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The Fs.te of i)r. Livingstone. 
On the 6t)i of June, a mccticg of ihe Qcographical 
Society wna held at Burlington Houfe, London, Sir R* 
Hnrcliiion In the cbair. Among Uiooe present werd 


r.o«] HoufhtOD. the F4ir| of Sheflteld, Sir Thomai 
Fr«m»ntlc, J. P^-therlck, C. D. Tountr ("itdef of the 
LJrlngifooc Search Expcdtion^ ^Idmlral Sir W H»ltj 
T *rTf> LTVtitK Geiu Balfour, Dr. Raa^ Adrolral Sir 
©tJOTift Back, etc 

^u ^ajtu^r LrKor^e FinlftT, F. It G. R. rtii'1 a paper 
th« object of Avbich wna lo jiroTe, as fir ai It If possible 
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or wiB phnvt to enter tlie lotLthem Umits of W^ bailii 
of tlie If lie, ^rhen the lart pTlnful ucwt of b^sx WW 
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l>een rttid, b^ tboajiiiljt it hla duty to inlrO'lai^f: to the 
IP ctisf|r Iwo pFntkrac-Uj ohp uf vrhoni wna s boat to 
"OrninariFi the t^areh expedition for Dr. LlTinjTfoBe, 
tliaf erJlant officer and old companion of Ibe Dortor^^ ' 
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abotit ro accf^tnjany thecxt'edltionatbisown rost. Br 
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In the Cdpe Att;aznerf carrfinj; vcMXx their hopt provfrli^n* 
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bi zf, TJiev ^vould iB^n 7jrocc*Hl up the ZiciHcii to^hgi^ 
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thpy noutdafnin launrh Lhetr boat. -^nd they cfnjld 
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licvt:. [A]ipiiinf«,) 

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rp^ult of Ihe citpedltion bv f hivtmo^H 

TIjc Chairman eouGTatarafLd the meetfn^ on the 
m> ir J I) IT H i-hei le f in th # !■ u\j\ o f t be ilen tb af hi» 1 1 In? 
tr'/T* fr^ftJd Dp, LTvhijjstOD, Befow VTie proceedftigi 
terujlnated he wished, it the rei:iCC5t of Sir Samuel 
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lidou, [Laupbter.] of a JoTirnaliEt. 

Tt« New York Trilu^cs of Jusic lOih Fuje: Ttmlfii* 
Brown, for aereral yetn a well-known Western Jonr- 


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The Proprietor hereby gives noUoe, that any infriDgement of the Copyright of this work 
will at once be followed by legal proceedings against any party so offending. Vide 6 & 6 
Vict, cap. 45, for a statement of the very serious liabilities arising from .an infringement of 


Page 2, line 16, for " air," read " hair." 

„ 33, „ 21 , for " Ann," read « Anne." 

„ 81, „ 26 and 34, for « Piassa," read « Piaizl." 

■„ 83, „ 37,/or "Cove," rttwf "Cone." 

n 169, Correct pag^ing. 

,y 907, „ 4 ftom bottom, /tfr ''Partivo," mid ^'PartidO^ 

,. 219, „ 19, /<w " Marrato," rcarf " Mariato." 

„ 221, „ 7, for « Ion. 1° 90^," read " 81 ° SC." 

„ 281, „ 33and40,/or"D'Yria8te,"r«M«"DTriarte.'' 

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861 > w 36, /or « Elllft," read "Ellice." 

886, „ 29, for ** St. Juan de Fuca," read " Juan de Fuca." 

478, „ 23, LoDgltnde, aecordingr to Lieut. Raper, should be " 1 46° 32' O*." 

478. „ 9 from bottom, for « Ion. 146» 1 1 1'." read « 146° 18'." 

496, „ 6, for " lat. 47° 46*," read « 67° be." 

618, „ 28, /or "10°," r«Mf "10'." 

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609, „ 3, for " 126° 84 ," read " 140° 34'." 
613, Correct pag^ing. 

632, „ 12, should read, «* Mount, or Peak PaUas," 

637, „ 4 from bottom, for « Gamally,*' read " Gamaley." 


Cnterelf at Amkxmi* V^all. 

London : J. & W. Ridbb, Printern, 14, Bvtholomeir Close. 


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The title of the present work is declaratory of its character. But a 
few words may be said as to its claims to confidence. 

The mariner requires information of a specific nature respecting the 
countries he is interested in. For the Pacific, this information is only 
to be sought for in an immense mass of materials — the observations of a 
long series of authors on a vast variety of topics. The labour of seeking it 
among such a number of volumes as must be possessed to gain a oomplete 
insight into its navigation, mast almost annihilate their utility in a practical 
sense ; and this evil is also increased by the variety of languages in which 
many of them are composed. It is not very probable, moreover, even 
if it were desirable, that many of the most valuable works could be 
procured, as their rarity and cost have precluded them from general 
circulation. Thus the number of volumes exclusively applied to the 
description and narratives in the Pacific Ocean is above one hundred 
many of them of considerable bulk, and containing particulars in every 
department of literature. And those which less directly refer to our 
present subject, but still contain indispensable information, would amount 
to more than double that number. It is unlikely that a ship-master could 
either possess or properly avail himself of such a library. 

It was to remedy this evil, to supply this want, that the work was 
undertaken; to draw up, for the use of the mariner, an hydrographical 
memoir, in a comprehensive and accessible form, from the mine of materials 
contained in the volumes which have been written on the Pacific ; and in 
doing thb, it is believed that no source of authentic information has been 
overlooked, but the whole range of works have been carefully referred to — 
a work of very considerable labour. 

Although it directly refers to the navigation of the Pacific Ocean, 
it will be found that it offers suflBcient interest to the general reader, in 
the varied features of the countries it describes, as it has been deemed 


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advisable to attach to each division some brief descriptions in connexion 
with the hydrographical detidl, and thus increase its utility. 

By the references which are made throughout to the authorities from 
which the various information is derived — a plan which, in general, has been 
scrupulously adhered to — our work may be received in the light of an 
arranged index to the literature of the Pacific Ocean. Where extracts have 
been made, referring specially to navigation, they are given in the words 
of their authors, as any ambiguity which might arise from modifying them 
would, perhaps, impair their utility. The same may be said of those 
directions which have been adapted from any other language. 

In many cases our difficulty has been one of selection — numerous and 
apparently conflicting statements being frequently met with; these, it is 
hoped, are fairly alluded to. But in the majority of instances in the 
remoter portions of the ocean, the particulars are scanty, and often made 
up from many sources. In the extent of description, we have been guided 
by the comparative importance of places; not forgetting, however, that 
many, now unnoticed and almost unknown, may soon spring into conse- 
quence in this era of progress in the great ocean. 

The plan of the work needs little explanation : it has been separated 
into two parts— the first, of its continental shores; the second, of its 
islands: the second also contains the observations on its physical phe- 
nomena, and general sailing directions. 


London, September lit, 1851. 


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1. From the Eastern Entrance to Cape Froward 1 

. 2. Magdalen Sound, and the Cockburn and Barbara Channels 18 
3. The Strait of Magalhaens, from Cape Froward to the Pacific 

Ocean • 23 


OF CHILOE 69-87 

Chapter IV.— THE ISLAND OF CHILOE 87—100 






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GUATEMALA 222—253 







CANAL 420—436 



PELAGO 490—519 

POLAR SEA 520—586 





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South Shetland Group, &c. ....... 653 

Antarctic Lands or Continent ...... 664 

Balleny Islands, and Victoria Land . • . . • . 667 

Adtiie, Clarie» Sabrina Lands, &c. . • . , . . 673 

Detached Islands South of LaUtude 40** South .... 677 

Auckland Islands . . • . 681 

Chatham Islands ........ 698 

Chaptbr XXI.— new ZEALAND 702—780 


Juan Fernandez Islands ....... 789 

Toubouai or Austral Islands ....... 709 

Tonga or Friendly Islands • ^ . . . . 806 

K4;rmadeq Islands ........ 820 

New Caledonia ........ 822 

Loyalty Islands ........ 831 

Norfolk Island ........ 838 



Cbaptbb XXV.— islands BETWEEN LATITUDES 10° AND 20° SOU^p . 805—011 

Samoa or Navigator's Islands .... 898 

Chaftbr XXVI.— the FEEJEE ISLANDS . . .... 012—941 


New Hebrides 042 

Santa Cruz Islands .....•• 955 



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Chaptbr XXIX.— the MARQUESAS ISLANDS, ETC. ... 078—1000 

MarqoeBas Islands ........ 978 

PhGsnlx Group ........ 906 

EUloe's Group . . ' 097 

Chaptbk XXX.— the SALOMON ISLANDS, NEW GUINEA, ETC. ; 1000—1045 

Salomon Islands . 1000 

Louisiade Ardiipelago 1018 

New Ireland 1083 

New Britain 1087 

Admiralty Islands 1088 

North Coast of New Guinea ...... 1066 


10** NORTH . , 1045—1071 

Gilbert Archipelago 1051 

Marshall Archipelago 1068 

Chaptbr XXXII.— THE CAROLINE ARCHIPELAGO . . . 1071—1101 



Reyilla Gigedo Islands IIOS 

Mariana or Ladrone Islands ...... 1107 


Detached Islands and Shoals to the North of Latitade SO* North . 1146 

Anobispo or Bonin Islands . . . • 1154 

Chaptbr XXXV.- THE CORAL SEA, AUSTRAUA, ETC. . . . 1150—1170 

Chaptbr XXXVIII.— TIDES, MAGNETISM, ICE ... . 1860—1275 
Chapter XXXIX.— PASSAGES . • 1276—1881 





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The existence of the great ocean to the westward of America soon became 
known to the European discoverers and conquerors of the New World. The 
Spaniards under Columbus, in 1502, had pushed their explorations along the 
northern coast of South America to the isthmus, and there established their power. 
Eleven years later, Basco Nuiiez de Balboa, the Spanish governor of Darien, 
guided by native information, headed an expedition, among whom was Francisco 
Pizarro, and marched across the isthmus. He arrested their progress at the foot 
of a hill, from the summit of which he was told that this new sea was visible, and 
ascending alone, he fell on his knees and thanked heaven for having bestowed on 
him the honour of being the first European that beheld the sea beyond America. 
This was on September 25th, 1513. He subsequently took possession of it in the 
name of the King of Castile and Leon.* 

It was called the Mar del Zur, the South Sea, because it was relatively so to 
the portion of coast from which it was first seen. 

It was called Pacific by Fernando de Magalhaens, the first circumnavigator. 
This could only refer to the tropical portion, as Magalhaens sailed with great 
storms (can gran tarmenta), till December, 1521, when they found themselves 
in lat 32^ 20' S. 

Thus the terms South Sea or Pacific Ocean are neither of them justly appro- 
priate, seeing that it is neither more South nor more pacific than any other. But 
the names are recognised. 

Malt^-Brun, who has been followed by many others, has proposed the name 
Great Ocean, or rather that of Oceanica ; but as all authors who have especially 
written on the subject have used one or other of the former names, they ought to 
he adopted. Therefore that now best known, the Pacific Ocean, is the one to 
be used. 

We would wish in the ensuing prefatory remarks to briefly enumerate the 
principal authorities upon which the present state of Pacific hydrography is based. 
And in so doing we ought really to commence at an era which would exclude 
many noble names — the leaders of that band of navigators wbo have added 
another world within the range of comparatively modern tiroes to the knowledge 
of civilized men. 

But as the plan of our work does not admit of mere historical detail, we must 

* Vide Gomara, Istoria de las Indias, 16512, p. 34. 


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here pass over the earlier discoverers ; they will be found alluded to in the 
subsequent pages. The reader who is interested in the progress of discovery will 
find the subject exhausted in the admirable work, *' A Chronological History of 
Voyages in the South Sea," by Admiral James Burney. 

We therefore commence at the period when modern science, that is, as at 
present understood, was first brought to bear on Pacific hydrography. This was 
in the famous voyage of Capt. James Cook. We shall, for convenience, enu- 
merate the principal points in the different expeditions in a chronological order, 
commencing with his. 

Capt. James Cook is justly placed at the head of English navigators, a pre-emi- 
nence which proudly overlooks all others. Perhaps there never was a narrative 
which attracted so much attention, or has dwelt so much in the memory of a 
nation, as the accounts of his voyages and his remarkable death. It is in the 
Pacific Ocean that his discoveries have elevated his fame, and prior to his expedi- 
tions it might be said that one-half of the oceans of the world were unknown to 
Europe. Cook, as is well known, was the son of an agricultural labourer, born 
at Marton, in Cleveland, Yorkshire, October 27, 1728. His first nautical 
exploits were as an apprentice on board a Newcastle collier. In 1755 he entered 
the navy, on board the Eagle, the command of which was soon taken by Sir 
Hugh Palliser, and this o£Bcer first recognised Cook*s merits, a fact which ought 
not to be forgotten. Cook afterwards perpetuated his gratitude by naming the 
South extremity of New Zealand afler him, the well-known N.E. of Cook*8 
Strait ; and also some islands in the Low Archipelago. His first public service was 
the survey of the River St. Lawrence, and piloting. the boats to the attack of 
Montmorency and the heights of Abraham, at Quebec. Gaining the esteem of 
his superiors, as a master in the navy, he was selected, on the recommendation of 
his friends, Lord Colville and Sir Hugh Palliser, by Sir Edward Hawke to take 
the command of a scientific expedition to the South Seas ; this was in 1767. The 
Royal Society resolved that it would be greatly to the advancement of astronomical 
and geographical science to send persons into some part of the South Sea, to 
observe the transit of the planet Venus over the sun's disc, which would happen 
in the year 1769, and that the islands called the Marquesas de Mendoza, or those 
of Rotterdam or Amsterdam, were the fittest places for that purpose. This reso- 
lution having been laid before the young king, George III., he directed that the 
Endeavour (a collier of 370 tons) should be fitted out, and the command given 
to Cook, then made a lieutenant. 

This was while the expedition, also sent out by George III., under Wallis and 
Carteret was still at sea ; but during the preparation Wallis returned, and then 
his discovery of King George's Island (Tahiti) was chosen as the best locality 
for the observations. Lieutenant Cook was accompanied by Mr. Green, as 
astronomer; and Mr. (afterwards Sir Joseph) Banks, a gentleman of fortune, 
and Dr. Solander, as naturalists, with proper assistants. The Endeavour lefl 
Plymouth August 26, 1768, and passed Cape Horn January 26th following, 
reaching Tahiti April 12, 1769. The transit was satisfactorily observed at the 
observatory on the well-known Point Venus, an account of which is given in the 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. Ixi. part ii. p. 397, et seq. Quitting Tahiti, they 


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reached Poverty Bay, New Zealand, on Friday, October 7, 1769. New Zealand 
at thia time was little known, and most of the crew thought they had come on the 
terra auitralis incognita^ then the great problem of geography. Having sailed 
all round the islands and determined their insular character, the separation 
between them, which he first sailed through, was called Cook's Strait; and as an 
evidence of his accurate observation, a dangerous rock in it is clearly described 
by him, but has been several times announced of late as a new discovery (page 770, 
part ii.)« Quitting Cape Farewell, New Zealand, March 31, 1770, they reached 
the coast of New Holland, at Point Hicks, and Cape Howe April 19. Coasting 
along to the northward, he gave most of the names to the capes and bays now so 
familiar to the colony of New South Wales, and anchored in Botany Bay, so named 
from the great quantity of plants collected by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. 
Passing out from this. May 6, he saw and named Port Jackson, and then passed 
Broken Bay, Port Stephens, Moreton Bay, Harvey Bay, and indeed all the eastern 
coast of Au^^mlia, passing through Torres Strait, and thence to New Guinea, 
Batavia, the Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and arrived at Deal June 10, 1771. 

The account of this interesting voyage was prepared for the press by Dr. 
Hawkesworth, who> by adding remarks of his own, called down some severe but 
unmerited remarks on the narrative. But it forms one of the most interesting 
memoirs in hydrography ; and in this voyage, as is said by his friend and fellow- 
officer. King — " he discovered the Society Islands ; determined the insularity 
of New Zealand ; discovered the straits which separate the two islands, and are 
called after his name ; and made a complete survey of both. He afterwards 
explored the eastern coast of New Holland, hitherto unknown ; an extent of 27^ 
of latitude, or upwards of 2,000 miles.'' 

It certainly is marvellous that Cook should, almost within the memory of 
persons now living, have discovered and named those countries now so familiar to 
Englishmen as are formed in their populous colonies of New Zealand and Australia. 
Respecting the accuracy of Cook's observations, they are unimpeachable. The 
minute accuracy of detail b not to be found in his charts which is required in 
modem times, but they certainly claim for him the title of the father of modern 
hydrography, a character more fully sustained by the result of his second voyage, 
whk^ followed immediately on the completion of the first, and obtained for him 
great personal honour and the rank of commander. 

The second voyage of Commander James Cook was undertaken for a different 
end. King George III., his former great patron, determined on sending him to 
the southern hemisphere, to determine the existence or non-existence of the 
supposed southern continent. This was determined on soon after his return in 
iheEtideavour. He was appointed to the command of the Resolution^ November 
28, 177 1 ; and Tobias Furneaux (who had been second lieutenant with Capt. Wallis) 
was appointed to the Adventure. These two ships had been colliers, and were 
chosen by Cook. They were equipped and victualled in a very superior manner 
to the ordinary mode, and the beneficial efiects of the antiscorbutics and other 
stores were soon manifest in the absence of scurvy throughout the voyage : it had 
always been a dreadful scourge in previous voyages. As a scientific corps, 
Mr. John Reinhold Forster, with his son, were appointed naturalists ; the Board of 



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Longitude agreed with Mr. W. Wales and Mr. W* Bay ley as astronomers, and 
Mr. Hodges as artist. Each of these departments was most amply illustFated 
by the respective parties in separate publications. Some personal pique respecting^ 
accommodation y it is said^ prevented Sir Joseph Banks from again accompanying 
Cook. But there is little doubt but that his society must have been very irksome 
to Cook, placed as he was in circumstances which must have greatly interfered 
with the discipline of the ship. 

The second expedition quitted Deptford April 9, 1 772, and left the Cape of 
Good Hope November 22, in search of the primary object of his voyage, the 
southern continent, reaching lat. 67^ 15' S., Ion. 40^ £., January 17, 1773; but, 
as is well known, without meeting with any land between the meridian of the 
Cape of Good Hope and that of New Zealand. He entered Dusky Bay March 
26. Capt. Furneaux had parted company February 7, and joined the Reso- 
lution in Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. The ships then proceeded to 
Tahiti, and thence to the Tonga or Friendly Islands, called by Tasman Amsterdam 
and Middleburg, and again returned to Queen Charlotte Sound, in which 
passage they parted finally with the Adventure y which reached Queen Charlotte 
Sound after Cook had left. Here Furneaux bad the sad misfortune to lose a 
boat's crew, ten in number, who were murdered and eaten by the natives of Queea 
Charlotte Sound. He then stood to the S.S.E. to lat. 56^ S., and arrived 
off Cape Horn in little more than a month from Cape Palliser, New Zealand, 
and thence on to the Cape of Good Hope and England. Cook again proceeded on 
his search for antarctic lands to the South, seeing the first ice in lat. 62^ 1(/ S., 
Ion. 172° W., December 8, 1773; and reaching his highest, lat. 71'' W S., 
Ion. 106° 54f W., January 30, 1774. He now made his way to the northward, 
reaching Easter Island March 11, 1774, of which he gives a detailed account. 
Thence he went to the Marquesas, and afterwards to Tahiti, and other of the 
Society Islands, passing some of the islands of the Parmento group. In the 
passage thence he discovered Palmerston and Savage Islands, and touched at 
Namuka (Namocka), in the Tonga Islands. The New Hebrides were his next 
point, visiting Mallicolo, Tanna, Erromanga, and other islands. His next 
discovery was New Caledonia, one of the largest and finest islands of the Pacific. 
He gives a considerable amount of detail respecting this island, and left it 
October 6, 1774, discovering Norfolk Island October 10, and again reached his 
former anchorage in Queen Charlotte Sound. He then, November 10, proceeded 
across the Pacific Ocean in a high latitude, supposing that his passage was the 
first ever made, not knowing that his consort, the Adventure^ had preceded him. 
His passage was thirty-seven days to Cape Horn, and finally reached England 
July 29, 1775. 

Beside the very important additions he made to our knowledge of the gec^raph j 
of the Pacific, which have never been equalled 'by any single voyage, this had 
one very marked effect on all future nautical undertakings. All the histories of 
early discovery by long voyages have shown at what a dreadful rate the advan- 
tages of increased knowledge were purchased, in the wholesale destruction of the 
crews by that frightful disease, scurvy. The fate of Behring is an example of 
this. But it was reserved for Cook to demonstrate that protracted voyages might 

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be made, even extending to three and four years, in all climates, without 
diminishing the probability of life in any degree. His system, the basis and 
commencement of that now iu use in all well-conducted ships, was submitted to 
the Royal Society, who presented him with their gold Copley medal on that 
occasion. This alone will place Cook among the greatest benefactors to the 
maritime world. 

The third voyage of Capt. Cook was the result of the great success which 
attended his former expeditions, and very quickly followed. His new ships were 
the Resolution and the Discovery^ commanded by Capt. Clerke, his former 
lieutenant on board the Resolution. Among Cook's officers were Lieutenants 
Gore and King, and his master was William Bligh, all distinguished afterwards. 
With Capt. Clerke was Lieutenant (afterwards Admiral) James Burney, the 
historian of the Pacific. The expedition quitted Long Reach May 29, 1776 ; its 
object was the exploration of the North Pacific, and to examine the connexion or 
separation of the American and Asiatic continents. They passed round the Cape 
of Good Hope, and anchored in Adventure Bay, Van Diemen's Land; thence 
they sailed to their old port. Queen Charlotte Sound, in New Zealand ; thence 
proceeded toward the Tonga group, discovering Mangeea and Atiu on the 
passage, and making a more minute examination of the Friendly Islands. 
Thence they proceeded toward Tahiti, discovering Toobouai. They landed Omai, 
a chief brought to England by Cook in his former voyage, at Tahiti, and then, 
proceeding to the northward, made the grand discovery of the Sandwich Islands. 
He saw and examined all of them, and^has recited many most interesting details 
of them. Some of these are alluded to on page 1121, part ii. From the Sand- 
wich Islands he proceeded to the N.W. coast of America, anchoring in Nootka 
Soand. Thence he proceeded to the N.W., examining the coasts, and entered 
Prince William's Sound and Cook's River (or Inlet), robbing Ounftlashka. 
Thence he proceeded to the northward, through Behring's Strait to the icy barrier » 
establishing the real character of the countries and the erroneous condition of 
the maps. After again touching at Ounalashka, he made away for Karakakooa 
Bay, in Hawaii. Here the well-known tragedy occurred. Cook, the Lono or 
god of the Hawaiians, was killed, and science lost one of her greatest contributors. 
This sad event occurred February 14, 1779 (see page 1133, part ii.). Lieutenant 
King then took the second command under Capt. Clerke. The ships proceeded 
to Awatska Bay, and again fruitlessly attempted the N.W. passage. Before the 
return to Kamtschatka, Capt. Clerke died, and Capts. Gore and King became 
the commanders. They proceeded along the Japanese coast to Macao, and 
thence by the Cape of Good Hope, and reached Strom ness, in the Orkneys, 
Angust 22, and the Nore, October 4, 1780, the two ships having been absent 
four years, two months, and twenty-two days, and never having lost sight of each 
other but twice during their voyage. Thus concluded the most celebrated voyages 
of modem times, and from which dates a new era in hydrography. The account 
of Cook's last voyage was published under the superintendence of Dr. Douglas,^ 
Bishop of Salisbury, and is one of the most interesting works in the language. 

The immediate predecessors of Cook in discovery had no mean harvest in th^ 
Pacific. The voyages referred to, as directed by King George HI. i» the earlj. 


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part of his reign, were recorded, or perhaps the narrative arranged, by Dr. 
Hawkesworth. The first of these was under Commodore Byron, who sailed from 
the Downs January 21, 1764, with the ships Dolphin and Tamar^ and, passing 
through the Strait of Magalhaens into the Pacific, discovered the Islands Disap- 
pointment, George, Prince of Wales, Danger, Duke of York, and Byron, reaching 
England again May 9, 1766. 

In the following August the Dolphin was again sent out under the command 
of Capt. Wallis, with the Swallow^ under Capt. Carteret. They separated at the 
western entrance of the Strait of Magalhaens. Wallis discovered Whit Sunday, 
Queen Charlotte, Egmont, Duke of Gloucester, Duke of Cumberland, Maiatea, 
Tahiti^ JSimeo, Howe, Scilly, Boscawen, Keppel, and Wallis Islands, and returned 
to England in May, 1768. Carteret pursjued a different course, discovering 
Osnaburg, Gloucester, Queen Charlotte, Carteret, and Gower Islands, and the 
strait separating New Britain and New Ireland, and reached England March, 1769. 
The French at this time despatched MonsTvoug^ainville, in November, 1766, 
in the frigate La Bondeuse^ with the jstore-ship UEtoile. He entered the Pacific 
by the Strait of Magalhaens, in January, 1768, and discovered several islands in 
the northern part of the Low Archipelago, Lanciers, HarpCy'^^Thrum Cap, and 
Bow Islands. He also discovered Tahiti, and thought he was the first ; then the 
Navigator Islands, and passed between the New Hebrides and the Louisiade, 
arriving in France March, 1769. 

While Cook was employed in the Pacific, the Spaniards were not behind in 
advancing discoveries. 

«.Tbe expedition in 1775, in the ship Santiago and Sonora^ under Bruno de 
Beceta and Ayala, made several discoveries on the coast of Oregon, &c. With 
these shipf were the pilot Antonio Maurelle and Lieutenant J. F. de la Bodega 
y Qmadh'a^ names 'Sjjill retained in some places on the coast. 

The discoveries of Cook had given a great impetus to the energies, commercial 
and exploratory, of every one at the time ; and one circumstance, trivial in itself, 
led to great results. 

During the third voyage of Cook, the sailors had procured a number of sea-otter 
skins on the N.W. coast of America, which sold at enormous profits at China. 
This fact led to important results. The voyages of Porthcky Dixon^ Meares, 
Tipping^ Kendricky Lowrte^ Ouiscy and others, and also indirectly of that of La 
Perouse and Kruseustern, arose out of it. 

The voyage of La Perouse is one of the interesting points in maritime history. 
It was undertaken in order to the extension of French commerce, at the time when 
Cook*s voyages had given so great an impetus to trade in the Pacific ; and one of 
the first objects of the voyage of VAstrolabe^ under La Perouse, and La BousmoU^ 
under Capt. De Langle, was to examine the N,W. coast of America, where the 
furs were procured. This was followed from Mount St. Elias (June S3, 1786) 
to Monterey, from whence they proceeded to Canton ; after that to Kamtschatka, 
sailing into the Sea of Saghalin. Their next destination was Navigator andFriendly 
Islands ; and lastly, Sydney, in New South Wales. After the ships quitted this 
\ port nothing more was heard of them, notwithstanding all the search and inquiry 
; that was made ; until the year 1826, some articles were found at Tucopia, which 


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were tcaced to Vanikoro, where Gapte. Dillon and D*UrviUe found undoubted 
evidence of the wreck of two ships, and the departure of the crews in a vessel built 
from the wrecks, but never more heard of. The accounts of this are given on 
pages 955-6, 964. 

One voyage about this period, better known for its fate than the scientific 
results it obtained, is that of the Bounty, under Capt. William Bligh, who went to 
procure bread-fruit to convey to the West India Islands. The facts of the mutiny 
and escape of the mutineers to Pitcaim Island are now familiar to all. Lieutenant 
Edwardsy in the Pandora frigate, was sent on an unsuccessful search for the 
mutineers in 1791. Bligh made a second but unpublished voyage to accomplish 
his object. 

The unfortunate voyage of D'Entrecasteaux and Huon-Kermadec, in the French 
frigates La Recherche and L*E$perancey was for the purpose of ascertaining the fate 
of La P6rouse. They left Brest September, 1791, and returned in 1794. The 
principal additions they made to our knowledge were about Van Diemen's land 
S. W. Australia, New Caledonia, Louisiade, &c. But this knowledge was purchased 
with the death of \he two commanders, and 99 out of 219 people, forming the 
original crews. An account of this voyage was given to the world by Admiral 
RosseU and another by M. Labillardi^re. 

La Perouse had examined a considerable portion of the N.W. coast of America, 
but much remained to be done, which was left for Vancouver. 

Capt. George Fancottver was an officer in Cook*s second voyage toward the 
South pole, and also under Capt. Clerk, in his third and last voyage. He was 
appointed to the command of the Discovery sloop of war, December, 1790 ; his 
consort was the Chatham^ an armed tender, under Lieutenant Broughton. The 
object of his voyage was a double one. The Spaniards had made some supposed 
aggressions at Nootka Sound, which the English were to resent, and the old 
theory of a large and navigable river to the Atlantic had been revived. Vancouver 
was to settle both these points. If this commander had not the varied talents and 
enterprise of his master. Cook, his surveys at least give evidence of indefatigability. 
His surveys extend from the Bay of St. Francisco, lat. 30^^ N., to Cape Douglas, 
the S. W. point of Cook's Inlet. The vast extent of a portion of the most intricate 
coast in the world appears to be delineated most faithfully. His object being to 
trace the continental continuity, the whole of the singular '* canals" which pene- 
trate the coast were minutely examined. He also determined the insularity of 
Vancouver Island, and the character of the dense and still unpeopled archipelagoes 
to the northward. As far as exact knowledge went, Vancouver may be said almost 
to be the discoverer of much of the coast. Besides this, his officer, Mr. Broughton, 
discovered the Chatham Islands, King George's Sound, South Australia, the 
Snares to the South of New Zealand ; and a more full examination of the Sand- 
wich Islands are a portion of the acquisitions made in this expedition, which 
occupied from 1792 to 1794. Vancouver's longitudes vary very considerably from 
those of Cook, though the deteils of his survey have been highly applauded. Sir 
Edward Belcher had for one object to reconcile these differences. Vancouver's 
longitudes are therefore corrected in accordance with this and other more exact 


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The voyage to the N. W. coast of America by Commanders Galiano and Valdez^ 
in the Spanish ships Sutil and Mexicana, and which were unexpectedly fallen in 
with by Vancouver, when proceeding to the northward at the back of Vancouver 
Island, was the last voyage made by the Spaniards for discovery in the 
North Pacific Ocean. A meagre account of it was published by the govern- 
ment at Madrid, in 1802. There is, however, a valuable historical introduction 
prefixed to it. The book itself is superseded by the elaborate and lucid work of 
Vancouver. The colonization of New South Wales, in 1788, by Governor Philip, 
led to some discoveries in the voyages of the ships which conveyed the convicts. 
The ships Scarborough and CharlottCy under Capts. Marshall and Gilbert, have 
given two names to respective archipelagoes in the North Pacific, and also of 
Lieutenant Ball, in H.M.S. Supply, 

Capt. Don Alessandro Malaspina^ an accomplished Italian in the service of 
Spain, was unfortunate, not in his voyage, but in offending Godoy, the well-known 
Prince of the Peace, who on his return, in 1794, threw him into prison at Corona, 
where he was liberated by Napoleon in 1802. His voyage was in the Descubiertai 
his consort was the Atrevida^ commanded by Capt. Bustamente. They examined 
the N.W. coast of America, between Prince William's Sound and Cape Fair- 
weather, and also the S.W. coast of Mexico and Central America. His journals 
or charts have never been published. A sketch of his voyage is given in the intro- 
duction to the voyage of Galiano and Valdez, but his name is never once mentioned 
tn it. The highest laudation is there given to the officers engaged in it. What 
we know of it is from the charts subsequently drawn up by Don Felipe Bauza, 
who was in the expedition. To this we owe our present knowledge of the Mexican 
coast alluded to. 

The voyage of Capt. Etienne Marchand to Vancouver Island, &c., in 1791, 
would not be worth mentioning, were it not that the account of it is preceded by 
a really valuable historical and critical introduction by the talented geographer, 

Some years now intervened, and the Pacific was comparatively nntraversed by 
scientific voyagers. But circumstances arose which led to the following voyage. 

Adam John Von Krusenstem is the hydrographer of the Pacific. This is a 
proud position, and is worthily occupied. Beside this, he was the first Russian 
who circumnavigated the globe in a Russian ship. This is another interesting 
feature, but his services to his country are not second to either of them. He was 
the descendant of a noble family, and in his youth, by command of his govern- 
ment, he served for six years (from 1793 to 1799) in the English fleet Duriog 
this period, regretting that his country, with her vast power and resources, did 
not participate in the advantages of the growing commerce which was being estab- 
lished in all parts of the world, he conceived the noble project of forming direct 
commercial relations between Russia, India, and China. -To advance his patriotic 
scheme, he went to the East Indies, where he passed a year, studying its commerce, 
and then reached China, in order to gain some knowledge of its dangerous seas. 
He remained here two years (1798-99), and acquired numerous facte respecting the 
fur trade between China and the N.W. coast of America. On his homeward 
voyage he formed a plan to raise a mercantile navy to carry out his views of 


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commerce between Russia and China. Like Colambus, he found himself neglected 
and misunderstood on his return, but on the accession of Alexander, his proposi- 
tions were appreciated. 

The expedition consisted of the Nadiijeda (the Hope) and the Neva ; Capt. 
Krusenstern commanded the first and the expedition, and the second was com- 
manded by Capt. Lisiansky. The object of the voyage was of a varied character. 
It was to be one of discovery and science ; also to establish some plan by which 
the Russian American Company could more conveniently communicate with their 
languishing colonies on the N.W. coast of America than by long and tedious 
journies overland to Okhotsk. It was also destined to convey the ambassador 
appointed by the Russian emperor to the court of Japan. And, finally, it was to 
be a voyage round the world, the first undertaken by the Russians. All these 
objects were triumphantly carried out by the excellent commander with but the 
loss of a single man, who was previously diseased ! 

The Nadiifeda and Neva left Cronstadt August 7, 1803, and returned in 
1806. CapL Krusenstern's immediate sphere was Japan and its vicinity. He 
gave us the first true notions of its western side, and also has surveyed the eastern 
side of the great Peninsula or Island of Saghalin. His chart of the Japanese 
empire is a masterpiece. We cannot enumerate here all the points inquired into 
by this voyage ; they will be found alluded to in various places in the work. 

His consort, under CapU Urey Lisiansky, a volunteer, but the senior officer to 
his commander, separated from the Nadigeda in the Pacific, and proceeded to his 
destination, Kodiack and the N.W. coast of America. We owe many details 
of the Sitka Islands, and nearly all we know of the Kodiack Archipelago, to 

It was daring his voyages around Japan^ the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Kurile 
Islands, Krusenstern tells us, that he conceived the idea of his great work, the 
Atlas of the Pacific Ocean, knowing how many perils, how many anxious moments 
it would have spared him and his companions, had such a work been within their 
reach. Busily employed in the services of his profession, it was not until 1815 
that he was allowed the leisure to pursue his favourite object, and this was in con- 
sequence of impaired vision. It is difficult to speak in sufficiently high terms of 
this noble work, the ^^ Atlas de I* Ocean Pacifique" and the accompanying 
"Recueil de Memoires HydrographiqueSj pour servir d* Analyse et d^ Explication d 
V Atlas.** The first part of this was published at St. Petersburg, in Russian and 
French, at the imperial expense, in 1824, and related to the South Pacific. That 
for the North Pacific appeared in 1827. In 1834 a supplemental volume, and a 
corrected edition of the atlas appeared ; and several papers subsequently appeared 
in the bulletin of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. 

In these memoirs Vice-Admiral Krusenstern had embodied everything that had 
previously been observed in the Pacific, and in the most masterly manner he has 
reconciled the discordant materials at his command, and placed its hydrography 
upon an entirely new basis. Up to the date of these publications, it may be said 
that the work bad exhausted the subject. Being in the French and Russian 
Jangoages, their utility was somewhat contracted for the nautical world; and 
moreover the cbief bulk of the remarks consist of discussions on the scicnrt/fc 


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basis on which the charts were constr acted ; and the whole of the American coast 
was reserved for a futare work which was never produced. All the determinations, 
except where they have been superseded by later and better observations, haye 
been followed in the present work. 

The Russians have, besides the great Krusenstern, performed no small share of 
the discovery and exploration of the Pacific. Capt. FridSric LtUke may justly 
claim a high position among hydrographers. His work, the Voyage of the 
Seniaviney though but little known, is an excellent one. Capt. Liitke surveyed 
the inclement coasts of Asia, from the North of Behring*s Strait to the extremity 
of.Kamtschatka, and also made many observations in Behring's Sea. He has 
drawn up his useful memoir from many Russian sources besides his own labours. 
In the Caroline Archipelago, too, his explorations are very conspicuous. 

The Russian language is an unfortunate barrier to most Europeans, and to this 
we owe our comparative ignorance of the important voyages of Capt. BelUngs- 
hausen, and also of Capt. SaryUeheff^ among the archipelagoes of the Central 

The voyage of Billings (an Englishman who was with Cook), a very expensive 
one, was most unproductive. It was begun in 1785, by order of the Empress 
Catherine, ** a secret astronomical and geographical expedition to navigate the 
Frozen Ocean between Asia and America." The vessels were built at Okhotsk, 
but were not ready till 1789, when one of them was immediately wrecked. The 
other only reached Mount St. Elias, stopping at Ounalashka, Kodiack, and 
Prince William's Sound. It then returned to Kamtschatka, and its commander 
abandoned it. A melancholy picture is drawn of their sufierings by Martin 
SaneVf who, unfortunately for himself, was secretary. In the following year 
the expedition was resumed in the Sea of Behring, under Capts. Hall and 
Sarytscheffy but was not very successful. 

Otto Von Kotzebue^ the son of the celebrated author, was a cadet on board the 
Nadiifeda, under Krusenstem, in 1803 — 1806. He was selected by that great 
hydrographer to command a vessel sent out by the munificence of Count 
RomanzoflP, and named the Rurick^ to endeavour to penetrate to the North of 
Behring's Strait, and make other exploratk>ns. It led Cronstadt July 30, 1815, 
and was unsuccessful in the primary object, and reached no farther than Kotzebue 
Sound, to the North of the West cape of America. Some discoveries in the 
Radack Channel, the Low Archipelago, and the Carolines, and other important 
services, were the results of this voyage, which lasted till August 3, 1818, when 
the Rurick anchored in the Neva. 

His second voyage was in the Russian ship tlie Predpriatie (the Enterprise), 
and was intended to protect the Russian American Company from the smuggling 
then carried on by foreign traders. The ship left Cronstadt July 28, 1823, 
and made many important additions to our knowledge of the Low Archipelago, 
surveyed the Navigator Islands, the Radack Islands, Sitka, and the Ladrone 
Islands, returning to Cronstadt July 10, 1826. 

Among those at the head of these illustrious navigators who have enriched 
science by their exertions, Jules Sebastien-CSsar Dumont D*Urville must be 
placed. His first expedition, in the Astrolabe, left Toulon April 22, 1826. He 


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examined parts of the coasts of New Zealand, the Tonga Islands, the Feejee 
Islands, the Santa Cruz Islands, the Loyalty Islands, and then the great chain 
of reefs extending off New Caledonia. He then passed on to New Britain and 
New Ireland, and the North coast of New Guinea. On his return to Hobart 
Town he received intelligence that Capt. Dillon had discovered the remains of 
La P6rouse's expedition, to the scene of the loss of which, Vanikoro, he then 
repaired, as related on page 955, part ii. of this work. Quitting this, he passed 
on to Gaain and part of the Carolines, arriving at the Mauritius September 29, 
1828, and at Toulon March 25, 1829. More extended examinations have since 
been made of many of his explorations, but at the time the expedition greatly 
increased our then imperfect knowledge. His second voyage, though out of its 
chronological order, we will notice here. 

The second expedition under M. D*Urville, consisting of the Astrolabe and 
Zelee^ the latter under the command of Capt. C. H. Jacquiuot, quitted Toulon 
September 7, 1837, and reached the South Shetland group, where he made many 
additions to our knowledge ; thence entering the Pacific, he visited Manga Reva, 
Marquesas, Society Islands, Tonga Islands, the Feejee Islands, Vanikoro, the 
Salomon Islands, the Ladrone Islands, and then entered the Asiatic Archipelago, 
and thence to Hobart Town. Quitting this, he made for the antarctic regions, 
and discovered portions of the supposed continent. He then again examined 
some portions of New Zealand, the Louisiade, thence out of the Pacific, and 
reached Toulon November 6, 1840. 

The frightful death of the celebrated Dumont D*Urville, who, with his wife and 
son, were by one accident hurried into eternity, May 8, 1842, will be long 
remembered ip France. They were travelling on one of the Paris and Versailles 
railways, when, in consequence of the engine failing, the whole train was over- 
turned and burnt, together with a large number (upwards of forty) of the 

To the voyage of M, Freydnet^ with the ships UUranie and La Physicienne, 
in 1819, we owe the greater part of our knowledge of the Mariana or Ladrone 
Islands, and also of the Samoan group much information was acquired. This 
voyage was exceedingly productive in additions to natural history and science 
generally, and the Atlas Historique, accompanying the voyage, is really a fine 

The voyage of Capt. Duperrey, the officer under Freycinet, sailed in La 
CoquUlem 1822 — 1825, and made many additions to the hydrography of the cen- 
tral and western Pacific. His route was around Cape Horn, to Callao, Payta, 
the Low Archipelago, and Tahiti, which he reached May, 1823; thence to Port 
Praslin in New Ireland, New Guinea, the Moluccas, round to the West of 
Australia to Van Diemen's Land and Sydney ; thence to the northward, through 
the Mulg^ve Islands, &c., and examining the Caroline Archipelago, reached 
France vid the Cape of Good Hope. The whole of the accounU of this voyage 
have not appeared, but Capt. Duperrey has done good service to science by his 
current and variation charts. 

Tlie voyage of the Blossom, under Capt. Frederick William Beechey, is one of 
the most imporunt, in a scientific view, that we have in the Pacific. U wa% undet- 



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taken to afford assistance to the expeditions which had been despatched from 
England, under Capt. (afterwards Sir John) Parry, for the discovery of a N.W. 
passaj^e through the arctic regions, and under Capt. (afterwards Sir John) Franklin, 
who iDtended descending the Mackenzie River and reaching Behring's Strait. 
The Blossom left Spithead May 19, visited Valparaiso and Pitcairn Island, 
minutely examined several islands in the Low Archipelago, and proceeded to 
Tahiti, and thence to the Sandwich Islands. The special object of the expedition 
was then proceeded with, and a minute survey made of the American coast, of 
Behring's Sea and Strait, between King's Island and Point Barrow. As is well 
known, the other expeditions were not met with. The Blossom returned to and 
surveyed San Francisco in California, reaching there November 6, 1826. The 
next point was revisiting the Sandwich Islands, and thence to Macao. The Loo- 
Choo Islands were next visited and surveyed, as were the Arzobispo or Bonin 
Islands. Petropaulovski was next visited, and then the attempt again made to 
pass through Behring*s Strait. The return thence was made by way of San 
Francisco, Valparaiso, and reached Woolwich October 12, 1828. 

H.M.S. Sulphur left England December, 1835, under the command of Capt. 
F. W. Beechey, accompanied by the Starling, Lieutenant Kellett Capt. Beechey 
invalided at Valparaiso, and was at last succeeded by Capt. (afterwards Sir 
Edward) Belcher (who had sailed in the Blossom), at Panamd, February, 1837. 
The operations of the Sulphur consisted in determining the longitudes of points 
in dispute between Vancouver and Cook on the N.W. coast of America; 
examining and surveying several of the ports, and a portion of the coast of 
Central America and California ; and returned to Panam4 from her first cruise in 
October, 1837. After this she proceeded across the Pacific, visiting San Bias, 
Mazatlan, the Revilla Gigedo Islands, and the Marquesas; thence to Bow 
Island in the Low Archipelago, then Tahiti, the Feejee group. New Hebrides, 
&c. ; and then to an active part in the Chinese warfare, till nearly the close of 
the year 1841, when she sailed for England. 

The surveying voyages of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle are certainly the 
most important in the present hydrography of the Pacific. The whole of the 
Pacific coast of South America was most accurately delineated by their means. 
These two ships were commissioned in 1825, Commander P. P. King to the 
Adventure, and Commander Pringle Stokes to the Beagle, They left Plymouth 
May 22, 1826, commencing operations South of the Plata in the ensuing 
November. In August, 1828, the sad death of Commander Stokes occurred ; 
he was temporarily succeeded by Lieutenant Skyring, but ultimately Capt. 
Robert FitzRoy commanded the Beagle, The result of this portion of the expe- 
dition was the noble survey of the South extremity of America, with the Strait of 
Magalhaens, from the La Plata to Cbiloe; and the excellent instructions, quoted in 
our work, have added more to the security of navigation than anything which 
preceded them. The first expedition quitted Rio for England in August, 1830. 

The second expedition, under Capt. FitzRoy in the Beagle, was commissioned 
July 4, 1831. The result of this was the completion of the survey of Tierni 
del Fuego, and the continuation from the Gulf of PeSas northward, ak>Dg the 
coasts of Chile and Peru, to Guayaquil. The Galapagos Islands were likewise 


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included id this admirable survey. Leaving this coast, a chain of meridian 
distaDces was carried around the globe, the first of the kind, reaching Woolwich 
November 17, 1836. The directions drawn up in the survey, and given in the 
first part of this work from the appendix to Capt. FitzRoy's book, will say more in 
eulogy than we can. The labours of the accomplished naturalist, Charles Darwin, 
Esq., ought not to pass unnoticed here, though not connected with our subject. 

The especial object of the voyage of the French frigate La Venus j under Capt. 
Abel Du Petit Th<mar8,m 1837 — 1839, was for the protection and encouragement 
of the whale-fishery, and his voyage was framed with the view of collecting all 
to formation on this head, for the purpose of increasing and establishing the 
French whaling interest in the Pacific. The Venus left Brest December 31, 1836, 
and returned to that port June 24, 1 839. She arrived at Valparaiso April 26, after 
staying atRiq fifteen days ; thence to Callao, from whence she made way for Oahu, 
10 the Sandwich group, where her commander interfered in the disputes between 
the religious parties, as alluded to on page 1122, part ii., meeting here H.M.S. 
Sulphur^ under Capt. Belcher. From Honolulu she proceeded westward, and 
reached Awatska Bay; thence she sailed for Monterey, arriving there October 
18, 1837, with above thirty of her crew severely attacked with scurvy. Quitting 
Monterey she proceeded to Guadaloupe Island, which was examined, and the 
important position of Los Alijos Rocks (page^ 309, part i.) ascertained. Touching 
at Cape St. Lucas she reached Mazatlan, San Bias, and Acapulco, giving us some 
details of each of those places, and then to Valparaiso a second time, March 18, 
1838. St. Ambrose and St. Felix Islands, called by the Spaniards the Unfortunate 
Islands, were next visited, and then Callao, surveying the Hormigas Rocks, and 
touching at the Galapagos. The Marquesas Islands were then surveyed. The 
Qortliem part of the Low Archipelago was next traversed, and the Venus anchored 
at Papeite, at Tahiti, where, as at the Sandwich Islands, a convention was drawn 
up assuring protection to French ships. Passing thence toward New Zealand, 
they examined several islands in their track, among which were the Kermadec, 
reaching the Bay of Islands October 12. Sydney was the next port, which 
was quitted December 18, 1838, and Xa Venus entered Brest June 24, 1839. 
Under the excellent observations of M. U. de Tessan many great additions to the 
hydrography of the Pacific were made ; among which may be particularized the 
chart of the Marquesas, and of the several ports she visited. These will be found 
alluded to in their respective places, and his positions deserve miich confidence. 
The scientific portion of the voyage received due attention, and many branches 
of natural history were thereby much enriched. The principal object of the 
voyage is fulfilled in the Report to the Minister of Marine, '< On the Whale 
Fishery in the Pacific Ocean," comprising a full account of the armament, ships, 
ports, instructions, crews, discipline, nature of the fishery, &c., &c., and related 
in the third volume of the Narrative of the Voyage. 

We should not omit one author. Von Siebold, who visited Japan in 1823—1830, 
and whose noble work on Japan o^ight to remove the stigma sometimes attached 
to the Dutch of their exclusiveness, in withholding information on the subjects 
which they only have the power tp gain. His work on ** Nippon" is most cer- 
tainly worthy of a nation. 


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The United Stales* Exploring Expedition deserves especial notice for one 
particular—" It was the first, and is still the only one, fitted out by national muni- 
ficence for scientific objects, that has ever left the shores of the United States/* 
Its organization appears to have been arranged under great — all but insuperable— 
difiiculties ; its result is given to the world in five goodly volumes of narrative, 
a series of scientific memoirs, and an hydrographical atlas — works worthy of a 
great nation. 

The act of congress which authorized the undertaking is dated May 18, 
1836, but it was not until March, 1838, that it devolved upon Lieutenant Charles 
Wilkes to re-arrange it and arrest it from complete failure. The ships composing 
the new squadron were -the Vincennes sloop, 780 tons ; the Peacock sloop, 650 
tons; the Porpoise, a gun-brig, 230 tons; and two tenders, formerly New York 
pilot-boats— the Seagull, 110 tons, and the Flying Fish, 96 tons. Of the 
respective labours of these five vessels it will be too diffusive to speak, and there- 
fore the general results of the Expedition will be enumerated. 

Their first field, the coast of South America, had been amply examined and 
surveyed by the English Admiralty, so that little or nothing was left for the 
American to add to hydrography here. The central portions of the American 
West coast were not approached ; but the next examination was that of various 
points on the coast of Upper California, and many particulars were gathered 
respecting that country which was soon, and then so unexpectedly, to be the 
centre of such intense interest. Capt. Beechey, however, having previously 
excellently surveyed its principal port, this portion is of less importance. The 
Columbia River was the next point which was visited by the Expedition, and a 
survey made of its entrance. Capt. Belcher had also surveyed it, but its changing 
character renders a chart of little value for any length of time. Puget Sound 
was next surveyed, and Lieutenant Wilkes bears ample testimony to the accuracy 
of our countryman, Vancouver's, delineation of that singular and interesting 

It is chiefly in the islands and archipelagoes of the Pacific that the great results 
of the American Exploring Expedition become more apparent. The centre of 
I heir operations was the Hawaiian group. Of this they have given us a large 
and detailed chart, and many most interesting particulars are given in almost all 
branches of science, respecting the physical and social character of the various 
islands composing it, especially of Hawaii and its geological features. 

The Low Archipelago, or Paumotu group, was also partially surveyed in its 
north-western groups, and the south-western range correctly placed on the charts. 
In these islands many discrepancies were reconciled, and a true estimate formed 
of their area and form. Portions of the Society Islands, Tahiti, Eimeo, Huahein^, 
&c., also received their share of attention. 

The Feejee group, however, is the great harvest of the Expedition. D'UrviUe 
had been here and partially surveyed it in 1827 ; but the Expedition made a com- 
plete survey of it in all its parts, and for the first time gave the world a correct 
notion of the extent and productions of this noble archipelago. The details of 
the customs and ferocity of its inhabitants are given with most intense interest 
in vol. iii. of the Narrative. One thing, however, ought to be noticed. Lieutenant 


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Wilkes treats the archipelago as if it had beeo entirely a new discovery of the 
American Exploring Expedition. 

The Tonga or Friendly Islands were also visited, and many additions made to 
our knowledge. The Samoan or Navigator's group, to the northward, was also 
minutely and amply surveyed, and the numerous charts of these fine islands form 
a conspicuous feature in the Hydrographical Atlas. To the northward still, the 
collection of islands now named the Union group was also correctly ascertained 
as to its numbers, character, and position. 

The Phcenix group, northward, was also surveyed ; and in all these examina- 
tions the non-existence or identity of numerous doubtful islands was established, 
a most important fact. The islands comprising Eilice's group were also severally 
examined and accurately delineated. The Gilbert Archipelago, or, as it is here 
termed, the Tarawan or Kingsmiil group, received a large share of attention ; 
and the numerous interesting particulars of these, all singular coral islands, were 
collected, which, being duly arranged by the naturalist, Mr. Dana, forms a 
valuable addition to that branch of natural history. In the still imperfectly 
known Marshall Archipelago, the Radack and Ralick Channels of Kotzebue, 
several of the groups forming portions of it were examined and surveyed. 

This embraces almost all the general result of the Expedition in the central 
portions of the Pacific. To this may be added the examination of the several 
portions of New Zealand, and the visits to Sydney. The longitudes obtained 
are generally dependent on the accuracy of the twenty-nine chronometers (all 
but two of which went well), and thus deserve all confidence. 

One great point in the Expedition was the result of their antarctic cruises, in 
the supposed claim to priority in the discovery of the antarctic continent. We 
have elsewhere remarked on this subject, and to that the reader is referred. 

In the ensuing pages we have endeavoured faithfully to quote from and 
acknowledge the remarks made in this important voyage. The Narrative has 
been our only source, and to this we have strictly held, without referring to the 
Hydrographical Atlas, which in many points varies from it. 

In this brief enumeration of the services of the great navigators whose names 
have been quoted, we have necessarily omitted many very important particulars, 
but further allusion will be made to their special labours in the ensuing pages. 

We have also, with the view of not unduly extending these prefatory remarks, 
not included many authors and observers who have contributed, in a lesser degree, 
to the hydrography of the Pacific ; these, too, as far as their observations have 
been incorporated with our descriptions, have been enumerated in the body of the 
work. We have therefore now only to mention the names of Sir James Clark 
Ross, whose voyage to the South Polar regions, in company with Capt. Crozier, 
in the well-known ships Erebui and Terror^ added the Victoria land to our 
geography, and has placed the magnetic phenomena of the southern hemisphere 
in a clear light to the world. Capt. Kellett^ too, ought to be enrolled among the 
honowrable band of explorers. His surveys on the western coast of Central 
America are invaluable; and his observations, made during his unexpected voyage 
through Behring*s Strait, in search of the anxiously looked for expedition under 
Sir John Pranklin, are too well known and recent to require any comment here. 


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Upon the basis of these scientific observers the ge(^raphical foundation of our 
knowIedg;e in the Pacific rests. We need not recapitulate the subject, but in the 
ensuing tables the authority upon which the geodetical position and other par- 
ticulars of the respective places rest is mentioned, and this will be sufficient. 


Although very much has been efiected within a few years in the accurate 
determination of the relative geographical positions of the ".features of most 
countries, very much still remains to be done» more especially in the Pacific 
Ocean. The following tables, therefore, cannot be supposed to exhibit, in all 
points, that connected accuracy which is to be found in the details of the coasts 
nearer to Europe, which from this cause are much more frequented and impor- 

The immense extent, too, of this great ocean is another source of difficulty 
in the exact determination of the longitudes of the various points distributed over 
its surface. The first connected series of meridional distances around the earth 
was that carried by Capt. FitzRoy, in H.M.S. Beagle, in 1831—1835, with from 
fourteen to twenty-two chronometers. This was conducted with the most refined 
precautions, yet the entire series was 33' of time, pr 8' of arc, in excess ; a con- 
siderable portion of which discrepancy may be supposed to have arisen in the 
Pacific. There have been numerous chronometric observations by which the 
positions of nfew points have been fixed with a considerable degree of accuracy : 
that is, to such a degree of refinement, that it is not probable that any but a 
ship or an expedition especially appointed for the purpose can be expected to 
improve upon. These, therefore, will serve as points of departure, by which the 
longitude of any other point may be gained to within much more narrow limits 
than by any independent astronomical observations, if good chronometers be used. 
It will thus be in the power of almost every navigator sailing injthe Pacific, 
possessed of one or more of such instruments, to add very materially to hydrog- 
raphy, if such observations be carefully made and recorded. 

The very great importance of this mode of observation — that of connecting a 
less-known with a well-ascertained point — has been so clearly shown of late years, 
and more especially by Lieutenant Raper, to whom this branch of geography is 
so much indebted, that it is needless to dilate on it here. It has been frequently 
discussed, and must be familiar to most of our readers.* Some of the leading 
positions will be enumerated presently, by which it will ibe seen how much has 
been done, and from this what remains to be donc^ in this branch of science. 

Astronomical observations for the determination of longitude require to be so 
accurately conducted, and in such extensive series, that all observations at sea, 
or on board ship, can only be regarded as rude approximations to the truth, and 
can only be depended on to direct attention to any great error in the reckoning 
or rate of the chronometer. It must be supposed that a very large number of the 
isolated spots in this ocean have been determined by such means, and therefore 

• See Nautical Magazine, 1838; and Rapor's NavigaUon, 9vd ed. pp. 281, 379. 


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capable of every icnproveinent. There are very few points, perhaps only one, where 
astronomical observations have been set up, either temporarily or permanently, 
which may be considered to have effected the result in an unimpeachable manner. 
The observations of Capt. Cook on the transit of Venus at Tahiti, the object of 
his first voyage, is open to doubt to the extent of several minutes of longitude. 
The same may be said of a great proportion of those navigators who have laboured 
in the same field ; and it is only by a discussion of these contending results, and 
reconciling their discrepancies, that anything like uniformity can be attained. 
Paramatta Observatory, near Sydney, New South Wales, is the only exception to 
these remarks : its position may be considered as determined very much within the 
limits required for the ordinary purposes of navigation. On the other side, on the 
American coast, there are numerous points, or extents of coast, which will serve as 
accurately determined points of departure for the navigator : and in the intermediate 
space there are other points more particularly to be specified, which will equally 
well serve the same purpose. 

In all these cases, where the improvement of hydrography is concerned, the 
particulars of the meridian from which any new point is determined, should be 
accurately specified, in connexion with the new observations ; as it is manifest, that 
any change which arises from a more definitive determination of the fundamental 
meridian, must equally affect that dependent on it. In the words of the great 
authority on this subject. Lieutenant Raper, ^* If navigators and hydrographers 
would agree to consider ^ for the time being only, certain important stations, as 
already established in longitude, whether really so or not, with the view of referring 
all the subordinate positions to them, the indistinctness which now hangs over 
absolute and relative positions would be forthwith cleared up. The question 
would be narrowed into the determination of chronometric differences alone, until 
a favourable opportunity occurred for the definitive determination of a fundamental 
position." There is no part of the globe to which these remarks are more espe- 
pecially applicable than in the Pacific, nor more important than in the present 
state of its hydrography. They are therefore now pressed upon the attention of 
the navigator. 

For the purpose of thus rendering subordinate stations serviceable in the con- 
nexion of the various points with the prime meridian. Lieutenant Raper has 
selected twenty points, in various parts of the globe, which will serve as secondary 
meridians for the districts in their vicinity. Five of these, Valparaiso, San Fran- 
cisco, Sandwich Islands, Otaheite, and Paramatta, refer to the Pacific; and as 
these have been discussed— and their accuracy is almost unlmpugnable— as well as 
for the sake of uniformity, their longitudes assumed in the extensive tables in 
question will be followed here. 

Bat it is by no means necessary, in the Pacific Ocean, to confine this subject 
to the above limits. These secondary meridians may, for the convenience of the 
navigator, be considerably extended : and indeed almost any well-defined position 
may \m taken as such : but preference must be given to those which have been 
better determined than others ; and the following enumeration of the principal 
points may be serviceable : — 


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Strait of Magaluaens : Port 

Famine Observatory. 
Valparaiso: Fort San Antonio 
Callao : Arsenal flagstaff 
Panama' : N.£. Bastion • 
San Francisco : Yerba Buena 

Sitka: Arsenal Light 
AwATSKA Bay : Petropaulov- 

ski Church • 
Sandwich Islands : Hono 

lulu Fort • 
Ladronk Islands : Guam 

Umata Bay Church 
New Guinea : Port Dorei 
Feejeb Islands : Ovalau 

Island, Levuka Harbour, 

Observatory Point . 
Tahiti: Point Venus, S.E. 

New Zealand : Bay of 

Islands, Paheha Mission 
Sydney : Fort Macquarie 

In time. 

In are. 

H. U. S. 

o In 

4 43 51-7 

70 57 55 W. (FilzRoy.) 

4 46 46 

71 41 30W. (FiteRoy.) 

5 8 54 

77 13 30 W. (FitzRoy.) 

5 18 4-8 

79 31 1 2 W. (Belcher.) 

8 9 36 

122 24 OW. (Beechey.) 

9 1 8-7 

135 17 low. 

11 14 54 

168 43 30 E. (Beechey.) 

10 31 40 

9 38 36 

8 55 59-47 


55 30-7 


7 56-7 


36 28 


4 56 

157 55 OW. (Raper.) 

144 39 E. (D'Urville.) 
133 59 52 E. (D'Urville.) 

178 52 41 E. (Wilkes.) 

149 29 1 W. (Beechey.) 

174 7 E. (La Place, &c.) 
151 14 OE. 

The discussion of minor details, which might be extended to almost each item 
in the ensuing tables, would be both uninteresting and unnecessary. The 
authorities upon which the position assumed rests are quoted, and from them the 
confidence in the degree of accuracy they merit may be inferred ; but there are 
numerous minor variations from the original observations, which are explained in 
the text, or may be found in the works quoted. 

At the head of all these works stands the unrivalled production of Admiral 
Krusenstern. Up to the period of the cessation of his most laborious researches, 
it may be said that he had exhausted the subject. And although much of his 
great work is engrossed in those disquisitions which are not absolutely useful to 
the practical navigator, yet they must be referred to for the groundwork of all that 
has been done hi the Pacific Ocean. Subsequent, and perhaps more accurate, 
surveys and observations, have superseded the necessity of some of his remarks ; 
but the following pages will testify how much the service of hydrography owes 
to Admiral Krusenstem* 


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Caps Vxroins; S. E. extreme 
Dpngeness Point; extremity 
Difiero Moant; sommit 
Cape Poseeeaion; middle of cliff. 
Mooot Ajmond ; sammit, 1,000 ft 
PosaessioD Bay ; weatern bank . 
Point Delgada ; extreme • 
PoiDt Catheriae ; N. E. extremity 
Cape Orange; N. extremity 
Cape Gregory ; extremity . 
Cape San Vieente ; W. extreme . 
Peckett Harbour ; S. aummit 
Elizabeth Island; N.E. bluff 
Cape Negro; S.W. extreme cliff. 
Point Geote Grande; N.W. extr. 
Point Sl Mary; extremity . 
Mount St. Pbilip ; summit . 
Pout pAMtiffs : Observatory 

p „ New Obaerf ator? . 

i» „ PointSt. AnDa^ex. 

C. Valentyn; summit at extreme . 
Admiralty Sound ; Pt. Cook, nv, 
„ „ Latitude Pt. ; extr. 

Mount Graves ; aummit 
Ports. Antonio; Humming bd. Co. 
Cape San laidro .... 
Mt. Tarn ; peak at N. end, 9,602 ft. 
Mount Yemnl ; summit 
Nasaau laland ; S.E. point . 
Capb Fboward ; aumm. of tbe bluff 

MiGDALBN Sound .and Cockburm 
Ain> Barbara Channels. 

Mt Boqueron ; bigbest pinnacle . 
Mt. Sarmisnto : N.E. peak,6,800 ft. 
Pyramid Hill ; summit 
Labyrintb Isles ; Jane la. tummit 
Cape Turn; extremity 
King laland ; summit . 
Prowse Islands ; atation 
i>y ueley Sonnd; N.E. end of S.E. 
Baynes Island . . . . 
Fury Harbour ; W. point . 
Taaaack Rook .... 
West Furies ; largeat rock . 
£ut Furies ; largest rock . 
Mount Skyring ; summit 3,000. ft. 





o / // 

O / // 

5t SO 10 

68 21 44 

52 23 50 

68 25 20 

52 19 40 

68 33 30 

52 17 

68 56 30 

52 7 10 

69 32 20 

52 19 

69 20 10 

52 26 30 

69 34 20 

52 32 

68 44 20 

52 27 10 

69 28 10 

52 39 

70 13 50 

52 46 20 

70 26 35 

52 47 10 

70 46 25 

52 49 10 

70 37 25 

52 56 40 

70 49 10 

53 5 

70 26 55 

53 21 15 

70 57 55 

53 S6 25 

71 10 

53 38 15 

70 57 55 

70 59 23 

53 S7 50 

70 55 10 

53 S3 30 

70 S3 55 

54 17 10 

70 1 53 

54 16 45 

69 54 43 

53 45 

70 37 40 

53 54 8 

70 54 18 

53 47 

70 58 

53 45 6 

71 2 20 

54 6 28 

71 1 34 

53 50 23 

71 4 40 

53 53 43 

71 18 25 

54 10 40 

70 59 54 

54 27 15 

70 51 25 

54 27 

71 7 50 

54 19 10 

71 030 

54 24 8 

71 7 40 

54 22 38 

71 17 10 

54 22 13 

71 24 49 

54 18 15 

71 39 42 

54 28 25 

72 15 10 

54 34 

72 12 20 

54 34 45 

72 22 

54 38 

72 12 10 

54 24 48 

72 11 30 


The surreys of 
H. M.S. Adventurt 
and Biagle, Capts. 
P. P.King, R.N.. 
F.R.S,&c.; Capt. 
T. Stokes, R.N.; 
and Capt. R. Fits- 
Roy, R.N., 1826— 
1830; andH.M.S. 
Beagle, Capt. R. 
Fits Roy, R. N., 


o / 
22 S6 
22 40 

22 30 

23 30 

23 29 
93 50 


23 26 

23 40 

23 40 


H. M. 

8 50 
8 40 
8 19 

9 38 





6 to 7 





































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Bjnoe Island; summit 

O / <r 

54 19 

72 12 54 

The surreys of 

o / 

H. M. 



Bowles Island: N. summit. 

54 « 

72 15 10 






Danes Gilbert Head; N. summit 

53 56 SO 

72 15 10 

snd BiogU, Capta. 


CajetanoPeak . . . . 

53 53 4 

72 9 50 

P. P. King. R. N., 


Smyth Harbour ; Mount Maxwell 

53 47 10 

72 15 10 

F.R.S., &c.; Capt 


£Mra Point ; eitremitj . 

53 49 If 

72 4 5 

T. Stokes, R.N.; 


Cape Edgeworth; extremity 

53 47 3 

72 9 8 

and Capt. R. Fits- 
Roy, R.N., 1826— 


Thi SxBArr op Magalhaxks, tkom 

1830; aDdH.M.S. 
BiagU, Capt. R. 
FitaRoy, R. N., 

Caps Fboward xo the Pacific 


Cape Froward ; sum. of the bluff. 

53 53 43 

71 18 25 


Cape Holland ; S.E. extreme 

53 48 33 

71 39 35 

23 50 

10 40 



Port Gallant; Wigwam Point . 

53 41 45 

72 51 

24 4 

9 3 

5 or 6 


Dos Hermanas Island; summit . 

53 57 45 

71 25 25 


CordesBay; W. outer point 

53 4S 55 

71 57 


Cape Inglefield ; islet off it . 
Mount Pond . . . . 

53 50 f 

71 55 33 


53 51 45 

71 56 40 


£lvira Point; extremity . 

53 49 It 

72 4 5 


Charles Island ; Wallia Mark . 

53 43 57 

72 5 55 


Rupert Island ; summit 

53 42 

72 11 52 


Cape Crosstide ; extreme • 

53 33 

72 26 40 

23 35 

1 40 



Jerome Channel ; Jerome Point . 

53 31 30 

72 25 40 


1 30 



FitzRoy Channel ; Donkin Core . 

5f 45 30 

71 24 37 

23 40 


Skyring Water; DynevorCas.sum. 
£lMonon,or8t. Darid'sHd.; sum. 

52 34 30 

72 32 32 


53 33 SO 

72 32 25 

23 20 



Cape Quod ; extremity 

53 3« 10 

72 33 35 


53 31 

72 40 10 


Cape Notch ; extremity 
PlayaParda Core; Shelter), sum. 
Half Port Bay: point. 
St. Anne Island ; central summit . 

53 25 

72 49 5 

23 40 


53 18 45 

73 1 40 

23 45 

1 8 



53 11 40 

73 18 55 

23 40 




53 6 30 

73 16 40 

23 30 




Cspe Upright; extrem. N. trend . 

53 4 3 

73 36 8 

23 24 

2 30 



Cape Tamar ; 8. extreme . 
Point Felix; extremity 

53 55 SO 

73 48 20 

23 24 

2 30 



52 56 

74 12 55 


Valentine Harbour; Obserrn. Mt. 

52 55 

74 18 55 





Cape Cortado; extremity . 

52 49 37 

74 26 50 

23 40 


Cape Parker; western sum. orer 

52 42 

74 14 40 


Westminster Hall ; £. aummit . 

52 37 18 

74 24 20 


Obserration Mount; summit 

52 28 58 

74 36 12 

25 9 




Harbour of Mercy; Bottle I. sum. 

52 44 58 

74 39 24 

23 48 

1 10 



Cape Pillar ; northern cliff 

52 42 50 

74 43 30 

t: • ?: 

23 50 




Cape Victory ; extremity . 

52 16 10 

74 54 49 


fiTAHOKLisTS, or Islos of Direc- 

tion; Sugar-loaf Islet 

52 24 18 

75 6 50 












Point Catbxrinb; N.E. extrem. 

52 32 

68 44 10 


Cape Espiritu Santo; Nombre 
Head, N.E. cliff. . 

52 39 

68 35 



St. Sebastian B. ; Pt. Arenas,S.ex. 

53 9 10 

68 12 20 


„ C. S. Sebastian; N. height 

53 19 

68 10 

22 40 




Cape Sunday; N.E. cliff . 

53 39 50 

67 56 30 

22 50 




Cape Penas ; S.E. cliff 

53 51 30 

67 S3 30 


6 42 



Cape San Pablo; N.E. cliff 

54 16 20 

66 40 15 


Table of Oroaco; S.E. sum. 1,000ft. 

54 40 40 

65 59 55 


Polioarpo Point; extreme . 

54 39 

65 39 40 



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Cape Sin Vicente ; extreme 
Caps San Diioo; E. extreme 
8TATiir IfLAVD ; Cape St. Bartbo- 

lonew, S.VV. oliff . 

„ C. St. A Dtbony , N. extr. oliff 

„ New Year lelande ; N.E. pt. 

„ Cape St. John ; N. cliff . 

,1 Mount Richardson ; summit 

«y Dampier Islands; 8. sum. 
Good Snocess Bay ; N. bead 
Cape Good Snocess ; S. extreme . 
Cam pans or Bell Mount; summit 
Aguirre Bay ; Kinnaird Point 
Point Jesse . . . . 
fieagle Cbaoael; Cape Mitchell . 
„ „ Cape Divide 
,. „ Kekblao Cape . 

New Island ; Point Waller, extr. 
Lennox Ro^ ; Luff Island summ. 
GoreeRosd; Ooanaco Point, extr. 
Terbalten Idand ; summit . 
Erout Isles; N.E. bead 
Barnerelt Islaads ; N.E. extreme 
Beeeit Island ; C. Deceit, E. extr. 
Wottastoa Island ; CapeScomfield 
Henehellsld. Mt.Herscbel; sum. 
CAPE HORf^; summit . 
Hermits Island ; St. Martin Core, 

Obssrratioii Station . 

„ Kater's Peak, 1742 feet 

„ Maxwell Islsnd ; summit . 

„ Cape Sp«ncer; S.E. summit 
Pseksaddle Island ; summit 
Orange Bay ; Burnt Isl. summit . 
Point Lort ; £. pitch . 
False Cspe Horn ; S. extreme 
DiKoo Ramirbs Isl. ; high. summ. 
St. lldefonso Isles ; highest summ. 
New Yr. S. : C. WeddeU, 
Henderson Isl. ; M. Beaufoj, sum. 

„ Brisbane Head ; extr. summ. 
Hope Island ; central extr. summ. 
York Minster ; summit, 800 ft. . 
Capstan Rocks ; summit of largest 
Cape Alikboolip; 8. extreme 
Phillips' Rocks ; largest, summit . 
Treble Island ; S. summit . 
Cape Csstlereagb ; summit . 
Caps Disolatiom ; S. summit 
tondonld. ; Horace Peaks, S. sum. 
West Furies; largest rock . 
Tower Rocks ; £. rock 
Cape Noir Island ; extreme 
Kempe Peaks; S. summit . 
Ipswieb Isles ; 8. summit . 
Gloucester Cape ; summit . 
Fincbam Islands; summit of W. 
Cape Tate; summit 
Landfall lil. C. Schetkj; S. piteh 

„ Capelnman; cUff summit . 
Cape Sunday; summit 
Cape Deseado; peaked sum. near. 
Dislocation Harbour; Obs. Statu. 
Judge Roeks ; westernmost 
Apostle Rocks; W. Isrge rocks . 
Cape Pillar ; northern cliff 










o / // 
65 14 25 

The surveys of 

22 50 

H. M. 

4 30 



64 41 

65 7 10 

H. M. S. AdvetUun 
and BeagU, Capts. 

22 60 

4 30 



54 53 45 

64 45 40 

P. P.King,R.N., 

22 40 

4 45 



54 43 30 

64 34 10 

F.R.S.,&o.; Capt. 
T. Stokes, R.N^; 


54 39 

64 6 30 

22 30 

5 30 



54 4f 90 

63 43 55 

and Capt. R. Fits- 

22 30 

5 30 



54 45 50 

63 51 15 

Roy, R.N., 1826^ 


54 53 

64 11 30 

1830 ; and H.M.S. 


54 47 

65 11 40 

BeagUf Capt. R. 


54 54 40 

65 21 40 

FitaRoj, R. N., 


54 53 15 

65 33 40 



54 57 5 

65 47 10 

22 50 

4 20 



55 2 45 

66 22 40 



54 57 30 

68 14 10 


54 59 10 

69 7 20 


55 10 

70 2 10 


55 10 10 

66 28 10 


55 18 40 

66 44 55 

23 40 

4 30 



55 19 

67 10 10 

23 30 




55 f6 15 

67 1 40 


55 33 

66 45 10 


55 48S5 

66 44 50 

23 40 

4 30 



55 54 40 

67 2 35 


55 45 15 

67 8 10 



65 49 45 

67 19 25 


55 58 40 

67 16 10 


4 40 



55 51 SQ 

67 34 10 

24 23 

4 41 



55 51 55 

67 34 


55 47 SO 

67 SO 55 


55 55 

67 37 50 

24 30 

4 40 



55 23 50 

68 4 30 

23 50 

3 30 



55 31 

68 2 30 

23 56 


55 40 30 

67 59 10 

9S 30 

4 SO 



55 43 15 

68 5 50 

23 56 

3 28 



56 f 8 50 

68 42 40 

24 30 




55 dS SO 

69 18 40 

24 10 

3 20 



55 33 

68 45 10 


55 36 15 

68 58 10 


55 39 

68 57 10 


55 3S 30 

69 40 


55 24 50 

70 2 40 


55 24 10 

70 17 40 


55 11 50 

70 49 10 


55 14 10 

70 57 10 


55 7 50 

71 2 30 

24 15 




54 56 

71 28 10 

24 15 

2 50 



54 45 40 

71 37 20 

24 30 

1 40 



54 43 

71 67 35 


54 34 45 

72 22 


2 30 



54 36 40 

73 3 

24 34 

2 30 



54 SO 

73 6 40 


2 25 


54 23 30 

72 30 20 


54 10 30 

73 20 50 


54 5 18 

73 29 25 

24 30 

1 30 



53 44 15 

73 45 40 


53 37 15 

73 51 40 


53 21 40 

74 12 55 





53 18 30 

74 19 25 


53 10 30 

74 22 10 


52 55 30 

74 37 40 


52 54 15 

74 37 20 

23 53 

1 40 



52 51 

74 48 40 




52 46 15 

74 48 

23 50 



52 42 50 

74 43 30 

23 60 

^ C 

M « 



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The EraDgelists, or Ib. of Direc- 
tion ; Sugar-loaf 

Cape Victory 5 extremity . 

Cape Isabel ; W. extreme . 

Cape George; bluff summit 

Cape Santa Luoia ; summit . 

White Horse Islet; N. summit . 

Cape Santiago ; summit 

April Peak ; summit . 

Cape Three Points, or Tree Pon- 
tes; 2,000 feet 

Port Henry ; obser?atory . 

Cape Primero ; extremity . 

Mount Corso; S.W. summit 

Cathedral Mount ; summit * 

Cape MonUffue; W. cliff . 

Parallel Peak ; summit 

Rock of Dundee ; summit . 

Cape Dyer; extremity 

PortSta. Barbara; N. extr. Ob. Pt. 

Bynoe Islands ; N. centre . 

Guaianeco Islands; northernmost 
islet summit - . 

„ Speedwell B. ; hill at N.E. pt. 
„ Wager Isl. ; £. pt. extreme 

Ayautau Islands ; summ. of largest 

Channel's Mouth ; rock of entr. 

Xavier Island ; Ignacio Beach 

Kelly Harbour ; S. point extrem. 

Forelius Peninsula; isthmus nar- 
rowest point . . . . 

Cirujano Island ; N.E. point 

Purcell Island ; summit 

St. Paul's Dome ; summ. t,284 ft. 

Port Otway ; Obserrn. spot 

Capb Tsks M0MTE8 ; extremity * 

Cape Raper ; rook close to . 

Cape Gallegos; summit 

Christmas Cove; Ob. St. atS.E.ex. 

The Cone; summit, 1^00 feet . 

Reecue Point ; N. summit . 

Hillyer Rocks; middle 

Cape Taytaohaohuon, or Taytso ; 
W. extremity , . • . 

Anna Pink Bay ; Patch Core, O. S. 
„ Port Refuge ; Puentes I. sum. 

Ynche-mo Island ; S.E. summit . 

Menchuan Island ; summit . 

Mount Isquiliao ; summ. 3,000 ft. 

Vallenar Road ; S.E. extremity ; 
Three Finger Island 

Socorro, or Hnambltnls.; S. extr. 

Ypun, or Narborougfa Island ; 
John Point, extremity 

Mount Mayne; summit, 9,080 feet 

Guaytecas Island ; central summit 

Port Low ; rooky islet in harbour 

Quejtao Islet; summit . . 

Huafo I. or No Man's Land ; S. ex. 
„ summit orer Weather Point 

Canoitad Rock ; submit 






/ // 

5t f4 18 

75 6 50 

52 16 10 

74 54 49 

51 51 50 

75 13 10 

51 37 40 

75 21 10 

51 30 

75 29 10 

51 7 50 

75 14 50 

50 Att 

75 28 10 

50 10 50 

75 21 10 

50 « 

75 21 10 

50 OiA 
49 50^ 

75 19 5 

75 35 40 

49 48 

75 34 10 

49 46 30 

74 44 

49 7 30 

75 37 10 

48 45 40 

75 31 10 

48 6 15 

75 42 10 

48 6 

75 34 30 

48 2 20 

75 29 30 

47 58 

75 23 40 

47 38 10 

75 14 10 

47 39 30 

75 10 10 

47 41 

74 55 10 

47 34 15 

74 40 30 

47 29 30 

74 29 40 

47 10 

74 25 50 

46 59 30 

74 8 40 

46 50 

74 41 50 

46 51 10 

74 21 55 

46 55 20 

74 39 55 

46 36 16 

75 13 50 

46 49 31 

75 19 30 

46 58 57 

75 28 

46 49 10 

75 41 5 

46 35 

75 28 40 

46 35 

75 34 15 

46 34 10 

75 31 10 

46 18 10 

75 13 55 

46 4 

76 14 10 

45 53 SO 

75 8 10 

45 52 15 

74 56 

45 51 Z% 

74 51 35 

45 48 5 

75 1 10 

45 36 

74 b& 10 

45 20 

74 21 50 

45 18 30 

74 36 25 

44 55 50 

75 12 55 

44 40 40 

74 48 40 

44 9 

74 11 55 

43 52 45 

74 1 10 

43 48 30 

74 3 15 

43 43 

73 35 40 

43 41 50 

74 46 10 

43 35 30 

74 48 50 

43 2Q 

73 50 30 


The Sur?eys of 
H. M. S. Adventwn 
and Beagle, Capts. 
P. P. King, R.N., 
F.R.S.,&c.; Capt. 
T. Stokes, R. N.; 
and Capt. R. Fits- 
Roy, R.N., 1826— 
1830; andH.M.S. 
Beagle, Capt. R. 
FitsRoy, R. N., 

* Termination of 
H. M. S. BejgU'i 
Surreys in 1830. 

The positions of 
the vanoua points 
in the interior 
Sounds, being q ui te 
unimportant for the 
purposes of na?i-. 
gation, are not 
given in this table. 
The charts will be 
quite sufficient for 
any utility. 



20 50 
20 58 

19 10 

19 50 

20 32 
20 40 

20 31 
20 36 

20 48 

19 48 



11 45 


12 45 
12 14 

12 45 
12 45 

12 18 



zed by Google 



Sao Pedro Motn. ; samm. 34200 ft. 
San Pedro Paamge; Ob. St. in core 
Yanteles Mntn ; S. summ. 6,725 ft. 
Corcof ado Volcano ; sum. 7,510 ft. 
Hoapi Qailan Islets ; 8. sommit . 
Cape Qailan ; S.W. extreme 
Cape Matelqui ; W. extreme 
Matalqui Height, or Paps ; summ. 
HQecbnencny Head 
Coroaa Head ; N. pitch 
San Carlos Town ; landing place 

at Mole 

Point Tres Cruces ; eztr. pitch 
Ilaapilinao Head ; summit . 
LoboB Head; summit . 
OscuroPort; Obserration Sution 
Qoiotergea Point ; summit . 
Cbaugues Islands ; N. summit . 
Quicari Bluff . . . . 
Dalcahue; chapel 
Castro Town ; easternmost part . 
Yal Point ; summit 
Lemuy Island ; Apabon peaked hill 
Talcan Harbour ; Obs. Station 
Mincbinmadom Volcano ; S. sum. 

8,000 feet . . . . 

Mount Vilcun ; summit 
Point Sentinola; extreme . 
Huildad Harbour 
laytec Island ; S.E extreme 
Abtao Island; S. point 
Calbueo Fort ; £. end of island . 
Pnlnqui Id. Centinela, or S. point 


Carelmapu Cove ; Obs. SUtion . 
Maallin, Amoftnado ; N. extreme 
Point Godoy ; 8.W. extreme 
Osorno Moontain ; summit • 
Point Coronel ; S. extremity 
Cape Quedal ; summit . 
Maozano Cove; rivulet, month 
Milagro Cove ; depth of 
Rirer Bueno ; entrance (bar) 
Point Galera; W. extremity 
Falsa Point; summ. over (highest^ 
Valditia; Ob. St. nr. Eftrt Corral 
Gonalee Head ; northern pitch . 
ValdiviaTown; landing place opp. 

cbarch (Hospital Mole) . 
Cbaneban Core ; islet off • 
HiTerTolten; month . 
Cauten (or Imperial) Rirer ; mouth 
Cauten Head Cliff; summit 
Moeba Island; 8. summit . 
Cape Tirua; sammit of islet off . 
Mocha Island; Ob. St. E. side, 

near N. point . . . . 
Uolguilla Point; S.W. extreme . 
Point Tuoapel ; extreme 
Hiver Leobu ; entrance 
Tttcapel Head ; summit 


43 21 
43 19 35 
43 30 
43 11 20 
43 29 30 
43 17 10 
42 10 40 
42 10 30 
41 46 
41 46 

41 52 
41 49 30 
41 57 S6 

42 4 
42 4 
42 9 
42 15 
42 15 
42 23 
42 27 45 
42 39 
42 40 
42 47 

42 48 
42 48 50 

42 59 25 

43 3 
43 15 5 
41 48 
4J 46 5 
41 51 

41 45 
41 37 15 
41 34 15 
41 9 30 
41 7 40 
41 3 
40 33 20 
40 16 
40 11 
40 2 
40 50 
39 52 53 
39 51 15 

39 49 2 
39 26 40 
39 7 45 
38 47 40 
38 40 40 
38 24 10 
38 23 

38 19 35 
37 48 
37 42 
37 35 45 
37 35 20 


73 49 

73 45 20 
72 50 30 

72 48 40 

74 15 
74 26 
74 14 
74 11 10 
74 3 

73 57 SO 

73 52 40 
73 31 40 
73 32 20 
73 27 
73 29 
73 24 
73 18 
73 24 
73 40 
73 49 20 
73 43 
73 35 30 
72 58 

72 34 30 

72 52 50 

73 22 30 
73 34 
73 36 
73 26 
73 10 53 
73 6 

73 45 
73 44 30 
73 50 20 
73 36 45 
73 31 45 
73 59 60 
73 45 50 
73 4b' 
73 44 
73 46 40 
73 40 50 
73 29 
73 30 

73 18 30 
73 18 30 
73 19 
73 26 
73 30 20 
73 56 50 

73 34 30 

74 20 
73 36 
73 43 
73 42 
73 43 10 

Tbe survey by 
Capt R. FitzRoy, 
R.N., 1831—1834. 



18 33 

18 35 

18 30 

18 15 

18 20 



H. M. 

11 15 

12 30 



11 15 
1 15. 
1 25 

12 29 



12 28 
12 51 
12 26 
12 11 


1 3 



12 48 
12 37 
12 50 


1 5 



10 55 


10 45 


zed by Google 



Carnero Head ; western sommit . 

Arauco Fort ; middle . 

Tubal Hirer ; S. head, entrance . 

Cape Rumena; N.W. cliff, snmm. 

Laraqaote Rirer ; month . 

Point Lavapie; extremity . 

Colcura Village; west, pitch of hill 

Santa Maria Uland ; landing place 

Point Coronel ; W. extremity 

CoNCEPCioN City; mid. neartorir. 

Hirer Bio Bio ; S. entrance point 

Taloahnano; fort Galres . 

Point Tumben; N.W. cliff . 

Mount Neuke ; summit 

Coliumo Head ; N. extreme 

Bio Bio Paps ; 8.W. summit 

Carransa Point; S.W. extreme . 

Cape Hnmos ; summit 

Maule Church ; rock . 

Maule Hirer ; S. head entrance . 

Topacalma Point ; summit on ex. 

Karidad Bay ; Hirer Rapel mouth 

Rape] Shoal (wrongly called To- 
pacalma) . . . . 

Maypo Hirer ; S. entrance head . 

White Hock Point; White Hock 

Cnraumilla Point ; rock off . 

Valparaiso; Fort San Antonio . 

Quillota; Bell; summit 

Quintero Hooks ; body 

Quintero Point ; summit 

Hereon Hock ; largest 

Aconcagua ; Mountain : summit . 

Papodo Bay ; Ob. St. landing pi. 

Pichidanque ; S.E. point of island 

Conchali Bay ; islet in middle 

Point Tables; S.W. extremity . 

Hirer Chnapa ; S. entrance point 

Maytencillo Core ; N. head 

Talinaj Mount ; summit 

Liman River ; S. head 

Lengua de Vaca ; extremity 

Herradura de Coquimbo Port; 
S.W. comer . . . . 

Coquimbo Port; north, islet (rock) 

Arrayan Core ; S. point 

Juan Soldado, Mountain ; summit 

Pajaro lalet ; southern summit . 

Yerba Buens, riltage ; chapel 

Trigo Islsnd ; S. W. point . 

Tortoralillo ; S. entrance point 

Chungunga Islet ; summit . 

Tore Reef 

Chores Islands ; S.W. pt. of larg. 

Polillao Core ; S. point extreme . 

Chaneral Bay; S.W. point . 

Chaneral Islsnd; S.W. summit . 

Sarco Core ; middle of beach . . 

Cape Vascunan ; islet off (rock) . 

Hnasco; Captain of Port's house . 

Lobo Point ; outer pitch 

Herradura de Carrisal ; landing pi. 

Carrisal ; middle point ; S. side . 

Matamores Core; out. pt. on S. side 

Pajonal Core ; S.E. corner . 

Safado Bay; Caches Point; sun. 





O / ' 

o « // 

57 21 to 

73 44 

37 15 

73 23 

37 14 25 

73 27 30 

37 12 45 

73 42 

37 10 30 

73 14 

37 8 50 

73 38 20 

37 2 50 

73 14 

37 2 48 

73 34 

36 57 

73 15 

36 49 30 

73 5 20 

36 48 45 

73 13 

36 42 

73 10 

36 37 15 

73 10 20 

36 34 55 

72 58 

36 31 30 

73 1 15 

36 6 20 

73 14 40 

35 37 20 

72 42 20 

35 22 50 

72 33 

35 19 40 

72 29 20 

35 19 15 

72 28 

34 50 

72 5 

33 54 

71 52 20 

33 51 

71 56 SO 

33 39 20 

71 43 15 

33 29 

71 46 50 

33 6 

71 48 

33 1 53 

71 41 15 

32 57 10 

71 10 20 

32 52 20 

70 37 

32 46 

70 35 30 

32 41 50 

70 35 SO 

32 38 30 

70 30 

32 30 9 

71 30 45 

32 7 55 

71 36 

31 53 10 

71 36 

31 51 45 

71 S7 30 

31 39 30 

71 38 

31 17 5 

71 42 5 

SO 50 45 

71 41 45 

30 44 53 

71 46 25 

30 13 40 

71 41 30 

29 58 40 

71 25 45 

29 55 10 

71 25 10 

29 42 20 

71 23 45 

29 41 30 

71 20 25 

29 35 

71 36 25 

29 34 

71 21 50 

29 32 35 

71 24 20 

29 29 15 

71 23 45 

29 24 15 

71 25 15 

29 21 10 

71 35 25 

29 15 45 

71 37 SO 

29 10 

71 34 10 

29 2 40 

71 S3 40 

29 1 15 

71 39 5 

28 50 

71 32 10 

28 50 

71 34 30 

28 27 15 

71 19 

28 17 50 

71 17 10 

28 5 45 

71 15 45 

28 4 30 

71 14 SO 

27 54 10 

71 12 35 

27 43 30 

71 7 

27 39 20 


71 6 25 


The Surrey by 
Capt. R. FitzHoy, 
R.N., 1831—1834. 



16 48 

16 24 

15 18 

15 12 
15 24 

14 30 

14 24 


13 37 
13 23 

13 28 



10 20 

10 14 

9 32 

9 20 

9 8 
9 8 

8 SO 


zed by Google 



CopiAPo; landing place 

MorroofCopiapo; summit 

Port Yngles; sandy beach in 8.W. 


Cabexa de Veca ; point, extreme . 
Flamenco; S.E. corner of bay . 
Las Animas ; sum. over pt. (outer) 
Pan de Asucar; islet, summit 
BaHenita; ialet; off Ballenita . 
Lavata ; cove near S.W. point . 
Point San Pedro; summit • 


Point Talud ; nortbern extreme . 
Hoeeo Parade; 8. point of core . 
Point Grande; ooter summit 
Paposo; whitehead . 
Mount Trigo; snmmit . 
Rejea Head ; extreme pitch 
Point Jara; summit . 
Jiron Mountain ; summit « 
Moreno Jtfountain ; summit 
Constitucion Co?e ; shingle point 

on island 

Morro Jorge; summit 
Mflxillonea Hill ; summit . 
CoBrjA, or la Mar ; landing place 
Aigodon Bay; extremity of point 
ChiptnaBay . . . . 
Sin Francisco Head; W. pitch • 
River Loa ; mouth of • 
Point Lobo, or Blanca ; out. pitch 
Moont Carruco ; highest snmmit 
PieaPabellon; snmmit 
Point Pataehe ; extreme 
Iqaiijoe ; centre of island . 
Piaagua ; Point Pichalo ; extreme 
Point Gorda, weatem low extreme 
Point LoboB ; summit . 
Arica; Mole .... 
Same, Mountain; highest summ. 
MoHendo . . . 
Point Coles ; extremity 
YloTown; rivulet mouth . 
Ttfflbo Valley ; Point Mexico . 
Itlay ; Custom House 
Qailca; Core; W. head . 
Pescadores Point; S.W. extreme 
Atico ; K. eoTO .... 
Point Chala; extreme, 
lomas; flagstaff on point . 
San Juan; Needle Hummock 
Point Beware; S.W. extreme . 
Point Nasea ; aummit . 
Dona Maria Table ; central aumm. 
Yndependeoeia Bay ; S. point of 

Santa RoeA Island . 
Monat Carretn ; aummit 
San Gallan ; Isl. ; northern samm, 
^lacaBay; W. point N. extr. 
Pwco; Town; middle. 
Point Frayles ; extreme 
Asia Rock ; summit . 


27 20 
27 9 30 

27 5 20 
26 51 5 
26 S4 30 
26 25 35 
96 9 15 
25 45 45 
25 39 SO 
25 31 

25 24 45 
25 24 30 
25 7 
25 2 30 
24 40 
24 34 30 
23 53 
23 52 30 
23 28 30 

23 26 42 
23 15 10 
23 6 30 
22 34 

22 6 
21 23 9 
21 55 50 
21 28 
21 5 30 
20 58 30 
20 57 40 
20 51 5 
20 12 30 
19 36 30 
19 19 
18 45 40 
18 28 5 
17 58 35 
17 42 
17 37 
17 10 50 
16 42 20 
16 23 50 
16 13 SO 
15 48 
15 33 15 
15 20 56 
15 8 35 
14 57 
14 41 

14 18 15 
14 9 50 
13 50 
13 48 
13 43 
13 1 
12 48 


71 1 45 
71 1 45 

70 56 
70 55 
70 47 SO 
70 47 
70 47 5 
70 50 40 
70 47 15 
70 44 30 

70 38 15 
70 35 15 
70 SS 30 
70 33 5 
70 S6 15 
70 39 45 
70 35 45 
70 32 15 
70 38 15 

70 40 30 
70 39 45 
70 35 
70 21 5 
70 17 5 
70 10 50 
70 14 45 
70 6 15 
70 15 45 
70 9 45 
70 14 
70 18 15 
70 14 SO 
70 19 
70 21 30 
7Q 25 30 
70 23 45 

70 56 15 

71 96 15 
71 23 45 

71 52 

72 10 15 

72 31 

73 20 25 

73 45 15 

74 31 

74 54 43 

75 13 20 
75 25 45 
75 34 30 

75 53 40 

76 13 30 
76 20 20 
76 31 15 
76 22 15 
76 16 SO 
76 34 50 
76 41 55 


The survey by 
Capt. R. Fits Roy, 
R.N., 1831—1834. 


o / 

13 36 

13 30 
13 46 

13 30 


12 48 

12 30 
12 6 

12 18 
11 30 

U 5 


10 45 

11 12 

10 48 
10 30 


H. M. 

8 30 

9 10 

9 20 

9 40 


10 32 
9 54 

8 45 



8 20 

8 53 

8 53 

8 19 
5 to 



zed by Google 



Chilca Point; S.W. pitch . 
Chilqa Cove ; Rock ; Bummit 
ChorilloB Bajr . . . • 
Morro Solar ; aummit . 
CALLAO; Araenalflaffataff 
San Lorenzo ialand ; N. point 
Hormigaa lalet ; largest (southern) 
Pescador Islands ; summ. of larg. 
Chaocay Head ; summit 
Pelade Islet ; summit . 
Salinas Hill ', summit . 
Huacho Point ; extreme pitch 
Supe ; W. end of Tillage . 
Jaguay, or Gramadel Hd. : W. ex. 
Guarmej ; W. end of san'dj beach 
Colina Redonda ; summit . 
Mount Mongon ; vrestern summit 
Casma Bay ; inner S. point. 
Samanco Bay; Cross Point . 
Ferrol Bay ; Blanco Island ; sum. 
Santa ; centre of projecting point 
Chao Islet ; centre 
Guanape Islands; summ. of high. 
Truxtllo; church 
Huanchaco Point ; S.W. extremity 
Macabi Islet; summit. 
San Nicholas Bay 
Malabrigo Bay ; rocks . 
Pacasmayo Point; N.W. extreme 
Lobos de Afuera Island ; Fishing 

Core on £. side 
Eten Head ; summit over . 
Lambajeque; beach opposite 
Lobos de Tierra ; central summit . 
Point Aguja; western cliff summ. 
Sechura Town ; church 
Payta, Silla (or Saddle) ; S. summ. 
Payta; new end of town 
Parina Point ; extreme 
Cape Blanco ; und. mid. high cliff 
Picos Point ; extreme cliff . 
Point Malpelo; mouth of Tumbes 


Puo4 Island ; Consulate on Point 


Guayaquil; S. end of city* 
Point Santa Elena, N.W. extreme 
Pelado Islet .... 
Selango Island .... 

Callo Point 

Plata Island; N.W. point . 
Cape San Loreoxo ; islet off 
Monte Christo ; 1,429 feet summ. 
Chimborazo ; Volcano 


Caracas Bay; entrance 
Cape Passado ; N. extremity 
Pedemales Point ; extreme 
Cape San Francisco ; S.W. extr. . 
Galera Point; N. extremity 
Atacames, or Tacames; mouth of 


Esmeralda River ; N.E. entr. pt. 
Point Manglares .... 


Gorgona Island, 1,396ft. N. point 




o / // 

o « # 

It Si 

76 52 40 

The survey by 
Capt. R. Fits Roy, 
R.N., 1831—1834. 

IS ^9 to 

76 52 30 

12 11 30 

77 6 15 

12 4 

77 13 30 

12 4 

77 19 

11 58 

77 50 

11 47 10 

77 19 50 

11 S5 55 

77 20 35 

11 27 10 

77 53 

11 15 30 

77 39 55 

11 8 45 

77 40 15 

10 49 45 

77 47 

10 25 15 

78 3 30 

10 6 15 

78 13 

9 38 35 

78 24 20 

9 38 15 

78 21 15 

9 28 

78 25 35 

9 15 30 

78 32 45 

9 6 30 

78 39 25 


78 41 30 

8 46 30 

78 49 

8 34 50 

78 59 15 

8 7 30 

79 4 

8 5 40 

79 9 

7 49 15 

79 30 55 

7 42 40 

79 28 

7 25 15 

79 37 25 

6 56 45 

80 43 55 

5 56 40 

79 53 50 

6 46 

79 59 30 

6 26 45 

80 52 50 

5 55 30 

81 10 

5 35 

80 49 45 

5 12 

81 9 20 

5 5 30 

81 8 15 

4 40 50 

81 20 45 

4 16 40 

81 15 45 

3 45 10 

80 47 30 

3 30 40 

80 30 30 

(• End of H.M.S. 

2 47 30 

79 57 45 

BeagWtf surveys.) 

2 13 

79 53 30 

2 11 10 

81 1 40 

Capt. H. Kellett, 
R.N., 1836. 

2 3 55 

80 48 45 

1 35 20 

80 54 


1 23 

80 47 30 


1 15 30 

81 7 15 

1 3 20 

80 57 25 


1 3 45 

80 42 30 


1 24 




80 45 30 


34 30 

80 28 


21 30 

80 32 


4 10 

80 9 

39 45 

80 9 25 



80 7 


57 30 

79 55 


1 30 

79 41 15 


1 36 

79 7 


1 49 

78 50 



78 9 


10 36 

10 12 

9 48 
9 42 

9 S6 

9 30 
9 20 

9 32 

9 30 

9 28 
9 30 

9 20 

9 10 


8 50 

8 30 

8 30 

8 15 


B. M. 

3 37 
5 47 

4 h6 
4 44 
4 50 

6 10 

6 30 

5 4 


3 20 







zed by Google 



BoenaTentun Ba J ; town • 
Point Cbaninbira 

Cape Corrientet . . . . 
Topiea Baj; C. Francisco Solano 


Poiot Oaraohina . . . . 

Isia del Rey ; S. point 

Panama' ; N.E. baation 

Taboga laland ; vill. watering pi. 

Oto(fiie Islanda ; 8. ialet 

Point Mala • . . . 

Morro de Pueroos 

Cape Mariato . . . . 

Qoibo laland; Damas B. watg. pi. 

n ,» Negada,orS.E. pt. 

It „ Hermosa, or W. pt. 
Hicaron or Qaicara Id. ; Darid pt. 
Niearita Island ; S. point 
Bahia Honda .... 
Port Poebia Nuera, or Santiago . 
Montaoaa Island .... 
Buica Point . . . . 


Golf of Dolce . . . . 
Chiriqai Mountain, 11,266 feet . 
Cano Island . . . . 

PortMantofl . . . . 
GCofNicoya; Ponta de Arenas H. 
Cape Blanco . . . . 
Mono Heroaoeo .... 
CapeVelas . . . . 

PortCttlebra; Gorda point. 

V „ O.St.; bead of port 

n „ Viradores Island . 
Point St. Elena . . . . 
Salinas Bay ; Salinas Island 
Port San Juan; S. bluff . 
Cape Deaolada .... 
Rralkjo ; Cardon Island, N. pt. . 
Fonseca, or Conchagua Gulf ; 

Cosegnina Volcano . 

t, ^ Port La Union; 
Chiearene Point 

n t\ 'Pott Naguiscolo . 
Port Giqmlisco, or Triunfo de los 


Hi?. Lempa ; Barra del Esp. Santo 

Volcan de S. Migael, 7,024 feet . 

k*ort Libertad ; flagstaff 

City of San Salvador . 

Port Acajntla, or Sonaonate ; 

Point Remedies 
Isaico Volcano . . . . 
Portoflsupa . . . . 
Volcan deAgna . . . . 


Tehoantepec Road, or Ventosa 
Morro de Carbon 



3 &S 

4 16 

5 S3 

6 37 

7 40 

8 9 
8 15 
8 56 
8 47 
8 35 
7 «5 






8 23 
8 52 
8 42 

8 56 

9 55 50 
9 34 

10 6 
10 13 
10 31 
10 S6 55 
10 34 20 

10 55 

11 2 50 

11 15 12 

12 21 
12 27 55 

12 58 

13 17 5 

12 59 

13 22 
13 21 
13 30 
13 30 
13 48 

13 30 

13 48 

14 29 

16 9 35 

76 59 

77 30 
77 29 30 

77 20 

78 7 
78 28 

78 51 

79 31 
79 30 

79 34 30 

80 2 
80 27 

80 42 

81 42 
81 36 
81 53 35 
81 46 18 
81 48 
81 30 

81 41 

82 27 
82 59 



83 30 
82 30 

84 6 
84 14 

84 52 

85 7 
85 29 
85 40 
85 43 30 
85 33 30 
85 40 
85 46 
85 40 45 

85 53 

86 59 

87 9 30 

87 37 

87 42 15 

87 16 

88 12 
88 17 

88 10 

89 11 

88 56 

89 45 

89 33 

90 38 
90 36 

95 4 37 


Sir Edw. Belcher, 


Lieat. Wood, 1848 


Sir Edw. Belcher. 





7 15 


Spanish MS. 

8 13 



3 23 


3 6 


2 26 












zed by Google 










Bay of Bamba; PaaU de Zipegua 

16 I 

95 28 30 


o / 
8 15 

B. M. 



JVIorro of Ystapa, or Ajata . 

15 56 

95 46 



Bay of Rosario; Morro de la« 

15 50 S5 

96 2 



Port Guatulco; islets off . 

15 44 25 

96 10 

Sir £. Belcher. 


Port Sacraficios ; Sacraficios Id. . 

15 44 

96 19 7 

Spanish MS. 

3 15 



Port Angeles .... 

15 44 

96 42 



Alcatras Kock .... 

15 58 

97 30 



Acapulco, TofTD of; Fort S. Diego 

16 15 SO 

99 50 

Sir E. Belcher. 


Paps of Coyaca .... 

17 6 




Point Jequepa . . . . 

17 «0 

101 8 



Morro de Petatlan 

17 3« 

101 24 



Port SihaanUnejo ; head of port . 

17 38 3 

101 30 52 



Paps of Tejupan 

Colima Volcano, 12,005 feet, sum. 

18 to 

103 18 



19 24 

103 34 



Mansanilla Bay; Pt. S. Francisco 

19 4 

104 26 


\ Port Navidad ; S.W. entrance . 

19 12 

104 48 




Cape Corrientes; extremity T 

16 25 

105 39 



Point Mita ; extremity 

20 46 

105 28 


La Corvetana |look 

20 42 

105 46 40 


Tres Marias Islands; S. Jnanito 1. 

21 44 

106 38 



Piedro de Mer, ISO feet 

21 34 SO 

105 30 



San Bias ; arsenal 

21 32 20 

105 16 


9 41 

6 or 7 


Isabella Island . . . . 

21 52 

105 54 


Rio Chametia, or del Rosario ; 

W. point 

22 50 

105 58 



Mazatlan ; Creston Island extr. . 

23 11 40 

106 23 45 


10 18 

9 50 




Point Arboledo . . . . 

23 33 

106 48 


Culiacan Shoals; S.W. edge 

24 37 

108 8 


Culiaoan River ; S. point entrance 

24 38 

107 58 



Point St. Ignacio 

25 33 

109 1 


Point Rosa 

26 42 

109 50 



Lobos Marines Island . 

97 15 

110 46 



Rio Yaqui ; entrance . 

27 50 

110 SO 



Guaymas: Morro Almagre . 

27 53 50 

110 49 11 

Rosamel, 1840. 

12 4 

3 to 11 


Cape Naro 

27 50 

110 54 



Tetaa de Cabra, or Paps . 

27 56 

111 5 


St. Pedro Nolasco 

27 56 

111 14 


I'iburon Island ; W. point . 

28 54 

112 26 



.Rio Colorado ; mouth . 




Angeles Island ; 8. point . 
Cape S. Gabriel . . 

29 6 

112 52 


28 36 

112 42 


Cape de las Virgenee . 
MolejeBay; Tillage . 

27 46 
116 52 

112 31 
112 29 


Point Concepcion 

96 57 

112 4 


Real de Loreto .... 
Carmen Island ; £. point . 

26 14 
26 10 

HI 30 
111 3 



Catalana Island ; N. point . 
Espiritu Santo Island; N. end . 
La Paz . . . . . 
Cerralbo Island ; N. end . 

25 41 
24 36 

no 47 
110 22 



24 10 
24 23 

109 45 
109 45 



S. Jos6 del Cabo ; mission . 

23 3 30 

109 41 


Cape San Lacas .... 
Mesas of Narraet 
Gulf of Magdalena; Obserratifti 
Sution; Delgada Point . t . 
Cape San Laaaro, 1,300 feet 

22 52 

23 56 

109 53 

110 52 

Sir £ Beleher. 


38 24 18 
24 44 50 

112 6 21 
112 16 

Sir £. Belcher. 

9 15 

7 35 



FarsUooes Alijos Rocks 

24 51 

115 47 

Du P. Thouara. 

Point Abreojos . . . , 
Asencion Island .... 

26 42 

27 8 

113 34 

114 18 



San Bartholomew, or Turtle Bay, 


N. head . . . . . 

27 39 50 

114 51 20 

Sir E. Belcher. 















O 1 II 


o / 

H. M. 


Cedrotyor Cerroi Island ; 8. pt. . 

28 9 

115 11 "O 



Sao Benito Islands, W. I. . 

«8 \% 

115 46 



Plajt Maria Bet ; Sto. Maria Pu 

tS 55 

114 31 

Capt Kellett. 

8 44 


St. Geronifflo laknd . 

29 48 

115 47 



Port San Quentin ; W. pt, entr. . 

SO 21 30 

115 56 33 

Sir E. Belcher. 

12 6 

9 5 



Point Zuniga • • . . 

50 30 

115 58 



Ceoisas Island; N.W. point 
Caps Colnett; S.W. point , 

30 32 

116 2 



30 59 

116 15 



Todos los Santos Ba/; Ft. Grajoro 

31 44 

116 46 




Coronados Islands; lai^ one 
Port San Diego ; £. spit of entr. 

32 24 55 

117 14 

Capt. Kellett 

14 15 


32 41 

117 11 

Sir £. Belcher. 


San Jaui Capistrano B. ; out. rock 

33 26 55 

117 42 



San Pedro Baj . . . . 

33 43 10 

118 16 



Port Vicente . . . . 

33 44 

118 23 



Port Dome 

34 3 

118 45 



Port Conversion .... 

34 9 

119 9 30 



BuenaTentara .... 

34 16 

119 13 



Sta. Barbara . . . . 

34 24 12 

119 41 



3 to 4 


San Jnan laland .... 

32 53 

117 44 



San Clements Island ; E. point . 

32 46 

118 22 0. 



Sanu CaUlina Island . 

32 28 

118 38 



Sta. Barbara Island 

33 23 

119 2 



SanNieolas Id. ; Jobn Begg Rock 

33 22 

119 42 3 

Capt. Kellett. 

14 30 


Sanu Cms laland ; W. point 
SaDta Rosa laland; N.W. point . 

34 10 

119 47 



34 2 




Poiot Conception 

Point Arguello . . . . 

34 31 

120 34 



34 38 

120 32 

It • 


Aio de St. Balardo ; or Geraldo . 

34 44 

120 30 



Point Sal 

34 58 

120 33 



Point Monte de Bacbon 

35 18 

120 50 



£ataros Bay ; Esteros Point 

35 30 

120 56 



Point Finos . . . . 

36 38 30 

121 55 



Montbbit; Fort 

36 36 25 

121 53 


9 42 



Point Ano NueTO 

36 58 

122 8 



Point San Fadro . . 

37 34 

122 28 


Point Lobos . . . . 

37 46 30 

122 27 30 



Sam Feamoisco, Yerba Bnena Co?e 

37 47 20 

122 24 


15 30 

10 34 

2 to 8 

„ „ Fort Point . 

37 48 20 

122 27 12 

Survey by Liente. 
M< Arthur and 


South Farallon .... 

