or 
L^j^ U^kawUnaey ; past part. ^yi3 Uaka- 
nmlaey; verb. n. sj^ UakawuncHi. 

Uuk, s.m. (2nd) A piece, a bit, a shred, an 
atom, a particle, etc. PL ij^ UukUnah, 
See cljf^S and ^ ^ 

|(a^, s.m. (2nd) A murrain amongst cattle. 
PL ij^ Uakanah. 

itak, s.m. (5th) The sound of the footsteps 
of man or animal, a thump, a slam, a rap, 
a bang, a report, etc. PL j\fy Uaka-hdr. 

See Mi Uakd. Jjbj uisj Uak wahal, verb 
trans. To strike, to beat, to thump, to drive 
in, to crack, to split, to hit, to pound, to 
shake, to shake as fruit from a tree, to sting. 
jy[j Uakawul, verb trans. To beat, to thump, 
to bruise, to knock, to cudgel, to drive a peg. 
Pres. i/*^ Uakawl ; past a^ii J wu-UakdrWuk, 
^^\ii J wu-Uakd-^o ; fat. ^^^ ij ^ wu bak 
Uakawl ; imp. s^ i wu-^qkawah ; act. part. 
^jiujjCj Uaka-wunkaey, or ^j^^ Uaka- 
wUnaey ; past part. ^^ Uakorwulaey ; verb, 
n. ^^ Uakorwuncui, J^ clXj Uak kawul^ 
verb trans. To discharge (as a gun), to fire off. 

Mi Uaka, s.f. (6th) The sound of the footsteps 
of man or beast, report of fire-arms, a slam, 
a bang, a thump, a rap, crack, etc. (E.) 
Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^Mi Uaka-wl. See 

^jMi Uikdrkaey, s.m. (1st) A small spot of 
ground hard and free from grass and weeds. 
PL ^ I. See also C/I<J and ^^ 

^Mi Uikd-na*A, s.f. (3rd) A place, abode, resi- 
dence, dwelling. 2. Boundary, limit, fixing. 
PL ^J ey. (8 \j\i^). ^}xS ^Mi Uika-na'A 
kedal, verb intrans. To rest, to repose, to 
settle, to desist. J^ ajMj Uikd-na^A kawul, 
verb trans. To stop, to remain, to stay. 
Jjufl ijMi Uikd-na*h lage-dal, verb intrans. 
To settle down, to reach one's level, to become 
stationary. J^ <0l^ Uika-na'k lagawul, 
verb trans. To decide, to fiz, to bring to 

f^ UakortU, s.m. prop. The name of a moun- 
tain east of Kandahar. 

CS^ij Uak'Uak, The sound of feet, etc. See 

^^J}U^^ Uak'Uakdrrnaey, s.m. (1st) The name 
of a game played by children. 2. The clap- 
per of a mill, the piece of wood that strikes 
the mill hopper. 3. The wood-pecker (Picus). 

PI. ^ f . 

^ Uakar, s.m. (2nd) Shoving, pushing, push, 
knocking against, collision, a butt, butting, 
the knocking of head against head . PI . ^^J^ 





ttakar-HnaL (fli JS). Jj^ J4 Uakar 
i^warrcUf verb trans. To receive a butt, to be 
daahed against anything. Jjbj ^ Wnkar 
wahal, verb trans. To butt, to knock against, 
to shove. 

jfi UukfT, s.m. (5th) A piece, a morsel, a bit, 
a portion, a slice or morsel of bread. PI. 
^\J4 UukfT-dn ; Fem. (8rd) gj:} ftukarra'h, 
PI. ^^^. (b5/5). 

iS^uSi U<^/{'Saraey, adj. (Masc.) Murrain, a term 
of abuse, tabid, mangy ; (Fem.) j^Si Uak- 
sari, PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ u ^ y^/^ 
Uak'Sarey shey, A murrain seize thee I • See 

iSSi Uaiaka'A, s.f. (3rd) A piece of wood placed 
across the handle of a shovel or spade above 
the iron part, to place the foot on for shoving 
it into the groimd. PI. y^ ey. 

i^jA ^j'^ Uakkarma!h gharmxihy s.f. (3rd) 
Noon, mid-day. PI. ^ ey. 2. adj. Noon, 
exactly noon, meridional. See iU^ ^jc^ 

^juJ CSi Uak IdS'taey, adj. Nimble-handed, 
nimble, handy, fine-iSngered (as a thief), 
quick, smart, ingenious, light-footed. 2. 
Striking or firing rapidly or with vehemence. 
lI^I? ls^ *^^ U(^k'l^taey wdlaeyy s.m. (1st) 
Nimbleness, handiness, quickness, smartness, 
ingeniousness, adroitness. PI. ^ L Also 
c-jy jJ-2Urf!l CSi Uak'ldstaey tob, s.m, (2nd) 
PI. ij^y tobunah. 

i^Js. sj^ ttakanda!h gharma!h, s.f. (3rd) Noon, 
noon-day, mid-day. PI. ^ ey. 2. adj. Ex- 
actly noon, noon, meridional. Also i^jz ^^Si 
Uakana'i ghwrrndhy s.f. (6th), and adj. See 

sSr^ ttakarmaeyr &dj* Stubborn, contumacious, 
obstinate, restive. 2. s.m. (1st) A restive or 
obstinate horse. PI. j^ f ; (Fem.) ^^ aX 
Sing, and PI. 

j^ UaAor, s.m. (2nd) An antidote, a sedative, 
a panacea, embrocation, a poultice, a cata- 
plasm, a fomentation. PI. ^^^ UakorUnah. 
i}^ jjfi Uakor kanmly verb trans. To apply 

an antidote or embrocation, t 
foment, etc. (hi jfi)' See 

^ Uakdhy s.f. (3rd) Enmity, ha 
animosity, pique. 2. A thm 
v§ ^* Jj' ^ UakcHh laral, ^ 
hate, to be jealous of, to be at < 

di nakahy s.m. (5th) A mountain j 
of the ibex. PL ^ISJ^ fto^a^-^ 
^akah arghund, s.m. (6th) The k 
the mountain-sheep, with wk 
game is played. PI. ^ jc^^ ar. 
x^j\ . Lii-^^y d^ Uakak pas 
prepared from the skin of the 
tain goat. 

jjj^ Uakaey, s.m. (1st) A spot, 
a streak, a stripe. 2. A drop, 
a molecule. 3. A bullock witl 
forehead. 4. An appointed t 
PI. ii Uakl. ^ ^ UaM 
UiHj adj. Spotted, dotted, spe< 
Also ^jJU^ Uakl'dlaey, adj. P] 
^ a\ Sing, and PI. 
•Cj ^kaX s.f. (6th) A small ci 
2. An orb, the disk of the sun 
A small mark or butt for arrov 
laugh. Sing, and PI. 

^ ^ Uuki'Uukl, adj. Ragged 
pieces, in shreds, in drops (as r 

Cits Uoff, s.m. (5th) A cheat, an 
A robber, an assassin, cut-thi 
Uayd7i; s.f. (3rd) d£} Uaya'i 
^ Uayt, s.f. (3rd) Robbery, 1 
PI. j^ a'!. J5g Uayal, verb 
to cheat, to deceive. Pres. ^, 
df\i J wu-Ud-yah or t!/l3 J n 
jjjj 4U J wu bah itayl ; imp. ii 
act. part, jj^^ UagUtxkaey 
Unaey ; past part. ^jJiS #^a 
<Lig Uagana*h. (hi ^^S^). 

J^ jilj Uagi kawuly verb trans 
rob", to plunder, to deceive. S 

Jj Ual, s.nL (2nd) Thickness c 





grain in a field, or of trees in a grove or 
foresty or hair of the head. 2. The ward or 
diyision of a town or village. 3. A large 
field, the fourth part of the lands of a village, 
a bed of flowers, etc., a plot or plat of land. 
PI. ^^g UalUnaA, ^jiSiJ Ual-gaey, s.m. (Ist) 
Ihe diminutive of the preceding— a small 
£eld, a few houses close to each other. PI. 

^ Wd, adj. Full, replete, having as much as it 
can contain. 2. Abundant, plenteous, replete ; 
(Fem.) aIj UalaL Jju^ Jj Ual kedaly verb 
mtranB. To fill, to grow or become full, re- 
plete, etc. ^^ Jj ga/ karvulj verb trans. To 
fill, to pour into the thing until it will hold 
no more, to render replete, abundant, etc. 
iJ^Vj JJ U<d walaey^ s.m. (Ist) Fullness, 
abundance, repletion, plenitude. PI. J1^ wall. 
«} pan, B.m. (5th) The bark or growl of a dog 
w other beast. Vl.J^ Uama-hdr. Ja^ a5 
Sam wahal, verb trans. To bark, to growl. 
Jsi J Uam-Ull, 8.m. (dth) The name of a water 
tod with loDg beak and legs. PI. JL} ^j 

tton^Wildn. IL} ^ Uam-Utld (5th), Same as 
preceding. PI. ^^tfljj fi Uam-Ulloffdn. 

vlMjft«»aA, s.m. (5th) One of the cross poles of 
ft tent, which support the sides and cross each 
other. PI. ^\L%i Umak-an. See ^jj 

Jf4 §mbal, verb trans. To pick, to cleanse 
(tt tbe teeth, ears, nails, etc.), to pull off or 
(bek out with the fingers anything which 
■ticb (as a thorn, etc.) Pres. ^^-ij Uunbl ; 
PM ^j,} i nm-ttunbah ; fiit. ^^^ ^^ ^rcu bah 
MiH ; imp. i^ J wu-Uunbah ; act. part. 
lJ^^ UunbUnAaey, or ^p^ Wunbunaey ; 
M part. ^^^ Uunbalaey ; verb. n. aj^jg 
Pfiibana*A. ^^^ \j^ ghash (W.) or 

ilhS (E-) ttttndan^o^y, s.m. (1st) A tooth- 

Pfek. V\.^ey. 
^ Itoii^, adj. Fat, stout, corpulent, pot-bellied ; 
' (I'em.) «o^ UonMcCh^ A £Eit or stout woman, 

^ a woman big with child. ^\^ o^ Uandd 

^^ila^f 8.m. (Ist) Corpulence, obesity, stout- 

^*eis. PI. ^^i. See^^ 

(J^J Uanff, s.m. (5th) A sound, twang, jar, 
creak, clank, jingle (as of dishes), ring. PI. 
jl|ig Uanga-hdr. Also s.m. (2nd) PI. ^j^SSg 
Uang-Unah. Jjuig Uange-dal, verb intrans. 
To sound, to grate, to jar, to creak, to ring. 
Pres. t^j^ Uangejzl (W.) or ,Xig Uangegl 
(E.) ; past yjuSlvj J wu-Uangedah or juSSj J 
rvu-Uangeda ; fut. i^j;^ <^ J ^2^ ^«A Uangejzl 
or jjCjJig <o J WW ia^ Uangegl ; imp. ^^-ij J 
wU'UaiigeJzak or <t^-5ii5 j wu-Uangegah ; act. 
part. ^jJL>^Ju^ Uange-dunkaey or ^jjuig 
Uange'du7iaey ; past part. ^^j^Jog Uange- 
dalaey ; verb. n. ^JuSS^j Uange-dana! h, J^ 
Uangawul, verb trans. To sound, to make to 
ring, to make a grating sound, to jingle. Pres. 
(^^^ Uangawl) past *jlig J wrirttangdwuh or 
jjlig J wU'Uangdwo ; fut. (^^JiJ <u J wm iaA 
Uangawl ; imp. ^^S^ J wu-Uangawah ; act. 
part, ^^ijj^ UangorwUnkaey or ^^^ 
Uanga-wunaeg ; past part. ^jS^ uanga- 
?vulaey ; verb. n. <OjStg Uanga-wuna*h. See 

C&^ C$o;» Uang-UUng, s.m. (2nd) The sound 
of a musical instrument (as of a violin, etc.) 
PI. jl^^ Ciog Uang-UUngahdr. 

dig Uangahf s.f. (3rd) A copper coin, 2. 
Money, wealth. PI. ^ eg. See ^Jo 

4-^^ Uop, s.m. (2nd) A leap, a jump, a spring, 
a hop, a bound, a caper, a curvet, a caracole. 
2. A stack of dried cakes of cow-dung for 
fuel, a stack in general. 3. Overplus or 
measure, a small quantity over and above 
the measure given to purchasers of cloth, 
grain, etc. PI. ^y^ UopUnak. Jj^ l^^ 
Uop kawul or Jjb^ L^ji Uop wahal, verb trans. 
To leap, to spring, to bound, to caper, to 

il^ji Uapaky s.m. (2nd) A matchlock, a musket. 
PI. ij^^ Uopak'Unah. See also C^^ and 

J^>S Uopalf s.m. (2nd) The crown of the head. 

2. A cap, a covering for the head. PI. ijjU^ 

^Vj3 UqpaX s.f. (6th) A cap, a hat, a helmet, 



A bowl, the cup of a pipe, ete. Sing, and PI. 



). See 


^fi UoSaey, t.m. (let) A piece, a bit, a scrap, 
» rag, a shred, a tAtt«r, a splinter, a cutting, 
a alice, a chip, a driblet, a paring, a Bhaving. 
PI, ^ i ; e.f. (8rd) 4Jj3 fioga'A, PI. ^ ey. 
^Jiji iJjJ go#J ftcftl, adj. In pieces, in shreds, 
in tatiera, in rags. See ^J^ ^ 

rji ttliM, B.m. (5th) A coogh, expectoration. 
PI. jlfA-^ Ua^iahdr. See also J . Jaj ^^ 
UOld wahai, yerb trans. To congh, to ex- 
pectorate. Jj-=i-y UHMedal, verb intrans. 
To cough. Jyi^ji ttoMamul, verb trans. To 
cause to congh. See also Jj>^ and J^ 

Ai.jJ mMa'h, 8.f. (3rd) A cough. PL ^ fy. 
AIbo written ^ji U^lMaey, s.m. (Ist) PI. 
fC i. See preceding. 

jJjLjj ga^5a/a'l, fl.f. (6th) A cap, a covering 
for the head, generally padded with cotton. 
Sing, and PI. See ^^ 

jiJji.^ m^alaey, s.m. (Ist) The hooping- 
cough. PI. ^^t. See |i«3 and «jU »,y 

jijj U^^arr, s.m. (5th) An old or decrepid man. 
PI. ^J'Jji ttUkarrSn. Seejilj 

n^ji Ua^arra'h, s.f. (3rd) An old woman. PI. 

*ijj ttofca'k, B.f.(3rd) Ridicule, derision, mockery, 
quiz, banter, scoffing, satire, pleasantry, joking, 
PI. ,J cy. J^ <jjj Uo^a'A kawul, verb trans. 
To ridicule, to deride, to quiz, to roast, to 
scoff, to mock, i^jj pikl, 8.m. (5th) A wag, 
a wit, a quiz, a satirist. PI. ^J^ji ttol^-an, 
and s,f. (5th) PI. ^Uy So^-dni. See *^J-, 
and *^i-** 

CJ^ at)A, adj. Closely or thickly woven (as 
cloth) ; (Fern.) ^ji Uoka'h. 

B CJji ga*, 3.m. {2nd) A piece, a little, a particle, 
an atom, ft hit. Vl.ti^^uukanah. CJ^i^lSjj 
itak ^ai, adj. In pieces, in bits, in atoms. 

JjuS'jJ S^kedal, verb intrans. To grow, to ger- 
minate, to bud, to shoot, to sprout, to vege- 
tate, to become la^. Pres. tJpS'jJ ttuiejzl 
(W.) or ^^^ fftOtyf (E.) ; past * j-S^ j mu- 


UH^edak or S^jJ j wu-mkeda ; : 
n>u doA uekejzl or ^J-^^ *^ \^ 
imp. >j;£^ J niu-aiJ^e^cM or 
UUkesak ; act. part. ^^jj-S'jJ 
or ^j-V?^ ttukedSnaey ; past 
UUKcdalaey ; verb. n. rtJJ-SjJ ( 
ij,^j3 m^edoA. 

ij^ji UUke-dana h, s.f. (3rd) (t> 
e;^ ; or jj^^ uukedah, s.m. (i 
germinating, sprouting, buddiii 
Sing, and PI. 

J/j UHkarcul, verb trans. To c 
grow or germinate, to sprout 
pand, to inflate. Pree. ^^f^ 
s^yi i wu-nnk&wuh at ^^ i 
Alt. ^^}i ij iwu bah U'BJtanii 
wu-ttdluavah ; act. part. ^J-Ojj 
kaey or ^}^ji ttUkawSna^ 
^jijj aakawulaey ; verb, n, 

^jj ttoAa'h, s.f. (3rd) Ridicule, deri 
quiz, banter, pleasantry, joking, 
^ ey. See Aijj 

^^J5 HoAra'i, s.f. (6th) A small I 
and PI. See »j\/. (hi ^Jy) 

ij^y Uo-kae^, s.m. (1st) A patt 
repair, 2. A piece of cloth. ] 

Jj3 flo/, adj. All, the whole, the ( 
total, every one, the whole qui 
duration, amount, quality, or di 
iljj Uola'k. Sing, and PI. ^_ 
verb intrans. To assemble, to ■ 
gather together, to crowd, to l 
to collect, to accnmulate, to con 
voke, to truss, to stack, etc. 
Uolejzl (W.) or ^XJjJ Uoleff 
^ J^ Uol shah or O ! w»-s 
^Jii A> Uol bah shl OP |-1 J 4b 
imp. (Ll J^ tto/ f^eiA or U^t \ . 
part. |j.£jjjjj3 Uole-dutthaey or 
dunaey ; past part, ^ji JjJ g. 
J^ Hf}/; verb. n. ^>xJj] tt<7^ 
^^OTTu/, verb trans. To assemt 




to collect, to bring together, to convoke, to 
crowd or get together. Pres. ^^ji Uolawl ; 
past j^ J^ UqI karr ot J i wu-karr ; fiit. 
yfjf 40 J^ Uol bah krri or ^J j <u bah wu- 
k^\ imp. 9J J^ Uol krrak or ir^ j wt4r 
krrah] act. part. ,j^jjJ^ WolawUnhaey or 
^^^jj^ UolatvUnaey; past part, ^g^ J^ ftol 

iafToey ; verb. n. <0j)^ Uolawunah. 
t isl^ ttot-Ual^ adj. All, the whole, the sum total, 
the gross, etc. ; (Fern.) allj <iJ^ UokCh-Udla'h, 
Bee J^ and e^wj j 
J^J UO^f B*ni. (2nd) A crowd, a body or com- 
pany of men or beasts, a throng, a mob, a 
maltitade, a horde, a tribe, a gang, a crew, a 
knot, a band, a bevy, a flock, a drove, a troop, 
a corps, etc. PI. <UjI^ Uol-Unah. See i(j>- 
^yi Uot^oetfi (1st) The diminutive of 
ike preceding— A small party, band, knot, 
«te. PI. ^^ f. 
^jS Uolaey, s.m. (1st) A company, a society, 
la assembly, a congress, a levy, a gathering, 
» concourse, a party. PI. ^^ l ; s.f. (6th) J^ 
plaX Sing, and PI. (hi J^). 
vl&j] Uonff, s.m. (2nd) Irritation, excitement, 
FTOvocation, setting against, exciting, pro- 
▼oking. PI. ij/j^ UongUnah. 
»;tt^ Uanffdra% s.f. (3rd) Irritating or pro- 
Toking language, abuse previous to a quarrel. 
PL ^ ey. J^T xjijji Uonffdra*h d^an'ul, 
^ trans. To excite, to insult, to nettle, to 
pwvoke, to stir one's bile. 
JwJ 89HW, B.m. (2nd) A turnip. PI. ^^^ 

^ ptf, adj. Oooked, bent, curved, bowed, 
•fny, wry, deformed, hump-backed ; (Fem.) 
^ WiWa^h. ^jyJi ^ Uap-mu, adj. En- 
&dy crooked or bent, quite crooked, much 
^ttnred. Jj^ ^Jiy^j^ ^^^ &S kawul, verb 
fenis. To bend the head, to stoop. Jju^-J 
WSedal, verb intrans. To bend, to be crooked, 
^ iodine, to lean, to bow. Pres. i^j^:^ 
9^j^ (W.) or ^Xj-J mueffi (E.) ; past ,^^ 
^ ffS ^oh or ^ J wurshah ; fut. ^ ,^^^ 
(^ PS doA ^l or _^ j Ai bah wu-shl ; 

imp. <l20 Vi~^ UlU shah or <L!^ j rcti-shah ; 
act. part. <Jl3j Juj-J ^UedUnkaey or ^j3j Juj^j 
muedunaey ; past part, v^^ ftttt ^ ^^^ ^j^^ 
UlU shawaey; verb. n. <Uju;;^ UiUedana*h. 
J^*-3 UlUawuly verb trans. To bend, to curve, 
to incurvate, to arch, to bow. Pres. ^j^ 

UxUawl ; past jf ^5^ #^S ^^?T ^^ jf ) ^^ 
^arr ; fut. ^J ^ j^^^ ttltt 4aA kiri or j <u 
fcci^ AoA 7»e^^m ; imp. Hj^ 14^ S^S krrah 
or *j^ J wu'krrah ; act. part. ,J^jj5-5 ftltta- 
ToUnkaey or ^jiji^^ UtUarcUnaey ; past part. 
S^j^ L5^ S^^ harraey ; verb. n. «Oj5*3 ftftfa- 

lc^Ij «*5^ ^^^ '^dlaey, s.m. (1st) Crookedness, 
wryness, curvature, bend, deformity. PI. ^c u 

^j5^ UlUaey, adj. (The diminutive of j^^^ fttft) 
Slightly or a little curved or bent. PI. ^c I ; 
(Fem.) Sing, and PI. ^»-5 fflfta'l. 

i^jW*3 UtUdraey, s.m. (1st) A sand-piper, the 
pewit. PI. ^^ L See i^Wj. (s g?;5j). 

JW-3 Ui'ftdl, s.m. (2nd) Duplicity, guile, de- 
ception, deceit, stratagem, trick, fraud, cheat, 
etc. PI. ^j!U-3 Ul'Udl'Unah. J^ Jlj^ Uh 
ttdl karvtil, verb trans. To deceive, to impose 
upon, to beguile, to mislead, to throw dust in 
the eyes. Jj^ JW-5 ttl-Udl Jdmarral^ verb 
trans. (//7. ' to eat deception '), To become de- 
ceived or misled, to be imposed upon. The 
word is also written jUa-t 

w3 Ueghy s.m. (2nd) A belch, eructation. PI. 
Aj^jug Ueghiinah. J-4^ ^^ Uegh Kshal (W.) 
or KlUial (E.), verb trans. To belch. See ^c^j \ 

^^ Uikd-Oj s.m. (9th) Rest, stay, staying, 
resting, remaining, tarrying. Sing, and PI. 

uXj Ueky s.m. (2nd) The temple, the side of 
the head. PI. ^U^Lj ttekunah, 

vlCj Ulk, s.m. (2nd) An ornament for the fore- 
head. PI. ijSji mkunah. (s ILS). 

iiCj tfika*h, s.f. (3rd) Same as preceding. 2. A 
roimd piece of cloth sown in front of a cap as 
an ornament. PI. ^^ ey. 

^\i JXg Uik Ud-ka% s.f. (3rd) A kind of 
carpet made of wool, and very stiff and hard, 
brought from Herat and Hazftrah. PI. ^ ey. 


Jti U^lf B.m. (2nd) A shove, a push, a jog, a 
thrust ; shoving, pushing, thrusting. PI. ^jLj 
iteylrUnah. Jjbj J-3 Ueyl wahal, verb trans. 
To push, to shove, to remove by pushing. 
(hi J-^). Bee also^ ^ 

J^ J-3 S^' #^/, s.m. (9th) Romping, fun, 
frolic, prank, antic, etc. 2. Dalliance. Sing. 
and PL J^ Jlj J-j Ueyl Udl kawul, verb 
trans. To romp, to gambol, to dally, to fondle. 

vIJCmJ Uinff, adj. Coherent, cohesive, compact, 
close, thickset, coagulated, thick, curdled, 
clotted, inspissated, stiff. 2. Tight, firm, 
strong; (Fem.) JiL»j Ulnga'h. Ci?;j3 t^^ 
Ucp Ulnffy adj. Very thick, tight, firm, strong, 
etc. J^ Ci?vgj Ulng tarral, verb trans. To 
tighten, to fasten tightly or firmly; also 
Jji^ CJil;.jj ftlw^ kawul, verb trans, ^dlj <JJil;.«j 

/^^;^^ rcalaey, s.m. (1st) Coagulation, inspissa- 
tion, thickening, compactness, consistence, 
thickness, solidity, cohesivess, stiflhess, firm- 
ness. PI. jc I. Jjuii^S Uingedaly verb in- 
trans. To become solid, to congeal, to coagu- 
late, to curdle, to clot, to cohere, to concrete, 
to thicken, to constipate. 2. To stand, to 
rise, to stand up. Pres. K^j;^i^ Ulngejzl 
(W.) or jiCjSlfJ mngegl (E.) ; past iJ^ d^ 
Wing ^ah or <Ll J wu-shah ; fiit. ^ dj C-Xi-5 
ttlTi^ bah ski or ^^-J* J <o 4aA tpw-^I ; imp. 

<^ (Ji^^gj #lny ^a^ or <L& j wturshah ; act. 
part. ^jJj>^ju$L*} Ul'^^dUnkaey or ^^juSt-j 

UingedUnaey ; past part. C<l;.jj #In^ or cl,<'.,.j 
^J^ ftiTJ^ skawaey ; verb. n. <U JuSS^ Utnge- 
dana*h. J^SiuJttfTi^aww/, verb trans.To harden, 
to stiffen, to render or make solid, to squeeze, 
to ram down, to compress, to condense, etc. 
2, To erect, to raise, to cause to stand. Pres. 
\jj^^ tttngawl ; past j^ vljo^j Ulng karr or 
j^ i wu-'karr ; fiit. ^^ Ai CJkVjS Ulng bah 
krrioT lsS) ^ ^^^ wU'krn ; imp. ifjf Cio«J 
rtm^ ^n:aA or *j^J wu-krrah\ act. part. 
L^3^^ ttlngawunkaeg or ^jj^ Ulnga- 
wUnaey ; past part. ^^^^ CJkvjj ft!;?^ karraey ; 
verb, n. ^j^ Wingawuna*h, 

^ or lisped ^, is the fourth letter of 
alphabet. It does not occur in wor< 
Pushto or Persian origin. In th( 
denotes the number 500. 

A u:^lj $dbit, adj. (from *^:JyJji) A 
constant, firm, durable, stable, pn 
valid, confirmed, established; (I 
^abita'h, > jj u:^U ^dbit kadam, 
lute, constant, immovable, perman< 
one's word. Jjuf c:-^U ^abit A 
intrans. To be proved or confini 
verified or established. J^ l::^^ ^ 
verb trans. To prove, to show, tc 
substantiate, to bring home to. 
See jUj 

A CJU $a/i(?, s.m. (5th) (from dJj) i 
an arbitrator, a mediator^ 2. ' 
PI. ^Wlj ^d'li^dn, ji^^i CJU 
M^^, An imprejudiced arbitrator. 

A jJU §awi, adj. Second. 2. s.m. 
second. Sing, and PI. s.f. (3rd) ^ 
PI. ^^ ey. 

A cjIj ^aia^, s.m. (9th) Stability, pe 
firmness. Sing, and PI. 

A c:^ ^abt, s.m. (2nd) Finnness, 
constancy. PI. ij^ ^abt-Unah, 
Firm, constant, inscribed; (Fem.) i 
Jju^ vj:^ ^abt Aedal, verb intn 
inscribed or written. J^ c:^ §< 
verb trans. To inscribe, to subscrib 

A CJ^ §ubilt, s.m. (9th) Firmness^ 
constancy, conviction, proof, confii 
evidence. Sing, and PI. 2. \ 
proved ; (Fem.) aj^ ^ubuta'h. 

A by $urai-yd, s.f. (6th) The Pleiad 
and PI. 

t^j"^^ ^X%) ^ouBlab mi^ri, s.m. (9th) 
root of a species of orchis (Orchi 
considered a restorative. Sing, an 

A JJu ^alal, adj. (JiJ) Heavy, 
phlegmatic. 3. Indigestible; (F 






A ciJli ^1^, 8.m. (5th) The third part, one- 
third PI. ^l&U ^dn. 

^ jAA ^,amar, B.m. (9th) Fruit. 2. Produce, 
advantage, profit. 3. Ofispring. Sing, and 
PI. j^*ij^ ^amar ddr, adj. Fruit bearing; 
(Fern.) ifj\jy%j ^amar-ddrah. Xj^i ^amara'h, 
bS. (3rd) Fruit. 2. Profit, result, reward, 
3. O&pring. PI. ^^ ey. 

A \ij iond, B.f. (6th) Praise, applause.^ (E.) Sing. 
and PI. (W.) PI. i^^liJ ^andwu ^\^ U 
§and awan, Bepeating praise, one|who praises. 
^t^ U! Hand M^dnt, s.f. (3rd) Praise, ap- 
plauBe, plaudit, praising, extolling. PL ^^ a% 
Jj|^ Uj iond wayal, or Jj^ ^J^f^ ^ ^^^ 
Hfvdm kawtdf verb trans. To commend, to 
aj^laud, to laud, to magnify. 

a. s-itj} ^anfdb, a.m. (2nd) The future reward of 
Tirtue. 2. A good or virtuous action or re- 
ward. PI. i^j»\y iowdbUnoA. 

iL Js^ «^|y iawdb ffattal, verb trans. To obtain 
a reward or recompense for good actions. 
^J i^\y aawdb laral, verb trans. To reward, 
to give recompense, to have a reward. 

4 (jmIj} iowdiit, s.m. (PI. of c:^U) The fixed 

4 jjj ^aur, s.m. (9th) A bull ; Taurus, the sign 
of the Zodiac. Sing, and PL 

A> 4w %a-yeba'h^ s.f. (3rd) A young woman who 
has ecmsummated her marriage. PL |^ ey. 

lUb at tzCf the seventh. letter of the Pu^to 
alphabet, similar in sound to the letter Y tsode 
at the Hebrew and other Semitic dialects. 
There is no equivalent for it in the Sanskrit. 

9jp9\^ Udrperra'h, s.f. (3rd) A slap, a box, a 
wipe, a bufiet, a clout, a tap, a cuff. PL |^ 
«y. (m Jjs-f'). See *^ 

j^XlU^ dd^kaey, s.m. (1st) A drop, a sprink- 
ling, a minim. PL |^ I. See ^J^yaA' 

H^ taSrdar, a.m. (2nd) A sheet, a veil. PL 
^jijjU. MdarUnah. (p^jU-). 
gar, 8.m. (2nd) The business of a scout. 

watching, looking out. PL <UjjlaL tsdr-Hnah. 
J^ ^U. tm^r kawul, verb trans. To keep a look 
out, to discover, to act as a scout, to keep 
watch and ward. 

i^j^ tsarly s.m. (5th) A scout, a look out. 
PL j^lf^^ tsarx-dn. Also i^jj/ j^ tsdr- 
Aawunkaey, s.m. (1st) (act. part.) A scout. 
PL ^ t. 

^S^j\L tsdr-^aka'A (W.) or tsdr-^^aka^h (E.) 
s.f. (3rd) The name of a bird known as the 
td'ler in the Panjab. PL ^^ ey. See aC}>U. 

v^^^ tsdr^waey, s.m. (1st) An animal, a 
quadruped, a horse, a camel, a beast of 
burthen, cattle, PL ^c i. 

Xj\L tsdra^A, s.f. (3rd) Remedy, cure, expedient, 
help, aid. PL ^^ ey, J^ »j\L, tsdrcCh kawul, 
verb trans. To remedy, to cure, to rectify, to 
remove (as an evU). J ij^ tsdra'h-gar, adj. 
Remedial, healing, curing. 4^^ SjXl, tsdrdh- 
garl, s.f. (3rd) Remedying, curing, cure, re- 
moving. PL ^4 a\ (p *;U-). 

tj^U. tsdrraeyy s.m. (1st) A bustard, a florican 
(Otis bengalensis). PL j^ I, 

^^U. tsd shaey, s.m. (1st) A spindle, the rod or 
pin on which anything turns, 2. A kind 
of reel or spindle for winding or twisting cotton 
or thread. PL ^c I, See uiiaj- 

v.:u^U. tmsht (W.) or tsdm (E.) s.m. (2nd) 
The intermediate hour between sunrise and 
the meridian. PL iG^U. tsdshtUnah or 
t^JditUnaJi. (P l::.^U-). 

J^^ tsdsha (W.) or mmtl (E.) s.f. (3rd) 
Luncheon, collation, early dinner. PL ^^ ail, 

iL^\L. m-shakdh (W.) or tsd-Baka'h (E.) s.f. 
(3rd) The name of a bird in India and the 
Panjftb, the td-ler. V\. ^ ey. See d^j\L, 

^jaU. tsd-shaey (W.) or tsd-fAaey (E.) s.m. (1st) 
A spindle, the rod or pin on which anything 
turns. PL jc l. 

cJU. tsdk, s.m. (2nd) A slit, a rent, a fissure, a 
narrow opening left in the clothes, 2. The 
comer of a sheet or skirt of a dress. PL 
ij^\^ tmkUnah. See <(^ 

{^\L tsdng, s.m. (2nd) The wing of a bird, the 


branch or bough of a tree. PI. ^jJjU^ Mnff- 
Unah. ±y& C^U» ^^ ^fvats, adj. Broken 
winged, distressed, afliicted. See »^^ 

iij\L tsdnffa'A, s.f. (Srd) The wing of a bird, the 

branch or bough of a tree. 2. Acute pain. 

PI. 1^ ey. A^y. iij\L Uanga!h gjkwatsa'h. 

Broken winged, afliicted, distressed. See 

if\A. tscLh, s.m. (2nd) A well, a pit. PI. ^^U. 

tsdhUnah. Also ^A. tsah, s.m. (5th). PI. 

,.,W^ tsahdn. See ^l^ 
L tsap, s.m. (2nd) A kind of basket for 

winnowing com with. PI. <0j^ tsapUnah. 

See ^ or ^ (b^). jij c-^^ tmp 

wahal, and Jj^ tsapawul, verb trans. To 
winnow or clean grain, to rinse. Pres. ^^j^ 
tMpam; past '[^U^ j wu-tsapdwuh, ot^^LL^ 
wu-tmpawo; fut. ^^j^dj I wu bah tsapawl; 
imp. ^j^ J wuh'tsapawah ; act. part.^jio«|^ 
taapawUnkaey, or ^^y^ tsapawunaey ; past 
part, ^j^ tsapawulaey ; verb. n. ^j^ 

1^ tsapaUaey, s.m. (1st) A flat cake of un- 
leavened bread. PI. ^^ t. (hi ^V?"^* 

tmpar, s.m. (2nd) A thatched roof, the 
thatch of a house, a hut of reeds or grass 
(m w>^)* 2- A firame work of wood rendered 
heavy, which is drawn about by bullocks as 
a sort of threshing machine to separate the 
grain from the straw. PL <Ojj^ tsapar- 
^j^ tsapar-kaey^ s.m. (1st) A flake, a pellicle, 
a scale, a shaving, a film, a layer, a stratum, 
any scaly matter in layers. PI. ^^ L 

tsaparr, s.f. (1st) A blow or tap with the 
soft foot of a camel or similar animal. 2. 
The flat soft foot of the camel, elephant, etc. 
Pl.j-^ tsapatri. 

tsapak, s.m. (2nd) A hand's, or four fingers' 
breadth, a palm, a lineal measure of three 
inches. PI. <U^a^ tsapafiUnah. Also CJLl 
taapak. PI. <oyL^ tsapakUnah. See ^j^ 
ud fc/^jj 


iU^ tsapak, s.m. (2nd) A flake of a 
licle, etc. PI. ^^^ tsapakUnah. 

cJL^ tsap-ldk, adj. Crushed, squasb 
with the foot; (Fem.) iSLL. t 
^\y cJ)Ly^ tsapldk wdlaey, i 

Squashiness, softness, etc. PI. ^c 
J jb^ tsapldk kedal, verb intrans. ' 
squashed or crushed, pressed witl 
J^ cJLL, tsapldk kanml, verb 
squash, to press with the foot, to c] 
«L^ tsaplaX B.f. (6th) A sandal, mad< 
of leather, but sometimes of a cc 
called i^jj^ mazarey by the A%] 
Pegh&wer. Sing, and PI. See n^ 

^jCj^ tsapUUkaey, s.m. (Ist) A sm 
a sort of handkerchief or short V€ 
women when occupied in househ 
PI. ic l. See isMijj^ 

^j^ tsqpolaey, adj. Entangled, mat 
hair) ; a person with matted hai 
Jj^ tsapoU. PI. (Masc. and I 
Jju^ Lc^^r^ tsapolaey kedal, ve 
To become entangled or matted. 
tsqpolaey ka/nml, verb trans. To 

^u^ tsapa% adj. Inverted, upside di 
turvy, inversed, turned in a cont 
tion. 2. s.f. (Srd) A wave, a billo 
8. A gust of wind, a blast. PI. ^^ 
Jjb^ tsapa'h wahal, verb trans. ' 
strike (as a wave), to blow in gust 

a^Uift. tsqp^dka'h, s.f. (8rd) A caik 
cow dung, a cake in general^ 
flattened. PI. ^ ey. See cJlL^ 

iijp^ tsaperteh, adj. A greyish bro* 
earth-coloured. 2. int. May you 
able, wretched, or may ill luck a 
a word or term of abuse. 

tsaperra'h, s.f. (8rd) A slap, 

bufiet, a wipe, a clout, a tap, a ci 
with the flat of the hand. PI. ,^ ^. 
tsqpetralh wahal, verb trans. To e 
(as the ears), to bufiet, to strike wi 
hand. See ^^ 



J ju^ t^ig^eial, verb intranB. To flutter, to move 
or flap the wings without flying, to hover. 
Free, ^^^ t^apej^ (W.), or ^^^^ t^pegl 
(E.) ; past ir ju^ j nm-tsapedaA, or ju^ j 
wu-Uigifeda ; fiit. i^i^ dj ^wu bah ^pejzl^ 
or ^X^ *j ^ wu bah tsapeffl ; imp. 2n«^ J 
i9M-4sape^aAy or ^ifyfc, J wti-Uapegah ; act. 
part ^jju-i UapedUnkaey, or ^^^Ju-^ 
te^Mieteiia^; past part. ^jk^^sap^(3ia&i€y; 
verb. n. ^ Ju^ Uapedana^h. Jj^ tsapawul, 
verb trans. To cause to flutter, to drive in 
disorder. Free. ^^^^ ^MgtMz^pi ; past ^jU^ j 
nni-^ft^MiPtf A, or j{^U^ J nm-tsapdrvo ; fut. 
4^j«^ ij ^ nm bah tsapam; imp. ^j^ j ^t^ 
^e^poiroA ; act. part. ^^ij^j^L taapawUnkaey, 
or ,jJ|«j^ ^pawUnaey ; past part. ^^^ 
^apamdaey; verb n. ^j^ taapawuna'h. 
Bee Jjui^ 

tei#, s.m. (2nd) The back of the neck. 
VI ijfiL ^iiianah. 
^'^ ^Uak or (mUoA, s.m. (5th) A sledge 

hammer. PI. ^Ji^ ^Uakan. See uiL 

^^Cs^ ^a^ikaey, s.m. (1st) (the diminutive of 
the above) A small hammer. PL |C f. 

Js&. &ai^, verb trans. To lick, to lap. Pres. 
^j^ tia^ ; past a}U» j wu-tajBLUah, or t^U. J 
wUrMtSa; fut ^^^ li ^wu bah UaWl; imp. 
i^ J wU'UaUah ; act part. ^>^^ t^aU- 
Uniaey, or ^fiL (sa^Unaey ; past part. ^>I;^ 
tajotS^Uaey ; verb. n. i:;^^ taaUanah. 

Jjs& tmSawul, verb trans, (cans.) To cause to 
lick or lap. 

Um^-waS, 8J11- (Snd) Apoplexy, sudden 
death. PL ^jiji^ tMU-waUUnah. 

L tsa^ was, adv. Suddenly, all at once, 
abruptly, at short notice, instanter. 

tsatta% s.t (3rd) A bag of coarse cloth 
either of hair or hemp, a sack in general. 
2. A sack-fulL PL ^ ey. 

UaUobaey^ s.m. (Ist) The eaye of a roof 
or wall which throws off the water. 2. A 
leak, dropping of water from the eaves of the 
root PL j^ f . 

^^^ij^ goMd-Aoiy, s m. (1st) A drop of water 


as of (rain or a tear), a sprinkling, a droplet, 
a minim. PL ^^ f. See also ^<^U. 
JjuaA tsatsecUU, verb intrans. To leak, to 
drop, to distil, to fall, to let fall by drops. 
Pres._^U. taatH ; pastjrJuoA j wu-taat^Bclah, 

j wu^tscUseda ; fut ,<^U. 6j j nm 
bah tacLM ; imp. <(^U. j wu-tsatsaA ; act. 
part. ^^Xi^JuctA tmtSjBdUnAaey, or ^jJuctA 

tsatsedUnaey; pastpart.^juee^^a^er^Eei/^i^y; 
verb. n. *i Juab^ t8atsedana% (jys^ tsatsa- 
wul, verb trans. To pour, to drop, to distil, 
to discharge by drops. Pres. c^j*^ tsatsam ; 
past ij\A^ j wU'tsatsawuA, or jjlaA j «?m- 
tsatsawo ; fut. t^^sA sj ^ wu bah tsatmwl ; 
imp. ^[^«^ J n7U-^^72?aA; act. part.^jJlij^sA 
tsatsawUniaey, or ^^^^^ ^a^a^riZna^ ; 
past part. ^^«^ tsataawulaey ; verb. n. 
^joA tsatsawuna'h. See also Jju^ and 

B^ tsalAOf adj. Somewhat, a few, some, some- 
thing, more or less, a certain quantity or 
degree indeterminate, a part greater or less. 
2. adv. In some degree or quantity, slightly, 
not much. ^iA ys^ trnf^tsafcho, A little, 

little by little, by degrees. See J and CJi 
bA taaMah, postpos. At the side, near, at. 

beside, about; a word aflixed to the ablative 
case, thus, ^Ls^ \j ra tmJJiah, near me or us ; 
c^jj dar tsaM^h, near thee or you; 
bA^j rear tsafchah, near him, her, it, or 
them ; also from, etc., as a^^ [^ ^ laAmd 
tsaMoA, from me ; <Ls^ \j i\ laA td tsalf^A, 
firom thee, etc. See ij^ 
JjuK^ ts^MecUU, verb intrans. To creep, to 
crawl, to move slowly, to advance slowly and 
slily, to move on all fours. Pres. i^ji^i^ 
ts'MeJzl (W.), or ,J^ ^Wiegx (E.) ; past 
y.,\j^ j wvr^MiedaA^ or JuiA J 7ru-^'£§^<2a; 
ft^t« iAt^ ^ j 7»tt bah t£^j^f or JLi^ li j 
wa bah t^^gl ; imp. HjJ:^ j wu-til^jzahy 
or aiLsA J wu-t^yiegah ; act. part. ^^iJ^juiA 
ts'MedUriAaey, or t^j*Vji^ ts'Medunaey; past 
part.^juiA^'^eda&wy ; verb. n. <UjuiA 
ta^Medana'h. J^iA ts'Manml, verb trans. To 



atfaracti to draw along or towardfl one'sHself, to 
drag, to extraet, to take to one's arms. Pres. 
i^ji^ ts^M^tvl ; past j»jUA J nm-Ufl^dwuA, 
or j^UA j wu-ts'M^fvo ; fat. ^/^i^ li'^wu 
bah t^l£an)l ; imp. Sji^ j wii-ta'MawaA ; 
act. part, ^^^y^ ts'i^an>Unkaey, or ^^yi^ 
ti^tawUnaey) ^Bsi^2iTt.^yiA^t8'M(iwtil(iey; 
▼erb n. ijyi^ t^JJiawunalh. Also ^^^, 
which see. 

L tooET, s.m. (9th) Forage, pasture, food. Sing. 
and PI. (s ^. 

feL Uar^ s.m. (2nd) Pasture, forage, pasturing, 
grazing. V\6jjJLtmriJi7uih. ^^^^jLUjaredal, 
verb intrans. To graze, browse, crop. Pres. 
ijjL tsari; past xsjj^ j wu-tsaredah^ or 
^JL J wti-^qreda ; fut. ^^ dj ^ wu bah 
tmri; imp. 2r^ J n^t^^fora^; act. part. 
^>CjJl[^ tsare-dUnhaey, or ^^^j^ tsare- 
aUfuiey ; past part. ^ jj^ tsaredalaey ; 
verb. n. dJjj^ tsaredana^h. Also Jj^ ^ 
^ar kawid, or J^ tsarawal, verb trans. To 
graze, to feed or supply cattle with grass, etc., 
to take out for the purpose of feeding, to feed 
on, to tend grazing cattle. Pres. i^j^ tsarawl ; 
past if^\ji^ j wt4rUardwuh, or y^\jL j rvur 
tsardwo; fat. i^^j^ ij ^ wu bah tsarawl] 
imp. 2r^ J wU'tsarawah ; act. part, ^ioj^^ 
taarawilnkaey, or ^jj;;;^ ^ord^i^na^ ; past 
part, ^^j^ tsarawuUiey; verb. n. ^j^ 
tsarawuna'h. See Jj|y 
^ ^, s.m. (5th) The sound produced by ejec- 
tion of anything liquid and in small quantities, 
(as in flux or diarrhoea), squirt, spurt, sputter, 
the sound produced from a lamp when there 
may be water mixed with the oil. PI. jU^ 
tsira-har. Jaj ^ t^r tvahal, verb trans, and 
Jjj^ tairedal, verb intrans. To sputter, to 
squirt, to eject, to emit with a sharp sound, to let 
fly. Pres. ^c^^foir^j^l(W.)or Jjjtiiiireffl 
(E.) ; past ^o^j^ j wu-tsiredah, or jj^ J 
wu-tsireda ; fat. i^j,j^ ijjwu bah tsirejzl, 
or ^j6^ ij ^ wu bah tstreffl; imp. kjj^ j 
fvu'hirej^ah, or ^^ j wurtMregah ; act. 
part. ^>^jOj^ tHredUnhaey, or ^^^^j^ 

. triredUnaey; past part ^jj^ g 
verb. n. a)jj^ tsiredana'h. See 

ci-4j^ ^«ar-*a^ (W.) or tear &a^ 
(2nd) Fatness, stoutaess, corpnleni 
ness, obesity. PI. Jtjji^jL tsoM 
or tmr-baJ^tUruih. See ^-{;^ 

c-^ teraj9, s.m. (5th) A flap, or fli 
the wings of a bird), flutter, whii 
J^jL tsrapahdr. Jj^^ ^J^ ^ 
verb trans, or J Juj^ tsrapedal, vi 
To flap the wings, to flutter or A 
(as a bird in flying). Pres. i^js{y 
(W.) or ^Xj^ tsrapeffl (E.) ; pu 
wti-tsrapecUih, or Jlo^ j wu-tsra 
i^jaij^ ^iwu bah (srapej^, or 
wu bah tarapeffl ; imp. ^^ J «?w-j 
or d^^ J wtt-tsrapeffah; act. part. 

tsrapedUnkaey, or ^ 

___ tsrapedalaey 
^J xjj^ tsrapedana'h. J^J;^ teraji 
trans. To flutter, to agitate, to mal 
(as a bird). Pres. kJ^^j^ t^raj 
sj^ijL j wu-tsraporwuhf or j^^b 
t»rapdr^o ; fat. i^jfj^ ij ^wu baft 
imp.xy jL irvtc-tsrapafvah; act. par 
tirapwUnhaey, or ^^y^jL tmrpan^i 
part, f^yi^ tsrapawulaey ; verb. 

L tsarMf s.m. (2nd) A wheel (paj 
potter's, or of a water-mill or w€ 
grindstone. 8. Circular motion, 
lution) the act of turning. 4, 
chance. 5. The heavens, the s 
celestial globe. 6. A kind of haw] 
an eagle. 7. A stab, a puncture, 
wound produced by a spear, an ar 
like. PI. ^f^j^ tsarMi'Unah ; 8. 
tured, pricked, pierced, stabbed ; ( 
tsarha'h. Jju^^ tsar Medal, ve 
To revolve, to turn round, to whc 
dance. Pres. ^J^^yL tmr^e^ 
^JLsi^jL. tsarMiegl (E.) ; past irju 
tsarMiedah or JueL^ J wu-tsari 
ijfi^ji^ ^, jfvu bah tsarlskej^oT 




9m boA UarHeyl ; imp. gj^p^jL^ nm-tmr^- 
^sah or ^i^jL ^ nm-tscar^gah ] act. part. 

tsarMedUfikaey or 

• * 

• A 

UarM^dHnaey ; past part. ^Ju£>^ tsarMe- 
dalaey; verb. n. iid^jL t§qrMedana'A. 

J^^yft.. UqrJ^awul^ verb trans. To tum^ to 
make levolyey to wheel round. 2. To 
sharpen. Pres. t^y^jL UarJ^wl ; past 
MjKsi^jL J n^t^^orM^^^A or j^^j^ J ^^ 
^urUdwo ; fht. i^y>-j^ dj ^wu bah taarJJi' 
mnii ; imp. nyLjL^ fvurfyiarM^wah ; act. part. 
^Cj^^sL^ ^arM^xnfUnkaey OT^^y^jL tmrUt 
at9€9ia^ ; past part. ^yS^jL ^fxr^^awulaey ; 
Terb. n. ^y>j^ tmrMawuna'A. (p ^;^). 

Jj^ ^^ ^orM kawul, verb trans. To pierce^ 
to stab, to puncture. J Ju^ ^^ tsarM kedal, 
▼erb intrans. To enter (as a pointed instru- 
ment), to penetrate^ to stab, to pierce. 

t^xrUfChf s.f. (3rd) A spinning-wheel, a 
large reel. PI. ^ ey, (p *fi^y^). 

toarM^i s.m. (1st) A Und of reel for 
winding cotton on, a ball of cotton, silk, etc. 
2. A species of falcon. PI. ^^ f . See ^U. 

^iX^jL ^fxrMal^aey, s.m. (1st) A piece of 
wood^ stone, etc., on which thread is wound, 
a reel. PI. ^^ f. Also ^Jj>jL tmrMi' 
largaey. PI. i^ I. 

^^a:^jL UarJ^cmdUkaey, s.m. A tee-totum, a 
ddld'stop. Pl'i^l. See^^jJ^jj^and^vy^ 

jjijL tjMorgand, adj. Apparent, manifest, plain, 
erident, obvious, clear, distinct, visible, dis- 
cenuble, conspicuous, exposed to view; (Fern.) 
9xi^ Ufxrganda'h, c-y jci^ Uargand- 
tab, 8.m. (2nd) PL d^yy tobUnah ; and x^jL. 
^\^ ^urgcmd wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Distinct- 
ness, appearance, conspicuity, conspicuous- 
nesB, visibility. PI. ^^ f. Jjjjci^ tsar- 
fondediU, verb intrans. To appear, to come 
to sight, to be visible, to present itself, etc. 
to meet the view, to come out, to come to 
light, Pres. ^<^Jc.^ Uargandejn (W.) or 
JllJcf^ tsargand^ (E.); past <U} jc^ 
Uargani shah or ^ J fou-shah ; fut. jci^ 
^ 1} ^argand bah ^% or J^ j i) bah wur 

4 » 

^! ; imp. ^ ^jL tmrgand s^ah or K^ j wu- 
shah ; act. part, ^^ij^jj^x:^ tsargan<lediln' 

haey or ^^jj jc.^ tsargandedUnaeg ; past 

part. fxJjL tsargand or ^^ Jc.^ taargand 
shawaey ; verb. n. ^jjjj^S^ tsargandedana*h. 
J^jc.^ tsargandawul, verb trans. To make 
visible, to show, to reveal, to disclose, to 
bring to view, to make to appear. Pres. 
^^jiX^ft.. Uprgandarol \ past ^ ^^JL tsargatid 
karr or i^ j wu-karr ; fat. ^^J dj jc.^ 
tsargand bah krn or ^^^ j ^ bah rcvrkin^ ; 
imp. 2r^ ^jL tsargand hxrah or xj i wu- 
hfToh ; act. part, ^^^^^^j^ tsargamlawUn' 
haey or ^^iXiijL tsargandawUnaey ; past 
part. 1^ Jc.^ tsargand katraeg ; verb. n. 
JGjJCi^ tsargandawtma*h. 
^^^^jL UaT-maJholl (W.) or tMir-ma^a*l (E.) 
s.f. (6th) A kind of lizard. Sing, and PI. 

See ^jC^-^v?" ^^ Ljf^^j^ 
^Jy^J^ tsarnum, s.f. (1st) Skin, leather, the hide 

of an animal. PI. ^j^ tsarmam. 

i^jL tsarma'hf s.f. ^(3rd) Side, margin, ex- 
tremity, towards. PI. ^ eg. This word is 
also used in some instances adverbially: as 
y^j^ ^ lah tsarmey or ^ l<^j^ ^ ^^ 
tsanney nah, From beginning to end, from first 
to last, wholly, altogether, all in all. See my 
Ghrammar, p. 8, example 3rd ; also ^uL^ 

^•^ tsxrwaUkah, s.f. (3rd) A live coal, an 
ember, burning charcoal. 'Pl.^^ey. Seeaj^^ 

^j^ tsirl'ka'h, s.f. (3rd) A throb, a beat or 
strong pulsation, palpitation (as from a wound 
or boil), throbbing, beating. 2. A spot, a 
splash, a sprinkle (as of mud), a gush, flow, 
etc. PI. ^^ ey. See i^i^ 

^^J^ tsarrna% s.f. (6th) A top knot of hair, 
the tuft of hair on the crown of the head of 
Hindus, etc. Sing, and PI. See ^5^ 

2r^ tsarrah, adj. Single, unmarried. 2. Alone, 
solitary. 3. Unique. 4. Light, simple, un- 
incumbered, light as to baggage (as a force 
in light marching order). 

Jt y^ tsarra*h Idr, s.f. (1st) A foot-path, a by- 

• path, a narrow road impracticable for horses, 



*_ Jk 

etc. Vl.Ji sjLtsaira^h Idri. ^^j^sjLtsafra'h' 
ivafTdey, adj. A traveller unincumbered with 
baggage^ or unattended ; one who can travel 
by a foot or by-path ; (Fern.) j^ y^ tmrrah- 
wafTt. PI. (Masc. and Fern.) ^CJ^ nA. 
5^1^Jb^ tsarra'h-wdU, s.f. (Ist) A foot-path, a 
narrow road for foot-passeugers only. PI. 
i^^^^ tmrrah'Wdtti, See tj^\^ 

tsarraX s.f. (6th) A top-knot, a tuft of 
hair on the crown of the head. Sing, and PI. 

^j^ tsiirtka'A, s.f. (3rd) A throb, a beat or 
strong pulsation or palpitation (as from a 
wound or boil), throbbing, beating. A spot, 
a splash, a sprinkle (as of mud, etc.), a gush, 
a flow. PL ^^ ey. ^^ tsifrlkah or «^Xt^ 
tdfrik Jjbj wcJuU, verb trans. To throb, to 
beat, to palpitate (as a wound). 3. To gush 
out, to splash, to spot, to sprinkle. 

,JjL tsaj^aey, s.m. (1st) The lungs, or light. 





^/i^ and ^JL» or ^^ 

J<Miifc tsashkala or k K.^.it tsaskSdlah, adv. 
How ? in what manner ? by what means ? by 
what mode ? 

cJW^ ts'^ak (W.) or ts'Bdk (E.) s.m. (2nd) 
Drink, beverage, liquor, potion. PL ^j^L^ 
^shdkunah or t^^dkUnah. c)\f^ j ^^jy^ 
MiWardJt ow ^shdk or tsJSidk, Food, aliment, 
sustenance, meat and drink. 

ji^ tsa^tan (W.) or tsa^tan (E.) s.m. (5th) 
A master, a lord, a possessor, a proprietor, 
an owner. PL ^^Ix^*^ tsa^tandn (W.) or 

^^tandn (E.) ^\\^r% tsa^htana'h or tsajdi- 
tamdh^ s.f. (3rd) A lady, a mistress, a pro- 
prietress. PL ^ ey, J^ (jS^*^ taashtan or 
Ua^tan karvul, verb trans. To marry (as a 
woman), to take a husband. See ^.x^J 
J Ju54^ tsashtedcd (W.) or tsajditedcd (E.), verb 
intrans. To fly, to flee, to escape, to take to 
flight, to retreat, to elope, to run away, to 
decamp. Pres. ^<^X tsaskti or tsa^(%\ 
past ^ Ju24i^ J TDU-tsa^tedah or wu-tsa^tedah, 
or Jus4k^J wU't§a^teda or wu-taa^teda). 

fut. . ^^«&. ij ^ fvu bah tsa^ti oi 

tsakhti ; imp. l\,\A S wti-tsti^tai 

tmKhtah ; act. part, ^jjj'^ivr.^.ffe ^ 
kaey or tsa^tedUnkaey or ^jjuvjJ 
dUnaey or tsa/^tedUnaey ; past part. 
tscishtedalaey or tsaljMedalaey ; 
^ Jus4^ tmshtedana'h or taqMteda» 
J JU14J . Jj:^«^ taashtarvul (W.) < 
an?!^/ (E.) verb trans. To cause to fl 
to flight, to cause to decamp, eb 
^^y^A». ^o^^am or i^^tom ; past 
wU'tm^tdrvuA or n?t^-^a^^nn^ 01 
n?tf-^sa^^a;r^or?27U-j^^^n?(>; Aii.4^ 
7n< boA tsashtawl or ttu ia^ taalSita 
yMg(A j 72?tf-^sa^ton7a^ or wu-^ck 
act. part. ^jJl}j|y^A^ ^sa^foirtff 
tm^tawUnkaey or ^^^fi^^ kf^ 
or tsaWitawUnaey ; past part. ^/^ 
tawulaey or tsa/^tawulaey ; verb. ] 
UcLshtawumih or tsajditawunah. 8 

4K4>^ tsashrkalah, adv. (W.) How? 
manner ? by what mode or meaii 
<^\(,uM..i and diKit^ 

y^ foa^-^ (W.) or UaWk'ka (E.), s 
A black seed used in medicine, a re 
sore eyes. Sing, and PL See a] 
(p ^U-). 

v^^yLfA^ tsasMiO'craey (W.) or ^^^c 
s.m. (1st) The skin or hide of an a 
general. PL ^^ I. See ^<^ 

J^k^ ^shal (W.), verb trans. To < 
quaff*, to imbibe, to drink up. Pi 
tishl; past J.4^ j wu-tishal) fut. ^ 
n;t^ ia^ ^'^^; inip. <u^J wu-ts'^ 
part. ^jiu^4^ tishilnhaey or ^^ 
no^ ; past part, ^^i^^ ^shalaey ; 

tishaiMdh. See jCa and jCj 

^ ^o^, adj. Straight, unbent, r^ 

distorted ; (Fern.) ti^ taakah. 

ylSA. tsakshu, s.m. (9th) A black seed 

medicine. Sing, and PL See^I^i^ 

J^ takaly verb trans. To drink. See 1 

^xX^ tsakindant s.m. (Snd) Taste, taf 





TOUT, sayonr, relish. PL <0y jJ^ ^so^eJan- 
Unah. See preceding. Jjbj ^*^:Sa, Uakindan 
wahal, verb troiiB. To taste, to flavour, to 
try by eating a little, to eat a little of. 

JjCw tskanml, verb trans. To cause to drink, 
0ack,inliale,to water (as cattle). 2. To lengthen, 
to stretch, to unsheathe. Pres. t^^^ tskawl ; 

. past i^MA. j wu-takdwuA, or j^^lC^ J wu- 
^sidwo; Alt. 1^/^ ij ^fvu bah takawl ; imp. 
JF^^ J wtt-takawah; act. part. ^^^^^ 
UkawUnkaey, or ^^/^ tskawUnaey; past 

. pari. ^^J^ tskamulaey; verb. n. d^^^ 

^jCaL (sakolaey, s.m. (1st) The hide or skin of 
any animaL PL ^^ f . See t^y^^ 

JOu^jC^ Uianddal, verb trans. To pinch, to 
squeeze. Pres. ^^>}yl^ ^^tm^; past 
jFOJjC^ J vm-tskanddahf or ^yl^ J ^t«- 
^umdda ; fut. ^^^^C^ ^jwu bah tskandil ; 
imp. Kojyl^ J wii-tskanddah ; act. part. 
^^ijjiiij^^ takonddunkaey, or ^^^^^ 

^Aon^iZfui^ ; past part. ^^^C^ tskondd- 
alaey; verb. n. sj^^^A, tskanddana'A. 
siA^tsaiah, s.f . (3rd) Taste, flavour, relish, savour, 
testing. PL 1^ ^. 2. A cM, a precipice. J^ 
^akal, verb trans. To taste, to savour, to flavour. 
Pres. ^J^ ^a^ ; past a^U^ j wu-tsdkah, or 
cJU^ J n^tf-^io^ ; fut. J^ ij'^wu bah tsaki ; 
imp. ^^ J nm-tsakah ; act. part. ^^ij^A, tsak- 

Mnkaey, or ^j^ tsakunaey ; past part. ,jJi^ 
teiAo/o^; verb. n. AiiA^ tsakana'h. 

si^ Ukah, adv. So, then, therefore, in like 
maimer, thus, on these terms, well, the fact 
being such, etc. See dS^ 

^^ ^fo^o^i s.m. (1st) A rope or line sus- 
pended from the roof of a house for hanging 
clothes on. PL ^^ I. 

^AjXl tsAedal, verb intrans. To crawl, to creep, 
to move along slowly. Pres. lS^^ tsk^l 
(W.) or ^Xf^ ^5%^ (E.) ; past xsSa.^ wu- 
isAedah, OT iJiA, ^ nfu-tskeda ; tat ,^jSa. l) ^ 
wu bah tske^l, or ^SA. ij ^wu bm tskegl ; 
imp. ijS^ J wurtskejgahf or ^iSL, j wu- 
^UgM ; act part ^^X}j JuC^ tskedUnkaey, or 

^^jui^ tskedUnaey ; past part ^Ju^ 

tskedalaey; verb. n. ^jxSa. takedana'h. 

^^iL tsoffaey, s.m. (1st) The lungs or lights. 
2. A word used in calling or driving cattle. 
PL ^c t. See also 4,^ and ^JL» 

jjL^ tsalor, adj . Four ; /m^ tsabram, The fourth ; 
(Fern.) ^jy^ tsaloramdh. ^ jlj^ or j^^l 
^ar or ^or /a«. Fourteen, u:-^^ ^;«U. 
^a/1^ wf^^, or ci-^^ ^;1^ toa/w* ttI^^, 
Twenty-four. ^Ji^j^ tsalor dersh, Thirty- 
four. cU'M^jU. j^ tsalor tsalweshtf or tsal- 
roe^ty Forty-four, ^j^js^^j^ tsalor pindzqs, 
Fifty-four. <tiL^ j^^ tsalor shpetah. Sixty- 
four, bjl jjlfc. ^afor ow^dy Seventy-four ; 
LjI jjU. tsalor atlyd, Eighty-four, y jjl^. 
or 4^^ tsalor-nawi or mwt, Ninety-four. 
^ jl^ or j^ tsTvar or tswdr-lasam, The 
fourteenth; (Fem.)44^jlyL ^^r-Zo^ama'^, 

w::^^4J^ tsalwesht (W.) or tscdwe^t (£.) 
adj. Forty. c:,.>Mgj^ jJ[ y(7727 tsalwesht, or 
tsalwejdity Forty-one. ci^ms^^I^jJ (2t? ^Z- 
wesht or tsal'ToeJdkty Forty-two, etc. 

^js^j^ tsalwe^tl (W.) or tsalwe/ffiti (E.) s.f. 
(3rd) The forty days after child-birth. PL^^a'i. 
2. s.m. (5th) A magistrate elected by the Maliks 
and heads of families amongst the tribes of 
Dfimftn. They were at flrst designed to make 
up the number of forty, hence the name. The 
president, when they are in any number, is 
called the Mir. See Elphinstone's "Kabul," 
vol. ii., p. 74. PL j^LMijjlfc. tsalwesh^n 
or tsalwef^tidn. 

i\A, tsila*h, s f. (3rd) Forty days of extreme heat, 
cold, or rain, in their respective seasons. 2. 
A period of forty days, during which the re- 
ligious fraternities of the East pass their time 
in fasting and prayer. PL ^^ ey. (p a1>-) 

^jlft. tsalaey, s.m. (1st) A ring for the finger. 
2. A pillar of mud or stones as a mark for 
land. 3. A butt or mark for arrows. 4. A 
moimd or platform for watching a field. 
5. A temporary building or shed. PL |^ i. 
See L^ 




^^ tsaleS (W.) or UaleS^ (£.) s.m. (2nd) 
Glue, starch, etc. 3. Stickiness, gomminess, 
adhesiveness, cohesion. PI. ^y^j\^ Uale^Sk- 
UnaA or tsalei^ilnaA. cJU ij^>M^ tsatesk-ncLk 
or tscUef^-^ndk, adj. Sticky, adhesive, viscous, 
clammy, glutinous, etc.; (Fern.) di\j ^^i^J^ 
UcUesh-naJia'h or taaleNi-ndAa^A ; also va ^^^ 
taale§ht (W.) or tscUef^t (£.) ; and v.::....ia^ 
tsaleMkt, s.m. (2nd). PI. <U.iicO^ Uaie^t- 


i2na^. See ^^Ou^ , ^j^^ and tj:.^.i{MiV 

x^ Csamtsa% s.f. (6th) A ladle made of wood, 

brass, or iron. Sing, and PI. (p ijt^). 
See ^^jff ^^^ and ^V*^^- 
JsJIa^ tmni'lastdl, verb intrans. To lie down, 
to recline, to repose, to be recumbent. Pres. 
1a^ tsamli; past iz,^i.fU^ tsamldat; fut. 
_U^ ^ j fvu bah t§!amti ; vm^.^ALtsamlaA; 

act. part. ^<X)jaJU^ UanUdstUnkaey, or 
jy.T^tfr tsamldstUnaey ; past part. ^dc;JU^ 
tsamldstalaey; verb.n. <v.v;„il4>^ tsamldstana'h. 
J^U^ tsamlanml, verb trans. To make re- 
cline, to put to rest, to make lie down. Pres. 
^^^Uft. tsamlatvl ; past ^^lU^ j wu-tsamldwuh, 
OTjjiAA. j wti-tsamlawo ; fut. i/jUi^ ^ ^ tvu 
bah taamlawl; imp, ^jU^ j nn^-^am^n^aA ; 
act. part, ^^^^j^ tsamlawUnhaey, or^ji^L*^ 
taamlawUnaey ; past part. i^^^U^L tsamlawul- 

aey; verb. n. <UjUiL tsanUawuna'h. 

j^haA. tsam-^dr, s.m. (5th) A tanner, a currier. 
PI. ^^jLiaL tsam-ydrdn. See jU^«^ 

,>:i^ tsanM, s.m. (9th) Shake, agitation, waving 
motion. Sing, and PL Jjbj >UL A^ pah tsanM 
wahal, verb trans. To shake, to agitate ; or 
Jf>^ tsanddal, To shake, to clean by shaking, 
to agitate. Pres. ^^>^ Uanddl; past jf^U. j 
wu-tsdn^ah, or ^U. J wu-tsdndda ; fut. 
^^>:.«L ij ^wu bah tsandii ; imp. i>;.aL j 72?t«- 
taanddah ; act. part. ^jiji^>:.aL taanMUnkaey, 
or ^j>^ ^an^t^ni;^; past part, ^^i^^ 

Sr • Sr 

tsanddalaey; verb. n. JO>:.aL tsan^anah. 
>>JL tsjondda'h, s.f. (3rd) Side, brim, edge, 
brink, mai*gin, rim, verge, fringe, edging, 
hem. PI, ijj ey. 

Jji^ 2r>:X tsandia*h tvakal, verb tarans. To shake, 
to toss, to agitate. 2. To jerk, to twitch, to 
pull or snatch away (as a garment). Seejjo^ 
tsjon^, s.m. (2nd) The side, the flank. PL 
<oya^ tsqngUnak. kL^\^ 4i {^\L Uqngfok 
Uan^, adv. Side by side, abreast See ^ 

tsanffcU, s.m. (1st) The arm from the 
elbow to the wrist, or to the end of the fingen. 
PI. J^ tsanffoU. Also aU^ iMnyala% 
s.f.^(3rd). ri^ey. 

i^j^ tsjon^ah, adv. How? in what maimer? by 
what means? in what state? It ia also naed 
in exclamation, as ''How are the mig^ 
faUen ! " 

i^j^ t8jaa31<^*h, s.f. (Srd) A ringlety a side % 
lock, a curl, a lock of hair. PL ^^ ey. Abo m 
»^ ^rasa% s.f. (Srd). PL ^ ey, ndM 
ifj^, which see. 

^tspy adj. Any, some, something, somewliatt'^ 
a little. 2. adv. and prep. Till, until, to 
event mentioned, or the time of it j&. 
tschtsjo, Various, several, different^ manifiddE 
diverse. *yi^ yL tsp ^^and^ A great numi 
several, manifold. ^l& yL tsp ^dn^ at 
jjh tsp faur, etc. Various modes, 
ways or conditions. it*3^ (sfmnrah, Wr^ 
much? what quantity? ^j^ tSP^^^f Boi*^ 
much? ""Cioj J&. J&. ^ pah (§0 (ep nmgs^ 
In various ways, of different colours, in dii 
ways, etc. ^l^ yL dj pah Up sj^dM, 
different conditions or states, in vanc>^ 
modes, manners, or fashions. "ImJ j^ 4i 
isp idsma, Of, or ia divers sorts, spedea, 
t/ji^ ^Ji or ^ji tar tsp or tar ^ p^^^ 
How long? till when ? i^jy yL iZ or yL ^ 
tah tsp or tah tsp pari, How long? till 
to what time? ^j^ har tsp, How mi 
soever, to whatever degree^ etc. 

ij^j^^ OTjyi t^ar or tmdr4as, adj. Foi*^ 

teen. *mJ j\^ ^^jy^ tmar or tmdr 
The fourteenth; (Fem.) sj^ jyL 
lasama^hy etc. 
r^yL tmab, s.m. (2nd) Longing, hankentftt^''' 
ef^^emessi anxiety, yearning, mania, ^aaaij^^ 





eraTing. PL ^y,yL Umabanah. J^ 

Uf9ab larat, yerb trans. To have a longing or 

hankering after anything^ to yearn after^ to 


\J^yL t^bdrpaey, a.m. (Ist) A wooden instm- 

ment used by washermen for beating clothes. 

PI. ^ I. 

UMf s.m. (2nd) Attack, onset, charge, 
4tt8lMight, sally, raid, foray, sortie, etc. PI. 

^wb trans. To attack, to charge, to assault, 
-fto make a sortie, onslaught, etc. 

Mlt9a*h, s.f. (8rd) A porpoise. PI. |J ey. 

9j^ (Mrb, adj. Fat, stout, corpulent, plump, 
in good condition. PI. <u^U. tajoLrba'h ; (Fern.) 
^j^ tsarba*h. PI. ^jL tsarbey. Ij i^jyL 

Uarb ti% s.f. (6th) (E.) Sing, and PI. ; or 
CW.) PI. ^j^ n-d^wl; 0T^\^ ^j^ ^^* 
fo^Uaey^ s.m. (1st) Plumpness, fatness, corpu- 
lence. PI. ^^ f. Jjlj^ taarbedal, verb 
inbans. To become fat, stout, or plump, to 
*«Alen. Fres. ^^j^jL fyuxrbejzl W .) or 

. tSfltbeg/i (E.) ; past ^ S-^j>^ ^^^ ii(^k or 
*A j irt^MoA; fat. ^J^ Af ^jy^ tsarb bah 
ify or _it J ij bah tcu-shl ; imp. <L^ <--^^ 
^prt ^oA or ^ J nm-shah ; act. part. 
i^jjui^ tsqrbedankaey or ^j«x 
^otoio^; past part, c^^ ^1^^ or , 
^ori l^on^o^y ; verb.n. ^UjLj^&ari^dawa'A. 
vJ^^ ^arbanml, yerb trans. To fatten, to 
'^Uie faty to make plump. Pres. i/y^ 
^arbatvi ; past jf s-^^ ^§<^A ^rr ^ J ) 
^^Urkofrr; fat. g^ ^ *^^ ^^^^ *^^ *22i 
^ Sg/ J ^ *«A n^M-^jy^ ; imp. xj c-j;^ 
feort AfToA or ij ^ wurkTrah; act. part. 
V^jt^;^ ^arbawUnkaey or ^yy»j^ tsarb- 
•Wawy; past part. v^c-i^^^seTr&Aatraey; 
^^. n. ^^/L tsarbanmna^h. 
i^J9^ ^vurlaey, s.m. (1st) A gimlet, an auger. 



'nibbed, eadff 

kanml, yerb trans., or Jj^jji^ tamrangamil, 
yerb trans. To thrash, to beat, to drub, to 
bruise, to cudgel, l^^.i^^j^tsmrangawi] 
^SBtJ {^Ji^jyL tsmrang kofr or j^ J wu^ka^ ; 
fat. i^J li C^jy^ tsawranff bah kfrl or 
^^J J li bah wu-kfTl ; imp. sj Cio;j^ 
t^mrang kfroA ov hjf ^ wurkrraJi ; act. part. 
Li^^j^J^ ^M^n^on^^in'tl^n^a^y or ^y^jj^ 
tsawranffowUfuiey ; past ^^ (^^j^ tspwrang 
katraey ; yerb. n. <Uj^yL Ucwrangawuncth. 

ij^jyL tsawrangawunak, s.f. (Srd) (verb, n.) 
PI. ,^ ^ ; or Lj Cili;^ tsoTvrang tl% s.f. (6tli ) 
A thrashing, a beating, a drubbing, a cudgel- 
ing. (E.) Sing, and PL, (W.) PL ^^13 a'am ; 
or c^y {.L^j^ tsowrang-tob, s.m. (2nd), PL 
«0^y tobUnah ; and ^\y ^^^j^ tsqwrang 
tvdlaey, s.m. (1st), PL ^\y wall. 

iJjyL tsorvraey, s.m. (1st) Provisions for a 
journey. PL jc t. See dj^y and <U)»y{ 

1^ ^2T* adj. Crooked, crump, wry. 2. A bul- 
lock with crumpled horns; (Fem.) *^ 

^jj^ tsprraey, adj. as s.m. (Ist) A bullock 
with his horns curling downwards over his 
ears. PL ^^ L S&l^ ^^/ra'?, s.f. (6th) A 
cow as above. Sing, and PL 
•4,^ tsO'Mi (W.) or tsp'Wial (E.) s.f. (6th) 
The spout of a vessel, a pipe, a tube, the pipe 
or spout of an ewer. 2. The penis of a boy. 
Sing, and PL Also ^yL, tso-sha'h or tso- 
]di(£h, s.f. (3rd), PL ^ ey. 

ii^^ mshkah (W.) or tsumka'h (E.) s.f. (Srd) 
The spout or pipe of an ewer, a tube, a pipe. 
PL ^ ey. 

^X^i^ tsO^kaey (W.) or tsUWcaey (E.) s.m. 
(1st) A spout, etc. See preceding. PL ^^ %. 

^y. tsp'ska'h (W.) or tso-^a'h (E.) s.f. (3rd) 
The penis of a boy. PL ^^ ey. See vlflj^ 

CS^ tspk, An interrogative pronoun applied 
chiefly to persons, and rarely to inanimate 
things— Who? which? what? It is both 
Masc. and Fem., Sing, and PL, and becomes 
U- did in the oblique cases. KlS^jtb har 
t^kf Whoever, whichever, or whatever. 



