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9' ■ ■■ 



1 -s 




















^/H^t^. >^ C^i^^^0-t^-^^'*-a^ ^. 







T O 



in thb cav8b op all such as are appointed 
to destruction. lemuel. 

Ego me nova videri dicere intelligo, cum pbr- 




Printed by R. Hett; 

And sold by T. Cadell, in the- Strand i 


IN St. Paul's Chukch -Yard, , - 

••- , 


C '-;■; .--- - 




•^V ' 



1897. - 

» * 

" • 


t H E 


TtOtFEFER Then may differ 
as to fpeculati've points of Re^ 
ligidrty yUSTICE is a rule of uni- 
verfal extent and invariable obli^ 
Ration. IVe acknowledge this im^ 
portant truth in all fnatters iti 
tohich MAN is concerned^ but then 
*ff>e limit it to our tmn fpecies only* 
Jlnd though we are able to tract 
the fnofi evident marks of the Cre- 
ator s wifdom and goodnefsi in thi 
formation and appointment of the 
various clajfes of Animals that are 

A infe- 

[ ii ] . 

. ■ • - . 

inferior to Men^ yet the confciouf- 
nefs of our own dignity and excel- 
lence is apt to fuggejl to uSy that 
Man alone of all terrejlrial Am-- 
tnals is the only proper objeEi pf 
Mercy and Compajfton^ becaufe he 
is the moft highly favored and di- 
Jlinguijhed. Mijled with this pre- 
judice in our own favor ^ we overlook 
fome of the BRUTES'', as if they 
were meer Excrefcencies of Nature^ 
beneath our notice , and infinitely un-- 
worthy the care and cognifance of the 
Almighty ; and we confider others 

of them y as made only for ourfervice ; 
gndfo long as we can apply them to 

* In the enfuing treatife I ufe the word 
Brute as a general term for every creature 
inferior to Man, whether Bcaft, or Bird, or 
FJfli, or Fly, or Worm. 


[ ui ] 

ef^r ufe^ we are carelefs.and indif^ 

f^rent as to their happinefs or mi-^ 

Jhy^ and can hardly bring our- 

/elves to fuppofe that there is any 

kind of duty incumhefit upon us 

toward them. 

To reEiify this mijiaken 7totion is 
the dejign of this treatife^ in, which 
I have endeavoured to prove ^ that 
as the Love and Mercy of God are 
ovjsr all his %vorksy from the higheji 
rational to the lowejl fenjitivey our 
Love and Mercy are not to be confined 
within the circle of our own friends^ 
acquaintance^ and neighbours ; nor 
limited to the more enlarged fphere 
of human nature^ to creatures of 
our own rank^ Jhape^ and capacity ; 
i?Ut are to k^ expended to every ob-^ 

A 2 jeSI 


JeSf of th Love and Mercy tf 
GOD the univerfal Parent; '^^, 
as he is righteous in all his wayi(| 
and holy in all his works, ^// 
undoubtedly require of Man, ju-^ 
per tor Man, a firiEi account of 
his conduEi to every creature' fkir- 
trujied to his care, or coming ifl-hi^i 
way ; and who will avenge every iMr'- 
fiance of wanton cruelty, and op-r- 
prej/ion, in the day in the which^v^lf 
he will judge the world in RidH^ 


■ 1- 

As it is of no confequence to taH^^ 
Brutes, for whofe fakes this tf^s^}^ 
tife is puhlifhed, what may be t^:^^ 
different modes of faith or forms df:y^ 
worjbip amongfi meH, I have end6ar^::y% 
voured to write it without any iiasy 

■ ... 


[ V ] 

frejudice^ vr partiality. And if 
fotne of my fentiments 'Jhbuld not 
in all r^ffeSls fqtiare with thofe 
of my reader J I have only to 
defire that they may he read and 
interpreted with the fame candour 
and charity with which they are 
written^ as J do ajfure him I have 
vo defign to offend any party 

, As to the manner in which this 
work is executedy let it he confidered 
that y as it treats upon a fuhjeEl in 
which men of all ranks ar^ con- 
^erned^ it is neceffary to pay fome 
attention to the capacities of thofe^ 
who have not had the adva?ttage 
of a liberal education y and^ on 
their gxQount it; is^ that the Au-- 


[ vi ] 

thor has enlarged upon fome 
points of duty in his illufi ration of 
fome of the tefiimonies from Scrip-- 
ture ; and if it is written fo as 
to contribute to mollify one fingle 
. hearty or to refcue hut a fly or a 
worm from unnecejfary pain^ it 
would be a refieBion upon the huma- 
nity of the learned to attempt an 
apology for the manner of it. 

But if I pould feem to them to 

have miflaken^ mifapplied^or diflort^ , 

ed any text of Scripture^ I hope no 

miflakcy inaccuracy y or defeSly on my 

party will be any objeSiion to theb^ene- 

volent caufe which I have efpoufed. 

Upon me be the reproach y fpare but 

the innocent brute. You are welcome 

to fay y if youpleafcy I have handled 


{ vH ] 

the word of G OD improperly, of 
injudicioufly, but fay not that I 
have handled it deceitfully ; for I 
am confcious my intention is good ; 

iand^ if I have deceived fnyfelfy it 9 
is a delightful deception^ and I \ 

Jhould he forry to be undeceived^) : 
But I prefume I have deceived nei-^ 
ther my f elf nor others : for^ Mercy 
fs a mojl amiable difpoftion of 
mindj admired even by thofe 
that will not praSiife it ; and, 
the cultivation of it in the lowefi 
injiances^ and to the mojl infegni- 

fcant objeBsy can never be attend- 
ed with any ill confequences to So- 
ciety i nor has it any thing in it 
inconfijlent with reafofi^ or with 
our ideas of yujlice. Reft it upon 
thefe common principles^ andy though 
, ' 3 I JJjould 

t »ia ] 

IJhouJd have failed in myfrMpffbM 
Revelation, my end is in part an*^ 
Jweredi and I am well pleafed ; but 
much happier jhall I be^if I have beeri 
able to provey that Mercy to Brutes 
is as much a doBrine of divine Reive"' 
Idtion^ as it is in itfelf reafonable^ 
amiable y ufefuly and jujl. 



Page 14, li. i5./flrbarrsr^^ibars — P. 4!* li. j^i 
for not be read not to be — P. 95. li* $.for 20 read 
29— P. 97. U. 6* for as read if — P. 98. li, 16* 
after Hebrew a comma-^P. 109. II. 13^ for 24 
read 23-=— P* 114. at bottontj for ix read xi— 
P. 148. li. 3. for that read when he — P. 158* 
li. 2. after likewife dele the eomma'^F, 159. li. ji- 
JVATERtNG? — ?. i4. iine the laji. for in 
read at — P. 181. in fiote^ line the la/l^ after binding 
put a comma — P. 184^ li. 7,0* for on read in — 
P. 190. 1. 12. for for rfflrfand— P. 256I li. 11. 
for neighbors f«irf neighbor's — P. 264. Hnethi 
lafi^ afler muzzle put a comma — P. 266* line the 
laft^ Cactle ?-^P« 274. line xi.fvr ia reodvipoai 



A . ' . 

P X S; S E..R:.T, A T I O N 

' ' ' ' N ' Y H E • ' ' ^ : 

D 6 T t OF M E R C V 

AN 6 


» ■ ■ ■ ' » • . -i , . 

" * T O"*" " v - - . . 

3B H U T fi.' A N 1 A?t'A r "^r 

* • r 

-k •- vs. i^ 

LOV E is the gteat ^ Hmge 
tipoft whith univerfal'NatuTc 
tiirnS. The Creation is a: ttanfcript 
t)f !;he .diviile Goo dnefs ; and every 
leaf in ihfe Book of Nature reads 
\i$ a Icdufe on the wifdoni and' 
benevolence of itis great Author, 
The Philofopher, inured to ftudf 
land contemplation, untainted with 
l^idd, and unbiafed b^ prejudice, 
' B feci 

[ ^ 3 

fees and acknowledges this trutn 

as inconteftable, that the Supreme 

Being is wife, and juil, and gdod,' 

and merciful. And from tht ob- 

fcFvations he has. n^de . upon ;he 

animal part of the creation that is 

within his view and reach, hd 

draws ^ this general cbnckti^ny 

I that levery creature mufl have its 

I proper ^ufe and oiEce, (however 

I latent as to us i) and that the diF- 

; £sreikt powers, appetites, p^rfeor 

;tions« and even comparative^ d^ 

.&ds of different animals^ are et- 

fentially ntccffsffy to a^fwer the 

I difiexent purpofes for which they 

[were created^ and to promote the 

I comn^on good of the whole. I 

fhall nqt undertake to illuftrate thi& 

^ticularj as it would carry me 

too far from my purpofe j and as 

■' * all 


C « 3 

& repetition qf wh^ .haM ^ii'^i^X 
bcein "writteii* by the iftajiy ;k|iQ)^ 

ftiudinge&kiiUs ;>N8tiitidilbti\ iW^Qk 
&Ab- taim it j^a^. befifi : to • jdetiiQH-f 
llrani tH&" exsdience. 4nd: :>pf9leiPT 

€reatron» .1 ^ KKtW' thejffkfopib t.»kfi 
it rfcf graBtoif^riihat »9. CiCi^l> rii 
\ciro aii4 gDodv^^aH his; Yi«ir|R$.{afii 
iaEppc^tmentsrttmft bet thfrrf^c)^ 
of wifdom and- gobdm&i r^ ; ' « ■ <' 

- 1 

lure of <y Q D b gcisd m its kistil ^ 
that i^'h ii fuc^ir a» it ^itght- td 
be» I'cr to fuppofe pttewife .i§ 
tp arraign the divine Wif^tti |ig| 
tiiaking it fuch aj! if ]$. Aiid 9f ( 
every <:reat;urQ i« g^ irv it§ kifidi ■ 
and did not make itfelf wh^ if 

B 2 is, 

t » 1 


btit IS {uch as Mt is iblely' hf 
the WiU - and 'appointment of 
ipOD ; it follows;, that whatever 
its peiirfe^ibiss dr defe^ may b^ 
ihef otfDfiOt be owing to any merit 
or demerit in the creature itfelf, bd^ 
ing, ^lot'pdory butconieqnenttad to 
its circiation. There is hot therefor^ 
ih natHre any fbunditittn for pride 
Qil-acconiit of per^dipn, nor for 
contempt on account of defe^. 
Subordination is ais neceilary in 
the natural, as in the political 
Ti^Ofld i ^ oonne&s the whole to-* 
gether,. and makes the c!teaturc4 
dependent upoii, - and fabfervient 
to each othfcr ; and it preferves 
that harmony, variety, beauty^ 
and good order, which would bfe. - 
loft in a perfed famenefs and 

. Every 

i s 1 

: -^veiy; creature IS to be coa- 
fidered as a wheel in the great 
machinery of Nature ; and if the 
whole machine it curious . and 
beautiful, no wheel in it, how* 
eirer fmall, ' can be contemptible 
or uieleis. ,Infome animals, their 
ufiifulnefs (which to us is their per- 
fe|£tion) is iiiblervient and owing 
tQr their 4ef*El5, Coniequently, 
t9 4cfpife or 4(bu|eTthem . fqr being 
dei^t^ve, is to def{»fe: or abule 
the^n for being ufeful. The moil 
ugly animals, diough we knew 
no other ufe of, them, may be 
confidered as a (sil, like, the (hades 
in a good pi^lure^ to iet off the 
beafities of the more perfed. And 
even the loathfome vern^in are not 
without their ufe, when they 
compel us to preferve neatnefs 

B 3 and 

E » 1 

* r • - » 

Art Atiflfnal, vs^h«t<S'i^ it b^, isr 

{>lactd' 'b^ the •g(^% ' QeHttilr- ^d 
f^thdr df the tWilwrfe, i^tthc 
Top bf the Mtr b^ ite^refti^^l aai-. 
snaN ^1^ Tvippofe Jkf^iV} andj 
When tW5 tr6ntcmj>te thfc t<it^ 

r«ine, Hip poflelfiKs aWc all t^ 
«t'h€fi' ttnimaU, we jtiftly fqpjjofe. 
Him t?h^fc tcmffetuted by 'Mi 

Wak^, Bat, in thj* i/^^ rink^ 
we may 'obforre d'^gt'ces and tli6» 
fef fences, , Jiot pnly as to fiatun^ 
heautyy jftfengt'hy and compiexioky 

J)uit alib a^s TQ tHoffe very iPaiwers^ 

f y 3 

of. the. Mind, . which fo eminently 
jdifth^Hh Men fhrni hnitiet. 
y<^/ in me particular we - all 
iigrce alike, from the moftper* 
k& to the moft dull and de* 
fomied ^ men> .^nd from him 
dow^ to the vileft brute, that . we 
are all £ilceptible ^d feniible of 
the mUery of jPiw^.; an evil, ^hich 
though neceilary iit idelf, and 
wifely intended as the.fpnr to in^ 
cite us to felf-preienration, and to 
the avbidanoe of defiaiiiftioii, we 
nevertheleft are n&turaUy avftrie 
to, and (hrink bkck at the ap^ 
prehecdioi of it. Superiority of 
rank or fiaticn exempts no crea- 
ture from the len&linlity of pain, 
sor does inferiority render the 
fadings thereof the lefs e)f(|uiiite. 
rain h pain, whether it be in« 
fi,i<f|;ed on man or on beaft; and 

B 4 the 

/•* 1' 


[ ? ] 

dser maU' or^beafly.beiz^:^ 

b£ theittifery <sf : it whilftr£t"ljilfe, 

{n1'^TiBi)il; itnd the Suflerance oi 

evil, bnineritedl5v*<>npf'^v<^c^^y» 
where nd o^nccc ha$" been' givson^' 
ant} no- good -end ican poi^bfy^b« 
anfwered by it, but merely to- ex- 
hibit power or gr^fy malice,' is 
Cruelty and Ihjudice in -him that 
occafions it, 


I prefume there is no Mti;; o/* 
fiilingy' that has any idea of ^i^ 
/ic<, but would confefs upon the 
principles of reafbn and common 
finfe^ that if he were to be put to 
ttnnecejfary and unmerited . paio 
by another man, his tormentor 
would do him an ad oi v^ufitce^ 

and from a fenie pF the injuflice 

• # > 

I 9 3 


in hu iwn cafe,, now tbafHii-')! 
the Ipi^flFerer, he muft 
ifiiiery that if he were td pit 
another man of feeling to 
itnnece£^ and unmerited ^ 
which He now fuifers, thes 
in himielf to the other 
cxadly the fame as the ii^ 
in his tormentor to Him. There* 
fore the man of feeling • and 
juflice will not put another nuun 
to unmerited pain, becatife he will 
not do that to another, which he 
is unwilling jfhould be done to 
himfelf. Nor will he take any 
advantage of his own fuperiority 
is& ftrerigtb^ or of the accidents of 
J&tuney to abufe them to the op- 
ptdlion of his inferipr; becaufe 
Jie knows that in the article of 
ffeiif^vHX xatn are equal; and 



that the difierefice« of flfengtti bt 

Ibition are &t tnwh. the gifts md 

ll^intmentsr of OOD^ a$ th« 

difeenccB of uoderftanding, co-» 

liDiM|, or &[taoe. Supeiiority of 

iisaol: or ft&tioa may give abili^ 

itd 'OQsnjnimicQite faappuie!^, (and 

: iedtis To mteoded :) bot it caa 

I gire >tt6 right to inflid uimeoefiary 

( br :unmerited {sain. A 'wt/k man 

jiTiTuld idlip^ach his own wtfiJom, 

Udd h^ unworthy of the bki&ag 

49f 4 good iinderilanding, if he 

w^re. to iof^r from thence that he 

)iad tt i^gh$ to defpife or make 

Hameof a^s/) or put him to any 

i^egree of pain. The ifbily of tl^ 

fool o^ght rather to ^xoite JhIb 

[ion, 9i)d demands the wUe 

maa^s care ^and attetttiofi to one 

th^t cannot takt c^i^ c^ himfelf. 


It hat ^eafcd C Ol^die FatW 
tif idi ifiefi.toc6vtr ibme men triiili 
'^hiteikint, and otheii ^th Mack 
|ltin${ tyitt at there is ndtfadr 
iiimt fior dtment in coxnp]ezion» 
tli& ^he- ann (notwithllandsdg 
thi h£rrl^tit)r «>f cuftom and pre« 
jliilUe} ei»^ have no rights b^ 
tu^ of hk cvi&i^r) to eoilave and 
lymniiize over VL-i/itci man $ nor 
has aji^ man any right to Acfpi&i 
«ho&, and inifult a irmtm man^ 
Nor do I believe that a /ir// man^ 
hf yktAe of his fiature-i has any 
k^l right to trample a dtamf 
imder his foot. For, whether a 
taan U mft or foolifli, white or 
U^l^) &ir or brown, taUor.£hort, 
uA I iiiight add rich or poor (for 
lit is no more a man's choice to be 

pobr,^ than It i« to be a lbo]» 

J or 

£ " J 

wki.dvwtfi iO# hUek, joi*. tawrney,) 
4ttdi ker is b^. G0X>*» appoinitr 

debid, ts; ncitlier;.j^ fubje^ for 
pride, nor an bbjteA p£ contempt. 
|i{oi(ir if. ; amon^ ; lafioy. ,the 4ifr 
lerences: of their 'ppwjers;of tile 


fmndy . and of. ..their Q9.i9p|exi9n9 

Ibuure, and accidents, of ..'fortune^ 
do not give. to. any. one inan a 
Hglit to abiiiie or infuk any other 
man: on account of thefe difor 
cnoes ; for the Bime reafon> a man 
can have no natural right to abuie 
and torment a beafl, merely be-^ 
caufe a bea(b has not the.>!r^//i/ 
powers of a man« ^or fuchJ^ 
the man is, he is but. as GOD 

made him; and the very ikme is 
true of the beaft», _N^ither of 
them can '..lay: daim tP, -any inr 

. trinfic 

ttiniic Merit i for itemg. AicH : M 
titcy.; arc ; ' for beft)re; Jih^ ^tti 
createdv it was i8op«f|iWe,:,||»i 
€ttheri qF ! them " c^i^ld: i 4e|erv^.s 
and at their: cr^tibn, f their Ih^peli 
pcffcaiw«< or d§fe4^9, . ;wer;>: rjisd 
vajiiably Hxed, ainir tK<$ir bpij?ii4»* 
fct wjbkh ithey,<G^nftQt .p^fs. : Aiid' 
being foeji, 'neithl^r' iQpre. noi^ [IciS 
than GO£>:ina^e .then^, thert^KliS 
nainore\demctitri^ aiibeaftVb^' 
xng a beaft, Chan there is merit' 
iii>a mans being*'a'mari5 that isj' 
there ?is neidbo: jpaerit nor dcfmeric 

incithet of thetn* '; 



If , < -■ - . 

^ A Brute h' an animal no lefi 
ftnfible of |jain than a Man. He 
has iimilar nerves and organs of 
feifation ; and his cries and groans> 
in cafe of violent imprelUoos upon 
; his 

C »6 3 

• .• ' 

WiSk npxd to the ModlG-ti-i 
(dm'- of t&r mafs of matter of 
^ioch tfQ loimal is formed, it . is 
'^tadrntdd as to the creature itfelf j 
I mwm, it was not in the power 
ar will of the creature to choofe»^ 
wlietlicr it (hould fuftain the fhape 
of' a brute, or of a man : and yet,: 
whether it be of one fhape^ or of 
the.other 5 or, whether it be . inha- 
bited or animated fa^ the * .^1 of 
aibrute ojr the *.(bul of .a man; 
tbe fiibftaftce or matter, of which, 
the. (^refttufis i$ compofed, would 
be equally iulibeptible ,of feeling. 
It is iolely owihg to the good 

* It is of 00 coi^uence, as to the ca|b 
now before us, i^bether the SOUL is, as fotne 
think, only a Power^ which cannot exift with- 
out the Body ; or, as is generally fuppofed, a 
ffiritual Suhfimct^ that can exift, diftind and 
ftparate from the body« 


t »7 ] 

Plcafure of GOD, that We are 
created Men f or animals in the 
Jhape of men . For, He that ^formed 
Man of the dufi of the ground^ 
and breathed into his nqftrils the 
ireath of life that he might be-' 
come a living foul and endued 
with the fenfe of feeling, could, 
if he had ib picafed, by the 
fame plaftic ppwer, have caft the 
very fame dufi into the mould 
of a B^^; which, being ani- 
mated by tl\e life-giving breath 
of. its Maker, woul4 have be-« 
come f tf . living foul in . that 
form ; and, in that form, would 

have been as fufceptible of pain, 
as in the form of a M?». ^nd if, 

in brutal fhape, We had been en- 
4ued with the fame degree of reafon 

♦ Qcq, ii, ^ , t Qcn. I, 30. in the vmgi% 

C and 


and reftciSion wHkh Mrs now xsk-*. 
joy ; and other Beings, in human 
ibape, {liould take jupon tbem to 
torment, abufe, and barbaroufly 
ill treat 01, ^caiift we were not 
mad$ in their (hape ; the injuftico^ 
and cruelty of their behaviour to 
XTs vf^ould be ielfrovident : and we 
fhmUd naturally infer, that, whe-» 
ther we walk upon two legs of 
^r } whether our heads ^e prcMM 
or erei^:; whether we are naked 
or (rovered with hair ; whether we 
have tails os no tails, horns or no 
hornsj long ears or round ears ; 
or, whether we bray like an ais, 
fpeak like a man, whiftle like a 
bird, or are mute as a fifti ; Na- 
ture never intended thefe diftinc-f 
tions ^s foundations for right of 
tyranny and oppreifion, Butper- 
'7 haps 

t ^9 1 

Jkaps^ it will, be fikids it is iabfurd to 
saake&cii aa mfeitencefeom a meer 
^ppofidon cisat a Oiftn in^^if h&ve 
been n briate, and a brute inigbt 
^ave been a fnan ; for, iJie Slitppo- 
litioQ kfelf is chimerical, aod 
has J9Q fouadadon in nature ; aivl 

from &dl, and not horn iu^oy of 
wbattnigbt be or might not be. 
To titts I Te^^ i&few iV!Qrd$» land 
m general ;. that all ca&s and aiv 
gumeoAs, deduced from the i«i^ 
^ppr^ant and benew^leat pf>6cept <^f 
.Z)«^ #^ toihem aswg'WMdd ke done 
,im0i aepefikriJir require luch kin4 
^i Juppdfitiam \ that is, they fop- 
poTe the cafe to be ttherwi/e ^han 
it really is. For inftanee ; i? i?<^<& 
)!»^»2 is not a Poor ^an ; yet, the 
duty plainly arifing .from the Pre- 

C a cept, 

cept, is this,— The man who is now 
r/V/6, ought ^o behave to the man 
who is DOW pd6ry in fuch a mapper 
AS the Rich man If be vsere foor 
wopld be willing that the Poof 
man If he were rich fhouki behave 
'towards him. Here is a cafe whicH 
in fad does not exift between the& 
twp men, for the rich man is not 
a poor man, nor is the poor man 
a riph man \ vet the Syppoiition, 
is neceflary to enforce and i|luf- 
trate the precept, and the rea-^ 
fonablenefs of it is allowed. An4 
if the Aippofltion is reafonable in 
one cafe \ it is reafonable, at leaft, 
not contrary to reafon, in. all cafes 
to which this general precept can 
extend, and in which the duty 
enjoined by it can and ought to 
be performed. ^ Therefore though 

t it . ] 

It be true that a mah is Hgta 
brnffei y^^> ^ ^ horfe is a fubjet^ 
iyitbiii the extent of the preceptj 
that is, he is capable of receiving 
benefit by it, the duty enjoined 
in it extends to the man, and 
amounts to this,— Do You that /zr^ 
a Man S O treat your horfe> A S 
ycfti would be willing to be treated 
by your mafter, in cafe that You 
Wire ja,_ Horfe. • I fee no aWurdity 
nor falfe reafoning in this^ precept, 
ttor apy ill confequjence that would 
anie from it, ■ however it may be 
gainiaid by the barbarity of 

A ■ 

^ . ■ •• • • - 

But there is iio cuftom, whe- 
ther barbarous or abfurd ; nor in- 
deedyany vice however deteflable, 
but will find fooie £tSettors to juf- 

C 3 tify 


[ 2i ] 

tify^ or at fcaft to palliate it ; 
though the vindication kfclf 15 an 
aggravation of the crTmc. Whew 
wc are umJer apprchcnfions tttat 
We Otrrfelvcs fliall be the fuffer^ftf* 

• _ _ 

of pain, we natirrally Ihrink hsLck 
at the very ' idea of it : we catt 
then abominate, it ; -we dcttfi it 
with horror ; tre plead hafd for 
Mefcy\ and we feel that lit can 
feet, 5*t when MAN- 19 out of 

the qtrcftibh, Humahi^ fleep*, an<J 
the hcai* grows calknM. Wc no» 
longer confidcr otirfelvcs astCirea- 
tores of fenfe, biit'as Lord* of the 
creation. Pride, Prejudice, Aver- 
sion to fingularity, and contraded 
Mifreprefcntatioris of GOD and 
Relijgion do atlcontribote to harden, 
the heart again!^ the natural im- 
prefltons and loft feelings of com* 


|>ai]i(m4 And when the mind i$ 
thuk warped and difpofed to ^vil^ 
a light argument will have great 
weight withjt; and we ranfack 
and rack all nature in her weakfift 
and tendereil parts> to eJitort from 
her, if pofilble, any confeiHon 
^l^reon to reft the .appearance of 
'in argument to defend or excufe 
our cruelty and :oppreiIlon. 

, ,;TJbe Ctmfcioufn^s oi the Rank 
which as men we hold in the 
creation, and of the evidently fu^ 
peiior powers of the mind of man, 

whi,ch juAly diAinguifh vatsx from 
btf-Utcs,, puff us up with fuch a 
fond conceit of our own dignity 
and merit, that to make any €om-^ 
^ari/on between a man and a 

C 4 kute 





* ■ _ 

brute is deemed as abiurd ^s it 19 
ddidusi and fauitful to our Prkk* ' 

H - . . . ■ ■ • -• *fc 

The miftaken: indulgence of 
Parents ; and the Various inf^ancei^ 
of fportive crueltv in fome fhape 
or other daily pradifed by men in 
all ranks of life; and the many 
barbarous Co^owj connived at, if 
not countenanced by perfons in 
high ftations or in great authority, 
(whofe condud in other points 
may be truly amiable and refpeft* 
able,) prejudice our minds to con-^ 
fider the brute animals as fcnfelefV 
and infignificant creatures, made 
only for our pleiafure and fpcrt. 
And, when we refieft upon the 
moft (hocking barbarities, and fee 
the brutal rage exercifed by the 
moft worthlefs of men, without 


I ^5 il 

controul of Law, and without "no* 
ticc or reproof from the Pulpier 
we are almoft tempted to draw this 
inference, that Cruelty cannot, in 
iSin, : ■' \ 

« \ 

And) poflibly, the Affedatio!!! 
of) love or hatred according tb the 
mode of the fafhion ; or, in. pthctf 
wor4s> ^fcious Tafie^ . which conr 
fi{l« in ihaking the love or hatred 
of others the flandard of our own 
love and hatred ;— that we mufl 
admire whatever our fuperiors ad-^ 
inire, and condemn whatever the^c 
are pleafed to condemn j — that true 
politenefs is to have no thought, 
no foul, no fentiment of our' own, 
but a graceful reiignation of the 
plaineft dictates of truth andcom-i 
mon fenfe to the follies and whims 
of others j — that the art of pleafing 



u the art of Battery and. hihxxmt* 
plrance ; and tbat Smgularitjt of 
ientiment of praAice is the mark 
v>f a mean, aru^ar, andachur- 
lifh foul ; this afFe<^ation of com* 
pliance, this vicious tade, and 
^s AverfioHn to fingukrity may 
pioffibly lead Q^ to fuppofe, — that 
jBO diwrficm can be crttal that has 
the faii6tioa of NobiMty ;• and that 
no di(b can be" uit^Ujed (hat is 
fervcd up at it Great mari^ table, 
though * ihe kftehen h covered 
mtb bloody ^nd fitted mtb the eri'ei 
rf creature f exptrir^ in tortures, 

I am fbrry there^ould be any 
«K;ci^on to liame ReRgion as in 
>ny trfpea contributing to this 
xnfenfibility and indifference as 

• The Guardian, VoL I. N% 6i. 


I *7 1 

to tbe .'happiQefs or mi&ry of * -tbe 
kafcsior amtnais* ' I am well ariraie 
d£ ii^i^ ddicacy and tendecneis.^ 
and hope iiiball-not be deemed 
cade or . uncharitable^ oi; as re- 
ceding upon true Rd^ion, whcik 
I disclate it is oiat my mteatioii to 
pMC office to Ghrtftinns o£ a^ 
4enotnimtioa. Let me not tke^ be 


mf&mfkribjod* wben I expr^is. the 
concern q( my foul; if her i&cicd 
^mentfr.haye ever been pc^lufeed 
with bloody «iaW& niifreprefented. 
But, vpoa entity, we fear, it 
i» tco <tnie, that there hare 
been Viofeffatsoi Re1igjion» wha 
ihiHight they did GOD fervice, 
when they defaced his Image ; 
and anathematized with the mofl 
bitter imprecations, and per- 


ibctited, with torture evctk \ihto 
ck^th, unhappy wretcheS) whole 
misfortune it was to fuppojfe 
their fouls were . thcii* own ; or 
whofe only crime it wan to * have 
jmre underftanding than all their* 
tmcbers» - Now^ i» it poidlble, that 
OMiipaflion to^r///^f could find. 
|>iace in a bre^ft that withheld and 
denied the Mercy of GOD unttf 
Menf Or,* arc We to wander 


that Cruelty ti^ brutes tAade no 
Article of Self-examination j when 
mercy itfelf was deemed berefy ? 
Even in prior and f purer times, 
it was .affirmed, that it is f yihfurdj 


* Pf. cxix. 99. 

* Abfurdum eft ad hoc Dei dcducere Ma-^ 
jeftatem, ut fciat per momenta fingula quot 
nafcantur culiccs, quotvc moriaritur ; quae ci- 


t «9 1 

^od a difparagement' to the Ma-* 
jeftffoi QOD tofuppofb tiin^ /# 
KNOW how muny infeSis there dicit 
in the worlds «r haw ptanyfijhes iff 
ihe fea y y^i thzt fuch an; idea qf^;^^;^^ 
the Omnifciencc of Q OD woui4 
he faoli/b flattery tq UIM^ ap4 
an Injury, to, QURSMLFES* 
Noty, if GOP inows them notj 
he cannot regard thein^ and if 
He regards them not, why fhoyld 
We ? Why ihould we thus flatter 
GOD, and injure our own 
Pride? . 


f^icum et pulicum et rriufcarum fit in tern( 
tnulticudo ', quanti pifces in aqua natent, ^t 
qui de minoribus majorum prasdas cedeFe do- 
t)eaqt. ^on fimus tarn fatui Adulatores Pei^^ 
yc dum potentiam ejus etiam ad ima dctrahi- 
mus in nos ipfos injuriofi fimus. HiERONrm 
Ccmment. in Abac. Lib. i. Edit. Bajih Tom. vu 


[ 3* ] 

Sut Itt tiot 'ihis& mtAaken «m>- 
^oiis^^e tai|NBiltcid tic) the fpnit 
of d» Gbfpcl x^ JESUS. Lofc 
iitid beoevc^ettce are the ^^ 
nuine chaia^riftics of his Reli- 
^g^, whfdi origifiated in the 
Mirty of GOD, and is perfeded 
in the Lovb of Man. True Chrif* 
Ciaii humility abominates the(e 
fweliings ef Jpiriiuai fridey and the 
enlarged Soul of a Chrifttan >can« 
not iind room in the Marrow heart 
of a bigot. I mean not ; to give 
offence to any one ; but if any 
take ofFence, they befpeak the 
error I mean, to correft, Chrif- 
tiaa love is without pardaltty, and 
without hypocrify: and all that 
1 mean, is this, — Let not our love 
be evil Ipoken of; let us examine 
ourfelves well, and if we £ind that 


t n ] 

wig kMm^ diodnhe Of tenet thai 
$3rpUpitl|r or coQ&qiieatially re« 
preiient& the Supreme Bdiig i» 
partial of injurious to my of his 
cr<eatuf^, &ch do^riQe is 4? f 0^ 
trmiitd tmfr^n^entatim of tlie 
divine Goodnefs, and muft jtave 
a natural tendency to cude front 
the humam mind all ideas of Juf-? 
tice and Mercy (o creatures of iQ** 
Mor orders, ' 

I £ud above that Pride, Pre«> 
judice, AverGoQ to fingularity^ 
and coQtrai^d Miirqirefenta^ 
tions of GOp and Keligioui 
do aU .contribute to haxdea die 
heart agalnft the natural impref« 
^ons and. foft feelings of com^ 
^alfion. But perh^ I may he 
miilajken as to the three laft parr^ 
ticulars; at kaft, there gre very 


t 32 j 

few perfons, who will ingenuoufljr 
conf(^s themfelves the dupes of 
Prejudice^ or the fools of AffeSla-^ 
tim ; and ^as to miftakes in points 
of Reli^otty they are fcarce ever 
acknowledged ; hard to be red;i« 
£ed; and hardly to be touched 
upon, though with the utmoft 
tendernefs, without exciting the 
flame, which it is the {cope of 
true religion to quench and fup-« 
prefs. But as to Pridcy which 
arifes from the fond conceit of 
our own dignity and fupcrior ex-* 
cellence above the brutes ; though 
the name is odious, and we dif- 
claim the imputation of it } yet, 
we cherifh it with pleafure, and 
dote upon it with admiration. 
We blufli at the thought of a. 
Comparifon ; vve fire with re-^ 
fentment ; we tbfs up our heads 

7 " with 

With"' fcorn; and claim kiridrcfd 

■ « 

with heaveh. 

