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rtff rl^ nf traiulathu it nanrmlt 

eX ^i^4*«~e^. 







sv;-;-:.7j i: ;:-.-i:^3iTX 

OB, PtllN INBTEUCTIONS POB THE ^ .^ j /.jjrj,^ ''luiVE 











LANE Liuun..V. o. j-u oiiiVERSlTY 



Tk& Hf/U qf traiulatioH U rwMmif . 






TaE present work is not intended to supcrsedo my previous 
book, entitled " Food and its Adulterations ; " the plans and 
objects of the two works being distinct. 

The principal objects of the Jirst and larger work were, and 
•till are, to demonstrate the exist4>nce of extensive adulteration, 
in all the more important articles of daily consumption, as 
actually supplied by mtirchants and traders to the public ; to 
show that adulteration largely affected the pecuniary interests 
of the consumer and the revenue ; and that it was a question most 
seriously affecting the public health. These objects tlie work 
in question lias fully accoraplished. 

Aaooe of the results of my former investigations, the import- 
ance of the subject of aduUeration has been recently officially 
■cknowledged by the ftppr>ihlment by the House of Commons of a 
Select Committee to inquire into tbe matter. This Committee, 
Wider the able presidency of Mr. Sclioleneld, M.P. for Birming- 
huOf xealously prosecuted its inquiries ibr two sessions of 
Parliament, and the result has been to confirm, to the fall 
extent, the accuracy and fidelity of the investigations, in the 
intMecution of which, mainly through the medium of ** The 
lAncet** I have been engaged for so many years. The Report 
of this Committee lias been laid before the House. It ac- 
kAOwiedges that adulteration widely prevails; that the evil 

k '2 



requires to be dealt wiih by the Legislature ; and it containfl 
suggestions and recommendations for the euppression of adulte- 

The Committee state that they "cannot avoid the conclusion 
that ndulteration widely prcvaiW "Not only is the public 
health thus exposed to danger, and pecuniary fraud coinmiltcd 
on the whole commnniry, but the public morality is tainted, and 
the high commercial cliaructer of the country seriously lowered 
both at home and in the eyes of foreign countries." 

Thesti are ^rave statements and admiasions, made on the very 
highest authority. 

The chief purpose of M# present work is to furnish plain in- 
structions, microscopical and chemical, embodying the results of 
extended practice and experience, for the discovery of adulte- 
rations in Food and Medicine. 

To accomplish this object effectually, it will be necessary 
that the adulterations to which each particular Jiriicle of con- 
sumption or drug is subjected, should be described in as concise 
yet clear ii manner as possible- The treatise will tberefore not 
he limiteii to a mere description of the methods by which adul- 
teration may be discovered, but will contain much infurmalion 
in relation to adulteration in general. 

The best method of putting a stop to adulteration is undoubt- 
edly to destroy the security attending the practice of it. 

The first step necessary for the accomplishmenl nf this object 
is to supply the means requisite for the discovery of adulteration. 

The happy application of the microscope to the subject of 
adulteration, lias furnished tht*. means of detecting u host of 
ndulterntioQS, the discovery of which had before, for the most 
part, been considered to be impossible ; but still practical expla- 
nations and details are required to enable others to employ the< 
instrument with advantage for that purpose; and the same 
remark applies to chemistry. Such necessary details and e\pla- 



Tintionp, accompanied by a large number of microscopical 
illustrations, it is hoped will be found in the pages of this 
work, and that, through ita inBtrumentality^ the many huudreda 
of microseopists and chenaists scattered over all parts of the 
country, will be induced to upply themselves to the discovery of 
adulterations in articles of food und medicine, in the resiipective 
neighbourhoods and localities in which they reside. Should 
this anticipation be realised, "a heavy blow and grcAt discour- 
agement ** will be inflicted upon all adulterators, for the se- 
cuiity in which their proceedings were formerly conducted 
will bo for ever destroyed. 

The more frequent discovery of adulteration will doubtless 
lead, in many cases, to the publication of the names and addreftses 
of the parties perpetrating it. It was this publication which 
contributed so essentially to the success of my reports in " The 
Lancet." By it direct responsibility was secured, the honest 
tradesmaa was distinguished from his unscrupulous com- 
petitor, and in many instances the olfence of adulteration was 
brought home to the parties actually guilty of it. 

This unparalleled proceeding was in the first instance, and 
when science hud been but imperfectly opplied to the detection 
of adulteration, attended with the utmost hazard, not only to 
Mr. Wakley, who suggested the publication of the names, and 
who incurred the legal risk attendant thereon, hut also to 
myself, staking as I did reputation and prospects alike upon the 
issue of a most arduous and responsible undertaking. 

Id publishing the present treatise, and in thus supplying a 
public want, I am realising a suggestion for the suppression of 
adulteration which I made in evidence before the Select Com- 
mittee on Adulteration, in July 18o5, namely, that a cheap 
treatise on adulteration should be published, which *' should be 
illustrated with wood-cuts showing the microscopicol appear- 
ances and structure of the diiferent articles, both genuine and 




adulterated^ and cont^ning plain directions f^r the discovery 
of adaltpraiion." 

The work to which I have given the title ** Food and its 
Adulterations,^ comprista the R<*port8, carefully revispil^ of the 
Analytical Sanitary Commission of " Tlie Lanuet." These 
reports were publiethod a.t short intervals in that periodical for 
a term of four years, commencing January 1851, and ending 
December 1854, and they contained 2387 analyses, of which 
2063 were of articles of food, and 324 of drugs. 

Of these analyses, which were for the most part both micro- 
scopicftl and chemical, 2222 were made by myself; and the 
reports being all written by me, I retain the copyright of them 
under a special agreement. 

In the present work, the analyses above referred to are not 
given, but merely the general conclusions or results derived 
from those analyses : in addition to which, this work contains 
the results of the analyses of several hundreds of samples of 
articles of food and drugs which have never been published 
in " Tlie Lancet," and the whole of which have been made 
by myself during the years 1855 and lHo6. 

Availing himself of a temporary misunderstanding betnrcen 
myself and Mr. Wakley, Dr. Letheby put forward, some time 
back, a claim of so exaggerated and incorrect a character for par- 
ticipation in the work of '* The Lancet " Commission, which 
claim heattemptedto support by the publication in "The Times" 
newspaper of extracts from my private and confidential letters 
addressed to him, that I, in justice to myself, consider it neces- 
sary to define once more in this plac*) the extent and nature of 
the assistance rendered by Dr. Letheby. 

Having been on terms of intimacy with him for some years, 
I employed liim occasionally to make certain analyses both 
for myself and for "The Lancet," I sending him the samples, 
and indicating the particulars required. Tlie results were in 




all cases returned direct to me, the analyses charged for and the 
accounts made out by Dr. Letheby in my name, be not holding, 
during the whole time op in a single instance, tlie slightest 
communication either with Mr. Wukley or with any person 
connected with "The Lancet." 

The accounts and other documents furnished by Dr. Lctheby 
Jiving been fortunately preserved, they were submitted to the 
tiny of Mr. George Bolton, the Rev. R. S. Daniell, 5LA., 
and others. The gentlemen whose names are given above 
drew up a Report, embodying the results derived from an 
examination of the accounts, &eM from which the following 
is extracted ; — • 

'• The accounts rendered by Dr. Leiheby, Ijeing so clear and 
in his own handwriting, furnirih indi^^putable and conclusive 
evidence of the actual number of analyses performed by him, 
some of them being partial analyses only. Tl»ua it is dislinctly 
shown that the entire number of chemical analyses performed 
by Dr. Lctheby, viz. 16o« bears but a very small proportion to 
the number of the analyses, as well microscopical as chemical, 
j>eriormed by Dr. Ha^sall, viz. 24S1. 

*' Of these samples 63 were of tobacco and snutT, and 53 of 
opium; thur* leaving 48 samples of all other khids; but it is 
to be especially noted tbat the analyses of these 53 samples of 
opium are not recorded in Dr. Hassall's work on * Food and its 

"As witness our hands this first day of August, One thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-five. 

•* Ratmond S. Damiell, M. A., Oxon. 
"Gkoroe Bolton. 

•* 9. Qaocn Street, Bronipton." 

It is perhaps necessary to state that in the new analyses, 
amounting to some hundreds, the results of which arc recorded 


in this work, ovpr anil above the 2481 before alluded to^ Dr. 
Letheby has hnd no piirt whatever.* 

For the informntion contained in this work respecting the 
duties ujiuii, and consumption of the vnrioua articles treated o{\ 
we are indebted to Mr. T. C. Kent, of Upton-on-Severn, and 
A, W. Fonblanque, Esq., of the Statistical Department of the 
Board of Trade, to both of whom we tender our sincere and 
cordial thnnka for the aid thus afforded. 

The author baa spared no pains or expense to insure the 
fidelity and cnrefu! execution of the wood engravings. Of tliese 
about two-thirds were drawn on vrtyod by Mr. Henry Miller, un- 
der the direct superintendence of the author, and the others by 
Mr. Tuffen West, with the exception of the figures of liquorice, 
which were drawn by Mr. Searson : they were all engnived by 
Mr. Hart of Gloucester Street, Bloomsbury Square. Nothing 
could exceed the care bestowed by each of I he artists named upon 
the execution of the (igures, and the author believes that no 
engravings of microscopic objects have Mtherto been produced 
on wood superior, and but few equal, to those wfiich will bo 
found dispersed through tlie pages of the present work. 

It is not a little singtiliir that Mr, Miller and Mr. West, two of 
the beat microscopic artists we have had, bulh commenced thtnr 
careers as artists with the author. The first drawings from the 
microscope made by Mr. Miliur, were for " The Microscopic Ana- 
tomy of the Human Body*' about ten years since, from wliich 
time until his death, which occurred recently, he continued, ex- 
cept for a few short intervals, in tlie autiior's service. Mr. West 
aUo resided with the author for a time, and his first microsco- 
pical drawings were also for the work above mentioned. 

Bennett Street, St. James's Street, 
Jaiioaiy 12tli, 1857. 

• For a fullrr rpfulntton of Dr. l*thrbr'i claim and irsnwurt of bll ronduci, tbc rraclrr 
la rplvrrnt lo ii P-»niuhlci bjr JKmet Cnur UuniruJ, K»q.. BarrlMer. Juliii A. Power. 
L. M.. M. A.. Cnntab. nn.l Karrnund 8. Danlall. M. A, Uson. ; publlihed by WUIIam 
'i'rgjtand Co., S5. Quf«n Strcai, Chwpttdv. 


Iktroditctobt RsacA&xfl - . . - - 1 

On the MEiLNS bt which Adclteration hat be detected - 43 
Food - - - - - - -63 

Tea - - - - - - - 65 

Coffee ...... ]05 

CmooBT ...... 130 

Cocoa ...... 155 

Chocolate - - - - - - 171 

SUOAS - - - - . - 181 

HONET ...... 198 

UiLK - - - - . . - 205 

FlOUB A2TD BeBAD ..... 237 

BimBK ...... 295 

Labd ....... 301 

Oatheal ...... 306 

Abbowboot - - - - - -312 

Saoo • - • • - - - 323 

Tapioca - - - - . - 327 


AjfCHOTIES ...... 335 

Potted Meats akd Fish - - - - - 341 

MCBTABD ...... 344 

Pbpfek - - - - - - 356 

CATEmne ...... 368 

CoKBT Powder - - - - - - 378 

Tubmbbio - - - - - - 387 


ViNEOAS ...... 390 

PiCKLBS ...... 405 

Oh PoisoNOtTB Bottled Froits ahd Veqetables - - 409 

PB£8BRVB8 and JbLLIES ..... 414 

Sauces ...... 419 

Spices ...... 422 

Isiholass ... ... 456 

Gbi^tike ..... . 462 

Annatto ...... 465 

Cheese . . . . . -477 

Coloured Sugab Coneectiohert ... - 484 

Porter _....- 499 

Alb .... ... 516 

GiH - . . - - - - 524 

Rum - - - ... . .539 

Brandt ...... 540 

WiNB -.--.-, 544 
Drugs - - ..... 5^9 

Tobacco .... - - 556 

Skuff ---.--- 605 
Ofiux . . . . - - .624 

scaxmont ...... 647 

Jalap ....... 656 

Ipecacuanha ...... 668 

coloctnth .---.. 675 

compouitd scamhont powder .... 678 

Aromatic Contection ..... 679 

Liquorice ...... 679 

List op Drugs - - - - - -691 

Concludino Bekarks ..... 692 


. ami 13. Sfvtifin or llfiroartvd Cnflte Brrrjr - « 

3. Frajcmrat of Koutrd Oiicrirf Koot ... 

St«rch Grsaiilet nf Haranta Arrowroot ... 
Tbe iane of Curruina or Fait India arrnwroot 
The Hiao of Ttnuo or BrUUb ArrowrooC 
L«aru of thr Tn Ptaut .... 

Atum Tartpljr of the tnTno .... 

Upptr larface of L^af of Tea . - - - 

I'odcr »urfftCf of Mire . - - - . 

Upptr fturfoce of CullT-develffip**! 1*'^ ... 

ftrudure of foreign LeaffnuiMl In Lie Te« 
The Mine of another foreipi Leaf found la Uc Tr« 
Uppvr and Undnr Surfaces of Leaf of Camellia Soaanqua *- 
'I'fie umc or riuni - • . • '. 

Leavet o( rhlor.iti>hii* Inconipiciiui and C*an)eUU SitMnqua • 
Imitjultm C'jinar, Gunpowder, or Lie Tea . - • 

Leave* of Willow nod Poplar .... 
Tbe umeof Pliuip aitd Oak . - . . 

The ume of lUitthom, Sloe or Wild, Bewh, KIdor, and Elm 
L* Veno Beno ■..•-• 
Tbr Oilopte BoUnlcal Powder .... 
Porilon of the liueatlnK Meinbrtni! of the CoRiK Berry 
Fraftment of RoaiCed Coffee _ . _ _ 

Structure and Ctiatactert of Geimlnn Ground Coffee . 

B'uiMrd fcroutid Lupin Seed, called Colllna 
Coffiy. «iluUrr»t(xl Willi t'hicory .... 
Celli or MufrttliJ-Wiirirl Koot - . . - 

CmAW adutirraled with Manfffjltl-Wuniel . . • 

Tbe aoini- uiih Chirory and Fliiatled Wlirat 
The tatae witli Chicorr and Roftited Bean* 
The tame Willi flririinil Arum * . . . 

Fraffmrot of Hoattnl Chicory Root, ahowlni tU CcHl 
Frafrmeiir of (he ume, •howltif Ita l>otted Duct 

ltn;tlOn of Clurorjr Kcxtt, ihowltifi the Vaui lactlcenMa 
Chicorr adullcrued wltn Itoaited Wheat Farina 

Tbe fiime adiiltrrated with a veg/Lable Subataace rviembUng Groand Acorn 
Structurrs d«-tec:).'<(l m Oak Bark Povder - • 

Tan known u Croiti . - . ■ 

Tubular Fibrei un lurlace of Cocoa Seed - 

Th«> two outer Tunics, wfih the Muctlajtc-bearlne Cetli of the lluak of mom 
«1. Cella, Woody Fltire, and Sftiral Vpatela nf H<-cnnd Membraiir of aame 

43. 1'Mit Membrane cuvcrlng tbe Surface ai>d hotet of the Cocoa Seed - 
41 Cell* which form the kernel of the Cocoa Seed 
41. Cenutce Trinidad Cocoa ... 

46. Unadulteraud FUked Cocoa 

47. Soluble Ctiroa, iire(uireil by Steane. Da«U, artd O. • 

44. Homieopalhic Cocoa, prepared hf Mr. G. B- White 
49. Bolable CxKoa. nrrpared bf i. S, Frr and S<ini 
to, HnmtropAtbir Cutfu. firefuml hy Taylor, Brother* 
ftl. Uuiiu'i GonuiDQ Vnadulterated Chocolate 
U. I'rir>t4l* of C!ane l^uitar ... 
W. A FraKmvnt of Suiar Cane . . • 
&«. Frafmrnta of the sugar Caue ... 

and I IS 

- 47 

- 49 





















N amber 

bi. A Portion of the Bpldnrmli afthv C4ne ... 
M, Ov« and Younjt nftho Acjinia^))&r( . . _ 

07. A Sugar liitcct - . . . . 

M. The lame ...... 

n. Sporulei of the Fnngvu limnd in browTi Sugar 

W. A Fragmfm of Woodj Hbre of the Fit • 

01. CrjttMU o( Hnxipy • - . . . 

n. HoMj colliiclctl princtpallf From a H«aih . - . 

63. Boa«]t aduUetdlvd wltb C«ne Suyv ... 

64. Good Mlik ...... 

e\ Poor Mllk- 

6A. Cr«un ...... 

67. Curd of Milk ...... 

M, Coimtrum ...... 

CB. Common HvdrnniHrr ..... 

70. The Ontcsimal Galartornvter . . . - 

71, Lactomctpr am) Siitnd • • • . . 

75. The l.»oi' »c<>iK! . - - . . 

73. Milk iwiutt< TAird wilh Slu^'i Braiiii ... 

74. Tmu and SifbaUnce of Seed of NVbntI ... 

76. 8tfticturt- and Appearance oflbe Surcli Graaulri of Wheat Flour 
7R. Tola aod Surtare of Seed of Barley ... 

77. Stnidura nnd Chimct^rt of Burlo; Siuch 

78. Structure of TMta of Hjre . . - _ 
70. Structure and Characteri of tlie Stare)) Grauulci of Rjre Flour 
80. TriU uf Oal .--.._ 
Ml. Struciure and Chamctpri cf the Starch Cnrpiitrlr* uf Oat FInur 
^2. The lame of the Siarrh Oninul«of Indlaa Cvrn Hour 

B3. Traiurorie 8ecliuo u[ Tetta of Indian C'urn 

84. Hu*k of Hire ...... 

hi. Surch C^rpiiKrlPi and Crl]>of Rire ■ . . 

n6. SUrch Oranulei of Raw Wheat Flour - - . 

fl7. Trantvertr Scctinii or Krgot of Rye ... 

89. Spurn of I'rrdo t^rict .... 

Vd. The umo of L'redu Srcplum .... 

yO. Wheat FInur infMtrd wllli Tuccliita Cramitill 

91. Fuctinla Gramliiii ..... 

M. Fungus, commoDly found in iCnle tMvad ... 
9$. Btiuctiite i<f the Grain of LuUucb TcmuleiituTu, «r Darnel 
94. Kumcroui Vibilorci TrtUd - - - - 

9J(, AcArut KAriuiD, or Meal Milo .... 

9B. Acjuiii fioiii Flour ..... 

97, The Yewt Funs"" - . - . - 

98, Adulteraird Coiiri Flour .... 
Sit. QcAD Flour ■...-. 

100. Wheat Fluur, adultemted with Beau Flour 

101. The ftam«, ndultera'ed with Rii-e ... 
lOJl. The aat»«. aduliarated wiih Indian Cora Flour 

103. Wneat Bread adult»rat<>d wilh I'otato ... 

104. Structure nf Seed of Durra .... 

105. Lard, adulteratKl with Potato Starch ... 
Oanoeal. adullcrntrd with Uartry Meal - . . 
Starch Graniilet u( KlArnnla Arrowroot - - . 
Canna, or Tout Ira Muu Arrowfoot ... 
Curcuma Arrowroot ..... 

Taoca Arrowrout ..... 

Potato Armwroot ---•-. 

Arum Arrowroot ..... 

Sajto Surr^i ...... 

Starch iiranulei of Sfigo - . - . 




J 14. 




in. Fracnrat of outer mnr.bnine ors««l of Wbitt Muitard 

Factltiout Safo ...... 

SUrch Graoulei of Minibot llt(lli>ima. or Tapioca 

«Urch Graoiile* of Tapioca, altered tiy lb« b«at employed tn tu (weparatloti 

Sample of Wtiarl'in'i hrvtlrnta • . . _ . 

The »ame ol L)u Barry '» Revalenta Arabica ... 

LMab'i AJImenlary Karhia, ur HomtBopathlc Farlnactout Food 

The True AochoTy 

■ IM) 

- 194 

■ 19.t 

■ Wl 





. 220 


. 328 





















Number Pic« 

1 9. FrRgmeuto of middle and liinvr tunln of Wbils MiutATd Si^l . . sir 

Sftmpl« of (reniilne Ground Wblitt Miutanl .... 349 

llu«k of IllAck Miiftt^nt Sr«l ...... 849 

Samttle of "Double i>u[>\'r{)ne Miut^rd"- .... 3^ 

MuiiatdadultvratNl wttli wbMt flour, tiiriniftlc, and CajeniM • - 391 

Hukkof ClivlockSMd ---.... it! 

The tain* of Hup* Sflad --..-.. 3(9 
The tautr uf East lodiui lUpr 8e«d reiriubUnr ■ ipecin ofMitttAnl • - SM 

Tratuv«rtc aod Vvrllcal ftccUooi of Huik of MiuUrd S««d tntit witli In adutw. 
mlvd r«M ........ yn 

111. SvciiMi uf repp«r B^rrj- • • • • . - UO 

ISS. Portion of cortex or I'vppvr &«rrr, ttiowiag the »!!• which rorm iu flrit and 

i0c><nd Ujm ...-.•.. 3^0 
Furtlon of (uurth Umlna of cortra of Pepper Berry, ihowiDC .the qU contained 

In ih«ca>lilc» iifitir crIU ...*•. 3gt 

Section of rentral ptjrtioo of Pepper Berry, ibowlQf th« two klndi of cetlft, and 
tu JUQCtloD »l(h tne corieK ...... gg 

Ground and un«dulter«led Ulacfc Pepper ..... jq 

Structure of Ltnoeed --..... ggg 

Epidennn of Captinim ..-..-. 370 
Fracmcnt of KpidrrmU uf Cnpsicum Berry, rlewedoo Ita outer lurCice . X7| 

The iimv, vlowed on it> iniipr •urbco ..... 373 

P^renchjr ni* of L'apiicuni Berry • • • • . . 373 

TniiUTerfe Hectioo ol Cap«icura Iterrf ..... 374 

Verucal !»«ctlon of SUmd uf CaMlcum ..... 37^ 

Cmjeiina adulteralrd wlUi red lead, uround rice, and tumeric - . 375 

Tran«Teri* r'ectiuD of Mcricnrp of lorlantter .... 379 

Outer meiubruteand TtaoirerM Sdfkm of a Cardaraom Seed - . ail 

1-17. Trani>«r>e SectlcA of 9jcricar]t at Cumin . - . . . ^g 

IW. Outer Coat or 1>tta of a Fenugreek Serd ..... 3^4 

rr«iu«ert«* St-rtkio of L/itte of fenugreek Seed .... 33^, 

i»ectlon o( Tuber of rurntrric .--... ggg 
Ciriiutnc Oiouiid TurmCTic •-..._ j|^ 

AcrliQer Model -----.. jt)) 

Uraiigv Marntalod*, adulterated with Apple or TUrolp • . 117 

flrru Ibxit • - - - - • - -41ft 

A pvrlinn nfche EptdencU of tlie Rlilxotnp of Gloger ... ^^ 

Spvt^r^l TUiur* uli*rr«Ml rntfff ing intu the foroiuiun of the Gtn|er IlhlKoiae, 

deprived of m I-lpldcnitla •.-... |23 

fjenulnr Grouml (Jiri^fr ...... |]g 

Howilerrd (imger ndultrniteil with SBf{0 Powdrr • - . . 43^ 

The iiimt- nitiilct-nitM with Potato and Sbwo SUrrliea ... ^^ 

The (All ' 'I with (\iyttiic and Tapioca - - . . ^^ 

Luiigltii I I (:^nnamon carried Ir«ii»*er»ely through the tmrk . 431 

ti<m(iliii I .\»dtT - - • - - _ I3S 

ST- r*^ ' I ■■ HuJ ttkk of Ca*tU of the fiAlural kixe andappftarauce . 434 

I <'(Jon of Cftiila .... 

I jxjndof .... 

bt. ;. .■..:i;]et - . . - - 

Triim»fr»e >«ctlon of Maoe _ - - - 

Prtjd uf Clu«(^•bud . . . - - 

Transierte section ■>[ Flower -Halk of tha Clora 

IfongUiidinal Sft-tion of Fliiufr>»lalk (>rthe Cluve > 

Vertirai St'Ciion n( Hu»k of Pmientu L^rry 

I'xTrioi) Di t|j.< Mi-_inlir«D«« on .Siirf«:i! n( the Seetl Proper 

\ . .11 ul the Seed Proprr, of Ptmcolu Derry 

I ■<>, or Alliptce .... 

«.. II . -I >fivr . . - - - 

S«^ti>>ni of hhrcd* of Ut-latlne and Iiinglast 

itvcuon of Send 01 Atinalt'» .... 

Annattoadiillrrnt'^l with Turmeric . - - 

Til , '- ! Kir .... 

ji 'ii(<oMd entirely nfAcaruk Slro M Omom Mite 

^ liewi of Cheete Mite 

I i.ui ajui K'»"d«or Hop ... 

I u« of Leaf of Totucco ... 

L^.-..i ^iirbce of tainv . . . • - 























I- - 





















'•'«/» „.:: "'•''■we. 





sfoi'dp.. - "" "o' <v.-'": *""■'/ 
























^•"^o, I 



Kutobvr 'l^ 

IB6. Trantvarfc SecUoo of Mid-rib of LMf Of Tobueo ... 47$ 

m. Portion of Tnin»»fne S«TUan uf M14>ribaf liMf nf Tobacco - - W7 

lis. Longitudinal Srcllon of Nld-rlb of Luf of Tobacco . - . - B7S 

INB. <;imulni' Cut TuImcco ..-..-- VT9 

190. Pivtlnncif rndcr KuKacs of thfl l^Afrif th« Dock . . - .601 

191, Trftnifn*'' tcctlonof Mld-rfbof L«af of Dnck • - - - Ktt 
li». I'ortiuii of Trmuvvrte Section of M-d-ribof Uaf of Dock . . - iOt 
190. LongttiKlinal M-rtiona(Mtd-ribof LeafofDock • - • • 8M 
194. rortioii of I'lidiM* Surrac* of Rhubarb L#ar .... 3M 

196. TranivcrM Section of MUl-rlb of IUiub4rb I.«af * • • - (W 
1<|6. I'ortloa of U|ipt<r Sur tnc? of Leaf of CoUsfool - - • . A67 

197. Poillon of t'lidrrStirf^ce of the Mm«. ..... 9M 

IWi. TraniTtT»« SetUon ol one o( the VVlni of L«if of Coltsfoot - - - M» 

lUO. Tliv wine of tbe Exlorn-il Sarf«c<« of the Pof^pf C«(>iula - - Oft 

300. Tlir iMme of Inner Surface of thr Poppy Cjq»u1p . . * ■ ^^6 

tOI. PorUon of Surfac« of out of the Piar«nla or DiM<T'lnt^t4 of Porpjr rapftiU • (17 
KH Tfanivmc Sortlun through tlir Tlilckrir^ • nf a DUappimrmt of Poppy C«|ttuln - f^l^ 
SOB. 1'TaulTc^ft(^ Section of Uliseplmrot of Poppjr Cap>ulc - - - VfJ 

tMt Fragment nf Poppy Swsd ...... (00 

aOk S4Up)(! nf Opium aJ<ilU>rAt(Ml with Poppr CApiule • • • .614 

30ft. Th« tame AdultoraCMl wttb Poppy CApinle and Whrnt Flnur • • • M(k 

yi7. Kityplinn Oplntn. iitliiltrrKtixl vliti fiiini, Woody Fibre, and Wheat Flour • (M 

SOfL Fureor ViriEin .Srammon) In Powdvr .... * flill 

Ml. Scammony. largt'ly adulimtod vHu WhMt • • . . OAI 

StO* Tniii*«rr»e SMtlun nl Jal-<p Tubrr, diowlDitlhe apr^^ranre and diilrib«(llon Of 

the dark, and probably Ur«ln CrlU - - - - • Oa? 

Sll. Tbp Miiio, «lH><rlii« th^ SlATch t^-lla, and iiltn the Ili^in CrIU • • fiM 

319. All the Struciiirri and tloincnt* found In ti^nulne powdered JaUp • - AS 

111. Powd*red Jalap, Ijrgcly Artiiltrrat^ uith wudl .... CBT 
!I14< Ipfcacuanha Hoof, tranavrrivc Section ofthf Cortex ... &9 

IIA. Tbe utni>, Aactlnni of tb« rcntral pait or Mc<lituUlum - . . 670 

)i^ Oroutne urounct Ippou-uaiihA - . • • • - fiTl 

317. TnnavcfM Section of Gourd of Colocjrnth • - - .671 

aia. Portion of Surfacu of Gourd ..-.-. 674 

))0. KvcUon of Sc«d of Colircyntli '- - - • • • 0T4 

^10. Rhubarb ftdultetal«d with wlieat flour - . • • - 6T7 

ni. Powdered Squilli adnltirnt'-ii nith wh«U (lour • > - . 67t 

Tit. TranaTrrii* Mollcm of Koiit of Ll<)iioric« ... - - IM 

3X1. LAnKUiMllna) S*-i.-(ton of LiquorKc Hoot ,- . - - - AM 

SM. Irnntvrrtc Srclioii u( I.Kiniirire Ilntit . . . - ■ 1914 

2Xa. Lti|tiortca Powder adulterated wttli iurni«rlci ai^<l Eut tadlui arrowroot . OW 




In this Introduction the subject of adulteration will be considered in 
some of iti more general and imporunt iis{H?eL<i and rolations : thus, 
uniongsl olbur [)oints, wbat constitutes uflulleration will 1>e defined, ita 
prevalence sbowu, a clatisitication of articlef* employed for ndulterntion 
;j;iTCn, the importance of the subject explained, and, lutly, the means 
or remedies by which adulteration may be discovered and obviated 

Definition of AduUeration. 

It may facilitate the clearer understanding; of the subject to define 
nt the outstitwhutconstitute^ adulteration; but, before doing so, it may 
btf well to cJlplttin what is not Hdulteratitm. This is the inure neces- 
sary, since this part of the subject is involved in some degree of un- 
certainty and confusion. 

llie sale of one article in place of another is not an adulteration, 
but a substitution. 

Again the presence of substances in articles in consequence of im- 
purities contained in the materials out of which they were prepared, 
,iu^ for ejtample, of arsenic in the liydrochloric seid used in the prepa- 
ntion oi unfertnent«d bread does not constitute adulteration : they 
ore simply impurities. 

I^asUy, the accidental presence of subitancea in any commodity does 
not constitute adulteration. 

Excluding then from the class of adulterations all cases of tuBstitutiony 
of impurities^ and accidental coritamiiuttiofu, adulteration may be thus 

it consists ia the intentloniil addition tu an article, for ptnposes of 



gain or deception, of any substAnpe nr .lubfltanccs the presence of 
which is not ao-knowleilged in ihv nnme umler wliiclj lite article is t^old. 

It ifl not easy so to frame n definilion as tliot it sbdl aiiply to every 
case: that now given ilcies, Iiowtvcr, must t-ertninly embrai-c tbe grcjil 
majority of adultcratiDtia practised, and it excludes subxtitutlons, iiu- 
puritiea, and accidcntnl i*nntaminations, because it ppeciBes tliat the 
addition niimt be iatentional, 

ALH:ording to tliia definition the sale of cofTcc containing chicory 
for and as coffee, of cocoa into which sugfar and starcU have been 
purposely introduced, and of mustard containing flour rmd tumuTic, 
as cocoa and mustard, constitutes bo many adulterations^ and as such 
they oughr undoubtedly to be coniiidered. 

llie consumer entering a ftbnp, and unking for any article, has a right 
to ex[)ect that he will be .lupfdiod with that which he demandn, and 
for which he pays, and be ought not to be furnished with a mixtureof 
iirtictcs not acknowlcdj^ed in the name under whii-h the mixture is 
sold, and the nature and prnpfirtions of ihe ingredients entering into 
which arc often unkimwn tn him. This rlj/ht undeniably belongs to 
the purchaser, and any wilful violation of it conRtituies adulteration. 

The words coffee, cocoa, and mustard convey distiuct : these 
names have been bestowed upon certain vegetable productions, — coffee 
upon the berries of the coffee plant, cocoa and mustiinl upon the seeds 
bruised and reduceil to powder of tbe cocoa and mustard plants: any 
application, therefore, of these words to mixtures and compnunib is oh- 
viuuply improper, and in many coses is in a liigb degree deceptive. 

The plea that the addition of chicory to coffee, of flour and su^iar 
to cocoa, (if turmeric and flour to mustard, a.s well as that numerous 
other additions, constitute improvementft, ought not to avail. In 
nineteen cases out of twenty, these whlitions are no improvements at 
all ; and where they really arc so, the mixtures ought to be acknow- 
ledged, wherever practicable, in the names under which «uch mixed 
articles are sold ; and not only ought this to be done, but the propor- 
tions uf the several ingredients should be stated. 

Even with such regulations it is questionable how far the sale of 
Euch mixtures ought to be permitted, except in cases where distinct 
advantages can be shown to result from them, because, in the present 
Btat« of science, it is fref[uently impossible to determine the truth or 
falsehood of any statements which might be put forth respecting 
prcKKirtions of the several ingredients contained in any mixture. 


Prervdence of Adnlteration, 

TTic following particulars will serve to convey some idea of the great 
prevalence of ndulteration. 

During the course of the last six years the author has examined mi- 
nute]^ and scrupulously, microscopically and chemically, over 3000 sam- 
pler uf the principal articles of consumption, oa well as many drugs ; and 
lis theonegreat result of this somewhat extended experience, he alTirraa 
that some inhorL time back there were few articles of cnnsumption the 
odulterutiun of which was practicable, and which, at the same time, 
could be rendered profitable, which were not extensively subjected 
to adulteration. 

True it is that adulteration does not now prevail to anything like 
the extent it did when his investigations first coniuiented, — this 
highly important and gratifying result being attributable*, in the first 
instance, to the exposure? of adulteration made for so long a period in 
" The Lancet," and subsequently in tlie evidence given before the 
Select Parliamentary Committee on Adulteration. 

The GTidence of ibe cxtcaaivc prevalence of adulteration does not, 
however, rest upon the testimony, undeniable as that evidence has l>cen 
shown to be, of a single inquirer ; but many scientific observers of un- 
doubte<] capabilities, and in every respect trustworthy^ have testified 
to the same effect : as in this country, Accum, Allichcll, Normandy, 
Gray, O'Shaughnesay, Pereira, Thomson, Wartngton, Taylor, Calvert, 
Quekett, Bustick, Gay, Phillips of the Kxcisc, and ntany others ; and 
nbroaii, MM. Garnicr and Harel, and M. Cbevallier. 

The numerous witnesses examined before the Committee on 
Adulteration, with one or two unimportant exceptions, concur in their 
statements respecting the gcncrnl prevalence of adulteration. Imleed, 
so conclusive is the evidence deemed, thai the Cnnimittcc stale that 
ibey have been constrained to acknowledge, as shown in tbe IVefaoe 
to this work, that tlie statements made as to the extensive practice to 
adulteration have been fully confirmed by the in({uiry, and that legis- 
lation hfta been rendered imperative. 

Of course no evidence can be more satisfactory or conclusive than 
that of witnesses who speak to what they themselves have ascertained 
in the course of their investigations: there is, however, evidence of the 
existence of adulteration of another kind, nnd that is the occasionid 
supply of ortidca of consumption to workhouses and other public 

a 2 



establialiracnls under market price. IVc are acquainteJ witb more than 
*me instance of tbw kind, especially in tlic articles arrowroot and oat- 
ineu! : tlie iliirLTuncc in price being ascertained to have been made up 
hy udultii^ration. 

Dr. Noriimiidy concludes bis evidence l^eiore tlie Parliamentary 
Comuiittce wiib this remark : — 

" Adulteration is a wide-spread evil, which has inrailcd every branch 
of commerce : everything which can be mixed or uduUeruted or de- 
bosed in any way is debased." To the general accuracy of this decla- 
raiion our own experience compels ub to subscribe. 

It may in the next place be considereti how it hupptnus that adultera- 
tion i$ tv prevalent. 

Various rco^onti have been assigned to account fur this prevalence: 
the majority of these have been gu^;^esLed by parties more or le^s 
interested iu adulteration, either directly (*r indirectly : the principal 
i.f them we shall proceed to notice, and first tliose reaaona, or rather 
excuses, which have been urged in defence of adulteration. 

Excuses urged in Kztemtation of Adulteration, 

One reason ossified in defeuce of nmny adulterutiona is that they 
are practised in ubcdieaee to the wishes and tastes of thu public. 

Another rea«)n is that the additions made to several articles con- 
stitute improvements. 

It is on the first of these plea<4 that the practice of colouring the red 
sauces, potted meats, and fish with bole armenian ; with annatto; 
])iokle&, bottled fruits, and vegetables, with copper; and sugar con- 
fectionor)' with various pi;;menls consisting of suits of arsenic, copper, 
zinc, and antimony, is excused. 

Kow, aUh{]u;;h it may be true that the public, in some instances, 
prefer the more highly coloured article, yet they do bo tu a mere ques- 
tion of appearance, and in total ignorance of the means by which these 
colours are obtained: these means explained, and the jiublie made 
aware of the fact that ibey are produced by some of the most 
]H)i8onous substances known, it is not correct to say that they would 
knowingly sanction the use of these poisons, and would prefer, merely 
for the sake of colour, articles which were known to contain injurious 
substances to those which are pure and wholesome. 

It is on the second of thesie pleas, viz., that the additions made to 
several articles constitute so many improvements, that the addition of 


chicory to coffee U defended ; wLeat-flour and tarmcrio to mustard ; 
Hupu" and starch to cocoa ; sulphuric acid to vinegar. We shall have 
hereafter to speak of the addition of chicory to cofTee, and of sugar 
and starch to cocoa : we shall show ihat it is very questionable whether 
chicory U an improvement to cofl*ee, and whether it is not positively 
hurtful; if it l>e an improvement, still it is proper that each of the 
articles called chicory and cofTee should be sold by itself, and usiid 
by the public or not as it might wish. In the case of cocoa it will be 
shown that the au^r ami starch are employed in many cases Ut such 
an extent that the compound of starch, Bus?ar, and cocoa, scarcely 
retains the flavour or smell of the letter substance, while its colour 
is so altered and reduced, that it becomes necessary to hare recourse 
to coloured earths to bring it up to its proper standard. 

The manufacturer telU us that mustard by itself is so disagree* 
able that we could not eat it, and hence the use of wheat-flour and 
turmeric. Uut the answer to this st^itemcnt is, that in some of the 
so-called mustards, the tunneric and wbeat-llour are so out of pro- 
portion that the compound scarcely retains the flavour of miutord. 
Again, that genuine mustard cannot be so unpalatcahle a thing is 
rikown by the fact that there are now a few mttnufacturers who 
profess to sell nothing but the {renuine article. 

Another plea urged in extenuation of certain additions is that they 
are necessary in order to make the articles keep. It was on this 
ground that the legislature was brought to fianction the addition of 
sulphuric acid to vinegar ; but that it has no real foundation in 
this case is proved by the fact that there are now manufacturers con- 
ducting extensive establishments who do not add even the smallest 
proportion of sulphuric acid to their vinegar. 

Wlion, therefore, the manufacturer or «;eller defends any particular 
admixture, or adulteration, on any of the pleas referred to, namely, 
that it is practised to suit th«f public taste, that it is an improvement, 
or that it is necessary in order to make the article keep, we would 
advise our readers to look well into the matter for themselves; they 
will be almost sure to find something wrong, some fallacy at the 
bottom of these statements, — they will too often find that this pre- 
tended rq;ard for the wishes and tastes of the public resolves itself 
into a question of gain to the manufacturer or trader. 

Another plea sometimes urged in extenuation of adulteration, ami 

perhaps there is sometbing in it* but not much, is that it is impossible 

u .1 


to supply genuine articles at tbc prices the pabUc is wiiliug to ipikj 
for tbem. 

No doubt tUe public likes to obtain wbat It requires at as cbeap a 
rate as pott^iblc, — but it is for the trailer to fix llic prices at which 
he can afford to »ct[ his goods, and not the public : further, if it ivere 
explained to tl^e public hj the dealer thut he i>r)uld not answer for the 
quality or puriiy of the very cheap articles sold, there are, we believe, 
very few persons who would be so silly as to prefer the adulterated 
to the genuine article, although the former might be apparently 
the cheaper. 

We say apparently cheaper^ because in many cases these so-called 
cheap articles tire really the dearest In the end, for, owin^ to the extent 
it} which they are adulterated, (hoy do not go nearly so far as j^enuine 
nrtielra would do. The public, then, we ctmsider u but little at fnult : 
it merely requires to be made acquainted with the true and actual state 
of thinfFS, and there is no doubt but that in ninety-nine out of every 
hundred case* it wduld prefer the genuine to the adulleratcfl com- 
uuxlity, even allhou;.'!) for this a somewhat higher price had to be paid. 

A further excuse sometimes urged in defence of certain adultera> 
lions is, that they do no harm, fiy this plea wo suppose is meunt, 
lliftt they are not hurtful to the health, but only to the pocket On 
this ground the adulteration of milk with water is sometimes de- 
fended : now we are of opinion tliat there are few more scandalous 
and indirectly injurious adulterations than tliis. Milk is an important 
and prime article of diet, full of ^ou^i^hraent, and in proportion as 
water is added, so urc those who partake of the diluted compound 
robbed of their proper nourishment. 

Such arc some of the excuses employed in defence of odulterntinn. 
That they should be urged by certain manufacturers and traders, 
whose profits in some cases are so largely dependent upon adulteration, 
is not so surprising : but whiit really is astonishing Is, that there should 
be found some few men, very few we arc hiij>py to state, of mi»re 
or less scientific repute, who, influenced by certain considerations of 
interest, lend the weight of their names and use (heir ycientific attain- 
ments in defence of adulteration, 

Science is never so ri<;htly or so nobly employei:! as when tt ministers 
to the wants and welUticing of mankind, and especially when it is 
nsed for the protection of the public health. On the other hand, is 
it not an unworthy and an ignoble use to make of sciencv, to employ 



it in defence of practices whtcli i*vcn those wbo defend Uietii moat in 
ihcir own consciences must comJema? — and ytt there ore men who 
thus deiotian liieinsolves. 

That it would be* right to make public the names of those who thus 
disgrace themselves, to refute their argunientA and reasonings, &ud 
CO expose the motives in which tbeir conduct originat4;8, few will 
deny : we fccl^ however, that this is »cnrce1_v a fitting^ place so to do, 
and shall therefore rcfruin from pursuing this course : wc shall merely 
refer, in a general way, and as briefly :is possible, to the kind of ar- 
guments reported to by the per:tons to wliam we liave alluded. Of 
course they employ the tlilTerent reasons, or rather picas, to which 
we have referred, anfl the fallacy of muBt of which we have exposed; 
but in addition to which they resort to other proceedings. 

Thus ihcy endeavour, if possible, to get up a cry of exajfperation, 
this in the face of evidence of ihe most conclusive and demon- 
strative character. 

Another course pursued ia t^) cite some of the leds important in- 
stances of adultcnttion, as, for example, the addition of alum to bread, 
of water to gin, and to argue from them as though they were not, 
oa they really are, parts uf a system, but as though they were the worst 
imtanoes of adulteration, and as though the entire case rt^'sted upon them. 

Another favourite plea used in extenuation of adultcratiun is 
that the quantilicii in which souie of the substances arc employed, as 
those used for the sake of colour, nre too inconsidenible to be pro- 
ductive of hurtful results. 

This is so sometimes, but it ceiHaiuly is not the case in the ma- 
jority of instances: in many coses injurious consequences have been 
a«Ttually proved to euitue: thus mai^y persons have been poisoned 
outright, nnri have lost their lives, from the use of r(dnure<l sugar 
confectionary; others have been rendered seriously ill. Cases of 
lead paralysis hove been produced by the lead pur^MWidy introduced 
into snuff, and the same, it has been asserted, has occurred from the 
uite of cayenne coloured or adulterated wiili red lead. A)in.\u, 
illness of a senous, and even fatal, character bos been produce<l by 
the use of poisonous adulterants not pijrments, as from lend in wine, 
ci*ccu1us indicus in beer and spirits. ]ndce<l, instances might be mul- 
tiplied to a large extent of disease ori;:inating in the use of substances 
rmployed for adulteration. WTio can tell how many invalid.^ and tender 
rhildren have fallen victims to the dangerous adulterations practised 

n A 


Upon fxHid, drinka and drugs, if the true causes nf premature death 
could be traced out in all sucli cases? That- dyapeplie ailments often 
owe tbeir origin to the acliiUerfttionof nrticles ol" (bod is unquestionable. 

Besides, if the etni^loynient of jKiifuinons pigments and oilier 
substances arc to be penuitted at all, what guarnntee or security have 
we against accidents resulting from the careless and ignorant use of 
such poisonous or injurious articles ? Theonly right and narc principle 
upon which to act we maintain is to discard the use of all additions 
to articles of consumption that are unnecit'iisary, and which may 
|»os8ibly become a source of danger. Again, it must l)c remembered 
that the ill eiTects of adulteration cannot be estimated by the quantity 
of any particular ingredient contained in any one article ; so prevalent 
is adulteration, that in the course of a singli; day it often happens 
that several injurious ingredients are partaken of, and in onler to 
arrive at any correct conclusion wo um:?t therefore take the sum 
of the whole of these injjredients. See p. 21. 

Lastly, in endeavouring to estimate the eOects of odalteration on 
health, the fact must bu borne in mind that some of the metallio 
poisons used are what are called cumulatire. See p. 20. 

)Ve have been induced to enter into an examinution of the various 
pleas on which tlie practice of adultvriition is wuK'times defended, in 
Tjrder that when the readers of this work hear theui urged, as some 
ot' them doubtless will, they nuy know wliat they are really worth, 
and how they may be refuted. 

Having noticed ihe various pleas on which adulteration is defended, 
we have still to consider to what cause or causes ita prevalence is due. 

Seal Catue* of Oa Prevalence of Adulteration. 
The great cause which accounts for the larger part of the adul 
tcration which prevaiU is the desire of increased profit; a second 
cause is excessive and unfair competition. A trader, perceiving that 
his neighbour in the same bu.*iines» is selling his gt>odB at prices at which, 
if genuine, it would be impossible to realise a proGt, knov^s that this 
can only be done by having recourse to adulteration, and finding that he 
cannotcompetewith his unscrupulous fellow truiler, at longthhe himself 
too ol\en has recourse to the same practice. We thus perceive how 
dilUcult it is fur many tradesmen who desire to do so to conduct their 
bosinetaet in a honourable way, and to resist the temptation to adul- 


terat«. The main cau»>s of the prevalence of adulteration are, then, 
the dctire of increased profit and cxccsmvc and unfair competition. 

Who are the Parties guilty of Adulteration f 

The next question for wmsideration is, who are the parties guilty of 

The answer is, in some cases, the manufacturers, and in others the 
retail dealers. This dislinelion is of the utmo:it importance, especially 
with reference to the means to be adopted for the discOTcry and sup- 
pression of adulteration. 

Some of the adulterations practised require to be so on the large 
scale, and involve the use of extensive machinery, which the trades* 
man does not possess ; and in consequence certain adulterations, aa of 
. dour, of chicory, of cocoa, ot'nipices, and of many ilrugn, are practised by 
the grinderti and roasters of those articles : there it« a claits of persona 
known OB Sptce and Dru>; Grinders, with whom lies much of the fault 
of the adulteration of spices and drugs. 

in the drug trwle the practice at one time was very general, and 
<t still prevails to some extent, of adding sawdust of <Iidcrent kinds, as 
well aa other articles, in order, it wa<4 urged in excuse, to make up for 
the varying and avcrai^e Iub» sustained by diflerent drugs in the 
cour*e of drying and grinding to a uniform toss of 4 per cent. This 
is called the 4 per cent, sytitcm ; however, the practice does not stop 
here, but Iead.i to every species and degree of abuiie. 

The adulterations of mustard, vinegar, annatto, snufT, coloured 
sugar confectionary, and some other articles, ore also usually prac- 
tised by the manufacturers. 

There are good reasons why, in many caws, the manufacturer should 
be the adulterator; not only has he the necessary machinery and the 
means of performing the requlsjite operations iyn a large scale, but the 
responsibility of adulteration is thus taken ofi'thc shoulders of the tens 
of thousands of traders by whom the public is immediately supplie<l, 
and is confined in s<mie degree to the comparatively small body 
of manufacturers, whose proceedings are coiulucted in rL-tiremcnt and 
•ecrecy, and whose premises are not accessible to the public. 

The retail trader, however, takes in many coses his share in the 
•work of adulteration ; as one example, we may mention that much 
of the adulteration of beer and spirits is perpetrated by the pub- 
lican. Kven in those cases in which the retailer does not himself 



adulterate, be often purchases of nduUcruting mcrclinnts with gtiiltj 
knowledge ; thus, in many cascs^ he is swareof the fact that the article 
he purchases is adulterated, from the price paid for it being less than 
that at which the genuine article can be procured. In such eases 
the tradesman i^ a party to the fraud, aud is as guilty as the actual 
perpetrator of the adulteration. 

It should be known thtUcvcn the purchnsin^^of articles of consump- 
tion in the raw state b^ the trader nffurds no guarantee for the genu* 
ineness of those articles, provided they are afterwards sent to the 
grinder or manufacturer to be ground or manufactured. We have 
known tradeHuitfu who, witihing to pretext themselves as fur as possible 
against adulteration, have purchased the best cocoa beans and chicory 
nibs, and have then sent them to the grinder to be prepared, bui^ 
upon being returned to them, tliey were found to be adulterated. 
Messrs. Ridgwuy and Co., of Kin;; William Street, forwarded to the 
author, some time §ince, some fliike fot-oa for oxaminntion : tins was 
found to be adulteruteil with wbefll-flour. Measrs. Rid^'way then 
stated that tliey purohnxed the best cocoa beans they could procure, 
and sent them tn the munnfacturer to be nude \nto Jiitke cot*oa, which 
should consist of nothing but cocoa. The miuiufacturer, in this case, 
had subtracted some of the cocoa, and had replaced it with wheat- 
flour. Since this occurred Messrs. Uidgway have had a mill erected 
on their premises, and now make tlieir own flake cocoa. 

Now it must 031 be inferred from these remarks, that there are 
not many honest maiiufacLurcrs and traders connected with the manu- 
facture and sale of articles of consumption. We ktiow that there nre 
many such, and on In-half of some of those who either lire really 
(:nilty of^ or who lend themselves to adulteration, the uxcusi^h may be 
urged that utitil very rwently the legislature has been indiflerent to 
this subject, that it dm*!* not protect t)ie honest trader, and (bat in 
self-defence, and for very livelIh(K)d*8 sake, be is often driven to 


Not only is adulteration prevulent, but the substances employed are 
very nnmerous; different kinds of substances being used for diflerent 
purposes. The majority of substances used are so for one of three 
purposes: either for the sake of hulk or weight, the articles used of 
coarse being cheaper than tbusc to which they are added ; for the sake 



oCcohur, that is, to heighten and imprtive the appearance of articles &s 
it is consi<iere<I, often erroneously, the natural colour of such artinlcs 
bv'ing frequently altered and reduced by dilution with other uUultcr- 
itiag substances added for bulk and weight ; or, lastly, to increase the 

agency of articles, and to heighten their ^ro^rftw and^immr. 

The first kind of adulteration is the more usual fDrni, und is that 
hy which the practice is rendered so prufiiabte ; the second, that which 
consists in the addition of colouring matters of various kinds, is often 
necessitated by the first kind, so that these two descriptions of adul- 
teration frcfiuontly go logetber. 

An example of the first kind uf adulteration is furni&hed by the 
addition of roosted corn to chicory or coffee jKjwdens and of water to 

Of the second, in the addition of red lead t<> cayenne, Venetian red, 
umber, &c., to chicory and cocoa; while an example of tlie third form 
of adulteration is met with in tlie addition of nlkalicji, as nl^o the 
chromnles of |)otash, hellobure. uud powdered glass to snulf. 

Now it is in the second class, viz., that whiuti consi^la in the em- 
ployment iii colouring mattersi of various kinds, that the mdjority of 
tho«ic adulterations are included which are prejudicial to health : this 
will be 8*?en more clearly hereafter. 

So numerous and various arc the substances employed for adultera- 
tion that a classification of them according to the articles in which 
tbey are encountered, an<l the purposes to which they are ajiplied, be- 
comes uaeful. Such a i-liusifi cation is j;!;iven in the fidlowing tables. 

The annexed Table contains only the names of thoso substances 
which we have ourselves ascertained, by original ub$er>-ati(tns and 
Analyses, to be actually employed for the adulteration of Articles of 
Food; it does not include Drugs. 

Clauijied List of the varimu Suhstancea ascertained hy Ourtelres to be 
employed for the differeut Purpo»rs nf Adulteration : eix. /or Sulk 
ami Weight, for Colour^ atulfor Smelly 7'aste^ and other Prpperliea. 


VM BMlk and WetRbt. 


Rt«. WhPikt anil Bnrley 
Floart, Tumicrlc. C«rbo- 

nau and Sulphate uf 
LlilM^ Had fornigiiiout 

Tumwrie, Red fernjirf- 
nou« Karlht, SoJL 

Sutphatc of Cop- 






PvTmc. Knitll, 


r« Bulk and wcgmt. 

For Cotmir. 


Aknow-Root . 


Srito, Potato, nnd Tuploai 

Srjucbet, and vHrt<iu« 

niixrum and comhiriA- 

Elciii* of t\\r*t with the lii- 

Fi^rtor Arroik-ri-nU. 


Dutch, Freurh.and Slelllaii 

Bole Armpnton, Wnc- 
tloJi Kfd. 

IM*miT - 

Wabpr . - - - 

Burnt Snjtar. 

Mmhrtl Potnlix^, nice, 


A(unn. Hardiftivd 

Hun*, fijrr, Iiidiin 



SaUa of CV>pppr,uiiiAll:r 



[h» Acetate or Sul- 



Cn»iii . 

- - - - 

A'tnatto, Bole Armr- 
olan. Vcuvtian H«d. 


CftMlii. ami moit orUie ar- 
iicl0« m»n(lone«l under 


But tndu Arrow-mot, 

CoehlDPAl. Lik», Tndl- 


WbMl WKl Potato Fl«MJr, 
Hjilrftted Sulfihate of 


)(■>, Pimi«Imix Hliif, 

Antwerp Blttu. Artl. 

flclfll rii;r.imjiriiir, 

C«rli<>n>Tp oi Cii^ijifT 

or Vi-rditrr, ('srbo- 

natpof LiaitorWhliP 
Lead, It.HlUad.Vrr 
millon .Chroinp Yel- 
low or Cbrnin'itp* of 
anil lit'ep; (iamliDxtr; 
Xap CirHciniJm th?ief 

BrunRwkk, Crpen*, 

Eintrrald flrern i>r 

Arvpnlf* iif 4;of»ppr, 

Indian R«^; bri>Hn 
rernminrMi* farrhs, 
cblvllj l^mbor, jlleii- 
na, and Vniidykp 
Brawn, and v«ri(>iii 
cnmblnatiiui* ■)( the 
abovt' pigmenlM. 

Comx . 

Chicory. Rout»d Wheal. 
Ity4> and I'oiata Floiirft, 

wiinel, Aninii 

Burnt Suanr, or Blaclt 

CiiieoiT - 

Riwtnl WhMt and Kfe 
Flmira, Burnl Boaitt ami 
Ai-urna, ttewduit, M«h(v< 
g*)'Y ^awiliut. Carrot 

Frrnigliioui rnrThi, nit 
X'cnt'llMii Ued and 
Vmi^fi, Burnt Sugar 
or Black Jack. 



Maraiil«, Kott IndU, and 

VfiiPtian Bed, Red 


Taroi orTaittti Arrow- 
moU ;Ti>u» Wt Mda; Iha 
Flourt of WliMt, IndUn 
Com. S«go, PnUtn. Jiml 
tiirci of thfw: SuKd'', 
Ciiilcunr, Ccx'cia Htuki. 
Ground nice. Muitardliiuk, 

Oclirp. and ullwr f»"r- 
ruglnou* carthi. 

Catimni Tbp- 

nv6 I>«d. VmnlKriQ 



or RUulpfvtirpt nt 
Mercury. Venelian 
Red. Tumaark. 




F«r Tarta, fn»itt 

CotTAKn *»n 




WVirar, Poraln, aod Rice 

Ohrofn^ Yellow or 



Chromate of Lead, 



Cmuod Uice, PoUlD-fariEia. 

Ked iMd 



Hlcf, Bf-ani, Rrv. Iiiiliui- 
Coro. Pouto VVur. i 

- « - . 


GlMOM - 

Whnut, Sua, iDd PnUto ! 
Flours, around Ulce, 
MuMard HtuU. 

Turmeric Povdvr. 

flin . • . 

W»ler, Sugar - - • 

Cayenne, Taula 
nr Cinnamon, 
Su(n»r. and fla- 
eot hlndi. hor 
fining. Alum, 
B«lt of Tartar. 


Flour, C«iiP Sugar. 

|MX<1L4U • 


L««* - . 

Pouto-flour, Waier 

• • " • 

Salt.Carbonntfl of 
Soda. Caustic 


Whral-anur.l'otxto SUrrti. 
tiDiM Starrh pnihnl.t) 
' Rk*r .Chalk, uml GcHutiv. 

MUlTjIlltl - 

WI>CAi<flour, Turnif>rlc 


MtLK ■ - 



MUL«AL4D> - 

Pulp of Apple tir Titr nl p. 
Barlpj'Bour, ajid ili* Inir- 

' Oatmui - 

gummu of Bulrr cAlled 



Sujtw, Trrula ■ 

Sugar, TrMcle, 




PicftLa • 

- - - - 

Salt* o' Copper. UAU ally 
(he Arcutv of Copper. 


PorT«o MUT« 

Flour, iirobjU>lr VlTiMt- 

Duir ArtneuUii. ami 

4«ii» Kim. 

flnur boiled. 

• 'tnetliuei VonutUu 



Salit of Cu|ffi«r, Including 
the Acetate. 


rtrrcB . 

Wbeit afttl Pm Flour, 
OriMind Hire, C.touml 
MutUril Seedt, LlnHvU 
Me«I. P. l>..or Peppcr- 

&400 - - 



Th? CbroniAlet of Po- 
luh, C'ltrocniite of 
I**d. fetruginou* 
Cdrtba, ehiclly litn- 
l>erf, Ked and Yellow 
OCbre. Ked Lead, or 
Oxide of LMd. 

The Chrnmatet 
of Potash, Car. 
boiule of Am- 
monia. Ltme. 
Pondered Glass 
or Sile«, Pnw. 

BlM - . 


- - - . 

Carrnne, Burnt 


Wheal-flnur lo two CUM 

only, Poiato-flour. and 

Tai'iocA-tUrcli, each in 
" oQtfumplr. 


ftnetm : 

CuiYU - - 

PDwAiDNl CloTe-«Ullu In 


Ct%HAUoii - 

CoMU, WbcAt-dnur. Sago- 
mtoi, wild minture* of 
(hr»e : KaK India Arrow- 
root. Poialo-Aour. 




List of Articles utttted hy Oikerx to hf employed fitr the different 
Piir/Hfitea of Adulterutum^ but of the Use of which iio Pogitive 
Erideme hoA been adduced^ idthough it i> extremely pj-i)Lable that 
many of them haoe beeny or are occasinRnllyy had recourse to. 

For Taiite. Smelk 


F« Colwif. 

ud oLlwr Pn^ 

Aebow-Root . 


Ground Rlc«. 




Burlpy, Onl. Pf* Flmir, 
IMt.e Cfliiy, Pl*»t«r of 


WbltP Potti-r'i rlay. Pi[n- 

Ciihall, Smilt, UHr«. 


Cliijr. or Cornith <Uy ; 

mariiif, Litmua, (■*«• 

Ch^lk. Flmtt-f or Parli. 

pies Yellcm. 


Corrii - - 

Ri>Ait<H) P«M, Co(fce 
Grtiuodi, Parmiv- 

ladder Rwt. 

CmooRY - 

Torreli«d Gnmnd Rier, 

B«k«^ HorM-i Lirer, 

Roftited BiH-ult. Oak Hnrk 

Durai Blood. 

1'an. EKiiAiutod. T«o, 

called Crmui. 

Cocoa akd Cbo- 

OH ScR HlKMilB, Co«r*r 

R«<) r.«Rd, Vermllloii, 



KMf RDd Yvticiw 

Rt TaIIow. Ijird, Tri-arlP, 


Siilphatrof t.lmc, Thalk. 


L"h*lli, IIon(? Earth, PIn«tfr 
of I'arU, Po«der«l t HrU. 

ftta . . * 

AcPtatr of l>f»H. 
Oil of Turpen- 

UIM • ■ • 



Commnn ArtPtilc 
■nd Prn<xld« u[ 




ppA- flour, I,tn»«d-tD«il, 


Shcrp » Hralfu. ChRlk. 

l»KrMii - 

Ground Oil C^kp. CUy 

RkllfllllRRT Jel-Llr 

Cumiiit JHly - 



Smid, hUiiT of P»rl», 

Sauchi • 

riiRlk, |-U*(<-ro(Pari*. 

RM I^aJ. 


Thr lpfl%ir« of CRbb^iRP, 

Llqiiortctf, Beet-root 

Sr] AnmonUc, 

Sw^werd. Rr««»rt Chi. 

Drpei. Crtrchii, Ful- 

Curboasta of 

cocj'fDot, B»D, OAliuni, 

ler'* Kuth. 

Ammonia, NU 
triit« of Ammo. 
nt... &alt, Alka. 
Ilfi. aa PolAih 
and hixUi CatP- 
[lonlca. Opium. 

VlNBOAl - 

Ai-Hlr, Pvriillpi. 
iiroui, Hrdm- 
rhloric. Sltrlc. 
Rod Tarurk, 
Acidly Cayenoe, 





List of Article* stated to be used^ but scarcely likelij to be emploj/ed^ 
for the Purpose of Adulteration. 

AMHonn . . - 
Brrrn - • • 

CAYIflhl - 


PiMTIK Alio ALS - 
VlftlOAH ... 

For Bulk and W«l^. 

r«» c«io«. 

PluUiT or Parb. 

Mad*ter-root . . - 
nrirh-dit*! . • . • 
Brlck-tluil . - . ■ 
Mitk at Almonds, Gum, Oum Tra- 

Opium. , 
Usalic Acid. 


Brtck -duiU 

Another nrrangemcnt or cloMificatioti of subslancM used for adul- 
tcration is into those thnt arc not injurious, but the use of which is 
simply fraudulent, and into those which are hurtful to licalth. A list 
of alt the liiibfitjinces employer! for adultf^rution, which are more or 
leas prejudicial to health, will be gtrcn hereafter. 

Importakce of tub Subject or Auultkbatiopt. 

The subject of odultomtion is undoubtedly one of bij^h impnrlflncr, 
and in ita conseijuences it utlbrds much material which may fairly 
engage the earnest thoughts of the financier, the aanitarian, and the 

The financier, Iwcause it involves to a large extent considerations 
iff profit and toss; profit to the majiufacturer iind seller of adulterated 
articles, and huts to the consumer and the revenue. 

The saniturian, IxK'&use some of (he articles employed in adulter- 
stioa are of an exceediuj;ly injurious character, and calculated to 
aflect niiilerially the public health. 

And the momlist, since the practice of adulteration involves decep' 
tion, and even frnml. 

Adulteration U iherefore u great national question, closely affecting 
the pocket of the consumer, the revenue, and the health and moral:* 
of the people. We sball nun- proceed to enlarge upon each of these 

The pecuniary BeariugM of Adultemtiotu 

Xbe pecuniary bearings of the subject of adulteration arc of very 




great importance, and thcj relate to the consumer, ibc manufac- 
turer, merchant, or tradesman, aiti] the revenue. 

The great profit of adulteration arises from the sale of articles so 
adulterated as to be greatly inferior in value to genuine commoditieft, 
a price being denianOed for these mixetl floods }-ieIding a larjj^er profit 
than could be obtained by the sale of uDmlullerated goods; in fact, 
ihey are often sold at the rate of the pure arlii'le?. This increase<l 
profit to the seller is just e>o much loss to the conHumer. This ma^ 
be illustrated bj the sale of mixed chicory and coffee as ^nuinc 
coffee: chicory may be purchased for about 30^. the fwt., or about 
3d, per lb. ; coffee for 80#^ or nearly 9c/, per lb. Now coffee, as fre- 
quently S4.>ld, often contains 50 per cent,, and in many cases much morv 
than ihiA, of chicory ; and for the mixture, half chicory and half coffee, 
worth about Qd. or 7d, per lb., from Is. to 1«. Cff. is charged. 

So great ia the loss of IhecoiiHumer arising out of the practice of 
adulteration that it is questionable whether it does not amount in 
most cases to more than the sum of the whole of his taxes. The 
greatest lusers by adulteration are the humbler classes, the labourer 
and the artisan, who are compelled to purchase the nrlicles they use 
at the cheapest shops, where adulteralinn prevails to the greatest 
extent. This practice therefore presses with peculiar hardship upon 
the labouring portion of the population. 

It is clear that the sellers of adulterated articles of consumption, be 
they mnnufaciurers or retail dealers nre in a position to enhance 
their profits by the practice of adulteration^ and are enabled to under- 
sell, and too often to ruin, their more scrupulous and honest compe- 

The question of the adulteration of food is therefore one which 
vitally affects the interests of thf tturrt honest avfl respectable portion of 
ike trading eommmxity^ who dt-'pend upon the manufacture and sale of 
articles of consumption, and it bvlxoves them strenuously to exert 
themselves to put an end to the prevailing system of adulteration 
which is undermining the very foundation of trade, namely, Faitu im 
CoMMKaciAi. iMTEoarrr. 

The peeuniiiry interests of the State in (he question of adulteration 
will become apparent when we remember thiit a large pnrt of the 
revenue is derived from duties on articles of consumption. The more 
ibe&e articles are adulteiated, the more is the revenue defrauded. 



lib not possible tocatiuute witlian/ degree of cerUinty tho precise 
loss to the State arising out of adulteratioD ; but it is evident from the 
millioDs of money derived from dudes on articles of consumption, and 
from tbe extent to wbich adulteration has prevailed and still ])revails, 
tbat tbe loss must amount annually to many hundreds of thousands 
of pODmU. A calculation has been mado, whereby the loss to the 
revenue from adulteratioD is cstimateii at two uiillions annually. The 
author of the *' Food of London,*'* [». 1 38., stales that half the national 
revenue is derived from articles of consumption. These few facts are 
sufficient to show the paramount importance of adulteration to tho 
national Excheijuer. 

If the State loses so much, it is pretty certain that the public suiTera 
a much greater loss. 

The Sanitary Bearings of Adulteration. 
We DOW come to consider the question of adulteration at it affects 
tkepuhiit health. No doubt can possibly be entertained on this sub- 
ject: no one who examines with sufficient care the facts, but mu&t 
acknowledge that the subject of adulteration is of the liighusl import- 
ance in a sanitary point of view^ and as a question of public health. 

In the Jirti piaect the adulteration of articles with substances, 
oltkougU harmless in themselves, ia frequently prejudicial, by reducing 
nnd weakening tho natural pro[>erties of those articles. This is the 
case when roasted corn or carrot is added in cofToe, and water to milk : 
but the remark applies especially to medicines ; for in this case to 
reduce tbe strengLh of a medicine by adulteration is to destroy or 
modify the proper action of that medicine. The proper doses of dlf* 
ferent remedial agents have been dotennined, in must cases, by coi'eful 
observation and experiment ; and in diOcrcnt doses the same medi- 
cine is known to produce very different effects. To adulterate medi- 
cines, even with banuless substances, b to destroy the very foundation 
of the healing art, and so to render nugatory the wisest and best 
directed efforts of the physician. 

/» the iecontl place, adulteration acta prejudicially to the public 
health when substances are employed possessing injurious properties. 
Now a itreat variety of such substances are used for the purpose of 
Iteration. We have ourselves detected, amongst others, the follow- 

* Bjr George Dodd. LongnuLQ & Co. 
C 2 


ing : — the three chromates of lead, the !hree Bninswick greens, which 
areiuixturus of the cUroiuatvs of lead aird judigu or Pruesiaii blue* rM 
oxide of lead or red lead, arsenite of copiicr, sulfthale of cop(>er, car- 
bonate of copper or verditer, carbonate of lead or white lead, biaul- 
phuret of mercur)' cinnabar or vermilion, acetate of copper, enlphuLe 
of iron, gamboge, cayenne in spirits., bronze powders, which are allovs 
of copper and zinc, sulphate of lime, carbonate of 1 ime, red fcmiginntii^ 
carth5, and other subatoncea more or less injurious. This list, it will 
be observed, eontaiiiK Oie name!) of some of the most virulent poisong. 
Sometimes the rjiiantiiies of these substances used is so uousiderablo 
that immediate ill efT'ccts are produced : thus, as has alreailj been staled, 
not a year passes but that serious, and even fatal* accidents arise out 
of the practice 90 recklessly pursued of colourin'? sugar confeetionavy 
witli poisonous pij^menta. More frcipicntly the ctleota are more slowly 
developed: the substances, although taken perhaps in but minute 
quantity, gradually and insidiously deteriorate the tteallh, giving rise 
frequently, amongst other maladies to rarious f(triiis of 4lys|)ep5ia or 
indigestion : sometimes, as in the case of lead, copper, mercurj*, and 
•rvenic, they accumulate in the system until at Icngtlj serious con* 
sequences arc produced; thus coses of paralysis have been recently 
traced in the clearest manner to the use of snuiT adulterated with 
preparations of lead ; some of these cases will be fouml recorded in 
*• Food and its Adulterations:" other cases of lead paralysis, it has 
been slated, have been produced by the use uf cayenne adulterated 
with red lead. 

The subji»ined Table contains not only the names of the sulwtnnceg 
used In ailulleruLlun possessing more or lees injurious properties, but 
also the names of the articles in which they have been discovered : it 
wilt be perceived that the number of injurious substances thus em- 
ployed ia very great. 

Injurious Subskmee* aeltinUy detected in adulterated Articles of 



Cocculus Indicua. 
ArsenitecfcopiM!r, emerald green, 

or Seheelc's green. 
Sulphate of copf>er or blue vitriol, 

and acetate of copper or verdi- 


Beer, rum. 
Coloured sugar confectionary. 

FIckles; bottled fruits and vege- 
tables; preserves; dried und 
crystallised fruits. 




^^K » Substance t. 

Articles, ^^^| 

^^^^ta^xmite of copper or verditer. 

Coloured sugar confectionary and ^^^B 
Custard powders, sugar confcc- H 

The three chrotnaics of lead. 

tionary, tea, and snutK H 

Ued oxide of lead. 

Cayenne, curry powder. H 

lied ferru^inou-H earths, 05 Vene- 
tian red, bole Ariuenian^ red 

Ked suuces, as i^hrimp, lobster, H 

anchovy and tomata sauces ; ^M 

and yellow ochres, umber, &c. 

and in' potted meats and 6sh, ^M 
cocoa, chicory^ anchovies, an- ^^^H 

natto, cheese, tea, and sntiff, &c. ^^^H 

Carbonate of lead. 

Sugar con foe tionary. ^^^^ 

Plumbago or black lead. 

In certain black and Lie teas. ^^^H 

BUuIphurct of mercury or cin- 
nabar. . 
1 Sulphate of iron. 

Cayenne, sugar confectionary. ^^^H 

Re-dried tea, and in beer. ^^^| 

^H Sulphate of copper. 

Bread, rarely ; annatto. ^^^H 

^^ Cayenne. 

Gin, rum, ginj^er, mustard. ^^^H 

^^ Gamboge. 

Sugar confectionary. ^^^^| 

Chromatfis of potash. 

Tea and snuff. ^^^B 

The three false Brunswick greens 

Sugar confectionary. ^^^| 

being mixtures of thechroraates 


ofleodaad indigo, or Prussian 




Oxychlorides of copper or true 


Brunswick greens. 


Orpiment or sulphuret of arscni- 




Ferrocyanide of iron or Prussian 




Antwerp blue or FruaiMaQ blue 
and clialk. 

Ditto. ^^H 



Ditto. ^^M 

U Itraooarine. 

Ditto. .^^H 

Artificial ditto. 


Hyrtrated sulphate of limp, mine- 

Flour, bread, sugar confectionary. ^^^| 

ral white, or plaster of Paris. 



Bread and flour. ^^^| 

Sulphuric acid. 

Vinegar, gin. ^^^H 

^H itronze powders or alloys ofcopper 

Sugar confectionary. ^^^H 

^^P aod zinc. 


r Now with eridence such oa the above, it is impossible to contend ^^^| 

^^K that the use of such a variety of injurious, and cvou poisonous, sub- ^^^H 

^^Bttances is unattended with danger, and tliat a<lulteration does not ^^^H 

^H ^ ^ ^^1 


affect the public health. It may so happen^ and it doubtl^'RS docs 
Fuinctimes occur, that the sutnc person, in the course of a gingle day, 
receives into his stomach some eight or ten of the articles above enume- 
rated. Thus, with the potted meats and fish, anchovies, red sauces, 
or cayenne, taken at breakfast, he would consume more or less bole 
Armenian, Venetian red, red lead, or even bisulphuret of mercury. At 
dinner, with his curry or cayenne, he would run the chances of a 
eeconJ dose of lead or mercury ; with the pickles, bottled fruits and 
veftetablcs, be would be nearly sure to have copper administered to 
him ; while if he partook of bon Son* at dessert, there is no tellings what 
nuuiber of poisonous pigments he might consume. Again, in his ten, of 
mixed or green, he would certainly not escape without the adminis- 
tration of a little Prussian bhic, and it might be worse things : if he 
were a snulT-taker, be would be pretty sure to 1>c putting up him nostrils, 
from time to time, small quantities of either some ferruginous earth, 
bichromate of potash, chromatc of leadj or red lead r finally, if he in- 
dulged himself with a glass or so of grog before going to bed, he would 
incur the risk of having the coats of his stomach burned and irri- 
tated with tincture of capsicum or essence of cayenne. If an invalid, 
his condition would be still worse ; for then, in all probability, he would 
be deprived of much of the benefit of the skill of bis physician through 
the dilution and sophistication to which the remedies administered 
for bis relief were subjected. This is no fanciful or exaggerated 
picture, but one based upon the results derived from the repeated 
analysis of diiTerent articles as furnished to the consumer. 

Moral Bearings of Adulteration. 

The third and last aspect in which adultemlion is to be considered 
is the mural. 

It is impossible for a man to be guilty of adulteration and yet be an 
honest and a moral man. Can it even be said of the adulterator, be he a 
manufacturer or a roaster and grinder of chicory and coffee, or be he a 
retail tradesman who sophisticates the goods wbich be sells and mixes 
them with roasted com or beans, Venetian red, &c., that he is guilty of a 
less oflenee than the common thief? The last takes but our property, 
while the former not only robs us of our substance but sometimes 
destroys our health as well. 



Rat BtluIUratioD not only nukes those who practise it dishonest, 
but other very wrious evils oft«n ensue '. thus it begets a loss of 
eonfidence on the part of the buyer in those with whom be deals. 
In this way sometimes not only doea the honest trader come to be 
looked upon with the same suspicion as the adulterating merchant 
or tradesman, but the itatug of the whole of that portion of the 
-trading community engaged in the sale of articles of consumption 
is lowered^ and it is looked upon with misgiving in all its transactions; 
lastly, the character of the whole nation for integrity in it« dealings 
■uffers tn consequence of adulteration. 

There is, then, scarcely an individual whose interests are not deeply 
enneemed in the subject of adulteration. The interests of large 
public institutions of alt kinds are vitally affected by adulteration, as 
our hospitalsand other charitable establishments, workhouses, barracks, 
shipping, lunatic asylums, public schools, and simitar institutions. 
Many of these establishments are supplied by contract with diHercnt 
articles of consumption, as tea, sugar, coffee, cocoa, arrowroot, oatmeal, 
tptoet, &c. Now it often happens that the articles, and especially 
oatmeal and arrowroot, supplied under these contracts, arc adulte- 
rated, and this is frequently to be explained by the fact that these and 
Other articles are sometimes purchased under market price, and 
conaequontly cannot possibly be genuine. 

Taking into consideration, therefore, all the circumstances of the 
case, we believe it to be almost impossible to orer-cstimate the im- 
portance of the subject of adulteration, viewed either as a question 
of public health, of pecuniary loss to the consumer and the revenue, 
or aa one of morality. To sum up, it is not too much to say that the 
question of adulteration is one which affects the health of thousands, 
and even the lives of many ; that hundreds of thousands of pounds 
are annually lost to the consumer and the revenue by the practice 
of adulteration ; and that by its prevalence the moral ttatut of the 
eODUoerciat portion of the community of this country is lowered in 
the eyes of the world. 

Tub Remedies fob Adulteration. 
The means to be employed for the suppression of adulteration are 
of two kinds, viz., those which are required for the ducove/y of 
adulteration, and those for its //umxhtat'iU* 

c 4 



The prindpttl incnns to be adoptei] for the detection of nduttornt'ion 
are, First, — The appointment in the priiicijwii towns and di&cricts of 
the United Kingdom of inspectors and anal_f&t«. The duty of the 
inspectors would be, to procure articles of food and medicine, to 
forward them to the analyst of his district for his analysis and report, 
nnd to bring cases of mlulteration before the pn)pt!r authorities fur 
a<ljudication. In our impr>rt towns a principal udditionol duty of the. 
inspector would be, to watch over articles of food and medicine 
brought to this country, and, in doubtful cases, to forward them to 
the analyst for his npinion. Lastly, the inspector, like the present 
Excise officers, should, in certain coses, have the power of entry on 
suspected premises ; in general, however, the samples collected for 
analysis shouhl be procured, in the presence of a witness, in the 
ordinary way, by purchase, and the power of entry would rarely 
require to be enforced. The Excise obtains its evidence of adultera- 
tion chiefly by the seizure of articles in the warehouses, &c., forcibly 
entered, of the adulterator ; in this respect a very great difference 
would exist between the proceedinr^ of the Excise and that of the 
authorities now proposed to be called into operation. 

While it would l>c requisite that every i:hier lown and district 
should be provided with its inspector, it woulJ not be necessary to 
appoint an e<|ual number of analysts, as the same analyst could, in 
many eases, act for several towns. In the appointment of analysts, 
special regard should be had to their qualifications, and none should 
be appointed who were not conversant with the application of the 
microscope to the detection of adulteration. 

The appointment of the inspectors and aiudysts to be vested in the 
municipal or other local authorlLios. 

Second, — That a Metropolitan Board of Insjjcctors and Analysts 
be appointed, its sppointment to be in the hands of the Government. 
To this hoard should be confided the charge (if dealing with the 
subject of the aduUerutioii td' the food and medicine of the metro- 
polis and its suburbs. The board should publi<;h periodical reports of 
its proceedings, these reports containing the particulars of the articles 
WuUysed, including tlm names and atldressus of the parties of whom 
they were procured, and this whether they proved to be genuine or 
adulterated. Further, the local inspectors and analysts should be 
required to make periodical returns of their proceedings to the 



Metropolitan Board. Bj this means a rast amount of u»eful in- 
formation in regard to adulteration would bo accumulated^ and the 
several local authorities would bu k<!pt up to thti full measure o( 
their duties. Lastly, in the Central Board the local analysts 
would poAseos an authority on adulteration of the highest ohu- 
racier, which they might consult at ail times in cases of doubt and 
difficulty. We consider the institution of this Board absolutely 
indispensable to the successful working of any scbeme designed fur 
the repression of adulteration. Without it, although local inspectors 
and analysts might be appointed, but little good would be effected, 
because there would be no sufficient authority over thorn to ascertain 
whether they discharged their duties properly and efEciently. 

Further, the services of the dilTerenc Boards of Health, the various 
sfpitary officers, and inspectors of nuisances, might be made avail- 
able to some extent in procuring articles of food and medicine sus- 
pected to be adulterated. 

Fo^Uie prevention and punishment of adalteration, the following 
are^flphasures which appear requisite. 

' That all cases of adulteration should be disposed of aumuiarily 
before the Justices of the Peace, but with a right of appeal to the 
Court of Quarter Sessions. 

That a system of publication of the names and addresses of all 
persons whose goods hare been analysed should be adopted, and this 
whether the articles on examination proved to be adullcruledorgenuine. 

That the sellers of adulterated articles should be punished by the 
infliction of fines, and the actual adulterator by fine or imprisonment, 
especially in the cose of second oflTences. 

That it should be rendered imperative on persons convicted of 
selling adulterated articles that they should keep a placard con- 
taining the text of the judgment condemning them posted up in the 
most prominent part of their windows for three, six, nine, or twelve 
months at a time. 

Few methods of punishing fraudulent tradesmen could be devised 
more effectual than this, and which, we have been given to understand, 
has been enforced in France. 

The above is a short outline of the chief measures which appear to 
bft necessary for the discovery and prevention of adulteration. The 
iMinisbmeuta proposed should extend to all kimls of adultvrationi 




wheiber injurious t^ healthy involving pecuniiiry loUf or whether 
simply deceptive ; in fact, tbo tleHnition ofmlultcraCion alreail^r given, 
«nd which ni»y here be repealed, should be adhered to. 

*' AdultemtioD consists in the intentionid addition to an article, 
for purposes of gain or deception, of any substance or substances the 
presence of which is not ucknoirledgcd In the name under which the 
article is sold," 

According to this definition, the fltle of mixed artielct tinder the 
name of one only of the ingredients entering into the composilion of 
the mixture would be punishable. We regret exceedingly to find 
tliat the Parliamentary Committee on Adulteration propose to attach 
punishments to certain adulterations only, — those involving pecuniary 
loss to the purchaser, or which arc injurious, either directly or in- 
directly, to health. 

It is not pmposed to afEx any punishment to adulterations with 
substances of a cheap and innocuous ehnracter ; provided "the public 
derive the full benefit of this cheapness in a lower price.** It is not 
even recommended that such mixed articles should be sold as mixturesi 
the label aOUcd to them s|)ecirying the cotnptwiition of the mixture. 

That is to say, supposing tlie recommendations of the Cimimiltce to 
be acted upon, it will aiill be lawful to sell a variety of mixed articles, 
as tea, coffee, chicory, arrowroot, &c., wliieh are not what, by the 
name under which Ihey are sold, they prwfess to be, and what as- 
suredly they ought to l>o. Thus for a very largo proportion of the 
adulterations actually proctised, not only wuuld no remedy be pro- 
vided, but a positive legal licence would be given for their perpetration. 

The Committee acknowl<*ge that " the public morality is tainted, 
and the high oommcrciat character of this country seriously lowered, 
both at home and iu the eyes of foreign countries," through adulw- 
raiion. We very much fear ibat the recommendation of the C<»m- 
milte« respecting "innocuous" adulterations is by no means calcu- 
latcd to take nwuy ibis national n*pronch. 

Besides, this distinction of adulteration into harmless and hurtful 
opens the door to perpetual oonllictfl of itj»inion and litigation aa W 
what constitute innoeuou* and what injurious adulterations; wbereaa 
there is no commercial adultcrnliim which can l>e practise*! tb»l w 
not ii^jurious in some sense or other, either to public morality, to the 
pocket, or to health. 





To make rach a distinction as this is to leave untoucbtxl tbc dh- 
lionesty necessarily inTolved in !h« practice of adulteration of every 
kbd. According to our views, all adulteration ia to be condemned, 
because it involves at least intentional and designed deception; bul 
the Committee would indirectly sanction, and altnuat legalise, a large 
class of deceptive adulterations, and thus, in some respects, matters 
woald be rendered worse than they even are at present There are 
few persons who do not feel that in practising adulteralion of any kind 
ibey are guilty of that which is wrong, and which they wimld hi' 
ashamed to avow openly ; but the Committee would take away thifi 
Mnse of shame, aud tell us that uiauy sdulteratioiis are not reprehen- 
wble, aikd ought to 1>e connivcil at by tltc Legi<ilaturc. 

It is true the Committee throw in a kind of saving clause, and 
state, ** provided the public derive the full benefit of this eheopiiess in 
a lower price." It is well known that most articles are sold in the mixed 
state chiefly to enhance profits, and that almost consUuilIy the public 
are loaert by such mixtures ; but the great difficulty will be to pro- 
duce satisfactory proof of the i>ecuniary loss sustained. Inmany cases 
it is not possible to determine the proportions of the several ingredi- 
ents in a mixture, and these being undetermined, it is imi>ossible to 
ascertain the value of the mixture. 

We are decidedly of opinion, therefore, that under the bead of "in- 
nocuous '* adulterations, the public would be defrauded to an enor- 
mous extent. 

A single good purpose served by this distinction of adulteration 
into innocuous and hurtful we cannot perceive. It appejirs to us 
that Qo real difficulty exlstd either in de6ning what constitutes adul- 
teration, or in determining how to deal with it. The course dictated 
by common sense should be followed — viz., that of re(|uinng that every 
article should be what it professes to be, and what ihc public under- 
stand it to be by the name under which it is sold. Ou this point, thure- 
fure, we consider that the Committee have fiiUen into a grave niistiikc. 

Wc much regret that the Committee should have involved tbem- 
aelves in this difficulty, seeing that the right course to pursue is so 
plain and obvious, — namely, to require that every article should be 
what it professes to be by the name under which it b vended. If it 
be told u muatcrd, arrowroot, or cocoa, it should be one or the other 
of tlMMC articleii «nd nolhijig else. 



If it be rijiht to allow the sale of mixed articlea, it is dnubtleas 
only commonly honest and just that tbesc articles shouM be soM u 
mtjctures, fimJ tUeir L'om[)09ttion sjiecified. 

In aJopling this course, no real difficulty whatever exists, as it 
would be ens/ to devise names auflieiently appropriate by wlucli 
these mixtures might be distingnisbpd, aa — "mixed mustard, cousist- 
iiiff of muslarj, wheat-flour, and turmeric ;" " mixed cocoa, consisting 
of cocoa, sago, and sugar." 

But we would go further than this, and require that the proportions 
of the several ingTLMlients should be specified thus : '■'Mixed Mustard^ 
containing mustard 50, wheat-flour 40, and turmeric 10 parts ; and the 
same with coffee and some other mixtures. Now tlie labelling of 
articles in this way has already been sanctioned by the legislature, 
which re((uire8 that mixed coffee and chicory should be sold only as 
thus labelletl : "This is sold as a mixture of cliicory and cofFcc." All 
that is needed, therefore, is an extension of the some syitem. 

With regard to tlie punishmi'nts for adulteration, we perceive that 
the only punisbnjent which the Committee recommend to be iuBioled 
is that by fine. 

The Report of the Committee states: " A summons shall be issued, 
and the case be investigated before the justices, who shall have 
power to inflict summary punishment, by fine or imprisonment, in 
every case where pecuniary fraud or danger to hcaith shall have been 

We fear that it must be concluded, from the wording of the ibore 
jmragraph, that the punishment of imprisonment is only proposed t-o 
be iiiUicted in default of payment of the fine. If this be so, then our 
conviction is, that pecuniary fines ore a most inadequate punishment; 
they neither are adequate to the serious nature of the offence com- 
mitted, nor will they scnre to check adulteration to any extent. The 
system of fines has been repeatedly tried, and hoft hitlierto failc<l. Of 
what moment is a fine of a few |K>unds to an adulterating merchant, 
spice or drug grinder, who, probably, before the discovery of his guilt, 
has been engaged for years in adulteration, whereby he has realised 
hundreds and thousands of pounds? Besides, to adulterate is to com- 
mit fraud, and surely it cannot be right to compound with fraud by a 
money payment. What ia required is, that adulteration should be 
braniled as a crime, and this can only be done by affixing to it some 



punishment which shall entail personal discredit and disgrace, such as 
that of imprisonment. Wo are therefore decidedly of opinion ihat 
impriDonuienl ought to furni one of the puui^ihuii^iits for adulteratioiii 
it being reserred fop the worst oases, and for second offences. The 
pumsbmeut by fines only will effect little or nothing for the suppres- 
sion of adulteration. On referring to thu laws in force against adul- 
teration in France, Belgium, Prussia, lloUand, Uamburgh, and even 
New York, we find that imprisonment is onct of the punishments en- 
forced against adulteration. Why then, we ask, are adulterators 
in EngUud — a country formerly presumed to set a pattern of coiu- 
meroiol inte^^rity to the world — to be dealt with so gently ? The 
Cnmtailtee, who have taken great pains to collect the laws in force iu 
other countriesi could, we should supjKJse, scarcely have failed to 
notice the efficient character of those laws, as contrasted with their 
own feeble recommendations. Amongst other penalties intlicted iu 
most countries, are the confisi'iatiou of the adulterated goods, and the 
prohibition of confirmed adulteraturs from following their trades or 
callings. The Report of the Committee is silent on both these points. 

The parties whom the Committee recommend to be punished are 
ike actual adtdterator anil, with certain restrictions^ the teller. It is 
not pro|josed thst tlie seller should be held responsible when "he 
can afford satisfiictory proof that he has himself been deceived, and 
was not conscious of the adulteration practised, unless he has evinced 
A culpable knowledge of the trade which he professes to follow.'* 

In legislating upon the subject of adulteration, it should be remem- 
bered that the seller is frecpiently as much a party to adulteration as 
the actual adulterator. This is shown by the fact that he often buys 
articles at prices ai which be knows it is impossible that they can be 
genuine. Again, it should lie recollected that it is often the interest 
of the seller to screen the iidulterating wholesale merchant or manu- 
facturer, he, in many case?, being largely in his debt. In the course of 
the publication of the reports of " The Lancet " Sanitary Commission 
we met with many cases in wliich the seller preferred to incur the 
risk consequent upon the publication of his name, rather than divulj^e 
the names of the parties by whom he was supplied. Tlie seller, 
therefore, must not be let off too easily, especially when he attcm]>(s 
to screen the perpetrator of adulteration. 



The fttlhwing are the ttept recommended by the Commiitee/or the 
JJiiCQvery and Suppression of Adulteration, 

" Tt will be desimblc," states the Report, " therefore to empower mu- 
nicipal or other local or district autliorities, to appoint an ofBcer or 
officers, who, on complaint mude, nr in cases of resaonable su^^picion, 
shall pnx'uro ponions of any articles supposed to be adulterated, with 
A view lo their exaiuination or amily^iis by some duly qualified person 
appointed for that purpose. On the report of Buch person, if h 
confirm the suspicion of adulteration, a suniinona i^hall }fc issued 
and the case be investigated before the justices, who shall have power 
to inflict summary punishment, by fine or imprisonment, in every case 
where pecuniary fraud or danger to health shall have been proved. 
It ia essential that a right of HppeM should lie lo the Court of Quarter 

" With regard to coloured confeclionary, your Committee recom- 
mend that authority should be given to local boards of bealtli op 
other governing bodiea to forbid the use for colouring of all mineral 
matter, and all poi(ioning vegetable matter. 

"But although your Comtiiitlee desire to leave the execution of the 
law against adultemtion in the hands of the local authorities, they 
are of opinion that very valuable assistance would be afforded to 
such bodies in ascertaining the fact of adulteration, if one or more 
K'ientific analysers were to be appointed under the anthority of the 
Generttl Boar<l of Health, to whom the local authorities might refer 
whenever they thonghl fit.'* 

The Committee do not moke any special recomraenda lions inr^anl 
to the adulteration of drugs. 

** Your Committee are of opinion that no inspection at the outporia 
would guarantee to the consumer the purity of commodities pasiting 
through the hands of intermediate particH ; and the exclusion of im- 
pure drugs would operate injuriously, by interfering with the supply 
obtained by scientific processes, calculated to extract valuable matter, 
even from products seemingly almost worthless." 

On this point also we differ from the Committee, bccaasc we believe 
that a system of inspection would be found to opei-ate most benefi- 
cially. Jt hao already been tried in America, and the jdan has worke«l 

U. Supposing that, in accordance with the opinion of the Com- 



mittee, no inspection at the chief places of import is established, what 
will bap[K.'i) ? Adulterated drugs will be iin|>ortcd as heretofore, and 
will find purchuers ; they will pass into the handi) of the wholeaala 
drngf^ists. from them, again, into those of the retail chemist, and thus 
they will reach the consumer, who, finding that be has been supplied 
with an vlulterated drug, will have no rt.'niedy ; for, according to the 
report, the seller is not to be held rcfiponsible for adulterations of 
which he hiu no knowle<lge. Theitc remarks apply, not only to drugs, 
but to mmny articles of food occasiimiUly imported in an adulterated 

The suggestions of the Committee doubtless contain much that is 
good, as far as they go ; but they do not go far enough, and hence 
I bey will not prove effectual. ITieir great defect is that they do not 
include any provision for a central board or authority such as we 
conceive to be essential. The urganisation proposed in connection 
with the General Board of Health is, considering the magnitude of 
the evil, of too limited a character to effect much good. It is essen- 
tially ncces»ary tlial there should be some well organitted central 
authority, having a competent head : the construction and duties of 
this body have already been indicated. SuppoM?, in accordance with 
the recommendations of the Committee, the various local oiTieers to be 
.appointed ; who is to determine whether they do their duty or not ? 
Who is to advise and guide them in the discbarge of that duty P And, 
finally, in what way arc the facts in regard to adulteration, brought 
to light through their labour?*, to be made available for the general 
gOO<l ? Now the formation of a board such as is indicated does not 
necessarily imply the institution of a new authority : the Auuly- 
ticftl'Board of the Excisei if remodelled and placed on a broa<lcr 
basis, might be made to answer the puri>osc fully. The reorganisa- 
tion of this board is imperatively deroandeil ; in its present state it is a 
diagrace to the country. The correctness of this sutemcnt we shall 
proceed to prove. 

The question may next be considered to what extent the new mtiehi' 
nery proposed to be called into operation for the attppregsian of adidtf 
ration trill cIobH with the duties uud jMtsition of the Eiciae in regard to 

One of the chief dutiea entrusted to the Excise is the protection of 
the revenue (of which no uiconsidcrable portion is derived from du- 
tiea on exciseable articles ol' consumption) from loss arising out of 


flduhoration of those articles. Amongst the articles bearing ui Ekciso 
duty, niid for the aduUeratioa of which the Excise are respobsiblef aro 
tea, coffV*, cocoa, pepper, spirila, and tobacco, including snuC Now, 
It maj be inquired, do the Committee propose that the purchasers and 
analysts whom they desire to be appotntud should occupy themselves 
with the adutterntion of the several articles enumerated !* If so, they 
would be actually discharging the duties for which the Excise are paid 
and rvsponsible, and thus that body would be, to a great extent, supcr- 
»oded. On the other hand, Riipposing that these articles nre still 
rcsenred for the Excise to deal with, what would then be the state of 
the case? Just this, tlial the revenue would still continue to be de- 
frauded to a Unje extent, and the public health injured, as they have 
iHwn for years past, by the prevalence of an enormous amount of 
aduUoriitiou in exciseable articles, and nearly all of which adulter- 
ations, under a thoroughly cfrecltve system of management, might be 
prevented. This brings us to consider the question, hma far the 
£xcis« has hitherlo protected the revenue from loss throtigh adtdter* 

The articles under Excise supervision have already been enumerated- 
Of these articles, tea is still subject to considerable ailulteration, 
while the extent to which the public are defrauded in coffee and 
cocon is notorious; they are also lai^ely defrauded in pepper, spirits, 
and tobacco, as is proved by the following results of analyses of those 
(uiirles as supplied to tl»e public, and as rejiorted in " The Lancet." 

Of nnnicroiis Bomples of black and white pepper analysed, fully one- 
half were adulterated with ground rice, pea-dour, wheat-flour, UnscL-il 
meal, nml mu.>>ttuM husk. 

Of thirty-eight samples of ^'k examined, a very large proportion 
were adulterated, some of them being reduced in strength une-holr, 
whik' »even uf them cnntaineU caycunc pepper. The same was thu 
caao with rttm and braiut^. 

Of forty-three different Mti^jtexnmined, nearly all were adulterated, 
the adulterating in<:rodients used being, for the most part, salt, alka- 
lies, silica, red and yellow ochre, red lead, chromate of leod, and 
t.>hroniHtL' uf pularh. 

'n>0 Excise, then, hns most signally failed in its principal duty — 
namely, the protcolion of the revenue against adulteration. 

The pnnif tbut it has thus foiled is furniBhcd in the fact ihat,at the 
iUuc of ihe pttblicatiou of the author's reports in " The Lancet,'* adul- 


>n was ascertained, on evMence the nio»t incontrov^rliblu, ioprc- 
every one of the articles subject to the supervision of the Excise. 
Now this stale of things ought not to bo, and it ia one which i^ di^ 
creditable to the Government of thi» country. 

The causes of the failure of the Excise may next be considered : they 
arc several; but we do not pro]H)9e to do more at present than just, 
in the briefest possible manner, refer to one or two of tho«e causes. 

One reuiion is the want of sutfieient activity and vigour in enforcing 
the powers with which they arc intrusted. Compared with the prc- 
[Yolencc of odutteration, how selilom do they moke exposures of aduU 
[teratiun, and institutii prosecutions ! 

Another reuson is thut they do not »ufficiently employ the resource* 
of science for the discovery of adulteration. They rely too much 
upon the information of Excise ini^pectors, and too little ujKin science, 
upon the resources of chemistry-, but more ctspccittlly u)>on a know- 
ledge of vegetable structure as ruvcoled lo the competent ob- 
server by menus of the microscopu. 

From not eni]duying science enough* the Excise has, for the most 
pnrt, in order lo discover evidence of adulteration, been driven 
to adopt A system of eifpionn^e, and to tlie rude and inquisitorial 
proceeding of entering forcibly ui>on susiMJCtvd premises, and of 
seizing on any adulterated articles or sulistances employed in adul- 
teration, and which, pcrcliance, they might find in the course of their 
search. The method adopted by **The Lancet" Commission was in 
sli'iking contrast to this. It simply purcliased the dilTerent articles 
as sold in ilie ordinary way of business, and applied to their analyses 
all the resources of science, especially the microscope and chemistry. 
iJy this proceeding it was not necessary, as in the case of the Excise, 
^) maintain un army of '* 4000 " Excise inspectors, neither was it requi- 
site to violate the sanctity of men's private dwellings. 

That the P^Ixcise hml not employed science, either sulBciently or 
eS^ctively, for the detection of adulteration, at the period of the 
Commenceujent of our investigations, is proved by many circum- 

Thus we found a variety of chemical adulterations to prevail, of 
which the Excise possessed no knowledge ; but it was in respect to the 
nsc of the microscope, as an instrument for the discovery of adultera- 
tioo, that its knowledge was the roost defective. Of this ignorance 



it has itself furnished a memorable and striking proof. In ]$50 

repeated remonstrances were addressed to the Government to prohibit 
the iiduUnration of coflVe with chicorj. The Government cxcutcd 
itself from Interfering* on the pleu, publicly urged by the then 
Chancellor of the Kxchequer, Sir Churles Woodj in the House of 
Coromnns, that, neither by chemistry, nor by any other means, was 
the adulteration of coiTcc wiih chicory to be detected. This statement 
was maile on the strength of a report, jirocured at the instance of the 
Excise, from three of the most distinguished chcmiitts of the thiy ; the 
real (act at the aame time being, that nothing h more easy or certain 
than the discovery of the ailulteration in question, by means of the 
microscope. Further, we have within tl>e last few years brought to 
light, with the aid of the microscope, huiidreila of Hdulterations, the 
existence of which was utterly unknown to tlic Kxcise, Even now, 
although we have done so much to teach thiit h(»\y the use of the 
microscope, it has as yet failed to afford the public any evidence 
to show that it is capable of em]>Inying that instrument nri;;!)! for the 
discovery of adulteration. It not unreasojiubly nn^ht have been 
expected, that a numerous ami public body like the Excise, instituted 
and paid for the special work of discovering adult emtio n, with the 
most innple opportunities and facilities, would not have required to 
be tttu^lit ita business by those engaged in prosecuting the subject of 
adulteration in a private und unolTicial capacity. 

It might also have been reusoriably expected not only that it woald 
not require to be taught itself, but that it would have published from 
time to lime, for the information and guidance of the public, some in- 
stmctions calculated lo put it on its guard against adulterations, and 
to teach it, to some extent, how tn detect them. 

We learn from the Report of the Select Committee on Adulteration, 
that, " in addition to about 4000 officers scattered over the country, the 
Board (of Excise) employs about sixty to seventy analytical chemists, 
whose numbers arc recruited by students educated for the purfMJse at 
University College, lo the number of lourteen in every year." AVhji 
here is a whole army nf inspectors and analysts! With such huge 
machinery as this, the wonder Is that adulteration should exist in any 
degree, much less that it should be all-prevulent 1 Had we the 
organisation and control of such an enormous staff, we would under- 
take to all but eradicate adulteration from the land. 



Now, it mu9t be remembered tbKt the chief dutj of th'ia large force is 
timply to protect tbe revenue agfiirijit fraud in some halfdozcn articles of 
eon»uiuption. Willi uduUeration, as Buub — with the great mass of adul- 
.terfttioriR, whether they are injurious to health, or wliether detrimental 
to the revenue — the Excise concerns itself not. Sinf^ular to relate, 
thi:re are a variety of articles of eoneuniptiou which pay duty to the 
8tat«% which help to augment the revenue, and which are nolorii>nsly 
adulterated, and yet the Excise docs not talcc cognisance of the adul- 
Icralion of Euch articles. 

It thus appears that the Excise has the smallest possible amount of 
idutj to perform in connection with aduUeraiinnf and yet thi^ small 
ts it i«, is most inefBciently performed, llicre is no reason whatever 
why this discrcditjiblv state of things should exist. The present 
machinery of the Excise, remodelled, might be made to act against 
iduheration with enormous eflfect. 

Annther reason is ihnt it does not avail itself eufliciently of 
llie advanloties to be derived from free publicity. We are dis- 
pOKd to rely more upon the regular publication of the namr's and 
iddreaaes of those whose goods have been analysed, for the sup- 
pression of adulteration, than upon any other means, in conse- 
i^aence of the excellrnt effects which have undoubtedly resultetl from 
the publication in "The Lancet," for a period of four years, of the 
auBOB of upwards of 2000 merchunts and iradesmen. So great has 
Wen the effect of this publication, combined with the recent exposures 
Wfore the Parliamentary Cunuuittee, that we are of opinion that not 
•twentieth part of the adulteration now prevjiils^ in the metropolis at 
that did at the time when the reports of *'The Analytical Sanitary 
Commisiion " first ap|>eared. In some articles the improvement is 
■ktaifcet to the eye alone, as in the red sauces, pickles, bottled fruits 
■od Ttgetables, and coloured sugar confectionary. 

TIm foHowing remarks, in reference to the publication of tbe names 
of traders in " The Lancet " ami the effect j>ro<luccd by the micio- 
Mofie, occur in tlic" Qunrierly Review "for March, 1855, in a review of 
ibr autiior's work entitled " Fo<.pd und its Adulterations." 

"A gun suddenly fired into a rookery coulil not cause a greater 
eomnotion than did this publication of the names of dishntiest mules- 
■CD; DOT docs tiie daylight, when you lid a stone,startle n^\y and loath- 
things more quickly than the pencil of light, streaming through a 
D 3 




quarter-inch lens, 8uq>riscd in tbeir native ugliness the lliousftnil 
andone illegal sul»tnnt-e»wlii('h enter more or less into Dvcry ck'scrip- 
tion of food which it will piiy to adulterate. Niiy to sucli a pitch of 
refinement has the art of f»bric.iLion of alinientary substances reaclii.*il, 
that the very nrtiolus used (n adulterate ore Uieriiaelves adultenited; 
and while one trn(k*sman is plckinjj the pockets of his cnstomeri 
a still more cunnin<^ rogue is, unknown to himself, deep in his own." 

No objection, we believe, exists to the suheiue which we bave briefly 
set forth for the discovery and prevention of adulteration, on tbe 
score of expense; on the contrary, wbile nn imnieniic saving would 
ensue to the consumer, the revenue would be greatly benefited and 
the public health i)roIci*ted. The reijuisitc machinery is in existence 
at the present lime: as has bofore been -ilatod. there Is an enormous 
and costly maohinery at work for the prevention of the adultera- 
tion of some half dczcn exciseable articles, — that nf the Excise, — con- 
aiatin^ of some 70 ehcuiists and 4000 inspectors. The Excise however, 
has failed to accum[jlish, to a frreat extent, this single object: further, 
it takes no LOgnisauce of the ndulterntion of many duty-pMyiiig 
articles, as spicea, on*owroot, &c., nithounh this immediately airecls the 
revenue; uor does it notice those adulterations whieh are simply 
frauds upon the consumer, or which are delrimental U> thu pubtic 
health: thus it does not interfere with the adulterations of drugs, 
nor does it inlertUct the of poisonous pipncnts in the crtloiiring 
of sugar confectionary, &c. Nearly all. therefore, that appeiint to be 
requisite in order to insure, to a very great extent, (he suppression of 
adulteration, m to remodel the ileteetice and wudytical dcpartmeuUt nftht; 
Excise^ ami to enlarge the sphere of its operntiowi. The atialycical 
department should be made to take copiisance of all adultenitions, 
whether in duty-paying articles or in ariitl«-s free of duty. The best 
way would he either to plnce the remodelled amdyLiral department 
of the very unpopular Excise under the Hoard of lleiihh, (he vnrious 
Customs and Excise detective inspectors coramnnicaliiii; with the 
reconstituted Board, or else to render it indepemlent and distimt. 

Some such change as that here recommended is tinperiitively de- 
manded, and must ere Inng Uike place. It is impossible to allo'nr the 
Analytical Hoard of the Excise to remain much hmgiT in its present 
anomalous and most iuetBcient condition. Xliia change cfTected, the 
Board would lose its arbitrary and objectionable character; it would 

ccasti'to be reg'arded as an engine for tbe extortion of money; but 
wliile it really and eflectually protected the revenue, it would at the 
some lime protect the interests of the bonest trader, of tbe consumer, 
and al«o become a guardian of the public heattb. 

We are sorry that our views difier so much from those expressed 
by the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Adulteration; 
but we have felt ourselves constrnined to give tree expression to 
our opinions on this ({ueatiou which so closely concerns the interests 
of the public, and which are paramount to nil other con,-iiderationfl. 
With abundant evidence of a most conclusive character, wiili a cose 
which the Committee themnelves acknowledge to be fully proved, it 
must be confessed that the Report is a very weak and timid one, 
when the gigantic character of the evil to be remedied is considered. 
It would appear na tliDUgh the Committee, from the universality 
of the practice 'of adulteration, and from its extensive ramifications 
throughout the highest and the Inwei^t branches of trade, had become 
alarmed, and shrank from grappling with it in a bold and compre- 
hensive manner. Notwithstanding, however, that the Report falb 
short uf what is required, it is yet a highly important document, and 
one which must be folhtwed by legislation. The grateful thanks, there- 
fore, of the public are fully due to the able chairman of th'it Com- 
mittee, Mr- Scholefieid, M. P., and bis colleagues, namely. Viscount 
Ebrington, Viscount Goodench. Lord Claude Hamilton, Hon. C. P. Vil- 
liers, Hon. W. Cowper, Mr. Alderman Cubitt, Mr. Gregson, Mr. Kin- 
naird, Mr. Knight, Mr. Peacocke, Mr. Otway, Mr. SwifV, Mr. Sheridan, 
and Mr. Wise. Mr. MofTut, we suppose, was placed upon the Committee 
to represent the case of the adulterators. For two sessions these mem- 
bers of (he Jlouse of Commons— uU volunteers for the duty — were 
unremitting in their attendance at the meetings of the Committee, 
and tbey elicited from the various witnesses, by their well-directed 
inquiries, a mass uf most valuable evidence, which cannot but result 
ere long in a great public benefit. 

Various grounds exist, which render it imperative that some 
elTective legislation should promptly be carried into effect fur the 
suppression of adulteration. 

Legislation on the subject is required — 

First. — For the Frutectiun of the Public IleuUh. — The evidence given 
before the Parliamentary Committee on Adulteration proves that the 

l> 3 


deadliest poLions Are daily resorted to for purposes of adulteration, to 
the injury of the health, and the dcstnicrion of the lived, of thuuitandB. 
There U scarruly a paitjiiiiuuci pig-iuyiit kiiuwii in these islaadtt vrhich 
is not thus employed. 

Second. — For the Protection of the Rnenw. — Thl* will be readily 
acknowledged when it id known that nearly half the natioiml re- 
venue is derived from taxes on food and bevera;;c3. It has alrendy 
been shown that not long since ad u Iteration was rife, and it still exists 
to a large extent in nearly all articles of consumption, both solid and 
fluid, and including even those under the enpervisJon of the Excise. 

Third. — In the Interests nj" the Iloii^xt Mcrvhaut atul Trader. — The 
upright trader is ])lui:ed in a most trying and unfair position in con- 
se<jiuence of adult(;rati«>n. lie is exposed to the most ruinous and 
unfl^'mpulous competition; too often he is undersold, and his business 
thus taken from him. It is therefore to the interest of the honest 
trader that eO'eetive legislation should tuko place, and not only is it to 
his interest, but we can state that tt is his must anxious desire tlmt 
adulteratii>n should be aboli»hc<l. In advocating the suppression of 
adulteraticfn, we arc therefore advocating the rights and interests of 
all honourable traders. 

Fourlh. — For the sake of the Consumer — lliat the consumer U 
extensively robbed through adulteration, sometimes of his hcidth, but 
always of bis money, is unquestionable. It ii>, however, the poor man, 
the labourer, nnd the artisan, who is the most extensively defrauded ; 
for, occupied early and late with his daily labour, often in debt with 
those with whom he deals, he has no time or jjower to help himself in 
the matter, and if he had the tin»e he still would require the requisite 
knowledge. The subject of adulteration, therefore, while it coucernfl 
all L'lasses, is eminently a pour nian's {)ue&'tion ; the extent to whicli 
be is cheated through adulteration is re»llj enormous. 

Fifth. — Oh the Grourul of PnMic Morality. — Adulteration in» 
volves deception, ^lishonesty, fraud, and robbery, and since adultera- 
tion is so previilent, so equally must these vices prevail, to the 
•crinna detriment of public miirality, and to the injury of the cha- 
racter of the whole nation, for probity, in the eyes of the world. 
Under this head we cannot do better than quote the langu^e of the 
Parliamentary Committee on Adulteration. *'Not only," states the 
Report, "is the public health thus exposed to danger* and pecuniary 
fraud committed on tlie whole couimuuityt but the public morality is 


tainted, and <be high commercial cbarncter of this country seriously 
lowerc<i, both at home and in the eyes of foreign countries." We 
repeat^ then, that some prompt^ active, and efficient legislative 
interference is demanded, for the snke of public morality, and the 
character of this country amongst the nations of the world. 

But there arc yet other reasons for legislation. It cannot he 
doubted but that, in makin;; known the imtiue of the adulterations 
practised upon a variety of articlest although we have doterrt'd some, 
yet have we also taught many the way to adulterate, and nf this 
knowle<ige they will not be slow to avail themselves, especially in the 
absence of any aulfirient check. The recent startling and frightful 
exposures, although they have done good for a time, will, if unsup- 
ported, serre but to increase the evil at some future day. 

A reluctance is expressed in some quarters to grapple with the 
giant evil of adulteradon from the fear lest it should interfere with, 
ond impose restrictions on, trade. This fear we believe to be ground- 
less ; and even if there were some foundation for it, yet it ought not 
to be allowed to prevail against what our consciences tell us to be 
right. Trade is one thing, poisoning our food another. Surely there 
is no necessary connection between the two; and if conne<!ted, the 
sooner the connection is severcil the better — the better on all grounds, 
and especially it will be to the advantage of trade itself. We main- 
tain, however, that the connection which now exists is entirely un- 
natural, that it has sprung up under a careless and loose state of 
things, and that it is the duty of the State to interpose its authority 
fur the prevention of adulteration. 

Now it should be clearly understood that it is not necessary for the 
suppression of adulteration that restrictive measures should be 
resorted to, calculateil to interfere with trade, or to impede the 
liberty of the subject, beyond those already in existence ; indeed 
some of the restrictions now in force, and interference at present in 
uperationt might, under a better organisation, be discontinued. 

Let us recall to mind the powers already conferred for the suppres- 
sion of adulteration. The Excise is at liberty to enter, by force, upon 
any premises, where the adulteration of an exciseable article is 
suspected to be carried on, or where adulterated goods are supposed 
to be deposited; the adulterators or sellers of adulterated articles 

D 4 



may be apprehended, punished by fines, which are sometimes Tery 
heavy, or imprisonment ; uU the aUuUernled artltles may be confis- 
cated, as well as the im[)leme«ta emph)ycd in their preparation. The 
fioard may lock up a manufacturer's premises taking the keys away, 
even when be in not practicing adulteration, and it may control the 
processes of luanufacture therein pursued. Here ia interference 
•with the freedom of trade and the liberty of the subject, with a 
vengeance ! 

Again, magifttrates or peace officers, by warrant, under the Rread 
Act, may search any premises and seize any ndultcratcd Hour or 
bread, search for any forbidden ingredient, inflict the penakios of tine 
and imprisonment ; and lastly, they may publish the namey of the 

To prevent smuggling, — an ofl*encB which, in it& effects u|>on the 
revenue, is allied lo adu!tera:ion, — a large force, armed to the teeth, Is 
stationed all around the coasts of these islands: it may seize the 
smuggler, and, if he resist, kill him ; or it may take his contraband 
goods from him, and, on cunviclion, cast him into prison. Here, 
again, is interference wJtli the liberty of the subjert ; and, remember, 
in smuggling, the revenue only is defrauded, and but little is thought 
of public health or morality. 

Lastly, recall lo mind the powers exercised, nnd properly so, in the 
oofles of bad or diseased meat, and of short weights and measures, 
which, be it known, often go along with adulteration. In such cases 
there is the power of entering upon suspected premises, of seizing and 
oonfiscAting the articles, and of punishing the wrongdoers by fine or 

It may be inquired, how comes it that, with such powers of re- 
pression, adulteration so prevails ? The answer is, that the laws in 
force respecting adulteration are partirU only in their operation; that 
they relate only to certain articles; that they are for the most part 
but seldom enforced; and that some of them have even fallen into 
desuetude. AVhut concerns everybody, what is evorybtxly's business, 
becomes, in fact, according to the old adage, nobody's business. 

The cries of "freedom of trade" and *' the liberty of the subject,*' 
in connection with adulteration, are in reality unmeaning termi', used 
OS bugbears to frigbten the timid and to throw the public off their 



^nard* Wc repeat, then, ftESTRicTtrK m£A6URE1« betoetd tdobg 





Thsbb are two principal means by whit'li the discovery of adultera- 
tion is efTc'Cied, chemistry and tIil* rnicrmcope. 

Cht'tiiititry lias betn long employed for the detection of adulteration, 
and it was upon tbis means of iuvestij^tiun thut the earlier observers 
almost exclusively relied. 

The application of the microscope to the detection of adulteration 
is campurativcly new, and dates chiefly fr<im the penml at which my 
pa{>er on the Adulteration of Coffee was communicated to the Hota- 
nical Sfjciety of London, that is from August, I8i0.* This is certainly 
the most practical and important use which has ever beiu made of 
that imifriimeiit ; for by its means hundreds of adulterations have beea 
discovered, the detection of which wiis beyond the power of L-hemiatry, 
And which had previously eluded all the efforts of science. The author 
believes that be may claim to have been the Hrst to employ on a large 
•Cftle the microscope for the discovery of lulidlersitian ; on tbiis point, 
however, the lanfftiage of others may be employeil. 

" The Lancet/ in reviewing the author's work on the AduUcmtian of 
Food, writes, January, 1855 : " It is now unnecessary to say how com- 
pletely Dr. Uassall dispelled the delusion as to the circumscription of 
science, and how he demonstrated that the microscope, wieliled by the 
skilful naturalist and chemist, was able to unravel and to analyse the 
coni|>onent structures of substances thnt bid defiance to the blow- 
nipe and the lest-tubc alone. U is the jrrcat and orij^'inal merit of Dr. 
llussall to hare applied the microscope to important uses tn inquiries 
of this nature, and to have i<hown, by it^ uses^ not only many things 
previously L*onsidered impossible to ^luw, but many things uut pre- 
viously suspected to exist." 

The " Quarterly Review," in an article on the same subjeet, remarks : 
" It is in the application of the mioroseope that consists Dr. Hassall's 
advftotagc over all previous investigators in the same field. The 
precision with which he is enabled to state the results of his labours 
lemves no appeal." — March 1855. 

The " Dublin Ueview " remarks : " The secret of his succew has 
been that, in otldition to chemical analysis, he has used the microscope 
in his intpiiries; and his merit not only consists in the able manner 
in which he has employed the instrument, but in his being the first to 
use it practically and to such an extent for this purpose.** 

"The microscope,'* writes "The Timca," t rclerrmg to our labours, 

• Sm " Timrs." Auput 8. 18&a t Juljr M. lfiS&. 


" seems to have been the more cfTeclive instrument in the work. Less 
ihun five years ago it woulti, we are told, have VMit'ti inj|K)ssible to 
detect the presence of chicory in t'offec. In iUct, tlie opinion of three 
clistin-iuisheU ithemiiits Wiis actually f|Uoletl in the House (>f Commons 
to that effect ; whereas by the use uf th^j niicroEiCu|ie the dtderencee of 
Btructure in these two substances can be promptly disoerneti." 

Lastly, the following remarks from the pen of a very able writer. 
Dr. Robert Barnes, may be fpioted: *' The scientific originulily of 
Dr. Hassolfs labours in laying bnrc the health-destroying anrl fraud- 
ulent adulterationa of fooil and drug», is, if {>fl89ible, stiU more 
inerituriuu» ; and it would be difficult to over-estimntu the public im- 
]Kjrtance of tlie results obtained. The means previously relied upon 
to check these adulterations were, the cumbrous and coiiitly uiacluiiery 
of the Excise, and the subsidiary aid which cheiubtry could aOV^nl, 
The officers of the Excise were, for the most part, *iriven to seek for 
evidence by forcible entry and the seizure of articles found on sus- 
pected premises. When the art of the chemtat failed, science was 
practically e.thiiustcd. So late aa 1851, the then Chuiicellor of the 
£xche<[uer was able to <piote in the House of Comtnniis, us the de- 
liberate opinion of three of the most distin^uiif^hed chemisUa of the day, 
who had oeen B[>ociaUy recjue-sted to report upon the subject, 'WW 
neither by chemistry nor by any other meaits amUi the admisture of chi' 
cory with cofffic he detected.'^ How completely lliis foregoue conclu-^ion 
has been exploded by the labours of Or. Hassallj as Analyst of the 
Sanitary Commission of " The Lancet," is notorious. There is now 
nothing in Bcicncc more certain and precise than the discrimination, 
by meaus ol' the microscope, of the various forms of vegetable tissues, no 
matter to what extent they may be pulverised^ mixed, or even roastu<i. 

" The interest of Dr. llassairs researches is universal. They have 
benefited tlie public revenue, every man in lieaUh or in sickn(!S3, and 
the physician who trusts in the properties of the a>;entj(, wheth<^r me- 
dicinal or dietetic, which he prctoribes ; and Ptirliamcnt has been in- 
formed thn>ugh them of new grounds ond new principles of legislation. 
The jrreat importance of the subject of the adulteration of food» drink, 
and droits, has already been recoj^nised by ParUament, and this nminly 
tliruugb tlie labours of Dr. Uassalt." 

Ok tob ApruciTiOH or thb MicRoscors to tub Djbtsction of 

The microscope is dpecially suited to the detection of orgnnised 
structures or substances, as the several part^ of animals and plants : it 
is with the latter that we shall chiefly have to do In the course of the 
present work. 

When we surrey with our unaided vision any animal or plant, we 
detect a variety of evidences of organisation or structure ; but there is 
in every part of every animal or vejietable production an extra- 
ordiuary amount of organisation, wholly invisible to the unarmed 




»ic:hl, and which 19 revcnied only to the powers of the mtcrofcope. 
Nuw this ininuto »n*l microKopieal or^uuisation is diifL'rcnt in dii- 
f^rent ]Mirts of the same animal or plant, ami different in iHHerent 
animals and plants, so that by means of these tlifi'eriMices, rightly 
understood^ the ex[)urit'nced microscopic id observer is enabled to 
identify in many castas infinitely minute portions of iininiid or vi^yetable 
tiruiues, and to rvft*r them to the pjirt.i »ir snet-ies to which they belong. 

Thus, by raeaiH of the nuo-rosco|>e, one Icinil of root, stem, or leaf 
may trcnerally be di:§tingui<^hed from another, one kind of starch or 
Hour troni unother, one seed from unuiher, und so on. In thid wuy^ 
the microscope becomes an iuvaluable and indispcuttuble aid in the 
discovery of adulteration. 

Applying the microscope to food, it appears that there ia scarcely a 
vegetable nrticle of consumption, not a liquid, which may not be 
distin^^iished by means of that instrument. Further, thnt all thtwe 
adultiTutions of these articles wliich consist in the addition of other 
vegetable substjinees, and which ciKistitutc by fur the muiority 
of udulteratioas practiaed, may likewise be discovered and discri- 
mirmted by the same means. 

Tlio same remarks applv to all the vegetable drugs, wliether roots, 
barks »et?d«, or leaves. \Ve are not acquainted with one such drug 
iuch may not be thus di<|(i^i.'^ui^)K'tl. 

