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Indiana State College,, 
The advance 

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June, 1913 

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^rof. ISatUiam ^oob parsons, 72 

^rcsibftit of 3. ^. M. B>.. 1885— 

Allen County Public Library 

900 Webster Street 

PC Box 2270 

Fort Wayne, IN 46801-2270 

trfte ^taff 


Ralph C. Shields 
John M. Eddy - 
Marjorie B. Cuppy 
Zelpha Burkett - 
May Zinck 
Gladys Rippetoe 
Raymond Rightsell 
Rosalie Mitchell 
Oscar Haney 
Kennith Mitchell 
Willard Martin 
H. G. Lahr 
Carl Miller 

Associate Editors 

Literary Editor 

Society Editor 

Exchange Editor 

Athletic Editor 

Local and Alumni Editor 

Senior Editor 

- Junior Editor 

[ Sophomore Editors 

- College Course Editor 

Walter H. Camahan - - Business Manager 
Ralph H. Smith - - - Advertising Manager 

C. B. Fowler < Fan a 
Oscar Haney ' spring i 

Circulation Manager 

JPoarb of Control 

President W. W. Parsons, Ex-Officio Prof. Arthur Cunningham, Chairman 

Prof. John B. Wisely 

R. W. Hyndman, '13, Secretary E. J. Hammer, C. C. 

Amy D. Stirling, '14 

Snbiana's; Jgormal 

Words by Prof. Cukuy. 


--T— # 


up - on the svvell-ing- breez - es, Let our voic - es ring-, 
di - an - a's wind-swept reach-es, Farms and for - ests fair, 


1. Out 

2. In 

3. Heart and hand we pledge for - ev - er, Thy g-reat work to do, 

.'^J ^^ - - -___ _^ \. I 

^~ g-T J-T - 




As to thee, our Al - ma Ma - ter. Heart-felt prais-e we sing. 
No - ble com - mon-wealth our Fath-ers Gave in - to our care. 
And may all thy la - ter chil-dren Find our la - bors true. 



lizziiziiz i^ 



I I 



'ZT — 1 r — -^ — \ - 



In - di - an - a': 

dear State Nor-mal, Friends and com-rades true, 




-^ ^- 1 ^', h— k-« ^ ^ y—\ h \- \ •- 

^. — *- g^— ,— 1=-^ — S — 1^,_[:_, — , — , — ^ 

Though the years to 


Though the years to come may part us. 

Hail, all hail to you 



I I 

Snbiana— (!^nc Jlunbreb gearg ^go 


TN the Indiana Territory House Kecords or- 
-*- curs the following entry for February. 11, 
181H: ••Whereas, the hostile disposition of the 
Indians, and the danger to which the village 
of Vinceiiiir> i~ fhcrc1.,\ -iilij. ■(•(,. ,1. and for the 
pn'S('r\aticiii u\' the piililic .ni- and the records 
of the territory in tlii~. om- pi-rilous situation, 
make it necessary that the seat of government 
of the territory should he removed to a place 
where the archives of the state and the claims 
of individuals should not be endangered.'" 

A few' days after tlie IIoux' adopted the pre- 
amble above, together \\\[\\ a resolution to 
remove the capital from Vim ennes, the West- 
eTii Sun at Vincennes published the following : 
"It again becomes our duty to record the melan- 
choly news of the murder of three more of our 
fellow citizens by the Indians. * * * In 
the course of the present week there has not 
Ijeen less than 15 or '20 horses stolen from the 

It had l)een just fifty years since King 
George III issued a proclamation forbidding 
his subjects in America to cross the ridge of the 
Alleghanies, to enter the fertile valleys beyond. 
In those fifty years the frontier line of white 
settlement had been transposed. The tide of 
settlers had reached the mountain passes, and 
had flowed through these gateways to Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. Again the tide had set 
in across the Ohio and down this I'iver until 
the whole north bank of the river was occupied 
by white settlements. Time and again the 
whites had met the red men around the council 
fires and had impelled them to barter away 
their lands. Yet not always by jDeacef iil meth- 
ods, for the Indians fought every inch of the 
way, trying to save their hunting grounds, 

their fishing brooks, and their plots of grow- 
ing corn. This is a romantic period, and full 
of heroic adventure. The names of Daniel 
Boone, Simon Kenton, Lewis AVetzel, and 
scores of others take similar places in the early 
history of the trans-Allegheny region that the 
name of Miles Standish fills in the history of 
Plymouth, or that of Roinulus in the history of 
Rome. The net results of the period is that 
the frontier line advanced north from the 
Ohio, and in 1813 the Indians were again tak- 
ing their stand against the whites. 

Indiana had grown from one county with 
two settlements in 1800 to a territory with a 
representative government and ten counties in 
1813. (See map.) The settlements had ar- 
ranged themselves in the form of a crescent, 
resting upon the Ohio, the eastern tijD being 
near the site of Eichmond, and the western tip 
near the site of Terre Haute. Kentuckians had 
been crossing the Ohio into the territory and 
other Southerners had found their way 
through Cumberland Gap and down the Ohio 
to seek their fortunes in the land of promise. 
Pennsylvania had joined the tide drifting 
down the Ohio, and other settlers from the 
new state of Ohio had helped to settle up the 
AVhitewater basin. Settlements were pushing 
toward the interior when the Indian hostili- 
ties in 1811 brought a halt to the advance of 
the frontier line which began so decidedly fol- 
lowing the land sales in 1806 and 1807. 


There wei-e various reasons why Tecumtha 
went on the warpath in 1811, and the most of 
these causes operated in instigating the In- 
dians against the settlers in Indiana from 
1812-1815. There had been little, if any, open 
hostilities toward the whites since the treaty 

wliicli AVayne negotiated witli the various 
tribes in 1795. Xeitlier Tecumtha nor his 
father signed that treaty, neither of them being 
tribal chiefs, but by it the Indians were to give 
up claim to the southern half of Ohio, which 
was Tecumtha's home. He was of Shawnee 
i:)arentage, and this tribe was not granted any 
liome after being pushed out of Ohio. The 
various tribes in that council tried to get Wayne 
to divide the country north and west of the 
treaty line among the Indians, but this he re- 
fused to do. Consequently, the Shawnee and 
other Ohio tribes were thrust back upon the 
western Indians and were compelled either to 
fight for homes or to beg the hospitality of 
their allies. The Shawnee and Delaware rested 
in southern Indiana and lllinnis. where Little 
Turtle, head chief of the Miami, and leader ot 
the allied tribes against Harmon, St. Clair, and 
Wayne in succession, had allowed them to 
found their homes. In 1803 began a series of 
treaties in which great tracts of land in In- 
diana and Illinois were ceded to the whites. Al- 
thougii nine Shawnee chiefs signed the treaty 
in 17'.>."i. only two signed the ti-eaty in 1803. In 
the series of treaties which followed, the 
Shawnee were not even consulted. It was clear 
to Tecumtha that his tribe was rapidly being 
dispossessed of its homes, while it was not being 
treated with the same consideration that some 
of the other tribes were. Consequenth'. there 
was general dissatisfaction in the tribe, and 
among other tribes as well. The climax came 
in 1809, when Harrison, following the western 
desire for expansion, and with the president's 
permissidii. iic^^dtiated two hirgc cessions in In- 
diana. (Sit iiiaji.) Harrison consulted the 
Delaware. Potawatomi and Miami, but again 
the Shawnee were not included. Tecumtha and 
other warriors thought that these treaties were 
being made by chiefs who received especial 
favor from the United States govei-nment. 
He would do away with the tribal basis of In- 
dian government, and establish a republican 

confederacy of all the tribes, from Canada to 
Florida. In this confederacy, the warriors, 
and not merely the chiefs, would control the 
policy of the tribes. No tribe could cede away 
land without the consent of all the tribes. This 
was the grandest conception of Indian polity 
that any Indian ever planned. 

Tecumtha took advantage of the Indians 
congregating around his brother, the Prophet 
and ilagician, and was inciting them to action. 

WALDO F. MITCHELL, -10, C. C, '12 
Author of "Indiana — One Hundred Years Ago" 

Indians from all the Northwest visited the 
Proi^het's town on the Tippecanoe river. By 
the sjjring of 1810 the dissatisfaction of the 
vShawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi 
had become so great that they defied the gov- 
ernment by refusing to accept the annuity of 
salt which had been pledged to the Indians in 
1803. Harrison tried to quiet the Indians, and 
Tecumtha met him at Vincennes in a famous 
conference, but all to no purpose. The Indians 
grew bolder and moi-e defiant under the leader- 
ship of Tecumtha and the teachings of the 

The condition at the beginning of 1811 is 
stated by Lossing as follows: "Emissaries sent 

-Dawson, Harrison; Pirtle, Battle of Tippecanoe; Loss- 
ing, War of 1S12 ; Dunn, True Indian Stories; U. S. 
Statutes, VII. 

out by the British authorities in Canada fanned 
the tlame of discontent; and Elliott, the old 
enemy of the Americans, still living near 
Maiden (across the i-iver below Detroit), ob- 
serving symptoms of impending war between 
the United States and Great Britain, was again 
wielding a jjotent influence over the chiefs of 
the tribes in the Northwest. Their resources, 
as well as jjrivileges, were curtailed. Na- 
poleon's continental S3'stem touched even the 
savage of the wilderness. It clogged and al- 
most closed the chief markets for his furs, and 
the prices were so low that Indian hunters 
found it difficult to purchase their usual neces- 
saries from the traders. At the beginning of 
ISll the Indians were ripe for any enterprise 
that promised them relief and independence."' 

The Indians, thus aroused, began stealing 
horses, plundering houses, and committing simi- 
hir (Iced^. thus creating general alarm along the 
border settlements. In the meantime Harrison 
had called (nit the militia and had secured reg- 
ular troops to hcl]) cliastise the Indians. He 
started witii his army of twenty-four com- 
panies for the Prophet's town, stopping to 
build Fort Harrison, about two miles north of 
Terre Haute. By October 28, the fort was 
completed, and the next day the main body of 
troops moved on toward Tippecano(>. Harri- 
son defeated Teeumtha and his Indian allies 
November 7. burned the village, and soon re- 
turned to Vineeiines. This defeat however, did 
not alleviate the dissatisfaction of the Indians. 


C()ni;■^.•-^ decl:nv(l war against Great Britain 
•lull.' lit. IM-J. On Aii-ust 16. Hull surren- 
dered DL'truit. The preceding day. the Pota- 
watomi, who had been killing and harassing in 
the neighborhood of Fort Dearborn (Chicago), 
treacherously slew the garrison, together with 
the women and children inmates of that post, 
as they were vacating the post to retreat to 
Fort Wayne. The British and Indians then 
planned to make a general attack on the fron- 

tier posts and settlements. The Potawatomi, 
Kickapoo, Ottawa, Shawnee, and less powerful 
tribes readily listened to a union and confeder- 
ation of the tribes to drive back the approach- 
ing white settlements. The hostiles began to 
gather about Fort Wayne in August, and made 
attacks upon the few isolated settlers in the 
vicinity. A scalping party of Shawnees de- 
stroyed the "Pigeon Boost Settlement," about 
twenty-five miles north of Jeffersonville. The 
same day some settlers at Fort Harrison were 
killed, and on the 4th a general attack was 
made upon that fort. It was with great diffi- 
culty that the garrison, aided by the women 
and children, all under the leadership of CajD- 
tain Zachary Taylor, was able to defend the 
place successfully. The next day the Indians 
made a series of attacks upon Fort Wayne. In 
one of these attacks they used their cunning bj' 
bluffing the garrison with "Quaker guns." 
These were hollow logs fitted up as cannon. 
However, the^e "guns" caused greater injury 
to the Indians than to the whites, for when 
fired the "cannon'" burst their bands. 

As the attacks of the hostiles began to thicken 
the outlying settlements of whites were de- 
serted, and the settlers retreated to more thickly 
settled regions, where block houses were built 
for protection. ^len that could be spared joined 
the army to help in repelling the attacks. Back 
from the frontier line wherever there was little 
danger from Indians, immigration and settle- 
ment continued quite rapidly. The southern 
part of the Twelve Mile Tract (purchase of 
1809. just west of the Greenville Treaty Line) 
filled up rapidly with settlers." Other settlers, 
instead of jjushing farther into the interior to 
settle along the frontier, or perhaps to squat 
on the Indian lands, now broke into the wilder- 
ness farther down the Ohio. People began to 
.settle in small numbers on Little Pigeon Creek, 
where heretofore there had been only scattered 
settlements. The greater number of these came 
from Kentucky.' Squatters and settlers began 

miles Register. July 4, ISIS, P. 318. 

*Warrick, Spencer and Perry Counties (1SS5). P. 21. 

to take out land in the ranges just west of the 
Second Principal Meridian'' (See majD.) This 
same year. 1812. Hugh McGary made the first 
permanent settlement at the site of Evansville.' 
Thus, the reaction on the frontier and the in- 
creased immigration, began to concentrate set- 
tlements more in the older regions — regions in 
great part which were little settled. 

Since 1807 the lands in Indiana had been on 
sale at thi-ee land offices — namely, Cincinnati, 
established in 1800; Vincennes, established in 
180-1. and Jeffersonville, established in 1807. In 
1812 the land sales at these offices decreased. 
The lands were sold in mininum tracts of 160 
acres each at a minimum price of $2.00 an 
acre. Supposing that for each 160-acre tract 
sold at Vincennes in 1812, one family settled 
in the Vincennes district (all of Indiana west 
of the Second Principal Meridian and part of 
Illinois), then about twenty-four families set- 
tled in the district ; and about one hundred and 
eighty-four families would have settled in the 
Jeffersonville District. In 1811 the number 
would have been somewhat greater. Not every 
family of settlers, however, bought land of the 
government, so the land sales cannot be used 
to determined jirecisely the number of new 

The war along the. Canadian border con- 
tinued half heartedly. Governor Harrison was 
given command of the Army of the Northwest, 
while John Gibson acted as governor of In- 
diana Territory. The Indians along the Wa- 
bash, as has been seen, became so threatening 
that the legislature decided to move the gov- 
ernment from Vincennes. In his message to 
the legislature, February 2, 1813, acting Gov- 
ernor Gibson referred to the frontier dangers 
as follows: "At your last assemblage (Novem- 
ber 11, 1811), our political horizon seemed 
clear, our infant territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur : our population was high- 
ly flattering; our citizens were becoming pros- 

'IMd, p. 587. 

'Tanclerburg County, (1SS9) P. 94. 

perous and happy, and security dwelt every- 
where, even on our frontiers. But alas! the 
scene has changed * " * The aborigines, 
our former nrij^iiliiir> ;nid friends, have become 
our most inwtcraic Inrs. They have drawn the 
scalping knife and raised the towahawk. and 
shouts of savage fury are heard at our thresh- 
olds. Our frontiers are now wiles, and our 
inner settlements have become frontiers.'"' 

The war was not 3'et supported very en- 
thusiastically in the territory. Gibson lamented 
the lack of patriotism shown by the men, and 
urged that a better spirit be shown to meet the 
attacks of the enmies, and to carry the war into 
the enemies' camps. The following advertise- 
ment in the Western Sun, January 30, 1813, il- 
lu.strates one of the difficulties in keeping a 
frontier army together. 


'•Deserted from Fort Harrison, on the 3rd 
of December, 1812, 

William A[ ] 

a private soldier of the United States Army, 
aged 21 years. * * *" 

Desertions were frequent, especially when the 
campaigns were extended, so the problem of 
discipline was raised to a maximum. 

About a week after Gibson addressed the leg- 
islature on the poor support given the anny, 
the people of the Northwest, and, in fact of all 
the United States, were shocked at the follow- 
ing awful news from the commanding general : 


"Camp on Carrying Creek, fifteen miles from 
the Rapids of the Maumee Eiver. January 2i. 

"My Dear Sir (Governor Shelby of Ken- 
tucky), * * * The greater part of Col. 
Wells's regiment U. S. infantry, and 5th regi- 
ment Kentucky infantry, and Allen's rifle regi. 
under the immediate orders of General Win- 

~Western Sun, (Vincennes) Feb. 6, 1813. 

Chester, have been cut ti) pieces by the enemy, 
or taken i^risoners. Great as the calamity is, 
I still hoi3e that as far as it relates to the 
objects of the campaign, it is not irreparable. 
"William Henry Harrisox. 

"His excellency. Gov. Shelby.'" 

Most probably the news of this defeat of 
Winchester's army was the immediate factor in 
causing the capital to be moved from Vin- 
cennes, to Corydon, for the legislature at'ted at 
the time of receiving the news. 


In spite of the continued hostility and the 
unfortunate camijaigns on the northern border, 
the settlements in 1813 increased. Although 
land sales very materially decreased in Ohio 
during this year, in Indiana they increased 
about 57% at Jefferson ville, over the preceding 
year, and about 35% at Vincennes. At Jeffer- 
sonville the sales were the greatest they had 
ever been, and at Vincennes greater than in 
any previous year except in 1807. when the 
great sales began. Purchases continued to be 
made where there was little danger from In- 
dian attacks. The new town of Eising Sun, in 
Dearborn County (now Ohio County, since 
1844), was laid out by a planter who had come 
from ]\r:uyliind a few years previously.' On 
INIiinli J. IM.'). the first tree was cleared away 
for the building of the town of New Albany.'" 
Farther west great changes were taking place. 
Knox County was the largest county in the ter- 
ritory, and until 1807 had been the most popu- 
lous part of the territory. Ever since Indiana 
had been erected into a territory, and even be- 
fore, immigrants had been settling in the Wa- 
bash basin, both above and below White river. 
Others had made clearings in the basins of the 
two White rivers. Still others had settled 
along the old "Buffalo Trace," which led from 
Louisville to Vincennes. These settlements 
become more frequent after the passage of the 
slavery act, and the opening up of more lands 

No. 4, P. 6. 

for settlement in 1805. By 1S13 these settle- 
ments had increased enough, largely because 
Indian hostilities larevented settlements on the 
border, that the legislature felt justified in 
erecting two new counties, out of the southern 
part of Knox County. (See map.) Warrick 
County was to contain all west of the Principal 
Meridian and south of the line between town- 
ships three and four south. Gibson County 
was north of AVarrick County." 


greater importance. The farmers took their 
flour, corn, whiskey, and meats to New (Or- 
leans by flatboat, just as Lincoln did later. In 
order to facilitate navigation on Whitewater 
river, the legislature declared that stream navi- 
gable from the Ohio state line up the river, and 
its west branch to the three forks. The county 
courts in the various counties through which 
the river ran were instructed to lay the river 
off into divisions, and to appoint an overseer 
over each division. These overseers were to 
call out the men to clear the river for naviga- 
tion, just as they were called out to work the 

This legislature also passed an act regulating 
exportation. It provided for the inspection 
of flour, beef, and pork that were packed for 
shipment. A barrel of beef or pork should 
contain 200 pounds, and should be branded. 
"Indiana Territory, Mess Beef." "Prime Beef," 
"Mess Pork," and "Prime Pork," according as 
it was first or second grade. A barrel of flour 
should contain 196 pounds, and should be 
branded "superfine," "fine." or "middlings," ac- 
cording as it was of first, second, or third 

Later in the year the legislature cut off the 
northern part of Harrison County and erected 
a new county — Washington. Thus in one year 
three new counties were erected, making the 
total number ten. 

^Territorial Laws, 
12/6M, P. 4. 
"Ibid. P. 58. 


Ill the later part of the year Perry won his 
faiiKius victory on Lake Erie, and a little later 
Harrison defeated the British at tlie Elver 
Thames. The war was then transferred 
farther east, to the Niagara frontier, but In- 
dian hostilities continued on the Indiana bor- 
der. On the western border, along the Wa- 
bash, hostilities continued till the end of 1815. 
Occasionally murders were reported, and stock 
was frequently run off. The Western Sun, Au- 
gust 14'. 1814. stated that a number of horses 
had recently been stolen from Busseron Creek, 
north of Vincennes. and that near Fort Har- 
rison thirty-two horses and a large number of 
cattle had been stolen by the Indians. 

On tlie eastern border of Indiana, along the 
upjjcr branches of the AThitewater and East 
AVhite River, the settlers began to feel secure 
about the middle of the year 1814." The Brit- 
ish war had not yet ceased, so this cessation of 
Indian hostilities on the eastern frontier may 
ha\e lieen due to the treaty of peace and alli- 
ance which Cass. Harrison, and Shelby nego- 
tiated with the Wyandot. Delaware, Shawnee, 
Potawatomi and Kickapoo, July 22, 1814. This 
treaty Avas made in pursuance of a letter from 
the War Department, instructing those officeis 
to ally the Indians to the United States against 
Great Britain. It was signed by 112 Indians, 
including the three head chiefs of the Wyandot. 
Delaware, and Shawnee tribes — all three of 
whom signed the treaty negotiated by Wayne 
in ITO.j. It might be added that the United 
States later granted about all of these signers 
individual grants of land in Ohio. 


As hostilities ceased in the eastern jiart of 
the territory in 1814. settlers came in in great 
numbers. On the seaboard, times were dull, 
the coast was blockaded, taxes were high, and 
the currency was in disorder. Neither was 
agriculture flourishing, so there began a flow of 

^*State Pioneer Convention, Oct. 2, 1878, P. 382. (In- 

"McMaster, Hist, of the People of the U. S.. IV, P. 383. 
"Matthews, L. K.. Expressio^is of Xew England, P. 201. 

emigration westward that threatened to de- 
populate some of the eastern states. The legis- 
latures of Virginia and North Carolina la- 
mented this great exodus of their people." 
Dearborn County received a goodly share of 
the emigrants, including some New England- 
ers." The additions of population to this 
county were such as to warrant the formation 
of a new county, Switzerland, out of Jefferson 
and Dearborn Counties, with about the same 
boundaries as at present." The main settle- 
ments of Switzerland County were those of the 
Swiss colonists who had settled there in 1802, 
to start the culture of grapes. Vevay, which 
had been laid out in 1813, was made the county 
seat. It was only a collection of huts, but it 
began a period of rapid growth." 

Farther down the Ohio, the town of Evans- 
ville was laid out. and the lots were put on 
sale. The site for this future city was cie- 
scrilied as having ''an excellent harbor for 
boats, and as to situation, it is perhaps sur- 
passed by none in the western country." The 
proprietor thought he could see its advantages 
for inland trade. He predicted that the time 
was "not distant when merchants and traders 
will from economy, transport their goods 
across from Evansville to Princeton and Vin- 
cennes, in jjreference to the circuitous route of 
the Ohio and Wabash rivers." However, the 
town did not grow much during the next two 
decades. There was another town advertised 
a few miles from Evansville as being a possi- 
ble center for the inland trade." The .settle- 
ments along this part of the Ohio had been so 
much augmented l)y the middle of 1814, that 
the legislature which met in August, erected 
two new counties out of Warrick. Posey was 
between the Ohio and Wabash rivers, and 
Perry was just west of the Principal Meridian. 
Warrick was between these two counties."" 

With the increasing immigration, the land 
sales increased greatly. At Vincennes the in- 
crease wa- -4."i'f. and at Jeffersonville it was 

1S14, p. 18. 

130%- The sales at Jefferson ville still re- 
mained about three and one-half times the sales 
at Vincennes, thus showing that the greater 
part of the settlers was stopj^ing in the eastern 
part of the territory. Farther east, the sales at 
the Cincinnati ottice were also great."" 

crnnEXCY and baxkixg. 