Well ; be it fo. Man is the 
tnoft hobld, the mpfl: excellent, 
the moft J^erfeiSt of ^11 terxeftrial ! 
Beings. But what then ? He is 
fliil biit a Creature ; aiidj with alt 
his perfections atid excellencies^ 
he is a dependent and nccbu72tabU 

* • » . 

Creature ; yea, accountable for 
thefe very perfe6:ions and excel- 
lencies, whether or no he has be- 
haved in a manner becoming a 
creature fo eminently diftinguiflied 
&nd exalted. Arid if found defi- 
cient in this grand inquifition,' 
That wherein he now glories will 
be the burthen of his difgrace. 
The more talents are intrufteJ 
with any man^ the more he ftands 
accountable for: and if not rightly; 

D employed 


t 54 ] 

employed^ or mifapplied, it had 
been better for him not to have 
pofTefled, thenir 

Every Excellence in a man i» 
furcharged with a Daty, from 
which the Superiority of his ftation 
cannot exempt him. Nay, his 
fuperior ftation urges the demand j 
and his NoncoropHance may be 
Tuftly deemed ftubbornnefs and 
ingratitude. And where Supe- 
riority of ftation, and Excellence 
of nature, do both concur in one 
fub^edl, (as is fometimes but not 
always the cafe amongft men,) 
there the duty required is greater, 
and the obligation is ftronger. 
But however it may be between 


Man and Man; this is certain^ 

that, when we compare M^n 

and Brute, we find both Ex- 

t 35 ] 

celletice and Superiority to center 
in Man/ The Excellence of the 
nature of a man to that of a 
brute, no one will queftion; and 
the advantages which the loweft 
of men derive from their J}atia?i 
as men> give them a Superiority 
which deferves their gratitude and 
attention. This granted i I be- 
lieve it will be found not difTonant 
from reafoUj^ if we were to affirm \ 
from the above principle, that 
the cruelty of Men to Brutes is 
more heinous (in point of injuf- 
tice) than the cruelty of Men 
unto Men. I will call the former 
brutal cruelty, and the latter hu- 



In the cafe of human cruelty, 
the oppreffed Man ha? a tongue 

D 2 that 

.- ^ 



t 36 ] 

that can plead his own caufe, and 
a finger to point out the ag- 
greflbr : All Men that hear of it 
fhudder with horror; and, by ap- 
plying the cafe to themfelves, pro- 
nounce it cruelty with the com- 
mon Voice of Humanity, and una- 
nimoufly join in demanding the 
punifhment of the offender, and 
brand him with infamy. But in 
the cafe of brutal cruelty, the 
dumb Beaft can neither utter his 
complaints to his own kind, nor 
defcribe the author of his wrong ; 
nor, if he could, have they it in 
their power to redrefs and avenge 

- . \ 

In the cafe of human cruelty, 
there are Courts and Laws of Juf- 
tice in every civilized Society, to 


f 37 ] 

which the injured Man may make 
his Appeal ; the afFair is canvafled^ 
andpunifhmcntinflidedin propor- 
tion to the offence. But alas ! with 
fhame to man, and forrow for 
brute, I afk thfe queftion. What 
Laws are now in force ? or what 
Court of judicature does nowexift, 
in which the fuffering Brute may 
bring his adlion againft the wan- 
ton cruelty of barbarous man ? 
The laws of Triptolemus are long 
fince buried in oblivion, for Trip- 
tolemus was but a heathen. No 
friend, no advocate, not one is to 
be found amongft the * bulls nor 
calves of the people to prefer an 
ipdi<ftment on behalf of the brute. 
The Prieft paffeth by on one fide, 
^nd the Levite on the other fide; 

* Pfalm Ixviii. 30. 

D 3 the 

C 3? 3 

the Samaritan ftands flill, jfheds a 
tear, but can no more ; for there 
is none to help ; and the poor 
wretched and unbefriended crear- 
ture is left to moan in unregarded 
forrow, and to (ink binder the 
weig-ht of his burden. 


But fuppofe the Law pro- 
niulged, and the Court ere<9:ed. 
The Judge is feated,. the Juiy 
fworn, the indictment read, the 
caufe debated, and a verdict found 
for the plaintiff. Yet what coft 
or damage ? What recompencc 
for lofs fuftained } In adions of 
humanity, with or without law, 
Satisfadipn may be made. In 
various ways you can make amends 
to a Man for the injuries yovi have 
done him. You know his wants, 
apd ypy may relieve him. You 


[ 39 ] 

may give him cloaths, or food, 
or money. You may raife him to 
a higher ftation, and make him 
happier than before you afflidled 
him. You may be^feet to thej^ 
lame, and eyes to the blind. You 
may entertain him, keep him 
company, or fupply him with 
every comfort, convenience, and 
amufement of life, which he is 
capable of enjoying. And thus 
may you make fomc atonement 
for the injury which you have 
done unto a Man ; and by thy 
afliduity and future tendernefs, 
thou mayeft perhaps obtain his 
pardon, and palliate thine own of- 
fence. But what is all this to the 
injured Brute f If^ by thy paflion 
or malice, or fportive cruelty, 
thou haft broken his Limbs, or 

D 4 deprived 

[ 4Q ] 

deprived him of his Eye-fight, 
liow wilt thou make him amends? 
Thou canft do nothing to amufe 
him. He wants not thy money 
hor t4iy eioaths. Thy converfa- 
tion can do him no good. Thou 
haft obftruded his means of get-:, 
ting fubfiftence ; and thou wilt 
hardly take upon thyfelf the pains 
and trouble of procuring it for 
him, (which yet by the rule of 
juftice thou art bound to do). Thou 
haft marred his little temporary 
happinefs, which was his All to 
him. Thou haft maimed, or 
blinded him for ever ; ^nd haft 
done him an trreparahh injury* 

But here it will be fuggefted, that 

there arc fomeM^iV'in the world 

as unfortunately circumftaneedy 

^ V and 

C 41 ] 

and as far from the means of ^ 
redrefs, as the unhappy Brute now 
before us. It may be fo. Yet be j 
it remembered, that a Day will 
come, when all the injuries which 
an innocent Man can fuffer from the 
hand of violence and oppreflion 
will be overbalanced in a future 
and happy ftate, where our light 
afflidlion, which in comparifon of 
eternity ^'^is but for a moment, 
jfhall work for us a far more ex- 
ceeding and eternal weight of 
glory .^ This is the hope and con- 
fidence of a man. And a moft 
comfortable refledlion it is indeed 
to the virtuous and innocent fuf- 
ferer, who knows that he has an 
almighty Patron and Avenger, 
\vho will finally caufe that the 
Ijialice an4 wickedn?fs of his ene- 

mies here, fliall at length promote 
the degree of his glory hereafter. 
But what hope, what glimpfe of re-* 
compence hereafter awaiteth the 
affliAcd brute f An hereafter for 
a Brute, a recompence for a Beaft 
has a ftrange found in the ears of 
a man. We cannot bear the 
thought of it. Injuftice itfelf is 
a virtue in the judgment of Par- 
tiality ; and in the pride of our 
heart we rather fay, — Let Man be 
happy, though all creation groan. 
Yet it is a truth that ought noti 
be concealed, that GOD is a 
righteous Judge ; and it is pre-, 
fumptionin m^n to determine the 
limits of the divine goodnefs. 
However, as we have no authority 
to declare, and no teftimony from 
heaven to affure us, that there is 

\ a ftate 

t 43 3 '- 

a ftate of recompence for TufFerlng 
Brutality, we will fuppofe there is j 
none ; and from this very fuppo- \ 
iition, we rationally infer that / 
cruelty to a brute is an injury ir- 1 
reparable, 1 

Compare the whole of both the 
cafes together, and the difFerejice 
is ftriking. The injured man has 
a tongue that can utter his com- 
pl^nts ; he can appeal to the laws 
of his country; he may obtain 
redrefs from his own Ipecies ; or; 
if overlooked here, and debarred 
or denied the juft and common 
claims of humanity, he can make 
his further appeal to the righteous 
Judge of all the earth, and under 
the fevereft oppreflions can lift up 
his head with hope and con- 

C 44 ] 

fidence, in expedlation of another 
(late, wherein he iliall be com- 
forted, for all the days in which 
he hath fufFered adverfity. But 
on the other hand, the injured 
brute hath neither fpeech to plead 
for him, nor law to protect him, 
nor hope of future rtcompence to 
fupport him.. His prefent life 
1 (for any thing we know) is the 
Whole of his exiftence ; and^if he 
is unhappy here, his lot is truly 
pitiable ; and . the more pitiable 
his lot, the more bafe, barbarous, 
and unjuft in man, muft be every 
iaftance of cruelty towards him. 
To fuffcr pain and mifery from 
the hand of man merely becaufe 
he IS a Brute, he ought not. To 
fuffer pain as Punifliment he can-- 
net : for puqifhment is due only 


t 45 ] 

to Demerit ; and demerit, being 
of a moral nature, can be attri-- 
bu ted only to rational beings, 
when they ad: in a manner unbe- 
coming the ftation, in which the 
providence of GOD hath placed 
them. Demerit therefore (accord- 
ing to our own favourite principle 
that Man only is rational) is pecur 
liar to men ; and is never more 
confpicuous, than when we defpife 
or abufe the inferior and irratmml 
part of the creation ; for in no 
inftance do we more betray our 
weaknefs, debafe our pride, and 
a6l beneath the dignity of our ex* 
alted ftation. 

When a man boafts of the dig- 
pity of his nature, and the advan- 
tages of his ftation, and then and 


t 46 ] 

from thence infers his right of op-> 
preflion of his inferiors, he ex^ 
hibits his folly as well as his mU'- 

What ihould we think of A 
flout and ftrong Man, that (hould 
exert his fury and barbarity on 
a helplefs and innocent Babe? 
Should we not abhor and deteft 
that man, as a mean, cowardly, 
and favage wretch, unworthy the 
ftature and ftrength of a man ? No 
lefs mean, cowardly, and favage 
is it, to abufe and torment the 
innocent Bead, who can neither 
help himfelf nor avenge himfelf } 
and yet has as much right to hap- 
pinefs in this world as a child can 
have : nay, more right, if this 
world be his only inheritance. 


[ 47 ] 

Again, what dignity pr diftinc- 
tion have We, that we did not re- 
ceive from the great Giver of all 
good ? It is true that man is fuperioc 
to a brute. But then, * * Who 

* maketh thee, O man, thus to 

* differ? And what haft thou that 

* thou didft not receive ? Now if 

* thou didft receive it, why doft 

* thou glory, as if thou hadft not 

* received ? -f- Have we not all one 

* Father, and hath not one GOD 

* created us ?' He that made thee 
a man, could have made thee a 
brute. Now if thou art a Man, be 
thankful, and fhe w thy fuperiority 
by mercy and compafiion ; elfe thou 
debafeft thy reafon, and art as low, * 
if not lower than the brute whom 
you opprefs. You confefs, that a 

• I Cor. iv. 7, t Mai. ii. lo. 


f 48 ] 

brute is an animal without reafon ; 
and Reafon fays, that to put anj^ 
creature to unmerited or unne*. 


Ceflary pain is unjuft and U7irea-^ 
finable : Therefore, a man that ii 
cruel is a brute in the Jhape of a 

But what I fay you, Shall a 
man endued with an iminortal 
Soul be compared unto a beaft that 
periflieth ? I anfwer, be this as if 
ftiay happen. If a man ads like" 
a brute, the comparifon is juftj 
however difagreeable. But wa- 
ving the comparifon : If thou art 
cruel, thy boaft of Immortality is 
the moft egregious folly* Thou 
art like a prifoner, making his 
boaft of the brightnefs and exqui- 
fite workmanfliip of ^ his fett^s. 


r 49 ] 

Or, thou art like an linjlifl: arid 
haughty Steward of a great eftate, 
counting over his Lord's money, 
«nd bragging of it as if it were his 
own ; and flattering himfelf with 
the future .favour of his- maften 
though all the tenants groan under 
the weight of .his opprefTion, and 
can and are ready to bear witnefs 
to his pride and perfidy, at their 
Lord's return, when a thoufand 
articles . will be exhibited againft 
the upftart fycophant, of wafte, 
mifmanagement, negligence, abufe, 
.tyranny, and injuftice. Yet this 
is thine own Cafe, this thine own 
Fdlly, if thy foul is polluted with 
malice and cruelty. Thou mayft 
glory in thy pretenfions to im- 
mortality now ; but wilt thou glory 

in it hereafter^ when the dreadful 

E ^ time 

C so ] 

time diaW come that thou wilt 
wifli thyfelf upon a kvcl with tht 
bead whom thou haft dt{pi(hd and 
abufed; when thine Immortality 
will be thy greateft Burthen, 
Strange! therefore, to hear cruel 
men boaft of that very Circum* 
fiance, which will make them 
truly wretched* 

Birt I know not how it is ; cor 
hands arc fa imbrued in Wood, 
that in fpitt of the ihame <^ it^ 
we cannot wafh them clean. We 
glory in that which, being mif- 
appHed, is our difgrace;. and 
when we feel ourfeWes woundcci 
itfour pride, we change the fcales ; 
wfe drop the confideration of our 
own dignity, which avails us Butr 
little J and betake us . to argu- 

> ment^ 

•• r |p^ 

v. tf:.-'/ ^' 

Ic4ge4 ia defence pr ex^ufe of the 
Wanton cruelty of ^iani 

FckT t|i\^s it i$ ^rgue4— ^ 

-^That Man has a Pefmiifipiij 
that is, it is a^ juniverfal prac- ;w>»-j>>i 
Ugg with niankiadj to eat the 
fiefii of animals ; which tarioot bi 
done without taking aw^y their 
iiveS) and putting jhenj to fo^f 
degree of .pain* 

-^That thcFC^e fome dnimals 
Obnoxious to tiiankihd; and the 
inoft compaflionate of men iildke 
ho fcruple to deftroy them* And 

■^That there are fome Brutes 
vf pr^ whith wholly fubfift on 
the ne{h of other brutes; and 
whofe lives are one coptinuftd 
Coorfe of rapine and bloodfhed. 

E 2 Thefc 

t S2 ] 

■ Thefe are the formidable afgii- 
riients, which we fomctimes have 
recourfe to in vindication of our 
cruelty, our abufe, or unfeeling 
negled ; but to each I fhall make 
a reply. 


And, firft, as it is a univerfal 
Pradlice, it fliall he taken for 
granted, that Man has a permif" 
fion to eat ihe flejh of fome ani-^ 
fnah\ and confequently, to kill 
them for food or neceflary ufe. . 


But this permifJion cannot au- 
thorize us to put them to untiBcef- 
fary^zin^ or lingering death.. Death 
they are all liable to; they muft 
fubmit to it ; and they do not feem 
to us to have any idea, or feat* 
of death. Avoidance of pain is in- 
deed as natural to brutes as it is 


[ S3 3 


to men, therefore pain is the only 
ground of fear in brutes. 

As to ourfelves, We fear both 
pain and death ; and our fear of 
(Jeath arifes from the fear of fu- 
ture pain, or from apprehenjions 
of what may happen to us after 
death : and in fome men thefe ap- 
prehenfions are fo terrifying, that 
they prefer exquifite pain to death. 
But the Brute, having no idea of 
an hereafter, cannot fuffer any 
terror on account of death. To 
\i\mprBfent pain is the only Evil ; 
and prejent happinefs the only 
Good ; therefore, whilft he lives 
he has a right to happinefs. And 
death, though it is to him the 
period of his prefent happinefs of 
§xiftence, (and fo far is a negative 

E 3 evilj) 

t 5+ 1 

tin\ j) yet it is likewlfe the p^od 
to all his fe^rs and future pain y 
and fo far ^s it removes him from 
the pofiibility of JfViture niifery 
fr^ift the <*u€lty i)f inen, it may 
]^ <cotifid'£ttd as 6 pofitive good, 
But ht this as ^ ^lj^ Death to ^ 
bhjtfe ife flQthkfg t^rrJfele, Hd 
ftiuft die once as 'well as we ; an4 
thotigh it is of imalltnoinent, whc* 
ther my bcaft is to die to-day or 
to-rrntjrto'w j yet if i^ will not kill 
him tSJtbrmorroW, I ought not to 
put him to pain to-day ; for, whilft 
ific lives, he has ^ right to iiap-t 


i^incfs, at leaft I have no right to 
inake hirti miferabjt; and, when 
I kill hiim, I ought to difpatch 
him fuddenly, and With the lea'ft 
degrete of pain. This is ftiy opi-. 

iiioiii ^nd e\ren if I ihould be? 




i 55 1 

miftaken, it appears to me to be 
fal& reafonrng to {ay, that Becaufe 
I hare permiifion to kill a brute, 
and cannot kill him without put- 
ting him to {bine degree oi necef- 
fary pain in the port article of 
death, Therefcnre I have permiHion 
to put him or any other brute to 
unneceffary pain in the kng article 
cf life. It is as fallaciouis as to fay, 
that Becaufe the future happinefs 
of a family may depend upon the 
{H'efent gentle correfl:ion of the 
child of it, novtr that he is in fault, 
Therefore feverity and, morofenefs 
are commendable and juftlSable 
i« a parent. Or, in general, that, 
Becaufe y^/^y^ p^in is a neceflary 
aad unavoidable evil to promote 
{omsi. good. Therefore all pain is 
good and deiirable. Which would 
be granting too much. 

' E4 But, 

[ 5,6 1 

Biit, Jfecondly ; It is alledged, 
That there are fome animah ^^ 
noxious to mankind ; and the moft 
compafTibnate of men make no 
fcruple to deftroy thenci. 

It is true ; Some animals arq Ob- 
noxious to us, and have it in 
tiieir power to hurt us. But very 
feldom do they exert that power ; 
and well it is for us that they have 
not the malice nor revenge that is 
f in man. * It is obfervable (fays 
1 * the ingenuous writer of the 

* Guardian^ Vol. i. N® 6i.) of 

* thofe noxious Animals, whicb 

* have qualities moft powerful to 

* injure us, that they naturally 
' avoid mankind, and never hurt us 
< unlefs provoked, or neccfiitatcd. 

* by hunger. But Man, on the 

I ^ other 


t 57 ] 

* Other hand, feeks put and pur- 

* ifues even the moft inoffenfive 

* animals on purpdle to peffecute j 

* and deftroy them.' If this be the 
cafe ; it appears, that Mercy pre- 
ponderates" in the fcale of brutes. 
For One injury which We may pof- 
fibly receive from the creatures, we 
ofler Them a Thoufand. A Horfe 
may now and then, whea pro- 
voked, give a man an unlucky kick ; 
but what is this to the blows, and 
cuts, and fpurs, which they receive 
every day and every hour from 
the brutal rage and unrelenting 
barbarity of men ? The matter of 
wonder is that we do not oftener 
feel the effeds of their pojver and 
refentment. If we confider the 


excruciating injuries offered on 
(mr part to the brutes, and the 


( S8 ] 

patience on their part ; how fre- 
quent o»r provocations, and how 
feldom their refentment ; (and in 
fbme cafes our weakne{s and their 
ftrengthj our flownefs and their 
fwiftnefi)i one would be almoft 
tempted to fiippofe, (reafon to both 
alike allowed,) that the brutes had 
combined in one general fcheme 
of benevolence to teach Mankind 
lefibns of Mercy, and Me^knefs, 
by their own forbearance and long- 
foffering* But grant that there 
are fome fierce and formidable 
atiimals that arc ftrangers to pity 
and compaflion. Does this juftify 
the fuppreilion of thefe amiable 
dilpofitions in men ? Becaufe ^ 
Wolf will feize upon a man ; Is a 
man therefore warranted to whip 
a Pig to dejath? Or, Becaufe a Ser- 


[ S9 ] 

pent will bite a man by tke heel y It 
a man to tread upon every harmlefs 
EarthwcH-m he fees wriggling upon 
the ground ? No. If fome offcn- 
iive creatures do ibmetimes un- 
provokedly moleft us, let it be 
accounted but as a retaliation of 
the injuries we ofier to thofe that 
are inoficnlive ; (and thus even the 
dreadful hornet may be considered 
but as the avenger of the (uffct" 
ihgs of the feeble fly ;) for Cruelty 
and Cowardice are * near of kin ; 
?[nd we exert our power moftly 
upon thofe creatures who can 
neither do us an injuryj nor return 
an injury done. But fuppofe we 
happen to njcet with noxious 

t Cowards are cruel-} but the braye 
|^V$ ipercy* f^id delight to fave. 



C 6o 3 

animals ; Let us prudently get out 
of their path. But what if I can- 
not avoid them ? Why, Then it 
is time enough to put myfelf in a 
pofture of defence^ and for my 
own prefervation, I think it no 
more crime to defend myfelf from 
the beaft or ferpent, than from a 
villanous man that fhould attack. 


my peirfon : and if, in the fray, I 
kill the beaft, I cannot charge 
myfelf with malice or any inten- 
tional cruelty, provided I difpatch 
hini as mjiantaneoujly as pofllble. 
If a wafp or a hornet comes into 
ixxy room, I dread his weapon; 
but I hat^ him not: he is a 
beautiful infeft ; and I make no 
doubt was created for fome 
ufeful purpofe. I am forry I am 
nece^tated to kill him; but \ 


t 6* 3 

will not clip liim in 'pieces with 
my fciflqrs, if I can cruili hidi 
under ffly foot: but if I cannot 
ttiafter him, unkfs I clip him 5 
having fo don^; I dare not leave 
him in the pain of a lingering 
death for ma,ny hours together, 
but I firiilh the mortal work with 
all expedition. And in this, I 
hope, there is no cruelty; for 
cruelty in this cafe confifts in the 
unnecefiary infli^ion and conti* 
nuation of pain, and not in put- 
ting the creature to inftant death, 
which is the period of all pain. 
Self-prefervation therefore (whe- 
ther as in the former cafe for the 
fupport of nature in the article 
Kii food'y or in the prefent cafe 
for the avoidance of pain and de- 
ftrudion from the attacks of ob- 


noxious animidi) dioit^ it. tj^st^ 
juitify a man ia putting a. bnitii 
to ixtflant de^tb, yet <9QQpt w^r* 
rant the leaft a3: of cruelty to any 
creature, howtver /ertCfouf €^ 
lavage it may be $ much Ids eoA 
it juftify the hunting out for (port 
and deftru^on creatures of th< 
famer kind^ whole inability tgi 
defend themfeli^es, whofe harmlefs 
nature, and whofe panting fear, 
rather demand all our compaflloni 
and even our protedion and at^^ 

Thirdly^ It is alledged, that 
there are fame Bfutes of prey 
which wholly fubiUl on the fle(h 
of other brutes, and whofe lives 
are one continued courfe of rapine 

and blood£bed. 


t 6s ] 

This IBoevrife is true ; and in 
the pref^nt Hate of natuie, fubje^ 
to xsxii&j and decay, it feems to be 
the wife andgbod appointment of 
die great Creatpr. Weie there no 
heafts or birds of prey, w6 {hould 
every day be tormented with the 
£ght of numbers of poor creatures 
dying by incba^ ,(as we fay) aad 
pining away through age or acs 
cidental infirmity. And, wiien 
dead upon the groui^d, (as men 
would hardiy ^ve themfehres the 
trouble to Imry themj or it would 
take up too much c^ oar. time to 
bury them all,) the ttnhiiried car^ 
cafes would by their flench create 
fuch a peftilence in the air, as 
would not only endanger our li\«es 
and heahh, hutwouM l^wife be 


r «4 3 

cxtremdy off«bfive to us* To 
guard agaitift thefe evils, it hath 
pleafed GOD to appoint that (in 
fome coiintries) Lions, Tygcrs, 
and Eagles, (and, in. other coun- 

^^^is^ tries,) Wolves, Foxes, Kites, Rslt- 
!/• *vens,' and Hawks fHould range 

" ^-^y >5£,-the woods and fields in fearch af 
the unburied bodies, . and thus 

r/vs become the living graves of the 
dead. And if, in the courfe of 
their range or flight, they cfpy a 
beaft or bird worn out with age, 
or with a leg or wing by accident 
broken, or forfaken by his dam, 
unable to help himfelf, or any 
way rendered incapable of getting 
his own food ; GOD, the Father 
of Mercies, , hath ordained Beads 
and Birds of Prey to do that dif- 
treffed .creature the kindnefs to 



relieve him (torn his mifery, hj 
ptrtdng him to death. A kind-" 
nefs which fl^e dare not (hew to 
our own fpecies. If thy father, 
thy brother, or thy child fhould 
fuffer the utmoft pains of a long 
and agonizing iicknefs, though 
his groans fhould pierce through 
thy heart, and with ftrong crying 
and tears he fhould beg thy re- 
lief, yet thou mufl be deaf unto 
him ', he muft wait his appointed 
time till his change cometh, tilt 
he finks and is crufhed with the 
weight of his mifery. But then, 
in all human afflidion, whether 
our own or others, (not the pu- 
nifhment or tSt&. of vice and de- 
bauchery,) we may comfort our^ 
felves and them with the hope of 

P a bleiTed 

t 66 ] 

a bleffcd immortality, when * aJf 
tears Jhall be wiped from our eyes ^ 
when there Jhall be no more deatb^ 
neither forrow nor cryingy neither 
Jhall there be any more pain. Hu- . 
man hope is human fupport and 
comfort. But what hope is there 
to. fupport and comfort the brutes 
underj their afili<9don ? They are 
incapable of hopey becaufe they 

can neither refledt nor forefee. The 

■.••-.. ^ . .■ ,(■■'■' 

prefent moment is ^as ^terriijty to 
them. All their happincfs is va. 
this life only ; they have neither 
thought nor. hope of another. 
Therefore when they arc mifer-- 
able, their mifery is the more ia- 
fupportable. And when they can 
no longer enjoy happineis, Death 
is welcome; and the more wel- 

* Rev. xxi. 4, 


C 6> 3 

'come, the.foonerit comes; and 
fudden death more defirable than 
a lingering painful Life. And , 
tyliilft the poor animal is thus 
kindly delivered from his pain by- 
precipitated death, the Creature 
that devours him has his degree of 
happinefs therein, and will him* 
felf one day meet with the fame 
kind treatment from fome other 
beafl or bird, when he is no longer 
able to enjoy life. This is not 
cruelty but mercy : as much 
mercy, as it is to (hoot thy horfe 
or thy dog, when all his teeth 
are gone, and the happinefs of 
his life is at an end*. 

• See Dr; Prieftley*s Inltitutes of Natural 
and Revealed Religion, Vol. i. Part i. 

F 2 And 

t 68 3 

And what if fome of the 
creatures, fwifter of foot or wing 
than the tanner kind, fhould fomcf-" 
times feize upon a harmlefs and 
defencelefs animal not under the 
diftrefled cafe before fupppfed ? 
This ihould be confidered as ant 
accidental evil hardly to be avoided 
in the prefent ftate of things. la 
brutes it is a natural, and not a 
moral evil. Ferocity, ftrength, and 
a carnivorous appetite arc eflen- 
tially neceflary to brutes of prey ; 
and the Divine Being does not in* 
terpofc to alter their 'natures^ 
if by chance they meet with & 
flieep or a man. It is neceflary 
that they fliould he/avagey to an-' 
fwer the purpofes of their crea- 
tion; elfe they would not have 
been fo created* It is as necef- 


[ 69 ] 

^ry, as that Soldiers and Execu* 
tioners of the La^y fhould be 
^m, refolute, and in fome de- 
gree unfeeling. All that men 
have to do with regard to noxious 
brutes is to keep out of their way, 
and arm themfelves againft their 
attacks. But in this country wre 
have riot much room for dread. 
We have neither Lions, Tigers, 
nor Wolves to moleft us. There- 
fore, for us to infer, that men 
may be cruel to brutes in general, 
becaufe fome brutes are naturally 
fierce and blood thirfty, is tanta- 
mount to faying. Cruelty in Bri- 
tain is no ftn, becaufe there are 
Wild Tigers in India. But is 
their ferocity and brutality to be 
the ftandard and pattern of our 
humanity ? And, becanfe they have. 

F 3 no 

E 7<^ ) 

no companion, are we to have na 
eompaflion ? Becauib they have; 
little or no reafonj are we to havci 
no reafon ? Or, are we ta becomCi 
as very brutes as they f However,: 
we need not go as far as India;, 
for even in England Dogs will- 
worry, and Cocks will fight f 
(though not fo often, if we did 
not fet them on, and prepare 
them for the battle.) Yet vi^hatt 
is that to us ? Are we Dogs ? Are 
we fighting Cocks ? Arc they to 
be our Tutors and Inftrudlors, 

that we appeal to them for argu- 
ments to juftify and palHate our 
inhumanity ? No. Let Tigers 
roar, let Dogs worry, and Cocks 
fight ; but it is aftonifhing, that 
MEN, who boaft fo much of the 
Dignity of their nature, the fu» 

7 . perior 


peribr Excellence of their under- 
fkndings, and the Immortality of 
their fouls, (which by. the by. is a- 
circumftance, which cruel .• men ; 
aboVe all others have theleaft 
Tcafon to glory in,) fhould difgrace 
their dignity and underftandings, 
by recurring to thepra<Stice of the-, 
low and confeffedly irrational part 
of the creation in vindication of 
their own condufl:. There may 
be fome cafes indeed in which we 
may receive inftruaion from themr • 
and there may be cafes too, in 
which a wife- man may learn in^ 
ftruAion from 2i fool', but' it is . 
not therefore ncceflary that a wife 
man Oiould too implicitly and at 
all times follow the Apoftle's rule 
(i Cor. iii. 18.) /<? become a fool 
that be may be wife ; nor is it ne- 
ceffary that a msiri fhould transform 

""•'■^ F4 bimfdf 

[ 72 ] 

himfelf into a Beaft, to learn nkc 
behaviour becoming a Man. What- 
esrer is good deferves our imita-* 
tion, whether it be in an Afs or 
a Piftnire. Go to the AN% thou 
Jluggardyhyi Solomon (Prov. vi. 6.) 
Cpnfider' her ways and he' wiji>* 
But if a man's capacity is not Iq 
exalted as that. of a pifmire, or if 
he is become ftupid and obfti- 
nate ; then fend him for inftruc, 
tion to an Ox or an Afs ; for it is 
thus that Ifrael was reproved for 
ignorance aiid ingratitude (Ifa. i. 3.) 
The OX knoweth his Owner^ and 
the ASS his mafiers criby but Ifrael 
doth not hnowy my People doth pot 
conjider*. There are fome cafes 


* There is a fimilar kind of reprciof to tTie 
fame people in the Prophet Jeremiah, Ch* viii^ ^ 
Vcr. 7. The STORK in the heaven knoweth her 


[ 73 1 

therefore in which wc might dq 
well to imitate thpm. But when 
we make the kxopity of favage 
Brutes the model for our imita-^ 
tion , ^hen we pay them th^ com- 
pliment to copy* their manners in 
that which is moifl: deteftabl^, 
and which we naturally dread and 
avoid, we carry the matter too 
far; we betray the wcakneft of 
our own underftanding ; we de- 
grade ourfelves from the rank we 
hold as Men ; and with all p^r 
pretended boafl of Honour, the 
obfervation of David King of 
Ifrael is as true as it is plain^ 
(Pfa. xlix. 20.) MAN that is i» 

(i0cinte4 times', and the TURTLE, and the 
CRJNE, and the SWALLOfT ohferve the time 
pf their coming: t>ut m^ Feoplf know not the 
judgmenf of the LORD. 