^yt. tsUka'A, B.f. (3rd) The point of anything, the 
peak of a mountain, a beak, a snout, a pro- 
boscis, the nozzle. l?l.Aey. j\i^i^^t8ilka*A 
ddr, adj. Pointed, acute, peaked, spiked ; 
(Fern.) ifj\j i^jL tsU-ka'h ddra'h. 

^^ tsoka\ s.f. (6th) A post where a guard is 
stationed, a station-house. 2. Guard or watch, 
watching. 3. Binding one's-self by a vow to 
visit or perform some duty at a shrine. Bing. 
and PL Ja-wy^T ij^^ tsqka'l dk/Ustal, verb 
trans. To make a vow to visit some shrine 
until one's wishes are fulfilled, (hi ^^)* 
J^ L^y^ t§P^'^ kcavtU, verb trans. To keep 
watch, to keep guard. j\xSjL tspkl-ddr, s.m. 
(5th) A watchman, a guard, a policeman. PI. 
^I^t ju^^ taoH-dwrdn. 

Jj&. ^al, adj. Tom, rent ; (Fem.) a!j^ tmaia!h ; 
2. s.m. (2nd) A piece, a portion, a bit, a frag- 
ment, a morsel. PI. <Uj)^ tmalUnah. J^ 
Jj^ tmal-tmal, adj. In tatters, in bits, in 
pieces, in rags. 

ifj^^ tspmrah, adv. How much ? what quantity ? 
etc. Also ^jL tsonl or tsaney. 

^ja?^ t9(mrt8a% s.f. (6th) A spoon or ladle 
made of wood, iron, or brass. Sing, and PI. 
See.^^fe^, ai^\^, and ^^ 

^J^ tsonl or tsoney, adv. How much ? what 
quantity ? See 9j^^ 

8j^ tsUrma^h. s.f. (3rd) A curl, a ringlet, 
a side lock, a lock of hair. PI. ^ ey. See 
also ^j^ 

K^^ tsawaeyf s.m. (1st) An ambush, ambuscade, 
retreat, cover, lurking-hole. PI. ^^ f. ^^^ 
J^ tsawaey kanml, verb trans. To lay an 
ambuscade, to lie in ambush, to lurk or lie in 
wait for. 

^ t8ah, A pronoun used both in an interroga- 
tive as well as in an indefinite sense. What 7 
or a, an, any, some, etc. Sing, and PL ^A^jib 
har tsah, pron. Whatever, whatsoever. ^ <U. 
(Mh diih or <uA tsad^ih, Whatsoever that, 
whatever that. ^ iL tsah daeyy Who is it 7 
what is it 7 ^r^bo <(^ Ucik dorpdrdkf adv. 

Why 7 wherefore 7 for what reason f 
account7 iijji^UjahrangahoTii:^\ 
adv. How7 in what manner 7 by what 
in what state or condition 7 yL i^t 
adv. What matter 7 of what consequen 
no matter, never mind, i^ iL &i 
(W.) or tsah JAah (E.) interj. Hoy 
how fine ! how excellent ! j jJ ^ &ai 
adv. How much? how many? tj 
larah or xj^ tsalarah, or ^ ^ tsah I 
Why? on what account? wherefore! 
pah tsah, adv. For what reason 7 wb 
JL& iL tsah sh'kal, or i£>j i^ dj p 
ranffoh, or aS^ tsangah, adv. How ? 
manner? after what mode, methoc 
fashion ? etc. 

IL tsah, s.m. (5th) A well. PL J^ 

}Sj^ tsihra% s.f. (3rd) Face, visage, 
countenance. PL A ey. (p »ji^)- 
kU. tse-Mal, verb trans. To thrust, i 
to stab, to pink, to stuff into, to cram, 
or ram in, to press or squeeze in 
Pres. ,«aa^ tsej^l] past iJ^^^ nut 
or '^^ J wU'tseJdia ; Ait. ^J^ ii J 
tseMi ; imp. i(ic^ j vm-tseMoh ; ac 
^^ijyk}^ tseMUnkaey or ^yk}^ tsfib 
past. part, ^jlicv^ ^^M^t/o^ ; verb.n 
tseM<ina*h. See Ji^ 

^ tser, adj. Similar, like, resembling 
gous, alike, near, something like, so 
etc. It is for the most part used i 
preposition «0 pah before it. See ^^l 
and jjj 

Xj^ tse-rdh, s.f. (3rd) A scarecrow. P 

ijJL. t§^ra*h, s.f. (3rd) An incision, a cu 
a strip, a ribbon, a slip, a shred. F 
tS^^' JjJuP" ir^^ ts^ra'h jorra$v% 
trans. To divide into slips or shreds, 
into strips or ribbons, s^^js^ t$^^» ^ 
into strips, split, torn in shreds. 
Mredal, verb intrans. To be torn, : 
lacerated, to be torn in shreds or : 





Pres. i^jjs^ tgre^l (W.) or iJkja^ t^egl 
(E.) ; past UL s&r^^ Mrey §hoih or ^ ^ tvu 
^oA; fut. J^ 40 L^js^ t^rey bah shl or 
^J^ J aj boA wu shl ; imp. iJU i^js^ tm'ey 
^ah or ^ J wurshah ; act. part. ^jil}j«X[^^ 
MredQnkaey or y^^^^iji!^ t^redunaey; past 
part ^^y0 sr[;^ ^^y shawaey; verb. n. 
JLj jj^^ tgredana'h. 
JL^ Mrawul, or Jj!^ ^^[;:^^ ^r^ kanml, verb 
trans. To rend, to tear, to lacerate, to diyide. 
Jijs^ ^ral, verb trans. To rend, to tear, to 
lacerate, to tear asunder. Pres. i^jt^ tgrH ; 
past »j^ J tvthi^ah, or J«^ J wu-t^ira ; fdt. 
tjjsi^ ^ ^ nn^ bah tgLri ; imp. 2r^ J nm- 
&trah; act. part, ^jiuj^^ ^IrtS^t^o^^, or 

^J2;«^ ^^'^^'^'^ ' p&st part. ^^^ ^m/oey ; 
Terb. n. dG,^ Uararuih. 
jr-«^ M^ra'A, B.f. (Srd) A line of men arranged 
in small knots or parties for battle or for 
hnnting, either halted or walking. PI. ^ ey, 
J]j jr^ ^ j9aA tsirra^h t*lal, yerb intrans. 
To move in a line as above. 

Mr, s.m. (2nd) A thing, an object, an 
article, matter, commodity. PI. <^^j:^^ 
MzUnah. (P Jff^)« Js^ ^ J ^ Jf^ lajz 
^ah Mz, For, or with a trifle, a rush, a small 
matter, a bulrush, etc. 

Ue^ta% s.f. (Srd) Flight, fleeing, de- 
campment, retreat, running away. PI. ^ ey. 
Jjus4m^ tse^^tedal, verb intrans. To fly, to 
flee, to decamp, to run away. Jy^^^jA tse^- 
tawul, verb trans. To put to flight, to cause 
to fly, to cause to retreat. See J. Vj*; for 

jM& tse^kal (W.) verb trans. To drink, to im- 
bibe, to quafil Pres. ,^4^ ^shl) past 
^Um^ \ wu-Ueshah. or IjJwn^ { wu-Uesha : 
fiit. ^ijijift li'yVDU bah tseshl ; imp. ^^^ J 

wurtoe^ah ; act. part. ^^Xj^^m^L tseshUnkaey, 

or ^y^^ tse^Unaey ; past part. ^jL^a^ 

ge^a/!0€y; yerb.n.4UiSft^ ^^^na'A. SeeJ.4^ 

Ufilma!h, 8.f. (3rd) Side, margin, extre- 

JDitj, towards. PI. ^^ ly. This word is at 

times used adverbially, as ^^♦IjaL a! lah 
tselmey, or <U ^<JufiL a! ^A tselmey nah, 
From beginning to end, from first to last, 
wholly, altogether, entirely, all in all. See 
also dL^^ 

^^^aA^ tgn^aB, s.m. (2nd) or (5th) (E.) A 
bull fit)g. PI. ^O^^ ol' - j*^ t^ndza^Unahy or 
j^UiJb^-^ fotw^a^an. s.f. (Srd) <^•i^ 
t^nckaJSia' h. PI. ^Jj ^. 

^^^•rA ^ngaM (E.) or ^ngash (W.), s.m. 
(2nd) A frog. PI. ^^4>^vg^ tg^nga^Unah^ or 
t^ngashUnah. s.f. (Srd) ^^i^-.jA ^ngaBtdh, 
PI. ij ^. See iUi-it^ 

^ ^'!m, the fifth letter of the Arabic, and the sixth 
of the Persian, is the eighth of the Pughto 
alphabet. It stands for three in arithmetic, 
and is equivalent to English J in the word 
* judge.' In Persian and Arabic it is some- 
times interchangeable with j,j, ^, and 
sometimes ^ . In Pushto it is interchange- 
able with A dze and^ jze, 

A,j\p^jd'bir, s.m. (5th) (from^^-jj-) A despot, a 
tyrant. PI. (^j^W- jdbirdn ; s.f. (Srd) ifji\p^ 
jdbira'h. PI. ,^ €y. 

s L^\prJ^Pt fl«™« (2nd) Muttering one's prayers, 
reciting to one's-self, a recitation. PI, ^OyU- 

(JL:\p^jdty A termination or affix added to Persian 
and Arabic words ending in jf to denote the 
plural ; thus, ci-^U* Xy^ mewah'jdt, Fruits. 

p jjU* jddUf s.m. (9th) Enchantment, incanta- 
tion, juggling, conjuring. Sing, and PI. 
Jj^ yd\pr jddu kawuly verb trans. To con- 
jure, to juggle, to charm, to enchant, to 
practice incantations. Jy:i^ jain-gary s.m. 
(5th) A conjurer, a juggler, an enchanter, a 
wizard, a magician, a sorcerer. PI. ^^^^^ 
jddu-gardn] s.f. (Srd) >ijyc\^ jddUgara'h, 
A witch, a sorceress, an enchantress. PL 1^ 
eg. ^J^^^W jddu-gan, s.f. (Srd) Magic, 
sorcery, necromancy, enchantment. PI . (^ «'^« 






j€,i\s>r j^dd^X 8-f- (6th) An old female camel 
very thin and ugly. Applied to old women 
also. Sing, and PI. 

j^ ^'or, B.m. (2nd) A proclamation, notification, 
announcement, hue and cry. PI. ^^j\prJdr- 
ilnah, Jaj j\p^ jar wahal, verb trans. To 
make proclamation, to notify, to proclaim, to 
publish, to advertise. ^J>-J^ jWr^l, s.m. 
(5th) A herald, a crier, a pursuivant. PI. 
J^J^ jo^rchl'O.n. ^U ^j^ J^^^^ 
bdskl, A head pursuivant, a herald. PI. 

j^jdr, s.m. (9th) Sacrifice, consecration, re- 
demption, offering, oblation, victim, devoting 
one's-self to save or preserve another, ransom, 
cartel, exchange. Sing, and PI. See^U.. 
fj*xij\^ jdredal, verb intrans. To be sacri- 
ficed or devoted, to sacrifice one's-self. Pres. 
4^J^- jdrejzl (W.) or ^JJJ\sr jdregl (E.) ; 
past <LJ» .Iflf- jar shah, or <IL& j wurshah] 
fut. J* ^J jU- jar bah shi, or ^J^ J sj bah 
wU'shl ; imp. ej^ j\p^ jar shah, or id j rvti- 
shah ; act. part. ^j-i^^OJ jlsj- jdre-dUnhaey, or 
^^ jjjlflj- jdre-dunaey ; past part. ^^^ jU- 

jar shawaey ; verb. n. ^ jj^U- jdre-dand'h. 
^)^j\s>^ jdrawul, To sacrifice, to devote, to offer 
as an oblation, to make a victim of, to vic- 
timize. Pres. l/jJ^^' jdrawl ; past ^ j\p^ 

jar harr, or^^ j wu-kafr; fiit. ^^J lij^jdr 

bah krrly or <j?/ J ^ bah wu-km; imp.^U- 
9J jdr hrrah, or *i' J wu-hrrah; act. part. 
Li^3V^ jdrawunkaey, or f^^^j^ jdra- 
wUnaey ; past part. ^ j\p^ jdr kajraey ; 
verb. n. ij^j\^ jdrawuna'h. 
jjU- jdrU, s.m. (5th) A broom, a besom. PI. 
J^3J^ jdrUgdn. (p t-JyU-). J/ ;uU 
jdra kawul, verb trans. To sweep, to brush 

lOl^Uj- jdr-rvdtah, s.m. (6th) (verb .n.) Return, 
returning, retrogression, the act of coming or 
going back. Sing, and PI. See i^^J^ 

Jjjj\s^jdr''Watal, verb intrans. To return, to 
come or go back, to retrograde, to revert, to 

come again, to turn back. Pre 

jdrwuzl; past iZJ^^j\p^ j nm^ 

cL^j^lflj- wujdrwut, or cIjtjjU- J 1 

fut. i^j^J^ sj ^ wu bah jarm< 

yj^j^ i '^^'jdrw'uzah \ act. part. 

jdrwatHnhaey y or ^^yj^ jdrwatk 

part. j^Jjjj^- jdrwoitalaeyy or ^j 

wataey ; verb. n. <iiJjjU- Jonpc 

^Vj^U- jdrwdtah. 

^3J^ jdrwatana'hy s.f. (3rd) (vei 

turning, return, retrogression, 1 

coming or going back. PI. |^ €y. 

i^yj^ jdrayvuly verb trans. To collect 
together previously to preparing 
weaving. Pres. ^x)^ jdrawl ; ] 
jdr harr or j^ J wu-harr; fut. ^^ 
bah krn or ^^ j <o bah wu-hrri 
h^ jdr krrah or iij ^ wu-krrah ; 
^jXijj^^U- jdrawunka^ey or ^^^J^ 
naey ; past part. \^ J^ jdr hati 
n. iUjjjU- jdrawuna*h. 

as^-jb lU- jdr-ydstah, s.m. (Gth) (verb 
sion, diverting, turning aside, I 
turning back, causing to retroj 
Sing, and PI. See <Ur.a«jj\g»- 

JsaMij\^ jdr-yastal, verb trans. Tc 
turn aside, to bring or turn bac 
aside from a thing or matter, t 
retrograde or recede. Pres. ^\ij\s 
past Li-w^^U- J wu-jdr-yost or us-- 
yast ; fut.^^b .U- 6j iwu bah jdr- 

<U)b^U^ jdr-hdsah or <ubjU- j n?tt; 
act. part. ^jJo^i-mJjU- jdr^yast 

^ f^J^jdr-yastUnaey) past part 

jdr-yastalaey lYerh.n, djsa^j\p^jdf 

i>usuA*ij\s>^ jdr-yastana^h, s.f. (3rd)(verl 
sion, diverting, turning aside, I 
turning back, causing to retrograd 
^^ ey. Also ds>^\jj\s^, which see. 

A i^j^pr jdrt, adj. Running, flowing, 
current, usual; J^ i/^W" j^^ ^ 
trans. To begin, to iset on foot, t 




^^^tom), to issue or put in force (an order). 

jk^^ i^jW }^^ ^^dal, verb intrans. To flow, 

i0fiiie. 2. To pass current, to prevail, to 

force, to proceed (as business or work). 

f&t^y (2nd) A wood, a patch of bushes, 
[e, underwood. PI. ^Ujg^ls*- jdrrUnah. 

r J^TT^K S'f- (3rf) A bush, a bramble, any 
tboray shrub (such as the wild Ber or Jujube), 
etc. PI. ^ ey. (hi ^^JW)- 
^yJi^jasOi^ s.m. (5th) A spy, an emissary. 

^j^y"^ jd&Usl, s.f. (3rd) The action or business 
of a spy, spying, PL ^^ a'f. Jj^ ^y^^ 
jtoW kannil, verb trans. To act the spy. 

^j^^jdfflr, s.m. (2nd) Land granted by the 
™liiig power as a reward for services or as a 
fe®» a fief, a pension, a grant. PI. iUjj^-^U- 
J^g^^nah. jlj^jlfls^ jaglr-dar, s.m. (5th) 
A feoffee, the holder of ^jaglr or grant. PI. 
ub'*irf^ j^^r-dor-an \ s.f. (3rd) Xj\djJ\s>- 

• J^*ia/, s.m. (2nd) A net, a sash. PI. ^O^SU- 
jfitoioA. 2. adj. Forged, counterfeit. (aJxs;-). 

i Oj)l>. Jdlut, s. prop. The Muhammadan 
aime for Goliath. 

i^jaUk, s.f. "(3rd) The nest of a bird. 2. A 
wft of wood or inflated hides. 3. A large 
•Mne sheet used for catching mulberries in. 
*• (8 JU-) Lace used for veils. PI. JU^ 
iliy. SeealUL ^ ' 

ii>jllla% B.f. (6th) Cobweb. Sing, and PI. 

'fl> jam, s.m. (2nd) A cup, a goblet, a glass, 
* Wl, a drinking vessel. PI. 4j^U- jdm- 
<*«4. mp^ |»U- jam-i-jam, s.m. (2nd) The 
•inor of Jam^ld, which showed him all he 
*iibed to see. j%U- cSi Makjam, s.m. (2nd) 
A bumper. PI . ^y%\^ c/^ ddak-jamUndh . 

h^ 'fimbdZy s.m. (5th) A rough draught 
••nwl, unused to the riding saddle. PI. 
w'jLtU- jdmbOz&n ; s.f. (3rd) ^jL^U- j^^' 
^% PL ^ €y. See rjL*^ and ^jU:^ 

'<jU«U>^lmadaf^, 8.f. (3rd) A Und of muslin 

in which the flowers are wove and not worked 
in. PL ^^ a!u 

A ^U- jdmice, act. part, (from ^4^) Com- 
pleting, comprehending, collecting; a col- 
lector, a compiler, compriser. 2. adj. All, 
universal, whole, collective. 3. A synagogue, 
a mosque or cathedral, where the prayer called 
the ^JkisL Mufba^h is read on Fridays. 

p ^[p^jdma^h, s.f. (3rd) A garment, robe, dress. 
2. The jaw-bone. Pl.^^^. j\^^\s>:-jdfna'A' 
Tvdr, adj. Enough for a suit OTJdma'h, fit to 
make clothes of. 

Jj!^ ^^Xsf^jdmcHh Uolawul, verb trans. To gather 
up the clothes or garments about one (as a 
woman her petticoats). Jyl^ ^f^l^j- jdma'h 
mdtawuly verb trans. To crumple, to pucker, 
to crease the clothes or garments. 

p ^\p^jdml, s. prop. The name of a celebrated 

Persian poet. 
?^\p^jdn, s.m. (2nd) Life, soul, spirit, a sweet- 
heart. 2. The private parts. PL iUyU- 
jdnUnak. 3. adj. Dear, beloved. ^\j\p^jdndn, 
s.m. (5th) PL Lives, sweethearts. Used 
singularly, as a sweetheart, one beloved, 
j^lyui f^^ jdn-Jishdn, adj. Ready to lay down 

one's life, zealous, fervent; (Fem.) «OluJ ^U- 

jdn-fishdncbh. ^J^*^ ^J;^" jdn fiskdnx^ s.f. 

(3rd) Devotion, zeal, extreme diligence or 

labour. PL ^ al. J^ si^ ^J^jdnfishdnl 

kawuly verb trans. To strain every nerve, to 

show great devotion or zeal. See ^^U. 

A i.^lfl^ Jami, s.m. (9th) Part, side. Sing, and 

PL 2. adv. Towards, near at hand. ^jtT^\^ 

jdnibain. (a dual of c-^U-) Mutual, on 

both sides. 

^jsfr[s>' jdnji, s.m. (5th) The marriage guest of 

" a man, who accompanies him to bring home 

the bride. PL ^^La^U- jdnjidn. See \j», 

Pjl^U- jdn-war, s.m. (5th) An animal, a bird. 

PL ^jy>^ jdnwardn. See ^^U. 
<OyU- jdn-^alcHhy s.f. (3rd) Gum, gum-arabic. 

PL ^ ey. See 4j^"> 4?!/ > ^^ s&^ 



• • 

Aj\p^-jdrmh or ^^U- jdna, inteij. Beloved I sweet- 
heart I my dear I a term of endearment 
(From p). 

iVrj^" j^^'j^X B'f* (6tli) The akirt or hem of 
a garment. Sing, and PI. 

r^\jj[p^jdfviddn, adj. Eternal, endless, perpetual. 
ci^Jjlsf- jdTviddnl, s.f. (3rd) Eternity, per- 
petuity, immortality. PI. ^ a\ See Ju[jIp- 

^3^ jdwla'h, s.f. (3rd) Gnm, gom-arabic. PI. 
^ ey. See ^^\j 

p jjj<p^ jdwld, adj. I Eternal, endless, perpetual. 

^^ jjjU- jdrviddn, ) See ^;)Ojl>- 

ij,\jjj\p^jdwlddm, s.f. (3rd) Eternity, perpetuity, 
immortality. PI. ^ a*l. 

p »U- ^aA, s.m. (2nd) Dignity, rank, grandeur, 
pomp. PI. ijyb\>' jdhunah. J)U^ j i\p^ 
jdh-im-joM, Dignity, pomp, grandeiir, ma^- 

A JjbU- ^*a-Ai/, adj. (from Jfsj-) Ignorant, illit- 
erate, barbarous, brutal. 3. s.m. (5th) A fool, 
an illiterate person. PI. ^^lUU- jdMldn ; 
s.f. (3rd) ab&U jdhila'h. PI. j^ ^. JjbU^ 
jdhili, s.f. (3rd) Ignorance, emptiness, want 
of sense or knowledge. PI. j^ a*J. 

p |Alr>- ^a'^, s.m. (2nd) A place, a room, a 
dwelling, etc. PI. ^^[p^jd'eUnah. See jAl*. . 
J3j^ lVIs*- jd'e ^arUr, A privy, a necessary. 
(^ \^^ jo! e-gham, The place or time of grief. 
cT**^ L^lsj- ja!e mshln^ A successor, a locum 

jAlflj- ^a'a'f, s.f. (6th) A bowstring. See ^tsj- 

p jt J^lsf* jd'edddt B>ni* (2nd) An assignment in 
land as a maintenance. 2. Property. PI. 
iOjj1*X£U>- jaedddUnah, 

AjAprJ^'i^f adj. (fromj!^) Lawful, right, per- 
mitted, proper, warrantable, allowable, autho- 
rized; (¥em.) ifji\s>- jd'iza'h. i}/jiWj^*^ 
kawul, verb trans. To warrant, to justify, to 

A %\f^ jabbdr, adj. superl. (from h T13i) Om- 
nipotent, mighty. 2. Conqueror. 

Aj^jabr, s.m. (2nd) (from h 'Tii 'was strong') 
Oppression, violence, strength, force, power. 
PI, Aijjf«r ^^-^^w^' ir'jf^ ^ pah jubr 

saroA, adv. By violence, forcibly. 
laA jabra, or ^ j^ ^ laA jabr n 
Compulsively, forcibly. L->- jabr 
By main force, forcibly, by compn 
fit)m compulsion. 

A J-S;f5r jabra-yll, s. prop. The f 
Gabriel, (from h.) 

A cuJufi^ jibillat, s.m. (2nd) Essence, 
disposition, temperament, constitati 
tion, form. PI. ^yL^ jibillat-itna 

A IfP^jibilll, adj. Natural, innate, * 
in general. 

K^jabdh^ s.f. (3rd) A mere, a mani 
PI. ^ ey. 

A t^^juboHhi s.f. A kind of long veat 
a coat of mail. PI. ^ ey, 

A yji^ jabln, s.m. (5th) The forehi 
^Jj,^^^ jaMndn. See fc/xJ 

8 ^^iL^^jat, s.m. (2nd) Manner, fashic 
PI. ^^^ jatUnahy s.m. (5th). 2. 1 
of a tribe inhabiting Persia and west 
of Afgh&nistftn and Seistftn, suppos 
gipseys. PI. ^Jc^ jatdn ; 8.f. (3 
jata'h, PI. ^ ey, 

HI fi^y^PrJaU, s.m. (5th) The name of i 
B&jputs, numbers of whom dwell 
southern and eastern parts of the Pan 
^W^r jaUdn ; s.f. (3rd) d<ip^jaUa'h. ] 

Sjyffr jcfjura'h, s.f (3rd) The crop of a 
maw or first stomach, the dew-la 
animal. 2. A double chin. PI. ^ 

y^jyefr jaj'SLraey^ s.m. (Ist) Same as 
ceding. PI. ^ L Also ^ jaj^ s.n 
PI. ij^i^jajUnak, 

i^ysPr jajut, s.m. (5th) The anemo 

sPrjtfja'l, s.f. (6th) A kind ofpheasan 
and PI. See ^>-^ 
^jaMt a.m. (5tfi) A froth bubble on t 
PI. j^UrT jaMdn ; or 2. s.m. (2nd) 
fly which moves along on the surfisb 
water. PI. ijysPr jaJ^UnaJi. 
wPr jui^ty adj. Bight, exact, even, i 



ir, «qiiabl6yfit; (IFem.) isJ^Pr juMta'h. Bee 

^y^Mdid, B.m. (3ud) A grand&ther, an ancestor, 

1^0*. ^tidd, adj. Separate, apart, distinct, aside, 
Aux&der, absent, different, peculiar, extraor- 
lixiaxy. 1 Jk8»- \s>' judd judd, adj. Various, 
cne l>y one, several, separate. 2. adv. Sepa- 
ntely, severally. J^^ \a>- \a>- ^Wa ^'wda 
hanrul, verb trans. To particularize, to in- 
tividualize, to enumerate. J^ \^ judd 
haoulf verb trans. To divide, to separate, to 
pi!rt, to disengage, to disjoin, to distinguish. 
Jou^ I j^ jtidd kedal, verb intrans. To part, 
to Beparate, to become disjoined or divided. 
y^CLs^JuddX 8-f* (3rd) Separation, absence, 
PWing, disjoining. PI. ^^ a'l. 
^jW/idS/, s.m. (2nd) (inf. iii of Jj^), 
Gcmtention, strife, altercation, squabble, con- 
test. n.^^]jc>rjiddtanah. J^J^jvi^ 
J^^nffHfw^iddl, s.m. (2nd) Fighting, conten- 
tion, strife. Jj^ J^J^ J vl^'.'r JcLT^-OTf^' 
jidalka^ul, verb trans. To quarrel, to con- 
tend, to fight. 
y^^jaddl, s.m. (5th) Antichrist. See also 

JUj and ^}\j^ ^ 
^ J Ji> jadal, s.m. (2nd) Altercation, strife, 
'^•tfle, encounter. PI. ^^j,^ jddalUnah. 

^j^^^jadwdr, s.m. (2nd) Zedoary (Koemp- 

ftiia zedoar). PL ^^j\^ J^ jadwdr-UnaA. 
^ JjJ^ jadwal, s.m. (2nd) Lines drawn in a 
w4 or on the margin. PI. a}^^ j^ jadwal- 
^xoA. ^^,^ jadwaMf adj. A book marked 
^th lines. 
^ «^J^ jaddrt, adj. Ancestral, belonging to 

^^j^jadid, adj. New, modem, fresh. 
^fU^/nzam, a.m. (2nd) Leprosy. P1.a3^1j^ 
J^SAMHiaA. See ^^^m^ and ^y 
*Mi>^a^i, s.m. (2nd) Absorption, drawing 
^ a blister), attraction, allurement. PI. 
^i^ jazbUnak. J^^ M*^ i^^^ kawul, 
^ tnns. To imbibe, to draw (as a blister). 

to attract, to absorb. J ju^ ^^ j<izb kedal, 

verb intrans. To be absorbed. 
^j^jazba*h, s.f. (3rd) Pury, passion, rage, 

desire. PI. ^^ ^. See i^J^ 
TjP^jar, s.m. (2nd) A drain, a small ditch for 

carrying off water and for draining lands. 2. 

A crack, a cleft, a fissure in the ground. PI. 

^j^j^ jarUnaA. 

A (JL^lfr jur*dt, s.m. (2nd) Courage, boldness, 
audacity, bravery, temerity, valour. PI. 
ij^\^jur'dtWnah. J^ kZJ\^jur^dt kawul, 
verb trans. To dare, to have the courage, or 

A AjP^jarrdhy s.m. (6th) A surgeon, a healer of 

wounds. PI. ^;^5/r jarrdhdn. 
L^^j^ ^'arraA-!, s.f. (3rd) Surgery. PI. ^ aX 
A j1^ jarrdr, adj. Warlike, bold, brave. 
aCfjD^ jardah. See ^*i^ 
*j/>- jir-TTa'A, s.f. (3rd) A rag, a tatter. PL 

^ ey. See *^^ 
A {j^ijs^- jaras, s.m. (2nd) A bell. PL i^y^^ 

A <u^ jurceah, s.f. (3rd) One draught, a drop. 

PL ^ ey. 

^J^j=r jur-kdrrney, s.m. (1st) To boot, into the 

bargain, over and above. PL jc i. See -^ 
y^j^ jirgatu, s.m. (5th) The member of a 

jirga'h or assembly amongst the Ytisufzl's. 

PL ^j^jS'r jirgatUgdn. 
d^ jirgoHh, or iij^ JcyrgoHh, s.f. (3rd) An 

assembly, a party met for consultation, a sort 

of democratic council amongst the Yiisufzl's. 

VX.^ey, Seci^ (paS^^?). 
A ^^ jirrriy s.m. (2nd) The body, substance, 

mass; residue, or refuse of anything. PL 

i^yjS>^ jirmunah. See \^jis\^y 
A ^^jurm, s.m. (2nd) A crime, sin, fault. PL 

^yj>' jurmUnak. 
ajy/^r jar-morra'hy s.f. (3rd) A kind of rash or 

eruption caused by the sting of any venomous 

insect, or from excess of blood. PL ^ ey, 

JjuS^ »j^y/>r jor'morra'h kedul, verb intrans. 

To become afflicted or affected with the pre- 



ceding. Jj^ *i^^ jwr-motsccHh kawul, verb 
trans. To affect with, or CAxiBejar-motra'h. 

^4/^j>' jarandgaraey , adj. as B.m. (Ist) A 
miller. PI. ^^ I ; (¥em.)ji **^^ jarandoih- 
ffori. PI. j^ I. 

ifjjjs^ jaranda*A, B.f. (3rd) A water-mill or a 
wind-mill, also a mill tamed by camels or 
bullocks. PI, ^^ ey. See also gj^jjj and 

hj>-jurrah, s.m. (5th) A species of hawk or 
falcon, a tercel goshawk. PI. ^ij>' jurrah- 
gdn. Also j\j a^ jurrah baz, 

A ^^j>' jir-ycin, s.m. (2nd)* Running, flowing, 
flux (as of blood, matter, etc.) PI. ^y\ijpr 
jir-ydnUnah. c-jT ^^^^ jir-ydn-i-db, Fluor 
albus. jL^i ^^^ jir-ydn-ushikoMf Dysen- 
tery, flux. ^^»x^ ^{iji^jir-ydn-i-mazi, FlnoT 
albus. ^-i^ f^^j^jir-ydn-i-manl, Gonorrhoea 
simplex, gleet. 

A k.^j>-janb, s.m. (2nd) A land measure, a 
com measure of 384 mudds, or as much land 
as will produce so much. PI. ^^y>- jarlb- 

A ifjjjS^jartdaA, adj. Alone, separate, solitary, 
unattended, unincumbered. 

A <U \aJjS>' jari-^mdna*A, s.f. (3rd) A fine, a penalty, 
a forfeit. PI. ^^ ey, J^^ ^^^j^ j«^- 
m&na!h kawul, verb trans. To fine, to mulct. 

jp- j^tTf s.m. (5th) Bubbling, murmuring, 
gurgling or purling, as a brook or running 
water, the sound of falling water, as from a 
cascade or waterfall. PI. jU^ jurrahdr. 
J/^ Jurr kawul, verb trans. To bubble, to 
gurgle, to purl, to murmur as a brook, to 
foam or boil as a cascade, jj- ^ jurr jurr, 
A rumbling in the belly or intestines, purling 
or murmuring as a brook. Jji' j^ jj- jufr- 
jurr kawul, verb trans. To rumble. 

^l/r jo^vrdngU, s.m. (5th) The cassia fistula. 
PI. (^^l/r ja'crdngdn. Also (^O^H and 

^jp jCLTTd, s.f. (6th) Weeping, lamentation, 
crying, bewailing. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; or 
(W.) PI. fc/j|^ jarrdwt. See Ij. J^ 

jafTol, verb trans. To cry, to weep, 
to whimper. See J^* 
&j\^ jatrdo or jajTdw, adj. Bet, sti 
jewels, fixed, placed, composed ; (F 
jarrd(Hi*h or jatrdwa'h. Jj^j\| 
kawul, verb trans. To set, to on 
stud with jewels, to fix in metal (ae 

^^jpr jufrang, s.m. (5th) A creepin 
creeper (as of cucumbers, melons, 
\J^j^ jurrartffdn. 

^jp-jarra'l, s.f. (6th) The root of a 
plant used as a remedy for snake bi 
and PI. (b ^^CT). 2. Continual 
pouring rain, or cloudy weather. 
PI. See iij\^ and 4^»XiJ 

p >- juz, s.m. (5th or 2nd) A part, a 
division of a book, containing ei% 
PI. ^j>' juzdn or <^jjjsj- juzUnah. 

juz'bandt, s.f. (3rd) Binding a boo 
^'^* u'*if^ juz-ddn, s.m. (2nd) I 
a cloth in which books are wrap 
wrapper. PI. ij^\jy>- ju^-ddnUn 
J$ juZ'Chkul, adv. Totally, entirel; 
all, great and small. 

A Uflf- jazd, s.f. (6th) Retaliation, re 
turn, compensation, reward, recomp 
Sing, and PI. ; (W.) ^^^Jj^r jazan 
^^jazd war-kawul, verb trans. To 
pensation, to requite, to return. 

^ Jdl;^ j^^^y^ or ^\jjs>r jar-zd'yU, 
A large musket, a wall piece, a s^ 
^\y>'jazQ:yildn or ^yj/>' jar-x 

jijp^ jiz'biz, s,f. (1st) A game pi 
knuckle-bones. PI. J)J>- jiz-bizi, 

A Ajs^jazm, s.m. (2nd) Decision, dc 
resolving. 2. Amputating, 3. ' 
graphical character ^ajrw (-^), whic 
over a letter to show that it is qc 
has no vowel following it. PI. Ai^ 

A *;^j5j- jazlra*h, s.f. (3rd) An island 
sula. V\. ^ ey. See jjlj 

A ij\p^ jizya'h, s.f. (3rd) A tribute, 




levied on indiyidaal8, a poll tax. PI. 

5- j€W, 8.m. (6th) Pewter. Sing, and PI. 
^ee also hi l::^^-*^^ jast, a.m. (6th) Pewter. 
^ing. and PL 

^^^^■■■■f- joa^, B.m. (2nd) A leap, a jump, a 
tK^ond, a spring. PI. iOyu^ jastUnah. 

^^^yj^ ki-M«^ ja«^ wahcU, verb trans. To jump, 
to lei^y to spring, to bound. iSee c^ 
^^-^ J c:^M*4fl^ just-thjU'e, s.m. (2nd) Search, 
ixuioiiy, quest, scrutiny, investigation, ex- 
imination, searching, seeking. PI. ^ u:. 

ftairo-jife Aawul, verb trans. To search, to 
inquire, to scrutinize, to investigate. 

fc«tfj- ji»4a% s.f. (3rd) A shoe or slipper with 
Ugli heels worn by the females of Kabul and 
Peij^wer out of doors. 2. (p) jasta'h^ Pewter, 

i<L..:^jaM^,s.m. (2nd) The body. PI. <Gjju^ 

^j»»>'jisr, s.m. (2nd) A bridge of boats. PI. 

^^jms^ jisrUnah. 

; ^ mB^ jism, s.m. (2nd) The body of any being. 

PL tjy^M^ jismUnah, ^U«m>- jism-dnl, adj . 

Bdonging to the body, corporeal, material, 

^JH88a% s.f. (3rd) The body, the shape or 

%are of the human fonn. PI. ^^ ey, (corrup, 

^f9«>>/(Ulm, adj. (from ^^^^^ Corpulent, stout. 

\^]Mk<^i s.m. (1st) The name of a prickly 
ttom or shrub which adheres to one*s clothes. 




^^4/^ jaa-farit s.m. (6th) The name of a 
Jdlow flower, the linum trigynum. Sing. 

•a PL 

^^joiBl, adj. Forged, counterfeit, a forgery ; 
•lio ^^ jaaU. See JU 

i^j^f s.m. (2nd) The yoke of a plough, a 
J^ for oxen in general. PL A3yu>- ju^- 
•"«*. Jji ^r j^ tatral, verb trans. To 
7*e. (flip). 

^uUs*- jughdLn-ghdh^ s.f. (3rd) The name of a 
species of shrub. PL ^ ey. 

jjcjisj- jujihandar, s.m. (5th) Beet-root. PL 
^j jcjisf- jiLghandaran. (p j*x-to-). 

ijts^ja^a'h or ix.^jogha!h, s.f. (3rd) A plume, 
an ornament worn by kings and princes in 
the East PL ^ ey. 

A \ipr j<if^9 8-f* (6th) Oppression, injustice, in-, 
jury. (E.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^\k^ 
jajuwl, Jj^ Usj- j(ifa w'xraly verb trans. To 
suffer or endure oppression or injustice. \as>- 
i^fjofcL kawuly verb trans. To oppress, to 
tyrannize over. ^ Usj- jafa-kaXy adj. Op- 
pressive, unjust, cruel. 2. s.m. (5th) An 
oppressor, a tyrant ; s.f. (3rd) }ij^\k>- jafd- 
kara'h, ^j^\A^jafa-kdn, s.f. (3rd) Tyranny, 
oppression, injustice, cruelty. PL j^ a'l. 

p Kz.<4^r>' jufty adj. Right, exact, even, fair, 
equitable, fit, accurate; (Fem.) iss^ jufta'h. 
See Ls^^3r^ 

p \jL.>sAp^ jufty s.m. (2nd) A pair, a couple, a 
match. 2. Evenness, a party. PL ijjM^ 

CSsJlsp- jtiftak, s.f. (1st) A kick with both the 
hind legs of a horse, ass, etc, PL ujC^-.a^ 
ju/takL Jjbj JJcA>-jtiftak wahaly verb trans. 
To kick with both hind legs. 

^jakjak, s.m. (2nd) The noise made by 
fowls. 2. Prattle, chatter, gabble. PL j^ 
iO^ jak jakUnah. J/ J:>- Jp- jak jak 
kawuly verb trans. To chatter, to prattle, to 
clack. See ^ /p and 4-^ iu:>- 

^ jaky s.m. (2nd) The name of a kind of fly 
or beetle which skims along the surface of 
the water and difficult to strike, hence foolish 
talk, nonsense, a useless matter. PL iJ^^ 
jakunah, Jjb^ CS^ jak wahaly verb trans. 
To talk nonsense, to chatter, to prattle, to do 
any useless thing. (? hi clJ^, absurdity, etc.) 
C^^ jig-jiff t A word used to incite or 
instigate a bull to fight. Jj^ ^^^ CJl^rJiff' 
jiff kawuly verb trans. To incite a bull to fight. 

sjip^ jaffrra'k or jaffarrdky s.f. (3rd) Strife, 
contention, altercation, quarrel, squabble. PL 




vi ^' Jj^ ni^ jagatrdlh kamuly verb trans. 
To quarrel, to contejad, to dispute, to wrangle. 
(hi \f^. 

^liSS»- jagnd,ta% B.f. (6th) A kind of fine cloth 
^or muslin. Sing, and PI. 

^J^ ^J^ jiff^-:Pffh s.f. (Srd) Coaxing, entreat- 
ing, wheedling. 2. (hi) An expression indi- 
cative of pleasure or surprise. PI. j^ a*!. 
J^ jjjs^ ^Ji>- jigl-jigl kawul, verb trans. To 
crave, to entreat, to coax, to beseech. 

J>- jal, s.m. (7th) A hedge of thorns around a 
dwelling or a village. 3. A kind of screen 
made of thorns to close the entrance to a 
thorny hedge, a stop-gap. PI. *j^1>- flUnah. 

Jpr j<^h 8'Da. (5th) A skylark. PI. J^jaidn, 

i^jcBl, s.f (1st) A damsel, a virgin, a young 
girl from the age of puberty. PI. i^jaeli. 
See ^j>- and JasT 

A i^jild, s.f. (6th) Leaving one's country, exile, 
departure,desertion. 2. Separation, separating. 
Z,(Jald) Anything clear and distinct. 4. Scour- 
ing, poUshing. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. 
1^^^ jildwl and jcUdwl. 5. adj. Separate, 
distinct, away, apart, aside, asunder, absent. 
J juS' Ip^jild kedal, verb intrans. To part, to 
be disunited, to separate. J^ )U»- jild kawtU, 
verb trans. To disunite, to disconnect, to sepa- 
rate, to divide, to detach. Ji^j i^ jila 
watan, s.m. (2nd) Emigration, leaving one's 
country. PL <OyJ»j iU- jila watanUnah, 
^^P^jild watanl, s.f. (Srd) Banishment, 
leaving one's country. PI. j^ a'l. J^^ i^ 
^}ifjiUL watan kawul, verb trans. To banish, 
to exile. Jju^ ^^j ^ jila watan kedal, 
verb intrans. To emigrate, to leave one's 
native land, to be exiled. 

A f^i^r julO'b, s.m. (2nd) A purge, a cathartic. 
PI. ^^tp^juldbUnak. J^ uJip^juldb kawul, 
verb trans. To take a purging dose or aperient. 
J^ jj M^ juldb war-kawul, verb trans. To 
purge, to give aperient medicine. 

>-.jal^t, s. prop. The name of a celebrated 
lover, whose mistress's name was Bhahft. 
jf- jaU&t, s.m, (5th) An executioner. PI. 

J^ip^ jalldt-dn. 2. adj. Cruel, hai 
Jih^ jallat'l, s.f. (3rd) The oflice 

tioner. 2. Cruelty. PL ^^ a'l. < 
j5^1U->/S;7e/, s.m. (6th) A small glo 

strings of which are hung about 

or necks of cattle, or worn abon 

by women. PI. ^Jip^ls^ julc^l-dn, 
A JiPTJ^if fl.nti. (2nd) Dignity, gram 

power, splendour, glory, majesty. 

jatdlunah. iSi^ jaldlak, adj. Ghra 

JUf J JIU- jaldley ow kamdley, s. 

of two hills on the Indus a little be! 

c^Jls^ jalab, s.m. (2nd) The rope t) 
which horses are picketed, head ] 
horse. PL <0^J^ jalabUnah. Sei 

A mU^ jalbdb, s.m. (2nd) A long 
viUon or awning of net-work to ke< 
PL ^y\Ap^ jalbdbunak. 

CJi:jJ^ jdl-banff, s.m. (9th) A kin- 
which stings on touching it, a kini 
ing nettle, the tops and leaves of 
cooked and eaten. Sing, and 
^:J^ jalbangcUl, s.f. (6th) The sn 
of the above. Sing, and PL See 

\.::J^jalt, adj. Quick, precipitate, rai 
impetuous, hasty ; (Fem.) iz^jaUa 
Quickly, briskly, (corrup. of P jl* 

<du>- jalatdh, s.f. (Srd) A kind of \ 
large basket with a cover for kee] 
in. PL ^ ey. See 4U«^ 

p Ap^jald, adj. Quick, nimble, brisk, \ 
impetuous, rash, fierce, quickly ; (F 

p u/jl^r jal4ti, s.f. (Srd) Haste, hun 
ness, quickness, celerity, precipit 
petuosity. PL ^^ ax. 2. adv 
briskly. Jj^ c/*^ j^^ kawul, 
To hasten, to hurry, tp be rash or i 
Seejj andjj 

clilsr jalak, s.m. (2nd) A kind of t 
spinning cotton, thread, etc. ] 
jatakunak. See ,^U. and 

• * 




jal-^tOnaX B.f. (6th) A cookhoufle, a 

sn. Sing, and PL 

JalandaraX fl*f. (6th) A whirligig. Sing. 

'h See also ^^ and j^^^ 

%law, B.m. (2nd) The head ropes of a 

, the rein for picketing a horse with. 

tinne, train. PI. ^j^^ jalawUnah. See 

fabinHldr, a.m. (5th) An attendant. PI. 
jLsj- jalaw-dafxLn, 

jabva'h, s.f. (3rd) Splendour, lustre, 
ment. 2. The bridal bed or ornaments. 
P<y. »^ if^ jaJwa' h gdh, s.m. (2nd) 
raptial throne, place of display. PI. 

\d). Splendid, lustrous; (Fern.) »/ g^ 

hrgarolh. ^^ y^U- jalwcih-gwri, s.f. 

Blandishment, affectation. 2. Splen- 

conspicuity. PI. •k a\ 

'a% B.f. (6th) A scream, a shriek, a roar, 

ow. 2. Calling with a loud voice. -Lsj- 

a&i*l wahal or J^ karvul, verb trans. 

ream, to shriek, to bellow. 

iyd, adj. Burnt, consumed. (From hi 


jakl, adj. '(from J1U-) Great, glorious, 
ioufl; (Fem.) ^\J^jal^la'A. 
OTJamm, A.m. (9th) Falling on in a 
2. The small shot of a fowling piece 
ig the object in a mass, or compact, 
and PI. (? A JL^ a multitude.) 
a.m. (5th) A turf, turf used in strength- 
the banks of a canal or pond, a clod of 

PL ^J^A^jumdn. 
mn&dy B.m. (2nd) Whatever is incapable 
fwth, a stone, a foasfl, etc. PL <0^jU:>. 
inah. (a CL?bU:>-) 
}am&$, a.m. (6th) A runner, a person 
ecampa. PL ^^\^^ jamds^dn. 
nmSUB, B.f. (lat> Coitus, copulation. PL 
'jimiSUsi, See^ 

^ jamdrOCBt, s.m. (2nd) A crowd, an 
bly, a troop, a meeting, a congrega- 
\ maajid/ PL A}yuU>* jamd^aatUnah. 

^jAj Ls^%cU>* J dajamd-tuBt namUndz, Pub- 
lic prayers along with the congregation. 

A JUsj- jamdl, s.m. (2nd) Beauty, elegance. 
PL i>j^\j^ jamdlilndh. 

HI ii^ JUs^- jamdl goUa'h, s.f. (3rd) The name 

of a purgative root (Croton tiglium). PL ^ 

ey. Also ^^ ^\a>>- jamdl koUoA. 

jX'^ jamdar, s.m. (2nd) A tare, the darnel 

(Vicia sativa). PL dj^jj^t^ jamdarUnaA. See 

*^jjA^ jamrUd, s.prop. The name of a river or 
stream flowing from the Ehaiber Pass, and 
giving name to a village and fort west of 
Pesh&war, near the Pass* 

p JujbL4>> jamshld, s.prop. The name of a 
famous king of Persia. 

ijLA^^jamcMCAy s.f. (3rd) A congregation, col- 
lection, assembly, amount, sum total, whole, 
the plural number. PL ^ ey, (Corrupt, of 
A ^AP^). Jju^ iju^^ jamceoHA kedal, verb 
intrans. To be collected, to assemble, to flock. 
J^ ijuks>^jam(B(CA kawuly verb trans. To col- 
lect, to amass, to gather together, add to- 
gether, to assemble, to heap. j\,iJLA>p^ jamtB- 
ddr, s.m. (5th) A native officer, a rank in the 
army. PL ^j\dju^ janueddrdn, i^j\sxa9^ 
jaw^ddrl, s.f. (3rd) The business of a jama- 
ddr. PL ^ a'i, ^j;>^ f*^ jam/B-Miardiy 
s.m. (2nd) Account of receipt and disburse- 
ment, account currrent. 

p ^^Mj^ jumaxegif s.f. (3rd) The weekly allow- 
ance to schoolboys paid on a Friday, the 
present given on a Friday by schoolboys to 
their master. PL ^ a\ 

A iju^ jum^dhy s.f. (3rd) Friday. PL ^ ey. 
See 6j^^ 

A \,:l^^0ju^ jamc^-yaty s.m. (2nd) Collection, 
assemblage, accumulation of persons. 2. 
Wealth. 3. Recollection, reflection. 4. Peace 
of mind. PL i^f^^^fu^ jamaa-yatUnah, 

A iL^jumla'h, s.f. (3rd) The whole, the sum, the 

aggregate, total amount. PL ^^ ey. ^^^\d 

ji'lrjumloiAy adv. Upon the whole, in short. 

<0u4>- ^ rm/n-jumloHhy adv. Out of the whole; 



• c» 


ijBT'^X^ ^ lahjumky^aiAaA, or ^Ju^ ^ 
<0 laKjumley nah^ Upon the whole, in Bhort. 
>'juma!ht s.f. (3rd) Friday, the Muhommadan 
sabbath. PI. ^ ey. See imj^ 
' y^^^jcmaey^ e.m. (let) The winter, the cold 
season. PI. ^^ i. See -^ 

^jf»- ^*<sn, s.f. (1st) A virgin, a maiden, spinster. 
"SfV^jiBm. 8eejr>. 

A ^^jvM^y B*ni. (5th) A demon, a spirit, a 
genius, one of the genii. PI. ^Jc^ jinndn. 
^yj ^^jihn niwalaey, adj. Possessed of an 
e^ spirit; also ,j.^ jinnl, adj. Stubborn, 
possessed of a devil. 

A mIi^ jandb, s.m. (2nd) Majesty, highness, 
excellency. 2. Power, dignity. 3. Brink, 
side, margin. 4. A threshold, a vestibule. PI. 
d^y\:^ jcMdbUfiah. ^J\a L^\:^jandlhi'adR, 
Tour majesty, your excellency, the most high. 

A gj\i^jindza*A or jandza% s.f. (3rd) A bier, a 
ftmeral. PI. ^^ ey. 

^jM- J^ndwar, s.m. ^(5th) An animal in 
general, a bird. PI. j^lvaj- jandnxer, or (p) 
PI. ^\j^\i^ jandwardn. 

A f^^pr j<^^^9 0*™- (2nd) A side, part, a tract 
of country, etc. PI. ij^^ janbUnah. 

A w.^ junub, adj. Polluted, defiled, spotted ; 
(Fem.) &^ip^ junuba'h. Jju^ i^,^^.:,^^ junub 
kedal, verb intrans. To become defiled or pol- 
luted. Jj^ ^^^'T junub kawul, verb trans. 
To defile, tp pollute. 

ifj\fipr junbdza*h, s.f. (3rd) The going rough, as 
a camel unaccustomed to the saddle. PI. ^^ey, 
fjjbj %j^^^ junbdzd h tvahal, verb trans. To go 
roughly, as an unbroken camel ; also written 
ir^L«^ jumbdzah, 

p ^Li5»- J2^nia«, adj. Moving, tremulous, vibra- 
ting. 2. act. part. Moving, shaking. 

^}^:>^ jambakf adj. C!lose, dense, clustered, 
grouped, assembled, collected, amassed ; also 
written ^j^ap^ jambak. ^jj^ (Ji^ janbak 
starif The Pleiades. See iijj^ 

i,.;^ janba% s.f. (3rd) A party, a horde, an 
assemblage, a collection, a clan, a brother- 
hood, a group, a pack. PI. ^ ey. 2. s.m. 

(6th) A partizan, an auxfliarf, m lielp, aa ad- 
herent. Sing, and PI. Bee ^ji 

A (ju^o^/onfta^, s.m. (Snd) Paradise, the garda. 
PI. ijjii^ jannatHnoA. ,^J>^ jtmnafl, ton. 
(5th) An inhabitant of Paradise. PL ^^Lu^ 
jannatl'dn. 2. adj. Of ParadiBe, heavenly, 
celestial. (jtijJjii\ Lz.'^i^ JanmO-ul^irdouSf 
The garden of Paradise. 

J^ j^9 B.m. (2nd) A marriage pioeessian, i 
party of men, friends of the bridegroom, who 
go with him to fetch the bride home. Fl. 

One of a marriage procession, a wedfing 
guest. PI. Ju^i^ jatifid/ii. See ^rf^W 

8 J^^ jdf^dl, s.m. (2nd) Trouble, oiffieul^) 
perplexity, embarrassment, plague. 8. Birife, 
etc. PI. ^^\:si^ janjdlUnak. Jj^ J^^^ 
janjdl kawul, verb trans. To trouUe, to plsg^ne, 
to distress, to embarrass. tJ^^ joiyAft, 
s.m. (6th) A molester, a plaguer, a perplezer, 
a disturber. PI. ^U\^^ja9^dll-dn. 

JtflcU* jaiyal, s.m. (2nd) A kind of tree. PI- 
<GjL^U^ janjcUUnak. 

r-jf^ janjarmf s.m. (6th) A plant produdxig i 
kind of pulse (Cytisus cajan). Sing, and PI* 

m % 

»j*Xi^ jandra'h, s.f. (3rd) A padlodc. 8. An 
instrument for drawing wire. PL ^ 9' 
See /^\j 
x^y^ jan^% s.f. (3rd) A flag, a staadiri • 

banner. PI. ^ ^. (8 f<L|0r)« ^ sipi 
A (j^t'i^jins, s.m. (2nd) Family, race. 2. Q9M 
kind, gender, species, sort. 3. Drapery, n* 
^ jinsUnoA. (a PL uJ:^\ ly*)* 
ij ^jt^^jhnspaJijinBf adv. Sqpaiatd^ 
kind by Und. ^yi*i^jifM, adj. In kind. 
^jyc,^ janghozaey, s.m. (1st) A kind of ^ 
like the pistachio, the kemd of the pme. ^* 
^ \. See fc/J>U- 
•Gfij- Ji»aAa% s.f. (6th)^ little, or verj 
girl ; the diminutive of ^^p^ . Sing, and F** i 
See ^jpr 

* mg, s.m. (2nd) Battle, war, ccmib^ 
?L i^^:^ jcmgikMh. ^^\\ 


• c« 



jamg SzmMdak, adj. Tried m war, a yeteran, 
warlike, brave. j^T CJ^ jang awvst, or 
^Jtb ^^i^:^ j<mg yila&f^ adj. A hero, a cham- 
jMoa, a fighter, ^£^yt ^IJ^ janff-ekvan^ 
sX (3rd) Batde, warfiure. PL ^^a'u cjL^r 
^^ y"^ 3^9 ^* Goatentioiui, litigious. 
#oaJ Cj^^JQing dbdahf adj. Yeteran, tried in 
warlike. Jj^^ CiLsf* jafiff-ojadal, 
L. (Sad) Altercation, strife, squabblej con- 
flict^ battle, i^j^^^ j<^i^nff^Tfc^f s-m. (1st) 
A akirmish, a squabble (dimin. of cjLsr). 

PL ^ I. i^\i^^^^^ janff dscL'ejff s.m. (2nd) 

AbaMle-field. PL ^jiU. ^o-^noA. 
^ jang-reZf a.m. (9tib) Betreating with the 
fiiee to the enemy, facing about and fighting. 
Sing, and PL Jj^ Ciu^ J€mg ianml, verb 
trans. To fight, to combat, to make war. 
4>4J Cio^r jany n'Baial (E.) or rishatai 
(W.), yerb trans. To commence to fight, to 
idl-to, to fig^t, to assail, to assault, to join in 
iMKttle. JjLsJ d:^ jwng fCWudannU (E.) 
or vl^abmul (W.), verb trans. To fight, to 
contaid, to war against, to set to. J J^^i^ 
jamgedalf yerb^intrans. To fight, to contend, to 
WW. Pres. i^jJii^PT jonge^l (W.) ^^Ji^ 
jot^egi (B.) ; past ^^>J:»^ J wu^ngedah or 
Jui^ j wurjcmgeAd ; ftit. i^j^c»9^ ^ j wu 
fxfh jange^ or ^JLjiup^ ij ^wu bdhjangegl ; 
imp. 9j^:^ J wurjangej^cth or ^i^J^JS^ J 
wvrjcmgegah, ; act. part. ^<il3jjL;j£;«^ jei9(^' 

^''''''*^^^ ^' {^^"^"^^ j<^^^dilnaey ; past 
part. ^dJLp^ ja$hgedalaeg \ yerb. n. <0Juj1v^ 

jangedcoMCh. Jj$^ jangawuly yerb trans. 
TV) fight, to contend with, to bait, etc. Pres. 
i^^£^ jangawi ; past irjUl^ J rcu-jangwivtih 
or j^\5Sf^ J wurjcrngSLwo ; fut. gr^$^ ^j ^ wu 
6ok Jongawt ; imp. 2^^^ J mmjangaroah ; 
act. part. ^^ij^^i^p^janga/wUnJuiey or ^^^^ 
jamgmc9,naey ; past t^jS^ janganmlaeg ; 
yerb. n. ij^i^ jangawuna* h. 
\p^ jung, s.m. (2nd) or (5th) A young camel 
ready for carrying a burden. PL ^^Lp^ 
jungUnaA or ^\i:^jung&n ; s.f. (Srd) ^^j^ 
jungtih. PL ^^:^jwngey. 

<^ij^ i<^i s*iA* (2nd) A miscellany, a ehres- 
tomathy, a book of extracts. K. ^jjS.^ 

ij^:^ jungarralK s*f. (Srd) A hut, a hoyel. PL 
^ eg. See iJj^jongatraHh. 

l/^ j^^^^> s.m. (1st) A young camel, from 
his birth until able to bear a load. PL ^< i ; 
Fern. (6th) jji^sj- junga't. Sing, and PL 

p ^J^ j(^h B*^* (5th) A combatant, a war- 
rior, a fighter. PL ^US^ Jangidn ; adj. 
Warlike, of war, martial. 

A s^^xp- janUb, s.m. (9th) The south. Sing, 
and PL 

A ^y^junUbl, adj. Southern. 

A ^y^ junUn, s.m. (9th) Madness, insanity, 
phrenzy. 2. A demoniac, a madman. Sing, 
and PL iij^ jtmUnl, adj. Mad, insane, 
passionate. See (^yj^ 

yV^jina% s.f. (6th) A girl not yet arriy^^d at 
puberty, a daughter, a damsel. Sing, and PL 
See also ,jio^ and ^^^ 

Sj^ %j^ jarma!h jarmoHh or "[^ ^^^jarmML 
jarma. s.f. (Srd) Shift, subterfuge, eyasion, 
shuffling, equiyocation. PL ^ eg. aj^ tj^ 
Jj^ jarma!h jarma'h kawul, yerb trans. To 
eyade, to shuffle, to equiyocate, to make 
shift, ij^ 9j^ Aj pah j(mma!h jarmoHh. 
ady. Eyasiyely. 

V y>^ jaUf s.m. (6th) Barley. Sing, and PL 
See <L£jjfjl 

A L^\^jawdbf s.m. (2nd) An answer, a reply. 
PL ^Jy^^ janmbunah. so L^\j>-jawdb dih, 
An answerer, a replier. ^ J S-^\^ jawdb 
dihl, s.f. (Srd) Amenable, accountable, re- 
sponsible, answerable. PL ^ dl. m\^ 
^^y^ jawdb suwdl, Altercation, conyersation. 
Jjir f^^y^r jawdb kawul, yerb trans. To 
answer, to reply to. Jx^* S-^|^ jawdb 
mundal, yerb trans. To get an answer, to be 
dismissed or discharged. ^uU uj\j>- jawdb 
ndma'h, s.f. (Srd) A written reply, an answer. 
PL v^ ey. J/ j^ ^-^'^ jawdb war kawul, 
yerb trans. To dischiffge, to dismiss, to dis- 


band, to answer to, to reply to. l^\, 
JidT^ir jOfWdbf Echo. 2. A ready reply or 
answer. 3. adj. Pert. m\^ ^j^ kat/^ 
jawdb, A definite reply or answer. 

^Eij\^j*7Ddr, s.m. (6th) The name of a grain 
(Holcus sorgom). Sing, and PI. 

/j^^ i*^'"^^^^' ^•™' ^^^ A gambler. PI. 
J^Ji^jiL-'dr-giBr, isjj\y>^ji£-dr^ara'h^ s.f. 

(3rd). PI. ^ ey. 
^j^^ffodn, s.m. (Ist) PI. A species of grain 

(Holcus sorgom). SeOj^^ 

s 4^|^^'tZ'-an,8.m.(5th) A gamester, a gambler. 

s^lyr ^'t?'-an, s.f. (3rd) Gambling. PI. ^ aHi. 

Jj^ v^|y>- jfC-drl kawulf verb trans. To 

gamble, to game. 
P i}\^juwdlf s.m. (2nd) A sack or bag woven 

of wool or hair for holding things. PI. 

<0^1y>- juwdlUnah. 

P S ^^jawdrif adj. Young, juvenile ; (Fern.) 
4j \^ jarcdnoHh . See ^^ 

^^\f!^ jawdnrodUy s.m. (6th) A kind of grain 
like mustard seed from which a kind of bitter 
oil is expressed. Sing, and PI. 

iLjSb\^jawdhir, s.m. (2nd) A jewel, a gem, etc. 
PI. i^^yt^^ jawdhirUnaA, or (a c->]^|y>- 

A ^^yb\^ jawdhirly s.m. (5th) A jeweller. PI. 
u;^>^!yr jdwdhindn. 

iSi^jobal, adj. Wounded, maimed, mutilated, 
hamstrung; (Fern.) Aiy>^jobkCh, JjJjy>- 
Jobaledalf verb intrans. To become wounded, 
maimed, mutilated, etc. ^J^js^ jobalawul, 
verb trans. To hamstring, to maim, to muti- 
late. See JjjJ 

A)y^jobala!A, s.f. (3rd) Injury, hurt, detriment, 
scath. 2. Retaliation, revenge. PI. ^^ ey. 
See aLj^ 

p sjy>^joba% s.f. (3rd) A mart, a market, an 

emporium. PI. A ey, 
^js^jUtaX s.f. (6th) A shoe, a slipper. Sing. 

and PI. See i^jj (hi ^y>-)' 
B <g^ jUUa'h^ s.f. (3rd) BefosOj leavings, re- 

mams, scourings. 2. Base, fabe, 
gems, etc. PI. ^ ey. 
•3^ jma% s.f. (6th) The act of 
rocking, moving to and fro, vibri 
lating, nodding, as fr^m sleep. Si 
^\iy>- ^^jilUa*l MiwarTal^ vei 
take (lit. consume) a swing, to roc 
to vibrate, to oscillate, to nod fr 
ness (verb intrans. in English). ^ 
jUUa'l war-kawul, verb trans. T 
swing, to give a swing to, to set i 
See Jl5 and ^\i 

U ^^ j^jo^A mdjuja'h, s.f 

and Magog. PI. ^ ey. (a ^^t 
See <^^^U iA.^ 

p i:)\d ^ jo-ddna'h, s.f. (3rd) The n 
teeth of horses by which the a^ 
ascertained. 2. The quantity of 
sumed in a stable. PI. ^ ey. 

jj^ jarodarf s.m. (2nd) A tare, 
(Vicia sativa), particularly thoe 
amongst barley. PI. <Gj>j.jy>- jt 
8eej»x*4j>- and ^IjJ J;U 

A j^ jawr, s.m. (2nd) Violence, 
PI. ij^^ jawrUnah. Jj^j^ i< 
verb trans. To act with oppression 

jy>-jawar, adj. Deep, profound, nc 
(Fem.) nj^jawara'h. 

\^j^jawar tl-d, s.f. (6th) Deptl 
proftmdity, depression. (E.) Sin 
(W.) PI. ^^^Ij jy>- jawar-tl-drivl, 
jawar wdlaey, s.m. (1st) PI. 
See jj) 

Hj^ jawara!h, s.f. (3rd) A leech. 

j^^jorr^ adj. Healthy, well, in goo< 
gorous, strong. 2. Arranged, prepa 
devised, effected. 3. adv. Exacilj 
j^ ijj Togh jotii adj. Well, 1 
strong, etc. ; (Fem.) 2r^yj- ^yj rogh 
^^^j^^jorr wdlaey, s.m. (1st) P 
or \i3 j^ joTT'tl-d^ s.f. (6th) He« 
healthfrdness, haleness, heartinc 
soundness. 2. Preparation, ai 
(E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. ^/^l 



X^jorredalf verb intarans. To recover, to 
row healthy or strong, to become vigorous. 
. To become arranged or effected (as peace, 
r a dispute). Pres. ^jfjy'r jorrejzl (W.), 
^v^j^ i^rr^^ (E.) ; past 4Llj^^V)rT 
\ah, or ^ ^jyr jorr wurshah ; fiit. j^ 
|A lijorr bah shl, or ^ J <u iaA w?w-^f ; 
ap. ^ j^jorr shah, or <l1 j wu-shaA; 
rL part. ^J-^^J^^;^ jorre-dUnkaey, or 
Hb'Hi^^^2r^"^«'w^; past part. ^yJi,j^ 

^Tvaey; verb. n. ^Jo^y)^ jorredana'h. 

i^jorranml, verb trans. To arrange (as 
dispute), to set in order, to devise, frame, 
CEibive, to mature, to organize, to adjust, to 
!0<jmmodate. 3. To cure, to heal, to restore, 
'■CB- i^jij^fr jorrawi ; V^tJjy>-jorr karr, 
'^J fcu-karr; fut. ^^J ^j^jorr bah kfrl, 
* ^J J '^ *^^ n?w-Am; imp. sJjy>'jorr 
QyA, otyf ^ wu'krrah ; act. part. ^J-^jjU^ 
>TT^mUnkae;/y or ^^^^j^^ jorrawUnaey ; past 
•rt. \^ j^jorr karraey\ verb. n. <^j^^ 

^ll>^i^2Ta*> s.m. (2nd) Beauty, graceful- 
Ms, good looks, grace, neatness, spruceness, 
wmeliness. PI. ^O^lj^ jorrdbunah. See 

'^jf: jorrildit (E.) or jornsht (W.), s.m. 
Sad) Combination, union, junction, connec- 
*wn, alliance, concord, coalition, confederacy, 
^onqriracy. PI. ^j^j^ jorriBLtUnah or 
im^tUnah. (s ^J^). 
^jorra'h, s.f. (3rd) A pair, a set, a couple. 
2. A suit of clothes sent to the house of the 
fede by the bridegroom. PI. ^^ ey. (s. \j^) 
jfrjawz, s.m. (2nd) A nut, the middle or 
'iteow of anything. PI. «Ojyyj- jawzUnah. 
\^ jjf^ jawZ'i-rUmt, A widnut. ^.y. j^ 
}^z i(lya% A nutmeg. JjU jy>- jawz-i- 
**-!»/, or JJU wd-§i/, A deleterious herb. 
^f^j^jawZ'i'Aindi, Betel nut. 
i^impjra'A. s.f. (3rd) A nutmeg. PI. ^^ ey. 
^jcavas, s.m. (2nd) A courtyard, an area. 
"• *iy^^ jcavaS'Unah, 
^f: jodit B.m. (2nd) Ebullition, efferves- 

cence; heat, emotion, lust, passion. PI. 
ijy^^joshUnah. ^^r^- ij^f^jo^h Miarosh, 
s.m. (2nd) Anger, rage, passion. ^^ \^y^ 
josh4'^iln, Ebullition of the blood, the name 
of a disease. JJj]^ u^^ ^ pah josh rdtlaly • 
verb intrans., or J^yi- \^^Josh MrWarraly 
or Jjfej \^^30sh wahalf verb trans. To boil 
or bubble up, to be agitated by the action of 
heat. Jj^ j^ kJ^^ J^^ war-kawuly verb 
trans. To boil, to heat, to stew, to cook, to 
seethe, to scald. ssj\J^^ joshdnda'h, s.f. 
(3rd) A decoction. PI. ^\ ey, 

i^^jokaly verb trans. To weigh, to measure. 
Pres, ^^ jokl ; past ii^ j wu-jokah or 
CS^ J wu-joka ; fut. ^^ ^j iwu bah jail; 
imp. i^yf^ J wu-jokah; act. part, y^fyr 
jokUnkaey or ^f^ jokUruiey ; past part. 
^^^jokalaey\ verb. n. ^^jokanah, 

p L^^^jau-kob, adj. (from ^ and act. part, 
of ^ji3^) Half-pounded, coarsely ground. 
Jj^ ^^f^ jaU'kob kawul, verb trans. To 
pound or grind coarsely. 

8 ^y>r j^9h s-m. (5th) A Hindfl fakir, a devo- 
tee. 2. A kind of pigeon. PL ^J^^jogV 
an. s.f. (3rd) *j^^ jogarma'h. PI. ^ ey, 

V^ J^^, s.m. (5th) A weaver, a spider. PI. 
^^^^ joldgdn. 

p ^^ jau-ldriy s.m. (9th) Moving about (as 
horses in a place of exercise), coursing, 
springing, wandering. Sing, and PI. \J^^ 
Jj^ jaU'ldn kawul, verb trans. To make to 
spring or jump about, to exercise (as horses). 
*^c>V?" jf^^ldn-gahy s.m. (2nd) A place of 
exercise (of an army, or for horses). PI. 
ij^b^ gdh'Unah, 

j^i^ jau-ldn-garly s.f. (3rd) Galloping fast, 


fleetness. PI. ^ a'f. 

p ii^joldhy s.m. (5th) A weaver. PI. ^J^ 
jolcL-gdn. See J^ 

^ff^jolcHhy s.f. (3rd) (hi Jj^) A stroke of the 
sun. PI. ^ ey. ^Jjb^ 4!^ johih wahalaeyy 
adj. (past part.) Suia-struck ; (Fem.) Jjbj <d^ 
joldh wahali. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ f . 

^^joUiif s.f. (6th) A wallet, a sack, a bag, a 


scrip^ a haversack, th6 ikirt of a dreaa when 
anything is carried in it« Sing, and PI. 

^J^y^ jUnaAa% sX (6ih) A little girl» the dimi- 
natlyeofj^J[ena% which see. Sing, and PI. 

djy^jonff, s.m. (2nd) or (5th) A yoong camel 
ready for carrying a burden. PI. ^^f>r 
jong-Unahf or yjij^^^jong-^n, ^^ jonga!hf 
8.f. (3rd) The feminine of the above. PI. ^ 
ey, See CJli^r and ^J:^ 

»J^^ jUngaxsidK 8«f- (8rd) A hut, a hovel. 

PI. ^ ey. See *jS^ 
^frj9,ngiieyy 8.m. (lat) A yonng camel not 

yet able to carry a load, the diminutive of 

^>r PL ^^i; (Fern.) (6th) Sing, and PI. 

^^jilnga'l. See C^i^ and ^jLa^ 

^^janaX ».f. (6th) A yonng giri, a girl, a 
young unmarried woman. Sing, and PI. 

(j^^jofvul, verb trans. To masticate, to chew, 
to champ. Pres. i/yer joff^ (rare, the pres. 
of Jijpr viz. ^yr being generally used in- 
stead) ; past tjy^ J wu^'Wuh, or jjj^ j wu- 
jcMva; fat. c/y5f" ^ J wu bahjcMvi or ^yr 
jo-yl ; imp. gjy^ j wu-jo-waA, or <u^ j ttw- 

jcHvUnaey ; past part, ^^y^ jowulaey ; verb, 
n. ^jyr jowundh or <^[^ jo-yancuh. See 

i^f^jawaHi, s.f. (3rd) A narrow pit or trough 
for admitting water to melon-plants and 
grapes. PI. ^y>-jon>ey. 

kv jby^ jawhar^ s.m. (9th) A gem, a jewel, a 
pearl. 2. Matter, substance, essence. 3. Vir- 
tue, worth, merit. 4. The blackish marks or 
water on scimitars. Sing, and PI. j)*> j>yr 
jawhardar^ adj. A scimitar marked with jaw- 
har. i^yby>^ jawhari, s.m. (6th) A jeweller. 
PI. ^^yty^ jawharl-dn, 

ijiy^ jllharra\ a,f. (3rd) A wrinkle, » farrow 
in the face or body. 2. A crease, a crumple, 
a pucker, a rumple, a plait. PI. ^ ey. See 
ij^, ^, ^ and^,;fiD. 

(Jiy^jo-yU, verb trana. To chew, to masticate, 


to champ. Prea* yJiyr J^>ifi* P*** 
wufjo-yak ; fut. yAyr ^ j *w* bahJKH^ 
Aiy^ j wuryhyah\ act. part^^^j^^ 
haay, or ^y.^io-y^ioiaey ; past pari 
j(hyaUiey\ verb. n. ^:j^ jtHfonci 

Jjt^ and Ji^? 

i^jah, adj. Stubborn, resistive, re&ai 
aii animal). 2. At bay, standing ^ 
face to one's foes, determining to resi 
death, i^ i^jah jah^ Words used 
cattle. J J^ i^jah kedal, verb inti 
stand at bay, to take one's stand, b* 
enemy, with the intentionof fighting to 

A S<^ jihad, s.m. (2nd) (inf. ill of j^q 
battle, particularly with infidels. PL 
jthddUnah. See \js, 

^y j^ jhd'Cf^lt^i a.m. (1st) A 
wild rue, PI. ^^ L See ^jij^j 

V j\^jdh&z^ s.m. (2nd) A ship, alio 
PI. ii^\^ jahazUnah. 

A ^^\^ jaAdlat, sjn. (2nd) Ignoran 
barism, brutality. PI. ^yl^\^jata 

p ^\^jaAdn, s.m. (9th) The worlds. 

verse. 2. People. * jj J fj^s^ i^^ 
adj. One who has seen the world, 
traveller, experienced, j^ v:; W J^ 
adj. World-inflaming. jJ ^; Wi^*^^ 
World-conquering, worldH9ubduing. < 
joAdn-yard, adj. doing round the ^ 
A ^jL.^^jihat, s.m. (2nd) Cause, reaaan, 
2. Side, surface, form, mode, mam 

i^ji^fr jihatunah. 

A j^^jaAd, s.m. (2nd) Effort, exertion 
vour, struggle, diligence, care, ap| 
assiduity, earnestness. PI. ^ji^^iPf^ja 

j^jiAr, s.m. (2nd) A kind of dance p< 
by men. PI. ^$u^jiAninaA. 

A J^^aA/, s.m. (2nd) Ignorance, want 
PI. ^j^.^ jaAlUnaA. Jj^ J|5f- ja^ 
verbtrans. To show ignorance or want 

J^ j^i^-jahmjakafT, s.m. (2nd) Wind i 

drift. PI. ^jj/^ Af0f jaAm jaic 

(hi (4sr |>fr). 


;^4f^ jkmm-foh, Bjn. (Oth) The name of a 

fmc^ of MuhammftdanB. Sing, and PI. 

^ !■>■ jakatmcan, b. jvrop. Hell. 

^%i,^>- jahamuxM, adj. HeUiBh, infernal, be- 

.omging tx> hell. 

»y^p^ jaA«tf, B.m. (5th) A Jew. PL ^^^jft 

Ktf^nBcAlfi. (a jj|i) 

^^jakaUk, B.f. (Srd) The name of a diseaee. 

Fl. ^ gr. 

PT -Z^*^' '^'™* (^^^^ '^ leathern bag for carrying 

water in, a water bag. PL ^^ f . 