"With the rise in the sales of lands arose also 
the demand for more money. There were no 
banks in the territory in which the government 
could di'iiosit the money collected at the land 
oilicc-, X) {][']< niniicy was taken east for de- 
po>itiiig. thus (li-aining coin from the west. 
The ])e()ple of the west bought more goods of 
the east than the east bought of the west, so 
the balance must be paid the east in money. 
These two drains upon the supply of money in 
the west was so great that the jjeople of the 
west were badly in need of some form of 
money. They saw that the easiest way to get 
money was to cn^alc Iiaiil<>. which could make 
money as fast as |iiiiiicr- muld print the bills. 
So. the legislaturi' which met for the first time 
at the new capital at Curydon. in the summer 
of 1S14. chartered two banks, the Vincennes 
Bank and the Farmers and Mechanics Bank of 
Madison, the seat of Jefferson County. This 
last liank was to prove a boon to the farmers 
in the community, and it aided the merchants 
in their transactions with New Orleans and the 

There were now three main ways in which 
money was secured for investments. The cam- 
paigns in the west had brought a good ileal of 
money to this region, as the contractors and 
merchants were paid for furnishing supplies 
for the army. The ciuuinual -trcam of immi- 
gration brought in money to invest. The banks 
could issue paper money almost without limit. 
Consequently, a period of active speculation in 
town lots began. During the year 1815. pro- 
prietoi-s of various towns along White river 
and the Wabash advertised their towns for sale. 
Although the Indians still were hostile along 

^Senate Doc. Cong. 30. Sess. 1. Doc. 41, P. 67(t. 
22E.sorey, L., State Banking in Indiana, P. 221ft. 
'^Western Sun, June 20, 1S15. 

the Wabash, the town of Carlisle on the Bus- 
seron, north of Vincennes, was advertised for 
sale as being in the midst of a flourishing set- 
tlement."' For the next few years, speculation 
was so extensive that in 1819 the president ol 
the Vincennes bank wrote : "Our banking capi- 
tal, here in the west, is all tied up in city im- 
provements, and there is none to mo\'e our 


In the first part of 1815 it became known in 
the west that peace had been decided uj^on be- 
tween United States and Great Britain. With 
the return of peace, great quantities of cheap 
English goods were put upon the American 
market. The New England goods, too, found 
again a ready market in the west. By the mid- 
dle of the year the Vincennes merchants had 
laid in a "handsome a,ssortment of New Eng- 
land cotton cloths.'"® The whole country 
bought more goods than the needs and demands 
of the con.sumers warranted. 

With the retux-n of peace, immigration into 
Indiana increased. In his message, December 
1, 1S15. Governor Posey said: "Our emigration 
which is rapidly populating our fertile lands, 
in a little time will enable us to be admitted 
into the political family of the union, as an in- 
dependent state. Permit me to recommend to 
the legislature the propriety as well as the jus- 
tice of imposing as moderate taxes on the emi- 
grants to this territory, as may be compatible 
to the 23ublic interest. Most of them have 
moved from a great distance, at a considerable 
expense. They have to encounter many diffi- 
culties in opening their farms for cultivation, 
before they can derive a support, much more a 
]n-ofit from them; and consequently their abil- 
ity will 1)0 lessened from contributing largely 
for a short time to the public exigencies."" This 
document expresses the essence of settlers' 
troubles — getting on a paying basis after ex- 
pending so much of their limited capital to get 
to the new country and to pay for their farms. 

s'Amer. State Papers. Finance, III, P. 734. 
^Western Sun. April 8, 1S15. 
"Niles Regster, IX. P. 351. 

It took most of the first year to get a small 
clearing made. Even on prairie land, it was a 
great task to get the sod broken and the soil 
subdued for the planting. Labor was scarce, 
and there was little money to pay for that 
which was available. All of these factors, to- 
gether with many others, made the task of 
forming a new settlement a difficult one. The 
capital of the west was thus used up in getting 
started and in investments, so that there was 
little left to use in getting crops to a market. 
It was well that the territory made the taxes 
as light as possible. 

In the meantime the ferries across the Ohio, 
and the roads leadiiig north from them had not 
been idle. Kentuckians had been crossing the 
Ohio at Henderson, and settling in Posey and 
"Warrick Counties, and the western part of 
Gibson County. Another road led toward the 
interior from the crossing at Rockport. Farther 
up the Ohio, another road led north from the 
crossing at Blue river, into "Washington and 
Harrison Counties."^ By 1815 enough settlers 
had followed this route and other routes to 
ju.stify the formation of two new counties. 
Orange County was to consist of the territory 
from twelve miles west of the Prinrijial ^le- 
ridian to eiglit miles cast, and uorlli i)f Perry 
and Harrison Counties to tlie Imlian boundary 
line of 1809. Jackson County was to lie east 
of Orange, west of range eight east, and north 
of the Muskatatack. to the Indian country. 
Both of these counties were in the basin of 
East "Wliite river.'^ 


The legislature followed the suggestion of 
the governor, and petitioned congress to be al- 
lowed to pass into statehood. This petition 
stated that the inhabitants were "principally 
composed of emigrants from every part of the 
union, and as various in their customs and sen- 
timents as in their persons." However. South- 
erners still predominated in numbers, especially 
in the southern and western parts. 

The petition asked for an enumeration, which 
was taken. This census showed a total popu- 
lation of 63,897— more than the 60,000 neces- 
sary to pass to statehood. This census also re- 
vealed the fact that the population was push- 
ing toward the interior, and away from the 
Ohio. In the "Whitewater basin. "VA^ayne and 
Franklin Counties (see map) ; Randolph had 
not yet been erected), neither of which touched 
the Ohio, contained a larger population than 
Dearborn. Switzerland and Jefferson, by 30%. 
The three counties. Posey. "Warrick and Perry, 
all on the Ohio (practically same territory as 
comprised "Warrick in 1S13). did not have a 
combined population equal to any one of the 
interior counties. Of all the eight counties on 
the Ohio, only Clark and Harrison had a popu- 
lation equal to the interior counties. More 
than 71% of the population was east of the 
Second Principal Meridian. The line between 
ranges five and six east would have divided 
the population into two almost equal groups. 
About one-third of the population wa> in the 
three counties. Clark. Harrison and "Wasiiiiig- 
ton. In this i-riisiis the newly erected counties 
were counted as part of the original counties 
out of which they were formed. This census 
showed two regions more densely populated 
than any others — the upper "Whitewater and the 
region west and northwest of Jeflersonville. 
about the new capital. Corvdon."" 

The petition asking for statehood also asked 
that 7% of the moneys received for the sales of 
public lands be granted the new state to be 
used as it saw fit. "When Ohio became a state 
it was provided that 2% of the sales should be 
devoted to the building of the National Eoad 
within the state, and 3% be given to internal 
imj^rovements and education, but Indiana asked 
for more. However, she got only the 5%. 

It was also asked that Section 16 in each 
township be granted the state for school pur- 
poses; that in counties where Section 16 had 
already been disposed of, other lands be given 
instead: that township 2 S. of R. 11 W. be 

=»Census of 1S16, in Cockrum, Pioneer Hist., P. 390. 

granted for iin academy; and that a township 
))e fiiven foi- a college. All of these school 
lands were yranted the state, on the condition 
tliat jMirchasers of public lands should be free 
from taxation on the land purchased for five 
years after tlie purchase. Saline lands (lands 
about salt wells), not to exceed thirty-six sec- 
tions, were grant(>d the state, and four sections 
were granted the state for a site for a capital.'" 
The state boundiuw w;is extended ten miles 
farther north. 


One of the rea.-on given for asking as much 
as 7% of the iu-occim1s of the lanas was that 
the settlers had cndiin-d many dangers and 
hardships to found sell Icnicnts in this wilder- 
ness, as a ronseiiuence of which the gmcrnment 
lands were enhanced in value. It was thought 
that this fact would justify the settlers in ask- 
ing for a large per cent, of the sales. These 
settlers had ])olitical theories almost as acute 
as those of the French philosojjhers. although 
they were ncwr displayed unless the pi(.)neers 
tlionght their riglii> were being interfered with. 
At the hitter part of 1815. some of the settlers 
and squatters thought the general government 
was interfering with their rights. For about 
seven years the boundary of the Indian eouiilry 
in Indiana had been stationary, but the fron- 
tier line of settlement had moved onward, and 
many squatters could be found on Indian soil. 
where they had no legal right to be. So. on 
December 1."). Isl.^. the United States executive, 
throngh the proper official, issued a proclama- 
tion ordering all such squatters to remove from 
such locations, and he gave the military officers 
orders to remove them. A storm of protests en- 
sued, but it seems that perha|)s a majority of 
the squatters did not take the proehnnation 
seriously. However, one editorial writer under 
the name of "Farmers' and Patriots' Rights," 
vigorously asserted the rights of the squatters, 
and manifested the high patriotism ( ? ) shown 
by them as they "kept in awe for the last three 
years, a savage foe, whose tomahawks and 

'"Western Smu Jan. 27, 1816. 

sealiiing knives would otherwise have glittered 
in our houses. * * * Are they," he said, 
••when danger has ceased to threaten, to l)e 
called Kiiiiiforvied or evil disjmsed and ordered 
off the land their presence alone has heretofore 
secured?" This writer maintained that the 
pre-emjDtion laws passed at various times by 
congress were as surely violations of the law 
for preventing squatters from settling on In- 
dian lands as settling there was a violation. He 
argued further that the president had trans- 
cended his power in ap])lying the law. inas- 
much as the law re<|uired thirty days" notice lie- 
fore the settlers could be removed. He con- 
tinued: "Can it be contended that when con- 
gress and the United States executive set an act 
at deHanee. that the people should not?" His 
llnal argument was that such a policy of re- 
moval would injure the territory by weakening 
the frontier, by taking away those daring men 
who had been keeping back the Indians." 
Force is given arguments when it is re- 
membered that because of the recent hostilities, 
many of the settlers could not pay the final or 
fourth annual installment on their farms which 
(hey had purchased from the government. 
Upon this failure to make the final iiayment, 
the st'ttlers were obliged to forfeit their farms 
back to the government, thus losing what they 
hail already paid down. Such losses during 
the hostilities w-ere comparatively great, run- 
ning up to several thousand dollars. In 181;^ 
more than half as much land reverted to the 
government as was bought. The same persons 
who were obliged to lose money because of the 
hostilities were the men who had been engaged 
in jn-otecting the frontier — which protection 
emibled the government to sell the lands at bet- 
ter advantage. These losses helped to unify 
the settlers in their expression of what they 
called their rights. 


By the summer of 181() the lands along the 
Wabash (as far north as Clinton), and inland 
for manv miles east of the Wabash, were sur- 

^Western Sun, Ja 

Feb. 23. 1S16. 

veyed. and put on sale at Vineennes.'" Troops 
and travellers had passed over these lands, and 
had sent far and wide glowing accounts of the 
hinds along the Wabash. All the west had 
heard of the prairies about Fort Harrison. In- 
dian hostilities had ceased the jireceding year, 
and the territory's liecoming a state advertised 
the new region all the more. So a great flood 
of emigration started toward the west, and a 
large. ]iart of it turned into the Wabash basin. 
In one day, fifty wagons crossed the Musk- 
ingum at Zanesville, Ohio, all bound west."" 
Indiana afforded cheaper lands than Ohio, so 
the tide of settlers flowed over and around Ohio 
to settle on the Wabash, and the lower White 
river. It is said that 42.000 came to Indiana 
in 1816.=* The land sal,-, incivax-d (■ni.niii,u>ly 
at Yincennes. In IM.'i iln' sal.'-, tlici-c had Kimmi 
only S0% as great a- at .IcIl'.Msonxillc. I,iii in 
1816, although at Jeffersonville the sales in- 
creased 30%, the sales at Vinceimes were 
greater than at tlir otlici- otTice —in fad. tlicv 
had increased li'."i' , . Many pcoph- canir <lnwu 
the Ohio, other- ci'o-scl over from Kentucky. 
but the majority came overland. They came Tn 
all manner of ways. Joseph Liston came from 
Ohio to Vigo County, brin-ing his family with 
him. Ilr pill liis liiJii-clidlil -(mmI^ on om- linrsi'. 
and placed hi- two l„,y-, on loi) of the goods. 
His wife rodi' the other lior^' and carried the 
.voungesi child, while another was tied on be- 
hind her. Mr. Liston walked behind. This 
was but a type of the innnigrant family daily 
arriving on the Wabasli." .\ stiidy of the im- 
migration to Vigo Coiiuty -hows that the ma- 
jority of the permanent settlers were from Ken- 
tucky, Ohio. New York, and Xorth Carolina. 
The nativity of neighboring counties was simi- 
lar, except that the Quakers from North Caro- 
lina were a more ijroniinent element in the 
early settlements. 

Speculation in towns cuntiniUHl for the next 
two years. Richmond and Terre Haute, and 
many other towns were laid out in ISKi, and 

their lots were advertised for sale. In one day, 
$21,000 worth of lots were sold at Terre Haute. 
The best lands about Fort Harrison were quick- 
ly sold at five to ten dollars per acre. During 
the fall of ISlC. OOC, tracts of 160 acres each 
were sold in the Yincennes district.'' Specula- 
tion was playing a good part in the .sales. By 
the middle of 1818. Davie-. .Sullivan. Pike. 
Jenning.s, Dubois, Raiulolph. Kiplev, Scott. 
Yanderbiug. S|iencer. Crawford. Vigo, and 
Monroe Counties had been erected. There were 
in all twenty-eight counties where there were 
ten counties five years before, and by the end 
of 1S18 Owen and Fayette Counties' had been 


Indiana ha,l been enjoying a period of un- 
usual growth and pro.-perity since ISU. hut 
this prosperity wa^ more apparent than real. 
I)ad banking, exce-ive -penilal ion. and a mis- 
use of credit had brought on conditions 
thai were lo check the growth of the west- 
ern states. Thi' president of the State Bank of 
Indiana, in a letter, dated January 9, 1819, and 
addressed from Yincennes to the secretary of 
till' Fnited States treasury, stated the condition 
as follows: 

••Tlie pivsi'iit situation of the western people 
is di-tre-ing: tlu^y cannot get for their pro- 
duce one diillar of the kind of money that will 
lie rec-ei\(Ml in payment of their debts to the 
Fnited States. It is not for want of a sufficient 
quantity of ])roduce tliat the western people 
ilo not pay tlii'ir debts. l)ut for want of system 
in briniiiiii2- the proiliicts of their labor to its 
proper' market. The banks ..f the Fnited 
Stales west of the mountains issue l)Ut few 
notes, and thesi' few are immiMliately cullected 

banks of the western country have generally 
perverted the system of banking, and, instead 
of encouarging and fostering those who were 
emplo.veil in coilei-tiiig and exporting the pro- 

^•See Map in . 


'■"■Niles Register. Nov. 2 

''McMaster. V 

. P. 159. 

"■Soiate Doc. 

Cong. 3 0, 


Register, Oct. 12. 1810, 

(liicr fniiii which their country derives its 
Mealtli. they have built up tiieir capital in cities 
and towns, from which they may, perhaps, de- 
rive the interest of their money, but cannot 
ao-ain witlidraw their funds, at least for a long 
time. * *■"" 

An English farmer liviiio- near Triuceton 
stated the economic an<l Mn'ial roudilioii as seen 
throua-h the eves of an KnqHshm,,,^ lie said: 
••.M,,uev raniiut l,e o-niuci by cuh i val i,.u. There 
is nn ,-.Miaiii -(kmI niarUcI: farm produce may. 

pvi vour niouey ,.f ih.' cheats and scum of so- 
ciety who Hve here."" l',oth <d' liiese men saw 
the real cause of the depression of 1819. and all 
the Westerners felt it keenly. 

Economic distress ^Yas felt quite generally in 
1818. Lands had been bought on four years' 
credit, so nearly all the purchasers were in debt 
to their neigliliors or to the banks. Indiana 
passed a law in IMS for the executicm of the 
estates of insoJNcut <lcbtors. 'I'ld, seemed to 
be a fair law. but it naturally worked liard- 
shi]is on the debt(U-s. who could get no sound 
money with wlii.'h to pay their debts. During 
the seven years following the expiration (d' the 
first United States Bank in 1811. there was a 
i:)eriod of reckless banking. A great many 
state and private banks had sprung up. and 
these had quite generally issued several times as 
much paper money as they could redeem. 
James Flint, a judicious Scotch traveller who 
spent a part of the year 1819 at Jeffersonville, 
described the situation of the banks as follows: 
"The total number of the-e eslablishmeuls in 
the Tuited States, could not. perhaps be ac- 
curately stated on any gi\en day. The enu- 
meration, like the census of ])opulation. might 
l>e eflVctcl by the births and deatlis. The cre- 
ation of this vast host of fabricators, and ven- 
ders of base money, must form a meuu.rable 
epoch in the history of the country.""" It is 
but just to the Farmers and Mechanics Bank 
of Madison, however, to observe that it fared 

■'•".A.mer. State Papers. Finance, III, P. 735. 
™W. Faux-s Journal, Nov. 3, 1S19, P. 222. 
"Thwaites. R. G,. Early Western Travels. IX. P. 133. 
'iState Papers, Cong. 17. Sess. 1. Vol. 6, Doc. 66. P. 

better than the state bank and most private 
banks, for it continued to pay specie until all 
state bank paper was refused at the land offices, 
and even then it continued to favor the farmers 
of the Jetfersonville land district by redeeming 
its bills when presented by persons indebted to 
the Jelfer.sonville office." 

AVhen it. was found that more paper money 
had been issued than could lie redeemed, such 
money depreciated in value. The branches of 
the Second United States I>ank which began 
operations in 1817," sustained .serious losses be- 
cause of the wretched condition of the currency. 
If it accepted paper money at par, for gold, 
silver or United States bank notes, it could not 
dispose of such ])aper at par. The .secretary of 
the treasury in 1818 ordered the land office, in- 
cluding that at Jeffersonville and Vincennes, to 
accept for lands purchased only money that 
was payal)le on demand in legal currency of 
the United States Bank.'' The United States 
Bank then ordered its cashiers to accept only 
its own notes and .specie." Since the land offices 
could accept only United States liank notes and 
specie, a great hardshi]) was thrust upon the 
debtors of the west. How couhl they pay for 
their farms'? Suppose they did raise good 
crops and a large surplus of hogs and cattle, 
when they sold them (if they could find a mar- 
ket ) they wouhl be paid in notes issued by state 
or private baid^-. This money woidd not be 
acceptable at the land offices in payment for 
their lands. Specie and United States bank 
notes were so scarce that not enough could be 
kejit in the west to serve the general needs for 
money. The debtors were really in an aggra- 
vating and embarrassing ,',Mi.liti..ii. They laid 
the blame f<u- this condition <.ii the United 
.States bank. an<l in this they weiv led by the 

t crested in the branches of the state bank." The in his message of 1818-1819, in re- 
ferring to the economic condition, said that in 

■i-'The State Constitution of Indiana prolilbited tliat Bank 
from having oflices in Indiana. 

"Dewey. Fitiancial Hist, of the U. S., P. 2 28. 
"E.sarey. Indiana Banking, P. 223. 
<=Esarey, Indiana Banking, P. 229. 

the proportion in wliich the debtors found it 
difficult to get money with which to pay their 
debts, there would be "counnensurate oppor- 
tunities for speculation for those who can com- 
mand funds which are receivable, unless con- 
gress shall interfere in their behalf."" If land 
could be paid for only at a heavy discount on 
the moncA' which the farmers were compelled 
to accejjt at par for their produce, this discount 
was, the governor said, "an indirect but exor- 
bitant tax on the farmer." He said that there 
were two reasons for this condition : ( 1 ) There 
was a "mere regulation adopted to the interest 
of the stockholders of the national bank." He 
thus referred to the fact that this bank would 
accept only its own notes and specie. (2) The 
National Bank was aided in this purpose by 
the treasury department, which refused to ac- 
cept fnnii tlic tanners anything but specie and 
currency of the United States bank. Undoubt- 
edly he was expre.ssing the general view of the 
west at that time. The Westerners did not 
realize that their own bad banking and exces- 
.sive speculation were responsible for this de- 
pi-essing economic condition. 


The state legislature came to the aid of the 
debtors, and passed a law to go into effect in 
January, 1819. The amount of personal prop- 
erty exempted from sale under execution for 
debt was considerably enlarged by one act. A 
creditor was compelled to accept the paper of 
the state bank and its branches, and of all other 
chartered banks whose money was "current 
with the merchants" at the time, or, should the 
creditor refuse to accept it at par, the debtor 
should have a stay of execution for one year. 
In other words, those to whom money was due 
were compelled to take in payment money at 
par that might really vary a great deal from 
par value. Obviously, this law was partial to 
the debtor, entirely unfair to the creditor, and, 
under conditions less distressing, would have 
api^eared to be a disgrace upon the legislature. 

^"Niles Register. Supplement. XV, P. 77 
*'State Laws, 1818-'19, P. 142. 
"Western Sun, June 7, 1819. 

This legislature also passed an act ordering 
that all county and state collectors of revenue 
should collect the bills of the state bank and 
of about all the state and private banks of the 
surrounding states, as long as such paper passed 
current in the state. The notes of the United 
States Bank were not included in the list." 

Such legislation soon raised opposition on 
the part of certain classes, for it was evident 
that the law passed for the relief of debtors 
was aimed as much for the relief of the state 
bank and its branches as of the debtoi-s. A 
meeting of citizens was called at Salem in 
Washington County, and resolutions were 
adopted condemning the banking system of the 
state as injurious and dangerous. These people 
maintained that its influence was "already too 
prevalent in our legislative councils."" 

By the fall of 1819 the people and editors in 
the west had begun quite generally to awaken 
from their dreams and delusions.. One west- 
ern editor wrote: "There is one cause in the 
western country which has operated very pow- 
erfully in producing the present state of things, 
and which must continue to operate in the same 
way: I mean, speculations in the public lands. 
Capitalists, both real and fictitious, have en- 
gaged very extensively in this business. The 
banks have conspired with the government to 
promote it; the former by lending money to 
the speculators, and the latter by its wretched 
system of selling the lands on credit. Nearly 
all the money which is paid goes over the 
mountains; the government has but little use 
for it in the western country."" This last fact 
occasioned a real grievance. The state bank 
petitioned the secretary of the United States 
treasury to allow the surplus moneys collected 
at the Vincennes land office to be deposited at 
Vincennes. so that they could be used. The 
petition continued: "Your memorialists are 
strongly of opinion that the citizens of this 
state have a righf° to the use of the public 
moneys raised within this state, when they are 
not wanted by the government, an opinion in 

which they believe they are seconded by tlie 
unanimous voice of their fellow-citizens of this 
state."" This bank was given the right to de- 
posit the public moneys, but it soon failed ut- 
terly in its business. 

By the end of 1819 popular sentiment had 
softened toward the United States Bank. The 
legislature which met in December of that year 
authorized state and county collccinr^ hi ac- 
cept notes of "the banks of the I'micd Stales 
or its branches, or in the notes of the chartered 
banks of this state or their branches, or any 
of the state banks and branches of other states, 
that pass at par within this state.'"' 

This legislature also passed one of those in- 
genious laws for the "relief of debtors." By 
this act, if a debtor could not meet his obliga- 
tions, the sheriff should provide for "an inquest 
of five respectable freeholders," who should 
estimate the value of the property of the debtor 
whose ijrojDerty was to be sold under execution. 
Xo property was to be sold 'for less than two- 
thirds of the returned value of the inquest.' 
If the property would not sell for at least two- 
thirds of its assessed value, then there should 
be a stay of execution for one year. It is ob- 
vious that in a community where nearly all the 
people were debtors, it would almost be im- 
possible to get "five respectable freeholders" who 
would assess the property low enough that it 
would find a ijurchaser even at two-thivds its 
(hssem-d value. This law is typical of many 
laws that were passed for the relief of debtoi-s 
during this financial crisis. 

Congress also came to the relief of the 
debtors. In fact, relief acts in some form or 
other had been passed by congress nearly every 
year since lands were put on sale in Indiana, 
in 1818, 1819 and 1820. relief acts were passed 
for the benefit of debtors. By these acts. 
debtors whose lands were subject to forfeiture, 
were given an extension of credit for one year, 
if the holding did not exceed 640 acres. By 
the last of these acts the final jjeriod of foi-- 
feiture was extended to March 31, 1821."" 

Doc. 66. p. 47. 