37 36 30 

122 59 


North-west Farallon . 

37 44 

123 7 



Punta da los Rayes . 

38 1 30 

123 1 30 



Point Tomales . . . . 

38 14 30 

123 1 30 


Bodega Head 

38 18 30 

123 4 




38 33 

123 5 30 



Blonfs Raef off Cape Mendo9ino 
Cape Mendocino ; Sagar-loaf 

40 27 15 

124 29 



40 27 

124 26 30 


16 30 


False Mendo9ino 

40 31 

124 25 



Eel Hirer; entrance . 

40 39 30 

124 16 



Table Bluff 

40 44 

124 12 


Humboldt Harboor; entrance 

40 51 

124 7 


Trinidad Bay ; anchorage . 

41 5 40 

124 4 



Trinidad City . . . . 

41 6 20 

124 4 



The Turtles, N.W. of Trinidad . 

41 12 

124 11 30 



41 18 30 

124 6 



Redding's Rock .... 

41 23 

124 6 



Klamath Hirer; entrance . 

41 34 

124 80 



PortSLGeorga . . . . 

41 43 

124 3 





Cape St. George . 

41 47 

124 6 


St. George's Reef, or Islets; 

N.W. eztramity 

41 51 

124 12 


Peliean Bay ; Indian nil. anchor. 

41 55 

124 3 

\ \ 






zed by Google 












^*X V^ VI ^^ ^V k 1 



o / /; 

O / 

H. M. 


Toutounit, or Rogae't River 

42 f 5 30 

124 20 

Survey by Lieats. 


Toutoaois Reef; 8. extremity . 

4t 27 SO 

124 27 

M* Arthur and 


Ewiog Harbour; anehorage 

4« 44 

124 20 




Cape Orford, or Dlanco 

Orford Reef; islet above water 

4« 55 

124 25 



S.W. extremity 

4S 49 

124 30 30 



Coquille Ri?er . . • . 

43 1« 40 

124 14 30 



Cape Arago .... 

43 27 

124 15 30 


20 40 

Kowes (Caboos) River; entrance 

43 28 

124 8 30 



Umpqua River ; entrance . 

43 44 

124 7 30 



Cape Perpetua ; 8. bluff . 

44 n 




„ N. bluff . . 

44 16 30 




Alseya River .... 

44 39 

123 54 30 


Three Mary's Islets (off C Foal- 


44 44 

123 56 b 



Cape Foulweather 
Nekos River; entrance 

44 45 

123 55 30 



44 57 

123 51 


Yaquinna River .... 

43 6 

123 59 30 



Cape Look-out .... 
Killamook River .... 

45 23 

123 54 


45 3t 

123 51 SO 


False Killamook .... 

45 46 30 

123 57 SO 


Killamook Head .... 

45 54 

123 67 30 



fPoint Adams .... 

46 12 40 

123 56 2 


Baker Bay ; Curtis Point . 

46 16 43 

124 7 

Sir Edw. Belcher, 


12 15 



/Cape Disappointment . 

46 15 50 

124 10 



Fort Vancouver .... 

45 36 53 

122 39 34 

U. 8. Ex. Ex. 


Cape Shoalwater . 

46 42 

124 12 



Gray ^8 Harboar; North point 



124 7 


Point Granville . . . . 

47 22 

124 14 



Destruction Island 

47 38 

124 25 



Cape Flattery .... 

48 9 

124 26 



Cape Classet; Duncan Rock 

48 24 12 

124 45 45 



Neeah Bay ; Wyadda Island 
Klaholoh Rock, 150 feet . 

48 22 SO 

124 36 45 

21 8 


48 21 35 

124 33 30 



Kydaka Point . . • . 

48 17 20 

124 22 



Callam Bay ; Slip Point • 

48 16 

124 15 10 



Pillar Point . . . . 

48 13 15 

124 6 



Crescent Bay ; Tongue Point 

48 10 10 

123 42 20 



Freshwater Bay ; Observatory 



48 9 15 

123 38 


Port Angelos ; Ediz Hook extr. . 

48 8 30 

123 23 50 



New Dungeness ; extremity 

48 11 

123 5 30 



Port Discovery ; Protection Is- 


land, S.W. point . 

48 7 10 

122 56 


2 30 



Port Townsend ; Marrowstone 



48 6 

122 40 


Oak Cove, or Port Lawrence ; 


watering place 

48 1 

122 42 40 


Admiralty Inlet ; Foulweather 


Bluff . . . ; . 

47 56 35 

122 35 

U.S. Ex. Ex. 1841. 


„ „ Port Madison; N. pt. 

47 44 30 

122 26 40 


„ „ Restoration Point . 

47 34 40 

122 27 40 



4 10 

7 to8 


„ „ Port Orchard . 

47 33 

122 34 



Puget Sound ; Narrows entrance 

47 19 

122 29 



„ „ Fort Nisqually 
Hood's Canal ; Port Ludlow, E. pt. 

47 6 

122 35 


6 to 



47 56 

122 38 SO 



M „ Head . 

47 27 

122 50 



Possession Sd. ; Penn Cove entr. 

48 14 

122 35 



„ Deception Pass, W. entr. 

48 24 

122 37 30 



Rosario Strait; Cypress Island, 


W. side 

48 34 30 

122 42 


2 37 


Bellingham Bay; William Point. 

48 35 40 

122 31 



Birch Bay ; N. point . 

48 54 

122 43 


Point Roberts . . . . 

48 56 

122 59 




zed by Google 



LAND, &o. 

Fraier Hirer ; Point Garrj 
„ „ FortLangley 
Barrard'fl Canal ; Point Grey 
Howe's Sound ; Passage lalaod • 

t, n Anvil Island 

JtfyiB^B Canal ; 8.E. entrance 

,• f. Head • 

Scotch Fir Point . . . . 
Favida (Feveda, Tezada) Island -, 


„ „ Point Marshall 

Desolation Sound ; Point Sarah . 
Bute's Canal ; viU. on N.W. pt. 
Valdes Island ; Cape Modge 
Ditcoreiy Passage ; Mensies Bay 
Point Chatham . . . . 
Loaghborough's Canal ; head 
Mostone's Strait; Port Neville, 

entrance . • . • . 
Call's Canal; £. point 
^impkish River; Sandj Islet off 
Brooghton's Archipelago; Pt. Duff 

» „ Deep Sea Bluff 

Koigbt's Canal ; bead 
Moant Stephens . . . • 
Well's Passage ; Point Bayle . 
Port M'Neil (coal) 
Beaver Harbour ; Thomas point . 
Goletas Channel ; Port Valdes . 

Cape Scott 

Uas Islands ; W. point 
Scott Islands; W. rocks . 
Josef Bay; N.W. point 
Woody Point . . . . 
Eaperaosa Inlet ; 8. point . 
Nootka Sound ; Friendly Cove . 
Cape S. Estevan, or Pt. Breakers 

Port Cox 

Nitioat, or Berkeley Sound ; Ter- 

ron Point .... 
Bomlla Point • . . . 
Port S. Juan ; Observatory Rooks 
Sooke Inlet ; Secretary Island 
Beecbey Head .... 
Race, or Rocky Islands ; S.E. pt. 
Pedder Bay; William Head 
Albert Head . . . . 
fsqaimalt Harbour; Fiagard laid. 
Victoria Harbour ; S.£. or Ogden 



CapbCautiov . . . . 
Virgin Rocks . . . . 
Pearl Rocks . . . . 

pith's Inlet ; islet off entrance . 
Rivers' Canal ; entrance 
Calvert's Island ; 8. point . 
Fhskugh's Sound ; Pt. Walker . 
Restoration Cove 
Borke's Canal ; Point Ed vard . 
Fishei's Csoal ; Port John . 
Bfilbsnk Sound ; Cape Swnine 



o / « 

49 5 

49 8 SO 

49 17 10 

49 «0 

49 SO 

49 S5 SO 

50 6 

49 41 

49 S8 SO 

49 48 

50 4 SO 

50 S4 


50 7 SO 

bO 19 SO 

50 54 

50 S8 

50 32 

50 S5 SO 

50 47 

50 59 

51 1 

51 1 

50 61 

50 S9 

50 4S 

50 54 

50 48 

50 50 

50 51 

50 40 

50 6 

49 45 

49 34 59 

49 24 

49 4 

48 50 

48 S6 

48 Si SO 

48 19 

48 18 SO 

48 17 SO 

48 20 25 

48 23 

48 25 35 

48 24 46 

51 12 

51 19 

51 24 

51 18 

51 25 

51 25 40 

51 67 

52 1 SO 

52 26 

52 7 

52 13 


123 10 

122 46 

123 13 
123 16 30 
123 16 
123 62 

123 46 


123 52 

124 32 

124 48 

125 5 
125 2 
125 20 
125 26 
125 17 

126 16 

126 39 

127 16 
126 43 

126 5S 

127 18 
127 20 

127 27 

128 20 
128 28 

128 42 

129 10 
128 22 
127 63 
127 6 
126 35 SO 
126 34 
125 47 

125 24 
124 60 
124 27 
123 42 
123 39 SO 
123 32 
123 32 
123 29 
123 37 28 

123 23 23 

127 57 SO 

128 19 
128 7 
128 1 

127 63 

128 1 
127 67 
127 47 
127 31 

127 59 

128 30 


Mr. £. Simpson. 

Vancouver, 1792, 

Sir Ediv. Belcher. 




Capt. Kellett. 





20 46 


22 7 





























zed by Google 











Milbank Sound ; Fort M'LongUin 

O 1 II 

52 \% 

O / // 

128 24 


o / 

H. M. 



Mussel Canal; Poison Goto 

52 55 

128 10 



Gardner's Canal; Pt. Staniforth . 

55 54 

128 44 



Isle de Gil; Fisherman's Cove . 

53 18 m 

128 19 



Bank8*s Island ; Calamity Harb. 
Canal de Principe ; Pt. Stephens 

53 11 

129 41 



53 28 

129 48 



Capelbbetson . . . . 
Point Hunt . . . . 

54 3 45 

130 39 



54 10 30 

130 20 



Port Essington ; Pt. Lambert 

54 10 20 

130 2 30 



Stephen's Id.; rocks offN.W. side 

54 17 

130 48 



Point Maskelyne ; entr. of Works 


54 42 

130 24 



Fort Simpson .... 

54 33 25 

130 11 

(Sir 0. Simpson.) 


Observatorj Inlet; Salmon Goto 

55 15 34 

129 52 30 


25 18 

1 8 



PorUand's Canal; head 

55 45 

130 5 



Queen Charlotte Island ; Cape St. 

James, or S. point . 
„ Ibbertson's Sound 

51 58 

131 2 



52 24 

131 30 



„ Cape Henry 

52 53 

132 25 



„ Cartwright's Sd. ; Pt. Buck 

53 10 

132 40 



„ Hippah Island • 
„ Point Frederick . 

53 33 

133 7 



53 58 

133 6 



„ Cape Santa Margarita 

54 15 

133 11 



f, Laneara Island ; N. point . 
„ Fu Ymbisible^ or Rose 

54 20 

133 10 



54 12 

131 25 

Spanish chart 




Cape Fox 

54 45 

130 49 



Cape Northumberland 

54 52 

131 15 



Behm's Canal ; Point Sykes 

55 6 

131 7 



„ „ New Eddystone Rock 

55 29 

130 55 



Revilla-Gigedo Island ; Point 

Whaley,N. point . 

55 56 

131 18 



Port Stewart; Islet on S. W. side 

55 38 15 

131 47 


28 30 


Cape Caamano .... 

55 29 

131 54 



Duke of Clarence's Strait; Point 


54 55 40 

131 31 



,, ,, Cape de Chacon 

54 43 

131 56 



Prince Ernest's Sound ; Point le 


55 46 

132 13 



„ „ Point Warde 

56 9 




Point (and Fort) Highfield . 

56 34 

132 22 



Fort Stikine (H. B. C. post) 

56 40 


Point Howe . . . . 

56 34 

132 48 



Port Protection ; Point Baker , 

56 20 30 

133 36 



Port Beauclerc ; Islet off . 

56 15 

133 48 



Point St. Alban . . . . 

56 7 

133 35 



Cape Decision .... 

56 2 

134 3 



Cape Pole 

55 58 

133 45 



Coronation Island ; 8. point 

55 52 

134 10 



Cape Addington .... 

55 27 

133 48 



Cape San Bartolom 

55 12 30 

133 36 



Rasa Island, or Wolf Rock . 

55 1 

133 29 



San Carlos, Douglas, or Forres- 

ter's Island ; S. point 

54 48 

133 32 



Cape Muson .... 

54 43 

132 42 

Quadra, 1775. 


PortNune* . . . . 

54 43 

132 7 



Christian's Sound ; Port Malmes- 


56 17 

134 11 



Point Ellis . 

56 3i 

134 16 



Prince Frederick's Sound; Point 

Kiogsmill .... 

56 51 

134 22 



„ Pt. Camden; Pt. Macartney 

57 2 

133 58 




zed by Google 



Admiraltj Island; Point Gardner 
tf „ Point Nepoan 

Cape Fanabaw . . • . 
Stephens'! Passage ; Port Hough- 
ton, N. point .... 
„ Port Snettisham ; Tsco 
H.B.C. establishment 
„ Point Arden 
„ Point Retreat . 
Chatham's Strait; Hood's Bay, 
Point Samuel . . . • 
„ ,» Point Marsden 

LjoQ Canal ; Point CooTerden . 
„ Seduction Point 

Tbs SmcA or Knro Gioaos ma 
Trisd*8 Archipslaoo. 

Cape Ommaney; Wooden's Isld. 
Port Conclusion ; Ship's Cove . 
PototAugnsU . . . . 
Point Adolphos . . . . 
PortAlthoq>; entrance 

Cape Cross 

Portlock's Harbour . 

Cape Edward . . . . 

Baj of Islands ; Point Amelia . 


SiTE4 or Norfolk Sound ; New 

Archangel; Araenal, light 
Point Wodehoaae 
Croaa Sound; Ft. Wimbledon . 
CapeSpeneer . . • . 
Cape Fairweatfaer 
Mount Fairweatber 
Behriog's Bay ; Cape Phipps 

>f PortMulgnv*; Pt. Turner 

II Di'i^ges Bar ; Pt. Latoucbe 

t9 Point Manbj • 

Point Biott 

MoQDt St. EUas, 14,987 feet 
Pasiplona Rock . . . . 
Cape Suckling . . . . 
Kaje's Island ; Cape Hsmond 
Pnnce William's Sound; Cape 

Witabed . . . . . 

„ Cape Hincbinbrook • 

o Port Etcbea ; Phippa Pt. . 

n Port Gravina ; S.& point . 

f, Snuff Comer Baj 

n Pt. Valdes; Pt. Freemantle 

» Point Culross . 

If Montagu Island ; S. point . 

}f Port Chalmers ; peninsula . 
CapePagtt . . . . 

Cbiawell Islands ; S. group . 
Pie'alslanda; S.extr. 

Point Gore 

Cook's Inlet; Cspe Elisabeth . 

„ Port Chatham; watering pi. 

„ Point Bade 

M Tacbougatscbouk Bay; An- 
chor Point 

t. Cottlgtack Id. ; Coal Bay . 

H West Foreland . 

M North Foreland ; Ross. est. 



o / # 

57 1 

57 10 

57 11 

57 19 SO 

57 54 

58 8 

58 24 

57 28 

58 7 30 

58 It 

59 3 

56 10 

56 15 

58 d 30 

58 18 

58 12 

57 56 

57 44 

57 39 

57 17 

57 « 

57 « 45 

56 47 

58 19 

58 14 

58 50 30 

58 54 

59 33 

59 32 30 

59 51 

59 42 

59 54 

60 18 

59 3 

60 1 

59 47 

60 29 

60 16 30 

60 21 12 

60 41 

60 45 

60 57 

60 44 30 

59 46 

60 16 

59 55 

59 31 

59 19 

59 11 

59 9 

59 14 

59 19 30 

59 39 

60 27 

60 42 

61 4 


o / // 
134 32 

134 5 
133 25 30 

133 26 

133 37 

134 10 
134 59 

134 39 

134 57 

135 4 
135 23 

134 33 

134 33 30 

135 1 
138 42 

136 16 
136 28 
136 11 
136 10 
135 46 
135 45 

135 17 10 

135 41 

136 15 

136 So 

137 50 
137 38 
139 47 
139 43 

139 32 

140 13 

141 14 
140 52 

142 15 

143 54 

144 28 

145 47 30 

146 27 
146 32 

145 18 

146 35 

146 49 

147 52 

147 30 
146 50 

148 8 

149 2 

149 51 

150 22 

151 18 
151 8 
151 27 

151 24 

151 31 

151 12 

150 35 




Sir Edw. Belcher. 

Sir Edw. Belcher. 

Spanish chart. 
16.; Sir E. Belcher. 

Sir Edw. Belcher. 


25 30 

31 38 

28 30 



12 30 

1 15 





13 to 








Digitized by VjOOQ IC 











Cook'a Inlet; Oaohonganat Island, 

/ // 

O / 


• / 

H. M. 


or Meant St. Aoguatin • 

59 it 




„ Cape Dougtaa . 

58 52 

152 51 








KoDiACK Island ; GreriUe or 

Tolstoy Cape .... 

57 54 

151 48 



^TachiniaUkojB.; GorbunRk. 

57 41 

151 55 



„ St. Paul's Uarbonr . 

57 47 

152 4 



„ Igatskoy Bay; Cape Tonkoy 

57 25 

151 57 



„ Kiludea B. Nahchmood Sett. 

57 17 

152 34 



„ Cape Trinity 

56 45 

153 33 



Pknik8ul4 of Aliaska ; Poualo B. 

57 46 




„ Wrangell Harb. ; S.W. side 

56 59 3 

156 ^ 




„ Evdokeeff Islands ; S. bid. 


156 22 



,, St. Stepben's Island . 

56 10 

155 22 



„ Tscbirikoff^s Id. ; N.E. pt. 

55 56 




„ Sobnmaginlds.; 

55 42 

160 50 



„ „ Kagay Island 

55 5 

160 33 



„ .. Tagb-Kiniaeb laid. 
„ Sannagbjor Halibut Id.; cent. 

54 46 

159 40 



54 27 

162 50 



Aleutian Archxpblaoo. 

Ounimack I. Cbicbaldinskoi Vole. 

54 45 

163 59 



„ Cape Mordirinoff 

54 51 

164 29 



Krenitsin Islands; Ougamooklsld. 

54 17 

164 47 



Tigalga Island ; centre 

54 5 




Akoun Island ; N. point 
Onnalasbka Island; S.W. point 

54 22 

165 40 



53 13 

167 47 



„ f, Port Ulnluck 

53 22 25 

166 32 


19 24 


7 6in. 


Oamnack Island ; Cape Sigak 
Joann Bogosloff Island 

52 50 

168 42 



53 56 20 

167 58 



Younaska Island 

52 40 

170 15 



Amougbta Island ; centre . 

52 33 

171 4 



Segouam Island .... 

52 22 

172 18 



Amlia Island ; £. Cape 

52 6 30 

172 50 



Atkha Island; Koroyinskoi Bay, 

S. Cape 

52 12 50 

174 20 

J Ingbestrom and 
) Etoline. 




„ Nikolskoi Village 

52 17 18 

174 12 


Sitkbin Island ; centre 

52 4 30 

176 2 



Adakb Island; N. end 

52 4 6 

176 20 



Kanaga Island ; N. point • 
Tanaga Island ; N.W. peak 
Goreloy or Burnt Island 

52 4 

176 50 



51 59 

178 10 



51 56 

178 40 



Amatignack Island 

51 5 

178 55 



Semisopboonoi, or Seven Mns. I. 

51 59 

Lon. Eaac 
179 45 57 



AmUchitka Island ; W. point 

51 43 

178 45 



„ KirlloTskaia Bay 

51 27 1 

179 9 54 


14 5 



KrFci or Rat Island . 

51 45 

179 20 


Kiska Island ; N. point 

52 22 

177 50 


Bouldyr Island ; centre 

52 40 

176 13 


Semitsch Island .... 

53 6 



Agatton Island .... 

52 43 

173 37 


Attott Island ; Tscbitscbagoff Bay 

52 56 

173 20 


11 15 

2 30 





Point Krenitsin .... 


Iienbek, or (Cte. Heiden) Bay; C. 

Gbzenap, or Mitkoff 

54 14 8 

162 50 





zed by Google 










Aaak or Aamak Id. -, S. extreme 

55 J5 '6 

o / // 

163 1 5 


O / 

21 15 

H. M. 



Cape Roshaoff . . . , 

55 58 



7 30 



MoUer Bay ; Kritokoi Id. £. pt. . 

56 7 

160 41 


Cipe S6iusviDe . . . . 

56 23 7 

160 2 7 



Cape Strogonoff . . . . 

56 5« 

158 51 



Cape Menchikoff 

57 30 4 

157 58 5 



Oegatchik, or Soulima Ri^er ; 

CapeGreig . . . . 

57 43 

157 47 2 



Briatol Bay ; Cape Taehitchagoff 

58 17 

157 34 



Ri?er Nanek ; PaougTigumut viW, 

58 4t 1 

157 5 



ChramtacbenkoBay; Cape Con- 


58 f 9 

158 45 

Von Wrangel. 



Noachagack Hirer: Fort Alexan- 

58 57 

158 18 



Hagemeieter Island; Calm Point 

58 «5 

160 55 



Cape Newenham 

58 42 

162 24 

Cook, 1778. 


Bay of Good Newa ; N. pt. entr. 
Kaakowine River ; N.W. point . 

59 3 9 

161 53 


22 17 

6 15 



59 50 

162 10 




CapeAvinoff . . . . 

59 50 




Nimiwack laland ; N.E. eztr. . 

60 32 

165 30 



„ „ S.E. point 


165 3 



Cape Vaaconyer 

60 44 




Cape Romansoff .... 

61 51 32 

166 28 



Stoart'B laland ; N. point . 

63 35 




Cape Stephens . . . . 

63 33 

162 19 



CbaktolimoQt Bay ; Tebenkoff 


63 28 30 

161 52 





Cape Denbigh ; Fort St. Michel . 

64 19 

161 10 



Cape Darby . . . . 

64 21 




GoloToine Baj ; Stone Mole 

64 26 42 

163 8 


6 23 



Aziak or Sledge Island, 642 feet . 

64 31 

166 9 



Point Rodney ; northern peak . 

64 42 10 

t66 17 50 



Port Qarence; Point Spencer . 

65 16 40 

166 47 50 



4 25 


Onkivok, or King's laland, 756 ft. 

64 58 49 

167 ^ 47 



Cape York 

65 24 10 

167 19 40 



Cape Prince of Wales (W. Cape 

of America) ; bloff . 

65 33 30 

167 59 10 




65 38 40 

168 43 45 



„ Krasenstem Island ; S. eztr. 

65 46 17 

168 55 10 



„ RatmanofT Id. ; N.W. eztr. 

65 51 12 

169 3 45 



KotzebneSoand; CapeEspenbnrg 

66 34 56 

163 36 38 



„ Cape Deceit 

66 6 20 

162 40 32 


„ Chamisso Island ; snmmit . 

66 13 11 

161 46 


31 10 

4 52 


Cape Blossom . . . . 

66 44 

162 24 



Cape Krosenstern ; Low Cape . 

67 8 

163 46 



Cape Seppings; sharp peak over 

67 57 20 

164 41 21 



Point Hope ; sandy point . 
Cape Liabume, 849 feet 

68 19 50 

166 46 24 



68 52 9 

166 5 39 



Cape Beanfort ; coal station 

69 6 47 

163 38 28 



Icy Cape; Tillage . 
Wainwright Inlet; Cape Collie . 

70 20 1 

161 46 8 



70 37 24 

159 55 24 



Point Barrow .... 

71 23 31 

156 21 30 




Coast of Asia. 

Cape North, or Ir-Kaipie . 

68 55 16 

179 ^ 

Von Wrangel. 

21 40 


Barney, or Koliutchin Id. ; S. pt. 
Cape Serdie Kamen . 

67 27 
67 12 

175 36 
172 40 


£8at Cape of Asia 

66 3 




4 563 

8. Lawrence B. ; C. le Krleongoan 

65 29 40 



4 20 

., Cape Pnaongoon 

65 37 30 

170 53 30 

24 4 


1 iJOO 


1 \ Kt^T 

Cape iThalnetkin 

65 30 30 
65 15 

172 10 

Cape Nygtchygan . . . 

65 2 



Ctpe Neegtcbsn . 

64 55 30 

172 17 SO 

" J 



\ ' 


zed by Google 







o / 





Arakamtchetcben I. ; C. Kyghjnin 

64 46 

172 7 


H. M. 


Cape Mortens . 

64 33 15 

172 20 



Ittygran Island ; Cape Postels . 

64 37 

172 21 



CapeTcfaaplin . . . . 

64 «4 30 

172 14 



Cape ToboukotskoV 

64 16 

173 10 

,, " 


Port Providence ', Emma Harbour 

64 25 55 

173 7 15 

Moore, 1849. 


Cape Spanberg .... 

64 42 30 

174 42 



Cape Attcbean .... 

64 46 

175 28 



Transfignration Bay . 

64 50 

175 25 



Cape fiehring .... 

65 30 

175 57 


19 20 


Gulf of St. Croix ; C. Meetcbken 

65 28 40 

178 47 


21 45 


„ Mu Linglingai, 1,468 ft. 

65 36 30 

178 17 

Lon. East. 



RiyerAnadjr; mouth 

64 50 

178 40 



Cape St. Thaddeas 

62 42 

179 38 



Archangel Gabriel Bay; N. point 

of entrance .... 

62 28 

179 22 



Cape Navarin, 9,5X2 feet 

69 16 

179 4 30 


13 35 


Cape Olutorskoi .... 

59 58 

170 28 



Cape Govenskoi .... 

59 50 

166 18 



Cape Ilpinskoi .... 

59 48 30 

165 57 



Verkbotoursky, or Little Kara- 
gbinaky Island 

59 37 SO 

165 43 



Commander Islands ; Behring 

Island, Cape KhitroflF 

54 56 

166 43 


5 50 


f, J, Cape Youcbin 

55 25 

165 58 



„ „ W. extremity 

55 17 2 

165 49 57 



Medny or Copper Id.; settlement 

54 47 




„ „ S.E. extremity . 

54 32 24 

168 9 



„ N.W. extremity 

54 52 25 

167 31 
Lon. West. 



St. Lawrence I.; Scbischmareffpt. 

63 46 

161 41 



„ „ N. point. 

65 12 

159 50 



St. Matthew Id. (Matvoi, or Gore's 

Id.) ; Cape Upright, S.E. point 

60 18 

172 4 



„ Cape Gore 

60 30 

172 50 



„ Morjovi Island ; N. point 

60 44 

172 53 



Pribuiloff Islands; St. George's 

Islands, £. pt. ... 

56 38 

169 10 



„ S. Paul's Id. ; Sivoutchi Islet 

57 5 

169 51 






Karagbinsky Island; Cape Gole- 

Lon. East 

59 13 30 

164 40 



„ Cape Krachenninikoff 

58 28 

163 32 



Cape Ilpinskoi .... 

59 46 30 

165 57 



Cape Koozmichtobeff . 

59 5 

163 19 



Karaghinskaia Bay ; month of the 


59 8 

162 59 



M „ S. point 

58 55 

163 2 



Cape Oukinskoi . . . . 

57 58 

162 47 


Cape Ozernoi .... 

57 18 

163 14 



River Stolbovskaia 

56 40 30 

162 39 


Cape StolboToi . . . . 

56 40 30 

163 21 



Cape Kamtscbatskoi . 

56 10 

163 25 


Klutchevskoi Volcano, 15,766 ft. 

56 6 

160 45 


Cape Kronotskoi 

54 54 

162 13 


Kronotskoi Volcano, 10,610 feet . 

54 45 

160 37 



Cape Shipounsky 

53 6 

160 4 



Villencbinsky Peak, 7,S72 feet . 

52 39 43 

158 20 39 



Awatska Volcano, 11,600 feet 

53 20 1 


AwATSKA Bay; church at Petro- 


pauloTski .... 

53 1 

158 43 30 


3 30 





zed by Google 



Cape Gavareah .... 
CapeLopatka . . . . 

KuRiLB Islands. 

Alaid Iiland .... 
Sonmshoa Island ; centre . 
Poromoushir Isld. ; higb mountain 

„ „ N. point 

Shirinky laland . . . . 
Monkonrnsby Island ; centre 

A708 Rock 

Onnekotan Island ; C. Krenitzin . 

Kharamoukotan Id. ; centre peak 

Shiashkotan Island ; centre 

Tahirinkotan Island 

The Snaree .... 

Raukoko Island ; peak 

Mataoa Island ; Sarytscheff peak . 

Rashau Island .... 

l/sbisbir Island ; S. point . 

Ketoy Island ; S. extremity 

Simosir Islsnd ; Pre vest Peak 

The Four Brothers; S. Torpoy Id. 

BroQghton Island 

Ouroop or Staaten Island ; Cape 

Castrieam, N. point 
» C. Van der Lind, S. pt. 
Itonroup Islaand ; N.E. point 

,. „ C.Rikord, 
Tschikotan or Spanberg Id. ; centr. 
Koonasbire Id. ; St. Antony's pk. 

jf „ fistab. in Traitor's Bay 

Sea. op Okhotsk. 
Cape Lopatka .... 
Bolcheretskoi .... 


Cape Ontbolotskoi 

Cape Bligan .... 


Kaminoi, at the month of tbe Per- 

gina Hirer .... 
^iga, or Fort Jiejigioek . 




Joaas Island, 1,900 feet 
FortOodskoi . . . . 
Cireat Shan tar Island ; N. point . 

ii „ „ Prokofieffl. 

M „ ,, Koassoffld. 

Cape Linekinskoy 
River Tongoura ; mouth 
CapsKbabaroff . . . . 
Cape Romberg .... 
River Amour ; mouth 

Sagbalin Peninsula. 

Cape Elisabeth . . . . 
Cape Maria - . . . 
North Bay ; Tartar colonv . 
N'adi^eda Bay -, Cape HoVner 
Cape Golorateheff 









/ // 


H. M. 


62 21 4S 

168 39 8 



51 2 

166 50 



50 54 

155 32 



50 46 

156 26 



60 15 

155 24 15 






50 10 

154 58 



49 51 

154 32 



49 49 

154 19 



49 19 

154 44 



49 8 

154 39 



48 52 

154 8 



48 44 

153 24 



48 35 

153 44 



48 16 20 

153 15 



48 6 

153 12 30 



47 47 

152 55 



47 32 40 

152 38 SO 



47 17 30 

152 24 



47 2 50 

151 52 50 



46 29 15 

150 33 30 



46 42 30 

150 28 30 



46 16 

150 22 



45 39 

149 34 



45 38 30 

149 14 



44 29 

146 34 



43 53 

146 43 30 



44 31 

145 46 



43 44 

144 59 30 



51 2 

156 50 



52 54 30 

158 22 



58 1 

158 15 



57 28 

155 45 




59 20 

152 50 




162 30 




162 50 



61 40 




59 29 




59 56 

148 30 



59 20 

143 14 



56 25 30 

143 16 



5-i 29 

134 58 



55 11 

137 44 



55 2 

138 22 



54 43 

138 12 



54 14 

136 24 



53 40 




53 40 

141 22 



53 25 

141 45 



52 30 




54 24 30 

142 47 




54 17 30 

142 17 46 

12 \^'l 

64 15 45 

142 37 


54 10 15 

142 27 34 

111 \^j.^. 

63 30 15 

141 56 







zed by Google 



Cape Ldwenstera 

Cape Klokatcheff 

Cape Wiirtt 

Sboal Point 

Downs Point 

Cape Delisle 

Cape Ratmaooff . 

Cape Rimnik 

IVIount Tiara 

Cape BellingBhauson 

Cape Patience 

Robben Island ; N. E. point 

River Neva; mouth 

Cape Soimonoff . 

Cape Datrymple . 

Cape Mitloffskj . 

Bemizet Peak, or Mount Spanberg 

Cape S^niavine . 

Cape Tonin 

Cape Lowenom . 

Cape Aniwa 

Cape Crillon 

La BaDgereuse Rock 


Island op Jesso. 

Cape Broughton ; £. point 
Cape Spanberg . . . . 


Bay of Good Hope ; peaked hill . 

Cape Eroen or Evosn . 

Volcano Baj; Endermo Harbour, 


Khakodade Point 

Cape Nadi^jeda . . . . 

Matsoumay, or Matsmai ; city 

Cape Sineko .... 

Cape Oote Nizavou 

Cape KontoasofT 

Cape Novosilzoy 

Cape Malaapina .... 

Mount or Peak Pallas . 

Cape Sohischkoff 

Rioshery Island, or Pic de Langle 

Refunshery Island ; Cape Guibert 

Cape Romanzoff .... 

Island op Nippon. 

N.E. Cape 

Point King, North 
Cape De Vries .... 
Nanbu Harbour ( King) 
„ „ (De Vries) 

Cape Gore 

Sendai Bay ; Cape Nagavama 


Cape der Kennis 
Minato-saki ; Low Point . 
FitatsiFarano(WaWi8cfaBay) . 
Paihd-saki ; Sandy Point (Zand- 
duirige Hoek) 



6^4 i 1^5 

53 46 

32 57 30 

58 38 3<» 

51 53 

51 30 

50 48 

50 U 30 

50 3 

49 35 

48 58 

48 36 

49 14 40 

48 53 80 

48 21 

47 57 45 

47 33 

47 16 30 

46 50 

46 83 10 

46 2 20 

45 54 15 

45 47 15 

43 38 30 

44 35 

43 20 


41 59 

42 33 11 

41 43 30 

41 85 10 

41 29 

41 39 30 

48 18 10 

42 38 

43 14 30 

43 42 51 


44 20 

45 25 50 

45 27 45 

45 25 50 

41 24 

40 24 

40 10 

39 46 

39 32 

38 45 

38 23 

37 44 

37 2 

36 17 

36 2 

35 40 


143 12 30 
143 7 
143 17 30 

143 14 30 

144 13 30 
143 43 

143 5.1 15 

144 5 

143 27 

144 25 45 
144 46 15 
144 33 
144 2 
143 2 
142 50 
142 44 
142 20 

142 59 30 

143 33 
143 40 
143 30 20 

141 57 56 

142 8 45 

146 7 30 
145 30 
144 12 
142 55 

140 50 32 

141 58 
141 9 30 
140 28 
139 54 15 
139 46 

139 46 

140 25 30 

141 18 30 
141 54 
141 37 
141 34 20 
141 4 
141 34 20 













140 48 



Japanese charts. 


NTon Siebold. 

Cliart by Ph. Fr. 
Von Siebold, 1840. 



Range. I 

1 27| 

4 30 



zed by Google 



Witte Ho9k ; White Point . 
Cape Kiog or Firautsi 
CapeSirofana • . . . 
Jedo, City of ... . 


Cape Nagatsuro .... 

BarneTelds Island, Oho-aima 
Miuke or Volcano laland . 
Miiara or Unlttcky laland . 
Inaniva, or Broug^ton*8 Felaen . 
Fauisio laland ; Funotsaki . 
Cape Koaan, or Omae-aaki . 
Iitoo Umi Bar : C. laako-aaki . 
Toba . . . . . . 

Idsumo-aaki, or Siwono-miaaki 

(8. point of Nippon) • 
Oboa4ka, Town of 
Mijako, Citj of (oapital of Japan) 
Sinitof DeCapeUen; Simonoaaki, 

£. point . . • . 


Urio-aaki Point . . . . 
Oki Islanda; N. point 
Dagelet laland ; MaUn-aima 
Argooaot Island ; Taka-aima 
Kioganii-saki Point 
Soaoffli-aaki Point 
Sado Island; N. point. 
Awa-sima laland 
Tobi-flima laland 
Raisiana'Cape; Hata-saki . 
Cape Gamala/ ; Heknri 
CapeGreig; Obo-aaki 
Cape Tsugar or Sangar ; Taaanpi- 


*''•■• ■ . . ... 
Toriwi-aaki (N. point of Nippon) 
N.E. Cape; Sirija-aaki 
Tsos-aima; Fn^uin, S.E* side . 
Colnet laland ; Ojami-aima 
lid laland ; Kasa-moto 

ISLAUrD OF Kiusxv. 

Kokora; Fort . . . . 
Fira-to ; Town of . . . 
Cape Nomo .... 

Nagasaki; Dexima flag8ta£F 
Goto lalanda ; N. point 

>i „ Oboseno-aaki Point 
Meac-8iaia,or Linachoten lalanda ; 

S. point 

Wusxendake Volcano . 
Kosiki Id. ; Faja-aaki, or S. pt. . 
Symplegadea ; Tanknraaa • 
Cape Teheam6, or Noma-aaki 
Peak Homer ; Kaimon-ga-take . 
C. Tschitacbagoff ; Satano miaaki 
St. Clair laland, or Knro-aima . 
Volcano laland, or Iwoga-sima . 
Apolloe Island, or Take-aima 
Seriphoa, or Tanega-aima ; N. pt. 
Jakftoo-aima ; S. point 
Jolia Island; Nagarabe 
De Zeven Zuatera ; Naka<aima . 
CapeNagaeff . . . . 






Range, i 


o // / 

o / // 

o / 

n. M. 

35 ]« 

140 25 

Chart hy Ph. Fr. 
Von Siebold, 1840. 

34 55 

139 56 

34 54 

139 48 


35 4« 

139 44 30 


35 16 

139 6 


34 35 SO 

138 48 


34 43 

139 24 


34 4 30 

139 32 


33 53 

139 36 


33 34 

139 16 


33 6 30 

139 30 30 


34 35 

138 11 


34 36 30 

136 54 


34 26 

136 50 


33 «6 30 

135 42 


54 41 

135 22 



135 40 


33 58 42 

130 54 


34 54 



35 t5 

132 31 


36 tS 

133 16 


37 25 

130 56 

La P^roase. 

37 52 

129 50 


36 49 

135 8 

Von Siebold. 

37 36 

137 31 


38 20 

138 43 


38 28 

139 28 


39 15 

139 41 



39 59 

139 48 



40 37 

140 2 


41 9 

140 30 


41 17 

140 36 


41 16 30 

140 14 


41 34 

141 14 

Von Siebold. 

41 24 

141 46 


34 12 

129 18 


34 16 SO 

129 56 


33 52 

129 36 


33 53 30 

130 50 


33 21 

129 31 30 


32 35 35 

129 43 


32 45 40 

129 51 


1 45 

7 53 


33 16 

129 10 


32 33 

128 44 


31 58 

128 42 


.12 44 

130 26 


31 35 

129 40 


31 28 

129 42 


31 24 

130 2 


31 19 30 

130 36 


30 56 45 

130 36 30 


30 46 

129 55 


30 41 

130 16 


30 42 

130 24 


30 42 

130 58 


1* 1 ^ 

30 18 

130 30 


30 26 

130 13 

1 ' 

30 1 

129 57 

1- 1 

31 15 

131 11 
























I 641 

I 641 



zed by Google 


Cape D'AnTille . . . . 
Cape Coobrane . . . . 
Cape Tscbirikoff 
Tauru-saki ; W. point of Kiusia . 

Island of Sikok. 

Asi-auri-no.miaaki ; S. point 


Murodono-saki . . . . 
Taubaki-miaaki . . . . 


31 28 

31 49 
39 19 

32 65 

32 46 

33 31 
33 16 

33 50 

34 6 



131 27 
131 29 

131 42 

132 10 


133 30 

134 6 
134 41 
130 28 


Von Siebold. 








zed by Google 


DariDg the progress of this work through the press, the increasing importance of 
the American acquisition of California and Oregon has led to some examination 
of their shores ; therefore the descriptions given on pages 346 — 357, though nothing 
has heen stated to impugn their accuracy, want those additional remarks acquired 
during the running survey made by Lieutenants W. A. Bartlett and M^'Arthur. 
But, with the exception of the Columbia River, nothing very material requires to 
be added. In the Tables of Positions, pages xxxv. and xxxvi., we have given 
the determination of the latitudes and longitudes as stated by these officers. 

The Columbia Rivera however, appears to be better known, and the following 
observations by Lieutenant Bartlett may be added to those on pages 366-7 : — 

The South Channel to the Columbia River is reported as a recent discovery in 
the early part of 1850, on page 361. It is certainly the most important entrance; 
as any observing seaman can cross, in or out, over this bar safely, and certainly 
without an hour's delay, after having once crossed in order to observe the ranges, 
which are well defined, and certain to lead over in good water. The depths found 
by the United States' schooner Ewing, April 19, 1850, were 16 feet at half-tide 
flood, deepening to 5 fathoms inside the Point of Breakers, and 6 and 7 to 9 
fathoms up to Sand Island Beacon, 2 miles inside the bar. Time, from the 
5 fathoms outside to Sand Island Beacon, twenty minutes. A vessel goes out 
from the anchorage at Sand Island into open ocean in from thirty to fifty 
minutes. There is abundant room for any vessel to work in or out with the wind 
from any point of the compass ; and as the tide ebbs fair through the channel in 
the best water, it greatly facilitates both ingress and egress. The ranges for 
turning Clatsop Spit are Point EUice, with Pillar Hill just shut in behind it, and 
Point Adams, in one with the highest pass of the mountains in the East C, in 8 
fathoms. A vessel passes clear, either in coming in or going out. As that 
leading pass has no name, I propose to distinguish it as the " Ewing Pass." 

A beacon has been built on Sand Island, on which is a white flag, 80 feet above 
the island, and 85 feet above th^ high-water mark. Around the base of the flag- 
staff is a block-house, 35 feet high and 15 feet square ; it can be seen plainly, in 
good weather, 12 miles at sea. By bringing the beacon flag directly under the 
centre of the highest peak westward of Chinook Peak, and Point Adams just open 
South of Pillar Hill tree, a vessel will be in 12) fathoms, in a fair way to the bar, 
with bar ranges on, viz., Point Adams and Pillar Hill. And the usual wind from 
N.W., or anywhere on the western board, is fair for crossing. Vessels cross the 
bar of the New Channel under all steering sails, or beat up the channel, as the 
case may be. It is not necessary to tack ship on the bar, in any wind. A sailing 
vessel can run to sea from Sand Island, or come in, in less time than she can run 
to Baker's Bay, after which (if in Baker's Bay) she must take her chance for wind 
and tide to get to sea. The anchorages at Astoria, Sandy Point (East end of 
Clatsop Beach), and Sand Island, are good, with abundant room for getting under 
weigh at any stage of the tide. 


zed by Google 


zed by Google 





Fernando de Maoalhaens (or Magalhanes), a Portuguese by birth, and 
a commander of reputation, offered his services, from some fancied slight, to 
the king of Spain, Charles V., who received his proposition favourably : this 
was to sail round the South extreme of America, if possible, and thus find a 
new route to the Molucca Islands. The expedition, consisting of five ships, 
left Seville (or rather San Lucar) Sept. 20, 1519, reached the American coast, 
and at last determined on wintering in Port San Julian; here a very serious 
mutiny broke out, but was quelled. They quitted the port on Oct. 18, 1520, 
and three days after found themselves off a cape whence a deep opening 
was perceived. This was on St. Ursula's day (Oct. 21), hence they called the 
cape De las Virgenes. The commander sent an expedition for five days to 
explore the opening, and then conjectured, from various evidences, that there 
was a passage through to the other sea. The expedition then entered the strait, 
and on Nov. 27, 1520 (37 days after the discovery of Cape Virgenes), they 
found themselves again in an open sea, and gave the name of Deseado (the 
Desired) to the cape, the West point of Tierra del Fuego.* The strait was soon 
after its discovery distinguished by a variety of names. It was called De la 
Vitoria, from that ship first discovering its eastern entrance ; it was also called 
Streto Patagonica, from the large-footed Indians (Patagonians) first seen by 
Magalhaens ; and it was also called the Archipelago de Cabo Deseado ; but it 
has very properly assumed that of its discoverer. But even this has been 
variously spelt. The Spaniards call him Magallanes ; others of his countrymen 
write it Fernando de Magalhanes ; in Italian it has been Magaglianes ; and in 
English, Magellan. The true form of the name, which is still a common one 
in Portugal, is, as re-adopted by Capt. King, and here used, Magalhaens.t 

* Althongh HagalbnenB did sot live to complete the voyage, of which the discovery of the 
South extreme of the American continent and of the strait which now bears his name were the 
first and principal features, yet, from other circumstances, he mast be considered as the first 
dreamnavigatoT. Alter having proceeded northward from the West entrance of the strait, ne 
bon away to the westward, probably passing near Tkhiti, and was Itilied by the nft«*'e«, jj" 5 . 
aflRrav at the Island of Zebu, one of the Philippines, April 27, 1521.— 5«« Herrera, aec. o, 
Haklnyt, toI. iii. ; Barney, vol. i. ch. 2. r ^ 

t Set Henera, Descr. de las Indias Occ, dec. 2, lib. 2, c. 19 ; Peter Martyr, dec. o, cap. 

6 B 


zed by Google 


It need scarcely be said, that the northern side of the strait is formed by 
the continent of America, the country of the Patagonians, who, however, do 
not show themselves in very great numbers on its shores. Interesting descriptions 
of them will be found in Capt. FitzRoy's Narrative. 

The opposite side of the strait is Tierra del Fuego, " the Land of Fire," as it 
was named by Magalhaens, from his seeing many fires on its shores during the 
first night he approached it.* The appearance and productions of the country 
will be described in the coarse of the ensuing pages. 

Of the natives of this inclement region a word may b^ said. Ample descriptions 
of their persons, manners, and customs may be found in the excellent account 
of the Adventure and Beagle's Voyages ; also in Capt. Weddell's Narrative, pp. 
148 — 156, &c. ; and the Voyage to the Southern Seas, by Capt. Sir James 
Ross, R.N., 1840-1, vol. ii. pp. 303—7. 

They are low in stature ; their colour is of a dirty copper, or dark mahogany ; 
their only clothing is a seal-skin, worn with the air outwards. There are no 
animals in the neighbourhood ; and their principal food consists of mussels, 
limpets, and sea-eggs, which they collect and open with much dexterity ; and 
as often as possible they procure seal's, sea-otter's, porpoise's or whale's flesh — 
devouring eagerly the most offensive ofFal : of vegetable food they only collect a 
few berries of the berberis, and a kind of sea-weed. Their dwellings, sometimes 
styled huts or wigwams, but more fitly, by old Sir John Narborough, as 
'' arbours," consist of a few branches. They seem to possess some good feelings, 
and certainly appear capable of some improvement. They have few articles of 
traffic beyond their weapons and implements as curiosities ; the seal and sea-otter 
skins they collect must be quite insignificant for commercial purposes. They are 
thievish and greedy, and have become keen traders in many parts. 

In the N.E. part of Tierra del Fuego — we quote from Capt. FitzRoy— is the 
Yacana-kunny tribe, which may amount to 600 in number. On the shores of the 
Beagle Channel is a tribe formerly called Key-uhue, now probably the Tekeenica« 
They are the smallest, and apparently the most wretched, of the Fugians, num- 
bering about 500 adults. To the westward, between the western part of the 
Beagle Channel and the Strait of Magalhaens, is a tribe now called Alikhoolip, 
whose numbers amount to, perhaps, about 400. About the central parts of 
Magalhaens' Strait is a small and very miserable horde, whose name was not 
known to Capt. FitzRoy. Their usual exclamation is " Pecheray ! Pecheray ! " 
whence Bougainville and others called them the Pecherais. The number of their 
adults is about 200. About Otway and Skyring Waters is a tribe, or fraction of 
a tribe, which Capt. FitzRoy is inclined to think is a branch of the Huemul people 
described by the Jesuit Falkner as living on both sides of the strait. 

On the western coast of Patagonia, between the Strait of Magalhaens and the 
Chonos Archipelago, there is but one tribe, of not more than 400 adulte. 

Each of the tribes here mentioned speak a language differing from that of any 
other, though, as believed by Capt. FitzRoy, not radically differing from the 
aboriginal Chilian. For a more extended notice of these curious tribes, alike 

• Buroef, vol. i. p. 41. 


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iasignificant to the navigator, from their numbers and their inability to administer 
to his wants, see Narrative of the Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. i, 
pp. 75—77; vol. ii. eh. 7, p. 129, &c. 

The subsequent description of the Strait of Magalhaens is almost entirely 
derived from the Sailing Directions for East and West Patagonia, by Capt. 
Philip Parker King, R.N., 1832 ; and from the Remarks by Capt R. FitzRoy, 
R.N., the Admiralty surveyors of these coasts, to whose refined observations, 
and admirable delineation of them, we owe our present complete knowledge of 
these hitherto formidable localities. In those instances where we have added 
anything from other sources, they are noticed ; the rest must be considered as 
the work of the above-named officers. 

The general application of. these nautical descriptions will be given in a 
subsequent part of the work, to which the reader is referred. 

CAPE VIRGINS is the northern and outer cape, forming the entrance to the 
strait. In approaching the strait from the eastward it is usually the first land 
seen, and is the best landfall, but requires caution.* It is the S.E. point of 
a range of steep, white cliflTs, about 200 feet in height ; the cape itself being 
160 feet high. The cli£fs extend from Cape Virgins, northward, to within 8 miles 
of Cape Fairweather, with only one or two breaks, in one of which, 8 miles 
from Cape Virgins, a boat may perhaps land, if necessary. There is good 
anchorage along the whole coast between Cape Virgins and the Gallegos, at 
from 2 to 5 miles off shore ; but the bottom is rather stony, and might injure 
hempen cables. As Cape Virgins is approached the ground becomes more foul. 

Extending nearly 4 miles to the southward of Cape Virgins is Dungeness 
Paint, a low flat, formed entirely of shingle. On the opposite coast lies Cape 
Espiritu Santo, very similar to Cape Virgins ; and Catherine Point, very like 
Dungeness. Cape Espiritu Santo is the N.W. end of a high range of white 
cliffs. Beyond it, to the westward, there is only one low short range of cliff, 
less than half the height of Espiritu Santo. The upper outline of this cape 
slopes away on both sides like the roof of a house. 

Between these remarkable headlands, or rather, between the two shingle 
points^ lies the entrance to the strait. 

• Cape Fairweather (Cape Buen Tiempo), 62 miles to the northward of Capo Virgins, and at 
the North entrance of the Oallegos River, bears a yery great resemblance to Cape Virgins, and 
also to Cape St Vincent, on the S.W. coast of Spain. They have frequently been mistaken for 
each other. This error was made both in the Adoenture and in the Be<igle, the vessels which 
sarveyed the coasts. Cape Fairweather was also mistaken for Cape Virgins, and the River Gallego 
for the entrance of the strait,' by the expedition under Garcia Jofre de Loyasa, appointed by the 
Spanish government in 1525, and the loss of one of the ships was the consequence (Qomara, 
Itt de las Indias, p. 58). In making the land this is important, as it might occasion serious 
conseqaences. There are, however, some marks by which they may be distinguished, even if the 
latitude should not be ascertained. In clear weather, some hills in the interior, to the S.W. of 
the GallegDa River, called the Friars, the Convents, and the North Hill, will be visible; in that 
direction fh>ni Cape Virgins is the low shore of Tierra del Fuego. In thick weather the sound- 
ings off the respective capes will be an infallible guide ; for at the distance of 4 miles off Cape 
Fairweather no more than 4 ihthoms will be found, whereas at that distance from Cape Virgins, 
if to the northward of it, the depth is considerable; tlie bottom, also, to the North of Cape 
Fairweather is of mud, whilst that to the North of Cape Virgins is of gravel or coarse sand ; and 
the latter has the long low point of shingle, called Dungeness (so named by Wallis, fnHniU 
resemblance to the singular promontory in the English Channel), for nearly 5 miles tp.jje S.W. ; 
and histly. If the weather be clear, the distant land of Tierra del Fucgo will be visible to the 


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Before approaching the land, the state of the tide should be well considered. 
Upon the knowledge of its movements depends the safety of the vessel and the 
quickness of the passage (as far as Elizabeth Island, beyond the Second Narrow), 
more than upon the wind or weather. 

At the full and change of the moon the main stream of tide begins to run 
to the eastward about noon ; but in the bays on each side of the channel through 
which the main stream passes, such as Lomas Bay, Possession Bay, &c,, the 
times and direction of the stream vary much. This is, however, of little conse- 
quence, as they do not affect a vessel's progress through the strait. It should be 
borne in mind distinctly, that it is high water at nearly the same time over all 
the eastern entrance. 

In the vicinity of Capes Virgins and Espiritu Santo, it is high water between 8 
and 9 in the morning on the days of new and full moon ; while the stream of 
flood is still running to the westward into the strait, and to the northward past 
Cape Virgins. Until near noon, the principal stream continues nAning to the 
westward, though the water is falling everywhere. About noon, the direction of 
the main stream changes ; and until near 3 the water continues falling, while 
the stream of tide (ebb) is running to the eastward. After 3 the water again 
rises, the stream still running to the eastward until past 6 o'clock. 

Spring tides rise from 36 to 40 feet perpendicularly ; neap tides about 30 feet. In 
the First Narrow it is high water about 9 ; the water rises as above mentioned, 
and runs through the most confined part of the Narrows from 5 to 6 miles an hour. 

Off Cape Virgins lies the Sarmiento Bank ; this shoal has been too little 
considered by those who have hitherto passed that cape. After half-flood, or 
before half-ebb, a ship may pass Cape Virgins at any distance notless than a 
mile, and may cross the Sarmiento Bank without hesitation ; but when the tide 

15 low, 10 miles is not too far for a ship to keep from the cape, until it bears 
N.W. by W., when she should steer W.N.W., to close Dungeness. A ship 
might often pass over this bank without touching, even at low water, because 
the bottom is uneven ; but there are places which no vessel, drawing more than 
12 feet, could pass at a low spring- tide without injury. This bank extends about 
20 miles E.S.E. from' Cape Virgins, and appears to average a mile in breadth. The 
soundings on it are shoal and very irregular, at a less distance from the cape than 
10 miles ; but beyond 10 miles, as they increase they become more regular. 

A reeff which at half-tide is hardly noticed, projects full a mile firom Cape 
Virgins ; this and Sarmiento Bank are the only dangers on the North side of the 

In standing eastward from Cape Virgins, the bottom is very fine brown sand, 
without shells or stones. When, by standing more southerly, the water shoals 
upon the Sarmiento Bank, the sand becomes much coarser, and is mixed with 
slate pebbles, or broken stones of all sizes : the sand is slaty. 

This rule continues till the water deepens to 30 fathoms, or more, to the south* 
ward, when shingle only is found ; and when it begins to shoaj in approaching 
Tierra del Fuego, there is coarse dark sand, mixed with stones of various sorts, 
chiefly slaty. Between the shoal parts of the bank and the deep water, or from 

16 to 30 fathoms, the sand is coarse, particularly near the deep water. In 


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standing to the southward^ after bringing the cape to bear West, the bottom 
is a very fine gray sand, until near the ridge or bank, with Cape Virgins bearing 
W.N.W.; with the cape in this bearing, the sand is coarser, and mixed with 
large and small shingle. 

In crossing the Sarmiento Bank when standing to the southward, the fine dark 
grayish-brown sand changes to coarse slaty sand, with small stones and shingle ; 
the stones chiefly slaty. Some casts, after crossing the ridge, were found entirely 
of coarse sand, while others were all shingle. As the water shoaled, the bottom 
was found to be coarser and more mixed. 

When to the northward or eastward of the Sarmiento Bank, the lead brings 
up fine brown-gray sand while near the latitude of Cape Virgins ; but when 
N.N.B. of the cape, the sand is like steel filings. 

Dungeness may be passed closely, as may all the northern points as far as the 
middle of Possession Bay, with the exception of Wallis Shoaly where, at low 
water, there are only 2 fathoms. This shoal is of small extent, and exactly placed 
upon the chart. 

When to the southward of Cape Virgins, Mount Dinero will appear ; it is a 
sloping pointed hill, 240 feet in height. Thence to Cape Possession the land 
continues between 200 and 400 feet in height, rather level topped, and generally 
covered with grass. A few broken cliffy places show themselves near the water. 
Three miles East of Cape Possession there is a remarkable bare patch, serring 
as a fixed mark for bearings. 

On the opposite, or Fuegian coast, the nearest land is very low ; the hills, the 
tops of which are seen in the horizon, are 10 miles inland, and not, as they 
appear, near the water. An extensive shoal, Lomas Bank, projects from Cathe- 
rine Point to the westward ; and should be carefully avoided, as it shoals very 
quickly, and the tide runs near it with much strength. 

CAPE POSSESSION is a bold cliffy headland on the North shore, 360 feet 
high, and will be seen opening round Dungeness, on the bearing of W. ^ S. by 
compass; the distance between them is 20 miles: at 10 or 12 miles to the 
West of Dungeness, Mount Aymond* will make its appearance, bearing about 

• W. i N. by compass. 

Possession Bay, which extends from Cape Possession to the entrance of the 
First Narrow, curves in to the northward round the cape, and is fronted by an 
extensive shoal, stretching off for more than 4 miles from the shore, many parts 
of which are dry at half-tide ; on its South side the depth diminishes gradually, 
and offers good anchorage for vessels entering the strait to await the tide for 
passing the First Narrow. 

There is a convenient watering place in Possession Bay, on the shore under 
Mount Aymond ; a ship may go very near it, and lie in a safe berth out of the 
atreugth of the tide, if she crosses the Narrow Bank after half-flood, or before 

• • A hffl on tho North shore <a Poweasion Bay. having near it, to the westward, foiir rocky 
samnlts. called « Hte Four Sons," or (according to the old qnaint noniencUitape)U»e aws 
Eai»,'» which, from a particnlar point of view, bear a strong resemblance to the croppea ears or a 
hone or an ass.— Oij?^. King, p. 18. 


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On the western side of the bay there are some remarkable hills of a darker 
green hue than others near them, called the Direction HilU; because, after 
passing Cape Possession^ they afford a good mark for approaching the Narrows, 
which are not visible until well across the bay ; by attention also to their bear- 
ings, the shoal that extends off Cape Orange may be avoided. To take up an 
anchorage on the bank, great attention must be paid to the soundings, which at 
the edge decrease suddenly ; it would not be advisable to anchor in less than 
10 or 12 fathoms at high water, for the tide falls 6 or 7 fathoms ; but as the 
stream runs much weaker on approaching the edge of the bank, the nearer to it 
the better. 

Should the distant land behind Cape Gregory be seen, which makes with a 
long blue level strip of land, terminating at its S.W. end with rather a bluff or 
precipitous fall, it is a good mark for the anchorage. The fall, or extremity, 
should be visible in the space between the southernmost and central of the 
Direction Hills. There is also a conspicuous lump on the same land, which 
will be seen to the northward of the northern Direction Hill; and the Ass's 
Ears, nearly out of sight, should be seen a little to the eastward of that part 
of the shore of Possession Bay where the cliffy coast commences. 

To avoid the North shoals, do not get the North. Direction Hill to bear more 
southerly than S.W. by W. mag. ; and the mark for avoiding the reefs that 
extend off Cape Orange is not to get the same Direction Hill to bear more 
westerly than W. by S J S. mag. (for W. by S. J S. will just pass without the 
edge), until Mount Aymond bears N.W. 4 W. mag.^ or the peak of Cape Orange 
South, mag.^ when the fairway of the First Narrow will be open, bearing 
S.W. by S. mag. The North or north-western side of the First Narrow is a cliff 
of moderate height, and makes like a flat table-land. When abreast of Cape 
Orange, a S.S.W. mag. course must be steered. The tide sets right through ; 
so that in drifting, which with the wind against the tide is the safest and best 
plan, there is no danger of being thrown upon the shoals. 

Cape Orange is at the South side of the entrance to the First Narrow. There 
is a reef, previously mentioned, extending off it to the E.N.E. for a considerable 
distance. Byron struck on it, as did also the Santa Casilda in 1788. The* 
Adeana, a sealing vessel, in 1828, also struck upon it, and was left dry; and 
the BeagUf in going to her assistance, crossed the tail of it at high water, occa- 
sionally striking the ground. Bougainville describes the position thus: — " When 
the hillocks, which I have named Quatre Fils d* Aymond (Ass's Ears), only offer 
two to sight, in form of a gate, you are opposite the said rocks." 

The FIRST NARROW was called by Sarmiento, Angostura de Nuestra 
Senora de Esperanza. He describes it very correctly to be 3 leagues long, and 
less than half a league wide, with cliffy shores; the tide running strong; the 
depth more than 60 fathoms, sand and pebbles (callao) ; and on the North shore 
there is a beach of shingle. In this part, however, as discretion must be the 
best guide, it will be necessary merely to state the dangers that exist.* To 

• Lieut. Simpson, who waa with Com. Byron in the Dolphin, states, that there is a shoal in 
mid^Tiannel at the East entrance of the First Narrow, but the bearings and distances he gives 
will not suffice to lay it down now; he states it to be more than 2 leagues in length, and nearly 2 


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the North of Point Delgada (meaning thin or slender) the shore is fronted by 
extensive shoals that dry at half-tide; these should not be approached. The 
South shore also, for nearly 5 miles to the West of Cape Orange, has a shoal 
off it, but it does not extend to a great distance from the beach ; beyond this 
it is not safe to approach either shore within half a mile, for each is fronted 
by a bank that dries at low water. The western end of the Narrow on the 
Nortli shore, Sarmiento's Point Barranca (meaning a cliff), has a considerable 
reef off it, upon which there is a very large quantity of kelp. 

After emerging from the Narrow, the ship should be allowed to drift with the 
tide, the course of which is S.S.W., for at least 3 miles, before hauling up for 
Cape Gregory, in order to avoid the ripplings which rage furiously on each edge 
of the bank. 

Point Barranca is a flat-topped sand-hill, the position of which being given 
in the chart, its bearing will indicate the situation of the ship : the point on the 
opposite side Sarmiento is called Point Baxa (low). 

After reaching thus far, steer W.S.W. by compass, until abreast of some 
remarkable peaked hillocks on the North shore, where, if necessary, anchorage 
may be had out of the tide, in from 6 to 10 fathoms ; at any part of the northern 
side of the bay the anchorage is good, upon a clay bottom covered with broken 

When through the First Narrow, where, it should be remembered, there is no 
anchorage, a ship may anchor, or work along either shore, but she must avoid 
the rocky ledge off Barranca Point, and also the dangerous shoal in the middle 
of the space between the First and the Second Narrows. When the water is 
low, there is not more than from 2 to 3 fathoms on this shoal (called the Triton 
Banky because a ship so named struck upon it) ; it must therefore be carefully 
ayoided, by repeatedly ascertaining the ship's position, by bearings of, or angles 
between, the western end or pitch of Gregory Range, Barranca Point, and Gap 
Peak. This shoal is of small extent. 

It is best to anchor near the shore on account of the tide, which ripples very 
much all over the centre of the bay. 

When abreast of the point, the land and bay to the North of Cape Gregory 
will be easily distinguished; the former will be seen first, and resembles an island; 
for the land of the bay is flat and low : but a very conspicuous hummock will 
also be seen half way between it and the flat table land, as soon as the land of 
the cape becomes visible. 

The extremity of Cape Gregory bears from the western end of the First 
Narrow, S.W. \ W. mag,, distant 22 miles. The anchorage is from 2 to 2J 
miles to the N.N.E. of the cape, abreast of the North end of the sand hills 
that form the headland, and at about 1 mile from the shore, in from 13 to 15 
fathoms. At low water a sand-spit extends off for one-third or nearly half 
a mile from the shore ; close to which there are 7 fathoms water. Care should 
be taken not to approach too near. 

iMgoM between the shoal and the South shore. The ship grrounded on it as a^^«-«f J^ ^^J^ 
leet. It is not improbable that these banks shift, from the nature of the ground ana me lorco 
of the currents* 


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liie country in the vicinity of this anchorage seemed open, low, and covered 
with good pasturage. It extends 5 or 6 miles, with a gradual ascent, to the 
base of a range of flat-tipped land, whose summit is about 1,500 feet above the 
level of the sea* Not a tree was seen ; a few bushes (barberry) alone interrupted 
the uniformity of the view. The grass appeared to have been cropped by horses 
or guanacoes, and was much interspersed with cranberry plants, bearing a ripe 
and juicy, though very insipid fruit. 

At the anchorage the tide (urns to the south-westward, towards the cape, for 
2 J or 3 hours before it begins to run to the westward in the Second Narrow ; 
which should be attended to, for a ship will lose much ground by weighing before 
an hour or more after the tide has turned. 

Upon the summit of the land of the cape, four-fifths of a mile to the north- 
ward of the extreme point, is a remarkable bush ; close to which the observations 
were made. The bush is in lat 62° 38' 3" S. and Ion. 70° 13' 43' W. The 
variation of the compass 23° 34^ £. 

All the South shore of St. Philip*s Bay is low, but gradually rising towards 
a range of high land which extends from Cape Espiritu Santo to Boqueron 
Point; anchorage may be taken, by the aid of the chart and lead, in almost any 
part ; in some few places only the bottom is rocky. On this side the tide is felt 
less than on the Patagonian shore. 

The country abounds with guanacoes and ostriches, and the valley, 2 miles to 
the westward of the cape, is frequently the abode of the Patagonian Indians ; 
but their principal residence is upon the low land at the back of Peckett's 
Harbour and Quoin Hill, where guanacoes are more abundant, and the country 
more open. They are very friendly, and will supply guanaco meat at a small 

At CapL King's last interview they asked for muskets, powder, and ball, 
the use of which they learned from two Portuguese seamen, who left an 
English sealing vessel to reside with them ; but these were not given, and it is to 
be hoped that such weapons will not be put into their hands. 

The SECOND NARROW is about 10 miles long ; and, with a favourable 
tide, which runs 5 or 6 knots, is very quickly passed. With an adverse wind a 
ship will easily reach an anchorage to the North of Elizabeth Island. 

The North side of the Second Narrow is very shoal, and ought not to be 
approached, for the ground is also very foul. .There are two or three very 
inviting bights for a ship that is caught with the tide, but it is not advisable to 
anchor in them ; she should rather return to the anchorage off Cape Gregory. 

Susanjiah Cove is where Sarmiento anchored in 8 fathoms, low water, half a 
league from the land, good bottom ; but, as it was exposed to the strength of the 
tide, he shifted to another anchorage about half a league West of Cape Gregory^ 
where the anchor was dropped in 8 fathoms ; but the vessel tailing on the edge of 
the shoal in 3 fathoms, he was glad to make his escape. 

The South shore of the Second Narrow, which Narborough called the Sweeps 
stakes Forelandy is composed of cliffs, and is of bold approach. The projecdng 
head in the centre is Sarmiento's St. Simon's Head ; and the western end he 
named Cape St. Vincent, from its resemblance to that of Spain. 1?o the south- 


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ward of the eastern point of this head, Paint St. Isidroy which is a low sandy 
point, is Fish Cove. 

Three miles to the westward of Cape Gracia, the western end of the Second 
Narrow on the North side, is Oazy Harbour, so called by Narborough ; it is a 
secure place for small vessels. The entrance is nearly 2 miles long^ and too 
narrow for large ships, unless the weather be moderate, when they might drop in 
or out with the tide : the depth inside is from 3 to 10 fathoms. There is neither 
wood nor water to be got, and therefore no inducement to enter it. 

Narborough's Peckett's Harbour is 8 miles to the West of Cape Gracia, and 
although very shoal, offers a good shelter, if required, for small vessels — but the 
space is very confined ; the anchorage without is almost as safe, and much more 

The entrance is between the S.W. point and the island, and is rather more 
than one-fifth of a mile wide* Half a mile outside, the anchorage is good in 7 
fathoms : shoal ground extends for a quarter of a mile off the point. 

Royal Road, the bay which is formed by Pecketfs Harbour and Elizabeth 
Island, is extensive and well-sheltered, with an easy depth of water all. over, 
between 5 and 7 fathoms ; the nature of the bottom is clay, and offers excellent 
holding ground. In the centre is a patch of kelp ; this is the only danger, there 
being 2i fathoms on it. 

Elizabeth Island^ so named by Sir Francis Drake, is a long low strip of land, 
lying parallel to the shores of the strait, which here take a N.N.E. direction. 
Its N.B. end was called by Sarmiento Point Sanisidro. Compared with the land 
to the southward the island is very low, no part being more than 200 or 300 
feet high* It is composed of narrow ranges of hills, extending in ridges in the 
directioa of its length, over which are strewed boulders of the various rocks which 
form the shingle beaches of Points St. Mary and Santa Anna to the South. In the 
valleys between these ridges were seen hollows that had contained fresh water, 
but then (April, 1827) entirely dried up, and marked by a white saline crust, 
indicating the quality of the soil.* 

The tide ia not strong to the westward of the North end of Elizabeth Island ; 
but runs with considerable velocity in the deep channel between it and the 
Second Narrow. To the southward of the island the stream divides into two 
directions, and very soon loses its strength ; one sets down the South side of the 
island, and the other between the Islands of Santa Martha and Magdalena. This 
is the flood ; the ebb sets to the northward. The ebb and flow are regular ; high 
water at the fiill and change, being at about 12 o'clock. 

There is good anchorage, out of the strength of tide, at a mile to the North of 
Point San Silvestre ; it is convenient for a ship to leave with the intention of 
passing round Elizabeth Island. This is the most difficult part of the entrance of 
the Strait of Magalhaens, for the tide sets across the passage with some strength. 

The passage to the West of the island is clear, and without danger, by keeping 
in the middle part of the channel ; but in passing down the South side of 
Elizabeth Island the shore should be kept close to, to avoid being thrown upon 

• King, IK. 81. 


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the Islands of Santa Martha and Magdalena,* as well as to clear the shoal that 
extends off the S.W. end of the latter island, upon which less water than 5 
fathoms was not found upon any part; but the ground being irregular, and much 
kelp strewed about, it is not safe to trust too much to appearances.t 

Capt. FitzRoy says :— In passing to the westward from the Second Narrow, 
it is best to keep well to the N.W. in Royal Road ; avoid the shoal betweeu 
Silvester Point and Peckett's Harbour ; anchor in that road where convenient, or 
pass close round Silvester Point and along the East side of Elizabeth Island ; 
keep clear of Santa Martha and Walker Shoal, and make for Laredo Bay. 

A vessel drawing less than 16 feet may pass round to the westward of 
Elizabeth Island, but the eastern passage is the shortest ; and if there is wind 
enough to ensure maintaining your position and keeping close to Elizabeth 
Island until past Walker Shoal, it is also far easiest. No vessel ought to pass 
Silvester Point without a commanding breeze, because the water there is very 
deep ; and as the tide sets directly towards the Islands of Santa Martha and 
Magdalena, much inconvenience, if not danger, might be caused by the failure 
of the wind. The land hereabouts is low, not exceeding 200 feet in height, and 
without wood. 

About Cape Negro the appearance of the land entirely changes. A low barren 
country gives way to hills covered with wood, increasing in height, and becoming 
more rocky and mountainous as you go southward (King, p. 215). The northern 
part is a very poor clay : whilst here, a schistose subsoil is covered by a mixture 
of alluvium deposited by mountain streams, and decomposed vegetable matter in 
great quantity {IMd. p. 22). 

Laredo Bay offers good anchorage in the centre and towards the North side, 
and particularly in the N.W. corner. Off the South point is a large patch of 
kelp, among which the ground is shoal and foul. 

At Laredo Bay wood may be procured, and there is a fresh-water lake of a 
mile in diameter at about half a mile behind the beach, much frequented by wild 

For the purpose of anchorage only the bay need not be entered ; because a 
very good and secure berth may be found at from 1 to 2 miles off it, in 10 to 13 
fathoms, having the S.W. extremity of Elizabeth Island on with, or a little open 
of, the trend of Gape Negro, which is Byron's Porpesse Point. t 

On the eastern coast, Gente Grande Point and the land near it are very low, 
and therefore dangerous. The strong tide setting along shore, and near Adventure 
Bridge, are additional reasons for avoiding the vicinity of this point. 

Southward of Gente Grande, along shore to Gape Monmouth and Cape 
Boqueron, there is no danger ; the water is deep, and the coast safe to approach. 
Gape Monmouth is a cliffy point. Gape Boqueron is the termination of the range 
of high land extending across the country to Gape Espiritu Santo. 

* The Islands of Santa Martha and Magdalena, lo named by Sarmiento (p. Si54), have since 
been called by other names : the former St. Bartholomew, the latter St. Oeo^s, also Penguin 
Island. — See NarhorougKs Voyage , p. 62. 

t Lieut Simpson states that 3 fothoms was found by Byron's ship, the J><dphin, p. 154. 

t Hawkcsworth, vol. i. p. 36. 


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When to the southward of a lioe drawn from Laredo Bay to Gente Grande 
Pointy the tides are scarcely felt ; but to the northward of that line they are 
strong, and must be carefully guarded against during the night, or in light winds. 

A vessel in mid-channel, between Gente Grande and Laredo Bay, would be set 
by the ebb tide, if the wind failed her, directly amongst the dangers surrounding 
Magdalena Island. 

To the westward of the Second Narrow the tide rises about 8 feet ; in the 
Second Narrow it rises about 12 feet; in Gregory Bay, 18 feet; and on the 
East side of St. Philip's Bay about 24 feet. 

Between Cape Negro and Sandy Point, which is Sarmiento's Catalina Bay,* 
good anchorage may be had, from 1 to 2 J miles from the shore. Here the 
country begins to be thickly wooded, and to assume a very picturesque appear- 
ance, particularly in the vicinity of Sandy Point. 

Sakdt Point — Sarmiento's Cape de San Antonio de Padua — ^projects for more 
than a mile from the line of coast, and should not be passed within a mile. A 
shoal projects off it in an East direction (mag,) : the mark for its South edge is 
a single tree, on a remarkably clear part of the country (a park-like meadow), 
near the shore on the South side of the point, in a line with a deep ravine in the 
mountain behind. One mile and a half from the point, we had no' bottom with 
18 fathoms. 

To the southward of Sandy Point, as far as Point St. Mary, good anchorage 
may be had, at three-quarters of a mile from the shore, in 11 and 12 fathoms ; 
sand and shells over clay. With the wind off shore a ship may anchor or sail 
along it very close to the coast, by keeping outside the kelp. The squalls off the 
land are very strong, sometimes so much so as to lay a ship on her broadside. 
These land squalls are denominated by the sealers ** williwaws." 

Point St. Mary, in lat. 53^ 21' 15' and Ion. 70° 67' 55', is 12J miles to the 
South of Sandy Point, and may be known by the land trending in to the south- 
ward of it, forming Freshwater Bay. It has also a high bank close to the 
beach, with two patches bare of trees, excepting a few dead stumps. All the 
points to the northward are low and thickly wooded. As the bay opens, the 
bluff points at its South end become visible. There is also a remarkable round 
hill a short distance behind the centre of the bay, and a valley to the South of it, 
through which a river flows and falls into the bay. 

It is convenient for wooding at, but from the river being blocked up by much 
drift timber, watering is difficult; the proximity, however, of Port Famine 
renders this of no material consequence. 

Between Freshwater Bay and Point Santa Anna the coast is very bold, and so 
steep-to as to offer no anchorage, excepting in the bay that is formed by the reef 
off Rocky Point ; but it is small and inconvenient to weigh from, should the 
wind be southerly. 

" Near Rocky Point," Sir John Narborough says, " the wood shows in many 
places as if there were plantations ; for there were several clear places m the 
woods, and grass growing like fenced fields in England, the woods being so even 

* Sarmienlo, p. 256. 


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by the sides of it.*'— (An Account of Several Voyages, &c., 1694, p. 67.) These 
patches are occasioned by the unusual poverty of the soil, and are covered with 
spongy moss. — (King, p. 24.) 

Point Santa Anna will appear, on standing down near the coast, to be the 
termination of the land ; it is a long point extending into the sea, having at the 
extremity a clump of trees. It bears from Cape Valentyn S.W. 4 W. mag. On 
approaching it, the distant point of Cape St. Isidro will be seen beyond it ; but 
there can be no doubt or mistake in recognising it. 

Along the whole extent of the coast, between Point Santa Anna and Elizabeth 
Island, the flood sets to the southward and the ebb to the northward, and ft is 
high water about 12 o'clock at full and change. The variation is about 23° 
West. The strength of the tide is not great, but frequently after a southerly wind 
there is, in the offing, a current to the nortliward independent of the tide. In 
winter the tides occasionally rise very high, and on one occasion, in the month of 
June, nearly overflowed the whole of the low land on the West side. 

PORT FAMINE.— The name of this harbour is a sad memento of the only 
colony that was ever attempted to be founded in these inclement regions. The 
voyage of Sir Francis Drake through this strait into the Pacific, and his successes 
against the Spanish colonies, induced the viceroy of Lima to send an expedition 
in pursuit of him. This was placed under the command of Pedro Sarmiento de 
Gamboa, and sailed from Peru to the strait in 1583. After encountering many 
difficulties in its western part, Sarmiento was so enraptured with the verdant and 
picturesque appearance of the shores in this portion, that he succeeded in con- 
vincing King Philip II., of Spain, of the necessity of colonizing and fortifying 
the strait. The undertaking was much opposed by the Duke of Alva, who said, 
'' that if a ship carried out only anchors and cables sufficient for her security 
against the storms in that part of the world, she would go well laden." The 
result caused this remark to become proverbial. The expedition, however, left 
Spain in 23 ships, of which only 5 reached the entrance of the strait, and 
these, after several repulses, entered the strait in December, 1584, and landed 
300 men under Sarmiento, between the First and Second Narrows, where they 
planted a city, '< Jesus," which must have been near the point named in the 
chart N. S. de la Valle, on the North shore. Their hardships commenced with 
their landing ; and Sarmiento set out by land with 100 men to go to Point 
Santa Anna (close to Port Famine). Their journey was difficult and much 
harassed by Indians, but at last they reached their destination, and founded the 
city of King Philip or San Felipe. Winter set in suddenly on them, and 
Sarmiento, in superintending the two colonies, was blown out of the strait, and 
obliged to bear up for Rio de Janeiro, and his attempts to carry supplies to the 
ill-fated colonists were all frustrated by the weather ; to crown bis misfortunes, 
he was captured by the English, and taken, with his three vessels, to England. 
The unhappy colony of Jesus then sent an expedition by land to San Felipe, but 
finding them equally destitute, they set out on their return, but all perished of 
hunger and disease. Without enumerating their subsequent disasters, it may be 
stated that of the two persons who were destined to be saved from the 300 
individuals who formed the original detachment, one was taken off* by Cavendish, 


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and the other (who died on his passage to Europe) by Andrew Mericke, in 1589. 
The name of San Felipe ceased with the colony ; the name of Port Famine was 
given to it by Cavendish ; and the only memento now remaining is a thickly 
wooded and picturesque mountain^ Mount San Felipe, on the bottom of the bay. — 
(Bumey's Collection of Voyages, vol. ii. p. 45; King, pp. 29, 30.) Morrell 
states (Narrative of Four Voyages, p. 89) that the fort is still to be recognized, as 
also the ruins of the houses of the city. 

Standing into Port Famine, pass round Point Santa Anna, if with a leading 
wind, at one-fifth of a mile, in 17 fathoms ; but if the wind is scanty, do not get 
too i\ear on account of the eddy tide, which sometimes sets towards the point. 
Steer in for the bottom of the bay, for the summit of Mount St. Philip, keeping it 
over the centre of the depth of the bay ; that is, half way between the rivulet 
(which will be easily distinguished by a small break in the trees), and the N.W. 
end of the clear bank on the West side of the bay. This bank being clear of 
trees, and covered with grass, is very conspicuous. Keep on this course until the 
mouth of Sedger River is open, and upon shutting in the points of its entrance, 
shorten sail and anchor in 9, 8, or 7 fathoms, as convenient. The best berth, in 
the summer, is to anchor over towards the West side in 9 fathoms, with Cape 
VaJentyn in a line with Point Santa Anna : but in the winter season, with N.E. 
winds, the best berth is more in the centre of the bay. 

The strongest winds are from the S.W. It blows also hard sometimes from 
the South, and, occasionally, a fresh gale out of the valley, to the South of Mount 
St. Philip. Unless a long stay be meditated, it would be sufficient to moor with 
a kedge to the N.E.; the ground is excellent all over the port, being a stiff, tena- 
cious clay. Landing may be almost always effected, excepting in easterly gales, 
on one side or the other. There is firewood in abundance on the beaches, and 
wells, containing excellent fresh water, were dug at the N.W. extremity of the 
clear part of Point Santa Anna, on the bank above the third, or westernmost, 
small shingle bay. The water of the river, as well as of the ponds, of which 
there are many upon the fiat shore of the western side of the port, is very good 
for present use, but will not keep, in consequence of its flowing through an 
immense mass of decomposed vegetable matter; but the water of the wells drain 
through the ground, and not only keeps well, but is remarkably clear and well 
tasted.* For some time the traces of the surveying party will not fail to show 
the road. 

Capt. King*s observatory, the situation of which is indicated by the stem of 
a tree, 16 inches in diameter, placed upright, about 8 feet under and 3 above 
the ground, banked up by a mound, is in lat. 53° 38' 12" and Ion. 70° 57' 55". 
High water at full and change at 12 o'clock ; the ebb sets to the northward, and 
the flood to the southward ; but the rise and fall is very irregular, depending 
entirely upon the prevalence of the winds, northerly and easterly winds causing 
high tides, and westerly and south-westerly low tides. The variation is about 
24° 3(y. 

• The water 
harboar is full 
p. 217. 

in the Sedger River is excellent, and keeps well ; but that from ^^^^^""l^}^ 
of green sUme, and will not keep.— Cap*. J, H. SmUh, Naut- »^' vr. 1^37, 


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The eastern shore of this portion of the strait is the laud of Tierra del Fuego, 
which, southward of Point Boqueron, forms a very extensive bay, called Useless 
BiM-. This was formerly supposed to be the western opening of the Sebastian 
Channel, but the late surveys having proved the non-existence of this extension 
of the present Sebastian Bay, it is unimportant to navigation. 

Southward of this opening in the strait, the western shore is formed by Dawson 
IsLAKD, which fronts Useless Bay and the deep inlet called Admiralty Sounds 
46 miles long, and about 20 broad. Its northern extremity is Cape Valektyk. 
It is low, and has a small hummock near the point. Between the two points 
which form the cape, there is a slight incurvation of the shore, which would afford 
shelter to small vessels from any wind to the southward of East or West; but the 
water is shoal, and the beach, below high water mark, is of large stones. The 
coast to the S.W. is open, and perfectly unsheltered ; it is backed by cliffs : the 
beach is of shingle, and becomes visible in passing down the opposite shore, 
between Sandy Point and Freshwater Bay. Mount Graves y 1,315 feet high, 
however, is seen from a much greater distance. On the western side of the island 
there are but two places in which vessels can anchor; viz., Lomas Bay and Port 
San Antonio, but both being on a lee shore, they are not to be recommended. 

Port San Antonio, which is situated about the centre of the West coast, 
opposite to San Nicholas Bay, has the appearance of being well sheltered, but it 
possesses no one advantage that is not common to almost every other harbour or 
cove in the strait ; and for a ship, or square-rigged vessel of any kind, it is both 
difficult to enter, and dangerous to leave. Besides its local disadvantages, the 
weather in it is seldom fair, even when the day is Hne elsewhere. In no part of 
the Strait is the vegetation so luxuriant as in this little cove ; veronica, fuchsia, 
and other plants flourish, and shelter bees and humming-birds. — (King, p. 127.) 

Port Valdbz is a deep inlet. South of Port San Antonio, fronting W.N.W., 
and not at all inviting to enter. 

The Gabriel Channel separates Dawson Island from the Tierra del Faego. 
It is merely a ravine of the slate formation, into which the water has found its 
way, and insulated the island. It extends precisely in the direction of the strata, 
in a remarkably straight line, with almost parallel shores. It is 25 miles long, 
and from half a mile to If miles wide ; the narrowest part being in the centre. 

The South side of the Gabriel Channel is formed by a: high mass of mountains, 

probably the most elevated land in the Tierra del Fuego. Among many of its 

high peaks are two more conspicuous than the rest, Mount Sarmiento* and 

Mount Buckland. The first is 6,800 feet high, and, rising from a broad base, 

terminates in two peaked summits, bearing from each other N.E. and S.W., and 

are about a quarter of a mile asunder. From the northward it appears very 

• "This mounUtn was the enowy volcano {Volcan Nevada) of Sarmiento, with whose striking 
appearance that celebrated navigator seems to have been particularly impressed, so minate and 
excellent is his description. It is also mentioned In the account of Cordova's voyage. The peca- 
liar shape of its sammit, as seen from the North, would suggest the probability of its being a volcano, 
but we never observed any indication of its activity. Its volcanic form is perhaps accidental; for, 
seen from the westward, its summit no longer resembles a crater. From the geological character 
of the surroanding rocks its formation would seem to be of slate. It is in a range of mountains 
rising generally 2,000 or 3,000 feet above the sea : but, at the N.E. end of the range are some at 
least 4,000 feet high. From an attentive perusal of the voyage of Magalhaens, X have been lately 
led to think that this is the mountain which Magalliaens called Boldan's Bell."— ^tn^, pp. 26, 87. 


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much like the crater of a volcano ; but wliea viewed from the westward, the two 
peaks are in a line, and its volcanic resemblance ceases. 

It is the most remarkable mountain in the strait; but, from the state of the 
climate and its being clothed with perpetual snows, it is almost always enveloped 
in condensed vapour. During a low temperature, however, particularly with a 
N.E. or S.E. wind, when the sky is often cloudless, it is exposed to view, and 
presents a magnificent appearance. 

Mount Bucklavd is, by estimation, about 4,000 feet high. It is a tall, 
obelisk-like hill, terminating in a sharp needle-point, and lifting its head above a 
chaotic mass of ** reliquise diluvianse,'* covered with perpetual snows, by the 
melting of which an enormous glacier on the leeward or north-eastern side has 
been gradually formed, Hiis icy domain is 12 or 14 miles long, and extends 
from near the end of the Gabriel Channel to Port Waterfall, feeding, in the 
intermediate span, many magnificent cascades, which, for number and height, are 
not, perhaps, to be exceeded in an equal span of any part of the world. Within 
an extent of 9 or 10 miles, there are upwards of 150 waterfalls, dashing into the 
channel from a height of 1 ,500 or 2,000 feet. I have met with nothing exceeding 
the picturesque grandeur of this part of the strait. — (King, p. 51.) 

The channel on the eastern side of Dawson Island leads to Admiralty Sound, 
into which there is also a passage through the Gabriel Channel. Admiralty 
Sound extends for 43 miles to the S.E. into the land of Tierra del Fuego ; but, 
as it is of no service in the navigation of the Strait of Magalbaens, we shall not 
describe it. 

Port Famine, on the western shore of the strait, has been described on page 
12 ; from this point we again proceed with the description. 

The Sedger Rivevy which is fronted by a bar that dries at low water, can be 
entered by boats at half-tide, and is navigable for 3 or 4 miles ; after which its 
bed is so filled up by stumps of trees, that it is difficult to penetrate farther. 
The water is fresh at half a mile from the entrance, but to ensure its being 
perfectly good, it would be better to fill the casks at low tide. (See p. 13). The 
low land near the mouth, as well as the beach of Port Famine, is covered with 
drift timber of large size. 

The river was called by Sarmiento, Rio de San Juan. In Naiboroagh's Voyage 
it is called Segars River. • Byron describes the river, which he calls the Sedger, 
in glowing terms, but gives rather a more flattering account of the timber growing 
on its banks than it deserves.* 

• Hawkeswortb, voL i. p. 38. 

The enterprising Gapt Morrdl tells us, in his NanratiTe, that he went several miles in the 
interior, to the w!n.W. from Port Famine. He proceeded up the Sedger River, whose banks, 
he says, are covered with the finest timber he ever saw ; the herbage Inxariant, and the soil rich. 
His search for dye-woods was nnsoccessfhl, hot he fonnd on its banks copper, lead, and iron ores ; 
and in bis opinion, if the colony, noticed on p. 12, had consisted of such men as emigrate daily 
from the New Bngland States, instead of indolent Spaniards, a few years would have converted 
this wffitm of Patagonia faito a fruitful garden, and PhilipTllle, or San Felipe, would have been at 
thia moment a splendid city— a conclusion we may justly demur at. His interesting Narrative 
contains an acconnt of his passages and expeditions through the Strait and in Patagonia. The 
authenticity of them has been doubted, but It would seem without reason ; at least, ^^^*^'?^JJ- 
ttanee baa been subrtantiated : Ichaboe (W. Africa) was visited from his ^^P^ uvertvv ®i 
toggntioa of Capt. Andrew Livingston, and was converted into a real fact by o ^ -^ooi 
merchants.— iVorrafwe of Four Voyages, ^., New York, 1832, pp. 82-96, ao« ^*^» 


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Between this bay and Cape Sak Isidro (of Sarmiento — Point Shut-up of 
Byron) the water is too deep for anchorage, even close to the beach. The cape is 
tho termination of the ridge, whose summit is Mount Taruy the most conspicuous 
mountain of this part of the strait. It is 2,602 feet high by barometrical mea- 
surement. It is readily distinguished from abreast of Elizabeth Island, whence 
it appears to be the most projecting part of the continental shore. When viewed 
from the northward its shape is peaked, and during the summer it has generally 
some patches of snow a little below its summit ; but in the winter months its 
sides are covered with snow for two-thirds down. From abreast, and to the 
southward, of Port Famine, it has rather a saddle-shaped appearance; its 
summit being a sharp ridge, extending very nearly for one mile, N.W. and 
S.E., with a precipitous descent on the N.E., and a steep slope on the 
S.W. sides. The highest peak near its N.E. end is in lat. 53^ 45' 6" and 
Ion. 71° 2' 20*. 

There is a low, but conspicuous rounded hillock covered with trees at the 
extremity of Cape San Isidro ; and a rocky patch extends off it for 2 cables* 
length, with a rock at its extremity, that is awash at high water. It is covered 
with kelp. 

Eagle Bay (Valcarcel Bay of Cordova) is about three-quarters of a mile 
deep ; and its points 1 mile apart, bearing N.E. and S.W. The anchorage is 
at the head, in from 20 to 12 fathoms. There are two streams of water ; but 
being very much impregnated with decomposed vegetable matter, cannot be 
preserved long. 

Gun Bat/f the next to the westward, although small, affords anchorage for a 
single vessel near the shore, at its S.W. part, in from 8 to 9 fathoms. 

Neither Gun nor Indian Bays are noticed in Cordova's description of the strait, 
although they are quite equal to any other in the neighbourhood for stopping 

Bouchage Bay — which is Cordova's Cantin Bay — is small, and the water 
very deep; except near the bottom, where anchorage may be obtained in 8 
fathoms, clay. It is separated from BournandBay (Gil Bay of Cordova) by Cape 
Remarquable of Bougainville, which is a precipitous, round-topped, bluff projec- 
tion, wooded to the summit. At 2 cables' length from the base, no bottom 
was found with 20 fathoms of line ; but, at the distance of 50 yards, the depth 
was 20 fathoms. Bournand Bay is more snug and convenient than its northern 
neighbour, Bouchage Bay, being sheltered from the southerly winds by Nassau 
Island. At the S.W. end of a stony beach at the bottom, is a rivulet of good 
water ; off which there is good anchorage in 8 fathoms stiff mud. 

Bougainville Bay (Cordova's Texada Bay) forms a basin, or wet dock, in 
which a vessel might careen with perfect security. It is, from its small size, 
great depth of water, and the height of the land, rather difficult of access : which 
renders it almost always necessary to tow in. On entering, the anchor should be 
dropped in 12 fathoms, and the vessel steadied by warps to the trees, at the sides 
and bottom of the cove. It is completely sheltered from all winds, and an 
excellent place for a vessel to remain at, particularly if the object be to procure 
timber, which grows here to a great size, and is both readily cut down and easily 


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embarked. A rivulet at the bottom affords a moderate supply of water ; but, if 
more be required, the neighbouring bays will afford an abundance.* 

In the passage between Nassau Island and the main, the least water is 7 
fathoms, over a stiff clay bottom, gradually deepening on each side. But the 
winds being bafHing, and the tides irregular and rippling in many parts, a vessel 
should not attempt it but from necessity. 

Nassau Island's South extremity is Sarmiento's Point, Santa Brigida. 

St. Nicholas Bay, so named by the Nodales in 1618 (but previously, by Sar- 
miento, Bahia de Santa Brigida y Santa Agueda, and French Bay by De Gennes), 
is not only of larger size than any of the bays to the South of Cape San Isidro, 
but is the best anchorage that exists between that cape and Cape Froward ; as 
well from its being more easily entered and left, as from the moderate depth of 
water, and extent of the anchoring ground. Its points bear from each other, 
S.W. by W. and N.E. by E., and are distant 2 miles. Nearly in the centre is a 
small islet covered with trees; between which and the shore is a passage with 
9 fathoms water, stiff clay. The shore is, however, fronted for its whole length 
by a shoal bank, which very much reduces the apparent extent of the bay. 
This bank stretches off to the distance of a quarter of a mile from the shore, the 
edge of which is steep-to, and is generally distinguished by the ripple, which, 
with a moderate breeze, breaks at half-tide. The Beagle anchored in the bay, 
at 3 cables* length to the N.E. of the small central islet, in 12 fathoms, pebbly 
bottom ; but the best berth is one-quarter to one- third of a mile to the S.W. 
of the islet, in 10 or 11 fathoms, muddy bottom. Capt. Stokes recommends 
in his journal, in coming in, to keep sail upon the ship, in order to shoot into a 
good berth, on account of the high land of Nodales Peak becalming the sails. 
In taking up an anchorage, much care is necessary to avoid touching the bank. 
Less than 10 fathoms is not safe, but in that depth the security is perfect, and 
the herth very easy to leave. In passing through the strait, this bay is very 
useful to stop at, as well from the facility of entering and leaving it, as for its 
proximity to Cape Froward. 

From Glascott Point the coast extends in nearly a straight Hue to Cape 
Frowardy a distance of 7 miles, the land at the back continuing mountainous 
and woody. 

CAPE FROWARD, the southern extremity of the continent of South 

America, is composed of dark-coloured, slaty rock, and rises abruptly from the 

sea. At its base is a small rock, on which Bougainville landed. Bougainville 

observes, that " Cape Froward has always been much dreaded by navigators." 

— " To double it, and gain an anchorage under Cape Holland (W. of it), cost 

the Beagle as tough a 16 hours' beat, as I have ever witnessed. We made 31 

Ucks, which, with the squaljs, kept us constantly on the alert, and scarcely 

allowed the crew to have the ropes out of their hands throughout the day. But 

what there is to inspire a navigator with ' dread ' I cannot tell, for the coast on 

both sides is perfectly clear, and a vessel may work from shore to shore." — (Capt. 

King: Narrative, &c., vol. i. p. 69.) 

• It was here that M. de Bougalnyille cut timber for the French colony **^^^° 
Islands. To sealing vessels it is known by the name of Jack's Harbour,— Atwi7, p* 


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At less than a cable's length off the cape, Byron found the depth was 40 
fathoms. Capt. King found, at midway between St. Nicholas Bay and Cape 
St. Antonio, no bottom at 256 fathoms. The hill that rises immediately above 
the cape was called by Sarmiento, the M orro of Santa Agueda.* Cape Froward 
is in lat. 53° 53' 43% Ion. 71° 14' ZV. The ebb tide sets to the northward, and 
the flood to the southward, but with very little strength. It is high water at 
full and change at 1, p.m. 



The Beagle passed into the Pacific by a route not previously used, except by 
sailing vessels, although it possesses many advantages over either the passage 
round Cape Horn, or that through the western reaches of the Strait of Magal- 
haens. '< Mr. Low is said to be the first discoverer of it, and he certainly was 
the first to pass through in a ship, but I think one of the Saxe Coburg*8 boats 
had passed through it previously; and I much question whether Sir Francis 
Drake's shallop did not go by that opening into the Strait of Magalhaens in 
1578.''t— (FitzRoy, p. 358.) 

The Beagle sailed from Port Famine June 9th, 1834 ; went down the Magdalen 
Channel, and anchored in a cove under Cape Turn ; the following day beat 
to windward through the Cockburn Channel, and (leaving a small cove to be 
occupied by the Adventure) beat about all night in the limited space near the 
entrance of the channel. When the day at last broke on the 11th, both vessels 
sailed out, past Mount Sky ring, as fast as sails could urge them. At sunset they 
were near the Tower Rocks, and with a fresh N.W. wind stood out into the 
Pacific— (Fitz Roy, p. 360.) 

The opening of MAGDALEN SOUND was first noticed by Sarmiento.t 
Coming from the northward, it appears to be a continuation of the strait, and it is 
not until after passing Cape San Isidro that the true channel becomes evident. 
It extends in a southerly direction for 20 miles, and is bounded on either 
side by high and precipitous hills, particularly on the West shore. The eastern 
entrance of the sound, Anxious Point, is a low, narrow tongue of land, with an 
island off it. Opposite to it is a steep mountain, called by Sarmiento the Vernal 
(or summer-house), from a remarkable lump of rock on its summit.^ 

Under this mountain is Hope Harbour ; a convenient stopping place for small 
vessels bound through the sound. The entrance is narrow, with kelp across it, 
indicating a rocky bed, on which we had not less than 7 fathoms. Inside it 
opens into a spacious basin, with good anchorage in 4 fathoms, sheltered from all 
winds, excepting the squalls off the high land, which must blow with furious 
violence during a south-westerly gale. 

• Sarmiento, p. 218. f See Burney, vol, i. pp. 327, 868. % Sarmiento, p. 220. 

^ Sarmiento, p. 219; and Ultimo ^age, p. 121. 


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To the South of Hope Harbour, between the Vernal and Mount Boqueron, is 
Stok£8*8 Inlet. It is 3 miles long, with deep water all over : there is a cove on 
its North side, but neither so good nor so accessible as Hope Harbour. In the 
entrance of the inlet are three islets {Rees Islets). 

Mount Boqueron, the extremity of which is Squally Point, is a very precipitous 
and lofty mountain, about 3,000 feet high, having on its summit three small 
but remarkably conspicuous peaks. It is the eastern head of Stokes's Inlet, and 
forms a part of the western shore of Magdalen Sound. The squalls that blow 
off this during a S.W. gale are most furious, and dangerous unless little sail be 
carried. On one occasion our decked sailing-boat was seven hours in passing it. 
The sound here is not more than 2f miles wide. On the opposite shore, within 
Anvious Point, is an inlet extending to the S.£. for 2 or 3 miles, but it is 
narrow and unimportant. 

Slioll Bay is a small bight of the coast line, 5 miles to the South of Squally 
Point. There is a reef off it, the position of which is pointed out by kelp. 

On the opposite shore is Real's Sound. It extends to the S.E. for 6 or 8 miles, 
and is between 4 and 5 miles wide. 

In the centre of Magdalen Sound, abreast of the above opening, is a rocky 
islet; and, at a short distance to the southward, on the western coast, is a bay 
and group, called Labyrinth Islands, among which small vessels may find good 

Transition Bay is deep, and of little importance. Four miles farther, at Cape 
Turn^ the shore trends suddenly round. Here Magdalen Sound terminates, and 
Cockburn Channel commences. 

On the opposite shore, to the South of Keat's Sound, there are no objects 
worth noticing, excepting Mount Sarmiento, which has been already described, 
page 14, and Pyramid Hill, which v^as found to be 2,500 feet high. 

COCKBURN CHANNEL.— The bottom of Magdalen Sound is 6 miles wide, 
but at Cape Turn the channel narrows to 2 miles, and in one part is not more 
than li of a mile wide. The South shore is much broken, and there are many 
sounds penetrating deeply into the land, which, in this part, according to Capt. 
FitzRoy's survey of Thieves Sound, is 7 miles wide. Eleven miles more to the 
westward^ at Courtenay Sound, the width of the peninsula is not more than 3 miles. 

Warp Bay, although exposed to southerly winds, is a convenient stopping 
place. Stormy Bay is a very wild, unsheltered place, unfit for any vessel to stop 
at. Park Bay is both very snug and secure, with good anchorage in 12 fathoms, 
sand and mud. It has the same disadvantage as Stormy Bay, in being on the lee 
side of the channel, and is, therefore, difficult to leave. 

In working down the channel, the south side should be preferred, as it is a 
weather shore, and seems to be better provided with coves and harbours to 
anchor in. 

King and FitzRoy Islands^ in mid channel, are of bold approach ; as are also 
Kirke*s Rocks , more to the westward. 

The flood tide sets to the southward, or to seaward, but was not found to run 
with sufficient strength to benefit or impede a vessel beating through. The rise 
and fall is inconsiderable, not being more than 6, or at most 8, feet at spring tides. 


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There are several anchorages among the Prowse Islands^ which are very 
numerous, and skirt the coast for several miles. Behind them the land trends in 
and forms a deep sound. 

The distance across the channel, between Prowse Islands and Barrow Head, is 
scarcely \\ miles. 

Dtneley Sound extends for more than 9 miles in a N.W. direction into the 
interior of Clarence Island. On the West side of its entrance is a group of 
islands affording several anchorages, which the chart will point out. One of 
them, Eliza Bay, offers shelter and security from all winds. 

Melville Sound, which forms the embouchure of the Barbara and Cockburn 
Channels, is very extensive, and is completely filled ^ith islands. Some of them 
are of large size, and all are of the most rugged and desolate character. The 
offing is strewed with clusters of rocks : of these, the East and West Furies are 
the most remarkable, as well as the most important, for the passage into the 
Cockburn Channel lies between them. The former are very near the land of 
Cape Schomberg. The West Furies bear from the Tower Rock, off Cape Noir, 
N.E. by E. J E. mag. (E. \ N.) 25 miles ; and S. \ W. mag. (^S.S.W. f W.) 11 
miles from Mount Skyring. The Tussac Rocks, which are two in number, bear 
from the West Furies N.E. \ E. mag. (E. by N. | N.) 4} miles ; and in a line 
between the East and West Furies, 3 miles from the latter and 2 from- the former, 
is a rock standing alone. It bears from Mount Skyring S. by E. mag. (S. by W.) 
12| miles. To avoid it, in entering with a westerly wind, pass near the West 
Furies, and steer for the Tussac Rocks. 

After passing these there are no dangers, that we know of, in the entrance of 
the Cockburn Channel. A reference to the chart will show everything else that 
need be noted. 

Mount Sktrino- is a very prominent object. It rises to a peak nearly 
3,000 feet high. It was seen from Field Bay, at the North end of the Barbara 
Channel ; and, from its summit, Capt. FitzRoy obtained a bearing of Mount 
Sarmiento. Its summit is in lat. 54° 24' 44" and Ion. 72° 11' 32". The variation 
is 25°. 

The BARBARA CHANNEL diverges from the western portion of the 
Cockburn Channel, and pursuing a devious course to the northward, between 
Clarence Island on the East and the Land of Desolation on the West, enters the 
principal strait about 25 or 30 miles to the West of Cape Froward. 

The southern entrance of the Barbara Channel is so very much occupied by 
islands and rocks, that no direct channel can be perceived. The chart must be 
referred to as the best guide for its navigation. For small vessels there is neither 
danger nor difficulty; there are numerous anchorages that they might reach 
without trouble, and which would afford perfect security. 

Among MagilVs Islands there are several coves and anchorages. Fury 
Harbour, on the S.E. side of the central island of Magill's group, is a very wild 
anchorage. From its contiguity to the East and West Furies, and the Tussac 
Rocks, on which seals are found, it is much frequented by sealing vessels.* 

• In the winter of 1826-27, the PHnce of Saxe Coburg sealer was wrecked in Fury Harbour, 
and the crew saved by the B€agle*t boats. 


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Bynoe Island affords an anchorage on its N.E. side ; and Hewett Bay is a 
good stopping place either for entering or quitting the channel. Brown's Bay is 
more extensive, but also afiPords good shelter in a small cove at the North 
entrance, in 8 fathoms sand, among some kelp. 

North Anchorage, for a small vessel, is tolerably secure, but not to be recom- * 

Between Hewett Bay and North Anchorage the channel is strewed with many 
rocks and shoals, some of which, although covered with kelp, only show at half- 
tide. Much caution is therefore necessary, and all patches of kelp should be 
carefully avoided. 

The tide to the northward of North Anchorage, which to the southward was 
not of sufficient consequence to interfere with the navigation of the channels, is 
so much felt as to impede vessels turning to windward against it. 

The country here has a more agreeable appearance, being better wooded with 
beech and cypress trees ; but the latter are stunted, and do not attain a greater 
height than 15 or 18 feet. They are very serviceable for boat-hook apars, boats* 
masts, &c. The wood, when seasoned, works up well. 

Bedford Bay is a good anchorage. It is situated on the N.W. side of the 
narrow part of the channel. Its depth is from 20 to 8 fathoms, good holding 
ground, and perfectly sheltered from the prevailing winds. At its entrance are 
several patches of kelp, the easternmost of which has 4 fathoms on it. 

Here^ as well as throughout the Barbara Channel, the flood tide sets to the 

Nutland Bay, having 8 and 15 fathoms over a sand and mud bottom, may be 
known by two small islands. Hill's Islands, which lie 1 mile N.N.E. from the 

Between Bedford and Nutland Bays, and, indeed, as far as the Shag Narrows, 
the channel is open, and may be navigated without impediment. There are 
many bays and inlets not here described or noticed that may be occupied, but 
sdmost all require to be examined. They all trend far enough into the land to 
afford good shelter, but in many the bottom is foul and rocky, and the water too 
deep for anchorage. 

The western coast, being the windward shore, should of course be preferred. 

Field's Bay is too exposed to southerly winds to be recommended as a 
stopping place, unless the wind be northerly. Nutland Bay is a more convenient 
place to start from with a view of passing the Narrows. 

To the North of Nutland Bay is Broderip Bay ; at the bottom, or northern 
part of it, are some good coves; but the most convenient of them is at the 
eastern extreme; it is called Dinner Cove. It extends to the North for about a 
furlong, and affords good anchorage in 10 fathoms, sufficiently well sheltered and 
distant from high land to be free from the mountain squalls or '' williwaws." 

Round Dinner Cove is Icy Sound, a deep inlet, with a glacier of considerable 
extent at the bottom, from which large masses of ice are constantly fallings and 
drifting out, occupy the waters of the inlet. The water is deep, and the anchorage 
not goody when there are so many better places. Dean Harbour is a consider- 
able inlet trending in under the same glacier, which extends from the head oC 


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Smyth Harbour to a considerable distance in the S.W. If of a favourable depth 
it might afford good anchorage. 

The only navigable communication that exists between the Barbara Channel 
and the strait is that called the Shag Narrows, on the western side of Cayetano 
• Island. The width of the opening is at least 1| miles ; but the eastern portion 
is so filled with rocky islets and shoals, that the actual breadth of the only 
navigable part at the northern end is about 100 yards, and the widest part at 
the southern end scarcely half a mile : the whole length of the passage being 
rather less than 2 miles. It is formed on the West side by a projecting point of 
high land, that gradually trends round to the westward ; and on the opposite side 
by three islands, the northernmost of which is Wet Island : on the southernmost 
is Mount Woodcock, 

Between Wet Island, where the Narrows on the North side commence, and the 
western shore, the widtli is not more than 100 to 150 yards, and perhaps 300 
yards long. Through this the tide sets as much as 7 miles an hour ; the sides of 
the rocks are steep-to; so, probably, no accident can happen to a ship in passing 
them, notwithstanding the want of room for manoeuvring. At the South end of 
Wet Island, the stream of tide divides ; one sets to the eastward, round Wet 
Island, while the principal runs through the Shag Narrows ; and in the same 
manner a part of the southern tide, which is the flood, after passing Wet Island, 
runs to the S.E., round the eastern side of Mount Woodcock. All the space 
to the eastward of Mount Woodcock is so strewed with islands and rocks, that 
the passage must be difficult, if not dangerous. 

To avoid the danger of being thrown out of the Narrows, it is only necessary to 
keep the western shore on board ; where there are no indentations, the tide will 
carry a vessel along with safety. At the North end of the Narrows, on the West 
side, is a shelving point, on which there are 5 fathoms : here there is an eddy, 
but as soon as the vessel is once within the Narrows (within Wet Island) the 
mid-channel may be kept. In shooting this passage it would be better to furl 
the sails and tow through, for if the wind be strong, the eddies and violent squalls 
would be very inconvenient, from their baffling, and laying the vessel upon her 
beam ends, which frequently happens, even though every sail be furled. It will 
be necessary to have a couple of boats out, ready either to tow the ship's head 
round, or to prevent her being thrown by the tide into the channel to the Soutli 
of Wet Island. 

If anchorage be desirable after passing the Narrows, there is none to be recom- 
mended until the coves between Smyth Harbour and Ca|)e Edge worth be reached. 
Of these, Dighton Cove is preferable. The anchorage is off" the sandy beach, in 
20 fathoms. 

Smyth Harbour is about 4 miles deep, and half to one mile wide, surrounded 
by high land, and trending in a westerly direction. The water is deep, excepting 
in Earie Cove, on the North side, where vessels might lie, if necessary; but 
Capt. King thinks it a very wild place in bad weather. 

The hills at the head are capped by glaciers that communicate with those at 
the head of Icy Sound. It seems possible that all the mountains between this 
and Whale Sound are entirely covered with a coating of ice. 