»* /«% B.fl (6th) Sheep-gat, or goats' entrails, 

used for bow strings and the strings of mnsical 

iurtniments, catgut. 2. Border, edge, margin, 

toink, brow, skirt, rim, side, verge. Sing. 

mdPL See^^^^^U,^b,^?^J^ ijj^^and 

T \^0>^jeb, a.m. (2nd) A pocket. PL ^yf^>pr 
\^f^jeS, B«m. (6th) The name of a tree firom 

iriiich tooth brashes or tooth cleaners are 

Bade. Sing, and PL 
^^^^j^f B.m. (2nd) The name of the second 

Mith of the Hindu year, the month of May — 

im. PL ijfi^ jeU'Unah. 
*V^ i?^^'*> «-f- (Srd) The eyelid. PL ^ 

9- See^uj^ 
^^figiclkf B.f. (Srd) An ornament of gold worn 

in the tarban, a plnme. PL ^^ ey. See ijiji 
^jd, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of a J^), Igno- 

iinee, want of sense, nescience. 2. (hi) A 

tbingf or line of captives. 3. A string of 

hidkets tamed by a Persian wheel. Pl.<UjLf>- 

^*'**^* Ji^ i}tPrM^ kawul, verb trans. To 
^ or manifM; ignorance or stupidity. See 
Js&and J^ 
^ \a^ 3^ i^^ffi&f B.m. (6th) A plant pro- 
moting a kind of pulse (Ciytisus cajan). Sing. 

(^ ilso called ^im or jkmArfSrf^y and ^m- 
^i^M, is the seventh letter of the Persian, 
Hd tlie ninth of the Pn^to alphabet, and is 

never found in Arabic words. Its sound is 
as M in the English word 'cheek.' As a 
numeral it stands for 3, like the letter ^ 
P uioU- ^dbuA, adj. Alert, quick, agile. uioU- 
u:^wi) ^dbtik dost, adj. Active, alert, quick, 

adroit, ^jl^ <^ V ^^^-^^^^ s*f- (3rd) 
Activity, alertness, quickness, adroitness. PL 
jA a*l. See i^*^j^ 

p ^/^^ dhibuk'l, s.f. (3rd) Activity, alertness, 
agility, dispatch, celerity. PL j^^'t. yS-^}^ 
Jj^ d^dbuk'l kawul, verb trans. To dispatch, 
to make haste, to act with celerity. 

c-^l>- ^p, s.m. (2nd) Print, copy, impression, 
stamp. 2. An edition. PL <UyU- d^dpUnah, 
3. adj. Printed, stamped, impressed ; (Fem.) 
iUU- dkdpa^h. 2. s.f. (3rd) A stamp, the stone 
or letters set up &om which an impression is 
taken. PL ^ ey. J^ S^V' ^^P ka^'^^h 
verb trans. To print, to stamp, (hi *— ^l^) 

p {ji*^}>- didp-lus, s.m. (5th) A flatterer, a 
wheedler, a fawner. PL ^L>j1jV>- ^dp-lusdn ; 
s.f. (Srd) ^rfjLU- didp-Ulsa^h. PL ^ ey. 

p ^jLU- d^dp-kisl, s.f. (3rd) Flattery, syco- 
phancy, adulation, wheedling. PL ^\ a\ 

J^ t5-*j^ V" ^^W*^ kawul, verb trans. To 
flatter, to wheedle, to coax. 

<uU- didpa'h, s.f. (Srd) A stamp, the stone or 
letters from which the impression is taken. 
PL ^ ey. Jjbj ajU- ^dpa*h wakal, verb 
trans. To print, to stamp, to take an impres- 
sion. Bee L^\^ 

^U* dkdpiy S.f. (5th) Kneading the limbs, 

** shampooing. PL ^lioU- ^dpt-gdni. ^\t>- 
Jj^ ^dpl kawul, Yerh trans. To knead the 
limbs, to shampoo. 

-ol>- dkdper, or *^V>- did-perah, adv. On all 
sides, roxmd about, on every side, all round, 
around, about. {/-^ V* J^ didr-didperah. On 
all sides, right and left. See ^^^ and ^^ 

J ju^ j^lfc. ^lfc.^l>. didder ^dn dadn kedal, 
verb intrans. To disperse, or take up a position 
round about or on all sides of a building or 
other place, but separate one from each other 
(as soldiers skirmishing, etc.) ^U.^U.^U- 



J^ ^3,per ^n ^Sn kawul, verb trans. To 
sUition or post pereoiu round about a place, 
as above. 

PjjU- ^ddar, a.m. (3nd) A sheet, a Teil worn by 
women. PI, aj^jU- ^ddar-UnoA. See^jl^ 

j\»- di&r, a.f. (let) Action, buaineas, affiur, work, 
profession, labonr, occnpaUon, operation. S. 
Remedy, cnpe, expedient, help, aid. Pl.j^ 
^dri. See *,U- 3, (p.) adj. Four. Used in 
composition ; as ^T j\f- ^dr dbrH, s.m. 
(5th) A young man whose beard is just ap- 
pearing. PI. tijlj/TjW ^dr dbrU&n. j\s- 
AyT ^dr d'lna'h, a.f. (3rd) Steel annour. PI. 
jj ^. Ij jU- diar-j>d, s.m, (5th) A quadruped, 
V\.^J^Ai J^didr^aydn, aj\ij\»-^drpdra'A, 
B.f. (3rd) Broken rice, the bullet of a gaa, 
divided into four. PI. A ey. -i^-jU- ^Sr 
dioshm, s.m. (5th) Expectation, meeting, in- 
terriew. S. The eyes of two persons meeting. 
3. A dog with white spots above the eyes. 
PI. yjUii>-jl»- Mfir ^askm&n. ^J^i Jj>- 
ckdrpd-yl, s.f, (5th) A cot, a bed. I'l-jl»- 
^J£^\J ^dr pd-jfi-^dm. >—>j»'j>^ckdr^ob, 
s.m. (2nd) The frame of a door, window, etc, 
PL ^^j>- j^ ^^ ^obUnah. i%^.y>-J^ 
^dr ^ba'i, B.f. (6th) A privy, a bath, a 
doorpost. Sing, and PI. See ^^b . j\a- 
jjU^ ^dr Mdna'h, s.f, (3rd) Chequered 
oloth. PI. ^J ey. J^ jU- cftor ^val, s.m. 
(2nd) PI. AJjS^ Jto- ^dr ^maiUnah, or 
iyi. ^tvalaey, B.m. (1st) The comb of the 
cock, the hood of the hoopoe or the lark, etc. 
PI. ^^ f. (ls3ji. jU di&r MKoiak, The di- 
minutive of the preceding. y\jj\j>-^drzdna, 
A mode of sitting like a tailor, squatting. 
Ji-L-S'ylj^U- ^dr zdnU kenOatai, verb in- 
trana. To squat. JLi jW ^dr adl, A horse 
of four years old. j^ ^W. ^fy' aa, A croas 
road, two roads crossing each othei*, a court, 
or square, a market-place, ^j\i, jU- ^dr 
shdna'h, adj. Tough, hardy, brawny. ,U- 
Ah^ didr ^amba'h, Wednesday. si^j\=>~ 
. ^dr iodx'h, a.prop. The name of a small vil- 
lage in the Do'Sbah of Pealiftwar. J^J^ 

^r ffttl, s.m. (5th) An omamen 
nose. PI. Ji^j\»- ^dryuldn. Jfc« 
ma^z, s.m. (2nd) A walnut. PI. A 
^&r ma^hzanah. jIj jW ^dr ydt 
The four Khalifa, the four successoi 
hammad. ^f_fb jW ^dr ydri, s.m 
sect of Muhammadans who veni 
above. PI. ^^^Ij^lijWcioryarfdw. 
Mar yek, B.m. (2nd) A quarter, a to 
PL AijO jU- dtdr yekunak. j\»- U 
nd ^dr, adv. Certainly, inevitably, 
right or wrong, nolens volens. &e 

p tj\»- ^dra'h, s.f. (3rd) Remedy, c 
cure, aid, help. PL A ey. jL y,U 
sdz, otjtj^ ^dra'hyar, s.m. (5t! 
ing remedies, a restorer, a helper, 
PL (^IjU 11;'^ chdra'h sdzdn or ^^^1 
ijyLt tj\^ ^dra'h sazl or ij^yari. 
Remedying, aiding, helping, applyi 
dies. PL ^^ a'i. 

\A^. ^aprd, adj. Dumb, stammering. 

>iV ^^-tra'h, s.f. (3rd) A knife, a 1< 
or da^^r, a cleaver. PI. t^U- cfti 
ij^ Carrey. Also ^^s^ c^wol 
(6th) A small knife. Siiig. and PL 

f\>- ^o^, adj. Alert, active, in spirits 
vigorous, iat, stout, obese; (Fei 
Ad^a'h. (t j'^) 

J juicW did(^edat, verb intrans. To hi 
stout, or in good condition, to beco: 
and vigorous. Pres. ^g-iU- diB^ 
or L^wcU- ^aghegl (E.) ; past tJSt j 
^ah, or Am ! wvr^ah; fiit. _^ jj c 
hah ski, or |_1 i aj bah Tvu-sht; imj 
^d^ shah, or A.1 j mu-shahj s 
^ilijJuiU. ^d^edunkaey, or - 
ehd^edUnaey ; past part. cl#- ^^ 
t^y£t di5^ shawaey; verb. n. sj^ 
^edana'h, J^cU- didghawul, verb 
fatten, to make fat, to make fleahy c 
Pres. i^yi.\^ ^ds^awl ; past S f ' 
^ZTi or/ j fcurkatr; fat. i/^ "4 f 



^dJkan. ^j irU. (^dA-i-^anaii, The dimple 

of the chin. 
JjU- ^d^al, s.m. (2nd) A sheet or veil of 

chintz, worn by women. PI. ^jij^ did- 

ycUUnah. See Jjlf>- and vi^ 
? t_nr- c/^j9, adj. The left, the opposite to 

the right of the body, the left hand, etc. 

C^b J c-^^ diap-o-rds^ or ls^^J; j *t^ fi6«p- 

(hrdst, Right and left, on all sides. See j:^^ 
t_nr- ^i^, adj. Silent. 2. interj. Silence I hush ! 
T J^U^ diapdwul^ s.m. (5th) An advanced guard 

of cavalry. PI. ^^^jUf- dkapdwuldn. 
jU>- ^apd'o, s.m. (2nd) A raid, a foray, a coup 

de main, an inroad. PI. ^j^\^ d^apd^o-Hnak. 

Jjjjjy jU^ dkapd'o prewatal, verb trans. To 

fiBdl on suddenly and attack, to fall upon. 

Jj^ jU>- dkapd'o kofvul, verb trans. To 

phmder, to make a raid or foray. 

dkapar, s.m. (2nd) A royal messenger, a 

courier. PI. ^^^^ ^aparUnah. 

sijif^ dtapdrr-daMi^ s.m. (2nd) The name of a 

game played with round flat stones or pebbles, 
a kind of pitch and toss. 2. The name of the 
stones with which the game is played. PI. 
40^ J|'^ dtapaxr-daJ^Unah. 

Lr*JU^ ^ap-2T^»!, s.f. (3rd) Flattery, syco- 
phancy, adulation, wheedling. PI. ^ dx. 
J/ \s^^j^ ciap-22*«5f kawul, verb trans. 
To flatter, to wheedle, to coax. 

vLC > > dkapak, adj. Squint-eyed, a person with 
a squint or cast in the eye; (Fem.) ^iL»- 
i^pakoUK i^f ^S^^ ^j^ 9targey diapakey 
kamnil^ verb trans. To squint, to look in an 
oblique direction. 

y^^ d^plc^lf s.f. (6th) Sandals made of leather 
at grass. Sing, and PI. Bee ^^^ 

d^ahj adj. Inverted, upside down. 4^ 
J ju^ diapah kedal, verb intrans. To become 
inverted. Jj^ i^ Aapak iawul, verb trans. 
To invert, to torn upside down. 

chapa*h, s^f. (3rd) A wave, a billow, a surge, 
a rq[)ple. 2. A gust of wind, a pufi; a blast. 

3. The swoop of a fiJcon or other bird of prey. 

4. The height of a disease, d. An oar, a 

paddle. PL ^ ey. Jjb^ A^ th^^ ^^d^ 
verb trans. To flow, to cover with water, t 
welL 2. To blow, to whifl^ to waft at it 
wind. 3. To swoop as a falcon. 4. To to% 
See lU^, jj^ and ^j or a^ 

dty adj. Squeezed, pressed, quashd 
crushed ; (Fem.) isj^- ddUtk. S. s.m. (2nt 
Mind, life, soul, heart, memory. PI. liji. 
dkit'Unah. v^ vj:.^ ^tpi^, adj. Qoaake 
crushed, smash^, trodden under foot. i^« 
Jji cu^ dkitpit kcacul, verb trant. To Gnu 
to smash, to squash, etc. 

dkot, s.m. (2nd) The roof of a honn 
room, a ceiling, a platfionn. PL ^jP^ A 

Unah. (b u:^^f>-)« 

tr, s.m. (2nd) A bare place left bf i 
wound or pimple on which the hair does nol 
grow, a bald place on the head. PL ii^ 
dkatmnah. ,^j:j>^ ^atraey^ adj. A pow" 
having a bare or bald place on the heal (H 
body ; (Fem.) \jij>' diairaX Bing. and PI 

dtatr, s jn. (2nd) An umbrella, a canopy 
a shade. PL ^jjS^ ^atrHnah. 

diairak, s.m. (6th) The name of a teto 
of^ Afghans. Sing, and PL s.f. (3rd) Jlf/f 
duitraka'k. PL ^ ey. 

d^itey, s.m. (1st) A titmouse. H. i^l. 

^i(i or Jj^ (jL^^y^ AU iawul, verb itm 

brmse, to crush, to squeese, to quash. 

AaU, son. (5th) A libertine, a nk^ 
debauchee, a vagabond,* a profligate, a ibBid 
ing blade, a puppy. PL ^^^^ ^«#*»; * 
(3rd) i^ ^aUa*A, A harlot, a pieoe, a ^M 
PL vj ey. jij>^ dtaUt, B.t (3rd) libertinifl 
licentiousness, debauchery, lewdneaa. FL 
Jj( ^^^ ^am kannd, verb tiaiuk ' 

cuse libertinism, etc. See also ^j| 

^o^or^^ v^^ ^M-paUfBiiv. E&tM 
wholly, totally, utterly, outright, complete 
out and out, clean. 

diuUak, s.m. (2nd) A hamnster. 
^OjCs^ ^uUakunah. See C^^ 
^'^ dUuka% s.f. (drd) A kind of ooane wt 
cloth dyed red. PL ^J ey. 



^ £it^, 8.f. (Sid) Bnappmg of the fin- 
Pi. 1^ a'i. J/ ^J;^ ckuUH Aawul, 
ranfl. To Biiap the fingers. 
agl, bX (3rd) libertiniam, profligacy, 
*Qndifim, puppyism, etc. PL ^^ a'i. 
}, sjn. Cted) A kind of basket for win- 
ig com. PL ^^f?" A^^Unah. Also 
n ^ fife^. ^ dLuj or jy ^ 

iawul, verb trans. To winnow grain, to 
to rinse. See i^^ 
Sfo'A, s.f. (3rd) A stake driven into the 
d for catching fish. 2. The ribs on one 
ihe side ribs. 3. The leaf of the carrot. 

ifl|a/, verb trans. To bite, to gnaw, to 
to nuuiticate, to gnash the teeth. Pres. 
{^^i ; past ^JB^ j wu-^idkah ; fut. 
ij ^ wu bdh dki^l ; imp. ^jb^ ^id^ah 
^ J wu-^i^oA ; act. part, ^^y^ 
Inkaey or ^^y^ ^i^Unaey ; past part. 
^ ^AcUaey ; verb. n. <u«?* g&i^ana'^. 
Ibo Jaqj- 

" di^fl;t^a€y, act. part, as s.m. (1st) A 
(a horse or other animal); (Fern.) 
cf" Ai^UnM. PL (Masc. and Fern.) 
MiaA, A word used to drive away goats. 

m or t<«?" dkiM^, inter). Avaunt I be- 
I get out ! generally used to drive away 

ioffliraia'A, s.f. (3rd) Prodigality, dis- 

QD, extravagance, waste. PL ^ ey. 

UfC^ ^Hfjraba'A Aawul, verb trans. 

(vish, to waste, to misHspend, to throw 


iiiltra'A, s.f. (3rd) Sheum, watery 

r or humour in the eyes. PL ^ ey. 

^Mon, adj. Rheumy, full of rheum or 
Y matter, nmning. 2. Dull, dim, or 
)d, as a mirror. 3. A person with 
\j eyeB, dirty, unclean ; (Fem.) ^Usf^ 

^hiHoA, interj. Begone I a word used to 
drive away a dog, and sometimes used con- 
temptuously. 2. diaM^A, post^p. At the 
side, near, at, beside. See XsA 

^iMney, s.m. (1st) Bheum, matter firom 
the eyes. PL ^^ $. 2. adj. A few, some. 
a\«x>* dioddm, s.m. (2nd) The eighth part of a 

tola, a weight. PL <G^1«x>- ^addmUnoA. 
dkcari or ^^^ diarey, adv. One time, once, 
at any time, some time or other, ever. 2. 
Never, at no time, on no occasion. 3. Where ? 
in what place? />-j^ ^ari'^ari or ^^^ 

4,^^ ^arey-dkarey, Now and then, at 
times, occasionally, sometimes, firom time 
to time. 
dkar, s.m. (5th) The chirp or chirrup of a 
sparrow, etc. 2. Chatter, twitter, nonsense. 
PL jUj^- charaAdr, A^ j>^ i^ char-char 
kawul, verb trans. To chirp, to chirrup, to 
twitter, to talk nonsense, i^jf^ jj>^ Mr- 
diiraey, s.m. (Ist) A twitterer, a talker of 
nonsense, a tattler. PL |C f. ^\^ ^>- chir- 
diira% s.f. (6th) A tattling, chatter-box woman. 
2. A squib, a kind of firework. Sing, and PL 
dkur, 8.m. (5th) A furrow or ravine made by 
running water, a channel, a gutter, a gulley. 
PL j^|/>- diurdn. J ju^^ dinr kedal, verb 
intrans. To become furrowed or channeled by 
water. Jj^j^ ^^^ kanml, verb trans. To 
channel, to fiirrow. 

p i\j>^ Mrd^, s.m. (2nd) A lamp, a light. PL 
<0^|^ Mr^gkanah. JjS \J^^J>- dLir&ffhan 
kawulf verb trans. To illuminate with lamps. 
J^ iL>- daragih balawtd, verb trans. To 
light a lamp. J^ ^ ^^ dArci^ fnarr 
kawuly verb trans. To extinguish a lamp. 

p ^j>- diorb, adj. Fat, thick, gross, viscous, 
oily. Ls^^j c--v»- ^arb dost, adj. Active, 
ingenious, ^b; S-^/f^ d^arb zabdn, adj. 
Smooth-tongued, plausible, fairnspoken, flat- 
tering. ij\)j <-r^ ^arb zabdni, s.f. (3rd) 
Plausibility, fairness of speech, speciousness. 
PL ^ aX See i^j^ 

iiiJjb fS>^ d^ar bmg, 8.m. (2nd) Cock-crow, 




early dawn. PI. ^j&V Jf- ^^ bdnffUnah. 
p . ^^ ^arbl, B.f. (3rd) Fat, greaae, suet. PL 

HI c^/f^ ^t^r^ or c^or^, s.m. (2nd) A nap, drow- 
siness, nodding. Fh ^yj>^ ^urtUnaA. CJ^ 
Jjbj ^t^r^ wahal, verb trans. To nod, to be 
drowsy. See Uy 

ijjj^ ^artah, adv. Where ? in what place ? 

^j>* ^oTtdhy s.f. (8rd) Colour, complexion. 
Pl« ^ ey. See irj^ and irj^ 

j.^ ,>. char-cha/cnky s.m. (6th) A cock-sparrow. 
PI. p^,»- char-chcBrm. s.f. (3rd) ir j^^ ^^ 
^ar-charma! h. A hennsparrow. PI. ^^ ^. 
See ,x>-.x»- and <i^ij(>- 

d^Mi, s.m. (2nd) A wheel. 2. Tom, 

motion, turning, circular motion. PI. ^j^;. 

^orMtZnoA. See ^jL 
^y^j^ ^o^'l^walaey y s.m. (Ist) The comb of 

a cock, the crest on the head of birds. PI. 

1^ I. See J>s^l>- and uj3jc;^U- 
i^jf- ^yjurdoihy s.f. (3rd) Colour, complexion. 

PI. ^ ey. See » J^ and <C^ 

*Xr?" ^^'tI<^K s.f. (3rd) A rag, a tatter, a 
shred, a fraction. PI. ^J ey. Bee *j^ 

HI (jM^ d^d, s.m. (6th) A preparation made 
firom the flowers of hemp, and used as an in- 
toxicating drug. Sing, and PI. 

^j^- dhars^f 8.m. (5th) A consumer of ^ars, 
intoxicated with diars. PI. ^j^t-^^ d^arsfdn. 

P dj^ diirk, s.m. (2nd) Dirt, filth, ordure. 
2. Pus, matter. PI. ^^j^ MrkUnah. 

p ^j^jf- MrMn, adj. Filthy, dirty, foul, un- 
clean ; (Fem.) ^jf- darklruih. ^f \j^J^ 
^irHn kawul, yerb trans. To soil, to make 
dirty, etc. 
i(^ ^arktUaey, s.m. (1st) A kind of greens. 

PI. ^^ I. 

yUjSf- dtirg^ s.m. (6th) A cock. PI. ^l^ divr- 
gWn ; s.f. (3rd) *^ d^irgah, A hen. PI. ^ ey. 
cl^b dj^- ddrg bdng^ s.m. (2nd) Cock-crow 
or cock-crowing, early morning. PI. C/^ 
JLi^b ddrg-bdngUnah. 

CJj^ divrg^ adj. Acut6, astute, apt, sharp, cleyer. 

keen, long-headed, shrewd. 3. Spotted, 
haying a spot on the forehead (aa a o 
horse, etc.) (Fem.) a^ Mrgdk. 

vl^ ^liJ^ divag brag^ adj. Spotted, piebi 
(Fem.) ^ji a^ dkTogdh braga'h. 

CJ^j>' dkirgdkt s.m. (5th) The hoopoe. 
iji^j>- ^trgakdn. Also ^^S^j^- ^ *^ 

^j^j^ dArg^tSliieyf 8.m. (1st) A chicken, 
j^ % ; s.f. (6th) ^ a% A pullet. Sing, i 
PI. ; OTj^^ ^irgujrri. PI. s^ t. 

^ ^(z^- dirobgah bragctk, adj. Staring or i 
ing (as the eye, when a person is enrag 
^ji ^/j>^ diragaey bragaey, s.m. (let) i 
tning or animal piebald, striped, or spot 
PI. 1^ f ; s.f (6th) ^ a% Sing, and 
</r^ ^jf JtJ^ dkragey bragey stargey, B 
ing or staring eyes. 

^Jj>- ddrgaey or ^argaey, s.m. (1st) An aoi] 
with a white face (as a horse, etc.). PI. g 
s.f. (6th) Sing, and PI. y^ a'l. See vl^ 

fc^jJ^ dmrlanddeyy s.m. (1st) A child's jdi 
thing, consisting of a piece of wood witt 
hole and string, which is wound round I 
head, producing a buzzing or humming sou 
a humming top. PL jc i. 

- dmrlandaX s.f. (6th) A whip-top, 
teetotum. Sing, and PI. Bee ^^^^^^J^^ 

<^j>- dkorlandif (^^th) A rascal, a km 
a blackguard, a miscreant, a ruffian. 
^1>:J^ diarlandddn. if^j>- Aarlom^ 
s.f. (3rd) A jade, a Jezebel. PI. ^ ey. 

Jjl/f- ^urlawul, yerb trans. To make revo 
to cause to turn (as the earth) on its < 
axis. See JjJ^ 

y^j^ diurlaX s.f. (6th) A kind of game pll 
with walnuts, a child's game. 2. A toy wl 
children spin or whirl round, a whixlj 
Sing, and PI. See J^xisr 

JjJ^ diurledcU, yerb intrans. To revolvi 
turn, to spin, to circumyolye, to whiri 
gyrate, to twirl. Pres. ^J^ eJwrft, or v<j 
^wrfej^i (W.) or y^jf- d^urlegl (E.) ; 



. PL^VjU 

I nm-^urkda or i^jJ/^- j mi-d^urledoA ; 
1^ ^ J ipu bah ^urtl, etc. ; imp. 4!^ J 
r/!aA, etc. ; act. part. ,^^j^y>- dkur- 
suy or ^jjj^ daarledanaey ] past 
^jJ^ dkurledalaey ; verb. n. ^jJ;^ 
iwia'A. JjJ^ d^tirlawtd, verb trans, 
rly to make to spin, to make revolve, 
ronnd, to gyrate. Pres. i/^J/j- ^tir- 
past ij^Xf^) wurdkurldwuh or j^);^ J 
r^on^ ; fut. 4/^^ ij ^ wu bah dkur- 
mp. *jJ;>- J wu-^urlawah ; act. part. 
^ d^urlawUnkaey or ^^j^p^ diurlor 
'; past part. ^^J^ ^urlawulaey; 

^ifwiiJa;?, s.m. (5t}i) The outer or out- 

Uock of a pair when treading out com. 

ler one is called 


(barmushka'l (W.) or d^armuJSia'l (E.) 

i) A species of lizard. Sing, and PI. 

^^jL, and^^C^Myl 

lyvrmetuih, s.f. (3rd) Strips of raw 

risted together and made into rope. 

y. See t^o^b^ 

\aranakf s.m. (5th) Name of a species 

t with milky juice, of the Asclepios or 

bia family. PI. CSjjS*^ charancek. 

I'A, s.f. (3rd) Small shot, langrage, 

hot. PI. ^ey. (hi \j^) 

'ey, adv. At any time, some time or 

rver, once, one time. 2. Never, at no 

tt no occasion. 3. Where? in, or at 

ace ? i^j>^ s^/?" diarey cjiarey. Now 

3n, at times, occasionally, sometimes, 

me to time. See j^ 

vrey-kdr, s.m. (5th) A cultivator who 
supplies his own labour in the culti- 
the &rmer ftimishing seed, etc.; a 
nan, a man-servant. PI. ^J^^j>- 
kdrdn. 2. s.m. (2nd) The hair under 
er lip. PI. ^}j^^j>- diarey-kdrHnah, 
itten^ULf^ diarikdr. Seejf^ 

•.m. (2nd) A cascade, a waterfall. 2. 

The bread of charity^ collecting the bread for 
the poor. 3. The staff of a pike or short 
spear used by in&ntry. PI. ^\^ ^at^rdn. 
jy j^ fiJa^T kawul, verb trans. To collect the 
bread or other contributions for the travellers 
or mullfts of the masjid, from the different 

^a2!r!, s.m. (5th) A person who goes from 
house to house collecting the bread, etc., as 
above. PI. ^^^Ifj^ d^fridn. 
GkufT, s.m. (2nd) The part of a door which 
revolves in a socket in the lintel or threshold, 
and serves the purpose of a hinge. PI. ^jj^ 
churrUnah. See .x^- 

dia/crdia'h, s.f. (3rd) Excess, luxury, dis- 
sipation, debauchery, sensuality. PI. ^ ey, 
f<!^j>' d^rr-^a-yl, s.m. (5th) A free-liver, 
a voluptuary, a Sybarite. PI. ^i^Wsti?" 
darrdia-yldn, J^ ^j^ dazrd^aHi kanul, 
verb trans. To indulge, to revel, to plunge 
into dissipation. 

Jjf- diarrak, s.m. (2nd) A waterspout. PI. 
^yj>' chafrakUnah. 

j^ ^arralk, s.m. (5th) The noise of water 
splashing on the ground. PI. J^j>- ^arr- 


}^j>- dkarrkd*o, s.m. (2nd) Sprinkling water, 
PI. <0jjl5|^ diarrkd'o-Unah. J^ J^i?" 
diarrkao kawul, verb trans. To sprinkle 
water on the ground, etc. See jlii>- and 

viOj?" durrUkaX s.f. (6th) A small knife. 
^Sing. and PI. 

p i^>.M^^ diosp, s.m. (2nd) Stickiness, tenacity, co- 
hesion, adhesiveness, gumminess. PI. <O j^m»^ 
diaspUnah. ^,V***^ chaspdn, adj. Adhesive, 
sticky, viscous, sticking together ; (Fem.) 
<Lyyu>- dtaspdh. Jjuy^.'v- diaspedal, verb 
intrans. To cohere, to stick, to adhere, to 
cling, to cleave, to hold, to hang together. 
Pres. 4c,>.M,n.f^ chaspejzl (W.) or ^ X .-m^. ^v . 
dkaspeyl (E.) ; past ju^m...^ j wu-diaspeda or 
jFjuyM.i.j^ J wU'diaspedah ; fut. i ^jm . m . ^ <u J 
wu bah diaapejzl or ,JCj--»*^ <o \ 7vu bah 



; imp. M j ifM^ j mt'^^MptJgoA or 
■t)Cyy.»- j tPU-^Mp^aA ; act.pftrt.^^jjjp"'?" 
^a^edonkaetf or iVji^'sp**^ ^a^pedHinaetf ; 
put part. ^i)ie|<.if- ^tu^T^do&Ky ; verb. n. 

verb tmu. To fasten b; caasing to adhere, 
to make stick, to glue, to cement. Pres. 
t^jpajw ^o^powi ; past tj^.^ l tvu-^as- 
pamth or ^^fM»- J »>u-^a«^)affo ; fat. «j j 
gFj~<A^ TTU JoA ^lu^n?! ; imp. y.^ ..r- J rru- 
^aapamah ; act. part, ^jii^fj^mf- ^asptavSn- 
haey or ^^i^jf*-^ ^a^MuoHnaey ; past part, 
tjlx'"^ ^(Mjoomu^t^y ; verb. n. -tiV-— - 
^(M;>a»)tma'^. See lj.-.j^Juj 
F ^j..sM.>. ^tut, adj. Active, quick, ingenions, 
alert. 2. Tight fitting aa a garment, straight ; 
(Fem.) i=^^ ^usta'h. cJ:iU- j1 iJi-.^ 
^jwiorti^^,adj.FIeet,alert,Bharp. iji*-*- 
c^tuR, B.f. (3rd) Activity, fieetneas, n^ble- 
nesB, alertneaa. PI. ^\ a'i. 
'■vr- ^uataey, a.m. (let) The tripe or rectum. 

' Pi! jj I. (p t«*->. 

iiiAs~ chaskkalah. See i.\L'!.t. and alC^ 

Ji». ^'skal, verb trana. See J^i. 

p -L»- Oiaahm, Lm. (5th) The eye. PI. jj,Ui*- 
^ashman. Used in composition, as m»>^T 
a^fl ^a^m, adj. Fawn-eyed, soft-eyed. |JL»- 
(Uj ^asAm io-nS^, Expecting, waiting for. 
,^y •Aa' c^a^m poshl, e.f. (3rd) Turning 
away the eyes, connivance, pretending not to 
see or notice. PI. j^ a'i. See ti^ 

p L^itA— ^as^mai, a.m. (Snd) A wink, wink- 
ing, Fl. a^-A^^ diashmak&nah. • ' ^■' ■'■ ^ 
Jiij MtuAfflo^ noAai, verb trans. To wink 
the eye, to make a sign onto. 

*Lt.i,jt~ diashmaka'h, s.f. (3rd) An eye-glass. 
PI. |^C»A*- diaslsMakey, A pair of spectacles. 

p «4>1»- d^as^ma'h, s.f. (Srd) A fountain. S. 
An eye-glasB, a spectacle. PI, 
mey, A pair of Bpectacles. Set 

^ji-^- ^as^aey, s.m. (1st) A kind of thistle 
which sticks to the clothes, the calbvp. 

ji^^iM- ^a^tan (fl,) or ^a^tcm (W.) s.m. 

(5th) A master, a lord, a pOB«esaor, a pc: 
prietor, an owner. PI. fjas^i^^- ^a^taa^ 
or ^eu^tandn; a.f. (Srd) *i-^»r*- d^g 
faAct')! or ^a^ana'h, A mistress, a lad;,. , 
proprietress. Fl. ,^ ejr. Bee ,^f.^ 
^ ^a^ or ^i^, s.m. (5tb) Noiae, d^ 
lumolt, disturbance, altercation, dispBH^ 
PI. jl^ia- dio^ahar or MiMo^or. j^ ^^ 
iji'uih ^t^, 8.m. (2nd) The noise made,^ 
fowls, cackling, prattle, chatter, gabble. 3 
^jN»> ^>- ^i^ ^i^anah. See ^Js^ ^je*. 
c^ 4_D- ^^ ^fi^, B.m. (Snd) Noii^ 
(iimult, clamour, din, bullaballoo. PI. 4^ 

verb intrans. To become noisy or tomnltoon^ 
to dispute, etc. Pres. iJp«' fiftJ^^Ei (W.) 
or ,_<Sij*»- citg^^ (E.) ; past jJt»> j ■■■ 
Mi^e<&i or nJi-x^ j n^u-^t^eifaA ; fbt. ij j 
jCpi*- nti iaA ^i^«^i or jJ^*»- *J j *" 
6(iA ^J^eyi ; imp, J^pi»- j ww-^^24«g«i « 
.i^fiw- j mU'^u^effoA ; act, part. ^^J>)«"^ 
(j^^etlflnAcijy or ^jAJ^- ^it^dM^'} 
post part. jjjj-i»- ^i^^edoAwy; veA^n- 
lU Jw>^ dii^edana'h, t^yt»- d^ig^anit W* 
trans. To create a din, tnmnlt, or distartiBD^ 
to make a noise, t« cause an altercatiai, ^ 
Prea. tjfjif- ^i^awi ; past iijU»- j »•■ 
chij^dwuh at jtjW- ] wti-^i^S3vo ; SA-Hj 
jjjjw- wu JoA ^i^onii ; imp. »y»- j **" 
^i^amah; act. part, ^j^jjio- e^tj^jav^ 
/{oey OP ^5-'J)J*»- dii^feHitaetf ; past pK* 
^j«a- Mtj^an!u^a«y ; verb. n. *jy^ ^^ 
j\k^ ^u^Sr, B.m. (2nd) The song of a birA 
particularly of the nightingale ; the aonod C" 
an instrument. Fl. AJj^Ua- i^vgAarHaak. 

ij\Jt>- ^^ara'A, s.f. (Srd) Noise, distoibBBV 
tliji, tumult, hullaballoo, cry, scream, onterf , 
uproar. Fl. ^ ey. J/ IjIm- d^gi fr^ i 
kamui, verb trans. To raiae an outety, vptau, 
disturbance, etc. 

ij^^ cAaska-^a'h, 8.f. (Sr^ (Die nuoe (tf I 
plant growing near water, of which picUfli 




ide, and aloo used in madieme. There 
'O sorts 4iU>- }fjj^ per-fra^h d^agAd- 
[bitter and sweet), and ^U»-^y nara'i 
l^a^'h (thin and hitter).' ^Pl.,^^. 

s^i^ s.m. (5th) A jackal. PL JIUp- 

lion. <p JUl). 

\^^^a»ij^a'A, 6.f. (Srd) The name of a 

PI. ^ €y. See U\k^ 
^^ag^aiMKih, s.f. A yiolin. Fl. ^ ey. 
^aghattd, B.m. (6th) The name of a 
il ftmily to which TxmQr belonged. 
tg^atta^, a.m. (Ist) A man of the above 

PI. ^^ I ; B.f. (3rd) ^^ a% A female of 
be. Sing, and PL 
\a^unr, adj. Wall>«yed (as a horse) ; 

Sa^kat'S^, B.m. (1st) PL The name of a 
f A^fins dwelling in Bnner. 

\ajljwr'zaey y A man of the above tribe ; 
th) ^ a% A female of the above. 
and PI. 

^^qrU, s.m. (5th) An owl. PL ^^J^ 
trUrffSn. Bee ^^ 

u/A-raX B.f. (6th) The name of a river 
jndahfir. Sing, and PL 

!^a% s.f. (6th) A hind of soft wahiut, 
sh there are two sorts. Sing, and PL 
)\s^ mdjcj\ 

im^l, s.m. (5th) The sound of an arrow 
; through the tit, the crackling of wood 
ij^tting. 2. Any wood of a brittle or 
nd which cannot be bent. PL ..Xj ]ks^ 
l-dn. See ja^^jJ^, j^ and ^ 
4k^mghuk, s^m. (5th) A sparrow. PL 
^ugiMhSM\ s.f. (8rd) iijtj^ ^uj^uka'h. 
w. See >^j^ 

\u^ul, s.m. (5th) A tell-tale, » iale- 
s badcbiter, s spy, an informer. PL 

ig^uft, 8.f. (3rd) Tale-bearing, back- 
inferming. PL ^^ u\ J^ lJ^ 

^tfjlteA kamulf verb trans. To back-bite, to 
carry tales, to inform. 
^Ju>- e&tfjslaejr, adj. as s.m. (1st) Blinkard, 
seeing with the eyes half shut. 2. A blinkard. 
PL 1^ I. j»»> ^vs^% B*f* (6th) Sing, and 
PL L5^ ^J^ dk(^tghey itargey. Blinking 

dmfy B.m. (2nd) A breath, a puff, charm- 
ing by breathing on a thing, or as a juggler 
when exorcising. PL ^^^ dkufftnak. Bee 
v^,^ and aJ. Jj^ i^Ju>^ Auf kawul, verb 
trans. To breathe, to breathe on by way of a 

dd^MtTf fl*ni. (2nd) Mod, mire, slime. PL 
*^3j^ A^JkajrHnah. See jC»> and i^i^ 


T jUl>- duikmdk or Jk«a>^ c&a^-ma^, s.m. 
(2nd) A flint lock for a gun. PI. <OyUii^ 
dyikmS^^Qnak or iJi^Lii^^ ^tilkmakUnah. 
CSjJi Li^^'*^ ^ayj:99td^ <c;pa^, s.m. (2nd) 
A firelock. PL ij^^ topakftnak. 

p «jaA>- cAuAi^Tkfe^r, s.m. (5th) Beet-root (Beta 
vulgaris). PL iUj^^joa^- c^t^^ttmdtrri^naA. 

ii^ dm-Ica'hf s.f. (3rd) The clucking of a cock 
or hen when angry, cackle. PL ^ ey. ii^- 
Jjbj ^u^ka'h wahai, v^ trans. To cackle, to 
make a noise, as fowls when angry. 

iijf^ diak'diaka! h, s.f. (Srd) A clap of the 
hand. PL ,Xf^ diakdiakey, Clapping the 
hands by way of applause. J^ iXf^ di^- 
^lakey kawul, verb trans. To dap the hands 
by way of applause. 

J^ ^ikar, A word used to call goats. See djf^ 

J^ ^ikatr, s.m. (2nd) Mud, mire, slime. PI. 
^jj^ ^ika^-UnoA. &eej^ and i^£>^ 

diakaSf s.m. (2nd) A perch for birds, a 
roost for a Mcon. PL ejjmJj^ ^akcMnah 

(hi ^j»Sj>')* 

d^tk^U (W.) or dtaki^U (E.), s.m. (9th) 
A black seed used in medicine as a remedy for 
sore eyes. Sing, and PL Seej4X^ (p^U-). 
iU:^ Mkla% s.f. (Srd) A siaall quantity, par- 




ticTilarly liquids^ aa a thimblefol, a sprinkling, 

a droplet, a dash, etc. PI. ^^ ey. 
Ji>" dkaklaX B.f. (6th) The large cog wheel of 

a Persian wheel which tarns perpendicnlarly. 

2. The name of a plaything, a whirligig. 

Sing, and PI. 
T CS^aJ'j^ dkakmak, s.m. (2nd) PI. ^yU^ 

^akmakUnah, See (Jaa^ 
HI <uC>- diakma'hf s.f. (8rd) A boot, a stocking. 

PI. *^ ^. 
p jL^ Mkan, s.m. (2nd) A mode of working 

flowers on muslin or other cloth, embroidery. 
PI. ijySj>- diikanUnah. j^j ^jij>^ Mkan-^oz, 
s.m. (6th) An embroiderer. PI. ^j^*^ ^J^ 
Mkan-^zan. i^j^J ^jij>^ d^ikan-dozi, s.f. 
(3rd) The making of embroidery on muslin, 
etc. PI. |A a'l. 

^^ ^aka'A, s.f. (3rd) The hand. PI. ,J ey. 
^X>- CJ^ diah-^oM, Chapping the hands. 
J^ ^S^ CJ^ diah^d^aki karvUl, verb trans. 
To clap the hands. CJ^ ^o CJ^ ^akpah 
cjkak, Hand in hand. 

dj>-' dkakcCh, s.f. (8rd) Coagulated milk, curd. 
PI. ^ ey. (b IC^). 

iL^- ^akoA, adj. Perfect, expert, experienced, 
applied to a robber ; as Jx ^^j>' diakah ghxil^ 
A perfect or experienced thief, the son of a 
thief, etc. ^^T 6ij>- dtaJtak aghzan^ Very 
thorny, fall of or covered with thorns. See 

^j^f^ ^ihcToey^ s.m. (Ist) A new-bom calf 
until weaned. PI. \^l\ s.f. (6th) Aj^^ 
dkikaraX The feminine of the above. Sing, 
and PI. See i^j^ 

^jC>- dk.aka% s.f. (6th) A cake, a lump, a clot, 
a stick, a mass of matter concreted. 2. The 
tail of the dUmba'k or flat-tailed sheep. Sing, 
and PI. 

p »JuC^ dkakldoA, adj. Coagulated, clotted as 
curds, etc. (p ^JuC>. To drop, to distil). 

s J*>- ^<^f s.m. (2nd) Deception, fraud, impo* 
sition, artifice, trickery, juggle, humbug, 
gammon, imposture. PI. ^^ dkcUunah. 
j\) J^ fijio/ baz or ^Jjf^ ^oH, s,m. (5tb) 

A deceiver, a cheat, a quack, an ii 
etc. PI. ^\j\} Jf- dkoN^azdn, oi 
^oH-an ; s.f. (3rd) »jU^ duU-bdza 

Sf ^* Jj^ «-^ ^^ kawul, verb ta 
cheat, to deceive, to impose on, 
boosde, to defiraud, to swindle, etc. 

8 JL^ ^aldn, s.m. (2nd) Remittance, u 
advancing, impelling. Pl.^yl^g^ 
2. adj. Current, prevailing, usual, ex 

jl>^ dkala'Uf s.m. (2nd) Boiled rice. PI 

B J^ J^ ^al-d^al, s.m. (dth) Bustk 
stir, tumult. Sing, and PI. 

!»- Jd- ^al-^ald, s.f. (6th) The busU 

ting out on a journey, preparatio 

journey. (B.) Sing, and PL, or ( 

4cJL>> J.>> diiU-dkdIdwl, 

^^^ ^o/^'f, s.f. (6th) A teetotum, 

*^^p, a whirligig. Sing, and PL I 
^j^ and ^3^^:^jL. 

J^ dkulur, s.m. (5th) A mean ignoble 
a blackguard. PL (^\^ ^tdurdn ; i 
*^Lj- dkulura'A. PL ^^ ey. 

p i^Jy^ d^al^zaey, s.m. (1st) A kin 
l^e the pistachio, or the kernels of i 
PL|^i. See 

dkalkat, s.m. (2nd) A thick pad 
for soldiers, a coat of mail. PL 
HI J^ diilam, s.m. (2nd) or (5th) A 
pipe, a smoking apparatus, the p 
hukka, which contains the tobacco i 

• • • / 

PL <OjJl^ dkUamUnah or ^;Ui^ dli 

8 JL^^ ^alan, s.m. (2nd) Habit, cusb 

duct, behaviour. 2. Currency. PI 

dkalanUnah, 3. adj. Current. 

i\j>- didUCh, s.f. (3rd) An ear-ring. P] 

^^j>' diala\ s.f. (6th) A head or ear 

Sing, and PL See ^^ 
J jJl»- dkaledal, verb intrans. To mov< 
to proceed, to walk, to go ofi*, to 
coin), to pass (as time away), to be di 
(as a gun), to flow, to drive, to blo^ 
swer, to succeed, to avail, to stanc 


AalejsA (W.) or jLU ^ales^ (B.) ; 
1^ S nmrthaleda or k juU- 2 nm-^ale- 
at. iJj^J>- *»i ^fvu bah d^alejzl or ^ J 
wu bah Aalegl ; imp. »j^ j ^t<- 
oA or ^(^^J^ j rmirchakgah; act. part. 
J^ dudedSnkaey or ^^Oul^ ^a2f. 
^; past part. ^juL>- dtcUedalaey \ 
. ^ juL>- ^aleiandh. Jjif- ^alawul, 
rans. To impel, to hasten, to set a- 
to actuate, to direct, to make to go or 
fire or shoot at, to utter (as coin), to 
». Pros. gjL>- dtalam ; past sJL>- J 
itawuh or t^p^ i rcurdidldwo ; fut. 
ij i nm bah Malawi ; imp. 9jj>^ J wu- 

nth ; act. part. ^jX}j^jL>- chalawUnkaey 
2^1^ dkalawUnaey ; past part, ^j^ 
rtf/({i^ ; verb. n. <J^jl>- ^alarvana'h, 
t, B.m. (2nd) A division, a district, a 
, a ward or quarter of a town or city, 
tribe, a clan, a family. 3. A clod of 
used in building purposes. 4. Decep- 
Braud, artifice, imposition, trickery, im- 
re. See ^s^ and a^^- 

\am, B.m. (9th) Gait, mode of walking. 

and PL 

>> ^^am-o-Manif s.m. (9th) A graceful 

leaning from side to side in walking. 
and PL 

Jiombar, s.m. (2nd) A sphere, an orb, a 
, a disc, a wheel, a globe. PL ^jj^^^ 

amta'h, s.f. (3rd) A beggar's wallet, a 
sack, a bag. PL ^ ey. 
d^amAa'h, s.f. (3rd) A spoon. PL ^ 
Jso ,^f*^ ^amdia% s.f. (6th). Sing. 
n. S^ ^yL 

Aamkanl, s. prop. The name of a large 
;e or small town, about five miles east 

\amUh, s.f. (3rd) The name of a small 
ct about twenty miles north of Attak, 
the right bank of the Indus, and south 


p ^^y^ diaman, s.m. (2nd) A parterre, a flower 

bed, a garden, a meadow. PL ijy>j^ diaman- 

p AA^ chanuml, adj. Of or relating to a mea- 

dow. 2. Green, verdant. 
JuA^ chamyar, s.m. (6th) A currier, a skinner, 

a worker in leather. PL ^J^t^ diamyaran. 

^L.kj- diamyarraX s.f. (6th) The name of a 

inountain tree bearing a fruit of which birds 

are fond. Sing, and PL 
p jl:.^- chinar or chundr, s.m. (5th) The poplar 

or plane tree. PL i^]j^^ diindrdn. 
HI L'r,;- dkanbeh, s.m. (9th) The name of a 

flower (Jasminum grandiflorum). Sing, and PL 
^j^j>' chanjaraey, s.m. (Ist) A partridge. PL 

^ I, See ^jy^i 

^Lj- chinjaeyy s.m. (1st) A worm, an insect. 

PL . c f.*- JlCuj J dapashakdl diin- 

joey, s.m. "(Ist) An earth worm of a red 
colour, the common worm. 

. » 


da reshamo (W.) or reWiamo (E.) dtirgaey, 

s.m. (1st) A silk-worm. PL v^ l. 

J Ju^i^ chinjedal, verb intrans. To be disgusted, 

to feel disgust, to conceive an antipathy against 

or dislike to, to nauseate. Pres. s^^--?^ 

chinjejzl (W.) or ^J^^^f^ diinjegl (E.) ; past 

juj^U- j rvurdnnjeda or ^Ju^cU- J wu-ddn- 

jedah ; fat. cf;-.^if- ^ j ^^ *^^ diinjejzl or 

^X-^U- <o j 72?M bah diinjegl ; imp. ij^^^i^^ 

wu'^injejzah or ^^SLrcU- j wu-chinjeyah ; act. 

part. ^^j*Xj?ir chinjedunkaey or ^^^^t?^ 

^injedUnaey; past part, ^x.^ls- diinjedal- 

aey ; verb. n. *0 Juj^Lj- chinjedana'h. J>fl^ 
diinjawuly verb trans. To disgust, to detest, to 
abhor, to surfeit, to abominate, to loathe, to 
nauseate, to disrelish. Pres. cf^^if- ^injoM ; 
past A^^^if- j wU'chinjdrvuh or jy^^if- j ^'^- 
diinjarvo ; 'fat. v/>?^ ^ J ^^ *«A ^injaM ; 
imp. *%^U- ? 7Pt^(Jii?yawaA ; act. part. 
^Jo^^^U- ^injawUnkaey or ^^yF^ ^^^' 
jawUnaey ; past part. ^^>^i?- diir^awulaey ; 
verb. n. <)^^2cU- diinjawuna*h. 

dian'^anmaeyy s.m. (1st) A child's 



• ^* 

rattle, a rattle fixed on the head of a 0pear. 

p ja»- diand, adj. Several, various, some, a few. 
2. adv. How much? how many? (^f«3^ 
Randan, adj. So much, much, many, so much 
as, as much as, how many soever, j^j^ 
tsp dumdf Several times, often. 2. How 
much ? to what degree ? ja»-^ har d^and 
or i^ '^^j^ ^ dkand chXK &dv. Although, 
nevertheless, notwithstanding, however, with 
all that. 

<^ jc^ diandaUfiihy s.f. (3rd) A firog. PI. ^^ 

ey. See k^s^ 
j}ju>- chandarm. s.m. (2nd) Sandal wood or 
sandars. PI. ^j^j^^^ chandarrnilnak* J 
^^\ij J<^^ da chandarm rabdb, A rebeck 
made of sandal wood. 
jU Jj^ chandarm kdr, s.m. (2nd) A necklace 
of circular pieces of gold each in the shape of 
a moon (corrup. of sjjbjx^). PI. Jx^ 
^^^ chandarm hdrUnah. 

yjc^ ddndahj adj. Picked, selected, chosen, 
assorted. Jj^ ^J^ Mndah kawul, verb 
trans. To pick, to select. 

J\o^:l>^ chanddoU, s.m. (5th) A low, mean, or 
base person, an outcast, a wretch, a miser 
(hi a man of the lowest Hindtl caste). PI. 
^;!I^Oai>- d^andddULn. 

T J^^O^ diandddroaly s.m. (5th) The rear-guard 
of an army, a name by which the Kazalbft^es of 
Kabul are known. V\.^^\^^dianddd,walan, 

L^^^O^ ^andddwalaey, s.m. (1st) A man of the 
Kazalbftsh clan. PI. ^^ f ; (Fem.) Sing, and 
Pl.j^a'i. Also writt^a J^«x*j- ^ofkfawo&i^, 

^i\k^ dkanghdlcih^ s.f. (3rd) A betrothed girl, a 
girl arrived at puberty. PL ^ ey. 

aLu»- dkanghcda' h, s.f. (3rd) Same as preceding, 
pi. *J ey. 

6y^ ^O'nshol, s.m. (4th) A betrothed youth, 
a young man. PI. dlLc^ ^n^dlah. 

^l^-^ ^an-kd^Of s.m. (2nd) Sprinkling water. 
PI. ^jj^Uo^ dum-kd^o-Unah. See %^^ and 
•If , ' 

p cJ^j^ dicmg, s.m. (2nd) A musical insti 

a guitar. 2. The hand expanded, a 

talon, the fingers. PL ij/ij>' ^angik 
^l$L»- ^angdsh (W.) or duMgdf^ (EL 

(5th) A crab. PL ^W^^^ d^ngdi 

dkangdl^n, SeejJ and ^^Jf 
p Jli^ diangdlf s.m. (2nd) A claw, a tail 

fingers, the hand expanded. PL i 

dtangdlUnah. See d*>^ 
i^jS-'v- diungasha'h or diungalSuih^ s.f. 

frog, a toad. PL ^ ey. See iji^^:^ 
p JSlxj- dtangtdy s.f. (1st) The talon of a l 

claw of a wild beast, the fingers. JPl 

JiL>- dkanguly B.m. (2nd) A measure • 

equal to fifteen Jorfi^, or quarter of a j 

PL ^^iij>' dvanfftdUnah. 
i:^ chana'h, s.f. (3rd) The back part i 

waU of a house, the mud wall of a 

2. Haggling, chaffering, bartering. 

ey. Jaj <u>- chana'h wakal, verb tn 

haggle, to bargain, to chaffer, to beal 

to cheapen, etc. 
dJij^ ckarmdsa'K s.f. (3rd) Mildew, 

decay. PL ^ ey. J^ ^r'l^?" ^ 
kawul, verb trans. To mildew, to pi 
mildew. Also written ^J^V^ 

yu^yxs^ charm-diarm. s.m. (6th) A co< 
row. 'Pl.j^jj>- charm-chterm. » 
charrn-'dumrnak. s.f. (Srd) A hen-ff 
PL vj ey. See also ^j^j^ f ^^- 

^^j^ diarmrkd'o. s.m. (2nd) SprinkHiif 
PI. ^^^^j^ charm-kd'o-Unah. See 
J^f ^l^^i^rw charmrkd^o kawul, verb to 

Cf^j^ charm-diarmak, s.m. (5th) . 
row, a cock-sparrow, the diminutive 
preceding. PL C jJ ^ j ^ diarrnrdki 
s.f. (3rd) ^j^j^ ^rm-A^fXB^ 
hen-sparrow. PL ^^ ey. 

J|*^ churmaL verb trans. To sift, to si 
to part, to choose, to select. 2. To a 
fold, to plait. Pres.g?^dlwa2i^;p«( 
wU'churmah: fiit. i^J^ ^j jwu be^^ 


imp. »j^^ wu-^uoB^ ; act. part, ^^ijj^j^ 
^k^tOBtUi^aey, or ^^^^ ^uiaok^'naey ; past 
part, y^x^ (hurmalaey ; verb. n. ^j>^ 
t^uoasiona'h. J^J^ ^uirQedal, verb in- 
tnmB. To separate, to become sifted, to be- 
come selected, etc. Pres. g^j^ churmejzl 
CW.) or ^Jkjt^ churmefl (K) ; past ^j^ J 
wu-djurrnedOf or if*Hr^ } wu-churmedah ; 
Eat. %^Aj^ ij ^ wu b<ih Aurmejzu or ^ j 
^X^ mi hah cjKfra^l; imp. y^i^ j 
wu-^iMrmej^Mhf or ^j^ J nyte-cAt^rrwya^ ; 
a0t. part. ^^J«^[/^ churmedUnkae^^ or 
^yHjrf^ A^^ax^^naey; past part. ^^jS>f- 
fl/^t»?nieda/(tMy ; yerb. n. ijJjj^ chufme- 
dema'h. (hi Ulift-). 

;.^ Aarma'A. s.f. (3rd} A kind of pulse, chick- 
pea, vetches (Gicer arietinum). PI. ^ ey. 
(hi L^). 

^ ifi, adv. How many ? See j^ 
j»> ^, 6.m. (2nd) A canal for carrying off and 

dUzibating over fields the water of a /cdrez, 

lUchsee. PI. ^^y^- ^aur-Unah. 
^P y^ dkob-doTy a.m. (5th) A mace-bearer, 

iiemmt who annonnces visitors. PI. 

^tjl) Aob-dardn. 
\f^ V^ ^b i^fnly s.m. (9th) The name of 

imedidne. Sing, and PI. 
•j!jj»« io^lT, s.m. (2nd) A summer-house, 

^tonporary dwelling, a pavilion, generally 

■•deof the branches of trees. PI. ^^Aj^^ 

wf9/(S^nah. Also (s) JU^ Aopdl, s.m. 

Cbd). PL ^jlli^ ^opdlUnoA. See^ 
y^Jlj>'Aapaf3^waAal,resrhtrBXiB. To drudge, 

'^•tiive, to take pains, to toil. 
V(^ A^lpal, verb trans. To suck, to imbibe, to 

i>Wle. Pres. ^^^ Aupt; past ^^ J ^^ 

fi^pa*, or ^j|^ j ii?tt^fl;wi ; ftit. ^^ a^ J 

viioA^i^; imp. du^ j iru-c^t^/ToA ; act. 

P*t. i^j^^ o^lJpfln^eMy, or ^^^ ^t?jt>- 

iMQf ; past part, ^^j^ dkUpalaey ; verb. n. 

^j>^ ^Upana'A. See J^^j 
j^ A^avper, adv. On all sides, all around, 

iQoid about, (hi^;^^). See^ U- 
i/^ sM^y, 0.m. (Ist) A dotii wound round 

the loins, a cloth worn between the legs to 
conceal the privities. 2. Two ropes used in 
&stening a camel's load. PI. ^^ f . 
^J^ ^oUl, adj. Unplaited, unraveled, dis- 
heveled, let loose (as the hair). 2. A head 
of hair unplaited or disheveled, or ^ ^y>^ 

d^Ud^X s.f. (6th) A kind of pheasant. 
Sing, and PI. Also written ^Jf?" Auja'l. 

jy>' dkUr, s.m. (2nd) Powder, filings. 2. An 
atom, a bit, a scrap, (s) 3. Plunder, pillage, 
sack, devastation, ravage, desolation, ruin, 
destruction. PI. ^j^y^- chUrUnah. 4. adj. 
Bruised, broken, shattered. jy>' y>- char 
diUr, Broken to atoms, shattered to pieces, in 
bits, fj^ jy>^ diUr Aawul, verb trans. To 
plunder, to sack, to ravage, to pillage, to ruin. 
A 4 !♦>- r^ di^^ diUr kawuL verb trans. To 
shatter to atoms, to break to bits, to bruise, etc. 

jy>' diUr, s.m. (5th) A ravine, a chasm, a fissure, 

a gully. PI. i^\fy>- dkUran. See^^ 
Jjlji^ dtHrlawuly verb trans. To whkl, to make 
to spin, to make revolve, to turn round. 
JjJ;^ diUrledalf verb intrans. To turn, to 
spin, to revolve, to gyrate, to twirl round, to 
circumvolve. See J^j^ and JjJ^ 

j^ j^ chor-madior^ adj. Broken to atoms, 
in fragments, in bits. 2. A disconsolate lover ; 
(Fem.) Sjye^jy^ chor-madiora'A. 
8 CJ^j^ diawrang, s.m. (2nd) A practice of the 
sword exercise. 2. Cutting off the four legs 
of an animal at one blow. PI. ^^j^ 
diOivrangUnah. Jy^y ^^^J^ dia/wrang 
pre-hawuly verb trans. To cut clean off the 
legs of an animal at a blow, to cut clean off, 
to sever completely at a blow. See d^j^ 
^\)y>- Au^aey, s.m. (Ist) A servant, a servitor, 
a dependant, an attendant. PI. j^ f . /ijy>- 
dii4rra% s.f. (6th) A hand-maid, a female 
servant, an abigail, a waiting maid. Sing, 
and PI. 
^^ diawra% s.f. (6th) An instrument for 
driving away flies, made from horse hair, or 




the tail of the Thibet ox. Sing, and PI. 

(hi f^yy^)' 

^^O^ dk^^TTf adj. Ruined, destroyed, deso- 
lated, pillaged, deserted. iJ^jy>^jj^kor 
di dtawtr shah, " May thy house be deso- 
lated I " an ill wish. {}*^j^ ^awrredal, 
verb intrans. To become desolate, ruined, 
destroyed, uninhabited, etc. Pres. tj^j,jf>- 
^awtryizl (W.) or ^^j^ dtawfregl (E.) ; 
past ^ j^ diawrr shah, or^ Jj^ dhawxr 
wurshah ; fut. , Jit <o ,4^ chawrr bah shl, or 
^J^ j ^ bah wu-shi ; imp. iJ^ j^ diawrr 
shah, or <l2i J wu-shah ; act. part. i^j^Mj^ 
^a/wrredUnkaey or^^jjj^ diawrredUnaey ; 
past part, j^ diawtr, or ^jJj^j^ ^awrr- 
edalaey; verb. n. ^iX>j^ diawxredancHh. 
Jjj^j^ ^awrrawul, verb trans. To destroy, to 
ruin, to desolate, to depopulate. Pres. 4/j^p- 
^aTP^raw! ; past ^^ j^ diawtr karr, or j^ 
jf ^ dtawrr wU'karr ', ftit. ^^ ^,j^ diawxr 
bah krrl, or ^ir/ J <^ i^^ wu^hfrt ; imp. j*>- 
Sjf ^awrr krrah, or »^ J rvu-hrrcJi ; act. 
part. ^j-Cj^^ diajvrrawUnkaey, or jjjj^^ 
^awrrawUnaey ; past part. \^Jj^ dkawrr 
katraey ; verb. n. <0j^^ dkawrrawunah, 

j^ dtUrr, s.m. (2nd) The part of a door 
which revolves in a socket in the lintel and 
serves the purpose of a hinge. PI. <Ojj^^ 
diU'frilnah. See^^ 

B \j^y>- dhUrrd, s.m. (9th) An ornament for the 
wrist, a bangle. Sing, and PI. 

y J^ dhUz, s.m. (5th) A young hawk under a 
year old that has not yet been flown. PI. 

ul)^ ^^"^^- *J^ diUza'h, s.f. (3rd) The 
hen of the preceding. PI. ^^ ey. 
jU^ dkawsdr, s.m. (2nd) A file, a rasp, a 

grater. PI. ^j^L^ ^awsdrUnah. 

diUshkah, s.f. (3rd) The spout of an 
ewer, a tube, a pipe. PI. ^^ ey. See ii^yL 
and ^JL)*^ 

^ughaey, adj. Hump-backed, bent from 
age or weakness ; (Fem.) i^ dvQ^u PI. 
CMasc. and Fem.) ^^ f . 

^iZ^, s.m. (2nd) Diminution, abbrevia- 

tion, subsidence, abatement, mitigi 
as of passion, anger, etc. 2. Lo 
damage. 3. (hi) Error, &nlt, 
blunder. Jis;^ Cj(^ dvOk MuUal 
trans. To become alleviated, sobe 
tempered, blunted, curbed, checked 
J:;umj a^ ^'dk yojstal, verb trans 
to lull, to curb, to tame, to repress. 
dhok, adj. Seated on all fours, p 
a camel, etc., squatting on all fours 
diokedal, verb intrans. To squat < 
camel, to sit or recline as a came 
animal. Pres. y^j^^ dkokej^ 
^/^y>- diokegl (E.) ; past ^ (, 
shah or <L2i J wu-shah ; fut. ^^ li • 
bah shl or ^ i ij bah wu-shl ; i 
^ chok sf^ah or 4Ui J wu-shah; 
^jil3jju^^ diokedUnkaey or ^^^, 
edUnaey ; past part. C^y>' ^ok or < 
^(7^ shawaey ; verb. n. ijs^y>' du 
J^^ diokawul, verb trans. To n 
or squat. Pres. ij^y^ diokawl ; ; 
i^ ^(?^ ^2T OT J J wU'kaxr ; fti 
4c^ djiok bah krrl or ^^ ^ ^ bai 
imp. ik^ uji^ ^(?A krrah or a^ J : 
act. part. ^^^^y>- diokawUnkaey ( 
diokawUnaey ; past part, ^g^ k 
karraey ; verb. n. ^^^ ^okawui 

HI ui^ diawk, s.m. (2nd) A market 
a court-yard, a square place befor 
of a house or shop. PL ^^y>- ^ 

J^y^ diokal, verb trans. See J(^ 

ii^ diUkdh, s.f. (3rd) A goad, a pri 
2. Sharp, stinging pain. 3. \ 
dipping, or seasoning with anythii 
ey. J^ A^^ diUkah kawul, vert 
goad, to stimulate, to excite, to ii 
To moisten or dip bread iu sou 
season with. 

HI . ^^^ diawka% s.f. (6th) A stool, 
bench. 2. Guard, watch, watch! 
and PI. 

jb Ljf^ (iiawtd-dar, s.m. (5th) A 
a guard. PL Jij\^ ^y^ ^a 



SiO'** v/tr ^^^ <^l^^$ B.f. (3rd) The bufli- 
neBBotfi watchman, the pay or hire of one. 
PI. ^^ a*!. Jj^ ^^ diaaoka!l karvul, verb 
brana. To watch, to gnard, to monnt guard. 
,IS^ dkawyan, B.m, (2nd) A bat or club with 
irhich a game resembling cricket is played, 
rat on horseback. PI. <oy IS^ d^awganUna! L 
-i^V \J^^ dumgan bazl, s.f. (3rd) A game 
ike cricket played on horseback, playing at 
^ game. PI. ^ a*h 

^ ^ol, s.m. (2nd) A tract of country where 
no water is procurable, a waste. PI. ^jJ^ 

^^ ^a-nnil, verb trans. To split, to disjoin, to 
divide, to simder, to cleave, to rend, to splinter, 
to i^lit. Pres, 4^^ diatvi ; past y^U- J wu- 

ifiimk or jjjW J wur-^fvo ; ftit. ^^ ij J 

w% lah ^awi ; imp. s^ j wvrdiawah , act. 

P«rt. ^^j^ ^awUnkaey or ^^^ di(^' 

w9wy ; past part. ^jJ^ diawulaey ; verb. 

^ ^^ diawuna^A. 
vlfl^ fii^ii^, s.m. (2nd) The penis of a child 

imta circumcised. PI. ^/i^ diolakuna/i. 

Bee ^^^ and ^^y. 

f^ ^, s.m. (2nd) A clod of earth used for 
teUing purposes. PL ^yty>' dkomUnak. 
^f^ and A^> 

\^^ ^UnAaey, adj. Shameless, impudent, 
bdd, assuming, pert, saucy, forward. 2. 
Bttsitive, easily affected to tears; (Pem.) 
S^^ AUnM. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) j^ I. 

^\J^)^ ^iin-gaey, s.m. (1st) A toll, a fee, a 
*^ duty, tythe, a share of grain to village 
•8fv«nt8, such as the barber, washerman, etc. 

JjljI^ij^ AUngaey Uolawul, verb trans. To 
«flect a toll or tythe. Ja^y^T ^^^ dtUn- 
m/H^tcUy verb trans. To take^or receive a 
Wl, fee, or perquisite. 

^jf ifnah^ s.f. (3rd) lime, mortar. PI. ^ ey, 
8ee slf (fl U^). 

y^ft^'Onaey, s.m. (1st) A dwarf, an elf, a 
tttnnikin. Pl.^l; (Fem.)8ing.andPl.j^a'f. 

^ <&Ma% B.f. (6th) A spark or small ruby 

or other gem inserted in a 4^J — an ornament 
for the forehead. Sing, and PI. (hi (Jt>^)- 
jjy>^ chUrm, s.m. (2nd) A fold, a plait, a wrinkle, 
a crease. 2. Selecting, picking, choosing, 
siitiug. 3. The bottom part of a door which 
revolves in a socket in the lintel and serves 
in the place of a hinge. PI. ^^y>' chUrm- 
Unak. Jr^^ chUrmal, verb trans. To choose, 
to pick, to sift, etc. See^A^ 

ijj^yf- djkUh'traey y s.m. (Ist) A person of the 
lowest caste, a sweeper, one employed in the 
meanest and dirtiest occupations. PI. ^ 7. 
\^J^^ dvah'tloHly s.f. (6th) The female of 
the preceding. Sing, and PI. (hi \yb^^. 

dtahy s.m. (6th) Shade, shadow, shelter, 
Sing, and PI. 

dtihy conj. Because, whether, or that, as, 
whereas, etc. 

Jjlf>- diahoryal, s.m. (2nd) A veil, a sheet, a 

mantle, a sheet made of chintz for women. PI , 

ijXA^ diakoryalunah. See JjI>- and ^Jjj^ 

•1^ diah'la\ s.f. (6th) A head or ear of com 

^or millet. Sing, and PI. See J^ and J^ 

8 L2— .^ chait, s.m. (9th) The Hhida name of 
the twelfth month, April— May. 

(j:,^^ dilt, adj. Flat, pressed, crushed, quashed, 
low, squat, cu^ ^^"^i:^ dtlt-pit, adj. Crushed, 
smashed, quashed, flattened, trodden under 
foot. J^ L2-^ l::,^^^ dtlt-plt kawul, verb 
trans. To crush, to flatten, to level, etc. 
ij^ dntah pozahf adj. A flat nose. 
y^j^^ dnt'pozaey, Flat-nosed ; (Fem.) ls--^ 
jy dnt-pozi. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^ I. 

diaitr, s.m. (9th) The twelfth month of the 
Hindu year, commencing in the month of 
March. See (j:^^-^ 

chlUaX s.f. (6th) A letter, a note, a 
writing. Sing, and PI. (hi ^««io-) 

dkldiarr, s.m. (5th) A wrinkle or furrow 
on the fkce or body, a crease, a crumple, a 
pucker. PI. -aci>- chlckcerr. JsJ ,aci>- 
^Idkarr kedal, verb intrans. To become 
wrinkled or furrowed. J*^ js:^^ dndiarr 
kawul, verb trans. To wrinkle. Bee »^^ 


Jc^]^ ^e-^al, verb trans. To bite, to gnaw, 
to chew, to masticate, to gnash the teeth. See 

Jia^ ^iMal, verb trans. To poke, to push, to 
goad, to jog, to thrust, to urge, to punch, to 
impel, etc. Pres. ,Jc)^ ^f^l ; pastaiE\>-J 
wti-^lMaA or 1^^ j wur^ll^ ; fut, io j 
^^acv^ fvu bah (iil^l ; imp. ij^Xs^- S wu- 

or . <. 



O&lMil'saey ; past part. 



dil^alaey ; verb, n, 

^jsi:^^ ^iM^n, adj. Rheumy, foul, nasty, dirty, 
unclean, untidy, soiled, unwashed; (Fern.) 
^j^aq^ dilM^na'h. i^y {j^^^ dklMcm-tob^ 
s.m. (2nd) or ^\^ vj-^^ (^iM^n-wdlaey, 
s.m. (Ist) Dirtiness, uncleanness, untidiness, 
mustiness, purulence, etc. PI. ejyy ^Je^^^ dil- 
Man tobUnaA, or ^\j wdH. J^^^ dklM^ey, 
S.m. (1st) Dirt, filth, nastiness, oflW, ordure, 

PI. y^ I. 

8 9j^ ^lra*k, s.f. (3rd) A kind of turban, the 
folds of which are very small. Fl, ^^ ey. 

^ji^ ^^f (2nd) A thing, a commodity, 
an object, an article. PI. <G«L^ chizUnaA. 

^ju>^ daghdAy s.f. (3rd) Noise, clamour, outcry, 
disturbance, tumult, din, uproar, hullaballoo. 
PI. ^^^^^igAey. J^ o*^ ^^^ey kamil, 
verb trans. To make an uproar, to raise a din, 
tumult, clamour, etc. See jL>- and » lU^ 

HI jLj^ AlhaTT, s.m. (2nd) Mud, slime, mire. 
PI. ij^jf^ Mkofrilnali. See^A>- 

^L>- ^f/«, s.m. (5th) A kind of herb or vege- 
table. PI. ^l^p^ AllUgan. 

dkllaey, s.m. (1st) A young male kid. 
PI. 1^ « ; (Fem.) Sing, and PI. ^^ a'%. See 

^jJ^ dkvn, s. prop. (9th) The name of a country, 
China, ^^^i-^ ^Iwl, 8.m. (5th) A Chinese. 2. 
The article called china. PI. ^^Lju^- dtWi-dn ; 
(Fem.) Sing, and PI. (6th) ^^^dklruCl. 

^^^^^ dkln^alaX s.f. (6th) The name of a 
^village in the Yn 

d^lnfaey, s.m. (1st) A worm. PI 

^juu^ dilndoM, s.m. (5th) A bull 

s.f. (3rd) The female frog. PI. 

CJi'oji'^ dilng, adj. Wide open, unci 
grinning, opening the mouth ; (] 
^inga'A. ^J^ CX^ dklng M« 
mouthed, grinning. i^JiJ ^Jii 
ddjrey, adj. Qrinning, open^mou 
ing. fc^b CJ?;j>> ^ing ddrraq 
A grinner, a snarler. PI. jc i ; ( 
and PI. (6th) ^^ a'h JjuiL^ 
verb intrans. To grin, to open, tc 
grind the teeth, to open the moul 
Pres. t^jJU^ ^Ingejzl (W.) < 
dklngegl (£.) ; past UU Cif-.j.^ d| 
<L^ J wurshoA ; fiit. ^ ^ wl,<?tg>g 
shlf or ^^ J <u bah wu-shi ; imp. 
^fTi^ shaA, or ^ J Tzn^-^AoA ; 
^jilijjuJL^ dilngedUnAaey, or 

dtlngedUruieg \ past part. CJu^ 
^^^ Cii!lf.j^ dilng shawaeg \ verb. 
di%ngedana!h. J^;.^;v> ^f7i^ann«i 
To open wide, to unclose, to grin, to 
or show the teeth. Pres. 4^^^^ 
past^ CJ?;j>> cfefw^ ^a^r, or j^ 

bah wu'krrl ; imp. »J ^r.^ dkt\ 
nj j wu^ktraA ; act. part, ^^j 
gawUnkaey, or ^^}^^t>^ dilngawi 
part, i^j^ <il,^.;gj>^ c^lny ^ajro^^ 
Ajjii^ ^inganmna'h. 
<u^ dilna'h, s.f. (3rd) A spring, 
PI. ^ ey. 

^ike or Jkd, conmionly called ftd^ 
or Ikdri'i^uUl, the sixth letter of 
Ib the tenth of the Pu^to alphal 
not be found in any other 4lian ] 
words introduced into the lango 




(me of the six guttural letters of tlie Arabic, 
and its sonnd is formed deeper in the throat 
than » , and with an aspiration much stronger. 
It atands for eight in the abjad. 
f5\^ i^tim, 8. prop. The name of a most 
liberal Arabian, and snmamed ^\t td'yi, 
tienee adj. Liberal, generous, bonntifdl. 
.,iS^%8»-L. ^at (from ^U., h X\T]f Stood in 
need of), s.m. (2nd) Need, want, necessity, 
fOterty. 2. Hope, wish. Vl. ijy;p^\^ (tdjat- 
tfaoA. jc.^ (j:.^U. ^at mand, adj. Neccs- 
■ttoQS, indigent. 2. Hoping, depending, 
i^ji:^^ v£*c^W idfot mandi, s.f. (8rd) Indi- 
gmee, poverty, adversity . Pl.^^a'f. vj:.-»r^U- 
Jj^ idjat kawtUy verb trans. To relieve one's 
neeodtiee, to go to the necessary . ^ liu^U- 
h^ laral, verb trans. To wish, to desire, to 
kin need of anything. 
A ^v^l> ijfi;/! , sjn. (5th) (part. act. o(^, He 
moti round, danced, celebrated a festival), 
Apflgrim to Mekka. PI. ^W^ ttdji-dn. 
Avl^)U iddi^,, adj. (from i^>jt»^, Was new, ex- 
Mfor the first time), New, just appearing. 
aA)L hSdi9a% s.f. (3rd) A novelty, inci- 
^ adventure, calamity, misfortune, occur- 
'Qee. PI. ^ ejf. Jju4mj <ojU. IkdcU^ah 
P^iedal (W.) or peBedal (E.), verb intrans. 
Ibraitain misfortune or calamity, to befal, 
^^ |£tt, or J^ s^^ l^d-zl Mel, s. prop. 
^ name of a clan of the Ytlsuf^is. 
^«^ idsid, s.m. (5th) An enemy, an envier, a 
'W. PI. j^Iju-U- l^dnddn. 2. adj. Fnvious, 
invidious ; (Fem.) xxJ^ hdaida'h. 
^S«U. hd^ijfa'h, s.f. (3rd) A margin, border, 
1^ 2. A marginal note. PI. ^^ ey, 
^ v^U- M^V, jn. (2nd) Produce, profit, result. 
2* Com, crops. 3. Acquiring, producing. 
^ Bevenue, tax, duty. PI. ^jL^U. h^^il- 
M. i,£;f^ ^ J^U. i^i/ €2a Miabareyy or 
^ J Ji#U- ^l4fi/ db kaldm, adv. In short, 
• a word, briefly. J^ J-pU. Jid^il laral, 
^ trans. To produce, to give, to yield, to 
iftid, to impart. JjJl^U^ id^iledal, verb 

intrans. To be acquired or obtained, to result, 
to accrue. Pres. i^j^\^ Jj^ilejzl (W.) or 
^XLtfU. hd^ilegl (E.) ; past dJ^ J-^U. h^il 
shdh, or U^ i wu-shah ; fiit. _.! ^ J-^U- 
bd^il bah shl, or ^ i ij bah wu-shl ; imp. 
^ J^U. bd^l shah, or ^ j wur-shah ; act. 
part, jj-tl^ JuLtf U- ftdsiledunhaeyy or^j JuL^U- 
bd^iledUnaey ; past part. ^jJjuL^U. hd^iledal- 
aey ; verb. n. <0 JuL^U. b^^iledana'h. J^u^U. 
bdsilawul, verb trans. To gain, collect, ac- 
quire, derive, obtain. Pres. ^^jLjU- Jkdsilam ; 
^2LRiJ J-tfU. M?^' Aazr, otJ^ wu'karr; ftit. 
i^ ij J-pU. iSd^«7 ioA ^2t!, or ^J J <o 4aA 
wti-krn; imp. *^ J-^U. b^il krrah, or 2f^J 
wvrktrah ; act. part. ^jXjjjLtfl>* lid^ilawUn" 
kaey, or jj3j^l»- Jk^^tlaTvUtiaey ; past part. 
^s^ J-tfU. i^a.?i/ karraey ; verb. n. <OjL»U- 

A^U. hd:iiir, adj. (act. part, of^^-^ao-) Present, 
ready, at hand, content, willing; (Fem.) 
jf^U. lidT^XTcCh. vi^l/^^ lidTivrdn, PI. The 
people present, s-'^yr ^U. /iaJ?:^V jawdh, 
adj. Pert, smart, answering wittily. ^Ifiv 
^^^ ijiazeV jarvdbl, s.f, (3rd) Repartee, 
witticism. PI ^V at. 