JTbe seeds even hclonf;inji to dilferent species of the same genus 
*iBty fn-quently be distinirui^ticd fmrn each other by the mii'r<isrope, 
ajKiint in some cases of very great importance. A remarkable instance 
of this has fallen under our observation. The SGe<ls of the dilferent 
8|)eciL^ of mustjinl, rape, &c. may all be diijtinguiahed under the nii- 
crtiecojM} by difi'ercnces in their organisation. To hhuw the im- 
fHtrtance of the discrimination in »ome cases, the following instance 
may be cited. Some cattle were fe<l with rape cake, and died with 
symptoms of inllammati4in of the stomach and bowels. Nothing 
of u poisonous nature could be detected on anal vsls ; but it was sus- 
pected that the cake might be adulterated with mustard husk, 
altliough even this point could not be clearly established by chemical 
research. Under tiiese circumstances the cake w:ih sent to the author 
ibr examination, wito had but little dilTicully in a^*ertaining that it 
was adulterated with mustard seed, which, from tbe large quiintity 
consumed, was doubtless the cause of the fatal inflammation. Not 
only can the seeds of different plants of the same genus l>e frcnnentlj 
discriminated by the microscope, but in some cases those belonging 
even to mere mhetiet of species. 

The microscope in some cHBes can even inform us of the processes or 
affente to which certain vegetable Mibalances have been sulyected. 
llIu.^trations of this are aflorded by the starches of wheat and barley : 
it can be determineil by the microscope whether these are ruu\ btiked^ 
nr hitUed^ or whether uuilted or nnmuUefl. Illustrative figures will be 
found in the articles on Urb\d and Bbkb. 

Again it is not only when the articles are in a separate state that 


they can be thus distinjruishetl i but even when ;nixed tngelher in 
difforent proportions. We have 8ucc*;e»led in det-cetiniy in certain 
TegelAblc powders no loss than nine different vegetable prwluciions. 

So great and mnniloitt itre the difTerenoes ri^vealed by ihc micro- 
scope in different vegetable substances, tbaU with ordinary care and 
some uinuiint «}!' preliminary knowledge, the discriniinution become! a 
mutter ut'die ;;reutesi enise and the mo^t abaulute cerluinty. 

This will appear even from an examination of the fivefoUowingfigures. 

Fig. 1. 



Scebon of tTtrioiircp Corrn BmKr, •howEng the aUr *oA form or thi ctUi, u viTl 
u tlir drop* (if oil contained wIlhlD llieir <»vUm«. Ormvii vUh the Cuoer* LueklA, 
and fRBcnlfled 14ll diameten. 

The abovefigure represents a section or fragment of the unroasted coffee 
berry: if the reader will contrast this with the next figure, which repre- 
sents a small fragment of chicory root, he will perceive how great is the 
difference ; so with the starch granules of the difiercnt arrowroots ; of 
wheat, rye, rice and Indian corn Hours ; with jiitap and rhubarb ; and 
with a variety, we might say ahost,ofotherfnjb3tanees. Now chemistry 
could not fiirni.thuswith the nameof even one of these different starches. 
Further, wonderful to relate, the grinding and pulverisation, and 
even the charring, of many vegetable siibstanceB, does not so destroy 
their structure as to render their identification by the microscope im- 
possible. Chicory and coffee may be thus roneti'd niul pulverised, and 
vet each may be subsequently identified with the grreateat case, they 
being in fact but little changed, except in colour, and in the case of 
coffee by the dispersion of the droplets of oil visible in the cells of the 
unroosled berry. 



Again, lubsUnces may be discoTcred bj meana of the microfioopc, 

rhen introduced into arliclcii for the purpose of adulteration in 

Ltremeljr minute qnantities : the case of soine njustard forwarrled by n 

lufiu^turer to "The Lancet'* «ome time since furniebed a remarkable 

lastrftlion in point. 

Fig. 2. 


Ttw tm m mt of Kaamo Cnicort Root, Ukvn from ■ Mmple of ftdiiltcnUd 
mSm», ilMwIiic Uifl or/J« vt whkh It li prindpsltr convlltutcd. 
Dr»vii vtth the C«aiCTm Lucldi, uid ina<iilfic«l l«l dkmoUrn. 

TVe nrastAfd was atnteil tobe j^enuine ; hut on examination with the 
inier«KOpe» it was found to contain a small (luanlity of turraeric. The 
manufacturer, when informed of the fact, Tcry candidly and properly 
■cknnwledged that thia was the case, and stntcd that he had added '^ tjcif 
KnatttMi^ (vrmeric tt> Jifty-six pouiuh of seeds, not for the purpnse of 
;.'.iin or adulteration^ but simjdy to enliven the colour and mnke its 
^['pcarance more acceptable; " that is, the (piantity of tuniiuric present, 
am) discovered by the microscope, consisted of only one part in 448 of 
thcquantity examined.* 

Tbe Ust illustration — and a very sfrikin;; and beautiful one it is^ al- 
tJxMi^ not immediatelr coaneeled wiih the subject of adulteration, — 
vhicn we shall adduce m order to show the oxtruonlinary character of 
liic information furnished in somu cases by tbe microscope is supplied 
by honey. 

* Food 1114 111 AUultvraUooi. p. IX). 


Honey is the saccharine exudation from the nectaries of flowers : the 
bees in collecting iL carry away some of the pollen of the flowers 
visited by them. Now tliis pollen consists of cells or vesicles, difTering 

Fif. X 

Slarvh franulM nr MkR^KTA, cmll«d commonly W«^ Indltn ftrromoot. 

I>r«vn «hh llw Ostnuk LwciiU, wmI i 

iW lUuiietcr*. , 

in size, form, and slruclure, nccordinp ti> ihe plaiita from which it is 
derived, rcrtuiii plants being chanicterisud by polJeii [•nitiulL'? of a cer- 
tiiin eunfigiirttiinn and organisation. Hy the pnlteii jiresent in honey, 
therefore, ihc scientific microscopist acquainted wiili thv fhuracter- 
istics of the pollen of different plants Is enabled to decide In many in- 
stances upon the nature of the plants from whirli the honey has beoQ 
procured, and whether it has been collected from the llowersof the field, 
the garden, the beathf or the mountain. See article Honet for figure 

There is still another use to which the microscope may be applied 
in the detection of a<)ulteration ; it may frequently be made to serve 
8fl an auxiliary to ehemiciil researches : tbu!*, for example, when 
we want to owertain whether any (tubstance contains starch, carbo- 
nates, phosphuti'S &c^ it is often the quickest and most c»»rtnin way to 
apply the reit^icnts to a small quautity of the substance while this 
is under the field of vision of the microscope. 

Wh&t the microscope is capable of cO'ccting in the discovery of 




lulturation having been thus explained, the mode of the applica* 
~ vf thai instmmenl to the subject may next be considered. 

•nuwroPti oofiunnDly ib-tinnilnBt4>l Rut rndlKO ftrrovTOoL 
Qunafa I.uclJa, uid nu4[uilSwJ 'IM) dlamclen. 

ll wAold be out of place to ^ve any description in this work of the 
npon which ihe microscope lias been constructed; the most 
nopk' details on thiii subject are to be found in the Bevertil works 
which treat of the tncchuuiitm of the mifToscope. It will he suOioient 
thit tiiv titles »f Booie of these works should be indicated, as thoso 
gitefi Inflow. 

"The Microscope, its Ilistory, Construction, and Appllpationa." 
Bj J>»-*7 Ho^ir. I.:,(i., M. U. C. S. Price 7«. 6^/. Uoutledge & Co. 
" Tl ' -pe;' By Dr. Beale. John Chnrohill. 

**A i 1 rtiatise on the Microscope." By Prof, tiuekctt. Price 

31#. ii , Rcjient Street. 

Ic i- however, that a few remarks should be nmde upon 

Tpry iiin>"r uiiit subject of tite cost of amicroscu[>e suitable for the 
fury ol ftdidteranon. 
The co*t of a microscope suitable for the purpose varies much ac- 


cording to the makers tlic charncter nf the stant], antl the nnturfi nnd 
number of the object- glasses or powers with which it is furnished. 



Potato M n omro&L. oommflnly eancrf BrItUh mmmmol. Drawn with 
the Cuncrm Liidda. mnd in*ctilfled 9fO dUoMten. 

If supplied with French or German achromatic object-glasses, it may 
be put down at about I Of. 

M. Pillischcr, of New Bond Street, supplies a Stud^jiU^ or Medical 
miertarope^ suiBcient for oriliaary purposes, for 7/. 7». It consists 
of microsoopG stand complete^ but wiihuut etage movcmenta, quarter 
and inch object-plasseB, one eye-piece, and mahogftny case. 

Mr. Maker, of lligh llolborn. stifipliea Studentji microscopes suitable 
for nhyHiulo^icnl purposes, and furnitihed with cuac* and three achro- 
matic powers, 1-inch, I*, and ^-incb, for 4/. Ijx.and 5i. \5x. each. The 
objcct-glawcs may als«> be purehiised separately of Mr Baker. 

The Sticiety of Arts prize microscojH', manufacluri'd by R. Field 
and Son, of 113. New Street, Birniingbara, is furni.shcd with case, 
two cjc-pieces, and two object-glasses, at a cost of Si, ^. This in- 
stnimciit we have not seen. 

Binilh and Beck's Educational microscope consists of two object- 
fflasses^the l-inch and J-iucU; two eyc-piecws; a firm stand, with a joint 
for varying the position, quick and slow motions to the body ; a stage 





with springs that allow any motion to he p^ven to the object ; concaTe 
mirror ; a aide condensing tens ; forceps, glass plutcis ph'ers : all packed 
in mahogany cose. Its coeit is lU/, Address, 6. Coleman Street, City. 

Messrs. Powell and Lealand turniffh, for 13/. IJji., an instrument of 
the followin<j: description. It has n very firm triptHi »tun<], willi euarse 
adjiistment by rack and pinion ; two eye-pieces ; two object-jxlussea, 
naiuelr, J- and 1-inch ; iliapliragm nnd gtnps : the whole packed in ma- 
hogany case. For 2/. 2j?. more tlie jj-inch object-glass may be sutjsti- 
tuted for the inch. Addres.s, 4. Seymour iMuce, New Knad. The 
fflas?^ supplied by Messrs. Smith and Beck, and Muisrs. FowcU and 
Lealand, arc English made. 

It does not appear that Mr. Ross manufactures any cheap microscope 
suitable fur Xhv purpose. 

A very excellent and cheap microscope stand, which we are much in 
the habit of recommending, is made by \Ir. Byle^ of 9G. St. John 
Street Uoarl. It has tbe double stage movemcnLs, the advantage of 
which is very great, a fine adjustmcnc, and an excellent mirror, and is 
remarkably cheap at 61. 3s. For 2/. 7jr. miire, two verj good German 
achromstic glasses may be procured of Air. linker, namely, tbe ^ 
and |-inch. This microscope is very well suited for the detectiou 
of adulteration. 

It is desiruble, although not nbsoltitely necessary, that wlmtever 
microscope may be purchafleil shouli) be furnishtKi with a polari.vope, 
as this will be found extremely useful in the discriniinatioii of some of 
the starches. 

The object-glasses most useful for tlie detection of aduUeralion arc 
the |- and |-inch glasses ; it is not very often that the ^-iiich gla.^ is 
require<i, oJthough it is necessary in some cases, as in the exa* 
mination of the smaller sfarcb granules, as those of rice, liquorice, &c. 

For different objects different magnifying powers are requisite. 
What these should be may l>e ascertaintd in gL-neral by reference to 
ihc descriptions attached to the various cngrarings scattered through- 
out the work. It is well to accustom oneself as far as possible t4> the 
examination of objects with tbe same glasses, as in this way different 
objects may be more readily eompared the one with the other. 

The examination of objects is in some ca^es facilitated by employing 
in the first instance an object-glass of low magnifying power, as the 
)-incb or ^-incli, and subsequently having recourse to a higher 
power to nmke out the details. 

It is desirable oUaq thnt tbe microscope used should be provided 
with two or three eye-pieces, as by this means we are furnished with 
intermediate ranges of niaj;nirying powers. 

The maker supplying tlie instrument should always furnish a printed 
table fltatinc the nnmlwrof diameters which each object-glass and eye- 
piece mngnifies. The following table shows the extent to which the 
different object- glasses and eye-pieces are usually made to magnify. It 
Applies more particularly to the glasses manufactured by Mr. Koss. 

K 3 












Value or 
each Kpac« 
in the mi- 
with the 













In mlditinu to ihe niicroscope, it Is Dccessor^ thnt the observer 
filiouhl bf furnidbeil willi ^lass slides, celU, and thin^luAs covers, with 
mouiituU iieeillLfsi, and also, it" be dt.'«>irc8 to preserve p-erm;im:)iUy any 
of ibe objtTts ht> moeLs with, with a preserving fluid, ami with a 
cement Ui secure the ctlla and covers. The cells, slides, and covers, 
may be ohtuined of most inicroscftpe niakci-s, of Air. Bilker, Itullxtrn, 
or of Mr. Bender, 0. Brunswick Places Ciiy Koad. 

Several Jiuids are used for the «xLibitiou and prcserv'ntion of 
microseupic objects. 

One ot these is Canada 1}a1snm, diluted wJth turpentine to sucb a 
consistency as to allow of its droppio;; readily from a pencil. 

Mr. Deane rei-ommends the ffiUowing conipoKitinn for preaerving 
dry or moist animal or vegetable Bubstonces :— Of White's patent sixe 
or gelatine 6 ounces by weight, boiiejr 9 ounces, n little spirits of wine, 
and a few drops of creosote ; mix and fdli^r whilst hot, 

Another composition Is thus nnule : — Pure glycerine 4 iluldounces, 
distilled water 2 ounces, j^elutlne 1 ounce by weight ; dissolve the 
gelatine in the water made hot, then add the glycerine and uze. 

Or pure glycerine only may be used. 

The glycerine may alao be used with the addition, when desirable, 
of salt, corrosive sublimate, creosote, or i?pirit. 

Other preserving Uuids are weak spirits and wator; creosote and 
water, in the proportion of a drop or two of the former to 6 oz. of 
water ; or creosote, a little spirit and water. 

A very useful iluid fi>r mounting cryytals of salts ts castor oil, 
first recommeniled by Mr. Waringlon. 

The following are the receipts for the well-known snlutions of 
Goadby. No. 1. Hay salt 4 oz., alum 2 oz., corrosive sublimate *2 grs., 




boiling wntcr, I quart; mix. No. 2. The proportionH of salt and 
alum are the same, but the quantities of corrosive sublimate and water 
art! doubled. 

Professor Queketfe preservative fluid j» nimle ol'creosote 1 ^drachms, 
wood naphtha 2 oz^ distilled water 32 oz., chalk hs much as h required 
to make the creosote and naphtha into apuste ; before arlding llie water 
the solution is allowed to i^tjind tor a day or two, and h then fdtcred ; 
two small lumps of camnbur are ihon added, and oAcr the lapse of a 
week the solution is aurain filtore<], when it is ready fur use. 

Of the several sulutiuns rmtntfdi, none are so ^<>*^ f(>r the preservation 
of most vegetable preparatiuiis nn those containing glycerine or gelutine, 
either separately or combined. One advantage of p;lycerine is that it 
is not so hi^fhly refractive as Canada biilsam, and another that moist 
objects may be put up in it without any previous drying. 

The next best is perhapa Quekett's preservative fluid. 

There are aUo several cemejiti employed for closing the cells : one of 
these is shelMac varniRh ; this is usually made by (iissolvinr> black 
sealing-wax in rcctiticd npirit: it is best prepared, however, from the 
shelldoc itself. Two or tliree coatings or layers of this varnish should 
be used, applied in succession as the previous coating bos become 
dry. It is not acted upon by weak spirit. 

Another cement is ^nld sire. 

Gum-copal disjiolved in nil of lavender also furnishes a useful cement. 

Marine glue, much used for cementing the cells to the glass slideSf 
coDsisis of equal parts of shcU-lac antl India-rubber, dissolved in coal or 
mineral napuiho, the solution b\.'iii;jr irurefully mixed aflerwiirdi by 
means of best. It may bu rendered thinner by the addition of more 
uaphlhu, snd when bard it is readily disserved by naphtha or ether. 
This is the cement used by Goadby. 

The cement employed hv Mr. Quekett for deep ce\U U made by 
melting together 2 ok. of black resin, I oz. of bees-wax, and 1 oz. of 

Mr. C Brooke's cement consists of Brunswick black, to which a little 
lodia-rubber dissolved in mineral naphtha has been added. 

Mr. llelt makcH usv of dark-coloured and old jupanners* size, for 
•ecuring the upper thin gla.-'s covers, and marine glue for the cells. 

In using the cements care should be Utkvn to select tliose which do 
not exhibit any atHnity for the preserving fluid c<mtaine<l in thecfUs : 
tlius no resinous cement should be employed when the contained fluid 
is spirituous. 

For securing the gloss cells to the slides marine glue is a good 
cement, and shell-lac varnish for closing tlie edges of the covers, where 
glycerine or casUir oil is used. 

For more det.ailcd practical instructions in the mounting and pre- 
scn'aiion of niicroscopic object,s, the reader is referred to the excelleut 
work by Mr. Hogg, the title of which is given on page 49. 

The various vegetable articles employed cither as food or medicines, 

Z 3 


as well ail the iubstanccs used for their adulteration, are moatly put 
up in some jircscrving fluid ; and in general, as tbey consist citticr of 
thin sections or 6ne powdeni, celU are not required. All thnt is in 
generui re<.iui»ite lA to deposit tbe section or a luinute portion of tbe 
powder, taking care to dilTu^e it cquoJly, in a drop of tbe li<{uid 
placed in tbe middle of tbe glass slide ; to cover tbis with a square 
or circle of ibin f^lass, observing; tbat no air lies beneath it ; to remove 
tbe superMuoua moisture around the edge« of tbe glass with blotting 
paper, and when quite dry to apply the cement by means of a iine- 
pointud brusb. 

The inmle orprcpariti<x the objects for examination with the micro- 
8C(y:>e may next be considered. 

Before proceeding to the examination of any article with a view to 
discover wbetber it is ndulterated or not, it is necessary to acquaint 
ourselveii thf)rougbly with the appearance and structure of the article 
itself. If thl8 be in tbe state of powder, a^ tbe different kinds of flour 
and arrowroot, notbing more is necessary than to place a very minute 
portion of it upon Jhe gbk*s slide, to add a drop or two of water, dif- 
fusing the powder evenly through it in u layer so tbin that tbe light 
easily passes Llirougli it, to \;ovcr the object witli one of tbe thin glass 
covers, and to place it in u proper position under tbe micro^cupe for 
observHtioQ, If tbe vegetable substance be a solid one. aa a root, stem, 
or seed, tlien it is necessary to make some thin secrinns of it, deter- 
mining the structure from these. These Fcctions are best prepared by 
means of a sharp and thin-backed razor : of these sections some should 
be longitudinal, others transveriie, and others should embrace tbe sur- 
faces of tbe object, both external and internal, where tbe latter 
exists. The exatuinutiou is fucilitiited in sinne cases by tearing some 
of tbe sections in pieces with neeiUes and also by examining them 
in glycerine in place of water, this renderinjr the structure more 
distinct. Lastly, where the article is one employed in the form of 
powder, it is necessary to prepare sonic of the genuine powder, and 
to moke ourselves familiar with its structural churucterislics. 

Having progressed thus far in the examination of the article., we are 
in apoeiiion to strrutinise samples ofii, with a view to the detection of 
adulteration. Knowing well the structures wbiuh ore met with in the 
genuine article, we shall exjjtiriencc but little difhculty in determining 
whether the sample contains any foreign or extraneous vegetable sub- 
stance, or consists entirely of the one article. 

Having determined thnt it docs contain such foreign substance, 
the next thing is to endeavour to ascertain the nature of this, an<l to 
refer it to the jilant or substance to which it belongs. The faciliij 
with which this is done depends upun the extent of our acquaintance 
with other vegetable substances. If this be considerable, a glance is 
oilen sullicient to determine this point. 

However, it is not requisite in oM cases that we should posseu 
a knowledge of the structure and appearances presented by any very 





great number of vegetable prMluctions, since a few articles are con* 
stantly emploveil for adullerauon in the oaac of very many and widely 
dlficrent artides, such as wheat flour, (wtato starcb, sapo powder, rice, 
&C. ; and all that is necessary in such cases is that we should be ablo to 
recognise these substances when we meet with tbem. 

Most Tegetiible substances are made up of certain structures and 
element?, as cellular tissue, woody rthre, vessels, statx-h ij^anides, &c. 
In leaves we liAve stomata and often hair-like appDndage<<, and in needs 
there are two or more membranes. In endeavouring to discriminiite 
between difTcrcnt vegetable substances, wo must examine and com- 
pare mnst carefully these several tistfues and structure^! the one with 
the other. We must compare, UmIx for size and structure^ the cellular 
tissue of one vegetable substance with that of anotheri and the same 
with the woody fibre, the vessels, tbe starch, &c. 

Before proceeding to determine the minute structure of any vej^e- 
tablc substance by means of the microscoi)c, we would Ktron^ly re- 
commcni] the observer to look over some work on Structural Botany, 
and thus to become acquainted with the cbarnuteri sties of the principal 
tissues and elements which enter intu tbe orgtinisution of ihu several 
component parts of ve*;etabie». He uliouM iiutiuoint hiuHt'll with the 
characters and structure of cellular tissue, woody tibre, va&oulur tissue, 
sclerous tissue, of starch granules, with the general structure of 
roots and stems, leaves, Itowers iiu'ludinr; the pollen, and particu- 
larly with seeds. He will finil a liille preliminary study of vegetable 
anatomy facilitate ^^reatly his sub^erjuent and more special inquiries. 

Any of the following works will be found suitable for this purpose. 

"Outlines of Structural and Physiological Botany/* I'rice 10«. 6d, 
By A. Henfrey. Van VoorsL 

"Descriptive and Physiological Botany." Lardner's " CyclupiBdia." 
By Prof. Henslow. Longmans & On,. 

Scbleiden's " Principles of Scienlitic Botany.** By Lancaster. Long- 
mans & Co, 

Balfour's " Structural and Physiological Botany.'* Price U, lis. 6J. 
Loogmons & Co. 

Ok the Afpucatiok or Chemistbt to thb Dbtectiok or 


Chemistry is adapted particularly for the <letection of tbe various 
chemical substances and salts used for adulteration : the microscope, 
on the other hand, as has been already state<l, is specially suited to the 
detection of all organised structures and substances, whether animal 
or Tcgctabie. Xow it is precisely in this branch of investigation that 
chemistry fails to afford us any considerable aid. 

Chemistry can tell us whether starch is present in any substance, 
but it is very seldom indeed that it can furnish us, as the microscope 
90 constantly does, with the name of tbe plant from which tbe starch 

E 4 


was derived : it pan indeed olfto moke ii< arqiiflinted with the fact that 
womly fibre is contnined in any porticulariirtide, but it cannot furnish 
Ufl with the name of the tree or plant of which it forme*! a constituent. 

Another great advantage of the niicroscope over chemistry is the 
greater ppee'l with whicli results may be arrived at. JIany chemicftl 
analyses occupy days^ while most microscopical examinations may be 
made by the practise*! observer in the course of a few minutes. With 
the author's present knowledge, there are but few articles of which ho 
could not examine readily 100 samples per week. 

Nevertheless, the information supJ^lied by chemistry in connection 
with adulteration is of the hi;;he»t miportance, and it is impossible 
ncoeasfully to study the subject of adulteration without having re- 
course const&ntly both to the microscope and chemistry. 

The importance of chemistry » as npplied to the discovery of adul* 
terAtion. is shown by the fnrt that the majority of the substances in- 
jurious to health employed for adulteration can be detected with 
certainty only by chemical methods of research. 

It will perhaps save los>s of time hereafter, prevent disappointment, 
find remove soinediflicultiett which muy lie in the wiiy of the beginner, 
if we now make a few observations on the chemical apnaratus re<iuired 
iur the detection of adulteration, aud on certain chemical operations or 
prooeMea constantly employed. 

On the Chemical Apparatus required. 

It is not necessary that the manner in which the laboratorj' should 
be fitted up should be described ; this of coursemust be suppfied with 
both gas nnd water, with benches and tables, the gas must be Liid on 
At difl'erent points, and the jeta provided with burners of different 

Chemical analysis is of two kinds, qualitative and quantitative ; the 
object of tlie iir^t, as the name implies, is to ascertain the nature of 
the several comjMment parts of any given compound ; that of tfaesecond 
ia to determine the prufiortions or quantities of such comjwnents. 

The operations of quallt.'itive chenneal analysis are easier and oc- 
onny leas time than thoHC of quantitative analysis; and in many cases 
it 18 aufficicmt for our pur[)OHe to determine the nature of thi? cltemical 
substance use<i for atlidteration, arvd wc need not go on to ascertain 
the qunntily present in any article; although, when wc di'sire to go 
thoHMiglily into the subject of adulteration, this also will in some 
instances be necessary. 

The apparatus enumerated below includes the greater part of that 
which is required for both purposes. 

For drying and evaporating. — A water, a sand, an air, and an <^I 
bath, evaporating dlsoea of various sizes, and watch glasses. 

For weighing and meaxuring — A pood bnlanee(if for weighing very 
accurately fractions of a grain, Ocrtltng's is the best); weights of brass 

\jK\it LlL»ui»»U *>iru;iu>xU u»i»»u 





and pintinum ; a specific gravity bottle, graduated pipettes, flatktt ffl 
of various sizes and measures; densimeters, as a saccharometer, galHcto- 
meter anrl urinomoter. 

for titration. — Funnel stands, funnels, and filtering paper. 

For pulverisatioH.-^-Mitrtars ; a mill. 

For distiUation. — A still, retorts, and condensers. 

For Incineration. — JVlutHes, jwrccluiii and platinum crucibles and 

In addition to the above apparatus, test tubes, a lactometer, iher- 
inomcter (one not mounted, and bavin/r a Inng range of degrees), a 
vnsh bottle, and a drop tube, will be required. 

When it is probable that a large number of samples of the same 
article will have to be examined, and many similor operations con- 
ducted at the same time, it is desirable that ifpfcinl arrangements 
should be made with this view, and that we should be furnished with 
aeries of crucibles, glasses, diKhen, &c. of the same size. 

Any information which may be re(]uired respecting the apparatus 
employed may be readily obtained from the manufacturers and sellers 
of chemical apparatus. 

On the Chief Prelimifiary Chemical Operatioiu. 

The chief preliminary chemical operations are those of weighing, 
I'measuring, desiccation, cvaporntion, nitration, decantation, distillation, 
»nd incineration. A few observations may now be madc^upon each of 
theje proteases. 

Weighittg. — The precautions to be observed in weighing are, for 
'the most part, of a tolerably obvious character and require no fipL'cinl 
description. The substance, especially if it be in a dish or capsule, 
should not be weighed while warm ; if it l>e one likelj to absorb water 
It should be weighed enclosed in watch glasnes { and if its weight is 
not determined immedioUdy after being dried, it shoidd be kept under 
a bell gliws near to a dish of sulphuric acid. These prernutions of 
course need not be observed in cases where the exact weight is not of 
ittatcriul consequence, or where the quantity of the substance weighed 
M considerable ond where it is not hygroscopic. 

Mettmhng, — This jirocess is hnif recourse to in the case of fluids, 
MA it is more expeditious than weighing. 'l*be instruments used for 
this purpose are the graduated pif>ette, the graduated burette or 
dropping glass, the grailualed c}-liiider or measure, and the graduated 

In measuring lir^uids in glass vessels, the dark zone formed by the 
adhc«ion of ihc Huid to the inner walls of the glass should be tuken 
into account. The measuring is most occurote when the mark-lino 
of the measure coincides with the lower border of the dark rone. 

Dtnccation, — Most substances contain more or less superfluous 
water, that is, water which is simply in a state of mechanical ad- 


mbiture, and not chemically combined with the substance; most solid 
bodies, tberefore, require to be deprived of this non-e^-scntiid water 
befiare tber can be quantitatively analysed; and this is e0bcted by the 
upwution of drying. With the constitutional water we of course must 
BOC, ill genottl, interfere. 

To acDompliah this object satisfactorily, it is requisite that we should 
be acqaainted with the pro^icrtie:! of the substance operated upon, 
wkelber it loses water simply in contact with the atmosphere, in air 
dried to 312°, or at a red beat These data will »erve to guide us in 
tW sdectJotn of the process of desiccation best suited to the substance 
VB^er ezanunation. 

S ntl aa o e a are dried by means of blotting paper, under a bdl jar 
m f—tf t witfa sulphuric acid, in the exhaosted receiver of an air 
in tbc valer, air, and oil baths. 

B^ority of substances with which we shall hare to deal being 
loK water at 21:2" F. and are decomposed at a re^ btat ; eon- 
flBfaottlj ^hey require to be dried in a water bath. When higher 

iwialiiii i are needed, as in rendering certain salts anhydrous, the 

r or ofl ha»k» must he had recotirse to. 

TW aad bub, although useful in many cases, rcqiHres to be em* 

as it is not ea^y to regulate its teMperaciure, and 
placed upon it are rvadity charred aM desirored. 
or dish contaioing the substance to be dried aaoold 
Snedj npoa tbe sbelf of the water cr oil b«tb, bat a 
recuin dasb sbould be interposed. 
EraporataoB mav be elTected eitbcr n the water 
or orer the flame of a gas or spirit 
fron boiltng or spurting. Aa 

mtm <■■» m tm mly tbe beat by mean$ of a Hamw 

care being 
way in 

tbe er ap ot a i in g dish ftam caaUaimaAmmj dost 
meBetmrj to protect tbe disb ai mam way; tUs 
bf covcnof it vitb a dieet ofilwii^ VV tvnied 

; or a glaas rod twisted iato a traimidar abate 
and Be paper Mnead over it aad bcfft n poailion ay 
mi lad acnea; bvt a atill beUcr way is to secare tlie 
tmm mmM baapa fitting desely tbe «m orer tbe otber. 
nsoMMto are aqiaiaied oaos wnv bv aaa ai tvo 
y by ilB^Maardecaatarioa Iba immms of a goad 

to JBM tbroi^gb rt; tbera ii a yaa t d»r- 

«!■» VaaMr ■paved, mmiiii wmmmnKimmAmhat^ 
If ■ uifTailli ifMi r m - ^^"T i r -^ - - i 

IVk ia 




wirm distillod water previous to drying. These operations arc best 
conilactetl by placing a number of SUcrs in a glass funnel. 

It will be fuund convenient to prepare a number of filters in this 
way and to ke^p theiD of <]il]'tfrent sizes, regictertng the weights of the 
asltes, corrcspomliui; to the several sizetf. Tbia may be readily done 
by preparing some circular pieces of cord-board to serve aa patterns 
tor the iHrveral sises. 

Before prooeedinj; to filter any liquid for the purpose of separating 
a precipitate from it, it is in general advisable to allow the precipi> 
tate to subside to a great extent : in this way it is less liable to pass 
tlirouffh the filter or tbe filter to become clogged. 

It la in some cases necessary to promote and assist the speedy 
Md complete subsidence of the precipitate. Heating the precipi- 
tate with its menstruum will of^en produce tbe desired effect ; in 
othrr casciff as with chloride of silver, agitation may be hurl recourse 
to with advantage ; lastly, in some ini^tanccs reagent;^ may be added, as 
alcohol added to water to imlucc complete precipitation uf clil(»ri(le of 
pUtinun and ammonium, chloride of Iea<l, and sulplmte of lime, 
or anuBOoia, to ensure tbe precipitation of phospLaie of ina<;^ne9ia 
and aaamonia. Again, a precipitate may somettmea be prevented 
tnm pMsing throu^h a filter by modifying the menstruum : thus, the 
teadeDcy of sulphate of harytii, when filtered from an aijueous solution, 
to pwa throuffn the Biter, mny be prevented in a great measure by 
tbe addition of chluride of ammonium. 

Substances which have been precipitated from hot solutions arc 
OMally best filtered while hot, since hot duids run through the filter 
more rjuickly than cold ones. 

Lajily, tlie precipitate should be repeatedly washed with fresh quan- 
of tlie proper menstruum, — usually distilled water, — until there 
txace uf a dissoWed substance to Ite detected in the last rinsings. 
J^cantaHun, — The second method by which precipilates may be 
ktrd is by dceanlation : this will be found in many cases a very 
itious and accurate method of soparaiion. The precipitate 
be allowed to subside completely bcl'ure pouring off tbe supcr- 
lik^uid, and should subsetpieully lie washed repeatedly. 
^ larger amount of water buMng required for washing precipitates 
ed by decantatioo than is the cose with pi-ecipitates washed upon 
1% it li Deoeaaory, where the former pnxress is adopted, that 
precipitates sbould be insoluble. For the same reason decanta- 
tion o not ordinarily resorted to in cases where, besides the amount 
i ti the prrdpitaled substance, we have to dctermiue the amount of 
I oClbff ooostatneota contained in the decanted fluids. 
\ DitittUdiotL. — Tbere are three iwrticulars which require to be care- 
^■hOy attended to in the distillation of alcoholic liquids, including 

^^^ One of these i^ to close completely tbe opening between tbe beolc of 
the retort and tbe neck uf the receiver ; this is well effected by mcsng 


of ft perforated cork, by which the two vessels arc Joined, the junction 
bein^' well secured by a lule of Unseed meal made into a paste. 

Another purttcuiar is to take eure that all the ulcohol hns really 
passed over before suspending the diaulliition. Before thiti is fully 
accomplished it is ffenerally necessary that three-fourths of the spi- 
rituous liquid should be distilled o\'or; and even then it is advisable, 
where the strictest accuracy is desired, to distil over a fresh but 
email quantity of the liquid,— that which first passed orer having 
been reinoveil, — and to take its Bpecific gravity. 

The third point h to re;njlatecxa<;tly the temperature of the Bpirit 
to a fixed standard before proceeding tu the determination of its 
specific gravity, by means of the specific gravity bottle. 

Incineration.— ~'V\\vre are two objectji to be kept in view in the 
incineration of organic atihstanccs, the ashes of which are intended for 
analysis or the weight of which is required to be determined with 

These are, the complete destruction of tlie carbon, without alteration 
or decomjHWttton of the wdta composing the ash, 

The combustion, therefore, while it is eomjilete, must be effected at 
the lowest practicable temperature, that ia^ at a dull red heat. There 
are several waTS in which these objects may be aocompUshed. It will 
be necessary only to notice one or two of the best and most con- 
renient methods. One method ia aa fallows : — 

The organic Bubstance. beingproperty dried at 212'* F. and weighed, 
is to be charred in a platinum or Hessian crucible at a gentle red 
heat. The charred mass ia then to be transferred to a shallow pla- 
tinum ilish ; over this is to be placed a glairs chimney supported on ft 
triangular piece of platinum wire ; the tlame of a gas or spirit lamp 
is to be applied tfl the dish. The increased current of air caused by 
the chimney suffices to eflect the complete incineration of most or- 
ganic substftnt'es. 

In a second method the muffle is employed. 

The Huhstanee to be incinerated Is placed on a plutinum ur porcelain 
dish or capsule; this ia introduced into the muflle, which in gruduu-lly 
heated in the furnace. When the evolution of the empyreumatic pro* 
ducts of combustion ceases, the beat ithould be Increased, but not be- 
yond a ▼ery faint redness, visible only in the dark. At this tempera- 
ture, no salts except the carbonates — the carbonic acid being partially 
dissipated — are decomposed, and the cnrbon, which burns with a feeble 
incandescence, is destroyed in the course of a few hours. 

When great accuracy is not required, the incineration may be con* 
ducted in a porcelain capsule, nver an o|)en fire or flame. 

When the substance to be in«tnerated is too large fur the moflle, it 
may be first chtirred, and its bulk thus reduced. 

That the careful regulation of the temperature duriag incineration 
is a matter of juueh imjiortancc, is shown by the fact that when the 
beat is increased much beyond a dull redness, the metallic chlorides 




«re in part volatilised, as may be also a portion of the phosphoric and 
lulpbiiric ocid^s of the phnsnhutes nntl sulphates : besides/excessive 
heat causes the metallic cblorido^ and the phosphates of the aikaliefl to 
l\itie : and the fused mass encU>sing the carbon, greatly impedes iM 

MoHt of the salts and substances present in the ashes of plants were 
unquestionably constiluenis of (lie plants from which the iisbes were 
procured. In regard to some others, it is uncertain whether they 
were originally present in the plant, or owe their formation to the 
incineration ; while, with respect to otliers, it is certain that they owe 
ibeir oripn entirely to that process. 

Thus the sulphates, and even the carbonates, may have been original 
consiilucnUiof the plants; or they may have been forme*), and this they 
no duubt are to some extent, iii the process M' iiicineriiiion by tlie de- 
struction of Bolts With organic acids, and by the oxidation of the 
sulphur present in all plants. 

The metallic sulphides are certainly forme<l by the action of the 
charcoal u(>on the sulphates, the supply of oxygen bein^ limited. 

It was formerly considered that the presence of carbonates in the 
ash of n plant not coiituining carbonates might invariably be regarded 
as a proof of the presence of h&Ud with organic acids in the liuiiiierated 
pliiot. It bos been abowu, however, that ulkuline carb^^iatos and lyyro' 
phosphates are formed when tribasic alkaline phosphates are ignited 
with a large excess of sugar, or with the corbou of sugar. 

Bf agents required for the Detection of Adulteration. 
It had occurred f-o us to enumerate the rea;;ent9 reijuired for the 
detection of adulteration. These mi;/ht htive been arranjred either under 
the names of the articles subjected to cxaminiition, the several pur- 
for which the reagents are etnployed being at the same time 
ery briefly indicated ; or they might have been clasMlied under the 
eaxU t'f (be dilforent chemical substances employed in ailulteration. 
^On full consideration, however, it does not appear that any suHiuiont 
or treat advantages would result from either of the propoieddaasifi- 
cationi of the reagents rcquireil ; these will of course be specified in 
conmx'tion with the description of the means to be adoptedlor the dis- 
covery of the adulterations practised upon the various articles of food 
and me<licine described in the course ot the work. 

The preceding observations relatin;? to the chemical apparatus, pre- 
liminary chemical processeri, and the reagents emphiyed for the 
;overy of adulteration, are of course iiitcniletl not for professed 
lists, hut rather for thf infuniiEition of students and beginners, 
■iesire to become acquainted only with as much chemistry as will 
ibic them to detect adulteration in arlielea of food and ntt-Ulcine. 
ho| that they will facilitate the labours of the inquirer, who 
object in view. 


The special instruction!!, inicri>scopit'al and rbcmicat, necessai^ for 
the discovery of the adulteraiiohs to which the several ariielcs oifood 
anil metlicine examined are subject, will be found under the names of 
the articles themselves. 

As, however, occasional doubts and difficulties may arise, nnd par- 
ticularly M the student may desire to extend bis investigations hL-yond 
the limits of this treatise, it would be well tliat he should provide 
himself with the Rnf];lish translations of Fresenius' works on crncmioal 
analysis, the one entitled " Elementary Instruction in Qualitative 
Chemical AualysiB," and the other "A System of Instruction in QuanU- 
taiive Chemical Analysis.*' These works abound in practical inscruc* 
tioti of the first importance, and therefore are invaluable to the student 
of chemistry. 


On Ike McojiM pur Kued ill procuring Samples for Analyxis^and in arriving 
ai the Rendu recorded in the present Wurk. 

BxroKx proceeding to describe the oduUerAtions practised upon each 
of the more important articles ofconKiimptint), whether aoIl^Ls UqiitdH,, 
or medicines, it mty be premised that we nhall chiefly describo those 
irfnltcrationi which, in thu course of six yt-'ara* continuous appticatiou 
to the vubject, we Iiive ourselves ascertained, on the strictest investi- 
gation, to be actually prartiiie<I. 

We ma^ state also, briefly, the method pursued in order to arrive at 
the mnlti about to be placed before the reader. 

The method pursued to detect aiiulterution was as follows. A con- 
■derable number of samples of each article submitted tn examination, 
wcrv purchased in the ordinary way at shops of ail ilencription^, some 
of ibeie being establishments uf tlie first class, and others shops tit 
which the general public obtained its goods. In many instances, 
all the dkopa of one kind in whole roods and streets were visited with- 
out exception in succession. 

These purchases were made in the presence of witnesses, — vre our- 
MlreSi for greater socurtty, and knowing well the fearful rejpontiibility 
which rested upon us, accompanying the purchasers on all occa- 
fioML. Immediately that any article was pun'hased, the names of 
iht porchasers were placed ujHjn it, the date of the purchase, and the 
prioe paid for it Subflequentty each sample wtia subjected to careful 
Bucrotcopical and chemical examination, tlie results of the analysis 
being published from time lo time in "The Lancet," together with 
~ addresees of the merchants or traders from whum the 


The publienttoii of the severul Reports, which for a long time came 
out almost wuL'kly, extendetl over k i)eriod of four years. The last of 
our reports which appeared was publieibed in " The Lancet" in De- 
cember^ 1H54. Since that period we have been incessantly occupied 
with the sul>ject, and httve published two works on adulteration, 
AS well fia artieles, the substance of which will be found recorded 
in the pages of this work, on the adulteration of Cones tlour, ea«o and 
tapioca, annatto, cheese^ honey, rum, brandy, wine, liquorice, coloeynth, 
compound scummonv powder, and ntlier dru<^, 

Tne conclusions, then, at which we haTe arrived, are based, not u[ion 
the results of the e^camination of a single or even a few samples of aiiv 
particular artiide, but upon tlie rigorous examination of an extendetl 
neTU's of samjileH, these amounting, in the a<>grc^te, to abe>ub 3000 
Bpeeimeiis nf all kinds. 

Our readers will, we arc osrured, a^ee with us, that it was im- 
pos&ible lu proceed in a more business-like or impartial manner 
lliau tliis, or to ofler stronger guarantees of the accuracy of the I'esuhx 

We would now state that although the names of between two and 
three thouannd traders have been thus piil>li«hed:, the publication 
extentlingj as already stated, over a |>eriod of more than four yt-ara, in 
one case only were any legal procceuings resorted to, and even in this 
flingle instance the action was abandoned at an early date, without 
any acknowledgment being made of error having been coinmitted.. 
I'ursiiing such a system, and with such resullA, we would nsk, is 
it possible that the conclusiuns arrived at could be otherwise than 
correct? On the contrary, is it not certain that, if mistrtke^i hail been 
madi^ they would have Leen quirkly exposed, and Mr. Wakloy the 
Editor of " The Lancet" and ourselves visited with the consequences, 
vhich would have been nothing short of utter ruin and disgrace. 

Arrangement o/Artielea of Food, 

Articles of food are divisible into snlids and liquids. The solids may 
be further separated into those which are deriveil from either the 
vegetable or animal kingdom, and the liquids into natural and manu- 
factured drinks. 

As no particularly iksefiil purpose would be served by following the 
above arrangement, we do not propose to confine ourselves to it, but 
will treat of the several arlicles rather in the order of their use at the 
breakfast or dinner table. By adoptin;j tbia course, a tolerably natural 
arrangcmen- will be secured. Thus tlie several natural and manu- 
factured drinks, the condiments. &c., will follow in order. 

The consiiJeralion of the articles consumed at breakf:utt brings us 
to the description of the adulterations of tea, cotlee, chicory, cocoa, 
sugar, honey, milk, tlour, bread, butter, lord, o&tmeal, imcbovies, 
potted meats, and tisb. 



Wherever practicAble, the following course or order will be adopted 
in tliG trcAtnient of each artic-te. 

First. Its chemical comp(>sition and peculiarities, f^cneral or mi- 
criwcopiciU structure, nnd itd properties, will be described. 

Second. Its adultiTutions. 

Third.' The muthnds, microscopicELl and cbcmioal, employed for 
the diacoTCry of its aduHenitionB. 

Gaowm akd I'serARATioN of Tea. 


Tbb tea-plant, TTiea ■Siwwww. ami of which T. Bohea and T. riri- 
ftis ore but varieties, is a hardy, evergrrwn, and Ipafy shrul>. which 
att^init the hvipht of from three to six feet, and upwards; it belongs 
tfi the natural family Cuiutnniferte^ Temstromtacete of Liiidley, whieh 
includes the Caniellius. It is generally propng.itcd from seed; the 
seedling are pliinted out in row?, three or lour feet apart when n 
year old, and the plants come to maturity in trom three to four years, 
yieldiu;*. in the cour!(C of the seusnn, three, and, in aome cases, four 
crops of leaves. The cropping is seldom continued beyond the tenth 
ur twelfth year, when the old treea are dug up and replaced by seed- 

The first pathering takes place very early in the spring, a second in 
the beginning of May, a third a1>out the middle of June, and a 
fourth in August. The leaves of the first pothering are the most 
vulunbUs anil from these. Pekoe tea, which consitits of the young leaf- 
buds, as well as black teas of the highest quality, are prepared : 
those of the last gathering are large and old, and, consequently, 
inferior in flavour and value. 

*' It was after the year 600 that the use of tea became general in 
China, and early in the ninth century (I^IO) it was introdueed into 
Japan. To Euro[te it was nut brought till about the be'^iiiiiinj^ of the 
seventeenth century. Hot infusions of leaves had l>cen already long 
familiar as drinks in European countries. Dried sapc-Ieaveswei-e mueh 
in u<«e in Knplund, and are even said to have been CArrit;tl as an article 
of trade to China by the Dutch, to be there exchanjied for the 
Chinese leaf, which has since idniust entirt?lv BUperscded them. A 
Kussian embassy to China also brought baelc to Mojteow some care- 
fully packed green tea, which tvoa received witli great acceptance. 
Awl in the some century (]Gti4) the Knglish £a»c India Company 


OODBidered it lu a rnre gift to present the Queen of Englukd witli two 
pounds of ten,*'* — Johnsion. 



j1 , jTODiii leaf I fi, iMf of blitck tva ortii«<liu(n lite 1 t', illtto of Ujjtr growtlt | 
/i, leaf of th« grrvn vuioty vf the tM-|iluit. 

The leaves vnry considerablj? in size and form, necordinp to »ge : 
the jfoungest leiived are narrow, convoluted, and downy ; those next 
in Hge mid size litivu their edges dehcutelv >ei*rated, wiiii the venation 
acwcfly perci.'p)ib!e ; in tiioee of nicdiuni and large sizes the veniition 
is well marked, u series of characterifitic loops being formed alougeocb 

• SchlddMi. Second Edttlon, p.l43. 



raarpn of the leaP, and the serrations are atronger and deeper, and 
placed at greater intervals. 


LMfof Um AtMtm TKrtrtj'of th»TKA-i'L\^T i the Ttnitiflii li theMtoe u tn the 
kl>ck uid cr««n T&fwtie*. but their U <k tlicht diOttmcc in tfac •emtlotM, 
vbich Kre Blt«mal«ljr Uifc asd md&II — s ililllemia» wliich i* tmbabl; not 

The principal varieties of black tea are Boheo^ which is the com- 
raonest, and coarsest description, Conj»ou, Souchonrf, Capor, and Padre 
Souchong, and Pekuo, which are of the highest quality, the last eon- 
aisting of the very younf; and uncxpanded leav&s, and which, when 
clothed with down, confuilute flowery I'ekoe. 

The principal varieties of jrrt'en tea are Twankny, Hyson-skin, 
Young Hyson, Hyson, luiperinl, and Gunpowder, wliich, in green tea, 
corresponds with flowery Pekoe in black. Inipmal, Ilyaon, and 
Young Hyson, consist of the second and third gatherings, while the 
light and inferior leaves, separated from Wvytn by a winnowing ma- 
chine, constitute Hyson-skin, a variety in considerable demand 
amongst the Americans. 

There is, according to most writers, but one species of ten-plant, 
from which the whole of the above, and many other varieties of tea, 
axe obtained, the dififerences de[woding upon soil, climate, age of the 
leaves, and mode of preparation. 

The plants from which black teas are prepared are grown chiefly 
on the slopes of hills and ledges of mountains*, while the green tea- 
shruhs are cullivated in manured soils. TTpon this circumstance 
many of the diU'erences between the two vorictiM depend. 

Other dilfercnces are occasioned by the processes adopted in the 
preimratiun :ind roosting of the leaves. Thus, while black tea is first 
roasted in a shallow iron vessel, called a Aho, and peeondly in sieves. 
over a bright charcoal fire, green tea does not undergo the second 
method of roasting, but only the first — that io the Auo. 

* There ii a range called Ihr Dohes Motintalna, rrom wblcb Bohu tM takei its nune. 

w S 



The leaves of blaek tea undergn a species of fermentation before 
their final dryinp, and it is this which occaiions them tn assume so 
dark a colour: those of frreeii tea do not undergo this preliminary 
fermentation, beinp dried wiiile iti n fresher state : but the leaves, as 
thus prepared, arc of a yellowish or olive green tint, rery unlike the 
colour of the green leas imfnorled into this country. 

An in)j>ortant part of ihe iimiiuracture often consists in the roUiitg 
the leaveflL^'^ ^ 'o iini)art to (hem tlieir cklTractenstic twisted shtii}e. 
'ITiis is eflected by subjecting the leavea to pressure, and rolling by 
•the bands in a nartleiilnr manner. The first effect of the appliralion 
of heat to the leaves in llie Am«, is t« render tliem soft, and flaccid; 
when in this stnte, ibcy are rentnved frmn the vessel, and subniitted 
to the first rolling =^ an operation which, after the renewed action of 
the Alio on each occasion, is three or four limes rei>ealed, with superior 
teas, before the process Is considered to be complete. 

SeetUitig of Tea. 

There are several kinds of scented tea: thow with whieh we are 
best aequajnted in tins coiintry are scouted Caper or Chulan, and 
flCenU'd orange Pekoe. The scent is cnnununiiyileil to tliese teas by 
mean^ of the Chuhin flower, Chlnranihtm iHconHpieiius. The flowers 
of other plants are, however, used for the purpose ; amongst tliesc may 
be niLincd those of Olca /ragraiUj Gardenia florida, and Jasminum 

The process pursued varies In dilTerent cases. Sometimes the fresh 
flowers are strcxvn between successive layers of tea; the tea and 
flowers are then Coasted until the flowers become crisp, when they are 
sifted out. In other cases the flowers arc dried, powdered, and then 
sprinkled over the tea. For further purticulars retspecting the scenting 
of tea, the render is referred to Mr. Uull's ^ Account of the Cultivation 
and Manufacture of Tea in China." 

Analysii of Tea. 

The Infusion mode from tea contains gum, glucote^ or saccharine 
matter, a large quantity of /uwrtift, ro/o/iVf oi/, and a peculiar nitro- 
genised principle called thtine; this is identical with caffeine^ and 
upon its presence many of the properties of tea depeniL 

The amounts of gum and riinnin contained in a given sample of tea 
afford data by which its qualily may, to some extent, be determined. 

The percentage of (lu-se substances may be obtaineil in die iollow- 
uig manner: One hundrt^d grains ol tea, dried by meaits of a water- 
bath, are to be boiled for some time in about a ijuart of tlistilled 
water; this tlis^olves out the gum and tannin, but dues not affect the 
lignin, which, re-dried in the same way iit a tt-niperiiture of 21*2° 
Fohr., and weighcnl, gives the amount of that substance present in the 



hundred ^ains, and shows by the loss of weight, the combinod quan- 
tities of t Be pum and tnnitii). The deooction is now to be evaporated, 
and the rcatduuni treateil with ulrohul; this will take u[i the tannin 
and colouring matter, but leavt; the guQi> the weight of which being 
ascertained, af^er drying, gives the p«r>centaj£e of tannin. 

Should it be desired to estimnte the quantity of tannin separately, 
thin moy be efleeted either by evupomting the alcoholic solution and 
drying the residue in the ordinary xray, or eljic by the preeinitation of 
the tannin from the decfx'tion, by a sulutioii of gelatine. The preci- 
pitate being washed aud dried ut a steoui heat, indicates the quantity 
of tannin, 100 graiua of the precipitate being equal to 40 grains of 

The determination of the amount of nitrogen in any tea should 
form part of a ri^jid analysis; for this purpose, 100 grains, dried in. 
a water-batli until it ceases to loee weight, ia to be incinerated with 
aoda-liuie, and iis oontcnta in nitrogen locn ascertained. 

While the average amount of nitrogen in tea exceotU five per eent^ 
that in rloe, hawthorn, and elder leaves is seldom over three per 
cent., and in the fl^^t tww is nearly always much under this quantity. 

The fullowing nre the methods of proceeding adopted by dilferent 
chemi&ts iur obtaining the active principle of tea, theine^ and fur esti- 
mating its amount : — 

Mulder obtains it from tea by lienting the evaporated extract by 
hot water, with calcined magnesia, tiltering the mixture, evaporating 
to dryness the liquor which passes through, and digesting the residuum 
with ether. This solution being distilled, the ether of course paasea 
over, and the theine remains. This principle may be extracted iu 
the same wuy from raw ground coffee. 

Dr. Sleiihouse obtains theine by adding acetate of lead to a decoc- 
tion of (<'a, evaporating the filtered liquid to a dry extrarl, and ex- 
pMing this extract to a subliming heat in u (shallow iron pan, whose 
mouth is covered with porous pnper, luti^d round the edges aa a 
filler to the vapour, and surmounted with u cap of c(mii>act paper, aa 
ihe receiver. According to ibis method, l>r. Stenhouse obtained only 
1 '37 per cent, of theine. 

M. I'eligot, remeniberiug that the quantity of nitrogen contained in 
lea-leaves frequently amounted tu 6 percent., was hence led to be- 
lieve that much more theine existed in them than had hitherto been 
separated, and he adopted the following improved method of extrac- 
tion : — 

To the hot infusion of tea, subacetatc of lead and then ammonia 
were added; the liquid was tillered, and the lead tseparated by means 
of sulphuretted hydrogen; after a second filtration, the clear liquid, 
being evaporated ut a gentle heat, aflurded, on cooling, ait abumlant 
crop of crystals. Qy re-evaporation of the mother liquid more 
cryatals were procured, amounting altogether to from 5 to 6 per cent. 

According to Mulder't atudyns, 100 partd of tea conaial of — 

r 3 





IWntial oil (to wliich the flavoor u 


- 0-79 


CMoropbylle - 



. 022 





- 0-28 



• — 


- 2-22 





- 8-56 





- 17-80 





. 0-43 


Extractiye - 



- 22-30 


Do., dark- coloured 




Coltmrable matter, 

separable by hydrocblo- 

ric acid 



- 23-60 



* • 


- 3-00 


Vepetable fibre 



- 17-08 





• 5-56 




The iketne ta obviously rnucb underrated in JIulder's analyses. 
According to Stenhoiise, the teas of commerce contain, on an average, 
about 2 per cent of theine. 

Thetne, when pure, crystaHiscs in fine needles, glossy. Ukc white 
silk; the crystals lose, nl -21.2'', 8 per cent, of their weight, or two 
utoma of water of crystallisation ; tiiey are bitter but have no smell; 
they iiiwlt at 550° F., and sublime at 543*^ without deconiposing ; dried 
at 350°, they dissolve in 98 parts of cold water, 97 vV alenhol, and 
194 parts tif ether. Tlieine is a feeble base, and is precipiiable by 
tiuinin alone from ita .solutions. 

The volatile oil is not prcsiMit in fresh tea, but is developod \n the 
course of dryin^ and roa-stinp ; it is to it that the aromtt and Uuvoup 
of tea are mainly due : 100 poundii of tva distUied with water yield 
about 1 pound uf this oil. 

Slructwe of the Tea-leaf. 

The characters of tlie tea-leaf visible to the naked eye* such as its ve- 
nation and the crenution of the edges, have already been described. 

Examined with the microscope, the following is aeeertaiiitid to be 
its {general structure. It is made of epidermic cells, sloniata, paren- 
chyTuatous rellfi, and hairs. 

The epidermic cclU yary much in sire, accordinij to the age and size 
of the leaf: in the leaf of nicdtuni age and size the cells are small and 
slightly angular only, while in the hard and old loaf they are very 
much lar};er, more angular, and the walls of the cells arc more 
didtiuctly visible. 

The utotnata are confined principally to the under surface of tlie 
leaf, they are rather numerous, small, and are formed of two reuifurm 



celU, which leave a very decided aperture between them. Theepider- 
lic ceila arifuml the atumata are much elongated and curved like the 
eells of the stomatA themselves. 

The hairs are abo confined to the under surface of the leaf: in the 
verj joung leaf they are very nunieruufi, hut in those of middle age 
»fthey are much leas abundant, ajid indeed in some eases are nearly 
"Itogelher WMntlng ; ihey are short, and, when not broken, [minted and 


The celU forming the substance or parenchyma of the leaf resemble 
of most other leavee, and do not present anything remarkable* 


i» and the next figure represent the tea-leaf as it appears under 
micnwcope as met with in most black tens. 

J^ropertien of Tea. 

Lo-Ta, a learne<l Chinese, who lived in the dynasty of Tanff, a.p. 
to 90G. j?ire« the foUnwin;; a^rrecable account of the (pialities and 
fcctJ «>f the infusion of the leaves of the tea-plant : — 

|i'ro|>ers the spiriU, :ind harmonises the mind ; dispels lassitude, 
plieve* fMtiaue ; awakens thought, and prevenla drowsiness ; 
or refre*he.«i the bo<ly, and clcnrs the perceptive faculties.** 
Tereira's "Materia Medica" we find the following remarks re- 
UlinfF to the properties of tea: — " Ita astrinpcncy is proved by its 
"* lical properties. Another quality possessed, especuilly by areen 
b that of diminishing the tendency to sleep. Tea appears to 



posKM a sedative influcocc with regard to the vascular sYfltem. 
btrong green teu^ taken in large <[uaiit>ties, is capable, id Bomo con- 

Vntlrrwmfact AfTEA-iJiAr, afaovlDi th« alnmAU uwl edit of UU« porUoB oT Iht 
leaf, u veil M « pan of oue uf Ibc luUn bj wbioli Uila lurfhea U elotbfd. 

RtitutionSf of producing most distressing feelings, and of operating as 
a nareiitic " 

Pru^e^so^ Johnston gives the following deseription of tbe propcrlia 
of lea : " It exiiilarntes without genaibly intoxicating. It excitet ike 
brain to increused activitj^, and pruduces wiLkcfuIiicss. Hence itt 
usefulness to hard studL'uts, to those who have vigils to keep, and to 
persons who labour much with the head. It soothes, on the cnntrarj, 
and stills tlie vu<iculur system ; nnd hi'nce its use in inflnmniatorT 
diaeaacs, and as a cure tor headache. Green tea, when taken strong, acts 
very powerfully upon some constitutions, prtnlucing nervous treiiv 
blings and other distressing Bytiiptoms, ueting as a narcotic, and, in 
inferior animals, even pnxlucJtig p:iridysis. Its exciting effect upon 
the nerves makus it uneful in cuunteracting the elTects of opium and 
of fermented liquors, and the stujwr sometimes induce<l by (iever.*** 

The properties and cifecis of tea are due to the conjoined nciidn of 
at least three active chemical constituents, nmnoly, tbe volatile vil^ 
Acintr, and tannic acid. 

The special action of the volatile oil bos not yet been scientifically 

• ChMDlflr; of ComnoD LUb. BUckwood. 



led ; but in Professor Johnston's " Chemist ry" we meet with 
tb« following remarks rt'latire to il« prfnit-rties :J— " That it does exert 
paverful, sod most likely a narcotic, mtlucnce is rendered probable 


jt , m^^mm u ttt m at tanf-dfvclopcd leaf, rvpmnHDf tht etlli of vhleh It U oon- 
■MvMt t A, mnitt nirtiMx, kboviaf Ita ccUt maii UontAta i V, cltloropbyU* 

ij known fact*. Amonf; them T mention (he headaches and 
to which tea-tastertt are Bnhj(»ct ; thu attax^ka of paralysis 
afler a few years, those who are employed in packing and 
««p«ckisie chests of tea arc found to be liable ; and the circumstance, 
mmdf aOudtfd to. that in China tea is rarely used till it is a year 
old, b ^ CTMC of the peculiar inloxicftting profwrty which new t£a 
fomtmm, TTw efletl of tiiis keeping upon tea must be chiefly to 
aHoir a portion of the volatile infiredients of the leaf tx» escape. And 
loMlr, toat there i* a [towcrful virtue in this oil is render(>d probable 
b^ ibtt &et ikai the similur nil of coffee has been found by cxperi- 
»f^t f*j p u wp m 'f nsrrotic prrt|>ertie9.'* 

n of the second active constituent of tea — thein^ 
: by direct experiment. In ihe (luantity in which 
ti t» lajly «:<jtt-iiM(...| liy most tca-drinkorp, tlnit if, some four or five 
|Tmin«, — a quantity onlitmrily presentin alKmt half an ounce of good 
tra, — H haa been found lo diminish the waste of tissue, the ncceasity 
for food to rrpair the waste bein;; lessened in an etiuul proportion : 
«■« of tho efleclf of tea is, therefore, to save food. 
If M aach as eight or ten grains of theine be token doily ,^a quan- 


tity present in iiboiit one ounce of loa of gf)uJ (juiilil y. — it givea rise to 
tbe tulluwing Kyiiijitiiins: the pulse \» reinlerecl mure rre<|uenL, the actioD 
of the heart stron^tTi trembling ensues^ and there is a perpetual in- 
clination to micturalioii. "At the sanietime» the imtt;riiiation is ex- 
cited ; and after awhile the ihcmshts wander, visions be;;iii to be seen, 
and a peeulifu* fitate of intoxication coiueit on. All these symptoms 
are followed by, and pass off In, deep sleep." It is evident, therefore, 
that the ejects of slrong tea are attributable in a great measure to 
the over-d(»»e of theine intrfiduced thniugli it into the stomach. 

The third active principle of tea is the tannin or tannic acid: it is 
this which imparts to tea its astringent tiute, and which cause* it to 
exert n slightly conslipating elFect upon the boweU. It is the more 
completely extracted the longer the tea is infused. 

A fourth not uiiim[i(>rtatit earistituerit of the tea-leaf id p;luten, 
which forms no less than one-roiirlb of the weight of the dried leaves. 
As tea is generally consumed in thi^ country, the benefit of this 
substance is for the uio.«t part Imt to the sysLcm, it nut being 
dissolved by the hut wuter^ but remaining behind in the leaves, 
with which it is usu:illy thrown away. On this account the use 
of soda has been recommended, this dissolving a larger proportion. 
of the gluten. In some countries the tea-leaves, either whole or in 
powder, from which the infusion ha.^ bet^n made, are themselves eaten ; 
and in this way the whole of the beneficial pruperties of tea are secured. 

"The wealthy Chinese simply infuse the leaves in an elegant 
porcelain i.'iip, which ha^ a cover of the Eiaine niuteriul ; the leaves sink 
to the bottom of the eiip, and geuerally rennuu there without incon- 
veniencet though oceasiunally suine may float or rise to the surface. 
To prevent this jnconvenicnce, sometimes a thin piece of silver, of 
filagree, or open work, is placeil imi]iediut<?ly on ihem. AVhere 
economy is necessary to Ix* stti<iied, the tt-aptyt is use^l. The wealthy 
Japinese continue ine ancient mode of grinding the leaves to powder; 
and after infusion in a cup, Mt is whip^wed with a split bnmboo, or 
denticulated instrument, till it cream*, when they drink both the in- 
fusion and powder, as coffee is used in many parts of Asia.'"* 

In China, as appears from the following extract, tea is the common 
bcTerage of the people. The late Sir George Staunton informs us 
"that tea, like beer in England, is sobl in public -houses in every 
town, and along ])ublic roads, and the banks of rivers and cnnid.^ nnr 
is it unusual for the burdened and weary traveller to lay down his 
load, refresh himself with a cup uf warm tea, and then pursue his 
journey." f 

The Atliltbratiom or Tea. 

Much skill and ingetmity are displayed, its we shall shortly perceive, 
both at home and in China, in the adulteration of tea. 

■ B«n. o«i tht L'ultlvallcn «M MAnurMlurr of Tm, p 15. 
t Lord Mscannfy'i EmtNuij' to FeUn, toI. U. p. 96. 




The principal adulterations of tea are the work of the Chinese 
themselves ; but otber adulteratlonii arc performed nearer home, by, 
in fact, Kritish fubricalonj of spurimis len, lioiii bliick and ^reen. 
Thoee ululterationH may be described in the first place which are of 
Chinese nrijiin. 

The SouclwngB and Congous which form the groat bulk of the black 
tea consumed in ihis country are rarely adulterated. 

There are, however, vurieties of blLiik tea imported into this 
country fruni Cbinu which are never than adulterated; 
these are the black Ounpowtlen Capers or Chuian*^ and scented orange 

Adulterations practised fry the Chinese. 

The flduiterationi practiaed with tea by tht! Chinese are of three 
very distincc kindd : one conoistsin the inteniiixtun^ with genuine tea 
of leaves other than those of the tea*plant; a gecomi Is the manufac- 
ture of spurious articles denominated Lie tea ; while the lliird kind 
of adulteration conaibtii in glazing, painting, or artificially colouring 
the surface of the leaves with various pigmentary substances. 

Adulteration with Foreign Leaves. 

In reference to the use of leaves other lima those of the tea-plant the 
eridence of Dr. Dickson may be quoted, who states : "The Chinese 
annaolly dry many millions of pounds of the leaves of diiTerent pliints 
to mingle with the genuine, as those of the ash, plum, &c. ; so that all 
epurious leaves found iu parcels of bad tea must not be su])pose<l to 
be introduced into theni by dealers in this county. While the tea- 
trade was entirely iu the minds of the East India Company, few of 
these adulterated teas where iihipped fur Ibis country, as experienced 
and competent inspectors were kept at Canton to prevent llie exporta- 
lion of such in the Company's ships ; but since the trade has been 
opened, all kinds Jind a ready outlet; and as the demand oAen 
exceeds the supply, a manufactured article is furnished to the rival 
crews," • 

Notwitlistonding, however, the occasional use of foreign leaves, we 
can state, from the careful examination of a liir<,'e number uf samples, 
that the ^reat bulk of the tea iuii>or(ed^ especially the black tea, is 
but little affected by this adulteration. We have, however, on several 
occasions, met with foreign leaves and paddy-husk in some of the 
inferior descriptions of green tea, an<i in samples of the article to be 
described hereafter, manufactured by the Chinese, and denominated 
Lie tea. 

The first tea in which we discovered foreign leaves was a sample 
of Gunpowder fWoping tea). Subse*|uently four different samples of 
of low (juatity, as imported into this country from China, were 
• Aitklo " Tea," U pMoy C^yolopadta. 



8ubject«J to micro<tcopic examinntion, and were all found to be adul- 
lorated with forLnj^n leaves. 

In a sample of (iuripowder fragments of two kinds of foreign leaves 
were detwleil. 'i'lie tea m question coiisjisted in part of leaves, and 
partly uf Lit; tea. Now those foruign leaves formed not only the 
greater portion of the loose leaves, but also oiitcred largely into the 
composition <tf the little masses of wliich Lie tea is carifltilutcd, 
pcarcely » particleof tea-leaf itself having W-en observed in the sample. 

The stnicture of two of thuae leaves ia show-n in the two tlfllowing 

Fig. 1 1 . 

FoKKiOB Liir IV Lib Tea. 
a. vpppr toTfliot of Wtf I ^ lowtr nirfiM. khcvlrc the kHi vlth their iltiititlr- 
bM<1c<l tnftrjrlnk tif which U ia amtiOKd i r. rhlcrnrihyllc i-clU. to >ll*pa«Fd M 
to fonii Terj- luge tnolm ; d, «lannl«l c*ll« Umtui on iij)p«i lurfaer of the 
l««f in Ihf courw Arth«T«lM i ', ipIkI vmwI ■/, mII of tiirm«Tle i o, Tngmtnt 
Of t'roMUD Mm t A. pArtieJc* of the whiU powilu, prolMbljr Ckimt day. 

A sample of " Lie (ea^*^ admixed with a few pmall fragments of 
leaves, conHisting principally of portions of the leai", much broken up, 
is represented xujig- 12. 

In A eampte of Ttmnhay, in addition to those of tea, the leavea of 
three other plant,i were detected, two of which we identified, the one 
was Cnmetiin Sajtanqita^ x\\^ other a kind of plum: they are repre- 
sented in^A. 1^. and 14. 


A second sample of ^ Ttranfiay'* vrna asceruincd to consist of tea 
mixed with paddv-husk, purtioiia of seed-vessels, and other substances: 
the leaves were of a coarse description, and wnntcd the peculiar twist 
characteristic of the more cnrefully prep:iri'<l kini]^ of tfta. 

The leaves of Chloranthu* iacauKpicuun^ o-s well as of CamfUia 5a. 
Ma/it/ua^ have hecn known to be emfdnyed in the adulteration of tea, 
and the^ differ from tea-leaves chicUy in their venation Fig, 15. 

Tlie second kind nf adulteration consieta in the luiumfaeture of 
artjcles m;ide up in imitation of tea, oa the different varieties of Lie tea. 


a. upper lurflMt of iMf I h. lower luifBoe i r, chlurDphvlle aeUi : 4, tlong*tfld 

mm, f. |MJrti(inn/o««arih« t<r«ncbt«] ftod tiHiKPUilwIn ritUKlH uii ihd iui<lcr 

mrftn «* ilw lr»f i /. c«ll af tuimuic j v. fncnwM <rf PrtwdMi Uim i A, i«r- 

tklM cT Uw kA.jk pMnkr. " 

Adulteration with Lie Tea. 

Now Lie lea i» so caUed because it is a spurious article, and not tea 
at all : it consists of the dust of tea-leuves, sometimes of fcireign leaves, 
and sand made np by means of starch or gum into little massefl. 
which ore afterwards painted and coloured so as to resemble either 
black or green Gunpowder. The skill exhibited in the fiibricntion of 
this spurious article U very great, and we have met with at least a 



Fig. 13. 

I.EAf or Camkllia 8A«A)ig4iA, found Id Bunpt« of TVraMibiy. 
><, tipper ■urfkc* of leaf, i>Knrins tlw will of vhich l( la maipOMd i if, 
■arhcKt extilUUag )U cclu ■d<1 flomtU i C. chjorophjrik vk\\%. 

Fig. 14. 

LaAr or Vunt, ftmnd In Sunple of 7VvtNi»w. 
JtiipptriurliuMof Icafi /(, tuidcrturfMai C* elUorofiiyllfl eelb. 



dozeu varieties of it, differing from eacli other in the size and colour- 
ing^oftbe little masses. 

This article, flUhnnfjh the rhcits contJiining it nro bronded with 
the words " Lie tea," wiis at a recent period extensively imported into 
this country, and of course found purchasers. 

It is exnresslv manufactured for aduUerationi and it ie largely 
employed for this purpose by the Chineac tlieuiselves, who mix it 
with the dilVerent (jiunjMiwUer tea.-, black and jireen ; which are so far 
genuine that tliey ronlain no other k-af than that of tea, oltboujjh they 
are artificially colnured. Gunpowder tens, even notL\ are frequently 
met with containing various proportions of Lie tea. 

Fig, 1», 

<4.L*af orCnLOiAvrmrt lACDxiricLTm i 0, ditto of Camkllu SAiAjrqvAt I«itm 

IM9(1 tu MlatMr&u Ice. 

Mr. Warington, in a communication read before the Chemical 
Society of London, May, 1851, states : — 

" On inquiry, I have learnt tliat about 750,000 lbs. weight of Uiese 
te«s have been iui]>urted into this country within the last eighteen 
months, their introduction being tjuitcof modern origin ; and I under- 
stand that attempts have been made to get them passed through the 



customs as manufacbtrcd goodg^ and not tu teas; ft title which they 
certainly richly merit, although it must be ovitiont, from a moment's' 
consideration, ilmt the revenue would doubtless be defruuded, iuas- 
inuoh us the cousunier would have tt* buy them as ttjas from the 
dealer. IL is to be feared, hi>wever, that a uiurket for them is found 
elsewhere. The Cliinese, it uppoars, would not sell them except as 
teas, and have the candour to upecify them as Lie teas; and if they 
are mixed with other tens of low quality, the Chinese merchant 
f^ives a certificate, stating the propnrtitm of the Lie tea present with 
the genuine leaf. This manufacture and mixing is evidently prav* 
tiaed to meet the price of the English merchant. In the case of 

Ffc. IB. 

\ J 


Tmitatiox Cafsb oe OusrowDiiu 

« A, fraffTBenU of Die tea-ln\f or in%fdm»t; hh, putlclc* of »«md; ec> 
oMVMidw; drf, grnnp* of grmnulwof Mnrir-iaMf; r r, panicle* ot nira-lAt 
nMtttn://, otUaoT tmniMrie; 9 a. rnfmenU at iiuUif?. UatfulOed 310 

the above samples^ the black ii called by the Chinese, Lie Flotrer 
Caper i the green, Lie Gunpowder; the average value is from 8rf. to U. 
per lb. The brokers have adopted the curious terms g^um and dusU as 
applied to tlie^e Lie teas or their mixtures, a cognomen which at first 
1 Dad some diHiculty in understanding:, from the rapid manner in 
which the Grat two word* were run Icigether," 



"Mr. Ripley, tea broker, in evidence before ihe ParltamentAry Com- 
mittcCf states that tlio importfttion of Lie'Jca in 1847 amounted to about 
100,000 lbs., after which it increased about tbrecrold, and eventually 
it became as lar^ as 400,000 or 200,000 lbs. 

Artificial Colouration and Adttiieraiion of Tea. 

The third principal kind of adultcraCton to which tea is liable 
consists in the glassing, painting, or artificial colouration of the leaves. 
This practice is had recourse to for the purpose of improving, as some 
consiaer, the appearance of certain descriptions of tea, especially the 
inferior kind.^ and for the better concealment of some of lU adulter- 
ations, OS where foreign leaves arc used, and to disguise more effec- 
tually the nature of Lie tea. 

The substance employerl in the glazing of the varieties of black lea 
known as scentt^d Caper or black Gunpowder, orange Pekoe and the 
black variety of Lie tea, U one with which houseniaidii are particularly 
familiar, viz. fp*uphitc, plumbattc, or black>lead. The teas coated with 
this substance present a jmruliarly smooth and glossy appearance. 

OccasioDuIly small quantities of Prussian blue or indigo, turmeric, 
China clay, or some other yellow and white powders, are useil, as well 
as the blaok'lead, in order to impart a somewhat different appear- 
ance to Cliulnn and black Lie tea. 

Bui it is with greeu tea that the practice of artificially colouring the 
leaves is carried to the greatest extent. The varieties of green 
tea imported into this country from China are Twankay, Hyson-skin, 
voung Hyson, Hyson, Imperial, and Gunpowder, Now the colour of 
the whole of these teas, without a single exception, is artifieial, and 
caused by the adherence to the leaves of various colouring matters. 

The usuitl colouring matters employed an; fcrrocyanidc of iron or 
Prussian blue, turmeric, and China clay; these nrc mixed in various 
proportions, so as to pruduce different shades of blue und green ; the 
surface of the leaves being moisteneii, they are then agitated with the 
mixtures until they become faced or ghi«ed, as it is termed. 

Occasionally other substances are employed by the Chinese, aa indigo 
and nilpbatc of lime, or gypsum. In proof timt it has long been the 
pmctice fref|uently to colour preen tea arti6cia]Iy, we have the evi- 
dence of various travellers; but the must conclusive and complete evi- 
dence, both as to the extent of the practice and the nature of the 
ingrc'liont* used, has been suppUed by meuns of the microscope. 

Amongst the writers who have noticed the subject of the iirdficial 
colouration of tea may be mentioned Dr. Horsfield. Dr. Koyle, Mr. 
Davis, Mr. Bnicc, Mr. Ball, Mr. Fortune, and Mr. Warington. 

In Dr. Horsfield's translaticm of n Dutch work on'tlie subject 
of the cultivation of tea io Java, tlie following dialogue occurs : — 

^ Visitor* — Is It indeed the case that tea is so much adulterated 
in China y 



" SuperinUndeht. — UrKiuuslinnntlyTbul nol in the interior provinces, 
for ihore exist rijrid laws oj^ninst the uduliorution of tea ; and all tens, 
as tliey come out of the planlntions, are examined on the part of the 
povernment, to determint; whtiihor they are genuine; but in Canton, 
which is the emporium of teas, nnd especially at lIoni\n, muny fiorts, 
indeed most tea.% are pxeatly aditlterated, and that with injrredienta 
injurious to healthf especially if too much of these ingredients be 
added. This is especially the case with the ^'reeii tea, in order to 
improve the colour, and in this manner to add to the vidue of the teu 
in the eyes of the common consumers. 

" Visiitfr. — Are these ingrecJienis known ? 

** Superijitrmlent. — Most of ihem are certainly known; they have 
been communicated to government (the Dutch government), while at 
the same lime the privile^ti has been requested that they might not 
be employed here; ami although this occasions loss, the retjuest has 
been gnutted, and it has been ordered by government, that not the 
least admixture should take place, cither to improve the colour or 
taste of llie tea, even in such coses where this mijrht be desirable." • 

Dr. Royle writes t» " The Chinese in the neighbourhood of Canton, 
ore able to prepare u tea which can be coloured and made up to imitate 
various quuUlie^ of green tea, and large quantities are thus yearly 
made up. 

"Young Hyson," states Mr. Davis J, "until spoiled by the large 
demand of the Americans, wos a delicate genuine leaf, and as it could 
not be fairly prociuced in any large quantities, the call for it on the 
part of the Amencanfl was answered by cutting up and silling other 
green teas through sieves of a certain size, and as the Corapany*8 
inspectors detected the imposture, it formed no portion ot their 
London importation. But the &buse became still worse of late, for 
the coarsest blark tea-leaves have been cut up, and then coloured with 
a pre]>aration rcsemhling the hue of green tcad." 

*' but (his was nothing," continues Mr. Davis, "in compariflon with 
the ertrontery which the Chinese displayed in carrying on an extensive 
manufacture of green teoM from (hinutged hbivk leave*^ at ft village or 
suburb called llon&n. 

" The remission of the tea-duties In the United States occasioned, 
ia the years 1832 and 1833, a demand for green teas at Canton, 
which could not be supplied by arrivals frnm the provinces, The 
Americans, however, were obli^e<l to sail with cargoes of green teas 
within the favourahle season; they were determined to have the teas, 
and the Chinese were determined that they should be supplied. Certain 
rumours being allout concerning the manufacture of green tea from 
old black leaves, the writer of this became curious tu ascertain the 
truth, and with some difficulty |M;rsuftded a Hung tiierehnut to conduct 
liim, accompanied by one uf the inspectors, to the place where the 

• Eiuy rvn th« CuUlvaUnn und NaDH&ictun!> or Tm Iq Jiti. Traoilittftt from the Dutcb. 
t Tea, MMllclnil aud DietetlmL — ^awv CifCloMdia, 
1 Darli* Chln«»e, vt>l.lL \>. 4Si. 





itiorw were cftiried on. Entering one of these laborataries of 
fictitiotiB Hrson, the pnriies were wiinessw! to a tttranjcu scene. I'be 
dtmaged buck tea-leaves, after being dried, were trsn^ferreil to a 
CMt-iron pan, placed over a furnai'(*, and stirred rapidly with the 
huid« a fiinnll quantity of turmeric, in powder, having been previnusly 
'fttrwlure*!. This gives the It^avcs n yellowish or ornnge ting*-, hut. they 
ren.' 9tiU to be made (rreen. For this purpose some lumps of fine blue 
producedf together with a substance in powder^ which from the 
given to them by workmen, as well as thuir at>|>earunce, were 
m at once to be Prussinn hlue and jiypsuni. These were tri- 
irated finely together with a suiall [>estle, in such pru[iortion:* (is 
lid the djrk colour of the blue to a light shade ; ami a quuntity 
lo a teftspoonful of the powder being added to the yellowish 
, theM were stirred as before over the fire until the tea had 
the fine bloom colour of Hyson, with very much the mme xcent. 
prevent all positibilicy of error regarding the substances employed, 
»!«• of them were carried away from the place. The Chinese 
quite conscious of the real character of the occupation in 
they were engaged; for on attempting to enter several other 
where the came process was going or, the doors were speedily 
ti|>on the jtarty ; indee<l, had it not been for the iniloence of the 
it who (jr>nducted them, there would have been little chance of 
ig as mncb as they did.** 

!r. Bruce stateti, that " in ihe last operation of colouring the green 
a mixture of sulphate of lime and indigo, very finely pulverised, 
lift«<<i through fine muylin, in the proportion of three of the 
ftrroer to one of the latter, is added ; to a pan of tea, eontaiiiirig seven 
p-'Un'U, alxiut half a teaspoonful of this mixture is put, iiod rubbed 
«.nd roilo^l along with the tea in the piin for alwrnt an hour. The 
aUvfe mixture is merely to give it a unifonn colour and ap[K?arance. 
Tlie indigo gives it the colour, and the itulphnte of lime files it." • 

In Mr. Ball** vHluoble work, already (juoted, we meet with the fol- 
lo«in|^ ob«erraiions relating to the artificial or factitious colouring of 
cotaui desariptions of erecu tea : — 

**The Utter — vix« The Singlo Hysons and * Superior Twanktiy' — 
lunre fi^nently a glazed appearance, vla also the Singlo Gujif>ow- 
Au% which I imagine may formerly have arisen more from the (pia)ily 
of Cbc I{»f than from any factitious means emplovetl to produce the 
eelaar, Slill in some casen a small quantity ol colouring matter may 
ksTc been used. It has al&o 1>ccn snown that the tea made from the 
HooAb IcATca bod a glazed appearance. It nevertheless is true, that 
when the leaf is deficient in tne requisite colour, the Chinese do not 
beitUitc to employ colouring nuiltifr to improve it. 

** Again, Ki fii-r as the churai'teristic colour of gi'cen tea rs concerned, 
die node of producing it has been explained and e»tubli»hed. If fac- 
titioai meant ore now generally or almost universally adopted to imi- 

* Rtfion en lh« 3l»ntirMture of Tea 
O 2 



tAte or increase the eCTect of tlie natural colour, it may be considered 
tu a great and novel obuse, and ought to be discouraceU hy brokers 
and dealers. It is injurious to flavour. Whether the do em- 
ploy oolonrinf; matter or not for the teas they use thcinsclvt-s, there 
can be no doubt tbtit the bulk of the Hyson teas of the present day, 
and indeed all destTiptiona of green tea, arc now glazed to a 
dcj^ec which would have insured their rejcctiun by the East India 

Tien Hing, described by Mr. Ball as a respectable tea merchant 
and factor, in his account of the method of making Twankiiy tea, 
writer, — 

*' In the seventh or eijibtb moon (August and September) each 
parcel is compared together, when such aa correspond in quality and 
colour are formed into one pile, roaated three cA^Aian^, the dust sifted, 
and the tea pai:ked (hot) In chests for Ciinton. The Iciived of the 
Becnn<l patherings have no juices, are light, thin, and of no sulistance; 
the infusion weak and tasteless, the colour red, ami the infuseil leaves 
black. If very coinmnn and old, colonring nuitter is tlien U5ed. ITie 
factitions colour is produced by a mixture of Ma Ivy Hocy, Tien Hoa 
(indigo), and She Kno powder (calcined foliated pypsum). Tlic 
smallest quantity put into the kuo at one time is one or two tea- 
spoonfuls, and the largest three or four. The colour then changes 
to a light blue. The fire niust be mode of charcoal, and much atten- 
tion paid to (be roasting. Now, if the chest^n be not in readinesif. it ia 
to be feared the tea may be mixed with falso leaves, the smell thereby 
injured, and the tea rendered unhealthy. But I must refer you to abler 
men than myself for instruction on that point. I have no information 
on Buch practices." 

Mr. Ball then goes on to state ** that most other nierehanlA or 
TactorB ain'ee with the foregoing account of the Twankay teas, and 
particularly as to the circumstance of their being portly glazed or 
coloured by artificial means, and also that some chops arc mixed with 
leaves that are not tea-lenves." • 

Another writer, Mr. Fortune, who also saw the colouring of tea 
performed in Chinri, and who has described the process minutely, 
states that during one part of the operation the hand.s of the work- 
men are ijuite blue. " I could not help thinking," he remarks, "tliat 
if any green-tea drinkers had been present during the operation, iheir 
taste would have been corrected and improved. 

'* One day an English gentleman in Snanhae being in conversation 
with some Chinese from the green-tea country, asked them what 
i^easons they had for dyeing the tea, and whether it would not be 
better without undergoing this process. They acknowledged that 
tea wa.** much better when prepared without having any such ingre- 
dients mixed with it, and that they never drank dyed teas ihemBclvea ; 
hitt remarked that as foreigners seemed to prefer having a mixture of 

* Oo Uir CalUv»ti(Hi and Miuiufaclar« of Tea. 


Prussian blue and gynsimi with Uieir ten to mukc it look uniform ami 
prettjt and as these ingrefiients were cheap enough, the Chinese Imd 
no objection to supply tliem, especially aa such teas always fetched a 
hieher price." * 

Air. AVarint^n communicBted a valuable paper, on the artificial 
colouration of tea, to the Chemical Society, in 1844. He writes, — 

" In examining lately some samples of tea which had been seixed 
froin their being supposed to be spurious, my attention was arrested 
by tf»e varied tints which the sample of green tea ejthibited, extending; 
from a dull olive to a bri;;ht ijreenishblue colour. On submitting 
this to the scrutini^sin;; test of examination by the microscoi* with a 
magnifying power of one hundred timed linear, the object being iltu- 
mioaied bv reflected light, the cause of this variation of colour wo^ 
imroediatefy rendered apparent, for it was found tbat the curled leaves 
were entirely covered with a wbite powder, haviiig in places a sliyhlly 
glistening aspect, and these were interspersed with small granules of a 
bright blue colour, and others of an orange tint; in the folded and 
conse<pienlly more protected parts of the curled leaves these were 
more distinctly visible," 

Mr. Warincton subsenuently examined several other samples of 
green tea as miported, the whole of which be found to be arliBci&lly 
col uu red. 

Lastly, in the Museum of Economic Botany attached to the Kew 
Botanical Gardens, tlieie are some 9[>ccimens of tea dyes, used by 
the Chinese to colour their green teas. These were procured by 
Mr. Berlhold Seeman from one of the tea factories at Canton. 
They consist of Prussian blue, turmeric, chalk, and cither China clay 
or gypsum-t 

It appears, therefore, from these examinations that the green teas, as 
imported, are very frecjuently faced or coloured artificially. Our own 
investi^'fltions, embracing a great variety of samples, show thot nearly 
the tvkffc of the green feas imported into this country^ ax retailed in 
the MhojiHy are tkwi coloured; and that when not thus coloured, there 
is but little in appearance or colour to distinguish green from black 
tea : the chief difference in colour being that the former is sometimes 
inclined to olive. 

In the Museum at Kew will be found a series of samples of block 
and green tea, also of several didercnt varieties of l^ie tea, all artifi* 
cially cdoured, being some of tho<ie met with by ourselves in the course 
of our investigations into the subject of the adulteration of tea. 

It is a question deserving consideration, how far the colouring 
BAtten employed exi>lain the injurious effects which result in some 
cases from uic use of green tea. The Chinese themselves never make 
of these glazed teas — a rather significant fact 

• T« Countrir* of China. 

t Sm Food and lu AdultentioDi, p. aSS. 

u 3 



Adultcrationt of Tea practised in Oiia Country, 

We now pass on to the consideration of Aose aduUerntioM which are 
practised in thin country. 

Fig. IT. 

^.LmToPWillov I R, dllto of TorLAB. 

AduIterntorB in this country have succeeded in imitating with con- 
siderable skill the practices of the Chinese. 

Thus they sometimes use foreijzn leaves to mix with {genuine tea, 
and they face the fabricated article willi various colouring matters, 
ACcnrdinjT oa it is to resemble bliirk or green ten. 

These leaves, with the exception of sh»e leaves, arc never useil 
whole; but they are broken up, mixed wiih gum and catechu, and 
itiadti int-o little masses like those of Lie tea; these are subsequently 
coloured either black or green as may be requiretl. 

It is of but little conscijuence what kind of leaf is employed for 

i purpose ; any leaves that are readily procurable will answer the 

•e. The following leaves have been det^»cled ut dilTerent times, 

Uy by llic Exci:iCi eDterin<; Into the formation of spurioiu teas 



of British fabrication :— Beech, elm, horse-chesnut, plane, bastard 
plane, fancy oak, willow, poplar, hawthorn, and sloe. 

Fig. I«. 

C, L««f oTpLAirat D, ditto of Oak. 

Some of the leaves above named are represented in the accompany- 
ing engravinga. 

The colouring matters employed are often more injurious than 
those use<l bj the Chinese : the fiiibstanccA aclually detected are the 
followihp : rose pink» Dutoh pink, catechu, chromutcof lend, Bulphate 
of iron, Venetian red, soap-stone or French chalk, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, carbonate of copper, arsenite of copper, the 
chromates of potash, Prussian blue, and indigo. 

Dutch pink, rose pink, catechu, sulphate of iron, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, soap-^tone, PruMian blue, and indigo have been 
repeatedly met with in adulterated tea, in some instances by the 
Kxcise authorities. 

The following particulars in reference to the use of Boap-stone or 
French chalk are taken from an article in the " Household Words ** 
under the title of "Death in the Tea Pot :*' — 

•' By the belp of Mr. Slivers, we were enabled in a recent number 
to ex|)Ose to an injured public some of the ingre<lient« of metropolitan 
milk — * London Genuine particular.* A correspondent now makes a 
further revelation uf how our tea-jKits are defiletl when it is innocently 
mppoted thai a pure bcTeragc is in course of concoction. 

Q 4 


** *A short time s'moe/ he saj?, *a friend of mine, a chemist in 
Manchester, ivoa applied to for a quantity of French chalk, u species 

A, Leaf of the IlAVTBni* i It, dllto of Ike Sloe, or Wild Pum i T. ditto of Uw 
Bum I />. ditto of ttM ELCiKii : A', ditto of tb« Eui. 

• • Til' «ho1e iir the IrKTM, rievut tbftt uf tlie nunellla. ate flfitrM] OB Ibilr 
unJVr ■urfuw*. Ttic dm. pluM, uiil o«k Ic&tim, frocn vhldi th« tkvtehM wva 
prcpBKilt wtrc of email u«c. 

of talc, in fine powder; the party who purchased it used regularly 
several pounds a week. Not being an article of usual sale in Mieh 
quantity, our frieDd became curious to know to what use it could be 
aM>Ued; on asking the wholesale dealer who supplied hiint he stated 
his belief, that it was used in "^fing-" tea (the last piocess of con- 
verting black tea into^reen), and that within the last month or two, 
he hml sold in Manchester upwards of a thousand pounds nt' it. Our 
fnend the chemist then instituted a series of experiments, and the re- 



suit proved tbnt a great deal, if not nil tho common green tea, used in 
this country, is coloured artilioiully. The vory first experiment do- 
suoDDtrjted fraud. The plan adopted was as follows : — A few sjjoon- 
iulii of green tea at five shillings a pound, were placed on a soiult 
[SteTeii and held under a gentle stream of cold wnter flowing from a tap 
[lor the space of four or five minutes. The tea quickly changed itj 
^eolour from green to n dull yellow, and upon drying with u very 
sentlc heat gradually assumed the appearance of ordinary black tea. 
On making a minute microscopic examination of the colouring 
matter washed from the leaf, and which was caught in a vessel bcluw, 
it appeared to be CDui]]0sed uf tlirec substances, particles of yellow, 
blue, and white. The blue was proved to be Prussian blue ; the 
yellow thought to be turmeric ; and the white, French chalk. If the 
two former be mixed together in fine powder, thoy will give a green 
of anj required 6h»dc. It is made to adhere to the tea-leaf by some 
tdheaivc matter, nnd then it is ^* faced " by the French chalk, to give 
it the pearlv appearance so much like<i. 

" ' This simple experiment any one can perform. A gentleman »a- 
sured me that a friend of bis a short lime since happened — though 
quite unintentionalty on his port — to walk into a private room con- 
nected with the establishment of a wholesale tea-denier, and there be 
saw the people actually at work converting the black tea into green ; 
the proprietor soon dLicnvered his presence in the room, and before 
him. in no measured tenns, severely rcpriuiandcd the workmen for 
having permitted a stranger to enter.* " 

Carbonate of cop|«fr (X'curred to the extent of 35 per cent, in some 
tea which was seized in London by the Excise in 1843. 

The tea into the facing of which the chromatea of potash entered 
wa5 seized in Manchester in 1845. 

The following articles were likewise seized on the premiacs, evidently 
intended to be used in the colouring of adulterated tea : — 

A mixture of chromate of lead and carbonate of lime. 

Arsenite of copper. 

A mixture of indigo, chromate of lead, and carbonate of lime. 

A mixture of arsenite of copper, carbonate of magnesia, and 
Venetian red. 

In lft48 other soizurea of adulterated green tea occurred. 

In some instances the colouring matters employed to face the tea 
have amounted to 7, 8, and even to 9 per cent. 

Sometimes an infei-iur black tea, or a re-dried black tea, ia luiificially 
coloured, and so converted Into a green tea. 

AthiUtroHon with Exhaustefl Tea~Uuve». 

At other times exhausted tea-leaves are treated with sulphate of 
iron, catechu, and gum, to give them colour, ostringency, and gtotf, 
and sold again as black tea, or, when coloured^ as green tea. 



The clicmical composition of a tea tlvus made up from exliausted 
leaves^ t3 of course very diflTfrent from genuine and unused black teo, 
as appears from the following analyses : — 

Unused Black Tea, 

By Frank. 

By Phillipa, 





Gum - - _ 


Gum - - - 


Woody fibre - 




Glutinoua matter - 


Albumen and co- 

Volatile matter and 

louring matter • 


loss - - . 




Genuine green tea contains about the same proportion of gum as 

Exhausted Slack Tea, re-dried and made vp tcith Gutn, 

By Phillips. 
Lignin - - . - 78-6 . 78*1 

Gum ----- 15-5 - 20-5 
Tannin and colouring matter 5-9 , - 1*4 

100-0 100-0 

"When the re-dritMl leave.v in addition to being made up with gum, 
are artilioially coated or coloured, nearly the same different^es of eom- 
poaition exi»t. 

Contrasting the analyBcs of exhausted tea-leaves made up vr'ilh gum« 
vith those of genuine teu, it will be seen that while the amount of 
tannin in the I'onner ia very much reduced, the r[uuutity of liguiu, 
and also of gum, is greatly increased. 

The following observations in reference to the eroplovment of ex- 
hausted tea-leaves, ore by Mr. George Phillips, of the Inland Revenue 
Office: — 

"In the year 1843, there were many coses of re-dried tea-lcavcs, 
which were prosecuted witli vigour by this board, and the result was, 
so far as we could ascertain at the time, the !iuppre:$siou of the trade. 
It was supposed, in 1843, that there were eight manufactories for the 
purpose of re-drying exhausted tea-leaves in London alone, and several 
Desides in various parts of the country. The practice pursued was iia 
follows ; — Persona were employed to buy up the cxnnustod leaves 
at hotels, cofiee-housc!*, and other places, at '2^<I. and Ori. |>er pound. 
These were taken to the factories, mixed with a solution of gum, nu<i 
re-dried. After this, the dried leaves, if for black tea, were mixed 
with rose pink and black-lead, to face them, as it is termed by the 




These fahricnted tea.s nrc seldoui sold alone to the public, but are 
used for mixing with tlie riKtre genuine teas. 

Adtd/fmtion wUh Foreign Leaces. 

As illufltmting iLe adulteration of tea villi foreign leaves, the fol- 
lowing case» may be cited : — 

On ibe 18ib of December 1820, a seizure of spurious tea was made 
by the Excise in Liverpool, on the premises of John Stevens, where a 
regular mnnufnctory was carried on. Samples nf the articles seized 
were presented to us by Dr. Muspratt and Mr^ Phillips of the Inland 
Revenue. One of the samples consisted of a mixture of the entire 
dried leaves of the sycaraure, and hnrse-cbcsnut. In another specimen 
the leaves were so broken Ouwn that it was searculy possible to iden- 
tify them without the aid of the niieroscoj>e. A third sample con- 
sisted of large tumps of Irregular size and shape, fnnned of thtf broken 
leaves, including even the stalks, agglutinated by means of catechu. 
In another specimen these masses were broken down into smaller 
masses or fragments, resembling tho^e of gunpowder tea. In this state 
the article was ready cither for mixing with genuine black tofi, or for 
being fflce<l, in imitation of green gunpowder ; lastly, otiier samples 
were coloured with indigo.and very closely resembled the green gun- 
powder tea of the Chinese. 

In this case, then, we have not only the use of foreign and worthless 
leaves, but these were forraetl into masses resembling those of Lie tea ; 
and lastly these masses were artificially coloured after the manner of the 

But seizures of adulterated tea of fabrication havf been 
made even more recently than that above referred to. The Aillowing 
account of proceedings of the Clerkenwell Police Court, is copied from 
" The Times " of May. 1 85 1 : — 

" Kdward South, and Louisa, his wife, were placed at the bar, before 
Mr, Combe, charged by Mr. Inspector Brennan, of the G division, 
with being concerned in the manufacture of spurious tea. 

" It appeared from the statement of the inspector, that in conse- 
quence of information that the prisoners and others were in the 
habit of carrying on an extensive traffic in manufacturing spurious 
tea on the premises situate at 27^. ClerkenwelUcIoiiie, Cterkenwell- 
green, on Saturday evening, at about seven o*c]uck, the witness, io 
company with Sergeant Cole, proceeded to the house, where they 
found the prisoners in an apartment, busily engaged in the manufac- 
ture of spurious tea. There was an extensive furnace, before which 
was suspended an iron pan, containing sloe-leaves, and tea-leaves 
which they were in the practice of purchasing from coflee-sbop keepers, 
after being lued. On searching the place, they found on immense 
quantity of used tea, bay-leaves, and every description of spurious 
ingredients* for the purpose of manufacturing illicit tea, and they 


were nilied with solution of gum and a quantity of copperas. Tlie 
heal of the place was so excessive, that the officers could scarcely 

F(f. 90. 

La Vhxo Hiiro, 
a «. frkcmeau of tlie nmafJt ^m rr> ; & h, MTtieka of gam cai<itku : 
c I', cry^ott uiualljr pincnt iu mUcUti. MifnUlcd 3A0 dtunttm. 

remain in it, but the prisoners did not seem at all oppressed by it. 
The woman was employed in stirring about the bay>letLves and other 
compositions with the solution of gum in the pan ; and in one part of 
the room there waa a lar^e quuntity of spurious stuff, the exact 
imit-ation of gtfnuine tea. In a back rw>ui tbcy found nearly 100 lb?, 
weight of re-dried tea-leaves, bay-leaves, and sloe-Jeuves, all spread 
on the door drying. The inspector told the prisoners that he was a 
{}o1iceol^cer, and also un inland revenue ofhcer, and he must take 
them into custody, together with the whole of the ingredients and 
apparatus for makinf^ the spurious tea. Mj-. Brennan ftiliied that the 
prisoners had pursued their nefarious traflic most extensively, and 
were in the bal>iL of deattnrr largely with (jrocers, chandlers, and 
others, especially in the counlry. llie various articles produced, 
prior to their completion, had the most disgusting appearance, and 
were evidently prejudicial t^ health. He had communicated with the 
Excise authorities, who considered it a case of such importance to 




fhe puWic, tliat they requested the witbJrawal of the present char^, 
in order that they might prosecute the prUonera uuder the Excite 

F,K. 21. 

ToB Cnam Botaxical Fuwhr. 

a 8, tUrdnwrpo^clwef M*ea > ;^*. ff«gn>w>t»ofcgfecAM;cg, fryiteZ*. Mifnllcd 

810 diuiMten of Mme. 


laws; being determined, if possible, to put a stop to such abominable 

Before concluding the subject of the adulteration of tea, two 
articles sometimes employed in its adulteration have to be noticed, 
viz.. La Vena Benoy and Cliinese Botanical Powder. 

Lit Vmn Beno is a coarse powder of a reddish-brown colour, and it 
coQsista of between SO and 90 per cent, of catechu, and the remainder 
of fra^cnts of sumach leaf. 

It 19 rccoiuiiiended for its strengthening properties, especially for 
strengthening the nerves and the voice, but above all for its economy ; 
a threepenny packet, it is asserted, will go as far as a (juarter of a 
pound of tes, with which it is rocoommended that it should be mixed. 

The Chintie Botanical PoiLtfer^ is a preparation got up in imitation 
of La Veno Beno, and is principally used for the same purpose* 



nDmclTt to mix with tea. It consists of catccha and whcut-flour. The 
directions for its use are aa follows: — Take hulf n teiupuouful of the 
]:K>wder, 1o two teuspKCinlTula uf tea, ami it will jiruduce (dO runs the 
advertisement) a streriylh efjiial to foui' teaspoonfuis of tea. 

Both these powders are very astringent, and (berefore their penornl 
use in highly objectionable ; thej are, in fact, active medicinal prepara- 


Pliilic, &c. 

The results of (be inierosconical and chemical exunicatton of Bome 
hundreds of »iiui|ilet< ol'tea tid iiu]<ortedf and as gold to the consumer, 
in Ihia country, briellv summed up, are iis follows: — 

That the j^eat bufk of the Slack teas used, as the Congous and 
Souch'mj;*, are genuine. 

Tbiit the Black tca5, known as Scented Coper, and Scented Orange 
Pekoe, are invariably glazed or faced with piuiuhugot and soinctiiucs 
with a little Prus»ian blue or indigo, turmeric, auU s^dphate o/litne^ or 
China clay. 

Further, that Scented Caper or Chuinn is often adulterated with 
lAe tea, padtly^hmky and havei Mher than those of tea. 

That xeceral varieties of a spurioyu Caper, or black Gnnpt>rcder^ are 
prepared^ which consist of tea-dtut, and »nmetimej the diiKt of other 
leapes, and sand., made up into little masses with ffum., and f^ced or 
glazed with plumbago^ Frutsian blue, and turmeric- powder : in some 
coses these imitations are sold separately, but most frequently they 
are used to mix with and adulterate the better i|ualitiea of Caper — 
viz. those which are made of tea faced with plumbago only. 

With rc*|H?ct to Oreert tea the principal conclusions tire- 
That these teas, with the exception of a few of British growth and 
manufacture, from Assam, ore invariably adnlieratcd — -that is to aay, 
■re g;lu7ed with colouring matters of dtfTcront kinds. 

Thus in this country there is really no such thing as a green tea — 
that is, a tea which poesesses a natural j^reen hue. 

That the colnnritig ttiattem HJted are in eeneral Prusxinn hlWy indigo^, 
turmeric •fMwder, snlphate of lime, and China clay, other ingredients 
being sometimes but not frequently employed. 

That green teas, arul more e/tpecirdly fne Guupoialers^ in atldition to 
being faced andglazed^ are more subject to adulteration tii other ways 
than black teas, excepting Caper, <u by admisture with leaves not those 
ofteu^ wilh paddy-husk, and particularly icith Lie tea. 

That Lie tea is prejjared mo ax to rraembie green tea, and u extemively 
used by the Chinese themselves to adulterate Gunpowder tea ; it was also, 
until recently, sent over to this country in vast riuantities, and wat 
employed for the same purpose by our own tea-dealers and grocers. 
It ts still sometimes met with, especially in mixed green teas. 



Tliftt inferior samples of green lea» especially Twankay, arc not only 
artificinlly coloured, but they also sometimes contain foreign leaves^ 
paddy 'husk^ and other foreign matters. 

Thv above are the inort* mi|X)rtaDt conclusions as to tbe condition of 
btark auvt «;rueii teas ut> iiu[.>ort«d, but tbtse articles undergo further 
deterioration in our own country. Tbus it has been shown — 

Thnt exhansted tea-leaves are sometimes made up with gum, &c., aitd 
rfsnld to the puldic as genuine black tea, and, when artificially coloured 
awl glazeji, even as green tea. 

That the substances employed in the colouring are in many cases rery 
much more objectionable and injurious than (hose used by the Chinese^ 
being sometimes highly poisonous. 

That it is no uncommon thing for tea, both black and green, to be fa- 
bricatedfrom various British leaves, leaves not those of tea, and possessit^ 
no properties in common with the leaves of that plant. 

That black Chulan and Lie tea, when coloured, have been known to be 
employed by our own dealers and grocers for the adulteration of green 

Of the adulterations noticed, those practiced by tbe Chinese are of 
course by far the most important, because they extend to a very con- 
siderable portion of the tva consumed in this country; at the same 
tioief the frauds resorted to by our own dealers must not be lost 
sight of 

It has thus been shown that tea is subject to a ktrge amonnt of 

It is interesting to contrast the so-called f^een teas of China with 
the green teas somutimes im|iorted from Assuiu, but, more particularly, 
with the lea call ed Kumaon. Tbe dilTuiencc of appearance is Uitually 
Tory great; the leaves of these feus are of a dull and yellowijib-^rreen 
colour, 90 diflerent from tlie Chinese tciLs, tlmt they would sciircoly be 
recognised by an ordinary observer as f;reen tea at all. This marked 
diflercDce arisen from the fact that the Kumnnn and Eomctiiues (he 
Assam teas are not usually coloured or gl»zed like the Chinese teas, 
althougli the Assam are so nut unt're<{uently to some extent. 

One beneficial retiult which hus folluwed from the publication of our 
Report on the adulteration of tea in "The Lancet" and in the 
authors work entitled *' Food and its Aflultcrations" may now be re- 
ferred to; it is one which scarcely could have been anticipated. 

ll appears that the Chinese themselves have within the last year or 
90 begiin to give up the practice of colouring or glazing their green 
teas. This is shown, first, by the fact that notunfreouently they now 
send to this country chests of uncoloure<l green tea, the chestscontain- 
ing it even bcine branded with the word " uncohniretl ; " and secondly, 
by the improve*! appearance projiiented by many of those teas which 
ore coloured or glazed, the pro|)oriion of colouring matters now used 
bcin^ much less. 

Uaculuurud gn:en teas arc even commonly advcrtiBed for sale : it 



should be known, however, that in many cases these are nothing more 
than ordinary green tcoa, from which the colouring matter has been 
reiuovuJ by nieona of steam. 

Ok tue Detection of the Adultsbatioks op Ibx. 

Tho detection of the adulterations of tea may be considered under 

the four following heads : vir. the detection of forei^ leaves ; of the 
various subatnncea emploj-cd for the facing or glazing of tea; of ex- 
hausted tea-leaves; and of Lie tea. 


On the Detection of Foreign leaves. 

The teas in wbich foreifrn leaves are most WkiAy to be met with, are 
those of low nuiUity; as Twaiikay, inferior Gunpowder, Cliulan, and 
Lie tea; also in teas of British fabrication. 

The leaves may occur in two stiites, either more or less entire, or 
broken up into Irapnents which may be found either loose in the 
(lust of tea, or che a<;;;lutinated by means of a solution of gum or 
starch into mosses artificially coloured. 

For the detecti(»n of foreign leaves a thorou^Ii acquaintance with 
the tea-leaf itself is necesaiiry, its shape and various sixes, the vena- 
tion of the cJgeft, the dii^tribution of the veins and lastly^ its micro- 
scopical structure, embracing parliculurly the size of the cells, 
stomato, &c. All these points are well delineated in the figures of the 
tea-leaf already given. 

In order lo facilitate the identification of any foreign leaves met 
with, a knowledge is desirable of the characters of tbc leaves most 
likely to be encountered. For this nurpose it will bo well to examine 
carefully the engravings of foreign leaves actually detected in adulte- 
rated tea contained Jn ihis work. 

To discover foreiv'n leaves in a more or less entire state, the 
tea should be infused in luit water for a few minutes, and all su.<tpiciotis 
pieces unrolled ant] exaniine<l, and compnreil with the tea-leaf itself; 
regard being had especially to the distribution of the veins, and the 
edges of the leaves or portions of leaves. 

To detect foreign leaves much broken up^ ns In Lie tea and in tea- 
dustt the microscope must be resorted to ; if in Lie tea, the maai^es must 
be disiutegrated by means of hot water, and the fragments torn up 
with needles, and examined diligently and carefully with that Instni- 

On the Detection of Substances entering into the Facing of Tea, 

As has already been stated, a rery great variety of substances is 
employed in the facing of tea. Of these, some occur in teas of Chinese 

:Aj akd IT8 Adulterations. 


manuracttirc ; bat others — and those sometimes of a more injurious 
character — liuve been met with in tea fabricated at home. 

The principal ttubstanceit used by the Chinese arc, for preen tea, 
Prussian blue^ indigo, turmeric, unci some white |)ow(ler, usuullv 
Kaolin or Chiim oUv, but occasionally pypsum or sulphate of linio; and 
for c<;rlain black te;ia, black-lea*!, as well as in some cases sioiUlyr quan- 
tities of the pij^meiUs previously mentioned. 

By the mixture of blue, yellnw, and white colours, green pigments 
or dyes are produced of various tints. 

The dcieetiun of all the substances referred to, is by no means dif- 

The first thin^ necessary is to ascertain whether the tea be really 
artificially coloured or not. 

For this purpose, if the leaves be coated to any considerable extent, 
it will be sutHcient simply to view one or two of them, as opnrpie objects, 
with a piiiss of one inch focus, when tho colourinj;^ nifitters entering 
into (he comiK)5ition of the facing will be detected as minute specks or 
particles, each rcflcctin" its nppropriute tint. 

Another nicthwi of Ueiertitiiiinp the s:ime jioint is to scrape gently 
the surlnce of two or three of rhe leiivea with ii [leiikiiife, when, if they 
be faced, the colouring matters may be detect^fd in the {wwder thus 
separated, viewed as an upiique object. 

A third method is to place five or six leaves on a slip of glass, 
moistening them with a few drops of water, and after the leaves have 
became softened, firtnly fl<jueezin^ the water out between the finj^er 
and thumb; thi^ will then be found to contain more or less of the 
ingredients forming the fucinjr, shoubl such Imve been employed. 

Or, should it be detiireU to obtain the results on n Urge scale, half 
an ounce or so of the leaves may be iij^itated in a litde water for a few 
minutes; this will <letuch much of the facing, without unfolding the 
leaves, and after a time the facing will collect as a sediment at the 
bottom of the vessf^l. 

Laiitly, the tea-dust, more or less of which is present in nearly every 
sample of tea, is usually found to contain the ingredient^} used in the 
facing in considerable quantity, and from its examination satisfactory 
results may in general be very readily obtained. 

Having by one or other of the above processes determined whether 
the sanifHe of tea be faceil, the next step is to ascertain the nature of 
the iKubsfances used for this purpose. 

Ferrocjfanide of iron or PruiAiau bluf. — The blue colouring matter 
has generally Im^co found to be either Pru.ssian blue or indigo, but 
most iVixjneiuly the former. 

Fru.'isiaQ blue may lie recognised under the microscope by the an- 
gular form of the fragments and by their brilliant and transparent 
blue colour, but nioBt deciiiedly by the oclioti of liijuor poLasna;, wijich 
cjuicLly destrovs the blue, turning the frogiuenls of u dull reddiah- 
brown colour, the original colour being restored ou the addition of 



dilute sulphuric aciil. These reagents may be readily applied in verjr 
minute quaiitiiios to the smallest fractions of Prussian olue visible in 
tht field uf the microscrpe. 

In geiicnd, the iileiitiliL-nlion of the Prussian 1jIu(% hy the inetinsjust 
pointed (JuL, is Huni(:i(.-tit, but In some cOJHfa a more direct oheiuic&l 
ftnalysis may bi^ required. 

For this purpose the fnllowlng proceedinpt must be adopted^ which 
applies equidly to indigo and any other pigment or atibstance with 
which the tea may be glazed, ivnd which is required to be procured 
in a gcpHmte state in considerable quantity. 

An ounce or more of the tea is u* be ajjitated for several minutes 
with warm water, the leaves Reparated by straining, and the liquid set 
aside at rest fi»r some hours, until the colouring matters have com- 
pletely aub.siiled. The^e nmy be olitftini-*<l by decantation, and after 
wa.^hin<r m:Ly be dried in reuilineiw for analysts. 

The fullnwiiig are the i^heniirol projjerties of ferrocyanideof iron, or 
Pnissionbluer—U is insoluble in water, in alcohol, and in dilute acids. 
Concentrated sulphuric acid ihrms with it a white pasty mans, from 
which wjler u<:uiti separates it unaltered i nitric acid decomposes it ; 
concentrated hydrochloric acid ultimately abstracts part of its iron; 
sulphuretted hydrogen, iron and z'uif fdiiig.-', r-^nder it wliite, in conse- 
quence of the abstraction of part of llie cyanogen. It is not de- 
colourised by chlorine. The alkalies discharge its colour. (Jeetniipose it 
into soluble ferrocyanidc», and oxide of iron, which is precipitated. 

ludiffo. — ThisBubstanceisdistiriguidbcd undertlie microscope by the 
irregular form of the particles, their granular texture, and ^reeiiish- 
blue tint, but chiefly by the fact that the colour is not discbarged by 
liquor potaesflB at ordinary temperatures. 

The following are some of the more important chemical cbarncter- 
istics and properlies of indigo : — It exhibits a coppery lustre on being 
rubbeil with the nail ; it is not soluble in water, dilute acids, ether, or 
alcohol ; it is not attacke<l by Iifpior potassa.' at ordinary lemjieratures, 
but, distilknl therewith, it is decompo&etl and converted intoa yellowish 
brown biiuidy aniline is formed^ as shown by the develujinjent of a 
beautiful vioIet*blue colour on the addition of a sohition uf chloride 
of lime. It is freely di.«solvcd by strong sulphuric acid, forming a deep 
blue solution ; is bleached by chlorine : heated in a test tube, it sub- 
limes in rich violet vapours. 

Turmeric. — The only cert^n meana by which turmeric powder 
when mixed with other articles can be discovered, is furnished by the 
microscope. A description of (he minute structure of turmeric will be 
given hereafter : in the meantime it will lie sufhcient to stale that tur- 
meric may be at once identilied by means of the large yellow cells of 
which it IS mainly cumposed, nnd the form of the starch granules 
with which these are filled. 

There are no chemical test.<( by which turmeric may be identified : it 
becomes brown un (he addition of alkalies, in which respiict it com- 


porU itself like moat other Tcttotr vi^rr^ralile oolonrin^ inntt«rs: its 
decoction lK»coincs much dnrkonol by iodine, showing the presence of 
Blarch ; by this character, imJecil, turmeric niny in some cases be dU- 
titiguishet) from certain other vegciable yellow pigments which do 
not cnntain Btarch. 

Bl>ick-lea(l. — Graphite, plumbago, or black lead, the substance »o 
familiar to hniirtemaicU, contti»l8 of oarbon and ir<in, uJiuallv in the 
proportion trf 1)5 per cent of the Inrnier to 5 ]>er cent of the hitter. 

The jet-black glossy and meiallic apf>eariinre oftlim substance is so 
characieriritic^ as to serre in nia^r coses for it.s iilentificaiion. 

Apart from the evidence of the [ire^onee of thia substance afforded 
by tfto eye alone, it may be detected in other ways. 

If a thin slice be removed from llie surfjice of one of tlic leaves 
faced with this (*iil>slaiioe, and placed under ihu riilera«ico[n», i( will be 
eeen to be thickly studded with nunieroii-* riiimite black particles. 

A^in, if one or Iwo teaspoonfuln ol lilmk-lcmli'd leu be infused in 
boiling water, the liijuid, after « time, wil! in inmiy ciises, where the 
quantity of farin;; is oon-*iiU'rahio, ar-fpiire a hlm-ki^ih hue, and on 
evanorution, the bitttnin of the vessel containin;:; it will be found tu ex- 
hibit the dark, nhininir. ami <harnctcn?tic coating of hlark-lenil. 

Lastly, if a small tpiantiiy of it be weighed and ignited, the whole 
of the carbon will be di^i^ipated, in or about the proportion of 95 per 
cent., and the iron in the state of oxide will remain behind. 

Chtwt Cloy^ or Knolin, is prepared from deciiyinir granite, and ts 
the result of the disintegration and parllal decomposition of the feUpar 
and mica of that mineral. 

Talc or Mica occurs, as is well known, in laminatefl plates; it re- 
fractA the light powerfully, and exhibits a considerable amount of 
iridtfM:enoe. It eonsisiii of silicate of alumina, witli («rBilicate of 

FtUpar resembles very closely mica in its composition, and i» com- 
poscil of single equivalents of the neutial silicates of pota^ish and 

If the whlio powder facing the tea consist of China clay, wc must 
proceed iw follows to deierndite its nature : — A quantity of the tea dye 
having lieen separated either by washing or by shaking some of the 
teaal>oui in the dry ftJite, it mu^t be heated to redness; by this means 
the turmeric and Prussian blue will lie destroye<l, and the white 
powder obtained nearly pare, containing chiefly the iron derived 
from the Prussian blue. 

The powder muH be acted upon with very dilute hydrochloric 
acid; the silica will remain undissolvi'd, but the alumina and oxide 
of iron will be taken up, but are precipitated on the addition of am- 
monia. Such an analysis as this is seMom required, as the determi- 
nation of the exact composition of the white jxiwder used is rarely 

Sulphate of Lime. — The leavea of tea, especially those from Assam, 

u 2 



are somelimDS dusted oi-er with sulpliate of lime, and this in aome 
castis where no other onhiurlnn^ substance is employed. 

Tills salt t«hon1d he dissolveil in wviik hydrncmdHc acid, the Holution 
furthfi" diluted with waii?r;one part of tbt: 9i>lution must be lejited 
with chloride of biiritiia for Miiphuni:aci(J, and the olhiir wiih oxalate 
of nmmotiia for hine. It is not often, in the cnae of tea, :h»t this 
analysis is required, any more thun that fur China clay or bluck-lead. 

It now remains that the niethotls by which the Rcveral gubstance* 
which have hen discnvereil, from lime to tiiiit*, entering into the facing 
of tea of Ilritt^ll fahrieiition, shouhl be <'(ni?»idered. 

Thf prineinal of those sulistanneHi are Duteh jmik, rose pink, logwood, 
tnrmene, curlionaie of lime, carljooiue i>f ma;;nesia, steatite, soap-stone 
or silicate of nin^nc^ia, chruinate ^>1' luai!, ihu cUromatea of potitsUf 
ferrwyanide of iron, iudij^u, carbunate of copjivr, acetate of copper, 
artenile of top|»or. 

As carbonate, acetate, and arsenite of copper, uhromate of lead, and 
the cKrouiates of potash, nre rarely nsed for the faoinp of tea, and as 
the methods of detecting; these poisonous salts arc given under the ar- 
ticles Sii<rar Confecttutiary and SitutT, It ia not neccttsary to introduce 
them in this place. 

The [trocesses for the detection of Pnissinn blue, imlin-o, anrl ttir- 
nicrie, have nlready been given ; then' remiiids to describe, iherefore, 
those only for the detertion of Dutch pink, rose pirik, logwood, the 
<;arboniUes of lime and mu-ineMji, wnd French chtdk or nonp-slone. 

Dntch Pink. — Although called Dutch phik^ this ?ubstance is of a 
brijjht yfllow colour; it cou'iists of a vegetable dye in cmnhination 
with chalk or oarhnnntc of lime. It is the yellow pigment most fre- 
quently used in this country in the fucinf: of spurious green tea. 

For its detection the folluwloj^ method shauhl be pursued;^ An 
alkali should first be apjilied t<i thi: yellow dye, in order to determine, in 
the first place, whether it be vt'^jetable or not: if it turn brown, there 
is no doubt about its Vfjfetuhle clmrHcter In the next place, ii minute 
portion of itshould he ex:iiuined under the microscope, with the view 
of ascertaining whether it is tunneric or not: if the celh of lurmeric 
are not visible, and if it effervesce with on acid, there is no doubt that 
the dye is vej»etable. and inosi probably Dutch pink. 

Rote Pitik and Loetcooil. — Uose pink consists of the colouring 
matter of logwood in cnmbination wi(h carhoiiate nf lime. An in- 
fusion of the wood is hrst prepared throuLih which the liiijoi^ diffused, 
and this in subaitling carries down with it tin- coloiirin^r matler. 

This pigment is distin^'uiihed by the action ofncidji which intensify * 
its reil colour, and of alkalies whicli turn U brown, as well as by the 
presence of carl)onate of lime or ciudk. 

Kxtraet of logwood, Dr. Normandy states, ia sonictimcs used in the 
adulteration of teas represented jls Souchong and Pekoe. 

'iliifi luay be detected by moistuuing a few uf the leaves with water, 




and rubbing them uj)on a piece of white papor, which, if logwood is 
proficitt^ will be stainod bluisb-hlai*k. Moreover, a Tew drops ot'suU 
pbuiiv acid added to a concentrated infusion of the tea cause it to 
turn red. 

Citrbonnte of Zime or Chalk. — If on the addition of an acid the 

?articli's uf white jiowder etfL-rveace, it most probably conaiots of chalk, 
n order to reiidcr the detcrininntinn ii mutter of certainty, however, 
the powder niubt be dissolved in weak hydruchluric aeid, und the lime 
prveipituted by lueuiis of u^ulule of ammoniu : ibis reairenl does not 
precipitate luaguesia, shuuM that ulkuliijie earth hjipjwn lo be in 

Carbonate of Magnesia. — T!ie powder must first be dissolved in 
dilute hydrochloric acid, the solution treated with chloride of ommci- 
nium^ and ummonia iidded in sili^ht excess ; the iun^nesi:i i>j then pre- 
eipititted by means of phosphate of soda ; the precipitate uiusl bo 
collncted and eonvtfried into the pyrophosphate by ignition, from 
which the carbonate of magnesia is ealculnted. Should lime altto be 
present, tliis must first be removed by means of oxahite uf ainuionia. 