Other national legislation which did more 
to relieve the debtor class than any other laws 
yet passed, was to follow — legislation which 
would jirevent men from getting into debt to 
the government. All the factors mentioned by 
observers, farmers and statesmen as being in- 
strumental in bringing the economic distress 
upon the west in 1818-'19 possibly operated. 
Extravagant living and excessive buying from 
the east; the drain of money from the west 
through the land offices; reckless speculation in 
lands and town property; bad and careless 
banking; the restrictions placed by the secre- 
tary of the treasury upon the kind of money 
that would be received from the land pur- 
chasers — all these undoubtedly operated in 
bringing disaster to industry in the west. But 
one factor stands out distinct and fundamental, 
and above all the other causes that were influen- 
tial in bringing on the depression. The credit 
Hy stern had been abused. Banks and individ- 
uals had loaned money without sufficient secur- 
ity, on investments that w'ere not likely to pay 
dividends. The United States goernment had 
unduly encouraged speculation since 1800 by 
giving four years' credit to purchasers of 
lands. As a result, the greater part of the 
peoj^le in the west were in debt, and could not 
meet their obligations. Tiiey had bought be- 
yond their capacity to pay. By December 31, 
1820. the total indebtedness at the land offices 
in Indiana alone was $2,214,168.63, which 
amounted to a per rapifa indebtedness to the 
government alone of $1.5 in a population of 
147.178.^ In a country where accciilablc money 
was not to be had, this was virtual liaiikrii[)tcy. 
The past twenty years of the en dif si/sfr/n in 
the operations of the pnblii' hind sales had 
shown its incomjietency. It had worked disas- 
trously for the jjeople for whom it was devised 
— for the settlers. In 1820 congress passed an 
act establishing a new system of land sales — a 
fdsh si/stem. Treat, the historian of the early 
operations of our national land system, says of 

Host important piece 
tile .-ougTess of the 
iIh' ])i-iiR-iples of the 
17s.")."" Bv it. credit 

this act. that it ••\va 
of hind legishition 
confederation hi id ( 
American land >ysi 
was abolished, and the minimum price was re- 
duced from $2.00 to $1.2.j per acre. The mini- 
mimi tract was reduced from 160 acres to 80 
acres, as had been done for certain sections in 
each township in 1817.""' 


The west could not expect to return to its 
normal condition at once. As David Brown, 
the new president of the bank at Vincennes, 
wrote to the secretary of the treasury, April .">. 
1821, "It must be a gradual work, and a steady 
perseverance will accomplish it."'° The new 
land system helped in this, for it required that 
prospective land jjurchasers bring their money 
with them. The General Land Office helloed. 
too, by arranging to deposit the surjDlus money 
from the sale of puljlic lands in various state 
and private banks throughout the west, so that 
it might enlarge the amount of much needed 
sound money/" Tiie mania fur M-lling tnwii 
lots sulisided. and men gave ii|i their dreams of 
immediate weahli. for more -oher considera- 
tion-^." The west \va- Ix'giuning to recover 
from its awful delirium. 

One hundred years ago Indiana was engaged 
in a five year period of frontier hostilities. 
which lasted till the middle of 1814 on the 
eastern border, and till the end of 1815 on the 
Wabash. During this period the continual 
migration consolidated the territory in the 
older regions, and the increased migration in 
1814 and 1815 enabled the territory to liecome 
a state in 1816. As hostilities began to cease, a 
period of excessive speculation and reckless 
banking began to affect the economic situation. 

The^e causes were stimulated in IslC wlicji In- 
diana heranii' a state, and the middle Wal.ash 
began to till up with settler... The climax to 
these operation,, came in the form of the Hnan- 
rial depression of 1819. No new territory liad 
lieeii -eciired for settlement from 180!> to IMS. 
I'ut in till' latter year about all the land as far 
north as the Wabash was secured from the 
Indians. For some years the people had been 
looking ()\er the Indian boundary line with 

some liad already squatted on Indian territory. 
With Ihis purrhas.. of IMS. the li.Miudary was 
taken away, and the while- h;>gaii to moxc to- 
ward the interior. In 1820 Indianapolis was 
located,™ and five years later the legi>lalure 
lirst met at the new capital. A new common- 
wealth was growing up where only a few years 
before there was nothing but wilderness.* 

Just at the beginning of the growth in the 
Xorthwest, Philip Phreneau, in 1784. j)eiuied 
these stanzas, fi'om his poem. "Peopling the 
Western Country.'" They were in-o}5hetic of 
what was to be. 

••T,. western w.H.ds and lonely ])lain.s. 

I'alamon from the crowd departs 
AMiere Nature's -wildest genius reigns. 

To tame the soil and plant the arts — 
AVhat wondei's there shall Freedom show. 
AVhat nnghty states successive growl 

What charming scenes attract the eye 

On wild Ohio's savage .stream I 

**=:=* * ::: 

From these fair plain-, these rural seats. 

So long concealed, so lately known. 
Tiie unsocial Indian far retreats. 

To make .some otlier <-linie his own. 
AA'heiv other stivanis, less [jh'asing. flow. 
.\nd darker forests round him a'l'ow." 

s^Treat. National Land System. 
^'State Paoers, Cong. 17. Sess. 1. Doc. 66, 
'^Ibid, Doc. 66. 

ssThwaites. Early Western Travels, IX. P 
'^See Tipton's Jnurnal. on locating the c 
Mag. of Hist.. I. P. 9-1.5. and P. 74-79. 

*Tlie sources used lia\e been listed in tiie foot note.' 
No historian lias yet written a first-rate history of In 
diana since 1816. 



Tom Jones come home the other day. the first time fer awhile 

lie's wandered many a year away and travelled many a mile 

I met him at the station, and when he left the train. 

I hurried up to welcome him to his old home again. 

How old and grizzled he has growed, yit healthy-like and sou 

I slapjjed him on the shonldei- and when he'd turned around, 

He reached his hr: 
Kememher how \vc 

,-ny hand 
ised to lis 

-Yes sir." says he. as home we rode 
Away from old Clay County land ; 
I got a drink from old Eel river boyi 
And the proverb says where'er you gi 
.Vnd so I've come. — what's that you a^l 
Until I leave ferever fer the fairer land lliau 
I guess you'd say I'm homesick, well. I'll own 
To git to go a-tishin' once again on Briley C 

id hollered: '^Howdy. 


lown on Briley Crik? 


■I felt I couldn't stay 

other lonesome day: 

hood'- thirM to slack. 

). you'll be a comin' 1); 


i.k^ Von bet I've com 

e to stav 

that I 

•'Remember how in sunuiier linie wli' 
An' grandpa 'd say how ii woubl Mo 
Then how we'd dig tlic i'ai-tli\\drni-< i 
An" git the tackle readv wi 
An' Ma would have the dir 
Biled eggs, an' Ijeans an' buttered In-t'ad 
With lots o' salt, fer we knowed where w i 
An' we alwavs eat our dinners there, on t 

d was 

the help ( 

:gs to eat.— 
roasted meat 

roiiicl thick. 
Bnlev Crik. 

•'Away we went wi' lines an" bait. — we had no poles o' cane. 

Apast old Chaml)er^ Mhoolhouse an' down the narry lane. 

A'seein' an' a-heariu" o' the <duntrv sights an' sounds, 

So filled wi' joy o" livin" our hallooin's knowed no bounds. 

Until we turned the corner, an' seen so lone an' still. 

The meet in" house o' Friendly Grove a-shinin' on the hill. 

With the tombstones o' the graveyard a-clustered all too thick, — 

Tlu'u we walked awhile in silence as we went toward Briley Crik. 

'■Across the fields we skiirried now. an' thru the Dalgarn wood, 
An' climbed the old rail fence again where that big jDoplar stood, 
Then down the road to the ha'nted bridge,— we'd a ruther run than not. 
A man was killed there once, you know, at night the dreaded sjjot 
Wi' jack-o-lantern's all lit up, an' the spirit that is free 
Comes back, — at least, they said it did, we never stayed to see. 
But hurried on past Maple Bend an' the old canal crossed quick, 
Fer Tumble Hole's the place to fish down there on Briley Crik. 

"An" when at last we reached the place an" cut a hick'ry pole. 

We tied the line an' baited hook an' dropped it in the hole; 

Then waitin' fer the cork to bob, as quiet as a stone, 

We listened to the redhead's i-ap. er skeeter's monotone. 

But not fer long, — then quick as scat, a cork would bob an' sink. 

An' soon a yaller-cat would flop an' wiggle on tlio Itrink, 

An' the boys would crowd around to see. — remember, don't you. Dick? 

That's just the way we used to fi-li "way down on Briley Crik. 

'"Well, I've been to Californy an' I've sailed the coast o' Maine. 

I've climbed the Alps o' Canady an' come back down again : 

I've hunted in the canebrakes o' swampy Arkansaw, 

And throwed some shovelfuls o' dirt down there at Panama : 

I've lived in South Ameriky, been clean around the Cape, 

Had many a wild adventure an' many a slim escape. 

But, tell you what, in all the years. I've never done a trick 

To compare with goin' a-fishin right down here on Briley Crik. 

"My, how the years ha 
Our lives are like a hi- 
'Fore long we'll be a-r( 
A-learnin' o' the niystt 
I don't like lea\in" all 

raced away, how fast we're growin" old, 
ry that soon will all be told : 
uin' far among the isles o' Eest, . 
"s imfolded to the Blessed. 
: friends, an' the joys o' livin' here. 

An' all the scenes ^^ e u-ed t( 
An' dyin'll be the harder. 
Cause we have to quit fereM 

;ii(iw an' hold in mem'ry dear; 
lue it slow er comes it quick, 
fishin' down on Brilev Crik. 

"But say, when Gal)riel comes at last an' lights the eastern skies, 
An' blows his horn to wake the dead an' says it's time to rise, 
If I git up wi' all the rest, — here's hopin' that I do, — 
Along with all the other boys, say Bill an' John, an' you. 
I'm goin' to ask if we may have on earth just one more day, — 
Say, Eichard, are you listenin'?" — I'd turned my face away; 
"Yes," says I, "I'm hearin'." — and I thought my words would stick, 
An' he says, "To go a-fishin' once again on Briley Crik." 

—Walt Woodrou: 
llllustrated by Ben Davis.) 

^ Jlisitorp of Snbiana ^tate Jgormal ^cijool 

'' I ""HE roli'gation of pi-rsons unfit for other 
-'- positions in life to teaching school seems 
to have liecn a distinct factor of the economic 
system in the early history of Indiana. That it 
was costly needs no comment. That the defect 
might be remedied the I. S. N. arose. The first 
step was made toward this end in 1855 when 
Dr. E. T. Spotswood, now an honored citizen 
of Terre Haute, then from Spencer County, in- 
troduced into the General Assembly the follow- 
ing resolution : 

"Resolved, That the Committee on Education 
be instructed ti> imiuire into the expediency of 
establishing a State Normal School, in which 
persons who design making teaching a profes- 
sion shall receive instruction free of charge. 
Provided, they bind themselves to teach for a 
specified term of years within the State of In- 
diana, and also if deemed expedient to estab- 
lish such school, whether it would be practica- 

History of Indiana State Normal School' 

ble to establish it on the manual labor plan, so 
as to make it a self-supporting institution as 
nearly as possible, with leave to report by bill 
or otherwise." 

Other prolilems involving strenuous action 
claimed public attention at that time and noth- 
ing came of this first move. The project was 
forgotten in the turmoil and discord of the civil 

war, but a step had l)cen made, and the situa- 
tion unchanged. 

In the decade of lawlessness and adventure 
following the rebellion a new day dawned for 
education in Indiana. A bill was introduced 
by Judge B. E. Rhoades, passed and signed by 
the governor December 20, 1865, creating a Nor- 
mal School. This law provided a portion of 
the requisite funds for the construction of suit- 
alile buildings and the amount of $5,000 an- 
nually for a maintenance fund. It made the 
location of the school the opportunity of that 
city which oifered the most facilities and prom- 
ised the greatest co-operation and the largest 
amount of cash; it defined the admission of 
students, the granting and bestowing of diplo- 
mas and degrees. 

Terre Haute alone manifested any interest in 
the advantages that might accrue from the loca- 
tion of such an institution. She offered half a 

block lying between Eagle and Mulbeiiy streets 
east of Sixth street, tlie campus of the old 
county seminary. Together with tiiis land 
wortli $l'."i.O00. also ii;:)().(.)(lO in money was given. 
It was later stipulated that Terre Haute should 
bear forever one-half of the expenses of keep- 
ing the grounds and buildings in proper re- 
pair. This has been faithfully carried out. 
Thu- it was that on the banks of the "Wabash, 
in the city of Terre Haute, in the very heart of 
the town, was established an institution the 
thrill (if whose life was soon to be felt in every 

taxpayer glai'ed wi 
born came into an uu' 
was liefore it. -tnig, 
tion from other iiisii 
gle to maintain a liig 
of public disappniva 
straggle to seciu'e a] 
nomic legislature to 


■Icome community. There 
I — struggle for recogni- 
II ions of learning, strug- 
-tandard of work in face 
and Iciw attendance, and 
ropriatious from an eco- 
meet the constantly in- 

creasing expenses. Indeed, it has required the 
Host stringent economy to conduct the growing 

Highness and elH.-ieiicy upini the fun. Is pro- 


hamlet, city anil town in the most remote dis- 
tricts of our fair state. 

Strange to say, the new school was not re- 
ceived with open arms. Tradition still holds 
us in its mighty grasp, despite our boasted in- 
telligence, we are loath to leave the old and are 
prone to glance askance at tlu' new. The old 
jjedagogue frowned u[)on it as foolishness, the 

vided from year to year l)y our general 

Tile building, when completed, cost in round 
numbers, without any semblance of equipment, 
^l^it.OOO. It was buiit of brick with stone trim- 
ming, after the architectural style of the French 
Kennaissance. From the roof a symmetrical 
series of towers, cupolas and spires lifted their 


(I 1) 

rii>. \A'illi Its ihr.M 

^('uted liy Ihe t wcnty-Due students, tour walls 
.1 the pn.tVss„i-s. 'The Tcnv Haute IIio-1, 
pearance. School oeeiipieil a [loi-tion of the second llnor. 

On the tliird floor of their half coinplete<l Let it he said that as an advertisement a puh- 

hiiilding. January n. ISTO (now celebrated as lishiiig coniiiany had presented the new institit- 
Foiinder's Day) eiiilit men gathered around the tion with a Bible and an unabridged dictionary. 
stovi> on tlic niu'lh -ide of the assembly room The facult\- on that memorable first morning 



'11 WOllK 

south side. What a 
>enibly room. The 
ing on that raw. wi 


range initiation for tlieus- 
lUs were cold and uninvit- 
try morning. Laboratories, 
ibraries. equipment, apparatus and other fa- 
•ilities now deemed an absolute necessity, there 
ivere none. The boy. h)g and teacher were rep- 

c((nsisted of a president. W. A. Jones, and two 
assistants, Miss Newall, one of the "Innocents 
Abroad," and Prof. Bosworth. Later in the 
term Xathan Xewby. Miss Bruce and (xeorge 
P. Brown were added to the faculty, and the 
student body increased to forty. What a com- 
bination was here on this first nioriiina' — a 

Bible, a dictionary, three seers, a score of stu- 
dents, and four walls. 

For the first chapel exercise Barnabas C. 
Hobbs, the president of the Board of Trustees, 
and a man of patriarchial mien, read a lesson 
from the Bible and then kneeling- on the bare 
lloor before the students, in a fervent prayer 
for the future welfare of the school, lifted the 
souls and minds of the little gi-oup present into 
a land of new ideals. How i)rophetic of the 
future 1 

A religious atmosphere seemed to permeate 
those early days. Perhaps it was due to a 
clause in the original bill defining the institu- 
tion, perhaps due to the pious nature of the first 
president. Attendance at the chai^el exercises 
was compulsory. Each student brought his 
Bible. Frequently the one conducting the exer- 
cises would read responsively with the students 
and then comment upon the spiritual teaching 
of the "Word.'' Any reference to sectarianism 
was carefully avoided, but many a prayer for 
divine guidance echoed through that old as- 
sembly hall. 

The students were conducted by classes from 
tlie assembly to the recitation rooms, and then 
Ijack, turning, .standing, and passing at the 
tap of a pencil. This was in keeping with the 
close military surveillance then deemed neces- 
sary with children and was practiced in all 
schools. The lack of individual liberty, tne 
narrow. ])rescribed course of study, the ham- 
pered facilities, the high standard of strenuous 
work maintained limited the attendance in 
those early days, but gave the institution its 
jjeculiar stamp of "thoroughness"' which is still 
ditfused througli every branch of work under- 

William A. Jones, president 1870 to 1879. can 
l)e rightly called the "Father of the Indiana 
State Normal School." He was a native of 
Connecticut, a graduate of Williston Academy, 
and had been superintendent of the schools of 
Aurora. Illinois. By his efficient management 
of these schools he had attained first rank 
among the educators of the middle west. The 
Board of Trustees was verv wise in the choice 

of its man to carry out this unique experiment 
in education in Indiana. He believed in thor- 
ough work which went to the "organic unity" 
in everything. His constant theme was that the 
subject matter has an existence entirely apart 

from the text, that the teacher's knowledge of 
a subject was something further removed in 
that he must grasp the subject matter in con- 
nection with those mental laws which were in- 
volved in mastering it. He imbued the school 
with the idea of the value of professional train- 
ing though not dejDreciating the worth of 
higher scholarship on the part of the educator. 
His philosojjhy of method is aptly put in his 
favorite laconic expression. "The fact in the 
thing, tlie law in the mind, the method in 
both." Of liim President Parsons says: 

"I still give first place to William A. Jones 
among the educational people of the state that 
I have known. He was an educational prophet 
and seer possessing rare insiglit into all educa- 

tional subjects and questions. He was an in- 
telligent worker and a most inspiring teacher. 
He laid broad and deep the foundations of this 
institution, and all the years since the close of 
his administration have simply witnessed the 
development, growth, expansion and ai^plica- 
tion of the educational principles upon which 
tliis school work was founded. The seed 
planted here in this early day by this first pres- 
ident, watched and cultivated for nearly ten 
years by him and his associates, has in this 
later date unfolded into its large fruition and 
we are but enjoying today the fruits and bene- 
fits of their toil." 

How the I. S. N. grew from one building to 
five, from a faculty of five to the present able 
corps of seventy-five, from forty students to 

LEWIS H. lONES, 1870-1872 

two thousand, from a narrow jarescribed course 
of study to the broad liberal course of today, 
largely elective, from a library of some half 
dozen books to the present well selected 50.000 

volumes, in forty-thi-cr years, marks a trail 
whose only monotony is constant expansion. 
Time, space and patience forbid to follow it in 
chronological detail, yet how interesting. How 
replete are its annals with the most stringent 
economy, painstaking effort, and constant strug- 
gle! It has set the jjace for education in In- 
diana, steered clear of fads, thrown off formal- 
ism. Avith not a touch of radicalism, and yet 
little abject reverence for tradition. With its 
rise, teaching has grown from "lickin' and 
larnin'." to a profession ranking high, both 
in pay and honor among the other professions 
in Indiana. 

The purpose of the si^hool. as slated in the 
statutes of '65, was "Thi' prepanitiou of teach- 
ers for teaching in the common scliools of In- 
diana.'" At that time the common schools 
meant those institutions teaching the common 
branches, the elementary subjects of the first 
eight grades, hence the Normal sought only to 
give instruction in these and the science of 
pedagogy. There was no language beyond 
English, no mathematics beyond simple alge- 
bra involved in arithmetic, and no science 
worthy of the name. The work was intensive 
not extensive. Two years were required to com- 
plete the work offered, and students carried 
five subjects. There were three terms of thir- 
teen weeks during tlie year. 

During the first year President Jones taught 
the pedagogy and the U. S. History, Miss 
Xewall held the position of lady principal and 
liandled the work in grammar and composition, 
assisted by Miss Bruce. Professors Newby and 
TJd^wdrth instructed in mathematics and geo- 
graiihy. assisted by George P. Brown. The 
latter withdrew to study law, but returned 
again and later became the second president. 

For the first four years the school struggled 
along offering only instruction in the eight 
legal conunon branches. In 1874-75. however, 
an "Advanced Course" appears in the cata- 
logue. This new course had for its object to 
qualify more fully those who had graduated 
from the elementary course for teaching in the 
most responsil)le ])i>sitions in the juiltlic scliools 

of the slate. It (ili'ered geonietrv. Iiiij;liei- al- 
yclii-a. trig-oiiDiuetrv, jjliysies. cheniistry. Latin 
and (Jreek. etc. The work was jihinned to 
euver two years. Sucli an exjjansion uece--i- 
tated an increased faciilly. alli-acle(l a hirger 
number of stiidenls. and ilic M-iiool a 
higher schohisiic >tan.linn-. Thou-h the school 
«as now entering upon a wider career of use- 
fuhiess. its work was prnx nkingly hampered 
by meager hiboratory facilities and reference 
works. The increased expen-es so drained the 
maintenance fund that no surphis accumuhited 
for the [lurchase of these despite tiie fact that 
in 187;j the fund was increased to $7,500. and 
again to $10,000. All economy in the expendi- 
ture of public funds in those days seems to 
have begun with the educational instituti(ms. 

During these first four years the following 
])ersons were associated with the faculty: 
INIisses Euth ]\Iorris, Sarah A. Donahue, Lida 
Po^yers. Armanda G. Paddock. Louise Pad- 
dock. Amanda P. Funnelle, Professors T>ewis 
H. Jones. Pvobert Hrown. J. M. WU>nn. Her- 
man B. Boisen. Josiah T. Scovell. ("yrn^ W. 
Ilodgin. Lewis B. Hiken. an<l Albert Wyelli. 

Li 1876-77 the course of study was further 
enriched by the addition of more nf ilie sub- 
jects ordinarily taught in the high schiMjJ-^ ni 
the state. "It includes sulijects reipiired by 
law to be taught in the public M-hool- and aNo 
elements of those brandies of science and 
philosophy, the need of which is daily felt by 
the people in their industrial, social and po- 
litical relations." reads the catalogue of 1877. 
The iiiMruclion was a l.^acher's point of 
view to enable liini to pre-ent tlie subject 
psychologically. The notion seemed to prevail 
at that time that there was no necessity for tlii' 
high school teacher to have any ]-ir'ife-sional 
training. He held specializ:!lion in sc )ni. and 
considered him-elf able to teach all subjects in 
the curriculum equally well. To put specializa- 
tion and ])rofessional training befiu'e bra^^ but- 
Icns was indeed an innovation. 

During the -eiiiiir (|uarler niiicli time was 
devoted to the prei)af:ition of graduation 
themes. Each graduate was required to write 

day. A- 
Ihis bee: 

graduates increased 
tiresome day. The 
he morning and con- 

Miss MARY BRUCE, 1870-1879 

tinned until late in tlie afternoon with a shi>rt 
lecess for lunch. As the classes grew lai-ger 
the time leqnired increased, and the strain be- 
came too great. A few jK>rsons were now 
rlio-en from the class to read. The class of '9-2 
was the last to read themes. Class of "93 held 
no commencement, and that of '94 introduced 
the first outside connnencement orator. The 
i-ominencement themes were no longer reqitirea 
after this date. 

The name of ^^'. A\'. Par-on-. '1-J. appears in 
the faculty n( l,s7(;. as instruclor in English 

lii-esideiU in Issl. then taught history and civil 
goveriunent. the man without peer of all those 
whose lives have touched the institution. 
AuKUig the interesting names in the faculty of 
1S7S is that of Arnold Tompkins, "the ac- 
knowledged flower of every class ro(mi that he 
entered." Peai-e be to his ashes. What genius 
but has his idiosyncracies ! The sun has its 
s])ots. He resigned in 1893, and was succeeded 
by Prof. C. M. Curry as the head of the de- 
partment of literature. 

A third course was added. -A Short Course."' 
in the fall of "78. It was planned to meet the 
wants and needs of those who had had some 
exjjerience in teachino;. but who desired to pre- 
pare themselves more thorouiihiy for the pro- 
fession of teaching. This coiii-m' could lie com- 
pleted by persons^.f "ii-.HHl ability" in ,.iH'-half 
the reiridar time. Much cmiihavi- wa> laid upon 
(he fact that it dilfeiv.l from the full course 

William A. Jones was sncccdc,! by ( ieorov 
r. ilrowii. diiiic, ls7s. The new pn-,idcnl was 
a man of l.roa.l M'lM,lar.-.liip. of wid.- cx|HM-icii.'e 
and brought lo the in-titut ion an intimate 
kiiowledo-e ,,f the condition of the public 
schools. Aside fnuii teachin- in the Normal 
the tii-st year of its existence, he liad been the 

superintendent of schools of Richmond, In- 
diana. iirincii)al of the Indianapolis High 
School, -superintendent of the Indianapolis 
schools and vice-president of the Normal. 

He enlarged the course of study. With him 
the school entered upon a Held of greatt>r use- 
fulness, and an atmosphere of liberal scliolar- 
ship seemed diffused throughout. 