.7 honour^ 

f 74 1 

honour, and linderjiandeth not; it 
like the BEASTS that ferijh:- " - 

•' , • f • » • ■ ■ 

But let us have done with tri- 
fling obj^diofis, and hruiijh Ex- 
ampUsy whether of real Brutes, or 
of Brutes in the fhape of Men. 
My appeal is not to Brutality, 
nor tb brutal Inhumanity. And 
my Arguments arc not deduced 
from the natural fiercenefs or ir- 
rationality of the one, nor from, 
the unnatural barbarity, blind 
ratge, dr unfeeling avarice of the 
other. It has been my endeavour 
to plead the caufe of the Dumb 
Creatures on the Principles of 
Natural Religion, Juftice, Ho- 
nour, and Humanity. And I 
ihall be happy if any thing which 
I have hitherto fuggefted, may 


t 7S ] 

have the bleffed effedt of mollify- 
ing a fingle humaa heart ; thougl|. 
at the fame time I am aware of the 


obloquy to which every man muft 
expofe himfelf, who prefuiAes to 
encounter Prejudice and long re- 
ceived Cufioms, To make a com" 
parifon between a Man and a 
Brute, is abominable i To talk of 
a man*s Duty to his Horfe or his 
Ox, is abjurd ; To fuppofe it a 
Sin to chace a Stag, to hunt a 
Fox, or courfe a Hare, is un-^ 
polite ; To efteem it barbarous^ to 
throw at a Cock, to bait a Bull* 
to roaft a Lobfter, or to crimp a 
Fifh, is ridiculous. Reflexions of 
this kind muft be expeded ; 
though I have avoided as much 
as I could the pointing out any 

particular inftances of cruelty ; 


f 1(> ] 

for I had rather the Propofition 
fhould • be general, that Cruelty 
i« any fhape is foolilh arid deteft- 
abte. But if it is applicable to 
any of the abovementioned parti- 
cokrs, I have no obje(fti6n to the 
inference, Atid I ^ill hot denv 

^ # 

tliat r had thefie:, and matiy more 
than thefe in view. 1 cannot, I dare 
not give up a true andufeful Pro-' 
jfofition, becaufe the cohclufiori 
niay carry in it the appeafancc of 
cenfure or difapprobation of the 
felie notions or wrong pradices 
of other men. There are fome 
Truths which ought not to be con^ 
cealed. And there are fbme cafes, 
aaid indeed many cafes, in vt'hich, 
through the fear of offending, 
and a dcfire to pleafe and recom- 
mend Gurfclvcs to favour, we 


't 77 ] 

carry our complaifancc mucK too 

far. I would not willingly give 

any one ofFence, but, in the pre- 

fent cafe, to be filent would be 
cruelty, and an offcnct to the 

brutes for whofe fake I write* 
Let it be deemed then in th? 
eftimation of the Vul^r*, a,bo- 
xninable, abfurd, unpolite, or ri- 
diculous, I am not afbamed as a 
Chriftian to teftify my utter ab-^ 
horrence of every inftance of 
Cruelty; and as a Minifter of 
Chrift, I fcruple not to 'Saifirnij 
upon the genuine Principles of 
our Holy Religion, that:. an Un-^,. 
merciful Chriftian muft be either 
extremely ignorant of his duty, 

* By th? Vulgar I mean the Obftinate, the 
Hard-hearted, and the Ignorant j of every clals 
and denominatlQa^ 


[ 78 I 

or extremely obftinate, Hard-* 
hearted, and ungrateful* 

To vindicate and fupport this 
aflertion, as well as to illuftrate 
and confirm what has been before 
advanced on the Principles of 

Nature, I fhall now appeal to 
the authoritative Word of tht 
Great GOD the Benevolent 
Creator, and to the Gofpel of 
the Bleffed JESUS the Merciful 
Redeemer of the World. And if it 
fhall appear from the Teftimonies 
and Examples, and from the Pre-^ 
cepts and Promifes contained in 
Holy Scripture, that MERCY to 
Brutes is a Z)C/T!rcommanded, and 
that CRUELTY to them is a SIJV 
forbidden ; Then, let all Objec- 
tions vanifh j Let all the Earth 


[ 79 ] 

keep filence before GOD. And 
though * there are many Devices 
in a Mans hearty neverthelefs the 
Counfel of the LORD^ that Jhall 
ftand'y and every Device and 
Attempt to invalidate the Duty 
of Mercy, or to exculpate the Sin 
of Cruelty, (befide its repugnance 
to Reafon and Common Senfe,) 
mufl be confidered in a religious 
view, as taking its rife, either 
from Blindnefs of Hearty ox from 
Pridcy Vaiii-Glory and Hypocrijy ; 
or from Envfy Hatred^ and Ma-t 
lice J and all Uncharitablenefs ; or 
from Hardnefs of [Hearty and 


• Prov. xix. air 


[ -So 3 

np HE lirft account of Brute 
"■• Animals in Holy Scripture 
is in the Hiftory of the Crea- 
tion recorded by MOSES in 
the firft chapter of the Book 
intituled GENESIS or Genera-* 
tion, (vcr. 20. and 24.) GOD 
SAlDy Let the WATERS bring 
forth abundantly the MOVING 
CftEATURE that hath LIFE^ 
(or as it is ta the HebreWy and in 
the Margin of our Bible, The Mo- 
ving Creature that hath SOUL,) 
and FOWLi that may fly above 
the Earth in the open firmament of 
hean)en, ^ And GOD SAIDy Let 
the EARTH bring forth the 
(or iis} kindy CATTLE and 


[ 81 y 

BEAST of the Earth after his 
kind'y and it was fo. 

Thete is a peculiar * fublimity 
of Stile throughout this chapter 
in which the facred Hiftorian re- 
prefents the WORD or Mandate 
of the Almighty as preceding 
every Event of Creation. GOD 
SAID, LET BE. A Form of 
ExprefHon this, which cannot fail 
to engage the attention of the 
Reader ; and it feems intended to 
denote that it was as eafy to the 
Supreme Being to DO as to 
SPEAK, yet not fo as to exclude 
the idea of the adual Exertion of 

* Vide Dionyfium Longinutn Ufft 'X'\'vu 
Pearcei Edit. 8vo. pa. 50. 

G the 

[: 84] 

the Diviftc POWER irtediately (» 

MEJVr ot Air, WATER^ ind 
EARTH^ were Elements of ink*' 
mediate Creation, or Effefts of 
which the divine Power was the 
Sole and Immediate Caufe. 

The SUN and STARS^ iht . 
mediate Effbfts, or Formatiosw 
produced by the confluence and 
configurations of the Elements 
which were before crealedx 

But ANIMALS, or Bdi^ 
with Life and Senfe, are to be 

confidered both fts Ptx>daAiohs 
and Creations j PrnduHions as to 


[ 8s ] 

iheif Subftance or Matter, and 
dreatiom as to Life and Senfe. 

LIGHT or Fir^ colleAed into 
Orbs, and fet in propejr places in 
the great Expanfe, became Sun and 
Stars, ThcfFATERS, endued 
with Gravity and Lubricity, were 
gathered together^ that is, ran 
down into the bafon prepared for 
their recejption, and fo formed the 
Sea. And the EARTBy endued 
with the wonderful quality of 
Vegetation, was, in the hand of 
its Maker, the powerful Medium 
of the Germination of Grafts 
HeriSi and Trees, Yet, aft-er all, 
thcfe Effe<9:s were as inanimate as 
the Elements of which they were 
formed. There is fomething in 
our ideas of Life and Senfationy 

G 2 which 

t 8+ i 

which cannot be accounted for as 
the mere effe6l of any configura- 
tion or modification of inanimate 
matter. The Waters by conflu- 
ence might hew out a Rock, of 
fhape out an Ifland ; and a por- 
tion of Earth might be concreted 
into a precious Stone or a Mineral j 
yet rocks and iflands, precious 
ftones and minerals are as void of 
fenfe or felf-motion, as if they had 
never been formed. Neither 
Water nor Earth (though power- 
ful mediums to caufe furprizing 
effeds) can any more communi- 
cate Life and Senfe to their owrt 
produftions, than a weight or- 
fpring can communicate Life or 
Senfe to a Clock or a Watch. If, 
by the motion of the Waters, the- 
Slime or Subftance in the bed of 

y. ■■ ■ the 

f 8s ] 

t^e Sea had been thrown into the 
form of the moft perfed: Fifli ; or 
if the Earth had brought forth a 
Vegetable in the perfed: form of 
a Beaft ; the Fifh would have 
been as lifelefs as a rock or a 
fponge, and the Beaft as infen- 
£ible as a fione or A blade of grafs. 
Or, if all the Elements together 
by an accidental concourfe had 
formed Beings of the fliapes of all 
the Animals that exift in the Uni- 
verfe, and of the fame fubftance 
and texture as to every part of 
them within and without, ftill 
they v«rould have been but as 
figures of pafte, or as dead corpfes 
without Life or Senfe. 

To communicate Senfe to in- 
animate matter, or to kindle but 

G z the 

[ 86 ] 

the fifft fpark of Life (however 
when fo kindled or communi* 
cated to any being, that Being 
might be enabled to continue and 
extend the flame to others of its 
own fpecies and generation) was 
a new and diftind: exertion of the 

divine Agency'; or, it was as 
much a CREATION, as the ori- 
ginal Creation of the inanimate 
Elements ; and as fuch it is repre- 
fented to us by Mofes. For 
though it is wntteil *, GOD faidy 
Let the Waters bring forth abun^ 
dantly the MOVING CREA- 
I'U RE that hath Life, and 
FOWL) that may fly above the 
Earth in the open firmament of 
heaven ; yet we are not to fup- 
pofe, from this form of expref- 
iion, that the Fifhes and Fowls 

* • 

• Gen. i. 20. 


f «7 ] 

were a fpontaneous generation, or 
the meer produdlion of the waters 
without the interpofition and ope- 
ration of the divine Power; for 
it follows in the next verfe, 
and GOD CREATED Great 
CREATURE that movethy which 
the Waters brought forth abun- 
dantly after their kind^ and Every 
Winged FOWL after his kind^ 
The WATERS brought them 
forth^ and yet GOD created them. 
That is, they were both Producr 
tions an4 Creations. And the 
meaning feems to be this, Of 
the Slime or Mud or othey ijeccf- 
fary Ingredieots brought forth qt 

yielded frorq th^ Waters ^nd * 

G 4 Earthy 

* That Earth as well* as Water wg$ p^rt 
Qf the Subftance of Fowls is evident from 

ch. ii« 

[ 88 ] 

Earthj GOD took thereof, and 
formed the Fi/lies and Fowls^ and 
created them ANIMALS or 
Moving Creatures-, by communi- 
cating to them LIFE, or Soul 
And GOD faw that they were 
Goody good in their kind, and 
well adapted to their proper Ele- 
ments ; and GOD bleffed them. 

Again, (ver. 24.) GOD Jaidy 
Let the Earth bring forth the 
his kind, CAtTLE and CREEP- 
the Earth after his kind ; ajjd it 
was fo 5 that is, // wasfo that the 

ch. ii. 19. and therefore, it is moft likely it 
was part of the fubftance of Fifhes, though 
the writer does not mention them in that 
place, becaufe the Fiihes were not brought to 



[ 89 ] 

Earth brought forth or yielded 
lubftance or matter for the divine 
Hand to work upon, and for the 
Spirit of Life to quicken and ani- 
mate ; for we read in the next 
verfe, that GOD MADE the 
BEAST of the Earth after his 
kindy and CATTLE after their 
kind', and Every THING that 
CREEP ETH upon the Earth 
after his kind. The EARTH 
brought forth the fubftances ; but 
GOD fliaped them and gave theni 
Life, and fo Made rhem to be 
ANIMALS or Living Creatures. 
And GOD faw that they were 
Good. , 

From this account of the Crea- 
tion it plainly appears, that the 
Fifhes of the Sea, and every Crea- 
5 if*re 

iure that moveth in the Waters ; 
the Fowls of the Firmament, and 
every Creature that ftieth in . the 
Air ; the wild Beajis of the Earth, 
and the tame Cattle of the Earth, 
and every Thing that creepeth 
upon the Earth ; all and every 
Brute Animal, from the Great 
IV hale to the Creeping Worm, 
were MADE and CREATED 
by the Divine i\ppointment, and 
by the Operation and Power of 
that GOD, who in the Beginning 
created the Heaven and the Earth. 

I obferved above, that every 
Animal was a Creation as well as 
a Production. And this is no lefs 
true of MAN (the laft made and 
created^ biit th« moft perfe£l and 
tnoft eminent of all the terreftrial 


[91 ] 

Animals,) than it is of Brutes. 
For we read (ch. ii. ver. 7.) The 
Lord GOD formed MAN, of the 
Duft of the Qroundf and breathed 
into his Noflrils the Breath of Lifi^) 
and MAN became a Llf^INS---.-..^ 

Diftinguiflied and exalted as 
Man is above all the other Ani- ' 

- ■ • • - . . . f 

xnals, there is nothing, rccordedvl 
of Him as to his Origin that i&i 
not applicable to Them like wife. 
The Lord God formed MAN of the 
JOufi of the GROUND. And the 
fame is faid of the Beafts and Birds, 
(ch.ii. li^.) Out of the GROUND 
the Lord God formed every 
BEAST of the Fieldy and every 
FOWL of the Air. As to Sub- 
(lance then Men and Brutes are 


[ 92 ] 

I alike, Of the Dufl of the Ground. 

''■ And to the fame purpofe faith the 
Royal Preacher (Ecclef. iii. 20.) 
fpeaking of Men and Beads, Ail 
are of the Dufl^ and all turn to 
Dufl again* The truth of the laft 
part of the fentence is iudifput-> 
able, that all turn TO Dufl ; and 
daily Experience demonftrates it. 
Therefore we have reafon to con- 
clude that the former is equally 
true that All are OF the Dufl. 
And this is confirmed to us by the 
Declaration of GOD unto ADAM, 
(Gen. iii. 19.) Thou fhalt return 
unto the Ground % for but of it 
waft Thou taken ; for DUST Thou 
art^ and unto Duft fhalt Thou re- 

It is further faid of MAN, 
and GOD breathed into his Nof- 


t 93 ] 

trils the Breath of Life. If wt 
turn to the fixth and feventh 
chapters, we find the words Breath 
of Life applied both to Brutes 
and to MEN. For when GOD 
declared to Noah (ch. vi. 17.) 
that he would bring a food of Wa- 
ters upon the Earthy to defray all 
FLESH, wherein is the BREATH 
of LIFEy it appears throughout 
the feventh chapter, that the 
Brutes are included in the words 
FLESHy wherein is Breath of Life. 
And the Brytes that were faved, 
are defcribed in the fame form of 
words (ch. vii. 14, 15.) They, 

Noah and his family, and Every 
Beaf — and all the Cattle — and 
every Creeping Thing — and every 
Fowl — and every Bird went in 
unto Noah into the Arky two and 


[ 94 ] 

iwo of all FLESH.y wherein is the 
BREATH of LIFE. And more 
particularly, more expreily, add 
remarkably in verfes 21, 22. All 
FLESH diedy that, moved up9rt 
the Earthy both of FOWLy atid 
of CATTLEy and of BEAST, 
and of every CREEPING 
THING that creefeth upon th^ 
Earthy all in whofe NOSTRILS 
was the BREATH of LIFEy «f 
all that '6x1s in the dry land *j diedk 
The Brutes then have the Breath 
of Life in their Noflrilsy as Well 
as Men. The GOD that made 
the J^orld and all things therein 
(faid St. Paul to the Athenians, 

• The Limitation in this place, of all that 
ivere in the dry Land,, intimates that the Fiflies, 
though not in the dry Land, were Crea- 
tures in "whofe I^ojlrils was the Breath of 

5 Afts 

[ 95 ] 

Ads xvii. 2^.) gtvefh to a/J LIFE 
and BREATH. And when i/i? 
taketh away their BREATH, they 
die^ and return to their Duji^ Pfa. 
civ. 29-. And that which hefalleth \ 
the Sons of Men, fays Solomon, 
(Ecelef. iii. 1 9.) hefalleth Beajls ; as 
the One dieth, fo dieth the Other > 
yea^they have all ONE BREATH\ 
fo that a Man (in this refped) 
bath no preeminence above a Beafl* 
All go imto^cne place ; All are of 
the Dufi\ and All turn to Duft 
again^ He then fubjoineth this 
very pertinent queftion. Who 
knoweth the Spirit of a MAN 
that goeth upward, and the Spirit 
of a BEAST that goeth downward 
to the Earth f As much as to fay, 
Who Icnoweth the difFerence (as 
to this World) between- a man 

■ ' and 

V H 

[ 96 ] 

and a beaft ? Or wherein has a 
Man any preeminence above a 
Beajiy except that a Man walketh 
cre<9: *, and fo his Breath goeth up- 
ward^ but a Beaft walketh prone *, 
and fo his Breath goeth downward 
to the Earth f I confefs this com- 
parifon and this home queftion is 
very humiliating ; but I defire it 
may be obferved, that I quote the , 
WORDS of Holy Scripture, which- 
feems to reprefent Men and Brutes 
in their original conftitution as 
nothing more than B R BATH- 


But it is added in the Creation 
of Man, that MAN became a 

• Pronaque cum fpedent animalia caetera 
tcrram ; 
Os homini fublime dedit : coelutnque tucri 
Juflit, ec credos ad fidera tollere vultus. 

QVW. Metam. 


C 97 ] 

LIVING SOUL.— "" He Lord 
God formed MAN of the Dufi of 
the Ground ; and breathed into his 
Nofirils the Breath of Life^ and 


SOUL. Now if Man became ^^ 
Lwing Soul by God's breathing 
into his Noftrils the breath of 
Life ; Every Creature, into whole 
Noilrils was breathed the Breath of 
Life, became a Living Soul like- 
wife. But we have feen above that 
all the Creatures, who perifhed in 
the flood, were fuch in whofe Nof- 
trils was the, Breath of Life f ; 
therefore, all thofe Creatures, whe- 
ther Fowls, or Cattle, or Beafls, 
or Creeping "things, were LIVING 
SOULS ; and confequently all of the 
faipe kind, at this day, are LIV- 

* Gen. U. 7. f vii. 22. 


[ ^8 3 

ING SOULS. And AjcIi thcf 
zte in Hi^£W Scripture faid to Wy 
and f6 they are denoii&inatal iii- 
oat EngUIh Bibles^actotdtngto the 
Margin wbkli hsL% been alway^ 
Undet-fto<Ki As of the ^tne autho^^ 
rity as the Context itfelfl Thti^ 
(ch. i. 20.) latt iht Waters 'bffft^- 
firth the Mcvitt^ Creiiure < ^)W- 
heti LIFE : in the Hebrew, aii^* 
in the Margin, that Bath SOUhy 
and (ver. 30.) 7<> twiry^ Btafi'^ttf 
the Earthy • iwfe/ /» «>*rf • iW/ iff' 
the Air^ and to tvery- Thing thnr 
Creepeth upon the Earthy "wherein 
there is LIFE : in the Hebrrev^ 
and in the Margin, 10 herein ther^ 

The Sum of the whole is thisC' 

In the Scripture Account of the 

S ^ Original 

E 99 y 

Ori^nal Confiitution of Men and- 
Bn^tes, the very fame Tprms are 
applied to Both. Arc the Brutes 
of • the /)<^ of the Ground f So 
is Man. Have Men the Breath of 
Life in their Nofirils f So have 
Brutes. Are the One Living 
Soukf So are the Other. For 
the- Lord GOD formed both Man 
and Brute of the Dufl of the 
Ground^ and breathed into their 
Nsftrils the Breath of Life, and 
{o Man and Brute became LIV- 
ING SOULS, or (ch. vii. 4. 23.) 

■ / * 

t 1 hope I fhall not be mifundcr- 
ftood in this (hort difquiiicion 
concerning the Creation of Brute 
Animals, as if I meant hereby in 
any refped to difparage the real 

H 2 Dignity 


[ 10^ 1 

Dignity and Excellence of Main*' 
kind. I acknowlege with all 
thankfulnefs and humility, that 
there are perfections, endow- 
ments, and advantages on- the 
fide of Men, which devate Us far 
above the Brutes 3 and when we 
take into the account the future 
Immortality of Man, the diftance 
between us is infinite. But as it; 
appeared to me necefiary, in a^ 
Treatife of this nature, to con- 
fider the Origin of the Creatures: 
who are the Subjeds of it; it. 
would have been an adt of great, 
partiality to ourfelves, and of in- 
juftice to their caufe, to have 
omitted any circumftance, that 
may be advanced in their f^vor^ 
to conciliate fome attention from 
us towards them. And furely it 
f is 

[ lOI ] 

is ibmething in their favour, 
when, "^ in looking to the rock from 
whence Adam was hewn^ and to 
the hole of the pit from whence he 
was digged^ we find that, in our 
original cooipofition, we are all 
of the. Duft of the Ground^ that 
we are all of One Breathy that we \ 
have all Otje^-Father^ and . that j 
One GOD created us. 

In Dominrpn, Rationality, and | 
Juture Immortality, a Man hath \ 
undoubtedly the preference to a \ 
Brute; and in thefe refpe(Sls he is j 
t Made in the IMAGEy after the \ 
Likenefs tuf GOD, But let it be \ 
obferved that he i« but a created 
linage^ or an Image of Appoint- 
ment. It is not abfolutcly ne- 

. * Ifa. li. I. f Gen. i. 26. 

H 3 ceflary 

ceflary to his conilitution as ^ 
Living Creature^ that he {hoiild 
be thus appointed and diftin- 
guiihed. He might have been 
"without Dominion, without Rea« 
fOD, and without Immortality ; 
and yet would have been a Man 
as to figure, feature, naked ne(ji> 
and upright pofture. 

DOMINION is a • Gift or 
Qranc unto Man, |br whicK'he 
is accountable to Him that ^vt 
and' granted it; and which may i 
and in Tome cafes has been taken 
away ^m a man without his 
ceafing to be a man. And when* 
ever he abufes the Power and Dt^ 


^ ^hou naadeft bim tQ iavi Dominion wer 

... .. , , • 

tbi works of $by bands. Pfa. viii. 6. 


{ ^5)3 J 

; ... ' . * 

fitinim .wj^ich. G Q D has given 
iiim * G^er the Fijhfdf the Seg^^ an4 
fi^r the Fowl, of the y^ir, and over 
$he Cattle^ and o^ver all the Eartbt 

I ■ ■ • ■ 

i^nd over ivery Creeping Thing, 
that freepeth upon the Earth ; 
whenever he tyrannizes over them 
with the brutal fiercenels of a 
Shark, a Vulture, or a Tiger; 
though he may retain the- ihape 
of a man ; he degenerates into a 
Monftcr, and forfeits the title of 
the Image of GOD'^whofe Mer-r 
cies are oTe? all his Works." J^--/^ 

' ' ' ' ' \ ■ 

' And as Dominion, {q REASOtST 
h a GIFT unto Man, yet not in- 
ieparable frpm the h^nian form (as 
is evident in the cafe of Idiots.) 
And whenever we abufe that 

• Gen. i. 26. 


H 4 Reafon, 

[ I04 ] 

Reafon, and a6); beneath the cha-- 
rader and dignity of a National 
creature ; we lofe the divine Image 
in that refped ; we have nothing 
to denominate us Men but out- 
ward fliape ; or, in other words, 
we become Brutes in the fhapeS 
of Men. 

And as Dominion and Rea* 
fon, fo future IMMORTALITY 
is * a GIFT'y and, being a Gift, 
we have no natural claim or 
right to it, but by the Grace of 
the Donor. We cannot claim 
it merely becaufe we are animated 
Duft ; for on this pretence a Lion 
may put in the very fame claim. 

• the Qift ef God is Eternal Life tbreurb 
Jefus Cbrtfi our Lord. Rom. vi. 23. 


[ I05 ] 

Nor can we claim it through any 
Merit of our own ; for * it is GOi) 
that worketh in us both to will 
and to do, or, GOD gave us our 
powers of thinking and ading* 
J^ it (hould be faid that we are 
intitlcd to it through the Merit of 
another \ it is plain that exclufive 
of that merit, we (hould have no 
claim to it at all. Or if it fhould 
be faid that, from the firft moment 
of our exiftcnce, Immortality was 
damped upon us, or, that f GOjy 
created Man to be immortaly and 
made him to be an Image of his 
own Eternity ; ftill it was GOD's 
Will and Pleafure thus to dignify 
and diftingtiifh the duft - of the 
Ground* in one fhape, from the 
like duft of the Ground in ano- 

• Phil. ii. 13. t Wifd. ii. 23. 


^itdp^thee. ta differ .{torn, a Brutcr; 
^und what httji thou^ thai,, tbm didfi 
not recevoef i Oor. U(> 7., 


-GREAT then a;s MAN: ^ 

and Uhn^fi ofi GO J) jr how cxt 
Alted f0ever his ftation noW-y or 
ivhat^er jit .may be hereafter ;;. it 
invaJidatQs -. not r this.; truths that 
our Pi|F(?Fence from: and E»cel-. 
lence above the i^rutes isr thrpiigh 
the Gift and Grace of GOD. In 
the firft point of Bxiftence, in 
Pur original Compoikion, ^ we 
leem to. have been more upon fi 
level f and during our £xiftence 
here, we fubdft together as the 
joint ^4 temporary tenants of 
the earthy alike as to pailtpn, 
; fenfe, 

[ 'Q7 3 

^nfe, and appetite; aod alike \ 
Aifbja6fc tp itki^mkyi pain, and j 
death. Thje; Brutes «at, and [ 
drink, and fee, and hear, and : 
tafte, and fmdl, and have organs 
of fenfation as well as Men. The 
Blood circulates in their veios a$ 
in our own. They hunger, they 
thirft, they faint for want of food 
and refrefhment ; and Man hath 
the fame pailiohs, and 'ilands. in 
need of the fame fupport. And 
when GOJD taketb away their 
breathy they die, and return to 
their duft, Pia. civ. 29, And when 
the breath of Man , gottb forth y he 
returneth to his earth, Pia. cxlvh 4. 
In fome refpcd$, in (Irength,. in 
fwiftncfs, in fcent, and iharp* 
iightednefs, it is certain that 
many of them exceed us. And 


[ 108 ] 

though it is true in general, that 
the Brutes have neither the Shape 
nor the Reafon of Men, yet it is 
likewife true, that fome Brutes 
approach fo near to the human 
fhape, and (bme Men lecm to be 
fo defe&ive as to reafon, that upon 
Comparifon ^. 

But Comparifons are odious^ 
We will fiippofe MAN in all re- 
(pcds, and at all times, fo perfect 
and fo diflinguiilied, that no 
Comparifon can, or ought to be 
made. Yet thus much I prefume 
will be granted, that a Brute is a 
creature fuperior to a Stone, and 
that fome of them poflefs proper- 
ties and qualities which are not 
unworthy of the notice and atten- 
tion of men, inafmuch as they 


[ 109 ] 

tend to difplay the power and 
wifdom of their great Creator. 

: / will fetch my knowledge from 
afary faid Elihu fo Job, (Chap. 
xxxvi. 3 — 5.) and will afcribe 
righteoufnefs to my Maker. — Behold 
GOD is Mighty y and defpifeth 
not any ; He is mighty in Strength 
and Wifdom. ^ Chap, xxxvii. 14. 
Hearken unto this^ yob ; Jiand 
Jiill and co?ijider the wondrous 
Works of GOD.^Y^r. 2g.. The Al- 
mighty is Excellent in Power. But 
how {hall Job confidet this ? Qr 
from whom fhall he learn inftrqc- 
tion ? For in the extremity of his 
grief, he had faid to Corruption j 
Thou art my Father ; and to the 
Worm^ Thou art my Mother and 
my Sifter * ; and to the like pur-^ 

• Ch. xYii. 14. 



f «^«^ ] 

i>ofe had Kldad faid, ♦^Mii* is d 
Worin^ mnd (be ^t/n of Maw is a 
Worm *. To evince therefore 
the Excellence of the divine 
Power, the fublimc Writer of thi» 
noble and; incomparabie Poem, 
ds if he thought it bcy<md human 
defcription, introduces the • AP 
mighty as in a. whirlwind conde-" 
fcending to f expofttilitC'*with 
;^B upon the fubjed ; Firft, B^ 
an Appeal to the % Ordinances of 
Heaven directed and controuled 

+ ^he njQhoU Speech for Suhlimity of Stik and 
Matter is i)uortby of the divine Majejiy\ and fo 
far' above heih^' equalled hy any human Con^ofi-' 
tion,^ that I , am fatisfied no one can have tb^ 
inanity to attempt^ it. WORTHINGTON's 
Differtariori on the Book of JO Hy at rhe End 
oi.iTif Efny on ReiemptU*t page 525* 

^ Ch. xxjjviii, 33. . . ,: 


^r the t)v«r>ruliitg poW» ^d ap* 

pointment of GOD ( and Theli^ 

by referring him to the Living 

fokaens tad MeOisof movo khan 

fiDoman pWerond greata^, iiiani^ 

k&ci in tke. prodigious 'Stre&gth, 

or^ amazing 'Swiftnefs, or grsuieful 

Beauty, or; caormous Scature, or 

ttiemendous Fiercenefs of the mof^ 
epiinent oC the Brute Creatures ;< 

ai^ parti^ylarly . exemplified m 
thp.LIO^, the JIAVEN, the 

Wild GOA% the HIND,^ the 
^//.^ ^^^, the UNJCORATy the. 
HORSE, the ^y/^^, the. 
Elephant, and the * LEVIA- 

I.I. • ...«•. 

* The Defcription of the Leviathan in ch, xli. 
induces me to think tliat this Creature is the 
Chwiikj^ and not the WbaU^ as fome h^ve fup- 


[ '" } 

*THAN or Crocodile, Ch. xxxviii," 
xxxix. xl. xli. 

Tbfcfe noble Brutes in a moft 
remarkable manner, and indeed 
Every Living Creature io fome 
rcfpe(9: or other, do fo evidently 
declare the Wifdom and Power of 
GOD, that the Royal Pfalmift 
calls upon them ALL, from the 
Greateft to the Smalleft, to join 
in the grand Chorus to the Praife 
of the great Creator : Praife 
the LORD from the Earth ye 
DRAGONS, and all Ye CREA- 
TURES in the depths of the Sea ; 

Te BEASTS and all CATTLE, 

poled. It was the great Dragon of the rivers, 
and more known in Egypt, where Mofcs was 
educated, than the Whale. SeePfal. Ixxiv. 13. 
14. Ifa. xxvii. i; Ezech. xxix. 3. and xxxii. 2. 


t *'3 j 
am E PING THING S and \ 

FLYING FOWL,^Praife ye tU \ 
LORD, Pf.exlviii. 7,1 o. hxALet 
Every thing that hath BREATH ■■ 
Prai/e the LORD* Pfa. cl. 6. 

pROM the Cohfideratiofi ci( 
god's Power eihibited in the 
CREATION of the Brute AmV 
inalsi Let us now proceed to 
the Contemplation of his Good- 
nefs manifefted in his PROFI-- 
DENCE over them. 

* The Lord of the Heavens and 

* Earth, the Creator of the Wa- 

* ters is the King of every Crea- 
< ture */ What GOD hath created, 
he cannot but love ; and what he 

5 Judith ix. 12/ 

I loveth 

t "4 ] 

loveth cannot but be the 6bjeA 
of his Goodnefs. * O Lord, Thou 

* loveft all the things that are,' 
(faith the Writer of the excel- 
lent but too much negle<9:ed Book 
of * WISDOM) < and abhorreft 

* nothing that Thou haft made ; for 

* never wouldft Thou have made 

* any thing, if Thou hadft bated 

* it. And how could any thing 

* have endured, if it had not been 

* thy Will ? Or been preferved, 

* if liot called by Thee?' No 
creature, that GOD hath made, 
can be unknown to or difregarded 
by him. Hear the words of th( 
great Creator himfelf, who in th 
fiftieth Pfalm is reprefented as tb 
Speaker in terms that commar 
our utmoft attention : 7%e Migl 

• Wifdoxn of Solomon, $d 24, 25. 


[ "5 J 

GODi even the LORD hath 
fpokerti and called to the Earth 
from the Rifing. of the Sun^ unto 
the Going down thereof \-^RVE,RY 
BEAST of the Forefl is Mine, and 
the CA'TTLE upon a thoufand 
Hills', I know all the FOWLS of 
the Mountains, and the Wild 
BEASTS of the Field are Mine-^ 
or * with me\ or -f- in my fight y 
\. e. of my Creation, and tinder 
iny Proteftion. 

, The Goodnefs and the Mercy 
of GOD are as extenfive as his 
'Wifdom and Power. For what 
He hath created by his Power 

• * 

•and Wifdom, He preferveth by 
his Goodnefs and Mercy. The 

• The Margin. 
f Common Prayer Verfion. 

■ •• I 2 Eyes 

C "6 3 

Eyes of ALL wait upon 7%ee, O 
Lord, and thou giveji them their , 
Meat in due feafon. Thou openefi 
thine hand, and Jatisjieji the Defire 

No fooner were the Animals 
created, than they received the 
Blcfling of their Creator. For 
having appointed unto MAN his 
proper food, and declared what 
fhould be meat for Him +; he then 
adds, as a teftimony of his Provi-^ 
dential Care over the Brutes — 

To EVERY BEAST of the 
Earth, and to EVERY FOWL 
of the Air, and to EVERY 
THING that creepeth upon the 
Earth, wherein there is Lifey I 

* Pfa. cxlv. 15, 16. 
f Gen. i. 29. 


I "7 ] 

J}ave, given every green herb for 
Meat, Gen. i. 30, 

How excellent is thy Loving- 
Kindnefs^ O GOD; Thou f re- 
fir ver of MAN and of BE AS T. 
Pfa. XXX vi. 6. — Give Thanks 
unto the GOD of Heaven ^ who 
giveth Food to ALL FLESH i 
for his Mercy endureth for ever. 
Pfa. cxxxvi. 25. 