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Half a mile S.E. fix>in Cape Edgeworih is a shoal, so thickly covered with 
kelp as to be easily seen in passing or approaching it; there are not more than 
2 feet of water over its shoalest part 

To pass through the Barbara Channel from the North, it would be advisable 
to stay at Port Gallant until a favourable opportunity offers ; for with a S.W. 
wind it would neither be safe nor practicable to pass the Shag Narrows. 

The N.W. wind prevails more than any other in the western portion of the 
strait, in consequence of the reaches trending in that bearing. It seems to be a 
general rule hereabouts that the wind either blows up or down them. 

Between Cape Froward and the western entrance of the strait the wind is 
generally from N.W., although at sea, or in the Cockburn or Barbara Channels, 
it may be in the South or south-western boards. 


Cap£ Frowakd, as before stated, is the southernmost point of the South 
American continent, and from this the strait takes a direction at nearly right 
angles to that already described. The northern side is formed by the Brunswick 
and Croker Peninsulas; the southern, by Clarence Island and the Land of 

A glance at the chart of this part of the strait will show the difference of 
geological structure in the opposite coasts. The North shore from Cape Froward 
to Port Gallant forms a straight line, with scarcely a projection or bight, but on 
the opposite side there is a succession of inlets, surrounded by precipitous 
mountains, which are separated by ravines. The northern shore is of slate, but 
the other is principally of greenstone ; and its mountains, instead of running up 
into sharp peaks, and narrow, serrated ridges, are generally round-topped. The 
vegetation on both sides is almost equally abundant, but the trees on the 
South shore are much smaller. 

There is one remarkable feature in the formation of the southern shore; 
although apparently very irregular and much intersected, yet the projecting points, 
in many portions, are situated in such an exact line, that Capt. King says, that, 
in taking the bearings to the S.W. of Cape Froward, the capes on a long line of 
coast were all in the field of the telescope at once. This is observable on much 
of this singular region, as may be seen by an inspection of the chart. 

The northern shore of the Strait of Magalhaens, from CAPE FROWARD to 
Jerome Channel, a distance of 40 miles, is very slightly indented. The anchor* 
ages, therefore, are few in number, but they are of easier access, and altogether 
more convenient than those of the southern shore. Taking them in succession, 
5iiif^ Bay, 6 miles N.W. of Cape Froward, is a slight indentation of the coast at 
the embouchure of a small rivulet ; the deposite from which have thrown up a 


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bank near the shore, on which anchorage may be had in 8 and 9 fathoms. The 
best anchorage is half a mile to the E.S.E. of the island, in 9 fathoms, black sand, 
the rivulet mouth bearing N.N.W, three-quarters of a mile. It is much exposed, 
being open from W.S.W. by S. to S.E. It is a convenient stopping place in fine 

Wood's Batf, situated under the lee of Cape Holland, is a convenient stopping 
place for ships, but only small vessels should anchor inside the cove. The 
anchorage is very good to the eastward of the river's mouth, at half a mile from 
the shore, in 17 and 13 fathoms water. Small vessels may enter the cove, by 
luffing round the kelp patches that extend off the South point of the bay, on 
which there is 2 J fathoms. 

Entering Wood's Bay, steer for the gap, or low land behind the cape ; and, as 
you near the South point, keep midway between it and the river's mouth ; or, for 
a leading mark, keep a hillock, or conspicuous clump of trees at the bottom of 
the bay, in a line with a remarkable peak, 1 or 2 miles behind, bearing, by 
compass, N.W. | W. Anchor in 17 fathoms, immediately that you are in aline 
between the two points. Small vessels may go further, into 12 fathoms. The 
West side of the cove may be approached pretty near, and the depth will not be 
less than 5 fathoms, excepting upon the 2 fathoms patch that stretches off the 
East point, the extent of which is sufficiently shown by the kelp ; but on the 
eastern side the bank shoals suddenly, and must be avoided, for there are 13 
fathoms close to its edge, upon which there is not more than 2 feet water. The 
South point of Wood's Bay is in lat. 53^ 48' 33", and Ion. 71° 39' 33". 

Cape Holland is a bold, high, and although slightly projecting, yet a very 
conspicuous headland. It is precipitous, and descends to the sea in steps, 
plentifully covered with shrubs. It is about 14 miles to the westward of Cape 

Near Cape Coventry, and in Andrew's Bay, anchorage may be had near the 
shore, if the weather be fine. To the westward of the former, at half a mile from 
the shore, there are 1 3 fathoms. 

Cordes Batfy 4 miles to the eastward of Cape Gallant, may be known by the 
small bright green islet (Muscle Island) that lies in the entrance; also by a 
three-peaked mountain, about 1,500 or 2,000 feet high, standing detached from 
the surrounding hills at the bottom of the bay. The western entrance, whicli lies 
between West Point and the reef off Muscle Island^ is two-thirds of a mile wide ; 
within it is a bay 1 mile deep, but much contracted by shoals covered with kelp ; 
between them, however, the anchorage is very good and well sheltered. The 
bottom is of sand, and the depth 5 and 7 fathoms. At the extremity of the bay 
is a large lagoon. Port San Miguel, trending in a N.E. direction for 2 miles, and 
two-thirds of a mile across ; the entrance is both narrow and shoal, and not safe 
for a vessel drawing more than 6 feet. Inside the lagoon the depth is from 3 to 
13 fathoms. With Fortescue Bay and Port Gallant so near, the probability is 
that it will never be much used; but in turning to the westward it would be 
better to anchor here than lose ground by returning to Wood's Bay. By entering 
the western channel and steering clear of the kelp, a safe and commodious 
anchorage may easily be reached. 


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Forteicue Bay is the first best anchorage to the westward of St. Nicholas Bay. 
It is spacious, well sheltered, easy of access, and of moderate depth. The best 
berth is to the S.£. of the small islet outside of Wigwam Point, in 7 or 8 fathoms. 

PORT GALLANT, as a secure cove, is the best in the Strait of Magalhaens ; 
from the stillness of its waters it is a perfect wet dock, and from its position 
it is inyaluable. There are many coves as safe and convenient when once 
entered, but the prevailing steepness of the shores, as well as the great depth 
of water, are obstacles of serious importance. Here, however, is an exception ; 
the bottom is even and the depth moderate ; besides, Fortescue Bay, close by, is 
an excellent roadstead, or stopping place, to await the opportunity of entering. 
Having the entrance open, small vessels may sail into the port, but the channel 
is rather narrow. The banks on the western side, off Wigwam Point, are distin- 
guished by the kelp. When within, the shelter is perfect ; but Fortescue Bay is 
quite sufficiently sheltered, and much more convenient to leave. In this part of 
the strait, as the channel becomes narrowed by the islands, the tides are much 
felt. There are two good anchorages before reaching the entrance of the Jerome 
Channel; namely, Elizabeth Bay and York Roads, off Batchelor's River.* They 
are, however, only fit for stopping places. There are no anchorages among the 
islands that can be recommended, excepting in the strait that separates the group 
of Charles's Islands, in which there is security and a convenient depth. When 
the Mrind blows fresh there is a hollow sea between Charles's Islands and the 
North shore, which very much impedes ships beating to the westward. 

The SOUTHERN SHORE of this portion of the strait is formed by the North coast of 
Clarence Island, which extends from the entrance of Magdalen Sound to that 
of Barbara Channel. The whole of it is deeply indented by sounds penetrating 
in a southerly direction into the island. 

Mount Vemaly mentioned on page 18, is at the West entrance of Magdalen 
Sound. This, with a small rocky islet called Periagua, sufficiently points out 
the Port of Beaubasin of Bougainville. It is a very snug place when once in, 
but, being on the wrong side of the strait, it possesses no advantage. 

Inman Bay, Hawkin's Bay, Staples Inlet, and ShoU Harbour, are all deep 
inlets, surrounded by high, precipitous land. 

To the westward of Greenough Peninsula is Lyell Sound, It is 9 miles deep, 
and is separated at the bottom from Shell Harbour by a ridge of hills about If 
miles wide. 

In the entrance of Lyell Sound are two conspicuous islands, one of which is 
very small. They arc called Dos Hermanas, and bear from Cape Froward 
S.S.W. 5J miles. 

Kempe Harbour, 1 J mile within the entrance, on the West side, of Lyell Sound, 
is rather difficult of access, but perfectly secure, and would hold six ships. 

Cascade Harbour , and Mazzaredo Bay, are of less size, and therefore more 
attainable, but of the saifte character with Lyell Sound : viz., deep water, sur- 
rounded by high land. The former is known by the cascade which M. de 
Bougainville describes, from which it derives its name. On the headland that 

• At three-qaarters of a mUe East of Batchelor's River, at half a mile from shore, fa a shoal of 
not more than 6 feet least water ; it shows itself by the weeds on it. 


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separates these harbours from Lyell's Sound, is a sugar-loaf hill, the position of 
which is well determined, in lat. 63° 67' 32", Ion, 71° 28' 5". 

Hidden Harbour has a narrow entrance ; but, if required, offers good shelter. 

San Pedro Sound is the most extensive inlet that we know in Clarence Island. 
It extends in a southerly direction for nearly 13 miles. There is a good, 
although a small, anchorage on its West side, \\ miles within the entrance^ 
called Murray Gove ; and another close to it, which is even more sheltered. 

Bell Bay (the Bahia de la Campana of Sarmiento) has a very convenient 
anchorage, Bradley Cove on its West side, bearing S.W. by W. from Point 
Taylor, the eastern head of the bay. It will be readily distinguished by a small, 
green, round hillock that forms its North head. The anchorage is in 17 fathoms, 
and the vessel hauls in, by stem-fasts or a kedge, into 9 fathom^, in perfect 
security. Pond Bay, to the northward, has good shelter, but it is not of such 
easy access ; for it would be necessary to tow both into and out of it 

Mount Pondy a peaked hill over the harbour, is a conspicuous mountain, and 
is visible from the eastward as soon as it opens round Cape Froward. It has two 
summits, one of which only is visible from the eastward. 

Between Cape Inglefield and Point Elvira is St. Simon's Bay,* It is studded 
with islands and rocks, and at the bottom has two communications with the 
Barbara Channel, separated from each other by Burgess Island ; the easternmost 
of which, called Tom's Narrows, is the most extensive : but this, from the 
irregularity and force of the tides, is not to be preferred to the more direct one 
of the Shag Narrows, on the western side of Cayetano Island ; for there is no good 
anchorage in St. Michael's Channel, which leads to it, and it is bounded by a 
steep and precipitous coast. The Gonsalez Narrows, on the West side of Burgess 
Island, is not more than 30 yards across ; and, from the force of the tide, and 
the fall of the rapid, would be dangerous. 

The only good anchorage in St. Simon's Bay is Millar's Cove ; it is about 3 
miles within Point Elvira, and has three rocky islets off its entrance. A con- 
spicuous mount forms the summit of the eastern head. The anchorage is in 5 
fathoms, a good bottom, and entirely sheltered. Wood and water are plentiful. 

Immediately round the East head of Millar's Cove is Port Langara. It is 
rather more than a mile long, and two-thirds of a mile wide, and trends in a 
W.N.W. direction. The water is deep, excepting at the head, and in a cove on 
the North shore ; in either of which there is good anchorage. This portion is 
opposite to Port Gallant, which is previously described. 

At a short distance to the E.S.E. of Passage Point, on the North shore, is a 
shoal, with 2 fathoms upon itf Elizabeth Bay has a sandy beach, and a 
rivulet emptying itself into it* Cordova recommends the best anchorage to be in 
16 fathoms. Passage Point bearing E.S.E. distant half a mile, about 3 cables* 
length from the river ; and to the N.W. of a bank on which there is much kelp. 

Capt. FitzRoy describes the anchorage of York Roads^ or Batchelor's Bay, 
to be good and convenient: ''Half a mile off, a woody point (just to the 
westward of the river), bearing N. J E., and the mouth of the river N.E. 

* Sarmiento, p. 213. t Ultimo Viage, p. 136. 


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three-quarters of a mile, is a good berth ; because there is plenty of room to 
weigh from and space to drive should the anchor drag; the bottom is good in 10 
or 1 2 fathoms, but not in a less depth. The shore is a flat shingle beach for 2 
miles, the only one in this part of the strait." 

The set and change of the tide here are very uncertain on account of the 
meeting of the Jerome Channel tides with those of the strait, which occasions 
many ripplings ; and it would require a better experience than we possess to 
give a correct explanation. Capt. FitzRoy says, "The tide along shore, near 
Batchelor's River, changed an hour later than in the offing. At Batchelor's Bay, 
by the beach, during the first half or one-third of the tide that ran to the S.E., 
the water fell ; and during the latter half or two-thirds, it rose. In the offing it 
ran very strong." The establishment of the tide, at the entrance of the river, by 
an observation made by Capt. FitzRoy with the moon eight days old, would be, at 
full and change, at P 46'. By an observation made by Capt. Stokes, two years 
previous, it was found to be 2^ 13' ; the tide at the anchorage ran 3 knots. 

Secretary Wren^s Island is a small rocky islet, rising abruptly on all sides, and 
forming two summits. Near it are some rocks, and to the S.E. is a group of 
small rocks ; and at a mile to the E.S.E. are two rocks above water, called 

Charles hlands, besides some smaller islets, consist of three principal islands ; 
and in the centre there is a very good port, having good anchorage within the 
islets, in 13 fathoms. It has an outlet to the N.W., and one to the S.W., also a 
narrow point communicates with the strait to the S.E. 

Opposite to Cape Gallant, on the eastern island, near its N.W. end, is a con- 
spicuous white rock, called Wallis's Mark. Next to the westward in succession 
are Monmouth and James Islands (called by Cordova, Isla de los Infantes), 
then Cordova Islet and Rupert Island^ and to the westward of tliese the island of 
Carlos III., so named by Cordova. The last is separated from UUoa Peninsula 
by St. David's Sound, which is navigable throughout. 

To the northward of Whale Pointy the eastern extremity of Carlos III. Island, 
is a cove with an anchorage, in 15 fathoms, close to the shore, on a steep bank, 
but bad ground. 

To the westward of Cape Middleton, of Narborough, is Muscle Bay, having 
deep water, and of uninviting character. Cordova describes it to be a mile wide, 
with unequal soundings, from 12 to 40 fathoms, stones. The bay is not to be 
recommended, although it appears to be well sheltered. 

Choiseul Bay, and Nash Harbour, on the Fuegian Coast, are not in the least 

Whale Sound, also on the Fuegian shore, at the back of Ulloa Peninsula, is a 
large inlet, trending 8 miles into the land, and terminating in a valley bounded 
on each side by high mountains. There is anchorage only in one place, the West 
side of Last Harbour ; and, although this harbour appears large, the anchorage 
is small, and close to the shore. 

St. David's Sound separates Carlos III. Island from Ulloa Peninsula. At its 
North end the water is deep, but where it begins to narrow, there are sound- 
ings in it. 


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The JEROME CHANNEL connects those singular inland lakes, the Otway 
and Skyring Waters, with the Strait of Magalhaens. In the old charts, this 
continuation is called Indian Sound, and was 6rst explored by Capt. FitzRoy, 
in an open boat, in May, 1829 ; but the difficulties, and the short time employed, 
did not suffice to make a complete survey. In a subsequent voyage, however, 
this was remedied. The chart will give a sufficient notion of these two large 
inland lakes, which, as they are of no importance to the general navigator, we 
shall not further describe. For the particulars of the primary exploration, see 
Capt. King's Narrative, &c., pp. 214—236. 

On the West side of the Jerome are two coves, Wood Cove and Seal Cove, 
that may be used with advantage by small vessels. On the eastern shore, the 
bights, Three Island Bay and Coronilla Cove, appeared to be commodious. 

The West shore of Otwat Water affords several convenient anchorages. 
Off Point Villiers, lat. 53° 9', at a quarter of a mile from the shore, there are 
from 10 to 30 fathoms ; and this depth decreases in advancing more northerly. 
There is anchorage all across the N.E. part of the Water, in from 5 to 20 
fathoms, the bottom of sandy mud. 

Inglefield and Vivian Islands, at the West end of the Water, are low, but 
thickly wooded. An isthmus, 6 to 10 miles across, separates the Otway Water 
from the strait near Elizabeth Island. From an elevated station oyn the North 
side of FitzRoy Channel, this narrow neck appeared to be low and much occu- 
pied by lagoons. The South shore of Otway Water is formed by high land, with 
three deep openings that were not examined. Brunswick Peninsula, a mass of 
high mountainous land, is the most southern extremity of the continent. 

In lat. 52^ 40' and Ion. 71J° West, is the East entrance of FitzRoy Channel; 
it forms a communication between the Otway and the Skyring Waters, and takes 
a winding course to the N.W. for 11 miles, which is easily navigated. A strong 
tide running during the neaps at the rate of 5 or 6 miles an hour, in the entrance, 
and 2 or 3 in other parts, sets through it, six hours each way. The rise and fall, 
however, were scarcely distinguishable. 

Skyring Water is 10 leagues long from East to West. Its shores are low. At 
the western extremity two openings were observed to wind under a high castel- 
lated-topped mountain (Dynevor Castle), which were supposed by Capt. FitzRoy 
to communicate with some of the sounds of the western coast. Through Euston 
opening, the southern one, no land was visible in the distance ; but on a sub- 
sequent examination of the termination of the Ancon sin Salida of Sarmiento by 
Capt, Skyring, no communication was detected. 

Crooked Reach. — In the navigation of this part Wallis and Carteret suffered 
extreme anxiety ; and no one that has read their journals would willingly run 
the risk of anchoring in any port or bay on its southern shore. The chart will 
show several inlets deep enough to induce any navigator to trust to them ; and, 
probably, for small vessels, many sheltered nooks found, but they have 
all very deep water, and when the wind blows strong down to Long Reach, they 
are exposed to a heavy sea and a furious wind. 

The anchorage of Borja Bay within the Ortiz Islands (the Island Bay of 
Byron) is so much preferable, that it alone is to be recommended. Both Capt. 


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Stokes and Capt. FitzRoy speak highly of it in their journals ; it is snug and 
well sheltered, and tolerably easy of access,* but in a gale, like its neighbours, 
the anchorage is much incommoded by the williwaws, which " drive the ship from 
one side to the other, as if she were a light chip upon the water. "t Capt Fitz- 
Roy says, ''Let me recommend Borja Bay as an excellent, although small 
anchorage ; wood and water are plentiful ; under the coarse upper sand is a stiff 
clay, like pipe-clay. Avoid the islet oiF its West side as you go in or out."t 

As this is an anchorage that may be much used, Capt. Stokes's account of it is 
also subjoined. 

*^ BoRjA Bat is situated on the northern shore of Crooked Reach, 2 miles to 
the eastward of Cape Quod. Its position is pointed out as well by the islet 
off its West point, as by its situation with respect to El Morion^ the helmet- 
shaped point, previously called by the Eoglish, St. David*s Head, The entrance 
to the bay is to the eastward of the largest islet, and presents no dangers ; all 
the islets and shores of the bay may be approached to half a cable's length, even 
to the edge of the kelp. The only difficulty that impedes getting into the bay 
arises from the baffling winds and violent gusts that occasionally come ofF the 
mountains and down the deep ravines which form the surrounding coast, and the 
utmost vigilance must be exercised in beating in under sail to guard against their 
effects. The anchorage is perfectly sheltered from the prevailing winds, the 
westerly and south-westerly gales, and is open only to south-easterly winds, which 
very rarely blow here, and still more rarely with violence ; and as the holding 
ground is good (small stones and sand) and the depth of water moderate (14 
to 16 fathoms), and any fetch of sea prevented by the narrowness of the strait 
in this part, the greatest breadth being only 3 miles, it may be pronounced a very 
good mnd secure harbour. The best plan is to anchor with the bower, and 
steadied to the shore by a hawser or kedge. No surf or swell obstructs landing 
anywhere ; good water and plenty of wood are easy to be embarked ; the trees, a 
species of beech, are of considerable size. The shores are rocky, and the beach 
plentifully stocked, as indeed are all parts of the strait to the eastward, with 
barberries and wild celery."§ 

Byron anchored in Borja Bay, as did also Carteret, in the Swallow,\\ The 
former gives a plan of it, and calls it Island Bay. He attempted to anchor in it, 
but was prevented by the strength of the tide.lT 

Capt. Stokes describes the Morion, or St. David's Head, to be a lofty granitic 
rocky of which the outer face is perpendicular and bare, and of a light gray colour, 
distinguishable from a considerable distance both from the East and the N.W., 
and forming an excellent leading mark to assure the navigator of his position. 

Narborough thus describes Cape Quod: — '' It is a steep-up cape, of a rocky, 
grayish face, and of a good height before one comes to it : it shows like a great 
building of a castle ; it points off with a race from the other mountains, so much 
into the channel of the strait, that it makes shutting in against the South land, 
and maketh an elbow in the streight."** 

• Capt. Stokes says, " Very confined, and rather difficult of accesB."— iSrin^> 1^4, 

t FItzRoy M.S. % FitzRoy M.S. ^ S^H?lr^C;rouKh, p 70 

» Hawkesworth, vol. i. p. 896. % HawkeJworth. vol. i. p. 68. • • Narborougn, p. 70. 


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At not a league to the eastward of Cape Quod, and a good distance from the 
North shore, in the fairway for working round the cape, is a rock of 9 feet least 
water, but shows itself by the weeds on it. 

Abreast of Gape Quod, Capt. Stokes tried and found the current setting to the 
eastward at IJ knots an hour. 

Snowy Sounds a deep inlet, unimportant to the navigator, and not worth any 
person's while to enter, excepting for anchorage in a cove at about a mile, and in 
another at 2 miles, within its western head. 

Barcelo Bay, the first to the West of Cape Quod, seems to be large and 
incommodious, and strewed with small islets. Osomo Bay follows, and, 
according to Cordova, has very deep water all over. Next, to the westward, 
is Langara Bay. It trends in for about a mile to the N.E., and has 10 to 12 
fathoms, stony bottom. It is more sheltered than the two former bays. 

Posadas Bay is, most probably, Wallis's Lion Cove. Its western point is 
formed by a high, rounded, and precipitous headland, resembling, in Capt. 
Wallis's idea, a lion's head ; and although Cordova could not discover the 
likeness, yet it is sufficiently descriptive to point out the bay, were the anchorage 
worth occupying, which it is not. Wallis describes it to have deep water close 
to the shore ; his ship was anchored in 40 fathoms.* 

Arce Bay, Cordova describes it to have anchorage in from 6 to 17 fathoms, 
stones. It divides at the bottom into two arms, each being half a mile deep. 
The outer points bear from each other W.N.W. and E.S.E., half a mile across. 

Flores Bay is, probably, Wallis's Good Luck Bay. Cordova describes it to 
be very small and exposed, with from 6 to 20 fathoms, stones and gravel. At the 
bottom is a rivulet of very good water. 

Villena Cove has from 15 to 20 fiathoms, and is very open and exposed. 

Then follows Guirior Bay. It is large, and open to the South, and probably 
affords good anchorage in coves. Cordova describes it to extend for more than 
a league to the North, the mouth being 2 niiiles wide. Its West Point is Cape 
Notch, which will serve to recognise it. 

From the above description of the bays between Capes Quod and Notch, 
occupying a space of 12} miles, none seem to be convenient or very safe. The 
best port for shelter, for a ship, is Swallow Harbour, on the opposite shore : but 
small vessels may find many places that a ship dare not approach, where eyery 
convenience may be had ; for if the water be too deep for anchorage, they may 
be secured to the shore at the bottom of the coves, where neither the swell nor 
the wind can reach them. 

Swallow Harbour is l^ miles to the westward of Snowy Sound. It is a better 
anchorage for ships tlian any in the neighbourhood. The plan of it is a sufficient 
guide, the dangers being well buoyed and pointed out by kelp. It was first used 
by Capt. Carteret, in the Swallow ; and Cordova gives a short description of it. 

The bay to the westward of the island is Condesa Bay. It is full of islets and 
rocks ; and the channel behind the island, communicating with Swallow Bay, is 
very narrow. 

♦ Hawkeswortb, vol. 1. p. 399. 


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At about a cable's leugth off the West point of the entrance of Swallow 
HarbouFy Capt, FitzRoy saw a rock just awash. This danger should be carefully 

Stuart's Bay Is less than a league from Swallow Bay. Of this place Capt. 
Stokes makes the following remarks : — ** Stuart's Bay afforded us a quiet resting 
place for the night, but it is by no means to be recommended as an anchorage ; 
for though it is sufficiently sheltered from wind and sea, yet the rocks in different 
parts of it render the passage in or out very hazardous ; every danger in it is 
pointed out by rock- weed, but it is so much straitened as to require the utmost 

The account in Cordova is as follows : — 

'' Stuart's Bay (La Bahia de Stuardo) follows Condesa Bay. It has an islet, 
besides several patches of kelp, an indication of the many rocks that exist. Even 
the best channel is narrow and tortuous; the depth from 12 to 16 fathoms, 
stones. At the bottom is an islet, forming two narrow channels leading into a 
port or basin, 2 cables' length wide ; the eastern channel is the deeper, and has 
15 to 20 fathoms. Inside the basin, on the East side, the depth is 6 and 9 
fathoms, mud. A reef extends for half a cable's length to the westward of the 
South end of the islet. It would be difficult and dangerous to enter this small 

Then follows a deep and extensive channel, of which we know only that it 
extends to the South for 5 or 6 miles, and, perhaps, is very similar in its termi- 
nation to Snowy Sound. It is Sarmiento's Snowy Channel. f 

At this part of the strait the breadth is about 2^ miles ; but, at Cape Quod, it 
scarcely exceeds 1^ miles. The shores are certainly much less verdant than to 
tbe eastward of Cape Quod, but not so dismal as Cordova's account would make 
them appear to be ; for, he says, " As soon as Cape Quod is passed, the strait 
assumes the most horrible appearance, having high mountains on both sides, 
separated by ravines entirely destitute of trees from the mid-height upwards." 
To Capt. King it appeared that the hills were certainly much more bare of 
vegetation above, but below were not deficient ; the trees and shrubs, however, 
are of small size. For the purposes of fuel abundance of wood is to be obtained. 
In the winter months the hills are covered with snow, from the summit to the 
base; but in the month of April, when the Adventure passed through, no snow 
was visible about them. 

Capt. Stokes remarks that the mountains in this part (Cape Notch) spire up 
into peaks of great height, connected by singularly sharp, saw-like ridges, as bare 
of vegetation as if they had been rendered so by the hand of art. About their 
bases there are generally some green patches of jungle, but upon the whole 
nothing can be more sterile and repulsive than this portion of the strait. This 
account of Capt. Stokes agrees with Cordova's; but upon examining the coves, 
we found them so thickly wooded with shrubs and jungle and small trees, that 
it was difficult to penetrate beyond a few yards from the beach. 

Cafe Notch, on the North side, is a projecting point of gray-coloured rock, 

• Cordova, p. 147. t Sarmlento, p. ^^' 


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about 650 feet high, having a deep cleft in its summit. It is a conspicuous 
headland, and cannot be mistaken. 

The next place to the westward of Cape Notch that can be recommended for 
an anchorage is Playa Parda Cove^ which is well sheltered, and, for chain 
cables, has a good bottom, being of sandy mud, strewed with stones ; it is half a 
mile wide at the entrance, and about a quarter deep. 

Playa Parda Cove is easily known by Shelter Island^ that fronts the inlet of 
Playa Parda. The inlet is 1 J miles long, and half a mile broad, but with very 
deep water all over. By luffing round the island, a ship will fetch the anchorage 
in the cove ; and although sail should not be reduced too soon, yet the squalls, 
if the weather be bad, blow down the inlet of Playa Parda with great violence. 
Anchor a little within, and half- way between the points of entrance, at about 1 J 
cables from the middle point, in 5J and 6 fathoms. 

Opposite to Playa Parda is a deep opening, which has more the appearance of 
a channel, leading through the Tierra del Fuego, than any opening to the 
West of the Barbara. It is evidently the inlet noticed by Sarmiento.*" On the 
seaward coast there is a deep opening behind Otway Bay, which, probably, 
may communicate with it. 

The weather here is generally so thick, that, although the distance across be 
only 2 to 3 miles, yet one shore is frequently concealed from the other by the 
mist; on which account Capt. Stokes found it impossible to form any plan of 
this part of the strait, on his passage through it. It is, however, a bold coast on 
each side, otherwise the strait would be utterly unnavigable in such weather. 

Marian* s Cove^ 1 J miles to the West of Playa Parda, is a convenient anchorage ; 
at the entrance it is about one-third of a mile wide, and more than half a mile 
deep. In entering, the West side should be kept aboard. 

This cove is about midway between Cape TEtoile and Playa Parda ; and is a 
very advantageous place to stop at. 

Opposite to Cape TEtoile is a bay, with anchorage in 17 fathoms, in a well- 
sheltered situation. From Cape TEtoiie to the entrance of the Gulf of Xaultegua, 
the shore is straight and precipitous, and the hills are barren and rocky. On the 
opposite shore there are a few inlets, but the most useful one for the navigator is 
Half Port Bay, rather more than a league to the East of Cape Monday. It is 
immediately round the South side of a deep inlet. It is merely a slight indenta- 
tion of the coast, but is an excellent stopping place ; the anchorage is within 
two-thirds of a cable's length of the West point, in 16 fathoms, muddy bottom. 
The situation of this cove was ascertained by observation to be in lat. 53^ 1 1' 36' 
and Ion. 73° 18' 41" W. (or 2° 20' 56" West of Port Famine). 

** The land on the S.W. side of the anchorage is high, and thickly wooded from 
its summit to the water's edge. On the eastern side it is lower, the vegetation 
more scanty, and the trees crooked and stunted, and pressed down to the N.£. 
by the prevailing winds. S.W. by W. from the anchorage is a remarkable cleft 
in the summit of the high land, from which a narrow strip cleared of jungle 
descends to the water's edge, apparently formed by the descent of a torrent or of 

• Sarmiento, p. 206. 


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large masses of the rock.* The anchorage is well sheltered from prevailing 
breezes, and the holding ground is good : water and fuel are abundant." 

There is an anchorage under Cape Monday for small vessels, in which Byron 
anchored, t and rode out a heavy gale of wind. With the exception of a shoal 
in midway of the entrance, on which there are 4 fathoms, it seems to offer good 
shelter from the prevailing winds. On the West side of Cape Monday is 
Cordova's Medal Bay (Puerto de la Medalla), of which a very full but florid 
description is given in the appendix of that voyage.} 

It has, according to the description, an island in the entrance which forms two 
channels, the easternmost of which is only deep enough for boats, but the western 
is 25 fathoms wide ; it is strewed half way across with kelp ; but between the 
kelp and the island is a good and clear passage with 6 fathoms, sandy bottom. 
In the kelp there are not less than 4 fathoms, and inside it the depth is 9, 8, and 7 
fathoms, sandy bottom. To enter this port there are no dangers that are not 
visible, and those are easily avoided ; they consist only of the islet in its entrance, 
and some patches of kelp, over which, however, there is plenty of water. 

The Gulp ov Xaultegua, improperly called Bulkeley's Channel, is a deep 
opening, trending into the land in an easterly direction for 28 miles, and 
approaching within 2 miles of some of the inlets on the N.W. side of Indian 
Sound. The entrance is about 4 miles across, but afterwards expands to a width 
of nearly 15 miles. At the entrance is St. Ann's Island, between which and the 
South point is a navigable channel, half a mile wide. St. Anne's Island is about 
2 miles long, and extends in a W.N.W. and E.S.E. direction; off its N.W. end 
is an islet, and there is another close to its S.W. extremity. 

The land forming the North side of the strait, between the Gulf of Xaultegua § 
and the Jerome Channel, is called Croker Peninsula. 

Should a ship be so unfortunate as to make a mistake and get into it, she 
inust keep under weigh until she gets out again. There is no thoroughfare, — 
(FitzRoy's Journal.) 

Little has been said of the tides in this part of the strait, and, indeed, as to 
tbeir rise and fall they are really of no importance, being little more than 4 feet. 
It is high water, at full and change, in all parts within a few minutes of noon. 
The current sets constantly to the eastward with more or less strength. 

Between Elizabeth Island, within the Second Narrow, and the western end of 
Long Reach, there is very little swell. In a heavy gale, or perhaps even a 
strong breeze, a short sea may be experienced in the wider part of the strait, 
particularly near and to the westward of Cape Froward ; but nothing to be com- 
pared to the confused, breaking swell that runs in the Sea or Western Reach. 
It was felt by the Beagle when beating to the westward, immediately on reaching 
Cape Providence. There seems to be no danger for vessels beating through the 
strait hereabouts, the shore being bold-to. Byron passed a night, and a very 

• More probably by the effect of a gust of wind, which to the eastward, particularly in the 
Gabriel Channel, is very commoo. 

t Hawkesworth, vol. i. p. 73. X Ultimo Viage, Appendix, p. 49. 

S The name of Xaultegua is from Sarmiento, who very correctly desortbes it.— 5armt«i*o, 
p. 208. 



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tempestuous one, here ; as did also the Beagle^ the latter not being able to find 
anchorage before night. 

A league to the westward of Cape Monday is an inlet, which we suppose to be 
Sarmiento's Puerto Angosto. Upon its West head is a conspicuous round 
mount, and to the North, between the mount and a projecting point, is a con- 
fined but very snug and commodious cove for a small vessel, in 17 fathoms,' 
at a quarter of a mile within the head. 

In Upright Bay the anchorage, though aiSbrding excellent shelter from the 
prevailing winds, is bad with a southerly one ; for the steepness of the bottom 
requiring a vessel to anchor close to the shore, sufficient scope is not left for 
veering cable. 

Cape Upright bears due South, 5 miles from Cape Providence. It has a rocky 
islet a quarter of a mile off its East extremity, surrounded by kelp, which also 
extends for some distance from the cape towards the islet, at the end of which 
there are 7 fathoms. (At 3 leagues West of the cape, and some distance from the 
shore, is a reef.) 

Cape Providence is a rugged rocky mountain, higher than the adjacent coast ; 
it is deeply cleft at the top, and, when bearing about North, the western portion 
of its summit appears arched, the eastern lower and peaked. When the cape 
bears E. by S. mag,, distant about IJ leagues, a little round rocky islet will be 
seen open of it, about a quarter of a point of the compass more southerly.* — 
(Stokes's MSS.) 

The distance from Cape Providence to Cape Tahar is 9^ miles ; in this space 
the land arches inwards, and forms a bay about 1 J leagues deep. Capt. Stokes 
describes the coast to the East of Cape Tamar to be formed into two large bights 
by the land of Cape Providence. On the western side of the latter are several 
islands, of which two are conspicuous ; they are round and of a good height, and 
well wooded ; at a distance their form is conical, the eastern being the lowest. 
Between them is a passage to two good anchorages, which Lieut. Skyring, who 
examined them, considered even more sheltered than Tamar Harbour. 

Four miles to the eastward of Cape Tamar is Round Island, to the N.W. of 
which is a well-sheltered anchorage, but with deep water. In standing in, pass 
midway between Round Island and an island to the westward, which lies close to 
the shore, and haul round the latter to the mouth of a cove, in the entrance of 
which, near the South shore, there are 23 fathoms, sand. The shore to the 
North and N.E. of Round Island is very rocky. On the East side of the 
promontory of Cape Tamar, is the useful and excellent anchorage of Tahar 
Harbour. It is scarcely 2 miles wide, and rather more than half a mile deep. 
Its entrance is not exactly free from danger, but, with attention to the following 
directions, none need be apprehended. There is a sunken rock between a group 
of rocky islets, one-third over on the western side, and a patch of kelp one-third 
towards the eastern side of the bay. With a westerly wind it would be advisable 

* There are some anchorages on the right, to the N.E. of Cape Providence, according to a plan 
given in Hawkesworth's Collection of Voyages, but they are too much out of the way, as well as 
very open and exposed to southerly winds, to be of use, or to offer any security to vessels bound 
through the strait. 


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to give the outer rock a berth of 2 cables' length to avoid this danger, on which 
there are only d feet of water, and upon which the Beagle struck. 

An excellent leading mark for this shoal is a whitened portion of bare rock, 
looking like a tombstone, about one- third of the way up the green side of the 
mountainous land that forms the coast of the bay. This stone bears W. by N. I N. 
(by compass) from the rocks to be rounded on entering the anchorage. 

The least water found among the kelp on the East side of the channel was 4J 
faithomsy and near and within the edge towards the rocky islets there are 7 
fathoms ; so that with the lead in hand, and a look out for kelp, which should 
not unnecessarily be entered, there is no real danger to be apprehended. 

High water at full and change takes place in Tamar Harbour at 3^ 5', and the 
perpendicular rise and fall are 5 ieet. 

The flood tide on this part of the northern shore of the strait sets to tbe 
eastward, and rarely exceeds half a mile an hour. At this part the strait is 7 miles 
wide ; at Cape Philip, to the westward, the breadth increases to 5 leagues ; but 
at Cape Parker it narrows again 4 leagues, which breadth it keeps to the end. 

To the westward of Cape Tamar is Tamar Island. It is high, and is separated 
from the land of the cape by a deep channel from half to I mile wide. Half a 
mle off its S.W. end is a rock. 

Between Capes Tamar and Philip, a space of 4 leagues, there is a deep bight, 
with two openings ; the easternmost, in which are Glacier and Icy Sounds, 
extends to the N.£. for 10 miles from the mouth, and the westernmost is the 
commencement of Smyth's Channel. 

Under the lee (the N.E.) of Cape Philip is SholVs Bay, in which the Beagle 
anchored in 1827. Of this place Capt. Stokes writes: — *' We found there an 
excellent anchorage in 15 fathoms. It is valuable for vessels working through 
the strait to the westward, inasmuch as, from the discontinuous nature of the 
northern shore (which here is formed into deep bays), this place will be much 
more easily recognised than the anchorages on the opposite coast ; besides the 
winds hang here, in general, somewhat to the northward of West, hence a better 
starting place for the westward is obtained. Here, as in every anchorage on the 
strait, water and fuel are easily procured ; but nothing more, unless we except the 
wild berries {berberU, sp,), celery, mussels, and limpets ; the wild goose abounds, 
but its nauseous taste renders it uneatable. No inhabitants, no quadrupeds." 

Of the coast of the strait on the South side, between Cape Upright and 
Valentine Harbour, we know very little ; there are several deep bights and 
spacious bays, which may contain anchorage, but, in general, they are not found 
in the large harbours, which are mostly deep, precipitous chasms, or ravines in 
the rock. The smaller coves, or where the land shelves down to the sea, are 
more likely to afford anchorages. 

In the appendix to Cordova's work are descriptions of some anchorages which 
it may be useful to mention here : it says, " In rounding Cape (lldefonso) Upright 
we found ourselves in a bay, not very deep, 2 miles across, divided in its centre 
by many islets and rocks extending to the North ; the outer or northernmost of 
which bears West from the extremity of the cape. One mile N.W. i N. from 
the northernmost islet is a round rock, which is of dangerous approach. 


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To the westward of this bay is another, 3 miles wide, and about as deep ; the 
whole of it, particularly towards the eastern part, is full of islets, and at the 
bottom is a narrow canal trending to the S.S.E. At the western end of this bay, 
called by Wallis the Bay of Islands, from the number it contained, commences a 
third, which, with the two preceding, make the great bay, called by the Indians, 
according to Sarmiento, Alquilqua. It is contained between Gape Upright and 
a bold projecting point, 10 miles to the W.N.W., called Point Echenique. The 
country is there described to be poor, and the vegetation scanty. 

The eastern point of the Third Bay has a string of islets extending a mile to 
the North ; and to the S.W. are several others. On its East side is a bay called 
Cuaviguilgua ; and a little beyond it, at the bottom of the bay, is Port Uriarte, 
the mouth of which is 2 cables* length across. 

Port Uriarte was carefully sounded, but the bottom is generally bad and 
stony, with 5, 8, 14, to 18 fathoms. The harbour is surrounded by high moun- 
tains, rising vertically, and with only a few stunted trees on the shores. Its 
greatest extent, which is from North to South, is half a mile ; the mouth is not 
visible until close to it : its bearing from Gape Providence is S.W. | S. There is 
no danger in entering it but what is visible ; but it is not recommended as a good 
harbour, from the foul ground all over it. A little to the eastward also of Point 
Echenique is Gape Santa Gasilda, a low point. 

To the West of Point Echenique is a harbour 2^^ miles wide, the points of 
entrance bearing N.W. and S.E. There is an island in the centre forming two 
channels, but with very deep water, no ground being found with 55 fathoms. At 
the bottom is a canal, trending to the S.S.W., and disappearing between the 
mountains. On the eastern side of the island the channel is at first a mile wide, 
but afterwards narrows gradually: the western channel is scarcely 2 cables' length 
across. The shores are high, precipitous mountains. The Indians, according to 
Sarmiento, call the place Puchachailgua. 

The Canal de la Tempestad (or Stormy Ghannel), from the description, is not 
to be recommended. The water is very deep all over, and the place affords no 
security for vessels of any description. To the westward is a better harbour, 
which the Spanish officers thought to be Sarmiento's Port Santa Monica. It 
bears S.S.W. from Gape Tamar, and it is 14 miles to the westward of Cape 
Upright, but not more than 3 leagues according to Sarmiento's account. 

Two-thirds of a mile to the westward is a point, with two islets off it ; round 
which is Point Churruca, a deep and spacious bay, 2 miles wide, the points 
bearing E.S.E. and W.N.W., containing two ports and some coves, but with 
very deep water, and therefore useless, for it would be necessary to make fast to 
the rocks to secure a vessel. 

To the westward of this is a useful cove, Darby Cove^ in which small vessels 
may obtain good shelter. 

From Darby Cove the coast extends to the W.N.W. for 7 miles, having in the 
interval several indentations, but all with deep water ; at Paint Felix^ the land 
trends deeply in to the S.W., and forms a bay 5 miles wide and 2| deep. At its 
western side is Valentine Harbour, in which the Beagle anchored, which seems 
to be commodious and secure, and of easy approach. On hauling round the 


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island, there are some islets half a mile off, which must be avoided, but otherwise 
there seems to be no dangers. 

The aDchorage, as a stopping place, is in from 20 to 26 fathoms, sand, at nearly 
a quarter of a mile from either shore : a more sheltered situation may be obtained 
to the S.W. 

Cape CuevaSj the extremity of an island that is close to the shore, is in lat. 
52° 53' 19*, and Ion. 74° 21' 22". 

There is plenty of wood and water in Truxillo Bay, but nobody will visit it in 
preference to Tuesday Bay^ or, rather, the more convenient anchorage of Tuesday 
Cove, situated three-quarters of a mile South of Cape Cortado. The anchorage 
is in 12 to 14 fathoms. Tuesday Bay is larger, and, therefore, more exposed to 
the squalls ; but for a ship, perhaps, might be more convenient. 

On the North shore of the strait, opposite to Cape Cortado, is Cape Parker, 
a remarkable projection, with three hummocks on the summit of the high land 
which rises over it. To the eastward the coast trends deeply in to the North, 
forming a bay, the eastern head of which. Cape Philip, bears N.E. by £. 9 miles. 
There appeared to be several islands in the bay, and at the bottom a narrow 
opening, perhaps a channel, leading to the North. 

On the West side of the bay the coast is indented, and affords some anchorages, 
but the approach is not clear. The first bay, however, to the eastward of the 
S.E. trend of the cape, seems to afford a good stopping place ; but it is fronted 
by a considerable shoal, with two rocky islets; the depth is from 7 to 22 fathoms. 

The land of Cape Parker will probably turn out to be an island. To the 
westward oi it commences a range of islands, rocks, and shoals, fronting a 
broken coast that should never be approached but for the purpose of discovery 
or seal-fishery. The easternmost island is Westminster Hall,* a high, rocky 

Sir John NarborougKs Islands consist of eight or ten principal islands, and, 
perhaps, hundreds of smaller ones. Behind them there seemed to be a channel ; 
and amongst them are several anchorages, but none to be recommended, espe- 
cially when on the South coast there are two or three much better, much safer, 
and of much easier access. 

It is a dangerous coast, as well from the immense number of rocks, upon which 
the sea breaches very high, as from the tides, which near the edge of the line of 
thoals set frequently in amongst them. '' The coast about our unsafe anchorage 
was as barren and dismal looking as any part of this country, which, as Sir John 
Narborough says, is * so desolate land to behold.' "—(King, 80.) 

A league to the westward of Cape Cortado, on the South side, is Skyring 
Harbour. There are some islands in it, and anchorage might be obtained in 
27 fathoms. 

At 3J miles from the West point of Skyring Harbour is the East head of the 
Harbour of Mercy (Puerto de la Misericordia of Sarmiento,f Separation Harbour 
of Wallis and Carteret), one of the best anchorages of the western part of the 
strait, and being only 4 miles within Cape Pillar, is very conveniently placed for 

• Narborough, p. 77. Samiento, p. 182- 

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a ship to aDchor at^ to await a favourable opportunity for leaving the strait. 
There is no danger in entering. The depth is moderate, 12 to 14 fathoms, and 
the holding ground excellent, being a black clay. A ship may select her 
position ; but the one off the first bight round the point being equally well 
sheltered, and much more convenient for many purposes, is the best berth. 

CAPE PILLAR is 3 miles to the westward of the largest Observation Islet. 
<< At daylight, on November 25th, 1829, we made Gape Pillar right ahead 
(E.N.E. by compass), distant 7 or 8 leagues. The wind became lighter, and we 
were set by a current to the S.W., which obliged us, in nearing the cape, to alter 
our course from E.N.E. to N.N.E., to avoid being carried too near the Apostle 
Rocks. A dangerous rock, under water, on which the sea breaks, lies half a mile 
more towards the North than either of the Apostles. Gape Pillar is a detached 
headland, and so very remarkable that no person can fail to know it easily.^'— 
(Gapt. FitzRoy, Voy. Adv. and Beagle^ vol. i. p. 360.) 

The extremity of Gape Pillar is in lat. 52° 42' 53", and Ion. 74° 43' 23" ; and 
Gape Victory in 52° 16' 10", and 74° 54' 47". These points form the western 
entrance of the strait. 

The evangelists, as they were named by the early Spanish navigators, 
but The Isles of Direction by Narborough, from their forming a capital leading 
mark for the western mouth of the strait, are a group of rocky islets, consisting 
of four principal ones, and some detached rocks and breakers. The islands are 
very rugged and barren, and suited only to afford a resting place or breeding 
haunt of seals and oceanic birds. There is landing on one of the islands, and 
anchorage round them, if necessary. The largest and highest may be seen, in 
tolerably clear weather, from a brig's deck, at the distance of 7 or 8 leagues. 
The southernmost, from its shape called the Sugar Loaf, is in lat. 52° 24' 18", 
and Ion. 75° 6' 50". From the Sugar Loaf, the extremity of Gape Pillar bears 
N.W. J N. mag. 23| miles ; and from Gape Victory, according to Gapt. Stokes's 
survey, S. by W. | W. mag, 11 miles. 

The tides here are very variable, and sometimes set to the E.N.E. towards the 
rocks that front Gape Victory and Sir John Narborough's Islands. The times of 
high water at the different points will be found in the tables. 


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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS .*— The Coast of Tierra del Fuego from Cape 
Horn to Cape Pillar is very irregular and much broken ; being, in fact, com- 
posed of an immense number of islands. It is generally high, bold, and free 
from shoals or banks ; but there are many rocks nearly level with the surface of 
the water, distant 2 and even 3 miles from the nearest shore, which make it very 
unsafe for a vessel to approach nearer than 5 miles, excepting in daylight and 
clear weather. The coast varies in height from 8 to 1,500 feet above the sea. 
Further inshore are ranges of mountains always covered with snow, whose height 
is from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, and in one instance (Sarmiento) 5^000 feet. 

With daylight and clear weather a vessel may close the shore without risk, 
because the water is invariably deep, and no rock is found which is not so marked 
by sea-weed (or kelp, as it is generally called), that by a good look out at the 
mast-head, its situation is as clearly seen as if it were buoyed. 

Viewing the coast at a distance, it appears high, rugged, covered with snow, 
and continued, — as if there were no islands. When near you see many inlets, 
which intersect the land in every direction, and open into large gulfs or sounds 
behind the seaward islands. 

You now lose sight of the higher land, which is covered with snow throughout 
the year, and find the heights close to the sea thickly wooded towards the East, 
though barren on their western sides, owing to the prevailing winds. These 
heights are seldom covered with snow, because the sea winds and the rain melt it 
soon after it falls. 

Opposite to the eastern valleys, where the land is covered with wood, and water 
is seen falling down the ravines, good anchorage is generally found. But these 
valleys are exposed to tremendous squalls, which come from the heights. The best 
of all anchorages on this coast is where you find good ground on the western 
side of high land, and are protected from the sea by low islands. It never blows 
so bard against high land as from it, but the sea on the weather side is of course 
too formidtible, unless stopped by islets.f 

• These observations are by Capt. FitzRoy, 1830. 

f The lee side of high land, CSapt. King remarks, is not the best for anchorage in this country. 
When good holding can be found to windward of a height, and low land lies to ^^"f ™^ ,®^ 
yoo, safficient to break the sea, the anchorage is much preferable; «>eca^w« *^? ^*'=** *!Jj!^"2[l 
and does not blow home to the heights. Being to leeward of them is like being on me we«« 
•ide of Qibraltar rock when it blows a strong levanter. 


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Where the land is chiefly composed of sandstone or slate, anchorages abound ; 
where of granite, it is difficult to strike soundings. 

The difference between the granite and slate or sandstone hills, can be dis- 
tinguished by the former being very barren and rugged, and of a gray or white 
appearance ; whereas the latter are generally covered with vegetation, are dark 
coloured, and have smoother outlines. These slate or sandstone hills show few 
peaks, and the only rugged places are those exposed to wind or sea. 

SOUNDINGS extend to 30 miles from the coast. Between 10 and 20 miles 
from the land the depth of water varies from 60 to 200 fathoms, the bottom 
almost everywhere a 6ne white or speckled sand. From 10 to 5 miles distant the 
average depth is 50 fathoms ; it varies from 30 to 100, and in some places no 
ground with 200 fathoms of line. Less than 5 miles from the shore the soundings 
are very irregular indeed, generally less than 40 fathoms, bat in some places 
deepening suddenly to 100 or more : in others a rock rises nearly to, or above, 
the surface of the water. 

After carrying 50, 40, 30, or 20 fathoms, towards an inlet which you are 
desirous of entering, you will probably find the water deepen to 60 or 100 fathoms 
as soon as you enter the opening ; and in the large sounds, behind the seaward 
islands, the water is considerably deeper than on the outside.* 

There is a bank of soundings along the whole coast, extending from 20 to 30 
miles from it, which appears to have been formed by the continued action of the 
sea upon the shore, wearing it away and forming a bank with its sand. 

Between the islands, where there is no swell or surf worth notice, the water is 
deep, and the bottom very irregular. 

A small ship may run among the islands in many places, and find good 
anchorage ; but she runs into a labyrinth, from which her escape may be difiicult, 
and, in thick weather, extremely dangerous. 

FOGS are extremely rare on this coast, but thick rainy weather and strong 
winds prevail. The sun shows himself but little ; the sky even in fine weather 
being generally overcast and cloudy. A clear day is a very rare occurrence. 

WINDS. — Gales of wind succeed each other at ^short intervals, and last 
several days. At times the weather is fine and settled for a fortnight, but those 
times are few. 

Westerly winds prevail during the greater part of the year. The East wind 
blows chiefly in the winter months, and at times very hard, but it seldom blows in 

Winds from the eastern quarter invariably rise light, with fine weather ; they 
increase gradually,— the weather changes, — and at times end in a determined 
heavy gale. More frequently they rise to the strength of a treble-reefed topsail 
breeze, then die away gradually, or shift to another quarter. 

* " I have heard Capt. FitzRoy remark, that, on entering any of these channels from the enter 
coast, it is always necessary to look oat directly for anchorage ; for further inland the depth soon 
becomes exti-emely great. Capt. Cook, in entering Christmas Sound, had first 37 fathoms; then 
40, 60, and, immediately afterwards, no soundings with 170. This structure of the bottom, I 
presume, roust arise from the sediment deposited near the mouths of the channels by the opposed 
tides and swell ; and likewise from the enormous degradation of the coast rocks, caused by an 
ocean harassed by endless gales."— Dartdn, pp. 866-7. 


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From the North the wind always begins to blow moderately, but with thicker 
weather and more clouds than from the eastward, and it is generally accompanied 
by small rain. Increasing in strength, it draws to the westward gradually, and 
blows hardest between North and north-west, with heavy clouds, thick weather, 
and much rain. 

When the fury of the north-wester is expended, which varies from 12 to 50 
hours, or even while it is blowing hard, the wind sometimes shifts suddenly into 
the S.W. quarter, blowing harder than before. This wind soon drives away the 
clouds, and in a few hours you have clear weather, but with heavy squalls passing 

In the S.W. quarter the wind hangs several days (generally speaking), blowing 
strong, but moderating towards its end, and granting two or three days of fine 

Northerly winds then begin again, generally during the summer months ; but 
all manner of shifts and changes are experienced from North to South by the 
West during that season, which would hardly deserve the name of summer, were 
not the days so much longer, and the weather a little warmer. Raia and wind 
prevail much more during the long than the short days. 

It- should be remembered that bad weather never comes on suddenly from the 
eastward, neither does a S.W. or southerly gale shift suddenly to the northward. 
S.W. and southerly winds rise suddenly and violently, and must be well considered 
in choosing anchorages, and preparing for shifts of wind at sea. 

The most usual weather in these latitudes is a fresh wind between N.W. and 
S.W., with a cloudy, overcast sky. 

Much difference of opinion has prevailed as to the utility of a barometer in 
these latitudes. Capt. FitzRoy says, that during 12 months' constant trial of a 
barometer and sympiesometer (Adie's), he found their indications of the utmost 
value. Their variations do not of course correspond to those of middle latitudes, 
but they correspond to those of hi^ northern latitudes in a remarkable manner, 
changing South for North (East and West remaining tlie same). 

CURRENT.— There is a continual current setting along the S.W. coast 
of Tierra del Fuego, from the N.W. towards the S.E. as far as the Diego 
Ramirez Islands.* From their vicinity the current takes a more easterly direc- 
tion, setting round Cape Horn towards Staten Island, and off to seaward to 
the E.S.& 

Much has been said of the strength of this current, some persons supposing that 
it is a serious obstacle in passing to the westward of Cape Horn, while others 
almost deny its existence. 

It was found to run at the average rate of a mile an hour. Its strength is 
greater during West ; less, or insensible, during easterly winds. It is strongest 
near the land, particularly near the projecting capes or detached islands. 

• '* An oar wa§ picked np near the watering place at Desolation Bhrbour, on 1 1th Dec, l«29, 
•nd recognised by one of the men as the same which was left on a rock near Cape Pill«J ^™ 
Observation Cove) by Capt. Stokes, in January, 1827. Tliere couW be no ,^«>°^* f '^th «fdi of 
the man's initfols were on the oar: and it is a curious proof of an outset along *°« »?"'»> ""'' 
the strait, near Cape Pillar, and of its continuation along Bhore."— ^in^> ▼«>»• »• P- •'^• 


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This current sets rather from the laDd, which diminishes the danger of 
approaching this part of the coast. 

There is, in fact, much less risk in approaching this coast than is generally 
supposed. Being high and bold, without sandbanks or shoals, its position 
accurately determined, and a bank of soundings extending 20 or 30 miles from 
the shore, it cannot be much feared. Rocks, it is true, abound near the land, 
but they are very near to the shore, and out of a ship's way. 

A line from headland to headland (beginning from the outermost Apostle) 
along the coast will clear all danger excepting the Tower Rocks, which are high 
above water, and steep-to. 

Gales of wind from the southward, and squalls from the S.W., are preceded 
and foretold by heavy banks of large white clouds rising in those quarters, havmg 
hard edges, and appearing very rounded and solid. — (Cumuloni.) 

Winds from the northward and north-westward are preceded and accompanied 
by low flying clouds, with a thickly overcast sky, .in which the clouds appear to 
be at a great height. The sun shows dimly through them, and has a reddish 
appearance. For some hours, or a day, before a gale from the North or West, 
it is not possible to take an altitude of the sun, although he is visible; the 
haziness of the atmosphere in the upper regions causing his limbs to be quite 
indistinct. Sometimes, but very rarely, with the wind light between N.N.W. 
and N.N.E., you have a few days of beautiful weather. They are succeeded by 
gales from the southward, with much rain. 

SEASONS. — It may be as well to say a few words respecting the seasons in 
the neighbourhood of Cape Horn, as much question has arisen respecting the 
propriety of making the passage round the cape in winter or in summer.* . 

The equinoctial months are the worst in the year, generally speaking, as in 
most parts of the world. Heavy gales prevail at those times, though not, perhaps, 
exactly at the equinoxes. In August, September, October, and November, you 
have the worst months in the year. Westerly winds, rain, snow, hail, and cold 
weather, then prevail. 

December, January, and February, are the warmest months ; the days are 
long, and you have some fine weather ; but westerly winds, very strong gales at 
times, with much rain, prevail throughout this season, which carries with it less 
of summer than in almost any part of the globe. 

March is stormy, and perhaps the worst month in the year with respect to 
violent winds, though not so rainy as the summer months. 

In April, May, and June, the finest weather is experienced ; and though the 
days shorten, it is more like summer than any other time of the year. Bad 
weather is found during these months, but not so much as at other times. Easterly 
winds are frequent, with fine, clear, settled weather. During this period there is 

• «* Some penons are disposed to form a premature opinion of the wind and weather to be met 
with in particular regions, judging only iirom what they may themselves have experienced. 
Happily, extreme cases are not often met with ; but one cannot help regretting the haste with 
which some men (who have sailed round Cape Horn with royals set) incline to cavil at and 
doubt the description of Anson and other navigators, who were not only far less fortunate as to 
weather, but had to deal with crazy ships, inefficient crews, and unknown shores, besides 
hunger, thirst, and disease."— i^^2i7oy, p. 126. 


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some chance of obtaining a few successive and corresponding observations. To 
try to rate chronometers by equal altitudes would be a fruitless waste of time at 
other seasons. June and July are much alike, but easterly gales blow more 
during July. 

The days being so short, and the weather cold, make these months very 
unpleasant, though they are, perhaps, the best for a ship making a passage to 
the westward, as the wind is much in the eastern quarter. 

Capt. FitzRoy says that the summer months, December and January, are the 
best for making a passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, though that 
passage is so short and easy that it hardly requires a choice of time. For 
going to the westward, he should prefer April, May, and June. 

Lightning and thunder are seldom known; violent squalls come from the 
South and S.W., giving warning of their approach by masses of clouds. They 
are rendered more formidable by snow and hail of a large size.* 

CATHERINE POINT is the north-eastern extremity of Tierra del Foego ; it 
is veiy low, and of shingle, precisely similar to Dnngeness, upon the opposite 
coast of Patagonia. Between Catherine Point and Cape Orange there is a large 
bay, called by Sarmiento Lomas Bay. The land around it is very low, and the 
space which, in the chart, appears to be water, is chiefly occupied by extensive 
shoals ; some of them are visible at low water. 

Ten miles inshore there is a range of land from 200 to 600 feet in height, and 
extending from Cape Espiritu Santo to the westward. From Point Catherine to 
Cape Espiritu Santo the shore is low. Lying 2 miles northward of that cape, 
there is a reef with shoal water. Cape Espiritu Santo is a steep, white cliff, 190 
fe,et high, somewhat resembling the gable end of a large but low barn. This 
cliff is the termination of a range of rather high land, lying nearly East and 
West, corresponding in height and position to the opposite range, which is 
terminated by Cape Virgins, but not so horizontal in outline. 

The Fuegian shore has many hummocks, and does not show any extent of 
table-land similar to the Patagonian ranges. From Cape Espiritu Santo, cliffs 
from 100 to 300 feet in height extend, but with few breaks, to Nombre Head: 
the land is 300 or 400 feet high, irregularly rounded in outline, quite destitute of 
wood, and, excepting being rather greener, resembling the coast of Patagonia. 

South-eastwaid from Nombre Head extends a low shingle beach, forming a 
spit, behind which is the large Bay of San Sebastian ; an excellent anchorage as 
respects shelter, good bottom, and easiness of access, but without wood, or a 
good watering place, though water may be procured* 

SAN SEBASTIAN BAY is what was formerly supposed to be the entrance 
of the Sebastian Channel, but the non-existence of which was not proved until 
the Adventure passed it on this side in her exploration of the coast in June, 1830. 
The charts of this coast had, with this exception, been tolerably correct. Capt. 
King says :— " Having made (from the South) what I supposed to be Cape 

* See also Cvpi. KteHoy's remarki, in a subsequent chapter, on the pawagB round Cape Horn. 

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Sebastian, and seeing from the mast-bead a large opening to the northward of 
it, similar to that laid down in the chart, with low distant land yet further 
northward, corresponding to the shores of the * Bahia de Nombre de Jesus/ I 
stood on conBdently, thinking how well the chart of this coast had been laid 
down, and regardless of the soundings decreasing as we went on. Seeing, 
however, from the mast-head, what seemed to be a tide ripple, 2 or 3 miles 
distant, I called to the boatswain, who had been much among the tide races on 
this coast, to ask his opinion of it; but before he could get up aloft to me, I saw 
it was but very low land, almost level with the sea, and what I thought the ripple 
was the surf on the beach. Standing on a little further, we had but 7 fathoms 
water, over a bottom of dark muddy sand, with bits of black slate/'* The 
subsequent examination of the bay expunged this channel from the charts. In 
February, 1828, the supposed western entrance between Capes Monmouth and 
Valentyn, was examined (see page 14), and also found to terminate in a deep 
bay, with low land, which, as it afforded neither anchori^ nor shelter, nor any 
other advantage to the navigator, was named Useless Bay. The eastern opening 
was named the San Sebastian Channel by Nodales, in the year 1618; he 
accurately describes the bay, the low land forming the bottom of which he did 
not sect 

Coasting along the shingle spit, the North point of the bay, the depth is not 
more than 10 fathoms, but it deepens suddenly near the S.E. extremity. Within 
the shingle point, which is steep-to, or nearly so, the bottom is uniform, but the 
depth gradually decreasing. 

Westward of this point, called Arenas Point, between it and Cape San 
Sebastian, there is a spacious harbour, secure from all but easterly winds, which 
seldom blow, and never with any strength. There is no hidden danger on the 
North side of the bay; the shingle is steep-to, the shores of the bay shoal 
gradually, the bottom is clean, and the soundings are regular. On the South 
side, off Cape San Sebastian, it is otherwise : a shoal rocky ledge extends under 
water to the north-eastward, and requires a berth of 3 miles ; there is no kelp 
upon it. 

Cafe San Sebastian is a bold, cliffy headland, of a dark colour ; inshore of 
it the land rises to near 1,000 feet above the sea, and becomes more irregularly 
hilly. From Cape San Sebastian a short range of cliff extends, then low land, 
and then another small cliff, off which there is a rock above water, about a mile 
off shore. 

Hence to Cape Sunday the shore is rather low, irregularly hilly, and fronted 
by a shingle beach. Cape Sunday is a prominent headland, of a reddish colour, 
rising 250 feet above the sea ; the shores near it are free from danger until near 
Cape Penas, near which are some dangerous rocks. 

Cafe Penas is not more than 100 feet above the sea ; around it, to a distance 
of 2 miles, there are dangerous rocks ; the sea generally, if not always, breaks 
upon them ; but they should be carefully avoided, especially at night. 

* Nanratiye, &c., vol. i. pp. 457-8. 

t Reladon del Viage, &c,, por B. G. y Gonzalo Nodales, p. 59. 


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The bay lying to the southward of Gape Penas appears to afford anchorage ; 
but the appearance is deceitful, it is shallow and strewed with rocks. The hills 
hereabout are higher, and partially wooded, and the view of the country is 

Capes Santa Inez Medio and San Pablo are high and bold ; they are fronted 
by steep cliflb, 200 or 300 feet in height. Hence to Cape San Diego there is no 
outlying danger ; the water is rather deep near the shore, bat not so deep as to 
prevent a ship anchoring daring westerly or southerly winds. 

The Table of Orozco is a remarkable table-topped hill, about 1,000 feet above 
the sea. Between it and Cape San Diego there are three remarkable hills, called 
the Three Brothers, and the westernmost of these hills is very like the Table of 
Orozco; they are from 1,000 to 1,400 feet in height. 

Continuing eastward along the coast we come to Policarpo Cove, which was 
dignified by the Spaniards with the title of Port San Policarpo, but which was 
found by Capt. King to be so shallow an inlet, that at its entrance, just within 
the heads, there was not more than a fathom of water. From the mast-head it 
seemed like a spacious harbour. From Policarpo Cove to Cape San Vicente 
the distance is 12 miles, nearly East, true. At 5 miles from the former is False 
Cove, and between them are the three hills, called the Three Brothers, before 

Cape Sav Vicente is a rocky point, with low bluffs above it. Between the 
cape and Cape San Diego is San Vicente (or Thetis) Bay, a tolerable anchorage 
during^ liVest or southerly winds, though the bottom is rocky in many places. 
Between the heads, the tides run with great strength ; therefore a ship should 
anchor off a bluff at the West side, and within the lines of the heads, when she 
will have from 6 to 12 fathoms of water, over a coarse sandy bottom, mixed with 
patches of rock. 

Cape SAN DIEGO, the eastern extreme of Tierra del Fuego, is a long, 
low, projecting point. It may be approached close to. There is a rocky ledge 
projecting about 2 miles from the cape, on which are shoaler soundings than 
nearer the cape ; 5 fathoms were found in one spot on it in the Beagle. 

From Cape San Diego the land takes a sudden turn to the South, forming the 
West side of the Strait of Le Maire, which will be presently described. Off the 
N.E. coast of Tierra del Fuego regular soundings extend for many leagues ; and 
good anchorage may be found near the land, on any part of the coast, during 
westerly winds* 

STATEN ISLAND,'^ which was surveyed in 1828, by Lieut. E. N. Kendall, of 
H.M.S. Chanticleer^ is 38 miles in extent from Cape St John to the E.N.£r, and 
Cape St. Bartholomew to the W.S.W. The island is described as extremely 
mountainous and rugged, being composed of a series of lofty, precipitous hills 
(2,000 feet, and some 3,000 feet, in height), clothed nearly to their snowy tops with 
forests of evergreen beech trees, the laurel-like winter's baik, and the holly- 
leaved barberry: these are all evergreens; besides, there are a host of minor 

• Staten Island was so named by Schouten, Jan. 26th, 1616, in honour of the States of Bol and. 
—Journal du MerveUleux Voyage, p. Id. 


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plants. The low ground is extremely swampy and boggy, in many parts a perfect 
quagmire. The writer of this description says that the cold of these regions is a 
fable, and at variance with truth and nature. At Gape Horn, in lat. 66^ S., 
vegetation was in full vigour in May, or the November of their year, and snow 
rarely lies upon the low grounds. In fact, we have sufficient matter to elucidate 
the climate of the South, and to establish its comparative mildness with the North, 
especially if America be taken as the example. The summers of the South are 
by no means warm or hot, nor winters cold ; but to compensate for this, it is the 
region of wind, storms, and rain, perpetual gales and eternal rains : never 24 
hours without rain. It is the court of Eolus. The barometric pressure low, the 
mean being 29.32 inches, — magnetic intensity low, — the winds almost westerly, 
-—electric phenomena extremely rare. 

The CLiMAT£ of Staten Island is remarkably humid, and very few days can 
be passed there, in the course of the year, without rain ; and it is rather remark- 
able that, however fine the weather may have been in the course of the day, 
some rain generally falls at night. Rain, however, is frequent there in all 
seasons of the year, and the sky is generally overcast. Thunder and lightning 
are scarcely known. The temperature may be considered as equally low, and 
varying little throughout the year. Frost is not very severe, nor very common in 
winter. The weather during the summer is cool, but still humid ; and, as a 
general characteristic, may be considered boisterous, unsettled, wet, and dull. 
Vegetation lingers slowly in its summer's bloom, and is not nipped by the 
severity of the winter's frost. 

On the shore, the weather was a few degrees warmer than on board ; and at 
night it was colder. The most retired parts of the island were not frozen. The 
wind is generally from the westward, 9 days out of 10, ranging from S.S.W. to 
N.N.W. Gales from the S.W. prevail during the summer, and from N.W. in 
winter. Easterly winds are most prevalent in the winter months.* 

These are the outlines of the climate, to which great attention was paid on 
board the Chanticleer ^ with the best possible instruments. 

Off the North side of Staten Island is the group of islets called New Year 
Isles. To the S.E. by S. [iS^. by E,] from the latter is an inlet named New Year 
Harhoury about half a mile broad, and extending 3 miles to the S.W., and having 
the depths of 30 to 45 and 20 fathoms. A cluster of islets lie in the entrance, 
and the passage is on the eastern side. Capt. Morrell says,t '* Here you may have 
any depth of water, from 30 fathoms to 5, with a bottom of mud and sand. Its 
shores abound with wood and fresh water. Scale-fish of various sorts may be 
caught with hook and line, and sea-fowls shot in several directions. Fresh green 
celery, in its season, can be had in any quantities, together with some berries of 
an agreeable flavour," 

Next to New Year Harbour, at half a league to the East, is Port Cook, a 
smaller inlet, wherein the late Gapt. Foster erected his observatory. It is sur- 
rounded by very high land, a mountain on ^its western side being 2,070 feet in 

• Mr. Webster :— Voyage of the Chanticleer, vol. i. pp. 129-90. 
t Narrative of Four Voyages, &c, p. 72, 


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height above the level of the sea. The entrance is very narrow, and has a depth 
of only 6 fathoms, but within the depth increases to 16 and 20 fathoms. Lieut. 
Kendall, in his Memoir on Staten Island,* states that this is decidedly the harbour 
most eligible for a ship in want of shelter, from the considerations of its affording 
good anchorage at its entrance, in not too deep water, the greater regularity of 
the prevailing winds, and the facility of communication with the South side of 
the island, by means of a low isthmus separating it from Port Vancouver ^ a shoal 
inlet on that side. 

Cape St. John is the easternmost point of Staten Island. It is high and pre- 
cipitouSy and a heavy tide-rip extends from it 6 or 6 miles to seaward, setting at 
the rate of 6 miles an hour, to the N.N.E. with flood, and S.S.E. with the ebb : 
but the tide sets along-shore, both on the North and South, from East to West, 
from 3f or 4 to 2 or 2| miles an hour. Off Cape St. Bartholomew, the S.W. 
point of the island, the tide-rip, with flood, sets to the S.W., 5 or 6 miles an 
hour. This tide-rip likewise is very heavy, and extends 5 or 6 miles to seaward. 

St. John'i Harbour lies within the promontory of St. John, on the West. It 
is free from danger, surrounded by high land, and its general depths are from 25 
to 20 fathoms, decreasing toward either shore. From the entrance the harbour 
curves in a S.W. direction to the extent of 3| miles, but is little more than half 
a mile broad. The hills of the promontory, on its eastern side, are 800 or 900 
feet in height, and at its bead on the S.W. is a remarkable elevation, now known 
?& Mount Richardson, 

Lieut. Kendall has described this harbour, and says, that it may be easily 
recognised at a distance by Mount Richardson. On nearing it a remarkable 
cliff, like a painter's muller, appears on the eastern shore, which is high and steep. ' 
Allowance must be made, in steering, for the set of the tide^ which at all times 
runs rapidly across the mouth of the harbour ; it is, however, less sensible when 
within the headlands forming the N.W. Bay, in which, in case of necessity, or to 
await the turn of the tide, an anchor may be dropped in from 20 to 30 fathoms. 
The mouth of the harbour is wide, having 25 fathoms in the centre, with a rock 
standing off at some distance from the western point, to which a berth must be 
given. The shores, with this exception, are bold, and immediately within the 
western point is a small bay, where anchorage may be had in 10 fathoms. The 
most sheltered situation is at the head of the harbour, distant 3 miles S.S.W. 
from the entrance, where any depth may be chosen between 20 and 5 fathoms, 
with sandy bottom, and moor with an open hawse to the S.W., from whence the 
gusU that come from the mountains are violent. The wind, anything to the west- 
ward of W.N.W.,or even N.W. outside, will be found to draw out of the harbour 
on nearing its head ; and if at all strong, it will be impossible to beat farther, as 
it follows the direction imparted to it by every ravine in the hill as it passes ; and 
therefore warping will be found the only means of advancement, taking care to 
have bands hj a bower anchor ready to let go, and the cable stoppered at a short 
scope, in the event of the hawsers bdng carried away. A ship may readily heave 
down on a beach of sand at the head of the harbour. 

• Appendix to Mr. WeUter'8 Narrative, p. 258. 

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Wood and water are plentiful, and easily procured ; celery and wild-fowl 
(race-horse or steamer ducks, kelp and upland geese) may also be obtained ; 
and, in the proper season, October, a good supply of penguin's eggs may be 
ensured by haying men in attendance at a rookery about a mile to the eastward 
of the harbour's mouth, whither they could walk along the eastern hills, from the 
yicinity of the Painter's MulUr, and remain to collect daliy the eggs as deposited, 
and secure them until a favourable opportunity is offered of embarking them from 
the foot of the cliff on which the rookery is established. 

The shores of St. John's Harbour are lined with kelp, which is an excellent 
indication of its navigable part, the border of it being almost invariably in 8 
fathoms, and that close to the shore, the depth rapidly increasing toward the 
centre, until near the head' of the harbour, where the depth gradually decreases 
to the beach. 

Westward of Cape Colnett^ or the meridian of 64^ 18', are the small harbours 
named Port Parry and Port Hoppner ; and within New Year Isles, to the West 
of New Year Harbour, is another, Port Basil HalL These are of inferior con- 
sideration, but have been described by Lieut Kendall, as given in the Appendix 
to Mr. Webster's Narrative, before noticed. 

To the southward of Staten Island but little amount of tide is perceptible ; 
there is, however, a remarkable undertow, which renders it dangerous for boats to 
stretch across the mouths of the deep bays, as it is difficult to close again with 
the land, for which reason the sealers invariably follow the circuitous route of 
the shores. 

Mr. Webster, in his copious description of the vegetable productions of Staten 
Island, has noticed the vast masses of sea-weed which entangle the shores. The 
sea teems with it, especially in the rough and open bays, while it is comparatively 
rare in the sequestered creeks. Did it increase in the calm harbours as upon 
the rougher shores, they would be choked up ; and it would form an impervious 
mesh of cords. But it thrives best in the boisterous element ; and where it would 
seem impossible to obtain a hold, it there grows and gathers strength to meet the 

The STRAIT OF LE MAIRE, between Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island, 
was so named from the navigator who discovered it, in 1616. It is said, in the 
relation of Anson's Voyage, that it is difficult to determine exactly where the 
strait lies, though the appearance of Tierra del Fuego be well known, without 
knowing also the appearance of Staten Island ; and that some navigators have 
been deceived by three hills on Staten Island, which have been mistaken for the 
Three Brothers on Tierra del Fuego, and so overshot the strait. But Capt Cook 
says no ship can possibly miss the strait that coasts Tierra del Fuego within 
sight of land, for it will then of itself be sufficiently conspicuous ; and Staten 
Island, which forms the eastern side, will be still more manifestly distinguished » 
for there is no land on Tierra del Fuego like it. The Strait of Le Maire can be 
missed only by standing too far to the eastward, without keeping the land of 
Tierra del Fuego in sight ; if this be done, it may be missed, however accurately 
the appearance of the coast of Staten Island may have been exhibited ; and if 
this be not done, it cannot be missed, though the appearance of that coast be not 


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known.* The entrance of the strait should not be attempted but wiCh a fair 
wind and moderate weather, and upon the very beginning of the tide of flood, 
which happens here, at the full and change of the moon, about 1 o'clock. It is 
always best to keep as near to the Tierra del Fuego shore as the winds will admit. 
By attending to these particulars, a ship may get quite through the strait in one 
tide ; or, at least, to the southward of Success Bay^ into which it would be more 
prudent to put, if the wind should be southerly, than to attempt the weathering 
of Staten Island with a wind and lee current, which may endanger her being 
driven on that island.f 

The Capt of Good Success, in lat. 54° 55', is the S.E. point of the Strait of 
1^ Maire. It is high and bluflP, and some rocks lie close to it, above water. 

Ratlier more than 2 miles north-eastward of Cape Success is a projecting 
headland, which at first appears to be the cape ; two rocky islets show themselves 
cloee to it, and, from a distance, appear like a ship under sail. Six miles from 
these rocks, N. | £., is Good Success Bay, which is visible from the northern 
entrance of the strait. This bay is about 2 miles wide, and extends into the 
land westwardly 2f miles. It may be easily known by a peculiar mark or feature 
on its southern side— a barren strip of land on the height, resembling a broad 
turnpike road extending into the country from the shore. This mark, which is 
mentioned by Cook, is still a good one for the bay, if the inbend of the land does 
not show it sufficiently. The anchorage is good all over it, in from 4 to 12 
^thorns of water, clear ground. Here a vessel lies perfectly safe, provided she 
does not anchor too fiair in, toward the sandy beach at its head ; for during S.E. 
gales, a heavy swell, with dangerous rollers, sets right into the bay. Elevated 
lands, of about 1 ,200 feet above the sea, surround the bay ; therefore, with strong 
winds, it is subject to squalls, which, during westerly gales, are very violent. 

The Bay of Good Success, or Success Bay, is the place within which, in the 
year (January) 1769, Mr. (Sir Joseph) Banks and Dr. Solander found the cold so 
intense, that the latter had nearly fallen a sacrifice to its severity, though in the 
midst of summer. Dr. Solander, who had more than once crossed the mountains 
wbich divide Sweden from Norway, well knew that extreme cold, especially when 
joined with ftitigue, produces a torpor and sleepiness which are almost irresistible: 
lie therefore conjured the company to keep moving, whatever pain it might cost 
them, and whatever relief tliey might be promised by an inclination to rest : 
'' Whoever sits down," said he, " will sleep ; and whoever sleeps will wake no 
more." The doctor, who gave this advice, was the first who yielded to the 
sensation which he had described ; but, by exertion, he was saved : two other 
persons perished in the snow-storm. 

* Monell says— ^' Some mariners have represented it to be difficult to discover the Strait of Le 
Maire ; bat I know that any navigator who Iceepa the land of Tierra del Fuego In sight, cannot 
poasiUy mSss or mistake the strait. The only way, therefore, that such an occurrence could 
take pUce, would be by losing sight of the land, and running too far to the eastward ; which 
sfaould never be done, as there is no danger that can possibly arise from keeping the western 
Bbore OB board. Easterly wUids are never known to blow fi*esh in this part of the world; and 
by hogging the western shore the passage to the Pacific is very much shortened."— iVarr«<«w, 

t Cook's First Voyage, date leth Jan. 1760. If we may judge from the varying deM^riptimiB, 
we may suppoee that the climate has really ameliorated since 1769. Similar remarks nove oeen 
mwSi^ with regvd to the Falkland Islands. 


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Mr. Darwin says : " The harbour consists of a piece of water half surrounded 
by low rounded mountains of clay slate, which are covered to the water's edge by 
one dense, gloomy forest. A single glance at the landscape was sufficient to 
show me how widely diflferent it was from anything I had ever beheld. One side 
of the harbour is formed by a hill about 1,500 feet high, which Capt« FitzRoy 
has called after Sif J. Banks, in commemoration of his disastrous excursion." — 
(Narrative, &c., vol. iii. p. 227 ; 2nd edit pp. 205, 210.) 

Although this is an excellent stopping place for vessels of any size, in which 
they may find wood and water, it will not answer if a vessel requires to lie steady 
for repairs, as a swell frequently sets in. In the winter season, when easterly 
winds are common, no vessel should anchor so near the head of the bay as she 
may in summer. 

The EASTERN SIDE of the. Strait of Lk Maire, already noticed, is formed by 
the very irregular bays and rugged capes of Staten Island : surrounding the latter 
are heavy tide-rips, which extend outward to a considerable distance, and render 
a near approach very dangerous. The Middle Cape lies in lat. 54^ 48' 20", and 
Ion. 64° 42' 30*. This, with Cape St. Anthony, the N.W. cape, and Cape St. 
Bartholomew, the S.W. cape, are high, bluff promontories. 

The soundings in the strait are regular near the southern entrance, 70 to 30 
fathoms, over a sandy bottom ; toward the North the soundings diminish, and 
at 2 miles from Cape St. Diego are not more than 30 fathoms, over a rocky 
bottom. The strait is generally clear, excepting a reef discovered by Captain £. 
Handfield, in passing through in H.M. sloop Jaseur, in 1827, which lies at about 
3 miles West from the Middle Cape. It appeared to be about If miles in extent, 
and the sea broke violently on it. 

The TIDES of Good Success Bay and the Strait of Le Maire are as regular and 
as little to be dreaded as in any part of the world where they run with strength. 
They will materially assist any vessel in her passage through the strait, which is 
very wide, perfectly free from obstacles of any kind, and has Good Success Bay 
close at hand, in case wind or tide should fail. When the tide opposes the 
wind and swell, there is always a heavy, and, for small vessels, dangerous 
" race " off Cape San Diego : in one spot, where the water is more shoal than 
elsewhere, 5 fathoms only were subsequently found at a neap flood tide ; but let 
it be remembered, that on another day, at the top of the springs, being the day 
after full moon, we passed the same spot at half-flood, with the water perfectly 
smooth ; and, although strong eddies were seen in every direction, the vesseKs 
steerage was but little affected by them. It is high water in Success Bay soon 
after 4 in the afternoon on the full and change days, and low water at 10 in the 
morning. The flood tide stream begins to make to the northward about an hour 
after low water ; and the ebb to the southward about the same time after high 
water. The tides rise from 6 to 8 feet perpendicularly. At Cape Pillar, the turn 
of tide, with high water, is at noon ; but along the S.W. and S.E, coast the time 
gradually increases to this coast. From Cape San Diego the flood tide sets 
North and West along the shore, from 1 knot to 3 knots each hour, as far as 20 
miles along the shore, and the ebb in a contrary direction, but not so strong, 
except in San Vicente Bay. The flood in the Strait of Le Maire runs about 2 


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knots in mid-channel, more or less, according to the wind, and the ebb about 
1 knot an hour. Perhaps, at tiroes, when a strong spring tide is retarded in its 
progress by a northerly wind, there will be a dangerous overfall off Cape San 
Diego, like the bores in some parts of the world. 

Capt. Wilkes says : ** I cannot see why there should be any objection to the 
passage through the Strait of Le Maire, as it gives a vessel a much better chance 
of making the passage round the cape quickly. A vessel with the tide will pass 
through in a few hours. As for the ' race and dangerous sea,' I have fully 
experienced it in the Porpoise^ on the side of Staten Island; and am well satisfied 
that any vessel may pass safely through it at all times, and in all weathers, or if 
not so disposed, may wait a few hours until the sea subsides^ and the tide changes. 
We were only three hours in passing through." — (Narrative, vol. i. p. 107.) 

Valehttk Bat is the name applied to the inlet westward of Cape of Good 
Success. Good Success Bay was originally called by this name, but it is trans- 
ferred in the late surveys to the present, which is unfit for vessels, being exposed 
to a heavy swell, and affording but bad anchorage. 

Between this bay and Aguirre Bay, the next to the westward, is the Campana or 
Bell Mountain^ 2,600 feet high, and in shape resembling a large bell. It is seen 
far at sea from the North as well as the South. 

Cape Good Success y as before stated, is high and bluff; and the land between 
it and the Bell Mountain is higher than that to the westward. 

Aguirre Bay is unfit for a harbour except for temporary anchorage, and Spaniard 
Harbour, its N.W. part, proved to be a shallow bay, full of rocks, and dangerous 
reefs lining the shore, and without shelter, although there is anchorage for a 
vessel. The country on the East side seemed level, with here and there low hills, 
whose eastern sides are thickly covered with wood. Some of the (beech) trees 
might afford topmasts or lower yards for a small ship, though perhaps of unsuit- 
able quality. 

The tide is strongly felt on this part of the coast, causing races and eddies near 
the projecting points. In the offing the current (or tide) sets towards the Strait 
of Le Maire, from 1 to 3 knots an hour, when the water is rising on the shore, 
and the wind westerly. While the water is falling, it runs with less strength, 
and with an easterly wind is not felt at all.* 

Westward of Point Kinnaird (on which great numbers of fur-seal were seen from 
the Adventure)^ the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego trends in 
nearly a due West direction, through 6 degrees of longitude; the coast in some 
portions being of that peculiarly straight character observed in many parts of this 
wild region, more particularly in the Strait of Magalhaens. South of this line the 
outer coast is broken into numerous islands, separated from the principal island 
by the Beagle Channel. 

• "On May 11th (1830), we passed through a very daDgerous * tide-race' off Bell Cape. 
There was little or no wind, but it was scarcely poasible to use our oars, so much was the water 
SL«lteted ; it was heaving and breaking in all directions, like water boiling in an immense cauldron. 
When through and again in safety. I was astonished at our fortunate escape. Looking buck upon 
it, only a mass of breakers could be seen, which passed rapidly to the westward, and therefore lea 
me to suppose that this race was caused by a meeting of tides, not by a strong tide passmg over a 
rocky ledge.''— Jlfr. Murray, Vot/affe of the Advcnturey §•<?., vol. i. p. 447. 


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A range of high mountains runs almost uninterruptedly from the Barbara 
Channel, in loo. 72^ 2(y, to the Strait of Le Maire. Mount Sarmiento (p. 14) 
is in this range, and is 6,800 feet above the sea. Mount Darwin is the same 
height, and is near the point where the Beagle Channel separates into two 
branches, diverging to the N. and S. of West. Southward of these ipountains b a 
succession of broken land, intersected by passages or large sounds. A boat can 
go from the Week Islands, S.E. of Cape Pillar, the western entrance of the Strait 
of Magalhaens, to the eastern entrance of the Beagle Channel, without being 
exposed to the outside coast, or to the sea which is there found. 

The BEAGLE CHANNEL was discovered by Mr. Murray in the course of the 
survey of this coast, April, 1830 : — '* The master returned, and surprised me with 
the information that he had been through and far beyond Nassau Bay. He had 
gone very little to the northward, but a long distance to the East, having passed 
through a narrow passage, about one-third of a mile in width, which led him into 
a straight channel, averaging about 2 miles or more in width, and exteiiding 
nearly East and West, as far as the eye could reach. Northward of him lay a 
range of mountains whose summits were covered with snow. On the South side 
of the channel there were mountains of considerable elevation ; but, generally 
speaking, the shore was lower than the opposite.''* 

The Beagle Channel is easy of access, but is useless to a ship. Boats may 
profit by its straight course and smooth water. It runs 120 miles, in nearly a 
straight line, between snowy mountains, as above stated, and averages about 1^ 
miles in width, and in general has deep water ; but there are in it many islets, 
and rocks near them. 

New Island, which lies at the South side of the entrance to the Beagle Channel, 
was observed at a distance by Cook. Good temporary anchorage during westerly 
winds may be obtaioed under it, or near the shore to the northward. 

Lennox Island, as well as New Island, and all the coast hereabout, may be 
approached with confidence, using the lead, and looking out for kelp. There 
are no shoals, but the water is not so deep as to the West of Cape Horn, neither 
is the land near so high. 

At the East of Lennox Island is Lennox Harbour, a very secure place for 
small vessels ; but, as it is rather shallow, ships drawing more than 14 feet of 
water should anchor outside of the entrance, where they would be safe and in 
smooth water, excepting when a S.E. gale blows, with which wind they, in all 
probability, wish to remain at anchor. The soundings are regular in the offing, 
and there is anchoring ground everywhere in the vicinity. Wood and water may 
be obtained in any quantity. Wild fowl and fish are also to be had, but not in 
abundance. The easiest way of getting fish is to give bits of broken glass or 
buttons to the natives, who catch them in the kelp. 

GoREE Road lies between Terhalten Island and the S.E. part of Navarin 
Island ; or rather between Lennox Island and Navarin Island. There is good 
anchorage in it in 6 and 7 fathoms water over a sandy bottom. 

Goree Road, according to Capt FitzRoy, is an excellent place for ships, very 

• Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. i. p. 429. 

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e^isily entered or quitted, and able to farnish wood and water with as little trouble 
as any harbour on the coast. It should be remarked here, that the kelp in 
Goree Road, as well as thai which extends out from Guanaco Point, partly across 
the entrance to the road, does not, as far as we have been able to discover, grow 
upon rock, but upon loose detached stones, and need not be a subject of alarm. 

South of Navarin Island is Nassau Bay, the South side of which is formed by 
Wollaston Island. This bay was given in former charts under the name of 
St. Francis Bay; but the land having been very vaguely represented, it was 
found to be quite distinct from that to the North of Cape Horn Island.* It 
extends to the North and N.W. by the Murray Narrow into the Beagle Channel. 
There is nothing to lead a vessel into these openings, therefore a description of 
them is not necessary. They may prove useful for boats ; and the charts will be 
sufficient guides for this purpose. Nassau Bay is very accessible and free from 
dangers, the only ones being some rocks or islets above water, and visible by 
daylight. Anchorage may be found on either coast. The compasses are very 
sluggish here, and might cause a serious error if not attended to. 

Capt. FitzRoy says : ^' If bound round Cape Horn from the eastward, it might 
be preferable to work through Nassau Bay, and stand out from False Cape Horn, 
instead of making westing in the open sea, as is usually done. There are no 
dangers but those which are shown in the chart ; the water is comparatively 
smooth, and an anchorage may be taken at night. For this purpose, Goree Road, 
or North Road, or Orange Bay may be chosen." 

When it blows too hard to make any way to windward, it is at least some 
satisfaction, by lying quiet, to save wear and tear, and to maintain one's position, 
instead of being drifted to leeward, and perhaps damaged by the sea in the offing. 
There is less current through the bay than in the offing, near Cape Horn. 

The Ev9ut$ Isles y consisting of one principal, with several smaller islets and 
rocks to the South and North, lie off the mouth of Nassau Bay. They are 
similar to the Bamevelts, but rather higher, and the chart is a sufficient description. 
Within them are the Sesambre Isles. 

The Bamevdts Isles are to the South of Evouts. They are two low islets 
lying nearly North and South, covered with grass, tussac, and .weeds. The 
laiigest is about half a mile long, and one-third of a mite wide ; the other is 
about two cables* length square. Several rocks lie off the South end, both to 
the East and West ; and one above water lies detached, towards Hermite Islands, 
nearly in mid-channel. There is no good landing place on the islands. 

The HERMITE ISLES is the group lying southward and eastward of Navarin 
Island and Hardy Peninsula, and of which Cape Horn is the southernmost point. 
The name is given from that of Admiral Hermite, commander of the Dutch fleet,, 
who visited the coast in 1624. The principal island is Wollaston Island, the 
northernmost, separated by Franklin Sound from Hermite and Herschel Islands, 
and these by St. Francis Bay from Horn Island. Wollaston Island was proved 
by Capt. Wilkes to consist of two islands, to the western of which he gave the 
name of Bwly, from the Vice-President of the Royal Society. A harbour 

• Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. i. p. 433. 

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between the two was called Sea-GuU Harbour.* Deceit Island is the eastern of 
the group. The passages between these islands have deep water, and are free 
from dangers ; what few rocks there are show themselves above water, or are 
thickly covered with kelp. 

The bland next West of the Bamevelts is Deceit Island, the southernmost 
point of which is Cape Deceit (or Enganno), the Mistaken Cape of Capt. Cook. 
It is a rocky point, and off it are several rocks all above water ; 2 miles to the 
S.E. is a cluster rising 30 or 40 feet above the sea. Strangers should be careful 
not to mistake it for Cape Horn, for such mistakes have occurred, as its 
name imports. It lies 1 1 miles S. W. by W. from the Barnevelts. 

CAPE HORN is the southernmost point of the southernmost of the Hermite 
Islands. There is nothing very striking in the appearance of this promontory as 
seen from a distance ; but in passing near it is more remarkable, showing high 
black cliffs toward the South, and is about 500 feet above the sea. Its summit 
is in lat. SS"" 58' 40" S., Ion. 67° 16' 10" W. 

Capt. Morrell says : '* Cape Horn may be known by a high round hill over it, 
which has a bold and majestic appearance, being an elevated, precipitous black 
rock, rising above all the adjacent land. The valleys and hill sides in the neigh* 
bourhood of the cape are covered with trees, moss, and green grass ; but the 
summits of the hills are rough and rocky." — (p. 78). No dangers exist to the 
southward in approaching this part ; the islands may be closed without hesitation. 

Cape Hornf was but little known till the late surveys. Capt. Cook said, 
'< In some charts Cape Horn is laid down as belonging to a small island. This 
was neither confirmed, nor can it be contradicted by us; for several breakers 
appeared on the coast, both to the East and West of it ; and the hazy weather 
rendered every object indistinct." The surveying expedition under Capt. P. P. 
King landed on the cape on the 20th of April, 1830, and erected a pile of 
stones, 8 feet high, over a memorial of their visit. 

Off the East point of Horn Island are some small rocks and breakers, and one 
mile to the westward of Cape Horn there are three rocks generally above water ; 
the sea always breaks on them. 

Between Horn Island and Hermite Island is St. Francis Bay, formerly much 
misrepresented on the charts. It is clear of obstruction, and has no other 
dangers than those indicated in the late surveys. 

A strong current sets, at times, along the outer coast of the Hern^te Islands, 
and through the Bay of St. Francis. It varies from half a knot to 2 knots an 
hour, according to the wind and the time of tide ; and, in the bay, changes its 
direction with the change of tide. 

The land of Hermite Island and its vicinity has a most remarkable appearance 
when seen from the South. Its outline is a series of peaks, following each other 
in regular succession, and resembling the worn teeth of an old saw. Mount 
Hyde is made sufficiently distinct by its rounded apex, and by being higher than 

• Narrative of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, vol. i. p. 145. 

t '* Cape Horn was named by Le Maire and Scbouten, in 1616, in honour of the town of 
Horne, or Hoom, in Weet FrieslandyOn the Zuyder Zee, near Amsterdam, of which tlic patron was 
a native."— JVflr^. Austral, de Le Mairc: Surney, vol. ii. p. 130. 


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any land near it. Kater's Peak, 1,742 feet above high water level, is also very 
remarkable in this view, from its conical form and very pointed summit, and from 
being situated at the eastern end of the island.* 

WiowAM or St. Martin's Cove, on the eastern side of Hermite Island, 
westward of Cape Horn, has been described by Capt. Foster, who states that it 
bears from the Cape W.N.W. j W. [N.W. i W.] about 10 miles, and is a place 
of easy access with N.E., East, and S.E. winds. It is open to the East, and may 
be readily found by means of Chanticleer Island^ which lies about a mile true 
East from the South head of the entrance. With westerly winds, which are 
adverse and prevalent, vessels should anchor off the entrance, in about 22 
fothoms, and warp into the cove, where there is a convenient berth in 18 fathoms, 
sandy bottom, midway from either side, and about half a mile from the head of 
the cove. This anchorage is safe, although the gusts of wind in westerly gales, 
whicii are of frequent occurrence at all seasons of the year, rush down the sides 
of the mountains in various directions with impetuous violence, and may be very 
properly called hurricane squalls (williwaws). They strike the ship from aloft, 
and have more the effect of heeling the vessel than of bringing a strain upon the 
anchors, which, when once imbedded in the sandy bottom, hold remarkably well, 
and will cost a heavy heave in weighing. 

Wood and water abound in every part of the cove, but cannot always be 
procured, from the steepness of the shores, and the heavy swell that sometimes 
sets in. The water is highly coloured by the vegetable matter through which it 
percolates; but no other inconvenience from its use was found than that of 
imparting to tea a deeper colour, and somewhat unpleasant flavour. The wood 
was very much twisted and stinted in growth^ and did not seem fit for any other 
purpose than fuel. 

The shores of the cove are skirted with kelp, which serves to protect the boats 
in landing, and amongst which fish also are to be caught with a hook and a line, 
abreast of the rills of fresh water that discharge themselves into the sea. From 
the natives was obtained a knowledge of this most valuable supply, by observing 
them in the act of fishing, which is ingenious : they have a line, and to the end 
18 fastened a limpet, which the fish eagerly swallow, and not being able whilst in 
the water to disgorge it, are thereby drawn to the surface, and taken by the 
hand. In this manner they have been known to catch several dozen in the 
course of a (sw hours : but I am induced to believe that it is only in the summer 
months of these regions that supplies of so salutary a nature can be procured. 
The wild fowl that are most palatable consist of geese and race-horses, called 
steamers by the sealers. Both sorts are well tasted, and were found agreeable. 
They were generally seen among the kelp in the cove about daybreak, but soon 
afterward would depart for their daily places of resort. 

At the head of the cove, and a few feet beyond the reach of high water, 
spring tides, abundance of celery is to be found, as also in many other places in 

* The sarrey of this point now presents the navigntor witli the means of ascertaining his 
position to a nicety, by angles taken with a sextant between Cape Horn summit and Jerdan*s 
Peak, OP Monnt Hyde and Rater's Peak ; and if Jordan's Peak and Mount Hyde be brougbt in a 
line, and an angle taken between them and Cape Horn summit, the operation wUl be vuii more 

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the cove. During two months of the latter part of the autamnal season, a 
sufficiency was daily procured for the use of the ship's company, and although of 
not so luxuriant a growth as in December, it was, nevertheless, considered 
wholesome. Lat. SS"" 51' 20', Ion. 67° 34'. Variation 24° E. High water, full 
and change, 3^. 50'. Rise about 8 feet. It appeared that the flood came in from 
the southward. 

St. Joachim's Cave, to the southward of St. Martin's Cove, is more exposed 
than the latter, but is of easier depth. These coves are separated from each other 
by a steep and precipitous mass of hills of greenstone, which in many parts 
appears to be stratified, the dip being to the westward, at an angle of 40°. The 
whole surface of the hill is covered with stunted beech bushes, thickly matted, 
and interwoven with each other. 

Temporary anchorage may be had in the small bay leading to St. Joachim's 
Cove, or under the South head of St Martin's Cove, where you will find from 
20 to 25 fathoms, over a clear, sandy bottom. 

Port Maxwell is contained between Jerdan Island, Saddle Island, and a 
third island, forming a triangle. It has four entrances ; only two of them are fit 
for vessels — those to the North and East ; the principal one being to the North 
of Jerdan Island. The best berth in it is in 16 fathoms water, over a sandy 
bottom. This harbour is decidedly good, though it requires a little more time 
and trouble in the approach. It is rather out of the way, but is perfectly secure, 
and untroubled by mountain squalls or williwaws. 

The summit of Scuidle Island is composed of large blocks of greenstone rock, 
the ferruginous nature of which has a very remarkable effect upon the compass, 
as, indeed, is found to be the case in many parts near these islands.* This 
island, like the others near it, is clothed with low stunted brushwood of beech, 
berberis, and arbutus ; and on its shores kelp-fish, a very delicate and wholesome 
fish, may be caught. 

Cape Spencer is the southernmost point of Hermite Isladd. It protected the 
surveying vessel very well, both from wind and sea, during an anchorage there. 
Should a ship wish to enter St Martin's Cove, and the wind or daylight fail her, 
she will find this spot a convenient stopping place. The West point of Hermite 
Island is low ; the land at the opposite end of the island high and rugged. 

FALSE CAPE HORN is a very remarkable headland. From the East or 
West it looks like a large horn. It is a leading mark to the best anchorage on 
this coast. Orange Bay. It is the S.E. point of Hardy Peninsula.t 

ORANGE BAY is excellent, on the eastern side of the peninsula, and one of 
the few on this coast which are fit for a squadron of line-of-battle ships. Its 
approach from the sea is as easy as the harbour is commodious. There are 
3 fathoms close to the shore, yet in no part are there, more than 20 ; and every- 

• The block of stone upon which the compaas used by Capt. King was placed (and which is 
now in the mosenm of the Geologrfeal Society) had the effect of causing a deviation of ]S7°, and 
in another instance, in Port Maxwell, the poles of the needle became exactly reversed. The same 
was observed by Weddell, and by the surveyors at Kendall Harbour. 

t Strangers should be careful not to mistake this cape for Cape Horn, for such mfstakea have 
occurred, as the name imports. Off the cape are several rocks, all above water ; and at 2 milea 
to the N.B. is a cluster rising 80 or 40 feet above the sea. 


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where there is a sandy bottom. Water is abundant, and wood grows close to the 
sea; wild fowl are numerous ; and although shell-fish are scarce, plenty of small 
fish may be caught with a hook and line among the kelp, and in summer a sieve 
will furnish abundance. This account is also confirmed by Capt. Wilkes {Nor- 
rative of the United States Exploring Expedition, vol. i. p. 159). 

To anchor in this bay you must pass to the eastward of the False Cape, as 
close as you please. Steering N.E. {true) for 4 miles, will bring you abreast of 
Point Lort ; a bay 2 miles wide is then opened, in which you may anchor, if 
necessary, in 8 or 10 fathoms, over a fine sandy bottom. Some rocks above water 
lie at the North side. Beyond the point which forms the North side of this bay, 
is a small cove, with 18 fathoms water in the middle ; beyond it is another cove 
larger, afler which you open Schapenham Bay (so called by the Nassau fieet)* 
A North course (true) from Point Lort will take you abreast of Orange Bay. 

^hapenham Bay is 1| miles wide ; at its head is a large waterfall, marking a 
rocky bottom, covered with kelp. It is not recommended to anchor in this bay. 

The land behind those coves that have been mentioned is high and rugged ; 
two singular peaks show themselves, which resemble sentry boxes. Near the 
shore the land is low, compared with other parts of the coast. 

From the heights sudden and very strong squalls blow during westerly winds. 
Being generally a weather shore, and regular soundings extending along it, there 
is no. difficulty in choosing or approaching an anchorage. 

Off Orange Bay anchor soundings extend to 2 miles off the land. The 
opening of the bay is 3 miles wide, and in that part are 18 or 20 fathoms, over 
fine speckled sand. Two islands, the larger having a smooth, down-like appear- 
ance, lie in the middle; behind them is the harbour, a square mile of excellent 
anchorage, without a single rock or shoal. The bottom everywhere is a fine 
speckled sand. You may go close to the shore in every part. The best watering 
place is a small cove at the North side, called Water Cove. 

Off the North point are several small islets, which must not be approached too 
closely ; they are, however, out of the way. Six miles N.N.W. of the outer 
anchorage is a curious island, like a castle or a pack-saddle. Orange Bay is 
somewhat open to East winds, but they seldom blow strong, and would be fair 
for ships bound westward. No sea can be thrown in, because of the Hermite 
Islands. There is no current here worthy of notice. The tide rises 6 feet ; high 
water at half-past 3. 

DIEGO RAMIREZ ISLANDS, discovered by the Nodales, in 1619, and so 
named afler their head pilot, are a cluster of great barren rocks, 18 leagues 
south-westward from Cape Horn, which extend N.W. and S.E., 4 or 5 miles. 
The channel between is entirely clear. 

There are three principal isles, and many rocks above water. The centre isle 
is the largest ; it has tussac upon it, but neither wood nor water, and is frequented 
by various oceanic birds. The second in size has a shingle beach, where a boat 
may be hauled up in safety ; and there is enough good water on the East side of 
the same island to supply 30 men. A furious surf breaks on the West shore, and 
sends a spray over the whole island. There is no sheltered anchorage for a vessel. 
The westernmost rock is the highest, and is surrounded by several small rocks, 


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sufficiently elevated for birds and seals. Around the rocks the water is bold 
within a cable's length : and in clear weather a ship may safely run for them in 
the night, by keeping a good look-out. The highest point is about 200 feet above 
the sea. They are quite similar to the Ildefonsos : the top of a ridge of hills 
showing above the water, and broken through by the sea. 

On the East side is a depth of 30 fathoms, with a bottom of fine green sand. 
The tide of flood here runs to the N.E., and apparently to the eastward, among 
many of the main islands. 

Capt. Colnett says that, in general, the birds hereabout resemble the dun crow, 
common in Hampshire in the winter, and which had been seen daily from the 
parallel of the Falkland Islands. 

St. ILDEFONSO ISLES.— These are a group of rugged isleto and rocks, 
above water, bold-to, and within which Capt. Cook passed to the eastward, in 
December, 1774. They extend 5 miles in a N.W. and S.E. direction, are very 
narrow, and the highest and largest is about 200 feet above the level of the sea. 
They have been much frequented by the sealers. Their distance from the nearest 
point of the main is about 20 miles. The passage between them and Diego 
Ramirez is 35 miles wide, and entirely free from danger. 

Capt. Weddell says that the largest isle is not more than a quarter of a mile 
long. On a N.W. or S.E. beariog, the whole appear as two islets only ; but the 
northern one is merely a cluster of detached rocks ; the southern islet is the 
largest and highest, and contains a quantity of tussac on its top, and sea-gull 
rookeries. The Isles have no beaches, and can be landed on only when the water 
is very smooth. Between them is a channel of a mile wide, which, being rocky, 
should not be used. 

Bourchier Bay lies between False Cape and New Year Sound. It offers 
nothing inviting for ships, being a leeward bight, with rocks and islets scattered 
near the shore. 

NEW YEAR SOUND, &c.— To the northward of the Isles of St. Ildefonso, 
the coast of Tierra del Fuego forms the large inlet or strait called New Year 
Sound, for a knowledge of which and its harbours the public is especially indebted 
to Capt. Weddell, who has given a plan of it in his useful volume. Opposite to 
the entrance is an extensive group of isles, of which the central and largest is 
Henderson Isle ; on the East is a smaller, Sanderson ; and on the West, Morton^ 
with a number of islets. A remarkable hill. Mount Beaufoyy on Henderson 
Island, stands in iat. 55'' 36' 15", and Ion. 68° 58'. On the N.W. side of 
Morton Isle is a harbour named Clearhottom Bay ; and at 5 leagues above this, 
on the western side of the inlet, upon the main, is another harbour, named Indian 
Cove ; but the last, Capt. King says, cannot be recommended, as a vessel must 
go far among the islands to reach it, and when there have a bad rocky bottom, 
with deep water, one corner only excepted. For a description of the inhabitants 
hereabout, see Weddell, pp. 172 — 184. 

Clearhottom Bay, on the N.W. side of Morton Island, is an anchorage which, 
by being close \x> the coast, is convenient for a vessel to touch at for wood and 
water. In order to gain this place from sea, bring the easternmost island of St. 
Ildefonso S. } E., and steer N. J W. for Turn Point, the western point of an 


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islet on the parallel West of the harboar. About IJ miles to the E.N.E. of this 
point is the anchorage ; and, at the distance of 3 cables' length from the shore, 
in 22 fathoms of water, bottom of sand and clay, is the most eligible berth for 

Rous Sound and Trefusis Bay^ westward of New Year Sound, do not afford 

Hope Island (of Capt. Weddell) lies off the Wood Islands, and is 6 miles 
S.E. from York Minster. There is no good anchorage among the Wood Islands. 
Passages and broken land lie behind them to the northward. Off Point Nativity 
are two islands and an outlying rock. 

CHRISTMAS SOUND.-— Capt. Cook, on his return from his second voyage, 
December, 1774, entered here; we quote his words: — ''In standing in for an 
opening which appeared on the East side of York Minster, we had 40, 37^ 50, 
and 60 fathoms of water, a bottom of small stones and shells. When we had 
the last soundings, we were nearly in the middle between the two points that 
form the entrance to the inlet, which we observed to branch into two arms, both 
of them lying in nearly North, and disjoined by a high rocky point. We stood 
for the eastern branch (Christmas Sound), as being clear of islets ; and, after 
passing a black rocky one (Black Rock), lying without the point just mentioned, 
we sounded, and found no bottom with a line of 170 fathoms. This was altogether 
unexpected, and a circumstance that would not have been regarded if the breeze 
had continued; but at this time it fell calm, so that it was not possible to 
extricate ourselves from this disagreeable situation. Two boats were hoisted out, 
and sent ahead to tow ; but they would have availed little, had not a breeze 
sprung up about 8 o'clock at S.W., which put it in my power either to stand out to 
sea or up the inlet. Prudence seemed to point out the former ; but the desire of 
finding a good port, and learning something of the country, getting the better of 
every other consideration, I resolved to stand in ; and, as nigbtjeas approaching, 
our safety depended on getting to an anchor. With this view we continued to 
sound, but always had an unfathomable depth. 

^' Hauling up und^r the East side of the land which divided the two arms, and 
seeing a small cove ahead, I sent a boat to sound ; and we kept as near the 
shore as the flurries from the land would permit, in order to be able to get into 
this place, if there should be anchorage. The boat soon returned, and informed 
us that there were 30 and 25 fathoms of water a full cable's length from the 
shore ; here we anchored in 30 fathoms, the bottom sand and broken shells ; 
and carried out a kedge and hawser to steady the ship for the night. 

''The morning of Uie 21st was calm and pleasant. After breakfast I set out 
with two boats to look for a more secure station. We no sooner got round or 
above tlie point under which the ship lay, than we found a cove, in which was 
anchorage in 30, 20, and 15 fathoms, the bottom stones and sand. At the head 
of the cove were a stony beach, a valley covered with wood, and a stream of 

• There is a considerable tJde between Morton Ide and the point neit to Gold-dost We. The 
flood comes from the westward, about 1 knot, or at times 2 knots, an hoar. ^^**"h odd€«t« ♦ 
nearly slack woter, or perhaps there ]s a slight tendency towards the West ; and sucn uf^^^u^ w 
be the case all along this coast from Christmas Soand. — Capt, King, p. 431. 