Three courses were now offered, 1881-8-2. 
First, a course of three year^ for those of lim- 
ited learning, wlio dc-ired to teach in the lower 
grades: >ccoiid. a course re(|uiring two years, 
an abridgment of the lir>i Un- ihoM' students 
who were graduates of a commi-.-ioned high 
school. <u- academy, or its e,|uivalent : thirdra 
(our>e ortcivil to college and university gradu- 
ates i-e(|uiring one year. ile\(ite<l entirely to pro- 
fe>si(mal work. A .-oiirse was also offered this 
year for those who were unable to |)ass the en- 
trance examination, called a •'Preparatory 

The interest in the advanced courses was not 
sustained. The scope of the work done by the 
students was more elementary, yet each settling 
liack showed a gain in the mental calibre of the 
-tudeiit body. The ad\aiiced <'oiirses became 
great.u' in d'emaml as time passed, though the 
work- was always greatly hami.eivd through 
lack ni Miitable'and >ullicwm apparatus. The 
most urgent appeals were made to the legisla- 
ture for money, but none was approi)riated for 
such, and the little apparatus that was pur- 
chased was secured by money taken from the 
contingent fund. This was robbing Peter to 
pav Paul. Boards of visitors were not deeply 
im])re-sed by these condition-: though many 
high schools over the state had superior labora- 
tory facilities, such things were considered in- 
novations and not looked upon as necessities. 

Howard Sandison. "72. became an instructor 
in methods in 18S1. and in issG vice-president. 
To him credit is due b)i- maintaining and de- 
veloping the theory and method championed 
by the fir^t prcMdciit. AV. .V. Jones. 

The courses of study were rearranged in 
18S'2, and two were offered differing slightly: 
an English course requiring nine terms work 
for graduaticm. ami a Latin c<iiirse requiring 
ten terms. In addition there >till remained a 
three-year, a two-year, and a one-year course 
to graduates of commissioned high schools, 

and a course of one year also for college grad- 
uates. In 18Si. a post graduate course was 
offered to those wishing to return to their 
"Alma Mater." In ISSl. p]lwood W. Kemp, 
'80. became a member of tlie faculty, first as an 
instructor in history, tlien grammar and com- 
position, mathematics, and finally history. He 
was elected head of the Department of History 
in 1887. In 1904, this department was di- 
vided into United States and European, then 
Prof. Kemp headed the department of United 
States History. 

In 1883, A. E. Charman, '83, became instruc- 
tor in methods of teaching. He was also an 
::--i~iaiit in ])sychology. When the department 
of |i-\ cliiilooy and methods was divided in 
V.JOb. I'rof. Cliarman took the chair in methods. 
Also in '83 the English and Latin course of 
three and one-half years was established. In 
'86 tliis course was so altered as to require four 
years for graduation and has continued 
through the life of the school as the "Normal 
Course." A majority of the students of the 
school followed this course. 

During the spring of '85 it was current gos- 
sip that there was not a little friction among 
the members of the faculty, and rumor had it 
tliat Pi'esident Brown would tender his resig- 
nation. The contagion of the winning per- 
sonality of the vice-president and the confi- 
dence he inspired in the student body lead them 
to circulate a petition asking the Board for the 
election of Prof. Parsons in case of a vacancy. 
The wisdom of the Board's action on that 
afternoon of June 12, 1885. has been shown in 
the thirty years of constant growth and expan- 
sion of the institution. 

From its conception to its realization in a 
building, Mr. Parsons watched each move with 
a keen interest. He was on the ground, watched 
the construction, attended the dedication, and 
was among the first students to enroll. He be- 
longs in the class of those who are first in all 
things, first to enroll, first to graduate, first 
man to return to hi> Alma Mater as instructor, 
and first as a man of atiairs, as an executive. 

e man without peer of all those 
ve touched the institution. 

as a leader. 
«hose lives 1 

After graduating in class of '72, he became 
the superintendent of the Gosport schools for 


The next two years found him in the 
polis High School. He instructed in 

a vea 

English, grammar and composition in the Nor- 
mal from '77 to '81, when he was chosen vice- 
president, and entered the department of his- 
tory and civics. President Parsons continued 
his teaching, but changed to the department of 
education. Since 1900 he has done no active 
teaching, but devoted his entire time to admin- 
istrative duties with an occasional lecture tour. 

If President Jones emphasized the ^-alue of 
[)r(ifessional training in a teachei'V iM|ui|iiii('ut. 
:iinl President Brown liberal scli.ihir.hi|i. Pres- 
ident Parsons would add to these a -perializa- 
tion in harmony with his personality. In the 
conduct of affairs his policy has been uninter- 
rupted tenure of position, all liberty consistent 
with co-operation, and an office door always 
open to student and faculty alike. 

Ample room was given the Normal for ex- 
pansion in 1886. when the City High School 
withdrew to its new quarters. This same year 

Kol)ort Gillum began his coniitTtion with the 
Normal as instructor in niathcniaties. He later 
taught science. In June. lss;i. (lie department 
of natural science \va^ divided in biology and 
geology, with Boston "W. Evermann as head, 
and physics and chemistry, with Prof, (irillnm 
as head. The catalogue shows many changes 
in farultv and much growth during these three 

The faith and l. 
had developed, an 
tlie public in the - 

w hicli the student body 
increased confidence of 
durinn; tlie incumbency 

|>umi) were saveiL By rare foretluuigiit the 
Normal records and several valuable documents 
were saved by the clerk and librarian, but none 
of the library liooks were saved. The writer 
well rememliei-s the smoking ruins, the l)lack- 
ened and wall-, the 'word. "For Kent" 
written out on the blackboard by some liumor- 
ous adventurer. 

Kindly help came from every hand. 
Churches, mills and foundries threw open their 
doors to the students. The City School Board 
tendered the use of the secr)nd floor of the 


of President Parsons, ai' 
which followed the tire t 
the building on A])iil '.» 
the fine executive ability 
to lio-jit as never l)efore. 

shown in the events 
at entirely destroyed 
1887. In this crisis 
)f the president came 
The fire originated 

111 the wood work of the gables, due perhaps to 
overlieated flues, and smoldered for hours under 
cover until it had gained ticmeudous headway. 
The students warned by tin' tiremen and police- 
men left the l)iiildiiig wiiliiiiit panic, many of 
them first -,.,'uriiii:- tlieii- b,H,k- and wraps." Of 
the aiipaialus which had accumulated in the 
different laljoratories. only a bell jar and an air 

High .Srhool building, and at once began work 
to get it ready. Such an appreciation was an 
inspiration to the faculty, and the next morn- 
ing the 600 studeiils. many of whom had 
started on their way home, gathered at the Cen- 
tenary Church for chai^el. 

President Parsons, in his address before the 
.indents on that memorable occa-inii. said. 
-Our building is in ashes, our library, labora- 
tories and apparatus are all gone, but the 
-clinol and all that is essential to it is in exist- 
ence here this morning, and we are ready to go 
to work. I am sure that the world will for- 

give the loss of yesterday, l)ut not of today. 
"We must go on as before." 

Classes were held in the Centenary, Presby- 
terian, Christian, Episcopal and Baptist 
Churches. The physics classes were held in the 
planing mill on Poplar street. 

One of the professors boasted that one of his 
classes did not lose a single recitation. For a 
few weeks the classes were held in these places, 
then removed to Wilej' High School building, 
which the school occupied during 1887-88. 

The accuniiihilidu df eiiilitecn years was con- 
sumed. The lo-- \\a^ liiM\y. 'rhciv was no in- 
surance, because (>f a dispute between the city 
and state as to who should pay the premium. 
The private libraries collected by the different 
members of the faculty of books relative to 
their specialties were destroyed. Prof. Ever- 
mann, that wizard of fishes, lost valuable collec- 
tions in biology. The city of Terre Haute im- 
mediatel}^ came forward with $50,000 for a new 
building; appropriations were made from time 
to time bj' the state ; work was started on a new 
building on the same foundation as the old, and 
was ready for occupancy in the fall of '89. 

It was the efficient management on the part 
of tile president and faculty, the hearty co- 
operation of the students, the warm hospitality 
of the city of Terre Haute, together with a 
genuine school spirit that carried the schcinl 
through this period. The work was done un- 
der great disadvantage, in cramped and incon- 
venient quarters, without a semblance of ap- 
paratus, and yet done with thoroughness and 
an unprecedented attendance. 

Shortly after the fire Indiana University 
recognized the work of the State Normal by 
granting its graduates the degi-ee of B. L. or 
B. S., upon the completion of a supplementary 
course of three years. The graduates of I. U. 
received the Normal diploma l\v doing a year's 
work entirely devoted to ])n>fessional sul)jects. 
About this same time students were limited to 
four subjects each term, instead of five, and a 
course called the Normal Course was organized 
requiring four years for graduation. It was 
especially designed for those who were not 

high school graduates. Of this course the cata- 
logue of 1889-90 says: 

"It is to meet the needs of those students 
who wish to make as thorough and extended 
in-eparation for public school work as their 
time and means will permit. It provides for a 
thorough and scientific study of branches re- 
quired to be taught in the district and graded 
schools of the state, an extended course of 
strictly professional training, embracing the 
historical, the theoretical and practical phases 
of education, and a sphere of higher academic 
wni-k re(|uire(l by iIi(j-i> cxiu'cI lug to become 
principals and teachers in high schools." 

About this same time a course of one year 
was arranged to take the place of the work 
done in city training schools. Beginning with 
ISSS much mention is made of the Y. W. C. A. 
and Y. M. C. A. in the catalogues, and these 
institutions are given a large place in the in- 
ducements offered to students. Since then they 
have played a very important part in the so- 
cial and religious life of the school, have made 
students feel at home in new quarters among 
strangers, and supplied a larger opportunity 
for religious devotion. 

More stringent lines were thrown around 
graduation from the school by the Board of 
Trustees in 1890. It was then required that 
each landidate for graduation must hold a 
license entitling him to teach for a jjeriod of 
not less than two years in the public schools. 
Since 189.5, the granting of the Normal diploma 
has been withheld by an act of the state legis- 
lature until the gi'aduate had taught success- 
fully for two years in the schools of the .state, 
a certificate only showing the character and 
amount of work done being presented at com- 
niencenieiit. These two regulations made the 
Noruial (liploiua synonymous with proficiency, 
and it wa- now held equivalent to a life state 
license, exempting the holder from examina- 
tions. The former requirement was no longer 
enforced after 1907. There is a general feeling 
among the educators of the state that the di- 
ploma should be granted immediately upon 

Louis J. Rettger. "80, succeeded Prof. Ever- 
mann as head of the dei^artment of biology and 
geology in 1891. In this same year Francis M. 
Stalker succeeded Sarah E. Tarney as instruc- 
tor in methods and mental science. Prof. 
Seller, '73. of the science department, organized 
a Saturday class in German in '89. This was 
the first step toward the present department of 
German. He was i-dieved of his work in 
science in 1893, when Dr. Dryer became in- 
structor in geography and devoted all his time 
to tlie languages. He liecame head of this de- 

of penmanship and drawing; Miss Kate Moran, 
'U-2, entered the Training School; Charles M. 
Curry succeeded Arnold Tompkins as the head 
of the department of literature; William A. 
McBeth, '95, assisted in reading and literatui-e, 
but was later transferred to the geography de- 
partment. Frank R. Higgins came fresh from 
Cornell; with his arrival and that of James H. 
Baxter in 1906 the department of mathematics 
took on a college air. 

The school had long since outgrown its one 
building, and the work was greatly hampered 


partment in "9.5. but resigned sliortly after- 
wards, and the languages were divided. Dr. 
vSchlicher taking the chair of Latin, and Fred- 
erick G. Mutterer that of German. 

The years "'.U-'Ih; witnessed much growth and 
expansion in the school, and many changes in 
the faculty; the entrance of many whose lives 
have been a jiower in the moulding and the 
shaping of the life of the school. John B. 
"Wisely. "S.">. became the head of the department 
of Englisli grammar and composition. Oscar 
L. Kelso, '79, succeeded INIrs. Lizzie Byers to 
the chair of mathematics. William T. Turnian 
was elected to fill the vacancy made l)y the 
resignation of George W. Thomson as professor 

by cramped (piarters. Tiie legislature of "93 
voted $40,000 for a new building. With this 
amount work was begun and a portion of the 
first floor was occupied in '95 by the library. 
The new building, joining the old on the east, 
was planned after the same architectural style. 
It had three stories and a basement. Sufficient 
money to complete the building could not be 
secured before 1897. A gymnasium for men 
and one for women were located in the base- 
ment. The library occupied the entire first 
floor. The second floor was assigned to the 
science department for laboratories, the third 
floor furnished rooms for the Y. W. C. A., 
Y. M. C. A., literarv societies and the faculty. 

With the acquisition of this new building it 
was possible to accommodate a much larger 
student body. It was propitious, for the enroll- 
ment began increasing with great strides. 

The rapid growth of the summer term regis- 
ters the high estimate placed upon culture l>y 
the teaching body of Indiana. The advisabil- 
ity of offering such a term was unfavorably 
discussed in the faculty meetings during the 
spring of "9-1. liut notwithstanding Professors 
Kettger. Gilluiii and Stalker in response to 

the summer of 1911, two Nununer terms were 
offered each six weeks, and students were per- 
mitted to carry two subjects during each term. 
The next logical step was taken in the summer 
of 1912. when the two courses were combined 
into a summer quarter of twelve weeks. This 
divides the year into semesters corresponding 
in length and convenience with the college 
terms of the state. 

The "Women's League was organized in 
spring of 1897. Sections were formed of all 


numerous apjjeals from the students laiuK-hed 
it as a personal financial venture, offering a 
course of five weeks for a fee of ten dollars per 
student. Prof. Kelso joined the summer 
faculty the next year, and during the summer, 
'96, practically all departments were repre- 
sented in the faculty. It paid and grew, and 
became so popular that the Board, convinced 
of its necessity, made it an integral part of the 
school year, '97. Students were permitted to 
carry three subjects. The length of recita- 
tions was increased fiftv minutes in leuirtli. In 

girls li\ing in the same neighborhood. They 
met in private houses. The M'ives of the faculty 
and the women teachers were associate mem- 
bers, and assisted in entertaining the .societies. 
In 1905 the office of Dean of Women was cre- 
ated to look after the social welfare, health 
and happiness of the non-resident women. 
Miss Martina C. Erickson was elected to fill 
this ]i(>siti(in. having the different leagues un- 
der her jiiiisdiction. She later resigned and 
was succeeded by iliss Charlotte B. Schweitzer. 
As time passed the neighborhood unit was 

dropped, and that of similarity in tastes, de- 
sires and inclination adopted. 

At various times sections of the league have 
clubbed together and leased private homes. 
Few needs have been so urgent in the Noniial 


School as doiinitiiries. Chauncey Rose, Terre 
Haute's jiiand old man, once offered to give a 
large sum of money for domitories for young 
women, providing the legislature would appro- 
priate a specified sum. This, the legislature 
would not do. Thus the opportunity slipped, 
but the school still looks toward the future 
hopeful for their final acquisition. 

It became a growing conviction in the miml^ 
of many of the educators over the state that 
the public schools were not doing all that could 
be done for each child each minute in the day. 
In the agitation that followed vocational train- 
ing, domestic science, agriculture, and manual 
training had their birth. In harmony with 
this new movement a department of manual 
training was established in 1904, with Prof. 
Laubach at its head. Although conservatively 
stowed away in the basement of the new higli 
school, its popularity at once witnessed us 
nece-^sitv. AVork in domestic science was added 

in 1!»11 in charge of Miss Ivah Uliyan. These 
courses combine practicality, utility and cul- 
ture. A movement has been made toward se- 
curing a new building for the manual training 
and science deiiartments on a lot purchased 
soutli of the Normal campus. 

Also in l!i(t4. the history courses were di- 
vided. Frank 8. Bogardus was elected the 
heatl of tlie department of European history, 
and Prof. Kemp retained only the United 
States in his deiiartment. The science depart- 
ment course was divided, Ulysses O. Cox, '99, 
became j^rofessor of biology. Dr. L. J. Ilettger 
of physiology, Kobert G. (iillum of physics and 
chenii>trv. with Edwin .M. Bruce, '97, as as- 

360468, , , 

societies torm an item of much 


The li 

interest in the growth and development of the 
schot)l. In ISTI). the Eclectic, Philomathean and 
the Debating Club were holding weekly meet- 
ings. The societies were organized for the 
purpose of giving the members experience in 
public speaking and to enable them to think on 
their feet in the presence of an audience. Since 
then scarcely a term but a new society for de- 
bating and public speaking arose and fell, the 
constantly shifting student body making it im- 
possible to maintain permanently any fixed de- 
gree of ability or accomplishment. The Forum 
organized in 1901, Ciceronians in I'M):,. 
Alethenai and the Daedalian in liH)7. are highly 
enthused and show evidences of permanency. 

Ill 1895, "The Normal Advance," a monthly 
stmlent paper ranking high among such pub- 
lications, made its first appearance. It is de- 
\-oted to the interests of the school. In 1907. a 
new department of reading and public speak- 
ing was created, with James E. Lardner at its 
head, who resigned after a year, and was suc- 
ceeded by Prof. Brown. 

At one time during the early days of the 
school's existence Chauncey Eose placed in the 
hands of the president several thousand dollars 
to be used in aiding needy and self-dependent 
young women to continue in school. This do- 
nation was not to be repaid. It was continued 
through a number of years and proved a val- 

uable aid to many a worthy young woman. In 
keeping with his sjoirit the graduating class of 
1908 created a Student's Loan Fund, to enable 
worthy senior students to borrow money on the 
honor system. The borrower's note is the only 
security demanded. Though the fund is small, 
many have already been enabled to complete 
courses of instruction who otherwise could not 
have done so. 

In the early days of the school the entrance 
requii'ements were, evidences of good character. 
a i^romise to teach in the public schools of In- 
diana for a period double the time spent in the 
Normal, and a satisfactory knowledge of the 
eight legal common branches shown either by 
a license to teach or an examination conducted 
by the school or a diploma showing that the 
applicant was a graduate of the common 
school, high school or college. These entrance 
requirements became more stringent as the in- 
tellectual leaven of the school became diffused 
through the school system of the state. "When 
the state legislature of 1907 so defined the 
common schools as to include the high school, 
the Board ruled that the applicant must be a 
high school graduate, or its equivalent, how- 
ever, still leaving it possible to complete the 
high school conditions in the regular class 
work of the Normal. This same legislature 
classified the teaching body of the state into 
three classes — Class A, Class B. Class C, on the 
basis of experience, scholarship and profes- 
sional training, and made the I. S. N. the head 
and model of a system of Normal schools. To 
meet these requii'ements new courses were 
promptly organized. To afford all high school 
graduates equal opportunity to complete the 
twelve weeks of required professional training 
immediately after graduation the spring term 
was divided into three semesters, beginning at 
different times. 

It is the spring term which shows the work 
done by the Normal to best advantage, at least 
in ]ioint of attendance. This is due to the fact 
that a \(iy large percentage of the students 
ei)ni(' frcini the great laboring classes and ai'e 
self-supporting. They either alternate teach- 

ing and studying at the Normal for a full year 
or drop into classes at the close of a short term 
of teaching. Some students have been laiown 
to comi^lete the entire four-year course by at- 
tending summer and spring terms only. Dur- 
ing the time when all three divisions of the 
spring term are in session the Normal is a 
veritable hive of industry accommodating 1,800 
students or more. 

Since lsT9 advanced courses had been offered 
Imt because of the heavy requirements of the 
professional work and the amount of time de- 
voted to the common bramJics the student came 
to commencement with little opportunity to 
choose electives. consequently, though they ex- 
isted in the catalogue, there was little call for 
them. Little legal credit was given to the 
student who returned for post-graduate work 
This was changed in the spring of 1907 when 
President Parsons app<(inteil a ronmiittee of 
prnfessoi-. P.oganlus. S.'lilirher. Cox and 
Kelso, to plan the organization of a special 
course of study for preparation of high school 
teachers. This committee recommended a 
standard college ( i>in>e of four years, carrying 
with its com|ileti(>n the degree of A. B. and 
after two ycar> of successfull teaching, the 
Xornial (lii)liiiiia. This recommendation was 
carried out in the summer of 1907. The en- 
rollment was large and since has constantly in- 
creased. The college course supplies a felt 
want in the Normal graduate scholarship. Few 
colleges in the state are better equipped than the 
I. S. N. for college work. The University of 
Chicago and the University of "Wisconsin 
agreed, in 1910. to admit students who grad- 
uated from this course into their graduate 
classes working for their Master Degree. The 
high standard of work promises recognition 
from all the great universities in the near 
future. The establishment of the College 
Coiu'se marks a climax in the extension and 
expansion of the Normal School. 

The remarkable growth of the library is a 
good illustration of the ad\ance and expansion 
that the Xonnal has made in all its lines of 
activity. "About four years after the Normal 

School h;id hcgiiu its woz'k, Chauncey Eose, a 
wealthy citizen (if Tcrre Haute, donated $4,000 
to the institution for tiie purchase of books. 
The money w:ii put into the hands of the 
president of the faculty to be used at his dis- 
cTetion for the purpose stated. This was the 
beginning of the first library owned by the 
State Normal School. Books were purchased 
and put into cases which stood in a room about 
sixteen feet square, where the president's office 
is now located. As indicating somewhat the 
conception of an institutional library that ob- 
tained at that time I may call attention to two 
facts. Tlie books had little direct relation to 
the work of the school. They were heavy 
standaiil treatises on iDsychology, ethics, logic, 
philosopiiy and metaphysical subjects gener- 
ally. Some standard histories, comi^lete sets of 
the works of the poets of the race, and a very 
few standard works of fiction — Dickens, 
Thackeray. Scott. Lord Bidwer-Lytton and so 
on. The other fact is that the library was 
open to students only one hour per week from 
four to live on Friday afternoon. 'T. myself, 
was librarian for a number of years, and re- 
ceived the munificent sum of fifty dollars per 
year for my service." (President Parsons' 
speech at tlie dedication of the new library. 
June 21. 1010.) 

Eepeated requests for a library fund had se- 
cured only $500 from the state legislature up 
to 1888. Increased attendance so drained the 
maintenance fund that no surplus accumulated 
for purchasing books and necessary con- 
veniences for the library. Worse still, in 1879, 
the assembly saw fit to cut the appropriation 
for incidental exjDenses a thousand dollars. To 
make up this shortage, for the first time a fee 
was required of the students by the Board of 
Trustees, and the following notice was posted : 
"Because of an insufficient appropriation for 
incidental expenses, the Board of Trustees has 
found it necessary to assess a janitor's fee of one 
dollar per term. This fee will be collected at 
the beginning of each term." A portion of this 
fee and all money that could be saved by most 
carefid economy from tlie approjiriation fen- 

other funds, together with $125 donated by the 
trustees of the Hopkins Memorial Fund, were 
used to purchase books for the library. By 
this means books were added from year to year, 
and by the time of the fire in 1887 the library 
had grown to 4,000 volumes. Every vestige of 
a library was lost in this fire, and a new start 
had to b(> made. 

Shortly after the fire the amount of $1.00 
collected from each student as a janitor's fee 
was increased to $2.00 a term, and a little later 
termed the "library fee." This assessment was 
conscientiously applied to the purchase of 
books, magazines and to meet the expenses in- 
cidental to conducting a library. Of the $100,- 
000 voted by the legislature to replace the in- 
stitution the Board of Trustees set aside $15,- 
000 for library purposes. This amount rein- 
forced by the fee assessed each student solved 
the problem of securing a library and gave 
bright assurances for the future. Some time 
previous to the fire the old library had been 
moved to the two rooms flanking the entrance 
to the as.sembly hall. After the fire the new- 
library was quartered in the three rooms now 
occupied by the geography department. Miss 
(xilbert (Mrs. Eobert Gillum) was librarian, 
and clerk. She resigned in the fall of 1890. 
and was succeeded by Miss Minnie Hill as 
clerk, and Mr. Cunningham, of DePauw. as 
librarian. Prof. Cunningham brought with 
him rare skill and knowledge in the handling 
and classification of books. They were now all 
gone over, rearranged, stamped, numbered, and 
scientifically shelved and made more accessible 
to students. The rapid growth of the library 
and the heavy increase in the enrollment soon 
made it necessary to seek more commodious 
(juarters. These were found in the new Isuild- 
ing in 1895. The entire first floor, in area 
about 100 feet square, was arranged and ap- 
pointed for this purpose. The new home af- 
forded ample room at the time; it was large, 
commodious, well lighted, and admirably 
suited to library purposes. There were now 
IG.OOO volumes on the shelves and in the cases 
now remaining open eight hours per day. Sat- 

urday only one hour, and all students were 
given free access to the stack rooms. The dan- 
ger now was from fire, and though great care 
and caution were exercised, the risk was not a 
little. Too, the once so amj^le quarters soon 
became congested during the spring term, and 
was forced to be insufficient in size to accom- 

made a structure costing $130,000. The fix- 
tures, stacks, furnitiue and catalogues entailed 
an additional expense of $25,000, so that the 
total in\-estment in library property now is not 
less than $275,000. To secure these appropria- 
tions it was necessary to lay siege to several 
assemblies, but whether bv luck or design al- 


modate tlie constantly increasing student body 
in less than ten years. To remedy tliese two 
defects it was necessary to acquire a special 
building, large, commodious and fire-proof. 
With characteristic energy and earnestness the 
Board and president set about the new task. 
A site was purchased, an appeal made to the 
legislature for apiiro]iriatioii-. and plans were 

ways after long sutleriug. the needed ajjpa- 
ratus. building, library, or what not were 
forthcoming just in the nick of time. The 
library was safely housed in its permanent 
quarters in the fall of 1910. just in time to ac- 
commodate the hea\y increase in the enroll- 
ment of that year. 