French Chidby Soap'Htone^ or Silicate of Magnejtia. — The indigo or 
Prussian blue and turmeric having been destroyed by ignition, the 
residuary powder is to Itc treated with dilute hydrochloric acid ; the 
magncitia will be diKsolved, but nut the silicic arid. The magnesia 
may tlicn be precipitated us bclbre, care being taken to remove ihe 
lime should any be presentf and the sUicic acid ignited and weighed. 

On the Detection of Exhausted and lie-dried Tea-leaves. 

KxhauHtod tea-leaves occur in two forms. Usually they are made 
up in iiiiiuitiou of blutk lea, but oceasiunully of •^reen ulso : the 
detection is easier in the former than in the latter ease. In the ease 
of bluck lea the imitation can ollyn be detected by the eye alone, but 
in other cases a cbt^mical analysis of the leaves is uecest^ary. 

One ehiiracter by which the re-dried leaves nmy be known, is the fold 
or roll of tlie leaves: this is less rtHrulnr anil uniform than that of 
uniued tea, the surfaces being agglutinated together, and many flat 
piece* nf leaves occur. 

Another character is the glossy appearance presented by the leaves, 
due to the gum with which they are almost constantly made up. By the 
roUortwi*it of the leaves, and by ihe glossy appearance presented by 
tbeni, re-drietl tea may in general he easily recogniset! ; but when 
a chemical analysis is requisite, the following pro<reeding must be 
odopted. The \wt centago of tannin, of gum, and of wmxlr fibre must 
be lietermined : if the leaves be really exhausted there will be a great 
deficiency of tannin, and an excess of woody libreand especially of gum. 

In genuine and unused tea, according to the quulity, the tunnin bus 
beenuscertained to vary from 30-0 to 450 |>er cent in the ease ufsuj>erior 
teas ; in used tea to range I'rom 7"J to 07 per cent ; or the tea may even 

H 3 




be completely exhausted of its tannin. Tbepum ranges from 6"31o 59 
per cent, in the one 0U5e, unfl inun 20"5 to 1 1"G |)er cent in the other. 
LnHtiT, the wooiiy fibre in unused tea varies from 448 to 4G'y» and in 
exhausted tea from 9*2 8 to 7*2 !> j^cr cunt. The process for rleterniining 
the aniuiint.s oftnnnin, gum, fin<l insoluble residue or woody tibre, will 
be found deaeribed at p. Q8. Green ten iiaualljr' euntams About the same 
proportion of gum as black tea, but leas tunniu. 

AnalytiK of Oreen Teoy by Mr. Phillips. 


iJiini - 

Tannin anJ alhuraen - 

Colounn>! maiLur 




nut other matters are noroetituea tnliled to exhausted tea-leaves 
besides g:uin, as catechu and sulphate of iron, in order to moke up for 
the deficiency of lannin, 

Detet'tion jtf Cntechu. — Catechu consists in preat purl of tannin : 
tlierc will be -.'round Uiv behevin;! thnt (Ijia Mib^tauce has beeuiMnpluyed 
if, on imulysiii, both tlie;;uni and tannin are in excess ; for the one is not 
likely to be einplnyed without the other. The presence of ciileelm 
may olito be iut'errcd when, there being no excess of gum, the tauuiu 
is itself greatly in excess. 

A certain rourrhness and astringency in the tea is likewise indicative 
of the jiresenee of caleidiu. 

When a siilmii>ii of sulphate of iron ta broupht into contact with a 
solution ctf tannin or one of tea which contains a large amount of 
tannin, the liijuid becomes deeply coloured ; and it is on Uiis uccount 
that the sulphate of iron is sometimes added to exhausted tea-leaves, 
to give an ajipeuronce of strength. 

Dftrvliun tif fyu([ihate nf Iron. —If the infusion mnde from the ex- 
hausted ten present u ceriiiin darkness of npjicurancc, the presence of 
sulphate of iron niny be suspected ; if on nddin^^ ii little tincture of gallfl 
the colour is heiphtciuMl. but litlk' doubt reujsiins. Lastly, it" necessary, 
whieh is but bchhim the case, — the iurintiun uf ihc leaves uuiy b€ 
analysed J'or Kul[>huri<; acid, ami llie ash of the evaporated infusion 
for iron, b<'th of which must be determined ijUJtntitntivcly. The sul- 
phuric acid must be thrown «K»wn by inenns of clilnritle of barium or 
nitrate of baryta, the precipitate wei^jhcd^ and the quantity of 
sulphuric acid calculated ironi it. It should be remember^.-*! that tea 
naturally t^ontains a ^nli1]l quantity of sulphuric acid, uhielly in the 
combined state, derived ]>artlv from the leaves, but principiuly frum 
the water used in making the uifusion. 

The presence uf iron may be determined by means of tincture uf galls, 
M already noticed, or uf lerrocyanide of potassium, which gives a blue 



precipitate of ferrocyanide of iron or Prussian blue. The quantity of 
iron coiiUined in the tea umy hii (Ihib asiigrtaiiieil : — A (ino4 aiul 
weighed jmh tion oftlie teu is inciniTiiieU : if iiiut'h Iruu is pre&iiiit.tliu ash 
will be coloured more or loss with the red oxide of that metal. The ash 
is next boiled with dilute bydroehloric acid : this take* up the iron and 
Alumina, and pho^iphutos, which are nguin precifiitated on thi- atlilition 
of excess of ammonia: the precipitate must b« collected, ignited, and 
weighed. Iron is usually dctcruiined in combination with alumina, and 
the phosphates occurring in tea are in general not so large as lu affect 
inateriully the accuiw:y of the result, Thu phoi^phateti may however 
he removed previous to the precipitntion of the iron and alumina, by 
digesting the ash of the incinerated tea in an exceedingly weak solu- 
tion of hyilrochloric ncid, — su weak that it will not affect the iron and 
alumina. For further details refer to p. I*i9. 

When exhausted ton-leaves have been faced, and so converted into 
an imilaiinn of greeci tea, the deteclinn of the fraud by the eye alone 
is more difljeult than in the ca^e of black tea, as, ulthou^li we have btill 
the irregular form of thu leaves, we have not the uiiuaturul gloss to 
guide us. In this case, therefore, we must resort to chemiuiil analysis. 

Exhausted tea-leaves are of course not only deficient in tunnin, but 
likewise in iheine; in some eases, therefore, it may be desirable to de- 
termine the amount of that important constituent of tea present, which 
may be done by following one or other of the proceobcs described ftl 

On the Detection of Lie Tea. 

The detection of Lie tea is by no means difficult : In some cases 
it may be diiicriminaie<l by the in*cgularity in the lorin of the particles 
or masses, and by their increased weight owing to the sand wbtch they 

Before pronouncing an opinion as to the nature of any sample, it 
is however in all cases necessary to act on the masses with hot w»ler. 
When hot water is applied to genuine tea, the masses quickly unfold 
and expand into leaves or portions of leaves; when to Lie tea, they 
break down and become disinteLrntted ; no leaf appearing, and the 
residue is heavy, gritty, and dirty-h)oking. Again, if one of the 
masses be placed between the teeth it feds gritty. 

But since Lie tea often occurs, us already stated, mixed with other 
teas, it is necessary to lrx>k them well over and lo pick out all the 
masses which present a suspicious appearance, and to treat them with 
hot water. 

Having ascertained that the tea under examination consists either 
entirely or in part of Lie tea, it becomes necessary, in those cases in 
which we desire to carry the analysis further, lo very carefully 
examine the leaf-dust, which the masses always contain, with the nii- 
crosco{}e, iu order to determine whether any foreign leufdust be 

n 4 



Ash of Genuine Tea. 

Kemuoii H^son 

Scented Caper 




Lastly, in some oases we may desire to know the per-centajjeof sand 
which niay be present. For IUjs purpose a weiglied portion of the 
tea must be incineralcd, and the ash weighed. Genuine tea fur- 
nishes oil an average about 5 per cent of aab, and Lie tea oa much in 
some cases as 50 per cent 

The following results were obtained by Mr, Warinf^ton from 
the incineration of a variety of teas. They will be fouud useful for the 
purpose of comparison : — 

Ath of Lie Tea, or Tfa aduUeratfd 

with Lie Tea. 

Lie Guni>owder No. 1. - 45*5 

No. 2. - 34*0 

Lie flower Caper - - 37"5 

Mixtures containing these f 11*0 

Lie teas - - \l'15 

In Lie tea of British fabrication the leaves are almost always foreign, 
and the mrts**fl rarely rnntnin satirl. 

For the detemiiimtiftn of tlie nature of the substances employed in 
the facing of Lie tea when rhi>sc liave been used, reference should 
be made to tlie remark:^ coininoucin^ on p. 96. 

In consciiucnce of the war, a retrograde step in the duty was 
enacte<l, and it stands at U. 9J. per lb. until the 5th of AprlU 1857 ; 
after that day it will b« U. W. until 5th April, 185S. Xhoncefor- 
wanl \». per lb. 

Home consumption 1854, 61,970,341 lbs. Duty U. 6rf. after 5th 
April of that year. 

In 1855, (>3,454,035 lbs. Duty 1<. Orf. 

First 9 months of 1856, 48,0H3,784 lbs., which is a slight diminution, 
the consumpiion for ihe same 9 months of 18:55 being 48J40,'}88 lbs. 

The followiii;; tjuestion, and autiwer by Mr. George Phillips, will 
serve as an illustration of the gross ignorance of the Excise, even in 
regard to the adulteration of tlie few articles of consumpiion under its 

Air. Mnffatt. " Is it within your experience that no poisonous sub- 
stance is ustnl in the facing nf tea at the present lime? 

Jiephj. " It is po.^sible there might be some samples found now 
coloured with Prussian hluc ; but / hove not seen any ti/vfielf.''^ 

Now let the reader remeiBU;r that all the green teas m this country 
are artificially coloured, and ibut one of the sulistanct's used is in 
ninety-nine out of q hundred case.* Prussian blue, and he will have 
some notion of the ignorance and incompetence of the Excise. 

Again, it appears by the returns jtlaced iK'fore the Committee by 
Mr. George Phillips, that in twelve year.f the Kxcitse, with its 70 
chemists and 4000 inspectors, examined only — and this in a very 
superficial way — 142 samples out of 900,000, the number of packages 





II h 

^^ in I 


Tub bererage coflTee consuU of an infusion in Loiliog water of the 
roAsted sc«^l9 of a plant which htm ri'L-eivcl tin? Hutunical name of 
Coffta Arahtcn^ find which is said to be indi-^f luma fn certain dislricU 
of Southern Abyssinia^ where it j;rows, with the profusion of a wild 
weed, iner the rucky surface of ihc country. 

Id AbyssiniJiT coffee has been in use from lime immemorial ; in 
Persia it wa* in use as early as 875 ; it was iiitrnducLd into Arabia 
about the fifteenth century; nnd about the luiUille oT the sixtefnth 
Cftnturv it began to be employed iii Omstantinoplo ; white we learn, 
on the authority of Professur Johnston, it wiu nnt iintU llie latter 
" alf of the seventeenth century that it made it^ way into Europe, 
first iuto London, and some yciu-s i<ubt$e(}uently to Marseilles. 

In Johnston's "Chemistry of Common Life" we meet with Ibefol* 
towing description of the cofi'ee plant or tree: — 

The coflee tree, when in good health and full grown^ attains a 
height in some countries not exceeding ei^dit or ten feel, but in others 
averaging from fifteen to twenty feet. It is covered with a daric, 
smooth, shining, and evergreen foliajje. It is sown in nurseries, 
transplanted when about six months ohi, in three years conies into 
full 1>euring, and in favourable circumscunces will continue to bear 
fur twenty years. It delights in a dry S'lil and n warm situation; its 
flowers are pale, white, fragrant, and rapidly fading; its fruit lilce 
that of the cherry tree, but it grows iu clusters ; wiihin the fruit are 
the seeds or berries. On dry antl elevated pai'ts the berries are 
smuller and have a better Bavour, but berries of all sizes improve in 
flavour or rrptfii by tceeping. The small berries of Arabia will ripen 
in three yeans; but the worst coffee produced in America will in from 
to fourteen years become * as good, nod acquire us high a flavour, 

the best we now luive from Turkey.' " — EUi». 

The seeds, improperly culled berries, of Arabian or Mocha colFee are 
small, and of a dark yellow colour; tliot^e of Java, and East Indian 
arc larger, and of a puler yellow ; while those of Ceylon, West Indian, 
and llrazilian coffee possess a bluish or greenish-grey tint. 

The dried fruits or berries are rarely imported : occasionally, how- 
ever, the seeds contained in their endocarp or husks are met with in 

Recently the very important fact has been made known that 
the leaves possess, to a certain extent, the com|)osition as well as 
many of the properties of tlie seeds, and hence their Inlroduc- 
liuii into this country has been proposed. It appears that a beverage 
umdi! from roasted cofl'ee-leaves hoA long been used in the Eaateni 
Archipelago, esncclally iu Sumatra. 

Mr. Ward, wlio hia been many years settled in Sumatra, stateftj^ 



"As a beverage the natives universally prefer the leaf to the berry, 
giving as u reason tliat it contain:^ more of tlie bitter principle^ rtkI is 
more nutritioua. In tlie lowlands, tolFee Js nuL ptuntcd for llie berrv» 
not bein^ sufficiently productive, but Ibr tine leuf; the yjeople plant 
it roiina their houses for their own use. It is an undoubted fact, 
that everywhere they prefer the leaf to the berry." * 

Chcpuad Composition and Properties of the Coffee Seed. 

The foUowing quantitative analyses of coffee are by Schrader and 
Pajen ; f — 

Rate Coffee. 

Roasted Coffee 



Sch roller. 

Pcouliftp cflffeio prin- 

CafTeic ]iriuciple - 






Gununjr and mu- 

(jum umi muciliLgu 


cilaginous extract 


Oil and resin 




vSulid residue 






Fatty oil - 


Stdid residue 



Loss water 


100 00 

Payent Analysis of Raw Coffee.X 
Celiidose ...--- 34-000 

Water hygroscopic ----- 12*000 

Fatty substances - - - - - 10 to 13000 

Glucose, dextrine, and undetermined vegetable acid - 15'J00 

Legumine, easeine (glutine) P ... 10*000 

Chiomgenate (eaflesite) uf potash, and caffeine - - 35 lo 5*000 

Nitrogenous substance ----- 3*000 

Free caffeine - .... - 0*800 

Concrete ewential oil - - - - - 001 

Aromatic fluid, essential oil - - - - 0002 

Mineral substances ----- 6*097 

Acconling to Messrs. Graliam, Stenhouse» and Campbell, raw coffee 
contains as much as from fi to 7 per cent of cane sugar ; this is cither 
entirely destroyed by the roasting, or it rarely exceeds 1*12 per cent. 

According to the same authorities, the nitrogen In roasted coffee 
lies between 2^ and 3 per cent. 

The following analyses of the €uh of coffee are by Messrs. Graham 
and Slenhouse : § — 

* rhannarruttrfti Journnl, rol. vlll. p.m. 

f ChemlcA! Ouvttc. vol ir. p. U.. mi?. X Ibid. 

( Chomtotl Itqxirt oo tb« mode of detecting VegeUble SulMtaocet mixed with Coflbe. 


Analytes oftXt AmH of Coffee. 








PMa»b - 

6*- 10 





51 -M 








4 10 


4 11 





M«tDeda • 








8«fqgloxkla ot Iron 








Sulphuric add 


4 '45 






rhii.ilne - 

) II 



1 (JO 




CirlKMllL- «rtd 








Phoaphurk-acU - 




























100- w 




The chief peculiarities of the composition of the aih of coffee, are 
the absence of soda anil the itinall i|uiinrity of silica present : thia, in- 
deed, is so small as to reii<lcr it ilouhtful whether it cnntains any but 
that vbich is sccirlenfally ndlierent to ihv; bcnrie?. Contrastetl with 
the ash of chicory, Bcvt-ral other jicc'iilinrilie> prosont thcinfldves, such 
A3 the small quantity of t'hh»rine iind *»f se^iiuloxide of iron, and the 
lariie quantity of carbonic acid coniaiiicd lit ihc ash of cufTee. 

'rhe three most important cunstiluciits nf tlie cofluc-bcrry arc, the 
ToUUiU oily called caffeotte; the coffric acid, uiiulogous to tlic tannin 
of tea ; and the cafftxne^ idfuticol with tbc thclne of tea. AVc &huH make 
ft, few observations on each of these constituents. 

The properties of coffee seetl are mucli nllt-rcd by roasting : the 
principal products of torrefaciion are a bniwn bitter principle^ de- 
rived principally from tlic conversion of the sugar into carninel, and 
tht arumatic oil, called aiff'eane. 

The propertica of the infusion of the roasted coffe« seeds are thus 
summed up by Pereira: — 

** Rousted coffee posKcsses powerfully anti-»oporific properties : 
hence its use as a drink by thoitc who <le!<irc nm*turnal study, and 
■8 an antidote to counteract the effects of opium and other naicotics, 
and to relieve intoxication. Jn thoiie unaccustomed to its use, it is 
apt lo occasion thirst and constipiition. On some persons it acts aa a 
sfiffht purgative. It is occasionally useful in relieving headache, es- 
pecially the form callefl nen'ous. It has also been employed ^as a 
febrifuge in interniittcnts, as n stomftchiu in someformsof dys|H'^i8ia and 
B» a stimulant to the cerebro-spinttl system in some nervtius diMirdera. 
Fliiyer, Dr. Pcrcival, and others have used it in spasmoilic asibma ; 
and Luenncc !«iiy8, ' I have myself seen ^everal cases in which coffee 
was really useful. The immoderate use of coffee is said to produce 
Denrous symptoms, such as uixieCy, tremor, disordered vision, palpita- 


tian and feverisbness." * Cofie*; is also supposed to counteract the 
tendonrjr to the rormation ofgrarel and stone. 

The propertiefl nnd effecta of coffee are lUud described by Profesaor 
Johnitton : — 

*' Ir exhilarates, arouses, and keeps awake ; it counteracts the stupor 
occavioiied by fuligue, by disvasc, or by opium ; it allnys hunjrt?r to a 
certain extent, jjives to the weary increased slren^rth and vi-jnur, and 
imparts a feeling of comtbrt and repose. Its physiological eflects ujxjn 
the system, so far as tbpy have been investi^'iUtf!, njjpear to be. that 
while it ninkes the brain more active, it Honthes the budy gonerally, 
makes the t'Uan;;e nnd vraato of iuatti;r alower, and the deuiand for 
food in consei[ueiiru It-M. All those elTects it owes to the conjoined 
action uf three ingredients very .siniihir U) those containe<I in tea." 

WluMi rousted cofltje is di&tilled with water, the volatile urtmuitic oil 
or cafffoue pusses over, and by drinking the oil and water together 
its enects may be ascertnined. 

When the quantity of oil obtained from two ounces of coffee was 
taken in a day, it was found In protluce an agreeable exeitement mid 
ffcntle perspiration, to dispell the sensjiiioTi of hunger, and to imive thu 
bowels. **In its exhihiraiin-r nclion upon tht? brain, it affVuls the iuia-ji- 
nation less than the reasoning powers." — Johaton, 

When the dose of oil was doubleil, violent perspiration comes on, 
with sleejile^sness and symptoms of eongettion. 

Lehmann, by a series of careful obeervationg and experiments on the 
urine, ascertained that it exercised an etfcct eiiual to that of cuffeine 
in retarding the waste of the tissues. 

The raw cotfce seeds contain al)out 5 per cent, of an astringent acid, 
— the caffeic or caflcn- tannic, — which diflt'rs from ordinary tannic acid 
in that it docs not blacken a solution of iron, as the iril'ii.'iiun uf tea 
does, but renders it jjreen, and does not precipitate j^eUiiiie from its 
solution. This acid, although changed somewhat by the roasting, yet 
retains to some extent iljt a^rringent properties. " Chemists gcneraUy 
are disposed to refer the tlavour and peculiar propt-rties of coffee as a 
beverage more to its acid — the ctijfeic acid {particularly after that 
substance is modified in it.i properties by roasting) thao any other 
constituent." — Gruhnm and St/nihouM, 

Caffeic ncid. like the acid of the cinchona barks — kinic acid, yields 
kinone when the syrupy exira'*t of coffee is mixed in a retort with 
about four times its weight of binoxiile of maniranese and one pint of 
sulphuric acid, diluted with an equal quantity of water, and the 
mixture ia subjpcteil to di'itillation. The Kinone passes over into the 
receiver in the form of yellow crystal;*, which mlhere to the neck and 
aides of the retort, as well as a bright yellow liquid containing kinone 
with much formic acid. Kinone is distinjruishedl by its volatility and 
acrid oduur, resembling that of chlorine. AVitb mumonJa thesoiutionof 

• Mstoria Medtcs. vol tt. p. tecA , ml ediuon. 




kinnne gives a sepia black ooloar, converted into reddish-brown by 
»ul|itiurf:tted b^dro^ou. It is dischar^l br sulphurous acid. 

Tbc ftxtriiigent acid in coifee is muuh losi< itiun in tea, and hence it 
docrt not retard, to the same extent, tbc uctiun of the bowels, especially 
wl«in ill* ofieration i» counteracted by the volatile urumatic oil, whica 
txerts an fl(>crient tendency. 

Caffeine is a weak nlkuloid of a white colour, crystflllises in long 
«ilky needles, fusible, volatile, and suluble in water, alcohol, and ether. 
llj aqueous wlutiun is precipitated by tannic acid. 

The pro[»orliun of caHeine obtained in fivu cxperiiueiits, in it de by 
Me^tfrv. Grabtun and SteiUiouse, upon dilferent samples ofcolTeei was 

follows : — 

Caffeine in Haw Coffee. 
Native Ceylon 

Plantation Ceylon 



■ Tlic proportion of the annlogons principle in tea — thcine — is usually 

H over *i per cent; ihat ifl, tea contains (in the average fully twice as 
H much of this alkaloid as coflce. 

H •* By rubbing common roasted coffee in a mortar, with a fifth of its 

V weight of ftloked liiue, and then boiling llie tiiixlure in alcohol, 
about J per cent of theine may be readily extracted. Weight for 
weijibl, iLercfore^ tea yields about twice at nmeh theine as roa&(ed 
ei>fiee does to the water in which it is infused. Rut as we generally 
vte a greater weight of eoHee than we do of t^-a in prcpjrin;^ our 
beTcragvs, a cup of coflee of ordinary stren^rt^h will probal>ly contain 
lu much theine as a cup of nnlinary Englisli tcA. A cup of ntrong 
French coffee will contain twice as much caffeine as a cup of weak 
French tr-a." — Johnston* 

■ The action of cafll-ine is nearly identical with that of theine, the 

crperation of which on the system bos already been described, 
rtde p. 7fl., rt srrfintiir. 

We meet with, in Pereira'a " Materia M«*dicfi,'*t th*-* following olwer- 

I rations in relation to the properties of cafffinc : — 
** Mulder gave a grain of it to a rabbit; the animal ale but little the 
next d.ny, and alwrted the day atTer. Liebig has suggested that it 
probably contributes to the formation of taurine, the nitrogenised 
constituent of bile. Acconlingto Lehmann{,oatreine in doses of from 
2 to 10 grains causes violent excitement of the vascular and nervous 
systems — palpitations of the heart; extraordinary frequency, irregu- 
larity, and oucn intermission, of pulse ; oppression of the chesty polos 

• Chomlitry of ComiDon Lffr. p. MB. 
t Vol. li. p. ItWj Ard ittltinn. 
t PliytivtuificBl Cfbcmiitrr, troniUtcd by D. Dar, red. i p. 136. CavrndUh S0CU171 ■*&!• 




'm the bend, confusion of the senses, sinking in the etra, sninlUlations 
before the eyes, sleeplessness, fliui delimim. Fri nil cases mn augiuen- 
tatioii was found ui the ani'tuiit of ureft weorelod." 

Extraction of Caffeine. — The follnwin;; is the process adopted for 
the extraction of caffeine by Messrs. Graham and Sfenhousc : — 

The raw coflee was pround fine, havinjr been previously well dried 
at 212" F. to I'ucililAte thmt operation. A decoction was then mmleof 
1000 grains, by the repeiitcil application of boil in;; water, so as to ex* 
haust the rofice of all Holtible matter. The t'oliition was concentrated 
a little by evaporation. The acid uf the coffet? and certain other sub- 
stances were now entirely precipitated by the addition, 6r»t, of the 
neutral acetate of lead, and then of the subacetate of lead. These in- 
soluble nistters were removeti from thi- liipiid by filtration. The excess 
of lead in solution was then thrown down by means of hydrosulphuric 
acid. The lit^uid, after this preparation, was evaporated to drynes*, and 
the drv niatier left wns exhai]<cied by means of strong spirits of wina 
CSp, Gr. 0'840). Tlie iilcolinlic solution was concentrated bv evapo- 
ration, and iillowcd to stand in ii nearly syrupy state for about tea 
days, in order to cry!«tnllise. The crystals, which are caffeine, were 
collected upon a sniiiU filter, and compressed j>owi'rfully to remove 
the mother liquor. These crystals were re-dis«olved in a small quan- 
tity of water; the Roliition evaporated and crystallised anew. It?xve 
nImoHt nothing but cafl'eine, in long silky white needlcSf witli little or 
no rolour. 

"Wbc-n it ia merely desired to extract cnfleine from raw or roasted 
coQce witiioui resanl to ({uantily, the general pr<M'ess for the extrac- 
tion of organic bases, by means of ether, sutfiees. Lime is adde<l to 
the infusion of coffee, which is then evaporated to dryness uptm i 
wat«r-bath. The extract may be divi(U*d by means of clean rood, 
and then agitsted with ether. The caffeine crystallises as the ether 
evanoruteSf or it may l>c rc-dissolved in water, and crystallised afraiit. 
"We believe," write Mosj^rs. Graham and Stenhoune, " that the catTeine 
fromlOpercent. of cofftre in a uiixturc might bo extracted, in sufficient 
quantity for its identification, bv the preceding simple proces. 
Oaffeinef when once obtainefl, is fully recognised by its easy sublima* 
tion, and also by its action with nitric acid, in which it resemblei 
uric acid. When the solution of caffeine in niinc acid is evapfu'ated 
to dryness, and exposed to ammoniacal gas, it is covered by a pink 
blush, likt^ murcxiile.** 

The coffee seed likewise contains about 13 per cent, ofglt^en^ which, 
being for the luo^t part in<tolub1e in boiling water, is contained in ike 
coffee grounds. In some countries the grounds are drauk as well as 
the coffee. 

The following analyses show the comparative and average 
position of the unroasted coffee-berry and the tea4eaf, ai imported 
into Europe : — 









Gum andflugar 









Fat and volatile oil 



Tannic acid - 



Woody fibre 








The quantity of coffee exhraotive oblaintnl from the cofTee seed by 
Iter, differ* Tcry much in differerit sampii-s, — a ibfferL'noe not ex- 
plwned by tlie extent of roasting of the »eeda. The addition of an 
alkali — ai soda — to the water, incrcoaea the auionnt of extract, and 
a itrongcr inAuion. 


Structure of the Coffee Seed. 
Two parts are tobediseriniinated in tht; coffee- berry — the substance 
the berrv, and the testa, or investment by vrhieh it is surrounded. 
The herry^ previous to roasting, and even after it hiu been aoaked 
a lon^ tiroe in water, t!( hard and tough, in which reitpect it dillera 
1 all tbc>«c substimcea which enter itito the adullcr^lion of coffee, 
which become suftenLil by immersion in cold water, the hardness 
retained subsequently to tlie cburrinrr, and \-a 80 great, that by 
ebaracter alone the fra^nents of the [ground and roasted coffee- 
may be readily distinguished from tnose of cbieury. 
cxmsisU of an asftemblaze of vesicles or cells of an tinffvlar form, 
b adhere ao firmly together tli.-it iher break up into piWes rather 
■eparate into distinct and jierfet-t ceils. The {*avilies of the cells 
ude, in the form of liitle diopn, a considerable ipiantity of aromatic 
latile oil, on the presence of which the frajjrance iind many of the 
five priociplefl of the berry mainly depend. Fig. 2i. 

c Uitn^ or investing menibnuie, presents a structure very distinct 
that of the sulistanc>4 of the berry itself, and when once seen it 
be confounded with any other tissue which has vet been ob- 
entering into the adulteration of coffee : it is made up princi* 
Itv of elongated and adherent cell*, forming a singii.' layer, and 
Ting oblique markings upon their surfaceii ; these cells rest upon 
otl>er thin membrane which presents an iudidtinct fibrous Ktructure. 
cen the berry and its covering some essential oil is generally 
I. Fi^. 23. 

The quantity of this membrane present in a broken and divitletl 
in any lample affords, therefore, some clue to tlie atuouut of 
oootained in it. 





It has been proposed to deprive the berry of this mcinbnine, and a 
patient luis uetually been taken out Ibr tiiis purpose — a process of 



BeetloD of UxxoastU) CorrKB Biikt. ahoirini the dH naA Airra of 
Iha cell*, k* wll u th« drop* at oil ouoUlittd wilhin thtir ekvt- 
Um. Dnwn wiUi tiw C«nwra Lucid^, uid nutgnUkd 140 dU- 

somewbat doubtful utttUy, because tbo removal of this tissue cannot 
be eflVclcil withrmt the loss of the greater part of the essential oil 
Ivinff between it and (he berrjr, and usually udlicrent to the former. 
In the act of roasting, however, more or less of ilii.H membrane ht- 
comes uparated from the berry, when it h termed by the roasten 
•• flighu/" 

In the c>*'>"ve which runs alonp each berry, a few small vessels^ each 
formed of n stnglu and continuous spiral thread, are usually to be met 
with ; it is impossible, however, to eonfoHnd these with the tJuct« here- 
after to be described, and which occur in certain other vegetable 

Now tlic roasting of the berry does not tdtcr its structure ; tlx 
tissiicf) are indeed partially clmrred, but they fftill pres"rve their chief 
characteristics. The eit^entiul oil, however, is no lonjrer visible in the 
cells in ihe form of niiiuUe drops vr spherules. This has, in part, 
been dissipated by the henl einplnyed in the prt>ce»» of roasting, and 
in part is more gcrierully dilfiist.'i] thrim;:bout the cavities uf the 
cells; that it i« not entirely dirtsipalt'd and destroyed is evident from 
the fact, that in ground roasted colTee, dilTuaed m a little water, tlM 



Ai] iDAy b« roadilj detected in considernble quantitjr in a. partially 
l(i««d BUtte, in litde masses uf irregidar size and form. Fig. 24> 


i<4lfc«Ij>T««Ti<(a MuHBtitrEorth^cnOlM benj. ahovlnf lu •tmotnic. 

Cm TBS ADn.TEBATioH oT CorrsB. 

Tli«re Are few articles or consumption moro subject to extenflive 
adullcnuion, and ilits of the grostie^t kind, than cofT<ie. 

At the time when we lirst directed uur Attention to theadultoration 
of OptfeCi ttbuut aix jcars «ince, it was Hciircclj' |K)BAible to procure 
I Miapla ni g^nMind ccQ've, no matter what the price paid for ic or 
irWrc it WMf puirhiiK'tl, that w;is not hir^cly ndultt^ruteij. 

Ad/$iiemlnfH u'tih Chicnry. — The most prcvali-nl uilultcratton of 
«o(b^ t* wiib chicorj. lu nearly nil the sample.s tlien examined 
iUeory formetl a large proportion of the aitii-le, while in many in- 
ttanOM it coosisttfl uhnn-t cntirelr of chicory. At the present time 
cotfcc i» still much adulterated with chicory, while the eoni|H>und ftoM 
vith Hut UbeU now pre8i-ritK.'d by the law, '^ i'his is a mixture of 
ducory uid culTee,** vfieo cousisla of little cLm; than chicory. 




Even the grinding of coffee in the presence of the purchaser affonU 
DO certain guarantee for the genuineness of the articJc, as not un- 




A fragment of Roai tbd CorvsR. Drswn vlih the CAinem LadiU, KOd macnlflMl 

frequently the grocer ndniitly convey* into the null, from a box placet! 
close to it, a» mnny chicory nibs oa he pleases, and which, owing to 
their resemblance in size and colour to coffee berries, are not readily 
distinguiehotl at a short distance. 

Even whole roasted L-uffce has been ndulteratcd with chicory: In 
this ca«e the berrieF [ire cumprL'ssed into tht' form of coffee berries. In 
18dOt Messrs. Duckworth, tif Liverpool, lo<>k out a patent for mould- 
ing chicory into the ahape of berries : tliey appear Irt have been induced 
to do so in consequence of the existeiii;e in 1650 of a Treasury 
minute, wliich allowed of the sale of chicory mixed with coffee with- 
out any restriction. 

It has been loudly nnd repeatedly urgfd in extenuation of this 
adulteration, csi>ecially by grocers, that the addition of chicory to 
coffee is a great improvement. Tliere are undoubtedly some few per- 
sons who consider that it dues iniiirove the Oavour by making the 
infuiiion more bitter, allhimgh that is not our npiniun, imh- tbut of the 
great majority of persons. We believe, moreover, tlii-t the taste of 
those persons who really prefer the mixture, has been vitiatetl, mid that 
had they the opportunity of partaking of well prepared and unu<lul- 
tcrated coffee, they would not be hm;; before tncy acknnwledjxed the 
infinite superiority of the genuine beverage even as a matter of taste. 
When the relative propt-rttes of cofiee and chicory are taken into ac- 




oountf no doubt whatever can be entertained aa to which U the supe- 
rior article. The composition and properties of chicory will be shortly 

TUi ncnffaic czhiblta the itraetan ud ckknetan of r fu fci- fmaid Come 

Again, it has been asserted that in France and other continentAl 
countries the use <»f chicory is almost universal. We have taken con- 
siderable painSf when abroad, to ascertain how far this statement is 
correct, and we will new state with what results. We found that in 
ail the good hotels in Frfince and Germany the coffee served up was 
genoinCf and did not contain a particle of chicory ; also, that chicory 
wu not mixed with coffee in the houses of the wealthy, but that it 
vas largely enipIoye<l, either separately or mixed with co6ee, by poor 
persons, and amongst the dooiestica, not beeauj« it was considered to 
De an improvement, but on the score of economy, chicory costing about 
2d. or tki per lb., and coffee four or five times as much. This is the 
real secret of the use of chicory abroad, and not because of any 
preference, or that it improves the flavour of coffee. Where money 
IS not an object^ and where the best coffee is required, chicory is but 
•eldoin had recourse to. The practice, then, abroad is the very 
reverse of what lins been asserted, and it affords no countenance 
to the statement that coffee is improved by the use of chicory. 

1 2 



Afsin, if ri?n1ly an improvement, as some persons consider, it woiiUl 
only be ao wben uni))Ioyudin certiiiri pruportionn. Now in the ground 
coffee sold in the shops in this country^ it is met with in every 
proportion, it constituting sometimes over 90 |i*r cent, of the article. 
The ftllepalion that chicory improve*! the flavour of coffee^ would 
not warrant its use to nnytliing like thnt extent. 

It cannot therefore be doubted for a moment that the Tcnl cause 
of the extensive employment of chicory in this country, is that by 
its means gnwers are enabled to enhance yresilly their profils. 

But we will suppose, for sake of arpumentT (hat it in a decided im- 
provement ; yet thia does not justify the sale of a mixture of chicory 
i\n<l coffee, a* nnd under the name of coflfee, coflee frequently 
forminfj but a smidi per-centa<;e of the article. Such n mixture^ if 
permitted at all, shouUt not only be sold Itdiclled as u mixture, but the 
projjortions of each in^fredient should be specified. 

We consider that few persona will be tliajjused to question the rijiht 
of the purchaser, when lie enters a shop and n»ks for a particular 
article, to expect that he will be supplied with the article he de- 
mnndri ; and that if he oj^ks for coffee he will be supplied with coffee^ 
and not with a mixture of two articles in the must uncertain and 
indr'finite proportions. 

Let the two articles, therefore, be sold separately, nnd let them be 
purchased by the public ut their respective price». This is the simple 
and Htraigbtturward course to pursue, and is that which is adopted on 
the continent. 

At length, and after years of labour and argument, the government 
has been driven tn acknowledge the imprnpriety of permitting chicory 
lo be sold under the name of coffee, and frfqiieiitly also at the price of 
that article; and within the last two ycurs or so, it h&s been required 
that the mixed article should be sold lnl>ellcd *' This is a mixture of 
Chicory and Coflee." 

But tlii» regulation by no^ means fulliU the requirements of justice, 
because the mixture is often pabned off when coffee only is asked 
for, and because the proportions of the inprcdients are not stated. 

There is one circumsrance which nhtiidd be fiarticularly remembered 
in considerinj; the question of the adulteratitm of ciiffee with chicory, 
namely, the difference8,Jehemieal and physiological, which exist between 
the two article?. 

Coffee and Chicory cnntniMed. — Coffee Is the seed of a plant, and it 
contains essential oil or catfeone, caffeic aciil, and a peculiar print-jple 
termed caffeine ; each of the^e constituents possesses different nnd 
highly impf^rtant properties, upon which the value of cofft-e mainly 

Chicory Is the root of a plant belonping to the family of the 
dandelions. It contains no essentiid oil, tannic acid, or alkaloid 
analogous to that of coffee. The chief constituenta of which it is 




mude up when roMtoii, nre a liltle giim, stirrftr partly bume<l and 
reduced to caramel, colouring matter, and insahibfe veiietable tissue. 

Between the two artii:les, therefore^ there U no andc^ whatever; 
and in proportion as the strength of coffee 19 reduced bv admixture 
with chicory, so are the active properties of colfce diminished. 

It ift to the presence of constituents similar to thu»c of coffee that 
tea, as has already been pointed out, und ulso cocoa, owe their active 
propertieH, and which has led to the ulmost uuirersal employment of 
either t£a, coffee, or cocoa over nearly the whole of the inhabited por- 
tions of the globe. 

But coffee is subject to adulteration with a variety of other articles 
besidcit chicory. 

Aflulieratiun with RiHutetl Grainy RooU^ Acorns, Suwdunt, ^r. 
Thus it is not unlreiiuently udult^-ruted with rotuted grant, princi- 

fally wheats and also with scorched peat and beant ground into powder. 
,eM coinmonly roasted carrotXy mawfold'Wurzrl^ ry<r, and acorn* have 
been employed, and even woody fibre, or sawdust, especially mahogany 
sawdust. We have ourflclvca delected sawdust on two occasions, 
and the other substances mentioned in several instances. 

Other articles whiuh have been forwarded to us, and which it has 
been stated have been used in the adulterution of coQ'ee, are, first, an 
article termed '^coffiiuiP oaX-bark tatiy exhausted tan termed croatSf and 
baked kttrxes lioers. 

The article on which the name of coffina was* bestowed, was intro- 
duced into this country in IS^l, and was expressly made for the adul- 
teration of coffee. It was ilcscribcNl as the seed of u Turkish plant, 
which was found to be highly nutritious. On subjecting it lucxiimi- 
n»tion with the microscope, it was ascertained to consist of liie roasted 
seeds of some leguminous plant, probably a lentil. 

Of this article we were infnrmed that no less than eighty tons were 
oflercd for sale by a Scotch hou*; at abiiut I '2/. per ton ; that is, at about 
l^rf. per lb. On this single transaction the revenue would be de- 
frauded of no less u sum than 4480/., and the public of ut least four times 
that umount, namely 18,000/. 

The importation of about one hundi*ed tons of lupin seed from Kgypt 

into GloA^ow, has led, writes a correspondent, to the conjecture that 

this cofUua wns made from it, — a conjecture most probably correct, 

since the structures met with in cofBna exactly resemble those of lupin 


The same firm to which the coffina was sent was offered, at about 
the same time, five hundred tons of forei;rn acorns at &L per ton, or 
leas than three farthinpi per lb. Should these have found a pur- 
chaser, the revenue would have been cheated to the extent of t28,ObO/., 
and the public to thut of 112,000/. The acorns, when rfia.tted and 
powdtreil, were intended to be used in the adulteration of coffee. 

In a little work, publishciJ some four or five years since, entitled 

1 3 



** Coffee as it U and as it on^ht to be," the following observations 

iK'Cur in reference Ut the u»e of baked horses' anil bullocks' livers; — 

"In various parts uf the meLropolis, but more especially in the east, 

are to be found liver bakers. These men take the livers of oxen and 

Fif. 9L 

Drkwn with the C»Tncn Luci^Ik, bikI tnBgnilled'14'i dJiiiiittfn. 

horses, bake I hem, and grind them into ft powder which they sell to 
the low-priced coffee-shop keepers at from 4rf. to Gt/. per lb., horses* 
liver coffee beiiring the highest price." It may be known, tlie 
writer states, " by allowlnjr the coffee to stand until cold, when a 
thick y>enicle or akin will l>e found upon the top. It goes further 
than coffl'e, and is generally mixed with coffee and other vegetable 
imitations of coffee." 

The adulteration of coffee in some oases alten* and reiluces so greatly 
the colour iind appearance of the article, as well a:< of the infusion made 
from it, that the use of colourinp niatter3 is fret^uently necessitated. 

One of these is burnt Htigar, familiarly known in the grocery trade 
and by coffee-shop keepers as BInck JacK. 

It is sold to the coffee-shop keepers usually in tin canisters at 1«. 
per lb.: it is sometimes dtfuuniinatud tho coffee refiner { it is, however^ 


rather a coIovirJiif; oj^cnt, and it ia employed to impart colour and bit- 
terness to bevunig(?6 uiude iVoni adultiTaUHl conijc, these being the 
qualities wliich in the ejres of superSoiul observers denote strength 
aiid goodness. 

Sugar is sometimes added to coffee berries while underrroiiig the 
process of roasting, and, being then burned, is converted into a cofTee 

Another article used to give increased colonr to adulterated ground 
coffee is V'enetian redy or some other analogous ferruginous earth. Vf'a 
have not only ourselves obtained repeated evidence of the use of this 
substance, but we shall presently quote a passage from the writings of 
the late Dr. Pereira in reference to its employment. 

In the latter part of IS^Othe inithor read a communication to the 
Botanical Society of Lnndnn on tlio uduUerntion uf cnlfee ; that is 
some months before the puhlicatinn of the fii*Ftof his Rcporuin "The 
Lancet" on adulteration. In thh the auifiur dc^crilM.'u, tor the first 
time, the results at which he had been enabled tu arrive by the ex- 
amination of cufieu by means of the microscope. These results wer& 
as follow : — 

BendU of the Microacopieal Examination of thirty-four different 
Coffees of all QualUie* and Prices^ and avid under the fuUowing at- 
tractive Titiet : 

Coffeeg of High Price, 

1. Finest Mocha Cnffee, No adulteration. 

2. Noted Old Mocha. No adullcraiion. 

3. Finest Jnmaica Coffee. No adutteration. 

4. Hich Old Mocha, Of chicory, a good deal. 
6. Beit Ohi Mocha. A little chicory. 

6. Fitte Old Turkey Coffee. 3Iuch chicory. 
7- Vtry Fine Mocha. Much chicory. 

8. Genuine Old Mocha. A little chicory. 

9. Finest Turkey Coffee. Contains chicory. 

10. Celebrated Old Mocha. A good deal of chicory. 

Ciffeet of Medium Price. 

11. Co0ta Rica Coffee. Nearly one-half chicory. 

13. Fine Jamaica Coffee. Contains a considerable quantity of 
roHsted com. 

13. Veliriouw Coffee. Roasted beans and chicory, forming about 

one-third of the article. 

14. PlaiitatinH Coffee. Of roasted corn much, with some chicory, 

both together forming not \&n than a third of the sample. 
16. Finest Turkey Coffee. Much chicory, and some roasted com; 

very little cotlee. 
16. Celebrated Jamaica. Very little coffee, principally chicory. 

I 4 



About one-half coiFL^c, much chioor/, 

17. Finest Berhiee Coffee. 

and some wheat, 

18. SpUndid Turkey Coffee, About one-hulf c< flue, the rest chicory. 

19. Fine Plantatum Coffee. Oiie-tbirii coflee, ihe rest chicory, 

with a little rousted corn. 

20. Beantiful Jamaica Ctffee. Two-thirds cofTee, ihe rest clucorj, 

witJi u little corn. 

21. FiueMt Jam Coffee. Half cofiec, much roasted corn, with a 

little chicory. 

22. Superior Plantation Coffee, Three-fourths coffee, the remainder 


Coffees of Low Price. 

23. Fine Mountain Coffee. Fotir-tiflli§ coffee^ one-fifth chicory. 

24. Pantian Coffee. Princijmliy cbicoiy and corn ; very little 


25. Superb Coffee. The principal port corn and chicory ; very 

little cotTce. 

26. Rieh drinking Coffee. One-third coffee, the rest chicory, with 

some roasted <.'urn. 

27. Very excellent Coffee. Oue-half coffee, the other mostly chicory, 

28. Delicious Fantity Coffee, Ouc-fuurth Cufftie, three-fourths chi- 


29. Fine Ceylon Coffee. Very little coffee, a great deal of chicory, 

with 9UI11C roa$tod corn. 

30. Fine Jaca Coffee. AIucU chicory and aome roasted potato ; very 

liillc coffee. 

31. Coffee a» in France. Principally chicory. 

32. Very excellent Coffee. PriiK-ipally cliicory. 

33. Fine Plantation CeyUm. Nearly all chicory ; very little coffee. 

34. Delicious drinking Coffee. A large quantity of chicory, and 

much roasted corn. 

From an examination of this Table it appears — 

Iftt. Tiiat of the thirty-four coffcca, thirty-one were adulterated. 

2nd. That chicory wus present in thirty-one of the samples. 

3rd. Roasted com in ttrelce. 

4lh. Hcans and potato llnur, each in one sample. 

5th. That in sixteen cases the adullornlinn consisted of chicory only. 

6tb. That in the remainiiigyr/lr^^N sampler, the adulteration conhislcd 
of chicory, and either ro:iste4l corn, bean.x^ or [totatoea. 

7th. That in many instanci'S the quantity of coffee present was very 
small; while in others, it formed not more than one-fil'lu, 
fourth, third, half^ amtso on of tlie whole artlile. 

We are satisfied that the gross ag^^ri-wat*? of the adulterations 
detected did not amount to leas than one-third of the entire bulk of 
the quantity piu'choscd. Now, on referring to the Kevenue Ketunu, 



Snd tbat tbe mm derired from the duty on cotTee for 1855 wna 

•IHL 1 1*. 9</., an amount wliicli welmve no beHitation in sny)ngnii<flit 

e been enormously increuscd liy vigilance in ihe (i*.*U;i:liun of the 

ultoration of thid important article, and by pun't«hixient of the fraud 

en detected. 

Since Uie da(« referred to, we have exurniued t^ome liumlrotls of 
plea v( ground cofl'ee.* Until witliin thu last year or two, we always 
found a very Lu-jje proportion of tbe samplesi to lieaduiterat-ed. Mure 
recently, however, the cotiditioti of the urticlu has ^'rently iNi[)roveil ; 
the groaaer adulterations, — whatever may be the state of things in the 
vifkoea, — M far as the metropnlis is concerneili ure now much less 
tlCftlly prartifted : the principal adulteration iti that with i-huory, 
is Mill mixed with eodee, and sohl without the prescrilied label 
soffee. This improved eiato of thiugii is undonhtcdJy due to 
repe ate d exr>u>ures made witliin tbe \asl four or tive years. But 
it not perfectly certain, if these exposures were to cease, that mailers 
iiM ff«xin become even worse than belbre, and that t!ie •»cnndalou8 
i nefarious practices which once prevaded iii the adulteration of 
this article would speedily l*e rife again ? 

The adulterations by means »( roasted com, beans, coffee oolonrcr, 
snd Venetian red are altogether indefensible, .since the only thinj:; in 
c«nnmon between most of these and cofiee is the colour which they 
II infusion or decoction. 
- !<; rears tiace, roasted corn, principally rye, was largely sold, 
axid employed to make a beveraijeT which, by a Bction, was digni&ed 
by tbe name of coffee ; the chief argument, independent of price, 
Bf^ed in fttvour of it, was its supposed nutritive properties. 

Whim it is recollected that the starch of roasted corn is in part 
rrUttCvd to the condition of charcoal, it will at once be perceived that 
it* natritive qualities cannot be very great, and chat a smgle uioutblul 
le bread contains more nouribhment than a dozen cups of 
nude from roasted com. 

i " roaxted com " is now no longer sold openly, yet, as we 

i>een. the grocer has not failcfl to uviiil himself of it fur his 

»efit, but to the great disadvantage of llie public, 

atbilteration of coflce bv subs-tances so chtap and. for the pur- 

U* Hhi<-li tht-y are applied, worthlc:*s as these, is a gross fraud, 

iplmtie condemniition, and, when ascertained to be proc- 

u)g exposure and punishment. 

On the Deiectum of the Adtdterationa of Coffee* 

^AtflMUks to be resorted to fir the detection of the adulterations 
0f«oSW, ftre of three kinds : namely, certain physical characters and 
ptmarnnuni preaeute^l by adulterated samples ; the microscope ; 

* IW iwtlcMtes at Umm MuaOiMtioui are recorded io " Food sod lU Adullcrmtloiw. '* 



and chemistry. By the first, we ascertain in ftomc casea the pcncml 
fact whether the sumplc Ja rtduPerated or not; and by the others, 
eiipeciiilly by tho microscope, we leurn the nature of the pariiculHr 
adulturalioD or adulteratioiiB practised. 

The first means consist in noticing whether the esmple in the mass 
cakes or coheres, whether it floats in water or not, ami the colour of 
the infusion. 

If the ground coffee cakes in the paper in which it is folded or 
when pre:tsed between the fingers, there w jrood reason (or believing 
that it is adulterated, mt»st probably with chicory. 

If, when a few pinches uf the suspected cuflee are placed upon some 
water in a wine-;;la.H», part tloats and part liinks, there is rea^n to 
believe that it is adulterated: it may be either with chicory, rr>astcd 
com, or Minic other Jinid«^(tus subslnnces. The colTrc does not im- 
bibe the water, but floats on the aurloce, while the other substances 
absorb the water, and jrT'aiiuully subside to the bottom to a greater 
or less extent. Ususdly, hnwevLT, part «f the colTee subsidw with the 
chicory, and h jHtrtion of the latter remains on the surtui:e with the 
coffee ; and atYer the lapse of a short time, in general, both cuffec and 
chicory fall to the bottom. 

Again, if the rnid water to which a portion of ground coffee has 
been adde<l, quickly becomes deeply coloured, it is an evidence of the 
presence of somo roasted vegetable substance or burnt sugar ; for 
when coffee is added to water, it. becomes scarcely coloured fur some 

Lastly* if in a few grains of coffee, spread out on a piece of glass and 
moistened with a few tlropa of water, we are enabled lo pick out, by 
mean<i(>fa nee*IIe, minute pieces nf substance of a soft cnnsistence, 
the coffee is iloubtless adulterated ; for the particles of the cotlee seed 
are hard and resii^tlng, and do nut Iwcomc soft oven after prolonged 
immersion in water. 

AVhen, therefore, any sample cakes into a mass, quickly furnishes to 
cold water a deep-coloured S"lution. or is found to contain, when 
moistened with water, sufl particK's like those of bread-crumb, there 
QUI be no question as to the existence of adulteration. 

The general characters of genuine grouinl coflee are, therefore, the 
reverse of the above. 

By these general means, and without hnving recourse to science, 
the observer is ot\en enabled lo state whether any sample of coffee is 
adulterated or not ; but in order to iletermine the cluiructer of the 
adulteration practised, wo must employ either the microscope or 
chemistry. In the ca^e of coffee, by far the most imp''jrtant inform- 
ation is furni-Oied by the miiroscope ; indeed, chemjstry affords no 
certain means for the iilcniiljcalion of the miijnriiy of the vegetable 
substances emiiloyed in ibe adukeralion of coliee, and did it do so, it 
would hardly be required, since these may be so readily detected bj 
the microscope. 



1 33 

Grahxtn, Stenbouse^ and Campbell h»ve instituted some 
^>ecial cheniicul inquiries on the mode of detecting vegetable sub* 
stances mixed with coffee: these will be found rct'erred to, at some 
length, under the nrtifle Chicory. 

The result ol' these invcslipations is, tliat it is easy enou;;b to ascer- 
tain by means of chemistry the general fact of adulteration, but that 
it is not possible by the same means to detumiioe tbe nature of the 
adulteration practifict), even that with chieury. 

The general fact of adulteration may be determined in a variety 
of ways; as, in addition to tlie colour of the infusion and by its specific 
Ifravity, by the quantity oi sugar contained in it, and the composition 
of the ash. 

The quantity of augar in roasted coffee rarely exceeds 1*12 per 
cent, white in tbe saccharine rooia used in the adulteration of coffee — 
as those of roasted chicory, carrot, parsnip, and mangold-wurzel — it 
Tarie» from 9 to 1 8 per cent. 

The mont distinctive peculiarity of the composition of the ash of 
coffee, is the small ([uantity o( silica contained to it : "the presence," 
state Messm. Gnilium and Stenhnuse, **or 1 per cent or upwardn of 
silica in the ashes of coffee is a proof of adulteration; that the adul- 
terating substances which increase the proportion of silica moat 
considerably are oats and barley, then chicory and dandelion, wbich 
are followed by r)-e and wheat ; but turnips and carrots would produce 
a small aud less decisive effect." 


DftertninaHon of the Sugar in adultmratrd Coffee. 

The foUnwinc process may be pursued for the deicrmination of the 
mgar: — Two thousand grains of the article are to be infiisod iu three 
separate pints of water, tbe Grst cold, and tbe second and third warm. 
To this infusion udd about ime-eighth part of brewers yeast, weighed 
after being dried by pressure in n calico bag. Tbe fermentation is to be 
continued for fortv-eight hours, the infusion being kept at a temfierature 
of from 80 to90°Fahr. The liquor is then to he di-^tifled twice, the alco- 
holic solution weiched, and il^ ppecifu^ gravity taken at a temperature 
of WO" Fahr. When the quantity of pu;:ar and the amount of alcohol 
developed is yery small, recourse oiay be Lad to tbe fermentation 

The articles which have been detected entering into the adul- 
teration of ground coffee, have already been enumerated: they are 
roots of ditierent kinds, parlicularly chicory and mangold-wurzel ; 
vorioas farinaceous substances in the roasted and puwdcretl state, as 
wheat flniir, beans, and acorns, besides woody fibre or sawdust, burnt 
sugar, and Venetian red, or reddle. 

On the Detection of Chicory — Some five or six years since, an 
outcry having arisen in consequence of the substitutinn to an enormous 
extent of chicory for cofl'ce, and government being called upou to in- 



terfcre, the (juestion as to whether the presence of chicory in ground 
coffee was iliscovcruble or not by means of science, was rcftfrred by 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the time to a coniwission of 

These chemists reported, that " neitlier by chemistry nor by any other 
means whs the oflmixture of chicory with coffee to be detected." This 
report was publicly quoled by Sir Cfiftrics Wooil in the House of 
Common:!, and on the mrength of it the guvemment refused to inter* 
fere in the prevention of the adulteration of coffee. Now at the some 
time the nuthur showed, in the moat conclusive manner, that nothing 
is more en8y and certain than the detection of chicory tu coffee by 
means of the microscope. 

The structure of cuffee baa already been fully described ; that of 
chiwiry will shortly lie considered : it may be stated now, however, 
that it differs in every respect from coffee, in the rounded form and 
easy scpar^tbitity of its component cells, and in the presence of dotted 
ducts, and vosa lucticentia. 

Tlte differences will be sudJcieally obvious on an examination of the 
following figure. 


awvf U« ilnictatM In « Mmpli gf Co9wn nikttnMta wM CHICOU. 
<> 1. eont ! b ft, cbkofy. 

Detection of Matigold-WurzeL^-Thh root differs from cbicor; i« 



TCfT much Iiipgcr nze of the cells, and in the absence of milk vessels 
lacticcQtic. J^'igt. 2b. and 29. 

Aff. 96. 

YWb fl(a>* ■■hlkiV th* qbIU of vhtch th» rvA of MAVooLivmnkL li chfmtj 
mnme • 11 «UI ti vtmmA tliftt ti\«y ut mvmuI uni«a iwgcr th«n Umm of 

Dtdediim of Cnrrot nnii Parimip. — The tuber of carrot fliffers 
cfait^orv rhiellv in the absence of milk vessels ; that of parsnip in 
tbe«b«enci* of Ihe »iinie vessels, aiul in the presence in the cells of 
ftfnilftHT formed starch corpuf^oles of sinall f^izo. 

On the Defectum vf Wheat Flonr^ d^'c. — It ih generallj stated thut the 
pTf'^fnce of roasted com or aiiy other substance contiiintn;: a lorpe 
^^|fr|H>rl4i>n of starch, niny be detected bv the blue coh>ur produce<l on 
^Hbe addition of a solution ol' iodine to the cold decoction. We have 
^ElDt found this to be correct in all coses, for on adding inline todccoc- 
^Hpons of tire ddferent colFees iiscertained to be adulterated with ronsted 
^"iMix. tiie li(|uids did not become blue, but almost blmk, with a tinge 
oTbrovn or olive. This api^ears to ame from the obscuration of the 


^-' 1 nt to whether the presence of chicory in ground 

Slit^ il'le or not by meano of science, was referred by 

Ul« ^ftivuwUor uf (he Exchequer of the time to a commtMion of 

These chuiuiiitt roporlod, that "neither by rhemirtry nor by any other 
tu«»H>'.* w lid iht) iidmixturo of chicory with coffee to be detected." This 
'* UK piiblii'ly (pitted by Sir Charles Wood in the Himse of 
, uitd nn tlio (tirength of it the goveriiiuent refueed lu inier- 
I'ls (It the |iu(Vttntion of the adultcrution of coffee. Now at the same 
liuiti thn uullmr showed, in the nio:(t conclusive manner, that nothing 
iH luuro t'i*»y ithil certadn than the detection of chicory in coffee by 
Uiuuuk of the hticroBiutjH}. 

Thvi ilrurltiru of coffee has already been fully described ; that of 
ektt:'iti7 will ttlmrtly be cotisidere*! : it iniiy be stad^d now, however, 
thitt it dilVi-m in overy res|»ect from cotlee^ in the rounded form and 
ii4iiy •e|iui.thiliiy of its component cells, aad iu the preiieuce of dotted 
dut-.u, uimI vuia lactiocntia. 

Thu thlffruiiueg will be sufficiently obvious on an examination of the 
fciiluMiiig ligurti, 

tium tht rtnictiiru tn b wmpl* t.f Corn* «tf«Jfcr^«f wOA CwroRr. 
a u. coOfee ; b b, eliltwry. 

Detection of Mangold- WurzeL— This root differs from chicory in 




be ffUI«d, generally, that those of wheat consist of rounded and llat- 
tened discs of various sixes. The appearances which they present ore 

■—111 of Q^« mOiMtniiai wM hoA CmcuKr om/ roaated WitUT. 
• a. MAa 1 * 1^ olikorT l e c, whe«t fluur. 

^NK^tinct from the cells of either coffee or chicory, as will be seen 
IH^Be annexed engruviof;. Fig. 30, 

dH fil* Drieetion of BtMn Flour. — The substance of the seed of the 
bcmn b BUide ap of cellis each of which contains several litArch cor- 
piBclcs. The fomi and chorocters of these nre very distinctive ; 
ihe^ uv fur the oiomI part either ova) or unifurni, with n central 
vity of an elongated form, and from the margin of which eborC 
9» or pmccoM* may be seen radiating. So long in some of the 
aniile* of medium size is this cavity, that they appear to be com- 
pletely bisected; occasionally a few strongly marked concentric 
najTB ore visible. Some uf these characters arc exhibited inT^^'. iM. 

Om lAr Pfteciion of RiMtxtttl and Ortmml Acorn — 'tUa prcacnce of 
liitj Dubfttmnce is distin<;ui»hed by the lorni and bizeti uf the starch 
corfwiftde^, which form so Urge a part of the acorn, /i^, 32. 

On the Detectwn of Savdiul. — The detection of sawdust, especially 
mabojrany lawilust, U extremely easy; the presence of woody fibre of 
•umc kind or other is sure to be discovered h hen the suspected samplefl 



come — as they always ought — to be ^aminetl with the microscope. 
The presence of sawdust hftving been thus asceruined, a pound or bo of 


CVtr B^wlte^ali ^ wUk both CmcoiT iMrf roaaltj Bt.kir%. 
astuoflkai bk^iiUtary t cf. TOMMdtaui lour. 

the coflee should be spread out on a slip of glass, and moistened with 
wal*r, when the fra;7nii»nl:9 of wrBwly fibre uiut pynemlly be pick<!d 
out bv mean* of a netMJlc ; they .nliould then be subjected to a more 
careful microscopicjil sorutiny. 

The woo«ly fibre of plants, like the cellulose, starch corpnsctes, and 
vc»9cls» frequently no?sosses distinctive chnractcrs, viHible un<lcr the 
inicroBunpe, by whicn tlie plant or tree furniehin^ it may be identified. 

In the cft'^e of malinjt[fiiiy sawdust the ideiitificution is easy enouph ; 
the eompnrlness of the Utile masses of fibre, the utrong rross markin{^, 
and the n.lour are sulHcicntly charnctcrislic. 

It should be remembered that chicory, especially the older roots, con- 
tains a small proportion of woody fibre, so that care roust be exercised 
not to confound this fibre with exlraneous woody fibre or sawdust intro- 
duced for the purpose of adulterutiun. If the quantity of fibre 
present be very small, and it a^n'ees with that of chieory in its struc- 
ture OS seen under the micrn^enpe, there can be little doubt but that the 
fibre beloni:s tn the root of chicory. 

On the Detection of Caramel or Burnt Sugar. — When the water 



added to auv f^ainplc of fjroundcoirec becomes deeply and quickly co- 
loured, and when on examination witb tbe microscope it la ascertained 

Fig. XI, 

Sunrle oC Onf<*t otttJumud tHiJt ^^und Acoas. a o, oolite i b 6, eklOdlT | 

that no foreign vegetable is present, there will be good reason fur sap- 
posing that it contains burnt sugnr. 

Again, wht'o shining black purticles are perceptible in the coffee, and 
these slowly dissolve in water, pivinjj ri»c ton dark-coloured solution, 
it undoubtedly contains the snlfslani-c in question. Soinelirnes, when 
the particles are too small to be tliscerncd by the naked eye, tbey maybe 
seen under the microscope, and their solution iu water watched. 

Again, the presence of burnt su^or may be dctecte<l by adopting 
the loUowing j)roce»9: — From a weighed ({uantity of dried coffee an 
infuaiun in cold water is to be prepared : this must be eva|>orat«d 
in a woter-batb, dried, and lasted. If the extract bo dark-coloured, 
brittle, and possess the bitter taste of burnt sugar, no doubt remains 
as to the presence of that substance. 

Wfe are unacquainted witb any process by which the quantity of 
burnt suffiir prL'sent con be accurately determined, seeing that the 
extract funiishe<l by pure coffee vai-ie3 very greatly, and that of 
■dalterated coffee to a stiU more considerable ext«nt ; while ftUo the 



composition of the burnt sugar is so much chonj^d, that its nmoait 
cannot be deter tniiied in thv &ume umniiur as ^apc su^or. 

On the Deduction of Vertctmn Red. — .Sniuetmics mt hen the Venetian 
red haa been t'iireles;*ly i(ieor[>orutetI with tbe cotlVe, particles of it 
maj bti detected with the naked eye ; but it h not often tbat it can be 
dbcovered in this way. The process to be adopted in ordinary cases 
is as follows : — A |M>ption of tlie suspecto<i t^>ft'.fe is to be incinerated, 
and the colour of the ash noted : if this be deoi>ly coloured and of a rusty 
red or yellovrish hue» then Venetian red, reddle^ or some unologotu 
earthy substance baa been mixed with the Loflce. 

If we desire to form &ome opinion oa to the amount of this present, 
the cofl'ee must be dried ina wuter-bsitb, 500 'jin. incinerated, nnd the 
ash weighotl and analyseil ; thy weight may be compared with that of 
the ash of vjenuine coffee, and the usb tbeti tested i|u:Lntitativcly for 
iron, and, since the Venetian red is »(>metimt\t ilfldf adulternted with 
chalk, fnr it also. The process for the quuntiiative estimation of iron 
will befonnd detailed at pp. 10*2. and 141>., and that for chalk at p. lOt. 

It has thus been shown that coffee \i liable to a liirjjd Aud scon* 
dahius amount of adulteration. 

Tbe duty on coffee is -id. [H^r lb. until April 5th, 1657. Thereafter 
3(/. per lb. 


Home consumpLion 1854 duty 3J. 37,471,014. 

,» 1855 35,87fi,-i87. 

9 months of 1 8 JG 2<>,522,8-2 J . 

„ 1S55 27,598,417. 

Duty 4d. on and after April 21dt, 1855. 


CmcoRT, succory, or wiM endive, Cychorium Tntyhus, belong<i to 
the same natural family of plants as the donilelion, a M^ry chorac* 
rcristic and familiar cognomen of which we refrain from moutiouiof. 
Like the dan<leliun, chicory is indigenous, and may be seen {rrowlng 
in various pai-Ut of the country, by llie road or hed;i:e side \ it uiaT 
be recognined by the cwnipound chamcter of its tlower», and their 
bright anil 1>t^autiful blue coloin*. It blossomi in tlie months of 
August and September ; and uny person detiiring to |;et a sight of 
this very notorious vcgcUble, may grntify bis curiosity by a walk 
along tbc banks cif the Thamc*s, from Kew tor about u mile or «o in 
the direction of Kichuiond. 

'* Tliia plant," says M'Culloch, " is found rrrowing wild on calcareous 
soils of Eo{:Iand, and in mo6t countries ofKurupe. In its nalund Atate 
the stem riiK^s from one to three feet higb^ but when cultivated it shuota 




to the heifi;ht of Ave or eix feet* Tlie root runs deep into iho groiiud, 
and is white, und flciihr, undyii^ldii a milky jiiicti, It is cultivtitijd to 
some extent in thiii couiitrv as an herbnge jilaiit^ its cxeollence in lliis 
re!4p*!t;t having been strongly insisted upon by tlielute Arthur Ynung. 

" Hut in Gi'minny, and in some pinM^i of th<? KetheHand-. and Kriuioe, 
it is extensively eultlvuted lor the 6uke of ilb root, which is utied as a 
suU'-tilutc for coffee. 

When prepared on a hir^re scale, the roots itre partially dried 
find 8t)ld lo the niunutiiclurers of the article, who wii>h ihcni, cut tlieiu 
in pieces, kiln-Jry them, nnd grind ihein between tluLed rulJers into a 

" The powder has a striking rcseniblunce to dark ground coffoe, and 
a strong ndour of liquorice. It hn.s been exten^ively ii9C«l in Prussin, 
Brunswick, and other pnrt* of Gerinany, for sevenil years; but as it 
wants the essential oil, nnd the rich arouiatie tltivour of ctifloti, tt Has 
little in conminn wiih the latter, except it£ ouluur, und bus nulhiug 
to reeuuiniend it exL-cpt its cheapness." 

Notwiih»>tnndin^r ihiit ehicory *' bus nothinj; to recommend it except 
\ix cheapness," iind it \» us.ed exclusively (o aduUerulc coffee, it 
bos uf late yonr.f been raised in prcai quantity in tliis country, in the 
counties ol' Surrey, Bedford, and York, owing to the very iuipro[>er 
enciuiragcmcnt given by Government. 

Lar>[e crops of chicory are grown in Yorkshire, in the neighbour- 
hood, h is stated, of pronerty behinging to a lute Chancellor of the 
Exchequer ; and it was tni^ circuniKtunce wliich led lo the assertion 
that he was bini»elf an extensive grower of the plant. 

Thii statement has, however, been diatinetly contradicted by the 
Chancellor in (juestiim, wln>, in luuking knuwn llie denial, refrained 
from any allusion t4i the circiunstancc which explains the origin of the 
Tepf»rt, We are not surprised thtit the cbarae slionld have Wen made, 
fur it is only natural^ when an individual pertinaciously follows a 
course opjMJsed to reason and correct principles, that an endeavour 
should be made to uccounl for conduct so lingular, and that it should 
be tniugined that souie strung per-»nnul interest existed, whereby the 
coufse of pruiecding wlupteil might be explained. 

Foreign chicory is considered to be preatly superior to that of 
£nuli»h growth, and is consctpichtly much dcurer. 

The root h taken up just before the nlunt blossoms, and, when 
roasted, Urd is added in the pio[tortion ot 2 Ibe. uf lurd to 1 cwt. of 
the kiln-dried root. A^'hen gitiuud and exposed to the air, chicory 
absorbs water readily, and becomes umist and clammy. 

Analytvt of Chicory. 
Ohi(!ury root has been subjected tu examination and analysis, by the 
auttiur, and by Dr. Letheby ut the author's rei^uesit, iu three condi- 
tions, luunelv: — 

" lat. Iu 1(8 recent, or rsw state. 

K a 



"2nfl. In the kiln-dried condition. 

" Hrd. In the roasted and powdered form, afl itis used for the adul- 
teration of coffee. 

"Tbe raw root furnislies a milky juice, wlucli owes its opaeity to 
the presence of an inert vegetable Bubrftunce nuuied liiuliiie. The 
juice in very bitter, antl, wlieu filti^red and !ieate«i, it shows, by its 
turbidity, that il contnin^i a small ipinntity of albumen. 

•* When macerated in cold water, it yields about 13 per cent, of solid 
matter or extractive, which Jtivcs to the solution n very hitter taste; 
nlcohnl also extracts this bitter conBtituent, and on cvnporation it 
funiitthes n gummy product, which is very similur in tta properties 
to the bitter material of the dsitnlelion root. Acetate of lead pro- 
duces a copious precipitate in Lhe liquid from the deposition of (j^uiit, 
vegetable acid, and colouring matter, liy means of Felifniij's test, it 
was found tliut the raw root contained 1*1 per cent of grape sugar or 

" The kiln-dried root possesses all the characters of the preceding:, 
but in a higher do^n^i?, for water extracts about 50 j>er cent of solitl 
uiaLtcr; and the solution furnished to Fchlings test as much as 10*5 
per cent, of sugar. 

"Neither of tbesie specimens exhibited the least trace of stnrclii 
but bv boiling in water, filterinp, and raoling, they yielded a Hraall 
quantity of a while powder, wliiuh liad all the ehuraeter:* of Inuline. 

"The absence of starch in tlic state in which the root is onlinarily 
used is also cnnclusively ?hown by luenns of the microscope ; and 
we find that the tissue contains abundance orcellnlo»e, which, by the 
action of strong sulphuric aeld, gives a product that renders iodine 

**Tlie roasted chicory rout yields from 45 to 65 jwr cent, of soluble 
extractive. Its solution in water is aciil, and it dot^s not possess the 
pecufiiir bitter taste of the raw root ; but the taste of the li(|uid is more 
like that i)f burnt sugar. The cop|)er test shows the presence of from 
10 to 13 (>er cent, of sujjar. 

"The followintr analyses represent the per-ccnt«ge composition of 
the root in itit different conditions : — 


Hygroscopic moisture 

Gummy matter (like pcctine) • 

Glucose, or grnpe sugar 

Bitter extractive 

Fatly matter 

Cellulose, inuline, and woody matter 

Ash - 

m Knot. 


















" The composition of the roasted root was ns fullows : — 


Hvproscopic moisture 

Gummy matter 

Glucose - - - 

Mutter like burnt sugar 

Falty matter 

lin^wn or burnt woody matter - 

Ash - 

lit S|>rclfnea. 2iiil S|N-cimeD. 





12 2 












" The a»h of these had the following composition : — . 

Chloride of pDtiL<!f>ium 
Sulphnte of (Mtosh 
Phosphate of pnliuh 

Pitto of mu^ncdia 

Ditto of Jiiiio 
Cnrbonate of lime 
Atuiiiina and oxide of iron 
Sand - 

\%t Sprdmm. 

2nd Specimen 






















n 9fl 







ktessrs. Grahnm, Stenhouse, &nd Campbell * found in four samples of 
chicory, the following per-centugea of grope sugur : — 

Foreign chicory - - - 
Guernsey chicory - 

Knglish chii'ory - - - 

Yorkahire chicory - - - 

ITie quantities of sugar in manfjold-wurzel, carroM, turnips, parsnips, 
beet and dandelion roots wcrt.* found to be nearly as •;reat as in 
chicory, and hence the sugar present in it does not affbitl a means 
by which it may be distinguished from other sweet roots when mixed 
with cofTee. 

Tbc following repre6ent« the per-cenlsffe composition of the ash of 
four samples uf chicory, according to Messrs. Graham an<I Sten* 
house: — 

CKvmlcd Hrport on the mode 

of dotvctinf V«gc««bl« SubcUocM mlMd with CoAc, 
K 3 




Exit 1Kb- 


















>fiirnMla ... 

5 27 

7 -Si 



SfMt)ulu«IJf fir Iron 

3 -HI 




Sul|ihunc Aclil 





<_'hl«rlitr> ... 





















•J '38 








MeMn. Grnhftm nnd Stcnhouse found the stltca uid sand insoluble 
in ncids to ha, in four sninples of roasteil cliicory, us follows, — 10*69, 
13*l3t 30'7I, find SUiHa per cent, of the nsh ; the quantities of this 
Hilira f^oluhh; in iitknl! wa.^, in tlie s.itnc Hiiniplcs, 808, 0'3'2, 20*19, 
and 2;rlO purr.?. Much of tlu3 pdica was doubtlefs derivtfd from the 
sand »iid dirt iirllicrinj; to ihe iniperfiMlly cleansed roots. 

The chief eoiwiiluents ofroiisteii chicory ure the gum, plucose, nnd 
cnmmel. The quantltjr of nitrogen in chicory is not one-half Omt of 

Bv nn exnminnlton of the fiirepninc antilyscs it will be seen thntthe 
roni does not cnntiiin nnythiii^j whieh can pof^^ibly he rej^nrded na a 
Hubttitute for cofTee. It will be sdso m;inife<)t that in tho nrocosa of 
ronatinjr. the bitter prinoij)lo of ilic reeent root is partly ues(i*oyed, 
iind thut by the lorrefrtclton of the snccharinc and othLT constituents 
li nunntity of caramel is producetl, whieh has nn virtue beyond tinit 
of burnt supar. The large (['lantity of oil fouml is dlmhtle^s derived 
from the Inni n*ed in rousting the root ; nearly •'i per cent, of fat has 
Wen obtained (Voni some sani])les of torrefietl chicory. The quantity 
of oil nnturnllr presiTt in the root is exceedinjrly sninll. It is like- 
wise evident thiit the kiln-dried root hns under^rone fermentiition, 
whereby the amount of sugar hiis become greatly inereoscd. 

Stmeture of Chkttry Hoot, 

In the raw chicory root four parts or itinietnrcs mfty be dietin- 
fruishcd with facility : cells, dotte<l vessel^ vessels of the latex, and 
woody fibre. 

When the ndulterntinjf grinder or merchant, in the secresy of his 
own wiirehouse, lirst reduced cincory root, pnriinip?, corn, bpuns, &c^ 
to chiirrod nml nearly impulpable powders, the idea probably never 
entered hi-* mind that enou;;h of the diHttnctive structural charat'ters 
of each of these tiubsttances still remained undcstroyed, to enable 
the man of science to dr:ig to light his guilty deeds, and to detect 





their presence in every parcel of adulterated cofiee sent out from 
his premises. 

In the roasted and cbarreil chicorj root the same structures may be 
detected as arc di^tinguisbablc in the raw or unroasted root. 

The ohief part of the root h made up of Jittle utricles or ceils. 
These are jrenernlly of a rounded form, but Bornelimes they are 
narrow and elongateil. The former o<rcur where the pressure is 
least and the root soft ; the Utter in the neighbourhood of the 



Fngmtnl oflUAKnn Cmk-dkt H<>ot. ulun from • Mmpk of wluUcratcd eoflH. 
khuwIiiK the celU <if wbteli li U |irliiiH|ia)ljr ctui^li utcil. Urmwti «lili Uic CmmcrA 

The dotted txMch are particularly abundant in the central and 
harder pnrM of the root, which they traverse in bundles: they are 
cylindrical unbranched tuh(:.% tnpcrinor to a point hL either extremity, 
and elegantly marked on the nurfare with short libres, describing an 
interrupted spiral course. Fi^. 3-1. 

In studying the structure of chicory root, wc have clearly ma'ic out 
the origin of ibo dotted ve^seIp in narcow elunj^ated cells, ta|ierin;( to 
a nhorii point at either end, at tintt smooth, but subsei^uently exhibiting 
faint oblirpic markings. 

The vessels of the latex, va*a lacticcnttay are preifent in most plants, 

K 4 



bnTing a milky juice or sap; they form branclicfl and frequently 
anttMtoinosing tubes, of smaller diameter than the dotted vessels, and 
witii smooth membranous panetes. 

Fig, M. 

Tnignmi of RoASTBDCiiirovr RimT. Uhto from • iunple of tdoltrnitcd cvtht, 
thowlTic the tlotudor liil«rni|>t«il iplrftl vcmcU, whicli |>bm In bundle* thmufli 
thr Ctfutral imiXm of (h« rouU Dtk«u wllh the Cuncrft Ijucidk, uul mMgnitid 
11(1 dlameteri. 

These vessels afford a useful means hy which chicory may be distin 
guished from most other roots employed in the adulteration of coflee. 

The tofyody fibre of chicory root does not present any markings or 
other peculinrities of structure of a distinctive character. 

Properlien of Chicory. 

Recent chicory root is possessed nf active medicinal properties in con 
sequence of irhii'h it has Inngbeen included in th(»"Mftlenvi Modica.** 

Those properties resemble closely those of the allied pl.inf, the dan- 
delion, in reference to which we find, in the work of Dr. Pereira, the 
following observations : — 

" Its obvious effects are those of a atnmnchic and tnnic. In large 
doses it acts as a mild aperient. Its diiirctie operation h less obvious 
and constant. In various chronic diseases, its coti tinned use is 
Attended with alterative and resolvent effects; but where the digestive 





orcansi are weak, an<l remlily disonlrrefl, Iftrnxacum 19 very apt to oc- 
cuion dyspepaiu. tlalulency, pain, aiid diarrhcea.** 


Thi« ffiwTBvlng itpnmabt Um narrow tnA brftnclii«<l v«Meli t Veto Taetiefntiai, w 
•tNindui In i'mcoRT R<k>t, «hkh conTcr Uie milkv iaicc of tb«t plant, aitd 
alao tlioir llidr rvlaliuii to the onUnarjr uUriclca or nlla, of wtilch Ume lutNtauca 
of tht itKrt i* principally inad« up. 

These remarks of course apply to the recent root. Proressor JMlin- 
Bton, whose views appear to us more favoumble than the facts warninf. 
tbu« exprofses himtioif in regard to roasted chicory : * — 

'* It posscsites in no degree the pleasant aruina which recommends 
the genuine roasted coffee. 

" The active ingredients in roasted chicory are, first, the empyrcu- 
matic volatile AW : thitf is pro<luced during the roastinf? : and though 
not to frogranU this oil probably cxcreiiiea upon the system some of 
tbe gently exciting, nerve soothing, and hunger staying inlluence of 

• Loe-dl^p. Stft, >16,andS17. 



tbc similar injrredients contained in tea and coffee;. and, second, the 
hitter principle. When ttikcii unmixed, this substinoe is lo uian}', 
wbik' ihey are unaccnstnnied to it, nor only disajn'eeivWev but nawpeous 
in a high deiircc. It may, hoivifver, like many other hitter principles, 
possesm. as 1 have saiil, a tonic or strengthening; prnperty. Taken in 
niodernte quantities these ingreilients of" cJncnry Bre pnibably not in- 
jnrinus to healthy hut by prohmfred and frequent use they produce 
lieaithurn, rranip in the stomach, ]nF3 oC appelite, acidity in the 
moulh, eonstlpsiticm with intemiittcnt diarrbcea, weakness of the 
limbs, tremblings, eleepleasness, a drunken cloudiness of the sense?, 
&c. &c. At the best, therefore, chicory is a substitute for coflee 
to which only those to whom the price is an object ought to have re- 

Thi;* opinion of Professor Johnston ngrees, therefore, nearly with that 
of M*Culloch, already quoted, to the effect that chicory "has nothing 
to recommend it except its cheapness." 

For ourselves, we would remark that while chicory is substituted to 
an cnormoufl'extent for coffee, it yel possesses none of the characteristics 
of a true substitute. We believe that the nunntity of "empyreunmtic 
essential nil " present is inntutesimal, and tliat tlie *' bitter principle" 
consirits chietly of burnt sujiar. 

Although we are nut ilispotted to attach, therefore, much weight to 
t?iese sO'calledactipt in^r<fietih in roasted chicory, it is yet certain that 
it does contain constituents possessing! active and mctlicinal properties 
not of a desirable character ni an article of fiKnl. 

Thus, it is very certain that the infusion of roasted chicory is 

In proof of this we will cite the resulta of some observations of 
our own. 

Three persona partook of chicory at breakfasts The infusion was 
dark-coloured, thick, destitute of the nprecable and refreshing aronm 
so characteristic of coffee, and wa.** of a bitter taste. 

Each individual experienced, for some time after drinking the infu- 
sion, a sensation of heaviness, a feeling of weight at the stumach, nnil 
frreat indisposition to exertion ; in two, headache set in ; und in tlie 
third, the bowels were rclnxcd. 

In second and third trials of the chicory, the same feelings, weight at 
the stomach, and want of energy, were exjwrieneed, but no headache 
or diarrhoea. 

Several other trials were subsequently made, with nearly similar 

But chicory, it will be said, la seldom taken alone in this country, 
and when mixed with coflee these effects are not proi.hiued. 

Two persons partook, for a considerable period, twice a day, of an 
article denominated coffee, costing one shilling aiul sixpence a pound, 
and largely adulterated with chicory : during nearly the whole of this 
time they both sufiered more or less from diarrhcca. 




From the result of these trials, therefore, we are warranted m con- 
cluding that nt least some doubt is attached to the assertion of the 
** whoicsnme" properties of chicory root a* an artirlo of diet. 

So well are niothem in France and fiermiiny luqiiiuntod with the 
aperient pro|)ertie« of chicory, that they freijueiuly give iiifaTita and 
young children n strong infunion of the roAKted root as an aperient, 
preferring it to ordinary medicine on account of lU less disagreeable 

Again, it is the opinion of an eminent ociillfit in Vienna, Professor 
Beer, that, the onntinual uNe of chicory seriously affects the nervous 
system, and gives rise to blindnes** from amaurosis. 

The:*u are seriniis effects of the use of chicory, and should make 
those in autliority hesitate before they foster the use of this article 
by pivin;; to ita sale an undue and unfair preference. * 

The greater pHrt of the chicory used is grown in this country, and 
does nut pay nny duty ; and vet it is allowed to be mixed with coffee 
to *ny extent, an article bearing a very hit:h duty. 

Of the "nutritive" propcriie.s of chicory, of which Sir Charles 
Wood entertained so liijrii mi opiiiirtu, we need say but little, feeling 
Hamred that the reader will scarcely be disposed to question the accu- 
racy of the assertion, that a nioulliful of good wheuten bread contains 
more nourishment than u oup of iniusion of chicory. 

Chicory and cofTee, then, mny be lliiis contrttsled. 

They diOer from ench oilier in llieir bnlanicnl nature, in chemical 
Coinp«>sition, ami in phy>iological iictinn ivnd pru[Krrties. 

Cuffce is the fruit nr seed uf a treu, while chicory is the succulent 
ro4tt of a herbaceous plant. Now it is a well-tiscertained fact, that of 
all parts of vegetables, tlie fruit imd see^ls usually possess the nuist 
active properties : this is no doubt due to the circumstonce of their 
being Ireely exposed to the induence of liiiht and air — agencies 
which promote chemical changes in tlie plant, and so cflVet the 
elaboration of those complex organic substances on which the activity 
of vegetables depends. On the other hand, it must be manifest, that, 
as the roots ore removed from the intluencc of these powerful agencies, 
they CAonnt be so richly endowed with active properties ; ami, mdeed, 
there are but few roots, which contain either alkaloids or vnlaiile oils 
— tbe two classes of cAusiituenis which give to colFec im peculiar 
▼irtnes. The distinction, therefore, between the properties of tne seeds 
and niots of plants is very important, and it is especially so in the case 
before m». 

The iiifiisiou of the one is heavy, mawkish, and nearly destitute 
of aroma; that of the other is light, fragnuit, and refreshing. 

Coffee contains at least three active jirinciples, or constituents, viz., 
t]ie volatile oil. the tannin, and the alkaloid caffeine ; in chicory there 
arc no analognus constituents. 

Coffee exerts nn the system mnrkcil and hiahly important physio- 
logical eflccla, of u beneficial character. There is no proof that chicory 



exerU any one of these effects, while it is very questionable whether 
the properties which it really docs possess are not really hurtful. 

Adulteka TICKS OP Cbicokt. 

What ! chicory aduli^rateil ? A substance used to adulterate 
another article, itself adulterated ? Imposi^hle! Improbable as the 
thinf; appears, it is nevertheless true. 

When it is remembere*! that all the vegetable substance* employed 
in the adulteration of coffee re^^uire to be charred or roasted, and 
that to effect this a suitable apparatus U require*!, such as but few 
retail grocers possess, it at once becomes at lea^t {M*obable that these 
suhstances are prepared for them by other parties. 

This impression acquires increased force when it becomes known 
that the majority of grocers bay their chicory, not in nibs, but in 
ptncder^ and that this is supplied to them by certain wholesale 
ckieorr houses which charge for it, in general, a less price than for 
the niba, or angrouiid root itself^ or than genuine chicory powder can 
be fairly sold at. 

'Vhe subsUmces which are either subetitut^ for chicory, or mixed 
with it, are very numerous ; «everal of these we have ourselves 
detected^ while otben have lieen discovered from time to time by 
different parties. They tnciutU all Most employe<i in the tuiulferation 
of coffee; indeetl the jjreator number of substances met with in 
aitulterated coffee are introduced into it through the chicory with 
which it is mixed. 

This conclusion is deduced not only from the examination of a con- 
siderable numb^ of sanplcs of powilered chicory, but Irom evidence 
derived from other sources. 

Dr. Pereink in 184J, published in the ** Pharmaceutical Journal** 
two very useful articles on the aiiultfration of coffee and chicory : 
from the first of these — that oo coffee — we extract the following 
remarks: — 

**But while tke groocn^ on the one hand. eheM their coftomers 
bv ailulteniting tauflce with cbioorr, the ohicorr dealer? in turn 
CMit the gn->cerv }yr adnlteratinp chicory;** aud be then goes on to 
dMtribe cvrtaiu aduUeratiiuu of chMX>rv, thoie with Btxmhrv poM:der 

Another circumslaMe wludi pfoves not only tibat chicory is 
Adtthanbad, hnx ako tkat iha leUctw oi ehleoty puwtl e t arc in some 
OMM partieB to the aduUeratioiv » that the nowder is tooietames 
said ttiuer t^ market tvrico at which getiuicte chicory can be procured. 

The MibstaiKV* with whtcfa diioory has bean mi,^ laiiH^l to be 
aduUermlcU, are all thi«e article* which har* be«« •wnHvmled under 
Co4ire; nameiy, dlfferrat kinds of roasted cora, aa wlnrt, and rye^ 
oeormtt CBrroft, mm^wU'tmntt^ Anf rooi; swrifcrf; haktd Uters, 



hurnt sugar or biack J6ck^ Venetian red^ atid other analogous red 

Wiih regard to the use ofeanots and parsnips, Mr. Guy, in evidence 
before the Parlianieiitary Coinniiltfe, makes the fblltiwiiig statement : — 

" I renjeinber, one year when ehitiory was worth *il/. per ton, manu- 
facturing 700 tons of carrots into chicory. Tliey were grown by one 
gentleman in Surrey, and supplied U> the house where X was, and 350 
ions of parsnips." 

Besides the above named articles, *' coffee jUghU ** and " Hambro* 
powtter" hiive been used, as also, it has been alleged, exhaiuted tajt^ 
Icnown as crqoU, and oahhark poinler. 

The following engraving:* exhibit the microscopical characters of 
chicory adulterated with wheat Hour, also with a substance resem- 
bling ground acorn, of oak-bark Ian powder, and of exhausted ton or 


a a ar« the rfll* ■ud wimI* of fkintrf root, vhllp ilxMf mirkr^l ^ U art lt>a 
nwvti eorputclH of tuAttU. No bo<U«a Us IM leul tCMiobUosUictc occu> in 
gmulD* clucary powder. 

Acmrding tn Dr. Pereira, "Ifitmbro* powder consists of roasted and 

ground peas, &c^ coloured with Venetian red. The term cnffrejiights 
IS applied tn the thin membranous ront (endocarp) which separates 
from the coffee seed in the act of roasting. 



Tn Dr. PereiruH arlk'le on Chicory wc meet with ihc following re- 
miipka in reference to Venetian red : — 

"In a previrus number we explained tbe nature of Venetian rt<l. 

n a, nib of cAtery; 6 ft. fngmcnU containing ngmeronf lUreh (kv|iuw1m. rc- 
tcmbllng Ibowc of fKXim ; c r, wiMuatc iikruli itraouk* : (f il. |K>fti<L>ii« i>r » brown 
tnrmbrwM, irilbuut Kmtunit urgituiMlluu, vvrjr cumin liiiIj^ ubaemd, uid Jv 
rini, frutn the lutaof ue teed. 

iron, nbtaiueU by enlcininn 
Tlie "iilTcrcnt colours oi' the 

It is essentially the aevquioxide of 
couunon coppciaa (nulpliale ul' irun). 
product dupeiiil on tlic tcmjfcralure to which the 8*.'S(|uioxid.» is sub- 
jected. When it lias l^een exposed tn nn intense while !ie*L, its 
colour deepens, and it is llioii termed tiurple-bruKti. The lighter tint 
of Veucliun red is produced by auullerution. Our infornmnt (a 
maiiulueturer) \oU\ us that Vem.'tiaii red wan * adulleraled to suit the 
various priced of the umrket.* \Vc did not think it vxpi'dient to prv 
into the iiaturu of the adulleratin;; injji-edient, but u iViyiid suggests 
that it is reddle, the subatimce used for nmikin}; sheep. 

*' Vcnetiuii red h, we believe, the princi[ial sutwUince at present used 
for colourinu' rliifory : (H.ciisionally oiher agcntiJ have been employed. 
A deolcr tclU us tb:it he once bought a quaiiiity of chicory which cou- 
tiiined^O per cent, of lo^wouti and mahogany dust 




The results of the Microscopical examination of T^iViV-ybitr samples 
of cUcorj powder, iiiadti some tiuie back, some of which were put- 


TtiMjtnwton ixhlUU t)M> stnielnm 

In OAK-Bin mwm,—ihM raMntf 
M. l>rkwii wlUi Um CAiMn I.ncida. 

cliaseil of diffcreot grocers and others obtained fVom manufacturers, 
were, — 

l»l. That Fourteen sumpleti were adulterated. 

*2rid. TImt in yiite the adulteration consisted of roasted Cora. 

3r<l. That »rorchc<t Benns were present in Four of the samples. 

4th. That in One case ground Acont was »letected. 

The resulu of the examination of Twenty-three other samples made 
at a Bubeetjuent pi'riud were, — 

Ist. "I'hnl. Elecen or one-half nf the samples were adulterated. 

•Jnd. Thql FotP" of the chicory potcderi were adulterated with 
rxtasted W'hetti- 

3rd. Thiit^Tinuw/ Acorns were preMent in an equal mtmher ofca$es. 

4ih. Thst Two of the samples contained Sawdust^ and one Mahogany 


5th. Tlml Mangold- wurzel waji detected in One of the chicories^ 
6tb. That i« One instance roauted Carrot was present. 

Thli dmrloff exliiblta the ■Iruelum ■Irlovt'd in th* Tak known 1» KorTolk hjr tht 
BOHM of " Croat;" uid tueU for fuel, fee 

Lastly, the results nf the cxAmination of Thirty-eight additional 
samples of chicory, hntli ns pnrrhQ!«pfl from shops nnd as pronirod from 
inanufactiirprs, nnd whirh cx;iniinntion was in^titutod inninly for the 
purnoBo of (Iptcrniinin;! whi-ther Vonctmn red or other analogous fer- 
rugmous earth wil-* i'niplr»veil to colour ehicory, wlto, — 

1st. That out of the t^i'^htnen saiuples of chicory procured froia 
manufacturers, Five were adnlttfrutfd with roasted wheai farina, 

2nd. That ffCP^n/Zof the samples yiehled a coloured ash, 

3rd. That out of the Sixteen samples of chicory purchased at the 
establishmPTits of different grocers in the metropolis, One was odul- 
temteil yi\t\\ rtmxted fari^ui. 

4th. That xhaaxhes of several of the samples were highly coinured, 
indicating the presence of some rtd ferruginotts earthy as reddle or 
Venetian red. In two samples the incorporation was so imperfect 
that we were enabled to separate large particles of the Venetian red 
from the chicory powder. 




We have now shown, 

Tliat L'hieory, ftn urucle used to mlulterntc another article, is itself 
largely adulterated. 

Ttiat the dcal*:rs in or man u fact urera of chicory ore in many cases 
tbeparties wbo practiiie this adulteriition. 

We are sorry, however, to declur*.%tliaL in those instances in which the 
retail grocers do not themselves adulterate the chicory they vend, we 
are iinshle in AC(|uit them of pnilty knowledge of nnd participation in 
the fraud : this knowledpe is displayed in the tact that the fraudulent 
•rrocer frequently purchmacs chicorv in powder, at a price at which it 
IS not possible to pro'iurc genuine chicory. 

The prices demiuidcd for tht; several sumplog nnalysod varied from 
5d. to U, per lb. ; the ordinary charjie bein;; 8rf. The price of chicory 
in powder to the trade ranges in general from 20*. to 32*. per cwt. ; 
thus the profit of the retail grocer on the sale of chicory powder is 
fleldom under cent, per cent, and often much above it. 

On the Detection of the Adulterations of Chicory. 

The Chancellor of rbe Kxchequer, in May (1850), stated to the House 
of Comninns, that " having desired tlie iioanl uf Inland Kevenue to 
Btnte wheiht-r there was iiny ready and avjtiliible proof of the mixture 
of chicory with coffee, he had received a reply In the etfect, that four 
experienced persons having been employed in mnking experiments, the 
re!*ult of the incjuiry wns, that neilher by chpmical tests, nor in any 
other way, cnidd they aswrlain, wiih any degree of certainly, whether 
the mixture eontiiincd chicory or not." • 

Notwithstanding thid fornml and apparently outhoritntivefitatomcnt^ 
the fact is that few tilings are easier uf deteetiuii than the presence 
of chicory in coffee bv meiins of the niiciroscope : the detection of 
the adulterations of enicory itself are for the most ptu't not more 

The identification of chieorr with certainty, either in the pure 
state, or when mixed with other articles, by other means than the 
microsco|>e, is by no means easy, if it be not impossible, in the present 
Btate of science. 

It has been repeatedly stated thnt coffee and chiiMiry maybe distin- 
guished by the manner in which they comport themselves when 
placed on the surface of water; the ciiicory powdur, it is said, soon 
(finks, while coffee floats. In the case of the majority of samples of 
chicory examined this test completely failed, as the powder did not 

* On tMrinjt rrnnindfrl of thU Rf*pnr| hy Mr. Srhnli-RpM. Mr. QcnrftP PlillMpi makMlhU 
(lAtablerciilir : — " Yri. that !• » fnr back u IHICi. Tho i^et U, ths aubject b«d not then 
been atuiiira lu rrjpirrl* ihf uliilieriTlr^ii orrnffr-*" an'l chrory " 

Au that until rpt'fotl*, nn thnwIinloUin thii« publirl)' ji*nv'r<t br Ihf^ rlilef ■rifntlflr ant ho* 
t\Xy coon^rlvd with th» kxtUp, lh« mKcr*. f^t noythliiit Oh* Kxriic rotild do, ml|tht nilul* 
tttwtr their coffee and cblcorjr a> much ki Ihrj ]ile«>rd ! Prrlt/ prutcctlun <ii the rrrmu* 
inilf 1 




sink, but rested on the surface for a cnnsidcrable time, nnd ronlinned 
perfectly dry, — a result po-sihly attributuble to the presence of the 
lard iisL'd in tbe roustinjj; of the niba. 

Another way nrcommended lo detect an admixture of chicory 
with cniTee, is to add t^nwe. of the flusppclc-d powder to cold water. 
If chicory be prefccnf, the writer will rjuickiy become coloured, and 
by the depth nt" the cohnir the proportion of chicory may be f;ucA]icd 
nt. This melliod is» however, utterly fallncious since the colour 
may arise from the presence of burnt sufrnr, so commonly used, or of 
roii8te<l wheat, wirrot* and olhcx- siniiliir subatunces. 

The Hdultenitifin with chicory has been attemfited to bo established 
by haviitin re^jard t*» tbe relative specific gravities of inl'usinn^ uiaile 
from ei)iml qunntilies of coffee and chicory. It hns been found tbrtt 
the infusion of coffee is of much lighter spccifio gravity than one 
of chicory, the difference in fact bcin{^ about 1 to 3 ; but ainte 
other sweet roots, as well as maizo, rye, &c., yield infusions equally 
heavy with that of chicory, this test is useless as a means of de- 
termminfj the fact of I he adultcrnlinn of cnfi'ee with cliicory. The 
colour of the infuston and its specific gravity, doubtless ftff"»ird rough 
and general indications as to wliether any paiticular samples i>f coflee 
are genuine or not, but it is imposfiible by thesii characters to pro- 
nounce an opinion ns to the nature of the afUiltcrntion practised. 

Tijo difficult V of dettN*iiTi|^ chicory by cbcinicid moans arises fi*om 
the absence of any peculiar and distinctive principles in the roasted 
root. Various attempts have been made witli the view to discover 
some characteristic reactions and peculiarities of composition ; Messrs. 
Graham, SteTdiouse» and Campbell especially have directed their at- 
tention to this subjurt. 

These chemists have, amonpst other points, endeavoured lomake use 
of the colour and specific gravity of the diflerent infusIauK U!'e<l as a 
means of detecting the adulicrations of coffee with chicory and other 
roots ; but these data are not capable of affording any precise or re- 
liable conclusion. 

They have also endeavoured to avail themselves of the presence of 
glucose or grape sitgttr in chicory ns a means of di^criminaijun ; thus, 
while the siipar in roasted citflee rarely exceeds I {wr cent., and is 
usually only half this quantity, in roiytcd chici»ry it has been found 
to range from \\'i)fi lo 9H6 per cent.; but Mince other sweet roots, 
as beet root, mangold-wurzel, turnips, dandelion, carrots, and parsnips, 
coniain on the avera*;c as much sugar as chicory, thi» mean^ 
utterly fails as a test for chicory. The utmost that can ju^^tly be in- 
ferred from the presence of a considerable nnioonl of suj^ar in (jround 
coffee is, that it is adulterated, and prohiiUy with one or other of the 
roots above-named. Further, the prefcetjce of sujjrar in small quantity 
affords no proof of the genuineness of coifee, since some of tlie 
cereals and other substances employed to adidterutecoiree are equally 
deficienlwitb it in saccharine matter. Lastly, sugar isoften purposely 



»dde(3 to cofTee, aomelimps durinni the roafttlngf and subsc^^nentlj In 
the form of burnt sufjar or black jack. 

Again, they hnve nvailcd theiiiK'Ivcs of the (iimntity of *i/»crt present 
in toe aahcit of coflVc and other TO<:ctnb!;e udultiiruntu as another 
inemJtfl of discrimination. The silica ofroaslerl coHue averupes Ufunllj 
about n quarter and rarely Hppruuijhes one halt" |>er cent.; while, 
as hxs been already »hown, the sand and silica, iuMilublu in !U-ids» of 
four samples of rnA:«tcd chicory aninimted to as much as I0'6H, 
IS'lUf lU) 71, and 35*85 |)er cent, of the ash : but in roasted dandelion 
root the proportion of silica is as great as in chicory, jri eat part of the 
i^ilicA in both I'tiscs being derived from the dirt Kiill adhering to the im- 
j>erfectly cleansed nwts. The same la the case with the rooisoCcurrotd 
and parsnips pre]>ared ill tlie same rough way for use as chicory roof, 
The presence, iherelore, of a larj;e excoKs of ailica does not prove the 
fad of adulteratinn with chicory ; indeed, it can scarcely be said to uf- 
fonl decisive proof of adidtcration of any kind, hince any excess of silJca 
mijcLt be due simply to the fact of a little snnti becnmtng Hccident^iUy 
mixed up with the cotfee. In the cereals a^tiin, with the exception of 
maize, the at-h of which coniaiu*! about 2 per cent., the silica is high, 
OS >hown by the researches of Messrs. Opslon nnil Way. wlio stale that 
Id wheat the ?iliea varies from 20*5 to 5-4'6 per cent. ; in barley from 
23 6 to 70*77; in onis from 3848 to 5003 ; while in rye it is about 922. 

Lastly, Messrs. Graham and Stcnhouse have examined the f/«A uf 
cotTee and chicory, and certain other adulterants, with a view to dis- 
cover distinctive characters. The principal dtlferences inthecomposi* 
tion of the ash are shown by the figures givrn below : — 

Silica and sand - 
Carbonic acid 
Sc^uioxide of iron 

In Coffee Ahh. 

0-44 to 0*98 
26 to I'll 

In ('hlcorj Aih. 
\0i\9 to 35-85 
1-78 to 319 
3 13 to 5 32 
3-28 to 4 1*3 

Extending tlie comparison further, however, we find in a variety 
of other vegetable substances, even of those uned in the adulteration 
of chicory and coffee, an excess over the rpmnlitics usually contained 
ID cofice of nil the cons^tituents referred to above. Some of the sub- 
stances in which excess of silica occurs, have already been mentioned. 
Carbonic acid occurs in nearly the same pro^jortion m acorns, j>ar!inip, 
beet root, carrot, and turnip, as in coflee ; the quantity of ubioriue 
approximates to chicory in aconis, ]>&r»nip, carrot, turnip, ond dan- 
delion roots; lastly, the ir\tn h excessive in dundelitm and beet 
root, and would be so no doubt in carrot and parsnip roots impor- 
fe*:lly rleansed and freed from dirt. Bcaides, all c(mclu«ioiis base<l ujwn 
an excess of iron, except tlie general one that adulteration with »uuie 
substance containing an excepts of that metal ha.i been practised, are 
precluded by tlie fart that cliicory and other roots employed to tophif- 
ticate coflVw are themselves often adulterated with red ferruginous 

L 2 




eartlis, as Venelinn reil and rwUlIe, contafning, frequentl/, exoena of 
carlmnio aciil, limi*. iron, ami pilicn. 

The ash of €f>frc'e adultcrnteij with ony of the cerenls, and also lo a 
leas ex(cnt wlih lupins, peas, and bean;", is^ ot'courife, distinguished by 
the Urge amount (»f phosphnrir noid present. In coffee the phosphoric 
acid may be set dftwii ut about 10 percent.; in chicory it varies 
from 6"85 lo 11*27; in lupins it is usually about 25 per cent^ uiid in 
maize 44 per rent. 

^^'^ith regard to the nttroj^en of roH'ee and chicory, the autfinrs of 
the lEeport under eim>ideration remark ; — "Tiie pro|>ortion of nilro- 
cen ill oofTpp i}«, Ihurf ftire, greater thiin in chicory ; but the difference 
is not BudiiiiDiitlv murketl to distiiifruish the two substances rendily 
from each other. The conclusion may, however, be drawn that le,^s than 
2 percent, of nitrotren in coffee is a stronj; presumption of adidlfratiun.'* 

It is obviously best, therefore, not to waste time in the prosecution 
of chemionl ineihoHs of research leading to no certain results but at 
once to have recourse to the microscopti ; by this instrument ali the 
adulterations of coffee and chicory with vetrclable substances are dis- 
coverable with ease and certainty. In the case of chicory, it is only 
neceaiary to ascertain by it whether those structures characteristic of 
its root (see _figit. 3U» 34, an<l 35.) are present or not, to observe well 
the site n\' the cells, whether thev contain starch or nor, the size and 
character of the vessels, und espectaUy whetlier tJasa iacticentia are 

For this purpose, a grain or so of the powder should be placed on 
a slip of plass, a drop or two <if water ndded, and the larger par- 
ticlc«, which swifll up iiiid become more visible tfiiiii when in the dry 
ptnte, torn into pieces by means of needles. A Utile ol" t!ie powder 
should then be plflceJ on a clean slide, covert'd with a piece af thin 
glass, aud subjected to examination with the J-or |-inch object- 

The adulterations of cliicory beinij for the most part the Sflme as 
those of cofiee, similur means must- be !ij»1 rocuurse to for their detec- 
tion: when these consist of ve(;otable Bub^^ances of any kind* the 
microscope will be found *o supply the only ready and certain means 
of detection ; wlieii vf chemical substances, as burnt su^ar or Vene- 
tian I'ed, chemical methods of research must be resorted to. For a 
detailed descriplinn of the characters of the variuua substan<'cs used 
in the adulteration of coffee and chicory, and of the means for their 
discovery, the reader is referred lo the jireccdin^ ariiirle on Coffee. 

The act<?ctton of substances containing Rtarch by ehemicai meana is 
attended with even jrreater dilficultles than in the case of coffee, the 
blue colour deveiuped on the uililition of iodine being obscured by the 
deep brown colour of the infusion of chicory. 

It may be thus effected, however : iodine may be ftp[died to a 
small (piantity of the article placed under the microscope, but in 
order to determine the Quantity present we must proceed as follows: 
— A carefully propareti infusion of the article ie lo be made : this is 






to be divided into two parU : in one the sugar is to be determined 
by Fehliii^'s sitlution, or by converting it into ulcuhol ; ilie ruber is to 
bu boiled with tlilute 6ulpliuric acid until nil tlie starcli i^ elmn;;ed 
intu gmjic >ugar, tVoni llie ninotiiil vt' which prtisent (ileduciLn^, of 
course, tlie glucose not tU'rived from the conversion of the starch) the 
»tAreh itself limy Ito ralcutat«d. 

The evidence of Uie use of Reddle and Venetian red is principally 
derived fntin the incineration of u certain ijuaiuity of tbe suspected 
chicory pnwder, and by unulysis of the ush. All vegetable sub- 
pianccri, wliether coloured or not, yield, un incineration, a greyish- 
white ash. 'I'he ash of coloured earthy substances, on the contrary, 
after being burned in a crucibh', remains mure nr less coloured. 

As, however, chicory >» the root of a plant, and as the eai-ihy matter 
is but tteldom entirely removed from it by wnshing, the ayh of even 
jrenuine chicorv noi unfrequenlly exhibit.^ on this account, a slight 
decree of colnuratiun, being occajtionaily brownish, or of light-fawn 
colour. It is only, therefore* when the ash is decidedly coloured^ and 
espeeiAlly when nf a red or rusty-red colour, ihat the presence of 
Venetian I'ed, reddle, or suuie other analogous substajice, la reuUered. 

In these facts, therefore, we have a retidy nietins of determining 
whether a sample of chicory, or any other Vfgetable powder, contains 
an vlwixture of any mineral colouring matter o<intaiiiing iron, a con- 
clusion which may be further couBrmed by chemical analysis. 

Oh the Quuntitaiive Estimation of Setquitmde of Iron in Chicory. 

Aitiiough the presence of iron is sufficiently indieatetl bv the colour 
of the aali of chicory, and most (»ther vegetable substances, yet iu some 
caM** it bec*omes necessary to deteriuiuc its amount. 

For this purpose, the ai>h (say of .'300 grains of chicory) should be 
boiled with dilute hydrochloric acid until all the iron has become 
dissnlved, the acid evaporated nearly to dryness, about an oum'c of 
distilled water added, the Milulion filtered, nnd the iron precipitated as 
se8<{ui<ixide by meamiof f»olntion of ommoniu, the precipitate collected^ 
wa>hed with hot water, ignitcJ, «nil weighcil. 

Thin proce.vt is npplicjible otdy, however, in the absence of earthy 
phosphates t>r uluminu, a» these are atw precipitated by aiumouia. 

The alkaline carth» may !«,• diesolvcd out of tiie atumoiiia precipi- 
tate by means of an exceedingly dilute solution of hyilrocldoric acid. 
This will not ufTect luateriully either the iron or the alumina. By ft 
Bolution of nitric acid, I part to 30 or 40 of water, the iron aUo, if in 
small ipiantity, may be separated from the alumina. 

Hy the fbllowiog process the scsquioxidc of iron may be separated 
from the alkaline earths, alumina, lime, and magnesia : — 

The ignited and weighed residue is to bo diMoIvL'd bv digestion with 
conuentrated hydrochloric acid, or by fusion with bisulpbate of jKitassa. 

L 3 



Boil the solution first with «nme sulpliatc of snda, and tlien with soKi- 
tii^iL of ttoilii. witic'b will luko up the iilumiiiii. Wftsli the reMitluo 
thorough] V, (1is<«ilve it in hyilroithloric aciil, precipitate tbesesquioxide 
of iron, obaerviiii; the iiefessnr^r profJiutians, with sueciuate of am- 

Or the iron may be prtcipiiated by sulphide r>f ammonium. 

Mix with the ac"i solution ammonia, until a precipitate just be^ns 
to form, ilien with siilpliide of anim<iaiiini ; si^[i.irate the precipitate 
which rontains iron» also iiiunf;anpse, shoiilJ that nict;il be present, by 
filtrntion ; dissolve it in hyilrotrhloric acid, and separate the iron from 
the manganese, if any* by siiciMnale of ammonia. If there is no reaaim 
to suspect the pro^t^nce of nminL'nneK* the precipitation with succinate 
of ammonia may bi^ miiitled. I'he aluminu Hiid the earthy phosphates 
are in the HItnite ; hut if too much ammonia is added, they too would 
in part he thrown dfiwn. 

The succinate of ammonia is nscd in the following manner: — A very 
dilute liolurion of anunortia is addi-tl ilrop by dri>p ti> the sohitiun con- 
taining the iron, until a small portion of the mL^tal precipitates in lh« 
furmof hydnitedsesfjiiioxicle : a jrentle heat istliennpniicd to aseertain 
whether the nrecipitiile will re<il?5iilve or nnt ; if it u>ies so, nmream- 
nioiiiu iH added, until the application of heat fails to dissolve the 
precipitule farmed. If, on the cnrilrnry, it r«rouJns undissolved, and 
the fluid continu*'s to br nf a brownish-red colour, all the conilitions 
requisite are Inllillyd. Itut shnuhl the fiuid be c^>I^lU^le^s, tno much 
amnnmia Iuh liecn nddml, tn whteh ease a small qunntlrv of hydro- 
chloric acid must be adde-rl, and then, a;^ain, nioni ainnionio, until 
the point desired is obtained. A perfectly neutral rinUition ofsuci-inate 
of ammonia is now to bp iiddc<l so Ion;; as any preeipitate falU ; a 
gentle heat is then applied, the fluid Is afterwanU allowed to cool, and 
when rnld it, \n filtered, the pi-eeipitute washed on a filter, first with 
cold water, aiit) nt'i.^rwjirds wiili hot solutiuu of aiuuuHiia; it Js then 
dried and ignitvil thoruu<;hly until it is all converted into sesquioxlde. 

The eases, then, nf coflec and chicory afford striktn;; illustrations of 
what can be ejected in the discovery of adulteration by means of the 

Tlie article nn Chicory may be concluded by a review of reasons 
tirj^ed both for and a^;iinst the admixture of chicory with coflfee 
taken from the author's bi>ok entitled "Food and its Adulterations." 
Some of the remarks contained in this review, requin* to be moililioil 
to eome extent in eonsequence of the alteration wliit'h has taken place 
in the law since the review was drawn up, by which it is required 
that chicory should not be sold mixed with cofiw, excei>t the fart of 
such mixture is specified by a tube). Thi» law in, however, con?tantly 
evaded: the mixture is sometimes stild without the label; in other 
cases it is palmed off where coffee only in nsked for ; aotl lastiVf in aoiue 
icslances the so-called mixture consists almost entirely of chicory 





Review of Jteasons urged both For and Against the Admixture of 
Chicory with Cofft^r. 

Various reasons have been urged hoth in favour of and a^inst the 
"ndulteralion," nr, as the Cbuncellor more gently phraaea it, the 
" mixing " of chicory with coffee* : these we will next proceed to con- 

Jfi favour of the adulteration it i» a[lc;;pd, — 

First, that the admixture of chicory with coffee improves coffee^ and 
thftt such addition in approved by the public. 

In order to nscertjiin whether ihe mldition of chicorjr to coffee be 
really an iinprovt'nicnt, wc prepared three infusions, one of coffee, 
another of chicory, and rhc third of botli these mixed in the propor- 
tion of three-fourths coffee and nne-fcmrlh chieory. 

The infvsion of ciffee wns perfectly trnnsparent, and of a dark and 
rich brown colour; it emilted an od^mr in m high degree penetrating 
and refreshing, \\iv\ to the ta«te it w:ia agreeable, and rather bitter. 

Having been taken for a few minuter, it produced a feeling of ge- 
neral wnriiuh, and a state of bodily and mental activity and invigora- 

The infusion of chicory was opaque, staining the sides of the vessel 
containing it; it |KWse*tfed a nenvy, thoutih ncrhiips some persons 
might be of opinion not a disagreeable smell, wholly unlike, ho^vever, 
the vohtllle and diffusive odour of ci»ffee; in taste it was more bitter 
than the coQee infusion, wiih a certain degree of sweetness. 

Having been swallowed for a few minuies, it occasioned a feeling of 
weight itt the »tomach, and a general heaviness and iudispositiou to 
botlily and mental exertion. 

The combined infusion of chicory and coffee partook, to some ex- 
tent, of the characters f^^ the infusion of genuine coffee, as might be 
snticipatfd from the coffee \i cont&ined. 

Altogether, we were unable to bring ourselves to believe that the 
addition of chicory to cofffe in the projwrtion of twenty. five percent. 
of the lonner was any improvement ; on the contrary, we were satistietl 
that the quality of the brverage was greatly imjiairt'd by the addition. 

I'ersons who are foolish enoujih to regard a slight sensation of 
wei;;hl and fulness in tlio region of the stomach —symptoms really of 
incipient indigestion — as evidences of the beverage being iMissessed of 
incieAsed " strength" and " b()dy," and whose nasul organs are insen- 
sible to the delightful aronia of coffee, wight |Kissibly be brought to 
consider the atlditton an improvement. 

In contrasting the pn»pertie« of chicory and coffee, we woubl 
once more observe it must not bo forgotten thut the former article 
it* wholly destitute of that i>eculiar priticlpk' '" caffeine ^'' Xi\>ox\ which 
the virtues of coffee in part uepend. and that iherelbre for every ounce 

i. 4 



of chicory in a pound of coffee there is so niucb ihc less of thut atima- 
tutin^ and invigorating iiitrogenised product. 

AlLiiwing, however, fur th« sake of arij[UTnent, that the admixture of 
chicory in moderate propoi-tions is in the ojjini^jji of poirit; pergon!* an 
improvementf it is very cortain that by others it i^ n»t coii*iciered to 
be sa; ftiid auch, tliercfore, ought surely to be nUintJrd o choice, and 
not be compelled, as they frequently are, to drink chicory ftllhough 
they dislike it. 

But the udinixture of chicory with coift'c in the proportion of 
twenty-five per cent., tbu ulrnnsft that cnn be uMowed by any person 
to eoiiiftitut^ an improvLnueot, doea ni>t in general tsatisfy tlie desire 
for profit on ilie ptuL of the grocer ; he use?*, in most cases, a very 
much larger pri>porti(in of chicory thiin thi.*, and the shilling coffee, 
**the p*ior mnn*s beverage" contains onc-hulf or tliree-finirlh* chicory, 
and in some inatances consi^tts entirely of it. Now no truthful JM-Tson 
will OBsert thut chicory in thc6e, the more common projiortions, is aa 
iniprovement to coffee. 

Second, that th^ »wtf nf chicory increaxex (he consumption of coffee. 

This stateinenL, ultliou^h recently put fortli by no leas an authority 
than A late ChflnL-ellor of the Exrhe*iuer, is ju.*! the very reverse of the 
truth* which is, that tlie use of chiciry diminishes tiie consumption of 
coffee. This we have already clearly j)rnved, and it is not necessary 
that we discuss tliis {xnnt again. It \it settled. 

Third, that the poor uian, bif the empioj/ment of chicory, hat an arHcle 
placed within his reach which othtrrwue he could not obtain. 

This argument, although f!f>eciDu«f i.s utterly fallacious. 

Cienuine coffee, ground, or in the berry, may now be obtained at 
numerous reop'-uiableeAtablishmenis, at \s. 'Id, and I». -ki. per [Mumd, 
this article costing the grucer more than tUree-founhs of the sum he 
deinamli for it. 

The mixture of chicory is never sold under I*, per lb., and the cost 
of chicory lo tlie grocer very frequently does not exceed '<id. a pound, 

Which of these two articles, therefore, we ask, is the beiU poor 
mans bargain f 

Shilling coffee, u vended at the present, is vile and often deleterious 
rubbish, and we recommend the poor man never lo purchase it. 

W« say, therefore, so far from the pnor man being beneliteil by 
the use of chicory, that out of every shilling he spends in what is 
ral.«ely denominated coffee, he is frequently robbed oI'Dr/. 

We can well understand how the [xtor man or the pnor man's wife, 
having, on a Sftturrtay night, only u few shillings to spend, and 
desiring to make thpse go a* far as jKwsiMe, is judui-ed to purchase ihe 
chea|)cst articles he or she can procure, overlooking the fact, that, 
uUhough jjrofessedly the cheapest, they are often in reality the dearest 
in the end. 

We wish the poor man, therefore, clearly to understand, that 
chicory is not to be compared to coffee in any respect, and we would 





have him nvoid t}ie "r-lienp and rutting shnpn/* distinrruiithed hy large 
placards and huge piles or damaged goods, nnd buy his cntVee at some 
Louse of known and acknowledgt'd reputation and recpectability. 

Apprehensive tliiit Gdvernmeiit will he forced to take notice of the 
BCandaloits practiced now »o rifu in ihe article coffee^ ibe ailiilterating 
grofers have already begun to raise ihe cry of " dear coffet?," and they 
tell u«, that if the admixture of chicory with cofice be piohibited, the 
price of the latter article will be 2t. the pnumi. 

The answer to this statement is, that exi-ellent genuine cnfffe may 
now be obuiined, at ODtabli.Hbnients which do not tifie chiL-ory in their 
business at all, at prices varying from 1/r. 'Id to Iji. tif/. per pound. 

Fuurtli, that the iaw sanc^ionn tftf aiiuUcration of coffee with f/riVory, 
and therefore that the grocer, in mixing these articles, is guilty of no 

As the law at present stands^ it must be conceded, we are sorry to 
«y, thiit in mixing diicory with c<iflee the grocer does not violate the 
law, but only does that which the executive and its cinicers, to ihcir 
shame be it ^aid, not nhme i<nnction, but arltinlly reL-ommeiid. 

We hdld, however, that in vending nn article as cortc*^ which is not 
coffee, the grocer is guilty of a moral fraud, and tlmt which iH morally 
wrong no act of parliament aud no ministers cnn make niornlly right. 

Firlk, and tnstly, it is alleged that i here is no necetisity for legishiiive 
ioterlereuce, since, bt/ buyiug the affee berrie* iu the whole atatey the 
pubUii can protect Uxelf, 

Thofte who use this argument cannot but be aware how inefficient, 
prai'ticidly, is the protection here referred tit. 

The poor man has not the money wherewith to purchase a mill; 
and if he ha<I, working early nnd late, riiting at six In the morning, and 
going to bed late at uight, what time ur spirit has he to attend to such 
niatcerfl ? 

Again : others not so poor, and who are in a position to moke the 
necessary purchase, arc perhaps equally engagetl, or ignorant of the 
extent to which they are cheated. 

Even of (hose who have both money and leisure we nffirm that not 
one in twenty avaiU himself of the protection whitli the purchiiseof 
the whole berry uflurdit ; nor, since he pays a fair price for an article 
which be specifics, ought be to be called uprm to adopt measures of 
extraordinary precaution against fraud. 

We are not dis]>osed, however, to underrate the value of this means 
of prolectiun, and we have pleasure in stating tliat elUcieut coffee 
mills muy be prucureil at a trilling cost. 

We put it to coffee merchants and respectable dealers whether it be 
not advisable tliut they should themselves take some steps to supply 
the public with cheap and effective coffee mills. 

Wc have now to consider the chief arguments wliich have becaor 
may be advanced against the adulteruliou uf coffee with chicuiy. 





As*iingt this pmetiee we allege, 

Firat : thnt surh adulteration nece»sitate» the commiimon of a moral 
/rami, anil further, that it is irequentl^ made the cloak for pccaDiarj 
i'ratid and extoruon. 