Jju-a^\ -pU. //a;?:2> aosedal, verb intrans. To 
attend, to be in attendance, present, ready. 
Jff\j ^j^\s»^ hd:^ir'0'7idzir, adj. Present and 
seeing. J*i^f^l^ lidT^iredal, verb intrans. 
To be at hand, to be ready, to consent. Pres. 
lJI/j^^ hd:^irejzl (W.) or j^Sj^U- ]}d:;iregl 
(E.); past sJ^ jJ^ hdT^ir shah, or <l:i J rvu- 
shah; fut. ^^ *^ ^l^ b^^^^ ^^^ ^h or 
^ : <0 iaA wu'shl ; imp. «U» ^U- ija:?:ir 
^oA, or «lJ» j wu'shah ; act. part. ^<-^^ Aj^U. 
Ikd^^iredUnkaey, or ^j^jj^U- li^Tiiredilnaey ; 
past part. ,J^^U. i?/a>?:ir shawaey ; verb. n. 
^jj -<jU- bdziredana'h, Jjj/*^ b^^iratvtd, 
verb trans. To bring, to produce, to make 
present. Pres. cft[/^^ Hzirmci ; past^U. 
^ i/iazir ^a/r, or J ^wu-karr; fut. <o^U- 
i^ M^ir iaA /^jri, or ^J ^ ij bah wurkr±i ; 
imp. 9jj^\^ H^ir krrah, or *^ j wt^krrah ; 



act. part. ^J-^^^^ J^^atvUnAaey, 
^j^\^ J^d^irawUnaey ; past part. ^^^U- 

t^:fir kajraey ; verb. n. ^^^U- ftd^ira- 
wuna'h. Also written Jjjy«a>. i^a^iredal, 
and J 9;-^»^ liaTiiranml. 

A liiU. -/ia/?J?r, a.m. (6th) A governor, preserver, 
a goardian. 2. A blind man. 3. Having 
a good memory, remembering the whole 
Kur'an. PL ^UaiU- JiafiT^an ; s.f. (3rd) dlaiU 
JidfiT^oHh, PI. ^^ ^. Also memory, recollec- 
tion, etc. 

A ^U. t^dkim, a.m. (5th) A ruler, a commander, 
a judge, a master. PI. ^U^l^ ftdkimdn, 
iXjU^U. hd/dmdnah, adv. Judicially, in a legal 

A JU- t^dl (from JU-, Passed, h v\T\, Turned, 
passed), s.m. (2nd) State, condition, case. 
2. Affair, business, matter. 3. The present, 
present time. Fl,ij^\»^]idlUnah. J|^\ Jl^ 
kdl ajiwdl, State, condition, aSiEdrs, matters, 

A c:JU. hdlati s.m. (2nd) State, circumstance, 
posture of aSiEdrs, case. PI. <UyJl^ hdlatUnah, 

A ^U- hdtiy adj. Aware of, acquainted with, 
apprized of, informed. 2. Careful. 3. Modem, 
new, current. 

A c-.>.fw li^ubb, s.m. (2nd) Love, friendship, affec- 
tion. PI. i^^f^ IkubbUnah, J^J\ c-^-^^ kubbu- 
I'Watan, Patriotism, love of one's country. 

A 4-^U>. IJLubdb, s.m. (2nd) A bubble. PI. <C^U»- 
hubdbUnah. See ^^ 

A ^M*^ Jiabshaetfy s.m. (1st) A negro, an 
Abyssinian, an Ethiop. PI. j^ ? ; s.f. (6th) 
j^ a\ A negress, etc. Sing, and PI. 

<tlT.>. Ikabatah, adj. Useless, of no use, fruitless, 
vain, futile. J Jul^ aki^ i4ibatah kedal, verb 
intrans. To be useless, futile, vain. Jj^ <du»- 
habatah kawul, verb trans. To render useless, 
void, fruitless, nugatory. 

A k^-^ i ^^ Jjkablb (from e^^.*^) adj. Beloved, dear. 
Also used substantively, A beloved one, a 
sweetheart, a friend, a mistress. 

A J^ h<^taf conj. Up to, until, so that, in such 
a manner, etc. j^o^t A^ fuUta-l-makdilr 

or ^lCt^\ l-mkdn, adv. To one's ui 

the best of one's ability. 
LL;>. J^an-dt (corrup. of a LL:;^0 a.: 

Caution, care, circumspection, foresi] 

^jh\^p^ ^^-dtunah, 
A ^ hqj, s.m. (2nd) Act of walking 

round a place. 2. Pilgrimage to Mel 

A (^l^ ^^ai, s.m. (2nd) (from i.^^) ] 
bashfulness, shame, concealment. 2. 
curtain. PI. ^^l^^i;ai2ZnaA. Jimu 
hijdb dMistal, verb trans. To remc 
screen or a veil). J^ S-'^ ^l?^^ ^ 
trans. To cover, conceal, hide. 2. T 

A ^l^ Jiajjdm, s.m. (5th) A cupper, 
botomist, a shaver. PI. ^^Ul^ i^q^ 

A {ji^^\^ Ikqjjdmat, s.m. (2nd) Cupping, 
PI. ijf>^\^ JkqjjdtnatUnak, 

A c:^ iujjat, s.m. (2nd) An argumeni 
proof. 2. Altercation, disputation. 
liujjaiUnah, J^ ^^^^^ ^H2?'a^ A^^c 
trans. To argue, to dispute. 

A ^^>^ tLujjatl, s.m. (5th) A sound re 
wrangler, a caviller. PI. ^^l-s^ Ji 
2. adj. Quarrelsome, litigious, w 
(Masc. and Fem.) 

A 9j^ hujra'h, s.f. (3rd) A cell, a 
chamber ; at Pe^ftwar and vicinity- 
apartment or hall, a resting-place fc 
lers, one of which is generally attac 
kandetf or quarter. V\. ^ey. 

A A^ liajm or liujm, s.m. (2nd) Bign 
thickness (particularly of a book). ] 
liajamUnah or }iujinilnah. 

jl j^ haddy s.m. (2nd) Boundary, exte: 
extremity. 2. An impediment. 3. 
tion. 4. A starting post. 5* Lashec 
for certain crimes, prescribed by ihi 
Islam. V\.ijjS^Jf>addilnah. 9j)l>«xc 
bultJ^, The time of puberty, youth. 
liadd tarrcU, verb trans. To bound, 
nate, to fix bounds. J^ «^^ ^ 1 
kawul, verb trans. To punish wit] 
j^ ^J tar i^adda ter, ^jytt, ^J^ < 



of Mekka^ a sanctuary. PI. ^yj^ ftaram- 
Unah. ^jt^j^ t^aramain, The Bacred cities, 
Mekka and Madlnah. i^|/^ (^j^ ftaram 
sard^e, A seraglio, a harem. 

A vj:^v«^ hurmaty s.m. (2nd) Dignity, character, 
chastity, honour, reverence, esteem. PI. 
ijji^^ hurmatUnah. 

fji,^ Ij^r-ydn, J*xJU^ Jtar-ydnedal, and 
Jylj^ kar-ydnawul (corrup. of j^]^;-^), 
. which see. 

A ^^^ harts, adj. (from ,jfl/*-) Covetous, vo- 
racious, greedy, gluttonous; (Fern.) ^c^ji^ 

A u-w^ ijifl^, adj. (from uJ^) Rival, ad- 
verse, opposed. 2. s.m. (6th) A rival, an 
enemy, an adversary, an antagonist. PI. 
^^Uj^ liwnfWn ; (Fem.) <Uj^ JiarxfcHhy s.f. 
(3rd) PL ^^ ey. ^^^^ 1iarkj\, s.f. (3rd) En- 
mity, rivalry, opposition. PI. ^V a\ 

A Ci^Lu». i/^i^a^, s.m. (2nd) Account, reckon- 
ing, accounts, calculation, computation. PI. 
aj^Lu^ JkisdbUnak. Jj^ cJl» ^jLu^ i^m^ 
jE?a^ karcul, verb trans. To clear off, or settle 
(as accounts), ^^li^ c»;Lu^ }iisdb kitdb, Ac- 
counts. Ji-**£LT c-;Lud- l^isdb dMistal, verb 
trans. To take an account. J^ c^Lu». hisdb 
kawuly verb trans. To calculate, to add up. 
J^ c-;Lu^ hisdb laral, verb trans. To have 
transactions together, to keep an account 
with. J^j Cii>-;Lu^ hisdb war-kawuly verb 
trans. To fiimish an account, to render an 
account. ^<^Uu^ hisdbl, adj. Proper, account- 
able, correct, accurate, just. 

A Jum^ Itasad, s.m. (2nd) Envy, malice ; emu- 
lation, ambition. PI. <OjJuu^ Ikasadunah, 
J^ 43u««». ft(^ad kawuly or J^ juu»- hO'^od 
laral, verb trans. To covet, to envy. 

A iZJfjM.^^ hasrat, s.m. (2nd) (from j^*^), Re- 
gret, grief, sorrow; desire. PI. ^^j^*y.£^ has- 
ratUnah. Jj^ ci^^*^*^ hasrat Mmarral, 
verb trans. To regret, to grieve. 

A ^^^ i/ia«a», adj. (from ^^m*o-) Beaufciftd, good. 
2. A proper name, ^j--**^ y;***^ ijiflwan hu- 
sain, The names of the two sons of ^ali. 2. 

The name of a book. 3. The nm 
Afghan month— Muharram. 

A ^^;.M«^ h^^^f B.m. (9th) Beauty, elegai 
ness. Sing, and PI. j^ ^J***^ ^^^ 
A good disposition. Jio (j^^*'^ i^^ 
A good opinion, a favorable judgmei 

A ^;--*o- h^^ln, adj. (from ^jm^^) I 
(Fem.) <<;Muf»> hasina'h. 

A ^;;M«o- At^^oin, adj. Good, beantifii 
proper name, the younger brother 
son of JBall. 

kjL^ hashr, s.m. (9th) A meeting, a c 

2. The resurrection. Sing, and P 

jijj^ rwa^z da hdshr, The day of reff 

A ^jJ!Us>. hashr-t, adj. Violent and i 
(as a horse for a mare). Also writl 

A us^i>»^>^ hashmat, s.m. (2nd) State, 
train, retinue, equipage. PI. ^^jiAJt 

A jLa^ liisdr, s.m. (2nd) A fort, a fori 
jLjb bdld hisdr, or jL» Xb bdld^dr 
jLa>- Xb) A fort, a fortification. PI. 

A ^Ua». }ii^^(^'h, s.f. (3rd) (frt)m ^^^.^ 
Share, portion, lot, part, division. 
tj 2U2>- hif^^cL'h ddr, s.m. (5th) J 
PI. (^5^ljrfara«. s.f. (3rd) »j\^ ^Lsi 
ddrah. PI. A ey. J^ ^Ua>- At^fa 
verb trans. To share, to distribute, 
tion, to divide, to part. See ijosr 

A ci>^-a^ tun^rat, s.m. (9th) Presence 
2. Majesty, highness, etc., a title oi 
Sing, and PI. J^am^ ci^^^o^ ha^ 
Jesus Christ. 

jLjyo^ hu^Ur, s.m. (9th) (from^^-d>.) ! 
appearance, attendance. Sing, and 
jyd»^ pah fiu^^ilr, adv. In the pre 
before. 2. (respectfully) Your wora 

A ^xs>^ hO'Zs^, s.m. (2nd) Pleasure, dd 
Flavour, taste. 3. Good fortune, 
PI. ^^a^ hazzUnah. eiLi} )a». 
nqfsdnl. Sensual pleasure. J'^mrwT 
dIAistal, To derive pleasure, delighl 





• I * 

h^^atf 8.m. (2nd) (from lai^.) Cus- 
tody, gpaarding^ keeping, care, protection, 
^preservation. PL ijf^M^ IdJazatUnah, 
4}^ v::^U^ ^i/a^at kawul, verb trans. To 
^foard, to defend, to preserve. 
^ir» iif^, s.m. (2nd) Memory. 2. Custody, 
Jceeping, guarding, protection. PI. ajjlai^. 

^5^ b^iff 8-ni. (2nd) The truth, justice, rec- 
iatude, right, equity, just claim, portion, etc. 
pl. ^j£^ iakkUnah. 2. adj. Just, right, true. 
Jj^ IjT j;»- h(ikk cLdcL Aawul, verb trans. To 
render every one his due. LlU; j;*. Aa^*/: 
/^efiA, The Almighty God who is the Most 

fiigk. ^i>- Jsj- j>. iJaA'A: jalla-jaldluku, 

The Deity in all his splendour. j^|/?>- J^ 

|ka^ hairdn, Exceedingly astonished. j>^ 

^!o ^akk dor, adj. Rightful; having right. 2. 

■.m. (5th) Proprietor, owner. PI. ^\j\j ddrdn ; 

{FCTi.)jf;b j;^ kakk-ddrak, and s.f. (3rd). PI. 

^qf. ^^lv-1 j;*. Ikakk shinds, adj. Grateful, 

rendering every one his due, knowing and 

performing one's duty. ^Ll ^ hakk 

Aind^, 8.f. (3rd) Gratitude, knowledge of 

right and wrong. PL ^^ a*u i^/(J^ h^^kk 

fo'e, A speaker of the truth, j;*. l3 j;*. 

k^k nd i^akk, adv. Right or wrong, nolens 

▼<>leii8. vJX«j ^^ ftakk-i-namak, Fidelity. 

«> J>^ Ai /wiA ^aM da. With regard to, con- 

••nuDg, for. j;>. s^^J^ *^ ^^ Muddle hakk, 

^ rights of God, punishment for offences 

Vin0t religion. j;». ^L^ j da khalko hakk, 

Tke rights of man, punishment for offences 

%imBt society, ^j^ U nd-hakk, adj. Un- 

N, improper. ^^a». U ndrhakk'i, s.f. (3rd) 

fcjiBtice. PI. j^ a'f . J/ ^^ \j nd hakkl 

Wrf, verb trans. To act unjustly, or with 


e^ \^, s.m. (dth) The sound, produced when 
'^ting. PI. jVf&»- Jktikakdr. Jjbj 
i^wakal, verb trans. To retch, to vomit. 
^^ ha^kd, adv. Really, truly, by God. 
^s/^ h^kdfUf adj. Divine, of the Deity. 
^ ^yU^ iaJkkdnl maa'nd, The real or 

accepted meaning (of anything). ^L^ ^JU*- 
hakkdnl mina'h, Love of the Deity. 

A^^-i>. AaArtr, adj. (from ci^U».) Contemptible, 
vile. 2. Thin, lean ; (Fem.) ijJij>- hakira'h, 
(jj^ji^ hakir garmaL verb trans. To con- 
temn, to despise, i^jn^ Ikakirt, s.f. (3rd) 
Contemptibleness, vileness. PI. ^ a'l. 

A (^>%L>Af» haktkat, s.m. (2nd) (from / 1».) Truth, 
rightness, sincerity, fact, reality. 2. Relation, 
story, state, condition, narration, explanation. 
PI. ij arJufcy haklkatUnah, \iJLA^ hakikataiu 
adv. Really, in truth, truly, in reality. 

K ^JlJ^s^ hakikly adj. Real, true, certain, just, 
actual, accurate. 

A cJli^ liakkdky s.m. (5th) A polisher of pre- 
cious stones, a lapidary. Pl.^^l^lil^ hakkdkan, 

A \jL^\i^ hikdyat, s.m. (2nd) (from ^1^ or 
^1j>^ to narrate) A history, a tale, a story, a 
romance. PI. iJfj\L>^ lakdyatunah, 

A uio JJ^ hak'paky adj. Perplexed, astonished, 
confused, etc. Sec CS^ CSj^ 

A Sj>^ Ijtukm, s.m. (2nd) Command, order, de- 
cree, sentence, award, authority, doom, juris- 
diction, article of faith, etc. PI. <U^.4Jl>- 
hukniunah. ^j^ ^ f^ hulim da sharc^ey, 
A judicial decree, a decision according to law. 
^\j S^ hikm ram, s.f. (3rd) Sway, sove- 
reignty, rule. PI. Vj^ a'l. J^ J^ huktn 
kawul, verb trans. To judge, decide, sentence, 
decree, regulate, determine, to adjudge, to 
award. Jj^j Ss^^ huhn Kar-karoul, verb 
trans. To command, to order, to request, to 
direct. <dl S^\ al-hukmollllah, God is the 
judge, heaven must decide. 

A c:^^.«il»- hiltmat, s.m. (2nd) Wisdom, know- 
ledge. 2. Skill, contrivance, device, clever- 
ness, address. 3. Philosophy, mystery. PI. 

Jl^ mlm-i-hik' 



mat, Philosophy, physics, medicine. 

^^^jcw J hikmat da Idiudd'e, Divine mystery. 


hlhmatx, adj. Skilful, clever, artful, 
wise, philosophical. 

i^ls*- hukUmat, s.m. (2nd) Authority, sway, 
dominion, sovereignty, government, jurisdic- 






tion. PI. ij^^.^ J^ukUmatUnah, t^s^.^/^^ 
J^ hukumat ka7vul, verb trans. To govern, 
to rule, to sway. 

A ^S.s>^ liaklm, s.m. (5th) A sage, a physician, 
a philosopher. PI, ^Ju^^ liakiman. (a PI. 
U^ Iiukama), ^UJl»- hoMmdnah, adj. 
liaklmXf s.f. (3rd) The practice of medicine, 
physic. PI. ^ a'l, 

A -JU- hcddj, e.m. (5th) A comber or carder of 
cotton. PI. j^U-JU. haldjdn. See dX^oJJi\ 

A JIU^ haldly adj. (from J^) Legal, lawful, 
allowable, right. 2. Pure, clean; (Fem.) 
lOlU^ lialdlah. J^ J)U. }uildl kawul, verb 
trans. To make lawiul ; to slay according to 
the forms prescribed by the Muhammadan 
religion. J Jul5U- kaldledal, verb intrans. To 
become lawful, legal, allowable. Pres. ^^JH^ 
haldlejzl (W.) or ^XJ)U- haldlegl (E.) ; past 
^ J5U- haldl shah or <Li* J wu-shah ; fut. 
tf^ <o JIU- haldl bah ski or ^^ J <o JaA ww- 
A^t ; imp. <Li» J5U- Aa/a^ shah or a^ J wjw- 
.:9^aA ; act. part. ^jJoj jJJU- fialdledunhaey or 
^j jj^ fialdledunaey ; past part. J]U- i|^/a/ 
or ^^y» J5U- lialdl sharcaey ; verb. n. <U jJlU- 
Juildledana^h. Jjl^ Ikaldlawul, verb trans. 
To make lawful, to slay, to make pure, to 
permit. Pres. i^j52U- Jialdlarcl ; past j^ JIU- 
ijia/a/ ^a^r or ^^ j wvrkarr ; fut. 4^ 40 J5U- 
Aa/£/ ioA ^27"! or i^S% ^ bah wtc-kfTi; imp. 
»^ J5U- ^afe/ A/raA or nj i wu-krrah ; act. 

- part. ^jX35jl5U. ImldlawUnkaey or ^ji^jSlU- ijia/- 
dlawUnaey ; past part. ^^ J5U- i/ia&/ kafraey ; 
verb. n. ^UjDU. fuildlawuna'h. 

A c.iL>- i/io^, s.m. (3nd) An oath. PI. ^yl»^ 
Ikaf/unah. See ^i^ and Jl;^^ 

A j3^ liallt, s.m. (2nd) The throat, the wind- 
pipe. PI. ijysL^ JialkUnah, See ^f^ 

A 4ti]L>. luUka'h, s.f. (3rd) A circle, a ring, an 
assembly, a fraternity. 2. A knocker for a 
door. 1?\, ^y^ lialkey , ^^ ij 4il^lial]^a*h 
bah goshj A servant, a slave, one who wears 
a ring in his ear as a badge of servitude. 

A Jl>^ yUm^ s.m. (9th) (from ^J^ , was mild 

and long-suffering) Gendenees, mildness, 
clemency, affability, wisdom. Sing, and PI. 
(^ ^ bey hilm, adj. Harsh, severe, merci- 
less. Jj^ Jl»- ttilm kawul, verb trans. To 
show clemency, mildness, or gentl^iesa. 

A \^ halwd, s.f. (6th) A kind of sweetmeat 
made of flour, ghl, and sugar. (E.) Sing, and 
PI.; (W.).Pl. ^^\^ hcfJwdwl. 

A s^^^ iuilwdrl, s.m. (5th) A confectioner. PI. 
^\j}^ ftulwd-t-dn. 

A>- Imla'h, s.f. (3rd) PI. ^ ey. See ^d^ 

A m1»^ luUlm, adj, (from A^) Mild, element, 
affable, gentle, tractable. (Fem.) a^J^ 
Ijalima*h. ,^y^^ fuxMrnlf s.f. (3rd) Mildness, 
clemency, gentleness, afiabiUty. PI. ^^ al. 

A <lA»^ fiulia'h, s.f. (3rd) A set of jewels or o^ 
naments for women. PI. ,^ ey. 

A v:;,JU>. fiimdkatf s.m. (2nd) Stupidity, folly .^ 
ignorance. PI. <0j2SU». ihndJcatUnah, 

A ^U>- humdm, s.m. (2nd) A bath, a hot bathra 
a bathing house. PI. ^j^U^ J^amdmUna^^ 

w«U>. fuimdml, s.m. (5th) The keeper of 
bath. PI. ^L^U>. fMmdmidn. J^ |»l 
iamdm Aafvul, verb trans. To bathe. 

A c^U>. Jkimd-yat, s.m. (2nd) (from U>>) 
fence, protection, countenance, guardianshL ^ 
PI. iJ^\A>»^ tLimdyat'Unah. Jj^ va.j U ^ 
Idmdryat kawul, verb trans. To defend, "■ 
guard, to protect, to patronise. 

humd, s.m. (2nd) Praise, blessing, praisii^^^ 
A^ ttamdunah. J^ x*^ ^ 
Jj^ i/^7n(£ kawul or wayal, verb trans. C» 
praise, to bless (God). 

A J-«^ ^bm/, s.m. (9th) Pregnancy, a child ^ 
the womb. 2. A burden, a load. Sing, t^^ 
PI. Ji-**^T J-«^ hamU dMi^tdl, verb trti:^^ 
To carry a load, to bear (a child), to genoa*^ 

A <d.4^ }iamla% s.f. (3rd) Attack, assault, storf^ 
onset. PI. ^ ey. J^ aU»^ fuimla'A him9^ 
verb trans. To attack, to assail, to attempt, ^ 
storm, to assault. 

A Ld- Idnnd^ s.f. (9th) The juice of a tree wi^ 
which the hands and feet are stained (La^ 
sonia inermis). Sing, and PI. j^ l:.^ ^iw^ 

(God). Pl.iO 



band, (Snd) A cloth with which the stain 

is applied. PL ^jJcj bandUnah. l1^ 

imna\ adj. The colour oijiif^nd. 
V. Jla:^ b(^n:S^(^f B.m. (9th) The colocynth, the 

bitter apple. Sing, and PI. Bee ^^j^ 
K P jljJl^ b^mfdl-dar or itawdlarddr, a.m. (5th) 

A military officer of inferior rank^ a sergeant. 

PI. ^j;\;^oJ'^ bcaval-daran. 
kA\^ ^wiUih^ B.f. (3rd) Care, custody, charge, 

possession, delivery, consignment, trust. PI. 

& J^ i^f^ hamalolh kawul, verb trans. To give 

in cha]^, to commit, to consign, to intrust, 

to deliver. 2. To instigate, to incite (as a dog) . 

^j^ iUra% s.f. (3rd) (firom a j^) A virgin of 

pandise, a black-eyed nymph. PI. ^ ey. 
A4Lj». hati^la'hf s.f. (3rd) (firom J^) The 
stanach, crop, maw. 2. (met.) Capacity, reso- 
lution, ambition, desire, spirit, courage. PI. 
^ 9. jf J aL»^ ftausila^A-ddr, s.m. (5th) A 
pcwon of capacity, resolution. PI. ^J^j^J 
dorm. sj\j ddra'A, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ ey, 
A gO|x ijaw?, s.m. (2nd) A reservoir, a cistern, 
tbe basin of a fountain, a pond, a vat, a tank. 
W. ijyc^ hcttiT^Unah, j^ \^f^ liauz-i- 
iwjfar, A river of nectar in Paradise. 
^ \^j^ b^mjeli, s.f. (3rd) A house, a mansion, 

altthitation. PI. ^^ a'l. 
* I?** ^d, s.f. (6th) Modesty, shame, bashful- 
[ JteBs. (B.) Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^^l^ 
Jflftoi. Jji' L^ fuiyd Aawtd, verb trans. To 
Aow modesty or shame, to act modestly. 
j\ii U- hayordSr or cJl3 U^- JtayorTidky adj. 
Hodest, baflhM ; (Fem.) ^b L>. i/^^ya ci^ra'A 

*CiU hayat, s.m. (9th) (from ^) Life, 
^ty, animation. Sing, and PL See^^jJ^j 

^\^j!i^ bair&n, adj. Confounded, amazed, per- 
tfezed, astonished, disturbed ; (Fem.) ^\j^^ 
^^^'^^^A. ^^]ji^ J>- i^lSclk bairdn, adj. Ex- 
temdy perplexed or astonished. Jj^ ulr** 
to^ kawulf verb trans. To perplex, to 
^itoidsh, to amaze. Jju}l,A»i. hairdnedaL 
^intrans. To become perplexed, astonished. 

amazed, discomposed, etc. Pres. i^j^\j^ fjai- 
rdnejzl (W.) or ^^^\j^j>^ liairdnegl (E.) ; 
past iJ^ c;5/i^ hairdn shah or «U» J wu-shah ; 
fut. ^Ja dj j^5/p- hairdn bah shl or J^ J <o 
bah wU'shi ; imp. <Ll ^jiis>^ hairdn shah or 
«lS» J wU'shah ; act. part. ^<-CjJlJ|^». /mi- 
rdnedunkaey or t^jJuj]^,*^- bai^dncdunaey ; 

past part. j^|;*>- hairdn or ^^^ ulr^*" kaird?i 
shawaey) verb, n, <0ju3l^,-j>- Iiairdnedana'h, 
JyL-^ liairdnarvul, verb trans. To perplex, 
to astonish, to amaze, to discompose. Pres. 
fc^^Lj^ hairdna7vi ; past ^^ c^!/^^ hairdn karr 
or ^ J wU'karr ; fut. 4^ <o j^J^^j^s*- hairdn 
bah krri or ^^r^ j <o bah wu-hfrl; imp. 
*/ ^5^-^ hairdn krrah or 2j^ J wu-krraU ; 
act. part. ^^-^Jy5/^>- liairdnawUnkaey or 

L^jy!/^ b'<^^^^^^^^^^^'^ \ P^8t part. j^5;-j>- 
^J^ hairdn karraey ; verb. n. <0^1^^-^ hai- 
rdnawuncHh. See j^V^y^ 
A ij}/*^ bO'irdnl, s.f. (3rd) Confusion, astonish- 
ment, amazement, perturbation, stupor. PL 


A fc-LiJ-*&- hairat, s.m. (2nd) Amazement, con- 
fusion, astonishment, perturbation . PI . ^yjj^^ 

hai:;, s.m. (2nd) The menses. PL 

<0j>4».'v. hai:^unah. i,^^r^ Jiaizah, adj. (used 
substantively) s.f. (3rd) A menstruous woman. 
PL ^^ey. 
A ujL>- ijiai/", inteij. Alas ! ah I sorrow ! 2. adj. 
Useless, futile, good for nothing, inutile. 

A <0u5^ i/il/a'A, s.f. (3rd) Artifice, deceit, pretence, 
trick, wile, chicane, stratagem. PL ^ ey, 
j\j <0u>* hila'h bdZy jU aL>- i/iZfcVi sdZy or 
^<Ou£w lillcCh-gar^ adj. Artful, cunning, de- 
ceitful, wily, preparing deceit, etc. ; (Fem.) 
2fjb <Ou£w yizfe*A bdza'hy etc. PL |^ €y. <Ou£w 
S^V or j^Lj or ^J hxlcCh bdziy sdzi, organ, 
s.f. (3rd) Artfulness, deceit, wile, trickery, 
chicanery. PL ,^ a*i. J^ <Our^ /a/a7^ hawul, 
verb trans. To act deceitfully, artfully, cun- 
ningly, etc. 

A ^rt^ b^n, s.m. (9th) Time, interval of time. 





Sing, and PI. cu*Ur^ ^jf£>^ IfirU-liaiyat^ Time 
or period of life. 2. During, or for life. 
^y^ t^airvdn, 8.m. (6th) (from ^^) An ani- 
mal, a brute, a beast. PI. (^^^'^-^ Ikcuwdndn 
or (a cjU^^-£*- Ijiaiwdndt), 4-jy c^\^?^ l^^^' 
ndn-tob, s.m. (2nd) Brutality, beastlineBs, sa- 
vageness, brutishness. PI. ^^,y tobUnah, 
Also oJlv^^ Jkaiwdn-iyat. 

^ Me, called i\9^L^ ^^U- and iUuc*^ , is the 
seventh letter of the Arabic, and the eleventh 
letter of the Pu^to alphabet. It is a gut- 
tural letter, and is uttered by compressing the 
upper part of the throat near the mouth. It 
has no corresponding sound in English, but 
the Scottish pronunciation of cA in ' loch ' is 
equivalent to it, as is also the German di. 
It stands for 600 in the abjad system of 

^jijU- Md'pashf s.prop. The name of a moun- 
tain of Gandab, in the country of the Upper 

A jwU- Mdtim, s.m. (2nd) (from ^pS^ to seal) 
A seal, a ring worn on the fingers. PI. <0^U- 
khdtimUnah . See i3^ and^^ 

A iUjUw Mdtima'h, s.f. (3rd) Conclusion, end, 
finish, finis. PI. ^ ey. 

<LfU. Midtah, s.m. (6th) (verb. n. of Jiri^ ) 
Ascending, ascent, steepness, rise, ascension, 
mounting. Sing, and PI. 

A ajU- J^drdimy s.m. (5th) A servant, a help. 
PI. j^UjUw MidSimdn ; s.f. (3rd) lUjU- 
khddima'h. PI. ^ ey. 

it^jU- Jdiddama'hy s.f. (3rd) A kind of lizard 
mth spikes or bristles on the back and a large 
head. PI. ^oU- Mddamey, See Hjmj^ 

^jUl MddamaX s.f. (6th) A kind of lizard 
smaller than the preceding. Sing, and PI. 

sS^ MkddcHhj s.f. (3rd) A pole, the piece of 
wood placed as a ms(^k at the- head of a grave. 
PI. ^ ey. 

AjU- Midr^ 8.m. (2nd) A thorn, a thistle, a 

bramble. 2. A spike, a splinter. PI. i. 
MdrUnaA. jb jU- Mdr^r, adj. Th 
barbed, troublesome. \^j^J^ JAar-^ 
(3rd) A fence, a temporary defence mi 
thorns. PI. ^ a'l. See ^jz\ 
A^^^lfiL JMrpot8a*h, s.f. (3rd) Going o 
fours (as a child). PI. ^ ey. See a^^ 

A ^jlsL Ma-ry, adj. (from ^^ being oat, 
Excluded, expelled, outcast, without^ 
struck ofi*. J/ ^jU^ Midrij kanml, 
trans. To expel, to exclude, dispense, i 
off, turn off. 

A ^VTj^ Mdrijl, s.m. (5th) A sect of Mf 
madans who do not reckon JSall amon 
lawful successors of the Prophet. PI. ^^L 
Mdrytdn. Also ^^J^ \^J^ M^^ 
rijl (from a — ;U md-rij, a flame wi 
smoke) A Kharijl schismatic, only fit fi 

A jjijU- Mdrish, or cr^^AjU^ Mdri^t 
s.m. (2nd) The itch, the scab. PI. *jj 
MdrishUnah, or djyJ^j\s>^ Mdri^i 
Jj^ Ut)^ M^'^ kawul, verb tram 
scratch, to rub gently with the nails. 

^jL^J^ MdriSt (W.) or MdriBt (B.) 
(2nd) The itch, the scab. PI. ^j5-|y W 
ishtUnah or Mtdrif^tUnah. Jjus^ijU- 
ishtedal (W.) or Mari^tedal (E.) vei 
trans. To itch, to tickle, to scratch. 
i^jiP^j^ Mdrisktejn or ^^^$Ls«ir^U-iSd 
egi ; past ju:^»jUw J wu-Mfiri^teda (n 
MdriBteda or ifS^p^J^ j wurMari^ 
or wU'Mdrilditedah ; ftit. ^g-s-jyleS- ^ 
bah yhdrtshMj^ or ^iL^^lk. <0 j fW 
Mtdn]ditegl\ imp. ^j^J^ J ww-4id 
^ah or aSLxij^U- J fou^MdriJSkteyak 
part, ^iuj Jua^ijU- M^^^^^d^kaey oi 
riMtedUnkaey or ^jjua-jb^U- ^dri^ted 
or Mdri}3itedilnaetf ; past part. ^J J>-! 
Midrishtedalaey or Md^^tedalaey ; ▼( 
<0 Jlc^*;U- Mmridhtedandh or iM^^^ 
Jy^j^U. Midrishtamil or ^^Mtamti^ 
trans. To scratch, to rub with the nails. 




Pj\s^ Mdri^tawl or MO'ril^tawt; past 
•j^ i fvu-M^ri^tihvuk or wu-M^riH^t- 
h or jjbui^lsL j fvu-M^tri^tdwo or ^e^- 

t^^an?f or n?2^ ioA ^an^toTrl ; imp. J 
^U;- n^t^-i^^re^^o^aA or wu-MtcLrit^ta'' 
; act. part. <>^j>HK;^ MfiriMtawUnkaey 
iSrii^tawUnkaey or ^jjy^*;^ Mtdri^t- 
naey or Mdri/^tawUfiaey ; past part. 
t^j\:^iASri4^tawulaey or ^drij^tawulaet/', 
I. n. <}j2«|»^lfiL UwLrishtawuncih or Mar- 

;. MdriBti (E.) or Mfiriskti (W.) adj. 
igy, itchy, scabby. Used substantively, 
. (5th). PL (^Ls-i»jU- IJidri^tlan or 
ri^ftAn. s.f. (5th) y^A*^j\s^ M^driJ^tl or 
ri^^. PI. ^Us«{»;U- M^^^^Tti or 
ii^kflam. ji or gj) ^ja^U- JdidrilSkn 
iari^tl Vzah or tpk;?, A" scabby sheep. 
!iU^ Mfishaky (6th) Sweepings, leaves, 
ps, mbbifih. Sing, and PI. See <0^ and 

I^U- lAdsh'Mdsh or ,^U- (jmt^ Mash- 
i^, s.m. (6th) Poppy seeds. Sing, and 

Lsb^ L/^^ tA^ *^ ^ Mdsh'Mdsh 
WaX B.f. (6th) A poppy. Sing, and PI. 

> Hftrctkf s.m. (2nd) A stretcher used in 
itehing the skin or leather bag in which the 
golflted milk is placed in making butter. 
<ij^U- /AdrakUnah. 

Vfl^a'h^ B.f. (3rd) A little, somewhat, a 
ill quantity. 2. Any useless stick or chip, 
KW, etc. 8. The name of a disease amongst 
Idren, during which the face turns yellow 
I the belly increases in size. PI. A ey. 
UU MdshaA-Ma^ (W.) or MaB (E.) 
. (5th) One who cures the Khasha'k disease 
MraDypractisedbyoldwomen). lU^^U- 
^hrMsaihih or ^MaJh, s.f. (3rd) An 
woman who cures the Khasha'h. VX.^ey, 
^ Mf^f adj. (from ija6^) Excellent, pure, 
lixied, noble. 2. Particular, private, own, 
)0r, peculiar, single, sole ; adv. Particu- 

larly, solely, peculiarly. ^U j ^U- ^axx- 
(HBOM, Noble and plebeian, high and low, 
rich and poor. 

A iUlfiw ]did^^d!hy adj. Excellent, pure, noble, 
good, delightful, charming, nice, pretty, fine, 
virtuous. 2. s.f. (3rd) A kind of bread. «'J. 
A kind of muslin. PI. ^ ey* J^^j^ «ul:>- 
JJid^sa'h warddr, s.m. (5th) A servant who 
cairies a firelock, a servant in a great man's 
retinue. PI. ^j^^j^ rvarddrdn. 

A v^^^U^ Md$^iyat, s.m. (2nd) Attribute, na- 
tural disposition, peculiarity, innate property, 
quality. PL <Uy;^U^ MdssiyatUnah, 

A^U- Mdtir, s.m. (9th) The heart, soul, in- 
clination, mind, memory, sake, behalf, will, 
choice, propensity, etc. Sing, and PI. ^U- 
^JjjT Mdtir dzurdah, adj. Dejected, distressed, 
melancholy, ^^^iji J^^ Mdtir pareshdn, 
adj. Troubled or distressed in mind, ^l:^ 
^^4^ Mdtir jatruB, adj. Comforted, collected, 
confidant, contented, at ease, tranquil. ^U- 
^^yL4j>- Mdtir jamcel, s.f. (3rd) Comfort, tran- 
quility, ease of mind. V\,^ai, Ay>^Jb\6^ 
Mdtir M^dhy adj. Satisfactory, agreeable to 
one's wishes. icJ^V^ Js^ Mdtir M^dhi, 
s.f (3rd) Satisfaction, contentment, peace of 
mind, serenity. PI. ^ ah jU^U- Mdtir- 
ddr, adj. Encouraging, comforting ; comforter, 
encourager; (Fom.) ^^Ij^U- Mdtir-ddra'h. 
c^jlj^U- Mdhr-ddrij s.f. (3rd) Comfort, en- 
couragement, satisfaction, gratification. PI . j^ 
a'l, J^ ^j\t^ Je\£>^ MdHr-ddri kawuly verb 
trans. To comfort, to encourage, to please, to 
gratify. ^ jJU i>U- Mdtir mdndah, adj. Dis- 
tressed, dejected, melancholy. ^^luJ ^U^ or 
t--' Mdtir nishdn or nishlrif adj. Impressed 
in the memory, by heart, fixed in the memory. 
2. Beloved, chosen, selected. 

p cJU- Mdkf s.m. (9th) Ashes, earth, dust. 
Sing, and PI. See t^jjU^ . b cJU^ Mdh-i- 
pd, Dust of the feet, the lowest or humblest 
thing. jL) cJU- Mdk'Sdr, adj. Humble, low- 
bom, mean, base; (Fem.) 2f^L» cJU- MdA- 
sdra*A. y^J^ cJU^ Mdk-sdrl, s.f. (8rd) 



Uuinbleness, lownessi meanness. PI. ^V a!l. 

p j^ cJUw l^aA shar, s.m. (5th) A washer of 
gold, or sand from which gold dust is ex- 
tracted. PL ^\;yl^ cJU- ^aA shordn. 

d^\:>^ JdvoLkcHhy s.f. (8rd) Particle of gems, stones, 
or the like ; broken rice unfit for use. PI. ^ ey. 

p ^U^ M^^, adj« Dusty, earthy, of ashes. 2. 
The colour ofearth or dust. 3, Humble, worthy. 
(Masc. and Fem.) 

jI^Ul khagaley, adj. Praised, commended, 

' popular, approved, deserving. See ,«li%» 
and jJjIs^ 

p <uA>^ Midglna'hf s.f. (3rd) (from C/U- , an 
egg) Fried eggs, a kind of dish made from 
eggs, an omelet. PI. ^ ey. 

A JU^ Micily s.m. (2nd) A mole on the face, an 
artificial spot made on the face for ornament. 
PI. iOjllfiL ^alUnah. JU. JU. Jdial MiaU 
adj. Little, scarce; adv. Here and there, 
rarely, jl J JU^ Ididl-ddr^ adj. Spotted, marked 
with or having moles ; (Fem.) if^l j JUl Mtdl- 

Aj^Uw Midli^y adj. (from ^jAj>^^ Pure, genuine, 
a friend ; (Fem.) «ualU^ Mdlha'h, 

A dUalU^ MiAli^oHh, s.f. (3rd) Fallow or unculti- 
vated land. PI. ^ ey, 

A fj\^ I^lik, part. act. (from ^^S^) used sub- 
stantively, The Creator. 

p ^Ifiw M^K a4j* Desert, void, empty, vacant, 
exempt. 2. Pure, unmixed, without effect. 
3. Unoccupied, unemployed, idle. 4. The 
first day of the week, Saturday. 5. The 
eleventh month of the Afgh&n year, also 
called <oL« , which see. <^y iJ^ Mdlt'tob, 
s.m. (2nd) or ^\^ lJ^ M^M-^dlaey, s.m. 
(1st) Emptiness, vacuity, voidness, vacancy. 
PI. (2nd) ejjiy tobunah; (1st) ^\^ wall. 
Jju^ vj^ Maft Aedal, verb intrans. To be- 
come empty or void. J^ ^^U. ^fi karvul, 
verb trans. Tp empty, to make void, to 
evacuate, ^^il ^JU^ Mali Ids, Empty handed, 
penniless, unarmed. 

p j»U. Mdm, adj. Raw, unripe, green ; inexpert, 
vain ; of unbaked earth or mud. j\$ aU. 

Mdm kdr, adj. Awkward, unskilfiil, ini 
bungler, j^l^ (•U- Mdm kdrt, s.t 
Awkwardness, unskilfrdness, inexpertne 

S^ ^'^* 

Ix^lsL Mdm-td, s.f. (6th) A kind of coarse 

cloth. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PL ^ 

Jdhdmtdfcl. See (Jwwb^ 

jya ^Ifiw M/dmrSoz^ adj. Half-cooked, raw 

and burnt out ; (Fem.) ^jy^ aU. Mfimr^ 

p ^^•U- Mdmosky adj. Silent, mute 
^j^Uw Mdmoshlf s.f. (3rd) Silence 
ness, taciturnity. Pl.^a'i. 

p ^U^ Ma»»^, s.f- (3rd) Rawness, unrij 
immaturity, inexperience. 2. Loss. PI. 

T j^lsL M^w, s.m. (6th) A lord, a prince, 
principally used by Afghans or PaUftne 
^UU- Mdndfi) L* ^U- Mdn mtdld, sjn 
The head mulld or priest who distribut 
aUowance to the clergy. PL f^\^ nud 

LcJU- khdn-tamd, adj. Proud, arrogant, y 

p ^\jjU^ Mdnaddn, s.m. (2nd) Family, 
race, household. PL Xiy ^ JjU^ Mdnad&i 

A ^U- Mdnakah or Mdnkd*A, s.f. (S 
monastery, the shrine of a saint. PL , 

p ^UjU- Mdnamdn or ^U j ^^U- ^aiH 
s.m. (9th) Household fdmiture, ever 
belonging to the house, family, houi 
house, etc. Sing, and PL 

p 2fjlyUw Mdnawdda'h, s.f« (drd) A flu 
house, a race, a tribe of peojde. PL ^ 

p <0U^ Mdna!h, s.f. (3rd) A house, plaee^ 
etc. PL ^ etf. jbT ^Is^ Mdna*li4U 
Prosperous. 2. May you flourish ! ms 
house prosper! t^oljT <OlfiL JJidndh 
s.f. (3rd) Prosperity. PL ^^ a'f. ^Vd 
iJtdna!h Mdndh, adj. Cellular, forme 
cells, s^^^ <UU- Mifindh Mcardl 
Ruined, destroyed. 2. Base, mean, 
vain or empty person. 4. Be thy 
desolate! 15^]/^ ^^ Mdna*h £ 
s.f. (3rd) Ruin, destruction. PL , 
^b <0U- Mdna'h ddr, 8.m. (5th) A 
holder, the master of a family. PI 


d) HonBekeeping, care of domestic con- 
PL j^ a'f. J\j iOlflL Mana*A zdd, 
16 child of a slaye; (Fern.) ^jlj <Ol£L 
h-zdda'A. ^jt^ aJUw ^dna'h niskln, 
Mng in the house, retired, unemployed. 
U bad M^xna*A, s.f. (3rd) A ventilator. 
9jr. 4uU- Xb bdla Mdna'h, s.f. (3rd) A 

f, an upper room. PL ,^ ^. ^us^ 
e&ioA Hdna'A, s.f. (3rd) A magazine, 
arsenal. PL i^ ^* <0U- jj^^ rtZa? 
4, 8.f. (3rd) The bed or channel of a 
a stream. PL s^ ey. <oUw J^ fll 
h, s.f. (3rd) A place where elephants 
)t. Pl.^^^, ^\:>^L^\z^ kitdbMana'A, 
rd) A library. PL ^^ ey. ^U^ f^J 

Mdna*A, s.f. (3rd) A room in which 
t and sleep in winter, and under which 
9 lighted. PL ^J ey. 
twra'A, s.f. (3rd) Earth, dust, clay, etc. 
sy. The plural form is most generally 

gp^tf jjlrL l^rvr ydrraey, s.m. (1st) 
I made in the ground by digging clay 
iking pots, a clay-pit, etc. PL ^ l, 
&^ mafta'A Mdrvra'A, s.f. (3rd) Clay. 
ey. See ^jyi^ and ^^^ 
^wrin, adj. Gay, made of clay. 2. 
containing particles of dirt or earth ; 
) ^jj^ls^ l^dwrincHA, 
iidwandf s.m. (5th) A lord, master, 
id. PL ^^jj^lfiw Mdwanddn. 
^drln, adj. (from lh^I^) A traitor, a 
er, fraudulent, treacherous. 
U- Md-ya^A mdl, s.m. (6th) A fawner, 
srer (from ^l£^> a testicle, and JU, a 
). PL j^U <oU^ Mdryct'A mdldn, ^U^ 
\arya!A moM, s.f.(3rd) Flattery, cringing, 

g. PL ^ aX J^ ^U <oU^ Mid-yoHA 
mcul^ verb trans. To curry favour, to 
to flatter. 

M^ub^^ 8.m. (2nd) MaUce, malignity, 
'. PL ^y^^ Mmb^TtaA. 
abar^ s.m. (2nd) Advice, news, inform- 
intelligetfce, rumour, report, account. 
1^ ii^arilnaA. Jj^^^^ J^bar 

Aawuly verb trans. To apprise, to inform, to 
acquaint, to report, to advise. JiJj^ Miabar 
ddr, adj. Careful, cautious; informed, ac- 
quainted ; (Fern.) bjSj j^ JdvabaT-ddroHh. 
i^fj^^j^ Mdbar ddr kawul, verb trans. 
To put on one's guard, to warn, to caution, 
to alarm. J Ju-jjI j\jjf:>^ Mi^abar ddr aosedaly 
verb intrans. To take care, to be on one's 
guard, to be on the look out. f^j^*^ jr^ 
Miabar ddri, s.f. (3rd) Caution, care, careful- 
ness. 2. Informing, obtaining information. PL 
y\ a*u J^ ^J^*^ji^ Mabar ddrl kawul, verb 
trans. To take care, to act with caution. iJJjfS>- 
Miabar laraly verb trans. To have or possess 
information, to be informed or acquainted. 
^^y^J j^ yhabar rasawul, verb trans. To 
apprize, to inform, to report, to advise, to 
acquaint, jjfj^ Mabar yir, s.m. (6th) A 
spy, an informer. 2. A protector, a patron. 
I^l« u^j^jT^ Ihabar glrdn, ^jjj^ JJiabar 
ffln, s.f. (3rd) Informing, spying. 2. Aid, 
protection, care. PL ^ cCx. Ja-**^^! j^ 
Miabar dJJdstaly verb trans. To inquire into, 
to look after, to take care or notice of. j^ 
±^ Mabar lots or j<**j5 j^ Mabar lotsa^ 
(W.), adj. Eloquent, long-tongued, talkative, 
entertaining ; (Fem.) iA.^j^ kk^bar lotsali, 
Jjj^^-o- Mabaredal, verb intrans. To be in- 
formed, acquainted, aware, advised. Pres. 
lJjIj^ Mabarejzi (W.) or ,Jkjf^ Mcibaregl 
(E.); past iJ^ j^ Mabar shak or <)Lii J rcu- 
shak ; fut. ^Ju <0 j^ Mohar bah shx or J <u 

^^ bah rmi-shi; imp. sJ^ j^ Mobar shah 
or <)Lii J wU'shah ; act. part. ^^iJ^jjj^ M<i- 
baredUnkaey or ^j3j jj^ M^baredUnaey ; 
past part. ^^yJ^ j^ Mabar shawaey \ verb. n. 

^jjj^ M(xharedana!k, Jj^-^ M(^barawuly 
verb trans. To inform, to apprize, to report, 
to rumour. Pres. i^jj-^ MO'barawl) past 
jf j^ Mohar hare ov J ^ wu-karr ; fut. 
^j^ <o j^ Mcibar bah krri or j^ J ^J bah 
wU'krrl ; imp, ajj^ Mobar krrah or ijf J 
wU'-kjrah \ act, part, y^^^j*^ Mc^baratvUn- 



kaey or ^^^j*^ MicJHxrawUnamf ; past part, 
ii/ jT^ ^bar kaxraey ; verb. n. ^jj^ 

Habara'A, s.f. (3rd) Speechi language. 2. 
Afiiair, matter, thing. PL ,^ ey. J^ Hj^ 
Idluiharcih kawul, verb trans. To speak, to say. 
C '^a.y^ Mdbl^f adj. (from ^^^) Wicked, 
impure, malignant, without prayer. 2. s.m. 
(6th) An evil spirit. PI. ^^2u-^ Mabl^dn) 
(Fem.)a^,.,fTi ^bl^a'h, and s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ey. 

IJiaparr, s.f. (Ist) The palm of the hand, 
the sole of the foot. V\.j^ Mapdrri. 

Wiapma'hy s.f. (3rd) The nightmare. PL 
1^ ey. Also ^j^L^ew ^apaskaeyy s.m. (1st) 
(W.) PL ^ if 

Mipuly the reflective or reciprocal pronoun, 
Self, myself, thyself, himself, herself, own, 
etc. Sing, and PL j^ J-rL MipuX mt, adj. 
Self-opinionated, obsthiate, headstrong, uncon- 
trolled, having one's own way, unfettered. 
iir» J-fi^ Mpul saraey. An obstinate or un- 
controlled person ; (Fem.)^ J-r^ Mpul sari. 
PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^i. j^ J-^ <o pah 
M^pul sar, Of one's own accord, authority, or 
free will. jjI 3^^ ^ ^^ Mtpula anda, adv. 
Unwittingly, spontaneously, of one's own 
accord, freely, voluntarily, ignorantly. J-^ 
, <Jj MptU-waH^ s.f. (3rd), or ^Ij wdley, s.m. 
(1st), or ^^^ galwl^ s.f. (3rd) Connection, 
relationship, affiliation, kindred, family con- 
nexion. PL J^ wala% ^\j wdU, or ^^ 

gaiwa'l. JjJik MpuledeU, verb intrans. To 
become one's own, to become connected, to 
become. bound by ties of friendship, to become 
biased, swayed, influenced, engaged, drawn 
over, inclined, etc. Pres. (^j^^ Mpulejzl 
(W.) or ,<Sy^ Mpuleffl (E.) ; past iJ^, jLi. 
kipul shakov ^ ^ wU'shah ; fut. ^J^ ^ J^ 
Mp^l bah shl or ^J^ J ^J bah wvrshi ; imp. 
<U* J-5>- Mj^w/ ^^A or ^ J wU'^ah ; act. 
part. ^^ijjJuL^ MpuledUnkaey or ^^juL^ 
MpuledUnaey; past part, ^^^i J-^ /^jt?w/ 
§havoaey ; verb. n. <0 JuLri^ ^puledana'h. 
jy^ l^ulawul, verb trans. To make one's 

own, to win over, to' influence, 
sway, to incline, to predispose, 
upon. Pres. i/^)ueL ^ptUawi ; p 
^j9t^/ ka'cr or Jf J tz^m-^zt ; ftit. v 
Mpul bah hjrl or t^J J 40 ^oA jvu 
ij J-fiL ^jtw/ ^2TaA or 2f^ J nw-^ 
part, f^^j^x^ MpulawUnAaey 
IJipukLwUnaey ; past part. ^^ , 
karraey ; verb. n. ij^^ ^pulan 
Mpuiawt, s.f. (3rd) Connect 
ship, relationship, family connexion 
Jj^ ^Jt^ Mi>w/awt kawul, verl 
form connexion by marriage, to m 
tract friendship. 
Ufi^^ Mrpahy s.m. (6th) Tinder, touchw 
and PL See^ 
jj-^ ^JEW^, adj. Opened, or blown \ 
spread out, unclosed, blooming, 
florid. 2. Dispersed, scattered, < 
loose, streaming. PL ^J^ Mipwr 
Sj^ Jdiparcih, PL j^;-^ l^pca 
^Ij Mjw>r wdhey, s.m. (1st) Op 
pension, looseness) etc. Pl.^^^^p^ 
Mporedaly verb intrans. To open, t 
spread, to expand, to dishevel, to 1 
persed. Pres.4^^^^Mjo<!t^^^(W. 
Miparegl (E.) ; past <U« jy^ M^ 
<U» J wU'shah ; fut. ^^ <o jj-^ 
^Af or ^^ J I) bah nm-^hl ; im] 
M^por shah or ^ J TTtt-^aA; 
iS^^^Hjt^ Mpdredunkaey or 
MpfX'redunaey ; past part.^j-^ 
v^^ Mi?^ shawaey \ verb.n. *J jj^ 
dancih or **>ij-^ f^paredah. Jjj 
a/i?w/, verb trans. To cause to op< 
or expand. 2. To dishevel, to 
loosen. Pres. %jyj^ lAparartx ; j 
yhpoT karr oVjf ^ fcurkarr ; fut. ^ 
Mpor bah kfTt or ^jj j ij bai 
imp. ifjfjy^ Mpor krrah or jn^ J 
act. part, ^jioj^^-^ MtparawWnkaei 
fdipararcUnaey ; past part. ^J^ ^ 
kajraeg ; verb. n. ^jj^ yhparasfot 
jy^ etc. 



s;. Hii^paA, adj. Angry, yexed, offended, dis- 
pleuBcd. 2. 0.f. (drd) Suffocation, strangola- 
tion. PI. 1^ ly. ij^ A^ M^paA kanml, 
Terb trans. To Tez, offisnd, displease, to en- 
rage. 2. To suffocate, to strangle, to choke. 
Jju^ 4^ Hapah kedal, verb intrans. To be 
oflbnded, to be vexed, to be displeased. 2. To 
ehoke, to become suffocated. See aasL 
t^ Hapafi, B.f. (3rd) Anger, vexation, dis- 
pleasure, pet, rage. PI. |^ a'l. See ^Xi^ 
^t^ isiapl, s.f. (3rd) A rope of cotton, hair, or 
liemp. 2. A halter for a horse. PL ^ a'z. 
Bee^^lj and^or^ 
,\ iiatd% B.f. (3rd) (corrup. of a and h 
^Jb6^) Fault, error, neglect, sin, mistake. 
PI. ^ a\ Jji' vj^ M^td*t kawul, verb 
tnu. To err, to miss, to mistake, to sin, to 
^ Haiar, 8.m. (2nd) (corrup. of a Jia^) 
Danger, risk, venture. 2. Thought, remem- 
bnnce. PI. ^^j/^ Matar-UnaA. cJU^^ 
UtUar-fiSA, adj. Dangerous, hazardous, fright- 

ttoter ndki, s»f. (3rd) Dangerousness. PI. ^^ 
rt; ilso *jask Matara'A, s.f. (3rd). PI. A ry. 
JjfT ^^^jii>^ ^ jpoA Motor Kshey or A'/ii^y 
ffllfiriM, verb trans. To endanger, to throw 
iBfa^ or expose to danger, to risk. 
J^fioto/, verb intrans. To ascend, rise, mount, 
^, uprise, get up, climb, scale, surmount, 
•?ne, dioot up. ^^y^ Mejzl (W.) or ^*?i=^ 
iifft (£.) ; past %2J^ j n?u-M^^ ; fut. ij J 

1^ wu bah Me^l or ^«^i^ M^^ l i^^P- 

^ J 9Ptf-£S^aA or ^L^^ J wt^Migah ; act. 

W. ^^ijj^s^ Motankaey or r^y^^ M^t- 

ttitty; past part ^d&s^ Mdtalaey ; verb. n. 

4i:^ lAaiana'A or djU. M^to^. See Jj^^ 
^ fS^ IliaAii, s.m. (2nd) Conclusion, end, seal. 

^iiyCi^iiaimUnaA. 2. adj. Done, finished. 

^Qinpleted. Jj^ fP>^ isAatm Aawul, verb trans. 

% finish, end, complete, conclude, 
'tf^ ^toHf s. prop. Name of a country in 

^Mustin, fiunous for its musk, and the 

^^Wy of its women. 

<Lafi^ i^atana'A, s.f. (3rd) (verb, n.) Ascending, 
rising, mounting, arising, surmounting, shoot- 
ing up. PI. ^ ey; and lUU- MdtaA, s.m. 
(6th). Sing, and PI. 

A JiisS^ ]diatna!Ay s.f. (3rd) Circumcision. PI. 
^ ey. Jj^ ibofiK ^latruCA kawul, verb trans. 
To circumcise. 

<iii£w Mata'A, s.f. (3rd) Plain apparel, a shirt or 
shift of coarse cloth. PI. ^ ey, 

y.^,'^ M^Ut S'^- (2nd) A hill, a hillock, a 
mound, a knoll, a mount. 2. A bank of 
clouds. PI. ^jii^ Mi(BttilnaA. 

^^yS- MuU, s.m. (5th) Ebullition, effervescence, 
agitation, bubbling, boiling. 2. Paroxysm, 
convulsion, vehemence, rage, wildness, etc. 
PI. j\(i<^ M^U<^Adr, J ju^ L5^^ Mwtf kedal, 
verb intrans. To boil, to effervesce, to become 
agitated, to bubble, to purl, to boil with rage, 
passion, grief, etc. J^ \^^^ MiuU kawul, 
verb trans. To make boil, bubble, or effer- 
vesce, to agitate, to enrage, to put into a 
passion. See ^;^^ etc. 

J;^^^ Ihaitbely s.m. (6th) Dregs,' sediment, lees. 
Sing, and PI. Also ^Ij^^^'-^^ yhaUhelcik, s.f. 
(3rd). PI. ^ cy. 

CSv>- Midti^k, s.m. (6th) The name of a tribe 
of Afghans who occupy the district to the south 
and west of Attak, and whose chief town is 
Akorra'h. 2. A male of the tribe. Sing, and 
PI. ^i:^ MdttcikaA, s.f. (3rd) A female of 
the above. PI. ^ ey. 

Cj^ IJiaftakj s.m. (5th) A kind of beetle which 
infests houses. 2. A green unripe water 
melon of which pickles are made. PI. ^;li^ 

^J^ M^a^akaey, s.m. (1st) A species of water 
melon, peculiar to Afghanistan. PI. y^ I. 

yS^:>- MiuUkaey, s.m. (1st) Ebullition, etc., the 
diminutive of lj: '"^ 

PI. ^ I. 

J^ IJiaUoley, s.f. (3rd) PI. Muddy, or turbid 

water. See <Uj\ ,^j^ 
i^ MiaUa'Ay s.f. (3id) Mud, slush, mire. PI. 

i^ ey. J ju^ ^^5^ MiaUcHA kedal, verb intrans. 

To become muddy, miry, ^f s^^ isbaUa'A 


kawul, verb trans. To make or render muddy 
or miry. 
<i5^ MuUa'A, 8.f. (3rd) Clay, marl. PI. ^ ey. 

i^^s^ &^tspza*hf B.f. (3rd) A bit, a fragment. 

PI. 1^ ey. 
sJtr^ M^dtsdh, post-pos. At tlie side, near, at, 

beside, about, etc. See AiA 

A J^ ^ijil, adj. (from l::JI^) Modest, bashful, 
asliamed, abashed ; (Fern.) i^ MdjikHh. 

y^^ l^jUnko, adj. Frisky, prancing, capering 
(as a horse), rolling from side to side in 
walking. 2. Rebounding (as a ball). 
^ Mkwajahj s.m. (6th) An eunuch. PI. yjih 
Mmajorgan. See ^^ 

Mad^-Mad,ilnaey, s.m. (Ist) Turning 

over and over, or head oyer heels, rebounding. 

PI. L^ I. JJj ^v,^f^^^ ^ P^^ Mo^'M^ddk- 
Unaey t'lal, verb intrans. To turn head over 
heels, to tum^ over and over, to rebound. 

verb trans. To throw so as to rebound, to make 
turn over and over. See C/jc^J 
f Ma^ar, s.m. (5th) A mule. PI. ^\j^ ^adi- 
ardn, s.f. (3rd)2f-^ M^jadiardh. PI. ^ey. 

^ MuL^aUy adj. Rheumy, fiill of rheum or 
watery matter, dirty, unclean, filthy. 2. Dull, 
dim, clouded (as a mirror) ; (Fem.) ^Uj^ f^di- 
ana*h. See ^jsr^ 

i4 Miadia'h, s.f. (3rd) The litde finger. 2. A 
bound, a rebound, a skip, a dip, a duck, a 
plunge, a glide ; rebounding along the ground 
as a baU, or over the surface of the water as 
a flat stone, or duck and drake. PI. ^^ ey. 
J^ Jdiadidly verb trans. To hurl, to shy, to 
propel with a skimming motion, to bowl 
along, to trundle, to roll along, to throw as a 
stone in the game of duck and drake. Pres. 
^Mfl'^) past 6^\:^ J Tov^]d^chah\ fut. 
^ ij^wu bah Muidn ; imp. ^ J wu-]dw^ah ; 

act. part. ^^^^ MM^Unkaey, or ^y^ lAadi- 
Unaey ; past part, ^du^ kkadkalaey ; verb. n. 


p \j^ Aitwte, 8.m. (5ih) (3tod. PL ^^Wac^ 

^\^^^ ^udSrCy s.m. (5th) God. PI. ^ 
^tidouy&n. This word is used almost < 
sively by the Afghans. <j;^^ ^^\ Jd^ lA 
parast, adj. Godly, pious, worshipper d 
^jx-»^ ^^\'ys>- Muddrc parastl, s.f. (3rd) ] 
godliness, the worship of God. PI. ^^ 
fjMp i^^J^ Mudd-e tars, adj. YirtaouB, 
ing God. ^\uJ^ ^^*^^ Mmdob-e shinilL 
Knowing God. ^^.^:J:a yJ\.iS^]dmdSre§k 

s.f. (3rd) Knowledge of God. PL ^ 
^ j J i^^Jtf^ Mtudore di wtt-kl, Please 
(}od grant! ^ ^ ^ ^^"^^ Wmd&^i 
^, God forbid ! God forfend ! ^/ J ^*, 
Mmdd-e tsah wu-kt^ What will destiny 
duce? what may God decree? 

. l^tiddr-t, s.f. (3rd) Providence, divi 
godhead. PI. ^ a't. 

p \Aj^ Muddyd, interj. Oh God! 

A lIjcjIj^ Muddr€'t(Bald, The Most High 

t^jj*i^ Mc^cUar-^, s.m. (1st) PL The nam< 
tribe of Afghans, v,^*^^ IJiadarzaey, 
A man of the tribe, s.f. (6th) ^^ a I, A fi 
of the tribe. Sing, and PL 

k c:..^Jl>. Jd^dmoit, s.m. (2nd) Employ] 
duty, attendance, office, service. PL A}y 
MidmaiUnah. Jj^ iju^j^ MidnuUk 
verb trans. To attend, to serve, to do 
2. To beat (met.). j\^<XsL l^xdmaJt-gSr 
(5th) A servant, an attendant. PL ^^5;^ 
MddmaZgdrdn. (^U£l«<Xs^ MadmaJtg9r 
(3rd) Service, duty, attendance. PL ^ 
^jL«jcw MudmaMy adj. Attentive, di]] 
beedfrd, mindftd (Masc. and Fem.). 

p Cio jks;- Jdkadang, s.m. (9th) An arrow or 
of poplar wood ; the poplar tree. Sing. » 

J^ jjcL M(^idchM6l, 8.m. (6th) The nai 
an Afgh&n clan. Sing, and PL aLcL 
JduidjO']dieU£h, s.f. (3rd) A female of the i 
PL ^ ey. 

JAad^jdh, 8. prop. The name of M^ 
mad's first wife. 



J>flL y^aHcU, adj. as 8.m. (5tli) A large dog in 
good condition. PL ^>aL Maddaldn. ^^ 
liaddala'h, 8.f. (3rd) A bitch as above. PL 

Haer, 8.m. (5tb) A snore, a purr, a snort ; 
snoring, purring, etc. PL j\tbj>- M^aerahar. 
Jj^^ l^uETwahaly verb trans. To snore, to 
purr, to snort. See ^j>- 

Har^ s.m. (4th) (Pu^. and Pers.) An ass, a 
donkey. PL if^c^^ Wirdh. )ij^ Mara'h, s.f. 
(Srd) A female donkey. PL ^ ey. j:>^ xj^ 
gorak-M^9 s.m. (4th) The onager or wild ass. 
PL ar^ 9j^ gorahrl^rah. i^^j>. Mtar-toh^ 
8.m. (2nd) Stupidity, dullness, stolidity. PL 
ijj>yj:^ MoT'tobUnah. 
A ^y^ Mdrdb, adj. Bad, depraved. 2. Ruined, 
abandoned, spoiled, lost, deserted, depopulated, 
waste. J Jujl^ M^xrdbedal, verb intrans. To 
become spoiled, ruined, desolated, laid waste, 
vitiated, corrupted. Pres. i,g-j5/>- Mordbejzl 
(W.) or ^]/S^ Marabeffl (E) ; past i^\ 
UU Marab shah or A^ J wu-shah ; fut. l^\ 
^J^ ij ^arab bah shl or ^-A j ^J bah wu- 

^l ; imp. iJL (^1/^ ^ardb shah or ^ J 
wu-shah; act. part, ^jioj Jlu\^ M^rdb- 

edanhaey or ^jJuj|^ IJiardbedUnaey \ past 

part. Ly\y>. Mcurdb or ^^^. c- >t^ ^rdb 
^awaey; verb. n. ij^\js^ M<irdbedana'h. 
iijf]/^ Mardbanml, verb trans. To spoil, to 
mar, to ruin, to destroy, to vitiate, to waste, 
to desolate. Pres. t^ji^^ M^ardbawx ; past 
^ c^l/^ MoroA harr or^J wvrkarT\ fut. 
^J^ ij 4^1/^ Moardb bah hfrl or ^^ J <u 
ioA «?u-A2rl ; imp. n^ <-->U^ Mardb krrah 
or *^ J iw^-^jr^A ; act. part. l^j^]/>- M«^- 
^ihixnllinkaey or ^^Jy|/>- ^ardbawUnaey \ 
past part. ^^ S-']/^ hhordb kaxraey ; verb, 
n. <^^|/^ Mordbanmna^h. 

PAiJU^ Mora&S^, s.m. (5th) A debauchee, a 
rake, a libertine. PL ^Ijb]^ Miardbdtidn. 

-A ^1^ ^ardba'hf s.f. (Srd) Ruin, destruction, 
desolation. PL ^ ey. 2. adj. Ruined, waste, 
bad, spoiled. 



A p yJ)j^ MifiiTdbxy s.f. (Srd) Ruin, desolation, 
ill, mischief, evil, destruction. PL ^ cHu 

A — 5^ Mardji s.m. (2nd) (from ^^) Rent, 
tax, duty, revenue, tribute. PL ij^\j>' 
MdrdjUnah. ,<=r]/^ Jdkirdjl^ s.f. (Srd) Land 
paying tribute to government, paying revenue. 
PL ^ aX 

iSj^ Wj^ardtrdh, s.f. (Srd) The name of a bird, 
the skylark. PL ^ ey. 

j^L]^ Murdsdn, s. prop. The name of a 
country, Afgh&nistftn. 

jJLl}^ Mardshkaey, s.m. (1st) Phlegm, mucus 
from the throat. PL ^^ f. See also ^^J 

^yJijj^ lAarbushoeyy s.m. (5th) A hog, a swine, 
a boar. Vl.^Joy^j^^M^^bushoeydn, (Fern.) 
ejyjjjjj:>^ ]Aarbushoea^h,}LSOYff etc. PL ^ ey, 

^y^j^ Mccrpotsa'k, s.f. (3rd) Crawling on all 
fours (as a child)'. PL ^J ey. J^ ^Ji^ 
MiarpotspHh kawuly verb trans. To move on all 
fours. See i^^^J^ and ^y^j>- 

Mtat'paU, s.m. (2nd) A powder ; medi- 
cine taken simply, not mixed but dry, in op- 
position to an electuary; sufficient to lie in 
the palm of the hand and fill the mouth. PL 
ijfiij:>- JJiar-paUUnah, J^ v-^^^i/^ Mar-patt 
kawulf verb trans. To take medicine or any- 
thing dry, as above, by throwing or jerking 
it into the mouth. See ^ 

^y^y>- M^rposoHh^ s.f (3rd) Going on all fours 
(as a child). PL ^ ey. See ^y^j^ and 

2FjJf j>^ Miar tiza'hf s.f (Srd) The capering of a 
horse or an ass, cutting capers. PL ,^ ey. 

MiaraU, adj. Fat, stout; (Fem.) ii^ri^ 
Midratba'hy A fat or stout woman. 2. s.f. 
(3rd) A large turban worn by mullas. PL 
^^ ey. 3. JdkaraUah, s.m. (5th) A knave, 
a cheat, a hypocrite, an impostor, a wolf 
in sheep's clothing. PL ^j=^ MiaraUdn. 

A^ MiarU, s.m. (2nd) Expense, price, outlay, 
expenditure, spending, outgoing. 2. Fee, duty, 
PL ^y^ MiarWlnah (a ^j-/^)* J*>-^^ 
l^artsedal, verb intrans. To be expended^ 



Pres. t^^jsS^ Mar^J^l (W.) or ^JLL 
Mariseffl (B.) ; past ^ ±^ Marts, shah or 
^ J wu'shah ; fat. ^^ ay a^ M«rte 6aA 
fiAf or ^ J ^ ioA wu-sjil ; imp. ^lI a^ 
Marts shah or aLl J ;2?2^-^a^; act. part. 
^j^jju^L;fiw Mci^rtsedUnkaey or ^j^^juaL^ 
Martsedunaey ] past part, j^yi ^^ M^r^ 
shawaey] verb. n. <Oju^L^ Martsedana^h. 
i}^j=>- Mortsawul, verb trans. To expend, to 
disburse, to spend. Pres. i^j^ys>- M^rtsawl ; 
past J A^ M«r^ ^aar or ^ J rovrkarr ; 
fat. 4^ <o A^ M«rfo iaA Am or g?/ J ^ 
iaA rtiirkrn ; imp. 2f^ **;. Morts htrah or 
2r^ J wu-krrah ; act. part. ^^Cj^L^ Martsa- 
wunkaey or ^3^^:^ MartsawUnaey ; past 
part. ^^ ±^ M^ir^ kajraey ; verb. n. 
<uyL^ Martsawuna'h. 

^jn^ Martst, adj. Prodigal, lavish, extrava- 
gant. (Masc. and Fern.) 

^^lyL^ khartsorraey, s.m. (1st) A rag, a clout, 
a piece of tattered cloth, etc. PI. ^c L 

J\jb^^ Mar-jaddl, s.m. (5th) Antichrist. 2. 
An evil disposed or wicked person. ' PI. 
^5J\j^^ M(^r-jaddldn, See JW«^fi5^ 

^^is^jri^ Muir-jagjagalaey , s.m. (Ist) The name 
of a game played by children. PI. ^^ I. 

— yfiL Mradiy s.m. (5th) The sound produced by 
the splitting of wood, crack. PL jl^f;^ 

^^J^/^ Mar-M^raey, s.m. (1st) Asses' play, 
nonsense, foolishness. PI. ^ I. 

vi^^j^ MfiirMfiLshxx^ 
s.f. (3rd) Tumult, noise, encounter, riot, quar- 
relling. 2. A crowd. PI. ^ ey. \^f i.,Sf^j^ 
MorMidska'h or MfiirMaMolh kawul^ verb 
trans. Tocreateadisturbanceorriot, to quarrel. 

JU- j^ Mar-dajdl, s.m. (5th) Antichrist. 2. A 
wicked or depraved person. PI. Ji\pr^j^ 
Mor-dajaldn. See J^J^>-^ 

P u-^ Mdrsy 8.m. (5th) A bear. PI. ^L^. 

Mirsdn. SeejL^ ^i^d j orviJo 
j^ ^ Mar-sor, 8.m. (5tli) A fool, a blockhead, 
an idiot, (Kt.) a rider on an ass. PI. ^\j^ ^ 
Mar-soran ; (Fern.) tfjj^jsi^ Mar-sara'h, 

>^ Mciir^vni a.m. (4th) The dung of 
PI. ^^^j^ Mor§hna or ijj^j^ iba 
The plural form is mostly used. 

^^j:>. McarshabUnf s. prop. The seoi 
youngest son of San, eldest son of A 
Ba^id, Pattftn, from whom are desoa 
YusO&ls, Mhomands, Khallls. and oth 
at present dwelling in the plain of Pc 
See the Introduction to my Gramnuu 

^j^j>^ hhargheTmaey ^ s.m. (Ist) 
stool, a poisonous mushroom. PL ^ 

p Ai^ M^rfa'hf 8.f. (3rd) Purslain. P 
€ee ^J^^ 

A iG^ Miri(^'h, s.f. (3rd) A patched g 
a religious habit, a darwegh's dress. I 

^js>- Mdrkaejfy s.m. (1st) A snore, a 
snort. 2. Snoring, purring, snortai 
^/^ ^orAt. J^ \^y^ Morkeykan 
trans. To snore, to purr (as a cat), t 

Morga^y s.m. (5th) A species of 
or ortolan. PL ^Is^ Morgoitt&n ; 
i;^j^ MorgaUah. PL ^ eg. See )tj 

y^j>- Morgc^t s^m. (1st) A young aa 
piece of ivory let into the stock of a 
lock behind the breech. 3. The hni 
violin, etc. PL ^^ f . See ^ 

p ^»^ Murraniy adj. Pleasant, agreeable, 
ful, cheerful, pleased, gay, glad, merry 

f!/^ J lA^ Mush-o-Murram, Pleafi 

delighted, merry and gay; (Fern.) 

p U^ Murma, 8.f. (6th) A date. (B.) Bi 

PL (W.) PL ^iTjU^ Murmawl. 
^z^^My*^ Mar-majsn^ s.f. (3rd) Foolial 

praiiks, capers. PL ^ a*u JjS" . 