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fresh water ; so that there was everything we could expect to find in such a 
place, or rather more ; for we shot three geese out of four that we saw, and 
caught some young ones, which we afterwards let go. 

** After discovering and sounding this cove, I sent Lieut. Gierke, who com- 
manded the other hoat, on board, with orders to remove the ship into this 
place, while I proceeded farther up the inlet. I presently saw that the land we 
were tinder, which disjoined the two arms, as mentioned before, was an island, at 
the North end of which the two channels united. After this I hastened on board, 
and found everything in readiness to weigh, which was accordingly done, and all 
the boats sent ahead to tow the ship round the point. But, at that moment, 
a light breeze came in from the sea, too scant to fill our sails, so that we were 
obliged to drop the anchor again, from fear of falling upon the point, and to 
carry out a kedge to windward. That being done, we hove up the anchor, 
warped up to and weighed the kedge, and, proceeding round the point under our 
stay-sails, there anchored with the best bower in 20 fathoms, and moored with 
the other bower, which lay to the North, in 13 fathoms. In this position we 
were shut in from the sea by the point above mentioned, which was in one with 
the extremity of the inlet to the East.* Some islets off the next point above us 
covered us from the N.W., from which quarter the wind had the greatest fetch, 
and our distance from the shore was about one-third of a mile. 

'< Thus situated, we went to work, to clear a place to fill water, to cut wood, 
and to set up a tent for the reception of a guard, which was thought necessary, 
as we had already discovered that, barren as the country is, it was not without 
people, though we had not yet seen any. Mr. Wales also got his observatory 
and instruments on shore ; but it was with the greatest difificulty he could find 
a place of sufficient stability, and clear of the mountains, which everywhere 
surrounded us, to set them up in ; and at last he was obliged to content himself 
with the top of a^ock not more than 9 feet over. 

** Next day I sent Lieuts. Gierke and Pickersgill, accompanied by some 
of the other officers, to examine and draw a sketch of the channel on the other 
side of the island; and I went myself in another boat, accompanied by the 
botanists, to survey the northern parts of the Sound. In my way I landed on 
the point of a low isle, covered with herbage, part of which had been latelj 
burnt; we likewise saw a hut, signs sufficient that people were in the neighbour- 
hood. After I had taken the necessary bearings, we proceeded round the East 
end of Burnt Island, and over to what we judged to be the main of Tierra del 
Euego, where we found a very fine harbour, encompassed by steep rocks of vast 
height, down which ran many limpid streams of water ; and at the foot of the 
rocks some tufts of trees, fit for little else but fuel. 

" This harbour, which 1 shall distinguish by the name of DeviPs Basin, is 
divided, as it were, into two, an inner and an outer one ; and the communicatioa 
between them is by a narrow channel, 5 fathoms deep. In the outer basin I 
found 13 and 17 fathoms of water; and in the inner, 17 and 23 fathoms. Tliis 
last is as secure a place as can be, but nothing can be more gloomy. The vadt 

* Adventure Cove (in which Cook anchored) is the easiest of access, bat it will only hold one 
vessel.— Cap*. JKiv. 

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height of the savage rocks which encompass it deprived great part of it, even on 
this day, of the meridian sun. The outer harbour is not quite free from this 
inconvenience, but far more so than the other ; it is also rather more commodious, 
and equally safe. It lies in the direction of North, 1| miles distant from the 
East end of Burnt Island. I likewise found a good anchoring place a little to 
the westward of this harbour, before a stream of water that comes out of a lake 
or large reservoir, which is continually supplied by a cascade falling into it 

** Leaving this place, we proceeded along the shore to the westward, and found 
other harbours, which I had not time to look into. In all of them is fresh water, 
and wood for fuel ; but, except these little tufts of bushes, the whole country is a 
barren rock, doomed by nature to everlasting sterility. The low islands, and even 
some of the higher, which lie scattered up and down the Sound, are indeed 
mostly covered with shrubs and herbage, the soil of black rotten turf, evidently 
composed, by length of time, of decayed vegetables. 

"I had an opportunity to verify what we had observed at sea, that the 
sea-coast is composed of a number of large and small islands, and that the 
numerous inlets are formed by the junction of several channels ; at least, so it is 
here. On one of these low islands we found several, huts, which had lately been 
inhabited ; and near them was a good deal of celery, with which we loaded our 
boat, and returned on board at 7 o'clock in the evening. In this expedition we 
met with little game ; one duck, three or four shags, and about that number of 
rails, or sea-pies, being all we got. The other boat returned on board some 
hours before, having found two harbours on the West side of the other channel ; 
the one large and the other small, but both of them safe and commodious; 
though, by the sketch Mr. Pickersgill had taken of them, the access to both 
appeared rather intricate. 

^' Having fine pleasant weather on the 23rd, I sent Lieut. Pickersgill in the 
cutter to explore the East side of the Sound, and went myself in the pinnace 
to the West side, with an intent to go round the is>and under which we were at 
anchor (and which I shall distinguish by the name of Shag Island), in order 
to view the passage leading to the harbours Mr. Pickersgill had discovered the 
day before, on which I made the following observations : In coming from the sea, 
leave all the rocks and islands lying off and within York Minster on your larboard 
side; and the black rock, which lies off the South end of Shag Island, on your 
starboard ; and, when abreast of the South end of that island, haul over for the 
West shore, taking care to avoid the beds of weeds you will see before you, as they 
always grow on rocks, some of which I have found 12 fathoms under water ; but 
it is always best to keep clear of them. The entrance to the large harbour, or 
Part Clerke, is just to the North of some low rocks lying off a point on Shag 
Island. This harbour lies in W. by S. (true), 1} miles, and has in it from 12 to 
24 fathoms depth, wood and fresh water.* About a mile without, or to the 
southward of Port Gierke, is, or seemed to be, another, which 1 did not examine. 
It is formed by a large island, which covers it from the South and East winds. 

• Capt. King says Port Gierke is a bad place for any vessel, though quite secure vj^J" in It : 
aecess is difficult, and, from its situation, it is exposed to very violent squalls. Plcke"8 ^o^e 
(named by Cook), as well as Port Gierke, is unworthy of notice as an anchorage. 

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[It is the March Harbour of Capt. King.] Without this island, that is, between 
it and York Minster, the sea seemed strewed with islets, rocks, and breakers 

'' The festival which we celebrated at this place occasioned my giving it the 
name of Christmas Sound. The entrance, which is 3 leagues wide, is situated 
in lat. SS"" 27' S., Ion. 70° 16' W.; and in the direction of N. 37° W. {true) 
from the Isles of St. Ildefonso, distant 10 leagues. These isles are the best 
land-mark for finding the Sound. York Minster, which is the only remark- 
able land about it, will hardly be known by a stranger from any descrip- 
tion that can be given of it^ because it alters its appearance according to the 
different situations it is viewed from. Besides the black rock which lies off 
the end of Shag Island, there is another, about midway between this and the 
East shore. A copious description of this sound is unnecessary, as few would be 
benefited by it. Anchorage, tufts of wood, and fresh water, will be found in all 
the coves and harbours. I would advise no one to anchor very near that shore 
for the sake of having a moderate depth of vrater, because there I generally 
found a rocky bottom. 

^* The refreshments to be got here are precarious, as they consist chiefly of 
wild-fowl, and may probably never be found in such plenty as to supply the crew 
of a ship ; and fish, so far as we can judge, is scarce. Indeed, the quantity of 
wild-fowl made us pay less attention to fishing. Here are, however, plenty of 
mussels, not very large, but well tasted ; and very good celery is to be met with 
on several of the low islets, and where the natives have their habitations." 

Mabch Harbour was so named by Capt. King, who passed the month of 
March, 1830, here in the Beagle^ and built a boat. This harbour might be 
useful to other vessels, its situation being well pointed out by York Minster, and 
affording wood and water with as little trouble as any place in which the Beagle 
had anchored. The harbour is large, with good holding ground, but there are 
many rocky places ; and one rock under water, having only one fieithom on it, 
marked by very thick kelp. The Beagle worked through the narrow passage, 
round Shag Island from Adventure Cove, and into the innermost corner of 
the harbour without using a warp; larger vessels would, of course, be more 
confined, and no vessel of above 500 tons should attempt to enter Christmas Sound. 
The Beagle lay moored in perfect safety here, but her chain cables became 
entangled with the rocks, and were not hove in without much difficulty and delay. 

Waterman Island is soon known by the remarkable heights at its South part. 
The southernmost was named, by Capt. Cook, York Minster. "This lofly 
promontory, viewed from the situation we were now in, terminated in two high 
towers; and within them a hill shaped like a sugar-loaf. This wild rock, 
therefore, obtained the name of York Minster:' Capt. King says (1830), 
" I fancied that the high part of the Minster must have crumbled away since 
Cook saw it, as it no longer resembled *two lowers,' but had a ragged, notched 
summit, when seen from the westward. 

**The promontory of York Minster is a black, irregularly shaped, rocky 
cliff, 800 feet in height, rising almost perpendicularly from the sea. ' It is nearly 
the loftiest, as well as the most projecting part of the land about Christmas 
Sound, which, generally speaking, is not near so high as that further West, but 


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it 18 very barren. Granite is prevalent, and I could find no sandstone. Coining 
from the westward, we thought the height about here inconsiderable ; bat Cook, 
coming from the South Sea, called them '^ high and savage*' Had he made the 
land nearer the Barbara Channel, where the mountains are much higher, he 
would have spoken still more strongly of the wild and disagreeable appearance 
of the coast."* 

The Capstan Rocks are 8 miles West of York Minster, and 5 from Point May. 
They are above water about 20 feet. There are no other dangers to seaward of 
a line from York Minster to the Philip Rocks. These lie off Cape AUkhoolip, 
and are dangerous, though above water, because so far from shore, and so low. 

Cook Bay is the large space between Waterman Island and Cape Alikhoolip. 
Broken land, islets, and breakers, surround and make it unfit for the approach of 
vessels. The entrance to the Beagle Channel (page 52) is in its N.£. part. 

Treble Island, 9 miles N.W. from the Philip Rocks, is remarkable, having 
three peaks, visible from a considerable distance. Near it ^are some straggling 
rocks. Northward of (his is Adventure Passage, clear of danger. 

Gilbert Isle (or rather Islands), on the opposite side, was so named by Cook, 
from his master. It is nearly of the same height with the rest of the coast, and 
shows a surface composed of several peaked rocks, unequally high. At the 
north-eastern side of the eastern Gilbert Isle is Doris Cove, a safe anchorage 
for a small vessel ; the Beagle lay here moored for a week.f To the West 
of the western island are the Nicholson Rocks. 

Cape Castlereagh, the western end of the Stewart Islands, is a high and 
remarkable promontory. Under it is an excellent anchorage, called Stewart 
Harbour. Having three outlets, it may be entered or quitted with any wind, and 
without warping. Wood and water are as abundant as in any other Fuegian 
harbours. The general depth is 6 to 12 fathoms, the greatest 16 fathoms. Two 
rocks, just awash at high water, lie nearly in the middle ; and a rock, on which 
the sea breaks, lies 1 mile West of the middle opening of the harbour. These 
are the only dangers. 

Cape Desolation is the next promontory in passing along the coast. It was so 
named by Cook, " because near it commenced the most desolate country I ever 
saw." It is the South point of Basket Island. It is very remarkable, rugged, 
and with many peaks. 

Leading north-westward from this is Brecknock Passage, which Capt. King 
prefers for entering or leaving the Barbara Channel (to or from the Strait of 
Magalhaens), rather than by passing the Fury Rocks. 

London Island is one of a large group, called the Camden Islands. At its 
East end is a safe anchorage, called Townskend Harbour. The Horace Peaks 
point out its situation. Some rocks, on which the sea breaks violently, lie off the 

• Voyage« of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. i. pp. 407, 411. 

•f- Capt. Cook says : " I have before obeerved that this is the most desolate coast I ever saw ; 
it aeems entirely composed of rocky mountains, without the least appearance of vegetation. These 
mountains terminate in horrible precipices, whose craggy summits spire up to a vast height, m> 
that hardly anything in nature can appear with a more barren and savage aspect tlian the wliole 
of this country. The inland mountains were covered with snow, but those on the 8«^'*J?^%^^.^ 
not. We judged the former to belong to the main of Tierra del Fuego, and the latter lo be 
Ulands so ranged as apparently to form a coast." 


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islands, and near the entrance of Pratt Passage. As there are no sounding in 
less than 50 fathoms after passing these rocks and getting into the passage, you 
must depend on the wind lasting to carry you into or out of the harbour. The 
holding ground is excellent in it ; and though you have tremendous squalls oif 
the high land to the westward, there is no fear of an anchor starting. 

Between London Island and Fury Island is the entrance of the Barbara and 
Cockburn Channels. Rocks show themselves in every direction ; the two clusters 
called East and West Furies being the most remarkable, and these, with the 
others, are much frequented for fur-seal at times. 

The situation of these rocks is accurately given on the chart, but no vessel 
should attempt to pass them without daylight and clear weather ; she must sail 
more by a good eye at the mast-head than by any chart. 

Fury Island lies on the North side ; on its South side is Fury Harbour y a 
bad place, unfit for any vessel. At its North side is a perfectly safe and snug 
anchorage, called North Cove, fit only for small vessels. 

The entrance to the Barbara Channel is pointed out by four remarkable 
mountains. The Kempe Peaks are high and show their points. The Fury 
Peaks are high and divided. Mount Skyring, also described on page 20, is 
most barren, high, and has a single peak.* St. Paul's is similar to, and, in one 
view from near Fury Island, appears very like the dome of the cathedral whose 
name it bears. 

Lieut. Skyring (H.M.S. Beagle) says : " From a summit on Bynoe Island an 
extensive view was obtained of the islands in Melville Sound, as well as of the 
entrance to the Cockburn and Barbara Channels.. Such a complicated mass of 
islands and rocks I never before saw ; to lay them all down correctly would 
occupy a long time. Sufficient, however, was done to take the navigator through 
this labyrinth ; but I am well aware that very much is wanting to complete the 

In the Cockburn Channel the flood tide sets to seaward, but it was not found 
to be of consequence to a vessel in working through. The rise and fall are not 
more than 6, or at most 8 feet, at spring tides. 

Between Kempe Island and Noir Island is the Milky Way^ a span of sea in 
every part of which rocks are seen just awash with, or a few feet above, the 
waters ; on them the sea continually breaks. It is not advisable to pass inshore 
of these. No chart or direction can guide any vessel here. The same observa- 
tion applies to the space as far as Cape Schomberg, on London Island ; daylight 
and a good look-out can be the only guides. 

Noir Island is moderately high, about 600 feet, having a remarkable neck 
of land to the S.W., ended by a rock like a steeple or tower. One mile South 

* Mount Skyring is on the East end of the largest of the Magill Islands. It was ascended in 
the course of the survey (May, 1829). Lieut. SIcyring says : — " We gained the summit after three 
hours' hard travelling. During the last 500 feet of ascent the mountain was almost precipitoas, 
and we had the utmost difficulty in passing the instrument from hand to hand. Its formation is 
remarkable, although, I believe, the same structure exists throughout the hills around. The base 
is a coarse granite, but this solid formation cannot be traced half the height ; above is an immense 
heap of masses of rock, irregularly and wonderfully thrown together, many loose fragments over- 
hanging with apparently very little hold. This station was the most commanding we had chosen 
during the survey. A document referring to the survey was dei>08ited on its summit." 


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of thift point is a sunken rock, over which the sea occasionally breaks ; two other 
breakers are in the bight close to the point.* 

Capt. Cook says : " At 3 o'clock we passed Cape Noir, which is a steep rock, 
of considerable height, and the S.W. point of a large island, that seemed to lie 
detached, a league, or a league and a half, from the main land. The land of the 
cape, when at a distance from it, appeared to be an island disjoined from the 
other ; but, on a nearer approach, we found it connected by a low neck of land. 
At the point of the cape are two rocks, the one peaked, likaa sugar loaf, the 
other not so high, and showing a rounder surface ; and S. by E, (true), 2 leagues 
from the cape, are two other rocky islets.'^ 

There is an excellent roadstead under the East side of Noir Island. Several 
ships may lie there, secure from all winds between North and South by West, 
over a clear sandy bottom. Wood and water plentiful, and easily obtained. 
There is a cove at the South part of the island, where boats would be perfectly 
safe in any weather, but the entrance is too narrow for vessels of any kind. 
Position of Cape Noir, lat. 54° 3(K, Ion. 73° & 40". Variation, 25° East, the 
maximum of variation on this coast. 

The Tower Rocks, two in number, 1 i miles apart, above alluded to by Capt 
Cook, are steep-sided, high, and steep-to ; a ship may pass close to them. 

All the space between Noir Island and the coast is extremely dangerous for 
shipping, being scattered over with very numerous rocks ; still there is room to 
go round Noir Island, and a vessel need not fear being hampered by an East 
wind, in the event of anchoring there. 

The Agnes Islands and Stokes's Bay do not require description. No vessel 
ought to entangle herself in these labyrinths ; in thick weather she would be in a 
most precarious situation. 

The Grafton Islands^ which follow next in succession, are high, and similar in 
character to the rest of the coast. The Wakefield Passage, at the back of them, 
has been used by a sealer, and the land beyond is broken into islets and rocks. 
The Grafton Islands extend about 20 miles in a N.W. direction from Isabella 
Island to Cape Gloucester. Between them are several anchorages, but the best 
is Euston Bay, between Ipswich Island and Cape Gloucester. 

Hope Harbour^ at the East end of the group, is one of those formerly used by 
the sealers. 

£uston Bay is one of the best anchorages on this coast ; one which can be 
approached and left with any wind, without risk, and in which a fleet might lie 
in perfect security from all but the S.E. winds, the least prevalent of any on this 
coast. Cape Gloucester (presently described) is a guide to it. Passing this 
cape, from the northward, you see a high island to the S.E., distant 7 miles ; this 
is Ipswich Island ; rounding this, you must give a good berth to the sunken 
rocks, 1 mile from its S.E. extremity, upon which the sea generally, but not 
always, breaks. After clearing them, pass close to Leading Island, and steer for 

• The island itself is narrow and long, apparenUy the top of a ridge of mountains, and ^«™ed 


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the opening of Laura Basin, which you will see under a high^ peaked mountain, 
and choose your berth by the eye. A large patch of kelp across the mouth of 
the harbour was carefully examined ; the least depth found was 4 fathoms. 
Laura Basin has water enough for a frigate^ but is better suited for a small 
vessel ; large ships should anchor in the bay. 

No place could be more convenient than this for such purposes as wooding and 
watering. Water casks can be filled in the boat, in perfectly smooth water, and 
wood cut close to the water's edge.* 

Cape Gloucester is a very remarkable promontory, and cannot be mistaken. 
At a distance it appears to be a high, detached island ; but on a nearer approach 
a low neck of land is seen, which connects it with Charles Island, the largest of 
the Grafton Islands. A rock (on which the sea breaks) lies nearly 1 mile to the 
N.W., and is the only danger. The cape is steep-to, and may be passed quite close. 

Cape Gloucester shows a round surface of considerable height, and has much 
the appearance of being an island. It lies' S.S,E, J E, true, distant 17 leagues 
from Landfall Island. The coast between forms two bays, strewed with rocky 
islets, rocks, and breakers. The coast appeared broken, with many islets, or 
rather it seemed to be composed of a number of islands. The land is very 
mountainous, rocky, and barren, spotted here and there with tufts of wood. From 
Cape Gloucester, off which lies a small rocky island, the direction of the coast is 
nearly N.W. <r«e.— (Capt. Cook.) 

Breaker Bay lies between Cape Gloucester and the Fincham Islands. " A 
worse place for a ship could scarcely be found ; for, supposing thick weather to 
come on when in the depth of the bay, she would have lurking rocks and islets 
just awash with the water on all sides of her, and no guide to take her clear of 
them, for soundings would be useless, and in such weather the best chart that 
could be constructed could not help her. The land at the bottom of the bay 
appeared to be distant, and much broken. Indeed, from the Week Islands to 
Cape Gloucester (and thence to the Strait of Le Maire) there is an almost 
innumerable succession of islands and rocks, without any continued tract of 
land, so that channels might be found in all directions, valuable, no doubt, to 
Fuegians in their canoes, but not often to seamen in ships, or even to sealers ; for 
where the natives go with their canoes, seals are never found in any numbers." 

The Fincham Islands form the N.W. point of Breaker Bay. There are many 
islets and rocks near. There is no good anchorage, and the coast is very 
dangerous, and unfit to be approached. 

Deepwater Sound runs into the land N.E. of the Fincham Islands. The 
Beagle entered here in December, 1 830, and was obliged to anchor on the end 
of a steep-sided islet, with both anchors, one in 7, the other in 10 fathoms, 
on the rocks, with 40 fathoms under the stern, and no better could be found : 
therefore it ought to be avoided. 

Cape Tate is the extremity of a mountain, the S.E. point of Otway Bay. It is 
rather high, and rounded at the summit ; off it, to the North and West, lie the 
College Rocks. Those nearest the cape are also nearest the track of a ship 

• King, vol. i. pp. 875-6. 


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running along the land ; and half a mile West of them lies a detached and 
dangerous rock, under water. The sea generally breaks on it. 

Otway Bay is the space comprised between tlie Rice Trevor Islands, of which 
Cape Tate is the S.W. extreme, and the Landfall Islands to the North. It is an 
extensive space of water, surrounded by broken land, islets, and rocks. Many 
of the latter are scattered about, and render it unfit for a vessel. It is probable 
that more than one passage exists hereabouts leading from Otway Bay to the 
Strait of Magalhaens, as deep inlets run in that direction as far as the eye can 
reach, but were not examined for want of time. 

Landfall Island was so named by Capt. Cook, in December, 1774. He made 
the land here on his return from his second voyage. There are two principal 
islands, separated by a narrow channel ; they are high, and towards the sea are 
barren ; but the sides of the hiils, towards the East, are thickly wooded. 

Cape Schetkyy the S.£. point, is a remarkable double-peaked height ; some 
rocks, just awash, lie off it, distant 1 mile. 

Cape Inman (so named in compliment to the Professor), the western point, is 
high, with perpendicular cliffs, and almost detached from other land ; so that a 
Tassel, knowing her latitude within 5 miles of the truth, cannot fail to make it 
out, i( the weather be tolerably clear. 

Latitude Bay^ a good anchorage, though somewhat exposed to the swell thrown 
by heavy N.W. winds, lies on the North side of the larger island, at the East end 
of the opening, which separates it from the smaller. The bottom shoals gradually 
from 20 to 5 fathoms, over fine sand, and is sheltered from West winds and 
others (except North). It is remarkably easy of access, and is also easy to leave, 
— ^rather rare qualities in a Fuegian harbour. Cape Inman, being prominently 
situated, is a good guide to the harbour, which can be safely recommended as 
good anchorage for shipping. Wood and water are not to be found so close to 
the anchorage as in other Fuegian harbours, but they may be obtained with very 
little troable, and in any quantity, by going up the passage between the islands to 
one of the many streams which run from the high land. There is plenty of water, 
also, very near the best berth, on the South side ; but frequently a surf breaks on 
that beach. The passage is also a snug berth for a vessel of less than 12 feet 
draught. A vessel should not moor in less than 10 fathoms, as close to the West 
shore as possible, with an anchor to the eastward, in the event of the wind coming 
from that quarter. 

The Week Islands lie next to the northward. At their South side is a road- 
stead, with good holding in 18 or 20 fathoms, coarse gravel and sand, with 
patches of rock. It is exposed to southerly winds, and to those from the West ; 
therefore it is not desirable for a vessel to anchor there. Between the islands is a 
snug berth for a small vessel, quite secure, but difficult of access. 

The eye must be the chief guide in entering most of these places ; tliey are of 
one description — inlets between high land, having generally deep water, with 
kelp buoying the rocky places. Flaws of wind, and violent gusts off the high 
land, render the approach to them di£Bcult, and, to a large ship, impracticable. 

Cape Sunday is the western point of the Week Islands, and the S.W. of Graves 
Island : it is high and prominent. Two islets and two dangerous rocks lie off it. 


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Barrister Bay succeeds. It is an exposed place, full of islets, rocks, and 
breakers. '' In sailing along the coast we passed inside of several breakers, and, 
I hope, noted all that lie in the offing ; but we cannot be sure, for breakers on 
rocks which are under the surface of the sea do not always show themseWes/'— - 
(Capt. FitzRoy.) 

Cape Deseado is the next promontory. Three miles before arriving at it there 
18 an opening, which probably leads into a good harbour behind a number of 
islands ; then the coast is high and unbroken to the cape, which is the highest 
land hereabout, and is remarkable. A rocky islet lies 1 mile ofF shore. 

Dislocation Harbour is 2 miles from Cape Deseado. It was so called by 
Capt FitzRoy, from an accident happening here to Mr. Murray. It is a place of 
fefuge for an embayed or distressed ship, but unfit for any other purpose ; its 
entrance is rendered difficult to the eye, by rocks on which the sea breaks 
violently; and by two rocks under water, on which the sea does not always 
break. In this place water may be obtained very easily, as boats can lie in a 
fresh-water stream, which runs from the mountains. Wood is also plentiful. 
The harbour is large enough for four small vessels. The entrance is narrow, but 
all dangers are visible. It is much exposed to West winds and the westerly 
swell, which might for weeks together prevent a vessel from getting out to sea. 

The situation of Dislocation Harbour is pointed out by the heights, called 
Low and Shoulder Peaks ; they are the most remarkable on that part of the coast, 
and immediately over the harbour. To find the entrance, steer for the peaks ; look 
out for the weather and lee rocks, both several feet above water, the sea breaking 
violently on them ; and when within 4 miles of the shore, you will distinctly see 
the opening from the mast-head. In going in, avoid the two rocks at the 
entrance, and anchor in the innermost part ; only a small ship can get out again 
without a fair wind. 

To the North of Dislocation Harbour is Chancery Point ; and hence to Cape 
Pillar, at the entrance to the Strait of Magalhaens, the land appears high and 
mountainous; southward it seems lower and more broken. Off the shore here 
lie many rocks, on- which the sea breaks violentlyi besides the two clusters called 
the Judges^ which lie off Chancery Point, and the Apostle Roeks^ a little South of 
Cape Pillar. A dangerous rock, under water, on which the sea breaks, lies half a 
mile more to the North than either of the Apostles. Some of these rocks are from 
5 to 50 feet above the water, but many breakers show near them, indicating an 
extensive reef. The outer rock is 4 miles from the land. 

CAPE PILLAR is a detached headland, and so very remarkable, that no 
person can fail to know it easily. Close to the cape are two small rocks, called 
the Launches ; they are not more than 3 cables* length from the shore. The cape 
and the shore on each side are steep-to. Off the cape, at 2 miles* distance, are 
60 and 70 fathoms, fine sand. 

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This portion of the South American coast is a continuation of the singularly 
broken and intersected land so characteristic of these regions. It was partially 
explored by Sarmiento, and also by the officers in the BeaglCy in her surveying 
voyage ; but even this latter is somewhat imperfect, and there are many vacancies 
to fill up before our knowledge of the coast is complete. This, however, is of 
the less consequence, inasmuch as it is likely it will be but very seldom visited, 
and then only by those engaged in particular pursuits. 

The first notice of the intermediate coast between Tierra del Fuego and Peru 
was furnished by a vessel sent in 1539-40, from Seville, in Spain, by D. Gutierre 
de Vargas, bishop of Placentia, under Alonso de Camargo. Of the three vessels, 
one was wrecked in the strait, another returned to Spain without passing the 
strait, and one of the masts of the third was taken out and sent to Lima, where 
it was many years preserved as a curiosity. — (Herrera, 6. 10. 10, &c.) 

The CLIMATE of the coast of Western Patagonia, described in this section, 
is cold, damp, and tempestuous. The reigning wind is N.W. ; but if it blows 
hard from that quarter, the wind is very liable to shift suddenly round to the 
westward, and blow a heavy gale, which raises a mountainous cross sea. These 
westerly gales do not generally last long, but veer round to the southward, when 
the weather, if the barometer rises, will probably clear up. Should they, however, 
back round to the N.W. again, and the barometer keep low, or oscillate, the 
weather will, doubtless, be worse. Easterly winds are of rare occurrence ; they 
are accompanied by fine clear weather; but westerly winds bring with them 
a constant fall of rain, and a quick succession of hard squalls of wind and hail. 

Should a vessel be near the coast during one of these northerly gales, it would 
be advisable for her to make an offing as quickly as possible, to guard against 
the sudden shift to the westward that is almost certain to ensue. The discovery, 
however, of the anchorages of Port Henry, Port Santa Barbara, Port Otway, 
and St. Quentin's Sound, has very much reduced the dangers of the lee shore ; 
and a refuge in either of them will always be preferable to passing a night on this 
coast in a gale of wind. 

The barometer falls with northerly and westerly winds, but rises with southerly. 
It is at its minimum height with N.W. winds, aiid at ite maximum when the wind 
is S.E. The temperature is rarely so low as 40°, excepting in the winter months. 


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At Port Otway, in the Gulf of Penas, the maximum and minimum for 19 days, 
in the month of June, were 51° and 27J°.— (Capt. P. P. King, R.N.) 

At the conclusion of the first chapter (page 38, and also page 68), we have 
given a description of the western entrance to the Strait of Magalhaens, between 
Cape Pillar on the South, and Cape Victory on the North. OIF the entrance is 
the excellent leading mark formed by the Evangelists, or Isles of Direction, very 
clearly indicating the opening of the strait (page 38). 

The following descriptions are principally drawn from those of Capts. P. P. 
King, Stokes, and Skyring, and Mr. Kirke, mate of H.M.S. Beagle, 

Between CAPE VICTORY and Lord Nelson Strait the coast is very much 
broken, and intersected by channels leading between the islands of Queen 
Adelaide's Archipelago ; on the sea coast of which, to the N.N.E. of Cape 
Victory, is a remarkable pyramidal hill, called Diana Peak, which, in clear 
weather, is visible to ships entering the strait. Cape Isabel is a steep, rocky 
promontory, of great height, with a peaked summit, and a sharply serrated ridge, 
having at its base two detached columnar masses of rock. Beagle Island^ lying 
off it, is wall-sided ; but, although tolerably high, is much lower than the land of 
the cape. 

Cape Santa Lucia may be distinguished by a portion of flat table-land, about 
one-third of the altitude of the mountain from which it proceeds, and terminating 
at its outer face with a perpendicular precipice. 

Hie coast between Capes Isabel and Lucia is dangerous to approach nearer 
than 10 miles ; for there are within that distance many sunken rocks, on which 
the sea only occasionally breaks. Some of these breakers were seen to seaward 
at the distance of 5 or 6 miles, as Capt. Stokes proceeded along the coast. When 
he was off Cape Sta. Lucia, whales were very numerous. 

The general aspect of this portion of the coast is similar to that of the most 
dreary parts of the Magalhaenic regions ; bare, rugged, rocky, and mountainous, 
intersected by inlets, and bordered by islets, rocks, and breakers. 

Cape Sta. Lucia is the westernmost point of Cambridge Island, Cape George, 
at the South end, is lower, and forms a bluff point. 

According to Capt. Morrell, *' the ^pace between Cape Sta. Lucia and Cape 
Santiago is a numerous cluster of islands, with deep water all around them. 
There are many reefs and sunken rocks on the seaboard, and also among these 
islands, but their presence is always indicated by kelp, which, as before stated, 
is a good warning. They afford excellent harbours, and also furnish wood 
and water in abundance, and their shores are frequented by hair-seals. Timber 
of almost any description can be had with very little trouble, and the natives 
seldom visit the islands."* 

The San Bias Channel, Duck and Duncan Harbours, the Duncan Rock, and 
other rocks off them, are inserted in the survey from the oral information of the 
master of an American schooner, and probably are very incorrectly laid down. 
Augusta Island and the White Horse were seen by Lieut. Skyring. 

• Narrative of Four Voyage*, ice, p. 98. We have inserted these deecriptioika from Capt. 
Morrell, where the io formation from the survey is wanting. Some of his narratives are evidently 
overdrawn, and we therefore submit these extracts with a caution. 


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Cape Santiago (or St. Jago), the South end of Madre de Dios Archipelago, is 
correctly placed, as are also tlie general direction of the coast to the northward, 
and the summits of the land that are particularized, viz., the opening of West 
Channel, April Peak, Tower Rock, and the bay to the North of it, and Cape 
Three Points, which is the South entrance of the Gulf of Trinidad.* 

The southern portion of the Madre de Dios Archipelago is called by Morrell 
St. Martin's Island ; and the strait, called West Channel in the survey, is 
probably that named by him Byers*s Strait. He says : — *' A ship of any size 
may pass through this strait with ease and safety, as it is clear of danger. On 
the North shore are two fine harbours ; and there is another, which is very com- 
modious, on the S.E. part of the Island of St. Martin, about 5 miles from Cape 
St. Jago. By following the eastern shore of St. Jago, which runs in a N.E. 
direction, this port is easily found. The entrance is plain, and the course of the 
channel is N.W. for about 2 miles, forming a circular basin, completely land- 
locked by a few small islands at its entrance. The depth of water in going in is 
10 fathoms; and within the basin from 5 to 15 fathoms, mud and clay bottom. 
Both wood and water can be procured here with the greatest ease, and a ship 
may heave out with perfect safety on the West side of the basin. "f 

CAPE THREE POINTS, or Tres Puntas,t rises to a lofty rocky mountain, 
nearly 2,000 feet high, the summit being of peaks and sharp serrated ridges, 
with a detached mass of rock of pyramidal form at the base, which shuts iu 
with the land on the bearing of N.N.E. | E. true. The variation here is 20° 58'. 

Port Henry is 3 miles to the N.E. of Cape Three Points. The shore between 
them is lined for nearly a league off with rocks and islets, of which several scores 
might be counted in the space of a square mile ; but they seem to be of bold 
approach, and no dangers probably exist that are not above water, or are not 
shown by kelp. 

Bound to Port Henry a vessel should keep on the South side of the gulf; for 
the northern part is strewed with many rocks, and seemed to be exceedingly 
dangerous. The soundings, also, are irregular, and the bottom is foul and rocky. 

The entrance of Port Henry will be easily distinguished by its sandy beach, 
since it is the first that is observed on the South shore on entering the gulf. It 
is a small, light-coloured beach, with a lowish sandy cliff at the back, and a 
round, rocky, and wooded mount at its western end. The Seal Rocks, also in 
the ofHng, are a good mark ; they bear N, J W, true, 5 miles from the West 
point of the entrance, which is about a mile wide. The channel is bounded on 
each side by low rocks, lying off moderately high, round, rocky islets, that may be 

• Sarmiento, p. 66. t Narrative, p. 99. 

t The discovery of this land is thiw described by Sarmiento : — " March 17, 1679. In 
approacbfng the shore we saw a great bay and gulf, which trended deeply into the land toward 
some snowy mountains. To the South there was a high mountain with three pealu, wherefore 
Pedro Sarmiento named the bay ' Golfo de la Sanctisima Trenidad.' The highest land of the 
three peaks was named ' Cabo de Tres Puntas 6 Montes.' Tliis island is bare of vegetation, and, 
at the water-side, is low and rugged, and lined with breakers; on the summit are many white, 
gray, and black-coloured portions ci ground or rock. Six leagues to the North of Cape Tres 
Puntas is tlie opposite side of the gulf, where it forms a large high mountain, backed to the 
North by low land, and fronted by many islands. This high mountain, which appears to be an 
island from the offing, was called Cabo Primero," 


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approached within I J cables' length. The soundings are from 20 to 26 fathoms, 
on a sandy bottom : afterwards they decrease pretty gradually to the anchorage, 
which is in 9 and 10 fathoms. 

When the sandy beach bears S. by £. | E. mag.^ the fairway of the entrance 
will be quite open ; and a vessel may stand in, keeping the round mount at the 
western end of the sandy beach on the larboard bow, until nearly abreast of it ; 
she may then proceed up the harbour as high as convenient, and select her berth : 
for the ground is quite clear of danger to the line of rock weed, which skirts the 
shores and islets. The depth of water is between 12 and 8 fathoms, and the 
bottom generally of sand and mud. 

In turning in there are some patches of kelp on each side, growing upon rocks 
that watch at high water, which must be avoided. 

As the squalls off the high land are sometimes very strong, it will be advisable 
for a ship to anchor as soon as possible, and warp up to her berth ; which, from 
the smoothness of the water, may be easily effected. 

The inner harbour was named Aid Basin. It is perfectly land-locked, and 
sufficiently spacious to contain a numerous squadron of the largest ships, in 20 
fathoms water, over a mud bottom, and as completely sheltered from the effects of 
wind and sea as in wet docks. At the South side of the basin is a fresh- water 
lake, which discharges itself by a small stream, whence casks might be con- 
veniently filled by means of canvas hoses, and the shores around have wood for 
fuel in abundance ; but, from the lofty surrounding mountains, some rising almost 
perpendicularly to an elevation of 2,000 feet, the thick clouds with which the 
basin is generally overhung, and the dense exhalations that arose from it during 
the rare intervals of sunshine, together with the exceeding prevalence of heavy 
rain on this coast, this place must be disagreeable and unhealthy. Sacb objec- 
tions do not apply to the outer harbours, for while its shores afford shelter, they 
do not obstruct a free circulation of air. It is sufficiently large to affi>rd convenient 
and secure anchorage for five or six frigates. 

It is high water at full and change within a few minutes of noon, and rises 
5 feet. The stream of the tide, however, is very inconsiderable, and never 
exceeds half a mile an hour. The observations for latitude and longitude, &c., 
were made on a rock at the western side of the port. The lat. is 50^ 0' IS"*, 
Ion. 75° ly 6". Variation of the compass, 20° 50^. 

The Gulf of Trinidad separates Wellington Island from Madre de Dios. It 
is nearly 10 leagues long, and from 4 to 8 miles wide. Its South shore, or North 
coast of Madre de Dios, is very much broken, and, probably, contains many 
ports.* None of them were visited excepting for night anchorages. Under the 
East side of Division Island is Port de la Morroj which, with Point Candelaria 
and Port Rosario, are inserted from Sarmiento's account.f 

On the northern shore are two opening-like channels : the westernmost 
probably communicates with the Fallos Channel ; the other, Sarmiento's Brazo 

* This passage throughout abounds with good harbours and exoellent places of shelter. — 
MarrellfP. 101. 
t Sarmiento, p. 82-3. 


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de Norte, or North Arm, appeared to trend under the base of the range of 
mountains, among which Cathedral Mount is a conspicuous object. From the 
entrance of the strait this mountain resembles the spire and roof of a church, and 
is visible for more than 20 leagues. Between the two openings is Neesham Bay, 
in which the Adelaide fonnd a secure anchorage in 1 1 fathoms. There is also 
good anchorage for a small vessel in Windward Bay. 

The gulf meets the Wide Channel at its junction with Concepcion Strait, where 
the channel is contracted by an island to the width of 1 } miles. There are several 
isles and rocks in the gulf, of which the most remarkable are the Seal Rocks, 
before mentioned ; the Van Isles, opposite the Western Channel ; and a group 
of numerous islands extending for a league to the southward of the land to the 
westward of Neesham Bay. On the South shore are also several isles, but they 
are near the coast, and are particularized in the chart. The most remarkable 
is Middle Island, which, with the reef off its S.W. end, is well described by 

Opposite to Cape Three Poifkts is Cafb PRiMERO,t the Sonth point of the 
mountainous island of Mount Corso ; the land of which may be seen, in clear 
weather, from the southward, at the distance of 10 leagues. It forms the visible 
northern termination of the coast line. Viewed when bearing North, or any point 
to the westward of North, its summit makes like a round mount rising con- 
spicuously above the contiguous land, from which a small portion of low coast 
extends for 2 degrees beyond it to the westward. The land of the northern shore 
of the gfnlf makes in mountainous ridges and peaks, the average height of which 
Capt. Stokes estimated to be about 3,000 feet. 

The harbour on the North side of Cape (or Mount) Corso is about 18 miles (13?) 
from it* point, in the direction of N.N.E. f £., being a spacious bay, sheltered 
from all winds, and sufficiently capacious to moor 100 ships of the line. The 
depth of water at its entrance is 40 fathoms ; but on the West and S.W. side of 
the bay are found from 5 to 20 fathoms, sand and mud bottom. — (Morrell, p. 99.) 

The character of the land is the same as that to the southward, bare, rugged, 
rocky mountains, with peaks, and sharply serrated ridges. 

The Island of Mount Corso is separated from Cape Brenton by Spartan Passage. 
For more than a league off Cape Priraero are some extensive reefs : indeed the 
whole Itne of the West coast of Madre de Dios is fronted by rocks, some of which 
are 2 leagues from the shore. There are regular soundings in the entrance of 
the gulf, but the water deepens immediately after passing to the eastward of Port 

PietoH Opening dJi/H Dynely Bay very probably insulate the land that separates 
them, of which Cape Montague is the S.W. extreme. There are some rocks 8 or 
10 miles off the coast to the southward ; but between Cape Montague and Cape 
Dyer they are more numerous : several are from 8 to 10 miles off the shore ; 
many are dry, some are awash, and others show only by the breaking of the sea. 

Parallel Peak, a remarkable mountain, is at the South end of Canipafia 
Island, and was so named by Capt. Stokes, in the Beagle. The South cape of 

t SS'r^'.^Iu; also the Cape of Good Hope of Bulkely and Can^mlngB' NBr«iU.e, p. 110. 


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the island, which is not named in the survey, was called by Morrell, Cape 
Mclntyre. The coast here, in its general appearance, does not differ from that of 
Madre de Dios. 

The West coast of Campafia Island did not appear on the charts previous to 
the survey. Capt. Stokes describes it thus : — " April 9, 1828. Throughout our 
run along the coast this day, we skirted a number of rocky islets, rocks, and 
breakers, lying off shore at the distance of 3 or 4 miles. Some of the islets were 
elevated several feet above the surface of the sea ; others were awash ; and there 
were breakers that only showed themselves occasionally. Along this line the surf 
beat very heavily ; and outside, a long rolling sea prevailed, in which the ship 
was very uneasy. 

*' This line of dangers is not altogether continuous, for there is an opening 
about 2 miles wide abreast of Parallel Peak, to the southward of which is a bight 
(Dyneley Bay), where possibly a harbour may exist ; but, considering the preva- 
lence of heavy westerly gales and thick weather, if there be one, few vessels would 
venture to run for it ; and this line must, I should thiok, be considered as a 
barrier that they ought not to pass. As seal are found on the rocks, vessels 
engaged in that trade might not, perhaps, be deterred by these dangers; but 
every other would give all this extent of coast a wide berth. We ran past the 
breakers at the distance of about a mile, having rocky soundings, from 20 to 23 

'' The termination of the coast line northward was a high rugged island, with a 
small peak at the North end. The extremity of the main land was rather a high 
bluff cape, whence the coast extends southward, with craggy, mountainous peaks 
and ridges, as far as Parallel Peak.''* 

Cape Dyer is in lat. 48° 6', Ion. 75° 34' 30".t At 5 miles W. { S. from 
it is a rocky islet, about 45 feet high> rising like a tower from the sea, called 
by Bulkely and Cumroings, '' The Rock of Dundee" from its similarity '* to that 
island in the West Indies, but not so large ; it lieth about 4 leagues | from the 
southernmost point of land out at sea.''§ This rock is a good mark for Port 
Santa Barbara^ from the entrance of which it bears S.W. {S, W, by W. % W. true)y 
distant 9 miles. 

Port Santa Barbara. — The land about this harbour is similar to that about 
Port Henry. Its shores are rocky, with some patches of sandy beach, but every- 
where covered with trees, or an impervious jungle, composed of dwarfish trees and 
shrubs. The land, in most places, rises abruptly from the shore to mountains, 
some of which attain an altitude of more than 2,000 feet, and are quite bare at 
their summits and on their sides, except in sheltered ravines, where a thick growth 
of trees is found. These mountains, when we could break off specimens, were of 
basalt, with large masses of quartz imbedded in it : but on some parts of the 
shores the rocks were of very coarse granite. || 

At 1 mile to the North of the rock the depth is 23 fathoms, and gradually 

• Narrative, &c., vol. i. pp. 162-3. t It is the Cape Nixon of Horrell, p. 100. 

t There must be a mistake here; it should probably have been 4 miles. 
§ BulJLely and Cummings' Voyage to the South Seas, p. 118. 
)i Narrative, vol. 1. p. 165. 


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decreases on approaching Port Santa Barbara ; in steering for which, as soon as 
Cape Dyer bears South, by compass, you will be close to some rocks, which you 
should keep on your larboard hand. Abreast of this rock, one-eighth of a mile 
off, the depth will be II fathoms. The channel here is I mile wide, but 
gradually narrows on approaching the S.W. end of Breaksea Island; and at 
Wreck Point, the West head of the port, the width is about one-eighth of a mile. 
There are seyeral rocks in this passage, but as the depth is from 6 to 8 fathoms, 
the anchor may be dropped, and the ship warped clear of them, in case of being 
becalmed : calms, however, are of rare occurrence here. 

Breaksea Island* more than 2 miles long, fronts the port, the heads of which 
are three-quarters of a mile apart. In the entrance of the port the depth is 3^ and 
4 fathoms, and gradually decreases to 2 J fathoms, but at the bottom there is a 
basin with 6 and 8 fathoms in it.f This is a very good harbour, and from the 
rare opportunity of anchoring your ship in a moderate depth, is of easy access. 
It is also readily made out by its vicinity to the Dundee Rock, which serves to 
point out its position. 

The West head of the port is in lat. 48° 2' 15*, and Ion. 75° 29^; variation, 
19° 10\ High water takes place at full and change at 11^45' p.m., and rises 
3 to 4 feet {neaps)^ 6 feet springs. 

To the N.E. of Breaksea Island are many straggling rocks. The Beagle having 
entered the port by the western entrance, left it by threading the rocks to the 
eastward, in doing which she had not less than 9 fathoms. 

Between the island and the mouth of the port, the depth is from 6 to 7 fathoms, 
good ground, which renders the entrance and exit very easy. 

Flinn Sound is a deep opening to the eastward of the port; it was not 

Point BynoCy with the group of islands, Bynoe Islands, extending for 2 miles 
off it, is the West head of the Fallos Channel, which was explored for 30 miles 
without offering any interesting feature. 

Fallos Channel probably communicates with the sea by Dynely Bay and 
Picton Opening ; and, beyond the latter, was supposed to communicate with the 
Gulf of Trinidad by the Channel to the West of Neesham Bay. 

The GuAiANECO Islands, 20 miles in extent, are composed of two principal 
islands and many smaller islets ; the westernmost is called Byron Island^ and 
the easternmost Wager Island. They are separated by Rundle Pass, called in 

• •* A large island, on the northern side of the herhour, is an excellent watering place, at which 
caiks may he conveniently filled in the hoats. It is also an object of great natural beauty. The 
hill which forms its western side rises to 700 or 800 feet, almost perpendicularly, and, when 
▼icwed from its base, in a boat, seems stupendous : it is clothed with trees, among which the light- 
gieen leaves of the winter's bark tree, and the red flowers of the fuchsia, unite their tints with 
darker foliage of other trees. This perpendicular part extends to the northward till it is met by 
the body of the mountain, which is arched into a spacious cavern, 50 yards wide and 100 feet 
high, whose sides are clothed with a rich growth of shrubs ; and before it a cascade descends down 
the deep face of the mountain. On the shore were three Indian wigwams, long deserted." — 
Gqft. 8ioke», ^ ^ 

t " In the afternoon we weighed anchor and warped into a berth in the inner harbour, where we 
moored in 8 fathoms. I found, lying just above high-water mark, half-buried in the sand, the 
beam of a large vessel. We immediately conjectured that it had foraied part of th«ui-rated 
Wager, one of Lord Anson's squadron, of whose loss the tale is so well told in the nap«Uves of 
Byron and Bulkely."— Cap*. Sioke8y Voyages of the Adventure and BeagU, voi. i. p. loo. 


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Bulkely's Narrative, the Lagoon ; * on the West side, and at the North end of it, 
is Speedwell Bay.f 

Rwvdle Pass is only a quarter of a mile wide, but perfectly clear in the whole 
extent of its channel, excepting the northern entrance, where it is guarded by 
many detached rocks, which render the entrance to Speedwell Bay rather difficult. 
According to Byron's and Bulkely's Narratives, the situation of the wreck of the 
Wager is near the West end of the North side of Wager Island. Harvey Bay and 
Good Harbour are mentioned by Bulkely. Off the western end of Byron Island 
are some rocky islets ; and its North coast is also very much strewed with them, 
even to a considerable distance from the shore. 

The Guaianeco Islands are separated from the land of Wellington Island by a 
clear, but, in some parts, narrow passage. At its S.W. eud it is contracted by 
rocks to 1 i miles, and at the South end of Byron Island is scarcely a mile broad ; 
afterwards, however, it widens to 2 J and 3 miles. 

Morrell says : ** Among this cluster are many fine harbours ; the land is low, 
and very fertile, clothed with heavy timber, grass, clover, &c. The islands which 
form the North part of the group are much frequented by hair-seals. A variety 
of scale and shell-fish may also be had here with more sport than labour.''^ 

The North part of Wellington Island is Cape San Roman.% It is the West 
head of the Mesier Channel, which opens into Tarn Bay. 

Tarn Bay is about 5 leagues wide. The Ayautau Islands are 4 miles from 
the coast, but the interval is occupied by several rocky reefs, between wbich, 
Lieut. Skyring thought, there seemed to be a << sufficiently clear passage.*' The 
pilot, Machado, in 1769, however, thought differently. || 

The ChanneVs Mouth of the old chart extends in a S.E. direction for 1 1 miles, 
and then divides into two branches ; it is merely deep and narrow arms of the sea, 
running between steep-sided ranges of mountains. The shores are rocky, and 
afford neither coves nor bights, nor even shelter fur a boat, and are perfectly 
unproductive; for no seals or birds were seen, and the shores were destitute even 
of shell-fish. 

Cape Machado, in lat. 47° 27' 35", Ion. 74° 30' 2", is the North head of this 
opening. Two miles off it are two rocks, which Machado carefully and correctly 
describes, as he also does the rocks and breakers which extend off the South head 
for very nearly a league. The Beagle twice occupied an anchorage under the 
Hazard Isles, in the entrance, and on both occasions was detained many days 
from bad weather, with three anchors down. She anchored here in June, 1828, 
and experienced the most horrible weather. Nothing could be more dreary than 
the scene around ; and there is no doubt that the perilous and arduous nature 
of the surveying service here hastened the sad termination of Capt. Stokes's 

Excepting this very bad and exposed anchorage, there exists none in the 
channel. Capt. Stokes describes it to be an extremely perilous anchorage. 
" The anchors," he says, " were in 23 fathoms, on a bad bottom, sand and coral. 
The squalls were terrifically violent. Astern, at the distance of half a cable's 

* Biilkely and Cuminings' Narrative, p. 106. t Ibid. p. 105. 

X Narrative, &c., p. 100. § Agueros, p. 213. || Ibid. p. 210. 


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lengthy were rocks, aad low rocky islet«> upon which a furiouB surf raged, and 
on which the ship must have been ineyitably drivep, if the anchors, of which three 
were down, had started."* 

Between Channel's Mouth and Jesuit Sound the coast is more unbroken and 
low than usual. In lat. 47^ 17' are some reefs, which project 2 miles to sea ; 
behind them there was an appearance of a bight, which may aflford anchorage. 

Jesuit Sounds like CbannePs Mouth, is quite unfit to be entered by any ship. 

Separated by Cheap Channel from tbe main is Xavier Islandff the Montrose 
Island of Byron's Narrative.} It is 1 1 ) miles long, and 4 wide, and is very high, 
and thickly wooded with lofty trees. The only two anchorages which the island 
affords are noticed and named by Machado— the northern one, Por< Xavier: the 
southern, Ignacio Bay,^ The former is by much the better place, being secure 
from prevailing winds, with 17 fathoms at 800 yards from the shore. The South 
end of the bay is a sandy beach, backed by tall beech trees. The shore to the 
South of Xavier Bay, for the first 4 or 5 miles, consists of a high, steep, clay 
cliff, with a narrow stony beach at its base, backed by mountains of 1,200 or 
1,400 feet high, and covered by large and straight-stemmed trees. The remainder 
of the coast, to Ignacio Bay, is low, and slightly wooded with stunted trees ; and 
its whole extent is lashed with a furious surf, that totally, prevents boats from 

Ignacio Bay affords anchorage in 9 fathoms. The western coast of the island 
is lined by reefs extending 2 miles off, upon which the sea breaks high. 

Kell7 Harbour is situated at the bottom of the N.E. comer of the Gulf of 
Penas, in the bay formed between the land of St. Estevan Gulf and Xavier 
Island. It trends inwards in an easterly direction for 8 miles. The land about 
the harbour is high, rugged, and rocky, but by no means destitute of verdure. 
In the interior are lofty peaked and craggy ranges of snow-covered mountains. 
The points of the entrances are 2 miles asunder, are thickly wooded, and 
low, compared with the adjacent land ; their magnetic beanng is N.£. i £. and 
S.W. ^ W. Between them is a channel of from 35 to 40 fathoms deep, over a 
mud bottom, without danger, to a cable's length of the rocky islets that fringe 
the shore for a quarter of a mile off. On approaching the harbour the remark- 
able muddied appearance of the water is rather startling : but the discoloration 
proceeds only from the freshes of the river, and the streams produced from a very 
extensive glacier that occupies many miles of the country to the North. The 
course in is £.S.£. by compass, until in a line between the inner North point, 
and an inlet on the South shore that is fronted by five or six wooded islets. 
Then haul up along the larboard side of the harbour, as close to the shore and 
as far as you please, to an anchorage. The best berth is when the two points 
of entrance are locked in with each other, and within 1} cables of the sandy 
spit that extends off the western end of a high and thickly-wooded island. The 
ground is excellent, and so tenacious, that it was with difficulty that the Beagle 
lifted her anchors. Shelter, wood, and water, however, ar« the only advantages 
offered by the harbour. 

• Voyages of the Adoentiere and Beagle^ vol. i. p. 179. _ 

t Agueroe, pp. 209, 231. X Byron's Narrative, pp. 73, 94, 96. ^ Ag«erw» *» • 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


For knowing Kelly Harbour the glacier is a capital leading mark. It is a 
large field of ice, lying on the low part of the coast, about 2 miles to the north- 
ward of the harbour. The water at the anchorage, at half-tide, was perfectly 
fresh, but was too muddy to be fit for use. 

St. Estevak Gulp. — The entrance of this gulf, which is situated 9 miles 
North of the N.E. end of Xavier Island, is 4 miles wide. Forelitis Peninsula^ 
on the western side, is a narrow tongue of land nearly 5 leagues long. 
The eastern side of the gulf is a long sandy beach, curving round to the N.W., 
towards the entrance of the River San Tadeo, between which and Cirujano 
Island, forming the South (or rather the West) point of entrance, the width is 
less than 5 miles ; and at a league farther to the westward, it is not more than 3 J 
miles across. Here, in the centre, there is a small islet called Dead-tree 

Beyond this is St. QuentirCs Sound, 10 miles deep ;* and, at its N.W. corner^ 
Aldunate Inlet extends in for about 8 miles. St. Quentin's Sound terminates in 
continuous, low land, with patches of sandy beach, over which, among other 
lofly mountains, the Dome of St. Paul's is seen. The shores are thickly wooded 
with shapely and well-grown trees ; the land near the beach, for the most part, is 
low, rising into mountainous peaks ; a little distance in the interior of which, 
some are 1,500 feet high, but they are not craggy. 

St. Estevan Gulf is one of the best harbours of the coast, being easy of access. 
The best anchorage is at about 2 miles above Dead-tree Island, in from 4 to 6 
fathoms, sandy bottom. This will be at 2 miles from either shore, but the 
berth is perfectly land-locked ; if necessary, anchorage may be taken up much 
nearer to it ; and as in all parts of the Sound there is anchorage depth, with a 
muddy or sandy bottom, the advantages offered to shipping would be of great 
consequence in parts of the world more frequented than the Gulf of Pefias. 
Whales were numerous, and seals were also seen.f 

Cirujano Island, above mentioned, is that on which the surgeon of the Wager 
was buried. The island is separated from the extremity of Forelius Peninsula by 
a strait, 1 mile to three-quarters of a mile wide. 

The mouth of the River San Tadeo is easily distinguished on entering the 
gulf, by the sand hills on each side of its entrance, and the bearing of the East 
trend of Cirujano Island, 5. W. \ S, true (by compass S. by W. | W.). A sandy 
beach extends to the East and West of it for many miles ; the land is low and 
marshy, and covered with stumps of dead trees. It has a bar entrance, much of 
which must be nearly dry at spring tides. 

Purcell Island is separated from the land of Forelius Peninsula by a good 
channel, 2 miles wide ; it is moderately high and thickly wooded, and about 
6 miles in circuit. About mid-channel, and nearly abreast of the East end of the 
island, is a rock only a few feet above the water.J The channel to the South 
of the rock is from 18 to 22 fathoms deep, and the bottom sandy. 

Upon the peninsula, opposite the West end of Purcell Island, is an isthmus 
of low, sandy land, scarcely a mile wide; the one over which, it may be 

* Agucros; p. 209. t Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. i. p. 174-5. 

% Byron's Narrative, pp. 149—156; and Agueros, pp. 209, 229, 244. 


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inferred from the Narrative,* the canoes in which Byron and his companions were 
embarked were carried. 

The Beagle anchored in Bad Bay after dark, in 8 fathoms, sandy bottom. 
Of this place^ Capt. Stokes remarks : '' At daylight, we found that we had 
anchored in a small bay about half a mile off a shingle beach, on which, as well 
as on every part of the shore, a furious surf raged that effectually prevented our 
landing to get chronometer sights. The mouth of this bay is N.E. | £. (mag.) 9 
leagues from Cape Tres Montes, which, in clear weather, may be seen from its 
mouth. Like all this shore of the gulf, it is completely open to the S.W., and a 
heavy rolling sea."t 

To the westward, between Bad Bay and the land of Cape Tres Montes, is an 
extensive bight, 16 miles wide, and about 12 deep. The centre is occupied by 
a group of islands called Marine Islands,t upon which the Sttgar Loaf, a moun- 
tain 1,840 feet high, is very conspicuous. It was seen from the Wager the day 
before her wreck.§ Upon the main, 5| miles N. 15^ E. from the Sugar Loaf, is 
another equally remarkable mountain, called the Dome of St. Paul's, 2,284 
feet high. 

Neuman Iklet, at the N.K comer of this gulf, extends for 17 miles into the 
land, where it terminates; but it is of no use, as the water is too deep for 
anchorage. It is the resort of large numbers of hair-seals. At the N.W. comer 
is Hoppner Sound, about 5 miles in extent. At its S.W. end is a deep inlet, 
extending 7 miles to the S.W., and reaching to within 2 miles of the sea coast, 
from which it is separated by an isthmus of low and thickly-wooded land. 
Capt. Stokes walked across it to the sea>beach, from whence he saw Cape 
Raper.ll The Beagle anchored at the bottom of Hoppner Sound, off the mouth 
of the inlet. The mouth of the sound is very much blocked up by the Marine 
Islands; but the southern channel, although narrow, has plenty of water. .On 
the S.W. side of the Marine Islands is Holloway Sound, in which is Port Otway, 
an inlet extending for 5 miles into the land in a S.W. direction. 

The entrance of PORT OTWAY is on the West side of Holloway Sound, about 
14 or 15 miles distant from Cape Tres Montes, and may be readily known by its 
being the first opening after passing the cape. Off the mouth are the Entrance 
Isles, among which is the Logan Rock, having a strong resemblance to the 
celebrated rock whose name it bears. It is broad and flat at the top, and 
decreases to its base, which is very small, and connected to the rock upon which 
it seems to rest. Immediately within the entrance on the West shore is a sandy 
beach, over which a rivulet discharges itself into the bay. Here anchorage may 
be had in 9 or 10 fathoms. It is by far the most convenient one the port affords, 
and contains anchorage all over it, but the depth is generally inconveniently 
great, from 20 to 30 fathoms.lF 

* Byron's Narrative, pp. 119, 120. t Voyages of the Ado* and Beagle, vol. i. p. 174. 

t It was here that four inarines volnntarily remained on shore daring Byron's periloos boat 
Toyage, after tbe wreck of the Wager, — Byron'a Narratvoe, p. 85. 

% Balkely and Cammings, p. 15. || Voyages of the Adb. and Beagle, vol. i. p. 170-1. 

T Capt. Stokes says. In his journal :— " Among the advantages which this admirable port 
presents to shipping, a capital one seems to be the rich growth of stoat and ^^^V^^J ^^Z\7^ 
whieh its shores, even down to the margin of the sea, are closely furnished, and from wiucha 


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CAPE TRES MONTES is a bold and remarkable headland, rising from the 
sea to the height of 2,000 feet. It lies in lat. 46° 58' 57", and Ion. 75° 28', and 
is the South extremity of the Peninsula of Tres Montes. 

Capt. Stokes says : " At sunset Cape Tres Montes bore N.W. (N. 25° W.) 
distant 18 miles. In this point of view the cape makes very high and bold ; to 
tl)e eastward of it land was seen uninterruptedly as far as the eye could reach. 
We stood in shore next morning, and were then at a loss to know, precisely, 
which was the cape. The highest mountain was the southern projection, and has 
been marked on the chart as Cape Tres Montes ; but none of the heights, from 
any point in which we saw them, ever appeared as ' three mounts.' The land, 
though mountainous, seemed more wooded, and had a less rugged outline than 
that we had been hitherto coasting, since leaving the Strait of Magalhaens." 

This was the northern termination of the Beagle* s surveys in 1830. 

Tides. — High water, at most parts of this coast, takes place within half an hour 
on either side of noon. The stream is inconsiderable, and the rise and fall rarely 
more than 6 feet. 

The variation of the compass, at the western entrance of the strait, is 232^ ; at 
Port Henry, 21°; at Port Santa Barbara, 19°; at Xavier Island, 20°; and at 
Port Otway, 20|°. 

The INTERIOR SOUNDS akd CHANNEI^.— The western coast, between 
the Strait of Magalhaens and the Gulf of Penas, is formed by a succession of 
islands of considerable extent, the largest of which, Wellington Island, occupies 
a length of coast of 138 miles* It is separated from the main by the Mesier and 
Wide Channels ; * and from Madre de Dios by the Gulf of Trinidad. Madre de 
Dios, which is probably composed ot several islands, has for its inner or eastern 
boundary the Concepcion Strait. 

Hanover Island has the Sarmiento and Estevan Channels on its eastern side, 
and on the South is separated from Queen Adelaide Archipelago by Lord Nelson 
Strait, which communicates by Smyth Channel with the Strait of Magalhaens. 

Smyth Channel commences in the strait at Beaufort Bay, on the eastern side 
of Cape Philip ; E. by N. truef 5} miles from which are the Fairway Isles ; and, 
at a little more than 6 miles from the cape, on the West shore, is the anchorage 
of Deep Harbour, the entrance of which is a quarter of a mile wide. The 
anchorage is about half a mile within the head* 

Good's Bay, the next anchorage, is better than the last, the depth being from 
20 to 25 fathoms. It is convenient for vessels going to the northward, but when 
bound in the opposite direction. North Anchorage will be better, from the depth 
being less. 

Opposite to Cape Colworth is Clapperton Inlet, beyond which is a considerable 
tract of low country, — a rare sight in these regions. Two miles further, on the 

frigate of the largest size might obtain spars enoagh to replace a topmast, topsail-yard, or even a 
lower-yard. On each side of the harbour we found coves so perfectly sheltered, and with such 
inexhaustible sapplies of fresh water and ftiel, that we lamented their not being in a part of the 
world where such advantages would benefit nujigatlon."— Voyages of the Adcenivre and SeagU, 
vol. I. p. 170, 
• Brazo Ancho of Sarmiento, p. 99. 


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eastern side, is Hoie Harbour^ suitable for a small vessel ; and, on the opposite 
shore, is Retreat Bay, fronted by low rocky islets. 

Onwards, the channel is clear as far as Oake Bay^ where the depth is 9 fathoms : 
but the anchorage is better among the Otter Islands, the depth being 6 and 7 
fathoms, and the ground clean. 

The channel for the next 8 miles becomes more strewed with islands and rocks, 
and has much shoal water off every low point. The coast, also, is very low on 
the eastern shore, as far as the base of Mount Bumey, which is 5,800 feet high, 
and covered with perpetual snow. 

The best channel is on the East side of the Otter Islands, and between the 
Summer Isles and Long Island, for which the chart and a good look out for kelp 
will be sufficient guides. 

Fortune Bat is at the S.E. extremity of, apparently, an island in the entrance 
of a deep channel, named the Cutler Channel, afler an American captain who 
gave the surveyors much valuable information. At the bottom of the bay is a 
thickly-wooded valley, with a fresh-water stream. 

A league to the North of Point Palmer, on the opposite shore, is Isthmus Bay, 
affording excellent anchorage. Five miles North of Point Palmer is Welcome 
Bay, also affording an excellent place to anchor in, with moderate depth. 

In Sandy Bay, on the East side of the channel, and off Inlet Bay, on the 
opposite shore, there are good anchorages : both have a moderate depth, and are 
sheltered from the prevailing winds, which generally are north westerly. 

In latitude 52® 1' is Victory Passage,* separating Zach Peninsula from Hunter 
Island, and communicating with Union Sound, which leads to the Ancon Sin 
Salida of Sarmiento.f 

At the South extremity of Piazza Island is Hamper Bay, with anchorage in 
from 7 to 15 fathoms. Rocky Cove is not to be recommended, and Narrow 
Creek seems confined. 

Hence to the mouth of the channel, which again widens here to 5 miles, 
and in which, during strong N.W. winds, the sea runs heavy, we know of no 
anchorage; but a small vessel in want will, doubtless, find many, by sending 
her boat in search. The Adelaide anchored among the Diana Islands, and 
in Montague Bay, having passed through Heywood Passage. The northern 
point of Piazza Island is Sarmiento's West Point (Punta del Oestet), and a 
league to the South is his Punta de Mas-al-Oeste, or Point more West. 
L'eut. Skyring concludes the journal of his survey of Smyth Channel with the 
following remarks : — 

" So generally, indeed, do the northerly winds prevail, that it would be trouble- 
some even for working vessels to make a passage to the northward ; but it is a 
safe channel for small craft at any time. The tides are regular ; the rise and fall 
at the southern entrance are 8 and 9 feet, but at the northern only 5 and 6. The 
flood tide always sets to the northward, and the strength of the stream is from 
half to 1 i miles an hour ; so that a vessel is not so likely to be detained here for 
any length of time, as she would be in the Strait of Magalhaens, where there is 

• Sarmiento, p. 130. 

t JWd.p.U2. * T6W.P.148. 



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little or no assistance felt from westerly tides. The channel, besides, is com- 
paratively free from sea, and the winds are not so tempestuous." 

As the sounds within Smyth Channel will never be used for any purpose of 
navigation, little need be said in a work destined solely for the use of shipping 
frequenting the coast. The chart will be sufficient to refer to for every purpose 
of curiosity or information. They possess many anchorages for small vessels, 
affording both shelter and security. 

Sarmieuto,* on his third boat voyage to discover a passage through the land 
into the Strait of Magalhaens, gives a detailed account of his proceedings. All 
his descriptions are so good, that we had no hesitation in assigning positions to 
those places he mentions, to all of which his names have been appended. 

The Canal of the Mountains, nearly 40 miles long, is bounded on each side by 
the high, snow-capped Cordillera, the western side being by very much the higher 
land, and having a glacier of 20 miles in extent, running parallel with the canal. 

Worsley Bay and Sound extend 15 miles into the land. 

Last Hope Inlet is 40 miles in length. Its mouth is d| miles wide, but at 
8 miles the breadth is contracted by islandsf to less than a mile. 

Obstruction Sound extends for 30 miles in a South by East direction, and then 
for 15 miles more to the W.S.W., where it terminates. It is separated from 
the bottom of Skyring Water by a ridge of hills, perhaps 1 2 miles across. 

Sarmiento Channel, communicating between the East side of Piazza Island and 
Staines Peninsula, continues to the northward of the mouth of Peel Inlet, where 
it joins the San Estevan Channel, from which it is separated by the islands of 
Vancouver and Esperanza : between these is a passage nearly a league wide, bat 
strewed with islands. 

Relief Harbour, at the South end of Vancouver Island, is a convenient anchor- 
age ; but the best hereabouts is Puerto Bueno, first noticed by Sarmiento.t 

Peel Inlet extends in for 7 leagues, communicating with Pitt Channel, and 
insulating Chatham Island, which is separated from the North end of Hanover 
Island by a continuation of the Sarmiento and San Estevan Channels, of which 
the principal feature is the Guia Narrows.^ 

The N.W. coast of Chatham Island has many bights and coves fronted by 
islands, but the coast is too exposed to the sea and prevailing winds to offer 
much convenient or even secure shelter. 

Concepdon Strait separates Madre de Dios and its island to the southward 
from the main land. It commences at Cape Santiago, in lat. 50|^, and joins the 
Wide Channel, or Brazo Ancho of Sarmiento, in 50° 5'. On the West side (the 
eastern coast of Madre de" Dios) are several convenient anchorages, all of which, 
being on the weather shore, afford secure anchorage : but the squalls off the high 
land are not less felt than in other parts. 

St, Andrew's Sound is 4 leagues wide ; but the mouth is much occupied by the 

* Sarmiento, p. 129, et teq, 

t These islets were covered with black-necked swans, and the sound generally is weU stocked 
with birds. 

X Sarmiento, p. 133. 

§ So called after Sarmiento's boat. It was by this route he passed down to the examination of 
his Ancon Sin Salida j he describes it as a narrow, 300 paces wide.— 5armi«n*o, p. 130, 


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Canning Isles, The principal entrance of St. Andrew's Sound is to the North of 
Chatham Island. It is 5 miles wide, and, at 6 leagues within, divides into two 
arms ; the northern one is 5 or 6 leagues long, and terminates ; but the southern 
channel, which is Pitt Channel, trends behind Chatham Island, and communicates, 
as before mentioned, with Peel Inlet. 

At Point Brazo Ancho the Gulf of Trinidad commences, and the Concepcion 
Strait terminates; for its continuation to the N.E. bears the name of Wide 
Channel, which is 40 miles long, and from 1} to 3 J miles broad. 

At Saumarez Island it joins the Mesier Channel, and to the N.E. communicates 
with Sir George Eyre Sound, which is 40 miles long, and with an average breadth 
of 4 miles. Near the entrance on the East side was found a large rookery of seals, 
and another, 13 miles farther up, on the same side, in lat. 48^ 2V. 

The southern end of the Mesier Channel, for nearly 10 leagues, is named Indian 
Reach. It is narrow, and has many islets, but the water is deep. Then follows 
English Narrows, 12 miles long, and from half to 1| miles wide ; but many parts 
are contracted by islands to 400 yards. The passage lies on the West side of the 
channel, to the westward of all the islands. 

From the North end of the Narrows to the outlet of the Mesier, at Tarn Bay, 
io the Gulf of Penas, a distance of 75 miles, the channel is quite open and free 
from all impediment. 

Every bight in the Wide and Mesier Channels offers an anchorage, and almost 
any may be entered with safety. On all occasions the weather shore should be 
preferred, and a shelving coast is generally fronted by shoaler soundings, and 
more likely to afford moderate depth of water than the steep-sided coasts ; for in 
the great depth of water alone consists the difficulty of navigating these channels. 

Throughout the whole space between the Strait of Magalhaens and the Gulf of 
Pefias, there is abundance of wood and water, fish, shell-fish, celery, and birds. 

We again resume the description of the outer coasts. 

The coast northward of Cape Tres Montes is lofly and weather-beaten. It is 
remarkable for the bold outline of its hills, and the thick covering of forest, even 
on the most precipitous flanks. There is no outlying danger off it. The water is 
deep, and the land from 2,000 to 4,000 feet high. 

Cape GalUgos is a bold promontory, barren to seaward, and rising abruptly 
from the water. 

San Andres Bay is 28 miles round the coast to the northward of Cape Tres 
Montes. Cave Creek, in this bay, is narrow, and may be easily recognised by its 
proximity to a singular cone, 1 ,300 feet high, an unfailing land mark.* It is a 
place difficult to be got out of, and not to be recommended unless in distress. 
There is also anchorage in Christmas Cove in the S.W. part of the bay. Useless 
Cave, on the northern side of the bay, is well named. Pringle Point is the North 

• "This hill ta even more perfectly conical than the famous Sugar-loaf, at Rio de Janeiro. The 
next day after anchoring, I sncceeded in reaching the summit of this hill. It was » '*P°"°^» 
undert^iDff, for the sides were so steep, that. In some parts, it was neccssaiy ^ "se the^s m 
SdwiT There were also seyeral extensive brakes of the fuchsia, covered with its beautiful 
drooping flowers, hut very difficult to crawl through."— Darunn, p. 343. 


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point of San Andres Bay, and hence to Rescue Point the land is considerably less 
high. Stewart Bay and Cliff Cove seemed to promise anchorage. 

Port San Estevan is 20 miles N. by E. of San Andres Bay It is sheltered 
by Rescue Point,* in lat. 46° 18' S., and Ion. 75° 14' N., and terminates in 
a fresh-water river, or rather mountain stream. Dark Hill is an excellent mark 

for it. 

The Hellyer Rocks are a very dangerous patch, having soundings around them, 
and lying 6 miles from the nearest land, in lat. 46° 4', 14 miles N. by W. J W. 
North {true) from Rescue Point. 

Cape Taytaohaohuon, or Taytao, is in lat. 43° 63' 20' S., and Ion. 75° 8' lO*' W. 
It is one of the most remarkable promontories on this coast, and forms the S.W. 
point of the land encircling the Chonos Archipelago. It is a high, bold promontory, 
and its neighbourhood is an unprofitable wilderness of rocky mountains, woody 
and swampy valleys, islands and rocks in profusion, and inlets or arms of the 
sea penetrating in every direction. It makes like a large island, pointed at the 
summit, and is near 3,000 feet high, rugged, barren, and steep. Several rocks 
above water lie around it ; none, however, a mile off shore. Northward of tlie 
cape is Anna Pink Bay, so named by the surveyors from the narrative in Anson's 
Voyage. Within a cove of this bay the Anna Pinkt one pf Anson's squadron, 
employed as a victualler, took refuge from westerly gales. She anchored under 
Ynche-mo Island, but drove from thence across the bay, and subsequently brought 
up in Port Refuge. 

Port Refuge is a safe but out-of-tlie-way place. It is described in Anson's 
Voyage (chap. 3) in very glowing colours ; but it may be remarked, that those 
who discovered it were here saved from destruction.f 

Canaveral Cove, West of Port Refuge, though small, is very convenient for 
refitting, or executing any repairs. Patch Cove t is so small as to be unfit for 
vessels of any size exceeding 200 tons. 

* Upon Beecae Point the Beagle found fire seamen, who had lived in thewfloUtndes for thirteen 
months. They had deserted from an American whaler, in Oct, 1833, near Gape Tree Montes, 
and in landing had destroyed tlieir boat. They then endeavoured to penetrate northward on foot, 
but foond, to their dismay, that there were so many arms of the sea to pass round, and that it was 
so difficult to walk, or rather climb, along ttie rocky shores, that they abandoned the idea, and 
remained stationary at Port San Estevan, after losing one of their companions. They lived, for 
thirteen months, only upon seals' flesh, shell-fish, and wild celery ; yet these five men, when 
received on board the Beagle, were in better condition, as to healthy fleshiness, colour, and actual 
health, than any five individuals belonging to the ship. During the whole period they had only 
once seen eight vessels sailing together to the northward, until their most fortunate and unhoped- 
for rescue by the Beagle, Dec. 28, 1834. These remarks are quoted as an example to any who 
may have the dreadful misfortune to be cast away on this coast.-^Voyagei of the Adventure and 
Beagle, vol. ii. p. 370-1 ; and vol. iil. p. 344. 

t Bee also Morrell's Narrative, p. 169. 

t " We anchored (Dec. 80, 1834) in a snug little cove (Patch Cove, in Anna Pink Bay), at the 
foot of some high hilis, near the northern extremity of Tres Montes. After breakfast the next 
morning, a party ascended one of these mountains, which had an altitude of 2,400 feet. The 
scenery was remarkable. The chief part of the range was composed of grand, solid, abrupt 
masses of granite, which appeared as if they had been coeval with the beginning of the world. 
The granite is capped with slaty gneiss, and this, in the lapse of ages, has been worn into strange 
finger-shaped points. These two formations, thus differing in their outlines, agree in being almost 
destitute of vegetation. This barrenness had, to our eyes, a still stranger appearance from our 
having been so long accustomed to the sight of an universal forest of dark-green trees. The com- 
plicated and lofty ranges bore a noble aspect of durability, equally profitless, howeyer, to man 
and to an other animals.'»—Af r. Dflrwm, p. 345. J» ^ ' ^ -^ 


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North-east of Ynche-mo, about 6 miles distant, are the Inchm* or San Fernando 
IslandSy and next to them are the Tenquehueny Menchuauy and Puyo Mands^ 
among which no doubt there are many good anchorageSy and abundance of fresh 
water, wood, wild herbs, and fish. 

As a general rule it may be observed that there are no sand banks, little or no 
currents, and, generally speaking, no hidden dangers on the West coast of South 
America, between the Strait of Magalhaens and Chiloe. Rocks under water are 
either buoyed by kelp, or are distinctly visible to an eye aloft, if the sea does not 
break on them so as to show their positioa exactly to an eye ou deck. The western 
extremity of Menchuaa Island is low, and has several rocks near it, therefore a 
good berth should be allowed in passing. 

The inner coasts hereabouts, those oiSkyringy Clement s, QarridOy and hquiliac 
Ulandsy are high, rugged, and barren, ranging to about 3,000 feet above the sea. 
In the middle of Darwin Bay, that large bight between Tenquehuen and Vallenar 
Islands, is a detached and somewhat dangerous islet, named Analao, 

The wide inlet called Aguea, or Darmn Ckannely leads to the interior sounds 
behind the Ghonos Archipelago, in which harbours are as numerous as islands. 

Within the Vallenar Islands^ well pointed out by the mountain of Isquiliac, 
which \s 3,000 feet high, very rugged, and triply peaked, is an excellent road- 
stead, easy of access and easy to leave. The best anchorage is in about 12 fathoms 
water, near the little islet which lies off the S.E. end of Three FingeE Island. The 
Beagle lay there quietly during a heavy S.W. gale. 

North-westward^ about 30 miles from the Vallenar Islands^ is the island of 
Huamblin,t under which there is good anchorage. 

SocoRBO or HuAMBLiN lsi.AND lies off the Chonoa Archipelago. Its South 
extreme is in lat. 44^ 65' 50" S., Ion. 75° 12' 45" W. It is a comparatively low 
and level island, about 300 or 400 feet high, except one hill, which is about 700 
feet. When made from the offing, it is considerably detached from those which 
seem like Tierradel Fuego, being a range of irregular mountains and hills, forming 
apparently a continuous coast. 

The three outlying and neighbouring islands of Huamblin or Socorro, Ypun or 
Narborough, and Huafo or No-man's Island, are thickly wooded, and, as before 
stated, rather level» compared with their neighbours, and not exceeding 800 feet in 
height. There are few, if any others, like them in the Ghonos Archipelago ; almost 
all the rest, however portions of some may resemble them, being mountainous, and 
very like those of Tierra del Fuego and the West coast of Patagonia, beyond 47*^ 
South. The vegetation is therefore much more luxuriant, and there is a slight 
difference on it, consequent^ probably, upon a milder climate; there are some 

* This island was noticed by Anson, from the circamstanee of the Anna Pink having been driven 
into the bay. He considered that it would be a good position for a settlement. But in the Spanish 
expedition, andertaken subsequent to tliis voyage for colonization, it was thought that it might 
be safely abandoned, holding out no inducement whatever for settlers. The English, when here, 
aeixed one of the boats belonging to the Indians of the neighbouring continent, who came here to 
fish; and upon asking how they called that island, were answered, '' Jneftia," '' it is ours ;" — 
from which mistake arises the name now given to the island. — Sir Woodbine Parish, Journal qf 
the GeographUal Society , vol. iv. p. 184. «.>«i»-i « 

t " Huamblin— if, as I suppose it, a corruption of Huampelen— means * on watch, P?J™,** • 
sentinel.' Ipon means * swept off/ or * swept away ;' Lemu means * wood ;'— names unguiariy 
applicable to each of those islands respectively.**— Copt. FUxRoy. 


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productions, such as canes and potatoes, &c., found, which do not grow near the 
Strait of Magalhaens. The formation of the three islands is a soft sandstone, 
which can be cut with a knife as easily as a cake of chocolate. 

Abundance of vegetables and live stock might be raised on Huam^lin and 
Ypun for the supply of shipping. Easy places to approach, or leave, they 
both are, and the rocks which lie around their more exposed points are all 
distinguished by the sea always breaking on them, and may therefore be easily 
avoided. Tliese two islands are valuable even now, and likely to become more so. 

The whole of the surface of the Chonos Archipelago, of which little was 
correctly known prior to the Beagle^s survey, is a succession of high and 
considerable islands, so near one another, that, from the offing, they make like 
a solid unbroken coast. 

Adventure Bay, to the eastward of Huamblin, is bounded by dangerous 
outlying rocks. Paz and Liebre Islands, in the middle of the bay, are remark- 
able from their height and conical form, but they afford no shelter. Under 
Ypun or Narborough Island, however, there is good anchorage in 12 to 16 
fathoms, over clay and sand : and Scotchwell Harbour, at the S.E. part of the 
island, is not only a valuable place of refuge, but a perfectly secure and 
agreeable place for wooding, watering, or refitting.* On these islands were a 
considerable number of seals. 

The Island of Ypun resembles Huamblin in its character, and therefore differing 
totally from the rest of the neighbouring islands, which are high, rugged, and 
generally barren to seaward ; while these are comparatively low, level, and fertile. 
Scotchwell Harbour should be approached from the northward, because, although 
the passage South of it has been examined, and appeared to have no hidden 
dangers, it is narrow, and there may be undiscovered rocks. 

The cluster of islands between Narborough and the Guaytecas offer no 
anchorages so easy of access to a stranger as those previously mentioned. 

At the North end of the Chonos Archipelago, among the group of islands 
called Guaytecas, f will be found Port Low, an excellent harbour ; in approach- 
ing it a good berth must be given to the numerous rocks that lie along the N. 
and N.W. shores of those islands, and allowance made for the stream of tide, 
which is felt off Huacanec Island, and causes a race off Chaylaime Point. 

In running for Port Low from the westward, the Guaytecas Islands appear in 
a hummocky ridge, at the N.E. point of which there is a remarkable flat-topped 
island. This table looks like the N.E. point of a large island, of which the S.W. 
part diminishes into low land. When seen from a considerable distance, about 
20 miles, the flat island, summit-knobbed hill, and hummocky ridge are still 
conspicuous. This hummocky ridge appears to be the middle of the group of 
islands. On the left, looking to the S.E., is a siqgle-knobbed hill inland, which 

* " On the shore, near Scotchwell Harbour, was a large bed of strawberries, like those that 
grow in English woods; and there was a sweet-scented pea, besides abundance of other vegetable 
produce, both herbage and wood, and plenty of water."— 3fr. Stokes, Voyages of the Adventure 
and Beagle, vol. 11. p. 874. 

t " About the Guaytecas Cor Huaytecas) Islands quantities of excellent oysters were found, 
quite as good as any sold in London. No quadrupeds were seen, except nutrea and otters, which 
were numerous."— F((^a^ of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. ii. p. 375. 


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looks higher and insulated. As far again to the left, is the flat-topped island 
already mentioned, beyond which there appears to be an opening ; the low land 
to the westward makes like many islands.* 

Port Low has the usual supplies : water of excellent quality, wood, fish, shell* 
fish, including oysters, and wild herbs. Of late years, potatoes have been planted 
by otter-hunting and sealing parties from Chiloe, therefore a small supply may 
be looked for. This is a port in which a number of large ships might lie con- 
veniently, it being one of the best harbours on the coast. 

Westward of the Guaytecas Islands, distant about 20 miles, is Huafo or 
No-man's Island, a large island, but without a harbour, except for boats; the 
highest part is the N.W. head (Weather Point), 800 feet above the sea. Reefs 
extend 3 miles seaward to the North and West. It is highest at the N.W. end, 
low in the middle, and high again at the S.E. extremity ; it is well wooded, and 
formerly had many sheep on it, while the aborigines lived there in peace. f 



The Island of Chiloe is the northernmost of that vast chain of islands which 
fronts the American continent from lat. 42° southward to Cape Horn. From its 
situation^ it is of great consequence, and, under its former domination, was 
considered as the key to the king of Spain's possessions in the Pacific. The 
policy of that government was to conceal everything relating to it, so that up to a 
recent period but little was known of it. Although much wilful ignorance has 
been attributed to the Spaniards regarding their possessions during the last 
centary, it must not be supposed that they were as much so as has been stated. 
Alarm for their own interests did occasionally rouse them, and the voyages 
of our own great navigators stimulated them to exertions which have remained 
unknown to the rest of the world. Thus, Lord Anson's voyage, of which the 
account appeared in 1748, led to an expedition, which, among other results, 
made a careful examination of Chiloe and the Chonos Archipelago. The same 
results attended the publication of Cook's Voyages.— (See Sir Woodbine Parish, 
in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. iv. 182—191.) Should it 

* " From Port Low we saw a notable xnoantain, one of the Cordillera of the Andes, having 
three points upon a small flat top, about 8,000 feet above the sea. I called it the Trident at the 
time, bat afterwards learned that there are four peaks (one of which was hid by another from 
oar point of Tiew), and that it is called by the aborigines Meli-moyu, which in the Huilli-che 
language mgnifles four points. Three other remarkable mountains', active volcanoes, are visible 
from the northern Hnaytecas Islands, as well as from Chiloe : the Corcobado (hamp-backed) ; 
Vantelee (or Yanchinu, which means * haying a shivering and unnatural heat*)> and Minchen- 
madom, which in the Huilli-che language means * under a firebrand ;'— names so expressive ana 
appropriate, as to put to shame much of our own nomenclature."— Cap*. FUzRoy, 

t Voyages of the Adventvre and Beagle^ vol. ii. p. 377. 


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emerge (as it apparently is doing) from the darkness and indolence whtch, in 
common with other Spanish colonies, characterise its inhabitants, it will become 
of very great importance in the future history of the South American continent. 

It is about 100 miles in length, by about 35 in breadth, and within, or to the 
East of it, is a numerous archipelago of islands, 63 in number, of which 36 are 
inhabited. The Island of Ghiloe itself, or Isia Grande, is hilly, but not moun- 
tainous, and corered with one great forest, particularly cypress, and ** alerse," a 
variety of it ; these affording a large article of export, in the form of planks. 
The interior of the island is not known, and the only road is an artificial one 
between S. Carlos and Castro. The other articles produced are potatoes, wheat, 
barley, and hams, for which it is famed. Poultry may be had in abundance.* 

The province of Chiloe is one of the eight divisions of the Chilian republic, 
and extends on the main land as far as the South bank of the Maullin, and 
southward to Tres Montes, but there is nothing to govern on the Chonos Archi- 
pelago» Its name is significant of the origin of its people — ** Chili-hue," which 
means " farther," or " new," or " tlie end of" Chili. Hence, Chil6e, or Chilo6, 
as it is sometimes written and pronounced, into which it has been corrupted. It 
was first discovered by the Spaniards, in 1558, when it was thickly populated by 
Chonos Indians, or Huyhuen-che. The first Spanish settlement was made in 
1566, when the city of Castro was founded, during the government of Don Jos6 
Garcia de Castro in Peru, from which it takes its name of Castro. Chacao 
was then made its seaport, but was afterwards abandoned. It continued under 
Spanish domination until the overthrow of that power in Chile, and was the last 
possession held by Spain upon the continent of South America. The principal 
portion of the natives are now Huilli-che, nominally Christians, but painfully 
ignorant of Christianity. The language used is almost exclusively Spanish. 

The island is divided into 10 districts or partidos; the principal population, 
which would appear to be considerable for the districts occupied, are centred at 
S. Carlos, and in Castro, Quinchao, and Lemuy, In 1832, the census gave a 
total of 43,832 for the population of the province. 

The climate of Chiloe is considered by those who live in other parts of Chili to 
be rigorous, cold, and damp : certainly there is much reason for such an opinion, 
particularly in the winter months, when it almost always rains, and the wind, 
with little cessation, blows hard from North to N.W., and by the West to South ; 
but, notwithstanding the great quantity of rain that falls, the evaporation is great, 
and it cannot therefore be called unhealthy; indeed, from experience, it is 
considered quite otherwise. — (Capt. King, R.N.) 

There is a marked difierence of climate between the East and West sides of 
Chiloe, as to the quantity of rain and wind. A proportion of both appears to be 
arrested (as it were) on the windward side of the hoights, so that the neighbourhood 
of Castro, and the islands in the Gulf of Ancud, enjoy much finer weather than 
is met with about San Carlos. There is an idea prevalent in Chiloe, that after a 

* There is a good deal of coal in Chiloe (as in the island of Lemuy), but of an inferior descrip- 
tion, like that of Concepcion. It is not troe coal— lignite woald be a more appropriate term. 
Howeyer, it bams readily. Seals are now rare, and wheJet are fast diminishing in numbers. — 
FitzSay, p. 888. See hereafter on this subject. 


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great eruption of Osorno, in particular, or indeed of any of the neighbouring 
volcanoes, fine weather is sure to follow.— (Capt. FitzRoy.) 

The coasts abound in shell-fish, which afford an inexhaustible supply to the 
inhabitants, and are obtained with the greatest facility. Money is almost 
unknown, therefore all transactions are by barter* Of the various ports and 
places we shall remark in the subsequent descriptions.* 

Off Olleta Paint, which is the southernmost point of Chiloe, and to the 
southward of the mountainous island of San Pedro, are the Caduhuapi and 
Canoitad Rocks, dangerous in the night or during calms. The Ganoitad Rocks 
are 4 J miles from the nearest land, and the tide stream sets towards them. 

HuAMBLiN or Sait Pedro IsLA^^D makes at a distance like a rounded lumpy 
hill ; when near, it appears to be wooded to tlie very summit, though 3,200 feet 
in height. At the entrance of its harbour a white rock, near the N.E. head, may be 
noted as a mark ; care should be taken to avoid the three- fathoms bank, e^ex^ing 
two-thirds across the entrance of the harbour, if the tide is low. ThemiS&^itik^" 
2 fathoms rise at springs in this place. .^/-^ i«< .v ., / 

Cape Qoilan is rounded and woody ; there arc cliffs in its vicitiity of Cfight 
yellowish colour, about 300 feet in height. , ,,. , ^. , 

From Cape Quilan to Pirulil Head, a similar character of coast Wt^ continues; 
there is no kind of anchorage, scarcely can even a whale-boat fin'd:^|)!,lace of. 
shelter where she could be hauled ashore. ^ - . . - 

Cucao Bay is bounded by a low beach, always lashed by a heavy surf. Cucao 
heights are remarkable, as being the highest and most level high lands in the 
island : they are wooded to their summits, and in height from 2,000 to 3,000 

Cape Matalqui is remarkable ; the heights over it rise about 2,000 fe^iy and 
make from seaward in three summits. Off all this coast from Cape Quilan 
northward, there are no outlying or hidden dangers. Between Cocotue and 
Caucahuapi Heads, a low isthmus joins the peninsula of Lacuy to the rest of the 
main island. 

Caucahuapi, Guabun, and Huechucucuy Headlands, are bold, cliffy promon- 
tories, needing scarcely any remarks. The latter is a high, steep, bare bluff; 
these three headlands are the first seen when making the land near the port of 
San Carlos. In approaching that excellent harbour, the Huapacho Shoal must 
have a good berth ; it lies 1 } miles West of Corona Head, which is a light-coloured 
cliffy head, bare at the top, and broken at the seaward extremity ; in the night, 
more especially, this shoal should be guarded against, the land behind being a 
low sandy beach, not then distinguishable. 

PORT SAN CARLOS.— The low extreme of Corona Head is sometimes 
called Tenuy Point; probacy it extended farther seaward, and was more 

• See Account of Chiloe, by Capt. Blanckley, R.N., 1834, Journal of the Royal Geographical 
Society, 1884, pp. 344—361 ; Voyages of the Adventure and Beagle^ vol. i. p. 209, et seq. ; vol. ii. 
p. 378, et teg.; vol. iii. p. 333, &c. ; Morreirs Voyages, p. 161; and Aguero8» History of the 
FroTince of Chiloe. _ ^. .,^„ ,. 

♦ *« The district of Cucao is the only inhabited part on the whole West coast of '^*^*;°®: "» 
Indian population are very much secluded from the rest of Chiloe, and ^f^® «<^fl^*"icin o^J 
commerce, except sometimes in a little oil, which they get from scal-bluDDer. , -qu 
edit. p. 295. 


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remarkable formerly. The stream of tide is stroug hereabouts^ and must be 
allowed for, according to the direction. Ships should steer for Corona Head, 
keeping it to the southward of East, on account of the Huapacbo Shoal, and 
thence along shore at less than half a mile distant round Huapilacuy Point and 
Aguy Point (on which there was a battery in the time of the Spaniards, just above 
the point), to an anchorage near Arena Point, under Baracura Heights. Between 
Aguy Point and Baracura Head, on which there was also a small battery, a ship 
should not close nearer than half a mile, as a shoal called Peehucura extends to 
nearly that distance, half-way between the two points. 

On no account ought a vessel to get near the islets of Carelmapu or Doiia 
Sebastiana, for there the tide runs strongly, and with dangerous eddies. The 
Yngles Bank must also be particularly avoided; it is a very dangerous shoal, over 
which the tide runs with great strength : the shallowest spot found by Capt. 
FitzRoy, at slack water, after vainly trying to stem the tide at half-ebb, in a fast- 
pulling whale-boat, had not a fathom of water, the bottom sand, or hard tosca^ 
or sandstone. A long lance forced into the bank penetrated about 2 feet into 
sand generally, but in one small spot it was stopped by a hard substance which 
bent the lance, and turned its point. This substance felt like wood rather than 
rock. If not sand, sandstone, or tosca, it might have been a piece of a wreck. 

The best anchorage for a large ship is with Aguy Point bearing North, and the 
extremity of Arena Point bearing S.W. Trading vessels anchor off the town of 
San Carlos in 4 fathoms water, with the town bearing about East, but it is an 
exposed position, and insecure. 

The town of San Carlos is built on two rising grounds, and in the valley that 
separates them ; through which a rivulet runs into the bay, at a mole which 
affords sufficient protection to the boats and periaguas frequenting the port. The 
houses, which are all of wood, are generally small, and have but little comfort. 
The plaza, or square, without which no town in Chili of the least importance is 
to be found, is situated on a flat piece of ground at the summit of the southern 
hill, and commands an extensive view. It is about 180 yards square, and has a, 
flagstaff' in the centre. On the North side there is a strong, well-built, stone 
storehouse, and opposite to it is the church, also built of stone. On the side next 
the sea is the yntendente's residence, a low range of wooden buildings, erected 
without regard to taste, convenience, or comfort ; and opposite to this are two 
or three dwellings, very little superior to common huts or ranchos. Within the 
last few years, however, some substantial stone buildings have been erected by 
the wealthy people in the town, an example which is likely to be followed.* 

The people of Ancud, the local name of San Carlos, formerly so simple and 
artless, have gradually changed this character, and become corrupt and degenerate; 
they have acquired the vices consequent upon a frequent intercourse with the whale 
fishers, and other ships which frequent the port. 

Off the East point of Cochinos Islet a shoal extends about a mile ; on it are 
2 fathoms water. N.N.W., 1 mile off Point Mutico, there is a patch of rocks ; 
and all the bottom thereabouts is very irregular; patches of kelp are seen 

• King, pp. 274-5. 


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frequently, but they seem to be attached to large stones as well as to rocks.* 
Pecheura Point is about 3 miles from the entrance to the Narrows : a rocky 
patch runs about a quarter of a mile off it, which forms the termination of a bank 
extending from the shore between it and Mutico Point. 

Nearly a mile to the westward of Punoun Point there is a rock awash at low 
neap tides, and another rock lies just to the westward : they are called the 
Periagua Rocks, The rise of tide here is about 11 feet at springs, and 7 feet at 
ordinary neaps ; the soundings are very irregular. During the strength of the 
flood tide there is a heavy tide rip off Punoun Point, caused by the strong stream 
running over so very irregular a bottom. 

Punoun Point is low, with a sandy beach : it is the S.W. limit of the Chacao 
Narrows, a dangerous passage, and seldom used except by the large coasting 
boats called periaguas. 

On the opposite coast, that of the mainland, are Carelmapu and Chocoy Heads; 
steep cliffs, in front of which runs a powerful stream of tide. 

Excepting the great strength of tide which may prevent a ship from being 
under command, the only danger to be encountered in the Chacao Narrows is 
a rock in the mid-channel, at the narrowest part ; this rock, called by the natives 
Petucura, is awash at half-tide. The stream runs very strongly over and past it, 
during ebb, as well as flood tide. 

San Gallan Point, oa the Chiloe shore, is steep, with a remarkable clump of 
bashes on its summit, which is about 500 feet high. The North shore opposite is 
low, except near Coronel Point, where there are cliffs, about 100 feet in height. 
Behind these cliffs the land rises to about 20 feet, and is thickly wooded. 

Between San Gallan Point, and Santa Teresa Pointy the distance is just 1 
mile : it is the narrowest part of the passage from shore to shore, and half a mile 
farther eastward the rock Petucura divides the channel into two narrow passages, 
either of which may be used. 

Another rock, more dangerous to large ships than Petucura, lies £. } S. from it, 
distant half a mite. On this rock, called the Seluian, there are 2 fathoms at low 
water. Round this and the other rock there is deep water, except to the east- 
ward, in which direction a rocky ridge extends a quarter of a mile. 

Between Coronel Point and Tres Cruces Point there is deep water, about 50 
fathoms ; but in Chacao Bay there is excellent anchorage in about 10 fathoms 
half a mile North of Chacao Head. 

* ''The water of the bay is clear and good; only round the little island of Cochinos, and along^ 
the harbour, it is covered with a quantity of sea-moss, which renders landing difficult. It fre^ 
quently happens that commanders of ships, wishiug to go on board to make sail during the 
night* get out of the right course, and instead of going to the ship steer to Cochinos, and get into 
the moss, when their boats stick fast, till returning daylight enables them to work their way out. 

** The poor inhabitants boll this sea-moss, and eat it. It is very salt and slimy, and is difficult 
of digestion. Among the people of Chiloe this sea-moss occupies an important place in surgery. 
When a leg or an arm is broken, after bringiug the bone into its proper position, a broad layer of 
the moss is bound round the fractured limb. In drying, the slime causes it to adhere to the 
akin, and thus it forms a fast bandage, which cannot be ruffied or shifted. After the lapse of a 
few weeks, when the bones have become firmly united, the bandage is loosened by being bathed 
in tepid water, and it to then easily removed. The Indians of Chiloe were acquainted long before 
the French surgeons with the use of the paste bandage."— Dr. Vm Tschudi, pp. \^>}^' We 
give thto quotaUon, as it may afford a useful hint to commanders in an emergency, wnen surgical 
aaslstance cannot be very acquirable. 


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When the Spaniards lirst settled in Chiloe, their head-quarters were at Chacao, 
and their vessels anchored in this bay,* The state of the tide, and having 
sufficient wind to keep a vessel under command, are the principal points to 
consider when about to pass Chacao Narrows. A temporary anchorage may be 
had on the South side of the Narrows, between Punoun and San Gallan Points, 
by getting close to the shore ; and as the tide, strong as it is, sets to each side of, 
rather than towards, the Petucura Rocks, the passage of these Narrows is not so 
formidable as it appears to the Chiloe boatmen. 

About a mile South of Tres Cruces there is a stony point, after passing which 
the tide is scarcely felt ; and in the Bay Manao there is no. stream of tide : near 
that bay the tides usually meet. The nature of the tides around Chiloe will be 
hereafter described. 

Chilen Bluff is a low shingle point, with a remarkable tree on its extremity. 
About half a mile in shore the land rises suddenly to about 150 feet. Off the 
N.£. point of Huapilinao Head, to the S.E. of it, there is a reef of rocks 
extending above a mile from the point. About 4 miles from Huapilinao is the 
small village of Lliuco. Queniao Point, which follows, is a low stony point, with 
a remarkable single tree on its extremity. Shoal water extends nearly a mile off 
the point 

Lobos Head, on the island of Caucahue, is a steep bluff, above 250 feet high ; 
behind it the land falls suddenly, and is very low for a short distance, after which 
it rises again. 

About 1 1 miles from Queniao Point there is a sandy spit, with 2 fathoms of 
water on it about a quarter of a mile from the shore, when it deepens suddenly to 
8 and 12 fathoms near the shingle spit, which forms the small but valuable 
harbour called Oscuko Cove. This cove may become of great use, as the tide 
rises in it to about 20 feet : the water is deep close to the shore, and always 
perfectly still. The entrance is about 3 cables wide, the point of the spit steep-to ; 
the length of the cove is three-quarters of a mile, and its breadth 3 cables : 
there are 7 fathoths of water within 50 yards of low-water mark, and from 12 to 
16 in the middle, over a bottom of mud and sand. The West side of the entrance 
is a rocky point, with stones lying off it half a cable's length. A vessel should 
keep close to the other side. 

In this cove any ship might be laid ashore, hove down, or thoroughly repaired, 
with perfect safety and great ease. I am not aware that there is any similar place 
on the West coast of South America : the flood tide here runs to the northward, 
and strongly at spring tides. 

Chogon, a bluff point about 200 feet in height, lies a long mile to the south- 
ward of Quintergen Point, which is low and stony, with a shoal spit of about a 
quarter of a mile in length. Between them lies Caucahue Strait, and in the 
entrance there is no bottom with 50 fathoms. 

Between the Chaugues Islands and Quicavi Bluff, there are some reefs, and a 

* As before stated, this was formerly the principal port in the island ; bat many vessels haTing 
been lost, owing to the dangerous currents and rocks in the strait, the Spanish government burnt 
the church, and thus arbitrarily compelled the greater number of the inhabltanta to migrate to 
S. Carlos. 


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tide race, Pulmun Bank, 4 miles East of Chogon, is shown always by its 

The flood tide sets close round Tenoun Point, which has a reef extending half 
a mile off it, and then across the channel towards the Chaugues Islands ; the ebb 
tide sets to the S.W. close round the point, and at the commencement of the 
springs, at the rate of 2 knots. 

About a mile to the southward of Quicayi Bluff, lies the Laguna of Quicavif 
which is an excellent place for boats, and when inside, they can lie afloat at low 
water, but it cannot be entered until the tide has flowed some time. 

Eastward of this cove, and between the points before mentioned, at the 
distance of 3 miles, lie the group of islands called the Chaugues; they are four 
in number, and separated by a channel, running nearly North and South, and 
1 J miles wide in its narrowest parts, in which there are from 48 fathoms to no 
bottom with '55 fathoms. The western island is the highest, being about 350 
feet high, and forms a ridge East and West ; the N.E. island has a round hill 
upon it, nearly as high as the former, but the other parts are much lower : there 
are some cleared patches, but they appeared thinly inhabited by Indians. 

The iMland of Xm/tn, which lies 4 miles to the south-westward of Tenoun 
Point, is low in the centre, gradually rising to a round hill terminated by a bluff, 
both to the northward and southward. 

To the southward of Linlin stands the smaller island of Linna^ 

The channel narrows gradually to the westward, as far as the N.W. point of 
Quinchao ; it then turns suddenly to the S.W., and is not more than a mile wide. 
On the Chiloe shore there is a small village called Dalcahue^ with its saw-mills ; 
the best water in the channel runs close to the shore of Quinchao, and the deepest 
water is 4 fathoms. The tide runs through it about 4 knots at springs. 

The channel opens out to the southward into a broad bay on each shore. On 
the Chiloe side lies the small co?e and village of Relan: in the entrance of the 
cove there are 18 fathoms. The ebb tide sets very strongly across Relan Reef to 
the S.E. towards the channel between the islands of Lemuy and Chelin. Between 
Lemuy and the main the tide was scarcely perceptible; what little was found 
appeared to set to the eastward ; but the springs rise 18 feet. 

From Relan Reef to the entrance of Castro Inlet, the channel is from 2 to 
3 miles wide ; the East entrance point of the inlet is low and stony, but a vessel 
may pass at a quarter of a mile off it in 12 fathoms : the western side of the 
entrance is formed by Lintinao Islet, to the southward of which lies the small 
harbour of Quinched, in which a vessel bound to Castro might wait for a fayour- 
able opportunity to go up, in case she found the winds ba£3ing in the two first 
reaches ; this is generally the case with northerly winds, however strong, and no 
anchorage can be found in either reach until too near the shore for safety. 

The village of Quinched is about 3 miles to the westward of the harbour; 
the country is well cultivated and thickly inhabited for about 3 or 4 miles on either 
side of Castro Inlet, and the houses are numerous, and surrounded with apple trees. 

On the outer point of Lintinao Island, which is joined to Chiloe by a sandy 
spit that dries at low water, a stony point runs off about 1 cable to the east- 
ward, but the South side of the point is steep-to. 


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At half a mile abo?e the second reach of Castro Inlet, die eastern shore may 
be approached within half a cable, but the other side is flat and shallow for nearly 
half a mile from the beach, and shoals too suddenly for a vessel to go by the lead ; 
in working up or down, a vessel should keep the former aboard, not going farther 
across than two-thirds the breadth of the channel. 

The eastern shore is composed of steep-wooded slopes, rising to about 150 feet 
above the sea; the western rises gradually from the beach, forming several 
level steps, which increase in height to 400 or 500 feet; behind them, at a 
distance of 5 miles from the beach, there is a range of hills nearly level, about 
1,000 feet high and thickly wooded. Two miles below Castro, on the Chiloe 
shore, there is a small cove where vessels might anchor if necessary ; but there 
are 20 fathoms between the points, and it shoals suddenly a little inside of 
them. The point of Castro is a level piece of land, about 100 feet above the 
sea, running out between the small harbour to the northward, and the River 
Gamboa to the southward ; it terminates in a low shingle point, which is steep-to 
on its North side, but to the southward of it a flat commences, which follows the 
western shore all down that reach of the inlet. The small harbour to the north- 
ward of tlie point is half a mile in length and one-third of a mile wide ; between 
the points there are 7 fathoms, but it shoals gradually to 3, about a quarter of a 
mile further in ; the best anchorage is nearest to the South point, as the North 
side is shoal for about a cable's length off. In running for the harbour, a vessel 
should keep the eastern shore aboard till she is abreast of it, when she may stand 
across, and will thus avoid the shoal to the southward of Castro Point, which 
extends half a mile off. 

CASTRO stands near the outer part of the level point, and consists of two or 
three short streets of wooden houses ; there are two churches, one of which, 
belonging to the Jesuits, has been a handsome building, but is fast falling to 
decay, and shored up on all sides ; the other also appears to have been well built, 
but is now nearly in ruins : altogether Castro has been much neglected, and the 
people are poor.* Between San Carlos and Castro is an artificial road. The road 
itself is a curious affair ; it consists in its whole length, with the exception of very 
few parts, of great logs of wood, which are either broad and laid longitudinally, or 
narrow and placed transversely, the longitudinal logs fastened down by transverse 
poles pegged on each side into the earth, rendering a fall rather dangerous. — 
(Mr. Darwin.) 

The tide at springs does not run above 1| knots in the strongest part, and at 
neaps it is felt very little. 

Opposite to the entrance of Castro Inlet, on the North shore of Lemuy, is 
Poqueldonf the principal village on the island. The landing is bad ; the tide 

* Castro, the ancient capital of Chiloe, is now a most forlorn and deserted place. The 
quadrangular arrang^ement of Spanish towns could be traced, but the streets and plaza were 
coated with fine green turf, on which sheep were browsing. The church, which stands in the 
middle, is entirely built of plank, and has a picturesque and venerable appearance. The poverty 
of the place may be conceived from the fact that, although containing some hundreds of 
inhabitants, one oif our party was unable anywhere to purchase either a pound of sugar or an 
ordinary knife. No individual possessed either a watch or a clock ; and an old man, who was 
supposed to have a good idea of time, was employed to strike the church bell by goeoB^^Darwin^ 
p. 389. Dec. 1834. 


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at high water flows close up to the trees ; and at low water the shores are very 

After passing Quinched, the land is only cultivated in patches, the rest being 
thickly wooded. 

Off the Point of Yal, on the Chiloe shore, there are two small low shingle 
islands ; they are connected by a spit, which is covered at high water. 

A mile to the S.E. of Yal Point there is a bluff head, which forms the North 
point of Yal Bay ; and a little in-shore of the point there is a remarkable flat 
mound covered with trees. Half a mile inside the bluff lies the entrance of the 
small harbour of Yal. 

There is no anchorage in the bay until within a quarter of a mile of the head ; 
it is not a fit place for vessels to anchor in unless obliged to do so. 

The S.W. extreme of Lemuy Island^ cMed Detif Point, terminates in a perpen- 
dicular cliff, about 150 feet high, surmounted by a round hill 250 feet above the sea. 