WJit'ii lipurcliaser enters a shop, asks for an article, pays thepriee 
demanded jor it, he hiis a ri^ht tu expect, tliab he Miall ubtain that for 
■wlucli lie a^k*, and not u mixture of twu (iifVeront tliinjis, one of which 
111* probably ptisittvcly object-s lo, and the rclatire proporfions of 
which iini ri'ijidrtttd bv the will ami conscience of l)ie vendor. The 
grocer who, undfr such i irrtimjita.m'es, plrtcci in the liiinrln of rbe pur- 
chaser an adulrcratcd conimodiiVi commit£ a moral, and freijucntly a 
pecuniarv frnud. 

We will suppose the fuUowinjr onse of poisoning, not an improbable or 
unfretjucMit onj : — An infunt has been given an overdose ol Godfrey*! 
corilial ; the proj>er reniefly i.** n ^Iroiiff infusion of cofiee — liie cof" 
already in iLe house, inismucb as h is the most ipiii-kly obtained, is 
used; it confti-ta prini'i[)(»llv or perhaps entirety of chicory. TTte 
chiid dies. Who is the party morally responsible in this cose ? 

Second : that it is unjust to the grower K\i cc\?^iiit. 

The jrrower of coffee has at least a right to demand, in consideration 
of llje heavy tax which he pays for the privilege of bein^ permitted to 
iaiix>rt his eoflee into ETt^Uiiid for diHpuf^u], that the sale ot the article, 
and its estimation with the jnddic^ be not injured by the practice of 
adulteration, carried on midur the sanction, and with the connivance, 
of the legislature, and even uoiler the very name of coffee. 

The payers of duty on other excisable articles are prtttected against 
adtdteratioji by Inw^ and the coflee ^^rowcr has a full right to demand, 
incotninon honesty, the some umotint of protection. 

Third : that the revenue is injured. 

Whatever lesi^ens ibe consumption of on excisable orticle, of cnume 
iDJureti the revenue. It has been proved that the uiixlnn; of chicory 
with cotTee lessens the consuin|itioii of coffee, and therefore, by so 
much is the revenue diminishetl and injured. 

If the Iffiw in revenue were so much gain to the public, there would 
be less reason to complain, but this is not the case ; the advantage 
is pocketed by unprincipled pn)rers. 

Ffitirth : thai the public is defrauded. 

That the public, and especially that lar^ section of it, the poor, U 
exteni»ively defrauded by liie atlulteration of coffee with chicory, to 
»ay nothin*;; of roasted curn, beans, dog biscuits, &c., has already been 
cleorlv proved. Let those who entertain any doubts upon the subject 
con-tnit the Table of Analyses which we gave in (>ur Keport i>n CotTee. 

We have now clearly shown thai the disa<lvttnlages and evils re- 
sulting from the mixture of chicory with coifee, in the manner and to 
the extent now practised, arc preal nnd manifold, and ttat Ihey de- 
mand the application of a suitable remedy. 

The remedy which we propose is simple} moderate, and just : it isp 


that the "Ti-ewury minute," aiutlinrisiDr; the mixture of chicory with 
coffee, be resciudyiJ. The effect oi' tlus would be, to place colTee upon 
the same fuotin*; with hU other excisuble articles, as tea, pepper, &c., 
and that penulties would attach to its adultenition. 

Chicory would of ciHirse still be snhJ ; but in place of belnpr so olan- 
deatinelv. It would be vended op<'nly, and under ha pnijKT name, and 
ai its fair value. 

Public morality, the interests of the revenue, of the grower, the 
convuincr of cuOee, and of the honest tradesman alike require the 
adoptiun of the remedy here puinteil out. 

'ibe law, as we arc all awitre, nanctiuna the adulteration of cnffce 
with chicory, to the injury of the levenue, and the loss of the 
public in health and pocket. Thi^i f,tkm*^. Uw, however, does not 
]M*nnit the adulteration of coffee with at^orchcd wheat, beans, carrots, 
&c., but subjects parties practising these deceptions to prosecution, 
And, in caae of convictiim, heavy penalties. Sueli. at feast, is the 
law, but under the present government it U uselcsji law, itince, 
itutwitbHtanding the prevalence of these adulterations, it is rarely 

lint, singular to say, the law, while it provides in word against 
certain of the adulterations to wUicli cuffee is liable, is silent with 
respect to the adulteration of cliicory ; so rliat that which is an 
offence in the case of colfec, is not illegal in that, uf chicurvt with 
which the manufacturers may mix corn, beunt<, carrocs, mangold- 
wurzel, moliogany sawdust, &c. : tbis, lo say the least, is grossly incou- 

Raw or kiln-dried chicory it free of duty. Roasted or ground Sd. 
per pound at present, but from 5tli April 18.57. 4f/. per pound. 

The quantities imported can only be learned by an application to 
the Board of Trade. 


Catoa is prepared from the seeds of Theobrtnna Cuceio, so named by 
Linnieus from the Greek word ^/di*, God, and iiftutfiay food, signifying 
that cocoa was a food fit for the gods. 

It ia a small but handsome tree, indigenous to the West Indies and 
Central America. *' It grows spontaneously in Mexico and on the 
coast of Ciiracois, and forms whole forests in Demarara. It is culti- 
vated also in the Mauritius and in the French island of Boiu-bon." — 

The seeds or beans are enclosed in a pod or fruit somewhat 
like that of a cucumber, being usually about five inchea longi and 


three And a hull* in ilianieter. Each fruit contains in penornl from 
twenljf to tliii'ty beans, tUsposeJ in five rows, which are diviik'tl 
frotii cneh olhor bv partili'ins. Occupying ihe ilivisiiiim <tt* ihe Iruil 
um\ surroumliii;; ihc ^i^cdi is a roitv-culoureil spon^'y substuiicv* re- 
temhling thiu of WHter-inulons. 

The above description applies to fruits of nvenige sizy : snuietimea 
llie fruits are so Urge, esput^iallj' thost' grown in Central America, 
ih:tt they contain us many as from forty to firtr aeetln ; while 
others, an those urown in the Wect Indian Island:*, Berhiee, and De- 
merara, are mm-h smaller, ami i-nclo^ only from »ix to fifteen seeds. 

During ninturafiou ilie fniiLs chau;fe from <;reen to dark yellow; 
they are then phu-kcil, u[>i':iied, (lie seeds cleared of the spuitgy 
eubstHuce, and spread out lu dry in the air. 

Ill tlie West Indies, imniedialely that they tire dried, the beans 
»*& packed uj» and arc ready f*»r the market; but in the Caraeeas 
they ure subjected to slight fermentation : fur this ptirp»i»e they 
ore either put into cheMs nr tub:!, whieh are covered over with 
Iward^, the beamt beinp; turned over evt^ry morning to C(]ua1isc the 
fornientution, ur else tiiey are put into pita or tienL-hcs duj; in the 
earth. Lajitly, they are exported to the sun and dried. 

Uurinji the pnn-CM the beans emit a good deal of lUoiaturCf lose 
weight, as well Hi part of tlieir bitterness and acrimony. 

The seeds whiih hiive ninlerjrone the process of fermentation are 
considered the besti they are larjrer, of u darker brown coluur, and 
after roasting, throw olT their husksi readily, and «plib easily into 
several pieeeii or lobes. They have an agreeable ntildiy bitter tast«, 
without acrimony. 

The beans of Guiana iind West India cocoa, while ihey are 
smaller, llatter, smootlier, And of a lif^hter colour, are also more ^harp 
and bitter to the (aste. " They answer best for the extraction of the 
butter of cacao, but utfurd a lesa aromatic and agreeable chocolate.'* 
— f/re. 

Johnston slates (hat the bitterness and acrimony of (Astc **■ is greater 
in the heum) of ilit.* niHinUnd than in thuAe of the American Islanfls. 
The cocoa of Central America is however of superior tpiality, or at 
least if* more generally enteenied in the Ktiropejui markela than that 
which is grown in the West Indies. It still reijuns a (;realer dej»rce 
of biiicrness, and this may be one reason for the prel'erence given 
to il. 

" 'Tlie cocoa of Trinidad is the variety chiefly consumed in this 
country. The i|ualitv of the mainland cocoas which come to the 
Knglisii market trum liahia and Guayaquil, fur example, has hitherto 
been always interior." 

The reason of this is, that until recently the duly on foreign cocoa 
was greater than that on colonial cocoa^ beinji^ in the one case 2d. 
per pound, and in the other \iL and 5 per cent. This had the effect 
of excluding all the foreign cucoas of better quality and liigher 



Frice, which found their way to Morocco, Francis Spain, and 
tnly. Now thnt the duty is equalised, it may be expccljed that the 
finer kinds of foreign cocoa will find their way into the Knglish 

Previoiia to being useil, the beans nre masted in an apparatus 
similar to thnt of a eoHce roaster. When tlic urnma is well (iiJvelo|K'd 
the roasting is known to be finished. The heims are turned uut, 
cuoled, and freed by faiininff ami siflint; from tlicir liiisks. 

Ox-on has been in use in Mexico from time imirifmorinl. It wjw 
introduced into Europe by the Spaniards in lo'iO, and by them it was 
long kept a secret from Uie re»t uf the world. 

Composition af Coam. 

The followinft is the cmnpusition, flcconling tn Lanipodin?, of iOO 
parts of the seed.i of West Indian cocoa deprived of husk : — 

Fatty mntter ----- 5310 
Albuminous brown matter, containing the aroma 
of I lie bean . - - - - 

Starch ..... 

Gum -.-.-- 
Lignine . . • • - 

Ited pigment - . . - - 

Water ---.-- 
Loss ..--.- 

100-00 parts. 

This annlysis entirely nreilooks some of the more important con- 
Btituents of' cocoa, as the volatile aromatic oiV, tJte theohromttw nnalogous 
to the theine of tea, and the hitter aw! astringent principle. The pro- 
poriion of starch appears also to be somewhat unueTraied. 

Tlie average cumpibiLion of the entire buaii when deprived of its 
husk, is, according to Johnston, nearly as follows : — 

Water - - - - 5 

Starcli, gum, &c. • - - 22 

Gluten, &c. - - - - 20 

Oil (ci)coa butler) - - - 51 

'I*hcubromiue - - - 2 


Cocoa, then, rontjilns s great variety of important nutritive prin- 
ciples; OS, in addition to the vohitile oil, the iheobromiiie, snu the 
bitter principle, gum, starch, much fut and gluten : like milk, it con- 

• Otiirr analjriM of cucoa «re (Iven by M. VA)tn In till iii>ik entltl«d " Uei SubMancM 



tains ever^ ingredient necessary to tbe growth snd sustenance of toe 

I'he volatile oil is developed during the process of ronstmf; t it is to 
it that the aroma is due, and whioli is so powerful, when the coc-oa U 
first ro.i'tteil. Its action on the system is probably simitar lo the cor- 
respondio'T otI^ of tea titid crpffet', uUUough less considerable, since the 
quantity of this nil in eneoa is but small. 

l^h^obromiite, like theineit \s a while crjstallisable faibstancCf but 
diil-.TS from it in ronlainin^ a much larpcr proportion of nitro^ren. 
The pro|inrtion of this siihstnnce is usually about the sjinic n^ in tea, 
nftnieiy 2 per cent. It exists also In smnller quantity in th« busk of 
the bean. 

The hitter aiul astringent priaciplex are probably distinct : the 
hitttTne>» is j^realer than that of coffee, but the astrtngtincy less than 
in f'ither tea or coflee. 

The concrete fat or oil is the predominant in^erlient in cocoa, 
forminj; over one half the weight. In its presence ooetm differs re- 
niurkidily from tea jm«l coffee, 

Tliis fntty oil, H;rmetl butter of cocoa, ta of the consi«t«nc« of 
tftlluw, molting only at ]'i*2^ Fahr. It is white, of a mild and agreeable 
flflviiur, anil is nnt apt to turn rancid. It is soluble in boiling 
a1oolu>l, from which it is nrecipilnted as the spirit bectmics enlil. To 
obtain it in quantity, the beana, ofter havln*; l>ccn steamed ami sonkeil 
in boilinjr water for some time, ure stibjected lo strong pressure in 
canras bags. The proportion of butter procured by this method is 
fVom five (o hjx ounces to a pnund nfeiH'oa, some of the oil remain- 
ing bebitid in the beans. It posse^He^i u re^hlisih tinge when &r>t 
expresBC*!, bul it bei.'omcd while by b4itUngwiih water. 

Ci>coa likewi}(e differ:* remarknblv frtirti tea and cocoa in contaimns! 
a considerable amount of jr/»rcA, an im]>ortnnt constitui-nt in nearly alt 
the more vulunbli* vegetable articles of food. 

Ln-'tly, it cotitains a very large atimunt of gluten^ uBually about !20 

The ifheU4 or AiuAjr, which form about 12 per cent, of the weight of 
le seeds, contain a little theobromine, a very small quantity of fat, 
some mucilage, no starch, and much vegetable tiitsue or lignine. 

Structure of the Cocoa Seed, 

It is of very great im|>orlance that the minute structure of all TCge* 
table snbstAnces em^iloyed in food and medicine should be ihorougtily 
understood; lor without such knnwledgi' it is quite imimMible to 
detect the adulterations to which the majority of them are liable. 

The structure of the seed, or bcnn. o^t it U someliniei* called, of ibe 
cocoa, is very chnracteristic, although son:ewhat coniplic :'cd : in it» 
as in other seeds two parts require to be distinguished the shell or 
husk, and the seed proper. 


Th€ firtt structure mitiVH on the surface of the husk, consists of a 
considerable number of tubular Jibres uf large size, and containing gra- 

Fig. M. 

FhU iWg W TlM fVfmicaU the liAmlar jttrva tMuallj oinprvcil In RTtKier or \tm 
•UHiktn oa UM MrthM of lh« Cooua biiu. Tho flbrw ut miguifltcl 100 dl»< 

matter nnd minute corpuscles ; tliey are more ^bundtint on 

•eeds llian others; they do not ap[M-ar to form part of the 

bul belong ralber to the 8eed-veb«el, and they are probably 

ived fWiro the spongy substance which surrounds the Reeds : iJie 

for the mo«t purt run parallel to each other in the courae of the 

lour axUt of the seed. 

Toe kiuk uiay be separated Into three or four distinct tunics or 

Thm Jir$t or outer membrane connists of elongated cells, adapted to 
«ac& Wnsr, Mxl dispcised in a single layer, with their long diilnieters 
pUcMl tnnaveraely t4} the axit4 of the t-ued. 

The Merond tuiue is confititutcd of liu'ge ongulnr cclk, suprrimposed 
ifl •CTtnl clbflely connected layers; towwds the centre ot the mem- 



brane funned by them the coUs increase greatly in size, their 
parietes become thin auU diuphunouB, and their cavities filled with a 


Thit fnffnvinf rrpfWWnU lh« nro tmter tmitacif Hf hitatmf tka aMtfq^OocoA, 
ftiiMrtir iriit At mfcwonrf oarf mttc*laot-l>farin(i cfttu. a, outer iiittnkriM4 k, 
tBule t c nncltic* eelU- Thu flgun. &• wdl u Itic tUm following, «n 

mucilaginous substance, which, in the bean soaked in water for some 
hours, IS seen to be considerable in quantity. 

These two meinbriines, together with the enlarged cells, are de- 
lineate«l in jSfi:. 41. 

As the cell* forming the seoond membrane approach the surface 
of the seed, they lose their mucilaginous chai'acter, become smaller, 
and return to their original size. 

If now the surface of an entire seed enclosed in its tuetubrone be 



exnniine'l, several raised lines or fibres will be observed, commencing 
Bt th« end of tbe seed attached to tbe seed-vessel, ppreading them* 

rig. <%. 

In tfelj Scnra Uw c*^, wott^f^nt, ^nd vlrof remttt, u« dcllnrtUd, which eoo 
•tlUita tl*« 4(«|) portion at tlw mcwu) mtrobrftue. 

k1 res out over its surfuce, nnd temiinatinw at the distal extreniTF^ 
of tbe seed: these fibres ar« coiiif)o«t»il of spiral veswU, which lie 
imbeddod in fibres of woody tissue and the cells above de^^cptbud. 

The Jiecond membrane forms the chief substance and of 
the husk. 

The third membrane, thin and delicate, consists of anpulnr cells of 
small size, the cavities of which contain mitnito plobuk's of fa! : in 
removing the outer tunics this membrane somclinie* comt»s oway 
in part with them, but in penernl the greater portion adheres to the 
Burfjire of the seed. This meml>rane covers not only the outer 
gurfftee of the lobes of the seed, but also dips down between them, 
and furnishes each of the opposite sides with a covenn;» ; it is most 
evident, however, on tbe external surfuce. It is probable, notwith- 
ttanding it may be exhibited as a separate tunic, that it is, strictly 




Hpeaking, not ta be repardcd as a distinct structure, but timt it rcaWy 
belongs to the seed, since on removing it colls belonging to the 

iRtlili cnfnTbif Ihe icrfr*! ilraetarH kbore DsUeM an delloMtcd. 9,tkir4 
t»m^ : ti, rvuntM rrflx, iletlveil from the wcood nwiribnine. I«lii|| upon Ui« 
frunh metnbnini. «tMl dlnalcd M the lUici of Junetlor of ihe Iom tr. futrth iw 
Jttrcitf tmetnl/rrtrnt ; tl d, tkmo'tttd buditt : e c, nivndfd ntawi-4 nf rrv**aUiiil fatly 
"•<»"<'' .' //i fTfitah tjfvmryariw. 

substance of tbe seed frequently come away with it; thp colourless 
cells constituting it being evidently praiJuully trnnsformeil into 
the coloured ones of the aee<i itself. To earh HPcd-luUe, tliepefore, 
according t4i tho above description, ihere is a dislitict membrane. 

Situated in the interspaces of the lobes is a fourth structure, at- 
taebed externally to the second membrane, the t-ells tbruiinf; which 
pass down upnn it for a ^hort dii^Unce; ahhough clear ami trans- 
parent, it f.^hibits a fibrous tttruclurc, and on its surface a ctmsi- 
derable number of jimall cry&taU are always to be seeji, us well as 
many elongated bodies, rounded at either exti*cmtty, and divided 




into several compnrtincnts or cells, and which <Io not appear to be 
atiaclied to the luenibrane on which the/ lie. Frum ibcir curious 

TU« flffUK PCpreMnu thtfvJU which fonn the kernel nfiha wed. In .1, the eelU 
KDil cunUlurU tUrvh u>rputcli:i an itiK<ulSnl 12311 lUmnictcra i whI in /t, SIJO dlft- 

appearnncc, and the abpencc of connexion with any of the other 
atrucl tires of the cocoa seed, the nbeer^-er is led to jnwpect that 
they arc extraneous and probably fungoid growths. We have de- 
tected them in every sample of cocoa seed aubmiltcd to exauuna- 
tion. Sce^. 43. 

Wc have now completed the description of the several structures 
which enter into the composition of the husk of cocoa. 

The Jtff«v/, deprived of Its hut^k^ is seen to be composed of several 
lobeSf an»nilar in form, nnd irregular in size and shape ; undci prea- 
gune, these readily separalc troni enoh othur, arul the seed breaks up 
into pieces, which are known as •* nibs." 

The lobes are constituted of innumerable minute cells, of a rounded 
form, the cavities of which are filled with starch corpuscles and fatty 

On the Burfiice of the seed these cells are rendered anjcular by cuni- 
prcsision, and are usually of a deep-red colour : the lint, however, 
varies greatly ; they are frequently, in parts, spotted with purple, and 
even deep blue. 

u 2 




cell contains man^ itarch corpuscles, biiiaII in size, of ft 
form, and which olten pre&ent an obacure, rudJatc^ or stelktc 

Fig. M. 

RtpraMnta the atnicttim met with fa) • PMnpIc of oRirrtini TvnmiAD Cocoa. It 
vlU bt nollcC4l thtt lA^- (a#iM-a farmdmo tic Atuft of toeoa art tittmt, wkI th«t 
UiM^nf Ihf arvd ll«rir*mnuvh Ivokm iqi, nanj or tliscvlli bclnf ni|>lurr<I, an 
M hi prrtnll trif VMAM oflhr fUrckMrfOHdllwllI fkl,poliilJ or itntv^nari'^ ht 
th« ni«nufinturf of choroUlr. a cfieDi of (be kcrn«l of eon« i ft f\, menil-rmn* 
on aurfK* of lohM ; r c, tiwuM of onbrjo i d rf, &«■ muMa of alanJi [ c r, loowt 

Placed at one OJitremity of the ftced Is the embryo ; this consists of 
cellular tlMue, the cells or meshes of which encluse numerous starch 
grsntiles and spheruleji of oil. 

Now, in the more carefully prepared chocolates, the whole of the 
structures represented in Jign. 40, 41, and 42. are absent, and those 
delineated \nfig. 43., and especially Jig. 44., only are met with : in 
some cases the embryo even ia removed ; but this, since it forms so 
inconsiderable a part of the entire seed, and contains, moreover, 
starch and f»t, appears to be almost an over-refinement. 

Oti the Prnperties of Cocoa. 
Cocoa may be considered under two beads ; as ref^ards its action 
on the nervous and vascidar systems, and as a direct nutritive. 



The physiological actions of the aromatic oil of cocoa and of the 
ibwhrumine urc probably similar to those of ibe corresponding con- 
BiiCuents of tea and coflee. 

Exhiblw tlM Wrtfm pi M Mi l In ■ Mmplerrf hmx/m/'m-sIm/ Flakkd Cocoa, which 
aMullr aniaiulDM«arfaadAiufc. an. lubalw fllim tm mufmet ■ b &, ttamd 
nMmbraiu of hoik t c «*, iptrftl »i iirit < J it, etUt irf krrn») i t, mrmbrftnc cwst- 
hm lob** I /. llMiN of tmSrjro i f a, tret mamet uf iUrch gnoulet t i^ K Iomc 
•tartli oorpiuclcs. 

The special actions of the Tolatilc oila of tea and cocoa have not 
ret been scientiflcally invesligntcd ; those only of the oil of coffee have 
hitherto been made the subject of experiment ; but from anatofEj 
tiiere l» good reason for supnoBin;; that all these oiU, which so cloBely 
resemble each other in their ptiy^ical i)rop<?rties, agree also in all 
es»ential particulars in their physiological actions. 

The Tolatile oil of coffee taken in tiiodcrate <iuflntitie8, as already 
stated, produces a gentle excitement of the nervous and vascular 
system:^, dispels hunger, retards the wa«ite of the tissues to an equal 
extent with caffeine, and hence allays hunger. 

The caffeine of coffee and of tea retirds greatly the wa.ste of the 
tissues, and hence is indirectly nutritious. This Is shown by the 
diminution of the quantity of urea, phosphoric oeid, and salt in the 

As a nutritive cocoa stands very much higher than either coffee or 

M 3 



tea, in consequence of the large quantities of fat, starch, and glut«n 
■ coiitainetl in it. 

it is true that tea contains a lar^r proportion of gluten than 
cocoa, viz. 35 per cent., a« Lonipared wuh 20 per cent.; but most 
of this <zluten, owins t») the ni:inuer in wliiub lh« infusion Is prepared 
and drnnkf remains in the leaves, and the l>enclil of it is of course lost 
to the system. Again, tea does not contain butter or any considerable 
amount of starch. In the cose of cocoa, an emulition of the seed is 
made, and in this way all the active and nutritious constituents of the 
article are consumed. Owing to the large quantity of fatty matter 
present, cocoa is apt to disagree with some delicate Etoraacha. 


The roasted beans or seeds of eocoo, when ground and reduced 
to paste constitute ilnke or rock cocoa, which consists, when it is ge- 
nuine^ of tuHhiit^ hut cocoa. 

Other names under which cocoa is sold in this country are granu- 
lated, soluble, dietetiu, honiofopatbic &c. 

Now there is nothing in these names to indicate that the articles in 
question arc anything more than varieties of cwoa, or to Rhow, what 
18 too frequently the cA.<ie, that they are compounds of sugar, starch, 
cocoa, and oftentimes other substances. 

The practice of calling these mixed articles cocoA is manifestly as 
improjKir and deceptive as it is to call Me cowpowtd of coffee and 
chicory^ Patent Compressed Coffee, Finest OM Turkey Collee, &,c. 

An article should be sold for what it really is, and under its own 
name; if it be right to sell these mixtures at all they should be sold 
as the law now compeU chicory and coiTee t^) be sold, and should be 
labelled as mixturps. Further, ihe prtiportions of the several ingre- 
dients entering into the composltiun of the mixed article bhould be 
staled on the wrappers. 

The French and other continental manufacturers of cocoa adopt a 
more str:»ighlfonvitrd and proper course : they never eiiil their com- 
pound and manufactured articles roci)a, but ehoeolate ; tlius they 
even denominate the cakes which they prepare, and which contain 
nothing but cm-oa, chocolate — "chneolnt sjins sucre/' allhnugh, with 
strict propriety, they might in tliis case have used the word cocoa. 

The cocoa, then, of the English makers in general ia not cocoa at 
all, but chocolate; whenever, therefore, the word cocoa, an adjective 
of indefinite signification being pre6xed, is employed to designate an 
article which is not pure or genuiue cocoa, Otat articie ottght to Ite con- 
sidered us adulterated. 

The works of Aecum, Brande, Uyv., juid Pereira contain but little 
information respecting the adulteration of cocoa; the only English 
writers who have treated of it at all fully being Mitchell and Nor- 








The 6rst of these authors, Mitchell, bos the following observations 
on the subiect : — 

** ChcMjolule is aduHeratod with flour, potato starch, and su^ar, to- 
other with uocoa-iiut oil, lanl, or even tallow. Even the su-cuUed 
finest chocolate i:? made up with cUiified mutton suet and common 
sup[ar, to;;ether with ordinary cocoa. 

"If in breaking chocolate it is gravelly, — if it melt in the mouth 
wilhonl leaving a cool, refreshing taste, — if it, on ihe U'Iditioii of hoi 
water, becomes thick and pusty, — and, lasily, if it. form a gelalinoui) 
maw on cooling, it is aduileruted with siurcb and sueh-like sub- 

^^ Where earthy and other solid substances are deposited from 
chocolate mixed with water, cither the beans have not been well 
cleansed, inferior sugar has been employed, or mineral substances 
have been added to it^ either for the purpose of colouring or of in- 
creasing its weight. 

" Moreover, when chocolate has a kind of cliet^y tuste, animal fat 
has been added ; and when very raiwid, either vegetuhle oil, or even 
the seeds themselves, have been employed in the sopliiaticalioii, 

"The mineral substances euiployt'd in the muking u|i of chocolate 
KK some of tliu ochres, both red and yellow, to^^etlier with minium 
(red leoil), vermilion, sulpliaic of time, chalk, &e. Chocolate so uiluU 
t«rali'd, more especially with the preparations of leail, are highly in- 
jurious; it is, however, only the Ulterior chocolates that ore thus 

Knnn the work of N3rmandy we extract the following remarks : — 

"Unllirlunulely, however, many of the prepiimtions of the cocoa-nut 
sold under the names of chwolate, of cocou flakes ami of chocolate 
]Kiwder, consist of a most rlisgusting mixture of bud or musty cocoa* 
nuts, with their itliells, coarse itugarot'the very lowest ipiality, ground 
with potato fltarch, old t-ea-hiz^ciiits, course branny llour, animal fat 
(gcncjaliy tallow, or even greaves). I have known cocoa powder 
made of potato starch, moistened with a deco<!tion of cot>oa-niit 
ifaells, und sweetened with treacle; chocolate made of the same ma- 
teiiak, with the additions of tallow and of ochre. 1 liave aUo met 
with chocolate in whicb brick-dust or red ochre had been introduced 
to the extent of twelve per cent. ; another sample contained twenty- 
two per cent, of peroxide of inm, tJie rest being starch, cocoa-nuts 
with their shells and Uillow. Messrs. Jules Garnier nTid Uarel assert 
ihat einnahar and red lead have bct-n found in certain !i;imples of 
rhfK'olate, and that serious acciilents had been caused bv that dia)>o- 
lical Oflullerarion. Genuine chocolate is of a dark brown colour; 
that which has been adulterated is generally redder, th')ugh this 
brighter hue ii sometimes given to excellent chocolate, especially in 
Spain, by means of a little annato. This aildition is unobjectionable, 
provided the annato is pure, which, however, is not alwavs the case." 

In defence of the practice of selling sugar, flour, and cocoa under 

U 4 



llie name of cocon, it is alleged that these articles are more atslnhU and 
more digettlilln ibun cocua is alone lu reference to these stutemeuls 
tbefolluwing; considerations prust^nt themselves. 

Whun a cup of cocoa is luaile by puurinif hot water uprm It, the 
sugar 4>f course dissolves, as when ^w^nr is added to tea or coffee : it 
certainly has no etTect whatever in makin;^ the cocoa raore soluble or 
more digestible ; and llie consumer at all cvtints mi^ht be left to add 
lor htni^lf as he does tn his (en or collce. The Htarch or farina usu- 
ally added to cocoa, wbcn boiling water is poured upon it, forms a 
paste or jelly, mure or less thick. This serves lo entangle the particles 
of cocoa oil, and to prevent part of the oil from aijceiiding tu the 
surface, and collecting there in droplets. In a cup of cocoa, therefore, 
for an etpial quantity of coroji, there is just n«4 much oil ns though no 
starch was present, nlthough^ it is true, imrt of (he oil la concealed from 
view. We do not, therefon*, perceive hi what way the Ktarcb renders 
cocoa more dieestible. l!)f coursi- the more sugar and siarch added 
to the cocoa, tbe less cocoa there is in the mixture and the le:)s nil ; 
but nearly the saine end would be obtained by uslui; less of genuine 
cocoa. Moreover, alarch in the proportion of about 12 per cent- is 
one of the natural coustituents of the uouoa bean. 

But it may be {rriinteii, men>ly for the sake of argument, that the 
starch (the suj^ar h ultoL^ether out of the question) is really an im- 
provement : it ran <iidy be so in certain proportions ; yet when we 
come lo analyse diSurent preparuiiona of cocoa, we find that the pro- 
portions of starch vary from 5 to 50 per cent., with the sugar from 80 
to 90 per cent. Of course such Urge atlditions oa tliesc cannot possibly 
constitute iiiiprovenientM, nor do they ; in fact, souieuf thefte mixtures 
Lave scarcely the flavour or evet» the smell of eocoa. 

That these large additions of starch nnd sugar are not improvements, 
any body may satisfy himself by c<mlrasling the smell and taste of a 
cup of cucoa made from genuine tlake or rock cocoOf and one mode 
from the ordinary mixed article. 

Neverthilcss, we do not go the length of stating (bat such mixtures 
ought not to be permitteil ; but we ate of Dpinit>n that they ought to 
be sold OS mixtures, and the proportiuns of the ingredients stated on 
the wrapper. 

Nearly every kind of Bour and starch, especially such as ore inex- 
pensive, is added to cocoa. In the cheaper descriptions of cocoa 
whrut floHTy ftotaio gUireh^ nnd gago meal are chiefly used, as well as 
mixtures of tiiem in different proportions ; one dealer ;;ivii)g the pre- 
ference to one kind of starch or ini.\turc, another to another kind. In 
some of the more expensive eocoaa Eatt Indian arrowroot and Toua let 
Mois, or mixtures of these with the chcn])er aiarehes, are cmploved. 

The quality of the sugar used varies from white lump to tlie in- 
ferior descriptions of brown and Ireacly sugnr. 

Now the excessive reduction of cocoa by means of sugar and starch 
sometimes reuders the employment of animal fat necessary to give it 




a rusher oJiarAxrter ; verv oommonly thi.i re^luctinn also fnrtber ne- 
ceasitAteA the use of coloured or ferruginous earths^ m Venetian red^ 
na^er, and boie Armenian, 

Mr. George rhrllipf io evidence before the Parliamentary Com- 
mittet; on Adulttinitiou, states: **lu one case, where 1 succeeded in 
ycelting the proportions, from a manufacturer, of wtiat he (.'nlleil his 
beat soluble cocoa, there were, in bis own Eancuagc, coioa forty- 
two, lump forty-tw<j, white and red fifty-two, TUc cocoa represents 
the nut, the lump the su^inr, and the. white is starch ; the red, oxide 
of iron to colour it. The per-centnge of cocoa in that sample would 
be 30 per cent., and that was stated by the manufacturer to be bis 
bett vMMblf cocoa." If that waa bis bt»t cocoa, what, we wonder, was 
the comftositiou of bis worst ? 

It should be known that Venetian red and other lerru»inous eartba 
are sometimes contaminated with anenic, 

liesuUn of the Examintdion of Samplrg, 

We will now state the retulfn derived from the examination^ chemical 
Oiui microMCopicJily of a large number of sampler of cocoa of diflerent 
kinds pur^ha^d from dealers resident in the metropolis. 

The results of the examination of fiiiy-four samples of rarious kinds 
were, — 

Uliat eight samples were genuine^ these being flake and rock cocoas ; 
that is, they contained no sugar or starch, but consisted entirely of 

That wgar was present in forty-three samples, the amount forming 
from 5 to »s much as, in some cases, 50 per cent, uf the article. 

That atarch was detected in forty-six of the so-cidled uocoas, the 
amount likewise varying from 5 to 50 per cent. 

To such an extent did some of the samples consist of sugar and 
■larch, that they contained only sufficient cocoa to impart some degree 
of flavoui- tu tlie articles. 

Lasitvt that out uf sixty*eight samples of cocoa and chocolate, the 
•ahe5 of which were submitted to exauiinatiou, thirty-nine contained 
coloured earthy substances, as reddle^ Venetian red, itmher^ &c. 

When it is remembered that the relative prices of wheat flour, 
potato starch, and sagfi meal, also of sugar, esii^cially brown sugar, 
Dear so small a prnjMjrtiun to that of cocoa itaelli tt will be reailily un* 
derntood how greul is the inducement to 3ub.stitute these articles ior 
cocoa ; and it will, we are sure, be apparent that it is not out uf simple 
regard to our digestive organs that they are added to cocoa iji such 
IftTfie (quantities. 

ilie extent to which the adidleration of cocoa is carried may be to 
lome extent judged of by the fact that the price at which ^onie of the 
inferior cocoa mixtures are sold is much less than that at which 
genuine cocoa can be purchased. 


...-»? I ■• *: — »; 




Unlike cocoOf chocolate is, as is well known, a man u foot u ret) article ; 
the French particularly excel in its prr-jioralion, imiJtLng a variety of 
combinations of c/>coa wilh ullier subsluiice.*!. 

The more commoD additions are, liowcver, sugar, and vnrioiiH kin<ls 
and mixtures of starch ; in the bolter descriptions of cUucoIutc, Ma- 
ranta arrowroot is employed. 

For imparting flavuvir and scent, vanilla and cinnamon are cUteAy 

Occasionnlly a medictnal chocolate » prepared with salep, a fucuta 
obtained from the bulliuus root of an orrlus. In some cases, also. 
chocolate i:^ made the voliirle for the administration ni" viirious re- 
metlicft, the taste of which is to a great extent concealed by the cho- 

Of twelve samples of chocolate examined, 

One contained 13 parts of sugar and 25 partes of starch iv Lhu 100 
parts; the starch consisted of a mixture of L:ipiu<;u starch, Muruiita 
arrriwroot, Indian corn flour, and sago uifal. 

The Jtecmtd^ of 3^ partd sugar and 30 parts wheat Hour to the 100 

The third, of 13 parts sugar and 10 portj sago to the 100 portii. 

The fourth «<amplc, being obtained Irom the same maker, had the 
same comiHuiitioii as the first. 

'Fhejifih containc'il 15 per cent, of a mixture of wheot flotir and 
potato frtarch, hut no i^ugar. 

The sixth contained 14 per cent, of sugar and IG itrpotiifn Hour. 

Tlie Jii*rtf«/A consisted of 14 per cent, of sago mcul, with a lililc sugar, 
the remaimler being cocoa. 

The ftghth con!*isted of a mixture of eocoa and Mugnr made into a 
paste with water, the cocoa forming itbout 56 i>er cent, of the article, 
or little more than one half 

The composition of the ninths tenOi, and eleventh samples was nearly 
the same. 

The twrlfth sample consisted of a mixture of sugar, potato flour, 
aogo meal, water, and c<tc(»a. The sugar and water formed 42 parts of 
the article, the flour at least 10 part.** ; the cocoa thus formed less than 
half the article. 

Besides the above ingredicmtA, several of the chocolates contained 
coloured /err nginuiu earths. Generally the proportion of starch was 
much less rhun in some of the cocoas examined. 

Chocolate being a compound article, no valid objection can be 
urged against tlie jircsence of su^ur and starch- The fwints to Imj 
cun^idered arc, the price of the article, and the proporlious and quality 
of the ingreilients of which it is composed ^ the addition of the red 
earths of course cannot be justiljcd. 



On the Detection of the AduUeratiom of Cocoa, 

The articles emploved in the adulteration oF cocoa, and v»ith the 
meund for the detection of which it is net-es'Hry that we should be 
acquainted, are ihe following : — 8ugar^ various ftifurt and xUvehes^ husk 
of Cftcoa^ chicory root^ fatty jnaUer^ and coloured ferragiuous fiorths. 

On the Detection of Sitgar. — The prescuoe of sujrar in cocoa 
may be readily detected by the taste. To deiernuno the quantity, 
the following simple but efficient proceeding may be adopted: — 
Dissolve a weighed quantity of co<>oa coDtaiiiin;; sugar in cold wat^n*, 
Blter^ dry the residue lirat with blotting paper nnd then on the water- 
bath, weigh ; the loss will inJicKte very nearly the amount of sugar 
with which the sample of cocoa operati^d upmn wns admixed. 

To show to what extent this melhoil may be rt^lied upon, wc may 
mention that we dissolveil one ounce of a mixture in equal proportions 
of cocoa and PUgar in cold water, and afterwards dried the residue ; 
the weight of thiy was only twenty-eight grains sliort of the four 
drachms. Or the aqueoua solution may be eva[K>ruted and the residue 

The method of determining the sugar by conversion into aloohol 
or carbonic acid la not well applicable to tlte cocoa mixture, because of 
the atarch present. The sugar is cane sugar, and it i^ necesaary that 
this should be converted into grape sugar by the action of dilute 
sulphuric ai:id in order to render it readily fermentable; but thia 
acid also converts the starch present into fin<|!nr. 

On the Detection of Starch. — In most cases it is sufficient to de- 
termine the kind of starch employed, and to lonii uu afiproxiinate 
opinion aa to the quantity present : the only certain method by which 
a knowledge of the kind of starch cmp1oyc<l can be obtained h by means 
of the microscope. In some cases, however, it may be necesr^ary to 
ascertain with tolerable accuracy the quantity of starch present. 

The starches emplAvcd in the adulteration of cocoa are the follow- 
ing : wheat flour^ potato flour, Indian corn, SHgo meal, tapioca, East 
India, Maranta. and Tous les MoU arrowroots. Now utl ih.ti»e starches 
possess distinctive characters by which they may be readily distin- 
guished from each other by the aid of the microscope. 

Cocoa itself contains about 11 per cent, of starch in the form of 
minute starch granules, entirely dtuerent in size and shaj>e from those 
of coL-oa: besides, these granules usually are not free, but ure for ihe 
most port embedded in the relli of the cocoa or else in its butter. 

Now although cocoa contains i>o nmch starch, the only means 
recommended fur the discovery of the a^luUeration of cocoa with 
starch, was by iodine, which of course gives, if properly employed, 
indications of the presence of fecula in every case ; and not a word 
was even hinted rcsjjecting the employment of the only means by 
which the different starches used could be identified, — namely, the 



The characters of wheat flour wlU be minulel/ deiicnbe*! under tbc 
bead of Flour ; but ihey huve aireadj been brieilj nolicid and reprc- 

Ff$. 47. 

•nAJTB, i)Ans.fc Co'* Pmuot Soira^ C^dooa. 
fin a, fltorefa eorpDRlM, etUi, udtplnlTtMtltof oocm i Aftb, franulMarpoHafe 


aetited when describing the adulteration!) of chicory and coffee. See 
fig. 30. p. I'i7. 

The ehartu'ters of fH*tato flrinr will be described under ihe bead of 
Arrowrotit, It may he siated now that they are of larjje size, ovate 
form, distinctly ringed, and with a fiinall but very disliiicl hilum at 
the smaller extremity of each granule. They are well represented in 
A- ■•7. 

The charoctem of tago meal will also be given under the head of 
Arrowroot. ITie pranulcf, nlihouj;h smallpr than those of potato, ore yet 
of conirideruble sire: but they are particularly and easily drMin^ished 
by being truncate at one extremity, as represented in^j^. 48. 

In Jig, 49. tlie starch granules of both potato flour and aago meal 
ore figured : it will be seen that the dinerencea ore very consider- 
ible and obvious. 



The starch {^nniilcs of Indian com nrc of about the size of those 
wheat Hour ; but thti greater number of ihem are polygcuiul, and hence 
they exhibit a more or less angular outline. See article Flour. 



a • «f lUieli fraaulH, oelk uid frkginvnu of eooM t b b ft, gruttiM of moQ 

Thp characters of the starch granules of Afnronta or West Indian, 
Curcuma or Ka9t Indian, Tapioca or ManiboL arnfwro(»t. and of Tool 
lea Muiis will likewise be found fully detailed in the article Arrowroot. 

The |rranules of Kajtt Itulian arroirroot are very Hut ; the Jlrw 
upon ibem describe segments ur |>ortiuDS of rings only ; aud the ecntral 
cavity 15 not visible. 

The starch granules of Wfst Ittdian arrotcrooi are of nearly libe 
same sixc at* those of sago starch. They differ, hnwever^ in not bein^ 
niuUer-^haped, and in the slit hilum which runs transversely acruM 
the granule. 

Those of Tapittca arrowroot are, like the starch granulci of ngOi 
m oiler-shaped, but they are several times smaller. 


Lmtlj, tlie ftorcb granules of Totu U* Mois differ from iiU tlji; others 
lA being vcrjf much larger ; iLev arc flut, wiiii strongly marked slriw, 

/l^. 4». 

Jrtcribe segments of circles only^ and tbey present a snuill but 

l-niark«ni central hiluro. 

Ib orUcr to determine npprnxi mutely tlic tpiantity of starch present 

in any oooon, firobably one uf the ^^implest methods is the tnllowing: — 

sugar, if prrient, having been removeil by means of cold water, 

cocoa ij to be boiled thoniughly, the 'tiTOCtion ^tniined throu<:b 

mit«r>[i niirl tli.» fat remiived when cnld : ihc n^sidui' whit'l) sub- 

t; I liquid cnnflist<i chiefly nf .it^rrh^ the aniniitit of 

I, iMcd either by measurement in gradnaied tubes, 

ii moy be dried and weighed. 

tbc latter ease it is noeessary 1o ascertain by previous experiment 

boiled and dried starch of eaeh dilferent flour or arrowroot 

ida to certain aumunts uf the raw flour or starcb. 

idM of the ({uantity of starch present nmy be formed from 

tht COMbtCDcy of the decocliuQ when cold. If the amouut of starch 



is rery considerable^ — 40 or 50 percent., — the liquid will be thick ftnd 


T«ri.nt BBirrHKRv' HoitrsorATnio CocOa. 

a CI a, KTuiDla ittd cell* of ooeo* i ^A ft, gimnutei of Oanna ttcrek or Urat lea Mob; 
r Ci (tmnuk» of Impiutm ManJL 

Tn makin;; observMions on the comparfttive density of cold decoc- 
lions of c(»oo.i oontninin^ «]ilTi.Tmt [»t!r-rcntn^eH of stiircli, we noticed 
that after a tim<* the stan-h rensei] tn W unifaniil? diffufted throughout 
the flui(I» nml that it, tks well as the heavier pnrticlGs of cocoa, subsided, 
leaving a supernatant ittrntum of dear li<piid; this stratum vnrying in 
thicrknt'ss acuordinfr to the quantity ff »tan.'h prv-sent, and being most 
shallow where ihere woa uioat feculu, and deepettt where this was 

It then occurred to us that in the fact of the subsidence of the 
starch we haH a mean!* of d^^lennininj; approximately the per-centage 
of that substance present in any sample of cocoa. 

We aocorilingly filled five tubular glnflse*, each seven inohc.^ and A 
half in height, tliree-fourlh« of an inch in diameter, and holding 
twelve drachmi; of water, with five different cold decoctions of cocoa, 
containing, renpectively. JO, 40, 30, 20, and 10 per cent, each of 
ntarch : in the first, the thicknes* of the clear stratum was one inch ; 
in the second, one inch and a half; in the third, two inches; in the 


iiburth« two incbes and a half; md in the fiAb, three inches. It is to 
be understood, howeTer* that these measttrements are approzimately 




Dcm'i Onrtui riAiMTLTtunD Cnocounu 
9 • It, itenk pmuto uxl cell* at euen% t hh i, grwtalM of foii^wn 

JfonwiAa armimwt,' <f, ImUnn cm-k nwHiI,- « r, iivfAftt tfordl 

//, CVrcmiM 

correct onlj, and that to obtain'porfectly nccarato results it is nocessarv 
tbat the experiments should be carefully repented. The proportion of 
the ingredienta forming ench decoction was 220 grains by weight of 
the mixture of coeoa and |K>tato 11i>ur, to eiybt ounces of water, the 
boiling being continued for five mitiutes in each cose. 

Or the amount of starch present may be determined chemically. The 
sugar, should any be present, having been removed, and also the 
fat, either by expression or by the action of ether, the cocoa is to 
be dried and weighed, then treated— once or twice, as may be neces- 
sary — with a weak solution of potash, which will dissolve out the 
starch: the residue consists chieflv of w(K>dy fibre ond cellular 
tissue ; this is to be dried and weiglied, and the difierence between 
the first and second weights represents the amount of starch pre- 
sent. Another way is to boil the cocoa niter the remorul of the 
sugar and fat, and to precipitate the starch from the decoction by 


nicuDs of iodide nf potiuisiutn ; the blue iodide of stfirch is formed, 
from wUicb tbc starch mny be calculated. According to Brande 
iodide of starch has no certain compoMtion ; but by ibe analysis of 
Lorsaipne it appears that Jt contains 41*79 paris of iodine and 58*21 
of starch ; or, according to Rerzeliua, two aturas of iodine with one of 

Graham gives the following process for obtaioing iodide of startb 
in a state of purity : — 

" A firm jelly is prepared by boiling potato starch with water, and 
after cooling, a ijuanllly of hydrochloric iictil is added, sufficient lo 
occasion th*; solution to become liquid, when assisted by a sliffht 
elevation of temperature. The solution is then fdtered, and a solu- 
tion of iodine in jilcohol is niixpd with it. no long lu the Utter pro- 
duces a blue precipitate ; care hoinf^ laki-n not to add too nitichof tlie 
noluiuiti of iodine, ns tbc alcohol of tbut solution will then precipitate 
uncombined starch." * 

But the most accurate method is, nfter the removal of the sugar, to 
convert the starch into grape sugar, aTxl to calculate the amount 
cither by Fehling'a test or from the alcohol or carlxmic acid formed. 

Tidce 200 grains of the cocoa mixture ; boil with about ten time* 
the quantity of water; add nithcr more lliari two dmchme of dilute 
sulphuric acid (1 to 5), and Jtpply hcnt nntil tbc lluid Ix-comcs thin: boil 
the fluid for 6 or 10 hours in a tlask with a narrow neck. pUcetl on the 
sand-bath, replacing from lime to time the evaporated water; or beat 
the fluid fn>m twenty-four to thirty-aix hours in a water-bath. When 
the conversion is com]ilett% which in ordinary cases may be ascer- 
tained by litK-ture at iodine, Uilute the fluid with water, and det«r> 
mine the quantity of sii<!ar present either by Fehling's test or, what is 
better, by converting it into alcohol and carbonic acid. Calculate the 
stignr from cither of these, and flic srarch again from this. The com- 
position and method of using Fchling's test Is given elsewhere; 100 
parts of graj* sugar correspond to 90 parts of starch. The method 
of converting grape etiizar into alcohol is described under the artidt 
Coifec, p. 123., and the fermentation test under Tobacco. 

On the Dvtectum uf Foreign Futttj Mutter. — Animal oils and faU, U 
lard, tallow, and suet, on expiosure to the air for a tiuie, dtiteciflllv ins 
warm place, liecome rancid and disagreeable to the taste, while the 
butter of cocoa under the same circumstances remains |>er(ciMly >i*e«t 

For the detection of these adulterations, therefore, the cocoa or cb<>- 
rolate should be scraped line and spread out in a thin layer on a plate* 
so that the air may have free access to it. In a few days the fonfiip 
fatty matters will have Irecoiuc rancid, when they may bo detected by 
the taste and smell, esj>einally when warmed. 

Another way is the /bllowing, given bv Dr. Normandy: — 
The presence oi animal fats^ or of oiU, may also be rcoogniMd by 

• Elcravnli of Chemistry. p.74t 



lifyin? m portion of the chocolat* as follows : — Hasp about 2000 
ift of tnc cli«>colate untlcr oxaminatlnii, and boil them with water 
vome caustic putiit<h. When tlie fut \n sanoriilii^d, dilute \\ni mass 
with a suflicienC quantity of water, ami filter ttiree or four tiiurs. The 
milky IJItrate^ which is^ io fact, a solution of soQp, should now be 
rapenaturaU>d with nitric acid ; this will <teparate thetht^ which will 
imit on the liquor after cooling. It may then he collccled on a fitter; 
and on rubhin^ a small portion of it between the fingers the odour 
will generally indicate its origin ; but more cfl'et'tunlly still by heating 
it in a ftanW capeule. Pure butter of coeoa has no riduur. Or the 
c hocolate may be exhauEted by sulphuric ether, ami by evaporating 
^Hl^ tbe fat will be left behind, and may then be identified, as just 

^^F The pre^nce of foreign fatty matter may sometimes be determined 

^Bby noticing the form, Aize, and con-(i»teney of the droplets of fut or oil 

^^wKich collect on the surface of a decoction of cocoa after it has 

heconecold. If the«e droplob* be firm, shot-like, undglubular, except 

I on the upper surface, which is f>lightly flattened, and very siiufdl} rarely 

J OUetding the twelftii of an inch in diameter, (hen (here ia no doubt 

' bot tltat the globules in question cun^ist of the lat or butter of cocoa. 

If, however, on tlic other hand, the globules be large, flat, or disc- 

!n.i. exceed the size nameil consideraldy, attaining, M>me of them, lo 

oirth of an inch, and even more in diiuneter, then animnl iat nr oil 

' «bly present, a conclusion whtcli may be still further confirmed 

•ing tne fat, keeping it f'>r a time, and observing whether it be- 

rincid or not The suspected cocoa should t>e cooled in an 

■ exposed freely to the air, antl not in a covered one, for 

( case the ilruplels of oil of even pure uocuawill fjeq^uently 

(MHWfet* ia Urge and flattened dies.* 


Oh the Detection uf the Afinerai Suh*tttnces uud. 

Of the tnineral -lubstances employed in the adulteration of cocoa, 
•Dme are used for the sake of their weight ; of these the chief arc 
■■lAinMifi of lime or chalk, and tuipkale of lime or piaster of Paria, 
MpteiaO/ the former. 

Olber Aibatances nre employed for the colour they impart, and 
t]M>e are fi^juently had recourse to; the principal are red iron 
wrtfaii M r«d ochrr, Vmrtian red, and umber. 

Ftn the detection of these mineral substances fiOO grains of the 
eocoa sbould be incinerated, and the a.-«h weighed and analysed. 

Soine idea of the nature of the mineriil substunces mixed with the 
DOOM Way be formed by dissolving a portion of it in boiling water, and 
o hwi i ilig closely the charnctcr of the nrecinitnte. In this way the 
of ferrugioous earth may sometimes be readily discovered. 

tnfoniMlloo m*j ofton b« obUliM^ by urcrtatninf the tnrltinf pnint. whicti ll 
i«CMMol Ut* Imtlar of cocoa, an4 the Uti tnn|tlor«l for lu «dutu<iiUluii. 
K 3 



For the detection af carbonate of limf and ndphaie of lime we miut 
proceed oa (lestTibed under the houd ofTt'Of at p. 101. 

The uh of ^Tonuino cocua is pule erey : if any of (be red iron earths 
be present it will be more or le?s coloured with the red oxide ^ iron ; 
and ID order to determine the (|uiiiitiiy of this oxide, the prtxress de- 
scribed in ibe artielest ou Tea and Chicory, at pp. 103. and 14^, must he 

Rtd Ochre consists of oxide of iron with silica, and sometimes alu- 
mino, clay, or even cliolk ; whik* y'en^tum ml, when genuine, consists 
nf the sesquioxide of iron, and is obtained by calcining coppers or sul- 
phate of iron. It is, however, often adulterated, espt^ially with chalk. 

It should be known that the colour of the ash obtained by the in- 
cineration of (trepurations of cocoii, adulturatcd with red ochre, is 
subject to ctmsiderable vuriution, dependent on the manner in which 
the incineration has been cundiictrd, nhelher in an open or covere<l 
crucible, and according to the degree fo wliich theush has been heated 
and the length of time it haa been •subjected to the process. Thu!> the 
ash of cocoa so adulterated may be umde to assume dilfercnt colours^ 
Tanrjng from dark brown, light brown, fawn, yellow, ferruginous 
yellow, up to rust-red, according to the method of incineration. 

In sonic of the samples in which clay and plaster of Parix have been 
ileteuted, these itub^itunces were not u»ed for the sake of adding bulk 
or weight to the cocoa, the quantity present being too muhU ; but 
they no doubt entered into the composition of the earthy colouring 
matters employed. 

Alumina, if (jresent, may be estimated from the soda or potash 
solution used to separate the nluiiiiua from the iron in the manner 
directed fur the determination of alum in bread. 

Duty \d. per lb. 

Cocoa and chiK-olate paste Id, j>er lb. 

Husks and sV'lls "Is- per cwt. 





Home consumption 1654 

„ 1855 

l^iae months of 1856 

The same nine months of 1855 

- A great diminutioo. 
3,482,370. lbs. 

The following nuestion, addressed to Mr. George Thillips, with the 
reply thereto, will show how admirably the llevenne is protected by 
the Excise agninst loss from the ailulleration of cocoa. 
Mr. Kinunird. "HftTu ynu examined any cocoas f" 
Replt/. " Though that is under um, wc have not imich to do with 
k ;** and then follows a statement of the inahilily of the Excise to 
detect Venetian red, or any other feiTUiiinous earth, nJlhough this is 
one of the comuioaest uf the uduhcraUoiis to which cocoa is liable. 


' ^w «« 






Two kinds ofgu^ar have been purticularly distinn'uishcd by chemists: 
naaieljf cane, and grnpc sugar or glucose. 1'he fir»i is obtained frum 
tlie sugar coiie, the beet rout, tlie maple tree, and M»ine ctberpUats; 
while toe second is contained in greitter or less q^uantities in most 
fruits, and parlicularly in grapes, figs, and honey. 

The chief part of the cane sugar of co:innerc« is obtained from the 
sugar cane, SaeckarTim offiviaanwL, of which there are several wcU 
marked varieties. 

" Thou*;h almost unknown to the Greeks and Honmns, and now cuN 
tivated nio*t. exten^ividv in America, it is a native of the Old World, 
It was in ihv hast in must remote times, and apjiears to have 
been cultivated in China and the Suutb Sen IsUnds long before the 
period of authentic history. Through Sicily and Spain it reached 
the Canary It>lan4ls ; thence was tranApbmtcd to St. Dotniniro by 
the Spaniards in IJJO; aitd from this inland it has gradually spread 
civcr tliL' West Indies, and the tropical regions of the American con- 
tioent." — JohmtoH. 

The sugar cane is one of the tribe of Grasses: it usually reaches a 
height of about 12 feet; it rarely ripens its seeds, and is tbercfure pro- 
pagated from slips, which are planted in rows. 

In bome tropical regions the sugnr cane (or rather its juice) forms 
an important and nutritious article of fond. The ripe stalk of the 
plaitt IS chewed and suckcil, after being made so(\. by boring it ; and 
enormous quantities are consumed in this way. '* Large eliiploads,** 
states Johnston, ^ of raw sugar cane arc daily brought lu the markets of 
Manilla and Uio Janeiro ; and it iii plentiful in the market of New 
Orle&ns. In the Sandwich and many other islands uf the Pacific every 
child luis a piece of sugar cane in its mouth ; while, in our own sugar 
colonies, the negroes become fat in crop time on the abundant juice 
of the ripening cane." 

The nutritive properties of the raw juice of the sugar cane depend 
upon the circumstance that it contains, besides sugnr, a considerable 
propwtion of gluten. 

The following is the process followed for the manufacture of 
su^nr : — 

^he canes are cut down by means nf large knives; the leaves and 
tops (u*u choppe*! olfaiid left in the field ; tlie caues are carried to the 
null, where tiiey are crushed between heavy rollers which squeeze 
out the juice. 

The juice is conveyed into large coj>per vessels, and is clarified 
chiefly t»y the addition of lime : the lime neutrali»*8 any free acids 
which may have formed, and al^ carries down with it the gluten. The 
jtuoe ia next boiled down, and is transferred to wooden vessels to 

M 3 



crvstalUso. Finnlly, it is put info casks having ceruin perforationB. 
to allow of the escape of the treacle or molassea- 

Composition of the Sugar Cant. 

The following are »ome of tbe chief analyses of the sugar cano 
whioh have hitherto been made : — 

Sufar - . . - . 


Mudl-itcnou*. rv'tlnoQi. fAUy, } 
and albumtiioiu mulierK J 


Frcib lucar ewe - - - 








Tmhlit Owe. RiU-n C«». 

14-uM) ,ia-aE« 

8-867 »-U71 
»-4I5 (mj 

o^vi o-aco 
76\«0 7C7a» 




The su^nr cnne, especially the violet variety, is eoated wilt a 
peculiar kind of wax, tenncd cerasine, nr su^ar cane wax. 

The following are the more important analyseit of cune juice : — 


Various orfutc mittere 

SalU - 

Water - 












f quant) Ilf4. 





It appears, therefore, from the above analyses, that cane sugar con- 
tains from 18 to 20 per cent, of saccharine luattcr; yet, owinp' to 
various eircunKHtunces, not more than 6 per cent., acconllng to John- 
ston, iff usually ^otit to market in the .statu of crystiittised sugar. 

The quiiriLity of »ii>;iir present in cuiie juice may be estimated ap- 
proximately by taking the spcHGc gruvity ofthe juice. Prreira st.itcs 
that it rnnj;es ironi ICKJT to I'lOti, ami Mr. Fownes found it to vary 
from I 070 to I'OOO. 

According to Fownes the juice has the following composition: — Caue 
Kugar, u nutttldti amount iA' grnpe sugar w ^lucose^ gwn ur tUxtritie, 
phospfutUs nf lime mul mttfruejuay some othfr mil of the Mime ffoxet, 
ndphate» ami ehlurifhs^ potnxhiimX sodtt ; and hinlly, a peculiar azntised 
trujffw forming an insoluble compound witli lime, not cori^niluhle by 
heat or at'i<U, and readily putreBuble. < If <Nnliiiary rfgetahh a//*w- 
men there iire but indiatiiiot truces, and of tii.TCiiw? or Irgumnif none. 

The brown sti^ar of commerce has the lollowing composition 






Although eonsisiin;; chiefly of cane or crystnlltsable sugar, it yet con- 
tflina A good deul ol' glucosf, and is coniaTiiiniitetil hy various organic 
and mineral subsunucji. Acconling to Avciiuin its tninenil oonstitU' 
eats uxe siticm pliatpliatc and subpliusphatc of lime, carbonate of 
lime, luIpUatc of putosh, chloride of potasiiiuni, and the acelntes of 
potssli and lime. 

Owiiij^ to tbe»e impurities it reddens litmus, and is not completelj 
dissolved hy alcohol; its solution furniidkes precipitates with diacetate 
of lead, acetic acid, and rau.«ilic nnuuDnia, and it ia frequently 
darkened by the addition uf scsquicblnride of iron. By keepin<; it be- 
comes weak, that is less sweet, soft, clammy, and gummy, — changes 
ascribed to the action of the lime. 

Ordinary brown sugar, prepared from juiec wliich has not been 
subjected to filtration, contmns almo^tt invariably a great many 
fragments of the tis&ue uf the sugar cane, sporules of a fungus, and 
■niniiilcul»? to be described hereafter. 

From white or refined sugar the above organic impurities ore 

The crystals of sugar are double oblique prisms. Fig. 52. p. 184. 

The foUowinf; are the pr»)pcrtie6 of cane siij:ar ; — 

It ia the sweetest of all thu sugars; when pure it is white and 
odourless; it is soluble in reclitied spirit, but not in etber; its watery 
solution, aided by heat, decomposes the metallic salts of copper, mer- 
cury, gold, anrl silver ; its wntcrv solution with yeast undergoes the 
vinous fermentation ; sugar protnoles the s<ilubility of lime in water, 
and it f(»rnis both a soluble and an insoluble compound with oxide of 
lead. Lump or relinetl sugar '\s permanent in tliu air, and phospho- 
rescent in the dark and when struck or rubbed. 

In the preparation of barley sugar, aciduiated drops, &c., the c<mfec- 
tioners usually add a small (juuutity of ereiun of tartar to the melted 
sugar, in order to deslrtiy the tendency to crystallisatiuu. 

Crystallised ungiir melts at 35G' P., and at a higher temmrature it 
begins to give off water, and li> suffer decompoitition ; ami if the heat 
is still more increased it loses its swectoe^a and becomes bitter, when 
It is called burnt sugar or carameL 

Although mola.sses and treacle are usually described as the same, 
it yet appears that they are realty distinct, if nut in their general 
composition, at ail event* in origin. They both consiift of glucose, 
cane sugar, gum, glulei>, extractive, vjtrious salt*, and water. 

MolttxAeit (Xinnisrs of the ilrainings Irom raw or Muscovado sugar. 
West India molasses is sometinirs imported <br refining, it furnishes 
brown or bastard sugar and trc*acle. 

Treacle is the syrup which drains from refined sugar. It has gene- 
rally a sp. gr. ol 1*4. Puyen I'egai-ds it as a saturated solution of 
crystnllisable xugar, of which it contains from 40 to 50 per cent. 

Cane sugar is distinguished from grape sugar by it£ crystaUisabiUty, 

5( A 



iu greater swetitness nnd sulubilily, in b«Ing reduced to charcoal by 
sulphuric acid ; but beiug uiicbangcd when treated with caustic ptHusb, 

CiTitoli vf Cajib SroAt- 100 dbunsten. 

and by the greater difficulty with which it reduces the blue bydratod 
oxide of copper to the dtate of the orange sulKtxide. 

iVnotber character by which a solutiun of cane »ugar is distinguished 
from that of grape siignr, is tlie properly which it possesses of right' 
handed circular polarisation. / 

On the Structure of the Sugar Cane. 
On the Pretence a/ Fragment* of Svgar Cane in Sugar — The juiw 

LANE Uu»"mi. ouuuu^^ ou.iuv 




of the cane is cxprosaed by mc^juis of powerful machlnorjt and during 
i\w operation iununierabli! fragment'* of the cunc itaclf, uituiy of them 
of extruinc iixinuteiiess, become; dt.*tai;boil, uiid puns ititu the juice. Ai 
this in its nianulaclure Iiitu sugar does nut undergo in j^eneral any 
process of filtration, ftod as but few of the franruQcnts drain away with 
the treacle, the greater part of them are retained in the stigar, in all 
iinfiltered .sampler of wliich they may be readily detected in great 
ubundunce by means of the microscofic. 

Fur the more ready and certain identification of these frao;- 
ments, it !s necessary to give a sburt outline of the structure of tLe 
sugar cane itself. 

The su^ar cune belongs to the class of Endogen>, and consists of 
nearly cybiidrical rods or stems, which are divided into joints at irre- 
gular distances of some three or four inches, and its structure is mode 
up of cellular tissue, woody fibre, vessels, and epidermis. 

The parenehymoy or ccUular tissue^ lorms lue most considerable 
portion of the sujior cane, and it h constituted of ai^grcgations of 
infinite numbers of utricles or cells, in the cavities of which the Juice 
is encb-sed. 

These cells ore usually rather longer than broad, and in the central 
ports of the baiuboD they are several times larger than in its outer and 
border part; the membranes of which the walls of the celts are 
forme^l, are all finely dolled or punctated, a character by which the 
cells of the sugar cane may be clearly distinguished from most other 
vegetable cells. Fig. 53. 

The vootiy fhre traverses the cane in a longitudinal direction in 
distinct bundles, which give tu transverse sections a dotted appear- 
ance. Each buntlle is constituted of a number of greatly elongated 
cells, and sometimes encloties vessels ; these are altfo usually more or 
lejM dottOii, like the ordinary cells of the p.'irenchymo, of which, indeed, 
l\\ejf are merely niwlificatioits. F\g. fi3. 

The ttMtU follow the same disposition as the woody fibre, in tlie 
centre of each bundle of which one or more is generally included. 
These vends arc of two kinds : the one is the interrupted spiral or 
dotted vessel, and the other the simple or coiitinuoui* spiral vessel. 
The dolled vessels ore sometimes cylindrical, but frequently |}<>]ygoiial, 
from tlie oomprenion exerted upon thera by the woody fibre, by which 
they are immediately 8urroun<led, and the markings of the cells form- 
ing which tliey tre<juently exhibit on their surfaces : the ^f>iral vessels 
are fiiund chielly in the outer and harder part of the stem ; they 
ore formed of a single thread, remarkable fur its thickness and strength. 

The epidermu nr cuticlf is known by the elongated, crenate colls, of 
which it is com]Hised, and the presenc*e of stomala. At the distal ex- 
tremity of each internode of the cane, the ordinary epidermic cells 
ore replaced or overlaid by a layer of cells, having totally different 
characters; they ore usually little longer than broadi more or less 



rounded or oval iu shape, with tl»eir edjjes markeil with short iJTid w*MI- 
d«fined lines, disposed in a radiate manner : these cells rei>eiuble sotue- 

F/g. M. 

A fTHftaenlof SiroAft CA)rt,ukcii fVom neor tlic centrt of the ■1cm, ihowiiit tht 
liwt «nd rhBTscirt nf Uip relti of whlrli lh« tNmiich<rn>a it tunned, w tr«|| ■■, on 
the left,* tiirtlle of voodjr fibre. Urmwti with IM Camera J.ucldk. uid mag- 
uUnl ino dlMUMten. 

what the celU found in the stones nf fruit, and tlicjr form hy their 
union a zone round the cane, polished, bard, and of about the third of 
an inch in depth. Ft^. 55, 

Fruginents of su^ar cane are present in jrreat (juautity in Musco- 
vado sugar, in the sugars of the slio])s in general, and in ** bastards/* 
a prdduct of the manufacture nf hnif sugar. 

They are not coninined in lonfuupar, crushed lump, supar caudy, 
nor in ocrtuin of the Knst Indian su^iara : in the prup:iriUioii of nil 
these augars the cane jiiioe underffopa a process of filtration which 
effectually removes utl solid and bulky impurities. 

The presence of these fragments, in many cases, serves todistin;piish 
satisfactorily cane sugar frotn cither beet, maple, or pmpG i^ugar, n 
discrimination which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to 

By the same meanis ali»o, cane siitrar may be detected when mixed 
with beet, a practice which, we believe, i^i not uncotiimnn in France. 

The saccharine juice of the beetroot is filtered, and therefore frag- 




mentti of thnt plsint ore not present in tbe sujrar nuide from it, cis tbey 
would doubtless tw, were this means of purilkution tiuC nduptcd. 


FrumaiU of t1i«SroAH Civr. rxhlbtUns theatnietura of lh« tvokindaof TtM«la 
•mchcnur loU> lu ctin.(KHitlao, u well u the eclU of vbleti the vootly llbrt 
lloanvlltBtvd. n, /'■<'(»' i^Mrfrinlinldrdia vnod/Qbrt); &. c«lli of winvV./'''*^'' 
e, ^p^rof rcMti. D»«n vlUi Ute LuMfK Luct^«,aiul mtgtuJUd 3Ui illiuncun. 

The presence of sugar cane in sugar increases the bulk and weight 
of the article, Ie^sen9 its sweetness, tend thus deteriorates both its 
(j^ualitj and value. 

Physiological Action and Prvp^rtiet of Cane Sugar. 

Sugar contributes to the formation of fat an<i lactic acid ; it supplies 
material for tiie niaiiitenimce of reispinttion ; and by its oxidation it 
furnishes heat to the syat^^m. Sugar and especially treacle have an 
operient tentlency. 

In lS-^3 the home consumption of raw sugar amounted to 818 mil- 
lions of lbs Thiaiseijual to '28 lbs. of sugar Ibr each person resident in 
Great Britain ; but »iiice the avL^nt^e consumption of Ireland is not 
more tlian one third llint of England, the consumption per head iti tbu 
latter country must be considerably over 28 lbs. 



On THB Adclteratioms or Cake Sogab. 

Various adulterations have been stated to he pr&cUsed on sugar; M 
with potato augar, starchy fptm or dextrine^ finely powdered marhUj 
chalk or whitings sandy hone-dust^ and common suU. 

Fig. M. 

'"iS^ -'u _ 

A portion of the EriDViuiib or ttw Cxvm, ahovlng Ttii nro Ktfrm or osLLi of 
which ft ■• eumiHMed — vii,. Iborc of which lli« (tvotrU nirfUK of Ui« euie ii 
Ibrmvd. «n<l tJioM of which tti* |H>li>lml «onc drwiibril (ii Ilia teat i« chiefly 
eoMtltutwl. Drftwa vlUi Uic Ca^ncr* LudiU, kuJ m«<ol&etl Sua di*inct«n. 

Sugar bein^ soluble id water, it is obvious that were it to be 
adulterated with any insoluble substances, the discovery of such 
adulterations would be very enfty and certain, for the i>nly thin^ 
necessary would be to dissolve a portion of the sugar aud to examine 
the precipitates which Hubaidcd. 

We have examined over 100 samples <>f8ugur, and the only insoluble 
substance, excluding ucfidenlal imnurities, whiuh we have met with» 
has been starch, which wiis present m smnii (quantities in four samples- 
There is, therefore, but little ibundation for the tales we hear alwut 
the presence of sand in sugar. 

Formerly, however, when sugar was much ilearer than nt present, 
it used to be extensively adulterated with an inferior dc^'riptian uf 



!tu^ar made, from potato stnrch by the action upon it of dilute buI- 
phuric acid. Uut this adulteration ]ia.i, wc holieve, ceased. 

** A few years ago," writes Dr. Peroira, " I ins|>ectcd on extensive 
manufactory of sugar from potato starch at Stratford, in Kssex : the 
sugar obtainetl waa sold for the adulteration of brown euj^ar, and the 
mola-'ses produced was consuuied in an oxalic acid manufactory." * 

There isapractice, termed the "Mixing" or ** liandling " of sugar, 
which, although not an adulteration, u\i\y here be describetl. It consists 
in mixing tni^ether, in various nroportions, 8ugar of different qualities 
and prices, — as moist sugars with dry ones, very brown sugars with 
those of light colour,— the resulting article presenting a tolerable ap- 
pearance to the eye, but being rarely what it professes to be — real 
Jamaica or Demerara su^ar. 

In reference to this subject some remarks from Ibe work of Dr. 
ScolTem on the manufacture of sugar may be qui»te*I. 

•* If the West Indian sugar-growers were to be furnished at onoe 
with a never failing means of producing a large-grained, and there- 
fore an easily cured, sugar, to the exclusion of all uther sort-t, their 
produce would have to encounter a diflicuUy which the consumer 
would learecly imagine. Such large-grained sugars ore very un- 
faToui*able to the perpetration of certain mysterious o|)erutions of 
legerdemainf, which gnK'ere understanil too well. They will not 
mix. A (imall- grained sugar may readily be ineor^ioruted with 
glucose, with pieces or bastards, and other less innocent bwlies, with- 
out such incorporation being discoverable to the eye. A large- 
grained sugar, on the other hand, is a most refractory material for 
tbcfc little manipulations ; its crystals, no matter how mingled with 
contaminating agentjt, never ceaiiing to manifest their native bril- 
liancy, luid thus proclaiming the trnud. It is most easy, then, to 
understand why the grocer, as a rule, does nut encourage these large- 
grained sugars. He cannot ' hantUe * them, and therefore brands them 
witli a fault. He says th^y are deficient in aaccharine matter — that 
they will not sweeten. True it is, that comparatively small portions 
of these large-grained sugars ore sold, and cold at high prices, 
but merely as fancy articles, on the proceeds of which the grocer nets 
too little to make their sale an object of primary solicitude. 

** Such is the source of one prejudice again&t dry and large-grained 
sugars — a prejudiue originating amongst the grocer:*. There is also 
another, which originates amongst refiners, who are adverse to the 
general cousuntptton of the^e beautiful colonial sugara, for the very 
ubrioaa reason that the consumption of their own staple is thereby 

* Ur. SUtrmtm Cnhilt. ** t* tlHrfl murh poUto lusir fnjule ? "— ** A jrear nr two Mffo, wtim 
«rer» illft-unl poinlfw*, titefe nerc toni mwlc in k wr**!! al vne ciubliiliment 1 
The dl»rii>i' 111 tho pDCalooa did not touch Ihr tXAnh. "—Lftkeby m F.Tldnicc 
Commlltrc on Atlulimiloa. 
f T«nn«d bf grucer>, " himatfng." 



Now nearly all the brown sugars of commerce, altbougb Tiot often 
athdieratedy arc ^et in a very iinj^rc sLate. Thus many ot them con- 
tain a good deal of treacle and glucose i and all, Jragments of sugar 
cane^ spomles of ajMngwt, and aI«o large numbers of an insect termed 
an acanix. 

The presence of these vftricus and damaging impurities is thus 

The presence of the frojrmenla.of cane is accounted for by the 
cane juice not having been liltL'red, of tlm fungus and of the inRei.'ts 
by the fermentation of ilie sugur, and the presence of nitrogenous 
matter. In sugars which have been filtered none of these impurities 
are met with. 

Tlie Sugar Mite. — The sugar mite or Acams iacehari is in size so 
considerable, that it h plainly visible to ihe unniiled sight. When 
present in sugar, it may always be detected bv the following pro- 
ceeding : — Two or three drachms or teaapounfuls of yugar should be 
dissolved in a large wine-glas^ of tepid water, and the solution al- 
lowed to remain at rest for an hour or so ; at the end of that time the 
animalcules will be found, somt^ on the surface of tliR Liquid, some 
adhering to thti aides of the gla*s, and others at the bottom, ruixed up 
with llie copious and dark sudirnpnt, formed of fni^numLs of cane, 
woody fibre, grit, dirt, and standi granules, wliii'h UKually subsides on 
the solution of even a small quantity of sugar in water. 

We will now proceed to give a de^c^ptiun of the acarus in (question, 



0*« •ni TOnmi of Utt Acampa •AcxntAii. or ttigar iwm-i. I>nwti vlUi tbe Oknwn 
LucMa. uiil BiftcnlBcd SUA dUtncun. 

and observe, in the first place, that the whole of its development may 
be clearly traced out in almost every sample of brown sugar. 



The Acarfu sacchari is first visible as q rounded bodv, or eprp; ; this 
gruduidly cnl&rgfs and becomes elongated iiud c)Uudrica2 until it is 

A 9cojlr Ijiyxrr or medium ilw, nprcMittJRf tU RtUtudt uiil «p|>tftranai wb*» 
sltre, and M ««n cnwllnc ita a frm;aic&l of CMne, Vtmwa with the Caiaef* 
L,sclda, uid mignifird titti dlun<rtVT«. 

about twice as Inn;; oa broad; af^er u tiinCi from i]\Q nules, and one 
extremity of this ovum, tlic legs and proboscis begin to protrude. 
These stages of the development of the ncarus are ejihibitcd ia,fig. 50. 

The oetrufl thus far formed, goes on inerensini; in size until it 
attains lu full growth, when it is visible to the naked eye as a mere 

In its perfect state, its structure is as follows : — The bo«ly is oral, or 
rither somewhat ovule, being broader behind thun before; from its pos- 
terior part, four long and slIlV bristles proeee<l, two togutht-r on each 
side; and some eight or ten smaller ones are arranged nearly at e'|ual 
distances around the circumference of the iKxly ; from tin anterior 
part a proboscis of complex organisation proccedia, and from itti 
inferior suri'ace eight legs, jointed and fumi-thed with spines or haira 



at eaph articulation; the spine which issues from the lost joint but 
one of each leg is very long, and extends much beyond the termiiia- 

Ftg. M. 

lopmcnt, and M It frtHjiunitj kpiw^n when iU«d. Ilrawti wltli itM CsfoAim 
LodJft, and macniftrd IP") iliamtUrf. 

tion of the leg itself; lastly, each leg is armed at ita extremity with a 
formidable hook. 

Manr of the above particulara are faithfully exhibited in the 

In most samples of sugar the iicari may be seen of all sizes, that is, 
in all the stages of their growth and in every condition ; some alive, 
others dead ; some enttrCf and others broken into fragments ; bodies 
bere, legs there. 




We hnve said that the sugar mite is very commonly present in ibe 
less imi'tt su^um — wc mijihi have asserted that ft is tUnioiit eonsLaiitly 
»), the »(tateiiient being bn»ed ujton the exauiiDHlion of nut less than 
one hundred diflc*rciit samplt^s of sugar. 

A» II rule the number ofacari present in any Fam])le of suprar may 
be taken as a fair indication of the purity of that sugar; the purer 
the sugar, the freer it will be from the 9u;j;ar mit«. 

Grocer/ Itch. — It is well known thut grocers are subject to an 
aAcctiun of tbe skin, denontinatcd *' grocers' itcV' of which one of 
the sTmntonis is extreme irritation and itchmg. 

To this disease all {:rnK:ers are not equiilly Uiible, but those more 
particularly who are en^^aged in the ** handling " of the sugars, as the 

Now the Acarus xacchori actually bt*lnnj»« to the same genus as the 
^rarw* jrcr/AiVi, or itcli-insert^ tluin whinb, however, it is larger, and 
possessed of an organisation still jnorc formidable. 

It thus beeomes extremely probable that tbe disease in (]uesti<m 
does really arise from tbe sugar acarus — a point, however, which 
notbin<; short of microscopic observatiun can satisfactorily determine. 

On SporuleM of Futi^i in Sugar. — Innumerable sporules of fungi 
are very generally to l>e observed in the less pure kinds of sugar; 
they i>ct-ur, indeed, most abundantly in those sugars which favour the 
development of the Acari. 

Thev are best seen by dissolving a small quantity of any brown 
sugar ID water, and looking fur tbem in tbe sediment which «ub:tides, 
and which, to a greftC extent, is constituted of the sporutes in ques- 

These s[K>ruIes are exceedingly minute bodies;, usually of an oval 
form, and either fluaiing uinirly in the sugar solution, or else adhering 
together, and thus (brminj: little beaded threads. Under favourable 
circumstances the s[M)ruies become developed into perfect plants or 

Another impurity very frequently met with in lump sugar, consists 
nf mittuie amvdust-iike fragutcntiy nnl only of deal, but also of other 
woods; tbcy ffflen occur in great abumUncu, and of their presence it 
is not easy to give a satisfactory expUnatinn. Possibly they are 
ilerived from the board on which tlie loaf sugar is broken into 

Out of M pent y 'two sampIeM oT brown ntgar^ as procured at diflerent 
shopa, subjected toexamination,yr^m/?iii/«<»/'«Ufl'ar C4iHe were present 
in ail but one. These were usually so arauU that they were visible 
only by the aid of the microscope. 

SponUet and JUamentt of fw*gug were present in nearly all the 

The acari were present in sixty-nine of the sample**, an<! in 
many in very conniderable quantities. 

Grape SMgar was detected in all the sugars. 


turn- pr lliv Mignrfl roiitnined proportions of darch so consit 
t4t Iktnil tti ilit> inftTencc that thejr were adulterated. 



■f iht Vbnoi'i nmiiil In bmwn Mnr. I>raWTi with 
ftwl niviralflcd w dluncUn. 

Cunerm LaddA, 

Klt'vcn iilIiiT «aiii})l('H of lirown au^nr, as imported from tlie East 
iitxl \V»'"t Inilii'ji, fiir!il»ln*4i neurly simiUr rcsuhs. Two only could 
Itit ii'ffiii'tliMl iiK piir(< uiu) (it t'lir liiiiunn cnii-tumptionf — a white, large- 
^lftllM<ll C'utruitu ttii^iir, n'Mt'tiihli.i<^' cniNliL'^l lump ; and a pale slraw- 
I'liliHirtMl, lar^o-^niliKMt, hiijlilv rrvKltillini' 8ii;;ttr fruin Cussipore. 
Itoth llii<»o vii^iira hud im *}nuUi hi<i-ii iuaxIv fruju jtiicu purified hj fil- 

Tho rosulla of Iho examination »i Jiftetn tampleg of lump tvgar 
wi»r«», ■ — 

1'hit in none of the Rugara wcro A*agmcrita of cane present. 

'j'lut It) ihrvo uf Ui» MugarR only were tracca of gnpe sugar to be 

That in no east' wcro acart observed. 

That in none uf th« sugars wvrv Bporules and threads of Aingi 

It hhji nuw Ih'cii dliown thiit the inajoiity o{ brown sugars, al- 
though not udultoiattnl, are yet, as imporiod into this country and as 
vended to the public, in an exceedingly impure condition. 


Those impurities prevail to such on extent, and are of such a 
nature, — consisting of live unimalculse or ocari, sporules of fungus. 

I vt maady flhn of tfae Fia. ahcnrinc iU itruelura. Dmwn with Uif 
CuHcm LndiU, «ik1 mafalflra 9Xi dluaelcnk 

(jrit, woody fibre, &c., — that we feel compelled, bowcver rcluctantljr, 
to come to the conclusion, that the bnywn nugars of commerce are^ 
in fiertfrrat^ in a ttate unJU/or ftumatt coimttttplion. 

We stronglj urge the sugar refiner to prepire cheap fomu of puri- 
fied sugar, in powder, analogous to crushed lump; such sugars, we are 
informed, sre extensively cmploye<l in Scotland, and we doubt not 
but that tbejr would meet with a Urge and ready sale in tbis country. 

On the Detection of the Adidterationa of Sugar, 

tTbe adulteral ions which either are or have been practised upon 
sugar are tbote with ttarcb and starch sugar. 
Otber articles aIU*g\M) to have been used for its adulteration 
o a 



lire cjum nr rlextrinc, chalk or wliiling, pypsum, sand, bnne dust, 
and i-ommnn sidt. Tln*?e siibstanccf, e^tcept ihe piim and salt, are all 
iiiHoluble in water: tur lljL'tr supanillDn nm\ idenLifictition nothing 
more in y**nera! wuuld bt? necessary than to dis!«(ilve a portioii of the 
sugar, liy allow the precipitate to subside, and to examine it with the 
eye, and occnsinnally by chftnical reagents. 

If the precipitate he earthy, and h\ on ndilinfza little nitrate of silver 
to a portion of it^ it turns yeltow^ it eoninists in all probability of hone 
dust orphospliate of lime : if. on the addition of «n ai-id, it effervesce, 
iC then cimsists of curbonatc of lime, or chalk : should cfirbonic acid 
not be eToJlve<i, we mny then test for gypauni : if the preci[iitAte is 
coinpoM^l nf sanil, it may at nnre be idciititied by the eye alone. 

For the estimation of the ahnve siibstnni-e^ ipiantitativelv, — rarely 
required, howrror, — awt-ighed portion of the juijrnr shoultl bi* dissolved, 
ami the proeipiute, after being dried» shimld it^jelf be weii:lu'd. IJut 
as in a solution of Augur part ufthe Ituie iii held di»Rolved, in this casc 
it is better to estiuiate the iiuantity of ihiit present from the ash ; 
thia is effeuted by the proeeys deseribt.'d under tlie beat! of Tea. 

Stilt, when present, which it rurely is, must likewist.' be estimated 
from the a^h : a solution of tbix in distilled wuter diu:«L be made, and 
the chloride of silver — precipitated by solution of nitrate of silver — 
formed nnist be collected, dried, and weiched, and the chlorine con- 
tained in this calculated; thia again must be esiimated for cldoride of 

If the EUgar is adulterated y^Uh gwn we must proceed as follows: 
the 8ur;nrniu8t be dissolved out by means uf reclined spirit; the gum 
will be Ufl behind. 

Farinaceoajt mtbitancen may be thus detecte*! : — The sugar must be 
dissolved, the precipitate examined with the microscnpe, and (he 
characters of theitnrrh cnrfiuMrles noticed. I^oiled starch is scarcely 
likely to be em|iloyed; but if so, a precipitate wmilil still oi-pur in a 
solution of suj^ar: in this the remains of the stnrch coqmscles would 
stilt be visible, and with iodine it would luni blue. For the <|uanli- 
tative estimation of sLarefa or farinaceous substunce^ the precipitates 
must be dried and wei;.'hed. 

Dextrine, a subntance internie<liatc in its character between gum 
and starch, is detected by t^'Sting a solution of the su^'ar when cold 
with iodine, which gives* a purplish colour, and abo by the characters of 
the remnants of starch corpuscles still visible. 

Lastly, we have to consider the n)cans by which the adulteration 
of cane with starch sugar may be discovered. 

Starch sugar is one fonu of grape sugar; and since, as we have 
shown, grape sugar is piesent fiom natural causes, in greater or lees 
amount, in all the brown !iu^ars nf enmmerce, it is evident the analysis 
necessary to enable the chemist to state whether a sugar is adullentted 
vtth Btareh sugar or not must be a quantitative one, and that he is 
only justified in concluding that a sugar is adulterated with that <<ub- 




Btnnce wlten the nro[>orlion discovered forms a considerable per-centage 
of the whole artK-]e, 

The teaU ortiinurily employed for the detection of grape sugar are 
Trummer'sorthe copper test, anil the potash orMoore's test. A solution 
of grape sugar to which a solution of causiir potash has been added in 
excess, when boiled becomes of a deep rich brown colour. 

Troaimer*8 te^t consists of sulphate of copi>er and liquor pota^sv. 
When ttiesti are added in certain proportions to a doluiion <ii' pmpe 
sugar, and hent is a[>plied, the red suUixide of copper is thrown down. 

Several nibilificationB of thU test have been suggested ; the most im- 
portant of thcrn U that which is called Febliug'a te^t. 

There are two method:* by which the quantily of grape Bugur is 

By one method the quantity is eslimnted from the nnmnnt of a 80- 
lutiuo of deliniie strength required to precipitate all the sugar, a 
certain measure of the solution corrcspondiu;; to one grain of su^^ar. 

By the other metho<l, the sugar i» calculated from the suboxide 
precipitated, the solution being added in excesa 

'Xlie copper test is usei) qu»tit;itivcly in the following manner : 
— A drop or twi> of a soluliou of sulphuiL* orcnp[M.'r is ad<led to the 
solution of sugar, then solution uf caustic potash in excess, and the 
mixture boiled, heat being applied to Ihe up[>er part of the mixture 
in the test tube. 

Fehltng's test litmor is prepared as follows : — 

Dissolve 69 giams of pure crystallised sulphate of copper in 27(» 
grains of distilled water ; to this add '276 grains of a saturated solution 
ol" tartrate of pcitAjih, then add 80 grains of hydrnte of soda, previously 
dissolved in one ounce of distilled water ; shake all well together, 
■nd iutnxluce the liquor into a vessel capable uf holding 2000 grains, 
graduated into 1000 equal parts, and nil up with df.<4tilk'd water. 
Kvery 200 grain.H, or 100 parts, of ibis lest liquor are sulUcient to 
decompo.4e one grain of glucwe. It is best to add excess uf the 
solution, and to weigh the red suboxide thrown down. 

in this cose, the solution of sugar to which excess of the test 
solution has been added, sliould be gently heated on a sand-bath, till 
the suboxide has subsided ; this should be collected by decantation, 
washed with boiling water, dried and weighed, and the sugar deiluced 
from it. One hundred parts of anhydrous grape sugar corresponds 
to 198*2, or, according to Neubauer, *J01 62 of suboxide of copper. 

In employing the test quanltLaltvel^, the sojkiion muni be added 
tittle by little, until no further precipitute of sunq^^e occurs. 

The solution should be kept in a dark place; ami if it has been 
made for any time bufure usin^ it, it should be boiled with water in 
the proportion of one part of the solution to four of water. If this 
operation cau^iea the separation of even the snuillcst quauUty of sub- 
oxide, the solution is unGt for use. 

o 3 



The sDgar solution should be ver^r dilute, and not couiain more 
than one ptr cent, oi'siiifar. 

It mu9t be rememb4>rcd lliat the DeparatGd suboxide of copper will 
grudually diMoIve in ibe supernatant liquor as soon as tbis becomes 
cold, as oxide, into wliicb it Is converted by the oxypen of the at- 
mosjihero, ami henoe tlie necessity of washing the preci|>itftte by de- 
cuntfttion in bujljug water. 

In this nrtiele, as in tea and coffee, the war not onlyarrcsted the fall 
of the duty, but occasioned a retrogressive move. The scale of duly 
on ail sucRr alike is now : — 


TUI 5ili uT Aprfl. 


Candjr, Brown or Whit* 

£ 1. 4. 

J. d. 

X. d. 

rcHaod, or uiy «<iua1 

In quality ihcn-to ■ 

I y 

16 e 

13 4 

Whitr cU>ed at muaI. but 

nM eq-il rtrflned - 
VpIIow MtufOTadu - 

17 6 

H 7 

11 M 


19 9 

10 s 

BrowQ ,. - - 

13 'J 

11 B 

9 e 

M«1m*m .... 

ft A 

4 « 

3 d 

Connumption ofaU Sort* in 18/S4, 
Unrefined - - . - 8,100,423 cwts. 

Refined . - - - 304,128 „ 

Molasses - - - . 929,811 „ 

In 1855. 




Nine ManUu of 1«56. 

Unrefined - - . - 5.463,488 ,. 

Refined - - - - 215,918 „ 

Moliisses - - . - 684,638 „ 

Being all lower than the same months of 1855, owing to higher 
price and hf^ht^r duty. 


lIoNET consists of the saccharine exudation from the nectaries 
flowers collected by the bees, and modified and elaborated bv them 



in the crop or honey bflc, which is an expansion of the (ESOphaj»us, 
and from which it la dist'tiargeii on their return to the hivc^ and de- 
posited in the various cells of the comb. 

It consists oferape sugar, manna^ ^f** mucilage^ extractive, a little 
wox, pollen^ acid, and odariferoua substances. 

lloucy usually consists of two parts, one lluid, the other solid and 
crystalline. By pressure in a linen bag, these niny be sepnrated from 
each other, a clear syrupy substance passing through the linen, and 
the white solid su^ar remainine behind. 

" Both the solid and liquid sugars hare the same general pro- 
perties. Tbey are hi)th equally sweet, both have the saun; chemical 
composition, and both begin to ferment when water and a little yeast 
are added to Ihem," — Johnston. 

In old honey the proportion of solid sugar is the greatest. 

"The solid su;jar of honey is probably identical witli the sugar of 
the grape; the liquid sugar differs from the solid, chiefly in refusing 
to crystallise, and in contuininnr an admixture of colouring and odori- 
ferous substances, prtxluced by the flowers from which the bee has 
extracted it." — Johnston. 

The honey which flows spontaneously out of the comb on the ap- 
plication of a gentle heat, consists entirely of the fluid portion, and ia 
called virgin honey, while ordinary lioney is pri^u-ured both by pres- 
sure and beat. The first honey collected by bees is also soiuetinies 
called virgin honey. 

To the various fnreitiin substances containedin it, including especially 
pollen, the different colours, flavours, and o4lours possessed by the 
noney of different countries and diairicts are owing, and the possession 
uf which, in some euse$, causes it to bo so highly prized. *^ Hence the 
eslimation in which the honey of Mount i<lH, in Crete, bos been 
alwnys held. Hence also the perfume of Narbonne honey, of the 
honey of Chamouny, and of our own high moorland honey, when the 
heather is in the bloom. Sometimes foreign substance!* possess 
narcotic or other dangen>u.i qualitieH, as tn the case with the Trebizond 
honey, which causes headache, vomiting, and even a kind of intoxi- 
cation, in those who eat it. Thid quality is derived from the flowers 
of a species of rbododentlron, Azalea poiuica^ from winch the honey is 
partly extracted. It wa« probably thio kind of honvy wbiub poisoned 
the soldiers of Xenophon, us described by him in the Retreat of the 
Ten Thousand." — Johnston. 

The solid part of honey, examined under the microscope, is seen to 
consist of myriails uf regularly formed crystals ; these crystals are for 
the most part exceedingly thin and transparent, very brittle, so that 
many of them are broken and imperfect; but when entire they con- 
sist of Kix.-sided prisms. They ap|>ear to be identical in form with 
those of cane BU^'ar,_;%»'. 52. p. IH4. 

Intermingled with the crystals, may also be seen pollen granules of 
different forms, sizes, and -ftructure ; these are in such perfect con- 

O A 



dition, that in miiny cii5e9 xhey mar be referred to the plants from 
which the honey bus been procured. This 'a a very intcrc^iing and 


CrTftAUof lIo](«r, InlcnvlanlvithUit pr\l\at (naolwrnf the flower* fti>ni«bl«li 
Itic Hwurjr wu gftUwmL MAgnlflsd Xll tUmmctcrv. 

kutiful fftct in relation to honev Tliebces, in coHccting the li»af^ 
from the flowers, carry away with them also some of the {>oU>'ii "> 
those ilowers ; now this pollen consists of complex utricles oi cvtt*- 
difieriug in Hize, shape, and orgnnis:ttion in diOereiil orders of plinis 
and iu different plants, so tlint the ob»erver aci^uuinled %kitb th': 
characters of the pullon of flowering planu, will be enabled in m'Q.i 
C4ue9 to determine wbeth* r any Dartiinlar honey subinitled to bn 
examination wa« collected from flowers of foreii:n or native gnwlb. 
whether from those of the field, the garden, the hcathi or the luountais- 



It has occurred lo ilie author, to ranke nnoilier highir interonting 
observatiuii in connwtioii witli, honoy, showiiiy, iii a very sirikinj; 

tthomjt by thipt*f«nMef nqntnof 
inutnle* of the /mnt mtui of AeuM : a, M^pullcn gnnultB of fern t K^, 
tw*lh i r. e. •lltw of hmuc ctunyMlu flowvr. Th« oUwr gnnuki prmtol 
W« bftvi DM i(lt«Ua«d. 

manner, tlie amazing industry maniAistcd by beta in llie collection of 
honey. In examining the bloMonis of our native heaths, some two 
or three years since, wc were surprise*! to oboerve that there was 
ftcarcely one thai had arrived at muturity that did not exhibit, usu- 
ally on the upper surface of the coroUa,' one or more djirk opots, 
occasioned by |>erf<)mlioiu. The conjecture at once occurred to us, 
thftt these perforations were made by the bees in their seorcb for 


honey, and in order to racilitace its abstraction from the tubular- 
sha[M;<Ul(3wep8. It was not lung bufnre the cnrrectneaa of lii is con- 
jecture was ast-ortaiued. TIte bees, on ali<;htiii;; on the flowers, 
almost constantly inserted their prnboscea either through one of the 
apertures already ninde^ or tliey jiieroed a fresh one. Now of the 
Lountless myriads of blossoms in some miles of hfttth, there waa 
scarcely one mature one observed by us, which bod not been perfo- 

A very good way ofobtnining thu pullc^n of honey for microscopical 
examination, in to di^j&ulve a tenspounl'ul or t^o of the honey in water 
contained in n conical glasjs and to examine u little of the sediment 
which subsides in the course of a few minutes, and which in some 
honeys is very considfrable. The water causes the forms of the gra- 
nules to change in some cases, and hence a better plan is to view the 
pollen as containeil in ihe fluid part of the honey. . 

Jn thu "'Annals of Natural History " will be found an article by the 
author, illustrated by a large numbiT of figures, on the rtnictureof the 
pollen granule ; this w-dl bi; fuun<l of some assistance to thost.* who raaj 
desire to identify the jjoUcn faund in honey. Another useful plan 
of proceeding is to collect and exnmtiiie the huney of tho (lowers from 
which the bees are siipjiosed lu hHve coUeoteil tho honey, and to 
search in this for the corresj>onding pollen granuloa. 

Tbk Adultkxatiox.*( or Honey. 

The more usual adulterations of honey are wilh various forms of 
starchy as those of the patulo and wheaty and with $inrch and cane 

Other adnlterations mentioned by Mitchell and Normandy are 
chalk, plaster of Fans, ami pipe clay. 

The starch is not only added for the sake of weight and bulk, but 
to improve the colour of very dark honey, and to correct a sharp and 
acidulous taste which old honey is apt to acquire. 

On the Detection tifthe Adtilieratioiu of Honey. 

Of the adulteratiotis prnriised upon honey, some ore very easy of 
detection, and others ditlicult, if not impossible. 

The general method of pnicei-'din;: in the examination of honey, 
with a view ^odie^^ovL'^ whether it is a-iluUtTiited or not, is as follows: — 

A little of the honey is to be examined under the microscope, when, 
if it contain unboiled starch, (he gi-anules will be visible, and may 
be identified by the characters which they present. If none are to be 
seen, a sumll (juanlity of tincture of iodine is to be added, which will 
show whether starch is present or nnt in any lorm. 

The starch, as well as any insoluble and inorganic material which 
may be present, may also be discovered by dissolving a portion of the 


The ailullerations of booey, the discovery of whicU U more difficult, 
nre tliciae with cuiie and ^n^pe sugar. 

Cane sugar becomes charred on the addition of sulphuilc acid, and 
it is stutod that gmpe suj^ar does not ; this dititiiietion^ however, 
does uot apjdy to honey, for it becomes charred equally with cane 

There are, however, three ways in which the presence of omc m^r 
in hmioy may be determined, two of them beiii^ supplied by the 
Diiorox'opt:. The first ja by the size and e-peciallv by the thickness of 
the crystals of sugar ; their shajH; is essentially the same as those of 
honey. The rrywtuls of cane sugar, as fcmnd in honey, ditFer from those 
of that substance In beinp much larj^er, thicker, and in their less 
regular shapes ; the angles being acted upoo by the fluid part of the 
honey, and in part melted down. 

The second is, Biipposiug brown sugar to have been used, by the 
presence of the sugar acari, di^eeniible either on the surface of a 
solution of honey in water, or in the residue deposited from it. 

The third method is chemical. Grape is sepuraicd from tlic cane 
sugar by means of Febling's solution; the sngnr which remains is of 
course cane sugar: it may l)e procured in a state of purirvj hy means 
of alcohol, from the residue left on cvaiioration. This method must 
be resorted to in those cases in which the cane su;i:ar has been added 
in the state of syrup, and when in consequence iUt crystals are thus 

There are some other methods of discrimination : one of these la by 
the aid of the optical saccharnmeicr of A!. Biot. 

Another is the process of M. Pcli^ot. This consists in a saturation 
with sulphuric acid after the combinalitm of sugar in the cold with 
lime, and which is repeated after the boiling of another portion of the 
same liquid. The diOerence between the quantities of acid neitessary 
to saturuiioii before and after boiling indicates the prOfHirtions of glu- 

A very simple prncess indicated hy M. Paven in his work entitled 
"Des Substances Alimentaires.'^andemplnyed in most sugar refineries 
in France, " consists in washing the rough or moist sugar with alcohol 
at 85°, lightly aiidutateil with five liundredths of acetic acid, and sa- 
turated with sugar-candy. The liquid dissolves the sugar of starch 
and the unerystidiisable sugar, white it dues not attack the crystals of 
cane or beet sugar." 

The adulteration of honey which, so fpr as we are aware, it ia 
scarcely possible in many cases to detect, is that by aiarch angar^ since 
this possesses the same chemical properties as the sugar of honey. 
Afl glucose is usually made hy biviling with sulphuric acid, and as 
the excess of this is soraeiimea neutrnlirtfd with chalk, the presence 
of considerable quantities of sulphate of time affords strong evidence 
of adulteration with sugar of starch. 




milk; and its adulterations. 

If the testimonj of ordinary observers, and even of mnnj scientific 
writers, is to be ureJited, there are few aitii-ltis offooil more liable to' 
atlullerfttion, and tliis uf the grosysest UesiL'riptimi, ihuninilk; but before 
proceeding to refer to the adulleratioos of milk, it nill be {«ro|>er to of its L*onipu*ition. 

From Oie fuct tliai persons may be entirely sustaJiieil u|>on a 
diet of milk for nn intb'tinile period, it may be noiiclijttetl that that 
fluid mudt rontaiti all llie element:^ net'essary for the grovvih and sus- 
tenance of the human body, a view the correcluoss of u hioh is fully 
eitablisbcd by cheiuicul reciearcli. 

Composition of Milk. 

Milk consists of tcaUr holding in solulion caaein or cheese^ sugar of 
milk, various salts^ iind in susneitsion, /ut/y matter^ in I be form of 
mvrinds of semi-opaque globules, to whiih tbo colour and opacity of 
milk is due. 

Skim-milk, burter-railk, cream, butter, cur*ls and-whey, croam- 
cbecsc. and ordinary cheese, are more modi(icatiiin;a of milk', differing 
only from each other either in the abstraction of one or more of its 
constituents or else in the variation <»f their proportions. 

Skim-milk. — The first of tbeee (skitu-milk) diflenj from ordinary 
milk in containing a less nuniUiTy of fatly uiatter, a [>orlion of this 
having been removed with the cream ; it still, however, contains 
nearly all the cheese, the su-jjiir of milk, Sf>me butter, and tlie salts of 
mitk ; it is therefore scarcely Icfs nniniious than new mJIk, hut, in 
consequence of the diminished umount of fatty matter, is less adapted 
tn the development of fat, and tn the maintenance of respiration and 
tbe temperature of the bo'ly. In some cnses where fatty nmtter is 
found tu disagree, and where, in conserjiR'ncc, milk in its' usiiul state 
cannot be taken without iiicunvenicnce, »kiiu-milk m^y be substituted 
with a'lvantarre. 

Butter' milk. — Bntter-milk approaches skim-milk in its composition, 
but contains a still smaller quiintity of fat; as an article of diet for 
poor persons, it has the recommendation uf cheapness. 

Potatoefi and buitcr-milk, as is well known, taken together, form a 
TCry eontiderable portinn of the diet of the peasantry of Irebind : the 
butter-milk constitute* an essential part of such a diet, it s'lpplyinjr 
the nitrogenised matter necessary for the growth of t!ie body, and of 
which tbe potatoes themselves are comparatively deficient. 

Cream. — In contradistinction to these, cream consir*ls almost en- 
tirely of the fat, with a ver^ small quantity of the 8u<far, casein, and 
the otlier const itucnts of milk. 




Butter. — Butter tiiflcrs little from cream, but is more completely 
separated frotri ilie cbecse, sugar, and ssUla ; and tlic inajorily but 
not all the fat globutcs, in place of being free aud distinct, have run 
together, so ns to form a aemi-soltd substance. 

Curds-and- Whfy. — Cunig-nnd-whey are made up of all the 
elements of milk, but the form in which they exist is altered; the 
cheese is thrown down by rennet, or by the addition of an acid, da 
acetic aciil, and, in its descent, carries with it the rrreater part of the 
butter, the two together forming the curd; while the whey, or serum, 
consists entirely of water, the sujjar, and the salts. 

Cream-Cheese. — Cream-cheese consists of the moist curd (that is, 
of the cheese and butter), the greater part of the serum or whey 
being remov(?<l by slight pre^ure. 

Ordinary Cheese. — Ordinary t-'bcesc conlnins little, or much batter, 
according as it is made from sKim or from whole milk : the casein is 
precipitated by rennet in the usual manner, and aubjccle!! to great 
]iressure in mould». Annatttnii frequently Added to heighten its colour, 
and the cheese is kept untd it becomes more or Ies!» ripe. 

The relative proportions of the different constituents of cow's milk, 
especially the fatty matter^ are subject to very great variation : the 
age of the cow, tne time after culving, fomi, temperature, weather, 
and the time and frequency of milking, ull occasion considerable 

The constituents of cow's milk in the normal state, according to 
il\f. O. Ilonrie and Chevalier, are as follows: — 

Casein ... 4*48 

Butter - - • 313 

Sugar of milk - - 4*77 

Salts, various - - 0^ 

Water - - - «7-02 

1 0000 

The following U the mean of ten analyses of pure milk by Professor 
Poggiale • ; — 

Water ... 862*8 

Butter - - - 43-8 

Sugar of milk - - 62*7 

Casein ... 38*0 

SalU- ... 2*7 


Ihe casein of milk is an albuminous sub^itancc, distinguished from 
ordinorv albumen by not coagulating when healed, by its congulation 
by acetic acid, and aUo by the products of its spontaneous decompo* 

• Cbrmlcal Gwttte 



it!t!on. The tutuh 

form wilh itiDSolnblt 

ds, as do ftlso 



various luetullic sails as ttulpbute of copper, luxl bichloride of mercury. 

The butter c.onf,Ut£ of a. solid and liquid iats^ in combination with 
glycerine. Theumportinnnf thiiiconslitueiaorniilk la very viirtable. 

Ungar of miik IS a crystallisuble sugar ; it is much less susceptible 
of fermentation than prupe or cane sugar ; it is very slijjbtly Bolubfe in 
alcohol, und is less soluble in water than cane sugar; it ja also les« 
aweet. Like grape sugar, it throws down the oxide of copper when 
its solution in botled with sulphate of copper and liquor pntnssie. 
By the action of nitric aeid, it yields, 1ik»> pum^ saccholautic or 
macic acid, so thul it is intermediate in its properties between hugar 
and guBi. This of all the constituents of milk is the least Uuble to 
vary in quantity. 

Lactic aciil is probably rather a product of the decomposition, than 
a normal cnmitituent of milk. 

Salt*. — Of these some are soluble in alcohol us the lactates of pot- 
ash, — the principal lactute, — of »(Mia, ammnnin, lime, and ma^esia; 
oCbcn are soluble in water, but not in alcohol, an sulphate ol potaah, 
and the phosphates of i>otnsb and soda ; lastly, ihe phosphates of lime, 
iron, ana magnesia are iiuoluble in water. 

For all proeticul purp<^es, in order to ascerCam wltether a milk is 
genuine* and ofgoml cpmlity, it ia sufficu-nt to take the specific gravity 
of the milk by thti hydrometer or galnctometer, und to estimate the 
quantity of cream by the lactometer. Should we desire to institute a 
quantitative analysis of its chief constilucuts we may then adupL tlie 
procesa described by Hutdlen.* 

The Butter. — 'Vila wei«:hed qaantity of milk is mixed with one- 
sixth of ita weight of common unburnt gypsum, previously reduced to 
» very fine powder. The whole is then evaporated to dryness, with 
frequent stirring, at the heat of boiling water; n brittle ina&s is ob- 
tained, which is reduced to u fine powder. By digesting ibis powder 
in ether, the whole of the butter ia dissolved out, and, alter evapuration 
of the ether, may l)e obtainetl in a pure state, and weighed ; or the 
powder iLielf, after being treated with ether, may be dried and 
weighed ; the butter in then e»tiniated by the loss. 

The Sttgar. — Afierthe removal of the butter, weak alcoholis poured 
upon the (towder, and digested with it. This takes up the sugar with 
a little saline matter, soluble in alcohol. By evajwruting this solution, 
and weighing the dry residue, the quantity of sugoris dL-ttruiined ; or, 
as licfore, the powder itself may be dried and weighed, and (lie ftugar 
estimated by tlie loss. If we wish to estimate the simiill quantity of 
inorganic saline matter which has been taken up along with the sugar, 
it may be done by burning the latter in the air, and weighing the re- 
aid uc.f 

* Afm*icn ilcr CtiPinl« uiid I'harmarle. p, 363., eopl«tl lo " Mitchpll't TrraUie," p. 7*- 
t M P*l"0 Mp^raiet cane frum iDlIk augar iij iHMni of ordliurir bruuljr ; tlie itroc««l 
will be found Tull; docrtbed at p. lOU. o( th« woik quoted •! p. 9M. 



Saline Mutter — A scc^HifJ weighed portion of milk i** now carefully 
evapnrAtC'l to dryness, and tipiiin weighed. The loss slutws the quiin- 
tity of walLT. 'i'lie dried milk is then burneiliii the nir. Tht» weight 
of the iiioombuatible &&\v indicates the propnrtton of inorgnnic fvaline 
inatler contained in ihc milk. 

The Casein. — The weight of the butter, supnr. suline matter, and 
the water, Lteinn tbui< known, and added togetlicr, the deficiency shows 
the weight of the ca«ein. 

Other iiiL'thorls may be pursued. 

Thus the cflsein and bnlter may be precipitated by aretic acid, 
the precipitate colIecLeJ and dried, the water l>einjr got rid of by nieans 
of bibuluus paper and afterwards hy ovtt|K»ration in a water-bath ; 
it 19 then weij;hed; the ftit is dissolved out by ether; the etherial 
solution is next evaporated in a \vei^hed cu{>sule with a gentle heat ; the 
wei;:ht nf the reHdual fut \* then determined by the increased weight 
of lh«? ciLpsule. J'he diflerence between the weight of the dried curd 
and thi.' butter ^ives the oiiionnt of casein. 

Th<* qiiiintity of snfjiir may he estimiited from the whey by the 
followin:; process of Professor Po^rgiale ; — 

" TIjc test li(/uor isprcpflred by aildin^ to a solution of sulphate of 
copper^ bilurtrate of poiash, nnd dissolving ihc precipitnte which is 
formed in caustic p<)tash. The Plrettpih of the alkaline solutiim i« 
then determined with «rreatcare, from the ([uantity of su;;ar employeil 
to decolourisf a known volume of the liquid. It is inipnrlotil. to 
observe that milk sugar, and not cane sugur^ must be enipbtyed in 
rhifi operation. I mude several experiments, in order to avoid the 
determination of the strength of \\w solution of hinoxide of copper, 
which is decidctlly the longest nncl nio^t ilelicnte experiment, llie 
following proportions eoohUiiitly furnished a liquid, twenty cubic 
ijetitimetres of which correspuiid to 20Q, or two deci;;ramme8, of 
whey : — 


Crystalliecd sulphate of copper - - - 10 

Crystallined biiartrate of potash - - - 10 . 

Caustic [K>tash ----- 30 

Distilled wiiter - . - - . 200 



The filtered liquid is perfectly clear, and of an intense blue colour, 
Prettaratum of the Wftet/. — •*To determine tfie amount ofsugar-of- 
milk. It is indispensable to separate the fatty matter and theciuein by 
coagulation. This is easily effected bv pbicins fifty or «ixl.y grammes 
of the milk in a small flask, adding to it a few dro[bs af acetic arid, a»d 
then raising the temperature to between 104^ and 12^*. A traos- 
pnrent li(iuid is obtained on filtration. According to my experiments^ 
1000 gniMiines of milk yield 023 grammes of whey, which gives for 
1000 grammes of whey about fifty-seven grammes of sugar. 

Examination of (he Whetf. — " Twenty cubic centimetres of the test 



liquor are introduced bj means of a pipette into a small flask, which 
should be preferred to a porcelain capsule, as it allows of the liquid 
being seen from top to bottom, and of observing with thi» irreatest 
east! the moment the decolouri^ation li complete. The liquid is then 
boiled. On the other hand a burette, each divijiion of wlueli ia equal 
to n fifth of a cubic centimetre, is 611ed with the whey and poured 
drop by drop into the liquid, agitating the latter contintjailr, and 
heating it after each ufhlitiun of whey. This is continued until the 
blue tint has entirely diftapiieareiK At first, a yellow precipitate of 
hydraleil protoxide of copper is formed, which, however, soon turns 
red, and sinks to the bottom of the flask. When the operation is 
terminated, the quantity of whev employed is read off the burette, and 
the weight of sugar eoutaiiied in 1000 grammes of whey determined 
by the rule of thrt-e." — Pvggiaie. 

•*Milk sugar reduces a niucU simalter proportion of oxide of copper 
than grapo sugar; for whilst 1 gramme* of the latter decomposes 
6*926 of sulpbat« of copper. 1 part of milk supor reduces, according 
to Neubanerj 4*331, according to Mathaim 4*168, parts of oxide of 
copper. " — FreimuuM. 

A vcrr close approximation to the quantity of sugar present in 
milk, mar be obtamed by simply evBoorating the whey t(t dryness, 
weighing; tlie residue, and deducting toe weight of the ash left in its 

Specific Gravity of Milk. 

As (he composition of milk variea, so of course does its specific 

Genuine cow's milk has an averaRC s[>ecific gravity of about 1030; 
it seldom exceeds 1031, but is frequently several degrees l"Wcr. The 
great variatirm In the specific pravily of milk is occa:*ione<l by corre- 
sponding vnrijtiions in the quantity of butter or cream prcnent ; the 
butter of milk being so much lighter than water, the greater the pro- 
portion of butter, the lighler of course is the milk. 

That this is really so, is sliown by the following table. 

^_ Tam^a hhowing thb Vauiatio?! m tub SpFCiric Geatitt or 
^^fe GaNriNR Mit.K, and tub Relation of this to the Pbr-Cbkt- 

^^^^^ aoBS or Cbbam. 

^^^^H MiltL 

^^^^^^^^ spec <>rar. 

^^^H 4 - 1008 - 

^^^^m 6 - - 1030 - 

'* Pmcnlui rMwmrrMixU that th^ wh^ h« flMirMi vlth ■ llttk wfalte of t*g| aitil Bllrrrd, 
ati4 tb« lltnie ilkluud «Uh atiie titno lU toiuinc of w*ter. 

»!•«;. GriT. 






10-27 - 


1026 - 


— - 






spec Grav. 

Spec Gr»*. 


10-27 - 

- 1030 - 

- 9 

1026 - 

- 1028 . 

- 13 

1029 . 

- 1030 . 

- 8 

1030 . 

- 1031 - 

- 7 

1024 - 

- 1028 . 

- 10 

1027 - 

- loai - 

- 10 

1023 - 

- 1030 - 

- 25 

1024 - 

- 1031 - 

• 32 

1023 - 

- 1029 - 

- 10 

The above table includes fmmplefi of both euorning and afternoon 
millers as well oa some of ihc tir;jt and liist milk obuined at the same 
miUcing ; the/ are not, therefore, to be tukeo as average tainplcs of 

From an examinatioD of the table, it nppoars that a milk ma/ be of 
high specific gravity^ aud yet yield but Hule cream (nee I); or it 
may be of low specific gravity, and yet afford a very larye quantity 
of cream (see 4): al^^s that the removal of the cn^am increases the 
density of the milk (sklm-miLk) several de^j^rccs. It will he observed 
that not one of the samples in the table shows a low spmfic gravity 
with deficiency of ercam. We have never met with a naiuriu milk 
of thi.s kind, and believe it to be of very rare occurrence. 

The specific gravity of the scntm of milk is due mainly to the iufpo" 
contained in it; and o^ this coD!«tituent is the least variublct so is its 
vpecific gravity the least subject to variation, — a circumstance of cod* 
aiderable importance, as will be shown presently. 


TUB Specific Gravitt of Milk. 



SlwUk OmiltT- 


SpMMc OnvUy* 
































101 !l 



























1 077 














J 010 








































The above table includes manj samples of milk of an exceptional 

It will be observed, that white the speei6c gravity of the milk 
extends over a wide ran^ie, vorvinf^ from 10()H to IU3I, ibut of the 
serum, on the contrary, is dubjeot only to a flight variation, the limits 
being front 102S to 1025. 

AVe huvo here, then, a fixed datunit from vrhich to determine, with 
precision, the adulteration of milk with water, a point of the greatest 

The specific gravity of «A/m-mi7A, althouf^h not so 6xedasthutof 
the »erum, i» yet much more so than that ot whole milk : itD average 
weight U estimated by Fereira at 1034 8. 

Variations in Composition of Afilk. 

It has been stared that the compositinn of milk is subject to very 
great vuriatiou accurding to several nioilifyinj; cirrumsinnoes ; the 
chief of (lie^e are, tbu age of the cutv, its condiliun, the time and fre- 
quency of milking, iht! nature of the fuod, hnusin;; of tbu cows, and 
temperature. — We shall bestow a few remarks on each of tliMecmijes 
of vHriatiun. 

Injiuenee of Age on Milk, — With respect to ai^e, a younjr cow with 
her first calf gives less milk than with hur second, third, or Jburth calf, 
she being eonsidereil to be in her best condition, tn most coses, when 
from four to seven years old. 

The period during which cows give milk affcr cnlving is usually five 
or BIX months, but very frequently the time i-* much prulongcil beyond 
this ; we have been intbnned of an instaufi; nf a cow continuing to 
give milk for three years and a holf alter calvin". 

tnjiutnce nf Condition im Milk. — The first milk yielded by the cow 
aflcr calving is yellow, thick, und stringy : it is called colofitrnm, and 
by milkmen nnU oibeni, " beostings/' This state <>1' the milk Usts 
from abuut three weeks to a month, but i» very bad for ilie first ten 
ilays, during whji'b tuue the luilk is ni>t fit for use. From the end uf 
the first to the tt^ruiiuiitiun of the third ur fourth munllt, the milk 
is in its best conditiun. 

The cow carries her cnlf for forty weeks, or ten lunar months: it 
is the common practice to milk the cow regularly for the first seven, 
eight, or nine months of this period, a practice which, at first sight, 
appears to be highly objection able, but whicii is really not su much 
so as might be supposed; und it is rendered absolutely necet>t«ary by 
the fact that cows could not otherwise be profitably kept; ncver- 
theiesft, it is very important that the milking should not be continued 
too long, for tne sake of the cow, the calf, and the milk itself: in 
general it should cease at the end of the seventh month ; niuny cow- 
keepers, however, continue to milk up to a very short period of 



Another very objectionable pracllc* is to permit the cow ngtm to 
becoiTii' in fiilC within two or three months after hnvlnji riilvt'H ; the 
object Iff ihiing so Is lo derive aa nmrh profit as pracliciibh' from the 
aniinul, without rrgnrU to tlie ulfeet un iLs eon»tiriili<]n« tht; qufiUtv of 
the niilk, or the growth of the ciilf. It is impHssibU to i-Kiioeive that 
a citw enii cujitiimd to vieM lur^e qiXEHitihufi of j^^hjiI milk dnilv* anil 
Aflbril. lit the «aine tJino, siilFicieiit iiouri»huiuut ibr carrying ou eflcc- 
lively the prouess of pestulion. 

Jnjiui'iice ft/ FiKi*/ on Milk. — The naturjil food of the cow is evi- 
denllv that derived from piislurcs, viz. grass, the milk oVjtained from 
c<kW3 fed upnii thia being of excellent 4iuiilily and sutticientlj rich fur 
all pur[to:tL-}i. 

The next most natural food is dried grass or hay, which is given 
larjiely to cows in winter, the milk being nearly the Bume in qualit/ 
as from grass. 

Beet root and carrntts, being very nutritioui*, are also usually jjiven 
to cowB in the wint<-T f imc with advantage. With regard to the eflVet 
of beet root nixl carrois on iiiilk, we obtain the fnll(iwin£r informNlion 
by MM. O Henrie and Chevalier, as repopiftl in Mr. MitoheU's trua- 
tisc Oh the " Falsification of Kootl," p. 74. 

The constituents of cow*3 milk in tho normaJ state, according to 
MM. O. Uenrie and Chevalier, are as follow : — 

Casein (cheesy matter) - - - 

Butter - . - - . 

Sufjar of milk - - - - - 

Salt*, various - - - - - 

Waltr -.---* 

When the cow» arc fed on beet: 
Casein - - - 


Sujjar of milk - 

Salts - - . 

Water - 


When on carrots : — 

Cnsctn • 
Butter - 
Sugar of milk - 
ShIis - 
Water - 


3 in 

' It will be observed that, nocording to the ulMive taUU'S. the efleot 
of fuodlng cowfl on farrote is to occasion a oli^ht iliininutinn in the 
aninuni ol'ousciii amd butCor, but an inereuBe in tlie quiinttt^ of 8u<;ur, 
while feeding them on beet root reduces stUI more the quantity of 
cogi-iii and buiter, but very largely increaBes the supar* — effects which, 
troui the richness of carrot and bt;el in sugar, might have been antj- 

As is well known, a very considerable number of the cows which 
supply Lotidoii with milk, are kept in variouit conBned and unhealtliy 
places in the nic trnpolis ; sut'h cows nre MihJoni turned out to {jrass ; 
the system of feeding ndmited being altogetliLT aptificia! and unnatural, 
brewers' groins arid disliilers' wash foniiijig tlic cliii-f part of their f<>i>d ; 
these stiiKulate the aniumls unnatundl)', and under the ^timldus large 
<|uantitiuet uf ndlk of inferior quality are accreted, the cow quickly 
becoming worn uut and discused rii conse([ueuce. 

In relereiiee to the eiTects of grains uu cows, Mr. Ilartey luake^ the 
following remarks: — 

" Brewera and distillers* grains, and disfilters' wajth, make the 
cattle grain-sick, as it is termed, and prove injurious to the Jtlomach 
of the animal. It has been a.tcciiained that, if cows arc fed upon 
these grains, Sic, their cunslitulions hcL-ome quickly destroyed."* 

MM. Bous!<ingauk and Lebcl, from ex^Hiriuients made, have arrived 
at the ciiTicIusion that the kind id' food has nut a great inlluenee cither 
u|)on the amount i>r composition uf mtik, provided tiumitities con- 
taining equal pru[>ortions td' nutritious niatti-r be givCTi. 

htflnence of Ternperaiure on Milk. — In hot countries and dry 
seasons the quantity of milk yieldeil is said io be let«a, but the 
quality is richer; it is also jttated tliat eotd favnurs the produc- 
tioN of sugar and cheese, whiUt hot weather augm«.'ntd ihu aii^outituf 

It would be extremely desirable to a.«certAin precisely the extent to 
which the quality of milk its influenecil by weather. 