Mdr-mastl hanml, verb trans. To play 

to cut capers, etc. 
^^jo^^ M(xrfnandeg, adj. Wee, mi 

tiny, little, small, small in size but 

portion ; (Fem.) ^^ a'l. Sing, az^ I 
p ifj^j£>- Mflr-^uhrolhy 8.f, (3rd) A odd 

called kofvdie in Indiay used as a co 

^ eg. See ^i^ 


iar-ivSry 0.m. (2nd) An ass load* PI. 

lar-warff, adj. A fonr-year old sheep or 

om that age upwards. Sing, and PI. 

^j^j^ Marwarga'h* PI. ^ ey. See 

arofxaey, adj. A biter (as a dog, horse, 
etc.); (Fern.) m^ is^orri, PI. 
and Fern.) |^ {. 

Morosakf 8.m. (9th) A disease of the 
which swells inside, and finally he- 
dosed altogether, and death ensues. 

^aroskf s.m. (9th) Noise, clamour, 
. cry, crash. Sing, and PI. ^ {^^ 
jo^-ih^arosh^ Tumult, disturbance. 
rae^f s.m. (Ist) A small whitlow, a 
an excoriation, a pustule. PI. ic f , 
\qr^dny s.f. (6th) An ass, a donkey. 

^an-yaty s.m. (2nd) Stupidity, asinine 
. Sing, and PI. See 4— y ^ 
\at\dy part, (from ^Juj^) Bought, pur- 
B.m. (2nd) Purchase, goods bought. 
)j^ l^aridUndh. Jji^ ^j^ ^and 
verb trans. To purchase, to buy. j^^^y^ 
•STf A.m. (2nd) A buyer, purchaser. 
SsijS^ Morid-drdn. (ju^jy^ «H/^ 
ihfarol^y Buying and selling, barter, 
ge, trade and traffic. 
aretraey, sjn. (Ist) Thick sour milk, 
;alated milk mixed with fresh milk ; a 
* junket; buttermilk. 2. A mushroom, 
stool. PI. ^^ I. 

Iz, 8.m. (2nd) Stubble of the cotton 
r grain left in the ground after reaping. 
^jt>^ l^irizUnah. Also jjj^ and j\j 

^fiyalf verb trans. To shave, to shear. 
d/^ M'nyl ; past <o^ J wu-Mirtyah ; 
' -^ li ^vou bah M'reyf ; imp. Ajj^ J 

•fyoA ; act. part. ^J^ji^ ^^riyUnkaey 
^j^ Ui'riyilnaey ; past part. ^j-L -^ 
Uiey\ verb. n. ^j^ Winyawih, 

^^ M^riyaiaey^ adj. (past part.) Shaved, shorn. 

*-;- WitBrTi adj. Muddy, miry, turbid, puddly, 
dirty, dusty, smoky, soiled, etc. 2. "Mud- 
coloured, brown. 3. Plain, humble in dress ; 
(Fem.) ij^ Micerra'h. ^J^\ ^^^ J^xrey 
aoba'h, Muddy or turbid water. I^j^\ ij^ 
MlifBXTijUh dor-ya^z, A dark or murky cloud. 
^\^ j^ Mi(Btr wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Muddiness, 
turbidness, foulness. PI. 1\^ wall, or Lj ^ a, 
s.f. (6th) (E.) Sing, and Pr (W.) PI. VjW" 
tl-dwu ^2j>'j^ MiCBT-^any adj. Dirty, foul, tur- 
bid, dusty; (Fem.) ^^^j^ MyBrr-janolh. 
Jjj|5L J^tredaly verb intrans. To become 
muddy, dirty, dusty, foul, puddly. 2. To 
become angry, troubled, disturbed, excited, 
irritated, etc. Pres. ^j,^ Wicerrej^ (W.) or 
t/kjf^ l^(BTreg% (E.) ; past ^j^ MyJ^tr shah 
OT dJi» \ fcU'^ah ; fut. ^J^ s^ ^ M^tT hah 

shl or ^ J ij bah nm-^shi; imp. a^ 
M^tT snah or ^ J wu-shah; act. part. 
^jiojjj^ M^tredUnhaey or ^j jj^ iharr- 
edUnaey ; past part, j^ MuBfli or ^^ y» ^ 
M^tr shawaey; verb. n. ^^^ M^icr- 
edancHh, ^^^j^ WuBtrawuly verb trans. To 
puddle, to dhrty, to make foul or dusty. 2. 
To seek a pretext, to use as a plea, etc. Pres. 
i/j)^ Mimrrawl ; past ^ ^ M^rr katr or 
•^ J wU'kaxr\ fut. ^^ ^j^ McBrr bahkrrl 
or ^^J J <o bah wu-hfrl ; imp. »Sj>- M^CBxr 
kjrah or jj^ J wurh'crah) act. part. 
^jiojjijsL JdiCBtraircilnkaey or ipjj^/^ WKBrr- 
awUnaey ; past part. \^Jj>- M^VH kajraey ; 
verb. n. a^j »^ Mcerrawuna^h. 

Wm-cTy s.m. (5th) The sound produced when 
vomiting or retching, the sound produced by 
hawking or expectorating. Pl.jU^ J^ufra- 
hat. PI. Jjbj j^ ykuxT wahaly verb trans. 
To puke, spew, retch, hawk, etc. 

MiUXTy s.m. (2nd) A watercourse; a ravine 
dry in summer ; the sandy bed of a river or 
rivulet ; the dry bed of a river. PI. <0«^ 
Mj^uiirUnah, Also Zj^ MiwarTcChy s.f. (3rd) 
PI. vj ^. Secj^ and arjjU 

MiW^Vy ^•°^* ^^^ The sound produced 



by chewing carrots and the like, a crunch or 
craunch, a smash^ quaah, crash, the sound of 
a sudden blow, or of a sword on the flesh, etc. 
PI. j^j^ Mirrapahdr, Jjbj ^j>- MzT^J^ 
wahal, verb trans. To crunch, to smash, to 
quash, to strike suddenly. 

^y^j^ M^rrpotsa'A, s.f. (3rd) Crawling on all- 
fours (as a child). PI. ^^ ey. J^ ^y^j^ 
M^ZIpotsa'h kawul, verb trans, or A^y^ aj 
f^ pah Jakarrpotsah {lal, verb intrans. To 
move along on all-fours, to crawl along. Sec 
4^y^ or <Ujj^ and 4A.^ls>- 

^j^ ^ajrtam, s.m. (2nd) (firom a /♦j^/^) The 
trunk of an elephant. PI. ^yAjjs*^ Jckarr- 
tamunah, J^T mjy^- Muirrtam ddkawul, 
verb trans. To blow the nose on, to crow over, 
To talk big. 

(jwjfl^ MirraSy s.m. (5th) Clash, crash, shock, 
blow, thump, click, clap, slam, etc. PI. 
jlf-j^ JJ^rrasahar. Jjbj ^j>- Jd^troA wahal, 
verb trans. To clash, to crash, to click, to 
thump, etc. or ^\J J^J^ Mrrasahdr laral, 
verb trans. 

^j>- kkurrkaey, s.m. (1st) The sound produced 
by vomiting or retching, or by hawking or 
spitting (dimin. of jsL), PI. ^J^ M^urrku 
J^ ^^j^ Mmrrkaey karvul, verb trans. To 
puke, to spew, to retch, to hawk. 

JjflL Miarraly verb trans. To ease one's-self, to 
go to stool, to dung. Pres. ^^J>^ M^arn\ 
past Jjr>^ J TvU'kharral; fut. ^^ <u J ww 
bah l^rn ; imp. ij>^ J wu-JJ^trah ; act. 
part. jjJoijjfl^ WmrrUnkaeyy or y^^j>- Miarr' 
Unaey ; past part, ^j^ ^^rrauiey ; verb. n. 
<U jT^ Miarrandh. See Jj^ Ji 

^j^ Mtarrandd, s.m. (2nd) The stump of a 
tree or shrub, a branch, stubble left in the 
ground after reaping, etc. PI. <0j jj^ filajr- 
anddUnah. Seej.^^ and jU 

Up^^jfl^ Mcirrob, adj. Saturated, watered, irri- 
gated, wetted with water, watered (as a horse 
or cow) ; (Fem.) ^^j>- WtarrohcCh. ^^j^ 
J^ M^xroh kawul, verb trans. To water, to 
saturate, to irrigate, to water (as cattle). 

U**ijf^ Mtru, s.m. (5th) A large and h 
person, tall and stout, a stalwart or straf 
fellow. PI. (^tw^ i^rrtsdn. bS. 
^jf^ Mrnsa'h. PI. ^^ ey. 2. adj. L 
big, great, stalwart, spanking, burly, hra 
^\j ^J*^^ Mrrlswdlaey, s.m. (Ist) Big 
stoutness, stalwartness, brawniness, strei 
PI. ^Ij wdR. 

^Jl^ Murrln, adj. Softened, sodden, ripe, 
(as bread with yeast), festered (as a boO), 
sound (as firuit), well boiled (as meat). 
Angry, enraged, wroth. 3. Mortified, h 
(Fem.) ^^iJ^ Murnna'h. ^\j ^^ 
Mutrtn-wdlaey, s.m. (1st) or ^jy ^^ 
Mutrln'tob,B.m, (2nd) Softness, ripenesS; 
soundness, mellowness. PL ^\^ wdb 
djyy tobunah. Jjuij^ Murrined^, 
intrans. To soften, to sodden, to ripen, U 
come soft by boiling. Pres. ^fyi^j^Mm 
ejzl (W.), or ^J^^j^ ^utrinegl (E.) ; 
^ cM/^ M^iTlw shah or <Li* J wttrshak ; 
LC-* ^, {ji-jf^ Murrln bah shl or ^J^ j ^ 
wu-shl ; imp. ^J^ ^jt^ Miuxfi^ shaJi or 
wu-shah ; act. part, ^^iij juij^ £^2Tiii^ 
kaey or ^jij«XfX>^ ^urrinedtLnaey ; past 

^Ji,J>- Miurrln or ^yL ^jij>- Murrin skate 
verb. n. <Oju:j^ l^ufrtnedana'k. J^ 
Murnnawul, verb trans. To sodden, to i 
soft, ripe, or festered. Pres. ,^yj^ iiu\ 
awl ; past j^ uir^ Mmrnn kafr otjf J 
ka^rr ; fut. ^J ^j ^jij^ Mufrln bak kf\ 
i^J j <u bak wu'kjrl ; imp. ifj ^^^ 4J« 
krrak or sj ^ wu-krrak ; act. part, ^^^y 
Mkuvrinawilnkaey or rP^y^^ Mutflnai 
aey ; past part, i^ ui^ Motrin katt 
verb. n. ^yij^ ^utrinawunah. 

P ^\y>- Muizdn, s.m. (2nd) Autunm. PL ^j 
MazdnUnak. See ^^^ 

A ij\y>^ Mdzdndk, s.f. (3rd) A treasui 
magazine, a repository, a granary ; the c 
ber of a rifle or gun. PL ^ ey. j\ti i 
Mi^dna'k-ddr, or ^w]}^ Mi^dna'k% i 
or muflket> a matphlook with a chai 


^]js^ M^Sna'A'dl, s.m. (5th) A trea- 
Pl. ^Ld- *i|;rL isHiz&na'A'diUn. 

zala'h, 8.f. (3rd) Rubbish, sweepings, 
>f anything. PI. |^ ey. See if/>-j^ and 

isiazanda'A, s.f. (3rd) A creeping thing, 
ecty a reptile. PI. |^ ey. 
^, adj. (W.) Lame, crippled, wounded, 
dy injured, mauled, etc.; (Fem.) bj^ 
ih. 2. s.m. (6ih) A hurt, an injury, a 
1, a bruise, scath, mutilation; disease, 
it» malady, ill. Sing, and PI. jc^ ^ 
mandf adj. Diseased, ill, lame, out of 
crippled, bruised, etc. ; (Fem.) Jisuy 

mamddh. ^^^ j^ J^ujz-rtdlcLey, s.m. 

Painfulness, uneasiness. PI. J|^ rcdti. 

^ lA'^jzedal (W.) or JjuJii^ JJiugedcd 
erb intrans. To pain, to twinge, to ache, 
lart, to tingle, to shoot. Pres. uJj,j>- 
ej^ (W.) or ^e^i^ Jdiugegl (E.) ; past 
- W^jz shah or iJu CX< Mtug shah or 
mtr^ah ; fut.^-A ij ^ M^j^ i<^A sh^ or 
i dJc^ ^t(^ baJi shl OT^J^ i ij bah wu- 

imp. 4^ .sL Mt^J^ ^^^ or a^ vJLJU- ^^^^ 
or ^ J fpu-shah ; act. part. ^^Xjj Jlj^ 

edsnkaey or ^jiuj^juj^ MmgedUnhaey or 
»/i- l^ujzedUnaey or ^^sA:>^ JJiuge- 
iy; past part, .s^ M^^ or CiU^ M^^ 
h« je>^ Mh^ shawaey or ^^y;i djc^ M^^ 
oey ; verb. n. ^Jui^ ^ujzedana'h or 
isL l^ugedana'h. Jj^^ Idmjzawul (W.) 
1$!:;^ yitigawul (E.) verb trans. To pain, 
Set pain, to pinch, to wring, to torture, 
jonize, etc. Pres. 4/jg£^ I^ujzawl or 
»- J^^awx ; past jS^ ^sw ^w^ ^arr or 

llfiw M^y ^2T ^^ j^ J wU'kaxr ; fut. 
*J js5- Mt<^ 4«A A2T^ or ^^ <o CJ^ 
hah irr% or j^ J aj JaA w?tt-Am ; imp. 
^ Mh^ Ajr^ or ifj djc^ ^^e/^ ^rraA 
J fvu-kfrah; act. pwl;. ^^ij^^j^ Miujzor 

aey or ^^^^^ Mugawunkaey or 
i:&^ Mtf^n?t2na€y or ^^^/^ Mmga- 
ey ; past part. \^ j^ hh^ij^ hatraey or 

^^ dxs^ &4ay kaf3^aey ; verb. n. ^Ot^ 
J^ujzjOLWUwih or ^j^ Jdiugawuruih. See 

Cic;- andCJ^ 

jflL ^^, s.m. (5th) A rattling or gurgling 
sound produced in the throat of a dying 
animal, etc. ; the death rattle. PL ^j>- 
^kajzahdr, J^ j>^ Muijz kawulf verb trans. 
To rattle or gurgle, as a goat or sheep vrith 
its throat cut. 

p ^j»^ J^ass, s.m. (2nd) Any useless stick or 
herb, dry grass, etc. PI. ijyuS^ JJiasUnah, 
cJL-U^ ^ ^/-^ M^as-o-Mdshdkj Litter of any- 
thing, rubbish, sweepings. 

\m,..^ Misdf adj. Fetid, strong-smelling, putrid, 
stinking, foul, rank, musty, noisome, etc. 
(Masc. and Fem.) ^\^ Lwusi^ fd^sd-rcdlaey, 
s.m. (1st) Fetor, strong smell, stench, stink, 
foulness, rancidity. PI. ^Ij waft. See Ur» 
Jju^ Lc^ Ijisd kedalf verb intrans. To stink, 

* to smell, to become noisome. J^ L*^ Jdisd 
kawul, verb trans. To make to stink, to make 

p^wfw Ichusar, s.m. (5th) A father-in-law. PI. 
j^l^***^;. ^tcsardn, See^^if-» 

,J|***rJ- Masarraey, s.m. (1st) A straw, or any- 
thing of no value or little consequence, rub- 
bish, etc. PI. jc L J^T i^j»*^ Miasarrey 
d^awul, verb trans. To cast lots (with straws). 
<iGU.M«fw Masamdna*h, s.f. (3rd) Protection, care, 
custody, support, assistance, aid. PI. ^^ ey. 
J^ <0\.4»mj;. l^asamdna'h kawul, verb trans. 
To assist, to protect, to give aid or succour, 
to render assistance. 

;^ khasarmaey. s.m. (1st) A straw, or any- 
thing of no value. PI. y^ f . J^T (^m.m.'v 
khasarmaey ddtawul, verb trans. To cast lots 
with straws. See preceding. 

i- Msaey, s.m. (1st) A young sucking calf. 
PI. ^<A**fi^ hhsi ; s.f. (6th) ^_M>^ MsaX Sing, 
and PI. See^ ' 

;- M<^f 8«ni. (5th) A castrated animal, as a 
horse, sheep, etc. PI. j^U*u^ Masidn. 2. 
adj. Castrated, gelt. J^ l/""^ ^^^ kannil, 



verb tranfl. To castrate, to geld. Bee is^^l , 

A ^jMjkM.< M^isls, adj. (fix)m (^•^mr^) Sordid, 
penurious, avaricious. S. Mean, ignoble. 

p Jjm< M^isll, 8.m. (Snd) Green com given to 
cattle. lPhij^>^^AM£^M^isllilnaA. See also jj^ 

ij^lwLr^ Idmshaw-zcbh^ s.f. (3rd) Orris root, the 
sweet cane, the galingale. PI. ^ ey. See 

\^^ti^r^ Jdmsht ovtMsht, adj. Damp, wet, soaked, 
drenched, dripping, reeking, dank, humid ; 
(Fem.) izJL:>^ J^ushtcHh or Miishta'h. lii^JLtL 
cs^mIj Musht-pusht or JMsht-pishty adj. Drip- 
ping wet, soaked through, reeking, very damp 
or humid. J jurJLrw JchushtedaL verb intrans. 
To become wet, damp, soaked, humid, etc. 
Pres. fctfjjidu*^ Miushtejn (W.) or ^JLl^mS- 
I^ushtegl (E.) ; past j^ cs^f^ir;. ^udkt karr 
or^ J wM-^^r; fat. ^-1 <o ut^mip;^ M^sht 
bah shl or ^-A j <)b JaA /2?w-^I ; imp. \j:^iH<- 
<L^ khusht shah or <L2i J wu-shah ; act. part. 
^jJljjjuiAjw kkusktedUnkaet/ or ^^jurJLfw 

kkusAtedUnaey ; past pari, l:: >.,m.i.'<. kitisht or 
^yii\j:^JL:^Mi^^tsharvaey\ verb.n.^UJur^AjC 
^ushtedana'h. Jy^ltS^ JJitishtawul, verb 
trans. To make wet, to damp, to soak, to 
make humid, etc. Pres. cffJ^^r^ Mmshtawl ; 
past^ Ls .^am S . Mmsht karr or j^ J ww-^yr ; 
fut. j^ <o c- >^M.rv JJiusht bah km or t// J <J^ 
JaA WM-A^rf ; imp. 2f^ c:^^^ Miusht krrah 
or ifj ^ wu-krrah; act. part. ^j,0jy.4i.S>. 
MushtawUnkaey or ^^^iji^ MusktawUnaey ; 
past part. ^^ vj: >^.m.i.^ M^isht kamxey ; verb, 
n. <Uy,air^ Mtushtawunoilh, 

p tlXuufi^ Mmshk, adj. Dry, withered; (Fem.) 
« i< ^«!t,. < Mushka'k. x^MJi,^ Mushkdfva*k, s.f. 
(3rd) A dry year, a drought. 2. Dry, sterile 
land. PI. ^^ ey. ^Uj LlX^rt. ^M^it 
damask or ji^ tlCit^ Mw^* mashz, adj. 
Hot-brained, hot-headed, crazy, crack-brained. 
^Uj i^/U i< . Mu^k damaghx or ^^^ 
^togiert, s.f. (3rd) Craziness, hot-headedness. 
PI. s^ aX ^L (jXlfiL M«^^ «aft, s.f. 

(3rd) Drought, a drought, sterility. 
dl, iiJLtL Mushka*k, s.f. (drd) Boil6> 
PL ,J ey. 

p Ai»\<. Muskkah or ^Xfi^r^ adv. By li 
opposition to i^jj tari, by water. 

p jy.uir^- i^usknUd, adj. Pleased, gratifiet 
tented, satisfied. i^JyJLt^ i^ushnlU 
(3rd) Contentment, pleasure, gratifi 
satisfaction. PL ^|c a'i. 
wj>^ Mushaey, adj.C!razy, weak-minded, li 
demented, daft, giddy, flighty, betide 
self. 2. A mad-cap, a lunatic, a dr 
3. Undefended, open to assault, eu 
vulnerable. 4. Defenceless, unaided, 
sisted, unfiiended ; (Fem.) Jus>^ Mu^ 

« ^ 

fj^ M^M (E-) adj. Buried, interred, inli 
entombed, under ground. 2. Embeddc 
planted, inserted, stuck in ; (Fem.) 
MaBa'k. Jju4^ MaBedal (E.) v< 
trans. To enter, to penetrate, to sink i 
insinuate itself, to be absorbed or swal 
Pres. iX-e^fi^ Ma^ffl ', past ^ ^j^ 
ihah or <L^ J wtirskah ; fut. ^J^ ij 
Muifdi bah ski or J^ I D bak wu-^l 
U^ ^^x^ MwLJdi sKak or a^ J wu-^ak 
part. ^jilJjfaUuofv f^^dUnkaey or ^j 

MfiiJdiedUnaey ; past part. ^ji*:>^ £^^ o 
s^yL MtaWi shawaey ; verb. n. <0.\j4>*^ £ 
dancHk or jThUuofv WwMedak, Jj^^ « 
a/re^/, verb trans. To bury, inter, inhun 
tomb, to introduce, to insert, to impli 
embed, to stick into, to plant. Pr«i. , 
Mixildiawl ; past i (^/u^ MvalOi ka^ < 
wu-karr ; fut. ^^ ^ j^^4*:>^ M^^ ha 
or j^ J <o bak wurkrfi ; imp. ari 
]duil3i kjrak or 2n^ J wu-krrak ; act 
jjiuj^4ki^ Jdtjaldmwurdtaey OT^^y^ i 
roUnaey ; past part. ^^J^ ^jifd^^m<i}3^ ka 
verb. n. <Uj4c^ ]^a1diawuru£K See al 
5- M/oshtag (W.) or M^lditag (E 
(2nd) A square piece of cloth insertc 
pair of drawers, a gore, a gusset. PL ^ 
M^ask^H^fUih or ii^oM^^f^' 

* ^« 




Ha^tagaey (W.) or MaJ^tayaey (E.) 
8jn. (Ist) A gore, a goaaet (the dimin. of above.) 
PL ^ I. 
s^^ Mashta'h (W.) or Wkamtalh (E.) s.f. (3rd) 

A brick, burnt or otherwise. PI. ^J ey. 
^ MaMl (E.) or Mam (W.) s.m. (Ist) (PI.) 
The name given to the whole Ytlsufzl tribe of 
A%h&ii8* ^jt^M^M^^ or Ma^aey (Sing,) 
A male of the above. ^^>^ }dia1dia!i or 
1^0^% s.f. (6th) A female or females of the 
above. Sing, and PI. 
K c-^Ia'^ lAa^lai^ s.m. (2nd) Habit, custom, 
(Bspofiition, nature, virtue, quality, mode. PI. 
iifLc^ isia^latUnaA. 
1 [0j„a^ JS^u^U^an, adv. Particularly, especially. 
A ^ ^jrf>j.flf; Mu^U^iycU, s.m. (2nd) Attachment, 
biendship, peculiarity, singularity. PI. 
tijp^yaeL Mtt^U^iyatUnah, 
Ljds^ Mi^^r, 8. prop. A companion of Moses, 
Fhineas, or the prophet Elias. 
ilofk Mattj s.m. (2nd) A letter, epistle, note. 
2. A line, lineament. 3. Writing, hand- 
writing. 4. Down on the face, youthful 
kewd. PI. djj^2£^ MattUnak. J^L^i^Matt 
K^ or k'McU, verb trans. To draw, to write, 
todiMf a line; or Jjb^ Ls;- Matt wahal. 
^^Miota, 8.f. (6th) Mistake, error, fault, 
cnme. (E.) Sing, and PI. ; (W.) PI. fc^^lk>. 
UfUJiiiei. J ju^ Ua^ MO'ta kedal, verb intrans. 
To mias, err, fail, miscarry, to wander, to 
ittttble, to fail to hit. J^ ILr^. MdfA karculy 
^ trans. To err, to blunder, to miss, to fail 
ii^ iim, to mislead, to cause to deviate. 
; A ^"^ WtflK B.m. (2nd) (from uj^^ks;^) Title, 
I Id^. PI. ^jjIL^ MitabUnah. c^lLr^. 
ufji Mitdb fvar-kawul, verb trans. To bestow 
^ ^JkL Hutba'h, s.f. (3rd) An oration or sermon 
ddivered after every Friday's service, in which 
^preacher blesses Ood, Muhanmiad, and his 
sneoessors, and prays for the reigning sove- 
TOga. PL |C I. 
kja^ M^tar, s.m. (2nd) Danger, risk, thought, 
leeoUection, remembrance, ^^^li^^ Mcf'tar- 

unah. cJU ^;k£L Matar-ndk, adj. Frightful, 
hazardous,d£^gerous ; (Fern.) d^\j ^^i:>^ k^t^^- 
nakaHh, Jas^ ^Ul j da dzan Muitar, Danger 
of life, hazard of life. J^r^ JU J da mdl 
Matar, Danger, or hazard of property, etc. 

A »Ja£>^ Miatrdh, s.f. (3rd) Danger, fear, risk, 
venture. PI. ^ ey. 

A v,^^gk<. IJia^h^ s.m. (5th) A preacher, a pub- 
lic speaker. PI. ^^LjVi< Matlbdn. 

A c:,>us w Id^ijfatf s.m. (2nd) Lightness of weight, 
levity in conduct, want of dignity, disgrace, 
indignity, slight, affront. PL iOyuei- Wffat- 

A j^Ua^;- Mafakdrif s.m. (2nd) (from ^jas>^) Pal- 
pitation of the heart, palpitation, vibration. 
2. Displeased, vexed. PL ^oy Ua=w ykafakdn- 

A &s:>^ Miafahy adj. Angry, enraged, displeased. 
2. Strangled, choked. J*\o iA:>^ Mafah 
kedaly verb intrans. To become angry, dis- 
pleased. 2. To choke, or become choked. 
J^ ^li^ ykafah kawul, verb trans. To make 
angry, to enrage. 2. To strangle, to choke. 
jJi^w Mdfagl, s.f. (3rd) Displeasure, anger, 
pet. PI ^ a'l. 

Cj!^ Muff, adj. Lame, crippled, wounded, bruised, 
injured, mauled, etc. s.m. (6th) A hurt, in- 
jury, wound, bruise, disease, ailment, malady. 
Sing, and PL (Fern.) i^ Mugali. kLJs^ 
«Xn^ JJiug-mand, adj. Diseased, ill, lame, out 
of sorts, crippled, etc. Jlj C^ Mug- 
wdlaey, s.m. (Ist) Painftdness, uneasiness. 
PL ^c z. JjuSJsL Wkugedaly verb intrans. To 
pain, ache, smart, etc. J^Js*- Umgawuly verb 
trans. To pain or inflict paiD, to agonize, to 
pinch, to wring, to torture. See conjugations 
of Jj^ ȣ>- and i^^j>- which are exactly the 
same meaning, the Western tribes using , 
and the Eastern substituting \1^ 

J^ ijJL'^ Mug-Ian, s.m. (2nd) Hot ashes, live 
coals, cinder, etc. PL ijyi CJi< Mug-lanUnah. 
See CJ^ and ^jx^ysr' 

J^ M^l, s.m. (2nd) Faith, confidence, trust, 
hope. PL iUjl^ Mdlfl'J^h. 



l^ldt, s.m. (2nd) A dress, or robe of 
honor presented to a person by a prince 
(corrup. of a Ls-^uiLi.). PI. AjylU. H^aldtUnah, 
A ^jAs^ M^ld^t adj. (from ^j^^ Free, liberated, 
redeemed, done, finished out. ^)l^ M^- 
Id^Af s.f. (3rd) Discharge, deliverance, libera- 
tion, release, freedom, redemption. PL jA cCl- 
Jju^Lw ^ald^edal, verb trans. To be freed 
or set free, emancipated, etc. ; to be released 
or discharged, to emit. 2. To be brought to 
bed, to calve, etc. 3. Emissio seminis. Pres. 
^j^h^ JJuiIdsejzl ( W.) or ^JL^Ls- l^ldsegi 
(E.); past iJ^ ^/>^ I^cUd^ shah or <L& j 
wU'shah ; fut. J^ ij ^j^^ ^ald^ bah ski 
or ^ J ij bah wu-shl ; imp. aJl> ^jAs>^ Mia- 
Id^ shah or <L^ J wu-shah ; act. part. 
j^jLMtflsL Mald^edUnkaey or ^^s^lsL 

ildsedUnaey] past part. jjclU* Mudd^ or 
^yA ^h>^ Jdkald^ shawaey ; verb. n. JiJ ju-^JU. 
^ald^edana'h or 2rju«tf)U. Jd^ald^edah. 

J^liw IJiala^awul, verb trans. To release, to 
set free, to liberate, to discharge, to redeem, 
to ransom, to emit, to let loose, to discharge 
(as a gun). Pres. j^^lsL ^kald^awl) past 
^ jjcLl Miola^ karr or ^ j wu-kii^ ; fut. 
fc^ aj ^jfiJL^ Miold^ bah km or ^^^ j dj 
iaA n?w-^m; imp. i^ ^"i^ Maids krrah 
or if J ^ wu-krrah ; act. part. ^^Sj^jJi^ Iduxr 
Id^awUnkaei/ or ^^^^ Jdiald^awUnaey ; 
past part. ^^ ^J^ MifiM^ karraey ; verb. n. 
^yoij^ Mfidd^awundh. 

A <u5Ll Muldscihy s.f. (3rd) Conclusion, in- 
ference, moral, sum, thes hort and the long of, 
essence, abstract, etc, PI. ^ ey. 

4j j >j. rHs > Mtald^edarwUht s.f. (3rd) or ^Jlm^IsL 
Mfl'ld^edahf ^.vcl. (6th) (verb, n.) Release, li- 
beration, freedom, emancipation, exemption, 
independence, escape, discharge, dismissal. 
PI. (3rd) ^ ey ; (6th) Sing, and PI. 

A uJL;. MioMf, s.m. (9th) (from uJU.) Con- 
trariety, opposition, antagonism, in opposition, 
contrary to, against. 2. Falsehood. Sing, and 
PI. "gflj ^ uJLl Malqf lah rd'ya^ Against 
one's will or opini(Hi. ^ ^^ ^ Uti^ Mcddf 

lah sharaetfy Illegal, unlawful, contr 
orthodox law. Ji^ A uJlf^ Mail 
aalkla, Contrary to reason, (jwl-i A 
Maldf lah kiydsa, Absurd, improbabl 
gular, anomalous. fc/-^^ ^ t»i ^'^ 
lah waadey, Breaking one's promise. 

A ci-JlU. Mild/at, s.m. (2nd) (from 
Deputyship, lieutenancy, the office of i 
llfah. 2. Dignity, monarchy. PL 4 

)U ls>^ Mdld-mald, adj. Unfeigned (frien 
unreserved, frank, candid, sincere, freee 
Jjj lU ]U. <o pah Maid-maid woryoi 
trans. To speak one's mind, to speak fi 
to speak without mincing matters. 

^jy^ M^lboraey, s.m. (1st) A stopper, i 
a cork, a bung, a spigot, a lid. PL ^^ 

iUU^ Mulpa'hf s.f. (3rd) Purslain (Poi 
oleracea). PI. ^ ey. See 4i^ 

id^ Malta' h, s.f. (3rd) A bag, a wallet, f 
a satchel, a haversack. PL ^ ey. Sec 

p ^jJifli^ Malish, s.m. (2nd) Suspicion, dot 
licitude, interruption, putting a stop t 
<0^M.\'^ M<^lishilnah. 

A SaLsL Miltj S.m. (2nd) One of the four ht 
of the human body. PL *OjlaU. Mi*M 

A \^^ Moity s-^' (2nd) Confusion, m 
medley, mixing. PL dj^^j>^ M^UUna 

A cs-oJ^ M(il<^<it or Mil^^t, s.m. (2nd) i 
or robe of honour, which princes coi 
their subjects. PL ^OyuJirS. Malaa 
See CL^L;^ 

ajJltU MaUea'hf s.f. (3rd) (comip. of A 
Deposing, removing from office, sir 
2. Repudiating a wife, when desired 1 
self from dislike to her husband, at 
time she is entitled to residue of dowi 
Disinheriting a son. PL ^^^^ Moi^ 

A f^S^ Mulkf B-m. (2nd) Nature, disp 
quality, civility, politeness. PL ijy^ 
unah. (a PL j5b>-l aMddIc). 

A jiri. Molky s.m. (6th) Creation, peopl 
kind, the world. Sing, and PL (a P] 




:;. Hatfcat^ s.m. (2nd) The creation, people, 
the world, the populace. PL ^^jV l^alk- 

'^ Halka'h, 8.f. (3rd) People, mankind, crea- 
tion. PI. ^J^ WnoHcey^ A mxQtitade, a crowd, 
a throng. 

A.^JL^ Milii, adj. Natural, innate. 

▲ JU^ Malal, B.m. (2nd) (from Jj^) Inter- 
mption, confbaion, distorbance, damage, in- 
jury, defect, breach, prejudice, hiatus. PI. 
^jU^ MalalUnak. J/ JL^ MfiUal kawul, 
verb trans. To interrupt, confuse, prejudice, 
disturb, injure. 

jk, P ^Ji^ HakU-it adj. a disturber, an inter- 
rupter, a mischief-maker. 
:L Malaf^, s.m. (5th) A kind of mulberry, 
red and white, with seeds. PI. ^l^vU- 

A. <^>jlj; Isi^ibvat, s.m. (2nd) Retirement, 
privacy, solitude, a closet, a private apart- 
ment, private conference. PI. d^y^^ M^ 
watUnaA. djU- cl^^ JAalwat ^dna'h, s.f. 
(3rd) A closet, a cabinet, a private apartment. 
PI. ^v^ Mo^ney. J^ <j:?jljfc. Jdudwat kawul, 
verb trans. To closet, or be closeted, cl^^ 
^jJl»j Mcdwat fushln, adj. Retired. 2. s.m. 
(5th) A hermit, a recluse. PI. i^.\iJL> cl^^L^- 
Skabcat nishtndn. yJ^^ Malwatl, s.m.(5th) 
A confidant, an intimate fiiend, a hermit. 

i^ula'h, s.f. (3rd) The mouth, orifice, en- 
trance. PI. ^^L:;. Muley. id^ ^ puUa'h 

iiHla% adj. Silent, mute, mum, taciturn, 
still, 2. inter] . Silence ! hush I keep silent ! 
Jjumij) ali^ ^ puUa'A Mula*h aasedalf verb 
intrans. To become silent, to remain mute, 
etc. J^ iL>^ ^ puUcCh WmUih kawul, verb 
trans. To silence, to hush. ,j-i^ l<^ p^^ 
ig^ulaey, s.m. (1st) A silent or taciturn person. 
(Fern.) Jl^;- i,^ puU Huli. PI. (Masc. and 
Fem.) jc f. 

sj^^J^ ib^lg<i\ 8.f. (6th) A small mouth (dimin. 
of aLsL). Sing, and PI. 

^ilsL Uaalaey, s.m. (1st) A sprout, a shoot, a 

blade of grass, etc., a straw, anything pro- 
verbially worthless, rubbish, refuse, sweepings. 

PI. ^ f. 

ar,J^ MioJxUih, s.f. (3rd) A bag, a haversack, a 
¥rallet. PL ^ ey. See AdsL 

A <UJs. MwMfah, s.m. (oth) (firom c,gl< , h (pn , 
To succeed) A successor, a sovereign, par- 
ticularly applied to Muhanmiad's successors. 
2. A monitor. PL ^JiiX^ JJiatlfagdn. 

A j;-U- Malik, adj. (fi^m jis^) Kind, benigii. 
of good disposition, civil, polite. 

JJ.rL Matll, s.m. (6th) The name of a tribe of 
Afgh&ns inhabiting the plains of Pe^&wer 
between Tahkfil and Jumrad. 2. (a) A firiend, 
a sincere Mend (Abraham). Sing, and PL ; 
s.f. (3rd) AAsL Malila% A female of the 
Khalll tribe. PL ^ ey. 

p msL Mum, s.m. (5th) A large jar, a boiler, u 
still or alembic. PL ^^UrJ- M«»t««. 

p^Uri- khumdr, s.m. (9th) (from^^^^) Sickness, 
headache after a debauch. 2. Intoxicating, 
languishing appearance of the eyes fix)m love, 
drinking, or drowsiness. Sing, and PL 

v^jU^ Mumdn, adj. Drunken, languishing, in- 
toxicating. ,^=^ t^j^-*^ Mumdri %targey, 
Sleepy eyes. 

^Uri- Mumdr, s.m. (9th) (corrup. of ^U5) Dice, 
a game, any game of hazard. Sing, and PL 
jli jUsL Mumdr-bdz, s.m. (5th) A gambler. 
PL ^Ijli jUsw M^i'^^or-bdzdn. ^^b jUcJ- 
Mumdr-bdzl, s.f. (3rd) Oaming, gambling. 

PL jA «*f. J^j^**^ Mwww'' kawul, verb 
trans. To game, to gamble. 

;- Mamhdh, s.f. (3rd) A kind of hamper or 
large basket with a cover for keeping grain 
in. PL ^ ey. See aJ^ 

;- MamaU, adj. Fair and chubby (as a baby) ; 
(Fem.) A^A^ MctmaUa'h. 

^ Muimadiah, adj. Puny, petty, little, short 
(particularly for the little finger and short 
ribs) ; thus i^ ^^'^^ MoMaAa'h guta'h. The 
little finger. ^^^^dj^^Mama^a^hpuS^^'^ 
or puMta\ s.f. (6th) The short ribs. Sing, 
and PL 



]^ama(ij^eyy s.f. (3rd) PL Broken rice or 

" millet, ground and made into bread. 

^ja:>- Miumraly s.f. (6th) A small earthen 

' or brass narrow-mouthed vessel for drinking 

out of/ a drinking cup. Bing. and PI. See 

jy**As>^ Jdmrmor^ adj. Free, easy, unceremonious, 
unconstrained, familiar, not formal; (Fem.)' 
hjyuAj^- Jdiamsora'h, Ij jymA^ MdfMar-fid, 
s.f. (6th) Familiarity, freedom from ceremony, 
affability. (E.) Sing, and PI.; (W.) PI. 
i^^lJjjM.i4f^ ]diams<yr'tX awl, Seej^sf^ 

fjAS>^ Miflmany adj. Twisted, bent, curled, crooked, 
curved ; (Fem.) <U4^ fdiamancHh. 

Jju*«j:w J^medoL (fix)m ^^ verb intrans. To 
grow or become crooked, curved, wry, de- 
formed, bowed, bent, etc, J^ac^ Mtamawxdy 
verb trans. To make or render crooked, curved, 
wry, or deformed ; to pervert. 

Aj^^A^ WiamxTy adj. Leavened, raised by fermenta- 
tion ; (Fem.) li^^AS^ khamlrah. ljs^%^ Xj^j^S-^ 
khamira!h ddodcla\ Leavened bread. See -ju 
M^mxra!hy s.f. (3rd) Dough, leaven, a 
mass of sour dough. PI. ^ ey. 

yhamezy adj. Slightly curved, crooked, 
somewhat wry or deformed, etc. ; (Fem.) 
n^jiiAs^ Idiamezdh, J jj 1^4^ Miamezedaly verb 
intrans. To grow or become twisted, curled, 
bent, crooked, curved. J^j-.^^ Mamezawuly 
verb trans. To make or render twisted, curled, 
bent, crooked, curved. 

^jlacvs^ Wiomrjafrclhy s.f. (3rd) A species of 
grain, small in size, from which bread is 
made : the straw is given to cattle. PL ^ ey. 

Aj^S^ J^r^ary s.m. (2nd) A dagger. PL 
^iijSX6>^ JAanjcurUnah. 

uXscv^L Idiargaky s.m. (2nd) The mastic tree, 
and the fruit thereof. PL ^O^LscU. M^dk- 
Una A, See ^j y-J^ j 

;- Mand, 8.m. (2nd) A ring drawn on the 
ground for playing the game called d,iS- iX:^^ 
Mand-l^and, or game of knuckle-bones. PL 
^jjc>rL Miandilnah. See J^T d^ 
i*J- Manddy s.f. (6th) Laughter, a laugh. (E.) 


Sing, and PL ; (W.) PL ^ft^x^ MmdMi. 
J^ \x^ Manda kawuly verb trans. To laagli, 
to giggle. (P »Jc^). 

A J Jc^ Mandajcy B.m. (2nd) A ditch, a moati a 
fosse. PL iUyj^:^ Manda^nah. 

Jjj^ Mandaly verb trans. To laugh, to ridi- 
cule. Pres. i/jJlcL kidndi ; past Js:>sL J wih 
M(^ndal; fut. ^fJJU. ij ^ wu bctA Mdmb; 
imp. ifjj\£>^^9vu-MdndaA; act. part.^^jOjii:.^^ 
l^andUnkaey or ^^o:^ MandOnaey; past 
part. ^Jx^ M^ndall; verb. n. iUj^^ tian- 

J^ jc^ J^ndawul, verb trans, (causal) To csob^ 
to laugh, to make to laugh. Pres. i^^xS^^ 
Wiandawl ; past 2r^1 Jc^ j wurMi/(mdJdamik (Ki 


wU'l^anddwo \ fut. 


hah M^ndawl ; imp. »j ju^;. j ffou-ldiandamal^ 
act. part. ^^jj^*Xi^ MiandaftUnkaey 
^j^ jc^ JdiandawUnaey ; past part, ^^x 
^4inda7vulaey ; verb. n. ^^x<S^ ^andawuna^ A 
:^ Mundl, adj. Preserved, protected, 
taken care of. 2. Adjusted settled, arraoj 
put to rights, jy fc/*3^i^ Mwwrft kan^y v 
trans. To keep, preserve, protect, secure ; to 
adjust, to settle. ^\j f^*^"^^ Mundt-^SlcK^, 
s.m. (1st), or c^y s^*^^^^ Mundi-toby s.m. 
(2nd) Preservation, protection, security, caie. 
2. Putting to rights, adjustment. PL ^l^ 
wdH and ^j^y tobunah, 
J jj jj^ ^n^2^£^, verb intrans.To laogh, giggly 
titter, etc. Pres. ^^J,^^i^ Mandej^ (W.) (Xt 
^Jjx^ Mandegl (E.) ; past arjjdia^ j iw- 
MandedaA or jjjc^ J n7U-M<»uieeia; A^ 

fcC^jor^ ij ^wubahM^TideJ^lOT^JjxS'M) 
wu bah Miandegl ; imp. ^jl;^ J i9i(-ij^ 
dejzah or <i;$j jc^ J wu-M^mdeyah; act pai^ 
^jJoi^ jj jc^ MicmdedUnkaey or ^j«>j[«x^ Ji^ 
dedUnaey ; past part. ^ jj^xie;- ^^§aiufedafa9' 

verb. n. <UJj«x;;^ M^ndedana'A. 
Jj jc^ Mundi-yal, verb trans. To keep, pioBorfef 
protect, secure, adjust, settle, arrange. 2. To 
intrust to, to make over to, to confide to. 
Pres. ^o:^ tbundi-yl ; past ij jucl. j ww- 





yi ; imp. i^x^ j nm-i^ndi-ya 

^i^^ji «x:^ Mundi-yUnAaey or ^j 

jftbuuy; past part, ^^tx:^ Mundi-yalaey ; 

▼erb. n. a:j jc^ Mundi-yana'h. See ^^JL:^ 
^;cL £ian«^, B.m. (2n(l) The trunk or root of a 

tree or shrub which has been left standing in 

the ground. PI. ^^>x>. ManMunah, 
^^^s^ Hqnddqny s.m. (9th) The name of a plant, 

ledoary (curcuma zerumbet), Sing, and PI. 
> fcli^f^ Munuk, adj. Gold, cool, temperate ; 

<Fem.) iL^ ^unuka!h. ^J^^-^ JJiunukl, s.f. 

<3id) Coldness, coolness, temperateness. PI. 



j;^ B«, s.m. (9th) Tinder. Sing, and PI. 2, Mo, 
Jidy. CJertainly, undoubtedly, surely. See i^ 
Uwdy s.f. (6th) Side, margin, extremity, 
qnarter, comer; towards. 2. Constitution, 
temperament, nature, health. (E.) Sing, and 
ri; (W.) PI. i^^Sy^ Mmawx. \^ 1 j dJa hhrta, 
adr.This side, hither. \^ is^ haghah Mirvct^ 
adr.That side, thither. \^jai^\y>. Wircapa-Miwa, 
■dr. Abreast, side by side, opposite, breast to 
*>wa8t. ^^jj \^ MfvO-bacR, s.f. (3rd) Indi- 

ffeitum, dyspepsia. 2. Offence, affi*ont, pique, 

''nnlmige, dudgeon, huff. PI. ^ a'l. \y>^ 

cJdJdj ^9vd badedal, verb intrans. To become 

^^flbded, to take umbrage, to take huff, to be 

piqued. J^jj \j^ MwA badawul, verb trans. 

To give umbrage, to incense, to provoke, to 

^hte, to fret, to discompose. J^ v^jj I^sL 

ttrd badi kawul, verb trans. To give urn- 

*Aige, to put out of humour, to stir up one's 

^jy^ 1>^ l^^Mo^aey, adj. (as s.m. 

1*) (W.) A comforter, a friend, a condoler, 

^ qrmpaUiizer, a consoler. PI. ^^ f ; also \ 

J/L iiwd Isioffoey (E.); (Fem.)^^i 

UMtI^J^ or \lfy^ Moyi. PI. (Masc. and 

'«n.)^^l. i^jy^]f^ MwH-Mojzi or ^y>- '^ 

fi^HogH, s.f. (3rd) Comfort, condolence, 

•pnpathy, friendship, etc. PI. ^ a'L \y>> 

t^ J HwdHhshahy adv. Bound about, on all 

^^e^ all round, ^j / lyL ^n?^ garzanaeyy 

>jn. (Ist) An emetic. PI* (^ ^* 2. adj. 

Emetic, producing vomiting. J*>ijj^ 'j 
£^£E garzeduly verb intrans. To vomit, to 
puke. Jjj^ V^ Mw* garzcavulf verb trans. 
To cause to vomit. 

\jjf^^^ M^orjil^^i S.m. (1st) PI. The name of 
a tribe of Afghans, s^j^r^y^ Miwa-jUxaeyy 
Sing. A man of the above tribe ; s.f. (6th) 
t^Jy^lp* Ml^o.-jilza\ A female or females of 
the above. Sing, and PI. 

p &^\y>^ Idmdjahy s.m. (5th) A man of distinc- 
tion, a rich merchant, a gentleman. PI. 
j^lSl>-^y>- hhmjagan. j>6:>^ *^\^ Mi^ojdh 
kb^Vy 8. prop. A prophet skilled in divina- 
tion, who is said to have discovered the watei' 
of life, Phineas or Elias. 

P^\p* JdmaVy adj. Poor, distressed, wretched, 
friendless, deserted, abandoned, ruined, abject. 
2. Thin, lean, poor in condition. (Fem.) 
khwdra'k, %\\ % %\^ Wmdr-o-zdr or 


iZM*s^ \^ Mwdr-Miastdhy adj. Abject, ruined, 

distressed, hard pinched, destitute, etc. ^J^ 
hhwdriy s.f. (3rd) Meanness, contemptibleness, 
abjectncss, distress, ruin. PI. y\ a'l. k^j^y>- 
J^ ihwdrl kawul, verb trans. To strive, to 
take pains. J J^j\p- Idmdredaly verb intrans. 
To become poor, destitute, wretched, distressed, 
ruined. 2. To grow lean or thin. Pres. \^j,j^y>- 
kkmdrejn (W.) or ^J\^ Miwdregi (E.); 
past <L& J\f>^ IJi7Vdr shah or <U* J wu-shah ; 




^ <u jly^ 

war bah shl or 

JdkTfodr shah or 


bah wU'shi ; imp. «Li j\ 
dLl j wu-shah \ act. part. ^^-CjJj^\^ 
edUnkaey or ^^*3j.j1^ MiwdredUnaey ; past 
part. y^yL ^^ IJmdr shawaeg ; verb. n. 
40 jj .U:^ Mmdredarwl! h or *J^j\p- Idiwdredah. 
Jjj^l^ khwdrawulj verb trans. To distress, to 
make wretched, to reduce to poverty, to ruin, 
etc. 2. To reduce in flesh, to make lean or 
thin. Pres. ^^yj^y>- 1diwdrawi\ pastj^^\ 

Mmdr karr or J j wu-karr ; fiit. ^^ ij j\ 
Miwdr bah krrl or ^J j <u bah wu-krn ; imp. 
Hjf j\y>^ Mwdr kjrah or 2r^ j wu-krrah ; act. 

part, ^i^jxf^j^ MwdrawUnkaey or ^^^J^^ 



iiwarcavilnaey ; past part. ^^ j\y>^ l^&r 
kafToey; verb. n. ^jj^y>- ibwdrawuna*h. 

^9j\y>^ MtWdrah'kaeyf adj. (dimin. of j\^) 
Yerj contemptible, most vile or mean. 2. 
Poor, destitute (person). 3. Thin, lean. PI. 
^cl; (Fem.) ^ifj^y>- Mn?draAka*i. Sing. 
and PI. ^Jj^ {^^J^j^ T^wwrdkaey shdn, 
Poorish, thinnish, leanish, etc. 

*j1^ J^wcLrrahf s.m. (6th) Food, victuals, pro- 
vision, eating. Sing, and PI. ^^^ ^^*^ 
tashah (W.) or ti/chah (E.) Mmdrrah^ Meat 
and drink, food, victuals. See J ip^ 

^^ ijy>- M^djzaA-^alanl (W.) s.m, (1st) PI. 
Anise seed. See ^<Jj>^ ^i^and ^-Jj df\y^ 

p c;^^!^ Mn^dst, s.m. (2nd) Desire, wish, incli- 
nation, want, request. PI. <Ojx-»l^ JJiwdst- 
Unak. > J \,j:^>^^ J^wdst-gar, s.m. (5th) A 
candidate, aspirant, bidder, votary. PI. 
J c:*A«j^^ M^d&t-gcsr ; lij \j:.^^ fdma^t- 
gardh, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ ey. jy ^j:^yi^ 
M^dst kawul, verb trans. To desire, wish, 
ask for, to solicit, to want, to set one's heart 
on. See ui-^^i^i and J^*^ 

^\yi^ Mn^d^a'k (W.) or MwdBa'A (E.) s.f. 
(3rd) A mother-in-law, the mother of a hus- 
band or wife. PI. ^^ ey. 

rfJl^ l^dla'h^ s.m. (6th) Outpouring or re- 
vealing one's troubles to another, disclosing, 
letting the cat out of the bag, disburdening 
one's mind or conscience, unbosoming one's- 
self. Sing, and PI. Jj^ ^\y>^ ^rcdldHh 
hedaly verb intrans. To transpire, to be- 
come known, to ooze out, to become laid 
open, to be let out. J^ jJl^ JdmdlaHh 
karovl or Jj^ a!^^ ]dmdla!h wor-yal, verb 
trans. To open one's mind, to unbosom 
one's-self, to disburden one's mind, heart, or 
conscience, to let the cat out of the bag. 

p ^Jiy>^ M^dn, s.m, (2nd) A tray. PI. <oyl^ 
^dnUnah. i^\y^ Mmdndidh^ s.f. (3rd) 
A small tray. PI. ^^ 6y ; also ^^ ^fln- 
G&a'A. PI. ^^sfy>^ MUn^ey. ^\y>^ Wmdn- 
^a'h or ^y^ *^y^ ikUndka'h fosh or po^, 

s.m. (2nd) A napkin for coverii 
PI. ijy^ji poshUnah or poJS^Unah, 
dastar M^dn, B.m. (2nd) A tab 
cover of cloth or leather. PI. ^ 
dastar M^dnUnaA. 

p 8\y>' l^wdh (part. act. of ^j^^ 
requiring, desiring. Used in com] 
i\y>^ uuJ^j daurlat Miwdhf Wisl 
perity. ii\y>^ Jo\^ Mdtir ]dmdh^ 
of one's heart, a beloved object. 
Mi/oir Miwdh, A friend, a well-wis 
»\yS^ J^wdh na-MiWdh or i\yBsf h 
marJJiwdhf adv. Willing or not will 
volens, absolutely, at all events. 

p (jlybJbl^ JdiTcdhishy s.m. (2nd) (froi 
Desire, wish, inclination, demand. F 
MmdhishUnah, Jj^ or J^ iJUib\y> 
laral or kawul, verb trans. To w 
desire. «xx<« ^JUib\y>^ ^wdhish t 
(5th) A wisher, a desirer, a peekc 
Desirous. PI. f^\s:>^manddn; tj^ 
s.f. (3rd). PI. v^ ey. 

c^^ Mub, s.m. (2nd) Sleep, slumbe 
dream. 2. Sleepiness, drowsinei 
lence. Fl. <Oyy^ MniilnaA. J 
Milb zangawulf verb trans. To mf 
to cause to sleep. JjuSuj ^y^ k 
dal, verb intrans. To nod, to dc 
asleep. J^ S^y^ M^i kawul, '^ 
To sleep, to slumber, to fall aslet 
iS^\j Mtlb rdgklai, verb intrans. ' 
sleepy or drowsy. JjJ f^y>- i 
verb trans. To dream. Jj^ c,y; k 
verb trans. To make drowsy or 
carry off to sleep, to overpower wi< 

p (m^y^ Mub, adj. Good, excellent, 
pleasant, amiable. PI. (used sul 
(5th) (jV>=^ Milf^dn, The fair. 
M^f^-^e, adj. Beautiful; as s.i 
beauty. PI. ^JiJJ ^f^ HtUb-riie^ 
djjy s-y^ Mttb-rUea'h, PI. ^J . 
f^y^ Wlb ^Urat, adj. Pretty, bea 
^jyo i--^ M/dh ^Uratdn. i^ 
ikub-^at, adj. Good morals or mi 



y^f^ M^bl, e.f, (3rd) Beauty, goodness, excel- 
lence, merit, pleasantness. PI. ^^ a'l. ^^ <o 
pcJk M^ or ifj^ f^y^ ^ P^ M^bl sarah, 
ady. Excellently, well. 

r^^ M^#» B.m. (5th) Ebullition, bubbling, 
eflferrescence, agitation. 2. Paroxysm, con- 
Tulsion, vehemence, wildness, rage. Pl.^l^^ 
fia^oA^; also ^J^^ MHUhaey, s.m. (1st) 
PI, ^^ I. J Ju^ ^^y^ M^tt kedaly verb intrans. 
To boil, to become agitated, to throb, etc. 
Jj^ v^.*^ MiJtt kawul, verb trans. To agitata, 
to make to bubble, to make to throb, to make 
angry. Beei^;^.^ 
Jji. MoUa'h, s.f. (3rd) A testicle. P\. ^ey. 
^f^ ^aUaey, adj. Small, diminutive, puny, 
dwarfish, undersized. PI. jc i ; (Fern.) Sing, 
and PI. ^ aX 

^^ "^y^ ^S MM^X s.f. (6th) A game of 
bowls. Sing, and PI. 

>^ Hud, adv. Certainly, without doubt, verily, 
imdy, assuredly. See^ 

P «^ Sfl4, pron. Self (used in compos.) ; as 
\;T Jjk Mftd ara, adj. Setting one's-self off, 
'bieasing finely. 2. Proud, arrogant, j^ 
«yk; Ifykl bakkud, Of thine, his, or her, etc., 
own accord, of itself, voluntarily. ^ j^ 
HfdlUn, adj. Self-conceited, proud, arrogant, 
pesmnptnous. ^^xj j^ M^Hd blni, s.f. (3rd) 
^s^'i^MiUiU, s.f. (3rd) Self-pride, arrogance, 
^ty, self-conceit. PL j^ a'f. c:-*--^ *^^ 
UMparast, adj. Self-conceited, j^^i-j;^ t)^ 
ito jwtwa, s.f. (3rd) Self-sufficiency![ self- 
*nceit. PI. ^^ a*l. *xxyyj J^ Mfi^ pasand, adj . 
Uf-complacent, self-conceited, ^^jcow j^ 
ito pasandif s.f. (3rd) Self-conceit, self- 
•snplacency. PI. ,^ a'l. i^\j J^ Mud-ra'e, 
WfHSonceited. ^j Jyk Mud-raX s.f. (3rd) 
Bdteonceit. PI. i^ a'f . g?j|j «3^ Mild-ro'e, 
•^. Wild, spontaneous, growing of itself 
*Wu)Tit being sown. ^^ j^ Mfid-roX s.f. 
(8rd) The growing of one's-self, or of itself. 
™ ^ o^. Cit^j J^ M^ ra/2^, adj. Pre- 
Mrv£ig the natural colour, unchanged, j^ 
«/t«« ^|||iie{ sata^e, adj. An egotist, itl^.^ j^ 

M^ 5a^a'f, s.f. (3rd) Self-praise, egotism. 


* ah 


j»^ *jj^ 

J^ Mild soTy adj. Obstinate, 

self-conceited, self-vrilled, wilful, absolute. 
^^j^ Jji^ kkHd'San, s.f. (3rd) Obstinacy, self- 
conceit, independence. PL y\ aX ^^js. J^ 
MiUd ghqraT^y adj. Selfish, self-interested, de- 
signing, ^j^ ^^ MiUd gharaT^ly s.f. (3rd) 
Selfishness, self-love. PL ^ a'l. ^l^ J^ 
M'Gd kdniy adj. Following one's own desires, 
libertine, self-willed. ^"^ J^ M^ kaml^ 
s.f. (3rd) Self-will, doing what is pleasing to 
one's-self. PL iV oHl. ^ j/ ^^ MtUd-kardaliy 
adj. Done or made of one's-self, brought on 
one's-self. s^^^ Mudit s.f. (3rd) Pride, 
vanity, selfishness. PL ^^ aX 
j^ Mor, s.f. (5th) A sister. PL ^^^ Miwendl. 
^j^ Mordza'h^ s.f. (3rd) A sister's daughter, 
a niece. PL ^ ey. y^ j^ kkor'larma'h. 
s.f. (3rd) A sister's daughter, or niece, the 
name given by a whole clan to any daughter 
of the members after marriage. V\. ^^ ey. 
^\^ j^ Mior-wdhey^ s.m. (1st) Sisterliness. 
PL ^c I. ^^^ Miorvngdhy s.f. (3rd) An 
adopted sister, or a female companion. PL 

^ ^' l5^-^^ McyrmyciX s.f. (6th) Friend- 
ship between adopted sisters or female friends, 
sisterliness. Sing, and PL j^ ^ J da tl 
yhor, A foster sister. 
j^ Mor, adj. Opened or blown (as a flower), 
spread out, unclosed, blooming, opened, ex- 
panded, florid. 2. Dispersed, scattered, dis- 
hevelled, loose, streaming. PL liJ^f^Mircdrah ; 
(Fem.) }ij^ Jdmardlu PL ^j;^ ihwarey, 
\J^J ^J^ Mmarey zulfey^ Dishevelled or 
streaming locks, j^^ jyS^ Mor-wor or j^ 
jj Mor-rcuT Completely dishevelled, scat- 
tered, or dispersed. PL tj^^ ^j^j^ Mwdrah- 
wdrah ; (Fem.) Zj^ Hj^ JdmarcHh-rcarcHh, 
PI . j^j ^j^ Mmarey-warey. J jj ;^ Miroar- 
edal, verb intrans. To open, to bloom ; to be- 
come dispersed, to spread, to expand, to dis- 
hevel. Pres. t^j,jj^ Miwarejn (W.) or 
l/ij^ M^dreylX^-) ; past <L& j^ Mor shah 
or aj» J wu-shah ; fdt. ^ ^ j^ Mor bah 




shl or ^ J <u hah wur§hl \ imp. ^ jja^. MiPr 
§hah OP <L^ J wvr^ah\ act. part. ^jh^jjjjL. 
MoredUnkaey or ^ji'jJ^jfc. MoredUnaey ; past 
part. ^jfc. ^5^ OP ^^y* jyh. ^^ shawaey ; 
verb. n. <U Jj^ji* l^aredaiMbh, J^j^y*. Miwar- 
awul, vepb tpans. To open^ to unclose, to ex- 
pand, to spread, to dishevel, to loosen, to 
scattep, to dispepse. Ppes. t/jy^ Mfvarawl ; 
past J j^ ]^}fir hats: op jf J tcurkarx: \ fut. 
fc^ <o jji* ^5^ JaA A^ri op ,^^ J ^ iaA 
wv^kxTX) imp. ^j^ jf^ Iskor krrah op it^J 
Tvti-kfs^ah ; act. papt. i^jii^j^ MorawUnkaey 
OP ^^yj^ fdkarawUnaey ; past papt. 4^ ^ji^ 
M^ katraey ; vepb. n. <^j[^y*. M^warawunoHh. 
See ^j-A. 

M^dr, s.m. (2nd) Skin, bapk, tegument, 
cuticle, scupf-skin, crust, peel, pind, scale, 
shell, husk, coptex, etc. PI. ^^^j^ yhwar- 
Unah; also y^yj^ Miwarukaey^ s.m. (1st) 
PL 4^ L jj^j^ Ml/war-JJiwar^ adj. Scaly, 
skinny, cuticulap, husky. Jjmj^jT jji* M^«^ 
WrooWktal (E.) op arcoshtal (W.), vepb intpans. 
To peel off, to lose the skin. J^jT j^ ^n?ar 
drrowalf verb tpans. To bapk, to flay, to 
strip off skin, to excoriate. J^T j^ ^iwar 
d^awul, vepb tpans. To thpow off tie skin, to 
moult, to peel off. Jj^j jj^ M^ar nlwal, verb 
tpans. To take skin (to become coveped with). 
J JuSjf^j^ Wiwar-M^war kedaly vepb intpans. 
To become scaly, scabby, husky, etc. 
cJ|;j4* M/fvardk^ s.m. (2nd) Food, victuals, 
eating, daily food, aliment, diet, eatables. 
PI. ^jf]jy^ MmardkWnah. (p MrUrdk^ See 

yS^j^ Mi/roardkiy adj. Edible, esculent, eatable. 

p yjtprj^ Murjin, s.m. (5th) A poptmanteau, a 
wallet. PI. ^Ijus^ji^ Mtlrjlndn. 

4Uj>-jj4^ MU7Jina% s.f. (3pd) A lapge wadded 
cap with flaps fop the ears. PL ^^ ey. Also 
VjJ ^^' ^'^' (2nd) PL 3jyji SopUnak (hi). 

Ji. jji. Mar-Mal, s.m. (2nd) (E.) A sheaps fop 
shearing sheep, etc. PL ^^ j^ J^or^ 
^aiUnah ; also Jji. jj/l Mn^ar-Mnfol (W.), 
s.m. (2nd) PL ^J^ jj^ Mwar-MwalUnah ; 

and j^jy^ Wsfir-Mj/OT^ 8.m. (2nd) (8 
^j^^jft. ihor-l^aniruih. See J:w 

p ^^^ * J;ji. M^Urdah farosh, B.m. 
huckstep, a petailep. PL (J^|;i '^J^ 
faroshdn, ^yji *^jy^ iiUrdoA 
s.f. (3pd) Retailing, selling, by petail 
a'l. J/^ji/ sJj^Miirdah/aroii 
vepb tpans. To sell by petail, to petaS 

^jyi^ Marma^h, s.f. (3pd) Down on 
and fjBu^, ppeceding the beard. P 
See iij\^j 

p 9Sjjy^ iiiUrandah, adj. (act. part, o 
used substantively. An eater, a fpm 
a glutton. Sing, and PL and Maac. i 

J^^ MiHiiraafml op J^jj^ ^«Q:aiW£/, v 
(cans, of Jj^) To feed, to supply 
with ppovisions, to fill up, to proviaic 
i^X)^ Hnrawl ; past »j]^y^ J nm-l 
OP jy'jy*. J wU'Miilrdwo ; fat. 4/2;^^ 
ia^ ^ara727l; imp. i[<(j^ J n7tf-&! 
act. papt. ^^ioj^^ i^Urawilnkaejf o. 
Miilraivilnaey ; past papt. ^yjy^^^ 
vepb. n. ^jjfjah. M^Ura^mmcfh. 

ijf^ M/Ora'h^ s.f. (3pd) Anything tha 
coprodes, as pust, gangrene, leproe 
etc. PL 1^ ey. See »j^j^ 

i^jy^ Micav-Toey, 8.m. (Ist) Clay. 2 
family, lineage. PL ^^ %. ^^ i 
adj. C!lay, made of clay (as a pot a 
2. Gpain with which small particlea 
are mixed. (Fem.) ^^^ Maw-rln 
»J^^ <^5^ and ^^ 

^^ Man>ra% s.f. (6th) Alum. Sing 

^ hj^ Miorah-yaey^ s.m. (1st) A siste 
nephew. PL ^ I ; also s.m. (5th) P] 

^ J^warTy s.m. (2nd) A watepcourse, 
thedpybedofarivep. PL^j^y^.^n' 
See <Oywl and 2rjjU 

Jj^ Mi/warral^ vepb tpans. To eat, i 
to feed, to bite, to gnaw, to nibble, 
etc. Ppes. f^j^ Murl ; past j^i. J n 
tat t^jy^ Jj ^wu bah J^Un ; imp. ^j 
OP Hj^ J wii^M^arah ; act. part. 



iinH^xIbika^ OT ^j^^iiwatsiinaey ; past 
part ^j^ Uwatr^laey; verb. n. ^jj^ 
li^Miiayna'h. See Jj2;y>^ 

liyL. iimafTa% sS. (drd) A donation, contribu- 
tion, sabBcription, a gratuity, a benefaction, 
meed, etc. 2. A gift given to a spiritual 
guide or muDft. 3. The sandy bottom of a 
rsvine or watercourse, the dry bed of a river. 
Pl.i^^. See^andj^ 

}uU6jk isiwa^gedal, verb intrans. To shift, to 
more or remove, to recede, to move out of the 
way, to move to one side, to draw back. Pres. 
^^Jt^}i^a4s^J2^ (W.) on^JJL^ Mfoadzegl 
(E.); pastAj^j^ j wu-J^adseda or j^ju^y^. J 
nu-Uifoa^edah ; fut. ^^J»^J^ ij ^ wu bah 
Hwa^seJ^ or ^Xf^ ij ^wu bah Mfoad^l ; 
imp. ^<lj4 J wt^I^a^xejzah or ^*L^ J 
iM»-Jb$mi&07aA; act. part.^jiljj ju^i^^n^o^- 
^iMnka^ or ^^ Ju^^ ]^adaedilnaey ; past 
fKi.^SfiL^I^adzed4ilaey\ verb.n.^jua^ 
tk^va^edana'h. J}^^ Mn^a^awul, verb 
trans* To shift, to remove, to put on one side, 
to transplant, to transpose. Pres. c/y^^ 
Hfna^^awi; past ^^U^ J Tz^u-^n^o^nn/A 
or jt^Ui^ J nm-J^adzawo ; ftit. i^j^^ ^ J 
iTtf AaA^^o^oiPl ; imp. 2r^&^ J n7tf-^{?a^a- 
nfoA; act. part, ^^ij^^^ Mwa^awUnkaey 
or t^jj^j^ Mn^o^oiri^no^ ; past part. 
^j£^ M^a^nndaey ; verb. n. ^^^ 

iSii^ adj. Sweet, saccharine ; (Fem). 5.^ 
vM^oA. ^dlj .j^ ^j^ wdlaey, s.m. (1st) 

eetness. Pl*i^ i ; also ^jy .^ M^j^ ^^^ 

I. (Snd) PI. iOyy j^ Mojz'tobunah ; or 

^^ MoM'^'d, s.f. (6th) (E.) Sing, and 

; (W.) PI. fc^^lJ j^ Mojz'tl'dwl. See 

^ • ^ '^^j^^ WiwajzcCk ghdxTcHh, A sweet 

elodious voice, a sweet sound (lit. ' sweet- 

tO- See *jli 

Mo^edal (W.) or J Jui^ Moffedal (E.) 

ntrans. To become sweet. Pres. i^j^)^ 

zejsl (W.) or ^Xi^ Miwagegl (E.) ; 

• jj^ £i^ ^^^ or <L& cll^ ^^ ^aA 

or ^ J f^?t^-^aA; ftit. ^ ^ .^ Mi/oj^ 
hah ski or ^^ 40 cJ^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ or 
^ J <u ioA wU'shl ; imp. 4J0 .^ Mojz 
shah or <L& d^ Mog shah, or ^d J n;t^* 
^aA ; act. part. ^<il3j jj.^ MojzedUnkaey or 
^jilJj juJ^ WwgmUnhaey, or ^^ jj,^ Moj^e- 

dUnaey or ^^ Ju^ MogedUnaey ; past part. 
^^ ^^ or Cj^ ^^y, or ^^^ ^jfc. M^ 
shawaey or ^^^ (Ji^ ^^y ihawaey ; verb. n. 
4Ujj.^ l^ajzedamCh or ^Ju^ Miwage- 
dana'hy or ^J^^ Miwajzedah or ifJu^^ 

»jjj^ l^ajzedah or «Ju$^ i^rvagedah, s.m. 
(6th) Sweetness. Sing, and PI. ; also <0 jj^^ 
J^wajzedanaih or dj ju$^ Mwagedana'h, s.f. 
(3rd) PL ,J ey. See Jl^ di^ or^y. 

Jy^ J^ajzawul (W.) or Jji^ MrWagtmul 
(E.), verb trans. To sweeten, to make sweet. 
Pres. sJ^3jy^ M^ajzawl or t^jS^ Miwagtml ; 
past jfjjf^ Mojz karr or ^^ cJ^ ^y ^?r 
or j^ J wtt-^2T ; fut. fc^ ij j^ Mojz bah 
krn or j^ <o C^ ^^ bah kf^n, or ^^ J <o 
iaA TPW-A^Ti ; imp. sj .^ ^^j^ AcT^^ or 
sj C/^ Mog krrah, ox sj ^ wvrk'crah ; act. 
part, i^j Jjj^ M'foaj^edUnkaey or ^^^ ju^ 
M^agedUnkaeg or ^jJj«^ J^ajzedUnaey 
or ^^^^I^agedUnaeg \ past part. ^^J^«^ 
^j^ katraey or ^^ cll^ M^y karraey \ 

verb. n. ^jj^ l^ajza/nrnmih or ^^^ 

M'ivagawUna'h. See dlt^ 

^JL^jy^ or ».^ Mojgah or Mojzarlorraet/y adj. 
Sour and sweet, agreeable, sourish, acidulous. 
Also ^^jjl '^li^ Mogorlorraeg, etc. 

<dj ar.^ M/^<^jz€Ch wakCh, s.f. (3rd) Liquorice 
root. PI. ^^ iNjfc. M^ojzcHh waley; also 
lOj Al|^ M^^^'A ifoaldh and <y^ a^^ M^ogcCh 

jy^Mnj&i adj- Lamed, crippled, wounded, hurt, 
etc. See j^ and J*>iji^, etc. Cl^ ^^^>* 
Jc^ M^ or M'^g-^'f^'^i adj- Diseased, lame, 
ill, crippled, bruised ; (Fem.) jr jo^ C:^ ^^JJ^ 
Mnjsk or MUg-^nanddh. ^\^ CJ^ ^^ J^ 
MiZ^ or M'flg-^o,laeg, s.m. (1st) Lameness, 
painfulness. PI. ^)^ wdJl, 


lah. ibost, B. prop. The name of a province 
in Afghanistan, i^)^ Mostaey, s.m. (let) 
A man of Khost. PI. j^ f ; (Fern.) Sing, and 
PI. ^^ a% A female or females of Khost. 
P ^^M^^fftdj. Pleased^ pleasing, acceptable, 
cheerful, etc. ; nsed in compos., 2Aj\^\ ^^ 
Ml/flsh-atwdr, adj. Mannerly, well-bred. ^A^ 
fcX^T MtUsh-amady s.m. (2nd) Flattery, com- 
pliments. PI. 4i3^ J^T ^^ Idki^sh-dmadUnah, 
J^ fcX^T ^y^ Mt/^sh-dmad kawuly verb trans. 
To flatter, to compliment. ^ j^T ^^ IdtUsh- 
a/mad gar, s.m. (5th) A flatterer. V\, J gcer ; 
iJgarcHhy s.f. (8rd). PI. ^ ey. a1 jjl \J^^ 
Mush-anddm, adj. Well-formed, well-made. 
jljT ^^y^ MtUsk-dwdz , With a sweet voice. 
i^^jT ^^ Idiiilsh'dwdzly s.f. (3rd) Sweetness 
of voice. PI. ^ a\ y ^^ MUsh-bU, adj. 
Fragrant, pleasant smelling, sweet. ^Jy t^y^ 
kk^sh'buX s.f. (3rd) Perfume, fragrance. PI. 
^ a\ ^Jlj ^^ MUsh'baydnf adj. Eloquent, 
perspicuous. vJ^ l/*^ MUsh-baydnl, s.f. 
(3rd) Eloquence. PI. A a*t. c^\J^y ur*!^ 
MUshposhdk, adj. Well dbressed. l-^^-O l^j^ 
I^Ush tarklb, adj. Elegant in form, ^y^ 
jlj»j Wish takrir, adj. Eloquent. JU- lA?^ 
MUsh hdl, adj. Happy, fortunate, blissfid, in 
pleasant circumstances. ^JU. ^^ MiUsh 
Jkda, s.f. (3rd) Happiness, bliss, felicity. PI. 
^ a% JjJls-^^ M^Ush'lidledal, verb in- 
trans. To be pleased, happy, blissful, over- 
joyed, enraptured, etc. Pres. ^^J\^^ 

MiUshJjMlejzl (W.) or ^Xlls-^^ MiHshhdlegl 

(E.) ; past <L& J\^yL MUshb^il shah or 
^ J wU'shah ; fiit. ^ <0 Jls-^^ Idiilshlidl 

bah shl or ^-^ J <o JaA ww-^i ; imp. Jls-^^ 

^ MUshkdl shah or ^Ll j wu-shah ; act. 
part. ^j-C)jjJl«-^^ M^Ushlidledilnkaey or 
^jjJU:--*^ MUshlidledilnaey ; past part. 
Jls-^^ MUshhdl or ^^^ JUr^ji^ MUshlkdl 
shawaey lYerh.n. iJd^Ks^^JJiUshhdledana'h 
or 2rjL-JLflr^ji. MUshhdledah. J^Ls-^y^* 
J^UshJidlawul, verb trans. To delight, to 
charm, to rejoice, to transport, to enchant. 