In his address at its dedication. June I'i. 

1!»10. Prof. Cumiiui.rliani said: ••In i)lainiiii«;- the 
building it was detennined. first of all. to erect 
a thoroughly fire-proof construction, which a 
reasonable regard for the safetj' of the books 
demanded. Stone and brick, iron and glass, 
sand and cement, with wood for framing pur- 
jioses only are the elements used. The heating 
iilant is located I'OO feet from the building." 

your inspection of this [jarl of tiie building. 
The general reading room is (J0x80 feet, and 
designed to be the most attractive and con- 
venient room in the building. The Ionic col- 
tnnns are an excellent imitation of Sienna 

The building is of Indiana limestone, a mas- 
terpiece of perfect architecture after the style 


The four tiers of fi 
place in the stack roii 

ju-oof shehing now in 
[ room will store nearly 100.- 
ttOO \-oIumes. and there is space above for 
thrcr adilitioiial tier-. When the stack room is 
lilled and other a\aihil)le space about the build- 
ing is occupied, a quarter of a million of 
volmnes can easily be acconnuodated. The ac- 
cessibility of the stack from each floor of the 
building, both natural and artificial lightings, 
the book elevators and the counters for tem- 
l)orary use of books, are featiu'es to be noted in 

of the Italian rennais-ance. •■chaste, massive 
and solid,"" every pari in [x-rfect accord with 
its i)nri50se. It is a permanent, fitting and safe 
abiding place for the treasured lore it contains. 
The quarters occupied formerly by the library, 
and the old assembly room, rich in its tales of 
romance and grind of the exam- were parti- 
tioned into some dozen large, airy recitation 
rooms which served greatly to relieve the con- 
gestion in the spring and summer terms. 

The first Xormal Tr 

)I, te 

the "Model School." was established in the win- were entered into with the school city of Terre 
ler of ISTO. It consisted of tlie tiist four Haute whereby it became an integral part of 
grades, and occujDies two rooms. The children the Terre Haute system, but was granted cer- 

who attended paid tuition. Miss liiiih .M( 
(^Irs. Dr. Kersey, of Chicago) and Mi--^ Sarah 
A. Donohue (Mrs. E. S. Tennant, of Terre 
Haute) were the teachers. A third room was 
added in 1871 in charav of Miss Rcna Kin-. 

tain privileges not allowed other schools. In 
1882, A. L. AVyeth taught seven and eight, 
Margaret Co.x five and six, Cora Hill three and 
four. Fannie Burt two and one. 

Furtlier oi)]3iirtunity f(ir ()l)servatioii and 


and this same year Miss Fannie Scott (Mrs. 
^^■. \V. Burt, of Los Angeles. Calif.) succeeded 
Miss Donohue. Miss Funnelle instructed in 
primary methods, and was the critic teacher. 
In 1873. William Eussell succeeded :\ri-s Mor- 
ris as president of the Trainiiie- Schduj. and 
the next year four rooms were added, liringing 
ill! the eight grades into use. It was not satis- 
factory to conduct the Training School as a 
private institution, and in 1874 arrangements 

study of children was given in 1884, when a 
kindergarten was established with Miss Estella 
Husted (Mrs. Emil Froeb, of Terre Haute) in 
charge. The kindergarten was discontinued in 
1886, and resumed for a few years a little later. 
Miss May Manlove was the last kindergarten 
teacher. In 1891. for a period of five years, 
the rooms were reduced to two, offering work 
only in the first four grades. In 1896. Miss 
Kate Moran was the principal, and taught 


seven and eiglit. Emma J. Batty five and six. (Mrs. Campbell, of Anderson) became an as- 

Anna Trueblood three and four. Gertrude sistant in this department because of the great 

Robinson (Mrs. Waunker, of Terre Haute) one growth in attendance. She resigned in 1892, 

and two. During the first nine years only one and was succeeded by F. M. Stalker, who had 

term of practice was required. From 1S79 to Ijeen the superintendent of the Bedford schools. 

1881, two years only, one term of practice was When President Parsons ceased active teaching 

required. From 1879 to ISSl. two terms were in 1890, the history of education was added and 


required. One term was reqn 
since two terms must be take 
Howard Sandison, '72. suc( 
nelle as head of the dcpai-l 
methods in 1881. A. 11. ("hai 
lected in 1883 as his assistant. 

odtill isill. and llieii Prof. Sandison became head of depart- 

1(1 graduate. ment of psydiology. practice, methods and his- 

cdcd .Miss Fun- tory of education. 

cut of primary This department was divided in 1903, Prof. 

nan, '83, was se- Sandison retaining the work in psychology: 

When Mr. Par- Prof. Stalker taking the history of education, 

in and Prof. Charman that of methods, observa- 

sons became president in 1885 his courses 

psychology were added to the department of tion and practice. This placed him in charge 

methods and teaching. In 1890 Miss Tarnev of the Trainiiiir School. In 1904 Charles H. 

Bi-an heraine assistant pnifcssor in luciital 
science and methods. A large percentag-o of 
teachers have their first year's experience in a 
country district school with problems differing 
slightly from those of the graded school. To 
aid these and to give all prospective teachers a 
cuncejjtion of how eight grades are conducted 
in one room, arrangements were entered into 
with Mr. Joseph Eipley. trustee of Lost Creek 

-talc and their recognition as a legal part of 
the comuuHi schools made it necessary to ex- 
tend the training school course to include four 
years of high school work. The four rooms 
occupied on liie first floor of the main building 
did not afford sufficient room for this: too the 
incon\enience suffered by being housed with the 
Xnrniul prnpci \v.,idd not permit it. The so- 
Intidn of the [)rc)l]lcin was a separate training 






■ B 


; •*«V ••• ••» < 

1 >lx >i/ v/ 1 






«? - 


Township in lOOii. for the hm' of the (ilen 
school, five miles east of 'rciic Haute, on the 
interurban line. Thr cdnditions wei'c to be 
made as nearly ideal as p()--ili]i'. ilic ici-m ex- 
Leaded and the expenses Ihiiiic jdinlly. This 
was a valuable asset to tlie Training School. 
When the new High School was built on the 
site of the Glen school it became necessai-y after 
a year to use a school not so far distant on the 
same interurban as the ideal country district 

The multiplication of high schools over the 

school Imilding. An appeal to tiie legislature 
of 1903 secured an appropriation of $.50,000. 
Ground was purchased just east of the Normal, 
work was iminediatcly begun on a four-story 
lirirk building, and a purl ion of it was ready 
for occupancy in 1904. 

The basement was given to the department 
of manual training. The grade- occupied the 
first floor. The upper floors were carefully 
planned and appointed to answer the wants 
and needs of a modern up-to-date high school. 
The first vear work was offered in the fresh- 

man and sophomore ycai- only, the socond year 
the junior chiss wa.s added and tlie third the 
senior class. Now the opjDOi-tnnity for practice 
and observation was offered in the grades, in 
tlie hitrh school, and in a country district 

The Training School is animated with a 
sjjirit of freedom — all the freedom a pupil can 
]n-ofit by. The practice teachers purpose to get 
the child as near the actual subject matter as 
jjossible. and to do it in a concrete way un- 

the fa 

I'ld's woik. and an added insight into hi- 

ular class room work. The girls of the 

if I '.111! fn)m the high school gloried in 

I they made their own commence- 
ment drcN>es. Ill the Training School there is 
little Miiipathy with the nation that such work 
is only a faddish \va\e sweeping the country. 
The teachers feel that it grows out of the 
natural unfolding of the child's life and long 
to extend the work in harmony with the ideas 
of modern industrial and vocational trainiu"; 


hampered by military restraint. To illustrate 
signed and executed by the pupils. Thus it 
was that manual training forced its way in as 
course was had to certain illustrative work de- 
and apply concretely the ijrinciples taught, re- 
a felt want, though as yet done only by the 
IH-actice students. A plot of ground originally' 
])lanned for the library lawn was turned into 
a school garden. Aside from its many other 
values, it has since been the source of all the 
arithmetic, nature study and language of the 
first four grades. This use of his hands brings 
to the jiupil an appreciation of labor, a culture 
necessary for him in doing his share of the 

contemplated by the law, but the present facili- 
ties of the school do not pei'mit it. 

From 1784 to 1907 the Training School had 
been an integral part of the school system of 
Terre Haute, conducted the same as any other 
school in the city. exre|it that certain privileges 
were granted it to acccimmndatc I lie ]iractice 
students. Failuri' to adjust some ditlV'rences 
in oj^inion over these in 1907 lead the Normal 
Board to assume entire control of the school's 
management. Prof. Charman, by virtue of his 
position as head of the department of methods, 
observation and practice, became the trustee. 
James O. Engleman. the first principal in the 

in'W l)uil(iiii2. severed his connection with the 
school in 1910, and accepted a position in the 
Wisconsin State Normal. His successor, Guy 
C. Hanna, after one year's service, resigned, 
and became iirinci])a] of the Boys" School at 
riuinHeld. ,AIi» Crawford was elected to fill 
liis place in 1911. 

The school has held for years to the theory 
that a reasonable amount of athletics is suffi- 
cient for a healthy sciiool spirit, and to that 

dames have l)een won from other state insti- 
tutions that thrilled the school and lielped the 
finances of the athletic association. 

The relation of the school wiiji its In-other 
institution. 11. P. I., excites some comment. 
Tlie incident of the elephant on tlie tower helps 
assuage the feelings of the "Oats and Hay." It 
brings a feeling of regret that the athletic re- 
lations have been severed. With the remem- 
brance of their street car rides over the town. 


extent encouragement has always been given. 
Spirit and muscle have not been lacking, but 
rather time for training. The fact that -can-e- 
ly a man attends four years in succession, and 
not many an entire year, handicaps the school 
in contests with other state institutions, and 
the uncompromising high standard of work 
demanded keeps many men from devoting 
much time to training. Yet the school has done 
many things worthy of praise. Football has 
created little enthusiasm, but in basket-ball, 
baseball and field meets much interest has been 
taken and verv creditable teams turned out. 

I)lanket parades and scraps, comes a thrill of 
excitement. Those were strenuous and exciting 
days ! 

The Normal became a memljer of the Inter- 
Collegiate Athletic Association of Indiana in 
1895, and in 1897 two new departments of 
physiual culture were added, one in charge of 
J. P. Kimmel for men, the other for women in 
charge of Miss Anna C. Wright. Kegular and 
systematic physical training was then given to 
students, three term work being demanded of 
all students, and one credit given for such 

































1901 . 










































































No. of Diff. 










Ei^t iSormal #aiben 


THliEE yc'iirs ago. when the trustees of the Indiana State Xoiinal School bought a site 
for the new library, they did not dream that they were also buying a site for a real ex- 
periment in school gardening. But Miss Woody and Miss Bader, being alive to the situation 
and seeing a chance for more extensive educational work, asked the trustees for the remain- 
ing unused ground for a school garden. The trustees gladly consented, and at once the untiring 
workers Ix'gan to plan for the future. But they did not do it without difficulties. The ground 
was unfit for use. and tlie first work was to fit it for production. Soon by skillful fertilizj- 


tion the ground was put in fit condition for bearing. TJieii the real work began. Hot beds and 
cold frames wcit i-iiu-(incl<Ml. Kacli room of tlic training school was given a plot to cultivate. 
The beds were -doh hkkIc and xcgciabic- were plaulcil. Each year's production has proved to 
be a success and a plca-^iii-i' to both pupils and teachers. Not only common vegetables are 
])lanted. liut exjijeriments are made in the production of cotton tobacco, flax, and hemp, and 
this. too. has proven a success. The vegetables are given to the children as fruits of their own 
labor. The other products are used for experimental work in the school. But in developing 
the practical side, and giving the children responsibility, the art side has not lieen forgotten. 
Flowers are raised, and the entire garden is bordered by lovely sweet peas. In the center there 
is a large bed of flowers bordered by the vegetable beds in the shape of half moons. 


Now t(i sonic, the (|ii('stion may coiiic. Wliat is the practical \alue of this exjjerinieiit to l)oth 
teacher and child, especially to the child ^ AVhat has the child received? First of all the 
child has been made responsible for work all his own. Then he is allowed to enjoy the fruits 
of his own industry, thus putting a premium on his work. Then there is an opportunity for 
the student who dislikes study to exercise his ability and see a real result from his work. It 
also teaches the student to love the common things of everyday life, and to see the beauty in 
them. It teaches liini self-reliance and responsibilitw ac(|uaints him with the real beauties of 
nature, her mysterious art of ])i-i)du<'tion. and teaches vixidly that "there is as much beauty 
in tilling the soil as in writing a poem." 



iHanual tE^raining 


A T the boginiiing of the fall term in 1905. the State Normal School offered its first courses 
ill manual training. There was only one teacher, the present head of the department ; 
and for the first term only ten students enrolled. By the end of the summer term of that 
school year one hundred thirty-three enrollments had been made in the various classes in the 
dejjartment. In 190(')-7, there \Yere 218 enrollments in the department; in 1907-8, 329; in 
1908-9, 27G; in 1909-10, 355; in 1910-11, 4.59; in 1911-12, 766; and in 1913, 900 students en- 
rolled in the department. There are now two regidar teachers and two assistants in the 

The legislature of 1913 passed the Stahl- Yarliug hill for the ''encouragement, mainten- 
ance, and supervision of vocational education in industries, agriculture, and domestic science." 
This law will certainly hasten the work of introducing the subjects mentioned into schools 
where they were unknown before, and probably be the means of extending them in schools 
where they are already established in the courses of study. The greatest trouble that school 
boards Iiave had in the past and jsrobably will have in the next few years is to secure men and 
women iimipetent to teach and supervise the teaching of these new subjects. With this in 
mind the general assembly increased the tax for the maintenance fimds of three state 
schools, Indiana University, Purdue University, and Indiana State Normal School. 

Pi'oceeds from this tax will enable the State Normal School to build on the ground recently 
Ijurchased on the south side of Mulberry street opposite the city training school, a new mod- 
ern building for the accommodation of the Department of Manual Training and Domestic 
Science. This building will be com2>leted and thorough!}^ equipped within the next eighteen 
months, and the State Normal School will be established more firmly tiian ever in the lead of 
fill other institutions in the preparation of teachers for the schools of the state. 


I -^Z^^S:^,,,,.,,^.,^ 

*!.'*«, " 


Mi'"''' ffl^l 








*» ■• 


jmui«t i*IiL-L- *jt'^i 







Jfacultp of 3 

Laboratory Assistant, Psychologry 

Spring Assistant Psychology 



Teacher of Science, Training School 

Grades Five and Sii, Training Sc 

EDITH BADER. '05-'10 
Grades Three and Four, Training School 

Music and Drawing. Training School 


Ajsistant Professor EngUsh and American .^^^^^^H^. CHARLES BALDWIN BACON 

Professor Public Speaking and Reading 

Professor English 

VICTOR C. MILLER. '05-12 ^^ ^^^.^^^^^ ^^^^^^ g„^,^^ 

Assistant Professor English 

Spring Assistant English 

Professor German Language and Literature 

Spring Assistant Englis 




E. W. DUNKIN, '07 
Spring Assistant Latin 

Professor American History and Civics 

Spring Assistant European History 

Assistant Profcsscr Mathematics 


Assistant Professor Mathematics 

Spring Assistant Mathcmatic; 

Assistant Professor Physics and Chemistry 

Laboratory Assistant and Instructor in Ch«mistry 

Laboratory Assistant 

Assistant Professor Physiology and Botany 

Spring Assistant Botany and Zoo! 

^Jl ■**^ 9^Ws 

Assistant Geography and Geology 


Professor Geography and Geology 

Assistant Professor Geography and Geology 

Spring Assistant Geography and Geology 

Professor Penmanship and Drawing 

Spring Assistant Music and Dr, 


Professor Manual Training and Domes 

Spring Assistant Manual Training and 

Professor Physical Education ^■Wo 


Professor Physical Education and 

Acting Dean of Men 









Prcs. Winter Term Vice-Pres. Winter Term 

Pres. Sprmg Term 

V,ce-Pres. Spring Term 


College Coursie Seniors; 

MARIE RUCKER, Terre Haute, Ind 

Major, Literature. 

GLADYS M. TILLEY, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Major, Mathematics, 

Gradtiate of Wiley High School, 

V. ALICE COWGILL, Terre Haute, Ind. 

ADA WELTE, Terre Haute, Ind. 
Major, German. 



ANNA E. COX, Union City, Ind. 

Major, English. 

SARA J. KING, Danville, Ind., English. 

NELLIE HENDRICKS, Terre Haute, Ind. 

RALPH C. SHIELDS, Sullivan, Ind. 

Member of the Daedalian Literary Societ 

Arai.Ts. Literature aud Hi>tnrv. 

LOUISE BARBOUR, Grainola, Oklahoma. 

Majors, Mathematics and German. 


LOUISE HARRIS, West Terre Haute, Ind. 
Major, Biology. 

MARGARET S. A. HARDIE, Terre Haute, Ind. 
Major. English. 

Member of Philomathean Literary Society. 
A Llamarada. 

WILLIAM UNVERFERTH, Freelandville, Ind. 

Major. Mamial Training. 

LESLIE A. CHILDRESS, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Supt. of Fairbanks Schools, 1908-1912. 
Member of Daedalian Literary Society. 

WILL D. ANDERSON, Terre Haute. Ind. 

Major, ^lathenuitic^. 

LEONARD McCLOUD, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Superintendent of Fontanet Schools. 
Wiley, '08. 

CECILIA RUBIN, Terre Haute, Ind. 

LEE V. BRINTON, Clay City, Ind. 

Major, INIathemacics. 

Member of Ciceronian Debating Society. 

igormal Coursie Seniors 

THOMAS V. PRUITT, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Member of Ciceronian Debating Society. 
Chairman of Senior Program Committee. 

MAY McBRIDE, Freedom, Ind. 

RALPH H. SMITH, Martinsville, Ind. 

President of Graduating Class. 

.Member of Ciceronian Debating Societv 

IVA GLEN GOBIN, Riley, Ind. 

WALTER H. CARNAHAN, Lynnville, Ind. 

Member of Ciceronian Debating Society. 
Member of the Inter-state Debating Team, 191 

HARRY E. ELDER, Knox, Ind. 

^lember of Ciceronian Debating Society. 

LYDIA MASON, Switz City, Ind. 

ETHEL L. PARKER, Shoals, Ind. 

^lembiT of Philoniatliean Literary Society. 
An Epsilon Delta. 

NOBLE WILSON, Bargersville, Ind. 

Member of Ciceronian Debating Society. 

EDNA BELL, Petersburg, Ind. 

An Episloii Delta. 

Will teach in Hammond ne 

RUTH HIGHTSHUE, Clermont, Ind. 

Alcmbur of Eclectic Literary Society. 


Studied one year in Kindergarten Training School at Cincinnati. 
Has taught in Rising Sun and Elwood. Ind. 
Member of Eclectic Eiterary Society. 


Will teach Departmental English and Mathematics in Orleans 
Ind.. next year. 

CORA NUGENT, Elnora, Ind. 

A. HAZEL SMITH, Elkhart, Ind. 

OMA BROWN. Terre Haute, Ind. 

MADGE O'HAVER. Terre Haute, Ind. 

HOWARD ROCKHILL. Newcastle, Ind. 


Has taught in Evansville city schools. 

Will attend Stout Institute at Menominei', Wis., next 3-eai- 

ESTHER SOULES, Terre Haute, Ind. 

CORLISS R. MAXAM, Francisco, Ind. 

W. H. WHEELER, Staunton, Ind. 

DELLA LAUGHLIN, Terre Haute, Ind. 


Graduate from Normal Course. Fall Term, 191j 
Teaching now at Bunsen, Ind. 

MATILDA M. REIFEL, Jasper, Ind. 

■RANCIS C. McCULLOUGH, Somerville, Ind. 

DOROTHY BOWLES, Terre Haute, Ind. 

NELLE E. CONWAY, Terre Haute, Ind. 


HAZEL B. KELLEY, Terre Haute, Ind. 

MARGARET S. YEAGER, North Vernon, Ind. 


MABEL E. JACOBY, Plymouth, Ind. 

DORIS B. BUCK, Indianapolis, Ind. 


VIRGIL FISHER, Linton, Ind. 

Member of Daedalian Literary Society. 

LULU SEEVER, Carlisle, Ind. 

WALTER WHITE, Washington, Ind. 

Principal ui Glenclalc High School pa- 

NELLIE BREWER, New Lebanon, Ind. 

:\Iaiors. Literature aiul History. 

EDITH W. BRUNKER, Riley, Ind. 

ESTHER NORRIS. Thorntown, Ind. 


An Oniega. 

LYDIA MOORE, Pimento, Ind. 

JAMES H. BROWN, ElkinsviUe, Ind. 

Attended C. N. C. one year. 

WILLIAM D. STEVENS, New Salisbury, Ind. 

CHARLES B. FOWLER, Bicknell, Ind. 

Member of the Forum Literary Societ 

A. W. FISHBACK, Brazil, Ind. 


Member of the Alethenai Literary Society. 
A Llamarada. 

EMALENE ALWES, Seymour, Ind. 


Studied three vears in Tri-State Clleg 

NELLE AGENG, Terre Haute, Ind. 

MARY FLAHERTY, Terre Haute, Ind. 

An Omega. 

ALMA L. TEICHMAN, Harrison, Ohio. 


GRACE E. SCHWALM, Logansport, Ind. 


Alember of the Alethenai Literary Societi'. 
A Mu Zeta. 

OLLIE DIX, Utica, Ind. 

MAY ZINCK, Utica, Ind. 

r^Ieniber of the Alethenai Literary Society 
A Mu Zeta. 

MARGARET HAGEN. West Terre Haute, Ind. 


G. REMY BIERLY, Elizabeth, Ind. 

Member of the Stale T.e£;islatiirc, 1912-1914. 

BERT EUDALY, Sheridan, Ind. 


LEE HARSHMAN, Terre Haute, Ind. 

MINNIE BROWNE. Winchester, Ind. 


HAZEL C. BINFORD, Carthage, Ind. 

BEULAH STROLE, New Goshen, Ind. 


WILLIAM B. FRENCH, Ft. Branch, Ind. 

RUSSEL E. WARREN, Saratoga, Ind. 

]\Iember of the Funun Literary Society. 

RALPH JOHNSON, Saratoga, Ind. 

]\[emlier of the h'uruni Literar_v Societj 

H. O. KLOSTERMANN, Huntingburg, Ind. 

PATIENCE McKEY, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

MINNIE M. ROLLINGS, Terre Haute, Ind. 

A Myosotis. 

EDNA PEYTON, Terre Haute, Ind. 



.OPHIA RIECHERS, Crown Point, Ind. 

ZELL BELL, Kendallville, Ind. 

Member nf the riiilnmathean Literary Society. 

URA ANN CHAMBERS, Freedom, Ind. 

HOWARD WELLMAN, Terre Haute, Ind. 

A. E. HARBIN, Frankfort, Ind. 

Taught Science in Danville H. S., 1912 


N. I. CLUNIE, New Salisbury. Ind. 

ROSALIE MITCHELL, Hardinsburg, Ind. 

All Omega. 

GLADYS E. LUTZ, Fayette, Ind. 

MARY ANNE FREED. Orleans, Ind. 