But befide thefe declarations in 
Holy Scripture concerning the 
benevolence of GOD to all his 
fOreatures in general, let us turn 
to the ClVth Pfalm, and we fliall 
hnd therein- a ftrikingly beautiful 
Illuftration of his Providential 
Goodnefs to various Species of 
them. Which Pfalm if any man 

I 3 can 

[ "8 3 

qan read deliberately, without 

fome tender emotion, he muft be 

either very proud of himfelf, or 

very infenfible of the divine Good- 

nefs and Greatnefs. Blefs the 

Lord^ my Soul ; — for He/end^ 

eth the Springs into the ValUes 

which run amongji the Hills ; and 

why ?-. that All the BEASTS of 

the Field may drink thereof \ and 

the Wild ASSES quench their 

thirjl ; and that the FOWLS of 

the Air may have their Habitation 

in the Trees nouriflied by their 

moifture, and fng and chirp 

among the branches. — He water eth 

the Hills from his chambers above ; 

and the Earth is fatisfed with the 

fruit of his works ; and why ? 

.Becaufe it brings forth Grafs for 

the CATTLE as well as Herb for 

3 ih 

[ ^^9 ] 

the fervice of Man. 'The Trees 

of the JLiOrd are * full^ even the 
tall Cedars of Libanus which He 
hath f* planted : To what purpofe ? 
Only to pleafe the eye of Man, 
or to afford him timber for his 
houfe, and a fhelter from the 
ftoirm? The Pfalmift afligns ano- 
ther i^aiony — that the BIRDS 

♦ In both our trandations it is rendered 
Full of Sap^ but I h^ave here omitted of Sap^ 
becaufe it is not in the Hebrew, The word 
IShBOU denotes Fulnefs in general \ and 
io its extent it means not only fulnefs of fap^ 
but likewife fulnefs as to Growth^ Height^ 
LioveSy Fruits^ zjid Branches^ and whatever 
ipight contribute to render the Trees more 
\jfcful and convenient to 'their inhabitants. 

•f Thofe Trees are faid to be the Trees of 
th LQRDy and planted by .Him, which 
grow of themfelves, without the Art an4 
Care of Men. 




[. I20 J 

might there make their Nefls\ and 
as for the STORKi the Fir-Treef 
are her Houfe. Let us next fuf- 
vey the high Hills, and the Cfaggy 
Mountains and Rocks inacceflible 
to Men, and dangerous for us t^ 
climb 5 yet they are not withdtit 
life, or inhabitant ; for, The high 
Hills are a Refuge far the - IVild 
GOAT'S I and the flony Rocks are 
'a Retreat and Habitation for the 
CONIES^ a weak and timorous 
race of animals which could 
hardly be fafe in more frequented 
places; and concerning whom 
Agur in the book of * Proverb$ 
makes the like obfervation, that 
3.8 they are but a feeble Folk^ th^y 
make their Houfes in the Rocks, 
Th^ Pfalmift then proceeds tq 

? Prpv. XXX. a 5. 


[ .« ] 

contemplate th6 good Providence 
of GOD both to Man and Beaft, 
in appointing tibe darknefi ; of the 
Nighty as the moft convenient 
feafon, for the Wild BEAST^S of 
the foreji ta move and ct^ep forth^ 
when they can be the leaft ob- 
aOxious «ntO Men \ for. Then do 
the LIONS to4r after their Prey^ 
and ftek their M^at front GOD. 
And having fulfilled their pleiafure 
and appointed tafk in devoui'- 
mg the dead bodies of animals, 
which, for want of fuch Scaveng- 
ers, would probably infed: the air 
and render it offenfiye aftd un- 
wholefome ; when the Sun arifethy 
they get them away together ^ and 
lay them down in their Dens^ that 
they tnay be no obftrudion to the 
indviftriovis M-^N^ who goeth 


[ 122 ] 

forth in fafety to his work and ta 
his labour^ until the Evening, 
when the Wild Beafts fally forth 
again. Struck with a juft fenfe 
and reverential awe of the Wifdom 
and Goodnefs of the Great Crea- 
tor, the enraptured Pfalmift can- 
not refrain from burfting out in 
accents of Love and Admiration.— 
LORDy how manifold are J7>y 
Works ; in Wifdom hafl Thou made 
them all: the EARTH is full of 
thy Riches. And not only the. 
Earth and Air, but SO alfo is 


the Great and Wide SEA, where 
the LEVIArHAN taketh his 
pa/lime^ and wherein are Things 
Moving innumerable both fmall. 
and great * LIVING CREA- 


* As Beaft in our language denotes a land- 
aaimal,^ and the fubjedts in this place are 


[ '23 ] 

^IXIRES. ' Thefe wait all upon 
ithee, that Thoti mayfi gwe them 
their Meat in due feafon. Thou 
givefi them^ They gather ; Ithou 
openefl thine Hand ^ They- are filled 
with Good. Thus fung the j^i?^/ 
Pfalmifl of IJrael^ in Hymns oJF 
Praife unto the LORD his GOD, 
who though clothed with Majefiy 
and Honour^ and High above all 
-Nations^ and his Glory above the 
Heavens^ Yet humbhth Himfelf to 
behold the things that are in hea^ 
ven and earth -f*. 

The Goodnefs and Benevolence 

» • -- -, 

of GOD to the Brute Creatures 

• t ■ ' 

water, animals,. I have {nhAitutcd Living. 
Creatures for Beafts. And thus the Hebrevy 
word ChlUT is rendered in Ezech. i. 5. 

' * 2 Sam. xxiii. i, -|- Pfr, cxiii/6. 


[ 124 ] 

leem to hiive made fuch sin itn< 
prefHooi upon the mind of David, 
and to. have been fo favourite a 
theme with him, and he takes 
fuch frequent occafions to intro- 
duce their Names into his moft 
iacred Poems, and moft ardent 
Prayers; that one would almoft 
fuppofe he thought to render 
GOD the more propitious towards 
Men, by reminding him as it were 
of his Mercy, and Loving Kind- 
nefs, to Creatures fo much infe- 
rior to Men. When he was be- 
wailing his own mifery and weak- 
nefs, he compares himfelf to the 
loweft reptile : — I am a WORMy 
and no Man. (Pfa. xxii. 6.) When 
he was interceding for his people 
in the time of plague, he recom- 
mends them to the divine Mercy 


[ »2S ] 

and Forbearance, under the de- 
nomination of harmlefs and inno* 
cent Sheep * :— / it is that hofue 
finned and done evil indeed ; but as 
for thefe SHEEP what banxe They, 
donef (i Chron. xxi. 17.) And 
when deprived of the opportunity 
of attending the public worfliip ; 
when his Mind was contemplating 
the Atniahlenefs of GOD's Taher^ 
nacle ; when his Soul was longing 
and fainting for the Courts .of the 
LiORDy and his very heart and 
flejh crying out for the Living 
GOD, the Sparrow and the Swal- 
low are the Mediators of his Sup- 

* It is well known that our bkiled Saviour 
frequently calls the Members of his Church 
his SHEEP, which word likewife occurs in 
the daily Liturgy of the Ch. of Cng. Wi 
have erred and ftrayed— -like loft Sheep. 

3 plication i 

C '.26 ] 

plicatioh i — 7:5^ SPARROH^: 
hath found an Hdufe^ and the 
SWALLOW d Neft for herfelfi 
where She may lay her Youngs 
even Thine Altars^ Lord of 
Hofisj my King and my God* 
Pfa.» Ixxxiv. 3« 


in the CXLVIIth Pfalmj He 
calls for the Harp to accompany 
the Voice of Melody :-^0 Sing 
unto the LORD with Thankfgiv^ 
tngj Sing praifes upon the Harp 
unto our GOD ; who covereth the 
Heaven with Clouds^ and prep areth 
Rain for the Earthy and maketh 
the Grafs to grow upon the Moun- 
tains *. He giveth to the BEASX 

* In the Com. Pr. Book Verfion,^ it ft 
kdded/ and herb for the ufe of men ; bat ats this 
is not in the HebreWy nor in our Bible Vcr* 
iion, I omit it in this place. 



[ 127 3 

his Food; and feedeth the Toung 
RA FENS which cry or call upon 
him. With GOD no Creature is 
contemptible. By his general 
Providence, He hath manifefted 
his Love and his Tendernefs to- 
wards ALL. Even a young Raven 
cannot call upon him, but the 
Lord will hear its cry and will an- 
fwer it : For He provideth for the 
RAVEN his Food^ when his Young 
Ones cry unto GOD, Job xxxviii. 


It is not improbable that our 
Lord JESUS had an eye to the 
laft mentioned paflages of Scrip- 
ture, when he commanded his 
difciples to Confider the RA*- 
VENS-i which neither fow nor 
reapy neither have Jlorehoufe nor 


t ^28 .] 

Sartfy for GOD FEEDETH 
7iem> (Luke xii. 24.) In anothek* 
place this fentimeht is cxpreffed 
in more general ternls : (Matt. vi« 
25,) Behold the FOWLS of thi 
Aivy They fyui) notj neither do they 
reap^ nor gather into harris^ yet 
feedeth Them.^Thdit fame GOD^ 
to whom You are to addrefs your-^ 
felves by the endearing and yet 
exalted Title of Our Father tvhich 
art in Heaven^ and to whom You 
are daily to put up this Petition of 
dependance, Give us this day our 
daily Breads That Heavenly Fa- 
ther^ That Giver of Bread, who 
daily feedeth YOU^ feedeth alfo 
the RAVENS and the FOWLS 
of the Air, 




tt was a ufual method of teach- 
ing with our BlefTed Saviour^ to 
deduce his Arguments from Na^ 
ture and common Obfervation; 
and particularly, when it was his 
dcfigU) either tocofre6: the pride^ 
or to mollify the hea,rt8 of his 
hearers. W hen he would . rcmon- 
ftrate with the people, whom he 
came to redeem, concerning their 
perverfenefs and ingratitude to- 
wards him, and his tender affec- 
tion and concern for them, he 
borrows a Simile from the cir- 
cumftance of a HEN that 
would have gathered together her 
CHICKENS under her Wings^ 
hut they would not *> Afld when. 

* Matt, xxiii. 37. Lu. xiii. 34. fuoted from 
% Efdras i. 30. 

K he 

C Jf30 ] 

he would convince his Difciples 
of the Providence and Love of 
GOD towards Men, and of the 
Duty of Truft and Confidence id 
him, he refers them to the Spar- 


rows^ as to beauty and melody 
the moft inferior of all the fear 
thered race; and hcH fo- cheap 
with men, that two of them are 
worth but one farthing, yet not 
fo cheap in the eftiniation of the 
GOD that created them as to be 
beneath his notice, or unworthy" 
of his care. Are not Two SPAR- 
R OWS fold for a Farthing r 
And One of Them Jhall not fall to 
the Ground without your Father. 
Matt. X. 29. And that our Lord 
did not mean hereby barely to re- 
prefent to his Difciples the exten- 
iive Knowlege of the Creator, ex- 


f »3f J 

clufive of his providential Carq 
and Tendernefs towards thenfi^ is 
evident from another paflage in 
jvJiich Jbe exprefles hjmfelf morQ 
particularly, Are not Five SPAR-: 
RPWS fold for Two Farthing^ f 
And, not ONE p/THE^M k fir- 
gotten before GOD. Luke xii. 6» 
WJiether Two Sparrows for on^ 
Fartlyng, pr (which is cheaper 
ftill) Five Sparrows for Two Far- 
jthings ; Not One of them fliall fall 
to the ground without your Fa- 
ther ; not One of them is forgotten 
before GOD. 


. ■ ■ / 

Now to what purpofe thefe nu- 
merous Teftiraonies of Scripture^ 
which I have collqdbed together in 
proof of. the S4aptnntending Care 
of GOD over all his Creatures ?■ 

K 2 but 

[ 13^ ] 

but to enlarge the mind of M^n^ 
and to teach us that, as GOD is 
the common Father of the whole 
Creation, His Mercy is over all 
his Works. * The Goodnefs, the 
Mercy, the Kindnefs, the Love 
of GOD towards his Creatures, 
is fo clearly laid down in exprefs 
words, throughout the Scrip-; 
tures, that the greateft caution 
fhould always be taken not to 
offend, againfl them; and no 
Notions muft ever lead us to 
run counter to them *.' Not 
even a Sparrow is forgotten before 
GOD, but holds a place in the 
divine Remembrance. Infignifi- 
cant as many of the Creatures may 
appear to us. They are all in the 
iight, and under the prote&ion of 

♦ Dr. Sykes« 


E 135} 

the great and merciful Creator, 
They are all recorded in his Book ; 
and it is He that cloaths, and 
feeds, and preferves them. And 
well it is for moft of them, that 
they are in GOD's keeping, and 
iiot in Our's; for we fliew too 
plainly by our treatment of thofe 
animals, that are in our power, 
and are committed to our care 
and management, what would be 
the unhappy fate of all the reft, if 
they were left to our difpofal. 
Not that the Supreme Being is 
the lefs concerned for fome than 
for others; for they are all of 
them parts of his great Family 
iipon eafthj though fpxne of them 
are more immediate obje^s of his 
care and protedlion than, others, 

K 3 Creaturcf 

»l >% V* 

f »34 J 

as W$ own peculiai^ pi^ptrt y *. 
^'Jtll'tii Beafts of the For^Ji are 
Mikey fafth tlie Miglity GODi iT^fraT 
h-hrr^'tU €ArrLE tk>m ii 

iS' 2<f^i?» /^^ MotdTJtaifiSy and 
m-Wm BEASTS of the-Fkld 
H^'e'-inMy SigUl With regard to 
i'/S^ iDreatur^s, Me requires not 
^r 'tare ' or attention . He docs 
Ak-tepea 'diat we iflrou^i ton- 
cirra'idr' trcjuble ourfelve's" about 
thetiiv 'Tire l>dty of A^en con- 
^efMng 'A'tiimkU' that ar^ Md-by 
ntarb, life's i'li' a' very narrow com- 
^--Xef Mm ^/^//^L •' ' Beitig 
^^&^b's'pi'd|>fejr^'^nti in 'Ms fight, 
^6l> wiif prbvrd^ for '■ thetn. And 
it i^ ieribti^ for t^s,' 'tharive invade 

* P(a. 1. 10, II. 


• • 

C 135 ] 

not their province, tut leave them 
unpolefted and at liberty to per- 
form the tafks, and anfwer the 
pods,; for vjrhich GOD was pleafed 
to create them. 

., ,Our principal Duty and Bu- 
jGinefs it i^ to confider the Crea- 
Itji^es^of the tame and domeftic 
kind y fuch as come frequently in 
dvir way, or. are daily before our 
eyes, or are appointed to the Ipe- 
cial Ufe an^ Service of Men, and 
a^e afUgned ove;r to pur care, ma- 
nagement, and protediion. Which 
Ajnimajs, if I.might be permitted 
|:0 give them a particular name to 
diftingyifli tixem from Brutes of 
fer.oQity.y I WiOUjld denominate 
^rutes of Ji)umaniiyy becaufe they 
have not ^hat Enmity or natural 

K 4 Averfion 

f »36 3 

Averfipn to Mankind, which fi 
difcernihle in the reft qf Brutes. 

ft is an inftance of the Wifdom 

» - • • 

^nd Goodnefs of GOD, that the 
Brutes fhould be animals Irratia- 
nal^ and Dumb, As to Brutes of 
ferocity^ it is certain, that if^ befide 
their Strength, Swiftnefs, and 
Sharpnefs of Tooth or Talon, they 
were endued with the powers of 
Reafonand Speech ; Men, who are 
animals naturally defencelefs, and 
comparatively flow of motion, 
would live in perpetual fear and 
dread of them. And with regard 
to Brutes of humanity^ particularly 
the large and laborious kind, were 
they capable of Reafotiy the re- 
fledlion upon their Subordinate 
and fervilc Condition would render 

[ 137 ] 

them very unhappy in themfelves ; 
and perhaps' lefs tradable^ and 
confequehtly lefs ufeful to Us. 
Andjif, to the power of Reafon, we 
fnppofe them likewife endued 
with the power of Speecby the 
inconvenience to Meaiwo^ldi be 
much greater. For thefe Brutes, 
by the united facuhies of Realbn 
and Speech, would be able to ea-!> 
ter into^ combination^ aiui confpi*^ 
racies againft mankind.. Nor need 
we doubt but that this in fad 
would frequently be the cafe. By 
their conftant intercourfe with 
Men, they would foon difcover 
OUF natural • weaknefs, and their 
own ftatnre and {|rength ; and the 
Senfe of their hard flavery, and of 
the injurious treatment they meet 
ivith from us, would probably 


t '5« I 

tjij»l throw^ off vthf.'L'H^Jpjaij 
klre Aot: ihe £acuitie«4 of: .Re^foa 

noStJis 'a Ibrthei! proof of.itikc 

thjite diei Jacge Mrufef- -af. humanity^ 
iodMire' great ilrengt^ and ilatiue 
#6' are fo inucii iodebded Co ias 
i^our aixl .draught, jQioiild heib 
ibniark.abJy . j^raSiaMff : %»^ Tamh 
fiicw iF iwith : their £bength( ian^iftiu- 
Ktaie:the7 had thai: iavagemii) 4od 
fettjoity pf i>eaTt, or*tb«ttiiyjeBfioQ 
to ^>enn9it)r to mankind,) vnhioh 
tftacy nthor iai^e Wutf/s jbavi^ 


ii!^i'*. < * QUIT 

C 139 1 

ourMiic ■: and wc {bioxASi as Tub?* 
i5friffivdj bow^el tJbuek 

acMir^iariRi: r!0>^ri jj^hfic-.timid^tyt And 

• * 

•oFpfT louc fervine, jjGjGD 1)284)0611 
pILsafed-to'-areatei fihefe ^ufeful Ami 
pay &'iharge, 'and • , fkong^;^ afxdi ifbc 
©tir '^fecwrity ki. is-,' ^tat thiiy ;aib 
11*00(1^ ixrationad; and: dumb. /Bik 
•cetbinly it does ttot'becpme'usrcd 
take^ a cruel - advantage -of any of 
their incapacities or defers, which 
are .only intsended as the reins Arp 
which' we are to guide andiooin* 
trotil: Jthemv They are tendered 
ta^us iwi«h"ftnehgth Sufficient for 
laibdtir^jbutiwiih hearts humbled, 
and 'mdHified ; \afhd willing td ftib- 
isilt 'Vd M^e delightful and' noble 
• ^ • ^ iervice 

[ I40 3 

fervice of being ufeful unto Menv 
And happy are they, when they 
find we atc'cept tbdr willing obe. 
4ience, by our kind atid tender 
iifage of them. They are entirely 
in our power, and committed to 
0ur care. And it is not impi*o- 
bable that GOD has afligned hi$ 
oWn Providence over them to Vsy 
that they may be the more tra6t» 
able, the more they find them4 
felves dependent upon us. But 
then it is our duty to cbnfider that, 
their fervice to us, and depehd-r 
arice upon us, and their own natu-* 
ral incapacities, lay a kind of claim 
and demand upon our attention 
and tendernefs, There is a con- 
dition arid reftriiSkion implied in 
the compad. And as all dele-f 
giated Dominion is founded -on g^-r 

5 ner4 


neral Utility, the Power granted ! 
unto Men to ruie over the Brutes^ 
cannot be a Power to abufe or 
opprefs them. 


It is the Perfedion of a wife 
and good Government (not to 
take away the ncceflary diftinc- 
tions of its fubjeds, nor to put 
them all upon an equality) but to 
confult and provide for the hap- 
pinefs of every individual accord- 
ing to his refpedive flation. 
Therefore the wife and good LaW' 
giver of the Univerfe, the King 
of every Creature, extends his care 
and concern to every fubjed in his 
vaft Dominion. To the feryice of 
Men he tenders Animals of various 
kinds, to help our weaknefles, 
and to fupply our wants. And 


£ ^42 3 

to preferve due fubordinati<!)D^ He 
has thought it good to deny to 
thefe Animals thofe faculties of 
Reafon and Speech, with which 
he has been pleafed to blefs 
ai)d diflingui^ Mankind.. .Yet 
ungrateful Man, with all his 
Reafon unreafonable, deaf to the 
voice of Juftice, and obdurate to 
the feelings of Compaflion^ abufes 
his Power and Dominion over 
thefe poor creatures ; beca«fe, for 
his fake, they are defencelefs, ir*- 
rational, and dumb ; becaufe they 
are unable to, refift us, and have 
neither Argument to convince us 
of our injuftice, nor Speech to 
utter their complaints.. 

But, though MAN be cruel and 
unjuft. The LORD is righteous 
• • and 

( J^S ] 

and merciful. The defers" and 
necefffties of Brutes of humanity 
pkad hard for pity and fuppotti 
And the lefs they are able to vinf* 
dicate themfelves agaiaft the abufib 
of human power, the more they 
ftand in need of fuperior Interpey-i 
iitioh '■ oi^ their behailf. Though 
beneath the notice of Men, they 
are not bisaeath the notice of tlw 
GOD that raade them. His Meif- 
cies are over all his Works. Td 
check the fwellirtgs of our ppidei 
to prevent the abufe of out 
power, and to curb the iropetuofity 
of our paflion and tnaHce, Ma 
gracioufly condefcends to re^afod 
and to fpeak for thofe, who cafti- 
nbt reafon and ipedk for theTja" 
felves. He not oniy pleads thie 
ca^ife of ail hi^ crcatules in ge- 

t ^4+3 

jneral, by the teftimonles of hii 
own Goodnefs and Mercy towards 
all, obfervablc by the light of 
Nature, or recorded in his Holy 
Word ; but he has iikewife been 
pleafed to give particular Laws^ 
by Precept or by Example, for 
the regulation of our coildu(Si: to- 
wards thofe Brutes, who are more 
Immediately within our power; 
and therefore are moft liable to 
fuffer by the abufe of it. What 
thefe particular Laws are, I pur- 
pofe now to confider. But I (hall 
firft beg leave to make a (hort ob* 
fervation, which I recommend 
to, and hope is not unworthy of 
the notice of Chriflians, as it is 
a proof that the God of the Chrif- 
tians is a GOD that delighteth in 
Mercy. Blejfed be GOD, even 


f ^4.5 ] 

the. Father of our Lord Jefus 
Chrift^ the Father of Mercies^ and 
the Gad of all Comfort. 2 Cor. i. 3, 

It h^s beeh the opinion of fonie 
Chriftians, that the Law of MO- 
SES was fuperfeded by the Golpel 
of JESUS. It is not my defigfi 
here to enquire whether or how 
far this is true. But it is with 
fingular pleafure that I obferve as 
to, the fubjed: of Mercy, and parr 
ticularly of Mercy to Brutes^ that 
however GOD may have been 
pleafed to vary in his difpenfations 
towards Mankind, by obliterating 
an old Covenant to eftablifh a new 

one, yet his Covenant for Brutes 
is invariably the fame; He Icaveth 
them not without witnefs. Whe- 
ther God of the Jew, or God of 

L the 

[ H6 ] 

the Gentile, He ceafeth not to be 
the Father of Mercies, and the 
God of all comfort. The Laws 
of Mercy and Tendernefs towards 
the Brutes, enjoined in the Old 
Teftament, he tranfcribeth into 
the New Teftament, (as I fliall 
fliew in my procedure) and hath 
thereby inftru<fled us, — That not- 
withftanding we are the adopted 
Sons of God by Grace, we are ncrt: 
to forget that by Nature we are 
of the Duji of the Ground^ as well 

as the Brutes; That the Virtues 

of Juftice, Mercy, and Humility, 
are ftill as efi'ential to a Chriftian, 
as they were formerly to a Jew ; 
and — That the Privileges of Chrif- 
tianity are not intended to cancel 
the Duties of Humanity. 


t t47 ] 

^ H E R E are Three Inftatices of ( 
Regard, which the Oeatures, j 
who are intrufted to our care, in \ 
confideration of their fervice, and \ 
dependance upon us, have an un- | 
dqubted right to, and which on j 
the principles of natural Religion ! 
they may juftly demand of us ; | 
and thefe are FOOD, REST, and j 
TENDER USAGE. Thefe three / 
demands of Food, Reft, and Ten- \ 
der Ufage, the Goodnefs of the \ 
great GOD their Creator has been j 
pleafed to covenant' for on their '; 
behalf, and to enjoin and ratify in ; 
his written Law. 

I. As to the duty of giving them 
FOOD in due feafon. It is thus 
commanded in the^ fifth Book 
of Mofes, intituled Deuteronomy^ 

2 or 

[ '48 ] 

or the Repetition of the Law^ 
(Ch. XXV. 4.) "thou jh alt not muzzle 
i^v txxi. the OX that treadeth out the corn. 
This is a precept of juftice and 
mercy. The Cattle are upon the 
whole, the cheapeft fervants that 
we keep. They want neither our 
Money nor our Cloaths* Gold 
and Silver are of no more account 
with them, than the ftones of the 
i ftreeL And as to Cloaths, they 
/ are provided by Nature with better 
and more durable garments than 
all the Art ^of Man can furnifli 
them with. In this they have the 
advantage of us : and if they were 
as capable of pride as Men are, 
they would put this endowment 
and array of nature into the ba- 
lance, as more than a counter- 
poife to Solomon in all his Glory. 


[ H9 3 

For let a man be ever fo well 
dreffed, his cloaths are but the 
covering of his fhame, and arti- 
ficial fupplies for natural defeds. 
Every ornament he wears to grace 
his perfon, is a tacit acknovi^Iege- 
ment that without that ornament 
he would be lefs beautiful and 
amiable ; and that in himfelf he 
is fo imperfed, that he ftands in 
need of invented ornaments to fet 
him off. And even his neceflary 
cloaths are either taken from the 
ground which the cattle tread 
imder their feet, or elfe are bor-- 
rowed fkins, borrowed feathers, or 
borrowed hair. The creatures, 
which we defpife, wore them, be- 
fore we had them, and could call 
them their own ; whilft we are 
glad to be their heirs, and to wear 

L 3 them 

[ '5° ] 

them at fecond hand, when they 
have left them oiF : nor even then 
can we apply them to our ufe and 
fervice, without much contrivance 
and preparation. But to the 
Brutes their cloaths are fuitable to 
their wants ; they are the endow- 
ments of Nature, and the gifts of 

GOD. And well for them it is, 
that Nature has in this inftance 
been fo bountiful and indulgent 
towards them ; for if many of the 
cattle were as ill cloathed, as they 
are too often ill fed and hard 
wrought, they would be wretched 
creatures indeed. 

FOOD is all the Wages, which 
the laboring Brutes exped: or de-. 
fire, for all their toil and drudgery 
ia the fervice of Man ; and to 


[ '51 ] 

deny them Food is not only im- 
prudent in the Mafter on his own 
account, but it is barbarous, 
wicked,, and unjuft. They afk 
only the Grafs of your fields I 
mean the grafs of the field ; for 
You have no property in nature. 
W^ are only temporary tenants^ 
with leave to take to our ufe the 
fruits of the earth. The foil is 
the property of GOD, the- Lord 
Paramount of the Manor, who 
hath made the grafs to grow for the 
CATTLE. The grafs of the 
field therefore is no gift of your's 
to them; it is their right, \ their 
property ; it was provided for 
them, a^d given * to them, be- 

* And GOD faid—To every BEAST of the 
Earth '""^ I have given every green Herb for 
M^at. Gen. i. 30. - 

L 4 fore 

[ '52 ] 

fore MAN was created. And as 
Man cannot eat grafs, and the 
Beaft afks for that on\y, which 
man cannot eat, to withhold <w: 
forbid it, is a robbery and a fin; 
Therefore if to gratify thine ap^ 
petite or avarice, thou ploweft up 
one field, and to fave the fweat 
of thine own brow, inftead of 
digging it with a fpade, makeft 
life of the labor and ftrength of 
thy cattle to plow it for thee ; ia 
the name of gratitude and juftice, 
forget not thy benefadlors, but 
allow them another field, or fome- 
thing equivalent to it, in lieu of 
that which you have taken from, 
them. Muzzle not the Oxen^ that 
tread out thy corn. Confider well, 
if the corn you fow and reap i% 
thy corn, not their corn j the 

3 grafs 

[ ^53 ] 

grafs you dig up is their grafs, not 
.your grafs. And when; God ap- 
pointed you to be mafter of the 
beaft, and tenant of the field, 
he gave you no right to deprive 
your beaft of that food which God 
hath ordained for him ; but as 
Lord of the Manor he demands of 
you a quit-rent for the ufe of the 
beaft that plows and labors for 

I know indeed it is unnecef-r 
fary, and might feem like trifling, 
to endeavour to perfuade, or con- 
vince a man of the reafonablenefs, 
expediency, or advantage accruing 
to himfelf, in feeding his Horfe 
or his Ox ; the Owner's intereft 
will prompt him to it, without 
advice. The moft cruel Mafter 


C '54 ] 

will not ftarve the Slave by whom 
he gets his bread ; nay, perhaps, 
will give him Food enough to go 
through his work ; but this is 
hot all that is required in the di- 
vine precept, Muzzle not the OX 
that treadeth out the corn. For if 
food and barely food enough to 
fupport life is all that is meant by 
it, I prefume it would not have 
been delivered as a facred com- 
mand. Not to MUZZLE the 
OX^ implies fomething elfe than 
not to Jiarve\\\vn. To ftarve him 
to death is fuch a mixture of Folly 
and Cruelty, that no man of com- 
mon fenfe or common humanity 
can ever be fuppofed to be guilty 
of it. But to muzzle him whilft 
treading out the corn, or laboring 
for the food of Man, is not un-- 


[ 155 ] 

ufaal even with thofe who would 
be efteemed Merciful. The pre- 
cept therefore enjoins the Care 
and Attention of the Matter, to 
the Eafe and Happinefs of his 
Beaft ; and that he ought not to 
fuffer the poor creature to be tan- 
talized with the fight of what is 
agreeable to him, or would be a 
refrefliment to him, and refufe to 
indulge his longing appetite. His 
labor deferves wages ; and his 
particular labor, at the time of 
treading corn * for the appetite 
of mafiy ftiQuld remind us that the 
beaft has his appetite likewife. 

* The OX is not to he muzzled^ when be 
treads out the Corn •, for it would be unreafon- 
able to deny any Thing apart of the fruit of its 
cwn Labours. JOSfiPflUS^ Jewiih Antiq. 
Pook iv. Ch, 6, 


[ '56 ] 

The circumftance of the work it 
felf fliould then make us more at- 
tentive to his wants ; and the 
harder his tafk is, the more it be- 
hoves the mafter to alleviate his 
fatigue by frequent indulgencics 
and refrefliment. To fuffer a 
bead therefore, who is laboring 
for the fupport of our nature, and 
who is as feniible of hunger as we' 
are, and yet harneffed and re- 
ftrained from indulging his appe^ 
tite, whilft we can gratify our 
own whenever we pleafe ; to fuf- 
fer this ufeful Beaft to pine for his 
meat, is putting a muzzle to the 
Ox that treadeth out the corn ; and 
though this may not be called an 
abfolute a6l of cruelty, yet in my 
opinion it has a tendency to un- 
mercifulnefs and injuftice. 


[ '57 ] 

And, if {oy no lefs unmerciful 
and unjuft is it to withhold from 
the laboring Beaft his due quantity 
of Drink J which is as neceflary to 
his fupport and refrefhment as 
Meat, and is part of his food as 
well as grafs or ftraw. — 77)e 
Lord cover eth the heaven with 
CLOUDS, and prepareth RAIN 
for the earth ; — T^o give to the 
BEAST his Food. Pfa. cxlvii. 8, 9. 
And He fendeth the SPRINGS 
into the Valleys which run among 
the Hills ; To give DRINK to^ 
every BRA ST of the Field \ and 
the Wild ASSES quench their 
Thirfl. Pfa. civ. 10, 11. The 
Wild ASSES and Brutes at large, 
can quench their third at every 
call of Nature. But the Tame 
•ASS, the Beafts of the Field, 


[ 158 ] 

Horfes and Oxen, for whofe fake 
Kkewifc, the Springs were lent 
into the vallies, being harnefled, 
yoked, bridled, or muzzled, mufl 
wait their Matter's pleafure. Yet 
no pretence of trouble or incon- 
venience, no lame excufe of bu-- 
finefs, hurry, or forgetfulnefe can 
exempt the matter from his 
bounden duty to give food to the 
hungry, and drink to the thirfty. 
Even Religion itfelf mutt yield to 
the Laws of Mercy : and the moft 
facred Seafons are profaned and 
mifemployed by the man who ne- 
gleds to attend to the wants of 
his Cattle. When our Blefled 
Saviour reproved the ruler of the 
Synagogue for his fuperttitious no- 
tions concerning the Sabbath, as 
if JESUS had broken the com- 
3 xnand- 

[ 159 3 

mandment by healing a difeafed 
woman on the Sabbath Day, He 
puts thisqueftion to him ; — Dotb 

not each one of you on the Sahbath 
loofe his OX or his ASS from the 
S tally and lead him away to WA-^ 

rERINGl{ In which 
queftion, our Lord takes it for 
granted that it was their duty to 
lead away their Cattle to Water- 
ing even on the Sabbath Day, the 
Day in which the Cattle were to 
do no manner of work. Now^ if to 
loofe them from the Stall, and to 
lead them away to Watering was a 
duty on the Sabbath Day, or Day 
of Rejiy it muft be an indifpenf- 
able duty to give them the re- 
frefliment of Water in the Days of 
Worky and toil, and fvveat. And 
to borrow a text from the prophet 


t .6o ] 

Ifaiah, (taking the words as I find 
them, without examining into 
their occafion or connexion,} a 
Blefling attends this particular in- 
fiance of duty in leading them to 
the waterings whether to quench 
their thirft, or to cool their parch- 
ed feet : BLESSED are Ye that 
Jow befide all WATERS, that 
fend forth thither the feet of the 
OX and the ASS. Ifa. xxxii. 20. 