About a league to the N.E. of Detif Point the same headland throws out 
Apabon Point, with a reef extending to the eastward 3f miles ; near its outer 
edge there is a rock always dry, and at low water the reef uncovers for about a 
quarter of a mile on each side of it. No vessel should attempt to cross this reef, 
although there are 9 feet at low water, between it and the shore, because the tide 
sets over it strongly and irregularly. 

Between the S.E. point of Quinchao Island and Apabon Point lie the islands 
of Ckelin and Quehuy ; the N.E. extreme of the latter is called Imeldeb, and is 
detached from it by a narrow isthmus. Off this point, for a mile to the S.E., there 
is a shingle bank that dries at low water, on which a French ship struck, and 
which very considerably narrows the channel between Imeldeb and Chaulinec. 

Besides Chaulinec, there are two smaller islands lying to the eastward of 
Quinchao Point, called Alau and Apiau ; and reefs extend off the North end of 
both of them, from the latter as far as 2| miles. At the S.W. end of Alau, close 
to the entrance of the channel, between it and Chaulinec, there is a small harbour 
or cove. 

South-eastward of Linlin and Linna, and midway between Quinchao and the 
Chaugues Islands, lie Meulin, Quenac, Cahuache and Tenquelil Isles; on 
Gahuacbe there is a round hill, 250 feet high, which commands a good view 
of the neighbouring islands.* 

Tiquia Reef, which lies from 2 to 3 miles East of Cahuache, is about a league in 
length, N.W. and S.E., half a mile broad, and dries at low water. To the S.E. 
of Chaulinec Island, lie the Desertores. 

The largest of these islands is called Talcan ; it is 9 miles long and 4 broad, 
and has a deep inlet on its S.E. side ; just outside the entrance, a bay is formed 
between the points, in which lie several patches of kelp : and about half a mile 
beyond the line of the points, there is a reef of rocks which dry at low water ; a 
small channel leads into the bay to the northward of them, which is visited for 
fishing in the season. 

• This neighbourhood is the moet coltirated part of the Archipelago ; for a ^*;^!*^*'pij!^lt 
on the coast of the main island, as well as on many of the adjoining ones, is f^^^^ ^ ^*y 


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Many scattered rocks lie off the S.W. and southern part of the island to the 
distance of a mile, and off its North point a shoal extends as far as 1 j miles, with 
from 4 to 6 fathoms on it. Two miles from the point there is a rock about 10 
feet above the sea, on which many seals rest. Vessels seeking anchorage among 
these islands should be cautious in approaching them in consequence of the rocks 
before named. 

The smaller islands, ChuHrit Chiuty Nihuely YmerquiUa, and Nayahue, do not 
afford any shelter for vessels, except off the North end of the latter, which is 
divided into two islands by a narrow channel, with from 2 to 10 fathoms in it, 
but quite useless except for boats. Some rocks lie half a mile off the S.E. 

On the main land, abreast of the S.E. point of Talcan, there is a remarkable 
sugar-loaf hill, which rises direct from the water's edge, and is thickly wooded 
to the summit ; to the southward of it there is a deep inlet, with an islet at the 
mouth of it. 

Returning again to the main island of Chiloe, Ahoni Point lies opposite to 
Detif Point. Lelbun Point lies about 4 miles from Ahoni ; and abreast of it the 
shoal widens to nearly 1 \ miles, and Is covered with patches of kelp. The ebb 
tide sets to the S.E. about 2 knots at springs. 

Aytay Point is low and rocky, and about 3 miles to the southward of Lelbun 
Point. Some rocks of a reef which runs out from it dry about 2 miles from the 

Quelan Point is a long, narrow strip of land, very low, and covered with trees. 
Three miles to the eastward of the point is the small island of Acuy. 

The channel between Quelan Point and the island of Tranqne is about a mile 
wide ; and the ebb sets through it to the westward about 2 knots at neap tides. 
After rounding the point of Quelan, by keeping along the inside of the spit it will 
lead to the small harbour or cove of Quelan, the entrance to which is about half 
a mile wide ; but the shores on either side should not be approached within a 
cable's length, at which distance there are 3 fathoms, and 13 in mid-channel. 

The cove is about three-quarters of a mile long, and the same broad, but the 
West side is shallow for a quarter of a mile ; the edge of the shoal is in a line 
with the shingle point, on the eastern side of the entrance ; but in every other 
part of the cove there is good anchorage in from 5 to 8 fathoms, with 3 fathoms a- 
cable's length off the beach. In its N.W. comer there is a narrow creek, but fit 
only for boats ; and there are three or four houses, with patches of clear land 
around them. The inhabitants were Indians, but the surrounding country seemed 
thinly peopled. To the westward the land rises suddenly to about 200 feet, and 
is thickly wooded. 

On the North shore, about 1 mile to the westward of the cove, there is a small 
bay with an island off it, which affords anchorage for a vessel in from 10 to 13 
fathoms ; the island may be approached within a cable's length, when it shoals 
suddenly from 10 to 3 fathoms. 

A ridge of hills runs through the island of Tranque, from N.W. to S.E. ; they 
are about 300 feet high in the highest part, which is nearest the N.W. end ; from 
thence Tranque Island slopes gradually towards the S.E., and terminates in a low 


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poiat called Centinela ; the North shore slopes gradually, and is well wooded ; the 
island appears thinly inhabited. 

In the Chiloe shore, abreast of the N. W. end of Tranque Island, there is a deep 
inlet, called Compu^ and a little to the eastward of it a smaller one, neither of 
which were examined. The flood tide runs close round the points, and then 
strikes across toward the North shore, outside the small island, within which 
there is very little tide ; in the narrow channel it runs at least 4 knots at neap 
tides, sweeping round the rocky points. 

Oflf the entrance to the S.W. channel, between Tranque Island and Chiloe, 
there is a small island called Chaulin, About 1 mile from Guello Point on the 
Chiloe shore, in the direction of the West point of Chaulin, there is a stony reef, 
extending in a N.W. and S.E. direction about half a mile. 

Five miles S.E. by S. of Cuello Point lies the Inlet ofHuildad; its entrance 
is only 160 yards wide, but is wider within. In the outer harbour there is good 
anchorage in from 5 to 9 fathoms : the shores are steep-to, except along the bend 
behind the shingle- spit, which is shoal for about a cable and a half from the 

The tide at the entrance runs on the springs nearly 4 knots, but inside 
it slackens considerably : should a vessel wait in Huildad for a change of wind 
or weather, the outer harbour would be the best, as N.W. gales blow very heavy 
down the upper harbour, while in the outer one a vessel would be sheltered from 
every wind. 

On the South shore stands the church, with three or four houses round it, the 
remainder (there are about twenty in all) are scattered along the sides of the 

To the southward of Huildad, between it and Chayhuao Point, a shoal extends 
above a mile from the shore ; it is nearly covered with kelp ; the tide at the outer 
edge of it runs about- 1 \ knots at springs : the shoal terminates in a long stony 
reef, which runs off Chayhuao Point to the S.E. There is a channel between the 
South end of it and the N.E. side of Caylin Island. The reef commences 
half a mile inside the outer point, and deepens suddenly to 7 and 12 fathoms ; at 
a quarter of a mile inside the reef on the Chiloe shore there are 27 fathoms within 
half a cable of the beach. The flood tide sets to the East in the channel across 
the reef at least 3 knots at springs : after passing the reef it meets the outside 
tide coming from the southward. Between Chayhuao Point and San Pedro 
passage there is a deep bay, fronted by the islands Caylin, Laytec, and Colita, 
with the small cove of Yalad to the N.W. of the latter. 

The former of these islands is 5 miles long N.W. and S.E., and about a league 
broad ; the North shore is steep-to. 

Caylin is called here '' £1 Fin de la Christiandad,*' the termination of South 
American Christendom. Here is an Indian village, the southernmost place at 
which provisions .can be procured. The village has about forty houses, conUining 
about 250 inhabitants, who were glad to supply Capt. FiuRoy's party with sheep 
and poultry in exchange for tobacco and handkerchiefs ; they seemed anxious to 
know when the king of Spain would retake the islands. 

Laytec Island is 2 leagues N.W. and S.E., and about a league m Drcaath ; 


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it is separated from Caylin by a channel 2 miles across; oflP its S.£« extreme 
there are a few rocks, but no danger appeared beyond half a mile. 

The Island of Colita is low and thickly wooded, about 4 miles long and 1} 
miles broad ; the channel between it and Chiloe is very narrow, and apparently 
not fit for a ship. Between Colita and Laytec Islands the passage is 1 J miles 
broad. The tide sets about 1 knot through the channel North of the islands. 

We return now to the Chacao Narrows ; two leagues E, of which lies the 
Island of Abtao : it is 2 J miles long and 1 mile broad; the N.W. point is the 
highest, and ends in a bluff, 80 feet high ; off which a stony flat runs two cables' 
length : close to the flat there are 12 fathoms, and a quarter of a mile to the 
N.E. 30 fathoms ; the shoal from the main runs off nearly a mile. From the 
S.E. end of Abtao a shoal extends a mile and a quarter, with 5 fathoms near 
the extremity. 

N.E. of Abtao lies the small island of Carva^ a round hummock, about 200 
yards long, surrounded by a bed of shingle ; a shoal extends a mile off its S.E. 
end. Two miles East of Carva lies the N.W. edge of the hank of Lami, always 
dry in several places ; the North side is about 2 miles long, and runs parallel to 
the shore, at the distance of about 1 J miles ; in mid -channel there are 35 
fieithoms. The passage between the islands of Quenu and Calbuco is about three- 
quarters of a mile wide, with 21 fathoms in mid-channel; the points of both 
islands are low. A rocky flat runs off the Point of Quenu^ but it does not 
obstruct the channel. 

The town of Calbuco (or El Fuerte), situated near the N.E. end of the Island 
of Quenuy on a steep slope, is about one-third of the size of San Carlos, and 
superior to any of the other settlements : the church is a large wooden building, 
but not equal to either of those at Castro ; and the land about Castro is better 
cleared and cultivated. The beach oflP El Fuerte dries at low water, about a 
cable's length, and close outside there are 6 fathoms, and a very little farther 
17 fathoms near it; the channel then deepens to 24 fathoms. The best anchorage 
is abreast of the town, about a third of a mile distant, and in from 20 to 22 
fathoms, muddy bottom. 

The Island of Puluqui is thickly wooded ; on the East side the patches of 
clear land are very few, but on the West side, where the land is lower and 
swampy, they are more numerous. 

Centinela Pointy the southern extremity of Puluqui, is a low shingle point, 
thickly wooded ; the high land rises about 200 yards in shore, and a flat extends a 
cable's length from the point : it runs nearly East and West for 3 miles, and then 
turns to the N.W.; after rounding this point about a mile to the northward there 
is a small cove, the entrance of which is very narrow, and too shallow for a boat 
after half-tide, but inside it ts about half a mile across, with 8 fathoms in one 

The Island of Chidhuapi, to the westward of Puluqui Island, is low, and nearly 
all cultivated. The Island of Tahon is composed of a number of detached hum- 
mocks of land joined together by low shingle spits, some of which are overflowed 
at high water ; it is entirely clear, except the apple trees round the houses ; the 
highest part does not exceed 150 feet. Half a mile to the N.E. of its western 


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extremity, a stony reef runs to the northward, in the direction of Uie banks of 
Lami, and is dry at low water three-quarters of a mile from the shore. The 
channel between it and the South end of Lami bank is about three-quarters of a 
mile wide, and at two cables' length from the end of the reef there are 7 fathoms. 
Another reef runs off more to the westward, and to the distance of a mile. 

Off Aulen Point, on the main shore, lies the Island of Culling about a league 
East and West, and 2 miles North and South ; between it and the S.£. point of 
Puluqui Island is the entrance to Reloncavi Sounds which extends 20 miles to 
the northward, and about 12 miles across, from East to West. 

A mile and a half to the northward of Cullin is the shoal of San Jose^ but there 
is a clear space of a league between it and Puluqui Island. 

Huar Island lies on the West side of the sound, and to the S.E. of it are two 
shoal patches, Pucari and Rosario ; the eastern side of the latter lies 3 miles 
from the island. As far as information could be obtained, there is no bottom 
with 120 fathoms throughout the sound, except in the neighbourhood of the 
islands and shoals ; anchorage may be found under both the former, and doubt- 
less along the shores on either side, according to the prevailing wind. In the 
entrance between Cullin and Puluqui Islands, there is no bottom with 60 

There is a deep inlet on the eastern side of Reloncavi Sound, by way of which 
and the river Raleon, through Todos Santos Lake, and up the Peulla, a commu- 
nication was formerly kept up with the Spanish missionaries' settlement on an 
island in the great lake of Nahuelhuapi ; but this mission was abandoned towards 
the close of the last century. 

The Volcano of Osomoy or Purraraquey or HueHauca^ is 7,550 feet above the 
sea level, and is 26 miles to the N.£. of the head of Reloncavi Sound. This 
mountain is most striking in form. It is not only quite conical from the base to 
the summit, but it is so sharply pointed that its appearance is very artificial. 
When seen from the sea, at a distance of 90 or 100 miles, the whole of the cone, 
6,000 feet in height at least, and covered with snow, stands out in the boldest 
relief from among ranges of inferior mountains. The apex of this cone being very 
acute, and the cone itself regularly formed, it bears a resemblance to a gigantic 
glass house, which similitude is not a little increased by the column of smoke so 
frequently seen ascending. It is one of the indications of what is the actual 
physical condition of the country ; and its eruptions and actions are intimately 
connected with those tremendous convulsions which we shall have to record in the 
description of Valdivia, Concepcion, and other places to the northward. 

TIDES. — ^The tide wave from the ocean sets against Chiloe, looking at the 
whole island and its vicinity from the westward. The body of water impelled round 
the South end of the large island drives the waters of the Corcovado Gulf north- 
ivard into those of the Gulf of Ancud, at the N.W. point of which they meet 
the stream impelled through the Narrows of Chacao. Very little stream is felt 
in the gulfs, but there is a considerable rise and fall, from 10 to 20 feet, and 
more or less stream along shore and among the islands. 

The tides on the East coast of Chiloe are very irregular, being much influenced 
by the winds. The time of high water at Castro, and other places, is earlier in 


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going to the southward, yet at Huildad, which is more than 30 miles South of 
Castroy it was high water three-quarters of an hour later than at Castro ; but at 
the time it was blowing a heavy N.W. gale at Huildad. The average time of 
high water in the North part of tlie Archipelago is probably about 1 o'clock, on 
full and change days, which decreases gradually to about 12^ 15' near the South 
end. It appears to be never regular, as it was found to vary half an hour in two 
following tides. 

The rise was also very irregular, as the tides often rose higher when they were 
taking off. The night tides were always higher than the day.* 

In Port Oscuro the rise and fall at one time at dead neap tides were 18 feet, 
and the next springs it only rose 1 6 ; by the marks on the shore the rise and fall 
at some high tides had been above 24 feet. The greatest rise and (M are at this 
place, and it is the best for heaving down in the gulf, or for cutting docks, if they 
should ever be required. The only other place that would answer well for that 
purpose is the outer part of Huildad Inlet, on the West side of which there are 
9 fathoms close to the shore, and the coast is composed of rock, which would 
answer better than the sand and shingle of Port Oscuro ; but the rise and dall are 
only 15 feet at spring tides, which would be too small for large ships. Port 
Oscuro may, therefore, be considered preferable. 




The republic of Chile extends from the ridge of the Andes to the Pacific, from 
the Island of Chiloe to about lat. 25° 25' S., or at Point Taltal ; but its limits 
are not exactly defined. It is thus, including Chiloe, about 1,100 miles in length, 
with an average breadth of 110 and 120 miles; area, including Chiloe, perhaps 
130,000 square miles. Its population, variously estimated at from 600,000 to 
1,500,000, is probably about 1,200,000. It is divided into nine provinces, 
including Araucania, which is still independent of the others. Santiago is the 
capital ; Valparaiso the principal port. 

There is a marked difference in the appearance and climate of the northern 

• " Round Chiloe the flood tide atreams run both ways from the S.W., and meet in the K.W. 
part of Ancud Galf. The times of syzygial high water, in all the Archipelago, vary only from 
noon to an hour and a half after noon. In December and January (1834-5), our boat ezpedltinn 
found that the night tides were always higher than those of the day, and the inhabitants said that 
was always the case in the summer. In the months of July and August, 1889, the day tides were 
higher than the night, I am quite certain ; and an old Biscayan, resident near Point Arena, told 
me that they were always so in winter; hence we may conclude that they are regularly higher at 
that time of year.^^Cop^ FUzBoy, Voyages qf the Advenhtre and BeagU^ toI. ii. p. 388. 


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and southern parts of Chile. In the South, vegetation is abundant and luxuriant ; 
in the North, the sea-coast has an irreclaimable barren appearance, very repulsive 
to an eye accustomed to woodland scenery. Chiloe, as before stated, is exposed 
to an excessive amount of rain. About Valdivia the climate is similar, and must 
always be an obstacle to cultivation. Northward of Valdivia, towards Concep- 
cion, is one of the finest countries in the world, in a very healthy climate.* 

Capt. Charles Wilkes says: — ''The climate of Chile is justly celebrated 
throughout the world ; and that of Santiago is deemed delightful, even in Chile ; 
the temperature is usually between 60^ and 75^. Notwithstanding this, it has its 
faults. It is extremely arid, and were it not for its mountain streams, which 
afford irrigation, the country would be a barren waste for two- thirds of the year. 
Rains fall only during the winter months (June to September), and after they 
have occurred, the whole country is decked with flowers. The rains often last 
several days, are excessively heavy, and, during their continuance, the rivers become 
impassable torrents. The temperature, near the coast, does not descend below 
58°. The mean temperature, deduced from the register kept at Valparaiso, gave 
63°. At Santiago, the climate is drier and colder, but snow rarely falls. On the 
ascent of Cordilleras, the aridity increases with the cold. The snow was found • 
much in the same state as at Tierra del Fuego, lying in patches about the 
summits. Even the high peak of Tupongati was bare in places, and to judge 
from appearances, it seldom rains in the highest ref^ons of the Cordilleras, to 
which cause may be imputed the absence of glaciers.'* — May, 1839.t 

In the southern part, the surface is not formed by a series of table heights (as 
in the North) reaching from the sea to the Cordilleras ; but it is a broad expan- 
sion of the mountainous Andes, which spreads forth its ramifications from the 
central longitudinal ridge towards the sea, diminishing continually, but irregularly, 
till they reach the ocean. { 

The Andes, which form so important a feature in the physical condition of 
South America, commence in the South part of continental Chile, the connected 
chain which extends northward to the farthest extreme of the continent. One of 
the southernmost peaks in this part is the volcano of Osorno, mentioned on 
page 99. The range southward of this forms a series of detached peaks along 
the East side of the Gulf of Ancud, and may be traced southward, at a minor 
elevation, to Cape Horn, which b its South termination, varying here from 5,000 
to 9,000 feet high. 

North of this, the Chilean Andes attain a mean elevation of 13,000 or 14,000 
feet, rising with an extremely sharp ascent from the plain below. 

The principal point of interest to the mariner respecting these mountains is 
their aspect from the ofiing. Capt. FitzRoy says : — " There is an effect in these 
lofty moantains, which seem to rise abruptly, amost from the ocean, that charms 
one for a time. Just before sunrise is generally the most favourable moment for 
enjoying an unclouded view of the Andes in all their towering grandeur ; for 
scarcely have his beams shot between their highest pinnacles into the westward 

• Oeographieal Joamsl, vol. ▼!. p. 819. 

t NarratiTe of the United States Exploring Expedition, vol. i. p. IM* 

X Mien's Travels in Chiie, &e., vol. i. p. 878. 


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valleys, when clouds of vapour rise from every quarter, and during the rest of 
the day, with few exceptions, obscure the distant heights."* 

The principal peaks are Osorno, Villarica, 16,000 feet; Antuco, at which is 
the southernmost Chilean pass ; Chilian, Tupongati or Tupungato,t Aconcagua,} 
Liroari, and numerous others, most of which are volcanoes more or less in activity. 
Their appearances, when observable from seaward, are noticed hereafter. In the 
ensuing chapter, a fuller description, though brief, will be found of this great 
chain of mountains. From the volcanic nature of the Andes, the whole of this 
region is liable to earthquakes. Some notice of their devastations are given in 
subsequent pages; and it may be observed, that through their agency great 
alterations may be effected, not merely in the actual condition of the harbours 
and coast, but in the state of the inhabitants. 

The rivers of Chile, as will be evident, are unimportant. In the middle and 
southern provinces they are sufficiently numerous. The North part of the 
country is scarcely watered by any ; and from the Maypu to Atacama, a distance 
of 1,000 geographic miles, all the streams and rivers together would not make so 
considerable a body of water as that with which the Rhone enters the Lake of 
Geneva, or as that of the Thames at Staines. § They are quite useless for navi- 
gation, but are serviceable for the purposes of irrigation. 

From this cause, the southern provinces are those devoted to agricultural 
industry, cattle breeding and the raising of grain being the chief employments. 
In the North part mining is the most important commercial pursuit, and for 
which Chile is best known. The mines are principally in the province of 
Coquimbo ; and at Copiap6 the principal part of the copper and copper ore is 
exported. In 1830, this department contained 103 mines — 75 copper, 24 silver, 
and 3 gold. The copper mines were worked at Checo, by an English company, 
producing the largest proportion, but silver exceeds it in amount. 

Prior to the Spanish conquest, Chile belonged to the Peruvian incas. In 1535 
Pizarro sent Almagro to invade the country; and in 1540 he sent Valdivia; the 
latter conquered most of it, except its South part, held to this day independent by 
the Araucanian Indians. Chile was divided by the Spaniards into 360 portions, 
which were given to as many individuals ; some of these estates still remain in 
their great extent. In 1810, the Chilenos revolted from Spain; from 1814 to 
1817 it was kept by the royalist forces; but in the latter year the victory of 
Maypu, gained by San Martin, permanently secured the independence of Chile.U 

Chile is almost the only Spanish republic of South America which is improving ; 
and the late vigorous measures of the government promise continued prosperity. 

* Narrative of the Adventure and Beagle, vol. il. p. 481. — '' Daring the winter months, both 
in northern Chile and Peru, a uniform stratum of clouds hangs (at no great height) over th« 
Pacific. From the mountains we had a very striking view of the great white and briliiant field, 
which sent arms up the valleys, having islands and promontories, in the same manner as the sea 
now intersects the Chonos Archipelago, or the West coast of Tierra del Fuego." — J>arwin,p, 487. 

t Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, vol. i. p. 180. 

i Aconcagua appears to be the highest in this portion of the Andes, being 83,200 feet. See 
Journal of the Geographical Society, vol. vii. p. 148. 

^ Schmidtmeyer's Travels, p. 28. 

II An interesting account of these proceedings will be found in Capt. Basil Hall's Extracts, 
&e., parti, chap. 3, dec; and the subsequent political history in the Narrative of the United 
SUtes Exploring Expedition, vol. i. chap. 11. 


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THE COASTS of the southern part of Chile, comprising the island of Chiloe, 
have been described in the preceding chapter. 

Continuing along the coast from Chiloe, northwards, the islets of Dona Sebas- 
tiana and Carelmapu require another notice, in order that their vicinity may be 
widely avoided. The tide sets strongly at times in races near them ; and when 
there is a swell from seaward with an ebb tide running, the short high sea north- 
westward of these islets is very straining to a ship, as well as dangerous to boats 
or even to small vessels. Corona Head should always be closed, but Dona Sebas- 
tiana avoided. There is water for any ship between Sebastiana and Chocoy Head, 
avoiding the sandbank half a mile from the East point of the island, as well as to 
the eastward of the Carelmapu rocks, but should not be attempted. The Carel- 
mapu islets should not be approached to the westward within a league, and it 
will be but prudent to give them a berth of more than 4 miles. 

Westward from Dona Sebastiana a sandbank extends 4 or 5 miles, and 
over it there is considerably disturbed water, rippling and swelling during a 
calm, but breaking in short high seas during a gale. About 3 miles westward 
of the island are 6 fathoms at low water on this ridge, and at 2 miles about 4 
fathoms. This ridge extends westward, in a line with Chocoy Head and Doiia 
Sebastiana: by some it is called the Achilles Bank. 

Maullin Inlet is a shallow but wild place, exposed to a heavy breaking sea, 
and unfit for vessels. It is only remarkable as being the division between the 
province of Chiloe and the country of the Araucanian Indians. 

From Godoy Point the coast trends N.W. 8 miles to Quillahua Painty thence 
N.N.W. 17 miles to Estaguillas Pointy and 9 miles beyond this to Cape Quedal, a 
projecting and bold promontory : under a height which is very conspicuous (a part 
of the range called Parga Cuesta) is a point called Capitanes. 

Most of the projecting points on the coast between Godoy and Galera 
Points, in lat. 40^, have many detached rocks about them, all close to the 
shore, and the greater part above water. The land is high and bold, without any 
outlying danger ; but at the same time without a safe anchorage between San 
Carlos and the port of Valdivia. Soundings extend some miles into the offing, 
though the water is deep. At 2 miles to the westward of this shore there are 
usually about 40 fathoms water ; at 3 miles about 60 ; and at 5 miles from 70 to 
90 fathoms, over a soft sandy and muddy bottom. 

Paint San Antonio is a high, bold headland, dark coloured, and partly wooded ; 
the land hereabouts ranges from 1,000 to more than 2,000 feet in height. 

Manzano Covey lat. 40® 33', and Milagro Cove, lat. 40° 16', may afford 
temporary shelter for small coasters. The River Bueno is navigable within, 
and flows through a valuable tract of country, but there is a bar at its mouth 
which excludes all but the smallest craft. 

Punia de la Galera is a point of land with a low hill on it, backed by the 
remarkable heights called Valdivia Hills, three in number, very conspicuous, 
pointed at their summits, and about 1,500 feet in height* Two miles and a half 
N.N.E- from Galera Point is Falsa Point, a low projection, with rocks half a mile 
ofT it, but above water ; it is in a line with the ridge of Valdivia Hills, which are 
excellent marks for this part of the coast. 


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VALDIVIA.— From Fulsa Point the shore trends north-enstward 13 miles to 
Gonzales Head, a woody, bluff cliff, immediately behind which is the port of 
Valdivia. N.£. 2| miles from Gonzales Head, is Punta del Molino, or Mill 
Pointy off which some rocks lie about 3 cables' length. Mill Point is rather 
steep, and covered with wood; between these is the entrance to Valdivia, a 
port apparently spacious and really secure, but the portion affording sheltered 
anchorage for large ships somewhat confined. 

On the second point from Gonzales Head stands a battery. Fort San CarloM^ 
which may be passed close ; on the opposite shore, nearly East of San Carlos, is 
Niebla Castle^ off which there are 3 fathoms at 2 cables' length, 5 fathoms at 3. 
In mid-channel there are about 7 fathoms water, from which the depth 
gradually increases seaward. Amargos Pointy which is rather less than a mile from 
Niebla Castle, is low, and has a small battery on it, close to which there is 
deep water. At 3 cables' length South of Amargos Point, and a cable's length off 
shore, is a rock, which is awash, and should be carefully avoided. About 1 mile 
to the southward of Amargos Point, at the further side of a well-sheltered cove, 
3 or 4 cables square, is the Corral Fort. 

In a line from Corral Fort to Piqfo Pointy and midway between them, there is 
a sandbank that increases gradually ;* this bank, the Manzera Shoal, is dangerous 
to a stranger, because there is but little to indicate its situation in the appearance 
of the water, which is usually discoloured during the ebb tide by that brought 
down the river. This bank, which extends nearly across to Corral Fort, and has 
shallow water on it, detracts materially from the goodness of Valdivia Harbour. 

From an island 300 feet high, called Manzera, to the south-eastward of this 
bank, there are three river-like inlets, extending southward, south-eastward, and 
to the north-eastward : the latter is a river, but winding and full of banks, and 
navigable only for small vessels assisted by a local pilot. About 9 miles up this 
river, on the South bank, is the town of Valdivia. Water is too plentiful, the 
climate being almost as rainy as that of Chiloe. Provisions are cheap, but not 
abundant. The best anchorage is in the cove near Fort Corral, and the beat 
watering place is in that cove. 

'' The town of Valdivia, formerly dignified with the appellation of city, disap- 
pointed our party extremely. It proved to be no more than a straggling village 
of wooden houses, and the only building even partially constructed of stone was a 
church. The town is situated on the low banks of the river Calla-calla, and is so 
completely buried in a wood of apple trees, that the streets are merely paths in an 
orchard. Around the port are high hills, completely covered with wood,t and 
they attract clouds so much, that almost as great a quantity of rain falls there as 
on the western shores of Chiloe. Several rivers empty themselves at this one 
mouth, which is the only opening among hills that form a barrier between the 
ocean and an extensive tract of champaign country, ' Las Llanos,' reaching to the 

* In evidence of this increase the excellent plan drawn tip by Don Joee Moraleda, In 1768, 
does not show this shoal, but giTes a depth of 20 or SO feet over the space. In other respecto the 
plan seems to be as minate in its detail as the recent sarvey. 

t <« I was informed that there is coal in many places about Valdivia ; but I did not see any.'* — 
FUzRoy, p. 401. In a subsequent part of this work we shall give some notices of the existence 
of coal on the shores of the Pacific. 


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Cordillera of the Andes.* The quantity of matter brought down by this outlet is 
deteriorating the harbour as before mentioned." 

Since the penod of the Beagle* s visit, just cited, February, 1835, the town has 
been laid in ruins by an awful earthquake, November 7, 1837. While the survey- 
ing expedition was here, one of very great intensity was felt, but not so great as 
the later one. A most interesting account of this terrible phenomenon, which took 
place February 20, 1835, is given by Capt. FitzRoy and Mr. Darwin — (Voyages 
of the Adventure diXid Beagle^ vol. ii. pp.402 — 418, and vol. iii. pp. 368—381). 

VALDIVIA was founded by Don Pedro de Baldivia, or Valdivia, in 1551. 
Eight years afterwards the Araucanians defeated the Spanish troops, and destroyed 
the town. In 1643 it was taken by the Dutch, who were soon compelled to 
abandon it. The fortresses erected by the Dutch, afterwards strengthened by the 
Spaniards, appear at the present day as if of importance, but are in reality almost 
in ruins. The authority of the republic of Chile is limited to a small space around 
the town, the country beyond being possessed by the unsubdued Araucanians. 

Although the plan of the port and river made by the Beagle*8 officers was 
exactly correct in 1835, it ought not to be trusted either for the river banks, or 
for the limits of the Manzera shoal, for more than a few years. The land about 
Valdivia ranges to 1 ,000 feet in height, and everywhere wooded. 

Bonifacio Head is about 8 miles North of Gonzales Head ; it is bold, and has 
deep water near : 2 miles off it are 20 fathoms. Thence the coast trends North, 
about 20 miles to Chanchan Covey at the mouth of the River Mehuin, a tolerably 
good anchorage for coasters in summer only. 

At Cocale Head, 8 miles North of Chanchan Point, the coast changes its 
character, becoming low and sandy, with occasional cliflTs ; the high lands, which to 
the southward of this point bordered the ocean, here retreat 5 or 6 miles, leaving 
a level and apparently fertile country, as far as abreast of Mocha Island. This 
piece of coast lies N.W. by N., and extends nearly 60 miles. Off its whole extent 
there are comparatively shoal soundings, 10 fathoms at 2 miles* distance, 20 at 
4 miles, everywhere a sandy bottom : it is therefore dangerous to approach at night 
without the lead going ; and a heavy surf breaks everywhere, even in fine weather. 

The rivers ToUen and Cauten,f though said to have been navigable formerly, 
are scarcely distinguishable at 2 miles' distance from the shore; and are both 
closed by bars. Ranges of cliffs extend for several miles at a time along this 
shore, and on their level summits may often be seen troops of the unconquered 
Araacanian Indians riding lance in hand, watching the passing ships. t The 
summits of the Andes are visible for a great distance northward and southward, 
whenever the weather is clear. 

About 7 miles N.W. of the Gauten stands Cauten Head, ifa latitude 38^ 40', a 
bold, cliffy headland, about 300 feet in height, with 20 fathoms 2 miles off shore, 
and apparently steep- to. From thence cliffs, more or less broken, extend 10 

• FitsBoy, pp. 897-8 ; Darwin, pp. 863 ; Morrell, pp. 168—170. 

t The city of Imperial was founded by Valdivia in 1560, and stood on the Cauten «»ver. It 
haibeeo obliterated by the snccettfiil Araucanians, and near its site now dwell the remarKaDie 
Boroa tribe.— ^^iJoy, p. 402. 

♦ FitsRoy, p. 401. 


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miles to a point bearing East from Mocha, distant 20 miles : Smiles N.N.W. 
from this point is Cape Tirua, the point of the main land nearest to Mocha. 

Cape Tirua has a small islet close to it, and in a little bay just to the north- 
ward is the mouth of the River Tirua, whence a communication used to be kept up 
by the Indians of the main land with those who lived on Mocha Island, by means 
of rafts (Balsas) and large canoes. The channel between Mocha and the main 
land is perfectly free from danger ; the depth varying regularly from 10 to 20 
fathoms, over a sandy bottom. The tide runs about a knot during springs, the 
flood to the northward. There is no sheltered anchorage on the part of the coast 
that has been described ; but 9 miles north of Cape Tirua there is a cove which 
may afford temporary protection, and possibly a good landing place. 

MOCHA ISLAND, a prominent landmark for navigators, is a lofty, hilly 
island, about 7 miles long and 3 miles broad, its summit 1,250 feet above the sea. 
Its South extreme is abrupt, but the North end descends gradually into a long, low 
point. In clear weather it may be seen at 30, 40, or even 50 miles' distance ; but 
soundings are no guide in its neighbourhood. They are irregular, and indeed 
not to be got, except very near the land. It should not be approached too closely, 
however, on its North, West, or South sides, as dangerous rocks lie off it, those 
from the South end extending 3 miles out. During the flood tide these rocks are 
particularly dangerous, as it sets toward them from the south-westward. Some- 
times the ebb stream is scarcely felt for days together, and then the flood stream 
has the effect and appearance of a continual northerly current. 

Previous to the eighteenth century it was inhabited by Araucanian Indians, 
but they were driven away by the Spaniards, and since that time a few stray 
animals have been the only permanent tenants ; the anchorages are indifferent, 
one on the N.E., the other near the S.E. point, called by the Spaniards Anegadiza, 
The landing is bad, and there are now no supplies to be obtained except wood, 
and with considerable difiiculty water, but of excellent quality. The anchorage 
near Anegadiza is good in northers, in front of the first little hills, in 6 or 7 
fathoms sand : the other, at the English creek, in 13 to 20 fathoms, over a sandy 
bottom ; nearer the shore is rocky. Were there any adequate object in view, a 
good landing place might easily be made, and there is abundant space on the 
island for growing vegetable produce, as well as pasturing animals.* 

From Cape Tirua to Tucapel Point is a wild, exposed coast, totally unfit to be 
approached : it is incessantly lashed by the S.W. swell, and has no kind of shelter. 

At the N.W. end of a long low beach, on which there is always a heavy surf, is 
MoLGUiLLA Point, on which H.M. ship Challenger was wrecked in 1835.t 
Eight miles N.W. of Molguilla Point is Point Tucapel, a low, projecting rocky 
point, flat-toppedy and dark coloured. The interior country hereabouts is very 

• Mocha aflTorded water and fresh provision to Mr. Wafer and Capt. Davis, in 1686. There 
were then some Spanish Indians on the island, and they killed a great number of guanacoes. 
See also Colnett's Voyage, 1798, p. 30. 

f H.M. frigate Challenger, Capt. Seymoar, was proceeding from Rio de Janeiro towards 
Talcahnana, to resume her station on the West coast of America. She was going N. by E., with 
strong wind from W.N.W. during the day, when, at 8 p.m., she hauled to the wind for the night 
There was a thick haze around; and, about 10 o'clock, April 18tb, 1835, she struck on the 
rocks on Molguilla Point, and became immoveably fixed. Her head swung to seaward, to which 
circumstance the safety of the crew is owing. The mizei^mast only was cut away, and the 


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fertile and beautiful. Hill and dale, woodland and pasture, are everywhere inter- . 
spersed, while numerous streams plentifully irrigate the soil. 

TucAPEL Head is a high, bold hill, 7 miles N.N.W. of Tucapel Point. Between 
Tucapel Head and Millon Point, a rocky projecting point, 2 miles farther North, 
there is a cove, into which the River Leubu runs. Coasters may find shelter there 
if the wind does not blow strong from N.W., but it has no defence from that 
quarter. Boats can enter Leiibu at half-tide, when there is not much swell on 
the bar. In former days there was a settlement called Tucapel Viejo at the 
mouth of this river. 

Camero Bay is a wild, exposed bight, unfit for shipping, but Yannas Cove, at 
its northern end, affords anchorage for coasting vessels of small size. Camero 
Head is a cliffy bluff. From thence to Cape Rumena and Lavapie Point, the 
shore is bold and cliffy, and backed by high land, well wooded : it is a deep- 
water shore. Cape Rumena is recommended by Capt. Beechey as a landfall in 
going to Concepcion. 

Santa Maria Island is comparatively low and dangerous, on account of 
numerous outlying rocks. It has a cliffy coast, and somewhat irregular currents. 
Between it and Lavapie Point there are two particularly dangerous rocks under 
water, on which the sea does not always break ; one is 1 J miles North of the East 
side of that point, the other is half a mile North of the same point, around which 
there are several other rocks ; but the sea always breaks on them. The outer 
one above mentioned, called Hector Rock, requires especial care, as it lies so near 
mid-channel, and exactly in the track that most vessels would incline to take. 
Except some rocks half a mile South and S.W. of Cochinos Point, the southern 
extremity of Santa Maria, there is no danger in this passage to Arauco Bay. 

There is tolerably good anchorage in Luco Bay, but not quite sheltered from 
N.N.W., and liable to heavy squalls off the heights over Cape Rumena when it 
blows strong from the south-westward : there are 5 fathoms water over good ground. 

For 3 or 4 miles on each side of the River Tubul the coast is steep and cliffy, 
with high down- like hills. Tuhul River was formerly capable of receiving vessels 
of considerable burthen^-vessels of 200 tons could pass up nearly a mile ; but 
the earthquake of 1835 raised its bar so much as to prevent access to more than 
boats ; but that the bar will remain is unlikely. The neighbouring country is very 
beautiful and fertile.* 

uichon were not cast out. With the exception of two of the crew, all got to shore, and much of 
the eqaipcQent was saved. After remaining fortified against the Indians, who, however, behaved 
in a friendly manner, they all got safely to Concepcion. While encamped on the sandy l)each, 
they got beef and mutton, water, and abundance of most excellent potatoes. Of the cause of her 
loss it is difficult to conjecture, except on the score of a current to the South and East. She was 
out of her reckoning more than 40 miles ; and such a current is not to be expected here, for the 
general set of the water is to the nortiiward, excepting near the land. Perhaps the effects of the 
earthquake had not subsided, though it occurred four months before. It was not so considered on 
land. The fate of the Challenger may afford a useful lesson of caution to the mariner on this now 
barren coast. — FitzBay, p. 451 ; Nautical Magazine, 1835, pp. 789—796. 

• In the river Capt. FitzRoy saw the remains of the Hersilia whaler, captured by the pirate 
Benavides. He was a most remarkable character, a native of Concepcion, taken prisoner at the 
battle of Maypu, in 1818, and for his crimes sentenced to be shot ; but, though terribly wounded, 
had the fortitude to feign death, and escaped. He then entered the Chilian army, »«<\^f p^T?'^^ 
became pirate. The particulars of this singular roan are given by Capt. Basil Hall, m nis cxuracta 
from a Journal, &c., vol. i. chap. 22. 

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Off the N.W. point of the long cliff West of Tubul River, and 1 mile from the 
land, is a rock called El Frayle ; but the sea always breaks on it, unless the water 
is unusually still. In southerly winds there is good anchorage throughout Arauco 
Bay, but, except in Luco Bay, it is everywhere exposed to northerly winds and sea. 

Laraquete Beach extends 10 miles to the N.£. from Tubul Cliffs ; and 2 miles 
off it are from 8 to 10 fathoms water, over a sandy bottom. The River Carampangue 
is not navigable at its mouth, though deep and rather wide 2 miles inland : its 
exit is choked by sandbanks. 

Arauco, famous in Spanish song and history, is simply a small collection of 
huts, covering a space of about 2 acres, and scarcely defended from an enemy by 
a low wall or mound of earth. It stands upon a flat piece of ground, at the foot of 
the Colocao heights, a range of steep, though low hills, rising about 600 feet above 
the sea. In the sixteenth century, Arauco was surrounded by a fosse, a strong 
palisade, and a substantial wall, the work of the Spaniards. This was the first 
place assaulted by the Indians, after their grand uuion against the Spaniards, at 
the end of the sixteenth century. It was surrounded by the hostile Indians, who 
at first unsuccessfully attacked the fortress ; but the Spaniards, seeing that they 
must be overpowered, escaped in the dead of the night. Thus began the famed 
insurrection which caused the destruction of seven towns, and drove every Spaniard 
from Araucania. S.E. of Santa Maria Island, there is a tolerable roadstead, with 
from 4 to 8 fathoms of water, over good ground : but the only place now sheltered 
is quite close to the South point of the above island. Formerly there was good 
anchorage between this point and Delicada Point, but the earthquake of 1835 
raised the land nearly 1 J fathoms ; so that where there was a depth of 5 fathoms in 
1884, the Beagle found only Sf. 

From the River Laraquete to Coronel Point, the coast runs N. by W. } W., high 
and bold, free from outlying dangers, and affording temporary anchorage for small 
vessels, or at the least shelter for boats, in three or four coves ; and at the mouth 
of the little River Chivilingo affords shelter for small craft, except during S.W, 
gales. Puerto Viego Cove, immediately South of Colcura, is equally exposed 
to both the S.W. and N.W. The little cove just to the northward of Colcura, 
called Lotilla, is the best of the three, but it also is open to the S.W. 

In passing round Santa Maria, to the eastward, a wide berth must be given to 
the shoal which now runs off towards the S.E. ; it is not prudent to go a cable's 
length to the northward of a line drawn E.S.E. | E. from the southern point of the 
island, until 3 miles eastward of that point, where there are but 4 fathoms at low 
water. From thence the shoal turns to the northward round Delicada Point, off 
which the water deepens suddenly to 10 and 20 fathoms : there is anchorage to 
the N.E. side of the island during southerly winds. Water is good and abundant, 
there is also plenty of wood and vegetables, but little else at present. 

Off the N.W. end of the island are many rocks, one of which, the Dormidoy lies 
3 miles offshore, and the Vogelborg 4 miles.* They are sometimes undistinguish- 

• John Bentolck Bock, A Btatement— upon the veracity of which considerable doabt has 
been thrown— of the wreck of the John Ren wick, on a rock off Santa Maria, was forwarded to 
the Lords of the Admiralty by her commander, Mr. John H. Bell. He states that in the night 
of July 4, 1848, his vessel struck on a rock, in lat. 37° S., Ion. 74° 44' 30" W., and became a total 


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able by breakers ; and it is not safe to pass between them and the island^ neither 
is it prudent to approach the western side of Santa Maria nearer than a league. 

The entrance of the great River Bio Bio is not accessible, on account of its 
sandbanks, and the S.W. swell : its situation, together with that of Port San 
Vicente and Concepcion Bay, is well pointed out by the remarkable pointed hills, 
about 800 feet high, called the Paps of Bio Bio : there is no danger near them 
except rocks close to the shore. Port San Vicente is an exposed bad anchorage. 

Close off the Heights of Tumhes, the western promontory of the fine bay of 
Concepcion, there are a few straggling rocks, some under, some above water, near 
Lobo Point, Pan de Azucar, and Tumbes Point ; this piece of coast trends North 
6 miles from Port San Vicente. N.W. from Tumbes Point there is a rock above 
water, called Quebra 011a, or Break-pot Rock ; between it and the point it is not 
prudent to pass. 

CONCEPCION BAY.— Between Tumbes and Loberia Head, 64 miles to the 
N.E., lies the entrance to the bay of Concepcion, the finest port on this coast ; 
being about 6 miles deep and 4 miles wide, having anchorage ground everywhere, 
and abundant space, well sheltered. 

Quiriquina Island, lying North and South, 3 miles long by nearly 1 mile wide, 
gives shelter from northerly winds : and near Arena Point, at its S.E. extreme, 
is a good place for ships to anchor temporarily. 

Near the principal anchorage off Talcahuana are the Belen, the Choros, and 
the Manzano Banks, but their positions are clearly shown on the chart. On the 
Belen there is generally a beacon (or red buoy). 

About If miles W.S.W. from Lirquen Point, at the S.E. part of the bay, Capt. 
Beechey found a rock, or rocky shoal, with only 15 feet on it. The Beagle's boats 
searched for it in every direction near the place indicated by him, but could not 
succeed in finding less water than 9 fathoms. Nevertheless such authority as that 
of Capt. Beechey is not to be doubted, and ships should avoid that part of the 
bay, till the exact situation of this danger is decided : it is not at all necessary to 
stand over so far towards the East shore when working up to Talcahuana. 

Coal is abundant near Concepcion, and has been noticed by almost every 
writer ; it will be therefore needless to cite authorities. Up the river Aldarien, 
between Talcahuana and Old Penco, are the coal works of Dr. Mackay. The coal 
near the surface, which is what has hitherto only been used, is similar in appearance 
to English cannel. There are some objections to it ; but still its abundance and 
facility of working are of very great importance to this part of the country.* 

The following are the directions given by Capt. Beechey, R.N., and will be 
well understood from the foregoing by Capt. FitzRoy : — 

During the summer months southerly winds prevail along this coast, and 
occasion a strong current to the northward. It is advisable, therefore, to make the 
land well to the southward of the port, unless certain of reaching it before night. 

wreck in 24 minutes. The position was ascertiuned by several bearings, taken in a small boat. 
If it really exists, it is a formidable danger, bearing N.W. 12 miles from Point Lavapie, and 
W.&W. 6 miles from the North end of Santa Maria Island. Those well acqoainied with the locality 
dbbelleve the statement, and consider that it was the Dormido Rocks on which the wreck took 
place. It is necessary, however, to mention it here. 

• As before stated, we shall give some remarks npon coal in a subsequent page- 


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Punta Rumena appears to me to be a preferable landfall to that of St. Mary's 
Island, which has been recommended, as it may be seen considerably further, and 
has no danger lying off it. But should the latter be preferred, it may be known 
by its contrast to the main land, in having a flat surface and perpendicular cliffs, as 
well as by a remarkable peaked rock off its N.W. extremity.* If the port cannot 
be reached before dark, it would be advisable to bring to the wind, between Saint 
Mary's and the Paps of Bio Bio, as there will almost always be found a southerly 
wind in the morning to proceed with. In doing this, take care of the Dormido 
Bank, lying off the N.W. end of St. Mary's. Having daylight to proceed by, 
close the land near the Paps of Bio Bio ; and, keeping If miles from shore, keep 
along the coast of Talcahuana Peninsula. 

Should the Paps of Bio Bio be clouded, the land about them may still be 
known by the opening into St. Mary's Bay, and by the land receding in the 
direction of the Bio Bio River, as well as by high rocks lying off the points. The 
capes of St. Vincent's Bay, on both sides, are high, and terminate abruptly, 
and the South one has a large rock lying some distance off it. The northern 
cape is tabled, and has a small tuft of trees near its edge. Table land extends 
from here to Quebra Ollas. The Paps, viewed from the westward, appear like an 
island ; the wide opening of the Bio Bio being seen to the southward, and St. 
Vincent's Bay to the northward. The high rocks off the capes, at the foot of the 
Paps, are an additional distinguishing mark ; and, when near enough, the rock 
of Quebra Ollas will be seen lying off the N.W. end of the peninsula. About 
one-third of the way between Quebra Ollas and St. Vincent's Bay there is a large 
rock, called the Sugar Loaf. All this coast is bold, and may be sailed along at 
1 4 miles' distance. Quebra Ollas Rock lies the farthest off shore, and is distant 
exactly 1 J miles from the cliff; it may be rounded at a quarter of a mile distance 
if necessary, but nothing can go within it. 

Having passed Quebra Ollas, steer to the eastward, in order to round Pajaros 
Ninos as closely as possible, and immediately haul to the wind (supposing it from 
southward) for a long beat up to the anchorage. There are two passages into 
Concepcion, but the eastern is the only one in use. On the eastern shore of this 
channel there is no hidden danger until near Punta Para and Lirquen, when care 
must be taken of the Para Reef, the Penco Shoal, and the Roguan Flat. When 
near the two latter, and when the southern head of St. Vincent's Bay comes open 
with Talcahuana Head, it will be time to go round ; and it is not advisable at any 
time to open the northern cape of St. Vincent's Bay, distinguished by a tuft of 
trees upon it, with Talcahuana Head. These two landmarks a little open, and the 
pointed rock at the South extremity of Quiriquinaa little open with Point Garzo8, 
the N.E. extremity of the peninsula, will put you on a 2^ fathom shoal. There 
is a safe channel all round this shoal ; but ships can have no necessity for going 
to the southward or eastward of it. 

On the Quinquina side of the channel avoid the Aloe Shoal (situated one-sixth 
of a mile off the first bluff to the northward of the low sandy point), by keeping 

• This rock bears S. 63° 8' W. true, from the Look-out Hill, Talcahuana, and is 24' 4%" W. of 
it. Its latitude is 32*" 58' 10' S., as found by Mr. Foster. 


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the N.W. blufFofEspinosa Ridge open a sail's breadth (5°) with Talcahuana Head,* 
and do not stand into the bay between the Belen Bank and Fronton Reef (off the 
South end of QuiriquinaJ ; yet, as there are no good cross marks for the shoal, a 
stranger had better not run the risk, particularly as there will be found ample space 
to work between this line and the Para Reef. When the hut on the Look-out 
Hill is over the N.W. extremity of Talcahuana village, and the Fort San Joao bears 
W, by S. I S., the Belen is past,t and the anchorage may be safely approached 
by a proper attention to the lead. Be careful to avoid drifting down upon the 
Belen, either in bringing up in squally weather or in casting ; and remember, that 
on approaching it the soundings are no guide, as it has 8 fathoms close to it. 
There is no passage for ships inside the shoal, except in case of urgent necessity, 
There is no good landmark for the channel. 

Men of war anchor in 6 or 8 fathoms : Fort St. Augustine, S» 45° W, true ; 
Fort Galvez, N, 5T W. true ; Talcahuana Head, S. 7° 39' W. true. Merchant 
vessels usually go quite close in shore, between the Shag Rock, a fiat rock near 
the anchorage, and Fort Galvez, and anchor in 3 or 4 fathoms ; in doing this, 
until the Shag Rock is passed, keep a red mark, which will be seen upon a hill 
South of Espinosa Ridge, open with Talcahuana Head. A good berth will be 
found in 3 fathoms, mud, close off the town, the eastern slope of Espinosa Hill 
in one with Talcahuana Head. At Talcahuana, moor open hawse to the north- 
eastward ; but many think this unnecessary, as the holding ground is so excellent, 
that it is sufficient to steady the ship with a stream. 

Should it happen by any accident that ships, after having passed Quebra Ollas, 
should not be able to weather Pajaros Ninos (supposing the wind to be from the 
northward), or should be set upon the northern shore of Talcahuana Peninsula, 
off which lie scattered rocks, they may run through the channel between 
Quinquina and the peninsula. In doing this it is safest to keep close over on 
the island side, but not in less than 7 fathoms water. On the opposite shore a 
reef extends, eastward of the Buey Rock, to the distance of 700 or 800 yards 
from the foot of the cliffs ; the mark for clearing it is Fort St. Augustine open 
with all the capes of Talcahuana Peninsula : but this danger will generally show 
itself, except the water be particularly smooth, as there is a small rock near its 
outer edgBf which dries at half- tide. t 

Having passed the Buey Rock, haul a little to the westward, to avoid a reef off 
the S.W. extremity of Quinquina, and be careful not to stand into eithfer of the 
sandy bays of Quinquina, between this point and the range of cliffs to the north- 
ward of it, or towards the peninsula, so as to bring the Buey Rock to bear 
eastward of Norths true, until you have advanced full half a mile to the south- 
ward, when the lead will serve as a guide. If it be found necessary to anchor, 
haul into Tumbes Bay on the peninsula, and bring up in 7 or 8 fathoms mud. 

* Thete two remarkable blaffs are situated to tbe left of Talcahuana, EspiuoBa being furthest 

t This mark, it must be remembered, carries you well clear of the Belen, and in bringing them 
on, take care not to shoot too far over Talcahuana Head, or to shoal the water on that side to 
leM than 5 fathoms. .. . ^,. 

t The narrowest distance between this rock and the reef on Quiriqulna sides is exactly nait a 


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This is the northernmost bay, and may be known by several hats and a large store- 
house. When through, give the South and S.W. points of Quinquina a berth of half 
a mile; and, having passed them, steer over towards Lirquen, until the two heads 
(Espinosa and Talcahuana) are open ; then pursue the directions before given. 

If vessels put into Concepcion for supplies, the anchorage of Talcahuana is 
unquestionably the best, on account of being near the town ; but if wood and 
water only be required, or if it be for the purpose of avoiding bad weather from 
the northward, &c., the • anchorage under the sandy point of Quinquina will be 
found very convenient ; it is in many respects better sheltered than Talcahuana, 
particularly from the northerly, north-westerly, and north-easterly winds. The 
depth is 12 fathoms, the bottom of a blue clay, and the marks for the anchorage 
South point of Fronton S. 76° 20' W. true ; Punta Arena, N. 45° E. true ; one- 
sixth of a mile off shore ; the sandy point being shut in with Point Darca, and 
the South end of Quiriquina in one with a hut which will be seen in a sandy bay 
in the peninsula. On rounding the sandy point (Punta de Arena), which may 
be done quite close, clear all up, and the ship will shoot into a good berth. 
Wood may be procured at this island at a cheaper rate than at Talcahuana, and 
several streams of water empty themselves into the bay, northward of the point. 

The common supplies of Talcahuana are wood, fresh beef, livestock, flour, and 
a bad sort of coal. We found stock of all kinds dear, and paid the following 
prices : for a bullock, twenty-nine dollars ; sheep, three dollars ; fowls, three reals 
each, or four-and-a-half dollars a dozen ; nine dollars per ton for coal, although 
we dug it for ourselves. 

It is high-water^ full and change, at Talcahuana, at 3*" 20' ; and the tide rises 
6 feet 7 inches ; but this is influenced by the winds.* 

Earthquakes are very common in this region, and must considerably affect the 
general prosperity of the country. We have before alluded to the awful earth- 
quake of February 20th, 1835. Its effects were particularly ruinous to Concepcion. 
It is largely and excellently described by Capt. Fitzjloy, and also by Mr. Darwin. 
" At 10 in the morning of the 20th of February, very large flights of sea- fowl were 
noticed passing over the city of Concepcion, from the sea-coast towards the interior. 
At 40 minutes past 11, a shock of an earthquake was felt, slightly at first, but 
increasing rapidly. During the first half minute, many persons remained in their 
houses; but then the convulsive movements were so strong, that the alarm 
became general, and they all rushed into open places for safety. The horrid 
motion increased ; people could hardly stand ; buildings waved and tottered : 
suddenly an awful, overpowering shock caused universal destruction ; and, in less 
than six seconds, the city was in ruins. The stunning noise of falling houses ; 
the horrible cracking of the earth, which opened and shut rapidly and repeatedly 
in numerous places ; the desperate heart-rending outcries of the people ; the 
stifling heat ; the blinding, smothering clouds of dust ; the utter helplessness and 
confusion ; and the extreme horror and alarm, can neither be described nor fully 
imagined." About half an hour afler the shock, — the sea having retired so much 
that vessels which had been lying in 7 fathoms water were aground, and every 

* Beechey's Voyago to the Pacific, part 2, appendix, pp. 643-5. 


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rock and shoal in the bay were visible, — an enormous wave was seen forcing its 
way through the western passage, which separates Quiriquioa Island from the 
main land. This terrific swell swept the steep shores of everything moveable 
within 30 feet (vertically) from high-water mark, and then rushed back again in 
a torrent, which carried everything within its reach out to sea, leaving the vessels 
again aground. A second wave, and then a third, apparently larger than either 
of the two former, completed the ruin. Earth and water trembled ; and exhaustion 
appeared to follow these mighty efforts. 

Thb earthquake was felt at all places between Chiloe and Copiapo, between 
Juan Fernandez and Mendoza, an area of 700 by 400 miles : and Mr. Darwin 
says, *< We can scarcely avoid the conclusion, however fearful it may be, that a 
vast lake of melted matter, of an area nearly doubling in extent that of the 
Black Sea, is spread out beneath a mere crust of solid land." One of the perma- 
nent effects of the earthquake has been to raise the level of the land. It has 
been shown that the island of Sta. Maria, off Arauco Bay, was raised 9 feet ; and 
it is almost certain, that there has been an uplifting of the bottom of Concepcion 
Bay, to the amount of 4 fathoms, since the famous convulsion of 1751. Other 
notices on thu subject will be found elsewhere^— (See also Voyages of the 
Adventure and Beagle^ vol ii. pp. 402 — 418 ; iii. 368 — 381.) 

The highest land In the vicinity is Mount Neuke^ 1,790 feet in height, and 
5 miles eastward of Loberia Head. Four miles to the northward of this head, 
which is dark coloured, and has several straggling rocks close about it, at Cullen 
Point, the coast again trends short round East and then South, so as to form the 
small Bay of Coliutnoy where coasters may anchor in security, but there is not 
much shelter for large ships during northerly winds. It has always been the scene 
of smuggling transactions. The best anchorage is close under the height over 
Coliumo Head, where Rare Cove offers good landing for boats, and a convenient 
watering place. 

From Coliumo Bay, 16 miles North, to Boquita Point, and thence 40 miles 
farther, in a similar direction, to Carranza Point, the coast assumes an unbroken 
line, without any place for shipping. It is a deep-water shore ; the land rises to a 
considerable height, and is partially wooded. Fox Bay does not deserve the name. 

Among the rocks at Carranza Point boats find shelter occasionally ; it is a 
projecting and rather low part of the coast, and therefore to be avoided : for 
about 10 miles on each side of the Point there is a sandy or shingle beach. 

Seventeen miles N. by £. nearly, from Carranza Point, is Cape Humos, a 
remarkable headland projecting westward, and higher than any other land near 
that part of the coast ; it is bold-to, and there are no outlying dangers in the 

Four miles N.N.E. from Cape Humos there is a remarkable rock, called the 
Church from its appearance, 1 mile N.E. of which is the entrance of the River 
Maule. There is no mistaking the entrance, for on the South side the land is 
high and the shore rocky ; while on the North side a long, low, sandy beach 
extends beyond eye-sight. Not far from Church Rock a remarkable bare space 
of gray sand may be seen on the side of a hill, but generally the heighu between 
Cape Humos and the Maule are covered with vegetation and partially wooded • 


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the highest hills in the vicinity range from 1,000 to 1,300 feet; those actually on 
the coast between Humos and the river, from 500 to 900 feet. 

But for the bar, which shuts up the River Maule, there would be a thriving 
trade to this place ; and notwithstanding this disadvantage, the little town of 
Canstitucion, on the South bank of the river, If miles from its mouth, may flourish 
hereafter, by the help of small steamers, and some engineering assistance at the 
bar. A most productive country surrounds it, abounding with internal and external 
wealth, and a fine river communicates with the interior, and is navigable far 
inland ; besides which, the best pass through the Andes (discovered in 1805) is not 
far from the latitude of the Maule, being nearly level, and even fit for waggons, the 
only pass of such a description between the Isthmus of Darien and Patagonia.* 

A ship may anchor, in fine weather, in from 10 to 15 fathoms, sandy ground, 
from 2 to 3 miles N.W. of the Church Rock : there is no hidden danger, but an 
extensive sandbank North of the river shelves out to seaward, and should have a 
wide berth. Behind this sand, evidently formed by the detritus brought down the 
river, there is a flat, several miles in extent ; this flat in front of the high ground 
reaches to within 5 miles of a very remarkable valley, called the Falsa Maule, 
from its having been taken for the place of that river. 

Thence (lat. 35° 6') the coast trends North to Lora Pointy and thence nearly 
N. by W. to Topacalma Painty a distance of 55 miles, without an anchorage or 
any outlying danger ; the shore is high and bold, and there is deep water every- 

Bucalemo Head is a bold cliff 200 feet high ; and 2 miles West of this head 
lies the Rapel Shoal, sometimes but erroneously called Topacalma Shoal, This 
shoal extends near a mile, and has three rocks above water, on which the sea 
breaks in all weathers. North from Bucalemo Head is Toro Point, close off 
which are a few rocks. The coast trends north-eastward from Toro Point, forming 
a bay as far as the River Maypu, which disembogues at a point 10 miles from 
Toro point ; a bar extends across its mouth, and stretches for nearly 2 miles to the 
northward, parallel to the shore. Three miles North of the Maypu is San Antonio 
Cove, a small place affording indifferent shelter to a few coasters, and immediately 
under a pointed hill. Two miles North of this hill there is a diminutive cove 
called La Bodega ; but large boats frequent it occasionally. 

Cartagena bea^ch, 5 miles from ,the Maypu, is quite exposed to S.W. winds. 
Tres Cruces Point is low and rocky : and N.W. 5 miles from it is White Rock 
Point, so called from the remarkable appearance of the white rock, a good 

Behind Algarroba Point, 3 J miles North of White Rock, there is a cove, where 
small coasters find temporary shelter during southerly winds. About Algarroba 
Point the coast is cliffy, but the cliffs are dark-coloured ; the land in the neigh- 
bourhood is high and rather barren, of a dark colour, generally a brownish hue. 
In the distance the Andes, stretching from North to South, show their majestic 
height, and appear much nearer than they are in reality. 

Gallo Point is a steep cliff, 7 miles North of Algarroba Point ; between them 

• FltzRoy, p. 426. 


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are two sandy bights, divided by a rocky point. At the comer of the northern 
bight, called Tunqueny and close under Gallo Point, a boat might find shelter in 
a northerly wind, but there is no place for a sailing-vessel. Steep cliffs extend 
6 miles North of it. Quintay Cave affords no good anchorage. From thence the 
sleep cliffs extend 3 miles to Curauma Heady a remarkable promontory, and one 
that demands special notice, becanse it is generally the first land made out 
distinctly by ships approaching Valparaiso from the southward. The head itself 
is a high cliff; above it the land rises steeply to the two high ranges of Curauma, 
the higher one being l,830^feet above the sea, and 2 miles inland N.E. of the 

Usually, when first made out from seaward, the high part of the range of 
Curauma appears directly over the Head, and, if tolerably clear weather, the 
Campana (Bell) de Quillota is seen in the distance, 6,200 feet high. If the Andes 
are also visible, Aconcagua will at a glance be distinguishable by its superior 
height of 23,200 feet. 

Projecting 4 miles W.N.W. from the heights of Curauma, the high land over 
Curauma, is the well-known point Curaumilla, often, but incorrectly, called 
Coroumilla : this point, low by comparison with the neighbouring land, though 
not so really, is rugged and rocky ; two or three islets lie close off it. From 
Curaumilla Point, the N.W. extreme of the land forming Valparaiso Bay bears 
N.E. by N., distant 7 miles ; between them is a deep angular indentation of 
the coast, bordered by scattered rocks on the West side, and steep cliffs on the 

VALPARAISO is now one of the principal commercial places on the western 
coast of South America. It has been described by numerous travellers, whose 
accounts will afford a history of its progress. It lies in the southern part of the 
bay, behind Piedra Branca, or Angeles Point, on which stands the lighthouse. 

One of the most graphic, and at the same time recent, travellers who have 
portrayed it is Dr. Von Tschudi, from the translation of whose work we transcribe 
the following : — 

*' The impression produced by the approach to Valparaiso on persons who see 
land for the first time after a sea voyage of several months' duration, must be very 
different from that felt by those who anchor in the port after a passage of a few 
days from the luxuriantly verdant shores of the islands lying to the South. 
Certainly none of our ship's company would have been disposed to give the name 
of * Vale of Paradise ' to the sterile, monotonous coast which lay outstretched 
before us. 

'' The town of Valparaiso looks as if built on terraces at the foot of the range 
of hills (which continue rising in undulating outlines, and extend into the interior 
of the country, when they unite with the great chain of the Andes). Northward 
it stretches out on the level sea shore, in a long double row of houses, called the 
Alraendral (almond grove) ; towards the South it rises in the direction of the 
hills. Two clefts or chasms (quebradas) divide this part of the town into three 
separate parts, consisting of low, shabby houses. These three districts have been 
named by the sailors after the English sea-terms, • Fore-top,' * Main-top,* and 

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* Mizen-top.' The numerous quebradas, which all intersect the ground in a parallel 
direction, are surrounded by poor looking houses. The wretched, narrow streets 
running along these quebradas are, in winter, and especially at night, exceedingly 
dangerous, Valparaiso being very badly lighted. It sometimes happens that 
people fall over the edges of the chasms and are killed, accidents which not 
unfrequentl y occur to the drunken people who infest these quarters of the town. 

** Viewed from the sea, Valparaiso has rather a pleasing aspect; and some neat 
detached houses, built on little levels artificially made on the declivities of the 
hills, have a very picturesque appearance. 

** The scenery in the immediate background is gloomy ; but, in the distance, 
the summit of the volcano, Aconcagua, which is 23,000 feet above the level of 
the sea, and which, on fine evenings, is gilded by the rays of the setting sun, 
imparts a peculiar charm to the landscape. 

^'The bay is protected by three small forts. The southernmost, situated 
between the lighthouse and the town, has five guns. The second, which is 
somewhat larger, called < £1 Castillo de San Antonio,' is in the southern inlet of 
the bay. Though the most strongly fortified of the three, it is, in reality, a mere 
plaything. In the northern part of the town, on a little hillock, stands the third 
fort, called I £1 Castillo del Rosario,' which is furnished with six pieces of 
cannon. Tha churches of Valparaiso are exceedingly plain and simple, undis- 
tinguished either for architecture or internal decoration. 

*^ The custom-house is. especially worthy of mention. It is a beautiful and 
spacious building, and, from its situation on the Muele (Mole), is an object which 
attracts the attention of all who arrive at Valparaiso. In the neighbourhood of 
the custom-house is the exchange. It is a plain building, and contains a lai^ 
and elegant reading-room, in whi^ may always be found the principal European 
newspapers. In this reading-room there is also an excellent telescope by 
Dollond, which is a source of amusement, by affording a view of the comical 
scenes sometimes enacted on board the ships in the port. 

"The taverns and hotels are very indifferent The best are kept by French- 
men, though even these are incommodious and expensive. The apartments, 
which scarcely contain the necessary articles of furniture, are dirty and often 
infested with rats. In these houses, however, the table is tolerably well 
provided, for there is no want of good meat and vegetables in the market. The 
second-rate taverns are far beneath the very worst in the towns of £urope« 
-^pp. 21-4.) 

" The mole in front of the custom-house is exceedingly dangerous ; in stormy 
north winds it is impossible to pass along it. From the shore a sort of wooden 
jetty stretches into the sea to the distance of about 60 paces. This has been 
sometimes damaged and destroyed by the sea. The harbour-masters' and men- 
of-wars* boats go on the right side, those of merchantmen on the left. Day and 
night, custom-house officers perambulate the port to prevent smuggling, which, 
however, is but partially successful. The police of Valparaiso is as good as in 
i^y part of South America. Among the most remarkable objects is the moveable 
prison, a number of large covered waggons. 


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** Valparaiso is yearly increasing in extent and in the number of its inhabitants.; 
but the town makes little improvement in beauty. That quarter which is built 
along the quebradas is certainly susceptible of no improvement, owing to its 
unfavourable locality, and it is only the newly-built houses on the heights that 
impart to the town anything like a pleasing aspect. My visits to Valparaiso did 
not produce a very favourable impression upon me. The exclusively mercantile 
occupations of the inhabitants, together with the poverty of the adjacent country, 
leave little to interest the attention of a mere transient visitor." * 

Capt. Wilkes, of the United States Exploring Expedition, says*— 

'M have had some opportunity of knowing Valparaiso, and contrasting its 
present state with that of 1821 and 1822. It was then a mere village, composed, 
with but few exceptions, of straggling ranchos. It has now the appearance of a 
thickly settled town, with a population of 30,000, five times the number it had 

** They are about bringing water from one of the neighbouring springs on the 
bill, which, if the supply is sufficient, will give the town many comforts. 

** It was difficult to realize the improvement and change that had taken place in 
the habits of the people, and the advancement in civil order and civilization. On 
my former visit, there was no sort of order, regulation, or good government 
Robbery, murder, and vices of all kinds, were openly committed. The exercise 
of arbitrary military power alone existed. Not only with the natives, but among 
foreigners, gambling and knavery of the lowest order, and all the demoralising 
effects that accompany them, prevailed. 

<< I myself saw on my former visit several dead bodies exposed in the public 
squares, victims of the cuchUlo, This was the result of a night's debauch, and 
the fracas attendant upon it. No other punishment awaited the culprits than the 
remorse of their own conscience. 

** Now, Valparaiso, and indeed all Chile, shows a great change for the better ; 
order reigns throughout ; crime is rarely heard of, and never goes unpunished ; 
good order and decorum prevail outwardly everywhere : that engine of good 
government, an active and efficient police, has been established. It is admirably 
regulated, and brought fully into action, not only for the protection of life and 
property, but in addmg to the comforts of the inhabitants."t 

The LIGHTHOUSE of Valparaiso stands on Piedra Blanca or Angeles Point, 
about 3 cables' length from the Baja Rocks, and 1^ miles from the custom-house 
of Valparaiso. It stands 311 feet above the sea, and was first lighted on the 1st 
of August, 1838. 

Hie tower, whidi is constructed of wood, and painted white, b 21 feet square 
at its base, and at the height of 56 feet, or the foot of the lantern, it is 10 feet 
square. The cylindric iron lantern is 12 feet high, and the light (which is Jixed) 
may be seen in fine weather at the distance of 23 miles. 

To vessels coming from the southward th3 lighthouse will first appear behind a 
bluff point. When it opens from this point it will bear N.E., and may be then 

• Travels in Peru duping the Yeais 1888-42, by Dr. J. J. Ton TBohudi, translated by Thomaslna 
Bom, London, 1847, pp. 21—88. 
t KamiiTe of the United States Sxpkffing Bxpedition, vol. i. pp. 1Q6-7. 


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steered for, on which course a vessel will clear Point Curaumilla, and its dangers, 
as &r as Piedra Blanca, or the point of Valparaiso Bay. To this point the berth 
of a mile should be given until the lighthouse is brought to bear South, when all 
its dangers will have been cleared. 

The rocks called the Baja lie £.N.£. \ £• from the above point of the bay : 
they are always above water, and are about 55 yards from North to South, and 27 
from East to West. After passing the Baja rocks the vessel may freely enter the 
bay, and anchor in from 12 to 30 fathoms sand and mud. 

Vessels bound to Valparaiso should make the coast in about 33^ 20' S. lat, 
during ten months of the year, as the wind prevails then to the southward ; but 
it should be observed that, even in fine weather, the mountains will be seen before 
any part of the coast can be distinguished, so as to enable a vessel to make the 
port. Among those the volcano of Aconcagua is conspicuous, from its great 
elevation, and from its summit being almost always covered with snow. The 
highest or western part of it has an irregular outline marked by several peaks, but 
the S.E. part is entirely plain and even. When the summit of the volcano (which 
is 30 leagues from Valparaiso) bears N.E. by E. \ E., it will be on the line of 
bearing of the lighthouse. 

There is, at 9 leagues from Valparaiso, another remarkable height, called the 
Bell of Quillota. The middle part of its broken summit is called the Bell, and 
when it bears E.N.E. it will be on the line of bearing of the lighthouse. As 
these two peaks are the first seen in making the land, they serve well to direct a 
vessel to the lighthouse. 

Vessels which make the coast to the southward of 33^ 20^ S., and run along 
shore within 5 or 6 leagues, will not see the lighthouse till Curaumilla Point bears 
E. by N. 

Coming from the northward, and having made Quintero Point, which is 18 
miles N. by W. from the lighthouse, care must be taken not to approach too near 
to the coast in the night, as some sunken rocks lie S.S.E. 4 miles from the point. 
There is a channel between them, but it is too dangerous to be attempted without 
a skilful pilot. 

Bearmgs (by compass) and distances from the lighthouse : — Quintero Point, 
N. « E.; Concon Point, N.N.E. ; Volcano of Aconcagua, N.E. by E. J E; Bell 
of Quillota, N. Q&^ 45' E. ; the Baja, always above water, E.N.E. \ E. 

The Look'Out, from whence signals* are made, b 3,940 yards inland from the 
lighthouse, and 1,072 feet above the sea.t 

The following remarks on making the land about Valparaiso are by Mr. George 
Peacock, late Marine Superintendent of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, 
and appeared in the Nautical Magazine for June, 1847 : — 

''All vessels bound to Valparaiso should endeavour to make the land about 
Curaumilla Point, which lies 7 miles S.W. of Valparaiso lighthouse; and by no 

* It was stated in the Valparaiflo Mercory that Mr. Monat had established a time-ball at his 
Obsenratoiy in the N.£. angle of the Castle of 8t Joseph, for the purpose of enabling vsnels to 
rate their claaDomBten,^Nauiical Magazine, 1848, p. 768. 

f These directions are from the Hydrographer^ office, Admiralty, February 21 st, 1890, and are 
a corrected version of those given by the captain of the port, Senr. Paul Delano, June let, 1836 ; 
they are also yery similar to those by Gapt VancouTer, 1796, (voL ilL p. 456,) and others. 


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means approach the coast in the neighbourhood of the Rapel or Topacaltna Reefs, 
which lie 15 leagues S. | E. of Curaumilia Point , and 7 leagues N. f E. of 
Topacalma Paint, as the heavy S.W. swell sets right down upon this highly 
dangerous part of the coast, as well as the prevailing current, which sometimes 
runs upwards of a knot an hour round Topacalma Point towards the reefs ; and in 
thick weather, on approaching the land at night, the greatest attention should be 
paid to the deep-sea-lead, which ought to be kept ready on deck for immediate 
use, as soundings may be obtained at from 2 to 6, and even in some places 12 
miles off the land, which is not generally known. 

** I have had soundings in the parallel of the Rapel or Topacalma Reefs in 
94 fathoms (coarse sand) ; 14 miles West of Bucalemo Head, and 6 miles off 
Curaumilia Point, you will strike soundings in 100 fathoms, also off Valparaiso 
Point, where the bottom is muddy. I have on several occasions taken a steamer 
into Valparaiso and Talcahuana in a thick fog, by close attention to the deep-sea- 
lead; and I believe many of the vessels which have been wrecked near Valparaiso, 
from time to time, might have been saved, had the officer in charge of the deck 
made use of this highly necessary precaution ; for nearly in every case I have 
heard of, they had got too close in before they were aware of it, in light winds at 
night, or in thick weather by day, and when the land was suddenly seen, or the 
breakers heard, it was too late ; for the heavy S.W. swell hurried them on to 
instant destruction. 

'' A revolving light upon the hummock of Curaumilia Point would be very 
desirable, for the light on Valparaiso Point is a miserable affair, and strangers are 
apt to be led astray by fires on shore. The lighthouse would also be a con- 
spicuous object in closing the land, to make it out in thick hazy weather. 

" South of Curaumilia Point, about 8 leagues, and from 4 to 5 miles off White 
Rock Point, a sunken rock is said to exist, but I think its existence is very 
doubtful ; nevertheless, it would be advisable not to come in with the land to 
the southward of the parallel of 33^ 15' S. in the summer, nor 33^ S. during the 
winter months, i.e., in June, July, and August. I have known the current in 
these months set to the southward a mile an hour at intervals, and northerly gales 
are very prevalent during this season of the year." 

In entering the Bay of Valparaiso with southerly winds, care must be 
taken to reef in time, for however moderate and steady the southerly winds 
may be in the offing, squalls blow from the high land into the bay, which are 
not to be disregarded. When it is blowing fresh outside from the southward, 
so as to require one reef in the topsails on a wind, probably treble-H!^fed 
topsails without the mainsail will be quite sail enough in the bay ; when it 
is blowing strong in the offing from the same quarter, close-reefed topsails, 
over reefed courses, or over reefed foresail only, will be quite as much sail as 
can be carried. Should a ship find it blowing too hard to work up to an 
anchorage, she had better stand out, and remain under easy sail off Angeles 
Point till it moderates, which it does generally in a few hours. 

In the event of a ship approaching with a northerly wind, likely to blow 
strong, she should keep an offing till the wind has shifted to the westward of 
N.W., which it always does after some hours of strong northerly winds: the 


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best anchorage is close off Fort San Antonio, or in the S.W. comer of the 
bay; but, occupied as that part always is, a ship must take as good a berth 
near that part as she can find. During summer the closer in shore the better ; 
and during winter, on the West side of the bay, outside other vessels, if it can be 
managed, so as to be safe from their driving during a northerly gale, which sends 
a heavy sea into the bay. 

A norther, as it is called, often passes over without doing damage, but at 
intervals the effects are most disastrous, and all the ill-secured or ill-placed 
vessels are driven ashore.* Some prefer riding near the shore, on account of 
the undertow, but in such a position you risk having vessels driven upon you, 
besides feeling the sea very much. In the summer, southerly gales blow in 
furious squalls off the heights. Clear weather abd a high glass presage strong 
southerly winds : cloudy weather, with a low glass, and distant land, such as 
the hill over Papudo, called Gobernador, or Cerro Verde, and the heights over 
the little port of Pichidanque, called La Silla, or on the coast northwards, being 
remarkably visible, are sure indications of northerly winds. f 

Capt. Basil Hall, who was here in December, 1820, says: — '' The climate was 
generally agreeable in the daytime, the thermometer ranged from 62^ to 64^ ; 
and, at night, from 54P to 62^ ; between half-past 10 and 3 in the day, however, 
it was sometimes unpleasantly hot. Whenever the morning broke with a per- 
fectly clear sky overhead, and the sun rose unconcealed by haze ; and when, also, 
the horizon in the offing was broken into a tremulous or tumbling line, as it is 
called, a very hard southerly wind is sure to set in about 10 o'clock, blowmg 
directly over the high ridge of hills encircling the town. The gusts, forced into 
eddies and whirlwinds, bore the sand in pyramids along the streets, drove it into 
the houses, and sometimes even reached the ships, covering everything with dust. 
About sunset those very troublesome winds gradually died away, and were suc- 
ceeded by a calm, which lasted during the night. From sunrise til! the hour the 
gale commenced, there never was a breath of wind ; or, if the surface of the bay 
was occasionally ruffled, it was here and there by those little transient puffif, 
which seamen distinguish by the name of cats'-paws. 

* Capt. Wilkes olMerres : ^ The northers are greatly dreaded, although, I think, without moch 
cause. One of them, and the last of any foree, I had myself experienced in June, 1822 (whiUt in 
command of a merchant vessel). In it eighteen sail of vessels were lost Bat since that time 
vessels are much better provided with cables and anchors, and what proved a disastrous storm 
then would now scarcely be felt I do not deem the bay so dangerous as it has the name of 
being; The great difficulty of the port Is its confloed space, and, in the event of a gale, the sea 
that lets in is so heavy, that vessels are liable to come in contact with each other, and to be 
more or less injured. The port is too limited in extent to accommodate the trade that is carried 
on in it Various schemes and improvements are talked of, but none that are feasible. The depth 
of water opposes an almost insuperable obstacle to its improvement by piers. The enterprise of 
the government, and of the inhabitants of Valparaiso, is, I am well satisfied, equal to any under- 
taking that is practicable. 

<' From the best accounts I am satisfied that the harbour is filling up, from the wash of the hills. 
Although this may seem but a small amount of deposition, yet aftier a lapse of sixteen years, the 
change was quite perceptible to me, and the oldest residents confirmed the AmsL The andiorage 
of the vessels has changed, and what before was thought an extremely dangerous situation, is now 
considered the best in the event of bad weather. The sea is to be feared rather than the wind, for 
the latter seldom blows home, because the land immediately behind the city rises in abrupt Mils, 
to the height of from 800 to 1,500 and 2,000 feet"-— Vol. i. p. 166. 

t FitsRoy, Narrative, &c., vol. U. p. 426. 


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^* On the other hand, when the morning broke with clouds, and the atmosphere 
was filled with haze, a moderate breeze generally followed during the day, some- 
times from one quarter, sometimes from another ; and on such occasions we were 
always spared the annoyance of the southerly gales. 

''These varieties take place only in summer. During the winter months, that is, 
when the sun is to the northward of the equator, the weather is very unsettled. 
Hard northerly gales blow for days together, accompanied by heavy rains, and 
a high swell, which, rolling in from the ocean, renders the anchorage unsafe for 
shipping, and by raising a vast surf on the beach, cuts off all communication 
between the shore and the vessels at anchor. These gales, however, are not 
frequent. At that season the air is cold and damp, so that the inhabitants are 
glad to have fires in their houses."* 

The N.£. side of Valparaiso Bay is formed by alternate beaches and rocky 
points, as far as that of Concon, behind which there is a cove, where boats 
can land in moderate weather. Three miles N.N.W. from that point are the 
Concon Rocks^ always above water. These rocks should have a wide berth 
given to them during light winds, as there is usually a swell and a northerly 
current setting towards them from the southward. 

Quintero Bay is roomy, and during southerly winds sheltered ; it is quite 
open to the N.W. Liles Pointy the West extreme of Quintero Bay, may be 
passed close. This bay affords spacious and good anchorage in the summer 
months, some even prefer it to Valparaiso : the best anchorage is in 13 fathoms, 
half a mile East of Liles Point. Some shelter during northerly winds, and 
fresh water, when the season is not very dry, may be found at the N.E. corner 
of the bay, under Ventanilla Point. There is a little shoal or rocky patch on 
the West side, nearly 2 cables* lerigth off shore, and 4 cables from the junction 
of the cliff and sandy beach at the S.W. corner ; this shoal, called Tortuga, 
does not watch, and requires caution in approaching the shore closely. The 
land between this l)ay and Concon is rather high and rugged ; and all this 
coast has rather a barren and weather-beaten aspect, here and there only any 
trees being visible. During the winter and spring alone is there verdure near 
the sea-coast. 

N. by W. 4 miles from Liles Point, and If miles West of Horcon Head, are 
the Quintero Rocks^ above water, but low, straggling, and dangerous ; they 
are of a dark colour, and spread over half a mile of space. Horcon Head has 
a remarkable hole in the extreme point of the cliff: the cliffs are dark coloured, 
aboat 80 or 100 feet high, and the land immediately behind them, though higher, 
is level. Inland are considerable heights, and in the distance the Cordillera of 
the A odes. 

E.N.E., 1 mile from Horcon Head, there is a landing place between projecting 
rocks : and good water and plenty of fish may be procured, as well as fire- wood, 
and fresh provisions in small quantities. The roadstead is good during southerly 
winds, that is, in effect, during nine months out of the twelve ; and there are 
10 to 15 fathoms of water half a mile North of the landing place, over a clean 

• ExtracU from a Journal, &c., by Capt, Basil Hall, R.N., chap. 1. 



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sandy bottom. This bay was somewhat unaccountably omitted in all the Spanish 
charts of this coast. 

Papudo Port is 13 miles from Horcon * between them there is no anchorage, 
the shore is steep, and free from outlying dangers* The high pointed hill over 
Papudo, called Oobemador or Cerro Verde^ 1,020 feet in height, is an unfailing 
landmark for this small open bay. Zapallar Pointy at the West extreme of this 
bay, is low, and must have a berth of nearly half a mile. It is safe during nine 
months of the year, but quite the reverse during the other three. There is a fresh- 
water stream close to the landing place: wood and small quantities of fresh 
provisions may be obtained, but not cheaply. 

Five miles to the northward of Papudo, behind a low rocky point, is the mouth 
of the River Lxgua^ not navigable, uor affording anchorage for any but the 
smallest craft. Point la Cruz de la Ballena and Muelles Point are steep and 
bold- to. The trend of the coast from Ligua River to Ballena Point is W.N.W. 
for 5 miles, then it trends about 5 miles to the northward, and finally West 
4 miles to Muelles Point, which is low, dark-coloured, and rocky. The shore 
round Muelles Bay is sandy, with low rocky points, backed, as all the coast is, 
by high land. 

From Muelles Point to the western point of Herradura or Pichidanque Bay^ 
the broken, dark-coloured, rocky shore runs nearly N. by W. \ W. for 8 miles. 
The high saddle-topped hill of Santa Ynez^ overlooking Pichidanque, is an 
excellent mark : it is 2,000 feet in height, and only 2 miles from the harbour. 
The best anchorage here is close to the little island of Locos, on its East side, 
in about 6 fathoms water. Care must be taken to avoid a rocky patch, 
called the Casualidady very dangerous at low water for vessels drawing above 
10 feet water, as there is neither ripple nor weed upon it in fine weather, 
though it breaks when a swell sets in rather heavily. This rock, on which 
there is a depth of 15 feet at low water, is in a line between the North end of 
Locos Island and a gully at the N.E. part of the harbour, through which a 
river ruiis from the neighbouring village of Quilimari, distant 4 cables* length 
from the islet. The tide rises 5 feet at springs. On full and change days it is 
high water at 9 o*clock. Pichidanque is used occasionally for loading copper or^, 
or for smuggling affairs ; there are only a few fishermen's huts near the harbour, 
but at the village of Quilimari, behind the nearest hills, supplies can be obtained. 
It is not a good place for watering.* 

In sailing along the coast, near Pichidanque, care should be taken to avoid & 
few outlying rocks, which may be seen by day close to Salinas Point, and those 
which lie half a mile offshore, 3 miles N. by W. J W. from LoCos Islet. Nine miles 
N. by W.f W. from the same islet is Ballena Point, dark-coloured, broken, and witlk 
an islet close to it : it is the extreme point of a ridge of land, extending southward. 

From Ballena Point the coast trends N. by W. J W. to Penitente Pointy n 
low rocky point ; between which and Tabla, a projecting and dangerous poiht 

* ** QoiUniari to Conchall. The country became more and more baireta. la the valleys tbei^ 
was scarcdy sufficient water for any irrigation ; and the intermediate land was quite bare, not 
supporting even goats. In the spring, after the winter showers, a tbin pasture rapidly springs up^ 
and the cattle are then driven down from the Cordillera to graae for a short time." — JDarwin, p. 41 7 


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4 miles to the N.W., lies Conchali Bay, an exposed roadstead, seldom used but 
by smugglers ; the anchorage and landing are both bad, except in one little cove 
at the North part of the bay. There is an outlying rock awash, about 1} miles 
South of Tabla Point, and N.N.W. } W., nearly 3 miles from Penilente Point ; 
there are also two islets, and some rocks above water in the bay* It is a wild 
place, exposed to much swell. 

All the coast, except a few corners, is steep, high, and barren, but picturesque 
in the outline* 

North of Tabla Point there is an indentation of the coast, at the N.E. comer of 
which, 5 miles from Tabla Point, is a cove called Chigua Loco : thence to the 
River Chuapa is a nearly straight piece of cliffy coast, extending N.N.W. 7 miles ; 
and thence to Maytencillo is 22 miles in a similar direction without a break. 

Maytendllo* is a little cove, fit only for Balsas; at certain times a boat may 
land, but there are many hidden rocks* Its situation is pointed out by a large 
triangular space of white sand, having an artificial appearance, on the face of the 
steep cliffs which here line the coast; this mark is made by the sand that is 
drifted by the eddy winds against the North side of the cove. 

From that cove the coast extends in an unbroken line 33 miles N.N.W. to the 
next opening, which is that of the River Limari ; the opening here looks large 
from seaward, but it is inaccessible. The coast near Limari is steep and rocky. 
For 10 miles North of Maytencillo the coast is composed of blue rocky cliffs 
about 150 feet high ; the land above the cliffs rises to between 300 and 400 feet, 
and then about 3 miles further in-shore the range of hills runs from 3,000 to 
5,000 feet in height. 

Mount Talinay is a remarkable hill, 2,300 feet high ; it is 3 miles from the 
coast, and 7 miles southward of the river ; it is thickly wooded on the top, but the 
sides are quite bare. 

About 14 miles northward of Limari there is a small bay, with a sandy beach 
in the North corner, but a heavy surf. From this bay to the northward the coast 
is rocky and broken ; and about 8 or 9 miles further we come to a small rocky 
peninsula, with a high sharp rock rising from its centre, and a small deep cove South 
of it, without landing. This cove is called the Tortoral de Lengua de Vaca. 

The Lengua de Vaca is a very low rocky point, rising gradually in-shore to a 
round hummock about a mile to the southward of the point. There are rocks 
nearly awash about a cable's length from the point, and at 2 cables' length 
distant there are but 5 feet. After rounding the Lengua, the coast turns 
short to the S.E., into Tongoy Bay, and is rocky and steep for about 2 miles 
from the point, where there are 15 fathoms about half a mile from the shore. 
About 3 miles from the point a long sandy beach commences, which extends the 
whole length of that large bay as far as the Penin$ula of Tongoy : the South part 
of the beach is called Playa de Tanque, and the eastern side of the bay Play a 
de Tongoy. Off the S.W. end of the beach near Tanque there is anchorage 

• The ranarks on the cosst ©f Northern Chile, which foUow, are the woik of Mr. SalWan, 
Lieut. B.N., and were originaUy given In the Appendix to the Voyages of the BjjvteiPyVfP*. 
FitsBoy, pp. «00— 231. They have heen repeated, with emendation*, in the BmlUng Direction! 
for Boath Amerlet, part ii. 


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about half a mile from the shore, in from 5 to 7 fathoms ; the bottom is a soft 
muddy sand in some places, but in others it is hard. With a southerly wind the 
bay is smooth, and the landing good, but a heavy sea sets in with a northerly 
breeze. This anchorage was once frequented by American and other whalers. 
The village, which is called the Rincon de Tanque, consists of about a dozen 
ranchos. The only water to be had is brackish ; and about 2 J miles to the £.N.£.« 
where there is good water, the landing is generally very bad, besides which the 
water is some distance from the beach. 

All the way from Tanque to the peninsula of Tongoy there is anchorage in any 
part of the bay within 2 miles of the shore, in from 7 to 10 fathoms, sandy 
bottom. There is also good anchorage with a northerly wind, for small vessels, 
to the S.W. of the peninsula, abreast of the small village on the point, with the 
Lengua bearing W.N.W., in 4 fathoms, sandy bottom, with clay underneath ; 
but no vessel, however small, should go into less than 4 fathoms, as the sea breaks 
inside of that depth, when blowing hard from the northward. Even large vessels 
might find a little shelter there with the wind to the northward of N.W. With a 
strong south-westerly breeze the sea across the bay would render any vessel 
unable to remain at anchor in this berth. There is a small bay on the North 
side of the peninsula, which is completely sheltered from southerly winds. In 
the S.W. corner of this bay there is a small creek, into which, when smooth, 
boats can go : it runs about a mile inland, and near its head there is fresh water, 
for which the whalers sometimes send their boats. The village of Tongoy consists 
of half a dozen small houses, built on a high point on the South side of the 
peninsula. To the northward of Huanaquero Hill there is a deep bay, well 
sheltered from southerly and westerly winds, but open to the northward ; between 
this and Port Herradura there is no place fit for a vessel. 

From Huanaquero Point it is 13 miles to the narrow entrance of Herradura 
de Coquimbo, a small land-locked harbour, separated from Coquimbo Bay by 
an isthmus of about a mile in breadth. Vessels, however, of any size, may freely 
enter with a leading wind, by keeping the southern shore on board, in order to 
avoid a rock off Miedo Point ; and when in may anchor in any depth they pleaset 
on a bottom of sand covering very tenacious marly clay. In the S.W. angle they 
will find perfect shelter from all winds, and the water so smooth, that they may 
carry on any repairs with the utmost security. The Beagle lay there some weeks 
refitting, her crew encamped on the beach ; but found neither fresh water nor wood. 

COQUIMBO. — If the lead be kept briskly going, when approaching either the 
eastern shore or the bottom of Coquimbo Bay, the chart will be a sufficient 
guide, as the water shoals gradually towards the beach, which is low and sandy. 
It is necessary, in going in, to give Pajaros NiHos Islets and Rocks a berth in 
case of falling calm, lest you should be obliged to anchor, for the ground near 
them is rocky ; and for those reasons vessels are advised to pass outside of them. 

The western shore of the bay is high and bold, particularly at its northern end, 

.oflf which lies an insulated rock, the PelicanoSy having 4| fathoms within a boat's 

length of it. On the point there is a platform with two guns, and a hut that 

answers the purpose of a guardhouse, but they are scarcely visible, having much 

the appearance of the rock on which they stand. About one-third of a mile 


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from this point to the southward there are 9 fathoms at half a cable's length off 
the rocky beach, and then another point projects a little from the line of coast, 
having also two guns mounted on an open platform, and a shed amongst the 
rocks, more visible than those on the outer point. 

The usual anchorage for strangers is in 8 fathoms, with the extreme North point 
of the western shore N.W. | VV., the church at Serena (or town of Coquirabo) 
N.E., and the houses near the landing place S.W. \ W, The best anchorage is 
in 6 fathoms, in the S.W. angle of the bay, and the holding ground excellent ; 
but a swell usually rolls in and produces such a surf along the beach that landing 
is difficult, except in a few sheltered spots. The winds at Coqiiimbo are in general 
moderate and southerly, or chiefly off shore during the greatest part of the year, 
and are interrupted for short intervals only in winter by strong breezes from the 
N.W. In short, the weather is so uniformly fine, the climate so charming, and 
the atmosphere so clear, as to have given to the city the name of La Serena. In 
approaching this port vessels must guard against being swept to the northward by 
the prevailing swell current and wind, which almost always come from the south- 
west. The land is remarkable, and easily recognised by the views in the chart ; 
and Signal Hitl^ being upwards of 500 feet, can be easily made out at a moderate 

The Town of Coquimbo, or La Serena, is clean, and tolerably well laid out. 
The streets are straight, and intersect each other at right angles, like other 
Spanish towns. The houses, to each of which is attached a garden, are shaded by 
myrtle trees. The town, and its grounds, are supplied with water by canals, cut 
from the river on its North side ; and, by its irrigation, increases the fertility of 
the place. The houses are mostly of sun-dried bricks, and only one story in 
height; so built in consequence of the earthquakes, to which all Chile is subject. 
There are several churches and other public buildings. The vicinity abounds in 
mines of silver and copper. Much copper and copper ore are exported, as also 
are chinchilla skins, &c.* Mr. Darwin says that '* the town is remarkable for 
nothing but its extreme quietness ;" but all travellers unite in lauding the kind- 
ness and hospitality of the inhabitants.f 

This is a much frequented port, though one great inconvenience attends it, 
which is, that the fresh water is not good and difficult to be procured, the 
watering place being at a lagoon on the eastern side of the bay ; wood is also 

* Hiers; American EncyclopsBdia ; Morrell's Narrftti?e, &c., p. 114; Capt Basil Hall's Ex- 
tractP, &e., chap. 26. 

t One of the mo«t efngnlar features of the neighbourhood is up the valley, and is thus 
described by Capt. Basil Hail :— *< On the 18th November, 1822, our friendly host accompanied 
one of the officers of the Conway and me in a ride of about 25 miles up the valley of Coquimbo; 
during which the most remarkable thing we saw was a distinct series of what are called paralld 
roAds, or shelves, lyiug in horizontal planes along both sides of the valley. They are so dis|>osed 
as to present exact counterparts of one another, at the same level on opposite sides of the valley ; 
beinijc formed entirely of loose materials, principally water-worn rounded stones, from the size of a 
not to that of a man's head. Each of these roads, or shelves (of which there are three distinctly 
characterized sets), resembles a shingle beach ; and there is every indication of the stones having 
been deposited at the margin of a lake, which has filled the Talley up to those beds.'' Without 
parsuittg Capt. B. Hall's notices of these singular formations, and which were fully described by 
hliD, we may state that Mr. Lyell concluded from the account that they must have been formed 
by the sea, during the gradual rising of the land. Mr. Darwin, who examined these Mcient s^ 
margins, coincides with Mr. Ly eU's conclusions :-•" In every case it must be rememi>er«d, that tho . 


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scarce, and far from the anchorage. Plenty of Bsh may be caught with the seine ; 
and fresh provisions are cheap and plentiful. There is no landing*at the town of 
Coquimbo, in consequence of the heavy surf, except on Balsas ; but its distance 
from the landing place under Signal Hill is only 6 or 7 miles, where horses and 
conveyances are readily obtained, and when there the kindest hospitality more 
than makes up for the distance. It contains about 7,000 inhabitants.* 

Teaiinos is a bold rugged point, the land behind it rising in ridges, which 
gradually become higher, as they recede from the coast to Cobre Hill^ which is 
6,400 feet high. The point, which makes the North extremity of the bay in 
coming from the northward, is a low rocky point, called Poroto ; about 4 miles 
to the northward of which is the port of Array an^ or Juan SoldadOj but it does 
not deserve any name, it being merely a small exposed bight. A little to the 
northward of Cobre Hill is another mountain in the same range, called Juan 
Soldado, t3,900 feet high ; its northern side is steep, and at its foot lies the small 
unsheltered bay of Osorno, which is about half a mile long, but it would not 
afford any shelter for the smallest vessel : about half a mile to the northward of 
the bay there is a hamlet, consisting of a few small houses, called Yerba Buena. 

The Pajaros are two low rocky islets, lying about 12 miles from the coast. 
A little to the northward of Yerba Buena, a small hamlet, there is a small island, 
called TilgOf separated from the shore by a channel about a cable*s length broad, 
but it is only fit for boats. The island, except when very close, appears to be 
only a projecting point ; there is a large white rock on its West point. 

About 3 miles to the northward of Tiigo Island is the port of TortaralUlo^ 
which is formed by a small bay facing the North, with three small islands off the 
West point. In coming from the southward, the best entrance for small vessels 
is between the southernmost island and the point, where there is a channel about 
a cable's length wide, with from 8 to 12 fathoms water ; the dry rock off the 
point on the main land should not be approached nearer than half a cable, as a 
sunken rock lies nearly that distance from it. There is no channel between the 
islets, as the space is blocked by breakers. A vessel may anchor about half a 
mile from any part of the beach, in from 6 to 8 fathoms, sandy bottom ; the 
landing is not good ; the best is on the rocks near the entrance, but nothing could 
be embarked from thence ; the East end of the beach is the best for that purpose. 
From the land to the northward running so far westward, it is not likely that a 
heavy sea would be caused by a northerly gale. 

Temblador is a small cove in the N.E. side of Tortoralillo, but the landing 
there is worse than on the other beach, and it is not so well sheltered. About 4^ 
miles to the northward of Tortoralillo lies the small island of Chunffunga^ at about 
a mile from the shore, and it is a good mark for knowing the little port of 

fuecessive clfffis do not mark so many distinct elevations; but, on the contrary, periods of com* 
paratiye repose during the gradnal, and perhaps scarcely sensible, rise of the land.** The celebrated 
parallel roads of Glen Roy, in the West of Bcotfaind, which tradition has made the work of 
Fingal, are of a precisely analagoos nature, and have excited a great deal of research and curiosity. 
—See Capt. Basil Hall's Extracts from a Journal, Sec, ?oI. iL last pages; Mr. Darwin's Voyage of 
the Beagle, vol. il. p. 423 ; Lyell's Principles of Geology, 5th edit., toI. It, p. 18; and Mr. Darwin'a 
Account of Qlen Roy, in the Philosophical Transactions. 
• FitaBoy, p. 4S7. 


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Changunga : there is a rocky point abreast of it ; and a little way in-shore is a 
remarkable Saddle Hill, with a nipple in the middle, which to a person coming 
from the southward appears as the end of the high range that runs thence to the 
eastward of Tortoralilio, and is from 2,000 to 3,000 feet high. 

A little to the northward of Chungunga Point there is a large white sand-patch, 
which is seen distinctly from the westward ; it is at the South end of the Choros 
Beach, which runs for 7 or 8 miles to the N.W. to Point Choros ; a heavy surf 
always breaks upon it. Off Choro$ Point there are three islands ; the inner one 
is low, and so nearly joins the shore, that nothing but a boat can pass. About 
2 miles West of this island there is another small island, and between them the 
channel is clear of danger. To the S.W. of the latter, about a mile, lies the 
largest of the Choros Islands ; it is about 2 miles long, the top is very much 
broken, and the S.W. end resembles a castle; there is a smedl pyramid off 
the South point, and rocks break about a quarter of a mile from the shore. The 
channel between the two outer iriands is clear of danger ; but about half a 
mile to the westward of the northern island there is a rock nearly awash. Five 
miles to the south*eastward of the southern Choros Island there is the very 
dangerous Reef of Toro^ only a little above the water. 

Carrisal Point is low and rocky, about 7 miles to the northward of Choros 
Pointy with a remarkable round hummock; to the southward of it is the smae 
Cove of PolillaOy where there is shelter for small vessels, but the landing is bad ; 
there are two small rocky islets off the South point of the cove. To the north- 
ward of Carrisal Point is the bay of the same name, but it is not fit for sea-going 
vessels :* in the bay a heavy surf breaks about half a mile from the shore. The 
North side of the bay is formed by a rocky point, with outlying rocks and 
breakers about a quarter of a mile off all sides of it ; there is a landing place in 
the bay near the S.E. corner, where the rocky coast joins the beach, but in bad 
weather the surf breaks outside of it. 

Nearly one mile to the northward of the North point 6f Carrisal Bay is the P&rt 
of CKafieral ; it is Well sheltered fhom northerly and southerly winds, but tha 
awell sets in heavily from the S.W., which makes the landing bad ; the best 
landing is in a small cove on the North side near the beach ; there is also a 
landing place oh the South side of the bay, but it is bad when there is any swell. 
On the beach, in the bight of the port, there is always too tnuch surf to land, 
except after very fine weather* About 4 miles to the westward lies the Island of 
Ckofieral; it ia nearly level, except on the South end, near which there is a 
remarkable mound, with a nipple in its centre. There ate rocks nearly half a 
mile from the South point of the island, and one about the same distance off the 
N.W. point. On the North side there is a small cove, where boats can land 
with the wind firom the southward, and there is anchorage close off it, but the 

* " JvAe Srd, 1835 : — ^Yerba ^atnh to Carizsl. DnHog the lint part of the day we crossed a 
moniitatiiou rocky desert $ and afterwards a deep sandy piain, scattered over with broken marine 
shells. There was very little water, and that little saline ; hence the few streamlets were bordered 
on each side with white incrustations, amongst which succulent, salt-Ioving plants grew. The 
whole country, from the coast to the Oordillen, is desert and n&lAhabited. At Oarizal there were 
a few cotti«es, some brackish water, and a trace of cultivation; but it was with diflBcuity that 
we porcbaied a Uttla eon and straw for our horsea."— Danmn, Journal, ^e., p. 420. 


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water is deep ; an American sealing schooner was lost there a few years ago from 
a norther coming on while she was at anchor. 

The land round ChaBeral Bay is low, with ridges of low hills rising from the 
points ; their tops are very rugged and rocky, and the land is sandy and very 
barren. A range of high hills will be seen several miles from the shore, but 
between them and the coast there are several smaller hills springing out of the 
low land. The village of Cha&eral is about 3 miles from the port, and is said to 
consist of about twenty houses ; there are none near the port.* The people that 
came off to the Beagle said that the only vessel that had ever been here was 
a small schooner, called the Conslitucion, which had taken a cargo of copper to 
Huasco. There was a lai^e quantity of copper ready to be embarked. 

From the North point of Chaneral Bay to Leones Pointy off which are several 
rocks and reefs, it is about 3| miles N.W. by N. ; the coast between is low, and 
falling back forms a small bay. Leones Point has several rocks and ree& 
extending from it to the distance of a mile ; there is also a reef, which projects 
nearly a mile from the shore, a little to the northward of Chaneral Bay. From 
Leones Point the coast projects N. by W. J W. 4J miles to Pajuras Painty and 
from thence about North 4 miles to Cape VascuHan ; this cape has a small rocky 
islet off it about 2 cables* length from the shore. The land in-shore rises 
gradually to a low ridge about half a mile from the sea ; the high range is about 
3 miles in-shore. 

From Cape Vascufian the coast runs in to the north-eastward, forming a small 
bay, open to the northward, but well sheltered from southerly winds ; there is 
anchorage in from 8 to 12 fathoms about one-third of a mile from the shore, but 
the landing is bad. To the eastward lies the Bay of Sarco^ in which there is 
also shelter from southerly winds. To the northward of Sarco the high land 
comes close to the coast ; the sides of the hills are covered with yellow sand ; 
the summits are rocky, and the whole coast has a miserable, barren appearance. 
To the northward of the deep gully, about 4 miles, there is a projecting rocky 
point at the foot of a high range of hills, with a very remarkable black sharp peak 
near its termination ; the coast to the northward of this runs nearly North and 
South, and is very rocky for about 8 miles, when it turns to the westward, 
forming a deep bay* in the N.£. corner of which is a small beach called Tongoy. 
To the northward of the bay a high range projects towards Alcalde Pointy the 
extreme point of the bay, which is nearly 8 miles to the southward of Guasco ; 
the point is very rocky, with small detached rocks close to it : in-shore it rises a 
little, and there are several small rocky lumps peeping out of the sand, one of 
which from the southward shows very distinctly ; it is higher than the rest, and 
forms a sharp peak, a little in-shore of which the land rises suddenly to the break 
of the high range. Eight miles to the northward of Alcalde Point is the point 
forming the port of Guasco^ or Huasco ; it is low and rugged, with several small 
islands between it and Port Guasco, one only of which is of any size, and it is 
separated from the shore by a very narrow channel, so as to appear from seaward 

* « The valley of Chaueral U the moBt ferUle one between Goasco and Coqulmbo. It is very 
narrow, and produces so little pasture that we could not purchase any for our horses."— JDanotn, 
p. 427. 


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to be the point of tlie raaialand ; it is covered with low rugged rocks, one of 
which, on its North side, is much higher than the rest, and shows distinctly 
coiniog from the southward, but from the northward it is mixed with the other 
rocks behind it : to the S.W. of the island there are several other small rocky 
islets, which appear as two small islands when seen from a distance. A little 
in-shore of the extreme point there is a short range of low hills, forming four 
rugged peaks, which show very distinctly from the southward and westward ; 
the land falls again inside of them for a short distance, and then rises suddenly to 
a high range, running East and West, and directly to the southward, of the 
anchorage. The top of the range forms three round summits, the easternmost 
of which, being 1,900 feet, is a little higher, and the middle one a little lower, 
than the other ; they are all called the Cerro del Guasco, 

GuAsco Port. — Nearly 3 miles to the N.E. of the anchorage, there is another 
ran^ of bills about 1 ,400 feet high, on the South slope of which there is a sharp 
peak, from which it slopes to the valley that conveys the river. The river is 
small, and a heavy surf breaks outside of it ; the water, however, is excellent. 
The anchorage is much exposed to northerly winds, and a heavy sea then rolls in ; 
but a mischievous norther does not occur more than once in two or three years, 
The village consists of about a dozen small houses scattered among the rocks, on 
the point dividing the old and new ports. The country round presents a more 
barren and miserable appearance than any part even of this desolate coast.* 

Lobo Point, about 10 miles to the northward of Guasco, is rugged, with 
several small hummocks on it ; to the southward of this there are many small 
sandy beaches, with rocky points between, but a tremendous surf breaks on them, 
allowing no shelter even for boats. A little in-shore of the point there are two low 
hills, and within them the land rises suddenly to a range about 1,000 feet high. 

About 11 miles to the northward of Lobo Point is another rugged point, with 
several sharp peaks on it, and half a mile to the northward lies the small Bay of 
Herradura, which can hardly be distinguished till quite close. Between it and 
Herradura, which is distinguished from other Herraduras by the additional name 
of de CarrUedt there are breakers a quarter of a mile from the shore. Off Herra- 
dura Point there is a patch of low rocks, which, in coming from the southward, 
appears to extend right across the mouth of the bay ; but the entrance faces the 
N.W., and lies between a low patch of rocks and a small islet to the N.E. of it, 
and there is no danger within half a cable of either of them. The bay curves in 
about three-quarters of a mile to the eastward of the islet, and is sheltered from both 
northerly and southerly winds, but with a strong northerly breeze a swell rolls in 
round the islet ; it is rather small for large vessels, and they would not be able to 
lie at single anchor in the inner part of the cove, but there is room enough to moor 
across it, about a quarter of a mile above the islet, in 4 fathoms, fine sand. In this 

* At Guasco there is a similar natural Feature to that described as existinsr in the valley of 
Coquimbo, the ancient sea margins. " At Guasco the phenomenon of the parallel terraces is very 
strikingly seen : no less than seven perfectly le?el but unequally broad plains, ascending by steps, 
oecar on one or both sides of the valley. So remarkable is the contrast of the succeiwive 
horizontal lines, corresponding on each side with the irregular outline of the surrounding 
iDOontains, that it attracto the attention of even those who feel no interest regarding tbe causes 
which have modelled the surface of the land. *»—I>anmn, Joitmal, ^., p. 423, and page 12o ante. 