JESSE LEASURE, West Terre Haute, Ind. 

FLOYD H. MINER, Carthage. Ind. 

Tennis Manage;- and Yell Leader. 
Specialist in Cliemi-try. 


DON C. FORD. Sullivan, Ind. 

OSCAR HANEY, Brazil, Ind. 

:Member of Inter-State Debating Teams, 1911 and 1913. 
Member of the Ciceronian Debating Team. 


Member of the Daedalian Literary Society 

GLADYS HOPE McCLUNG, Terre Haute, Ind. 


EURA M. MANUEL, Terre Haute, Ind. 



LOTTIE PATE LOGAN, Switz City, Ind. 

Will teach Departmental English in Marion next year. 




ROBERT E. ECKERT, Jasper, Ind. 


CHARMIAN WILLIAMS, Indianapolis, Ind. 

ELSIE OLIVE KITTLE, Terre Haute, Ind. 

GROVER G. BROWN, Story, Ind. 

ROY L. WHITE, Georgetown, Ind. 

BENJ. R. THOMPSON, Rockville, Ind. 

.\l(.-nil>ei- ..f Cicer.iiiian DrhiitiiiK Society. 


MAYME LOLETAH BROWN, Bloomfield, Ind. 

^lember of Philomalheaii Literar.v Society. 
An Omega. 

ROBIN W. HYNDMAN, Churubusco, Ind. 

Member of the Daedalian Literary Society. 

MAY MALOTT, Bedford, Ind. 

JOHN WELCH, Terre Haute, Ind. 

EVA MARTIN, Terre Haute, Ind. 

GEORGE W. CRAVENS, Hardinsburg, Ind. 

GOLDIE BRILL, Riley, Ind. 

ZOE BARBRE, Farmersburg, Ind. 



BELL A. SMITH, Terre Haute, Ind. 

CLARA DAVIS, Mooreland, Ind. 

RAYMOND REECE, Dupont, Ind. 

.Me-mlH-r r,i' Dacflalian Literary Soci- 

GENEVIEVE FLINN, RaglesviUe, Ind. 

KATHERINE N. ARNOLD, Terre Haute, Ind. 

A. A. McCLANAHAN, Deputy, Ind. 

HAZEL M. TILLMAN, Huntington, Ind. 
Epsilon Delta. 
Member Y. W. C. .-\. Cabinet. 

CHARLES D. DILTS, Bryant, Ind. 

LILLIAN B. DAVIS, Carlisle, Ind. 


LOUISA BRUNER. Freedom, Ind. 

H. LeROY CARMACK, Kempton, Ind. 

Ex-Laboratory Assistant in Psychology. 
Member of Forum Literary Society. 


HAZEL B. NEAL. Terre Haute, Ind. 

FERN HAMILTON, Franklin, Ind. 

JESSIE SINGLETON, Greencastle, Ind. 

JAMES BALDWIN, Windfall, Ind. 

,Meni1)er of DuL-daliaii Literary Society. 

O. B. OSWALT, Wabash, Ind. 

SiipenmoiKleiit ot I .nicolii-hire High School next year 

ROXY LEFFORGE, North Manchester, Ind. 

WALTER WHITE. Washington. Ind. 


Member of the Aletheiiai Literarv Society. 
A Mu Zeta. 

LOIS L. TERRIL. Brazil, Ind. 

MAUD E. BISHOP, Terre Haute, Ind. 

EDNA E. LLOYD, Terre Haute, Ind. 

An Omega. 




lARY DAY, Bedford, Ind. 

.MLiiiber uf the Aletlu-nai Literary Society. 
A Llamarada. 

ETHEL SCOTT, Danville, Ind. 

EVA NELSON, Valley Mills, Ind. 

MARY L. ENGLE, Clinton. Ind. 

NELLE SMYERS, Terre Haute, Ind. 

BENJAMIN ROPP, Flat Rock, Ind. 

FLOYD D. LONG, Pimento. Ind. 




FRED JACKSON, Pr., Wmter Term HARRY VEATCH. Pres. Term 



GLEN H HOUK. Pr=s , Fall ana Winter FRED CLEMENTS. 

LEONA KRUGER, S«y., Spring RALPH W, SMITH, Vice-Prt 

NETTA McCAMPBELL, Chairman Proeran, Con,« 


LENA FAILING. Secy., Fall 

Cfjc ^opijomoreg 

A T the first meL'tiiig last fall. ^Nlr. Cilen Hunk was elected i^n'sideiit. Mr. Lalir vice- 
in-esident. Miss Ma.son secretary, Miss Failing treasurer. Mr. Hiuk athletic iai)taiii. 
Mr. Bixler editor. Miss Sullivan chairman of the j^rograni c-onuuittee. Messrs. Martin and 
McDonald representatives to the (Oratorical L'jague. These officer.s served for twelve weeks. 
At the next meeting Mr. Houk was re-elected president, E. Smith vice-pi-esident. Miss En- 
gleman treasurer. Miss Crowder secretary. ^Ii'. Smith artist. Mr. Lahr editor, and ^liss Mc- 
C'annnel chairman of the program connnittee. At the meeting in the >i)riug term mui'h in- 
terest was shown and the class represented by about six hundred members, elected Mr. Fred 
Clements jDresident, Miss Engleman vice-presid?nt. Miss Kruger secretary, Mr. Stoltz treas- 
urer, Mr. French Clements athletic captain, Mr. Cuianingham artist, and Mr. Martin editor. 
Two meetings have been held and a large number present. Mr. Bacon gave a very inter- 
esting talk on the subject of The Mountaineers of the Blue Kidge. It was also agreed to 
have a banquet the last Friday of the term. So the Sophomore cla-> \\ ill clo^e the year 
with a general good time, and hope that the class next year can slip in and till its place. 

College Course iSotesi 



athletic writc-ii]). Iml \\h' 
done this voar. In the 
term, the College Course 
basketball, the'College ( 
consider that the year bt 

)t to 


IX the June number of the Advaxce of 1s1l>. tile C 
in,ni-,,v,. il< Mtlilr.tir siMiubuij; ill tlic sclio >1 for tile next year. '1 
t refrain fnmi mniiioiiing miiuc (if tlie 

Annual Cider .Meet (.f'the Slate Xurmal during the fall 
-ci'dud with ai points to the .Seniors 33. and in the inter-class 
wii- the only class with a percentage of 1.000. When we 
re were last in ex'erything. we think we have duly kept our 

Howe\-er. athletics has not been our only pursuit. In class meetings and in social func- 
tions, the College Course has kept the lead of the whole school. When it comes to novel and 
interesting- entertainments we have not only kept the lead, but have kept the other classes 
o-uessins as to what we would have next. There has been no meeting of the College 

Course during the eulire ye 
other class in >choul ran cq 
This was held at P^irest 1 
of all the trees leaving ( Ic 
feature was that Lee Brim 


■. but what eats have been served. Tl 
d. We are also the only class that li 
ik in early spring, and. although rat 
ing). it was a very enjoyable alfair. 
I was able to fatten up after a year's 

is a record that no 

had a class picnic. 

lonesome on account 

lir. The most remarkable 

ir's teaching. 

•s. The time was. when the major- 

> graduates. Although this is true 

hool graduates entering the College 

The College Course is steadily growing in n 
ity of the College Course students were Normal 
to a large extent yet, there are also many more li 
Course now than formerly. 

Our projihecy for the future t)f the College is tliat they will not only steadil 
grow, but will, indeed, become the largest course in the school, and as sueh will have to b 
divided into th(> four classes. Freshmen, Sophomores. Juniors and Seniois. and the Norma 
Course will be thrown too-ether as one body. 


HERBERT SAKEL. Pr« W,„Ur Term MARJORIE B CUPPY. Pres- Spring Tsrm CARL N MILLER. Pr«, Fall T=rm 

WINIFRED RAY, Vice-Pres. Winter Term ^ „ ^ 

ZELPHA BURKETT. Sec. Winter Term TOM JOHNSON, Treasurer HAZEL NELSON, Sec. Fall Term 





(Oratorical league 

"iX /"IIENI-CVEIi any school organization his a sound foundation, and no dissolution in 
^^ sight, it has a moral right to command the respect of the student hody. Such has 
been the case with the Oratorical League, which has gained the resj^cct of the student body 
and a recognition on the part of the faculty never before enjoyed. 

Early in the school year the league, composed of two representatives from each of the 
various classes and literary societies, met and elected officers. E. J. Hemmer was elected 
president; George Burget, vice-president; May Zinck, secretary, and Marjorie Cuppy. treas- 
urer. Later, committees on music and arrangements were appointed by the president. "With 
this excellent corps of officers the league began its year's work. 







The first event of the year was the Inter-Society debate which took place on the even- 
ing of Feb. 1. The question, which became the question for the Inter-State debates, was: 
"Resolved, That the several states should readjust their systems of taxation so as to ex- 
emjit personal property and improvements on land from all taxation." The judges de- 
clared the Ciceronian team victorious over the Daedalian team bv a vote of 3 to 0. 





Xow Prof. Biieoii uppeiii-er 
dojje," and began to develop t 
found wanting. His untiring 

)n tlio scene with lii> sjileudid coacliing 
) teams which, when weiglied in the ba 
forts were nat in vain, for on April 

liility and "Corken 
nice, should not be 
io, our athrmative 

team, composed of VC. AA'. AY right. H. E. Stork and E. J. Hemmer, met in debate, and de- 
feated by a unanimous decision, the negative team from Oshkosh, AVis. This had never be- 
fore in the hi>tm y (jf the Triangular Debating League been accomplished. The music of 
the evening was s[)lendid. The loyal support given the boj's by the students and faculty was 
conunendable. On the same night our negative team, composed of Bert Ellis, A^'altel■ 
Cariuihan and Oscar Haney, won a unanimaus decision over Xormal, 111. Thu^ of the 
nine judges judging the three debates of the league on that evening. I. S. X. captured six. 
AA'hat more could it ask i 

On Thursday f\cniiiiz. May 1. Prof, and Mrs. Bacon gave a reception to the members 
of the debating tciim-. ami Mr. Burget, whose excellent work in arranging for the de- 
bates deserves mention, together with their giid friends. Games were played and refresh- 
ments serxed. AMien the clock had struck on? eleven times the company departed witli 
pleasant uicmcu-ics of the evening, which was not soon to be forgotten. 

^letljenai Hiterarp ^ocietp 

"Ah. yes. the chapter ends toda.v: 

We even lay the book away ; 
But oh, how sweet the moments sped. 

Before the final page was read." 

— Dunbar. 

np'HE end of the school year of 1913 chwes the sixth chapter in tlie history of tlie 
-*■ Aletlienai. Organized in l'.H)7. with an enthusiastic member.ship of fourteen, the so- 
ciety has continued active ever since and, thoii^'li t lie year.s have changed its membership, tlie 
same spirit of kjyalty prevails and the same standard of excellence marks its work. 

There are several land-marks in the history of the Alethenai. of which she is justly 
proud. Perhajis best of all is the victory won by her representatives in the inter-society de- 
bate in lOK). which established her jarestige amoni:- the literary societies of tin- Xoruuil. This 
lii'ganizatiou has always comprised a part of the Oratorical I.,i'ague. and has taken (|uite an 
active part in its atfairs. providing from her own membership several splendid ofhcers. 

The past year has been one of no less activity than former years. The present member- 
ship list includes eighteen active members, who have sj^ent much energy in working out a 
successful year for the Alethenai. They are the Mae Zinck, Zelpha Burkett, Esther 
Westbrook. Dorothy Bowser, Sara King, Larene B. Davies, Blanche Wolverton, Edith 
Provines, Clara Applegate, Esther Xorris, Mae Mallott. Lena Campbell, Marie Grose, Mary 
Day. Elizabeth Standiford, Hazel Hooker, Ella Heil and Ruth Costelow. 

The annual banquet held on January 18th was a decided success, and the toasts, all of 
which had reference to Indiana, called forth the highest loyalty to Hoosierdom. 

The regular meetings have been devoted to the study of standard authors .ojieras, men of 
note and debating questions and many interesting and instructive programs have been ren- 
dered. The oiRcers are as follows: President, elpha Burkett: vice-president. Mae Mallott; 
.secretary, Dorothy Bowser: treasurer, Clara Ajiplegate: parliamentarian. !Mae Zinck. and 
editor, Larene B. Davies. 

Among the Alethenai graduates are the Misses Mae Zinck. Sara King. Ella Heil. Esther 
Norris, Mae Mallott, Elizabeth Standiford and Blanch Wolverton. It is with regret that 
we part with these valued members, but our best wishes will follow them and. "Once an 
Alethenai. always an Alethenai," is the motto they will carry with them. 

Next September will find the society ready for another year of work, and the unbroken 
chain of progress will continue. 




^0 ^^P|f^^ 

JPWlomatftean i^iterarp ^ocietp 

'' I ""HE Philuiuatlifiiu Lilerary Society was organi/A-il \>y I'ruf. Lardii;-!' in IDDS. and one 
-'- of its i-liarter members. Miss Margaret Hardie, was still i)ri-~ciit al tlir ln'ii'inning of tlie 
fall term, but left to accept a position as teacher in the ^lar.un -clinois. 

Throughout the year three distinct lines of Avork have been pur.-ued. liic drama, parlia- 
mentary drill, and current events. Much gooil has been derived from the work. The -ilbject 
matter has been cai'efully prepared and given in a pleasing maimer, for each fell that she 
must do her best in order to escape the censure of the critic. 

Such dramas as "The Doll's House." "Mnn and Superman." ••C'liauticler." ••The Blue 
r.ird." "Peter Pan." "The Sunken Bell."" "Herod." "In Mid-Channeh" "The Poor Little Pich 
Girl." and "Streaks of Light." with their author- have been discii-sed. 

Each has deri\c(l ximething helpful from the parliamentary drills, which have been con- 
ducted much as a ■lass ri'iiiation. A great dnil of pleasure came from the etf>)rts to put 
into iDractice the rules which had been learned. 

The society has kept in touch with the domestic and foreign e\ents of the year through 
the discitssions given at each meeting. 

The social pha-- ,,f the >.M-icly lia-. also, been empliasi/.ed. 

Miss Mar-aivi Hardie. nn il„. ..Nruii,- bcb.iv leaving to take up her work in the Marion 
schools, wa- pleasantly -nipriM.d 1 ,y -.'vcral of i h,. m,.mlH.r~. Those who had the good for- 
tune to be present wer.' the Misse.- Amelia Peters. Helen l)avi<. Mary Sheets. Puth Will- 
cutts. Jtine Manor. Hazel Tillman. ^larjorie Cuppy. Anna Cox. and Minnie lirowne. 

During the winter term, the mo-t unique social feature of the year took place. On Feb- 
ruary 21 the society, umlci- tlic .lirc-tiun ,,f Mi,s Marjorie Cujjpy. gave a play. "The New 
.System." in the Training School Auditorium. It re])re>ented life in the future, when 
woman has received the Ijallot and gone forth to take u]i her duties of state, leaving man at 
lumie to work out his domestic salvation of h jusehohl duties. 

The cast consisted of eight girls: Mrs. Motfatt (Anna Cox) : a brilliant young chief jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court : Nelsonia Perry Chester (June Manor), a gallant captain of the 
navy; Xapoleonette Hannibal Hightower (Euth Willcutts). a dashing young army officer; 
Tiilania Pa.steur Darwin Mortimer (Rena Kiefer). a learne(l uni\crsity pre-ident : Mr. ^Nlof- 
fatt (Mary Sheets), a henpecked husband; Mr. Darlington (Cleda Eckart). the co-k ami a 
former lover of Captain Chester; Mr. Bosworth (Margarite LTnderwood). the houManaid: 
Mr. Patridge (Matilda Eeifel). the lannderer. in love with the professor. 

The scenes took place in ^Irs. ^loiTatt's attractive living room. The new system after it 
was comiiletely worked out was \dluntarily given up for the old. 

Each girl acted her i)art well. Those who represented the masculine sex made hand- 
some looking young men, and the art with which they did this was commendable. 

After the play, the guests were invited to the lower hall, which had been transformed to 
a "dream of beaitty" by the decorative committee. After a pleasant social time refreshments 
were served and freesias given as favors. 

The Alethenai. Daedalian. Ciceronian, and Forum Literary Societies. 'Sir. and Mrs. 
AVisely. ilr. and ^Nlrs. Weng. Miss Pvose Cox. iliss Charlotte Bertha Schweitzer. Miss Edith 
Bader. :Miss Caroline Schock. :\Ir. Byrn and Mr. T. ]\L Miller were the guests. 

Saturday evening. May 11. the Philometheans made up a picnic party at Collett Park. 
All were present but Helena Sutton, Gladys Rippetoe. Zell Bell, and Mayme Brown. Miss 
^Margaret XTnderwood. a former member. Was present. Though the evening was cool the 
very appetizing l\nich(>on was in no way neglected. 

eclectic Xitcrarp ^ocietp 


ON February 6, 1913. a iminber of young Wdiiien of the Indiana State Normal School or- 
ganized a new literary society, the first literary society which has been organized in this 
school for several years. 

The society was named. "Electic," since it is to be a literary society whicli chooses the best 
of literary productions for study. 

The following officers were chosen: 

Margaret S. Yeager, President: Olive "White. Vice-President: Cora Cline. Secretary; 
Naomi Turner, Treasurer; A. Hazel Smith, Editor; Abbie Barricklow. Artist: Euth Hight- 
shue. Parliamentarian. 

Toe remaining charter members are: 

Lydia JNIason. Gertrude Cavender, Ura A. Chanil)ers. ^lilly Applegate. Ida Turner. Bell 
Smith, Mary Anne Freed, and Jessie Singleton. 

The new members that have been added to the list are : 

Nema Binford. Adna Lindsay, Goldie Brill. Lois Teriil. Mary E. Stork. Minerva Pay- 
ton, and Mrs. Anna K. Black. 

The society took up the study of current e\ents and Indiana authors for the remainder 
of the year. 

Thus far, the lives and works of the following authors have been studied: 

Joaquin Miller, James Whitcomb Riley. Sarah K. Bolton, Mary Hannah Krout, Sarah 
T. Bolton Benjamin S. Parker and Meredith Nicholson. 

Some of the most interesting current evenrs discussed were: 

"Popular Election of Senators," "Commission Form of City Government," "The Dis- 
covery of the South Pole," "The Indiana Legislature," "How Agriculture Can Be Improved." 
"The Social Evil of the Present Day," and "The Progress of Indiana Since 1816." 

One very interesting fact about the society is that there are thirteen graduating seniors 
among its members. Who said "thirteen" was r,ot a lucky number? 


Olive White 
Ruth Hightshuf 
Lydia Mason 
Mary Freed Gertrude Freed 

Margaret Yeager 
Cora Cline 
Adna Lindsay 
Gertrude Cavcnde 

Naom. Turner Abbic Barricklo' 

Bell A. Smith Ida Turner 

Goldie Brill Lois Terrcl 

Minerva Peyton Mary Stork 

\^v'' ni3 ^^ur 

Jf orum %ittxavp ^ocietp 

JUNE, 1913, marked the close of the ninth year of the Forum. At the beginning of tiie 
year Messrs. Carmack, Biii-get, Fowler, Rightsell, Harshman, and Barker, were present 
at the first roll call. The usual order of work was taken up, and the upbuilding of the society 
was begun. With this end in view the following new men have been taken into the Forum 
during the year: Homer Wright, Clinton, Ind.; Casper Crim, Hartsville, Ind. ; Robert Hoff- 
man, Greencastle. Ind. : Casey McDonald, Armstrong, Ind.; Ralph Johnson, Saratoga. Ind.; 
Russell Warren, Saratciiia. Ind.: Thomas Johnston, Bluffton. Ind.: Andrew Merker. Jasper. 
Ind., and Emmet Riardon, Commiskey, Ind. 

The literary work of the society has been confined mostly to topics of current events 
rather than to lengthy debating work on one subject. The fact that all of our men were doing 
work outside of regular school subjects did not permit of debating work tliat required a 
great amount of time, and current event work was substituted. 

As ever before the Forum has been foremost in the promoting of fraternal and st)cial 
affairs. The feeling of comradeship is prevalent among Forum men. 

The first social event of the year was the Christmas dance, given by the graduate mem- 
bers at Indianapolis. It was a splendid affair and served to bring together again the old 
members of the society. The members present were : Mackell, Senour. Pike, Spencer, Thomp- 
son, Nugent, Wright, Asher, ^IcCormick, Burget. Thompson, Wood, Moss, Scudder, Pierce, 
Smith, Henry and Webb. During the winter a little dancing party was given by the active 
members at the Elks Club, Terre Haute, Indiana, for the out-of-town fellows and guests. 

With the arrival of several old members in tlie sjuing the Forum House, at 719 Chest- 
nut street, was again filled. The seal was plae m1 \\\h>\i the wall, an dall Forum men bidden to 
make the house their iicadquarters. The men making tlicir home here are Fowler. Rightsell, 
Johnson, Warren. Ilntlniaii. Morrill and Mackell. 

The close of tlie year \va> marki'd by the inth annual bancpiet and dance which was 
given at the Elks Club on ^londay evening. June 9. The following active members were 
present : Alfred C. Senour. James F. Mackell, George Burget, Raymond M. Rightsell, Lee 
Harshmann, Casper Crim. Robert Hoffman, Andrew Merker, Ralph Johnson. Thomas John- 
ston. Russell Warren. Charles Fowler, Emmet Riardon, and Homer Wright. 

President W. W. Parsons, Dr. and Mrs. L. J. Rettger, Prof. Frederick Mutterer. Prof. F. 
S. Bogardus, and Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Westphal served as chaperones. Mr. Mackell, acting 
as toastmaster, toasts were given by Prof. Bogardus. of the factulty; S. C Morrill, of the 
Alumni, and Mr. Senour. of the active membership. After the banquet the remainder of the 
evening was spmi in dancing. The guests included members of the Forum Alumni, mem- 
bers of the faculty of I. S. N. S., representatives from the two other societies of the school, 
and ladv friends. 



TIIK C'iccnniiaii I )chaliiii:- Society was oru' in tiu- sprinfi' term of IIHC. Its chief 
purpose, as its name sni;e-esls. luis hei-n to fnrther the art of debating and public speak- 
ing in tlie Indiana State Xorniai Scho!)!. With a determination to accomplish this, it has 
exerted itself to sucli an extent that out of five inter-society debates, four victories have been 
labeled "Ciceronian.' "With its active membership limited to twelve, the society gives, in the 
course of a year, a training to each of its members of the value of which is inestimable. The 
constitution has recently lieen amended so that special members may be elected. These men 
undergo a thorough training in jn-eparation to fill vacanices when active members leave school. 

The old membeis w lio entered school last fall were Messrs. Brinton, Haney, Wilson, 
Smith and Thompson. Xew men have been taken into the society at various times during the 
year. Tlie membership for the entire year — active, lay and speiial — includes these men: 
Brinton, Haney. AVilson, Thompson, Smith, P^llis. Elder, Shaw. Shanks, McCullough, 
Pruitt, Carnahan, Paul, Brumbaugh W^eathers, Vennillion, Buckles, Meyer and Koch. An 
eilort has always been made to secure choice mtn. and consequently many of the strongest men 
to leave this school have been Ciceronians. 

The quality of the work done this year ha> been very high. Important prol)lems of the 
day have furnished the questions for debate, and every man has been broadened by their dis- 
cussion. ( )t c(iuiM' not tlie ^nlalle-t feature of the work was the inter-society debate on the 
proposition. ■•liesolved. That the several states should their systems of taxation so as 
to exempt all personal property and improvements "on land." The Ciceronians defended the 
negative and won the unanimous decision of the judges. 

The society will end its year's work with a reunion of Ciceronians and a big banquet at 
the Terre Halite House. Jnne 7. It seems that after a year so rich in mental foo.l. a little 
physical food will not l)e out of order. 

Francs CM-Cllc.^h Ralph H5m,tl, Harry raider TVPr..ff 














— r 

^w^ ■x 



^ 1 


< m - -^ 

^ ^Bi 

\ 1 

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L ^/ 

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Baebalian Hiterarp ^ocietp 

"IXT'HEX the Daedalian Literary Society was oro^anized in 190(;. the eliarter members 
"' naturally supposed that the good effects, which were sure to follow, would increase 
from year to year, but none was there with such vi^id imagination as to foresee the excellent 
spirit of fellowship and brotherhood that has been such an evident characteristic in the so- 
ciety during the past year (tf l'.)li.'-"13. Indeed, when the fall term opened, few of the pres- 
ent members realized the vast amount of benefit to be received during the school year that 
lay before them. 