Influence of the Time aiui Frequency of Milhiuf^. — Willi re^iard to 
the quality of milk as affected by thi> time and fi*equency of milking, 
morning milk is said to be better than that obtained in The afterniMm ; 
and the milk of cows when milked but once a day, is richer than 
eiihtT. It is the common belief tliut the XaaI portion of the milk 
obtained at any milking is richtT thiui the fust; we have titken pains 
to aM:ertain wht.*ther there is any loundation for such an opinion, and 
find it to be really the cvlah to a remarkable extent, as will appear 
from the foUuwin^ table. 

• HarlfUa Dalrjr Sjr(te?n, pp, 73. «tid 74. 

r 3 


Table krowing the DiFrBEBncE m thr Qdautt of thb Fia&T 

AND Last >fiiK obtainbd at eacu Mujuxo. [ 

\st Milk. 

Milk . Ca^m 

Spec. Gnir. '^'*"* 










2nd Milk. 

1033 . 

1025 - 

1024 ■ 

1022 ■ 

1020 • 

1030 ■ 


Trom nn <?x«mmfttion of these tables it Bppears 

that the 

milks are nf mueli luwcr specific pravity than the first ; ami hence, h*d 
the sptTilic-grftvity ti'«t alune been mie^l un, they would have b<m 
pnjnoufK'etl tn be iiiferiur in riuhneiis to the first; u eoitctuuon the 
reverse of thiit ivhirh is correct. 'J'lius, while the ereiiin of the whole 
eight samples of the first milks nmounteil to 61 1 jjer-eentaies^ that of 
the last Kmniinted to 1-^H ; thut if, they eontaine*! mnre than double 
the qnantitjf of cream. This fart is imt without practical ini|>nrtancc 

It is a common practice for invalids and others to prtK*ure their 
glius of milk ilireet from the cow ; wc thus perceive that in this way 
they seldom obtain tlie proper proportion of butter, a circumstance 
which ntny be uf advnntii^e in <!ome canes, and of divadvanto^ in 
others. In London it is now eoinmoit fur cows to be driven t1irou{|ii 
the streeta, and to be milked in the presence of the purchnser*: 
although in this way the buyer succeeds in procuring it gentiinOi 
he tWs not alwHvs obtain the best milk. 

The great ddTfrenee in the amount of cream contained in tlie first 
and last milk taken from the cow nt one niilkinfr, ap|»ears to be silii- 
faotorily explained un the supposition tbac the fatty matter of (te 



nillc obejs the same laws of graTity in the udd<er of the cow that it 
docfl when Kt aside in an open vessel. 

The following tables ehow the varietiea in the specific Jfravity of 
tndkf and the per-centages of cream in uiQriiing and af\ernoon milk. 

Table suowtsig Tns Spbcific Geivitt or Pcbe Milk, akd the 
Pbb-Cbktagbs op Cbeam. 


Momutg Milk, 




Spec. CifflT 








■ 6* 






- 7 

69 „ 





• H 

66 „ 





. 9 

80 „ 





- 10 

78 „ 





- n 

75 „ 





- 12 



as „ 





- 5 



81 „ 





- 7 



61 „ 





- 9 



63 „ 

Average nearly 1029 Total - 77| 
Average about 7J. 

Total - 693 




SfMT. Gra« 



1 • 





2 - 





3 - 















6 - 






•7 . 





•8 - 





•9 - 





•10 - 


























Average about 1027 Total - 96^ 
Averof^e more than %\. 

Total - 810 

The Richmond cows from which the first six morning and afternoon 
milks were obtained, were ft'd portly on grass and partly on graiOK 

r 4 



It is deftiruble that the foUowiug particulAra relating to each 
should be made knuwD ; — 









7 month* 

T .. 

' H 

ft • 

10 .. 

« n 

IS *. 

3 „ 

1 H 

■ ^ 


* n 

19 M 


fi t* 

to week* 

10 .. 



10 ^ 


3 meatlu 

w » 


U week* 


The flamplcA were taken from the milk'piill containing the whole of 
the milk obtained iWiiu each cow, uml whilst, »tiU wurm. 

From the jirocfdinjr tiibles, it appears — 

1st, Thiit tbe apeeijic gravity of penuiiio milk, in its ordinarjr condi* 
tiort, vurieB between 1031 and 10:26; ond thni. the average specific 
graviiy id* the inominj! milk is about 10*^9, and the aftenioon 1027. 

2nd. Tb&t the amount of cream ranges IVom 4^° to '12?^ the average 

3rd. That the quantity of curd varies from 55 to 98, the average 
beinc 75. { 

liic above are the results in the case of sampler of mHk of ordinary 
quidity; but exceptional cases sometiuioa occur, in whiih tlit* i!i)Ocific 
gravity is less, a.^ also the quanlily of cream, curd, butter^ and clieejiC. 

On the HoHsiug of Cows, — In a very useful litlle pamphlet* pub- 
lished some time since by Mr. H. Ku;:^. surgeon, on Londcm Milk*, 
we meet with many particubirs relating to the iuipru[n?r mmie pursued 
in feeding; and houain;; cows kept in viu-iousi parts of the [Metropolis. 

"Anyplace, any hovelt" writes Mr. Rngg, "cow-keepers seem tu 
coniftder, will do for a ct>w, — narrow bines, confine<l enrnors, &c., — 
and yet tliev wonder how it is that they Io?e ?o nmiiy from disease. 
Can any nne with a prain *>f common sense at all wonder that cows 
should i»c uflilrted with di?eaae when tht.'y ore huddled together in a 
space that doc^ nnt allow tliem sufficiunt bronlhin^'-room, with lUeir 
heads placed close un tu the wall, and without a tiuflteient current of 
air or ventilation ? The carbonic ucid expired fnini their lun^rs jj^, 
before it can rise, the greater |>art inhaleil yj:aiii, unmixed with a suf- 
ficiency of pure nir^ so necessary for the oxidation of the blood, and 
Consequent vitality of the body. 

" The air of (be cow-houfes ia not alone vitiated by the exhalations 
from the lungs of the cows, but from the iniproijer drainage of their 
sheds, and from the collections of all kinds of oSal and filth and vege- 
table substances in a sute of decompoi^iuon, together with pigs run- 
ning about the place, or euclosed in one corner of the shed.** 

• OtweTTiltooi on London MUk, wcoad cdiUoa. \$. lUilej And Mooa, RcfCJU ScrMt. 



Other ob»ervalions on the same subject will be found reconioil m 
the Harleian Dairy STStem, p. 14. ; Aitou*8 Dairy Husbandry, ji. 70. , 

Fig. St. 
QouD Uijjc 





9 o^^abJ*' •°.^'^p «*<^§^ 

Thto kikd lk« fire MUivIdc flfUM* v* all dr»wa la • M«I« of ktwut 980 tlU* 


•nd in a Pamphlet on the Sanitary Conditiou of tlie Pariah of St. 
James^a, Westminster, by the Hon. F. Hyng. 

The necessity fur an ubundanre of pure air is shown by the follow- 
ing calcuUtion : — Dr. Thomson* stAtes that one cow, consumin(;6 Iba. 
of carbon in its daily food, for respiratory purposes, would re'juird 
9^6j cubic feet of atmospheric air. 

On the Characteristics of Good MiVL 

Good milk is a white homo;;eneou<4 fluid, of sweet and bland taste, 
not bec'uninj^ viscid on the addition of ammonia. It slioidd have 
a specific f^avity of about 1030. and should yield about 9J per- 
ceotAges, by the lactometer, of cream. 

• EtjMrlakntal BOTMrcbflu 00 tlie FooUor Anlin4lsp. lU. 



^m The specific gravity o( genuine whole milk is liable to vary, ordi- 

^H norily, however, within toe Unuts uf 1026 and 1031 ; that of the 

^^^^^ta . Poor Uiuc 

scrum from 1025 to 1028 ; the cream is likewise subject to verj gresi 

Examined with the mL(*ro<(rope, it is found to contain niTriadf of 
beautifully formed globules of faity matter of various size, and reflect- 
in" the hghr. strongly, und whicb glubulea are entirely and readily 
soluble in cuu:?uc |H)Uuih ; in fact, gi>od milk under the microtoopt 
presents the appearance exhibited in_y^. 64. 

If the milk exhibit any want of complete homogeneous ness or ■ 
of imjKTfoL-t liquidity ; if It be viscid, or become bo on the additioa 
of ammonia ; if, examine<l willi the mirr<isco(>e, blood, or pus, nr colo- 
strum cr^rpusi^lea are present^ the inilk h not healthy milk of good 
f|uaUty ; la-<tly, if the fat globules ore comijarativcly few, and of saaB 
litze, the milk is pitor. 

Cream con^i^its almost entirely uf these fat globules, some of whidi 
are ufieu met with of very considerable size. 

The curd of milk, ns already explained, is com|)09ed of both de 
cheese and the fat globules. Its appearance under the microscOfie if 



reprcAentei) in ^. 67.; the cuein or cheeM is distinguishccl by iu 
granular texture. 




The first milk yielded by the cow after calving^ called colostrura, U 
ctuiracte rifted, aa before noticed, by the presence of numerous cor- 
puMles of large size and {rranular ap|>caranoc. Cow's milk 
vtftte orcoIo«trum is represented in^. 68. 


On the Apparatus employed to determine the Purity and Quality of 


Independent of a quanlitative chemical analvsISf the purity nnd 
4)ualitv of milk are oflon judircd of by ita specific jfravity aiid the 
quantity of fjiuy matter or ercam whirli [lie milk furnishes. 

The itperijic gravity or weipht of milk may be determined by means 
of the ordinary Fpeeific-gravity bottle ; it is more frequently aseertnined 
by meain of the common hydrometer, or by the galactometer, of which 
several varieties hare been devised. 

The best of the palartnmetcrs is the instrument invented by M. 
Dinocourt*, named the Centenmtd GalacUtmeter, 

* Con»lrucc*tir d'inttniiDentt 4c pbjulque, et de rhrmle ea r«fT0,9. Qual St Mlcbel fc 



** The centesimal galactometer is represented ^J^- 70. ; it U cum< 
poded — 

'* 1st. Of a stem A, a, enclosing scales. 

CcmD or Miui 

"2nd. Of n cyliu'Ier S, servin}{ to float it. 

" 3r<l. And of n bulb V, i-barfjed witli t>hnt^ serving as a ballast, so 
that the inslrunient flaals upri;;ht in the milk. Of these ihrefl parts, 
it is only necessary to wfU imdi-rftt-ind ono, tbnt wbiih i-nrlows the 
scales An; ilie scale A^ in prtrt coiotired t/etlatr, servea to wt'iijh the 
milk with its tTeam ; Ihe first depree on the ti^p of the scale 10 marked 
50, The following exicnd from 50 to 100 and over.* Each deprce 
starting from 100 in mounting up to 50 represents 11 hundredth 
of pure milk: the de;n"ee» foruied by a line »re eipial, us 50, 52, 
54. &o. ; the deyrrccs formed by a dnt are nnetpial decrees, as 81^ 83, 
85, &c. To coniprchciul well the raluv of (he tie^rofR ol' this seale, it 
is sufficient to irive art example : — Sup|in>.sin;r tlien that the galacto- 
met«r is sunk to the 85th di^gree, thai will indirnte 85-Iiundredlhs of 
pure milk, nnd eonscnpiently that I5-hundredths of water hud been 
added to this milk ; the galaetomeier is stopped at 60 degrees, there 

* 11 will be tfOB ihAt llii* iciile hfik tiren cut do«n to h«lf Ui griwlMfttton, M\i ItiM it« 
cnrreiponda to dUillled vater ; we bA«« auprrMir^ IIk> Brat M) degrpM, which wouid 
have lengthened the itcro of (be tnitrutncnt, and have rendrred it more fragile without aor 




will be 4<^hundredlb5 of water, or four-tenths of water addeil. We 
•ee firom this that in adtlin<r tu the number uf hundredths indi- 

cated by the inslrament a complement ary number to form one hun- 
dred, this complementary number will give in liundreiUli;) the tjuan* 
tilt of water added tn the milk under trint. If wo wiy.h to nvoid 
rn^knntng by hundreiltbs. one may count only by tenth!) ; wc have 
only to notire thut the first tenth is whit^', ihnt the jiecoiid \a 
rohturetl yellow, the third is whib.', the fiturili yellow, nnd that the 
fifth is alsn white. Thia alternatinn of white and yellow pivea a 
very evident deoiarcation between each tcntli ; towurds thu middle 
uf each tenth we have placed the figures 1, *^, ^, 4, 5j to indicate ibeir 

" The space comprised between 100 to 120 is also coloured yellow ; 
this cnmprehcnd-i the different densities of pure milk — that is t4i say, 
without the extraction of cri.*ain, as well as without the addition of 
water: we have prolonged the ecole from 120 tu 136, so that it may 
aerve in all eases. 

^ The scale a, in part coloured blue, is tlestiiicd to weigh iikini-milk ; 
it ie> like the firsts divided into 100 decrees or hundredths, of which tbe 
firtt 50 have been cut off as useless ; each degree commencing from 



100 to 50, and mounting upwards represents a buodredth of pure 
etkiinnieil milk ; con»(;r|uentlir'^ Oie ninnuer of estimating the quantity 
of wut<*r a^liled tx» »kiiti-rinlk ia uh^otutL'l}' (be* ^laine an for pure milk 
with its cream; the oxamjiles ^ivcn for cstimatiiifr the value of pure 
milk are applicable to skiin-oiilk. Wc muy e'[ually con6ne ourselves 
to estiiuating ibe value hy tenths ; these tenths, tiltemutely coloured 
blue un(i wliito, are suiHcictilly distinct not (u bu cunfouinleil. 

"These two scales give toe vflUie of milk only in hundredths; 
nevertheless, it will always be easy to compare these ilegrees with the 
(ienaity or sptcijic gravUtf o/ milk ; we imiltTj^land hy the word denxity 
the sijecifii' weight of any llfiuid, water lieing lakt-n as a thousand, a 
litre of diHtilk'tl water weighing 1000 grammes or one kilogramme, at 
the temperature of 4° of tlie centigrade therjnometer. 

" If now we wiish to know the density t>f the milk under trial, we 
call to mind thut 50 degreew of the scale A of the gidactometer cor- 
re!4poiids exactly with 1014 degrees of the densimeter of M. CoUar- 
deau't and that each tenth of the scale of the giilartometer is equal 
to three degrees of the densimeter; oonsetjitenlly, three-tenths and a 
tliinl are equal to a degree of this densimeter : thus, 1014 corres[>ODd 
to 50, 1017 eoiTcspond to 60, lOiO correspond to 70. &c." 

It will be perceived that this inHtrument t^ eneentially a densimeter 
or measurer of specific gravity ; and since the apecillc gravity of milk 
\i subject to great variation from naturul and other caut^es, ihe galuc- 
toineter is of course, to a great extent, liubk' to the same fallacies as 
the densimeter or hydrometer, although both are capable of oiTurdlDg 
useftil indicalions. 

Pure milk not deprived of its cream has a less specific density than 
skim-milk caiise<l by the lightness of the cream. If the cream he 
either in part or wholly removed tVom milk, the rci^idual milk will 
weigh heavier than that which icuntuins iti^ nuinial |)ropurtion ot'cream. 
Skiui-U)ilk> therefore-, tried by the guIactouR'ter sciife, for pure milk 
only, would give a hijiher specific gravity than ordinjirily belongs to 
pure milk, aud hence the error might be committed of yuppusing 
It to be pure, an error whicli can only be correcteil by means of the 
lactometer^ by estimating with it the pi»r-centiige of creom; should 
this i>er-centage fall short of that which is proper to jiure milk, the 
B&m[>le of milk is one the value uf which should he determined by the 
scale for pure skim-milk. 

Again, if to such skiin-niilk we add a certain pcr-centage of water, 
we restore to it its proper speciHc gravity, and therefore this milk 
would show, with ihu centesimal galactometer, the density proper to 
pure milk, and hence ibis fraud would ei<<;u]>e detection. In order 
tomeetcasesof tbt3 kind, which arc of frequent occurrence — namely, 
the complete or partial removal of the cream, it is recommended, and 
indeed necessary, to employ the lactometer, and ascertain by it 
whether the sanqile under examination contains the proper propor- 

■ « 16 centif nde. 




crewn or not ; indeed it is scarcely posiible in any case 
(0 come to certain or safe conclusions without cmplojing the lacto- 

Tut CurruiMAL Q»i.tvTouwna 
(0» a r^rfwfrf trait. ) 


r- lOO- :3 

*^Hliio P 



Where the gperific prflvily of a milk is very light, wid thin not prft- 
iluced by a large excess of crcain, it is due tn the ndmixtiire of water, 
the qunntity of vrhioh may be defermined with con*;ideriibIe necuracy 
by thw cuiiminn hydromemr, but still more uccurately by the centesimal 

The rea»on for hnving two ticales, one for pure and the other for 
«kim-niilk, it will be perceived, is on account of the very different 
densifies possessed by eiich. 

The great advantage of ihe centenimal galnctometer consi9t.<i in its 
centesimal graduation, whereby caleulation is so mui-h facilitntod, and 
in the wide range of degrees which itaflords; thus while in the hydro- 
meter the range of degrees from pure milk to milk adulterated with 
fifiv per rent, of wat*?r is only fnmi lOlG"" to 1031^ that in the oen- 
teaimul golnotometvr is from 50° to 100"; by which arrangement far 
greater accuracy in estimating the density of mtlk is obtained ; thus, 
three degrees and one-third nf the galncrometer, aj we have seen, 
Corres|wuid with one d^jee of the densimeter. 

It is proper, in using ihp- ordinary hytlrnmeter, where the extremes 
of temperature are great, as in wintuT and summer, to take the spe- 
cific gravity of milk, and to nsnkf alh^wnncc for ihe difTcrcnce which 
temperalure occasions ; this prc*'aulwn bein^' necessary with the 
hydrometer, it is very much more »o with the centesimal galocto- 
meier, in which, from the delicacy of the grnduaticm, n conipiirutively 
slight alteration of temperature occasions a difference of several de- 

When it is desired to make use of the scale for skim-milk, one 
portion of the skim-milk is tn he set aside for from twelve to twenty- 
lour hours in a laolomeicr; another in a pan for the same length of 
time : the pcr-rentage of cream to he noted in the lactometer, and the 
density of the uiilk in the pan, after being skinmied, tiiken in the 
ordinary nmnner with the centesimal galactometer, corrections being 
made lur the tt^mperature. 

The pamphlet of M. Dinocourt is accompanied with coloured 
tables of forrections, in which idlowuoce Is made for temperature, — 
that IS, the apparent degrees are reduced to real, — the degrees 
of the hydromeUT or densimeter corresponding with those of the cen- 
lesimul galuclonu'ter are shown side by side. 

Considered altogether, the ceniesimal galactometerof M. Dinocourt 
U capable of affording, especially when used in connection with 
the lactometer, very useful and accurate indications : murh more 
60 than the ordinarv hydrometer, the use of which, in taking the 
specific gravity o( milk, ought entirely to jiupemede it. 

Ila construction will be comprehended from Af. 70. 

Of all the constituents of milk the sugar is the leaat subject to 
variation, and as the <leiKsily of the senim of milk is principally due 
to the 'rjeeific gravity of course is aUo but little liable to 

alter fttemeut is founded u{>oo the results of numerous 



observationn. It therefore long; since occurretl to 115, tbat the utilitr 
of the galactometer might be greatly enh.inccMl by the iKlditiim of a 
centeHimat .scale for tlie serum of milk. The mlvanta^o of ihU Hcnle 
wnuld Ik* ibat — starting from a fixe<! iminr^ the normal specific gravity 
of the serum — it wouI»l ehow, with very great nicety, the extent 
of the more usual adulteratiuu uf milk, imiiielvf that with water; lor 
in pn»portion u» water is added, fto does the weijrht of the wrrum 
diminish, and this in such a marked manner that thequantiiyuf water 
added may readily be deteruiined in per-centayes. NumerouK ohser- 
vatktns ore first required, in order to fix accurately the normal 
fi[>ecifie gravity of the serum of the milk of tl»e cow. 

MfthiHl of (ktermuiing the Cream. — The amount ofcream is deter- 
mined by means of an instrument invented by the late Sir Joseph 
Banks, termed a lactometer, lliis consists of a tube, u<«ually eleven 
inches long and half an inch in diameter; ten inches of this arc gra- 
duated in tenths of an.inch — that ia, in hundredtlis of the wbole. 
The tube is filleil with milk, and set H.>»idc for twelve hourn; the cream 
a.scends to the surface, and \Xa amount is determined by the thickness 
of the Btrutum formed, and tvhi<:h it) ascertained by noting the number 
of dej^CA or tenths through which it extends. 

Some lactometers resemble test tubes in slmpe, and, like them, are 
supported in racks ; they arc usually graduated only in the upper two 
inches; uthers are provided with fei't, and are frraduated throughout 
their whole lcn<itb. As the quantity uf cream not unfrequently exceeds 
twenty and has even been known to reach eighty per cent,, the tubes 
should in alt cases be graduated for nearly tbeir whole length. 

The construction of the laitoincter 19 shown in the accompanying 
wolxiciit, representing a rack, hulding four of these instruments. 

Cream forms more quii-kly in warm than cold we.ithur; and in 
making comparative observations on a number of samples, it is prnpur 
that each should be set aside in lactometers, at the same time and for 
the some period. 

The thickness of the stratum of cream formed on genuine milk ift, 
like the specific gmvily, subject to considerable variation ; in two 
extreme coses we nave met with, one of the samples showed but two 
degrees ofcream, and the other eif^hty. According to Dr. Norniaiidy, 
the tiiickne«s of the stratum of cream on pure milk is generally from 
8 to 8| per-centages : M. Dinocourt finds the por-centages t^» range 
between 9 and 14^ while, according to our observations, the average 
does not exceed Q\. 

It must be remembered that London milk, as delivered to houses, 
consists iu general of tlie milk of different cows mixed together; 
and therefore, iu order to determine what ouuht to be the depth of 
cream fonned on po 'd milk, we should take the average amount ob- 
tained from such ntixe<l milks. 

We have said that the quantity of cream varies much in different 
aamplea of genuine milk ; and not only is this the case, but it should 




also be known that the amonnt of cream yielded by any sanip!e of 
mitk is no certain criterion by which to judge of its quality, as 

ng. 71. 

Lactoiutis axd Staxd. 
(On a Fvrfnmf Male.) 

The dolleil tlur* ln>1imt« Ibc p«f-«-nlRr> • 

iplH of tnilk tium 

Rome niitlca are rich in cream and deficient in casein and sugar, and 
vicf vertn. 

It in Mated that the addition of a small quantity of warm water to 
milk increases the lunount of cream ; the belief in the afcurocy of this* 
fUUcmcnt is general, and it U commonly acted upon by milkmen ; 
nevertheless, the assertion is entirely erroneous — the addition of 
water to milk il*)es nut increiLse the quantity of cream ; it merely 
fneilitatea and haiilens, in u nin^t remarkable manner, ita formation 
iind lepiirution, ait i» shown by what follows : — 



Six lactometers were 6Ueil, one with pure milk, the reinAimler with 
tlie same milk ililuteii reKpectivuly witli ten, twviitVi thirty^ furty, and 
fitly per-centa;;e9 o!' water. 

Twt'ntv ininutca after the additiun of the water, the laetometer 
ahowc'lf in the milk rontnining fifty per cent, of water, six degrfes of 
crL'am ; in that with forty jier cent., five dejrrees ; with thirty per 
cent., four degrees ; with twenty per cent., three degrees ; with ten 
per cent., one degree; and in the pure milk, lialf a ilegree only. 

At the end of forty ntinutvs, the cre:ua stuud thus* six and a half 
dejjreca on llie milk containing fifty [ler L-ent. of water; aix Ou that 
with forty per cvnt. ; ti*e ami a half on that with thirty per (.'ciit. ; 
five on that with twenty per cent, ; four and a half on that with ten 
|>cr cent.; and four on the pure milk. 

At the end of twelve liour^s the milk with fifty per cent, of wal«r 
showed five degrees of cream ; that with forty per cent., five dejrrces 
and three quarlert»; that with thirty percent., six and a half de- 
preea ; that with twenty \^t cent., seven degrees ami a ([uarter ; that 
with ten |}er cent., eight degrees ; and the pure milk, nuie dep;ree8 
of cream. 

It thus appears, that the addition of a large r|uimtity of water to 
milk occasions an almost immmliate lonnation of cream, but doeA not 
augment the amount; of this fact, in iK>mc ca:M.% it would lie an itd- 
vantrtge to dairymen to avail themselves. The adilitton of water tn 
milk of ronrsc lesfiens ila epecific gravity, and 80 fneilitate« the 
ascension of the creaiu. 

Tite Lm'totu'iijtc. — S«me years since an instrument termed a hirto- 
scofie wa> invented by M. iJunne, of I'aris, for determining^ the rich- 
ne^5 of milk, by estimating lUe quantity ot butter contained in it. 

We have procured one of these instrumt;nt9, aeeompnuied with a 
deseriptiun, and directions for its application ; frum these we extract 
the rohowing observations: — 

" Milk owt's its white dense colour to the gluhulcs of fatty matter 
or buucr which it contnins; the moie numerous these gtubulcd the 
more opa>|ue is the milk, and the more, at the same time, is it rich 
in the fitiy ])nit or in cream, the mure or less opacity bein^' in re- 
lation with iLh princiiKd ipjality — its richness in cream; the measure 
of this opacity is capable of ^ivin^ then, indirectly, the measure of the 
riclnie»<i of the Huiil. am) ut indicating Its value. 

"Hut the degree of opacity nf milk eannot be appreciated upon a 
mosA of the fiuid ; it is not possible to mea.sure it but in very thin 
lavLTS, and it is this which is done with our hietcHcope. ThI* instru- 
ment is constrnetcd in such a way that the milk may be examined 
in it in layers of every thieknes-*, t'nnn the thinnest, through which all 
objects may be disttngulsheil, up to that which ulh>ws of nothing to 
be |K*reeived; it give:* at onre tli** riehnvsii of milk in indiculing the 
degree of opacity to which the prupiirtion of cream stands in relation. 

Q 2 



** The instrument coosiats of a kind of eTe-fdaas, composed of two 
tubes sliding one within the other, furnished with two parallel glasses, 
which approach each other up to contact, and separate more or leas 

Turn LACTOtcon. 

the one from the other at will by means of a very fine screw ; a little 
funnel destined to receive the milk is placed at the upper part ; on 



the nppositc ftide i^i fixe<) a )miuUc, wbk-h nerves to hnltl the inslru- 
ment. i'he tuht* wbicU screws witliiii the oiher forms the anteriur 
or ocular part, tliat to whiuli the eye la applied; it h murked with 
divisions to the number oi'20, and figures which indioiile the richuess 
of the uiilk. 

** A few drops of the milk to be examined are poured Into the 
fiinneL It is nuces^ary to ttdie the sample of milk fruu the mass of 
the milk, and not the suiface of the lii|uid only, where the layer of 
cream eoUectji; if then the milk has been at redt for some time, it 
must he H^riLated a little in order to mix all the parts. 

'* The lunnel being full, the mmlar tube U turned from right to left 
until the liquid has peneirutcd betwtfc-u the plates of glo^, and col- 
lected at the bottom; the OL'ular lube in then turned in the contrary 
direction, from left to right, and one lookii thruugh it until the tlame 
of a taj>er or candle can be distingui.'<hed. At this point stop and ira- 

f>ress a slight rotatory movement, until, by a lillli: manipulation, the 
ight id lost to view, without going beyond the moment when it is ex- 
tinguished, so to speak, and ceases to be perceived ; that is the jmint, 
dcanitely, where it is ncce.-'siiry to stop; it is only then required to 
read the figure of the division to which the uitow corresponds; that 
vre supfKisc will be 25. The annexed table i^howa to what degree of 
richness, or to what proportion of cream, tlic figure corresponds. 

"The li^ht ought to be placed at about a metre (at least three feet) 
from the observer; a greater distance will not impair the aeeurocy of 
the operation, but it is not the same if one looks from too near. 

"One may a-wure himiielt of the accuracy of the instrument by 
adding a very sniidl quimtity of water, or even gruel, to the milk. 
Twenty (legrees of wnter are sufHeient to change the transparency of 
the litpiid; thus milk marking 2a, will mark 28 or 30 on mixing with 
It a little water. 

^At tbc moment when the milk b introduced between the two 
plates of glass, it commonly h»ppeu6 that bubbles of air are enclosed 
w the layer of litjuid ; it is necessary to drive them out, ami this is 
easily done by imprefxiiig certain muvenients on the milk, by sepa- 
lating more or less the eye-pitce so lu* to cause the twopluteu of glass 
to withdraw and approach eaih other alternately. When the trial is 
tenniniitod, the eye-piece is to be removed so as to clean the instru- 
ment perfectly, and t^t wijw the glasses; the gUsfCS ought always to 
be very briglii, and ime otight to avoid, during the observation, to 
tarnish with the breuth the glass of the eye-piece." 

Table indicating the Riehneat of different Kindt of Milk after 
the Degree whtch they ahow on the Lactuscope. 

Milk of cow, giving about 5 per cent, of cream, shows 40 to 35 on the 

Q 3 



Ditto ilitto, onlinary, ^ving frnm 5 to 10 per cent, ditto, shows 3<3 to 

no on iivi lac'loscDpe. 
TJillo (liito, KiiiliL-ienil)' rich, giving from 10 to ]<5 jter cent, ditto, shows 

*iO to 25 on the lacloacope. 
Dit(n (lino, very rich, giving from 15 to 20 per cent. dJtto, shows 25 

to 20 on the lactoscoiH'. 
Ditto ditto, excessiveijf rich (lost extraction), shows 20 to 15 on tbe 

Ditto ditto, very weak (first extraction), shows 150 to S on the Ucto- 

Milk of the common nss, of good quality, shows from 50 to 80 on the 

Ditto, very weak, shows from 150 to 20 or 4 on the lactoscope. 
Milk of goat, rich, shows 10 to 15 on the lactosonpe. . 
Milk of woman, rich and suhAtantiid, ^nhows 20 to 25 on the lacto- 
Ditto, medium, »hnws 30 to 35 on the Inctosrope. 
Ditto, weak, i«hows 40 to 45 on the lactoscope. 

It must Im; rcuienibcrcd tliat the lactoscope has regard only to one 
elemt^nt of mdk, and does not e^limutu the amount of sugar or chrese. 
M. J^onne entertains the greatest cunhdcnce in the indications which 
it affiintB. 

The (.•on^friiction of the instnmiont, and mode of empluyment, will 
he more riearly understood fn^mi an exan^inutiou ot" the woodcut on 
the preceding page. 

Si>mc pcrsnns form their judgment nf the qtiality of milk simply by 
its density, regarding all Homplcs which do not indicate a certain spe- 
cific gravity t>f inferior ({ualitv. ^V'c have already seen that this 
method is very fallacious and tliat by it some milks, rich in uream, 
wouhl be pronounced of inferii)r iiuulky, in con&e<juence of tlieir low 
density; while othi.'rs defioent in that cfnstitoeiit, would be declared 
of superior quality, on accnunt of iht-ir high density. 

OtherB rely U[ion the indk'utions afforded by the Ificlomoter, which 
also hiift its fallacies, hut whicli are not so great when the instrument is 
used with the necei^sary precautions, as those relating lo the S|»ecific 
pravily of milk. I^ike the lactoscope of M. Donne, the lactometer 
una regard to only one component uf milk — namely, the fatty 

'JTie following facts wdl show how fallacious is the lactometer in some 
cases. We have met with several dimples of genuine milk, which 
gave only three or four per-cent.ige»n( creiini, but which yut |K>Sjtesse<l 
a specific gravity of 1H30; judged by thf lacfnnietcr test alone, stich 
milks would Im* pronounced by all lo be vcrv jMxir, and by some even to 
be adulterated. \ow ihis conclusion would lie to a very great extent 
erroneous; for such milks, although certainly deficicni in butter, have 
the full proportii>n of the remaining constituents — namely, the che»'se, 
and the sugar. Again, we constantly meet with smnpluti of uitlk 




l^viiBBHVi^ ^^ morR pcr-C(^ntA^ ofcrcflin, and which nftvcrthc*- 
Ims, at lAl^wn by the spcrifio gravity of the Rcrum, arc unquefitionubly 
wlolteratetl with large qiianliti(!i> ot'wutcr. 

The observer who relied upon the indications of the lactometer 
would huve ro'^urdeii nucb samples as uf average ((uality. The 
ini|uirer, therelbr*.*, shixttd not rely solely upon the bpeeitie gravity or 
lactometer te^ts, but in all cii.-«e9 employ both, the one acting as a cor- 
rective of the fiilhicies of the other. 

For nil practi<:iil pur])ose<i, the above methods of examination are 
sulficienl. Should it be cli-mred to institute a very careful analysis, we 
may then adopt the processes deecribed by iiaidlen already given. 

On the ADULTEaATioNs or Milk. 

The most prevalent and important adulteration of mllic iis that with 
water: now some few persons who have not reflected closely upon the 
matter, may be di.<4pt»(CMl to make li«;ht of the adulteration of milk with 
water, and to speak in raiher facptious terms of the cow with the iron 
tail ; but it ia surely no light matter to rob an im])ortant article of daily 
consumptioni like milk, of a large portioo of its nutritious consti- 

Kut the adulteration with water is not the only adulteration to which 
milk is liable ; the large addition of water frequently made to it, so 
altera iU appearance as to cause it to as.iumu the »ikv-blue colour so 
familiar to us in our yehtHtlboy days, and so reduces its flavour, that 
it l>ecoines neceiii«ary to liuve re*'ourao to other adult<>rating ingre- 
dients, namely, (renclfs to sweeten it ; luth^ to brini; out tin* flavour ; 
snd anno/to, about which wc shall have much to say hereafter, to 
colour it. 

Further, t^e^e is no question but that chulh, cerebral nuitter, and /itarch 
have been and are ocoasionnlly, thou;:h rarely, uuiployed in the adul- 
teration of milk, althougli it has not happened to ourifelves to meet 
with these substances in milk. 

•Starch and cerebral mattr-r have been met with at different times by 
more than one observer. I*rofesfM»r Qin-'ck^tt has tn his possession 
some drawin^rs made Irom sampler of adulterated milk, showing the 
prcftence ol' both slarch and cerebral matter. 

With regard to the use of chalk, a manufacturer of preserved milk 
recently informed us tliat it sometimes happened to him to find car* 
bonale of lime or chalk at the bottom of the eva[»<»ratin<j didhes or pans 
on the evaporation of large quanlilieif of London milk. 

There is ul»o good reason for believing that tttrnwric as well as 
annatto arc »imii*tiines used to culour milk and cream ; also gum 
tragaetath to thicken cream, ami aafla to prevent its becoming 

* Mr. Gsf fttalM th«l niUk U aDniftliRPB Ailullrratotl wUlt dcroctloD of builvil vliile 

Q -4 



Further, it has beon stateil that frunif dextrine, and emulsion of 
hemp sved have hean atiipUtyed ; the u&e vf the iiittcr urtiule is but little 

A practice frequently rt»sorted to, nlib<tu|;h it is not an adulteration, 
fthould here l>e inenttoneii ; n piirt ctr even the entire nf the creiun ia 
removed, (tn<3 th(* skimmod milk, mixed with Bome fresh milk, subse- 
quently Bold a^ whole milk. 

An inj;enioue writer, who-tc name wg dn not at the present ainment 
remember, bos cunsidere*! the ^ubjeet <*t' ihe supply of London with 
milk stutisueully. and Ik- Iiuk arrivfd at the euncdurtton tbiit the number 
of cows 8Up|ilyiny Loiidnn is iH<t more than Hulhcient to provide euch 
person with about a luhlespoonfiil ptir day. It' this !*tii1trnient is cor- 
rect, some iilen niiiy be formed of the extent to which wnter is made 
to do duty for mtlk. 

7*he rcMidti of the examination of Twcaty-atx samples of Landrm milk 

Thnt Txcelee tcere genuiMy but of thcae two showed a deficiency of 


That Fourteen were tuivUeraterl, the adnllemtion cnnsistin;! princi- 
pally in the addition of water, the per-centagea of which ranged from 
10 to .'SO per cent, or one-half water. 

The specific gravities of the rnilh varied from 1030 to lOlo, of the 
serum frnm lOiiS to lOlU^ the cream i'rom 29 to 2 per-centi^es, the 
avernge being nearly lo jh-r-centages. 

On the Detection of ihe Adtdteratiuna of Milk. 

The articles employed in the oduhcrfltion nf milk, the metb 
for the discovery of which wc buve now to describe, are water, su^far 
including treacle, suit, annatto, turmeric, gum tra^acauth, stavcht oere* 
brul matter, and chalk. 

Certain :dle<;ed adulieraijijnH of milk, either not likely to be praC' 
ti8e<l, or but niruly ri-sorted lo, it is not necessary to notice. 

There arc two geiienil incthmis by which the fact ot the adulteration 
of milk may be determined ; the one ludiret-t, a^ by aqnantitative ana- 
lysis of the ndlk for its more inquirtant oonstiliientfl, ami by the de- 
fieiency of one or more of which the cxistenee of adulteration may be 
inferred ; the other direct, as by iletuctiim, either throu<!h chemistry or 
tlie microecopc, of tlie adulterating'; Niihstunce ur substances. 

In some cases these two liiethmLt may be combined. 

The methods by which the norm^il constituents of milk may be de- 
termined quantitatively have idre-idy bt'cn described. 

On the Detection of IVater. — Milk bein;; much heavier than water, 
«rhen that liquid is added to it the sfKcific gravity of the mixed 







article is \e»i tLnn that, of f^ennine milk, ami the diminution, within 
certain limii.s \a proportioiiuic lo the ({unniitv of water adde^l. In 
fh'* knowlciipe of these fnctH, we are fu^ni^he<l with aniethrxl whereby 
the iKluUoration of luilk with water tiioy be determined fjuanli- 

This may he done by tnkini; the specific gravity of either the en- 
tire milk, of skimmed milk, or, still letter, of the serum. 

Aeeordiu** to M. Lasnuigne, pure milk at S0° F. — 

I According? to our own experiments, the following are the ordinary 

I «peol6c gravities of milk adulterated with various proportions of 

I water ; — 

Has a specific gravity of • 

Wirh 25 piirts of wuter 
Will) 33 pftrU of water 

Water per Cent. 

Water uone 
Al>out \5 parta - 
About 20 
About 35 
About 45 


Sp. Gr. or Milk. 

But since the spi?ci6c; gravity oi' even genuine milk is subject to 
wide runjieti, in certain exceptional cases, owing to the variable rpinn- 
tities of fatty matter present, it is in all cases better to take the 
specific gravity of either skim-milk or the serum. 

The fpeclfic gravity <A' nktm-miik with various proportions of water, 
as deduced from the centeaimal galactometerf u as followtc — 





of Sktm-MUk 





10 paHs 




20 - 




30 - 




40 - 




50 - 




Results still more accurate may be obtaincfl by taking the q>ccific 
grnvily of the serum of milk, since this is subject to much less voria- 
tion than either the whole or skini-uiilk. The casein ami butter ure 
easily rumowd by the atlditiun of a few drops of acetic acid, a tpiuntity 
indeed so ».ma]I iis m^rtrcely lo aflect the gravily of the serum. 

The following table exhibits the results of various a<lUttions of water 
to the scrum: — 





10 parts 









In taking the specific gmvity of the serunt, niid in determining h*oni 
lliis wh^ftlier watiT hus been uddeil or not, llie only fullacy to which 
the observer is* sulyect is lliKl by tlie atlilition of ^iccbarmt* inntler, 
wliich wnult] cause the serum to weiyli heavier. 

Jiiit in the cose of whtile milk there are other sourcca of falUcj to 
whicti reference to some extent has already been made, and against 
which it is neccssury to gimrd. 

Thus u milk mny possess the proper spocific gravity, and yet be_ de- 
ficient of erenm, whieh mny have hin-n ubslnicted ; ajinin, it may be 
several de;*rces lij;hler than orUiuury, and yet may be perfectly 
genuine, this arising from tlie presetice uf itn unusual quantity of 
fatty matter. 

In order to guard against these falbicies^ therefore, it is always ne- 
cessary not only to tAKe tlie weight of the milk, but also to measure 
the r|uaiitity of cream, wineli should not be lew than 8 per-ecnlagos. 

The instrumenlfl by which tlui weit;ht of uiilk is taken and the cream 
measureil have alreftdv been described. 

One method by whit h the quantity of water may in genorfll be in- 
directly estimated is^ by determining quantitatively the amount of 
flugiir present. 

On the Detection of Stiffar. — The sugar Uf^ed is usually brown sugar 
or treacle : the presence of these mny in cenenil be determined as 
follows : — The casein anfl butter are to be precipitated by means 
of acetic acid, and the sei*um cvuj>oratcd, a very getitle heat only 
being useit, and the colour of the residue particularly noticed ; if it 
is darker than ordlniiry, the presence ttf sugar may be suspected. The 
resi<lne may then i>e di.*solved in distilled water, :i little yeast added, 
and the solution exftosed for some hours at a temperature of between 
70° and SO'* F. If fermentation ensues '* it is a sure sign of the presence 
of sugar, for milk sugar cannot fenncnt, at least in so short a lime, 
and the fermentation is never britk. Hut the smallest itmportion 
oC su|!ar, either grape or cane 8u;;ar, very speedily gives ru'-e to a 
tumultuous fermentation." — Nonmmhj. The carbonic acid nmy be 
coneole<l, and the sugar calculated either from it or from the alcohol 

If eanc sugar, or decoction of carrots which contains it, hos been 
added, jyerhaps the best method of proeoeding is the following : remove 
the supar of milk by means ttfKehlings solution, and nflerwardBdetcr- 
luine whetlier cane sugar is present by the fermentation test. 



On thfi Detection of Starch. — For (he clctection of stari:]i in milk 
and creuiii> the microscope furnishes the readiest and most certain 
lueunii. A little of the milk, spread out in a very thin Blrutum, should 
be examined under the micro5copet the exuuiinution bein^ iiided 
by the use of tincture of iodine. For the quuntitfttive determination 
of the starch, vhicb will not often be rct|uirL'd, we uxixy proceed oa 
follows : the curd is to lie separated by nie»ii8 of ftcettc acid, col- 
lected on u filter, dried, and Ireutcd with ellier ; this will remove the 
fftt, and the starch and casein only will reniuln. Lastly, tlie casein 
may be removed by means of a weak solution of potash. A more 
accurate plan 19 to convert the starch into prii|>e sugar, and to uul- 
culate its amount from this. l*be sugar of milk nnif«t Brst be re- 
moved from the evaporated milk by digestion with alcuho], and the 
processes followed for the conversion of starch into sugiu', and the 
dctcrininfilion t.f its amount, described in the artiule Sugar. 

On the Detection nf Gum Antbic and <V«m Trof^acanth. — Thegenjra 
of milk is to be evaporated, and the residue boiled and digested with 

cohol, which wdl tiikc up ihc su^ar and leave the gunu Or 
slcohol may be poure<I into the whey, the pum will be precipitated, 
and, when drie<i, may be identified by its appearance. 

ior the detection of gum tra;j:acanth we are recommended Ut boll 
the milk, and leave it at rest for some hours, when n }>elatinoustranslucid 
dt^poitit will be formeil, which, being wa»bcd with a small quantity 
of water and tested by a few drops of solution of iodiui*. proiluces a 
blue colour because gum tnigacjinth contains starch. The starch h 
plentiful nnd is in the form of starch cor{macles; these arc rather 
timall. but vary much in .size ; many are irregular, some arc rounded, 
others are s<jniewhat polygonal, while a few are muller-sbaped : in the 
more perfei't gniins 11 rounded hilum is Uistinctly visible. 

On the JJrteclion of Cerebral Alaiter. — 'I'he jircsence of cerebral 
matter in milk may be determined with certainly by means of the 
micn»s<*opc, p<irtion9 of the nt-rvc tubules being readily discovered 
with that instrument. jL«i shown in the engraving. Pif^. 7ii. 

On the Detection of Chalk. — If llie milk be diluted with water and 
set asi<le for some hours, part of the chalk, if present, will have sub- 
aided as a precipitate, when it may be sufficiently ideutifici by its 
rtppeurance and its effervescence with aiids. Or a imrtion of the milk 
mav be evaporateil to dryness, tlie residue incinerated, and (he chalk 
esiimjtted from it in the manner pointed out in the article on Tea. 

On the Dftectian of Suit —This must be det6rmine<l from the ash by 
the process descrilied under Annatto. The saline tnste of the ash 
will show the presence of salt if that substance bus been employed. 

On the Detection of Annatto. — The presence of aunatto is rendered 
probable when the milk evjiporaiwi di)wn to a small quantity present* 
n reddish or orange-rod colour ; if this colour is materially altered on 
the addition of an acid and an alkali to the milk, being rendered pur- 
plish by the one and of a brighter red by the other, its presence is 



certain. Lastly^ by means of slcohol, the colouring matter may be 
dis;iolved out ol* thu Aoft re^tiihiu ofeYnpariiteil milk, and the effects of 
tbe reaj^enU muntioued tried upon the ulcoholic extract. 

rtg 73. 
Uiui ADOLTS«Aisp.wmi Sflnr'g BRiiiti. 


^.' oC?. 

* • 



Oh the Detection of Tttrmeric. — If turmeric has been used in aulv 
stance to colour milk, it would be possible tu dt:tect in some cases the 
tunneric celU. H(»wever, it is best in nil cnses to proceed hy the 
method indirnled for the discovery of anruiito. The chief difTerenoc 
is that the lunncrie is rendered deep brown by alkalies. 

li is of eoiirsc rorely, if ever, necessary to examine milk for more 
than two or three iif the articles above cimnienttcd. In general it if 
sufljcient to determine whether water, the ordinary adulteraliun uf 
milk, has been added or not. 

The fullowin;; Atalistit-s regardin;; the quantity of milk consumed 
are by Mr. Itraithwaite Poole. The consiimpli(m in the United 
Kingdom, excluding chee^', butter, &c., is taken at almut 1 150 millioa 
quarts annually. 

*^ Mr. Poole assumes that an average milk cow yields 7 quarts of 
milk as a daily average^ and that the retail price is 3</. per (juort ; 
and from these data a result is arrived ut, that the whole supply 


re<|uirGff 4^0,000 m'llcb c<iw!i, and l]iat xhn retuil value auiounti to the 
prtMligious Slim of 14,000,000/. per annum. 

"But limitin^r the inquiry to London^ the itainc aiitlinrity AftAumea 
thftt.the rarefuUy rearetl c«w8 ihat Turnidh luiwt of ilie miiiply t*i>r the 
metropT)]!!! yield 9 (quarts yter daily aver&j^e ; thiit the riuinbfr lima 
employed is 24,000 ; that tbo qunntitr of milk consuuK'd Id about 
IHQ iiiillioii cjuurtH annually, and that the conaumcra puy not leas than 
1,600,000/. for il." 

The following detnilK rcspectinjr the cost of milk, and it* conveyance 
tit Lniidnn, are nlso on tht* authority of Mr. Poole. 

" The railway conipanii'8 iisu»llv charge at the rale of three farlhinga 
per galloiK for carriage, if the dii^tnnce Iw within fttrty rniles, and h/. 
if for u lnnj;cr distance; relurniaif the empty can3 free of charjte. 
Nowr this milk is suld bv the farmers to lar;rc dealefit at from 5fl, 
to yd. per j;mIUhi ; the dealers sell it to retailers at from 7ti. to 9d, 
per gallon; wliiU- the retailers sell it Uj the housekeepers of the 
metropolis at from 3d. to 4i/. per quart. Nor is this all; the neat 
milk at say Sd. per *«allon, beeomes too often milk and water at 4d. 
per quart. Con^iderin^ that crtam commands a price of from 2*. to 
3*. jM-r quart in London, milk certainly cannot brinj; in less than 5rf. 
to 6f/. |M>r quart to the relHiler.H. U is estimated that in \H5A the 
quantity of milk brought by railway to London ronsiderubly exceeded 
.3,tKH>,000 quarts, of which by for the largest proportion travelled on 
the Eastern Counties Kailway."— Z)c/d(r« Food of London, 


Tna word Bread, adopted a.« the heading of this article, is employed in 
a generic sense, and is intended to include the several varieties of 
brcod prepare*! from the flours of the seeds of tlie diiferent grasses 
employetl for bread making. 

As bread is made from flour of various kinds, it is necessary to 
take into consideration^ in the first place, some particulars in relation 
to the several kinds of llonr, a.<4 their chemicai con)[>niiition, mioro- 
scopical structure, and their properties and differences. 

White there are important dii^linctions to be noticed between each 
of (he Hours employed in the manufacture of bre^d, there are also 
certiiin [Mtints of re^emVdance. 

Thus every flour used in the preparation of bread consists of mVrv- 
^enised and hon-nitrogenUed elements or constituents : the former are 
vegetable ^"irfn, aihumen, cwufinc, Ikc^ which have been named after 




Ih6 mrresponding prot<?ino compounds extitting in animal substances : 
llie liuier are aUtrchy dexirine (\t gum, und siigar — proUuuU more par- 
liculiirly of the vegetable kingdom. 

The chief flours ar<f those of wheat, barley, rjre, oat, Indian com, 
and rice. 

>VuKAT Floub. 

TlR»re are Beveral distinct species of wheat ; that which is chiefljr 
cultivated in this country is the vnlgare ; of (his there are 
(wo vurietiefl — T. trstivttm^ or Riiinmcr whent ; nnii 2', hyftennmi^ or 
winter whe»t : the former is sown in the spring, and the latter in the 
nutumn. Of these viirieliefi, again, there are several miKliftcations, 
into the deseriptioii of which it in, however, not necessary to enter on 
ihe present oeeusion. 

\VheiLt seedit i»r grains, ns brouglit tn the market, and as supplied 
to tlie miller, are deprived of their /w/^ff, or huuks. 

The ninnlwr of piut.i into which ground wheat is separated, ;uid the 
amount of each vit;lded by piven qnuntitiefl, viii y according to the cha- 
racters of the wlieiit, uihI the prucesses udupted by different millers. 

In wht-ats whii-h are liunl, (he inti'guuient<i se]mrate with difticulty, 
and therefore (he llour pnidmeii from these usually contttins a 
greater proportitm of udlnTcnt hran than ih) those ttourn procured 
from wheats which are soft, and whiuh part with their epidermic 
coverings more reinlily. 

According to Mr. lUrd, a miller of Darlfurd^ in KenU the follow- 
ing are the proiliicts, wiili the ipiaiitities ubiaincJ, of one nuarter, or 
eight bushels of ground wheal : — 


" Produce of One Quarter aj irAcd/, it^ighin. 

Flour - - 

Uisruit, or fine middlings 

Tnfi|iings, or specks - - . - - 

Ik>t pollard, Turkey piiUurd, or Iwcnty-ijenny 
Fine pulhird - - - - . 

Bran and coarse pollard - - - - 

Loss sm>tu!tiL'd by evu|HiratJon, and waste in grinding, 
dressing, &c. - - • - ■ 

303 llu. 

10 „ 

8 » 

15 „ 

18 .. 



504 lbs." 

Aa it is frequently a matter of much im|K>rfance to determine the 

conipa"«ifi<m nt smnples of wheat flour, wc will now describe the 
various steps by whirh the analysis umy be clfi'i'ti'd. 

A wei;'hed f|uiiniity of flour is to be made into a paste, and well 
knendetl, either on a Meve or in a piece t>f mut^lin, water beinf; poured 
over it until it ceases to acquire h utrlky colour ; the water carries 
away the starch, and dissolves nut the nlbuiueii, sugar, gum, and 
suits, while the mase left ou the filter consists of *^ crude gluten." 



This crttde gluten is iteelf, however, coniiMiunded of no less than 
four (.lislinct sub.tUinceit — via., gluten, vcgetHble fibrine, a very small 
quantity of oiucine or cueitie, aud oil, in the following proportions : — 


Vcjfetable Bbrino 
Mucine (casvine ?) 
Oil - 
Starch (accidental) - 

Crude gluten - 



- ft small quantity. 


Gluten. — This substance is obtaine<l by boilinf( crude ||;luten in 
alcohol, which extracts tht; glutei), ciiseine or mucine, and the uil. 
The casetne is deposited on cooling, nwd, after separation, the resitlual 
liquid is evaporated unlit an adhet^ive mass is obtained, from which 
the nil is extracted by ether, and gluten atone remains. 

Vegetable Jubriue. — This is insoluble in alcohol, and forms the 
chief part of the crude gluten ; it U left nearly in a pure slate iifieT 
the action of that reagent. It (uuch resembles in its composition 
muscular fibre. 

For the other cone^tiluents of wheaten 0our we must search in the 
water, whtcti has jiossc'd tlir(iu;:h the sieve. 

SUtrch. — The stureh, after remaining suspended for a time in the 
water, sul>sid**«, forming a precipitate; this may ha readily obtained, 
and. after drving, its amount determined by weighing. 

Vegetable Albumen. — This substance is procured by boiling the 
water, whereby the albumen is coagulated, and lorms shreds or 
Hakes, which ri»e to the surface, where they coltecl ns a pellicle. 

CwKitie. — After (he separation of tlie oibuinen, a little ucetic acid 
is to be added, which throws down tiie cnseine. 'i'he mucine (nr 
caseineV) present in crude gluten is soluble in alcohol, from which, 
on cooling, it is thrown down in the form of while Hocculi. 

Oil. — The gn»»ter part of the oil in present in the tmter part of the 
grain, frfim which it follows that the hran contains a larger profHirlion 
of oil lliiin the central part of the gmin. It Is best obluined by 
digesting whole nr bruised wheal in ciher. AVhen wheat paste is 
wtt&hed in water, part of the oi! passes away with it, and part remains 
in the crude gluten. 

SHt^ar, — The sugar present in wheaten flour is of the kind denomi- 
nated glvcone : its lunount is deterndned by evaporating the water to 
dimness, and dissolving the sugar out of the residue by means of 
alcohol, which being in its turn evaporateil, the sugar is deposited 
in a granuhir or semi-crystallised atule, and may be collected and 

Qvm. — The remaining pnrUof the residue of the evaporated water 
conststa of gum <>r dextrine, iusuluble in olcuhol ; this also &huuld be 
dried and weij^hed. 


Wa/*r. — The quantitj nf wat«r present in wheat, on an averafte, 

viiriea from fifteen to seventeen per cent., ami is j^retiler in new than 
in ulil whcat^ nnd it is this circuuidtaiiue which luokcs the former of 
lest value tlian the latter. 

Mineral awl Saline Comtittienfg. — The more important of these are 
silieute of puUish, and the iilkaline and earthy pli()8|ibati», which are 
present in considerable nmouiit For ordiiinrv purposes it is n<«t ne- 
cessary to niiike 90 precise an analysis as tliat iiidicjated «bove ; it will 
be sufficient to fliieertain the ainoiint of crude gluten present in a given 
quantity of flour. 

To determine the nufintity of this gluten, n little instrument has 
been invL-nled by Mr. liuland, termed tin *' aUurometer** 

Of tliitt instrument the foUowitig dewjripliun is given by Mr. Mit- 
chell : •— 

** it consists nf a hollow copper cylinder, about aix inches long^, and 
from three-quarters of an inch to an incli in diameter. It han two 
principal piirta ; the one, abmit two inches hut;;;, \s ch»5ed at one end, 
ibrminji a kiml of cu[» capable of containin;^ about 210 grains of 
fresh gluten; it screws into the remainder of the cylinder. The 
cylinder boing charged with gluten, is heated to iibout 4'JO'^ in an oil- 
bath. Thu i^iuten by this treatment swulls, and accoriling to ita rise 
in the tuLie (which may be measured by a trr^i^lunted slem) si> is ltd 
quality. Gtnid fliMtrs furni:$h u gluten winch augments to lour or 
five limes its uriginal bulk ; but bud tl<>oi> give a gluten whioU 
does not swell, becomes vi<(cous and nearly tliiid, adhering tu the siiles 
of the tube, and giving off occasionully a disagreeable oilour, whilst 
that of gnofl llf>ur merely suggests the smell of hot bread." 

The procecdiii:; ad'»pled bv the corn-chandler luid the baker for 
the dcteniiiniaion of the quality of whealcn llour is still more simple. 

A small quiintity (a few grains is sulBcient) is nnide into a paste 
with water, and its quality Jmlged of by the tenacity of the dough, the 
length to which it may be drawn into a thread, or the extent towhieh 
it may be spread out into a thin sheet. 

The following analyses by Dumas show the composition of 100 parts 
of wheat Hour: — 

Wheat Flour. 

Odcsna Flour 

Odexid FUtur 




Water - 

- 10-00 

Wafer - 

- 1-2-00 

Water - - 10-00 

Gluten - 

- 1096 


- I4 5j 

Gluten - 12-00 

Starch - 

- 71-49 

SUrvh - 

. 5G-50 

Starch - - 6200 

Sugar • 

- 4 72 

Sugar - 

- 8-48 

Sugar - - 7*30 


. 3^2 


- 4-90 

Dextrine - 5*8! 

Bran - 

- 2 MO 

Bran - - 1-29 

100 49 



* TrMti«e on the Faltlflcailon of Xood, p. 4a 



Whear<*n flour conlaina a j^eat? r nmnunt of prntoine or nitrnj*enise<] 
i'4impoun<Ifl • — that ia, of blmid and desh making principles — than anj 
Other description of furinjL 

Other aiiolyecs of wheat and tbe rest of the cereal grains will be 
found at p. 227. 

Structure of the Grain of Wheat. 

ScTcral structures enter into thu formation of tbe seed or grain of 
wheat, as well as that of tlic oilier cvreals. 

First, the seed is Murrounded by moiiibraoc:), called the testa ; second, 
the surface of the set-d nrojKr is formed of untiuhir cells, filled with 
glutinous and oily matter in a jrrunular state ; while the sut)stancc of the 
seed is made up of cells filled with starrh corpuscles. Now each of the 
parts enumerate*! difler, ff>r the most pariT in the different cereal grains. 

The testa, is in part hut not entirely removed in the' process of 
grinding and dressing the flour, and the same is the case with the cells 
forming tbe surface of the grain. 

The following is tbe exact structure of the grain of wheat: — 

The testa, covering the immediate surface of the H<*edf consists of 
three layers of cells, two of which arc disposed longitudinally to the 
axis of the seeds, and, other transversely. The longitudinnl cells are 
large, and the margins distinctly beiidcn), especially the outer layer ; 
tbe transverse cells are also beaded, but to a leas extent. 

The cells forming the surface of the seeds are large and angular ; 
(hose of its substance are still larger, and each encloses a cont^iderable 
number of starch corpuscles, which are smaller near the outer parts of 
the grain than towards tbe centre. These several layers of cells 
mar be described as three distinct membranes. 

The structure of the testa and of the substance of the seed are 
exhibited in the engravings. Figs. 74. and 7t>. 

Viewed with an object-glass magnifying 420 diameters linear, 
wheat starch is observed to consist of definite srains or particles; 
many of tiicse are very email, others ore of considerable dimensions, 
while there are but few of intermediate sizes : the siiiall grains are 
chiefly round, rarely oval, or muUur-Nb.iped, and for the most port 
proviiied with a central spot or hilum : the larger granules form 
rounded or flattened discs, with thin edges. Neither btluni nor con- 
centric rings are in general perceptible on the larger discs, although 
in some few a central tubercle may be seen as well as indistinct 
annuli. Occasionally some of the larger granules are more or less 
twisted or turned up at tbe edges, and when seen sideways, present 
the appearance of a longitudinal furrow, which has been erroneously 
describeil as a bilum : this appearance is, however, deceptive; it is 
really occasioned by the partial folding or curling of the groin on 
itself, whereby a central depression is produc^'d, the corpuscle at tlie 
*urae time beinf; viewed obliquely. We have fre<|uently seen grains 
whit'h when stationary presented a round and disc-like appearance, 
but which, in rolling over and presenting the edges to view, eidbibited 



Fie T* 

TMtatDdfDlvUDWOrml of n'HKAT. TVuMrrrar and Mflinif NWOMtal 
oalw ■MMbrtiN 1 ( 4. middle i r r-, lancr ncmbruw or turftM oC Um mi< fnVV 



lon^tuflinal furrow described, an obacrvation which clearly proves 
Its nature. A few grannies attain a very considerable size; these 

Fig. 75, 

Thli ncnvini nprftmU t}i« Kruoture kh<I ftppe*r«nen of tte aUreli ffranolM of 


Wok \t PloI'k. k* m\mt lli* cluvwMvra of Um atUwUmr, 
LacitU, ftDd nupilfltd 430 dlaoHtsn. 


are less regularly circular, and being much flattened, reflect but little 
shailow : nomt^times their edged are taintly marked with rudiutin;; 
lines. Examineil with the ptilari?)cope they exhibit a wetl uuirked 
cnws. Many of the above describtnl pflrtioulur*, m also the charuiitcrs 
of the cellulose, are well exhibited mjig. 75, Floub. 

There are several distinct species of barley ; that, however, which is 
conunonty cultivated in this country is the Hf/rdetan distichon, or two- 
eared barley. 

As n»et with in commerce the seeds or grains ore usually cni*lo5ed 
in the mxW or hii^ks ; denuded of these they form ** Scntch or pnt 
barley^ when rounded they constitute ** prarl barley** and this again 
raduced to powder is called ^^ patent barley." 

The analyE<ts of barley flour mu:st be conducted very much in the 
mauDer as that of wheat flour. 
u 2 


Chemical Compontion* 

The proporlian of nzotiscd compounds in bnrlfv is loss llinn in 
wheat flour; it is defirient pjirticulurty in trude gluten, so that 
barlej paste maj be nearly all wiislied uwuy in water. 

Tan* »oil ■QffkM ot •evd of Bahlit. Mafnl(l«d yxidlutit<«n. 

The milky fluid obtained by waahtng bfirley paste, flepnsit*, as well 
a« ihe stATcb, a proteine matter supposed to be iiuoiuble caserne : if this 



be (ligtisted with a solution of ammonia it is dissolvet], but is Again 
thrown down on the addition uf acetic avid ; the liquid which haa 

vine mi rw e iiU thv Btrnetun inil ehBr««ft«ra ot DAat.rT STAUcm. to- 
Itli t>i« cfllfUmr. Unwa with U» I'uiMrv I.*>ctila. uid tntgnUt^ IM 

lejvwTled the slareli and insoluble oasuiiic still holds in solution a 
small ijuantitv uruibuineii and some soluble caseine. 

Hurley fltnir i» less nutritive than wheal flour ; it* stoi'ch corpuscles 
are less soluble, and iherefbre resiitt more tlte action of the gastric 
juice ; the huak "is slightly acrid," and it is somewhat laxative. 

Structure of the Grain of Barley. 

The testa of the jrruin of barley differs considerably from that of 
wheat. It consists usually of four layers of cells: tb«,'y are smaller 
than those of wheat; the lonn^itudinul cells, of which tnere are three 
layers, are not beadei!, but Uiofte forniini; the outer layer have their 
margins slightly waved ; those of the inner layers and of the trons- 
verfe celln not Iw-'inj: even wave<l. 

The cells of the surface of the jrrain are not nearly so large as those 
of wheat, am) they form tbree hiyent. In place of one »» in wheat. 
Those of ita Hubstnnce also differ from the c(irre«ponilin^ cells of 
wheat, being more dclicace, and presenting, when emptied of starch, a 
fibrous appearance. 



The 9tarcL grnnules of bnrley resemble verj closely in form and 
structure those of wheat, so that th** description ulrenriy giv(;n ftpplia 
to some extent to the starch of harley. 

Barley starch consists of smiill and large grains, with but few of 
intermcdifttc size: the former, It w to bo particularly obserred^ are 
three or four times smaller than the eorrespoiulinj; grains of whrtt 
starch ; and of the larger grains many are distinctly rineed, while « 
much greater proportion of tlieni presents the Inngitudinal furrow, 
the nature of which has already been described. Those characters are 
sufficieiiily well marked to allow of the diacriuiination by the micro* 
scnpist of wheat and barley flour or starch. Examined with ibe 
polariscope, they exhibit a cross not nearly so strongly marked ai in 

Considerable difference is observed between wheat and barlet 
flour in the net ion upon them of boding wat^^rand some other reageol*; 
thuiv after prnlonge*J boiling, in the case of barley flour, a substan« 
remains unili^sirilvcil, wliir/li has been denominated '* /wn/pmr," whcret* 
wheat Hour Ireated in the same manner is nearly all dissolved. 

Bv the above characters, particularly by the minuteness of the 
smail grains, nnd by the structure of the testa, barley starch or neil 
may be readily and satisfactorily discriminttCed when mixed with wbext 

Rtk Flour, 

The grass from which rye is obtained is the Secale eereaU, 

The seeds or grains rc^eniible thu^'e of wheat, but are smaller. 

The analysis of rye flour must be conducted much in the sao* 
manner as that of wheat and barley flimr. 

Rye flour is rather less ri-5U in nitrogenised products than wbes* 
flour, but it contains more sugar \ it-s |>iLsle, when repeatedly wasM 
in water, brenks up, and becomes di]fiise<l thn>ughout thu liquid, '^ 
bran only being left behind ; the milky liquid, after having deposittfl 
the starch, and after the separarimi of llie albumen, is to l»e ev*pc^ 
rated, when the rt«4iilue will consist of sugar, oil, nnd the so-calW 
** soluble gluleit," which may be dissolved out by means of alcohol 

live flour is said to be somewhat laxative. 

The roasted grains are imt unfrequently employed in the ailBl' 
tcration of coflee. 

Structure of the Grain of Bye. 

The testa of rye approaches somewhat closely in structarc to ^ 
of wheat, as is evident on nn examination of the subjoined cngravlaf. 
There are, however, certain diflcrences: thus, the cells of the 6i* 
and second coiits are smaller and much more delicately beaded; those 
of the third coat are also smaller and of a somewhat diflerent funn. 


The starch granules of rye flour bear a general resemblance in 
and sixe to those of wheat : there arc these remarkable and satia- 


•ftMtoAfRn. Vrrllcal «nd tr«n«nrw ▼)««• za n. onUn Aft, middle 
Mul ' r. Inoer c<wti. Mafolllcd 30O dlAOicten. 

diflercnccs. liowcYer — viz., that the leswr p'ains arc decidedly 
■nailer than the correspondlntr grains of wheat, and that many of the 
lar^r pranule* of rye stareh are furnished with a throe or four-rayed 
bilum. Kxniuiiie<l with the poluriscope they exhibit a very strongly 
Marked croas. Fig$. 78. and 79. 

Oat Flour. 

TTmm* are aereral distinct species of oats; that, however, which is 
cktpflv ruliivated in this country in Acena aatica. 

Tbe oat frrmins or seeds are usually enclosed in their husks ; when 
deprived of these iher f<*rni what are known as **groaii" and these 
conaiitut« ** £mbdeH groats,'" 
M 4 





Oat flour or mcil does not form a dough or paste like wheat flour ; 
notwithstundLng which, however, it contains a large amount of niirv- 

Pig. 79. 

Tlili tnmvlnc mirHenb the ilnioture Anil cltnrM'len of th« >Urch ffruialw of 
Rrc TlOVIu Drawn wilb the Cunera Lucid*, and taacuified 490 1 

h mill 

genised matter ; this oxittts principrtlly in the fnmi of "arfwin," a sub- 
stance annlo^^ous to soluble Citseinc, and obtained in the some manner, 
by the ndditinn of acetic acid. 

" Outmeal,'* PiTeirn remarks, " is an impiirtsnt and valuable article 
of food. With tlie exception of maize or Indian corn it is richer in 
oily or fiitty mutter thiiii any other of tlie t:ultivated cereal grains; 
and it* proportion of protein conipniinds exeeeJs that of the 6nest 
English wheatoii flour; so tliat biitli with respect to it« hent snd fat 
making, and its flesh and blood making principles, it holds a high rank.** 

Structure of the Grain of the Oat. 

The membranex covering the grain of oat, contrasted with those of 
the other cereals, present several peculiArities. 

The loiiffiiudiMat c&ih fonning the outer nuiid>ranc are disposed in 
two layers ; they are large and well defined, the walU being rather thin 


andftlightly waved: from tlie up}>€r and outer wall of some of the edit 
springs u tjinglu long and pointed huir, the points being turned toward* 

r*«la •rOit. a a. outer i 1> 1>, miiUli t bdiI e c, JniMr lunla. UMtitA«d 900 dlft- 

tbe summit of the grain ; these hairs arise from the colls over the 
:irhole surface of the p'uin, but they become more numerous Inwards 
ib« tpex, where they furm a beard or tufr, as in wheat. 

The iranjteerae cells, which may be described as forming the second 
iuveatin^ nienibnuie, are Uiapofied in a sin-zle layer ; their walls are les8 
accurately defmud, and they are not very much longer than brood. 

The celij forming the burfuce of the seed itself, and which may be 
described as the third cnvering of the grain, also cunsivt of a single 
layer, and they arc smaller than the corresponding cells nf wheat. 

The starch granules of the oat present well-marked strurtural cha- 
racteristics. They are smaller iu size than ibosc of wheat, vnryiog 
liut little io dimcusions, arc polygonal in 6gure, without either visible 


concentric rings or hili, but with central depressions and thickened 
edges. The great peculiarity of oat starch, however, is, that many of 

Thl» vntravtng rrprHcnt* the rtnirtur* and charscten nf ih« fUreti gorpanlM of 
Oat I'uxTi. mm m\*u or the rfilniloaf. Drawn with tlu* Cmm^rm ImcH^ and au^- 
nlflcd VAt dlunetcn. 

the grains cohere together, forming bodies of a rounded or ova! fipire. 
and presenting; a reticulated surface, indi{.'3tivc of their compound 
structure. These bodies escape readily from the cellnlose, and, when 
oat flour is tliffiised through w:ilcr, mnv frequently be seen floating 
about freely in the liquid. A second peculiarity is, that unlike the other 
cereal starches, the grains of oat starch, when viewed with polarised 
light, do not oxhibit the usual crojweji. The above particiitarrt are 
well exhibited in the accompanving engraving. The walls of the cells 
of the eedulosc arc very delicate, and appear, when the cells ore 
emptied of the starch, like threads, as represented in the enjrrnving. 

A figure of oat starch is given in the new edition of Pereira*8 
** M-iteria Medicu." In thi:« the lar;rer grains are made fully ei|nid in 
size to those of wheat starch ; whereas they are rcfllly several limes 
smaller, as represented in our engraving. This error has probably 



arisen from the artist having mjstnken the cnrnpound bodio9 in ques- 
tion for sinrric granules. The same error pervades some of the mea- 
surementfi given. 

Indians Cobx Fi^ui. 
Zea Mat/x, or Indian corn, h raet with in the state of flour, in the 
»hopfl, unrfer tlie name of " Polenta ; " it cutefs into the dietAry of 
manjr of our public institutions and charities. 

Pig. at. 

^^m The nniount nf nzntised cnnstituenta ta less In maize than wheat ; it 
contftinft, however, a larger qusntitjr of oil, which accounts for its fat- 
tening propertiefl. 

In those unuocufttotned to its u^c, maize is considered to excite and 
to keep up a tendency to diarrhwa. 

Structure of the Grain, of Indian Com. 

The testa of the grain of Indian corn U made up of two rocmbranes ; 
the outer of these consists of some seven or eight layers of cells, all 

HtlitDfraTint KprMcnti the atnictnr* uid ch«rirt«Ti nf tb« itirrl) ifninnlvi of 
IifipikjrrDRN Flocr. Incluillit^ the <xlM<»*. Dnvo with ihe Cudub Liuids, 



Tlie iittter membrRne forma iHr surface nf iho «eed 



ronstnts of a single Inycr of veWa resembling tliof^e of the other 

The eellt of the cellulose are very nn^lar like those of rice, but 
they difl^r tn beiiip snUdividieil hy niimerous septa forming a cellii- 
liited network or blusleinu, ouch !«i)at:e iucltXHing a separule jtiirt-U cur- 

The starch cnrpuftcles of Indian corn hear oonBiderable resemhlnnce 
to thnae of the nat ; like them, they are somewhat polyp:onnl in oulline, 
and preaenT. wfll-nmrked centml depresjiions^ as well us ocoiisionally a 
divided and radinte hilum ; they <iiif«r, however, in their nnivh Inrger 
Bize, in not lorminp comptiund bodi<'s, anrl in preseniiiij; under the 
pfiariseope weJl-deiined cniuses. Tlie eentnd depression appears to 
be a character in common between nearly all tlit; starcli ;n"ttnules of 
the cereal grasses. This depression, combined with the disc-like 
form of the grains, crivea (hem a general resemUhmce to tliu blood 
discs of the mummaliii. In tliose Insuiiices in wliicb the grains, as in 
wheat and barley, are curved upon themselvea, the depresuon exists 
of course only on one aide of the disc. 

Rice Fi/xih. 

^^^ The seetls of rice, Oriza iatipa^ contain a much less proportion of 
^^vsiitro^enised compounds than the other cereal grains, and parricularly 
^^Pirheat — viz., about 7 per cent. : the (|uantity o( fatty matter is also 
'^ less. 

The substance obtaiued from rice, termed gluten, is prectpttable by 
j acetic ucid, and "has a creamy consistence, an agreeable smell, and a 

I bland taate ." 

Much difference of opinion has prevailed in reference to the value 

of rice an an article of diet, ^ome persona pladn^ it very high. Anu- 

lysis, however, clearlv proves lliiit it is the least nutritious of the 

(rereal grasseiji: it usually contains 7 or 8 per cent, of gluten, and wheat 

l^^i flour rarely less than I'i per cent. 

^^k Tliis difierence of opinion liait probably arisen from iho fact, that 
^^K'tice is seldom eaten by itself, but is partaken of usually with milk, 
^^Bbutler, or sugar, ttic nutritiou!< properties of which substances have 
^^T^een attributed to the rice itself. 

Structure of the Grain of Rice. 

The stmcture of the husk of rice is by no means easy to determine ; 
it is best examined aiVer it has been immersed in glycerine for some 

The outer surface of the seeil Is thrown up into ridges, these being 
arranged both trausversely and longitudinally, and describing between 



concentric rings Bre rendered more oonepicuous. To these variations 
in the condition of the granules of wheat flour a fifth might bare been 

F'K ^ 

a. «twh granDln of mw wheat flnnr ; b. ditto nfihe mir« tialni, wttli tnnlriure 
M In biud I r, d*T/ hJiHi ; il, OotltJ, MM In ptiddlns. M«^illlca lOO JUuctcrt. 

added represeiitinR the characters of the starch in PriiiKh gum or 
firxtritte: in this the praniiles are destroyed to a great extent, but 
here and there granules and portions of granules may be discovered, 
often exhibiting the concentric rings and sufficient to serve for its 
identification, and to determine whether the gum was made from wheat 
or potato flour. 



It is by means of British pim that the liatts of postipe labels are 
r<^mlered adhesive, as may l)e shown readily by siibiniltinji ai^uial] por- 
tion scraped from the Inbel to examination with the microscnpc. 

Composition of the chief Cereal Orainn. 

Tlie followinii table, drawn UJ^ by M. Payen*, shows the proportions 
of the proximate principles contained in tlie chief cereal grains : — 

Silica. FhM. 

IWI Pattt. 


Wutmm aad 








WlM«t, lurd, or VfitnneU 







•if Arrtc* 



7 00 




nr TuanrcMi 

dffni.hArtT, of ) 

Brir. Fmnct j 

63 30 







1 6 3ft 
















J- 15 










OiU . * - 



El 1.1 






I a- VI 



{ A90 







1 '■» 



The following analyses are by Professor Johnston : — 



8cvi«h Ort«wl. '"^jU^ *■ 


F« - 

Starch, Ac - 
















Tt has be«n recently aseertained, by careful and repeated analyses, 
that the bran of wheat, as well as of most of the other cereals, contains 
A larger proportion of gluten than the rest of the grain, and conse- 
fjiiently is more nuuiiious. It Is of importance that this fact should be 
^'eneraily known, as the knowledge of a may serve in some degree to 
correct the preference given to very white bread, and the notion that 
whiteness aud quality go ttigether. The very reverse of this is often 
the case. 

Professor Johnston gives the following as the reltitive proportion* 
of gluten in the whole grain, bran, and flour of the same sample of 
wheat : — 

• Pr£vU de Clieinl* [ndiutrtcllc. p.a&4- Paris, IStt. 




Per Oat 
14 to 18 

Gluten of Wheat. 

Whole grain - 
Whole bran 
Fine flour 

By sifting nut the hnitu therufure, wt> render the meal much less 
nutritLous; this will be mure appareul when we stale that the bran 
rarely lorms less than one-fourta, and ia often conslderitblj- more, of 
the wbolt; weight of the ^rain. 

The following; xa a more detailed analysis of the composition of 
wheat bran by Miller : — 

Composition of JVheat Bran. 

Starch - - - - 52-O 

Gluten - - - - 14-9 

Sugar - - - - I'O 

Fat - - - - 3-(> 

Woody fibre - - - 97 

Salu - - - - 50 

Water - • - - 13 8 


It baa beenreoently slated that the bran of wheat, in addition to the 
large per-centage of gluten, lilcewiae contains a peeuliar feruieut, which 
possesses the propertpr of rendering the tlour or bread with which it 
IS mixed more digciitible. 

It should be known also that the small or tail corn which is usually 
separated from the other corn, and u»ed by the farmer himself^ is 
richer in gluten than the large-sized grain. 

The next table represents the mean l;ompo^iti(>n of the ash of the 
chief cereal grains. It ia tslcen from Pereira's "Materia Aledica,** and 
is drawn up from the cuteutitted means contained in Johnston's ** Lec- 
tures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology," 2nd eil. 1847. 







Poiuh ... 




13 64* 
H 141 





LllM ... 







Mafne*Jft ... 







Oiidi! of Iron 







Pho«phonc w^ . 





44 -ST 


Sulphuric AChl . 






Chiortn* ■ 











1 44 


AlMBOna - 
Pw-cenUge of uh 









99 70 
■boot 1-5 


about 3-0 







Messrs. Oj;^**^'! *n<l Way give the following as the pcr-ccntagea of 
silicM h\ the ash of the onlinary cereal grains : '^"05 to 5*46 silioi fur 
wheat ; fruin 236 to TO"?? lor barley ; from 3S'48 to JOCKI ibr outs ; 
and 9*22 for rye. 

As w« may doractimes require to determine the phosphoric acid 
present in the different corns, vrc Bpi)end certain processes. 

Dissolve the ash in ns small a quantity of nitric acid ns possible; add 
acetate of lead in slight excess ; wash the precipitate, which cnnsifets of 
phoBphute and bu^ic nitrate of lead ; dry^ >gi)>LCt tun\ weigh — the 
residue is phosphate of leatl, plus oxide of le&d; dissolve with heat 
in moderately dilute nitric acid, determine the oxide of lead as 
sulphate, calculate from this the oxide of lead, and deduct the 
result from the weight of the first residue; the difference gives the 
quantity of phosphoric acid. 

If we desire to ascertain separately the amounts of alkaline and 
earthy phosphates, we proceed us follows : — The alkaline phoi^phates 
are dissolved out of the ash with water, and the phosphoric acid then 
precipitated by acetate of lead. The insoluble portion of the ash h 
treated with hydrochloric acid, and the analysis proceeded with as 

Another method ; — 

Mix the acid solution containing the phosphoric acid witli an excess 
of solution of sesquichloride of iron of known strength ; atld, if neces- 
sary, sufficient alkali to neutralise the greater portion of the free acid ; 
mix with acetate of soda in excess, and boil. If the quantity of oolu* 
tion nf sesKjuichlorideofiron adde<lwas sutUcient, the precipitate must 
be brownish-red. The precipitate couAists of basic phos[diate and 
basic ocetAte of seequioxide of iron, and contains the whule of the 
phosphoric aciil and of the scsquioxide of iron. Filter off boiling, 
wash with boiling water, dry carefully and ignite in a plat>num cru- 
cible with access of air; moisten the residue, after its ignition, with 
stron? nitric acid; evaporate this at a gentle beat, and ignite a<!ain. 
Should this operation have increased the weight, which is not the case 
usually. It must be repeated until the weight remains cuust-ant. 
Deduct from the weight of the residue that of the sesquioxi'de of iron 
contained in the solution added; the difference is the phosphoric acid. 


Il not unfrequently happens that flour is greatly deteriorated, and 
in some instances rendered even positively in)uriou<i, through the 
attacks of various vegetable and animal productions. As flours thus 
diseased are sometimes referred to us under the impression that they 

■ 3 


nre aUuIteraled, it becomes necessary tbat we should be possesseil af 
some informalion re8)>ectin<; the diseaaea of the (.ereal priisses. 

Tbe principal dist.'a5es arising from the attacks of fungi are Ergot, 
Smut or Dust, Brand, Rust, and Mildew. 


( Oidium arbortifaeieru.') 

Ergot IS particularly prone to attack rye ; It does not confine its 
raTUiies to iDnt one grass, but has been observed to attack a variety 
of species ; and anionjrst the rest, the ears of wheat. 

The cngraTing on the next page represents a section of ergolisetJ 

In Jlour contaminated with ergot the etruotured above delineateil 
occur of course in a niucli hrokeii and dJvideil state. 

Numerous and well utteslud instanct-^s are on reeord of danf^crous 
and even fatal ell'ects resulting iroin the consumption of bread con- 
tAiniog ergot. 


{Uredo Caries^ Dec. ; Uredo ftrtklut Bauer.) 

This fung:u9 has httJierto been met with only in the grains of wheat ; 
it is easily recc^i»cd by its dis^U3tin<! ftmell. The sjKires or spnrongia, 
analogous to seed vessels, arc large and reticulated, as represented in 
the figure. Some duubt exists whether this fungus is deleterious or 
not ; by many it is considered to be so. Flour containing it ia fre- 
quently used for gingerbread. Fig, 88. 

On SMt?Ti OR DCBT Braki). 

(Uredo Segehim.) 

This fungus is corapdratively rare in wheat, but very common in 
barley and oats ; rye uocs not appear to be subject to it. It has not 
the disagreeable smell of the preceding species, and the spores are 
wreral times smaller. Fig. 89. 

On Host, RBn-RAG, Rbd-robi^, Hbd-gum. 
{Uredu ruhigo and Uredo linearis.) 

These so-called species are but young st-ates of Puccinia Orttminir, 
They form yellow, brown, oval sjwts or blotches upon the stem, leaf, 
and cba6r; the sporules of which tbe blotihes consist are intermediate 
in size between those of Vrfdo aineg and U. Segetttm ; they are at first 
round, afterwards oval, and attached by a pellucid, short, and alcnder 



Btalk to the surface on which they are developed, but after a time 

tbtijr bucuiuti free. 


TW« »Mr»*1n« rvptcicnU • trftn<vcrM KClion of EiGOT or Rt». a. Termir»l 

eoloutvd thrrvl* which ranitltuie lUe block nr purple portton uf the gnla. c. 
Thcecllk. vllh ihs canUin»d •i>heroUM orciil, wMch torm the txtilyor colourlM* 
pAft of ihcfrBtn, ■tutftilflail iV* <liun«tcf«. tt, f, /. rettrcntit mlnuu ponlon of 
tht wmt •tfuetanw, man hisUjr macnUkd— rii., «7U dlusiUn. 

Tlie enjrravin^ (^- 90.) represents some wheat fiour lurgely 
infested with Puccinia Granunis in the state foruierlv calle<l Urtda 
fiibigo. The^sample, which WIS offered for sale, wo* brought to Dr. 
Muspralt, by whom it waa forwarded to the author. 

On Mildew. 

(Puccinia Gramiuis.) 

The ripe sporei of this fungus are dark-brown club-shaped bodies, 

a 3 


havin*^ the broader end divided into two compartments filled with 
sporules. " I have observed this fungus wiih the rust luiigi in a way 

F,g. Ml. 

Ttiti ai|[rtr!nf rrpfcjcnla the Btiorea of t'liKlio r**iKv. msfnlfled 49n dlwtnettTlL 
t^BViof mul* from • prcfxirklton bcloDsfni to tb* Ute Dr. Ttnin. 

that strengthens my opinion that they are identical.** — /Vf>/eMor 

In the enfrravinu' Jif^. 91. this fungus is represented in all tlie stages 
and conditions of its growth. 

Penicilium glaucum^ Fermentiim cirvisiit^ ^'C, 

When broad baa been kept for a few duyii. and has become stale, 
certain specii^ of fun»i arc apt to become developed ii^ it. One of 
these is the well known Penicilium glaucum which forms the green 
mould of cliecse and other decaying organic substances : it is descril>eil 
and 6gured in a memoir by the author contained in the thirty-sixth 
volume of the " Medico-Cliirurgical Tranpacliono." 

A second species is Ffrmenfum cirvhia, or the yeast fungus, alst* 
descnbed and figured in the memoir above alluded \o. Its develop- 
ment in bread goes in part to show that the vitality of the yeast is not 
altogether destroyed by the baking of the bread. 



A tliiril fungus found in stale brea*l Is very rUflVrent from either of 
tbe others ; it is represented in Uie engraving fig. 92. It is of a bright 


UiaviBg iiiwlc from ■pttpMntiua MoncUis tvDr. 8vA)'oe. 

yellow colour, and it ofWn, from its abundance, causes the bread to 
Msuffle in patches tbe same colour. 

The Bearded or PotAonmu Darnel. 

Tbe poisonous grass, Loiium temuientum or darnel^ is by no means 
of uncommon octTurrencc, and numerous arcidentF have from time to 
time occurred, in consequence of its becoming mixed either with the 
flour of wheat, or snme other cereal farina. 
The cflcfls of darnel on m»n are thus describetl by Pereira: — 
"The ill effecta of the seeds of bearded darnel on mnn were known 
to the ancient (Ireoks and Uoinans. llie symntonis which they pro- 
duce are twofold : those indicating: ffa-itro-intestinnl irritation. — such as 
vomitin;? and colic ; and those whi<^h arise from disorder of the cerebro- 
spinal system, — such as headache, giddiness, languor, ringing in the 



ear*, confuMon of atglit, diluted pupil, delirium, beftvincss, somnolency, 
treuibling, convulsion?, and paralysis. The^e seeds lUcrefore appear 


WbuT FloPR loftttc4 Vtth t*ttecimia Orantink, In AH Mrlj •!««« of dtrtlopiDCliL 
4SI> diametui. 

lo be acro-nftrcotic poisons. Accordinjj to Seeger, one of the inr>st 
certain signs of poisoninnj hy ihcm ia trembling of the whole body. 
Both Hur<;hartl iinil Srhnher (qnnled by Wibiiier) mention death a,s 
having resulted from their use. In Conlicr's cases their ill effects 
were directly ascl'^tttine^l by experiments made upon himself; but 
in most olher cases ihey were the result of otx-idental iwiwrniug. In 
general they have arisen fn>in the iiitfrmixture of bearded darnel 
secHs with nthi^r cereal grains. lu a prison at Cologne, sixty persons 
siiflTered from the use of a bread mesi, containing it drachm and a half 
of lolium temulentum in six ounCL'4 of meal." 

As the chemical l«ls for dame] when mixed with flour are not 
very satisfactory or decisive, we have submitted the seeds to micros- 
copical examination, and find them to be so dilfurcnt from those of 
wheat or rye, tlnit when iidmixed with the:»e in the btate of flour 
they may be readily iletected. 

The itarch corpuscles rcKmble very closely thos« of rice in form, — 



tbat is, thcT arc polygonal, — but thoy arc much smaller, (ind, like 
those uf the oat, they are Ireqiientlj uuitetl into compound graiiu 

Ffr. "I 


Ik in 

Mvullfld JOO iliMnct«r». From ■pcettnini kladljr ftarnUbad bjr the 
n«r. Prof. Utulov. 

of Ttriotis sizes, the larger grains consisting of some fiftjr or sixty starch 
corpus tes. 

The fitructure of the testa is very different from th&t of either rio«, 
the oit, or indeed any of the other rereul p'oins : it \6 formed of three 
ooati or mfmbranes; the cells of the oitter coat form but a single 
layer, and, contrary to the arrangement which exists in the out, their 
long axes are disposed trannvervely, in which rf9i>ect they resemble 
rice : the fibres of the huak of rice and the cells of the testn of loliuni 
ore, however, very distinct in other respects. In the former the cells 
are long and narrow, forming fllires, while in the latter they arc but 
between two and three times as loni; and brood. 

The cells uf the second coat, which are ranged in two layers, (ullow 



A vertical tSisposiuont — an arrangement which w contrary to Uiat vbk'U 
obtains in ail the other cereal graius with tlte exception of rice. 

FvmfftiB, nounonlj foond In «tab Bi««4. 

Tbe cells of the third coat form but a single layer, and resemble 
those of the other grains described. 

We have now to consider the dineasw of corn produced not by the 
invasion of parasitic fungi, but animal pruduetiuns. 

On Ear Cockle, FuKrLKs, ob Peppebcobn. 

{Vibfw Tritiei.) 

grains afTi-cted turn preen at firsts and ultimately black; tliey 
le roundeil, re»cinb1ing a small peppercnm ; the busks are 
spread out and the awns twisted, l>y which means the infected ears 
are rea<lily observablf amim^st the standing corn. The blighted 
grains are filled wirh a moist cotton-like substance and contain no 
flour. This suK^tanceis compn^erl of myriads of eel-shaped Qninmlcules, 
Tvbieb, as soon as moistened with water, exhibit the most active move- 
ments. A most extraordinary circumjitance connected with these 
animalcules is, that they may be so perfectly ilried that on the slightest 
touch they breiik up into po»fder, and yet, wbtn moistened, they will 
revive and become as active as at first. This operation may even 


repeated several timefl boibre the vitality of the animalcules is finally 

"StriKturr of tittfralnor L»i ii'M Ainw/. Bhnwinc trumrM klid 
Tortir*) •MlloM of IMU, mifnlflcd 9uD dlUDrten ; kIk ibe cturftrten of U>e 
vtarch «ir]naelai. nufiiUcd MO dUmsten. 

On the Wheat Mlixse. 

{Ctcidom^a Tritici,} 

This is a two* wingvd fly, which miiy be seen in myriads in (he early 
(lart of June, in the evenings froiu seven t*» nine oVlfK'k, llying about 
the wheat for the purpose of depositing its e^gs within the blossomf : 
the egfrs become hatched into yellow maggotJi or caterpillurs, and by 
these the miscliief is occasioned; they cause the non-devclnpment of 
tfaeorarVi bo that the grain never advances bevond its condition al the 
time the tlower first expands. AU the grains in an ear are not usually 



affecTed, but only grntn« here and tliere. A 6gure of the flj and its ca- 
terpillar will be found in the " Tranftaciiona of the Linna*an Society." 

Fig. 9*. 

Vtuatnm ViamtniiKn Tunrt, aiAciillIctl lOO HIvnetvt*. Drmvioc BiAde from 
prtpftrftUoo btloogiDit lo the lau Dr. fcreln- 

AcABus Famitija 

This mite is never present in flour unless this has become damaged. 
It dilTere considerably in Etructuri* fn)m the sugar mite. Fig. 9^. 

Another species of acarus^ met with oo one occasion in wheat flour, 
is exhibited in the engraviDf;,yt^. 96. 


Two kinds of bread are manufactured — the one is made with 
yeast, ferment, or leaven, and i» henee called leavened ; the other is 
prepared without leaven, and itt deiiomlimted unleavened ; the 0|>eni- 
tion of the substances used in the niunufucture of this description of 
bread, are, to a certain extent, analoguus to that of yeast 




Lbavehed oh Febuentbd Bkkad. 
Leavened bread should consist only of flour, jeast, ftnd water, with 
Fig. aa. 

Acuuun TABtnMt or iwol witt, frotn th« onm to th« mMnn >l«t«, from vA^l^fhmr. 
a a, ova ; kh, ftmn(/ ; e, mmk , d, /rmaia. MsguiScd 7i lUunclrra. 

a little salt ; suc|i is the composition of genuine home'tnade bread, the 
flavour of which is so agreeable, and so very dillerent from that of 
urdinary bakers' bread. 

Jn the preijaration of the bread of the shops, 6our of inferior 
quality tft frequently ufled, and this is mixed up wtlh large quantities 
of salt, potatoes, toinetifnes rice, and other flours, and atuin ; these 
sabstaoces impart to it a taste very distinct from thnt of home-iiiade 
bread, and occasion much of the diflerenoc observed between that 
descriptioa of bread and ordinary bakers* bread. 

YeoMt, m- the Yeatt Plant, 

The substance knovn as yeast is in reality a plant, belonging to the 
tribe of Ftwfn ; it con^ista of a multitude of minute oval or circular 
bodies or sporules, endowed, under certain favourable circumstances, 
with extraordinary powers of jyrowth and muUiptieation. 

Three kinds of yeast are employed iu the raanulacture of bread — 


y'lz.^ brewers* yeast, German yeast, and patent reui. Soaaeblklfi 
use one, and some another, but the greater number make ue « 

AciMTB ham Vlenr. Drtvn vUh thtCuncn Luddm, mad mtmMtAfKlltr 

patent yeasty on account of its cheapness. The fungua is of tbt ^ 
species in each. 

lirtveri Kea*/. — This, as is well known, is of a lijihl bnnrfl * 
fawn colour, and of a frothy consistence ; when recent, it is ia*** 
slant movement, and bubbles of gas escape from it. 

Examined with the microscope, it is seen to constst of innumen^ 
minute bodies, termed sporules, of variable siie, some circular. »* 
others oval, and all intermingled with very many globules of ctf%0^ 
acid gas. These sporules multiply rapidly when the jen( ii lA ** 
active coiiditiun. 

pwi M nvnwnu *■ Tu Yiakt Ftni•lc^ " In the Ant itMt «r iti develop* 
, ar thftt of •mrulea. Ai icocrsllr nwt with, and u utej In liw ferntcnlm- 

Ai fcocrsll/ nwt with, and u u*ej: 
if WMd, yiMt wMMliU of ui linm#nMnuinbtrof lumUit ■porulMliiUrmLs**! 
" ' I cf c*rbanl« acid. Orkini vith tb« Cunera Lucid*, and mftfiillUd 

I for breml making. Porter yeast is objected to by bakers, 

in distiUeriea. Small beer yeast is said to be weak, but 

LB efiects, and ia sometimed used in niokiog rolk." — Pi' 

YtaM. — This, wbich is sometimes called ^^ dried yeast" 
•porulcs onlj, with but little adliur(*nt moisture, and no 
nu a pute-Uke substanre, and iKobtaiiKMl from a fermented 
Itratioii. It u imported into thh couiury prtncip^dlj' from 
\n hempen baga, each holding half & buii(ln>dweiyhL. When 
uka, it ifl apt to burst them, in conee^^uence of the carbonic 
ime» evolved. 

iere that this yeast is perfectly wholesome, and that no 
exist* for the reports, recently set on foot, as to its po<- 
irious properties or qualities ot nny kind. 
't€U<- — This is prepared trom an Infusion of malt and bops. 




It is a thin watery lii^uid, containing innumerable sponiloa of the 
yeast plant in auapension. The hops are added to prevent the liquid 
from bectiiiiiii^ raplilly sour. 

Tlii^ mt((le uf prupurEtion uf patt?iit yeast is considerably varied by 
different bnkers. Many add a portion uf brewers' or German yeast to 
an infuiiion contaiuiii^ either flimr or mult, with potatoes. These sub- 
stances supply the food or nourishment upon which the yeast cellu 
groWf and multiply with niiioh rapidity, as well as the material for 
conversion into carbonic a<:id. Yeast cells, in the course of u few 
days, make their appearance in a simple intrusion of malt, and occa- 
sionally even of Hour. 

Patent yeast, befnre being mixed wilh the flour, ts sometiuiea 
allowed to drain through a copper bii»in or sieve perforated with nu- 
merous liolcfl ; by this means the chief part of the mnshed potati» 
cuifrloyed in the prenaration of the yeast is separated. 

DiMcoeery of the DepelopmerU of the Yeast PlaiU^—Tew productions 
have created more interest or excited j^eater discussion than yeast; 
its nature and the mode of its operation have been made subjects of 
keen iiKjuirv and dispute. 

These pomts are now, however, to a very great extent, set at rest ; 
it« fungoid character is geniTulIy admitted, and its modna operandi m 
panitieation ii^ well underittood. 

In one particular, howevert th(» history nf the yea«t plant waa, until 
very recently, iiicomidute ; this related lo its development. 

Slost observcrB admit that the ycusl fungus os met with in the 
different forms of yeiist in use, is in an imperfect state of ilevelopnient, 
and frequent attempts — the most notable being those ofTurpin — have 
been made to discover the perfect plant or fundus. All their efforts, 
however, up to a recent period, faileil, Afore ibrtunate than our pre- 
decessor*, we have succeeded in tracfn^i the yeast plant throu;[;h nil 
the stages of its o^wth to its perfect state, that of a fun;;u8 with dis- 
tinct aerial fructirtcation. For a full account of the development and 
structure of the yeast fun^s, the reader is referred to " F«>od and its 
Adulterations," p. 152. ; and to a jiaper by the author, in the thirty* 
sixth volume of the " Medico-Chtrur^'ical Transactions," p. 26. 

Modtu Operandi of YeatL 

The presence of veast in a substance containing sugar or starch 
which is convertible nito sugar, nnd nitrogeniscd matter, induces cer- 
tain chemical changes, comprehended under the termvinouaor alcoholic 

These channfes in the makin;; of bread consist in the conversion 
of the sugar of the flour into alcohol and carbonic acid ga.i ; the latter, in 
its efforts to escape from the dtmsh with which it is mixed, distends iti 
forming vesicular spaces in its interior, and so causing it to become 
porous and light. The alcohol entirely escapes from the loaf. 

A minute portion of the rtarch is converted, by tlie agency of the 



ve»st, ift(o SHf^ar, which, in its turn, is chnnged into alcohol and car- 
bonic acid. \f we exiimine attentively with the microscope tlie starch 
corpuscles rnnfnined in ferniciitc<l and bnked breiul, we observe that 
they are still entire, olthoujjh iiitcred wimcwhat in fi>rin. • 

J)uring the bilking^ part of the starch is undoubtedly convcrtctl into 

Soim» physininns are of opinion that the presence of yefl*t imparts 
iiijiiiiouif prnpertict to leavened brea<l. This jKHiit is one of gryat 
prncti(;al importance ; but bo far as wv are awnre, no complete or con- 
clusive obs*.'rvationR have yel bec'n miide on the subject. 

It 1ms been computed thni. the annual loss of alcohol in bread 
making amounts to about *100,(X>0 r^tilUm^, which, at 1 9jr. i>er galluOf 
would amount to 285,000/. Tiie etfori? hirberto maflein large bakeriea 
to «ave the alcohol hnve failed : 20,000^ were spent in the fruitleu 
endeavour to collect and condense the alcoliul in thu militarj bakery 
at Chelsea. 

Unleavened or Ui^ermented Bread. 

Tlierc are two kinds of unfermontH bread : In the one, substances 
are used in imitation of yeasty from which a gas. Always the carbonic, 
i» disenjiajied, distending the dough, and rendering it vesicular and 
light ; in the other, flour, water, with perhaps the addition of salt, 
only are employed. 

The substances used in the preparation of the first description of 
unfermcnted brcnd nre sesquicarbonate of ammonia, carbonntc of 
soda and hydrochloric acid, or carbonate of soda and taiiaric acid. 

or these, by far the be^t is carlK>nate of amuumia : this is a 
volatile salt, and ItA great advantnge is, thiit it is entirely or ttlmost 
entirely dissipated by tlie heat employed in the preparation of the 
bread; and thud the necessary eflcct is produced without much possi- 
bility of injurious results ensuing. 

In the employment of carbonate of soda and hydrochloric or mu- 
riuUc acid, the case is, however, different ; here we have the formation 
of chloride of sodium, or uomuhon salt^ with disengagement of carbonic 

Tn those instances where a mi.xturc of carbonate of soiln and tartaric 
acid are used, a tartrate of soda is formed, also with liberation of car- 
bonic acid. 

The preparations known as Bakings E(^g> and Cvstard pfttrders arc 
combinations of carbonate of soila and tartaric acid, mixed with 
wheat flour, or other kinds nf starch, and the egg powders are often 
cffloured with either turmeric or chruntaie nf lead. 

It is extremely doubtful how far these prepuratlons mar be used 
with safety to the public health ; for our own part^ we see much le«8 
objection to the employment^ in the generality of caitea, of a substance 




like yeiistt which contniTis trat Utile saline matter, and the vitiHiy ol 
which is for the ino-^l ]ttu'l liestroyed by the heat of the oven, ibwi i» 
the use (if acids mid nlkidles, of ligf; and baking powdci-s. 

A sample of " Borwidc's Baking Powder " examined bj u» wefeumi 
compose) 1 of an acid nnd an alkali — tartaric acid, ftnd either car- 
bonate of pritnsh or sixla, together with ground rice, a fltnall quantity 
of wbt*at lloiir, ami perhaps a little 8u?ar. According to a plan 
coiiunonly employed fiome time »inee^ the liberation of the cai^ 
bonic acid garf was effected by mcan^ of hydrochloric acid added l*» 
the dough cOntaiiiiug the alkali : in this esse a ctilon'de of fodium 
or oominon eali was formed instead of tarlrmte of so<la or fnla^ a* 
in the present iustaiice. Now it should be remen»bered that b»- 
drocblorio acid is frequently contaminated to a fierious extent with 
arxenic. The action of tliis nnil other nnalogoxis powders in lightening 
or leavening bread, like (hat of yeast, is dependent, as already re- 
niarke^l, upcm the slow extrication of carbonic nciJ gas, which, becoming 
dttru5e<l throughout the tlough» forms the little cavities noticeable in 
white bread, and wfaiuh render it porous and spongy. In the ewe of 
baking jHuvder contaiiiing tartaric aciil, as soon as the flour (hruuj|l>' 
out M^hich the powder bus been diffused is mnistenvil with wattr, 
the tartaric acid unites with the soda or pot^h. forming a tmrtrtl^ 
vt' one or other of those ba#es, either of which salts posseascs diiiretif 
and aperient properties. It is on this account that bread made wii 
these powders, while it may prove of service in some caaes af djspepik 
in others is calculated to do harm. 

The water we drink is lurgely impregnated with a lioit of saline i>- 
ftredient-s; the bread we eat is uiturated with alum and ^ stuff; "sdJ 
It behoves n» to be careful how we add to the large amount of laliar 
matter daily ingested. 

That these observations are not misplaced or over-strained ••" 
appear from the following publiBJied receipt* for the prcparatioa ol 
iinfcrnientetl bread ; — 

To make White or Flour Bread. 

Klour dressed or household 
Bicarbonate of soda, iu powder 

Hydrochloric (muriatic) acid - 
Water . _ - . 

3 lb. avoirdupdiM- 

9 drachms. Apothcc*r» 

11 J fluid drachini. 
about 22 Ouid ounces. 

Observe the larpe quantity of soda and acid rerom mended to • 
employed in the manul'acture of a 3lb. loaf; and remember that it i> 
no easy matter either to blend etjually the ingredients, or exactly" 

add thero iii neutralising proportions. 



Pereira pa\'c the f"»I'Iowinp- receipt for the manufucture of 
unlcnueDted bre^j ; tlie pro|Hirtion8 of soda, und acid in this urennich 
lesa: — 

Receipt far Vi\fcrmented Bread. 

Flour - - - - lib. 

Bauirbonnte of soda - - 40 griiins. 

\ u i>iut. 

C'oM watpr 
Muriutic acid 

50 drojM. 

L unl«] 

^K lesa:- 

^^^^^^K Beeeiptfor an Egg or Bahiug Powder. 

^^^^^^ Carbonate of soda - - 56 lbs. 

\ Tartaric acid - - 28 lbs. 

Potato 6our - - - 1 cwt. 

Turmeric powder - - - J lb. 

It will be observed that rht^ quantity of tartaric acid in this receipt 
is much too small to neulralj>c tlic soda. It is better ndupted for 
puddin»^ thtin bread. 

The siicoiid description of un fermented bread is heavy and compact, 
and ift met with chiefly in the furm of biscuits. 

On ths Adultebations or Floitr and>. 

AdulterutioH of Fljur. — Tbii adulterations practised upon bread, are 
often effected through the mediuto of the Fi oca iVom which it is made: 
it will therefore be proper, before prrneedin^ to descrilw the atlultera- 
lions of bread, to notice thnse in whiuh flour is subjected. 

The substuoces employed in the adulteration of fiouff include many 
of those which have been met with in bread itself. 

One adulteration of Hour is with bean meui. It is a common practice 
for milters to add bcRU mcul to flour ; and it is said that this uddition 
is not made so much for the sake of profit, ns to render certain de- 
scriptions of flour more tenacious when made into dough, bean meal 
efl'ecting this object, in consequence of the large quantity of nitrogenou« 
matter which it contains. In the case of genuine wheat flour of good 
quality, no such addition is required ; when the flour is damaged^ beans 
are used in considerable quantities. 

Another addition sometimes made is rictJUfW. Tlie purpose served 
by the addition of this article, unless it be exclusively fur the sake of 
adulteration, is not apparent, since it does not cause bread to bind 
better. It causes it incleed to hold more water, and possibly has some 
effect in whiteninir it. 

Again, in some cuses. barley, rye, Indian com^ and potato (lours haye 
been added to wheat flour. ' 

T % 


tJrt pridence of Mr. Emersion, the roAna^TPr of "The 

«Wf Mill" *t Lec<lsi, 5« given bffore the Purliamenunr 

f^ F"*' ^^^j^^^jj^jj^ wheat flour is l'iv(juently adullerared wilh 

Ifc per *^"'' ^^ Iffirtey fivvr^ wbicli is not much more 

of wheat flour. 

■*L~"^^-erT curious evi'icnce, in regard ici ilie inlulu-niliitn of 

*'^*]I^ IpvVii liefore the Committee bv Mr. Putt" Brown, a 

', .■)ir5'»tdiHli"2^T=»"'' whnso husint-ss lleschieflj in London. 

M\t^ with wheat in some districts to cheapen the price. 

.., vlieat is mixed witli barley to improve the quality, 

j4 jfrtfthnrnptonshirtt. The [)nt)r people connider bailey 

gdnn tvheflt flour. I do not know tuut that is the case; 

of the pi»int, but it is the uuiversaj opinion of the [loor 


•.f^ five the above qualities to my flour, I add one part 
^g^ lo iixty parlJ o!" wheat meal ; never more tlian one in 

improre the appcftrancc of flour, but not the quality, 
,. ta tv clieapen it." 
^^oUt mayor of Cnrk, furnished ihe Committee wilh 

eridenrc in regard tu the u^e nf Dari : — 

iTan Egvpiian grain culled Uari, that was importftl in 

quanl'l**-** at one time into Cork ; that to a moral eertinnty 

^ purpose of mixing with wheaten Hour : they were able to 

f)r d ft t«n, while the other waa bringing nearly three limes 

Mnntities of damaged wheat flour an> nlfto annually sold : 

^^^lly more adulterated than any other flour» in a variety 

-^ ^ render it saleable; aa by admixture with other flours, 

^ and carbonate of soda. The object of the admixtures 

and aoda is to lmr<len the parliully de(om|>oi)ed gluten, and to 
1^ acidity refulting from ilecoMipf»niiinii. 

fub»tance frequently addeil to Hour, is alum. This is done 

__ the flc'ur, find to cttu*e the bn-ad made from it to appear 

This addition, like the nuyority (tf the other ailulterations of 

is practised by millers. It is only a few weeks since, that a 

residing at Bronisgrove whs fined lor adulterating his flour with 

this iiiilltT ha*i no less than 600 lbs. of that suuswmce on his 

at the lime of the discover)-. 

J^ fulwlance called mtneral white^ which is a hydrated sulphate of 
^Hg^ H occaaionally added to flour. Several millers have within Ihe 
^ittm months been convicted for putting this subst^mce into flour. 
£^ of these cases occurred near Heaton Korris. 

0g0viction9 have also recently taken place for using silicate of 
^j^pMU, otlier names for which are China chty and Cortttah clay. 

X variety of other substances, it has been alleged, have been and 
gg^ used ior the adulteration of Hour ; and it is most prubable that 





the mnjority of them have been tha» einplnyed, although we are not 
ourselves acriuainted with any recent cuseH of iheir detection in 
tlour. To »oine of theae Btibstances we shall shortly refer when no- 
ticin'; the iirlulteratinns of bread. 

On the AdnUerations of Cones Fhur. 

There is an article in common and dfiity use by bakers, denomi- 
natcd " Cones*' or '* Cones Flow** With the exi&tetice of this ar- 
ticle until rccenlly we were unacquainted, nor is reference once made 
to it by any of the many witnesses — millers, bakers, ficc. — in the evi- 
dence given before the Purliouientary (Jommittee. Our auentiun 
becnme directed to it in consequence of the Jollowing ciroumsrunce. i 

Dr. Piiley, of Peterborough, brought the uuthur u sain[de *j»f Hour 
for examination, seized on suxpieion, nnd whJi'h Jie ntftled ihe baker 
cjlled "Cone;* Flntir." On .jjibjecling this to m)cro»co|jii:ul examination, 
it was found timt it rnnsistod entirely of rice flour. 

Thiii induced him to make furlher inituirie:^ : he soon learned that 
genuine Cont'S flour oonsisld of the Hour of a jiartiuular apccies uf 
wheat called Heret, 

Further, thui it wva employed by bakcrfi to dust the dough, as well as 
the boartlti ujxm which thi» w made uiLti loaves, the object nt' its use 
beinjr to prevent the dough either adhering to the boards, or the loaves 
to earh other, in tfic course ol bakin;*;. 

Having learned thu:^ mucli, the author procured from bokers nume- 
rous samples of Cnne.^ uml subjected them to exuminutiun ; the results 
arc exhibited in the onnexeil list. The names of the parlies of 
whom they were obtained are not given, becnuse many of tliem were 
pnH.-uretl indirectly, and in aouic ca»ea through the instrumentality of 
frieuds Cones (lour ljt.'iitg an article which cannot be purchased by 
the public in the uidjnory way. 

Rcsulu of the Microscopical E&funinatton of Twenty-two samples of 
Cones flour, procured chlelly in the meiropoti» in the autumn uf 

U/ SampU. 
AdullenUed, Contains I^ye and Hice tlours. 

2ud Sample. 

Not Cones Jlour at all. Consists entirely of Rice flour. 

Srfi Sam/tie, 
AduUerateH. Contains Rice flour. 

4/A Snmple. 
AihUteraUd, Contains Rice tlour. 

T a 


fttfi SampU. 
Atiulterated. Consists in great part of Rice flour. 

6M Sample. 

7th Santple. 
Adulterated, Consists almost cntiroly office Qour. 

8/A Sample, 
Adulterated, Curnposed alrnvsl entirely of Rice flour. 

9th Sample. 
Adulterated. Consisting chiefly of Rice and Bean nnnrs^ 

TO/A Sample. 
Adulterated, Conlaius iimcb Rice 6our.^ 

Wth Sample. 
Not Cones at all. Consists of Rice^ Indian Com^ and Bean flours. 

Wh Sample. 
Adulienited. Consists in ^eat part of Bean and Rice flours. 

13/A Sample, 
Adulterated. Contiuns mucli Rice flour. 

\Atk Sample. 
Adulterated. Contains Barley flimr iind alum. 

\fith Sample. 

16M Sample. 
Adulterated. Admixed witti both Barley and Riee flours. 

17M Sample. 
Adulterated. Consisting in gi-eat part of Rice flour. 

\Sth Sample. 

Wth Sample. 

20th Sample. 

21 Mt Sample. 

Not Conea at all. Consisting entirely of Rice and Indian Corn 



'22nd SttmpU. 

\duUerated. Consisting chieHjr of Riee^ with some Indian Com flour, 
and much Suit. 


It flppcATK, therefore, that Conesfltmr u rartty to he obtained genuine^ 
• htd is tuhject to an enormous attumnt of aduUeration, this usually 
consiittinff in the adilition of very lar^e <|iiJii)tilit^s of riVe, rye, harley^ 
heajij nnu Tndmn com flours, and sometimes of sali and aittm. Further, 
lltat come of the Mt[D|des do mtt cotdain a particle of tcheat Jfitur^ of 
which nloitu Lhev nhouM ootij^ist. 

The olijeot of these additions is obviously to cheapen the article; 
and that this purpose is effected sometimes to tlie extent of nearly 
one hiilf might be readily proTcd by (pioting the several market 
prices of the diflercnt varieties of gram ubove referred to. 

Thnt this is really so may be shown in another war : m-'vcrnl quali- 
ties of Cones flour are sold, the beat being nearly twice the price 
of the worst, and the adultcmtion being usually in proportion to tfae 

Two (]ucstions now present themselves for consideration in connec- 
tion with Conrs flour : the first is, whether any real necessity exists for 
the U!se of even genuine, much less Qdiilterntetl Cones flour ; and the 
second is, whether this flour, e^peciully when Ddutterated, as it usually 
is, is ever opplied to any other purpose than that avowed. 

Tlie first question is almost suflicicntiy answered by the fact 
that some do not use Cones flour at all, and yet do not experience 
iiity great diflieulty in the manutaeture of the breud ; there is there- 
fore •iimmI reiu^ou for believing that price bn^* very miieh to do with the 
general em|ih>yiuent of Cones flour, even in those cases in which it is 
really used lo prevent the adhesion of the loaves. 

With regard" to the setonH rpiestion, there enn be no doubt but that 
Cones flour is frequently employed in the adulteration of bread : this 
is shown in some eases by ihe character of certain of the adulterations 
lo which it is subject, n.itnely those by admixture with beun flour, 
alutn, and salt; now bean flour in actually of a more glutinous and 
adhering nature than pure wheat flour of good i|uiility itself, and 
therefore its pre*ence tends to un6l it for the very purpose for 
which it is alleged that it is designed. 

But wiine bjikera have even acknowledged to the employment of 
Cones fliiur for purpoae.t of adulteration, for which, from Us composi- 
tion, especially when odultomtcd, as it au cuustantlj is, it is so well 

Suppoi^ing, however, the Cones flour to be employed for dusting the 
dou^h, ami that this is a legitimate use, still thife docs not justify 'tis 

In the article Cones flour prepared by miller^ bakem, then, ore 
furnished with a material avowedly wheat flour, but which, consisting of 

T 4 


mixtures of difiorent and cheaper Atmrs, is in every wtky nuilcd fur 
tbe adulteruiion of brend ; und that it is cuteusively used for thi» 

JtlmltrrQiM Cosu WutVBt eniwIftiM efa mixtiff* AT w*r«r, rtoa, aad hian tomn. 
Uh^&A tU dlMEMMn. 

purpose cannot be douhteil. Tbe svBtcm adopted by millers, of 
supplying under the name of Cones tlourand as wheat flour, compounds 
adapted for iidulteration, is surely very cunnini:ly (ievised. 'ITie 
public know iiothiii<; of thi^ article, the musler bakers themselves are 
Ignorant of its u.^uct eouipuMtloii ; while the journeyman, in most 
cases, when he ndii«, bv bin niask-r^s directions, a bushel nf Cones to a 
sack of flour, lut» im ideu that he is adidtenuing the bread. 

Tbe cose of Cones Hour affurds another example of what the rni- 
croicope is capable of efTccting in connection with the subject of 



ftdutterjition. Had it nut been for that instrument it would have 
been utteily impu$siblc to have ascertained by scientific means the 
comp)»itinn of the het(>rof*cnuou!i mixture cdleil Ciines flour. 

Tlie adniirabK> engravinjf yf^. i»8. exhibits the characlera presented 
by a sample of so-caIle(l Conn tlour, toniposi'd of wheat, rice, 
aud beui flours. U is difficult to deienniiic which i^ iho most ex- 
cellent, (he drawing of Mr. Tufien Weet or the engraving of Mr. 

On the Adulteraiiaus of Brtad. 

Well then, flour containing any of the nrtiiles already menlioned, 
the Bksad made from it must of course do m likcwit»e; but other and 
further adulterations of bre») nre practiced by bakers. 

It is notorious that the great majority n^ bukers add either alum 
to their bread or a mixture of alum and suit known in the trade by 
the terms "hartlp" and *Stuff;" and thus in many c;)8t'8 the ilour re- 
<*eiTeA two additions of alum, the hnker being often unaware that he 
haft been already antiripatcd by the miller. 

It is also notorious that hnfcers frequently add a proportion of 
potat/M's to bread. These, when masheil, are mixk*d with the yeast, 
which is said to feed upon the potatoes, and lor which purpose only 
it is fllleped the potatoes are usetl, and not for aduliv-ralioii. AA'hen 
the quantity of [mfutoes employed is but small, this may be mi ,* but 
there is no doubt thul poLatoest are sionetiuiei* abided in considerable 
quantities to bread, especially when they nre eheop. 

Tlic injury to the properties of the bread by its ndulterution with 
the Hours and vegetable substanoes rvferrei] to, especiully rice and |>o< 
tatoes, is very jrreut, as can be rea<iily proveil. 

Wheaten flour owes its superiority over nearly all other kinds of 
flour to the lar^fe amount of gluten which it eoniaing, and which is the 
constituent that gives value to it and upon which its nutritious pro- 
perties depend : this amounts in unlinary flour to not leas lltnn I'i per 
cent. Now rice and potHtt>e9, Imth so rommnidy added to bread, 
contain not more than 7 per cent, of that ftubntance, — that is, thry are 
but little more than half ns nutritious as jjoful wheut ilnur, — nnd i*on- 
sequenlly any brcail to which thtse articles are added is robbed of 
much of its nnuri.shmenl. 

But the evil doet^ not end here ; the riee and some other substances 
swell up, and absorb, when made into bread, a much hirger quantity 
of water than wheat flour, and thus the quality of the bread as a life- 
sustaining food is still further reduced. 

The use of nhm in bread — nnd it is almost always used by bslcers 
— w parlinttaritf itijuru>MA. It is true it causes the bread to be whiter 
than it wouhl be oiherwI.«ic, indeed whiter than it was ever intended 
to be by Nature; but it imparls to brt»ad several other properties: 
thus it hardens the nutritious constituent of the bread, the gluten, 
and 90 (on the authority of that great chemist Liebig) renders the 



bread more indigestible; it enables the baker to adulterate his bread 
with greater quantities of rice and pntutnes than lie coulil otiierwitte 
emploj ; undf lu^^tly. by the use of aium he U able to puss ofTan in- 
ferior, and even a damitged flour, for one of superior quality- Is it 
then worth while, or nither is it not very foolish, thus to injure the 
projjurties nf the brend by using til urn for the mere Fake of obtaining 
an iiiHJuturallr white loafV 

The piiblit^ then, in judging of the quality of bread by its colour,' — 
by its whiteness, — uomniit^ a rau*t serious mistake : there la little or no 
connection between colour and quality: in f:ict, very generally, the 
whitest breads arc the most adulterated. The public, therefore! should 
lose no lime in correcting itt judgment on thi^ (loint. 

Affftin, the mistaken taste of the public lor very white bread — 
whiJli. be it known, cannot be obtained even from the finest and be&t 
flour except by the use of Atom or some oUier subat&nce similar 
io its operation — tends to the serious injury of the bread in another 

The outer part of the grains of wheat has been proved by analysis 
to be much richer in nuurishing principles, in gluten and tn oily 
matter ejijicciiilly, than ihe central and im>re flitury pHrts of the grain. 
Now, in prepanngj the finur descriptions of flour, the utmost painfl 
are t^ken lo peparute ihta highly nutritious exterior p<irtion , of the 
grain, and thus, although the flnur so obtnineil is very fine and white, — 
very suitable for mukln<; a white luaf, (hat fallacirms test of quality, — 
it is yet not nearly ^o nutrtiUms as whole uieul lluur, or mvvii the less 
finely dressed qualities o\' wheat ftour. The cunsumer, now better 
instructed, is in a posilion to judjio of how much be sacrifices for the 
mere s«ke of mi arbitrary and falluciifUit stjui'ianl tA' quality, namely 
whiteness. The dsfltrence in nounshiuf; properties between whole 
meal fU»ur and very finely dressed fluur amounts iu umny cases to fuUj 
one third. 

Further, alum is very apt to disorder tike stomach, and to ocoHUon 
acidity and dyspepsia. 

The manner in which it does bo has not been clearly ascertuned. 
The p^iwerful clfects of nUiui iis an astrin<;ent, when administered ai &, 
medicine, are well known; but it is considereil by Mr. Lewis Thompioa 
that, when added to Itnur nr brend, it btiomcfl (leconqn^sed by the 
gluten, a bi.sniphate of potash bein^ funned. Whether this view is cor* 
rect or not^ is queiilionable, and it is entirely opposed to the opioioui 
and statements of Licbig. 

Mr. Lewis, in his evidence before the Parliamentary Committee, 
does not advance a single /^nfr}/" in support uf btM viewH. 