It is recorded of REBECCA, 
the Sifter of Laban, (Gen. xxitr^) 
when (he went to the well to fill 
her pitcher, and faw the Camels 
of Abraham, though fhe knew 
not whofe Camels they were, fiie 
faid unto the fervant, that wais 
with them, / will draw WATER 
for thy CAMELS until they have 



C .61 ] 

done df, inking^ A very labofiousi; 
tafk for a young woman to under- 
tiakc) (confideriiig that Camels ar€ 
Very large bcafts that drink water 
in gtleat abjilfldaQcej which is to 
ferve them for long travel in dry 
deferts ; and here were no fewer 
than ten of thefe great thirfty 
beafts to fatisfy ;] neverthelefs ihe 
iaid, / will draw for the CA" 
MELS they have done drink-^ 
ing^ that is, till they have drank 
fheir filL And fhe was as good 
as her word, for it is faid, 
(ver. 20.) Jhe hafted and emptied 
her pitcher into the trough^ and 
ran again unto the well to draw 
WATER, and dreuo for ALL 
his CAMELS*, And when her 

M brother 

* What a crontraft to the tendernefs of Re- 
becca is the hardhearcednefs of our /porting 


[ I6a 3 

blather LABAM had invited the 
fetvattt to come to hi6 houfe ; be> 
f^cve he gave any thing to the mea 
to 6at, it is exprefUvely laid 
(ver. 32.) that he UNGIRDED 
the CAMELSy and gave STRAW 
and PROVENDER for the GA- 
MELiS, A circumflance this of 
fmall importance, were it hot aa 
example written for our admoni-* 
nitton, and worthy our imftationtf^ 

females, who can teftify their delight in the 
plercirig groans of the dying and more delicate 
STAG, in minds fo aibortiinably calbus^ Ri:- 
jigioD can have no place. Elfe I am perfuadedy 
that the pious ejaculation of the King of Ifrael 
muft m<ike fome impref&on upon them, and 
taufe them to relent, when the innocent and 
injured Brute is taking to 8oiU through the 
favage cruelty of thofe, in whofe fex Tender- 
nets fliould be Nature — As the HART pdM- 
etb after the Water Brooks, So panteth my Soul 
after Tbee^ COD. Pfa. xlii. i. 


[ >63 ] 

The Camels, though faint and fk* 
tigued) might not have pcrifhed, 
if the men had eaten and refrefbed 
themfelves before notice taken of 
the Cattle. But Compailion urged 
him to take the iirft care of thofe 
Creatures, ^ho could not take 
care of themfelves ; he had re- 
gard to their happinefs. Rebecca 
had given drink to ALL the Ca- 
mels; and ike next bu^befs was 
to ungird and relieve them from 
their burthens ; and then to give 
them provenckr to eat, and flraw 
to lie down and reft themfelves 
upon ; Therefore he ungirded tbi 
Camels^ and gave fir aw and pro'" 
vender for the Cameh\ before any 
refreshment was offered to the 
Men. The neceflities of the cat- 
tle engaged his Erfl attention ; 

M 2 and 

C '6+ ] 

and the more fpeedy the relief, 
the more confpicuous was the ha- 
manity of it. Suffer not the beafl: 
then, that has carried you or your 
baggage, and for your fake has 
borne the burthen and heat of the 
day, to wait long for his neceflary 
fefrefliment, but allow it him in 
good time. For his daily labor 
give him his diaily wages, and re- 
frefh him as oft and as ibon as 
he is weary. 

Mofes gives this Law with re- 
gard to Day Servants (Lev. xix. 
13.) Thou Jhalt not defraud thy 
Neighbour neither rob him\ the 
Wages of him that is hiredy Jhall 
not abide with thee all night until 
the corning: and again (Deut. 
xxiv. 15.) JSa^his Day thou Jhalt 
5 give 

t '6i ] 

gk)e him bis Hire^ neither Jhall the 

fun go down upon ity for he is poor 

and fetteth his heart upon it \ lefi 

he cry againfi thee unto the Lord^ 

and it he fin unto thee. To with- 

hold daily wages from them to 

whom it i$ daily due, who want 

it, and fet their heart upon it, is 

in the account of Mofes a Frauds 

^ Robbery^ a Sin^ and a crying 

Sin. And St. James denounces 

the . judgments of GOD againft 

thofe that defraud the laborer of 

his hire ; (Ch. v. 1—4.) Go to now^ 

ye rich meny weep and howl for 

your miferiesy that Jhall come upon 

you, ^-^Beholdy the Hire of the La- 

borerSy which have reaped down 

your fields y which is of you kept 

back by fraud y crieth : and the 

cries of theniy which have reaped^ 

M 3 are 

[ »66 ] 

are entered into the tars of the 
JLitrd of Sahaotb, Now^ if it is a 
fraud, a robbery, a fin, and a 
tcryirrg fin to withhold and keep 
back the wagcs^ of the Hireling ; 
It muft be a fin to withhold and 
keep back food and refreihment, 
which is the hire and wages <)f the 
Cattle ; for they both alike 'want 
it, and fet their hearts updn it. 
The reafon and rule bf jbftice is 
the fame in both cafes. The 'Ox 


that draws the plow, is as necef- 
fary a Servant as the Laborer ^^hf^ 
guides it ; and they have equally 
a claim to indulgence and tender- 
nefs. The fame Law provides for 
both. The cnes of the defrauded 
^aft, as Wert as of the defrauded 
Laborer will enter into th^ tears of 
the Lord of Hofts \ for He that 

r faid, 

[ l67 ] 

Q^d, Defraud n(a the LABORER, 
iaid alio, Mu^sm/e not the OX, 

St. PAUL was fo fcnfible of 
the clofe connexion of tbefe two 
important Precepts, enjoined by 
the fame Authority, and grounded 
upon the fame Principle of Juf- 
tice and Humanity, that (in his 
firft Epiftle to Timothy) he clafles 
them together in fuch a manner, 
that it is plain he underftood them 
both to be of equal weight and 
obligation, and he quotes them 
both as texts of holy Scripture : 
(i Tim. V. 18.) The Scripture faithy 
Thou Jhajt not MUZZLE the 
OXy that treadetb out the Qorn\ 
Andy the LABORER is worthy of 
-kis reward. The former precept 
; the Apoftle li|(.ewife quotes io his 

M4 firft 

C '68 3 

firft epiftle to the Corinthians, 
and introduces ft by declaring that 
the precept was more than human^ 
it was of divine authority : Say I 
thefe things as a Man P Or faith 
not the Law the fame alfo f For it 
is written in the Law of Mofes, 
7%ou Jhalt not MUZZLE the 
mouth of the'OXy that treadetb 
out the corn, i Cor. ix. 8, 9, 

From the queftion immediately 
following thefe words, — Doth God 
take care for Oxen f Some might 
infer, that the Apoftle meant to 
fet afide or weaken the precept ; 
or that it is only to be interpreted 
in a figurative or typical fenfe. 
To me it appears in another light, 
^nd that the inference of the 
Apoftlc is an eftablifhment of the 


[ i69 ] 

commandment. It was the fcxs^e 
£>f St. Paul, to prov0 tjjat the Mi- 
nifteris of the Gofpel have a right 
to a maintenance, becaufe they 
labor in the word and doSirine * ; 
(and to this purpofe he might have 
laid the ftrefs of his reafoning 
upon the almoft fimilar cafe of 
the Maintenance of i^hc Priefts 
under the Jewifli Law,.(which, in^- 
•deed he notices in ver^ i j.) but he 
licgins with an argument of greater 
force and more extcnfive obligaF- 
tion, which the change of the 
Prieflhood. did not, and could npl: 
cancel ; aja argument> which, 
though enjoined by the . Law erf" 
Mofes, was, founded on the Law 
of Nature, and acknowleged by 
;h^athens and iniidels, viz. that 

. ♦ I Tim. V. 17. 


E 170 ] 

tke laboring Beaft had a right to 
fupport t and if the voice of na« 
ture, and of the God of nature 
require and command that the • 
Cattle (hall have the wagfes ef 
their work, it is but reafonable 
that Tl^y 'mhich wait at thi altar ^ 
fioould be partakers with the altar * 5 
and for the &me reafon, thejjwd 
iad Jo ordained that they wbieb 
preach tbf go/pel^ JbouldHve of the 
go/pel f , This then was the force 
of the Apoftle's argument, not to 
infringe the duties of humanity 
and tendernefs to the brutes, but 
to confirm them, and thereupon 
to build an argument offimilar 
nature. To fuppofc othcrwiic, is 
to accufe the Apoftle of weak 
reafoning. It is to fuppofe him 

* I Cor. ix^ 13. f Ver. 14. 


[ xn ] 

to lay ia foiindation, and then to 
dig it up as fbon as he begins to 
esc6t his building, which would 
be no great credit to a * wife 
•tnafier builder, • 

Upon the equity of the Maxim, 
acknowlcged • by all men ^ that the 
Laborer is worlAy of his reward^ 
andj upon the pofitivc Precept of 
the Law, that th^ Laboring OX 
fiould not be musizled ; St. -Paul 
^grounds hi« pFoof, that the daim 
of the-Miniftry to a, jnaintenance 
is both ^uft and legal. He thought 
his argument fo ilrong and evident 
upon thifr foundation, that he 
icruples pot to compare the ca£e 
of himfelf and his brethren to 
that of Oxen plowing in the field, 

• I Cor. iii, io, ■ 


[ 172 3 

Nor did he do any difefcdit to bis 
. miniftcrial charadcr by the pa- 

railel^ o( produce an in fiance un<- 
becoming the dignity of his fubj- 
jeA. For his bleffed Mafter upoi^i 
a matter of more extenfive im- 
portance, than the maintenance of 
the miniftry, defcends much lower 
^than St. Paul has done in this in- 
.ftance. Our Lord JESUSt tq 
teach his dij^iples the duty an^ 
fecUrity of trujling in GOD for 
prote<9:ion or deliverance froqi 
trouble, might have carried their 
thoughts to refle<^ upon the inter*- 
pofing and overruling providence 
of GOD in the affairs and. revolu- 
tions of flates and empires j or 
might have drawn his argument 
from the general view of nature 
directed by his wifdom and love ; 


[ *73 ] 

but inftead of this, he reminds them 
to cohfider the Sparrows : — * Are 
net Two SPARROWS fold for 
a farthings and one of them poll 
not fall on the ground without your 
Father f Fear ye not therefor e^ Te 
are of more value than many Spar-- 
rows. What then, are Sparrows 
of no value at all ? The compa- 
rifon itfelf, on which the argu- 
ment is founded, fliews that they 
are of fome, though fmall value. 
And if the fimilar queftion of St. 
Paul fhouM here occur, — Doth 
GOD take care for Sparrows f 
Yes furely, as certainly as he takes 
care for men, if our Saviour, who 
had -f- the words of eternal Life^ 
ipake fo as to be underftood. We 
have here then it feems the judg- 

• Matt.' X. 29, 31. tJohnvi.68. 


t »74 ] 

ment of JESUS, whofe authority 
alone is fuiiicient, and the judgr 
ment of Paul on the authority of 
Mofe§5 that Sparrows and Oxeu 
ate objeils of the care and pro- 
vidence of GOD : but with this 
difference) that whilft GOD Ihews 
hi* care for Oxen mediately, by 
recommending them to the-care d£ 
men ; he takes care for Sparrows 
immediately, by providing few 
them himfelf. The meannefs or 
apparent infigi^ificancy of the crea^. 
ture, how defpicable foever in the 
judgment of Men, is no obftnic-i 
tion to the love of GOD tow^ard^ 
it ; and upon the debafement of 
the fubjed, Chrift and hi^ Apoftk 
thought moil to exalt the divine 
Goodnefs, and thereby to prove 
the Love of GOD unto Men. 


[ «7S ] 

Sh^w me then the Chrillian who 
denies the providence of GOD 
over the Birds of the Aif^ and I 
ilK>uld doubt whether his faith 
Were fuificient to fupport him in 
the day of trial. Or ihew me the 
Minifter of Chrift, who imagines, 
that GOD doth not take care for 
Oxefi't and I fhould think he de- 
i^ves to be mu«%ledy till he hath 
better learned CHRIST, But as 
our Saviour in the one cafe proves 
the Providence of GOD over Men. 
from his I^vidence dver the Birds 
of the Air ; fo doth the Apoftle 
evince the reafonablenefs and jus- 
tice of the Maintenance of the 
Miniftry from his Commandment 
of juftice and mercy to the labor- 
ing Man and Beaft of the Field ; 
For the Scripture faithy Thou Jh alt 


C *76 1 

fiot muzzle the OX that tfeadeth 
out the corn: and^ The LA" 
BOURER is worthy of his re- 
fUard*'* And again, Who fletnt- 
ith a vineyard^ and eateth not of 
the fruit thereof? or Who feedeth 
a flock^ and eateth not of the milk 
of the flock f Say I thefe things as 
a Man f or faith not the Laixf 
the fame alfo f For it is written irt 
the Law of Mofesy Thou fhalt not 
muzzle the mouth of the 0-X that 
treadeth out the corn -f-. The 

cafes being % fimilar, the rule of 


* I Tim. V. iSf. 
\ I Cor. ix. 7, 8, 9* 

\ The Similarity of thefe cafes explain to 
tis the reafon why men, who arc cruel to theii* 
Gattle, do generally bear hardeft upon their 
Minifters ; and why they, who make no 
fcruple to defraud their Minifters of their julf 


C /77 3 

Equity is the fame. And the! 
concluflon is this ; that fince it is 
the merciful Sandion of both 

♦ • 

Teftaments, that the Ox that la- 
bouts for the Service of man fhall 
not be muzzled ; the laborious 
Beaft of every kind, whether Oxj 
or Horfe, or Afs, has a juft right' 
to every refrefhment of nature. 
And though he may not always 
be at work, yet, as his whole life 
and ftrength is devoted to the fer- 
vice of his mafter, and awaits his 
pieafure to work or not to work 
at his command, the Matter's care 

dnd legal riiaintenahcei, tire gerTerally mod cruel' | 
to their Cattle^ The Precept qf the Apoftle ' 
feems to contain a Prophecy, that Cruelty and 
Sacrilege are fins that will go hand in hand ! 
together. I beg to recommend this obfcr- ' 
vation to the ferious confideration of the 

N and 

[ '75 1 

an^ attention to him otight Htvtt 
t» ceafe. Whether dt wctfk dr 
not at work, fee is nfs Maftet'^ 
fervant arid dependeht ; afld t?i€f 
riKlfter by th€ compaiSI and indeii* 
ttife of the great haW of liatufal 
juftice is bound to fupport hits. 
And if the Beaft cannot help hiii*- 
felf to what he wants^ it is the 
Mafter's duty to fupply him with 

]&e it thy Care and Duty thete- 
fore, if thou art the Mafter of sl 
kboring Brute, to obferve the 
foregoing precepts and examples 
in the article of Food and Refrefh- 
ment. When thy Beaft is at 
work for thee, *MU^2LM HIM 

* Deat. XXV. 4. 


t *79 ) 

N67, Wheii he hath c^friei^ 
thee or thy burthen j Eafe hiirij' 
t VNGIRD him, ahd ^/v^ i&i^ 
And when tied to the full cribj 
if It be tod much trouble to the^ 
to % empty thy pitcher into thi 
trough, and to DRAlF JVATER 
for him, yet at leaft reihember to 
loofe him frtm the fi all, and ckhiet 
%fend him forth, or || lead him 
away to tFATERING. 

But to prdCccdi 

11. To give the pattie FOOft 
^nd food indue feafon, is but a part ' 
of our duty towards them ; or l^ut 

f Geh- xxit. 32. % Gen, xxiv. 20* 
§ Ifa. xxxii. 20. II Lukexiii. 15. 

N 2 one 

t '8° ] 

one duty amongft others. A man 
may feed his bead till he fwelk 
with fatncfs, and yet be erucl to 
him, if he works him above his 
ftrength, or gives him not fuffi- 
cient REST. And, here again 
the Goodnefs of GOD their Crea- 
tor condefcends to interfere on 
their behalf. For it is thus writ- 
ten in the firft table of the Ten 
Commandments, eftablifhed as the 
great Rule of Pradice throughout 
the Jewifli and the Chriftian 
World : — Remember the * Sabbath 


* By the Sabbath DAY, I mean every 
feventh DAY fet apart as a day of Reft and 
Devotion according to the ufage of difierent 
nations : and it appears to me of little mo- 
ment what day of the week is fet apart to this 
end, provided the order of /ic and thtfeventb 


■* . ji - 

Day to keep - it boly» In ' it • thoU 
Jhatt not do any work, ThoHy nor 

is obferved. If the Chriftian Church had 
appainted Saturday to have been continued as 
the Sabbath, and the State had confirmed that 
appointment, it would have been bur duty to 
have obferved th<e Saturday, and not the Sun-^ 
di^. Thp very change of the day by human 
authority (for no one will fay that our* Lord 
Jefus Chrift appmhted the change) (hews thaf 
one day is not intrinfically more holy than 
another, and yet that t^e obfervance of ^ fp- 
vehth-day Sabbath, or of a fabbath every fc- 
vcmh'day is abfolutely heccflary for the fake 
of man and beafl;, and conformable, to the dir 
vine commandment, t mention this, to pre- 
clude apy Chriftian from endeavoring to evade 
the force of my enfuing argument taken from 
the Jewifli Law, tinder pretence that the day 
being changed, the defign of the command- 
ment is in p^rt changed lik'ewife ; and that 
the- Litter of the Law of Mofcs is not bind- 
ing upon Chriftians, I grant that the letter 
of the Law as to the particular day is not t^ind- 
f •§ % ^u{- tjie fpirit of the Law, being a Law 

N3 of 

t »^2 1 

tfy S^i nor. thy pfughtity i^ 
man St^poanty nor thy nutid Sef^ 
vanty nor thy CATTLE^ not thy 
Stranger that is withivt thy gates- 
(Exod. xx. 8, lo.) Th|s c6«it 
inandment is addre&d to Nfafter^ 
and Fathers of faiBilies, ^s is evir 
dent from the pronouns, tfy km^^ 
thy daughter, thy feryant, thy cat- 
tle. The tranfgreffion therefore 
againft it^ whether by Child, Ser- 
vant, or Beaft, is the fin of the 
Father or Mafter ; and. the P^oft 
pundual obfervation of it on die 

pf Mercy, is fttU bioding, notwithftanding 
our ChriAian Hbfr,ty. For I caanot believe 
that our Lord Jefus, who ^ came to MSI aU 
Rigbttoufnefi^ ever meant, in any .thing he 
faid or did, to cancel one Tingle ^^^y 9f Ju^ 
ticc or Mercy. 

• Matt. Hi. 15. v. 17* 



Mafter'j pm ^ 90t enough, ^inlefs 

jtjip.ifiiigp pf it extends tq all 
under. his care. It is lijcewifc 3. 

Comqiand^iept gf Mercy, a^ ex- 
plained by o|jj I^ord Jeiu^ C^rift : 
(Mark ii. . 27.) 7^^ Sabbath was 
made for Man, and not Man for 
tie Sapbath. That is to iay, Tl^e 
Ordinances of Religion are ia- 
tended ^r the Benefit of thpfe to 
whom they are injo;ned. The 
Supreme 3eing Hands not in need 
of the fervice .of Men, nor .caipi 
any pf our A<9:s of JDevption * frg-^ 
ft him at all. It is for our fake^ 
and for the fake of general good 
to liiis crpature^, that they are in- 
^ijtuted. The Sahhath, whic^ iJs 

* Can a Man he profitable unto GOD, a$ 
Jcib jcxii. .^. 

N 4 aa 

[ i84 ] 

* • ■ - - • 

fin Ordinance of Religion, is d. 
merciful difpenfation to all that are 
included in the commandment: 

1 . l Ml' - * 

And unlefs the Sabbath be fan^i*^ 
fied by Works of Mercy and B^- 
nevolence, at leaft, if they are 
negleded \yhen opportunity for 
them offers, the intent of it is 
fruftrated. For thefe are the 
weightier Matters of the LOiW^ 
which muft be done, and which 
men of employment have nio|-e 
leifure to do on the Sabbath Day, 
than on other days. When there- 
fore the ruler of the lynagogue 
faid unto the people with indig- 
nation ^ becaufe JESUS had doqe 
a Work of Mercy to a difeafed 
won^an on that day, (Luke xiii. 
14.) There are fix days in which 
pten ought to work $ in them there^ 


[ '85 ] 

fore come and be healed i^ and not 
pn the • Sabbath Day ; Our Lord 
vouchfafes him no better a name 
than Hypocrite for his nice dif- 
tindion ; and inftead of recurring 
to the refinements of School Pi- 
vinity, he appeals to the plain and 
more certain and eafy didates of 
nature and common Ifenfe, and 
demonftrates the duty of mercy 
on that day from a known prac- 
tice amongfl themfelves ; Doth not 
each one of you on the Sabbath loofe 
his OX or his ASS from the Ji ally 
and lead him away to watering? 
In which queftion he infers one 
duty from another ; and is fo far 
from blaming them for this work 
pf mercy to an Ox or an Afs, that 
he highly approves it by making 
it the groundwork of his own 


[ i86 ] 

^lipology: and thfi iniereace anid 
^rgmneot was fo humane, . fy ex- 
cellent^ aod ^king, that ijl; is 
faid (ver. 17.) a// Jffs advgrfiu^m 
^ere fijhamedi or confound^. 
AgaiQ, when he h^ed a mail 
Ithat had the dropiy, and the Pi»r 
rifees watfihed him^ hecaufe it: was 
the Sahbat^ Pay^ and JieAis put this 
queftion to theoH) (Luke xiv. 5^ 
Which of you Jhall have ,an HS^a 
or an OX fallen into a pit^ and 
-will not firaightmay full him oujt 
on the Sabbath Day f it follows 
immediately, (ver. .6.) and they 
(ould not anfiver him (fgain to th^fi 
tUngs ; or, they tacitly fubmitted 
to the force of his reafoning. 
And at another time* when th&^^ 
mas a man in the fynagogue^^ which 
had his hand loither^d^ find they 


£ '«7 3 


ffi^ J^fasy/d^j^gi (Matt. xii..ipi, 
4f.j h it. Umful U heal Qn. the 
^abhat}3 Days / . He /aid uvSfi tbem^ 
^^bat man jb all there he among you^ 
that JhaH have one SMEMPp jtni 
if, it faU ipto a pit aa /he Sahhath 
i^ayy will he not lay hold on. it ^nad 
lift it outf {ver. j.2,) Wherefore it 
ii4awf\d to- do fvaell on tie Sa^iath 
(Mfi I< i$ lavi^uli that is, it is 
Q^hrhofn being; an intogemeixt 
pf th^ commandment, that tbe 
O^ij^iGto pif an a^ o£ Mercy ev£n 
jtO 9-n Ox, or an Afs, ior a Sheep, 
that^.^ay ftand in need of it, 
j^would .be.^ tran^rcflion a^gainfi: 
the l>enev.ol^t JDldflg<Q of it. For 
c^s he oUTef-ve^ .befbfe ^n this .chap- 
t6r, (v^avj 7 •^ C<Ki trnjl hm>e Merc^ 
l^nd not Sffrif/:e^ XMriJae preferjeth 
|i>erc^ jto /^i£ce ^ a,nd iie adds 


w . If ■ ^ 

[ i88 3 

(vcr. 8.) 7%e Son of man is Lord 
even of the Sabbath Day ; as much 
as to fay, Every man is fo far a 
Lord of the Sabbath, that though 
Mercy and Sacrifice are both re^^ 
quired, yet when it fb happens, 
that the one cannot be performed 
but at the omifHon of the other, 
a Man is juftified as Lord of the 
Sabhathy and beft fulfils the mind 
of the Inftitutor, to give Mercy 
the preference. That by Son of 
man he means Mankind in gene- 
ral, is evident from the parallel 
place to this in the Gofpel of St. 
Mark, (ch. ii. 27.) in which the 
laft quoted fentence is introduced 
thus, — The Sabbath was made fot* 
Man, and not Man for the Sab^ 
bathy i.e. Man was not created 
for the fake of keeping a Sabbath ; 

3 but 

[ »89 ] 

but the Sabbath, after man was 
created, was inAituted £or the 
fake of MAN : and according to 
our Saviour's comment in the paf- 
fages above mentioned, for the 
fake of BEAST likewife. 

Remember the Sabbath Day, is 
but another phrafe for Remember 
Mercy \ or, Remember that the 
Sabbath was ordained principally 
for the refi and refrejhment of all 
concerned and mentioned in the 
commandment, whether child, of 
fern) ant, or beafi. That this was the 
principal defign of the inftitution, 
is further evident from the com- 
ment of the Lawgiver himfelf; 
(Exod .xxiii. 12.) Onthefeventhday 
Thou Jh alt refi ; that thine OX and 
thine ASS may REST ; (here they 


t *9o' f 

I fife name4 f^JJ ; and the f on of ih^ 
handmaid and the JlraHger may hi 
refrejhed. And in the repetition 
of the Lawj (Deut. v. 14.) it is 
thus written in fuller terms with 
a Memento fubjoined ; Thou fiali 
not do any worky thouy nor thy fan ^ 
nor thy daughter y fior thy man fer^. 

K)anty nor thy maid fervanty nor 

■ > . ». • ...» 

thine OX, nor thine ^SSj nor anj 
of thy CATTLE, nor thy Sitranger 
that is isoithin thy gatei'^'-^fur R£- 
M EMBER that thou waft a fer- 
vant in the land of Egypt \ i. e^ 
Let the R ecolledtioti of thy former 
hard fervitudc under the yoke of 
Egyptj teach thee the duty and 
feafonablenefs of compaflion and 
tendernefs to ALL that labor on 
thy accountj whether they be thy 
Children, thy Servants, thy CAT- 

TLE, the OX that plows for ttiee, ] 


the AS9 that carries thee or thy ; 
bordefl) or the Stranger in thy \ 
gates* ■ f 

By the Stranger that h 'Withim 
thy gates, I fuppofe is meant, thy 
hireling, dayman, or journeyman,, 
who is not of thy family, or fo 
wholly dependent upon thee, as 
thy children, fervants, car csittlc*. 
Therefore the Stranger is men- 
tioned laft, becaufe if you give 
him not Reftj he can leave you 
when he pleafes, and give reft to 
himfelf. But thy children, fer^-? 
vants, and cattle, being alwaysf 
with thee, and under thy autho-; 
rity, and without redreft, it is foif 
their fakes the commandmeniJ 
ifeems principally initended ; and 
3 there- 


[ 192 1 

therefore they are named befotd 
the ftranger, to whom you ought 
to give fuch allowance for his fix 
days work, that he may be able 
to maintain himfelf on the Sabbath 
day, without doing any manner of 
work ; elfe you are inftrumental 
to his breaking the fabbath. 

it is faid in the beginning of 
the Commandment, * Remember. 




* In the Church Catechiffn^ the Order is 
changed thus, Refnember that thou keep Holy 
the Sabbath Day^ which fcems to intimate that 
HQlinef5 was the principal end of the inftitw-' 
tion. And again in the conclufion, infte^d of 
The Lord blejfed the Sabbath Day^ we read in 
the Catechifm, The Lord blepdtbe feventh day. 
Why the Order of the words was changed in 


the Beginning, or why the word Seventh was 
fubftitutcd for the word Sabbath, in the Con- 


t '93 ] 

the Sabbath Day td keep it Hot 
ly: and it is faid in the con-* 
clufion of it, The Lof'd blessed 
the Sabbath Day^ and Hallow-: 
ED it. GOD firft gave a Blef^ 
Ji7tg to the laboring man and 
beaft, by ordaining a Sabbath ; and 
then \i^ Hallowed ox fandliiied it to 
holy duties. In the divine mind 
mercy precedes facrifice j for it is 
not faid 5 he hallowed it^ and blejfed 
it J but, he blejfed it ^ and hallowed it. 
Again, it is faid in the Command^ 
ment, The Lord hlejfed the Sab-* 


clufion, I enquire not ; yet, ift my humble 
opinion, the force and benevolent defigh of* 
the Commandment is mucil weakened by the 
tranfpofuion and miftranflacion* For Sabbath 
doth not imply Hflifiefs^ though Holinefs is 
enjoined on the Sabbach'Day. 'Nor doth Sab* 
hath denote Seventh^ though- the fcventh day 
is the Sabbath day. 


tArn J^idTfy or the da^r of Rist ^ 
fbr Skbbtth denoter Reft : tnd the 
Sofc^Mth) if GOD had fb pleafedf 
mlg^t hare been every Jixfbot 
eighth day, or without any ^cial 
HoUnefs. The Comcndndinent in^- 
deed hath appointed the Sabbath 
or Reft to be on xhefevtHth day 5 
and the Reft of the Seventh dajr 
aftbrds letfurefor fpirituai duties f 
therefore GOD hath enjoined 
SanAification as well as Reft on 
that day : but the firft motive to 
the appointment was Mercy ta 
man and beafl^ for the Sabbath 
was made far fiuM^ and ttot man 
forthe&ii^ath, There&are if diouk 
who art a Mafter, worktft. 01^ 
the fabbath day, you iin, becau& 

you do not SanBify it according 
t6 the commandment : bot if you-' 


j6o no work di3rrelf^ and yet fet 
3K)ar: Servants and Cattlf to work 
on that day, then yovi fin like<^ 
wilcj becaufe you do not Bk/s it 
according to the defign of it. 
The Commandment i^ twofold in 
its {uh^c&i-^k/s ity and SanBify 
it: and. it is twofold in its ob^ 
leSkf^Do m work^ and. Require m 
mork, Confequently» the moft 
ierupuk>u8 obfervance of the iab- 
faath on thine own part^ though 
you were to fpend the whole day^s of public and private de* 
votion, and yet fpare. not the \a^ \ 
bor of thy Servafus and Catde, 
would Bot be ii^^ttlSf iiie;i3h!ir «;?/« 
tbt. Lard ^ .it would fac an tmperf* j 
^oBl adbd partial obfcrvaaor; it j 
ini^t be janBifymi^M u U> !%•* ; 
^ but it «9oU not nbtt kiitfng \ 

O 2 it, 

t '96 .] 

it, according to the inftitution cj£ 
it, in m^rcy to the laborious man 
and beaft ; I fay, man and bea/f.^ 
for they are both exprefly men- 
tioned in the commandment : and 
the great Creator, having con- 
fidcred them, both, and having 
appointed a feventh day as a day 

of Blefling, as well as of Sanfiifi- 
cation, will not accept thy felf" 
JanSiijication of the day of Sab- 
bath, unlcfs thine OX, and thine 
ASS, and thy CATTLE, as well 
as thy children and fervants par> 
take of the blejfmg of it. 

I know indeed there may be 
cafes of neceflity, which require 
the labor of the cattle on the Sab^ 
bath day i .and I am not fo pre-< 
cife as. toifuppoie it a fin, in fucb 

> c caies. 

[ 197 J 

cafes, to make ufeof their Jabor; 
for as our Savior fays, the Son of 
Man is Lord of the Snbbath *. But 
then it is my duty to confidcr 
%vhether my beaft hath in the pre- 
ceding week fulfilled his fix days 
tafk of labor. If he hath not 
fulfilled it, or has had fome day 
or days of refl therein, I do not 
fin in the ufe of him. If he hath 
done his full tafk in the week, I 
ought to fpare him for another 
bcafl that hath not fulfilled his 
tafk. But^if necefBty compels me 
to fet the fame beaft to a feventh 
day labor, who hath fulfilled his 
fix days work ; then I fin, if I do 
not Remember, as foon as my ur- 
gent bufinefs is over, to aflign 
him another day for his Sabbath.^ 
in lieu of that which I have taken 

* Matt. xii. 8. 