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place an American ship, the Nilsy of 420 tons, was moored during a northerly 
gale, which blew very heavily, and she was perfectly sheltered ; the landing is 
better than in any place between it and Coquimbo, but there is a very serious 
inconvenience in the want of water. There is a small lagoon about a mile from 
this place, in the valley at the head of Carrisal Cove, but it is worse than brackish, 
yet the PeoneSy who work at shipping the ore, make use of it. A deep valley 
runs in from the. head of the cove, separating the high ranges of hills, and is a 
good mark to know the place. 

Carrisal is a small cove, about a mile to the N.E. of Herradura, well sheltered 
from southerly winds ; but as it is so close to Herradura, which is so much 
superior, it is not likely to be of much use. To the northward of Carrisal the 
coast is bold and rugged, with outlying rocks a cable's length off most of the 
points. About 7 miles to the northward there is a high point, with a round hum- 
mock on it, and several rugged hummocks a little in-shore. To the northward o( 
this there is a cove sheltered from the southward, where small vessels may anchor, 
but it is not fit for large vessels : there is another cove similar to it about a mile 
farther to the northward. A little to the northward of the second cove there is a 
high rocky point, which is the termination of the high part of the coast. To the 
northward of the point there is a small port, which, from the natives, appears to be 
Matamores ; it is well sheltered from southerly winds, and the landing is good. Ja 
the inner part of it, a vessel, not drawing more than 10 or 12 feet, might moor, 
sheltered from northerly winds, in 3 or 4 fathoms, but with a northerly wind there 
would be a heavy swell. There is anchorage farther out under the point in from 
8 to 10 fathoms, but a vessel should not go nearer the shore there than 8 fieithoms, 
as the bottom inside of that depth is rocky. 

About 2 miles to the northward of Matamores, and 10 miles from Carrisal, we 
come to the low rocky Point of Totoral, a little to the northward of which there is 
a small deep bay, at the mouth of the valley Totoral Baxo. 

About 6 miles to the northward of Totoral there is a remarkable rocky point, 
with a detached white rock off it, ?nd a hump with a nipple on it a little in-shore. 
About 1 J miles to the northward of this lies the small Cove ofPajonaly which, in 
coming from the southward, may be easily known by the above nipple, and by 
a small island, with a square-topped hillock in its centre, off the point to the 
northward of the cove. A range of hills, higher than any near this, rises directly 
from the North side of the cove ; and in the valley, about a mile from it, there is 
a range of small and very rugged hills, rising out of the low land. 

The anchorage is better sheltered from southerly winds than any to the 
southward, except Herradura, and there ought not to be much swell, as the 
point and island to the northward project considerably to the westward. The 
southerly swell rolls into the mouth of the cove, but along the South shore it is 
smooth, and the landing pretty good : there is a dangerous breaker about a 
quarter of a mile W. by S. of the South extreme point, which only shows when 
there is much swell ; the best anchorage is about halfway up the cove, near the 
South shore, in 5 fathoms : near the head it is shallow. There was a cargo of 
copper ore ready to be shipped here, but no vessel had yet been in the cove : 
there is no water within 2 miles, and there it is very bad indeed. 


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COPIAPO'. 131 

At 4 miles to the N. of Pajonal, and 1| from the beforementioned square-topped 
island, Caches Point appears with an island, and several rocks : both these islands 
may be passed within half a mile, but there is no passage inside of them. At that 
point the coast turns to the eastward, forming the spacious Bay of Saiadoy and 
close round the point the large Cave of Chascoy which, at a distance, looks very 
inviting, but a mile from its head there are only 3 fathoms, with rocks all 
round, some watching and others sunk, which, from the bay being well sheltered 
from the southward, do not show, A mile to the northward of these rocks there 
is another recess, which may be called Middle Bay^ and which is quite clear of 
danger, and in the South corner a small cove ; there is good anchorage in 7 
fathoms, well sheltered from southerly winds, but very open to northerly : the 
water is perfectly snnooth, with a southerly wind, and no swell could ever reach 
it unless it blew from the northward. Salado Paint is a steep rocky point, with a 
cluster of steep rocky islets off it. To the northward of this point the coast is 
rocky and broken, with rocks a short distance from the shore for about 4 miles ; 
then a rugged point, with a high, sharp-topped hill a little in-shore, which, from 
the southward, shows a double peak. Directly to the northward of this point 
there is a deep rocky bay, called the BaranquUla de CopiapSy with a small cove 
close to the point where the Beagle anchored in 5 fathoms, but half a cable off 
. shore on either side; it is not fit for a vessel. The bay is partly sheltered from 
northerly winds, but a northerly swell rolls in, and it does not appear to be a 
proper place for a vessel to enter. There is no fresh water nearer than the river 
of Copiap6, which is about 12 miles off. 

From Baranquilla to Dallas Paint the coast is rocky and broken, without any 
place sufficient to shelter the smallest vessels. Dallas Point is a black rocky point, 
with a hummock on its extreme, which, coming from the southward, appears to 
be an island : the land rises to a range of low sandy hills, with rocky summits. 

The C€UBa Chica is a small sharp-topped rock, and is the only one of the reefs 
that shows above water. The patch near Dallas Point was awash; and the 
channel between it and the Dallas Point appears to be wide enough for any 
vessel, though the reef off the point projects so far as to show in a high sea a 
breaker above a quarter of a mile out ; but at a quarter of a mile farther there 
were 11 fathoms. When the swell is not high, the breakers off the point would 
not show : they appeared to be detached from the reef which joins the point. 

COPIAPC is a very bad port, the swell rolls in heavily, and the landing is 
worse than in any port to the southward : it may easily be known by the Morro 
to the northward, which is a very remarkable hill, nearly level at the top, but 
near the eastern extreme there are two small hummocks : the East fall is very 
0teep; the end of another range of hills shows to the northward. To the S.W., 
apparently forming part of the same range, stands another hill, the West side of 
which forms a steep bluff; in coming from the southward these hills will be seen 
in clear weather before the land about the port can be made out. 

The island to the northward of Copiap6 Bay, called Isla Grande, is very 
remarkable, having a small nipple on each extremity ; that on the eastern end 
is the highest; and just to the westward of the middle of the island there is 
another small round nipple. 


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The idea some persons have of Copiap6 being a difficult place to make is rather 

" The chief dangers to be avoided in entering the harbour of Copiap6. are the 
Caxa Grande and Caxa Chica shoals, and between these and Dallas Point several 
other small but dangerous patches of rock, on one of which the Anacachi, a 
Chilian brig, was recently wrecked. It lies about half a mile N.W, } W. from 
the Caxa Chica, and carries only 10 feet at low water. 

** The Caxa Grande^ the northernmost of the two first mentioned, is a bed of 
rocks under water, about three-quarters of a mile long and one-third of a mile 
broad, and lying nearly in a North and South direction ; its situation is apparent 
from the heavy breakers on it, whenever a swell sets into the bay. The Caxa 
Chica is a small rocky shoal, having in its centre one large rock always above 
water : it lies South of the Caxa Grande, with a passage between them of nearly 
a mile in breadth, though appearing much less, from the rollers which extend 
sometimes across it on the Caxa Grande side. In going through this passage, 
the Caxa Chica should be given a convenient berth of from one to two cables' 
length, but unless the wind is steady, and to be depended on, it should not be 
taken on any account. The flagstaff above the town of Copiap6, bearing £. ^ N., 
leads through the passage. 

'^ The passage between Dallas Point and the southern shoals should never be 
taken ; as, should the wind fail, which, when so near the high cliffs in this vicinity 
is a common occurrence, a ship would be placed in a very dangerous position. 

'' The obvious and best passage is to the northward of the Caxa Grande ; and 
to avoid those rocks, when coming from the southward, bring Isla Grande to bear 
N.E., and steer for it on that bearing till the northern end of the sandstone 
rocks, to the northward of the town of Copiap6, bears at least £. by S. ; then haul 
in for that mark, and when the flagstaff above the town of Copiap6 bears 
S.E. } K, steer towards it, and anchor where convenient. Should the flagstaff, 
which is small, not be quickly seen, a large house in the town, remarkable from 
its bright green roof, which is of copper, and always visible when the flagstaff 
is not brought on the same bearing, will be an equally good mark. 

*' Coming from the northward, vessels will most probably have to work in ; in 
which case the shore may be approached to half a mile, and Isla Grande to within 
that distance, and when approaching the Caxa Grande, stand no nearer to it, or 
any of the shoals, than to bring the western extreme of Isla Grande to bear 
N.N.W., or the bluff part of Dallas Point to bear S.S.E. Should the wind be 
from the northward, the flagstaff on a S.E. J S. bearing will lead up to the 
anchorage, in from 12 to 6 fathoms. A large scope of cable should always be 
given in this road, and it might be prudent to drop another anchor under foot, as 
the rollers often set in with very little warning, and the bottom is bad holding 
ground. The soundings are very regular from 12 fathoms to 3, close up to the 
beach, but the bottom is chiefly a hard yellow sand, with occasional patches of 
yellow sandstone rock. Several vessels have been driven on shore here from 
their anchors by the rollers suddenly setting in. 

• Bee Capt. Basil Hairs Extracts from a Journal, &c., vol. ii. chap. 29. The new surveys will 
remove all difficulties. 


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'^ The in-shore anchorage for a large vessel is in 5 fathoms, with the following 
bearings, viz., the Caxa Chica, W.S.W. ; West extreme of Isla Grande, N.W. ^ N. ; 
the jetty (or landing place), S. ^. E. ; and the flagstaff over the town, S.S. W. J W. 

** When the Morro de Copiap6, which is so high as to be seen 30 or 35 miles 
in clear weather, is open of Isla Grande, jou are well to the westward of all the 
dangers off Copiap6." ♦ 

Capt. Basil Hall says of the journey to the town of Ck>piap6, 18 leagues in the 
interior : — " The valley was three or four miles across, and bore every appearance 
of having been, at some former period, the channel of a mighty river, now shrunk 
into a scanty rivulet, flowing almost unseen amongst dwarf willows, stunted shrubs, 
and long, rank grass. The soil was completely covered, at every part of the 
valley, by a layer, several inches thick, of a white powder, since ascertained, by 
analysis, to be sulphate of soda, or Glauber salts. It looked like snow on the 
ground, an appearance it still retained, even when made into roads and beat down. 
The dust thrown up by the horses' feet almost choked us ; and the day being 
dreadfully hot, our thirst became excessive, so that we hailed with delight the 
sight of a stream ; but, alas ! the water proved to be brine, being contaminated by 
passing through the salt soil." — (Extracts from a Journal, &c., vol. ii. chap. 29.) 

The town itself is so subject to earthquakes, that their constant effects are 
everywhere visible. In chap. 31, Capt. Hall gives an interesting account of the 
Chilian mining system.f 

The channel between Isla Grande and the main is clear of danger in the 
middle, but such a heavy swell rolls through it that it is scarcely flt for any vessel. 
Off the North end of the island there is a reef projecting under water two ca]j^les 
to the eastward : but at a cable's distance from that reef there are 8 fathoms. 
The main land abreast of the island appeared to have no danger off its points : 
and the rocks to the southward of it are inside the line of the northern points. 
The swell in tbe channel was by far the worst the Beagle had experienced on this 
coast. To the northward of the island there are several small rocks, one of which 
is high, but there is no danger within a quarter of a mile of them. 

Medio Paint, on the main to the northward of the island, is very rocky : on 
the S.W. point there are two rugged hummocks, and several rocks and islets 
close to the shore, but no danger outside of them. From this to Morro Point 
the shore is steep and cliffy, with remarkable patches of white rock on the cliffs to 
the South of the point, which is steep, with rugged lumps on its summit. The 
Morro rises suddenly a little in-shore. 

On rounding Morro Point a deep bay opens to the S.E. : there are several 

• Directloiw by Mr. J. W. R. Jenkins, master R.N. —Naui, Mag., April, 1S46, pp. 177-8. 

t It it thought by Dr. Heyen that no part of America is more subject to earthquakes than that 
around Copiapd, and assigns as the reason for this peculiarity the entire want of volcanoes on tbe 
adjacent range of the Andes; as it appears that no volcano is found between that of Coquimbo in 
dCr S. lat. and that of Atacama, nearly 8^ further North. Hence the countries lying between 
these parallels on the Pacific are continually agitated by earthquakes. It would also seem that 
the Andes in this space rarely rise to the snow line ; for the small riyers which descend from them 
bring down all the year round nearly the same volume of water ; which, between the parallel of fiSP 
and 90°, could not happen if the mountains were covered a considerable part of the year with 
snow. It is also confirmed by the great number of passes which here traverse the range ; for in 
the department of Copiap6 alone there exist five mountain passes, distant from each other about 
20 leagues ; and many others might be opened without great expense.— i««wc u?n die ^rd£ m den 
Jahren 1830, 1881, und 1832, von Dr, F. J. F. Meyen, Berlin, 1834. 


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small rocky patches io it, and at the North end of the long sandy beach there is 
a piece of rocky coast, off the North extreme point of which there is a small 
island. The entrance to Port Yngles is to the northward of this point, round the 
peninsula of Caldereta, off which there is a rock awash at high water about a 
cable's length, but it always shows ; after passing this rock the land is steep-to, 
and may be approached within a cable's length. The harbour inside forms several 
coves, in the first of which, on the starboard hand going in, there is anchorage for 
small vessels, but the bottom is stony and bad : there is a low island to the S.E. 
of this cove, to the eastward of which is the best anchorage with southerly winds. 
About halfway between it and a projecting rocky point on the East shore, small 
vessels may go much closer into the cove to the S.E. of the island, where the 
landing is very good. The bay in the N.E. corner is well sheltered from northerly 
windsy and no sea could ever get up in it, but the landing is not good ; the best 
there is at a rocky point at the South end of the N.E. beach, where there is a 
small cove among the rocks perfectly smooth. The N.E. cove is by far the best 
in the harbour, but it has no fresh water. The South cove is too shoal for any 
vessel to go higher up than abreast of the projecting rocky point on the East 
shore, where she would have 4 and 5 fethoms in mid-channel : the bottom is hard 
sand, and may be seen in 12 fathoms water, which makes it appear shallow. In 
the entrance dbere are 18 fathoms close to the shore on both sides. 

Port Caldera is close to the northward of Port Yngles, and is directly round 
a point with a small island off it : it is a fine bay, pretty well sheltered, but more 
open than Port Yngles, and the landing not so good. There is water near the 
beau^h on the East side, but it is very salt ; and it appears wonderful how they 
can make use of it, but they have no other nearer than Copiap6. The land is 
entirely covered with loose sand, except a few rocks on the points : the bottom 
of the bay is low, but the hills rise a little inland, and the ranges become higher 
as they recede from the coast. The first hill to the eastward b a very remarkable 
sharp-topped hill, the sides of which are covered with sand, with two low paps to 
the eastward of it. They have sometimes strong northers here, which throw a 
good deal of sea into the South corner of the bay ; but in the N.E. comer, which 
they call the Calderillo, it is always smooth. There are fish to be got in the bay, 
but only with a net ; and in none of the ports visited by the Beagle were any 
caught alongside. Near the outer points of these two porU rock fish are to be 
caught, but there is always a heavy swell in such places. 

The Cabeza de Vaca is a remarkable point, about 12 miles to the northward of 
Caldera : it has two small hummocks near its extreme ; inside of them the land 
is nearly level for some distance, and then rises to several low hills, which form 
the extremity of a long range. The coast between Caldera and the Cabeza forms 
several small bays, with rocky points between them, off all of which there are 
rocks at a short distance : there is no danger within a quarter of a mile of this 
point. To the northward of it there is a small rocky bay called Tortaralillo. 

To the northward of this the coast is steep and rocky for 3 or 4 miles, with a 
high range of hills running close to the shore ; then, a small cove called Obispito^ 
with a white rock on its South point : and to the northward of this the land is 
low and very rocky, with breakers about a quarter of a mile from the shore. 


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About 2 miles from that cove there is a point with a small white islet off it : to 
the northward of which the coast trends to the eastward, and forms the small cove 
of Obispoy in which the Beagle anchored, but it is not fit for any vessel. There 
is a very high sandhill there, with a stony summit. A little in-shore of the cove, 
and to the northward, a higher range of stony hills runs close to the coast for 
about 7 miles, where it terminates in low rugged hills a little in-shore of a brown 
rugged point with a white patch on its extremity, which is an islet, though it does 
not show as one from the sea. To the northward of this lies the fine bay of 
Flamenco ; it is a very good port, well sheltered from southerly winds, and better 
from the northward, as the point projects far enough to prevent a heavy sea 
getting up. The landing is good in the S.£. corner of the bay, either on the 
rocks, or on the beach of a small cove in the middle of a patch of rocks a little 
more to the northward, where there are a few huts, in which two brothers with 
their families were living : their chief employment was catching and salting fish, 
called congre, and drying them to supply Copiap6 ; in one day they had caught 
400. They appeared to live in a miserable way, in huts made of seal and guanaco 
skins, much worse than a Patagonian toldo : the only water they had to drink 
was half salt, and some distance from the shore. They sometimes get guanacoes 
that they run down with dogs, of which they have a great number. Flamenco 
may be known by the white mark on Patch Point. Eleven miles North of 
Flamenco is Las Animas, a rocky bay, and 4 miles N.E. of it is the Bay of 
Chafieral, neither of which appears to be fit for ships. 

In the bay to the northward of Flamenco, in which La$ Animas was said to be, 
Capt. FitzRoy could see no place fit even for a boat to land : the whole bay is rocky, 
with a few little patches of sand, and a heavy surf always breaking on the shore. 
The North point of this bay is low ; but a little in-shore there is a high range of 
hills, the outside of which is very steep ; and to the northward of this point there is 
a small rocky bay, which appears to answer better to the description of Las Animas 
than the other : it did not, however, appear to be a fit place for vessels, and the 
landing was bad. To the northward there is a much deeper bay, which, from the 
description, must be ChaSieral : the South side of it is rocky, with small coves, 
but the landing appeared to be bad ; the East and North shores are low and 
sandy, and a heavy surf was breaking on the beach. The North point of 
Chafieral Bay is low and rocky, with a high range a little in-shore. To the 
northward of this point the hills and coast are both composed of brown and red 
rocks, with a few bushes on the summits of some of the hills: the sandy 
appearance that the hills have to the southward ceases, and the prospect is, if 
possible, more barren. 

Nearly 9 miles to the northward of the bay of Chafieral stands Sugar Loaf 
Island, about half a mile from the shore. In coming from the southward there is 
a similarly shaped hill on the main, a little to the southward of the island, for 
which it may be mistaken ; but the island is not so high, and the summit is 
sharper. Between Sugar Loaf Island and Chafieral the coast is rocky, and affords 
no shelter : but there is a small bay to the southward of the island, which might 
afiTord some shelter from northerly winds, though with southerly it would be 
exposed, and the landing is very bad. In the middle of the passage, between the 


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island and the main, there are 5 fathoms in the shallowest part : the water in its 
northern end is smooth, and a vessel might anchor off the point of the island, 
sheltered from southerly winds, in 6 or 7 fathoms ; but outside of 8 fathoms, it 
deepens suddenly to 13 and 20 fathoms about half a mile from the island. There 
is a small bay on the main to the northward of the channel, where a vessel might 
apparently be sheltered from southerly winds. 

About 19 miles to the northward of Sugar Loaf Island there is a projecting 
point, with some small rocky islets off it, which was supposed to heBallena Point, 
from the description given at Port Caldera. Between the point and Sugar Loaf 
Island the coast falls back a little, and is rocky, with a high range of hills running 
close to the shore. A little to the northward of Ballena Point there is a small 
bay, with a rocky islet about half a mile off the South point of it ; the top of the 
islet is white, and answers the description given of a port called Ballenita^ but it 
is not worthy of the name of a port ; it is very rocky, with two or three small 
patches of sandy beaches, on which a heavy surf was breaking : the hills come 
close to the water, and have a rugged appearance, A little to the northward 
of this there is another bay, which seems to be Lavata : the South point has 
several low rugged prongs frQm it, and in-shore the hills rise very steeply : there 
is a small cove, with excellent landing, directly behind the South point, in which 
the Beagle anchored ; and there was a still better looking port inside, but it was 
far from the outer line of coast, and her time would not allow of more than a 
hasty glance. Tlie outer cove, in which she anchored, appeared to afford good 
shelter from southerly winds, and the water was very smooth. 

A little to the northward of Lavata there is a point which, till close, appears 
to be an island ; but it is joined to the shore by a low shingle spit ; and several 
rocky islets that lie scattered off the point are named the Tortolas, 

Nearly 3} miles to the northward of them comes the Point of San Pedro ^ very 
rugged, and with a high round hummock a little way in-shore. To the eastward 
of this point there is a deep bay, in which it was expected to find the town 
of Paposo, according to its position given in the old charts, but there was no 
appearance of any houses or inhabitants. The bay is very rocky, and does not 
afford good anchorage; several rocks lie off San Pedro Point, and inside of it 
there is a reef projecting half a mile from the shore : in the bottom of the bay 
there are several small white islets, and two or three small sandy coves, none of 
which are large enough to afford shelter for a vessel. This is the bay of Ysla 
Blanco, and is bounded to the northward by Taltal Point. 

About 3 miles from Taltal Point there is a white islet, with some rugged 
hummocks upon it; and a little way in-shore there is a hill of much lighter colour 
than any in the neighbourhood. 

To the northward of this there is a deep bay, in which it was thought that 
Paposo would ceruinly be found ; and, as the Beagle was becalmed, a boat was 
sent to search for it. On landing at the point, she saw a smoke on the East side 
of the bay, and, on pulling there, two fishermen stated that the place was called 
Hueso Parado, and that Paposo was round another point about 17 miles to the 
northward. On inquiring for water they brought some, which was better than 
that tasted in some other places to the southward, but still it was scarcely fit for 


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use ; they said it was as good as that at Paposo» and they thought both good. 
In the South corner of the bay there appeared to be anchorage for vessels, and 
the landing good, but very open to northerly winds. No vessel had ever been 
there in the recollection of those men, neither had they heard of any. 

On this uninhabited coast it was Impossible to ascertain the exact spot where 
the republic of Chile terminates, and that of Bolivia begins ; but according to the 
best information, afterwards obtained, the line of limitation comes down to the 
shore in the bight of Hueso Parado, or between it and the point of San Pedro. 

Tides. — The only place at which the time of high water was satisfactorily 
determined was at Guasco,* where it is 8^ 30' at full and change ; the rise 4 feet 
at neap tides, and at springs about 2 feet more. From the swell on all this coast 
it is very difficult to get the time of high water at all near the truth : the rise and 
hXl appeared to be 5 or 6 feet in all parts of it. 

The only perceptible current that was experienced was in the channel between 
Sugar Loaf Island and the main, where there was a very slight stream setting to 
the northward, but not more than a quarter of a mile an hour ; and this was after 
a fresh breeze from the southward for several days. It is said, however, by 
coasters, that there is usually a set towards the North, of about half a mile an hour. 



The coast described in this chapter was, during the Spanish domination in South 
America, that of Upper and Lower Peru ; but when these stetes threw off the 
yoke in 1824, they became separate republics, the former receiving, in 1825, the 
name of Bolivia, from the Liberator, General Bolivar. f 

The sea-coast of Bolivia is a desert. It is seldom visited by European shipping, 
except at one point, the miserable town of Cobija, or Puerto la Mar. The whole 
of this district is called the Desert of Atacarad. Towards its North part there are 
some fertile valleys, but the greater part is covered with dark brown or black 
moveable sand, absolutely arid, uninhabitable and uninhabited. The River Loa, 
whose mouth is in lat. 21° 28' S., is the boundary between the two republics. 

The republic of Peru extends on the Pacific to the RioTumbes, in lat. 3° 31' S. 
The name Peru was given to the country in an early part of the Spanish dominion.^ 

• The tide wm very carefiiUy observed In a cove where there vras no swell, yet from the small 
xise the exact time could not be taken ; the water remaining at the same level above half an hour. 

t The repnblic of Bolivia embraces those provinces of Alto Peru which, under the domimon of 
8]MUii, fonned the Presidency or Audienda of Charcas. ««,vlfiion8. mRrcbed 

tin expedition in 1524, under Pizarro and Almagro, being in want ^^^^^J^^^'^^^ 
three days ^ng the banks of a river named Biru. In the territory of a ^iqae^ ^^^ ^^^^^ wm 
Biroqneta. From this river, or from the cazique, originated the n™« B^^^^JJ^r name before the 
called Peru, which was not then so called by the inhabitents, nor by anyjtne ^^^ ^^ ne 

entrance of the Spaniards. Garcllaso de Vega derives the name from one 



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The precise extent and population of these republics are but vaguely estimated. 
Bolivia may have an area of 320,000 square miles, and its population from 500,000 
to 1,500,000. Peru has an area of 500,000 square miles, and a population of 
1,700,000, but all these computations are mere estimates. Among the people 
the native races greatly predominate, but intermixed occasionally with Spaniards 
and with negroes. 

The coast of Peru is sandy, bare, and scorched, and the inland country, called the 
Valles, extends to the slopes of the Andes. This part of the state has little wood, 
and includes but small districts fit for culture ; sandy and stony deserts prevail. 

The great feature of this country is, as farther South, the great chain of the 
Andes, There are numerous descriptions of them ; foremost among which must 
be placed that given by the illustrious Von Humboldt.* Another interesting account 
is given by Mr. J. B. Pentland.f Many narratives relative to their general 
features will be found interspersed throughout many writers ; among others is the 
Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Expedition. t The follo\ij;ing extract is from the 
excellent work of Dr. Von Tschudi, who resided here from 1838 to 1842 : — 

** The two great mountain chains of the western regions of South America are 
not sufficiently distinguished by their respective names ; the terms Andes and 
Cordillera being used indiscriminately for either of them, which confusion of names 
is done even in Peru. Nevertheless, a strict distinction ought to be observed ; — 
the western chain should properly be called the Cordillera, and the eastern chain 
the Andes. The latter name is derived from the Quichua word Antasuyu ; anta 
signifying metal generally, but especially copper, and suyu a district; the 
meaning of Antasuyu, therefore, is metal district. In common parlance^ the 
word suyu is dropped, and the termination a in antay was converted into is. 
Hence the word antisy which is employed by all old writers and geographers ; 
and even now is in common use among the Indian population of southern Peru. 
The Spaniards have corrupted this Quichua word into Andes.§ 

" The old inhabitants of Peru, who dwelt chiefly along the base of the eastern 
chain, where they worked the mines, consequently gave the name Antis, or 
Andes, to that chain. But the Spaniards, advancing to the western mountains, 
gave them the name of Cordillera^ the usual Spanish term for any mountain 
chain. These two great mountain chains stand, in respect to height, in an 
inverse relation to each other ; that is to say, the greater the elevation of the 
Cordillera, the more considerable is the depression of the Andes. The medium 
height of the Cordillera, which is of the most importance in the present work, is 
in South Peru about 15,000 feet above the sea, but with particular points here 
and there which rise to a greater height. The Andes are here about 17,000 
feet. In Central Peru the Cordillera is the highest. 

was taken prisoner to the South of the Bay of Panama in the time of Nonez de Balboa.— 
Serrera, dec. 3, lib. vi. c. 16. • Relation Historique, tome iii. 

t Joum. R. Qeog. Soc., vol. y. 1836, p. 70. t Vol. i. pp. 253—278. 

4 Some derive the word Andes from the people called Antie, vho dwelt at the foot of these 
chains of mountains. A province in the department of Cuzco, which was probably the chief 
settlement of that nation, still bears the name of Antas. See also Von Humboldt, Relation His- 
torique, tome ill. pp. 194-5, where these points are fully considered. The name of Chile as spelt 
by the Spaniards, or Chili as originally, is said to be derived from the Indian word qtutuhehiUi, 
capsicum-seeds. See Life in Mexico, by Madame la B. (Calderon de la Barca), 1843, p. 384. 

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'' The Cordillera is more wild and rugged, its ridge broader, and its summits 
less pyramidical than those of the Andes, which terminate in slender, sharp peaks, 
like needles. The Cordillera descends in terraces to the level heights, and is 
moreover the ridge of division, or watershed, between the waters which flow to 
the Atlantic and those which reach the Pacific. All the waters of the eastern 
declivity of the Cordillera work their way through the Andes to the Atlantic, while 
there is not a single instance of the Cordillera being intersected by a river ; a 
fact more remarkable, because in Bolivia and southern Peru it is the lowerchain."* 

Some of the more prominent peaks visible from sea are noticed hereafter. 

The rivers which flow into the Pacific are chiefly used for irrigation ; none of 
them are navigable, except the Rio Piura, which is so for some months, as far as 
the town of Piura. The principal productions for which Peru is known to the 
rest of the world are from its mines. It is not to be doubted that immense 
supplies of gold and silver have been produced from the Montana, or mountain 
district, but it was probably much overrated. Humboldt calculates that the 
annual produce of gold and silver at the beginning of the present century was 
about £1,248,000, but, since the anarchy consequent upon the revolutionary 
struggles, many of the mines are abandoned, and the produce reduced, perhaps 
to one- half, in 1849. Those of the Cerro de Pasco, lying in the interior mountains 
N.E. of Lima, are the richest mines in South America, and formerly produced 
silver to the value of £ 1 ,800,000 annually. The quicksilver mines of Huancabelica, 
E.S.E. of Lima, were one of the richest in the world, and at one time were 
unwrought, but a private company has since been formed to work them to a 
considerable extent, f 

Other metals are also produced, and coal mines are met with in various parts. 
Among the more recent articles of export must be named nitrate of soda (or salt- 
petre, as it is sometimes but erroneously called). This is collected on the Valles, 
and used in European agriculture as a fertilizer, opening a great trade in a 
comparatively unnoticed article. More important than this, however, are the 
stores of guano which abound on some of the detached islets on the coast. The 
principal point hitherto frequented for this, which is worked by a company under 
the auspices of the Peruvian government, is the great Chincha Island, near 
Pisco.l The islands on which it occurs are mentioned incidentally hereafter in 
Capt. FitzRoy's descriptions. 

For the last ten years the Peruvian trade has been better understood. The 
demand and the means of payment have been more accurately ascertained, and a 

* TraTelfl in Peru during the Years 1888-42, by Dr. J. J. Von Tschudl, translated by Thomasinu 
Boas, 1847. 

t Smith's Pern, vol. u. p. 24. 

t Ouano, or huano, is stated by some to be a Spanish word, but by others Pemvian : there is 
no doubt of its origin from the latter ; it is a corruption ftrom the Quichua word huana^axdmal 
dung (Von l^hudi), and it refers to one of the most wonderful agents of fertility ever discovered. 
It was first introduced into England by M. Barhoillet and Mr. Bland, of the firm of Myers, 
Bland, and Co., of Valparaiso, who sent several cargoes in 1889-40, but had great difficulty in 
introducing it to agriculturists. Its value soon became apparent ; when these gentlemen, in con- 
nexion with another English firm, obtained an exclusive privUege of shipping it from the Peru- 
vian coasts for a term of years. The Ichabo, or African ffuano, was, as is well »^"^,7°' ^^'^l^^^?^ 
through the instigation of Capt. Andrew Livingston, of Liverpool, a gentieman ^^^"^"^^^J** J«f 
nautiiSil world. For an accoint of the Peruvian guano, and its »PP\»f ^^Jj^^^f J;/'"'^ ^""^^ • 
work, p. 239, et seq., before quoted. See also Naut. Mag., Nov. 1846, p. «»i, <?f ¥ 

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healthy aad increasing commerce has been carried on as far as the state of the 
country and the fluctuations which are inseparable from distant traffic would 
permit. The commerce of Peru will not bear a comparison with that of Chile, 
and while the former has been diminishing, the latter has been rapidly increasing. 
A portion of the supplies which were formerly sent to Peru direct, are now 
obtained in Chile, and sent to their destination in coasting vessels. This change 
has been brought about by the unwise policy pursued by the various Peruvian 
rulers, in imposing heavy transit duties. This is also in part to be attributed to 
the advantageous situation of Valparaiso, where purchasers are always to be found 
for articles for the leeward coast. There is little doubt in the minds of those who 
are most competent to judge, that Valparaiso must become the principal mart of 
foreign commerce on the western coast of America; unless, indeed, that San 
Francisco in the North should become so, as may not be improbable. 

The foreign trade of Peru is principally carried on by the English, Americans, 
and French. Of late years many German and Spanish vessels have been sent 
thither, and occasionally some of the Mediterranean flags are seen on the coast.* 

On the coast of Peru each bay or landing place has its own peculiarly con- 
structed vessel, adapted for the surf it has to go through. Thus af Malabrigo, 
the fishermen have what they call '< caballitos," bunches of reed tied together, and 
turned up at the bow like a Chilian balsa, but much higher. These are so light, 
that they are thrown from the top of the surf to the beach, when the people jump 
off, and carry them to their huts. But the most important and best known of 
these contrivances is the balsa (raft, Spanish), which is formed of seal skins 
sewed together and inflated ; two of these bags, about 8 feet in length, are 
fastened together at one end for a prow, and completed by small pieces of wood 
covered with matting sewed across. It is paddled with a piece of wood with a 
blade at each end. It is difficult at times to launch, but will land three 
passengers, besides the steersman, at any time, with great facility. 

In Lima the seasons are usually distinguished as spring, summer, autumn, and 
winter, but the usual division of the aborigines, into wet and dry, are the true 

*' In May the mornings become damp and hazy ; and, from the beginning to 
the latter end of June, more or less drizzly. In October, again, tlie rains, which 
even in the months of July and August are seldom heavier than a Scotch mist, 
cannot be said to be altogether over, as the days are still more or less wet, or 
occasionally there may be seen to fall a light passing shower ; the evenings and 
mornings being damp and foggy. 

** hi November and December, when the dry season may be reckoned to have 
set in, the weather, except for an interval at noon, is for the most part cool, 
bracing, and delightful : and April, too, is in this respect an agreeable month ; 
at the latter end of which, the natives of the capital, being so exceedingly 
sensitive as to feel a difference of only two or three degrees betwixt the temperature 
of two succeeding days like an entire change of climate, are admonished, by a 
disagreeable change in their sensations, to protect themselves by warm apparel 

• Wilkes' Norratire of the U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. i. p. 80». 


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against the cbilU arising from an occasional N.W.^ or from the influence of the 
common S.W., wind. 

** Throughout summer the wind blows almost uniformly, and in gentle breezes, 
from the South ; but the prevailing wind for nine months in the year is the S.W., 
which, as it mingles with the warmer air along the arid coasts of Peru, tends to 
moderate the temperature of the atmosphere, and to produce the fog and ^garua,* 
or thick Scotch mists, of which we have taken notice. During the dry seasons 
on the coast, the rains are experienced in the interior of the country and lofty 
range of the high table-lands ; especially in the months of January, February^ 
and March, when the rain that falls inland is often very heavy, and, on the most 
elevated regions, it is not unfrequently alternated with snow and hail. Thus, the 
dry season of the coast is the wet in the sierra, or mountain land, and vice vend; 
and by merely ascending nigher to the sierra, or descending close to the sea, 
without any appreciable shifting of latitude, the favoured Peruvians may enjoy, 
by the short migration of a few leagues, a perpetual summer or an endless winter ; 
if that, indeed, should be called winter which is the season of natural growth and 
herbage." ♦ 

Earthquakes are more commcfti, perhaps, in Peru than in any other country. 
Every traveller tells us of his experience of some shocks of greater or less 
violence. To enumerate them, therefore, would be a very prolix work. The 
great shock of 1746, described by Juan and Ulloa, destroyed Callao, and greatly 
injured Lima; those of 1687, 1806, and 1828, were remarkable also for their 
violence. These convulsions have effected very evident changes in some parts of the 
sea-coast and harbours, and some of their traces have been much speculated on. 

In a subsequent part of this volume we shall give some lengthened observations 
on the winds and seasons of the coasts. The reader is therefore referred to them 
for more full information on these heads. 

The survey of this coast, made under Capt. FitzRoy's orders by Mr. Usborne, 
R.N., has superseded all preceding charts. Mr. Usborne's directions are given 
in the subsequent pages, as they will be found in Capt. FitzRoy's appendix. To 
these have been added some observations made by M. Lartigue in the French 
frigate La Clorindey Capt. Le Baron Mackau, in 1822-3 ; other information, from 
the Narrative of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, &c., will be found as quoted. 

At Sak Pedro Point, or rather at Taltal Pointy near Hueso Parado, the 
coast of Bolivia is supposed to commence ; and from thence it sweeps round the 
Bay of Nuestra Sefiora to Grande Point, a distance of 17 miles. This point, 
when seen from the S.W., appears high and rounded, terminating in a low, 
mgged spit, with several hummocks on it, and surrounded by rocks and breakers 
to the distance of a quarter of a mile. N. by W. } W. 9J miles from it, lies 
Rincon Point, along with a large white rock, and between these two points, in 
the latitude of 26® 20' S., the village of Paposo was at length discovered. It is 
a miserable place, containing about 200 inhabitants, under an Alcalde; the huts 
are scattered, and difficult to distinguish, from their being the same colour as the 
htlis behind them. Vessels touch there occasionally for dried fish and copper 

♦ Bmlth'* Pern. 


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ore ; the former plentiful, but the latter scarce. The minea lie ia a S.E. direction, 
7 or 8 leagues distant ; but are very little worked. Wood and water may be 
obtained on reasonable terms ; the water is brought from wells 2 miles off, but 
owing to the swell which constantly sets in on the coast, is difficult to embark. 
Vessels bound for this place should run in on a parallel of 25° 5', and when at the 
distance of 2 or 3 leagues, the white rock off Rincon Point will appear, and 
shortly after the low white head of Paposo. The course should be immediately 
shaped for the latter ; for, with that bearing S.S.E., distant half a mile, they 
should anchor in from 14 to 20 fathoms, sand and broken shells. Should the 
weather be clear (which is seldom the case) a round hill, higher than the 
surrounding ones, and immediately over the village, is also a good guide. 

N.N.W. from Grande Point, at the distance of 23 miles, is Plata Point, similar 
to it in every respect, and terminating in a low spit, off which lie several small 
rocks, forming a bay on the northern side, with from 17 to 7 fathoms water, 
rocky, uneven ground. 

From this point to Jara Head, which lies •N. j W. 53 miles, the coast runs in 
nearly a direct line ; a steep, rocky shore, surmounted with hills from 2,000 to 
2,500 feet high, and without any visible sheltef, even for a boat. 

Jara Head is a steep rock, with a rounded summit, and has on its northern 
side a snug cove for small craft ; it is visited occasionally by sealing vessels, who 
leave their boats to seal in the vicinity. Water is left with them ; and for fuel 
they use kelp, which grows there in great quantity, as neither of these necessaries 
of life are to be had within 25 leagues on either side. 

Nearly 4 miles N. J £. from the Head, the large Bay of Moreno, or La 
Play a Brava, commences, the intermediate land being high and rocky, with a 
black rock lying off it; and N.N.W. J W. 22 miles from the Head, the S.W. 
point of Moreno Peninsula, sloping gradually from the summit of Mount Moreno, 
and two nipples terminating in, from whence its name of Tetos Point, 

Mount Moreno, formerly called Monte Jorge, is the most conspicuous object 
on this part of the coast; its summit is 4,160 feet above the level of the sea, 
inclined on its southern side, but to the northward ending abruptly over the 
barren plain from which it rises. It is of a light brown {moreno) colour, without 
the slightest sign of vegetation, and split by a deep ravine on its western side. 

Immediately under Mount Moreno lies Constitucion Road, a small but snug 
anchorage, formed by the main land on one side and by Forsyth Island on the 
other. Here a vessel might haul in to the land, and careen, without being exposed 
to the heavy rolling swell which sets into most of the ports on this coast. 
The landing is excellent. Neither wood nor water are to be found in this 
neighbourhood, therefore provision must be made accordingly. 

N. by W. 12 miles from this harbour, Mount Jorgino, a steep bluff, terminates 
the range of table-land which runs in a line from Mount Moreno ; on the northern 
side of this headland lies the Bay of Herradura de Mexillones, a narrow inlet, 
running in to the eastward, but without affording any shelter. 

North 9 miles from thence. Low Point is surrounded with sunken rocks ; and 
5 miles N.N.E. J E. of it is Leading Bluff, a very remarkable headland, which 
with the hill of Mexillones, a few miles farther South, is an excellent guide for the 


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port of Cobija. The Bluff being about 1,000 feet high, and facing the North, is 
entirely covered with guano, which gives it the appearance of a chalky cliff. 
There is an islet about half a mile to the N.W. of the Bluff, and attached to it 
by a reef; but there is no danger of any description outside it. Mount Mexillones 
is 2,650 feet high ; it has the appearance of a cone with the top cut off, and 
stands conspicuously above the surrounding heights. In clear weather this is 
undoubtedly the best of the two marks ; but as the tops of the hills on the coast 
of Bolivia are frequently covered with heavy clouds. Leading Bluff is a surer mark, 
for it cannot be mistaken ; for, besides its chalky appearance, it is the northern 
extremity of the peninsula, and the land falls back many miles to the eastward of it. 

Round this head is the spacious Bat of Mexillones, 8 miles across, but of 
little use, as neither wood nor water is to be obtained. The shore is steep- to ; 
but there is anchorage on the western side, 2 miles inside the Bluff. 

COBIJA, or LA MAR.— From Mexillones the coast runs nearly North and 
South, without anything worthy of remark, as far as the Bay of Cobija, or 
Puerto La Mar, which lies N. by £. 30 miles from Leading Bluff. It is the only 
port of the Bolivian republic, and contains about 1,400 inhabitants. Vessels 
call occasionally to take in copper ore and cotton ; but the trade was very small 
in 1835, after the recent revolution in Peru. 

Good water is very scarce : an occasional rill (caused by the condensed fog) 
runs down a ravine to the northward of the town, but so small that a musket- 
barrel is sufficient to convey it to the reservoir of the inhabitants : there are wells, 
but the water from them is very brackish^ and will not keep in casks. Fresh 
meat may be procured at a high price ; but fruit and vegetables, even for their 
own consumption, are brought from Valparaiso, a distance of 700 miles. They 
have a mud-built fort of five or six guns on the summit of the Point ; and it is the 
only fortification noticed about the place. 

If coming from the southward toward this bay, after having passed Leading 
Bluff (which should always be made), it would be advisable to shape a course so 
as to close the land 2 or 3 leagues to southward of the port, and then coast along 
until two white-topped islets, off False Point, are seen ; a mile and a quarter to 
the northward of them is the port. On the slope of Cobija Point there is a white 
stone, which shows very plainly in relief ^against the black rocks in the back- 
g^und : a white Hag is usually hoisted at the fort when a vessel appears in the 
offing, which is also a good guide. In going in there is no danger ; the point is 
steep-to, and may be rounded at a cable's length, and the anchorage is good in 
8 or 9 fathoms, sand and shells. In the bay there are a number of straggling 
rocks, but they are all well pointed out by kelp. Landing at all times is 
indifferent, and owing to the heavy swell, it requires some skill to wind the boats 
ID through the narrow channel formed by rocks on each side. Two miles about 
N.N.E. is Copper Cove, a convenient place for taking in the ore ; and where 
there is anchorage in 12 fathoms, a short distance from the shore. 

It is high water, at the full and change, at 9^ 54', and the tide rises 4 feet. 

After passing the North point of Cobija Bay, off which lie a number of 
straggling rocks at a short distance, the coast takes about a N. J W. direction : 
generally shallow sandy bays with rocky points, and hills from 2,000 to 3,000 


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feet high close to the coast, but do anchorage or place fit for shipping, until you 
reach Algodon Bay^ 28 miles from Gobija. 

This bay is small, and the water deep : the Beagle anchored a quarter of a 
mile from the shore, in 1 1 fathoms, sand and broken shells, over a rocky bottom. 
The only use of this anchorage is to send from it for water to the Oully ofMamilla, 
7 miles to the northward. The spring there is a mile and a half from tiie beach ; 
and the usual method of bringing it is in bladders made of seal-skin, holding 
7 or 8 gallons each, with which most of the coasters are provided, the only vessels 
that profit by a knowledge of these places. 

Algodon Bay may be distinguished by a gully leading down to it, and by that of 
Mamilla to the northward, which has two paps on the heights over its North 
side. There is also a white islet off Algodon Point. 

About North, 10 miles from Algodon Bay, there is a projecting cape, called in 
the Spanish chart San Francisco, but known more generally by the name of 
Paquiqui; on its North side, and near its extremity, there is a laige bed of ^ano, 
which is so much used on this coast for manure, as to be a regular trade. 

N. \ W. 16 miles from Cape Paquiqui lies Arena Pointy a low, sandy point, 
with rocky outline : between the two is a small fishing village, near a remarkable 
hummock. Anchorage may be obtained under Point Arena, in 10 fathoms, fine 
sandy bottom. 

N. I £. 12 miles from Arena Point, come the Gully and River of Loa, which 
forms the boundary line between Bolivia and Peru. It is the principal river on 
this part of the coast ; but its water is extremely bad, in consequence of running 
through a bed of saltpetre, as well as from the hills surrounding it containing 
copper ore. It is said that the ashes of a volcano also fall into it, which add 
greatly to its unwholesomeness ; but, bad as it is, the people residing on its banks 
have no other. At Chacansi, in the interior, the water is tolerably good. In 
the summer season it is about 15 feet broad and a foot deep, and runs with 
considerable strength to within a quarter of a mile of the sea, where it spreads, 
and flows over, or filters through the beach ; but does not make even a swatchway, 
or throw up any banks, ever so small. A chapel on the North bank, half a mile 
from the sea, is the only remains of a once populous village. People from the 
interior visit it occasionally for ^uano, .which is in abundance. 

The best distinguishing mark for the Loa is the gully through which it runs ; 
and that may easily be known from its being in the deepest part of the bay 
formed by Arena Point on the South and Lobo Point on the North ; as well as 
from the hills on the South side being nearly level, while those on the North are 
much higher and irregular. 

There is good anchorage, but rather exposed to the sea breeze, with the chapel 
bearing North, half a mile from the shore, in from 8 to 12 fathoms, muddy 
bottom ; and landing may be effected under Chileno Point ; but the best anchorage 
here is in the Bay of Chipana, 6 miles N.N.W. } W. from Loa River (the land 
projecting between) and a snug cove for landing, near the tail of the point ; but 
at the full and change a heavy swell sets in, and a boat would scarcely be able to 
land with goods at those times. 

For the Bay of Chipana, after making the land in the latitude of tlie Loa, a 


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large white double patch may be seen on the side of a hill near the beach, and a 
similar one a little to the northward ; on discovering these marks (which are 
visible 3 or 4 leagues) a course should be shaped directly for the southern point, 
where lies the anchorage in 7 fathoms, sand and broken shells, sheltered by low 
level ground. No danger need be feared in anchoring ; for, though the land is low, 
it may be approached within half a mile, in from 10 to 6 fathoms. The anchorage 
inside the long kelp-covered reef might perhaps be preferred ; but the landing is 
not so good there. 

N.N.W. I W. of this bay, at the distance of 18 miles, is Lobo or Blanca Point, 
high and bold, and on its extremity there are several hillocks. In the interval 
there is a small fishing village, called Chomache^ under a point, with a long 
reef, on the outer part of which a cluster of rocks show themselves a few feet above 
the water. The people of this village get water from the Loa, a passage requiring, 
on a balsa, four days or more." 

N.N.W. 14 miles from Lobo Point, is the low, rugged, projecting Point q/ 
Patache^ with an inlet a quarter of a mile in the offing, and all clear outside. 
Halfway between these two points is the Pabellon (tent shape) of Pica, a remark- 
able hillock, said to be all guano ; its appearance being in strong contrast with 
the barren, sunburnt brown of the surrounding hills. This is also a place of resort 
for the guano vessels, as they find pretty good anchorage close to the northward 
of the Pabellon. 

East, a little southerly, a few miles in-shore of this, is a bell-shaped mountain 
named Carrasco, 5,520 feet high. 

From Patache Point to Grueso Point, N. | W, 28 miles, the coast is low anr 
rocky, the termination of a long range of table-land, called the Heights of Oyarvide 
or the BarrancaSy from its cliffy appearance : it has innumerable rocks and shoal: 
off it, and should not be approached on any account within a league, for th( 
frequent calms and heavy swell peculiar to this coast render it unsafe for nearer 

Grueso Pointy at the North end of the Barrancas, is low but cliffy, with three 
white patches on its northern side, round which lies the Bay of Cheuranatta. 
N. \ W. 11 miles from that point, come the anchorage and town of Iquiqne. 
'' IQUIQUE contains about 1,000 inhabitants, and stands on a little plain of 
land at the foot of a great wall of rocks, 2,000 feet in height, which line forms 
the coast. The whole is utterly desert. A light shower of rain falls only once in 
very many years : and hence the ravines are filled with detritus, and the mountain 
sides covered by hills of fine white sand, even 1,000 feet high. During this 
season (July) of the year, a heavy bank of clouds, extending parallel to the ocean, 
seldom rises above the wall of rocks on the coast. The aspect of the place was 
roost gloomy. The little port, with its few vessels, and a small group of wretched 
houses, seemed overwhelmed and out of all proportion with the rest of the scene. 

''The inhabitants live like persons on board a ship, every necessary coming 
from a distance. Water is brought in boats from Pisagua, about 40 miles to 
the northward, and is sold at the rate of 9 reals (4«. 6(i.) an 18 gallon cask : I 
bought a wine bottle full for threepence. In like manner firewood, and of course 
every article of food, is imported. Very few animals can be maintained in such 



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a place. On the ensuing morning I hired, with difficulty, at the price of £4 
sterling, two mules and a guide, to take me to the saltpetre (or nitrate of soda) 
works, 14 leagues' distance. These are the present support of Iquique. During 
one year the value of £100,000 sterling was exported to France and England. 
Formerly there were two exceedingly rich silver mines (Huantacayhua) in this 
neighbourhood ; but they now produce very little."* 

There are no imports. All the property belongs to merchants in Lima, where 
the vessels are chartered, and have only to call here and take in their cargoes. 

Vessels bound for this place should run in on the parallel of Grueso Point, 
until the white patches on that point are discerned, when a course should be 
shaped for the northern of three large sandhills : stand boldly ia on this course 
till the church steeple appears, when, or shortly after, the town and low island 
will be seen, under which is the anchorage; care must be taken in rounding this 
island to give it a good berth, a reef extending o£P it to the westward, to the 
distance of 2 cables' length. 

The anchorage is good in 1 1 fathoms, with Piedras Point bearing N. by W. ; 
the outer point of the island, S.W. by W. ; and the church steeple, S. by E. J E. 

Vessels have attempted the crooked passage between the island and the main 
by mistake, and thereby got into danger, from which they were extricated with 
some difficulty ; it is only fit for boats or very small vessels. 

Landing is bad, and the approach to the shore hazardous, owing to the number 
of blind breakers with which it abounds ; and at the full and change of the moon 
the heavy swell sets in. Balsas are employed to bring the cargoes to launches at 
anchor outside the danger, as is the case in most of the ports on this coast. 

Off Piedras Point there is a cluster of rocks ; and N. by W. 18 miles from it 
the small low black Island of Mexillon, with a white rock lying off it. It may be 
known by the Gully of Aurora, a little to the southward, and a road, apparently 
well trodden, on the side of the hills, leading to the mines. And N. by W. | W. 
33 miles from Piedras Point is Pichalo Pointy a projecting ridge at right angles 
to the general trend of the coast, with a number of hummocks on it. Round to 
the northward of this point is the village and roadstead oiFisagua: this, as well 
as Mexillon, is connected with Iquique in the saltpetre trade, and is resorted to 
by vessels for that article. In rounding the point, a sunken rock lies about half a 
cable's length off, and should be looked out for, as it is necessary to hug the land 
closely, in order to ensure fetching the anchorage off the village ; for baffling winds 
are frequent, and may throw you near the shore, but that does not signify, as the 
water is smooth and the shore steep-to. The best anchorage is with the extreme 
of Pisagua Point N. | W., and Pichalo Point W. J S., a quarter of a mile off the 
village, in S fathoms ; by which you will avoid a rock with 4 feet water on it, 
lying off the sandy cove at the distance of 2 cables. 

North of this, 2\ miles, the River of Pisagua makes a conspicuous break in the 
shore ; and its water supplies all the neighbouring inhabitants. For a few 
months during the winter season, when this river attains the greatest strength, it 
appears to be about 10 feet in width, but even then has not sufficient force to 
make an exit for itself into the sea ; like the Loa to the South, it merely filters 

• Mr. Burwin, pp. 442-3. 


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ARICA. 147 

through the beach, or is lost in the parched up soil around. During nine months 
of the year no water is found in its bed ; though a scanty supply may always be 
had from the wells dug near it, yet no vessel should trust to renewing her stock at 
this place, for, besides its unwholesomeness, the difficulty and expense attending 
embarkation would be very greaL 

From Pichalo Point to Qorda Pointy 18 miles, the coast is in low broken cliffs, 
with a few scattered rocks off it, and ranges of high hills near. Gorda Point is a 
low jutting prong, where a long line of cliff, several hundred feet high, com- 
mences, and continues, with only two breaks or interruptions (the quebrctdcts of 
the Spaniards), as far northwards as Arica. 

These breaks in the cliffs, or gullies, as they are called by the sailors, are 
remarkable, and very useful in ipaking Arica from the southward. The first is the 
Quelfrada de Camaranes, which lies 7 miles North of Gorda Point, and is about 
a mile in width, lying at right angles to the coast, with a stream of water running 
down it, and a quantity of brushwood on its banks ; it forms ^ slight sandy bay, 
but not sufficient to shelter a vessel from the heavy swell. 

The Gulltfy or Quebraduy of Victor is the other ; it lies 29 miles to the 
northward of Camarones, and 16 miles to the southward of Arica; it is about 
three-quarters of a mile in width, and from a high bold point, called Cape Lobos, 
jutting out to the south-westward, forms a tolerably good anchorage for small 
vessels: it traverses the country in a similar manner to that of Camarones, 
and has likewise a small stream passing through, with verdure on its banks. 
Vessels bound to Arica should endeavour to make this gully or ravine, and 
when within three or four leagues of it they will see Arica Head, which appears 
as a steep bluff, with a round hill in-shore, called Monte Gordo. Upon nearer 
approach the Island of Alacran will be observed, joined to the head by a reef of 
rocks. To the northward of this island, and round the head, is the port and 
town of Arica, which is the seaport of Tacna. 

ARICA. — ^We give the description of this part of the coast as detailed by 
M. Lartigue, and then the observations of Mr. Usborne :•;— 

•* At 2 miles to the South of the Morro of Arica is a cove where the coast is 
formed of gravel or shingle, but it cannot be entered on account of the surf. 
The Morro of Arica is perpendicular on the West side, and falls rapidly towards 
the East. Coming from the South, it maybe seen at 12 leagues off; at this 
distance it seems detached from the land. Coming from the West, the Morro of 
Arica appears confounded with the high lands which lie to the East of it, and 
cannot be distinguished more than 8 leagues off. Its great whiteness indicates it. 
At the Morro of Arica the direction of the coast changes to the N.E. for 2 miles, 
and then runs N.W. I W., and is lined with great stones as far as the river of 
Juan Diaz, or Juan de Dios. 

** The coast and the high lands both change their appearance at Arica ; from 
hence to Juan Diaz it is low, the land rising in a gentle slope to a plateau, 
interspersed with trees, called the Plain of Arica. The portion of this plain above 
the city is cut through with a gorge called the Valley ofSapa, thickly set with trees. 

" The summits of the interior mountains have an appearance of verdure, which 
increases as you advance to the N.W. These summiu are sometimes hidden by 



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clouds, but they are less thick than to the South of Arica. The difFereuces which 
exist between the appearance of the coast on either side of Arica make it easy to 
be recognised, either coming from the South or N.W. Notwithstanding, the 
land should always be made between the Quebrada Camarones and the Mono, 
because, as is stated in the description of the prevalent winds,* there is almost 
always found in the afternoon, South of Arica, a fresh breeze from the S.S.W., 
by the aid of which you may proceed. You may run for the Morro as soon as it 
is distinguished ; when within 4 leagues you will see the Guano Island, which 
care must be taken not to approach on the South side. 

*' The best anchorage at Arica is to the North or N.N.E. of this island, not too 
near the land, for inside the proper anchorage the small spaces where the bottom 
is good are embarrassed by coarse sand, rocks, and lost anchors. 

" There is at all times in this road a heavy swell coming from S.W, or S.S.W. ; 
as the breeze is in general moderate, vessels generally make fast with a single 
heavy anchor, and keep the head to the sea by another. Landing can only be 
effected at one point, which is to starboard of the flagstaff; to reach it, leave to 
starboard the rocky flat nearest the shore, and pass it at an oar's length. This 
flat uncovers only at one-third tide. When the tide is low, small boats only can 
be beached, and then only with difficulty. There is then but very little water at 
the landing place, and it is only by the lift of the sea that you can reach the 
shore ; at least, in very iine weather, it would be dangerous even for the smallest 
boats to go ashore on any other part of the coast. 

** For watering you must anchor the long-boat outside, a small boat must take 
the casks, when filled, to it. The spring is not very abundant, and is nearly level 
with the surface; and you must clear it out to bale."t 

Of late Arica has been the seat of civil war, from which it has severely suffered. 
It was in contemplation, in the latter end of 1836, to make it the port of the 
Bolivian territory ; and, had that taken place, it would perhaps have become next 
in importance to the harbour of Callao, the principal port of Peru ; its present 
exports are bark, cotton, and wool, for which is received in return merchandise, 
chiefly British. Fresh provisions and vegetables, with all kinds of tropical fruit, 
may be had in abundance, and upon reasonable terms ; the water also is excellent, 
and may be obtaiued with little difficulty, as a mole is built out into the sea, 
which enables boats to lie quietly while loading and discharging; the only 
inconvenience is having to carry or roll it through the town. Fever and ague are 
said to be prevalent ; this in all probability arises from the bad situation which 
has been chosen for the town, the high head to the southward excluding the 
benefit of the refreshing sea breeze, which generally sets in about noon.t In 
entering this place there is no danger whatever ; the low island may be rounded 
at a cable's distance in 7 or 8 fathoms, and anchorage chosen where convenient. 

The Western Cordillera of the Andes between Cobija and Arica attains a very 
great elevation, and offers several snow-capped peaks well known to navigators. 

The most southern group of these peaks consist of four majestic nevados, known 

• See the chapter upon the wJnds at the latter part of this volume, 
t Description de la Cote du Perou, 1827, pp. 2o, 20. 
t Capt. FitzRoy- 


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to the aboriginal inhabitants of the neighbouring provinces of the interior by tlie 
names of Gualatieri or Sehama, Chungara» Parinacota, and Anaclache. Guala- 
tieri, or Sehama, which Mr. Pentland thinks the most elevated of the four, is in 
the form of the most regular truncated cone, enveloped to its base in perpetual 
snow. Masses of ashes and vapour are seen to issue from its summit at intervals, 
so as to leave no doubt of its being a volcano in activity. Its elevation is esti- 
mated at 22,000 feet. 

North of Gualatieri rise two magnificent uevados, which, owing to their 
similarity of form, and their contiguity to each other, are known to the Creole 
population by the name of Melizzos or TwinSy whilst they are called Chungara 
and PaHnacota by the Indian population. The most southern of these nevados 
forms a very perfect truncated cone, whilst the most northern rather resembles a 
dome or bell (campana). There is little doubt but that both are of igneous origin, 
and that Chungara possesses an active crater at its summit, still in activity. 

The Nevada of Anaclache is certainly less elevated than the three preceding, 
and perhaps does not exceed 18,500 feet. It forms a ragged ridge, in the direction 
of the Cordillera, of considerable length. 

Still farther North several snow-capped peaks rise at the back of Arica. The 
centre of this group may be fixed where the Gualillas Pass, a col or passage of 
the western Cordillera, which attains an elevation of 14,830 feet, is crossed by 
the great commercial road from Arica to La Paz, and the interior of Bolivia. 
The Nevada of Chipicani, which is about the mean elevation of this snow-capped 
group, is 16,998 feet high, and consists of a broken down crater, with an active 
solfatara in its centre.* 

From Arica the coast takes a sudden turn to the westward, as far as the river 
Juan de Dios or Juan Diaz ; it is a low sandy beach, with regular soundings : from 
this river it gradually becomes more rocky, and increases in height till it reaches 
the Paint and Morro of Sama, 3,890 feet high. This is the highest and most 
conspicuous land near the sea about this part of the coast, and, at a distance, 
appears from its boldness to project beyond the neighbouring coast line. On its 
western side there is a cove formed by Sama Point, bearing N.W. by W. J W. 
45 miles from Arica Head, where coasting vessels occasionally anchor for guano : 
and there are three or four miserable-looking huts, the residence of those who 
collect the guano. It would be quite impossible to land there, except in a balsa, 
and even then with difficulty. Should a vessel be drifted down there by baffling 
winds and heavy swell, which has been the case, she should endeavour to pass 
the head (as a number of rocks surround it) about a mile to the westward ; and 
there anchorage may be obtained in 15 fathoms. 

N.W. by N. i W. 9 miles from Sama Point, is a low rocky point, called Tyke, 
and between those points issues the small River Cumba^ with low cliffs on each 
side : like most of the rivers on the coast, it has not strength to make an outlet, 
b«it is lost in the shingle beach at the foot of the before-mentioned cliffs. 
Regular soundings, which continue gradually increasing as far as Coles Point, 
may be obtained at the distance of 2 miles, in from 15 to 20 fathoms. 

• Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. v., 1835, p. 72, and Meyen, Betee urn die 
Erde, vol. i. 


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W.N.W., at the distance of 31 miles from Sama Point, is Coles Point: the 
shore between is alternately sandy beach, with low cliff, and moderately high 
table-land a short distance from the coast. It is doubtful if a landing could be 
effected anywhere between Arica and Coles Point, as a high swell sets directly 
on, and appears to break with universal violence. 

Coles Point is very remarkable ; it is a low sandy spit, running out from an 
abrupt termination of a line of table-land. Near its extremity there is a cluster 
of small hummocks ; and at a distance it appears like one island. Off the point, 
to the S.W., there is a cluster of rocks or islets, but no hidden dangers. The 
rebound of the sea beating against both sides of the point causes a ripple, and 
much froth, which leads one to suspect a reef in the vicinity. 

YLO. — N.E. 5 J miles from this point is the village and roadstead of Ylo» 
This is a poor place, containing about three hundred inhabitants, under the local 
governor and captain of the port But little trade is carried on, and that chiefly 
in guano : a mine of copper has been lately discovered, which may add to its 
importance. The inhabitants have full occupation in collecting the necessaries of 
life, and do not care, therefore, to trouble themselves about luxuries. Water is 
scarce, and wood is brought from the interior, so that it is not, on any account, a 
suitable place for shipping.* 

The best anchorage is off the village of Pacocha (1^ miles South of the town), 
in 12 or 13 fathoms, and the best landing is in Huano Creek .-but bad indeed is 
the best, and care must be taken lest the boat be swamped, or hurled with violence 
against the rocks. 

In going into Ylo, the shore should not be approached nearer than half a mile 
(as many sharp rocks and blind breakers exist), until three small rocks, called 
the Brothers, which are always visible under the Table £nd, bear East, when 
the village of Pacocha may be steered for, and anchorage taken abreast of it, as 

English Cove affords the best landing, but boats are forbidden that cove, to 
prevent the contraband trade carried on there. 

'* The Morro Sama is the point which ought to be made in order to reach the 
anchorage of Ylo, lying behind Point Coles. When you are 4 leagues to the West 
of the Morro Sama you will see that point, and also the plateau of rocks, which 
is half a mile distant from it to the S.W. 

** You must then steer so as to pass If miles outside these rocks ; and as the 
part of the coast which is between Point Coles and the anchorage is bestrewed 
with rocks, some never uncovering, and only breaking at times, you should not 
near the land before the village of Ylo bears N.E. J E. 

'^ The anchorage is sheltered from the swell on the South side by Point Coles ; 
a hill, which appears sandy, commences at this point, at a mile from its most 
projecting point; it then runs S.W. and N.E., and joins the high mountains of 
the interior. The village of Ylo is near the shore, at the opening of a valley formed 
on the South side by this sandy height ; and on the North, by an elevation also 
sandy, and of the same height, but connected with the interior mountains. Tb« 

♦ See Cept. B. Hall's ExpediUon, &c., vol. i. chap. xilL 


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best anchorage is in 15 fathoms, fine sandy bottom, N.N.W. } W. of some houses 
(abandoned) which are on the coast ; the village church bearing N. 64° East. 
The swell is less heavy farther to the North ; the S.E. and S.S.E. breezes freshen 
almost always in the afternoon. You must moor fore and aft. You can land 
near the deserted houses. It is dangerous to approach the sandy beach, which 
extends to the North. The landing is probably very difficult in winter ; in fine 
weather, in summer, it is not without difficulties. 

'' The anchorage of Ylo is the best on the coast. In the months of August and 
September the river is very low, but even then water may be procured. As this 
place only communicates with the town of Moguegua, it is not much frequented." 
— (M. Lartigue, pp. 29, 30). 

The Cordillera of the Andes^ behind Ylo, has not been very accurately 
examined, its being frequently clouded prevents observations. It is traversed 
by a road leading from Ylo and Moguegua to the interior of Bolivia, along which 
the merchandise of the sea-coast is carried. One of the peaks of this part of 
the Cordillera, probably an elevated cone-shaped nevado, was called by Dr. 
Meyen the Volcan Viefo, who gives its height as between 19,000 and 20,000 feet.* 
It may be mentioned, however, that some of the names as given by the Indians 
were not always correct; a remark which holds good in respect to the other 
mountains of the Cordillera. 

From Ylo the coast trends to the north-westward, with a cliffy outline, from 
200 to 400 feet in height, and with one or two coves, useful only to small 
coasters, as far as the Valley of Tambo, which is of considerable extent, and may 
be easily distinguished by its fertile appearance, contrasting strongly with the 
barren and desolate cli£b on either side ; those to the eastward maintaining their 
regularity for several miles, while on the other they are broken, and from their 
near approach of the hills the aspect is bolder. 

The point off this valley is called Mexico ; it bears N.W. f W. 40 miles from 
Coles Point, and E.S.E. f E. 21 miles from Hay Point ; it is low, and covered 
with brushwood to the water's edge, and projects considerably beyond the general 
trend of the coast. At the distance of 2 miles to the southward, soundings may 
be obtained in 10 fathoms, muddy bottom ; from that depth, in the same 
direction, it increases to 20 fathoms ; but on each side of the bank there are 
50 fathoms. W.N.W. } W. 21 miles from Mexico Point, is Hay Point, and 
between the two, 5 miles from the latter, the Cove of MollendOy once the port of 
Arequipa ; but of late years the bottom has been so much altered, that it is only 
capable of affording shelter to a boat or very small vessel ; f in consequence of 
which it has been thrown into disuse, and the Bay of Hay now receives the vessels 
that bring goods into the Arequipa market. 

"The town of Mollendo, which is one of the seaports of the great city of 
Arequipa, 60 miles inland, consists of forty or fifty huts, built of reed mats, 
without any coating of mud, as the climate requires no exclusion of air. Each 
hut is surrounded by a deep shady verandah, and covered by a flat cane roof. 

t H. Lartigae gives ample direcUona for MoUendo, but It is presumed they are now uimecessary 
fm the aboTe reason. 


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There are no windows, and, of course, no chimneys ; and the doors, like the 
walls, are constructed of basket-work. The original gromd, with all its 
inequalities, forms the floors ; — in short, a more primitive iowii was never built. 
The inhabitants of this wide seaport were very kind to ns, mmd renarkably gentle 
in their manners." • 

ILAY, the port of Arequipa,t is formed by a few struggling islets and by Flat 
Rock Point, which extends to the N.W. : it is capable of containing 20 or 25 
sail. The town is built on the West side of a gradually declining hill, sloping 
towards the anchorage, and is said to contain 1,500 inhabitants, chiefly employed 
by the merchants of Arequipa. As in all the seaports of Peru, a governor and a 
captain of the port are the authorities ; and it is also the residence of a British 
vice-consul. Trade was in a more flourishing condition here, even during the 
civil war, than at any place that was visited by the Beagle : there were generally 
four or five, and often double that number of vessels, discharging or taking in 
cargoes. The principal exports were wool, bark, and spice, in exchange for which 
British merchandise was chiefly coveted. 

A vigia or look-out house was established here in 1837, as a beacon for vessels 
making the port of Hay, to avoid their passing and getting to leeward of it, which 
has often been the case. The vigia is painted white, with a flagstaff, on which a 
flag is hoisted when any vessel is discerned in the ofiing. It stands upon an 
eminence, bearing £• by S. 1 mile from the anchorage, and may be clearly 
perceived by vessels coming from the southward and eastward, as far as the point 

In case any vessels should be off the port at nightfall, a Ught will be exhibited 
from the peak of the flagstaff, as a guide to the entrance of the harbour, for which 
a charge of two dollars each vessel is made. — (T. Crompton, H.B.M. Consul, 
Feb. 20th, 1837.) 

Hay being the seaport of the second city of Peru, is much frequented by 
British merchant vessels, and the following directions will assist them in making 
it. Vessels have frequently been in sight, to the westward of the port, yet from 
the set of the current— half a knot, and at the full and change often as much as 
one knot, to the westward — have been prevented from anchoring for several days. 

This, no doubt, has been partly owing to the hitherto inaccurate position 
assigned to it, and from a proper reluctance to expose a vessel on an imperfectly 
known coast to be baffled and drifted about by light and variable airs, in addition 
to a heavy swell continually rolling directly towards the shore. 

Coming from the southward, the land abreast ofTambo should be made, and a 
certainty of that place ascertained, which, according to the state of the weather, 
may be seen from the distance of 3 to 6 leagues : the course should then be shaped 
toward a gap in the mountain to the westward, with a defined sharp-topped hill in 
the near range, a short distance from it. Through this gap lies the road which 
leads to Arequipa, and which winds along the foot of the hill from Hay, 

• Capt BasQ Hall, Extracts, Sec, vol. i. chap. 13. 

t Arbquipa, the aocond city of Peru, was founded by Pizarro's orders, in 1686. It is a tolerably 
well built and trading town, standing 7.797 feet above the sea, and a few miles from the volcano 
of Areqaipa, which is 18,300 feet high. The houses are low and massive, on account of the 
ft-equcnt earthquakes from which it has at times greatly suffered. Its population is about 30,000. 


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As the coast is approached, the foot of the hills will be seen to be covered 
with white ashes.* This peculiarity commences a little to the westward of 
Tambo, and continues as far as Gornejo Point, and when within 3 leagues, Hay 
Point and the White Islets forming the bay will be plainly observed, and should 
be steered for. 

Care mast be taken in closing Hay Pointy as a rock, barely covered, lies a 
quarter of a mile to the southward of the cluster of islands off the point. It is 
the custom to go to the westward of the White Islands ; but, with a commanding 
breeze, it would be better to run between the third outer and next island, which 
enables a vessel to choose her berth at once ; for the wind heads on passing the 
outer island, and obliges a vessel to bring up and use warps, or endanger her 
being thrown by the swell too near the main shore. The best anchorage is just 
within Flat Rock Point, off the landing place, in 10 or 12 fathoms. A hawser is 
necessary to keep the bow to the swell, to prevent rolling heavily, even in the 
most sheltered part. Vessels from the eastward should close the land about 
Tambo, and observe the same directions. 

If coming from the westward, run in on the parallel of 17° 5', which will lead 
about a league to the soutliward of Hay Point ; and if the longitude cannot be 
trusted, Corkejo Point, being the most remarkable land, and easily seen from 
that parallel, should be recognised in passing. It lies N.W. by W. \ W. 14 miles 
from Hay Point, and is about 200 feet high, with the appearance of a fort of two 
tiers of guns, and perfectly white ; the adjacent coast to the West is dark, and 
forms a bay ; and on the East there are low black cliffs, with ashes on the top, 
extending halfway up the hills. If the weather be clear, the Valley of Quiica 
may be seen, which is the first green spot West of Tambo. Cornejo Point, how- 
ever, must be searched for, and, when abreast of it. Hay Point will be seen, topping 
to the eastward, like two islands, off a sloping point. f The sharp hill before named 
in the near range will also be seen, if favourable weather ; and shortly after the 
town will appear like black spots in strong relief against the white ground, when 
a course may be shaped for the anchorage under the White Islets, as before. 
Landing at Hay is far from good ; a sort of mole, composed of a few planks, with 
a swinging ladder attached to it, enables a boat generally, with a little manage- 

* Near Hay the land is in several places covered with a whitish powder or dust, which lies 
many inches < thick in hollows or sheltered places, but is not found abundantly in localities 
exposed to wind. Much diiTcrence of opinion has arisen about this powder. People who live 
there say it was thrown out of a volcano near Arcqufpa, a great many years ago ; other persons 
assert that it is not a volcanic production, and appertains to, or had its origin, where it is found. 
My own idea was, before I heard anything of the controversy, that there could be no doubt of its 
haviog fallen upon the ground within some hundred years, for it was drifted lilce snow, and where 
any quantity lay together had become consolidated, about as much as flour, which has got damp 
in a damaged barrel. 

In one of the old voyages there Is a passage which seeins to throw some light upon this subject : 
" As they (of Van Noort's ship) sailed near Arequipa, they had a dry fog, or rather the air was 
obscured by a white sandy dust, with which their clothes and the ship's rigging became entirely 
covered. Tliese fogs the Spaniards called * arenales.' " — Voyage of Van Noort in 1660, from 
Sumeyf vol. ii. p. 223. See Extracts from a Journal, &c., by Capt. B. Hall, vol. i. p. '^3* 

t M. Lartigue says : " Oflf Point Comqjo is a large islet, of which the lowest part is »®^r.^*JL"*® 
land, bat it does not seem to be detached, except when it bears to N.W. or S.E. ^^^'f.'l ' ^!!! 
East it is confounded with tlie high lands in the interior. Ite reddish tint, which dittei^ rom 
the colour of the surrounding lands, will also serve to distinguish it. Tiie pom^j 
called by the inhabitants Point Colorado (red), and De los Hornillos (the little ovens;. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ment, to get on shore in safety ; but often, at the full of the moon, vessels are 
detained three days or more, without being able to land or take in cargo. Fresh 
provisTons may be had on reasonable terms ; but neither wood nor water can be 
depended on. There are no fortifications of any description. 

The coast between Hay and Cornejo Point is an irregMlar black cliff, from 50 to 
200 feet high, bounded by scattered rocks, to the distance of a cable's lengtli ; 
about 3 or 4 miles from Hay is a cove, called Mollendito^ the residence of a 
few fishermen ; there is a similar cove, Santano Cove, very plainly seen, a little 
to the eastward of Cornejo Point. Westward of that point the. coast retires 
and forms a shallow bay, in which are three small coves — Aranta, Guata, and 

'< Noratos Cove is a mile North of Point Cornejo ; the swell is not felt in it, 
and there is water enough for a ship of the line near the land. A ship who wants 
to re-stow her cargo, or in need of repairs, cannot find a more commodious basin 
than the Caleta Noratos ; but she must be furnished with everything, the place 
offering nothing. To enter, range along the islet at Point Cornejo, and very near 
to the land, by the assistance of the breezes which blow in the afternoon, anchoring 
in 25 fathoms, fine sand, at one-fifth of a mile from the entrance ; then tow the 
vessel into the cove, and moor to the land. 

" Caleta la Guata is half a mile North of Noratos. The swell is not more 
felt than in the latter, but there is less water. In the gorge at the bottom of La 
Guata there is a well of water, which may be of some utility. Fish was also 
taken in the cove. 

'^ Aranta Cove, which is about 5 miles from Cornejo Point, and 4 miles S.E. 
of Quilca, is the place where vessels discharge their cargoes at the time when the 
Quilca River overflows, and frequently stops the communication between Quilca 
and the city of Arequipa. The custom-house of Quilca is then established at 
Aranta, and remains there during the months of February and March. You 
anchor opposite the cove, very near the land. The swell is not heavy in the 
cove, and you may land easily, but outside the swell trends directly on to the 
shore ; you must, therefore, wait for a fresh breeze to get away with."* 

QUILCA.— N.W. j W. of Cornejo Point, 13 miles distant, are the Valley and 
River of Quilca, off which vessels occasionally anchor, under the Seal Rock, lying 
to the S.E. of Quilca Point. This anchorage is much exposed ; but landing is 
good in the cove westward of the valley. Watering is sometimes attempted, by 
filling at the river and rafting off, but must always be attended with much 
difficulty and danger. The valley is about three-quarters of a mile in width, and, 
differing from the others, which are level, runs down the side of the hill : from 
the regularity of the cliffs by which it is bounded, it has almost the appearance 
of a work of art. 

" When proceeding for the anchorage of Quilca, you must first make Cornejo 
Point. It is difificult to distinguish this point, as before-mentioned, but its reddish 
tint, and the diff*erence and height of the parts North and South will serve 
to make it out. Hence to Quilca it is 13 miles, which is not difficult to reach 
from Cornejo Point. 

• M. Lartiaruc, 1821, pp. 35, 30. 


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" The ANCHORAGE is to S. I W. from the little church of Quilca, in 16 fathoms 
water, on fine gray sand, at the point where a moderately high rock, near the 
Quilca Point, bears N. 70® E. There are 1 10 fathoms at 2 cables' length to West 
of this anchorage ; there are some small spaces to the North, where the bottom is 
good, but they are surrounded by gravel and rocks ; still further North the bottom 
is very unequal. It seems that when the lead shows mud, it is but a very 
thin covering over rocks ; for many vessels, which have anchored on a muddy 
bottom, have had their cables chafed. When the river overflows the water is 
very muddy, and this covers the bottom in some parts. 

''The best anchorage is on 6ne sand; it may also be taken to the S.E. of 
the port above spoken of, but it is too far from the land. You must moor 
N.N.E. and S.S.W., having a heavy anchor in the latter direction, because the 
current at times runs very strongly to S.E. This anchorage is on the edge of 
the flat lying against this coast, formed probably by the matter brought down 
by the Quilca River, and, therefore, very liable to change, and increase. The 
anchorage is very uneasy ; even in the middle of summer the swell was so strong 
as to occasion great inconvenience." * 

AREQUIPA, a populous city, is the capital of southern Peru, and has about 
30,000 inhabitants. It is about 45 miles up the river from Quilca ; it is tolerably 
well built, and has some trade. The city is 7,797 feet above the sea, and towering 
over it rise three snow-capped mountains, nearly of equal height, viz., Pichu- 
Pichu, the volcano of Arequipa, or Guagua-Putina, and Chacani. The flrst and 
third of these mountains form two elongated serrated ridges, whilst the second 
presents a very regular volcanic cone, truncated at its summit, and rising to an 
elevation of 18,300 feet above the Pacific. This volcano has a deep crater, from 
which ashes and vapour are constantly seen to rise. The summits are usually 
covered with snow, but at times, after very warm summers, it disappears. f 

W. J N. from Quilca, at the distance of 6 leagues, is the Valley of Camana : 
the coast between is nearly straight, with alternate sandy beach and low broken 
clifF, the termination of the barren hills immediately above. The valley is frcm 
2 to 3 miles broad (M. Lartigue says 5 or 6 miles) near the sea, and apparently 
well cultivated : the village stands about a mile from the beach, but, being small 
and surrounded with thick brushwood, is scarcely perceptible from seaward. 

On approaching from the eastward, Mokte Camana, a remarkable 0115*, resem- 
bling a fort, will be seen near the sea ; this is an excellent guide till the valley 
becomes open. There is anchorage in 10 or 12 fathoms muddy bottom, due 
South, about a mile ; but landing would be dangerous. 

M. Lartigue says : — " The coast, between Quilca and Camana, is formed by 
high and perpendicular rocks, as far as 1 mile to the N.W. of Quilca; there it 
changes its appearance, and begins to form undulations, of which the landslips, 
of a whitish colour, are spread out as far as the sand beach which lines the shore, 
and show like semicircular spots, appearing like a long range of arches. You 
first see these arches separated from each other, but as you approach they become 
less defined. They terminate by running one into the other near the Valley of 

• M. Lartigue, pp. 37, 38. ^^^ ,. qi 

t Mr. Pentland, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. v. 183o, pp. /*> «*• 


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Camana, where they have lost their first regularity. The beach which lioes this 
singular looking coast is very narrow, and cannot be seen at low water but at a 
short distance. You follow this beach to go from Quilca to the Valley of Camana, 
a distance of 15 miles. The Valley of Camana is the largest of those to the S.£., 
and may be seen at a great distance when brought to N.E.; it is, like the others, 
lined with trees, and surrounded by whitish arid mountains. The Clorinde 
anchored in 14 fathoms, muddy bottom, 2 miles S.S.E. from the middle of the 

W.N.W. J W. 23 miles, is the Valley of OcoHa^ the next remarkable place; it 
is smaller and less conspicuous than the former, but similar in other respects. An 
islet lies at its southern extreme, and several rocks near the end of the cliff, on 
its eastern side. 

M. Lartigue says : — '* The Valley of Oco5a is very narrow, but fertile, and you 
must be very near to distinguish it. In general, vessels ought not to anchor 
opposite to the Valleys of Camana and Ocona, only when the breezes are light, 
and when there is danger of being carried on to the coast by the swell." 

W. by N. 12 miles, is a projecting bluff point called Pescadores : it has a cove 
on its eastern side, surrounded by islets ; and off the point, at the distance of 
three quarters of a mile in a southerly direction, lies a rock barely covered. To 
the westward of the point there is a bay, but no anchorage ; and the coast then 
runs in a direct line W. j N. 26 miles, as far as Atico Pointy a rugged peninsula, 
with a number of irregular hillocks on it, and barely connected with the coast by 
a sandy isthmus. At a distance it appears like an island, the isthmus not being 
visible far off: there is tolerable anchorage in Atico Road, in 19 or 20 fathoms 
on its western side, and excellent landing in a snug cove at the inner end of the 
peninsula. By keeping a cable's length off shore, no danger need be feared in 
running into this road. The Valley of Atico lies a league and a half to the east- 
ward, where there are about 30 houses, scattered among trees, which grow to the 
height of some 20 feet. From this point the coast continues its westerly direction 
(low and broken cliff, with hills immediately above) to the foot of Capa Point ; 
it then forms a curve towards Chala Point ; and in these two intervals several 
sandy coves were observed, but none that appeared serviceable for shipping. 

Chala Point bears from Atico Point W.N.W. J W., distant 17 leagues ; it is a 
high rocky point, the termination of the MorrOy or mount of that name. This 
mount shows very prominently, and has several summits : on the East side there 
is a valley separating it from another but lower hill, with two remarkable paps, and 
on the West it slopes suddenly to a sandy plain : the nearest range of hills to the 
westward are considerably in-shore, making Morro Chala still more conspicuous. 

N.W. by W. I W. 18 miles from Chala Point, Chavini Point appears like a 
rock on the beach: between them there is a sandy beach, with little green 
hillocks and sandhills, and two rivulets, running from the Valleys of Atequipa 
and Lomas ; these valleys are seen at a considerable distance. 

Half a mile to the westward of Chavini there is a small white islet and a cluster 
of rocks level with the water's edge ; hence to the roadstead of Lomas a sandy 
beach continues, with regular soundings off it, at 2 miles from the shore. 

Lomas Point projects at right angles to the general trend of the coast, and, 


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like Atico, is ail but an island ; it may easily be distinguished, although low, from 
the adjacent coast by its marked difference in colour, being a black rock. 

LouAS Road is the port of Acari, and affords good anchorage in from 5 to 15 
fathoms, and tolerable landing ; it is the residence of a few fishermen, and used 
as a bathing place by the inhabitants of Acari, which, from the information 
obtained, is a populous town several leagues inland. All supplies, even water, 
are brought here by those who visit it ; the fishermen have a well of brackish water 
scarcely fit for use. Boats occasionally call here for otters, which are plentiful 
at particular seasons. 

W.N.W. J W. 23 miles from Lomas Point, we come to Port San Juctn^ and 
8 miles farther, that of San Nicolas, The former is exceedingly good, and offers 
a fit place for a vessel to undergo any repairs, or to heave down in case of 
necessity, without being inconvenienced by a swell ; but ail materials must be 
brought, as well as water and fuel, none being found there. 

The shore is composed of irregular broken cliffs, and the head of the bay is a 
sandy plain ; still the harbour is good, indeed much better than any other on the 
S.W. coast of Peru, and might be an excellent place to run for, if in distress. 
It may be distinguished by Morro Acari, a remarkable sugar-loaf hill, rising very 
steeply from the cliff, on the North side of the bay; and 3 leagues to the 
eastward, a short distance from the coast, a high bluff head forms the termination 
of a range of table-laud, and is well called Direction Bluff, Between this bluff 
and the harbour the land is low and level, with few exceptions, and has a number 
of rocks lying off it to the distance of half a mile. 

S.W. three-quarters of a mile from Steep Point (the southern point of Port 
San Juan), lies a small black rock, always visible, with a reef of rocks extending 
a quarter of a mile to the northward ; and nearly 2 miles to the S.£. there is an 
islet that shows distinctly. A passage may exist between that reef and the point, 
but prudence would forbid its being attempted ; the safest plan is to pass to the 
southward, giving it a berth of a cable*s length, and not close the shore until well 
within Juan Point, off which lies a sunken rock. Then haul the wind and work 
up to the anchorage at the head of the bay, and come to in any depth from 5 
to 15 fathoms, muddy bottom. In working up, the northern shore may be 
approached boldly ; it is steep-to, and has no outlying dangers. 

The Harbour of San Nicolas lies N.W. J N. 8 miles from San Juan, is quite 
as commodious and free from danger as the latter, but the landing is not so good. 

Harmless Point may be rounded within a cable: there are a number of 
scattered rocks to the southward of it, but, as they all appear, there is no danger 
to be feared. There are no inhabitants at either of these ports, so that vessels 
wanting repairs may proceed uninterruptedly with their employment. 

N.W. by W. J W, 8f miles from Harmless Point, is Beware Point, high and 
cliffy, with a number of small rocks and blind breakers in its immediate vicinity. 
From this point the coast is alternately cliffs and small sandy bays, for 14 miles 
to Nasca Point, round which lies Caballas. 

Nasca Point may be readily distinguished ; it has a bluff head of a dark brown 
colour, 1,020 feet in height, with two sharp-topped hummocks moderately higl^ 
at its foot : the coast to the westward falls back to the distance of 2 miles, and U 


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composed of white sandhills : in the depth of this bight is Cahallas Ready a 
rocky shallow spot, that should only be known to be avoided. 

N.W. by W. J W. 28 miles from Nasca Point, is Santa Maria Point, and the 
rock called Ynjiemillo, The point is low and rugged, surrounded by rocks and 
breakers. At the distance of a league and a half inland, to the eastward, is a 
remarkable flat-topped hill, called the Table of DoHa Maria ; this hill may be 
seen in clear weather at a considerable distance from seaward, and from its height 
and peculiar shape is a good mark for this part of the coast. 

The Ynjiemillo Rock lies due West from the northern end of Santa Maria, at 
the distance of a mile ; it is about 50 feet high, quite black, and in the form of a 
sugar-loaf; no dangers exist near it, and there are 54 fathoms at 2 miles' 
distance. Between this rock and Caballas Road the coast to a short distance 
West of the small River Yea is a sandy beach, with ranges of moderately high 
sandhills. From thence to the Ynfiernillo it is rocky, with grassy cliffs 
immediately over it, and some small white rocks lying off. 

N.N.W. J W. 10 miles from Santa Maria, is Azua Point, a high bluff with a 
low rocky point off it; between there is a sandy beach, interrupted by rocky 
projections, and a small stream running from the hills. 

N.W. by W. from Azua Point, and at the distance of 21 miles, is the Dardo 
Head, forming the northern entrance to the Bay of Yndependencia. 

YNDEPENDENCIA BAY.— Tliis extensive bay, which is 15 miles in length in 
a N.W. and S.E. direction, and 3J miles broad, was, till lately, unknown, or at 
least unnoticed : no mention was made of it in the Royal Spanish charts, and it 
was not till the year 1825 that the hydrographer at Lima became aware of its 
existence ; and then only by an accidental discovery. The Dardo and Trujillana, 
two vessels that were conveying troops to Pisco, ran in, mistaking it for that 
place, and were wrecked ; and many of the people on board perished. It has two 
entrances : the southern, called Serrate, which takes its name from the master of 
the vessel by whom it was discovered, is formed by the islets of Santa Rosa on 
the North, and Quemado Point on the South : it is three-quarters of a mile wide, 
and free from danger. The northern, or Trujillana entrance, is named after one 
of those unfortunate ships, and is formed by Carretas Head on the North, and to 
the southward by Dardo Head, so called after her consort ; it is 4| miles in width , 
and clear in all parts. The bay is bounded on the West by the islands of Vieja 
and of Santa Rosa, and on the East by the main land, which is moderately high, 
cliffy, and broken by a sandy beach, at the end of which is a small fishing village 
called Tungo, The people of this village are residents of Yea, the principal town 
in the province, which is about 14 leagues distant ;* they come here occasionally to 
fish, and remain a few days, bringing with them all their supplies, even to water, 
as that necessary of life is not to be obtained in the neighbourhood. There is 
anchorage in any part of this spacious bay ; the bottom is quite regular, about 20 
fathoms all over, excepting off the shingle spit on the N.E. side of Vieja Island, 

* YOA 18 moderately large and very agreeably situated. The vine is almost the only object of 
industry, and flourishes with astonishing facility. The fruit is chiefly employed in making brandy, 
which, from being shipped at Pisco, is called Aguardiente de Pisco. The vale of Yea supplies tdl 
Peru, and much of Chile, with this liquor. A superior and much dearer brandy is also made from 
the muscatel grape, and called Aguardiente de Italia.-^ Fon Ttchudi, p« 234. 


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PISCO. 159 

where a bank runs off that spit to the northward, on which there are 5 and 6 
fathoms : this is the best place to anchor, for, on the weather shore near Quemado 
Point, it blows strong with sadden gusts off the high land, and great difficulty 
would be found in landing; whereas at the spit you are not annoyed by the 
wind, and there is a snug cove or basin within it, where boats may land or lie 
in safety at any time. 

Approaching this part of the coast from seaward, it may be distinguished by the 
three clusters of hills, Quemado, Vieja Island, and Carretas; they are nearly of 
the same height, and at equal distances from one another. The S,W. sides of 
Mount Carretas and the Island of Vieja are steep dark cliffs ; but Mount 
Quemado slopes gradually to the water's edge, and is of a much lighter colour. 
At the southern extremity of Vieja there is a remarkable black lump of land, in 
the shape of a sugar-loaf; off which lies the white level island of Santa Rosa, the 
S.W. side of which is studded with rocks and breakers, but there is no danger a 
mile from the shore. 

N.W. I N. 6\ leagues from Carretas Head, is the Boqueron of Pisco^ or the 
entrance to that bay ; the shore between them forms a deep angular bay, with the 
Island of Zarate near its centre. The Boqueron is formed by the main land on the 
East and the Island of San Gallan on the West ; this island is 2^ miles long, in a 
N.N.W. and S.S.E. direction, and 1 mile in breadth ; it is high, with a bold cliffy 
outline. There is a deep valley dividing the hills, which, when seen from the 
S.W., gives it the appearance of a saddle, the South end terminating abruptly, 
while its northern end slopes more gradually and carries several peaks. Off this 
point there are some detached rocks, the northernmost of which has the appear- 
ance of a nine-pin, and shows distinctly. 

S. ^ £., at the distance of a mile from San Gallan, lies the Pinero Rock, which 
is much in the way of vessels bound to Pisco from the southward ; it is just level 
with the water's edge, and in fine weather can always be seen ; but when it blows 
hard and the weather tide is running, there is such a confused cross sea, that the 
whole space is covered with foam, rendering it difficult to distinguish the rock ; 
at such a time the shore should be kept well aboard on either side, and when in a 
line between the South point of the island and the white rock off Huacas Point, 
you will be within the rock, and may steer for Paraca Point ; on rounding which 
the Bay of Pisco will open. 

PISCO. — This extensive bay, formed by the Peninsula of Paracas on the 
South, and the Ballista and Chincha Islands on the West, is the principal port of 
the province of Yea. The town of Pisco is built on the East side, about a mile 
from^ the sea ; and is said to contain 3,000 inhabitants, who derive considerable 
profit from a spirit they distil, known by the name of Pisco or Italia, great 
quantities of which are annually exported to different parts of the coast : sugar is 
also an article of trade, but the pisco is the staple commodity. Refreshments 
may be obtained on reasonable terms : wood is scarce : excellent water may be 
had at the head of Pisco Bay, under the cluster of trees, 2 miles South from the 
fishing village of Paraca: the landing there is very good, and the wells are neat 
the beach. * ^ k • 

The best anchorage off the town is with the church open of the road, bearing 


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£.N.E. j^ E., in 4 fathomSy muddy bottom, three-quarters of a mile from the 
shore. A heavy surf beats on the beach with rollers to the distance of a quarter 
of a mile off, rendering it dangerous to land in ship*s boats ; launches built for the 
purpose are used in loading and discharging vessels ; but at times even these 
cannot stand it, and all communication is cut off for two or three days together. 

There may be said to be four entrances to this capacious bay : the Boqueron, 
already mentioned ; between San Gallan and the BalHsta Islands ; between those 
and the Chincha Islands ; and the northern entrance between them and the main ; 
all of which, from appearances, may be safely used ; but of those between the 
islands time would not allow a full examination, and, therefore, there may be 
dangers that were unseen. 

In coming from the southward, after passing Paraca Point, a course may be 
shaped rather outside of Blanca Island, in order to give a berth to some doubtful 
ground about a mile to the northward of the peninsula, in 4 fathoms, and 
then towards the church of Pisco, which will lead directly to the anchorage. 
Abreast of the island you will have 12 fathoms, muddy bottom ; and from this 
depth it decreases gradually to the anchorage. 

In coming from the northward it is all plain sailing ; after passing the Chincha 
Islands, stand in boldly to the anchorage ; the water shoals quicker on this side 
Blanca Island, but there is no danger whatever. Vessels having to ballast here, 
should work up and anchor under Shingle Point ; they can lie close to the shore, 
and boats may land with expedition. 

In coming from seaward, this part of the coast may easily be known by the 
Island of San Gallan, and the high Peninsula of Paracas at the back of it, which 
make like large islands, the land on each side being considerably lower and 
falling back to the eastward, so as not to be visible at a moderate distance. As 
the shore is approached, the Chincha and Ballista Islands will be seen ; which will 
confirm the position, there being no other islands lying off the coast near this 

The CHINCHA ISLANDS have become one of the principal points of 
commercial interest on the South American coast. The guano upon them, which 
exceeds greatly in abundance that once on the well-known island of Ichaboe, 
similarly situated in respect to the African coast, is now the object of a very 
considerable shipping trade, under the government of a commercial company, as 
previously stated. f They were not very perfectly surveyed by the Beagle, but are 
now so well known, that there will be no difficulty in making or approaching 
them. The principal danger discovered is a small sunken rock, named the 
Peacock Rock, having 5 feet at low water on it, and 5 fathoms all round it. It is 
conical, and the size of a small boat, lying about half a cable's length off the 
N.E. point of the island. 

• Capt. Livingston, when off Pisco, Angust 26, 1824, in lat. 13° 66' 28" S., Ion. 78** SO' W., 
found the water mach discoloured, indeed quite green, and the temperature of it fallen to 60°. 
He prepared for sounding, but not liking to delay the vessel, then going 7 knots, did not do ao. 
Perhaps he passed over a bank not laid down in the charts, and, according to his opinion, it was 
very probable that it was so. 

t " Masters of vessels are cautioned against throwing*overboard ballast at the loading anchorage : 
any master or masters permitting ballast to be thrown overboard, in less tlian 12 fathoms of 
water, will be fined in the penalty of 100 dollai-s,*'— *' Comercio" Lima, Sept, 2, 1846. 


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" I have now laid down a buoy upon it for the Guano Company," says Mr. 
Peacock, in the Nautical Magazine, March, 1847, p. 119, "in 5 fathoms, a 
boat's length from the rock North of it ; it carries a staff and red vane 15 feet high, 
and is very conspicuous. It would not be prudent to pass inside of the buoy, as 
another rock lies some 60 yards S.W. of it, although the channel between it and 
the nearest point is 150 yards wide, with 5, 4, and 3 fathoms in it. Should the 
buoy be gone at any time, the marks to clear the rock on hauling round the N.E. 
point, coming from Pisco roads, are, the easternmost Salmadina islet kept open of 
the point until the N.W. pinnacle ship rock comes open of the Mangara cliff, to 
which cliff the ships lash, and receive the mangaraa (canvas hoses) down their 
hatchways." * 

From Pisco ibe coast runs in a northerly direction, a low sandy beach with 
regular soundings off it, till you reach the River Chincha ; and from thence a 
clay cliffy coast, which continues as far as the River Cafiete. From this river to 
Frayle Point a beautiful and fertile valley fringes the shore, and to the north- 
eastward of Frayle Point stands the town of Cerro Azul. This valley produces 
rum, sugar, and chancaca, a sort of treacle, for which it is resorted to by coasters. 

CaRRO AsuL,t or the Port of Cafiete, or Canyete, is an open bay, in which 
landing at all times is very precarious : but the nature of the coast affords great 
facility for constructing a breakwater, which would render this bay more deserving 
of the name of port. In its present state they continue to embark sugar, which 
is produced in tolerable quantity in the fertile valleys of Canyete. These I 
overlooked from my station on the summit of Cerro Azul, or about 300 feet above 
the sea level. The town or village consists of one house, one church or chapel, 

* ** Vrom an approximate calcalation I mada some two years ago of tbe quantity of ^ano on this 

little groap from actual ninrey, there is sa£Bcient, at fifty thousand tons exported per annum, to 

last npwanis of a thoasand years ! so that there need be no fear of exhausting the supply, as there 

an several other spots on the coast of Peru and Bolivia that would yield equal quantities. This 

sobetance is upwards of 100 feet deep In the centre of the northern island, gradually decreasing in 

thickness at the edges, and resting on a granite formation; the other two islands appear to 

contain a still larger quantity than this one, and notwithstanding the many thousands of tons 

tbat have been carried away fix>m this (the only island yet worked), the quarry, in comparison 

ipirith the unwrought guano, is only a fractional part. The Indians had worked this island long 

before the Spanish conquest, and It has given constant emplojrment to a number of coasting 

▼easels since the sixteenth century, besides the no small quantity exported to Burope and the 

United States withhi the last five years. Birds' eggs, the interior filled with native sal ammoniac, 

are fjpeqnentiy dug out at great depths (I have had two in my own possession), and also the bones. 

beaks, and claws of the various birds which have frequented the islands, such aa pelicans, boobies, 

cormorants, and a bird called pofaytmka (Indian), a kind of petrel, which barrows in the ffuano^ 

aod is so numerous that it is genertdly believed this class has chiefly contributed to the formation 

of this invaluable manure, called by the Indians < guano * or < huano,* signifying the dung or 

excrement of animals, and which name the Spaniards afterwards retained, and the vessels 

employed in this trade are hence called guanerot. 

'* The Chincha group may be reckoned amongst the hundred and ninety-nine wonders of the 
world, and in walking over the island, the mind can hardly conceive the mass to be the excrement 
of birds, unless one goes into a simple calculation, when it will be found that a million of birds, in 
three thousand years, are more than safficient to make this deposit, for here it has never been known 
to rain in the memory of man ! The surrounding s.ea is literally alive with fish at all seasons, and, 
after all, a mUlion of birda distributed over 7 square mUes of sur&ce (which is about the superficial 
contents of the Chfanehaa) is by no means overrated. In fiict, we are quite at liberty, in sacb a 
calculation, to take as many birds as would actually cover the ground ; for every one who has mat^ 
a voyage to the tropics, must have seen the innumerable flocks of searfowl that hover over rocK« 
and lalands, away from a civilised coast." — George Peacock, . ,, . a .i^h^r August 

t Tliefollowiig observations are by Capt. Sir Bdw. Belcher, in H.M.8. Sulphur, August, 
1898, vol. i. pp. 19D**201. 



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and a few huts arranged on three sides of a square, the fourth open to the sea, 
with other straggling huts, amounting altogether to about twenty. 

Cerro Azul is a high, bluff, insulated clump, projecting into the sea, and at a 
short distance might be mistaken for an island. Its predominant colour is 
yellowish red. 

There are no objects of interest between this and the Asia Islands, which are 
distant 17 miles N.W. | N., and are merely a patch of high rocks projecting 
about 2 miles to seaward from a very flat sandy beach, having a channel carrying 
4 fathoms, but well studded with rocks, which, by daylight, are easily avoided. 
Asia Peak is situated in lat. 12^ 47' S., Ion. 76° 34' W., and its island is about 
half a mile long by a quarter broad, having no vegetation. There is good 
landing in a very snug bay, on its eastern side, where a seal fishery has apparently 
been carried on at times. 

Between Cerro Azul and Asia Island the coast is dangerous, and landing 
generally impracticable, but the lead will always afford timely warning. A little 
to the northwaixi of Asia Island is a deep bay, but neither here nor at any point, 
until reaching Chilca, could we find landing ; although we were informed that 
this could be effected at the River Mala. We did not see the river, nor anything 
like one. It was possibly screened by the surf. 

Chilca Faint f 20 miles N.W. from Asia Islands, forms a sharp elbow in the 
land, making a veiy deep bay, in which a small town was noticed. It is about 
300 feet high in its highest part, has several rises on it, and terminates in a steep 
cliff, with a small flat rock close off its pitch. A remarkable peak, called Devil's 
Peaky rises about 300 feet perpendicularly, and forms the eastern limits. 
Northerly from Chilca Point, 3 miles, lies the Port of Chilca^ formed by a large 
island, which enables vessels of small draught to lie in a complete dock, land- 
locked, the outer harbour having good anchorage in 10 to 14 fathoms. 

A small village of huts, with a chapel, is situated on the eastern beach of the 

inner harbour, and is apparently merely the resort of fishermen The 

whole soil is so entirely impregnated with salt, that every stone has an incrustation 
of pure white crystalline salt on it ; and in many cases I noticed that it cemented 
the stones together to a thickness of 4 inches solid salt. This, of course, is of 
great importance to the fishery, but a sad drawback to the seamen who may seek 
for water in this neighbourhood. A road runs through the valley of Chilca to the 
town in the bay before mentioned, where bright green tints afford assurance of 

Chilca is a snug cove, but very confined ; anchorage is good in any part of it, and 
landing tolerable ; there is a small village at the head of the bay, but no informa- 
tion could be obtained from the inhabitants about Chilca, for they deserted their 
huts on the arrival of Capt. FitzRoy. 

From Chilca the coast forms a bend to the valley of Lurin, off which are the 
Pacuacamac Islands. The northern is the largest, half a mile in length, and 
about a cable's length broad ; San Francisco is the most remarkable, being quite 
like a sugar-loaf, perfectly rounded at the top : the others are mere rocks, and 
not visible at any distance. At the northern end of these islands lies a small reef 
even with the water's edge ; the group runs nearly parallel to the coast, in a 


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N.W. and S.B. direction, and is about a league in extent. There is no danger 
on their outer side, but towards the shore the water is shoal, which causes a long 
swell to break there heavily. 

This island is one of the most interesting places on the Peruvian coast. At the 
time of the Spanish invasion it was connected with the main land, and formed a 
promontory. Possibly it may have been detached from the coast during the great 
earthquake of 1586.* On the summit of a hill on the island is the Temple of 
Pachacamac, or Castle, as it is called by the Indians, a square edifice of three 
terraces, built of rock, and covered with sun-dried bricks. This ruin of the 
ancient Peruvian times resembles the view given by Humboldt of the pyramid of 
Cholula. The remains of the town occupy some lower ground, a quarter of a 
mile to the northward. Many interesting antiquities have been procured here, 
evidences of the domestic life of the " children of the sun," 

North of the Pachacamac Islands the River Lurin brings its small stream from 
the interior, but without sufficient force to make its way into the sea ; the valley, 
however, which it waters, appeared fertile and well cultivated when seen from the 
offing. Prom thence to the Morro Solar is a sandy beach, with moderately high 
land a short distance from the sea. The Mo&ro Solar is a remarkable cluster 
of hills, standing on a sandy plain ; when seen from the southward it has the 
appearance of an island in the shape of a quoin, sibping to the westward, and 
falling very abruptly in-shore ; on its sea face, however, it terminates in a steep 
diff, with a sandy bay on each side. 

Off Solar P(nnt'\^ there is an insignificant islet, with some rocks lying about 
it, and off Ckorilla Point a reef of rocks projects about 2 cables' length ; round 
this reef, on the North side of the Morro, lies the town and road of Chorillo, 
The former is built on a cliff, at the foot of one of the slopes of that mountain. 

CHORILLO, 3 leagues to the South of Lima, is the favourite watering place, 
and frequented during the sultry months by gambling parties and persons of 
rank and fashion from town. It is a small village of fishermen, constructed of 
cane and mud. The Indian owners of the shades, and of some houses or ranches^ 
let them to the bathers during the bathing season ; and some persons either take 
these for a term of years, or construct light houses for themselves, which they 
fit up tastefully, and pass the summer months in them in the midst of gaiety and 
mirth. Chorillo is sheltered from the south-western blast by the elevated pro- 
montory, the Morro Solar, which rises like a gigantic guaca overlooking the 
numerous monuments or Pagan temples of this name, which are scattered over 
the naturally rich, but now, in a great measure, waste and desolate plain, that 
extends from Lima to Chorillo. 

Daring the raw, damp, and foggy months of July and August in Lima, Chorillo 
enjoys a clear sky and a genial air. The south-westers, laden with heavy clouds, 

• Von Ttcbudi, p. 46.— See NanraUve of the U. 8. Exploring Expedition, vol. i. pp. 279—81. 

t <<Iacblra Bay, nnder the point of Morro Bolar, having heen named as the rendezvous for 
British shipping should the blockade of Callao be maintained, became my next point or 
InteKst. Its character may be snmmed np in a few words. The bay is open, l*»J*"5«ir^. J>* 
pra<»tlcable), anchorage untenable and even dangerous; in proof of which we leii i^n© 

fluke of our anchor."— Caj)^ Sir Edto, Belcher, 

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spend their strength on the Morro Solar (on which burst the only thunder-storm 
witnessed by the Dmenians in the memory of any one now living), and divide 
into two currents ; the one pursues the direction of the village of Miraflores, and 
the other, the hacienda of San Juan, leaving Chorillo clear and serene between. 
Thus protected, Chorillo does not experience the chilly mists of winter ; and it is 
the great hospital of convalescence for aguish, asthmatic, dysenteric, rheumatic, 
and various other sorts of invalids, from the capital during the misty season. 

When political revolutions rendered the road of Callao a dangerous berth, the 
vessels all resorted to Chorillo Bay, though in every other respect an unfit place 
for anchoring, as the bottom is a hard sand, with patches of stones and clay mixed 
together, called tosca ; and the heavy swell that sets round the point, causing 
almost a roller, brings a vessel up to her anchor and throws her back again with 
a sudden jerk, which endangers dragging the anchor or snapping the cable. 

Capt. Livingston says : — " This bay has very foul ground. A reef lies off 
from the S.W. point of the bay (N.W. point of the Morro Solar) ; from the 
break it seems to extend If or 2 cables' length from the point, and a good berth 
ought to be given to it. At the same point there is a small detached rock, 
which cannot be distinguished from the main land until you have shut in all 
the land to the southward. When once you can see out to sea betwixt this rock 
and the point with the two spires, turrets, or steeples, of the church of Chorillo 
in one, you will be in the best anchorage for moderate*siied vessels, in 4f fathoms, 
but in this situation you should be sure of having good ground-tackle, as, in the 
event of parting a cable, you have very little room left to work in. 

'* In sounding in this bay it is advisable to do it with a boat, and to drag the 
lead after the boat, as thus you more readily discover the heads of rock. 

<' Excellent water may be procured at Chorillo, and with as much or more 
facility than at Huacho. The landing at Chorillo with boats is generally bad, 
often dangerous, and sometimes impracticable. There is generally a heavy swell 
in this bay, and vessels, if not moored with a stream cable out to the northward, 
roll exceedingly. Outside the point, and about N.W. by N. from it, there is a 
patch of mud, but I do not know its exact position. This is the best place for 
line-of-battle ships to anchor."* 

Vessels that must anchor there ought not to shut Solar Point in with the next, 
or Codo Point : by keeping those points open they will ride in 8 or 9 fathoms, 
and not have so much swell as there is further in. The landing in the bay is 
very bad ; canoes built purposely, and dexterously managed, are the usual means 
of communication : for though, no doubt, there are times when a ship's boat may 
land without danger, yet very seldom without the crew being thoroughly drenched. 

From Chorillo the coast runs in a steady sweep, with cliffs diminishing in 
height, till it reaches the Point of Callao, which ia a shingle bank, stretching out 
towards the Island of San Lorenzo, and which with it forms the extensive and 
commodious Bay of Callao. 

* Observations by Capt. Andrew Livingston, of the brig Jane, a gentleman to whom the nautical 
world is indebted.— July, 1826. 


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CALLAO. 165 


Callfto is the port of Lima, the Peruvian capital. The harbour is protected 
from the PaciBc by the Island of San Lorenzo ; the town standing on a sandy 
peniDsnlay which projects beyond the general line of coast towards the middle 
of the island. 