It has been the aim of the society during its entire career to demand of all its meml)ers 
thoroughness and act'uracy in work, punctuality in attendance, and gentlemanly conduct at 
all times. These characteristics have been realized during the year to a marked degree, for 
our boys have not only been thorough in their school work, making good at all times, but 
have been the first on the ground with any and all worthy organizations, which tend toward 
a larger and better school. Their punctuality is evidenced by the fact that they are always 
found on the front seats at all games, debates, student social affairs, and recitations, and never 
has their gentlemanly conduct been questioned except on the "rooters" bench" when the 
general effervescence of enthusiasm and noise is a particular characteristic of every Daedal- 
ian. This, however, is generally excused by good authorities. 

"With such pleasant and successful work, as it has been our lot to experience, it is no 
wonder that nothing has dispirited us. We have no occasion to find fault with anything. 
True, we lost in the Inter-Society debate, but did we not jirove ourselves cheerful losers, and 
did our lioys not redeem themselves by winning a unanimous decision over a team rep- 
resenting a school never before defeated by our debating teams. 

The work of the past year is finished. The time spent is forever past, but the pleasant 
memories of the year, gathered from old I. S. X. and its student organizations, will cling to 
every Daedalian as long as good times, tempered by long assignments, are characteristic 
of the Indiana State Xormal School. 


§ 9 d 

Ber Beutfi^dje "herein 


T TXTEK dfii litenuisfheu Vereinen unsrer XoniKilschulo hi'findet sicli cincr, der sich 
^-' ruehinen kann, dass er sich in seiner Wirksandccil ^anz finer frciiidcii S])raelie wid- 
met. Diesel' Verein, der acht Jahre lang unter dmi Xiinn'ii ■•Der Dcntscln' \'erein" sein 
Ansehen aiifrecht erlialten hat, wird wohl von Seitcn nianchi'i- Studcnlcu schiid' anoresehen. 
und sein Tun und Treiben als geheimnisvoll und seltsam gehalten. Al)er ^(l x lieint it 
hoffentlich nur denen, die sich noch keine Kentniss der schoenen deutschen S])rui he eiwoihen 
haben, denn der Verein ist wirklich nur eiu Hilfsmittel, den Gebrauch dieser Sprache zii 
foerdern und zu erleichtern. 

Der Deutsche Yerein wurde in Herlwt, 1!>()G, gegruendet. Am 20, den Seiitember 
jenes Jahres versammelten sich alle jungen Maenner, die sich fuer die kSache interessierten. 
und Herr E. Fischer, der Vorsitzende der Sitzung, wurde zum ersten Praesidenten er- 
waehlt. Den Herren Weng und Hildebrandt wurde die Ehre, die Yerfassung vorzu- 
schhigen, und diese lierrcn vollfuehrten den Auftrag in so geschiclcter Weise, dass man nur 
unbedeutende Yeraenderungen zu machen brauchte, ehe ihr Yorschlag angenommen wurde 
und heute steht noch die Yerfassung wie vor ache Jahren. 

Der Yerein hat verschiedene Zwecke. Er soil die deutschen Studenten und Alle, die 
sich fuer das Deutsche iutcn'ssieren, einander naeher bringen; die Interesse an der Arbeit 
des deutschen I)c|iartHiiiit- foerdern und Alle. die in diesem Department taetig sind. zu 
neuem Eifer anspDiiien. einen besseren Gebrauch der deutschen Umgangesprachc zu er- 

Bald nach der Organization wurden auch Damen als Mitglieder zugelassen. AYarum 
das geschah. ist durch die Berichte nicht ausfindig zu machen; wohl aber, weil die Ilerren 
wie ihr Stammvater Adam nicht ohne das andere Geschlecht fertig werden konnten. Bald 
bestand die Mehrzahl der Mitglieder aus Damen und so ist es seither geblieben, Jahre lang 
haben sie alle Aemter besetzt aber, da sie ja jetzt auch das Civil-stimmrecht verlangen, 
erwaehlten sie im Fruehjahrsquartal zwei Herren zum Yorstand. um so zu ueben. was sie 
fuer sich selber erwarten. 

Im Herbst. 1912. wurde der Yerein durcli das unermuedliche Strelien Fraeulein 
Welte's in den Lauf gebracht. Das Programm fuer jede Sitzung wurde so eingerichtet. 
dass alle Mitglieder teilnehmen konnten. Obwohl eine kleine Anzahl dn- Mitglieder 
sich durch andere Anziehungskraefte von den den Yersammlungen fern haiteu liessen, blieb 
doch die Mehrzahl treu und arbeitete ruestig weiter. Nach den Anstrengungen des Quar- 
tals gastatteten sie sich zu Ende des Termins den Genuss eines Kaffeeklatsches, bei welchem 
es sehr nach Weihnachten duftete. 

Im Winter — und auch im Fruehjahrstermin schritt die Arbeit ruestig weiter. Da Herr 
Professor Mutterer verlangt. dass alle Studenten des Departments sich eine gruendliche 
Kentniss der deutschen Gengraphie aneignen. so hat der Yerein sich seit Neujahr bemueht, 
das Yersaeumte wenigstens teilweise nachzuholen und mit dieser Absicht verfertigte das Pro- 
gram-komittee einen logischen Entwurf der Geographic Deutschlands um die Arbeit zu er- 


Aiu'h niachti'ii die "Deiitschen" zwei Auf^Hue<^e. 
Weise aber eiii (leutscher (ieist Ix'set'lte die Teilnehi 
erschallteii, dass man die eiiiiv Stadt verlassen konnt 
freiindlichst einhiden sich an iliivr Sflioenheit zn 

Id all 

Es i|-ino- wdhl iia 
IT mid deutsche Lie 

mid die Wieseii n 

d W; 

■Ider alle 

Taetigkeit einstellen, um sie im kommenden Herbst 
der. die prciniovieren, werden vermisst werden. "Wir siiid sicher, 
reins aufreclit halten werden. wenn sie in die Weite Welt hinausge- 
suchen. Einige frueheren ^Nlitglieder liaben bei'eits ihren Wert als 
• E. Fischer, der erste Praesident. ist gegenwaertig Austauschpro- 
liiilc ill IleiT 15. Srhockel iM IliU'sprofessor in dem Depart- 
if .Id- ('lii,-a,oiei- rnivci-Mtact : Ileny.I. K.ldy ist als Lehrer in den 
1 wciiii wir \iiii andiTii fniehereii ^litgliedern benachriehtight 
waeren, wuerden wir gewiss manches erfahr.'ii. worneber wir alle stolz sein koennten. 

Die Zukunft des Vereins liegt mm in den Ilaende.n der jetzigen Mitglieder und an- 
deren, die im deutsclicn Departmeiil ictii;- sind. Moege die Zukunft eine starke Mitglied- 
erzahl bringen. Moege >ic den Kifcr allcr anspornen, den Wirkungskreis des Vereiiis weil 
zu vergroesseni, so dass unser Alma Plater sich dessen Einfluss und Wirksamkeit ruelunen 


wird der Vere 



erii. DieMil-liiM 


. sie 

die Ekre des' \'ei 



ilir (ilueck zu s 



)ewiesen. Herr 


>v ai 

del- ObcTlvalsrl 


t d, 

r ('aphie an 



leii Taetig; mn 




OToman'si ILeague 

' I "^HE Woman's League has had a very successful 3'ear. The officers and leaders have 
■■- worked toward lifting the social standard and strengthening the spirit of unity 
among the girls. There have been eleven active chapters during the year. The officers of 
tlie league are: Zelpha Burkett, president ; Mary Day, vice-president; Sara King, treasurer; 
May Zinck, secretary. The officers for the ensuing jear will be elected at the next meeting 
of the executive board. 

The dili'erent chapters and their leaders are: 

Omega Edna Wallace 

Athleta Mamie Asperger 

Pi Zeta Amy Stirling 

Mu Zeta May Zinck 

Myosotis ilinnie Rollings 

Llamarada Mary Day 

Gamma Mary Carrithers 

Alpha Lucile Armsrtong 

Epsilon Delta Erma Georg 

Psi Theta Ella Inglis 

Kappa Geneva Smock 

The social calendar for the year follows : November 22, a tea. The Kappa. Gamma. 
Epsilon Delta, Myosotis, and Omega Chapters were hostesses. 

December 13. A Christmas party. The Psi Theta, Llamarada. Athleta. Alpha and Mu 
Zeta Chapters were hostesses. 

February 12. a musieale by ^Irs. Cliiipinger. 

^^ oc^e\\(LY:lX-v-vto'Jl\(L L 




'' I '"HE Omega Section is one of the two oldest, and at jDresent the hirgest section in the 
^ Woman's League. It was organized in the fall of 1900 with Miss Harriet Paynter as 
leader. For a long time the State Normal School had felt the need of an oi'ganized social life. 
The plan of organizing a woman's league, such as other schools had, took strong hold upon the 
minds of the senior girls, some of the women members of the faculty, and a few of the wives 
of some of the faculty members. There was a meeting of those interested in the movement 
and the result was the organization of the league with Miss Caroline Norton, of Indianajj- 
olis, as loresident. It was jjlanned that the girls should get members for the league and or- 
ganize themselves into sections. The sections were limited to twenty members. Miss Norton 
invited a number of senior girls to form a section. The Omega Section was the first filled 
and it consisted of eighteen seniors and two juniors — Miss Lula Reyman and Miss Harriet 
Paynter. Miss Norton, who was also a member of the Omega Section, presided at the meet- 
ing. From a large list of Greek names they chose the name "Omega." The section was very 
active in its first year, but at the end of that year all the girls left school. In 1907 the sec- 
tion was reorganized with more vigor and strength than evei'. Since then it has grown un- 
til its members are found in all jDarts of the state. It now closes a very active year with 
Miss Edna Wallace as leader. There are in the section six graduating seniors, the Misses 
Rosalie Mitchell, Edna Wallace, Mayme P>rown. Edna Loyd, Mary Flaherty, and Cora Nu- 
gent. There are many nieml^ers who will be in scliool next year, and this promises a bright 

The acti 


)t the section are: 

Edna Wallace. 
I^na Hanley. 

Marv FlalicVty. 
.Mnyiiic Ill-own. 
(iwciidiilyii Volkers. 
Hazel Fislier. 
Helena Freitag. 
Mary Richards. 
Hila Lewis. 
IMeta Glavecke. 
Pvosalic Mitchell. 
Lucile Dmiavan. 
Alma .Shivclv. 

Ellen Davis. 
Netta McCampbell. 
^lona Ilalloran. 
Elizabeth Freudenreich. 
INIargaret Ray. 
Rachael Schaffer. 
Daphne Bratton. 
Edna Llovd. 
Helen Dykes. 
Anne McMahan. 
Cora Nugent. 
Iva McClaren. 

The membersiiip believes tiuU the Oniesi 
are good and wholesome in the social life an 
back in 1900 that, "The last shall be first." 

X Section will always choose those things which 
i it also maintains the prophecy of Miss Norton 


^^^^^H^^^^k ^HHflBH^^^^ ^K^^^^B^^'^' ^^^1^^^^^^ 




THE Alpha Chapter of thi' AVoman's League was founded in September, 1890, hy IV'lh 
Parker Kidder, now of Alexandria. LouiKiana. ]Miss Anderson, then grammar teacher 
in the Xornial, was imjjressed with the idea of the Woman's Leaa'ue then so hrudv established 

She enthused the girls 
two first to be founded. 
was the promotion of s 

laller then and without 

^ in a irirfs life. 

)f the Xormal. and 

dt the 


the girls of the Xor- 
tivities of today, sc 

>pe was widen m 

1. The social side meant 

less while the 

• nior 

1 without the s( 

■hool became the imjjortan 

t factors of cl 


limited to fif.t 

■en, while now the general 


of th 

in the University of Michigan. 
Alpha Chapter was one of the 

The organizing principh' 
mal. The school was mucli sn 
that the social side meant mon 

Gradually, however, the s 
mental aspects of life within a 

The charter members wer 
league allows a greater number to the chapter. The original members were Mrs. Beth Par- 
ker Kidder. Mrs. Helen Layman Dix, .Mrs. F.dna Crapo Hyneman, Mrs. Katherine Gilkerson 
Dickens. Mrs. Edna Eeagan Lybrand, Mrs. Sally Dickinson Craig, Mrs. Bertha Blything 
Watkins, Mrs. Charlotte Ostrander Wagner. Miss Addah McWilliams. :\Iiss Blanche Tyrrd. 
Miss Zayada Scovell, Miss Alice Wood, AVinifred Muir, Cecil AA'hite, and Miss Anne Keating. 

The former idea of the AA^oman's League made for a closer relationship with the faculty 
and wives, each chapter having several of the wives as patronesses. The first patronesses of 
.Vlpha were Mrs. AA'illiam AA'ood Parsons, Mrs. Charles P.e.lway Dryei 

In June. lltlO, in lieu of the special exercises to conimemorate the 
sary of President Parsons, Alpha held her first houici'oniing of tlie a 
come a biemiial affair to which all active and Alumni mi-nibci-- hiok foi 

Alpha has at j^resent a strong active chap'rer and a failliful body 
loval lo their Alma Mater. 

•. and Miss Elizabeth 

twenty-fifth anniver- 

lunmi. This has be- 


of Ahmnii who are 

(§amma (§amma 

Colors. Crimson and Wliili'. Flower. Anicriean I-Jeaiity Rose. 

' I ""HE Gamma Gamma .Section was founded in the fall of 1902 with the fifteen charter 
-*■ members : Mabel Steeg Lammers. Rose Duenweg Rush, Sarah Hunt, Henrietta Herz 
Cohen, Anne Bigelow Eisenlohr, Forrest Cunningham Bellinger, Bernice Pierson. Bess 
Locke, Grace Rhiele Wischmeyer, Georgia and Edith Flood , Fern Casto Eppert, Florence 
Redifer, Gertrude Pastor Austin, Norma Froeb, Lena Carson King, Mary Walton. Since 
that time the section has grown to a membership of one hundred and fifty. There are two di- 
visions, the Active and the Alumni. 

There is a reunion every three years, which is held during commencement week, and 
the next one will be in 1914. 

Four regular social events are given each year as follows: 

First — A luncheon during Thanksgiving. 

Second — Matinee dance in February. 

Third — Annual dance in April. 

Fourth — Boat ride during commencement week. 

The "Actives"' have a social meeting once a month, and at tlie last meeting of the term, 
the Alumni are invited, at which some unusual "stunt" is pidled oti. 


President — Mary Carrithers. Secretar^y — Louise Dailey. 

Vice-President — Hilda Hathaway. Treasurer — Xadine Reed. 

Gertrude Kearns. Mary ^lahaffie. 

Margaret Worsham. Elsie Krueger. 

Ruth Boyer. Eleanor Bauer. 

Ruth Colin. Lela Ogle. 

Isa Mullikin. Mabel Hopkins, 

Elizabeth McXutt. Catherine Staff. 

Helen Briggs. Josephine Dunihue. 

Lena Campbell. Emma Ross. 

Anna Myer. Betty Hamilton. 

Lou Aiken. 


IX the P'all Term of 1004. .sDine of the jiiiis who had graduated from the June. "04. ehiss 
of the Terre Haute High kSchooh now known as the AViley High School, joined together 
and decided to form a chib. This was done and not long after the AVoman's League in- 
vited them to get some more girls and become a chapter of the league. They decided to do so, 
and chose several girls then in school, enough to make fifteen, the number then required to 
become a chapter of the league. The Llamarada Sorority was the result. The chapter was 
named by :\Ir. Wisely. 

The lir>t li'uder was :\Irs. Chas. Montgomery, then Miss Frances Snyder, of Lafayette. 
The society started out well, it seems, and has always continued a strong and lively section 
of the league. The society retained its fifteen original members until the Spring Term. "05, 
when three new members were admitted. 

Of the fifteen charter uieuibers. eleven are uiarried, one is a practicing physician in 
Portland. Oregon, and the (it her thiec an- the pursuing their chosen ijrofession. Of the three 
girls who were admitted in the Spring Term of the first year, one is married, one is still 
teaching and the other has passed into the Great Beyond. This member is the only one, 
of the great number of girls who have belonged to this sorority, to leave us. 

The charter members were the Misses Lora Love. Maybelle Carter, Irene Ransdelle, 
Irma Parr. Orella Fidlar, Grace Cassidy, Anna Forbes. Jennie Thomas. Hannah Keister, 
Frances Snyder, Edna Peyton. Lena Hodges, Lena Admire, Lora Evans and Blanche Dick- 
erhoff. The three admitted that same year were the Misses Leotine Snyder. Ennna Admire 
and Margie Picking. 

The years that have followed have been very siu-cessfuj. each one it seems being better 
than the one before. The section has steadily gniwn and is now one of the strongest in 
the league, and is the sixth oldest section of the Indiana State Noi^mal School. 

The Llamaradas have a constitution and by-laws which are strictly adhered to. They 
have a set form of initiation which is very bsautifnl. Their standards are more for scholar- 
ship than social prominence. 

At the beginning of the Fall Term. 'U. only three Llamarada girls entered school. Init 
they were faithful members and with the help of city girls they were al)le to organize 
and build up the section. The year has been a very enjoyable one for the girls. During 
the last three terms sixteen new girls have taken the pledge of Llamaradism and at the pres- 
ent time there are twentv active members in school. 

Established 1900 



Hazel Binford Gladys Lutz 

Minnie Rollings 


Esther Neukom, C. C. Helen Sale, C. C. 

Sadie Drake Nelle Waller, C. C. 


Bertha Krietenstein Rosa Schmitz 

Lena Failing 

Marie Miller 


Norma Failing Cecil Black 

Coradel Wade Fern Garen 

Mary McBeth Kathryn Groh 

0i\\ Heta 

'' I ""HE eliiipter, under the leatler.ship of May Zinek, has just added another i^leasant and 
-■- profitahle year to its history. At the beginning of tlie fall term. May Zinck, Ollie Dix. 
Gladys Eippetoe, and Hope Tharpe returned to school to champion the ^lu Zeta cause, and 
after a season of delightful rush parties the Misses l{ul)y Curry. Elsa Finlay. Ruth Costlow. 
Clara Applegate, and P]dith Provines were added to the nienihcrshi]) of the chapter. Several 
social' events occurred during the term. 

At the opening of the winter term our numhcr \va> IommmmI hy the willidrawal of Mi» 
Tharjje from school. At this time our conslitutioii was icvi>cd and amended \-er3- mate- 
rially and a new pledge was added to the initiation ceremony. Following another season of 
delightful i)arlies we welcomed into our memhei-ship tlie Misses ^Nlary Adams, Mary Grigsby, 
Madeline AMiite and Lucia St. Clair. During this term we were entertained at afternoon par- 
ties at the homes of the Misses Zinck, Applegate, Costlow, Provines, and Eippetoe. 

On the evening of February 15, the chapter enjoyed a theater party at the Grand, fol- 
lowed by refreshments at the Eose. 

On Saturday evening, March 1. the members entertained their men friends at an indoor 
]iicnic at the home of Madeline White. A delicious picnic luncheon was served, to which all 
did justice. The features of the evening were games, contests, charades, and dancing. The 
meml)ers and guests present were the Misses Zinck, Dix, Costlow, Finlay, Curry, Grigsby, 
Adams. White, Apijlegate, Pi'ovines, and Messrs. Sakel, Houghland, Cunningham, Haz- 
zard. Swanigan, Carpenter, Baldwin, Xewman, Eeece, and Hyndman. Mr. and Mrs. West- 
]3hal were the chaperones. 

At the close of the term ^Nlary Grig>by and Mary Adams left us to accept positions. 
Miss Grigsby is teaching in the liedford school-, and Miss Adams in Panama. 

Twoof our old members. Eli/;il)eth Stan.lifor.l and Virgie DeWeese. returned to school 
for the spring term, and have added much to the si)irit of the chapter. 

The Mu Zetas were ho>te-M- for a four course dinner at Eoot's tea room Saturday even- 
ing, April 5. The table \\a> In iiii ifiilly decorated and pink carnations were given as favors. 
The guests were Emun r>ariies and ^NIis. Byrn. Miss Barnes and Mrs. Byrn took the pledge 
on the evening of April 24. 

One of the leading social events of this term was a i:)arty at the home of Lucia St. Claire, 
on May 3. The evening was devoted to the enjoyment of music, progicssixc games, a most 
unique jsrogram and delicious refreshments. The members and guests who (■iijoyc(l the even- 
ing together were the ^Nlis^es Zinck. Dix, Eippetoe, Costlow, Curry, DeAA'ee.--e, Standiford. 
Provines, Applegate. Finlay. '\Miitc. Barnes, Way, St. Clair, Mrs. Byrn, and Messrs. Climie, 
Applegate, Stork. St. Chiir. Siglcr, VanCleave, Sakel, Hyndman, Eeece, Swango, Hough- 
land. Hemmer. Wier, Goodwin, and Byrn. 

On the afternoon of May 24, the members entertained their men friend- at the annual 
^Iii Zeta ]ncnic in Forest Park. The day was ideal for games, boating, and an out -door sup- 
per, all of which were thorouglily enjoyed. 

^i leta 

PERHAPS no friendshiiDs are so binding as those of a company of school friends bound to- 
gether by the ties of school associations. The Pi Zeta Sorority, organized in 1907, has 
promoted the staunchest of friendships and the small circle is gradually widening. 

With the opening of the fall term of 191:^. theic were l)ut six members, who entered school, 
the A;Iisses Hazel Xeal, Louise Harris, Leo Swisher. Annitta Klipple, Amy Stirling and 
Larene B. Davis. It was not long, however, till new members were added to the list, and 
plans Avere laid for active work. These plans were carried out so successfully that an un- 
usually jolly year has been spent. The members who have been added, include the Misses 
Gladys Delph, Faye and Dalpha Fitzgerrell, Leone Wright, Lena VanCleave, Anne Litell, 
Elsie Atkinson, Edith Dillon and Esther 'W'uchner. Misses Ariel Anderson, Marie Grose, Matt 
Caldon, Euth Harris, Verna Hixenbaugh and Glenn Golien, former Pi Zetas, re-entered for 
the spring term. 

The officers are as follows: Amy Stirling, leader ; Larene B. Davis, secretary, and Annitta 
Klipple, treasurer. The social calendar for the year has been a full one. and some of the red- 
letter days are as follows: 

October 1 — ^T\^iener Eoast. February 1-2 — Progressive Luncheon. 

October 7— Luncheon. March 1-t— Study ( () Party. 

October 10— Theater Party. j^,^^^^,^^^ 29— Tramp Through the Flooded 

October 19 — Picnic. Districts 

Xoveniber 4— Fudiiv Partv. , ., , ' ", .,. ,. ^ , 

Xov-n.b,.,- •'.■■,-Tl,ank..nv,no. Spread. '^^'''^ 11-LiituUion Party. 

l),...,.,uln.r :'..~Lnnclu:,u. " ^^".v 10-Spread. 

January 1— New Year's Eesolution Party. ^lay 1.— Supper at Collett Park. 

January 11— Chafing Dish Party. May 24— Dance. 

January 24 — Initiation Party, after which Jmie 11 — "Farewell." 
the entire section attended the Xormal- 
DePauw basket ball game. 

The dance which was held on :May 24tli. took place at the Elks Club, and was a decided 
success. The dainty programs were hand-made, and the decorations in Ijlue and gold were 
simple and attractive. Pink roses and tiny Pi Zeta pennaants were the favors. Among the 
guests were the Misses Zelpha Burkett, Helen Dykes, Earnestine Balfe, Marguerite Eay, 
Marie Grant, Euth Partlow, Blnn.lic Xeal. Elim Johnson, Madge Xigatbnger and Messrs. 
Burget, Wethers, Henry, William-. Mi. Iki.I. l)a\is. Swanagan, Jenkins Taylor Melton, Fow- 
ler, Wright, Haney, Mosby, Eecl. IIii.Im.u. Sliaiiks, Ling, Brinton, Dobbs, Johnson, and 
Phillips. The chaperones were Prof. Victor C. Miller and Miss Bailey. 