Pres. i^^Kjs^y^MiO^h&laM; paatj^ 
id^Ushhdl katr otJ J n?M-^Q: ; fiit. 
4^ <u Mi^h^l bah hfrt or gr^ j 4j 
^o:^ ; imp. sj Jl«^^ ^«^i4/ ^ 
sj j ww-Anr«A; act. part, ^j-0 
MiHshhdlawUnkaey or ^^ji^'^y*' & 
wUnaey\ past part. ^^^ JUr^j**^ 
karrdcy] verb.n. Ai^Ur-^^M^^^A^^ 
4,^?^ ^ji* MrUsh Wioharl, s.f. (3r 
tidings, good news. PI. ^ a\ i 
J^Ush Mdtt, Fine writing. ^Jai. ^^ 
Miattaey, A good writer, j;!^. ^^ 
Mw/^ or i^yL, \^y^ MiUsh l^-e, a^. 
well-bred, of good disposition. (Fen 
fj^ Miush'Mo-ea'h. j^ ltJ^ ^ 
adj. A good liver. 2. Pleasant to i 
(i&j c^^ M^Ush rang, adj. Pie 
colour. ^^ lA^ M«2^ ^oA^, adj. 
merry. J^j^ f^3^ MUsh-guzrdn 
good liver, an extravagant fellow, 
vjj; J^ Milsh guzrdnl, s.f. (3rd) Goo 
PI. .*« a't. »',^ / i»^^ Mush masL 


tr^ u-^ 

Delicious. t/**iy c/"^ Mi^-«« 
Writing an elegant hand, a fine writei 
^**jy Milsh-ruivml, s.f. (3rd) Cal 
&ie writing. PI. ^^ a't. |^^ j ^^ 
O'Wiurram, adj. Cheerftd, gay. 

\^y^y^ M^sho-Cy s.m. (4th) Horse di 
dung, etc. PI. ^Ll^ Moshd^ah^ 
(5th) ^L:»^ Jdkoshdryu See gry&j 

p <l:»^ Mosha'h, s.f. (3rd) An ear o: 
bunch (as of grapes, etc.) PI. ^ q 
Mosha' h'dnn, s.m. (5th) A glea 
^iTian ; (Fem.) <u»^ ^^^ i 


IdtUshaeyy adj. Crazy, weak-mini 
giddy, flighty, beside one's-self. 2. A ; 
a lunatic, a dreamer. 3. Undefended 
assault, exposed, vulnerable. 4. Dei 
unaided, unassisted. 6. Idle, free, 
employment or occupation; (Fen 
MiUshi. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ,^1. I 
yj^^ Idmash (W.) or Mvmaldi (E.), adj. 
delighted, delightfol, charming, ca] 



MxBC&Ye, pleasant, caoamg or giving plea- 
sure ; (Fern.) K^^ l^ncashaHh or J^walSuih. 
^j&. iAwa^l or Mfvai^l, s.f. (3rd) DeligH 
pleasure, cheerfulness, gaiety, happiness, glad- 
nessj mirth, joy, will, choice. PI. ^^ au 
Jj^ v^J^ ^Siro^f kcaviU or J^rcaWn kawul, 
verb trans. To rejoice, to make merry. 
JjUiiij^ Mwashedal or Mn^^l^cdal, verb 
intrans. To charm, to rejoice, to delight, to 
gladden, to captivate, to bewitch, to en- 
rapture, to take one's fancy. Prcs. ^jy^^ 
^a^^l (W.) i/ii^y^ Mi^dlS^cgi (E.); 
pist iJ^ L/b^ Miwash or MircaVh shah^ or 
iL J fvu-shoA; fut. _^ ^ ui*^ M^i"(^ or 
£|ira@ ioA Ml, or _^ J <u bah wu-shl ; 
imp. ^ c/S^ W^voash or Idkwa^ shah, or <Ll j 
ffrtf-^AnA; act. part. ^jiu>^Ju4»^ MiKashed- 
Unkaey or ^wajchednnkaey, or ^^juu*^ 
iinfa^edunaey or M^^^^^dUnaey ; past part. 
^^i^ iJira^ or X^;Fa^«, or ^^^ c/f'^ IdiKo^sh 
or ^^aWk shaKOcy ; verb. n. <U Ju4>y^ hhrcuiihr 
^dasMih or JJivoaldiedandh. J^^ WlKash- 
Mnd or Mf^(i^(^^ul, verb trans. To charm, 
to gladden, to transport, to delight, to capti- 
Tata. Pres. c^^«i^ kjiwa^atvi or ykmaWiam ; 
part j^ c/e^ M'^o^ or f^rval^ karr, or ^^ j 
w-fa/r ; ftit. 4<^ <o ^^ Mirca^ or Wma^ 
W iryi, or ^^ J <0 AoA wm-Aq:^ ; imp. 
*/ u*^ l^ita^h or MinafSi hrrah, or 2r^ J 
vMq-oA ; act. part. ^jXi^^^ Jdiiva-^ha' 
^Maey or J^aJdutwUnkaey, or ^j>^^ 
Ji^M^airflTia^or Jdj^waWiawilnacy \ past part. 
4lf\^iy^M^<^ or M^d^ Aarraey; verb.n. 
vij^yL ^^a^awuna*A or TJmalUiarcunah, 
\f^ ^o^lna'h or kbo^inah, s.f. (3rd) A 
ife'a sister. PI. |^ ^. See <lu4» 
^ £^42/*, s.m. (2nd) Fear, distrust, hcsita- 
1, apprehension. PI. ^y^ Mofunak, 
uJ^ ^ofrajdf Suspense, fear and hope. 
<-Jy^ ^^ kawul, verb trans. To alarm, 
Vight, to firighten, to terrify, to dismay. 
uJj^ M^ kedal, verb intrans. To be- 
apprehensive, frightened, alarmed, dis- 
I, terrified. 

d^ Mi^f adj. (£.) Lame, crippled, woundeo 
hurt ; (Fem.) A^ yhUgah. jc.^ cJ^ ^i^ 
TTuand, adj. Lame, ill, diseased, bruised, crip- 
pled; (Fem.) iijjL^ ^^ hhUg-manda h, 
^\^ CJ^ WiUg-Kalaey, s.m. (1st) Lameness, 
painfulness, disease, etc. PI. J1^ wati, 
Jji^ JdrHgawul, verb trans. To hurt, to lame, 
to cripple, etc. See under^ and .^ 

CJ^ Miog, adj. (E.) Sweet, etc. See .^ 

dlt^ yhUg, s.m. (oth) A hog, a swine. PI. 
^l^ MiHgan (p C/^). iif^ Wvagdh. s.f. 
(3rd). PI. ^ ey. 

s Jy^* A^^^i s.m. (2nd) A helmet, a steel-cap ; 
a case, a sheath. PI. ^j!^ MiolUnah. 

4^ hhrcalcHh, s.f. (3rd) Sweat, perspiration. 
PI. ^ cy* Jj^ ^j^ Ihrtalcih kedal, verb 
intrans. To sweat, to perspire, to swelter. 
J^ i^j^JcJtfvalah kawul, verb trans. To sweat, 
to cause to perspire. 

Jyly a]^ hhuldh prc-kaivul, verb trans. To 
open the mouth, (to speak), to open one's lips, 
to declaim, etc. 

^j^ khold'i, s.f. (6th) A cap, a covering for 
the head. Sing, and PI. 

p jjj^ hhun, s.m. (2nd) Murder, killing. ;:?. 
Blood. PI. ^y^ khunnnah, J^ l^Un't, 
s.m. (otli) A murderer, a shedder of blood. 
PI. ^J^^ hhum-an. a^JA ^^ khun-dlndak. 
adj. Stained with blood, bloody. \^ ^^ 
yiiUn-hahd, s.f. (6th) The price of blood, for- 
feit or retaliation for murder, (E.) Sing, 
and PI. (W.) PI. j^l^ ^^ yhUn bakdrct. 
iijL^J^ ^f^ yii^^^'^'3^9^^' kh^arral, verb 

trans. To work one's-self to death, jl 


ihUn-JJtfvdr, adj. An animal that devours 
blood, a murdei*er. 2. Bloodthirsty, murder- 
ous, sanguinary, cruel; (Fem.) »J^^ ^j^ 
JdiUn-yhwdrah. s^l^ \j^ Mlitn'Min'dr'i, 
s.f. (3rd) Bloodshed, slaughter, murder. PI. 
Js a I. j^j j^^ M^n-ddr, adj. Bloody, 
sanguine. 2. One who has killed another in 
a feud, and also one who has to take revenge 
for the death of a clansman, jjj ^^^ IJ^Un- 
rcz, adj. Cut-throat, assassin, murderous. 




bloodflliedding. i^j)^ ^ji^ i^Un^ezl, s.f. 
(3rd) Bloodfihed, carnage, slaughter. PI. ^^ 
a'l. J/ i^jij f^yL. ^Un-rezl ka$citl, verb 
trans. To slaughter, to shed blood, jl^ ^^ 
t^Hf^kdr, s.m. (5th) A murderer, an assassin. 
PI. J\Ji ^^ JJtUnrkdr&n. «jl^ ^j^ MiUn- 
kdrah, s.f. (3rd) A murderess. PI. ^^ ey. 
J^ ^^ M^» kawul, verb trans. To kill, to 
assassinate, to commit murder. 

jli^ Monakf s.m. (6th) The quinsey or in- 
flanmiation of the throat (corrup. of a jl:^^). 
Sing, and PI. ; and (E.) at times, 8.m. (2nd). 
Bee ^Umii 

Jjy^ ]^anii s.m. (2nd) Taste, flavour, twang. 
PI. <U^jJ^ MmaniUnah. J^ ^^ Mnxmd 
kawul, verb trans. To taste, savour, flavour. 
J^> Jjja- W^tmd war-kawul, verb trans. 
To flavour, to give savour. 

i^jjjft* M^w^j adj. Kept, protected, preserved, 
secured, taken care of, stored, husbanded. 2. 
Adjusted, settled, set to rights, arranged. 
Jj^ i^jJ^ kkUndl kawul, verb trans. To 
keep, protect, preserve, store, husband ; to 
adjust, settle, put to rights, etc. ^\y s^*^^ 
Mundi wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Preservation, pro- 
tection, security, keep, care. PI. ^\j wall. 
Also c^y c^«^y^ MuncU toby s.m. (^d). PI. 
dj^y tohUnah. 

4/jJ^ Mi/Wndx, s.m. (1st) PI. The name of a 
tribe of Afghans who are dispersed in small 
numbers throughout the country. ^^jJ^ 
WiUndaey, Sing. A man of the above tribe ; 
^^jj^ M/O^ndaX s.f. (6th) A female or 
females of the tribe. Sing, and PI. 

ijy^ MtUrujUh, s.f. (3rd) A room, a chamber, an 
apartment, a hall, a court, or saloon, a re- 
ceptacle, a dormitory. PI. ^y^. J^Uney. 
s^j^ dj^ M^naA matrey, An ill wish— May 
death take place in thy house or dwelling! 
^\jj ij^ J^Undh waddndh, A benediction-* 
May your house flourish I 

4^^ MuhCy s.m. (2nd) Disposition, temper, 
manner, habit, custom. PI. ^y^ Iduhe-Unah. 
Jj had Mlo-c, Of bad disposition. 

nek l^o-^, Of good dispoaitlon ; (Fern.) 
ij^ Mo-e-a'h. {PjD. 

p jjj^ Mnfid or Ju^ Mid, 8.m. (2nd) Unripe 
or green grain cut for cattle, green com, a 
green field. VI. dj^^xi^ i^ldOnah otJifdr 

JjuS^ MtH-yedal, verb intrans. To fester, to 
nmkle, to suppurate. Pres. i^j^}^ l^Qryej^ 
(WO or ^^ Mn-yeffl (E.) ; past jroJ^ J 
wU'M^-yedak ; fut. s^j^ ^ j wu bah Mfir 
y^ or ^y^ Mn^eyl; imp. m^jL. j nmr 
]diflryejzah or ^^ J wu-Mi^eyak; act 
part. ^^-OjjuJy.* Mu-yedUnkaey or ^jJuj 
Mn-yedUnaey ; past part. ^ Juj^ J^L-yedal — 
aey ; verb. n. ^ jJ^ ]^U'yedana'h or s^ 
MvQryeddh. J^^^ Mjfi^aa/oiU, verb 
To fester or cause to fester, to 
or cause to rankle, to make to suppurativa 
Pres. i^jiy^ ^i?^a«?f; past if^by*^ j 
J^Hirydwuk or ^^^^ J wur]^^S/ioo\ 
^f^^ ij ^ Tvu bah M^U^awl ; imp. jr 
wU'M^U-yawah ; act. part, ^cij^yiy^ 
yawUnkaey or ^^ji^ ilfi-yawUnaey ; 
part. L^j£^ MU^awulaey ; verb. n. a) 

p ^bL^ Miy^bdn, 8.m. (2nd) A flower-be&, 
parterre, the path in a garden. PL ^j3\>\^ 

A jL^ jkhiyar, s.m. (2nd) C!hoice, election, 
tion. PI. <Oj^U^ WydTfkMih. 

A i^L^ Miydt, s.m. (5th) A taQor. PL ^Q^W^ 
Miydtdn ; s.f. (3rd) id^U. Miy&ta'h. PI. ^ 
€y. ^<tW^ Miy&§f fl.**. (8rd) Tailoring, A* 
business of a tailor. PL y^ dl. Jj^ iJ^'f^ 
]MydU kawul, verb trans. To tailor, to prv 
tice making clothes. 

A JL^ I^aydl or i^ydl, s.m. (2nd) FttMjr 
thought, imagination, idea, consideration, ap- 
prehension, conceit, suspicion, notion, opinioiL 
2. Delusion, vision. PL ^OjJU. M^^iblnak. 
Jjbyjij ^}\^ M^ydl puld*o wtihal, Yeth tarn. 
To build castles in the air, to indulge in VBin 
speculations or absurd ideas. Jjb^ JL^&ldyti 



tribe ; s.f. (6th) ^ aX A female or females of 
the above. Sing, and PI. 
^ MeS (W.) or MeB (E.), a.m. (5th) A 
kinsman, the relation or kinsman of one's 
wife. PI. ^LjA^ Mi^shdn or JdieJSian, ^U;^ 
M^shah or Me^ah, s.f. (3rd) A female rela- 
tion, a kinswoman by marriage. PI. ^ ey. 
yj^^i!^ l^shl or J^Jdilj s.f. (3rd) Relationship 
by marriage. PI. ^A a'l. 

J^ ,^4*-fi^ M^l or Mifilda kawul, verb trans. 
To contract relationship by marriage. 

CS*^ Ml^f 8*ni. (2nd) A bag of leather or in- 
flated hide, on which rivers are crossed. PI. 
tUyLfii. Mlkunah. Also CJL^ M^ and ^ji^ 
M^lgUnah. See jL^ and ^j 

M^gy s.m. (^d) (E.) The firesh scab on a 
wound. PI. <oyL^ MagHnaK 8eej^ and j^ . 

J^ M^l, s.m. (2nd) A tribe, a clan, a sept, the 
division or part of a clan. PI. <OjLft. Mel- 
Unah. (h tH). 

<0U. J^ Mel kkcLna'A, s.f. (3rd) Kindred, clans- 
men. PI. ^^ ey. 

A ijt^ Maima% s.f. (3rd) A tent, a pavilion. 
PI. v^ ey. Jjj J ^u^ ]diazmah darawulf verb 
trans. To encamp, to pitch a tent. 

J dcLl, called <d.4f« Jb or <ujk*^^, is the 
eighth letter of the Arabic, the tenth of the 
Persian, and the twelfth of the Po^to al- 
phabet. According to the numerical applica- 
tion of the former alphabet it stands for four. 

J da, or occasionally arj dah, the particle go- 
verning the genitive case, which always pre- 
cedes the noun. It is not affected by gender. 
2. Another particle written in the same 
manner, but quite distinct, is sometimes used 
to govern the ablative case, instead of <)d lah 
or «0 <d lah nah. It is, however, rare. See 
my Grammar, page 10, paragraph 38. 

J di, A remote demonstrative pronoun applica- 
ble to persons and things, used in the singular 
number. See ^Mo , b and ^^j . 2. A form 

of personal pronoun for the 2n<l pers^ 
used in all past tenses of the actLye 
the actor or instrumental case, and to 
the object or possessive case with inl 
verbs, signifying — 'thou,' * thine,' or 
and is not subject to any change foi 
3. A particle the peculiar sign of 
person Sing, and PI. ; of the Precati 
Future Tense; and the third persoi 
b da, one of the five different form 
proximate demonstrative pronouns, a 
'this,' and applicable to both per 
things. Used in composition, as h\^ 
Mmahy adv. This side, hither. Cj 
rang^ adv. In this way or manner, 
therefore, ^z.^^^ b da waMt, adv. 
this time. ^yjJb \j da horsey or ^ 

adv. Thus, so, in this way or mann< 
fore, iy^ ^ da homrah or ^jt3 
adv. This much. 

(^\^ dab, s.m. (2nd) The large woode 
a Persian wheel, which has a cog, 
the other wheels in motion. PI. ij 

A <ub ddba% s.f. (3rd) The genus qu 
cattle, beast, reptile, etc., applied to t 
species. PI. ^ ey. 

A ^j dqj, s.m. (2nd) Darkness, obseu 
A dark night. PI. <U^b dq^nah. 

A J^\j ddMdl, act. part, (of JsL j). 1. 1 
arriving, penetrating. 2. adj. Enter 
trated. 3. Inside, within, interior. , 
ddMiledal, verb intrans. To entor, 
trate, to arrive, to appertain to, to 
Pres. ^^c^JifiLb daMilejzl (W.) or 
daMilegl (E.) ; past iJ^ JsL^ j dSi, 
or <U> J wu'shah ; ftit. _^ ^ Jx;^! 
bah shi or ^ J sj bah wu-^l ; im 
<U> ddMil shah or ^ J wtA-shah ; i 
^^jjul^lj ddMUedUniaey or ^ 
adMUedUnaey; past part. J^^^tj < 
^^^ Ji>Aj ddii^ ^waey ; verb.n. 







dai^Uedana'h or i,i^\^daMledah. J^b 
dd^ilanml, verb trans. To cause to enter or 
arriye, to place or fix in^ to insert^ to intro- 
duce, to put in. Pres. i^^^\j ddMil(ml ; 
past jf Jsi.b ddMil karr or J ^ wurkarr ; 
fiit. i^jf i3 Ja;.! J ddMil bah krn or ^j^ i <u 
bah 0im-krr% ; inap. yf JsLb cte^iV ^/r«^ or 
»jf j ip»-^rraA ; act. part. ^^j^\^ daMH- 
amUniaey or ^^^\j ddMilawUnaey ; past 
part, ^^jf J^tj ddMii hazraey; verb. n. 
ij^L^lj ddlMlawufuCh, 
T i)b (2m^ a.m. (2nd) Justice, law, equity. 3. 
drying out for justice, complaint. PI. dj^ j^ j 
Mfnah. i\y^ jb eil^ Mrcdh, s.m. (oth) 
A demander of justice, a plaintiff, a suitor. 
PI. yUl^ jIj ^2a^ M^^aAaw. ^^y^ «^b 
(i&I ^l^roA?, s.f. (3rd) Demanding 'of justice. 
K. ,jj a*!. Jj^ vV^'^ ^^^ ^^ l^rcdhx kawul, 
rab trans. To demand or ask for justice. 
{juj ob ddd-ras, adj. A redresser of grievances, 
itomiistering justice, ^j j\ j dad rasi, s.f. 
(M)Bedres8 of grievances, the administering 
rfjuitice. PI. ^^ a'f. J^ ^j jb rfarf ra^Z 
4«w/, verb trans. To administer justice. j1 j 
J/ (ferf kawul, verb trans. To make com- 
pl«int of injustice. JJ\^ dad gar, s.m. (Sth) 
An administrator of justice, a just prince, etc. 
^^'yJ^J J^ti dad gardn. j^Juj j jb rfooJ-^?- 
fc&t Oying out for help or justice. 
Wd iada, A term of endearment to a father or 

^ brother (E.), and also for an elder sister 

^}^iSr, sjn. (2nd) A gibbet, a gallows, a 
■lab. PL *5jyb ddranaJi. Jj^ jb <u pah 
6r kfTv/, verb trans. To hang, to gibbet, to 

^piSr, verb. n. (of ^/;-lb). Possessing, a 
PttKBSor, a lord, a master. Used in compos. 
j\) (^J db dor, B.m. (5ih) A person who 
las charge of the water for drinking. PL 
Jjb cJT dh ddrdn. adj. Besplendent. 

jL> itf^ ii^^olh ddr, 8.m. (5th) A sharer, a 


PI. t,i,b 

Iki^^a'h ddrdn. 

^ob ddr^ 8.m. (5th) A mace-bearer. 

a servant who announces company. PL 
j^l^b ^ y >- diob ddrdn. j\s^ j j'*^ ddr-o- 
Tnaddr, s.m. (9th) Dissimulation, circumven- 
tion. 2. Agreement, stipulation. Sing, 
and PL 

p . -i-.>- j\j ddr-chmi, s.m. (6th) Cinnamon. 
Sing, and PL Also ,^_<i-^ Jb ddl-ch'mi 

Pjljb ddrUf s.m. (9th) Medicine, physic. 2. 
Gunpowder (hi). Sing, and PL 

p 4ijjb ddroghah, s.m. (5th) An overseer, a 
manager, the intendant of the camels. PL 
j^liciijb ddroghagdn, 

iTjb ddra'h, s.f. (3rd) A spirt, a jet, a spout, a 
rush, a gush, a cascade, a cataract. PL ^ ey, 
Jjbj ir^b ddra'h rvakal, verb trans. To spirt, 
jet, or gush out. See ^jiJ^ 

Jljjb ddriydl, s.m. (2nd) A tambourine. PL 
<Uj!L[^b ddriydlunah or b^J, which see. 

jb ddrr, s.m. (2nd) A company, a band, a 
gang of thieves. PL ij^^^ddrrUnah. (s^.G) 

8 2j^b ddrra'h, s.f. (3rd) A jaw tooth, a grinder. 
2. An attack made on a village by day or 
night, with open violence. 3. A gang, com- 
pany, or band (E.) PL ^ ey. See ^. 

Jjb ddrral, verb trans. To bite as a dog, etc. 
Pres. L^b darn ; past 2[^b j wu-ddrrah or 
jb J wU'ddrra ; fut. t^'*^ ^ J ww iaA rfa/rl ; 
imp. 2^jb J wU'ddrrah ; act. part, ^j-^jjb 
ddrnlnkaey or ij-jjjb dArrUnaey ; past pari. 
jjjjb ddrralaey ) verb. n. <)(jjb ddrrana'h. 

Also written Jj*»3 dharral by the Western 
p j^li-ab ddstdn, s.m. (2nd) A tale, a story, a 
fable. PL ijy\sJ\j ddstdnunah. 

j,b da^t (W.) or rfaM^ (E.) s.m. (2nd) A 
potter's furnace, an oven. 2. Strength, dura- 
bility. PL «Uja*jib ddshtHnah or ddWitUnah, 
JjJ ui^^b rfo^^ or ddldit laral, verb trans. 
To last, to endure, to remain permanent (Jit, 
* To retain durability *). 
j^b daafif s.m. (5th) (act. part, of Uj) An 
instigator, author, cause ; a plaintiff, a claim- 
ant, PL j^lCfib dd'cBi-gdn, 



p i}j dS^, B.m. (Ssd) A bleanuh, scar, spot, 
Btain, mark, brand, Btigma. PI. i^ji^o dAgk- 
anah. jt J f\ii dd^ ddr, adj. Spotted, mark- 
ed, branded, blemished, etc. ; (Fem.) aj\j ^1j 
ddi^-ddra'h. J^^j jlj dd^ yishamtl {'9/ .) 
or yi^awul <E.), verb trans. To brand, to 
Bcar, to stain, to mark, to vilify, to defame. 
Jj^j elj (io^ rear-Aarow/, verb tnms. To 
mark by a hot iron, to cauterize, to brand, to 
Bcar. Jilj dd^al, verb trans. To bum, to 
brand, to scar, to cauterize, to mark, to stain, 
to blemish, to viliiy. Pree. jjclJ dS</Al ; 
past Ac(j J wu-ddi^ah or 'j\j J ww-fiJa^a ; 
lilt. ^\ii At i Tcu bah d&ghl ; imp. •LcIj i 
Ku-dd^iah ; act. part. ^^^1 J t^S^Sn^o^ or 
^^1j(£2^12nae^; pastpart.^jXcfji^^^^^cuy; 
verb. n. jj^Ij tf^ana'A. J J>-i1J da^edal, 
verb intrana . To be or become spotted, scarred, 
stained, cauterized, vilified, branded, etc. Prea. 
^<pib da^ejzi (W.) or ^^J-!^^<^ daghegx (E.) ; 
past dJi db eSa^ MoA or .ti J wu-shah. \ 
flit, ^ji *j ^Ij (fcg^ ioA -2^1 or -i J <ij Jj[A 
imt-^l ; imp. ^ i1 J dagh shah or &.1 J tzju- 
«AaA; act. part. ^jXijj-ilj rfo^rfflnAtwy or 
'jjOm^Ij ddghedunaey ; peat part, ^iji ilj 
dxy^ skamaey ; verb. n. i^jjuclj dd^edasM'h 
or jijLytlj d&ffkedah. J^l») ddshawul, verb 
trans. To bum, to brand, to scar, to cauterize, 
to stain, to vilify, to de&me. Free. i^jiSj 
dSghmi ; past $ dlj dSgi Aa^v- or jS' 1 rcw- 
^22;; fut, ^$ ii i^iJ (f^A £aA kfri or ^ 
j^ ! bah wU'krn ; imp. j^f cb eto^ A^roA 
or *^ j wu-krrah ; act. part, jiijj^lj 
d^^amSnAa^ or ^j^b dS^aroHnaey ; past 
part, (i/ jlj (^gyA karraetf ; verb. n. aj^eIj 

F ^]i1j ddl&n, 8.m. (2nd) A hall, a veetibitle. 

PI. iJyViJ dSldnanah. 
p |*lj c2am, B.m. (2nd) A net, a snare, a trap. 

PI. ijyt\,i ddmunaft. Jjo-T |.lj ddmd^amul, 
'verb trans. To lay a snare, to set a trap, 
p J^\>i daman, B.m, (2nd) The skirt, foot, or 

declivity of a moontaio. S. A plain. 3. The 

Afgh&n country between the eaetem 
of the Sollmftn range and the hilb soi 
Salt range. PL AjyUb dSmSMHtu 
ajUlj ddmdna'h, B.f. (3rd). P 
^Ulj ddmdtuiey, bju. (let) An i 
of Dfimftn. PI. ^ t ; ».f- (6th) ^ 
female or females of DfimAn. Sing. 

p \j\j ddJia, adj. Wise, learned, sage, 
a subs. ^btJb d&tt&ydn). ^^\i\J d 
(3rd) Wisdom, sagacity, learning, int 
PI. A a'i. I— *-Jlj ddtdtt, B.m. (9 
^jJmJIj), Knowledge, opinion. Bin{ 
is^U d&tmtah, adj. (past pari.) 

p JL3b ddni^, B.m. (3nd) Enowledg 
gence, learning, sciraca. PI. ^^mJI 
Uttah. M^ fj^\j ddnuh-mtatd, adj. 

intelligent, wise, ^x 

Ljtj ddm 

B.f. (3rd) Learning, wifldom. PI. ^ 

p *j\j ddtia'A, s.f. (3rd) A grain, aet 
com; speck, pimple, boil. Pl.,J(y. 
ddna'h-d^, adj. Granulated, contain: 
Ailt) »(y tora'h ddna'h, s.f. (3rd) 
head, a boil, a bubo. PI. ^ ey. A 
ij\^ da kai ddnak (.lit, ' a bcol whicl 
a year'). 

A Jjb da'1^, s. prop. The name of a 
David, (h Tin Beloved). 

tjljjjb d&'itdzl, s.m. (iBt) PL The lu 
Afghftn tribe inhabiting the northei 
the plain of Pe^'ftwer. ^^^JJlJ dt 
A man of the above tribe, s.f. (6' 
A female of the above. Sing, and I 

i^jlij dam, B.m. (1st) PL A tribe <rf 
i^jb ddsvaey, B.m. (Sing.) A man of 


, B.f. (6tfa) A female ( 

of the tribe. Sing, and PL 
A tj}>i dd'ira'A, B.f. (3rd) A ring, a 
orbit, circumference. S. A m<niaBl 
^ ey. 
A «j1j dd'im, adj. (act. part, of aj>>), 1 
permanent, ceaseless, eternal, alw 
tinual. j*^^ j^1k> da'\m-ul-Masnar 
drunkard, oonatantly drank. ,-«, 





Perpetual^ contmoal, enduring^ lasting, un- 
^b daX 8.f. (Sth) A nniBe, a midwife, PI. 
^^ULitj da'lpdfii. (p aAj). 

pljbj dubSra or ijo^ dubdrah, adv. Twice, 

again, another time. 
W ^bo dabd^, s an. (5th) A tanner, a currier. 
Fl. ^^UUo {2a6^cln. ^uUl cbj dabash 
JiOna^h, 8.f. (3rd) A tan-pit. PI. ^^ ey. 
^\»J dabd^l, s.f. (3rd) The business of a 
tinner or currier. PI. ^^ a'f. Jj^ if^V*^ 
(bic^f kanml, verb trans. To curry, to tan. 
^Iji) dabdnS or ^jjl j dabdndly adv. Outside, 

without, out, externally. 
A. Ajjj i) dahdah<i\ B.f. (3rd) Pomp, parade, state, 

dignity. PI. ^ ey. 
^i) (bi/i^, 8.m. (1st) A small round box for 

keeping anything in, a casket. PI. j^ f. 
i AjJ iabdh, B.f. (3rd) A leathern bottle for 

holding oil, etc. PI. ^ ey. 
yji) (fail, adj. Fruit made ripe by laying it in 

itraw, or layers of leaves. 
»;lii) dapdroA or jb j dapdra, prep. For, for 

the sake of, on account of, by reason of. 
^ rV J dtffdj, a.m. (6th) A fowl, the domestic 

W Bing. andPl. See d/^ 
aJUi) dd^dl, B.prop. (from J^^J, He lied). 

Antichrist, an imposter, a liar. 
^ J«^ dafakl, 8.m. (2nd) Entrance, access. 2. 

Jfitnuion, interference, molestation. 3. Profit, 
■ iwome, advantage. PI. <OjU^j daMl^nah. 
[ i^ J^43 (£xM/ /ioro/, verb trans. To have ac- 

^ (Ht ' to hold or retain entrance '). Jr5- J 

J/ dai^ kanml, verb trans. To intrude, to 

•to, to interrupt, to intermeddle, to inter- 

B*e, to meddle, to concern one's-self, to cn- 

^oach, to take possession. 
**fi^ daifyna% s.f. (3rd) A comer, a secluded 

l^ace, a place of concealment, a lurking place, 

imbnsh. 2. A tomb. PI. ^^ ey. J^ d^s^j 

kHma'h nJwai, verb trsjis., or ^u^J <o 

J:uiLMii^ pah daJAmclh Kshenastal, or ^'^^- 

ittto/, verb intrans. To lie in ambush, to lurk. 

1 JsiBft^ <2a^f/, adj. (from J^;^ j) Admitted, al- 

lowed entrance. 2. Intimate, familiar, a 
friend, confidant, adopted. 

p Jj dad, s.m. (5th) A fierce or rapacious animal, 
a beast of prey, a reptile. PI. j^\ JJ dad-dn. 
jT jj dada'h, s.f. (3rd) Tiie female of the above. 
PI. ^ ey. 

Pjj flfar, s.m. (2nd) A door. PI. <Oj^j darUnah. 
j^, j^ dar badar. From door to door, jj 
gT; jj dar badarJ, s.f. (3rd) Begging, vagrancy, 
begging from door to door. PI. ^ a\ jj 
Jj^ jjj dar badojr kawul, verb trans. To ruin, 
to reduce to poverty and distress. 
J J dar, pron. or pronominal dative prefix of the 
second person, used to point out the object 
in a sentence. It is both singular and plural, 
has no independent meaning, and is used like 
\j and J J with all verbs : it signifies, *to thee 
or you.' See Grammar, page 46, paragraph 
132. Also aJ jj dar tah, nj j*^ dar larah, 
or <)J J J dar la/i, To thee or you. 

J J da?*a or hjj dara/i, imp. of J!jt), which see. 

iLjJ durr, s.m. (2nd) A pearl. PI. <Oj^J durr- 
unah. Sec ^fj^j^ 

J J dri or ^^J drey, adj. Three, ^jj drey am, 
Thethird; (FemJiUj^jrfr^yawa'A. c::,-Jwj^ jj 
dar-msht (W.) or dri-wlsht (E.) Twenty-three. 
^^^ J J J dri'dersk, Thirty-three. l::^^j1^jJ 

dri'tsalwesht (W.) or dri'tsabveMt (E.) Forty- 
three. (jM^stri jJ dri'pindzqs. Fifty-three^ 

<^^ J J dri'shpetah, Sixty-three. Lj^l j J dri- 

awyd. Seventy-three. Ul jj dri-atl'd. Eighty- 

three, y j J rfri Tiarci, Ninety-three, ^js^ j^ 

dri'kunjey, adj. Three-cornered; (Fem.)jj 

<tflci^ dri kurfja'h. 

^\j^ durdni, s.m. (Ist) PI. One of the great 
divisions of the Afghans, of which there are 
two branches — Zlrak and Panj-pa*o, and 
amongst which is included the royal tribe. 
They are also called Abdfills. See the Intro- 
duction to my Grammar, ^^j*^ durdnaey, 
Sing. A man of the above tribe. J^a't, s.f. (6th) 
A female or females of the tribe. Sing, and PI. 

A^jjdard% s.f. (3rd) A kind of red silk. PI. v^a't. 




(-^J drab, B.m. (2nd) A kind of sacrificial grass 
(Poa cynosuroides). PI. *i^^.J drabunah. 

wj^jj draby s.m. (5th) A crash, smash, roll, 
rumble, thump, bang, dab, beat, etc. PI. 
jl|^jj drabahdr. Jjbj c-^ J drab wcihal, verb 
trans. To make a rumbling, rolling, crashing 

Pjb^ J darbdr, s.m. (2nd) The holding of a court, 
a hall of audience, a court. PI. ^U^ib^j 
darbdrUnah, ^^^ j^j^ darbdr kawul, verb 
trans. To hold a court, to give audience, to 
consult on affairs of state. 

P t/^Vj^ darbdn, s.m. (6ih) A courtier. PI. 
i^^j^j^ darbdrCdn. 

P ^^j^ ddr-bdn, s.m. (5th) A porter, a door- 
keeper. PI. f^\j\jjJ darbdndn, 

<ifla^»i dar-badia!h, s.f. (3rd) A window, a pantry, 
a cupboard. PI. ^ ey. See ^,\^ 

Jjj J drabal, verb trans. To shake or press down, 
as flour, etc.) Pres. ^^j drabl; past ^\j<^ % 
wu-drdbah or c-^\;J J wu-drdba; fiit. <o J 
^^j WW fiaA tf^ra&i ; imp. <o^j drabah or 
*Ujj J wu'drabah ; act. part. ^^^y>j^ drab- 
Unkaey or ^^^j^ drabUnaey ; past part, jj-bj J 
drabalaey ; verb. n. <uj^j drabaruCh. 

Jjjj drabal, verb intrans. To fall in (as the 
roof of a house), to come down, to break down, 
to give way. Pres. ^^j drabl] past Jjjt) J 
wU'drabal; fut. ^^jj <>^.Jn72^ 4aA drabl; 
imp. iUjj J wU'drabah ; act. part. ^j-^yj*> 
drabUnkaey or ^yj^ drabUnaey ; past part, 
^dj^j drabalaey\ verb. n. <UjjJ drabana'h 
J^jj drabawul, verb trans. To bring down, 
to break down, to cause or make fall in, to 
cause to give way, to cast down. 2. To 
thrash, to take down a peg. Pres. t^^j*^ 
drabawl ; past ^rjbjj j wu-drabdrcuh ; fdt. 
fc^^jj aj j WW iaA drabawl ; imp. yy^J J 
wu-drabawah ; act. part, ^ji^j^j J drabaTCun- 
kaey or ^^^j^ drabawUnaey ; past part, 
^^jj drabawulaey ; verb. n. *j^*3 rfraia- 

djjj drabalaey, adj. (past part.) Fallen in, 
come down by the run, given way, broken 

down ; (Fem.) Jj^ J drabalL PL (1 
Fem.) Jj;j drabatl, 

jljjj dar-balaX s.f. (6ih) A tripod or 
wood. Sing, and PI. 

^jj drabaey, s.m. (1st) A crash, i 
rumble, thump, etc. PI. jc f. See 

A —jj darj, s.m. (9th) A place for w 
closet, anything written on, a volum- 
and PL Jj^ -.j J rfew7 Aaww/, verb 
enter, to insert, to copy, to write, to 

A ^^J dar-ja'h or darqjah, s.f. (3rd) 
rank, dignity, station, step, grada 
Division, act of a play, etc. 3. A 
a circle. PI. v^ ^ ; or (a) PI. <.i^lsr> 
^jj <0 ^jJ darja'h pah darjc 
Gradually, by degrees, step by step. 

izS^ji^ drdjddah^ s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of P 
A tree. PI ^ ey. See <0j 

p c:^w»\^jj durM^dst, s.m. (2nd) Re( 
plication, demand, petition, appeal, 
sire, proposal. PI. iif^\y>j*^ dar^n 
Jj^ ci^-^l^j J dar^avcLst kawul, ve 
To request, require, seek, beg, demi 

p jj J dard, s.m. (2nd) Pain, afflictic 
2. Pity, affection, sympathy, compai 
Anger, passion, vexation. PI. ^jj 
Uniih, J^J 2r^l^ J cla langdhrccHh (k 
pains of child-birth. Jj^^j,^ j c2a ^ 
The head-ache ; vexation, trouble. « 
da z'trah dard. The belly-ache, colic 
dard-man, adj. Afflicted, pained, 
passionate, sympathizing; (Fem.) i:^ 
rrumoHh, ^jj>^JjJ dard-maruR, s.f. 
fliction, sorrow, compassion. PL ,^ 
J^ dard kawul, verb trans. To ache, 
to pain. J J^J^»fc> dardedal, verb inl 
become, angry, vexed, or displease 
k^ J, J dardejn (W.) or y/i^j*^ ^^^ 
past jTjjj^j J wu-dardedah or «X[J 
dardeda; fut. i^j^^j*^ Sj j wu bah 
or ,«Sj Jj J ij iwu bah dardegl ; imj 
wU'dardejzah or ^ J;J J nm-darde^ 
part. . ^.jjJiJ dardedUniaey or 





dardedUnaey ; ^Bst-psrt.^jjjjjcUu^declalaey; 
verb. n. ajJjJjJ dardedana'A or gjjjjj dard- 
edah. JjO^tO dardanml, verb trans. To make 
angry, to vex, to displease. Pres. t^J;J 
dardcam ; past i^^j^ *^ wurdardamuh or J 
j^lj^j nm-<larddwo; ftit. ^^^j*^ sj^wu bah 
dardam; imp. jr^j^j J wurdardawah ] act. 
part ^>^j[^«^*> dardawUnkaey or ^^^^j^ 
dardatvUnaey; past part. ^jj;j dardawulaey ; 
verb. n. ^^J^ j dardawuna*h. 

jOjO dar-dar or jj dar, s.m. (5th) The sound of 
falling rain, patter. Pl.jU;j darahdr. jjfjj 
Jj^ dar-dar kawul, verb trans. To patter, as 
ndn, hail, etc. 

p Ajj^ darzy s.m. (2nd) A seam or snture, a 
crack, a cleft, a flaw, a narrow strip of cloth. 
PI. ^jQj^ darZ'Unah. 

P 4/2;*> darzl, s.m. (5th) A tailor. PI. ^Jj^ 

▲ ij^j^ darSy s.m. (2nd) A lesson, a lecture, 
reading, learning to read. PI. ijy^j^ dars- 
Unah. Jj)^ uv^ ^^^ Vwalawul or (j*ij^ 
Jj^^ dars war-kaavuly verb trans. To instruct, 
to teach to read. 

^j^ drast, adj. All, the whole, entire. 2. adv. 
Wholly, entirely ; (Fem.) is^j,^ drasta*A. 
^j^ darasta'hf s.f. (3rd) Arms, implements of 
war, armour, a set or stand of arms. PI. v^ 
ly. See ^Juj 

Jjus^i3 drastedal, verb intrans. To become 
complete, perfect, finished, accomplished, ful- 
filled, etc. Jji^j^ drastawulf verb trans. To 
render or make complete, to perfect, to finish, 
to accomplish, to ftdfil. 

P sz^J^j^ durusht, adj. Hard, harsh, rough, 
fierce, oppressive, surly, morose, stem, stiff", 
rigid ; (Fem.) dsJ^j^ durtishta'A. See «) and 

P ,A^j^ durushti, s.f, (3rd) Harshness, severity, 
stemnees, asperity, roughness, moroseness. 
H. ^ a'l. JjS^ L<^j^ durushti kawul, 
verb trans. To treat with asperity, harshness, 
severity, etc. 
JUj^ darshal, s.f. (Ist) The frame of a door. 

PI. J-ij*i darshali. Also JbLij*i darshdhiy 
s.f.''(3rd). PI. ^^ a\ 

Jxjti dorsal, s.m. (5th). A liar, a false speaker, 
a hypocrite, a deceiver. 2. Astray, erring, 
wandering, misled, bewildered, lost, seduced. 
PI. ,^pli;*i darghaldn. <di;*i darghalaHhy s.f. 
(3rd). PI. ^ ey. 

CJyj^ dar-ghwoffi s.m. (2nd) (E.) (from vl^ 
' the ear'), A mark to distinguish cattle, gene- 
rally made by cutting the ears in a peculiar 
manner. PI. 4jj^i,*i dar-ghwagUnah, See 

J^»i dar-ghqly s.m. (2nd) A gap or cleft in the 
bank of a ndla'h or water-course through which 
the water breaks out during floods or heavy 
rains. PI. ij^^j^ darghol-Unah. 

JjL^*i dar-ghedaly verb intrans. To slip, to 
tumble, to trip, to stumble, to slide, to plump 
down. Jj4;*^ dar-ghawuly verb trans. To 
cause or make to slip, trip, stumble, slide, etc. 

CSj^ daraky s.m. (2nd) A place, abode. 2. 
Trace, sign, mark, indication. PI. ^J^J^ 
darakunah, Jj^ dj^ darak kawul y verb 
trans. To trace, to discover, to find out. 

Jj^ drakarVy s.f. (1st) The outside rim or felly 
of a wheel. Vh^j^ drakarri. 

^j^ dargdhy s.m.^ (3rd) A copse, a place where 
the trees and brushwood grow close together. 
PI. ^ ey. 

(}^jyj*^ dor gor kafvuly verb trans. To abandon, 
to give up entirely, to forget, to think no more 
about {lit. ' To bury in the grave'). 

^^J^ dargahy s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of P a^j^), A 
threshold, a door. 2. A mosque, a shrine. 
3. A court, a palace. PI. ^^j^ dargahunah. 
JJ^*i darlawuly verb trans. To have, to re- 
tain, to possess, to maintain. Past ^j^ J wu- 
darlo ; act. part, y^^^j^ darla-roUnkaey 
or ^^^j^ darhrwUnaey ; past part, ^^j^ 
darlawulaey-y verb. n. <Ujl^*i darlawuna'h. 
This verb is imperfect, and all the other tenses 
are taken from J^ , which see. 

p ^U^«^ darmdUy s.m. (2nd) Medicine, drug, 
remedy. PI. <0yU^i^ darmdnUnah. 




F ^jJU;J darmdndafflf s.f. (3rd) Misery, dis- 
tress, misfortune, adversity, penury. PI. 

p if jjU;J darmdnda'k, adj. Helpless, destitute, 
without remedy, distressed. 

Xji^j^ daramtawajj^, s. prop. The name of a 
small district north-east of Hazftrah in the 

jo^ J darmand, s.m. (2nd) Harvest, a heap or 
stack of unthreshed com. S. A threshing 
floor, a place for treading out com, 3. 
Smooth, even, level (ground). PI. «U^ja^jj 
darmandunah, or (6th) PI. j^ljo^j dar- 

IF j^ J darmunda'h, s.f. (3rd) A skein of twisted 
wool, a hank. PI. A ey. 

<U; J durma'h or darma% s.f. (3rd) A reed from 
which mats are made. 2. A shepherd's pipe. 
PI. v^ ey. See ^j^> gr^jJ and Jj 

fc^^Ujj daranawey, s.m. (Ist) Solidity, heavi- 
ness, weight, load, burden. 2. Steadiness, 
constancy. PI. ^ i. See ^^^\j ar^j and 

V ifjjjj darindah, sdj. (from^j^jo). Rapacious, 
fierce, ravenous, tearing. 2. s.m. (5th) A 
beast of prey, a ravenous beast. PL ^\^JojJ 

P v^jJ dirang, s.m. (9tb) Delay, hesitation, 
procrastination. J^ (JiojJ dirang kawul, 
verb trans. To defer, to delay, to put off, to 
postpone, to protract, to suspend. See ,>:^ . 
'cUojJ ^ be dranya, adv. Without delay, 

p *;|<j;fc> darwazciJiy s.f. (3rd) A door, an en- 
trtmce, a gate. PI. ^ ey. Jylj i[;\jjO dar- 
mdzdk ^akawulf verb trans. To knock at the 
door. Jy^t^ ij^jj*^ darwdza'h pes^anml, 
verb trans. To close a door, Jj ?;lv*^ ^^' 
wdza'A tarral, verb trans. To fasten or shut 
a door. 

^VyVj^J darw&zaw&n, s.m. (5th) A door-keeper, 
a gate-keeper, a warden. PI. (^^^j^jVj^t) dar- 
wdzawdndn, ^^^J^jj*^ darwdzawdna'k, s.f. 
(3rd) A porteress. PI. ^^ ey. 

P J|;<^ darUd, s.m (2nd) Congratulati< 
ing, salutation, benediction. PI. 
darUdUnah. Jjj j^*^ darUd wcir\ 
trans. To congratulate, to bless. 

jfijO drar, s.f. (5th) A husband's sisi 
jjjj drandi. See j^j*^ 

jfjjU*^ darUz-ffor, s.m. (5th) A carj 
joiner. PI. f^)jf}i;*^ darUzgardn (c 

nj^jj drUza'hy s.f. (3rd) Stubble, si 
wheat, etc., left by the sickle ; the ] 
of the head of com left after thresh 
^ ey. See ^jUe andjj^ 

...J darwajz, s.m. (2nd) A mark ma 
ears of cattle to distinguish them, P 
darwajzilnah* See CJy^jti 

\JjU*^ darrvajzaey, s.m, (1st) The ten 
to a male child of a woman suppose 
become pregnant through the prayer 
priest or holy man (lit. ' marked oi 
^^ I, s.f. (6th) jA a'l. Sing, and ] 

p i^j J darogh^ s.m. (6th) A falsehood, 
untmth. Sing, and PI. 2. adj. I 
true; (Fem.) ^^j^ darogha'h. ^ 
darogh-jcm (E.) or ^J ^j daro^j^ 
s.m. (6th) A liar. PI. ^j or ^ 
darogh jan or jzcBn^ and ^^ ijjJ 
go-e^ s.m. (5ih). PI. ^^ jj^ J darogt 
(Jj^ i^ J darogh go% s.f. (3rd) Lyi 

speakhig. PI. ^ a*I. 

J^^j drUmal, verb intrans. To go, fa 
to set out, to quit. Pres. ^i^^ 
ftit. ,<^^fc> sj ^wu bah drUml ; imp. 
wu-drUmah. The past tenses are 
and are taken from Jjl^^jJ, whi 
ficient in the present tenses. 

Jju^jj drUmedal, verb intrans. To g 
part, etc. This infinitive is also i 
with regard to the present tenses 
added to the preceding, completes 
ar ju^j^ J J wu-drUmedah or Ju.^jijJ J 
9n^ei{a ; act. part, ^^^^'^^yj*^ drumed 
^jX^jjt} drumedUnaey ; past part. 




drdmedalaey ; verb. n. ijj^^^ drUmedana* h. 

See preceding infinitiYe. 
P ^j^ damn, adv. In, within. 
P ^jy^ darUna'A, 8.f. (Srd) The heart, core. PI. 

jJj^j«^ drUnd, adj. Heavy, weighty, ponderous, 
masaiYe, unwieldy. PI. ij\j^ drdnah) (Fern.) 
i^j^ drandh. PI. ^Vj«i draney. ^\^ '^3J^ 
(bund wdlaey, a.m. (let) or Lf jjj^«^ drUnd 
tl% B.f. (6th) Weight, heaviness, ponderous- 
0688, load, burden, ballast. PI. ^\^ jJi^«^ 

drundwdli; (W.)Pl. j^LJ Jj^C^drUnd-ti'dwl. 
See i^^^j^ 
Mfjj^ droh, s.m. (2nd) Fraud, deceit, imposture, 
artifice, evasion. 2. (s) Spite, malice, hatred. 
PL ^yb2;«> drohUnaA. Jj^ ^^«^ ^^^^ 
is^arral, verb trans. To be deceived, cheated, 
defrauded. J4j^ if^jC^ droh war-kawul, verb 
trans. To cheat, to defraud, to deceive. J JuJbjj«^ 
drokedal, verb intrans. To be deceived, cheated, 
defrauded. Pres. ^^j^^x)^ drohe^l (W.) or 
yj^jj^ drohegl (E.) ; past ar jujbjj,^ J 72?!^- 
drohedah ; frit. %^js^^C^ ij ^ wu bah drohejp, 
or ^Xaji;*> dj^wu bah drohegl ; imp. 2^*>jj o J 
fn^drohejzah or d$Libj . j j wu-drohegah \ act. 
part, ^jilij JuJbjjJ drohedUnkaey or ^^ JUbj^ j 

drohedOnaey ; past part, ^jubj^j (frt^^e- 
£2s/a€y; verb. n. ^ju^^jj drohedaruCh or 
ijuibjjj droJiedah. t^^^j^ drohawul, verb 
trane. To cheat, to deceive, to defraud. Pres. 
k^y^jj^ droharci ; past ^[^libj^ J J wu-drohdwuh 
or jjjUjjfc> j wurdrohdwo ; fat. v^y^^j^ ^ J 
ntf ioA drohoiWi ; imp. ^r^j^o J wu-drohawah ; 
act. part. lJ^ jjy^jjfc> drohawUnkaey or ^^^y^^u^ 
drohawUnaey ; past part. ^^^ J drohawulaey ; 
verb. n. ^ybj. J drohawuna'h. Jj^j^^J drokal, 
verb trans. To cheat, to deceive, to defraud. 
Pres. ^jy«i> ^Mt ; past <iub^j j J wurdrohah 
ct -ijy*> J nm-droha ; fat. ^jj*^ ^ j w?t* JaA 
^0^1 ; imp. iiUbj^j J J wurdrohah ; act. part. 
\^9^3J*^ dh?Ai2»^a€y or ^y^^j*^ drohunaey ; 
pBfltpart ^^j^yj^ drohalaey ; verb. n. <cjbjjj 

jjltoj^j drohalaey, adj. (past part.) Cheated, de- 
ceived, defrauded. Sometimes used to signify 
a cheat, a deceiver, but it is incorrect, and the 
act. part, should be used instead. 

v^jjj danvaey, s.m. (1st) A reed from which 
mats are made. 2. A shepherd's pipe. PI. 
PI. 4^ I. See <U; J, lU^jJand yXa^ 

^ji^jj danvezah, s.f. (3rd) Beggary, mendi- 
cancy. PI. ^ ey. Jji^j^ darwez-gar^ s.m. 
(5th) A beggar, a mendicant. PI. ^J jiyj^ 

ir^jfjj darwezahy s. prop. The name of a cele- 
brated Afj^ftn Akhund, or teacher, who, with 
his son Earim D&d, wrote the work known as 
Makhzan Pu^to, in refatation of the doctrines 
of BUyizld Ans&rl, the founder of the Roshftni^n 
sect. The work in question is one of the 
earliest compositions in the Pu^to language. 
See my Pu^to Text Book. 

p ij^^yj^ darweshy s.m. (5th) A darwegh, a beggar. 
PI. ^ylu*jjj^J darweskdn, 

v^j£jj^jjj darweshi, s.f. (3rd) The way of life, 
doctrine, or office of a darwesh or religious 
mendicant. PI. ^4 a*i. 

f^^i^j dar-Tvlsht, n. adj. Twenty-three. See 
under J J 

A ifjj dura*h or dirra^h, s.f. (3rd) A scourge. 
PI. v^ ey. 

»jj dara'h, s.f. (3rd) A valley between two hills 
or ranges of mountains, through which a 
stream flows; a pews or way between two 
mountains. PI. ^^ ey. 

*jj darah OTjtidara, imp. of verb trans. JJjJ, 
which see. 

v^jU gjj darah-ndwaey, s.m. (Ist) Weight, etc. 
PL ^^ I. See i^j^j^ and A}jjfc> 

^^miJtfj^ dar-hlstah, adv. Towards or near thee 
or you. See ^bu«Jb\j , etc. 

4^ J drey, adj. Three, wj J dreyam, Third ; 
(Fem.) A*wjfc) dreyamalh. See^J, etc. 
->lj^j dar-ydby s.m. (2nd) A sea, a river, the 
waters in general. PI. *^y\ij^ dar-ydbUnah. 
^•Ljj J darydbt, adj. Aquatic, of the sea or 

river. c-^Uji^ u^ kaharey dar-ydb, The 


ocean, the sea. Also s^l^^J ^U l^dley dor- 

p \c^\jjt} dary-aft, B.m. (2nd) (from ^Ijj^)) 
Discovery, investigation, finding out, compre- 
Iiension, understanding. PI. <Oj:;ibjj dary- 
aftUnah, J^ c:^bjJ dary-aft kawul, verb 
trans. To discover, to find out, to detect, to 
perceive, to understand. 

p ^^fTjJ daridia'A, s.f. (3rd) A window. PI. A 
ey. See ^.j*^ 

Jjjjj daredal, verb intrans. To stand, to be 
upon the feet, to abide, to stay, to halt, to 
remain. Pres. i^jij*^ darejzl (W.) or ^Jjj*^ 

dareyl (E.) ; past *Jkjj jj wud-redah or ix>^Oj 
wtcdrreda; fut. i^j>j^ ^jwu bah darejzl or 
jjjjj ij 'ywu bah dareffl; imp. ^VjJj «?w^- 
arejzah or ^^ Jj rovdaregah ; act. part. 
^jiojJj^J dare-dUnkaey or ^^^^j^ dare- 
dunaey ; past part, ^jj^j daredalaey; verb. 

n. <0 Jj^fc) daredanoHh or i^ Jj^J daredah. Jj. j 
darawulf verb trans. To cause to stand, to 
make abide, to cause to stay, halt, or remain, 
to pitch (as a tent), to support, to fix. Pres. 
i^jl^ij darawx ; past i[^5^ J^ wndar-dwuh or 
j^b^^J '^'^dar-ano ; fut. ^^^J ij i wu bah 
darawx ; imp. ij|^ Jj wudar-awah ; act. part. 
^^ilij[^ J dararoUnkaey or ^^^j^ darawunaey ; 
past part. ^jjO darawulaey ; verb. n. «)(Jjj j 
(iJaran^una'A. See also J«J^j<^j 

^^l^. i^ii draey-shaTdia^y (W.) or rfra^- 

" JdtaMwLey (E.), s.m. (Ist) A kind of pitchfork, 
an instrument used in winnowing com. PI. 
^c ?. Seej-6l4», ^^l4> , jl>- , etc. 

p ^^J dare^ or rfr^^, s.m. (9ih) Sorrow, a 
sigh, disinclination. Sing, and PI. ^^J 
Ji^ ^^^Sh or dre^ Wiwarral^ verb trans. 
To grieve, to lament, to mourn. jJ j*> daxegha 
or dregha, and <Uj|j J daredah or dreghah^ 
inter). Alas! sorrow 1 would to God! alack-a 

^^J dar-ya% s.f. (3rd) A tambourine. PI. v^ 
ey. See Jlj^b 

^J j*i (totr-iforr, adj. Broken to bits, shattered. 

torn, piecemeal, in fragmenta, : 
splintered, shivered to atoms, etc 
*^j *jj daxrcHh-darroHh. Jju^ j^ 
datr kedal, verb intrans. To becoi 
shattered, splintered, shivered. 
darr-dajT kawul, verb trans. To 
bits, to tear, to splinter, to shiver t 

Jjjiijj dafrdedal, verb intrans. T< 
suffer pain, to be in pain. J^C^j^ c 
verb trans. To pain, to make or : 
easy, to agonize, to torture, to 
trouble. See under *i^ J 

Hji^ darrah, s.f. (3rd) A split, a craci 
2. Wood split for firewood. 3. A 
piece of wood or stone, a chip, a sh 
An allowance in weight, tare. 

^*i darra'l, s.f. (6th) Gilt or omamc 
used by females in place of oms 
jewellery, and stuck on the fort 
Sing, and PL 

p c:— :*i dost, s.m. (2nd) Stool, purge, i 
2. Hand, cubit, a measure. PI. *. 
unaA. See f^'i . Used in compos 
j\jj\ dast anddz, s.m. (6th) An o; 
plunderer, one who interferes, free 
hands. PI. ^Ij^JJ^ c:^^*i dast 
j^jl jjl «.::.-^J dast anddzi, s.f. (3r< 
ence, insertion. PI. ^ a\ J^ i^j 
dast anddzl kawul, verb trans. T< 
to intrude, to insert. J^y c:-..»-»J 
s.m. (2nd) A note of hand, a bon 
cate. PI. ^^^^ L::*^ii dast dwezUn 
Jjulf j^J^ dast barddr kedal, re: 
To resign, desert, abstain, desist, 
linquish, retire, decline. J^ j^*^ 
barddr kawul, verb trans. To wi 
take away, to make abstain or 
Aiduj l::^<^«^ dast bastah, tulj. Bes] 
' with closed hands')* ^Uj v^^^j d 
s.m. (2nd) The guard of a sword. 
pandh-Hnah. C^ c:^^J dast 
Poor, indigent. ^^^ u^wi^ dasi 

(3rd) Poverty, indigence, adversil 






k:L iju^^ dost kliatt, 8.m. (2nd) Signa- 
ture, a manuscript. PI. dJjksL c:^w»«^ ei^a^^ 
ikattUnah. J^ IbfL vj:..^^ ^o^^ ^(^ kawul, 
yerb trans. To sign, to attach one's signature. 
^j vjuw«> dost ras, s.m. (9th) Ability, power, 
means, skill, attainment. Sing, and PI. c:^^,^ 
J^ (jw^ rftM^ ra5 /iira/, verb trans. To have 
or hold ability, means, or power. ^^ o»i-i*i 
iast sho'Cf s.m. (Snd) A wash-hand basin. 
Vh^ylyJ^ij:^^^dastsho'e'ilnaA. ^^^ 
dastfaro^, s.m. (5th) A pedlar. PI. \^ 
^lAj^ dtist faroshdn. lk^x^ u:.-^J dost 
faro^l, 8.f. (3rd) The business of a pedlar. 
PI. ^ a'l. ^^ c:^^«^ dost hash or kdfdi, 
B.m. (2nd) A glove, a gauntlet. PI. ijy:^ kash- 
Unak or kai^Unah ; or a1^ ul^^j dost kalcHh, 

8.f. (3rd). Vl.^kaUy. jJ ^::^^^ dastgir, 

B.m. (2nd) Takmg by the hand, an aider, a 
patron saint, a protector. Pl.^|^ cuw«> dasU 
flran, 2. adj. Laying hands on. ^£^ c:.w«> 
dost ffiri, s.f. (3rd) Aid, help, support, patron- 
age, etc. PI. 1^ a!i. lJ^ v.:;^wJ (;2a^^ /a/) 
8.m. (9th) The first money received from sale 
of goods in the morning. Sing, and PI. 
JU c:.^i3 dost mdl, s.m. (2nd) A towel, a 
handkerchief. PI. <OjIU c:^w»«^ dast-mdlUnah. 
jLh> dastdr, s.m. (2nd) A turband. PI. 
ijjj\s^^ doBtdrUnah. 
^^ ii^^ dastar Jdmdn^ s.m. (2nd) A cover- 

ing for the table, a table-cloth. PI. j^:^ 

diistakf 8.m. (2nd) An account-book, a 
^y-book, a sunmions, a citation. PI. 6j^s^:^ 

dastaiaey, s.m. (1st) A small rafter 
;3)Iaced over the beams. PI. ^^ i. 
^ULf«^ dast^dhj s.m. (2nd) Power, ability, 
^3Deaii8. PI. ^yb\SSu.s«^ dast-gdhunah. 

£«ij dast-mdya^h, s.f. (3rd) A strap or handle 
iop a shield. PI. ^ ey. See J ,^j^ J 

J dastambol, s.m. (5th) A musk melon. 
^1. ..»i(^i>iir..>.iJ dastamboldn, 

dastHTf s.m. (2nd) Custom, usage, mode, 
siaimer, mode!, reg^ation. 2. A syringe. 

injection pipe. PI. dji^y^j dastumnah. jj:^j 
J^l dastUr-l'CUBmalf s.m. (9th) A rule, law, 
regulation. Sing, and PI. Jj^j^i-**^ dastUr 
Aawul, verb trans. To syringe, to inject. 

p 4^^*> dasturf, s.f. (3rd) Perquisites paid to 
servants. PI. ^^ a'l. 

p is^ii dasta'h, s.f. (3rd) A handle, a pestle, a 
muller. 2. A quire of paper. 3. A nosegay 
of flowers. 4. A bundle of twenty-four 
arrows. 5. A handful. 6. A skein of thread 
or silk. 7. A division, brigade, squadron, or 
company of an army. PI. ^ ey, 

p jb almi J dasta'h'ddr, s.m. (5th) The com- 
mander of a division, etc. PI, ^\j\*^ <to-»J 

p ,^urf«3 dastlf adj. Manual, of the hand. 2. 
adv. Quickly, immediately, instantly. ^JL^ 
j<a^j pesh dasti, s.f, (3rd) Anticipating, being 
before hand, aggressive, surpassing. PI. ^ 
a^h J^ yj^*^ lA-^ P^^ dasti kawul, verb 
trans. To anticipate, to be before hand with, 

(^:^,4,J dasht (W.) or dam (E.), s.m. (2nd) A 
desert, a barren plain. PI, iUjx»}iJ dasht" 
Unah or daJSitUnah, (p c:.^ j) 

^jA,^^ duskman (W.) or dujchman (E ), s.m. 
(5th) An adversary, an enemy, a foe. PI. 
^L^^iJ dtiskmandn or duldmandn, ^^^^^ 
dushmanl (W.) or duJSimanl (E.), s.f. (3rd) 
Enmity, hostility, hatred, detestation. PI. 
^^ a'!. Jj^ l5^*^N*^ dushmanl or duJ^manl 
kawul, verb, trans. To act hostile to, to show 
hatred or enmity towards. 

^^^j dushnx or duf^nl, s.f. (3rd) Enmity, hos- 
" tility (corrup. of ^^^.^^iJ). PI. ^ a*l. ^J!^J 
Jj^ duWknl or dushnl kawul, verb trans. To 
manifest hostility towards. 

A Uj du*(Bd, s.f. (6th) Blessing, benediction, 
congratulation, invocation, prayer, wish, im- 
precation. (W.) PI. t^VcJ du'ced-wl. (E.) 
Sing, and PI. Jj^ Uj du'ced kawul, verb 
trans. To bless or pray for, to invoke blessings. 
^j^ Uj du'<Bd go'Cy s.m. (5th) A blesser, 
invoker, one who blesses or prays. PI. Uj 




j^bj/ du'cBdi ffo'e-dn. y^^ Uj du*ad go% 
s.f. (3rd) Blessing, benediction, invocation. 
PI. ^ a*l. 
A CL^y^j dcuS'Wat, s.m. (2nd) Invitation, convoca- 
tion. 2. A feast, entertainment. PI. «Uy^J 
dcuB-watUnah, J^ iJDy-J douB-wat kawul, 
verb trans. To invite, to convoke. See 

*^ J dcuB-wa'hy s.f. (3rd) A claim, action at law, 
plaint, accusation, law-suit (comip. of a 
L^j). PI. ^ ey. jlj y^J dcuB-^a'h ddr, 
s.m. (5th) A claimant, plaintiff, accuser, pre- 
tender. PI. (^\;^fc> *j^fc> dcus-Tva'A ddrdn, 
Jj^ *^ J dcLce-wdh kawul, verb trans. To 
claim, to accuse, to make claim. 

A axjLcj dagh'daghah^ s.f. (3rd) Alarm, dis- 
turbance, care, fear, dread, awe, tumult, 
suspicicn. PI. ^JlcJ dagh-da^ey. iiiij 
daghahj prox. dem. pron. This, or these 
(applied to persons and things). Sing, and PI. 
In the oblique it becomes ^J dkghih for the 
Fem. Sing., and \^^^ or ^j dagho or 
daghoey for the Masc. and Fem. PI. The 
other prox. dem. pronouns are L\ J, ^^, and 
*j. See Grammar, p. 34. ^ ^j daghah- 
sey or ^ 1 j dd-sey^ adv. Thus, so, in this 
way, in this manner. See ^^^uJb 

p lJj d(if, s.m. (2nd) A small tambourine. 
PI. ^yj dqfUnah, 

p ji3^ dciftar, s.m. (2nd) A book, record, regis- 
ter, account book, archive, roll. PI. <Ujj^j 
daftarUnah, j\^ ^ j daftar ddr, s.m. (5th) 
A record keeper. PI. ^^y j^ j daftar ddrdn. 

A ^^ dafta\ s.f. (6th) A copy slip, paste- 
board, the binding of a book. Sing, and PI. 

A \zj6j dafceortanf adv. Often, all at once, sud- 
denly, at one time. 

lUiJ dafcBdhy s.f. (3rd) (from a ^j) Averting, 
preventing, repelling, repulsion. PI. -^*ij 
dcbfceey. J^ iUi J dafmcHh kawul, verb trans. 
To avert, to repel, to ward off, to remove. 
Jju^ ^j dafaa'A kedal, verb intrans. To 
return, to be averted, to be repelled. 

A ^J dqfaa'h, s.f. (3rd) A time, turn, one 

time, one turn, a moment. PL ^v^&> 

A jU <uij dcifaa'A-ddr, s.m. (5th) An ( 
cavalry. PI. ^j\j\^y ^j dafmahrdSr 

A jj dikky s.m. (9th) Teasing, tronbl 
tion. 2. A hectic fever. Sing, and 
adj. Vexed, irritated. Jj^ Jfc> dik\ 
verb intrans. To be irritated, vexed, t 
Jj^ jj dikk kawul, verb trans. To 
annoy, plague, tease, exasperate. 

A d^J dikkat, s.m. (9th) Difficulty, 
abstrusity, close application, diligen 
Accuracy, exactitude, industry. 8. . 
or minute matter or thing. Sing. an< 

A ^^f^ daktlka^h, s.f. (3rd) A moment, a 
a portion of time. 2. A particle, an 
or matter subtle or trifling. PI. ^^ q 

p j^l^J dukdn, s.m. (2nd) A shop. PI 
dukdnUnah, jU ^^l^J dukdn ddr, s.i 
A shop keeper. PI. f^\;\j ^^t^ duk&i 

clX> duk, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of s ^^J 
ache, grief, affliction. 2. Labour, 
distress, annoyance. 3. The iron ] 
spinning wheel by which the thread is 
PI. ^^J dukunah. JjUj cSj duk z\ 
verb trans. To sustain labour or toil, t< 
grief, to suffer distress, etc. See cJy 

p iifl^l^j dukdn^a'h, s.f. (3rd) A bench 
door for exposing goods, or for sleep 
2. A mound or terrace for sitting a 
versing on. PL ^ ey. (E.) ^c^lCj 
dia*h, PI. ^ ey, 

^j dakkan, s.prop. The southern part c 
the Dakhan. Also ^J dakan, 

Jj dal, s.m. (9th) A dish made of i 
bruised grain, split grain in general, 
and PL See ijy\ 

p J J dily s.m. (5th) Heart, soul, mind, 
and PL (Used in comp.) j^\Ji*^ d 
s.m. (6th) A sweetheart, a heart-easor. 
and PL ^\Jij dil-drdma'A, s.f. (8id] 
ey, j\jij dil-dzdr, s.m. (6th) A 8W< 
Sing, and PL *;ljJlj dil-dzdra^h, sJ 
PL vj ey, i^j\j^*^ dil-dzdrif s.f. (8 
ment, anxiety, trouble. PL ^ a'f . a 




dil dzurdah, adj. Vexed, troubled in mind, 
dejected. Uj dilasd, s.f. (6th) Comfort, 
consolation, soothing. (W.) PI. ^^^LXj dil- 
dsa-wi. (E.) Sing, and PI. J^ L^j dilasd 
kawul, verb trans. To soothe, to comfort, to 
console. Jj dil-bar, s.m. (5th) Heart- 
ravisher, beloved, a sweetheart. PI. ^^l^J 
dilbardn. 2f^j dilbarah, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^^ 
ey. i^JcL-j J J dil bastagl, s.f. (3rd) Affiction 
or anguish of mind, attachment. PI. ^^ a'?. 
«L.Mi Jj dil bastahy adj. Afflicted, attached, 
enamoured, jcj Jj {;&V ia?!^, s.m. (2nd) 
The lights, the lungs. PI. <Uj juj J j dil band- 
Unah. ji^ J J dil pazlr or jo-^uj Jj rfi/ 
pasand, adj. Agreeable, plausible, pleasant, 
amiable, satisfactory. c^ioJ Jj (/i/ ^an^, adj. 
Distressed, mournful, sad. ^^^ J j dil tangl, 
B.f. (3rd) Distress, grief, sadness. PL ^ cHl. 
^yr J*^ dil jo'cy adj. Qratefiil, studious of 
jdeasing. ^^ Jj diljo^i, s.f. (3rd) Atten- 
tion, gratitude, study to please. PI. ^ a'l. 
^•iM.fv Jj £/ ]^kastah, adj. Heart-broken. 
il^ Jj c&Y l^rcdh, s.m. (5th) Affection, 
desire. PI. ^^W^ J j dil JJ^wdhdn. jb J j 
M<Uur, adj. Charming, delighting ; a lover ; 
(Fern.) i[^\j Jj dil-ddra'A, A mistress, a 
iweetheart. 4^j^»xlj dil'ddri, s.f. (3rd) Kind- 
ness, consolation, encouragement, blandish- 
ment. PI. ^^ a'f . y J dilrubd, adj. Alluring, 
bewitching; a sweetheart, a charmer. %^\}^ 
iU-rubaX s.f. (3rd) Heart-stealing, ravishing. 
PI. ^^ a'f. j^ J J dilrsozy adj. Inflaming the 
heart, ardent, fervent, pathetical ; (Fem.) J j 
Hjy^ dUsoza^hf A mistress, a friend, i^jy^ J J 
dilsozi, 8.f. (3rd) Ardour, fervour, sympathy, 
iffection. PI. ^\ a'i. ^J*JSj dil-kash, adj. 
Alluring, heart-attracting, winning, lovely, 
pleasant. ^Lm^j dil-kusha'hy adj. Blissful, 
eharming, delightful, heart-expanding, jj^^i 
M-gifr, adj. Afliicted, grieved, sad, low-spirited. 
i^j^O dilrffin, s.f. (3rd) Melancholy, afflic- 
tion, concern, sadness, sorrow. PI. ^ a*u 
^p4Jj dilr^hln, adj. Grateful to the mind, 
impressed on the mind. See Hj^j 

cJ)jlJ daldzdk, s.m. (6th) The name of a tribe 
of Afghans residing in the plain of Pe^awer 
to the south, once very powerful. 2. A male 
of the tribe. Sing, and PI. i^\Jij daldzd- 
kdhy s.f. (3rd) A female of the above tribe. 
PI. v^ ey. 

A J^J dalldly s.m. (5th) A broker, a salesman. 
PI. ^Wj dalldlan. JSj dallall, s.f. (3rd) 
Brokerage, the business of a salesman. PI. 
jA al, J^ J^J dalldh kawul, verb trans. 
To carry on the business of a broker. 

A <OSj dalldlahy s.f (3rd) A female broker, a 
go-between, a procuress. PI. ^ ey, 

jji(j dald?idi, or ^^jjjj daldndey, prep. Under, 
beneath, below. Also <^J^!I Idndey, 

PjjSj dildwar, adj. Brave, gallant, intrepid. 

p fc^j^J dildwariy^S. (3rd) Bravery, intrepidity, 
gallantry, boldness. PI. jA ah J^ ^J3^^ 
dildwarl kajvuly verb trans. To act intrepidly, 
bravely, etc. 

<dj daltah, adv. Here, hither. Also Jj daliy 
which see. 

JjJj dal'dal, adj. Broken in pieces, in frag- 
ments ; (Fem.) <J jJj dal-dalah. See Jj 

ifjl J dalwah, s.f. (3rd) (comip. of Aj! j) A bucket 
of leather, wood, etc., an um. PI. ^^ ey, 

^ J dala% s.f. (6th) A stack of com, a store, a 
granary, a magazine. Sing, and PI. SecjU^I 

^Jj daley or J j dali, adv. Here, hither. Also 
J J dali or <0j ^J daley rcatah. See ^J 

p^j dileTy adj. Brave, bold, intrepid, daring, 
courageous, valiant; insolent, impudent; 
(Fem.) 2f^J dilerah, 

p 4^J dilerly s.f. (3rd) Intrepidity, boldness, 
courage, valour, bravery, hardihood; inso- 
lence, etc. PI. ^ cLl. Jj^ s^^ dilen kawul, 
verb trans. To act with bravery, valour, etc. 

A JJj dalll, s.m. (2nd) Demonstration, argu- 
ment, proof. 2. A director or guide. PI. 
^^ J dattlUnah, ^X^*^ dallli, s.f. (3rd) Ar- 
gumentative, demonstrative. PI. ^^ a*t. 

p aJ dam, s.m. (2nd) Breath, life. 2. Boasting, 
pride, ambition. 3. A moment of time. 4. 
The edge of a sword, knife, etc. 5. The 



steam from a pot^ kettle, etc. 6. Deceit, 
coaxing. 7. A bellows. 8. Breathing on by 
way of charm. PI. <0^j damUnaA. J^J 
damal, verb trans. To blow with the breath 
(as in breathing, or charming, or as the wind). 
2. To appear (as the dawn). Pres. ^-^ J dami ; 
past J^J J wu-damal; fiit. ^J ij Iwu bah 
dami; imp. ^J J wu-damak; act. part. 
^^il3^ J damUnkaey or ^y*^ damUiuiey ; past 
part. jjI^J damalaey ; verb. n. <u^ J damanah . 

See cJ^ . J^a^ ^J c^m baJJtUd, adj. Silent, 
i* Jj i* J dampadam, adv. Constantly, every mo- 
ment, at every breath, ^^ik; f^j dampuf^t, 
s.m. (9th) A kind of puld'o, or stew. Sing, 
and PI. \j jj A J dam tar dafna, adv. Fre- 
quently, constantly. JU- jj |#j dam dar Italy 
adv. Immediately, instantly, in an instant, 
quick as thought, in less than no time. Also 
written J>- jj ^j dam dar JiaL LX J ^ j dam 
dildsd, s.m. (6th) Encouragement, comfort, 
soothing, coaxing. PI. ^^\Jlj dildsdwt. >»j 
J^^ LSj efow dildsd tvar-kawul, verb trans. 
To encourage, to coax, to soothe. J^j /^o 
rfaw war-kawul, verb trans. To deceive, to 
wheedle, to coax, to inveigle. ^^Jj aJ tsSzw 
zadan, Speaking, breathing, boasting. jL ^ j 
<2am 5d;r, adj. Harmonious, concordant, as- 
senting, intimate. 3. A confidant, a friend, 
an intimate. l^J^ (^*^ dam sdzl, s.f. (3rd) 
Concord, harmony, intimacy. PI. ^J a't, 
J^ ^j dam kawul, verb trans. To blow (as 
a fire); to blow (as an old woman when 
charming). i^J^'^ dam-garaey, s.m. (Ist) A 
charmer, one who charms away pain, eiCy a 
juggler. PI . Ljj ?. ^jj^*^ dam-ffara% s.f. (6th) 
Sing, and PI., or^ ^J dam-gari, Pl.ij I. 