The Bay of Callao forms a fine harbour. The climate and prevalent winds 
from the sonthem quarters render it so. Its northern side is entirely exposed, 
but there is no danger to be apprehended from that quarter. San Lorenzo keeps 
off all swell from the shore immediately around the town, but a few miles to 
the northward the surf breaks heavily on the beach, and effectually prevents 
all lauding. 

The Island of San Lorenzo lies in a N.W. by W. and S.E. by E. direction ; 
and off its S.E. end is the Isla del Fronton, extending a mile farther. 

Capt. Wilkes says:-— '< We remained at San Lorenzo ten days (July, 1839), 
during which time its three highest points were measured with barometers at the 
same time. The result gave 896 for the southern, 920 for the middle, and 1,284, 
for the northern summit. Upon the latter the clouds generally rest, and it is the 
only place on the island where vegetation is enabled to exist. The others are all 
barren sandy hills. It is said that the only plant which has been cultivated is 
the potato, and that only on the North peak. This becomes possible then from 
the moisture of the clouds, and their shielding it from the hot sun. 

** The geological structure of the island is principally composed of limestone, 
clay, and slate. It presents a beautiful stratification. Gypsum is found in some 
places between the strata, and crystals of selenite are met with in one or two 
localities. Quantities of shell-fish are found on the shore, and the waters abound 
with excellent fish. 

'^The burying-ground is the only object of interest here. The graves are 
covered with white shells, and a white board/.on which is inscribed the name, &c. 
They appear to be mostly of Englishmen and Americans.'^ ^ 

The small strait separating San Lorenzo from the land wjU perhaps afford some 
insight into those remarkable geological changes which have occurred in the coast 
and land of Peru. Mr. Darwin considers that this part of the land has risen 
85 feet since it had human inhabitants. He founds this opinion upon the foots 
observed on the shores of Lorenzo, the ledges and the deposits of shells, on one of 
which, at that height above the sea, he found some bits of cotton thread, plaited 
rash, and the head of an Indian corn stalk. There are statements that the land 
sunk at different periods, among others in 1746, when the great earthquake 
swallowed up the city of Callao ; the ruins upon the tongue of land from 
the fortress, supposed by Darwin to be of this city, are those of Callao, destroyed 
in 1630. Subsequently to this it must have been upheaved, for boys used to 
throw stones over to the island. At present the distance is nearly 2 English 
miles. Another proof of sinking is the shoal between the coast and San Lorenzo, 
called the Comotal, which in early times was cultivated, particularly with comote 

• Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, vol. I- p. 231- 

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(sweet potatoes), hence its name. This occurred perhaps in 1687 or 1630. — 
(See Darwin, 2nd edit., pp. 43, 44.) 

May not both these phenomena, upheaving and subsiding, have occurred at 
different times? The plan of UUoa (1742) does not make the distance between 
the main land and San Lorenzo very different from the recent surveys.* 

** The principal street of Callao runs parallel with the bay. There are a few 
tolerably well-built two-story houses on the main street, which is paved. These 
houses are built of adobes, and have flat roofs, which is no inconvenience here, in 
consequence of the absence of heavy rains. The interior of the houses is of the 
commonest kind of work. The partition walla are built of cane, closely laced 
together. The houses of the common people are of one story, and about 10 feet 
high ; some of them have a grated window, but most of them only a doorway and 
one room. Others are seen that hardly deserve the name of houses, being 
nothing more than mud walls, with holes covered with a mat, and the same 

*^ The outskirts of Callao deserve mentioning only for their excessive filth ; and 
were it not for the fine climate it would be the hotbed of pestilence. One feels 
glad to escape from this neighbourhood."— (Wilkes.) 

*^ The market, though there is nothing else remarkable about it, exhibits many 
of the peculiar customs of the country. It is held in a square of about one and 
a half acres. The stands for selling meat are placed indiscriminately, or without 
order* Beef is sold for from 4 to 6 cents the pound, is cut in the direction of its 
fibre, and looks filthy. It is killed on the commons, and the hide, head, and 
horns, are left for the buzzards and dogs. The rest is brought to market on the 
backs of donkeys. Chickens are cut up to suit purchasers. Fish and vegetables 
are abundant, and of good kinds ; and good fruit may be had if bespoken. In 
this case it is brought from Lima. Everything confirms, on landing, the truth of 
the geographical adage, ' In Peru it never rains.' It appears everywhere dusty 
and parched up. 

'^The tide at Callao is small, generally of 3 and 4 feet rise. The temperature 
of the water during our stay was 60° ; of the air from 57® to 63°. Since my visit 
to Callao in 1821, it had much altered, and for the better, notwithstanding the 
vicissitudes it has gone through since that time. A fine mole has been erected, 
surrounded by an iron railing. On it is a guardhouse, with soldiers lounging 
about, and some two or fhree on guard. 

''The mole affords every convenience for landing from small boats. The 
streets of Callao have been made much wider, and the town has a more 
decent appearance. Water is conducted from the canal to the mole, and a 
railway takes the goods to the fortress, which is now converted into a dep6t. 
This place, the seaport of Lima, must be one of the great resorts of shipping, not 
only for its safety, but for the convenience of providing supplies. The best idea 
of its trade will be formed by the number of vessels that frequent it. I have 
understood that there is generally about the same number as we found in port, 
namely, forty-two, nine of which were ships of war : five American, two French, 

* Dr. Ton Tschadi, pp. 49, 44. See likewise Darwin, p. 461 ; and also Kcoiid edition. 

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LIMA. 167 

one Chilian, and thirty-five Peruvian, merchantmen, large and small. The castle 
of Callao has become celebrated in history, and has long been the key of Peru.* 
Whichever party had it in possession were considered as the possessors of the 
country. It is now converted into a better use, viz., that of a custom-house, and 
it is nearly dismantled.^f 

The city of Lima stands on a plain, in a valley formed during the gradual 
retreat of the sea. It is distant 7 miles from Callao, and, according to Capt. 
Wilkes' measurement, Mr. Bartlett's (the United States' consul) house is 420 
feet above the sea; but, from the slope being very gradual, the road appears 
absolutely level, so that, when at Lima, it is difficult to believe that one has 
ascended some hundred feet. Humboldt has remarked on this singularly 
deceptive case, as has almost every other traveller. Steep barren hills rise like 
islands from the plain, which is divided by straight mud-walls into large green 
fields, having only a few willows here and there, and an occasional clump of 
oranges and bananas.^ 

LIMA, the capital of Peru, was founded by Pizarro, Jan. 15th, 1535; he is 
buried in the cathedral of this ** City of the Kings," as he named it. Its present 
name is derived from the river which flows through it, the Rimac of the Peruvians, 
softened into its European form by the Spaniards. 

The houses are tolerably built of adobes, or sun-dried bricks, canes, and wood ; 
they are low, in order to stand the shocks of earthquakes, being seldom above 
two stories, with small balconies to the second floor, with generally an archway 
from the street, and with a strong door leading to a court within. The lower or 
ground floor is commonly used as store-rooms and stables, and all kinds of 
rubbish are stowed away on the tops. The staircase is generally spacious and 
handsome, and the apartments of the lodgers often adorned with common fresco 
paintings. For the climate these bouses are, however, sufficiently well adapted. 
The cathedral, the palaces of government and of the archbishop, the university, 
several colleges, and some churches, are the most remarkable edifices. The 
population is estimated at about 70,000. There are several unimportant manu- 
factures carried on, and its trade in foreign merchandise, and its exports of the 
produce of the mines, and of the interior, are through the nearly adjacent port 
of Galiao. 

It will be unnecessary to give a more detailed description of this important but 
faded city. The best and most recent account of it is that of Dr. Von Tschudi 
in 1842. His description and statistics are more complete than most of his 

* Prior to its dettractioo, the collection of batteriee, known nndcr the name of the Castle of 
Celko, had an imposing appearance. One of the scenes for which it is best known to Englishmen 
is the exploit of Lord Cochrane, who cat oat the JBsmerdlda Spanish frigate, by means of fourteen 
boats, on the night of Nor. 6th, 1830, from nnder its guns, thus destroying the Spanish naval power 
in the Pacific, and giving a great impetus to the success of the Chilians agahist the Spanish 
domination. The president of the Peruvian republic sold all its beautiful brass guns but five in 
July, 1836, during the time the BeagU was there, assigning as a reason that he had no officer to 
whom he could entrust the command of bo important a fortreu; he himself having obtained his 
presidentship by a successful rebellion while in command of it Fall particulars of the war of 
liberation and the evento of Calhu> are given by Capt Basil Hall, in his Extracts from a Journal, 
&c, part 1, chap. 3. 

f Wilkes' Exploring Expedition, vol. i. p. 233. 

X Mr. Darwin, p. 449. 


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predecessors. The most aatheDtic and complete account of it^ prior to the great 
earthquake of 1746, is giren by Ulloa, Voyage de VAmerique^ vol. i. pp. 422—66. 
See also Capt. Wilkes, U.S.E., before quoted ; Dr. Meyeo, Reise um die Erde, 
vol. xi. pp. 56—64 (this work, though excellent, has not been translated) ; 
Poeppig ; Scarlet ; Basil Hall, &c., &c. 

The IsLAiTD OF Sav Loeenzo is 1,050 feet at its highest part, 4^ miles long in 
a N.W. and S.E. direction, and 1 mile broad. Off its S.E. end lies a small but 
bold-looking island, called Fronton ; and to the S.W. are the Palominos Rocks. 
Its northern point, or Cape San Lorenzo, is clear, and round it is the usual 
passage to the anchorage at Callao. In rounding it, however, do not close the 
land nearer than half a mile, for within that distance there are light baffling airs, 
caused by the eddy winds round the island, by getting among which you would 
be more delayed than if you gave the island a good berth, and should have to 
make an additional tack to fetch the anchorage. 

There are no dangers in working in, except the long spit that stretches off from 
Callao Point towards San Lorenzo Island ; part of it, however, just shows at the 
water's edge, and the sea breaks violently along its ridge. Callao Point is very 
low, and consists of a bank of small round stones, as far nearly as the battery of 
San Rafael. 

Should there be occasion to work to windward to fetch the anchorage, the 
above shoal with another rock, said to lie off the Galera Point, of the Island of San 
Lorenzo, are so far to the southward that you need scarcely apprehend borrowing 
on them. Run or work up close to the shipping, and anchor in from 7 to 
5 fathoms ; with the pier-head bearing about S.E. and San Lorenzo W. by S. 
Although the above mark is given for the most convenient anchorage, yet ships 
may lie with the greatest safety in any part of the bay, and in any depth of 
water, on clear ground and gradual soundings from 20 to 3| fathoms up to the 
molehead and landing place. 

This is the obvious route to Callao ; but there is another which, with common 
precaution, may be used to great advantage, by vessels coming from the south- 
ward ; and passing through the Boqueron Channel between the Island of San 
Lorenzo and Callao Pomt. After making Fronton Island^^ steer so as to keep its 
southern end about a point open on the port bow ; continue on this course until 
Callao Castle is seen, which has two martello towers on it, and stands on the inner 
part of the shingle bank that forms the point : then steer for that castle till Hora- 
dada Island (which has a hole through it) comes in one with the middle of the 
southern sandy bay of the Monro Solar, bearing about E.S.E. with these marks in 
one, and therefore steering about W.N.W. : for the furthest point of Lorenzo that 
can be seen, you will be clear of all danger ; and when the western martello tower 
in the castle comes in one with the northern part of Callao Point, you may haul 
gradually round to the northward till that tower opens clear of the breakers on 
the spit, when a direct course may be shaped for the anchorage ; taking care not 
to come nearer the sand called the Whale's Back than 6 fathoms. There is no 
regular tide in this passage, yet a little drain always felt, sometimes to the N.W., 
and at others the contrary : should the stream be adverse, and it fieill calm while in 
the channel, there is good anchorage in 8 or 9 fathoms with the leading marks in one. 


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H0RMI6AS. 169 

These marks will also lead clear of the bank that extends three-quarters of 
a mile to the northward of Fronton Island ; and as soon as the rock between 
Fronton and San Lorenzo bears S. by W., the Fronton Shoal will have been 
passed, and San Lorenzo may be approached as above directed. 

H.M.S. Collingwood came through with the above marks, in not less than 
5\ fathoms on the port side, and 5| on the starboard. 

Directions by M. Lartigue. — *' In proceeding from any of the ports on the 
South coast of Peru, it is best to take advantage of the breezes to get off the 
land as quickly as possible, and keep at 30 leagues from the coast ; it will be 
unnecessary to close again until abreast of the Isle of San Lorenzo, for which you 
can proceed direct if you are sure of your longitude. If not, steer a little East 
of this island to make the Isle of San Gallan, which is visible 12 leagues off. 
As soon as this is made out, run for San Lorenzo. The currents are generally to 
the northward, following the direction of the coast ; so that, whether you proceed 
directly for San Lorenzo or first make San Gallan, you most always allow for a 
difference of 10 miles at least in yonr reckoning. 

^^ During the night, and a part of the morning, the weather is often foggy in 
the neighbourhood of Lima ; the land near the coast cannot be seen but at a 
short distance ; it is then possible to mistake the Monro Solar for San Lorenzo, 
which is 12 miles S.E. | E. from it, and appears like an island from a distance, 
or when the neighbouring land is hidden by the haze. There is to the N.W. of 
the Morro Solar several rocks, some of which are at a distance from the land, 
and, therefore, it must not be approached ; it is prudent, in foggy weather, 
to keep board and board to the Sonth until the breeze freshens, for then the haze 
never fails to be dissipated. 

** The Island of San Lorenzo ought not to be neared too closely on the South ; 
but you may range near to the West point of the island, so as to reach the 
anchorage on that tack. If you should be becalmed at the mouth of the bay, 
you must anchor to the North of San Lorenzo, so as to avoid being carried by 
the current to leeward of the port." 

Supplies of all sorts may be obtained for shipping ; fresh provisions as well as 
vegetables, with an abundance of fruit : watering is also extremely convenient, a 
well-constructed mole being run out into the sea, at which boats can lie, and fill 
from the pipes that project from its side ; wood is the scarcest article and very 
dear, so that vessels likely to remain at this port should husband their fuel 

HORMIGAS. — Due West from the North end of San Lorenzo, at the 
distance of 31 miles, lie a small cluster of rocks called the Hormigas de 
Afuera; the largest is about three-quarters of a mile in circumference, 25 
feet high, and covered with guano ; no sign of vegetation was observed : it is 
merely a resting place for birds and seals ; landing might be effected, if 
requisite, on its North side, but with difficulty. Being somewhat in the way of 
vessels bound to Callao from the northward, and of those leaving that port for 
the West, care should be taken not to approach too closely, for fear of being 
overtaken by dense fog, so frequent on the Peruvian coast, while in their 


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neighbourhood. The water is deep dose-to all round, and no warning would be 
given by the lead.* 

The Cordillera of the Andes, on this part of the Peruvian coast, approach it 
within 60 or 70 miles. Of their elevation we have but few measurements. One 
singular feature of this part of the range is, that it seems to be rather a continua- 
tion of the eastern range, with which it unites at the back of Arequipa, than the 
western chain of the Bolivian Andes. Several of the peaks to the South rise 
above the limits of perpetual snow, but the elevation of none of these have been 
determined. The best known are the Toldo de la Nieve, S.£. of Lima, from which 
it is seen ; the Altunchagua, about 10^ South lat. ; and the Nevado de Guaylillas, 
above Truxillo, or 7° 50' South. The passes over the Cordillera are of very great 
elevation. The best known is that from Lima to Tar ma and Cuzco ; it rises on 
the principal chain at the Portacuelo de Tucto to 15,760 feet above the sea. 
Farther North are the passes to the silver district of the Cerro de Pasco ; the 
westernmost, the Alto de Taicabamba, is at 15,135 feet. Other passes cross the 
chain to the northward, but we are comparatively unacquainted with the particulars. 

From Callao the coast is a sandy beach, lying in a northerly direction, until it 
reaches Pancha Paint ; it there becomes higher and cliffy, and maintains this 
character as far as Mulatiis Pointy round which is the little Bay of Ancon, 

To the West and S.W. of Ancon lie the Pescador Islands^ the outer and largest 
of which bears N.N.W. | W. from Callao Castle, and at the distance of 18 miles. 
There is no danger among these islands ; they are steep-to, with from 20 to 30 
fathoms near them. 

N.W. by N. from Mulatas Point, 12 miles distant, is the Bay of Chancay and 
river of that name ; this bay may be known by the bluff head that forms the point, 
and has three hills on it, in an easterly direction ; it is a confined place, and fit 
only for small coasters. From Chancay, the coast runs in a more westerly direc-* 
tion, as far as Salinas Point, a shingle beach, with a few broken, cliffy points ; 
the hills are near the coast, and from 400 to 500 feet high. 

The Point of Salinas is 27 miles N.W. by W. | W. from Chancay Head. It 
is 5 miles in length, in a N^rth and South direction ; off its southern face there is a 
reef of rocks, a quarter of a mile from the shore ; and at its northern angle, called 
Las Bajas, an islet at a cable's distance ; two coves, between these points, are fit 
only for boats. There is a remarkable round hill, called Salinas, at a short 
distance from the coast, and further in-shore, a level, sandy plain; at the South 
side of which plain lie the Salinas, or salt-ponds, that give the headland its name. 
These ponds are visited occasionally by people from Huacho, 

Off Salinas Point, in a S.W. direction, lie the Huaura Islands, the largest of 
which is called Mazorque, It is 200 feet in height, three-quarters of a mile long, 
and quite white : sealers occasionally frequent this island^ as there is a landing 
place on its North side. 

The'next in size is Pelado ; it lies S.W. \ W. 6 J miles from Mazorque, is about 
150 feet high, and apparently quite round ; and between these two islands a safe 

• See also remarks by Mr. Babb, R.N., Nant. Mag., 1883, p. 248. 

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passage exists, and may be used without fear in working up to Callao. Between 
Mazorque and Salinas stand several other islands, which, from their appearance, 
may be approached without danger; but as no advantage could be gained^ it 
would not be prudent to risk going between them. Vessels, in working up, do 
sometimes pass between the inner one and the point ; but what they gain thereby 
does not appear, for when the current sets to the southward, it runs equally as 
strong between Mazorque and Pelado as it does nearer the shore. 

Round Bajas Point is the Bay of Salinas^ of large dimensions, and affording 
roomy anchorage. From thence the coast is moderately high and cliffy, without 
any break, until you reach the Bay of Huachoy which lies round a bluff head and 
is small, but the anchorage is good, in 5 fathoms, just within the two rocks off the 
northern part of the head. The town is built about a mile from the coast, in the 
midst of a fertile plain, and in coming from seaward has a pleasant appearance ; 
it is not a place of much trade, but whale ships find it useful for watering and 
refreshing their crews. Fresh provisions, vegetables, and fruit are abundant, and 
on reasonable terms ; wood is also plentiful, and a stream of fresh water runs 
down the side of the cliff into the sea. Landing is tolerably good : yet rafting 
seems to be the best method of watering. 

In coming from seaward, the best distinguishing marks for this place are the 
Beagle Mountains, three in number in the near range, and each of which has two 
separate peaks. They lie directly over the bay, and, on closing the land, the 
round hill near Bajas Point as well as the island of Don Martin, to the northward, 
will be seen ; about midway between them is the Bay of Huacho, under a light 
brown cliff, the top of which is covered with brushwood. To the southward the 
coast is a dark rocky cliff. 

N.N.W. f W. 3^ miles from Huacho, lies the Bay of Carquin, scarcely as large 
as Huacho, and apparently shoal and useless to shipping : off Carquin Head, 
which is a steep cliff, with a sharp-topped hill over it, there are some rocks above 
water, and an islet a short mile distant. N.N.W. | W. 3 miles from the islet near 
Carquin Head, stands the Island of Don Martin, and round to the northward of 
the point, abreast of it, is the Bay of Begueta, no place for a vessel. 

From this bay the c6a^!li^< moderately high, with sandy outline, all the way 
to Atahuanqui Point, distant 8 miles N.N.W* J W. This is a steep point, with 
two mounds on it, and is partly white on its South side ; there is a small bay on 
its North side, fit only for boats. Between this point and the South part of Point 
Thomas, the coast forms a sandy bay, low and shrubby ; with the town of Sup6 
about a mile from the sea. 

Point Thomas is similar in appearance to Atahuanqui, without the white on 
the South side. To the northward of this point there is a snug little bay, capable 
of containing four or five sail ; it is called the Bay of Supe, and is the port of that 
place and of Barranca. 

There is a fishing village at the South end of the bay, which is used by the 
inhabitants of Barranca during the bathing season. Hitherto it had been a 
forbidden port by the government; in consequence of which it is little known, 
and has had few opportunities of exchanging its produce for the goods of other 
countries. Very little information could be gained there, as to' the size of the 


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neigfabouriDg towns or the number of inhabitants they contain, but from their 
appearance it was thought they might be of considerable extent. These places 
produce chiefly sugar and com, cargoes of which are taken in the various little 
vessels that trade along the coast. Refreshments' may be obtained ; but water 
is scarce, the greater part of which is brought from Sup6 town for the use of the 
inhabitants of the village. 

The best anchorage is in 4 fathoms, with Poiut Thomas shut in by Patillo 
Point, about a cable's length from the rocks off that point, and rather more 
than a quarter of a mile from the village. Good anchorage may be obtained 
further out in 6 or 7 fathoms, though but little sheltered from the swell. In 
entering, no danger need be apprehended ; Point Thomas is bold, with regular 
soundings, from 10 to 15 fathoms, three-quarters of a mile off it. Off Patillo 
Point, though there are a few rocks, yet there is no necessity of hugging the shore 
very closely, as you can always fetch the anchorage, by keeping at a moderate 
distance when standing in. 

To recognise this port, the best guide at a distance is Mount Usbome^ the 
highest and most remarkable mountain in the second range ; it bears from the 
anchorage N.£. f £. ; it has something of the shape of a bell, and has three 
distinct rises on its summit — the highest at the North end. On that side it 
shows very distinctly, there being no other hills within a considerable distance. 
On approaching the coast, the Island of Don Martin to the southward, and to 
the northward Mount Darwin^ and Horca Hill near the beach, with a steep 
clifiy side to it facing the sea, with apparently an islet off it, will be seen 
nearly 4 leagues. The harbour itself has a white rock off its northern point, and 
cannot be mistaken, for there is no other like it near this part of the coast. 

From Sup6 the coast is a clay cliff, about 100 feet in height, to the distance 
of If leagues ; it then becomes low and covered with brushwood, to the foot 
of Horca Hill ; here it ag^in becomes hilly near the sea, with alternate rocky 
points and small sandy bays, which continue for the distance of 6 leagues, to 
Jaguey Point and the bay called GramadeL This is a wild-looking place, with 
a heavy swell rolling in ; but it is visited occasionally for the bair-seal, with which 
it abounds : there is anchorage in 6 or 7 fathoms, sandy bottom, with the bluff 
that forms the bay bearing S.S.E. about half a mile from the shore ; landing is 
scarcely practicable. 

The coast maintains its rocky character, with deep water off it, as far as the 
BufaderOf a high steep cliff, with a hill having two paps on it, a little in-shore. 
From this bluff a rocky cliff from 200 to 300 feet high, with a more level country, 
extends as far as Legarto Head, round which is the Port of Guarmey. 

GU ARMEY. — In comparison with other places, this may be considered a 
tolerable harbour, having good anchorage everywhere, in from 3} to 10 fathoms, 
over a fine sandy bottom. 

Firewood is the principal commodity, for which it is the best and cheapest place 
on the whole coast. Vessels of considerable burden touch here for that article, 
which they carry up to Callao, and derive great profit from its sale. There are 
also some saltpetre works, established by a Frenchman, but little business is done 
in that line. The town lies in a north-easterly direction, about 2 miles from the 


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anchorage, but is hidden by the surrounding trees, which grow to the height of 
30 feet. It has only one street, and cannot contain more than 500 or 600 
inhabitants. At the anchorage there is a small house used for transacting 
business, but no other building, which is unusual, as at most of these places a 
small village has been established near the sea. Large stacks of wood are piled 
up on the beach, ready for embarkation. 

Fresh provisions, vegetables, and fruit, are plentiful and moderate ; but water 
is not to be depended on. It is true there is a river, and for several months after 
March a plentiful supply may be obtained, but in the summer season great 
drought is sometimes experienced. At the time the Beagle was there a whale 
ship put in to supply her wants, and had to remain several days, waiting for the 
water to come down from the mountains. 

Legarto Head is a steep cliff, with the land foiling immediately inside it, and 
rising again to about the same height. In sailing in, after having passed the 
Head, a small white islet will be seen in the middle of the bay ; steer for it, that 
you may not border on the southern shore, for there are many straggling rocks 
running off the points ; and when sufficiently far to the northward to shape a 
mid-channel course between this Harbour Islet and the point opposite it, to the 
southward, do so, and it will lead to the anchorage. In standing in, in this 
direction, the water shoals gradually to the beach, but the southern shore must 
on no account be approached nearer than a quarter of a mile. 

The BEST A17CH0RAGE is in 4 fathoms, with Harbour Islet bearing N.N.W. \ W., 
and the ruins of a fort on a hill in-shore £• J N. about a quarter of a mile from 
the landing place on the beach. This landing place does not seem to be so good 
as at a steep rock on the outer side of the bluff, where the sandy beach com- 
mences ; but probably it is the most convenient for loading boats. 

Tii>B8«— The rise and fell of tides are very irregular, and the time of high water 
uncertain ; but, generally speaking, 3 feet may be considered about the extent 
to which it ranges. The sea-breeze sets in so strongly occasionally, that it is 
difficult for boats to pull against it : this is particularly the case under the high 
land, whence it comes in sudden gusts and squalls. 

In coming from seaward, the best way to make this port is to stand in on a 
parallel of 10^ 6', and when within a few leagues of the coast, a sharp-peaked 
hill, with a large white mark on it, will be seen standing alone a little North of 
the port : the break in the hills through which the river runs is high and cliffy on 
each side. The land is also much lower to the northward of Legarto Head, and 
there is a large white islet at the North end of Guarmey Bay. 

N.W. by N. 7f miles from the white islet at the North end of Guarmey Bay is 
Culehras Pointy a level projecting point, similar in appearance to Legarto Head, 
when seen from the northward ; the intervening coast is a mass of broken cliffs 
and innumerable detached rocks, with moderately high land near the shore. 

On the North side of Culebras Point there is anchorage off the valley of that 
name. From that point the coast is rocky, with small sandy bays, and some 
rocks lying off it, for three-quarters of a mile ; there is also a white cliffy islet, 
Comejos Islet, 5 miles to the northward of Culebras, from whence the coast 
takes a bend inwards, forming a bay, and then out to Mogoncilla Point. A 


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straight shore, of 10 miles in length, then leads towards the Colina Redonda\ a 
point witli two hummocks on it, and when seen from the southward, appearing 
like an island. On its North side is the Caleta, or CavCy but only fit for boats, 
and immediately over it the Cerro Mongon. 

The Cerro or Mount Mongon is the highest and most conspicuous object on 
this part of the coast : when seen from the westward it has a rounded appearance, 
though with rather a sharp summit ; but from the southward it shows as a long 
hill with a peak at each end. It is said there is a lake of fresh water on the 
range between those peaks, and that its valleys abound with deer ; but the truth 
of this depends on report only, as the examination of the officers did not extend 
so far. 

From Mongon a range of hills run parallel to the coast, which is high and 
rocky, with some white islets lying off it, as far as Casmay where they terminate 
in Calvario Point j a steep rocky bluff that forms the southern head of that port. 

The Bay of Casma is a snug anchorage, something in the form of a horse- 
shoe ; between the entrance points it is a mile and three-quarters in a N.W. and 
S.E. direction, and a mile and a half deep from the outer part of the cheeks, 
with regular soundings from 15 to 3 fathoms near the beach. 

The best anchorage is with the inner part of the South Cheek bearing about 
S.S.E. a quarter of a mile off shore, in 7 fathoms water : by not going farther in 
you escape, in a great measure, the sudden gusts of winds that at times come 
down the valley with great violence. Capt. Ferguson, of H.M.S. Mersey ^ 
mentions a rock with 9 feet water on it, on the South side of the bay, half a mile 
from the shore, that sometimes breaks. 

This place seemed quite deserted ; the only indications of iu having been 
visited were a few stacks of wood piled up on the beach. 

The best distinguishing mark for Casma is the sandy beach in the bay, with 
the sandhills in-shore of it contrasting strongly with the hard dark rocks of which 
the heads at the entrance are formed ; there is also a small black islet lying a 
little to the westward of the North Cheek. 

Capt. Andrew Livingston says: ''Casma lies but a short distance to the 
northward of the Mountain of Mongon, which is the first high hill near the shore 
to the northward of Lima. Mongon Hill is long from North to South, brown- 
coloured, and pretty regular at the top. 

'' The entrance of Casma is about a mile wide ; and about two-thirds over from 
the S.W. point to the N.W. one, lies a rock about 12 feet above water ; it seems 
bold-to. The Admiralty directions are full enough about Casma, but Capt. 
Browne, of the Tartar, seems to have estimated it too highly; ' Many human 
bones were seen near Casma, and even skulls with long hair on. 

" It is excessively squally, even in fine weather, at Casma. No person can be 
too cautious in carrying sail when entering Casma.*' 

From hence the coast takes rather a more westerly direction, but continues 
bold and rocky. 

N.W. J N. 14 miles from Casma is the great Bay of Samanco, or Guam- 
bacho; and midway between them the shore recedes into a deep bight, with the 
two islands, in front, of Tortuga and Viuda, 


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The BAY of SAMANCO is the most extensive on the coast of Peru, to the 
northward of Callao ; being 6 miles in length, in a N.W. and S.E. direction , and 3 
miles wide : the entrance is 2 miles across, between Samanco Head on the South 
and Seal Island on the North, and there are regular soundings all over the bay. 

At the S.E. corner, in a sandy bay, stands a small village (the residence of 
some fishermen) at the termination of the River Nepeiia. This river, like most 
others on the coast, has not sufficient strength to force a passage for itself through 
the beach, but terminates in a lagooo within a few yards of the sea. 

The town of Guambacho is about a league distant, at the eastern extremity of 
the valley. And NepeHa, which is the principal town, lies to the N.E., about 
5 leagues off. There is very little trade at this place ; small coasting vessels 
from Payta sometimes call here with a mixed qirgo, and they get in exdiange 
sugar and a little grain. 

Refreshment may be obtained from the neighbouring towns, but wood is scarce. 
The water of the river is brackish and unfit for use, but there are wells on 
the leH bank, a short distance from the huts. When taken on board, this water 
is not good ; but, contrary to the general rule, after it has been some time 
confined on board, it becomes wholesome and pleasant tasted. 

When at a distance, the best mark to distinguish this bay is Mount Division, 
a hill with three sharp peaks, rising from the peninsula between Samanco and 
the Bay of Ferrol. There is also a bell-shaped hill on the South side of the bay 
that shows very distinctly. Mount Tortuga, a short distance inland to the 
eastward, will also be seen: it is higher, and similar in appearance to the 
Bell Mount 

Samavco Head is a steep bluff, with some rocks lying off it to a cable's length ; 
on opening the bay. Leading Bluff will be seen, a large mass of rock on the 
sandy beach at the N.E. side, that looks like an island. In going in, give 
Samanco Head a berth in passing ; you may then stand in as close as convenient 
to the weather shore, and anchor off the village in 4, 5, or 6 fathoms, sandy 
bottom ; when rounding the inner points, take care of your small spars ; for the 
* wind comes off the Bell Mount in sudden and variable puffs. 

Three leagues from Samanco, the Bay of Ferrol opens, nearly equal in size to 
Samanco, and separated from it by a low sandy isthmus ; it is an excellent place 
for a vessel to careen, being entirely free from the swell that sets into most of 
these ports. On its N.E. side is the Indian village of Chimbote, where, it is said, 
that refreshment of any kind might be had, but no water. The entrance is 
clear ; but there is a reef of rocks off Blanca Island, a mile and a half to the 
northward, which must be avoided. 

N.W. } N. 6 miles from the entrance of Ferrol stands Santa Island, about a 
mile and a half in length, lying N.N.E. and S.S.W., and of a very white colour : 
just without it are two sharp-pointed rocks, 20 feet above the sea. Two miles 
N.N.E. from the island, Santa Head forms the South side of the bay of that 
name; which, although small, is a tolerable port; the best anchorage is in 4 or 
5 fathoms, with the extreme of the Head bearing S.W. Fresh provisions and 
vegetables may be obtained on moderate terms. It is also a tolerable place for 


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The town lies about 2 miles East from the ancboragCi and the moath of the 
river a mile and a half North of it. This is the largest and most rapid river on 
the coast of Peru : from Santa Head it is seen to wind its way along the valley 
with several islets interrupting its course ; but at its termination it branches 
off and becomes shallow, with only sufficient strength to make a narrow outlet 
through the sandy beach that forms the coast-line : a heavy and dangerous surf 
lies off it, so that no boat could approach with any degree of safety. 

This part of the coast may be known by the wide-spreading valley through 
which the river runs, bounded on each side by ranges of sharp-topped hills ; and 
as you approach, Santa Island will be plainly seen, with the Head of the same 
name ; there is also a small but remarkable white island, called Carcovadb^ to 
the N.W. of the harbour. No danger exists in entering; the soundings are 
regular for some distance outside, and you may anchor anywe re between the 
islands and the main, in a moderate depth of water, but of course exposed to 
the swell. 

N.W. i N. 5 leagues from Santa lie the Chao Islands^ one mile and three- 
quarters off the Point and Hill of that name. The largest is a mile in circum- 
ference, about 120 feet high, and, like most of these islands, quite white. 

Between Santa and Chao the coast is a low sandy beach, which continues and 
forms a shallow bay, as far as the Hill of GuaHape^ with moderately high land a 
few miles in-shore. 

The Hill of GuaHape is about 300 feet high, rather sharp at its summit, and 
when seen from the southward appears like an island ;'on its North side there is 
a small cove, vrith tolerable landing just inside the rock that lies off the point. 
S. by W. from this point, between 6 and 7 miles from the coast, lie the OuaHape 
Islands^ with a safe passage between them and the shore ; they may be said to 
be two, with some islets and rocks lying about them ; the southern is the highest 
and most conspicuous. 

From the Hill of GuaSape the coast continues a sandy beach with regular 
soundings, and ranges of high sharp-topped hills, about 2 leagues from the 
sea, until you near the little Hill of Carretas, which is on the beach, with the 
Morro de Garita overlooking it. Here commences the FalUy of Chimu^ about 
the middle of which stands the City of Truxilloy and 5 miles farther North, the 
Village and Road ofHuanchaco. This is a bad place for shipping, and seems to 
have been badly chosen : for the North side of Carretas Hill would be a better 
place for landing and embarking goods: and might be further improved by 
sinking some small craft laden with stones, plenty of which the hill would afford. 

The Road of Huanchaco is on the North side of a few rocks that run out from 
a cliffy projection ; sheltering the beach in a slight degree, but affording no 
protection to shipping. The village is under the cliff, and not distinguishable till 
to the northward of the point ; but the church, which is on the rising ground, 
shows very distinctly, and is a good guide when near the coast. 

The usual anchorage is with the church and a tree that stands in the village 
in one, bearing about East, a mile and a quarter from the shore, in 7 fathoms 
dark sand and mud. Vessels often have to weigh, or slip, and stand off, owing 
to the heavy swell that sets in : it is also customary to sight the anchor once in 


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twenty- four hours, to preyent its being imbedded so firmly as to require much 
time to weigh it when required. 

Capt Livingston thus describes it : — '^ The best anchorage is about 1 } or 2 
miles off shore, with the belfry of the church open, or in one with the only palm 
tree in the village of Huanchaco. The church is very remarkable, and the village 
lies between it and the sea, low down, and, the houses being the same colour as 
the ground behind, it is rather difficult to perceive it at any considerable distance." 

Landing cannot be effected in ships' boats ; there are launches constructed 
for the purpose, manned by Indians of the village, who are skilful in tlieir manage- 
ment ; they come off on every arrival, and will land you safely, for which they charge 
six dollars, equal to £I As, sterling: it is to be remembered that no more is 
charged for a cargo of goods, the risk of the surf being that for which you pay.* 

Fresh provisions may be had from TruxillOy but watering is out of the question. f 
That city is said to contain 4,000 inhabitants.^ It was founded in 1535 by 
Pizarro, who gave it the name of his native city in old Spain. The houses are 
low, in consequence of the earthquakes, and in its neighbourhood are the ruins of 
several ancient Peruvian monuments. Rice is the principal production of the 
valley ; and it is for that article and spice that vessels call here. 

* '^ Landing here Is always bad, and often impracticable. No stranger ought to attempt it with* 
ont having eholot (natives) in the boat; and it generally is advisable to employ the laanches kept at 
the place ; several persons were drowned about the time I was there. The Indians wiU, however, 
come off to ships in the very worst weather, on what they call cahallitoSf which are merely 
bundles of a kind of triangular bulrush, caUed totora. The caballito is generally formed of two 
bundles, but some large ones are of three bundles of totora. Some carry two men, and others 
only one. Their paddles are about 6 feet long, and are merely the half of a split bamboo. With 
a heavy swell the Indians are frequently washed off the eabdllitos, but never fail to regain them. 
They are admirable swimmers, the children seem almost amphibious. They do not swim like 
perMus in England, but paddle with their arms like a dog with his fore feet in swimming. The 
Indians do not generally sit astride on the caballUot, but generally with both their legs straight 
out on the top." — Capt, Livingston, 

t " At Huanchaco good ft-esh water can seldom be procured except at times (such as when I 
was there) when a fleet of transports arrives, and then a smaU branch of some river is turned so 
as to come down to Huanchaco ; but the water is very muddy.*'— Ibid, 

X " Truxillo lies about 8 or 9 miles to the south-eastward of the village of Huanchaco. On the 
road are very extensive ruins, said to be those of an Indian town called Shimbo, or Cliimbo, as 
near as I could understand. The ruins cover a prodigious space of ground ; I should think 4 or 6 
leagues in drcumferenoe. There are many large tumuli ; out of one of them a family of the name 
of Toledo dug so much wealth, that the fifth, paid to the King of Spain, amounted to 500,000 
dollars. All these tumuli seem buUt of a kind of brick baked in the sun. Some rounded water- 
worn stones are also intermixed in the large one's interior, and in some of the smaller ones I 
observed cane-reeds had been and. 

" An Indian is said to have given Toledo the information relative to the treasure in the tumulus, 
or huako (pronounced whakko), as it is called, and was to have showed him another, in which 
there was much more treasure, but the Indian died, and the knowledge died with him. There 
are, however, many large tumuli still unopened, and I have no doubt but immense treasures are 
concealed in them. The Indians frequently dig up earthenware vessels, of much the same 
appearance as the ancient Etruscan ware, and some of their shapes even elegant, others very 

" The city of Truxillo is walled with a kind of mud wall. There are some good houses. The 
streets are regular. The population is variously stated at from 8,000 to 12,000. I suppose that 
8,000 is nearest the mark. There are several large churches, and a tolerable theatre. I attended 
it twice, and both the acton and actresses acquitted themselves much better than I expected. To 
the S.W. of Truxillo lies the village of Moche, the church of which is also conspicuous from the 
sea, but not so much so as that of Huanchaco. Moch6 is but a small straggling village. In 
running down the coast from the southward, and pretty close in-shore (say 4 miles off), the church 
at Moch6 will be seen before that at Huanchaco ; so perscns ought to take care not to mistake 
Moch^ for Huanchaco. The ground about these places does not seem so carefully cultivated 
as about Huacho, though then seems to be no great difficulty in getting water to irrigate tho 
fields."— Jfred, August, 1824. 

2 A 


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If bound for this road you should stand in on a parallel of 8^ T (which is a 
mile to windward), and you will see Mount Campana^ a bell-shaped mount, 
standing alone, about 2 leagues to the northward, and H^anchaco Peaky which 
is very sharp, and the first hill in the range on the North side of the valley. 
Shortly after the church will come in sight, and the shipping in the road. 

"The winds on this coast," says Capt. Livingston, "are almost always from 
the southward, though there are instances to the contrary. The current, also, 
generally (though not always) sets to the northward. The swell is reckoned 
always to be heaviest at the full and change of the moon, but, during the seven 
weeks we lay in Huanchaco Roads, I thought the heaviest swell was generally at 
the quarters of the moon. 

" The ground in Huanchaco Roads is very foul, and there- are few vessels 
which do not lose one or more anchors. A vessel should always come to with a 
very light anchor, and a long scope of chain. We came to with an anchor of 
only 4^ cwt., but we lost it. One of 4 cwt. is quite heavy enough for a vessel 
of 200 tons. 

" In beating to windward from Huanchaco to Callao it is advisable to stand 
off shore about 14 hours, and in shore about 10 hours, on account of the land 
trending so much to the eastward. If possible, it is always best to be pretty 
close in with the shore at sunset, as the wind frequently draws more off the shore 
about that time. It is also highly improper to stand far off shore, and any person 
not well informed is apt to get into this error, as the vessel generally comes up 
with her larboard tacks on board as you stand farther off shore, even sometimes 
lying up South, This tempts many to stand offshore, never considering that the 
trend of the shore to the eastward, and the loss they must sustain by standing 
in-shore with their starboard tacks on board, when they cannot lie higher than 
N.E., more than balances the seeming advantage of lying so high on the other 
tack, and they also lose all chance of advantage from the land-breeze at night 
when they stand so far off shore." 

The coast is cliffy for a few miles to the northward of Huanchaco ; the low sandy 
soil with bushes on it then commences, with regular soundings off it, and continues 
as far as Malabrigo Road. This bay, although bad, is considerably preferable to 
Huanchaco ; it is formed by a cluster of hills, projecting beyond the general trend 
of the coast, which at a distance appears like an island ; there is a fishing village 
at the S.E. side, but no trade is carried on. The town of Paysan lies some 
leagues to the S.E., and by the account they gave of it at Malabrigo, must be of 
considerable extent. The best anchorage here is with the village bearing about 
E.S.E. three-quarters of a mile from the shore, in 4 fathoms sandy bottom : 
landing is bad. 

The small island of Macahi lies S. | W. 6^ miles from Malabrigo, with a safe 
channel of 10 fathoms between it and the main. 

N.W. by N. 20 miles from Malabrigo is Pacasmayo Road; the coast is low 
and cliffy, with a sandy beach at the foot of the cliff, and soundings of 10 fathoms 
2 miles off shore. Pacasmayo is a tderably good roadstead, under a projecting 
sandy point, with a flat running off it, to the distance of a quarter of a mile. 
The best anchorage is with the point bearing about S. by E. and the village East ; 


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you will there have 5 fathoms sand and mud : there is no danger in standing in ; 
the soundings are regular, shoaling gradually towards the shore. Landing is 
difficult : such launches are used as at Huanchaco. The principal export is rice, 
which is hrought from the town of San Pedro de Yoco, 2 leagues inland. Fresh 
provisions may also be obtained from the same place ; wood and water may be 
had at the village on the beach, which is principally inhabited by Indians employed 
by tlie merchants of San Pedro. 

To distinguish this road from seaward, the best guide is to stand in on a parallel 
of 7^ 25' to 30^ and when within 6 leagues, the Hill of Malabrigo will be seen, 
like an island sloping gradually on each side; and a little to the northward, 
Arcana Hill^ rugged with sharp peaks. As you approach, the low yellow cliffs 
will appear (those North of the road the highest), on the summit of which, on the 
North side of the point, there is a dark square building that shows very distinctly. 
The best mark for the anchorage is the shipping when any are there. From 
this road the coast continues low, with broken cliffs, 11 leagues N.W. | N. as 
far as Eten Point, which is a double hill (the southern one the highest), with a 
steep cliff facing the sea. The North side of this cliff is white, and shows very 

liAMBATEgyE RoAD. — N.W. } N., a little more than 4 leagues, is the road of 
Lambayeque, the worst anchorage on the coast of Peru. There is a small village 
on the rising ground, with a white church ; off which vessels anchor in 5 fathoms, 
1| miles from the shore. The bottom is a hard sand, and bad holding ground; 
it is always necessary to have two anchors ready, for the heavy swell that sets on 
this beach renders it almost impossible to bring up with one, particularly after the 
sea-breeze sets in. 

Rice is the chief commodity for' which vessels touch here : the only method of 
discharging or taking in a cargo (or in fact landing at all) is by means of the 
balsa. This is a raft of nine logs of the cabbage-palm, secured together by 
lashings, with a platform raised about 2 feet, on which the goods are placed. 
They have a large lug^sail which is used in landing ; the wind being along the 
shore enables them to run through the surf and on the beach with ease and safety, 
and it seldom happens that any damage is sustained by their peculiar mode of 
proceeding. Supplies of fresh provisions, fruit, and vegetables may be obtained, 
but neither wood nor water. 

" A vessel bound to this place from the southward should make the Hill of 
Eten, the highest land about here near the coast, and distant from the town about 
6 leagues. The coast off the town, and to the N.W. of it, is very low, and should 
be approached with caution, allowance being made for the current, which sets to 
the N.W. sometimes IJ miles per hour. Vessels by not attending to this 
particular have been drifted to leeward of the place, and have lost three or four 
days in beating up again. Having made the Hill of Eten, a vessel may stand in 
for the anchorage. Care must be taken to keep the lead going. The Alert's 
anchorage was about 4 miles off the shore, in 7 fathoms, with the Hill of Eten 
S.E. I E. Landing can only be effected safely in balsas, and no boat can cross 
the bar." • 

• Obterrfttion by Mr. Babb, If. H.K.S. Altrt. 


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The coast continues low and sandy, similar in appearance to that of Lambayeque, 
to the distance of 25 leagues W.N.W. : an extensive range of table-land of con- 
siderable height^ with broken rocky points, then commences, and continues to Point 
Aguja, or the Needle. 

LOBOS DE AFUERA.— Fifteen leagues from Lambayeque, in a W.S. W. direc- 
tion, lies a small group of islands called Lobos de Afuera. These islands are 3 miles 
in length North and South, 1} miles broad, and about 100 feet high, of a mixed 
brown and white colour. They may be seen several leagues, are quite barren, 
and afford neither wood nor water. There Is a cove on the North side formed by 
the two principal islands, but with deep water and rocky bottom ; within this cove 
there are some little nooks, in which a small vessel might careen without being 
much interrupted by the swell. 

These islands are resorted to by fishermen from Lambayeque on their balsas ; 
they carry all their necessaries with them, and remain about a month salting fish, 
which fetches a high price at Lambayeque. There is no danger round the islands, 
at the distance of a mile ; and regular soundings will be found between them and 
the shore, from 50 fathoms abreast of the islands. 

LOBOS DE TIERRA.— N.N.W. J W. 10 leagues from Lobos de Afuera, lies 
the Island of Lobos de Tierra, nearly 2 leagues in length. North and South, and a 
little more than 2 miles wide ; when seen from seaward it has a similar appearance 
to the former islands, and many rocks and blind breakers lie round it, particularly 
to the westward. There is tolerable anchorage on the N.E. side, in 11 or 12 
fathoms, sand and broken shells. A safe passage is said to exist between this 
island and the main, which is distant 10 miles; but as no advantage can be 
gained by using it, it was not thoroughly examined. 

Aguja Point is long and level, terminating in a steep bluff 150 feet high, and 
has a finger-rock (Aguja or Needle Rock) a short distance off it, with several 
detached rocks round the point. 

Three miles and a half N. by £. J E. of this is Nonura Potnty and 5 miles 
farther in a N.E. by N. direction is Pisura Pointy the South point of the Bay of 
Sechura ; between Aguja Point and Pisura Point there are two small bays, where 
anchorage might be obtained if required. The land about this part of the coast is 
much higher, and has deeper water off it than either N. or S., and may be known 
by its regularity and table-top. 

The BAY OF SECHURA is 12 leagues in length, from Pisura Point to Foca 
Island, bearing N.N.W., and is 5 leagues deep ; on the S.E. side the coast shows 
low sandhills ; but as it curves round to the northward it becomes cliffy and 
considerably higher. 

Near the centre of the bay is the entrance to the River Pisura, and the town of 
Sechura is situated on its banks. This town is inhabited chiefly by Indians, who 
carry on a considerable trade in salt, which they take to Payta on their balsas, 
and sell to the shipping. The river is small, but of sufiicient size to admit the 
balsas when laden. There is anchorage anywhere off the river, in from 12 to 
5 fathoms, coarse sand ; the latter depth being better tlmn a mile from the shore. 
This place may easily be distinguished by Sechura church, which has two high 
steeples, and shows conspicuously above the surrounding sandhills ; one of these 


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steeples has a considerable inclinatioa to the northward, which, at a. distance, 
gives it more the appearance of a tree than of a stone building. From Foca 
Point the coast is cliffy, about 120 feet high, and continues so as far as Payta 
Point, which is 3 leagues distant N. ^ E. ; between these two, 1 j miles from the 
coast, is a cluster of hills called the Saddle of Payta, thus described by Capt. 
Basil Hall : — ^^ The Silla or Saddle of Payta is sufficiently remarkable ; it is 
high and peaked, forming three clusters of peaks joined together at the base, 
the middle being the highest ; the two northern ones are of a dark brown colour ; 
the southern is the lowest, and of a lighter brown. These peaks rise out of a level 
plain, and are an excellent guide to vessels bound for the Port of Payta from the 

PORT OF PAYTA. — A few leagues to the northward, as already mentioned, 
is Payta Point, round which is the port of that name ; and it is, without exception, 
the best open port on the coast. A considerable trade is carried on. Vessels of 
all nations touch there for cargoes, principally cotton, bark, bides, and drugs ; 
in return for which they bring the manufactures of their several countries. In 
1835 upwards of 40,000 tons of shipping anchored at this port. Communica- 
tion with Europe (vid Panama) is more expeditious than from any of the other 

The TOWN is built on the slope and at the foot of the hill, on the S.E. side of 
the bay ; at a distance it is scarcely visible, the houses being of the same colour 
with the surrounding cliff. It is said to contain 5,000 inhabitants, and is the 
seaport of the Province of Piura, the population of which is estimated at 75,000 

The city of San Miguel de Piura* stands on the banks of the River Piura, in 
an easterly direction from Payta, and between 9 and 10 leagues distant. Fresh 
provisions may be had at Payta on reasonable terms, but neither wood nor water, 
except at a high price, the latter being brought from Golan (a distance of 4 miles) 
for the inhabitants of the place.-f At the time of this survey hopes were enter- 
tained of a supply of water from the West side of the bay : an American having 
commenced boring with an apparatus proper for the puri)08e. 

** The heat is always considerable at Payta ; and as no rain falls, the houses 
are slightly constructed, of an open sort of basket-work, through which the air 
blows freely at all times ; the roofs, which are high and peaked, are thatched with 
leaves ; some of the walls are plastered with mud ; but, generally speaking, they 

are left open The extraordinary economy of water arose, as they 

told us, from there not being a drop to be got nearer than 3 or 4 leagues off; 
and as the supply, even at this distance, was precarious, water at Payta was 

* '* In 1581 the first town bailt by the Spaniards in Peru was founded a short distance to the 
Sooth of the city of Tumbes, and named San Miguel de Tangunda ; but the site behig unhealthy, 
it was shifted, and the name changed to San Miguel de Piura." — JSumey, vol. i. p. 164. 

t <* Payta is an excellent position for supplies of cattle and vegetable or table necessaries; 
but, unfortunately, does not abound in wood or water, for both of which payment must be made, 
and that exorbitant 

*' We were fortunate in obtaining here some excellent cordage, which is rather scarce on this 
coast, very probably that exchanged by some of the whale ships which ftequently touch here for 
supplies of stock, and more particularly the sweet potato, which Is an excellent antiscorbutic.** — 
Capt. Sir Edw. Btlcher, SepU 1838— Foy. qfthe Sulpkur, vol. i. p. 2ff7, 


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not only a necessary of life, but, as in a ship on a long voyage, was considered 
a luxury." * 

There is no danger in entering this excellent port : afler rounding the outer 
point with a signal station on its ridge, you will open False Bay : this must be 
passed, as the true bay is round Inner Point. That point ought not to be hugged 
closely, for there are some rocks at the distance of a cable's length, and the wind 
baffles often. After rounding Inner Point you may anchor where convenient, in 
quiet still water, with from 4 to 7 fathoms, over a muddy bottom. The landing 
place is at the mole about the centre of the town. 

N.W. 4 N. 9 leagues from Payta, Parina Point rises to a bluff about 80 feet 
high, with a reef out to the distance of half a mile on its West side ; between 
this point and Payta the coast is low and sandy, with table-land of a moderate 
height at a short distance from the beach, and the Mountain of Amatape (3,000 
to 4,000 feet high) 5 leagues in the interior. 

After rounding Parina Point (which is the western extreme of South America) 
the coast trends abruptly to the northward, and becomes higher and more cliffy 
in approaching Talara Point. 

Cape Blanco is high and bold (apparently the corner of a long range of table- 
land), sloping gradually toward the sea ; near the extremity of the cape there are 
two sharp hillocks; and midway between them and the commencement of the 
table-land is another rise with a sharp top. There are some rocks that show them- 
selves about a quarter of a mile off, but no danger exists without that distance. 
From Cape Blanco the geneneil trend of the coast is more easterly, in nearly a 
direct line to Malpelo Point, which is 21 leagues distant. N.E. by N. 7 J leagues 
from the former is Sal Pointy a brown cliff, 120 feet high ; along the coast lies a 
sandy beach, with high cliffs as far as the Valley of Mancora^ where it is low, 
with brushwood near the sea ; the hills being at a distance inland. 

Northward of Sal Point the coast is cliffy, to about midway between it and 
Picos Point ; it then becomes lower and similar to Mancora. 

Picas Point is a sloping bluff, with a sandy beach outside of it, and another 
very similar point a little to the northward : behind there is a cluster of hills with 
sharp peaks ; from whence arises probably the name given by the Spaniards to 
the point. From Picos Point the coast is a sandy beach, with a mixture of hill 
and cliff of a light brown colour, and well wooded. There are several small bays 
between it and Malpelo Point, which bears N.E. } N. 7^ leagues distant 

MALPELO POINT forms the southern side of the entrance of Guayaquil 
River, and may be readily known by the marked difference between it and the 
coast to the southward. It is low, and covered with bushes, and a short distance 
in-shore there is a clump of bushes more conspicuous than the rest, which shows 
plainly on approaching. At the extremity of the point the River Tumbes issues, 
and a reef extends to the distance of a quarter of a mile. This place is frequented 
by whalers for fresh water, which is found a mile from the entrance, where they 
fill their boats from alongside ; great care is necessary in crossing the bar, as 
a dangerous surf beats over it, and renders that operation at all times difBcult. 

* Capt. Basil Hall, part li. chap. 35. 


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The Rio Tuhbes is, in some measure, classic ground ; for here, in 1526, 
Pizarro landed with his Spanish army destined to conquer Peru. According to 
the Spanish accounts there was a temple of the sun, an inca's palace, and other 
edifices, at the town of Tumbes, the remains of which are now nowhere to be seen. 

The entrance to the river may be distinguished by a hut on the port hand going 
in, which is perceiyed immediately on rounding the point. About 2 leagues 
up the river stood the old town of Tumbes, now scarcely more than a few huts, 
and barely sufficient to supply the whalers with fruit and vegetables. You may 
anchor anywhere off the point in 6 or 7 fathoms. This river is the boundary 
between Peru and the State of Ecuador.* 

The following remarks are made by Capt. Pipon, R.N. : — ** On the 4th of July, 
1814, we anchored in the Bay of Tumbes, in 6^ fathoms, soft clay, and good 
holding ground ; Point Malpelo bearing S.W., a reef extending without the 
Point S.W. by W., the Island of St. Clara N. } W. From this anchorage 
it was impossible to discover the entrance of the River Tumbes; we sounded 
from the ship to the shore, in every direction, and found the soundings very 
regular, from 6 to 5}, and 5 and 2 fathoms, within 2 cables' length of the beach, 
which is a fine sand, with considerable surf on it. We found here a commodious 
inlet for wooding, the entrance about one cable wide, and only 5 feet water ; 
this was at the beginning of the flood tide ; there is a bar across it, indeed it is 
dry at low water in many places, so that we could only pass it with the boats 
during the flood ; this, however, was not attended with any material inconvenience, 
for, having once got the boats into the inlet before low water, the people were 
employed filling them with fuel during the time the bar was not passable. 

" We shifted our berth off the mouth of this inlet, for the convenience of the 
boats passing and repassing, and anchored in 5J fathoms. 

" This inlet is extremely well calculated to admit boats any time before low 
water ; it is, however, best to enter it with a flowing tide. Here wood may be 
procured in great abundance, and it being very spacious, any number of boats 
may wood at the same time. The boats lay close to the beach of the different 
little islands scattered within the inlet, without the least surf or swell, so that 
they load with great facility. There are no inhabitants about this inlet; we 
found, by the shore, the tide rose in general about 6 feet. The mosquitoes are 
extremely troublesome, and alligators very numerous. With our seine a great 
quantity of very fine fish were caught. After examining the shores, we at length 
discovered the entrance into the River Tumbes; a bar, with a violent and 
dangerous surf, lies at the mouth of it, so that the utmost- caution must be used in 
entering it. It lays very near to Malpelo Point, where we first discovered a reef 
with breakers on it. In this river only is fresh water to be found, and I would 
recommend boats employed on this service to enter it together, and to keep a 
good look out, and steer tolerably close to the point on the larboard hand ; 
entering, avoid going near the breakers. On this point, however, you will 
discover huts, the residence of pilots and fishermen, who will not only point 

* This is the termination of the excellent nautical descriptionB given in the appendix to Capt. 
FitzBoy'fl Yolnme of the " Narrative of the Sanreying Voyages of the Adventure and JBeagle;" 
they are the result of that survey, and will be fully appreciated by the mariner. 


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out the course you should pursue^ but will willingly embark in your boats, and 
direct you how to avoid all dangers. After proceeding about 1 mile up the 
river, you will find the water perfectly sweet and good ; and as you take it 
from alongside your boats, watering is here very expeditiously effected. Wooding 
would be difficult here, the mosquitoes being more troublesome than it is possible 
to describe ; alligators of a large kind are also very numerous, (some small 
ones we shot,) also large guanas ; but the woods are so thick as to be impenetrable, 
besides being swampy and muddy ; I would therefore recommend this river for 
watering, and the before-mentioned inlet for wooding. 

" The weather during our stay here was very fine ; and it is pleasing to remark, 
that although the duty the people were employed upon was uncommonly severe 
from the great heat, and notwithstanding the ground on which the wood was cut 
was swampy, yet I did not perceive that any of my men felt any ill eflfects from 
it, owing, perhaps, to the precaution taken (as recommended by my surgeon) 
to serve out a small quantity of wine, previous to their leaving the ship ; it may 
certainly have been the means of preventing sickness. There are no forts of any 
description here, and wooding and watering might easily be effected at all times, 
even were you at war with the natives. The country around appears an almost 
impenetrable wood ; though we discovered many cultivated spots up the river, 
consisting of plantains, bananas, Indian corn, sweet potatoes, &c. To these 
plantations the workmen repair in canoes along the river, for I do not imagine 
the woods in this neighbourhood are passable even to the Indians or slaves. 

''The town of Tumbes does not even merit the appellation of a village ; it lays 
about 7 miles up the river, and is situated on a level plain, surrounded by a 
wood. It is composed of a few miserable huts, and the inhabitants appear to 
exist in a very wretched state. A governor resided here, who was extremely 
polite, and offered to procure us any refreshment the place afforded." 

The prevailing winds on the shores of Peru blow from S.S.E. to S.W.; seldom 
stronger than a fresh breeze, and often in certain parts of the coast scarcely 
sufficient to enable shipping to make a passage from one port to another. This 
is especially the case in the district between Cobija and Callao. 

Sometimes during the summer, for three or four successive days, there is not a 
breath of wind ; the sky beautifully clear, and with a nearly vertical sun. 


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The country whose western coast, with the exception of Guayaquil and 
Panami, is imperfectly described in the ensuing chapter, is one of the most 
important of all the South American territories ; but at the same time it is one in 
which the vast capabilities it possesses have been least tested , and of which we 
are in many points most ignorant. 

The Pacific coast is now the limit of the two separate and independent republics 
of Ecuador and New Granada, which have thus existed since 1831. 

The territory called under the collective name of Colombia was the first 
portion of the new continent discovered by Columbus from the Atlantic side in 
1498 ; hence its name. The Spaniards found more difficulty in establishing their 
sway over it than in any other portion of America; but eventually, by the middle 
of the sixteenth century, both the territories now known as Venezuela and New 
Granada were subjected to their dominion, and erected into captaincies, governors, 
and Spanish viceroys. 

Tliere are few portions of the coasts of this world which are so commercially 
unimportant as the portion embraced between Guayaquil and Panamd. None 
of its ports are resorted to by Europeans, or for European commerce ; and indeed 
up to the present time the whole district has remained a complete terra incognita ; 
though beyond all question in future ages the fine country which it bounds on 
the West must become of great importance. At present the few Indian and 
mixed breed families at the different ports accessible from the ocean constitute 
the sole links between it and the civilized world. Under these circumstances 
our present ignorance of the nautical condition of its coasts is less to be deplored, 
as many years must elapse before it can become a question of necessity that 
instruction should be attainable for so desert a district. 

The fine surveys of our English Admiralty, conducted under the superintendence 
of Capt H. Kellett and Lieut. Wood, have made us acquainted with its actual 
present condition ; but there is no published description, and the portion between 
Esmeraldas and Panama remains yet unpublished, the survey having been but 
recently brought home by Lieut. Wood, while these sheets are at press. 

In the absence of more modern accounts we have drawn from the interesting 
and unvarnished statements of the great patriarch of nautical description, William 
Dampier, who was on this coast on a buccaneering expedition in 1684-5. As his 
veracity and accuracy have never been impeached, and his fidelity and minuteness 
ever acknowledged, we shall make no apology for giving descriptions of these - 
parts from so antiquated a source, convinced as we are that they will be found to 
be borne out by present circumstances. The other detached notices which we 
have collected will be quoted when given, and we less regret their paucity from 
the nautical unimportance of the coast. 

ECUADOR, which is the southernmost republic of the present political division 

2 B 


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of Colombiai is divided from Peru by the Rio Turabes : on the North it is 
separated from that of New Granada by the River Mora, in lat. 1® 45' N. Its 
eastern limits are comparatively undefined and unimportant to our present 
subject. Prior to the present political state it formed a portion of the vice-royalty 
of New Granada ; but upon the discontent and rebellion consequent upon the 
French invasion of Spain in 1808, it separated with that state from the Spanish 
rule in 1811. In 1819 these states coalesced, and were declared to found one 
republic of Colombia ; but political feeling was very far from settled, and led 
to fresh warfare: in 1822 the royalists .were defeated in Ecuador by General 
Sucre, while General Bolivar was victorious on the same side, in other parts. In 
1823 Ecuador adopted the convention of Cucuta, and remained an integral 
portion of Colombia until November, 18t31, when the territory separated into 
the present three independent republics before named. 

According to the census of 1827, the population of Ecuador amounted to 
about 492,000, exclusive of the Indians of the eastern plains. Subsequently it 
was estimated as follows : — 


Area in 
Square Miles. 


Inhabitants to 
a Square Mile. 

Chimborazo, or Ecuador 












nearly 5 


NEW GRANADA, which occupies the remainder of the Pacific littoral to 
the boundary with the states of Central America or Guatemala, is in many of 
its interior parts but very little known.* Prior to the recent (but as yet 
unpublished) English Admiralty surveys, before alluded to, the charts of this 
coast were most deplorable. 

According to a census published in 1827, the whole population of New 
Granada amounted to 1,270,000 inhabitants. The number was some time after 
estimated at 1,360,000, distributed among the five provinces as follows : — 


Istmo ...••• 
Magdalena •• 




Area in 
Square Miles. 







Inhabitants to 
a Square Mile. 


less than 2 

* Bogot6, or, as U was formerly called, Santa F6 de Bogota, is the capital of New Granada; 
it was founded by Qonzalo Ximenes de Quesada, who built 12 huts here in 1638 ; ten years after- 


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The countries are rich in almost every tropical production, and stately timber 
is met with in perfection in almost all parts. The different features of the coast 
vary very much ; the interior of the country exhibits some of the most magnifi- 
cent natural features in the ridges of the Andes, which extend along the western 
part of the continent parallel to, and, in many parts, within sight of, the coasts. 

The ANDES of Ecuador increase in magnitude and elevation in advancing 
northward from the Peruvian boundary. The portion between 5^° and 3J° S. 
lat. forms the great mountain knot of Loxa, but which, however, does not rise 
into the limits of perpetual snow. Here it separates into two principal parallel 
ridges, which enclose the valley of Cuen^a, which extends from 3° 16' to 2° 30' S., 
and is about 7,800 feet above the sea. The mountains of Assuay, which form 
the North boundary of the Valley of Cuenga, and the western extreme of which 
approaches Guayaquil, rise to the elevation of 15,500 feet, and some of the 
peaks are above the line of perpetual snow. This transverse ridge is narrow, 
occupying only about 3 minutes of latitude (2° 30' to 2° 27'). North of this are 
the valleys of Alausi and Ambato, extending to 40' S., and are about 7,920 
feet above the sea. The summits of the ranges on the East and West, which 
enclose them similar to those to the southward, are of great elevation, and on the 
western range stands the famous Chimborazo, 21,420 feet in height, and its peak 
covered with perpetual snow. It is a very conspicuous object from Guayaquil 
and the shores of the Pacific about Cape San Francisco. This majestic mountain, 
which has been so vividly described by Humboldt, was, from his measurements, 
considered as the highest summit of the Andes. But the more recent measure- 
ments of Mr. Pentland and others of the Bolivian Andes, have shown that several 
peaks, as the Nevado of Zorata and the Illimanni, rise from 3,000 to 4,000 feet 
higher. Chimborazo has every appearance of being an extinguished volcano. 

Like the Valley of Cuen9a to the South, that to the North of the Assuay is 
bounded by a narrow transverse ridge — the Alto de Chisinche, but it hardly 
rises 300 feet above the adjacent level ground. But at its extremities, or rather 
at its junction with the eastern and western ranges, rise two very high peaks; the 
one to the East is the terrible volcano of Cotopaxi, 18,880 feet, that to the West 
the peak of Yliniza, 17,376 feet above the sea. The eruptions of Cotopaxi have 
been more frequent and destructive than those of any volcano in South America. 
It is stated that in 1744 the roaring of the volcano was heard at Honda, near 
Bogota, a distance of 200 leagues. In 1758 the flames shot up 2,700 feet 
above the crater. On April 4th, 1768, the vast quantity of ashes discharged from 
the crater made it as dark as night, until 3 p.m., at the towns of Hambato 
and Tacunga. In January, 1803, the volcano having been quiet for 20 years 
previously, an eruption was preceded by the sudden melting of all the snow on 
its summit; and Humboldt heard, day and night, at Guayaquil, the roaring of 
the volcano, like repeated discharges of artillery, the distance being 52 leagues. 

wards It was made the seat of an audiencia rkU, and, in 1661, a metropolitan see. From its 
elevation its appearance is at first imposing ; but dirt, narrow but straight and regular jtreets, 
and low hooses, do not keep up the illusion. The number of inhabitants is from 30,wu to 40,000, 
a scanty populaUon for its area. Lat. 4° 37' North, Ion. 74° 10' West. 


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The Valley of Qotio, still bounded East and West by parallel ranges, is elevated 
9,600 feet above the sea level. On the East range is Antisana, 19,136 feet, and 
Cayarobe Urcu, 19,648 feet above the sea. On the West range are Pichincha, 
15,936 feet, at the foot of which is the city of Quito,* and the Cotocache, 16,448 
feet above the sea. 

The three narrow longitudinal valleys of Cuen^a, Hambato and Alausi, and 
Quito, extending 240 miles in length, from 3^ 15' South to 2V North, form the 
most populous and the richest portion of the republic of Ecuador, and, from its 
great elevation (the barometer stands at 21*33 inches), is of a totally different 
character to what its latitude would indicate, and everything proclaims the 
industry of a nation of mountaineers. To the North of this, the western portion 
of the great chain is called the Andes de los Pastos, crowned with several high 
summits and volcanoes, as those of Cumbal, Chiles, and Pasto. North of this the 
westernmost range is called the Cordillera of Sindagua, which is traversed in 
about 1^ 20^ North by the Rio de los Patias, falling into the Pacific, but rising 
in the intermediate valley South of the Alto de Robles. 

The countries lying on both declivities, and at the foot of the Andes of Ecuador, 
are very thinly inhabited, and almost entirely by aboriginal nations, unacquainted 
with civilization or commerce, which is confined to the elevated valleys between 
the ranges. In this very imperfect sketch of this important feature, we have 
chiefly followed Humboldt, in whose fine works the reader will find ample details. 

The Am des of New Granada are separated into three chains, which divide at the 
mountain knot at Socoboni and the Alto of Robles, near Popayan. 

The western chain, called also the Cordillera de Choc6 and the coast range, 
separates the provinces of Popayan and Antioquia in the East from those of 
Barbacoas, Raposo, and Choco, on the West. In general it is but moderately 
elevated, compared with the eastern and central ranges, but offers great diffi- 
culties to the communications between the Valley of Cauca and the coast region. 
The terrible roads which traverse it are those of the passes of Chisquio (to the 
East of the Rio de Micay) ; that of Anchicaya de las Juntas; of S. Augustin, 
opposite Cartago ; of Charmi ; and of Urra8.t 

It is on its western slope that the famous auriferous and platiniferous region 
lies, which has for ages past thrown into commerce more than 13,000 marcs of 
gold per annum. This alluvial zone is 12 or 14 leagues broad, and attains its 
maximum richness between latitudes 2^ and 6^ ; it sensibly diminishes in value 

* The city of Quito, the capital of Bcuador, is in a valley 0,543 feet above the sea. Eleven 
snow-capped moontaina are in view from it. The volcano of Pichincha is the nearest. It is in 
some parts regularly built, and has some handsome buildings ; as the president's palace, formerly 
that of the Spanish viceroy, that of the archbishop, the cathedral, &c. As a place of education it 
stands high in South America. It has a good university and several colleges. Its inhabitants 
are variously estimated at from 40,000 to 70,000. Earthquakes are frequent, and the climate is a 
perpetual spring. Its exports are principally com and agricultural produce to Guayaquil, through 
which it receives European manufactures. In 1736 the French and Spanish astronomers measured 
a degree of the meridian on a plain about 4 leagues North of Quito, which is admirably recorded 
in the excellent work, the Viage a la America MertdwruUe^ by Bon J. and D. A. de Ulloa, liv. 
V. chaps. 4, 5. Quito is in lat. 13' 27' S., Ion. 78^ lO' 15" W. For descriptions, see Stevenson's 
South America, chap. 11, p. 279—325, tos. There are roads which )ead from most of the 
chief ports over the Andes to Quito, and there is one to Qoayaquil, a portion of which is aztremeiy 

t Semanarlo de Bogota, vol. i. p. 32. 


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North and South of this^ and disappears entirely between 1^^ and the equator. 
The auriferous region fills the basin of the Gauca, as well as the ravines and 
plains to the East of the Ciordillera of Choc6. It rises sometimes to 4,000 feet 
above the sea, and descends to less than 250 feet. Platinum (and this geognostic 
fact is worthy of attention) has up to this hour been found only to the West of 
the Cordillera of Choc6y not to the East, notwithstanding the geological and 
mineralogical similarity of either side of the mountains.* From the Alto des 
Robles, which separates the plateau of Almaguera from the basin of the Cauca, 
the western range then forms, in the Cerros de Carpintaria, to the East of the 
Rio San Juan de Micay, the continuation of the Cordillera of Sindagua, broken 
by the Rio Patias ; then it becomes lower towards the North, between Cali and Las 
Juntas de Dagua, being from 5,000 to 6,000 feet high, and sends out considerable 
counterforts (lat. 4}^ to 5^) towards the sources of the Calima, the Tamana, and 
the Andagueda Rivers. The first two of these auriferous rivers are a£Buents of 
the Rio San Juan del Choc6, and the last, into the Atrato, which falls into the 
Mexican Gulf. This enlargement of the western range forms the mountainous 
parts of Choc6, and it is here, between the Tado and Zitara, called also S. 
Francisco de Quibd6, that is, the Isthmus of Raspadura, celebrated as being the 
site of the first navigable communication between the two oceans, hereafter more 
particularly aMuded to. 

The foregoing description of this portion of the mountains, though of less 
consequence to the navigator, yet important for its mineral riches, has been taken 
firom Humboldtf 

The RIVER TUMBES, as stated on a previous page, forms the boundary 
between the republics of Peru and Ecuador. Malpelo Point, at the mouth of 
this river, with Salinas Point, at the S.W. end of the Island of Puna, may be 
considered as the limits of the southern and principal branch of the entrance to 
the Guayaquil River. 


Guayaquil is the most important port of this section of South America, being 
the entrepdt of the rich valleys of Ecuador, and the chief outlet of all the produce 
of the republic. 

The estuary, which is much embarrassed with shoals, and is extensive, is (or 
rather was), however, buoyed, and means are generally adopted to avoid all incon- 
veniences arising from the difficulties of navigation ; so that a vessel may now 
proceed up the river to the city, a distance of 80 miles from the outer entrance, 
with tolerable facility ; though above Puni the depth at low water prevents any 
great draught being carried beyond, except at the top of spring tides. 

* " Platina is found abundantly on Choc6 and on the coast of the Pacific as far to the southward 
as Barbacoas ; it accompanies the gold, and is obtained in the washings of tliat metal, from which 
it is afterwards separated. When the republic was established, the exportation was prohibited, and 
the government was to purchase it all in its crude state, at four to eight dollars a pound, and to 
refine it, and then sell it at foar dollars an ounce. But, from the facility of smuggling it out to 
Jamaica, chiefiy down the river Atrato, it was determined by the government to export it when 
purified, and marked with iu arms, at six dollars an ounce,— -Preaent State of Colombia, p. 809. 
See also Cochrane, vol. it p. 421, for an account of the method of procuring it. 

t Relation Historique, tome iii., p. 204. 


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The LIGHTHOUSE on the Island of Santa Clara or Amoetajada, is the 
best mark for making the river, and is excellently situated for this purpose, lying 
as it does quite outside of ail the points of the river. It is situated in lat. 
3^ l(y S., Ion. 80"^ 2& W. The island itself is so remarkable, that it cannot 
well be mistaken ; it is high, and on many bearings assumes the appearance of 
a gigantic shrouded corpse, which it exactly resembles when the centre bears 
W. J S. Thence comes the name of " Amortajada" or ** Muerto," given to it by 
the Spaniards. 

The lighthouse is erected on the breast of the island, about one- third from the 
head, showing a fixed light, about 230 feet above the level of the sea ; having 
ten argand lamps, with burnished silvered parabolic reflectors, the light from which 
is visible in every direction, except from N. \ W. to N. by E. ; and should a 
vessel approach too near the island, in a southerly direction, it will be shut in by 
the edge of the cliff. Its most brilliant face extends from W.N.W. to E.N.E. by 
the South, in which directions it will be seen, in clear weather, from 5 to 6 leagues 
off. It was begun to be erected under the superintendence of Mr. George 
Peacock, of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, November 20th, 1841, and 
was first lighted on December Ist, in the same year.* 

The South coast of the river N.E. of Malpelo Point recedes so as to form a 
shallow bay, called Tumbes Bay, the points of which bear N.E. a«d S.W. from 
each other, 16 miles apart. The uorth-easternmost of these points is that of 
the Tembleque Islands, forming a portion of the low land at one of the mouths 
of the Tumbes. To the N.E. of this are some extensive shoals, called the 
Pay ana Shoals y dry at low water for 2 J miles from the shore. 

A black buoy with staff and ball was laid on the Pay ana Spity at the same 
time as the erection of the lighthouse. It lies in 4| fathoms at low water, with 
Point Tembleque bearing S.S.W. | W. ; a bluff of trees on an islet, and Chupador 
Inlet, S.S.E. ; extreme point of a sandy point, E. by S. ; lighthouse on Santa 
Clara, W. by N. j N., 10 miles ; starboard point of Chupador entrance, S. by E., 
about 2 cables' length from the nearest breaker at low water, and about 2| miles 
from the nearest land. The water is deep, 15 to 18 fathoms immediately outside 
this buoy, and the whole space is clear between it and the lighthouse. 

At 12 miles E.N.E. from this buoy is the West point of the entrance to Jambeli 
Creek, which runs to the South, and has a good depth of water for its breadth. 
Above this part the depth of the main river becomes irregular, and has much 
shoal water, though there is a deeper channel over on the West side. 

The ISLAND of PUNA, which forms the N.W. side of this part of the river, 
is about 28 miles long, N.N.E. and S.S.W. , and 12 miles broad. Its S.W. point 
is called Point Salinas, and is in lat. 3° 3' S., Ion. 80° 16' W. Shoals extend 
from it for 5 miles toward Amortajada Island, and northward along the western 
coast to a greater distance ; but as they lie out of the general track of shipping, 
and have, moreover, not been amply examined, they will not be approached 

* A recent statement, however, has been made, that the light is at times not shown for several 
nights together, from the keeper deserting it to procure provisions, and that the buoys here 
described have disappeared. Under these circumstances we cannot but caution all approaching 
and depending on their existence. (March, 1^50,)'~Melange Hydrographique, Dep6t de la Ma^ 
rine, 1849-60. 


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unnecessarily. Tlie lighthouse will be an excellent guide by night. At 9 miles 
£. by N. I N. of Point Salinas, is Arena Point (which has been sometimes called 
Salinas Point). The shore in the interval is fronted by shoals, which reach 
2 or 3 miles off the land. At Arena Point the coast assumes a more northerly 
direction, and extends 16 miles to the foot of Mala Hill; a direction mark, 
3J miles farther, in a E.N.E. direction, is Espariola Pointy from whence the 
coast trends to N.E. and North, 4 miles to Mandinga Point, and the town of 
Puna at the N.E. extremity of the island, and above which a vessel cannot proceed 
without the aid of a pilot. 

The estuary here varies from about 14 miles to 6 miles in width. The space 
between the island and the main, though containing some good channels, is of 
irregular depth, and has much shoal water on its eastern side. 

The principal shoal is called the Baja de Mala^ and consists of a chain of banks 
of different depths, extending from off Arenas Point to Espafiola Point. The 
channels through are only fit for small vessels. 

On its South extreme a white buoy was placed in 1841. It lies in 4 fathoms 
water, with the termination of the trees on Point Arenas bearing W. by S. J S. ; 
Peak of Cerro de las Animas, W. J N. ; Cerro de Mala, N. J E. ; Point Puna 
Vieja, N.W. by N., and the lighthouse on Santa Clara, S.W, by W. 25 miles. 

Capt. Peacock, who established the buoys and lighthouse, says : *' After a great 
deal of trouble, time, and patience, we had the good fortune to find the shoal of 
Punta Arenas, and laid down the white buoy off its S.E. extremity. This is a very 
dangerous shoal, and J should strongly recommend that, whenever an opportunity 
occurs, a balsa should be moored on the spot the buoy now occupies, carrying a 
light elevated 50 or 60 feet above the level of the sea, and the buoy removed to 
the middle of the Mala shoal. I should likewise recommend that a black buoy 
should, as soon as possible, be placed on the spit of the shoal lying off the mouth 
of Balao River; one also on the shoal lying If miles East of Punta Mandinga 
(or Puna Bluff), which is sometimes dry ; and another black buoy close to the 
West side of the sunken rock lying off Punta Piedra, which would complete 
the navigation of this noble river, and render it safe and secure. Whenever 
the trade of the port shall warrant it, a revolving light on Punta Mandinga (or 
Puna Bluff) would be very serviceable to lead vessels up to Puna in the night." — 
Guayaquil, November 26, 1841 ; from the Lima " Comercxo^* December 18. 

The North buoy of the Baja de Mala is white^ and is 15J miles N.N.E. of that 
just described. It lies in 4 fathoms sand, with Mr. Cope's (the English consul) 
summer house on the hill just shut in with the sandy bluff of Punta Espafiola, 
bearing W. by N. ; the West point of Mondragon Island a ship's length open 
of Puna Bluff, bearing N. by W. ; and Cerro de Mala, W. | S. The white buoys 
must be left on the port hand, and the black on the starboard in sailing up the 

* ''At 2 miles East of Puna is a shoal, shown in Capt Kellett's survey, lying in the roate of 
vessels going to Pnna for a pilot. It is 4 miles above the North buoy of the Baja de Mala. The 
Adeie, Capt. Qame, struck on this' bank of hard sand. It was not laid down in the Spanish chart, 
and is al>out half a mile in circumference. The shoalest part has from 1 to 5 feet of water, and 
bears from Punta Mandinga B. by 8. f S., and from Punta Espanola N.B. by B. per compass. 
Distant from the nearest land from If to If miles," —Nautical Magazine, February, 1843, p. 134. 


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The SAILING DIRECTIONS given by Mr. Peacock, in connexion with the 
announcement of the placing of the lighthouse and buoys, are as follow ; but we 
refer the reader to the note on p. 190 respecting these buoys and light : — 

** From a fair distance off the South point of the island (of Sta. Clara) to the 
South buoy of the Baja de Mala, the course is N.£. by E. From this buoy steer 
N.£. by N. 10 miles, and then N.N.E. 5 miles, to the North buoy of the Baja de 
Mala, white, taking care not to come into less than 4 fathoms water. From this 
buoy you may keep right for Cape Mandinga, or Puna Bluff, N. by W. East 
from this bluff. If miles, lies a dangerous shoal, which is sometimes dry at low 
water. Near the bluff the water is deep. From the North buoy of the Baja de 
Mala a direct course may likewise be shaped to Punta Espafiola, and vice versd, 
and it points out the entrance of both channels." 

The CITY of GUAYAQUIL is the only port of the republic of Ecuador, and is, 
therefore, its chief point of interest to the mariner. It is the seaport of Quito, 
Catacunga, Hambato, Riobamba, &c., &c., and indeed of all the rich valleys 
between the Andes. It is built on the West bank of the river, and extends 
about a mile in a straight line, at 50 yards from the water. It is divided 
into the old and new towns, the former inhabited by the poorer classes. It is 
tolerably well laid out, and the houses are chiefly built of wood ; from this 
cause it has frequently suffered greatly from fire. The private houses are mostly 
tiled, and are furnished with arcades. A promenade runs the whole length of 
the town between the houses and the river. It has some good edifices, as the 
custom-house, &c.; but from its being on a dead level, and intersected with 
many creeks, the drainage is bad, and the streets are sometimes so swampy, 
as to be almost impassable. The town, nevertheless, has a good appearance at a 
distance. One great article of commerce here is cocoa, which is shipped in 
large quantities for Spain and the United States. The French possess most of 
the retail trade. The population may be about 20,000. 

The river is about 1 J miles in width, very rapid and muddy, the banks of slimy 
mud, dotted in every direction with alligators. The scenery is very like that of 
the rivers on the coast of Africa, and almost as productive of fever. About 
10 miles below Guayaquil the river is not more than half a mile wide, and the 
banks dense mangrove swamps. All breezes are excluded, and the air is 
insufferably hot, even in the " cool season." 

The water for the use of the town is brought from a considerable distance up 
the river, in earthen jars ; from a hundred to one hundred and fifty of which are 
packed together in a balsam formed of logs of a very light wood, lashed together 
with vine, and floated down. The water opposite to the town is fresh at the last of 
ebb, but is considered as unfit for drinking, passing, as it does, through a mass 
of poisonous mangroves. Plenty of large timber and firewood are also brought 
in the same way. Fresh beef and various kinds of fruit are likewise in abundance, 
and of course cocoa, which is the staple commodity of the place. The mosquitoes 
are so troublesome, that the ships lying opposite to the town are obliged to send 
their crews on shore at night 

On the opposite side of the river is a dry dock, where several ships of a superior 
construction have been built. 


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The position of the arsenal at Guayaquil is lat. 2° 12' 25" S., and the longitude, 
as adopted by Lieut. Raper, 79° 52' 40" W.-.(See Naut. Mag., 1839, p. 757.) 

It is high water on full and change at 7*" ; springs rise 7 feet.* 

DIRECTIONS. — ^The following remarks on the navigation of the river were 
made during the passage up and down by Capt. Basil Hall, in H.M.S. Conway, 
between the 23rd and 31st of December, 1821. Taken along with the chart of the 
river, and every possible precaution used, they may enable a stranger to proceed 
up the river, if very urgent service were to require it, and that no pilot could be 
procured ; otherwise it would always be much preferable for a stranger to take a 
pilot at PuKTA BE Aeena, or at the town of Puna, on the island of that name, 
off the entrance of the river. 

Having made the Island of Sakta Clara or Amortajado, pass between 3 and 
4 miles to the southward of it, and steer a mid*channel course to the eastward. The 
island may be approached much nearer, but there are said to be shoals lying off 
it on all sides. By night the lighthouse will be an indication of its place. 

The passage into the river to the northward of Santa Clara is not recommended, 
in consequence of the numerous shoals between it and the coast to the north- 

In all parts of the river with light winds, and the ebb tide making, it would be 
well to anchor, as it sets to the southward and westward in this part of the river at 
the rate of 1^ miles per hour, as we found. The flood, which did not run so strong 
here, sets to the northward and eastward at the rate of three-quarters of a mile 
per hour. 

As we advanced to the northward and eastward we gave Point Arena, on the 
S.£. angle of the Island of Puna, a good berth on passing, and stood more to 
the eastward on' the opposite side of the river, which is clear of shoals, and may 
be approached with safety to 4 fathoms at the distance of 2 or 3 miles. 

This stretch over is advisable before hauling up to the northward, to avoid a 
small bank, that lies a little to the northward, but at some distance to the 
eastward, of Point Arena, on which there is (or was) the white buoy previously 
described. This point, which is a pilot station, does not appear sandy at the 
distance of 2 or 3 miles, as its name implies, but, in common with the rest of the 
coast, woody, and this renders it, as well as other places, difficult to be known 
on many bearings. The pilot gave us a mark by which it might be known, when 
a vessel was in the direction of the before-mentioned shoal. It was as follows : — 
When the mouth of a small river to the northward and eastward of Point Arena, 
and near Puna Vieja, was no longer open ; that is to say, when the two points 
forming the river's mouth, as it appeared, came in one, and bearing at that time 
N.W. by W, by compass, Hill of Mala also on the Island of Puna, at this time 
bearing N. | W., and the Boco del Galao W. } S., we had 6i fathoms. This 
mark is principally useful in coming from the northward, or when coming from 
the southward,*and having opened the Hill of Mala, situated on the N.E. side of 
the Island of Puna, bring it to bear N. j W. before steering to the northward ; 

• For a good account of Gaayaquil, see Stevenson's Peru, vol. H. chap. 7. Capt. Basil^Hall 

Uo describes the state oft" " " -^ l.. _»..*«.. i . t?..* .. 

&c., vol. ii. chapters d6--87 ] 

also descril^s the state of the political relations, &c.,at the time of his visit in 1821 —-Extracts, 
--37 ; and of the buccaneer's attempts, see Dampier, vol. i. p. 164, et aeq. 

2 c 

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it might be approached nearer^ but there are no marks sufficiently conspicuous 
by which one could with propriety go closer. The Hill of Mala is well character- 
ized in the chart, and is seen at some distance off, making like a moderately 
high island, when about 5 or 6 leagues to the southward of it. 

Being to the northward of this shoal, keep the mid-channel, or rather to the 
eastern side of the river ; and in advancing to the northward the Point Mandingo 
will be seen : it is a bold bluff, forming the extreme N.£. point of the Island of 
Puna ; it is easily known, and must not be brought to bear to the eastward of 
North by compass ; but, when bearing N. by W., steer direct for it, when it is 
flood tide, as otherwise you will be set to the N.N.E. on the bank, off the South 
end of the Island of Mondragon, 

By not bringing the Point Mandingo to the eastward of North the dangerous 
bank of Mala will be avoided, the northern extreme of which lies off shore nearly 
a mile, and due East of the Hill of Mala ; from thence it stretches to 6 or 7 miles 
in a S. by W. direction, maintaining a distance of about 4 miles from the island. 
The land nearest the North end of this shoal forms an ill-defined point, but it 
may be known by the land trending suddenly off to the westward. You will, 
however, be just clear of the North end of this shoal when the Hill of Mala 
bears W. J S. by compass ; with this bearing of the hill, and a hut on the beach 
W. by N., Point Mandingo N. by E., we anchored in 7 fathoms muddy bottom ; 
here the ebb tide sets S.W. | W. at the rate of 2 miles an hour ; a few miles to 
the southward of this we found the flood setting N.N.E. 1| miles per hour. 

The coast of the Island of Puna to the northward of the bank of Mala, as far 
as Point Mandingo, is steep-to, except off Point Centinelay where a small spit of 
sand runs out to the eastward about one-third of a mile, on which there are only 
24 fathoms ; in other parts, close to the beach, 4 fathoms. 

Point Mandingo might be rounded at the distance of one- third of a mile. 

The anchorage off the town of Puna is in 6 fathoms, with the town bearing 
South about three-quarters of a mile. The Conway anchored with the extremes 
of the town from S. by W. 4 W. to S.S.W. ; Point Mandingo, S. by E. J E. ; 
extreme western point of Puna, W. by N.: here we observed the flood tide set to 
the N.W. I W. at the rate of 2 J miles per hour. The ebb sets to the S.S.E. in 
this part of the river. 

It may not be unnecessary to remark, that hitherto the soundings laid down in 
the chart were of little or no service to us ; they are extremely irregular, and very 
few of them.* We had, when in near mid-channel, 5, 4f , 6, but most commonly 
5^ fathoms ; and we were informed by the pilot that, near the bank of Mala, the 
water deepens from its usual depth in mid-channel to 7 and 8 fathoms, and 
immediately afterwards shoals on the bank to 2 fathoms. 

From Puna to Guayaquil, Dec. 24th, p.m. — Having got a pilot on board 
from Puna, we weighed with the flood tide, and steered for the centre of Oreen 
Island, bearing N.W. } W. ; and when Point Mandingo bore S. 30° E., the 
western extreme of Green Island W. by N. } N., and the extreme point of 
Mondragon E. by N. J N., we hauled up for the eastern extreme point of Green 

* This of course does not apply to the recent and minate surveye by Capt. Rellett, 


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Island, bearing N.N.W., having 4J fathoms, and when the western extreme of 
Green Island bore W. | N., we steered N. i W. until Point Mandingo bore 
S.W. J S. ; western end of Green Island, W. j S. ; Point Little Chupadovy 
N. by £. ^ £. : here we had 5| fathoms, and steered North along the banks of 
Green Island, to which we gave a berth of one-third of a mile on passing, and 
had 5 fathoms when the North end of Green Island was just on with the south- 
western end of the Island of Maguinana bearing W. j S. : we then steered for 
Point Little Cbupador N.N.E., and gave it a berth of a quarter of a mile on 
passing. Between Point Little Chupador and the North end of Green Island lies 
a sandbank, and directly opposite to Point Little Chupador, on the Island of 
Mondragon, a sandbank begins to run out to the southward and westward ; its 
south-western extreme point lies with Point Mandingo S. by £., South end of 
Mondragon, S.S.E. g E., and the North end of Green Island, S.W. by W. ; we had 
3} fathoms on it at high water. Therefore, between Green Island and Chupador, 
be careful in not bringing Point Mandingo to the southward of S. by E. 

Being past Point Little Chupador, we kept the western bank of ihe river close 
on board, to avoid the sandbanks lying off the Island of Mondragon, and we had 
5 fathoms soft mud when a small sort of look-out house bore West. 

To pass the sunken rock called the Baja is considered one of the difficulties of 
this river navigation ; it lies in the direction of the Island of Mondragon, when 
bearing E.S.E, by compass, and both the ebb and flood tides set upon it ; at 
half tide there is a ripple, which points out its situation, and on still nights the 
water roars over it so as to be heard at a sufficient distance, by which the danger 
may be avoided : between the Baja and the western shore we had 3| fathoms at 
low water ; we had also the same soundings between Point Piedra and the Baja. 

Point Piedra lies between 2 and 3 miles to the northward of the Baja, and 
may be easily known, there being a few houses on it, and the wood cleared away ; 
to this point we gave a berth on passing : the river is deep hereabouts ; close to 
the northward of the point we had 9 fathoms when nearly low water. 

We kept on Point Piedra side of the river for about 2 miles further to the 
northward, and then steered N.E. across, to avoid the bank that lies to the 
southward, at some distance from the Island of Sona (part of this bank we saw 
dry at half tide), as well as to avoid those extending to the northward from the 
small islands lying off the North end of the Island of Matorillos. Here it may 
be observed, that the tide of ebb separates itself into two currents, the one 
running S. by W., along the western shore of the river, and the other S.E. by E., 
between the Island of Matorillos and the main land to the eastward : therefore, 
when coming down the river, it will be advisable to haul over to tlie western 
shore, before the S.E. by E. current is felt. 

In going up, after crossing the river, and having hold of the eastern shore, we 
kept it very close on board, and as we advanced to the northward we saw a red- 
tiled house, and a small sort of out-house near it, which is to the northward of a 
clump of trees that we passed very close to ; and when this house bore East, we 
were just to the northward of the spit that runs out to the eastward of the Island 
of Bona ; then keeping nearer to the eastern shore than to the island side of the 
river, in steering to the northward we saw a round shaped hill to the N.N.W., 


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having a building on its summit ; that hiU is the northern boundary of the town 
of Guayaquil, and when brought to bear N.N.W. J W, by compass, and the 
centre of the eastern branch of the river (which is divided by the Island of San- 
tay) N. I W., we steered across, keeping nearer to the western side of the two, 
as a bank lies at a little distance from the South end of the Island of Santay, 
where there are two or three houses. 

When these houses bore N.E. by E. J E., Point Gordo S. by E. J E., and 
the hill to the northward of the town of Guayaquil N.N.W., we had 5 fathoms 
at high water, and then kept the western shore, or Guayaquil side of the river 
close on board, to avoid the banks lying off the Island of Santay and the wreck 
of a French vessel. Our anchorage was off the southern end of the town, in 4^ 
fathoms at low water, soft muddy bottom, with the steeples of the custom-house 
N.N.W. i W.; North end of the Island of Santay, N.K by E. | E.; wreck off 
the North end of ditto, N.E. | E. ; hill to the northward of the town, having a 
building on the summit, N. | E. Here the rise was 9 feet, and the greatest 
strength of the flood setting to the northward was 3 J miles per hour, and the ebb 
to the southward at the rate of 3 miles per hour, spring tides. 

It may be necessary to state that all the bearings in the foregoing directions 
of the river are by compass. 

The following directions are from a manuscript drawn up by an Italian, an 
experienced trader on the coast, and communicated by Capt. J. W, Monteath, 
of the brig Mary Erode, It will be seen that they were written prior to the 
establishment of the lighthouse and the buoys. 

In going to Guayaquil you ought to make the land about Cape Blanco, which 
is easily known by its white colour. Having made the cape, sail along the 
coast 2 leagues off, though you may approach to half a mile. Sailing on you 
will see the Point of Los Picos, which is very remarkable, being full of small 
peaks, one larger than the rest. Sailing on a few miles farther you will see a low 
point full of trees; this is Point Malpelo, from which the shoals of Payana 
begin, extending about 2 miles off, and are very dangerous; the sea breaks on 
them at low water. Do not approach this point to less than 10 fathoms, and 
5 miles off, with a leading wind, which you generally have on going in ; therefore 
it is best to keep in mid-channel, from 18 to 22 fathoms, good ground for anchorage. 

The Muerto (or Amortajada) may be seen from the mast-head at 7 leagues off. 
It is tolerably large; at the first sight it appears like three hummocks; the 
head of it is rather perpendicular, and sloping toward the North part of the 
island. It has a reef on each end ; that toward the Island of Puna is about a 
league in length. You may approach any part of the Muerto to within a mile, 
except the ends of it. In general you will see the Muerto and Puna at the same 
time. The latter island (Puna) is of a good height on the South side. When 
the Muerto bears West, 6 miles off, you ought to steer for mid-channel, and 
rather nearest the main land; and when Punta de Arena on the Puna bears 
W, by S. you ought, if not before, to go nearer the main in 6 fathoms, but if with 
foul wind, approach the main to 5 and even 4 fathoms ; and about towards the 
Puna take care to deepen to not more than 7J fathoms, for in 8 you may find 
yourself on the banks before you are aware of it, for the banks are steep-to. 


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With a fair wind keep in 5J and 6 fathoms, and when the low point of the 
Island of Puna bears N.W, by N., sail for it, taking care to keep the point open. 
When abreast of the point you may approach to half a mile', but keep a mile 
from it, and sail coasting the island till you see the houses, which are large and 
white. At the foot of them is a creek or river. You cannot fail seeing the 
houses, and when abreast of them, 1 mile off, let go the anchor in 9 fathoms 
mud. Should the pilot not come to you, you must go to the houses to get him, 
for you must not proceed any further without, as 5 miles beyond there is a flat 
extending all across the river, on which there is no more than 18 feet at spring 
tides, but in general from 12 to 16 feet 

At Guayaquil you moor with two bowers close to the town, so close that when 
your vessel swings you are not more than the length of your vessel from the 

Capt. Basil Hall describes the descent of the Guayaquil. River by means of 
kedging, which, as it is very interesting from its connexion, we transcribe from 
his Extracts from a Journal, &c., part ii., chap. 38. 

The operation of kedging is a device to produce a relative motion between the 
ship and the water, in order to bring the directing power of the rudder into 
action. This object is accomplished by allowing the anchor to trail along, instead 
of being lifted entirely off the ground, as in the first supposition. It is known 
practically, that the degree of firmness with which an anchor holds the ground 
depends, within certain limits, upon its remoteness from the ship. When the 
anchor lies on the ground immediately under the ship's bows, and the cable is 
vertical, it has little or no hold ; but when there is much cable out, the anchor 
fixes itself in the bottom, and cannot without difficulty be dragged out of its 
place. In the operation of kedging, the cable is hove, or drawn in, till nearly in 
an upright position ; this immediately loosens the hold of the anchor, which then 
begins to trail along the ground, by the action of the tide pressing against the 
ship. If the anchor ceases altogether to hold, the vessel will, of course, move 
entirely along with the tide, and the rudder will become useless* However, if the 
anchor be not quite lifted off the ground, but be merely allowed to drag along, 
it. is evident that the ship, thus clogged, will accompany the tide reluctantly, and 
the stream will in part run past her; and thus a relative motion between the 
vessel and the water being produced, a steering power will be communicated to 
the rudder. 

In our case, the tide was running 3 miles an hour; and had the anchor 
been lifted wholly off the ground, we must have been borne past the shore exactly 
at that rate; but by allowing it to drag along the ground, a friction was 
produced, by which the ship was retarded 1 mile an hour; and she was 
therefore actually carried down the stream at the rate of only 2 miles, while 
the remaining 1 mile of tide ran past, and allowed of her being steered : so 
that, in point of fact, the ship became as much under the command of the 
rudder as if she had been under sail, and going at the rate of 1 mile an hour 
through the water. 

This power of steering enabled the pilot to thread his way, stern foremost, 
amongst the shoals, and to avoid the angles of the sandbanks ; for, by turning 


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the ship's head one way or the other, the tide was made to act obliquely on the 
opposite bow, and thus she was easily made to cross over from bank to bank, in 
a zig-zag direction. It sometimes happened that, with every care, the pilot found 
himself caught by some eddy of the tide, which threatened to carry him on a 
shoal ; when this took place, a few fathoms of the cable were permitted to run 
out, which in an instant allowed the anchor to fix itself in the ground, and 
consequently the ship became motionless. By now placing the rudder in the 
proper position, the tide was soon made to act on one bow ; the ship was sheered 
over, as it is called, clear of the danger ; and the cable being again drawn in, 
the anchor dragged along as before. The operation of kedging, as may be 
conceived, requires the most constant vigilance, and is full of interest, though 
rather a slow mode of proceeding ; for it cost us all that night, and the whole 
of the next day and night, to retrace the ground which we formerly had gone 
over in 10 hours. 

POINT SANTA ELENA is 68 miles N.W. i N. from the Island of Santa 
Clara at the entrance of Guayaquil River. Its N.W. extremity is in lat. 
2° 11' 10" S., and Ion. 81° 1' 40* W. Of the intervening coast we have no 
account ; and here commences the survey continued to the northward by Capt. 
H. Kellett in 1836. It forms the southern side of Santa Elena Bay, and is thus 
described by Dampier. The allusion to the singular bituminous spring is still 
correct, and might be turned probably to some useful purpose. 

'* Point Santa Elena is pretty high, flat, and even at the top, overgrown with 
a great many thistles, but no sort of tree : at a distance it appears like an island, 
because the land within it is very low. 

** This point strikes out next into the sea, making a pretty large bay on the 
North side. A mile within the point, on a sandy bay, close by the sea, there is a 
poor small Indian village, called Sancta Hellena : the land about it is low, sandy, 
and barren ; there are no trees nor grass growing near it. There is no fresh 
water at this place, nor near it ; therefore the Indians are obliged to fetch all 
their water from the River Colanche, which is in the bottom of the bay, about 

4 leagues from it. Not far from this town on the bay, close by the sea, about 

5 paces from high-water mark, there is a sort of bituminous matter boils out of a 
little hole in the earth ; it is like thin tar ; the Spaniards call it algatrane. By 
much boiling it becomes hard like pitch. It is frequently used by the Spaniards 
instead of pitch ; and the Indians that inhabit here save it in jars. It boils up 
most at high water ; and then the Indians are ready to receive it. These Indians 
are fishermen, and go out to sea on bark Jogs. Their chief subsistence is maize, 
most of which they get from ships that come hither for algatrane. There is good 
anchoring to leeward of the point right against the village, but on the West side 
of the point it is deep water, and no anchoring."* 

The Bay of St a. Elena, thus alluded to by Dampier^ is a miserable spot, though 
the anchorage is good. Capt. Pipon anchored July Qth, 1814, in 6| fathoms, 
sandy bottom, about 2 miles off shore. It was found on examining the shore 
that firewood might be procured for ships in want of that article ; but no fresh 

* Dampier, vol. i. pp. 139-4. 


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water, and from what intelligence could be obtained from the inhabitant^ of the 
miserable village at the bottom of the bay, there is no fresh water within 5 miles 
of the anchorage, all they have to make use of being brought on rafts from that 
distance. No refreshment is to be procured here; the poor inhabitants living 
chiefly on the fish caught in the bay. They have some saltpans in the neigh- 

At 20 miles N.N.E. | E. mag. from Sta. Elena Point is the little Islet o/Pelabo, 
in lat. 2^ 3' 55\ Ion. 80*^ 48' 45* W., according to Capt. Kellett's, R.N.,* survey. 
Morrell says that he found nothing on it but birds and hair-seals. It lies 3 miles 
N.W. off Ayangui Pointy the channel between being clear, but a shoal extends 
nearly a mile off the point. 

The coast hence is clear, and trends in a general N.N.W. direction for 24 miles 
to Selango Island ; but at 10 miles North of Ayanqui Point is Montanita Pointy 
off which are some rocks, and 8 miles further is Jampa Point, also rocks around it. 
At 2 miles N.W. of the latter, with a clear passage between, are the Ahorcados 
(hanging islets), a detached bank of rocks and islets. 

Selango Island is in lat. 1° 35' 20* South, Ion. 80*^ 54' 0" West. Capt. 
Pipon, in H.M.S. Tagus, on the 12th July, anchored off this island, opposite 
a fine sandy beach, in 25 fathoms water, about 1 mile off shore, and began their 
operation of wooding ; finding, however, that they ran rather too far distant from 
the rivulet, they shifted their berth, and anchored nearer the main land, for the 
convenience of watering, in 19 fathoms, blue sand ; the bearings when at anchor 
were, the Island of Plata, N.W. J N. 7 or 8 leagues ; the N.W. point of a small 
island, N.W. by W. J W. ; and a rocky point on the main, N.E. The channel 
between the island and the main consists of a ledge of rocks across, many of them 
above water. It was found that in this anchorage wood was procured with 
greater facility and plenty than at Selango Island ; and by penetrating a little 
into the woods, spars of large dimensions and various sizes were found. You 
may anchor here in between 15 and 23 fathoms water, and will not then be more 
than half a mile off shore. 

Bamboos of large dimensions were also found here ; and such an abundance of 
excellent fish was caught with the seine as is almost incredible ; one in particular, 
whose name was not known, of a reddish hue, and large scales, resembling much 
in flavour the red mullet, though considerably larger. Here the ships' companies 
were fully and very pleasantly occupied ; and although in all the operations of 
wooding, watering, and hauling the seine^ they had to toil in general against 
a heavy surf, yet their labours were invariably well repaid. The greatest surf 
prevailed with a rising tide ; but at low water the casks could always be rafted 
off with tolerable facility. 

There were two huts erected by the rivulet, the residence of a few poor 
fishermen. These people had little to dispose of, though they were civil and 
willing to supply the wants as far as their abilities would permit, and had Capt. 
Pipon been inclined to remain there a few days longer, they offered to furnish 
him with live cattle and vegetables. Plantains, of which there were several 
plantations in the neighbourhood, with a few lemons and Seville oranges, were 
the only productions they saw there, and the country around an entire forest. 


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This will be found a most convenient place to supply ships cruising in these 
seas with those indispensable necessaries, for here you need be under no appre- 
hension of disturbance or molestation.* 

Callo Point is 14 miles N. by £. } £. mag, from Selango Island ; and a mile to 
the North of it is Callo Islandf a small island only the resort of birds and seals, 
having no channel inside between it and thccoast. Hence to Cape San Lorenzo 
the distance is 21 miles. Off the coast, 14 miles distant, is Plata Island. The 
soundings between, as indeed they are all hereabout, are tolerably regular, 
increasing from 5 to 30 fathoms. 

PLATA ISLE was so named by the Spaniards, from Sir Francis Drake 
dividing his plunder at it.t Its N.W. point, according to Capt. Kellett's survey, 
is in lat. 1^ 15' 30* S., Ion. 81° 7' 15" W. It is of moderate height, and of a 
verdant shaggy appearance, from the large bushes, or low trees, that cover it. Its 
length is about 3 miles : and the western side is an entire cliff of an inaccessible 
appearance. A few small islets appear off the South end of it. The watering 
and anchoring places are said to be on the eastern side, in a small sandy bay, 
half a mile from the shore, in 18 or 20 fathoms water. 

This island was a favourite place of resort with the buccaneers, it being most 
conveniently situated to watch the Plata fleets to and from Lima ; but all traders, 
either to or from the coast of Mexico, or between Panama and the coast of Peru, 
make the coast a little to the northward of it. If we may believe the buccaneers, 
this island has plenty of water and turtle, and abounded with goats, till the 
Spaniards destroyed them.| 

Dampier has described it : — '' It is bounded with high steep cliffs, clear round 
only at one place on the East side. The top of it is flat and even, the soil dry and 
sandy ; the trees it produceth are but small bodied, low, and grow thin, and there 
are only three or four sorts of trees, all unknown to us. I observed that they were 
much overgrown with long moss. There is good grass, especially in the beginning 
of the year. There is no water on this island but at one place on the East side, 
close by the sea ; there it drills slowly down from the rocks, where it may be 
received into vessels. There were plenty of goats, but they are now all destroyed. 
There is no other sort of land animal that I did ever see ; there are plenty of 
boobies and men-of-war birds. The anchoring place is on the East side, near the 
middle of the island, close by the shore, within 2 cables' length of the sandy bay. 
There is about 1 8 or 20 fathom good fast oazy ground, and smooth water ; for 
the S.E. point of the island shelters from the South winds which constantly blow 
there. From the S.E. point there strikes out a small shoal a quarter of a mile into 
the sea, where there is commonly a great rippling or working of short waves during 
all the flood. The tide runs pretty strong, the flood to the South, and the ebb to 
the North. There is good landing on the sandy bay against the anchoring place, 
from whence you may go up into the island, and at no place besides. There are two 
or three high, steep, small rocks at the S.E. point, not a cable's length from the 

* Remarks by Capt. Pipon, R.N., in Capt. Basil Hall's Memoir, pp. 74—77. 
t This caD scarcely be correct, as we are told that Sir Francis Drake sailed for 24 hours off the 
land with his prize, and then sailed westward .-^See page 203 hereafter. 
t Colnett, pp. 62-3. 


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MANTA. 201 

island, and another much bigger at the N.E. end ; it is deep water all round but 
at the anchoring place and at the shore at the S.E. point. At this island are 
plenty of those small sea-turtle I have spoken of." * 

Capt. PipoUy R.N.y says : '^ On approaching this island we found the soundings 
very irregular, having only 16 fathoms as we rounded the southern part, at a good 
distance, and then deepening to 34 and 35, as we hauled in for the little sandy 
bay. We anchored in 35 fathoms abreast of this bay, about 1 mile off shore. 
The marks when at anchor were : the South point (off which is a reef), S.S.W. ; 
the extreme point, W. | N. ; the sandy beach, S.W. by ^ W. ; Cape San Lorenz o, 
N. by E* I £. It is, however, advisable to anchor more within the bay, in 19 
and 20 fathoms ; you will not then be above 2 or 3 cables' length off shore. 