O 3 from 

C 198 3 

( from him. For as Sabbath wa« 
I ordained for bead as well as maii^ 
■ though the bead is not qapabl^ 
1 of keeping the fabbath as a day of 


/ SanSiification^ he hath by the com^ 
1 mand of God a right to a Sab* 
I bath as a day of Reji and Bkffmg, 

And as GOD in his goodneis 
hath appointed a SaBbath or day 
of RfiST for the Cattle, and bath 
thereby inftmded us in the duty 
of Mercy towards them j it ncceA 
^rily follows, that we ought not 
on any day of the week to over^ 
work them, or lay too hard bur^ 
thens upon them . For as the en J 
^f th§ CMtnumdment if Charily^ 
and founded upon mercy ; eveiy 
inftance of unmercifulnefs is a 
tranfgrei^on, though not of the 



C '99 ] 

letter, yet of the intent and 
extent of this commandmeni 
Therefc^e if a fnan w^e to ob* 
ftrve and keep the iegal or efig- 
hUped fabbath ever {q icnipu* 
loufly, (neither doing any work 
him'felf, nor ruflering any of hit 
children, fervants, or cattle to da 
any manner of work on that day,) 
lind yet on the Qthtr days of the 
week put them to work abore 
their ftrength^ or keep them toa 
long to work without aUowii]|( 
them fufficient lieft, 1 would not. 
icrupie to pronounce that man no 
be a doily Sabhath brt^teri ber 
caufe he daily tranfgrefie^ ihat ge* 
neral Law of Mercy« tQ. promo^ 
which a Sabbath wa*^ pfin^pally 
mftituted. Nor wiU the pretense 
that a wr^m^day k vaA \!lB$o, S^aih 

P 4 hath 

[ 200 ] 

kith Day juftify an aft of » tin* 
fHercifulnefi, any more than it 
will juftify an adJ: of unkolimfi \ 
utalefs'it can be flicwn that holi- 
nefjland mercyj becaufe particu- 
larly enjoined on tbc feventh day, 
ife fo limited to the feventh day, 
that iov fx days following a man 
has leave to be as frofane and as 
cruel as he pleafes.' With GOD 
all days-'iarealike, as to the eflen- 
l^al duties of religion and morality. 
Holinefs and Mercy are the duties 
of every day : and he that faid un- 
to Ifrael (Ifa. i. 15), * that even the 
*- SABBATHS were an ahoniina- 
* tiQnwvtX.Oi him, and that when they 
*■ fpreadfdrih their hands he would 
< hid^ his face' from them, and 
*- when they made many prayers he 
^ would not he^r them, Becaufe^ 

. ' * their 

[ 2QI ] 

* their hands were full of Blood and 

* cruelty,' hath given us thereby to 
underftand, that he will as foba 
difpenfe with the Devotion of the 
Sabbath, as with the Mercy of it. 
Holinefs and Mercy arc enjoined 
in one and the fame command*- 
ment of Sabbath, but with this 
difference according to the inter' 
pretation of Chrift and Hofea, 
(Matt. ix. 13. Hof. vi. 6.) that 
GOD prcfcrreth mercy to facirifice. 
And as Man and Beaft are both 
included in the fame command- 
ment of mercy, it follows, that 
Mercy to Brutes is at all times no 
lefs a duty than Mercy to Men. 

I have thus far Endeavored to 
povc that GOD careth for the 


C 202 ] 

Cattle^ by the rules he has prefcri- 
bed for our condudl towards thetn, 
in the articles of FOOD and 
REST. But this is not all. For— 

■ ■ 


■ III.' They have^ fiirthcr claim 
upon us of REGARD to their 
Happinefs, and TENDERNESS 
in the Ulage of Them. The Good^ 
nefs and Providence of GOD re* 
fped not only the Being, but' tht 
Well-being of his Creatures ; iiot 
only their neceflary Wants, and 
what is abfolutely their Demand 
on the principles of ilrift Juftice, 
but alfo their Eafe and G}mfort» 
and what they have a reafonablc 
and equitable Claim to, on thoi 
principles of Mercy and Compaf- 

moti (Prov. xli* lo.) regardtth th 
Life of his BEAST: But th$ 
tender MiTCtis ^f tht fFkhd art 
cruel. By Life it foaetimet t9 
be Dndcrftood ** Defin^ or Hgp» 
piDe;i8 ; for what is Life witlhovt 
Happinefs ? Happtncit ii th^ Salt 
of Life, and in the pi^erb now 
before tts i» included in the word 
iife^ as Appeart from the Anti* 
the£is«-*^iiW fbe tender Mtrcies rf 
the iDided are (ruel\ or (as it ia 
in the Hekrefnt and In the Margin 
of our Bible) the 3em>eh of tho 
wicked are cruel. Now as crtaltf 
and wickednefi In the laft ibt* 
tence> are put In {^pofition to 
Life attd Righteoufmfs In the for^ 

^ D^r«. So it tU &#^r<tv wocd NPSb 
tnmflated in £cck£ ti, 9. 

« mer 

[ 204 ] 

mer fentence, it js plain tfiat by 
Liife muft be meant kind and 
tender Ufage, as con traded to 
hardheartcdnefs and cruelty. 

The above proverb is of ge- 
neral ufe to diftinguifli a righteous 
man from a wicked man. It is 
jb plain that it hardly needs a 
comment ; and it is fo well 
known, that it is frequently ufed 
and applied to the corredion of 
Cruelty by many perfons, who 
consider not that, in the applica- 
tion of it, they accufe themfelves 
of Unrighteoufnefs. For though it 
confifts but of two parts in the 
letter^ in fptrit itidefcribes three 
cbaraders, viz. a righteous jnan, 
an unrighteous man> and a wicked 
man. As to the latter part of 

, the 

the. proverbr, . " the, charadcr ' is To 
difgernible, that allr further enqui- 
ries are. needlefs* If I. know that 
a njan is cruel to his Beail, I afk 
no more queftions about him. He j 
may he a noble man, or a rich 
man J or a polite; man, or a fen- 
iible man, or a: learned man, or 
an orthodox man, or a church 
man, or a puritan, or any thing 
elfe, it matters not; this I. know, 
on the facred word of a wife King, 
that, being cruel to his beaft, he 
is a WICKED man.. -, 

But fuppofe a man is not cruel 
to his Beaft, and > therefore not a 
wicked man ; yet according to the 
proverb, he may be an uNRicft- 
Tfeous man.' And under this cha- 
ra<^er I am afraid we may clafs 


^Malbah and tea tliwifandr,' wild 
would cnoiiBfWBComt^omnaitMnmSt 
tt cmekjr. A Riostioos nuui 
ik oiui iiax ngai^b^ wbA altpayi 
ke^ hit tyt on tke nile cf rigbty 
tnd whom 110 coftom, or^ cxNa^ 
pluuice, or^ icar- of ridicule ctA 
cirer penrcfC from hik ^\ktf ill aitt^ 
ter of right 7%r RiOHTBoosi/iBefiH 
«A& Mr^f^> ^th David (P&. lEXxvil; 
2t)i he doth fiot doik it tip in 
his breaR> t)f {another It in help-* 

lefs .pit3r, but he flmttth it ; he 
attends to its^^calis) and brings it^ 

forth into a<^on« Again^ (ver. 26.) 
7^« .RiGHT&oys U eoir merctfuU 
(in, the Habrewy off tU day met'r 
ciful)^ full pf xnerpy at all times^ 
and on allaccafion$, and to Gvctf 
objed of it, whether «ian of 


I *®7 3 

Every v45f?of Gnidty. if Wkktds- 
Hefi, 3ut, aneltyapart, the N^*- 
leB of Mercy is UNRioftTEOus- 
M.BSS; A man mi^ be vevy^ tender 
and fbU of- pity, and ytfi beilximer* 
ciful^ at vxA jbem Mtrcy. If oor 
Beaft fillers througb.Qi]ri^^^^%in/ 
or inattention to faim»: mt cannot 
be faid to be tverat akb^^s mcr4 
cifuly.and we do: not fuifii oav 
duty- towaids iiim;.'for it is the 
{Mut of -A Righteoos man to Jhem 
mercy AS well ai topr(^(is it ; and 
mthdut thi«, ' out* ■ pretendon of 
mercy is like thtumvorkin^/aitJbf 
and the uftprofitaiU chari^ de- 
icribed by 8t Jsimei (ch. ii. 15, 
1 6)» We may fin hy OmiiSion as 
w«U at Gommiifion $ and though. 
we he sot erml to. him unto 

C 2°8 ] 

mckedmfs^ wc may be regardlefs 
of him unto unrigbteoufnefs. 

The three Charaders therefore 
defcribed in the>^ above proverb 
are thefe."**The Man, who fb 
hardneth his Bowels to the yearn* 
ings of companion, that, without 
the leaft emotion of pity, he can 
commit an a£fc of cruelty to his 
Beaft, is a Wicked man. — The 
Man, who regardeth the happi- 
ncfs of his Beaft, who JJjewetb 
mercy to it, by attending to all 
its wants and infirmities, and who 
endeavours to make it as ea{y and 
as happy as its nature and condi- 
tion will admit, is a Righteous 
man. — But the Man, vfho regard- 
eth it NOT, who is carelefs and 
indifferent about it, though he 


C m. J 

ftiay oot te ixardKearted Stnd cruel 
to jt, yet ingifmuch as he tegatd- 
^h it hot, he is an unrighteous 
l^aa ; for, , Tie RIGHTEOUS 
Maff fi&GAKPETn the Life, the 
iDefirCj and the Happinels <>f his 

Jf nHy (faith St. Paul in th6 
^Jile to Timothy t)efore men^ 
tiojoed, and in the fame chapter 
In which he quotes from the Law* 
of.Mofes*-** Thou (halt not muz- 
* ^le the OX that treadeth out the 
< Corn') If any ^ faith the Apoftle, 

PROviPE not for HIS own, and efpe-- 
daily for thofa of uis own house, 

he hath depkd the faith ^ and is 
morfi than an infidel. This fen- 
tence deferyes the particular nor 
tke jof MaftCTS of Families* All 

P that 

tliat arc committed to the care and 
management of the Head of thd 
houfe, whether children, fervantsy 
cattle, or hireling, are parts of 
his family, as I fhewed before in 
my obfervation on the fourth com-* 
mandment. They are all there- 
fore of his own houfe : and being 
fuch, it is the duty of the Head 
of the Houfe to provide^ that is, 
to have providence over, to take 
care of, and attend to every mem-^ 
ber of the family within doors and 
without doors. It is no excufd 
in the mafter, if a beaft fuffer^ 
through the cruelty, or, through 
the negleSi of his fervant. For if 
the beaft could fpeak, he would 
make his complaint to the mafter, 
as the proper perfon to take cog-' 
ftizance of the Injury; but as he 

o cannot 

[ 2" ] 

feandbt fp'eak for hiirifelfj it is the 
ihafter's duty to fpeak for him J 
and, uniefs he is worfe than ali 
infidel, he will fpeak for him 
■without being fpokeri to. But if 
he thinks any one in his fefvicC 
beneath his notice,- he is unworthy 
of the ferfice of that One. And 
if he titver enquires or eoncerns 
hitnfelf about any of thofe that 
are committed to his care, or is 
iiegligent as to any of them, he 
cannot be faid to provide for thofe 
ef, Ms own houfe ; he is negligent 
Ss to the great duty of Mercy oil 
■which thb Gofpel is founded ; he 
therefore denieth the Faith-, and is 
pronounced by the Apcrftle to ie 
'worfe than an infdel. 

P 2 Eyut 


f «t2 ] 

■feiit the RICHTEOUS Man 

Regardeth the happinels c^en o£ 
his Beast, and Provideth for him, 
as if<l>r one of his owfty and of bis 
own houfe. It is not enough tliat 
his Beaft looks well, he enquires 
whether it fares well ; for many 
times the mod cruel meai^ 'are 
ufed (by vain and foolift ferv^ants 
to pleafe their as vain and iboliih 
mafters) to make the bead appear 
fleek, fhining, and of graceful 
carriage without, vi^hilft thfe poor 
creature is rotten, and fufFer-s wn- 
litterable mifery within. As he is 
Righteous, he is Merciful ; and be- 
ing merciful upon a righteous prin- 
ciple, he is ever merciful^ ti^Jbiw^ 

eth mercy to him in every refeed. 
He MuzzLETH not the beaft that 

r *'3 ] 

treadetb out his corny or, tha^t la- 
bours for his profit or his pleafwf e j 
He taketh care that he is UisgirDt 
ED : He giveth him Straw and 
Pro vender: He kadeth him forth 
to the Watering: He alloweth 
him the Bleftng of Sabbath : and 
to protect: him from the inclemency 
of the weather, He folio weth the 
example of the Patriarch Ja c o b^ 
who, when he built himfelf 
m Houfe, made BOOTHS for 
his CATTLE: (Gen. xxxiii. 17). 
He attends to all his Wants and 
Infirmities ; and confiders well his 
Age, hi? Stature, and his Strength^ 
If Toungyht breaketh not the^ack 
of his tender colt, but waiteth 
till his finews ^re flrengthened 
wnto perfe(a:ion* Hc; neither Nicks 

P 3 k\m^^ 

[ 2U 3 

him, nor Docks him, but takes 
him fuch as GOD made him. If 
Aged^ he galleth not his feeble 
Sides, nor addeth one \yeight ex- 
traordinary to the weight of his 
years ; but, with a fenfe of grati- 
tude, he rewardeth his paft and 
faithful fervices with renewed at- 
tention, forbearanpe, and indul- 
gence. He faith within himfelf— - 

* This Beaft by toil and fweat hath 
^ adminiftred to my pleafure pr to 
? my profit for many years paft ; 

* and now that he is no longer able 

* to perform my work, Shall I dif- 

* mifs him as a creature not worthy 

* <>{ my future prote<Elion ? Shall I 

* fubjc<5l him to the caprice, or 

* abufe, or unexperienced fervitude 
^ of a new, and, it may be, of a 
\ cruel and mercenary Mafter ? If 

f he 

[ 2'5 ] 

he is^not fit iov my work, he is 
not fit for any work. And ihall 
I curfe the age of my Beaft, be- 
caufe he hath worne himfelf out 
in "my fervice ? Or the gain, 
which I have acquired by his la- 
bor, fhall I corrode it by the 
Price of his blood? NO. If I 
chop not his Hay ; if I grind not 
his Corn ; if I aflift not the de- 
cay and unevennefs of his Teeth 
by conducting him to the longeft, 
mildeft, and tendereft Grafs in 
my Pafture ; I will yet teftjfy my 
Approbation of his former fer^ 
vice, by putting an inftant pe-» 
riod to all his Pain.' 

Whether Young or Old, whe- 
ther Strong or Weak, whether 
Sound or Maimed, the Righteous 
man proportions the Work to the 

P4 Akilitji 

• t * ' T 

Ability of th^ Brute, and l^alaftecfs 
them both in the juft Scale of 

» • * * , 

Equity. As he regardeth theHap-^ 
pinefs of his Beaft, fo he prmideth 
fat the Ease of it. And however 
this may appear a Circuii^ftance of 
very fmall moment ; yet, to guard 
us againft greater inftances of |n- 
juftice, and tofhew how extremely 
cautious we fhould be in offend-^ 
jng againft the Brutes, who are en4 
tirely in our power, and have no 
means of redrefs, we find to tits 
purpofe, the following precept iri 
the facred ! of Moses ;-^ 

7%ou jhalt not plow with an OX 
and an ASS together : (Deut. xxii. 
1 o j. Some have thought that St, 
Paul alludes to this precept in *■ 

Be ye not unequaliy yoked together with m- 
ers^ 2 Cor. vi. 14, 


2 Cor. 

[ 2'7 ] 

2 Of. VI. 14. If the Apoflle had 
it in viev/, it is a mere allufionto 
it, and not an intef pretation of it. 
It may confirm it, but does not 
fttperfede it. And even if we 
were to admit that St. Paul's fup- 
pofed allufion to it. was intended 
as the true and proper interpreta*- 
tion and defign of the precept, 
ftin it exhibits to us the wifdorh 
and benevolence of the Lawgiver, 
in delivering a Civil Law in words, 
which ihould at the fame time con^ 
vey the idea of Mercy to Brutes. 
But ^^en Ezra, a Spanifh Jew 
Commentator, by making this ob^ 
fervation on the paflage before us, 
viz. that t^e Jirength of an ASS 
ii not as the Jirength of an OXy 
intimates that he and his nation 
ynderftood it in the literal fenfe, 


[ 818 ] 

and that it was intc;ide^l as a ge- 
neral rule of mercy, to adapt the 
.work and the burthen to the 
Jirength of the Laborer*. The 
prohibition therefore, Thou Jhajt 
not plcnv with an OX and an ASS 
together^ iniplies thus much at 
leaft, that we fhall not fet a weak 
beaft to keep pace with, nor to 
do the work of a ftrong beaft; 
nor put him to any work which 
he is incapable of performing. 
Such ufage is difregard, neglect, 
or non-attention to their ftrength 
and ability. It is both foolifhand 

* To the fame purpofc faith the learned 
and ingenious Cardinal Cajetan. — Hoc prae- 
ceptum meraphoricc intelligendum eft, ut dif- 
pares vires hominum non asque graventur, 
nee exigantur a^qua ab imparibus : optime 
enim fub hac metaphora prjeccptum hoc mo- 
rale memoriae commendatun CAjErAN in 


C 219 3 

tinjuft ; and, in the ftridleft fenfe, 
it is, an ahufe of them. And if 
the abufe of the Cattle by putting 
them to improper work, or fub-r 
jugating them to unequal yokes, 
is a trangrpflion againft the divine 
law, and every tranfgreflion is 
Sin ; to add cruelty to abufe, or 
^o ill treat, and torment them with 
barbarity and unbridled fury, muft 
be a SIN of a heinous nature in- 
deed. And of this we have an in-: 
ftance and proof in the cafe of 
BALAAM, who was fent for by 
Balak King of Moab to cuffe 
the people of Ifrael. (Num. xxii.) 

As Balaam was riding upon his 
ASS, (the ufual. manner of tra- 
velling in his . country,) and two 
Servants with him, the Afs faw an 


( t26 ] 

Apparition, which the rider did 
not lee ; and the timorous' beaft 
turned a^de out of the path into 
a field ; upon which jBdaam in a 
paffioQ fmote the Afs, and turned 
her into the road again. As he 
proceeded further, they came to 
a road between two walls^ :The 
Afs faw the Apparition again, and, 
ftarting afide, crufhed her mafier's 
foot agai nil one of the walls ; and 
Balaam fmote the Afs a fecond 
time. At laft they came to a very 
narrow place, where there was no 
way to turn, either to the right 
hand, or to the left : and the Afs, fee- 
ing the Apparition the third time, 
was fo exceedingly terrified, that 
all her ftrength forfook her, and 
fhe fell down to the ground under 
Balaam. Her maimer, inftead of 


teilcdiiig with himfelf that there ] 
mufl: be fomething extraprdinary 
in this cafe, (as the Afs was not 
wont to ftart or to ftumble,) and 
inftead of afking the two Servant* 
that were with hiih, if they faw 
any thing uncommon, or could 
account for the fhynefs of the 
bcaft, was fo overcome with paf- 
fion and rage, that he unmerci- 
fully beats the poor creature (rE;/it;fi> 
a Staff". The fallen beafl, fenfible 
of her own pain and of her maf- 
ter's cruelty andinjuiHce, had fhe 
been endued with fpecch and rea- 
fon, would probably, hatte cxpof* 
tulated with him on iter ;hard 
treatment the firftand the fecond 
time: hut alas! fhe was dumby 
and could not open her mouth. 
But now, at the thifd time, when 


[ 222 J 

Balaam's anger was kindled it\to S 
flame, and afceiided to itsheightj 
the Lord himfelf was pleafed 
to interpofe in behalf of the abufed' 
animal, by opening the fHouth df 
the j4SS ; and jhe faid unto Ba-' 
Icuim^ What have I done unto thee ^^ 
that thou haji fmitten me thefe three, 
times ? Behold a miracle : the 
dumb Afs fpeaks. Behold a great- 
er miracle : the Rider ' was not 
ftruck dumb with amazement at 
the voice of the beaft; Infatuated 
even unto madnefs, he eonfider^ 
not the overruling power of GOD 
herein, but being as blind as h(3 
was cruel, he replies to the com-* 
plaint of the Afs ; -^Becaufe thou 
haji mocked me \ I would there mere 
a /word in myhand^ for now would 
I kill thee 4 Cruelty is the kft ftepr 


[ 223 ] 

to Murder. He firft beat the Afs 
cruelly, and then becaufe (he 
complained and reproved him, he 
would have killed her. But the 
Lord, obferving the malicious 
rage of the man, blinded with 
fury, and hardened in his wicked-* 
nefs, inftead of being reformed 
by the miracle, was pleafed at 
length, as he had before opened 
the mouth of the Afs, now to. 
open the eyes of Balaam, who fees 
an Angel of the Lord Jiand-* 
ing in the way. He had wifhed 
for a /word in his own hand to 
kill the Afs, and now he beholds 
the Angel of the Lord with a 
drawn fword in his hand ready to 
kill him. He called for a fword,. 
and a fword immediately appears. 
And the man, who had cruelly: 


C 224 ] 

treated hk beaft for Aarting ditdi 
tumbling t<» aitroid the fword of 
the .asrenger, now howetb dawn bis- 
own jie^fl^,. ««^ J^^/-^ flo-i o» his 
face. The cafe of the iiiaa ;ajid 
the brute is now the fame in^ p^iist 
ef fear : the appearance of, tb)5 
Angel was no iefs terrifying to the 
naafterj than to the Beaft. that -car- 
ried him; and jiiftly migjit th^ 
Angel haye rcquit^ Balaam ifi. 
kind for his cruelty, fiat . as 
GOD is more merciful to Anfnl 
lAen, than men- are to unixhnipg 
i brutes ; the Angel of the Loaul 
was pleafed to fheath ; his fword s 
and though he. came to Balaam 
itrith a meilage from the Loka 
of .very ; great imjpottance, y«t hs. 
poflpone^ the delivery of his er- 
rand, till he had.firft reproved 
- 3 and 

C 225 J 

and convinced Balaam of hisi 
wickednefs and cruelty in fmiting 
the Afs^ which was a SIN defefv-' 
ing his notice and reproof. And 
that the teproof might be more- 
ilriking to Balaam, the Angel 
makes ufe of the very words which 
the Afs had fpoken before : What 
have I done unto thee, faid the^ 
Afs, that thou haft smitten «»^ 
Angel faid unto Balaam, Where- 
fore haft thou SMITTEN thine ASS 


queftion of the Afs Balaam had 
replied, Becaufe thou haft mocked 
mey iand, / mould there were a 
fmotd in my hafid, pr A&m wokld' 
1 kill thee. But When the An^l 

hk tdiif^ i7S6 cha<nged i attd wd 

Q^ hear 

[ 226 ] 

hear not a word about mocking^ or 
wijhing for a /word to kill her ; 
but a confeflion of fin, and an 
apology of ignorance. His ftout 
and ftubbcHrn heart trembled ; the 
confcioufnefs of his guilt, and the 
fenfe of his folly and injuflice in 
iiniting the innocent Beaft, touch< 
ed him to the quick ; and, ia 
fpite of his pride, pafllon, anid 
cruelty, extorted from him this 
frank confeflion, I have sinned. 
(ver. 34.) and Balaam faid unta 
the Angel of the Lord, I HAVE, 

But perhaps it will be objected, 
that this confeflion, I have Jinnedy 
alludes to his going on the wicked 
defign to curfe the Ifraelites, un- 
kfs reflraiaed by the overruling 


[ 227 ] 

power of GOD. I grant that 
Curfing and Cruelty are kindred 
fins. Experience tells us they fre- 
quently go together. And I ac- 
knowlege that the firft intent of 
Balaam to undertake this journey 
was wicked and finful, though he 
had a permifHon to go ; and he 
might well fay on that account, / 
have finned. But it does not ap- 
pear to me, that he had that in 
view, when he made this confef- 
fion. His Sin confifted in fmiting 
the Afs ; for the confeilion is the 
refponfe to the Angel's queftion. 
The Angel did not fay. Why dofi 
thou proceed in thy curfed defign ? 
but. Why hafi thou fmitten thi7te 
ASS thefe three times f It was to 
this queftion that Balaam replied, 
/ have finned. And though the 

0^2 Angel 

[ 22J? ] 

Angel told him, that it was he- 
that ftood in the way, and occa- 
fioned the Afs to turn afide ; yet 
Balaam does not look upon his 
own ignorance of this cifcum- 
flance as a juilification of his 
cruelty. It might alleviate his 
guilt in fome meafure, but did not 
clear it. And though he aipolo- 
gizes for his condudt, by faying, / 
knew not that thou Jioodefi in the 
isoayy (which fhews that the fin re- 
ferred to, was fmiting the Afs) 
yet the aBion itfelf being cruel, 
and the efFedt of paflion, he in- 
troduces his apology with the cbn- 
feflion of guilt; and it amounts 
to this, — Though I knew not that 
thou Jioodeji in the way againji me^ 
yet I HAVE SINNED, in fmiting thz 


I wifit 

[ 229 ] 

I wiOi this part of the facred 
hiftory were more duly and gravely 
attended to, than I fear it is. It 
has been treated with contempt 
and ridicule; as abfurd in itfelf; 
and unworthy a place in holy 
writ, BtQt, for my own part, I cam 
fee nothing dbfurd or ridiculous 
in fuppoiing that the great Creator^ 
with whom all things are p6:£Ible) 
and wha thought it not beneath 
him to create the various orders 
of anintails from the higheft to the 
lowefty ihould care fot the mean* 
eft of them. We Mert^ indeed^ to 
ihew how imworthy we are ofi 
our own dignity, are apt to de-r 
ipiie and infult the inferior ani- 
mals,, as below our notice or re^ 
gjard^ nay,, a& obje<3:s of our coa<* 
tempt and malicioufnefs. But the 

0.3 great 

[ 23© ] 

1 great GOD feeth not as inan 
\ feeth ; with Him nothing is con-' 
, temptible. -He faiv every thing 
.that he had tnade^ and behold it 
I was very good*. And as God is 
' Love -f-, the extent of his Love is 
the perfection of his Goodnefs. 
Where is the abfurdity then, that 
a Meflenger from heaven, who 
was fent for reproof or direftion 
to an obflinate and pafllonate man, 
obferving him to offend againft 
the law of mercy, fliould check 
and reprove him for his cruelty ? 
The angel's Silence as to this par- 
ticular, would indeed have been 
a matter of wonder ; and we 
fhould from thence have inferred, 
that Cruelty to Brutes is no Sin, 
becaufe an angel of mercy took 

• Gcri. i. 31. ' "^ I. John iv. 8, i6. 

' no 

[ 231 ] 

hd notice of it in Balaam.- Biit as 
the angel's errand was a meflkge 
of love and mercy unto Ifrael ia 
the firft dclign of it, it was highly 
confiftent with the charafter of a 
meffenger of love and mercy, to 
keep them in view in his whole 
tranfadtion, of which his gentfc 
esrpoftulation to Balaam, as well 
as his forbearance in fparing him, 
are illuilrious proofs. I do noc 
fey, that the Angel was fent on 
purpofe to rebuke Balaam for this 
^n'y it is plain he was not: for 
the Angel was prefeat, and the 
Afsf faw him, before- hw mafter 
foiote her - the - ^ft time ; • but it 
difpleafed the Angel fo much, 
that he withdrew hiinfelf for a 
ieafon. He would have appeared 
the fecond time, but the fame 

(^4 caufe 

[ 232 J 

eaufe produced the fsme effed^i 
But^now, at the third- time, the 
juft indignation of the heavenly 
tne^enger w^i . kindled at the 
foolifh paflion and cruelty; of :Ba-» 
laam* He could no longer coat 
tain rand yet, as if he deemed (he 
mafi unworthy to hear its ?oic:e» 
he open^ the mouth of tho ini 
juFcd Afsy that ihe might: pJead 
her own caufe with hum<miM<^i 
and by the ftmngenefs of the mi-? 
racle convince her mailer of hi* 
fbJly and injuftice*. But wfeicn 
theniiraclp had QoefJe<^upon the 
infatuated man^ then did the 
Angel exhibit himfelf in thepof- 

* It fleafsd GOD to open the mouth of the 
jfSS in a complaint of the injuftice of her Maf^ 
ter^ to B^t her 'fir not going forward.^ }o^^ -- 
»HV?? Jew. Anti^ Pook iv. ch. 5. . - 


t m ] 

. tvm 0f yengeance i md waves hi$ 
important mefT^ge, till iie had 6r(l 
eorre^ed Balaam for hk Qxm\ty, 
And as this hsftory wa« to be, 
handed down to us in recordi- h^ 
would BG^ let flip this opportunity 
of teaching mankind by divme ia-* 
terpofition the Dvity of Mefcy^ 
and the Sin of Cruishy to Bntte 
Animals. And tbe laorc n:^a«;«- 

lous this hi6:ory isi: it 49 the mof^ 
llriking^ and de&f ving Qur aotiot 
and remembrance. 

If it &Qiild be hidy it » im^R 

poffible HA Afs could ^ Sfkax., 'X 
anfwer in few word.s ;-.It is blai^ 

* 3ee ap tQgenjous vindication qf this piece 
of Scripture Hiftorjr , in the learned Bifhop 
Newton^s DiJJirtatfims m tht Propbeiks^ 

5 phemy 

[ 234 ] 

phemy to determine the power; ^ 
the great GOD of Nature. But 
whether the Afs rea/fy {pake ; or 
whether it was. -the voice of the 
Angel thrown fo, as to fecm to 
Balaam to proceed from the mouth 
of the Afs; or whether it was a 
created voice ; or an imprejfum 
upon the ear of Balaam ; ilill it 
was a divine Interpoiition, not 
ubbeceming an Angel, in favor 
of fuffcring innocence. : Or even, 
if we were to admit, that there 
was neither fpeech nor hearing on 
any part ; but that it was only a vi- 
}umy or z. fancy of the imagination ; 
or, that the whole narration is but 
a parable ; (lill, it has its ufe, and 
anfwers the purpofe of the facred 
writer to rep^efent to us the fin 
and injuftice of Cruelty. But I 


[ 235 ] 

defire it may be obferved, that this 
Narration has the fan<3:i0n of an 
important Truth ftamped upon 
it by St. Peter in \i\%fecond epiftle, 
in which he tells us, that Balaam 
was rebuked for his iniquity ^ and 
that the dumb ASS^ /peaking with 
mans voice^ forbad the Madnefs 
of the Prophet. 2 Pet, ii. 16. 

* - fc > • 


It feems then, that this ridi- 
culed piece of facred hiftory has 
the authority of both the Old and 
New Teftament for its fupport. 
And it deferves the more to be 
noticed by us, and I have dwelt 
the longer upon itjr becaufe this 
particular injiance of-paflion and 
cruelty is, I believe, more com- 
mon than any other; and that 
too in men otherwife compafHor^ 


C 236 3 

> * 

^ate enough. F05 iay ; pid You 
never whip, or fpur, or ill -treat 
your- horfe, when at any time he 
has fiarted or fiutnbhd ? Was your 
paflion never excited thereby ? and 
did you not almoft wifii there bad 
k^en a faord in your band to^ Mil 
him^ Pardjon me, reader^ for 
putting the queAion boqie to you* 
I hope you can anfwer in the ne- 
gative ;, but i$ is an inftance com- 
napn^ every day. If You are inno*- 
gent as to this pointy Well for 
Thee; and I turn myielf to another 
that will pl^ad Quilty. And to the 
fornoer qutflioa, I aik hi^K^. fi^r- 
%hbT y Did you, when your paf- 
Khki was OTcr, lay your . brand 
upoi% your brea^, axid fay ioi the 
wordsof Balftam^ I havb siNNsn? 
i&ar wHi. ..Ttwen give pie leave 


[ 237 ] 


to tell you ; You have Co many 
Sins ftill unrcpcnted of: You 
have erred with Balaam, but not 
repented with him ; and the fword 
of the Angel is ftill drawn againft 
thee. Btit repent in time, that he" 
may fheath it. And whenever it 
fo happens for the future, that 
your horfe either ftumbles, or 
ftarts, I intreat thee to call this 
to mind. Know, that your beaft 
is not to blame. He no more 
loves to be affrighted, than You 
do. It is no more agreeable to 
Him to make a falfe ftep, than it 
is to Yourfelf. He feels the pain 
of the jarr, as well as You. There- 
fore Smite him not. But ^6- 
member this hiftcwy, and add not 
fin unto fin. The Angel of the 
Lord is with you, though you fee 


[ 238 ] 

him not ; and, in this cafe, fbme-* 
times withfiands thee. Say not, 
my horfe stumbles, and therefore 
I fmite him : but confidcr that, 
whilft You ride, your Horfe goes 
a-foot : and a fixed ilone or hil- 
lock, a (harp Hint, or a pinched 
and uneafy flioe might caufe even 
Yourfelf to ftumble if you were 
to travel on foot ; and you would 
think it hard to be chaftifcd for 
an involuntary or forced trip. Do 
not then unto others as you would 
be unwilling fhould be done unto 
you. Say not, my horfe starts, 
and therefore I fmite him ; and I 
correft him, becaufe he is timo- 
rous : but confider that You have 
your paffions, as well as your 
Horfe. Elfe, why the blood in thy 
face ? or, why thy palenefs of coun- 

5 tenancc 

[ 239 ] 

tenancc on thefe occafionsf ? The 
paflion of anger, or the paflion of 
fear, do then predominate in thy- 
felf. Learn firft to fubdue the 
fudden emotions of thine own 
paffions, : and then endeavor to 
correct his fears. I will grant, if 
you pleafe, that his paflion of 
fear may be fooliA ; but fo is 
^our paflion of anger : and your 
folly is greater than his, if what 
you fometimes fay is true,^ — that a 
Man has more Reafon than a Horfe. 
You have reafon, and ufe it not ; 
your Horfe has no reafon, there- 
fore he cannot ufe it. Your Horfe { \ 
has not reafon tp conquer his | 
fears, whilfl You have both reafon I 
and power to fubdue your own j 
paflion. Your horfe oiFends and I o 
cannot help it j You offend, and 


I . ^ 

[ 240 ] 

may help it. I leave it to your 
own judgment to determine, whe- 
ther You or your Horfe deferves 
moft to be corrected . In fliott, 
to fmite your horfe becaufe he 
ilumbles or ftarts, is irratioftftlity 
and wcaknefs. And if you will 
not dlow your boafted reafon to 
corred the fear of your horfe by 
gentlenefs, forbearance, or fkilful 
management ; but think to over- 
come his fears by whip, fpur, and 
barbarity, you expofe yourfelf to 
the juft and fevere correction of 
the Angel, who withjlands tbee^ 
becaufe thy way is perverfe before 
him *. And inftances are not un- 
common, when his juft anger is fo 
provoked at the cruelty of Man in 
this cafe, that though he doth not 

* Num. xxii. 32. 


open the mouth- of the beaft td 
reprove his rider^ (as hex^nce did, 
and which there is no occafion to 
do a fecond time)', yet he appoints 
the injured beaft to plead his own 
caufe another way, in being the 
inftrumerit of puniflimentf, arid 
Ibmetimes the executioner of 
death, without allowing a mo- 
ment's leifure to make the' fhort 
confeflion of Balaam^ I have 
SINNED. -The inference is- ob- 
vious, that to lofe life by the 
prancing or unrulincfs of a horfc^ . 
excited thereto by barbarity, bc- 
caufe he may have ftarted or 
ftumbled, is tadie in an Act of 
SiN» ' - '■ 

We are told by the prophet 
MICAH, that when Balaam, who 

R had 

C 24* ] 

had finned, in thus pafHonatel)!* 
imiting'tbe Afs^ was afterwa^a 
confulted by Balak the King o£ 
Moab (at whofe requeil he had 
undertaken this journey) how he 
mi^t hium the righteoufnafi of the 
Lord ; that is, how he inight r^ 
commend himfelf to, and b^ft 
pleafe Jehovah the God of Jfra^l, 
whofe power he was now fenfibkf 
of, and whofe favor he de£red tQ 
obtain ; Balaam gives this inilrup-' 
tion unto the I^ing,— '^^ b^k 
Jhewed thee^ Marty wba^ if Go&di 
and what doth the Lord requirot 
of thee, but to do juftly, and to 
love mercy, and to walk humWy 
with thy God, Micah vi. 8. 