Liebig considers that part of the beneficial :iction of wheat flour on 
the system in due to the M>luble plio.t^phates which it contains in stieh 
larjre quantities, and he HtAlcti thut when ulum is added tn bread these 
are dcconqiosed, the phuMphoric of the jihofphntes uniting with 
the alumina of the alum, and that thus an insoluble phosphate of al- 



iiminn ifi formed, and the beneficial action of the phosphates conse- 
quently h'Kt to the system. 

So siitisflod is Liebig that this U the case, that for some vcaM pa.Ht he 
has recommended the emph>ym(.'nt of Hmal) qtiantitien of Iimo water 
for the purpose of whitening bread made frommitstv or daninged flour; 
and it was stuted at the re<rent mectlnff of the Bntiitli Assticiation at 
Glasgow, that lime water is now used by manv Scotch bukers. 

The followin<r is Liebi^j's own statement of htii views: — 

"Many salts render the gluten again insoluble, apparently by form- 
ing with it A chemical combinution. 

" The bakers of Helpiiim diwovered, about twenty years ago, how to 
bake from damaged flour— by adding sulphate of copper (a poison) to 
the dough — a bread in appearance and external properiiis as fine as 
from the be^t wheat flour. This mode of improving its physical pro- 
perties of course deteriorates its chemical [>ro|)ertic3. Alum has the 
same effect as sulphate ofcopiwr: when added to the dough it renders 
the hrend very lijtht, ela<ttic. firm, ami dry ; and the London bakers 
in consequence of the demand fi>r white bread, such as the English 
and Amcrirnn flour, usually so ;jnf>d. yields, appear to hnve been com- 
|>clted lo add ainm to nil flour in the bnkin;;. 1 saw in an alum 
manufactory in Scotland, little mounds nf finely ground alutn, which 
was destined for the use of the London bnkcrs. 

" Sinct* phosphoric acid forms with nlumina a compound hardly de- 
composable by alkalies or acids this may perhaps explain the indiges- 
tibility of the London bakers* brea<), which strikes all foreiifners. A. 
smidl quantity of lime water added to the musly or dnmA<;ed llour, has 
the Hame fffect as the idum or sulphate of copper, without being fol- 
lowed by the same disadvantaire*.* — Lftten on Chemistry. 

SupfHrsin*; (or a moment Mr. ThompM(»n's views 1u be correct, it has 
still to b€ proved iJiat bisulphute of potash consiitules a wholesome in- 
gredient in bread. Mr. Thompson states of it himself, in the evidence 
referred to, that "it is a siniridurly sour thing ; " if so, it is surely the 
occasion of much of the acidity resulting Irom tlie use of bread to 
which slum liiis l>een added. 

Enouf^h has now been adduce*] to show that, whether the views 
allude<l t^i are corrert or not. it is n very dangerous thing to tamper 
with artirlns of daily food and of large consumption, like flour and 
breud, by tlic addition of chemical substances of anjr kind. 

It is curious to notice the arguments to which the defenders of 
adulteration are driven in order to finil excuses for certain practiues. 
We were recently much astonished at one of iheiic arguments. 

A learned chemical professor, at the Ule uie*-.ting of the British 
AssfH-itiiion in (rlasfiow, defended the use of alum in bread on (he 
following ground : — 

lie fltiitcil that Thames water was so alkaline it turned the flomr 
yelltiWy and hence the use of an acid became necessary. 

Ilorae-made bread is certainly not so white oa bakers' bread, the 




ilifFerence being explained hv the absenne uf ibe alum; but it if cer- 
tiiinlv nut the uwsn that Thames water has the remarkable eQ'ect of 
turning tbc Hour jellnw. 

Bdt the real and actual facts, aji re<rards Thames water and Ht 
effet'te on the colour nf the bread, are these : — 

The alkalinity of Thnroes water is so triHing that it is scarcely per- 
ceptible in liie motiit delicate test piiper : atrain, during the fermeiitalinn 
nf the bread a large quuntity of ncid is generated, infinitely more 
Ihan would be sufficient to neutralise the alleged alicalinity of i'hamea 
uattrr, and t<* counteract any tendency which it is said to puuess to 
turn flour yellow. 

Aguin, contrast the professor's argvmeni with the practice recom- 
mentlfd by Barun Liebi*;. The one says Thames water is 90 alkaline 
it (iirn*i Hour yellow, and the other advises the use of an alkali to 
whiten it. 

But wc will suppose that the pn>fessor's views are not altogether 
destitute of fnandation, yet they wouhl constitute but a jKwr rewson 
for the emplnyment nf alum. That substance is used in bread-making 
nearly all over ihe United Kinplom, and yet the nw of J'hume* water 
is confined to the Mcimpolis and its vicinity. We repent, then, it is 
curious to notice the chunicler of the arguments which sfmielinies 
even scienlilic men will condesceml to use in defence of adulteration. 
Another argument by which the use of alum !a defended, is thai the 
quantity employcfl is but small : uiK>n this point the following evidence 
xnav be adduced : — 1 

llie author of the celebrated treatise " Death in the Pot " writos:— «' 
"The smallest quantity of alum which can be employed with efTecl to 
produce a white, light, and [Kmms bread fwm an inferior kind of flour, 
1 have my own baker'it nuliinritv to stnte, is from three tu four ounces 
uf alum to a sack of flour weigliing 240 lbs." 

Dr. Markham gives H ounces of alum as the quantity used to a sack 
of flour. 

From inquiries which we have made amongst bakers, we find that 
the quantity of uluni usutdly cmployeil U half a [Kiuiid 10 the sack of 
Hour weighing 240 Ibs^ ami rhat the qunntity used varies according to 
the age and <:iinditiaii uf tlie flour : thus new tlour requirfs mufh more 
alum than old; indeed, :t white bread may be made from old flour 
without any addition of ulmn, while as much as three qniirt^'rs of 
a pound may be adilcd to the naok of very new fl^mr. New flour \a 
that wbii:h come!) into use about November and Dfri-mbor; hence the 
bread made in these months usually conuina a large pntportion of alum. 
Old flour is that used in the two or tlirec summer months preceding 
the hnrveflt. 

Four ounces gives about 30 grains of alum to every 4 lbs. nf flour, 
eight <mn-.-e8 GO grains, and twelve ounces 90 grains. Mr. Mitchell, 
the author of a treatise on the " Fulsificaiion oi FoimI," states, that he 
detected in ten 4 pouud loaves of bread, 819.^ grains of alum. 



Withr(?9pect to con<1ition, a flour which is iron k — that if, wliichdoes 
nut bind rt'adily in fonsi-'«iuence of a deficiency itf gluten — reijuires a 
.vu-cb larger proporlion ol' uliini, un<l in this cuoe from thrvc- quarters to 
■% pouml of thut halt miiy be added. 

Suit Uah n)Uoh t)ie same ellcct as nlum ; that ia^ if makes the bread 
wliite and 6rin, und Ucnctf it issonii-tinies ust^il in exreu, to suppK the 
pluci\ to sonic extent, of nlum. The ftvcrngc qmnlity ut'sult Htlded 
Lv bilkers tu braid whcrrin alum iit used is not about hixty oiincfs to 
the "240 lbs.; but the iimoutit vnries with the iige ol'the Hour. 

The use of hIuiii in bread is ]>robibited by luvr, under cortnin 
pecunijiry pL-nidtie.*; this law is, however, rarely ent'nrued. We giilher, 
riowever, troui llie existence uf Much :l law, tliat the legitihilureconi«ideni 
the U)ie of altiui in breud to he objeetionable. 

The use of another mineral aul>:ttance. cnrbonnto of mapieslii, bus 
even been spe<:ially reciimmeiided by Mr. C. Davy, on the ground 
thutitimpioves the cidour of new and interior flour, and increases the 
yield, — neither of whieh result^ uofar ati the public is eoncerned, are 
in the leaat de^iirablc. The increased yield dimply 8i>rnitiei) m/^re icater. 
The ijuaniity of nu^neaiu required varies fruni 20 to 40 grains lu a 
pound of flour. 

\\\i have already referred, to some extent, to the advUertUioH of 
breiui u^ith tvater. Bread naturally contains a large quantity of water, 
esttmnted at 66 parts in every 160 of bread — 16 of these only being 
naturui to the Ihiur, but it is frequently made Ut contain p'euter 
amounts: one principal means by which this is eflected, is by the 
addition of rice or rice tlour to bread ; this, swelling u|>, absorbs 
much more water than wheat Hour. PutattH.'S useil in any quan- 
tity, probably have, to some extent, the same efl'eet. In the inlr<»- 
duelion of nee, then, into bread, there is a double evil: first., n sub- 
stance is put into tlie brt^ad, which does not f>ofl»eftS nearly so niuch 
nourishntenL us wheat Hour; and si'cond, by its means n hir^erqtmntity 
of another substance is absorWd by llie hread. and whii-li really baa 
no nourishing propt^rtics wbalever. While wheat llonr seldom con- 
tains less, and often much more, Uian 13 per cent, ot gluten, rice has 
only about 7 per cent, of that nutritiaua substance, and potalues are 
equally deficient in gluten. 

Another way to increase the quantity of water in bread, is, af\er 
having incorporateil aa much water in the douxh as possible, ti» put it 
in A hot oven : this causes the crust to form speeuily, and thua the 
escape of the water is prevented. 

Lastly, the same object ta in a measure attained by throwing sacks 
over the loaves when removed from the oven : this prevent:^ the dis- 
sipation of some of the water, which is apt to pass ufl* 6o quickly from 
tiie bested loaves. 

Several other articles, in addition to those enumerated, are stated to 
be employed in the adulteration of bread, and theie is no doubt but 
that they have been thus employed, such as bone athes^ bone duity white 



chtfy the carlmnates n/ siida and magnesiny chalk or earhonate oflim^-, and 
planter t\f Ptiria^ gypsiiin, or sulphate of lune, 

La:!^tl}-, sulphate of cupper has b<i*>n UReiJ» |)riuei]iftlly in rielgiiimt for 
the same purpu^tis lu alum, viz. to whiten Hour, and Lo c:^u.<te bread to 
hold more water. 

The retnltg of the examination of numerout samples of fiavr and 
bread for alum, tttny wiv be stated. 

Oi' twenty-eight samples of bread tested for alum, that substance 
was i'ounrl in every one nfthe samples. 

Some time subsequently, a second series of samples of bread, tweutv- 
five in nnnihrr, were nlso tested for alum, uiid tlii.i salt was found in 
tlie whole of the samples. 

Three of ihe bakers whose bread wngexarauicd, and found to rontaiit 
alum, declared that iliey ditl nut uild ihiiL MibsluiR-e ru their biead; 
and they plueed in our handii i-anipleii urcbe* llour of which the breads 
were matie, wlmn the alum was fouBd in the fhnir^. 

From this it may be inferred that tlie alum had been introduced into 
the flours by the millers. This discovery led to the examination of 
other flours, in aevend of which alum was ulso derecUMl. 

In the course of our inve^li;?ations rGspectin;; the mhilteration of 
bread, we did not fail to puy some attention to the subject of wre/g-Ai, a 
subject second in iniporiunee only to that of the adulteration of bread. 
We procured a number of luaves of bread from ilitferent bakers, ns 
delivered to houses, und weitched them. The results were, that tliirty- 
one and a half loaves, obtained from thirteen ditfereiit bilkers, were 
deficient eighty-six ounces. Scarcely a single loaf reached its proper 

In onler to cheek dishonesty in the weij^lit of bread, the following 
simple plan is in operation in KdinbuTirb, and it is described by the 
gentlenuut who sug^resled it as hitviii^ worked exceedingly well. 

It is made imperative on the bilker to st.imp the wi*i;;ht upon all the 
loaves he ttells. 'i'lie ])ruvision to this efiect is contained in the Foliee 
Act of Edinburgh. 

Some idea ot the extent to which Hour is adulterated, and the 
feelintj which exists in the. mind of the people in rcganl to it, may ba 
gathered from the fatit ihut extensive IVoplu's Kloiir Mills, sup- 
ported mainly by the working classes, have been established in a f^^ik^ 
nianv of our lar^c manufacturing towns, as, amongst others, Leed4| 
Hull, Harntiley, Bradford, Thirsk, liristol, Keighley, Ualiikx, Koch- 
dale, &c. 

On the Detectiun of the Adulterations of Flour avd Bread. 

The various substances and articles era)>loyed in the adulteration of 
flour and bread, may be classified into the urf^auic und ivorgunic : under 
the 6r»t head are included bean, rice, rye, burley, and Indian ccMm 
tlours, potato Hour, and potatoes; under the second, alum, plaster 





of Parid or sulphate of lime, gypsum, terra alba or mineral wliite, 
silicalti of Riiigiteftiu, whttu day, carbmmtca of limCi mognvsia, and •iuila, 
bone ashea or phosphate of liine, bune (liut. 

On the lieiffliun a/ the Organic Adtdierations of Flovr and Bread. 

The only meanii by which the adulterations of dour nml brt^ad with 
the different kinds ol' 6our enumerated can be discovered, is by the mi- 

The discovery is very nmcU more easily eflectcd in tlour than in 
bread, because the lieat to wLicb breaii in subjecled in bakinj^ alters 
somewhut tlie orii>iuul Ibrm of the starch granules, and so renders 
their ideniilicutioii less easy. 

The chaructery of the stai'chei of the sovernl flours used in the udut- 
teratiuD of flour and bread have already been described, with the ex- 
ception of potato starch und bean tiuur. 

Beat Flocb. Mas&IRcd 4W dluncien- 

Jftfttr and starch are distinguished from the other flours used 
atlalleratiim of wheat flour and bread by the oval or renil'orm 
of the fjrunules, the elongated and divided chanicter of the 
^hitum. and the thickness of the walls of the celU enclosing the starch 
corpuscles. Fig. 99. 



A description and fi^re representing the characters of poUlo flour 
will be round under the article Arrowroot. 

Fig, 100. 

WilCAT Fl^ra, ftdtiltenMd wtUi Bean Jltmr. Mufnlflcd (SO dIUMten. 

The tululterntion of wheat flunr with barley flour is one by no means 
Wtty of diw-overy wlien we cnnHiie our observaiions entirely to the 
form nf the rtlnrcli corpuscles of the two kinds of grain, the difler- 
encfs in the churnctera of the starch not l>eing very consideruble. The 
corpuscles of barley .itarch are smaller than those of wheiiT, ami this 
is nenrly the only tangible ditrerenee. However, the di5crimtnation 
may be effected in a very satiafuclory manner, by mcanii of tlie por- 
tions of husk present in the flour. The structural peculiarities of 
the testa and ot the cells forming the surface of the <;rain of wheat and 
barlev, have already been pointed out, and to the description of these 
reference may now be made. 

In the exuminaiion of bread, in consequence of the alteration ex- 
perieiiccil in ihc form of the starch cnrpiisclos by the heut of the 
oven in baking, it is in some cases espcciaUy necessary to loi»k carefully 
to the structure of the portions of husk met with, and of which 6gWTS 
«nd descriptions have already been given. 

Now. although nothing is more common than the use of mashed 
potatoes in bread, yet, so far at our experience goes, it ia by uo means 





etsv to iletect their prejicn(*e in brend. To what circumsUnces this is 
owing wti are nut quiie sure : the lunsLed pulatoes are not nauoll/ 

1%. 101, 

added direct to the flnur, but thvy itre gencmlly incorporated witU 
the yeuAt, which is allowed (n remain in contact with tliem few some 
hours, this being said to fetrd an«l grow u\wn the potatoes. It is po8- 
dible that in thin way the miijdriiy of the cells of the potato lK.*coine 
broken down ami no longer recognisable. In u few canes, however, we 
have succeeded in detecting jmtato in bread by means of the luicro- 

The HcluUerntioo of flour with Durra, is also discoverable by zneaiiB 
of the microscope. 

On tke StntctHre of ** Durra,^ HoUum Durra saiipiu, Forshiil ; Sorghum 


The testa of the grain or seed may be described as consisting of 
three membranes. 

The outer is composed of three or four layers of thicJc-waHe<l ccll», 
rather small, about three tin>cs longer than broad, and having the 
mtirgina finely beaded, somewhat as in capsicum. 



Tk midlife cot q 
Ml filed wxtk hmU 

•f WTcnl bfcnof 

wuk tkni va^^ 

inuat /iMr. KlDltintcd with /mUiib i>r»j«rM-. UkpiUad 00 AaMcftf*. 

Th« lAirr/ tmiic resembles thul of most of the otiier seeds of the 
j^amtnuin, and conviau of a single lajer of angular gluten? cells, but 
which are unuBUulIy Hmall. 

The substance of the »eed resembles rcry closely that of Indian 
com, difleriug chiutly in the larger size and greater angularity of the 
fltan^ corjtiuwlea, as well aa the stellate clioracter of the bilum. See 
Jg. 104. 

The last or;ranic adulteration, the method for the discovery of which 
we have to describe, is thai with hone dujtt. Bone dust coosista nf 
the dost or llour of bones ; now bunes iio:»se«5 a well-defined structure 
wiiich it* Ui some extent trnceuble in the Hour: again. l)one Hour 
cnnsitiis in Ittr^c part of ptio^tpbate of lime ; thi^, on the application 
of nitrute of silver, turns yellow. If, then, on examining any sample 
of flour with the microscope, we discover minute bony particles, or 
if, on adding a i^mall quantity of a solution of nitrate of silver to 
the flour, while under the microscope, particles of a deep and rich 
(redden yellow appear, it is certain that the flour is aduliersted with 
bone dust. The <piantity uf bone dust used must be colcalalcd from 



the qtuntity of pbospbnte of Um« conUined in the uh of n given 
quintitv of the flour. 


Pflkof Brtml, ultiltcntted with potirht. MmgnltM 191 ill«meler« 

The method for determining the presence and quantity of phosphate 
of lime, ifl as follows * — 

The ash, af[er being weighed, is to be treated with water: this 
will dis-solri' uut the soluble salts : next with hot acetic ucid whicb will 
take up thf i>hoapbat« of lime. The phosphoric acid and the \im>i are 
then to be »eparutely precipitated, the one by means of acetaie of lend, 
and the other by oxalate of ammonia; the precipitates must be col- 
lected, weij»hed, and i-alcuUted for pltosphate of lime. 

In most cases it will be sufficient, after the removal of the soluble 
phosphiitvs from the ash by means of water, to precipitate the phos- 
phoric ttL'iU only, and to calculate this for phosphute ol' lime. (See 
p. 25».) 

On the DetecHan of the Inorganic Atiuiterotiofii of Flour and Bread. 
On the Petection of Excess of Water in Bread. — There are two 
methods by which the presence of water in exce^s may be determined, 

c 2 


one direct, the other indirecl ; thiis if we discoTer the presence 
rice ill bread, we »*oortnin indirectly the fact of the existence of a 

Fig. 104. 

A. loAtTCfw arrtlnn of (eitm. «5Wi. o, mitfr i t, nik1dl«i r. Irncr co«L n.lfnifl- 
tadlnUaeeilun of t^u, «3iN). n, oulettfr, miailloj r, Inner lunlc. c.*liw,M«fr- 
ffhtnff <if Mtd, thowlnK >tt>c larrc kn^ular c«lla filled with rittrch, of wbl«h It !• 
onfiiiMNvl- )■, 'SuVi, ■'•rt* »' mr|r c«IU, thowlng th« pwudo-cvll •tradun. In 
wlileh the riuxh cvtvuM-ic« »rv Ki>ui>l«lr lodsetl. x i, *Xii, >tueti l>om tMl4 
Htd ftom tubatftocc of grain. 

surpliiF of wnt«r: in the direct metbod. a weighed portico of ihe 
bread is evaporated in a water-bnth, until it ceases to lose weight ; 



the lofls gives the quantity of water, wbieb, in ordinary cases, ftmounts 
to 66 piU'ts in -150 pnrts of lircad. 

The procehscs for the detection of ekalh or carboimte of iimr, et/p- 
tuiti or sulphate of limf^ and HiUmie of magnenut or siHiptUme^ Tiiivc 
filreaily been described ; that for the Crst-naiiu'd substance wUl be 
Jbuni] ut jiage 101., tUul for ilie ^ecuhtl tti jiitge 90^ and that Tor the 
third ut |>ai<Te 101. 

We iiave then uitU to consider the iiiet1iud» by which nilnerul white, 
white elny, earburiiite of nm^iiesia, caiboiiate nt' !»odu, alum or sulphHte 
of potaith and aluniinu, and sulphate of copper, may be detected and 

Oh the Dttci'tion of ^finerul White or Terra AUm^ &c. — Mineral 
while is a hydrated sulphate nt' lime ; the process, therefore, for its de- 
tection is the same as for sulphate of lime. 

On the Detection of China or Coruiih Clay^ — The procew) for the 
discrimination of theseearths, the composition of ^^hich is nearly iden- 
tical, ami whirh consist essentiHlly nf silicate of alumina, resolvt^s ilwlf 
into an anatyais for silica iind iduminn, the processes fur the detection 
of which havL> alremlv been dctaiU'd ; thnt fur alum is given at p. *1'^A. 
As the tluur in which it oci'urn may contain alum, the »u1phurio acid 
must be ttetcrmined, and a cnrrespondinif amount of nlutnina tlcductcd. 

Oh the Detectiaii of Carbonate of Magnetia, —The next salt em- 
ployed to adulterate Hour, the process for the detection of which hod 
to be de:«cribed, is carbonate of wiignesta. For the discovery of iu 
presence, we may proceed as folluws : — In ord^r l)i ascertain whether 
It or any other carbonate is present, a liitle hydrochlorii: acid iihould 
be atldod to a small ipiantity of tlie Ijread or llour spread nut on a 
slip of j^lass, and while it is under observation with an inch object 
glus. If ever so alight an efTerve^.-ence appears, some carbonate is 
surely present, it may be of lime or ma};neAia. The processes for deter* 
mining tlie presence of lime, and estiiuittinz its amount, have ali'eady 
been de»cribed ; that for ma^iieiiia is us follows : — 

The ash is to be treated with a little dilute hydrochloric acid, water 
mlded, and the solution filtered. Ammonia und oxalic acid or oxaliite 
of animnnia are now added, till no furlht^r precipitate takes place ; 
this prccipitntcs any linio which may be presi-nl ; the Iif]uitl is again 
61lered and treated with chloride of ammonium, and ummonia added 
in plight exc4.'R<s. Should a precipitate form on the addition of ammonia, 
tnnre chloride of ammonium must be adiled, until the precipitate is 
redisstdved ; lastly, phodphate of smla in excels is added, tJie mix- 
ture stirred with a glass rod, and allowed to stand at rest for some 

The maj,'nesia is precipitated in the form of phosphate of magnesia, 
the precipitate is collected upon a filter; when lue tluid has drained o(T', 
it ij) to be treated repeatedly with a mixture of water and anmtonia, 
in the proportitm of four-fihhs of the former to one of a solution of 
the latter. This operatiuo is rejieated until the lluid passing thru>jj];U 

c 3 


Ok* 4Nvr vcmm to lenve a residue when evaporated nn i platinum 

'So prwipitattf iv- now drie'l, transferred to a plalinum cru- 

•■- w fxjwisyd (or some lime to a gentle heat, whicb is ofter- 

iA*A5vtl to intense redness : lastly, the prt'Cipittie is wei^lietj, 

!*to*!, for carbonate of ma^esin^ br two sum^. Hy llie first 

' I. ^ I ihiily of magnesia in the pyrophosphate is asccrtiiinett, and by 

i » I • ud this magnesia is converted into the carbonate of that base. 

I ' ' I •>r»ui9, an<l bulky character of the ash of any flour con- 

teio -lii, \s itself sutficient to excite suspicion of the presence 

v/ l'i'« •'•K.^iatK'i'. 

l^it< u\'\t 5ttU employed in the adulteration of ilour and bread, 
ikv |a\kHMd tor the detection of whicb it is necessary to describe, ia 

Ot M/- Di^teetion of Alum. — This salt consists of a sulphate of 

itid i> In general, in analysinM; flnur or bread for this 

• >', i( IS not necessiiry to do more than estftimtc qunnlitatively 

itiv iilMMiiuH; it is salL'^r, however, when we desire to exclude every 

|*<«*Mihiliiv of a ntistidce, to esiinmte the i^ulphuric iit'i<l as wull. 

l1io Ibllowing is one uf the best processes which can Ije adopted ; — 

tncinciatu 1000 ^rrg. nf the Hour or bread; boil in n Husk with 
i drtichiiu of nitric acid, 4 of hydrochloric ncid, and 4 of wnter ; eva- 
M>vate l«> drynes*. When cold adtl one ounce t»f distilled wat*T. and 
U'tl for a few minutes; while boiling dilute with one ounce lifj. 
(k'lAuiv. nnd bdil again for it few ininuti'S ; then litter, nearly neutralise 
wiih hydi'iH'hloriu acid, and jirt'cinilute with ammonia. 

The itrccipilated alumina sliould be washed, dried, i^inled in a pla- 
liuMiu di»h, weighed, and cnleulated for alum. 

Thy purity of the reiigeniM employed in this amdvsis should be pre- 
%inu»lv a«eertnined,es]iecially that ofthe siilutitm ol ptitiish; indeed, it is 
taf'e*t to prepare these oneself: the nitric nnd the hydrochloric otid may 
bo oblaiiicMl pure by simple diMtillntlnn ; and pure (totush, from whirb 
iht' votulitm can afterwards be made, may be procured by the action 
ofNtcohol. Mistakes have fretjuenily occurred in consequence ff a 
nvgloct of these precaution*!. When the potiL^h eonuiins a minute 
ipiantity only of alumina, this may be deiiucted from the general 

It iboidd be reinembere*! that salt sometimes oonUins minute 
ipiatitiiies of alumiiui, as well as, it is alleged, certain descriptions of 

The quantities of alumina in two saraplfs of salt analysed, amounted 
in the one sample to 005, ami in the other to 06 per cent.; we muft 
therefore not infer the presence of alum in bre;id, when ([uantiiies of 
alumina are diwovered as stiiall ns iIiohc just referred to. 

Some rhemists have described the ruUuwinj; method for the detection 
of alum : — 

Soak the flour or bread in water, filter the solution and treat 
with ■nimonia, the precipitate which ensues is desc.ribed as olu- 



minn. Thi^ proce^^s is utterlv falladous, as n precipitAte alnii)'s 
occurfl under such circumstances, even in the absence ot* alum, the 
pret'ijMtnte in frcneral conifittting of nitrogenous matter ami vartby 
phosphates. We refer (o this proi-esa in unler thiit it may be avoidcJ. 

Oh tht Detection of Suiphatenf Copper — For the iletecrinn of copper 
in brcail, the processes described under the hwid of Picklea may be 

Ferrooyanuret of potasi^ium is a rcrv delicate test for copper in 
bread : if the bread be moistened with a solution of th&t salt, it will 
assume a pink tin;;e^ more or less deep accordiii;: to the quantity 
present. It is titated that the preaeni.'c ol <me part of cop[»er in 9(>00 
of breiu] may Iw discovered in ihis way. Fur the discovery of copper 
in the ash, 3000 or 4000 grains of the bread should be incinerated. 

Duty on all flour and meal i^d. per owt. 

Entered for Home CoHsvmptiott. 



Whmtf m»l 

Barlrf tnral ..... 
Oatinnl ..... 
tiff inral ..... 
Pe% mrkt - - . . . 
BCU IBM! ..... 

tndtui corn meal - - • 
Buck whrat meU - - - - 

ToUl of mr«l - 

Grand Total of Cum and Klour In lu equU 
»«lm! of Grain - - - . 





1, tin, 101 





3.73!*. 107 

1,940,3 rg 






Fbom Bread we pass on to. Butter ond its .\dnlteralion». 

Am the method nf mnking butter may not be known to many of the 
readers of this report, we will proceed, before entering upon the con- 
sideration of ita adulterations, ingiveavcry brief outline of the manner 
in which butter it; usually prepared. 

u 4 



Butter is made for the most part froni cream ; the cream iscollecteil 
from time to time, and pluced in u covered jar, until suflicient has been 
obtained, when, having become sour by keeping, it is submitted to ihe 
process of churning. 

Butter is aUn prepared in f^mall r^uantities from sweet cream, and 
this kind is esteemed a frr^iit delicncv. Very excellent butter ia like- 
wise £iuiuotimo9 mnde from full or entire nulk ; the disadvanti^cs of 
thia method ore, the large quantity (>f fluid to be acted on bjr the 
i'hurn, whitrh remlers it neceesnrv Llmt steam or aonie other powerful 
meclianicul means should be bad recourse to, and the length of time 
which elapse* btforc the butter forms. 

As soon as the butter has formctl, it is removed from the churn, and 
well witched in water, it being kneuded nt the same time until as much 
a3pos:iihlfi ol' the ndliereiit and incorporated whey is removed; this* i:* 
known by the water ccasinf; In become tiirbid and milky. If intended 
for sfllt butter, the salt Bhouh) be adtled as soon as possible after 
cburninj; and washing, as, lefi for any len^rlh oi lime, the butter is apt 
Iff btoouie mm^id, Ureal attention should bti piud to the quality <*t' 
the salt used ; ihe best descriptions are rock salt, and that prepared 
from salt springs. Sea salt, generally, '\* not so piHitJ, on account nf 
the presence orsulphaie of magne«<iiL, width renders it ."onn^whut bitter, 
as well as of cidoride of calcium, which lias a strong allinity for water, 
even altrartlng it from the' atmosphere 

It would be out of place in this report to enter into the practical 
minutiK of biittcr-muking, such as the ternpifriiture at whirh the cream 
or milk should be cliurned^ the best kiniK of churn, the methods of 
churning, &c., nil points of the greatest importance. 

According to Chevreul and Messrs. Bronu'Tsand Heintz, butter con- 
tains margaric, butymleic, butyric, cupronit.% capryHc, andcapric acids, 
together with glycerine. The ntar;:arine or ui;irgurate of gtyoerine of 
butter U ootid tit Common temperatures ; but. the combinations of its 
other fatty acids wiih glyeerinc, constituting bulyroleiue, butyrinc, 
capronine, capryline, and caprinine, are tlitid. 

According to IJromeTs, 100 parts of butter rontarn about 08 purls 
of murgariiie, and flO of butyroleirif ; the remainder consists of the 
glycerine compounds of the other acids. 

The oily or buttery part exists in milk in the form of innumerable 
very distinct globules, of varlou* Hizen. The efl'ect. produced by 
churning is lo break down the greater nuud)er of these globules, which 
then run together, and thus fonn butter. The operation of ihe churn 
'm tlierefore chiefly, if not entirely, mecfianical. 

Examined with the micruvcope, butler is Heen to contain a great 
number uf milk globules, but liMle altered iu ibrio and Hixe ; unlike 
lurd, no crystals of stearinc are perceptible. 

Keferring to works treating on Fnc^.l, we do not meet with any facta 
relating to tbe adulteration of butter. 






One of the most frequent practices had recoorsc to in the cnse of 
butter, is to ineorpoiaie wilh it large qutintitiea of irafcr; ihe incor- 
poration 19 effecle<l in the fnllowing loamier: the butter is brouglit to 
the melting' point, water un^l mU lire then stirred to until the mixture 
becomes eolti. 

In reftfrence t<t the adulteration of butt«r with water and salt, Pro- 
feniior Calvert, in his evidence before the Parliamentary Comnurtee on 
Adutieraiion, maile lliese remarks: — ** The quuntity of water and salt 
that 5>ucb an article as butter ought to contain is '2\ per cent, of salt, 
»mJ 10 per cent, of water. In the butter supplied to these unions the 
quantity of salt varied from 2 uptu 14 jwr cent., and the water from 
10 Ut 15 per cent." 

Another adulteration to which butter is occasionally subject, 
especially the inferior k-nd known as Botih, consists in the ad«lition of 
jfttrcA, usujdly pofuto Ji<mr. This adulteration is practised only at 
particular times, ami is dependent upon the wholesnU- price of butter. 

Ai;ain, butter has been known to bo aduUernti.Ml sometimes with 
curds. This adullenition is i)articularly mentioned by Sir John 
Gotnlon, mayor of Cork, in his evidence before the Parliamentary 
Committee above referre^l to. 

Lit&tlvt animal /aOt are occasionally, though not frequently employed, 
U the fat of vettl^ and iard; these adulterations, again, are only resorted 
to when butter is very dear and lard the reverse. 

HenlU of the Examination of SainpUa, 

The examination of Forty-vight difl'ercnt samples of butter, both 

salt and fresh, furnished the lullowing results: — 

That all the »qU Imltert examined contained variable and usually 
very I«r};e quanliiics of uxtter^ the amount ranging, with one ex- 
ception, from 8'48 to 2kG0. 

That the /rtfjih bxtUerx likewise rontatned variable uid of\en con- 
sid(M*able quantities of uvj/^r, but in mitst cases very murb less than 
in the suit butters, the quantiri^-s rari^inj; from 418 to 15'43. 

That the quantity of salt contained in the salt imitern varie«I from 
1*53 to 8 '24, shoffinj^ thai no fixed rule is acted upon in sailing 

That in \S\e fresh buffers the salt variefl from 0-30 to 2*91. 

That the per*centages of niilter contained in the samples ranged 
from H772 to 9G'93 ; that is, some at l\w samphit contained 20, 30, 
And in one case even nearly 35 per cent, of water and salt. 

Now the presence of water in butter, in excess and when purposely 
introduce<l. a-'«<«ure<lly con^ttitutes an adullenition as much as does the 
addition of starch or animal fats. 

To many of the samples of salt butter examined, a quantity of salt 



civor nnd iibove the amount necessary to insure the preservation of lie 
Imtti'i' Imil no tluubt beun purposulv added to increase the weight and 
bulk; in tliol, fur llie unki? dI' udulUration. 

It it iMiually t'eitiiiii ilmt mucb of the water met with in many of 
iKi' KuiiipU'ii hud beon added for the same purpose. The ijunntiiy of 
witti'i- [iri'nt'iit in dome* inferior dcwriptioiis of butter, as especially Bosh 
iind ilir wi>r«t kitidN of" Hiillmids/' is really surprising, amounting in 
«(inii' ciiMH to mnn.' tliun a liiinl of ilie article. 

Oil tbi' pulilit^utinn of our UeiKirt (^^ii tliu Adulteration of Htitter in 
"Tlii« l.iuii;t'l," Mr. Ktibert Miller, a butter factor of Wellington 
ChaMibLTS, London Uridge, wrote to that journal to tbe following 
efl'uct ; — 

" To tht Editor o/Th« Lamcbt. 

" Sim. — H«*in^iiti rooted lothe article in your publication of June4ih 
on thu ' Ar)iiUi!rticinn of Butter,* by the conspicuous mention of my 
nunio, I tihko the liberty of Mtiitin}; that, although I believe in the 
fidi'lity of your uniily^tea^ there are two things you are wrong in. 
Finr. ibo auionuL of aduliorution in the worst sample is staled to be 
twenty-nix j»cr cent, i Recount for this thus: The adulterating 
proceNfl in (u bring lUe butler to the melting point, then to stir it in 
wntcr und null until t,iie mixture h cold, rjrty per cent, of water 
may Im> iiHorponited with butter in this way; but when you make 
your |imcbHse, »ay half n pounrl, u considcnible pnrt of ihc water of 
BdullcriUinii will cf<caj>Ct and it you put it iti paper considerably more 
will be toal. 'Hit* next wiiy ynii iiii^ht be deci-'ived is, if you ask for 
KepufkH (Irish) ur Ulack Jat ks, or liosb (Holland), the shopkeeper 
may nuupcrt your sdenlific object, an<l give you better butter mstead ; 
but if tlic public adopt your suggestion of meltiug butter in a eleiir 
brittle, llii-y will prove what 1 have almve said, that twenty-six per 
cent of mbilleralion in thcMC l>utters is understating tbe amount. 

" In llie natiH' nf the trmJe, I may timnk you for your article •, becauite 
a nLi;;liljnunng shop selling * cbeu|) butter' i-ompels other shops to do 
so aUo ; but the traile arc now nwiire of tln^ inirpiitous article, and 
are borrilied by being thus compel lt>il to cheat their poor cuatomers 
with * cheap butter^ while tbcy are also porft'trtly aware of the great 
losa of weight to themselves by culling up ibis watery butter in small 
f|uanlitieii. The triidf wnubl all be ghid to gue uj) the sale of adul- 
leratetl butter if u puWlc movemuiu were made, so as to compel all 
the •ihopkeepcrs to do so ut the same time. 

" I am, Sir, yours trulv. 

" Robt. Miller, 
" VrtlllnrtoD ChatntHirt. L«nclon Brldce, June. ISU. 

" N.B.— 40,000 to 50,000 casks of adultornted butter are annually 
sold in London, and the trjdc knows it as welt as they know a bud 




There is a praolicc ratlipr extensively adopted of making! a <a-called 
fre?b tVoin suit butter; altbuu;:b this is not un iidullerutiun, it is jet 
n deee|>ii(ju, nut] as tlie process by wbieh ihe transCoruistion la eflected 
i.4 rather ingenious and itomewbat amusing, the reader iimy bti interested 
by a description of it. 

**Epping Butter, 

» To the Editor o/Thb Lahcbt. 

*' SiH, — Having taken apnrtniCQt£ In tbe house of a huttcrman, I was 
suddenly awoke at three o'clock one morning with a noi^e in the lower 
pnrt of the house, and alarmt'd on perceiving a lif;ht beluw the door of 
my liedruum ; conceiving tbe house Ut be on tire, I hurried down stairs. 
I found tbe family busily occupied ; and on my expressing alarm at 
the house beinff on fire, they jocosely inruruied me, they were merely 
making Eppi.>n rvttrr ! 

*' They unhesitatingly informed me of the whole process. For this 
parpose ibeymade usetrf Irisli s.tUcd butter of ii very inferior quality. 
XTiia was repeatedly wa-hed wiih water, in order to free rt from die 
»alt. This bein;j aecoiuplihlKMl, ibe next process was to wjudi it fre- 
rjuenlly with milk, and iIk* niunufdcturij wiiseouipleted by 1 lit.* addition 
of a small 4uantity uf itugar. 

'*Tbe auiBteurri of fresh ' Kpping butter* were supjplicd wiih tliis 
dainty, which yielded my ingenious lnndlnrd a protit at least one 
hundred per oent., besiiles eBlablishiag his shop as being supplied with 
Kpping butler from one of the firat-ratc dairies. 

** I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 


** York Road, tombelh, Juoe. I6A3." 

Perceiving, then, to what an extent Halt butler is Jidulterated^ with 
both water and excess of salt, we vury mucb ihmbt whether any 
saving is cfleclod by the use of ibis description of butter; aiihough 
Dominally cheaper, it '\a questionable whether it be not really dearer 
in tbe end. 

Oh the Defection of the Adulteratioiis o/Btttter. 

The chief adulterations of butter are with water, starch, excess of 
ftalt, and animal futs. 

On the Detection of Water. — After being churned, butter is kneaded 
in water in order to get rid of the whey wtlh which it is incorponited ; 
the adoption of this prwe^s would iicci>uut fur the presence ot 'j small 
quantity of water in butter. 

There are two methods by which the quantity of water in butter 
may be determined ; diiu i>tmple and popular, the other more scientific 
and exact. 

Fir^t Method. — Tbe butter is to b« melted, and a bottle filled with 



it. Tht« is to be placed, for half an hour or so, near the fire ; the water 
and »u)i will becunit* tjeparated IVoui tbe butter, nrid sink un account 
of lluMr j^reatcr weight or speciBc jjTuviLy. Owiii;j to ilie water being 
mixml with A little whey, it usually presents a while and uiilky uppear- 
ance, vi-ry distinct from that (if the Imrit^r ilst'lf, whicli fludTs upon it, 
and whit;h is more 'or lesit yclKiw ; the quantity itf wutiT i*i tlioii 
roughly estimated hv noticing' the hci);Ut it reaches up the botile. In 
many eu^e^ it will \}i' found that the water constitutea a fourth and 
even a tliird of Che artK-ie, 

Setond MelljO'l. — One hundred gniins of the butter, which must 
not hiive been previously fxposfd to ilie air, or part of the water will 
already have* become dissipated and lost^ niuatbe evaporated inaauiall 
glass or iKircelain dish or capsule^ over a water-bath, until it ceases 
to lose weifjlit; the butter and the eapt^ulc nmsr then be weighed, and 
the wri}»IiL of the capsule deducted ; the dclieiency on the original 100 
{grains represents The per-cent^ige of water i.-uiitained in the butter. 

It is possible^ that in some cases the question mij|;ht arise, as to 
whelher the Huid separated im nieltin*; butter^ consisled of wnter or 
whey, or of both mixed ; this point may be det<^rmined by estimating 
the amount of rtuvand'milk present in the I'upiid, This is effected by 
the procejts described in the article Milk. One thousand grains of whey 
usually eonl;iin about sixty grains of sugar of milk. 

On the Detertimi of Starch. — Slarrli in btitti>r uiay he readily 
detected and its iimount estinmted. For its detection, nothing more 
is necessary than 1o exumine u minule portion of the buuer 6pread 
out in the ihinnesl |>o?Kible layer, and covered with a plate of thin 
chiss, with a half or ipiarter-inch ohjecC filass, tincture of iodine being 
in sntnii ea-*e)t emjiloyed at the same time. Tlie ^tnrch will be recog- 
nised by the (unti )tf the granules and the action of iodine. 

To estimate ilj* fjuantitv, tho folKiwing proceeding may be adopted: 
— The butter may be melted, when the >tnreh will separate with the 
water; the jirecipitate may be collected on a filter, dried, and weigheil; 
or the fat may be reinoveil by means of ether, when the residue will 
conxiiit chieHy of the sturch. 

On the Detection of Lard, — We are not acquainted with any very 
direct method by which the preseni'e of 1 -rd in butter may be dis- 
covered. So far as we have observed, one of the bewt tests is furnished 
by the microscope: lard t-onsiabK, in the solid ntate, in great part of 
vryst^als of murgaric and stearic acid?, while in butter no such Ibrnm- 
tions are met wiih» but only nuraerouf milk globules. When, there- 
fore, crystals similar to those represented in^i^. } 05. occur, there is 
gooil reason to Busjiect the admixture of lard. 

Agiiiii, the melting (Kunts of lard and butter somewhat differ. 

Oh the Deteftion of Salt. — A weigheil portion of the butter must be 
incinerated, and the salt determined from (be a^h. In general the 
whole of the a»h of salt butter may be counted as salt. 

Duty, 5». per cwt. ; *2s. 6//. from llritish [wsscssiona. 



Tmports taken for home consumption : 185-4, 478,811 cwts. ; 1855, 
448|268 cwts. ; nine monlfas uf 18.56. 363,877 cwts. 


Lavo is the oilv portion of the fat of die pig. Tbe prucess by wliit h 
ihin is Kpiirated from the vesiciiliir, fibroug. and vascular tissut's in 
which it is eitht-r enclosed, or by which it ia surroumied, is Icnuetl 
litrd reudiTtg. 

The piecx-s of fiit to be convcrtcfl into lard arc ^onictiincs saltcii a 

litlle, tbelH-'ltcr to ensure thiir prescrvniion, and are stiiretl in barrel*. 

'Jlii! fjt wUiili ienniediutcly surrounds tbe kidneys yields the be:(t and 

purest Iiinl ; this is owing to its being In a freer state, that \iy it is 

few hiylily organised. The procesM is ;i» follows ; — The pieces of fat 

are scored or sliced into leaser portions of an inch or so in di.imeter ; 

they are place<l, either with or without the addition of a litile water, 

in cauMroHfi, which are usually of iron. The mode of applying heat 

M rhe tlure varie?) in ditferent ciise-i. When lord is made on a small 

scale the flame is often applied dirtcdy to the containing vessel ; 

sometimes tlie tlare if* meliod in u wnier-batb, but ut^uully the hentin^ 

medium is steam, which is contained in the interval between the 

inner and outer ve«»el ()r pan ; occasionally a jet of steam is thrown 

directly uptm the Hare contained in the copper. The soluble part of 

the tat melis out and floats on the surface, the nniiiiiil nuitter and 

tiif-tue!) each forming' a s<-uui, which \» skimmed frotii time tu time, or 

finkin;; us a deposit. As the *iil has no affinity fnr cither water or 

*alt, it docs not Like up any of the water which may be present with 

it in the copptT, whiU* the suit used lo prcticrve the tat ialls as a se- 

tlimcnl. The oil whilst sllU warm and llnid is turned out of the 

copper through a Ijp, mul is rei'eive<l eiihifr into bladders or c^isks 

t«;rmed kegs, and benre the division ot lard into blatider lard mul keg 

Inrti. ll i.s u-Hually the best description of liini mily which i.i siored 

in bladders, keg lard bcinp lor tbe most part of inferior qiiulitv. 

Good and pure lard should be entirely frt^e from either taste or smell ; 

it ebould be firm n[;d wbile. and whtn meltrd be Liliuo<<t as clear and 

transparent as water; ^ubjected lo a Ccmperutuie of about 212° Ffthr^ 

it should lic|uefv without ebuliiliou, thus e^howin^ the absence of 

water, nml should not. throw down a jmrtick' of iK-posit. Inferiiu* or 

adnlterated lanis p<>»>e3s characters and properiies aliuotft the reverse 

of these. The mfltin;; |>oint of lard varies frnni 785° to 87'^*'' Fuhr. 

According to Hraconntft its composition is as follows ; — 



Proximate Analysis of fresh Lard. 
Steorine 1 

Margarine j ' " ' 

Elaine - • • * 6*2 

Our supplies of lard arc derived prim'ip«lly from Ireland, part nUo 
couics frnm America utkI llambiir;<;l)f wliile Loiulon and our cbief 
proTinctal cities posseus lard manufactories. 


We liave long beerii aware that lardL, like nearly every other ortiile 
of consumption, is linlile to adulteration; indeed, the fact tliut it w 
so is veijr (ji^JiiTidly known to dealers as aUo the nature of the prin- 
cipal adullorulions practised. 

The chief adulterations of lard resemhle those of butter, and ctm- 
sisit in tlie mcorpi>r:ition with it of water and starch. Sometimes 
the ivaler only or iho starch only is had recourse to; in others buth 
these adulterations are pnicti^ed on tUi.' same hird. 

We have ourselves met with many fanipUsof lanl adulterated with 
potato tlour; but one of the earliest to draw tilteTiti<iii to ihe subject 
was Mr. George Whipple in a c»iiiinunicution which he hroupht before 
the I'harrnsceutical Society, and which was noticed in iu Jciirnul for 
January I8d3; in this he t^tates ibat he had detected large q^uantities 
of some farinaceous Ruhstance in hird. 

"This adultertiLion," writes Mr. Whipple, " was discovered in the 
ditTeront varieties of lard — from the finest blailder to the common 
firkin hird. Tn nn examination of the CTtntenta of two firkins, weighing 
105^ lbs., a quantity of furinaeeouii substance, amountin*; t!i 2'2| Ibs^ 
WM separated. The content*? of anoiher firkin^ weighing 43J Iha., 
yielde<i 12| lbs. of n similar sulMtance." 

In the next number of the same journal, Mr. Calvert, of Mnn- 
Chester, publisht.'d numc further observations on t)ie adulteraiion of 
"American larii." Ho writes — "During the nnmernus analyses li 
inndc some three years since, of various nrtieles of food employed in ' 
public estflbtishments, I analysed several samples of American lard, 
and therefore may add to the fact already mentioned by Mr. Georcc 
Whipple in your last nundwr, that 1 found them to contain, in addi- 
tion to starch, from ten to twelve per cent, of water, and from two to 
three per cent, of alum, and about one per cent, of quicklime. 

"A few months ago I was able to asceriain that the operation is 
conducted in the following manner : — 



** The futty matters, such att they arrive from Amerifn, are m<?lte<l 
wilb a little water in ra!se-l>*)ttoined copper pans, llirnufjii wluL-h cir- 
culates H current of ntffam. The <lirt and olber heterogeneous matters 
fall to the bottum of the pan?, and the clear grease is uliowed to run 
into a wooden vessel, when it is stirred in cnnfaot with roM water; it 
19 then put under revolving wheels with a thick paste made of jjotato 
starch, mixed with a little jxitHsh ftlum and iiuieklime, which appears 
to farilitate the taking up of the water and starch by tli<^ fully matter. 

*'The cause of the American lurd appearinjf so white Ih, no dnubt, 
the division of the fatty matttT through the interpositiou of the starrh, 
water, ami alumina. 

" The cpiantity of alum should he such that a small excess should 
remain U> prevent the starch from becoming mildewed; and I believe 
ihiit the nmnufiietnrer al«o add:* it for tlie purpose of cornumnicating 
to the liird the property of taciliuting the raising and increasing the 
irhiteness nf the confectioners' pnstc, in whicli it is largely employed." 

It should be understood, thiit Americnn lard, ns brought to this 
country, is not In general adulterated. The aduUeratiun usually 
takes place subsequent to its arrival, and is the wurk of some of our 
own manufacturers. The rrason "tvhy Amerit^an lard is so frefjuently 
selected for adulteration is, (hat it is of inlurlor <jtiidity and value* 
and so soft as to he almost fluid, pome prouess of consolidation being 
indispensable before it can be em]>]oyed as lard. 

From information received fnmi a respectable lard render, it ap- 
pears tiiat the addition of a small tjuantity of muttnn xiut to lard is 
very common. It is used more particularly in wtirm weather, and 
with sort lanlfl, especially American lard, which diflers from ordinary 
lard, in that it consists of the entire fat of the pig melted down, and 
rot, as is the esse with the best English lard, o( the fat only which 
surroundi the kidneys. Mutton suet, being a hard and firm fat, im- 
parts to 5ot\ lards, even when added in very small quantities, the 
connistence and solidity requisite. 

It appears, therefore, that water, starch, glum, and caustic lime 
hove all bii*n asi.ertaim'd Ui be empIoye<l in the adulteration of lard. 
To these substances we may add the folUtwing : — rnrlH)nate of sotla, 
curbcmatc of potash, and salt The whole of the alwve adulterations 
may be readily discovered. 

Possibly in acme cues other atumal fnts are used, as that of veal. 

JiemUs of the Examination of Samples. 

The re«iulls of the examination of upwards of 100 samples of lard 

were as follows : — 

lAt. That lani i« not unfrequently ejtiiusiceh/ atliilt&rafffi^ the ingre- 
dients employed being water and f}o(afo flonr^ as well iis certain 
saline subBtances, oa fo^, potash alum, carloHotet i>/ potash and of 


goda, and eatutic iim^t lbe«« botnf( intended either to 

lurd to Imid water, or to improve \u eniiki»t«nre uid ooUwr. 
'2nd. Tlmt the deftcription of fard nioit liubU' to lululteraiioo a 

larfL nnd of lhi«, pttrticiUurly tl\ut which w inanuiMctured hi ~ 

Irifb kuj^ lard bviii^ but rurely n'liilli'rntnl. 
5rd. 'L'hnt of upwants of our htimlrfti smuplfH of Innl »ui 

examination, nnd pmcurcMt chirtly tVom reluil dfulero, 

found to be aduhfi-Hk'tl wttli pi>fato starch, 

T\w tuhtherAt'um f\f\m'i\ [Mevails ni)t only in certain localities Iwt al«o 
chieft/ nt certain timrs — that »s wlienevur * sufficient suppW of inferior 
liirJ, Auitahlf for mixin);^ can hi* prr>curc(] ; for it ii said not to auvcr 
to mlulterat'? u lard nf ^ootl qiiidity. which commands a high prioe^ and 
which if A|)oilod hv l>cin;r tampered with. 

It will be rcadifv itcrecived thai the (|ualities of a lard tbas aduUe- 
rated nin»t In* dcriiiiixly irnpjiirvd f<ir altnoH every purpose for which 
it is emphivcil : thiw, of roiirf*c, it would not be nearly so econnmical 
for cuhnniy purpows. In tiic presence of large (pinntititrs of jtutaXv 
tlour the co*»k will find h !»iim»'ient explanation of the extraordi- 
niiry tenacity with which fi^^h Hometimtfi adheres to the frying pan. 
yVgain, the use of Huch IflriJ in machinery mij^ht, in R«>mc case*. 
produce serious eonsetpiencos by imiHHiinj; its action. r..astly, tli* 
Activity of aH the ointments of the Pharmacoptcia, mwle with 
:juch n Inni, would be much injured, especially the simple ami com- 
|H>nnil iodine ointments, which, if starch were present, would, to the 
a^tl•nif4hment of the dispenser, turn blue, or almost black, in tlie art 
of incorporation. 

On the Detection of the AHuUeratiom of Lard. 

The first thing to be done in order to ascertain wUellier a lard be 
ffenuine or adulterated, is Ui nu-lt it at about a tempentture of 212** 
Fulir. If it dissolve without ebullilioii or without the Occurrence of 
M dtfmsit, wc may »afely conclude that the 8am])le is genuine; but if 
ebuUitiun take place, or a t^diment is thrown down, the lard is un- 
questionably odulterdted. 

Detertion of Water, — The adulteration with water, and the c^uantity 
present, may be thus determined : — A known weight of lard is to Ire 
exix>sed to heat until bubbles of vapour cease to eicape; the loot 
indicates the per*ccnu*;e of water. 

Defection of Siarch. — The presence of starch may be discovered 
by thoroughly incorporating a solution of iodine with a few grains of 
the lard, placed upon a slip of glass; the laril will change colour, and 
become deep blue, or almost black. If now a little of this be vieweil 
under the microscope, the starch corpuscles will themselves be oeen 
coloured by the iodme. 

To determine the kind of starch conlatneil in any sample, we must 
use the microscope. A minute piece of the lard should be placed on 



slide, previuu»<1y tlioroufihly warmerl ; the moment the Unl is 
Red it must be viewed by the object glass, when the utarch cor- 
puscles will be distinguished standing out m clearly as though they 
were in water. 

Another way in which thp Blarcb corpuRcles may be well seen by 
the microscope, is to spread out by gentle pressure, between two 
pieces of glass* a very thin stratum of the lard. 


Laid, idultf ntcd vilh Pvtato Hareh. Ifsfnlfleil M> dUmcUn. 

Although it is ea5y enough to detect starch in lard, It is by no 
meins so to estimate the amouiit present. 

Ether does not readily dissolve lard, particularly in cold weather, 
so that by this reagent it is very dinicuU lo separate uU the lard from 
the other ingredients with which it may be admixed. If, however, 
ether be used for the purpose, the lard should be melted, and, while 
still warm, the etber should be ponred upon it ; we may then 
kVeigb, when properly drie^l, eitht-r tne nil ohrainod, or the sediment 
;ft* Still, with every precaution, this method of sepnrnlion is very 
troublesome, and often fails. 

Another method h as follows : — Put one hundred grains of the 
.Ikrd in a test tube ; apply a gentle heat until all escape of vapour 



ceases. Fill nearly up with water ; heat as before ; allow the wlwkich 
has rison to the tsurfuee (o become cold ; collect ; beat ognin witb » 
little more water, wlieii a second portion of oil will be ublained; »M 
the twfj portions together, dry, nnd weigh. 

Although this method is simple, it is very troublesome, »nd giro 
only approximate results, since it is almost impossible to sepunle iB 
the oil by heat alone. 

The separation of the oil is said lo be readily elTected by meau ^ 
essence of lurpentine.* 

DeUrmimition of Saline Matters. — For the determination ofU* 
saline uiatttird present, it is in must cases sullicicnt to niuU ibc UnL 
collect the precipitates, free them from oil with ether, weigh, »*l 
aflerwards taste them. Salt^alum, and lime may all be distiii;;ui^bc!<l. 
provided Quantities uf lard suOiciently large be operated u^ma, \>) 
the ta.ite alone. 

The processes for the detection and estimation of alum are giTeii 
at p. 294., of salt under Annatto, and of lime at p. 101. 

It is not often that more thun one or two of these salts occur txfgd^ 
in the t^ame lard : supposing them, however, to do so, we may procenl 
rrenerally as follows: — Incinerate '2000 c^ns of the lard, diuolreott 
the salt with distilled water, precipitate the chlorine by meant of niinU 
of silver, and eatimftte the sotia from this; boil the insoluble portloorf 
the ash with dilute hydrochloric acid, divide into two portions, preci' 
pitate the Hme from the one by means of oxalate of ammonia, and tK« 
alumina from the other with strong ammonia, according to the prooe* 
given under the head of Hread. 

Lard h free uf duty ; consequently we can give no account of qtuw- 
(itiea taken tor home consumption: but the imports were iu iWi 
274,^92 cwU., in 1855, 118,109 cwts.; in nine months of l&5ti. 116.1^ 


Oatmeal, aA its name implies, consista of the furina or meal nf r^r*^* 
The compoMtion, slnicLure, and properties of tliia lereal - 

be found described to «ome extent, and figured, at pp. 24;i. i-v. ^ 

which the reader is referred. 
Amongst the best analyses which have yet been made of the <nl tf* 

those by Messrs. Norton and Fromberg. 

rifrn. " Dei SuImUdcm AIUn«nUlra." p. HA. Troiiitoic MlOW 




Oil - 

Protaine compound! : — 
Avvnln • - - 

i;im«n - 
Alkftlloe ull* ttud iMfc 









ft- 14 





5 41 

1 4S 




17 71 


■ u-M 

7 38 

i 4A 

100 00 N. 


100 t»F. 


The compcMiticm of (he husk of the oat, ai^iording to Professor 
Norton, is as follows ; — 

O.I - 

Sng-r wd jum 

OiuUi) atid co««uUtcd ftlbu-l 


)Udop matter uid uh 


rtaUM Oh. 









The an:ilyfe!i of M. Payen will be found at p. 257. 

It appears from these analjses that oainicikl itt a highlr nutritive 
anic^lf of diet, richer than even wheat flour in oily and nitrogenous 

There are peveral varieties or quuliiies of oatmeal : one of these is 
Kubinson's Patent Groats ; this coii«ii!is uf the Biiest parts of the tloui' 
of the oat, all liuak and the outer and harder partii of the grain being 
removed: another variety is called "round oatmeal;" it consists of 
the oats depriveil of husk and (ground Inuj a very coarse powder. 
This description varies a {jood deal, the outer surface of the oats in- 
tended fur the better sorts being rubbed oS' by attrition between 

In the preparation of fine uatnieal there is a f!ood deal of refuse 
matter, auiounliu;^ generally to aUmt one fourth or fifth of the 
i'litire bulk of the oats: this is unu]po^e'l of a portion of hu«k, which 
contains much silex, and the outer part of tht; grain conUiining a 
little starch and much oil and nitrogenous matter ; this is usually 

X 2 



uiixed up with the commoner descriptions of oatmeal^ especially Ibat 
supplic'l to workhouses. 

Liisily, ihe (]ua!ity of oatmeal depends very greatlj upon the quality 
of the oal from which the meal is prepared. 

On tbk ADULTEXATione or Oatmeal. 

It coald hardly be supposed that sufGoient inducement exists for 
the eopliifiticntion of un article like uatmeul ; it ni)pear8, however, that 
this 9uppf>!*ili(in is not correct. 

Of thirty siamples of oatn)eal submitted to examination, sixteen^ or 
rather more ihun one hidf, were Ji/uutl to be aduUeraied with large 
quantities of Ba&let Meal. But oatmeal frequently sufTers dofrri- 
orutiuu in other ways besides by admixture with barley tluur. One 
nf these couf^ist^ in lidding tu it the investing niembrniit's, r^r /iiuA, of 
the oai^ harhy, and uheaty technically termed " rubble " and *' sharps," 
and which are rejected in the prepariUion of the purer sorts of oat- 
meal, jrrits and proats, Scotch ami pi'arl barley. 

On referring some time since to the market prices of oat and barley 
meals, we found thtU white the first wa.<! I6it. per cwt., the latter was 
only 8«. per cwt., that !»» just one half. We thus perceive that the 
indut;emcnt to adulterate (»atmeal is very great,— greater, indeed, it 
appcarfi^ than many cornchnnillerB can resist. 

The lonowin>: inforiuallon, furnished us by a correspondent, whose 
niune, for obvious rca^ion^, we withhold, shows that this article u eub- 
ject to systematic adultcraiion. lie writes : — 

" Since your able analyses have taken pinre, it has struc-jE me that 
I may be able to give you a little informntion as to an artit-le of (otni 
which is adulterated to a most awful extent, — viz. oatmeuL \ will 
first mention oatmeal as sent hUo icorfthotuea^ pri,^ona^ and charitable 
institutions^ which are generally taken at contract jirices. I enclose 

one for the parish of (or 1848, where I find the oatmeal wus taken 

at 14«. i>er cwt. by ; and by reftfreine to my stock-book, I find 

the market price was 17 s. Gd. per cwt. ; thus the oatmenl was reduced 
3<. Gd., and then left an excellent protlt. Well, ot that time I was 
trying for all the contract* in London, and could not succeed, my 
price* being generally about 4*. dearer thiin any onc*8 else : this was 
a mystery to me. By accident I found out oatmeal was adulterated 
with barley flour which is bought at about 7s. per cwt. ; this being 
mixeil with tlie oatmeal, of course reduce<l the price. I then, being 
us wise as my competitors, tried, and have served the above work- 
house since. 

" Now, the fault lies here. If the workhouses were to take the 
contracts at a per-centnge on market value^ then thev would get^i><W 
oatmeal ; but they always nd down the price, ami thus get an adulte- 
rated article. 

"You will Bee the prices are 14*., 15*. 6</., 16*.. and 17*. ; tlius if n 
man wants to be honest with them, they will not let him. 1 have again 



ami a;;ain wished to supply nt a per-ceiu«j?e on market value ; the 
answer 1 get is, ' WcU^ we are eery weU mtUjied^ ami have uo com- 
piaints.^ " 

We kuve ourselves been at some painti to verify the stAtemenls 
iiUMle above, and for that purpose have proeure«l samples of oatmeiU 
ftfl supplietl lo some of our unions and cnaritable institution!! ; these, 
witlioul excepiion, we have found on examination to be largely adul- 
terated with biirletf vieui, as deiioribed. 

Other adulterations of oatmeal are» according lo ProfcMor Calveit, 
with rice nnd maize, Ue states, in his evidence, already referred tu 
in the nrtirle liutter : — '* I have fountl uatmeuJ, ceneruUy speaking, 
in fact alwnys, mixetl witti rice nnd maize. The effect is this, it makes 
less porridjfe ; in other wurds, it is a direct Inw lo the ratepayers, be- 
cause the cook in the workhouM mnai uHe a larger proportion of this 
adultorateil onrmeal to make a certain i^uantity uf porridge, than if it is 
pure outmcal " 

Tlie followine evidence was furnished to the Committee on Adulter- 
ation, by Mr. Mackenrie, id" Glaagow, the editor of '* The Reformer's 
Gazetto-," in regard to the adulteration uf oatmeal : — 

" S"me few years a;ji), when great destitution prevoiltid in the West 
of Scotland, espeeially in the Higblamls, a large »iira of money, 
ftmountinj{ lo 50,000/. or 60.000/., w»s devoted to furnishing provisions, 
including oatmeid, to the Highlanders. At that period information 
was given nic that u very lar^e ({uantity of that oatmeul was adul- 
terated in the grossest manner : u letter w&$ :«ent to me^ which I thought 
it niy iluty to publish, and ibe contractor who furnii^hed the meal re- 
ferred to in tliut letter, thrcati'uetl me with tin action of damages. 
The ciiju was tried, and the nmtJ'actor found jjuilty, and adjudged tu 
imprisonment for three inonth;i, and to pay a tine of 300/. The oat- 
meal was mixed with britn iin\J thirds, the common lood lor horses;" 
tliirds being the refuse and shell (if the wheat. 

"To my amazement," eontinuc* Mr. Mackenzie, "the accused 
brought forward some of the principal millers in Glasgow, to swear 
that it was quite a common practice in the trade ■" 

The adulteration of oamieal is not merely ini|>ortant in a pecuniary, 
but is of some conse<{uence in a sanitary ]>oint of view. 

The properties of oatmeai are thus described in Pereira's " Muteriii 
]V(eflica :** — *' Oatmeal is an im|K)rtant and valuable article ol food. 
With the exception of maixe or Indian com, it is richer in oily ur fatty 
matter than any of the other cultivated cereal grains, and its propor- 
tion of protein compounds exceeds that of the nnesc English wheAteii 
flour. So that both with respect to its heat and fat making, and its 
Uesh and bl(K>d making principles, it holds a high rank." 

In the same work we meet with the following account of barley 
meitl as an article of diet: — "Barley is a valuable nutritive. Con- 
sidered in relation to wheat, it oAlts several pecuttaritic«i. In the first 
place it contains much less protein matter: in other words, less of the 

X 3 




principle; though Count Rumford conrfcUred 
tlrt« or four times as nutritious as wbvat flour. 

if lilii iffnrr n'sistanne tn ihc action of the gastric 

>{U4»op of* irs more difiicult Bolubility in water. Tbinlly, 

i, and therefore this should be remoyed from 

:i<:al purpoies, as in Scotch and [warl barley. 

><h meal ii more laxative* than wheat meoL" 

iW twts It appears that oatmeal possesses considerable 

'tjtifw over barlev meal. 

i:t ihf recollection of some of our readers^ that at (he 
,i KAi ity Mr. Wiiklcy on the boilies of Home of the poor chil- 
^tw Wl viotims in the pest-house at Tooling, the fact trans* 
Um4 kib» uatuieal which formed tvn considerable a part of their 
WM MlftkaiTvl^r adulterated with barley meal. 

Om Hf DHedion of the Aduiteraiimu of Oatmeal, 

ft v'l ':d adulterations of oatmeal, us already uoticed, are 

i f^i^ vvfune matter of oats, barley, and even wheat, termed 

**tut'We ' and "sharps," and with barley meal: these adultemtions 

IMV ^ detiH'lod withimt, in most eases, anv oonsideruble difficulty. 

^1^^ lUtn'tum of^*RubbU" — An admixture nf Rubble may be 

impHHd when llie sample presents a branny ap|>earancc In conse* 

«f V^iKV vf the presence ot" numeroiiri pjirtietes of husk or bran, as well 

M wJ l^ii* outer yellow portion of the ]t;rain. In order, however, lo 

VMiurv w^rtamty, it is necessary to resort to ehemislry and the micro- 

wvfHK A portion of the article may be analysed quantitatively for 

uiil: the ash of almut 500 grains must be boiled with dilute 

I'lirarid; this will dissolve all but thesilica, which must be 

« oiuM. Ignited, and weighed. 

Aivortliiig to Messrs. Ogston and Way, the ash of oat cnntains 
fKuii »N 4H to 50-03 per cent, of silica, barley from •23*1) to 70'77, rye 
aUnit J» 'Ji, and wheal 'iO 5 to 54*6 per cent. 

Vbii uieth'id of procoedinjr is rather adapted for the detection of 
iy« and wheat rubble than that of barley. Of course the per-centage 
\tl sdicn in rubble is very much bisher than it is for thi? whule grain. 

In thi>>e eases in which the nibble of bttrley meal \isun bt^eu u^eil, the 
■Urch granules of that cereal may be readily d»*lected by means of the 
iaicrosGofw* as also portions of the investing membranes, the structures 
of which, #n different from those of oat, are described and figured at 
pp, «4, 245. 

In like manner, the microscope furniithes the means of discovering 
tbv presence of whettt rvhhle or »harp» in oatmeal. The starch gra- 
uulet of wheat and barley !io nearly resemble each other, that when 
mucd togeiher, it is not easy to diatin::ut»h the one from the other: 
the investing membranes of the grain of wlient, d(*scribed and figured 
Ml pp.241 — 243., are, however, so diiferent from thoiC of barley, that 
ibcy afford a certain means of discrimination. 





On the Detection of Barley Meal. — The microscnpe affords the onlr 
means by which this adulteration can be discovered. The starcb 


OathraL adalunlcd with horUif < 

UAfsMM ttSilUawten. 

granules of oat and barley have already been described and figures 
of them given ; the differences are so great, that a momentary ^nncc 
with the microscope is all that is necessarv to enable the o!»s*;rver to 
dUtinKuifh genuine oatmeal from that adulterated with barley meal. 
The staroh grranules of the oat are small, anpular, and frequently 
aj^gregateil into compound bodies nf a rounded form, while ttiose of 
barley are much larger, rounti, and flat. 

On the Detection of Hice ami Maize. — These adullerations may be 
promptly discovered by means of the microscope, See^j^. 83. p. 233., 
and^. 82. p. 231. 

It is very possible^ however, to mistake the starch granules of 
wheat for thone of barley ; but wheat tlour is rarely used in the adul- 
teration of oatmeal : this error may be avoided by a curelul examina- 
tion of the portions of test* met with, the structure of which in wheat, 
barley and oat is so very different, as will appear from nn examination 
of the descriptions and figures given under the article Bread. 

Customs duty on importation, 4^r/ per cwt. The quantities imported 

\ 4 



and taken for home consumption, were as follow : — 1654, 4^6 cwts. ; 
l%55j 752 cwu. 1 niue mouluB of IdJQ, 5,321 cwtH. 


Thb term *' arrowroot " was origiDally ap[>lied to ihc rhizome or root 
of Maranta arvndhiacea^ in coivsi-qupnce of its suppotied efficacy in 
counteracting the eiTects of wounds inflicted by poisoned urniws. 

Of Ute years, the signitication of the term has been much extended, 
and it is now employed tu designate olnu»»t every fcculu which bears 
any resemblaitce to true or Marantu arrowroot, no matter bow dis- 
similar the plants may be from which it is obtainefl. 

Attending this enlarged use of the w«»rd arrowroot are certain di*- 
adrfintagcs. Many persons consider ihut all arrowroots constitute 
one and the same article, varying ottly in quality, and according to 
the place from which they ore procured ; while but few persons are 
aware that there are several distinct kinds of arrowi-oot, the produce 
of distinct plants, great uncertainty and confusion being thus created. 

To increase this confusion, tlie word "genuine" is often prefixed to 
the term " arrowroot," and a^ there are several kinds of arrowroot, 
must there be several genuine arrowroots : these vary in value from s 
few pence to two or three shillings the pound — from, in fact^ ilic 
value of genuine Maranta arrowroot to that of genuine potato arrow- 
root. With these paruculars the puUic at large is but ill acquainted. 

The difficulty and confui«ion is still further enhanced by applying 
to the arrowroot, as is generally done, the name of the place Irom 
which it is obtained: thus we have genuine West Indian, Jamaica, 
Deroerara, Bermuda, St. Vincent, East Indian, Brazilian, African, 
Guinea. Sierra Leone, Portland, British, and a variety of other 
arrowroots. Some pci-soni suppose that each of these names repre- 
aents a dificrent kind of arrowroot ; others imagine that they all in- 
dicate one and the same production ; while the fact is, that in some 
cases, as in that of East India ani>wroot, one name mny be indiscri- 
minately applied to two distinct kinds of arrowroot, and in others, six 
or ei^ht names all signify but a single kind or species, as is the CI 
with West India arrowroot. This great variety of names is objection- 
able, not merely becauiW it temls to confuse the public, bntl>ecause it 
oflTers to the fraudulent great facilities for adullorauon and imposition, 
of which, us wc shall sec hereafter, they have not failed to avail them- 

The remedy for this state of things is t»imple : each reHlly distinct 
arrowroot, that is, every arrowroot which is the product of a distinct 






plant, sbould be designated by the oaine of the species from which it 
IS derived, as Maruitu, Curcumii, Tocca, Muuibot, Anim, Potato 
Arrtiwrool, &c. 

The empLo.vni<?nt of these terms should not be optional, but com* 
puUirry^ for the better protection of the public pf^ninst fraurl in this 
article of fcxxl. The propriety of tbia suggestion will become still 
more evident as we proceed. 

We shall now describe each kind of arrowroot separately, observine 
of them all, that when pure they are non-nilrogenised subttLances, and 
therefore adapted to the forioation of the fat uf the body, and to the 
maintenance of respiration and temperature. 

BIakanta Abkowboot. 

Maranta arrowroot is obtained front the rhizomes of Maraida arun- 
dinaeett, one of the family of the Murantacea. 

A rhizome is an underground jointed alcm placed horizontally in 
the earth, giving otf from its upper surfacCf branches, and from the 
lower, roots; the starch or fecula is contained in the joints of the 
rhizome, being deposited iu innumerable minute cells. 

The following account of its prenarntion is given by Dr. Pereira in 
the new and greatly improved edition ol' his " Mnleria Medica :" — 

** The starch, or fccula, is extratted from (he rcnits (t«l»ers), whon 
these arc about ten or twelve months old. The process is entirely a 
mechanical one, and is performed vither by hand or by miichinc. 

"In Jamaica it is procured as follows; — The tubers are dug up, 
well wa^Jied in water, and tlien beaten iu large, deep, wooden morturs 
to A pulp. Tliis is thrown into a Inrge tub of clean water. The 
whole is then well stirred, and thu librous riart wrung out by the 
hands and thrown away. The milky liijuor being pa<ued through a 
hair Bieve, or coarse cloth, is suftered to settle, and the clear water is 
drained off. At the bottom of the vessel is a white mas>s which is 
again mixed with clean water, and drained ; lastly, the mass is dried 
on sheets in the sun, and is pure »tarch. 

" In Itermuda, the roots are first deprived of ibeir paper-like scale*, 
and then rusped liy a kind of wheel rusp, and the fecula well washed 
through sieves nnd carefully dried. 

"Upon the Hopewell estate in the island St. Vincent, the CArefutly 
skinnetl tubers are washed, then ground in a mill, and the jtulp 
washed iu tinned copper cylindricuf washing machines. The fecula 
is Hubsetfuently dried m drying houses. In order to obtain thu feuuU 
free from impurity, pure water must be use<l, and great care anil at- 
tention paid in every step of the process. The skimming or peeling 
of the tubers must be performed with great nicety, as the cuticle coii- 
> tains a resinous matter, which impartscolourand a disagreeable flavour 
to the starch. German silver palettes arc used fur skimming 4he 
deposited fecula, and shovels of the Mme metal for packing the dried 



fccuU. The drying ia efTected in pans corered by white gauxe U) ex- 
clude du£t und insecUt.'* 

Pure fttid unadulterated Maranta arrowroot should be of a dall nA 
opati^ue white colour, crepitating or crackling; when presaed b«tw«ct 
the hngcrs, and treated with about twice its weight of conceatnttti 
hydroirhloric ackl it should yield iin opaqne paste. 

The above characters and ft[ip*»Rran(vs may all, however, be $mawA 
by curtain of the other arniwroob* ; the mioroiitcope, therefore, afonii 
the only read^ and certain means of distinpuishin*!; this arrowroot fron 
all other epecies, and these again from each other. 

Ki-auiined with thai inslruuient the jirranules or paitidci «f 
Maranta arrowroot are found tu be usually inorv or less oblong and 

Fiit, vat. 

aurch tnuiDktaf MaB4*ta •frovnM>t.c«ll«4eofniDonlf Wc«t Indlk tmwMl- 
Drawn with Lh« Cuners Luddft. ttad tiiaOlA*^ 94U Oittmcim. 

ovate, but aometimcs they are mussel-shaped or even almoM W»* 
angular: they vary considerably in sixc, but each of the Ur^ 
granules is marked by a number of delicate concentric lines; si »* 
broad or lai^e extremity of each a distinct sjwt is visible, orJin«r*'T 
coiiaidered to be a cavity, and denominated the " bilum ; " tlii* spot » 
someiimes circular, but most frequently it is seen M s ^ort, ifasrT 



line, running transversely across the granule ; it fumisheit a most dis- 
tinctive ff-'aiure by which Maranta arrowroot may be at all times very 
readily iiJeiitified. 

When bojhng water is added to Maranta or any other arrowroot^ 
irs physical condition undergoes a great and surpri^inf; alteration, the 
nature of which may be clearly traced by means of the niicru&uope. A 
t4ible^iioonl'ul of arrowroot, on wliit-h a pint of boiling water is poured, 
inmieuiately lo^es its whiteness and opacity, becomes transparent, and 
the entire of the water is as it were converted into a thick and jelly« 
like substance. If a little of this be diffused through cold water, and 
examined with the microscope, it will be seen that tae starch granules 
are altered amozinjrly : they have increased to twenty or thirty 
times their original volume ; they are more or less rounded ; the con- 
centric lines and the liJlum are obliterated; the membrane of each 
gnuiule is ruptured, and a granular matter has escaped from its 

The appellations which have been bestowed upon Maranta arrow- 
root ore very numerous; their use ought t^) be wholly discontinued, 
for the reasons already assigned : thus it is sometimes called West 
India arrowroot, Janiaicn, Demcrarn, Bermudii, Bcrbice, St. Vincent 
arrowroot, &c. 1'he impropriety of denominating it West India 
arrfiwriKit if bhown by the circumstance, tliat the Maranta plant is cul- 
tivated in the East aa well as in the West Indies. 

Cavva, or Tous 1X8 Mois Akboweout. 

Camia «da/u, the plant from the tubers of which the starch known 
M I'^tuUt Mois is obtained, belongs to the natural order Murantacete^ 
which includes Morauta arunditmcea^ or West India airowroot. 

The starch is obtained much in the same manner ns that of the other 
arrowroor^ ; that U, the tubers are msped, and the fecula separated 
from the pulp by washing, straining, decantation of the supernatant 
li<luor, and desiccation of the deposited Btarch. It i.<i imported from 
St. Kilts. 

The jelly yielded by it is said to be more tenacious, but leas clear 
and translucent, than that of otlier arrowroots. 

Owing to their large ttize the stircb granules exhibi: a glistening or 
satiny appearance; they differ from other dietetic starches not only 
in their much greater dimensions, but in certain other particulars. 

The granules or corpuscles are nearly all very large, flat, broad, 
but ovate; sometimes, like those of East India arrowroot, pointed 
at tbe narrow end. The hiium is situated in the narrow extremity of 
the granule, and the rings are exceeilinj;ly Cue, regular, and crowded. 

The only starch with which they are at all likely to be c«infoundcd 
is that of the potato ; tbe granules are, however, larger, of a different 
shape, being flat, and the striv are much more regular and numerous. 


CvscuMA Akiowboot- 

UTOwroot U obtained frum tie tubers of Curatma 
MM of the fumily of the Zimgtberaceit. 

luojtf "f it« preparation does not differ nmterially from tbat 
MfcritrJ i" nlitainin^ the fecMila from the tubers of JJaranta antti- 

^m^*^ Kml which hits nlrcaily been described. 

>• ' iiualitie:) of Curcuma urrowrtKit are imported into tbis 

^ irtmi tlte £asI Indies, principally from Calcutta, a white and 

.11 vtiriely. 

tvhitti 19 the best; the powder, when pressed between the 

i4^<.'i*, feots \v3s tirm, and dcies not crepitate to the same extent 

M Marnnta arrowrottt ; the two species can, hovrcver, be distinguished 

mom ^-Hi'h oihcr only with ceriainty by means of the microacope. 

K\.4ituiuil with that instrument, the granules appear elongated, 

».. 1 .1. iiiv|j:iilnrly ovate; being tlat, iboy present but iittlt* lateral 

; the linoH which mark the surface are tolerably disiinet, but 

^ i>.'»orib« segmeutA of circles ouly, and the bilum, which 10 



nsuallv very indistinct ami sometimes invisible, is placed at the 
nuTow extreuiitj of uacb granule. In size the panicles var^ codb1« 

Fig. K 

Crunu UTOWTOOl. eommonlj- ilenomlnmtod TmA lodU ArrovrooL Dnvn with 
the CuticfK Loddi^UMl irufiiifi«tl 1'40 diunvUn. 

derably. but many uf tfaem much exceed the loj^est cootained in 
MftraiMa arruwroot. 

Curcuma arrowroot, therefore, is distinguished from Maranta 
arrnwrooi bv the Mze and form of the granules, the position of the 
hrtum. find the inromplete ringfi seen nn the surfatvs of the granules. 
Curcuma arrowroot is cnmmnnlv called Knst India arrowroot, the 
same name being sometimes aiiphed to Maranta arrowroot cultivated 
in the East, and sent to this country; we have thus two dininct 
species of arrowroot, of difierent cjualilies and value, confounded to- 
gether under one name. 

Tacca Arrowhoot. 

T&cca nrrowrool is obtained from the tubers of Tacca oceanica^ a 
native of the South Sea Islands, afYer the chief of which, Tahiti or 
OtufaeitCf it is usually deugnatcd. 



According to Ellis*, it grows on the high sftndjr biuilu near the 
9e«. or on ttie sides of the lower mountains. 

In Foreira'* " Elements of Materia Medica" the followinif account 
U given of the preparation of the fecula : — "At Tahiti tbw la pro- 
cure<l hj washing the tubers, scrapin;; off their outer skin, and then 
rtnlueing ifaem to a pulp by friction on a kind uf rasp, uiikde by 
windins conrue twine (formed of the eoec^a nut fibre) regularly round 
aboanl.f The pulp \» washed with sea water ibrongb a sieve, made of 
the tibrous web which protects the young finndofthe cocoa nut palm. 
T^e ctrained li<pior is reueiveil in a woo<1en trough, in which the 
fvoUU is deposited; and the supernatant Itfjuor being pour»:d off, 
Iho «cilintent is formed into bulls, which are dried in the sun fur 
Iwelve or twenty-four hours, then broken and reduced bo powder, 
which is spread out In the sun to dry." 

Fig. no 

TaCO* ATTOVrDOl, cftlM ammlljr TklilU nr ou).«lte ttiruwrocA- Drawn with Um 
CuncTft Lui:idit, bikI tn«(nl£cU '£lo Uianivtcra. 

Tln^A arrowroot is u while, stHrcU-Iiku powder, having a alijchtlr 
luUaiy odour. The granules resemble souiewhat those of sago meal, 

• 'i KMearchM. 

. iiixt Lilt! tlud of the raol li Kraped o^T by « cowry tbell, and Ihe root tfara 
• . I. i.r of coral. 



but are Tery much sinKlIer ; when viewed sideira^ii, tlicy are muller- 
sh«p«il, with truncate or dihednil baws, and when seen endways ihey 
appear circular, and occa.«>iijnaUy angular or polyhedrnl. The rings 
are fev and indistinct, and the hilum circular, someliuicB tiasured m 
a stellatt* manner. 

TaccA arrowroot has been sold in London for some years, in pack- 
ages, an "arrowroot prepared by the native converts of ihe missionary 
etations in the South Sea lafands. ' It is sometimes spoken of* as 
"WiUiams's arrowroot," after the rnissionarr of that name. 

The sliglitly musty odour whtcli it usually posseases shows that it 
is not in general prepared wirh quite the same amount of care as 
is bestowed on Maranta arrowroot. 


Mamihot Abbowroot. 

The flotir or farina of Manihot tUiiiasima, the plant which yields 
'* tapiocii," is sometimes imported into this country, under the name 
of "Brazilian arrowroot." 

To the application of the word arrowroot to the fecuU of this plant 
there exists no objection, since it resembles closely the other arrow 
roots in its propertiea. 

The description of Manihot utilutnima^ the Cassava or tapioca pinnt, 
andof the manner in which the fecula is first obtained, and subscquentHy 
converted into the substance called tapioca, we shall reserve until 
we come to treat, in a distinct report, upon " Tapioca and xis Adul- 

Manihot arrowroot, like the other kinds already described, may be 
distinguished by the size, fonn, and other characters of its constituent 
granules, which resemhle somewhat closely those of Tncoa arrowroot, 
Dut are considerably smaller, with a larger proportion of granules, 
which exhibit a circular outline, us seen in the field of the microscope : 
the hilum is usually fissured. 

The price of tapioca to the public varies from 6(/. to lOrf. the 
pound ; now, as greater time and labour are expeudetl iu the manu- 
facture of this substance than is required for the preparation of the 
arrowroot, the price of the latter ought to be still less than this. 

Potato Asbowboot. 

PotAto flour, or arrowroot, soiuetimcs called Brititk or EngU»h 
arrowroot, is prepared by ra.Hping and grinding the well deiinsed 
tubers of Solanum titherovtun into a pulp. This is repeatedly wahhed, 
and the water strained through a sieve, which contains the cellular 
tissue, and allows the starch to pass through. After a time the starch 
is deposited at the bottom of the vessel, is again well washe<l. and 
finally dried. 

Potato starch forms a white and somewhot gliateniiig powder. 



which cncklefl like genuine Maruita BTrowroot when pressed between 
the fingers. 

The gr&nulea v&rj greatly in size and ahape : some are very naall 
and circular, oihers large* ovate, or oyster shaped. The larger granules 

Fig. Ill 

PoTAtv SirewTOOt, comisooly ttUtd Dritiih urowrooL I>rmwD witb Utt I 

exhibit numerous very distinct concentric rings, and the hilum, 
whicb is small, but well defined, is situaled in the narrow extremity 
(tf Oiich granule : not unfreouently graniiles may be observed of an 
oval form, divided by a fine line into two portions or 8cj>mentfi, each 
nf which is provided with a hilum. We have noticed the same com- 
pound granule in some of the other arrowroots, particularly the Tacca 

The granulw of potato arrowroot difler from tliose of the previously 
described starches, in their larger size, in iheir form, and in the 
number and distinctness of the concentric rings which each granule 
presents to view. 

No means e:tist by which potato arrowroot may he diaiingulshed 
so satisfactorily as by the microscope ; yet it is proper to state, it has 
been observe*! that this itubstance is acted upon by certain reagents 
in a manner different from Marania arrowroot : Mixed with twice its 



Mght of concentrflted hvdpochlarJc aci(l» Maruita arrowroot yields 
an opaque paste ; whereas that formed witb yiotato arrowroot is trana- 
parent and jelly-like. When boiled v'nh water and Bulphurie acid 
the Utter evolves a peculiar and somewhat disagreeable odour, which 
i« ont the case with the former, when treated tn the «aine manner. 
Tjostlvi alcohol extract±> from potato flour an acrid oil, not contained 
in the fecula of Maranta plant. 

Potiiro arrowroot is the cheapest of all the ttarclies regarded aa 
arrowroots, the retail priee varying fVom 4ti. to 6d. per pound. AI- 
fhough a cheap and useful article of diet, it is of course inferior to 
Maranta arrowroot. 

Akdm AmmowRooT. 
Arum arrowroot u procured from the tubers of Antm manil/jhtm^ 
the common "cuckoo pint/' "wake robing*" and *Mords and ladies:" 



'■'' %#^^^^ 


it is prepared chiefly in Portland island ; hence it is generally called 
'* Portland arrowroot." 

The mode of its preparation is rerj similar to that adopted with 




the other arrowroots; the tubers are pounded in a mortar, the pulp 
{»eflte«lly washed, and the water snbsequenlJy strained. As f he tubers 
are very aer'ul, great oare w required in the wasliinw and straining of 
this arrowroDt, so that the acridilj may be coniplelclj' rt*niovcd. 

The starch granules of Arum arrowrcwt arc very small, and, except 
in sire, ihey resemble very closely those ot'Tacca arrowroot; but this 
difference is sutlicieiilly coti?t(ani and considerable to ensure the ready 
identiBcation of the two kiDd.^. 

Strictly speaking, the word arrowroot may be applied to every 
pureslari'h, that is, every article consifitin;; onlynf stan-h the proiluce 
of one plant. Now pure starch may be obtained from nejirly any 
p^rain or plants containing starch in considerable amount, aa from 
wheats rye, pwise^ rice^ &c.; hence we may have arrowroot procuretl 
from each of the grains named as well as a variety of others. 

A very excellent arrowroot has recently been made fnmi Indian corn^ 
and ia sold under the name of *'■ Oswego Prepared Cam" 

On the AouLTBBATioiKS or Abeowroot, 
A3 arrowroot is used in making pudding*t, cakciv 8nc» its adulter- 
ations may be considered with those of other articles of the dinner 

The adulterations to which arrowrijot is subject consist, first, in the 
mixing together of arrowroots of different kinds and of different 
commercial value; and, second, in the admixture with genuine atrow- 
rool of other starches not usually recnjjnised as arrowroot, and of 
low price : occasionally starches not arrowroots are substiiuied lor 

The adulterations of arro^vrnot arc usually practised at home. From 
evidence kindly furnished inc by Mr. Day, of Old Cavendish Street, 
it appears, however, that nut unfrenuently it is mixed with inferior 
starches, as those of potato and sago, in the West Indies. 

Results of the Exawituttion of Samples. 

Of Fifty samples of arrowroot subjected to microscopical exami- 
nation, no less than twenty-two were adulterated. 

In suteen samples the adulteration ctmsisted in the addition of a 
single article, wueh cheaper in price, and very inferinr in quality, to 
genuine nrrowroot, this, in t^n instances, being potato Jtour; in five, 
sago meal; and in one case tapioca starch. 

In five samples it consisted in the employment of two different 
articles, potato flour and sago meat. 

In two instances three different star<;he5 were employed in the adul- 
teration — viz., itotato fioar, mco meal^ and t/ipioca xtarch or fectda. 

Ten of the arrowroota contained acarcelif a ftftrtitle of genuine A/ii- 
ranta or West [tulian arrowroot^ for which lliey were sold. Osecun- 
sisted almost entirely of stigo meal; two of potato flow und sogo metd; 



hto of jtotato Jimtr^ wgo meal^ anil tapioca ntarch ; one of tapioca starch ; 
Mttd /uMT weru cumpofteU uniirely of potato armwroot or starcb. ^ 

On the Detection of the Adulterations of Arrottroot. 

Tbe luIulteracionB practiced u[H>n arruwroot are all of tbcm readilj 
discoverable by meanii of the microscope. 

The structure and characters of potato starch hare already been 
described and figured at p. S'20. ; those of sa^o are so at p, 325^ 
and of tapiocu at p. 320. Tbe grauules of sago starch are of 
considerable size, either ovate or more usually somewhat inutler- 
fihupi'd, rounded at one oxtrLunity, the other being truncated or etse 
teruiiiiatiiiK in a diheilrul suiuuiit ; the hilum is placed in the larger 
and rounded [lart of the uraniile, is usually surrounded by a distinct 
rinji. and is oirculiir^ cracking freqiienlly in jl radiate niauner. 

The strong inditL-einent which exists to substitute j>otatn starch and 
sago meal for the hi'tier descriptions of arrowroot -will bii evident 
when it is known that these starchi's may be purchased wholesale at 
eoDiething like '2d. per lb., while as much as 'is. 6</. and even St. 6it, 
is chiirged fur the articles so often falsely denominated West India 

It ihuH appears that, In ihe useful article arrowroot, the public is 
extensively uefniudcd of its mnney, and the revenue of its income. 

The duty on arrowroot has been recently replaced ; it is now only 
4hd. per cwt., whether from a fori^iirn or British fMssession, being the 
same duty its is paid on all kinds of liour and meal. 

The quantity of this article imported was, in 1854, 14,905 cwts.; in 
1(^5, 12.442 cwts. Uetaiued for home consumption in 1854, 16,334 
cwts.; and in 1855, 13,0B» cwts. 


The farinaceous substance sago is obtnineil from the sterna of 
several palms: that which reaches this countrv is mostly derirtsd 
from species belonging to the genera Sagus and Saf^verwt. 

Of the genus Sagus there are two species, S. Itrvit and S. pemina. 

Sago Isvis inhabits tbe islands of the Indian Arcliipel3;;o, Sumatra, 
and Uorneo, growing spontaneously in low, swampy lands. 

Udxbureh ("Flora indica'*) stales that from the pith of this tree 
•'the granulated sago we meet with in Kurope U niede." 

** A large quantity of granular sago is proparcd from this species, 
in Sumatra espceifllfy, the peninsula of MuJueca, and in Horneo. It 
is chieJly cxportc«l to Kurope, Bengal, and China. The iarina whieh 
is brougDt from Link on the norihern coast of Sumafers, although in- 


T 2 



ferior in whiteness to that of Borneo, is mucb sought af^er on bccovbI 
^of its bein*; less friable. It commonly fetches twice the price of tb< 
latter."— Perfrra. 

It df>"*s nnt appear from Pcreira whether any of the sago obuined 
from S. gfmina reaches this country. "This, the Malar sago naliB> 
ifl the tree, the pitli of which is the staff of life to the iDbibituu 
of the Moluccas." — Roxburgh. 

Sago of pood quality is also obtained from Sagverus stuchanftf. 
an inhabitant of the same localities as the uC her palms ^l(;nllOt)^l■ 
Whether it is ever imported into this country we know nut. 

The sago of commerce is brought to England from Singapore in 

It exists in the forms of raw Mgo meal, sa^o floor, and granuUleJ 


Raw Mogo meal is procured in the Moluccas as follows:— Wb« 
sufficiently mature the tree ia cut down near the root, divided into 
pieces six or seven feet long, each of which is split down the midiDe: 
tiie pith is then extracted, and, with an instrument of baml>oo orhirf 
wood, is reduced to powder like sawdust; it is mixed with water, >m 
the mixture strained throu;rh a sieve which retains the o-llaltf 
tissue of tlie pith. The straini'd liquor contains the farinn, whicb, aft* 
beinff deposited, is washed tmue or twice, and is then fit for uw*. 

Ornnulated nago is prepared by mixinj; the meal with water, lad 
so converting It into a paste, which is then granulated unualli ^ 
passins it through a sieve. In most cases the granules as tbejrw 
from Uie sieve are received into a shallow heated iron Tesael, sotbsi 
(bey are partially baked. 

Soffo Jitmr is prepared from sago meal by repeated siAing lad 
washing ; it is also usually bleached hy means bv chloride of lime- 

The farina or starch ofsftflrn, examined with iLe micrttscnpe, i»ie» 
to consist of cranules of considerable size and clongateil form, ben; 
usually rounderl at one end which is the larger, and, owing to tk 
mutual pressure of the particles, truncate at the other exireniij- 
Sometimes the fucette is single, when the granules are niorcurlrW 
muUer-shaped ; in others there is double fucette : the hilum, whenpflf" 
feet, is uin^ular; but it is often cracked, when it appears ae a slit, ftfl*. 
or star. Surroun<ling the bilum, a few indistinct rings may ofuttf 
be perceived in some nf the granules. Examined with the |wJtf^ 
•cope, the particles usually exhibit a black cross, tk« hilnm bcutf tk 

Granulated sago is met with in two statea, comiDon or hro9%. •*' 
pearl; and nf each of these kinds there ore several kinds, di{r*nngialk( 
size and colour of the grains. In all, the starch granule^ differ mack 
from those of raw sago ; they are much larger and lew reffular, rf^ 
due to the heat employed in the preparation of granulat«cai^ 



■■CdUM SB 4lani«t«n. 

withpoTAto Starch. Uaaolly a factitious sago prepared froin potato sUrcb 
Id substituted for true sa^a 

Pereira boa the following remarks in relation to factitious sago : — 
" This is prei»ared in both Germany and in France, at Gentilly 
near Paris, with potato starch. It occurs both white and colnured. 

" I have two kinds of white factitious s*^n, one small jsrained, the 
grainH of which are scarcely so larfee as white mustard scods; the 
other Iurf!o f^rainod, the (STflina of which arc intcrniediarc in sisc be- 
tween white mustard seeds and coriander seeds. The first I met with in 
English commerce; fortbeotherl am indebted to Professor Guibourt. 

" 1 have aliin two kind}< of coloured factitious sa^o, both larye 
grained; one re<l *« *he other brownish f, and sumewhat resembling 
browniith pearl sago." 

Pereira also states that he received from Prof. Guibourt sample** 

* *' TVila I* prrhapi tbc kind mvfitiuonl by rUmliv, aj being UlilAed lagu colourmi with 

t " lliU li pt^xpfl ib« brow* •ort of Gorman aAgo ntwl« from potato •urcll, ind Mid br 
DIarlMcli to b* colourail «ljb Uant Hiiar." 

'-— — T 3 



of " Sagou lies Maldives de PUnche donn*' jinr \n\" and "Sagou de 
la Nouvelle Guinee dtiime par lui," and tbut he found ihem to Iw 

Fif. 111. 

Jlon* gmmuUM of Baoo, tltcr*J br h«mt. m In mtking {miii«bir«cf ngo. Mt^niflcd 
:c2fl diuneun. 

factitious sagos prepared from potato starch. The prains of the New 
Guinea sago were bright red on one side and whitish on the oihcr. 

Of thirtt/ eaniplos of pranulaied sago giibmiitcd to examination^ 
five were found to he factitioWt and to consist o^ potato flour. 

Oh the Detection of the Adtd/firationjt of Sago. 

The microscope cun alonp detect the adulrcratinns of sago flour and 
^anulatt'd sajro, and especially distinguish factitious from genuine 
Mgo. The charucTcrs of siigo starch have already been described and 
figured, as also have ihose of potato at p. 320. ; in ^anidated 
sago, whether true or fiifse, the granules are of course much altered; 
those of potato are (>woneii, irregular in shape, sometinies ruptured, 
and the striae effaced, &c. 

Import duty, 4^*/. per cwt. Quantities imported: 1854, 128,789 
rwts.'; 1S55, 92,800 cwts. Home consumption : 1854, 121,046 cwts.; 
18.'5rj. 108,499 cwts. 




#W*Mm0 «at*i eonipB« tJ of ^tPlaf ojImt. MagnMcd 2S5 dl«inttfr*> 


TuR article!! known u Ctiss&TA meal and bread, Caaaavft, Tapioca or 
BriLzilun arrowroot and Tapiocn, are obtained from difTorcnt species of 
the penui Manihot^ one of tne Euphorhiacca, One of tbese is -V. aft'- 
lisjtima^ the bitter Cassava, a nHtivc of the Brazils, where, us well as in 
other ports of South America, it U cultivated. 

The starch is associated in the large tuberous root with a poisonous 
milky juice containing: hjdrocjanic acid and a bitter acrid principle. 

Another species is Maniftnt Aipi^ or aweet Cassava, the juice of the 
root of which is not poisonous. 

A third species is M. Janipka^ the root of which ti also devoid of 
poisonous properties. 

Cassava meal is prepared as well from the bitter or poisonous species 
as the sweet and innocuous: the root is grated, and the pulpy mass sub- 

T 4 


jected to pressure to get rid of the juice : the residue; dried and 
pounded, constitutes Casasva meal, and of ihis the bread is made. 

The expressed juice dcpoeiis after a time the farina or starch, froa 
which tapioca is prepared. 

This furina, washed and dried, constitutes ^lanihot or Brazilian 

Exsmiiied under the microscope, the granules are seen to be of 
small size, for the most part single, but sumetitnes and in the plant 
itself alwiys united inio compound grains, each compotied of cw<^ 
three, or luur granules. Hence, tike tfaoiK* of sago, tbej are usuallf 
muller-sUnpetl, althuugh when seen endways the/ appear circular ; the 
bilum is distinct. No differences have been obsenrea in the character^ 
ufthe starch of bitter and sweet Cassava. 

Fig. I1& 


6^ e^ 


SUKta ffftitulM of MAfnuoT DTtuiMMA, Of Tttpltca. MicmlStS ttl dtuneUfm. 

Manihot arrowroot is usually importefl into ibis country from Rio 

In the manufacture of tapioca, the meul while moist is heated, and 
then dried on hot plates: this treatment of course cauies the starcib 
granules to swoll, and many of them (u burst ; they at the same time 
adhere together io small irrc";ular masses. 




Manihot arrowroot or starcb is occasionally adulterated by admix- 
ture with other st&rcbes, as those of »ogo aad potato. 

Fig. 117. 

Stanh itmBalw of T^pfacot altcrvd by the h»t vmpliiyed fn lu prep«r«Uim. ti%m' 
MllidXXS OtuiHCen. 

Of TtteniU'three samples of tapioca examined, two were ascertained 
to conat:!ft oiAogo^ and one of potato starch, 

Manihnc stiin-h is more frequently used as an adulterant, especially 
of Marantu urrowroot, than i» ilaelf adulLvrated. 

On the Detection of the AduUeraiiom of Tapioca. 

The only means of detecting the adulterations of Manihot arrow- 
moL, and of tapioi'a, is furniBhed by the microscope : with thnt instru- 
ment their detection is rendered easy and certain. The characters of 
»af;o ntarch are described and figured at p. 325., and those of potato 
Mtarch at p. 320. 

Import duty, sume as Su^o, Arrowroot, and Flour, i^d, per cwt. 

Quantities imported; IH54, 3,501 cwts. ; 1855, 4,473 cwu. Home 
consumpliun: 1854, 4,444 cwts.; 1855, 4,305 cwta. 



TiiK ftrtjples rofL-rred to under the above head being proprietary, 
and there: being no recDjtfiiiseti receipts or formularies for their com- 
poaitiun, they *io not pr*jperly ijouxe under the be«l of nrticles of 
cnnicuinpliuii liable to adulteraMon. Neverllielesa, the public will doubt- 
less be glad to be made acquainted with the composition of the cbJef 
of the^e articles, especially tbose which are described as being possessed 
of almost miroculou!! powers of curing disease, and wbi<'h are sold 
under certain hi;!h sounding name<t, und at exorbitant prices. I<nttl 
the microscope was applied by ourselves to the discrimination of dif- 
ferent vej:claljle subst^uices, it wa« not possible to have determined, by 
any known nieuii8, the euuiposiuun of many of tbe preparations about 
to b« noticed. 

The principal of these preparations are the following :— 

Wharton $ Ertalenta. Sold at 2*. 9d. per lb. 

A anmple of this article, examined, conHisted of a mixture of Uie 
French or German ieniilt with a substance resembling nuzti«, or Imlian 
com mfai. 

It has been stated thai the farina of a grass eal led " T)ari," " Durra,** 
&c,, has been discovered in either Enralenta or Kcvnlenta. 

We have succeeded in procuring a sample of this article, and find 
it to resemble very closely maize in struelure. 

"Oari" is occasionally imported into \hh country, and sold at about 
twenty-four shillings per quarter, that is, at the rate of rather moi*e 
than one halfpenny per p<mnd. 

We received from Ur. Pereira some time previous to his deceftMi 
the following infurmation respecting ** Durra." 

** i>ari, 1 suspect means Dnrra^ also sjiell Doura^ Dorn, &c. It is 
a corn used by the Arabs, and is cultivated in the south of Europe. It 
is the llolcua durra xativtu of Forskiil, the Surghum vulgare of some 
oilier writers, 

** Its meal is said to resemble that of Indian corn. Now it deserves 
notice, that a German microscopist recently stiite<i that he found the 
meal of Indian coi-n in ervalmtOy or revaienta, I forget which. Did be 
mistake it for the Sorghum ? '" 

For description and figure of Durra, see pp. 289 — 292. 

Du Barry M RevaierUa. Sold at the same rate as the Ervalenta. 

Three »uniples of this article were examiiieil : one consisted of a mix* 
ture of tbe r^rf or Arabian \enu\ ami barley Jiour ; the i^econd, of the 
same ingredients mixed with tvgnr; and tbe third sample consiBt«d of 
the Arabian Imtil and barley flour, with the addition of .saline matter, 
chiefly taii; it also possessed a peculiar taste, as though flavoured with 



Butler 8c M'CuUoch't Prtoared Lentil Powder^ \s. Gd. per lb., was 
found to coiiBist entirely of tn« French or German lentil. 

Edtcardg lirothers Arabian Hepaienta, In. per Ih., was ascertained 
to consist of lentil fioicder, probably of the yellow and retl lentil mixed. 

NevUfti Patent Flour of LetUilti^ 1*. |H»r lb. 

Two samples of tliis article were examined : one comtsted of the 
red lentil and wheal Jlour^ and the other uf tbe same species of lentil 
and hurley Jionr, 

Lentils belong to the natural family of plants, Leguminoxa^ which 
includes the several kinds of beans ami peas ; they resembU*, to a very 
great extent, in colour^ structure, taste, and properties, iho coTnmon 
pea; so great, indeed, is the aiuiitarity in organisation, that it is diffi- 
cult to discriminate between them, even by the aid qf the niicri)5CO|)e. 

Lentils, peas, beans, &c.t oil contain a considerable umuuni of nitro- 
genised matter, iu tbe form ^t Legutnine ; when taken as an article of 
tiiet* they are found by most (o be sometvfaat dilficult of digestion, to 
occasion distension and Batulency, and to be slightly aperient. These 
properties and effects are so similar in the ca.<<e of each, tliat it is almost 
impossible to draw any decided line of demarcation between them. 

" Purified leniils *' are prepared under a patent, by Mr. Nevill, who 
formerly supplied Du Barry and Co. with the article, at 10/. per ton ; 
that is, Rt about one penny and a fraction per pound. 

Tbe admixture of barley and other iluurs with lentil powder is 
not to be reganled in the light of nn adulteration, since the cost of 
barley flour exceeds that of tbe lentil, being about 13/. per ton. 

The object of this mixture is chiefly to diminish the strong flavour 
of the lentils, and which is so disagreeable to many. Messrs. Du 
Barry and Co. still more ciTcctually accomplished this object, in some 
cases, by the addition of f^ugar. 

Kxtreines meet : lentils, being somewhat cheaper than peas, are 
supplied to many of our workhouses, to be used in the preparation of 
soup, &c. Thus they are not only consumed by puupers, but by the 
T\vh^ tiie chief difference being, that the latter fretjuenlly pay 'I*. 9c/. 
per pound for them. 

As the cost of most of the prepared lentil powders, sold as Erva- 
lenta, Revulenla, &c. — viz., 2«. 9f/ per pound — forms a very serious 
ofast»cle to iheir use, suppotiing that in any renpcct it is desirable that 
they should be more generally consumed, we have framed the two fol- 
lowing receipts, whereby a considerable saving of expense ma/ be 
effected : — 

\U Receipt* 

Ked or Arabian lentil flour - - -2 lbs. 

Barley flour - • - - - I lb. 

Salt - - - - • • 3 ox. 

Mix Into a uniform powder. 


The red lentit may be obtained of almost every corn chandler, at 
al)out -UI. per quart ; the cost of u pound of our Ervolenta would be 
about *2d. per pound ; and it is perfectly clear, from the analyses 
which we have given above, that whatever may be the advantani 
posseaseil by the rauch-vaunted Ervalentaa, Revalentas, &c^ inat 
our article must contain them all. 

Pea flour 
Indian com flour 

Salt - 

2nd Receipt. 

Blix u before. 


3 02. 

T*hc characters of lentil flour, and the composition of Ervalenta, 
Kcralenta, and of Lcatb's Alitneutury Farina are exhibited in tku 
following cngravingfl. 

A!i. Hi. 

ftamplt Bf WRAxrair'* E>ru.Rjrr\. u It •ppc«n under th« mlcnwMpt. 
, MBrch corpUM-Iri at thf Fhrhi ii l Bntii. : /■ /i, fntfrnK*'* (*^ lt»t 'hnsk i r r. 
MMcb grutuJm ftnil mmm t t of tbt cwImIuioc nvembUnit Inoiax uuhji asAL. 



Being 5atis6(;(l that lentils and |»oas do not diSer in flieir pro- 
perties to any great extent, we hure devised the ubove receipt to 

Pit. 119. 

Sample of Do IUit7'* Rvt(LI5T1 AaABicA. 

It a.ftwdb (rvnoW flf the AxAAuy i.C-<<Ttu •omc loow. ottwn lylnf lothc oelliaf 

tfi* ctUulow 4 t h mtmnb franaUt of BAIUJtT rt-OOB. 

meet those coneii in which any difficulty may be met with in pro- 
curing the red lentil, which however is now very commonly kept by 
I'orn cbandlera. 

From the several preparations of lentil flour noticed, we will pass 
tJ) describe certain other 

Farinacboub Foods. 

Gardiner g Alimentary Preparation consisted of Tery finely ground 

LeaiKa Alimetdary Farinn, or Homceopalhie Faririaceons Foody con- 
Histed principally of \cheut /four, glip:htly btdced. sweetened with 
^vgar^ together with potato ntarcK Indian com meal^ and tnpiiKa. 

Semnliva consists in some cases of the gluten of wheat mixed with 
a proportion of wheat flour; in others, of certain descriptions of 
wheat flour only, rich in gluten. 


Fmd ra 

CBtuvlj of hidttd 

Prmea Arlkm^i Pa 

The Phmce of WUe^t Food was c m in>o>cd entirety of point<> 

UnrtU Porimtcetma Flmr, of trMeatJIotter, kmkid. 

Mn*timan$ \mtritiauM Parma oockftMed entirelj of foialo /low 
arti6ciallj ooloored of* pink or rosj tint, the colooriikg matter being 
pr«>T»»Wr ro»e puJL 

Bntm*t Pftrinaeeoms Pood oaoaitHed oC vheat JUmr, baked^ 

Badert Sttnjie wi« conposed of irAeo/ Jiuttr, sweetened witIi 

Hiut^» f'itmpuHiuUd Farina poMCMed a timUar composition, 
Jonfi% PaU-rU Flttur, coniist«d of vheai Jia^w^ tartaric acid, and 
carUnuite of toda. 


Plumhe'4 Improved Farinaceous Food wns composed of tetitt ctr pett 
Jionr^ with u little Tatxa arrourroot^ some potato jUftfr^ and a very Iilllo 
Maranta arrowroot. 

Lastly, Palmer's X'itarobt)ra»t cnnsistcd of a mixture, sweetened 
with sugnr. of the red or Arabian Until and wheat fiour. 

The |>ubtic is now in a position to jud^u of the degree of relation 
whicli exiiitA between tlie hi^U-Koundin;; titles bestowed on many of 
the preparations noticed in this Report, their actual conipositiun, and 
the properties, so loudly vuuuted, alleged to be j»os*ess.e<l bv tliem ; 
it will also be ablu to Ju<l^e somewhat of the extent tu which tlie 
po(k^i i>j made to ftuffer ihrou<rh these health restoring, life pro; 
longing, easily digestible arlidea and compounds. 

On THE Detection or the CouposiTioif of Propbietart 


In the majority of cajea the only means by which the enrnposilirm 
of these articles is lo be determined is afforded by the microscope. 
Br tliis instrument the starches of the Aeveral llourn and arrowroots 
of which they are i'()iii|>osed can all be idtMitificd. The characters of 
nearly all these have already been described and figured. 


The next articles of the Breakfast Table to the adulterations of 
which we deaire to direct attention are Anchovies, and Potted Meats 
and Fish. 

We fin<l but little, in works on the adulteration of food, in reference 
to the substitution of inferior kinda of fish for this much esteemed 
variety ; although, if common report is to be creditetl, but few articles 
of consumption are more subject to substitution and adulteration than 
the anchovy, whether in the entire state or in the forms of paate and 

On the present occasion we have to treat of the entire fish only. 

Before proceeding to give the re6ulu» of the examination and 
analyses of various snniples of anchovies, as vended in the melropolis, 
we insert an original 6gure, as also a scieniido description, of the fish, 
taken from Tarrell's excellent work on the British Fitih^s, 

" Generic Characters^ — Distin^uiMhe^l from tlie herring in havinir 
the heud pointed: the upper juw tlie longest; the mouth deeply 

divided ; tbc opening 

ing bAckwards befaizul the 
of the eyes; the gspe 
chial ttpeituree wm 
the Tenrral fine in ad 
of the line of the con 
went of the dor&&l ; t_ 
smooth ; branchiost^oiu 

" I have follovvd « 

Henung, in preserviocloty 

anchovy the old uim h 

which It waa foriDeriT katmi 

It waq cnlle.1 l^jfcoitamk 

^ from the fom» of tt^ Dyafts 

J and £nfrraulijt mcmtialm 

I pecAuse, from it.s bittenta^ 

5 It was supposed to carrr tt 

i gall in irs bead. For'tU 

I reaaoDf the bead, aa weO tf 

{ ibe entrnila, are 

[ when the fish is pid 

■ " Theiinchovy is a 

I fish in the MediterraneaB; 
, from Greece to Gibrahir, 
i and was well known to tk 
Orpfksfind Komam,bYwfci« 
theli,,uor prepared fTom il. 
called ffarum, was in gnA 
estimation. Itseaetern rmw* 
H extended into the BUek 

"The fishing fop them n 
carried on during the nigkl. 
and lighta are iwed wicii tk 

" The flnebovy is cotUBOl 
on the coasts of PortngJ. 
Spam, and France ; it oixvn, 
I have no doubt, at the Ckn- 
nel Islands, ajid h^ bed 
taken on the Hampihire 
coas t, and in theBrW 
^^^!!SF} J.° t^e AppetMti 
to Willuehby'8 wort, it a 
mentioned as havini; b<«a 
taken on the const. ofM^alw; 
Pennant obtained it nearbii 
own residence, at DowniM 
in Flintshire; and Mr. Bidh 
eno ha* very recenUy obtaiocd 
several on the coa,t of GU- 


morganshire. It is 8niJ to be «oIil fre<|iicntly in Liveri>o()l market, (ind 
is reporti'il lo be nt this iini« nii iiibiibitant of the piece of water below 
blacKWAll, called UngenhiLll Reach. 

" ll8 range to the north is extenwye, as it is occasionally taken in 
the Bultit^, iind on the coast of Norway; but ie not included by 
Linnieus in his Faums Sutt^ica. 

"The nnrhovy appears toattain a much larger size than has usually 
been nec-onleil to il : fri)m ftmr to five inches in length is the more or- 
dinary size ; but Mr. Couch says, * 1 hitvt; seen it in the Oornifrh seoa 
of the length of seven incites and n half; and I have met with speci- 
mens from autumn, through tlie winler, to the middle of Maruh. It 
is therefore probable tl»at a fishery nti^ht be established with good 
prospect of sucft'ss, for though the nets cmployeil fur other fish can 
take but few uf them, the numbers found in the stomaclis of the 
whiting?, and other ravenous fisbcis show that they arc iu considerable 

"The anchovy is immediately reeogniscd amnn^ the species of the 
family to which it belongs by its sh»rp*|iointed hi-ad, with llie upper 
jaw coniiidLrably the lonsest. The length of the head, compared with 
the lenuih of the body alone, is as one to three ; the depth of the body 
but two thirds of the length of the head, and compared lo the leh;:th 
of the whole liiih, is as one to seven ; the firstt ray of the dorsal 6n 
arises half way between the poitilof the nose and the end of the tleshy 
portion of the tail ; the third ray of the dorsal fiu, which is the Ion<;est, 
IS of the same lenjith as the ba^ne of the fin ; the [tectornl fin aniall ; 
the ventral fins arise in a vertical line in advance of the commencement 
of the dorsnl fin, which is over the space between the veutrul and 
anal fins; the base of the anal fin is as lonp^ as the distttnce from its 
commencement to the origin of the ventral fins ; the rays short ; the 
tail deeply forked. The fin rays in number are — 

D, 14; P, 13; V, 7 ; A, 18; a 19. 

The breadth of the eye is one fifth of the length of the whole head; 
the peculiLirity In the comparative length of the jaws hns hecn pre- 
viously noticed ; the pill covers are elongated ; the scales of the body 
lar^ and deciduous ; tbe colrmr of the top of the hend and back bluci 
wiui a tinge of green; irides, gill covers, sides, ottd belly, sdvery 
white; the fins delicate in structure, nnd greenish white; the mem- 
branes connecting the rays almost transparent. 

** In a wrieii of notes on the occurrence of rare fish at Yarmouth 
and its vicinity, with which I have been favoured by Dawson Turner, 
Ewyy there is mention of a specimen of the anchovy, taken on the beach, 
which measured six inches and a half in length ; an additional proof 
of the large size acquired by this fish on our shores.'* 

To the above we would add a description of the condition of the 
true anchovy when bottled. 

The head and intestines are removed ; the scales and fins, with the 




exception of iKo peotornlfi, am flilowetl to remain ; the fish is of small 
■izt', iilvvry, ami raihor Ikt, thii line t»f the back slightly cupveil, and 
the rtesh is usuiilly of a pink or t^ahinin colour, the depth viirying con- 
siderably in (liflereiit siitnples auui^rJing to a;Te : if an anchovy be 
three months old, it will be pule ; if »ix months, rather pink; and if 
twelve months, a beautiful deep piiik colour. 

The number of the dn-rays, whioh may be eounted in the fish in its 
preserved state, is greater than thiit ;.'iven in the description we have 
quoted; thus, when complete, the dorsal fin is composed i»f sixteen 
rays, the anul fin of nineieen, and the cumki of twenty-six rays. 

Anchovies are iraportcd in barrels, and are preserved in brine made 
with rock gait ; the buttling \a performed in this country, chiefly by 
wholesale pickle and Ii^th-suuce makers. 


Several kinds of fish are either substituted for, or mixed with, the 
genuine Gorgona anchovy. 

The chief of these are T>utchy French, and Sicilian Fish, and occasi- 
onally S'srflinei and Spratii, 

In niMition, the brine in which the first arc preserved is almost in- 
variably hi;rhly coloured with large quantities of bole Amtenian and 
Feuetinn red. 

Bole Armenian is a red ferruginous earth, often prepared artificially 
bj mixing together Veiieti:tn red and chutk. The reason of its being 
added tci nnuhovies, it is allcgod, la to improve the ajjpearanee of the 
fish ; but the real reason U to conceal the dirt contained in the brine 
whu-b (luiTounda the 

In entin^if anchovies some persona first wash the fish, bv which 
means they no doubt get rid of iiiiich ctf the red earth and dirt j but 
others eat the fish just as it comes uut of the brine. 

From an examination of fwettt^'viffki snuipWa of anchovies, mostly 
in bottles, it appears, 

That seven of the samples consisted entirely of Dutch fish. 

Tlint two consisted of u mixture of Dirrca risn and Anchovies. 

That the brine in hvatiythre*" of the samples was charped with 
either bole Armenian ot Vtuvtian retl^ the <pmntity vary in;; consider- 
ably in amount; but in most c:isi*s the brine was saturnted with 
these eiirthy p*>w«lers to such an extent flnit they might be obtained 
and collected from the bottom of the bottles nlmost by teaspoonfuls. 

It is not to be inferre<l that those samples iu which no Dutch fish 
were detected, consisted of the true anchovy, since we hare ascertained 
that two other kinds of fisli betides the Dulch are conimonlv iin- 

-ted and sold as *' true anchovies," and " real Gorgonas," — namely, 
ch and Sicilian fish. 



Now, we liave no iloaht but Umt the majority of the aliovc samples 
consisted entirely of one or ollitT of these fiali; wehesitale, however, to 
pronounce a poaiiive opinion in carh case. Although it is not dilli- 
ualt to distini^uish Freneh and Sicilian fish from the Gor^ona an- 
chovy, when firHt taken froru the barrels in which they are imported, 
yet when contained in bottles, the discrimination is often a matter of 
considerable dilGeulty^ and in many cases is even scarcely possible. 
This arises from the siiueczing and mutilation of the fish in (he pro- 
cess of boitlinpf. aa well us from the altered appearance due to the 
red earthy nuvtters with which they are c<imraonly corered. AVhether 
chose enga^C'l in the trade ore acquainted with any practical charac- 
ters by which the discrimination of the fish, even wqcq thus altered, 
may be eflecled, we know not. 

We have» however, much reason to think that Sicilian and French 
fish, notwiLhalanding their resemblance to the true anchovy, may be 
distinguished, by experienced peraons, even when bottled. Witli a 
view to dett^rmine this point we forwarded to a person engaged in the 
anchovy trade, twelve of the samples referred to, each being labelled 
with a dialinct number ; the following U bis Keport : — 

1. Gorgona. 

2. French fish. 

3. Ditto. 

4. Gorgona, not fine. 

5. Sicilian Fish. 

6. Gorgona. 

7. Dutch, inferior. 

8. Sicilian, good quality. 

9. Gorgona. 

10. Dutch Fish. 

11. Sicilian. 

V2. Sicilian, beat quality. 


If this list be correct, then not ohb thibi> or thk twkkty-jucut 


The practice of imparting an unTiaturally ret! colour to the fish and 
brine, by means of Venetian red and ImjIc Armenian, is in the highest 
degree reprehensible. To saturate an article of food with lor^^e quan- 
tities of earthy colouring matter, is objectionable on the score of 
cleanliness ; it is equally so as regards health, for this earth contains 
a large quantity of iron, ^ow, this medicine la not suited to all cases, 
and it may even, in some instances, be prwlueiive of mischief; at all 
events, when it is desirable to titke iron, we should prefer that it be 
prescribed under the advice of a physician, and not adiiuni-ftered in 
an article of food by our grocer, fishmonger, or Italian warehouse- 

Again, it occasionally happens that Venetian red contains red lead ; 
and although, in the analy^es we have made, we are happy to stato 
that we have not detected that j>oiiimioua metallic oxide in a lingle 
tampUt there is no question but that red lead is occasionally to be 
found in bottled anchovies. 

Anchovies, even when thus coarsely reddened, and put up in gloss 

X 2 



botlleflf are not particularly sightly objecta. Both for convenience 

and appeariinee, it wouM be much better thai they nLouU be enclosed 
in open-niouthetl earthen jars, which might be mft4le of different 
patterns, and tia ornumcntal oa de:»ired; bv this meADB the ne<:e«sii7 
for colouring would be done away with, and there would be no occa- 
sion to use wax and resin, themselves fre^piently coloured with red 
lead, to coat the corks, and Rime of which tiubstances, on the bottle:} 
being opened, usually And their way into the contents. Now that glass 19 
80 cheap, if bottles continue to be used, they should, at all events, be 
furnished with gloss stoppers in place of corfca. 

On thf Dfiteetirm of the Adulteratioks 0/ Awhomfs. 

The DiUck fish may be distingiusbed from the true anehovy, by 
its being invariably aeprived of its scales, by its large sixc, while 
flesh, general coarseness and by the very evident scale-marks which 
extend over the whole surface. The fins have the same dispositiun as 
the true anchovy, and the »amc number of rays ; and it is posjiible that 
this 6sh may be one of the genus Etigraulu^ of which there ore three 
or even more species. 