'* Wood may be procured here, but not very abundant. Water was not to be 
found. By report of a fisherman, whose vessel was hauled up in the little sandy 
bay opposite the anchorage, after rain a small quantity might be obtained ; but, 
whilst we were here, we found everything completely dried up. Fish may be 
caught here in great abundance, but not turtle, as mentioned by Colnett. 
Considering that no water is to be procured here, it is by no means a desirable 
place to touch at ; I would, in preference, recommend anchoring off the Island of 
Selango, where abundance of firewood may be cut, and fresh water procured from 
a considerable rivulet that empties itself into the sea from the main land." 

Cape San Lorehzo is in lat. 1° 3' 20"^ S., Ion. 80^ 67' 0" W. It is the West 
extreme of a projection of the continent, the general line of which, in a N.N.E. 
direction, is indicated by some hills, of which Monte Christo, 14 miles inland of 
the cape, and 1 ,429 feet high, is the principal. The cape itself is a small tongue, 
off which, for half a mile further, some small islets and rocks extend. 

The bank of soundings off the coast, which preserves a generally uniform line 
from Plata Island, is much narrower off the cape, and does not reach further off 
than about 3 miles, and the depth itself immediately off the cape is much greater 
than in other parts, irregular from 30 to 70 fathoms. 

From Cape San Lorenzo the coast, which is of moderate height, trends to the 
eastward, and 14 miles along it is the little Port of Manta. Off the intermediate 
points, reefe and rocks extend a short distance, and the port in question lies to 
the S.E. of one of these projections. 

*' MANTA is a small Indian village on the main. It stands so advantageously 
to be seen, being built on a small ascent, that it makes a very fair prospect to the 
sea, yet but a few poor scattered Indian houses. There is a very fine church 
with a great deal of carved work. It was formerly a habitation for Spaniards, but 
they are all removed from hence now. The land about it is dry and sandy, bearing 
only a few shrubby trees. These Indians plant no manner of grain or root, but are 
supplied from other places, and commonly keep a stock of provisions to relieve 
ships that want, for this is the first settlement that ships can touch at which come 
from Panam4 bound to Lima or any other port in Peru. The land being dry 
and sandy, is not fit to produce crops of maize ; which is the reason they plant 
none. There is a spring of good water between the village and the seas. 

• Dampier, voL i. pp. 132-8. 
2 D 


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'' On the back of the town, a pretty way up in the country, there is a very hi^h 
tnountain,* towering up like a sugar-loaf. It is a very good sea-mark, for there is 
none like it on all the coast. The body of this mountain bears due South from 
Manta. About a mile and a half from the shore, right against the village, there 
is a rock which is very dangerous, because it never appears above water ; neither 
doth the sea break on it, because there is seldom any great sea ; yet it is now so 
well known that all ships bound to this place do easily avoid it. A mile within 
this rock there is good anchoring, in 6, 8, or 10 fathom water, good hard sand 
and clear ground. And a mile from the road on the West side, there is a shoal 
running out a mile into the sea. From Manta to Cape Sta. Lorenzo the land is 
plain and even, of an indifferent height^'f 

At 27} miles to the N.£. of Manta is Caracas Bay. 

Caracas Bay ^The entrance is in lat. 0° 34' 30" S., Ion. 80® 28' 0" W. At 

2 miles off its entrance is a rocky reef nearly a mile in extent. 

'* In entering this bay, strict attention must be paid to the lead, as there are 
many shoals to the North and in front of the entrance ; and there are some also 
on the S.W. side of the bay. The water being generally smooth here, these 
dangers seldom show themselves on the surface, and therefore render the 
greater caution necessary. If it be the navigator's wish to anchor near the 
mouth of the river, he will approach it on the S.W. side, where he may anchor 
within half a mile of it, between two banks that are nearly dry at low water. 
The western bank will completely shelter him from seaward, and he will have 
4 fathoms of water at low tide, with sufficient room for four or five other ships to 
lie in his company with perfect safety. 

*' The country on both sides of Caracas Bay and river is the most beautiful 
that can possibly be imagined. The soil is rich and fertile, producing in great 
abundance cocoa, coffee, rice, Indian corn, tobacco^ and a great variety of 
excellent fruits. All kinds of vegetables are plentiful, as are also honey and wax. 
This is one of the best places on the coast to procure a cargo of cocoa, as you 
may depend on its being of the very best quality that grows in this country ; 
whereas, if you go to Guayaquil, you are liable to be imposed upon by 
adulterations. The best coffee and wax may likewise be had at this place, and 
at a much lower rate than at Guayaquil. 

''Among the animal productions of this country are cattle, horses, sheep, 
goats, hogs, and poultry, in abundance. The forests are well tenanted with a 
great variety of wild animals, including a multitude of birds of very beautiful 
plumage. The usual temperature of the atmosphere being warm and moist, 
brings into existence innumerable swarms of insects and animals of a noxious 
kind. But the period of their .existence is not very protracted, as the S.W. 
winds, which generally prevail from May to December inclusive, destroy them 
in great numbers. In the height of the wet season, alligators and other dis- 
agreeable reptiles spread themselves over the country, and become very trouble- 
some to the natives; but in the fair weather season they cause very little 

* 1,439 feet, according to Capt. Kellett t Dampier, vol. 1. p. 186. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


^^The S.W. winds, just alluded to, commence blowing about noon, and 
continue until daylight the next morning. During those months of the year in 
which these winds prevail the atmosphere is very clear, and it is seldom or never 
known to rain ; but from January to the last of April the heat is very oppressive, 
accompanied with frequent and heavy falls of rain, with tremendous thunder- 
storms, and very sharp lightning/'* 

Cape Passado is 13 miles North of Caracas Bay, and is in lat. 0^ 21' 30" S., 
and Ion. 80° 32' W. 

** Cape Passao (Passado),'* says Dampier, ^' runs out into the sea with a high 
round point, which seems to be divided in the midst. It is bold against the sea, 
but within land and on both sides it is full of short trees. The land in the 
country is very high and mountainous, and it appears to be very woody. 
Between Cape Passao and Cape San Francisco the land by the sea is full of 
small points, making as many little sandy bays between them ; and is of an 
indifferent height, covered with trees of divers sorts ; so that, sailing by this coast, 
you see nothing but a vast grove or wood ; which is so much the more pleasant, 
because the trees are of several forms, both in respect to their growth and 


From hence to Pedernales Paint (Shingle Point), in lat. 0° 4' 10* North, the 
distance is 35 miles, and the same distance, nearly true North from the latter, is 
Cape San Francisco. Between these points there is no place of commercial 
importance. Before the whole of the coast a shoal extends, from 1 to 3 miles 
off, to the depth of 5 fathoms and under, so that it is advisable to keep 2 leagues 
off the land, by which all danger will be avoided, and a depth of 10 to 30 
fathoms found between Point Pedernales and Cape Passado. 

North of Pedernales Point the coast runs in nearly a true North direction, and 
is for the most part low and unhealthy. At 18 miles from it the Cogimies Skoals 
extend from thence to 5 miles from the land, and up to Mangles Point, in 
lat. 27' 40" N. Twelve miles further North than the latter is Cape San Fran- 
cisco, with which it forms an open bay. 

" CAPE SAN FRANCISCO is a high bluff, clothed with tall great trees. 
Passing by this point, coming from the North, you will see a small low point, 
which you might suppose to be the cape, but you are then past it, and presently 
afterwards it appears with three points. The land in the country within this cape 
is very high, and the mountains commonly appear very black. The sea winds 
are here at South, and the land winds at S.S.E.^t 

It was off Cape San Francisco that Sir Francis Drake captured the Spanish 
ship Cacafuego, March 1st, 1579, and steering from the land all day and night, 
they lay by their prize, taking out her cargo. The treasure found consisted of 13 
chests of rials of plate, 80 lb. of gold, 26 tons of uncoined silver, and a quantity 
of jewels and precious stones. The whole was valued at 360,000 pesos, each 

* Morrell'a NarratiTe, ^c, pp. 188—190. We have before quoted thiB author, and with a 
caution aa to the veracity of his personal knowledge of the parts his work professee to describe. 
It is evidently in many points derived from other sources. In the paucity of information on this 
coast we extract the above, but for its minute accuracy we must not guarantee. 

t Dampier, ?ol. i. pp. 162-3. X Hfid. vol. i. p. 132. 


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nearly equal to Bs. English. The uncoined silver was worth upwards of £200,000. 
After this the unfortunate ship was allowed to proceed on her voyage to Panam^/ 

At 12 miles around the coast to the northward is Galera Point. The inter- 
rening coast is bold-to, and at the latter point it assumes a more easterly direction. 

ATACAMESy or Tacames, a small seaport town, is about 13 miles from Point 
Galera. The mouth of the small river on the East side of which it lies, is, 
according to Capt Kelletfs survey, in lat. 0° 57' 30" N., Ion. 79° 55' W. 

Capt. Morrell, who states that he visited it in September, 1823, gives the 
following description of it :— - 

^' At Atacames vessels will find good anchorage and safe shelter a little to the 
eastward of a rock that lies on the West side of the bay, about two cables' length 
from the shore, rising nearly 75 feet above the level of the sea. 

'' The best watering place is in a small river on the West side of the bay, 
at the mouth of which, on the last of the ebb, water-casks may be filled not 
more than three-fourths of a mile from the ship. This is also the best place to 
cut wood, which may be procured in any quantity at the mouth of this river. 
The water taken from this stream is of an excellent quality for long yoyages, 
no other having ever, to my knowledge, kept sweet and pure so long. 

** The town of Atacames is small, containing about 500 inhabitants, the 
construction of whose habitations is somewhat singular, but well adapted to the 
climate and other localities. They are built similar to those of New Guinea, 
being elevated on posts about 10 feet from the ground, and consisting of only 
one story. On the posts or stakes driven into the earth, which support the 
building, the floor is laid, above which most of the materials are bamboos. The 
roof is thatched with a kind of long grass that is common in this country. Each 
house has one door only, which is entered by means of a ladder, the latter being 
hauled up into the house every night, when the family is about retiring to rest, 
to prevent their being disturbed by wild animals, with which this part of the 
country abounds. 

** The soil is very fertile, and yields two crops a year ; so that vegetables and 
fruit are always abundant at Atacames. The temperature is like that of Guaya- 
quil ; and accordingly it produces the same kind of fruit, grain, and vegetables, 
some of them in greater perfection on account of its more elevated situation. It 
likewise produces, in great abundance, vanillas, balsams, achiote, copal, cocoa, 
sarsaparilla, and indigo. Considerable quantities of wax are made here ; and the 
forests of the country afford a great variety of trees of large size and lofty height, 
fit for naval and domestic purposes, including many rare and valuable woods. 
They likewise procure a considerable quantity of gold dust firom the streams of 
the mountains, beside many valuable minerals. Notwithstanding the ample 
resources of this place, however, it has hitherto been very little frequented by 
nautical adventurers, either for trade or refreshment^t 

^ Soe Hakluyt, vol. ilL p. 747, ** The Famous Voyage," &c The quantity of treasure taken in 
these marauding excursions, at the different towns along the coasts of Peru, kc,, seems almost 
incredible, yet the relations given by Barney and other historians of the buccaneers are generally 
consistent with each other, and afford collateral proof of each other's yeraeity. 

t Narrative, &e., pp. 132-3. See also Account of Colombia, vol. i. p. 337 ; and Capt. Woodes 
Hogers' Voyage, 1708, in Burney. 


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TUMACO. 205 

At 14 miles N.E. of Atacames is the entrance of the Esmeralda River. The 
coast is nearly straight, and off Oarda Painty 9 miles from Atacames, there are 
some rocks. A shoal spit extends due North from Atacames to the distance of 
11 miles, having on its outer point 10 fathoms of water, and only 4 fathoms at 
7 miles. In proceeding, therefore, along this coast, this circumstance should he 

The town of Esmeraldas is on the left bank of the river, 9 miles from its 
mouth, the course being South, true* Hereabouts was the famous emerald mine, 
which has long been supposed to be losUf 

Northward of this our information becomes very scanty ; we know only the 
names of the points as laid down in the Spanish charts, which give a very imperfect 
notion of the reality. The boundary between the two republics of Ecuador and 
Nueva Granada is at the river Mira, which falls into the Pacific West of Tnmaco. 

TuMACO is a port of which we know nothing, except its existence. In a decree 
given at Bogot4, March 22, 1844, Tumaco is declared a free port until 1861 ; 
what that year may see at Tumaco it would be hazardous to say. The decree 
states, ^< that every class of vessels, national and foreign, can freely enter and 
leave the free ports (Buenaventura is the other) without paying port dues, or 
import or other national duties.*' By another article of this decree, this freedom 
only applies to merchandise to be consumed in the Island of Tumaco ; that which 
leaves Uiese ports pays national duties.t 

GallOf according to Dampier, is a small island, moderately high, and covered 
with very good timber. It Lies in a wide bay, about 3 leagues from the mouth of 
the Tumaco, and 4^ leagues from the Indian village Tumaco. There is a spring 
of good water at the N.E. end, where there is good landing. The roadstead is 
before this bay, and there is secure and good riding in 6 and 7 fathoms water ; 
here also a ship may careen. All around this island the water is shoal, but there 
is a channel to enter by, in which is not less than 4 fathoms water, entering with 
the flood tide and quitting with the ebb, sounding all the way. 

^' Tumaco (Tomaco) is a large river, that takes its name from an Indian village 
so called. It is shoal at the mouth, yet barks may enter. The small village of 
Tumaco (Tomaco) is seated not far from the mouth of the river. The land 
between Tumaco and the River St. Jago, a distance of 6 leagues, is low and full 
of creeks, so that canoes may pass within land from thence into the Tumaco 

The River St. Jago, according to Dampier, is large, and navigable some 
leagues up. At 20 miles from the sea it separates into two branches, making an 
island 12 miles wide against the sea. Both branches are very deep ; but the 
mouth of the narrowest is so shoal, that, at low water, even canoes cannot enter. 
Above the island it is 3 miles wide, with a strong current || 

GORGONA ISLAND.^Proceeding to the N.E., the next place we have any 

* This spit, and the irregnlarity hi the depth off this part of the coast, compared with that to 
the southward, are remarlLable. Perhaps they may be occasioned by the action of the currents f 
which, as we shall show hereafter, are very strong and peculiar in the vicinity. 

t Account of Colombia, toI. i. p. 827. X Commeieial Tariflb, part xix. 1847, p. 318. 

§ Dampier, vol. i. p. 169. |1 Ilnd. vol. i. p. 164. 


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notice of is the Island of Gorgona, which^ according to the recent survey, is 5 
miles long, N.N.£. and S.S.W., and 1,296 feet in height. Its North point is in 
lat. 3"^ N., Ion. 78° 9' W. The following is Dampier's account of it:— 

'' (Gorgona) Gorgonia is an uninhabited island. It is pretty high, and very 
remarkable, by reason of two saddles, or risings, or fallings, at the top. It is 
about 2 leagues long, and a league broa^.; and it is 4 leagues from the main. 
At the West end is another small island. The land against the anchoring place 
is low ; there is a small sandy bay, and good landing. The soil, or mould, of it is 
black and deep in the low ground ; but, on the side of the high land, it is a kind 
of red clay. This island is very well clothed with large trees, of several sorts, 
that are flourishing and green all the year. It is very well watered with small 
brooks that issue from the high land. Here are a great many little black monkeys, 
some Indian conies, and a few snakes, which are all the land animals that I know 
here. It is reported of this island that it rains on every day in the year, more or 
less; but that I can disprove. However, it is a very wet coast, and it rains 
abundantly here all the year long. There are but few fiur days : for there is 
little difference in the seasons of the year between the wet and the dry ; only, in 
that season which should be the dry time, the rains are less frequent and more 
moderate than in the wet season, for then it pours as if out of a sieve. It is deep 
water, and no anchoring anywhere along this island only at the West side. The 
tide riseth and falleth 7 or 8 feet up and down. Here are a great many periwinkles 
and mussels to be had at low water. Then the monkeys come down by the sea-side, 
and catch them ; digging them out of their shells with their claws. Here are also 
pearl oysters in great plenty/'* 

BUENAVENTURA BAY is the next place we have any notice of, and appears 
to be the most important port in this part of the republic, and is to remain a free 
port until 1879! 

Considering the importance and beauty of its situation, San Buenaventura 
ought to be a considerable town : an active commerce should animate its port ; a 
rich and industrious population fill its streets ; lastly, it should be frequented by 
numerous vessels. Nothing of all this is to be seen. A dozen huts, inhabited by 
negroes and mulattos, a barrack with eleven soldiers, a battery of three pieces of 
cannon, the residence of the governor, built, like the custom-house, of straw and 
bamboo, on a small island called Kascakral, covered with grass, brambles, mud, 
serpents, and toads : such is San Buenaventura ; yet the commerce carried on is 
not without importance, though chiefly very common articles ; for instance, salt, 
onions, and garlic. These, in general, are the only cargoes brought from Payta. 
Straw hats and hammocks are brought from Xipixapa, and salt meat, causing 
dysentery, from Costa Rica. The exportations consist of rum, sugar, and tobacco. 
This unwholesome place suffers a continual scarcity of provisions ; it is difficult 
to procure green bananas, or bread made of maize, and cheese. Fowls cost a 
piaster apiece, and can hardly be obtained even at that price ; fish is scarce, and 
said to be injurious to health. 

* Dampier, toL i. pp. 17S-S. A Bimllar aoooniit ia given in Woodes Rog«n' Voyage, in 
Baraga GoUection. 


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San Buenaventura, therefore, is, at present, a village of no importance, but 
may rapidly increase, if, conformably to a plan which has recently been suggested, 
it be removed to the N.£. of its present site. The place where it is proposed to 
make the new port being rather elevated, is consequently drier. 

To the advantages which all the ports of the Pacific possess, the bay of San 
Buenaventura joins a considerable extent and depth of water. The bottom is 
excellent, and ships of war can enter and remain at anchor without danger. The 
entrance is to the W.S.W. of Kascakral, whereas the mouth of the Dagua* is to 
the S.E. of the same point. This is not the only river which empties itself into 
it. The port depends on the imperfectly known district of Choc6.t 

The Dagua was descended by Mollien, bat with some difficulties. High up it 
is rapid and precipitous. As it approaches its mouth it has attained its level, and 
flows sluggishly through low and marshy banks, but without a bar at its mouth, 
into the bay. 

The River Chinquiquira falls into the Bay of Cascajal, in San Buenaventura. 
The Cascajal may be ascended in boats for four or five days' journey from its 
mouth ; sometimes the current is very strong, and running over a rocky bottom, 
it forms rapids and cascades. An account of the ascent to the gold washings, 
with the productions, the picturesque appearance, and the scanty inhabitants 
of the river banks, is given by Capt. Gabriel Lafond, Bull, de la Society de 
G6ographie, March, 1839, pp. 121—143. 

Malpelo Island, in lat 4° N., Ion. 81^ 32' W., lies oflP Buenaventura Bay, 
but as it scarcely belongs to the coast, though it serves as a useful landmark, 
being. 1 ,200 feet high, we shall describe it among the islands hereafter. 

CAPE CORRIENTES, in lat. 5° 33' N., Ion. 77° 29' 30" W., is the next 
point we know anything about. 

Cape Corrientes, according to Dampier, is high, blu£P land, with three or four 
small hillocks on the top, and appears, at a distance, like an island. Here, 
also, in indication of its name, he found a strong current setting to the North; 
and the day after he passed the cape, going towards Panamd, he saw a small 
white island, which he chased, supposing it to be a sail, till he discovered his 
error on approaching it.t 

TUPICA lies to the northward of this. It has been the subject of very great 
uncertainty in its geographical situation, and even in its name. It is called in 
some works '' Cupica ;" but the Indian pronunciation, obtained during the late 
Admiralty surveys, is as given, " Tupica." 

This uncertainty as to its position will appear less strange if it is remembered 
that on the whole of the South coast of the Isthmus of Panamd, and the littoral 
between Capes Charambira and San Francisco, is never sailed along within sight 
of land by seamen provided with accurate instruments. Tupica is a port of the 
little-known province of Biruquete, that the charts of the Deposito Hydrografico 
of Madrid place between Darien and Choc6 de Norte. The province takes its 

* The ancient Pramnda, or rather Partiro del Raaposo, comprehends the unhealthy district 
extending from the lUo Dagoa, or San Bnensventara, to the Rio Iscoand^, the soathem limit of 
Choc6 Proper. 

t Voyage dans la Colombie, par Q. Mollien, 1834, p. 813. t Vol. I. p. 174. 


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name from that of a cacique named Biru, or Biruqneta, who reigned in the country 
around the Gulf of San Miguel, and who fought as an ally of the Spaniards. 
— (Herrera, dec, vol. ii. p. 8.)* 

The environs of the Bay of Tupica abound with excellent timber, fit to be 
carried to Lima ; but this advantage, which in other places would be no ordinary 
one, is here of no importance, seeing that it only shares it with so many other 
equally neglected ports. 

This bay has been of some celebrity, in consequence of its being one of the 
points proposed for the junction of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, as mentioned 
belowf respecting the San Juan. The junction was to be effected by means 
of the Niapippi River, which flows into the Atrato just below Citera, according to 
Capt. Cochrane, and not 180 miles below, as it is laid down in the best maps. 
The Atrato is navigable, and flows into the Gulf of Darien in the Caribbean sea. 

The Niapippi is partly navigable, but the navigation is very dangerous, and 
unfitted for commerce ; according to the information given to Capt Cochrane 
by Major Alvarez, a Colombian officer, as to forming a canal or railroad, 
it is impossible. Major Alvarez, who travelled over it to Panamd, found the 
Niapippi shallow, rapid, and rocky ; that the land carrii^ to Tupica was over 
three sets of hills ; and that he could perceive no possibility of making a com* 
munication between this river and the Pacific. It must, therefore, be inferred, 
that the Baron Humboldt (who did not visit this spot himself) was misinformed 
on the subject, t 

The following is the general account of the matter as given by Humboldt in 
his Relation Historique, tome i. : — 

''A monk of great activity, padre of a village near Novita, employed his 
parishioners to dig a small canal on the Quebrada de la Raspadura, which is a 
branch of the San Juan ; by means of which, when the rains are abundant, canoes 
laden with cacao pass from sea to sea. This interior communication has existed 
since 1788, unknown in Europe. The small Canal of Raspadura unites, on the 
coasts of the two oceans, two points 76 leagues distant from one another," — 

This communication can never become of great utility, from its distance, and 
the brief season of the year in which it is practicable. M. Gogueneche, a very 
intelligent Biscayan pilot, is said to have been the first who turned the attention 
of the government to this part for communicating between the oceans. An 

* See Account of Colombia, vol. i. The allusion to Biru, or Bimqueta, has been before 
noticed, as giying the name to the region now called " Peru."— See page 137, ante. 

f The communication between the Paciflo and the Gulf of Mexico might be formed by the 
junction of the upper parts of the rivers San Juan and Atrato which falls into the Gulf of Darien. 

The Junction would be between the Tarobo of San Pablo, on the San Juan, and the Tambo of 
Citera, on the Atrato. Capt. C. S. Cochrane thus speaks of it : — " After an hour's travelling I 
came to the rising ground that divides this stream from the one on the Citera side. I particularly 
inspected it, and found the distance firom one stream to the other to be about 400 yajnls, and tlie 
height of the gpround necessary to be cut through about 70 feet ; but after digging a very few feet 
you come to the solid rock, which would make the undertaking expensive ; besides which, it 
would be neceasary to deepen each stream ibr about a league, so that I think the least cost would 
be 600,000 doUan to make a good communication from the Atrato to the San Juan."— Coeftrone, 
vol. ii. p. 481 ; but it never can become serviceable for reasons stated above. 

X Cochrane, vol. ii. p. 448. 


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Englishman, also, is among the competitors for augmenting this plan. We shall 
give the whole in a subsequent chapter. 

PORT PINAS is the next point to the northward, and of it we find in Dampier 
the following : — 

" Puerto Pinas is named from the numerous pine trees growing there. The land 
is tolerably high, rising gently as it runs into the country. Near the sea it is all 
covered with high woods. The land which bounds the harbour is low in the 
middle, but high and rocky on both sides. At the mouth of the harbour there 
are two small islands, or rather barren rocks. In the Spanish pilot books this is 
recommended for a good harbour ; but it lies open to the S.W. winds, which 
frequently blow here in the wet season." Besides this, he says that within the 
islands it is of small extent, and has a narrow entrance. He did not enter with 
his ship, but sent his boats, and they found a good stream of water, but they could 
not fill them, on account of the great swell which rolled into the harbour. — 
(March, 1685.)* 


according to the imperfect charts hitherto published, is about 100 miles wide, 
between the Gulf of San Miguel on the East, and Point Mala on the West. 
The city of Panama, now again rising into importance, is at the head of this 
extensive space, 60 or 70 miles within the arms of its opening. For the greater 
part of the bay we have only the Spanish charts, but the immediate vicinity of 
the city has been surveyed and published by the English Admiralty ; of this 
part, therefore, we possess now an accurate knowledge — of other portions less 
so. As in the parts we have just described, Dampier is our great authority. We 
extract the description of the climate given in his Collection : — 

" The weather is much the same here as in other places in the torrid zone in 
this latitude, but inclining rather to the wet extreme. The season of rains begins 
in April or May ; and during the months of June, July, and August, the rains are 
very violent. It is very hot, also, about this time, wherever the sun breaks out 
of a cloud ; for the air is then very sultry, because then usually there are no 
breezes to fan and cool it, but it is all glowing hot. About September the rains 
begin to abate, but 'tis November or December, and, it may be, part of January, 
ere they are quite gone ; so that 'tis a very wet country, and has rains for two- 
thirds, if not three-quarters, of a year. Their first coming is after the manner of 
our sudden April showers, or hasty thunder-showers, once in n day at first; after 
this, two or three in a day ; at length a shower almost every hour, and frequently 
accompanied by violent thunder and lightning, during which time the air has 
often a faint sulphureous smell, when pent up among the woods. 

" After this variable weather for about four or six weeks, there will be settled 
continued rains of several days and nights, without thunder and lightning, but 
exceeding vehement, considering the length of them ; yet at intervals between 
these, even in the wettest of the season, there will be several fair days, intermixed 
with only tornadoes or thunder-showers, and that sometimes for a week together. 

• Dampier, vol. i. p. 198. 
2 E 


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These thunder-showers cause, usually, a sensible wind, by the clouds pressings 
the atmosphere, which is very refreshing, and moderates the heat. But then this 
wind shaking the trees of this continued forest, their dropping is as troublesome 
as the rain itself. When the shower is over, you shall hear a great way together 
the croaking of frogs and toads, the humming of moskito» or guats, and the 
hissing or shrieking of snakes and other insects, loud and unpleasant, some like 
the quacking of ducks. The moskitos chiefly infest the low swampy or mangrove 
lands, near the rivers or seas ; but, however, this country is not so pestered with 
that uneasy vermin as many other of the warm countries are. When the rains 
fall among the woods, they make a hollow or rattling sound ; but the floods 
caused by them often bear down the trees. These will often barricade and dam 
up the river, till 'tis cleared by another flood that shall set the trees all afloat 
again. Sometimes, also, the floods run over a broad plain, and for the time 
make it all like one great lake. The coolest time here is about our Christmas, 
when the fair weather is coming on."* 

POINT GARACHINA, which may be taken as the S.E. limit of Panama 
Bay, Dampier says is tolerably high land, rocky, and destitute of trees, but 
within land it is woody. It is surrounded by rocks seaward ; within the point 
by the sea, at low water, there are abundance of oysters and mussels. The tide 
rises here 8 or 9 feet ; the flood sete N.N.E., the ebb S.S.W.f 

The Gulf of San Miguel occupies the S.E. side of the Bay of Panama, and 
its entrance lies between Point Garachina on the South and Point San Lorenzo, or 
Point Brava, as it is named in the chart. This cape is unimportant, and has shoal 
water extending for several miles to the South of it. It is the outlet of several 
rivers, the principal of which are the Sambo, the Sta. Maria, and the Congo. 

The Sambo (or Sambu) River seems to be considerable, according to Dampier's 
account. It falls into the gulf a few miles to the East of Point Garachina, on 
the South side. We copy his further account. 

** Between the mouths of these two rivers, on either side, the gulf runs in 
towards the land somewhat narrower ; and makes five or six small islands, which 
are clothed with great trees, green and flourishing all tlie year, and good chan- 
nels between the islands. Beyond which, further in still, the shore on each side 
closes so near, with two points of mangrove land, as to make a narrow or strait 
scarce half a mile wide. This serves as a mouth or entrance to the inner part of 
the gulf, which is a deep bay, 2 or 3 leagues over every way ; and about the East 
end thereof are the mouths of several rivers, the chief of which is that of Santa 
Maria. There are many outlets or creeks besides this narrow place, but none 
navigable besides that. This is the way that the privateers have generally taken, 
as the nearest between the North and South seas. The River Santa Maria is the 
largest of all the rivers of this gulf. It is navigable 8 or 9 leagues up, for so high 
the tide flows. Beyond that place the river is divided into many branches, which 
are only fit for canoes. The tide rises and falls in this river about 18 feet/'t 

In Wafer's description of the Isthmus is also an account of this gulf. The 

• Prom Mr. Lioael Wafer's deeertption of tlie Isthmiui of America, given in Dampier*8 Col- 
lection, vol. ill. pp. 814-15. t Dampier, vol. i. pp. 174, 198. 

X Dampier, vol. i. p. 194. '' About 6 leagues from the river's month, on the South side of it, 
the Spaniards, about 20 years ago, upon the first discovery of the gold mines here, built the town 


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country all about here is woody and low, and very unhealthy, the rivers being so 
oazy that the stinking mud infects the air. But the little village of Scuchadero 
lies on the right side of the River of Santa Maria, near the mouth of it; it is 
seated on a fast rising ground, open to the Gulf of St. Michael, and admitting 
fresh breezes from the sea, so that it is pretty healthy, and serves as a place 
of refreshment for the mines, and has a fine rivulet of very sweet water, whereas 
those rivers are brackish for a considerable way up the country. 

'' Between Scuchadero and Cape San Lorenzo, which makes the North side of 
the Gulf of St. Michael, the River of Congo falls into the gulf; which river is 
made up of many rivulets that fall from the neighbouring hills, and join into one 
stream. The mouth of it is muddy, and bare for a great way at low water, 
unless just in the depth of the channel; and it affords little entertainment for 
shipping. But further in the river is deep enough ; so that ships coming in at 
high water might find it a very good harbour, if they had any business here. 
The gulf itself hath several islands in it ; and up and down, in and about them, 
there is in many places good, very good, riding, for the most part in oazy ground. 
The islands, also, especially those toward the mouth, make a good shelter ; and 
the gulf hath room enough for a multitude of ships. The sides are everywhere 
surrounded with mangroves, growing in swampy land. 

^^ North of this gulf is a small creek, and the land between these is partly such 
mangrove land as the other, and partly sandy bays. From thence the land runs 
further on North, but gently bending to the West ; and this coast also is much 
such a mixture of mangrove land and sandy bay quite to the River Cheapo ; and 
in many places there are sholes for a mile or half a mile off at sea. In several 
parts of this coast, at about 5 or 6 miles' distance from the shore, there are small 
hills, and the whole country is covered with woods. I know but one river worth 
observing between Congo and Cheapo ; yet there are many creeks and outlets ; 
but no fresh water that I know of, in any part of this coast, in the dry season ; 
for the stagnancies and declivities of the ground, and the very droppings of the 
trees, in the wet season, afford water enough. 

'' Cheapo is a considerable river, but has no good entering into it for sholes. 
Its course is long, rising near the North Sea, and pretty far towards the East. 
About this river the country something changes its face, being savannah on the 
West side, though the East side is woodland as the other. 

'^ Between the River of Cheapo and Panamd, further West, are three rivers of 
no great consequence, lying open to the sea. The land between is low, even land, 
most of it dry, and covered here and there by the sea, with short bushes." — 
(Dampier's Collection, vol. iii. pp. 309 — 311.) 

ChepiUOf or Chepelio, is the pleasantest island in the Bay of Panamd. It is 

of Santa Maria. This town was taken by Captains Goxon, Harris, and Shaq), at their entrance 
into these seas, it being then bnt newly built." — Dampiar. In the third volume of his Collection, 
which as far as modem observation has followed the narratives may be implicitly relied on for 
accuracy, there is an account of an expedition in 1702, to these same mines of Santa Maria, 
related by Nathaniel Davis. This, as well as the others, is very interesting, and evidently 
faithful. See Dampier's CoUection, 1729, vol. iii. p. 461, to the end. Dampier mentions, also, 
the great quantity of gold extracted from the mines, by means of slaves, under the Spaniards. 
After these baccaneering expeditions these towns were deserted. 


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8 leagues from Panam^, and a league off shore. The island is about a mile long 
and nearly as broad. It is low on the North side, and rises by a gentle ascent 
toward the South. It was planted with excellent fruits, the centre growing good 
plantains. The anchorage is on the North side, and is good about half a mile 
from shore. There was a well close by the sea in this neighbourhood. The 
island lies off the mouth of the River Cheapo.* 

In the eastern part of the bay is a group of islands, called sometimes the 
Islas del Rey, or King's Islands^ and also the Pearl Islands ; but Dampier says, 
*' I cannot imagine wherefore they are called so, for I did never see one pearl 
oyster about them, nor any pearl oyster-shells ; but on the other oysters I have 
made many a meal there." 

The Ylas del Rey (now the Islands of Columbia) cover about 400 square 
miles, and comprise numerous islets, and probably 30 or 40 fishing villages. 
At Casalla, Capt. Sir Edward Belcher witnessed the pearl fishing carried on at 
these islands in full activity. The quantity of pearls estimated at the season is 
about two gallons. Capt. Belcher describes the mode and state of the diving 
trade he witnessed in October, 1838. 

The principal of these b Isla del Rey, which is about 17 miles long by 10 in its 
greatest breadth. To the West of this are San Jos6 and Pedro Gonzales^ and 
to the northward of it are a group of several, of which Pachea^ or Pacheca 
(Pacheque), is the northernmost; it is small, and 33 miles S.E. of Panamd. On 
the South side of it there are two or three small islands, leaving a very narrow, 
but clear, channel between them and Pacheque. Dampier says, the southernmost 
of the group is called St. Paul's ; but the chart does not notice this. He says, 
at the S.E. end of the islands, about a league from St. Paul's, there is a good 
place for ships to careen or haul ashore. It is surrounded with the land, and 
has a good, deep channel on the North side to enter by. The tide rises here 
about 10 feet. 

The islands are low and woody, and the soil fertile, but not much cultivated. 
Between them the channels are narrow and deep, but only fit for boats to pass. 
They are pleasant in appearance from their flourishing verdure. 

Between the South end of Isla del Rey and Point Garachina is Galera Island, 
small, low, and barren ; S.W. from it extends a shoal for some miles. Six miles 
S.E. of this island is the San JosS Bank, according to the chart, having 32 feet 
of water on it, and is 15 miles W.N.W, of Point Garachina. 

The channel between these islands and the main on the East is clear and deep, 
having good anchorage all the way.f 


This place is much more familiar in Europe than its own present importance 
would warrant ; this arises from its being the nearest point of approach between 
the two great oceans, and therefore it has been more minutely examined than 
other more commercial parts, for the purpose of effecting some means of com- 
munication between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific, which scheme seems 

• Dampier, vol. i. pp. 202—204. t Dampier, toI. i. pp. 176—177. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

PANAMA. 213 

to be in some prospect of realization since the ^reat accession of interests to the 
country of California to the N.W. In former times, during the Spanish domina- 
tion, it was a place of great commerce and strength. This arose from the policy 
pursued by that government in restricting the transit of merchandise from and to 
Mexico and Peru and Europe to this port; and down to 1824 Panama was the 
highway between Spain and her colonies on the Pacific. But the downfall of the 
Spanish power, combined with the trade opened by British ships passing around 
Cape Horn, has been the destruction of the prosperity of Panam4. 

The Isthmus between Panamd and Chagres was surveyed by Mr. J. A. Lloyd, 
F.R.S., in 1827 and 1828 ; and from his description we extract the following: — 

" The site of Panam& has been once changed. Where the old city stood, which 
is about 3 miles East of the present situation, was already, when the Spaniards 
first reached it in 1515,* occupied by an Indian population, attracted to it by 
the abundance of fish on the coast, and who are said to have named it * Panam&' 
from this circumstance, the word signifying much fish. They were, however, 
speedily dispossessed, and even so early as in 1521, the title and privileges of a 
city were conferred on the Spanish town by the emperor Charles the Fifth. In 
the year 1670 it was sacked and reduced to ashes by the buccaneer Morgan; 
and it was only after this built where it now stands. 

" Its present position is in lat. 8^ 57' N., Ion. 79° 31' W., on a tongue of land, 
shaped nearly like a spear-head, extending a considerable distance out to sea, 
and gradually swelling towards the middle* Its harbour is protected by a number 
of islands, a little way from the main land, some of which are of considerable 
size, and highly cultivated. There is good anchorage under them all, and 
supplies of ordinary kinds, including excellent water, may be obtained from 
most of them. 

'^ The plan of this city is not strictly regular ; but the principal streets extend 
across the peninsula from sea to sea ; and a current of air is thus preserved, and 
more cleanliness than is usually found in the Spanish-American towns. The 
fortifications are also irregular, and not strong, though the walls are high, the 
bastions having been constructed from time to time as the menaces of pirates, 
or other enemies^ have suggested. The buildings are of stone, generally most 
substantial, and the larger with courts or patios. The style is the old Spanish. 
Of public edifices there are a beautiful cathedral ; four convents (now nearly 
deserted), belonging respectively to the Dominican, Augustin, Franciscan, and 
Mercenaries monks ; a nunnery of Sta. Clara ; a college de la Campania, and 
also the walls of another (the Jesuits' college), which was begun on a magnificent 
scale, but was never finished, and is now falling into ruin8."t 

Capt. Basil Hall, who visited it a few years previous to Mr. Lloyd, says that 
the finest ruin at Panamd is that of the Jesuits' college, a large and beautiful 
edifice, which, however, was never finished ; yet the melancholy interest which 
it inspires is rather augmented than diminished by that circumstance; for it 

* " Nata, on the West side of the Bay of Panami, was the first town built by the Spaniards 
on the coast of the South Sea. It was founded in 1617. The following year they established 
themseWes at Pwaamk.*'—Herrera, Hiitoria de Uts Indias Oeeidentala, dec. 2, lib. iv. chap. 1, 

t Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. i. pp. 86-6. 


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reminds us not only of the destruction of the great order which founded it, but 
also of the total decay of Spanish taste and wealth which accompanied that 
event. The college is a large quadrangular building, which had been carried 
to the height of two stories, and was probably to have been surmounted by a 
third. .... In a field a little beyond the square, on the side opposite 
the college, stand the remains of a church and convent, which is reached, not 
without difficulty, by wading, breast high, through a field of weeds and flowers, 

which in this climate shoot up with wonderful quickness In some 

districts of the town of Panamd whole streets are allowed to fall into neglect, 
grass has grown over most parts of the pavement, and even the military works 
are crumbling fast to decay. Everything, in short, tells the same lamentable 
story of former splendour and of present poverty.* 

Although this has been written for twenty years, yet the remarks hold good 
to the time just previous to the California attractions, which, necessarily, have 
occasioned great changes in its position. A writer in July, 1848, says : — 

'' Panami is indeed a city of ruins, and a feeling of melancholy is excited on 
contrasting it with what it once was. It stands on an area of about 12 acres, 
entirely surrounded by fortifications, the sea wall of which is in the best state, 
but even that in many places fallen away.i Only in one part on the land side 
to the N.W. have I seen any symptoms of repairing. The ditch and walls 
luxuriant with weeds, and grass not uncommon in the streets. On the S.£. 
bastion there are a few beautiful brass guns, three only mounted, but the carriages 
in such a state that I doubt much their standing a couple of rounds. Should a 
war ever take place (which Grod forbid !) Panami would certainly be a place worth 
having (even if only in trust for the present possessors), from its being the key 
to the Pacific. The country around is beautiful, and capable of producing 
everything : that is, as far as I am capable of judging, and comparing the soil 
with other countries well known as fertile. 

** On the morning of the 24th July, 1848, I saw a sight which certainly raised 
feelings of pride at being an Englishman, and knowing that all before me was 
going to my home. Before the house of the British Consulate were upwards of 
one hundred and twenty mules loading with upwards of half a million of treasure, 
which had been landed the day before from the steamer just arrived from the 
ports between Valparaiso and this. It is to be shipped at Chagres on board the 
Royal Mail steamer for England, which I certainly think the best and quickest 
mode of transmitting specie, instead of by Cape Horn ; and when steamboats 
from the northward are running more will go this way. The quantity has been 
gradually increasing, commencing about 16 months ago with 16,000 dollars. 

'' As far as I have seen and can learn from others, the arrangements are 
perfect, and now only want the road between Cruces and Panami widened and 

• Extracts from a Journal, &c, part ii. chap. 40. 

t "There U every iteusility for erecting a substantial pier, and improving the inner anchorage, 
which must follow the arrival of the steamers, unless they still submit to the miserable landing 
at the seaport gate, which is as filthy as it is inconvenient. Panamfi. affords the usual supplies 
which are to be obtained in these tropical regions, and at moderate prices; but vessels wishing 
tx> procure water, bullocks, &c., can obtain them more readily at the Island of Taboga/'— <9f> E, 
Belcher, Voyage of the Sulphur, vol. i. pp. Sd-4. 


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PANAMA. 215 

repaired. At present it is in a terrible state ; but still nothing to prevent a good 
mule travelling with a load of specie, which is packed in boxes or bars in hide or 
canvas, two of which are a load, when each weigh from 120 to 140 lb. 

''•At present, voyaging from Chagres to Cruces is performed in canoes. The 
large ones for one person can be made very comfortable, and in the dry season 
the voyage can be performed in a day and a half; in the wet season of course 
longer, the downward current being very strong. 

" The population of Panamd, with its suburbs, is about 6,000. What is here 
greatly wanted is capital, backed up with English energy ; and I certainly think 
the Royal Mail West India Company will reap great benefit by what they are 
about to do respecting the repair of the Cruces road ; not forgetting that thanks 
and praise are due to those who first advocated such a thing. We may then 
expect to see Panam4 in a different state from what it is now : all the ruins of 
immense convents turned into stores, with plenty throughout the land." * 

As might be expected, the California movement has effected a change in 
the fallen fortunes of Panamd. There have been some comfortable inns 
established, as is also the case at Cruces and Chagres on the Gulf of Mexico, 
called into existence by the transit of the emigrants from the United States and 
Europe to San Francisco. Between New York and Chagres, at the commencement 
of 1850, three different lines of first-class steamers were constantly plying. 
From this it may be judged that a great influx of prosperity had reached this 
deserted city, and that many of the old inhabitants, who for many years have 
been very poor, now deem themselves rich. Consequently Panamd is changing 
its appearance very much. The Americans have been buying and leasing 
property for various purposes, and rents have increased ten-fold. It was believed 
that the seat of government would be removed to Panam&, which would give it 
much additional importance. Large improvements were going on at the Island 
of Taboga, opposite the city, where the steamers lie. A steam ferry to the island 
was about to be established, and American commercial houses were beginning 
business there on a large scale. 

From Panam&, also, to San Francisco there were three lines of steamers plying 

All this sounds very differently from the old accounts. How far this sudden 
prosperity may have stability, or whether it be but ephemeral, time must unfold. t 

Immediately about Panamd, East along the coast, and N.W. from it, the land 
is low and fiat, but West and N.E. the mountains approach it closely ; and from 
a hill called Cerro Aneon, about a mile West from the city, and 540 feet high, an 
excellent bird's-eye view is obtoined of the whole adjoining country, including 
the city, the islands in the bay, the neighbouring plantations, the mountains of 
Veragua, the Pearl Islands, the flat country towards Chagres, the elevated chain 
between Porto-Bello and Panami, the Rio Grande, the low land along the coast 
towards the Pacora and Cheapo, Panamd Vieja, &c., all which come successively 
under review, and together constitute a landscape beyond measure beautiful. X 

• Naut Mag., Nov. 1848, pp. 600-10. t See Daily New., March 6, 1850. 

X Mr. Uoyd, Jonnial of the Royal Geographical Society, toL i. p. 80. 


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Panamd is celebrated for its gold chains. They are very well known for their 
beauty and peculiarly neat workmanship. One weighing about an ounce costs 
£4 8«.; and silver chains of the same kind of manufacture are to be had very 
reasonably. The Panama hat, which is a favourite wear in the country, is brought 
from Guayaquil, and costs from two to twenty dollars.* 

At 9 miles South by compass from the city is the little island of Tahoga. It is 
about 2 miles long N.W. and S.E. ; and off its S.E. end is a smaller island, 
UravOf and a rock, Terupa ; the former separated from Taboga by a narrow, 
shallow, rocky channel. 

Taboguilla lies 1 \ miles N.£. of Taboga, and is about 1 mile long. Off its 
South point is a rock called the Farallon ; and about midway between it and 
Urava, that is, three-quarters of a mile from each, is a sunken rock, having 8 to 
14 fathoms close around it. Otherwise the channel between the islands is clear, 
with a depth of 15 to 20 fathoms. These islands are important to Panami, as 
they are the gardens of the town, and supply it plentifully with fruit and vegetables. 

On the N.£. side of Taboga is a village, opposite which vessels visiting Panamd 
usually anchor, to procure water and supplies, which are not readily to be got at 
the city. ** The anchorage is in a snug cove, opposite to a romantic little village, 
the huts of which, built of wattled canes, are so completely hid by the screen of 
trees which skirts the beach, that they can scarcely be seen from the anchoring 
place, though not 200 yards off; but the walls of a neat whitewashed church, 
built on a grassy knoll, rise above the cocoa-nut trees, and disclose the situation 
of the village. The stream, from which vessels fill their water casks, is nearly 
as invisible as the houses; the whole island, indeed, is so thickly wooded with 
shrubs, tamarind, plantain, and cocoa-nut trees, and thick grass, that nothing 
can at first be discovered but a solid mass of brilliant foliage." 

There is a watering place on each side of the village, but which are not seen 
until you land ; that on the S.K side is the largest stream, and at night runs 
clear and constant, but in the day time it is liable to be contaminated by washing 
operations ; the other, to the northward, though smaller, lies more out of the 

** As the days were intolerably hot, I determined to water the ship by night ; 
and she was accordingly moored as close to the shore as possible. The sea in 
this corner of the cove being quite smooth, the boats rowed to and fro all night 
with perfect ease ; and the moon being only one day short of the full, afforded 
ample light to work by. The casks were rolled along a path, to the side of a 
natural basin, which received the stream as it leaped over the edge of a rock, 
closely shrouded by creepers and flowers interlaid into one another, and forming a 
cauopy over the pool, from which our people lifted out the water with buckets. 
This spot was only lighted by a few chance rays of the moon, which found their 
way through the broken screen of cocoa-nut leaves, and chequered the ground 
here and there. Through a long avenue in the woods, we could just discover the 
village, with many groups of the inhabitants sleeping before their doors, on mats 

* Mr. Webster, Narrative of the Voyage of the Chantideer, vol. ii. p. 156. 


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PANAMA. 217 

spread in the moonlight. The scene was tranquil and beautiful, and in the 
highest degree characteristic of the climate and country. 

'' Here we procured various kinds of tropical fruits, together with a supply of 
yams, fowls, and vegetables, and fodder for the oxen. 

" The town of Panamd is supplied from these and the neighbouring islands with 
the last-mentioned articles."— (Capt. Basil Hall.) 

The coast of the main land to the North of Taboga, or to the S.W. of 
Panamdy cannot be approached to within If miles, on account of the shoal 
water which extends that distance off. On the edge of these shallow soundings 
are several small islands. Those nearest to the city are PericOf Ilenaoy and 
CulebrUy which are connected with each other, and San Jose outside of them- 
These are from 2 to 3 miles from the city. S.W. of them are the Pulberia Reefs^ 
and Chavgami Islet upon them ; and still farther, in the same direction, are the 
Islets of Tortola and Toriolita. Within these islands a vessel ought not to 
entangle herself. 

At 1 J miles nearly East of the city is a large bank, nearly dry at low water. It 
is of some extent, and should be carefully avoided.* To the South of it is the 

The Bc^'a de Afuera, according to the observations of M. Fisquet, in the French 
corvette La Danatde^ in 1843, is 2f miles £. by S. from the East point of the 
fortification of Panami. It has only 12 feet water on it, and is surrounded by a 
depth of 4| to 5 fathoms. 

These are the principal features of the environs and city of Panamd, which 
may, at some future day, assume its former importance, though it must necessarily 
be upon a very different basis.f 

The notices relative to the proposed communications to be effected by railroad 
or canal between the two oceans, will be given in a subsequent chapter, as stated 
with respect to the Atrato and San Juan rivers (page 208), when these con- 
siderations will be united under one head. 

To Capt. Basil Hall's Directions we are indebted for the following instruc- 
tions for Panamd. Tliey are extracted from Lieut. Foster's Memoir : — 

'^ It is recommended when going to Panamd, either from the northward or 

* " H.M.S. ActiBon, in working into the Bay of Panam&, December 26, 1840, grounded on this 
hank, called the Condaeh, not laid down in the charts at that time, with the following bearings : — 
Panam6 cathedral, W. by S. ; the outer Penco Island, S.S.W. i W. The ship took the ground from 
4§ fathoms, payed off before the wind, and in ten minutes was again afloat. The upper part of 
Panam6 Bay, off the town, has Tery shoal water ; and as there is no good survey yet made of it, a 
measure so highly desirable in these days of steam navigation, vessels are recommended not to 
make too free in standing in-shore." — Naut. Mag., Nov. 1841, p. 781. Of course these remarks 
are now obviated by tbe excellent survey made by Sir Edw. Belcher, in 1837. 

t In the Colombian cong^ress of 1833, an ezclusife privilege was granted to Messrs. Rundell, 
Bridge, and Rundell, the well-known goldsmiths of London, to flsh for pearl oysters, with 
machinery, on certain parts of the Colombian coast. Ttiere were three places : one about the 
mouths of the Orinoco and Gumana, including Margarita ; a second, on the coast of the Rio 
Hacha ; and the third was in the Bay of Panamfi. The stipulations were, ceding one-filth of 
the pearls procured to the government, and, at the expiration of ten years, their monopoly and 
the machinery were to revert to the government. They consequently formed a company, called 
the Colombian Pearl Fishery Association, which despatched one ship to the Pacific, provided with 
diving bells ; but their machinery did not answer the expectation. See Present State of Colombia, 
18S7, p. 324 ; and Colombia in its Present State, by Col. Francis Hall, 1824. 

2 F 


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southward, to get hold of the eastern shore, and work up along it, as the 
preyailing wind is from the N.N.W. in the day time. North and N.N.E. in the 
night, which enables a vessel to make a long stretch to the W.N.W. in smooth 
water, whereas it would be a dead beat to windward between the Isia del Rey 
and the western shore, independently of the drain of current out and a short 
rough sea. 

** In the Spanish surreys of this bay, there is a bank extending 8 miles to the 
S.E. from the Island of Galera, on which the least water marked is 8 Spanish 
fathoms, and we were informed that there was not less. 

*' When working up this side, it may be advisable not to stand in-shore on the 
main side to less than 6 fathoms, as there is a bank laid down off it at the distance 
of 4 miles, but we were told that the water gradually shoaled to it. 

^' If the wind proves light, and the small islands lying to the northward of 
the Isla del Rey have not been seen, and night coming on, it would be well to 
anchor, and not to run in in the night time, unless it were moonlight, before being 
satisfied on this head. 

'< Anchorage of H.M.S. Conway in 3j| fathoms, muddy bottom, with the 
cathedral N. J W. ; tower of old Panamd Castle, N. by E. } £. ; a detached 
rock lying off the Island of Penco, S.S.E. | E. (by compass). 

'' The flood tide appears to set to the W.N.W., and the ebb to the S.S.E. ; but 
the current was so slight, that the direction of either tide is uncertain. The rise, 
as got by means of the lead alongside of the ship, appeared to be between 1 1 and 
12 feety and the time of high water about two hours. 

** Supplies of fresh beef and live oxen are obtained here in plenty ; from the 
inconvenient distance that ships lie off the town, watering is rendered somewhat 
troublesome, and it is seldom done, since such facilities are found at the Island 
of Taboga, which lies between 8 and 9 miles to the southward, and directly in the 
way out from this anchorage." 

For the next we are favoured by a communication from Mr. Jeffery, R.N. : — 

''At the bottom of the bay the land is rather high and irregular; the town 
lies on a low point under a high bluff, and in making it the first objects to be 
seen are two white spires. To the right, for a considerable distance, the land 
is low, and covered with trees ; the low land should not be approached nearer 
than 6 miles. To the southward is a considerable number of islands, they are 
also covered with trees. Sailing up the bay with a fair wind, keep the islands 
close on board ; and after making the town keep well to the southward, as there 
are two rocks, one bearing E. by S. (true), 3 miles from the cathedral, and the 
other E. J S., 2J miles from the town. The difficulty of obtaining water is very 
great, it being on the Island of Taboga, 8 miles from the town ; but you may 
anchor close in under the island in 8 fathoms, abreast a small village, nearly hid 
in cocoa-nut trees, with a small church to the right ; here is an excellent stream, 
and you can obtain almost every tropical fruit, and plenty of yams. The fiood 
tide sets right into the bay, and very strong ; the ebb sets irom the town, towards 
Ileiiao, and out between Taboga and the Isla del Rey ; at neap it rises 10 or 12 
feet, and considerably more at springs." 


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According to the observations of Capt. Sir Edw. Belcher, in H.M.S. Sulphur, 
the N.K bastion of Panamd is in lat. 8° 5& 56" N., Ion. 79° 31' 12" W. The 
variation, in 1837, was 7° 15' E. High water at full and change at 3^ 23'; 
greatest rise 22 feet. 

Otoque, an island in the West part of Panamd Bay, is, or was, inhabited, and 
produced some provisions, as hogs, fowls, and plantains. It lies 14 miles South 
of the more important island of Taboga. 

The S.W. point of Panarod Bay is Point Mala, in lat. 7° 25', Ion. 80° 2'; we 
have no particulars of it. The land here forms a peninsula, the West point of 
which is Cape Mariato. Between them is the Morro de Puercos, a high round 
hill. According to Dampier (vol. i. p. 211), there are on this coast many rivers 
and creeks, but none so large as those on the South side of the bay. It is a 
coast that is partly mountainous, partly low land, and very thick woods bordering 
on the sea ; but a few leagues within land it consists mostly of savannahs, which 
are stocked with bulls and cows. The rivers on this side are not wholly destitute 
of gold, though not so rich as the rivers on the other side of the bay. The coast 
is but thinly inhabited, for except the. rivers that lead up to the towns of Nata 
and Lavelia, I know of no other settlement between Panam4 and Puebla Nueva. 

Montijo Bay and the Islands of Cebaco lie between Punta Marrato and Quibo 
Island, but we have no particulars of them. 

QUIBO ISLAND has been surveyed by Lieut.-Com. J. Wood, R.N. (1848). 
From his plan it appears that the island has the form of an irregular crescent, 
19 miles in length, North to South, or from lat, 7° 13' 15" N. to 7° 32' 15" N. Its 
breadth is from 5 to 8 miles on an average ; the convexity facing the West. 

The principal anchorage, Datnas Bay^ is on the S.£. side ; on its southern part 
rocky shoals extend for nearly a mile, and off the mouth of the little river San 
Juan, which falls into the bottom of the bay, there are some sandy flats. The 
watering place is in the North part of the bay, which is about 7 miles wide 
between its outer points. 

Off its S.W. side are the smaller islands of Hicaron (Quicara of Bauza and 
Malaspina, and all others) and Hicarita ; together they are about 5 miles in 
length, North and South. Hicaron is irregular in its surface, the highest hill, on 
the East side, is 830 feet high. Its N.E. point is called David Point ; and off its 
N.W. point some rocks and rocky shoals extend for three-quarters of a mile in 
all directions, and should be avoided. Colnett says that the smallest island is 
entirely covered with cocoa trees ; and the larger one bears an equal appearance 
of leafy verdure, but very few of the trees which produce it are of the cocoa kind. 

The channel between Hicaron and Quibo, 4 miles in breadth, is clear, the 
depth being irregular, from 6 and 7 to 20 fathoms ; but to the eastward, off the 
South end of Quibo, are some outlying rocks, which must be very dangerous to 
ships attempting to pass between the two islands. The most to be avoided is the 
Hill Rocky a very small detached knoll of only 6 feet, with 9 to 15 fathoms 
close around it. It bears about true East 5} miles from David Point, and 2 
miles South from Barca Island, a small islet half a mile off the shore of Quibo. 

To the eastward of this latter, the shoal water extends for some distance off 
shore, as far as and around Negada Point, the S.E. point of Quibo. 


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Off the N.E. point are several smaller islands, the largest of which, Ranekeriay is 
1 J miles long, and the same distance off the shore of Quibo. At 4^ miles beyond 
this, or to the N.E., are the Islands of Afuera and Afueritay* the channel between 
being quite clear, from 40 to 70 fathoms depth. All the West coast of the island, 
round to Hicaron Island, appears bold-to, and free from any outlying danger. 

In former times, when the system of reprisals against the Spaniards was so 
vigorously pursued by the buccaneers and ships of war sent by England, as related 
by Dam pier, Woodes Rogers, Lord Anson, and others, Quibo was a point of very 
considerable importance, as affording means of shelter, and also water, near to 
the principal field of action against the Spanish galleons. In the account of Com- 
modore Anson's voyage, the whole island is described to be of a very moderate 
height, excepting one part of it (near the N.E. end), and its surface covered 
with a continual wood, which preserves its verdure all the year round. Tigers, 
deer, venomous snakes, monkeys, and iguanas exist upon the island, a statement 
repeated by Capt. Colnett (1794). In the surrounding sea, alligators, sharks, 
sea-snakes, and the gigantic ray abound. Pearl oysters, which attracted the 
pearl fishers from Panami, were also to be gathered from the surrounding rocks, 
and the huts of these men and the heaps of shells still existed at Colnett's visit. 
On the N.E. part of the island, Anson describes a cascade of very great natural 
beauty, a river of clear water, about 40 yards wide, rolling down a rocky declivity 
of near 150 in length. 

Capt. Ck>lnett, who was here, as before stated, in February, 1794, anchored in 
Damas Bay (Port de Dames) in 19 fathoms, the North point of the bay in a line 
with the North point of Cebaco Isle, bearing N.N.E., the watering place N.W., 
and the South point of Quibo S.E. by S. He says : — '^ Quibo is the most com- 
modious place for cruisers of any I had seen in these seas, as all parts of it 
furnish plenty of wood and water. The rivulet from whence we collected our 
stock was about 12 feet in breadth, and we might have got timber for any purpose 
for which it could have been wanted. There are trees of the cedar kind a suffi- 
cient size to form masts of a ship of the first rate, and of the quality which the 
Spaniards, in their dockyards, use for every purpose of ship building, making 
masts, &c. A vessel may lay so near the shore as to haul off its water ; but the 
time of anchoring must be considered, as the flats run off a long way, and it is 
possible to be deceived in the distance. The high water, by my calculation, is at 
half-past three o'clock : at full and change the flood comes from the North, and 
returns the same way, flowing 7 hours, and ebbing 5, and the perpendicular rise 
of the tide 2 fathoms. 

'' It would not be advisable for men-of-war and armed vessels, acting upon 
the offensive or defensive, to anchor far in, as the wind throughout the day blows 
fresh from the eastward, and right on shore, so that an enemy would have a very 
great advantage over ships in such a situation. There is good anchorage through- 
out the bay, at 5 or 6 miles' distance, 33 and 35 fathoms, with a mud bottom, 
and firm holding ground. 

* These islands are called Canales and Cantarras, by Dampier, vol. i. p. 218. He says that 
Rancheria has plenty of Palma Maria trees on it ; which wood, on account of its toughness, length, 
and twisted grain, is greatly esteemed for making masts. 


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** The most commanding look-out is at the top of Quicara ; we saw it over 
Quibo (which is low and flat) whilst we lay at anchor ; and is, I presume, the 
remarkable mountain which I^rd Anson mistook for part of Quibo, as mentioned 
in his voyage. Indeed, a good look-out on the top of this island may be neces- 
sary for many obvious reasons, as it commands the whole coast and bay/'* 

To the northward of Quibo, on the main land, is the harbour of Bahia Honda^ 
in lat. 7° 45' N., Ion. 1° d(y W., and 24 miles farther to the N.N.W. is Part Puebla 
Nueva, in lat. 8° 5' N., and Ion. 81^ 41' W.f 

PUEBLA NUEVA, or SANTIAGO.— The river takes its name from a small 
village situated on the River Santiago, where the Spaniards probably 6rst appointed 
the seat of government. The port is formed by a neck or island about 3 miles 
in length, which affords good anchorage for vessels of any class* Three larger 
streams discharge themselves into the main basin, at the western end of the 
island, where the apparent great entrance is situated, but so studded with rocks 
and shoals as to be unnavigable for anything larger than boats. It is, in fact, an 
extensive archipelago, as most of the region towards the Cbirique territory will 
be found on a future examination. 

A plan was made, which will prove interesting to those who may visit this port 
for refuge or refit, but water cannot be procured in any quantity ; it may probably 
be found by digging wells. The natives were timid, and little disposed to trade. 
Their principal article is sarsaparilla, said to be of superior quality from this place. 
The stream runs fresh at some miles up. Sugar cane of good quality was offered, 
and tortoiseshell may be procured in the season. t 

BAHIA HONDA is a most capacious, safe, and convenient harbour, com- 
pletely land-locked, and perfectly adapted for refit, heaving out, &c;, there being 
no tide or current. Water was in abundance at the beach, and nothing wanting 
but a town and civilization to render it a favourite resort ; timber of every kind, 
and the best abundance. The islands at its entrance are beautifully adapted for 
defence, with but trivial labour.§ 

Montuosa Island lies 50 miles S. W. of Puebla Nueva. '* It rises to a consider- 
able height, and is 5 or 6 miles in circumference, its summit covered with trees ; 
the greater part are those which bear the cocoa-nut, which gives it a very pleasant 
appearance ; but islets and breakers extend off its East and West ends, to the 
distance of 3 or 4 miles. The bottom is rocky on the South side, as is the shore 
near the sea. There is a beach of sand behind some little creeks that run in 
between the rocks, which makes a safe landing for boats. Here we went on 
shore, and got a quantity of cocoa-nuts, with a few birds. The Spaniards or 
Indians had lately been there to fish on the reef for pearls, and had left great 
heaps of oyster shells. There were a great plenty of parrots, doves, and iguanas ; 
and it is probable that other refreshments might be obtained, of which we are 

• Colnett'8 Voyage, pp. 131—137. 

t Dampier, when at Qaibo, June, 1685, sent 150 men to take Paebla Nueva, to get proTlsiont. 
" It was in going to take this town that Capt Sawkins was killed, in 1080, who was succeeded by 
Sharp. Our men took the town with much ease, although there was more strength of men than 
when Capt. Sawkins was killed." — Dampier, toI. i. p. 213. However, they got no provisions. 

X Sir Edward Belcher's Voyage of the Sulphur, vol. 1. pp. 249-50. 

i Voyage of the StUphur, vol. i. p. 251. 


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ignorant. At all CTents, it may be useful to whalen or cruisers, by oflfering a 
place where the sick may be landed and cocoa-nuts procured, whose milk will 
supply the want of water."* 

Between Montuosa and Burica Point, the S.E. limit of the Gulf of Dulce, are 
the Ladrone Islands (Zedzones of Colnett), consisting of small barren rocks. 
Besides these, in the offing there are several islands on the coast between Point 
Mala and Point Burica, which are all covered with trees. The coast, also, in 
this interval, is high and covered with trees, and b tolerably well delineated in 
the charts, excepting a considerable error in the longitudes.f 



The country whoee southern coast is described in this chapter, includes that 
long, narrow, and irregular tract which forms the junction between the northern 
and southern contments of America. In a political sense, the divisions between 
the states on either side of it are, to the South, the River Escudo de Veragua, 
which falls into the Caribbean Sea, opposite the island of the same name,I 
separating it from the republic of New Granada, lat. 9^ N., Ion. 81^ 20' W. ; 
and on the N.W., from that of Mexico by the Rio Sintalapa, falling into the 
Pacific in Ion. 93^ 2V W. 

This territory, including an area of from 120,000 to 196,000 square miles, is 
divided into the five republican states of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, San 
Salvador, and Costa Rica. The Federal District, which is common to them, is a 
circle round the capital, San Salvador, 20 miles in diameter, with a further 
extension of 10 miles to the South, so as to include its port, the roadstead of 
libertad, on the Pacific. 

Guatemala, according to Don Domingo Juarros, derives its name from the 
word Quanhtemali (which in the Mexican language means a decayed log of wood), 
because the Mexican Indians who accompanied Alvarado found, near the court 
of the kings of Kacbiquel, an old worm-eaten tree, and gave this name to the 
capital, and afterwards it was applied by the Spaniards to the country. Some 
have derived it from U-hate-z-mal-ha, which, in the Tzendal language, meai^ '^ a 
mountain that throws out water," doubtless alluding to the Volcan de Agua, near 
the city. 

The jurisdiction of the royal chancery of Guatemala extended from the bar of 
the River Parredon, in the province of Soconusco, to the mouth of the Bonica, in 
Costa Rica.§ 

• Colnett, p. ISO. t Mr. Jeffery, n.N. X Gallndo, Jour. R. Goo. Soc., vol. tI. p. 181, 

§ Juarros, Lieut. Bailey's Translation, p. 7. 


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The N.E. coast of Guatemala, that is, the West India part, was discovered 
by Columbus in 1502. The greater portion of it was usurped by the Spaniards 
by 1524, and it was erected into a captain-generalship by the Emperor Charles V. 
in 1527. From the fact of its being only a minor state, its expenditure was on a 
less magnificent scale, and consequently comparative benefit accrued to the 
people. On the overthrow of the Spanish power, Guatemala became independent 
in 1821, and was subsequently incorporated with Mexico; but when Iturbide 
fell, it separated, and declared its independence on July 1st, 1823, adopting a 
constitution drawn up for it by Mr. Livingston, the U.S. statesman. Affairs were, 
however, far from settled, and much internal commotion continued; but all 
Spanish influence was thrown over at Omoa, September 12th, 1832. Notwith- 
standing its very great geographical importance, the resources of the country have 
hitherto been very imperfectly developed : and, according to a consular statement 
for 1843-44, *'The foreign import trade of the state of Nicaragua, and of the 
republics in general, has been greatly affected by the continuance of the internal 
commotions; nevertheless, owing to the great competition of speculators, the 
consumption of foreign manufactures increased. Indigo and cochineal suffered, 
in consequence of drought and civil war. Agriculture was making some progress 
in Costa Rica, and its superior coffee was becoming an article of export to some 
extent. Activity, also, was visible in the mining districts of Costa Rica, aided 
by English exertions."* 

Of the interior, as of its Pacific sea-coasts, our knowledge is very scanty and 
unsatisfactory ; and there are few parts of the globe accessible to our ships and 
commerce of which we are so ignorant. Some detached portions of its southern 
side have been accurately surveyed by Sir Edward Belcher, in H.M.S. Blossom, 
and we extract many isolated facts, bearing upon the subject of this present work, 
from different authors and travellers ; but we possess no continuous nautical 
description, nor does it seem possible, at present, to draw up oncf 

Mountains. — In describing the general physical features of the country, these 
naturally become the first in order, influencing as they do the rest of its surface. 

The ensuing description is that by Colonel Galindo, in the Geographical 
Journal, vol. vi. pp. 122-3. — ^The elevated range (a continuance of the Andes) 
in Central America has no determined name, and is in many parts without a visible 
existence. It commences in Costa Rica, at a distance from the Pacific of about 
one-fourth of the whole breadth of the isthmus, and, at the beginning of this 
course, separates this state from Veragua ; in Nicaragua it inclines close to the 

* Commercial Tariff8,.&e., 1847, vol. xiz. p. 330. 

t The principal anthoritiefl fiv any description of Central America are the wcrke of Padre 
Thomas Gage, an English friar, 1633, an excellent and interesting work ; that of Don Domingo 
Jnanii, a native of Guatemala, in 1780, which has been translated by Lieut. Bailey, R.M., 1823; 
Thomson's Visit to Guatemala in 1886, gires an excellent account of much of the interior; Reise 
aaar Guatenuda, 1829, by J. Haefkens, and a work by the same author, Centraal Amerika, 
1832, both useftil ; IfarTatiyes, &»., by Mr. Roberts, chiefly on the Atlantic side ; a paper 
in the Geographical Journal, yoI. tI., 1836, on Costarrica, if Colonel Don Juan Galindo (an 
EngUahman) ; Diccionario de las Indias OccidentaleB, by Col. Don A. de Alcedo; L'Isthme de 
Panami, &c., by H. Michel Chevallier; and also the important work of Capt. Sir Edward 
Belcher, the Toyage of the Stdphur. Upon ito antiquities and general information, the works of 
Dopais, Waldeck, Klngsborougfa, Rouchaud, and Dumartray, may be consulted. One of the 
most interesting is that by Mr. Stephens, who describes the ruins in Yucatan, hat who passed 
through portions of the other republics. 


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borders of the Pacific, leaymg the lakes on the East ; in Honduras it returns 
towards the Atlantic, leaving the whole state of Salvador on the South ; traversing 
Guatemala, the new city and Chimaltenango stand on the top of the ridge, which 
now becomes more elevated as it approaches Mexico, and, branching into various 
groups, forms, in the western part of the state, that region which is demonstrated 
the highlands. The population on the Pacific side of the chain is much greater 
in proportion to its extent than on the Atlantic slope. 

The chain is apparently interrupted in its course through Central America by 
the transversal valleys containing the Lake of Nicaragua and the plain of 
Comayagua, but still the elevation between the two oceans is considerable, and 
will be more dwelt upon when we describe the proposed canals, which would render 
Central America of very great importance in the commercial world, should they 
ever be carried into execution. 

The Lakes of Nicaragua and of Leon, or Managua, are among the most 
important features of the country. On the Pacific side, the rivers which are met 
with rarely have their sources above 60 miles from the sea. The Lempa is the 
principal, but is not navigable. The next in size is the Rio Choluteca, falling 
into the Bay of Conchagua. 

Although not eminently possessed of good harbours, yet it is still superior to 
Mexico in this respect. The principal on the Pacific coast are, Realejo^ Calderas, 
La Union, Libertad, Acajutla, and Istapd. 

Volcanic phenomena are frequent, and their devastating efiects have been, at 
times, very severe. The principal volcanoes now, or recently, in activity, are 
those of Coseguina, Isalco, de Agua, and de Fuego, and many others ; of these 
the Volcan de Agua is the loftiest, being differently stated as 14,895 or 12,620 
feet above the Pacific. 

The productions of Central America, before alluded to, are important. The 
Tisingal gold mines, near the Chirique Lagoon, on the Atlantic side of Costa Rica, 
have afforded as much riches as those of Potosi ; but the vegetable productions 
are of greater importance than the mineral. Of cultivated articles, cocoa, indigo, 
coffee, sugar, and cotton, are the most prominent. These crops vary with the 
height of the country. At a lower elevation than 3,000 feet, indigo, cocoa, sugar, 
and cotton are grown. Cocoa is chiefly grown along the shores of the Pacific, 
and that of Soconusco was esteemed by the Spaniards to be the best furnished by 
their American possessions. Indigo is grown in the Federal District; but is 
general throughout the country. Cochineal, or the nopal cactus, is cultivated 
between the heights of 3,000 and 5,000 feet, particularly in the neighbourhood 
of Guatemala. Of native woods, &c., abundance is produced, but principally 
refer, to West India trade.* 

The TRADE on the coast of Central America, which is almost exclusively British, 
is increasing rapidly. At Puntas Arenas, in the Gulf of Nicoya, excellent coffee 
is exported, giving occupation to between fourteen and twenty vessels, and is 
the best coffee in the Pacific ; at Realejo, dye-wood (Brasil-wood), &c. ; at La 

* ''This country is so pleasing to the eye, and abounding in all things necessary, that the 
Spaniards call it Mahomet's Paradise."— &a^, 1650, p. 165. An inteiesting account of the 
author's twelve years' residence in it will be found in his curious and valuable book. 


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Union (Gulf of Fonseca), indigo, &c. ; at Sonsonate, indigo ; and at Istapa, 

Provisions of every description are very cheap, and the inhabitants obliging ; 
the European residents exceedingly so.* 

Brazil-wood grows in several localities in the vicinity of the great lakes. 
That of most importance to the Pacific is the district from the Gulf of Papagayo 
to Point San Andres, between San Juan and Point Desolada. 

It is also cut OB the N.E. side of the lakes Nicaragua and Managua. There 
is also a tract N.E. of the latter, and a more extensive district on the borders 
of the Mosquito territory. The produce of these districts is carried in large 
canoes down the Rio San Juan to the town of San Juan de Nicaragua, a 
journey generally performed in four or five days. 

Climate, — ^The whole of Central America is situated between the tropics ; but 
the temperature and salubrity of its climate are as variable as are the diversities 
of its abrupt elevations, mountains, plateaux, ravines, sands, low districts, lakes, 
and forests. 

It freezes sometimes during the night on the highest part to the table lands, in 
November, December, and January. At the city of Guatemala, situated in the 
mean height of the table land (4,961 feet above the sea), the dry season begins 
towards the close of the month of October, and lasts till the end of May : during 
which time only a few showers occasionally fall. In the beginning of June 
thunder-storms become frequent, and are followed by heavy rains. From six 
o'clock in the morning till three or four o*clock in the afternoon, the sky is 
generally without clouds, and the air clear and refreshing. About the middle of 
October the North winds blow and the rains cease. The absence of either the 
windy or rainy seasons is accompanied by thunder ; and, it is said, with slight 
shocks of earthquake. In March and April the thermometer sometimes rises to 
86^. It generally ranges between 74° and 82° in the middle of the day. In 
December and January, when the North winds sometimes blow with great force, 
the thermometer varies between 68° and 72°. During the summer heat it rises 
at about seven o*clock in the morning to between 60° and 67°, and in the evening 
at the same hour, to 67° and 68° ; in winter it falls in the morning to 60° and 58°, 
and sometimes even to 56°, but in the evening only to between 60° and 64°. 
Towards the end of the dry season the trees shed their leaves, and in many places 
vegetation appears suspended. The region in which the capital stands is considered 
healthy ; goitres are frequent in the high and mountain districts, especially among 
the mixed races. 

On the sea-coast of the Pacific, the seasons correspond with those of the table 
lands, but the temperature is much hotter. It is said that the Pacific shores- are 
healtny, although they are almost entirely covered with woods. This salubrity is, 
however, not without exceptional districts. 

On the coast, during the fine season, which commences in November and 
ends in May, the land and sea breezes blow alternately, with a clear sky and but 
little rain; strong winds rarely occur during this period, except at the fall and 

• Note by Capt. Worth, R.N., 1847. 
2 G 


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change of the moon, when occasionally a strong breeze from the northward may 
be experienced. 

In the rainy season. May to November, heavy rains, calms, light variable 
breezes, ivith a close sultry atmosphere, heavy sqaalls, with thunder and lightning, 
and not unfrequently strong gales from the S.W,, are prevalent. 

" On the coast of Central America the currents are variable, but almost always 
setting to the S.E., sometimes rather strong. The land wind never blows far off 
shore, and, except in the harbours, is not certain ; the sea breeze is seldom felt, 
but there are of course exceptions, as when we left Realejo and Punta Arenas, we 
experienced on both occasions a remarkably strong land breeze. 

''The coast has soundings with the hand lead from Cape Blanco to Istap^, and 
from the information I could gain from trading vessels, and from our own expe- 
rience, it appears to be perfectly clear, affording anchorage nearly everywhere." — 
(Capt. Worth, R.N., 1848.) 

Population. — ^The inhabitants of Central America comprise three classes: 
whites, or Creoles of Spanish race ; mestizos, or the offspring of whites and 
Indians ; and aboriginal natives. There are but few negroes or Zamboes. In 
the department of Guatemala the Indian inhabitants are said to constitute the 
great majority of the people ; in Costa Rica those of European race predominate ; 
and in the three other departments, the mestizos, mixed with a few mulattoes, 
prevail. Haefkens estimates the whole population at 1,500,000, which he distri- 
buted as follows, viz.: — of European races, 125,000; mixed races, 500,000; 
Indians, 875,000 : total, 1,500,000. But it is doubtful whether any approximate 
estimate can be formed. 

The GULF of DULCE is the first place that may be noticed proceeding 
westward from Point Burica, but we know nothing of it. In the background of 
this part the Mountain of Chiriqui rises to the height of 1 1,266 feet. 

Of Cafio Island and Port Mantos we have no account Dampier says (vol. i. 
p. 215), that the coast is all low land, overgrown with thick woods, and but few 
inhabitants near the shore. 

The GULF of NICOY A is the next place to be noticed.* It is of considerable 
commercial importance, because it contains the port known by the name of 
Punta de Arenas, which is the chief port for the coffee trade of this country. 
This name, and the port itself, have been but little known to the rest of the 
world, and its locality has been the object of great embarrassment to shipmasters 
coming here. 

Mr. Stephens visited Nicoya during a portion of his travels in these regions. 
Leaving Guatemala, and sailing along the coast, they passed the volcanoes of 
San Salvador, San Vincente, San Miguel, Tolega, Momotombo, Managua, 
Nindiri, Nasaya, and Nicaragua, forming an uninterrupted chain. 

Mr. Stephens remarks : '^ This coast has well been described as bristling with 
volcanic cones. For two days we lay with sails flapping in sight of Cape Blanco, 

* Very soon after the dlscovezy of the South Sea, the Spaniards in pursuit of plunder increased 
their knowledge of the coast of this sea ; for in 1516 Hernan Ponce de Leon sailed from Panamd 
and discovered the port, which he named San Lucar, but afterwards Nicoya, from the cacique 
then dominant over this portion of the country. — Admiral Bumey*8 Collection, yol. i. p. 10. 


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the upper headland of the Gulf of Nicoya. On the afternoon of the 31st we 
entered the gulf. In a line with a point of the cape was an island of rock, with 
high, bare, and precipitous sides, and the top covered with verdure. It was 
about sunset; for nearly an hour the sky and sea seemed blazing with the 
reflection of the departing luminary, and the islands of rock seemed like a 
fortress with turrets. It was a glorious farewell view. I passed my last night 
on the Pacific, with the highlands of the Gulf of Nicoya close around us. 

" Early in the morning we had the tide in our favour, and very soon leaving 
the main body of the gulf, turned off to the right, and entered a beautiful little 
cove, forming the harbour of Caldera. In front was the range of mountains of 
Aguacate; on the left the old port of Puntas Arenas; and on the right the volcano 
of San Pablo. On the shore was a long low house, set upon piles, with a tile 
roof, and near it were three or four thatched huts and two canoes. We anchored 
in front of the houses, and apparently without exciting the attention of a soul 
on shore." 

He says that, ''All the ports of Central America on the Pacific are unhealthy — 
but this was considered deadly. I had entered, without apprehension, cities 
where this plague was raging, but here, as I looked ashore, there was a death- 
like stillness that was startling." 

From Caldera the country inland is level, rich, and uncultivated, with here and 
there a wretched hacienda^ the owners of which live in the towns. Herds are 
stationed on the estates, from time to time, to gather and number the cattle, 
which roam wild in the woods. 

Cape Blanco is the outermost point of this gulf, and it is thus described by 
Dampier : — '' Cape Blanco is so called from two white rocks lying off it. When 
we are off at sea right against the cape, they appear as part of the cape ; but 
being near the shore, either to the eastward or westward of the cape, they appear 
like two ships under sail at first view, but coming nearer, they are like two high 
towers; they being small, high, steep on all sides; and they are about half a 
mile from the cape. This cape is about the height of Beachy Head in England, 
on the coast of Sussex^ It is a full point, with steep rocks to tlie sea. The top 
of it is flat and even for about a mile ; then it gradually falls away on each 
side with a gentle descent. It appears very pleasant, being covered with great 
lofty trees. 

'' From the cape on the N.W. side the land runs in N.E. for about 4 leagues, 
making a small bay called by the Spaniards Caldera. A league within Cape 
Blanco, on the N.W. side of it, and at the entrance of this bay, there is a brook 
of very good water running into the sea. Here the land is very low, making 
a saddling between two small hills. It is very rich land, producing large tall 
trees of many sorts ; the mould is black and deep, which I have always taken 
notice of to be a fat soil. About a mile from this brook, towards the N.E., the 
wood land terminates. Here the savannah land begins, and runs some leagues 
into the country, making many small hills and dales. These savannahs are not 
altogether clear of trees, but are here and there sprinkled with small groves, 
which render them very delightful. The grass whkh grows here is very kindly, 
thick and long ; 1 have seen none better in the West Indies. 


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<< Toward the bottom of the bay, the land by the sea is low and full of 
mangroves, but farther in the country the land is high and mountainous. The 
mountains are part wood land and part savannah. The trees in those woods 
are but small and short; and the mountain savannahs are clothed with but 
indifferent grass. From the bottom of this bay it is but 14 or 15 leagues to the 
Lake of Nicaragua, on the North sea^coast. The way between is somewhat 
mountainous, but most savannah."* 

Cape Blanco, according to the survey, is in lat. 9® 34' N., Ion. 85° 7' W. 
Capt. Sir Edw. Belcher says, in his account of the Voyage of the Sulphur : — f 

*' March 30, 1837, passed close to the island termed Cape Blanco at its western 
point. Here we found ourselves obstructed by a point off which the breakers and 
rocky ledges above water extended a considerable distance to seaward. The 
soundings were regular, from 25 to 11 and 8| fathoms, hard sand, in which latter 
depth we tacked successively within 1} miles of the shore surf, and an outer 
roller about half a mile from us on the last tack 

^' Cape Blanco still in sight. A short distance to the westward observed a 
sandy, sloping bluff, off which a shelf, apparently composed of sand, with conical 
studded rocks, extended a considerable distance seaward. On a sandy islet near 
the bluff, two very remarkable ears jutting up." 

The Gulf of Nicoya is frequently called by the name of Punta Arenas, which 
is only one of its ports, as before stated. 

PcNTA Arenas was formerly the port of this gulf in the state of Costa Rica ; 
but interested parties whose property lay near to Calderas, about 5 miles 
southerly, on the eastern side of the gulf, managed to have the port or custom- 
house officers, &c., drafted thither. It is very unhealthy, almost fatal, to all 
new residents ; and the highest authorities take care to excuse residence. 

Firewood, water, cedar timber, bullocks, and oysters, are to be obtained ; the 
latter on the banks, dry at low water, above Venado, on the western shore ; 
bullocks, either at Arenas, Calderas, or Verugate, on the western shore ; water 
at San Lucas, or better and more easily at Herradura Bay, whence the casks are 
rolled into a small lake at the beach, and vessels may ride safely close to the 
shore, by veering the whole cable with a warp to the beach. Wood may be 
cut anywhere by the crew, or more easily purchased at Calderas or Punta Arenas.^ 

From Cape Blanco the coast trends, in a north-westerly direction, to Cape 
Velas, in lat. 10° 13' N. Ion. 85° 40' W.§ It is so called from the rock being 
sometimes mistaken for a sail.|| 

• Bampier, yol. \, pp. 111—113. Father Gage, in his Survey of the Spanish West Indies, says 
that the Indians in his time (circa 1646), '* were all like slaves to the Spaniards, and employed by 
them to make a kind of thread called pitay which is a veiy rich commodity in Spain, especially 
of t^at colour wherewith it Is dyed in these parts of Nicoya, which is purple, for which the Indians 
are here much charged to work about the sea-shore, and there to find certain shells, wherewith 
they make this purple dye. There are also shells for other colours, not known to be so plentifully 
in any other place as here." — P. 437. 

t Vol. i. pp. 25-6. X Sir Edward Belcher (January, 1889), vol. i. pp. ^48-0. 

§ " We lay along a deep bay, and posscd some very remarkable rocks or rocky islands, white 
with green tops, the Port of Matapala bearing S.S.E. Between that and these rocky islands a 
number of small, high, white rocks shot up, resembling vessels under sail; bearing E., £. by N., 
and E.N.E., a little bay extending landwards, and called, as I suppose, from these little rocks, 
* Puerto Velas.' "— G. U. 8kinner, Esq, \\ Sir Edward Belcher, vol. i. p. 186. 


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The BIGHT of PAPAGAYO may be said to commeDce here, extending to the 
northward to Realejo : being but a slight curve in the general line of coast. It 
is scarcely worthy of the name, but becomes more familiar from the fact of the 
peculiar winds experienced off it called by the name, which are elsewhere 
described. Suffice it here to state, that the papagayo is a strong wind, blowing 
from N.£. to £. by N., with a bright, clear sky overhead, and a glaring sun, with 
a dense atmosphere. 

At Cape Velas Capt. Belcher lost the papagayo ; *' therefore," he says, ** the 
limits may be included in a line drawn from Cape Desolado to Point Velas, and 
it is rather a curious phenomenon that the strength of this breeze seldom ranges 
so far as this chord, but seems to prefer a curve at a distance of 15 or 20 miles 
from the land."* 

GoRDA PoiNT,t according to the chart, lies 18 miles northward of Cape Velas, 
in lat. 10^ 31' N., Ion. 85^ 43}' W. At this point the coast turns abruptly to 
the E.N.E., towards Port Culebra. 

*' Off Point Gorda are several high rocks, the two largest, which are close 
together, are about 2f or 3 miles from the land, the others lay principally more 
to the North and N.E. ; they are all high, and the smaller ones have very much 
the appearance of upright tombstones ; others again, at first sight, appear like a 
ship under canvas." — (Mr. E. P. Brumell.) 

PORT CULEBRA was surveyed by Capt. Sir Edward Belcher in 1838. The 
spot at which he observed, at the head of the port, he places in lat. 10^ 36' 55" N., 
Ion. 85° 33' 30'' W.; variation 7° 5' 54" E. The entrance to the port is 
between the North and South ViradoreSy some detached cliffy islands, 1| miles 
apart. Between the South Viradores and Cacique Point, to the N.W. of which 
they lie, there is a channel of 5 to 10 fathoms ; but, as a rocky reef runs off a 
quarter of a mile to the West of the point, and some detached rocks lie South of 
the Viradores, it should not be used. 

Cocos Bay lies to the southward of the South Viradores, and between Cacique 
Point and Miga Pointy bearing S.W. by S; from the former ; the distance is 
about 1^ miles. These points are both rocky cliffs, surmounted by hills. Cocos 
Bay may be about a mile in depth within the line of opening. The bottom is 
formed by a sandy beach, off the South part of which a line of rocks runs North 
about a quarter of a mile, and another small rock lies in its eastern part. It lies 
entirely open to the N.W. Sesga Point lies a mile and a half S.W. from Miga 
Point, the west extreme of the bay, and midway between is a cliffy islet. To the 
eastward of Cacique Point is a similar bay to Cocos Bay, having about the same 
width to Buena Pointy which forms the South Point of Port Culebra, which 
extends nearly 4 miles within the two entrance points, Buena and Mala, a mile 
asunder, and is about two miles wide, the depth even, 6 to 18 fathoms, and 
anchorage everywhere. 

The following is Capt. Sir E, Belcher's description of the port : — 

" Port Culebra is certainly magnificent ; and from information by the natives, 

* Sir Edward Belcher, vol. i. p. 185. 

t Point Catalina (of fianza) ; from the diBJointed portions or islands, it might have cauaed that 
of MuTcielhigos to be mistaken for it. — Belcher, vol. i. p. 186. 


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it is connected with Salinas, and thence to Nicaragua, Granada, &c. If any rail- 
road is contemplated in this quarter, it ought to enter at the Bay of Salinas, 
which would render these two ports important. (Capt. Sir £. Belcher adds, that 
he has little doubt but that it will become the chief port of Nicaragua.) 

'' Water fit for consumption was not found at the beach, but may be obtained a 
short distance up the creek, which a boat may enter at high water. If wells were 
dug, doubtless it would be found at the N.W. side, as the surrounding country 
is mountainous. Another symptom in favour of this is the thickly- wooded sides 
and summits, as well as bright green spots of vegetation throughout the bay. 

** Brazil-wood is very abundant ; mahogany and cedar were observed near the 
beach, but as they have been employed cutting the Brazil, probably all the cedar 
and mahogany, easily attainable, has been taken. Timber, in great variety, 
abounded. In the bay, where H.M.S. Starling was at anchor, there was a large 
village, where the natives were anxious to dispose of their productions, consisting 
of fruit, stock, cattle, &c."* 

Point St. Eleva is 23 miles North, of Gorda Point, and is in lat. 10^ S5\ 
Ion. 85° 46'. 

Point St. Elena is a remarkable cape, and to the South of it are the Mur- 
ciellagos or Bat Islands^ eight in number, almost forming two distinct harbours, 
the smaller islands making a crescent by the South, one large island protecting 
the East, and another of similar size forming the line of separation. Capt. 
Belcher anchored in the inner or eastern harbour, and completed his water at a 
very convenient position, in 32 fathoms, with a hawser fast to the shore. 

The springs are numerous, and there are tolerable rivulets ; but only that they 
watered at (between the centre point and the main) is safe to approach, by reason 
of the constant surf. The gulf squalls, even in this sheltered position, come down 
the gullies with great force, and impeded the work as well as endangered the 
boats. The geological character of the cape and islands is a schistose serpentine, 
containing balls of noble serpentine. 

Tom AS or St. Elena Bat is immediately to the northward of St. Elena Point, 
and is separated from Salinas Bay by a promontory, of which Descarte Point 
is the West extreme. The N.W. point of Salinas Bay is Cape Natan, which is 
just 12 miles due North (true) of St. Elena Point. In Tomas Bay are some 
detached islets and rocks. These have been named the Vagares Rocks, Juanilla 
and Despensa Islands. To the S.E. of the first is a small inner bay, which, 
from the survey, seems to afford anchorage, sheltered from the S.W. winds. 

Salinas Island, in Salinas Bay, is placed, by Sir Edward Belcher, in lat. 
1 1° 2' 50" N., Ion. 85° 40' 45" W. 

PORT SAN JUAN pel Sur. — ^This portion of the coast is interesting, on 
account of its proximity to the navigable Lake of Nicaragua ; but it is for this 
reason only, as with the exception of the Port of San Juan, called del Sur, to 
distinguish it from the other San Juan in this state, at the mouth of the River 
San Juan de Nicaragua, in the Caribbean Sea, it scarcely possesses any harbour 
or foreign trade, except in dye-wood. 

• Vol. I. pp. 180—188. 


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The South bluff of Port San Juan is in lat. 11° 15' 12*, Ion. 85° 53'. The 
proposed commuaication with the Atlantic, by Mr. Baily,* was to terminate here-> 
a canal, ]5|- miles in length, cut across the narrow tract, separating this port 
from the lake, which, with the Rio San Juan, would form the navigable connexion. 

M the present moment, however, a treaty is pending between the United States 
and England, respecting Central America, which promises fairly to open some 
rivalry, if carried into effect. It guarantees the protection and free navigation of 
the projected canal through the lakes, and the neutrality of tbe country through 
which it may pass, as also of the sea within a reasonable distance of either termi- 
nation to the route ; both powers to pledge themselves not to exercise any 
jurisdiction whatever in any part of the territory, and to protect the operations 
of the company who, under the authority of the state of Nicaragua, shall con- 
struct and maintain this ship-canal. 

The construction of the canal has been, it is said, undertaken by a commercial 
company of New York ; and, if it is carried through, must prove immensely bene- 
ficial and valuable to the country and its projectors. 

'' The effect of this treaty must be to render the uncultivated and revolutionary 
states of Central America a prosperous and fertile country, while between the 
two contracting powers it cannot but prove a bond of peace and a union of 
interests, the beneficial effects of which will be felt throughout the habitable 


This may take place ere long, but it has been so frequently stated that the 
works were to be commenced at one or other of the proposed points, that, until 
something more definitive than this takes place, but little speculation can be 
made as to its completion. 

Mr. Stephens says : '< Our encampment was about the centre of the harbour, 
which was the finest I saw in the Pacific. It is not large, but beautifully protected, 
being almost in the form of the letter U. The arms are high and parallel, running 
nearly North and South, and terminating in high perpendicular bluffs. As I 
afterwards learned from Mr. Baily, the water is deep, and under either bluff, 
according to the wind, vessels of the largest class can ride with perfect safety. 
Supposing this to be correct, there is but one objection to this harbour, which I 
derive from Capt. D'Yriaste, with whom I made the voyage from Zonzonate to 
Caldera. He has been nine years navigating the coast of the Pacific, from Peru to 
the Gulf of California, and has made valuable notes, which he intends publishing 
in France, and he told me that during the summer months, from November to 
May, the strong North winds which sweep over the Lake of Nicaragua, pass with 
such violence through the Gulf of Papagayo, that during the prevalence of these 
winds it is almost impossible for a vessel to enter the Port of San Juan. Whether 
this is true to the extent that Capt. DTriaste supposes, and, if true, how hx steam- 

* Mr. Bally is a British officer, and was employed by the gOTersment of Central America to 
make a survey of this canal route, and had completed all except the survey of an unimportant 
part of the Rio San Juan (the outlet of the lake into the Caribbean Sea) when the revolution 
broke out. This not only put a stop to the survey, but annihilated the prospect of remuneration 
for Mr. Baily's arduous services. In the subsequent notice of these communications Mr. Baily's 
project will be more ftilly noticed. 

t Times, May 19, 1850. 


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tugs would answer to bring vessels in against such a wind^ is for others to 
determine. But at the moment there seemed more palpable difficulties. 

** The harbour was perfectly desolate, for years not a vessel had entered it ; 
primeval trees grew around it, for miles there was not a habitation ; I have walked 
the shore alone. Since Mr. Baily left, not a person bad visited it ; and probiibly 
the only thing that keeps it alive, even in memory, is the theorising of scientific 
men, or the occasional visit of some Nicaragua fisherman, who, too lazy to work, 
seeks his food in the sea. It seemed preposterous to consider it the focus of a 
great commercial enterprise ; to imagine that a city was to rise up out of the forest, 
the desolate harbour to be filled with ships, and become a great portal for the 
thoroughfare of nations. But the scene was magnificent. The sun was setting, 
and the high western headland threw a deep shade over the water. It was, 
perhaps, the last time in my life that I should see the Pacific, and in spite of fever 
and ague tendencies, I bathed once more in the great ocean. 

''At 7 o*clock we started, recrossed the stream, at which we bad procured 
water, and returned to the first station of Mr. Baily. It was on the river San 
Juan, 1} miles from the sea. The river here had sufficient depth of water for 
large vessels, and from this point Mr. Baily commenced his survey to the Lake of 

'< My guide cleared a path for me with his machete ; and working our way 
across the plain, we entered a valley, which ran in the great ravine called 
Quebrada Grande, between the mountain ranges of Zebadea and El Platina. 

** Up to this place manifestly there could be no difficulty in cutting a canal; 
beyond the line of survey follows the small stream of £1 Cacao for another league, 
when it crossed the mountain ; but there was such a rank growth of young trees, 
that it was impossible to continue without sending men forward to clear the way. 
We therefore left the line of the canal, and crossing the valley to the right, reached 
the foot of the mountain over which the road to Nicaragua passes." — (Incidents 
of Travel, &c.) 

Port Nacascolo, Naouiscolo, or Playa Hermosa, lies almost adjoining to, 
and to the N.W. of. Port San Juan, which it somewhat resembles, and, like it, is 
only the resort of a few natives occasionally. There is no village or town near 
it, and it never has been resorted to for general European commerce. In its S.E. 
portion is a sort of canal, excavated for a short distance to facilitate and shorten 
the transit of the local trade to the town and lake of Nicaragua, to which there is 
a road or pathway through the forest. 

Northward of San Juan del Sur the coast trends nearly straight in a due N.W. 
direction. As was stated in a former page, the district on the coast produces 
dye-wood, or Brazil-wood, for which its ports are much frequented. From 
information received by Capt. Eden,H.M.S. Conway ^ in 1835, the coast between 
Brito and San Andres was then much resorted to by vessels to load that article. 
The landing at some of the places is rather difficult ; but the anchorage is 
perfectly safe, particularly from November till May. The winds are then 
constantly from the N.E., though they sometimes blow very strong : but the sea 
breezes during those months never reach the coast. Between November, 1834, 
and May, 1835, about 60,000 quintals of Brazil-wood were embarked on board 


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British vessels, and they continued their loading during the whole of the winter 
months.* . 

Of the ports on this part of the coast we know little more than their names, for 
on the recent edition of the Admiralty charts there is not one of them inserted. 

Brito is the Brst point North of San Juan. Its distance from it is not indicated. 

Then follows Mogote, an open anchorage; next Casares, off the mouth of a 
river between some reefs. This, by the road, is 7 leagues from the town of 
Ximotepe, and which is 12 leagues from Managua on the lake. Three leagues 
further along the coast is the road of Masapa^ and 5f leagues further is the 
anchorage of Masachapa, to the southward of Point San Andres. Here the 
Brazil-wood district terminates.f 

Capt Sir Edward Belcher, in passing along to the North, began to experience 
gusts from the Lake of Managua, no high land intervening in its course y causing 
him to go under treble- reefed topsails, &c*l 

The next point is Cape Desolada, a most appropriate name ; it seems almost in 
mockery that one or two stunted shrubs are allowed to stand on its summit.^ 
Mahogany and cedar grow in the vicinity of the cape, and to the North of it is 

The LAKE of NICARAGUA (or Grenada) is a fine sheet of water, and, 
according to Mr. Baily's account of it, is 90 miles long, its greatest breadth is 40, 
and the mean 20 miles. The depth of water is variable, being in some places close 
to the shore, and in others half a mile from it, 2 fathoms, increasing gradually 
to 8, 10, 12> and 15 fathoms, the bottom usually mud (according to Capt. A. 

G , quoted in a work on this subject by Prince Louis Napoleon, his soundings 

gave a depth of 45 fathoms in the centre). The level of the lake is 128 feet 
3 inches above that of the Pacific Ocean at low water, spring tides. 

This basin is the receptacle of the waters from a tract of country 6 to 10 leagues 
in breadth on each side of it, thrown in by numerous streams and rivers, none of 
them navigable except the River Frio, having its source far away in the mountains 
of Costa Rica, which discharges into the lake a large quantity of water near the 
spot where the River San Juan fiows out of it. The embouchure is 200 yards 
wide, and nearly 2 fathoms deep. There are several islands and groups of islets 
in difiTerent parts of the lake, but none of them embarrass the navigation, nor 
is this anywhere incommoded by shoals or banks, other than the shallow water 
in shore ; and even this is but very trifling, or rather it is no impediment at all to 
the craft at present in use, the practice being to keep the shore close aboard, for 
the purpose of choosing convenient stopping places at the close of day, as they 
scarcely ever continue their voyage during the night. 

The largest islands on the lake are Omotepe, Madera, and Zapatera. Taken 
together, the first two of these islands are 12 miles long, and have gigantic 
volcanoes on them. Zapatera is almost triangular, and 5 miles long. Senate, 
Solentiname, and Zapote, are smaller, and uninhabited, but some of them, and 
the last in particular, are capable of cultivation. 

• Communicated by G. U. Skinner, Eaq. t G. U. SItinner, B«i. 

i Sir E. Belcher, vol. i, p. 180. ^ Ilnd, vol. i. p. «7. 

2 H 


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Near the town of Grenada there is the best anchorage for ships of the largest 

The Lake of Nicaragua is connected with that of Leon by means of the river 
Panaloya (or Tipitapa), navigable for the boats employed in that country for 12 
miles, as far as the place called Pasquiel, where the inhabitants go to cut %id 
bring away Brazilian timber. The 4 miles which remain between that place and 
the Lake of Leon are not navigable by any kind of boat, whatever may be its con- 
struction, because, beyond Pasqueil, the channel is obstructed by a rein of rocks, 
which, when the river is swollen, arc covered with water; but in the dry season, 
the water sinks so low that it can only escape through gradually diminishing 
fissures in the rocks. At a distance of a mile beyond this first vein of rocks, we 
find another more solid, which, crossing the river at right angles, forms a cascade 
of 13 feet descent. 

The River Tipitapa, which discharges itself into the Lake of Nicaragua, is 
the only outlet for the Lake Leon. The lands bordering this river are somewhat 
low, but fertile, having excellent pasturage ; as at Chontales, they are divided 
into grazing and breeding farms. All this country, covered with Brazilian timber, 
is scantily inhabited. The only village is that of Tipitapa, situated near the above- 
mentioned waterfall. It contains a small church, and about 100 cottages. The 
river is crossed by a wooden bridge. 

The Lake of Leov or Managua is from 32 to 35 miles long, and 16 miles 
at its greatest width. It receives from the circumjacent lands, chiefly from the 
eastern coast, a number of small streams. According to Mr. Lawrence, of H.M.S. 
Thunderer y it is not so deep as that of Nicaragua ; but, according to Capt. A. 
G , it is still deeper. 

The Lake of Managua is 28 feet 3 inches above that of Nicaragua; and, 
according to M. Garella, the difference between high water in the Pacific and low 
water in the Atlantic is 19} feet. In the proposition for making use of these lakes, 
it is stated that the ground is perfectly level between the head and Realejo, one 
of the best ports on the coast ; but the distance is 60 miles, and to Mr. Stephens 
the difficulties seemed to be insuperable. Capt. Sir Edward Belcher is of opinion 
that there is no insurmountable obstacle to connecting the Lake of Managua 
with the navigable stream, the Estero Real, falling into the Gulf of Fonseca, as is 
hereafter mentioned. 

The principal noticeable points on the shores of the Lake of Nicaragua are the 
city of Nicaragua and the Omotepeque Volcano, 5,040 feet above the sea. Mr. 
Stephens says it reminded him oT Mount Etna, rising, like the pride of Sicily, 
from the water*s edge, a smooth unbroken cone to the above height. 

Cape Desolada, on the Pacific, is nearly 100 miles along the coast, N.W. of 
the Port of San Juan. The city of Leon lies inland from Cape Desolada. 

Leoh is the capital of the state of Nicaragua ; it was formerly a place of 
importance, with a population of 32,000 souls, but has been since greatly 
reduced by anarchy and other distracting circumstances. It is situated on a 
plain about 40 miles from Realejo, 10 from the sea, and 15 from the Lake of 
Managua. It has a university, cathedral, and 8 large churches, and other public 
institutions. It carries on some trade through Realejo. The houses are described 


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by Mr. Roberts as very similar to those of Guatemala, none being above two 
stories high. The population in 1820 was about 14,000.* 

The Plain of Leon is bounded on the Pacific side by a low ridge, and on the 
right by high mountains, part of the chain of the Cordilleras. Mr. Stephens 
says : — 

« Before us at a grekt distance, rising above the level of the plain, we saw the 
spires of the cathedral of Leon. This magnificent plain, which in richness of soil 
is not surpassed by any land in the world, lay as desolate as when the Spaniards 
first traversed it. The dry season was near its close ; for four months there had 
been no rain, and the dust hung around us in thick clouds, hot and fine as the 
sands of Egypt. Leon had an appearance of old and aristocratic respectability, 
which no other city in Central America possessed. The houses were large, and 
many of the fronts were full of stucco ornaments ; the plaza was spacious, and the 
squares of the chuirches and the churches themselves magnificent. It was under 
Spain a bishop's see, and distinguished for the costliness of its churches and 
convents, its seats of learning, and its men of science, to the time of its revolution. 

*' In walking through its streets I saw palaces in which nobles had lived 
dismantled and roofless, and occupied by half-starved wretches, pictures of misery 
and want, and on one side an immense field of ruins covering half the city." 

REALEJO is the next place in proceeding north-westward, and is one of the 
niost important ports on the coast, and has in consequence been more frequently 
visited and described. It has been, moreover, minutely surveyed by Capt. Sir 
JBdward Belcher, in the Sulphur, in 1838. 

The port is formed by the three islands of Castafion, separating the Estero 
DoSia Paulaf from the Pacific on the South, Cardon Island in front of it, and 
forming two entrances, and the larger island of Asseradores (Sawyers) to the 

Sir Edward Belcher thus concisely describes the harbour : — 

" Cardon, at the mouth of the Port of Realejo, is situated in lat. 12® 27' 55" N., 
and Ion. 87° 9' 30" W. It has two entrances, both of which are safe, under 
proper precaution, in all weather. The depth varies from 2 to 7 fathoms, and 
safe anchorage extends for several miles ; the rise and fall of tide 1 1 feet, 
full and change 3^ 6', Docks or slips, therefore, may easily be constructed, 
and timber is readily to be procured of any dimensions; wood, water, and 
immediate necessaries and luxuries, are plentiful and cheap. The village of 
Realejo is about 9 miles from the sea, and its population is about 1,000 souls. 

* The city of Leon is lauded by Father Gage in his interesting work as the pleasantest place in 
all America, and calls it the " Paradise of the Indies/' Dampier was here in 1685, and his men 
marched np to it to take it, and they set it on fire, but did not procure much plunder.— The way 
to it, he says, is plain and even, through a champion (champagne) country, of long grassy 
savannahs, and spots of high woods. About 5 miles from the landing place there is a sugar 
work, 3 miles further there is another, and 2 miles beyond that there is a fine river to ford, which 
is not very deep, besides which there is no water all the way till you come to an Indian town, 
which is 2 miles before you come to the city, and from thence it is a pleasant straight sandy way 
to Leon. — Dampier^ vol. i. p. 218. 

t Capt. 8ir £. Belcher states, in his appendix, that the Estero (or Creek) of Dona Paula takes a 
course toward the city of Leon, and is navigable to within 3 leagues of that city. It has been 
suggested to carry a railroad from Leon to the Lake of Nicaragua. As to any canal into the 
Pacific, unless behind Monotombo Telica and Vigo Range into the Estero Real, Capt. Belcher 
saw little feasibility in the scheme. 


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The prlDcipal occupation of the working males is on the water, loading and 
unloading vessels. It has a custom-house and officers under a collector, 
comptroller, and captain of the port; "* (and, it may now be added, an English 

The Island of Cardon is of volcanic origin, and the beach contains so much 
iron that the sand, which probably is washed up, caused the magnetic needle to 
vibrate 21° from zero. On the West end they found a mark, probably left by 
the Conway a few years back.f 

The town was founded by some of the companions of Don P. Alvarado, during 
his descent on the territory. Its situation, near the sea, exposed it to the depre- 
dations of the buccaneers ; and in consequence the inhabitants returned inland, 
and founded the city of Leon ; but even this was not free from their attacks. 
Juarros, the historian of his country, full of the amor patricBy gives a very lofty 
description of its capabilities and excellence. This might all, perhaps, be realized 
but for the fundamental objections of climate and political discord, which must 
for years prevent a portion of its real merits being elicited. t 

The present village of Realejo (for the name of town cannot be applied to such 
a collection of hovels) contains one main street about 200 yards in length, with 
three or four openings leading to the isolated cottages in the back lanes of huts. 

With the exception of the houses occupied by the commandant, our vice- 
consul, Mr. Foster, admin istrador of customs, and one or two others, there is 
not a decent house in the place. The ruins of a well -constructed church attest its 
former respectability ; but the place is little more now than a collection of huts. 

The inhabitants generally present a most unhealthy appearance, and there is 
scarcely a cottage without some diseased or sickly-hued person to be 8een.§ 
About a mile below the town the ruins of an old but well-built fort are yet to be 
traced. Vessels of 100 tons have grounded at the pier of Realejo custom-house, 
but above that they would be left dry at low water. 

Realejo is the only port after quitting Panam& where British residents can be 
found, or supplies conveniently obtained. Water of the finest quality is to be had 
from a powerful stream, into which the boat can be brought, and the casks filled, 
by baling, alongside of a small wall raised to cause a higher level. Here the 
women resort to wash, but, by a due notice to the alcalde, this is prevented. 
A guide is necessary on the first visit, after entering the creek which leads to it, 
and which should only be entered at half-flood ; it is necessary to pole the 
remainder, the channel not having sufficient width for oars. 

• Voyage of the Sulphur, vol. il. p. 307. 

t Pearl oysters are found near the Sonth of Cardon ; but few pearls, however, are found in 
them, and the search has been found very unprofitable.— (?. U. Skinner, Esq. 

X This port, ifa settlement were established on the Islands of Asseradores, Cardon, or Castanon, 
would probably be more frequented; but the position where vessels usually anchor (within 
Cardon) to Realejo, is a sad drawback to vessels touching merely for supplies. Rum is also too 
cheap, and too great a temptation to seamen. Supplies of poultry, fruit, bullocks, grain, &c., are, 
however, very reasonable, and of very superior quality ; turkeys are said to attain an ineredible 
weight ; they still, however, justly maintain a very high reputation. 

At the period of our visit a young American had imported machinery Ibr a cotton mill, but the 
success of it is doubtful.— Sir Edward Belcher, 1888. 

^ ** Til is is a very sickly place, and I believe hath need enough of an hospital ; for it is seated so 
nigh the creeks and swamps that it is never free from & noisome smell. The land about it is a 
strong, yellow clay; yet where the town stands seems to be sand."— J>amjiier, vol. i. p. S21. 


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The wat