In this advice to the Kihgy 
Balaam feems to allude to the 
three great duties of Juftice, 

f 243 ] 

Mercy, and Humility^ againft 
which he himfclf had fo noto* 
rioufly tranfgreflfed in fmiting his 
Afs three times. To ftrike the 
beaftj that never before Jince jhd 
ivas his unto that day was mooni 
to fiumble or fiart *, becaufe no\^ 
fhe ftarted for the lirft time, 
Was Injustice. To ftrike her d 
fecond time ; and the third time 
to beat her with a Staffs and 
to wifh for a /word in his hand 
to kill her, was Cruelty. And to 
^uppofe, becaufe the Afs was his 
own^ that he had an abfolute and 
Unaccountable power over her to 
ufe her as unjuftly and as cruelly 
as he pleafed, was taking too 
much upon human nature ; it 
*Was contemptuoufly ill treating 

♦ Num. xxii, 30, 

R 2 one 

[ 244 ] 

one of god's creatures^ a ufeftd 
and an innocent creature, and a 
bead whofe fimplicity and natural 
ftupidity, (peculiar to the Afs, 
that it may go through its drud- 
gery with lefs reluftance), iliould 
have recommended her to her 
mailer's mercy and forbearance : 
it was overvaluing Himfelf •, it was 
under-rating his Beaft ; and in 
ihort, it was Pride. Balaam there- 
fore neither did Jujlly^ nor loved 
Mercy ^ nor walked Humbly. But 
no fooner was he brought to a 
fenfe of his crime, than he con- 
feffed, I HAVE sinned: and^ as if 
that were not enough, at the 
hazard and expcnce of all his 
hopes of preferment, he moreover 
preaches in the Court of Moab 
the great duties of Juftice, Mercy, 


L 245 ] 

and Humility. Haft thou finned 
' then with Balaam ? with him 
confefs that T^hou haft Jinjted. Per- 
iod: thy confeflion, and fulfil thy 
repentance, by taking every op-^ 
portunity afliduoufly to inculcate 
into others thefe great and necef- 
fary duties. You will thereby, 
give a more fure proof of thy re- 
pentance, and better pleafe the 
Lord, than with thoufands of rams, 
or ten thoufands of rivers of oil : 
for, the Lord defireth Mercy and- 
not Sacrifice^ and the Knowledge 
of GOD more than Burnt Offer-- 
ings^\ If thou wert to give thy 
firji born for thy tranfgreffton^ or 
the fruit of thy body for the Jin of 
thy foul -^^ it would avail thee no- 
thing; it would be worfe than 

t Hofea vL 6. f Micah vi. 7^ 

R 3 nothing} 

[ ==46 3 

nothing J it would be adding one 
fin to another : But the Lord hath 
JJjewed thee^ O man^ what is Good^ 
what in this cafe thou ought to 
do, and what he will accept and 
require of thee ; viz. to do JustlY| 
and to love Mercy, and to walk 
Humbly with thy COD. 

Are Juftice, Mercy, and Hu- 
mility, the criterions of righteouf-f 
nefs? Then, Injufticc, Unmercir^ 
fulnefs, and Pride, which fre-f 
quently go together^ and point 
to each other, and are all com- 
prehended in the idea of Cruelty 
to Brutes, muft be fure tokens of 
fin and wickednefs. And in par^ 
ticular is the Love qf Mercy % 
Mean whereby to know the Righ- 
teou/nefs of the Lordf fs it a Duty 


X 247 3 

which the Lord will requite of 
thee, and according to which thou 
wilt be accepted ? Then, as you 
Would avoid the imputation of 
unrighteoufnefs, and as you defire 
to fecure the favor of thy God, 
let Mercy be fliewn in the treat- 
ment of thy beaft. But it is not the 
counfel of Balaam only ; it is like- 
wife, as was before obferved, the 
judgment of the wife King of 
Ifrael, that Mercy and Cruelty are 
the figns whereby to didingiiidi a 
righteous man, and a wicked man* 
(Prov. xii. 10.) A Righteous man 
rBgardeth the Life or Happiness of 
his BEAST; but the tender Mer-'- 
cies or Bowels of the wicked are 
cruel. If a man is cruel to his Beaft, 
he muft be a ff^icked man. If he is 
ROt cruel to him, yet if he regard-^ 

R 4 eth 

C 248 ] 

€th Him'not, he is not a Righteous 
man ; that is, he is an Unrighteous 
man. And as Unrighteoufnefs is 
a footftep to Cruelty ; well might 
•David clafs wickednefs^ unrigh-^ 
teoufnefs^ and cruelty together in 
•one and the fame Deprecation-— 
'"Del'iver^Me^ my GOD j out. of 
-the handof tbeWiQYL^T^^ out of the 
'hand of the Unrighteous and 
Crvel Man. Pfa. lxx>i. 4. . 

I hare hitherto confined myfelf 
to thofe particular paflkges in Scrip- 
ture, which contain and enjoin 
our duties towards the Cattle^ 
that are m9re efpecially imder our 
OWN care, in the articles of Food^ 
H^Ji^' Forbearance^ and Tender 
Ufage\ becaufe in fome of thefe 
inftancea we ar^ very apt to of-^ 


[ 249 ] 

fend. And here we cannot but 
admire the wifdom and goodnels 
,of GOD, who, in his mercy to 
-the brutes, has given us Rules for 
our conduct towards them, in 
ALL tbefe inftahces; and has 
been] gracioufly pleafed to tran- 
scribe them from the Old into the 
New Teftament, to teach us that 
Mercy to the Cattle is a virtue as 
indifpenfably requifite under the 
Gofpel of Chrift, as under the 
Law of Mofes. Examine yourfelf 
then by thefe rules and precepts 
of mercy, and apply thefe cafes to 
your own condudb, and you will 
plainly perceive that ; — When you 
withhold from your beaft his due 
quantity and proportion of Meat or 
Drink ; you muzzle the OX that 
(readefh out your Corn : — * When 


[ 250 ] 

you overwork him, or give him 
not hi« proper Refl ; you do not 
Remember the Sabbath to keep it^ 
according to the intent of the Com- 
mandment J —When you abufe, 
or unequally yoke him, or put 

him to a work, which he is in- 
capable of performing ; you may 
be faid to i>low nuith an OX and 
an ASS together : — When you re^ 
gatd him not 'y you are an unrigh-^ 
Ttous man :-^When you are cruel 
to him ; you are a wickbd man : 
and, When you beat him for ftum- 
bling or ftarting, or fuffer your paf- 
fion of anger to be excited by his 
untowardnefs or ftupidity; you 
partake in the Sin of Balaam, and 
your way is perverse before GOD, 
In all, or any of thefc, or any other 
inftances of cruelty, you forfeit 


[ 251 ] 

the name of a Righteous Man, 
whofe diftinguifliing character is 
this, that he regardeth the life and 
happinefsof i^/j^JS^^y; you knom 
not the righteoufnefs of the Lord\ 
you confjder not what is good, 
nor what it is that he tequireth of 
thee ; and, in fhort, you neither 


WALK HUMBLY before thy God, 


THUS far wo have conHdered 
the Duties, particularly enjoined 
jn holy Scripture with regard to 
our own Cattle. But let it not 
be inferred front hence, that 
Mercy is a limited Virtue : Cafes 
may and often do occur, in which 
the cxercife of it is to be pradifed 
and extended beyond our own 
^Province. To peeled, or abijfe, 

3 o^ 

C 252 ] 

or ill treat our own Cattle, is 
cruelty of a heinous nature ; be- 
caufe They have a right to our 
Care and Tendernefs: and if any 
man provides not for his own, 
and efpecially for thofe of his own 
boufe, he hath denied the Faith y 
and is nscorfe than an Infidel. But 
bur Mercy and Regard is not to 
reft there. It is further our duty 
to be always ready to relieve and 
luccour the Mifcrable, whether 
known or unknown to us. Any 
Beaft in diftrefs, be it Ox, or 
Ass, or Sheep, or other Animal, 
has a claim upon us of Afliftance. 
For in the Law of Moses we find 
it thus written ; — 

I'hoti fhalt not fee thy Brother s 

OX or his SHEEP go ASTRAY, 

^ and 


[ 25S ] 

and hide thyfelf Jrom 77)em^ 7%ou 
JJoalt in any cafe bring them again 
unto thy Brother : and if thy Bro-^ 
ther he not nigh thee^ or if thou 
KNOW HIM NOT, (i. c. if it is the 
beaft of a ftranger,) then Thou fh alt 
bring it unto thine own houfe^ and 
it Jhall be with thee^ until thy Bro-^ 
ther feek after it ; and thou /halt 
rejlore it to him again. (Deut. xxii. 
I, 2). The fcope of this precept 
doth not confift merely in the rule 
of Juftice to reftore the loft Beaft 
to thy Brother or Neighbour, but 
in the rule of Mercy and Compaf-* 
fion to the Beaft itfelf : elfe it. 
might have been enough to drive 

* ^he Owner paying the charges of keeping 
if, from the tirie it was brought to the houfe^ 
tUl it's being rejiored. Patrick. 


t »54 ] 

it to a Pound, or to tye it to d 
Gate, till the Owner fhould come 
to enquire after it. But the Law- 
faith ; — 'Thou Jhalt bring it unto 
thine own Houfe^ and it Jhall he 
with 'Thee. As the Finder, thou 
art the temporary Poffeflbr of it 
in Iruji for the right Owner; 
and thou {halt take as much care 
of the loft Beaft, as if it were 
thine own, till the Owner re- 
covers it again. 

And as the Law has thus pro^ 
vided for the Beaft that is going 
afiray\ fo no lefs indulgent is if 
to the Beaft, that hath met with 
an accident* For in the fourth 
verfc of this chapter, we have! 
another Commandment of Mercy 
refpeding the Cattle that are not 


C 255 ) 

Qur own property ; .—7*hou jhah mt 
fee thy brother s j^SS or his OX 
FALL DOWN iy the way, and hide, 
thyfelf from Them \ Thou Jhah 
furely help him to lift them up 
again. This Law feems exprefly 
enjoined for the fake of the Beaft \ 
for it can hardly be fuppofed that, 
if you were to fee thy Brother, or 
thy Neighbor, in any kind of dif- 
ficulty or diftrefs, you would for- 
bear to help Him. Brotherhood 
and Neighborhood have this de- 
mand upon thee without a Lawi 
It is not faid therefore, Thou fitalt 
not hide thyfelf from Him; but, 
thou fhalt not hide thyfelf from 
Them, that is, from the Ass or 
the Ox that are fallen down. 
Thou fhalt not Hide thyfelf, or 
draw back, as if afhamed or un- 

t 256 3 

willing to do an aA of charity td 
diftrefled becaufe brutal irtno*- 
cence J but thou /hah surely, or 
at the peril of a breach of a di- 
vine commandment, help him to 
lift Them up again^ and afford all 
the fuccoiir to them that thou arr 
able to give. 

But what if the Brute that is go- 
ing ajlray^ ox fallen down^ \% nbC 
my Brother's, nor my Neighbors ? 
What if I know it to belong to 
a man, who hath done me re- 
peated injuries ; an open Enemy j 
a man that hateth me ; who re- 
joiceth at my adverfity ; and who, 
if he was to fee my bead going 
aftray or fallen down, would let 
him go, or keep him down ra- 
ther than help him? Am I to 

3 provide 

t ^^1 3 

provide for, or to regard the Beaft 

of fuch an Enefny^ and of the 

toan that hateth me? To this I 

might reply in the words of the 

meek and merciful Jesus *^ Love 

thine Enemy^ and Do good tq 

him that hateth thee^. But as 

the queftion fuppofeth that thou 

haft not yet attained unto this 

high, degree of chriftian Perfec* 

tion, let us return back to the 

Law, which is a Schoolmajier to 

bring us unto Chriji i*, and let us 

enquire what that fays as to this 

point. But I fliall firft beg leave 

to afk thee a queftion or two. Is 
the Beast of thine Enemy an 

Enemy unto Thee? Doth the 

Beaft hate Thee ? Did the Beaft 

ever willingly and defignedly do 

* Luke vi. 27. f Gal. iii. 24. 

S Thee 

C>58 ] 

Thee an Injury f Doth the Bcaft 
retain any grudge againft Thee ? 
Did the dumb Bcaft ever fiander 
or bely Thee ? or, Did the irra- 
tional Beaft ever contrive any plot 
or device againft Thee ? I believe 
thou wilt anfwcr, NO. Then^ 
what is it to Thee, with regard 
to the Brute, that his Matter is 
thine Enemy ? A Creature endued 
with a fenfe of feeling, who never 
did thee an injury, is in diftrels 
or pain : You have it in your 
power to help him : but he hap*- 
peneth to be the property of a 
man that hateth Thee r therefore 
this diftreffed but innocent brute 
muft continue to fuffer pain, bc- 
caufe, without any choice of his 
own, he belongs to thine Enemy. 
Is this good reafoning ? or, is it at 



t ^59 i 

:ftH cQdfiftent mth the rule of juC« 
tice or equity^ that the innocent 
ifepuU fijfFer for the guilty j ot 
that the Matter's Enmity to Thee 
Ihould.tancel thy duty of pojnpa^ 
jQoti and relief to the diftrefTed 
j»Ad unoffending Brute? I think 
(jnoti But as this is only human 

5 let iis refer for direc- 
ibh to the pofitive and written 
Law of GOD. And bleiTed be his 
.Goodaefs and Metcy^ that h« hath 
l>eeii pleafed td give tis therein (L 
Coftimandment f^li and clea^ as tp 
i)Oth thigfe points $ whether We (dt 
our Enemies Beaft g^^^ ^fi^^i ^ 
falleH down under his burthen. 

t* tf thou fHeei thine £!VEMifi4 
OX at his j4SS going astrav, 
7i&«#^ Jhalt furely hriftg it hack tn 

S 2 him 

[ 26o ] 

ifim again, (Exod. xxiii. 4.). Wc 
ixnay obferve above in the cafe of a 
Beafl going ajirayi if it be the 
Bead of thy brother, or neigh- 
bour, you are required to fend 
it to him again ; but if it be the 
beaft of a ftranger, then to take 
it to your own houfe and to keep 
it, till, you hear of the Owner, 
and he fends for it. But in the 
prefent cafe^the Owner is thine 
Enemy; as fuch, you know him, 
and moll likely where he lives : 
you are not required therefore to 
take this loft Beaft to your own 
houfe, and keep it till the Owner 
comes to enquire after it ; for, as 
the Owner is your Enemy, You 
or your Servants might be tempted, 
on that account, to neglect or 
mifufe it j but you are to Jend it 


t =^6' ] 

hack to your Enemy, or at leaft 
to give him imme4iate notice that 
you have found it:— 7/" thou meet 
thine Enemies OX or his ASS go- 
ing afiray^ Thou jhalt fur ely bring 
it back to him again. And this 
you may do, without having any 
intercourfe with thine Enemy. 
You may fend the Bead home to 
him, without feeing the Man. 
You may do an a(3: of kindnefs to 
the Brute, and yet avoid the dif- 
agreeable circumftance of a parley. 
But—. . 

2. Suppofe you fhould fee the 
Beafl fallen down under his bur- 
then^ and the Mafter with him. 
The man is thine Enemy and 
hateth thee', and we will fuppofe 
too that you do not much love 

S 3 him 5 

t 26a ] 

Mill ; tit leaftj thdt yoU have 4id, 
ydU will have no cotih^dioil at aU 
with him ; yoU will ftot ercn be 
feeq in his company ; iliuch lef^ 
^ill you undertake any wc^k fp? 
him, 0t co-operate with him in 


^ly rtfpc€ti Yet whit faith the Law 
to this ? —Jf Thou fee the ASS 
of hifh that HAtETH 7^^, lying 
tinder his Burihe»f and wouldfi 
forbear to help him\ Thm fhdh 
furely help tsoiih him, (Expd. xxiii. 
K.), The Law ihaketh not the leaft 
allowance in the duty of Mercy 
to an innocent Brute. The Bpaft 
IS in a ftate of painful fufFering \ 
he is faljen down, and requires 
inftant relief. All animofity apart, 
and no difpenfation granted, Thou 
art commanded to lend an help- 
ing hAnd to the man that hateth 

5 ^??ee, 

[ 263 ] 


thee, how difagreeable foever the 
taik riiay be: and though you 
would forbear to help the man him"* 
felf out of difikulty, beCaufe he 
is thine enemy and haieth thee^ 
yet for the fake of the poor crea- 
ture, thou Jhalt furely help with 

him to lift him up. The ASS is 
jtot to bear his Matter's tranfgref- 
fion. The Beaft is innocent, 
though the mafter is guilty : and 
to refufe to the wretched bfute 
thy attention and afUftance, be- 
cauf^ the mafler hateth thee, is a 
weak, a crutl, and a mifplaced 

If any Brute^tben^be in diftrels, 
and we know it, and are able to 
relieve him, it is our Duty, and wc 
are coi^MAMDED to do it, vi^bether 

% ^ the 

[ 264 ] 

the Owner be known or unknown 
to us ; and whethei" he be our 
friend or our foe. And if we are 
required to (hew mercy to the 
Cattle of Strangers and Enemies, 
it is felf-evident that we ought tq 
abound in mercy to our own 
Cattle, whether Oxen, or Asses, 
or Horses, or any ather kind. 
Horses indeed are not mentioned ' 
in any of the foregoing precepts 
and examples, becaufe they were 
not in common ufe amongft the 
Jews, who plowed with Oxen, 
and rpde iand carried burthens upon 
Asses ; yet the rule of Equity ex» 
tends the Commandment to Ali* 
the Creatures intrufted to our 
care, and included under the ge- 
neral denomination of CATTLE, 
which we are neither to Muzzle, 

f *6S ] 

jior tb Overwork, nor to Over- 
i,oAD, nor to III Treat, nor in 
any wife to Neglect or Abuse, 

I cannot entirely qtiit this fubje<Si 
concerning the Creatures which 
are a,ppointed for our fervice, with- 
o\it taking notice of one remark-' 
able inftance of the compaillon 
of GOD towards them, recorded 
in the Sacred Writings. Our Do-* 
minion over the Cattle is apt 
to fuggeft to us the notion, that as 
they are fo much inferior to Men, 
and made as it were ^ dependent 
upon us for their daily bread, they 
are removed at too great a dif- 
tance to be the objeds of the Di- 
vine Love. . Yet there was a day, 
when thefe very Brutes were the 
Mediators between the Vengeance 


f 266 ] 

of an offended GOD, and the 
Pi-ovodations of finful Mbn ; when 
they ftood in the gap, between 
the Sentence of Judgment de* 
iioanc^d, and the Execution of 
}e. For, when the hand of tb# 
Almighty was lifted up to deftfoy 
the great city of Nineveh for 
the wickcdnefs of them that dwelf 
thetein, the Innocence of the 
Cattle, as w^Uas the Iqnoeence 
of th^ JJttle Children^ averted 
for a time the wrath of indignant 
heaven. Shall J pot J^are JVh 
Ke^ehy faid the Lprd unto Jon'ah, 
Sbcdl / not Jjpare Nine^h^ thap 
gr&at City^ *uohefein are mur^ than 
fix f core thoufand ferfons^ that 
tanhot difcern becween their right 
hand and their left hand, and alfii 

mOch C^TTljEt Jondh iv. 11, 


[ 467 ] 

EXTENSIVE no Ufa than 
(jompsiffionate is the fubiime an4 
bcnevoknt Pfecept of dur blefled 
S^vioTy-^JSe X^ M^R€itut, as your 
f ATHER alfi ii MfeftCiFOL (Luke vi. \ 
36). With what views Or irttb 
what narrow dotapaft, the pride 
0r felfi{hn# 6f ftieh "miy havfc 
(fiOfttra£ted thii heavenly precept^ 
I afk ntot I but the inference 1 
would draw froni it is- this, —That 
if GOD hath difplayed his Good- 
nefs and Merty f ovVards the ifertjt^* 
in his Cab AYfoN of tbenl, in his 
PftoviDENda over thein, and in 
his gracious I^fEifOSiriON on 
their behalf in prefcribing Ri/Lts 
in his written word for our con- 
^u& towards them, then it be* 


[ j68 ] 

comes an indifpenfable duty on 
the part of Men, in conformity 
to the divine Goodnefs, to be 
Merciful to them likewife; elfe 
we limit the. extent of this divine 
and important commandment, and 
are not merciful as our Father is 
Merciful, But let it be further 
noted, that the heavenly pattern 
and precept of Mercy is moreover 
ftrengthened and fecured with the 
Bleffing and Promife of Mercy. 
BLESSED are the Merciful, 
faith Jesus, the Son of The Bles- 
sed, for They Jhall obtain Mercy, 
(Matt. V. 7,). And flmiKr hereunto 
was the Exhortation of Jesus the 
Son of Sir ACH — Make way for every 
work of Mercy ; for every Man 
fball fnd according to his JVorks\ 
(Ecclus. xvi. 14.). The obvious 


t 269 3 

meaning of both thefe fentenccs 
is the fame : — Be Thou Merciful, 
and GOP will be Merciful unto 
Thee : —Be thou Cruel, and GOD 
will requite thy Cruelty according 
to its work. 

To be Merciful as our Father 
is Merciful, and, To make way for 
every work of Mercy-, neceflarily 
imply that it is our duty to ex- 
tend or {hew mercy to every ob- 
jedt of it. No Creature is io in- 
iigni£cant, but whilA it has Life, 
it has a Right to Happinefs*^ To 
deprive it of Happinefs is Injuf^ 
tice ; and"to put it to unneceflary 
Pain is Cruelty. It is very un- 
re^fonable therefore, if not foolifh 
in men, to eftimate the degree of 
the fin of cruelty to any creature 


hy the value: we '{et upon tbff 
isreature itfelf ; or to fuppofe diaC 
difference of fize, or difference 
of beauty, are £oimdation» of real 
difference as. to the fteHngi of 
Brutes. A Fly has feeling as well 
as an Ox ; and a Toad has as 
much right td happinefs as a Ca^ 
nary Bird: for the iua& GOD 
madfi the Qx, and the Fly^ aod 
the To^d, and the Bird; It is 
true j we have an averfion to fbme 
creatures, and we are better af^ 
feded towaids ibme than td 
others \ but we ought not to put 
any of them to pain, if we can 
avoid it ; for Cruelty to a Brute is 
odious and abominable, whether 
it be to a Be^, or a Bird, or a 
Fifla, or a Worm. Be the crea- 
ture never fo iniigaifxcanC in our 



[ ^7' ] 

^(limation, we cannot put it to 
any degree of pain without a via- 
iation of the Laws of Nature ; 
becaufe every living creature is the 
work (A the GOD of Nature^ 

» - , . * 

According to the divine Law-^ 
Mercy is a Duty of that univerM 
extent, that it will not be dii^ 
penfed with even in the accidental^ 
and yet not uncommon circiim- 
ftancc, of finding a BIRD's NEST. 
If a bird's NEST chanct to be 
before thee in the way in any trety 
cr on the ground^ whether they be 
Young Ones or Eggs, and the 
DAM Jitpng upon the Youngs or 
upon the Eggs '^ Thou p alt not take 
the DAM with the Youngs but 
thou fh alt in any wife let the DAM 
go ; *— That it may be well with Thee, 
* and 

t 272 J 

and that thou mayfi prolong thy 
Days. (Deut. xxii. 6.)* Were there 
DO other text throughout . the 
Bible, from which to prove the 
Duty of Mercy to Brute Aninials) 
but this only ; this alone is enough 
to reft it, upon. The Goodnefs 
and Condefcenfion of the great 
Creator in this feemingly trifling 
inftance of a BIRD's NEST is fo 
xemarkably difplaycd ; and our 
attention to the Law, and our 
comp^flion to the diftrefled Bird, 
is enforced with the promife of a 
blefling of fo extraordinary a kind, 
for fo fmall a fervice : that to re- 
fledl upon it at all, one would 
think it fufEcient to mollify the 
hardeft heart, and to confound 
the pride of the greateft man upon 
Earth. Indeed it is a precept fo 


ilriking,. fa important, and {q 
abundant in Love?, that I cannot 
avoid repeating it over again : ^^1/ 
a BIRUs NEST chance to be be- 
fore thee in the way in any tree^ or 
on the ground^ whether they be 
Young Ones or Eggs^ and the 
DAM fitting upon the Toung^ or 
upon the Efggs ; Thou Jh alt not take 
the PAM niqifh , the Xoung \ but 
Thou /halt in atpi wife let the DAM 
go \ — that it may be well with thee^ 
and that thou mayfi prolong thy 

I am forry there flaould be any \ 
oqcafion, (though when I con- ' 
jider the remifsnefs or many Pa- 
rents in not itiilru(5ling their Chil- 
(3ren in the duty of mercy to 
BIRDS, i find myfelf neceffitated) 

• * * ' ' Mi. K. ■ . * 

T to 

[ 274 ] 

to remind them, that the Blefiing 
annexed ia this Commandment 
to this inftance of compaflion to 
the Bird, is the very fame as the 
Bleffing fubjoined to the Fifth 
Commandment of the Decalogue, 
in which Parents are fo deeply in- 
terefted. Honour thy Father and 
thy Mother y faith the Law of 
Sinar, that thy Days may he 
LONG in the land (Exod. xx. 12) ; 
or, as it is more fully exprefled 
in the Repetition of the Law, — 
that THY Days may he prolonged, 
and that it may go well with 
THEE. (Deut. V. 16.) The words 
are fimilar to the words in the 
precept before us ; — TChou fhalt 
in any wife let the Dam go^ — that 


that Thou mayfi prolong ti^y 


[ 27 S I 

Days. Length of Days^ attainable 

by all men, is in the right hand 

of Wisdom : Riches and Honor y 

which can be the portion of but a 

i&fiTy are only the ornaments of 

her LEFT hand*. But it is her 

right hand gift, the moft noble 

and venerable gift, which wifdom 

can beftow, that is promifed as. 

the reward ; of Reverence to Pa- 

rentSy and yet not deemed mif- 

plgced nor thrown away upon the 
Merciful and Compajftonate, 

Thoujbalt not tale the DAM with 
the Youngs fays the precept ; hut 
thou (halt in any wife let the DAM 
go. This may mean that, thou (halt 
take neither Dam nor Young, un- 
lefs you find the Nest upon the 
Ground, in which cafe the Young 

• Prov. iii. i6. 

T 2 Ones 

[ 276 3 

Ones may be bruifed of hurt" by 
the fall, or trodden uhider foot; 
and then it is a kTndriefs to take 
them away, and difpatch' tlitfti. 
But^whether you take the Young Or 


not, ^Tbou jhalt in any wife let the 
DAM fro. Thou flialt not add 
one afSi^tion to another. The 
tender mother is bereaved of her 
children, and is ncrt this forrow 
fufficient ? but wJlt thou cruelly 
deprive her of her liberty likewife, 
and of the plealiire or^oflibility 
of having other young in their 
ftead ? No. — Thou Jhalt im take 
the DAM with the Tdung', but 
thou Jhalt in any wife let the 
Dam go ; that it may he well with 
theey and that thou iHdyJi prolong 
thy days. Oh, that all Parents 
would duly and ferioufly refteft 

5 "po^ 

{ 277 1 

\ipon this important precept, in 
which their own Honor as well as 
their children's Happineis is Co 
Hiqch at ftake ! ^he foolifh Mo- 

...» • J • 

ther may think ilie is fecuring to 
herfelf the love and affediion of 

» - ■ ■ . 

her favorite child, when fhe is 
pleafing him with the fight of the 
BIRD fluttering in tfee CAGE; 


and may affedtedly laugh at the 
impertinence and novel correftion 
of any one that attempts to re- 
prove her Folly pv convince her of 
her Miftake ; for like as a FAR- 
XRIDGE taken and kept in a 
(ZAGEyfohthe.Heartof the Proudy 
(Ecclus. %\. 30.) The proud heart 
of the ojptjj^r is as unwilling to 
bear reproof, as the partridge to be 
conftped in a cag?. But, for my 
own part, I think, that both the 

T 3 mother 

[ 278 ] 

mother and "the child are real ©Ij- 
jedls of pity : for the parent kno%vs 
not what (he is doing, and that 
fhe is teaching her child the rudi- 
ments of undutifulne(s to herfelf, 
and difhonor to The Family ; and 
as the Cage is full of BIRDS, fo 
is her Houfe full of Deceit, Jerem. 
V. 27. 

St. Paul obferves (Eph. vi. 2.) 
that the commandment, Honour 
THY Father and Mother ;x the 
FIRST commandment with promise. 
He thought the Promife of Profpe- 
rity and Length of Days was the 
beft fecurity to the obfervance of it. 
And furely the blefling can lofe 
nothing of its excellence, becaufe 
annexed to the Precept Let the 
Dam gOy which after the apoftle, 

I may 

[ 279 ] 

I may call the second command^ 
ment with promise. What GOD 
hath been pleafed to join together 
with the very fame promife, let 
not the folly or cruelty of man put 
afunder. Oh Mother ! think upon 
this golden chain of innumerable 
links of days of profperity ; for 
thy own, and thy child's fake, 
preferve it inviolable. If you truly 
love your child, inftrudt him in 
.the love of Mercy, and fear of 
God. The two commandments^ 
Honor thy Parents ^nd Let the 
Dam go^ are more clofely con- 
neded than you pethaps are wil- 
ling to fuppofe. But revolve, I 
pray you, in your mind, the cafe 
of fome family of your acquaint- 
ance, where the peace of it has 
been difturbed by the undutiful- 

T 4 nefs 

( 2t6 ] 

nefs ahd dbftinftcyof the childrea j 
and r believe you will find, that 
the Parents have not a little con- 
tributed theretOj by not timely 
reftratning their children frdmafts 
of fportive Cruelty to BiRi>s and 
Insects. Poflibly they will hot 
acknowledge that this t^s the 
caufe of it. Few parents will 
confefs themfelves to have been iti 
the Wrong. The blaftie is gene- 
rally laid upon the pervcrfe difpo- 
iition of the children, when yet 
that very perverfenefs is frequently 
chargeable to the parent's account. 
The liiinds of children are natu- 
i-ally tender, and fufceptiblc of 
foft arid benevolent irapreflions ; 
"and if fome are of a rougher caft 
th^n others, they are ftill' capable 
of being inftrudted in their duty, 


t 28, ] 

and reduced to orddr.'by the priii'^ 
ciples of Religion,* the fear of 
GOD, and truft in his Projnifesj 
On the ground of Religion, ^and 
of Nature, Paretits may lay a fore 
foundation of reveiiential honor 
and filial love to themfelves. But^ 
if you fuffer your child to Qom^ 
mit any ads of cruelty, you harden 
him again ft fear and every fc^ 
impreflion : you overthrow the 
foundation, and marr aU >the .ma^ 
terials of thy family ftru<9:ur<?. 
For how can you think your child 
will fear and honor' God, .when 
you teach him ilo 'difir^ard the 
promife^ of GOD? tor how can 
you tynk that* he will fear and 
honor you, when you teach hitti 
- neither to fear warhomr ' GOD?? 
-You hare difcharged him from all 


[ *8* 1 

obedience to thyfelf by permitdag 
liim to tranfgrefs a Command- 
ment, enjoined by the fame Au- 
thority, and recommended witk 
the vety Tame Bleiling, as the 
Commandment of Reverence to 
Parents. You have taught him 
to trifle and quibble with the Pro- 
mife, that links the two com- 
mandments together. How then 
can you expc<9: that your Child 
ihould obey you on the religious 
principle, that GOD has promifed 
life and profperity to fuch obedi- 
ence, when you teach him to 
make light of this very promife in 
the other inftance? And if your 
Child regards you not from a re- 
ligious principle ; What is there 
left? Love and aifeSion he can 
have none. For by your indulg- 

[ 883 ] 

iug him in wantonly catching of 
Birds, tormenting of Flies, fpin- 
ning of BEETLESj& have ren- 
dered his once tender heart obdu^ 
rate to the delicate feelings of pity 
and compafHon. And you can 
hardly fuppofe that he will have 
any concern about your pretended 
afFe<9:ion towards him, or your 
mournful complaints that he nei- 
ther loves you, nor cares for you. 
No. It is You that have done this 
cruel work for thyfelf. You have 
nipped every bud of love. You 
have quenched every fpark of af- 
feftion. You have made him deaf 
to the voice of nature, by deafning 
his ears to the cries of the crea- 
tures. And at lafl you will find, 
as others have experienced before, 
that your fooliih indulgence has 




taught him to be as iofenlible to 
your own pains and tears, as you 
Jiave taught him to be infenfible 
to the pains and mifery of tor- 
mented Birds and Insects. 