The French, and especially the Dutch, fish are mt only of much 
less value, but also greatly inferior as articles of diet t«» the true 
anchovy. The difference in iheir c«st may be e8timate<l by the fact, 
that dealers find it worth their while to mix them in dl^ercnt pro- 
portions in even the some bottle. There i^ no difficulty in distin- 
guishing the Dutch Ssh by the characters pointed out ubuve ; but 
it would be very difficult to discriminate butween (he linger sum- 
pies of the French anchovies, when denuded of their scales, ond 
that which in this article is denominated Dutch Jixh^ and hence we 
infer that the two may |H>ssibly l>e separate states and conditions of 
one and the same species. 

The French Fish is caught off the coiuts of Nantz and Nice, and is 
imported into this country in barrels packed in brine made with rock 


It closely resembles in its characters the true anchovy, and 
18 probably of the same genus. Like the anchovy, it is depnyed of 
its head ond intestines, but the scales, and not unfrequenlly the 
brachijd rays and pectoral fins, are entire. Moreover, the tilth is usu- 
ally somewhat larger, thicker across the back, tapers more towards the 
tail, and the flesh is much whiter than the Gorgona anchovy. These 
ditferences, however, are not sufficiently marked in general, to allow 
of this tish. when bf^tled, being sutisfoctorilv distinguished from the 
true anchovy by an ordinary observer. Its commercial value is 
about one half that of ilie Gorgona anchovy. 

The tSieiliari Fixh resembles the Gorgona anchovy very closely, 
rhich, by some, it is considered to be the young, it being smaller. 
*ier it be a state of that species, or of the same genus, we are 




not able to determine with certainty ; its value i> at least one third 
less than ihul of the Gorgona anchory. 

In none of the samples have we met with either tpraU or tardinety 
althoui^h there is nn dimht (hat both Oiese 6flh have been, and arc 
still occaaioiiiilly. sohl a£ real Gorgona anchovies. The sprat may be 
readily dislinguishefl from the nnchovv. by the dorsal fin which con- 
sists of seventeen rays, but more particularly by the position of tJie 
ventral fin, which is placed in a vertical line directly under the first 
dorsal iin-roy. 

The vardine is a short4>r and thicker fish than the anchovy ; it hu 
white flesh, and the relative position of the ventral and dorsal fins is 

On the Detection of Vetietinn BctI awl little A rmenian. — The presence 
of these earths is sufficiently indicated by the red colour of the brine, 
and by the colour snd earthy character of ttte precipitate. In order 
to oblflin ihem in a separate state, the fish should be repeatedly 
washed, the washings and the brine evaporated, tJie residue treated 
with water to dissolve out the salt, and then incinerated and weighed : 
finally the ash must be tested for iron and chalk according to the 
processes already given ; that for iron at p. 102., and that lor chalk 
at p. 101. 

Anchovies and all fish are free of duty on importation, and no re- 
turns are taken. 


PoTTBD meats and fish are adulterated, first, by admixture with sub- 
stances added for the sake of bulk, weight, and eheapncss; and second, 
with others designed to heighten their colour. 

Thus they arc sometimes adulterat4:d with large quantities of 
flour^ und in other cases, it is allied, with even ckaik and placer of 

Again, gpmtM and other cheap fish are often bruised up, and, after 
being sea.«iiDed, are sold either in the separate or mixed state fur rcul 
Gorgona paste. 

Lastly, the majority of these pastes are very commonly coloured 
with large (juanlilies of Venettan red and bole ArmeuuiH, 

z 3 



BB8ui;r8 07 thk £xAMTKATio:f or Samples. 

Twenty-eight ftaoiplea of polled meats and fish were examined, and 
with the following results : — 

Ut. That ihe samples of Potted Tongw and Ham were entirely free 

from aduUeralion. 
2nd. Thai four out, of the five samples of Potted Beef were artifidally 

coloured by menus of the red ejtrth> hole Armenian, 
3nl. That the whole of the samples of Potted Bloaters examined were 

highly L'oloureil with the before-named eariliy substance. 
4tb, That one nf the sonipLvs of Blnater Paste was adulterated in 

addition with a large proportion of starch or Jtour^ probably wheat 

llotir boiled. 
5th. That the entire of the samples of Anchontf Paste analysed were 

still more highly, and even \*ividly, eoloured with very lar^e quan- 
tities of bole Armeman. 
6th. That two uf the Anchovy Pastes were In addition adulterated 

with /fowr; one with a lurL'e per-cciitiige of wheat Jtoitr. 
7th. That of the twenty-eijiht wintpK's of Potted Meats and FUk 

subjected to analysis, no less than twenty-three were more or lesa 

impref^nated with the red earthy material, bole Armenian. 

Tins picture of the ndnUeration of potted meats and fish is surely 
bad and disgmceful enough. 

The difTerence in the appearflnce presented by the uncoloured 
samples, contrasted with those in which the bole Armenian had been 
added, wiia most striking, and usually suflifient to enaM*.' the observer 
to distinguish by the eye ulon^* the c«Hmples to whirh this scandalous 
addition had been made. While iii the one caf*e the paste was of a 
pale pink, and perfectly natural hue, in the other the colour was such 
aa the flesh, when pnnnde^l, of no fish or animnl ever presents, it being 
of a deep, earthy, and brick red. 

In a pr-evloui Report we showed one of the principal reasons 
why artificial eolourin" matters are employed in the ciise of Iwttlcd 
anchovies, iii to conceal the dirt contained in the brtno in which the 
fish is im[)orted. In the present instance there is not even this poor 
excuse; the only purpose f*erveil by the emjjloyraent of the bo!e Ar- 
menian being to cause the potted articles to present n striking ap- 
pearance, but one whicl) at the same time is, in our opinion, most un* 
naturat, and but liltte inviting. 

In ihQ case too of jtntted meats and fish, the ordonring injrredienls 
cannot, as in anchovies, in a measure be got rid of by washing; for 
since they ore incorjjorated with the paste^ they must be entirely 
consnini*d with the meat or fish. 

' practice uf adding large quantities of coloured earthy sub- 
licles of diet is dirty, injurious to health, and, in some^ 



€Tcn rlanprerous to life, cannot be doubled. The cliief medicinal 
{nfp*edfenL in bule Armeninn l» oxide of iron ; this, aIthou<rh not dan- 
f^erous. might in some Infiianet^s be prodiicllvc of prejudiciul ed'ects; 
but it sotnetimea happens that other red earth«i arc used, nnd these as 
well as uiso occasionally, although rarely, bole Armenian ilself, are 
contaminated with red lead. For (hif poijfonowt ntbstance each of the 
alfone twenty'eight samplea hare been xfpiiratfly aiuitlyseti^ withuut how- 
ever^ we are happy to stcUe^ a particle of it being ducovered in a fingle 

So long, then, 09 manufacturers continue to mix red earths with 
their {M>ttcd meats and fish, — these delicacies of the table, as ihcy arc 
commonly considered, f^o often had recourse to by the gourmand and 
the invalid to rou.«e a flu^'gijig appetite, — so long we recommend the 
public to refrain from purchasing them. 

The preparation nf potted meats and fish is so simple, that every 
housekevper wav, with a pestle and mortar and proper seasoning, 
make them herself without ditHculty. 

Mr. Kii^hardson, officer of the Local Board of Health of Newton 
Heath, near Manchester, gave the following* evidence, before the 
Coniiuitlee on Aduhcraiion, in regard to the addition of horseflesh to 
potted meata, sausages, &e. : — 

" We have in Newton five knackers* yards, and there iti otdy one 
in Manchester. The reason ip, that they have so mucb toleration in 
Newton; and it has been a source of great profit to thorn, because 
they have the means of selling the best portions of the horseflesh to 
mix with the potted meats. 

^' I can say for a fact^ that the tongues of horses particularly, and 
the best portions such as the hind quarters, of horses, are generally 
sold to mix with collured brawn, or pics' heads as they are called 
with us, and for sausages and pohmiea. I understand, aUo, frum those 
who have been in the habit of niakio'; them, tbut hurRellesh muterialljr 
assists the making of sausages; it is a hard fibrme, nnd it mixes 
better and keeps thtm hard, and they last linger in the shop-window 
before they are sold, because? cithtTwisj' the sausages run to water and 
become sofl and pulpy. 1 believe horstlifsh oJao materially assists 
German saussges ; it keepH them bnrd." 

To the above account we may add that German sausages and po- 
lonies are very generally coloured with large quantities of Veuetian 
red or reddle. 

Havinc: now gone over the chief articles usetl at the Breahfaut Tahle, 
we shall m the next place proceed tu describe the adulterations of 
I those coimumed more particularly, tbough uot exclusively, at the 

I Dinner Table. 

^^- Potted and all otlier meats arc free of duty. 

z 4 



The plants from which musfard is obtained orCf Sinitpis nigrft, or 
Mack, and Si/tapis alba, or while inu&t4ird ; xhej belong to the natural 
fuukily Cruci/erie. 

The black mustard plant is distinguished by its seod vessels, which 
are smoatli, nnd the culour of the seeds tliemselves, which are reddish, 
or blackish brown. 

In tlie white nmstnrd nfant the seed Teasels or pods are clothed 
with hiLirs, which render tliciu rough, uiid the seeds arc yclluw. 

The two fpocies of musturd ilitTer in properties as well os in 
botanical characters. 

The seeds of S. nigra are more pungent than those of S. olba^ but 
there are other differences. 

The young or seed leaves of white niuiftard are usetl for salad. 

Both speeies are indijjenouSf and may roniinonly be seen in flower, 
in the month of «Iuiic, in wiiste phire^ jind fields. In the brick lields 
in the neiahbimrhoinl of Nottin" Hill, iliey f;row in great quantities. 

The stibjoineil particulars, in reference to the nmnufucture of 
mustard, as fumisbcd by a iiianufuoturcr, are g^iven by Pereira : — 

" The secila of both bhick ami white mustard are first crushed 
between rollers, and then pounded in luorturs. The poundetl seeds 
are then sifted. The residue in the >ieve is culled drexgingn^ or 
si/iittgs ; whiit passes through i.s impure Jiuur of nxustanl. The latter, 
by a second .tilting, yieUls purejftmr af miubird, and a second quantity 
of dresainjfs. By pressure ilie drL'{i<<in;zs yield a fixed oil, w hick la 
used for mixing with rape and other oils." 

CompoiitioH of Mustard, 

Analysis lias detected in black mmtard seed several distinct chemi- 
cal couipuimds — Myronic acidy M^rucyne^ a volatile oily and a fixed 
oil of mnttard. 

Myronic uctd is nn inoiloru.i, naii-viilatile, bitter, and non-orystal- 
lisable substance, coiitiilnWig nitro^uo And suljihur, und forminu; tuOt« 
with bases. The charm-teristic prufierty of this substance is, that it 
yields, with myroi-yne, the volntile nil of inustanl. 

Mi/rocytie^ the emiUnin of black niustnnlf yields, as already noticed, 
with invronic acid, ihc volatile oil of mustard. " It has considenible 
resemblance to vegetable albumen and viimbin, but a» it ciinnot be 
replaced by either of these substunccs in the development of the vola- 
tile oil, it uiu»t be rejjarded as a substance sm generis. It is soluble 
in water ; but is coagulated by heat, alcohol, and acidc, nnd in this 
state it IcMCs the power of acting on the myronates, and of yielding 
the volatile oil." — Pereira. 



Tbe volatile oil of mtutard does not pre-exist m black mustArd 
flee<U, bul is foruicd, us alreaily observed, by iha mutual action of 
myronic acid and rnyrouyne in uold ur warm water; it is this oil which 
gives to mustard its penctrnting odour, sharp burning; liistt*, and iis 
acrid, rubefacient, and vuMicani properties : it contains nitrogtin and 
sulphur in its composition. 

The above detaiU are of practical interest and importance, for 
since heat coa<;ulatcs niyrocyne, and this substance is necessary to 
the formation of the vohitile oil upon which llie greater part of the 
active properties ofmustanii depends, it is clear that water either cold 
or warm only, shntdd be employed in the mixin;; of mustard. 

The Jixed oil of muxtrmt is usually procured from tlie siftings or 
dressing of mustard, which consist mainly of husk : it is stal^ to 
constitute about twenty-eight per cent, of ihc seeds. 

Of the composition nf wfiitr mustard teed wc find the following ac- 
count in Pereira's "Materia Mcdica:"— 

*' Kobiquet and Boiitmn {Jonrn. de Pharm.^ xvii. p. 279.)' however, 
have proved, that white umsturd cdiUains neither volatile oil, nor any 
fluhfitunce capable td' producing it, but owes its activity to a nott'Colatile 
acrid gulf xtaHvi\ which does not pre-exist in the seeds, but is readily 
Ibrmed in them under certain conditions. Another chemical peculi- 
arity of white mustard is, that it contains sulpho-sinapisin. (Henry 
and Garrot, ^(/UTH. de C'him. J/w/., i. 441.) Hence, while st'si|uichlo- 
ride of iron strikes a deep red colour in an infusion of white mustard, 
it merely communicates an onuin^e tint to the infusion of black mus- 
tard. Moreover, the thick mucdaginous liquor obtained by digesting 
tbe seeds of white muista.rd in cold water is peculiar to them. (Cadet, 
Journ. de Phunn,y xiii. 191.) Simon {Journ. de Pharm.^ xxv. 370.) 
baa announced the existence of a new principle, which he calls entcin^' 


Slntelure of Mustard Seed, 

Kvcry entire seed cousi.it8 of two parts, the husk and the seed 

The husk of white muttard»eed is constituted of three distinct mem- 

The outer membrane ia transparent, and mucilagiooiui ; it coDsista 
of a layer forme<l apparently of two difTercut kinds of cells of large 
uxe and very pet:uUar structure; those of the first kindareofanhexa- 

fonal fij^ure, and united by their edges so as to form a distinct mem- 
rane, tlie (%n(re of each cell being perforated; tbe ci^lls of the secoud 
kind occupy the apertures whith exist in tbe previously described 
cells, and they are themselves traversed by a somewhat funnel-shaped 
tul>e, which appears to terminate on the surface of the seed: immersed 
in water, these cells swell up to several limes their original volume, 
occasion the rupture of the hexagonal cells, and become themselves 



modi wrioUcd or eormgBted, ihe extremitj of tke tabo in i 
CMCi beizig nca protooitiiig from the proxmute tenaixuuoo oC tbs 

rrwmtDt of Um ()«/«r tnrmlifBM irf Hit iMd of WWTB Mcbtasd. 

Mkffnlfleil i3u dlunettn. 

celU. It is pn»oibln, however, that what are here (U'<tcnbGi1 as two 
different kinds of cells rt'iilly furm distinct parte of the same <m.'1Is. 

It hft-s been notieed thjit wiieii white mu&tnrd seeds are digened in 
water, a thiek niucilagimms lijjuid is obtained: the source of the mu- 
cilage docn not appear to hnve been puinlL-d out ; it is certainly, how- 
ever, derived from the cells forming the tissue above described. 

The middle tunic consists of a sinple layer of very minute cells, of 
an ttnjrular form; it is in the cavities of these that the chief part of the 
colouring matter posaesfled by the huak is seated. 

The inner memonuie also consista of a single layer of angular cells, 



which, however, are several time<i lurgcr than thnse constituting the 
middle tunic. 

Pig. in. 

Fntfimnli of the miABw ud mmtr taola of loUto oitMriArd «cd, the forater conHos 

■nil lying upon a part (tf llic latter. >l*f nlSrd W) <l}Bin«lm. 
^ . Parnon trf the mvUlie lnule. if. A fnfnicDt of tb< inmr tutiic, fli<nriti( tbt 

■Irvedm of that cwmbruie. 

The «rtd itself is of a bright yellow colour, and of a soft, waxy con- 
sistence, depending upon the qiianlity of oil it contains; it consists 
of innumerahle very minute i-elis, in the cavities of which the oil and 
other active principles arc contained. Fig. 124. 

Notvrithstnnding the terms " Hour** and " farina " of mustard com- 
monly employed, v\\>c mustard seed does not contain a sinfflc starCh 
granule, as may be ascertained by means of iodine and tne micro- 

In black mtistard^ the outer membrane of the seed consists only of 
the larjfe hexasonnl transparent cells disposed in two or three layers, 
and not perfnrateJ in the centre like those of white mustard; tho 
other structures resemble those of white mustard. Fig* 125. 




On the Adclterations of Mustard. 

The ordinary aduUerntioiia of mustard are with wheat fliyur 
turmeric^ the uMi|iIojiiieiii uf th« named urtitie neceasitating the 

Fig. tu. 

Buuri* of fvmJM gnmiul vktte mumant. Dnvn with tha Cimtn L«eldft, mnA 
owcuUied CM (llunctair*. 

use of the other to restore or bring up the colour to the original 

Results of the Examination of SampleM. 

No !eS9 thnn Forty-two sampler of mustard purchased in the metro- 
polis were subjected to examination : the whole of ilieiu were found to 
consist of mixtures, in vuriuus pruiHirtions, of wheat flou-r^ turmeric^ 
and mmtard. 

Other adulterations sometimes practised are thos*i with Cajfenne 
pepper^ Sinupi* AvensiM, or cHariork, clay, planter of Paris, and cAn*- 
mate of lead. The pepper in used to iniprtrt piinpency to it when it 
has been otherwise adulterated; olay^ for bulk and weijiht; and the 
cbromaCe of lead, to restore the colour when reduced bj other adul- 



Mr. Wnrington states, in In> evMeiice before the Parliftmentarr 
CuuunitUe on Adulioration, llmt »otne of the samples of mustard 

Fig. 185. 


nuit or Black VvBtA%ttHr4. WmgnlMianMuntttn, 

which be examined containe<l from 20 to 30 per cent, of inorganic 
matter, chiellv sulphate of lime; ihe gemiini: mustard when burned 
yielding from 4^ to 6J per cent, of retiidue. 

Mr. Gay, tbrmorly a mustard ornl (;bicorj manufacturer, and now 
Superintendent of the Mustard Depnrtmcnt in ht'r Majesty's Vic- 
tualling Yard nt Deplford, furiiifbed the Couimitt«e uiove named 
with, amongst ntber infurmation, the fullowing respecting the udultern- 
tion of uiUKlurd. He state?, — 

" I Iwlievu vcrv f«w scruple tit use wheaten llour, turmeric, and 
Cayenne pepper. The adulterants I used were tlour, turmeric, Cayenne 
j^epper, and ginger. 

" But farina is also used, and potato starch is used to a very great 
extent ; and now, I am oorry to say, whut ono of the witnecws called 



tern «Iba, or plaster of Pari*. I hxvt had some samples in my office in 
the tnusUrU Ueparimeat since I bare b«en in my prL-sent situation, 
from which I bare extracted 5 oumia of ^rpaum in the pyuud ; from 


Tkh MifnvlBf repKaenb the wtkJw ik lieHJ bi ft Minpte at ** tkmUt iMitrjfcii 
McRAKft," mariifd wltk lh* nunci of Mimti. i. ft J. Co1i»«b t a a, ■nwMN 
Jhm-: i h, Btlli at Ummane lu mJtr : c. pwrtlaa of Atn* tJlhitA wm>w7,- < ■■lb 
of ««ter tBDlo of wAAe wMttarvf Marf; « c, ftvfmuils of Ui« mk/ lualf. 

another stunptu I got 5 ounces of rice and wbeaten Hour. I have seen 
more than 50 per cent, of gypsum in mustard." 

With re^fird (o the adulteration of mustard with charlock, Mr. Gut 
remftrka, " When raustanl seed is worth 20a. per bushel, and charlock 
about 6i. or Sx. a bushel, it is worth buyini;.** 

It is also alleged thnt pea Jiour^ radish and rape seed, linseed mcalj 
and yellow ochre have been emplnyed in ibe adulteration of mustard. 

No less than four diffiTent nuulities of mustard are supplied by the 
mustard manufacturer, under the name of "Seconds,'' "Fine," "Super* 
fine/' and " Double Superfine;" the chief <lifference between these 
articles i!^ that the lower the quality tlic larger the proportion of wheat 
Hour and tiirmoric which they contain. 

These sercral mmlities may be purchased at about the following 
rates: seconds, 5a. ; fine, 8c/. ; superfine, lit/.; and double superfine, 
at U. ^d. per lb. 

The practice of making so many diQ*erent qualities of mustard Ja 



open to much objection, aince tt gives the wnacrupiiloua donlcr the 
greatest scope I'ur impu-iitiun. The {loor tuun hnys his mustard by the 
ouncCf and lor this bv usuully piiys it/., receiving in return seconds, 
fine, or superfine uiu^tunl, according tu the cutiscienee of the vendor. 

it L'un now \>Q underi^tood huw it bapjieiis ihut some of the inixturea 
which we buy for inust;u'd scarcely pi>.ss>esa the Uavuur of that article, 
and how, when used for poukice^, they ])roduce little or no effect, a 
matter uttenlinit:!! of vitul coniciiuenct:. 

Dtmbtiejiis wc !ibu.U be told by the mustard manufacturer, that 
genuine mustard u a very uopaI;itabIe thing, that it itt bitter to the 

taste, and not plcwant to lofjk at; bnt the answer to this is, that the 
article um.stard is not ulwsys mode according to one receipt, and that 
there exiitt, even in England, u few manufacturers who make and sell 
only genuine mustard. 

Oh the Detectinii nf the AdnJte rations of Aftutard. 
The deteclion of the nrdinnry ndultcralions of mustard is effected 
▼cry readily by mean* of the microscope. The chura^-tcra of wheat 
fiour are described and figured at p. 243., and of turmeric under the 
ncad of that article. 


ITmiAtda^la^ mad,. 

rapf are •ometimc* cfflplored in the adulterftiMti d mvtard, 
Mr ftpjKiul 6|prei aod ducnpiioiu uf the busks of tboM acedii 



StntclHre nf Sirwpis arpertsvt, Qr Charloch. — The husk of thu seed 
reseoiblefi, in colour, very firwely bliwk mustard, from which, how- 
ever, on 11 careful exnaiinatinn, it may be dwcriminated by meant 
itf the tniorcMCope, notwithstanding the 5(ateraent of Mr. Gay, mad« 
bcfon; the Parliamentary Comnutiee, ** that no annlytical chemist 
could detect charlock seed mixed with muntard, even with the micro- 

Fit- l»- 

A\ hile it agrees in colour with the husk of black mustard, it ap- 
:bc8 ID straeture nearer that of white mustard, from which, how- 



•vflTt it may be dbt uyk bed in the 

ckief difcvnee m ia ne cell* of tbc oater or 

■rcHaaBwidnoredriicate than tboMof ibe iMMkoTvyie 

tbej are perTurated like tbem, bowever, bat in addition tber cadi teeB 
to be mikde up of numerous angular verr delicate and mtntUeceU*; 
tbcae are rexj rfaaracteristii; of the seeds of Oarlock. Fi^. 128. 

tStntctare of Rape SectL — The membranes forming the bask of rape 
«eed are m distinct that no dlffiouliy need be eipeneneed m distio- 
guishing thii teed froin those of anjr of the mustards. It is f^ mtp ttamA 

M Rut iMltui Hmc. hat vhkk 

tptOtt Iff 

of two membranes, tbc outer resembling somewhat the second mem- 
brane of the busk of the mustards, but tbe cells ore much larger, and 
in consequimeu their cavities du nut appear black in p^rneral, but nior« 
or lem lisbt, the walls of tbe cells being thick and well defined ; near 
tbe unibdicua of tbe seed the cells usually are disposed in a linear 



manner. 'I'he innerraost niembranc does not prcacnl any peculi- 

In a sample of rape cake forwarcied to us for examinatir.n, and sus- 
pected to Ir* ndulleriiteil with mustarU, we met with what ap|)eared 
lo be the husk of a species of mustard. It U represented in^'. 131, 

Pit. IXI . 

T rt t tt nt r** %aA Vtrtimi SerltoM* nf htitk of • ipcrli* nf htr^TABD 8liii> met wllk 
In ■ uMiiilc xrKtalunLlMl nrcftiMl fiooitbi coiwiuninlon vf «bich loawaiitlt 
u% niA K> twve ilted. SAi diuDcler*. 

Jt approaches in structure mo9t nearly to the of blark mustard, 
hut the cells of the first coat are pcrforaled, and those of bnth the 
6rst and scrnnd coiit^ arc oinch 1:ir<:cr : in the large riizc of the celts 
uf the second coat it comes sunienhut near to tlic liusk of rape seed : 
but then in this we have never nut with any outer toat of large 
colourless celK llie hu^k in question, therefore, belongs most pro- 
bably t<»8ome foreign }<pecies of uiu»lnrd 

Uadi>h 5C0<I, on account of its price, is scnrcely likely to be employed 
in the uduHeralion of mustard ; it is not necessary, therefore, to give 
A ilfsrrijilion oi' its flrm-ture. 

Fiir the ilijicovery of the inorgmiic aduiierationg of mufltard, rei'ourse 
must be had to chemistry. 

The proceM for the detection of alumina nr clay is gi\ en at page 1 80., 
i/tgypiutn ur tulphair vf lime at p. 09., of j/cHuw ochre in the article od 

A A S 



Turmeric, and of chrome yellow or ehromate of lead in that on Coloured 

Sujiar Coiififctionei y. 

Mii.ourd flour, duty Ijr. Gd. percwt. Ditto, mixed or maiiufscti 
(except lloiir), 5*. por cwt. 

Imports of i]vur in 1»54 Hml 1855. 3 and 2 cwls. re^peotireh 
Mixed ur munui'uctureil, niher limit ilour, in 185-1, 97 cvrt<*.. and 
1855, lOQ cwts. Kt'lained for home coDSuutption, 95 and 78 cirti. 
each of tlie years specified. 



The nnliiral fiimily Pipfracea im'UidL's four plonls of g^re^it utility 
iiiunkiiid; two of those, Piper ni^mm^ nr bhick pf[tper, mid Piper Ioh- 
guMy nwtre n^cenlly nnincd Cfiacica ftnxtiurghiiy or long ]>»?pr>t'r, nre'l 
rhielly omployud for dioleiic and ruliimry purposes; whilst the nlhers, 
Piper Cubehuy nnw Cubcbfi o^civalix, utui Arifmthe eloiigaUt^ or the 
niatic'o plant, are piiiK'ipidly employed in tnedieine. 

The plant which yields Cayenne, Capsicum anunnm, often improperly 
termed Cayetuie pei>per. dtn^s nut belong to the family of Piperacete at 
all, but to that ni' Soitintfcete. 

The pepper of cnninicrce is furnished by Piper nigrum, and it ii to 
this specie:*, therefore, that on the present occasion we shall have to 
direct atlpntion. 

The black pepper plant tjrows both in the East and West Indies, in 
Sumatra^ JavEU and ntber irUiiidB; it is u shrubby, climbinj; ptanKf^H 
which attains th*^' hir-i^lil uf iVoui uiphl to twelve ftn:U Tbe burrie?, or^| 
peppercorn*, grow on ternnnuL flinverstalks or iipadices : tliuy are at ^^ 
first green, but i'hiin3:e subsequently to red unil then to bliK-k. When 
any of tbe berries on a spadix have begun to turn red, the whole are 

§atherc<l, dried in tbe sun, and the utalks separated by the hand. la 
ryinp, ilie succulent part of cnL-h berry beenmcj* contracted nnd 
wrinkled, forming; a hjir<U'ned wrinkled cortex ; the enrrugations being 
niucli raisied, and deseribiug n kind ofelcvoted network. 

The follfHrinj* more tietniled particulars conoerninp tbe growth of 
the pepper ptunt and tlif j.^iitltering of the berries ure extrauted from 
M^CuHoeh's *"■ Dictionary of Commerce" ; — 

" It climbs to the height of twenty feet, but is said to bear best 
when restraineil to tbe Tieirrht of twelve feet. It begins to proiluce at 
about the third year, and in in perfection at tbe seventh : continues in 
this state for three or four vears, and tleclines for about as manv more, 
until it ceases to be worth keepint^. The fruit grows abundantly from 
all its branches, lu long, small clusters of from twenty to fifty grains j 
when ripe it is of a bright red colour. After being gathereil, it is 


on num.'* in llie sun, when it Io^o.h its red cnlour, find becomes 
tJiil (^lirivfllod as wo »ov it. Tho {;pain.^ nrc fleimrateil ("roni the, 
Btulk? by lianri-rijl'bin;,'. Thai whicli has been jriitheroil ut the proper 
pi'pjod pliiivela the leiwt; but if plucki<!tl inn soon, il will bc<:o]iic broken 
iitu! dusty in it^ removal from place to place. The vine prutiuees 
two erojHt in the }ear, but ibe seasons are subject to ^reut irregu- 

Those berricit nre the beat which are not too amoll nor too much 
Ci'rrujjaleil; which are heavy, itnd sink remlUv in wnt*'r. 

The two varietie« of pej)pfr known as " blnik '* ami '* wlitte" pepper 
Are both nbtuined from the snine jilnnl. : bliick ground pe|.p|ier is the 
entire berry rL>duce<l to powder, wliile ibe wfiite eonsifits oi'the same 
berry decorticated or deprivud n! its (»uu*r and black husk or covering. 

We learn fnun Pereira thut throe kinds of biack pepper are distin- 
guished by wholesale dealers. These are : — 

'''' Mtihihnr tiepper. — This is the itiosl viitiiuble; il is hrotruUh'bhick^ 
free from sialks, and nearly free from dust." 

^^Peitanfr papptr. — This is broufniithhliek, larpar, smoother, free 
from stalks, out very dusty. It is sometimes used in England to mS' 
nufactnre white pepi»er." 

"'■ Sumntra pepper. — This is the clieapeiit iort; It is black, mixed 
with slnlks^ and contains nuich dust. Unrler the name uf Sumatra 
pep|*r, w»iin; ilealerc include the Peiiang or brownish-black sort, and 
tbp black Sumatra sort." 

Three kinds or varieties of Khiie pejtptr have also been distin- 

** TeUtrherrp pepftfr^ whi<:h is of two kinds : large or fineTellicherry 
pepper is lamer and whiter than any other descripticun of white 
pepper, and fetches a higher price; ninall or coriander-like pejtjter is 

" C\immnn white pepper comes fnim Penanj; by Slngjtpire ; it ia 
round, and not shrivelled ; iL<( vulue depends <in its size uiul whitL*ness." 

** English blrttrhfU, or white pepper. — When the two preceding 
sorts are scarce, brnwii iVMUinj; pep|tep is bleuchi'd, The yellowest 
and largest grains ure t tnriteo lor this purpose, for neither an expen- 
sive nor duiail sort would pay.** 

On the Composition of Pepper, 

The active properties of pepper dejwnd upon the presence nf nn 
arrid resiUy a volaHle oil, and a crystallisabte substance called A- 
I perine. 

The follfjwin:: ia the romposition at hltxck'tkiiA white pepper, accord- 
ing til Pelletier * and Lueii t : ~ 


I • Auit. de Cttlio. et dt Phyi. xr. 941. t S:liw«rti«. rhArm. TabellA 

I A A 3 



BUck I'epper 



Acrid .«oft resin. 

Acrid re«in - - - 


Volatile oil. 

Volatile oil - 



Exiractive, gum, and salts 



Starch ... 



Albumen - . - 



VVooily fibre 




Waler and loss 


Malic acid. 
Tartaric acid. 

100 00 

Polasli, calcareous, 

and mairnesU. 


WrM.dy fibre. 

In Lucii's annl^'sis the pipt^riuc is pruTiably Jucluded in the resin. 

The Tftin in very acrid, bolubk ui alc^'bol and etbt;r, but not in 
Tolatilo nib 

The volatile ail has the odour and taste of pepper. Its specifio 
gravity )5 0-9932. 

Piptrine \^ a crystallisable substance ; the crystals being rhombic 
prisms with inoUnt^d bnses: it fuses at 212° F., is inst'lubtc in cold 
water, and only slightly so in bailing* vrattir; it disitolvcs in ulcuhol. 
from which piperine is throtrn down wbon water it abided ; vlber and 
acetic nrid uUn dl!*>olve it, but llie first h not so gooil h »i>lvont as 
alcohol. It is ta«<telc9S and inodiirous : with slrun<! sulpliurle acid it 
forms A blixMl-rcd li<piid ; nitric and bydrnchloric acids turn it 6rst 
greeni&h-yelbiw, then orange-, and jiftcrwards rctl. 

Stritciure of Pfppcr. 

Structtirf of the Berrij. — 'i'he berry of the black jjcpper plant pos- 
sesses a Rtrui'ture of oonsideraWe cnmplieiiti»n, and of much intercut; 
and sinec wilhuut an accurate knowledge of it^ minute or^ranisalion 
we cannot hope to be in a positicm In detect the numerous adultera- 
tions to which tlii? nrticle is subject, it becomes necessary to de»cril>e 
somcwhiC minutfly tlic tissues which enter into its fiinnation. 

In a section of the berry, two parts arc to be diailnpuishcfl — an 
outer nud an inner: the f)r.«t is blac-lc, or reddiMh-bluck ; and the 
second more or less white, hard, and briiilcf except in the centre of 
the seed, where it is frequently soft and pulverulent. 

AV'hen a thin vertical sectirm of tlie outer or cortical part of the 
berry is exauiiiied, by means of the micn«C"pe, it is seen tn be com- 
posed of distinct pnrts, each of which is constituted of one ur 
more layers of cells. Such a section is reprwenled \\\Ji^. 132. 

TTio external part n\' the berry, marked a in the fiillowin<» figure, is 
constituted of cells of im elonjjutcd fonii, yilaced verli*-jilly. These 
cells are provi<led with a central cavity from whirJi lines, probably 
minute canals or channels, radiate tuwnrds the circumference ; when 



viewed sideways, tliey opp«ar rather more than twice u long lu broad; 
and when seen endwayf, they appear luuslly oval in sba[)ef and but 
litlle iun;ier than hroutl. Cells of a somewhat similar character are 
dcscril>cd in the Rci>ori on Sugar, us entering into the formation of 
tlie epidermis of the sugar cane. 

SmUoo of ft PtrrcR Bikiiv, (hQwInn tho KWnil l»jen of c«llt of wlikh ih* i-ohumI 
pnrt u ninalUutnl. ■ml tlic juttctlon of ttiii mt / «tth thr (Vnlrttl iKittinn. g. 
Orsvn with the C«m«r« LucMa, ltd nii(nl(l«<1 M> dlameten- 

Thc eells next in order» and upon which the previously described 
cells rcstf are small, angular, and dark coloure<l ; tbey, fts well as the 
radiat<' cells, are shown h\^g. 133. 

The smull ancrulnr cells, just noticed, do not appear t4i separate 
readily from the cells whifh occur immediately beneath lliem, and of 
which they are probably mere mollifications; strictly sjwaking, there- 
fore, they ou«;ht to be considered as I'uraiing part of the layer next to 
be described, and we have spoken of them separately only for con- 
Tenience of reference and description. 

A A 4 



Tlie cellfl now to be dcscnbed aru tvfo or three timea larger than 
tiiQse previously noticed, aud verj numerous, lurming about half lb» 



A portUm of tht oerMx of the Pirrnitt Bkhbt. vkwed on (h« larfu*. tKowiug Ihf 
kIU which farm tto flnl «ad aeooail lajcn. DnvB »iUl Uu Cmcrft LocUk, 
•nd mMpilflctt ISudiametcm. 

thickness of the cortex ; they are all more or less ooloured, and the 
colour deepens aa the cells ap]in>iioh the next laver. The position ot' 
this second layer is pointed out tit h^Jlg. 132. The thirii layer is very 
thin, and Is coniijoscd of woody fihre, bundles of spiral vwsseU of sniafl 
size, and formed of single threads, ;?^'. 132. c. 

The Junction of the »ec<ind with the third luyer la pointed out by a 
dark line ailufited about the middle of tike cortex ; see Jig. 13*i. c 

The fourth luyer ta composed of iniinerous large cells, itnd it con* 
Btitutes the grenter part of the remaining half of the eorlex {Jig. \^%d). 
As the celU approach the central part of thp berry, they bt'couie much 
modified, two or thrt^p lim.'s sniuller, and of a ileep red colour ( Af- 
132. e) ; these cells might be deseribed as forming a fifth and distinct 

The numerous cells which fttrm the fourth layer contain a very 
great abundtinee of oil ^lr>buk's, and it is in it that the Cd&ential oil of 
the pepper berry is chiefly located. 

Tne cells which form the fifth and la^t tissue which enters into the 
composttion of the cortex of the pepper berry are divisible into two 
or three layers, the outer are coloured, and the inner invariably 
colourless; the colourless cells present a reticulated appearance, form- 



in;; .1 triin5pArent lamina which (retiuentW si^parattfs, as a distinct tissue. 
h'ig, 132./ 

Fig- IM. 

A pvrtlon oftht/oHrM tnmina of tlie cortrv of Piirnim Himir. •howin^ the nil 
eoaUfiud ia UiieflaTiiln uf the cclLf. Ihairn with the Cunc» I.ucija, uid 
tiMC«lS»d Itm di»in«Un. 

The enUrnlpare of the berry or ae«d ia constitutetl nf cells of large 
sixe and angiiliir shape; they are about twice as lonu aa briiad« and 
dispotwd Id a radiate manner; in the outer part of the seed tbey nre 
■dlierent, hnrd, and slonelike, while in the curitru they are readily 
«epanil>]e, and often (urm a powder rt^senibling tluur. Fig. 132. {.% and 
Fig. 135. 

When the pepper berry is macerated in viiter for some hours, th« 
oorticAl part apparently separates without iliHicuItv from the «?ed 
proper; il', however^ we exiiniine the surface nflliia iTosely, wcobwrve 
tbatitisofare<ldi:4h colour, and it becomes evident thai a portion of the 
cortex 18 still adherent. thi» consisting of part of the foiu*th layer, con* 
tainin^ much uf the oil, und the fifth layur. 

It now becumes tipimretit that the terms in ooranion use, ** white 
pepper," und '*decorlu*aled popper," are not altogether correct, fur 
the berry i« not entirely denuded of the cortex, nor is its powder 
white, for if a little of it b« ditfused through water on a slip of glas-V red- 
dish particles immediately become visible : these are fruj;ment<« uf that 
portion of the cortex which remains firmly adherent to the seed itself. 

When sections of the inner part of the pepper berry are immersed 



in water for a short time, tlie^ assume a jrellowish or canary tint, and 
when exaioined with the microscope, the colour is seen to be confined 

FOe i». 


I mi 

'^ '*iT?l«^ 

ttttitmtit the cmfro/ forttomnl Iht Pkitrr BnxT. ihowlng the two klmltof 
rrjlt nf wliteh tt I* compcMcd, th« colourleM And ciolouml cclU. umI «!•» lu 
Jtinrtion with Ibo cortex- Dravn w\th the t'Btncni Luddft, and tnajpilScd ISO 

to cerlnin of the cL'Ua only, of wliith the wcti'ms arc composed; theae 
cells are rather lurj;er than tlie uniinary ucIIb; thej «rv place*! at 
tolerably regular distancea from each other, and thoy refloat a deep 
yellow colour. In recent sections which have not be^^n immersed in 
water, thf celln, which afierwnnls het^ome yt-'ll'<w, may be di^^iinguished 
by a darker shadinv. and Rometiinea bv a fnint tint of rtdoiir. The 
deepening of colour is dctcnnined by tiie action of the mUs contained 
in water on the contents of these colhs which differ cheinically from 
those of the ordinary cells. 

It is probfitly in these coloured cells that the pipcrine ia located* 
Alcohnl and nitric acid deepen the tint very gretiily, and on the appli- 
cation of concentrated siilphurir ncid to dry scctidns nf tlie pepper 
berry, they become of a reildi^ih hue, (he chanjjc of colour boing 
limited, in the first instance, to the i)cculinr cells in question. These 
results of the use of 9ul[ihunc ncid are such as ensue with piperine 





The structure nf llie centrnl part of the pepper berrj, antl the po- 
sition and character of the Cflnuret! cells, ari; shown mjig. 1.15. 

Now, in ^(lund hluck pepper, all the stnielurcs which wo huvc de- 
scribcti may be Lracecl oui in a broken and frugmentury condition^ 
but in white pepper certain of these tissuefl only exist — viz., a part 
of the fourth layer of cells, which eontuins the uil, and the fifth cellu- 
Ur lamina. 

Before the observer is in a position to detect the adulterations of 
pepper^ it is necessary that he should well understand the appearances 
Rn<i .-(tructure of j»roiunl pepper, l>uLh bluck nnd white. 

When black pcp|>er h diffused thrnu^li wiiler, little pnrticles of 
three different kinds, intermixed with a tine powdery substance, are 
Tisible ; i^oriie of these nre black, others reddish, and the last while; 
the black are frag:inents of the outer, and the red those of the inner 
cortex, while the white are the pulverised seed itself. The white pow- 
der i» formed of (he cells of the seed, some united in two;* and threes, 
but the majority either sepHrated and entire, or broken into pieces; 


%km tituy iltoHiia %«l Em hlMofad wtdi 
«nii fifaMi «ataiBiBe«i <riiii thm 
nhiUf p^>p«r nu block tn^aoito ought feD be 

praaai. lUttftUv 
portof tbe berry. 
ftiMK ndh ocbsr, wheiber entiiv 

k» ptftieks flf SM< fcr wticb 
by penins tfwf mted with 

'QIW <MMlM» (»r tb«w 4«llii arw tiUMi vitb •taneksnnolea of exccvd- 
1^ i^^iHami^ «Mi w ift gruiuui pupper, but of the oelU are 

.liut tNwv ii^ 2vtiiiriiit)r a m Bttte of ■mfc cii l ar moveaieiit, 
>t' uil nthar this starafc leraaote*. Ko 
- H«*rrT bveidn dkow j«C deMribcd. 

• b outained in ibe seed or central 

-11 tuuh;btr«) widia •olutioB or iodine 

( cuila Umi{{ tflected in tbe 

tbn^ vuttiU bv v<r,v «(»« to bo AM 
(bi» tfctoi'MirKiiw MmtfUiro of tbo 

U«t HM .VifuiiTUk&mHn or Pkptbi. 

Mftl^l <-*> ^Hir* ff**^ ■A'^ tcoDdaliJUS ailultenxion^ and 
I UU uMM ul' ikil tint artioftw pUcetl uoder tbe superrisioa 



Miny>^ uf block Mui white pepper exunined a 

UnMtd mtal, mmUard husk, wkt^ 

u»l ^N/rpar^iu/. To this list niusi 

i. nfvvwtlv oitft with bjr tbe Excise iu Mtn|Jc9 

* tritber of the sweeping's of 

Ic u^i in imitation of ground 

■ ml ion of thut article. 

\'< the following evidence, be- 

(4wiMUtWK iM .VauUviut. iliig ihe odutteniiMi of 

i 111 iit-xilv twelve j-etfswu lll^ 
ultorttK-il. "We Mre found ricv. 





poUto 9tarph, linseed m«a1, Chitia, busks of rat^ ami white 
roustarilt Mfbeat, brun aiui tlour, and jrround pypjum or cry»tallijitfd 
sulphate of titiK'. Tlio stock nmterinl lor ndiiherating ncppi-r i.i tlie 
husks of ivd aDil white inuatard seeds und linaeei) meat, wuntied up 
with C\i\\h '* 

Of 100 lbs. of an article seized in ISG'l at Clielmsford as pepper, 
2lb». onljr cimsinted uf pepper, the re»t beiiijr init^ks of nuiRltird, 
Cbitifl, and rice. liape ieednaM also been found in pepper. Mr. (.inr, 
from whose evidence we have before rjuoted, states that whiri; pepper 
i^ sometime? adulterated with boue fbt»ty commonly cath'il irory dn*t. 
He also pave the foUowinjj receipt for P.D : — " It la mnniifm-lured 
from rape or linseed cake, niu^tanl husks, and Cayenne pepper." 

Some years since it was not uncommon to meet witli etrtijirioi pepfter- 
instnncett of their oecurrence are tnentioiied in Tiionison's 
•*Annal* of Clientistr)"," and also by Aeeuui, in the seeund edition of 
his celebrated work — " Death in the Pot." 

Accnui wrilcs: "I have examinetl Urge packages of both black 
and white pepper by order of the Exeise, and have foiimi iheiii to 
contain about l^ per cent of this artificial compound. Thi.H .spurioua 
pepi»er is made of oil eafce, the residue of ihe linseed fntui wliieb the 
oil has been pressed, common clay, and a ])oriion uf Cayenne prpper, 
formetl into a mass, and granulated by being first pressed through a 
sieve, and then rolled in a cu!<k." 

The <"use of [K'pjier affords a liimentable instance of the inelHciency 
of the Kxcii*e in checking adulteration. 

On the Detection of the Adulterations of Pepper, 

The whole of the adulterations of pepper mentioned, except that 
with the husk of |>epp«rf are only lobe detected in a certain and satis* 
faclnry manner by means of the microscope. 

The characters of the starch granules of wheat, rice, and potato, 
have already been described ; tho-i? of wheat at p. 243., those of rice 
at n. !2.55., of j>otalo flour at p. 320., and of sapo at p. 325. 

The structure of mvstord and rnpe seed^ and of Cayenne^ will be 
found described and figured under the heads of Mustard and Cayenne ; 
the meihod of delecting; sulphate of Hme is given at p. 99. 

It then only remnins for us to describe the structure and appear- 
ances ot limeed meal and o( pea Jlottr. 

^H Structure of Linseed Meal, 

Linseed possesses ii very lieautiful structure; four coals or tunica 

I enter into the comiwsition of the covering of the »ee<l, and require 
'I he outer coat gives the polish to the seed, and is composed of a 


It is in the cells which rnrtn litis ttinic thsl tb« macilt^ wbiclr 
linseed yields so abandantlj, on infuiitm, is contAUied. 

Fig. 117. 

The BCi'oiul cO:tL coiisists of u siitf^le layer of ec'll*> enclosing granular 
matt<^r ; Iboy atu ot'a rounded loriii, rjkI h'.WK tbick wiUls. 
e tktrtl 


mcmbroDe is composed of niirruw elungatcMl cells, or 



rftther 6bres, some hcin« Inn^^itutlinal arid others trnnsvcrse; lliese 
give it a KtriiUed and very charncteriMic appearance; being tirm and 
htronji, it fonns the praiecling tunic of the seed. 

The fourth meinbninu is made up of angular cel]»» many of which 
are inure or less tK^uure, enc^lusii)"^ ma»se8 of colouring; mutter, pro- 
bably of u rcsiniius character, and which readily full out of the cell^, an 
represented in the fij;irrc. 

The xubstiinctf of the seed coniiista of cells, in the cavitfes or meshes 
formed by wlitch the oil and starch ^runulen iire enclosed. 

The oil is coniuinod principally in ihe outer or lanTC superficiuf 
cells, in the fonn of linlluint and peurl-like irttnute dri^pu or s^pliurulei*. 

Tlie sUifch granules are must abundant in tiie interior of the ^rain; 
they are an<:ular, mtuute, and two ur llirue times larger than ihoie of 
the |>epj)ereorn. 

The whole of the structures above described may be snlisfuctorily 
"detected, by a little piitlent investigalion, in the linseed redui-ed to 
powder or nteal. The p^rls, however, most frequently and clearlv 
ftcen, are iragmcnts of the fibrous ooat, uihI liltle niujsses of the seed, 
fVom the ed'xes of which, portions of the eeilulo^e I'urmiug the trans- 
parent cells project, in a radiate und very cliarncteristic nmntier. 

Sf7vrtnre of Pea Fluur. — I'ea flour resembles very clostly bean flour 
already described and figured under the article Bread, ihu chief diflfe- 
rence consists in the size of the starch corpuscles, which are much 
smaller in pea than in heiin flour. 

On the Detection nf Pepjter Huak*. — The presence of an undue 
quantity of pep|M>r husk in black pepper may be ituspeeted by the 
■ppeiimnce of the urtiele, il^ dark colour, and the ijuunlity of husk 
visible to the naked eye ; the only way, however, in which this admix- 
ture is to be determined with certainty, is by a quuntilative chemical 
analysis of ihc «iiniple. 

It is not ofinn that such an nnnlysis ia necessary. 

On the DrtectioH if Factitioni Pepper Berries. — The suspected 
pepper >houId be soaked for some lime in water, when, should it con- 
tain artificial peppercorns, these will become disinlo-gruled and fall to 
pieces. Their conifK>sition is to be aacurlained partly by chemical 
analysis and partly by mieroscopionl examination. 

The processes for the detection of xulphate of iime and bone f/iu/have 
already been described elsewhere. 

Duty on pepper, of all aurtJi. is 6rf. per lb., and 5 per cent, thereon. 
There were entered for home consunipiron in 1854, 3,720,534 lbs.; 
lS6ii, 3.647,803 lbs. ; nine months of iSfS, 2.G46,910 lbs. It is evi- 
dent therefore that the loss to the revenue arising out of the udultc- 
ration of this single article moat be very great. 



Cayenne Pepper con5i?«ts of the pofla or seed TeneU, ground sol rr- 
diiced to powder, of (lifll'r*.'nt species of Cupsiatm^ but p ri n cijw !I» "* 
C annuum^ and C frutettcens ; the Inlter BjHTcip?, heinsf strtmfw ifri 
better flavaupcd, yields the best demrripiion orC'iiyonne pop^wr 

The [lenus cap$ieuni hehinfrs to t)i« SoUtnacta: or nightsha'Jf fanU'r. 
which nliHi iiu-ludes ihe potato phtnc. 

Capsicum tinnNum h & mittve of America, but is cullivti«d in tk 
Wc9t and KttSt Indies And to Bomo citent, m grucnhotues, in En;* 
land and other Eiirop<'an countries. 

It 18 nn Qnniial. herbaceous plnnt, Rud, acoordinv to M 
**one oi* llie hardiest aiul most productive pUnts found i ■ 
climntes, f^rowtng luxiiriantlv in almost nil drr tt^ils, howevvr imiifif 
rent.'* In this country it Bowers in July, and ripens it* pr*^ in 
Oftdber ; when immature, the berries are preen, and only ^(taallf 
beoome re<l as thev prow ripe; they ore used Imrh in the greirti aaJ 
red states, and in the undried and dried conditions: in rbe rmni 
state they are emj)l()yed for pickling : when dried they are uw! ta 
medicine : and, reduced to ponder, they constitute Car<niiie pef^- 

The dried berries ordinarily sold as ckiUien are of this spfvia: in 
this condition they are more or less shrivelled, oblon«, broad it l^ 
di.-ttal extremity, the calyx and stalk bein|g[ usually ndbertmt tolk# 
broad end. They vary very much in size and form ; the larjrrtisn 
two or three inches long, and at the base Are An im h or more widf; 
they are distinguifthcd, according to their siec and shape, intoltff 
podded, short-pmlded, und hcart'-ihapcd. 

Tlie pods of this capsicum are hot and pungvnt, but ikey hartv 

The pods of Capaicnm fnitetcetu constitute what is known at j f ' — 
or bird pepprr, and when proiind they furnish the best descripu**' 
Cayenne p*?pper. They are small, scarcely an inch in length, sTm 
or two broad, and of a deep oran^-red colour. Koch bernr saciVB 
usually about a dozen Battened, rcniform seeds. 

The pfxU are hotter and more fiery than tliose of C anmmm; Aff 
are likewise to some extent aromatic. 

Two other species of Capsicum have been deDominatod, trcn ^ 
form of the fruit. Cherry chtUy or Chei^y P^PP^ — Cap$iff%m etM^ 
/ortne, and Sell pepper or Captieum grvswm* 

Composition of Cayenne. 

The composition of capsicum berries is shown m the foUonlf 
analyses made in the years 1816 and 1817: — 




Anal tf wis.* 


Acrul sofl resin (capsicin) 


- 40 

Wax . - 


- 7-6 

Bitter aromatic extractive 


- 8-6 

Extraetite with some gum 


- 21-0 

Gum - - - 


- 9-2 


- 3-2 

Woody fibre - 
Water - 


- 28-0 

- 120 



Fruit of Cajmcum annuum, witbout seeds - 1000 

BraeonmCs Analym.^ 


Acrjil oil - - - - 

• 1-9 

Wax with red colouring matter 

- 0-9 

Brownish starchy matter 

- 90 

Peculiar gura - - - - 

- 6-0 

Aiiimalised matter - - - 

- 50 

Wootly fibre ... - 

. 67-8 

SalU: citrate of potash 6*0 

Phosphat c of potash, and 

- S-4 

Chloride of potassium 3-4 

Fruit of Capxicum aiutniim 

- 1000 

Of ft//i»iW«, the active principle of Cayenne, Pereira gires the 
following account: — 

"Obtained by digesting the alcoliolic cxtrad in Pther, and evapo- 
rating the ethereal solution. It is a thick liquid, of a yeltnuri.4h-rcd 
or reudiah-brown colour, which becomes very lluid when hcatt-d, and 
at a higher temperQitirc is dissipated in fumes. Half a grain of it 
volatilised in a large room causes all who inspire the air of the room 
to cough and snee/.e. By exposure to tiir and light it solidities ; it is 
decolorised by chlorine ; it is slightly soluble in wnter and in vinegar^ 
but very much so in nlcohol, ether, oil of turpentine, and the caustic 
alkalies; with baryta it forms a solid acrid combination." 

Structure of the Capnicmn Berry or Fruit. 
Each capsicum berry is made up of three parts — an outer skin or 
epidermis, parenchyma, and seeds. 

•GaellD, HaDdb.d.Chnc. U. 1310. 

t Aqti. de Chlm. Fhyi. wU in. 



The epidermu contirtM of flnttoncd cells, tortuoiu and Rncoltf 
in form. Viewed on the outrr or upper surface, the bonier? m ike 
cells are been m be well defined ; they are often four-rided ; lb* »»fl» 
are ikick, beaded here oiid tbere, the beading of one cell eorrr^p^^- 
ine to tbat of the conli^funus cells ; lastly, the lines of juucrkm oltitt 
cells are sometimes foiinlly indicated. 

Vicwecl on the inner surface the cella appear less aiijrutar, but m"* 
tortuous, the walls broader, and much more beaded, ^i^. U8. 

When frnffmcuts of tbc epidermis arc seen inimcr»od in »»l«. 
numerous oilglaliides of a det^p and beautiful oninj'i.'-red colour ir» 
visible; some of these are imbedded in the cavities of thecclKt*' 
the majority doat fieely in ibc surrounding wuter. 

These scverid Btructurul particulars are well sliown in the follo*^ 

Fie. ia«. 

UriDEUlM af CANimii, DUlt-r ■nit Innrr nirfhm. Hafniawt 

In the ne.xt two figure.* the general nppi'iirnnce prcscn: 
epidermis on a more superficial uxnmimaion is exhibttrd, t 
details being oiuittod. 

The /mrrtifAym«, which unites the 80cd« with each other, i»4i^ 

whole with the epidermis and peduneJe, U likewise comfmaod ofe^} 
ihe^ are of a rounded or oval form, the porietcs arc thin, swl l**J 
cavities usually contain a very lar^^e quantity of oil, in th» ■ 



lonumcrable droplets, maiiT of uonsiderable size, and which impnrt to 
this objecr, viewed under the. mIcrt>scope, a rerv beuutiful nppeurunce. 

Ftg. m. 

Aft«<n)mt«tf Ui« vMoKWof UwcmpriBwm bwry, Tliwid on Hi •otn nxtkm. 

Fi^. 142. represents a seelion of the cortical portion of the poil. 

In the ieed^ two parts — ih« covering of the seed and the seed itself 
— require to be dcscribciK 

Th«-* coverinj? of the *eod possesses a very peculiar structure, which 
it is difficult fully to undcMtAiid. and th(.*reforc not ea-ty to dejirribc 
accurately. It is of a bright-yellow colour, and of CI>n^ide^able thick- 
new. Viewed under the mirrownpe, its outer gurfuoc presisnts a cel- 
lular texture, the marpins of whiit appear to be ihe €!ell'i bi'inj^ thick 
and tortuouSf and the cavities dark an<t deiiressed, as though tliey were 
rather apertures than the hollow interiors nf the cells. 

Vertical nectioni^ of lhi« covering pn»sent a very ninfridiir appear- 
ance. In this view it appears as thoujfh cumpoited t>f a number uf tooth- 
like processes, having a suraewhat nirliute di^ipOAiiion, with intervals 
between each prtx-e.^, the pointa or summits of the teeth ending in 
very minute huok-Uke hpines, the points of these beinj; lost in 
a inin membrane A^rming the external covering of the seed. It 
ap[>ears that these tuuth-likc processes really cutuist of the thiokeaed 

B B 2 


walls of contifruous cells (seej^. 143.); that fliis is reallyso w 
from an examination of the upper of the two sketches on tbc Mini 
the section of the vccU ; thcjr arc best developed at the exlrcjuuy cf 
the seed. 

Fig. 140. 

The seed proper conBiBts of minute lingular cells, having thidl'^ 
colourless parieteii ; their cavities arc 51 led with moleculei and^ 
bules of oil of a yellowisbor reddisb-j^elluw colour, but donotcM^ 

On tub Adultekations or Caybnitk. 

Cayenne is subjected to ercn mcyre extensive adalteratiMi tM 
ordinary pepper. 

Rendu of the £jamination of SampUt. 

Of Twenty-eight Bamplea of Cayenne submitted to mJuimyrf 
and chemical examination, no lesa than ticenty-four were ddbfiti^ 
And Jour only were genvine. 

2\if€7Uy-ttco contained mineral colotring matter$. 

In thirtten cases this con^i^red of r^ Uad^ whidi waa pnMitt 
tome of the aauples in very considerable quantities, whtl« iatWi^ 



maining seven samples it was some red ferrugmouA earth, Venetian 
red or red ochre, 

Vermilion^ or stUphuret of mercury^ was present in one of the 

Six of the Cavennes consisted of a mixture ntf^ound rice, turmeriCy 
and Cayenne^ coloured with either red leatl, VeneUan red^ or ochre. 

ftc- 1«. 



*. I 


(I. nanwAirniQ of oiMleara bnrj dtuiteil fmmedlktclr b«fl»«th the cptdarmU t 
IM Mil* [q thi* tttuatiim m of « nwrc rouriOcd form. Mid «r« IrKtvrKd by 
•pinl twhU Asd vuodjr flbn. 6, the faFcacAjnm tnrruaadlug tli« wadft. 

A'ie of the Cajcnnes contained larpc quantities of talt^ sometimes 
alone, but mi>stljr c<tmbinetl with rice nnd the red earth* or red Uad. 

One of the samph'fl wa<i adulterated with a large quantity o( the 
husk of white muMttird Meed. 

Lastly, tivo were adulterated with Wee, and were coloured in addi- 
tion, the one with red lead^ and the other with a red fermgiHOMs 

The object of the use of reil lead and other red culourini; matters 
is twofold ; 6r8l, to conceal other adulterations, and, second, to pre- 

B b3 



serve the colour of the Cayenno, as when exposed to the light (or »ni 
time, it usually loses part ol' the bright-r€<i colour which it «t irf. 

Fig, us. 



poneMW, an<1 therefore it bec(<ni(*fl <let«riorate«] in fhe evo *f ^ 
purchaser. The red lead, &e., adiled docs not, i^f ctmtte^ pni^9 
the colour of the CaTfUiie, but simply supplies the place ofthAt akii* 
it loses in consequence of exposure. 

Salt is employed fur the some purpose. This substance hi* i B^ 
markable effect in brinninji: out the colour of the Cayeaar. U '^ 
howerer, also used to increase its wei'ihu 

The adulteration of Ciiyeniiu with such subslnncea u red ladtfA 
mercury U, dDubtlps.s highly prejudicial to hcnlcb : it bai bttaMlii 
that colic and parHlypis have bolh been produced by the uae of Cif* 
enne containinj^ red lead. 

The salt* of lead and mercury are character'sed by the citfl** 
■tance that they are apt to accumulate in the systi^m, ami finalrli 
produce symptoms of a very serious nature. Thus, no matter »•• 



amAll the imantity of mercury or lead introduce*! eocli day, the system 
is suro in tlie end, lilthougU it be slowly and insidiouily, lo be brought 





rwMeal.<Mio»or(lu5MrforCArBtnrM. Macnllvd 100 dlamclen. 

under the influence of these poisons, and to become seriously affected. 
The quantity of red lead iiirroduced into the system in adulterated 
Cayenne is however, hy no mrutu inconsidcrahie. 

A case uf lead poisontn<j arising from the consumption of Cayenne 
adulterated with red lead is referred to in the evidence of Mr. Post- 
gale before the Parliamentary Committee on Adulteration; the case 
WU8 received into tlniveraity Ctillecc Hospital. The man was in the 
habit of consuming large ciuantities of Cayenne^ which, un being 
U»ted, was found to contain lead. 

The article known u£ soluble Cayenne was stated by Mr. Scanlan, 
before the Purlianientnry Committee, to have the following compo- 
sition : — '*It contains both copper and vermilion ; the copper is acci- 
dentally introduced into it from the mo4le of prcpnmtion — it h token 
from a copper still. They muke u sort of tincture of the Cayenne 
pepper; and they filter and pour it upon a quantity of salt in a copper 

B B 4 

c&TX7n» jLBn> m ai>cxixratiox& 

^IW .:i/&aA^ra«KNU o^ Coffnme. 

by ■>■■ if tbe nicraacope : the strueture of 
'•«■ ihw I iN li and Ueir microMopical 








must be had to cheraistry. TIic fact of the presence of red earths 
may indeed be aaccrlaincd by meuns of the microscope, by viewing 
under that instrument n [>ortion of the Cayenne:, when the red earthy 
purticlen may be plainly discerned. To determine their eumpuattlon, 
however, chemistry mu<4t be uppealeil to. 

The method for detecting the presence of red earlbs, and for their 
(lu^ntitative delermination, will be found deembiHl at pp. 103. and 
149., and that for salt under tlie head of annatto. We iiave, then, 
now to dcecribc? more particularly the proceases Co be followed for the 
detection of lead and mercury. 

On the Detection of I.,ead. — The presence of lead in Cayenne may 
bv determined by simply shaking up half a drachm or so of the Cay- 
enne in water, and adding a fewjdrops of hydrosulpburet of ammonium ; 
if lead bf prewnt the liquid will become more or lew dark or black, 
according to the quuntltv of leud present. 

But it .thonld be remembiired that irun gives a g^reenish-black pre- 
cipitate with the above-named reagent; and therefore it is not 
Quite safe to trust in all cusea to the appearance presented un the ad- 
aition of solution of hydrosutphuret of auimouiuiu U> water contain- 
ing Cayenne. 

It is be^tt^ therefore, in all casea to proceed as follows : — Incinerate 
loo grains «f Cayenne previously dried on a water bath; treat the 
a^h with alMtut half a drachm of stron;; nitric acid ; heat nearly to dry- 
ncMf so that part of the acid may become di^aipaled ; dilute with din- 
tilled water, nltcT, and test for lead cither by means of sulphuivtted 
hydrogen, hydrosulphnret of ammonium, or cUe iodide of potatitfium. 
When the quantity of lead present has to be determined, the«e re- 
agents must be added until no mure precipitate falU down; the pre- 
cipitates must be collected, dried, weiglied, and the red lead calcu- 

On the Detection of Bixulpkuret of Mercury. — As merenry sublimes 
at a red heat, we cannot proceed in the analysis by incineration ; the 
solvent must be added to the Cayenne direct; and this advent must 
consist of aqua re^ia, which ia a mixture of niiric and hyilrociiloric 
acids, in the proporlionti of one part of the former to two of the latter 

About a scruple of aqua regia should be udded to half a drachm of 
Cayenne, and after an h(mr or two a small quantity of distilled water; 
the mixture must next be filtered, and the excess of acid got rid of 
by evaporation, which must be conducted nearly, but not quite, to 
dryneas ; a little water must then again bo added, and the aolution 

The t€«ts employed are liquor potae^tu and iodide of [mtus^ium. 
The former gives a yellow precipitate, and the latter either a yellow 
or more commimly a beautiful ncarlet-coloured precipitate of biniodide 
of mercury. The colour produced on the addition of iodide of potaa- 
sium would always be bright scarlet, were it not tliat the presence of 


orf^nic mutter Id the solution modifies the ftction of the test. The 
sofutinn of todiile of potassium should be adiled in very minute quan- 
tity, us the iodide or biniodide is readily nnd (dinost instantly dissolved 
in an cxceas of, this rongeut; and it should be knoivn ihat verr 
often, when the cnlour of the precipitate is rather yellow ilian redf 
after 8t4uidin;jr un hour or two it will frequently change to the cha- 
racteristic scarlet hue. 

Cayenne pepper, grount! Chili, and cftp)>i<:urn pods, are charged 
alike by the Custtuns — the pepjMir duty of 6rf. per lb. itnd 5 per cent, 
thereon . 

We have not been able to procure returns of the quantities im- 
ported. It IS evident tliut the loss to the revenue in the adultera- 
tion of this nrtiete must be very preat. We have never heard of unj 
proceedings instituted by thu Excise for the adulteration of Cayenne. 


Severai, ingredients enter into the composition of curry powder. 
The Jirticles of which genuine i!urry powder of oood quidity ordinarily^ 
cousidts arc turmeric, black pepper, coriander seeds, Cayenne, fenu- 
greek, earduinoniH, cumin, ning^r, allspice, and cloves. Of these, tur- 
meric forms the larj^est proportion; next to this in amount are co- 
riander seeds mid black pi'pper ; Cayenne, cardamoms, cumin, and 
fenugreek, form but a aiuali portion of the article; whUe the ginger, 
clove«, and albpice arc in many cases omitted. 

The proiHTtics nnd slrueturc of several of the above in<n*e<lients 
have been already fully described and illlustruted ; as turmeric, black 
pepper, Caycuiic, giUf;er, cluves, and allspice ; it thus oidy remains to 
give a description of the other ingredients which enter into the com- 
position of curry -powder — namely, coriander seeds, cardamoms, fenu- 
greek, and cumin seeds. 

Coriander Seeds. 

Coriander {Coriandriau soticurn) belongs to the natural family Um- 
belliferie ; it is an annual plant of a foot or a f(H)t nnd a hulf in height ; 
it is cultivate<l in Ksaes, and, although nut rcully indigenous, is fre- 
quently met with growing wild jn the neighbourhood of Ipswich 
and some parts of Ls5ejc. 

Tlie fruit or seed vessels are globular, about twice the sixe of white 
mustard seeds, and of a light-brown colour. Kuch i'ruit consistfl of 
hemispherical portions termed thericarps^ each of which is a seed ; 


each mericarp exhibits un Us outer surface five primary ridges, vrbich 
are depresse*! anil wavy, aini four secondary ridgvs, whirli are more 
prominent and straigbt. Tbc channels are without receplflcie« for the 
essential oil, or, as they are Itfiliiii^^ally termed, vittee; but near the 
commiMures in each merii'nrp then* i:< a sinuU vittii, so that each fruit 
18 providi'tl with four of these receptacles. 

The epldermia or husk is thick and brittle; when examined with the 
inicro:;C»pe^ it is observed to consist of narrow fibres, which cross each 
other, and »re ditjpo^ed in a waved manner, ll is united to the seed 
by tueiuis of luoite cellular (issue, the cavities <}f the cells l>eing empty. 
Od the removal of the husk, these cells are turn thruugh, ^OIlle re- 
maining; attacheil to it, and the rest U) the surfncc of the seed. After 
the scnaration nf the hu^sk, the seed is still of a brown colour. Beneath 
the colts above described succeeds a delicate fibrous membrane ; and 

Fig. M». 
Ta4SiTKiu> flicnov or UKaiCAar or CokJAViuut. 

• d, flbres fitrmbic ttM ttuak. ft, Um Ioom wlb which aoHa the bluk to (Im Ncd. 
r, lite \*ytT tif (Iraplr-oolunrMl mlU, In caatMit with the wKtA. •' 4 ctlU com- 

next to this is a Inyer of deeply -coloured cells, which merpe into x\w 
cells which form tlie subatance of the seed ; these are anguhur, with 


well-dtifinerl puietes, their cftrities enclosing oil in a molecular con- 
ditinn. TUe inuture «eed does not contain starch. Fig. 14J. 

The peculiar structure of the busk of coriander seeds afTordit a 
means by wbicb Iheir presence in curry powder n)ay be readUy de- 

Cardamom Seedg, or Orains of PaTodtM, 

The seed vessels or pods of cardamom are of a triangular form, 
and consiitt of three valves, tapering at either extremity to a blunt 
THiiiit : the inenibrane forming them is thick, tough, and fibrous, and 
IS made m\\ ofcellular li»uue and bundles nf woody fibre, whieh spread 
out from ihc tlowor-stHlk, and arc viiiible on the surface lo the nakeil 
eye, impnningthe striated appeai'ancc characteristic of the seed vessel 
of cardamom. 

From its interior, the seed vessel sends oST three prolontrations or 
septa, which divide it into as many compartments; each of these con- 
tains several hard seeds of n reddish brown colour uud exhibiting 
upon the surface peculiar markings. The seeds ore united tojjether by 
a gelatjnous parenchymatous suhstimce, which, under the microscope, 
is seen to consist of numerous delicate tubules, tilled with granular 
and oily matter. 

The covering of the seed, examined with the microscope, and 
viewed on itd outer surface, is observed to consist of a single layer of 
coloured cells-, much elongated, nnd of uniform diameter, termiuating 
in rounded extremities, the cells bi.Mng accurately adapted to each 
other. BoTiealh these are other cells, which bear a general resem- 
blance in fi»rm tu those previoualv described, but differ in beinj; more 
irregular, much more delicate, and iu the ubsencc of colour: tbcj arc 
di!>po:>cd in an opposite direction to tfaoftc of the outer layer. Fi^. 

Ill transverse sections, the elongated coloureil cells appear as small 
canals, of a rounded form. 

Lying beneath the coating, and forming part of the seed, is a single 
row of hirge cells, resembling receptacles. Next in order from without 
inward.s is a layer of small cells, deeply colnured. Next to these suc- 
ceed the cells which constitute the principal part of the seed: these 
for the most part resemble closely the cells of pepper, being very an- 
gular, but they differ tn their more dtdicute and transparent appear- 
ance, and in being minutely dotted. Fig, W^.B. 

Dr. I'ereira, in his '' Mntena Medica," ipiutes the statement made 
bv Schleiden, that he has discovered in the colls of cardamom " amor- 
phous, paste-like starch." We find the cells to be completely filled 
with minute, distinctly-formed starch granules, resembling closely those 
of rice. Probably the Blatcment of M. Schleiden oroee from his 
having employed but a feeble luagnifying power in the cximination of 
the seeds. 

The presence of cardamom seeda tn cuiTy powder is most readily 


iletermincd hj means of tbe dotted and Angular cells wbioh fonn the 
fiabstAncc of the sceda. 

Cumin Seeds, 

The cumin plant {Cuminvm Cyminvm) belnnpR, like coriander, to 
the natural ordur Unibt'IIifene , in a native of Upper EgYpt» but is c.\- 
tensivelj cultivated in Sicily and Malta. 

Fig un, 

Ocm KsifBiun Avx> Tra.vsvsub Siortov or a CAKOiiiox 8brd. 
iNicnUM no AlaiMim.) 

^.PorUoBof oMttlMnbKos, fxhlblllnc the iloofated erllforwhieli U !■< 

pCMcd. B, TnUWyWM »tctiuli ul «nl. mi, p^'llm furitlinf ODtu mtnlH 

h h, rverpUcle-Uli* cvD* f. la^rr Mf r<jK>uii<l c«lli. litt, tr«iup«rut and 
■nlB'iUlyiluttvd flilli. or vhkb Uu: autuluio] ul Uic aetil lUclf 1* Riftilc up, and 
which ftfc &Um1 wlifa gtveh ouipuacU*. 

Cumin seeds resemble somewhat caraway seeds, but they are 


Urger^ ■Cnugfater, mud o£ a Ugbler ealov. The hwt » JwMe, like 
that oToonuider aod all other ombelliferam plaaAi, eaaMtimt oTtwo 
each mqicarp hi ftre /ii— j li^ii^whidi are 

or merwarps 
filifiira. lad fonrfwiJiry ridga^ which «« 
/iiiBJAul wiih Tcrr foe hnn or pricUea, 
ri4i[c if a reeeptade or vitta. 
Tranamae aw< io n > of a cumin seed ezhihit 

b«t hothare 


the fa B m a iag stmc- 

Tbe hairt or prickle* are compoaed of ecik, the loMr dtaaelers of 
wiuch are arranged in the long axes of the hain. The hs^ or eorcr- 
ing of the teed ii made up of namcroiis rounded or aapdar cdU, in 
the audcC of which the lar^e and tnaimlar iritt» are citsated ; and 
between the htuk and seed itaeli; then b naaallj a small spaee, which 
is formed by the contraction of the seed after it hss arrired at ma- 
lority. The surface of the seed n of a pale-bnmn cokmr, and its in- 
terior whitish and transparent. The exterior portion of the seed is 
ron»titiited of elongated and flattened ceUsof a brownish colnnr, while 
the interinr and chief subetanoe of the seed itaelf is compoaed of nu- 
merous distinct angular cdh, the valU of whM^ are thick and perfectly 
transparent; their oonienu conii&t priocipallj of oiL The seeds dio 
not contain starch. .F^. 147. 

Cumin seeds pomeas a rerr peculiar, medicinal twte and amdl ; 
and it is to these that curry powder owei the greater part of its charac- 
teristic flavoar and odour. 


fenugreek Seedt, 

The structure of Fenugreek seeds u very characteristic. The fau»k 
of tlw seed connsts of three membranes ; the outer it furrocd of a single 
layer of cellft, which bearn remarkalde resemblance in ^lape to a short- 
necked bottle ; the lonj! diameter of lbe»e celU is ili^posetl TonicAlly. 
the narrow, neck-like part being most external, and forming the other 
surface *tf tlie membrane. The second membrane consists of a single 
layer of cells, two or three tiroes larger than the former, very luuch 
flattened, and having their margin* repilarly and beautifully crenate. 
The third and innermost membrane is made up of sereral layers of 
large tramparent cA\i filled with mucilage; these cells expand greatly 
when immersed in water. Fi^. 148. 

The »ee<) itself consi*ilfi of two lobea, which are made tip of numerous 
minute cellfl ; tho9e in the outer part of each lobe are nf a roundeil or 
angular form, while those situated near the innermost part become 
much elongated, the long axe* of ilie coll* being placed transverse!? 
in each lobe. Tlie entity seed u covered by a single layer of siuoll 
angular cells. Fig. 149. 




ResuiU of the Eiamination of Samples. 
Twenty/fix samples of this article were eubjecied to »o«l;m; "^ 
tbesc nearly four-Jifths tvet-e adulterated. 

F$g. 148. 

OOTXB COAT 0« Tl«TA or * r««coi 
(Mi«nifl«d !Bl> diAmetcrt.) 

J . Partltm of th« outer «ivc1 te^cmd nwmliraM MrtpfWd off i ■ ■. I 

like «1U 1 h f>. crruBlr.) rrlU >if woofid m*wib#«i»e. B. Tt»«»- - . 

oolMired otllJ mFninf htia.//, the Iwft olb wbMl ftna Ik* T 
bnuia, tiled with muelace. 


lit appeared 

"lat seven only verepmuine, 
TliBt nineteen were aauUerated. 
I'lut grtniwi riccy usually iu very large quantities, was preeeDt in 

nme sainples. 

Pig. 110. 

Tbavsvmu Sicnoy or Lou or FurtiouuiK Bass. 

(.llMnifiMl £» dlKinclwiL) 

in. tivvrof miKll tnirulu- evil* on the nirfaef. I. ranotlcit or anfolar ealla. 
r. Tna ••me nllt gntluallr bKomlnc more «lotic*lrd u tbej kpproarh ttM 
(after p&rt of lube <!, ilaglt row uf celli ft>rtnlng Uw laoennoat nurgln of lobe 

ia( jiottito farina wns delecte'l in oae sample. 
Tbat ttalt was present in right o\' the snnipli'S. 
That llie highly poisonous iiiotallic oxide, bbd lbad, was detected in 

no 1c99 tliun eight of the sample!). 
That in teven of the samples, ihendulteration consisted of ground rice 

I'liat in one sample, the adulteration eoiiaistcd of ground rice and «o//. 
That in on£ !<aiiiple. the adulteration consisted o( ground rice and kkd 

That til three samples, the admixture consisted ofWf only, 

c c 



Thnt in three samples, the sdulteration consisted of salt and bbd 

That in three samples, ttie adulteration consisted of red leap only. 
Thiit in a»e suuifilo, the adulltiracions con::'ijttid of bci> lead, potato 
fariuQ and salt. 

The above results do not pve the whole of tbc adulterations to 
which the t^iiiiiples uf *.'urry powiler had been subjected, since tliey do 
not include tiie ferruginous earths ^nhich were shown, in our article on 
Cayenne, to be so frequently employed to impart colour to that sul>- 

We hflvfl thus shown that rnrry powder is mlnlteratert nearly to 
the same cxleiil, iind with ingrciliiihts etjtially p4'rnii,-ioua as C'nyenne, 
Since the quimiity of curry powderenien nt ii nieid is so considerable, 
US aduUeralion with red lead is even more prejudiciul and dangerous 
thou in the ca»e of Cayenne. Not lonj: since we receiveil a jiarccl of 
curry powder from a surj^eon, iiceniii[uinteil by the stHlement that 
the person who hflii partaken of it haiJ been made very ill by it. We 
found it, on analysis, to contain a larpe quantity of lead. 

The lead in curry powder hy nn ilimbt^ jtenemlly introduced 
throuji;h the adulterated Cayenne eniplnvcd in lis nuinul'uctnre. It 19 
possible, however, that chromate of lead may here, as in some oiher 
cases, be used to intensify and render more permanent the colour of 
the powder. 

The whole of Ihe injp*edients re<juired for making; curry [towder 
may be obiauied id' most seedsmen, and may be readily prucure«l of 
Mr. 13 u tier, ofCovenl Giirden Market. 

With tt conimon pestle anfl niorlar the feeds may be reduced to 
powder, and thus thf housekeeper may herself prepare jrenuitie eurry 
powder, of the best rjuidity, nt a L-nst of about "id. per oumH! Since 
currv jiowder is retailed at (u/., 8J., and even \n. an ounce, it evi- 
dently bears an enormous proBt. Whnt. then, muftt be tbc ^ain upon 
the sale of un article which r» made up [irineipjdly o( turmeric powder, 
salt, ground rice, und inferior capsicmn berries? nml of such a mix- 
ture many of the curry powders purchased ul the shops almost cutirely 

On the Detection of the Ad\dterattoms of Curnj Poicder. 

The adulterations of curry powder, with the exception of potato 
farina or starch, met with in one sample, being the same as those of 
Cayenne, the met hmls for their discovery iire idso the same; the reader 
is therefore referred to the previous ariirle an Cayenne. 

The presence of |>otato starch is detected by means "f the micro- 
scope ; the characters of its granulea are describes! under the bead of 

Curry powder is charged by the Customs, ns a manufactured oi'ticle 
onenumerated, at 10 per cent, ad vaiorem, 




TuHMGRic powder consists of the ground tubers of a plant bdanging 
to tlie same genus aa ginger, viz., Curcuma longa, and which Is exten- 
sively cultivated iu India aud China. 

Composition of Turmeric. 
The composition of turmeric is shown in the following analysis : — 



Yellow Tolatile oil - 



Ctfrcumin - 


- 10 to 11 

Yellow extractive - 


- 11 to 12 




M'oofly fibre 



Water and loes 


7 to 5 


Vogel and Pelhtiert AnalysiM, 

Acrid volatile oil. 


Brown colouring matter. 

Gum (a little). 

Woody fibre. 
Cbluride of calcium. 

The word cvrcutnin is applied to the resinous colouring matter of 
turmeric, which is soluble only in ether. 

Stmcture of Turmeric, 

llie structure of the tuber of turmeric is well exhibited in the an- 
nexeil fijiures. 

TuriiR'rie powder consists of largp cells; some of these are loosely 
imbedded in a rclioular ti.fsut% but othr-rft^ and these the mnjnrity, arc 
quite fr^e; ihcy may be re<:ogni^c<l with fa<'ility, under the micro- 
scope, by their size and bright yellow colour. 

when crushed^ eatrh cell is found to contain colouring matter, as 
well as a number of starch grunulev, resembling ctovely those of Cur* 
cuma arruwnvot, already de^rit>e<l and figured. 

On the Hpplication of iodine the cells become of A deep blue, and 
with potash, of a reddish colour. 

cc 2 


Ok the Adulterations or Tdabuuc. 
or Fourteen san^plfs of turmeric powder subjected to Mtminatka, 
two were adulterutod with yellow ochre, to the ex tec I of neirljSO 

Fig. 160. 
BBonov or Tvub or TvnMMmc 

a a, Cpldmnli i ft l>, trknvpannt f«1U i cr. 7«11ow mnmn t Hd, M gJnhiUir '- 
rt*lnoiu muars i /, dotltd (tact t fi, •lo«iftt*d otlU of woody flbi*. IJtat M ^t 
■iilc o( the duct. 

per cent., while nearly nil the other apeciracns contAioed conndinAB 
quantttiei) of alkali, ciirbonate of soda and potash, added no dulM' 
heighten the colour of the powder. 

Inasmuch as turnierio enters so Urgelj into the cooipiisttioa o/***? 
powder, mustard, ami some other condimentd, it lH*cauie u«ci^>? 
to ascertain whether ii was liable or not to sophist) cation. 

On the Detection of the AduUcration$ of Turtnerie. 
Tdioio ochre con&ists of oxide of iron ddutcd wi th chalk ; thf n^ ^ 



turmeric powder roust therefore be tested in tlic manner already 
directed for the detectiun of those two subatancea. The presence of 

Fig. l»l. 

Till* nifniTliis KprMmU the aiipfaranee aad chuttclenof awmHHt grvimd 
TwuLMic Dnvn with Uw Cimcrm LudiU, ud nu^lted SSI> iUunel«r». 

the ochre is in general sufficiently indicated by the colour and weight 
of the a!«h. 

Should the tub, SAT of 100 ^ain«of the turmeric^ contain alkali, as 
carbonate of »oda or potash, we must proceed as follows : the alkali 
mu9t be dissolved out uf the aab by means of distilled water, the 
solution evaporated down to a small bulk, and htMited with excess 
of dilute hydrochloric acid; the solution inu«^t now be diluted, and 
the chlorine precipitated by means of nitrate of silver ; the precipitate 
colle«'ted, dried, weighod, tbe chlorine estimated and culculatcd into 
carbonic acid, and this again Into either carbonate of soda or potash, 
according lo whichever is present, and which may be ascertained by 
means of the blowpipe ; this gives with soda a rich yellow, and with 
potash a violet Uanie. 

If the potash be mixed with even one-twentieth part of soda, the 
flame will be yellow in place of violet. In this cose it will be neces- 
sary to proceed as follows : the hydrochloric acid solution is to be 

cc 5 

m ISSCMmm; Mi m ItSS, 


mad m tke TobtBc prhiciple, to the |jn*tm< of vUdk diluted 
wHli rwiiMe proportions oC vatrr, Ttae^ar ove» iu aroHA Mid pva- 

TUi idd csiila, Kadr fonned, m nouble n—niij in certain plaBl% 
m Sn mh mm a miger or Uaek dder^ Pkmmis tkwetjU/em or i>Mr frw, aitd 
XTAuj UfphtroMM. 

It Buij be readily generated by the f«niientatioB of TarMms Teget** 
ble and aniuul itiUtaoeca, c^KciaUj the former. 

Fur cfiiDm<m:i*l purpnaes it it nude from certain vegetable and 
«|Mnlaou» iiif itinnii, a« ihnae of the grape, malt, and the sugar eane ; 
but MS\y ir<^euble infu^on capable of jieldina alcohol will also, when 
cxpoMd 10 the neccMarj condition^ fnmiflh vin^ar. In most 


39 1 

ftad bldead whenever vinegar ia roanufuctur&d on a lnr<re scale, the 
vinoilt or ricoholit: fermentation precedes the uc*etoiw, HDii the vinegar 
ie forniert entirely m the e]t|)ense of the ulcohol. 

Jim tbt.- euiLVersiuii of iilcohol into aeelio aoiil, it is saidf ought not 
to be re^iiriicil us essfiitiiil lo acetifieution, since »onie vegetable and 
aniitial infusions become sour, from the formation of acetic ncid, with- 
out any previous generation of Hlcc»hol. 

Acetic aciil may be formed directly from the vapour of crude 
alcohol or spirits of wine in comnmuhiculion with the atmosphere, 
through cither an ignited pliuintun wire, or h\ moans of the black 
powder obtained by bfHlin;r prato-elkloride of platinum and potash 
with alcoliol. In Gerujunv, where the price of aleulxd is very low, 
vinejjar baa been manufacCured on a larye scale ou tbis jirinciple. 
The pri^>cess will be found de5cnb«d at page 3(i8. of ** Food and ita 

Certain ronditinna are eitlier es^entiid to acetifieation, or else pro- 
mote preatly the rapiddy of the process; thus the presence of atmo- 
tpherie air or ortfgen li one of the conditions indi^peie^able to tbe 
change, the rvaifou of wliich is made apparent by thu itubjmueU for- 
mulie: — 

One atom of alcohol consists of 

C, H,0-fHO; 
One atom of anhydrous acetic acid of 
C, H O,. 
Now, one atom of alcohol nWorbs four atoms of oxypen from the 
air, to form one atom of anlivdnnis flccfic acid, and three atoms of 
wat«r — a chan;!e which is thus ex|ilHiiici] bv chcmicul livndmls. 
C^ U, O, and 4 O = C^ U, O', and 3 II O; 
or C^ U, O + ll O ami 4 0= 11 O, C^ H^ O, + 2 H O. 

Thus, wheu alcohol i» converted into acetic acid, two of the atoms of 
the oxygen are directly absorbed to form lite acid, and the remainin$( 
two atoms convert two atoms of the bydropen of the alcohol into 
water ; the at^im of water of the alcohol and the tw(» fresh atoms of 
water pro-luced arc nil retained, and form a terbydrate of acetic acid. 

Such arc ihe chan<rest, by atom, of alcohol into aeelic acid. 

It is therefore evident that much of tbc success of any process 
adopt4Hl for thti manufacture of vinegar will depend upon tbe manner 
in which the motber liquor is exposed to the atmosphere — that is, 
U|>ou the constant renewal of the air, and the extent of hurface ex- 
posed to its action, the conversiim of alcohol into acetic acid takinf^ 
place only im the surfiure of thi; liquid. 

The kiiowledu;e of the fact that atnioHpberic air wns indi>t[tensable to 
Rcetific'ati<mled to the adoption in this country and in Germany of what 
has been termed "Me t^Hick vinecnr process" by wliicb the linnid to 
be cOUTerted into vinegar ia kept vonstautly ia motion in a uirided 

cc 4 

In tke ssBafiMtoTf of cW firm thmve — impiI tfe prams n 
4ael«d m bm vbu, CBpaUe at each boidiiii; Iron CJOOO to |Q< 
faDoMaf wm£: cadi rat k batflilM vieh the UqatA la be iii d i fce J , 
•Mi the npprr half whk bondlet of bin b, sarh as are in ««iierml ase 
frr b ffw i OM or beaooM. Tbe pacnp in the centre eteraies tbe iMfaor, 
tad. Iff If M otiu rvttlive motiim, dbpersea it m a flhawcr over ibe 
a uifate of tkm hml of birth. an<i in ileaoendin;; throus^ the same it is 
aket by a ani«Il A^^r-j^niiinsr current of atmospheric air. which, cttforn}; 
in rontaet with tl»e omltiplied tiirface* of the tiquor tricklin;! thmujih 
the twi;rm, ftpeeflilv oriilifies it ; the whole hein^ kept np to the proper 
llMC by a atc>ain p«rir of pnre iJn pnasinz through the Tat. The scidi- 
lleation is jpenemlfv rtini|>I(?ro<l in twtrntT Harft, but varies in inrfirae 
r4l»o li) the fTprfHtftion of l)ireh to ib^ won to tie »ci(lt6e<t ; xih) tbe 
whole operarion, intM!h«ii>'*iil and rhemical, bein^ perfonniil by Memm, 
no manMAl lat>our of any kiml \n p'^^uired, Ktre the occa«i<mal inspec- 
tion I'f tiie manager to ascertain when the proceit is finished. 



Tliis apparatus is ortpalilo nf acriJifvin;; any fenwjiited lirjunr what- 
ever, ami even distilled spirit, wilU a cotuplu'tc control over any 

The process will be more clearly comprcliended by an examination 
of the accompanying enprravin;;, which was iniidc from a model pre- 
pared by Messrs. IlUl, Evans, and Co., and shown at the Great 

The upper circidar opening in the aide of the vat is for the admis- 
«on of attnospheric air, the lower is the termination of the steam pipe. 
It should be incntlnnetl that the principle of the process was dis- 
covered rpiite iiulcjwndently, and about the same time, in Germ:iny 
nnU in this country. 

A second necessary condition is the presence of a substance capable 
of excitinj,' iVTineutation — that i.s a/erment. 

In vegetable infusioni, as tluwe ol* the prune and malt, the nitro- 
penised principles onntaine<l in them, ohielly jiluten, act as thefcriniMit. 
Viiit'jjar itself, vinegar yeast, lees, beer yeast, leavened breiid, and 
many other similar matters, all of which contain pluten, are capable of 
excitinp fermentation, and so promoting the generation of acetic acid. 
KxpL'rience has shown that the beat fermfini for indm-injj the trans- 
formation of aloohol into acetic acid is a portion of rendy*uiatle vinegar 

A third condition, which, tbnu^h nnl^ like the former, essential, vet 
prcHtly hastens the conversion, is an increased teniperature, vnrvmp 
con^id'e^ably in ditTerent cast's, but sometimes reaching as high as 
100° Fahr. ^ • 

When any spirituous licjuor is exposed under the conditions re- 
qtiisite for acetification, the following phenomena are observed to occur 
in Piiccession. 

However clear the liqaid may have been at first, it anickly becomes 
turbid, currents or movements are soon visible in it ; it is said, in 
common language, to be "on the work." Slimy partidea collect on 
tlie surface^ gradually forming a scum, and which, aHcr a time, falls 
as a seilinient to the bottom. The Germans call this scum *^ vinfirar 
mother," since it is capable of exciting acetification in fre^h portions 
cif liquid. During the process the temperature of the licpihl n-^es, and 
the peculiar aroma of vinegar Iteeome^ diffused in the surnmnding 
air; as B4K>n as all the alcohol has beconte converted into acetic 
acid, the temperature falls to tliat of the atmos])here: the motion 
cease*, the liquid becomes clear and bright, and its cunveraiou into 
vinegar is complete. 

Tnis DirrBVETT Kinds op Visbqas ajid their MA^trrAcnmB. 

The four principal kinds of vinegar met with in commerce are — 
wirui eihtgiir^ nuiU vinegar^ swgar vinegar, and wood vinegar, Th« 


first three of these depend upon fermentation, and result from tl* 
chnnjie of alcohol into aoetic acid: while wood vinc^r Ja oiiUiwJ 
witlumt the intervention of fornicntatiun, by the destructive dtfUlU* 
lion of w<hkI- 

Not unfre<itiently more than one subatance it combined in iW 
manufucluri: uf vinegar; thus, ntixiures of nialt, com, and f nnr or 
treacle are ac«asion:ilIy employed ; in wliich ease the resulting tiDc^ 
\g of cour-^e a eombination of two or more kinds of vinejrar. 

In some parts of Kofrland vinejjjir is made from either wAtdt 
perry; these kinds are dlstinjruisHed by the prescnre of nialie »4*itl 

DifttiUed mnegar may be obtained by the distillation of iLn> 
\inegar ; what i^ eominonly sold however as this, is generall ■ 
more than diluted acetic acid, and in tome cases even pyroh^' u< 

Wine Vinegar^ when pxire and of pond ntialilTi is tbe bwt descn^ 
tion of vinegar; it is liablevhowever, tti adultenttinn with pyroli g ^wwl 
aciil. It is sometimes flavoured by the addition of wine, »nd • 
di.'^tinijfuJslir'd fnmi all uCher vinegars by the presence of hitartrafte^ 
pr>ta«b, c.dlfd usually tartar nr wine-stone The prescutce rf iW 
uleohol inereaues its aroma and punt*enoy. 

Owing to the seareilr iind high price ofFreneh wine vincjTir. it 
three times as dear in France as fnrroerly, and it« cons- 
to mlulteration, Messrs. W. and S. Kent and Sons, iriipitr' 
white wine vine^jar, Imve ln-eo indufLni to prepare a vinegar 
as nearly as pnssible the lluvuur and properties ofFreneh win> 
We have examincil some ^|ieoitiiens of thi^ article, and firi«i 
carefully mnniiFuctured, perfectly genuine, and of strength qu.. 
to that of wine viiu-par. 

Mall Vinff^nr. — 'Ihechief part of the vinegar made in thiaoooBtiyii 
prepared from malt, or from mall and com, with or witltout t\xpr. 

Sugar Vinegar. — An exeelleiil vinejrnr may be made fr«m »uj»af ;ti« 
process is ilescribed lU page 371. of "Food :tnd its Adultcmtions.* 

A very pure antl wbule^unc vineyar may also be preporrd Ir^l 
solution ofsu^fur or treacle, fermented by the agency of a fungal tAvrf 
" thf. vinegar plant."'' 

\Vc were favoured some time bark by Rtr Fletcher, furjwa « 
Bromsgrovc, with the following particulars in rcTureaee to the tinejtf 
plant : — 

"A few weeks agn 1 had a young vtnegHr plant •enl m?, wttiiti* 
following direclions: — 'Tut the phmt in an earthen jar, addtoiJ 
half a |>ouiid of the coni-sest moist sugar, und half a pound of tw^» 
with five pints «>f milk-wnrm water ; cover it iighily o%er, •out* 
keep out the diii*t, but not the air, and then put it in a ntcMlerAf^r «^ 
place ; there let it remain seven weeks, not disturbing it more Clua »■• 
can help. Ai I lie end of that time pnur nlT what i^ now tbe on' 
vinegar, and keep it in well-eorked buttles for use. Again uMla^ 
plant the same quonliiy of water, sugar, and treacle, u before ^ 



the end of the sroond aovcn wcckji, me plan 
two thick pancokes, und thcv may be caaiiy dividei], care being uken 
ntit tu tear (he old or new plant. If the plant U ex|X)sed 1o the coM, 
or kept too lon<^ out of the lirjuid, it will herume bUtk and die.* 

"1 liurcwith iiend you/' eontinues Mr. Fleleher, "a sample of 
vine;iiir thus roanurautuved. ShouUl the snnijile be worthy of your 
attention, I will send ytni a hirper <_jiiAHiity of vinejj:iir, a young plant, 
and a sample of pickle.s nmde with tliin kinil of vine;i:Ar." 

In a second loiter, Mr. Kltiteher writes : "Thi': plant I have, was 
given me early in the wimtr, and it n(H only has suppliid mo with 
sereral young plunts fur friends, but vinegar citougb to hut me for 

We have been given lo understand that vinegar plantu are sold In 
large numbers by the chemists in Alnncltester mid the sniTOunding 
towns, and that vinegar is made in onnsideniMc tpjantities by means of 
thcM! fungi. We also know that sinee the publioiitiou of tiie fact 
that vinegar may be thus prepared, many persons have been led 
to try it, and for the most part with very Katinfactory resulta. 

Nearly all vinegar-makera supply at least four different strengths or 
qualities of vinegar, named re!)|H'c(ively Nos. 24, 22, 18, and 16, the 
brst being the strongest* and llie laat the weakest. 

Nil. 34, or Standard vinegar, as it was called at the time when the 
Excise levied a duty on this article, is now seldom made; but when 
a very strong vinegar is required, the strength of the ordinary kind is 
raisotl by the direct adilition of aeetie or even pyroligneous ncid. 

No. 22 is in most cases the strongest vinegar really manufactured ; 
the other and weaker kinds are noU however, prepared from this by 
the addition of certain quantities of water, but fnrtu separate wort^ 
as it would not pay to make a weak vinegar by the dilution of a strong 

Further, these numbers do not indicate ahxolnte^ but merely reiativB 
strengtlis, so that the vinegars ul' diHerent makers having the »ame 
number vary considerably in the amount of acetic acid contained in 

It is thus evident that, according to this system, much inducement 
for sophistication on the part of retail dealers is removed, who, if tliejr 
wish to be supulied with a |»oor und cheap vinegar, have only to order 
■ cmIc of the Nos. 18 or 16 vinegars of any of the makers. 

It is geiienUiy slated that good vinegars, such as all Nus. 24 ought 
to he, Bhuuld contain 5 per cent, of anhydrous or pure acetic acid. 

The goodness of a vinegar is indicated lo some extent by its sjK-cific 
gravitv. No. 24 vinegar ul good (lUiilily tnhould huvo a specific gravity 
of nol'less than 1022. No. 22 of 1020, No. 20 of lOiy, No. 18of 1017, 
and No. 16 of 101 J. 


Osi TOB AsCLTYftATtlMn Of YtMWikM.. 

Tbe ynaoftl adakbeniiooa of rioe^ar sre wiUi aoter, nJphvric 
mdd ■Dd (vraf Ji^por. aad khbcuiims with kcrid iiiilwifiiiiiw, as chtlltes 
utdgraimg vf fvm£ae^ mad •bo witb wii wi ^ga wwi or vetHe adds. 

Tbe water m added to increase iu mUc, ealplittrk acid and acrid 
vobaUDcct to make it p«uig«irt; and bomt fi^ar to l e stui c the colour 
leal bj dilution. 

Sone of the Tinegan 9old at snail hocksceiV shop^ and at o^ter 
atalb, coanat of litlle eUe than diluted <ul|ihuric acid and water 
coloured with burnt supu". , 

Now, tbe law allows tbe additioa of one part of sulphuric acid to 
1000 of Tuae^aTt and it » oolj when tbe quantity excee«L that amount 
that it can be conaidered at aa ailulteratioa ; and tbia it verj fre* 
quentl^ doe*. 

Tbe uae of this quantttr of sulphuric acid wat permitted on Hit 
plea, urged hj the manafacturer, that it was necesjtary in order 
make the vinegar keep. That it is not requiaite to the preservation 
of well-made rin^^r, is shown hj the dreumstanee that several 
manufacturers, especially those who make use of the quick vinegar 
prooesM, do not tiaesul|4itirio acid at all ; and yet the vinegar made by 
them keeps perfectly well. 

Aa baa already been iioliced. the same practice prevails in tbe 
article vinegar as in mu«tard ; no le» than four, and even five qaalitiea 
ftf vine*rar are made, differing only in stren^h ; the consequence of 
this system ia, that if you buy vinegar at several different shops, it 
will be found that some of tnc vinejrars will contain two or three 
taneB less acetic acid, tbe aciive Ingredient of the vinegar, than others, 
•Uhoitgh the same price is paid for them all. This sysiem, therefore, 
sffbrda flfreat boilities for irap»itiun. 

Other adulterations described in books, tfae msjority nf which 
are probably of unfrequcnt occurrence, consist in the addition of 
nf/rir, hydrochloric^ and tartaric acids^ ainm^ tail, spurge jiaXy muHard^ 
petiitory, and inng pepper. 

Vinegar is not untreiiiiently contaminated with arsenic, this beii 
introduced through the Aulphunc acid iisctl in its adulteration. 

** Tou get ar«cnic," states Mr. Scanlan in his evidence before the 
Parliamentary Committee, "in oil of vitriol to a sreat extent. This 
arises from the omploynicnt of pyrites instead of sulphur. Oil <:»f 
vitriol is made in large ijuaniittes by alkali makers, and when the 
price of sulphur is high they use pyrites instead; and pyrites almost 
invariably contains arsenic. Irish pyrites contains a cood deal ; but 
I have under^ttiKxl that the Cornish pyrites contains still more. Some 
few years aco I found an enormous quantity of siilpburic acid here in 
London. U finds its way into muriatic acid utude fi-om that sulphuric 
acid, or in tfae manufacture of which that sulphuric acid is employed, 



and hence it mnj be rery miachicToiu. A mixture of muriatic acid 
anil »mlu hiu been used in hrend, and I bavo seen muriatic acid eun- 
taining a very fearful quantity of arsenic." 

The follonrm^ evidence in regard to (he me of rtrrronire sublimate 
was given by Mr. Gay, before the Parliamentary Committee : — 

"Corrosive sublimate has been used tor years and years in some 
houses, and not a cask bos gtinc out without a certain proportion of 
corrosivL' sublimate." 

Vhuirnum, " Do yf»i believe that corrosive sublimate was mixed 
with tlie vinegar in injurious proportions? 

" I du ; it wus done to f-ivc strength to the vinegar. When the D. 
W. and O. V. liave been nseJ, the eorroslve sublimate is put in to 
give it n tartness nguin in the mouth." 

Chairman. "Are theae technit-ul expressions in the trade — O. V. 
for nil of vitriol, and D. \V. for distilled water? " 

"Just 80. Corrosive sublitmiLe is oalled * (he Doctor.' " 

M'liitc or di^tiIled vinegar, as it is called, is usually marie with 
water and acetic acid, what is sold as sueU being rarely distilled at all. 

Resglts or AxAiTSBS or Samtlbs. 

The chemical annlysis of Thirft/'lfiree sninples of vinegar purehased 
of various tradesmen resident in I^ondon, furnished the following 
results: — 

IsL That the amount of acetic acid, the most imi>ortflnl constituent 
of vini'gar, varies ^p-eittly in tllRerent samples, the highest per- 
centage being 5'10, and the lowest 2**29, or less than half the first 

2nd. Tbiit, nncc the standard No. 24 vinegars, submitted to analysis, 
range for the most pari eonsiderably over four \*vt cent., vinegar 
to be deemed good otigbl to contain certainly wt teat than (uur 
per Cfnt, of real acid. 

3rd. Judged by this standard, out of twenty-three samples of vinegar 
purchased of dealers in I..imdon. seven reached this strength, and 
contained from four jwr cent, upwards of acetic acid ; the per- 
centage of seven of the vinegars ranged between three and lour 
while in the remaining nine the amount of acid varied from two 
to three per cent., it t>einu in two instances — 9«mplea 17. and 19., 
the weakest (A' the whole — as li»w as 'I'40 and 2*29. 

4th. That twelve samples out of the thirty-three analyfcd con» 
tained no free sulphuric acid — a fact affording convincing proof 
that the use of this aciil, so objectionable in many re.<t|>ects, is not 
necewtry for the preservation of well-made vinegar. 

dth. That in eight sainples the quantity of sulphuric acid present 
did not exceed the amount formerly permitted to be added. 


6th. That in the remaining; caws the arooiint exceiMied thU, and in 
some instances wiis three or four times a$ great. 

The results of the analyitis of a sfcond sfrieg of samples. Twenty' 
eight in number, of the vinegar of some of the principal vinegar aianu- 
faccurers, were as follows :— 

lit. That seven of the samples were entirely &ee from sulphuric 
actiK or oil of vitriol. 

2nd. That eighteen were atTulteratcd with that powerful and corro- 
sive minerul arid, the amount of which wafi variable, and often 
Tcry consldcrnble; from *6;J, the lowest., to G'02, the highest quan- 
tity in 1000 prains. 

3ril. That two of the samples contained it in very small quantity only. 

4lh. Th:ii in three samples it wa.«> present in considerable amount. 

flth. Thiit six contained it in very considerable amount. 

tiili. That in seven samples it was present in immense quantity. 

7th- TiiJit the acetic acid alsu varied very considerably in amount 
in dillerent samples, the highest proportion Winp, in 1000 );raiita 
by measure, 56 66 grains, or 5*60 per cent., and the lowest, 27'63, 
or only 2 76 per cent. 

8th. Thnt in eight sumjdes the acetic acid was present in amoont 
over fire per cent., which h above the standard strength. 

9th. That in tweha saniplcii the (quantity exceeded yi/ur per cent. 

10th. That in setrn it wjis over thrre per cent. 

11 fh. That in one the qumitity nfatetic acid present waa so exceed - 
ingly sniid) as tn he tttffier three per cent., — that is, but little 
more than half (he ppi»|»er stren^^th. 

Tiie sulphuric arid indicated in the analvsps. is what is termed 
monobydrated sulphuric acid, which is in f;encral very much stronger 
than the commercial acid : every part of the fonner, therefore, corre- 
sponds to a much larper quantity of the latter. 

Again, it shnuhl be imrticuhirlv reruembered that the acidifying 
power of the iiiiiieral sul|ihurto aiid is very much greater than that 
of the vegetable acetic acid : one part of sulplturic acid acidifies a 
much Urgt^r quantity of a fluid thnn the sanm amount of acetic acid, 
an that tiie tiu'pliuric acid present in vinegar does not simply take the 
place of a similar rpmntity of acetic at'iil, but reprcsenia several times 
the amount of that acid. 

As in tlie preparation of acetic aciil, and distilled vinegar, copf»er 
■till:*, leiul,, or tin pipes arc Homctinies, thiujgh by no meana 
conimfihty used, ^iiu'gar is occasionally found (o be contaminated to m 
dangerous extent with those metuls. As vinegar is capable of acltng 
Tcry energetically, in the course of a few minutes, on most metals, 
their nse in its manufacture ought to be strictly prohibited: nmiT 
fatrd accidents have resulted iVom the impregnation of vinegar with 
metallic poisons. The metal which is, however, most frequently found 
m vincsar is iron. 




On the Detection, of the Aiiuiteratioru of Viwgnr, 

The rc««1ieat means wliieh ran be adopted orwcertaining titc qunlity 
of a is by d<'(*?rniininfr its specific jjravitv; this may )h* dnne 
either by iiu'rini* nf ihc (irdlnnry hydrometer, or efse by an instnimont 
constrm.'tod on ibe same principles hs the irftlaetometer of M. Dinocourt 
alreatlv described. The oniinarv gravities of vinewars of the several 
qualities are suted at p. 395. It will frequently be iViund that the 
vinegars »»h\ at the shops wuigh several dejirees less than even No. 16. 
vinegar, which is the p(M)rcst made, and the specific gravity of which 
is usually 1015. When the gravity is below tbis, the vinegar ia un- 
queyttfMiaUly adulterated with water. 

On the Detenitinntion of the Acetic Acid in Vinegnr. — The fjuality of 
a vinegar, and whether it is adulterated or not, can oAcn be ascertained 
by determining the amount of acetic acid present in any sample ; the 
determinaliun is ejected by saturaliim with knoM^n tiunnLities of an 

The acid may be first separated from the other constituent*, im- 
purities, or aduitcrution^ nf the vinegnr, by distillalion ; bi'ing volatile, 
It passes off on the iip[iU<:atinn of heat, anil ir thus procured iini only 
sepamti^ly, but aUo in a inure Loncentrated lorm. Thi* ijuantity 
of vine;.'ar tube emph'vcd is 10 fninccs, which should be distilled 
almost to dryness, the acid tditaincd being then neutralised with alkali, 
■ad its amount thus determined, 

The process of distillation, however, is tedious, and does not admit 
of easv application, except in the labirratnry of the chemist. The 
aome end cnn be attained by a different method : thus the alkali may 
be added diretrtly to the vinegar. The alkali usually employed is 
mmIa; it may be used either in the form of the pure crr>tals of the 
carbonate, the recently ignite<t carbonate, which is preferable, or a 
solution of caustic 9o<la. The drie<l carlMtnate is prepared by igniting 
the carbonate in a crucible. The whole *>f the water of crysialHsa- 
tion should be driven off, and the white powder left heated to redm^ss. 

Weighc<l quantities of the soda ahouht be dtasolved in known bulks 
of distillcii water. In this way the re-ngcnt may be applied in even 
decimal portions of a grain. 

Further, it is not only necessary to prepare such a dilution, but 
also to have the means nl emptoyins; it in definite minute ipjantities, 
— an object which is effected by an instrument tt-rmcd an alkalinieie-. 

An alkaliineter is an elongated and gniduuted ]ilu»s tube, terminate 
ing above in two a|)ertures, the one large, by which the instrument ii 
repleniifhed, and the other small, an*! drawn out into a ]K>int to regu- 
late the escape of the fluid in drnpn. The instrument which we em- 
ploy is one of GrifBn's septimul allcalimeters ; the scale is marked into 
ten principal divisions, wbicli arc again subdivided into ten les^^er de- 
grees or spaces, each uf which is denominatcfl a '^septem," from its 
being made to coatiun seven grains of distilled water. The entire 



measure, therefore, h<ild9, aa will be perceived, seven hundred grains 
of ilisulled water. * 

Jn many dieinical works wc are ilirccted to mix a few drops of; 
•Irmi^ solution of liLttiu!) with (lie vinei^iLrf previous to ii»ii)g the soda 
BoiuLion, and tu add thin until the oulour of the rcldened litmus is 
restored. These ilircctioiis are erroneous, and lend to serious miscal- 
culations; for the liimiis does not agnin becmne blue until the salumt- 
in£ point has been Inng paaseil, and the li<{uid hafy Acquired a dccide<l 
alitnlinc reaction ; we thertfore recommend the a|>crutor not to rely 
upon the indication:) nfl'orded by solution of litmus. 

Again, we are ttdd to continue nddin;; ihi^ »o*\-a solution until th(» 
litmus piiper iiniueisecl in the vinejjur feusesi to turn red. Tliere is 
here a source id'frror equally ureat as in the former ca^e; for the lit- 
mun j)ii|>LT will 1m* reddened lim;; after the acetic acid has been neutral- 
wed, iliiiian.sin;; frcim the discnfriiged carbonic ftcid of the itoda, ab- 
sorhed and retained by the lluitl. 

Tliis liilhicy is punrded against by repeatedly drying, in the ccinrse 
of the prucesfi. the litmus pjipcr hefore the lire or the fl.ime of a 
candle, when, if ihe redness be due to carbonic acid, it will vanish on 
the applicHUim i>f the hunt; but if to acetic acid, it will be jwr- 
umneiit. Another means of ;j;uarding against fallacy nrising out of 
the tiresencc of free carbonic aeiil is to heat the vinegar, and so 
expel the acid, or to set it aside for a few liours and tbu:( aU(»w of its 
escape. The saturation ts coinplete, when the Uimu.t pajK'r neither 
retains the xli^htext »hude of re<lne»s, nor hiks iis hlue tint in the 
Icoet degree heightened, this latter indiralin;;, of eour»e, alkalinity. 
By the use, however, of the solution of cau.stic ftodo, the source of 
fallacy arising out of the disengagement of earbonie aciil is avoided. 
The (freat objection to the caustic solution is, thai it very quickly 
absorbs carbonic acid, and therefore will not kee[> for any length of 

Mr. Mitchell, in his treatise on "The Valsifitations of Food," Btat«s 
"that if B drop or two of pure vinegar be placed ujwn blue btmua 
paper, the latter will be reddened ; but when driwl before a lire, the 
red colour disappears, and the original blue aijain presents itself." 

Althouph, from tlie volatile character of acetic ncid, it might be 
inferred that thia statement was correct, we have yet found that the 
redtiesM produced by this acid is not dissipated by the <legree of heat 
which is employed to dry the litmus paper, but on the contrary r«* 
mains fast. 

The strength of the solution should be determined by atom : one 
atom, or 1*03 of the recent ly-ignitc<l carbonate of Rodn corresponds to, 
and will saturate one atom of, aidiydrotis acetic acid. 

The soda should be added to' the water in tlie proportion of six 

* Ao hD)irovcd «)kall(niHi>f or Mnhr li now madr hr Mr. Rriinn, by atuitf ofwhldi Ml- 
dKb fuuiuUM of tbt Mlution aiay be added wlUi trcster accurscy. 



equiTolcnts to one hundred groina of diistUIet) water. If a pound of 
tLe solution be prepared, the siuiie wei<:ht of water should be poured 
into ii white ijluss bottlv, the lew] of the li'juid in the vessel being 
exactly ascertained and luarked i the bottle should then be emptied, 
the suda disiiolved in a portion of the water, end returned iiitn the 
bottle, the remaining wAter being added up to the mark previuusly 
oiiule^ and any woler tbul may be over being rejected. 

An ammonia solution is free from theobjuetionB attached to the so- 
lution of carbonate of soda, when the precaution pointed out with 
respect to ihe use of the liimus paper is not strictly observed. 

It is extremely dilHcult, however, to obtain a definite solution of 
ammoniii. and when procured, to maintain it of unifurm strength. 
Mr. GriiHn, of Finsbury Square, |)erceiviug the advantages of the 
aramoniu dolution, proposes to prepiu*e it in such a manner as entirely 
to obviate these objections. An ingenious plan has betn devised for 
noting loss of scrcngili in a solution of ammonia. Two nicely-balanced 
beads are immersed in it : the one. so long os the solution ia of the 

firoper strength, remains nt the botlom, but griidually ascends as the 
itjtiid Ijccouies heavier; the other lies just uniler the surface of the 
lluid, and of course emerges from it, and makes its &{>pearance above, 
under the ^ame circumstAnces. 

Some experimenters determine the amount of acetic ac3«l by weigh- 
ing the quantity of carbonic acid evolved. This method requires a 
speeiul apfjaratus ; and it is questionable whether, unless ver^ care- 
fully employed, it gives such accurate results ns the soda solution. 

A note must of course be kept of the quantity uf soda sulutJou used 
to neutralise the vinegar: from this the so<la must be calculated, and 
from this a^^ain the acetic acid estimated : — 

On the DetemanaHon of Sulphuric Acid in Vinegar. — Sulphuric 
acid, as we have said, is very commi»nly sdded to the malt and other 
vinegars made in this country, istensilily for the purpose of making it 
keep better, but also untpietitionably to augment its strength. 

We have already expressed doubts us to whether this addition is at 
all oeceftsary to well-manufactured vinegar, since some makers dis- 
pense with it altogether; as, however, the law has allowed of the addi- 
tion of a certain amount of sulphuric iind. the presence of this can 
hardly be treated as an adulteration, although sirirtly it really is bo. 
By it the acidity of the vinejjar is not only increased, but the cost of 
the article much reduced, and in place of a volatile and arumatic acid, 
such ns is natural Co the gastric juice, we are miide tu consume a hursh 
mineral acid, having none of these properties, and in no way concerned 
in digestion. 

Several 8lat«n>ents are pontaine<l in books which treat of adultera- 
tions, respecting the detection of sulphuric acid in vinegar. Thus, it 
IS said : — 

First. If a pen be charged with vinegar containing sulphuric nci<], 
■nd words wntten with it, when dried before the tire, they turn black. 


» D 

Aa At 

whaA mjrwt, ve ifcfwadovs, it ! ie cma<a . ■ Bi n w i r^ ta 
qomtit^ of Hil^anc acid m Uie sUte «f coubtBfttio« pmeat m g*- 
■oxae viaefsr. WHb tku view ve kftve uttlvmd JUfawit nmple*, of 
1000 eratBa ead^ of psre vinegar, and obtained the feUovinc — looate 
of HUpfaate of Imtju : — from KeM*a Bordean, 61 bon&edtka of 
mfnin; K«ia*fl Ko. 17^ £7 hua d i edtW; aad from GHbert't piirHMg 
■ itgM, 46 hmKirvdUM ; (be first eon«apoiidio|: witli 25, tbe kcodS 
intb 34, and tlie third vrifa 19 faundrvtUbf of nilpbaric acid. In all 
calcttUtiona, tberefore, tbe arer^e quantitT of combtoed fttlpburic 
acid tboold be dedneted from tbe loul amooDt of that aeid 



In Romc inittanceii, where very biird well watent are used in making the 
vinegar, it will be necessary to t«si separately for the combined and 
iree sulphuric add. Indeed, it is safest to do this whenever rigid 
accuracy is required. 

The combined sulphates present in vinegars are derived partly from 
the grain and partly from the water enip!oye<l. Whether the acid be 
free or combined may he ascertained in the following manner, if the 
liquid remains acid after the removal of the acetic acid by distillation, 
the acidity is most probably due to free sulpliunc acid, the amount of 
which must be ascertained thus : — 

A given quantity of the vincprar is first precipitated with chloride 
of barium, in order to ^et the total quantity of sulphuric acid present. 

A similar quantity is evnnorated to drynefts, Inrinenitcd, and the 
white ish, after treatment with a few drops of nitric acid, tested for 
sulphuric ftcid. If the acid is in the eninbiiicd state, there will be no 
dilference in the proportions obtained in the two coses. 

Further, the (piJintity of acid containeil in the vinegar before ind 
after distillation may be determined ; and if the results agree, we ob- 
tain additional evidence of the absence of free sulnhuric arid. 

Another way is to evaporate the vinegar to tue consistence of a 
syrup, and to separate the free sulphuric acid by means of alcoholi 
and then to proceed to iletermine its amount in ihe usuid way. 

On the Detection itfChiUiea and other Acrid Subxtancea in Viuegar. — 
The ppesence of ucrid substances in viiie|jiir may be readily detected. 
A portion of the viiie^iar should be evaporated nearly to dryness, and 
the extract tasted, when the presence of any pungent substance will 
be plainly reveoletl to the taste. 

Oh the Detection of Burnt Sugar. — Two or three hundred grains 
of the vinegar are to be evaporated on a water bath to dryness, the 
extract boiled with alcohol, the alcoholic solution evaporated^ and tlie 
residue tasted; if it be of a very dark colour, and of a bitter taste, 
burnt sugar is no doubt present. 

On ihe Detection of Acetic aud Pyroligneo^u Acidg. — It is scarcely 
possible to detect ihe presence of ncelic aciit, since this acid is the 
chief constituent of all genuine rinejrar ; but nyroligneous acid may be 
discovered. PyroH^eous aci<l, as its name implies, is formed by the 
destructive distillation of w<hm1 ; and it usually ]>0!ises3e.t a smell and 
taste indicative of its origin and dependent upon the presence of 
certain tDipuritiea, as creoMte, &c. For the detection of this acid, 
nothing more is necessary than to distil tJie acid from a portion of the 
viiie;;ar, to concentrate this by redistillation, and (iiially to judge of 
It by the taste and odour. 

Of certain alleged adulterations of vinegar, as those with nitric, 
hydrochloric, and tarLiric acids, it is iinnecesoary to treol, since we ore 
unacquainted with anv instance of the use of those aeid.i in the adul- 
teration of vinegar, although it is quite po^diblc that they have bceu 
and may still be used in rare instances. 

D D 3 




Ou the DtttcHon o/Bitartrate of Potash in Vimogar, — Bitartrste of 
potash u a constituent ot' wine vinegar, and u we are often called 
npon to vive our opinion as to whether certaio Tinegars are wine or 
malt Tine^ar^, it a acre wary that we Ahoitld be acquainted with the 
method of detectinff that salt. For instructions the reader is referred 
to the article on \Vtoe. 

It should be known that the presence of bitartrate of potash in 
Tineffar a0brds no certain proof of its being genuine, sinc« this salt 
iMLj oe purposely oiMed. In this case, we must jud^ bj the specific 
gravity and the anima of the vine<;iLr, especiallj when heated, as well 
aa by the character and compnsiiion of the extract. 

Oh the Dttectioii of Metaliie ImpuhiieM in Vinegar. — Ten ooncea 
of vinefnu* should be evaporated to dryness in a porcelain capsule, and 
the reftidue re<iuced to a white ash ; if the asii be brown or nut- 
ooloured, in place of white, it contains iron. The a&b should be 
treated with a few drops of pure nitric acid, distilled water being 
added af^er the lapse of a few hours; the solution should be filtered, 
and a portion of it te^tted with sulphuretted hydrogen. If it turn 
black, the vinegar most probably is contaminated with lead; if dark 
brown, with copper ; and if yellow, with tin. If there be no change 
of colour, it may be concluded that no metallic substance is present. 
It is proper, however, not to rely for the determination of the metal 
|Hvsent upon the colour of the liquid, but to test for that, the pre- 
sence of which is suspected, by the ap(iropriate reagents. 

The foHowine evidence before the Committee on Adulteration by 
Mr. George Phillips, will show bow the Excise protected tlie revenue 
from loss resulting from the adultenlion of this article at the time a 
duty was levied upon it : — 

Mr. MoffaU. *' When there was a duty on vinegar, was it mucb 
adulterated ? " — " The taw allowed a small per-centage of sulphuric 
acid. I am not aware that it was adulterated beyond tliat/* 

Again, by a return of the articles examined for the Inst twelve 
yoirs, it appears that the Excise, with its 70 chemists and 4000 in- 
•|>ectors, exaroined only one sample of vin^ur during that long 

Now Tine^r, again, is an arlide which is constantiv aflulterated 
in a Taricty of ways. So much for the ciBciency of the kxcise. 

The duty on foreign vinegar, which waa AktL per gallon during the 
war, is now au:aiii, by the Act of 19 5c 20 Victoria, cap. 75., 5</. per 
gallon (-i9thJulv, 1856). 

Imports, in 1854, 46,560 galls. ; in 1855, 24,105 galls. Home con- 
fumptioD, in 1854, 39,564 galls. ; in 1855, 18,983 galli. 