A iUj dimdghy s.m.^ (2nd) The brain. PI. 
<U^Uj dimdgkUnah. dUj 2fjl7 ^o^ra^ ^fi- 
md^t adj. Pleased, delighted. ^<cU J dimdgkl, 
adj. Vain, conceited, proud, frivolous. 

p JL^«3 dumbdl, adv. After, behind, in the rear. 
Also JUJJ dunbdl. 

JL/«J dumbdUChy s.f. (3rd) A rear-guard. PI. 
^ ey. Also written a!lj j dunbdla'h. 

^jf^J dumdii, s.f. (3rd) A crupper. P] 

<UX«J dam-dama'A, s.f. (3rd) A mound, 
battery, a cavalier. PI. yj 6y. 

^j^j damrraX s.f. (6th) The eighth p 
pice. Sing, and PI. (s i^j-^S). 

J^j damawul, verb trans. To breatli( 
inspire or blow into, to charm by b: 
on. Pres. i^y^ damwm ; past ^ * 
karr or i^ J wu-karr ; fiit. ^^jf ij 
bah krn or ^^J J ^J bah wu-krri ; : 
ijf dam kfrah or »J I wu-hrrah ; a 
^^^y^ damawUnhaey or ^^y^ fl 
/iag^ ; past part. ^^^ ^ j dam karraei 
n. iOj-^J damawanoHh, 

<uj damahy s.f. (3rd) Breath, respirat 
Resting, rest, ease, repose. PI. ^^ q 
J^ damah nirval, verb trans. To take 
to recover breath, to repose, to breath 
J^j^ damcHh war-karculy verb tw 
breathe (as a horse, etc.), to give bz 
to ease, to repose. 

jjj dund or dandy s.m. (2nd) Injustice, 
sion (Jilt' darkness, obscurity, glooi 
Noise (as of thunder or fire), the rep 
cannon, noise, tumult. 3. Haze, mist, 
vapour, clouds of dust. PI. <Uj jJ J di 
or dandunah, 

^.l^^jJj dandukdry s.m. (2nd) The noise 
or thunder, the report of cannon, 
noise, roar, disorder, turbulence, torn 
Mist, smoke, haze. PI. ij^J^^SiJ da 

iO^JoJ danddnolhy s.f. (3rd) The tooth •( 
or comb 2. (p) A small waterfiall 
the place in the bed of the river cau 
fall of the water. PI. ^ ey. 

i*^-lio J dankdchcHhy s.f. (3rd) A terrace, 
PI. ^ ey. See lic^l^J 

CJjJ dangy adj. (as s.m.) Tall, long, 
stature. 2. s.m. (6th) A tall man. 8 
PI. aSSj danga'hy s.f. (3rd) A tall 
PI. ^^Jj4> dangey. 

CioJ dangy s.m. (5th) A leap, a jump, f 
a bound, a hop, a vault, etc. F 




danffdn, JSj j dangal, yerb trans. To take a 
jump, to make a jump, to make a spring or 
bound. Pres. ^ij j dangl ; past JSj j j fvu- 
tkmffol; fut. ,ijJ ^^ ^ wu bah dangl ; imp. 
^ J J wti-danffaA ; act. part. ^^^^ dang- 
UnAaey or ^j&<^ dangUnaey ; past part, ^dij!!; j 
dangalaey; verb. n. a:.Soj dangancHh. J^J 
dangawul, verb trans, (caus.) To cause to leap, 
jump, bound, etc. Pres. v/^'O danffawl; 
past ifjUj J J wurdangdwuh or ^jl& J J n?2^- 
deiit^an?^^; fut. v/^J <o j ;ru iaA dangawi\ 
imp. jij$u J j wu-dangatcah ; act. part. ,^^y^ ^ 
dangojvUfJiaey or ^^^^ danffawUnaey; past 
part. ^^j^J dangawulaey \ yerb. n. ^^j 

J J damanah, prep. Within, in the inner part. 
2. Adv., Inwardly, internally. 

A Ij J dunyd^ s.f. (6th) The world, people, 
goods of the world. (E.) Sing, and PI. 
(W.) PI. k/jLy*^ dunya-^l. i^s^^y Lj j ti^t^nya 
parastj adj. Worldly, earthly, mundane. 
jlj Ljj dunyd ddr^ adj. Rich, opulent, 
possessing worldly goods. ^Jij Lj j dunyd 
ddrt, s.f. (3rd) Economy, worldliness, opu- 
lence, wealth. PI. ^ a'l. t^^tj^) dunydwl, 
or fc^^fc^ dunyawlf adj. Worldly, pertaining 
to the world. 

9 y} do, noun adj. Two. Used in Pushto 
composition, 2^ ijj ^j do bdrah, adj. Twice, 
again, double, ^jj ^ j d^ bado^ or (/i? 6at3?t2, 
Pace to &ce, t4te-A-t^te. ^^o ^J do pd-e, 
adj. Twolegged (as a man), e^^^j do paUa'h 
s.f. (3rd) A veil or scarf in which there are 
two breadths. PI. ^^ ey. ^U- ^j do didr, 
B.m. (9th) Interview, meeting. Sing, and 

iJ do 

PI. (^^J^ ^J cit? cAanddn, or um>- ^i 
ckand, adj. Double, as much again, twofold. 
^\j ^J cfo raA'f, s.f. (3rd) A road leading 
two different ways. PI. ^ a'i. ds^\j ^j do 
rdsUth, adj. Right and left, on both sides (as 
a street, row of trees, etc.) d^j jj do rayah, 
adj. Mongrel, of double breed, of two 
natures; sl&oCJf^J dorag, Js>^\j^ y\j ^j 
do zanU k'^endatal, (W.) or k'^iendstal 

(E.) To kneel, ^bj ^J do zabdn, adj. 
Double-tongued, cimning. ^ibj ^ j do zahdnl, 
s.f. (3rd) Duplicity, equivocation, hypocrisy. 
PL y\ at, Jj^ (Jljj J J do zabdnl kawuly 
verb trans. To equivocate, to act with dupli- 
city. ^L» jj ^ sdlah, adj. Two years old 
(ahorse, etc.), biennial. <U:Ji jj do shanba'h, 
Monday. <G^ ^J db tarf-ah, adj. On botli 
sides. *J ^ J cfo larrah, Two stringed, double. 

^j c^on', s.m. (2nd) A stroke at play, a game, a 
venture, a hit, a single match at play. PI. 
<OjjJ daW'Unah, (p.j\ j). ^^^ jJ daw kawul, 
verb trans. To stake, to hazard, to play a 
match or game. J*^jfc> daw yaUal, verb 
trans. To win a game or stake. 

A \jj dawd, s.f. (6th) A medicine, a remedy. 
2. An amulet, a charm, a square piece of 
silver worn roimd the neck by women. (E.) 
Sing, and PI. (W.) PI. 4/^\j*> dawdwu \j j 
Jil^ ^^^^ 4^^*«2T«^, verb trans. To take 
physic. Jj^ l^J dawd kawuly verb trans. To 
cure, to remedy, to heal, to physic. 

iutjJ do'dba% s.f. (3rd) A country between two 
rivers, twice irrigated land. 2. The name of 
a pargana'h of Pe^&wer, called also »^Uj 
do-dwcHh. PI. vj ey. 

A CL^^^j dawdty s.m. (2nd) An inkstand. PI. 
^yl^J dawdtUnah. 

2f^ljj dwdrrah, adj. Both, both one and the 
other, ''^^l^^j- hj^^J dwdrrah jahdna, Both 
worlds, this world and the next. 

^^*} dobey, s.m. (1st) Summer, the summer 
season. PI. j^ ?. See ^^J^^^ 

^^J dobi, s.m. (5th) A washerman, a dyer. 
PI. ^LjjJ dobi-dn. -j^J doba'i, s.f. (6th) 
A washerwoman. (W.) Sing, and PI., or Kj^^j 
dobarrna'h, s.f. (1st) PI. i^^y^ dobarmey. 
(e. ^^j) 

yjj dawtar, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of vj:jj). A 
fief, estate, hereditary provision in land (in 
opposition to /c;--* serai) granted to soldiers 
and relations in lieu of service by the ruling 
power. PI. ^^jJ^*^ dawtarUnah. 

jjj dodf s.m. (2nd) Custom, manner, way. 





fashion. 2. Vestments and furniture given 
with a bride, dowry. 3. Entertainment of a 
guest. PI. ^jj^J dodUnah. 4. adj. Like, 
similar, resembling. 5. ady. Like, in the 
same manner ; also <o J^J dodeyah. 

p. J^J dudy s.m. (2nd) Smoke. PI. <U^jjj dad- 
Unah, iFjjlT j^j dud dludah, adj. Smoky. 
J^ J gjj J da z^rrah dud, A deep sigh, j^ j 
(yx«^ dudkash or ^M, s.m. (2nd) A chimney. 
PI. ij^ jjj cftk? kaskUnah or ^a^iJna^. 
» jjj dudoHh or iiubjj dohdhy s.f. (3rd) A fire- 
place for cooking, etc. 2. Lamp-black. PI. 
v^ ey. See ^ and ^J!^ 

p j^j ti^iZr, adj. Far, distant, remote, at a dis- 
tance. (^«x}l j^^ dor andesh, adj. Circum- 
spect, foreseeing, provident, wise, sagacious, 
prudent. ^<Aj jjl j^j dUr andeshl, s.f. (3rd) 
Prudence, foresight, sagacity, wisdom, etc. 
PL j^ a'Z. Jj^ ^^du*£jJl j^j dUr andesht 
kawul, verb trans. To act with prudence or 
sagacity. ^ j^j dUr bin, s.m. (2nd) A 
spy-glass, a telescope. PI. ij^ j^j dUr 
blnUnah, 2. adj. Far-seeing, prudent, j^j 
i^i-j dUr bint, s.f. (3rd) Foresight, prudence, 
sagacity. PI. ^^ a'l. j\\*> ^ j%^ dUr-o-dardz, 
adj. Far, distant, long. 2. Useless, unprofit- 
able. Jju^ jjJ dUr kedal, verb intrans. To 
be removed, or remote. Jj^ j^j dUr kawul, 
verb trans. To remove, to (Uspel, to divert, to 
keep at a distance. 

A^.^J dour, s.m. (2nd) Revolution, circular 
motion. 2. Age, period, cycle, turn, time, 
circuit. PI. <U^jJ daurUnaA. 

A ^\;^fc> datirdn, s.m. (2nd) Time, age, revolu- 
tion, period, cycle. 2. Fortune, vicissitude. 
PI. <Gy\^jJ daurdnUnah, 

p ^ji^j rftzn, s.f. (3rd) Distance, separation, 
absence. PI. ^^ a*f. 

ji^^j da-fvruBto, adv. Behind, in the roar, out 
of sight. 2. prep. At the back, in the rear, 
opposite the front. See f^j^ 

jj\j^j dwrrdndiy prep. Before, in front, oppo- 
site. 2. adv. Before, in time preceding. See 
jj^j^ and following words. 

#2^«> dUfra'h, s.f. (3rd) Fine dust, dust in general. 
2. A devil, a whirlwind. PL ,^ €y. J«A£j»o 
dUrredal, verb intrans. To become dusty, to 
be covered with dust, to become diflfbsed, 
sprinkled, scattered (as dust or powder on a 
wound), etc. Pres. i^j^J dUfrejzi (W.) or 
^Jkj^*^ dUrregl (E.); past ^«Xijj^ J ^w- 
dUrredah or «3u^^jJ tvu-dUrreda; fut. 

sZ/'viJ^ ^ j WM baA dUrrejzi or ^^^ ^ J 
n7U 6aA dUrregl ; imp. i^s^^o j n^M-i/fljr^aA 
or aSijj^ J J fcu-dUfTegaA ; act. part. i^^^«>^U^ 
dUrredUnkaey or ^^*^j}^ dUfTedUnam/; 
past part. jjJjkij^«^ dUrredalaey; verb n. 
*; jj^ J J dUrredana'A . Jj^^ j dUfrawuly verb 
trans. To raise the dust, to make dusty, to 
cover with dust, to sprinkle, scatter, diffbw 
(as dust or powder on a wound, etc.) Pies. 
j^ji^^j dUrrawl ; past ^j^j^J J nm-dUfrdmuk 
orjj^^^j j wu-dUfTdwo ; fut. t/5j^*> ^ J itk 
^^ £/i2rran;i ; imp. i[j)^i^ J n^tf-iftfrTOfPoA ; 
act. part. ,j^jtjj^^*> dUrrawUnka^ or jj^jj^^*) 
dUrrarvUnaey ; pastpart.^jij^jc/flfroiptfAuy; 
verb n. <Oji^^ J dUjrrawuna'A. 

p^j^j doza^, s.m. (2nd) Hell. PL *^j^jy^ 
dozaJAUnaA, ^j^j^^ dozaMih adj. Hellish, 
infernal, danmable. See^^^^j 

dj^j dUza'Ay s.f. (3rd) Nonsense, foolish talk, 
folly, absurdity. PL ^ iy. ^jy^ dUzaey, 
s.m. (1st) A talker of nonsense, a fed, a 
blockhead, a simpleton, a booby. PI. ^ h 
s.f. (6th) ^ij J dUzaX Sing and PI, ^jy} 
JL dUzey bal-al, verb trans. To boast, to 
brag, to vaunt, to swagger, to exult, to talk 
big. See also »j^<) , t^jj^ and C^^^ 

vli^^ J do-jzafjf, s.m. (2nd) (W.) Hell, the in- -. 
femal regions. PL ^y^j^^ dch^aHMnaA. .4 
See ^^/S*i^ J 

p ui^wjj dost, s.m. (5th) A fHend, a lover. PL T* 
f^\s^jj dostdn. ec^^^j dosta'A, s.f. (Srd). PI M'^ 
^ ey. jljcLirfjj dastddr, 8.m. (6tli) A fiiendl^^ 
a sweetheart. PI ^t^ljo^jj daatddrdr^s 
i[^f jcL«ijj dostddra'h, s.f. (Srd) A sweethearaszT' 
a mistress. PL ^ ey. ^^J!Ja»>^J dostdiSr^mai, 
s.f, (Srd) Friendship, love. PL ^ cfl. 





mode, maimer, model, regulation. PI. ^^j J 

do'e-Unah. ,^^J j^ J da tnikr do*e, The 

mamier or custom of friendship, kindness, or 

affection. See j^j 
_j^j du-yt, s.f. (3rd) Disunion, separation. 3. 

Serving two masters (as God and Mammon). 

PI. J^ at. ^,^*^ du-bln, s.m. (5th) A server 

of two masters. PI. ^Lj^j <ftZ6lndn. (p^^^). 
d J dah, prox. dem. pron. ' This ' (person or thing.) 

The other pronouns of this class, of which 

there are five, are (^J, J, \j^ ^J. J c2a, 

the sign of the genitive case, is sometimes 

thus written. For declension, see Grammar, 

page 35. 
^j dahy A word used in driving or urging a 

horse. 2. ' Is,' fem. of present tense of * to 

be.' See ^^J 
p a J dih, s m. (2nd) A village. PI. <U^J dih- 

Unah. See ^ 
^ j^ 2iJ dah-marda'h, s.f. (3rd) A lever. PI. ^ 

ey. 2. adj. Strong, bold, brave. 
^jj:JbJ dahtUra'h^ s.f. (3rd) Name of a poisonous 

plant (Datura fastuosa, or thorn-apple). PI. 

^ ey. (b \jfJbS) 
^j dhajj s.m. (9th) Vestments and furniture 

given to a bride, dowry. Sing, and PI. See 

1^ J and j^ J 
kjibj dahr, s.m. (9th) Time, the world, an age. 

2. Custom, habit, mode, care, solicitude. 

3. Fortune, chance, danger, adversity. 4. 
Atheism. Sing, and PL i^y^^ doA-rt, s.m. 
(5th) An atheist. PI. ^Jijt^*^ dahri-dn. 

y^j dahtra'h, s.f. (3rd) A jaw tooth, a grinder, 

a tusk, PI. ^ ey. l^J^*^ lA??" ^^^^ 
dahdrrey, adj. Showing the teeth, grinning. 
J^;j.>. s&^*^ dah&trey d^lnffawul^ verb trans. 
To grind the teeth, to snarl. J^J dahfral, 
verb trans. To bite as a dog, etc. Pres. i^J^*^ 
daAfri ; past tjb\j J wur^dharrah or jb\j J 
wU'ddharra ; fut. i^J^*^ ^ J t^u bah dhafrl ; 
imp, ifjbj j wu-dahrrah ; act, part, ^^^jbd 
dahtr^nkaey or ^^*^ dahrrUnaey ; past 
part. ^J^*^ dahrralaey) yerb. n. ijjbd 
dahxrana'h. See *jb 

^j dka^, s.m. (9th) Vestmenta or garments 
given to a bride, dowry. Sing and PL See 
jjj and ^j 

A uU'JUjij doAs^, s.m. (3nd) Awe, alarm, fear, 
fright, dread, terror, dismay. PL sjjiJLMj 
daAshatUnaA. gjj «^^<m8»j dakshat zadah^ adj. 
Alarmed, frightened, panicH9tnick, terrified. 
cJl} u:>.«t..fcj dahskat ndi, adj. Alarming, 
afraid, terrified, fearful, frightened, y- -rtfri^ 
Jj^ dahshai l^arral, verb trans. To take 
fright, to become terrified or dismayed. 

AP ^UibJ dih'kdn, s.m. (5th) A husbandman, 
a villager. PL ^UUjhj dih-fcdnan. ^\kMj 
diA'fcdnt, s.f. (3rd) Husbandry, agriculture, 
PL 4^ a'L 

tibj dahld, s. prop. Name of a viUage or town 
near Eandahftr. 

.^J dah'tij, s.m. (2nd) or (p)jjjbj dah-tiz, A 
portico, a threshold. PL ij^^j daht^ltnak 
or ^^jJj^ J dahtizUnah. 

J JuUj dhaledal, verb intrans. To fear, to quake, 
to be afraid, to tremble, to apprehend. J^Uj 
dAalatvulf verb trans. To frighten, to tmify, 
to alarm, to awe, to dismay. 

<Uj^J dahancHK s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of p ^Uj) The 
bit of a bridle. 2. The mouth of a riyer or 
water-course, the mouth of a water bag, the 
covering of a mouth. PL ^ ey. 

ji^bj dorhar, s.m. (5th) A weaver. PL ^\^i^ 
dahordn. ^j^^ da-ltorah, s.f. (3rd) The 
female of the above. PL A ey. 

jjbj daha'h, s.f. (3rd) The first ten daya of 
the Muharram. 2. The models of the tombs 
of Hasan and Husain carried about in pro- 
cession. PL 1^ ey. (p Uj). 

i^j dey, prox. dem. pron. 'This' (applied to 
persons and things). See iiij da^Aak, and 
Grammar, page 35. 

i^j daey, The 3rd person Sing. (Masc.) of the 
present tense of the verb. To be — * Is ' ; Fem, 
sj dah. PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^cJ d%. 

^ jbj di-ydr-laSf adj. Thirteen. ^ Jjj 
di-ydr-lasam, The thirteenth. 

A w:i^l£«^ diydnatf s.m. (2nd) Honesty, probity,* 




j\,i ddar% 8.m. (2nd) Fear, dread, awe, fright, 
alarm, disquietude, anxiety. PI. ij^^ ddar- 
Unah. Jj^j'tJ ddaredcUf verb intrans. To 
fear, to be afraid, to apprehend, to take alarm. 
Pres. LJjjSii dddrejzi (W.) or ^/kj^'i dddreffi 
(£.); past sJjj^ii J wu-dddredah or J^^i^J 
wU'^dreda; fat. ijjj^i Uywu bah ^drejzi 
or ij^'iS iJ ^ fou bah dddregi ; imp. nj^J^^ J 
wti'dddrejzah or ^^\i J KU-dddregah \ act. 
part. ^^^^„j^^ didredankaey or ^^^^j^i 
dddredUnaey) ^SiSiipBTt, ^S)j^,^dddr€dalaey; 
verb. n. 4jjjj<,j dddredana*h or iJjjl^J ^dr- 
^cfeA. J^j^«^ dddrarvul, verb trans. To 
frighten, to terrify, to alarm, to disquiet, etc. 
Pres. fc^^'.^ dddrarvl ; past »^\j\^ J Tvu-dddrd- 
wuh or jjI;^.^ J rcu-dddrdmo ; fut. ^/jj^tj ^ J 
n72^ bah ddfirarcl ; imp. ifjijI,) J wu-dddrawah ; 

act. part. ^J^jjj^tj didrawUnkaey or ^^xf^^ 
dddramUnaey ; past part . dj^j! j dddrartulaey ; 
verb. n. <Oj|jl,^ dddrawunaHh, See if^ 

vi^,j ^d^) a.m. (2ud) A dry hard piece of 
ground, an open piece of ground, a level 
or arid plain. PL tj^^ ^dgUnah; or 
A^,J dddgah, s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ ey. See ^^.li^ 

j^^ dddddar^ s. prop. The name of a town in 
Eachl, at the mouth of the Bol&n Pass. 

J1,J dddlj s.m. (2nd) A shield, a target, a buckler. 
PI. ^^\^ dddlUnah. (hi JUJ). 

^ZJ^"^^ dddnddatf s.m. (2nd) A cotton cleaner*s 
bow. PI. ijyi^\^ ddidnddatilnah. 

^^\^ dddnMa\ s.f. (6th) The beam of a 

balance. Sing, and PI. Also s^^i 
ss^^i ^dn^a I, s.f. (6th) A flame, a blaze with 

smoke. Sing, and PI. See ^, ^jl» 

2(|:m^I>, ii^^j 9 Si^\j£-, and ^^ 
HI C^f.^ dddng, s.m. (2nd) A club, a stick, a 

bludgeon. Ph Jj^\^ dddngUnah. ^C&^^ 

dddng laAaX s.f. (6th) The name of a bird 
with a club-tail. Sing, and PI. See IjT Sjy 
^^J^^'^ ddJdngora'l, s.f. (6th) A small walking- 
stick, a small club. Sing, and PI. (The 
dimin. of the above). 

^\^ ddJdmgdx^ s.f. (6ih) The name of a tree 
^from which clubs or sticks are made, and 
which bears a fruit like an apple. Sing, and 
PI. See y^\] and ^1} 

v^^ ddabj s.m. (2nd) A blow, thump, or slap 
with the fist. PI. ij^^ ddabUnah. 2. sjn. 
(fith) The sound of a blow, etc. PL jl|i^ 

i^,^ ddab^ s.m. (2nd) A whirlpool, a vortex or 
eddy. 2. A pool of water, a stoppage of 
water, a place where water collects. 3. (hi) 
Power, strength, authority. 4. Shape, form; 
behaviour, breeding ; mode, method, maimer, 
knack, fashion, style, way. PL ^y^ ^aih 
Unah. dj^\ ^^ ddabey aoba*h, Standing 
water, (hi c^^,»j). 

J^«d ^a&an7f</, verb trans. To thump, to beat, 
to chastise, to punish. Pres. ^/^^ ddabawl; 
past 2i^b<d J wU'^abdwuh orj^^b^J wu-ddabd- 
wo ; fat. ^j)^ ij ^ wu bah d^abawl ; imp. 
ay,^^ nm-ddabofvah; act. part, ^jioj^^ dUaba^ 
rcUnkaey or ^^y,^ dd<^<^'^^wiey ; past part. 
ic|^«d ddabamuUiey \ verb. n. ^^^ diaba- 

L^O^td ^a&^odanoe^, adj. Irresolute, vacil- 
lating, wavering, disturbed, distracted, cha- 
grined, anxious ; (Fern.) ^^ a\ 

^^^.^ Mo'b-ddubf adj. Senseless, apathetic, 
paralyzed, fainting ; (Fem.) <Uj^ ^^ d^aba'k" 

*j^i dd<^^^o^f^f a.f. (3rd) A stone, a rock, a peb- 
ble. PL 1^^. <ujy<d ^a^orlnoA, adj. Stony, 
rocky, abounding with stones (ground), hard. 

^,j ddabalaey, s.m. (Ist) (W.) A beetle est r 
hammer used by washermen, a wooden mallet •. 
PL j^ f. Also Jj,j MabalaX s.f. (6th) (B.) < 
Sing, and PL Seej«XAi 

^i dd^W^f B.m. (1st) A boaster, a coward, &is 

' puppy, a swaggerer, a jackanapes, a poltroonczv 
(lit. a farter). PL ^^ %. 2. adj. C!owardly 
boasting (farting). -J^ ddaHa% s.f. 
Sing, and PL See ^^ 

ly^ij ddadiko, s.m. (5th) The rough pace of "^ 
horse, a trot, jog, or amble. 2. A man a^ or 






a jog (hi l^j). 2. The shadow of a fairy 
or genii which falls on any one, supposed to 
cause sickness. 3. Shutting up a person 
in a house, imprisonment, confinement (hi 
Ijjjbj). PL ^ ey. Jj^ ^'i ^aka'h 
^warraly verb trans. To receive a shove, 
push, or jolt. 2. To become overshadowed 
by a fairy or genii. Jjbj ^^ ddakah wahal, 
verb trans. To push, to shove, to precipitate. 
2. To overshadow. 

i^i ddakah, adj. (Fern, of CJ^ full) Pregnant, 
being with young. iAf¥ ^^ ddakah ^adza'h, 
A pregnant woman (vulgar). 

^^ diakaey, s.m. (Ist) Any useless herb or 
sticiiL, a piece of straw, a small shoot, or branch 
of a tree cut ofi". PI. ^ i. 

jJl^ Muglandy s.m. (6th) A trot, jog, amble, 
the rough pace of a horse. Sing, and PI. 2. 
adj. A trotter or ambler. Jij jJ/,j ^ pah 
ddvgland t*lal, verb intrans. To trot, to amble. 
Jjb^ jJl^,) <o pah ddugland wahal, verb trans. 
To make trot or amble. 

i^i ddaga'h, s.f. (3rd) The penis. PI. ^ ey. 

^^ dda^OLi, s.f. (6th) (dimin. of preceding). 
Sing, and PI. See j^ 

/f^ ddo^(^i 6«in. (Ist) A thin worthless 
bullock. PI. jc z. ^^ ddagoLXy s.f. (6th) A 
thin worthless cow. Sing, and PI. 

J,j ddal, s.m. (2nd) A kind of rake of wood or 
iron. PI. ij^^ ddalunah, 

A^ ddalah, s.f. (3rd) An assembly, concourse, 
a crowd, a mob, a party, a gang. PI. ^^ ey. 

^^ ddila^yy s. prop. (1st) The name of a city 
in Hindastftn, the city of Dihll. 

^^ ddum, s.m. (5th) A caste of singers and 
musicians, the females of which dance and 
sing in public. PI. ^J^^ ddumdn. ^^ 
dduma'h, s.f. (3rd) A female of the above 
class. PI. ^^ ey. 

(V'd l**^ ddam ddUm, s.m. (5th) The sound of a 
drum. Pl.jl^^,) A,) ddam ddUmahdr. <uU,) 
Mamamcih, s.f. (3rd) A kettle drum. PI. 
^ ey. (p <uUj). 

lij^^ d^anbara'h, s.f. (3rd) A large red wasp 

or hornet. 2. The name of a tree produdng 
a small black berry somewhat like pepper 
in. size and flavour ; a species of the nigella, 
probably the black cumin of Scripture. In 
the mountain districts north of Pe^ftwer, 
where pepper is not obtainable^ it is used as 
such. PI. ^ ey. See ^f>3<) and i^jj^U 

^g^•^ ^anbaraey, s.m. (1st) Gubebs. PI. icf. 

OJ<d ddand, s.m. (2nd) A pond, a cistern, a pod 
of water, a mere. PI. ^^^^ d^anddUnak. 
See <ttUiij,jjU and »oJ<d 

If^^i ddandddra^A, s.f. (3rd) A large red wasp 
or hornet. PI. ^ ey. See »^^ and <[;jJU 

ic-^^O^*^ ddanddukaey, B.m. (1st) A smaU pool 
or cistern, a small mere (dimin. of o^^). PL 



ii^i ddandda'A, s.f. (3rd) A small pond, a 
cistern, a pool of water, a hole dug for water, 
a small well. 2. A staff, a pole, a rod, a 
bar. PL |^ ey. See >},). (s Ssjj). 

8 (^0^<d ddandda% s.f. (6th) The beam of a 
balance. Sing, and PL See ^^0^^^ 

d^,) ddany, s.m. (5th) The sound of a musical 
instrument, strain, intonation. PL j^i 
Marigahdr. CJo,) Cio <) ddang-dda/ng^ Musi- 
cal sounds. Jj^ cJoi) Cio<d ddang-ddang 
kawul, verb trans. To sound, to produce 
sound, to intonate ; or ^^ J<^i ddangakSsr 
laral, verb trans. 

^^ ddangar, s.m. (5th) A bullock or buffiJo. 
V\. ^^ ddangtBT. ajL^ ddangara\ %S. 
(3rd). PL ^ ey. 2. adj. Thin, weak, lean, 
meagre, emaciated, scraggy, attenuated. 

^%^i ^m^ara'i, s.f. (6th) A machine fisr 
drawing water, a lever supported on a post 
with a bucket suspended at one end and a 
weight of earth or a stone at the other* 
Sing, and PL See also aSSl CSj 

^^i ddi^^i^X 8-f- (3^) Same as preceding 
(hi ^^^IXxjbj). Sing, and PL 

^i Maw, s.m. (2nd) A fart. PL ^Oj^^ iim- 
Unah. \^i ddoaod, adj. A farter, a dastard, a 
mean cowardly fellow (E.). ^^y^ ddamej/ 
(W.) ; (Fem.) ^^^ ^aipa'f (B.). U^ M<a^ 




sht ; imp. U^ ji^ ddershah or^ J wthshah ; 
act. part, ^jili^ j^^,j d^eredUnkaey or^dlj jj^,j 
dderedUnaey ; past part, ji^ dder or y^^ j^^ 
dier skawaey; verb. n. ^J^jJiJ dderedana'A, 
or **3kj^,j dderedah, Jjj^«J dderawul, verb 
trans. To increase, to augment, to add to, to 
enhance, to multiply. Pres. i^j^ij dderawl ; 
past jS^ ^,J ^^ ^rr ovj^ wu-kairr ; fut. 
«^?/ *^ jii M^ bah kfri or ^^ J 40 JaA n?w- 
krri ; imp. ir^S^ ^,j dder krrah or ir^ J «?m- 
^rraA ; act. part, ^^^^^ji^ MerawilnkoLey or 
jj3j^,j dderawilnaey \ past part, y^^ j,j 

^er ^arra^; verb. n. ^^ji^ dderawuTicHh, 

sJ^yA dd^^^^t s.m. (2nd) A dunghill. 2. A 
cloth worn by women during the period of 
the menses. PI. <oy|^,j dderdnUnah. 

»jli dderdh^ s.f. (8rd) A tent, a temporary 
dwelling. PI. ^ ey (hi J^j). 

^ji^ dderciily s.f. (6th) A sand hill, a height, a 
mound, a heap, a pile. Sing, and PI. 

\^jii dder<^9 8»™« (Ist) A crowd, a throng, a 
multitude. PI. j^ f. 

Jj,j ^t/, s.m. (2nd) Mode, manner, fashion, 
shape, form, dress. 2. Body, bulk, size. 
PI. <OjL,J dMlUnah. See Jj,^ ddauL 

J^«^ Ji«^ d^l'ddO'^U Dress and fashion, prepa- 
ration and appearance. Jjj^ J^«^ Jtl'i 
d^lrddaul jorranml, verb trans. To make 
great show in dress, living, etc. Jj,j Jj,j 
Jj^ ^I'^aul kawul, verb trans. To adorn 
one's-self and show off, to cut a swell. 

ddinff, s.m. (5th) A kind of stork, a 
paddy bird. PI. f^\^i ddlTiffdn, 
^1) <^^«d d^^ d^nffoey, s.m, (1st) 
Lullaby, modulation, a song. PI. ^ L dj 
Jjj iJ^'i ^^^'i P^ ddinff ddlnfft wayal, 
verb trans. To sing, to modulate, to sing 
luUaby, to sing to a child whilst rocking it in 
the arms. See ^Ij and yii 
Jljj,j ddtwdli, adj. Bankrupt, one who has 
dissipated his fortune (s UIjjj) 

^^yi'i dMwa% s.m. (2nd) A candlestick, a lamp 
stand. PI. ^j)j£id d^waUUrmh (s. <^^S). 

0|^^ ddlwadd, s.m. (2jid) A kind of perftuned 


candle, lighted at weddings. 2. 
stand of wood or earth. PI. ^j j^^ 
p gj)^^ ddewa'Af s.f. (3rd) A lamp. I 
(s ^jj). JjL *^,j ddewa*A balanm 
lagawul, verb trans. To light a lam 

J zdly called ij^js^ JU is the ninth 
the Arabic alphabet, and the elevei 
Persian. Its existence is very doubt 
it be considered a substitute for j. 
fourteenth letter of the Pushto alpl 
merely with regard to those Ara' 
used in Pushto beginning with tl 
It stands for 700 in denoting nu 
letters in the former language, ai 
written as an abbreviation for th 

A c:^lj zdtf s.m. (2nd) The essence, nai 
self, substance, body, person, casi 
race. PI. <OyU zdtunah, ^]Vj 
Essential, innate, natural, intrinsic, 
bred in the bone. 

A^li zd-kir, s.m. (5th) (act. part 
Remembering, grateful, a praiser ( 
pious person. PI. f^\^\3 zd-kirdn, 
kira'A, s.f. (3rd) A pious female, etc 
name of a village near Eandah&r. 

A djsTj zab'fui'h, s.f. (3rd) A sacrifice, i 
Vl. ^^ ey. J^ e^3 zab'Jia'h km 
trans. To sacrifice, to immolate, t 
slaughter (according to the Mu^ 

A ir-^i zaJdilrcLh, s.f. (3rd) Treast 
magazine, victuals, provisions, i 
PI. ^ ey. 

A 2|jj zarrcHhy s.f. (3rd) An atomi, a jot, 
a little, a mote. PI. ^J ey. 

A <Uj J zuna\ s.f. (3rd) Family, race, 
descendants. PI. ^ ey. 

A ^z^f^^i zakdwat, s.m. (2nd) Acut 





iili rdfi7;al, s.f. (6th) 

Sing, and PI. 

8 ^^/*^j rd-kas, s.m. (5th) A demon, an evil 
spirit, a fiend. 2. (a) rd-kis, An ox in the 
middle of a bam round which the others turn 
in treading out com. PI. ^\^]j rd-kasdn or 

J^ \j rd-iaicul, verb trans. To give {lit. To do 
or make to me). Pres. tjrj^ \j rd-kawl ; past 
^ \j rd-kah ; fut. ^S ^, \j rd bah kx ; imp. 

i^ \j rd-kah ; act. part. ^J^j^ ^j rd-kawUnkacy 
or tPj^ 5^ rd'iawUnaey ; past part. ^J \j rd- 
karraey (from J^^) ; verb. n. <U^ \j rd-ka- 
nmna^h. See my Grammar, p. 92. 

8 CJ)j rdff, B.m. (2nd) A musical mode, song, 
tone, music. PI. ^^]j ragUnah. Jj^ CJ\j 
rag wa-yalf verb trims. To sing, to modulate. 

vJ^*^b rawwrodizA-^f , s.f. (3rd) A wooden roller 
by which a millstone is removed. PI. ,Jj a*t, 

y^y^j rormUsaey, s.m. (1st) The musk-deer. 
PL ^ I. ^y'^j rd-miisa\ s.f. (6th) The 
female of the above. Sing, and PI. See ajj^ 
and ijirf 

l3f\j rdr^ahf s.m. (6th) Colly rium, a lotion for 
the eyes. Sing, and PI. L^yy^\; rdnjUn- 
Unaey, s.m. (1st) A box for containing the 
eoUyrium. PI. ^ t. Sec ^jjsfrj and 

P »jj\j rdndah, adj. Rejected, driven out, ex- 
pelled. J^ sjj\j rdndah kawul, verb trans. 
To expel, to reject, to repel. 

iJjff' b rd-nlwalf verb trans. To seize, to take by 
force, to take, to appropriate, to lay hands on. 
2. To purchase. Pres. -**o \j rd-nm ; past 
9^ \j rd-nlwah ; fut. ^^-uu ^ \j rd bah nasi 
or -**J li y\j rd wu bah nisi ; imp, <uJ U 
rdrmsah ; act. part. ^^ij^yJ \j rd-nmUnkaey 
or ^jysJ \j rdrfilwUnaey ; past part, ^lyj \j 
rd-nlwulaey ; verb. n. «U^ \j rd-nmuncHh or 
1^ \j rd-ntwah. Also written Jy \j rd- 

^JiJ\j rdrmlzaey. s.m. (1st) A man of the 
BkrrnM tribe. PI. ^ l, The whole tribe ; 

s.f, (6th) f^ al, A female of the tribe. Sing, 
and PI, 

Jjjb ^^-^'vr^lf "^^rb trans. To bring, to fetch, 
to bear, to convey, to carry, ete. (applied 
only to things inanimate) ; Pres. i^j^)j Td- 
w'rri ; past j^\j rd-wurr ; fut. ^^j «o \j rd 
bahw'm] imp. ij^\j rd-w'rrah; act. part. 
^S^!U3^J '''^-'^'^VTilnkaey or ^^j rd-wurr- 
unaey ; past part, ^j^j rd-wurralaey or 
s^j^^j rd'Wurraei/) verb. n. ^j^\) rd-wurr- 
anoHh or Jij^^j rd-wurrah. 

^y^^^^j rdrwustal or rd-wastal, verb trans. To 
bring, to lead along, to convey, etc. (applied 
to objects animate). Pres. ^^\j rd-fvaR; 
past <*::--w:^l^ rd-wast or rd-Ki(st\ fut. <0 \j 
Jj rabah wall; imp. dj^j rd-walah; act. 
part. jj-^>i-»j\; rd-wastUnkaey or ^j^^^j 
rd-wastunaey ; past part, ^j-i^^-^j^ rd-wastal- 
aey or jj-:i«»j|; rd-wastaey ; verb. n. Aii-jjlj 
rdwastanah or <fc;*rfj|^ rd-wastak. 

p 2^5^ m^, s.m. (9th) Road, way, manner. Sing, 
and PI. (Used in composition.) ^ s\j rd/i- 
bar, s.m. (5th) A guide, a conductor. PI. 
^\ji s\j rdh'bardn. ifjj ^\j rdh-bardh^ 
s.f. (3rd) A conductress. PI. ^^ ey, h\j 
^y rdh bari, s.f. (3rd) Guiding, conduct- 
ing, guidance. PI. ^ a'l. J^ ,^jJ b\j rdh 
barl kawuly verb trans. To guide, to con- 
duct, to lead. j\^ i\j rdh-ddr, s.m. (5th) A 
collector of transit duties. PI. ^j^*^ i^j ^^h- 
ddrdn, kJj^^ ^]j rdh-ddrt, s.f. (3rd) Col- 
lection of transit duties on roads. PI. f^ olx, 
J^ ,^1 J h\j rdh-ddrl kawul, verb trans. To 
collect duties, y^jjj i\j rdh-rawaey, s.m. (1st) 
A traveller. PI. ^^ I. s.f. (6th) ^^ au Sing, 
and PI. j^ i\j rdh-rauy s.m. (2nd) A vesti- 
bule, a gallery, a passage. 2. A launder. 

b\j rdh'Zan, 

PI. <Ujj^ h\j rdh-rauUnah, 

c;j ""J 

s.m. (5th) A highway robber, a footpad. PI. 
j^lij i\j rdh'Zandn, ^Jj ^^j rdh-zanly s.f. 
(3rd) Highway robbery. PI. v^ a'f . j'ji i\ 


rdh-guzar, s.m. (2nd) A road, a way. 2. A 

traveller. PI. 


h\j rdh-guzarHnali. 

j^Uj «]^ rdh-numdre, s.m, (6th) A guide, a 





to attain, to go to, to get to, to arrive. This 

infinitive is imperfect. Pres. ^J^jrd-^i; 

past ^\j rOghaey (from Jlxlj); fut. <u \j 

^ rd bah sil ; imp. ^\jrd shah ; act. part. 

jjio^lj rw-t' lunkaey or ^^]j ra-tHunaey) 

past part, ^jlclj rdghalaey\ verb. n. <djlj 

B Isj-l^ ra;a, s.m. (5th) A prince, a lord, a noble. 

PI. i^^^^]j rdjdrgdn. 
B yZJy^\j rdj'pUt, s.m. (5th) The name of a 

Hinda tribe. Fh ^\j^^\j rdj-pUtdn. ^^^[f 

rdj-pUtah, s.f. (3rd) A female of the above. 

PI. v^ ey. 
B ^\j^^\j rdjpUtdncHh, s. prop. The name of 

the province of Ajmlr. 
HI ^j^^^j rdjwdrra'hy s.prop. The name of a 

country of Hindastftn — Rajwftrah. 
A ci.^5; ^^h^^t s.m. (2nd) (from -jj) Repose, 

quiet, ease, tranquillity, pleasure. PI. i:ijx:>^ 

rdJjLatUnah, J^ ts^-s^lj rdliat kawul, verb 
trans. To take ease or repose. 

^j rdMiy s.m. (2nd) The cheek. 2. Face, side, 
quarter. PI. <0^1j rdMi-Unah, 

ij^j rdrra'h, s.f. (3rd) Bread made from different 
kinds of grain or pulse. 2. The name of a 
venomous insect. PI. ^^ ey. See jn^ j 

P jlj rdz, s.m. (2nd) A secret, a mystery. PI. 
<Ojjlj rdZ'Unah. J^jj\j rdz-ddr, adj. Trusty, 
faithful. 2. A keeper of a secret, an abettor ; 
(Fem.) ifj\*:ij\j rdz-ddra'h. ^j^*^j)j rdz-ddn, 
s.f. (3rd) Secrecy, keeping a secret. PI. ^^ aX 
JjL jlj rdzBdtdl, verb trans. To keep a secret. 
Jij j\j rdz wayal, verb trans. To tell a secret, 
jb W^ P^^ ^^^f ^ ^revX secret. 

A Jjb rorzik, s.m. (9th) (from jj^) A sustainer, 

. giver of daily bread, the Deity. Sing, and PI. 
\j rdsty adj. Right, true, good, just, up- 
right. 2. Straight, even, level. 3. Right (not 
left). 4. adv. Certainly, truly ; (Fem.) dzJij 
rdsta!h, ^t/f ij:^^\j rdst yo-e, Bkdj. A speaker 
of the truth ; (Fem). jj^ t^^^^j rdst-yo-e-a'A. 
^/sjL^\j rdstyoX s.f. (3rd) Probity, honesty, 
veracity, truth, sincerity, candour, rectitude, 
straightness. PI. ^ a% J^ ^\j rdsa 

P l:: 

kawul, verb trans. To act with sincerity, can- 
dour, honesty, etc. See Lxiiy 

p iJi^)j rdsh'bel, s.m. (2nd) An instrument 
for cleaning grain, a wooden rake, a woodea 
shovel. PI. ^jLmm1\; rdshbelUnaA, 

^<Jcl11j rdshtalaey, s.m. (1st) The grain remain- 
ing on the ground or threshing floor, after 
carrying the com, and which is the right of 
the tiller of the soil. PI. ^c u Also ^j^j 
risktalaey, s.m. (1st). PI. ^c f. See ^^j\^ 

^\j rdshah, s.f. (3rd) A heap of grain, pro- 
vision, supplies. PI. ^^ ey. See U^j 

jj^jj ij^\j rdrshah dar-shoA, s.f. (9th) Inter- 
course, ingress and egress, acquaintance. Sing, 
and PI. 

jLi»\j rd^ko (W.) or rdldiko (E.) s.m, (5th) An 
instrument for drawing anything out withy 
a wire-drawer. PI. ^f^j rdsUtogd/n or 
rdldikogdn. See tijS^ 

A ^\j rdj?rl, adj. (act. part, of ycj) Agreed, 
pleased, approving, contented, satisfied, willing. ^ 
<uU j^l^ rd7i% ndmcHhy s.f. (3rd) A deed oi 
acknowledgement given by a plaintiff wb 
he gives up a cause, or when it is settled. Pi 
v^ ^. J J^ ^^j ^a-?* kedal, verb intrans. 1^^ 
assent, acquiesce, agree, accede, consent, to "^ 
content. Jj^ ^\j rd^l kawul, verb 
To satisfy, please, gratify, to make consent 

p i\j rdghy s.m. (2nd) A meadow, a gardoi^, i 
desert. PI. ^^j rd^HnaA. 

A L^^]j rd^ib, adj. Desirous, willing; (FeoKa*] 
<ui|^ rdghibcHh. 

Jiil^ rdghlxily verb intrans. To come, to arrr"^^ 
to reach, to attain. Pres. ^jSj rdd^ ; ^^^ 
^\j rdghaey ; fut. ^ ij\jrd bah ski; incip* 
^\j rdshah or iiSj rddaah ; act. part.^jij^jf 
rd'flunkaey or ^^)j rd-t'lunaey ; past pa^ 
^^^^j rd^alaey ; verb. n. aJjJ^ rd-flana'hcf 
^\j rd-flah. 

i^\j rdghahy s.m. (2nd) The skirt of a mountiin 
near a desert. PI. ^^]^ rdghUnah or ^y^ 

A ye^\j rdf^l, s.m. (6th) A heretic. PL 





iili rafi7;a\ s.f. (6th) 

Sing, and PI. 

8 ^/«^j rd-kas, 8.m. (5th) A demon, an evil 
spirit, a fiend. 2. (a) rd-kis, An ox in the 
middle of a bam round which the others turn 
in treading out com. PI. ^,L-^U rd-kasdii or 

J^ \j rd'kawul, verb trans. To give (.lit. To do 
or make to me). Pres. ^^ \j rd-kann ; past 
i^ \j rd'kah ; fut. ^ ij \j rd bah ki ; imp. 

i^ \j rd'kah ; act. part. ^^^^ \j rd-karcUnkaey 
or y^^^ \j rd-kawUnaey ; past part. i^J \j rd- 
karraey (from Jjf) ; verb. n. <0^ \j rd-ka- 
nmna^h. See my Grammar, p. 93. 

8 C^j rdff, B.m. (2nd) A musical mode, song, 
tone, music. PI. ^^]j ragUnah. Jj^ CJ\j 
rag woryaly verb twms. To sing, to modulate. 

\J**^y*^J ^OMzadah-gly s.f. (3rd) A wooden roller 
by which a millstone is removed. PI. ^ a'L 

yWy^j rd^mUsaey, s.m. (1st) The musk-deer. 
PL j^ I. ^>»>*1; rd-mUsaX e.f. (6th) The 
female of the above. Sing, and PI. See sjj^ 
and 9^ 

if\j rdi^ah^ s.m. (6th) CoUyrium, a lotion for 
the eyes. Sing, and PI. L^y>=F"'j rdnjun- 
Unaey, s.m. (1st) A box for containing the 
eoUyrium. PI. ^ i. See ^jjpfj and 

PijJl; rdndah, adj. Rejected, driven out, ex- 
pelled. J^ ifSj\j rdnduh kawul, verb trans. 
To expel, to reject, to repel. 

4jjjj \j rd-nlwalf verb trans. To seize, to take by 
force, to take, to appropriate, to lay hands on. 
2. To purchase. Pres. ^y*o \j rd-nisi ; past 
9^ \j rd-nlftah ; fut. ^^--u ij \jrd bah nasi 
or ^jmj ^, ) ]j f"d wu bah nisi ; imp. <uJ \j 
fd-msah ; act. part, ^^^y^^ ^ rd-nmunkaey 
or j^j^ \j rd-nltvUnaey ; past part. ^^ 'j 
rd-nlwulaey ; verb. n. «U^ ]l^ rd-niwuna'h or 
jTjJ J^ ra-nt727aA. Also written Jy 1^, ra- 

>^J,j^\j rdwS^o^i s.m. (1st) A man of the 
Rftmlzl tribe. PI. ^ t. The whole tribe ; 

s.f. (6th) ^ at, A female of the tribe. Sing, 
and PI. 

Jjjb '"^^-'^VI^'U "^erb trans. To bring, to fetch, 
to bear, to convey, to carry, etc. (applied 
only to things inanimate) ; Pres. k^j^^j rd- 
w*rrl ; past j^\j rd'?vurr ; fut. ^jj^ «o Ij rd 
bah w^m ; imp. *^|l^ rd-w'rrah ; act. part. 
(J^JU^b ^^-w^>r^w^(K?y or ^^j rd'Wurr- 
huiey ; past part, ^j^j rd-wurralaey or 
<^J^b ro-wwTrady; verb. n. <Oj^lj rd-«?wrr- 
ana'h or ir^^lj rd-wurrah, 

J::^jlj rdrwustal or rd-wastal, verb trans. To 
bring, to lead along, to convey, etc. (applied 
to objects animate). Pres. ^^\j rd-wall; 
past ci-w^lj rd-^ast or rd'?vust; fut. «u Ij 
Jj ra iaA wa/e ; imp. djj|^ rd-wala/i ; act. 
part. jj-^^j\; rd'Wastunkaey or y^j^^j 
rd-wastunaey ; past part. ,j-i2--»j^^ rd-wastal" 
aey or ^^^^j rd-rvastaey ; verb. n. Aii-jjlj 
rdwastanah or <fc;;*rfj|^ rd-wastah. 

p 2f1^ ra>i, s.m. (9th) Road, way, manner. Sing, 
and PI. (Used in composition.) jJ i\j rd/i- 
bar, s.m. (5th) A guide, a conductor. PI. 
^\j) i\j rdk-bardn, hy i\j rdh-barah, 
s.f. (3rd) A conductress. PI. ^J ey. h\j 
i^ji rdh bari, s.f. (3rd) Guiding, conduct- 
ing, guidance. PI. y^ a'l. J^ ^g^ Aj rdh 
barl kawulf verb trans. To guide, to con- 
duct, to lead. j\^ ii\j rdh-ddr, s.m. (5th) A 
collector of transit duties. PI. ^J^'^ »]; ^^h- 
ddrdn. kJj^*^ ^\; rdh-ddrt, s.f. (3rd) Col- 
lection of transit duties on roads. PI. ^A a*L 
J^ ^j\j b\j rdh-ddn kawul, verb trans. To 
collect duties, y^^j if\j rdk-raTvaey, s.m. (1st) 
A traveller. PI. ^ I. s.f (6th) ^^ a*l. Sing, 
and PI. jj b\j rdh-rau, s.m. (2nd) A vesti- 
bule, a gallery, a passage. 2. A launder. 

i\s rdh'Zarif 

PI. ij^^ b\j rdh-rauUnah, 

<:)J 'y 

s.m. (5th) A highway robber, a footpad. PI. 
j^ljj i\j rdh'Zandn. yjj b^j rdh-zanl, s.f. 
(3rd) Highway robbery. PI. y^ a*l. jji h\j 
rdh-guzary s.m. (2nd) A road, a way. 2. A 
traveller. PI. ij^jd^ h\j rdh-guzarHnah. 
t^Uj «]^ rdh-numdrc, s.m. (5th) A guide, a 






conductor, a leader. PI. ^^bUi 2flj r^h- 
numa-e-an. ^^Ui ^\j rdh-numdCly Bif. (3rd) 
Guidance, leading. PI. ^V a'l. J^^ }i\j rdLh- 
war, adj. Ambling. 2. a.m. (5th) An ambling 
horse. PI. ^Jij\^ i\j rdh-tcdrdn. ^\j rorhl, 
adj. Departed, embarked, set out. J Ju^ ^]j 
rdhl kedal, verb intrans. To depart, to set 
out, to embark. J^ ^\j rd-hl Aawul, 
verb trans. To despatch, to* send away. 

A u^l^ rd'Aib, s.m. (6th) A monk. PI. ^^UaJ; 

<tywuAlj rd'histah, adv. Near me, towards me, 
here. Also used with 4fcu*Jb, andjj, andj^ 

^.^^^[f rdhlUy s.m. (5th) The head-man of a 
village. PI. ^1;>-Jb5^ rdhlUdn, 

n ^-^ rabb, s.m. (5th) A lord, protector, pre- 
server, the name of the Deity. PI. f^\jj 

p ^.^ rub, s.m. (9th) Juice, syrup. Sing, and 

A \jj ribd, s.f. (6th) Usury. (E.) Sijig. and PL 
(W.) PI. u/^^j ribdJVt. jy>^ \ij ribd Mor, 
s.m. (5th) An usurer. PI. jjj^^ bj ribd 
Mordn. See J^ 

p <^\jj rabdb, s.m. (2nd) A kind of violin, a 
rebeck. PI. AjyUj rabdbUnah. ^\jj rabdbi, 
s.m. (5th) A player on the rabdb, a fiddler. 
PI . ^^\j \jj rabdbi-dn. Jjbj ^->b; rabdb wakal, 
verb trans. To play on the rabdb, 

A ^\)j ribdt, s.m. (2nd) An inn, a caravansary. 
PI. ^jh\jj ribdtUnah. 

Jjj^j rab-rredal, verb intrans. To become 
astonished, amazed, perplexed, discomposed. 
2. To become deceived, imposed on, to be 
amused, etc. Pres. ^j^jj rab-rrejzl (W.) or 
^J^jj rab-rregl (E.) ; past i^^jj J wti-rab- 
rredah or jj^j rab-rreda ; fut. t^j.j>j iJ %wu 
bah rab-7TeJzlOT^jjrab-7Teffi I'imp, fjijj^ 
wu-rab'rrejzah or ^„jj \ Tcu-rab-tregah ; 
act. part. i<-^^**\!^j rab-rredunkaey or 
^^^jj rab-'iredunaey \ past part. ^^^Jij 
rab-rredalaey ; verb. n. ^Jjjj rab-rjcedan- 
ak or ^^jj rab-rredak. i^^^fjj rab-'crah- 
7vul or Ji^^ raA'frawul, verb trans. To 

astonish, to amUze, to pelrplei^ to dlBCompose. 
2. To deceive, to impose on, to amuse, to put 
oflf with fair words, etc. Pres. i^^j TtjJh 
rrawi ; past 9^\jj J wtt-raA-jy^wA or ^^j^j 
rab'trdwo ; fut. ^/j^j ^ J tpw baJi rab-fram; 
imp. jijij, J wu-rab'fsrawah ; act. part. 
L^^Vjfj rab'trawUnkaey or y^^^Jj ^' 
rrawUnaey; j^B&t ^drt. ^^jjrab-fTanmlaejf; 
verb. n. ^jjj rab-rrawuna'h. 

A \2ij rabtj s.m. (2nd) Connection, habit, use« 
firiendship, familiarity, construction (in 
granunar). PI. ^^j rabtOnah. 

ifj^j rabarmoih. s.f. (3rd) Moonshine, the light of 
the moon, moonlight. PI. A ey. See ^j^ 

(^j rap, s.m. (2nd) An arched ornament in a 
wall, a sort of shelf round a room for placing 
things on. PI. ijyj^j rapUnah (a \^J) 

Jjujj rapedcU, verb intrans. To shake, to 
shiver, to tremble, to flutter, to agitate, to 
shudder, to quake, to twitter, to writhe. Pres. 
^j-ij rapejzl (W.) or ^^j rapegl (E.) ; 
past tfJujj J wu-rapedah or Jujj J wu^rapeda; 
fut. fc/i-^ dj ^ wu bah rapejzi or ^Xj^ 
rapegl ; imp. «^ J fou-^apejzah or ii^jj 
rapegah, Actj^SiTi. ^^:i^jA^^jrapedUnAaey(](r^ 

^j3^juj^ rapedUnaey; past part. ^^1*^^ 
dalaey; verb. n. <Uju^ rapedaneCh or ijlj 
rapedah, J^rapa«?w/, verb trans. To agital 
to ruffle, to startle, to cause to shudder 
shiver, to wriggle, to shake, to cause to 
Pres. ,jr^ rapawt ; past ^r^Uj J wurapdn^^^ 
or jyb J J wu-rapdwo ; fut. i^^ ij ^ wu^ ^ 
rapawi ; imp. *^ J wu-^apawah ; act. pf ^ 
L5^Ji^ rdpO'ToUnkaey or ^^ji^ rapcwptf»*i— j; 
past part, ^yj rapawulaey ; verb. n. ^^j 
raparcunobh. See Jj^lJjJ wid Jju^ 
8 ^vj^ rwjc^a'f, s.f. (6th) or ^^j rupi, s.f. {9Ti) 
A coin so called. (E.) Sing", and PI. (W.) -P^- 
4 a\ 

^ ra^, A particle applied to adjectives td 
denote intensity (particularly of colour), 
together with w.^ and uii , as j^ ^ rfl^ 
tor, Quite black, coal-black. 






▲ isjj rtUba% 8.f. (drd) Rank, dignity^ degree, 

step. PI. 1^ ey. 
^ rataX a-f- (6th) A weight equal to eight 

barley-corns. 2. A red grain used as a weight. 

Sing, and PI. (e JiJ) 
i4^ raU, s.m. (9th) A flood of tears, a gush of 

tears, an outburst of crjring. Sing and PI. 

iXu *^ *^ H P^ ^^- ^^- Jzatral, verb 

tnuis. To cry violently, to burst into tears, 

to cry one's-aelf blind. 
Jij raUal, verb trans. To expel, to drive away, 

to cast outy to turn adrift, to bundle out. 

2. To scold, to abuse, to treat harshly or dis- 

respectftilly, to reprimand, to taunt. Pres. 

^Jj ra&; past di\j J wu-rdUah or ^;^lj 

m^ ; fut. ^j li'ywu bah raWi ; imp. ^g^ j 

nm-ra^ih'^ act. part, ^j^^ raUUnkaey or 

^jij raUUnaey ; past part, ^jlij raUalaey ; 

verb. n. i^j raUana'A. See Jiy. 
^j^j raUalaey, adj. (past part.) Expelled, cast 

out, scolded, abused, reprimanded, taunted. 

(Pern.) Jj; raUali. PI. (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ !. 
A f^j rtgUa, s.f. (1st) Return, recourse, 

tonung, bent, bias, appearing. PI. c^j 

nguai. Jjf f^j ^f^j^^ kawul, verb^trans. 

To have recourse to, to repair to, to appeal, 

to refer, to return, 
fl -J ru^, s.m. (2nd) Desire, avidity, pleasure, 

or desire for eating. PI. ^y>-j rudtUnah ; 

also 'Lj rudia, s.f. (3rd). PI. —j rudii. 

^ ridj^a or toy ri^a'A, s.f. (8rd) A tick or 

louse, a nit, the egg of a louse. PI. ^j ridii 

or i^jy riAey. See ^^e^ and aSL-» ^ 

^^ sJ^J "^^ ri^ey, s.f. (3rd) PI. In atoms, 

in fragments, in pieces, in shreds. Sing. 

<^ ri^'A. J ju^ ^^j ^j>j ridkey ridiey 

Aedal, verb intrans. To be smashed, broken to 
%toma, shivered to pieces, crushed, etc. 
^^ L^?V L5?V ^^^ ridiey Aawul, verb 
t^raiiB. To break to atoms, to smash to firag- 
^laents, to crush, to shiver to pieces, etc. 
^«&Jl»^ ri^lat, s jn. (2nd) Departure, marching, 
death, decease, PI. ijfl^j riblatUnoA, 

J^ (c-Jl^j riJ^lat kawul, verb trans. To 
depart, to die. 

A ^j rajim, s.m. (9th) Compassion, mercy, 
pity, kindness. Sing, and PI. Jj ^j 
ra^m dil, adj. Merciful, compassionate, ^o^ 
JJ rahm laral, verb trans. To have com- 
passion for, to entertain pity towards, etc. 
J^ ^j ralkm Aawul, verb trans. To pity, to 
commiserate, to sympathize with. 

A ^i^j rilkm, s.m. (2nd) The womb. PI. 
^y^j^-j rihimUnaA. 

A (^Ud-j ralkmdnf adj. Merciful, forgiving, 
pitying, an epithet of God. ^^Ua-Jljuxi 
aabd-ur-rahmdn, s. prop. The name of a 
celebrated Afj^&n poet. (J^^^^j raJkntdnl, 
adj. Divine, heavenly, merciful. 

A u:..v«^ ralimat, s.m. (2nd) Kindness, pity, 
compassion, mercy. PI. 6jjiJk»^j ralimatunaA. 
JjS^ (.s^-wi^j rdfjonat Aawul, verb trans. To 
pity, to show mercy or compassion. 

A MHi>-j raljtlm, adj. Merciftd, compassionate, an 
epithet of the Almighty; (Fem.) <u-fl^^ 

p ^ rulA, s.m. (5th) Point, face, side, quarter. 

2. The castle at chess. PI. ^^j ruMdn. 

3. adj. Fit, proper, suitable, expedient, 
necessary. See ^^ 

p (c^^j raMlf s.m. (2nd) Apparel, fiimiture, 
goods. 2. A plough. 3. Tanned leather. PI. 
djyi£>j ra^UnaA. 

Tj\j^j ruMsdr, s.m. (2nd) The cheek, the face, 
PI. ^Ojji^Lufi;^ ruMsdrUnaA, 

A ij: ^*n<j ruMtsatf s.m. (2nd) (from ^jdu>^j) 
Discharge, dismission, leave, indulgence. PI. 
A)y.»n<.j ruJA^atUnaA, Jj^j <j; ^*n:>j ruM^at 
war-Aawul, verb trans. To permit, to give 
leave, to dismiss. Jj^ c: .^.n^j ruMsat Aawul, 
verb trans. To dismiss, to permit. e:..%.flrvj 
Jj^ ruM^at Aedaly verb intrans. To be 
dismissed, to have leave. J%.M..fvT fj* -^'^j 
ruj^at d^iistal, verb trans. To take leave. 

p iij>j rafOinol Ay s.f. (3rd) A hole, a fracture, 
cleft, notch, flaw, crevice. PI. ^ ey. 
^jraiba'A, s.f. (3rd) Malice, spite, rancour. 




hatred, grudge, resentment. PL ^\ ey, 
Jj^ i3^j raMicCh kawul, verb trans. To show 
spite, malice, or resentment, to act rancorously . 
^Sj^uf ^^j raldidh krrUnkaey or ^^^ 
krrilnaey, adj. (past part.) Malicious, spite- 
ful, rancorous, revengeful (person) ; (Fem.) 

h^^jf ^^J ^^^^'^ KrrUnki or ^^i k'rrUni, 
PL (Masc. and Fem.) ^^ L 

A J; rady s.m. (2nd) Rejection, repulsion, refuta- 
tion, resistance. PL 4j^j; radUnah. 2. adj. 
Rejected, repulsed, turned back ; (Fem.) kJj 
rada'h. J J^ j *^ rad-o-badal, Argument, al- 
tercation, controversy, discussion. ^->^^ J; 
rad'i-jawdb, A rejoinder, a reply, a retort. 
jirw jj rad'i'M^lfc, The dregs of the people. 
Jju^ jj rod kedal, verb intrans. To be re- 
jected or turned back, to be repulsed. J^ Jj 
radkawuly verb trans. To reject, to turn back, 
to refute, to dispel, to disprove. 

p * J; rada'h, s.f. (3rd) A layer of mud on a mud 
wall, a layer of bricks, the work of a day, a 
line, a series, a row. PL ^ ey. 

A i-jyJ; radif, s.m. (2nd) Following each other 
in succession, the rhyming word of a poem, 
a man riding behind another. PL ^yo^Oj rod- 

^jj rarra% s.f. (6th) The flower of a tree 
(Melia sempervirens). Sing, and PL See 
also |Ao^ and aj^^ij 

\jj raza (corrup. of a U^) s.f. (6th) Consent, as- 
sent, etc. which see. PL (W.) ^^jj razdwu 

a ^\jj razzdky adj. (from jj^) The provider of 
daily bread, the Deity. 

A i^\jj rizdlah, adj. Low, mean, vile, worthless. 

jjj razatr, s.m. (6th) The name of a clan of 
Afghans, a man of the clan. Sing, and PL 

^JkJJ ^^^^tr^^f 8'f« (8rd) A woman of the 
above. PL ^^ ey. 
A jjj rizfct s.m. (2nd) Support, subsistence, 
daily bread, food, allowance. PL ^^jj rizk- 
Unah, Jy^j ^jj rizlc rasawulj verb trans. To 
support, to feed, to give daily bread. See 

fjjjjj rajzedal, verb intrans. To moult, to cast 

off, to shed or cast hair, feathers, etc. (as an 
animal), to fall as the leaves of a tree in 
autumn, or as fruit ; to let fall, to be dispersed, 
scattered. Pres. ^j^Jj rajzejzl (W.) or ^jSy 
rajzegl (E.) ; past i^Jj J fourrajzedah ; fat. 
Lfjjj ^^ ^fvu bah rajzejp, or ^jOjj rajzefi\ 
imp. ijjj j wu-rajzejzah or di^jj rajzegak ; 
act. part. ^^^^Jj rajzedUnkaey or ^f^^Jj 
raJzedUnaey; past part. ^sjJj ra^edala^; 
verb. n. ^*ijjj rajzedana*h or ^^ ra^n. 
fjjjj rajzawul, verb trans. To shed, to cast, 
to strew, to sprinkle, to disperse. Pres. ^^ 
rajzawt ; past 8^\jj J wu-ra^dwuh or j^ty j 
wu-rajzdwo ; fut. ^^jjj ij ^wu bah rajzam ; 
imp. i^j J wu-rajzawah ; act. part. ^J^jj^ 
rajzawUnkaey or ^^^jj rajzofcUnaey \ past 
part, ^^j rajzatvulaey; verb. n. d3jjj 

^jMj ras, s.m. (9th) A kind of coUyrium made 
from the root of the Amomum anthorhizum. 
Sing, and PL (hi ^^y^j) 

p Lf rasd, past part. (£rom ^Ju^) Attaining, 
arriving, reaching. 2. adj. Penetrating, 
skilful, capable. 3. A long sword. 

k i\\^j risdla'h, s.f. (3rd) Mission. 2. A book, 
a treatise, an essay. 3. A troop of hone. ^ 
PL ^ ey. j\j ^L»j risdla'A dor, B.m. (Sih)^ 
The commander of a troop of horse. PL^ 
fj^j\*^ ^ ^; risdkCh ddrdn. 

J^ fiS^^j rtistam Mel, s.m. (6th) The name 
a clan of Afgh&ns. Sing, and PL dL^ 
rtistam Mela'h, s.f. (3rd) A woman of 
above clan. PL ,J ey. 

p juj; rasad, s.m. (2nd) Store of grain or o 
provisions, share, provision, 2. The time 
harvest. PL ij^*x^j rasadUnah. 

A ^j rasm, s.m. (2nd) (Custom, law, moS^/ 
plan. PL ijy^j rasmUnah. Jj^ ^^j msm 
kawul, verb trans. To act according to costoflt 
or law. 

\yaj rtiswd, adj. Infamous, disgraced, dii- 
honoured. Jju^ \^j ruswd Aedal, veA 
intrans. To become infamous or dishononrei 
Jj^ \y^j ru9w& kawul, verb trans. To dift- 





graee^ to diahonour. t^yt) rusw&X B*f* 

(3rd) Infiuny, ignominy, disgrace, dishonour. 

PI ^ a1. 
k Jy^ rasUl, a.m. (oth) A messenger, the pro- 

p^rt Mohammad. PI. ^J^^j rasUldn. 
Ay^j r€UW€Ua% or rasokCl s.f. (6th) A com, a 

bimion, a gall, an excrescence, a wen, a swollen 

l^and. Sing, and PI. See ^^y and ^ 
k fydj rusQm, 8.m. (6th) (PI. of ^^^j) Customs, 

am, ete. : duties, fees, taxes, etc. Sing. 
and PI. 

M; rasa% s.f. (6th) String, cord, rope. Sing, 
'^ind PI. (s ^j) 

Tt ^j rtaUd, s.m. (2nd) A receipt, acknowledg- 

mokt. PL ^j«3u^^ rcuHdUfuih. 
J Ju^ rasedalf verb intrans. To arriye, to reach, 

to attain, to come to, to get to, to come up 

with, to light upon, to bounce upon. Pres. 

iXp-y ras^^ (W.) or ,J^y rasegl (E.); 

past iju^j J rvu-rasedah or l^j J wu-raseda ; 

fat ^£^j *j ^ tou bah rasejzl or ,JLj; 

TOBefi ; imp. iJu^ J wurrasedah ; act. part. 

^ii^^fX^jrasedUnkaey or ^^Xf^jrasedUnaey ; 

Vi^jui.^s^jrasedalaey; verb. n. ^ju.^ 

^'^^edaikj^h or ts^j rasedah. J^j rasawtd, 
^'ftifc trans. To cause to attain, arrive, reach, 
®Oine to, etc. Pres. ,^y^j rasawi; past 
•jVif j wu-ra8&n>uh or ^^L*^ rasdrvo ; fut. 
^yj ^ J ^2m bah rasawi ; imp. gy^j J wu- 
'^"•aroA; act. part, ^^^^y^j rasawUnkaey 

^ \S^J ^^^^^^'^^^^^^ I P^t part, ^y^j 

"^i^awulaey ; verb. n. djy^j rasawunah. 

ra^, s.m. (2nd) Dirt, filth, ordure. 2. 

litter or pus from a wound. PI. ijyJ^j 

A^fHiah. Jj^ ,^J y^j ra^h lirl kawul, 

t trans. To cleanse or free from dirt, etc., 


risitalaey. See ^^sJL\J 
f ra^k, s.m. (2nd) Malice, envy, emu- 
1, jealousy, grudge. PI. ij^j rashk- 

ri^wat, s.m. (2nd) A bribe. PI. 
I ri^waMnah. jy^- ^^^j rishwat 

Mor, s.m. (5th) One who takes bribes. PI. 
yj\)y>- *^^y^j rishwat Miordn. ^j^ ^^^J 
rishwat Mori, s.f. (3rd) The taking of bribes. 
PI. jV a'f. ij^j^ "^y^J rishwat war-kawul. 

verb trans. To give a bribe. Ji***>-! w^^ 
rishwat d^istal, verb trans. To take a bribe. 

<Llj rasha'h, s.f. (3rd) A heap of grain, pro- 
vision, supply. PI. ^ ey. See ^\j 

A JlJ«j rashld, adj. Eloquent. 2. Guiding, or 
guided in the right way (from jJ^j ?). 

^y>^j rishtUnaey (W.) or riJ^tUnaey (E.) adj. 
True, veracious, honest, upright, free from 
falsehood. <Fem.) ^^y^»; ri^tUni or riJSitUni. 
PL (Masc, and Fern.) ^ I. See i<-s^ 

Ujy rishfia (W.) or riBtVa (E.) adj. True, 
veracious, free from falsehood. See preceding. 
2. s.f. (6th) Truth, veracity, fact, reality, 
gospel, accuracy, exactness. (E.) Sing, and 
PI. (W.) PI. i^^\r^j nshtidwl or ril3itidw~i. 
,^^ \fn^j rishtid or riMtid yo-e, s.m. (5th) 
A true speaker, a veracious person. PI. 
j^lj j^ Ljmj^ rishtid or riJSitid ffo-e-dn. Ls^ 
Jj^ ri.^tVd or riJSittd wayal^ verb trans. 
To speak the truth, to speak truly, 
i-a^y rishtl-yiaey (W.) or riWktVnaey (E.) 
adj. True, veracious, honest, free from 
falsehood ; (Fern.) ^^f;P^j rishtl-ni or riJOitx-ni. 
PI. (Masc. and Fern.) ^ t. 

^j rishka'i (W.) or rijchka'l (E.) s.f. (6th) A 
strip, a band, a shred, a ribbon, a fillet, a 
strap. Sing, and PI. 

A U; raT^dy s.f. (6th) Acquiescence, consent, 
assent, will, leave, permission. (E.) Sing, and 
PI. (W.) PI. fc/jUi ras^cb-wl, Jc^o U; 
raT^d mand, adj. Consenting, permitting, 
wishing, willing, acquiescing. (Fern.) U; 
2^«x^ raifd-manda'k. i^*^^^^ ^; ra^d-mandt, 
s.f. (3rd) Consent, willingness, good pleasure, 
permission. PI. ^^ at. 

jjij^ v-5^M; ra^d'ai w'ror, s.m. (5th) A foster- 
brother. PL Vjj^^ l<^^; ra:^a(^ w'rUrmah, 

A C;^^ rfltb or rut b, adj. Fresh, • green, moist, 
verdant. 2. Green herbage of a tree. 3. 
Ripe dates. ^^>^j^j rutubat, s.m. (2nd) 





A (j: 

Humidity, freshness, greenness. PI. ^f^,^j 

A c:-oli5; ri-iBdyat, s.m. (2nd) (from ^j) 
Attention, regard, respect, honour, kindness, 
favour, indulgence. PI. ^jsj^j n-^edyatUnah, 
J^ »*ii-^^; ri'CBdyat kcavul, verb trans. To 
take care of, to show kindness towards. 

Ljj Lc^ ra-^and zebd, s.f. (6th) The name of 
a red and yellow flower. (E.) Sing, and PI. 
(W.) PI. i/^ljj zebdwt. 

^j ra-isiyat, s.m. (2nd) A subject, a tenant, 
subjects in general. PI. <Uj2^ rcumyatUnah. 

£j raghhaty s.m. (2nd) Desire, avidity, 
curiosity, wish. 2. Esteem, affection, pleasure. 
PI. ^f^j ra^batUnah, Jx^ ^^^^j ro^bat 
kedal, verb intrans. To be desirous, to be 
curious. JjS" cu^-i; ra^bat kawul, verb 
trans. To desire, wish for, covet. 

Jjjj4; T'^arredal, verb intrans. To roll, to 
wallow (as a child), to trundle, to turn over 
and over. Pres. grji; r'ghafri] past J 
»jj^ wurT^ghafredah) ftit. g?^ ij ^wu bah 
r*^at3n; imp. SjCj J wu-r'^afraA ; act. 
part. t^j*^lj4^ r'^atredunkaey or ^^djjLj 
r'^atredUnaey ; past part. ^>^jfy r'^afre- 
dalaey; verb. n. <Ujj^ r'^tredana'A or 
^"Hjh '''' shtT^dah. Jjj|4; r^gha'crawul, verb 
trans. To roll, to turn over and over, to 
trundle or bowl along the ground. Pres. 
i^}j^j r'^arrawl ; past 9^\jfy J wtHr^ghc^tl^' 
wuh or j^'j^ r'^axrdwo ; fat. i/f|4^ <o J 
w?w JoA r'^florawl ; imp. zj^j^j J 72?w- 
T^ ghatsiaroah ; act. part, ^jjjjjjj^ r'^acro- 
Toilnkaey or y^^^fj r^ ghaxrawiknaey \ past 
part. y^jj4; r^acraw?tf/a^; verb. n. ^^jfj 

Ja^js; r*s^ashtal (W.) or r'ghal3itdl (B.) verb 
intrans^ To roll, to wallow, to trundle, to 
turn over and over. This infinitive is im- 
perfect, and is the same in meaning as 
J^ji; firom which it supplieiB^ its own 
deficiencies. Past ir ^^^^hj J wu^^s^a^t or 
finjHr'gMd^\ act, part ,^^24^ r'ghadhU 

Unkaey or r'sh<^tilnkaey or t^/^' 
Unaey, or r'^a/^tUnaey ; pastp 
r^ghashiaey or r^ghafditaey^ ai 
T^ gha^htalaey or r'ghdlditdUiey. 
Jij raghaey, s.m. (1st) A sma 
saucer, a salver. PI. ^^ f. See c. 
Jjux; Toghedal^ verb intrans. To 
recover, to improve, to mend, to 
to be independent. Pres. ^<^ 
(W.) or ^J^j raghegl (E.) ; j 
r{?2A shaK'oT iJ^ J wu-shah ; fat. 
r^ &aA ^i or ^ J <u doA ita 

^ ^ ^^"^ ^^^ or <Ll J fvu- 
part. t^^«3u^ raghedHnhaey 

raghedUnaey ; past part, f^ r{>^ 
rogh shawaey \ verb. n. ^J^ i 
or 9S0XJ raghedah. Jji; rag^ 
trans. To recover, to cure, to hea 
to improve, to restore to health ai 
2. To render independent. I 
ragh<m% ; past j^ <^ rogh kaxr 
Aarr; fut. g?^ <u ^ rogh bah i 
i^j^ bah wu kfrl ; imp. Sjf i^j ' 
or yf ^ wu'kjrah ; act. part. ^^ 
wUnkaey or ^^^j raghawUnaey \ 
^jf fcy rogAkafToey ; verb. n. < 
rvuna*h. See ijj 

Pjlii; rqftdr, s.m. (1st) (from ^j^) 
walk, going, motion, procedure. 
raftdrUnah. ^i^j raftdnl, adj. 
transient, fit or ready to go. 