The Child, that can with in- 
•dificrence pull ofF the leg or wing 
of a Fly, will in time with the 
iame indi:fference and hardhearted- 
.nefs pull off the- leg or wing of a 
Bird, or the tail of a Cat. He 
may indeed love his favorite Dog 
more than he loves his mother; 
and no great wonder if .he does : 
but he will throw ftones at a 
neighbor's ^qrse, or cut off the 
-teats of a Cow. .It availeth not 
that the -Bleffed Jesus made his 
folemq Entry into Jerufalem tn^ek 
and lowly ^ and riding upon an 


^SS * ; for as oft as the criiel 
wretch fliall meet with this humr- 
ble and inoffenfive Eirute, He wiH; 
be fure to give a teftimony of his. 
own infidelity by repeated mock-v 
eries and infults. Nor fhall the 
Bird of Repentance be lefs the ob^ 
je<5l of his malice than the Ba ast"^ 
of Humility ; aiid that too (as^tf. 
in defpite of the eftablifhed Reli- 
gion) in the Very (eafon fet apart 
by the Church for the purpofes of 
humiliation and penance. St. Pe- 
ter denied his Mafter, the Cock- 
Awakened him unto repentance:, 
but Repentance is an irkfome 
tafk ; therefore fliall the Cock be 
tied by the leg to a flake, and 
thrown at with cudgels till every 
bone in his body is broken : or to 

♦ ^cch. ix. 9. Matt. xxi. 5. 

^ ^ make 

[286 ] 

make him a compleat Cock of ihS 
Game^ his (lately crefl muft be 
cut ofF, and his fpurs pared away 
for weapons of fteel, and public no- 
tice given, that the very abjeBii 
and beajis of the people, who de- 
light in blok>d, may gather them- 
felves together and rejoice in his 
adverjity*. But if there be fuch 
a thing as relative holinefs, or iF 
there be any two animals more 
. facred than others, I would fay 
they are this Bird of Repentance^ 
and the beforementioned Beast of 
Humility : or^ if there be any bar- 
barous fport that is a particular 
fcandal or difgrace to Chriflianityy 
I would fay it is Cock-throwing : 
but Woe be to them through whom 
the offence cometh "f. Yet it is by 

f Pfa. XXXV, 15. f Matt, xviii. ^. 

c thefe 

[ 287 ] 

thefe utireftrained pra£liees that 
the heart of youth is hardened; 
and from the wing of a Fly to the 
teat of a Cow, we may trace his 
procedure from one degree of 
cruelty to another, till at length 
Humanity itfelf muft bear the 
weight of his oppreflion and ty- 
ranny ; and regardlels of the cries 
of nature, or the ties of blood, he 
verifies the obfervation of the wife 
king of Ifrael, that. as He that is 
Merciful doeth good to his owA 
Sou/f fo He that « Cruel troubletb 
his own FLESH. Prov. xi. 17. 

Cruelty then^like other fins has its 
progrefs and ftages; but being the 
devil's Darling, it {lands at the 
head of the black catalogue of 
iins. It is the very fiiril fin that 


[ 188 ] 

we read of in Scripture after the 
fall of man ; and ^ though the 
overt ads may be fupprefled, ' yet 
whilft it lurks in the heart, it lays 
the foundation of every adt of 
mifchief and injuflice. A man 
that violates nature by any aft of 
wanton cruelty, how trifling fb- 
evec the objed, can have no fear 
of GOD, no true principle of 
juftice or honor. He can neither 
iio juflly-i nor love mercy ^ nor walk 
humbly with GOD. Even in the 
fmallefl inftances of it, he difcOvers 
a malevolence of heart dangerous 
to Society. When Domitian was 
firft advanced to the Imperial 
Throne of Rome, he amufed 
himfelf in killing and tormenting 
of Flies. We might elfe wopder 
how it was. pofllble for. a inan to 


be guilty of the barbarities, which 
he pra<aifed on his own fubje£Es ; 
but the wonder ceafesi when we 
arc toldj thalt DoinitiaH was cruel 
to a Ffy. The object was changed^ 
but the fubjeA was the fame. 

It does not bectime any ttiin ta 
didifate to his fuperiorsj but I cannot 
help fbme times fuppofing, that if 
all the barbarous cuftoms and prac'- 
tices ilill fiibfifling amongft u^^ 
were decreed to be as illegal as 
they are finfuU we ihould not hear 
oi fb many ihocking Murders and 
a^s of Inhumanity^ as we now 
dOi There have been Govern-^ 
inentsi (not the lef$ wife I prefume 
for this reafon) that deemed 
Cruelty to Brutes a crime un-» 
worthy of menj and cognizable 

U by 

[ 29b ]. 

by Law. It was one of the Laws 
of Triptolemus, Hurt no living 
CREATURE*. * Hiftory tells us 
of a wife and polite nation, that 
reje<fted a perfon of the firft qua- 
lity, who flood for a judicatory 
office, only becaufe he had been 
obferved in his youth to take 
pleafure in Tearing and Murder- 
ing of Birds ; and of another 
that expelled a Man out of the 
Senate, for Dafliing a Bird 
againft the Ground, which had 
taken fhelter in his Bofom. 
Every one knows how remarkable 
the Turks are for their humanity 
in this kind -[•.' And I have 
fomewhere read, that the pious 

* Archasol. Grace. B. i. Ch. 26. 
t Guardian, N*. 61. 


MolTulmans efteem it d duty of' 
religion to purchafe captive Birds 
out of the cages of the Chriftians, 
that they may fet them at liberty. 
Thefe bowels of mercies in hea- 
then and infidel, nations, ought 
furely j:o make Chriftians blufh, 
when we compare their humanity 
artd tendernefs' with our own^ 
But we have fo iong accuftomed 
ourfelves to brutal Cruelty, that 
our ycxy nature feenis transformed 
through vicious habit : the di- 
vine, image, after which we were 
created, is effaced : our hearts are 
grown callous ; and our judgment 
is as perverfe as our heart. 

But, whatever may be the de- 
pravity or perverlenefs of the hu- 
man heart, we read in the Pro- 

U 2 phecy 


[ 292 ] 

phecy of Isaiah, that when the 
Branch Jhall grow out of the ro9t 
ofJeJ[e\ The WOLF jhall dmell 
with the LAMBy and the LEO^ 
PARD Jhall lie down with the 
KID ; and the CALF, and the 
young LIONy and the FAl*- 
LING together^ and a little 
Child Jhall lead them. And '"the 
COW and the BEAR Jhall feed, 
and their Young ones Jhall lie down 
together ; and the LION Jhall eat 
Jlraw like the 0X\ and the fucking 
Child fhall play with the ASP ; 
and the weaned Child fhall put his 
hand on the COCKATRICE or 
Adder's den: They Jhall not hurt 
nor dejlroy. (Ifaiah xi. 6 — 9). Some 
interpret this prophecy in the 
literal fenfe ; and others have 
thought it is to be underftood In 

a figu- 

{ 293 ] 

a figurative fen(e, to' denote that 
by the preaching of the Gofpel of 
Christ, the minds and tempers of 
Men would be reformed, and the 
mod untoward difpofitions would 
become meek and gentle. But, 
whether this prophecy is to be 
interpreted in a literal, or in a 

figurative fenfe ; whether it is to 
be applied to the natural or to 
the moral world ; if it is a good 
method to judge of the time of 
the accomplishment of a prophecy 
by the coincidence pf the event, 
we (hall find it hard ;tQ determine 
how this has as yet been fulfilled, 
For favage Brutes continue to be 
iavage ; and Men are not much 
better. Either then, we have 
miftaken the day of his coming $ 
pr, (as the Jews tell us,) he would 

y 3 luve 

[ 294- Jl 

ave appeared rat the appointed 
time, but the fins of Men with»- 
held him; or, (and which as a 
Chriftian- I conclude to be the 
cafe,) he hath appeared, the root 


hath long fince fhot forth the 
Branch, and the bleffed event 
would long fince have taken place, 
both literally and figuratively, in the 
natural world as well as in the mo-r 
ral world, if men would pernjit the 
Branch to grow j that is, if Chrif-r 
tians would become Chriftians in- 
deed, and by their good example 
engage all the kingdoms of this 
world to become the kingdoms of our 
Lordf and of his Chrift, Rev. xi. 
15. But natural Evil is foclofely 
connedted with moral evil, that 
pn til fin betaken away, theefFeiS 
^f fin muft continue. If men 

3 woul4 

I 295 ] 


would learn to fear GOD, and to 
obferve his laws ; if the Eanh were 
full of the Knowledge of the Lord 
^s the waters cover the Seas *, Na- 
ture herfelf would wear another 
face. All would be peace, harmony, 
and love. Men would become 
merciful ; Savage Brutes would be- 
come tame ; and the tame Brutes 
would no more groan under the 
lafli, and bear the vifeight of the 
fins of Men ; but all, both Men 
and Brutes would experience the 
blefling of the renovating change. 
When the LION /Jjall eat Jiraw 
like the Jf, as he once did f , the 
Lion will be as tame as the Ox i 

* Ifaiah xi. 9. 

t And God faid-^ra EVERT BEAST of 
the Earth — I have given every green Herb for 
Meat. Gen. i. 30, 

U 4 but 

t «96 :i 

b^t fo Iqng as there is a diN>e^ 

dient Prophet in Bethel *, fp long 

inuil this Lion retain his fierceneis 
as a terror and executioner or 

<>OD-s judgment; and ip long 

muft hi? fiercenefs be Aipportei^ 

and fed widi the ^vigof ating blood 

of the ilain. 

But tkefe SflEEP wkit }iavt 
they done ? Why (hould inno* 
pent CATTLE fuffer bccaufe of 
the fins of Men ? I anfwer, by a 
iimilar queftion ; Why fhou|d in- 
nocent Children fuffer for the fins 
pf wicked parents? When the 
Houfe is overthrown, the whole 
family muft perifh. For though 
GOD may fpare Nineveh for a 
while for the fake of the innocent 

f I Kings xiii. 24. 


V . . . X ; 1 

t 297 ] 

CbilcJren and Cattle; yet if Ni-- 
peyeh will not repent, the inno^ 
fcent Cattle mud fall in the ger 
neral ruin, bi}t as guilt fefs as the 
innQceint Children which caftne^ 
4ifc.€rn ketween their right band 
fifid their left hmd* Jongh* V^* I ?« 

Till wp are able to account 
why innocent Children ihould 
fuffer for the {ins of others, let it 
not be particularly alledged as an 
pbje^ion to the Mercy of GOD 
towards the Brutes, that the Brutes 
ihould fufFer likewife.. His Mercy 
ought no more to be called in 
queftion in th^ que caie, than in 
the other; nor tp a considerate 
mind will it bfc queftiqned ip either 
pafe. Fpr^ indeed, it can hardly 
be avoided in public diftre(s, 


. % i 

t 298 3 

but that the Children muft fom^ 
Way or other feel the effe6t of it ; 
and/or the fame reafon^we are 
not to wonder that the Brutes of 
humanity, who are conneded with 
us, and dependent upon us, and 
who live as it were under our 
roof, are many times unhappily 
involved in the calamities which 
befal Mankind, And^if this be 
ian Evil, to the fcore of finful 
Men be it charged ; and not to 
any wrath or difpleafure in GOD 
towards the innocent and unfin- 
ning Brutes, any more than to 
the innocent and unfinning Babes 5 
for Shall not the yudge of all the 
Earth do right? Gen. xviii. 25, 

Be this then the general an- 
fwer to all objedions of this 


I 299 ] 

kind. Yet fee the perverfenefs 
and unreafonablenefs of finful 
Men. We firft call down the 
Vengeance of Heaven, by pur fins, 
to confume us in his wrath, and 
then we arraign the Mercy of 
GOD, becaufe thofe that are con-^ 
ne^ed with us, perifli in the flame 
which our own follies have kin- 
dled. But if it be true, that the 
Innocent muft fufFer with the 
Guilty, it maketh Sin to be more 
exceeding finful ; and this con-^ 
fideration ought to make us more 
careful how we offend, becaule 
when we fall, we fall not alone, 
for in our fkirts is found the blood 
of the fouls of the poor, innocents * ; 
and we aggravate our own fins, 
by the miferies which we know 

^ Jcrcm. ii. 34. 


[ 300 ] 

the juft punifhment thereof mud 
bring upon others. 

And yet the Mercy of GOD 
towards the innocent may ibme- 
tinies be traced even in his judg- 
ments upon the wicked. For 
though the idea of Death may be 
terrible to the Living, yet, in it- 
felf, it hath no Sting but for the 
Sinner 'y nor hath the Law any 
Strength but for the Tranfgrejfor, 
In the hands of GOD alone are 
the iflues of Life and of Death, 
of Blefling and of Curfing ; and 
he knows beft how long he fliall 
continue to any creature the blcf- 
^ iing of Life. But, when the day of 
the Lord is near^ or the 'voice of the 
day of the Lord, a day of wrath ^ a 
day of trouble and difirefsy a day of 


[ 30* 1 

wttfienefs and defalation ; when hi 
will bring dijirefs upon men^ — becaufe 
th^ have Jtnned againjl thehovLH ;— 
and when the whole land Jhall be 
devoured by the fire of his jea- 
loufy * ; it is in his Mercy that by 
the medium of inftant death, he 
taketh away the Innocent from 
the evil to come: or, if fbme In- 
nocents fhould be referved, to pro- 
craftinate the day of vengeance^ 
for a time (as in the cafe of Ni- 
neveh), and at laft to fall in the 
general wreck, to make the cala- 
mity the more exemplary and 
more affecting to others; yet, 
though they fall with the guilty, 
they fall not as the vidims of 
Vengeance. To the unfinning 
Beast, to the (potlefs Babe, and 

• Zrph. i, 14— 17. 

[ 302 *] 

to the righteous Man, Death ii no 
further an Evil, than as it is the 
Period of Life ; and when Life 
i would become a Burthen, Death 
I becomes a Bieding to all but to 
[the Sinner. 

Suppofe we now the day of 

diftrefs at hand, and the Blef-- 

fing of Death decreed. The un- 

: offending BRUTE muft die : and 

\ what matters it to him, whether 

f in the earthquake, or in a deluge, 

I or in a: flaughter-houfe ? The 

helpjefs CHILD muft die : for 

fhould it furvive the fall of its 

parents, it would, be expojfed to 

all the miferies of cold and fa-^ 

mine j ihe tgfigue of the fucking 

child would cleave to the roof of its 

mouth for thirji*y and the young 


C 303: ] 

children would ajk breads and no 
man to break it unto them"^ r 
but God is pleafed to take them 
away s by the fudden point of 
the fword, not more painful* 
than the tedious cutting of the: 
teeth. The Righteous MAN too 
muft die, and be feemeth to die 
in pain : In the fight of the un- 
wife^ his^ departure is taken for mi- 
fery ; and his going away to be 
utter deft ruEi ion ; yet he is in\ 
peace : and though he may feem ; 
to be punifhed in the fight of men^ 
yet is his hope full of immortality i r 
and having been a little chafiifed^- 
he fhall be greatly rewarded. Wif-j 
dom iii. 2, 3, 4. ^ : ) 

• Lam. iv. 4. 

I * 

. \» tw^s 


[ 3H J 

• According to the foregoing (up* 
pofition, in the day of pubHc cala-< 
mity, the fame event of untimely 
death befalls the righteous Man, 
the helplefs Babe » and the unoiTend^ 
ingBitUTB* Now^if the Man and 
the Babe are not exempted) I pre-* 
fume there tt no occafion for me to 
endeavor to prove, that more favor 
ought to be ihewn to the innocent 
Brute> than to the innocent Man. 
If it is in his Mercy that GOD 
taketh away the Man ; it can be no 
impeachment of his Mercy that 
the Brute dieth likewife. But fup<« 
pofc it were in JVrath ; whatever 

evil may enfue, to the account 
of wicked men be placed all the 
difmal charge. For as the Goo 

O } 

of Nature is the God of Graces and 
as the fame GOD who was the 


i 3<>5 ] 

Creator of the 'world is the moral 
Governor of it, I am emboldened 
ta fay, on the principles of divine 
revelation, that Nature would 
never have groaned, if Man had 
not finned. Jf the Brutes then^fufFer 
through our fins, upon ourfelves 
be their mifery ; we are the occa- 
fion of it all : for^ wien the La7id 
mournethy and the herbs of every 
field, "Wither^ for the wickednefs 
of them that dwell therein^ the 
BEASTS and the BIRDS are 
confumed* Jerqm. xii. 4, 

See here the dire efFedl of Sin, 
The Land mourneth, the Herbs 
wither, the Brutes perifii; and 
v/hy? for the Wickedness of them 
that dwell in the Land. Say not 
then that GOD is unmerciful to 
' ^ X the 

f h€f Br\34e* ; bfft % rathefj that 
the unmcf eifultiefs and cruelty is 
te Man, who provoketb tktf AU 
mighfy to Gurfe the land, which 
would otherwife produce food Suf- 
ficient for aU the irtnabitants there- 
of;- and what little is referv^d fot 
the B^A^r or the Bird, is detrour- 
ed b^ the Men through wh^m the 
calamity oonieth. 

la this manner tolght we in 
fome meafure account for the 
miferies which befal the iimo- 
cent. It is their misfortune to 
be con'ne^te'd with the guilty : but 
the general' Mercy of GOD to- 
wards all his creatures is no* more 
to be called in queftion for this, 
than the Juftic'e of a wife Legifla-. 
ture is to be arraigned, becaufe, 

5 in 


[ 307 ] 

in the puiiifliment of a criminal, 
the effect of his crime may extend 
to his innocent family. The Law 
doth not pinip the innocent; 
but^if the inwocent fuffer for the 
guiltyy chafge that fuffering to th* 
account of the CrimdnaL KtA 
yet, after aft that has beeii faid, 
I iirmly beKeve, that no evil 
whkb the innocent Brutes laf^f 
ffdfn- tl^ bawd of GOD on the ac-^ 
Count of Mefi, fo in any refpcA 
cquat Co the paks ami laifems they- 
endure froili the Craehtes of 
Mem For God is mctcifbl even 
when provoked to Judgment, but 
Man is cruet without any provo- 
cation at alK Ljet Me foM, &ith 
Davids inta the hands of the LiORUy 
(for Ms Mercies are great ), and 

X 2 /«# 

[ 3o8 ] 

let me not fall into the harid of 
MAN, 2 Sam. xxiv. 14. 

When the wickednefs of Men 
was .{0 great in the earth,- that 
GOD was determined to dcftroy 
the whole race of mankind, (the 
jnclofed in the; Ark only, excepted,) 
His Mercy was confpicuous even 
in his Judgment. For the fake, of 
the few Men that were to be (av- 
ed, jt;feemed expedient that the 
Br c?tes fhould perifli ; for had they 

all been fpared, the difproportionof 
numbers between Men and Bruteis 
in the new world, would probably 
have occafioned various inconve- 
niencies. The multitude of the 
favage Beafts would have been a 
continual terror to the new race 
of. men, and the multitude of the 
5 tamer 

[ 309. ] 

tamer kinJ would have been as 
ftraggling (heep without a fhep- 
hcrd. Born to die once,^ their 
term of life indeed was (hortened : 
but the manner of their death by 
ff^ateryWZSy upon the whole,. more 
eafy to many of them,; and more 
expeditious than if the tame brutes 
had been devoured by the; fierce, 
and the fierce had periflied by 
lingering Famine. Had it been 
by general Fire^ it would, have 
confumed the Pifhea of the Sea, as 
well as the Creatures of the Earth ; 
and it would have made a greater 
havock in th§ creation, than was 
neceflary to accompli fli the end 
propofed ; nor would the. Arl^ it- 
felf have been fpared. But as 
GOD was not angry with the 
Brutes, Water was the merciful 

X 3 expe- 

[ 3IO ] 

expedient to faire no hC& tluin to 
deftroy. iTfe fF'aters prevailed, and 
every Living SubftaiKre was de- 
frayed which was ufon the facfi ^ 
the ground^ both Man and Cattle, 
and the Creeping Things, and the 
Fowl of the heaven ; and\ they 
were deftroyed from the earth. 
Gen. vii. 23. 


But GOD remembered NOAH^ 
and Every LIVING THINQ^ 
end all the CATTLE that mas 
^/) him in the Ark. (Gen. viiL i.). 


that w€r€ ftiut up, as well a6 the 

Men ; and made a wind to pafs 
over the Earthy and the Wat en 
ajfwaged. And the Lord fent 
forth his Spirit^ and renewed the 
face of the Earth^. He looked 

• Pfa. civ. 30. upon 

■ • 

Upon tbe Deiblatiom, aad it feemed 
to have rejiented Aixmy that the 
Brutes had peri/iSaed ; and ith^t 
which had beea the M<DTrv£ cf 
JudgaaveEit, lie mxavi^ deckres fhall 
never jwove him agaiffl to blot the 
innoceaat Brutes ©ut cf his cmeatioo, 
for die ifins of guilty Men* ilead ^ 
and adore his Love; and fee 
how ihis Mercy rejoiceth ag^inft 
J^udgment : — Tie hQ%^ /aid in his 
hearty I will not again curfi the 
Ground any more for Ma«'s fake^ 
though the imaginjxtion of Man s 
heart is e^ii from his ITos^thi fiei-- 
ther nsoiU J again finite any mor^ 

I HAVE DONE. 43«a. viii. 2i. 

* r ■ 

Nor was it cnougfc that ^cIjord 
faid it ifi its hearty but lie gm- 

X 4. cioufly 

I 312 ] 

cioufly condefccnds to bind him-* 
felf by a COVENANT ; by an 
fined to any family, to any nation, to 
any church, no nor to human kind ; 
but a Covenant as Extenfive as it 
is Eternal, as Merciful as it is 
Magnificent, and as Sublime in 
the Form of it, as it is aftonifii- 
ingly Beautifiil in the Seal and 
Signature. And to convince Noah 
and all future Generations,, that 
the Mercy of the Lord is over all his 
works:, and that EVERY LIVING 
CREATURE, of the Fowl, of 
the Cattle, and of every Beast of 
the Earth, is as much, in its kind, 
the objed: of his Loying-kindnefs 
as Man, yea more than Jinful 
Man ; ^nd that it was not in his 
wrath to the unfianing Brutes 


t 313 3 

which had periflied, that he had 
fwept them away in the general 
flood J he is moreover moft gra- 
cioufly pleafed to take in the Sur- 
viving Brutes for themfelves, and 
for their Pofterities, as Parties 
jointly interefted with Men, and 
exprelly named together with them 
in the fame Everlasting COVE- 
NANT, written in Heaven, and 
Sealed with the RAINBOW. 

Behold the Form of 


and bear witnefs unto 


vifible to all men 

even unto this day. 


rUE cor EN ANT. 

'..: GOD /pake unto N04H, 
ani /• bis Sons with biwiy firying^ 



r n \ 


f , 

■ . • ■ f 








from all that go out of the ark, 
to every ©east of the earth. 



• . • 




* •. * * 


r H E t Q Js^ E m 


And GOD faii. 

This is tbe TOKEN of the Covcn^pjc 

wlnich I make betw^eeq Me ai]i4 Tou, 

and every Living Creature that is with you, 

for perpetual generttions : 


aadit 4^tl be for a Tok^sn of a CpveRanc 
betWtCien Me and the Ear^I^. 

mm * 

And it ihall come to pafs, 
when I bring a cloud over the earth, that 


And J will reflieoibcr my CjovManf 
which is between IVJle, ^nd You, 

and every LIVING CREATURE of all gcflii 

«tk1 the watei^ fliall no more become a flood 

. fio d^roy all fl€fli. : 


and I wUl loo^ upon it, that I oiay ref)2ej9:ibcr 


> • 

of sili flcfli* tliat is upon xhe Earth. 
And COD /aid ufUo Noab^ 

THIS '13 T«B 



Gen. ix. 8—17* 

h 3^^ 3 

Look upon the RAINBOW, 
afid pratfe him that made it * ; 
and, Let that beautiful and re^ 
fplendent Arch of Heaven be the 
vifible MEMORIAL of the Lord 
throughout all Generations, that 
HIS Mercv is over all his Works. 

■ I preftime it is now unneceffary 
that I fhpuld add any more Argu- 
ments or Teftimonies to thofe 

:** • ' ■ * 

which have been already advanced 
and produced. For what ? Shall 
GOD establish his COVE- 
nant with EVERY LI VI N G 
CREATURE of the Fowl, of the 
Cattle, and of et^ery Beast of 
the Earth, as well as with Man } 
and fhall we defpife thofe Crea- 

* Ecclus. xliii. II. • 

. V tures, 

t 317 ] 

tures, which are nolcfs than Our-r 

' ' ' 

/elves in Covenant with GOD? 

Shall GOD SPARE d wicked City 

for the fake of Beast, as well as 
Babe ? and fhall we abufe thofe 

Creatures, for whofe fake (per- 
haps) our City, and our Land is 
SPARED? Shall God difplay the 
riches of his Goodnefs in his 
CREATION of, and in his PRO- 
Beasts of the Earth, and over the 
Fowls of the Air, and over the 
Fishes of the Sea, and over Every 
Living Creature that moveth 
upon the Earth, which his Wifdom 
and Goodnefs hath created and 
made? Shall he confirm the com- 
mon dicStates of Humanity and 
NATURAL Religion, by theexprefs 

Declarations of his holy Word, 


( i*8 3 

iUG^, by PRECEPTS, and by 
EXAMPLEa, rceorded iti Scrips 
tare for bur Learning ? Jliid Gasll 
any man d^re to fay or prefume to 
fuppofe thatGOl!) regandeth them 
flot ? N0, faith the Wifdotti •6f 
Solomon: Thau lo^veft all the Things 
that are, and abhor reft nothing 
ihat Thou haft made ; f(sr neoer 
wouldfl thou haiie madi Ort^ thhtg 
if thou hadfl hated it ; And ho'm. 
could any thing have endured^ 
if it had not been thy Wiflf Or 
Been preferved^ if not called by 
Thee. Wifd. xi. 24. Thy Power 
is the Beginning of Righteoufnefs ; 
and becaufe thou art the LORD of 
All, it maketh thee to he gracious 
unto All. Ch. xii. 16. 


[ 3fi9 ] 

As I' have jKift now ^oted.^ 
Apocryphal Writing, I will . take 
up tAj Sottg of Praife wkE Ana- 
nias, ALARMS, a(nd. Mis A Eri,-*^ 

57. n WHALES, and 
ALL that move in the Waters.^ 
Blefi T« tbi Ix^RD J Praife <fnd 
exalt Urn airsv^ all fir ever, 

58, alt n FOWLS »f the 
Airy Blefs Ye the Loud^ Fraife 
and exalt him above all fir ever. 

5^ all Te BEASTS and 
CATTLE ; Blefs Te the Lord ; 
Praife and exalt him above all for 


60. O Te Children of Men, 
S^efs Te the LoifD ; Praife and 
extUt hhn e^ove all for ever. 

65. Te Holy and HumMe 
Men «f hearty Bkfs Te the Loret ; 


[ 320 ] 

Praife and exalt him above all for 

67. O Give Thanks unto the 
Lord, becaufe he is Gracious \ for 
his MERCY endureth for ever. 

AN D now upon a candid Re- 
view of the numerous Paflagejs 
of holy Scripture, which I have 
coUeded into this treatife, and on 

fome of which I have enlarged, 
(not with any defign to fatigue or 
miflead my reader, but only to 
imprint them the more deeply Jn 
his mind), give me leave to afk if 
it is poflible, that any man, who 
acknowledges the authority of the 
facred Writings, and duly confiders 
the gracious and merciful intent 
and force of thefe paflages, can be 


t 321 ] 

irifenfible either of the Goodness b¥ 
GODj ot of tht Duty of Mergy, 
or the Sin of Cruelty, towards 
the Brute Ahiinials. To me^ I freely 
own, they appear fo ftrong and irre* 
£ftible, that I cannot but think that 
he who profeffes to be a Ghriftian^ 
and yet is negligent as to this im-^ 
portant duty of MERCY, muft bei 
cither very ignorant of the g€-» 
nuine Principles of the Gofpel, 
which is the utrtioft perfection of 
the Law, or muft have an heart 
hardened to an uncommon de* 

. We may pretend to what Re- 
ligion we pleafe, but Cruelty 
is Atheism. We may make pur 
boaftof Christianity 5 but Cruel- 
ty is iNFiDELiTY. We may truft to 

Y pur 

[- 32> 1 

OUT, Orthodoxy ; biit Crudtjr id. 
the worft of HfiRfestES. The Re- 
ligion of Chrift Jeftls originated 
in the Mercy of GOD; and it 
was the gracious defign of it to> 
proniote Peace to every creature 
UPON Earthy and to create a fpirit 

of univerfal Benevolence or Good-^ 
wUl m'^ Men. And as it hath 
pleafed GOD therein to difplay 
the riches of his own Goodnefs 
and Mercy towards Us; and the 
Reveakr of his blefled Will, the 
Author and Finiftier of our Faith, 
hath commanded us to be Merci-^ 
ful as our Father alfo is Merci- 
ful, the obligation upon Chrifti- 
ans becomes the ftroriger; and it is 
our bounden duty, in an efpecial 

* E n I yni Eipqvq, E N av^foiireis EucToKia.' 
Luke ii. 1 4. 


t 323 ] 

jnanner, and above all other peo- 
ple, to extend the precept of Mer- 
ty to every objeft of it. For, iti^ 
deed, a Cruel Chriftiai> is a Mon- 
fter^f Ingratitude, a Scandal to 
hii Profeflion, and beareth the 
Name of Chpift* in vain: and in 
vain will he plead the Mercies of 
GOD in Chrift Jefus, rwhen he 
appqareth before the.GOD of iini- 
verfal. Nature. jf4s is the Majefiy 
x^fthe. Lo^D /a is :his Mefcy "^^^unto 
Merciful Men^ whofe Righteoufnefs 
Jhall not be forgotten^. But, as his 
Mency is great j fo is his CorreEiion 
alfo \ for he judgeth a Man accord^ 
ing tO- his Works %. Cruelty will 
debar Mercy even in the Father 
af Mercies J and cut ofFall Hope 
evea in the GOD of all Comfort. 

* Ec(?lus. ii. 18. -f xlivi lo, ;J xvi. 12. 

y 2 He 

[ 324 ] 

He that hath jbewed no Mert^^ 
pall have yudgment without Mer<r 
cy .**and, in the righteous judgment 
of QOD, he will at length be for$;ed 
to confefs with Adonibezek \r^As 
I hav$ DONE, Jo God hath REopiT* 
ED me. Judges i. 7, 

Let me intreat thee, then, Q 
courteous Chriftian Reader, by 
all that is amiable, juft, and 
good ; let me intreat thee for 
god's fake, for Christ's lake, for 
Man's fake, for Beasts' fake, yea, 
and for thine own fake, Put on 
(as an EleEi of GOD, holy and 
beloved) Bowels of IAekcies, Kind- 
nefs, Humblenefs of Mind, Meek-^ 
nefsf. Make it your bufinefs, 
lefteem it your duty, believe it to 

^ James ii. 13, f Col iii. i3. 

I 32s 1 

jbe tke ground of your hope, and 
^now that it is that which the 
Lord doth require of thee — to do 
Justly, and to love Mercy, and 
to walk humbly with thy god. 
See that no Brutb of any kihd^ 
>vhether iptrufted to thy care, or 
coming in thy way, fuffer through 
thy negledt or abufe. Let no views 
of profit, no compliance with 
cuftom, and no fear of the ridi- 
cule of the world, ever tempt thep, 
to the leaft a<9: of Cruelty or In- 
juftice to any Creature whatfoever, 
But let this be your invariable 
Rule, every where, and at all 
times, to Do unto others as, in 
their condition, you would be 


After this general Precept, all 
further Rules for thy condu6l are 


[ 3*6 i 

iinneceflary. I {hall therefore add 
no more than to exhort thee, to 
Bb ' Merciful as GOD is Mer- 
ciful ; to Be Merciful as you 
HOPE FOR Mercy ; and to receive 
with Reverence and Attention 
Jesus ChrisTi — —