To persons unacquainted with the subject^ the title of tbi« report 
^Pickles and their Adnltorations," mar appear somewhat tiingular; 
Btid tbcy may be disposed to aak — Are not the ghirkins, cflbb&^ea, 
beans, &c., which wc sec in the bottles, what they appear to lie ? And 
are other ve^'t^tables than those cotnuionly known to us mixed with 
the ordinary kinds ? To these questions we thus reply : — " Ghirkins," 
on close exaiuination, olleu turn out to be but shrivelled or sliced 
cucumbers; the *' voung tender beans" to be old and tough; the 
"cauliflowers'* to Imve run to »ec<l ; and the ** rcil caboage" to be 
nothing more than white cabbajre turned into red by colouring mat- 
ter, as a dyer would elmngc the colour of a dress ; further, that 
amongst the vejietablcs not un frequently employed for the purijoete of 
ptckie-raaking are some whirh do not enter into the caluulaliun of the 
epicure* u vegetable marrowr', — which, when cut into i)ieccts form a 
very respectable iniitution uf cucumbers, — and sliced turnips, the 
identification of which would be apt to puzzle even a botanist as well 
as certainly all those who are uninitiated in the secrets of a pickle- 

But the adulterations to which we more cspeciallr allude, and to 
the consideration of which our attention will be particularly directed 
in the following remarks, are those which refer to the (juatity and 
composition of the vinegar used for pickling, as well as to the means 
employed for preserving and heightening the colour of green pickles. 

In Accnni's culebrateii work, " Death in the Pi)!," under tnc head 
PoisoMOtis PiCKU'.A, we obtain tlie following information in rela- 
tion to the " greening " of pitkles : — 

** Vegetable substances preserved in the state called pickles by 
means of the antiseptic power of vinegar, whose sale frequently de- 
j>euds greatly u]Km a tine, lively green colour, and the consuuiptiou 
of which, by seafariug people in particular, is proiligious, are some- 
time.t intentionally coloured by means of copper. Ghirkins, French 
beans, samphires, the green potls of capsicum, and manv other pickled 
vegetable substances, oftcner than is perhap:* ex|>ccLed, are met with 
impregnated with this metal. Numerous futal consequences are 
known to have ensued from ttic use of these stimulunis to the palate, 
to which the fresh and pleasing hue has been imparted according tu 
the deatlly formula laid down in some modern cookery books; such 
as boiling the pickle with halfpence, or sull'eriug them to stand fur a 
considerable period in brazen vessels.** 

Dr. Percival ("Metlical Transactions,** vol. iv. p. 80.) has given an 
account of " a young lady who amused herself while her hiur wai 

p 3 

I acuuuui 




ifc ■ «• fa* hoped tfcM tfacT via 
flf Ae wfa fr«ai vlacfa ihtj arc ex- 

ia ft bcO-oMtal cr vopptr 

'-T0 Pidie Ghir^mB.—BoSL tfae 
pflt s pew li nn iB w g hot om vcnv csc 

~r<» flMfe g r pr ftii R — Tftfce ft %ift of vcrdwrv ^e b«nc« oT 
iHMcl-nt. fody povOmd. hftir ft piiit of dMM raegv. «d ft bit 
■kn powder. wi4 ft Ettle fao^ ndc Pot aB a a bottle, aboke ii« md 
lot k ftand lin ckar. Fm a ■aaU ii ■■pfiniifal iMo niiBiBfeii, or wfaau 
efw yo« wiifa to greea.* 

lir.£.Ratfclddincu: 'Torendo- piekla gtaeoi. bad tkcm vilb 
halfjpeace. or aUoo tbea to stand idr twearffcar boon io copper or 

*Todetecctbepr«MBeeafeopper,it ■ oa^ii umif tomicctbc 

pieUca, aad to pour Bqaid awamiw. ifilated viik ao equal htJk mt 
waiar,ovtrtbeA IB a flopped Tial: if tbe pacUeioaBtaiatbeBiBaiaM 
i|Haari>^ of copper, tbe aauMmia aiawiiwii a blae coloar.'* 

Tbe aborc renuHu and qaotalioaa eoorcy a soaewbat fearfal pip- 
tore c»r tbe coKjaring of picklea. It will be cmr object to 
bov far the statexnenU made apply to tbeir preaent oooditMO. 

Renlts of Amalytct of Samplet. 

Twenty-Aree samples of pickt«* of difiT^rent dcacriptioai, indui^ng 
mixed pickles, India pickltrs frbirkios, beans, Chilics, &c^ were sub- 
jected to a rigorous cbemical exammataooi witb the foUowing re- 
•olu: — 

1st. That the Tioegar used for pic^in^ is of a verjf iceak deseri^ 
etm, the per-oentage of acetic acid rmn^ng between )*48 and 
3'dl. It will be remembered, that in our I&?t Ke(>ort we stated 
that vinegar of good qmdUjf <Mgkt to contain from four tofite per 
etmt. of fmrc acetic acid. 
2nd. That nineteen out of twentr of the vinegart submitted to 
analraU, poor as tbej were, yet owed a portion of their aeidi^ fl» 
nUphurie acid, tbe amount of which runed in tbe diflcrenl sam- 
ples from *38 to 2'5'2 in the 1000 grains ; the largett ^uamtitg tf 
Ihit add being detected in the vinegar* in trhich the red euNkigm 
were pickUtl, 
Srd. That in the whole of the sixteen different pickle* aaalj/Med for 





copper^ THAT rouoKous mbtal wqm discovered in varioui amoimtt : 
two of the samples contained a small quantity ; eighty rather much; 
oney a conaiderahle quiiiuitif ; three, a very coiuiderable qwinttty ; in 
one, copper was jiresciU i« highly deleterioxu amowU ; and in two^ in 
poisonous nmoHfits. 
4tu. Thut the pickles which contained the largest guatUity of copper^ 
were those which consisted entirely of green vegetableSf as ghtrkius 
and beans. 

Nutwithjtanding the atatoments ma(ie id books^ some of which we 
have noticeil at the commencement of this Itcpurt, when we entered 
ujKjn these inquiries, we felt convinced thalso poisonrmsM. metal as cop* 
per was now rarely, if ever, employed for tht' mere purpose of lieii;hten- 
irig and nrescrving the colour of green pickl&i; we are therefore both 
6ur]irisc<l and grieved ai ilie really fearl'ul character of the reaulcs to 
which Dur invealigiitions liave conducied us. We trust, however^ now 
that conclusive evidence of this tfcantlalous practice has been adduced, 
and that the public are put up on their guard, a remedy will be found 
for thitt great evil. 

Pickles, (loubtlcsa, when properly preparc<l, are not very difrej^tible ; 
but wc now sec that much of ihe ill L'tTcctd so generally attributed to 
their use, must result Irom their impregnation with so potsonoua a con- 
tarainatiun a;} copper. 

In siome ca«es the copper^ usually ihe svfphale, commonly known as 
blue stone, is added direct to the vmegar in which the pickles are pre- 
served ; more frequently, however, no direct addition of copper is 
made, but a sutBcient ijuantity of that motui, in the form uf an 
acetate, is obtained by the repealled boiling of the viiie^'iu' in copper 
veuels, but since vin<^^ is so commonly uJultemied with sulphurio 
a<ud, a sulphate of copper U generally formed as well. Thu» it amounts 
to precisely the same thine; whether the copper ia added direct to the 
pickles, or whether it is taLen from ofl' the copper utemila employed^ 
by the action of the acids of the vinegar. 

One ot the worst features of this abominiible practice is, that the 
employment of copper is wholly unnecessary, aa tlie colour of green 
vegetables may be very well preserved by other means, as by the uBe 
of pure vinegar, and the ud<ltti(m of a jiroper quantity of salt. 

Since then, oa we have now proveil, pickles are so constantly 
contaminated, and even rendered poisonous, by cupper, the only 
safety for the public is, that all housekeepers should U\ke the mutter 
into their own hands, and become themselves the makers of their 

It is in the vtm-gar employe^:! for picklc-m&kinc; especially that we 
should expect to find acetic and pyroligncous acids; the bitter acid 
is usually detectable by the slight odour of creosote, fn)m which it it 
almost impossible to free it. It is of importance that the efl'ect of the 
actiou of Uie sulphuric acid contained in many of the pickling vinegars 

D D 4 


OD the colour of llie pickles sbould be determined. Our owa ioipre»- 
•ion is, thnt it would be found to be injurious. 

A visit to a Urge pickle wirehouse, such as thnt of Mesan. Oo»e 
and Kluckwell, duriof; the seosoo of pickle and preserve making, is 
not without interest. The vast piles of vcsetabLes and fruit readjr to 
ba iort«d, cut, boiled, &c., is really astonianin^. 

U B|ipeflr»f hmrever, that pickle- making u, to i great ezteitti 
independent of the seasons, and (hat most of the different kinds oiT 
pickles may he made at any period of the year. This the makers are 
Miabted to do by keeping a large stock of the various sorts of vege- 
tablet Immersed in orine and packed in barrels. In some of oar 
largett cstahliahmonts many htindreil harreU thus fiUe^l may be seen. 
We are informed that the "rcaicr part of these vegetables come firom 
abroad : it is alli.'ged tliat thvy are kept in brine for the sake of eco- 
nomy, and that they would keep for belter in vinegar. 

On the Detection of the AdutteroHota of PichUt. 

Pit-kling vinegar is of course liable to the same adulterations u 
other vinegar. The processes emplnyed for the detection of all the 
more usual adullcraiions of vincgnr have alrea<ly been described, and 
it is not necessary lo repeat thum in this place ; we have then merely 
to point out the mt*thudti by which the presence of copper in pickles 
jg to be determioed. 

The presence of copper in pickles, bottled fruits and vegetable*, 
ud preserve?, is nAen unmistakably indicated by their cohmr. 

When the housekeeper preserves these nrticlcs, tlioy arc ufiually of 
s yellow colour rather than green, hut as exhibiti'd in shop windows, 
or purchased of manufucturcrs of lhe«; articles, they ordinarily 
present a vivid blui^h-grcen colour, more intense than that of the 
fresh vegetables or fruit. Whenever these articles are of u decided 
green, tney will almost always be found to cutitaiu copj>er; but when 
they arc yellowish <ir brownish-green, copper is never present. 

The copper is found usunlly both in the pickles and in the vinegar; 
and for its detection the following proces-^cs may be adopted : — 

For its detection in pickling vmegar, an ounce or so of the vinegar 
should be poured into a teat gliis^, and in this a piece of thick iron 
wire, having n smooth and polishe<l surface, should be immersed for a 
few hours. If copper be present it will become deposited upon the 
wire, forming a coating more or less complete and thick, according lo 
the quantity of copper present- 
Thin test may lie so readily applied that we recommend the public 
to make use of it, and so ascertain fijr themselves whether the pickles 
they are using contain the poison or not If only n very amidl tpian- 
tity of copper be present it will be quickly deposited on the surface 
of the iron. 


We have ourselves tried this simple proceeding, first wilh bftlf an 
ouucti of two vinegars in which the pickles were eontaiiietJ, in which 
much copper was present ; in each ca^e, afier the lupse of lliree or 
four hours, a welUiuarketl coating of copper h:ul furineti upiii tbe iron 
ro<i. We next tried it with two vinegars previously asceiiained to 
contain the sniallest quantity of copper; in these cases also, after 
the hipse of a few hours, an incrustation of cojiper was formed. 

Another very simptc and eilicient method is the following : — 

Put three or four drops of the auspeiited vinej,'rtr on the blade of a 
knife; add one drop of sulphuric acid, and heat the under surface of 
the knitie over (he llame of a candle ; the vine;;ar, in evaporating, will 
deiKisit the copper upon the iron, if anv be present. 

r'or the detection of copper in the pickles themselves, the annexed 
process may be adopted. 

About 1000 grs. of the green vegetables of each of the pickles, after 
having been sliced wilh a ffluss knife, are to be incinerate<l, care being 
taken to avoid every source of contamination : the ash, having Ijeun 
pulverised, is to be treate*! witli t20 tlrops of pure nitric acid ; I 02. of 
distilled water, after the lapse of a short time, udded, the solution 
filtered, and treated with excess of ammonia. If copper is present, the 
solution becomes more or less blue, according to the amount of the 
metal present. 

For the qumdUative esfimaiioH qf copper in pickles, we rauat proceed 
as follows : — 

3000 or 4000 grs. of the pickles, inuluding a fair proportion of the 
vinegar, must be evaporated tu drym^H, then incinerated; the ash 
treated with about two drachms of nitric acid diluted with an ecpial 

Quantity of water; the whole boiled (or a few minutes, evaporateti to 
ryness, the residue diluted with one ounce more water, boiled ngitin 
for a time, the solution filtered, and the copper precipitated by 
means of sulphuret of ummunium ; the sij|[)hureL of copper must be 
collected, dried, wei^'hed, and the co])per determined. 

Imjiort duty, preserved in vinegar. Id. [wr gidlon; preserved in 
salt, irce. 

Imports, preserved in vinegar, in I8.';4, 5328 galls.; in 1855, 3998 
galls. Home consumption, in 1854, 4904 galls ; in 18^5, 3278 galls. 


Am attentive examination, wilh the eye alone, orvanons samples of 
bottled Iruits and vegetables, served to raise suspicion, and to produce 


the impression that the method of preservation adopted hy modem 
prciiervcrft of these ariiclea wae not (juite so barmlcsa as that unginallj 
proposed by Mr. Saddiiigton. We lelt, indet:d, a strong conviction 
thut t]ie siiine means of* coloration waji re»orte<l to in the case of 
bottled fruits and ve^eiubh'ji as ve bad already ascertained to be 
employed with pickles. In order to determine whether this convic- 
tion w:is well founded or not, we resolved to institute a scries of 
rigornus analyses, the results of which we arc now about to mike 

The extraordinarjr effect of copi>er, in heightening and rendering 
permanent the grevn colour of fruits and vegetables, has already been 
remarked U{>on in the reptfrt iin Pickles. This action is exerted 
upon the green contents of the cells, the chlorophylle, and hetiee it is 
the coloured portions of Tcgetahtcs and fniilSt as those invested by 
the epidermis, which are most ufTcctcd by this substance. The copper 
used aocumulat^M in this membrane as a salt — as an acetate, a citrate, 
ur a nialate uf copper. 

The presence ot copper^ however, in fruits and vegetables is not 
confined to the coloured portions; it penetrates lhrout;h the whide 
lja.Hue; and a considt^rable part of the metal used even remains diffused 
throughout the lluid in which the vegetable substance is contained: 
hence it is desirable to aniilyso for coitper not only the preserved 
article itself, but also the tluid in which it is immersed. 

Hendit of AnalyMts of SampUt, 

Thirty'four samjilest of different kinds of bottled fruita nnd vegeta- 
bles were therefore subjected to chemical analysis. From this analysis 
the following eonclueiona were deduced : — 

1st. That of the thirty-three samples of preserved fruits and vege- 
tables term were free frum curUamtnation tcith copper. 

2nd. That (weniyseven samples were more or leu impregnaied with 
thai metal. 

Slrd. That tracet of copper were discovered in three of the samples. 

4th. That in seven of the samples copper uftu present in small 
amount otJy. 

5th. Tliat eight samples cx>ntained it in coitsiderable amount. 

6th. That in six samples the metal was present in very cotisiderabUs 

7th. That /bur of the samples contained this poisonous impreguaUon 
in very large qitautities. 

Hth. That the snni[tles of limes contained copper^ the one in smeU 
ainouni only, the other in amount more considerable. 

i)ih. 'VUsX gooseberries^ as commonly preserved, contain a cotuider' 
able amount of copper^ and some samples even a very large 

lOih. That rhubarb usuaUj contains an amount of cof^r mort 





cofiMiderabffft same sampieM being conhiminated with it to a nery 
large extent. 
Ilth. That greengages in g^nerHj contain a sttlJ greater rjumUity of 
cupper, the metal being frequently present in highly dangerout 
12th. That in olives this poisonous impregnation is in the largest 
amount^ although its clTucL in heightening the colour of the fruit 
is less marked than in the other coses. 
I3ih. That the preserved red fruits, tts currants, raspberries, and 

cherries, are nut tts a rule conUtmmated with copper. 
The absence of copper in n^l fruits, and the variation of the quan- 
tity of that metttl in green fruits according to the requirements in 
each cose, afford clear evidence that this dangerous impregnation iloes 
not arise from the mere use of cnpperutensils, but thai it is purposely 
introdiiCtid, the quantity being systeinutically adjusted in dilterent 
proportion^ determined by the kind ol" fruit pi^eserved. 

That this conclusion is correct is cnnduiiively shown lu another 
way. According to the method of preparatioti ui^ually pursued, the 
fruit or vegetable is not supposed to comu in contact with copper. 

The fruit or vegetable is taken dirL'ctly from the baskets or sieves 
in which it is received from the country, and carefully packed in 
bottles; these are next tilled up with a liquid, consistmg of water 
holding a small quantity of alum in solucion ; they are then loosely 
corked, an<l submitted for a certain time to the heat of a watcr-bocb, 
so 08 to ensure the coagulation of the vegetable albumen ; they are 
afterwards more tightly corked, tied over with string or wire, and 
further secured with resin and bladder, or with a metallic capsule. 

The presence of copper, ihen, in bottled fruits and vegetables can 
only be explained on the supposition that it is purposely introduced; 
and this is really the case. 

As in the cuse of lK>ttled fruits and vegetables there is no vinegar 
to act upon the copper of the vessels, the copper, usually the sulphate 
or blue t^tt/ne^ in in all cases added direct to these articles. We have 
the authority of a manufacturer for stating that the quantity of this 
powerful and almost poi»>nou!!' substance used is often fully as much 
an sixty grains to one gross of bottJeif of the fruit ; this gives not far 
short of half a grain per bottle, which is a full medicinal dose. 

In some cases, where the quantity of cupper is coDsiderable, the 
metal becomes deposited on any metallic surface it may happen to 
come in contact with, in the course of a few minutes. In proof of 
this we will quute a pnrngraph front a letter written by Mr. Bcrnuvs, 
a chemist resident in Derby, addressed to the ^ The Lancet." lie 
writes, — 

'' I had bought a bottle of preserved gooseberries from one of the 
most respectable grocers in this town, and had had its contents trans- 
ferred into a pie. It struck uie thm the gooseberries looked fearfully 
green when cooked ; and on eating one with a steel fork, its inteose 



bittorncs89 sent mc in search of the sugar. Afler having sweetened 
and luiuhed the gooaeberrics with the same steel fork, I was about 
to convey some to my mouthy when I observe*! the prongs to be com- 
pletely coiiteiJ with a thiti film of bright metallic copjier. My testi- 
mony can be borne out by the evidence of three others, two of whom 
dined at my table." 

In the preservation of red fruits, no copper is used ; but here, again, 
we are inibrtneil, thut red colouring mutter, as decoction of loi^wood, 
or iul'usioi) of beet root, is not uiifrequently employed, especially 
where the fruit is daranged or of inferior (juidity. 

The coh>iir of green fruits and veiretahlefl w sometimes apparently 
heightened by a stHiond devlre ; the bottles in which they are enclosed 
are made of a highly coloured glass ; those in which French olivea are 
preserved ore of so intense a green as to impart to Che fruit as seen 
through the bottles a deep-green colour. 

As a rule, the uniount of copper ordinarily present in many kinds 
of bottled fruits and vegeliibles is greater lor even equal quantities 
than in pickles, which, as we have nhown, aUo frcjuently contain 
that metiil in tiirge and almost pnismiou^ ipantity. Add to this the 
fact that while pickles are used in ^inan rjiijintily only, a whole bottle 
of preserved fntit is consumed by two or three persons at one time ; 
hence we perceive how much more dangerous is the emplu/ment of 
copper in the cose of fruits than in that of pickL>s. 

Ihc present adds another iiistaiiee to the many which have already 
been adduced, in which uianufucturers, in order to heighten the 
colour of articles, and as they conceive, often very erroneously, (o 
improve their appearance, have sacrificed their flavour and quality, 
ami have rL^ked health, and even safety. 

On the Detection of the Advlterationa of Bottled Fruits aitd Vegetables, 

The chief adulterations of these articles arc those with taltt o/coppeff 
added for the purpose of heightening their colour. In many cases 
the intense green or bluish-grey colour, greatly increased when the 
fruit or vegetable U cooked, is sutficieut to betray the preseuce of 
copfwr, e^iiwcially to an accustomed eye. 

For the detection of copper by chemical means we must have re- 
course to the processes des^-ribed under the liead of Pickles. 

Tlie copper is found, as in the case of picklod, in the preserving 
fluid ns well as in the fruit or vegetable itself. 

If we desire to test the liquid, we proceed ns follows : — 

About threeounces of the juice or fluid in which the fruit orvi^etable 
is preserved are to be measured out, uufl placed in a test (ilass ; the 
acidity is to be slightly increased by the uddition of alK>ut three drop« 
of strong nitric acid, and a polishetl rod of iron placed in the fluid, 
and allowed to remain f(»r al>out Iwcnty-four hours. If copper ia 
preaent in considerable amount, the surface of the rod, from top to 


bottom, become* covered wilh a continuous and brifiht coating of that 
niL'tal. If the amount of copper is less consi^lerablf, the upper half 
or «o only of iho roil receives the coating. If the quantity is very 
small indeed, no perceptible <Ieposit of copper will take plncc. 

Hence we perceive that the iron rod alTords n simple nnil most con- 
clusive te-Jt for t:<)])|>er in I'ruita and regetables, when present in 
anything like considerable umuunt, and that it even fierves to indicate, 
to a certain extuat, the tjuuniity uf cupper with which the juice of 
different samples is impregnnled, as »hown by the rapidity with which 
thed(.'poflit occurs, by the thickness of t)ie coating, and by the extent 
of surface covered by it. 

If we desire to analyse the fruit or vegetable, we must proceed u 
follows ; — Three ounces of each of the fruits and vegetables are to 
be weighed out, placed in crucibles, and incinerated until nearly the 
w^hoie uf the Cijrbon is dissipated, the colour of the ash being care- 
fully nnted. In those cases in whiih the fruit or vegetable is not con- 
taminnteil with t-oppcr, the re-tidual ash is observed to be either 
white or greyish-white, while in thitse instances in which copper is 
present it U conFiaiitly of a pink colour; the depth varies uniformly 
wilh ihe amount of eoppur prest-nt. 

We have already advened to the pink colour of the ash of vegetable 
Bubatiuices containing copper, as affonling nn excellent test nf the 
presence of tLat nietii). in the cose of bottled l'ruit« and vegetables 
this is a peculiarly delicate test. 

When fruits or vegotubte substances are carefully incinerated with- 
out being in ajiy way tlisturbed, the genernl forin of the fruit, &c., is in 
most cases tolerably well preserved ; and it is then itercLivetl thai the 
pink colour is conlincd principally to the surikce of the substance 

In those cases in which the amount of copper is but Tcry Finf.IJ, the 
pink will be seen on the Mirfnce, only here and there, und will be of a 
pale tint. Where the quantity is lurger, although still but small, the 
colour will be more genera! nnd more decided. Where it is abundant, 
the whole surface of the a.ih will be of a brighr and beautiful roay- 
pink hue. Lastly, when the (juantity of cop[KT present is very con- 
fideruble, the residual ai^h will be of a deep pink colour. 

Olives, when incinerated, do not leave a clean white ash, so that 
although the colour way be very well detected in iheni, it is not of so 
bright a pink as in other fruit ; and the colour is not confined, as in 
most other ca^s, to the surface of the fruit, but extends through its 
whole Kub-'lance. 

When a portion of the juice is incinerated alon^ with the fruit, u 
IS usually the cose, the crucibles, if cnpf>er is nrcsenl, become 
tinted with the same nisy-pink colour obser^-ed on tne surface of the 
fruit or vegetable incinerated. In some cases where the amount of 
copper is considerable, the bottoms of the crucible* become deeply 
and beautifully stained of a bright and iridescent pink. 



TIiG jilnk colour nf the ash U thus explained. In the course of 
incinertitinn the acid with which the copper was combined is de- 
stroyed, the bijzhly characteristic pink oxide alone remaining in the 
fruit, and ita presence bcinp revealed by its peculiar colour. 

We have, ihen, in ibc colour of the ash a certain and beautiful lest 
of the presence of copper, even in the ninst minule quantitieR. and 
likewise for the determinalioTi of its amount to ii certain extent, not 
not only in bottled fruttit, but in moat vegetable substances, and espe* 
citilly in pickles. 

The tint nf the aah havin« been noted, it may next be treated in 
the Kanie manner as the nsh of pickles. 

When copper is present, the colour of the acidulnted solution of the 
ash, when anmmnia is added, varies preally, from a ])ale and scarcely 
perceptible bluish liue to a rich and deep azure, according to the 
quantity of the metal present. 

As a further tost, the metal may be separated from the ammoniaral 
solution in the follnwinf; manner: — 

Acidiilat^r the solution, and immerse in it a piece of polished iron 
wire, when the oojijwr will become deposited up<m it. A coating of 
copptT may often be obtained from the acidulated 8o]uli<m of thti ash 
in cBffce where no deposit of mt'tal tukes pliu-e on iumiersion of the 
iron in the juice in which the fruit ur vegetable was preserved. 



We have repeatedly shown that the adulterators of our food do not 
Bcrujily to employ, when it suits iheir purjHise, the most deadly sub- 
stances, undeterred by the serious eonsetjuences whii-h but too fre- 
quently result from their use. Thus, it has been shown lliat it is no 
uncommon thinf; fur them to make use of viirious pn-paralions of 
iron, lead, copper, arsenic-, mercury, &c. It is not a little remarkable^ 
that the nmjority of the substance^} arc had recourse to, not on account 
of bulk nr weight, but for the mere sake of colours, which, thus pro- 
cured, are frequcully in & high dey^reu ylarin^ and unnatural, these 
colours being obtained^ too, at the expense of quality and flavour. 

Amonpst the artirtcs which have already been treated of, and in 
which foreign colouring ingredients have been detected, are tea, 
chicory, cocoa, Cayenne, mustnril, pickles, bottled fruits and vegetables, 
potted meats and fish. The list is, however, far from complete aa yet ; 
oud on the present occasion we have to add to it other arlicles. 


fed jelliea prepva) in copper vessels are alvrn)'s cnn- 
ft» ft greftler or leu extent witti copper. 

Bat imiWcweof green preserves, as in those of picklo.s bortlod 
irmtm aad v«sclafalei« copper is tued intvnliuually fur Lbc iiuqntFtu uf 
the colour. 

la tone cases the preserves and jellies are actually mluU 

Yc^etakle jellies consist of the tliick anri transparent part of ilie 
ftA only, tae husks and seeds hcinfr removed. Now, these really 
■ 01 >y I SI portMUS of the fruit nre rarely, if ever, tlirown awny Hy the 
^„Mm,w^tmm t»mmw m of pTeTerves ; but, mixL'd with a little fretih fruit, tficy 
VCDMBed offasgtxMl jams. IiiLliia practice huu!<ekeepersure furnii>hed 
via ft fflroo^ reason for prepnring their own presurvo.t, iin<l til.«ii \\\i\\ 
■B explaMUion of the f^encral ^lupt^riurity of Imhil* nimk' jtreserves. 

A i^Hlar use is said to bo foinetlmeA niiide nf the refuse partA of 
frwtft and in the manufacture of hoine-inaile wiiie^u 

OrvM Marmalade^ which when genuine^ conisipts only of the bitter 
or ServBe orange, is frequently Hdulterated with sweet ornnpes, with 
•pples aad turnips. We btivc been infornied ihul a uiwcies of swede 
of a yetto«ir colour is much used in the oflulteration of orange amr- 

Lftstlj, we have good authority for staling that partly- decayed 
OTftDges, and even suckcil oranges, are used in the ndultoratioii of this 
ftronrite preserve; these statements rest upon the authority of an 
eye witness. 

RtiMpbernf jeUy is usually nothing more than currant jelly, to which 
tlie flavour of the raspberry \x\\a beuu cuuuuunicated by means «t'i>rris 

The ratpbeny Jiaroun ft f^ for sugar confectionary is mode entirely of 
currant jelly and orris root. 

Lastly, the jellies in botilea and those sold by confectioners, as 
isinglass and calf's foot jelly, consist principally o{ gelatine variously 

RetulU of Analyses of SampUs, 

Thirty-Jive samples of preserves and jellies of various kinds were 
subjeeteil to microscopical and chemical examination and with the ful- 
lowmg results : — 

Isl. That the A^JTj^erryyom analysed contained a very considerable 
quantity ot copper. 

2n(l. That the four samples of Gootvberry Jam examined alt con- 
tained copper. 

3rd. That copper, sometimes in large amount, was detected in 
twelve of the fourteen samples of Orange Marmaiade analysed. 

4th. That three of the Marmalitdes were adulterated with large 
quantities of a tegetahU mhsiance^ most probably either turnip or 



apple. There is a kirn! of t urnip, the seeds of which are frequently 
atlvertiited in the ** Ganlener's Chronicle" for siiIp, of a velloir 
cohfur. und wliit-h i«» callrtl the oninge turnip. We kuu\r not 
t(» what iiBc tbii can be put unless in the ndukcratiun of orange 
5th. That the nine vamplei! of Greengage Jam were all inr)reor 1e59 
impregnated with capper^ It being present lu considerable amount 
in five of the samples. 
6th. Thtit the Gretngage* contained in three different boxes of 
Crystaiiued Fruits all owed their deep-^een colour to the pre- 
tence uf COppfT. 
7th. That the Limes and Greengitgea present in a little plass jar of 
iVuit preserved in jelly also owed their brilliant colour to a salt 
of ct}pper, 
8lh. That copper was present in the three samples of Candied 

Citnm Peel subjected to onalysis. 
9th. That capper was detected in no leas than thirbfthree of the 
thiriy'Jice samples of diffV-renl preserves analysed: three eon- 
tQine<i traceti only; in eleven the metal waa present in tniatl 
t/tuintitff : and in nineteen either in considerable or even very 
large anttmnt. 
Knowing well the powerful action of vegetable juiees, and olso of_ 
sunar^ U[tnn copper, we have l^r^^ entertained the bt^lief that thai' 
nietul would be very frequentlv tletected, on analysis, in preserres,' 
janis^ and jellies, as ordinarily prepared: we must acknowledge, how- 
ever, that (he result of at'tuat investigation has far excelled our, 
expectations, since it h»sproveil that preserves made in enpper vessel 
not only almost invartuhiy contain copper, but that the metal isoftel 
present in very consiilernble quanlilies, sufficient to tint the n»h of a1 
deep pink, and to cause the solution of the a.*h when treated with^ 
ammonia to become of a decided and aomctiines even of a deep blue 

But the still larger quantities ^f copper detected In certain of the 
samples of ^reenpjiy;c jam seem to show lliat, as waa a8certaine<l to he 
the case with bottled fruits aiul vupetablfs, some greeninj; salt of 
copper, the sulphatt* or acetate, is really iutentionally introduced for 
tlie puriHwe of creating an artificial viridity. 

It will be perceived, also, that three of the aiunpli»9 of orancc mar- 
malade examintd were adulterated with largcfjuantiiie« of a vegel«ble 
Bubstuncc. resembling in it^ microscopic slructure either himip or 
apple. These ^amplc^ were all inirchased in the beginning of Decem- 
ber. Many other samples purcLiiiaed in the fmnimer, and also several 
procured within the last few days, were all entirely free from any such 
ad'uixture. This appears to prove that this adulteration is practised 
chiefly at a certain period of the year, when oranges become scarcei 
and in order to keep up the stoik of marmalade, so called. The de- 
teotion of thli adulteration in three samples, two of them obtained at 


the cstaMiabmenU of different makers, appears also to sboir that the 
A<luIterfltioD is a very general one. 

The discIoittircA now mude affird contincinp proof how fmproper 
and even dan^en)U8 it is to moke preserves, as is rominonly done even 
by onlinary bousekeenors, in copper saucepans. The vessiils em]iloyed 
for this pnrpnt^e should consist of earthenware, or, if metallic, should 
be lined with enamel. 

Although we may fairly expect to find copper in any preserved 
vegetable substance prepared in the ordinary manner, yet we acarcelj 


expected to meet with that poison in those tAstcful and sparkling 
little hnxes of bonbons which at Christmas time are sproail out in 
ahop windows so attractivoly ; noithor did wc expei-t to fiiitl it mukiog 
its way* tliruugb th« citruu-pecl used, into uur very Cbribtmas pluia- 


The evils and dangers arising out of the all-prevalent and very 
scandalous ^»roctice of adulteration, nothing but the firong arm of the 
law can snlliciently check ; and the force of this, ere long-, no doubt, 
will be felt. Kevorthclcss we are happy to tind that great and im- 



tiiedijite jjootl very frequently rpsiilu from the exposures wliieli from 
time to time we are c<)Tn{ieUe<l to make; this is very eviilent in the 
ease oi' pickles, and prejiervfU tVuits nml ve(;otahI«-s. AUIiou|:li we 
still see in shop windows liundreOft of Imttles nf these urtioto'* ex|K>9e<J, 
Itighly rharpe'i with copper, yet it must V>e allowed that a very in^^al 
impn»veincnt has ttiken place in this reflpect since the period of our 
lipsr. report on Pickles. We have reasitn to believe that one ven* 
lar;:c mnnufacturing Brm, whieh supplies some hundredii of retail 
estuUJphineutiS both in town and cuuntry* baa to a very great extent, 
if not entirely, ahtvndpned the u»e of eupper, and copper utensils in 
the fircening of their pickles and preserves. Such an example cannot 
but have an excellent effc'ct on other manufacturers and prepurera of 
similar arlicles. 

On the Detection of the AHuIteratimts of Preserves and Jellies. 

The adulteration of one kind of preserve by the addition of nnoiher 
ebea|K'r kind, can in most cases be discovered by means of the inicn>- 
Bcope. The structure of the strawberry, raspberry, and currant, 
especially of their !«eedft, is very diflerent. By means of llie same in- 
striiuient, vegetable jellies may sometimes be distinfjuiithod one from 
the otlter, by the remains of the dilTcrent ti*suea disroverable in them. 

The adulleralitm of oranj;c marmalude with apple or turnip is like- 
wise readily discoverable by the aid of the microscope. Fig. 153. 

Lastly, the presence of orris root in any jelly, as well as in snutf. 
may be detected by the same means, as will at once be perceived on 
an examination of the annexed figure. Pi^. 154. 

The methods employed for the determination of the presence of 
copfjer in preserves and jellies are the same as in the case of pickles 
sad bottled fruiU, to the articlea on which the reader is referred. 


A oBBAT variety ofsub^tancas chiefly Te?oiabte, enter inio the mm- 
position of the varioas uuces in use. The following Is an rnnmcra- 
tion of the chief of these: — Tomato, pnrlic, fhallot, sorrel, nui'^hrooni 
and walnut catsup, i^isina, tamarinds, the secdf) of fenui*reek and 
rumin, fhc leaves of a Tariely of herlis, as laragon, chervil, mint, 
thyme, marjoram, Ac, the see<ls of an Indian plant called Dnhchoa 
titja or aoyri, of which soy is made ; a variety of spices andcnitditiif^nts, 
oa pepper, Cayenne, mustard, mace, cloves, ginger, and nciirly all the 

e E 2 


other Bpioes; salt, treac-Ie^ and burnt sugar u colouring agents, nn< 
flour as a lliickenin;; ing^redient. t)ut oCtbeub'tve articles, Tariously 
combined, and in ilitfereiit propnrtioiis, nearly ull tbe sauces m use are 
compounded. Into the cuuipoHitinn of yome few, however, aninitd 
jiubstjinces enter, as tbe utu»cultir fibre of sbrimjw, lobster, and an- 

The following are the chief results deducible from a consideration 
of the analyses of Thirty-thrfc s&inples of snuc-o of different kind^: — 

1st. That treacle and much talt formed the baaifi of the five samples 

of InuiA Sot examined, if they did not even entirely eonsists of 

these two ingreclieut'i. 
2nd. That of the seven sumples of Tomato Sacck aitalysed, bix 

were nrtlBtialty coloured, one probably with c&cAiMro^ and the 

rest by the mJ-lition of considerable quantities of the ferruginous 

pigment hnte Amtfuian. 
Hrd. That the saniplt*s of Kasenck of TjonsTRRs examined were 

almost saturated with very large quantities of bole Artneman. 
4th. That the samples of Kssknck or Shsimpb were aatunued to 

an fqiiiil extent with bole Armenian. 
5th. That the whole of the pamplet* of Essence or AKCiioriRS 

analvK'd were adulteratetl with immense quantities uf the feiTu- 

ginouH oxide bole Armenian. 
Ctb. That three of the samples of £<feHcv o/j4ricAory contained but 

a ftmall quantity of muscular ^bre, 
7th. That two of the samples contained a portion ofyfow — one 

being a sample of essence of shrimps, and the other of essence of 

8tb. That out of the eighteen red sauces submitted to examination, 

no less than sixteen ciuituined hole Armenian, and this u^uuUy in 

immense quantities, far exceeding whut was detected in any of 

the |K>itcd meals and fish. 
9lb. That lead, for which separate anolysefl were made in each case, 

was not detected in a single inxlancf. 
10th That tracet only o/covvt.vl jcere discovered in $ome three or 

four sampler. 

The above results, tlien, regarded as a whole, although bad enough, 
are yet not so bad or serious as the account given by Accum and vnne 
other writera, of the adulteration of anchovy paste, &c , would leail us 
to infer, since lead was not detected in a single instance. There is 
no doubt, however, but that lead does soii^eiiuicA occur. Mitchell 
states, "several samples which we have examined of this Bnh sauce, 
* [H>iso»ous anchovy sauce * have been found contaminated with lead.** 

Further, it is more than protiable that the muscular 6bres in 
several nf the samples of anchovy, lobster, and shrimp sauces, con- 
sisted either entirely or in port of the fibres of other inferior and 
cheaper fish. 


The on]y effeclual rnmedv against ccrtun of tlie adulternriona of 
the ^aucesi especially ibe tie\x sauces, ix)iiflists in their prepiirHtiun at 
lioine. Receipts for severtil of tlie sauces are siren at page 51*2. of 
the utuhoKs work, "Food anil its Adulterations." 

It appears, then, that the reil sauce!*, as those of shrimp, hibsler, 
aiiehovYt and tomato, are almnAt invuriatilj hi>rhlv otiUnin-d with hole 
Arnienmn. TfaiB, as has alroudy been pointed out, is a ntiturul eurtU, 
containing a lurpe ((uantitv of the red oxide of iron; but frequeTrlly 
an article is made in imitation uf it, enitm^linjr of a ntixluie lU* Vt^- 
netian red and elmlk. Of ihie red earth or dirt us much um from ]0 
to 15 lbs. are added to 100 ^alls. of aiichnry sauce. 

Cooka frequently eolour the ^aucea prepitred by them for the table 
with carmine; this when •genuine, i^ a vegetable colour, but it is 
frequently adulterated with vermilion. 

Perceiving clearly the evils connected with the employment of 
artiticial colouring matters, jSIessrs. Crosse and Blackwell liuve, to a 
very great extent, abandoned their use, and they now prepare an- 
chovy sauce free from colouriujj matter. The difference between 
the ordinary coloured and the uncoloured »aures is very striking: 
the tirst is usually intensely red — us re<l, in fuct, us a briekhut, this 
redness arisini; entirely frum the introduction of the bole Armenian, 
— while the other is usually of a pinki»h'fawn colour. 

The variouj* colouring matters to which reference hos already been 
H> frequently made, are used not merely for the Huke of increaBiMg the 
colour of articles, and thus, as it is very often erroneously con.sidered, 
improving their appearance, but likewise for other puriwses, esjteci- 
ally to conceal other udulterftttons ; thus when very larjje quantities 
of wheat Hour are added to mustard, or Hour and suj^ar to cocoa, the 
natural colour of those articles becomes ^o reduced that tlie addition 
of some foreign colcunng matter is rendered necessary. 

Not unfretiuently the use of these colouring inaiters tnvnlvca con- 
sideritions ot cleanliness; this is so in the case of nnchory sauce. 
The quantity of refuse matters and dirt contained in the fish from 
whicli this is prepared is often very trreut ; and it is tl»e presence of 
these more than anything else which cruises the sauce to present a 
somewhat unsifhily ap|H*aTance Iwforc the red u:irth is adiled. It is 
this eircumstande which has chiefly le*l to the use of the l>ole Arme- 
nian ; the maker*, in place of carefully reimiving the refuse and dirt, 
grinils it all up with the fish, trusting to the tiule Armenian tocunceul 
the impurities, tliereby savin;; hiniticlf much trouble and M>me 
UiSd. \Ve are in^irnied by Messrs. Criisi^ie and Hlnckwell, thai the im- 
purities which they ore obliged to remove in ilte prejmratioii of the 
uncoloured anchovy sauce arc almost incrvdible, but that the extra 
trouble and loss are fully compensated by the greatly iuqiroved 
quality and tiavuur of the article. 

Nutwitbstanding this improvement tn quality, so strong do Messrs. 

K B 3 


Crosse and BInokwell find (he prejaiJice in fuvonr of tbe red sauce, 
thiir many purtiei) absolulclv refuse to take the tincoloured sauoe — 
preftrring lUe inllTior article simplj bceausc of its redness. 


W£ now come lo tlic consider atioa of ibe important subject of Spices 
und their AduJienitions. 

Tlie spices, ot" the adiilteration of whicli we are about to treat, are 
Ginger, Cinnamon, Cussia, Nutmegs, Alace, Cloves, Allspice or 

^Vbcn it 18 remembered tbitt ranny spices are sold in the stale of 
powder, iind mosl ftf (hi.'in bt-ur u hijj:K price* and that they are nearly 
idl sul'jecl ru a duty, wlilcb iti souiy uascK is considerable, it might be 
suppiaud lliiit they would be peculiarly subjecl to adultenitiun. 

rfotwitbsluuiliii;,' tlieite fUets little or no uttentinn bus hitbortubecn 
bestowed ujwn tliis stubjeut by writers on the ^ophittCicutiun of food, 
nr even by the Exci'o uulhoritios, whose cluiy ii ^htmUl l»e lo protect 
the revenue frimi all fraudii rc-sulling friMu the nduUeratlon of duly- 
{)aying arlicles. 


The ginnjer plant, Zinziber officinale, belongs to the \^ry tiseAj. 
natural order, Zinzibfracea, from which turmeric, East India arrow- 
ru(Jt, and some other productions, are obmined. 

Ginger grows and is cultivnted in the tropical regions of A^ifl, 
America, and :^ierra Lef>ne. 

The stem reucbeK gener;dly ibree or four feet in height, and is re- 
newed yearly ; while the root, which is the part known as ginger, 
biilHnically termed a rhizumrj is biennial. 

Tlie HKits, or rhizonH'.s are dug up when about n year old ; in 
JnmaicA this occurs in Jnnunry nr February, and nftcr the stems are 
withered. They are well wo.'thed, freed from dirt, and in some eases, 
especially with the bethr kinds, the epldennis or outer coat i« stripped 
otf; and hence the division of ginger into white (serajied or uncoated), 
uiid iul't black (unscraped or coaled). 

in efrlinmtiiig tbe quality of ginger, n variety of particulars have 
to be taken into conMderution — us whether the rhizomes are coated 
or uncoated, their form, colour, and cuni^istence. 



The rfaizomoa of ginger ai good quality have no epidermis, lire plump, 
of ft whitish or taint f^traw^culour. soft oud mealy in texturi?, with a 
>hort fracturef exhibiting n reddish, resinous zone round the circum* 
Terence ; the tute should tie hot, biting, but aromatic. 

The rhizomes of ginger of inferior qnalHy are frequently coated 
with tIjL* epidermis, are less full and plump, offeri conlrarle*! and 
shrivelle*!; of darker colour^ beinp of a hnmniah-yellow ; of harder 
texture, termed y7i>t/y ; and more fibrous ^ while the taste is inferior, 
and less aromatic. 

Composition of Ginger. 

Ginger was analysed by Bucholz* in 1817, and by Morinf in 

Blcuolz'b AfiALVaii. 

Pale yellow volAtilc oil - - t 56 

Afomatic, acritl, soft reiin - 3'IjO 

Extrjirlivv Aotubh' In alcohol - O'Cd 
Acidulous and acrid extractive 

inAuluble in alruhul • • 10*50 

fium 12-05 

Starch, analogous to bascorin - 19*7$ 
Apotbeme, extracted by potash 

(ulmin?) .... 36-00 

Bassorin .... g-SO 

Woodv ftbre .... 8-00 

Wotcr .... 11-90 


MouM'a AKJtLTsia. 

Tolltilc oil. 

Acrid doft tfsin, 

Rcsiii insoluble in ether and otL 



Woody fibre. 

Vegeto-aniinal matter. 


Acetic acid, acetate of potash, sulphur. 

'J1ic anbcs contained carbonate and 
fiul|diat« of |>ota«h, chloride of po- 
tastdtun, pbo8[ibace of Hnie, alumina, 
silver, and oxidea of iron and man- 

The volaHU oil is pole yellow, very fluid, lighter than water ; 
o<lour resembling that of gmgcr, taste at first mud, afterwurda hoc 
and acrid. 

Soft rexin, obtained by digeitting the alcoholic extract of ginger, 
first in water, then in ether; it p(»ses3ud un aromatic odour, and a 
burning aromatic taste. It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and 

Structure of Ginger, 

Examined with the microacope, the rhizome of ginger is found to 
present a wtfll-markcd and ciiaracteristic structure. 

llie outer coat ur epidermis consists of several layers of large, 
ai^ilar, transparent cells of a brownish colour, adhering firmly 
together, forming a distinct membrane, and when macerated in water, 
becoming !<oft and somewhat gelatinous. 

• Bnuidi'i Diet. ofMiCerU Madlca. 

E c 4 

t Omvllu'a lUudU 4. Ctttn. 



hying upon the under surface of this nienibrane, and scAttered 
irrejiularly over it, are penorally to IwdL'tecied oil globules of various 
sizes, and of a dei'p yellow colour, ha well as a few cells, identical in 
Btructure and tint with those of tunnerle. 

In the substance of the rhizome itself several structures have to be 

Fig. 155. 

A portlan aT the tpiilrrmit of th* riUaomc of OlxoBK. vhovlng the cbIU of whtrh It 
U compowd, M w«II ■• Uui oil glottale*. « (t; «1m> tb« lunnerio-llka M)U,iA; 
■04 c r, crxftftlt very commoalj uuUoeid lo gnat uuinbcn l>liig bencKlh tbt 

It consists principally nf cells bavin>; delicate transparent walls 
minutely punctated^ and adhering tojretber so ntf to fnnii a connected 
tissue. Tliese cell* contain in llieir cavities starch eorpuaclet, which 
are very abundant, and tnan^ of which, as the cell walls are easily 
broken, are seen in niopt s<-H*lion8 to have become effused. 

Lyinjr here ami ihere in the midst of the ahovc-describe<i cells are 
other colls of nearly similar bize and form, but of a bright yellOw 
colour ; these are in do respect distinguishable from the coloured 
cells of lunneric. 

Itistotlie presence of these cells that ^-iiifier owes its colour, which 
varies with the number of such celU contained in it. 

LftNE UBRAivi. ^^t^.uo 




Traversing the rhizome in a longiludinul direction nre bundles of 
wooiiy fibre, soinetinie!) inclusing, iwuuUjr one, but ucvasiunolly two or 
even more dotted ducts or vessels. 

The starch corpuscles resemble in some respects thoae of East India 
niTOwroot, Curctana angHMfifoiia^ but are yet characterised bj several 
Uisiiuci ruuturcfl. 

«f llM tOigrr rMaoMt, dtfMivvd of lt» tpidermk : m u, cvlla poaiftfulBs Ibt •Ufclt 
corpiM»M -. * i. ttMnit pmuvlct > c c, tunB«rie-Uk« c«lU i d d. voeoj tbn i c. 

Although, like tooee of C. angv»tifolia^ thej are u^untly elongdtc<I 
and tiuttened, they yet differ from the stiirch granules of that pUnt in 
being somewhat smuller. less elongated, and in the greater obacurity 
of the bilum and cuivcfl lamella*. 

The fltructurcfl above described are shown in the preceding 

In ground ginger the above structures are separated from their 

Gtmutmt prcNmrf t/uvfr •' fl a. oclli which eonUln the «l«reh eaniuvlct i 6 b, looM 
•Ur\'h (TRttulc* I r r, turnwrie-Uke oelb i </ tJ, wtKNly Abr*. 


In order to improve the colour of gincer, and, Hccordinj? to some, to 
protect it from the attacks of ia:*ects, it is i'renuenfly rubbed over with 
lime ; in other ca.'ies it ia washed in cbalk and waler, when it is caUe<l 
tthiie-wwihed ginger; lastly, tbo fiurftice of ginger is occasionally 
bleached by tneiuis of a solution of chloride of bme, and soraetimea 
even by exposing it to the futoca of burning sulphur, nnd is thus made 
ro present a white ami floury iippeaiatice. iJyJtbese procesaes ■□ 
interior einper is often maile ro assume the AppeK-anee of the better 

But gin<,'er is fretiuenlly HduUerated. Out of Twefit^-one samples of 
i:inf;er subnutied to e:£aniin»tioiu no less than /?/][«/*, being more than 
two thirds ol' tlie wliole, were fuund lo be uiluUeraied, 

The substances detected were various in character, including »agn 
tiuaiy tapioca^ potato flour ^ wheat flour, ground ricefCat^cMne pepper, mwc 



f^ hiuks^ and turmeric poictier^ — these occuirinjf in various quan- 
li*N but ID lUe inajurity of ciues cunslituting iliepnucipul purtuflhe 
The Cayenne pepper and mustard hasks are no doubt added, with 

Ffg. I5S. 

Gtson ■diilknited with taiy) §>ou<tter. 

» m, cell* of (iuer i 6 k, ttMich irsnulM vT Klnf nr i r <-, Urao jrtUov 
kBitofdiw lA UMMof tsnsctk , </ it, (ra^ineiit of xmmIjt obn i c e,ilueh oor* 

rlew orconccaliiig the other adulteratiuus, and of giving apparent 
igtil to the giiigirr. 


On the Detection of the AtUUierutions of Ginger. 

iTbewboIc of the substances cmplnved in tlio a'lultenitiQn of ginger 
ky \k dftccted with eu»e and ctTtamly by iiic'iiits of ihe micruscope. 
hr niicrtuM-upifal cburacter^ of inOHt ul'the uiticles useil liavc already 
ten desj'ribed : as wheat lluur, at p. 243. ; ^mumi rice, at p. ^-Od. ; 
tyrnne, at p. 37B. ; — those of the rL*iiiaining articles, sagn, at p. 326. ; 
MB floor, at p. :t*iO. ; turmeric, at p. 3H9. ; and mustard husk, at 

SSettructural peculiarities of Cayenne and mustard husk are so well 
Irked, that no dillii-ulty whutevcr is experienced in ideniifying them 
ken once seen under the microscope; but ia those cases iu which 




the quaniilies present are but sni&ll they arc apt to be overlonk(*ti. 
It i» l)dvi^3lJte tu wash away i^ome of the filareii rrom ttic jturtion of 
powder about ,to be placed under ihe tuicroscuije ; by ibia uieaus tbe 
larger [wirtidea are brought more clearly into view. 

fif. iw. 

• ■, atttl af fln|R I b A, ffUrdi frmnnlc* of vinfvr ; r, larfv fcllov ecll, antJofOM 
ta Ihtpc »( turtntrk i tt, woodV Rbra i e c, «Uroh ftmuulM «I fvUiki: //, tUitk 
iMriMiai:ln »f »agu, ftllciwl bj tttaX. 

The ailulteratlon with wheat flour is one which might readily escape 
detoctiiin. The observer is therefore cau(iont->J hufure |irocecding to 
the exuinination of |)«wdered j;inper lo compare carefMily the struc- 
tural peculiarities of the starch granules of ginger and wheat llour : 
the diflerences, altliough not at first striking, an; reully cnnsidurable. 

Since ginger contains yellow cells very closely resembling those of 
turmeric, wl> can only cuncliide that turmeric has b^-en added when 
the number of such cells is much greater than in genuine powdered 

The adulterations of ginger with sago and potato are exhibited in 
the two preceding ongravings. 

The following engraving represents the adulteration of powdered 
ginger with tnpioca and Cayenne. 



Ftg. loo. 


Pemlcred Onronido.' •'tullereiMl wlih ' 

Hftffniflcd y)o dlameim. 

The duty was 5*. per cwt. British, an<l 10«. foreij^n po.^tcssinns ; 
it is now 5it. of whatever orifiin. Imports in 185-1, 24»8o;J cwt5. ; in 
18^5, 16f503 cwts. Hume cunsuaiption in 1854, 16,637 owts. ; in 1855, 
21.413 cw(«. 

The duty in 1851 aroounte<l to 7,362?. 0*. 9^/ It Oierefiire foIlowB 
that on this small article the revenue sufTerii n loss through its adul- 
teration of some thousands of pounds yearly. 


Cinnamon is the bark of the Ciannmomum Zfylamcumy one of tiie 
Lauracee, or Laurel family, to which als^» l>elon<* CiLs.iia and dmiphnr, 
an well as some other plaut« poasessiu*; medicinal properties, especially 
Clove bark. 

Cinnamon is cultivated principally in Ceylon. 

" The cinnamon bark of Ceylon is obtained by tlie culfclvatioo of the 


plant. The principal cinnamon garden* lie in the neighbourhood of 
Culumho. The bark peelers or choiiafis, having selected a tree of ihe 
best quality. li»p ofi* such branches as are three rears nM, and which 
Hpuear pmuer for the purpose. Shoots or branches inui'h \t.'*» than 
hair an iiieti, or inure than two or three inches iu liiameler, ure not 
peeled. The peeling is effected by aiaking two nppusitefor, when the 
branch is thick> three or four) lonjzitudinal incisions, and then elevat- 
ing the bark by introducing the neoling knife between Jl. When the 
bark adheres firmly, the f^cporation is promoted by friction with the 
handle of the knife. In twenty-four hours the epidermis and greenish 
pulpy mutter (rete muco.sum) are carefully w?raped oiT. In a few 
hours the smaller quiU» are introduced into the lar;;er ones;, and in 
this way a congeries of quills formed, ollen mea»uring forty inches 
long. The bark is then (fried in the sun, and afterwartls made into 
bundles with pieces of bamboo twigs. 

•'Cinnamon is imported in bales, boxes, and chesU, principally from 
Ceylon, but in part also from Madras, TcUichen-y, and rarely from 
Java and other places. 

** In order tn preserve and improve the quality of the bark, black 
pepper is sprinkleil amongst the bales of cinnatnoii in stowing them at 
Ceylon. (Peicival.) Mr. Bennet ^tate8 tliat ships are snmeilmes de- 
tained for several weeks, through tlie want of pepper to fill the inter- 
stices between the bales and the holds. 

" When cinnamon arrives in London, it is unpacked and examined ; 
all the mouldy and broken pieces are removed from it. It is then re- 
made into bales. These arc cylindrical, three feet six inches long, but 
of variable diameter, perhaps sixteen inches on the average. These 
bales arc enveloped by a coarse cloth called frutiuy. The ciimawon in 
boxes and chests is usually the small, inferior, atid mouldy pieces.** 

Composition of Cinnamon. 

The constituents of ciimamon are volntih oil-, tannin^ mucilage, 
Coiouring mattrr^ partly soluble in water and alcohol, but not in eiheTf 
r^Jthi, an ariW, gtarrh, and li^in, 

A decoction of cinnamon does not become blue on the addition 
of iodine ; ihi.-* is portly owing to the small quantity of starch pre- 
sent, and partly, it is supposed, to the presence of some principle 
(tannic acid?) which destroys the blue colour of the iodide of 

The cinnamon oil of commerce consists of two or more bodies. By 
exposure to the air, the oil absorbs oxjgen; and cynnamic acid, two 
resins, and water arc formed. With nitric acid it forms .i white crys- 
talline nitrate and a red oil, and with ammonia a solid crystallinu 
amide is formed. 



Sirvciure qf Cinnamon, 
Cinnamon, under the microscope, presents a complicaled and very 

Fig. I8i. 

LoBtfiludiiikl fMtlaa of Ci jrvAMo* carried LruMrWMljr Uinmch the terk , R»c&Ub4 

14i> diAmeltra. 
a H. •l«II»iD r«ll> : h h, woody ilbrv : « r. stkreh c«lb t d </, ctarefa gniinUi i « c, 

(MU)il4r cUiftuaoa-coloiucil c«U« M bodla*. 

distinct organisation, which is bcJit seen in longitudinal sections, car- 
ried through the thickness of the bark. 

Ou ihe outer or external eurfiice of the section are observed nu- 
merous stellate cells, separable readily from each other, and siniilar to 
those which we have so otten bi;fore described as occurring in other 
vegetablu structures. These cells lie one upon the other in several 
luvers, and form a considerable part of the thicknei^s of the bark. 
They arc situated in the intcTTals between the woody fibres ; tbey are 



of a qundrnngnlnr or oval form, having the long axes placed usually 
transversfly to the baric, iheir breailtb beinrg preiittrr tban their depUi. 
In whatever position iliey are viewe^U both the central cavities and 
the rays which proccotl from them are visible. Occasinnally, though 
not uBunlly, a few stanh granules inay be seen in the raivitics of these 
cells. Proreediri^ from without inwards, these cells are succeeded by 
others, whieh are diatinjriiished fmm the first by the absence of raya, 
by the thinness of their whIIh, and by the firmness with which they 

fig- 1G& 





Ommim Cuutakov pmnhr, «nRfB)B*4 t9n dtimctert. o a, itolUle eelli t ft &i 
woody tW« 1 e t, rtanta gr*uul«i. 

adhere to each other ; they (renernlly contain a few jitarch corpuscli 
These cells, which form several series, complete the thickness of tlie^ 

Interspersed between both the first and second kinds of cells are 
numerous woody fibrep, which are rather short, pointed at either ex- 
tremity, and fumi&hed with a central ennid. It U these which impart 
the fibrous character to cinnamon, particularly obserTublc in fractures 
of the bark. 

The »tarch corpuscles of cinnamon are small, more or less globular* 
•mi funiiflbed with a very distinct hilum, which has the appearance of 


a central depression. They TuaaUy occur singly, but sometimes 
united in twos or fours. 

The quantity of starch in cinnamon is*o small, that the decoction 
of the bark does not become blue on the addition of iodine. 

Lastly, lying in the cavities of the most external of the second 
order uf colls, are frequently to be observed deep cinnamon-coloured 
masses of granular texture. 

The above structural particulars are all shown in^. 161. 

In ^ound cinnamon the several structTircs are disunited and 
broken. Tlie stellate cells occur stnglr, or in grou|>s of two, three, or 
nion.'; the wnody fibre is disengaged, and is scattered fibaut, resem- 
bling somewhat^ in form and appearance, the hairs wtucb occur on 
many plants ; the starch corpuscles are set free from their cells ; and, 
lastly, the cinnamondlke masses maybe seen in the field of the mtcro- 
Hcope, dispersed here and there. Pig^. 162. 


Cnrnposilinn of Cassia. — Since cassia is so frequently substituted 
for oinnaiiiiM), it becomes necessary that we should acquaint ourselves 
with its composition and structure. 

If tincture af iodine is added to a decoction of cassia, it turns blue, 
owing tn the larger proportion i>f filJirch contained in it. 

Oil of cassia y>o9SCHse3 nearly the same properties as oil of cinnamon ; 
it is said to be a thicker nnd heavier oil than that of cinnamon ; and 
its oilour and flavour are inferior. 

StmctMre of Cwuia, — CasMa — Cinnamomum Caiuia — belongs to 
the same genus of pUnts as the true cinnamon, it is therefore not sur- 
prising thiit they should resemble each other 90 closely as they do. 
Notwithstanding their striking resemblances, there are characters, 
however, by which they may be discriminated. 

The bark of cinnamon is scarcely thicker than drawing-paper, and 
breaks with an uneven and fibrous margin; while each slick consists 
of eighty ten, or more pieces or quUls of bark inserted one within the 

Cassia bark is much stouter, being oflen as thick as a shilling : it 
breaks short, and without splintering. Ry these characters alone it 
is easr to distinguish cinnamon from ca<4sia when in (he whole state, 
as shown by the accompanving drawing. 

But these barks differ afso in colour and t.istc. Cinnamon is paler 
and browner than cassia, which is usually redder and brighter. The 
taste of one is sweet, mild, nnd aromatic, leaving no unpleasant im- 
pression on Uie t^mgne, white that of the other is leas sweet, stronger, 
and b followed by a bitterness. 

r r 


These characters, however, vary In different samplea, »o that it is 
iinpossibte by these meam alone to distinguUh cinnonion from cassia 

A, Stick orCivirAHOir ortha oitoml •(«• tad sppearMiDe, ibowtntf th* tblsnea 
at tbc iMrlt. mnd the muincr la whkh tbe Uytn art cncloacxl ine wItliiQ Um 
olhrr I (1. rriM »rrtiiin iif aamc, eahilillliif more cucnplcUlj the number of Ih* 
Iktcn, atiil lltrir dit[KMtUoii. 

S, elk\. uf Camia ftf tlx i)*tiir*] >iu uid apprar»Dce. •tiowliig Um thicknMi uf 
thi b&rk, and t)i« ni«BU«r in aliicli tli« Ur«ra an vtK!l<H»<l orlthlttauhoUur | 
i, eroM McUon of Mitu, cxhibltiag tha dUpoaltluu of llic laTcr*. 

when in powder, and we are not aware thut any oertaiD menns have 
beca pointed out ibr cffecling tbe di!k.Tiiuiiiation, especialijr when the 



tvro are mixed in dltTerent proportions ; but here again, u in »o many 
olher cases, the microscope ailbnis us tnvaluable assiittaacc. 

Sections of caMia bark, viewed under the luicroecope, bear a close 
general resemblance to thoae of cinnamoUf but dilTer m their greater 

Loiiflltadliul MettM of Casua, evrtwl tnnmrKir through tlui berk, mafnlffeil 

o a, mIU or«pld«rail> t b *. •telUlc mH* i ti d, lUrch mIIi j « <, flUntfa gtannks i 

f/, frwittUr, ctuuunoB-a»lwur«<l mu>mt. 

width and the relative proportions of the several structures, particu- 
larly in the Hize and iiumbcr of the starch (^Y>rpusrlcs. 

We observe on the outer surface, as in cinnamon, the peculiar 
stellate cells, the cavities of which, hnwcver, much more commonly 
thun those of ciuiiamon, are lUled with well-develo{)ed etorch cor- 

Lying next to Uiese, we notice what may he termed the proper 
starch cells, usually crammed quite full of starch corpuscles, which, 

r r 3 



while tbey have tbe same general form as those of cinnamon, are yet 
two or tliree times larger, as well aa many limea more numerous. 

The woudy fibre occurs, &i in cinnamon, inlersncrded between both 
descriptions of cells, and it does not appear to ditter appreciably from 
that of clanamon. 

Fig. IC& 

Oamti»t CtiUTt pDmln-, rnKprrlftcd 790 dUrMten i n «t. rtelUle wDi : AK.Tnedj' 
Sbrc t c c, aurch celli i <i <t, rkicn grtnulc* ; e t, gruialu mmw. 

Of the entire thickness of the bark, about one-fourth is formed by 
tbe stellate celts, the remaining thrce*f'ourttiB being made up of the 
Btnrch-bearinjj evils. 

In powdered cassia, therefore, as contrasted with powdered cinns'- 
mon, the stellate cells and wcvody fibre are miiL-h less abundant, while 
the starch granules arc at the same time much larger, and tar more 


Oh ms Adulteeations or Civramov ahd Camxa. 

From an examination of tl»e analyses of Thirty-lwo samples of 
cinnamon, it appeiired that of the twelve whole ciiiniunons, jfMn 
were^pnuiw, ami \\\aX five consisteti of notliing hut cassia. 

That the essetdial oil \s »ometin)C!< abstruoled. ami the bark, after 
bcinf? reduced, soM cither whole or in the ground suae. 

Tliut of the nineieen sampled of ^roumicinuamonf three consisted en- 
tirely of cauia. 

That ten of the samples^ or more than one half, were adulterated^ 
the artiflex most frequently employed bein/; cither baked wheat Jiour 
or Ktgo meal, &epanitely or in cnnthiiiatinn, hut Ktist huita arrowroot 
and potato Jiutir were likewise dt*tecti*d each in one inetance. 

That of the above adulterated sniiifites three Konaisied of cassia 
ailulteratedf and seven o^ cinnamon adulterated. 

That six only of the nineteen suiuplea were ^'tfBH/atf. 

In the prices chiirged for the sample9 of einnainon examined, 
whether whole or in powder, ^'nuiiie or adulturated, no eon»tiint 
di0erence waa tu be observed, and cun»equently the public AufTers 
great loss by the substitution of caisiii, which is so tiiueh eheu[>er, for 
einnamon, and a still jfretiter loss by the other sophistications. 

The wheat flour and sa^o detected was generally baked, to make it 
resemble more nearly ground cinoamun or cassia, and thus the better 
escape detection. 

On the Detection of the AduUereUions of Citauwum and Cassia. 

The detection of the various adulterations of cinnamon and cassia 
is, in nearly all ciises, easv enough by means of the uiieroscope ; a\\ that 
is reqtiisite is tltat tlie ohserver should be acquainted with the struc- 
ture and characters of genuine caA.«ia and cinnamon, as well as of the 
articles em;:loyed toadult(>rat4> thcni. 

The mixture of cassia with cinnamon of course constitutes an adul- 
teration, but very frcouently eaasiu is suhstiinted for cinnamon. The 
mixture and substitution arc both di»i.'Overable with the microscope by 
the difference in the size of the starch granules, but the substitution 
may be detected in other ways. 

Thus when slick cassia is substituted for cinnamon, the substitution 
is known bv the areafer thickness of cassia bark. 

Again, iLe decoction of cassia hark turns blue on the addition of 
iodine, when one of cinnamon similarly treated does not become blue. 

It ia stated thut the oil is i^ometinics removed from cinnamon bark, 
this being subsequently ground to powder and mixed with genuine 

This fraud may be discovered in two ways : the suspccletl ciruiamon 
may be boile*! in distilled water for a time and the oil distilbnl off; the 
diatillate mual next be evapomted to get rid of the water which 



passfd over with the oil; lastly, the oil must be weighed, and the 
quantitj oMalnt'tJ compared with thnt furnthhed by pcnuine cinnamon. 

A more i'xpi-4itit>u5 process is to examine the cinnftiiion with the 
microscope ; if thts lias been acted ujwm by U/ilinj; water, the starch 
pranulcs will he foun<l to have lost tlipir projKT fnrni, to have become 
distort^-d and irregiilnr, while many of tliein are larger than natural. 
It* the einiianion has been subjected to the prohmged action of the 
water, the granules will hare become so broken up and dissolved that 
they can no longer be detected. 

The import customs duty is, on cinnamon, 2d. per lb. The quan- 
tity entered for home consumption (which forms but a fraction, about 
1-I3tb, of the quantity imported) was in IHUli^ 57,fi94 lbs.; in 1854, 
54,056 lbs.; in 1855, 42,943 lbs. ; in nine months of 1856, 22,771 lbs. 

On cassia (Itgnca or bark), Id. per lb.; cassia buds and fistula, frco. 
"Were entered fnr home coii!<uniption (again but a fraction, about l-6ih 
fo l-7th, ot'qunnlitv impnrled) in 185^ 136,363 lbs.; iu 1854, 124,303 
lbs. ; in 1855, 110,219 Ihs.; ia nine muntlis of 185G, 90,197 Iba. 


Tlierc are three species of Alyrixtivu., whlt-h furnish nutmegs. That 
which yields the best deacription, Myristica /rtifrran:!^ forms a tree 
from twenty to twenty-6ve feet high, somewhat similar in appearance 
to a pear tree. 

The fniit is smooth externally, pear-shaped, and about the size of 
an ordinary pcaoh. It consists, firi^t. of au outer lleshy covering, 
called the pericarps which when uniture separafes into nearly enual 
longitudinal parts, or valves ; secondly, of the an/, or mace^ which, 
when recent, is of a bright scarlet colour; and thirdly, of the seed 
proper, or nutmeg. This is enrlosed in u sht-U, which is made up of 
two coats ; the outer is hnrd and smooth ; the inner, thin, closely 
invests ihe seed, sending off prolongations, which enter the substiinee 
of the seed, and which, being cohinred, impart the marbleil or mottled 
appearance chupacU'ristic ofnutmejj. 

There are two krnd^ of nutmegs met with in commerce. The first, 
calletl the trve^ rouiuU rnltivated, or female nutmeg, is the product of 
Jlfi/ristica fragrtmti. 

The seconii kind of nutmeg ia called i\iQ false, long, wild^ or vude 
nutmeg, and is the produce chiefly ot Mgrintica fatiiti ; but a kind of 
nutmeg which is also called wild, is obtained from Myrittica Mala- 

In the Banda Islands, three crops or harvests of nutmegs are ob* 
tained in the year ; the principal gathering h in July or August; the 
secuiid in November ; and the third in March or April. 



The fruit is (fathered by means of a. barb iittachc<3 to n long stick ; 
the mace ia separntcfl from the nut, anfl sepurnt*'!/ cured. 

On aecouDt of their liability la the attacks of an insect known as 
tbe nutmeg insecU conHdcrftblecare is required indryinir them. They 
shnuM be dried in their shells* as ihey.ire then secure frnm the insect. 
They arc ])laced on hurdles and sinoke-dried over a slow wood fire 
for about two months^ In the BMnda Islands, they are first dried in 
the Bun for n few days. When the ojwrotion of drying i< compIetQi 
the nut-s rattle in their shells ; these are cracked with mallets, and the 
dama;;ed, shrirelled, or wnrni-caten nuts removed. 

"To prevent the attjuka of the insect, the nuts arc frequently 
limed. For the English market, however, the brown or unlimed 
nutmeg are preferred. The Dukh lime them by dipping them into 
a thick mixture of lime and water ; but this proeefla is considered to 
injure their flavour. Others lime (hem by rubbing ihem with 
recently*prepared, well<sifted lime. This process is soiuelimes pmc- 
tiscd in London." 

Composition of Kutmegs, 

Nntmegs contain bnth a fixed an<l a volatile oil. Th^ Jix&l oil is 
prepftred by beating the nutmegs to a paste; this is subjected, en- 
closed in a boi;, to the vapour of water, iinil llie oil afterwards ex- 
f pressed by meaas of heated pluteii. It is Imported in cakes whicb 
lave somewhat the size and form of common bricks, and are covered 
with leaves. The 6xe<J oil procured in this manner contains a por- 
tion of the volatile irilf from which its colour and fragrant odour are 

The volatile oil, on the presence of which the flavour and aroma of 
nutmegs principally depend, is procured bv distillation in water ; the 
produce thus obtained at Apothecnries* IIhII. London, is usually 4'5 
per cent. Now, nutmess are frequently deprive<l of a portion of their 
essential oil by distillation, and ai'ter being well limed, are again sent 
into the market io this comparatively valueless state. 

Bonastre*s AmtljfnM* 

Volatile oil 
Liquid fat 
Solid fat * 

Ligneons fibre 





• Phmv. IMS. I. ii.p. 
r r 4 



Ulfce»clk» of vatcr 
iW^VBMity of oil ■■tilled 
«aRl^ 01 the 

IMrh.MmBi^ Stt MI7. 4E. 

Jt of m rnunded shape ; bot occasion&Uj k few of ihc granules 
itar; »m] all have wvll-marketl central depreanon*. 
«be oelU forming the coloured, vein-like portion of ib« nut, diL- 
from ibe other cell)) in colour and in b*:*in^ des>tiltttc of Starch, ctm< 
f %;r>:n<r ftpfiflrvutljr onljr a Bmall quaniilj of oil. _ 




Since nulmega tre never solil in the powdered state, they are not 
lialilo (u itdulteration hv udmixtut-e witb foteijpi in^L'diL*nUf like 
SL'vorul of the apices wLicb liiivti! been already iiotim-d, aa ginger, 
ctnimitintu and vii»i*'m ; nevurtht.*less, ihey are subjected to a proi-'esa 
which impuird their value and quuliiy us uiuch as thau^L they hod 
been actually odulterateii in ibe same niaiiner. 

The wild nutmeg obtained froni the Mijrutica Maiahariea has 
scarcely any flavour or odour, and nccortlinf]! to Kheede, is of the size 
and H^ure of a date. "The Turkish and Jewish merchantV' writes 
Kheede, "mix these nutmegs with the true long ones, and the mace 
with good mace, selling them together. They also extract from these 
inferior articloa an oiX with which they adulterate that of a more 
genuine (juality." 

The w(irk of M. Chevallier, entitled " Dictionnaire des Alterations 
efc Falsifications des Sub>l»nces Alimentairc.% MedicarnenteuKa, et 
Commtfrcialea," in treating of nutmegs, cimtains the following ubser* 
vations, uuder the head of** Falsifications :'* — 

"Nutmegs are sometimes mixed with riddled nuts, eaten by insects, 
and bccume brittle; the small upertures are then closed with a kind 
of cement, formed of flour, nil, and the powder of nutmegs. This 
paste bos even ser^-ed to fabricate false nutmegs, inodorous and in- 
sipid. The workmen of Mar^^eilles have even made thein of bran, 
cuiy, ami the refuse of nutmegs: these nutmegs, placed in contact 
with water, soften down in that liquid. 

'* The worm-eaten nuts are et]ually insipid, and almost inodorous; 
sometintes they have u mouldy odour.'* 

Eighteen snmples of nutmegs were subjected to examination, the 
result being thai in no case had the esstntial oil been abitractrd. 

On the Detection of the Adulteridiona of Nutmegs. 

The only adulteration, excepting that by admixture with wild nut- 
megs, to which itappearij that nutmegs arc liable — and this d(.uht)ess 
is of rare occurrence — is by means of the artificial or factitious nul- 
megs mentioned by M. Chevallier. 

'i'l)et« may be readily discovered by soaking them in water, when, of 
course, tliey would reatlily break down. 

The diflerenccs between the cultivated and wild nutmegs have 
alrea<ly been describe*!. 

The iiurmegs from which the oil bns been abstracted muy Iw re* 
cognised by the presence of punctures on the surface, and by their 
much greater li;.'htness. 

It is singulai- that the starch granules of nutmeg are but little 
aflected by boiling; so liiatthis means of discrimination, bO satisfac- 





torj in the case of cinnamon, rassta, and some other spices, U of little 
or no valiiff in the present instance. 

Of this rcnmrkable circumstance it is not easj to aSurd aa«x[^ui*> 
tion; it probably diipunds U[>on the dilliculty with which the boi&if 
watur muKOJ» its way into thti substance of the nut, in confet^ttCMem 
its httrd texture unci the largo ijuaiitity o( fixed oil contained ia iL 

The iliOerentiul duties on wilil and cultivate*! nutmegs oScT I 
premium for the substttutinn of the inferior for the Miperior iitidt 

Import duty on nutinogH^ Ix. per lb.; wild, so called, in dwUla 
per lb. ; wild, not in Rhell, 5iL per lb. 

Tnkon for home con-iuinption in 1854, "206,049 lbs.; la )i^y 
i8£>,5l>6 lbs.; in nine months of 1866, 15-i,3ttO lbs. 



As there are two kinds of nutmeg, so are there two kindi ofmaA 
the produce of the same plants; thus, there is true* or cultinErl 
mace, and fuUc, or wild mace. 

Wild or false mace is of a dark-red colour, aad deficient in tfwt 
and aroma. 


The composition of mace is exhibited in tbo following antlnis hf 
N. E. Henry :— 
Volatile oil. 

Red fut oil, soluble in alcohol. 
Yellow fat oil, in^'oluble in alcohol. 
Alcoholic extractive. 
Ligneous tibre with lime. 

Structure of Maee, 

Viewed under the microscope, maco presents a atructnre Tef7 iof 
tinct from that of the nuimeg itnelf. 

Covering the surface of the blades is a delicate membrane eono^' 
ing of A single layer nf cells; they are tubular, mnch elcm!*aied, tspff 
at either end to a point, And resemble in size and form, altboo^ >* 
in delii'acjr of texture, ordinary wooily fibre. The long diamclinfl' 
the cells arc disposed vertically on the surface of the inncc. 

But the chief Hub«tance is made up of other cells differing ta ■* 
and form from those already noticed ; these contain fixed oil, and M^ 

Imbedded in the midst of these cells are larger eelU« anuaa cct* 



ceptaclet^ which, in thin sections, whether made crosswise or length- 
wine, Appear as apertun^s. Tbcite oontnin the essential oil of mace. 

Scattorc'l here and there may be «ecn, both in transverse and longi- 
tudinal Elections, small bundles of woody fibre, of a brownish colour, 
enclosin;; one or two small spiral vessels. In transverse sections, the 
ordinary starch cells arc perceivecl to be arranged round the bundles 
hi II radiate manner. 

The Ftructure of mace is exhibited in the annexed wood-cut. 

TKAJrarciuK Srcnojr or Macs. 

. a, rtccpUclu tut the CMeolUI oil i minj at then anpemr in tlw mrtlnn u 

the «MW«r«BO* of cloaMt cctl*. fn>m the drrumrtancc of their not being cut into 

til* coumrififf im"' 

Iwf* ftlr-bUDNM UMMlIf ntMcmd in >Kti>tn« immerfvd tn wkUr. rf<l, cclla 

nMllrri^mae* !• ItKatnl citlpftr in thew relU or renptaelM. 

flilM with flATch curpUMie*. r. Ihc itvch cirpuarlea Ioom. mifnlflcd 430 
dluiwtcn. / tha oeU* fonalnf tba delletu eoAt or eutkia InvMlag mftM. 

On THB Adultkbations or Macs. 

Like the nutmeg, mace may be deprived, by distiUation, of its 
esitenlial oil. 

The only ailultcration of mace known to be practised is that by 
admixture with wild mace ; this is disiin^iished by its dark-red 
colour and by its deficiency in flavour and artana. 



Of Twelve samples of mace subjected lo examinatioa the whole were 

Import duty* 1^. per lb. 

UoiuG consumption, in 18^4, 2J5,584 Iba. ; In 1855, 28,562 Iba.; in 
nine montliff of 1856, 15,267 lbs. 


Clovei are the uncxpantled flower-budu of Vuryophylltu arotnaticutt 
a tree from fifteen to tiiirty feet in hei^jlit, one of the Myrtaoeto or 
myrtle tribe. The wonl t-^i^re \a deriveil from chtt — Fri'nch for nail, 
from a faiicied resemblance to a nail in ihe form of the elore. 

The flower-buds are arranjiLMl on termineLt ib>wt'r-fttiiJk« ; they aro 
either ^'athere<l by hand tir obtained by beatinj^ with bumlles of reeds, 
in whJL-h ctute eioihti are itpread Ueneuth the treea tu ealeh ttit-m ; ibey 
are afterwards dried either by the fire, or, what is belter, in the sun ; 
they are imported in casks or bags. 

Composition of the Clove. 

Cloves contain, according; to the analysis of Trommsrlorf, tolaiilf 
oil, 18; altnoHt ttmttrless reMtiiy G \ tannin, 13; diJicvUly-tolublf. cTtraC' 
tive icith tutiian^ 4 ; gum, 13 ; woody fibre, 28 ; and water, 18. 

The volatile oil is obtained from cloves by rcfteated diittillation. 
The yield on an average is said lo be from seventeen to twenty-two 
per cent. 

It has been aaicertainetl that the oil which was formerly reyarde*! 
as a simple oil, is reallv c:i>!nj)ri4i,*i.l of two vohitile oili», possessiojj dif- 
ferent i|ualitie9, one of which is lighter, and the other heavier than 

The characters and composition of these oils are thus ^ven in 
Pereira's "Materia Medicu.'* ed. 1. part ti. p. 1093. : — 

•'a. Light Oil of Cloven (Clftve-Ifytiro-Carbfm).—Co]o\ir\ess sp. gr. 
0'918. incapable of cumbiuing with bae<eii, but absorbing hydrochloric 
acid ifas without yielding a crystalline compound. It consists of 
C,(, n, ; hence it is isomeric with uil of turpentine. 

**/3. Hearry Oil of Clocen (Clove Acid; Engenic Acid). — It is 
colourless when receittly prepari'd, but beccmen coloureil by age. Its 
specific gravity, according lo Bonastre, is 107'^. It combines with 
alkalies lo fonn crystalline salts (alkaline evgennte*^ clove-oil alhalieg). 
If a »alt of iron be added to one of these, it yields a blue, violet, or 
reddiflh compound {a f err uginottif eugenate), varying somewhat acconl- 
ing to the nature of the ferriiginou!> salt uined ; thutt the protusulphate 
uf iron yields a lilac, the persulphate a red, which becomes vtotei and 



af\erwnnls blue ; while Uie sesquichloride gires a vinous, which turns 
U) red (Ifcjnasire). Nitric acid reddens cldve acid." 

The iinex|)anded flower-buds are not the only parts of the tree 
which are aromatic, oa the (ootdtulks and fruit or seed vestieU are 
likewise so to some extent. 

The peduncleR. or /itotstalMs, according to Guibourt, are aometimea 
substituted for cloves by distillers of the oil. 

The frulti mother-^ves oa tliey have been colled, are occasiouaUy 

Ftf. 16(4. 
PtTAL or OLDri'BCik 
(Uifnllkd 00 dlwBiton). 

A, trkii««»nw Motion of Ui« 
otptactca In vhirh tlte tmvn 
necjMarka fur Um otl In ihU vlrw are iiHltittnct. 

mUI of flnver-lnul of rinre. •hovtnf the r^ 
Ikl ull \» itinUlneU. B, tnrfKOt of pcUt | tb« 

met with in commerce; they have the shape of the olive, but arc 

CHuUer, and poasesa the odour and taste of the clove in a mild degree. 
■ Strwcture of the Chve. 

The minute alructure of cloves i» extremely characteristic. The 
rounded head or Imd cooauta of the unexpanded petals ; if a transverae 



section of one of these be made, it will be seen to be composed of 
cellular tissue, in tbe luitlst of whicb are muueruus receptacles for the 
essential oil ^ tbese extend tbruugh the whole thickness of the leaf, 
being Usually three or four deep. 

TMXMtnnt 8ccTio> or FLOiraB<iTA.LK or nu Cum. 
i U»r>fSed M dluneUn. ) 

A rwtplMlw lot tho CHRitial oU I Ihe PMtlon belnf i, ihtn one, they P««f"* 
tH«appcsrmnoeorft|irnum,lii onufeqiiwio* oftwhut or*rwl Into. ^^ orlluiy 
tiM«« lummnillnK llw wiwjy ftbee. c r, h<in.)lr- .if w^tmIt fibre- »• "» 
tuboIuilnwturtftndtnUTVlNUM.atf which trwlnicrTi»i p.rtl»m »ti\tt •****}• 
fonaad. r. the criilre nfthe aUlk i II Mi|M!*n d*rk uuilu U)« mJcriMOOpo, tb* 
MrvBtttR b«to| oUcuf*. //, dmplvU of oU. 

When the jwtal Is viewed on the surface, the receptacles are aeea 



but indistinctly, being otwcured by the cellular tiaauc of which the 
surlace of the petal is formed. Fig. 170. 

Fig, 170. 

LosoaomaAi. Iicnax or Flovib Ralk «r TVK Cum* 

{Hi«DlftMl 60 diwMWr*.) 

a a, itotptMlM fbv 1h« mhhUsI oil. ftrpnnng u apertam from b»Tlag bMo 

out Into In maklBf Uw Metlun. ft. crltulxr ilt«ur. r, «i>od]r fibre, d, Un 
tabalu atniBtDr* sAd tstcnpteci «litcb forin the Ititeruftl portioo of Uwi 
«, Um dark ontnl port of Um flpwu*«ulk. //, d^ojiku uf till. 

In a trflDsirerse teclioa of the Jlower'utalk, viewed with an object- 
glius of one-inch focuJ> the following ajipearances present tb< 


selvefl : — 

In the oerut third of the section* numerous large holes are ob- 
served; these arc the divided rccepLocled ; next to these, passing 
inwirds, are bundles of woody fibre, forming u narrow circle in die 



interior or the stalk; extending from these to near the centre of the 

Btalk is ft tissue formed of ntnnernus tubular cells, with Urge fpnoes 
between them. The recophioles, as well as the tubuUr cells luid 
intppspaces, cntuain easi^nliiil oil, visible in sectionii immersed in water, 
in the form of Innumerable droplets. Fig. 169. 

Longitudinnl eeccions exhibit a nearlj similar structural smmge- 
ment. Fig, 170, 

Cloves contflin scftrcely any starch. 

The clove-stalks present a structure somewhat similar to thnt of 
cloves tliemselvcs ; that is, thev consist nf cellular tissue, hollowed 
out here ami there into receptncle« for ihti ese'cntial nil; but, in 
adilitinn, the dtnlks are provided with an epiderinis, or coatinjr nf the 
stellate cells, which areol'auch freijuonl ot!Currcnce in diflcreut kinds 
of bark. 

On the Adulter at io?fs or Ci^vbs. 

Cloves ire hut seldom sold in powder, and hence the liability to 
nduheriitiori is f^reutljr lessened ; ihejr are, however, oceasionoll/ met 
with ill (hut stale. 

Clove-stjilks, ttUhough very inferior, contain some of the active 
properliej* inf cloves^ and, as already noticed, are occasionally used by 
dimllers for procuring the essential oil of cloves. We have reaAon 
to helii-ve rhai in some rases the stalks are ground np, and mixed 
with thf pnwder of genuine cloves. 

The (piidity and value of chivea are not unfreijuentl^ impaired, like 
Bome other «nicej!. by the abstraction of the essential oil. 

This frauu used to be exteustvidy pnictiMeil in llalliind, the drawn 
cloves, fur more effectual uoriceulTuonl, being mixed wilh olheni of 
good rpi.ilily; and even, in snme instnnres^ the trouble beint; taken to 
restore as nearly an possible to the cximnsted cloves thtir original 
appearHMce, by rubbing thcrn ovlt with aome common oil. 

Twenhj-Jlrc samples of lIovcs, wbnU' and in powder, were snb- 
jcctcil to cxaminaliim, the results were tliut one imly of the powdered 
cloves contuinud a propniiitm id* ch)ve-stulks, while from none of the 
whole cUives hud the esseolistl oil been abstmelcd. 

Tbe volatile oil itselli as imported iiilu this country from India, httS 
been found to be adulterated. 

Mr. M'CulIoeh. on the :iulhority eif MtlbuTn, states that the oil im- 
ported from India contains nearly half its woiglit of an insipid ex- 
pressed oiK which is dis^^overed by dropping a little into spirits of 
wine, and on shaking it the genuine oil mixes with the spirit, and, the 
insipid separating, the fraud is detected. 

Cloves readily imbibe moi!*ture, whereby their weight becomes 
greatly increased, a fact of which dishonest dealers have not failed to 
HV»il themselves. 



On the Detection of the AthdUratione of Cloves, 

The adulteration of powdered cloves with clove-sfalks is readily 
detecUMi by means nf llie micruscope, which will revcul the presence 
of the aiellattt ccUa nt'tlie stalk. If the essential oil bti» W*en removed, 
the cluvca will be dry und biltor, no ail appearin^^ ou the surface when 
the cluves are pressed with llie naiJ. 

The quantity nf essential oil may be estimated by distillation; 
genuine cloves y\A\\ iVmn 17 to 22 per cent, ol'oil. 

Adulterations with foreign rcgetuble substaiicea are all discoTered 
by the microscope. 

DuCVf Id, per lb. Home confmmption in 1854, 179,407 Iba. ; in 
1823, 220,649 lbs. ; in nine montba of 1856, 151,254 Iba. 


Pimento, Jnuiatta Pepper, or Allspice, is the berry or fruit of 
the Eugenia Pimento^ one of the Myriucete. It |in>w» in tljo Weflt 
Indies, and principally in Jamaica, especiiilly on the hills on tlie north 
side of tiiat island, tt forms a beautiful tree, which attaiiui some 
thirty feet in height, and is planted in regular walks, which are named 
Pimento walks. 

The fruit is gathered after it bus attained its full size, but while 
still green ; it is usually sun-dried, but sometimes kiln-drieil on 
sheets : in «lrying, the colour of the fruits i.'lmnge from greeu to reddish* 
brown , wben ripe, the berry becomes black or dark -purple in colour, 
and ifi glutinous, and consequently in that state unfit for preserva- 

Composition o/AUspice, 

As in the case of cloves, the essential oil of pimento is a mixture 
of two oils — a light and a heavy oil. The pro)>erties of these are 
thus described in Pereirn's " I^fritorin Medica :*— 

** By diiitillntinn with water, allspice, like cloves, yiehls two volatile 
oils — the one lighter, the other heavier than water. The oil of 
pimento of the shop«3 is a mixture of these ; except in odour, io pro- 
perties are almost identical with those of oil of cloves. By distillation 
with caustic potash, tlie Hfiht oU x* separated; the residue mixed with 
sulphuric acid, and submitted to distillation, gives out the heavy oil. 

" a. Light Oil of Pimento (Pimetilo- fIt/firO'Carbon) has not, to my 
knowledge, been previously examined. ' Its properties appear to be 
similar to those of the lir^ht oil <tf (.loves. It floatt on water and on 
liquor potasne, and is slighty reddened by nitric acid. Potassium sinks 
in, ftud IB icaroely, ifst allt acted on by it. 


o a 



•'i3. Heavy Oil of Pimento {Pimentie Acid). — Very similar to dovc- 
ucid. It forms with the alkalies crrstiUIiiie coinpoiiiids {alkaline pimeu- 
tatea)^ which bucoDio blue or yrtuniiih on tlie addition of the tincture 
of thii chloride of iron (owing lo the formation oV a/errvgimnu pimcn- 
tate). Nitric ucid acta violuuLly on and reddens iu' 

Boijostre*, in 1825^ published the following auulyais of the composi- 
tion of pimento berries : — 

VoUtile oU 

GrpRti ciU _ . - 

SoUd TmI oil 

AMtritiKenc (extract 

Gumin? BMrirt . 

(Tnlounng matter - 

Untnout matter - 

ITiirrytta^Uxiblp iiigar 

Milirur (lalltc acid 

Lifn>^n ... 



Lu«» . . - 

KhI mallrr ln»oluble lu water 

PelllciiUr ivktduc • 

Drown aoocuU 



I C 



1 G 






Coiuplicated and complete as the above analysis would unpenr to 
be, it yet does not embrace the etarch whieh is contained in tlio seeds 
in larj^c quantity. Braconnel, however, detected the presence of 
starch, and estimates it as forniin*; nine per cent, of tlie seeds, f 

Mr. Whipple estimates the yield of pimento oil to be about 4"37 per 
cent of the weight of the seed. 

Structure o/Allspict. 

As in the case of other seeds, the pimento berry is divisible into 
husk and seed, or seeds proper. 

The busk is thick, and, when dried, aaft and brittle ; it sends off* 
from it!) inner surface a proton<^ation which forms a septum, &nil 
divides the interior into two parts or cells. 

Vertical sections of the AusA, viewed under the microscope, present 
the following structures. 

On the outer part of the section are seen several large cells op «- 
ceptaclet for the essential oil, sometimes two or three deep; more 
internally, numerous stellate l:clls, attached to and imbedded in eel- 
lubir tissue, occur; next to these are bundles of woody fibre, and 

• Juurn. dc ChhD. M^d. L 1(0. 

t Duncto, Edlnb. Diipou. 



delicate spiral vessels ; while the tieepeat or innermost part of the 
section cou^ijiti) ufceltulur Uiisue oiilv. 

Fig. ITI. 

VvrUoU Bectlon of tluilc of FUntnlo BtrTf. 

(MMnJfl«d SSO dJkiMten.) 

. a 

I or iMiftHlii ftr I 

t. OtUalw MMa lOnaiat the btacrmnt i»wt of tbe MCtiao 

Ml. ft. UMlUlc Milt. r. Ctllnlu tbmt 
d. Btindle* of woody flbn uid tplnl na«J«> 

Occupying each of the celli formed by the husk, is a small tlattisb 
need of a dark brown or chocolate colour. After ma<>eration, two 
membranes may be separated, iillhou^fh wiili sonic diniculiy, from the 
surfiice of the seed. The most cxlL'mal of these is tliin and delicate, 
and consists of a single layer of elongated and an^lor cells. The 
intenial tunic is composed of several layers of laree corrupted and 
coloured cells; it is to these that the dark colour orUic surlaoe of the 




seed is dae ; when viewed under the microscope, they exhibit a ch«- 
racteristic port wine tint. 

F^. ITt. 
rortloB of tiu Ibinbrajm on Snrfhce of the Soed Proper. 
(Ufl<alflfd 3O0 diuMUn.) 


a. Ext«nul mrmbruie. eonfUtlng ot s alngle \*ytT at cloDgslMl uaA iBcaltr 
ocUi. b. lnUruAl incmbnDt, m«l« up Of MVVf»l Itjtn of lifgo porl wfmm 
ookiund eell*. 

The Structure of the teed proper, qs dlaplaycd in vertical sections, 
is aa follows: — 

Kuniiing round the outer part of the section is a single layer of Urjje 
receptaclea, the rHUiuininj; thifknesfl being nmtle uu of angular and 
trnnsparent cellit, tlie cavities of which ore dlled witn numerous well- 
defined sUrch praiiuli's. 

When pimento berrit-s fire reHuPod to powder, the whole of the 
foregoing slmctupt's become disunited, broken up, and variously in- 
termixea. The port wine coloiircd cells nre particularly conspicuous, 
and aiTord a chnrBCtcr by which the nature of the powder may be at 
once determined. 

l*he several structures above mentioned, as they appear in genuine 



ground pimento powder or allspice, are repreiented in Jig. 174. on the 
next page. 

Fig- 173- 

▼flftfal BaeUiM of Um Read Fropcr, ofFlincstoBcrrr* 

(UvKlitdSMdlUHtan.) . 


b Um «9pcr put sT Iht Mnti. two of Ike rvn-pfnrJa for ItM oil M txhtlilted i 
U)(l In ihc luwsr part, a a, the eclU eualalnliitf ihe amMll rouiulcd tlarch OM- 
pinclea i fr, looM •Urch eorpiMck*. mignillnl W diun«Un. 

Ov THs Adultebationb or Allspice. 

Of Twenltf-ont 5arople9 of ground allspice subjected to cxaminatton 
one only wus adulterated with mnsUird hwth^ a reiiult probably mainly 
attributable to the great cbeapnesii of tbiu spice. 

On the DfteetioH of the AHuUeraHont of Allspice. 

The adulteration with mustard busk is one which is very readily 
discoverable by meant) of the niicroscope, the structural peculiarities 
of which will be I'uund described under the article Mustard. 

G o 3 



The duty on pimenlo ia Sx. per cwt. "Wholwale price about 6//. 
per pouml. Entered for home coiuumptlon in 1854, 3,632 cwts. ; in 
1852, 3,535 cvts. ; in nine months of 1856, 2,781 cwts. 

Fit. 17*' 
QnovrD PittBTfo, OK Aujcnc 

(MiCBlftwt »> dlAiMUn.) 


n. TnfmaatM nThmlc. h. Stfllate e«l1«. r. Exttrml M«t or rMtntnne of and 
pfOMr. d. Port wln» roluurC'l cwlU, vMctt foan th« mbmhI membfVM of 
■M. «. C«U< of ihf) M««l. which ooDlftlD tfaa lUl^ (r«B«lM. /. 
■Urdi oorpiuelei. 


Mixed Spice, as the name implies, \s a tnixture in difTerent propor- 
tions of ievernl spices ; those of which it is usualtj composed are 
f^und ginger, pimento or alUpice, with cassia or cinnamon, and 
sometimes a small quantity of powdered cloves. Such are the tisual 
in^^rcdienta which enter into its composition. In some rare cnses^ 
however, it may contain other spices, as niaco or nutmeg ; but vhal- 
flver the constituents, and in whatcTor projxirtions they are employed* 



mixed spice, wh(!n genuine, ahniilil entirely of a combination 
of apicca, and should not contain a particln of farinaceoua matter other 
than that proper to the ariicles composing it. Thus it should never 
contain wheat Jftntr^ jwtato furiwit or sago meal^ and whenever any of 
these are present, the article is to be conaittered and treated as adul- 

Fig. 1-5. 
OixDiiTii UiXKj> iricm. 
OUffnlBvd 197 diwnelan.) 

a. Wrtorly llbr* of fflnj»r. o*. Crili wT w^f" whlfli conUIn thf Hirrh. 
ri*. Sfarcti (Tmnalri ■>* t}*fmw. t. OineT lltKit iif plfiirnlo nr fclUpIr^. V- Su-l- 
UU f*\\* nf ••me. V. Hutk of the •rrd ppiptr nt illllo. ft"'. Vorl wIm co- 
loured f*llt of lUlta. ♦"■". fitairh r»\l» \ and f/**, •Un>h gnuiulM of Mne. 
e. ttuvh graniilc* Kod frafnMiiu ofpowdcrtd danimun. 

The above cnjrraving repre«ent« the structure of the several 
ingredients of which genuine mixeil vptce is usually formed. 

O G 4 



Os THS Az>ct.TiaATiosfl or Mixed Sncs. 

Of tbe Twetttytix samples of mixed spke subjectetl to microscopic 
exAtnination, no leas than t^jtetnj or coruiderablv more tb«n one hmli^ 
were mdulterate^l; anil hence it is seen that, of all the spices, mixed 
«pice ifl tbe most liable to adalteraiion. 

Tbe substances employed were wheat Jfovr in five CMBes, grottrnd rice 
in two, »ago in four, potato fitmr in oue, and vegftabU tuhtbMmces tm- 
determinet] in tbrw uftbe samples. 

On the Detection of the AduUeraiion* of Mixed Spice. 

Tbe whole of the idulteratjons of mixed spice are ilismverable by 
means of ibe microscope : the charactcn of wheal Hour are described 
and Blared at p. 243. ; of rice, at p. 265. ; of sago, at pp. 3:24 — 5. ; 
and of potato tlourat p. 320. 

Fullt^r details refpectiii*; the adullei^tion of bpiccs will be ibund in 
the author's work entitled "Fo-td and it« Adulterations.'* 

The prenent alTords an additional instuuce of what we have so 
frequently before observed — nauiely, ihat the higher the price of snj 
article, the more it heivnnes subject U> adulteration. 

It thus again appears thni tbe public und rbc revenue are exten- 
Bively defrauded torough tbe adulteration of the majority of the apices 

Duty on ground spice unenumerated, U, per lb. 


IsiMGLAfts is the air bag, or swimming bladder, wimetimea called the 
sound, of various tish, chieHy of the sturgeon tribe, and belonging to 
tbegeDas Aeipenser, 

xVM bag is a membrane filled with air, situated near the spine, 
above the centre uf gruvily. In most tisb it coiiinmnicates with the 
{Esophagus, or sloniocb, by a duct, which is known as the ductuM 
pneitmaiiau ; in others, the duct is impcrlorate ; occasionally there are 
twoaaca,one anterior to the other,and communicating by a idiort tube. 

Tbe air bag is made up of an external or peritoneal covering : a 
middle, fibrous, and in some cases muficulur coat; and an internal, 
highly vascular membrane. 

Tbe following are the principal species of fish from which Russian 
isinglass is derived : — Aciptnaer Uuto or tbe Brlnt^a, A. Gouldetutadtii 
or the Oateter^A. Ruthenus or the J^terlett A. SteliatiuoT the Sevrmga, 
Siluna Giants, and Siprinus Carpio. 




Tn atlditioif to the sbove, isinglass is obtained in differpnt parts of 
the woriti iVom seTural other kinds of fish. In Nt'W York, from the 
Labnu Squeteagtu^ of Mitchell. In New En^'land it U procured from 
the intefitines of Morrkua vulgaris^ or the common cod, this limn 
being denoininuted ribbon iinuglaAs. In the BniziU, it is nbt^iineil 
from u lar<;e fisb, probably a species of Hilumji; urid in Iceland, from 
the Cod and Lot4i Moloa or Littg. 

For iin fti'count of the fisheries and the mode of prepflralion or 
drying of tlie swimmin<r blad<ler, the reader in referred to tlie Author's 
work •' Food and its Adulterutions." 

Tbti principal kind« uf iuinglass arc leaf, short stapl^^ long staple^ and 
hook itiinglatfd. 

S»tn(ivejr ifhort staple and book isioglaMef are usuallj of inferior 

162,000 lbs. of ifliDglaM arc, on the average^ shipped every season 
from ]<u!=sia. 

In urldition to the tsin^Iasa imported from Kussia, a vast quantity 
is muKiully received from the Brazils, and the East and West Indies. 
It is Imwever, greatly inferior to the description!) we hare noiice^l. 
Indeed, Bniziiian uinf;lius is oidy fit for finin;; purposes, an<l for such 
it is tiljiiost wholly bou;»ht up by tli« pronrielors of large brewing 
establishments, who couaume ncaily the entire (juaniity im|>ortfid. 

Manufoi^tttre of Isingltua. 

On the arrival of the isinglass into this country, the best kinds are 
submitted to a course of preparation before they are ready for con- 

The Beluga leaf is closely examined, and all discoloured parts cut 
away; the cuttings, and other pieces not deemed good enough for tbe 
best^ ore placwl aside as aecondM or thinU, Tbese. in some ciues are 
u»ed for fining the better descripttoti uf ales, but more generally for 
winetf, liqueurs, &c. It is also rolled and cut into shreds for domestic 
purp<ises, where colour is not an immediate object. 

Purse isinglass Is mostly sohl to the brewers, who consume a rojit 
quantity in the fining of their .several beveroj^es. 

Long and short staple isinglass is extensively demanded by cider 
makers, confectioners, and others, to wboui it i^ sold in tbe same state 
as inijHtrted into thi* country. 

Leaf i»inglass taken Irom the Beluga, after having been picked 
from idt impure or discoloured piecr-s, constitutes the very best article, 
either for dieteticul use, or for the hijrher cliL-w of clarifying purp(»8es. 
This descripttiin of ipingiass tins to undergo a process of mnnufuctiire 
before it is ready for use. What are (crtned perfect specimen braves 
are nearly round, llie bladder huvin;; been opened lonj;itudinally, 
about two feet in (ureumference, and weijfh froui ei;;ht tt> sixteen 
ounces, according to the thickness of the sound. It is not uncom- 



mon, however, to meet with heavier sAmplcn, some having bo^n Irnown 
lo rencli four pnumls. 

A Htuain unginu of some eight or ten horse power is ^nerftllj used 
uniler ihe present method (pfjirepnrinii iMitglass, the nrMunct micJii- 
nery consUtm}; of a series v( iKiwerfiil roller*, arrnngwl in pairs in % 
manner resembling I hose iisetl for expre8sin<j the juice fnim Uw 
sugar cane. The rnller>) when in motion are fed with leaf isinghus w 
fast as possible, which, in pasfiin]; between the two rollers, bocoves 
amalpaiutited and spread out, and a expelled fn)m the opposit« side 
of the rollers in one continuous sheet. The iainglnss thus rolled is 
called *' ribbon," but it is not yet ready for the process of cnttins. 

The sheet or " ribbon" rs probably ft sixth, eighth, or tenth part of 
an inch in thickness, and as it is necessary to reduce it until it is as 
tliin as writinj; nnper, tt is passed through rollers more clcwelj set, 
until, iH i)ie ibiricnes.^ diminishes, the desired result is obtained; the 
width of the "ribbnn," of eourao, increasing. 

It is Uf be reniArkeil, that in rolling, the ribbon, bein^ cnn6ned to 
the iivi<,llli of tlie ryllwrs, ^fenerully nUiiut two feet, increases only 
lengthways, andt when conipleled^ can be fulded or rolled up in lh€ 
same manner ns n length ol cammon Unen. 

Afier a brief delay, for the purpose of dryinjr. the next and la«t 
process of cutting \a efiecitiMi. liy the introduction of mwJern niachi- 
nery, this pnrt nf the prcparntion of isinghiss is performed with wir- 
prising celerity, and the material is cut into very fine shre<ls. 

The cutting machine is a cylinder with some 6ve or six keen- 
edged blfwles fixed in a tangential direction to the cylinder. The 
same engine which scrveHi (o r^U out the isinglass, as already described* 
sulHopS to turn this little miicUine at the rate of some 800 or 1000 re- 
volution* per minute ; tiikintj a low estimate, we will suppose it turns 
8tX^ tiniCFt. On I'xitniining the r\)indiT we find five or six blades set 
in it, and as each of these kniveti severs a shred from the width of 
the "ribbon/* while the cutting proccM is going on, it follows that 
four or five ihousimd shreds are t'lit in the short ^pace of one Diinu 

Such U the plain and simple method of [ireparing cut isingl 

There are, however, many consumers who still prefer the o 
fashioned st^te of hand-cut isingla^^. In thiii cose, the thin leaf 
pulled to pieces with the fingers or divided into strips with Kissora, 
work moatlv j>crfonned by women. 

The shreds of isinglasa softened in cold water and cxnmine<l in the 
microscope, arc seen to pos'was a fibrous structure, a few vessels, gra- 
nular cells, and nuclei being scattered here and there: it is, in fact 
an organised substance. Fig. 176. 


The principal adulteration of isinglass is with gelatine, an url 
every respect much ioferior to isinglass. 


tiat , 




Usually shreds of gelatine are mi.xetl with those of tsinglasff. Occa- 
sionally the gelatine is incorporatetl with the iftinglaiis while it is in 

Most fre<|uently, however, gehtine is substituted for isinpliiss. The 
best isinglass, of course, is Russian; this is often ileteriorated by atl- 
mixture with a very inferior article termed Brazilian isingluMs; in 
other cases, this is substituted for the better and more valuable 
description of isinglass. 

Resulta of the Examination of Sample*. 

Of Twenty'eight isau\y\iis of isinglass subjected lo examination, ten, 
or more than one third, of tl>« samples consisted entirely of oelatime. 

On the Detection of the Adulterations of Isinglass. 

Between isinglass and gelatine several welt marked distinctions 
exist; some of iheso are sufficiently simj>le to enable the ordinary ob- 
server himself to distinguish the one orticle from the nlber- 

AU (hut is necessary to effect the discrimination i^ to spread a few 
of the Btaments out on a slip of gloss, to moisten them with water, 
and after the lapse of a few minutes to note well the apjiearances pre- 
sentoil by them. 

Isinglass and gelatine (lifTer, especially in the following characters: — 

The shreds of isinglass^ when immersed in c«)ld wateif become white, 
opaque, soft, and swollen. 

The swelling is equal in nil directions, so that, when vieweil with n 
low power of the mieroscope, the shreds appear mure or le«5 quadran- 

In boiling water, they dissolve nearly without residue. 

The smeU of the dissolved isinglass, when hot, is somewhat fishy, 
but not unpleasant. 

The moistened .•hreds or the solution, exhilnt to test paper a neutral, 
or faintly alkaline, and rarely a slightly acid reaction. 

Under the microscope, the tilamcnte exhibit a well marked fibrous 

In acetic aeid they swell up, and become soft and jelly-like, the 
greater part of the structure being lost. 

Lastly, "'ITie ash which results from the incineration of good 
Ruuian i.singUss is of a deep red colour : it contains but a small por- 
tion of carbonate of lime, and never amounts to more than nine per 
cent, of the isinglass used." • 

The Bhre<Is of gelatine, on the contrary, when placed in coM water, 
swell up. acquire increased transparency, and become translucent and 

* PbirmioQuiicftl Jounul. vet x. p. Ifi. 

I ef riueda of Orlatiitb ui4 1mwulj>«». TTppar Ann, i 
tHm^on. MagBUMTSdUBtMm. 

The <lry shrefison the uncut surfaces frequently 
shining liutre, not unliku thut of tinsel. 

In boiling water, they do not entirely dissolve, but 

Alt. *.. .U. L 

r -mV . -I.. 



Lastly^ the ash is difTorent from that of isinglass in nmount, colour, 
and composition. " 100 jrruiriH of {joUtine give from 2*3 to 2'6 gmins 
of oAu vrhich is whit^y contains much carbunute of UmOj vr'ith some 
chlori*ies and snlphntet" —Letfiebv. 

It is thtTcfore very easy to distinguish bptween iBing^lnfts and gela- 
tine, even when the ahredd of the tvru articles are mixed together in 
the same parwL 

The discrimination is, however, much more difficult when they are 
both incorporated in ihe same shreds or strips; nevertheless, by means 
of the niicroaoope, tliis adulteration, Brst described by Mr. Redwood, 
may frequently be discoveretl. 

If, on examination with that instrument, the shredit, after immersion 
in cold water for a few minutes, exhibit a thick U>rder of a eleur and 
structureleM substance, there is no doubt but that the shreds ore 
coated with gelatine- 
Some of the better kinds of Rmzilinn isin^rloss are manufactured in 
the some way as Russian, and sold at a cbi^aper rule. No doubt, in 
some instances, this is mixed with, or sold as the bci^t, and it hn^ been 
ascertained that acids und other cheuiicuU hare been ii>(L'd to improve 
its colour; but the test of gfKKl isin-jlaas is in the jelly iniide thi'refrum. 
The jelly mode from Russian isiiifilass dissolves rewiily, furnishes 
scarcely any sedimeut, and ia remarkably firm, pure, and translu- 

On the other hand, Brazilian islnjrlass makes a far inferior jelly, 
with these renuirkable dilTerences : that whihit Kusainn isinglass is firm, 
and free from deposit, Brazilian isin<:lass leaves a deposit of insoluble 
matter amounting to twenty or thirty per cent., is less readily dis- 
solved, und the jelly is opalescent, and milky. 

Oo muktrig hiaitc-matige with the purest Russian isinglass, milk is 
needed to impart the snow-white colour of that jelly ; but in the case 
of Brazilian isinglass, hot water alone will render it nearly of that 
colour. It is almost needless to add thai the blunC'timnge is nmnb in- 
ferior in quality, und the large percentage of insoluble matter renders 
the jelly proportionately weak. 

The quality of any isinglosa may easily be tested by dissolving a 
small portion in a glass vessel, with about a tablespoonful of boiling 
water. The best Russian isinglass will instantly dissolve, and scarcely 
a particle of sediment remain ; the soluble matter in this article 
being, according to the best authorities, ninety-eight grains in every 

The same test appbeil to Bnizilian isinglass will extract the gelatine, 
but the shreds, from their Bbrous character, do not entirely dissolve ; 
they turn white and retain their form, unless disturbe<t, in which coaii 
they break up, and form a deposit at the bottom of the vessel. 

If Russian isinglass be adulterated with Brazilian, the admixture 
may easily be detected by the insoluble shreds, or white deposit, which 
is lore to Appetr in proportion to the amount of Brasiiian isioglasa 




that inaf be introduced. Tbe smell of the Utter iUo it iMi^iir 
from pleasant, »nd forms a great coDtrost witb tbe faints ioglMtt^ 
seuwced-likc odour of Russian isinglau. 
Dutj frve. Impurttttion in 1854, 1,881 cwU.; m 18^5, l^cvti. 


As we are not acquainted with any trustworthy or practiAl 

of the method of preparini; geluttne, we have been at »ome pais to 

prucure the CoUowing information respecting it£ manufacture. 

Ordinary gelatines ore niiide I'niin tliose pieces of skins w\vA ffi 
cut off by the tanner ta unlit for makin*;; leather, in ouoKi^iicnoe U 
thiekiicisa. The beet description is ])repart:d from tbe akin* of calva* 
bcadii ; lliosv arc separated fn>m the wbulu t>kins ftAer they km 
passed tliiough tbe proccM of liming:;, to remove the bair from thtm~ 

The skins ure next well w^hed, to get rid of tbe lime, and all ifae 
piecc-i of flesh itnd fat are cnrefulty cut out; some manufacturniMik 
thcut fur a short time in a dilute solution of muriatic aoidt Ui r^wn 
any remaining portion uf lime; but tbispmelice is both injarkMsa^ 
unprofitable. The acid furmj with the lime chloride of cstdm 
which, if it is nut carefully removed by washinj;, ia boiled cpwhAAi 
akiiis, and, beinj; boluhle, remains in the gelatine; a pirtionaflW 
hkins is aUo dissolved by the acid, and i» thrown nwsy in tlif wsui 
employed in washing; them, which thus ocmsions a loaa in wcs^i. 

In some coses the skins are boiled whole, in othera they are tewihM 
small piL'ce»^ or even reduced to a pulp by a machine eapeciaDj Mf 
Btructed for the purjHise. 

If the skins ure cut into fine nieces, instead of b.ins put lotodH 
boiler whtite, the t^elAiine will be better ; that is, it will he of a lifkM 
uolour; and the process is mure economical, as one bolf tbe timvsl 
be saved in the boillu^r, and much less heat and fuel required. A< 
the j>elatine is darkened by ])rolouged boiling, the nsductioo *4 ii> 
skins to a nulp \s a point of very fiKAi importance in tb« maaiftr 
lure of pclatine — ao much so, thai Mr. Swinburne baa obtiMlt 
patent for this method of prt^puration. 

The skins are boiled with water, in the proportion of aboit •■ 
gallon of water to seven ]>oundii of skin ; a small quantity of ooWS 
Bait u added to preserve the gelatine. Alter it has boiled fur abort 
twelve hour:^ it is strained and cltirified with white of eggs, aaJ tti* 
run upon ghiss plates ; as -oon uh it is solid, it is mt into a5eci tM 
laid upon nets to dry, in u room heated to a temperature of about 1^- 
If the room is not heated, the surface of tbe gclatioe becoma 


with iniall air-bubbles ; wbeo the gelsline b dry, it i» cut \ij % mm/' 
cbini: 111 the same manner as isinglass. 

The size of tbe filau plutca varies ncrording to tb« faocv uf Um 
manufacturer. Tbe urdiuary size is 6ft«en br eighteen inckea ; but %u 
Bome cases thev arc three feel fujuare ; tbe plati» or filicei uf gelatuc 
are f^nerally aoout fifteen inches ti>ii^ bv tbree wide. 

Thou;:h tbe skin of the bead uf tbe calf only is lucd for making jec^ 
latine, the whole of the skins l>oib uf the calf and ox are perfut^y 
adapted for the purpose, but ore not used, as tbejr are much mare 
valuable for conversion into leather. 

In snme eotics, cspeeiullr in warm wenther, the skins ustn] are some- 
what itecom|K>9ed, but this is not ^enurallv the case. This eundition, 
although reuioved to suuie extent by repeated washings, cannot be 
entirely remedicil; heiiee gelatine ntude fnmi such damaged skins will 
always retain a smell and taste more or leiis disatfreeuble. 

French geluiine is usuully much whiter thiiti £ii;£lish ; this iii owio^ 
principally tu the calves being killed in Frunce nuieh yuungLM* than in 
lhi« country. 

Gelatine is likewise prepared from the bones of the ox and the 
sheep. Ic is obtained by imilin^ bones in water under pcesiturv. It 
]s more readily procureil by employing bones which have Iweii pre- 
vious] v dig:estud 10 hydrochloric acid to extract th« phoHphiUe nCIiine. 
**ln this way a nutntious soui» is prepared in P.ins Cur the hoH[ilr.j|]« 
and other pauper hatitalions. Gelatine has been extractt'ii fr^Mii ante- 
diluvian bontrs. A stmp was prepared from I'te bones of the jrivat 
luaslodon by a prefet oCone of the depurtmenlr. of Fniiic-*." — Peretra. 

In the *' London Jnurmd of Arts and Seient^es," a publit'utioii which 
contains the specification of new patenn.'d iuvenliotips wu find the 
fullowin;; description of a patent granted to George i'hilbrick Swin- 
burne, of I'itulico : — 

*'Tbe patentee commences his speciOriition bv Ktiitinfj; that Iiereto- 
fore, in manufacturing gelatine, it has been UHuat (with one exception) 
to act on large pieiea of hides or skins, anil lo emph>y lu-ids and 
alkalies, together with mechanical and other proL'esscii, which occupy 
considerabre time, and are likewise costly ; and in tlie excepted cose 
above referred to, it has been tbe practice to reduce the pieces of hide 
iitto the state of pulp in a pa[>er machine, and theu to employ blood to 
purifv the product obtained. 

*^ This invention consists in the following more simple mode of ma- 
nufacturing gelatine. Tlie patentee takes hides or skin^, or parts 
thereof, as fresh and sweet as possible, find free from hair, and he 
reduces the whole into shavings ur thin slices or films, by any suitable 
instrument ; he soaks the shavings or films i'or about five or six hours 
incohl water, and then changes the same; he repeats such chanpng 
of the wiiter two or three times each day, until no smell or tai^te is to 
be detei:teil, either in the water or in the sliavingH, and then he remorea 
the shavings from the water. If this product ia intended Ibr soup, it 


\a dried on nets, and is then rendjr for use. If geUtine it to be 

tractedj the shaving*, nfter the above ftooking, are put intoaavtiMe 
vessel, witK a quantit}- of water, suflicient tn cover tbeni whrn ) * i'<mi) 
down, ami they are subjected to a heat not exceeciin^ >-■'"■ 
When disMilvt'ti, ihc gelatine is to be strained throujrh l 
fabric, subjected to slight prewure with the hands or oUterwi>i', "t ihc 
Buluiiun may be [>ermiite(l to run ull' from thf vessel without «trvn- 
iiig, hy which means niiieh of the •^elacine will bts separattrd from tbt 
fibrou!i matters. The prorluct nf^clutine thus obtained t» run in tlun 
films on to a smooth surface of slate, or other suitable materinl ' •-• 
it is then renioveil on to net* to dry, and when dry it is cut 
an Isin^Iaf^s cutter or other suitable nppiiratua. The rcnidnr, . 
not, may l)e usei] fiir thickening anup. and other culinary ; iw ,> 

"Another tnanufacliire of geUiinoti9 substance* b priMtu >:-\ Lt •^^-' 
follnwing prt>ces.s frtim cod s^iundit, or other liahy matters acpa^hk d 
yielding fXelatine : — The^e matters nre reduced to •havings or ttia 
films, snaked in water, nubjected to the action uf heat^ and the jirrUiiae 
strained or run off" as above dcscribtnl. The patentee nbtaini a fint, 
second, and third pnHhtct nf nelatine, which he fi>rni5 into sheetv ad 
when ilry vuts U|t the same with an isinylasa culler. This maxmftt' 
ture of jk'elatme will be found highly uaeful ad a cheap snbacitute te 
isinglass for cfarifying liquids." 

Itd'erior j:ettitiite is u^e1l in lai^e quantities by |inpcr makers ^tnv- 
hnt and tUk niaimfaelurer!! ; but these parties generally putrljAae U» 
skins, and prepare the gelatine themselves. 

Unlike i-iin;»lass, the shreds of gelatine, aa alreatiy noticed, eia* 
niiiu>d with the nticroseope, are f>een to be romposetl of a tran^iaiMt 
and j»crfectlv bninojreikous substance. Scf* Jig. 176. 

Glue is fiuire a dis^tinct mantifacturc from gelatine, and is 
carried uu by ibe ^ame |)tu*tie8. It is made from boneiii 
of skins, and hoot's. 

On Tit£ Adultbbatiohs or GfiianiiE. 


The addition of a small nuantity of salt, with the view or., 
the preservatiim of the gelatine, is, of course, allowable ; btti 
freiiuetitly added in lar<!e quantities: it then causes tht fivUnv 
to absorb moisture from the atmo^phe^c, whereby its weight it m^ 

In some cases, gelatine is adulterated with nii^ar, estber Ifiwa 
or white, not to any considerable extent, except with some <*f *^ 
inferior qualities, such as are so largely used by the xuanuiarturcn ^ 
uuli^tor Mieats. 

The iellies in bottles, and those sold by confectioners aa mnfim 
and calves' feet jelly, consist principally of gelatine variou^r fc^ 
vourcd. Jellies made from calves' feet are much less firm, am ir 
solve quicker than those auide from geUtine, if kept in a wun m* 



Oa the Detection of the Adulterations of Gelatine. 

The niJiiUcrarion nf frelaliiie with Bnlt maybe thus detortp*] : — 200 
irraift* »*" the polatine mu«l be inoiiioruie'i and tlu» nsh ta-*!!-'! for salt ; 
the quantity of which preseni nmy be determined, if necessary, by 
the pn>cw8 given under Anna(U>. 

For the iiet**olion of the sugar the following prore«8 may be fol- 
Idwed : — Dissolve the f^elatine in water ; precipitate with tannic acid ; 
filter, and evaporate the sohuitm to <lryness, when the sugar will be 
found in the residue. 

A better method is the followinp : — Soften the gelatine by macera- 
tion in a little water, boil in alcohol; this will take up the sugar and 
leave the gciatinc. 

GeUtinc is fre« of duty on importation, and is largely manufactured 
in this country. 


TiiE next article which fall* under our consideration is annatto ; this, 
though not employed as fond, is yet a<lded to several articles of con- 
sumption, and it therefore becomes of interest to ascertain whether it 
is Hubject lo Adulteration or nut. 

Annatto is the colouring mutter oUlnined from the seeds of n plunt 
named Btxa orelUma^ L., and which forms the lype of the 8imuI1 natu- 
ral or<ler Bixinea. It is a native of South America, the West and 
East Indies ; but the article annatto is chictly prepared in Druzil and 

The tree is an evergreen, and the aeeils are enclosed in poils, the 
colouring matter being sitntited on the outside of the seeds. 

It appears that two diflereiit pr'»ce5ses are pursueil in order to 
separate the colouring matter. According to the ordinary process 
the seeds, afler being reuioved I'roni the poils, are brut«ed, lran»ferre«l 
to a vat, when they are mixed with as much water as covers tliem. 
Here they are lelt for several wpcks or months. "The substance 
thus obtaine*!,*' Dr. Ure states, * is now <uiueezed through sieves, 
placcii above the stcef>er, that the water containing the colouring 
matter in suspension may return into the vat. 

" The residuum is preserved under the leaves of the Annana (pine- 
apple tree) till it becomes hot by fermentation, ll is then again eub- 

B H