^J6J rafcB^h^ s.f. (3rd) (corrup. 
Repelling, removing, settling, 
finishing. PI. ^ ey, <ui J <ui; r^ 
Settling, deciding, finishing. 
rqfce'h kedal, verb intrans. To 
removed, or repelled. Jj^ ^uu; re 
verb trans. To settle, to repel, to 1 

A Lii-.'^je; rafa-^Ltf s.m. (2nd) Eminei 
nobiUtj, elevation, altitude. 

A^ rafUy s.m. (9th) A dam, darn 
and PI. J ^j rafiXrgar, 8.m . (6tl 
one who dams. PI. ^J ^j raf9L 





Jj^ r^ kamulf verb trans. To darn, to 
i J^ rajtff^ Lm. (5th) A companion, comrade, 
accomplice, associate, friend, ally. PI. J^j 

i ^j rakf, s.m. (2nd) A dance, a ball, dancing. 
PL 4jy^j rak^fuA. J«^!^ rak^edal, yerb 
intnns. To dance. Jy^j raf:^afvul, verb 
tians. To make or cause to dance. Bee Jj^o^ 
foi^dalmkA J^^ paddawul. 
iitij ru^aa*A, s.f. (3rd) A note, a letter, a 

UDet. 3. A piece, a bit, a patch. PI. ^ ey. 
i ^j raiuim, s.m. (2nd) A royal edict. 2. A 

diaracter, entry, mark, sign. PI. ^y%Jij 

rafamOnoA. ^^j rukUm, Arithmetic. 
iu«J^ rafclb, 8.m. (5th) A guardian, a 

aval, an enemy. PI. ^^LJ; rakibdn. See 

A USj rikdb, s.m. (2nd) A stirrup. 2. Train. 

Fl. A3yl(; riAdb-UnaA. 
dij ruAdt, s.m. (2nd) (corrup. of a ls-^,) 
A genuflexion in prayer, a prostration PI. 
^p^j roAdtUnoA. 
yj^jToA^ (W.) or roAm (E.) But, track, path, 

Mrk of anything drawn along, course of a 

■taim or current, a mark left by anything 

^t has passed along, a line, a mark. PI. 

^y^j TaA^UnaA and roA^UnaA. 
^4j ^^^9 B.m. (2nd) A prop, a pillar, aid, 

•pport. PL ij^j ruAnUnaA. 
* if J rukikB, s.f. (1st) Bowing the body in 

I»^er. PL ^^j ruAaai. 
*r^ riAeb, s.m. (2nd) A stirrup iron. PI. 

^btt^; riAebUnoA. jumJ u-^^ riAeb ta»ma*A, 

^ (8rd) A stirrup leather. PI. ^J ey. 
'•^ ray, s.m. (2nd) A vein, a fibre, a tendon. 

^ <ij^ ragUnoA. Jaj CJj rag rvahal, verb 

*"*«. To bleed, to open a vein. 
^i) ^(^rraejf, adj. as s.m. (1st) A child stinted 

^ milk. PL ^ f . (Fem.) ^Jj rigarraX 

••t (6th). .Sing, and PL "^ 
\f)^aeg^ s.m. (1st) Belationship, connexion, 

■lodred, consanguinity, family tie, filiation. 
^ '• Jj^ vJ^ Togaey Aarcul, verb trans. 

To link, to aflUiate, to connect, to make con- 
nexion, to form relationship. 

Sj^j rcmbdrra'Af s.f. (3rd) The bellow of a 
bull or cow, low, bleating as a calf. PL ^ 
ey. Jaj *jL^jrawJ5rra'Awa^a/, verb trans. 
To bellow, low, bleat, etc. 

^JL^ ramboAaey^ s.m. (Ist) The bellow of a 
bull (only). PL ^^ t. 

^j ramba^A, s.f. (3rd) A centre-bit, a borer. 
PL ^ ey. 

^j^j rambaey, s.m. (Ist) A hoe, a grass cutter e 
hoe, an instrument for cutting leather. PL 
jtf i. J^ ^j^j rambaey Aarcul or Jjbj ^^^j 
rambaey wakal, verb trans. To hoe, to weed, 
to clean with a hoe. 

Vj^j ramz, s.m. (2nd) A wink, sign, nod, hint, 
sarcasm. PL ^^'^j ramzUnaA. 

k\yj rormUz, s.m. (9th) (PL of J^) A Avink, 
nod, sign, hint, riddle, enigma, an ambiguous 
expression, or allusion. Sing, and PL 

p ^j ramdh, s.f. (3rd) A herd, a flock. PL ^ 
ey. See cJ^ 

^j rameyy s.f. (3rd) PL Mucus, bile, the whitish 
matter voided in tenesmus, the discharge 
before labour. 2. A bowel complaint, 
dysentery. See dj^ and c-->^ 

Jju^ ramedal, verb intrans. To behave, to 
comport. To proceed as cattle when going to 
graze, going in a flock or herd. 2. To become 
terrified or disturbed (from P ^*w). Pres. 
^jfi^j ramejzi (W.) or ^S^j ramegt (E.) ; 
past 2f*W J '^^ ramedah or Ju^ ramedu ; 
fut. i^jfi^j ^ J w?w bah ramejzi or ^J^j 
ramegl ; imp. ij^j J wu-ramejzah or *ij^i 
ramegah ; act. part. ^^^*>rV ^om^dUnAaey 
or jji^jk-^ ramcdUnacy ; past part. ,jJ*x^i 
ramedalaey; verb. n. <Oju^ ramedanah or 
»ju^ ramedah. J^^ ramaivul, verb trans. 
To conduct, to manage, to conduct as cattle 
to graze. 2. To terrify, to disturb. Pree. 
^jy^j ramawl ; past »jU; J /2?w ramdrvuh or 
j^U; ramawo ; fut. ^^^^ ij ^wu bah ramawl ; 
imp. »^^ J ww-rawaTraA ; act. part, ^^^^yj 
ramawUnhaey or ^^j^^ ramawUnaey ; past 






part, ^yj ramawulaey; verb. n. Jjyj 

i-^^jpfj ranjarnlma* hf s.f. (3rd) A box for con- 
taining coUyrium or antimony. V\. ^ etf. 

V CS^j ranjak, s.m. (2nd) Priming powder. 
PI. ^^-s^j ranjakUnah. Jj»yT CS^j 
raiyak dlwUzawul^ verb trans. To bum 
priming, to flash in the pan. JJjU CSafj 
ranjak dlrcatal, verb intrans. To flash in the 
pan, to miss fire. J^T CS^j rargak 
d^awul, verb trans. To prime. ^^\j CSafj 
ranjak dan, s.m. (2nd) The priming pan of a 
firelock or matchlock. PI. ^y^J ^^-^^^ 
ranjak ddnUnah, 

Aj^^j runjUnUna'h, s.f. (3rd) A box for col- 
lyrium or antimony. PI. ^ ey. See i^^jpfj 

p juj rind, s.m. (3th) A reprobate, a dronkard, 
a debauchee, a libertine, a rake, a profligate, 
a blackguard. V\. ^^jrinddn. adjjrindahy 
8.f. (3rd) V\. ^ey. ^sjj rindl, s.f. (3rd) 
Licentiousness, debauchery, lewdness, lust. 
PI. y^ at. 

J\jjj runddr, s.f. (1st) (E.) A brother's wife.* PI. 
j\jjj rundari, or ij\jjj runddra*h (W.), s.f. 
(3rd). PI. ^^ ey. 8eej\jjj^ andjljcj^^ 

p sjjj ran-ddhy s.f. (3rd) A plane used by 
carpenters for smoothing wood. PI. A ey. 

Ij^j randz, s.m. (2nd) Grief, aflMction, pain, 
anguish, toil, disgust. PI. <0^^ randkUna'k. 
jf^j randzUr, adj. AflMcted, pained, grieved, 
disgusted, troubled in mind, sick; (Fem.) 

• _ • 

hjft^j randzHrah. ^x°^j randzarmaey. 
adj. (past part.) Sickly, unhealthy, constantly 
ailing, invalided ; (Fern.) j^j randzarmi. 
PI. (Masc. and Fem.) \^ f. JjuA^j 
randzedal, verb intrans. To be grieved, 
afflicted, pained, troubled in mind. Pres. 
^jfJ^j randzejzl (W.) or ,^J^j randzegx 
(K.) ; past * Juab'j J wu-randzedah ; fiit. <u J 
^j^j ^u hah randzejzi or ^^^j randzeyl ; 
imp. y^j J nU'randzejzah or aSLar^ 
randzeyah; act. part. ^jJu^juA^j randzedHn- 

kaey or ^^^^^j randzedunaey ; past part. 
djuflb^j randzedalaey \ verb. n. ^Ojuar'^, 

randzedana'h or iJus^j rarndgedah. Jjs'j 
ran^an:ul, verb trans. To grieve, to afflict, to 
pain, etc. Pres. i^ya^j randzqwi; past J 
«jlflB^j wu-randzanmh or ^^j randzatvo; 
fut. ^f^j ij ^ nm bah random; imp. 
^^j J wu-ran^awaA ; act. part, ^^ij^^j 
randzaw^nkaey or ^^^j randzawikui^ ; 
past part, ^^j randzawulaey ; verb. n. 
ijya^jrandzanmna'A. ^j^j^j randkdradaif 
verb intrans. To hurt, injure, pain, diatress, 
irritate, nauseate, displease, grieve, disgust. 
Pres. f^jj^j ran^Ure^i (W.) or ^Jjjjb^j 
randzureyi (E.) ; past ^ jjab'j randzilr skaA 
or <Ui j Ku-skah ; fut. ^JU dj j^j ran^^Sr 
bah ski or ^ J dj bak wu-shi ; imp jjo^j 
iJi, randzSr skak or <L2» J wu-^oA ; act. part^ 
^jXJjJjjj^j randzUredUnkaey or rP^^Hjy^j^ 
randzUredUnaey ; past part, j^j ran^Ur 
^^ jya^j randzUr skawaey; verb. 
^'^ij^j randzQredand h or TiSij^j ran dz—. 
Uredak. {^•j^j randzUrawtdf verb (iimii 
To hurt, injure, distress, pain, irritate, 
please, grieve ; to disgust, to nauseate. 
i^jU^j randzUrawl; past jS j^i^ randz 
karr or S ^ wu-karr; fut, gp^ jj j 
randzUr bah krri or f^J j ^ AoA nn*^ 
imp. >j^ jy^j randzUr kfrah or j^ 
nrU'krrak; act. part, y^^yj^j ^^ 
arcUnkaey ot^^%j^j randzUrawUnaey; 

part, ^^j^ j^j ron^zUr karraey; verb 
dj^u^j randzilrawuna!k. 
P tlio; rawy, s.m. (2nd) Colour, hue, tint, sc^ 
method, manner, kind, way, etc. PI. ij 
rangUnak. Cfjj \£; ranga-rang or db C 
\l^'fj rang pah rang, adj. Various, vari- 
colours, hues, or sorts, jij C&j rang^w 
s.m. (oth) A dyer, one whose business ifi 
dye. PI. J\Jij C^j rang-rezan. hjij ^i 
rang-rezahy s.f. (3rd). PI. ^ ey. ^jtj 
rang-rezi, s.f. (3rd) Dying, tinging. PI* 
al. Jyi; rangan-icl, verb trans. To dy^i 
colour, to stain, to tinge. Pres. ^^ 
ranga7v't ; past j^ ^^^j rang karr or 
itU'karr ; fut. 4^ aj {JJjj rang bah kjST^ 

^ 01 







^^jf J ^ IntA wu-kfTi ; imp. ij CJoj rang 
krr^A or »^ J wu-kTrah ; act. part, jj-^j^^j 
ranffoivilniaey or ^^j rangawUnaey ; past 
part. ^^ Cio; ra^iy karraey ; verb. n. ^f^^j 

g^j ratiffaU, B.m. (2nd) Weeping, blubbering, 
whimpering. PI. ^j^j ranga^Unah. \^^j 
Jftj rangaU waAal, verb trans. To whimper, 
to greet, to blubber, to weep. 

^^j ringafToey, adj. Beaten down by the rain 
(as com), laid low (as a field of grain). i^J^j 
Jju^ ringarraey kedcU, verb intrans. To be 
beaten do^m or laid low by rain or wind. 
JjS^ K^jfij ringarraey kawul, verb trans. To 
beat down, to lay low. 
^jgi&j rangaejf, adj. Thin, scanty (as hair, etc.), 
scarce, scattered, thinly scattered, not dense 
(as grain sown, or com in a field), slight 
(as rain) ; (Fem.) *fij rangcHl. ^J^ ^j 
nmgaey hdrdn, Scattered rain, a slight shower. 
J^ L^j rangaeyfa^ly A scanty crop, a slight 
harvest. ^^^^^ ^j rangdl weshtcHh (W.) 
or weJ^tdh (E.) Thin or scattered hair. See 

** c^ff^ ranyfn, adj. Coloured, gaudy, painted, 
variegated, fine, showy, various; (Fem.) 
^uX; rangHna'h. J^ c^j rangtn kawul, 
verb trans. To colour, to tint, to stain, to 

^ ^^ J rarm& or rujrnd, s.f. (6th) Brightness, 
lustre, shine, brilliancy, splendour, refulgence, 
luminousness, glare, flare, glow, glitter, glisten, 
apaik, blaze, flash, coruscation, halo, glory, 
the light of day, daylight. (W.) PI. ^j\jj 
Totsgairf. (E.) Sing, and PI. Also \jjj 
Tikma. and i^^j^^j rUrmdwu and ^\^j 
TwaauLX s.f. (3rd). PI. y^ dl. 
roj adj. Easy, slow, soft, not quick, quiet, 
placid, demure, serene. jijj^r{?-r{?, adv. Softly, 
C^ntly, gradually, slowly, easily, leisurely, de- 
liberately. See jj^ , jly J^j , and ,115 jlU 

^ ^^j rUf sjn. (9th) Face, surface. Sing, and 
II. See^^^j 

^ \j rwvd, adj. (pres. part, of ^^J), Lawful, 

allowable, right, proper, worthy, current, 
going, passing. j\j \^j rawd-dar, s.m. (5th) 
An approver, chooser, consenter ; approving, 
consenting, holding right. PI. ^j\ii \^j rawdr 
dardn, ^j\j \jj rawd-ddra'A, s.f. (3rd). PI. 
^ ^. c£;^*^ ^3j rawd'ddri, s.f. (3rd) Appro- 
bation, consent. PI. ^ a% Jju^ \»j rarod 
kedal, verb intrans. To become lawful or right. 
4^ IjM rawd kawuly verb trans. To make law- 
ful, to make worthy or approved, to render 
proper, right, etc. 

\^j r'wdf s.f. (6th) The marriage procession of 
women who accompany the bridegroom to the 
house of the bride. Sing, and PI. See \j^ 

ijjl^j ruwezey^ s.f. (3rd) The female guests in- 
vited to accompany the bridegroom in a mar- 
riage procession. Sing, iy^^j ruwezdh. See 
^j\^j^ and ^^s^ 

A J\^j rawdjy s.m. (2nd) Oustom, usage, fashion, 
currency, vent, sale, etc. PI. ^^^^j rawdj- 
Unah. 2. adj. Current, customary, fashion- 
able, vendible ; (Fem.) ^\^j rawdja*h. ^\^j 
J^ rarvdj laral, verb trans. To have or hold 
currency, to be current or fashionable, to be 
in use, to have sale, ij^jj ^r^jj rawdj war- 
kawuly verb trans. To make current or custo- 
mary, to render saleable. 

^^j ruW'dn, adj. Desolate, ruined, destroyed, 
ravaged, laid waste, devastated ; (Fem.) ej\jj 
ruW'dnaHh, See ^j^ 

p ^^j rawdn, adj. (pres. pari;, of ^^ii^). Moving, 
going, flowing, running, current, fluent, on 
the move. Jjuj^jj rawdnedal, verb intrans. 
To go, run, flow, move, set out, depart, to be 
set a-going, to become current, to glide along, 
to slide, to find its way, etc. Pres. i^fysj\)i 
ratvdriejzi (W.) or ^J^^^j rawdnegi(E^ ; 
past O ^^\jj rawdn shah or A^ J wti-shah ; 
fut. ^ <u f^\^j rawdn bah shl or ^J^ J <0 
bah wu-shi ; imp. ^ f^\jj raafodn shah or 
<L£» j wU'shah; act. part, ^t-^^^^^jij rawdn- 
edUnkaey or ^^^^^j rawdnedunaey ; past 
pari;. ^yi» ^\^j rawdn shawaey; verb. n. 
^*^\jU rawdnedana'h or 9^\ju rawdnedah. 




Jy W ^^^<^^*^^^lf ^6fb truiB. To deipatcli, to 
cause to flow> to make inoye> to cause to de- 
parti to make current, to make slide, etc. 
Pres. ^^y^jj rawdnawl ; past jf ^^\jj rawdn 
kofT OTjf J wU'kai^r ; fut. ,^^ <u ^Vy rowan 
bah krri or ^^J^ j ^J bah wu-hfrt; imp. 
'jf kJ^JJ ^^^^^ hrrah or ii^ J wu-hrrah ; act. 
]^rt. <^jy)jt^ rof^dno^ilnAa^ or ^jy^^j 
roTPdnon^no^y ; past part. ^^ ^f^j ra/wdn 
katraey; verb. n. ^3^1^ rawdnawuna'h. 

p ^Ij; rawdnah, adj. Despatched, departed, pro- 
ceeding. 2. s.f. (3rd) A passport. PI. ^ €y. 
Jju^ ij\^j rawdnah hedal, verb in trans. To 
flow, to be despatched. J^ ^j\^j rawdnah 
kanml, yerb trans. To despatch, to send away, 
to set a-going. 

P ij,\ju rawdnl, s.m. (3rd) Reading, commencing 
to read, as a child or pupil. PI. ^^ a'f. 

A ^•i:^J^^j riwdyat, s.m. (2nd) A narrative, tale, 
history, fable, fiction* PI. ^j^^^j riwdyat- 
Unah, J^ ^^^^IjU ^^^y^^ kawulf verb trans. 
To relate, to recite, to narrate. 

^ Ifijj mbam, adv. Face to face, before, over 
against* See ^Is^ 

B ,>j^j nipa% s.f. (6th) A silver coin so called. 
Sing, and PI. (E.) See ^^ 

B ^jj roUal, s.f. (6th) Bread, leavened or un- 
leavened. Sing, and PI. See Jg,^^^ 

A ^^j mh, s.m. (5th) The soul, the spirit. PI. 
^Ujj riilidn, ^i^JJ^ rujidnlf adj. Spiritual, 
of the soul. i^\ ^jj ruhu'lrlah, The Spirit of 
Gk)d, Jesus Christ, the Holy Ghost. 

^^j ro^, s.m. (2nd) Side, part, quarter, extrem- 
ity, towards. PI. ^y^^j ro^Unah. 2. adj. 
Fit, proper, worthy (E.) ; (Fem.) iS^^j roMioih. 

y^yj roJ^kaey, s.m. (1st) (W.) Side, part, etc. 
PI. ^^ f . See preceding. 

jjj rod, s.m. (2nd) (from p jj^j) A river, a stream, 
PI. ^j<^jj rodUnah. See j>;y..i 

j\i Jjj rodrbdry s.m. (2nd) A place from whence 
many streams run, a river in a valley. PI. 
^jjb Jjj rod'bdrUnah. <0U. J^j rodrMdna'h, 
s.f. (3rd) A river, the bed of a river. PI. ^^ ey. 

J jjij raW'dal, verb trans. To suck, to draw out 

(as milk from the breast), to inhale, 
2. To reap, to cut com, to cut, t 
divide. Pres. ^^^j rawl ; past Jy J 
fut. (^ . ij i wu bah rawl ; imp. 
rawah; act. part. ^j^^*>jj ranwi 
(S^'^^J ^owdUnaey) past part, j 
dalaey; verb*, n. ^^jj ran^cfonai 
rawdah. See J-jj 
JL?J ''^' ^•°^* ^^^^^ ^^-^ A brother. PI. jr 
ah. ^!j ^jj r<?r wdlaey, s.m. (Isl 
hood, fraternity, brotherliness. PI. 

p \^j roz, s.m. (9th) A day ; used on] 
position, as ^\)jj rozdna*h, s.f. (3r 
allowance, daily wages. PI. ^^ g 
or adv. Daily, day by day, by daj 
roz-ffdr, s.m. (2nd) Service, earning 
fortune, age. PI. ^jj^jyj ^o:^ 
Jj^ ^ jyj roz-gdr ka/wul, verb tran 
to serve. *yj3j ^^^ marrah, ad^ 
daily, continually. 

p ij^j rozdhy s.f. (3rd) Fast, Lent. 
J^ ij^j rozdh niwal, verb trans, 
keep a fast. (jy^ ^jyj rozdh 
verb trans. To break a fast, j! J « 
ddr, s.m. (5th) One who fasts or kc 
a faster. PI. J^j\^ xj^j rozdh ddr 
iij\j rozdh ddrdh, s.f. (3rd) A w 
keeps Lent. PI. ^ ey, 

p ^^j^J rozl, s.f. (3rd) Employment, 
PI. ^ di. j^ ^jyj rozl Mior, s.] 

living creature. PI. ^jy^ ^jyj ^Oi 
or iijyt>^ ^j^j rozl Mwrdh, s.f. (3rd) 
L^j rwadZy s.f. (Ist) A day. PI. jl^ 
or ±;j wradz and Lj^ wrad^. " ^ 
rwadz pah rwack, adv. Constant 
every day. ^^y j^yj rwadz-o-sh 
Day and night, always, constantly. 
*^j da kl-d-mat rwadz, s.f. (Ist) T 
judgment. PI. ±yj rwad^, ±^j 
rwa^, adv. Dafly, every day. 
parUn rwadz. Yesterday. jL^j a^ • 
rwadk, adv. The day before yesterda 


±jj Id wofcma^k rfva^, adv. Three days since. 

Ov ^^JS^'^f ^'^' (3^) ^ ^^1 Lent. PI. ^ ey. 
^ *jyj Tojzjoihrtaey^ (Ist) A faster, one 
who keeps Lent. PL ^^ i. s.f. (6th) ^^ dx, 
Bing. and PL J^ Zjyj roj^h niwal, verb 
tnna. To keep a fast, to keep Lent. Jy U nj^j 
ro^*A miUanml, verb trans. To break a fast. 
\£^J^L^ t^jyj ^ da rojzey ml-dsht, The fast 
month. Lent, or month of Bamazftn. Also 
i^jj rojdh and ^^yj rqjey amongst some 
tribes. See $j^ 
JhjjTU^, adj. Habituated, accustomed, used 
^, addicted to, given to, in the habit of, 
hardened, inured, seasoned, acclimatized ; 
(Fern.) if*lf^ rUjzda'h. \^*^jyj rujzdaey, 
0.111. (Ist) A person given to any habit, 
addicted to or hardened in anything. PL ^c t. 
fl.ll (6th) y^ aX Sing, and PL Jl^ j,^^ 
T %Jzd wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Habitualness, ad- 
dietednesB, acclimation. PL ^c f « Also Jj^j 
c-»^ r^^d-tob, s.m. (2nd). PL i^yy tab- 
IbioA ; and Ij j^^j rUjzd tVd, s.f. (6th) (E.) 
Sing, and PL (W.) PL ^^^Lj (t'd'tvi. 
(J«SuiJ.j^ rUjzdedalf verb intrans. To become 
l^abitoivked, addicted to, given to, inured, 
loudened, used to, etc. Pres. i^j^^j^j mjzdejzl 
^•) <MP ^JjJjj^ rujzdegl (E.) ; past iJ^ j,^j 
''•gi ^ah or A-5» J wt^shah ; fut. ^ <u j,jj 
^"•gi bah «Al or ^ J aj bah wthshl ; imp. 
*^ 0^1^ rUjzd shah or ^ J wu-skah ; act. 
^•'*' ^^^J•M*iJ;^J ruj^dedanhaey or ^^^ J^«^jy 
'"%(ie«tefia^y ; past part. J.jj rfi^rf or Jj^j 
Vj* rgjgrf ^awaey ; verb. n. <U Jj J.^^ i rUjzde- 
^*«aa'A or *dkiJjj^ rUj^dedah. (jy*^jyj rUjzd- 
^'^verb trans. To teach, to habituate, to 
^ddiet, to inure, to harden, to train, to form, 
^ leeostom, to render used to, to acclimate. 
^^' ^y^jfij ^Mdaaioi ; past ^ J,^ rUjzd 
^t£0fj^ fDUrhatr; fut. g?^ <u j.jj^ rt^^rf 
*•* icri or ^^ J ^ bah wu-krri ; imp. j,jj^ 
'i ''•gi AffoA or jf^ J n;tt-A2TaA ; act. part. 
,^jj4^jy rujgdawilnkaey or^ojj j.^^ rSj^efei- 



wUnaey ; past part, ^^j^ Jy^ ril^d hafs^aey ; 

verb. n. ^^Aj^j rUjzdannma'h. 
9sjj rojzdh^ s.f. (3rd) A fast, Lent. PL ^ ty. 

J>y *ojt^ rojza'h nl-ival, verb trans. To fast, 

to keep Lent, t] 2rjjj^ rojzcHh-taey^ s.m. (1st) 

A faster, one who keeps Lent. PL ^ t. s.f. 

(6th) jA cHu Sing, and PL See under Hj^j 

and *;jj 
v:i-^jlj rost, adj. (4th) Rotten, decayed, corrupt, 

putrid, noisome, fetid, stinking, carious, etc. 

PL iz^^j r'wastah ; (Fem.) dz^^j rosta'h. PL 

jjJ^ ^^i^^jj '^'ost-wahey, s.m. (Ist) Rottenness, 

putrescence, decay, taint, cariousness, etc. 

PL S\y wall, 
y^jU rwasto, adv. In the rear, after, behind. 

JIS^ P--JJI. rwastey kdl, Last year. See also 

•Smmji* and Cim^jyt^ 
Jjui-sjjj rostedal, verb intrans. To become or 

turn rotten, fetid, putrid, noisome or carious, 

to stink, to rot, to decay, to putrefy. Pres. 

^j^^ rostejzl ( W.) or ^J^jjj rostegl (E.) ; 

past <l2> L^-^jij rost skahoviJ^ ^ wurshah ; fut. 

^ Jj Ls-^jj^ r(?5^ JaA ski or ^^ J <u bah 

wU'shl ; imp. <lS» ^^:^^yj rost shah or ^ J 
rvU'shah ; act part. ^jX;jJui.-»^j rostedUnkaey 

or i^jJ^-=^jj rostedunaey ; part part. c:^-»j^ 
rt?5^ or j^y» '^^^^^JL^ ^^^^ shawaey ; verb. n. 
ijs^z^yj rostedanah. J/^jj rostawul, verb 
trans. To make or turn rotten, putrid, noisome, 
fetid, stinking, etc. Pres. i^y^jj rostawl ; 

pastj^ '•^^-^jj ''^^^ ^^22* ^^J^ J ^^'^^tri fxit. 
i^ 40 c:^v«»j|j r(?5^ iaA Am or ^J J <u iaA 

72?w-Arr? ; imp. iJ ts^^jj r{?5^ krrah ox aj i 
wU'krrah ; act. part. ^^^^yj^}j rostarcUnkaey 
or ^^y^yj rostawunaey ; past part, vji-^-ijj 
y^S rost katraey ; verb. n. Ajy^^j rosta- 
(^Wjj Toshdn (W.) or rojdidn (E.) adj. Bright, 
light, luminous, shining, vivid,lustrous,radiant, 
sunny, clear, resplendent, refulgent, splendid ; 
(Fem.) <Uli|ijM roshdna'h or roJ^dndh. PL ,^ 
6y. J Ju^ {J^^j '"'oshdn or ro^Sn A^c^a/, verb 





intrans. To shine, to glitter, to cast a lustre, 
to become luminous. Jj^ \J^3J ^osh&n or 
rojdian kawul, verb trans. To light, to render 
luminous or lustrous, to illuminate, to brighten . 
S^Wjl; ^0^^*^ OT Toldiruily s.f. (3rd) Light, 
brightness, lustre, brilliancy, effulgence, glow, 
glare, flare, etc. PI. ^^ a't. 

^^j ro-shan (W.) or ro-ldian (E.) (from P^^^j) 
adj. light, luminous, bright, shining, splendid ; 
manifest, conspicuous; (Fem.) <U4>«^ ro-shanah 
or ro-JSuma'h. See ^^Wjj 

A i^^j rau7^a!hy s.f. (3rd) A garden, mausoleum. 
PI. ^ ey. 

iyj rogh^ adj. Healthy, in health, well, sound, 
hearty, hale, fresh, whole, robust, vigorous. 
Sing, and PI. ; (Fem.) i^^j roghcHh, PI. ^ 
ey. ^\^ fy rogh wdlaey, s.m. (Ist) Health, 

soundness, heartiness, haleness, vigour. PI. 
^Ij wdH. Also L^y 9jj^ogA tob, s.m. (2nd). 

PI. ejy}y) tobUnah, j ijj rogh batr, s.m. 
(2nd) Asking after health, inquiring aft«r cir- 
cumstances, etc. PI. ^j^j) ijj rogh barrunah, 
J^ ji iy rogh barr kawul, To inquire after 
another's health, to salute. See Jj^ and 

ix.^j roghoHh^ s.f. (3rd) Amity, peace, unanimity, 
friendship, affection, harmony, intercourse, 
fellowship, etc. PI. ^ ey. J ju^ ix,^j roghcHh 
kedal, verb intrans. To fraternize, to sympa- 
thize. Jj^ iJi^j roghcHh kawuly verb trans. 
To make peace, to act in harmony, to show 

8 jJijM rok, s.m. (2nd) Ready money, cash. PI. 
^^3J ^^^'^'^^ 2. adj. One who pays ready 
cash ; (Fem.) i^^j rokaHh. 

CJ^j rogy s.m. (2nd) A strap for a sandal, a belt, 
a thong, a strap, the strap of a churning stick. 
PI. ^^^j rogUnah. 

di^j rwaga!h, s.f. (3rd) A flea, (E.\ or Hj^ 
rwajzcCh (W.) PL ^^ ey. See s^j^ 

A ^ju mm, s. prop. Rome, Roum, the Turkish 
empire, Roumelia. 

P (J^^j rUmdl, s.m. (2nd) A handkerchief, a 
towel, a napkin. PI. ^jSttjj^ rUmdlUnah, 

^jy run, s.m. (2nd) The thigh. 
rUnUnah. See ^^^^ 

A j;3«« ronafi; or raunak, s.m. (2nd) S 
elegance, ornament, beauty. PL Ajyi 
Unah or raunakUnalk. 

\jjij rUrma or rorma. s.f. (6th) B 
brilliancy, lustre, etc. PL s^^^^j^j 
or rorrndtvl (W.) (E.) Sing, and PL 

Jjij rUrm, adj. Bright, luminous, shini 
lustrous, radiant, lambent, sunny, c 
iug; {¥em.) if^^jrUirna'h. ^^ »^x 
shpclh, s.f. (3rd) Watching by ni 
^^-Ji shpey. iJ^Ji) rUrrnedal, yet 
To shine, glitter, glisten, glow, glc 
sparkle, coruscate, brighten. Pre 
rUrmejzi (W.) or i/ijv ^tmegt ( 
dJii Ji^j rUrm shah, or A-l J wu-^ 
i^ <o J^j rurm bah shl or ^^ J 4 
shi\ imp. ^ j^^j rUrm shah or 
shah ; act. part. jj^j*3^jj rUrmed 
^j jjjjij rUrmedUnaey ; past part, 
or yiyJa J^j rUrm shawa^y) verb, i 
rUrmedaruCh or ^^i^j rUrrnedak, 
rUrmawul, verb trans. To illuminai 
make bright, to make clear, to cause 
glitter, or sparkle, to throw light on 
coruscate. 2. To watch by nigh 
sAu^J^J r«272i«/2?i ; past ^ j^j rUfr 
J^ j wU'katr ; fiit. ^j^ <u J^j nim\ 
or ,^jf J ij bah tvu-hrrl ; imp. xj j 
krrah ov »jf i wu-kfrah ; act. part. ^ 
rUrmawUnhiey or ^^^j^^j rUrrm 
past part, k^^ j^xj rUrrn Aarraey; 
^}J^j rUrmawunah. 

8^j roh, s. prop. The mountainous c 
Afghanistan dnd part of BaltLchist&n 
rohelah, s.m. (6th) The name of the 
Roh, and, at times, erroneously appl 
Afghans. Sing, and PL 

^jjjbjj^ rohilaey, s.m. (Ist) An Afghftn. 
from Roh, a name given to the cc 
tween Eandah&r and Ghaznl, and tJ 
PL ^ I. s.f. (6th) Sing, and PI 

See under i 






^<Lajj roAelaey, 8.m. (Ist) A Bohelah. PI. ^ 
I; (Fern.) Sing, and PL ^^ aX See ^^j 

'^ Lf^j Ti£e^ a.m. (2nd) The face, countenance, 
snrfitce. '2. Bake, cause, reason. PI. ^^^j 
rU'eOnak. jjj ^^j rU'e band, a.m. (2nd) A 
yeil worn by females. PL <Ij^xj ^^^j nie- 
bandUnaA. j\j ^^J^ rU'e dor, s.m. (5th) A 
person of rank or dignity. PL ,^^j^*^ i^^j 
rU*e ddrdn. »;1 J ^^j rsCe ddra'h, s.f. (3rd) 
A woman of rank. PL ^^ ey. ^J^^ ^^^j riCe- 
dlori, s.f. (3rd) Bank, dignity, reputation. PL 
^% a*l. ^^fc>^ s^^j Ti£e garddn, adj. Abandon- 
ing, deserting, adverse, backward. ^*^J kJ^j 
J^ rtCegardan karvul, verb trans. To abandon, 
to turn away the face. 

A v:mj2^ rU-yat, s.m. (2nd) Shape, appearance, 
aspect. 2. Seeing, regarding, consideration. 
PL ^y^j m-yat'Unah. 
Jjjj^ ra'e-daly verb intrans. To dispute, to 
wrangle, to altercate, to brawl, to cavil. 
Pres. k^j^j riie-j^ (W.) or ^^^j rue-gl (E.) ; 
past 9^yj J wu-m^e-dah or jjj^j rtCe-da; fut. 
^J-V *? J '^^ ^^^ '^'^-^^O'l^jIj rU'e-gl) imp. 
jkijj^ j fcurTU'e-jzah or aSSj^j ru'e-gah ; act. 
part, ^^^y^j rU'e-dUnkaey or ^j^i^^j ru'e- 
dMnaey ; past part. ^jJ J^^j rtie-dalaey ; verb. 
n. ^ J^ nie-dandh or i^JkJjij nCe-dah, 

\^yj rawera'hf s.f. (3rd) A brother's daughter. 
PL ^2^ ^. See ir^jj^ 

J^3J ^'^^^^j 8-f- (3rd) PL The female guests at 
a marriage invited by the bridegroom (E.) ; 
Sing, ijiyj r^nezaHhy A marriage guest. See 

^jj raivaey, s.m. (1st) A demon, a goblin, a 
fi^ulous being supposed to sit on one's breast 
in sleep— nightmare. PL ^ t. s.f. (3rd) <Ujy 
rafoea!h. V\, ^^ eg. 

^sjb^i rahatcCh, s.f. (3rd) Ease, tranquillity, con- 
tent, happiness, easy circumstances. PL ^ 
eg. J^ isjbj rahata'h kawul, verb trans. To 
take repose, to take rest. 

^ ^ y^ii^j ^^^Uy s.m. (2nd) A wheel for drawing 
water. PL ^fijbj rahattUnah. 
«J^ rahel, s.m. (2nd) A sort of reading desk, a 

support for a book. PL <U^Ljb; rahelUnah, 
i^j raeg, s.m. (1st) Price current, rate, price, 

tariff. PL ^^ t. See 


A \jj riyd, s.f. (6th) Hypocrisy, dissimulation, 
subterfuge, affectation. (E.) Sing, and PL ; 
(W.) PL i/j^tj riyd-wu J^ Uj riyd-kdr, s.m. 
(5th) A hypocrite, a dissembler. PL ^\j^ bj 
riyd'kdrdn ; s.f. (3rd) sj^ b . rxyd-kdrd! h. PL 
v^ «y. \j kjyj ru'e riyd, s.f. (6th) Hypocrisy, 
dissimulation. PL c/^bj ridwl. 

bj rayd, 8.f. (6th) The braying of an ass. (W.) 
PL 4/^b^ rayd'Wl ; (E.) Sing, and PL Jjj 
ra-yal, verb trans. To bray (as an ass). Pres. 
^\j rd-yi ; past Ji^ J ^w ra-yal ; fut. <u J 
^\j wu bah rd-yl ; imp. ij\j J wu-rdyaA ; act. 
part, y^jij ra-yUnkaey or ^^.j ra-yUnaey ; 
past part. ,jlij ra-yalaey ; verb. n. <lj^ 
ra-yanoHh, See V^j 

A o-v-cbj ri-ydsat, s.m. (2nd) Command, sway, 
dominion, government. PL ^^bj ri-ydsat- 
Unah. J^ Li-^bj ri-ydsat karvul, verb trans. 
To rule, to command. 

iLSib^ ri-ydsha'A, s.f. (3rd) (W.) A heap of grain, 
provision, supplies. PL ^^ ey. See ^\j (E.) 

A c:,-wpbj ri-ydT^at, s.m. (2nd) Austerity, ab- 
stemiousness, abstinence, continence. PL 
ijjiJ^lj ri-yd3^atunah. ,A^^j ri-yd^ati, s.m. 
(5th) A devotee, a practiser of austerities. PL 
j^LiL^bj ri-yd^atl'dn. J^ '^^^-^Vj ri-yo^^o^t 
kawul, verb trans. To practise austerities. 

jWj r^'bdr, s.m. (5th) A person who acts as go- 
between or match-maker in cases of marriage 
or betrothal. PL ^j\ij re-bdrdn. iij\ij 
re-bdra'h, s.f. (3rd) A female go-between. 
PL ^ ey. 

^^j\ij re-bdri, s.f. (3rd) Match-making, the 
business of a mateh-maker, or of a marriage 
compact. PL ^^ a*t. Jj^ ^J^j re-bdrl 
kawul, verb trans. To act the go-between or 
mateh-makcr in cases of betrothal (the busi- 
ness of an old woman, generally). 

J-£j re-bal, verb trans. To reap, to cut grain or 
grass, and the like, with a sickle. Pres. ^j 
re-bl ; past ^ j J wu-rebah or c-^j reba ; 

tat. ^jjjj Aj jjDu tak Te-b\ ; imp. *jj_, j wu- 
rtbah ; act. pwt. ,^jtij TebOnkaey or^^j 
reinnaey ; past put. ^i^-ij rebalaey ; verb .d. 
*i-j^ Tebana'h. See Jjj^ 

A ufl^ r{-^n, (2iid) An odonferoas plsnt, 
sweet basil (Acymam piloBom). PI. jlj Jlacr, 
rt-AonfinoA. ^Wtj .ir (MiS»»-i-rt-Ad», The 
seed of the above. 

P fCj rlM, B.m. (Sod) Thin excrement voided in 
durrhcea or d;«enteiy, looseness of the bowels, 
the dung of birds. PI. ajyt;^ rlMflnaA. ^^.J 
rl^an, adj. Loose in the bowels, trocbled with 
alvine discharges ; (Fern.) <iiar, fih&O'na'h; 

also t*«v rihhaey; (Pem.) ^^.J rtMu'i- 
J*j jl^ rtM waheU, verb transTro void thin 
excrement, to dung (as birds). 

^jasT; ni&aetf, s.m. (Ist) A hole in a reservoir, 
or a place where water ia collected for pur- 
poses of irrigation. PI. |C T. 

^Jdu^ redaey, s.m. (Ist) The poppy tulip, the 
wild tulip, of a red colour. PI ^s *■ 

Tjij rez, act. part, (of ,j^j) in compos. Scat- 
tering, pouring, shedding, dropping, '^j ^^ 
^Un-rez, s.m. (5th) A murderer, a sbedder of 
blood. PI, ^IjJj i^y^ l^Un-rezan ; s.f. (3rd) 
*JiJ iii^ i^fln-rfi««'A. PI. ^ e^. ^^j y^et 
^On-res^, s.f. (3rd) Murder, slaughter, blood- 
shed. PL ^^ a'l. Jj^ ^f^ jyjd- iJfln-rf^i 
kanml, verb trans. To slaughter, to shed blood. 
Uj^ Jij rez-morrez, adj. Bruised, in pieces, in 
fisgments, piecemeal. ^^ ]ij^ )ijrez^ma-rez 
bmul, verb trans. To braise, to break in pieces, 
to tear piecemeal. 

p tjij reza'h, aS. (3rd) A piece, a bit, a scrap, 
a fragment, a filing. PI. i^ ^ ; also ^^ii, 
rezffa'i, B.f. (6tli) A small piece or fragment. 
Sing, and PI. iijtj tjij reza'h-rexa'h, adj. In 
pieces, small, broken in piecea. 2. adv. Piece- 
meal, jy ty^j xjij reza'k^eza'h kamul, verb 
trans. To reduce to&agments, to breakin pieces. 

^jjij rejzun or ^^j *j rajzOn, s.m. (9th) (verb. 
M.. oi f^AiJj Te^^daD, Scattering, dispersing, 
shedding, casting, etc. Sing, and PI. 

J Jjj^j rejrdedal, verb intrans. (W.)To tremble, 

to shake, to quiver, to palpitate, to flntb 
beat, to shake from oold, feu, or emi 
Prea. ^^jij re^dl ; past >Jtf^j j »» 
dedah or ^jijj re^Ma ; flit, ^j-ijj *» 
bah re^di ; imp. HiiJj i nu-r^dah ; set. 
jii/jjj J^ re^dedankaetf or (SijJiti^ 
dedanaey ; past part. ^Mi^j re^aeda 
verb. n. Aj jjJ^ rejxdedatu^k or uyOj*j 
dUn. JjJvjjif^fiSOTPtt/, verb trans. To ig 
to shake, to convulse, to cause to treo 
Pres. i^}>ij.j reJ^cUtwi ; past >jl J^ j mt 
damuk at jjl Jjij J^^rfSiro ; ftit. tjFjJ|»j 
ffiu&oAr^eiEm'I; imp. tj.^ ^vnt^ejgde 
act. part. jJ-S^juJiij re^doTtUttkaey or^j 
r^iiwpfljwwy ; past part, ^^y^jj re^di 
(«y;verb.n.*jj0^re^(ia»iiflaA. Bee J A 

A ^^/*^J ra'is, 8.m. (5th) A prince, a chief, a 
PI. ^^y^^ ra'isdn. 

p ,_^ ri^, B.m. (Qni) A beard. H. A 
n^dnoA. Used only in compos., as oi^ 
njA ^and, adj. Laughing, risible, ridiei 
t^jiiji. (_^ ri^ Mandi, B.f. (3rd) A laug 
stock, anything done unworthy of one's b 
PI. ^ a'i. See jj^j 

J.1jj reshal, verb truis. To spin, to twist 
threads. Fr^. ^jt^j reshi ; past Awj> i 
reskai or 'J.Ai.j rejAo ; fut. ,**tJj *J 
^A r«^{ ; imp, t^^jj i wu-re^ah ; aet. 
^^yliij re^anhaey or (jiy^j r«fl4«i 
past port. ifJ-wjj reMoJoey ; verb. n. i 
reshana'h. See iJ-±^^ 

*4jj re^m (W.) or re^am (E.), s,m. 
Silk. Sing, and PL ^j^a^^j re^KA 
reJdmln, adj. Silken, of silk ; also ^ 
re^aml or refAami. (p (•*!tij). See *4J 

A^jj rc^a'A (W.) or re^'h CE.), B.f. (81 
fibre, a fibril, a ttu%ad, a yam, a strip-, aa 
a slip, a fillet, a ribbon. 2. Stringineaal 
meat, a turnip, etc.) PI. j^ ey, (J^Jj , 
reS^ re^ey or reMey reMey, adj. Fib 
stringy, in shreds, in tattoo, ^j+i; 1 
Jj^ reshey re^^ey kamU, veri) tavta 
reduce to tatters or fibres. 




Uj; reft Mi^ (Sad) Sand. PI XijiS^ reg- 
hmh. JU CjS; r^ miU, a.m. (2nd) The 
noting nyeanthoB. PL dUj)U <JiS; r^ mU- 
ImU, v:;^&«mSS; r^»^n, 8.m. (2nd) A sandy 
dice or region. PL a3y\&MiSSj registanUnah. 
V^U CJ^ reg-mMaey, s.m. (Ist) A skink 
liBcerta sdncas). PL ^^ I. 
{AJj^ regdedalf verb intrans. (E.) To shake, 
Ac. ; and J^aJj j regdanml^ verb trans. (E.) 
Po agitate. See Jj^«3^ and J^c^^ for in- 
ladions, and snbstitate CJ for . 
1^ rial, B.m. (2nd) Pus, matter, humour, rheum, 
begs, dross, lees. PL ^y^^ rimanah. ^^j 
fmoH, adj. Mattery, rheumy, impure, dirty, 
Bthy, unclean. See ^^^^ 
; ffiia'A, s.f. (3rd) or gjJ nlra'h, An awl, a 
lioemaker's instrument, PL ^ ey. 
flj firfowdal, verb trans. To raise, to elevate, 
lifi» to uplift, to upraise. Pres. ^^^j ri- 
mni; past 4>^j^ war-yawd; ftit. g;^ aj j 
N» boA ri-yawi ; imp. ^^i ^j war-yawaA ; act. 
art. ^^^^^jfj ri^awdaniaey or ^y^y^j ri- 
mdBnaey ; past part, ^^jij ri-yawdalaey ; 
rb. n« ^«>^j ruyawdana'A. 

, ia the sixteenth letter of the Pu^to 

abety and has no equivalent in either 

io, Persian, or Sanskrit. Some parties 

|uainted with the language have con- 

}d it similar in sound to the Sanskrit 

il V, which is the same in sound as 

4 dil but it is merely necessary to 

, pironounced by an Afgh&n mountaineer 

convinced to the contrary. It is hardly 

) to give the exact pronunciation in 

. and the broad Northumbrian r is the 

approach to it. With, perhaps, 

ih Ih n. rh OT rr of the Armenian, 

no equivalent to be found for it in 

ibet of the Old World. 

ba^ra or »j3t^\j rran^arrah, s.m. 

', the resinous substance obtained 

from the pioe tree. Sing, and PL See sjjj 

L^j trap, s.m. (2nd) Mucus, bile, whitish 
matter voided in dysentery or tenesmus, dis- 
charge before childbirth. PL ^^ rrapihtaA, 

Jju> . rrapedal, verb intrans. To shake, to 
move, to tremble, to be agitated, to writhe, 
to toss about, to bob, to wag, to palpitate, 
etc. Pres. i,^j trapej^ (W.) or ^Xjj 
rrapeyl (E.); past aju^ J wu-frapedah 
or juij fTopeda; fut. 4,^j <u J yiw bah 
trapejzt or ^ j rrapeyl ; imp. »^j j 
wu-frape^oA or <^j rrapeyah ; act. part, 
^j^jdujj rrapedUnAaey or t^^oujj qT*^- 
dUnaey; past part. i^Jujj trapedalaey; 
verb.n. ^*x*j j rrapedana'Aorxj^j f]rapedaA. 
Jjij rrapawul, verb trans. To agitate, to toss, 
to tumble, to buffet, to wallop. 2. To wag the 
tongue, to prate, to chatter, to cackle, to 
jabber, to talk nonsense. 3. To wag or move 
the tongue as a horse, etc. when afflicted with 
a disease to which that animal is liable. 4. 
To rinse or cleanse (as clothes). Pres. gr^j 
trapam ; past »^b j j wu-Trapdnmh or ^^bj 
frapdwo; fut. i^yfj ^ ^ nm baA frapam) 
imp. j^ J J wu-trapamaA ; act. part, ^^^^y^j 
frapawUnkaey or ^ji^j^j rrapawUnaey ; 
past part. ^jJ^ j trapawulaey ; verb. n. <0^j 
rrapawufui'h. See Jjuj^ and Jvj 

*^ ^j rrota'h jzlra'h (W.) or »j^ ^j^ tratdh 
gird A (E.) s.f. (3rd) A beard of an absurd or 
inordinate length. V\, ^ey. 2. adj. Foolish, 
cowardly, nonsensical, dastardly; a poltroon, 
a milksop, a coward. 

Jyj ts^akatvul, verb trans. To mix, to stir, to 
mingle, to amalgamate. Pres. ^^yJ rrakofvt ; 
past if^\jj J nm-rrafcanmh or ^^\jj rrajcdmo ; 
fut. ^^yJ dj ^wu bah rralcawi ; imp. «yj J nu- 
xrakaroah ; act. part.^<ilj>jyj fralcawiLnlujLey or 

vJ^JlAl ^^'^'^*'^^'*^'^ ' past part. ^^ tro^o- 
fvulaey; verb. n. <U^ rTa^;27t<ita'^ See 
J^ and J^o^ 
^^-^j rrumbaey or ,^j tT^mbaey, adj. Fiiat, 
primary ; (Fem.) . ^^j rrumba'l. 2. adv. In 



the first place, firstly. See ^^1 , ^^ , and 

JjjjJj trandedal, verb intrans. To grow or 
become blind, to lose the sight. J^*xJj ^rawrf- 
awul, verb trans. To render blind, to blind, to 
deprive of sight. For inflections, etc., see 
under jj^ 

Cioj rranff, adj. Buined, deserted, depopulated, 
abandoned, spoiled, laid waste ; (Fern.) s£)j 
rrangclh. ^\^ Cioj rrang wSXaey^ s.m. (1st) 
Ruination, destruction, desolation, depopula- 
tion, laying waste. PI. A\^ wall. JjuSij 
rrangedaly verb intrans. To become ruined, 
depopulated, desolated, etc. J^j 'grangar 
wul, verb trans. To ruin, to desolate, to 
destroy, to depopulate, to lay waste. <Jif.y^ 
^^j J Mtrcang-o-rrang , adj. Entirely ruined, 
gone to the dogs. 

t^jJ^U rruroandey, prep. Before, in front, in 
sight or presence of. See t^^^j^^ 

jjjij rrUnd, adj. Blind, sightless, dark, obscure, 
not easily found. PI. * jj)^ rrdndah ; (Fem.) 
«jjj rranda'h, PI. ^^ ey. ^\^ jj^^ rrU'nd 
wdlaey, s.m. (1st) Blindness, darkness. PI. 
J)^ wall; also (^y jjj^j tyflnrf ^i, s.m. 
(2nd). PI. ejjfy tobunak ; or Lj jJjj trS/irf- 
^t'a, s.f. (6th). (E.) Sing, and PI. (W). PI. 
4^^L; fCd-wl. jjjjj v«^ Uap-rrUnd, adj , Totally 
or quite blind, blind as a bat, etc ; (Fem.) 
jfjjj <uj Uapa*h franda'h. See c^. JjjJuj 
trandedal, verb intrans. To become blind, to 
lose the sight. Pres. 4^*xJj rrc^nde^l (W.), 
^^^ w^*^j TTO^ndegl (E.) ; past iL& jjjj rrUnd 
shah or ^ J ww-^aA; fut. ^J^ ^ jj^. 
rrUnd bah shl or ^-i J Aj bah wu-shl ; imp, 
iLl jJjU mZ^ ^^ or <)l2) J wU'shah ; act. 
part, ^jiljjjj jjj rrandedUnhaey OT i^^*3^J^j 
rraTu^cteno^; past part, jjjij jrfiTirf or 
^^ Jujij rrUnd shawaey; verb. n. Aijjjjj 
rrandedana'h or irjj jjj rrandedah. J^JJj 
rrandawul, verb trans. To blind, to render 
blind, to deprive of sight. Pres. ^/j J^j rranda- 
ml ; past ^f jjjjj trUnd karr or jf J wu-karr ; 
fut. 4^ ^ jkJjj. trflnrf AaA Aq:* or ^^ J a^ 

AaA w?M-At2i ; imp. n^ jjjj QT^n 
.*^ J iPW-AjT^ ; act. part, ^^^y 
wUnkaey or ^jij^*xij rrandon?® 
part. ^^ jjjj rrfinrf karraey 

4/j m* A word used in calling op dri 
as ^fJ g?j 2Tf m. 

cij T!to£yy A particle of diminutioi 
nouns to denote smallness in size, 
of endearment, thus, \j^ aj^ ku 

(Fem.) A small goglet. Sing. 
(Masc.) ^^ aey. PI. ^ I, See 
page 29, paragraph 97. 


j zey, called <u«** ^\j and i^y^:^ 
eleventh letter of the Arabic, the t 
the Persian, and the seventeen 
Pushto alphabet. It has no coi 
sound in the Sanskrit, but it is ec 
English z. According to the . 
tem of letters for numbers, it re 

p jlj zad, s.m. (2nd) Food, provi 
<Uj j\j zddUnah. i\j o\j zad-i-rdh 
for travelling, way charges. 

p j\j zdd, past part, (from f^*^]j) ui 
position. Bom. 2. (as a substanti 
a son. j\j ^o\ adaml-zdd, Bon: 
man. j\j ^c^^ parl-zdd, Bom o 
angel, a beautiful woman. ifj\j^ s 
s.m. (5th) A prince. PI. ^tfj 
zddagdn, (^«>|jf^ shah-zdda'i, S 
princess. Sing, and PI* 2r jlj J^\ 
adj. Well bom, of good family 
so\j /^\j^ i^rdm zddah, adj. Bi 
bastard, kj^j JW haldl-zddah, 8 
wedlock, legitimate, jlj ej ti\j zc 
From generation to generation. J^ 
or jtj yk>j zaho-zdd, Bace, lineafi 
family, ofispring. 

p j\j zdr, s.m. (9th) Groan, lament 
plication, complaint. Sing, and 1 
Afflicted, groaning, lamenting. I 




groans or laments ; (Fern.) bj\j zdra'L j\j 
j\j zdr zdr. Great lamentation. ^^^ ; zdn, 
s,f. (3rd) Crying, groaning, lamenting, sup- 
plication, crying out for help. PI. ^ at. 
Jj^ s^b ^^^ ^;pw/, verb trans. To cry for 
help, to supplicate for aid. 

j\j zdr, s.m. (9th) Sacrifice, oblation, consecra- 
tion, ofiering, a victim, ransom, etc. Sing. 
and PI. SecjU- andjU. 

^djj? j]j zdr bUUaey, s.m. (1st) A kind of vrild 
roe. PI. *^?. See^j^jlfr 

f^j zdrraey, adj. (Masc.) The young of any 
animal firom the age of two or three months, 
np to which time it is caDed ^^jcJ tandaey, 
until it leaves off sucking its mother. 2. Late 
crops; (Fem.)jlj zdrri. PI. (Masc. and 
Fern.) jc I, 

Jj zdrri, adj. as s.f. (8th) An animal or woman 
whose milk has run short and become impure; 
late, run out, former. PL ^^ f . From j^j 
old, etc., which see. 

gr;!; zdzl, S.m. (1st). PL The name of a tribe 
of Afghans. i^j\j zdzaey, Sing. A male of 
the above tribe. /^j\j zdzat, s.f. (6th) A 

female or females of the above. Sing, and PL 
c«Jj zdma'A, s.f. (3rd) The jaw-bone. PL ^^ ey. 
fii\j zdngOy s.f. (9th) A cradle for a child, a 
swing. Sing, and PL See J JuSjj zangedaL 
^ ^\j zdnU, s.m. (5th) The knee, the lap. PL 
^^]j zdnUgdn. Jaj y\j zdnU wahal, verb 
tnms. To kneel on one knee. Jr.-Avj^i^ y\j ej 
pah ZdnU k'l^endstal(E.) or Kshenastal (W.) 
verb intrans. To sit or squat on one knee. 
J-;..i\-.j4><' yljj"^ ^ zdnU Kldiendstal or 
K^endstcd, verb intrans. To sit with both 
knees on the ground. Jo-jLj^i^ ylj jU- 
flSfir ZdnU k'tSkendstal or k'skendstal, verb 
intrans. To sit on both knees, with the feet 
under one. See ^^yDj 

^ S^l; ^anf, s.m. (5th) (act. part of bj) An 
adulterer, a whoremonger. PL ^\j\j zdm- 
dn, jlJ\j zdnla'A, s.f. (3rd) An adultress, a 
•trampet, a whore. PL ^^ ey. See^^j-^l^ 

ayjj zdrrnaA, s.f. (3rd) A heron, a cranci a 
bird of a large breed, a kulang. PL ^ ey, 

^jl ; zawUy s. prop. The name of a pass leading 
into Boh. 

A jjb|j zdhidy s.m. (5th) A monk, a hermit, a 
recluse, a zealot. PL ^^1 JUb)j zdhiddn. sjjb^j 
zdhidah, s.f. (3rd) A female recluse, etc. 
PL ^ ey, 2. adj. Religious, devout. i^jjb^« 
zdhidt, s.f. (3rd) Devotion, the life of a 
recluse. PL ,A a*i. 

p ^\j zdi, pres. part, (from ^j\j to be bom). 
' Son of,' a wOTd applied to Afghfin surnames, 
to denote the tribe or clan, as Mac, Ap, and 
0', thus ij]}^ji yUsuf-zdi, The tribe or clan 
of Ytlsuf. Also written ^j zaey, s.m. (1st) 
PL -j zl; (Fem.) Sing, and PL ^j za't, 
(corrup. also of v^^i which see.) 

A jj\j zd'ld, adj. (act. part, of jjj) Redundant, 
superfluous, exceeding. 

A Jj|j zd% adj. (act. part, of Jl^j) Deficient, 
failing, perishing, declining. 

jU) z'bdd, adj. Proved, verified, assayed, tried, 
tested, etc. ; (Fem.) *jIj>j z*bdda*h. Jj^obj 
z'bddedal, verb intrans. To be proved, verified, 
tested, tried, assayed. Pres. cj^^il^j z*bddejzt 
(W.) or ^^*^^.) z'bddeyt (E.) ; past iJL jbj 
z'bdd shah or <il1 J 7vu-shah ; ftit. ^ <0 jbj 
z'bdd bah shl or ^Ji^ J <u bah wu-sht ; imp. 
<LS» jbj z'bdd shah or <Li J nu-shah ; act. 
part. ^jXj^*>ifc>Vj z'bddedunkaey or ^^*^^*^^j 
z^bddedunaey ; past part. jIjj z^bdd or obj 
y^yU z'badshaivaey] verb. n. «0 Jjjbj z'bdde- 
dancHh or * Jj jbj s^bddedah, J^fc>Vj z^bdda- 
wul, verb trans. To prove, to verify, to test, 
to try. Pres. t/^obj z'bddawi ; past J j\jj 
z'bdd harr or^ J tvu-karr ; fut. ^^ <iu jUj 
z*bdd bah krri or ^J^ J «u bah rou-km ; imp. 
li jbj jzr'Jo^;? ^rr^A or i^ J wu-ktrah ; act. 
part. jj-^^y«^Vj zbddawunkaey or ^jy*)Uj 
. z' bddarcunaey ; past part. ^^^^ jljj ;2r*idrf 
karraey] verb. n. <iL3jjbj zbddawuna'h, 

p j^bj zabdn, s.m. (2nd) The tongue ; language, 
diidect, speech. PL ^y Vj zabdnUnah. Used 
only in composition, as j^T ^lij ;rai5» dwar, 





adj. Eloquent, voluble, fluent. ^^T ^j 
zabdn dwarl, s.f. (3rd) Fluency, eloquence. 
PL ^^ a'l. ^\j j^bj zabdn dan, adj. A 
linguist, a poet, skilled in language. j\j j ^bj 
zabdn dardz, adj. Long-tongued, abusive. 
K^j]j^ c;^J ^^^^^ rfara^f, s.f. (3rd) Abuse. 
PI. ^ al. Jj^ ^j\j^ ij^j ^^bdn dardzi 
kawul, verb trans. To abuse, to give abuse, 
,S^j zabdni, adj. By word, of or from the 
tongue, traditional, oral, verbal. Jj^ lV Vj 
zabdni wayal, verb trans. To give a verbal 
message. See ^jJ or <Uj 

A sjjj zubdUih, s.f. (3rd) (from jj ;) The cream 
of milk, the best of anything. PI. ^^ ey. 

jLjij zabar, adj. Above, superior. 2. The vowel 
point (-^) pronounced a, t^:^mJ j»j zabar 
dost, adj. Powerful, vigorous, violent, oppres- 
sive, victorious ; (Fem). iz^^jj zabar dasta'h. 
^j^o j}j zabar dastl, s.f. (3rd) Violence, 
oppression, powerfulness. PI. ^ a'l. 2. adv. 
Violently, forcibly. J^^c^*^^j zabar dastl 
kawul, verb trans. To force, to oppress. 

A P J^^J zabar-jad, s.m. (6th) A kind of emerald, 
a topaz, a jasper. Sing, and PI. 

CJ^j z'barff, adj. Great, large, reverend, vener- 
able, grand. 2. s.m. (5th) A great man, a 
noble, a saint, an elder, an ancestor. PI. 
iJ^J ^'ia/yaw. ^j z'barffa'A, s.f. (3rd). 
An ancestress, etc. PI. ^^ ^. ^^jj z'barffl, 
s.f. (3rd) Grandeur, greatness, eminence, 
seniority, nobleness. PI. ^\ a'l. See CJfjJi 

^\jj zablaA, adv. Together, in company. <djj 
jj\) zablaA bdndi, Fold on fold, etc. See aI.a 

p ^yj zabUny adj. Bad, evil, wicked, faulty, 
ill, unlucky. ^Jyj zabUnl, s.f. (3rd) Badness, 
vileness, vice, evil, ill, unluckiness. PI. ^ 
a*l, Jj^ vJ^j zabunl kawul, verb trans. To 
act with vileness, to cause evil. 

ijj zabdA, s.f. (3rd) (corrup. of Ji^J) The 
tongue, language, dialect, speech. PI. ^J ^. 
See A.^ 

J4^j z'beshal (W.) or z'beMal (E.) verb trans. 
To suck, to draw into the mouth, to draw out, 
to imbibe, to inhale. Pres. ^54-Jj z'be^l; or 

z'belAl ; past dUf^j j wu-z'beshah or ; 
fut. ^j>^j ^jTvu baA z'beSlOTz'beJ 
^i^r^U J wU'z'beshaA or zbeJOiah ; 1 
LS^y^J j2:'i^^a«Atwy or z'be/^Ui 
L^y^j ^'beshUnaey or z^be^Uncu 
part. ^j-Li-Jj z'beshalaey or z'bef^ala 


A (JU 


z'beshandh or z^beUkanoHh 

^j zaikmat, s.m. (2nd) Afflicti 
ness, pain, disquietude. PI. ^fj^^j 
UnaA. J^^ ^^s.>^^^^J zaj^mat KihfiU 
k'lchal (E.), verb trans. To suffer affl 
sickness, to bear or sustain pain 
quietude. ^A^^>^j zabmad, adj. Sick 
p ^j zaMim, s.m. (2nd) A wound, 
scar, a cut. PI. <0^^«^j za}^m&/n 
jSbj^ and jU^ . J^ j»^j jraM^* ^« 
trans. To make or cause a wound. 
zaMmi, adj. Wounded, scarred, cut. 

Jju^ zdl^ml kedaly verb intrans 
wounded. J^ Lf^^J zaUmm koA 
trans. To wound. 

i>j>^j zaMifilA, s.f. (3rd) A wart ; an ex 
on the trunk of a tree. PI. ^ ey. 

A *^J zaMera'A, s.f. (3rd) A heap, 1 
granary, provision. PI. ^J ey. 

p jj jrorf, s.m. (2nd) (from ^^Jj) Stril 
flict, combat. 2. Effect, consequt 
pression. PI. jG^JJ zadUnak. J. 
kawul, verb trans. To strike, to 
cause or make impression. 

vji^bj zaddyat, s.m. (2nd) Family, rf 
^logy, descent. PI. ^j:^^oj ;rdMiaya; 

Jj^jj z'cUhyal, verb trans. To rub, to 
grate, to rasp, to rub down, to pare, 
to wear away, to smooth, to polish 
draw. Pres ^J»j*^ z'do-yl ; past ij 
z'do-yaA ; fut. y^^^j ^ j wu-bah £io 
ij^jj jWU'Z*d(hyaA; act. part. ^<il}j 
yUnkaey or ^yi^*^j z'dcHfU'naey \ 
^jJij^jj z'dcH/alaey) verb. n. ^ 

p KJj zadaA, adj. (from ^j;) Stricken 

injured by heat, cold, etc., withered. 

hJj z'dahf adj. Remembered, recoQe 



.vj^tten, imprinted in the memory, etc., 
2. Acquired, learned, mastered (as a book 
or language), known. 

Jjk«^ ifCfj a^daJi kedal, verb intrans. To be 
learned, acquired, retained in the memory, to 
be reeoUected. Jj^ scij z'daA kawul, verb 
trana. To commit to memory, to get or learn 
by heart, to acquire, to learn, to retain, to 
remember, to recollect, to know by heart. 

» J zor, 8.m. (6th) Gold, riches, wealth, money. 
Sing, and PL jj ^^^^ spin zar. Silver {lit, 

. white gold), jj j-rf«araA;2rar, Gold. ^J^^jj 
zar af^idn, adj. Strewing gold. *Hj^jj 
zar Hajfid, adj. Purchased (as a slave). 
^ zar, adj. A thousand. 2. s.m. (2nd). PI. 
iij^ zarUnaA. 3. adj. Swift, speedy, 
quick, nimble, rapid, jjjj zcer-zar, Speedily, 
swiftly, fleetly, suddcanly. i^^jj zargUnl or 
*j^jj ziergUfWLhf Thousands. See jj and Jjij 
▲ \A^jj ztrd-aatf s.m. (2nd) (from cjj) Agri- 
culture, husbandry, sowing, a crop, a sown 
field, PI. ^^\jj ziroraatUnaA. Jj^ **=-^li; 
ztrdroat kawul, verb trans. To sow, to pre- 
pare land, to bring under cultivation. 

^^ zar^baraM, s.m. (6th) Talc. Sing, and 
PI. See also J^^ j 

v^U; ^ zarM'dnff, s.m. (2nd) An instrument 
for scraping and cleaning leather. PI. jj 
iijfiLf zar-bVdnffUnoA. 
^ ^ ^jj ziardrdlU, s.m. (5th) An apricot. PI. 

J^ Jjj zardrMUgdn. 
^^j^ zardaka'h, s.f. (3rd) A carrot. PI. ^ ey. 

^^1 ZQT-ghJSlclh^ adj. (used as subs.) A lying-in 
^Wnum during forty days after child-birth. 
2. The forty days of child-birth during which 
tvoman is impure. PI. ^ ey. See aSU and 

yftj Zixrj^'Qn, adj. Green, verdant, fresh. 2. 
flwwn up, come up (as vegetation, etc.). 3. 
^l^itytluDg enshrined or imprinted in the heart 
or recollection. (Fem.) ^^jj zar^Undh, 

^* si V' ij^'j \jfyj ^^'^gh'^'^ wdlaey, s.m. 
lit) Greenness, verdancy^ freshness. 2. 

Recollection. PI. ^\^ wdR; also c-^y ^^^i 
zar^Un tob, s.m. (2nd). PL ^^y tobUnah 
and LJ ^fyj zarghUn tVd, s.f. (6th) (E.. 
Sing, and PI. (W.) PI. gr,lJ ttd-wi. 
JjlJ^j zarghunedal, verb intrans. To grow, 
to enlarge, to vegetate, to sprout, to spread, 
to shoot out, to become green, fresh, verdant 
(as a field) Pres. ^j^fyj zarghunejzl (W.) 
or y^fyj zargkunegl (E.) ; past ^C ^^ij 
zarghUn shah or <Ll J tcurshah ; ftit. ^y£jj 
Jtt 40 zarghUn bah shi or J^ J sj bah wu- 
sh'i ; imp. jl^ i^fyj ^orghUn shah or ^ J 
wu'shah\ act. part, ^^^^^fyj zarghUne- 
dUnkaey or jj^^ JlJ^j zarghilnedilnaey ; past 
part, ^y^jj zarghun or ^J^ cJi^J zarghUn 
shawacy \ verb. n. ^^^^jj zarghUneda'h or 
<0juj^j zarghnnedanah. ijyy^jj zarghUn- 
awul, verb trans. To make green, fresh, or 
verdant, to cause or make shoot up, sprout, 
vegetate, or shoot out. Pres. i^yfy'^ 
zarghunam ; past J ^^j) ^(x^rghUn karr or 
^ i wu'karr] fut. ^^ <0 ^fyj zarghUn 
bah krrl or ^^ j <o bah wu-kfrt; imp. 
if uyU) ^^^Sh.'^'^ hrrah or 2r^ J wukrirah ; 
act. part, ii^^^fyj zarghUnawUnkaey or 

yijf zarghun karraey ; verb. n. ^yfyj ^car- 

i^jj zarka'h, s.f. (3rd) The vhikor, the bartavelle 
or Greek partridge. V\, ^ ey, 

vjjj zar-gar, s.m. (5th) A goldsmith, a worker 
in gold. PI. ^Jj) zargardn. 

jAj\ zar-gtr, s.m. (2nd) A thumbstall made of 
leather, worn by archers to defend the thumb 
in pulling the string of a bow. PI. ^^jj 

p vji-uujL-tM zar-mast, adj. Independent, purse- 
proud; (Fem.) <fcu**^j jrar-WMM/a*^. Vl.^ey, 

p ol-J^ zarunbdd, s.m. (6th) The name of a 
•plant, zedoary (Circumba zerumbet). Sing, 
and PI. 

Ajjjj zaranddhy s.f. (3rd) (W.) A water-mill, 
or windmill, or a mill turned by camels or 
bullocks. PI. ^ ey. See nsjjj and »Jj/r 




^jj zarana'%^ s.f. (6th) Peeping, ogling, eye- 
ing, leer, glimpse, espionage. Sing, and PI. 
(E.) ; or Jijj zarant, s.f. (3rd) (W.). PI. ^^ 

al, ^jj <u pah zaranl or ^jj zarancHx Js^ 

katal or J Jul Udal^ verb trans. To look in- 
tently, to strain one's eyes, to gaze, to pore 
over, to ogle, to leer, to take a peep or glimpse 
at. See Jj^^j and ^ j^ <u 
p :^jj zar-nlldk^ s.m. (6th) Orpiment, arsenic. 

Sing, and PI. 
*^jj zararrnahj s.m. (6th) Tar, the resinous 
substance obtamed from the pine. Sing, and 
PI. See * A'l, 

ijjj zararrna'hy s.f. (3rd) Black mud at the 
bottom of a pond, slime. PI. ^ey. 

p hjj zira'hy s.f. (3rd) Iron armour made with 
rings, chain armour. PI. ^^ et/, ^^ ijj 
zvrcih posh or poldiy s.m. (5th) A man in 
chain armour. PI. ^^Wy *«j ^^^(jHh poshdn 
or poJ{kdn, See HjZj 

y^jj zai'oey, s.m. (1st) A scout, a spy, a vedette, 
one who peeps or ogles. PI. ^^ I. ^jj 

zara'l, s.f. (6th). Sing, and PI. See ^jj 
p t^,j zari, adj. (from jj) Anything woven 

from gold or with gold thread, 
jjy zaraey, s.m. (1st) The sight of a gun. PI. 

j^ I. See j^|^*x» J 
^j) ^j) -^^^^ zaret/, adj. In pieces, in atoms, 

in shreds or fragments (corrup. of *j j). 
p j^jj zarln, adj. Golden ; (Fem.) <^^^ zannah, 
L^^JLJ ^(^tTff^&<^f s.m. (1st) Clothes, dress, 
" garments. PI. ^ i. See ^^^jj 
jj^j zarrffoey, s.m. (1st) The heart {lit. a 

little heart), the dimin. of Sjj , which see. 

PI. ur I. 
jjjj zurrand, adj. Hanging, dangling, sus- 
pended. Jj^J^jJ zurrandedal, verb intrans. 

and J^*x}jJ zurrandawul, verb trans. To 

hang, etc. See «x)j^ 

Lj^lsjJ ^^TX-^^lo^y, s.m. (1st) Oldness, age, 
antiquity, decline, decay, maturity. PI. ^^ 
wall, also t-y jj zarr-tobf s.m. (2nd). PI. 
ij^y tobUnah or U ^ zaTnT'tl-d, s.f. (6th). 

(E.) Sing, and PL (W.) PL ^^ 

^j-^jj zarrUkaey, s.m. (Ist) Clotb 
garments. 2. An old rag or piec< 
of no value. PL jc f. See ^^j^j 

^jj ^'rr^h, s.m. (2nd) The heart, m 
PL ^jJJj z'rrHnah. ^^ zar 
\^^X) ^<^V!€9oUaeyf s.m. (Ist) 
heart (dimin. of Sj^). PL j^ u *j 
z'rrah, adj. Dispirited, heartless, 
sad. i^y^ »jj z'rrah s'waey, s.m. (: 
pathy, compassion, pity. PL ^ 
y^y^ z^rrah sawaey, adj. Afflicted, 
in mind. Luol «jj j da z'rrah cu 
(6th) The heart-bum. (E.) Sing 
(W.) PL ^^Lu*£\ aeshndwu j^ Sj 
war, adj. Bold, brave, intrepid; (Fen 
z'rraA-Tvara'A. c-y jj gj^ z'rraJi 
s.m. (2nd) Boldness, bravery, j 
courage, valour, daring, intrepidit; 
pluck, mettle, bottom, firmness, 
resolution, heroism. PL i^^y tab- 
Lf j^ Sjj z*rraA-war'tVd, s.f. (6th). < 
and PL (W.) PL ^jlJ tVawu ^ 
da z'xrah baddm, Annoyance, irrit 
quietude of mind, dejection ; chagrii 
cation. ^^^ Sjj zrrah shin, adj. (< 
hearted) (fig.) Enraged, angry, ftiri 
JJ--1 ^ J Jj J z'rraA wa bado tah sh 
for any mischief or desperate acti 
rage, fury, or chagrin, desperate. 

ciij zarraey, s.m. (1st.) A seed, a 1 
general. PL ^ I. (E.) ^JJj 

jjj zirraey, s.m. (1st) The jaundice. 

See ^jij 
Jjjjj zarretfal, verb intrans. To gr< 
come old, aged, antique, antiquated 
elderly, grey-headed, venerable, ti 
decrepid, superannuated, worn out, 
in years, advanced in life. Pre 
zarrejzl (W.) or ^^JJ zarr