The graduate members are Misses Hazel B. Neal and Louise Harris. It is expected that 
several of the members will be on hand next year to carry on the work of the sorority, and 
Uncle Sam will lend his U. S. mail system to keep the rest of them in touch with each other 
and with the local chapter. 

^£ii Cijeta 

npIIP: Psi Thetas began the fall term with the tullowiiig- eight iiieiiihers. Blanche John- 
-'- son. Ella Iiiglis. Florence Peck, Madge (J'llaver, Helen Plieifer, Esther Xorris, Iva 
Trout and Margaret Underwood, with Esther Norris as leader. Beulah Boewin, Reine 
Keefer, Eunice Peck and Elsie Veit were initiated into the sorority at the home of Miss 
Madge O'Haver. Two social affaii's were held during the term, one a party at the home of 
Helen Pheifer. at which Miss Euby Martin, of Tangier, wa^ an out-of-town guest; the 
other a Christmas dinner at Herz tea room, covers being laid for twelve. The regular Sat- 
urday afternoon meetings were held throughout the term. Three of the members. Florence 
and Eunice Peck and Beulah Boewin, left school at the close of the fall term. 

At the beginning of tlie winter term, Ella Inglis was elected leader. The girls were 
entertained during the first of the term at the home of Miss Elsie Veit. Twelve member? 
and three guests were i^resent. A winter picnic was enjoyed January 25th at the home of 
Miss Blanche Johnson. The main feature of the term was a Valentine party at the home of 
Miss Xell Flesher. The house was ajJi^ropriately decorated with hearts and flowers. The 
e\cning wa> si>ent in making \-alentines for the memljers present, after which a two 

Among the former mcmbei'- to return at the opening of the spring term were Faun Mc- 
Kamey, Val Patten. Xell (il(i\ci-. ^'ina Seister. Estelle Spitz, Carrie and Euth Siefer, 
Misses Etta Eusher and Edith Reiner were admitted into the sorority. A flower hunt, east 
of town, was enjoyed liy the girls early in the s])ring. May 17th the annual May lireakfast 
was held at Collett Park. 

The incnibi^rs now in school are: Ella Inglis. Martha Foster. Xell (ilover, Madge 
O'Havei-. KImc ^'eit. Blanche Johnson. Edith Eeiner. Etta Eusher. Esther Xorris, Estelle 
Spitz. l\a Triiut. Carrie and Euth Siefer, Vina Seister, Faun McKamey, and Val Patten. 


'' I ""HE Athletas have enjoyed a very pleasant year. Se\cral "riish" parties have been 
-*- given and our annual dance given at the Phoenix Club in February was a very suc- 
cessful atfair. At this time many of our old girls were back and a small reunion was held. 

Our la-t party was given at the home of Esther Price. The house was beautifully 
decorated with wild flowers and a very pleasant time was enjoyed. The guests were the 
Misses Bond, Blanche Smick, Margaret Kisner, Gertrude Leonard, Euth Sprinkle and 
Gladys Weaver. The members present were Helen McKeever. Esther Ray, Anne DeHor- 
ity. Margaret Black, Alberta Harstine. Marie Eucker, Jesse Andrews, Helen Dick, Bertha 
Miller. Bernice Canine. Audrey Eoss, Sarah Daniel, and Helen and Esther Price. 

Eleanor Crosse, of Vincennes, was visiting us a few weeks ago. and a very pleasant 
time was spent during her stay. 

Sorrow came to us this winter in the death of Edith Trotter, one of our deare-t and 
most active members. 

The members in school at present are: Helen Dick. Esther Price. ^lamie Asperger, 
Edith Brunker. Helen ^IcKeever. Beulali Smith. Anne DeHority. P>ernice Canine. Au- 
drev Eoss. Bertha Miller. Esther Rav. Sarah Daniels and Mari-aret I'.lack. 

Cpsiilon Bclta 

THE Epsiloii Deltas, who wciv 111 sch()>)l at tlie hcgimiing of the Fall Term were the 
;Mis>e- June Manor. Anna C'ox. Erma Georg, Margaret Jones. Ethel Parker and Inez 
Kellev and Mrs. Eida ]\I(E\vaii. During the year, the Misses Zola Clotz. Edna Taggart. 
Edna Bell. Hazel Tillman, Hazel Easton, and Helen Grosser became members. 

Mrs. Enla McEwan, who has been doing college work here for three years, at the begin- 
ning of the winter term, went to Bloomington. where she will finish her work in August. 

The spring term brought back the Misses Margaret Grosser, Iva Inman. Lois Milleson, 
and Effie Smith. 

Those of the chapter who will gra(biatc in June are Edna Bell. Anna Gox. Ethel Bar- 
ker, Hazel Tillman, and Margaret Grosser. Mi^s Edna Bell will leach next year in the 
Hammond schools. 

The social gatherings have been unusually pleasant this year. On Satunlay afternoon. 
April 3. the girls met at the home of Erma Georg to make I. S. X. pennants: and again, on 
April in. Edna Taggart and Zohi Glotz were hostesses at their home, in North .Sixth 
street: on X\>v\\ 17. Hazel Tillman and Hazel Easton gave a pleasant evening long to be 
remembered by the chapter. A musical program was the chief feature. 

At their pleasant home in Brazil, the Mi— c-- ^Margaret and Helen Grosser were pleas- 
ing hostesses on Saturday afternoon and evening. Ajiril 24. The fortunate guests were: 
Anna Gox. Erma Georg. Iva Inman. Margar.t Jones. Zola Glotz. Edna Taggart. Hazel 
Tillman and Effie Smith. A splemlid dinner was enjoyed in the evening. 

A iiicnic is looked forward to in the future. 

)t. ^fjomasi ^quinag Club 

August Ringemaiiu. 
Margaret Hager. 

Inez Kelly. Katlieriiie Walsh. Anna Cunningham. Iiose Schmitz. 

Mary Flaherty. Ada Welte. Nellie O'Connell. (i. Eemy 15ierly. 

Teresa Meyers. Anna Mej-ers. Elizabeth Freudenreich. Anna ]\IcMahan. 

Eleanor Bauer. 
Edward E. Tierne^v. 
J. E. Tierney. 
Andrew Mercker. 
Eeo Clements. 
Edward liiehl. 




W\\t €qual Suffrage Uta^ut of t!)e ^tate iSormal ^djool 

Ox Friday noon. December 5. 1912, was oriianized the largest and most democratic body 
in tire State Normal School — "The Equal v*^utfrage League of the Indiana State Xormal 
School." The league includes both men and women of the student body and of the faculty, 
and has a charter membership of over two hundred to begin its work. Four- fifths of the 
faculty have signed its constitution. The purpose of the organization as set fortli in the con- 
stitution is the "dissipation of the ignorance and indifference which exists with regard to the 
eiiual ^utTrage movement." Its membership is composed of those "who l)elieve in the necessity, 
justice and licncficence of extending the suffrage to women." 

The officers of the league are: President, Louise Barbour: vice-president. Sara King: sec- 
retary, Winifred Ray ; treasurer, Mrs. Dorothy Byrn. 

These together with not less than twenty leaders constitute the governing body. The 
league is unique in its governing body, in that the four main officers are elected by ballot 
from the league as a whole; while the twenty or more leaders are volunteers, who pledged 
themselves to bring into the league within two weeks of its inception and before its formal or- 
ganization ten members from within the studinit body, and to organize similar leagues in 
their respective places of residence in the state of Indiana : and to act as the [jresident's cabinet 
in determining the nature and method of the extension work. 

The leaders, who constitute the president's cabinet are: Rosalie ^fitciiell. Mayme Brown. 
Matilda Reifel. Zoe Wininger, Cecilia Rubin. Anna R. Bhuk. Viola Llewellyn. Emma Dean 
AVright. Winifred Ray, Louise Barbour, Sara King. Alice (\)wgill Edna Wallace Mrs. 
Dorothy Byrn, Bertha Coakley. Emalene Always. Cntlierine Staff. Edna Vineberg, Clara 
Hill, and Miss Rush. 

There are no fixed dues, merely voluntary contributions to defray the expenses of the 
league in carrying on its educational work, such as literature, badges, l)uttons, entertain- 
ments. Literature and "Votes for Women" buttons have already been distributed amongst the 
members and on Friday evening, December 12, a little farce entitled. "How the Votes Were 
Won." by Cicely Hamilton, was presented by the Terre Haute Equal Franchise League in the 
auditorium of the training school. This was preceded by an able exposition of the subject of 
"Equal Suffrage." by Miss Louise Peters, of the Terre Haute High School. 

During the winter and spring quarters there have been bi-monthly meetings of the 
league; three of these have been evening meetings, the others mid-day gatherings. At the 
second evening meeting Professors Rettger, Wisely, Lynch and Mcl?eth gave each an exposi- 
tion of the reasons for extending the franchise to women; at the third. Miss Bertha Pratt King 
of the Classical School discussed the same subject, and met arguments against it, and an- 
swered questions concerning it. At the mid-day meetings, besides the business side, Mrs. 
Shryer, Miss Jennie McMidlen, Mrs. U. O. Cox and Prof. Chas. M. Curry discussed various 
phases of the subject. 

"Votes for Women" buttons are now worn by over three hundred fifty students: "The 
WomaiPs Journal'' has been placed in the library; and a general spirit of interest and iuipiiry 
into the subject has been awakened among the student body, that will yield fruit in an inti'lli- 
gent use of the franchise when it comes to Indiana in 1916 ! 

Y. M. and Y. W. C. A. 

g. », €. a 

TllK y. W. C. A. has a sphere to work mitouelieil liy any other (>r<i-aiiization of the 
Hchool. Its object is to reaeh out and touch every girl in scliool and be of lielp to her 
in evei-y way possible. 

It is the Y. W. girls that meet trains and assist new girls in co-operation with the dean, 
to find rooms. When the doors open on registration Monday a group of girls wearing Y. 
W. C. A. badges may be seen working about the dean's office or seeing that new girls know 
'•what to do next." Their work doesn't end there for in the first few weeks of the term the 
calling committee tries to see every new girl as well as some of the old students. 

On Tuesday afternoon in the association rooms, meetings are held, which are full of in- 
terest and inspiration. They are conducted by members of the faculty, visitors of interest, 
or prominent social workers of the city. All girls are welcome, and the Y. "W. girls endeavor 
to make them know that thi-y are interested in having them attend regularly. 

The membershii) this winter has been very good. The Cabinet girls have worked un- 
tiringly, together with nuiiiy (ilher loyal girls, to build up the association. Meml)ership con- 
tests have been iiii cticct ivi' nicaii- (if getting members, and the lo-ing side's entertainments 
have been a xmn-i' cif some g 1 times. 

Mission classes, wdiich took up the study of Mormonism tmder the splendid leadershiii 
of IVIrs. Schlicher, have been an interesting feature of the year's work. 

A I'.ible Study Committee have arranged Normal Bil)le .Study Classes in tlie ditferent 
chnrcheN of the city, at which all students were welcome. 

The social instincts have not been neglected by the Y. AV. Once each term in the asso- 
ciation room a reception was given. These were attended by nearly all the student liody. 
and were a means of meeting many new people. 

The Cabinet has been entertained, together with the Y. M. Caliinet at two delightful 
parties. ]Mr. and Mrs. "Wisely made them welcome, together with some members of the 
faculty, in a royal way. A good time w-as enjoyed at the home of Mrs. Anna Black, when 
the members of both Cabinets forgot their official dignity and pttlled tafl'y. This was also 
effective in helping the two associations to work in co-oi)eration. Several times the two 
joined forces and had some interesting joint meetings. 

The Y. M. and Y. W. have had the pleasure of entertaining Miss Christine Tinling of 
London, the gi-eat scientific temperance worker. Tender the ausiiices of the two associations 
she gave a series of very interesting lectures and cha]iel talk-;. 

During the time of the great disasters caused liy tornado and flood, the Y. W. girls helped 
in every way they could. They went in grouj^s to the relief stations, and aided tlie work 
there, and collected clothes and distributed them as eii'ectively as they were able. 

At the mission convention, held in Indianapolis this year, Gladys Rippetoe and Zell Bel! 
represented our association. They reported a very interesting and inspiring time. 

Miss Rippetoe, together with Belle Smith and Winifred Ray. will attend the conference 
at (ieneva this summer. No doubt they will have many things of interest to report next fall. 

Tlie officers for the coming year will be: Gladys Rippetoe, president; Winifred Ray, 
vice-president ; Erma Georg, treasurer, and Minerva Payton, secretary. Faun McKamey has 
been appointed corresponding secretary; Margaret Gillnm, chairman of the Religious Meet- 
ings Committee ; Rose Rinehart, chairman of Finance Committee; Zelpha Burkett. chairman 
of the Social Committee, and Nelle Glover, chainnan of the Calling Committee. The other 
committee chairmen have not been appointed. The association feels that the work next year 
is in good hands, and expects to see real, effective work done. 







Manager of Basketball Team 

•home RUN" CLARK 
Capt. of BasfcctbaU Tcan 
Manager of Baseball Tea 











'' I ""HE close of the year marks tlie close of an eventful year in athletics for the Indiana 
-*- State Normal. Successful teams, both in basketball and l)aseball, have been evolved, 
and work was begun in the fall term towards building a track and field team for Normal in 
the course of a year or two. 

The first event of the yciir was (he interclass track and Hrld meet held at Parsons Field 
dnrino; the fall term. The men started with a vim and in the final windiip the Seiuors won 


the meet over the College Course by a mai'gin of two [loints, ?.l to ?,:',. The joy of the last 
year men was unl)0unded and the cider furnished by the losing classes Unwed freely at 
their meeting. 

Coach Westphal now issued the call for basketball candidates and began ■■weeding out" 
a team. The first game was called on December G. 

Before an enthusiastic crowd of more than five hundred students Normal swamped 
Merom in a one-sided game. Our team displayed sensational earlv team woi'k. and the vis- 
itors did not have a chance. Score, 35 to 13. 

U'l- o\ 


I'lniing vic- 

Mil (.1 


The second 

he liii 

al sc( 

ire stood 82 



■. Oi 

11- men were 
■ troiihle in 

The second pun.'. Iliat with Danville Normal College, was aiu.t 
tory foi- our team. From the first few seconds of play the jiame was 
half hecaiiie a monotonous succession of goals for Stale Normal, and 
to 10. 

Arcom|ianied hy a car loail of roo(ei-s the team played next at (ire( 
greatly liandicapjied hy (he imusiial lloor conditions at DePauw. \>\\ 
taking a victory from them to the tune of 35 to 31. 

Showing wonderful ability and splendid team work Normal won her fourth consecutive 
victory when she defeated the .strong Butler five at Indianapolis. The Butler team was at no 
time a match for the blue and the wdiite and the final score stood 29 to 11, Normal leading. 

Our men again downed DePauw in the second game of the sea.son between the two 
schools. The game was poorly played. It was an off night and we could not hit the bas- 
ket. At one point of the game we were twelve points behind DePauw, but the fighting 
spirit of onr hoys was aroused and they came back strong, winning by a score of 32 to 26. 

At Indiana I'liixeM^ity we met the liist defeat of the season. The Indiana team proved 
too strong for our men. and at the final tap of the gong we were k^ft with the short end of an 
11 to 26 score. The game was rough and Unverferth was compelled to stay out of school for 
some time afterward. 

The game with Eastern Illinois was a >i'rics of rough tactics, hrillianl playing, and fist 
fights. The cliang,'> made because of the illncs-, ..f rnvci-f,Tih alnu.M proved' disastrous to 
the team, but swift playing at the last pnllcil ii> another victory. 

The next game, that with Christian lirothcrs College, at St. Loui.s. was a farce as far as 
basketball goes. The referee being a memhcr of the college team, was blind to all liut one 
side. After three of our men were slugged our team was withdrawn from the Hoor. This 
college has anything beaten for unfair treatiir-nt that Normal lias ever heard of. 

A pleasant reaction from this ti-eatment was the reception accorded the team at McKen- 
drie College. There they were treated as men and friends, not as animals. The game that 
followed was devoid of the angry feeling that prevailed the evening before. The liattered 
condition of the team ])revented any work of ipiality. and we wei-e defeated by a score of 26 
to 46. 

On the road trip to Hanover Normal lost an exciting game by a close score, the game be- 
ing in doubt until the final tap of the gong. Score 21 to :l(l. 

The next night Normal came back strong and won easily from .Moores Hill with a score of 
40 to 22. each man of tin- K'am playing a -pl<-ndi.l game. 

Th.. pivM.nlati.m .d'thc N.'- hy Piv-nl,.nt l'ar-,,i 
successful team in the hiMni-y of (he In, liana State 
o\'ei- th<' s(a(e. The following men received letters: 
lion. Knauth. rnverferth and Managaer Wright. 

Attention was now turned to baseball, and Coai 
didates. Practically all of last year's men came in 
with the addition of the new men. of whom especial 
a splendid s<|uad of halldossersturn.Mlont for Norma 
game n{ {hv season \vi(h only two days" practice, a 
spring from the severe strain. 

With a record-breaking crowd the first game, (hat with DePauw proved an easy vic- 
tory for Normal. Calbert, first pitcher for DePauw, was knocked out of the box, and despite 

ns clos, 

'd the season. It was the mos( 


1. and a(tracted notice from all 


u Clark. Wilson. Stifller. Vermil- 

.■h Wes 

tphal issued the first call for caii- 


sDuie time during the term, and 


n should lie made of Pitcher Crim. 

al. Cr 

ini was fori'cd to ]>i(ch the first 

md he 

sntl'ered the renniiuder of the 

the rally given DePaiiw by the entrance of Patterson, the final score stood 7 to 3 in favor of 
Normal. Crini iMtched a s])lendid game and the .support of the team conld not liave been 
better. The vim of the Xornial was increased by the Normal Band, whifh w iis out in force. 
Under the management of Swango this organization has become an asset of the school, espe- 
cially, in athletics, that should be given more credit than it receives. 

The second game of the season was a disappointment. The game with Eastern Illinois 
was a succession of poor plays and bonehead work. It was an olf day. and a strong team to 
play. The score. 9 to 4. was m favor of Illinois. 


On May 1 our team again met the .SiickiT>. tlii- lime on i heir own field and again were 
defeated. Haw wcuk on the part of the unipiiv was in a givai dcgic.' to account for the de- 
feat. We drove out eleven hits, while Crim allowed hut -cncu. The score at the end stood 1 
to 5 in favor of Illinois. 

Our team was now strengthened by the addition of Former, an old Normal star, and in 
the game with Earlhani College we came out with a victm-y. 

Earlham had a strong team, but in the fiu;il wind-up we had the largest end of a C. to 2 

In the game with Franklin we again met defeat in the luoM closely coulesled gauu' of the 
sea.son. The two teams seemed to be ecpuil in strength and the result coidd not be determined 
until the verv end. The ninth innins stood 2 to 1 in favor of Franklin. 

On the trip to Mooivs Hill and llanoviT we faiTied off two more victories. They were 
easily won. that with Hanover resulting in an 8 to 4 score for Normal, and at Moores Hill in 
a thrilliiii: ^'anie we won out by a 3 to score. 

Following this came the game with Hanover on our field. In a game of loose hall we 
won by a score of 9 to 0. Hanoxer seeme<l to be unable to connect, and our boys playin<r ex- 
cellent ball si^eedily jailed up the score. 

During all tins time Coach Wc--I|ihal was working the men in preparation for the I. C. 
A. L. meet at IJiihuKind. Ndrmai ha- had no track team for a number of yeai-s, and this year 
it was only intended t<> make a start. With but little time for coaching and but few experi- 
cni'ed men. Xoi'mal went In IJichmond with the exjjectation of nut winning anything, but we 
came nut with a second |ilacc in the ruinung high jump. A\'ith 1ml three days' practice Tony 
won .>vcr the men of In, liana .'ollcges who have been working for months. The spirit of 
the other men shouhl be commen, led as thev were working against the odds of insufficient 
coai-hmg and lack ot practice. 

During the last week of school the following men were awarded Xs: Haseliall. Captain 
Musselnian. Friedman. Brewer. Knauth. Merker. Bayh. Hogue. Frakes. C'rini Fortner. 
I^rown and Manager Clark. 

Tra.'k Men : Tonv. and Managei- IJiii-htsell. 



#irlg' pasliEttjaU 

ALONG with the cchiK's from the Siitira<i-e C'hil). "Wonuui is advancino- in the home, in 
industry. (>tc.. etc. cnme prohahly even louder echoes from the gymnasium, ''Woman 
has already advameil in athletics!" At least, the increased interest in women's athletics has 
o-iven woman a hcttcr (}i)])(irtnnity than ever before to show her prowess alone; this line. 





And so in the girls" gym, and well secured from all uiasculine eyes, there were staged 
three of the most exciting and thrilling games ever witnessed. And every one a double- 
header! The games were intei'-class and the teams were given the heartiest support by 
their cla.s-smates. 

At the first of the season it was impossible for the wise ones to obtain "dope," if we 
may borrow that very masculine term. Miss Bailey had taken all available material, a 
great deal of it most unripe, and develojied four well-rounded, hard-fighting, energetic bas- 
ket-ball teams. 

The first game. P'el)ruary •2i>. was: Seniors \s. .^Dphomdres. College Course vs. Juniors. 
The Seniors were victorious over the Sophomores with a score of Id to S. and the Juniors 
lost to the College Course by a score of -iO to 8. 

The line-up was: 

Senior's. Sophomores. 

Hazel Neal F Gertrude Steepleton 

Mary Sheets F Elsie Hudson 

Charmian Williams C Blanche Smith 

Ethel Scott G Gladys Gray 

Edna Bell G Hildegarde Maehling 


College Course. Juniors. 

Louise Gillum F Hila Lewis 

Clare Goldman F Bertha Stevenson 

Dorothy Eoberts C Annitta Klipple 

Florence Fella G Fern Rush 

Esther Neukoni G Lydia Griffith 

By the next Wednesday. March 5, interest was growing. The fans were formulating 
"dope." In this game the College Course demonstrated the superiority of weight over 
height, defeating the Seniors by a score of 13 to 8. 

The plucky Juniors, not disheartened by their last defeat, set to with a will and de- 
feated the Sophomores with a score of 18 to 10. 

The line-up: 

Seniors. College Course. 

Edna Wallace F Inez Kelley 

Mary Sheets F Clare Goldman 

Chai-niian Williams C Dorothy Koberts 

Edna Bell G Florence Fellah 

Jessie Singleton G Esther Neukom 

Ethel Scott G 



■III triors. Sophomores. 

Lena McCainpbell F ( iertrude Steepleton 

Hila Lewis F Elsie Hudson 

Annitta Klipple C Blanche Smith 

Lydia Griffith G Gladys Gray 

Bt'i-tlia Stevenson G Hildegarde Maehling 

By the time of the third game. .M;ircli 1-J. ■•dnpc" was ahvady fixed. College had de- 
feated both Juniors and Seniors, hoth of whdinhad in turn defeated the Sophomores. But the 
capricious little god of chance (hard practice) had long ago made up his mind that the Sopho- 
more team was just the team to defeat the College Course, and they, to use tlie language of 
poets, "up and defeated them'' by a score of 14 to 5. 

The Seniors defeated the Juniors as easily as tiiey had outplayed the Sophomores, with a 
score of 15 to 7. 

Line-up : 

Seniors. Juniors. 

Hazel Neal F Lena McCampbell 

Edna Wallace F Hila Le^nis 

Charmian Williams C Annitta Klipple 

Ethel Scott (t Hazel Showalter 

YAwA Bell (i Lydia Griffith 


College Course. Sophomores. 

Louise Gillum F Gertrude Steepleton 

Inez Kelley F Elsie Hudson 

Dorothy Roberts C Blanche Smith 

Esther Xeukom G Gladys Gray 

And so the basket-ball season ended, a season resplendent with brilliant plays and fine 
enthusiasm. The Seniors and College Course tied fur the championship. It will be i)layed 
off at some future date. 

As a mark of appreciation of her excellent and untiriuir work, the <rirls of the teams pre- 
sented Miss Bailey with a white sweater coat. 

Long live girls' athletics ! 






SULGER. Guard HAYMAN, Forwar 


\ 1-1 ■! 1 








Marshall H. S. 




(iarfield H. S. 




S. . . . 


Casey H. S.... 


■y , ,1 




(iarfield H. S. 
Clavton H. S.. 



s. . . . 




s. . . . 


(ireencastle H. 

S. . . 




8. . . . 


Cory H. S.... 




s. . . 


Wiley H. S.... 






Kvansville H.